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{NyDv - 2007

© 88 ESpf - jrefrmEdik if aH usmif;om;vIy&f mS ;rIordik ;f - atmifxeG ;f a&;om;í? or*¾pmpOfrS
2007 ckEpS f {Nyv
D wGif xkwaf 0onf/
{NyDv - 2007 yxrtBudrf tkyfa& - 500
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$ 30 US

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e-mail: abfsu@abfsu.net, bakatha@loxinfo.co.th URL: http://www.abfsu.net
The Union Publishing
P.O Box (102), Mae Ping Post Office, Chiang Mai (50301) Thailand
© rlyikd f - or*¾pmpOf
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© pmvH;k - 0if;tif;0? yife?D wdik ;f e,l;½drk ef? aumf&&D me,l;
(Auo)rsm;tzGJYcsKyf EdkifiHjcm;a&;&maumfrwDrS
Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands & Open Society Institute wdkh\
axmufyHUulnDrIjzifU xkwfa0onf/
ISBN 9 7 8 - 9 7 4 - 7 1 7 8 - 0 1 - 2

usaemfta&;csifqHk;pmtkyf

ArmEdkifiHvHk;qdkif&mausmif;om;or*¾rsm;tzJGYcsKyf (EdkifiHjcm;a&;&maumfrwD) rS xkwfa0onf

THE UNION PUBLISHING
P.O Box (102), Mae Ping P.O, Chiang Mai (50301) Thailand

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vdktyforQ tcsuftvufrsm;? pm½Gufpmwrf;rsm;udk rNiD;rjiL &SmazGay;cJhaom atatyDyDrS udkwdwfEdkifESifh
atatyDyDtzJGY? vdktyfonfU "gwfykHrsm;ESifU pmtkyfpmwrf;rsm;udk &SmazGulnDay;cJUaom rdkBudK;owif;pmrS
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uDAfpvif;? pmtkyftwGufvdktyfaom aiGaMu;&&Sd&ef ulnDaqmif½Gufay;aom udkbdkMunf (atatyDyD)?
yHkrsm;&SmazGay;jcif;ESifU puifemqJGay;aom udk*Ref*vif;? pmtkyftwGuf udkatmifxGef;"gwfyHkudk &SmazGay;om
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Muaom? oDcsif;pmom;rsm;udk BudK;pm;jznfay;cJUaom atbDtufpf'DtufzfrS &Jabmfrsm;jzpfaom udkvGrf;PD?
udkrdk;ausmfOD;? udkatmifxGef; wdkhtm;vnf;aumif;? BudKwifcGifUjyKcsuf awmif;cHrIr&SdbJ ,ckpmtkyfyg udk;um;
rDSjirf;cJU&aom tcsuftvufrsm;? "gwfyHkrsm;ESifUywfoufaom jynfwGif;jynfyxkwf pmtkyfpmwrf;rsm;?
tifwmewfpmrsufESmrsm;? owif;Xmersm;? ,ckpmtkyfESifU ywfoufNyD; vkyfaqmifay;cJUMuaom tjcm;
trnfrazmfjyEdkifaom olrsm;tm;vHk;udkvnf;aumif; tav;teuf rSwfwrf;wif*kPfjyKtyfygonf??
We also extend thanks to the Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands and the
Open Society Institute for the financial support which made the printing of this document
possible.

EdkifiHjcm;a&;&maumfrwD
ArmEdkifiHvHk;qdkif&mausmif;om;or*¾rsm;tzJGYcsKyf
rwfv (13) &uf? 2007
- 1 -

FOR MY FATHER

jzwfoef;rIrsm;ay:wiG f pdw&f n
S pf mG jzifU
tbufbufu
tm;ay;ulncD aUJ om
rrtm;
txl;aus;Zl;wifrIjzifU

'DEikd if u
H Edik if o
H m;wpfa,muf?
ol&Y YJ tpGr;f ukeBf uKd ;pm;xm;wJU
½dk;om;rIwckyg/
tem*wfrsK;d quftwGuf oJwpfyiG t
Uf jzpf
taxmuftuljyK&if auseyfygw,f/
atmifxGef;

udak tmifapmOD;\ trSm
(1) vGwfvyfa&;acwfausmif;om;or*¾eJh ausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIrsm;&JYordkif;[m udkvdkeDacwfausmif;om;
or*¾eJh ausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIrsm;&JY tqufjzpfw,f? tusKd;qufjzpfw,f/ udkvdkeDacwf ausmif;om;
or*¾eJh ausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIrsm;&JY EdkifiHa&;tpOftvmudk qufcHudk,fpm;jyKwJU ordkif;jzpfw,f/
(2) e,fcsJYqefhusifa&;? udkvdkeDpepfa[mif;? pepfopfqefhusifa&;? trsKd;om;a&;eJh jrefrmUvGwfvyfa&;udk
xdef;odrf;Edkifa&;twGuf jynfolvlxkeJhtwl yg0ifcJUwJUordkif;jzpfw,f/
(3) urÇmppfqefhusifa&;? urÇmhNidrf;csrf;a&;? jynfwGif;ppf&yfpJa&;? jynfwGif;Nidrf;csrf;a&; wdkhtwGuf
jynfolrsm;eJhtwl wdkufyGJ0ifcJUwJUordkif;jzpfw,f/
(4) ppftmPm&Sifpepfqefhusifa&;? vlYtcGifUta&;eJh taxGaxG'Drdkua&pDa&; wdkufyGJudk ykHpHrsKd;pkHeJhwdkufyGJ
0ifcJUwJUordkif;jzpfw,f/ txl;ojzifU ppftmPm&Sifpepf qefhusifa&;wdkufyGJtwGif;rSm ydkrdkta&;ygwJU
vlxktiftm;BuD;w&yftjzpf yg0ifcJUwJUordkif;jzpfw,f/
(5) uarmufurynma&;pepf zsufodrf;a&;? trsKd;om;vu©PmaqmifwJU 0dZÆmodyÜHenf;uswJU? acwfrDwJU?
trsm;twGufjzpfwJU trsKd;om;ynma&;pepf wnfaqmufa&;eJh ausmif;om;xkBuD;w&yfvkH;&JY ynm
oifMum;rIeJh aexdkifrItajctae aumif;rGefa&;wdkhtwGuf wdkufyGJ0ifcJUwJUordkif;jzpfw,f/ ausmif;om;
xk&JY trsKd;om;,Ofaus;rIeJh pm&dwÅzGHhNzdK;a&;wdkhtwGuf BudK;yrf;vkyfaqmifcJUwJUordkif;jzpfw,f/
(6) jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rI[m vufeufudkifwdkufyGJ qifETJwJUordkif;jzpfw,f/
'Daygif;csKyfokH;oyfcsufawGudk 1988 ck? Mo*kwfv (28) &uf wuotaqmuftODa[mif;ae&m
rSm Auoudk jyefvnfzGJYpnf;cJUwJUtcrf;tem;rSm ppfNyD;acwfeJhvGwfvyfa&;acwfOD; or*¾0ifausmif;om;
a[mif;BuD;rsm;udk,fpm; pum;ajymcJUpOfu or*¾acgif;aqmifa[mif; udkvSa&Tu xnfUoGif;ajymMum;oGm;cJU
ygw,f/ 'gayr,fU tJ'Dtcsdefumvu wnf&SdaewJU EdkifiHa&;avxkt&Sdeft& eHygwf (6) tcsufudkawmU
xnfUoGif;rajymbJ csefxm;cJUygw,f/
tckxkwfa0vdkufwJUpmtkyf[m 'Daeh'DtcsdefumvrSm 1962 ck? Zlvdkif (7) &ufta&;awmfykH
txdomyg&SdwJUtwGuf aemufaemif qufvufxkwfa0r,fU umvtydkif;rsm;&JY vIyf&Sm;rIrsm;rSmawmU
azmf j yyg aygif;csKyfokH;oyfcsufrsm;udk &Sif;&Sif;vif;vif;awGY jrifzwf½I Mu&rSmyg/
1948-49? 1963-69? 1988-90 umvrsm;twGif; ausmif;om;acgif;aqmifwcsKdYeJh wuf<uwJU
ausmif;om;rsm; vufeufudkifawmfvSefa&;twGif; yg0ifoGm;cJUMuw,f/ 1963 ckESpfaemufydkif;&JY
ausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIrsm;udk ordkif;rSwfwrf;wifMu&ifawmU ]jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif;[m
vufeufudkifwdkufyGJ qifETJwJUordkif;jzpfw,f} qdkwJU ordkif;ed*kH;csKyfcsuf[m ydkrdkyDjyif½kyfvHk;<uvmyg
vdrfUr,f/
bmyJjzpfjzpf 'Dausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIorkdif;pmtkyf xkwfa0&mrSmyg0ifywfouf t&if;tESD;ay;qyf
oGm;cJUMuwJU (rdrdvufvSrf;rDoavmuf) 1/ ociftkH;jrifU (wdk;wufa&;OD;tkH;jrifU)
2/ a'gufwmarmifarmifausmf (wuoOuúX 1949-50)
3/ OD;ombef; (wuotrIaqmif? ausmif;om;oufomacsmifcsda&;XmerSL; 1960-61)
4/ OD;wifat; (wuoOuúX 1960-61)
5/ OD;vSa&T (wuotrIaqmif? tdk;a0r*¾Zif;wm0efcH? Auorsm;tzGJYcsKyftwGif;a&;rSL;tzGJY0if
1960-61)
- 5 -

6/ udkrsKd;xGef; (ac:) udkcGefqdkif; (aq;-1? 1971-76 rdIif;&mjynfU)
7/ udkatmifxGef; (pufrIwuúodkvfausmif;om;or*¾? 1988)
8/ udkrif;ol ("gwfykHrSwfwrf;)
9/ udkat;Edkif (rdwÅLul;puf)
10/ rcifrdk;at;
11/ rpkpk0if;
12/ r&D&DxGef;
13/ OD;pkd;odef; (wuoOuúX 1957-58)
14/ OD;baumif; (wuo 'k-OuúX 1958-59)
15/ OD;aomfaumif; (&efukefwuúodkvf? pmMunfUwdkufrSL;)
- wdkhtm; av;pm;OD;ñTwf*kPfjyKvsuf

atmifapmOD; (rdIif;&mjynfU)
oGm;zufqdkif&maq;wuúodkvf (1972-76)
Mo*kwfv (28) &uf? 2004ckESpf

- 6 -

nDawmfaemifawmf or*¾ausmif;om;
&Jabmftaygi;f odhk OD;ñGwjf cif;
þpmtkyfudkjyKpka&;om;ol udkatmifxGef; axmifrSvGwfrvmao;yg/ olY&JY&eHhrJhc&D;&Snfu (9) ESpf
wdkifygNyD/ þpmtkyfudk ulnDjyKpkol vlyk*¾dKvf (23) OD; axmifuscJUygw,f/ trsm;pk[m acwftqufquf
ausmif;om;or*¾ wdu
k yf aJG wGMum; ta&;awmfyaHk wGMum;u ausmif;om;&JabmfawGcsn;f ygy/J tm;vk;H tenf;qk;H
(7) ESppf aD wmU ay;qyf&ygw,f/ wcsKYd toufygay;cJ&U ygw,f/ usaemfw[
hkd m 'Dpmtkyu
f kd vGwaf jrmuf&me,fajr
a&mufatmif ydkhEdkifcJUMuygw,f/ EdkifiHwuma&muf ausmif;om; 'Drdkua&pDtiftm;pkrsm;uvnf; us,fus,f
jyefhjyefh xkwfa0Edkifatmif BudK;yrf;&if; tckpmtkyfjzpfcJUygNyD/
ocifatmifqef; or*¾ausmif;om;b0u ykodrfpnf;½kH;a&;c&D;pOfrSm twlvdkufygvIyf&Sm;cJUwJU
ocifOD;tkef;jrifUvnf; axmifusygw,f/ olYtouf (80) jynfUarG;aehudk usaemfeJhtwl oD;oefhaxmif
oD;oefhwdkuf0if;rSm 1998 ckESpf OD;ydkif;rSm jzwfausmfcJUMuygw,f/ tbOD;tkef;jrifUudk pwifqkH&pOfuvnf;
1989 ckESpf tif;pdefaxmif wdkuf (4) rSmyg/ olh&JY EdkifiHa&;tawGYtMuHKawGudk em,lcJUMu&zl;ygw,ff/
ocifatmifqef;&JY i,foil ,fcsi;f or*¾tek ;f jrif[
U m (88) rsK;d qufawGxd ta&;awmfyt
Hk vHukd vufqifu
U rf;
cJhygw,f/
'‘ ED pS x
f J (2006ckEpS )f rSmyif uav;NrKd ?Y trsK;d om;'Dru
kd a&pDtzGcYJ sKyrf S jynfov
Yl w
T af wmfu,
kd pf m;vS,f
OD;odef;0if;&JYpsmyerSm or*¾acgif;aqmif rif;udkEdkifudk vlwOD;u tom;vGwf0ifa&muf xdk;BudwfzdkhBudK;pm;wm
MuHK&ygw,f/ tJ'DtcsdefrSm tjrefqkH;wkefhjyefckcHol[m or*¾OD;tkef;jrifUyg/ olYtouf (89) ESpf&SdygNyD/ q&m
wa,mufvdk? zcifwa,mufvdk rsKd;qufopfawGudk apmifUa&SmufaeqJyg/
axmifxJrSm udkrif;ol toufay;cJU&ygw,f/ OD;wifat; (NrKdYr) udkvnf; uG,fvGefumeD;rS
vTwfay;cJUvdkh tdrfta&muf rMumcifrSmuG,fvGefcJUygw,f/ a&SYaeBuD;OD;wifat;vnf; axmifxJu pdwfcE¨m
'Pf&mawGeJh vGwfNyD; wpfESpfrjynfUcifrSm ½kwfw&ufuG,fvGefcJUygNyD/
ausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif;[m wdkif;jynfeJhvlrsKd;twGuf tpOfxGef;ajymifaeygvdrfUr,f/ e,fcsJY
qefhusifa&;? trsKd;om;vGwfajrmufa&;? 'Drdkua&pDeJhvlYtcGifUta&;wdkh twGuf ausmif;awmfom;awGu
acwfwdkif;rSm BudK;yrf;wdkufyGJ0ifcJUMuwmyg/ tckvnf; (88) rsKd;quf? (96) rsKd;qufawGu c&D;&SnfwdkufyGJ
qufaeMuqJyg/ axmiftoD;oD; awmtaxGaxGeJh a0;ajr&yfjcm;u nDawmfaemifawmf or*¾ausmif;om;
&Jabmftaygif;udk (udkatmifxGef;? udkÓmPf0if;? udkxGef;vSwdkh udk,fpm;) þpmtkyfjzifh av;pm;pGmOD;ñTwf
*kPfjyKtyfygw,f/

cGefqdkif;
atmufwdkbmv (29) &uf? 2006

þpmtkyjf zpfajrmufa&;twGuf &eHrh cUJ &D;&Snf csw
D ufcMUJ uolwcsKYd
1/ udkatmifxGef; (pmtkyfjyKpkol)
2/ udkÓmPf0if;

axmifusqJ
axmifusqJ
- 7 -

3/ udkxGef;vS
axmifusqJ
4/ OD;rif;ol
axmifwGif;üuG,fvGef
5/ OD;wifat; (NrKdYr)
axmifrSvGwfajrmufí rMumcifuG,fvGef
6/ OD;wifat; (a&SYae)
axmifrSvGwfajrmufí wpfESpfcefhwGifuG,fvGef
7/ ociftkef;jrifU
rdk;BudK;owif;pm
8/ a'gufwmarmifarmifausmf
a&SYaeBuD;
9/ OD;vSa&T
or*¾acgif;aqmifa[mif;
10/ OD;ombef; (a&SYae)
or*¾acgif;aqmifa[mif;
11/ OD;tkef;armif (anmifav;yifNrdKYe,f jynfolYvTwfawmfudk,fpm;vS,f? trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzGJYcsKyf)
12/ OD;tkef;jrifU (a&SYae)
13/ OD;atmifZif (a&SYae)
14/ OD;cifarmifcsKd (a&SYae)
15/ OD;cifarmifNidrf; (a&SYae)
16/ udk,OfxGef;
17/ udkausmf0PÖ
18/ udk[m&Gef (c) udkvS0if;
19/ udkpdk;vGif
20/ OD;jrifUatmif (a&SYae)
21/ rpkpk0if;
22/ rcifrdk;at;
23/ udkcGefqdkif;

- 8 -

ordik ;f a&;oGm;wJU ordik ;f
ppftpd;k &vufatmufrmS ausmif;om;tzJt
YG pnf;awG w&m;0if&yfwnfciG &Uf zdhk Nird ;f csr;f wJaU usmif;om;
vIyf&Sm;rIawG vkyfcGifU&zdkha0;a&m? ausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif; jyKpkwmeJhwif BuD;av;wJU&mZ0wfrIxdkufygw,f/
ppftyk pf [
k m ausmif;om;awG&t
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jzwfavQmufoGm;wm jrifvdkuf&ygw,f/ ppfaxmufvSrf;a&;awGvnf; olYudk owdxm;rdyHkr&ygbl;/
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taumiftxnfazmf&mrSm tzJGYwm0ef&dSolwOD;taeeJh ZJG&dS&dStEHGwmcHvkyfaqmifrIudk awGY&ygw,f/ nDvmcH
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tjcm;tvkyform;or*¾? &[ef;ysKdor*¾? vli,for*¾awGeJh usaemfwdkh ausmif;om;or*¾awG pkzJGYxm;wJh
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olzmomvkyfaqmifr,fvdkh qHk;jzwfvdkufwJU vkyfief;wdkif;udk rjzpfrae&atmif taumiftxnfazmfwwfwJU
- 9 -

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vkyfavU&dSygw,f/ axmifwGif; rdciftzJGYtpnf;tvdkuf yHkrSefaqG;aEG;0dkif;awG vkyfawmUvnf; usaemfwdkh
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olu usaemfUxuf &ufydkif;apmNyD; om,m0wDaxmifu vGwfygw,f/ 1994 tukefydkif;jzpfr,f/
usaemf rHk&Gmaxmifu jyefvGwfNyD; tdrfa&mufvdkh em&Dydkif;yJ&dSwkef; ola&mufvmw,f/ axmifuvGwfvdkh ol
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- 10 -

wcsdefwnf;rSmyJ olusdwfvkyfaewmwckudk usaemf odvdkufygw,f/ t&ifausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIrSwfwrf;awG
&oavmuf olYudk&Smay;zdkh ajymygw,f/ bmvkyfrvdkhvJar;awmU olu ausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif;wck jyKpk
aew,fvdkhqdkygw,f/ olYtdrfu olYtcef;oGm;&ifvnf; onfordkif;pm&GufawGcsnf; awGYae&ygw,f/ tJonfU
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(12) Mo*kwf? 2005

- 11 -

udkatmifxGef;
1967 ckESpfwGif arG;zGm;cJUonf/ 1988 ckESpfwGif &efukefpufrIwuúodkvf
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1987 rqvtpdk;&rS aiGpuúLrsm;w&m;r0ifaMumif; aMunmrIaMumifU ay:ayguf
cJUaom ausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIrsm;rS pwifum awmufavQmuf yg0ifcJUonf/
&efukefpufrIwuúodkvfausmif;om;rsm;or*¾rS acgif;aqmifwpfOD;jzpfonf/ 198889 ckESpf wavQmufvHk;wGif ay:aygufcJUaom ausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIrsm;wGif
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tzGJYcsKyf nDvmcHü A[dktvkyftrIaqmiftzGJY twGif;a&;rSL;tzGJY0iftjzpf a&G;cs,f
wifajr§mufjcif; cHcJU&onf/ nDvmcHrScsrSwfcJUaom &uf (30) twGif; vTwfawmf
ac:,lEdkifa&;twGuf trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzGJYcsKyftm; 0dkif;&HulnD&ef[laom tcsuf
tm; t"dutaumiftxnf azmfcJhMuolrsm;wGif yg0ifonf/ 1990 *ED´nDvmcH
tBudKvlxkvIyf&Sm;rIrsm;udk AuorS OD;aqmifvIyf½Sm;cJU&mwGif acgif;aqmifvIyf½Sm;cJU
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rsm;ESifUtwl zrf;qD;cHcJU&onf/ 28? 10? 1990 wGif axmif'Pf (5) ESpfcsrSwfjcif;
cHcJU&onf/ axmifrSvGwfNyD; ausmif;jyefwufcGifU&onfUtwGuf 1997 ckESpfwGif
pufrIwuúodkvfrS ausmif;NyD;cJUonf/
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aom ]jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;vIyf½Sm;rIordkif;} (,ck) pmtkyfudk pwifjyKpkcJUonf/
1998 ckESpf? Zefe0g&DvtwGif; ¤if;pmtkyf vQKdY0SufjzefhcsdrIaMumifU axmif'Pf
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h 0Sr;f Edik if aH &;t& zdEydS jf cif;cHae&aom pma&;q&mrsm;
tm; ay;tyfaom [,fref? [ef;rwf*&efhqk (Hellman/Hammett Grant) udk
1999 ckESpfwGif csD;jr§ifUcJUonf/ urÇmhpma&;q&mrsm;toif; tifwmae&Sife,fyef
tzJGY0ifrsm;jzpfaom aemfa0? uifbm&m? uae'g&Sd yefpifwmrsm;u udkatmifxGef;tm;
¤if;wdkhtzJGYrsm;\ *kPfxl;aqmiftzJGY0ifwOD;tjzpf aMunm*kPfjyKcJUonf/
- 12 -

pma&;ol\ trSm
yxrwJG
1991 ck? azazmf0g&Dvqef;ydkif;avmufu jzpfr,fxifygonff/ tif;pdefaxmif (3) aqmifwGif?
bk&m;av;bufjcrf;wGif aumf&pf'gwck&Sdygonf/ xdkaumf&pf'gwGif reufydkif;qdkvQif vrf;avQmufavU
&Sdygonf/ xkdaumf&pf'gonf ay (440) &Sdí pum;ajym&if; vrf;avQmuf&onfrSm uRefawmfwdkhtzdkh
vkyfaeMu tvkyfwckvdk jzpfaeayonf/ uRefawmfUudk oD;oefhaxmifrS (3) aqmifodkh ydkhvdkufNyD;aemuf
rMumrDtaqmifudk tbOD;tkef;jrifU a&mufvmygonf/ oleJhuRefawmf aumf&pf'gwGif vrf;avQmuf&if;
ausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif;pmtkyfa&;&ef tMuHÓmPf &&SdcJUygonf/
1994 ck? pufwifbmv (23) &uf om,m0wDaxmifrS vGwfvmNyD;aemuf xdkpmtkyfa&;&ef
rSwfwrf;rSwf&mESifU ordkif;taxmuftxm;rsm;udk pwifpkaqmif;cJUygonf/ xdkhodkhpkaqmif;&mwGif
vwfwavmtajctaet& tcuftcJrsm;awGY&Sd&ouJUodkh wcsKdYyk*¾dKvfrsm;xHrS &&SdcJUaomfvnf; wcsKdY
yk*¾dKvfrsm;rSmrl tb,fodkhaom taMumif;t&mrsm;aMumifUrod? uRefawmfr&&SdcJUyg/ þodkhjzifU uRefawmf
&&SdcJUaom rSwfwrf;rSwf&m ordkif;taxmuftxm;rsm;udkom pkpnf;ía&;om;cJU&m jynfUpHkvHkavmufrI
&Sdrnfr[kwfay/ pmtkyfrSmrl arQmfrSef;xm;onfxuf ydkrdkxloGm;í yxrwGJ (1903-1942) xd xkwfa0
vdkufygonf/ usefESpfrsm;udkvnf; twGJrsm;cGJí xkwfa0oGm;ygrnf/ (88) ESpf (1903-1991) ausmif;om;
vIyf&Sm;rIordkif;pmtkyftjzpf a&;om;&ef &nf&G,fxm;ygonf/ NAdwdoQe,fcsJYqefhusifa&;? vGwfvyfa&;
BudK;yrf;rI? Nidrf;csrf;a&;? vlYtcGifUta&;BudK;yrf;rIrsm;wGif ausmif;om;wdkh\ BuD;us,fjrifUjrwfvSaom
trsKd;om;a&;BudK;yrf;rIrsm;udk a&;om;xm;ygonf/
xdkpmtkyfjzifU 'Drdkua&pDESifU vlYtcGifUta&;wdkufyGJ tqifUqifUwGif usqHk;oGm;olrsm;tm;vnf;
aumif;? &Spfav;vHk;ta&;awmfyHkBuD;twGif;ü (3) ESpft&G,f cav;i,fav;rStp touf (100)
ausmf tzdk;tzGm;rsm;tqHk; ¤if;wkdhyg0ifvIyf&Sm;rIudkvnf;aumif;? &Spfav;vHk;ta&;awmfyHkBuD;tm;
vnf;aumif;? uRefawmfeJhtwlaxmiftwGif;ü opöm&SdpGmaexdkifcJUNyD; axmifwGif;wkdufyGJrsm;tm; opöm&Sd
pGmyg0ifcJholrsm;tm;vnf;aumif;? 1988 rS 1990 txd uRefawmfyg0ifvIyf&Sm;cJhaom &efukefpufrI
wuúodkvfausmif;om;rsm;or*¾? ausmufwHwm;NrdKYe,fausmif;om;or*¾? 'Drdku&ufwpfausmif;om;
vli,frsm;tiftm;pk (&efukefwdkif;)? ArmEkdifiHvHk;qdkif&mausmif;om;or*¾rsm;tzGJYcsKyf (atmufArmjynf)?
ArmEdkifiHvHk;qdkif&mausmif;om;or*¾rsm;tzGJYcsKyf (ArmEdkifiH)? trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDawmfvSefa&;wyfaygif;pk
(NDRF) wdkhtm; *kPfjyKOD;ñTwfvdkufygonf/
uRefawmftm; i,fpOfuyif avUvm&ef EdkifiHa&;pmayESifU rSwfwrf;rSwf&mrsm; ay;tyfcJUaom
bBuD;t&if; ocifa<u (0g;c,fr) tm;vnf;aumif;? rSwfwrf;rSwf&mrsm; ulnD&SmazGay;cJUaom tb
OD;tkef;jrifUtm;vnf;aumif;? uRefawmfpmxkdifa&;jzpfcJhaom uRefawmfUtazxdkifcJUonfU tpdrf;a&mifpm;yGJcHk
av;tm;vnf;aumif;? tultnDay;cJUaom rcifrdk;at;tm;vnf;aumif; aus;Zl;wifvsuf/

atmifxGef;

- 13 -

NAw
d o
d Qe,fcsq
YJ efusiaUf &;
'Drdkua&pDa&;
zufqpf*syefawmfvSefa&;
vGwfvyfa&;BudK;yrf;rI
Nidrf;csrf;a&;
vlYtcGifUta&;BudK;yrf;rIESifU
(88) ESpf
(1903 - 1991)
ausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif;

pmtkyx
f w
k af 0&jcif; trSm
Edik if w
H pfc\
k ordik ;f onf ,if;Edik if w
H iG ;f &Sd ordik ;f acwfumvudk rodrrSv
D u
kd o
f nfh vli,frsK;d qufrsm;
twGuf ta&;BuD;ygonf/ vli,frsKd;qufrsm;taejzifU rdrdEdkifiH\ordkif;udk tjzpftrSeftwdkif; od&SdEdkif&ef
vdktyfygonf/ od&Sd½kHwifru rdrdEdkifiH\ ordkif;jzpf&yfrsm;twGif;rS tm;aumif;csufrsm;udk vufqifhurf;
qufcEH ikd &f efEiS hf tm;enf;csurf sm;udk oifcef;pmxkw,
f w
l wf&ef ydí
k ta&;Bu;D ygonf/ odrhk o
S m rdrEd ikd if t
H wGuf
rdrdykckH;ay:&Sd vuf&SdypöKyÜefumv wm0efrsm;twGufa&m tem*wfwm0efrsm;twGufyg wm0efausyGefEdkifrnf
jzpfygonf/
jrefrmEdkifiHtaejzifU acwfumvtqufquf ordkif;jzpf&yfrSefrsm; pkpnf;azmfxkwfEdkifrI tm;enf;
cJyU gonf/ txl;ojzifU Adv
k af e0if;ppftmPm&Sit
f yk pf rk S 1962ckEpS f ppftmPmodr;f Ny;D aemufyikd ;f ordik ;f tarSmif
acwfudk usa&mufcJU&ygonf/ jrefrmEdkifiHordkif;wGif ta&;ygonfU tcef;u@wGifyg0ifcJUonfU ausmif;om;
or*¾pdwf"mwfESifU ausmif;om;pdwf"mwfudktajccHonfU ausmif;om;or*¾vIyf&Sm;rI? ausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIrsm;
udk taMumufBuD;aMumuf&GHY cJUaom ppftmPm&SiftkyfpkrS ppftmPmodrf;NyD;NyD;csif; ausmif;y&0PftwGif;
aoG;pGe;f apcJo
U nfU (7) &uf Zlvikd af usmif;om;vIy&f mS ;rIEiS hf ausmif;om;or*¾taqmuftODtm; &ufpuf½idk ;f jypGm
rdik ;f jzifNU zKd ccJG jUJ cif;jzifU jrefrmEdik if aH usmif;om;vIy&f mS ;rI ordik ;f udk tpazsmufvufpwk;H ypf&ef BuKd ;pm;cJMU uygonf/
rnfonfU tkyfcsKyfolrqdk ordkif;trSefudk azsmufzsufvdrfnmí r&Edkifyg/ jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;
vIy&f mS ;rIordik ;f udv
k nf; ppftmPm&Sit
f qufqufrS rnfoyhkd ifvrd n
f mazsmufzsuaf pcsiu
f mrl azsmufzsuyf pfí
&rnfr[kwfyg/ rsKd;qufqdkonfum azsmufzsufypfvdkhr&ovdk jrefrmEdkifiH ausmif;om;rsKd;qufa[mif;rsm;rS
ausmif;om;rsK;d qufopftoD;oD;odhk ausmif;om;or*¾ pdw"f mwfEiS hf ausmif;om;vIy&f mS ;rI ordik ;f tqufqufukd
tpOftquf vufqifhurf;tarGay;cJhonfom jzpfygonf/ xdkhtwGufvnf; &ufpufMurf;MuKyfvSonfU
ppftmPm&Sipf epfatmufwiG f ppftmPm&Siq
f efu
h siaf &; ausmif;om;vIy&f mS ;rIrsm; qufwu
kd q
f o
kd vdk ay:aygucf UJ
&onfom jzpfygonf/
,ck jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIrsm;ordkif;udk a&;om;jyKpkcJhonfU udkatmifxGef;onf 1988
ckESpf ausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIumvESifh &Spfav;vkH;ta&;awmfykHBuD;twGif; &efukefpufrIwuúodkvfausmif;om;
acgif;aqmifwOD;jzpfygonf/ 1990 ckESpf ausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIrsm;twGif; ausmif;om;or*¾acgif;aqmifwOD;
tjzpf ppftusOf;axmiftwGif; tusOf;uscHcJh&ygonf/ ppftusOf;axmiftwGif; olMuHKqkHcJh&onfh e,fcsJY
qefhusifa&;umvrS ausmif;om;acgif;aqmifrsKd;qufrsm; rSonf acwftqufquf ausmif;om;acgif;aqmif
rsKd;qufrsm;xHrS od&SdcJh&onfU ausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rItawGYtMuHK? ausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIorkdif;rsm;rS jrefrmEdkifiH
orkdif;twGuf vdktyfaeonfU uGufvyfjzpfaeonfh jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif;tm; jyKpk&ef
pdwful;ay:aygufcJUygonf/ ppftusOf;axmiftwGif;rS jyefvnfvGwfajrmufvmonfU tcsdefrSpwifí ,ck
jrefrmEdik if aH usmif;om;vIy&f mS ;rIordik ;f pmtkyt
f m; tywfwukwBf uKd ;pm;tm;xkwf a&;om;jyKpck yUJ gonf/ pmtkyaf &;
om;jyKpkNyD;cJUaomfvnf; ppftmPm&Sifpepfatmufü us,fjyefhpGm xkwfa0&efrjzpfEdkifcJhyg/ rdwÅLyGm;onfU
tqifUrQom wwfEdkifcJUygonf/ ,if;pmtkyf jyKpka&;om;cJUonfUudpöjzpfyif udkatmifxGef;tygt0if pmtkyfjzpf
ajrmufa&;twGuf ulnDyHUydk;ay;cJUonfh rsKd;quftoD;oD;rS ausmif;om;acgif;aqmifrsm;tm; ppftmPm&Sif
rsm;rS tnd§K;taw;BuD;pGmjzifU zrf;qD;tusOf;cscJUygonf/ wcsKdYausmif;om;acgif;aqmif rsKd;qufrsm;um ppf
tusO;f axmiftwGi;f usq;Hk uG,v
f eG o
f mG ;cJyU gNy/D wcsKu
Yd m tusO;f axmifrS vGwaf jrmufNy;D rMumrD usq;Hk uG,f
vGef oGm;&&Smonf/ wcsKdYum jyefvnfvGwfajrmufvmcJUNyD jzpfonf/ udkatmifxGef;rSmum ,aehwdkif
ppftusOf;axmiftwGif; tusOf;uscHae&qJjzpfonf/
- 15 -

udak tmifxeG ;f a&;om;jyKpck o
hJ nfU jrefrmEdik if aH usmif;om;vIy&f mS rIordik ;f pmtkyo
f nf 1903 ckEpS rf pS wif
í 1991 ckESpftxd jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;or*¾rsm;\vIyf&Sm;rI? ausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIrSwfwrf;rsm;?
,if;vIyf&Sm;rIrsm;wGif udk,fwdkifudk,fus yg0ifcJUolrsm;\ rSwfwrf;rsm;udktajccHí jyKpka&;om;cJUjcif; jzpfyg
onf/ ,ckrdrdwdkh ArmEdkifiHvkH;qdkif&mausmif;om;or*¾rsm;tzGJYcsKyf-EdkifiHjcm;a&;&maumfrwDrS xkwfa0onfU
udkatmifxGef;\ jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif;pmtkyfwGifrl rdrdwdkhvufcH&&Sdxm;onfU 1903 ckESpfrS
1962 ckEpS x
f d pmrlrw
d LÅ udo
k m azmfjyxkwaf 0Edik yf gonf/ rdrw
d v
hkd ufc&H &So
d nfU pmrlrw
d LÅ rsm;rSmvnf; tqifq
U ifU
rdwÅLyGm;,lxm;&jcif;jzpfonfUtavsmuf pmvkH;? pmaMumif;? pmydk'frsm; rxif&Sm;jcif;? jywfawmufjcif;rsm;
&SdaeygojzifU tm;enf;csufrsm; &SdaeEdkifygonf/ rdrdwdkhtaejzifUvnf; udkatmifxGef;\ ausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rI
ordik ;f pmtkyt
f m; taumif;rGef tjynfpU q
Hk ;Hk jzpfatmif BuKd ;pm;jyifqifc&UJ onft
U wGuf xGu&f o
dS ifo
U nfu
U mvxuf
aemufusrS xkwfa0EdkifcJU&jcif;udkvnf; cGifUvTwfem;vnfay;yg&ef awmif;yeftyfygonf/
rdrw
d hkd ArmEdik if v
H ;Hk qkid &f mausmif;om;or*¾rsm;tzGcYJ sKy-f Edik if jH cm;a&;&maumfrwDtaejzifU udak tmifxeG ;f
\,ckpmtkyt
f m; xkwaf 0Edik cf jUJ cif;twGuf vuf&rdS sK;d qufausmif;om;vli,frsm;twGi;f jrefrmEdik if aH usmif;om;
vIy&f mS ;rIordik ;f uGi;f quftm; vufqifu
U rf;ay;Edik &f ef? jrefrmEdik if aH usmif;om;vIy&f mS ;rIorkid ;f tm; avUvmaeol
rsm;twGuf qufpyfay;Edkif&efESifU aemiftem*wf jrefrmEkdifiHordkif;jzpf&yfrSefrsm; jyefvnfa&;om;jyKpkonfU
tcg taxmuftuljyKEdkif&eftwGuf tusKd;jzpfxGef;vdrfUrnf[k ,kHMunfygonf/
,ckpmtkyftm; a&;om;jyKpkcJUol? ,ckpmtkyfa&;om;jyKpkcJUonfU udpö&yfaMumifU ,aehxufwdkif
ppftusO;f axmiftwGi;f tusO;f uscaH e&qJjzpfonfh (88) rsK;d qufausmif;om;acgi;f aqmif udak tmifxeG ;f tm;
vnf;aumif;? e,fcsq
YJ efu
h siaf &;umvrSonf ,aehppftmPmqefu
h siaf &;? 'Dru
kd a&pDa&;wdu
k yf u
JG mvtxdwikd f
wkdufyGJtqufqufü usqkH;cJU&aom? udk,fusKd;pGefhtepfemcHcJUMuaom ausmif;om;rsKd;quftoD;oD;tm;
rdrdwdkh ArmEdkifiHvkH;qdkif&mausmif;om;or*¾rsm;tzGJYcsKyf - EdkifiHjcm;a&;&maumfrwDrS av;pm;pGm OD;ñTwf*kPfjyK
tyfygonf/

EdkifiHjcm;a&;&maumfrwD
ArmEdkifiHvkH;qdkif&mausmif;om;or*¾rsm;tzGJYcsKyf
rwfv (9) &uf? 2007 ckESpf

- 16 -

rmwdum
yxrwGJ (1903 - 1942)
-

aus;Zl;wifvTm (1)
udkatmifapmOD;\ trSm (5)
nDawmfaemifawmf or*¾ausmif;om;&Jabmftaygif;odkh OD;ñTwfjcif; (7)
ordkif;a&;oGm;wJU ordkif; (9)
udkatmifxGef; (pma&;oludk,fa&;tusOf;) (12)
pma&;ol\ trSm - yxrwJG (13)
pmtkyfxkwfa0&jcif; trSm (15)
rmwdum - yxrwGJ (1903-1942) (17-21)
pma&;ol\ trSm - 'kwd,wJG (23)
rmwdum - 'kwd,wGJ (1945-1962) (25-32)

tcef; (1) udkvdkeDacwfOD;ydkif;
e,fcsJUqefYusifa&; trsKd;om;a&;toGif (1903 rS 1906) ausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif;
(u) 1903-ckESpf &Sdcdk;jyóemESifh ausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(c) 0dkiftrfbDat (Y.M.B.A) tpausmif;om;u . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
tcef; (2) udkvdkeDacwfOD;ydkif;
e,fcsJUqefYusifa&; trsKd;om;a&;toGif (1918 rS 1921) ausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif;
1920 yxrausmif;om;oydwf
(u) aumvdyfoydwfrwdkifrD ausmif;om;rsm;tajctae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(c) 1920 yxrausmif;om;oydwf jzpfay:vm&jcif;taMumif;t&if; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(*) oydwftwGufjyifqifMujcif; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(C) oydwfarSmufpOfjrifuGif;ESifh ausmif;om;wdkY\ckdifrmaompdwf"gwf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(i) pdefayg[kdufpul;ausmif;om;rsm; yg0ifvmjcif; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(p) rEÅav;NrKdUoydwf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(q) oydwft&Sdefwufvmjcif; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(Z) awmif;qkdcsufay;ydkYjcif;ESifh ausmif;rwuf&efqHk;jzwfjcif; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(ps) trsKd;om;ausmif;? trsKd;om;aumvdyfwnfaxmifjcif; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(n) 1920 yxrausmif;om;oydwf trsKd;om;a&;atmifjrifrIrsm; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
- trsKd;om;aumvdyfausmif;rsm;odkY q&mBuD;ocifudk,fawmfrIdif;rdefYMum;csuf . . . . . . . . . .
- trsKd;om;ynma&; aumifpDOuú| OD;armifBuD; (trfat) rdefYMum;csuf . . . . . . . . . . . .
(#) trsKd;om;aeYowfrSwfjcif; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
À
"gwfyHku@ (9? 16? 22-34)
tcef; (3) udkvdkeDacwfv,fydkif;
e,fcsJUqefYusifa&; trsKd;om;a&;toGif (1922 rS 1930) ausmif;om;vli,frsm; vIyf&Sm;rIordkif;
(u) 1922-23 wuúodkvfausmif;om;rsm;tajctae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(c) vli,frsm;BuD;yGm;a&;toif;ESifh ausmif;om;rsm; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(*) ArmEdkifiHvHk;qdkif&mvli,ftzGJUcsKyfESifh ausmif;om;rsm; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(C) EdkifiHjcm;jzpfpD;u&ufraomufa&;vIHYaqmfrIESifh ausmif;om;rsm; . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(i) EdkifiHjcm;jzpft0wftxnfqefYusifa&;ESifh ausmif;om;rsm; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
- 17 -

1
2

4
4
5
8
11
13
14
14
15
16
17
19
20
20

35
35
36
36
36

(p) e,fcsJUtpdk;&qefYusifa&;ESifh ausmif;om;rsm; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(q) wdkYArmtpnf;t½Hk;tp ausmif;om;u . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(Z) cGyfa'gif;tp &Jwyfu? wyfrawmftp ausmif;om;u . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(ps) 1925 ckESpf rEÅav;aumvdyfausmif;om;rsm;\ trsKd;om;a&;vIyf&Sm;rI . . . . . . . .
À
"gwfyHku@ (38)

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

37
37
39
39

tcef; (4) udkvdkeDacwfv,fydkif;
e,fcsJUqefYusifa&; vGwfvyfa&; BudK;yrf;rI trsKd;om;a&;toGif (1930 rS 1931) ausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif;
41
(u) 1930 ckESpfESifh ¤if;ESpfrwdkifrD ausmif;om;rsm;tajctae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
41
(c) wuo zGJUpnf;jzpf&eftajctae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
42
(*) &efukefwuúodkvfausmif;om;or*¾ taqmuftODjzpfay:vmyHk . . . . . . . . . . . . .
42
(C) wuo pwifjzpfay:vmyHk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
44
(i) pnf;rsOf;a&;qGJa&;tzGJU\ oabmxm; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
44
(p) 1931 ck wuor*¾Zif; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
44
(q) 1931 ck aemufydkif; o[m,ESifh pmzwftoif; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
45
(Z) udkApdefESifh wuúodkvfajrvIyf&Sm;rI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
45
(ps) &efukefwuúodkvfausmif;om;or*¾vIyf&Sm;rIESifh wdkYArmoDcsif; . . . . . . . . . . . . .
46
(n) &efukefwuúodkvfausmif;om;or*¾yxrqHk;Ouú| udkxGef;pdef . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
46
(#) udkxGef;pdefESifh trsKd;om;pdwf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
48
(X) udkxGef;pdefESifh wuoa½G;aumufyGJ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
50
(!) 1931-32 wuoyxrOD;qHk;trIaqmiftzGJU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
51
À wuojzpfajrmufa&; Ouú| OD;ausmfcif . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
52
À yxrqH k ; wuoOuú | OD ; xG e f ; pd e f . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
À
"gwfyHku@ (42)
tcef; (5) udkvdkeDacwfaESmif;ydkif;
e,fcsJUqefYusifa&; vGwfvyfa&;BudK;yrf;rI trsKd;om;a&;toGif (1932 rS 1935) ausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif;
53
(u) 1932-33 wuú o d k v f a jrvI y f & S m ;rI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
54
(c) ud k A pd e f E S i f h wuú o d k v f a jrvI y f & S m ;rI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
54
- 1932-33 wuotrI a qmif t zJ G U . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
54
(*) 1933-34 wuotrI a qmif t zG J U . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
55
(C) 1934-35 wuotrIaqmiftzGJUESifh udkausmfNidrf;? udkEk? udkodef;az . . . . . . . . . .
55
(i) 1934-35 wuotrIaqmiftzJGU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
56
(p) 1935 ausmif;om; (11)a,muf ausmif;xkwfcH&onfhudpö . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
57
À 1931-32 Ouú | OD ; bd k ; ul ; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
58
À 1932-33 Ouú | OD ; pH a zmf a tmif . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
58
À 1933-34 Ouú| OD;odrf;armif . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
59
À 1934-35 Ouú| OD;zdk;at; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
tcef; (6) udkvdkeDacwfaESmif;ydkif;
e,fcsJUqefYusifa&; vGwfvyfa&;BudK;yrf;rI trsKd;om;a&;toGif (1935 rS 1936) ausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif;
60
(u) udkodef;az? q&mBuD;ocifudk,fawmfrIdif;ESifh wdkYArmtpnf;t½Hk; . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
60
(c) 1935-36 wuúodkvfausmif;om;rsm;tajctae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
- 18 -

(*) udkEk? udkatmifqef;? udkausmfNidrf;? ukdodef;az? udktkef;ESifh wuo (1935) . . . . . . . . . .
(C) 1935-36 wuotrIaqmiftzGJUESifh xdkig;OD; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(i) udkatmifqef;\ ausmif;om;b0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(p) or*¾ (wuo) r*¾Zif; ESpfapmif . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(q) udkatmifqef;? udkndKjrESifh tdk;a0r*¾Zif; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(Z) tdk;a0r*¾Zif;yg udkatmifqef;\ t,f'Dwmhtmabmf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(ps) 1936 tdk;a0r*¾Zif;yg udkatmifqef;\ ausmif;om;avmu oHk;oyfcsufaqmif;yg; . . . . . .
(n) q&mBuD;ocifu,
kd af wmfridI ;f \ wuúov
kd o
f r*¾EiS hf a'gif;tk;d a0r*¾Zif;bGUJ tvuFmr*Fvm av;csK;d BuD;
(#) 1936 ‘'kwd,wuúodkvfausmif;om;oydwfjzpfyGm;apaom taMumif;&if;rsm; . . . . . . . . . . . .
(1) udkEka[majymrI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(2) tdk;a0r*¾Zif;ESifh i&JacG;BuD;aqmif;yg; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(3) xdkav;a,mufaMumifh oydwfay:aygufyHk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(4) tdk;a0r*¾Zif;yg i&JacG;BuD;vGwfaeNyDaqmif;yg; *,ufrsm; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(X) oydwfpwifjzpfay:vmjcif; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
- udkodef;az\ ewftdk;uGJpmwrf; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(!) oydwfjrifuGif; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(¡) oydwft&Sdefwufvmjcif; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(P) awmif;qdkcsuf (10) csuf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(w) 1936 ref;Oypmaumvdyf? udkA[def;ESifh ppfudkif;0kdif;pOfu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(x) oydwfwm;xGufMujcif; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(') oydwfarSmufaphpyfjcif;ESifh oydwfvSefjcif; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(") 1936 oydwf\tusKd;aus;Zl;rsm; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(e) trsKd;om;wuúodkvfjzpfay:vmyHk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(y) trsKd;om;wuúodkvfzGifhyGJ qmOD;oGifrdefYcGef;tESpfcsKyf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(z) 1936 yxrtBudrf ArmEdkifiHvHk;qdkif&mausmif;om;rsm;or*¾ (Auo) nDvmcH . . . . . . . . . . .
(A) e*g;eD pmtkyftoif;tp ausmif;om;u . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(b) AuotzGJU\ r[mAsL[mESifh enf;AsK[m . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
À 1935-36 Ouú| OD;Ek . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
À
"gwfyHku@ (82? 87? 91-97)

61
62
63
63
64
64
65
67
69
69
69
71
71
72
74
77
79
80
81
82
83
83
84
85
86
87
87
89

tcef; (7) udkvdkeDacwfaESmif;ydkif;
e,fcsJUqefYusifa&; vGwfvyfa&;BudK;yrf;rI trsKd;om;a&;toGif (1937 rS 1938) ausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif;
98
(u) &Srf;-ArmaoG;pnf;a&;tp wuo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
99
(c) 1936-37 AuoESifh wuo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
100
(*) twGif;pnf; (Inner Circle) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
100
(C) or*¾rsm; (Auo? wuo) ESifh ‘wdkYArmtpnf;t½Hk;qufoG,frI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
101
(i) ‘'kwd,tBudrf Auo nDvmcH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
101
(i-1) udkA[def;rS udkpdefcdkodkYay;ydkYaompm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
102
(i-2) ukdatmifqef;rS ukdpdefckdodkYay;pm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
103
(i-3) ukdatmifqef;rS ukdpdefckdxHay;pm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
104
(i-4) ukdjrpdefokdY ukdatmifqef;rS ay;pm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
104
(i-5) ukdjrpdefokdY ukdatmifqef;ay;pm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
105
(i-6) ukdjrpdefokdY ukdatmifqef;rS ay;pm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
- 19 -

(i-7) Auo nDvmcH usif;yjcif; jrifuGif; (arv (9)? (10) &uf 1937) . . . . . . . . . .
- udkA[def;rdefYcGef; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(p) ‘'kwd,tBudrf Auo nDvmcH qHk;jzwfcsufrsm; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(q) 1937-38 wuoESifh AuotrIaqmiftzGJU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(Z) 'kw,
d tBudrf ArmEkid if v
H ;kH qdik &f mausmif;om;rsm;or*¾ uGezf &ifrh S wwd,uGezf &ifrh wdik rf D tpD&ifcpH m
(Z-1) jrbl ; aumf r wD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(Z-2) rSwfwrf; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(Z-3) 1937-38 Auo\ vkyfaqmifrIrsm; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(ps) wwd,tBudrf AuouGefz&ifhusif;y&ef jyifqifjcif; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(n) Auo wwd,uGefz&ifhodkY zdwfMum;olrsm;pm&if; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(#) wwd,tBudrf AuonDvmcHusif;yjcif; jrifuGif; ({NyD 24-25 1938) . . . . . . . .
(X) 1938-39 AuoESifh wuotrIaqmiftzGJU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(!) ykodrfuGefz&ifhrS aEG&moDpcef; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(!-1) ZD;csKdifhc&D; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(¡) wwd,tBudrf ykodrfuGefz&ifhwGif Ouú| udkatmifqef; ajymMum;aom tzGifhrdefYcGef; . . . . . .
(P) rsKd;ñGefYr*¾Zif;aqmif;yg;tcsKdU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(P-1) "r®ESifht"r® (a&;ol-okyPÖu) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(P-2) aoG;pnf;Muavmh (a&;ol- &J&Jawmufoef;wif- NrKdUrausmif; &efukef) . . . . . . .
(P-3) qif;&Jom;ypönf;rJhrsm;ESifh ausmif;om;rsm; (a&;ol- armifA[def;) . . . . . . . .
(w) Auo? wuo OuúX udkatmifqef;\ ausmif;ydwf&ufvkyfief;wm0ef vufrSwfygrl . . .
(x) cGyfa'gif;tvHteDatmufcH? a½T0ga&mifcGyfa'gif;oHk;pGJyHk (1938? twGJtrSwf 1) tkd;a0 . . . .
(') 1938 &efukefwuúodkvftufOya' jyifqifcsuf (rlMurf;) udpö . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(") wuúodkvfOya'Murf;udk tb,faMumifh pGefYy,fvdkuf&oenf; . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
("-1) pufwifbm (5) &ufaeY owif;pmrsm;wGif Ouú| ukdatmifqef;\ rsKd;cspftrwfwkdYtm;
wkdufwGef;EId;aqmfcsuf
("-2) AuoESifh wuo trIaqmifwkdY\ jyefwrf;rS aumufEkwfcsuf . . . . . . . . . . . . .
("-3) 1938 ck? pufwifbmv? (6) &ufaeY wuúodkvfor*¾"r®m½kHwGif usif;yaom ausmif;om;rsm;
tpnf;ta0;wGif Ouú| udkatmifqef;ajymaom rdefYcGef;
("-4) Auo taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rSL; ukdA[def;\ xkwfjyefaMunmcsuf . . . . . . . . . . . .
À 1936-37 Ouú | OD ; &m&S p f . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
À 1937-38 Ouú | OD ; b*srf ; (yk * H ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
À 1938-39 Ouú| AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
À
"gwfyHku@ (100? 129)

106
106
109
109
110
110
111
119
121
122
124
126
127
128
128
139
139
141
142
144
144
144
147
147
147
148
149
151
152
153

tcef; (8) udkvdkeDacwfaESmif;ydkif;
e,fcsJUqefYusifa&; vGwfvyfa&;BudK;yrf;rI trsKd;om;a&;toGif (1938 rS 1939) ausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif;
154
(u) &efukefwuúokdvf ausmif;om;rsm;or*¾ (wuo) zGJUpnf;yHkpnf;rsOf; . . . . . . . . . . .
170
(c) 1939-40 AuoESifh wuotrIaqmiftzGJU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
170
(*) yxrtBudrfausmif;om;vTwfawmftwGuf jyifqifjcif; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
171
(C) yxrtBudrfausmif;om;vTwfawmf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
172
- ud k A [d e f ; rd e f Y c G e f ; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
176
(i) 1300 jynfhta&;awmfyHkESifh ausmif;om;rsm; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
179
(p) wwd,ausmif;om;oydwftwGuf jyifqifMujcif; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
- 20 -

(q) yxre,fcsJUtmPmzDqefrI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(Z) wwd,ausmif;om;oydwfBuD; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(ps) wwd,ausmif;om;oydwf*,uf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(n) udkatmifausmfpmay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(#) udkatmifausmfpsmye . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
- AdkvfatmifausmfewfoH (rif;ok0Pf) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(X) 'kdYausmif;om;oDcsif; ESpfyk'f . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(!) ref;tmZmenf (17) OD; ta&;awmfyHk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(¡) ref;tmZmenf (17) OD; psmyetcrf;tem; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
- armfuGef;0ifoDcsif;. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
- rEÅav;acgif;aqmif udkarmifudkrdefYcGef; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
- AuoOuú|rdefYcGef; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(P) tmZmenfrsm;aeY t"d|mefjyKpmwrf; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
À 1938-39 Ouú | OD ; A[d e f ; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
À 1939-40 Ouú| a'gufwmvSa½T (tmPm&Sif) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
À
"gwfyHku@ (178? 184? 186? 193? 199? 200? 212-221)
À
twGif;0ef½Hk;ü jzpfyGg;cJhaom t"du½kPf;ESihf ywfoufí pHkprf;a&;aumfrwD tpD&ifcHpm (0-41)

181
183
187
191
192
194
195
196
203
203
205
206
207
210
211

tcef; (9) udkvdkeDacwfaESmif;ydkif;
e,fcsJUqefYusifa&; vGwfvyfa&;BudK;yrf;rI trsKd;om;a&;toGif (1939 rS 1940) ausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif;
264
(u) 1300 jynfh taxGaxGoydwfaemufydkif;umv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
265
(c) udkatmifausmfusqHk;NyD;aemuf ausmif;om;oydwf t&Sdefjrifhwufjcif;ESifh taxGaxGoydwf . . .
266
(*) 'kwd,tBudrf ausmif;om;vTwfawmf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
266
(C) ausmif;om;rsm;tpmiwfcHqE´jyjcif; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
267
(i) qif h q d k j cif ; ES p f & yf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
268
(p) a'gufwmbarmfjyKwfusjcif;ESifh ausmif;om;rsm;aphpyfjcif; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
270
(q) ausmif;om;rsm; ESpftkyfpkuGJjcif; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
271
(Z) wwd,tBudrf ausmif;om;vTwfawmf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
272
(ps) 'kwd,urÇmppfrwdkifrD ausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
273
(n) oHrPdwyfrsm;zGJUpnf;jcif; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
273
(#) oHrPdtzGJUBuD; trdefYtrSwf (1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
278
(X) oHrPdtzGJUBuD; trdefYtrSwf (2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
283
(!) oHrPdtzGJUBuD; trdefYtrSwf (3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
290
(¡) oHrPdtzGJUBuD; trdefYtrSwf (4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
291
(P) ajratmufvIyf&Sm;rIESifh ausmif;om;rsm; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
292
(w) 'kwd,tBudrfausmif;om;rsm;uGefz&ifhaMunmcsuf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
292
(x) udkA[def;ESifh ta&;awmfyHkpmapmif . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
293
(') AuoESpf0uftpD&ifcHpm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
296
(") wuúodkvftufOya' tqifhqifhjyifqifjcif; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
299
À 1940-41 Ouú| OD;AaqG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
300
À 1941-42 Ouú| OD;vSarmif . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
À
"gwfyHku@ (268? 293)
- 21 -

33 YEARS
MY BIRTHDAY
REMEMBERING

ordik ;f onf
vufawGY tawGt
Y MuKH
jzpfonf/

pma&;ol\ trSm
'kwd,wJG
uRefawmf 'kwd,wGJ (1945-62) ckESpftxd a&;om;&mwGif vrf;aMumif;wckay:wGifom
a&G;cs,fa&;om;cJUygonf/ xdkacwfu&SdcJUaom tpdk;&rsm; (zqyv) (tdrfapmifUtpdk;&) (yxptpdk;&) wdkhESifU
twdu
k t
f cHtzJt
YG pnf;rsm; (ArmjynfueG jf rLepfygw)D (tvHeu
D eG jf rLepfygw)D (yrnw) ponfwEhkd iS hf ausmif;om;
rsm; qufpyfrrlS sm;udk ra&;om;rdap&ef txl;owdxm;cJo
U nf/ zqyvtpd;k & rSm;onf? rSeo
f nf/ tdraf pmift
h pd;k &
rSm;onf? rSeo
f nf/ yxptpd;k & rSm;onf? rSeo
f nf/ ArmjynfueG jf rLepfygwD rSm;onf? rSeo
f nf/ qd&k ,
S v
f pfygwD
rSm;onf? rSefonf ponfwdkhudka&;om;xm;onf r[kwfyg/ qdk&S,fvpf0g'? uGefjrLepf0g'? t&if;&Sif0g'
aumif;onf? qdk;onfwdkhudkvnf; a0zefa&;om;xm;onf r[kwfyg/
xdktcsdefumvu jzpfay:aeaom ausmif;om;trsm;pk\ qE´ESifUwxyfwnf;? teD;pyfqHk;jzpfonfU
ausmif;om;vSKyf&Sm;rIudkom &SmazGBudK;yrf;a&;om; xm;jcif;jzpfygonf/ ausmif;om;qdkonfrSm rnfonfUacwf
tcsdefwGif&Sd&Sd? rnfonfUacwf tcsdefwGifMunfUMunfU ½dk;om;pGm trSeftwdkif; jrifrIrsm;udkom azmfxkwfzGifU[
vIy&f mS ;rI jyKvyk Mf uygonf/ xdt
k csed u
f tpd;k &ESiUf oabmxm;wdu
k q
f ikd o
f nfvnf; &Srd nf? rwdu
k q
f ikd o
f nfvnf;
&Srd nf/ ausmif;om;wd\
hk tcGit
Uf a&;udk umuG,&f mü ¤if;tpd;k &ESiUf oabmxm;rwdu
k q
f ikd &f mwGif ¤if;ausmif;om;
vIy&f mS ;rIrsm; jzpfay:vmonf/ jynfov
l x
l \
k toHrsm; om;orD;rsm;jzpfaom ausmif;om;rsm;tay: yJw
U if½u
kd cf wf
vmaomtcg ausmif;om;vIy&f mS ;rIrsm; ydrk jkd yif;xefvmrnfom jzpfonf/ xdahk MumifU uReaf wmfonf xdv
k rf;aMumif;
rsKd;udkom a&G;cs,fa&;om;xm;ygonf/
xkdpmtkyfjzifU 'Drdkua&pDESifUvltcGifha&; wdkufyGJtqifUqifUwGif usqHk;oGm;olrsm;tm;vnf;aumif;?
yg0ifvIyf&Sm;cJUolrsm;tm;vnf;aumif;? &Spfav;vHk;ta&;awmfyHkBuD;twGif;ü (3) ESpft&G,f cav;i,frStp
touf (100) ausmf tzdk;tzGm;rsm;tqHk; ¤if;wdkhyg0ifvIyf&Sm;rIudkvnf;aumif;? &Spfav;vHk;ta&;awmfyHkBuD;
tm;vnf;aumif;? uReaf wmfet
hJ wl axmiftwGi;f ü opöm&Spd mG aexdik cf NUJ y;D axmifwiG ;f wdu
k yf rJG sm;tm; opöm&Spd mG
yg0ifcJUolrsm;tm;vnf;aumif;? 1988 rS 1990 txd uRefawmfyg0ifvIyf&Sm;cJUaom &efukefpufrIwuúodkvf
ausmif;om;rsm;or*¾? ausmufwHwm;NrdKYe,fausmif;om;or*¾? 'Drdku&ufwpfausmif;om;vli,frsm;tiftm;pk
(&efuek w
f ikd ;f )? ArmEdik if v
H ;kH qdik &f mausmif;om;or*¾rsm;tzGcYJ sKyf (atmufArmjynf)? ArmEdik if v
H ;kH qdik &f mausmif;om;
or*¾rsm;tzGJYcsKyf (ArmEdkifiH)? trsKd;om;'Drkdua&pDawmfvSefa&;wyfaygif;pk (NDRF) wdkhtm; *kPfjyKOD;ñTwf
vdkufygonf/
uReaf wmftm; i,fpOfuyifavUvm&ef Edik if aH &;pmayESiUf rSww
f rf;rSw&f mrsm; ay;cJaU om bBu;D t&if;
ocifa<u (0g;c,fr) tm;vnf;aumif;? rSww
f rf;rSw&f mrsm; uln&D mS azGay;cJaU om tbOD;tke;f jrifU (ociftek ;f jrif?U
wd;k wufa&;) tm;vnf;aumif;? rSww
f rf;rSw&f mrsm; uln&D mS azGay;cJaU om q&mOD;aomfaumif; (&efuek w
f uúov
kd f
pmMunfUwdkuf) tm;vnf;aumif;? OD;pdk;odef; (wuoOuú|a[mif;) \ vufESdyfpuf½dkuf udk,fa&;rSwfwrf;
tm;vnf;aumif;? OD;ombef;\ rSwfwrf;rSwf&mrsm; tm;vnf;aumif;? tultnDay;cJUaom udkcGefqdkif;
tm;vnf;aumif;? rdwLÅ ul;pufqikd &f pdS Ofwek ;f u rSww
f rf;tcsKYd ul;,lciG jUf yKcaUJ om udak t;Edik t
f m;vnf;aumif;?
pmrlMurf;twGuf vufa&;jzifU ulnDcJUaom rcifrdk;at;tm;vnf;aumif;? tultnDay;cJUaom rpkpk0if;ESifU
r&D&DxGef;wdkhtm;vnf;aumif; aus;Zl;wifvsuf/

atmifxGef;
(2? 11? 96)
- 23 -

DEDICATION TO
MY FATHER
AND MOTHER WHO HAVE
HELPED ME BECAUSE
EVERYTHING I CAN BE,
I CAN DO. THANKS.

rmwdum
'kw,
d wGJ (1945 - 1962)
tcef; (10) vGwfvyfa&;BudK;yrf;rI
'Drdkua&pDa&; vlYtcGifhta&;ESifh trsKd;om;a&;toGif (1945 rS 1947) ausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif;
(u) 1945 Mo*kwfvrS atmufwkdbmv ta&;ay:wuúokdvf oifwef; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
- ,m,D wuotrIaqmifaumfrwD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(u-1) 1945-46 wuo trIaqmiftzGJU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(c) 1946-47 wuo trIaqmiftzGJU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(c-1) wuo 1946-47 \ vkyfaqmifrIrsm; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(c-2) wuo pnf;rsOf;jyifqifjcif; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(c-3) 1946-47ckESpf ausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIrsm; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(*) AuoESifh wuo yl;aygif;xm;aom ArmEkdifiHvkH;qkdif&moydwfaumifpD (1947) . . . . . . . . . . .
(C) ta&G;cH&aom Auo trIaqmiftzGJU ( 1946-47) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(C-1) Auo nDvmcH (1946-47) rS awmif;qdkcsufrsm; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(i) oxkHrD;yGm; eH&Huyfpmapmif (1946-47) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(p) oxkHrD;yGm; qkwfjzJcH&jcif; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(q) oHrPdwyfESifh ausmif;om;wyfOD; (1947) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(Z) twGif;0ef½kH;0kdif;pOfu (1947) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(ps) AuoESifh ausmif;om;wyfOD; nDvmcH (1947) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(n) trsKd;orD;XmetwGuf ñTefMum;vTm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
À 1945-46 Ouú| OD;oef; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
À 1946-47 Ouú| OD;oef;armif (ol&d,) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
À
"gwfyHku@ (313)
tcef; (11) Nidrf;csrf;a&; 'Drdkua&pDa&;BudK;yrf;rI
'Drdkua&pDa&; vlYtcGifhta&; jynfwGif;Nidrf;csrf;a&; trsdK;om;a&;toGif (1948 rS 1949)
ausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif;
(u) 1947-48 AuotrIaqmiftzGJU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(c) 1947-48 ynmoifESpf a[majymyGJrsm; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(*) 1948-49 Auo tvkyftrIaqmiftzGJU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(C) 1947-48 wuotrIaqmiftzGJU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(C-1) 1947-48 wuotrIaqmiftzGJU vkyfaqmifcsufrsm; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(C-2) 1947-48 tdk;a0r*¾Zif;yg uAsm? aqmif;yg;rsm; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
- acwfqef; (ndK0if;) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
- &JabmfcsD;usL;ygonf (0if;OD;) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
- urÇmhausmif;om;tzJGUtpnf;rsm; (armifarmifausmf) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
- cGyfa'gif; (rif;ndKOD;) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(i) 1948-49 wuo trIaqmiftzGJU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(p) 1948-49 &uo trIaqmiftzGJU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(q) &efukeftpkd;&acwf wuúokdvftajcaeESifh vlrsKd;a&;jyóem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(Z) 1948 taqmiftajctae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(ps) 1948 ausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
À 1947-48 Ouú| OD;pdefvS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
- 25 -

302
302
302
303
303
304
304
305
306
306
307
308
309
309
309
310
311
312

314
314
315
315
315
316
316
316
317
319
320
320
320
321
322
324

1948-49 Ouú| OD;&efa0; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

325

tcef; (12) Nidrf;csrf;a&; 'Drdkua&pDa&;BudK;yrf;rI
'Drdkua&pDa&; vlYtcGifhta&; jynfwGif;Nidrf;csrf;a&;ESifh trsKd;om;a&;toGif (1949 rS 1950)
ausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif;
(u) &efukefc½kdifausmif;om;rsm; pnf;½kH;a&; jyóem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(c) &uo pnf;½kH;a&;aumfrwD (1949) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(*) axmiftwGif;rS 0ufom;ykyfta&;tcif;ESifh tjyifrSausmif;om;rsm;vIyf&Sm;rI . . . . . . . . . . . .
(C) 1949 ckESpf &uoukd w&m;0ifzGJUpnf;jcif;ESihf trsKd;om;aeYusif;yjcif; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(i) 1949-50 wuo trIaqmiftzGJU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(p) ausmif;om;aeYusif;yjcif; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(q) Aef;armfausmif;om; ajcmufOD;udpö . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(Z) urÇmhjidrf;csrf;a&; qE´jyvufrSwfaumufcHjcif; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(ps) wuúokdvfnaeoifwef; zGifhvSpfcJhjcif; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(n) 1949 ausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(#) 1949 tkd;a0r*¾Zif;yg uAsm? aqmif;yg; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
- cGyfa'gif; (a0vif;) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
- or*¾ (udkudkav;) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(X) 1945 rS 1949 xd Auo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
À 1949-50 Ouú| a'gufwmarmifarmifausmf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

326
326
327
327
328
328
329
329
329
329
330
330
330
331
332

tcef; (13) Nidrf;csrf;a&; 'Drdkua&pDa&;BudK;yrf;rI
'Drdkua&pDa&; vlYtcGifhta&;ESifh trsKdom;a&;toGif (1950 rS 1951) ausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif;
(u) pifjydKif &uorsm; zGJUpnf;&ef MudK;yrf;rI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(c) &uo jyefvnfzGJUpnf;jcif; (1950-51) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(c-1) 1950 wuo trIaqmiftzGJU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(c-2) 1950-51 wuo trIaqmiftzJGU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(*) vufoD;xkd;? oHwkwf½kdufESifh ausmif;om;rsm; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(C) wuotrIaqmifwpfzGJUvkH; jyKwfusjcif; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(i) wuo a½G;aumufyGJ topfjyKvkyfjcif; (1950) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(p) Auo jyefvnfzGJUpnf;a&; pnf;½kH;a&;aumfrwD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(q) ukdk&D;,m;ppfyGJESifh wuúokdvfausmif;om;tiftm;pktay: *,uf½kdufrI wk;d wuftiftm;pkay:vmjcif;
- Stop! Ye Koreans, Yet There Is Hope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(Z) wuo tvkyftpnf;ta0;? oefY&Sif;trIaqmifrsm;ESifh wkd;wuftiftm;pk . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(ps) 1950-51 wuo tpD&ifcHpm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
À 1950-51 Ouú| OD;udkudkav; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

333
334
334
334
335
337
337
338
338
339
340
341
346

À

tcef; (14) Nidrf;csrf;a&; 'Drdkua&pDa&;BudK;yrf;rI
'Drdkua&pDa&; vlYtcGifhta&; Nidrf;csrf;a&;ESifh trsdK;om;a&;toGif (1951 rS 1952) ausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif;
(u) Auorsm;tzGJUcsKyf ay:aygufvmjcif; (1951-52) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
347
(c) Auorsm;tzGJUcsKyfESifh AuotzJGUtrIaqmifrsm; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
348
(c-1) wdk;wufwdkY\ Auorsm;tzGJUcsKyf (A.B.F.S.U) trIaqmifrsm;rSm . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
348
- 26 -

(c-2) 1951-52 wuo trIaqmiftzGJU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(c-3) oefY½Sif; AuotrIaqmiftzGJUrsm; (A.B.S.U) 1951-52 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(*) Auorsm;tzGJUcsKyf vkyfaqmifcsufrSm;,Gif;rIrsm; ( 1951-52 ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(C) Auorsm;tzGJUcsKyfESifh jynfwGif;Nidrf;csrf;a&; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(i) 1952 tkd;a0r*¾Zif;yg q&mBuD;ocifukd,fawmfrIdif;\ uAsm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(p) 1951-52 wuo tpD&ifcHpm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(q) Auorsm;tzGJUcsKyf nDvmcH ( 1952-53 ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(Z) Auorsm;tzGJUcsKyf tvkyftrIaqmiftzGJU (aysmuf)
(ps) wuowGif wkd;wufwkdY ta½G;cH&jcif; ( 1952-53 ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(n) 1952-53 wuo trIaqmiftzGJU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(#) 1952 tkd;a0r*¾Zif;yg uAsm? aqmif;yg; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
- ausmif;om;ta&;awmfyHk (ukdb[def;) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
- urÇmYausmif;om;tzJGUcsKyf (udkvS0if;) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
- ppfudkrkef;onf (rif;vSñGefYMuL;) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
À 1951-52 Ouú| OD;pdefbef; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
À
"gwfyHku@ (349? 351? 357)
tcef; (15) Nidrf;csrf;a&; 'Drdkua&pDa&;BudK;yrf;rI
'Drdkua&pDa&; ausmif;om;xktcGifhta&;umuG,fa&;ESifh trsKd;om;a&;toGif (1952 rS 1953)
ausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif;
(u) 'Dtufpftkd arG;zGm;jcif; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(c) 1952-53 ynmoifESpf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(*) 1952 ausmif;om;tcGifhta&; umuG,fa&;wkdufyGJ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(C) 1952 Zlvkdifv ausmif;aqmifvufcHa&;wkdufyGJ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(i) 1953-54 wuoa&G;aumufyGJ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(p) a½G;aumufyGJaeYjrifuGif; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(q) ref;wuúodkvfausmif;om;or*¾tajctaeESihf zqyv qkd&S,fvpfwkdY\ tMuH,kwf . . . . . . . .
(Z) yJhwif½kdufcwfoHrsm; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(1) o[m,ESifU pmzwftoif;aygif;pHk\ arwåm&yfcHcsuf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(2) ausmif;om;xktpnf;ta0;yGJjzpfajrmufa&;aumfrwD xkwfjyefaMunmcsuftrSwf (1) . . . . . .
(3) w&m;rQwaom a½G;aumufyGJ jzpfajrmufa&;twGuf n§dEIdif;MupdkY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(4) &efukefwuúodkvf wdk;wufaomausmif;om;tiftm;pk aMunmcsuf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(ps) 1953 atmufwkdbmta&;tcif; jzpfay:ykH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(n) 1953 atmufwkdbmta&;awmfyHk jzpfyGm;jcif; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(#) ausmif;xJodkY0ifpD;jcif;ESihf t&Sdefjr§ifhwufjcif; vlzrf;yGJrsm;usif;yjcif; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(#-1) atmufwkdbmv (2) &ufaeY &efukefwuúokdvfe,fajrü xkwfjyefcJhaomyk'fr ( 144 ) . . .
(#-2) tif;0wHcg;rS aoG;pufrsm;odkY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(X) Ekd0ifbmausmif;zGifhcsdef ausmif;xkwfyGJESifh wkdufyGJt&SdefjrifhykH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(!) rEÅav;wuúodkvf ausmif;om;rsm;wdkufyJG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(¡) atmufwkdbmom;orD;rsm; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(P) trskKd;om;aeY usif;yjcif; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(w) w&m;½kH;wGif &ifqkdifa&;udpö . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(x) 1952-53 wuo ESpfywfvnftpD&ifcHpm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
- 27 -

348
348
349
350
350
352
357
358
358
358
359
359
363
366
370

371
371
372
373
373
374
376
377
378
379
380
381
382
387
396
397
398
403
407
409
410
410
410

À
À

1952-53 Ouú| OD;udkudkBuD; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
"gwfyHku@ (392? 393? 394? 396? 399? 400? 401? 402? 403? 405-406? 408? 416? 419-425)

419

tcef; (16) Nidrf;csrf;a&; 'Drdkua&pDa&;BudK;yrf;rI
'Drdkua&pDa&; ausmif;om;xknDñGwfa&;ESifh trsKd;om;a&;toGif (1954 rS 1955) ausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif;
(u) Auorsm;tzGJUcsKyf nDvmcH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
426
427
(c) 1954-55 Auorsm;tzGJUcsKyf trIaqmiftzGJU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
428
(*) Auorsm;tzGJUcsKyfnDvmcHwGif wifoGif;aom tpD&ifcHpmrsm; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
433
(C) ausmif;xkwfcH&aom ausmif;om;rsm; ausmif;jyef0ifa&;aumfrwDrS &efukefwuúokdvfaumifpDokdY
ay;ykdYaompm
(i) &efukefwuúokdvf ausmif;om;nDñGwfa&;wyfOD; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
435
À
"gwfyHku@ - wwd,tBudrf Auorsm;tzJGUcsKyf nDvmcHBuD; - (439-442)
À
"gwfyHku@ - ausmif;om;nDñGwfa&;wyfOD;wGif yg0ifvIyf&Sm;cJholrsm; - (443-446)
tcef; (17) Nidrf;csrf;a&; 'Drdkua&pDa&;BudK;yrf;rI
'Drdkua&pDa&; ausmif;om;xktcGifhta&;umuG,fa&;ESifh trsKd;om;a&;toGif (1954 rS 1955)
ausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif;
(u) 1954-55 wuoa½G;aumufyGJ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(c) 1954-55 wuo trIaqmiftzGJU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(*) wuo aiG&wkobif . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(C) pwkw¬tMudrf ausmif;q&mrsm;toif; (&efukef) ESpfywfvnfnDvmcH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(i) urÇmYausmif;om;or*¾aeY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(p) oHk;cgus ausmif;xkwfpepfjyóem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(q) &efukefwuúodkvf ausmif;om;ppftiftm;pk (S.O.F) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(Z) [,f&Dwefta&;awmfykHESihf uefYuGufyGJrsm; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(Z-1) or*¾ (3) ck yl;wGJaMunmcsuf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(Z-2) Auorsm;tzGJYcsKyf ñTefMum;vTm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(Z-3) EdkifiHawmf0efBuD;csKyfxHay;pm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(Z-4) ausmif;om;ta&;awmfyHkaumfrwD aMunmcsuf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(Z-5) ta&;awmfyHkaumfrwD aMunmcsuf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(Z-6) jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEdkifiHawmftpdk;&? jynfxJa&;0efBuD;Xme trIwGJtrSwf (156-[p) (56)
aumufEkwfcsuf
(Z-7) t"d|mefpmwrf; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(ps) wuo\ ausmif;om;tcGifhta&; awmif;qkdcsufrsm;. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(n) 34 Mudrfajrmuf trsKd;om;aeYtwGuf Auorsm;tzGJUcsKyf\tqkdrsm; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(#) 35 Budrfajrmuf trsKd;om;atmifyGJaeYtqkdrsm; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(X) Auorsm;tzGJUcsKyf pwkw¬tMudrfnDvmcH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(!) taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rSL; ukdaZmf0if; (Auorsm;tzGGJUcsKyf) wifoGif;aom tpD&ifcHpm . . . . . . . .
(¡) &efukefwuúodkvfausmif;om;or*¾ trIaqmiftzGJU\ tpD&ifcHpm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
À 1954-55 Ouú| OD;wifxGef; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

- 28 -

447
447
448
448
448
448
453
454
455
455
456
457
457
459
460
461
467
468
471
471
474
481

tcef; (18) Nidrf;csrf;a&; 'Drdkua&pDa&;BudK;yrf;rI
'Drdkua&pDa&; vlYtcGifhta&;ESifh jynfwGif;Nidrf;csrf;a&; trsKd;om;a&;toGif (1955 rS 1956)
ausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif;
(u) ausmif;jyefvnf0ifcGifh&a&;vIyf½Sm;rI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(c) wuoa&G;aumufyGJ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(*) 1955-56 wuo trIaqmiftzGJU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(C) wuo OuúXopf udkwifxGef; usrf;opömusdefqkdyGJ (1955-56) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(i) urÇmYausmif;om;aeY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(p) 1955-56 ausmif;om;vIyf½Sm;rI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(q) ukdvS0if;ESifh ukdbaumif;aMunmcsuf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(Z) yxrtMudrf wuúodkvfESifhaumvdyfaygif;pkH awGUqHkaqG;aEG;yGJ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(ps) 'kwd,tMudrf wuúodkvfESifhaumvdyfaygif;pkH awGUqHkaqG;aEG;yGJ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
- jynfwGif;ppf&yfpJa&; yefMum;vTm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
- wuúodkvfESifUaumvdyfaygif;pHk aqG;aEG;yGJtqdkrsm; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(n) ukdwifat;udpö uefYuGufvTm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(#) 1955-56 wuo tpD&ifcHpm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
À 1954-55 Ouú| OD;wifxGef; (ewfarmuf) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
À
"gwfyHku@ (505)
tcef; (19) Nidrf;csrf;a&; 'Drdkua&pDa&;BudK;yrf;rI
'Drdkua&pDa&;? ausmif;om;xktcGifhta&; Nidrf;csrf;a&;ESifh trsdK;om;a&;toGif (1956 rS 1957)
ausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif;
(u) wwd,tMudrf wuúodkvfESifhaumvdyfaygif;pkHaqG;aEG;yGJ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(c) 1956-57 wuo trIaqmiftzGJU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(*) rjyD;jywfao;aom oHk;cgusausmif;xkwfpepfwkdufyGJ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(C) ausmif;om;or*¾rsm; zsufodrf;a&;ESifh ywfoufaom ynma&;0efMuD;Xme\ trdefYjyefwrf; . . .
(i) 1956 ck? atmufwkdbm 16 &uf? n 8 em&D ocifwif\ rdefYcGef; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(p) ausmif;omrsm;0efcH*wdvTmyHkpH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(q) AkdvfcsKyfatmifqef; ausmif;om;b0a&;cJhaomaqmif;yg; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(Z) 1956-57 tkd;a0r*¾Zif;yg uAsmrsm; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(ps) wuo tvkyftpnf;ta0;ü awGU&Sd&aom jyóemrsm; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(n) &JacgifudkarG;zGm;jcif; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(#) 1956-57 wuo 0g'ESifhvkyfief;pOf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(X) wuu Ouú|opf podef;[ef usrf;opömusdefqdkyJGtcrf;tem;rdefYcGef; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(!) wuo aMunmcsuf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(¡) 1956-57 wuotpD&ifcHpm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
À 1956-57 Ouú| OD;podef;[ef . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
À
"gwfyHku@ (507? 530-531)

482
482
482
483
484
485
486
489
490
490
491
496
497
504

506
506
507
507
508
510
510
512
514
516
516
519
521
524
531

tcef; (20) Nidrf;csrf;a&; 'Drdkua&pDa&;BudK;yrf;rI
'Drdkua&pDa&; 'Drdkua&pDynma&; Nidrf;csrf;a&;ESifh trsKd;om;a&;toGif (1957 rS 1958) ausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif;
532
(u) 1957-58 wuoa&G;aumufyGJ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
533
(c) wuo trIaqmiftzGJU (1957-58) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
- 29 -

(*) wuo ukdpkd;odef; usrf;opömudsefqkdyGJtcrf;tem; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(C) 1957-58 wuo vIyf½Sm;rIESifh pwkw¬tBudrf wuúokdvfESifhaumvdyfaygif;pkHaqG;aEG;yGJMuD; . . .
(i) rEÅav;wuúokdvfausmif;om;rsm;or*¾ vIyf½Sm;rIrsm; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(p) ArmEdkifiHvHk;qdkif&m ausmif;om;or*¾rsm;tzGJUcsKyf yÍörtBudrfajrmuf jynfvHk;uRwfnDvmcHBuD;rS
qHk;jzwftwnfjyK awmif;qdkcsufrsm;
(q) 1958 OD;EkESifh ausmif;om;qufqHa&; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(Z) Ek-wif^aqGNidrf;tuJGtjyJESifh or*¾rsm; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(ps) 1958 ck? 'DZifbmv (2) &ufaeY bGJUESif;obifcef;rü rdefYMum;aom wuúodkvft"dywd EdkifiHawmf
0efMuD;csKyf AdkvfcsKyfae0if;\ rdefYcGef;tESpfcsKyf
(n) 1957-58 tkd;a0r*¾Zif;yg aqmif;yg; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
- wuúodkvfe,fajrrS ajcukwfpcef; (armifoD[) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(#) ausmif;om;rsm;OD;pD;usif;yonfh 38 Mudrfajrmuf trsKd;om;atmifyJGaeY csDwuf&efEId;aqmfpm . . .
(X) oD;jcm;rEÅav;wuúokdvf txdrf;trSwfyGJawmf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(!) 1957-58 wuotpD&ifcHpm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(¡) pmMunfhwdkufvkyfief;XmetpD&ifcHpm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
À 1957-58 Ouú| OD;pdk;odef; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
À
"gwfyHku@ (532? 547? 564-568)

533
534
542
543
546
546
548
548
548
550
551
552
562
564

tcef; (21) Nidrf;csrf;a&; 'Drdkua&pDa&;BudK;yrf;rI
'Drdkua&pDa&; 'Drdkua&pDynma&; Nidrf;csrf;a&;ESifh trsKd;om;a&;toGif (1958 rS 1959) ausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif;
569
(u) jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEkdifiHvkH;qkdif&m ausmif;om;rsm;ynma&;ESD;aESmzvS,fyGJ . . . . . . . . . . . .
570
- 'k-0efBuD;csKyfocifwifo0PfvTm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
571
- ynma&;0efBuD; OD;ausmfZH\rdefYcGef; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
573
- ynmrif;BuD; pnfola'gufwmOD;b\rdefYcGef; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
574
- A[dkjyifqifa&;aumfrwD obmywd wuoOuú| udkpdk;odef;\rdefYcGef; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
576
- ESD;aESmzvS,fyGJwGif wifjycJhaompmwrf;rsm; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
577
- ynma&;ESD;aESmzvS,fyGJjzpfajrmufa&;twGuf wuo\wifjycsuf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
581
- ausmif;om;rsm;ynma&;ES;D aESmzvS,yf JG ay:aygufvmyHEk iS t
hf ajccHoabmxm; taxGaxGtpD&ifcpH m
582
- A[dkjyifqifa&;aumfrwD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
585
- ynma&;vGwfvyfcGifhpmwrf; (aumfr½Sif) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
588
- jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEdkifiHvHk;qdkif&m ausmif;om;rsm;ynma&;ESD;aESmzvS,fyGJrS xkwfjyefaMunmcsuf
591
(c) EdkifiHjcm;c&D;pOfrsm; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
592
(*) 1958-59 ck wuoa&G;aumufyGJ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
592
(C) yÍörtBudrfajrmuf wuúodkvfESifhaumvdyfaygif;pHk aqG;aEG;yGJ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
594
(i) cGJxGufcGifhESifh ½Srf;ausmif;om;rsm;aMunmcsuf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
597
(p) wuúodkvftufOya'udkjyifqifa&;ESifh ausmif;om;rsm; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
598
À OD;cifarmiftkef; (1958-59) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
À
"gwfyHku@ (569? 582? 591? 599-601)
tcef; (22) Nidrf;csrf;a&; 'Drdkua&pDa&;BudK;yrf;rI
'Drdkua&pDa&; ausmif;om;xktcGifhta&;umuG,fa&;ESifh jynfwGif;Nidrf;csrf;a&; trsKd;om;a&;toGif
(1959 rS 1960) ausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif;
(u) 1959-60 wuoa½G;aumufyGJ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
- 30 -

602

(c) tdk;a0r*¾Zif;rS ay;tyfaom0efcHcsufrsm; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(*) rGefjynfe,fazmfxkwfa&;twGuf &efukefwuúodkvfrGefausmif;om;rsm; oabmxm; . . . . . . . . .
(C) jrefrm&mZ0ifta&; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(i) wuo? Auorsm;tzGJUcsKyf? &uowdkYOD;pD;usif;yaom ausmif;om;xktpnf;ta0;tqdkrsm; . .
(p) q|rtBudrfajrmuf ArmEdkifiHvHk;qdkif&mausmif;om;or*¾rsm;tzGJUcsKyf nDvmcH . . . . . . . . . . . .
- q&mBuD;ocifudk,fawmfrIdif;\ o0PfvTm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
- obmywd udkaZmf0if;rdefYcGef; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(q) &efukefwuúodkvfausmif;om;rsm;or*¾ 1959-60 trIaqmiftzGJUtpD&ifcHpm . . . . . . . . . . .
À OD;vSwif (1959-60) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
À
"gwfyHku@ (630)
À
"gwfyHku@ - AdkvfcsKyfBuD;tpdk;&acwf wuo (17) vc&D; (631-641)
tcef; (23) Nidrf;csrf;a&; 'Drdkua&pDa&;BudK;yrf;rI
'Drdkua&pDa&; vlrsKd;pkausmif;om;ta&;ESifh jynfwGif;Nidrf;csrf;a&; trsKd;om;a&;toGif (1960 rS 1961)
ausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif;
(u) 1960-61 &efukefwuúodkvfausmif;om;or*¾trIaqmiftzGJU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(c) &efukefwuúodkvfausmif;om;rsm;or*¾ (1960-61) Ouú|opf usrf;opömusdefqdkyGJ . . . . . . . . .
(*) 1960-61 ck ausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(*-1) aemufqufwGJpmar;yGJudpö . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(*-2) tar&duefoH½Hk;qE´jyyGJ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(*-3) ygarmu©csKyftm; qefYusifrI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(*-4) ref;aq;ausmif;om;rsm;vIyf½Sm;rI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(*-5) [oFmwausmif;om;rsm;vIyf½Sm;rI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(*-6) ref;ausmif;om;rsm;vIyf½Sm;rI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(*-7) wef;cGJwef;cs&yfqdkif;ypfa&; ausmif;om;xkqE´jyyGJ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(*-8) udkvdkeDpHepfqefYusifa&;aeYvIyf½Sm;rI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(C) &efukefwuúodkvf vlrsKd;pkausmif;om;rsm;tzGJUcsKyf (1960-61) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
- jyifqifa&;aumfrwD Ouú| apmatrdk;vdk rdefYcGef; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
- ausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIwGifyg0ifcJhaom vlrsKd;pkausmif;om;acgif;aqmifrsm; . . . . . . . . . . . .
(i) 1960-61 &efukefwuúodkvfausmif;om;rsm;or*¾ tpD&ifcHpm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
À OD;wifat; (1960-61) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
À
"gwfyHku@ (666)
tcef; (24) Nidrf;csrf;a&; 'Drdkua&pDa&;BudK;yrf;rI
'Drdkua&pDa&;ESifh ausmif;om;xktcGifhta&;umuG,fa&; trsKd;om;a&;toGif (1961 rS 1962)
ausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif;
(u) &efukefwuúodkvfausmif;om;or*¾ trIaqmiftzGJU (1961-62). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(c) uarmufurynma&;wdkufyGJ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(c-1) jzpfay:vmyHk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(c-2) vIyf½Sm;rI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(c-3) yxptpdk;&wkefYjyefrI? ausmif;om;wefjyefvIyf&Sm;rI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(c-4) yHkpHajymif;vJjcif; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(c-5) uarmufurynma&; wdkufyGJumvwGifusif;yaom Auorsm;tzJGUcsKyfuGefz&ifh . . . . . .
- 31 -

603
604
605
605
606
606
606
611
629

642
642
645
645
645
645
647
647
648
648
648
648
649
651
652
666

667
667
667
668
668
670
671

(c-6) ig;c½dkifqE´jyyGJ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(*) wuúodkvftwGif;rS *,ufrsm; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(C) rEÅav;vIyf&Sm;rI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(i) wyfOD;wdkY rlrrSefrIrsm; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
À OD;AaqGav; (1961-62) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
À
"gwfyHku@ (671? 673)
tcef; (25) Nidrf;csrf;a&; 'Drdkua&pDa&;BudK;yrf;rI
'Drdkua&pDa&;ESifh ppftmPm&Sifqefhusifa&; trsKd;om;a&;toGif (1962) ausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif;
(u) Zlvdkifv (7) &uf ta&;awmfyHkBuD; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(c) jzpfay:vmyHk tajccHtaMumif;t&if;rsm; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(*) rjzpfyGm;rD ausmif;om;rsm;rauseyfrIrsm; (arv 9 &uf xkwfjyefcsuf) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(C) wuúodkvfaumifpDukd zsufodrf;jcif; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
- zsufodrf;cH wuúodkvfaumifpDtzJGU 1961-62 ynmoifESpf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
- wuúodkvfaumifpDudk jyefvnfzJGUpnf;jcif; trdefYtrSwf (30) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(i) Zlvdkifv (7) &uf ta&;awmfyHkpwifjcif; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(p) tMurf;zdESdyfrIpwifNyD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(q) aoqHk;ol? 'Pf&m&ol? aysmufqHk;ol? zrf;qD;cH&olrsm;pm&if; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(Z) wuotaqmiftODBuD; NzdKcGJjcif; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
- a'gif;&moDjynfawmfvSefa&; (atmifxGef;) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
À
&efukefwuúodkvfausmif;om;rsm;or*¾ Ouú|rsm; (1930-1962) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
À
"gwfyHku@ (683? 685? 686? 689-690? 690? 696)
aemufqufwJG
aemufqufwJG
aemufqufwJG
aemufqufwJG
aemufqufwJG
aemufqufwJG
aemufqufwGJ

À
À

(24)
(26)
(28)
(30)
(30)
(31)

All Burma Student's Conference (1936)

ArmEdkifiHvHk;qdkif&mausmif;om;rsm;or*¾\ tkyfcsKyfa&; - pnf;rsOf;Oya'
INTERNATIONALUNION OF STUDENTS

tqifhtrsKd;rsKd;½Sdaom AuotzGJUrsm;\ Ouú|pm&if; (1945-1958)
Auorsm;tzGJYcsKyf zGJUpnf;tkyfcsKyfykHpnf;rsOf;Oya' (1960? atmufwdkbm)
t"dywdrsm;? tkyfcsKyfa&;t&m&Sdrsm;? armfuGef;xdef;rsm; (1920-62)
ArmEkdifiHvHk;qdkif&mausmif;om;rsm;or*¾ ('Dtufpftdk)
zGJUpnf;tkyfcsKyfyHkpnf;rsOf;Oya'

ordkif;0ifpm½Gufpmwrf;rsm; - ( 1 - 107 )
rSDjirf;pmtkyfrsm; - ( u - i )

- 32 -

672
674
674
675
676

677
677
679
680
680
681
682
684
686
688
691
697

(1)
(2-13)
(14)
(15)
(16-27)
(27-28)
(29-43)

yxrwGJ
(1903 - 1942)

jzwfoef;rIrsm;ay:wGif
pdwf&SnfpGmjzifU
tbufbufu
tm;ay;ulncD aUJ om
]rr (EG,)f } tm;
txl;aus;Zl;wifrIjzifU

udkvdkeDacwfOD; - 1903 rS 1906 - e,fcsJYqefhusifa&; trsKd;om;a&;toGif

tcef; (1)
udv
k ekd aD cwfO;D ydik ;f
e,fcsUJ qefu
Y siaf &; trsK;d om;a&;toGif ausmif;om;vIy&f mS ;rIordik ;f
(1903 rS 1906)
usaemfwYkd ausmif;om;vIy½f mS ;rIordik ;f udk e,fcsJUqefYusifa&;? trsdK;om;a&;wdu
k yf w
JG cktjzpf avhvmMunfrh nfqv
kd QifNAdwo
d Qe,fcsJUonf 1885? Ek0d ifbmv (29) &ufaeY Armbk&ifoaD ygrif;udk zrf;qD;í rEÅav;aejynfawmfukd
odr;f ydu
k cf NhJ yD;aemuf? 1886 ck? Zefe0g&Dv (1) &ufaeYwiG f ArmEkid if u
H kd NAdwo
d Qtifyg,mtwGi;f vufatmufow
G o
f iG ;f í
udv
k ekd t
D jzpf owfrw
S t
f yk cf sKyfonfh tcsed rf pS í wdik ;f &if;om;vufeufuikd f tiftm;pkrsm;onf rdrw
d Ykd xrf;aqmifEikd o
f nfh
twdkif;twmjzifh qefYusifwdkufyGJ0ifcJhMuonf/ xdkodkY qefYusifrIaMumifh NAdwdoQwdkYonf (15) ESpfausmf ArmEkdifiH
tkyfcsKyfa&;udk aumif;rGefEkdifeif;pGm rtkyfcsKyfEkdifcJhay/ xdkodkYqefYusifrIrsm;? ckcHrIrsm;? rauseyfrIrsm;? olYuRefrcHvdkaom
ZmwdaoG;? Zmwdrmef wuf<urIrsm;udk NAdwdoQwdkY awGUMuHKae&pOf umvtwGif; 1903 ckESpfwGif atmufArmjynf
&efuek Nf rdKUü ½Scd ;kd jyóem pwifjzpfay:cJo
h nf/ ¤if;vIy½f mS ;rIrmS ArmEkid if aH usmif;om;ordik ;f \ yxrOD;qH;k aom vIy½f mS ;rI
wckjzpfNyD; ausmif;om;? rdb? q&mwdkYu yl;aygif;í NAdwdoQe,fcsJUtm; ckcHqefYusifcJhaom vIyf½Sm;rIBuD; jzpfonf/

(u) 1903 ckEpS f &Scd ;kd jyóemESihf ausmif;om;vIy&f mS ;rI
1903 ckESpfwGif e,fcsJUwdkYonf ArmEdkifiHudk odrf;ydkufNyD;onfhaemuf Armrsm;tm; ESdrfhcsxm;&ef? ArmvlrsKd;
rsm;tm; woufvHk; bk&m;xl;? uRefcHtjzpfodkY csxm;&ef? pDpOfrIrsm; wckNyD;wck wDxGif zefwD;cJhavonf/ xdkodkY
zefwD;&mwGif atmifjrifrI½Sd? r½Sd od½Sd&avatmif &efukef [kdufpul;ausmif;om;rsm;tm; yxrOD;pGm pwif prf;oyfcJh
onf/ xdkpOfu ynm0efrSm Arm&mZ0ifa&;om;ol t*FvdyfvlrsKd; rpöwmaumhqdkol jzpfonf/
¤if;u ausmif;om;rsm;tm; q&mrsm;ESifh ynma&;XmerS t&m½Sdrsm;tm; ½Sdcdk; t½dktaojyK&ef trdefYxkwf
jyefcJhonf/ xdktrdefYudk ausmif;om;rsm; vkdufem&ef &efukef[kdufpul; aMumfjimoifykef;wGif uyfxm;cJhonf/ xkdtrdefY
rxGufcif ausmif;om;ESifh q&mqufqHa&;rSm ausmif;om;rsm;onf q&mrsm;udk acgif;iHkY t½dktaojyKcJh&onf om
½Sdayonf/ rpöwmaumh ½Sdcdk;trdefY xGufvmaomtcg &efukef tpdk;&[kdufpul; ausmif;om;rsm;ESifh &efukefaumvdyf
ausmif;om;BuD;rsm; rausreyfjzpfcJh&onf/
xdktcg aumvdyfausmif;om;BuD;rsm;u ¤if;wkdYESifh cifrif&if;ESD;í ausmif;om;pdwf rukefao;aom a½SUae
ylylaEG;aEG; OD;yk (az? yk? ½Sdef) tm; ¤if;udpu
ö dk oGm;a&muf aqG;aEG;Muonf/ xdktcg OD;yku ]]tck [kdufpul;ausmif;om;
1

jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif; - atmifxGef;
awG rsufESmjzKtpdk;&eJY t&m½SdawGudk ½Sdcdk;&r,fwJhvm;? olwdkYu bmawGrdkYvJ? 'dkYvlrsKd;udk wrifzdESdyfcsKyfcs,fxm;wJh
e,fcsJUawGbJ? 'gudk 'dkYu bmjzpfvdkY ½Sdcdk;&rSmvJ/}}
(pum;csyf/
/ xdkacwfu q&mrsm;? ynma&;XmerS t&m½Sdrsm; tm;vHk;onf t*FvdyfvlrsKd;rsm;ESifh tdE´d,vlrsKd;
rsm;rSm tm;vHk;eD;yg; jzpfMuonf/)
]][dk;wkef;u q&mawGudk wynfhausmif;om;awGu ½Sdcdk;Muw,f/ bmjzpfvdkY ½Sdcdk;&ovJqkdawmh q&mawGu
tJ'Dtcsdefwkef;u wynfhawGudk ynmvnf;oifay;&w,f? aemufqHk; orD;yg ay;Muw,fuG? 'Dawmh [kdwkef;u q&m
awGu wu,fh aus;Zl;½SifawG? tckacwfu wynfhausmif;om;awGqDu aiGn§pf,lMuw,f/ aiG&rS ynmoifay;Mu
w,f? tck q&mu ausmif;om;awG&JU taptyg;yJ? 'gaMumifh r½Sdcdk;xdkufbl;uG}}
a½SUaeav; OD;yk\ ajymcsufudk aumvdyfausmif;om;BuD;rsm;u [kdufpul;ausmif;om;rsm;tm; jyefajymjyí
½Scd ;kd trdeUf udk uefYuu
G Mf u&ef vIUH aqmfay;onf/ xdt
k cge*du
k rausreyfjzpfaeaom ausmif;om;rsm;onf wd&pämefO,smOf
(,cifu wd&pämefO,smOfrSm AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;vrf;? ,ck &efukefaq;½HkBuD;ae&mwGif jzpfonf) wGif pka0;í aqG;aEG;
Muonf/ xdktpnf;ta0;rS]]&efukef[dkufpul;ausmif;om;rsm;onf ynm0ef rpöwmaumh\ trdefYtwdkif; q&mrsm;ESihf ynma&;t&m½Sd
rsm;tm; ½Sdrcdk;bJae&ef? oufqdkif&m ynma&;t&m½Sd wOD;OD; vma&mufcJhvQif ½Sdckd;enf; (3) enf;½Sdonfh teuf
rnfonfhenf;jzifh ½Sdckd;&rnfudk ar;&ef}} qHk;jzwfvdkufMuonf/
aemuf&ufwGif ynm0efaxmufrif; OD;a0vif;onf &efukef[kdufpul;ausmif;odkY a&mufvmcJhaomtcg
ausmif;om;rsm;u atmufygtwdkif; ar;cJhonf/
]]usaemfwdkY ausmif;om;rsm;u q&mrsm;udk ½Sdckd;&r,fvdkY trdefYxkwfcJhw,f? 'Dvdk½Sdckd;jcif; ae&mrSm ½Sdckd;jcif;
trsKd;rsKd;½Sdw,f? vufESpfzufudk,Suf ezl;eJYxdNyD; ½Sdckd;jcif;? vufESpfzuf,Suf &ifbwfa½SUrSmxm; ½Sdcdk;jcif;? vufESpf
zuf,Suf &ifbwfab;apmif; em;rSmxm; ½Sdcdk;jcif;&,fvkdY (3) rsKd;½Sdw,f? b,fenf;eJY ½Sdcdk;&rSmygvJ}}
xdktcg ynm0efaxmufrif; OD;a0vif;u atmufygtwdkif;jyefajymcJhonf/
]]rif;wdkY ajymwJh ½Sdcdk;jcif; (3) rsKd; teuf vufESpfzufudk,Suf ezl;eJYxdNyD; OD;cs ½Sdcdk;enf;eJY ½Sdcdk;&r,f}}
,if;udpEö iS hf ywfoufí ausmif;om;rsm;? rdbrsm;ESihf ausmif;tkyq
f &mBuD;jzpfol ArmvlrsKd;rsm; tay: cifrif
&if;ES;D oHa,mZOfw,
G af eaom t*Fvyd t
f rsK;d om; rpöwma0;vf&pfyif rausreyfjzpfí ynm0ef rpöwmaumhxH uefYuw
G f
cJah vonf/ xdYk aemuf ausmif;om;rsm;ESihf rdbrsm;wdYk onf 0dw&kd ,
d a[mvf (ac:) avQmfwef;½Hk (,ck*vky½f )kH ae&mwGif
tpnf;ta0;usif;yNyD; ynm0ef rpöwmaumh tqdkudk uefYuGufaMumif; wcJeuf qHk;jzwfcsufcsMuonf/
qHk;jzwfcsufrSm ]ynm0ef rpöwmaumUonf Ó PfopfxGifum taumufÓ PfaESmí ausmif;om;rsm;ESifU rdbrsm; oabmrusatmif
ausmif;om;u q&mESifU t&m½Sdrsm;udk ½Sdckd;&ef trdefhxkwfjcif;onf roifUavsmf? xdkhaMumifU þtpnf;ta0;BuD;rS
tjypfqdk uefhuGwfaMumif;}
þodkY ausmif;om;rsm;? ausmif;om;rdbrsm; pkaygif;uefYuGwfjcif;aMumifh ¤if; ynm0ef rpöwmaumhonf
xdktrdefYudk twnfrjyKbJ zsufodrf;cJh&onf/

(c) 0dik t
f rfbaD t (Y.M.B.A) tp ausmif;om;u
jrefrmhordik ;f ESihf NAdwo
d Qe,fcsJUqefYusifa&;? vGwv
f yfa&;BudK;yrf;rlordik ;f wdYk wiG f yxrOD;qH;k ay:aygufco
hJ nfh
toif;BuD;jzpfaom 0kid t
f rfbaD t (Y.M.B.A= Young Men’s Buddhist Association) toif;BuD;udk pwif xlaxmif
cJholrsm;rSmvJ &efukefaumvdyf ausmif;om;rsm; jzpfonf/
&efukefaumvdyf ausmif;om;BuD;rsm;jzpfaom armifbab? armifarmifBuD;? armifvSaz? armifpdefvSatmif?
armifb,Of? armifb'Gef;paom ausmif;om;vli,frsm;onf jrefrmouú&mZf 1265 ck? yxr0gqdkvqef; (15) &uf?
t*Fvdyfouú&mZf 1904 ckESpf? ZGefv (26) &uf we*FaEGaeYü &efukefwuúodkvf Ak'¨bmomtoif; (Rangoon
College Buddhist Association) udk pwifwnfaxmifcJhonf/
xdkYaemuf &efukefNrdKU 'gv[kdZDvrf; (,ck r[mAE¨Kvvrf;) ü vrf;avQmuf&if;ESifh ¤if;\ ausmif;om;
oli,fcsif;rsm;jzpfaom armifarmifBuD;? armifvSazwdkYtm; armifbabu EkdifiHa&;tjrifjzifh xlaxmifaom Y.M.C.A
uJhodkY toif;BuD;rsKd; wnfaqmuf&ef Y.M.C.A taqmuftODBuD;tm; ñTefjyíaqG;aEG;cJhMuonf/
2

udkvdkeDacwfOD; - 1903 rS 1906 - e,fcsJYqefhusifa&; trsKd;om;a&;toGif
xdkYaemuf armifbab? armifarmifBuD;? armifb,Of? armifb'Gef;wkdYuyif jrefrmouú&mZff 1267 ckESpf?
wydkYwGJvqkwf (4) &uf? t*Fvdyfouú&mZf 1906 ckESpf? azazmf0g&Dv (11) &uf? we*FaEGaeYü &efukefNrdKU Ak'¨bmom
uvsmP,k0toif;udk pwif wnfaxmifcJhMu avonf/
þonfum; jrefrmEkdifiHwGif e,fcsJUqefYusifa&;toGifudk azmfaqmifrnfh ausmif;om;rsm; pwifwnfaxmif
cJhaom Y.M.B.A toif;BuD;\ tpyifjzpfavonf/

3

jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif; - atmifxGef;

tcef; (2)
udv
k ekd aD cwfO;D ydik ;f
e,fcsUJ qefu
Y siaf &; trsK;d om;a&;toGif aumvdyaf usmif;om;rsm;
vIy&f mS ;rIordik ;f
(1918 rS 1921)

1920 yxrausmif;om;oydwf
(u) aumvdyo
f ydwrf wdik rf D ausmif;om;rsm;tajctae
NAdwo
d Qe,fcsUJ wdYkonf e,fcsUJ pepfukd &if0,fyu
kd í
f jrefrmjynfukd 0ifa&muf odr;f yku
d af omtcg ,if;wdYk\ pD;yGm;
a&; vuf0g;BuD;tkyfrIESifh tkyfcsKyfa&;,EÅ&m;vG,fulpGm vnfywfacsmarGUap&ef tkyfcsKyfa&; t&m½Sduav;rsm;? pma&;
pmcsDrsm;? ukefonf yGJpm;i,frsm;yg0ifaom wdkif;&if;om; vlvwfwef;pm;w&yf arG;xkwf&ef vdktyfvmayonf/
,if;vlvwfwef;pm;udk e,fcsJUwdkYonf a½S;ya'o&mZfydkif½Sifrsm;? ukefonfaygufprsm;ESifh vlvwfwef;pm;wdkYrS qGJ,l
pnf;½Hk; odrf;oGif;cJhavonf/ xkdvlvwfwef;pm;wdkYudk t*FvdyfpmayESifh acwfynm tenf;i,f oifMum;ay;jcif;tm;
jzifh olwdkYtvdk½Sdaom EkdifiHa&;t,ltq tawG;tac:? vlwef;pm; tjrifESifh ynma&;pepfudk tvdktavsmuf yHk½dkuf
oGif;NyD;om; jzpfatmif &nf½G,fMuHaqmifayonf/
ArmjynfwGif aumvdyfynma&;udk 1878 uyif tpjyKcJhonf/ xdkpOfu aumvdyfynmudk oifMum;EdkifolrSm
1891 wGif ausmif;om;OD;a& (44) OD;om½Sdonf/ aumvdyfynm oifMum;Edkifol OD;a&enf;&jcif;rSm ynma&;p&dwf
jrifhrm;NyD; NAdwdoQwdkYu wrifjr§ifhxm;jcif; jzpfonf/ awmifolv,form; qif;&Jom; trsm;pkrSm txufwef;ynmudk
oifMum;zdkY tem;roDEkdifaom tajctaersdK;aMumifh aumvdyfynmudk oifMum;&ef wwfEdkifolrSm vGefpGm enf;yg;&jcif;
aMumifh jzpfonf/
1912 wGif aumvdyfynmoifMum;ol (300) rQ ½Sdvmonf/ tpdk;&rif;wkdY\ vufa0cH t&mxrf;? trIxrf;
rsm;u ydkí tm½HkpkdufvmMuonfrSm txufwef; ynmwwfvQif ydkíBuD;rm;aom &mxl;rsm;udk &½Sd&ef arQmfrSef;Mujcif;
aMumifh jzpfonf/ odkYaomf NAdwdoQe,fcsJUtpdk;&rSm odyÜHynm? aq;ynm? tif*sifeD,mynm tm;ay;rI tvGefenf;yg;
onf/ 1914 ck txd odyÜHbGJU&ol wOD;rQr½Sday/ odyÜHynmvdkufpm;rI r½Sdap&ef t*Fvdyfpmudk ydkítav;ay;NyD;
pmar;yGJrsm;wGif ESdyfuGyfí ppfaq;cJhonf/
4

udkvdkeDacwfOD; - 1918 rS 1921 - e,fcsJYqefhusifa&; trsKd;om;a&;toGif

(c) 1920 yxrausmif;om;oydwf jzpfay:vm&jcif; taMumif;t&if;
&efukefaumvdyfordkif;
uvuwåm;wuúodkvf rufx&pfulav;½Sif; pmar;yGJudk 1877 wGif ArmjynfrS atmifjrifol (2) OD;um;
&efuek f tpd;k &txufwef; ausmif;om;rsm; jzpf\/ ,if;ausmif;udk 1879? Zefe0g&D (1) &ufaeYwiG f &efuek af umvdyrf S
uvuwåm;wuúov
dk u
f todtrSwjf yKcJo
h nf/ ausmif;om; (4) a,mufjzifh pwif zGiv
hf pS cf o
hJ nf/ 1883 wGif bDat
wef; zGihfEkdifaom tajctaea&muf\/ 1885 wGif Armwdkif;&if;om;xJrS armifwl * yxrOD;pGm 0dZÆmbGJU
qGwfcl;avonf/ ,k'oefaumvdyf 1894 wGif wnfaxmifonf/ 1894 wGif &efukefaumvdyfü ausmif;om; (69)
a,muf? ,k'oefaum vdyfü (5) a,muf ½Sdonf/ 1900 jynfh &efukefaumvdyfwGif AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;vrf;ESifh
a½Twd*Hkbk&m;vrf;axmifhwGif ae&mopf wnfaqmufcJhonf/ 1909 wGif jrefrmjynf wuúodkvftufOya'Murf;
a&;qGJ&ef ynma&;pif'Dudwfu cefYxm;aom aumfrwD (txl;) udk zGJUonf/
odYk&mwGif &efuek af umvdyüf ausmif;om; (208) a,muf? ,k'oefaumvdyüf (36) a,mufrQom ½Sí
d wuúov
kd f
xlaxmifay;Ekid &f ef ausmif;om;tiftm; rBuD;rm;[k ,if;aumfrwDu qH;k jzwf\/ 1916 wGif &efuek af umvdyüf (567)
a,muf? ,k'oefaumvdyüf (7) OD;½Sí
d jrefrmbk&ifcH jrefrmjynfwiG f wuúov
kd w
f ck zGUJ ay;&ef? Oya'Murf;wck jyKvkyí
f
tdE´d,tpdk;&xH wifjycJhonf/ ,if;txl;aumfrwDonf 1919 rwf (27) &ufwGifyif wuúodkvfzGJUpnf;yHk pepftwGuf
tpD&ifcHpmudk ynmrif;BuD;xH ydkYay;cdkif;cJhonf/ 1920 jynfh Zlvdkifv (31) Y.M.B.A uefYuGufí 1922 txd qdkif;
xm;&ef qHk;jzwfcJhonf/
Mo*kwfv (28) &uf ruf[ef;wm; Oya'jyKtzGJUonf 1920 &efukefwuúodkvfOya'udk trsm;oabmwl
jy|mef; twnfjyKcJo
h nf/ bk&ifcu
H pufwifbmv (26) &ufwiG f oabmwlaMumif; vufrw
S af &;xd;k NyD; atmufwb
kd mv
(24) &ufwGif tdE´d,bk&ifcHcsKyfu ,if;Oya'udk vufcH twnfjyKcJhonf/
1920 Zlvdkifv (12) &ufaeY bk&ifcH qm&,f*sDe,fu&ufa'guf (Sir Reginal Craddock) aetdrfü
rif;wdkifyiftpnf;ta0; jyKvkyfonf/ ¤if;tpnf;ta0;rSm ArmjynfwGif wuúodkvfwnfaxmif&ef tpnf;ta0;jzpf
onf/ wuúodkvftufOya'Murf; a&;qJGaumfrwD tpD&ifcHpmudk rpöwmruf[ef;wm;u wifjyonf/
¤if;tzGJUwGif(1) rpöwm ruf[efwm; (Mr. Mark Hunter**, Director of Public Instruction-Vice-Chairman)
(2) OD;aratmif
(3) rpöwm *Gwfvpf
(4) rpöwm bdkY*a& ADvD
(5) rpöwm *smrm;
(6) OD;bdk;om
(7) rpöwm a[mbmwef
(8) rpöwm &ufvpf
(9) rpöwm ruúepfwdkYjzpfonf/
rpöwmruf[ef;wm;u wifoGif;onfhtqdkudk OD;aratmifu axmufcHaomfvnf; OD;bdk;omu vufrcH
OD;bd;k omESihf OD;ñGeYf rmS OD;aratmifukd a'goxGuMf uonf/ ArmjynfEiS hf rnfoYkd rQ rtyfpyfaom Oya'udk Armwa,muf
u csD;usL;axmyemjyKí Munfhr& jzpfaeonf/ OD;bkd;omESifh OD;ñGefYrSm uefYuGufcJhMuonf/
1920 ckEpS f txd jrefrmjynfwiG f wuúov
kd w
f ckrQ r½Sad o;acs/ &efuek w
f uúov
kd Ef iS hf ,k'oefaumvdyaf usmif;
rsm;rSm tdEd´,EkdifiH uvuwåm;wuúodkvf\ vufatmufcH aumvdyfausmif;rsm; jzpfonf/
xdkwuúodkvfrS jyXmef;aom ynm&yfrsm;udk oifMum;&NyD; xdkwuúodkvfrS ppfaom pmar;yGJrsm;udk ajzqdkMu
&\/ xdYk aemuf Y.M.B.A toif;BuD;u jrefrmEkid if w
H iG f oD;jcm;wuúov
kd w
f ck ½S&d rnf[k vIYHaqmfa<u;aMumf wdu
k w
f eG ;f
aygif; rsm;vmaomtcg NAdwdoQe,fcsJUtpdk;&onf ynmrif;BuD; ruf[ef;wm; OD;pD;onfh ,leDAmpDwD (wuúodkvf)
tufOya'a&;qGJa&; uRrf;usifonfh aumfrwDudk 1918 ZGefvwGif zGJUpnf;vdkufonf/ aumfrwD0if (30) eD;yg;½Sd&mrSwfcsuf- armifwl* Only one student from Rangoon College named Maung Too passed the B.A. in 1885.
(&efukefwuúodkvf ESpfig;q,fjynfhpmapmif- 1970? English Section, The Birth of Rangoon University by Aung
Khin - History, p-53) Mr. Mark Huner**, Director of Public Instruction-Vice-Chairman ESihf ausmif;tkyBf uD;
5
Mr. Matthew Hunter***, Principal of Rangoon College (¤if;aqmif;yg;- p-56)

jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif; - atmifxGef;
(1) OD;bab (bDat)
(2) OD;armifBuD; (trfat)
(3) 0wfvHkawmf& OD;aratmif
(4) OD;bvIdif (bDat)
(5) OD;uGrf; (bDat)
(6) OD;trftHk;cdkif wkdY (6) OD;om jrefrmtrsKd;om;rsm; yg0ifcJhonf/ OD;bab? OD;xGef;½Sdef? 0wfvHkOD;odef;armif
wkdYu owif;pmxJrS uefYuGufcJhonf/ xdkYaMumifh 1920? Zlvdkifv (4) &ufaeYwGif &efukefNrdKU? ql;avbk&m;vrf;
0dkiftrfbDattoif;csKyf½Hk; tpnf;ta0;cef;rü A[dktoif;csKyf (*sife&,faumifq,f) tpnf;ta0;usif;y&m OD;cspf
vIdifu obmywdaqmif½GufNyD; atmufygqHk;jzwfcsufrsm; yg0ifchJonf/
qHk;jzwfcsuftrSwf (3) wGif3/ ,cktcg &efuek Nf rdKUü,leAD mpDwD (wuúov
kd )f ausmif;BuD; zGiv
hf pS pf rD aH &;udpEö iS hf yufoufí ynmrif;BuD;
ruf[ef;wm;u Oya'Murf;a&;qGNJ yD;? 'kw,
d bk&ifcH twkid yf ifct
H zGUJ odYk wifoiG ;f jy|mef;&ef pDpOfaeMuonf[k Mum;od&
aMumif;? &efukef,leDAmpDwD ausmif;awmfBuD;onf jrefrmwkdif;&if;om;w&yfvHk;ESifh oufqkdifaom ausmif;awmfBuD;
jzpfojzifh xdak usmif;awmfBuD;twGuf Oya'Murf;a&;qGJ twnfjyKjy|mef;jcif;udpu
ö kd jrefrmEkid if t
H yk cf sKyfa&; jyKjyifajymif;
vJNyD;onftxd qkid ;f ihx
H m;&efEiS hf xdak usmif;awmfBuD;qkid &f m pDrrH I t&yf&yfwYdkuv
kd nf; wdik ;f oljynfom;wkYd u a½G;aumuf
wifajr§mufvdkufaom trwfrsm;tm; vTJtyf&eftqdkukd OD;vSazu wifoGif;í tm;vHk;oabmwl qHk;jzwfMuonf/
0dkiftrfbDat NrdKUvHk;uRwf tpnf;ta0;rsm;uvnf; Oya'Murf; qkdif;iHhxm;&ef tpkd;&odkY tMuHay;awmif;qkdcJhonf/
xdktMuHay;awmif;qkdonfh twGif;rSmyif 1920 ck? Zlvdkifv (12) &ufwGif 'kwd,bk&ifcHu ol\ twkdifyifcHtpnf;t
a0;udk ac:,lNyD; ynmrif;BuD;ruf[ef;wm; wifoiG ;f aom ],leAD mpDwt
D ufOya'} udv
k ufcNH yD;vQif pdppfí aemufwBudrf
tpnf;ta0;ü twnfjyKa&;twGuf wifoGif;&ef aumfrwDw&yf zGJUpnf;vTJtyfvdkufonf/ ¤if;Oya'Murf;udk OD;ar
atmif tygt0if tpkd;&bufawmfom;rsm;u axmufcHonf/ xdkYaemuf t*FvdyfAsL½dku&uf tpdk;&onf wdkif;jynfrS
a0zefEdkif&ef aMunm\/ ¤if;Oya'Murf;rSm jrefrmvlrsdK;rsm;ESifh oifhawmfonf[k bk&ifcHu ajymqkdcJhonf/
¤if;Oya'wGif AsL½dku&uf e,fcsJUtpdk;&u jrefrmvlrsKd;rsm; txufwef;ynm roifMum;Ekdifap&ef csKyfcs,f
onfh atmufygtcsufrsm;yg0ifcJhonf/
(1) jrefrmjynfwGif wuúodkvf wckwnf;om ½Sd&rnf/
(2) xkdwuúodkvfvufatmufwGif aumvdyfausmif; wausmif;wnf;om ½Sd&rnf/
(3) xdkwausmif;wnf;aom aumvdyfonf &efukefNrdKUü ½Sd&rnf/
(4) xdkaumvdyfausmif;wGif pmoifvkdaom ausmif;om;rsm;onf ausmif;tdyf ausmif;pm; jzpf&rnf/
(5) rufx&Dual v;½Si;f (ac:) wuúov
kd 0f ifpmar;yGrJ xm;bJ tpd;k &ujyKvkyaf om [du
k pf ul;zdik ef ,f q,fwef;
pmar;yGJudk atmif&rnf/
(6) odkY&mwGif atmifolrsm;onf t*FvdyfbmomESifh tjcmbmomwck xl;cRefpGmwwfajrmufí atmifjrif
&rnf/
(7) q,fwef;atmifí wuúokdvf0ifcGifh&aomfvnf; wuúodkvfynm&yfrsm;udk wcgwnf;pí roif&bJ
xdw
k uúov
kd yf nm&yfrsm;udk aumif;pGm vdu
k Ef idk &f eftwGuf (Preliminary Class) ac: jyifqifrt
I wef;
wGif wESpf ae&OD;rnf/
(8) xdkjyifqifrItwef;wGif wESpfaeaomfvnf; ESpfukefonfhtcg wuúodkvfynm&yfrsm;udk vkdufEkdif&ef
t&nftcsif; r½Sdao;[k ,lqvQif wuúodkvfynmudk qufvufoifcGifh&OD;rnf r[kwf/
(9) a&;ajz pmar;yGJtjyif EIwfwdkuf ajzqkd&rnfh pmar;yGJrsm;vnf; ½Sdao;\/
(10) odyÜHwef;atmifNyD; 0dZÆmwef;udk *kPfxl;ESifh atmifaomolrSomvQif r[m0dZÆmbGJUpmar;yGJudk 0ifa&muf
ajzqkdEdkifcGifh ½Sdrnf/ 0dZÆmbGJU½dk;½dk;atmifjrif½HkrQESifh r[m0dZÆmbJGUpmar;yGJ r0ifEkdif/
(11) *kPfxl;wef;ESifh 0dZÆmbGJUwef; pmar;yGJudk odyÜHwef;atmifNyD; (3) ESpfMumrS 0if&rnf/
(12) *kPfxl;wef;ESifh 0dZÆmbGJUwef;udk wcgwnf; 0ifa&mufajzqkdí ratmifvQif aemufxyfr0ifEkdifawmhacs/
¤if;tcsufrsm;udk avhvmMunfhvQif aumvdyfausmif; wausmif;wnf;ESifh jrefrmvlrsKd; tajrmuftjrm;udk
txufwef;ynm oifray;Ekdifay/ xdkwausmif;wnf;rS tmPmydkifrsm;u pDrHcsifovkd pDrHí ausmif;om;OD;a&udk
uefYowfEkdif\/ rnfonfhynm&yfonf jrefrmrsm;ESifh oifhawmfonf ¤if;wkdYu owfrSwfEdkifonf/ jrefrmrsm;ESifh
6

udkvdkeDacwfOD; - 1918 rS 1921 - e,fcsJYqefhusifa&; trsKd;om;a&;toGif
oifah wmfaom ynm&yfjzpfaeaomfvnf; xdyk nm&yfukd roifMum;&[k ydwyf ifEidk o
f nf/ pmar;yGrJ sm;udv
k nf; Muyfwnf;
atmif vkyfEkdif\/ csKyfcs,frI trsKd;rsKd;udkvJ vkyfEkdifonf/
xdkacwftcgu jrefrmEkdifiH vlOD;a& (85) &mcdkifEIef;ausmfrSm awm½Gmrsm;wGifaeaom awmifolv,form;
qif;&Jom;rsm; jzpf\/ NrdKUae jrefrmukefonf pma&;pmcsDrsm;rSmvnf; rsm;aomtm;jzifh 0ifaiG tenf;i,fom½Sd\/
rdrdwkdY NrdKUwGifaomfvnf;aumif;? rdrdwdkYaus;½Gmrsm;ESifh eD;uyfaom NrdKUrsm;wGifaomfvnf;aumif;? (7) wef;? (10)
wef;ausmif;rsm;wGif awmausmif;om;rsm;tjzpff ausmif;rxm;Ekid af y/ &efuek Nf rdKUodYk ynmoifMum;&efvJ rapvTwEf ikd af y/
xdktcgu aumvdyfausmif;wGif ynmoifp&dwfrSm tenf;qHk; wvvQif (60) usyfjzpfNyD; wv (60) usyfrQom
0ifaiG½Sdaom (85) &mckdifEIef;jzpfonfh awmifolv,form; qif;&Jom;wkdYrSm rdrdwdkY om;orD;rsm;udk txufwef;ynm
oifMum;ap&ef pdwfrul; EkdifMuay/ xdkaMumifh wuúodkvfOya'Murf;t& jrefrmwkdYrSm txufwef;ynm roifEkdifay/
t*Fvdyf0g'twdkif; jrefrmrsm;udk olwdkYckdif;í aumif;atmif xif;ckwf? a&cyfwwf½Hkavmufom &nf½G,faom ynma&;
pepfjzpfonf/ xdktcsdefu &efukefwuúodkvf ausmif;om;wOD;\ wESpfukefusaiGrSm (378) usyf½Sdonf/ þtcsdefwGif
atmufpzdkYESifh uif;b&pfwuúodkvf ausmif;om;wa,muf\ wESpfukefusaiGrSm (3500) usyfrQom jzpf\/ q,fyHk
wyHkomvQif ½Sdonf/ odkY&mwGif xdkrQaom aiGudk jrefrmrsm; rwwfEkdifay/ (10) wef;atmif&ef (10) ESpfvHk;vHk; aiG
tajrmuftjrm; tukeftuscHNyD; aumvdyfynm&yfrsm;udk wqufwnf; roifEkdifbJ &efukefNrdKUü jyifqifrItwef;wGif
wESpfxyfrH ae&OD;rnfqkdvQif aiGtukeftus ydkrsm;rnfjzpffonf/ (10) wef;udk (10) ESpfESifh atmif&ef tbufbufrS
taMumif;nDñGwfrnfjzpfNyD; wESpfwwef; rSefrSefatmif&rnf jzpfonf/ xdktcsdefydk? xdkp&dwfudk trsm;tm;jzifh qif;&J
aom Armrsm; rwwfEkdifay/
¤if;tjyif jyifqifrt
I wef;ü wESpaf eNyD; aumvdyaf usmif; tmPmydik rf sm;u aumvdyyf nm&yfrsm;udk qufí
oifMum;Ekid &f ef t&nftcsi;f rjynfph [
kH k owfrw
S v
f Qif qufvufí oifciG rhf &awmhay/ [ku
d pf ul;zkid ef ,fac: (10) wef;
atmif&mwGif t*Fvdyfbmomü xl;cRefpGmwwfaMumif; xif½Sm;ap&rnf[k qkd&mü rnfrQtqifhtwef;[k uefYowfrI
rxm;½Sdonfhtjyif rsm;aomtm;jzifh jrefrmausmif;om;rsm; twGuf tcsKyftcs,fwck jzpfonf[k qdkEkdif\/ rnfrQcsKyf
cs,foenf;qdkaomf wuúodkvf0ifpmar;yGJudk oD;jcm;rxm;jcif;udk odEkdif\/
¤if;tcsufrsm; tm;vHk;rSm jrefrmrsm;udk? txufwef;ynm wwfajrmufa&;twGuf trsKd;rsKd;csKyfcs,frIrsm;
om jzpfonf/ tdE,
d´ Ekid if H uvuwåm;wuúov
kd Ef iS hf tjcm;wuúov
kd rf sm;wGif þuJo
h Ykd aom Oya'rsm; csKyfcs,fjy|mef;
jcif; r½Sday/ jrefrmrsm;udk txufwef;ynm rwwf&ef t*FvdyfAsL½dku&uf tpkd;&u pDrHjyKvkyfxm;jcif; jzpfonf/
ArmjynfESifh tdE´d,jynfonf NAdwdoQwdkY\ aer0iftifyg,mtwGif;ü rukef;crf;Edkifaom o,HZmw ayg<u,f0onfh
EkdifiHrsm; jzpf\/ xdkEkdifiHrsm;udk t*FvdyfwkdYu olwdkY vufatmufrS vGwfajrmufap&ef b,fawmhrS pdwfrul;ay/
xdkYaMumifh 1920 Zlvdkifv (31) &ufaeYwGif &efukefNrdKU *sKAvDa[mwGif ausmif;om;rsm; OD;aqmifí 0dkiftrf
bDattoif;BuD;u aqmfMoNyD; NrdKYvHk;uRwf tpnf;ta0; usif;yonf/ xdktpnf;ta0;odkY jyKvkyf&m &[ef;awmfrsm;?
ausmif;om;rsm;? vlxky&dowfrsm;pGm wufa&mufvm&m ½HkjynfhvQHoGm;onf/ ¤if;tpnf;ta0;wGif 0dkiftrfbDatrS
OuúXtjzpf OD;az (K.S.M., A.T.M.)? tusKd;aqmiftjzpf OD;xGef;a0u aqmif½Gufí atmufyg qHk;jzwfcsufrsm;
csrSwfcJhonf/
1/
,leDAmpDwD odyÜHausmif;awmfBuD;qkdif&m Oya'Murf;udk vsifjrefpGm twnfjyK&ef pDrHaqmif½Gufjcif;udk þ
tpnf;ta0;BuD;u av;eufpGmuefYuGufaMumif;? ,if;Oya'Murf;udk jynfolYudk,fpm;vS,f trwfrsm;jzifh
pOf;pm;pdppfjy|mef;Ekdif&eftvdkYiSm tkyfcsKyfrIjyKjyifajymif;vJa&; pDrHudef;rsm;NyD;í trsm;jynfolqE´jzifh a½G;
aumufwifajr§mufaom trwfrsm;jzifh Oya'jyKvw
T af wmfBuD; zGJUpnf;NyD;onf txd qdik ;f iHx
h m;&eftqdu
k kd ykord f
NrdKUrS &[ef;awmf OD;a0ykv’u wifoGif;í &efukefNrdKUrS ausmif;om; udkxGef;OD;u axmufcHNyD; trsm;oabm
wl qHk;jzwfonf/
2/
ynmrif;BuD; rpöwmruf[ef;wm; wifoiG ;f aom Oya'Murf;oabmt& ,leAD mpDwaD usmif;awmfBuD;rSm woD;
wjcm; wae&mwnf;&yfwnfaeaom ausmif;awmfBuD;jzpfojzifh ArmEkdifiH\ tajctaeESihf rudkufnD?
,aeY ArmEkdifiH\ tajctaet& aumvdyfausmif;rsm; qufpyfyg0ifaeaom ,leDAmpDwDwuúodkvfausmif;
awmfBuD;rsK;d om jzpfoifo
h nf[k tpnf;ta0;BuD;u,lqaMumif; tqku
d kd 0wfvakH wmf& OD;bpDu wifoiG ;f í
&efukefNrdKUrS ausmif;om;udkxifu axmufcHNyD; trsm;oabmwl qHk;jzwfonf/
3/
,leAD mpDwD wuúov
kd af usmif;awmfBuD; tkycf sKyfa&;aumifq,ftzGUJ wGif tzGUJ 0if (56) OD;teuf Armwkid ;f &if;
om; (5) OD;omyg0if&ef owfrSwfxm;onf/ qD;edwfwGifvnf; tzGJU0if (24) OD;teuf Armwkdif;&if;om;
7

jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif; - atmifxGef;
(2) OD;om owfrSwfxm;onf/ þodkYArmwdkif;&if;om;rsm; vHkavmufpGm yg0ifapjcif;r½Sdjcif;rSm roifhavsmf
ay/ xdYk aMumifh ,leAD mpDwt
D yk cf sKyfa&;tzGJUESihf qD;edwt
f zGUJ wdkYwiG f Armwkid ;f &if;om;rsm; vHak vmufpmG yg0ifap
oifhaMumif; tqkdukd OD;wkwfBuD;u wifoGif;í OD;bvIdifu axmufcHNyD; trsm;oabmwl qHk;jzwfonf/
4/
wuúov
kd Of ya'Murf;t& q,fwef;atmifNyD;aemuf ,leAD mpDw0D ifciG &hf &ef aemufxyf wESpx
f yfrH oifMum;&
OD;rnf[k qdo
k nfukd vH;k 0vufoifh rcHoifah y/ [ku
d pf ul;zdik ef ,f (10) wef; atmifjrifNyD;olwikd ;f ,leAD mpDwD
odYk 0ifciG jhf yKoifah Mumif; tqku
d kd om,m0wDO;D yku wifoiG ;f í OD;oif;armifu axmufcNH yD; trsm;oabmwl
qHk;jzwfonf/
5/
ynmrif;BuD;\ Oya'wGif bDat? bDtufpDudk *kPfxl;ESifh atmifjrifrSom trfat? trftufpfpD oifvdku
oifMum;Ekid cf iG hf ½Sad prnfqadk om tcsuu
f kd y,fzsuí
f bDat? bDtufpD atmifjrifow
l ikd ;f trfat? trftufpD
oifMum;EdkifcGifh ½Sdap&rnf[laom tqkdudk OD;pdefvSatmifu wifoGif;í OD;odef;armifu axmufcHNyD; trsm;
oabmwl qHk;jzwfonf/
6/
rpöwmruf[ef;wm;udk ynmrif;BuD;tjzpf cefYtyfaqmif½u
G af ponfh tcsderf pS í ArmEkid if H ynmoifMum;a&;
wGif wdk;wufaumif;rGef aqmif½Gufonfudk rawGU&/ qkwf,kwfysufjym;atmif jyKvkyfaejcif;omjzpfonf/
xdYk aMumifh rpöwmruf[ef;wm;udk ynmrif;BuD;tjzpfrS z,f½mS ;ajymif;a½TU ypfoifah Mumif; tqku
d kd vufyw
H ef;
NrdKU OD;vlBuD;u wifoGif;í anmifav;yifNrdKU OD;bdk;awu axmufcHNyD; trsm;oabmwl qHk;jzwfonf/
txufygqHk;jzwfcsufrsm;udk 'kwd,bk&ifcH? ArmEdkifiHtpdk;& ynma&;0efBuD;csKyfESifh tdEd´,EkdifiH A[dktpdk;&
tzJGJUodkY qHk;jzwfcsuf tjynfhtpHkudk wifydkYawmif;qkdMuonf/
odYk &mwGif xdt
k cg oHvufo;D [kac:aom vufaxmufb&k ifcH qm&,f*sDe,fu&ufa'guf acgif;aqmifonfh
NAdwo
d Qe,fcsJU AsL½dku&uftpdk;&u ]rif;wkAhd rmawG ynma&;udk bmem;vnfvv
hkd }J [kqdkum wkdif;jynfrS uefYuGufcsuf
rsm;udk *½krpdkufbJ vspfvsL½Ium 1920 'DZifbmv (1) &ufaeYwGif xdkwuúodkvfOya'Murf;udk twnfjyKNyD;[k
aMunmvkdufonf/ 'DZifbm (7) &ufaeYrS pwifusifhoHk;rnf[k owif;xGufvmonf/

(*) oydwt
f wGujf yifqifMujcif;
&ef u k e f w uú o d k v f Oya'onf 'D Z if b mv (1) &uf a eY ü twnf j zpf v mcJ h a yonf / od k Y & mwG i f
wuúodkvfzGifhvSpfyGJ tcrf;tem;udk w&m;0if rusif;y&ao;acs/
jrefrmEkid if \
H 'kw,
d bk&ifcH qm&,f*seD ,fu&ufa'gufonf Oya't& wuúov
kd t
f "dywdBuD; tjzpf 'DZifbm
v (7) &ufaeYwGif ]&efukefwuúodkvfausmif;awmfBuD;} udk zGifhvSpf&ef aMunmxm;avonf/
&efukefwuúodkvf ausmif;awmfom;rsm; jzpfvmMurnfh &efukefaumvdyfrS ausmif;om;wdkYtaejzifhum;
wuúodkvf Oya'onf wuúodkvfynma&;udk ysufpD;aponfomru trsKd;om;a&;*kPfodu©mESifh jrefrmvlrsKd;wdkY\
a,bk,stqifhtwef;udkyif ,kwfavsmhvmvdrfhrnf[k oabm&½Sdxm;NyD; jzpfonf/
xdYk tjyif wuúov
kd Of ya'onf trsK;d om;wdYk tm; aESmifBuKd;jzifh tpOfcsKyfaESmifxm;&ef NAdwo
d Qtpd;k &u zefw;D
xm;onfh vufeufaumif;wck jzpfonf[lívnf; rrSdwfrokef ,HkMunfMuonf/
xdkYaMumifh &efukefaumvdyfrS ausmif;om;BuD;wkdYonf wuúodkvfOya' ysufpD;oGm;&ef vnf;aumif;? ,if;
Oya't& wuúodkvfrzGifhjzpf&ef vnf;aumif;? jrefrmtrsKd;om;wdkY\ tpDtrHjzifh trsKd;om;wuúodkvf wnfaxmif&ef
vnf;aumif; pdwftm;xufoefpGmawG;awm MuHqcJhMuavonf/
&efukefwuúodkvf Oya'ysufjym;&efESifh wuúodkvfausmif; rzGifhvSpfEkdif&ef ta&;rsm;udk BudKwifawG;awm
MuHqvsuf ½SdaeMuaom &efukefaumvdyfausmif;om;BuD;wdkYu Oya'yif½Sdaevifhupm; ausmif;om;r½Sdaom ausmif;
onf tcsnf;ESD;yifjzpfí ausmif;udk oydwfarSmufMu&ef aemufqkH; tMuH&Muavonf/
,if;uJhodkY tMuH&onfhtwdkif; 1282 ckESpf? wefaqmifrkef; vqkwf (8) &uf ('DZifbmv 3 &ufaeU)
aeYv,fwiG f &efuek af umvdyrf S ausmif;om;BuD; (11) OD;wdYkonf a½Tw*d Hk uke;f awmfay: paeaxmifw
h iG f wuúov
kd af usmif;
udk oydwfarSmufa&;wGuf vQKdU0Sufpnf;a0; wdkifyifMuonf/
tqkyd g ausmif;om; (11) OD;rSm-–
1/ udkbOD;
(bDat txufwef;)
(aemif ta&;ydkif OD;bOD;? oHwGJ)
2/ udkzdk;uGef;
(bDtufpD txufwef;)
(aemif ocifAdkvfzdk;uGef;)
8

udkvdkeDacwfOD; - 1918 rS 1921 - e,fcsJYqefhusifa&; trsKd;om;a&;toGif

Source: RU History (Diamond Jubilee)

oydwaf rSmufausmif;om;Bu;D rsm; opömt"d|mefjyK&m a½Tw*d akH pwD taemufawmifaxmifw
U iG f pdu
k x
f x
l m;aom txdr;f trSwaf usmufwikd f

3/ udkb½Sif
(bDtufpD txufwef;)
(aemif tif*sifeD,m) (&efukef)
4/ udkb½Sif
(tkdifat txufwef;)
5/ udkxGef;0if;
(tkdifat txufwef;)
6/ udkazodef;
(tdkifat txufwef;)
7/ udknDydwf
(bDtufpD txufwef;)
(aemif puf½Sifw&m;olBuD;) (&efukef)
8/ udkat;
(bDat txufwef;)
(aemif ,pfrsdK;rif;BuD;)
9/ udkvSwif
(bDat txufwef;)
(aemif vTwfawmfa½SUae)
10/ udkatmif'if (tdkifat txufwef;)
(aemif yifpif½Hk;tkyf)
11/ udkbcif
(tkdifat txufwef;)
(rEÅav;) wkdU jzpfonf/
þaumvdyaf usmif;om;BuD; (11) OD;wdYkonf (2) em&De;D yg;Mumatmif tzufzufrS av;eufpmG qifjcifpOf;pm;
NyD;aemuf trdEidk if \
H *kPo
f u
d m© udk u,fwifa&;twGuf aumvdyaf usmif;rsm;udk oydwaf rSmuf&ef qH;k jzwfvu
kd Mf uonf/
,if;udpöudk rnfuJhodkY xajrmufatmifjrif&ef jyKvkyfMurnfudk wdkifyifESD;aESmMuNyD;vQif –
(1) tjcm; ausmif;om;rsm; rvdkufaomfvnf; xdk (11) OD;wdkYonf ausmif;udk rysufruGuf oydwfarSmuf
NyD;vQif wdkif;jynf qlylx<uEkd;Mum;ap&ef vSnfhvnfí w&m;a[m&ef?
(2) 'D Z if b mv (4) &uf a eYü A[ef ; OD ; t&d , ausmif ; wd k u f w G i f aumvd y f a usmif ; om;rsm;
tpnf;ta0;ac:,lí tusKd;taMumif; ajymjy&efwdkYudk qHk;jzwfMuavonf/
acgif;aqmif (11) OD;wdkYonf ,if;udpöESifh ywfoufí wpHkw&m tjypf&½Sdu wOD;ESifhwOD; tultnDjyKí
qd;k twl aumif;twl aemufrqkwyf J qufvufaqmif½u
G &f ef opömjyKMuavonf/ opömjyKcsufrsm;udk t*Fvyd b
f mom
jzifh pm½Guf oHk;½Gufay:wGif a&;í (11) OD;pvHk; vufrSwfa&;xdk; Muonf/
,if;opömjyKcsuf jrefrmbmomjyefrSm-–
}atmufwGif vufrSwfa&;xdk;ol uREkfyfwdkhonf &efukef,leDAmpDwD oydwfarSmufvIyf½Sm;rIBuD;wGif OD;pD;OD;udkif
jyKMurnfU acgif;aqmifrsm;jzpfonf/ uREkfyfwdkh OD;pD;aqmif½GufMurnfU vIyf½Sm;rIonf tu,fí atmifjrifrI
r&yJ cRwfacsmfwdrf;yg;cJUaomf uRefyfwdkhtm;vHk;onf ausmcsif;,SOf &ifcsif;tyfí aotwl½SiftrQ MuHUMuHUcHí
&yfwnfMu&ef opömrlum t"d|mefjyKyg\} [lí jzpfavonf/
acgif;aqmif (11) OD;wdYk onf ausmif;odYk jyefvnfa&muf½v
dS mNyD;aemuf aumvdyEf pS &f yfpvk;H aemufwaeYwiG f
tpnf;ta0;jyKvkyf&ef vQKdU0SufpGm pnf;½kH;Muavonf/
9

jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif; - atmifxGef;
ausmif;om;BuD;rsm;\ vQKdU0Supf mG vIy½f mS ;aeyHu
k kd tjcm;ausmif;om;rsm;uvnf; &dyrf w
d efoavmuf &dyrf Md u
avonf/ ],leDAmpDwDtufOya'udk wwdkif;jynfvHk;u uefhuGufaeygvsuf tpdk;&u yrmrcefhjyKonfUtwGuf oydwf
arSmuf&ef MuHpnfMuonf} [lí tcsif;csif; odem;vnfaecJhMuonf/
'DZifbmv (4) &ufaeY? eHeufyikd ;f wGif &efuek af umvdyEf iS hf ,k'oefaumvdyf ausmif;om;rsm;\ pum;tajc
twifajymyGJ tNyD; nae (3) em&D rdepf (30) wGif A[ef;&yf OD;t&d,ausmif;wdkufodkY ausmif;om;rsm; tpnf;ta0;
qufvuf wufa&muf&ef zdwfMum;Muavonf/
xdkaeYnae (3) em&DcGJwGif aumvdyfESpf&yfvHk;rS ausmif;om;aygif; (600) cefY pka0;a&muf½SdvmMuonf/
&efuek faumvdyfrS acgif;aqmif (11) OD;ESifh ausmif;om;rsm;tjyif ,k'oefaumvdyfrS udkzdk;usm;? udkjrifh? udkzdk;vwf
tp½Sdaom acgif;aqmifrsm;ESifh ausmif;om;rsm; wufa&mufvmMuonf/
tpnf;ta0;wGif &efukefaumvdyf tdkiftufpfpD atmufwef;rS udkvSpdefudk Ouú|wifajr§mufí udkbOD;u
tpnf;ta0; ac:,l&jcif; taMumif;rsm;udk tus,fw0ifh ½Sif;vif;ajymjyonf/
xdYk aemuf aumvdyEf pS &f yfpvk;H rS ausmif;om;rsm;onf oydwaf rSmufa&; udpu
ö kd jyif;jyif;xefxef aqG;aEG;Mu
onf/ t,ltqtrsKd;rsKd;udkvnf; aumvdyfESpf&yfpvHk;rS ausmif;om;rsm;u wifjyMuonf/
aqG;aEG;ndE§ idI ;f Mu&mwGif wuúov
kd Of ya'udk wdu
k zf sufa&;twGuf oydwaf rSmuf&efuu
kd m; a,bk,stm;jzifh
oabmwlMu\/
odkY&mwGif (1) wuúodkvfOya'udk jyifqifay;&ef bk&ifcHxH avQmufxm;í vdkufavsmjcif; rjyKorQ oydwf
arSmuf&efESifh? (2) rauseyfrIrsm;udk xdxda&mufa&muf jyonfhtaeESifh oydwfarSmufNyD;rS vdkvm;csuf awmif;qdkvTmudk
wif&ef[laom enf;vrf;ESpf&yf uGJvGJMuavonf/
xdkYaMumifh ,if;udpöudk rJqE´,l&ef pDrHMuonf/ qE´r,lrD ½IH;aomzufrS EkdifaomzufodkY razmufjyef
vdkufyg&ef ESpfOD;ESpfzuf uwday;Muonf/ xdkYaemuf qE´rJ tqHk;tjzwf,l&mwGif OD;pGm oydwfarSmufNyD; aemufrS
vdv
k m;csufrsm;udk ta&;qdak om awmif;qdv
k mT wif&efzufrS tEkid &f ½Sad vonf/ xdpk Oftcgu udzk ;kd usm;ESihf tjcm;acgif;
aqmifrsm;rSm rJqE´½IH;Muaomfvnf; oydwfarSmuf vIyf½Sm;rIwavQmufvHk;ESifh trsKd;om;ynma&; c&D;pOfwavQmufvHk;
wGif razmufrjyef vdkufygcJhMuonf/
,if;tpnf;ta0;rS(1) 1920 jynfhESpf? 'DZifbmv (7) &uf? t*FgaeYwGif jrefrmEkdifiH 'kwd,bk&ifcH &efukefaumvdyfausmif;odkY
vma&mufNyD; ]jrefrmEkdifiHwGif &efukefwuúodkvf zGifUvSpfaMumif;} aMunmaomtcg aumvdyfausmif;
ESpaf usmif;½Sd ausmif;om;BuD;rsm;onf rdrw
d Ykd pmtkyrf sm;udk ydu
k í
f ]&efuek w
f uúov
kd u
f kd oydwaf rSmufNy}D [k
atmf[pfum ausmif;rsm;rS xGufvm&ef?
(2) oydwfarSmufNyD;rS xdk&efukefwuúodkvfOya'onf jrefrmrsm; txufwef;ynm oifMum;a&;twGuf
epfematmif csKyfcs,fonfhOya'rsm;jzpfí ,if;wkdYudk jyKjyifay;&ef t*FvdyfAsL½kdu&uftpdk;&odkY ta&;
qdk&ef?
(3) jyKjyifay;&ef awmif;qdkaom tcsufrsm;udk jyKjyifíray;orQ umvywfvHk; ausmif;jyefí rwuf&ef
qHk;jzwfcsufrsm;udk csrSwfMuonf/
xdkYtjyif oydwfarSmuf udpöESifhywfoufí udpöt00udk aqmif½GufoGm;&ef ausmif;ESpfausmif;rS udk,fpm;
vS,rf sm; yg0ifonfh 26 OD;aumfrw
D D (Council of Twenty-six) udk a½G;cs,cf efYtyfum wm0eft&yf&yf vTt
J yfavonf/
,if; 26 OD;aumfrDwDwdkYum;(pwifOD;aqmifcJUaom ausmif;om;BuD; (11) OD; tygt0if)
&efukefaumvdyfrS
12/ udkvSpdef (Oya'ynm)
(aemif NrdKUrq&ma[mif;)
13/ udkbwif (Oya'ynm)
(aemif Oya'jyK vTwaf wmftrwf? uefe0D efBuD;\ ajr;)
14/ udkpkd;0if; (bDat txufwef;)
(aemif ynma&;txl;t&m½Sd)
15/ udkxGef;az (tdkifat txufwef;)
(aemif xGef;aeUpOf t,f'DwmcsKyf)
16/ udkb[ef (bDatwef;)
(aemif [dkufukwfpmawmfjyef)
17/ udkvlaz0if; (bDDat txufwef;)
(aemif a½S;a[mif;okawoe? ausmufpm0ef)
18/ udkbausmf (tdkifat txufwef;)
(aemif tpdk;&yHkESdyfwdkufnTefMum;a&;0ef)
10

udkvdkeDacwfOD; - 1918 rS 1921 - e,fcsJYqefhusifa&; trsKd;om;a&;toGif
19/ rpöwm tifpDqif; (bDat txufwef;)
20/ rpöwm tD;armifpdef (bDat txufwef;)
*syfqifaumvdyfrS (,k'oefaumvdyf)
21/ udkjrifh
22/ udkjr (bDtufpfpD txufwef;)
23/ udkzdk;usm; (bDat atmufwef;)
24/ udkzdk;vwf (bDat txufwef;)
25/ udkarmifudk (bDat txufwef;)
26/ rpöwm bkdYpf wdkYjzpfonf/

(aemif w&m;½Hk;csKyfa½SUae)

(aemif ae½Sife,f OD;jrifh)
(aemif 'k-0efBuD;csKyf ocifjr)
(aemif trsKd;om;ynm0ef)
(aemif ,Ofaus;rI twGif;0efa[mif;)
(aemif xDrif;BuD;)

pwifoydwfarSmufjcif;
ausmif;om;rsm;onf ,leDAmpDwDOya'ESifh xkdOya't& wnfaxmifrnfh wuúodkvfausmif;BuD;udkyg oydwf
arSmufMu&ef qHk;jzwfonfqdkaom wpHkwpfa,muf\ owif;ay;csuft& &efukefaumvdyf ausmif;tkyfBuD; rpöwm
rwfo,l;[efwm; (Mr. Matthew Hunter***) od½o
dS mG ;avonf/ ausmif;tkyBf uD;onf owif;&vQi&f jcif; ausmif;
q&mrsm;? t&m½Srd sm;? rdbrsm;rSwqifh ausmif;om;rsm; oydwrf arSmufjzpfatmif zsuaf vonf/ tpd;k &trIxrf;jzpfonfh
ausmif;om; rdbwdkYtm; om;orD;rsm; oydwfarSmufvQif oifwdkYtvkyfrS xkwfypfcH&rnf[k Ncdrf;ajcmufonf/
ausmif;tkyBf uD;ESihf q&mrdbrsm;u oydwrf arSmufjzpfatmif zsufaeonfo
h wif;rsm;udk csufjcif;Mum;od&í
1282 ck? wefaqmifrkef; vjynfhausmf (10) &uf? 1920 'DZifbmv (5) &ufaeY? aeYvnf (2) em&DwGif udkbOD;tdrfü
tpnf;ta0; jyKvkyfcg ausmif;om;BuD; (11) OD;onf rlvowfrSwfxm;aom 'DZifbmv (7) &ufudk rapmifhawmhbJ
,aeY 'DZifbm (5) &uf (wefaqmifrkef; vjynfhausmf 10 &uf) üyif oydwfarSmuf&ef qHk;jzwfMuonf/ xdkYaemuf
naewGif A[ef;a½Tusif&yf ausmif;wkduf wkdifw&mausmif;ü ausmif;tdyfausmif;pm; &efukefaumvdyfESifh ,k'oef
aumvdyrf S ausmif;om; (50) ausmfonf pkpnf;NyD;vQif ynmrif;BuD;ruf[ef;wm;\ Oya'ESihf xdOk ya't& zGiv
hf pS rf nfh
wuúokdvfausmif;awmfBuD;udk pwif oydwfarSmufcJhMuonf/

(C) oydwaf rSmufpOf jrifuiG ;f ESihf ausmif;om;wkYd cdik rf maompdw"f gwf

Source: National Day (Golden Jubilee)

ausmif;om;rsm; xdo
k Ykd oydwaf rSmufjcif;rSm ynmqufvufoif&ef ysi;f &d
í r[kwf? ArmjynfESifh ArmwrsdK;om;vHk; tem*wf aumif;pm;a&;twGuf ¤if;wkdY
ynmoifMum;a&;ESifh aemifa&;udk tqHk;½IH;cHum? tepfemcHum xGufvmcJhjcif;jzpf
onf/ t*Fvyd Af sL½du
k &uf e,fcsJUtpd;k &u pDrv
H yk u
f idk o
f a½GU vnf;aumif;? rw&m;
zdEydS rf rI sm;udk vnf;aumif;? iHYkrcHbJ xdxad &mufa&muf wHYkjyefwu
kd cf u
kd jf cif;jzpfonf/
t*Fvdyftpdk;&udk BuD;us,faom yxrOD;qHk; qefYusifrIBuD; jzpfonf/
ArmawG txufwef;ynmrwwfvQif wd;k wufrI r½S?d wk;d wufrI r½Sv
d Qif
olYuRef? olYvufatmufwGif olwdkYvkyfoí iHkYcHum ArmawGu t½dk;pm;? olwdkYu
tqDtESpfudk xm0pOf oHk;pGJoGm;&ef jzpfonf/ ynmrwwfvQif atmufwef;pm;
tvkyt
f udik Ef iS o
hf m a&mif&h w
J if;wdrNf yD; olwYkd tkycf sKyfa&; 0ifa&muf rpGuzf ufEidk af y/
ynmrwwfí wdk;wufrIr½SdvQif olwdkYvufatmuf uRefoabmufrS b,fawmhrQ
BudK;pm;awmhrnf r[kwfay/
Ouú| udb
k OD;
ausmif;om;xk w&yfv;kH tdrrf jyefawmhbJ A[ef;a½Tusifausmif;wku
d Ef iS hf
OD;t&d,ausmif;wkduf twGif;½Sd Z&yfrsm;wGif oydwfarSmufpcef;rsm; jyKvkyfaexdkifMuonf/ ausmif;om;rsm; oydwf
arSmufonfudk Mum;odvQif odcsif; q&mBuD;OD;bESifh OD;bvdIifwdkYu yxrtBudrfoydwf rarSmuf&ef ajymqdkonf/
ausmif;om;rsm; vufoifhrcHí jyefoGm;Muonf/
aemufwBudrfwGif q&mBuD;rwf[ef;wm;ESifh OD;jrifh (rif;wkdifyiftrwf) wdkYvma&mufNyD; trsKd;rsKd;tzHkzHk
aoG;aqmif ac:iifMuonf/ trsm;pku acgif;aqmifwifajr§mufxm;aom Ouú| udkbOD;ESifh udkjrifhwdkYu rauseyfonfh
tcsufrsm;udk ajymjyaomfvnf; q&mrwf[ef;wm;u vufrcHbJ aoG;aqmif ac:iifvsufyif½Sdonf/
11

jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif; - atmifxGef;
xkdtcg udkazodef;u
]],Ofaus;onfqdkaom q&mBuD;wkdY\ t*FvdyfjynfESifh taemufwdkif;jynfrsm;wGif jynfolrsm; oabmrwl
onfh Oya'rsm;udk Oya'jyKtzGJUu twnfjyKygoavm}} ar;&m
q&mBuD;rwf[ef;wm;u
]]rjyKaMumif;}} jyefajz\/
]]odkYjzpfvQif usaemfwkdYrESpfNrdKUaom ,leDAmpDwDtufOya'udk q&mBuD;wkdY t*Fvdyftpdk;&onf twnfjyKí
oH;k pGaJ pjcif;rSm ,Ofaus;ygoavm? w&m;ygoavm? usaemfwYkdu vufatmufcH Ekid if o
H m;awGrYkd oif;wkYd qrD mS xifovkd
vkyfrnfqdkaom oabmESifh vkyfygovm;}} ar;&m q&m[ef;wm; rnfodkYrQ rajzEkdifbJ tm;avsmhum xGufcGmoGm;\/
udv
k ekd aD cwfO;D wGif yxrqH;k ay:aygufcahJ om oydwjf zpfí pdw"f mwfa&;&mt& MuHUcdik rf rI ½S?d pnf;urf;bufvJ
avsmhwdavsmh&J pnf;½Hk;rIüvJ ysufjy,fvdrfhrnf[k wGufqp&m ½Sdonf/ odkYaomf ausmif;om;oydwfu xkdodkYr[kwf/
oydwfarSmufausmif;om;rsm;\ aMunmcsufudk MunfhvQif]usaemfwo
hdk nf wwdik ;f jynfv;kH uRet
f wGi;f u rnfonft
U cgrQ rvGwu
f if;aponfU AsL½du
k &uf\ odyaHÜ usmif;
Oya'udk xkacszsuq
f ;D &efEiS Uf ckcjH cif;rSwyg; tjcm;aomenf;jzifU wdik ;f jynfukd u,fq,fz&hkd m enf;vrf;r½S[
d k ,HMk unfygonf/
usaemfwo
hkd nf *kPo
f a&apmifaU ½SmufonfU ausmif;om;rsm;jzpfonfU tm;avsmpf mG wu,fta&;MuKH vmvQif wdik ;f jynftwGuf
toufpeG &hf ef toif½U MdS uygonf/ usaemfwhkd ckcw
H u
kd &f if;om aoygap/ aemufq;kH txd ckcyH grnf[k pdwyf ikd ;f jzwfxm;olrsm;
jzpfygonf/}
oydwfarSmufausmif;om; Ouú|udkbOD;u
]AsL½du
k a&pDtpd;k &onf ArmvlrsKd ;rsm;udk b,faomtcg tavsmaU y;bl;ygovJ/ b,fawmUrS ray;yg/ b,feaH &m
tcgrSvJ ay;vdrfUrnfr[kwf/ usaemfwdkhudk qlylaom vl½l;wpk[k t,l½SdMuonf/ e,fcsJYwdkhonf usaemfwdkhudk touf
r½Sdaom opfwHk;rsm;[k atmufarUMu\/ usaemfwdkh ajymwmawG bmrS tav;rjyK? *½krjyKonfU tjyif 'DZifbm (23)
&ufwGif ausmif;jyef rwufaomtcg ausmif;om;tm;vHk;udk xkwfypfrnf[k Ncdrf;ajcmufygao;onf/ ausmif;om;rsm;
ausmif;jyef0ifí Oya'udkzsuf&ef BudK;pm;tyfonfqkdaom t,ltqvufcHolwkdhrSm &dyfrdMu[ef rwlao;ay/ tusdK;
taMumif; jyoí ajymqdkawmif;yefvQifvnf; ta&;r,l? tvGefaESmifUaES;pGm tcsdefqGJ xm;wwfonf/ rnfonfUtcgrQ
Ny;D qH;k atmif rvky?f [k[
d 'dk 'D D ajymqkí
d MuufOwvH;k uGm vkyx
f m;jcif;rQom jzpfacsonf/ pOfpm;vsu½f adS o;onfqadk om
pum;udk tjrJoHk;vsuf½Sdonf/ tkdif,mveftkyfcsKyfa&;ESifU ywfoufí vGefcJhaom ESpf (300) rS ,cktxd pOf;pm;vsuf
½Sdonf/ tdEd´,ta&;ESihf ywfoufí tESpf (30) ausmf ,cktxd pOf;pm;vsuf ½Sdonf/ a½Twd*Hkbk&m;ajrudk cHwyfukyf
xm;&m ajymif;a½TY&ef ,ckwdkif pOf;pm;vsuf½Sdonf/ þonfwdkhudk axmufaomf wuúokdvfOya'Murf; jyifqifa&;udpö
rSmvJ {uefrck s tqH;k r½So
d avmuf pOf;pm;tH;k rnfrmS ajrBu;D vufcwfrvGJ jzpfawmUonf/ 0dik t
f rfbaD tESiUf Armwjynfv;kH u
tvDvDtvmvmrsm;pGm Oya'udk zsuf&efBudK;pm;cJUMuonf r[kwfygavm? em;axmifyg\avm? ta&;,lyg\avm}
þuJhodkU xufjrufjywfom;aom tjrifrsm;aMumifh ausmif;om;oydwfonf vlxk\ tm;ay;rIudk&cJhonf/
ausmif;om;xkw&yfvHk; tdrfrjyefawmhbJ oydwfarSmufMu&m &efukefNrdKUrdNrdKUztaygif;ESifh tdrfjyeftdrfpm;
ausmif;om;rsm;odap&ef armfawmfum;ESifh wNrKdUvHk;vSnfhvnfaMunm\/ odrfBuD;aps; aps;ol? aps;om;rsm;ESifh NrdKUa&m
e,fyg jynfolwdkYu qef? qD? ig;yd? ig;ajcmufrSpí aiGaMu;ygrusef tultnDay;Mu\/ ausmif;om;rsm;twGuf
bke;f BuD;rsm;u nwGi;f csif; tdy&f m? acgif;tH;k xkwaf y;\/ NrKdUrdNrKdUzESiv
hf Bl uD;rsm;u apmif? arGU&mydYk ay;\/ txl;ojzifh
odrBf uD;aps; jrefrmh[w
d ukrm® &Dtoif;rS uGr;f ½GBJ uD; a':a':ode;f onf tvGepf w
d t
f m;xufoefpmG olu,
kd w
f idk f aqmfMoí
qeftdwf? qDyHk;wdkYudk vufwGef;vSnf;ay:txd wifay;onf/
]'dkY Armausmif;om;awG xGufvmMuukefNyD? wkdif;jynftusdK;udkomonf onfydk;aqmif½Gufrnf/}
]AmpDwD? AmpDwD}
]oydwfarSmuf oydwfarSmuf}
]jrefcGifrSm wdkif;a,mufsm; [JUvkdh? rcHcsif½Sm bGdKif;aumufom;awGrjzifU pGefhpm;cg? ½kef;nmwef;cJUordkh}
þuJhodkY &efukefNrdKU e,l;bm;rm;yHkESdyfwdkufrS ½dkufESdyfay;onfh ydkpwmrsm;udk vefcsm;rsm;wGif uyfí vnf;
aumif;? tcsKdUausmif;om;rsm;u ausmif;om;awG ]]oydwfarSmufMuyg}} ]] trsdK;om;ynma&;udk tm;ay;Muyg}} [laom
ydkpwmrsm; vdyf,lum "mwf&xm;pD;Muonf/ "mwf&xm;ay:a&mufrS ydkpwmrsm;udk jzefYa0Muonf/ odrfBuD;aps;rS
OD;armifuav;? a':odef;wdkYu OD;aqmifí aps;olaps;om;rsm;u ig;ydaMumf? a*G;oD;rsm;udk A[ef;oydwfpcef;odkY
ydkYMuavonf/ A[ef;&yfuGufrSm MuufysHruspnfum;aom a½TNrdKUav; jzpfvmcJhayonf/ ausmif;om;acgif;aqmif
12

udkvdkeDacwfOD; - 1918 rS 1921 - e,fcsJYqefhusifa&; trsKd;om;a&;toGif
udkbOD;\ BudK;yrf;rIaMumifh oydwfrSm wqifhwufvmEkdifayonf/ e,l;bm;rm;owif;pm t,f'DwmOD;bvdIif? vufyH
wef; OD;vlBuD;? OD;xGef;oef;paom jrefrmowif;pmq&mrsm;ESifh yl;aygif;í oydwfarSmufausmif;om;aumifpDtzGJU½Hk;
wnf½&dS m A[ef;Z&yfrsufEmS pmwGif ],leAD mpDwo
D ydwaf rSmufausmif;om;rsm;tzGYJ jyefMum;a&;Xme}[laom puúLqkid ;f bkwf
wcsyf csdwfqGJxm;onf/ oydwfarSmufaumifpD jyefMum;a&;XmezGifhí e,l;bm;rm;owif;pm? &efukefwdkif;owif;pm?
&efukefa*Zufowif;pmrsm;wGif oydwfarSmufowif;ESifh tcef;rsm;yg½Sdvm&m t*Fvdyfpmwwf Armausmif;om;rsm;\
ta&;tom;udk tHhMocsD;usL; rqHk;jzpfonf/

(i) pdeaf yg [ku
d pf ul;ausmif;om;rsm; yg0ifvmjcif;
&efukefaumvdyf aemifawmfBuD;rsm;onf ,leDAmpDwDtufOya'udk oydwfarSmufvdkufaom owif;onf
wr[kwfcsif; pdefaygausmif;odkY owif;a&muf½Sdvmonf/ xdktcg udkwifhonf udkarmifarmif? udkav;armifwkdYESifh
oGm;a&muf wkdifyifum ausmif;tdyfausmif;pm;tm;vHk; tusÐ (2) xnf? vHkcsnf (2) xnfpD ,lí ausmif;*dwfaygufrS
wqifh a½Tw*d b
kH &k m;odYk csDwuf&ef jyifqifMuonf/ 6? 12? 1920 ckEpS w
f iG f armif*rkd m&D ql;avbk&m;vrf;rS o&ufcEk pS f
yifvrf; twdkif; A[ef;vrf;rBuD;rS a½Twd*HkapwDawmfodkY (2) a,mufwGJ csDwufMuonf/ xdkYaemuf pdefaygausmif;om;
(150) ausmo
f nf "r®ock ausmif;wku
d af ½SU OD;em*dEa´ usmif;odYk 0ifMuavonf/ ausmif;om;BuD;rsm; aemifawmfBuD;rsm;ESihf
ajymqdkaqG;aEG; Mo0g'cH,lMuonf/
pdefaygausmif;om;rsm;
udkwifh (acgif;aqmif)
udkwif (tusdK;aqmif)
tzGJU0ifrsm;
udkarmifarmifBuD;
udek D
udkav;armif
tm;ay;ulnDolrsm;
apmcGefwdkif (usKdif;wHkapmfbGm;om;)
apmbkef;vl (usKdif;wHkapmfbGm;om;)
(7) wef;? (10) wef;ausmif;om;rsm; vdkufyg oydwfarSmufjcif;
aumvdyaf usmif; (2) ausmif;rS ausmif;om;BuD;rsm;\ oydwu
f kd Armwjynfv;kH ½Sd [ku
d pf ul; (7) wef;? (10)
wef; ausmif;om;rsm;u olwdkYausmif;rsm;udk oydwfarSmufí xGufvmMu\/ olwdkY t,ltqrSm ,leDAmpDwDtuf
Oya'onf aumvdyaf usmif;rsm;odYk a&mufvmNyD; ausmif;om;BuD;rsm;udk rnfoYkd rQ xdcu
kd pf &mr½Sad y/ xdak usmif;om;BuD;
wkYd\ oydwaf rSmufjcif;onf olwYkd ausmif;om;i,frsm;ESiw
hf uG aemifvmaemufom; Armrsm;tzdYkomjzpf\/ olwYkdvnf;
0ifa&muf ulnD&ef0wå&m;½Sd\/ olwdkY,lqrIrSm rSefonf/ &efukefaumvdyfESifh ,k'oefaumvdyf ausmif;om;BuD;rsm;
tzdYk qv
kd Qif ,leAD mpDwOD ya'onf rsm;pGmxdcu
kd pf &m r½S?d bDat? bDtufpD (ac:) 0dZmÆ txufwef; ausmif;om;BuD;rsm;
twGuf pmar;yGJusif;y&ef (3) vom vkdawmhonf/ pmar;yGJatmifvQif olwdkY ynmoifMum;a&; NyD;awmhrnf/ tjcm;
ausmif;om;BuD;rsm;twGufvJ &efukefwuúodkvfOya' twnfjzpfaomfvJ ¤if;wuúokdvfOya'wGif yg0ifaom jy|mef;
csufrsm;udk ½kwfw&uf wu,fwef; raqmif½GufEkdifao;ay/ aumvdyfausmif; wausmif;wnf; ½Sd&rnf[k qkd&mwGif
,k'oefaumvdyaf usmif;udk zsuyf pf&efEiS hf tm;vH;k aom aumvdyaf usmif;om;rsm; ausmif;tdyaf usmif;pm;tjzpf aeEkid &f ef
taqmuftOD aqmufvkyf&ef tvG,fwul rNyD;Ekdifao;ay/ tenf;qHk; (5) ESpfavmuf MumOD;rnfjzpfonf/ xdktcg
aumvdyfausmif;rsm;wGif atmufqHk;wef;jzpfonfh odyÜHatmufwef; ausmif;om;rsm;rSm aemif (3) ESpfwGif 0dZÆmwef;udk
atmifMuawmhrnf/ [dkufpul;zdkife,fac: (10) wef;atmifí t*FvdyfbmomESifh tjcm;bmomw&yfwGif xl;cRefpGm
atmifjrif&rnfqakd om jy|mef;csu?f (10) wef;txd atmifNyD; aumvdyjf yifqifrw
I ef;wGif wESpaf e&rnfqakd om jy|mef;
csufwYkd rmS oydwaf rSmufausmif;om;BuD;rsm;udk vH;k 0rxdcu
kd af y/ oydwaf rSmufausmif;om;BuD;rsm;rSm wu,fh trsKd;cspf
pdwfESifh wkdif;jynfvlrsKd;twGuf olwdkYynmoifMum;a&;ESifh aemifa&;udkyg tepfemcHMuonfrSm ,HkrSm;p&mr½Sday/
olwYkd oydwaf rSmufvu
dk í
f Armrsm;\ pdwx
f w
J iG u
f ed ;f atmif;aeaom rsKd;cspfpw
d "f gwfrsm; tH<k uaygufuv
JG mNyD; wjynf
vHk; EkdifiHa&;Ekd;Mum;rIjzpfvmum t*Fvdyftpdk;&vkyforQ acgif;iHkYrcHawmhay/
þodkY pdefayg? pdef*Ref;? rufo'pfpaom a,mufsm;av; txufwef;ausmif;rS ausmif;om;rsm;? pdefar&D
A.B.M rde;f uav;ausmif;rS ausmif;olrsm; yg0ifvmMuí oydwp
f cef;wGif tiftm;ydrk Bkd uD;xGm;vmonf/ oydwpf cef;
13

jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif; - atmifxGef;
wGif a,mufsm; ntdyf (2000) ausm½f v
dS mMuonf/ ausmif;olrsm;rSm oydwaf rSmuf&mwGif yg0ifaomfvJ oydwpf cef;wGif
vmraeay/ xdkYtwl rEÅav;? armfvNrdKif? ykodrf? jynfponfh tNrdKUNrdKUrS t*Fvdyfausmif;om;rsm;vnf; vkdufí
oydwfarSmuf Muavonf/

(p) rEåav;NrKd Uoydwf
rEÅav;NrdKUoydwfudk 'DZifbmv (10) &ufaeYrS pí armifbaomif; (aemif ocifbaomif;) acgif;aqmifí
ausmif;om;rsm; oydwfarSmufap&ef vdkufvHpnf;½Hk;vIHYaqmfwuf<upGm aqmif½GufcJhonf/
oydwfarSmufausmif;om;rsm;onf rEÅav;NrdKUwGif; vSnfhvnfpOf &mZ0wf0ef rufa':e,feJY awGUqHkcJhonf/
]ausmif;om;rsm;udk rnfolacgif;aqmifoenf;} [k rufa':e,fu t*Fvdyfvdkar;&m
acgif;aqmif armifbaomif;u
]]]]Everybody is the leader of himself.}}}}

]vlwikd ;f ud,
k u
Uf ,
kd u
f kd acgi;f aqmifaeMuwmbJ} t*Fvdyfvdk jyefajymvkdufaomtcg &mZ0wf0ef rufa'ge,f
rwwfEkdifbJ jyefoGm;onf/
rEÅav;oydwfarSmuf ausmif;om;udk,fpm;vS,fxJrS (5) OD;udk a½G;cs,fí &efukefNrdKUü usif;yrnfh Arm
EdkifiHvHk;qkdif&m oydwfausmif;om;rsm; udk,fpm;vS,f tpnf;ta0;odkY apvTwfcJhonf/
¤if;wkdYrSm(1) armifbaomif; aemif (ocifbaomif;)
(10) wef;ausmif;om; rEÅav;Ak'¨bmom omoeEk*¾[ txufwef;ausmif;
(2) armifausmf0if; (pdefyDwmausmif;)
(3) armifyGifhopf (aemif a½SUae)
(4) armifxGef;armif (aemif trsKd;om;ausmif;q&m)
(5) armifboD (aemif 'dkiftmcD b@ma&;0efBuD;) wkdYjzpfonf/
xkYd aemuf jrefrmEkid if w
H 0ef;vH;k ½Sd t*Fvyd jf refrm (2) bmomausmif;rsm;tm;vH;k vdu
k í
f oydwaf rSmufMuojzifh
wEkdifiHvHk; odrfhodrfhwkefoGm;onf/ oydwfpcef;ae ausmif;om;ta&twGuf rsm;jym;vmNyDjzpfonf/

(q) oydwt
f &Sed w
f ufvmjcif;
1920 ckESpf? 'DZifbmv (20) &ufaeYwGif ArmwjynfvHk; oydwfarSmufausmif;om;rsm; oydwfpdwf xdyfwef;
a&mufaeaom tcsed yf ifjzpfonf/ xdak eY eHeuftcsed w
f iG f bdvyfatmufygvDref avbmygwD0iftrwf ume,f0uf*s0'k f
ESifh ZeD;wkYd (Colonel & Mrs. Wedgwood) onf a½Tw*d akH pwDawmfajc&if;ü Ak'b
¨ mom0ifrsm;uJo
h Ykd zdeyfcRwfí
oydwaf rSmuf ausmif;om;rsm;½S&d m oydwpf cef;okYd oGm;a&mufco
hJ nf/ ¤if;ZeD;armifEo
HS nf ausmif;om;rsm;ESit
hf wl OD;vSaz?
OD;oGif (a½Tw*d kH a*gyuvlBuD;)? OD;ukwBf uD;? OD;Nidr;f ? a':a':pk? pdefar&Dausmif;ol rpD (q&mra':pD)? OD;oif;armifpaom
yk*¾dKvfrsm;ESifh trSwfw& "mwfyHk½dkufoGm;onf/
oydwfausmif;om;acgif;aqmifrsm;u tdE´d,uGef*&uf toif;acgif;aqmif rpöwm tbwfw&yf*sEiS v
hf nf;
tem*wfocifynma&;twGuf aqG;aEG;cJo
h nf/
oydwpf cef;wnf&m A[ef;Z&yfuav;wGif tcef; (3) cef; ½So
d nf/ a½SUqH;k tcef;udk {nfch ef;tjzpfvnf;aumif;?
uset
f cef;udk vlaecef;tjzpfvnf;aumif; oHk;pGJcJhonf/ bkef;awmfBuD;rsm; pGefYxm;aom xef;pm;yGJ0dkif;BuD;ay:wGif
oydwfudpö aqmif½GufzG,f&m pm½Gufpmwrf;rsm;udk a&;om;Muonf/ jrefrmowif;pmrsm;udk tcrJh&onf/ t*Fvdyf
owif;pmrsm;udk 0,f,lMu&onf/
t*Fvyd o
f wif;pmrsm;wGif oydwaf rSmuf ausmif;om;rsm;taMumif; ykwcf wfa&;om;cJo
h nfh owif;ygvmvQif
acgif;aqmif Ouú| udkbOD;u owif;pmyg pmrsufESmay:wGif zaemifhESifh aygufavh½Sdonf/ oydwfarSmuf ausmif;om;
rsm;onf pmoifcef;wGif roifMum;Ekdifaom vlrI0dZÆmynm&yfrsm;udk vufawGUqnf;yl;cGifh &cJhonf/ e,l;bm;rm;
owif;pmwkduf? 0dkiftrfbDattoif;wkdYrS pmtkyftrsKd;rsKd;o,f,lum zwfjcif;jzifh A[kokw&cJhonf/ ntcsdefwGif
za,mif;wkdif rD;xGef;í trIaqmifrsm;tpnf;ta0; jyKvkyfonf/
14

udkvdkeDacwfOD; - 1918 rS 1921 - e,fcsJYqefhusifa&; trsKd;om;a&;toGif

(Z) awmif;qkcd suaf y;ydjYk cif;ESihf ausmif;rwuf&efq;kH jzwfjcif;
'DZifbmv (17-19) &ufaeYwGif oydwfausmif;om;rsm;tzGJUu 'DZifbmv (4) &ufaeY tpnf;ta0;
qHk;jzwfcsuf (2) t& tcsuf (16) csufyg awmif;qkdcsuf pmwapmifudk 'kwd,bk&ifcHxHokdY ydkYvdkuf&m atmufyg
twkdif;jzpfonf/
1/
2/

3/
4/
5/
6/
7/
8/
9/
10/
11/
12/

13/
14/
15/
16/

wuúodkvfausmif;om;? ausmif;olrsm;tm;vHk; ausmif;tdyf? ausmif;pm;jzpf&rnf[k owfrSwfxm;onfh
twGuf qif;&Jaomausmif;om;rsm;twGuf tcuftcJjzpfojzifh xdktcsufudk y,fzsuf&ef/
wuúodkvfausmif;aecGifh&½SdEdkif&ef t*FvdyfbmomESifh tjcm;bmomw&yf xl;cRefpGm wwfajrmuf&rnf
[laomtcsurf mS t*Fvyd b
f momonf rdrt
d rsK;d om;bmom r[kwo
f nfh Armwkid ;f &if;om;rsm;ESihf tdE,

trsKd;om;rsm;twGuf cufcJrI½Sdojzifh xdktcsufudk y,fzsuf&ef/
wuúodkvfwGif tBudKoifwef; wESpfxm;½Sdjcif;rSm pmoifESpfydkrdkNyD; p&dwfydkrdkrsm;jym; vmrnfjzpfí xdk
tcsufudk y,fzsuf&ef/
EIwfwdkufpmar;yGJxm;&ef rvdkívnf; xdktcsufudk y,fzsuf&ef/
bDat? bDtufpD*kPfxl;ESifhatmifrS trfat? trftufpDoifcGifh&rnf qkdaomtcsufudk y,fzsuf&ef/
*kPfxl;wef;oif,lvdkolrsm;onf pmar;yGJwBudrfwnf;om ajzqkdcGifhjyKxm;onfrSm Muyfwnf;vGef;
ojzifh jyifqif owfrSwf&ef/
tdkifatatmifNyD; (3) ESpftwGif; *kPfxl;wef; ajzqdk&rnfqkdaom tcsufrSm Muyfwnf;vGef;vSí jyif
qif&ef/
xdkenf;wl trfat? trftufpD*kPfxl;wef;rsm;twGuf tcsdefuefYowfay;xm;jcif;rSmvnf; roifh
avsmfí y,fzsuf&ef/
trfat? trftufp*D P
k x
f ;l wef;rsm;ü ESpBf udrf (odYk) aemufraS tmifjrifvQif xkad usmif;om;udk twef;vdu
k f
cGJjcm;í tatmifay;&ef/
bDtufpD½dk;½dk;bGJUESifh*kPfxl;wef;rsm;twGuf t*Fvdyfpm pmpDpmuHk;ajz&ef rvdktyf[k,lqonf/
wuúodkvfaumifpDESifh ygarmu©rsm;tzGJU? wuúodkvftkyfcsKyfa&;tzGJUrsm;ü vlrsKd; vlwef;pm;aygif;pHkESihf
ausmif;om;udk,fpm;vS,frsm; yg0ifEkdifa&;twGuf pnf;rsOf;Oya'jyifqif&ef/
trsm;pkqE´t& qH;k jzwfaqmif½u
G o
f nfh pepfusio
hf ;kH aom þtcsed t
f cgrsK;d wGif wuúov
kd f ausmif;q&m
rsm; cefYtyf&mü wOD;wnf;oabmrjzpfapbJ q&mrsm;tzGUJ u a½G;cs,cf efYxm;&ef/ ('k-t"dywdu,
kd pf m;?
t"dywdEiS hf wuúov
kd yf garmu©rsm;udk t"dywdu rcefYbJ ygarmu©tzGUJ uom a½G;aumufwifajr§muf&ef)
tjcm;wuúodkvfrsm;rSmuJhodkY pmar;yGJukd tpdwftydkif;xm;í ajzqdkcGifh&½Sd&ef/
Oya'twef;rsm;udk eHeufydkif;wGif oifMum;a&;twGuf pDpOfay;&ef/
wuúokdvfpmar;yGJrsm;wGif jyifyESifh tvGwfynmoif ausmif;om;rsm;tm; ajzqkdcGifhay;&ef/
txufyg awmif;qkcd surf sm;udk ajyvnfatmif ajz½Si;f ray;orQ umvywfv;kH ausmif;om;rsm; ausmif;jyef
wufrnf r[kwfygaMumif;/
bOD;
(Boycotters)

(trIaqmiftzG)YJ
(oydwfarSmufausmif;om;? olrsm;udk,fpm;)
xdkawmif;qkdcsufudk bOD;u vufrSwfa&;xdk;íbk&ifcHxHydkYvkdufonf/ xdkodkYydkY&jcif;rSm ynmrif;BuD; rpöwm
ruf[ef;wm;u 'DZifbm? (23) &uf ausmif;jyefwuf&ef &mZoHay;jcif;aMumifh jzpfonf/ txuf-atmuf Armjynf
vHk;qkdif&m oydwfarSmufausmif;om; udk,fpm;vS,frsm; tpnf;ta0;u ausmif;om;trnfrsm;udk ausmif;pm&if;rS
y,fxkwf&ef pdefac:vdkufNyD; xkdawmif;qdkcsufudk ay;ydkYjcif;jzpfonf/ xdktcg 1921? Zefe0g&DvwGif aemufqHk;xm;
í ausmif;jyefwuf&ef &mZoH xyfay;avonf/ xdkaeYrSmyif ausmif;om;rsm;tpnf;ta0; usif;yí &moufyef
oydwfarSmufvdkufonf/ 1921? Zefe0g&Dv? (14) &ufaeYwGif tpdk;&u vdkufavsmay;onfjzpfap? ray;onfjzpfap
15

jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif; - atmifxGef;
&efuek w
f uúov
kd f vufatmufcH aumvdyaf usmif;rsm;odYk b,fawmhrS jyefrwuf[k qH;k jzwfaMunmvku
d o
f nf/ 'DZifbm
v? (19) &ufaeY awmif;qkdcsuf (16) csufudk rvdkufavsmí 'DZifbmv (20) &ufaeYwGif tpnf;ta0; usif;yum
qHk;jzwfí 'DZifbmv (21) &ufaeYwGif wuúodkvfausmif;om;rsm; vufrSwfa&;xdk;í rdrdwkdY trnfrsm;udk ausmif;
pm&if;rS y,fzsuf&ef wefjyefta&;qdkvdkufonf/ þqHk;jzwfcsuft& bDatwef;rS udkbOD;? ukdvlaz0if;? udk&mZwf
tygt0if ausmif;om; (8) OD;? bDtufpt
D xufwef;rS udb
k ;kd uGe;f tygt0if ausmif;om; (30) OD;? bDatatmufwef;rS
(28) OD;? bDtufpDatmufwef;rS (13) OD;? bDtufpDtxufwef;rS (86) OD;? tdkifatatmufwef;rS (37) OD;? tdkiftufpD
atmufwef;rS (100) ausmfwdkYESifh wjynfvHk;½Sd (7) wef;? (10) wef;ausmif;rsm;rSvnf; tpdk;&ESifh tpdk;&taxmuftyhH
cHausmif;rsm;udk &moufyef oydwfarSmufvdkufonf/
xkq
d ;kH jzwfcsuftwdik ;f t*Fvyd v
f ufxuf &efuek w
f uúov
kd f vufatmufcaH usmif;rsm;odYk ausmif;jyefrwuf
aom ausmif;om;BuD;rsm;rSm (300) avmuf½Sd\/ (7) wef;? (10) wef; oydwfarSmufausmif;om;rsm;rSmvnf;
tajrmuftjrm;½Sdí oydwfarSmuf ausmif;om;acgif;aqmif udkbOD;\ bDatbGJUrSm 1921 ck? Mo*kwfvwGif Armjynf
trsKd;om;ynma&;aumifpDrS usif;yaom bDatpmar;yGJudk 0ifa&mufajzqkd atmifjrifcJhjcif; jzpfonf/ xdktrsKd;om;
ynma&;aumifprD &S aom bDatbGUJ udk vGwv
f yfa&;&½SNd yD; 1952 wGif &efuek w
f uúov
kd u
f vufcH todtrSwjf yKcJo
h nf/
ausmif;om;rsm; awmif;qdkcsufudk Armrsm;udk tvGeftxifao;aom bk&ifcHu wm0efrJh ausmif;om;wOD;
wa,muf vufrw
S x
f ;dk í wifoiG ;f aompmvTmudk vufcpH Of;pm;&ef jiif;qkv
d u
dk o
f nf/ aemufrMumrD vufaxmufb&k if
cH\ wdwfwqdwfpDpOfrIaMumifh oydwfarSmufausmif;om;rsm;\ awmif;qkdcsuftwdkif; armfvNrKdifNrKdUrS 0wfvHkawmf&
OD;cspfvS tp½Sdaom yk*¾dKvfBuD;rsm;u vufrSwfxdk;NyD; epfemcsufrsm;udkjyKjyif&ef toem;cHpmwapmif wifoGif;\/
xdktoem;cHpmudk vufaxmufbk&ifcHu vufcHpOf;pm;\/ odkh&mwGif taMumif;trsKd;rsKd;jyum bmwckrQ rjyifay;acs/

(ps) trsK;d om;ausmif;rsm; trsK;d om;aumvdyw
f nfaxmifMujcif;
oydwfarSmufausmif;om;rsm;aumifpDu 1921 ckESpf? 'DZifbmv (11) &ufaeYü ]uREyfk w
f o
hdk nf rsK;d apUcsxm;
aomolrsm;} jzpfonf/ "We are the Sowers" [k acgif;pOfwyfum xkwfjyefaMujimcsufxJwGif trsKd;om;ynma&;
aemufq;kH &nf½,
G cf suo
f nf trsK;d om;vGwv
f yfa&;ESihf ArmvlrsK;d wkYd \ t*Fvyd v
f ufatmufrS vGwaf jrmufa&;yifwnf;
[k xkwfazmfxm;avonf/
xYdktwl oydwfarSmufausmif;om;rsm;aumifpD (University Boycotters Council) rS 1920 ck? 'DZifbm
(24) &ufaeYü (National Education in Bahan) [k trsKd;om;ynma&; acgif;pOfwyfNyD; xkwfjyefvdkufonfh
aMunmcsufwGif-

Source: National Day (Golden Jubilee)

1920 oydwf\ toD;tyGifUrsm;tjzpf jrefrmjynft&yf&yfwGif trsKd;om;ausmif;rsm;ay:aygufcJU&m tBuD;qHk;jzpfaom &efukefNrdKY½Sd NrdKYrausmif;
BuD;yHk

16

udkvdkeDacwfOD; - 1918 rS 1921 - e,fcsJYqefhusifa&; trsKd;om;a&;toGif
]trdArmjynfuckd sp&f ef vlrsK;d \ ydrk t
kd &ma&mufaom ta&;udprö sm;wGif ud,
k u
f sK;d ukjkd zKwyf pfEidk &f efEiS Uf aoaomf
vnf; rdrdtrsKd;udk cspfaompdwfESifU aoEkdif&efwkdhonf A[ef;½Sd trsKd;om;ausmif;rsm;\ [kef;[kef;awmuf &nf½G,f
csufrsm;jzpfonf} [k xkwfazmfxm;cJhavonf/
oydwfarSmufausmif;om;rsm;aumifpDonf ,leDAmpDwDtufOya'udk jyifqifay;&ef qdkif&mtmPmydkifrsm;xH
xdkodkU wifjyawmif;qdkcJhaomfvnf; r&½Sdojzifh oydwfarSmufausmif;om;rsm;tzdkY trsKd;om;aumvdyfESifh trsKd;om;
ausmif;rsm; xlaxmif&efom ½Sdawmhonf/
1920? 'DZifbmv (29) &ufaeYwGifjyKvkyfaom *sDpDbDattoif;csKyfBuD;u tpnf;ta0;w&yf jyKvkyfum
wuúodkvfoydwfudpöudk wifjyaqG;aEG;í atmufygqHk;jzwfcsufrsm;udk qHk;jzwfcJhonf/
1/ ArmEkdifiHt&yf&yfü trsKd;om;ausmif;rsm; wnfaxmifzGifhvSpf&ef/
2/ &efukefNrdKUü trsKd;om;wuúodkvfausmif;BuD; wausmif; wnfaxmifzGifhvSpf&ef/
3/ toif;csKyfBuD;ESifh qufoG,fxm;aom toif;cGJrsm;u wnfaxmifxm;aom pmoifausmif;rsm;udkvnf;
trsKd;om;ausmif;rsm;tjzpf ajymif;vJ&ef/
4/ trsKd;om;ausmif;rsm; pkaygif;tkyfcsKyf&ef vdktyfaom pDpOfñTefMum;csuf ponfwdkYudk jyKvkyfEkdif&ef
trsKd;om;ynma&;tzGJU zGJUpnf;&efwdkY ygavonf/
¤if;qH;k jzwfcsuft& wcsdew
f nf;rSmyif trsKd;om;ausmif;tjrKawrsm;udk tNrdKUNrdKUüyif oydwaf rSmuf ausmif;
om;BuD;rsm;\ apwemh0efxrf; tm;ay;jcif;jzifhvnf;aumif;? tNrKdUNrKdU½Sd 0HomEkBuD;rsm;\ apwemo'¨gw&m;rsm;udk
cH,l&&SdrI taMumif;jyKí vnf;aumif; wr[kwfcsif; ysHUESHYay:xGufvmonf/ aEG&moDpmar;yGJrsm;trD ausmif;om;
vli,frsm; qufvufynmoifMum;cGifh &½Sdvmonf/
xdktrsKd;om;ausmif;rsm;wGif aumvdyfoydwfarSmufausmif;om;rsm;ESifh (7) wef;? (10) wef;rS oydwfarSmuf
ausmif;om;rsm;u 0ifa&mufí q&mvkyfMu\/ xkdoydwfarSmufausmif;om;rsm;onf rsKd;cspfpdwf tvGefjyif;xefí
rnfonft
h &yfrqdk jiif;y,fjcif;r½Sb
d J xkt
d &yf½t
dS rsK;d om;ausmif;rsm;wGif tenf;i,frQaom vcESihf q&m0ifvyk Mf u\/
NrdKUrdNrdKUzrsm;uvnf; ausmif;om;rsm;udk wwfEkdifonfh enf;jzifh ulnDonf/

(n) 1920 yxrausmif;om;oydwf trsK;d om;a&;atmifjrifrrI sm;¨
1/ G.C.B.A (*sDpDbDat) rS vlBuD;rsm;ESihf oydwfarSmufausmif;om;rsm; yl;aygif;í trsKd;om;ynma&;
aumifpDudk atmufygyk*¾dKvfrsm;jzifh zGJUpnf;cJhonf/
trsKd;om;ausmif; tkyfcsKyfa&;tzGJY
(1) OD;armifBuD;
Ouú|
(2) OD;armifarmiftkef;cdkif
wGJzuftwGif;a&;rSL;
(3) udkzdk;uGef;
wGJzuftwGif;a&;rSL;
(4) udkbOD;
(5) udkpdk;0if;
(6) udkzdk;vwf
(7) udkjrifh
(8) udkzdk;usm;
(9) udkjr
(om,m0wD)
(10) udkbcif
(11) udkbdk;wuf
(12) udkbvdIif
(e,l;bm;rm;)
(13) udkbav;
(14) udkpdefb
(15) udkoma½T
(ykord )f
(16) udkyk
(om,m0wD)
(17) OD;bab
17

jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif; - atmifxGef;
(18) OD;yk
(a½Tusif)
(19) OD;xGef;atmif
(20) udkzdk;cdkif
2/ 1921 ck? rwfvwGif ¤if;trsKd;om;ynma&;aumifpDu Muyfrwfí (7) wef;? (10) wef; pmar;yGJrsm;
jyKvkyfay;onf/
3/ Armjynfw0Srf;vHk;wGif trsKd;om;ausmif;aygif; (150) zGifhvSpfEkdifcJhonf/ &efukefNrdKUwGif NrdKUrtrsKd;om;
ausmif; xlaxmifa&;uddk OD;bdk;vwfu pwifwm0ef,lvkyfudkifcJhonf/
4/ A[ef;? vdyfuefajrmufbuf Z&yfMum;wGif trsKd;om;ausmif;udk pwifzGifhvSpfay;cJhonf/ ¤if;aemuf
ydktqifajyap&ef vrf;rawmf o&ufawmausmif;odkY ajymif;a½TUzGifhvSpfcJhonf/ ykZGefawmifESifh Munfhjrifwkdif trsKd;om;
ausmif;rsm; qufvufzGifhvSpfí MunfhjrifwkdifwGif ausmif;olrsm;twGuf ausmif;zGifhcJhjyefonf/
5/ trsKd;om;ausmif;rsm; zGifhvSpf&mwGif ausmif;om;? ausmif;olrsm;\omrefynma&;udk t"duxm;cJhonf
r[kwf/ t*FvdyfvufatmufuRefoabmuftjzpfrS vGwfajrmuf&ef &nf½G,fcJhonf/ oydwfarSmufausmif;om;rsm;
aumifpD (University Boycotters Council) rS (We are the Sowers) aMunmcsufudk MunfhvQifodEkdifonf/
6/ ArmhrsKd;cspfpdwfay:vGifapaom ausmif;oHk;pmtkyfrsm;udk q&mvGef;? OD;zdk;usm;? OD;boef; (armfvNrdKif)
wdkYu jyKpkjzefYcsdEdkifcJhonf/
7/ t*FvdyfpmrSty tjcm;bmom&yfrsm;udk jrefrmbmomodkY jyefqdkí jzefYcsdEdkifcJhonf/
8/ a½Twd*Hkbk&m;odkY wufa&mufolwdkif; zdeyfcRwf&rnfqdkaom pnf;urf;udk Armjynf½Sdt*Fvdyfrsm;u
rvku
d ef mcJah cs/ odYkaomf yxraumvdyf ausmif;om;oydwf jzpfvmcsed rf pS í &efuek Nf rdKUodYkvmaom t*Fvyd yf gvDreftrwf
rpöwm0uf*s0k'fwdkY ZeD;armifESHu ArmhxHk;pHudk av;pm;pGm zdeyfcRwfcJhonf/ a½Twd*Hkbk&m; zdeyfcRwfa&;jyóemrSm
xdkZeD;armifESH\ erlemaMumifh ajyvnfNyD;pD;oGm;onf/
9/ 1920 aumvdyaf usmif;om;BuD;rsm; oydwrf wdik rf D ArmwdYkrmS t*Fvyd Af sL½du
k &uftpd;k &u pDrjH yKvkyo
f nfukd
acgif;iHkYcHcJhMu&onf/ EkdifiHa&;Ekd;Mum;rIr½SdonfhtwGuf t*Fvdyftpdk;&ESifh,SOfNydKifum xdxda&mufa&muf ajymqdkcGifh
½SdrSef; rodMuay/ ausmif;om;rsm; oydwfarSmufí xGufvmum t*Fvdyftpdk;&\ tjypftemtqmrsm;udk yGifhyGifh
vif;vif; azmfxw
k í
f &J&aJ wmuf qefYusif a[majymMuaomtcgrS aMomf- t*Fvyd t
f pd;k &udk þodYk ajymcGi½hf ydS gvm;[k
odvmMu\/ xkdodkY odvmMuonfESifh wNydKifeuf rsKd;cspfpdwfrsm; jyif;xefpGm aygufuGJvm\/
10/ 1917 tdE´d,jynf½Sd b*Fvm;? bHkbdkif? r'&yf? yef*syfe,frsm;udk 'dkiftmcDtkyfcsKyfa&; ay;aomtcg
ArmjynfrmS tdE,
´d ydik jf ynfe,frsm;twGi;f 'dik t
f mcDtyk cf sKyfa&;ESihf rwefao;yg[kqNdk yD; ajymonf/ tb,faMumifq
h akd omf
bDatatmifol (400) rQ r½Sad o;íjzpfonf/ ,kwn
f ahH om u&ufa'gufprD u
H ed ;f (ac:) vufaxmufb&k ifcaH &;qGo
J nfh
tkyfcsKyfa&;udk ay;&ef&nf½G,fonf/ ArmwdkY vef'efodkU udk,fpm;vS,fapvTwfí 'dkiftmcDtkyfcsKyfa&;ay;&ef awmif;qkd
onfhtwGuf u&ufa'guf pDrHudef;tkyfcsKyfa&;udk qdkif;iHhxm;onf/ aumvdyfausmif;om;rsm; oydwfarSmufí EdkifiHa&;
Ekd;Mum;rI jzpfvmaomtcg 'dkiftmcDtvdkr½Sd? [kr®½l; udk,fydkiftkyfcsKyfa&;udkom tvdk½Sdonf[k [pfa<u;aMumfum
vef'efudk aMu;eef;½kdkufí [kr®½l;udk,fydkiftkyfcsKyfa&;udk awmif;qkdonf/ xdktcgusrS NAdwdoQwkdY 'dkiftmcDtkyfcsKyfa&;
ray;bJaevQif rjzpf[k ,lqum 1922 wGif 'kdiftmcDtkyfcsKyfa&;udk ay;&av\/ þonfrSm yxrjiif;y,fcJhNyD;
'dkiftmcDtkyfcsKyfa&;udk aemufqHk;ay;cJh&jcif;rSm aumvdyfausmif;om;rsm; oydwfarSmufí t*Fvdyftpdk;&udk wkdufyGJ
qifETJcJhjcif;aMumifh jzpf\/
11/ 'kid t
f mcDtyk cf sKyfa&;rSm rsm;pGm tqifrh jrifrh m;aomfvnf; ,cifAsL½du
k &uftyk cf sKyfa&;xuf tqaygif;rsm;
pGmomNyD; wkid ;f jynftyk cf sKyfa&;wGif ArmwdYk txufq;kH rS atmufq;kH txd 0ifa&muf tkycf sKyfEidk o
f nf/ 'dik t
f mcD tkycf sKyfa&;
&onfEiS hf wNydKifeuf tpd;k &vufatmuf t*Fvyd u
f ek o
f ,
G rf I vkyif ef;BuD;rsm;wGif Armrsm; b,fawmhrS rarQmfvifch ahJ om
&mxl;BuD;rsm; &Mu\/
12/ t*Fvyd t
f pd;k &u zGiv
hf pS cf ahJ om t*Fvyd jf refrm (2) bmomoifausmif;rsm; tvGeef nf;\/ wjynfv;kH wGif
(50) jynfhatmif r½Sday/ &efukefNrdKUwGif (10) wef;ausmif; wausmif;om½SNd yD; rEÅav;? rdw¬Dvm? jrif;jcH? a½Tb?kd yckuLú
NrdKUBuD;rsm;wGif (10) wef;ausmif; wausmif;rS r½Sday/ Armjynfudk t*Fvdyfodrf;cgpwGif vl (100) vQif (85) a,muf
jrefrmpm a&;wwf? ajymwwfonf/ t*FvdyftkyfcsKyfNyD; 1920 ck a&mufaomtcg vl (100) vQif (35) a,mufrQ
usefawmh\/ jrefrmrsm;\ynma&; atmufwef;usoGm;onf/ 1922 wGif trsKd;om;ausmif; (94) ausmif; txd½Sdvm
onf/ ausmif;om; (200000) ausmf ½Sv
d mNyD; awma&mNrdKUygrusef t*Fvyd pf mESihf jrefrmpmudk tcsed w
f w
dk dk p&dwu
f sO;f usO;f
18

udkvdkeDacwfOD; - 1918 rS 1921 - e,fcsJYqefhusifa&; trsKd;om;a&;toGif
jzifh oifcGifh&Mu\/ aemufydkif;wGif trsKd;om;ausmif; (145) ausmif; jzpfvm\/
13/ trsKd;om;ausmif;rsm; ay:vmonfhtwGuf tcsdefwdkwdkESifh p&dwfusOf;usOf;? qif;&Jcsrf;omra½G; ynm
oifMum;cGifh &\/
14/ trsKd;om;ausmif;rsm;wGif Ak'¨bmomudk oifMum;cGifh&&m Ak'¨omoemrSmvnf; ydkrdkxGef;um;vm\/
15/ trsKd;om;ausmif;rsm;ü ausmif;om;rsm;udk Zmwdrmef? ZmwdaoG; wuf<uaponfh rsKd;cspfpdwf"mwfrsm;
arG;jrLwuf<uvm&ef oifMum; vIHYaqmfay;EkdifcJh\/
16/ xdkodkY oifMum;ay;EdkifonfhtwGuf AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;rSm a&eHacsmif;? trsKd;om;ausmif;rS (10) wef;
atmifcJhol jzpfonf/ yef;waemf ausmif;tkyfBuD;rSm OD;oefY jzpfonf/
17/ trsKd;om;aumvdyfudk A[ef;NrdKU a½Tusifausmif;ü 1921 Mo*kwfv? (20) &ufwGif zGJUpnf;EkdifcJhonf/
trsKd;om;aumvdyfwGif apwemh0efxrf; ygarmu©q&mBuD;rsm; jzpfaom (1) q&mBuD;OD;vGef;
(2) 'D;'kwfOD;bcsdK
(3) q&mawmfOD;ÓP - ygVd
(4) rpöwm csif'rfb&m (bmrif*rf) - pufrIvufrIESifh ul;oef;a&mif;0,fa&;
(5) rpöwm a&mif; (r[m0dZÆm) - pD;yGm;a&;ESifh EkdifiHa&;
(6) rpöwm bem*sD (r[m0dZmÆ -vef'ef) - abm*aA'wdYkEiS hf ausmif;om; (330) jzifh pwifoifMum;Ekid cf o
hJ nf/
18/ aumvdyfausmif;om;rsm; pwifoydwfarSmufaom 1282 ck? wefaqmifrkef;vjynfhausmf (10) &ufudk
trsKd;om;aeYtjzpf owfrSwfEkdifNyD; a'gufwmbarmf ynma&;0efBuD;csKyf jzpfcsdef ½Hk;ydwf&uftjzpf trdefYxkwfcJhonf/
txufygtcsufrsm;udk qufpyfMunfhvQif aumvdyfausmif;om;rsm;\ yxroydwfonf NAdwdoQe,fcsJU
qefYusiaf &;? t*Fvyd v
f ufatmufrS vGwaf jrmufa&;twGuf BuD;rm;rsm;jym;aom tiftm;jzifh wku
d ,
f cl &hJ aom wku
d yf BJG uD;
jzpfonf/
1921 Zefe0g&DvukefwGif Armjynf vufaxmufbk&ifcHu tdEd´,bk&ifcHcsKyfBuD;xHodkY (14) &ufwywf
tpD&ifcHpmwGif &efukefaumvdyfoydwfarSmufta&;udk xdxda&mufa&muf rEdSrfeif;EkdifvQif Armjynfonf t*Fvdyf
vufatmufu vGwfajrmufoGm;&ef taMumif;½Sdonf[k a&;om;cJhonf/ xkdvufaxmufbk&ifcHuvnf; t*Fvdyfukef
onfBuD;rsm;\ ESpyf wfvnf npmpm;yGw
J iG f ausmif;om;oydwu
f kd olYvufeufwu
dk rf S vufeuftm;vH;k toH;k jyKESrd ef if;
rnf[k wkefvIyfajcmufjcm;pGm ajymMum;cJhayonf/

trsKd;om;aumvdyfausmif;om;rsm;okdh q&mBuD;ocifudk,fawmfrIdif;\ rdefhMum;csufrSm
]]tdkwynfhtaygif;wkdY? tdktmZmenf a,mufsm;av;awGyDyD? ArmyDyD wnDwnmwnf; uRefynmoif ,leDAm
pDwrD S xGuv
f mukeaf om wynfrh sm;\ q&mwkYd onf wynfrh sm;\ pdwjf rifjh rwf&m jrifjh rwfaMumif; Zmwdrmefwuf<u&m
wuf<uaMumif;? uRefan§mfrcH? uRefapmfreH&m reHapcsifaMumif;? ArmwdkYatmifvH wvlvlvTifhEkdif&m vTifhEdkifaMumif;
jzpfaom pmayrsm;udk oif&ayvdrfhrnf/ q&mwdkY &nf½G,fcsuftwGuf tb,fpmayonf NyD;ajrmufatmif aqmifEkdif
vdrfhrnf[k ½SmazGpdppf&m Arm&mZ0ifonfom NyD;ajrmufapaMumif; awGU&w,f}} [laom jznf;nif;om,maom
pum;rsm;onf MunfvifpmG xGuv
f m\/ ausmif;om;rsm;rSmvnf; q&mBuD;udo
k m tm½Hpk ;l pku
d í
f em,laeMuavonf/
tcef;ab; a&tdk;pifrS pdrfhusaom waygufaygufESifha&oHrSty q&mvGef;\ pmoHomvQif xGufay:aeonf/
]]wynfw
h Ykd t*Fvyd af usmif;rsm;wGif Arm&mZ0ifukd oifMum;&w,fvYkd q&mMum;bl;w,f/ 'gayr,fh 'D&mZ0if
awG[m igwdYk widk ;f om; r[kww
f o
hJ rl sm;u u½Guu
f if;avQmuf a&mufwwf&m&mawGukd a&;xm;cJah ompmrsm; jzpfw,f/
igwkdYArmawGudk wzufoufESdrfí a&;om;cJhaom pmawGjzpfw,f/ 'DpmawGudk wynfhwdkY oifaeoa½GUjzifh wkdYrSm
(arsmufavmif;? arsmufavmif;) qdkovdk oabmufavmif;awG b0u wufMu&r,fvdkY q&mrxifygbl;/ a[mh'D
q&mwkdY ae½Sife,faumvdyfrSm ocifynmawG oif&awmhr,f wynfhwdkY/ igwkdYonf 'DurÇmrSm tvGef atmufwef;
usaewJh vlawGbJvdkY tm;ri,fMueJY? wynfhwdkY tm;ri,fMuygeJY/ tm;i,fwmeJY ydkNyD; atmufwef;usoGm;vdrfhr,f/
o&ufaph pdu
k af wmh o&ufyifaygufNyD; o&ufo;D awG oD;wJh yHyk rmudk MunfMh u/ wdYk trsKd;om; &mZ0ifxb
J J MunfMh unf?h
pdwfaepdwfxm;bJMunfhMunfh? atmufuscJhwJhvlawGr[kwf/ ociftvkyfvkyfcJhMuwJh owdåvnf; wdkYoEÅmefxJrSm udef;
atmif;aew,f/ 'Dowådudk b,folrS rjrifMuao;bl;/ 'Dowåd[m o&ufaphyrm tyifraygufbl;/ a&avmif;wl;qG
19

jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif; - atmifxGef;
NyD; ususee pkduf&ifawmh o&ufyif[m oD;rSmyJ/ 'Dawmh 'dkYtarG&xm;wJh owådudk jyKpkysdK;axmifzdkY vdkw,f/ tJ'Dowåd
rsKd;aphrS ocifvkyfief; opfyifBuD; aygufap&r,f/ 'Dvkyfief;BuD;u (0g) 'Dvkyfief;BuD;wnf;[laom o&ufyifBuD;rS
vGwfvyfa&;? ocifvlrsKd;jzpfa&;wnf;[laom o&ufoD;rsm; oD;ap&r,f/ tck q&mwdkY vkyfief;[m o&ufyifpdkufMu
wJv
h yk if ef;? o&ufyifpu
kd zf Ykd jzpfajrmufzYkd&m wdYkwm0efbJ wynfw
h Ykd/ wynfw
h Ykd[m Armrsm;jzpfí a½S;bd;k ab;? rdbrsm;xHrS
owådpGrf;tm;udk tarG&xm;w,f/ 'DowådpGrf;&nfudk tvGJoHk;pm;rjyKMueJY/ q&mwdkY ArmjynfwGif yxrOD;qHk;aom
omuD0ifrif;rsKd;rsm;u wdkif;jynfvlrsKd;udk wnfaxmifcJhMuw,f/ Armtp waumif;u qdkwJhpum;udk MunfhvQif
odEkdifw,f/ waumif;rSm rif;quf (50)? oa&acwå&mrSm rif;quf (27)? yk*HwGif rif;aygif; (55) quf? yif;,wGif
(6) quf? tif;0wGif (29) quf? awmifilwGif (35) quf? jynfwGif (17) quf? ukef;abmifwGif (13) qufrQ
tqufrjywf wdYk Armbk&ifawG tkypf ;dk cJw
h ,f? ocFg&"r® urÇmYoabm avmu"Hw&m;t&? ude;f cef;tvdu
k f tcdu
k t
f cg
uHMur®mtavsmuf t*Fvyd w
f Ykd&UJ tvHatmufa&mufMu&aom acwfwiG f 'dYk b;kd bGm;rdb vufxufu &cJah om Armhowå?d
ArmpGrf;&nfudk xufonfxuf xufatmif BuD;onfxuf BuD;atmif aqmif½GufMuyg}} [kajym&if; q&mBuD; rsufESm
onf eDjref;vm\/ q&monf q&mudk,fq&m arhavNyD/ q&mYpdwfrS tqD;twm;r½Sdaom owåd? awmfvSefvdkpdwfrsm;
xGuv
f m\/
]]wynfw
h Ykd Zmwdrmefonf? tawmfyifnK§ ;d EGr;f cJ\
h igwdYk ukd pd;k rd;k onfh rif;u igwdYk \ rsK;d cspf tñGeYf uav;rsm;
udk a&aEG;ylylESifh avmif;onf? uyfaus;ESifh n§yfonf? igwkdYtrsKd;onf uRefb0ü Mum½Snf ae&avatmif ¤if;wdkY
MuHpnfBudK;ukwfaeonf/ onfvdktvkyfudk wm;qD;&ef igwdkYtm;vHk; wm0efjzpfw,f}}
paom rdefY>rufaom pum;rsm;udk trsKd;om;aumvdyfausmif;om;rsm; Mum;emcJh&onf/

trsK;d om;ynma&;aumifpt
D zGYJ Ouú| OD;armifBu;D (trfat) rdeMhf um;csuu
f kd MunfrU nfqv
kd Qiv
f J
]]Armjynftpdk;&eJY bdvyftpkdk;&u Armjynfudk olwdkYay;xm;wJh ynm[m uRefynmr[kwfbl;vkdY ajymw,f/
ajAmifvdrf&m rusbl;vm; (y&dowf ausmif;om;rsm;u ½SufzG,f? ½SufzG,f ysuf&,fjyKMuonf/) olwdkY qifajcay;yHkudk
em;axmifMuygtkH;/ olwdkYay;wJh ynm[m uRefynmqdk&if cifAsm;wdkYvdk wdkif;jynfacgif;aqmifr,fholawG ArmawG
ocifawG ay:vmyghrvm;wJ/h ArmjynfrmS ½Sw
d hJ tckacgif;aqmifawG[m uREkyf w
f Ykd ay;xm;wJh t*Fvyd yf nm? txufwef;
ynmwwfawG csnf;yJ r[kwfovm;? enf;vrf;usovm; (y&dowfESifh ausmif;om;rsm;u Ekd;Edk;[k atmfMujyefonf)/
vHk;vHk;rusbl;? 'Dawmh usaemfwdkY jyefajymw,f? ig;uav;awG a&xJuq,fNyD; ukef;ay:wif&if trsm;aom ig;awG
aor,f/ wcsKdU toufjyif;wJh ig;awGuawmh ½Sifaewmaygh/ 'DwcsKdU ig;awG ½Sifaeao;wmaMumifh a&xJu ig;rsm;udk
ukef;ay:wif&if ig;awG touf½Sifw,fvdkY qdkwJh enf;vrf;rSefw,fvdkY qdk&rSmvm;/ toufjyif;wJhig;udkom csD;rGrf;zdkY
aumif;ygw,f/ ig;awGudk a&xJuwifwm enf;rSefw,fvdkY rqdk&ygbl;/ 'DvdkyJ rsm;pGmaom ArmawG uRefjzpfatmif
vkyaf y;wJh ynma&;pepfukd enf;rSew
f ,fvYkd rqd&k ygbl;? uRefynm&aomfvnf; ArmawG ocifjzpfatmif aqmif½u
G af e
wJh acgif;aqmifawGudkom toufjyif;wJh ig;vkdyJ ¤if;wkdYtm; csD;rGrf;&r,fvdkY}} ajymcJhonf/

(#) trsK;d om;aeYowfrw
S jf cif;
1922 ck? ZGefv (17) &uf (1282 ck? e,kefvjynfhausmf 8 &uf) wGif &efukefNrdKU a½Twd*Hkbk&m;vrf;
*sLAvDa[m½HkBuD;ü G.C.B.A (*sDpDbDat) A[kdtoif;csKyf tpnf;ta0; xyfrHjyKvkyfonf/ xdkaeYü 1924 ck?
atmufwkdbm (24) &uf rEÅav;ü jyKvkyfaom G.C.B.A e0rajrmuf uGefz&ifhBuD;u trsKd;om;aeY (National
Day) &uf w&uf owfrSwf&efudk aqG;aEG;&mwGif qHk;jzwfxm;onfudk qufvufaqG;aEG;Muonf/
(1) oDaygrif;udk t*FvdyfwkdY ac:aqmifoGm;aom&uf?
(2) t½SifOD;Owårudk,fawmfBuD; axmifusaom&uf?
(3) aumvdyfausmif;om;rsm; oydwfarSmufaom&uf?
þ (3) &ufudk tjrJwrf;aumfrwDwGif yg0ifaomolwdkYu rdrdqE´½Sd&m toD;oD; n§dEdIif;Mu&m rNyD;rjywf
jzpfaeonf/ uefBuD;a'gifhNrdKUrS OD;baomif; wifoGif;í OD;bpdefu axmufcHNyD; acgif;aqmifrsm;uvnf; vdkvm;onfh
rnfonhaf eYukd owfrw
S Mf urnfukd wkid yf ifaqG;aEG;&m oydwaf rSmuf ausmif;om;acgif;aqmif OD;jrifu
h ygawmfral omaeY
ESifh axmifusaomaeYrSm tusudp?ö tpkefudpjö zpfonf/ ,leDAmpDwDtufOya'udk oydwfarSmufaomaeYrSm twufudpö
20

udkvdkeDacwfOD; - 1918 rS 1921 - e,fcsJYqefhusifa&; trsKd;om;a&;toGif
tqefudpjö zpfí 'DaeYudk trsKd;om;aeY owfrSwfoifhaMumif; tqdkwifoGif;vdkufonf/ þtcsdef rwdkifrDuyif oydwf
arSmuf aumvdyfausmif;om;BuD;rsm;onf pwifoydwfarSmufaom 1282? wefaqmifrkef;vjynfhausmf (10) &ufudk
ausmif;om;rsm;aeY[k owfrSwfNyD; jzpfonf/
xdo
k Ykd rNyD;rjywfí tjrJwrf;aumfrwDonf trsm;pkoabmxm;udk &,lppk nf;NyD; A[dt
k oif;csKyf tpnf;ta0;
odkY atmufygtwdkif; wifjyonf/
(u) trsKd;om;aeYudk w&ufwnf; owfrSwfvkdygu aumvdyfausmif;om;rsm; oydwfarSmufaomaeY
wefaqmifrkef;vjynhfausmf (10) &ufudk owfrSwf&ef/
(c) trsKd;om;aeYudk w&ufxufydkí owfrSwfvkdygu oDaygrif;udk t*FvdyfwkdY ac:aqmifoGm;onfh
wefaqmifrkef;vjynfhausmf (8) &ufrS vjynfhausmf (10) &uftxd (3) &uf owfrSwf&ef/
xdt
k pnf;ta0;wGif OD;jrifh (ae½Sief ,f OD;jrif)h u trsKd;om;aeYukd aumvdyaf usmif;om;rsm; oydwaf rSmufaeY
udk owfrw
S &f ef tqdw
k ifoiG ;f í uGr;f jcHuek ;f ESihf ewfwvif;ud,
k pf m;vS,rf sm;u axmufcH aqG;aEG;Muonf/ xdYk aMumifh
wefaqmifrek ;f vjynfah usmf (10) &ufukd trsK;d om;aeYtjzpf *spD b
D aD t 0HomEkA[dt
k oif;csKyfBuD;u jyXmef;owfrw
S v
f u
kd f
onf/ þaeYonfyifvQif ausmif;om;rsm; NAdwdoQe,fcsJUtkyfcsKyfa&;udk NAdwdoQwdkYvufatmuf a&mufcJhNyD;aemuf
ArmEkdifiHwGif yxrqHk;BuD;rm;pGm wGef;vSefqefYusifcJhaomaMumifh ausmif;om;wdkY\ owdå? pGrf;&nf? trsKd;om;Zmwd
rmefukd &J0x
hH w
k af zmfí NAdwo
d QwdYk wkev
f yI af jcmufjcm;cJ&h aom aeYBuD;waeU jzpfonf/ ArmwrsKd;om;vH;k ausmif;om;wdYk
OD;aqmif qefYusifrIaMumifh EkdifiHa&;Ekd;Mum;rI? olYuRefrcHpdwf"mwfrsm; jyefvnfay:xGef;vmaom aeYwaeYjzpfonf/
þaeYudk NAdwdoQwdkY\ pdwfykwf? pdwf,kwf? pdwfrdkuf? pdwfysif;wdkYudk csKd;zJhESdrfeif; atmifjrifaomaeY tjzpf ]trsK;d om;
atmifyGJaeh}[k ac:Muavonf/

Source: National Day (Golden Jubilee)

OD;bOD;\ 1920 oydwfESihf trsKd;om;aehjzpfay:vmyHktusOf; vufa&;rlMurf;

21

jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif; - atmifxGef;

(tay:) 1920
oydwfarSmufausmif;om;rsm;
wnf;cdkaeMuaom
A[ef;Mum;awm&vrf;
OD;t&d,ausmif;wdkuf twGif;½Sd
Z&yfwck
(tv,f) 1282 ckESpf (1920)
ausmif;om;oydwfwGif toHk;jyKcJUaom
a'gif;tvH (ua'gif;)
(atmuf)
1920 jynfUESpf aumvdyf
oydwfarSmuf ausmif;om;rsm;
aumifpDXmecsKyf jyKvkyfcJU&m
a':MuKwfZ&yf

Source: National Day (Golden Jubilee)

22

udkvdkeDaoyd
cwfOw
D; -af 1918
efhusmiiffa&;;om;acg
trsKd;om;a&;toG
1920
rSmufrSa1921
umif-pe,f
0D ifcsJYqaus
i;f aqmifirf sm;

(yxrwef;- 0JrS,m)
OD;bOD;
OD;aunDyw
d f
OD;zd;k uGe;f
OD;atmif'if
('kwd,wef;- 0JrS,m)
ocifjr
trsKd;om;ynm0ef OD;zdk;usm;
OD;bausmf

(wwd,wef;- 0JrS,m)
OD;at;
rpöwmqif;
OD;vlaz0if; (jrefrmpmygarmu©)

(pwkw¦wef;- 0JrS,m)
ae½Sife,fOD;jrifh
OD;zdk;vwf
ol&d,OD;xGef;az

Source: National Day (Golden Jubilee)

1920 jynfUESpf ausmif;om;oydwfBuD;udk
acgif;aqmifcJUMuaom ausmif;om;acgif;aqmif
(26) OD; teufrS pkaqmif;&½SdorQaom
"gwfyHk½Sif (13) OD;\ yHkrsm;udk txufwGif
azmfjyxm;ygonf/

'D;'kwfOD;bcsKd
trsKd;om;aumvdyfausmif;
jrefrmpmuxdu

OD;bOD;- jynfNrdKY trsKd;om;ausmif;? ausmif;tkyfBuD;/
ae½Sife,fOD;jrifU- trsKd;om;aehjzpfajrmufa&; tqdkwifoGif;ol/
OD;zdk;vwf- &efukeftrsKd;om;ausmif;udk xlaxmif&ef wm0ef,lcJhol/
OD;zd;k uGe;f - Adv
k rf LS ;zd;k uGe;f /
ocifjr- trsK;d om;ausmif;q&mtjzpf wm0efxrf;aqmifcNUJ y;D ? wdAhk rmtpnf;t½H;k
wnfaxmifaomtcg ocifjrjzpfvmonf/ Adv
k cf sKyaf tmifqef;? 'D;'kwOf ;D bcsKd
wdEhk iS t
hf wl 19? 7? 1947 wGif vkyBf ucH &H onf/

23

jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif; - atmifxGef;

Source: RU History (Diamond Jubilee)

ausmif;om;rsm; oydwfarSmufNyD;aemuf oHk;&uftMum 1920 'DZifbm (8) &ufaehwGif wdkif;jynfodkh
xkwfjyefcJUonfU oydwfarSmufaumifpD\ aMunmcsuf (jrefrmjyefqdkcsuf wzufpmrsufESmwGif MunfUyg/)

24

udkvdkeDacwfOD; - 1918 rS 1921 - e,fcsJYqefhusifa&; trsKd;om;a&;toGif

wdik ;f oljynfom;rsm;odhk
1920 ckESpf? 'DZifbmv (8) &uf

]]&efuek af umvdyEf iS hf ,k'oefaumvdy½f dS uRefawmfwYkd ausmif;om;
tm;vH;k wdYkonf tqk;H ü b,fvjkd zpfrnfukd aocsmrod&aom udpw
ö ck
udk pwifjyKvkyMf uygonf/ odYk &mwGif uRefawmfwYkd onf w&m;enf;
vrf; rSeu
f efaMumif;udk aumif;rGecf ikd jf rJpmG od½&dS ygonf/ uRefawmf
wdYkonf wwdik ;f jynfv;kH uRew
f iG ;f u rnfonft
h cgrS rvGwrf uif;rnfh
AsL½kdu&ufwdkY\ odyÜHausmif;Oya'udk xkacszsufqD;&ef tMuH½Sdyg
onf/ uReaf wmfwYkdonf wdik ;f oljynfom;wkYd\ pdwt
f m;xufoefaom
tultnDtm;jzifh vli,frsm;wdYk u ckcNH zdKzsufjcif;rsm;rSwyg; tjcm;
aomenf;jzifh wdik ;f jynfukd u,fq,fzYkd&m enf;vrf; r½SNd yD[k ,HMk unf
yg\/ uRefawmfwdkYonf jrefrmEkdifiH½Sd vltrsm;wdkY\ ynmtqD
tESpEf iS hf jynfph akH om ausmif;om;rsm; jzpfrnfukd &nfoefí ulnD
apmifrzdYk&ef awmif;yefajymMum;ygonf/ uReaf wmfwYkd pdwx
f üJ pGjJ rJpmG
,HMk unfaom þvky&f yfBuD;onf wdik ;f jynfü vdt
k yfaom tcsuBf uD;
wckukd xkwaf zmf ajymqdjk cif;yif rnfygonf/ (þum;tjcm;r[kwf
trsKd;om;odyÜHBuD; aywnf;/) xdkausmif;BuD;rSm jrefrmEkdifiH\
om;orD;rsm;ESifh oifhavsmfaom ynm&yfrsm;udk &Ekdifay&monf/
tdE,
´d Ekid if üH trsKd;om;ausmif;awG tvdt
k avsmuf ay:aygufvm
Muay&m jrefrmEkdifiHuvnf; aemufrus&atmif jrefrmwdkYonf
Ekid if o
H m;ppfí cspcf yhJ gvQif b,feaH &mtcgrQ rwnfaxmifEidk yf J ½Sv
d rd hf
rnf r[kwyf g/ pdwyf gvufygvkyv
f Qif rkcsjzpfygvdrrhf nf/}}

25

jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif; - atmifxGef;

Source: National Day (Golden Jubilee)

ausmif;om;oydwfukd axmufcHa&;om;cJUaom 1920 jynfUESpf? 'DZifbmv (11) &ufaehxkwf ynUmtvif;owif;pm acgif;BuD;ydkif;
(wzufpmrsufESmwGif jyefvnf azmfjyay;xm;onf/)

26

udkvdkeDacwfOD; - 1918 rS 1921 - e,fcsJYqefhusifa&; trsKd;om;a&;toGif

ausmif;om;rsm;ESihf &efuek ,
f el AD mpDwD odyaHÜ usmif;awmfBu;D udk MuOfa½Smifjcif;taMumif;
BOYCOTT OF UNIVERSITY
vGefcJhaom rsm;rMumrDtcgu? uRefyfwdkY jrefrmjynfbGm; wdkif;&if;om;taygif;wdkYu tpnf;ta0;BuD;rsm;
jyKvkyfusif;yí &efukef,leDAmpDwD odyÜHausmif;awmfBuD;\ Oya'rsm;udk oabmrus rESpfoufEkdifaMumif;udk
uefYuGufajymqdkMuonfhtjyif OD;vSazpaom rif;wdkifyif trwfrsm;uvnf; twnfhtvif; xkwfazmfajymqdk
uefYuGufcJhMuonf jzpfaMumif;/
xdkuJhodkU uRefyfwdkY jrefrmjynfbGm; wdkif;&if;om;wdkYu uefYuGufMuaomfvnf; tpdk;&rif;wdkYonf ta&;,lí
jyKjyifajymif;vJay;jcif;udk rjyKvkyfbJ ,ck 'DZifbmv (1) &ufaeYu ¤if;,leDAmpDDwD odyÜHausmif;awmfBuD;\
trsKd;om;wdYk rESpo
f ufaom Oya'udk twnfjyKvdu
k af Mumif;udk xkwjf yefaMujimcJ&h m wdik ;f oljynfom;taygif;wdYk
onf rsm;pGmyif 0rf;enf;aMuuGv
J suf aeMuonfh twGi;f rSm &efuek af umvdyf ausmif;om;rsm;ESihf *syfqifaumvdyf
ausmif;om;taygif;onfvnf; ¤if;Oya' twnfjyKvkyfvmonfhtwGuf wnDwñGwfwnf; pnf;a0;wdkifyif
MuNyD;vQif ,ck Oya'twdik ;f twnfjzpfomG ;cJyh gvQif odyaHÜ usmif;awmfMuD;ü ynmoifMum;a&;ESiw
hf uG trsKd;om;
wdkY\ tusKd;aus;Zl;rsm;onf vGefpGmepfemjcif;rsm;udk rjzpfMuap&ef vGefcJhaom wevFmaeYu pí ausmif;om;
aygif;rsm;pGmwdkYonf ausmif;rwufbJ aecJhMuavonf/
xdkuJhodkY &efukef,leDAmpDwD odyÜHausmif;awmfBuD;\ Oya'twdkif; ausmif;om;rsm;aomfrS vdkufemoifMum;
vdkaompdwf tvsOf;uif;rJhaMumif;udk tpdk;&rif;wdkYonf ,cktcg aumif;pGmxif½Sm; odomvmNyD jzpfaMumif;
odkYjzpfí jrefrmtrsKd;om;taygif;wdkY rESpfoufaom Oya'rsm;udk twnfjyK&mü tcsnf;ESD; tv[ó jzpfaom
aMumifh ESpfoufí vdkufemaqmif½GufMurnfjzpfaom Oya'udk topfwzef jyKjyifpDrHay;vdrfhrnf[k ,HkMunf
ayaMumif;/
,cktcg &efukef,leDAmpDwD Oya'udkyif rBudKufrESpfoufMuonfhtwGuf ,ckuJhodkU tjzpftysufrsm;udk
vufiif;'d|awGUMuHKae&NyDudk axmufqaomtm;jzifh xdkYxufrsm;pGm ta&;BuD;aom jrefrmjynf jyKjyifajymif;vJ
a&;udk ay;&mü tu,fí jrefrmtrsKd;om;taygif;wdkY rESpfoufaom qm&,f*sDe,fu&ufa'guf puif;udk
twnfrsm;jyKcJyh gvQif 0rf;enf;aMuuGpJ &mBuD;rsm;ESihf awGUMuHKMu&vdrt
hf ek ;f rnfvm; [lí awG;awm pd;k &drv
f sufyif
½Sd&ayonf/ odkYjzpfí uRefyfwdkY udk,fpm;vS,fBuD;rsm; awmif;qdkonfhtwdkif; txuftpdk;&BuD;rsm;u tu,fí
ay;vmcJhygrl? atmuftpdk;&wdkYu uefYuGufaESmuf,Sufjcif; jyKvkyf&ef tvsOf;yif roifhravQmf jzpfayaMumif;/
¤if;&efuek af umvdyEf iS hf *syfqifaumvdyf ausmif;om;taygif;wdYk ausmif;rwufbJ raeMujyD;tcg tvHu
k ½l iS f
[dkufpul;ausmif; Ak'¨bmom jrefrmtrsKd;om; ausmif;om;uav;wdkY\ pdwfysuf&yHk taMumif;t&mrsm;udk
aocsmpGm awG;awmMunfhvdkuf jyefyguvnf; wrsKd; 0rf;enf;bG,fBuD;yif jzpf&jyefaMumif;/
¤if;ul½iS f [ku
d pf ul;ausmif;om;rsm; ynmoifMum;&onfrmS vnf; t*Fvyd pf mudo
k m oifMum;&onf r[kwb
f J
Ak'¨bmomw&m;awmfBuD;ESifh qefYusifonfh c&pf,mefusrf;pmudk oifapjcif; c&pf,mefw&m;udk em&jcif;rsm;udk
jyKvkyfMu&onfhtwGuf ynmEke,fi,f½G,faom uav;vli,frsm;udk rdrdwdkYbmom ouf0if,HkMunf&ef?
zsm;a,mif; aoG;aqmifjcif; jzpfonf[k qd&k ayvdrrhf nf/ xdu
k o
hJ Ykd aoG;aqmif jyKvkyo
f jzifv
h nf; ynmEke,faom
uav;tcsKdUonf c&pf,mef t,l0g'bufodkY vdkufygoGm;MuonfrSmvnf; rsm;pGmyif 0rf;enf;bG,fBuD; wck
jzpfayawmhonf/
xdu
k o
hJ Ykd jzpf&jcif;taMumif;rsm;udk aocsmpGmpOf;pm;ygu Ak'b
¨ mom jrefrmtrsK;d om;uav;wdYk\ bmoma&;ü
qHk;½IH;&onfh tcsufrsm;udk uGufuGufuGif;uGif; xif½Sm;pGm od½SdMuayjyD/ xdkuJhodkY trsKd;om;rsm; epfem&jcif;
taMumif;&if;udk pdppfvdkufvQifvnf; jrefrmtrsKd;om; wnfaxmifzGifhvSpfxm;aom Ak'¨bmom [dkufpul;
ausmif;rsm; r½Sdjcif;aMumifhyif jzpf&onf[kqdkvQif vGJEkdifrnf r[kwfacs/
odkYjzpfí ,ckta&;onf &efukefjrdKU&Sd vlBuD;vlaumif;taygif;wdkYESifhwuG toif;BuD; toif;i,fwdkY\
tay:odkY txl;ojzifh wm0efusa&mufvmNyD jzpfaomaMumifh &efukefNrdKUwGif Ak'¨bmom [dkufpul;ausmif;BuD;
waqmif tjrefjzpfajrmufatmif tm;xkwfoifhMuygaMumif;/

27

28

Source: National Day (Golden Jubilee)

jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif; - atmifxGef;

(0J) 1282 ckESpf xkwfa0aom trsKd;om;ynma&;r*¾Zif;ü wuúodkvfOya'udk ½kyfajymifjzifU
þodkh ceJhcJUonf
(,m) 1922 ck? ZGefvwGif &efukefNrdKY ü usif;yaom *sDpDbDat tpnf;ta0;BuD;u 1920
ausmif;om;oydwf jzpfyGm;cJhonfUaeh wefaqmifrkef;vjynfUausmf (10) &ufaehudk
trsKd;om;atmifyJGaehtjzpf owfrSwfvdkufonfU owif;udkazmfjyay;aom jrefrmUtvif;
owif;pm tcsyfydk

udkvdkeDacwfOD; - 1918 rS 1921 - e,fcsJYqefhusifa&; trsKd;om;a&;toGif

Source: National Day (Golden Jubilee)

(tay:) 1921 ckESpfu ygarmu© q&mrIdif;? uxdu 'D;'kwfOD;bcsKdwdkh yg0ifxlaxmifaom A[ef;aumvdyf tzJGY0ifrsm;? q&mrsm;
(atmuf) OD;t&d,ausmif;wdkufrS trsKd;om;aumvdyfausmif; 1924 ckESpf aemufqHk;usef½Sdaom ausmif;om;rsm;ESifU q&mrsm;
'kwd,wef; xdkifvsuf? 0JrS,m- 'D;'kwfOD;bcsdK (5 a,mufajrmuf)? rpöwmarmifrIdif; (ac:) q&mvGef; (6 a,mufajrmuf)

29

jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif; - atmifxGef;

(tay: 0J) trsKd;om;aumvdyfrS
apwemU0efxrf; ausmif;tkyfBuD;
ygarmu©q&mBu;D OD;vGe;f
(ocifu,
kd af wmfridI ;f )
(tay: ,m) 19? 12? 1923 u
zGifhvSpfcJhaom
A[ef;Mum;awm&vrf;
OD;t&d,ausmif;wdkufrS
trsKd;om;aumvdyfausmif;ae&m

30

Source: File photo; National Day (Golden Jubilee)

(atmuf) NrdKYr trsKd;orD;
txufwef;ausmif; q&mrrsm;
(1921 ckESpf)

udkvdkeDacwfOD; - 1918 rS 1921 - e,fcsJYqefhusifa&; trsKd;om;a&;toGif

Source: National Day (Golden Jubilee)

1282 ckESpf (1920) oydwfarSmuf ausmif;om;acgif;aqmif OD;bOD;\ vufa&;rl rSwfwrf;

31

jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif; - atmifxGef;

Source: National Day (Golden Jubilee)

(21) Budrfajrmuf trsKd;om;aehtwGuf trsKd;om;aehaumfrwDu a<u;aMumf&ef oHcsyfrsm;

32

33

udkvdkeDacwfOD; - 1918 rS 1921 - e,fcsJYqefhusifa&; trsKd;om;a&;toGif

Source: National Day (Golden Jubilee)

1971 ckESp?f (50) Budrfajrmuf trsKd;om;atmifyGJaeh a½T&wkobif txdrf;trSwf awGYqHkyJGodkhwufa&mufcJUMuaom 1920 ausmif;om;oydwf ausmif;om;a[mif;rsm;
a½SYwef;^xdkifvsuf (0JrS,m)- Ouú| OD;vlaz0if;? OD;odrf;armif? em,u OD;bab? qmarmifBuD;? OD;atmifZHa0

jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif; - atmifxGef;

Source: Unknown

(50) Budrfajrmuf trsKd;om;atmifyGJaeh a½T&wkobif txdrf;trSwf jyu©'def

34

udkvdkeDacwfv,f - 1922 rS 1930 - e,fcsJYqefhusifa&; trsKd;om;a&;toGif

tcef; (3)
udv
k ekd aD cwfv,fyikd ;f
e,fcsUJ qefu
Y siaf &; trsK;d om;a&;toGif ausmif;om;vli,frsm; vIy&f mS ;rIordik ;f
(1922 rS 1930)
(u) 1922-23 wuúov
kd af usmif;om;rsm;tajctae
wuúov
kd af usmif;BuD;\ taxGaxGtajctaerSm wd;k wufrb
I mrQr½S?d xkid ;f xkid ;f rIid ;f rIid ;f ESihf usqif;&efbufoYkd
,drf;,dkifpjyKaeonf/ ausmif;om;? ausmif;olwdkif; tvGefpdwfyg0ifpm;pGm tm;ay;onfh abmvHk;toif;rSmyif tvGef
qkkwf,kwfpjyKaeonf/ ausmif;om;ausmif;olwkdY\ pdwf"mwfrSmvnf; wufwuf<u<ur½Sd [efrysufoGm;vmí pdwf
vufryg tajctaerysuf oGm;aeMu&onf/ wufwuf<u<u pGrf;pGrf;aygufayguf ausmif;om;? ausmif;olrsm;vnf;
ray:ayguf? ygarmu©t"dywd q&mBuD;a*spavmpf\ ywf0ef;usif todik ;f t0kid ;f rSwyg; aysm½f iT v
f ef;qef;jcif; uif;aeMu
onf/ 'kwd,ESpftNyD; pdwfysufNyD; ausmif;rS xGufoGm;aom ausmif;om;rsm;rSm trsm;pkjzpfonf/ xdktcsdefu &efukef
aumvdyf (1925-28) wnfae&mrSm ,ckjynfolYaq;½HkBuD; (R.G.H.) ESifh rsufESmcsif;qkdifvsuf rif;BuD;vrf;
(Commissioner Road) ,ck Adv
k cf sKyfvrf;rBuD;wGi½f í
dS abmf'gausmif;aqmifrmS jynfvrf; waumif;ESihf jynfausmif;
aqmif (2) ckom½Sdí yk*HaqmifrSm aqmufvkyfqJ½Sdonf/ EkdifiHa&;tzGJYtpnf;wckuJhodkY pnf;½Hk;rI r½Sday/ EkdifiHw0Srf;
NAdwdoQe,fcsJUqefYusifa&; vIyf½Sm;rIrsm; yHkrSeftaetxm;jzifhomyg0ifonf/ 1930 ckESpfrS 1939 ckESpftwGuf wuo
(&efuek w
f uúov
kd af usmif;om;rsm;or*¾) ESihf Auo (ArmEkid if v
H ;kH qkid &f mausmif;om;rsm;or*¾) wdYk acgif;aqmifrjI zifrh S
omvQif 1938 yxrtaxGaxGoydwfBuD;udk OD;aqmifaom wdkYArmtpnf;t½Hk;wGif ausmif;om;rsm;? ocifrsm;tjzpf
yg0ifvmMuonf/ ¤if;wkYd\ BudK;yrf;rIjzifo
h m ucsiaf jr? csi;f awmifwef;? ½Sr;f jynfe,ftESYH a&muf½&dS ef ausmif;om;rsm;u
vkyfaqmifcJhMuonf/

(c) vli,frsm;Bu;D yGm;a&;toif;ESihf ausmif;om;rsm;
1925 ckESpfwGif rD;&xm; pm&if;udkif udkbpdef? jynfxJa&;ESifhvHkjcHKa&;pma&; udkodef;wkdY OD;aqmifí vli,frsm;
Bu;D yGm;a&;toif; (Youth Improvement Society) udk wnfaxmifcJhonf/ ¤if;toif;wGif ausmif;om;tcsKdUyg0if
vIyf½Sm;cJhMuonf/ ¤if;toif; pwifzGJUpnf;pu vlrIa&;ESifh pum;&nfvkyGJtoif; jzpfaomfvnf; oufwrf;Mum
vmaomtcg ausmif;om;vli,f pm&dwåwkd;wufa&;ESifh trsKd;om;a&;pdwf"mwf ½Sifoefa&;wdkY twGuf jyKvkyfcJhonf/
35

jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif; - atmifxGef;
¤if;toif; rSm 1931 ckEpS f txd BuD;yGm;a&;r*¾Zif;udk xkwaf 0cJo
h nf/ tjcm; pmtkyt
f oif;rsm;ESiv
fh nf; qufo,
G rf jI yK
um pmzwfcef;rsm; wnfaxmifcJhonf/

(*) ArmEkid if v
H ;kH qkid &f mvli,ftzGUJ csKyEf iS hf ausmif;om;rsm;
1930 ckEpS f tapmydik ;f umvrsm;ü trsKd;om;a&;wGif [du
k pf ul;ESihf wuúov
kd ?f aumvdyaf usmif;om;rsm;
pdwt
f m;xufoefpGm yg0ifvmMuonf/ ]ArmEkid if v
H ;kH qkid &f mvli,frsm;tzGcYJ sKy}f (ArmEkdifiHvkH;qkdif&mvli,frsm;toif;[k
tp yxrydkif;wGif ac:onf) wnfaxmif&mwGif ausmif;om;trsm;pk yg0ifvmMuonf/
¤if;tzGJUudk 1930 tapmydkif;ü wnfaxmifcJh&m(1) q&mwif - Ouú| (NrdKUrtrsdK;om;ausmif;tkyfBuD;)
(2) udkxGef;xGef; - 'k-Ouú| (aumvdyfausmif;om;)
(3) udkbaomif; - 'k-Ouú| (aumvdyfausmif;om;) (wkdYArmtpnf;t½Hk; pwifwnfaxmifol)
(4) udkEk
- tusKd;aqmifwGJbuf (aumvdyfausmif;om;)
(5) udkApdef
- tusKd;aqmif wGJbuftwGif;a&;rSL; (,k'oefaumvdyfausmif;om;) (ocifApdef)
(6) udkcefY
- pm&if;ppf(aumvdyfausmif;om; OD;oefYtudk)
(7) udkpdef
- aiGxdef; (aumvdyfausmif;om;)
(8) udktkef;
(aumvdyfausmif;om;)
(9) udkav;armif
(aumvdyfausmif;om;)
(10) udkbwif
(aumvdyfausmif;om;)
(11) udkoD[ef
(aumvdyfausmif;om;)
(12) udkpHodrf;
(aumvdyfausmif;om;)
(13) q&m[def
(NrdKUrtrsdK;om;ausmif;q&m)
-wkdY yg0ifzGJYpnf;cJhonf/
¤if;toif;BuD;onf 1931 ckESpf? Zlvdkifv (29) &uf? 1293 ckESpf? 0gqkdvqef; (15) &ufaeYwGif a½Twd*Hk
bk&m; pwk'domZ&yfü pkpnf;í EkdifiHjcm;jzpf pD;u&ufraomufa&;udk vdkufvHpnf;½Hk;cJhonf/
¤if;wkdYrSm 1931 ZGefvwGif a½Twd*Hkbk&m;½Sd pwk'domZ&yfüjyKvkyfaom tpnf;ta0;qHk;jzwfcsuft& EkdifiH\
pD;yGm;a&;? EkdifiHa&;udpö&yfrsm;wGif trsKd;om;a&;vIyf½Sm;rIrsm; jzpfay:&ef vkyfaqmifcJhjcif;jzpfonf/

(C) Ekid if jH cm;jzpfp;D u&ufraomufa&;vIUH aqmfrEI iS hf ausmif;om;rsm;
¤if;toif;onf Zlvdkifv (29) &ufü a½Twd*Hkbk&m;apwDawmfodkY wufí &ifjyifatmufü aq;vdyfaomuf
olrsm;tm; tvSLcHí EdkifiHjcm;jzpf aq;vdyfraomuf&efudk vnf;aumif;? vufbuf&nfqdkifrsm;ü ArmtrsKd;om;rsm;
aq;vdyfaomufaeonfudk 0ifa&muf awmif;yefívnf;aumif;? ArmvlrsKd;rsm; EkdifiHjcm;pD;u&uf raomufa&;twGuf
awmif;yefí tvSLcHMuonf/ xdktcg ArmtrsKd;om;^orD;rsm;uvnf; 0rf;omtm;&vdkvm;pGm EdkifiHjcm;jzpf pD;u&uf
raomuf&ef tvSLcHrIudk vufcHMuonf/ xdkodkY vdkufvHawmif;yefMuolrsm;wGif Ouú| OD;wif? udkApdef? udkwifvwf?
udkvSaz? (tm;vHk;wuúodkvfausmif;om;rsm;) ESifh udkxGef;pdef? udkwifOD;? udkwifñGefY? udkcspfwD; (xGef;vDa&mif)?
udkarmifodef;ESihf tjcm; (2) OD; yg0ifcJhavonf/ þuJhodkY ZlvdkifvrS pufwifbmvtxd EkdifiHjcm;jzpf pD;u&uf
raomufa&; twGuf ausmif;om;rsm;u vli,frsm;ESifh vufwGJí vIyf½Sm;cJhMuonf/ þonfum; ArmEkdifiHordkif;\
ausmif;om;? vli,f yl;aygif;vIyf½Sm;rI yxrOD;qHk; jzpfonf/

(i) Ekid if jH cm;jzpft0wftxnfqefu
Y siaf &;ESihf ausmif;om;rsm;
1930-31 pmoifESpfwGif aumvdyfausmif;om;rsm;\ e,fcsJUtarGcH 0wfpm;qif,ifrIjzpfonfh ydk;tusÐ?
rmzvm? t*Fvdyfbdeyf? a½Tem&D? wkwfaumufESifh aq;wHwdkYudk trsKd;om;a&;toGifjzifh ajymif;vJ0wfqif&ef
aumvdyfausmif;om; udkEk? udkxGef;pdef? udk[defwdkYtkyfpkonf vdkufvHEdI;aqmfvmMuonf/ EkdifiHjcm;jzpf pD;u&ufvHk;0
36

udkvdkeDacwfv,f - 1922 rS 1930 - e,fcsJYqefhusifa&; trsKd;om;a&;toGif
raomufa&;? Ekid if jH cm;jzpfy;kd zJ? uwåyD gt0wfrsm;tm;vH;k oydwaf rSmufNyD; yifeED iS hf a,mvHck snfukd OD;pm;ay;0wfqif&ef
acgif;u bkdauudk uwHk;wHk;NyD; ¤if;wdkY udk,fwkdifu yifeDwkdufyHktusÐESifh a,mykqdk;om 0wfqifMuonf/
trsKd;orD;rsm; tusÐyg; r0wfa&;? aygif'grsufESmacs roHk;&efESifh yifeDtusÐ0wfí n§yfbdeyfpD;Mu&ef?
ykodrfxD; aqmif;Mu&efwdkYudk udkEk? udkxGef;pdef? udkApdef? udk[defwdkY tkyfpku vdkufvHEdI;aqmfavonf/ þodkYjzifh Arm
jzpf toH;k taqmifuo
kd m tm;ay;&ef tm;oGecf eG pf u
dk f vkyaf qmifraI Mumifh vnf;aumif;? Ekid if jH cm;jzpf oydwaf rSmufa&;rSm
ausmif;om; vli,fxk\ wuf<urIaMumifh wuf<uaom vlxkvIyf½Sm;rItjzpfodkY a&muf½SdoGm;í ArmwrsKd;om;vHk;rSm
Ekid if jH cm;jzpf qefYusifvmMuonf/ ¤if;ausmif;om; vli,fxk tpnf;ta0;rSmvnf; ArmEkid if v
H ;kH qkid &f mtzGJUcsKyf tjzpf
ay:aygufvmonf/ ¤if;toif;BuD;onf au'gausmif;om;rsm; arG;í ArmEkdifiHa&; ajymif;vJrI? e,fcsJUqefYusifa&;
trsKd;om;a&;pdw"f mwfrsm; ay:xGe;f &ef avhusiahf y;cJo
h nf/ ¤if;toif;\ tzGJU0if au'grsm;onf ausmif;om;vIy½f mS ;rI
acgif;aqmifydkif;wGif vnf;aumif;? &efukefwuúodkvfausmif;om;rsm;or*¾ESifh AuozGJUpnf;ay:aygufa&;twGuf
wdYk Armtpnf;t½H;k jzpfay:vmap&efEiS hf ocifacgif;aqmifrsm;tjzpf vnf;aumif;? vGwv
f yfa&;BudK;yrf;rI acgif;aqmif
rsm;tjzpf vnf;aumif; aqmif½GufcJhonf/

(p) e,fcsUJ tpd;k &qefu
Y siaf &;ESihf ausmif;om;rsm;
þuJhodkY e,fcsJUtpdk;&udk qefYusif? e,fcsJUpD;yGm;a&;udk ½dkufcsKd;? e,fcsJU,Ofaus;rIudk tjrpfrS NzdKvJcsNyD;½Hk
omru &efukefwuúodkvf ausmif;om;rsm;onf at;aq;pGm ynmroifbJ e,fcsJUqefYusifa&;w&m;rsm;udk t&yfxJ
qif;NyD; vdkufvH a[majymjcif;aMumifh e,fcsJUNAdwdoQwdkYrSm rsufpdpyg;arG;pl;vmonf/ þodkYjzifh ausmif;om;vli,f
acgif;aqmifrsm; &yfuGufxJ qif;um e,fcsJUqefYusifa&; w&m;rsm; a[majym&mwGif &yfuGufxJü e,fcsJUqefYusifa&;?
e,fcsJUpD;yGm;a&; qefUusifrIrsm;jzifh ½kwf½kwfoJoJ usef&pfcJhonf/
q&mpH BudK;rdeYf ay;NyD;aemuf q&mpHawmfveS af &; ½H;I edro
hf mG ;aomtcgüvnf; wuúov
kd f ausmif;om;rsm;xJrS
wdkYArmtpnf;t½Hk;odkY yxrOD;qHk; ocifjzpfvmaom udkApdefu q&mpHawmfvSefa&;udk trTrf;wifí aoG;xkd;vIHYaqmf
pmwrf;rsm;udk nOfhtcsdefwGif vdkufvHuyffonf/
]q&mpHawmfvSefa&;onf rSefaMumif;? q&mpHawmfvSefa&; atmifjrifrnf r[kwfaomfvnf; qufvuf
awmfvSef&rnf jzpfaMumif;} 0g'jzefYcsdí t*Fvdyfudk awmfvSef&ef vQKdU0SufpGm pm½Gufpmwrf;rsm;udk yvlysHatmif
jzefYa0onf/ xkdudpaö Mumifh &efukefwuúodkvfausmif;rS xkwfy,fí ,k'oefaumvdyfodkY ajymif;a½TUcH&aom udkApdefrSm
,k'oefaumvdyfrS xyfrH xkwfy,fcH&jyefonf/

(q) wdAYk rmtpnf;t½H;k tp ausmif;om;u

Source: Year 1300

1920 jynfh yxrausmif;om;oydwfwGif rEÅav;NrdKU Ak'¨omoeEk*¾[
txufwef;ausmif; (BTM) wGif ynmoifMum;aeaom udb
k aomif;onf &efuek f
NrdKUodYk a&muf½í
dS wuúov
kd f bmomjyef enf;jyq&mtjzpf aqmif½u
G pf Of q&mBuD;
OD;azarmifwif? OD;quf? rpöwmzmeDA,fwkdY\ wdkufwGef;csuft& urÇmh&mZ0ifcsKyf
pmtkyfudk jrefrmbmomodkY wifoGif;í oufqkdif&modkY wifjycJh&m Prince Wales
a0vrif;om;pmayqk (Moliere Classic) bmomjyef pmayqkaiG 1000d^&½SdcJhonf/ udkbaomif;onf ausmif;om;rsm;udk tajccHí t*Fvdyfe,fcsJUtm;
qefYusif&ef uspfvspfcdkifrmaom tzGJUtpnf; w&yfvdktyfaMumif; odvmonf/
xdYk aMumifh wduscdik rf mí jywfom;&J&ifah om Ekid if aH &;tzGUJ tpnf;BuD;w&yf ay:xGe;f
vma&;twGuf udkbaomif;onf "mwkaA'udkvSabmf (aemif ocifvSabmf)? Arm
jynfpmtkyftoif;rS udkodef;armif (aemif ocifodef;armif)? tjrwfawmfaMu;½Hk;rS
udt
k ;kH cif (ajcvsi)f wdYk yg0ifMuonf/ xdak usmif;om;vli,frsm;ESiu
hf kd baomif;onf
ocifbaomif;
wkdYArmtpnf;t½Hk;udk wnfaxmif&ef vnf;aumif;? xdktpnf;t½Hk;0ifrsm; a½SUwGif
ocifqdkonfrSm uRefESifh qefYusifzufjzpfaMumif;? waumif;tbd&mZmrS ,aeYwdkif ArmvlrsdK;rsm;onf ocifrsm;jzpf
aMumif;? xdkYaMumifh ocif[k a½SUuwyfac:&efqHk;jzwfNyD; 1930 jynfhESpf? arv (30) &ufaeYwGif jzpfyGm;aom ulvD
37

jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif; - atmifxGef;
t"du½kPf; (ukvm;-Arm t"du½kPf;) udk taMumif;jyKí wdkYArmtpnf;t½Hk; aMujimcsufudk xkwfa0vdkufonf/
¤if;aMujimcsufwiG f aoqH;k aomolrsm;pm&if;ESihf trsKd;om;a&;ESihf e,fcsJUqefYusifa&;pdw"f mwfrsm; jyefvnf½iS o
f efvm
ap&eftwGuf &nf½,
G í
f xdak eY 1930 arv (30) &ufaeYrmS yif ]wdAhk rmtpnf;t½H;k } udk wnfaxmifco
hJ nf/ xdak Munm
pmwrf;wGif ocifbaomif;? wdkYArmtpnf;t½kH;? jcHtrSwf (33)? a&wm½Snfvrf;? A[ef;NrdKUe,f[k azmfjyxm;onf/
¤if;aMujimcsufü-

wkdYArmpmwrf;
Armjynfonf
Armpmonf
Armpmonf
Armjynfudk
Armpmudk
Armpum;udk

-

'kdYjynf
'dkYpm
'dkYpum;
cspfyg
csD;jr§ifhyg
av;pm;yg

-[kazmfjyxm;onf/
wdkYArmtpnf;t½Hk;[k qkd&mü wdkYArmjynfxJü½Sdaom vlrsKd;tm;vHk;udk udk,fpm;jyKonfh t"dyÜg,f azmfaqmif
jcif; txdrf;trSwf jzpfonf/ jrefrm[laom pum;rSm ]jrefonf? rmonf}[laom t"dyÜg,faqmifaomfvnf; ESmoHygí
abmifusOf;onf/ tm;enf;onf/ ½Srf;? u&if? ucsif? rGef? &cdkif? yavmif? awmifol? qvHk? em*? jrefrmpaom Arm
wkdif;&if;om; tm;vHk;udk jcHKiHkrdap&ef Arm[laom pum;vHk;udk a½G;onf/ bukef;ESifh ]brm} [kra&;bJ ]A} vcsKduf
ESifh a&;jcif;rSmvnf; ]b}onf &Hzef&Hcg ]A}oHxGufojzifh pdwfrcs&í ]A}vcsKdufESifh ]Arm}[k a&;jcif;jzpfonf/

Source: Tamadaw History (Vol-1)

ArmEdik if v
H ;kH qdik &f m wdAhk rmtpnf;½H;k trIaqmifrsm;tpnf;ta0;yJG rSww
f rf;"gwyf kH (ckEpS f rod&)

38

udkvdkeDacwfv,f - 1922 rS 1930 - e,fcsJYqefhusifa&; trsKd;om;a&;toGif

(Z) cGyaf 'gi;f tp &Jwyfu? wyfrawmftp ausmif;om;u
1930 jynfh? ZGefv (15) &ufwGif wdkYArmtpnf;t½Hk;rS udkvSabmf (ocifvSabmf) OD;aqmifNyD; ausmif;om;
vli,f (25) OD;onf&efrvdkvsif &efydkonf
&efvdkrS &efNydKonf
-[laom pmwrf;aMunmcsuf trSwf (1) xGufNyD;aemuf wdkYArmocifrsm;\ 'dkYArm&Jwyf zGJUpnf;&efvdkvm;
aom qE´jyyGJudk a½Twd*HkapwDawmf awmifbufrk'frS qif; a'gif;tvHBuD;a½SUqHk;rS vTifhxlum AdkvfwaxmifuGif;odkY
ppfa&;jy csw
D ufouJo
h Ykd csw
D ufNyD; ]'dAhk rm&Jwyf} (Yetat) udk pwifzUJG pnf;cJo
h nf/ csw
D uf&m vrf;aMumif;wavQmufwiG f
wOD;u ]'dAhk rm} [k toHwidk af y;vku
d v
f Qif usefvrl sm;u ]'dAhk rma[h 'dAhk rm} [k oHNydKiaf <u;aMumfum vufo;D vufarmif;
wef;NyD; csDwufMuonf/ ppfa&;jy csDwufolrsm;onf rnfonfhum; rnfonfh &xm;rQ ra½Smif? rSefrSefBuD;om 'dkYArm
toHjyif;jyif;ESifh AdkvfwaxmifuGif;ta&muf csDwufvmMuonf/
Adv
k w
f axmifuiG ;f odYk a&mufaomtcg ocifvaS bmfu tav;jyK&ef trdeYfay;vdu
k &f m a'gif;tvHBuD;udk vTix
hf í
l
ppfwyfozG,f wef;pDum tav;jyKMuonf/ þonf ,aeY EkdifiHwyfrawmfzGJUpnf;&ef tjrKawcJhaom ocifvSabmf
OD;aqmifí ausmif;om;trsm;pk yg0ifcJhonfh 'dkYArm&Jwyfyif jzpfonf/ 'dkYArm&Jwyfonf aemifArmhvuf½Hk;wyf? Armh
umuG,fa&;wyf? ArmhrsKd;cspfwyfrawmf? Armhwyfrawmf? jynfolYwyfrawmfrsm; qifhuJqifhuJ jzpfay:vmonf/
vufeufudkifwyfrsm;\ EkdifiHa&;tESpfom&½Sd½Sd ]tjrKaw} wyf tpyifjzpfonf/ 'dkYArm&JwyfrSm yxrwGif tusÐteD?
abmif;bDtndK aemufydkif;ü tusÐa&m abmif;bDyg eDndKa&mifESifh 0g;zufOD;xkyf 0wfqifcJhonf/
xdktcsdefü (21) OD;ygwDrS ynma&;0ef OD;armifarmifBuD;\ tpdrf;a&mif wyfpdrf;vnf; ½Sdonf/ ¤if;tzGJUtvH
rSm trsKd;om;tvHtjzpf ]&Jol (ol&BJ u;D ) atmifv}H (The Victory Flag of Braves) aemufcHtpdrf;ESifh tv,fwGif
cGyfa'gif; yg½Sdonf/ ¤if;&Jwyfrsm;onf aemifwGif trsKd;om;wyfrawmfjzpfNyD; NAdwdoQvdkvm;olrsm;rSty usefolrsm;
tm;vH;k eD;yg; ausmif;om;? vlBuD;? vli,faygif;pHk yg0ifco
hJ nf/ trsKd;om;aeYtcrf;tem; jyKvky&f mü csDwufwyfzUJG uJo
h Ykd
jyKvkyfcJhonf/ 'dkYArm&Jwyf\ &Jowif;pmudk r[maqGtm; t,f'DwmcefYí xkwfa0cJhonf/ ¤if;aemufrS OD;apm\
*VKefwyf? a'gufwmbarmf\ "m;rwyf? 1937 wGif ausmif;om;or*¾ oHrPdwyfwYkd jzpfay:vmonf/ 1933 a½Tbw
kd iG f
ocifrsm; atmifajreif; w&m;a[mpOf awmifil ocifvSarmif? ocif<u,f? ocifAat;wdkY\ &efBuD;atmifwyf?
1934 wGif ½Sift&d,? ocifApdef? ocifav;armifwdkY acsmufNrdKUodkY pnf;½Hk;a&;a&mufaomtcg 'kdYArm½SyfeDwyfrsm;
zGJUpnf;cJh\/
þodUk aumvdyaf usmif;om; udv
k aS bmfO;D aqmifí udb
k aomif;ESihf ausmif;om; trsm;tjym;onf a'gif;tvH
vTix
hf í
l Adv
k w
f axmifuiG ;f ü ppfa&;jy a[majympnf;vH;k NyD;aemuf aumvdyaf usmif;om; udb
k aomif;uyif ocifbUJG ,l
í ausmif;om;rsm;jzpfaom udkvSabmf? udkav;armif? udkApdef? udkodef;[ef? udkbwif? udkxGef;a½T? udk[def? udkxGef;pdef
(yxr ocFsmenf;jy? aemif Oya' yxrESpfausmif;om;) OD;? udk? armif wkdYtm; ocifbGJU trnfajymif;vJ ac:a0:cJh
onf/ þodYk ArmEdik if v
H ;Hk qkid &f mvli,frsm;tzGUJ csKyf aumvdyaf usmif;om;rsm; pwifcahJ om wdYk Armtpnf;t½H;k BuD;onf
vGwfvyfa&; &½Sd&ef t"duuscJhaom tzGJUtpnf;BuD;jzpfonf/

(ps) 1925 ckEpS f rEåav;aumvdyaf usmif;om;rsm;\ trsK;d om;a&;vIy&f mS ;rI
rEÅav;NrdKUrS A[dpk nf OD;bOD;ESihf trsKd;om;ausmif;tkyBf uD; OD;&mZwfwYkd \ BudK;yrf;rIaMumifh &efuek w
f uúov
kd f
tmPmydkifrsm;onf txufArmEkdifiHNrdKUawmfjzpfaom rEÅav;NrdKUwGif e,fcsJUtpkd;&\ cGifhjyKcsuft& tifwmrD'D&dwf
(0g) ref;Oypmaumvdyfudk 1925 ckESpfwGif zGifhay;cJhonf/ xkdpOfu ref;Oypmaumvdyf ausmif;om;rsm;rSm a[mif;EGrf;
EkHcsm pkwfjywfNyD; rdk;½GmvQif wpdrfhpdrfh,dkwwfaom taqmuftODav;ü xD;aqmif;NyD; oifwef;rsm; wufcJh&onf/
a[mif;EGrf; ,dk,Gif;aeaom rsufESmusufrS t*Fawrsm; uGmusvQifvnf; acgif;ay:usrnfpdk;í &ifwxdwfxdwfESifh
owdxm;NyD; pmoifcJh&onf/ odkYaomf ausmif;tkyfBuD; at'Drm½S,frSm ausmom;&ifom;rcGJjcm;bJ tm;vHk;ajyjypfpGm
qufqHonf/ aiGaMu;rzlvHkaom ausmif;om;rsm;udkvnf; jzpfonfhenf;jzifh tultnDay;onf/ xdktcsufudk
&efuek af umvdyf ausmif;tkyBf uD; rpöwm'Da*spavmhonf rauseyfay/ xdYkaMumifh rpöwm'Da*spavmhrmS rpöwmat'Drm½S,f
ausmif;tkyfBuD; tjzpfrS jzKwf&eftwGuf rEÅav; Oypmaumvdyfudk ydwf&ef qD;edwfodkYwifí qHk;jzwfvdkufonf/
39

jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif; - atmifxGef;
&efukefwuúokdvfrS AsL½dku&uf rsufESmjzLq&mBuD;rsm;uvnf; rpöwmpavmh ausmif;ydwfrnfh tqkdudk oabmwlMu
onf/
ref;Oypmaumvdyfudk tNyD;tydkifydwfypfrnf[k qHk;jzwfcsufaMumifh 1928 wGif ref;Oypmaumvdyfü 1920
yxrausmif;om;oydwfuJhodkY oydwfarSmufvkrcef; jzpfoGm;onf/
rEÅav;NrdKU rif;wkdifyiftrwf A[kdpnf OD;bOD;onf &efukefü½SdaepOf ref;Oypmaumvdyfydwf&ef qHk;jzwfcsuf
csvdkufaom qD;edwftpnf;ta0;NyD;qHk;onfESifh wNydKifeuf OD;bOD;onf &efukef ol&d,owif;pmrSaeí ref;Oypm
aumvdyaf usmif;om;rsm; Nidrrf aebJ oydwaf rSmufMu&ef Ed;I aqmfvu
kd o
f nf/ xdt
k csdef ref;Oypmaumvdyüf ausmif;om;
rsm;or*¾vnf; r½Sdao;ay/ EkdifiHa&; pdwf0ifpm;jcif;vnf; r½Sdao;ay/ trnfrazmfbJ OD;bOD;\ vIHYaqmfrIaMumifh
&efukef qD;edwftpnf;ta0;NyD;qHk;onfh aemufwaeYrSmyif OypmaumvdyfrSausmif;om;rsm; rdrdwdkY zmodzmomaeí
rjzpfrSef; odvmMuNyD; pk½Hk;pk½Hk;jzpfvmMuonf/ rD;cJjymzHk;yrm olwkdY&ifwGif; udef;atmif;aeaom ZmwdrmefwkdY yGifhxGuf
vmMuonf/ xdktcgausmif;tkyfBuD; rpöwmat'Drm½S,fu ausmif;om;acgif;aqmifwOD;jzpfol udkcifarmifuav;
(aemif zqyv0efBuD; Adkvfcifarmifuav;) tm; ]q&mu wuúov
kd t
f rIxrf;jzpfvhkd 'Dupd rö mS ygvhkd rjzpfb;l / rif;wku
hd pd ö
jzpfw,f/ tvsOf;oifUovdk MunfUaqmif½GufMu/ ref;Oypmaumvdyfydwf&if q&m &efukefrjyefawmUbl;/ q&mU NrdKYudkbJ
q&mjyefawmUr,f} [k ajymonf/
ref;Oypmaumvdyfü q&mBuD;rpöwmrm½S,f cGifhoGm;wkdif; udk,fpm;vS,f ausmif;tkyfBuD; vkyfaom ocFsm
uxdu q&mBuD; OD;vSazmfOD;uvnf; aemufuG,fuae tultnDay;rnf[k ajymMum;cJhonf/ ygVdq&m OD;vSatmif
uvnf; xdkodkY ajymonf/ ausmif;q&mtm;vHk; ausmif;om;rsm;vkyfrnfh tpDtpOfudk taESmuft,Sufray;acs/
xkdYaemuf q&mBuD; OD;vSazmfOD;onf pufbD;wpD;ESifh NrdKUrd? NrdKUz? ausmif;om;rdbrsm;xHoGm;í tultnD
ay;&ef wdkufwGef;onf/ trsKd;om;ausmif;tkyfq&mBuD; OD;&mZwftdrfodkY oGm;a&mufívnf; q&mBuD; (2) OD; ausmif;
om;rsm; ta&; aqG;aEG;Muonf/ ausmif;om;rsm;tpnf;ta0; usif;yaomtcg tqdkwifoGif;&ef t*Fvdyfpmjzifh
q&m (2) OD; a&;om;oDuHk; ay;onf/
ausmif;om;rsm;uvnf; q&mrdbrsm;ESifhwuG rEÅav;NrdKUrS &[ef;awmft½Sifjrwfrsm;xH csO;f uyfMuonf/
xdt
k cg rEÅav;NrdKU? tdraf wmf&m (14) cef; Z&yfBuD;ü NrdKUvH;k uRwf tpnf;ta0; usif;yonf/ ref;Oypmaumvdyf
rydwfa&; tqkdudk ausmif;om;rsm;u &J&JawmufwifoGif;NyD; ¤if;tqdkudk &efukefwuúodkvf rvdkufavsmvsif a½SUodkY
wvSrf;wufrnf[k &mZoHay;vdkufonf/
e,fcsJUNAdwdoQ AsL½dku&uftpkd;&onf 1920 ausmif;om;rsm;oydwfuJhodkY jzpfoGm;rnfpkd;í ausmif;om;rsm;
vdv
k m;csufukd tjrefq;kH vdu
k af vsmcJo
h nf/ þodYk ref;Oypmaumvdyf ausmif;om;rsm; qE´jy&m (14) cef;? tdraf wmf&m
Z&yfBuD;rSm aemifwGif OD;ausmfNidrf;? Adkvfcifarmifuav;? OD;vSarmif? OD;odef;azjrifh? OD;odef;atmifwkdY\ EkdifiHa&;
oaE¨wnf&m XmeBuD; wckjzpfcJhonf/

40

udkvdkeDacwfaESmif; - 1930 rS 1931 - e,fcsJYqefhusifa&; vGwfvyfa&;BudK;yrf;rI trsKd;om;a&;toGif

tcef; (4)
udv
k ekd aD cwfaESmif;ydik ;f
e,fcsUJ qefu
Y siaf &; vGwv
f yfa&;BuKd ;yrf;rI trsKd ;om;a&;toGif
ausmif;om;vIy&f mS ;rIordik ;f
(1930 rS 1931)

(u) 1930 ckEpS Ef iS hf ¤if;ESprf wkid rf D ausmif;om;rsm;tajctae
1930 rwkdifrD tajctaewGif ausmif;om;trsm;pkonf aumvdyfausmif;om;vIyf½Sm;rIwGif yg0ifcJhMuaomf
vnf; wuúokdvftmPmydkifrsm;\ tajctaeudk aumif;pGm owdxm;ae&onf/ ausmif;om;topf (z&uf½Sm) rsm;udk
ygarmu©ESifh q&mrsm;\ enf;y&d,m,fudk aumif;pGmem;rvnf? wuúodkvftajctaeudkvnf; oabmraygufaom
aMumifh q&mrsm;ESifh XmerSL;rsm; csay;aomyHkpHxJokdY a&muf½SdMuonfu rsm;\/ ygarmu¨tcsdKUESifh q&mrsm;onf
ausmif;om;rsm;udk pmoifcef;ESifh rnfodkY qGJaqmif&rnfudk aumif;pGmem;vnfMuonf/ ausmif;om;trsm;pkrSmvnf;
q&mrsm;udk twkcdk;í q&mrsm;tay: pdwf0ifpm;MuNyD; ausmif;om;b0udk ydkrdkwyfrufvmMuonf/ q&mwdkY\ xl;
jcm;aom pdwfaepdwfxm;? t,ltq? pOf;pm;yHkpOf;pm;enf;rsm;udk tzGJUrsm; tpkrsm;zGJUí avhvmMuonf/ odkYaomf
ausmif;om;trsm;pkrmS trsKd;om;ausmif;rsm;ü Ak'b
¨ momESihf Armh,Ofaus;rI xH;k wrf;pOfvmrsm; xdawGUvmaomaMumifh
wuúov
kd af &mufaomtcg trsKd;om;ausmif;rsm;rS atmifvmonfjzpfap? rpf½iS [
f u
dk pf ul;ausmif;rsm;rS atmifvmonf
jzpfap? Ak'¨bmomtoif;rsm; zGJUpnf;í Ak'¨bmomESifh vlrIa&;vkyfief;rsm; vkyfaqmifcJhonf/ ¤if;wdkYonf yHkrSeftm;jzifh
a½Twd*Hkbk&m;odkY oGm;a&mufí wHjrufvSnf;jcif;? 0wfjyKjcif;rsm; jyKvkyfayonf/ ausmif;om;tm;vHk;u xkdvkyfief;udk
wuf<upGm yg0ifcjhJ cif; r[kwaf y/ ausmif;om;tenf;pkrmS ,Ofaus;rIrhJ cJMh uonf/ ¤if;tenf;pkrmS Oa&myEkid if rH sm;wGif
ausmif;aecJo
h rl sm;ESihf Oa&mywdu
k o
f m;rsm;? ¤if;wkYd\ rdbrsm;rSm AsL½du
k &uf NrdKUjyt&m½Srd sm;? w½kwEf iS hf Oa&mywdu
k o
f m;
rsm; jzpfaomaMumifh jzpfonf/ trSefawmh xdkvlenf;pkrSm ¤if;wkdYonf Oa&mywkdufom;vnf; r[kwf? Armvnf;
r[kwf? ¤if;vlenf;pkrSm ¤if;wkdY txJwGifom ¤if;wkdYauseyfaeMuonf/

(c) wuo zGUJ pnf;jzpf&eftajctae
1930 ckESpf tpydkif;wGif wuúodkvfausmif;om; trsm;pkrSm aysmfyGJ½TifyGJ tm;upm;NydKifyGJrsm;ESifhom wuúodkvf
41

jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif; - atmifxGef;
ausmif;om; b0jynfhpHkaeonf[k ,lqaeMuonf/ bGJU'D*&D&NyD;vQif tpdk;&tvkyf 0ifvkyf&efom pdwf0ifpm;Muonf/
odkYaomf trsKd;om;a&;pdwf"mwfrsm;onf wuúodkvfausmif;om;rsm; twGif;odkY wkdif;jynfrS enf;rsKd;pHkjzifh 0ifa&mufvm
Muonf/ ¤if;wdkYxJrS trsKd;om;a&; pdwf"mwfxufoefaom udkEk? udkApdef? udkav;armifwkdYonf wkdYArmtpnf;t½Hk;
pwif wnfaxmifcJh&mü ocifbaomif; (udkbaomif;) ESifhtwl vnf;aumif;? ArmEkdifiHvHk;qkdif&mvli,frsm;tzGJUcsKyf
zGJUpnf;&müvnf;aumif; qufoG,fyg0ifcJhMuNyD; ¤if;wkdYrSm trsKd;om;vGwfajrmufa&;twGuf wuúodkvfrS EkdifiHa&;
jyifqifrItaejzifh tzGJUtpnf;wck zGJUpnf;vdkMuonf/

(*) &efuek w
f uúov
dk af usmif;om;or*¾ taqmuftODjzpfay:vmyHk
1926 ckESpftxd &efukefwuúodkvfwGif ausmif;om;or*¾tzGJU r½Sdao;acs/ xdktcsdefu wuúodkvft"dywd
qm[mukwb
f wfwvm (Sir Harcourt Butler G.C.I.E., I.C.S) \ arwåm&yfccH sut
f & qefuek o
f nfEiS hf qefpufyikd f
½Sif OD;ndKonf wuúodkvfausmif;om;or*¾ jzpfajrmufa&;twGuf aiGusyf wodef;ckESpfaomif; (170000) udk 1926
wGif vSL'gef;cJhonf/ 1929 ckESpfwGif or*¾taqmuftODudk pwifaqmifvkyfcJh&m 1930 ckESpf aEG&moDausmif;ydwf&uf
rprD (3) vcefYtvdw
k iG f aqmufvyk Nf yD;pD;oGm;onf/ ¤if;taqmuftODBuD;onf aemifwcsdew
f iG f e,fcsJUtpd;k & qefYusif
a&;XmecsKyfjzpfcJhvQif e,fcsJUu aqmufcGifhay;rnfr[kwf/ OD;ndKvnf; a'gufwmbGJU r&awmhay/ or*¾taqmuftOD
aqmufvyk Nf yD;pD;aomtcg ausmif;tkyBf uD; rpöwmpavmh (D.J Sloss) onf ,leAD mpDwu
D Rrf;bm; tm;upm;½Hak b;em;
½Sd jrufcif;jyifü vufbuf&nfyjJG zif{h nfch NH yD; OD;ndKtm; *kPx
f ;l aqmifa'gufwmbGUJ tyfEiS ;f onfh tcrf;tem;[kajymvdu
k f
onf/ OD;ndKrSm aiGt½Sdeft0gjzifh a'gufwmbGJU &oGm;onf/ a'gufwmOD;ndK (K.S.M, L.L.D) jzpfoGm;avonf/

Photo: Kyaw Zaw (OwaY)

1930 ckEpS w
f iG f Ny;D pD;onfU olaX;OD;ndK vSL'ge;f cJah om &efuek w
f uúov
kd af usmif;om;or*¾ taqmuftOD

(C) &efuek w
f uúov
kd af usmif;om;or*¾ (wuo) pwifjzpfay:vmjcif;
wuúov
kd t
f "dywd a'gufwma*spavmhrmS NAdwo
d QMoZm vTr;f rd;k cH&qH;k olwOD;jzpfonf/ ¤if;\oabmxm;rSm
wuúodkvfausmif;om;rsm; pmoifí bGJU ('D*&D) &NyD;aomtcg NAdwdoQtpdk;&\ Xmetvkyfrsm;wGif vnf;aumif;?
tdEd´,tpkd;&\ Xmetvkyfrsm;wGif vnf;aumif;? NAdwdoQtifyg,m\ &JwyfzGJUwGif vnf;aumif;? tdEd´,tpdk;&\
opfawmESifh ynma&;XmewGif vnf;aumif; paom tvkyfrsm;üom 0ifvkyf&ef vdkvm;onf/ odkYaomf xdkae&mrsm;ü
ArmtrsKd;om;rsm; twGuf ae&mtenf;i,fom &½SdNyD; tvkyfvkyf&ef pdwfxufoefaom vli,frsm; NydKifqdkifaeMu
42

rSwfcsuf- or*¾taqmuftODudk a'gufwmOD;ndK (K.S.M., L.L.D.) u vSL'gef;NyD; 1927 ck? 'DZifbm (5) &ufaeYwGif wuúodkvft"dywd
Armjynfbk&ifcH qm[mukwfbwfwvm (G.C.I.E., K.C.S., I.C.S.) u tkwfjrpfcsonf/

udkvdkeDacwfaESmif; - 1930 rS 1931 - e,fcsJYqefhusifa&; vGwfvyfa&;BudK;yrf;rI trsKd;om;a&;toGif
&onf/ xdktajctaeaMumifh ArmtrsKd;om;rsm;rSm aus;½Gmrsm;ü q&mtvkyfom&½Sdonf/
xdo
k Ykd tajctaersm;ü trsKd;om;a&;pdw"f mwfjyif;xefaom udEk ?k udAk pde?f udak v;armifwYdk \ vIy½f mS ;rIaMumifh
vnf;aumif;? or*¾tzGJUjzpfay:ap&ef or*¾taqmuftODNyD;onfhaemuf 1930 pufwifbmvqef;wGif wuúodkvf
ausmif;om;BuD;rsm; tcsif;csif; aqG;aEG;NyD; ausmif;aqmifrsm;ü ausmif;aqmifae ausmif;om;rsm; tpnf;ta0;?
aeYausmif;om;rsm; NrdKUxJwGif tpnf;ta0;usif;yum ¤if;tpnf;ta0;rsm;\ wnDwñGwfwnf; qHk;jzwfcsuft&
1930 pufwifbmv? (12) &uf? aomMumaeYü udkausmfcif (0dZÆmodyÜH)? udkwifhaqG (0dZÆm)? udkb*srf; (*syfqif) wkdY
onf wuúodkvft"dywdudk,fpm; w&m;olBuD; OD;btm; oGm;a&mufawGUqHkí or*¾zGJUpnf;&ef? zGJUpnf;yHkpnf;rsOf;a&;
qGJa&; twGuf aumfrwDzGJUcGifh&&ef awmif;qdkcJhonf/
xdkYaemuf AmpDwDESifh ,k'oefausmif;om;rsm;pkaygif;NyD; 1930 pufwifbmv (20) &uf? paeaeYwGif
ausmif;om;xk tpnf;ta0;BuD;udk wuúodkvf tm;upm;½HkopfBuD;wGif usif;ycJhonf/ ¤if;tpnf;ta0;rS &efukef
wuúov
dk af usmif;om;rsm;or*¾ pnf;rsOf;a&;qGaJ &;aumfrwD zGUJ pnf;cJo
h nf/ udak usmfcif (0dZmÆ ody)HÜ u obmywdtjzpf
aqmif½Gufonf/
xdkYaemuf 1930 pufwifbmv (20) &uf? paeaeYwGif ausmif;om;xktpnf;ta0; qHk;jzwfcsuft&(1) ausmif;om;xkqE´jzifh trIaqmifaumfrwD a½G;aumufwifajr§muf&ef
(2) wuúodkvfausmif;om;rsm;or*¾\ zGJUpnf;yHkpnf;rsOf;Oya'a&;qGJ&ef
(3) trIaqmifaumfrwD a½G;aumufwifajr§muf&efwdkY jzpfonf/
pnf;rsOf;a&;qGJa&; aumfrwDtzGJYrSm
(1) udkausmfcif
Ouú|
(2) udkb*srf;
twGif;a&;rSL;
(3) udkausmfodef;
(4) udkwifhaqG
(5) udkxGef;wif
(6) udkbodef;
(7) udk&m½Spf
(8) udkarmiftkef;
(9) rpöwm yumqif
(10) udkpHazmfatmif
(11) udkbaz
(12) udkarmifñGefY wdkYyg0ifavonf/
¤if;tzGUJ onf Ek0d ifbmv (24) &ufaeYwiG f pnf;rsO;f a&;qGNJ yD;í tpD&ifcpH mudk ausmif;om;xk tpnf;ta0;odYk
rwifjyrD wuúodkvfaumvdyfausmif;om;rsm;xHrS rSwfcsufESifh a0zefcsufrsm; awmif;cHcJhonf/
1930 'DZifbm (17) &ufwGif qmb*srif tdyfcsf [Dvf (Sir Benjamin H. Heald Kt, M.A., I.C.S) u
aumfrwDu,
kd pf m;vS,Ef iS hf ausmif;tkyBf uD;rsm;tm; tpnf;ta0;w&yfjyKvkyí
f ajymif;vJ&ef wifjyavonf/ wuúov
kd f
tmPmydkifrsm;onf or*¾pnf;rsOf;udk atmufpzdkYpf or*¾twkdif; jzpfvdkonf/ 1931 ckESpf? Zefe0g&D (9) &ufwGif
ausmif;om;xktpnf;ta0;ü udo
k ed ;f armif (*syfqif) u obmywdtjzpf aqmif½u
G í
f rlMurf;udk oabmwlncD o
hJ nf/
¤if;tzGJUtpnf;u (9) OD;ygaom tvkyftrIaqmiftzGJUudk a½G;cs,fwifajrmufcJhonf/ ¤if;wkdYrSm(1) udkausmfcif
(2) udk&m½Spf
(3) udkxGef;wif
(4) udkbaz
(5) rpöwm yumqif
(6) udkausmf'if
(7) udkodef;armif
(8) udkpHazmfatmif
(9) udkApdef wkdYjzpfonf/
43

jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif; - atmifxGef;
¤if;trIaqmifaumfrwDonf or*¾taqmuftODEiS hf yufoufaomudp&ö yfrsm;? or*¾u,
kd pf m;aqmif½u
G cf iG ?hf
pnf;rsOf;Oya' rlacsma&;qGJa&;ESifh wuúodkvftmPmydkifrsm;ESifh aphpyfaqG;aEG;&ef tcGifhtmPm½Sdvmonf/
or*¾ESifhwuúodkvftmPmydkifMum; oabmxm;uGJvGJaom t"dutcsufrSm wuúodkvfausmif;om;a[mif;
rsm;ESihf bJUG &ausmif;om;rsm;tm; or*¾tzGUJ 0iftjzpf vufc&H ef udpjö zpfonf/ wuúov
kd t
f mPmydik f wuúov
kd af umifprD S
wifjyaom ¤if;tcsufrmS or*¾pnf;rsOf;Oya'ESihf qefYusifaMumif; or*¾u wifjyaomfvnf; wuúov
kd t
f mPmydik rf sm;
u oabmrwlay/ okdYaomf tBudrfaygif;rsm;pGm aqG;aEG;í 0wfvHkawmf& OD;pkd;ñGefY (M.A, M.L.C) ESifh wuúodkvf
aumifpD trIaqmifvlBuD;tcsKdU tultnDay;í 'k-t"dywdu vufcHNyD; zGJUpnf;yHkpnf;rsOf; tacsmudprö Sm ajyvnfoGm;
avonf/
1931 ckESpf? azazmf0g&D (27) &ufwGif usif;yaom or*¾tvkyftrIaqmifESifh wuúodkvftmPmydkifwdkY
oabmwlncD suf jyifqifcsurf sm;udk vufct
H wnfjyKvku
d o
f nf/ azazmf0g&Dv (28) &uf? eHeuf (11) em&DwiG f pnf;rsO;f
tm; twnfjyKvdkufaomtcg zGJUpnf;yHkpnf;rsOf;Oya'onf twnfjzpfvmonf/ wuo taqmuftODudk q&mBuD;
ygarmu© OD;azarmifwifu &efukefwuúokdvfausmif;om;or*¾ Ouú| udkausmfcifxH vTJtyfay;vkdufonf/

(i) pnf;rsO;f a&;qGaJ &;tzGUJ \ oabmxm;
pnf;rsOf;a&;qGJa&;tzGJU\ ajymMum;csufrSm]ausmif;om;rsm;tay: vHk;0BudK;udkifydkifcGifUonf pnf;rsOf;Oya'\ aomUcsufyifjzpfaMumif;? tem*wf Arm
Ekid if o
H m;wk\
hd ud,
k pf m;vS,jf zpfonfEiS t
Uf nD wuúov
dk af usmif;om;rsm;tm; Ekid if aH wmftusK;d xrf;½Guaf p&ef? vGwv
f yfa&;
pdwf"mwf oGif;ay;&efESifh wm0efodpdwf"mwfrsm; zefwD;ay;&ef BudK;yrf;oGm;rnf jzpfaMumif;/
wuúodkvfausmif;om;rsm;tm; vlrIa&;vkyfief;rsm; pDpOfay;jcif;? rdwfqufawGYqHkyGJrsm; pDpOfay;jcif;?
pm;aomufqkdifrsm; xm;½Sdjcif;? upm;ckefpm; pnf;½Hk;jcif;rsm; vkyfaqmifí pnf;½Hk;jcif;? ydkíta&;BuD;aom trsKd;om;a&;
pdw"f mwfoiG ;f ay;jcif;ESiUf vlaY vmu0ifa&mufaomtcg ud,
k af &;ud,
k w
f mqkid &f m b0wavQmufv;kH twGuf jynfpU akH p&ef
jzpfonf/
or*¾wckonf vGwv
f yfpmG awG;awmMuq
H jcif;ESiUf vGwv
f yfpmG xkwaf zmfajymqdak &;om;a&;twGuf &yfwnf
aeNyD; ausmif;om;vli,fwkdhonf EkdifiH\tem*wfudk ydkifqkdifaeonfomru ¤if;wdkh\ pdwf"mwfonf trsKd;om;a&;ESifU
rsKd;cspfpdwf"mwf tajccHyifjzpfonf} [k yg&Sdonf/

(p) 1931 wuor*¾Zif;
1931 ckESpf? Zefe0g&DvwGif EkdifiHa&;vIyf½Sm;rI OD;aqmifyg0ifaom ausmif;om;rsm;OD;aqmifí ]wuúodkvf
ausmif;om;rsm;r*¾Zif;} wapmifxw
k af 0cJo
h nf/ xkrd *¾Zif;onf Ekid if aH &;vIy½f mS ;aom ausmif;om;rsm;twGuf wku
d yf 0JG if
vufeufaumif; wck jzpfvmonf/
]"m;oGm;xuf? uavmifoGm;xufonf} [laom aqmifyk'fudk trdt&,lí uavmifwkdufyGJ 0ifcJhMuonf/

(q) 1931 ck aemufyikd ;f o[m,ESihf pmzwftoif;
1931 ck aemufyikd ;f wGif &efuek w
f uúov
kd af usmif;om;rsm;or*¾rS OD;aqmifí ausmif;aqmifrsm;ü o[m,ESihf
pmzwftoif; a[majymyGJrsm; jyKvkyfvmMuonf/ ¤if;a[majymyGJrsm;ü wdkYArmoDcsif; oDqkd&ef vIHYaqmfvmjcif;ESifh
NAdwdoQe,fcsJUqefYusifa&; trsKd;om;vGwfajrmufa&;twGuf pnf;½Hk;vIHYaqmfrIrsm; jzpfvmMuaomtcg wuúodkvf
ausmif;tkyfBuD;onf xkda[majymyGJrsm;udk ydwfyifvkdonf/
yxrOD;pGm q&mrsm;tm; ausmif;om;rsm;\ tpnf;ta0;ESifh a[majymyGJrsm; rwufa&muf&efESifh 0ifa&muf
a[majymjcif; rjyKvyk &f ef wm;jrpfco
hJ nf/ xkt
d cg bmomjyefq&m udb
k aomif; (ocifbaomif;) rSm qufvufyg0ifaeí
udb
k aomif;udk tcsdeyf ikd ;f enf;jyq&mtjzpf uefx½du
k f wESpfjynfhaomtcg q&mtjzpfrS &yfpJvkdufavonf/

44

udkvdkeDacwfaESmif; - 1930 rS 1931 - e,fcsJYqefhusifa&; vGwfvyfa&;BudK;yrf;rI trsKd;om;a&;toGif

(Z) udAk pdeEf iS hf wuúov
dk af jrvIy&f mS ;rI

Photo: Year 1300

ocifApdef

wuúov
kd af usmif;om; udAk pdeo
f nf ausmif;pmoifcef;rsm;ü q&mrsm; trnf
ac:vQif ]y&JqifUqm} "Present Sir" [k ausmif;om;tm;vH;k u xl;íaeMuonfukd
udkApdefu xkdodkYrxl;bJ ]a&mufygNyDcifAsm;}[k udkApdefu yxrOD;qHk; xl;cJhonf/
taqmifo[m,ESifh pmzwftoif;rsm;wGifvnf; udkApdefonf tjcm;aom udkb
aomif; (enf;jy) wdkYESifh wGJí trsKd;om;vGwfajrmufa&;ESifh e,fcsJUqefYusifa&; w&m;
rsm;a[mí &efukefwuúokdvfrS ,k'oefaumvdyfodkY ajymif;a½TUcH&onf/ q&m OD;az
armifwifonf udAk pdeEf iS hf udb
k aomif;wkYd \ Ekid if aH &;vIy½f mS ;rIukd tm;ay;cJo
h nf/
odkYaomf udkApdefonf ,k'oefaumvdyfodkY a&mufaomfvnf; q&mpH
awmfvSefa&;ESifh yufoufaom axmufcHcsufrsm;? rSefuefaMumif; aMunmcsufrsm;?
t*Fvdyfe,fcsJUtm; qufvufawmfvSef&ef vkyfaqmif&rnf[k aMunmcsufrsm;udk
jzefYcsdcJhjcif;aMumifh vnf;aumif;? &efukefwuúokdvfrS ajymif;a½TUvdkufaom udkApdef
udk ,k'oefaumvdyfrS ausmif;xkwfypf vdkufonf/

(ps) &efuek w
f uúov
kd af usmif;om;or*¾vyI &f mS ;rIEiS hf wdAYk rmoDcsi;f
wuúokdvfausmif;(enf;jy) ocifbaomif;onf wdkYArmoDcsif;udk wuúodkvfajrwGif ysHUESHY&eftwGufvnf;
aumif;? wuúokdvfajr wdkYArmtpnf;t½Hk;ESifh ocifvli,frsm; MoZmysHUESHY&eftwGufvnf;aumif;? ocFsmenf;jy (aemif
Oya'? yxrESp)f ausmif;om; udx
k eG ;f pde?f oxHak qmifraS usmif;q&m jrefrmpm r[m0dZmÆ bGUJ & OD;ñGeYf ? Oya'ausmif;om;
udkEkwkdYESifh wkdifyifí 1930 ckESpf? Zlvdkifv (19) &uf? paeaeYnü oxHkaqmifo[m,ESifh pmzwfcef;ü yxrqHk;
oDqdkMuonf/ yJcl;aqmifrS udkav;armif? yk*HaqmifrS ausmif;om; udkApdefESifh ausmif;om;BuD;rsm;? oxHkaqmifrS
ausmif;om;rsm; cef;vH;k jynfh wufa&mufMuonf/ taqmifrLS ; ygarmu© OD;azarmifwifuvnf; oDqcdk iG jhf yKvdu
k o
f nf/
xkdoDcsif; udpjö zpfNyD; rMumrD udkav;armifESifh udkApdefwdkYrSm ausmif;om;b0xJrS yxrOD;qHk;aom ocifbJGUudk cH,loGm;
aom vGwfvyfa&;BudK;yrf;rI ocifacgif;aqmifrsm; jzpfvmonf/ ¤if;wdkYArmoDcsif; wuúodkvfausmif;rS xkwfa0aom
wuúokdvfr*¾Zif;wGif t*FvdyfArm (2) bmomjzifh azmfjycJhonf/ wkdYArmoDcsif;udk 0dkiftrfbDat ocifwifu a&;pyfí
ocifvSabmfESifh ocifbaomif;wkdYu ulnDcJhonf/

wkAhd rmoDcsi;f (0g) wdAhk rmur®0g
waumif;tbd&mZm? 'dkYArm omuDrsKd;[mrdkY rnd§K;*kPfawZm? ,dk;',m;eJY ukvm;udkyg? wkdufcdkufum
atmifcJhwm 'dkYArm? pdefrSefuif;tppf tjzpfBuD;jzpfvsuf xif;wvSnfhMuHK&? xHk;ESifhraoG?
avmu"r®wmay- igwdkYuHac? jzpf&jyefoav? odkYaomf t&if;udkppfvQif Armajy? ig'dkY ig'dkYajy/
aemifO'gef; b,fraMup&m &mZ0ifwifxm;? rsKd;½dk;EG,fvm? urÇmwcGifrSmjzifh Armtxift½Sm;?
'dkYacwfwGifrS nHhMuawmhrSmvm;? 'dkYArm/
'dkYArm r[kwfavovm;/ ('dkhArm? ig'kdUArm) ('dkhArm? ig'kdYArm) ('g-ig'kdYArm) ('g-ig'kdYArm)
(tm; . . . . . vHk; . . . . nDnD? a,musfm;bom; 'kdhArm aemufvmaemufom; &J&JArmyDyD Armajy?
'dkhArmbdkhyg? ocifusifUudkusifUMuyg? ocifrsKd;a[U 'dkhArm? rdk;atmufajrjyifrSm txufwef;pdwfeJh?
Zmr&DaoG; . . . . . 'kdhArm/)
(oHNydKif) urÇmraMu . . . . . ArmwawG ('g 'dkhajy? 'g 'dkhajr? 'g ig'dkhajy)3 ('dkhArm)2 ajy . . . . . udk
wdkif;&if;om; tukeftpif 'dkYajy? 'dkYrSwfxif? 'dkY0wå&m;yif 'dkYArmocif/
trsKd;om;a&; BudK;yrf;Muyg? 'dkYArm a[h 'dkYArm/ aMomftrsKd;om;a&; BudK;yrf;Muyg? 'dkYArma[h 'dkYArm/
ta½SYuae0ef;xGufonfhyrmy- 'kdYacwfudk a&muf&rnfrSm rvGJyg- 'dkYArm-a[h 'kdYArm/ Armjynfw0Srf;
tukef? 'dkYtdrfrSwfyg? wdkY,mrSwfyg? tJ'g 'kdYArm/
(oHNydKif jyefaumuf)
45

jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif; - atmifxGef;

(n) &efuek w
f uúov
kd af usmif;om;rsm;or*¾ yxrOD;qH;k OuúX udx
k eG ;f pdef
1931 Zefe0g&D (9) &ufaeY ausmif;om;xktpnf;ta0;\ qHk;jzwfcsuft& ,m,Dor*¾ Ouú|tjzpf
udkausmfcifudk a½G;aumufwifajr§mufí trIaqmifa½G;aumufyGJBuD;Muyf&efESifh ,m,DtrIaqmif tzGJUi,fav;rsm;
zGJYpnf;ay;vkdufonf/ xkdtzGJUi,fav;rsm;onf or*¾pnf;rsOf;Oya'a&;qGJNyD; xkwfa0&efESifh ausmif;om;or*¾
a½G;aumufyGJBuD;Muyf&efyg wm0ef vTJay;vkdufonf/ xdktzGJUav;\ oufwrf;rSm av;vausmfomMumcJhonf/
1931-32 pmoifESpf or*¾tpnf;ta0;rS wuúokdvfocFsmXmerS EkwfxGufí yxrESpf Oya'oifwef;
wufa&muf oifMum;aeaom ausmif;om; udkxGef;pdef\ ajymyHkqdkyHk? owdå½SdyHkrsm;udk ausmif;om;rsm; txifBuD;Mu\/
udkxGef;pdeftm; ausmif;om;or*¾ Ouú| tqifhtwef;ESifh oifhawmfoljzpfí udkApdefu udkxGef;pdeftm; Ouú| tqdk
wifoiG ;f vku
d o
f nf/ tpnf;ta0;wGif a½G;aumufyBJG uD;Muyfa&;aumfrwD Ouú| udak usmfcifu a½G;aumufyJG usif;yrnfh
aeY&ufudk wvcefYcGmí owfrSwfvdkufonf/ a&;qGJNyD;jzpfaom pnf;rsOf;Oya'rsm;ukd wifBudKa0iSNyD;aemuf
,m,DtrIaqmifaumfrwDonf or*¾taqmuftODü tpnf;ta0; ac:,lcJhjcif;jzpfonf/

(#) udx
k eG ;f pdeEf iS hf trsK;d om;pdwf

Source: Oway Magazines

udx
k eG ;f pderf mS 1924 wGif (10) wef; pmar;yGaJ tmifNyD; &cdik jf ynfe,f oHwNJG rdKUrS
&efukefwuúodkvfodkY ynmoifMum;&ef oabFmjzifhxGufvmonf/ atmufzuf
ukef;ywfwGif wkdif;&if;om;c&D;onfrsm; jynfhESufaeí ]Oa&mywdkufom;rsm;
twGufom} [k a&;xm;aom txufwef;ukef;ywfwGif avaumif;avoefY&&ef
udkxGef;pdef wufoGm;onf/ pdwfxJüvnf; ]vlacsmifwJh txufwef;ukef;ywfrSm
'if;wdkYawGu ZdrfcHNyD; pD;eif;vdkufyg Muw,f/ wkdif;&if;om;awGuawmh atmufrSm
ig;yd? ig;csOfodyfxm;ovkdeJY vkdufyg&w,f}} awmufwcsufacgufNyD;rS ]]'if;wkdh
Armjynfudk tjrwfxkwf½Hkru wdkif;&if;om;awG tñGefhyg csdK;Muao;w,f?
olwdkheJh rwlrwefovdk xm;Muw,f? bm&rvJ 'DoabFmtay:u rsufESmjzLawGudk
ightaMumif; jy&ao;wmaygh} ukdxGef;pdefonf Oa&mywkdufom;rsm;om[kqkdaom
ukef;ywfwGif tdyf,mvdyfudk cyfwnfwnfESifh jzefYcif;NyD; vJavsmif;vdkufygvm
onf/ xdktcg rsufESmjzL yxrt&m½Sd (Chief Officer) a&mufvmNyD; ]]rif;wkdY
udx
k eG ;f pdef
Armwdkif;&if;om;awG jzpfw,f? rif;rodbl;vm; 'Dae&mu csufjcif; qif;prf;}}[k
udkxGef;pdefudk ESifcsonf/ udkxGef;pdefu ]]Armwkdif;&if;om;awGeJY Oa&mywkdufom;awGu vlawGcsnf; r[kwfvm;?
olwdkY ydkufqHay;pD;ovkd usaemfwkdYvnf; ydkufqH ay;pD;wmyJ}} xdktcgrsufESmjzKu ]]rif;½Snf½Snfa0;a0; ajymraeeJY
rqif;&if 'Duaeiguefcsvdkufr,f}} [k a'golykefxNyD; tdyf,may:vSJaeaom udkxGef;pdefudk nmajcjzifhuef&ef [efjyif
vku
d af omtcg udx
k eG ;f pdeu
f ½kww
f &ufrwfwyf&yfNyD; &ifbwfxrJ S (6) vufr armif;cs"m;udk xkwu
f m ]]udik ;f rif;uef
wmeJY rif;udik g"m;eJY xk;d r,f? uef&&J if uefMunfah v}} rsufEmS jzLt&m½Sd aMumufvefYpmG xGuo
f mG ;NyD; cPMumaomtcg
oabFmuyÜwdef aoewfjzifh vkdufvmonf/
]]rif;rqif;&if aoewfeJYypfr,f/ bmrSwfvdkYvJ ig'DoabFmrSm ypfowfEkdifwJh tmPm½Sdw,f}} xdktcg
udkxGef;pdef u ]]ypfowfEkdifwJh tmPm½Sd&ifvJ ypfav? cifAsm;ypfwmeJY usKyf"m;eJYxkd;r,f? olaoudk,faoaygh? usKyfwkdY
wkdif;&if;om;awGrSm Zmwdrmef½Sdw,f? cifAsm;wdkYqDrSmyJ ½Sdwmr[kwfbl;}} oabFmtxufwef; ukef;ywfwGif qlqlnHnH
jzpfaeí atmufwef;rS wuúov
kd af usmif;om;rsm; "m;rsm;udik u
f m wufvmMuí rsufEmS jzLt&m½Sd (2) OD;rSm vufavQmh
oGm;onf/
ukdxGef;pdefonf 1926 tdkiftufpDpmar;yGJatmifNyD;aomtcg 1926-27 wGif jynfaqmifESifh yk*HaqmifodkY
ajymif;a½TUoGm;onf/ udkxGef;pdefu ocifpkd;tm; t*Fvdyfpmjzifh a&;om;xm;aom EdkifiHa&;pmayrsm;udk oHvsiftdrfrS
,lvmí jcifaxmifxw
J iG f twl Ekid if aH &;pmayrsm; avhvmMuonf/ 1928-29 wGif wuúov
kd f ocFsmXmerS vufaxmuf
uxdu OD;um\ apwemt& ocsFmXmeenf;jyESifh taqmifenf;jy 0ifvkyfonf/ 1931 ckESpfwGif jynfaqmifESifh
waumif;aqmif a½SUbuf½Sd bDtkdpD tif*sifeD,maumvdyfq&mrsm; tyef;ajzpcef;wGif wuúokdvfocFsmXme ,m,D
ygarmu© rpöwmvl;0pf trdeYf t& ocFsmenf;jyudx
k eG ;f pdeEf iS hf rpöwmrwfwYkdonf tif*sief ,
D maumvdyw
f iG f enf;jywm0ef
46

udkvdkeDacwfaESmif; - 1930 rS 1931 - e,fcsJYqefhusifa&; vGwfvyfa&;BudK;yrf;rI trsKd;om;a&;toGif
xrf;aqmif&ef a&muf½Sdvmonf/ ¤if;tcef;rSm q&mrsm;tyef;ajz tcef;jzpfí vGwfvGwfvyfvyf aexdkifEkdifNyD;
wOD;udkwOD; av;av;pm;pm; ae&may;&ef rvdkay/ uxdu? ygarmu©ESifh ausmif;tkyfBuD;wkdYonf BudKufonfh
tcef;wGiG f BudKufovkd aexdik í
f &if;ES;D pGm pum;ajymEkid o
f nf/ ¤if;tcef;xJoYkd tif*sief ,
D mausmif;tkyBf uD; rpöwmcs,&f D
0ifa&mufvmonfudk udkxGef;pdefESifh rpöwmrwfwdkYrSm *½krpdkufbJ pum;qufajymaeMuonf/
xkt
d cg rpöwmcs,&f u
D ]]rif;wdYk b,fuaumifawGv}J } [k par;aomtcg udx
k eG ;f pdeu
f ]]usaemfwdkY ,leDAmpDwD
ocFsmXmeuyg? 'DaumvdyfrSm ocFsm tcsdefydkif;enf;jywm0ef xrf;aqmifzdkY ygarmu¨vl;0pf vTwfwmyg}} [k
&nfrGefpGm jyefajymvdkufonf/ xdktcg rsufESmjzL ausmif;tkyfBuD;u ]]rif;wkdY w,f½kdif;wJhaumifawGyJ? ig tif*sifeD,m
aumvdyf ausmif;tkyfBuD;yJ? rpöwmcs,f&Dqdkwm igyJ? 'Davmufawmif½kdif;NyD; t½kdtaoay;&rSef; rodwJhaumifawG
'Dtcef;xJu tckcsufjcif; xGufoGm;Mu}} udkxGef;pdefwkdY ESpfa,muf wkefvIyfroGm;ay/ udkxGef;pdefwdkY ESpfa,muf
rwkefrvIyf xkdifaeonf/ ausmif;tkyfBuD;udkvnf; t½dktao ray;acs/ xkdtcgausmif;tkyfBuD;onf pdwfqkd;vmNyD;
olYvufESpfzufjzifh q&mESpfa,muf\ tusÐudk *kwfrSqGJudkifNyD; tjyifodkY qGJxkwfaomtcg udkxGef;pdefonf nmvuf
oD;udk uspfuspfygatmif qkwfí ]]'g cifAsm; tarhvifaumvdyf r[kwfbl;? ArmEkdifiHaumvdyf? vmNyD;rapmfum;eJY}} [k
qku
d m rpöwmcs,&f \
D em;xifukd xk;d csvu
kd o
f nf/ xkt
d cg rpöwmcs,&f D csmvywfvnfí tcef;xJrS xGuaf jy;oGm;onf/
&efuek w
f uúov
kd f bGUJ ESi;f obif taqmuftOD wnfaqmufaeaomtcg udx
k eG ;f pdeu
f ]]taqmuftODBuD;u
awmfawmfBuD;rm; cdkifcefYwmbJ? xkxnfBuD;u aumif;vkdufwm? aumif;rSmaygh? oHxnfawGBuD; oHk;xm;wmav?
yHyk ef;uvnf; Armrqefb;l ? taqmuftODuv
kd nf; olwYkdqu
D xGuw
f hJ oHxnfawGyJ oH;k w,f? ArmEkid if rH mS aqmufvyk Nf y;D
ArmrqefwJU taemufEdkifiH ,Ofaus;rItEkynm ]*gaoU} Zmwf½HkBuD;eJYwlaeygvm; [k awG;rdaom udkxGef;pdefonf
t*FvdyfArm owif;pm (2) apmifü t,f'DwmxHay;pmjzifh tjyif;txef a0zefvkdufonf/ xdktcg taqmuftOD
aqmufvkyfa&; aumfrwDrSm rauseyfcsufudk ar;jref;&ef udkxGef;pdefudk zdwfac:&avonf/ xkdYaemuf cs,f,mrif
rpöwm'D*vif;AD;vf onf udkxGef;pdef\ tMuHay;csuft& ¤if;bGJYESif;obiftaqmuftODBuD;udk ArmjcaoFh½kyf (4)
½kyf xnfhoGif;wnfaqmuf vkdufonf/ xkdjcaoFh½kyfom r½Sdygu bGJUESif;obif taqmuftODonf Armrqefaom
taqmuftODBuD; jzpfaeayvdrfhrnf/
ausmif;om;rsm; MunfndKav;pm;aom udkxGef;pdefonf naebufü tv,fausmif;aqmifrsm;\ tpnf;
ta0;udk xrif;pm;aqmifü jyKvkyf&ef½Sd&m tpnf;ta0; rprD NAdwdoQtrsKd;om;oDcsif; oDqkdMu&onf/ oDcsif;\
t"dyÜg,frSm ]bk&m;ocif? usaemfwdkh bk&ifrif;jrwfudk apmifUa½Smufu,fwifyg} xdkoDcsif;oDqkdrIESifh yufoufí
udkxGef;pdefu ]]usaemfwdkY Armwdkif;&if;om;awG jzpfw,f/ t*FvefuvmNyD; ynmoifaeolwOD; wa,mufrQr½Sdyg?
rsufESmjzLbk&ifudk bk&m;ocif u,frygapvdkY qkawmif;ay;&wm usaemfwdkYtwGuf t"dyÜg,fr½Sdyg/ usaemfwdkY
Armjynfudk vufeufeJY tEkdifusifh,lxm;wJh t*Fvdyf½Sifbk&ifudk bk&m;ocifu,frygapvdkY qkawmif;ae&wm ½SufzdkY
aumif;ygw,f/ 1920 ckESpfu t*Fvdyftpdk;&&JU zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fcJhwJh ynma&;pepfudk aemifawmfausmif;om;BuD;rsm;u
qefYusifawmfvSef cJhMuw,f/ usaemfwkdY aemifawmfausmif;om;rsm;&JU ajc&mudkeif;EkdifzkdYa0;pG? zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fwJh t*Fvdyf
½Sifbk&iftwGuf qkawmif;ay;ae&wmudku roifhawmfygbl;/ 'gaMumifU t*Fvdyfbk&ifrif;jrwfudk qkawmif;ay;aewJU
oDcsif;udk 'DtcsdefupNyD; ausmif;om;or*¾ tpnf;ta0;ü jzpfap? tjcm;yGJvrf;obifrsm;ü jzpfap? þoDcsif;udk
vH;k 0 rqkb
d aJ eMu&ef tqdw
k ifoiG ;f ygw,f/ usaemfwifoGif;wJh tqkdudk av;eufpGm pOf;pm;Muyg&ef yefMum;ygw,f?}}
udx
k eG ;f pdef tqdw
k ifoiG ;f rIukd ausmif;om;rsm;tm;vH;k awGa0oGm;Muonf/ cPMumaomf a½SUwef;ü xdik af e
aom ausmif;om;BuD;tm;vHk;u pNyD; vufckyfwtm; ½kdufNyD;wD;&m vufckyfoHrsm; wcef;vHk; yJhwifxyfoGm;onf/
t*Fvyd -f Arm bmomjyefq&m udb
k aomif;u udx
k eG ;f pdev
f ufukd wtm;qkwí
f EIwq
f ufvu
kd o
f nf/ ud&k m½Spu
f vnf;
xdkodkY EIwfqufNyD; udkApdefurl udkxGef;pdef udk,fvHk;BuD;udk wtm;odrf;usHK; zufawmhonf/ xdknusif;yaom tpnf;
ta0;rS e,fcsJYtrsKdom;oDcsif;udk ausmif;om;or*¾ü oDqdkjcif; vHk;0rjyKvkyf&ef qHk;jzwfcsufcsvdkufonf/
aemufwaeYwGif ausmif;tkyfBuD; rpöwmpavmhu udkxGef;pdeftm; ac:awGUNyD; ]]udkxGef;pdefu wuúodkvf
e,fajrrSm t*FvdyftrsKd;om;oDcsif; ausmif;om;awG roDqkdzdkY bmvdkYwifoGif;wmvJ? roDqdkbl;vdkY ydwfyifwm;qD;wm
[m Edik if u
H kd tkycf sKyfwhJ tpd;k &udk oufoufqefYusifwmyJ}} udx
k eG ;f pdeu
f ]]usaemfapmfum;wm r[kwyf gbl;? rSew
f t
hJ qdk
wifoiG ;f wmyg? trsKd;om;oDcsif; qk&d atmifv?J bk&m;ocifonf uREkyf w
f Ydk \ bk&ifrif;jrwfukd u,fwifygapownf;?
bk&ifrif;jrwf qkw
d m usaemfwYkd ArmEkid if rH mS r½Sb
d ;l ? *&dwNf Adwed rf mS aewmyg? usaemfwYdk bk&ifrif;jrwfukd t*Fvyd af wGu
ukvm;ppfom;tultnDeJY tdEd´,udk ac:aqmifoGm;ygw,f? tJ'DtcsdefupNyD; atmufusaemufus aevmcJh&wJh
usaemfwYdk rsuv
f ;kH awG wppyGiNhf yD; tawG;tac:us,jf yefYvm&m aemifor*¾rmS t*Fvyd t
f rsK;d om;oDcsi;f oDqMdk uawmhrmS
47

jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif; - atmifxGef;
r[kwf}} [k &J&J0H0H jyefajymvdkufaomtcg ausmif;tkyfBuD;u ]'Dvq
kd kd udx
k eG ;f pdef rdrt
d jypfurkd rd o
d w
d t
UJ aeeJh tvkyu
f
xGufayawmh} xdktcg udkxGef;pdefu ]usaemf udk,fUwm0ef udk,fausyGefpGm xrf;aqmifaeoljzpfw,f/ usaemfwdkh
wkdif;&if;om;awG twGuf rauseyfvdkh&ifzGifUwm jzpfw,f? EkwfxGufpm rwifEkdifbl;? q&mBuD; usaemfUudk rauseyfvkdh
tjypf½Sdw,fvkdh ,lq&ifawmU tcsed rf a½G; tvkyx
f w
k yf g} rpöwmpavmh tcufMuHKoGm;onf/ udx
k eG ;f pdeu
f kd tvkyrf S
xkwv
f u
kd v
f Qif ysm;tHu
k kd wkwfeJYqGovkd jzpfrnfpdk;í bmrS rajymawmhacs/

(X) udx
k eG ;f pdeEf iS hf wuo (&efuek w
f uúov
kd af usmif;om;rsm;or*¾) a&G;aumufyJG
udkxGef;pdeftm; or*¾Ouú|tjzpf udkApdeftqdkwifoGif;NyD; aemufydkif; udkxGef;pdefESifh ,SOfNydKifta½G;cHol ray:
vmay/ &uftwefMumaomtcgrS ausmif;tkyfBuD; rpöwmpavmh\ tvdkawmf&drsm;u udktdef (OD;apmacwf 0efBuD;
OD;tdef) udk Ouú|ae&mwGif tqdkwifoGif;vdkuf&m wuúodkvf&mZ0ifwGif ausmif;om;rsm; yxrOD;qHk;tBudrf rJqE´jzifh
a½G;aumufyGJ usif;y&rnfh a½G;aumufyGJ jzpfay:vmonf/
þodYk jzifh or*¾Ouú|tjzpf a½G;aumufyaJG y:vmaomfvnf; &efuek ,
f el AD mpDwED iS hf ,k'oefaumvdyf ausmif;
om;trsm;pkrSm trsKd;om;EkdifiHa&;ESifh ausmif;om;EkdifiHa&;udk pdwfr0ifpm;ay/ udkxGef;pdef? udkApdef? udk&m½Spf? udkEkwdkY
uJo
h Ykdaom ausmif;om;rsm;rSm tenf;pkjzpfonf/ xdpk Of or*¾a½G;aumufyw
JG iG f yg0ifaom ausmif;om;rsm;rSm ausmif;aqmif
rsm;odkY oGm;a&mufNyD; w&m;a[m&onf/ udkxGef;pdefu ]ausmif;om;tm;vH;k yg0ifNy;D e,fcsv
YJ ufatmufrS vGwaf jrmuf
&vdrfUr,fvdhk usaemfwhkd rrSw
d rf okef ,HMk unfygw,f/ 'DtwGuf pnf;vH;k nDñw
G pf mG BuKd ;yrf;oGm;Mu&ef or*¾xu
J kd 0ifMu
yg/ ausmif;om;awG tm;vHk;&JY a½SYwef;uaeNyD; e,fcsJYeJh AsL½dku&ufawG&JY zdESdyfrIudk wdkufzsufygr,f/ xdkhtwGuf
usaemfUudk rJqE´ay;Muyg} [k ajymcJhonf/
w&m;a[m&tcufqHk;rSm tif;vsm;aqmifESifh bifwefausmif;aqmif (2) aqmifjzpfonf/ udkxGef;pdefwdkY
vlodkuf ,Ofaus;odrfarGUpGm ausmif;oltrsKd;orD;rsm;udk w&m;a[monf/
]*kPfoa&½Sd trsKd;orD;rsm; cifAsm; usaemfwdkh wuúodkvfausmif;om;or*¾ wnfaxmif&wm[m wuúodkvf
ausmif;om;tm;vHk; tusKd;eJh Armjynfoljynfom;tm;vHk; tusKd;twGuf jzpfygw,f/ usaemfwkdhtm;vHk;[m e,fcsJY
tpdk;& vufatmufeJh e,fcsJYAsL½dku&uf ,Eå&m;vufatmufrSm tvl;tvJcHae&wm ,aehwkdifjzpfygw,f/ usaemfwdkh
ausmif;om;awGtm;vHk; tepfemcHcJh&wmtwGuf or*¾zGJY NyD; epfemrItwGuf &J0HUpGm olwdkhudkta&;qdkygr,f/ or*¾BuD;
udk ausmif;om;awG pnf;pnf;vH;k vH;k eJh axmufct
H m;ay;cJv
U Qif usaemfwahkd ½Sw
Y ef;uae tmPmydik af wGukd &J&0J 0UH t
UH a&;qdNk y;D
wku
d yf gr,f/ usaemf[m ausmif;om;rsm;or*¾ Ouú|taeeJh ½Gy½f yG cf RcH RH aqmif½u
G yf gr,fvhkd oEdXé mefcsxm;Ny;D jzpfygw,f/
aqmif½u
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f t
UJ cg usaemfwhdk trsKd;om;awGcsn;f vJ r[kwyf gb;l / trsKd;orD;awGvnf; wzufwvrf;u tm;ay;ulnDrSom
atmifjrifvdrfUr,fvkdh ,HkMunf&ygw,f/ usaemfwdkhEdkifiHu trsKd;orD;awG[m wcsKdY EkdifiHu trsKd;orD;awGeJh rwlygb;l /
vGwv
f yfciG Uf trsm;Bu;D &Muygw,f/ or*¾xu
J kd 0ifMuyg/ usaemfu
U kd rJay;Muyg/ ausmif;om;ta&;eJh trsKd;om;a&;udk
BuKd ;yrf;ygr,fvhkd usaemfyefMum;vdyk gw,f/ usaemfom Ouú| ta½G;cH&vQif usaemfcsrw
S x
f m;wJU 0g'twdik ;f usio
Uf ;kH ygr,f/
usaemfehJ usaemf&U aJ bmfrsm; usio
Uf ;kH r,fU t"du0g'uawmh wuúov
dk ef ,fajrrSm½SdwUJ ausmif;ol? ausmif;om;rsm;tm;
trsK;d om;pdwf Ek;d Mum;xufoefvmap&ef jzpfygw,f/ wuúov
dk ef ,fajr or*¾taqmuftODuvnf; ,cktcgrmS ay:vmygNy/D
or*¾taqmuftOD[m ausmif;om;? ausmif;olrsm;udk pk½;kH Ny;D Ekid if EH iS hf trsKd;om;a&; BuKd ;yrf;&ef A[dt
k csut
f csmae&m
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a½G;aumufyGJusif;ycJh&mwGif n (11) em&DrS NyD;qHk;oGm;onf/ a½G;aumufyGJusif;ya&;aumfrwD Ouú|u
aMujim&mwGif ]]wuúokdvfausmif;om;or*¾ tzGJU0iftaygif;wkdY? rJrsm;udk a&wGufMunfh&m ,SOfNydKifol (2) OD;pvHk;
rJ ta&twGurf mS wlnaD ew,f/ a½G;aumufyBJG uD;Muyfa&;aumfrwDay:odYk rnfot
l Ekid &f onfukd qH;k jzwf&ef wm0efus
a&mufvmw,f/ or*¾pnf;rsOf;t& ,SOfNydKifaomol (2) OD;wdYk xrH S rJta&twGuf wlncD v
hJ Qif cs,f,mrifu tEkid rf J
udk ay;csifonfhbufudk ay;Ekdifw,f/ 'gaMumifh usaemf (udkausmfcif) Ouú|taeeJY þudpu
ö dk tvsifpvdk tqHk;tjzwf
ray;yg/ a½G;aumufyGJBuD;Muyfa&;aumfrwD tm;vHk;ESifh av;eufpGm wkdifyif&tkef;r,f/ w&m;rQwap&ef twGuf
jzpfygw,f/ 'gaMumifh reuf (8) em&DwGif tqHk;tjzwf ay;ygr,f}} [k aMunmcJhonf/
aemufaeY reuf (8) em&DwGif or*¾taqmuftODü ausmif;om;? ausmif;olrsm; jynfhESufvsuf½Sdonf/
udkxGef;pdefwdkYbufrS rJqG,f&mwGif udktdef xufomonf/ odkYaomf udktdefbufrS vlrsm;u EdkifiHa&;ESifh bmoma&;
a&maESmNyD; rJq,
G Mf uonf/ udx
k eG ;f pderf mS rlpvifbmom0if wOD; jzpfonf/ a½G;aumufyrJG usi;f yrD udx
k eG ;f pdeEf ikd rf nf[k
48

udkvdkeDacwfaESmif; - 1930 rS 1931 - e,fcsJYqefhusifa&; vGwfvyfa&;BudK;yrf;rI trsKd;om;a&;toGif
owif;ajy;aeaomfvnf; udt
k ed b
f ufro
S rl sm; bmoma&;taMumif;jy rJq,
G í
f udt
k ed u
f kd oabmrusaomolrsm;yifvQif
bmoma&; cvkwf'Pf rcHEdkifí udktdefbuf a&mufukefMu\/ xdkYaMumifh udkxGef;pdefESifh udktdefwdkY rJqE´wlnDoGm;
avonf/ udkxGef;pdefwdkYacwfu or*¾Ouú| a½G;aumufyGJrSm tar&duefor®w a½G;aumufyGJESifh cyfqifqifwlonf/
or*¾tzGUJ 0if ausmif;om;rsm;u vQKdU0Surf pJ epfjzifh Ouú|udk wdu
k ½f u
kd af ½G;cs,fwifajr§mufonf/ or*¾trIaqmifrsm;udk
vnf; þpepfjzihf a½G;aumufwifajr§mufMuonf/
reuf (8) em&Dü a½G;aumufyGJaumfr½SifOuú| udkausmfcifonf a½G;aumufyGJrSm w&m;rQwrI ½Sd r½Sd? ]]a½G;
aumufyJG pnf;rsO;f Oya'twkid ;f aumfrwDu aqmif½u
G af y;onf [kwf r[kw?f a½G;aumufyaJG umfrwD aqmif½u
G cf surf sm;
auseyfrI ½Sd r½Sd}} ar;jref;onf/ a½G;aumufyGJaumfrwDonf w&m;rQwpGm aqmif½Gufygonf/ tm;vHk;uyif auseyf
ygonf/ aumfrwDu wdusrSeu
f efpmG tqH;k tjzwfay;rnf[k ajymMum;onf/ a½G;aumufyaJG umfrwD\ qH;k jzwfcsufukd
udkausmfcifu wifjyavonf/
]](2) OD;pvHk;\ t&nftcsif;udk ,Hk;rSm; oHo,r½Sdyg/ (2) OD;pvHk;yif &efukefwuúodkvfausmif;om;or*¾\
Ouú| wm0efrsm;udk ausyGefpGmaqmif½GufNyD; ausmif;om;rsm;udk OD;aqmifEdkifvdrfhr,fvdkY ,HkMunfygw,f/ Ouú|ae&m
topf a½G;aumufyt
JG opf xyfru
H si;f yay;&rnfvm;? usaemfuyJ tEkid rf u
J kd rnfoYlukd ay;&rvJ? xku
d pd ö (2) &yfukd tcsed f
Mumjrifph mG tcsde,
f Nl yD; pOf;pm;Munfah omtcg ,ckNyD;pD;aom a½G;aumufyrJG mS w&m;rQwaom a½G;aumufyJG jzpfonf[k
(2) OD; (2) bufrS twdtvif; zGifh[ajymqkdonf/ odkYjzpfí usaemf ay;ydkifcGifh½Sdaom tEdkifrJudk toHk;jyKí tqHk;tjzwf
ay;ygrnf/ udkxGef;pdefESifh udktdefwdkYrSm t&nftcsif; wlnDMuaomfvnf; udkxGef;pdefonf olYaumvdyfoufwrf;
wavQmufü rsKd;cspfpdwf"mwf tvGefxufoefvSNyD; AsL½dku&ufrsm;ESifh ,SOfNydKifcJh&mwGif owdåajymifajrmufvSonf/
wuúodkvfausmif;om;rsm;twGuf omru wwdkif;jynfvHk;rS wdkif;&if;om;rsm; tusKd;twGufyg arQmfudk;NyD; trsKd;
om;a&; udprö sm;wGifvnf; 0ifa&muf aqmif½Gufvdkaom pdwfqE´jyif;jypGm½Sdonfudk awGU&w,f/ odkYjzpfí aumfrwD
cs,f,mrif usaemfonf &efukef Oya'yxrESpfwGif wufa&mufoifMum;aeol udkxGef;pdefbufokdY tEkdifrJ ay;vkdufNyD
jzpfaMumif; þae&mrS ausmif;om;xktm; aMujimvdkufygw,f}}
or*¾taqmuftODwckvHk; vufckyfoHrsm; qlnHoGm;aponf/
]usaemf þae&m z,fay;ygawmUr,f/ rJqE´eJhta½G;cH&aom udkxGef;pdefcifAsm;? Ouú|ukvm;xkdifay:okdh
vma&muf xkid yf g&ef zdwaf c:ygw,f} [k udkausmfcifu ajymMum;NyD; pifjrifhay:rS qif;oGm;avonf/ udkxGef;pdefonf
pifjrifah y:wufvmNyD; &efuek w
f uúov
dk af usmif;om;rsm;or*¾ (wuo) Ouú| ukvm;xkid f 0ifa&muf xkid v
f u
kd Nf yD;aemuf
]&Jabmfwhdk usaemfu
U kd rJqE´ay;MuwJt
U wGuf tvGeaf us;Zl;wifygw,f/ þor*¾ trIaqmifaumfrwD Ouú|a½G;aumufyJG
[m wuúov
dk o
f rdik ;f rSm yxrOD;qH;k tBurd f ay:ayguv
f mwJU a½G;aumufyjJG zpfygw,f/ a½S;uwBurd rf Q 'Dvt
dk aqmuftOD
rsKd;? 'Dvdk or*¾rsKd; ray:ao;ygbl;/ ,ckausmif;om;xkeJh ArmEkdifiHol? EdkifiHom; tm;vHk;twGuf trsKd;om;a&; BudK;yrf;
vIyf½Sm;&ef ajcukwf&r,fU A[kdtcsuftjcmae&mBuD; ay:vmwm 0rf;omp&myJ/ usaemfuawmh þausmif;om;or*¾
Bu;D uae waehusvQif ArmEkid if BH u;D udk vGwv
f yfa&;&atmif OD;aqmifEidk rf ,fU om;aumif;&wemrsm; ay:xu
G v
f mvdrrUf ,fvhkd
cdkifrmpGm,HkMunfygw,f/ 'Dvkday:xGufvmEkdifa&;twGuf ,ckupNyD; usaemfwkdhtm;vHk; pkaygif;NyD; BudK;yrf;oGm;&ygr,f/
vGwfvyfa&;yef;wkdif a&mufatmifoGm;&r,fUc&D;u ½Snfa0;vSygw,f/ c&D;wavsmufrSm tEå&m,ftaESmifUt,SufawG?
ql ; anS m if U c vk w f a wG ? &ef o l a wG trsm;&if q k d i f & r,f q k d w m od x m;zd k h v d k y gw,f / ausmif ; om;or*¾ t zG J Y [ m
wuúokdvftkyfcsKyfa&;tzGJYeJh ausmif;tkyfBuD;vufatmufrSm r½Sdao;ygbl;/
,cktcsdefupNyD;awmh or*¾tcrf;tem;awGeJh taqmuftODawGrSm vTifUavU½SdwJU t*Fvdyfe,fcsJYawG&JY
,leD,H*suftvHudk wuúokdvfor*¾taqmuftODrSm rvTifUbJ usaemfwdkh&JY ArmtvHjzpfwJU a'gif;tvH (cGyfa'gif;tvH
r[kwf) udkom vTifUxlygr,f/ usaemfwkdh todtrSwfjyKwJU tvH[m a'gif;tvHjzpfw,f/ a½S;ArmtvHvnf; jzpfw,f/
usaemfwkdhwawG a'gif;tvHudkom tav;jyK&r,f/ ,leD,H*suftvHudk tav;rjyKMu&awmUbl;/ ,cifu usaemfwdkh
tqkdwifoGif;cJUwJUtwdkif; wuúodkvfausmif;zGifUyGJ tcsdefupNyD; a[majymyGJawG tpnf;ta0;awG usif;ywJhtcg Arm
trsKd;om;oDcsif;udkom oDqkdNyD; ArmtrsKd;om; a'gif;tvHudkom tav;jyKí NAdwdoQe,fcsJY trsKd;om;oDcsif;eJh NAdwdoQ
e,fcsJY&JY ,leD,H*suftvHudk z,fxkwfvdkufygw,f/}
udkxGef;pdefrdefYcGef;qHk;aomtcg or*¾taqmuftODwckvHk; vufckyfoHrsm; [def;nHoGm;onf/
][kdt&ifwkef;u NAdwdoQ[m usaemfwdkh Armwkdif;&if;om;awG pnf;vHk;nDñGwfoGm;rSm odyfpkd;&drfw,f/ wkdif;
&if;om;awGuv
kd nf; vlrsK;d a&;&m? 0g'a&;&m? bmoma&;&mawGehJ tjraJ oG;cG?J jyóemtjrJ zefw;D aew,f/ tJ'grsK;d aoG;cGrJ S
olwt
hkd yk cf sKyaf &; vG,rf ,f/ usaemfwhkd udAk pdew
f [
hkd m rsK;d csppf w
d "f mwfxufoefwUJ ausmif;om;awG pnf;vH;k nDñw
G af tmif
49

jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif; - atmifxGef;
jyKvkyfcJUw,f/ EkdifiHa&;pdwf"mwf e,fcsJYqefhusifa&;pdwf"mwf Ekd;Mum;vmatmif pnf;½Hk;cJUw,f/ rpöwmpavmUuodawmU
usaemfwhdk pnf;½H;k rIysuaf tmif olt
h vdak wmf&ad wGukd ajrm§ ufay;Ny;D a½G;aumufyJG 0ifcidk ;f wmyJ/} vGwfvyfa&;&NyD;aemuf
udkxGef;pdefu þokkdYajymMum;cJhjcif; jzpfonf/
udkxGef;pdefESifh ra½S;raESmif;yif olYudkaxmufcHaom trIaqmifaumfrwD0if trsm;tjym; ta½G;cH&onf/
wa,mufESpfa,mufu vGJí tm;vHk;eD;yg;rSm ausmif;tkyfBuD; tvkdawmf&drsm; r[kwfay/
1931 &efukefNrdKUü (10) ESpfajrmuf trsKd;om;atmifyGJaeY usif;y&m ausmif;om;vli,frsm;? q&mrsm;?
0HomEkrsm;? ,leDAmpDwDausmif;om;rsm;? wdkYArmtpnf;t½Hk;rS ocifrsm;? udkApdef (ocifApdef)? ocifav;armif? udkxGef;
pdefwkdY pkpnf;í yg0ifcJhonf/

(!) 1931 ckEpS f &efuek w
f uúov
kd af usmif;om;rsm;or*¾ yxrOD;qH;k trIaqmiftzGUJ
udkxGef;pdef
udkb*srf;
ukdxGef;wif
udkcspfwif
udkApdef
udkOD;wkwf
udkwifarmif
udkxGef;wif
q&mOD;vlaz0if;

Ouú|
taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rSL;

aiGxdef;

rSwfcsuf- wdkYArmtpnf;t½Hk;udk a&;om;&mwGif ]]wdkY}} ESifh ]]'dkY}} ESpfrsKd;vHk; oHk;onfudk awGU&onf/ odkYaomf rl&if;wHqdyfESifh
acgif;pD;pmwrf;wGif wdkYArm[k oHk;xm;onf/
ocifAwif\ 1300 jynfh ta&;awmfyHkrSwfwrf; (jr0wDyHkESdyfwdkuf)? pmrsufESm (15) atmufajcrSwfpkwGif
]]wdkYArmtpnf;t½Hk; ay:pwGif 'dkYArm[k ra&;om;bJ? wdkYArm[koma&;onf/}} [k azmfjyxm;onf/
,ckpmtkyfwGif wdkYArmtpnf;t½Hk;udk a&;om;vsif ]]wdkY}} [k oHk;oGm;rnf/ a<u;aMumfoHrsm;udk toHudk ,lí a&;om;ojzifh
a<u;aMumfoHrsm;udk ]]'dkY}} ESifhom a&;om;azmfjyrnf/
ocifAwif\ 1300 jynfh ta&;awmfyHkrSwfwrf;? pmrsufESm (20) wGif wdkYArmoDcsif;tm; wdkYArmur®0g[k azmfjyxm;onf/

50

udkvdkeDacwfaESmif; - 1930 rS 1931 - e,fcsJYqefhusifa&; vGwfvyfa&;BudK;yrf;rI trsKd;om;a&;toGif

wuo jzpfajrmufa&; ,m,DOuú|
OD;ausmcf if B.Sc., B.L. (1930-31)
Source: Oway Magazines

&efuek w
f uúov
kd af usmif;om;rsm;or*¾ (,m,D) yxrqH;k Ouú|jzpfonf/ &ckid t
f rsK;d om; wOD;jzpfí oHwNJG rdKUwGif
zGm;jrifc\
hJ / oHwNJG rdKU tpd;k &txufwef;ausmif;wGif owårwef;txd ynmavhvm qnf;yl;cJo
h nf/ &efuek Nf rdKU
A[kt
d pd;k &txufwef;ausmif;odk ajymif;a½TUynmqnf;yl;NyD;? 1925 ckEpS w
f iG f (10) wef; pmar;yGu
J kd atmifjrifchJ
onf/ &efuek w
f uúov
kd w
f iG f qufvuf ynmoifMum;cJo
h nf/ 1929 ckEpS w
f iG f olaX;OD;ndKu or*¾taqmuftOD
aqmufvyk v
f LS 'gef;&m? 1930 ckEpS w
f iG f NyD;pD;cJ\
h / or*¾taqmuftOD ½Sad omfvnf; or*¾tzGUJ tpnf; r½Sjd zpfae
ojzifh OD;ausmfcifonf or*¾ jzpfajrmufa&;twGuf BudK;yrf;rIwiG f acgif;aqmifco
hJ l wOD;jzpfonf/
or*¾tzGUJ tpnf; ray:aygufap&ef acsm?h ajr§muf? Ncdr;f ajcmufjcif;udk cHc&hJ \/ wuúov
kd af usmif;om; ynmwwf
rsm;\ ]]rufvHk;}} jzpfaom tdEd´, y#dnmOfcH0efxrf; tkdifpDtufpf &mxl;jzifh acsmhjrLjzm;a,mif;jcif; cHcJh&\/
OD;ausmcf ifum; r,dr;f ,dik ?f or*¾jzpfajrmufa&;twGuf acgif;rmpGm BuK;d yrf;cJo
h o
l m jzpfonf/ or*¾jzpfajrmufap&ef
&efuek w
f uúov
kd ½f dS ausmif;om;BuD;rsm;onf yxrqH;k aqG;aEG;wkid yf ifc\
hJ / xdak qG;aEG;yGw
J iG f OD;ausmfcifonf
obmywdjzpf\/ or*¾pnf;rsOf;a&;qGJa&;aumfrwDzGJUpnf;&ef wuúodkvfudk,fpm; t"dywdESifh aqG;aEG;yGJwGif
ud,
k pf m;vS,o
f ;kH OD;teuf yg0ifow
l OD;vnf; jzpfayonf/
or*¾pnf;rsOf;a&;qGJa&; aumfrwDzGJUpnf;aomtcg OD;ausmfcifonf obmywdtjzpf wm0ef,l vkyfaqmif
cJ\
h / or*¾pnf;rsO;f a&;qGNJ yD;aemuf wuúov
kd t
f yk cf sKyfa&;tzGEJ iS hf awGUqHak qG;aEG;yGw
J iG f ud,
k pf m;vS,f tjzpfjzifh
yg0ifcJhonf/ or*¾pnf;rsOf;udk twnfjyKaom 1931 ck? Zefe0g&Dv (9) &ufaeUwGif usif;yonfh
ausmif;om;xktpnf;ta0;rS? wuotrIaqmif (9) OD; a½G;cs,faomtcg OD;ausmfcifonf wuo Ouú|
jzpfvmcJah yonf/
1931 ckEpS w
f iG f Oya'oifwef;rsm;udk atmifjrifco
hJ nf/ rdrZd mwdNrKd Ujzpfaom oHwNJG rKd UwGif a½SUaetjzpf vkyaf qmif&if;?
jrLeDpDy,ftzGJU0if? jrLeDpDy,fOuú|tjzpf NrdKUjya&;&mrsm;udk aqmif½GufcJhonf/ ppfNyD;acwf 1951 ckwGif
jynfoUl vTwaf wmftrwftjzpf &efatmifrq
J E´e,frS a½G;aumuf wifajr§mufjcif; cH&NyD;? qGpZf mvefjynf bef;NrdKUü
usif;yaom urÇmhvTwfawmfrsm; nDvmcHokdY jrefrmukd,fpm;vS,ftzGJUudk acgif;aqmifum wufa&mufcJhzl;
avonf/ OD;ausmfcifonf ,ck &efuek Nf rKdUwGif vTwaf wmfa½SUaetjzpf vkyaf qmifvsuf½adS yonf/

51

jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif; - atmifxGef;

yxrqH;k wuoOuú|
OD;xGe;f pdef B.Sc., B.L. (1931-32)
Source: Oway Magazines

&efuek w
f uúov
kd f ausmif;om;rsm;or*¾\ yxrOD;qH;k a½G;aumufwifajr§mufc&H aom Ouú|jzpfonf/ &ckid jf ynf
oHwGJNrdKU Zmwd jzpfonf/ 1924 ckESpfwGif &efukefwuúodkvfwGif pwifynmqnf;yl;í 1928 ckwGif 0dZÆmodyÜH
bGUJ xl;udk qGwcf ;l cJah vonf/ 1931-32 ckEpS w
f iG f Oya'ynmrsm;udk avhvmqnf;yl;aepOf wuoOuú|tjzpf
a½G;aumufwifajr§mufjcif; cHc&hJ oljzpfonf/
t*Fvdyfe,fcsJUorm; bkef;rD;aevawmufyonfh umvjzpfí tpnf;ta0;yGJrsm;wGif? a*smhbk&ifrif;jrwf\
bke;f awmfbUJG rsm;udk oDqu
kd m tpnf;ta0; zGiv
fh pS cf MhJ u&\/ OD;xGe;f pdef wuoOuú| jzpfvmaomtcg? a*smb
h &k if
bke;f awmfbUJG tpm; wdYk ArmtrsdK;om;oDcsif;jzifh zGiv
hf pS cf ahJ vonf/
wuúov
kd f bGUJ ESi;f obifcef;ronf jrefrmrqef? w½kwb
f &k m;ausmif;ESihf wlaeí jrefrmtrsK;d om; o½kyaf y:ap&ef
jcaoF½h yk rf sm; xm;&ef awmif;qkcd \
hJ / wuúov
kd t
f aqmuftODrsm;wGif t*Fvefjynfvyk f oHwcH g;rsm;udk oH;k rnfh
tpm;? jrefrmjynfjzpf opfom;wHcg;rsm;ukd toHk;jyK&efvnf; awmif;qdkcJhonf/
1931 ckEpS w
f iG f trsK;d om;atmifyaJG eU pwifusi;f y&m trsK;d om;atmifyaJG eUwGif a'gif;tvH (cGyaf 'gif;tvHr[kw)f
udk or*¾rS pwiftoH;k jyKcJ\
h / pD;u&ufoydwaf rSmufa&;wGif or*¾onf ArmEdik if v
H il ,frsm;tpnf;t½H;k (,ck
Avp r[kwf)? wkdYArmtpnf;t½Hk;wdkYESifh yl;wGJ vkyfaqmifcJhonf/
OD;xGe;f pdeo
f nf or*¾Ouú|tjzpf oufwrf;rukerf D Ekwx
f u
G o
f mG ;cJo
h nf/
wuorS xGufNyD;aemuf ausmif;q&mtjzpf vnf;aumif;? Oya'pmar;yGJ atmifjrifNyD;aemuf a½SUaetjzpf
vnf;aumif; vkyaf qmifco
hJ nf/ *syefacwfwiG f c½dik 0f eftjzpf Ekid if w
hH m0efudk xrf;aqmifc\
hJ / 'kw,
d urÇmppftNyD;
t*Fvdyfrsm; jyef0ifvmaomtcg OD;xGefpdeftm; axmif'Pf (25) ESpf tjypfay;cJh\/ (9) v ESifh (4) &uf
tMumwGif vGwaf jrmufco
hJ nf/ ,ck &efuek Nf rdKUwGif vTwaf wmfa½SUaeBuD; wOD;tjzpf aqmif½u
G v
f suf ½So
d nf/

52

udkvdkeDacwfaESmif; - 1932 rS 1935 - e,fcsJYqefhusifa&; vGwfvyfa&;BudK;yrf;rI trsdK;om;a&;toGif

tcef; (5)
udv
k ekd aD cwfaESmif;ydik ;f
e,fcsUJ qefu
Y siaf &; vGwv
f yfa&;BuKd ;yrf;rI trsK;d om;a&;toGif
ausmif;om;vIy&f mS ;rIordik ;f
(1932 rS 1935)

(u) 1932-33 wuúov
dk af jrvIy&f mS ;rI
1931-32 or*¾rS udkxGef;pdef EkwfxGufoGm;í udkbdk;ul;rSm Ouú|tjzpf ,SOfNydKifolr½SdbJ ta½G;cH&onf/
xdktcsdefu udkvdkeD0g'usifhoHk;aom wuúodkvftmPmydkif rsufESmjzLrsm;onf wuúodkvfynma&;udk wwfEkdiforQ
oabmw&m;e,fy,frmS ydwaf vSmifxm;NyD; vufawGU tvSr;f a0;aponf/ wuúov
kd yf nm? wuúov
kd q
f &m? wuúov
dk f
ausmif;om;rsm;udk wuúov
dk yf &0Pfxw
J iG f jzpfEidk o
f rQuefYowfxm;NyD; jyifyvlxEk iS hf uif;Ekid o
f rQ tqufjzwfxm;&ef
BudK;pm;ygonf/
wuúokdvfynmwwfrsm;udk vufa½G;pifwpk? rdk;usa½Tudk,ftjzpf zefwD;NyD; jynfoltxuf tjrifhBuD;rSm
xm;&ef &nf½G,fonf/ 1932 rS 1934 txd or*¾ (wuo) Ouú|rsm;onfvnf; wuorS wqifh trsKd;om;a&;
vIy½f mS ;rIrsm; aqmif½u
G Ef idk o
f nf[k r,HMk unfMubJ ½Sad eMuonf/ udak tmifjrifh (oHw)JG onf ]qm} rxl;í ausmif;xkwf
cH&aom 'kwd,ajrmufausmif;om; jzpfvmonf/ ¤if;onf ¤if;epfemcsufrsm;twGuf a½SUaersm;xH tMuHÓPf oGm;
awmif;í w&m;½H;k rS ausmif;xkwcf &H jcif; epfemrItwGuf &½S&d ef awmif;qkrd I tay:wGiv
f nf; NAdwo
d Qe,fcsJU tpd;k &onf
¤if;tm; Oya't& xyfrH0efcHuwd jyKckdif;vdkufavonf/
odYk aomf ausmif;om;trsm;pkEiS hf jynfow
l YkdrmS udv
k ekd 0D g'\ tqdyk g wuúov
kd yf nma&;ay:vpDukd qefYusií
f
wuúodkvfynma&;wGif oabmw&m;ESifh vufawGUaygif;pyfrdatmif vufawGUtoHk;cs&atmif vIHYaqmfawmif;qkdae
Muonf/
q&mpHudk (ao'Pf) BudK;rdefYay;vdkufaomtcg q&mpHawmfvSefa&;udk axmufcHaom &efukefwuúodkvf
ausmif;om;rsm;or*¾onf ausmif;om;xk tpnf;ta0;ac:,lNyD; uefYuGufcJhonf/ ¤if;tpnf;ta0;wGif NAdwdoQ
e,fcsJUtpdkd;&tm; jypfwif½IwfcsNyD; acgif;aqmifBuD;q&mpHtm; (2) rdepf rwfwyf&yfítav;jyKcJhonf/
odkYaomf 1932 ESpfukefydkif;wGif wuúokdvfü trsKd;om;awmfvSefa&; 'Da&usqif;aeonf/ trsKd;om;EdkifiHa&;
wGif tdEd´,ESifh wGJa&;cGJa&;jyóemrsm; vTrf;rdk;aeonf/ bdvyfudk rsufESmpHknDtpnf;ta0;wufjcif;jzifh awmfvSef
53

jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif; - atmifxGef;
aom vlxkEkdifiHa&;vIyf½Sm;rIudk tpm;xkd;aeonf/ wuúodkvfy&0PfxJwGifvnf; ausmif;om;or*¾udk tvdkawmf&d
ausmif;om;rsm;u acgif;aqmifaeonf/ rsuEf mS jzLtmPmydik rf sm;ESihf twku
d t
f cHjyKaom ausmif;om;rsm;rSm ab;a&muf
aeonf/

(c) udAk pdeEf iS hf wuúov
dk af jrvIy&f mS ;rI
udkApdef EkdifiHa&;t,ltq ydkrdkjyif;xefvmaomtcg wuowGif 1932-33 ü taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rSL;
wm0efxrf;aqmif&onf/
1932-33 wuotrIaqmiftzGJY
1/ udkpHazmfatmif
Ouú‘|
2/ udkApdef
taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rSL;
3/ udkatmifoef;
4/ udkxGef;atmif
5/ udk&m½Spf
6/ udkcspf
7/ udkoufwif (udkodef;armif)
8/ udk[efaomf
9/ udkbwif wkdYjzpfonf/
udkpHazmfatmifESifh udkApdefwkdYonf wuorSaeí e,fcsJUqefYusifa&; pum;&nfvkyGJrsm; jyKvkyfay;onf/
tvdkawmf&d ausmif;om;rsm;xuf udkApdefonf ykdrdkí or*¾vkyfief;rsm;ukd tav;xm;vkyfaqmifcJhonf/ &J&ifhaom
udAk pdeo
f nf e,fcsUJ qefYusiaf &; udprö sm;wGif a½SUokYdwvSr;f NyD; wvSr;f wufvmonf/ wuúov
dk f ausmif;tkyq
f &mBuD;\
MoZmrSm BuD;vSonf/ ausmif;om;wa,mufukd woufv;kH aumif;pm;oGm;&ef vkyaf y;Ekid o
f nf/ þodYk e,fcsUJ vufuikd f
wkwfrsm; udk;uG,faecsdefwGif xkdtxJü udkApdef rygay/
udkApdefu
]tpOftvmtwkdif; oGm;ae&ifawmU Armjynf[m b,fawmUrQ uRefb0u vGwfrSmr[kwfbl;As}
EkdifiHa&;pdwf"mwf jyif;xefaom udkApdefudk *ED´pdef[k olY&Jabmfrsm;u ac:onf/ udkApdefonf *ED´BuD;udk
av;pm;jrwfEkd;í acgif;ay:rS qHyifudk ajymifatmif ½Sif;vkdufonf/ wdkYArmtpnf;t½Hk;odkY yxrqHk;0ifa&mufcJhaom
wuúov
dk af usmif;om; jzpfNyD; aemif wuúov
kd af usmif;om; rSwyf w
kH ifpm&if;üvnf; ocifApde[
f k ajymif;vJvu
kd o
f nf/
ausmif;ac:csdef udkApdef tvSnfha&mufaomtcg q&mu ocifApdef[k ac:aomtcg ausmif;om;? ausmif;olrsm;u
0kdif;&,fMuonf/ xkdtcg ocifApdefu ]y&JZifq
U m} [k rxl;? ArmoH Arm[efjzifh ]a&mufygNyD cifAsm;} [kcyfus,fus,f
atmfxl;vkdufonf/ ocifApdefudk EkdifiHa&;vIyf½Sm;rIjzifh e,fcsJUpHkaxmufrsm;u vlqdk;pm&if;0ifatmif vkyfxm;NyD;
ausmif;tkyfBuD; rpöwmpavmhonf udkApdefudk &efukefwuúokdvfrS ausmif;xkwfvkdufonf/ wuúokdvfwGif EkdifiHa&;
vIyf½Sm;rIjzifh yxrqHk; ausmif;xkwfcH&aom ausmif;om;wOD; jzpfonf/ taygif;toif;rsm;\ Munfh½IapmifrrIjzifh
,k'oefaumvdyfwGif ausmif;jyefwufcGifh&onf/ 1934 ,k'oefaumvdyfwGif pmoifMum;pOf ynmoifMum;zdkYxuf
vGwfvyfa&;wkdufyGJ0if&ef pdwfvTrf;rdk;aeí ausmif;rS xkwfcH&jyefonf/ q&mpHawmfvSefa&;ESifh ywfoufNyD; udkApdef
ESifhtwl udk&m½SpfvJ wuúokdvfü vlodrsm;cJhonf/

(*) 1933-34 wuo trIaqmiftzGYJ
1/ udkodef;armif
2/ ukdausmfxGef;
3/ udkOD;wkwf
4/ udkvSarmif
5/ udkatmifwif
6/ Mr. Zorn Swingh
54

Ouú|
twGif;a&;rSL;
'k-Ouú|
or*¾r*¾Zif; t,f'Dwm
pmMunfhwdkufrSL;
aygif;oif;qufqHa&;rSL;

udkvdkeDacwfaESmif; - 1932 rS 1935 - e,fcsJYqefhusifa&; vGwfvyfa&;BudK;yrf;rI trsdK;om;a&;toGif
7/ udkvSarmif
tm;upm;rSL;
8/ udkarmiftkef;
9/ udkcsrf;jr
10/ udkapmpdefuDG wdkYjzpfonf/
xdck Ek pS rf sm;ü wuúov
kd f tvdak wmf&d ausmif;om;acgif;aqmifrsm;rS wqifh wuúov
dk af usmif;om;rsm;or*¾ukd
trsKd;om;awmfvSefa&;ESifh uif;uGmatmif vkyfxm;Ekdifayonf/ urm½Gwfe,fajrudk 'kp½dkufe,fajr[k owfrSwfNyD;
ausmif;om;rsm;twGuf (Out of Bound) wm;jrpfe,fajr vkyfxm;onf/ odkYaomftajctaeu wm½SnfwnfwHhí
r&ay/ wkYdArmtpnf;t½H;k \ rD;yGm;onf awmrD;BuD;tjzpf ul;ajymif;vmaomtcg rD;'kwu
f ikd f ociftzGUJ tpnf;rSwqifh
vlxktzGJUtpnf;odkY ajymif;vJvmonf/ tdEd´,ESifh cGJa&;wJGa&;? bdvyfrsufESmpHknD EkdifiHa&;vkyfief;rsm; arS;rSdefvmNyD;
e,fcsJUqefYusifa&;? vlxv
k YHI aqmfa&;? vlxpk nf;a0;yG?J vlxq
k E´jyyGrJ sm; a½SUa&mufvmonf/ wuúov
kd yf &0Pfüvnf;
ocifaygufp? axmifajcmufv ausmif;om;
rD;'kwf
ausmif;om;
zsi?f yifeD
ausmif;om;
-rsm; ay:xGef;vmonf/ udkatmifqef;? udkausmfNidrf;? udkoD[ef? udkxGef;tkef;? udkvSaz? udkodef;az (odef;az
jrifh) wkdY tvdkawmf&drsm; vTrf;rdk;aeaom ausmif;om;or*¾rS acgif;aqmifrsm;udk qefYusifwdkufcdkufMuonf/ udkausmf
Nidrf;ESifh udkodef;azwdkYrSm ref;OypmaumvdyfrS a&mufvmonf/ udkausmfNidrf;? udkodef;azwdkYonf ref;Oypmaumvdyf
üaepOf ref;Oypmaumvdyf ydwyf pf&ef qH;k jzwfcsuu
f kd twlvufwq
JG efYusicf o
hJ rl sm; jzpfonf/ ¤if;wkYdEiS t
hf wl udck ifarmif
uav; (aemif 0efBuD;)? udkxGef;tHk? udkvSarmif (aemif oHtrwfBuD;) wkdYvnf; yg0ifonf/

(C) 1934-35 wuotrIaqmiftzGUJ ESihf udak usmNf ird ;f ? udEk ?k uko
d ed ;f az
trsKd;om;a&;Ekd;Mum;rIESifh EkdifiHa&;pdwf"mwf½Sdaom ausmif;om;rsm;jzpfonfh udkausmfNidrf;? ukdoD[ef? udkEk?
udktkef;? ukdodef;azwdkYonf 1934-35 wuo trIaqmifa½G;yGJ0ifa&mufí tvdkawmf&dausmif;om;rsm;ESifh ,SOfNydKif
ta½G;cHonf/ udak usmNf idr;f ESihf udo
k ed ;f azEdik í
f udak tmifqef;ESihf udo
k [
D ef½;IH oGm;onf/ udak usmNf idr;f rSm 0g'jzefYcsad &;udik f
í or*¾jyefwrf;udk xkwfa0onf/ usefvlrsm;rSm tvkdawmf&drsm;jzpfonf/ ¤if;or*¾jyefwrf;wGif q&mBuD;trnfjzifh
q&mjzpfoifaumvdyf wDwDpD oifwef;om; udkoef;xGef; (aemif ocifoef;xGef;) onf uavmif0ifa&;onf/ udk
ausmfNidr;f ESihf udo
k ef;xGe;f rSm ausmif;om;b0xJu oduRrf;cifrifNyD; aemufyikd ;f wGif udo
k ef;xGe;f ESihf udEk ?k udak tmifqef;
wkdY tuRrf;0ifoGm;onf/
wuoxJwGif ukdausmfNidrf;ESifh udkatmifqef;wkdY twdkuftcHvkyfrIaMumifh vnf;aumif;? trIaqmiftzGJUxJ
tjyif ausmif;om;xkMum;üyg vGefpGmpnf;½Hk;a&; ajcoGufí vnf;aumif;? tvdkawmf&drsm;ESifh udkausmfNidrf;wkdY rsm;pGm
wif;rmvmonf/ 'k-Ouú| udkausmfxGef; tvkyf&í ausmif;xGufoGm;aomtcg udkEkrSm 'k-Ouú|tjzpf ta½G;cH&onf/
udkatmifjrifhESifhudkpdk;jrifhwdkYudk (Sir) rxl;í ausmif;xkwfjcif;udpt
ö wGuf uefYuGuf&ef udkEku udkausmfNidrf;udk ausmif;
tkyfBuD;ESifh awGU&efvTwfvkdufonf/

(i) 1934-35 wuo trIaqmiftzGUJ
1/ udkzdk;at;
2/ udkausmfxGef; (aemif ukdEk)
3/ udkomxif
4/ udkodef;az
5/ udkausmfNidrf;
6/ udkeef;EG,f
7/ udkboef;

Ouú|
'k-Ouú|
taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rSL;
(pmMunfhwkdufrSL;? odef;azjrifh)
(vlxkqufqHa&;ESifh 0g'jzefYcsda&;)
(t,f'Dwm? or*¾r*¾Zif;)
(aiGxdef;)
55

jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif; - atmifxGef;
8/ udk0if;
9/ udkodrf;armif

(tm;upm;rSL;)
(pnf;½Hk;a&;)

(p) 1935 ausmif;om; (11) a,muf ausmif;xkwcf &H onfu
h pd ö
1935 'DZifbm ausmif;ydw&f ufrwdik rf D ausmif;om; (11) a,muf pmar;yGu
J sí rpöwmpavmh (ausmif;tkyBf uD;)
u ausmif;xkwfvkdufonf/ r[kwfrcH ausmif;om;rsm;jzpfaom udkEk? udkausmfNidrf;? udkodef;az? udkb½Srf;wkdYu
ausmif;tkyfBuD; rpöwmpavmhESifh oGm;a&mufawGUqHkNyD;? ausmif;om;rsm; pmar;yGJus½HkESifh ausmif;xkwfonfrSm rw&m;
aMumif;? ¤if;wkdYrSm tusifhpm&dwå aumif;rGefí ausmif;pnf;urf; ½kdaoaMumif;? ausmif;tkyfBuD;tm; ausmif;om;rsm;
jyefvnf vufc&H ef ½Sif;jyaomfvnf; ausmif;tkyfBuD;u vufrcHay/ wuotaeESifh ta&;,l&ef BudK;pm;aomfvnf;
udak usmNf idr;f ? udEk ?k udo
k ed ;f az (3) a,mufom½SNd yD; uset
f rsm;pkrmS tvkad wmf&rd sm;jzpfaeí ratmifjrifay/ udak usmNf idr;f rSm
acgif;iHkYrcHbJ &efukefNrdKU½Sd qmOD;oGifESifh EdkifiHa&;acgif;aqmifrsm;udk a½Twd*HkapwD &ifjyifodkY zdwfac:í ausmif;om;
ta&;ESihf wuúov
dk q
f &mrsm;\ AsL½du
k &uf tusiq
hf ;dk rsm;udk bk&m;ukw
d idk w
f nf opömqkd ½Si;f jyonf/ wuúov
dk t
f mPm
ydik rf sm; ausmif;om;rsm;vIy½f mS ;rI tpjyKvmonfukd owdjyKrdí raxhrjhJ rifrjyK&JMuawmhbJ &moufyef ausmif;xkwx
f m;
aom (11) a,mufudk (1) ESpo
f m y,fí aemifEpS rf sm;wGif ausmif;qufwufciG ahf y;onf/ þonfum; 1936 'kw,
d ausmif;
om;oydwf oaE¨wnfjcif; jzpfonf/
wuonf aemufydkif;ü e,fcsJUqefYusifa&; ausmif;om;rsm; vTrf;rdk;oGm;onf/ tjyifu awmfvSefa&;
acgif;aqmifrsm;udk wuúodkvfacgif;aqmifrsm;ESifh awGUxd&ef wuúokdvfor*¾ pifjrifhay:odkY zdwfac:onf/ ocifudk,f
awmfridI ;f udk wuúov
kd o
f r*¾wiG f a[majym&ef zdwMf um;rnf[k udak usmNf idr;f ? udo
k ed ;f azwkYd tqkjd yKaomtcg tvdak wmf&d
ausmif;om;rsm;u uefYuGufMuonf/ OD;Owårudk w&m;a[m&ef zdwfMum;&mwGifvJ tvdkawmf&drsm;u twkduftcH
jyKMuonf/
OD;Owåru
]rif;wkhd wuúov
dk yf nma&;u bmtoH;k usvv
hdk ?J rD;jcpfqw
H acsmif;? qyfjymwcJ vkyEf idk zf hkd twwfynmay;wJ?h
ArmawG udk,fUtm;udk,fudk;jzpfatmif vkyfay;wJU pepfr[kwfbl;} [k a[majymcJhonf/
þokkdYjzifh EkdifiHa&;Edk;Mum;rI r½Sdaom wuúokdvfausmif;ESifh q&mrsm;? ausmif;om;rsm;ukd oD;oefYy&0PfxJ
aexkdifvdkrIrS trsKd;om;awmfvSefa&; tiftm;pkrsm;jzpfvm&ef udkEk? udkausmfNidrf;? ukdodef;azwkdYu BudK;pm;Mu\/
Armpmayudk tok;H jyKí e,fcsJUqefYusifa&; trsKd;om;vGwv
f yfa&;twGuf 0g'jzefYonf/ ArmpmaywGif e,fcsJUqefUusif
a&;ESifh vGwfvyfa&;wkdufyGJrsm; xif[yf&ef BudK;yrf;onf/ wuúokdvfy&d0kPftwGif; wuúodkvfr*¾Zif;? *E¦avmu
pmapmifrsm;jzifh usufpm;½HkrubJ jyifypme,fZif;rsm;wGifyg uavmifjzefYcJhMuonf/ '*kefr*¾Zif;u wuúokdvfu@
w&yfzGifhvSpfay;NyD; jyifyavmuESifh tquftoG,f ausmif;om;rsm;\ wHcg;aygufjzpfvmonf/ us,fjyefYaom
vlxky&dowfESifh &ifqkdifawGUMuHKvm&onf/
þkodkYjzifh wuúokdvfynma&;pepfESifh wuúokdvfausmif;om;rsm;onf y&d0Pfudkausmfí jynfolvlxkxH
ta&muf csDwufrnf[k tcsufay;c&m rIwfvkdufjcif;jzpfonf/

56

udkvdkeDacwfaESmif; - 1932 rS 1935 - e,fcsJYqefhusifa&; vGwfvyfa&;BudK;yrf;rI trsdK;om;a&;toGif

OD;bdk;ul;
(1931-32)
Source: Oway Magazines

or*¾Ouú| OD;xGe;f pdef oufwrf;rukerf D Ekwx
f u
G o
f mG ;ojzif?h Ouú|ae&mtwGuf Mum;jzwf a½G;aumufyJG usi;f y
ay;&onf/ Mum;jzwfa½G;aumufyGJwGif OD;bdk;ul;onf ta½G;cHcJh&jcif; jzpf\/
vufyHwef;NrKdU? ewfpifukef;½GmwGif zGm;jrifí ewfpifukef;½Gm bkef;awmfBuD;ausmif;? vufyHwef;NrKdU tpdk;&
txufwef;ausmif;? vufyw
H ef;NrKdU trsK;d om;ausmif;? oH;k cGNrKdU rufo'pfausmif;rsm;wGif ynmoifMum;cJo
h nf/
(10) wef; pmar;yGu
J kd 1927 ckEpS w
f iG f &efuek Nf rKUd ul½iS af usmif;rS ocFsm*kPx
f ;l ESihf atmifjrifco
hJ nf/ wuúov
kd w
f iG f
qufvufynmoifMum;&m? Oypmtxufwef;udk wkduf½dkufwufa&muf oifMum;cGifh &½Sdoljzpf\/
1931 ckEpS w
f iG f v,form;olyek af cgif;aqmifBuD; q&mpHtm; NAdwo
d Qtpd;k &u ao'PftrdeYfay;cJ&h m? wuorS
ausmif;om;xktpnf;ta0;ac:NyD; uefYuu
G cf o
hJ nf/ tpnf;ta0;wGif NAdwo
d Qtpd;k &tm; jypfwif½w
I cf sNyD;? acgif;
aqmifBuD;q&mpHtm; (2) rdepf rwfwwf&yf tav;jyKcJMh uavonf/
tdE,
´d ESihf jrefrm cGaJ &;-wGaJ &;ESihf yufoufí wuorS Ekid if aH &;acgif;aqmifBuD;rsm;udk zdwaf c:um pum;&nfvyk JG
usi;f yay;cJ\
h / cGaJ &;bufrS OD;bab? OD;bpD? OD;xGe;f 0if;wdYku ajymí? wGaJ &;bufrS a'gufwmbarmf? a'gufwm
b[ef? OD;ay:xGe;f wdYk u ajymqdk acsyMuavonf/
or*¾Ouú|tjzpf aqmif½GufaepOf OD;bdk;ul;tm; ausmif;xm;vQif aiGaMu;ukefus½Hkomjzpfí ausmif;rS
Ekwo
f ifah Mumif;jzifh wuúov
kd af usmif;tkyBf uD;u OD;bd;k ul;zcifxH pma&;Ncdr;f ajcmufjcif; cHc&hJ \/
OD;bd;k ul;onf wuúov
kd rf x
S u
G Nf yD; wdYkArmtpnf;t½H;k wGif yg0ifaqmif½u
G cf o
hJ nf/ ,ck ppfbufuek pf nf jzefYcsd
a&;Xme trSwf (3) wGif refae*smtjzpf aqmif½Gufvsuf½Sdonf/
rSwfcsuf - 1952 ckESpfxkwf? tkd;a0r*¾Zif; 'órwGJ? trSwf (5) wGif? OD;bkd;ul; Ouú|tjzpf aqmif½GufpOf
t,HktMunfr½Sd tqkdwifoGif;í? OD;xGef;pdef Ouú|tjzpf qufvufaqmif½Gufonf[k azmfjy
xm;jcif;rSm? rSm;,Gi;f vsu½f o
dS nf/ 1931-32 ck Ouú|tjzpf aqmif½u
G cf o
hJ l um,uH½iS rf sm;ESiw
hf uG
twGif;a&;rSL; jzpfcJhol ocifApdefwdkYtm; awGUqHkar;jref;&m? OD;xGef;pdef EkwfxGufNyD;? OD;bdk;ul;tm;
Ouú|tjzpf ,SOfNydKifolr½Sd a½G;aumufwifajr§mufjcif;om jzpfaMumif;? t,HktMunfr½Sd tqdk
wifoiG ;f jcif; r½Sad Mumif; ajymjyMuygonf/

57

jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif; - atmifxGef;

OD;pHazmfatmif
(1932-33)

M. A., B. L.

Source: Oway Magazines

&ckdifjynf? ppfawGNrKdUZmwdjzpfí rdbESpfyg;rSm OD;csefxGef;atmifESifh a':vSjrOD;jzpfonf/ 1924 ckESpfwGif
q,fwef;pmar;yGJatmifjrifí? wuúodkvfwGif ynmqufvufqnf;yl;cJhonf/ wuo pnf;rsOf;a&;qGJa&;
aumfrwD tzGUJ 0ifwOD;jzpfí 1932-33 ckwiG f wuoOuú|tjzpf a½G;aumufwifajr§mufc&H jcif; jzpf\/
Ekid if aH &;todynm&ap&efEiS hf ausmif;om;rsm; pdw"f gwfwuf<uvmap&ef Ekid if aH &;acgif;aqmifrsm; a[majymyG?J
pum;&nfvyk rJG sm; usif;ycJ\
h /
OD;pHazmfatmifonf pwDb&m;om; 0ifukefxGufukefXme tkyfcsKyfa&;rSL; (refae*sm) tjzpf ,ck aqmif½Guf
vsuf ½Sdayonf/

OD;odef;armif B. A., B.L
(1933-34)
Source: Oway Magazines

atmufcsi;f wGi;f c½dik f rH½k mG NrKUd wGif zGm;jrifonf/ 1929 ckEpS o
f nf wuúov
kd yf nm pwif qnf;yl;cJah om ESpjf zpf\/
OD;ode;f armifonf &efuek w
f uúov
kd af usmif;om;rsm;or*¾ pnf;rsO;f a&;qGaJ &; aumfrwD0if wOD;jzpfonf/ wuo
pnf;rsOf;udk twnfjyKaom ausmif;om;xktpnf;ta0;wGif obmywdjzpf\/ 1932-33 ckwGif wuo
trIaqmiftjzpf a½G;aumufwifajr§mufjcif;cH&í tdrfwGif;upm;ckefpm;Xme wm0efcHtjzpf wm0efxrf;aqmif
cJo
h nf/ 1933-34 ckwiG f wuoOuú| jzpfonf/ wuúov
kd o
f r*¾ taqmuftOD aqmufvyk &f ef a'gufwmOD;ndK
vSL'gef;aomaiG ESpo
f ed ;f rS usefaiG 3 aomif;udk ausmif;tkyBf uD; 'Da*spavmhpu
f a&ul;uefvyk &f ef pDpOfjcif;udk
uefYuu
G cf o
hJ nf/ wuúov
kd o
f r*¾pmMunfch ef;twGuf pmtkyrf sm;0,f&ef wifjyawmif;qdck o
hJ nf/
(wzufpmrsufEmS odUk - rSwcf suf)

58

udkvdkeDacwfaESmif; - 1932 rS 1935 - e,fcsJYqefhusifa&; vGwfvyfa&;BudK;yrf;rI trsdK;om;a&;toGif

OD;zdk;at;
B. Sc., (Hons/ Rgn.), B. L., (Rgn.), Ph D., (Lond.)
D. I. C., F. R. Met. Soe. (Lond.)
Source: Oway Magazines

(1934-35)

om,m0wDc½dik f oH;k q,fNrKUd wGif arG;zGm;onf/ yef;waemfNrKUd Ak'b
¨ momausmif;rS owÅrwef;pmar;yGJ atmifjrifí
om,m0wDNrKdU atbDtrfausmif;rS (10) wef; atmifjrifcJhonf/ wuúodkvfynm qufvufqnf;yl;í 1931
ckEpS w
f iG f 0dZmÆ odypÜH mar;yGJ ½lyaA'*kPx
f ;l jzifh atmifjrifavonf/
1933-34 ckwiG f Oya'wef; ynmoifMum;vsu½f pdS Of wuotrIaqmiftjzpf a½G;aumuf wifajr§mufjcif;cH&í
1934-35 ckwiG f wuoOuú| jzpfvmonf/
1937 ckEpS w
f iG f rk;d av0o ynmawmfoiftjzpf a½G;cs,jf cif;cH&NyD;? vef'ef,el AD mpDwüD ynmoifMum; &onf/
rk;d av0oynm&yfwiG f yg&*lbUJG &½Scd o
hJ nf/ oD&yd scH sD a'gufwmzd;k at;onf ,ckr;kd av0oXme ñTeMf um;a&;0ef
tjzpf Ekid if aH wmfwm0efukd xrf;aqmifvsuf½o
dS nf/

(OD;ode;f armifr)S
rSwcf su-f xdkaiGrsm;udk 1934-35 ck wuotrIaqmifwOD;jzpfol OD;odef;azjrifhu wuúodkvf"r®m½Hk
aqmuf&mwGif oHk;pGJ&ef tqdkwifoGif;zl;onf[k 1955 ckESpfxkwf aiG&wkobifpmapmif
wGif OD;ode;f azjrifh azmfjyzl;onf/ ausmif;om;oufomacsmifcsad &;twGuf [Hom0wDurk P
Ü D
ESihf awGUqHak qG;aEG;ajz½Si;f cJ\
h / OD;ode;f armifonf pwD;b&m;om;ukrP
Ü v
D rD w
d ufwiG f xif½mS ;
aom tkycf sKyfa&;rSL;wa,muftjzpf vkyaf qmifvsuf½o
dS nf/

59

jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif; - atmifxGef;

tcef; (6)
udv
k ekd aD cwfaESmif;ydik ;f
e,fcsUJ qefu
Y siaf &; vGwv
f yfa&;BuKd ;yrf;rI trsK;d om;a&;toGif
ausmif;om;vIy&f mS ;rIordik ;f
(1935 rS 1936)

(u) udo
k ed ;f az?q&mBu;D ocifu,
kd af wmfriId ;f ESihf wdAYk rmtpnf;t½H;k

(c) 1935-36 wuúov
kd af usmif;om;rsm;tajctae

Source: File Photo

1296 ckESpf? waygif;vqkwf (12) &uf? 1935 ck? rwfv (30) &uf
aeYvnf (2) em&Dü a&eHacsmif;NrdKUv,f wefaqmif;BuD;ü usi;f yaom wdYk Armtpnf;
t½H;k uGezf &ifo
h Ykd wuúov
kd af usmif;om; udo
k ed ;f azonf &efuek Nf rdKUrS rpöwmarmifriId ;f
trnfcH rsKd;cspfpma&;q&mBuD; ygarmu©O;D vGe;f tm; yifah qmifvmNyD; ¤if;uGezf &ifüh
ociftrnfcHum wdkYArmtpnf;t½Hk;0if wOD;tjzpf aMunmvdkufonf/
xdktcsdefrSpí q&mBuD;ocifudk,fawmfrdIif;\ tm;ay;rI? vli,frsm;ESifh
udk,fwdkif tyifyef; tqif;&JcHum yg0ifvkyfaqmifrIaMumifh wdkYArmtpnf;t½Hk;rSm
w[kefxdk; wdk;wufvmNyD; vGwfvyfa&;BudK;yrf;rI t½Sdeft[kef jrifhwufvmonf/
q&mBu;D ocifu,
kd af wmfriId ;f

wuúov
kd t
f mPmydik rf sm;\ zdEydS rf u
I kd ckc&H ef pl;prf;½SmazG&if; Edik if aH &;abm*aA'tygt0if rmhupf pf mayrsm;udk
wuúodkvfausmif;om;rsm; awGU½Sdzwf½Ivmjcif;ESifh wuúodkvfe,fajrtwGif; Armjynfpmtkyftoif;? e*g;eDpmtkyf
toif;wdkYrSwqifh awmfvSefa&;pmayrsm; ydkrdk0ifa&mufvmonf/ wdk;wufaom ausmif;om;BuD;tcsKdUonf wdkYArm
tpnf;t½Hk;ESifh ydkrdk&if;ESD;vmonf/
1935-36 ckESpfwGif udkatmifqef;? udkodef;az? udkwifarmifwdkY ocifjzpfvmNyD; 1935-36 wuo
a½G;aumufyüJG udEk k Ouú|tjzpf ta½G;cH&aomtcg ausmif;om;rsm; wdYk Armtpnf;t½H;k ESihf ydrk q
kd ufo,
G rf rI sm; ½Sv
d mum
ocifrsm;ESihf yd&k if;ES;D vmonf/ NAdwo
d Qe,fcsUJ qefYusiaf &;? vGwv
f yfa&;BudK;yrf;rI pdw"f mwfrsm;? awmfveS af &; pdw"f mwf
rsm; ydkrdkjrifhrm;vmonf/
60

udkvdkeDacwfaESmif; - 1935 rS 1936 - e,fcsJYqefhusifa&; vGwfvyfa&;BudK;yrf;rI trsKd;om;a&;toGif

(*) udEk ?k udak tmifqef;? udak usmNf ird ;f ? udt
k ek ;f ESihf wuo (1935)
Oya'ausmif;om;a[mif; udkEkonf oHk;cG? yef;waemfwGif trsKd;om;ausmif;q&m oGm;vkyf&mrS Oya'wef;
jyefwufcsdefwGif oxHkaqmif usLwm ukdtkef;onf udkausmfNidrf;? udkodef;az? udkatmifqef;wdkY oHk;a,mufudk udkEkESifh
rdwfqufay;NyD; ¤if;tcef;xJwGif EdkifiHa&;aqG;aEG;yGJrsm; jyKvkyfMuonf/ udkausmfNidrf;rSm pum;awmfawmf ajymí
t½Tef;tazmufvnf; ygonf/ udkodef;azuvnf; pum;awmfawmf ajymonf/ udkatmifqef;u pum;enf;NyD; olwdkY
oHk;a,mufvHk; ÓPfxufjrufMuonf[k udkEku oHk;oyfrdonf/ ausmif;tkyfBuD;½Hk;cef;ESifh wudkufavmuftuGm
nbufrsm;wGif ¤if;wdkY ig;OD; rMumcPawGUqHkNyD; EdkifiHa&;tpnf;ta0;rsm; jyKvkyfMuonf/
atmufwb
kd m ausmif;ydwcf geD;wGif or*¾ 'k-Ouú| udak usmfxeG ;f ausmif;xGuo
f mG ;í Mum;jzwfa½G;aumufyJG
jyKvkyfonf/ ig;OD;tzGJU\ wdkufwGef;csuft& udkEk 'k-Ouú|ae&m 0ifa&muf,SOfNydKif&m ,SOfNydKifolr½SdbJ
ta½G;cH&avonf/ 'DZifbm ausmif;ydwcf geD;wGif ausmif;tkyBf uD;vufrw
S Ef iS hf ta&;BuD;EdYk wpfwapmif xGuv
f monf/
¤if;wGif ,leAD mpDwD aumvdyw
f iG f tprf;pmar;yGrJ sm; usif;yrnf/ xkpd mar;yGaJ tmifro
S m pmar;yGBJ uD; ajzqdck iG ahf y;rnf[k
yg½Sdonf/ xdkEdkYwpfpm xGufvmaomtcg ausmif;om;rsm; tHk<uvmNyD; or*¾tpnf;ta0;wck ac:ay;&ef awmif;qdk
vmMuonf/ ausmif;om;rsm;or*¾ tpnf;ta0;udk or*¾cef;rwGifjyKvkyfcJhNyD; ausmif;om;rsm;u tprf;pmar;yGJonf
e,fcsJUrsm;\ zdEydS rf t
I & jyKvkyaf Mumif;udk xyfcgwvJvJ ajymqdak qG;aEG;vmMuonf/ xkpd mar;yGu
J kd oydwaf rSmuf&rnf
qdak om aqG;aEG;csurf sm; jyif;xefvmonf/ ausmif;om;BuD;rsm;u oydwrf arSmufcif ausmif;tkyBf uD;rsm;ESihf oGm;a&muf
aqG;aEG;oifhonf[k tMuHay;í wuúodkvfausmif;om;rsm;or*¾ Ouú| udkzdk;at;ESifh trIaqmifESpfOD;udk Ouú|u
a½G;cs,fNyD; ausmif;tkyfBuD;ESifh aqG;aEG;&efESifh 'DZifbmausmif;rydwfrD xdkudpöESifh ywfoufNyD; ausmif;om;xktpnf;
ta0;wGif tpD&ifc&H ef awmif;qdck o
hJ nf/ odYk aomf Ouú|ESihf trIaqmif ESpOf ;D onf ¤if;wdYk \ uwdtwdik ;f raqmif½u
G b
f J
wm0efudk a½Smifwdrf;aeí 'k-Ouú| udkEkonf udkausmfNidrf;tm; tprf;pmar;yGJudpötwGuf ausmif;tkyfBuD;
rpöwmpavmhESifh oGm;a&muf aqG;aEG;&ef vTwfvdkufonf/
udkausmfNidrf; jyefa&mufvmaomtcg ]yk*¾dKvfwOD;wa,mufyJjzpfjzpf? tzGJYtpnf;wckyJjzpfjzpf ighudkvm
Ncdrf;ajcmufwm igraMumufbl;/ tprf;pmar;yGJudk igaMunmxm;wJUtwdkif; vkyfr,f} pm;yGJukd vufoD;eJYxkNyD;
ajymonf[k jyefajymonf/ xdktcg udkEkESifh (5) OD;tzGJUonf ¤if;wdkYtjyif usef (4-5) a,mufudk zdwfNyD;
]Ouú|eJh trIaqmif(2) OD;uawmY acgif;a½SmifoGm;NyD? 'DvlawGudk tm;udk;vdkhrjzpfbl;? usaemfudk,fwdkif
acgif;aqmifNyD; wdkufr,f} vdYk udEk u
k ajymonf/ xdYk aemuf udEk o
k nf ¤if;tpDtpOfukd wifjyí tm;vH;k oabmwlaom
tcg arm&d,ESifh jrefrmhtvif; owif;pmwdkuf (2) wdkufrS udktkef;\ rdwfaqG arm&d,rSt,f'DwmESifh udkEk\rdwfaqG
jrefrmhtvif;rS t,f'DwmwdkYudk tultnDawmif;NyD; ausmif;om;rsm;wdkufyGJ atmifjrif&eftwGuf ausmif;tkyfBuD;u
]jrefrmEdkifiHrSm½SdwJU b,fEdkifiHa&;orm;eJh b,fEdkifiHa&;tzGJYrS raMumufbl;} [k owif;udk ukdEkonf pum;vHk;
jyifí owif;pmxJwGif xnfhvdkufonf/ aemufwaeYwGif ausmif;tkyfBuD;onf
]ausmif;om;acgif;aqmifawGeJh or*¾udk &nf½G,fNyD;ajymwmyg} vdYk ajz½Si;f csufyYkd aomfvnf; owif;pmrsm;u
rxnfhay;acs/
yxrtqihNf yD;aemuf udEk o
k nf jrpf0uRef;ay: yef;waemf? 0g;c,frNrdKUrsm;odYk vnf;aumif;? udo
k ed ;f azonf
txufArmjynf rHk½Gm? bkwvifNrdKUrsm;odkY c&D;xGufí ¤if;NrdKUrsm;½Sd todrdwfaqGrsm;\ tultnD&,lum NrdKUtpnf;
ta0; ac:,lí EdkifiHa&;orm;rsm;ESifh EdkifiHa&;toif;awGudk apmfum;aom ausmif;tkyfBuD;tm; EkwfxGufí ArmjynfrS
tjrefqHk; xGufoGm;ap&ef qHk;jzwfcsuf csMuonf/ &efukefwGif½Sdaom udkatmifqef;ESifh udkausmfNidrf;u ¤if;owif;udk
owif;pmrsm;wGif xnfhay;vdkufonf/ owif;pm (2) apmifu MuufyGJavmuf½Sdaom tpnf;ta0;yGJrsKd; r[kwfbJ
NrdKUvHk;uRwf tpnf;ta0; qHk;jzwfcsuf[k xifvmap&ef udktkef;? udkausmfNidrf;? udkatmifqef;wdkYu rGrf;rHjyifqifMu
onf/ udkEkESifh udkodef;az &efukefodkY jyefa&mufaomtcg NrdKUvHk;uRwftpnf;ta0;udk a½Twd*HkapwDawmf &m[ka'gifh
wefaqmif;ü xyfrHac:,lonf/ ausmif;tkyfBuD; rpöwmpavmh wkefvIyfNyD; ¤if;tpnf;ta0;ü 0wfvHkOD;pkd;ñGefYESifh
q&mOD;wifudk apvTwfí ajz½Sif;&ef BudK;pm;aomfvnf; vlxkBuD;u ausmif;tkyfBuD;pavmh tjrefxGufoGm;qdkaom
qHk;jzwfcsuf csvdkufonf/
vlxktpnf;ta0;usif;yNyD; aemufwaeY owif;pmxJüygvmonf/ xdktcg ,leDAmpDwDtkyfcsKyfa&;tzGJU
ta&;ay:tpnf;ta0; usif;yNyD; tprf;pmar;yGJudk ½kyfodrf;&ef qHk;jzwfcsufcsvdkufonf/ ¤if;tpnf;ta0;ü udkEkESifh
udkausmfNidrf;tm; ausmif;xkwfypf&ef ausmif;tkyfBuD;u awmif;qdkcJhaomfvnf; 0wfvHkawmf& OD;odrf;armifu xdk
61

jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif; - atmifxGef;
(2) OD;tm; ausmif;xkwv
f Qif ausmif;ü qlyrl rI sm; xyfrjH zpfay:vmrnf[k qdNk yD; ausmif;tkyBf uD; tqdu
k kd uefYuu
G o
f nf/
Mum;jzefajzonfhtaeESifh t"dywd a'gufwmqufonf udkEkESifh udkausmfNidrf;udk qlylvHIYaqmfrI rvkyfygbl;[k 0efcHcsuf
vufrSwfa&;xdk;ckdif;&m udkEkESifh udkausmfNidrf;wdkYu rxdk;ay;ay/

(C) 1935-36 wuo trIaqmiftzGUJ ESihf xdik g;OD;

Source: Internet

1935-36 wuotrIaqmifa½G;yGJ udkEkESifh xdk (5) OD;wdkY\ pnf;½Hk;rI? EdkifiHa&;vIyf½Sm;rI toGifoP²mefrsm;
jzpfay:vmí wuúodkvftkyfcsKyfa&;tzGJUrS vdkvm;aom tvdkawmf&drsm; ½HI;edrfhoGm;NyD; ocifaygufp axmif (6) v
olykefav;rsm; tEdkif&½Sd oGm;onf/
1935-36 wuo trIaqmiftzGJY
1/ udkEk
Ouú| (OD;pD;acgif;aqmif[kac:onf) (aemif 0efBuD;csKyf)
2/ udk&m½Spf
'k-Ouú|
(aemif 0efBuD;)
3/ udkoD[ef
twGif;a&;rSL;
(aemif 0efBuD;)
4/ udkatmifqef; tdk;a0pmwnf; t,f'Dwm
(aemif AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;)
5/ udktkef;
aiGxdef;
(aemif oHtrwf)
6/ ukdxGef;tkH
pmMunfhwdkufrSL;
(aemif &effukefjrLeDpDy,frif;BuD;)
7/ udkomvS
EdkifiHjcm;qufoG,fa&;rSL;
(aemif &efukefwuúodkvftkyfcsKyfa&;rSL;)
8/ udkbquf
tm;upm;rSL;
(aemif EdkifiHjcm;a&;Xme)
9/ udkxGef;wif
aygif;oif;qufqHa&;rSL;
(aemif vQyfppftkyftzGJUOuú|)
udkEkrSm ,SOfNydKifolr½SdbJ ta½G;cH&avonf/
or*¾pnf;rsOf;udk aocsmpGm rzwfaom udEk o
k nf trIaqmifrsm;ESihf jyóem
wufavonf/ wuo oif;vHk;uRwftpnf;ta0; usif;ycsdefü Ouú|rSm usrf;
opöm usdefqdk&onf/ Ouú| 0ifvmaomtcg tm;vHk;u rwfwyf&yfNyD; t½dktao
jyKavonf/ xdktcg udkEkonf acgif;aygif;udk qGJcRwfí pm;yGJay:ypfwifvdkufNyD;
]aemifusaemf tcef;xJ0ifvm&if b,folrSrx&bl;} vdkY ajymvdkufonf/ ¤if;
oif;vHk;uRwf tpnf;ta0;NyD;aemuf trIaqmiftpnf;ta0;csufjcif; ac:,lNyD;
trIaqmifrsm;u ]Ouú|vdkh aMunmvdkuf&if ausmif;om;tm;vHk; rwfwyf&yf&
w,f/ Ouú|xdkifNyD;rS xdkif&w,f/ tJ'g or*¾pnf;rsOf;rSm ygw,f/ udkEkudk
t½dktaoay;wm r[kwfbl;/ Ouú|udk tm;vHk;u t½dktaoay;wm} vdkY ajym
awmhrS udkEk oabmaygufoGm;onf/
1935-36 wGif udkEkwdkYtkyfpk wuowGif a½G;aumufwifajr§mufcH&aom
Ouú| udkEk
tcsdefwGif EdkifiHa&;vIyf½Sm;rIudk taqmifrsm;wGif ysHUESHYatmif vkyfaqmifcJhMuonf/
xdkESpf or*¾ESpfywfvnf tpnf;ta0;wGif tpOftvmt& udkEk\ nmzufwGif a'gufwmbarmf? a'gufwmb[ef?
b,fbufwGif OD;babESifh *VKefOD;apm xdkifonf/ xdkaeYu or*¾tpnf;ta0;wGif Ouú| udkEku trsKd;om;a&;
awmif;qdkcsufrsm; aqmif½GufoGm;rnf[k ajymMum;oGm;onf/ atmufpzdkY,leD,H Ouú|rsm;onf aemifwcsdefwGif
0efBuD;csKyfrsm; jzpfvmMuonf/ xdkESpfxJü udkEkwdkY (5) OD;tkyfpkrSm EdkifiHa&;vIyf½Sm; &efom pdwfyg0ifpm;cJhMuonf/
or*¾toif;om;rsm;ESifh or*¾tcGifhta&; ydk&&ef BudK;pm;cJhMuonf/ pmMunfhwdkufvnf; wnfaqmufcJhonf/
yef;waemfausmif;om;wOD; e,fjyef&ef ausmif;tkyfBuD;qD cGifhpmoGm;wifaomtcg ausmif;tkyfBuD;u
pmxJwGif ausmif;om; tpfr vufrSwfxdk;xm;NyD; taz? tar vufrSwfrxdk;xm;í cGifhrjyKEdkif[k ajymonf/ xdktcg
udkEkonf ausmif;tkyfBuD;xH oGm;awGU&ef qHk;jzwfvdkufonf/
]atmufpzdkheJh udef;b&pfwuúodkvfrSm ausmif;om;awG&JY pmudk q&mu awmif;MunfU0HUwm r[kwfbl;/ 'g
igwdkh Armjynf vmapmfum;wmyJ} [k awG;NyD;
]usaemf tdrfjyefcsifw,f? cGifUay;yg/}
xdktcg ausmif;tkyfBuD;u ]bmudpöjyefcsifwmvJ}
udkEku ]tdrfu pm&w,f}
62

udkvdkeDacwfaESmif; - 1935 rS 1936 - e,fcsJYqefhusifa&; vGwfvyfa&;BudK;yrf;rI trsKd;om;a&;toGif
ausmif;tkyfBuD;u ]at; aumif;NyD? jyefEdkifw,f} vdkYajymvdkuf&m udkEkonf ausmif;tkyfBuD;tm; ai;aMumif
Munfhaerdonf/
aemuf jyóemwck xyfjzpfvmonf/ ppfudkif;aqmif taqmifrSL;onf nbufwGif {nfhonfrsm;jzifh
w&ufjcm;? ESpf&ufjcm; atmf[pfaomif;usef;aeonf/ xdktcg ppfudkif;aqmifrS ausmif;om; udkausmfjrifhonf nbuf
ausmif;om;rsm; pmMunfhaeí qlqlnHnHrvkyf&ef oGm;awmif;yefaomtcg taqmifrSL;u udkausmfjrifhudk atmfvTwf
vdu
k o
f nf/ xdak emuf waeYn taqmifrLS ;udk tHwo
k nft
h aeESihf oHy;kH rsm; wtm;wD;Muavonf/ xdt
k cg taqmifrLS ;
vmMunfhNyD; ausmif;tkyfBuD;udk wdkifvdkufonf/ ausmif;tkyfBuD;u udkausmfjrifhudk wESpf ausmif;xkwfvdkufonf/
Ouú| udkEk odoGm;aomtcg NrdKUxJrS 0wfvHkwOD;udk ac:NyD; udkausmfjrihfudk ½Hk;awmfrSwqifh ausmif;tkyfBuD;xHodkY
wESpfausmif;xkwfcH&í avsmfaMu;ay;&ef epfemaMu;awmif; EdkYwpfpm wifNyD; ½Hk;awmfodkY avQmufxm;avonf/
ausmif;tkyfBuD; EdkYwpfpm&NyD; aemufwaeYwGif csufjcif; udkausmfjrihfudk ausmif;jyefwufcGifh ay;vdkufonf/

(i) udak tmifqef;\ ausmif;om;b0

Source: Bogoke's Works (Mya Han)

udak tmifqef;onf t½dik ;f cGpm ausmif;om;wOD;jzpfonf/ odYk aomf "There
is method in his madness." qdkovdk olYt½dkif;b0onf &nf½G,fcsufESifhjzpf
onf/ a&eHacsmif;trsKd;om;ausmif;wGif ausmif;om;or*¾trIaqmif jzpfcJhonf/
ausmif;om;rsm;tcsif;csif; nDñGwfrI½Sdap&ef trsKd;om;ausmif;0wfpHkudk ol\trI
aqmifrsm;ESihf wdik yf ifum wDxiG cf o
hJ nf/ olwx
D iG cf ahJ om trsK;d om;ausmif;0wfprkH mS
a½Tawmify;kd vHjk cnfEiS hf yifet
D usÐteDjzpfonf/ olonf pum;tajymtqdk EIwef nf;
rI? t0wftpm;taetxdik f cGusraI Mumifh ausmif;om;rsm; aemufajymifjcif; cH&aomf
vnf; *½krpdkufay/ t0wftpm;udk jzpfuwwfqef; 0wfavh½Sdonf/ tajymtqdk
rSm wdusjywfom;onf/ ar;cGef;ajz&mwGif tydktvdkr½Sd/ taMumif;&if; wdkwdkESifh
xdxdrdrdajzwwfonf/ avmuGwfvkyfjcif;udkvnf; rkef;oljzpfonf/ 1931 ckESpf?
t|rwef;wGif ynmoifMum;pOf arv (18) &uf aEG&moDausmif;ydwf&ufü zcif
OD;zm rusef;rmíuG,fvGefcJhonf/ udkatmifqef;ESihf olYtpfudkudkb0if;wdkY ewf
udak tmifqef;
armufwGif zcifoN*ØK[fNyD;rS a&eHacsmif;odkY jyefckdif;í ausmif;wuf aemufusonf/
ausmif;odkY a&mufaomtcg q&mwa,mufu ]rif;wdkh bmvdkhaemufuswmvJ}
udkatmifqef;u ]tazrrmvdkh}
q&mu ]tck rmoGm;NyDvm;}
udkatmifqef;u ]qHk;NyD} [k wHk;wdwdjyefajzcJhonf/
a&eHacsmif;wGif usif;yaom pum;&nfvkyGJwGifvnf; 0ifa&mufajymavh½Sdonf/
]awmrSmaexdkifjcif;onf NrdKYrSmaexdkifjcif;xuf omvGefaumif;rGefonf} [laomtqdkudk tajctwif
jyKvkyf&m udkatmifqef;onf tqdkbufrS 0ifa&muf ajymqdkcJhonf/ rD;&xm;pwif wDxGifol? oabFmpwif wDxGifol
*sdrf;pf0yf? EdkifiHacgif;aqmif a'gufwmrm'if? tDA&m[ifvifuGef;wdkYonf awmom;rsm;jzpfaMumif; ajymqdkcJhonf/
trsKd;om;ausmif;wGif pmapmifxkwfa0&müvnf; t,f'Dwmtjzpf aqmif½GufcJhonf/

(p) or*¾ (wuo) r*¾Zif; ESpaf pmif
xdktcsdefwGif &efukefwuúodkvfü r*¾Zif;ESpfapmif½SdcJhonf/ aumvdyfr*¾Zif;ESifh wuúodkvfausmif;om;rsm;
or*¾r*¾Zif;wdkY jzpfonf/ aumvdyfr*¾Zif;rsm; aiGtm;ydkaumif;NyD; wausmif;vHk;ESifh qdkifovdk jzpfaeum apmifa&
(3000) xkwfa0onf/ t,f'Dwmudk ausmif;tkyfBuD;rpöwmpavmhu a½G;cefYNyD; tvdkawmf&dr*¾Zif;jzpfonf/
wuor*¾Zif;rSm toif;0if½o
dS avmufom xkwaf 0NyD; or*¾tzGUJ xJoYkd wausmif;vH;k 0ifavhr½Sad y/ t,f'D
wmudk or*¾trIaqmiftzGJUu cefYtyfonf/ or*¾qdkonfrSm vlqdk;awG? cGpmawG pk½Hk;&mt&yfjzpfonf/ tvdkawmf&d
rsm;u owfrSwfonf/ xdkYaMumifh twdkuftcHtmabmf[k qdkEdkifonf/ ,cifESpfrsm;udk tw¬KyÜwdårsm;udkom wuo
r*¾Zif;wGif OD;pm;ay;xnfhaomfvnf; udkatmifqef; (t,f'Dwm) ESifh udkndKjr (twGif;a&;rSL;) jzpfvmaomtcg
63

jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif; - atmifxGef;
wuúokdvfe,fajrrS av;pm;xdkufaom yk*¾dKvfrsm;qdkonfh acgif;pOfjzifh(1) jruf&dwfonfh rmvDukvm;BuD;yHk?
(2) or*¾'&0rf OD;odef;yHkawG or*¾pmapmifrSm OD;xdyfxm;xnfhcJhonf/ xdkYaMumifh or*¾r*¾Zif;onf
tpdk;&tmrcHaiG awmif;onfh twdkuftcHpme,fZif;pm&if;wGif tjrJyg0ifonf/

(q) udak tmifqef;? udn
k Kd jrESihf td;k a0r*¾Zif;
udkatmifqef; (t,f'Dwm) u ]&efukefwuúodkvfausmif;om;or*¾r*¾Zif;} qdkwm tvGef½SnfwJh emrnfyJ/
emrnftopfay;&ef ausmif;om;rsm;udk zdwaf c:vku
d o
f nf/ ausmif;om;rsm;u emrnftrsKd;rsKd; 0dik ;f NyD;ay;Muaomfvnf;
udak tmifqef; rBudKufay/ aemufq;kH udn
k Kd jru ]tdk;a0} [k emrnfay;vdu
k af omtcg udak tmifqef; vufcv
H u
kd o
f nf/
tdk;a0[laomtrnfESihf ywfoufí udkndKjr½Sif;jyonfrSm]]'DrSm udkatmifqef;? rEÅav;rSm usaemfausmif;aewkef;u a'gif;,mOfysHqdkwJh Zmwfrif;orD;wa,mufudk
oabmuszl;w,f? olu usaemfwYkd eYJ ½G,w
f al vmufy?J avbmwDrjr&ifvkd trBuD;t½G,rf [kwb
f ;l ? tJ'D a'gif;,mOfysH
u oDcsif;qdkwJhtcgrSm
]tdk;a0} ]tdk;a0}
tJ'D tdk;a0udkyJ ckESpfoHajymif;vJNyD; em;axmifvdkY rNiD;bl;? aemiftcgrSm usaemf pme,fZif;avmua&muf&if
tdk;a0qkdwJhemrnfeJY r*¾Zif;xkwfzdkY pdwful;xm;w,f}}
]Armjynfonf
td;k a0onf

Oa'gif;EdkifiH
Oa'gif;toH}

tJ'DtcsdefupNyD; or*¾r*¾Zif;udk ]tdk;a0r*¾Zif;} [k trnfajymif;vdkufavonf/

(Z) tk;d a0r*¾Zif;yg udak tmifqef;\ t,f'w
D mhtmabmf

]udak tmifqef;\ tEdik rf cHpw
d "f mwf}
ightm; zHk;vTrf;xm;aom vuG,foef;acgif,H ,if;arSmifrdkuf twGif;rSaeí tEdkifrcH?
t½HI;ray;vdkaom ig\pdwfudk zefqif;ay;ol ewf? odMum; wdkhtm; igonf aus;Zl;pum;
qdyk g\/
avmu"Hw&m;\ vufckyfwGif;odkh b,fvdkyif usa&mufapumrl igum; rwkefvIyf?
ridka<u;? uHw&m;\ ½dkufykwfjcif; 'PfcsufaMumifU ig\ OD;acgif;onf aoG;oHwdkhjzifU
&J&JeDae\/ odkhaomf ñTwfum; rñTwf/
avmb? a'gowdkh\ BuD;pdk;&mXme\ tjcm;rJUüum; aojcif;w&m;onf aMumufrufzG,f&m
iHUvifUae\/ odkhyifrl ightm; rwkefrvIyfonfudkom awGY&tHU/ aemifudkvnf; b,fawmUrS
raMumufonfudk awGY&aytHU/
ok*wdoGm;&m wHcg;0onf rnfrQyif usOf;ajrmif;onf jzpfap? ,rrif;\ acG;a&y&ydkufü
ig\tjypfwdkhudk rnfrQyif a&;rSwfxm;onfjzpfap? igum; *½krjyK/
igomvQif ighuH\ t½Sifocifjzpfí igomvQif ighpdwf\ tBuD;tuJjzpfawmU\/
(jynfaxmifpkAdokum AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;- wuúodkvfae0if;? pm- 97? 1997^y)
64

udkvdkeDacwfaESmif; - 1935 rS 1936 - e,fcsJYqefhusifa&; vGwfvyfa&;BudK;yrf;rI trsKd;om;a&;toGif

(ps) 1936 td;k a0r*¾Zif;yg udak tmifqef;\ ausmif;om;avmu oH;k oyfcsuaf qmif;yg;

uRefynmESifh ocifynm
vlBuD;ESifU vli,f
wdkif;jynfxlaxmifa&;vkyfief;wGif vlBuD;? vli,f[lí
tvkyform; ESpfrsKd;ESpfpm;½Sdonf/ vlBuD;wdkYtzdkYrSm aumif;
rGefaomenf;vrf;rsm;udk ñTefjyEdkifonfh pGrf;&nfowåd½Sdap
&rnf/ vli,fwdkYrSmum; xdkokdYñTefjyonfhvrf;udk wef;wef;
ajzmifhajzmifh aMumuf½GHUjcif;uif;odvsuf vdkuf&J&ayrnf/
,ckArmjynfwGifum; vlBuD;rsm;rSmvnf; pGrf;&nfowdå
r½Sd? Avmcsnf;jzpfaeonfudk awGU&onf/ vli,fwdkYtm;
aumif;rGefaom erlemjy&rnfjzpfaom vlBuD;rsm;pGmwdkYonf
uvyfwufjcif;? zJ½dkufjcif;? trsKd;rsKd; uvdrfaphjirf;qif
onfh trIrsKd;om awGU&onf/ odkYjzpf&um; tu,fí aqmif
½Gufcsifaom vli,frsm;rSm ñTefjyrnfh tvif;a&mifuif;rJh
vsuf trdkufarSmifxJwGif ajcprf;vufprf;jzifhom tcsdefukef
&avonf/
tcsKdUolwdkYu vlBuD;rsm;udk qJ
onf
[k vli,fwdkYtm; tjypfwif
vrf;ñTefrnfU
Muonf/ odkYaomfvnf; þta&;
vlBuD;½SdvQif
þudpörSm vli,fESifhvlBuD; (2) OD;
(2) buf p vH k ; tjypf r uif ; ay/
vli,fwdkhonf
vlBuD;wdkYrSm azmfjycJhonfhtwdkif;
a½SYodkhwdk;wufí
aumif;rGefaom enf;vrf;ñTefjy
jcif;r½Sd? vli,fwdkYrSm vlBuD;wdkY\
vkyfief;udk
udk,fhtjypfudk jy½HkrSwyg; tjcm;vkyf
xGifEdkifrnf
jyjcif;r½Sd/
uREfkyfwdkYtzdkYrlum; tdEd´,jynf
jzpfonfUtjyif
rS r[wår*E´D? pDtm'uf? rdkwDvm
rdrdwdkhtvSnfU
ae½l;? wdvuf tp½SdolwdkY uJhodkY
vnf;aumif;? tdkif,mvefrS 'DAuf?
usa&mufaomtcg
tDwvDjynfrS *&daAmv'D? rpfZeDwdkY
acgif;aqmifonfU
uJhodkYvnf;aumif;? ususee acgif;
vkyif ef;udk ryifyef;bJ aqmifEdkifí acgif;aqmifrnfh rnf
onhfvlBuD;rqdk aemufvdkuftjzpf
xrf;aqmifEdkifay
vdkufygaqmif½Guf&ef toifh½Sday
onf/ xdkodkY acgif;aqmif&Jrnfh
vdrfUrnf
yk*d¾KvfwOD; xGufygav/ apmifhvsuf
uREfkyfwdkYarQmfrnf/
emrnfBuD;onfh þwuúodkvfü vrf;ñTefrnfhvlBuD;
½SdvQif vli,fwdkYonf a½SUodkYwdk;wufí vkyfief;udk xGifEdkif
rnf jzpfonfhjyif rdrdwdkYtvSnfhusa&mufaomtcg acgif;
aqmifonfhvkyfief;udk ryifyef;bJ xrf;aqmifEdkifayvdrhf
rnf/ uREfkyfwdkY vli,fwdkYuvnf; xdktcsdef xdktcgtwGuf
,ckuyif toihfjyifxm;&ayrnf/ BudK;pm;tm;xkwf&
ayrnf/ txl;ojzifh uREfkyfwdkY wuúodkvfausmif;om;rsm;
onf þta&;wGif tcsuftjcm jzpfavonf/ odkYjzpfvifh

upm; ,ckvuf½Sd wuúodkvfausmif;om;rsm;rSm emrnf[D;
oavmuf toHr½Sdjzpfaeonfudk awGU&onf/ uREfkyfwdkY
wuúodkvfausmif;om;wdkYonf ,ck&½Sdaeaom uRefynmudk
t[k w f B uD ; rS w f x if a eMuí exif a oG ; a&muf N yD ; vQif
ArmwdkYjyKorQ ½HIUcsuJh&JYvdkaompdwf? vGwfvyfaom ocif
tvkyfudk *kPfedrfhonfxifaom pdwfwdkYudkarG;jrLxm;ojzifh
txufra&muf? atmufrusorm;rsm; jzpfaeMuavonf/
uREkfyfwdkY wuúodkvfausmif;om;wdkYonf [D&dMowåyÜ
w&m;uif;rJhvsuf ¤if;w&m;udkyif em;rvnfEdkif ½Sdaeay
ao;onf/ raMumuf&rnfhae&mwGif aMumufí? r½Suf&rnfh
ae&mwGif ½Sufaeonfudk awGU&ayonf/ EdkifiHjcm;om;wdkY
jrifvQif 'l;wkefcsifonfhpdwf raysmufao;? abmvHk;yGJwGif
qJcsif? qdkcsif? aomif;usef;csifonfh pdwf"mwfrSmvnf;
txl; ½Sufp&m aumif;avonf/ vGwfvyfaomtvkyfudk
rcifrif? vGwfvyfaomb0udk wefzdk;rod? xdkYaMumifh vGwf
vyfaomb0udk rawmifhw? rMuHq? &atmifrBudK;pm;bJ
a½T&nfrGrf;rHxm;aom avSmifcsKdifhxJwGif taysmfBuD; aysmf
aeMuayonf/
uREkfyfwdkY wuúodkvfausmif;om;wdkYwGif tvGrf;emorm;
wdkYum;rsm;vSpGm\/ odkYaomf wvGJvGrf;vGrf;aeonfudk awGU
&yg\/ oem;wwfaomolrsm;udkvnf; awGU&yg\/ odkY
aomf wvGJoem;aeMuayonf/ cspfa,mifaqmifí ao
atmif vGrf;wwfaom &efolwdkYu t½SLt½IdufESifh idkcsif;cs
onfudk jrif&aomtcg &ifxJwGif zdkvdIufzdkvdIufESifh 0rf;enf;
onfh pum;oHrsm;udk Mum;&ayonf/ bufwH½dkufawmfol
wa,muf armyef;aMuaeí aumif;rGefpGm rupm;Edkifonfh
tcg tawmfrodaom vlxkBuD;onf r[mu½kPmawmf
teEŽSdvSí pkwfwowfowf ajymqdkMuonfudkum; Mum;
od&ayonf/
odkY&mwGif uRefwGif;epfí &wem? a½T? aiG oHk;yg; ysufpD;
aeaom uREfkyfwdkY\wdkif;jynftwGuf eHeufpmeHeuf? npm
n ½Smpm;&aom rsm;ajrmifvSpGmaom qif;&Jom;wdkYtwGuf
rlum; oem;jcif; u½kPmw&m;onfum; acgif;yg;vSay
\/ þodkYvQif uREkfyfwdkY wuúodkvfausmif;om;rsm;rSm ynm
\ t&dyfta,mifrsm;omjzpfí ynmppf\ tcsuftcsmjzpf
aom tqdk;taumif;wefzdk;udk ra0zefEdkifbJ½Sdavonf/
uRefynmESifU ocifynm
þynmESpfrsKd;udk tcsKdUolwdkYrSm em;rvnfbJ ajymaeMu
onf/ þynmESpfrsKd;udk ½Sif;vif;&efrSm rvG,fulvSay/
usrf;pmapmiftzGJUESifha&;om;rS ½Sif;vif;rnfht&mjzpfonf/
t*Fvef? *syef? tar&duef? jyifopf? tDwvD? *smrPD?
½k½Swdkif;jynfrsm;wGif oifMum;aeaom ynma&;pepfESifh
tdEd´,jynf? ArmjynfwdkYwGif ay;tyfaom ynma&;pepfrSm

65

jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif; - atmifxGef;
rdk;ESifh ajrBuD;rQ uGmjcm;aeonfudk awGU&ayonf/ ynmoif
Mum;a&;&mwGif toufarG;0rf;ausmif; ynm&yfrsm; tjyif
½dk;½dk;oifMum;&mwGifvnf; pGrf;pGrf;wrH? udk,fh'l;udk,fcRefvdk
onfhpdwfESifh xdkokdYjyKjyifEdkifonfh t&nftcsif;wdkYudk ausmif;
om;vli,frsm; arG;jrLvmEdkifatmif jyKjyifay;onf/
tdE´d,jynfESifh Armjynf½Sd vuf½Sdynma&;pepfrSm rlv
wef;? tv,fwef;? txufwef;? wuúodkvf þtqifh av;
ydkif;rQ½Sdonf/ ½Sdaomtqihf av;ydkif;wdkYwGifvnf; aumif;rGef
usepGmr½Sd? þrQaomynmudk uREfkyfwdkYtm;ay;&mwGif om
&mpm; rsm;vmapí uRefoabmufpdwfaygufolrsm; ½Sdvm
atmif jzpfapayonf/ þ&nf½G,fcsufrSm t*Fvdyfynmudk
tdEd´,wGif yxrpxGifol avmh'frufaumav;u vrf;
aMumif;jycJhjcif; jzpfavonf/ tdE´d,jynf½Sdynma&;pepfudk
csKyfEdkiforQcsKyf&rnf[k ajymMum;cJhonf/ taMumif;um;
tifyg,mcsJUxGifa&;pepfudk wnfwHhcdkifjrJap&ef jzpfav
onf/
tifyg,mcsJUxGifa&;pepfonf ta&;BuD;t&mygaom
ud&d,mvufeufBuD;wck jzpfonfudk ¤if;tifyg,m csJUxGif
a&;udk rBudKufrESpfoufaom t*FvdyfvlrsKd;tcsKdUu twd
tvif; a&;om;xm;onf/ ta0;BuD;r½SmbJ teD;uav;jzpf
aom jrefrmpmñGefYaygif;usrf; tcsD;wGifvnf; tifyg,m
csJUxGifa&;pepfESifh ynma&;pepf rnfodkYoufqdkifaMumif;udk
t&dyft>ruf jyxm;avonf/
odkYynma&;pepfudk tifyg,mcsJUxGifa&;pepfESifh wHokwf
vdkufnDavatmif jrefrmjynfü ynmroifrae&Oya' rxm;
½Sdjcif;? oifMum;&efbmom&yfrsm;rSm tenf;i,fom½Sdí
tukeftcrf;roifay;jcif;? ausmif;ueftoD;oD;wdkYwGifvnf;
uav;oli,fwdkYtm; tifyg,mcsJUxGifa&;pepf\ axmufyHh
olrsm;jzpfatmif trsKd;rsKd;jyKvkyfjcif;? wuúodkvfynmudk
vlwdkif;r,lEdkifatmif ynmwwfenf;atmif trsKd;rsKd; twm;
tqD;tydwftyifrsm; xm;jcif;wkdY jzpfavonf/
Oyrmwckjy&aomf ,ck uREfkyfwdkY wuúodkvfynma&;
pepfrSm (a*sa[mv'def) (um'De,fe,l;rif;) (tb&m[if
zvufem) (ya&mzufqmZif;ref;) paom yk*¾dKvfBuD;wdkY a&;
om;csufrsm;ESifh txl;uGmjcm;NyD;vQif twGif;a&;odolwdkY
onf rnfrQqdk;0g;onfudk odMu&ayonf/ wdkif;jynfaiGESifh
aqmufí wdkif;jynf½Sd vlrsm;twGuf ausmif;jzpfaomfvnf;
uREfkyfwdkYwuúodkvf (,k'oefaumvdyf? q&mjzpfoif tm;vHk;
aygif;qdkvdkonf) rSm wdkif;oljynfom;wdkYtm; (uav;udk
t&dyfta,mifjywJh bdk;vewfom;) rQomjzpfonf/
wdkif;oljynfom;rsm;rSm þynma&;wGif bmrQajymqdk
ydkifcGifhr½Sday/ wdkif;oljynfom;rsm;u wifajr§mufaom udk,f
pm;vS,f tenf;i,frQ tkyfcsKyfa&;wGifygaomfvnf; wefckd;
tmPmtvsOf;r½Sd? wuúodkvfaumifpD tpnf;ta0;rSm
wESpfwGifwcgrQ jyKvkyfí em&D0ufESihf tpnf;ta0; pmwrf;
rsm;udk ¤if;wdkYpDpOfovdk zwfjyNyD;vQif NyD;qHk;oGm;onfu
rsm;avonf[k uREfkyfwdkY Mum;&avonf/
tcsKdUuArmjynfynma&;pepfwGif ynmawmfoifap

66

vTwfjcif;udk ñTefjyMu\/ ynmawmfoifapvTwfjcif;onf
pifppfaumif;rGefaomfvnf; uREfkyfwdkYjynfwGif toHk;jyK&
onfhpepfrSm tvGefnHhzsif;aeonf/ wESpfvQif ynmawmf
oif (12) a,mufru (1000) vTwfapumrl ,ckpepft&
vTwfaomynmoifolwdkYrSm w&mvQifwa,mufrQ jrefrm
jynf tusKd;½Sdatmif jyKvkyfEdkifonfh t&nftcsif;½Sdrnf
r[kwfay/
ynmawmfoif apvTwfonfqdkonfrSm bdvyfudk ydkYjcif;
udkom qdkvdkonfr[kwf/ wpHkaomtwwfynm xGef;um;
vm&modkY xdktwwfudk tNyD;wdkifwwfajrmufoifvkdoltm;
apvTwfjcif;jzpfonf/ oMum;vkyfief;oifvkdoltm; oMum;
vkyfief; tBuD;tus,fjyKvkyf&mXmeodkYvnf;aumif;? v,f
,mpdkufysKd;a&; twwfoifvdkoltm; xdktwwf jyefYyGm;&m
XmeodkYvnf;aumif; tcsKyftjc,fr½Sd apvTwfjcif; jzpfav
onf/ þum; ½k½S? *syefpaom wdkif;jynfwdkYBuD;yGm;yHkwnf;/
þum; uRefynmESifh ocifynm cGJMuyHkwnf;/
rdbrsm;odkh
ynma&;ESifhywfoufNyD; jrefrmjynf½Sd rdbrsm;xHodkY
uREfkyf tpD&ifcHvdkonf/ ,ckacwfBuD;u tNydKiftqdkif acwf
BuD;jzpfonfudk ¤if;wdkYod½Sdaumif; od½SdMuygvdrfhrnf/ tNydKif
tqdkifacwfBuD;wGif a[mif;EGrf;aomenf;pepfrsKd;jzifh uREfkyf
wdkY t½Snfojzifh rwnfwHhEdkifyg/ tpdk;&&mxl;XmewdkYtwGuf
om rdrdwdkYom;orD;ynma&;udk a½S;½IjyKí ñTefMum;jcif;
rjyKygvifh? trsKd;ESifhwdkif;jynf tusKd;½Sdaprnfh vkyfief;rsm;
udk rdrdwdkYom;orD;rsm; jyKvkyfjcif;udk wm;qD;ydwfyifjcif;
rjyKbJ tm;ay;Muapvdkygonf/
aiGtiftm;jynfhpHkvQif rdrdwdkYom;orD;rsm;ESihf oifhawmf
rnfh wdkif;jynfodkYapvTwfjcif;u þwuúodkvfodkYcsnf; ap
vTwfjcif;xuf ydkrkdaumif;rGefonf[k uREfkyfwdkY ,lqrdav
onf/ Oyrmqdkaomf *syefjynfonf ,cktcgwGif pufrI
ynm tvGefxGef;um;í tjcm;wdkif;jynfrsm;xuf 50%
ydkrdkí *syefjzpfukefypönf;wdkYudk EdkifiHjcm;odkY wifydkYEdkifav
onf/ tjcm;twwfynmrsm;vnf; *syefjynfwGif xGef;um;
avonf/ odkYjzpf&um; *syefjynfodkY rdrdwdkYom;orD;rsm;udk
ynmoifapvTwfvQif þwuúodkvfwGif ynmoifonfxuf
tusKd;½Sdrnf[k uREkfkyfwdkY xifavonf/
uREfkyfwdkYod&oavmufrSm *syefjynfwGif ynmoifMum;
&onfh p&dwfonfvnf; tvGefqHk; wvvQif 100-150
usyfrQ usrnfjzpf&m uREfkyfwdkYwuúodkvfwGif ynmoifMum;&
onfhp&dwfESifh rsm;pGmruGmay/ xdkYaMumifh rdrdwdkYwoufrQ
aumif;pm;onfukd rMunfh½IbJ aemifvmaemufom;rsm;t
usKd;udk arQmfudk;í jrefrmjynf½Sd rdbrsm;onf rdrdwdkYom;orD;
wdkYtm; urÇmBuD;wzufpGef;wGifjzpfapumrl aomuESifh oH
a,mZOfudk ab;csdwfí pGefYpm;apoihfonf/ ynm½Sdapoihf
onf/ pD;yGm;½Smapoihfonf/ þonfomvQif ,ckacwfESifh
nDaomenf;vrf; jzpfonf/

atmifqef;

udkvdkeDacwfaESmif; - 1935 rS 1936 - e,fcsJYqefhusifa&; vGwfvyfa&;BudK;yrf;rI trsKd;om;a&;toGif

(n) q&mBu;D ocifu,
kd af wmfriId ;f \ wuúov
kd o
f r*¾r*¾Zif;ESihf a'gi;f td;k a0r*¾Zif;bJUG tvuFmr*Fvm av;csK;d Bu;D
(aMomf) . . txufe*dku ysufNydKvdkYuscJhwJh
ueufy[kd&fyv’if vufpt<uif;ayxifh?
wuúodkvfobif or*¾toif;qDu
tquforw toif;awGeJY Mwif;? e0if;?
aumif;rsKd;taxGaxG/
(tdkuG,f) . . wufruG twif;a[hvdkY?
tuGufusus eif;eif;NyD;?
cuforQ½Sif;ay;rnfhowif;a'gif;tdk;a0/
(aMomf) . . q&mtxl;Mum;ruGJU?
urÇmOD;w&m;rSmawmh?
Arm tESL;rsm;pGm ay:vm[efESifh?
avsmfpGmrl o@mef urÇmhtoa&xGef;apbdkY?
aomfwm ol&uef (v) (ae) 0ef;wdkYrSmjzifh?
av;uRef;tukef0ifhayrnfh?
,kefESifha'gif;ysH tvH"Z*f ESpfrsKd;qdkwJh?
]r*¢Zdk0f;} bk&if&mZm tvuFmysKdU&,fESifh?
r*FvmwrQKdY&a0 prkwfwGifrS?
y&arO*¾g &0daqGwdkY r½SdayordkYvJ?
owdrajyvdkY rSef;&ygwJh?
a&rk'¨g bdaousrf;awGESifh?
wynfhawGvGrf;p&m pmt½SdjyjyNyD;?
(aMomf) . . orm"deJYyg&rD jznfhaywJh?
q&mu0d&,fuaESm?
owå0g ½Sd½SdorQ uyfurÇmrSm?
t&yf&yf t½Gm½GmESifhwuG?
ewfjA[®mwdkYawmif ajymavmufatmif?
]yvm,dw} Zmwftvm xyfumwavmomy?
aendKndKrSm a½TbdkuvJ armcsdefrdkY?
awm&ü taerSmaemfuG,f?
avmutvdkuf oabmusvQifvJ? BudKufMua&mhvdkY?
a[mjyvdkufay/
(aMomf) . . tkyfcsKyfa&;awGuvJ ½Iyf½IyfaxG;axG; ayxifhaESm?
EkyfEkyfao;ao;wawG rMunfrkef;Mua&mhovm;?
OpöaX; taxGaxG tjynfjynfMuHK;NyD;awmh?
yx0DESpfvHk;u ttDqHk;qdkwJh tqDtwHk;
t&om 0pGm pm;csdefrdkY?
t½kyfuav;awG jynfzHk;csumxm;aomfvJ?
nDwkef; or,tcgrsm;u
urÇmhurÇm<um;cJhwJh
ArmhArmom;awG&JU wdkYArmajr?
wdkYArm tarGayrdkY tEkdifr,laypaumif;?
(tdkuG,f) . . wdkYArmajyrSmjzifh
wdkYomaer,fvdkY? rqdkifolawGarmif;/
67

jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif; - atmifxGef;
q&mhtjzpfrSm? b0epfembdkY?
jrefrmhacwf romr,mESifh?
tnmruGm ausmif;rSmxm;jyefordkY?
ausmif;om; oli,f vlrr,f"avhayy?
tarharmif ax&f&[ef;wdkYESifh?
jynfref; pmayoifawmh?
omoemajryv’if toa&vSaywJh?
a½Tjrawmif omwJhwdkufqDu?
(ae) (v) ESpfaqmif ygawmfrlwJh tcdkufudkjzifh?
u'dkuf u½dkuf tjrefjrifvdkufawmh?
rcHcsif rmef0ifwJh tpGrf;&,fESifh?
(aMomf) . . ref;tysufwGifjzifh?
MuiSef; rufvdkufyHku? ykcef;xGufwJhNyD;?
tMurf; zufa&mh r[JhvdkY?
irf;irf;wuf oa&,kdatmif
eef;quftarGudkvJ rSef;rdwJhjyif?
ur®|mef;owdESifh rqifjcif? rjrifcifrSm
ba&mufb&ufESifh?
aemufysufysuf t½l;vdky?
taemufbuful;um awmifpOfpudkif;wGifjzifh?
acsmifjrifwdkif;rSm armif&ifrdIif;BuD;
Adkvf0ifcHvdkYrdkY?
[kdt&if ,ref rufrdonfh orxwrsKd;ayy?
zdkyv’ifysHrSm t*d¾& &uf½SdorQxdk;&mu?
trsKd;bmom omoemiJhayonfh?
wyJhocif ]av;armif} ]Apdef} uav;wdkYESifh?
jrefrmhtcsdefa½G;um atmifajreif;ra[hvdkY?
awmifajctqif;rSm (ae) rapmif;rDy?
a½Ta'gif;]tdk;a0} r*¾Zif;qDu?
tqufruif;wJh oHo&mrSm?
wyJht&if;&JU pHyrm ½G,f&nf½SmwJh?
t,f'Dwm ]armifndKjr} &JUjyif?
(aMomf) . . ArmhtwGuf
r&orQ yGufruGqdkwJh?
or*¾ Ouú| ]armifb*srf;} wdkYudk?
"Z*¾okwft& atmifwzGzGref;&mu?
atmifZ,yef; anmifoajy Ekcsdefrawmh/
aemifjrefrmhpwrf; ]armifa½TEk} &,fvdkY?
atmifaZ,wk >rufrqHk;EdkifrJh jyif
wufzkef;BuD;q&m ]odef;az} uav;wdkYudkjzifh?
,drf;raoG udef;aoa½G;vdkufuJh?
ta&;½SdvQif t&may:Mua&mh?
q&mtausmftarmf a,m*Du0d&,fu?
urÇmrSmaomf ta[m nD\rnD\ awmqDu
Munfhvdkufawmh/
68

udkvdkeDacwfaESmif; - 1935 rS 1936 - e,fcsJYqefhusifa&; vGwfvyfa&;BudK;yrf;rI trsKd;om;a&;toGif
jrefrmraemf aumvDrdcsdefrdkY?
aZmf0Dxd wuGufrrSdef arSmifrn§dKUrlí?
aumvD\ jyu©'defrSm ajymif;ordkYomy?
]tdk azarmifwif&JU} atmifrQKdYtvJSY txuf[dk,cifuJhodkY
ueufy[dk&f ajymif;&rSmu?
aemifodkYwuJh? atmifbdkY wyJhawGeJY?
(aMomf) . . armifwdkY&JY wuúodkvf ocifausmif;/
ocifudk,fawmfrIdif; (vufa½G;pifav;csKd;w&m? pm-308? 73? Zlvdkif)

(#) 1936 'kw,
d wuúov
kd af usmif;om;oydwjf zpfymG ;apaom taMumif;&if;rsm;
(1) ukdEka[majymrIrsm;
(91) XmetkyfcsKyfa&;\ enf;y&d,m,fudk wuúodkvfausmif;om;rsm; &dyfpm;em;vnfvmMuonf/ txl;
ojzifh wuorS wdk;wufaom vli,facgif;aqmifrsm;jzpfonfh udkEk? udktkef;? udkausmfNidrf;? udkodef;az? udkatmifqef;
wdkYonf wdkYArmtpnf;t½Hk;rS wdk;wufaom vli,facgif;aqmifrsm;ESifh tquftoG,fjyKí vufa0cH ñGefYaygif;tpdk;&
tm; vnf;aumif;? NAdwdoQe,fcsJUtpdk;&tm; vnf;aumif; qefYusifí twdkuftcHjyKaeMuonf/
1936 Zefe0g&D (30) &uf? nae (7) em&DwGif &efukefwuúodkvfausmif;om;rsm;\ aemufqHk;pum;&nfvkyGJ
usif;yavonf/ xdkpum;&nfvkyGJwGif wuoOuú| udkEkonf obmywdvkyfonf/ pum;&nfvkyGJ ed*Hk;csKyfwGif
udkEku wuúodkvf ausmif;q&mtcsKdUonf 0ifa&mufpGufzuf? taESmifht,Sufay;aeMuonf/ ausmif;om;rsm;onf
uRefpdwfarG;vmMuvsuf tvdkawmf&d vrf;pOfudk vdkufaeMuonf[k a0zefvdkufonf/
xdYk jyif udEk o
k nf vuf½t
dS pd;k &\ oabmxm;udk tpnf;ta0;wckwiG f ½Si;f vif;wifjyavonf/ tpd;k &onf
&efukefwuúodkvfausmif;om;or*¾tm; vnf;aumif;? rsKd;cspfpdwf½Sdaom wuúodkvfausmif;om;rsm;tm; vnf;aumif;
tjypfr½Sd tjypf½Sm NzdKcGJvdrhfrnf? wuoESifh ausmif;om;rsm;\ aoG;pnf;nDñGwfa&;udk rvdkvm;? enf;y&d,m,f
trsKd;rsKd;oHk;í NzdKcJGrnfhtEÅ&m,fudk txl;owdjyK&rnf[k a[majymcJhayonf/
xdYk jyif ausmif;tkyBf uD; 'Da*spavmh (D.J Sloss) ESihf tmPmydik rf sm;udv
k nf; a0zefcahJ vonf/ ¤if;a0zefaom
udpörsm;rSm pmar;yGJwcgusaom ausmif;om;rsm; pmar;yGJwESpfajzcGifh r&onfhudpö? twef;xJwGif a&mufra&muf
trnfac:onfhtcg "Present" ]a&mufygonf} [k ausmif;om;u ajz&onf/ xdktajzwGif "Sir" ]vlBuD;rif;}
[k xnfhrajzrdojzifh ausmif;om;rSm (udkpdk;jrifh) twef;wufcGifhr& jzpfonfhudpö? ausmif;aqmifwGif uyfxm;aom
ausmif;aMumfjimpm? trdeYf pmukd &ufveG Nf yDxifí ausmif;om;u qkwrf o
d jzifh (udak tmifjrih)f ausmif;xkwcf &H onfu
h pd ö
ponfwYkd ukd xpfceJqv
kd Qif tjypf'PfEiS hf avsmfnaD tmif tjypfay;jcif; r[kwb
f J ocifEiS hf uRefyrm ausmif;tmPmydik f
rsm;u wzufpD;eif; jyKvkyfcJhonf[k udkEku a0zefcJhavonf/ xdkudpörsm;ESifh ywfoufí ausmif;om;avmurSm
rcHcsdrcHom jzpfaeonf/ tvdkawmf&d ausmif;om;rsm;udk tcGifhta&;ay;NyD; ½dk;½dk;rSefrSefaeolrsm; tESdrfcH&? 'Pf½dkufcH&
qdkwJh udprö sKd;awG rcHcsifp&m rMumcP ay:aygufaeavonf/ tjyifavmuwGif ocifaygufp axmif (6) vqdkwJh
zdESdyfrIrsKd;awG awGUaecsdefrSm wuúodkvfe,fajr tmPmydkifrsm;onf wuoudk rsufrkef;usKd; aecsdefjzpfonf/
1936 Zefe0g&Dv? (1) &ufaeY wuo taqmuftODü a[majymyGu
J sif;y&m udEk u
k ,ckvuf½dS ausmif;om;
rsm;onf ausmif;om;? ausmif;olrsm; &½Sdonfh tcGihfta&;ukdomru EdkifiHhvGwfvyfa&;vkyfief;rsm;wGifyg? e,fcsJU
qefYusifa&;wdkufyGJwGifyg yg0ifoihfaMumifh ajymMum;oGm;avonf/ 1935 ckESpf ukefcgeD;wGif wuúodkvfor*¾ESpfywf
vnf tpnf;ta0; usif;y&m ¤if;tcrf;tem;wGif eef;&if;0efBuD;? tcsKdU0wfvHkawmf&ESifh trwfwcsKdUyg wufa&muf
onf/ udkEku xdktcrf;tem;wGif ]rdrdcGifUwifonfUtcsdefwkef;u pmudk ausmif;tkyfBuD;uawmif;vQif ½Hk;cef;rSuefxkwf
ypfrnf} [k rdefYcGef;xJwGif ygoGm;onf/
(2) tdk;a0r*¾Zif;udpöESifU i&JacG;BuD;aqmif;yg;
xdkESpfwGif ausmif;om;r@dKifjzpfaom tdk;a0r*¾Zif; 1936 Zefe0g&Dvxkwf? twGJ-5? trSwf-1 t*Fvdyf
u@wGif azazmf0g&D yxrywfwGif xGufvmonfü "Hell Hound at large" ]i&JacG;BuD;vGwfaeNyD} [laom
aqmif;yg; ygvmonf/
69

jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif; - atmifxGef;
The Hell-Hound at Large
Escaped from Awizi, a devil in the form of a balck dog. Had been during his
brief span on earth a base object of Universal odium and execration, - sentenced to
Eternal Damnation for Treachery, Theft, Presumption, Intrague, Pettifogging, Sadism,
Churlishness, Vulgarity, etc. A pimping knave with avuncular pretensions to some
cheap wiggling wenches from a well-known Hostel, he was also a hectic popularityhunter, shamming interest in Games, Concerts, Association etc., menacing the public
placed with his unwanted presence though generally welcomed to everywhere as
small-pox. His only distinguishing marks have been the abominable V.D. ulcers on
his neck and buboes due to copulation with his own wife.
Will finder please, kick him back to Hell?
Yamamin
From: "Oway" or The Voice of the Peacock, Voice of the RUSU, Jan. 1936; Vol. 5, No. 1, p. 56.

¤if;aqmif;yg;wGif wuúodkvftmPmydkifwOD;\ csKdU,Gif;csufrsm;? tjypftemtqmrsm;? rw&m;rIrsm;udk
yGiyhf iG v
hf if;vif; a0zefa&;om;xm;avonf/ i&JacG;BuD;ESihf EdiI ;f ,SOcf &H aom tmPmydik ef mrnfukd azmfxw
k rf xm;apumrl
xdo
k rl mS rnfojl zpfonfukd ausmif;om;? ausmif;ol? q&m? q&mr odNyD;jzpfonf/ taMumif;rodorl sm;u ar;Muonf/
ausmif;om;rsm;u wuúodkvftmPmydkifwOD;udk oa&mfvdkufonfhtwGuf auseyfaeMuonf/
xdak qmif;yg;½Si\
f &nfñeT ;f csufu 91-Xme tkycf sKyfa&;t&wufaeonfh vuf½ñ
dS eG Yf aygif;tpd;k &udk 0g;vH;k
½Snfjzifh odrf;&rf;&if; jynfolw&yfvHk;udk owday;xm;onf/ ,if;aqmif;yg;udk vuf½Sdtpdk;&u qwfqwfcg
emusnf;um ,if;jyóemudk jywfjywfom;om; ta&;,l&ef ñGefYaygif;tpdk;&u &efukefwuúodkvfausmif;tkyfBuD;xH
trdeYf ay;vdu
k f onf/ xdt
k cg &efuek w
f uúov
kd af usmif;tkyBf uD;u &efuek w
f uúov
kd af usmif;om;rsm;or*¾ trIaqmifEiS hf
tdk;a0r*¾Zif; t,f'Dwm udkatmifqef;tm; aqmif;yg;½Sifudk azmfxkwf&rnf[k ta&;qdkavonf/ udkatmifqef;u
t,f'Dwm usifh0wf odu©mESifhtnD xdef;odrf;&rnfh 0wå&m;½Sdonfhtwdkif; aqmif;yg;½Siftm; xkwfazmfrajymEdkif?
xdkaqmif;yg;ESifh pyfvsOf;í ta&;,lvQif rdrdtm; ta&;,lEdkifaMumif; ajymonf/ xdkaqmif;yg;½Sifudk udkatmifqef;
yg;pyfrS xkwfazmfrajymrcsif; aqmif;yg;½Siftm; zrf;qD;ta&;,lEdkifjcif; rjyKEdkifay/ xdktcg ausmif;tkyfBuD;pavmhu
udkatmifqef;tm;]rif;[m awmfvSefa&;orm;av;bJ} "You are a revolutionary." [k ceJYvdkuf&m?
udkatmifqef;u ]usaemf[m awmfveS af &;orm;vdq
hk &kd if usaemfu Nird ;f csr;f a&;vdv
k m;aom awmfveS af &;orm;
jzpfvrd rhf ,f} "I am a peaceful revolutionary." [k pmwapmifa&;í wkefYjyefcJhonf/
udkatmifqef; zGifhrajymbJ a&iHkydwfcJhaom udpu
ö dk 1322 vjynfhaeYxkwf tkd;a0*sme,fwGif o0PfvTmwck
ygvmavonf/
¤if;o0PfvTmrSmnDav;ndKjr (udkodef;wif)
ausmif;om;b0 "Hell Hound at large" qdkwJh aqmif;yg;wdkav;wckxJeJh wuúodkvfavmurSm
tnMwb0uae ausmfapmcJhwJhb0 rif;a&mufcJhw,f/
yHk
armifEk
1? 10? 60
udkatmifqef; zGifhrajymcJhonfh udpöudk udkEku 0efBuD;csKyfjzpfcsdefrSm tdk;a0r*¾Zif;udk csD;jr§ifhaqmif;yg;jzifh
azmfxkwfcJhavonf/
70

udkvdkeDacwfaESmif; - 1935 rS 1936 - e,fcsJYqefhusifa&; vGwfvyfa&;BudK;yrf;rI trsKd;om;a&;toGif
(3) xdkav;a,mufaMumifh oydwfay:aygufyHk
taMumif;&if; (1)- udkEku ausmif;om;rsm;onf ausmif;udpöwGifru ausmif;wGif;rSm EdkifiHa&; rdefYcGef;awGajym?
jyifyqE´jyyGJawG yg0if&r,f? udkEku 'gvGwfvyfa&; vdkcsifvdkY[k a[majymcJhonfh udpö/
taMumif;&if; (2)- td;k a0r*¾Zif;rSm ]i&JacG;BuD;vGwaf eNyD} aqmif;yg;ygvmonf/ tJ'aD qmif;yg; bmjzpfvYkdyg&vJqNkd yD;
udkEkudk ausmif;xkwf ypfonfhudpö/
taMumif;&if; (3)- aqmif;yg;½Sifudk rpöwmpavmhu tdk;a0wm0efcHt,f'Dwm udkatmifqef;tm; azmfxkwf&rnf[k
ajymaom tcg udkatmifqef;u rajzí udkatmifqef;tm; ausmif;xkwf&ef jyifqifjcif;udpö/
taMumif;&if; (4)- udkEk? udkatmifqef;? ausmif;xkwfcH&NyD; udk&m½Spfu Ouú|wm0efcH,lNyD; ausmif;om;xktpnf;
ta0;usif;y? oydwfarSmuf&ef vHIYaqmfNyD; ½Gwf½GwfcRHcRH acgif;aqmifrI ay;cJhonf/
tJ'D (4)a,muf 'kwd,wuúodkvfausmif;om; oydwfBuD;\ vQrf;vQrf;awmuf acgif;aqmifrsm;jzpfonf/

Source: Oway Magazines

Source: Bogoke's Works (Mya Han)

Source: Portraits (DTY)

Source: Internet

(0Jr,
S m)
udEk k
udn
k Kd jr
udak tmifqef;
ud&k m½Spf

(4) tdk;a0r*¾Zif;yg ]i&JacG;BuD;vGwfaeNyD} aqmif;yg; *,ufrsm;
wuúodkvfausmif;ü cyfat;at; pmusuf? pmoif? pdwf&if;aumif;eJY vmolrsm;onf q&mh0wf? wynfh0wf
ausyGefonfh &if;&if;ESD;ESD; arwåmapwemavmursKd; rawGU&bJ ocifESifh uRefyrmqufqHa&;rsm; rarQmfvifhbJ
uoduatmufrsm; awGUMuHKvm&onf/ wuúov
kd t
f mPmydik t
f zGUJ tkycf sKyfa&;aumifpw
D iG yf g0ifaom Armrsm;onfvnf;
ajyvnfa&;udk tm;ray;? ud,
k t
hf rsKd;om; wynfv
h il ,frsm;udk &efvyk &f ef? ta&;,l&ef? acsmufweG ;f &ef pdwx
f m;rsKd;om
tHMh op&m awGUMuHK&onf/ wuúov
kd ef ,fajronf wuúov
D m at;&dyo
f mrsKd;r[kwb
f J zkwNf ydwmå rsm;BuD;pd;k &m wapä½mG ?
Muyf½Gmvdk jzpfvmonf/ a½S;a[mif; *&djynfu jyZmwfa&;q&mBuD; ,l&DyD'D;&JUtqdkrSm ewfa'0grsm;[m olwdkY tvdk
r½Sdolrsm;udk zsufqD;csifaomtcg yxrtqifh taeESifh xdkolrsm;ukd ½l;atmifvkyf\/
wuúov
kd f tmPmydik rf sm;udk wefjyefwu
dk yf 0JG if&ef udn
k Kd jronf txufyg xd;k ESuef nf;udk owd&í xdak qmif;
yg;udk a&;vdkufjcif;jzpfonf/ tmPmydkifrsm; a'goxGufNyD; tvGJvGJtacsmfacsmf vkyfrdatmif? tdk;eif;cGufeif; jzpfatmif
cyf½dkif;½dkif; pmayrsKd; tdk;a0r*¾Zif;wGif a&;NyD;xnfh&ef oabmaygufí i&JacG;aqmif;yg; xnfhvdkufjcif; jzpfonf/
i&JacG;aqmif;yg;udk t*Fvdyfvdk a&;xnfhjcif;rSmvnf; taMumif;½Sdonf/
or*¾wiG f yg0ifaom ausmif;om;rsm;onf tjyifavmuwGif ocifawGu e,fcsJUu owfrw
S o
f nfh *syd;k qef
qef owÅ0gawGvdk txifao;? udkbDat NrdKUtkyfavmif;rsm;om txifBuD;onfhacwfwGif pmar;yGJwzkef;zkef;usol
rsm;om or*¾wGif pka0;NyD; qlvm;ylvm; vkyfwwfw,f xifMuonfholrsm;tm; or*¾tzGJU0ifrsm; t*Fvdyfvdk a&;wwf
ygw,f? r,Hv
k Qif ausmif;tkyBf uD;pavmhu,
kd w
f ikd f zwfMunfyh gqdo
k nfh &nf½,
G cf sufEiS hf udn
k Kd jr a&;vdu
k jf cif; jzpfonf/
Zefe0g&DwGif tdk;a0r*¾Zif; yHkESdyfNyD;pD;í or*¾rS trawmfaiG 50d^- ay;&onf/ xdkaiGudk wESpfvHk; zlvHkatmif
oHk;pGJEdkifygonf/ udkatmifqef;ESifh udkndKjrwdkYonf i&JacG;aqmif;yg;yg pmapmifrsm;udk wuúodkvfxJodkY rMumrD
aygufuGJaprnfh rdkif;AHk;rsm;vdk o,faqmifvmNyD; jzefYa0vdkonf/ 1936 aumvdyfoydwfBuD;onf BudKwifMuHpnfjcif;
r½SdbJ taMumif;tm;avsmfpGm jzpfay:vmNyD; pnf;vHk;nDnm? atmifaMumif;jzm qdkouJhodkY nDñGwfpGm &yfwnfrIaMumifh
&mcdkifEIef;jynfh atmifjrifoGm;onfh udpöjzpfonf/
udkndKjronf i&JacG;aqmif;yg;ESifh tmPmydkifrsm; aysmhuGufudk xdk;ESufvdkufaomtcg b,folYudkrS aoazmf
rn§dcJhay/ 'Dudpö[m tEÅ&m,f½SdNyD; ausmif;xkwfcH&&efrsm;í t,f'Dwmudkatmifqef;uvJGNyD; rnfolrQ todray;
cJhacs/
71

jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif; - atmifxGef;
udkatmifqef;uvJ ]udk,fUvl at;at;aeyg} vdkY udkndKjrudk wcGef;xJ ajymzl;onf/ &ifqdkifp&mudpö
ausmif;tkyBf uD;eJY qd&k if olwa,mufxJ vkyo
f mG ;r,f? udEk u
k vJ ausmif;xkww
f m b,foYl rS tultnD rawmif;cJb
h ;l ?
u,fyg u,fygvdkY rajymcJhbl;? or*¾jyefMum;a&;Xmeukdvnf; bmrS ta&;,lrcdkif;cJhacs? qE´jy&ef ausmif;om;rsm;udk
rvHIYaqmfcJhacs? NidrfNidrfuav; cH,lcJhayonf/
i&JacG;BuD;vGwfaeNyD aqmif;yg;onf(1) npfnrf;csuyf g½adS pumrl vuf½t
dS ajctaeESiUf udu
k n
f í
D a&;wmenf;ao;onf[k oydwaf rSmuf tif;vsm;olrsm;u
rSwfcsufcsonf/
(2) ¤if;aqmif;yg;udk &efukefESifU rEåav;ausmif;om;rsm;u tJ'Dtcsdefwkef;u tEå&m,fuif;*gxm wckvdk usuf
rSwf½GwfqdkcJUolrsm; ½Sdonf/
(3) tJ'Daqmif;yg;yg½Sdaom tdk;a0r*¾Zif;onf apmifa& (500) om xkwfa0cJUonfrSm ravmufriS jzpfcJUonf/
wuúov
kd t
f mPmydik rf sm;u xdak qmif;yg;½Si\
f usL;vGeyf u
kH kd tpd;k &XmetoD;oD;odomMu&ef 0g'jzef&h ef vufEydS f
pufESifU apmifa&rsm;pGm jzefhjzL;cJUonf/ 'kwd,tBudrf yHkESdyfjcif;jzpfí wjynfvHk;odkh jyefhoGm;onf/

(X) oydwpf wifjzpfay:vmjcif;
þodkYjzifh wuúodkvftmPmydkifrsm;onf udkEka0zefcsufudk rausreyfjzpfaepOf tdk;a0r*¾Zif;yg i&JacG;BuD;
aqmif;yg;ESifh ywfoufí udkatmifqef;u trnfrazmfxkwfojzifh pnf;urf;xdef;odrf;a&;ESifh ywfoufí ajz½Sif;&ef
ajymaomtcg pnf;urf;xdef;odrf;a&;aumfrwDonf olYtm; trSm;udkjyKvkyfcJhonf[k xifjrif,lqcJhaomf olonf
trSm;ukd 0efc&H ef toif½h adS Mumif;? odYk aomf i&JacG;aqmif;yg;½Sit
f rnfukd razmfxw
k Ef ikd [
f k pmjyefvu
kd o
f nf/ pnf;urf;
xdef;odrf;a&;aumfrwDESifh udkatmifqef;oGm;awGUpOf olYtm; >cif;csufr½Sd awmif;yef0efcs&rnf[k wnhfwdk; ajAmifus
ar;cGef; rawmif;qdkcJhay/
1936 azazmf0g&D (21) &ufwGif ausmif;tkyfBuD; rpöwmpavmhonf udkEktm; ausmif;rS xkwfy,fonfhpm
ydkYvdkufonf/ udkEkonf xdktaMumif;ukd rnfolYudkrQ todray;/ ausmif;tkyfBuD;pavmhodkY pmwapmifa&;om;í
jyefvu
kd o
f nf/ ¤if;pmwGif udEk u
k ausmif;Oya'ynm&yfrsm;ukd qnf;yl;&ef jyefvnfwufa&muf ynmoifMum;aejcif;rSm
Edik if aH &; vky&f mwGif vG,u
f al p&eftwGuf jzpfaMumif;? ausmif;rS ,ckuo
hJ Ykd xkwv
f u
kd í
f aus;Zl;wif 0rf;ajrmuf0rf;om
aMumif;? taMumif;um; EdkifiHa&;wGif tcsdefjynfh 0ifa&muf vkyfudkifEdkifaomaMumifh jzpfaMumif;? ArmjynfwGif þvdk
r[kwfrcH raMumufr½GHUyk*¾dKvfrsm;vnf; ½Sdaeao;aMumif;ukd rdwfaqGrsm;ESifh qHkpnf;rdygu rpöwmpavmh ajymjyap
vdkaMumif;jzifh ausmif;tkyfBuD; rpöwmpavmhxH pmwkHYjyefcJhonf/ xdkYjyif ukdEkonf ¤if;\ B.A. bJGUudk ausmif;tkyfBuD;
xH jyeftyfvdkufavonf/
udkausmfNidrf;onf udkEk ausmif;xkwfcH&NyD;aemuf ausmif;tkyfBuD; rpöwmpavmhESifh oGm;a&muf aphpyfaomf
vnf; ausmif;tkyfBuD;u ]rif;wdkhvkyfcsif&mvkyf? igavQmhray;Ekdifbl;} [k ajymí wif;rmrI avsmhroGm;ay/ xdkESpf
or*¾ trIaqmiftzGUJ onf wuúov
kd üf jzpfymG ;onfh ta&;tcif;rsm;udk wuúov
kd t
f mPmydik rf sm;ESihf at;at;csrf;csrf;?
aphpyfajz½Si;f &ef rlcsxm;onf/ xdYkaMumifh udEk k ausmif;xkwcf &H onfh udpu
ö kd ol\ud,
k af &;ud,
k w
f m[k oabmxm;vsuf
ausmif;om;rsm;ukd todray;bJxm;avonf/
azazmf0g&Dv (23) &ufaeY? nae (4) em&DwiG f or*¾Ouú| udEk t
k m; ausmif;xkwcf &H onfh udpEö iS yhf wfoufí
or*¾trIaqmiftpnf;ta0; usif;yavonf/ udkEku olYtwGuf usefolrsm; tepfemcH&rnfudk rvdkvm;? olausmif;
xkwfcHrnf[k ajymonf/ udkxGef;tkHu udkEkudk ausmif;xkwfvdkufjcif;onf udkEk wOD;wnf;twGuf r[kwf? or*¾
trIaqmifwzGJUvHk;ESifh ausmif;om;tm;vHk;udpö jzpfonf/ or*¾Ouú|udk ausmif;xkwfjcif;onf or*¾udk apmfum;&m
usonf/ usaemfwdkY oydwfarSmuf (udk,fcsif;pmoydwf) rnf/
udkoD[efu 0ifaxmufcHonf/
xdkYaemuf udkEku wOD;pD oabmxm;rsm; par;onf/
udkatmifqef;u apmifhMunfhcsifao;onf [kajymonf/
udx
k eG ;f tku
H udak tmifqef;udk ]cifAsm;udv
k nf; (29) &ufaehpmar;yGaJ jzwJaU eh waehrmS cifAsm;udk ausmif;xkww
f UJ
taMumif;Mum;pmay;r,fvdkh twdtus odxm;ygw,f/ 'gayr,fU cifAsm;udpöudk xm;yg/ udkEkudk ausmif;xkwfvdkufwmeJh
ywfoufNy;D usaemfwhkd ud,
k cf si;f pm oydwv
f yk &f r,f} [kajymonf/ xdktcg udkatmifqef; oabmwlonf/ udk&m½SpfESifh
72

udkvdkeDacwfaESmif; - 1935 rS 1936 - e,fcsJYqefhusifa&; vGwfvyfa&;BudK;yrf;rI trsKd;om;a&;toGif
udktkef;wdkYuvnf; oabmwlonf/ udkomvS? udkxGef;wif? udkbqufwdkYuvnf; ]trsm;vkyf&if usaemfwdkh vkyfrSm
ayghAsm} [kajymonf/ xdkYaMumifh usef½Sdaom trIaqmif (8) OD;onf ukd,fcsif;pmoydwf vkyf&ef qHk;jzwfvdkufonf/
azazmf0g&Dv (25) &uf ausmif;om;xktpnf;ta0;ü trIaqmiftzGUJ onf pmar;yGrJ ajzbJ oydwaf rSmufrnfjzpfaMumif;
ausmif;om;rsm;tm; today;&efESifh 'k-Ouú| udk&m½Spf obmywdvkyf&ef trIaqmiftzGJUu qHk;jzwfcJhonf/ &efukef
wuúodkvfausmif;om;or*¾ trIaqmiftzGJU (8) OD;onf pmar;yGJrajzbJ oydwfarSmuf&ef qHk;jzwfxGufcGmvm&m
1920 'DZifbm? (5) &uf yxraumvdyfoydwf tNyD;ü ordkif;wGif&pfcJhonfh 'kwd,wuúodkvf ausmif;om;oydwfBuD;
pwif jzpfay:vmcJhayonf/
azazmf0g&Dv (24) &ufaeYxkwf jrefrmhtvif;owif;pmwGif pmvHk;rJBuD;jzifh or*¾Ouú| udkEk ausmif;xkwf
cH&onfhowif; ygvmavonf/ udkatmifqef;udkvnf; i&JacG;BuD; aqmif;yg;aMumifh ausmif;xkwfcH&rnf[k owif;
xGuaf eonf/ wuúov
kd af umifpt
D yk cf sKyfa&;tzGUJ u qH;k jzwfcsufcsNyD;NyD[k owif;xGuv
f mayonf/ (udak tmifqef;udk
oydwfarSmufNyD; wvMumrSom aMumfjimoifykef;wGif ausmif;xkwfrdefY xkwfjyefcJhavonf/) wausmif;vHk; ajcmufjcm;
oGm;onf/ vIyfvIyf½G½G jzpfvmonf/ ausmif;om;rsm; pk½Hk;pk½Hk;ESifh aqG;aEG;vmMuonf/ ]udkEkudk ausmif;xkwfwm
igwdkh ausmif;om;awGudk apmfum;wmyJ? tEdkifusifUwmyJ? wzufowfusvGef;onf} [k ajymvmMuonf/ ausmif;udk
oydwfarSmufMurnf[k wD;wdk;pum;oHrsm; xGufvmonf/ oydwfarSmuf&ef tcsif;csif; qG,fMuonf/
azazmf0g&Dv (14) &uf aeYcif;ü oxHkausmif;aqmifwGif udkMunf (aemif opfawmrif;BuD;) \ tcef;ü
udkarmifarmif (udkMunf\ tudk)? udkodef;atmif (1300 jynfh ausmif;om;oydwfacgif;aqmif)? udkbaomf (aemif
&efukefjrLeDpDy,f twGif;a&;rSL;a[mif;)? udk0if; (armfvNrdKif)? ukd[kwfuef (ocsFm*kPfxl;)? udkcifarmifuav; (aemif
0efBuD;) wdkYonf udkEkudpöudk aqG;aEG;í oydwfarSmuf&ef pnf;0g;½dkufMuonf/ xdktcsdef ukdxGef;tkHa&mufvmNyD;
azazmf0g&Dv 25 &ufaeYü wifoGif;rnfh tqdk 2 ckudk zwfjyonf/ xdktcg udkcifarmifav;u ]cifAsm;wdhk ajymwJt
Y wdik ;f
wuúodkvfOya'udk wdkufzsufzdkh &nf½G,f&if oydwfarSmufrSjzpfrSmaygh/ onfawmU or*¾taeeJh wuúodkvfOya'udk
a[monfvdk? a[monfvdk jyifay;yg? jyifray;&if oydwfarSmufr,fvdkh &mZoHay;&r,f/} udkMunfu ]cifAsm;wdkh
tqkdawGu w,faysmhwmudk? vkyfr,fUvkyf oydwfarSmufzdkh tqdkwifoGif;NyD; wcgwnf; oydwfarSmufvdkuf Muygvm;?
usaemfuawmh oydwfarSmufwJUbufuyJ}
udkxGef;tkH tm;vHk;udkMunfhí 0rf;omoGm;onf/ ukdxGef;tkHu udkcifarmifuav;tm;
]reufjzef (25) &uf tpnf;ta0;rSm cifAsm;pum;ajym&J&JYvm;} [k ar;onf/
]usaemf bmvdkhrajym&J&rSmvJ? bmajym&rSmvJ}} [k jyefar;aomtcg
]tqdkwif&r,f} [k udkxGef;tkHu udkcifarmifuav;tm; pm½Gufay;onf/ xdkYaemuf udkxGef;tkHu ]udkcif
armifuav;? cifAsm;&xm;wJU qif;&Jom;axmufyHUaMu;awmU jyKwfrSmaocsmNyDAsKdY} [kajym&if; tcef;xJrS xGufoGm;
onf/ udkxGef;tkH wm0ef,laom tqdkESpfckudkaxmufcH&ef udkvSaz (aemif Adkvfvusfm)? udkOD;ausmfZH (aemif bDyDtdkif
tkyfcsKyfa&;rSL;a[mif;)? udkb[ef (aemif AdkvfrSL;BuD;) wdkYudk a½G;cs,fcJhonf/ udkOD;ausmfZH a½SUwef;rxGufvdkí
udkpdefwdk; (aemif vl0ifvlxGufXme vufaxmifñTefMum;a&;0ef) udk wm0efay;onf/ udkxGef;tkHESifh udkvSazonf
ausmif;aqmifrsm;odkY oGm;í ausmif;om;rsm;tm; or*¾tpnf;ta0;wuf&ef vdkufvHEdI;aqmfavonf/ yJcl;aqmifodkY
a&mufaomtcg rsufEmS jzLujym;onf pum;wvH;k rS rajymbJ udx
k eG ;f tku
H kd pdu
k Mf unfNh yD;vQif ]xG}D ueJ wHaxG;axG;NyD;
pmqufzwfaeonf/
rsufESmjzLujym;wdkif; r[kwfay/ yk*HaqmifrS [ife&Dprkduf (ac:) udkvSatmif (aemif AdkvfrSL;BuD;vSatmif?
jrefrmEdkifiH ajrwdkif;Xme? ñTefMum;a&;0efESifh &efukef wd&pämefO,smOfBuD;Muyfa&;tzGJU Ouú|)? tif;0ausmif;aqmifrS
udk[m'D (aemif 'k-AdkvfrSL;BuD;a[mif;)? oxHkausmif;aqmifrS udkwDuvpf (aemif AdkvfrSL;csKyfa[mif;? wyfrawmfav)
wdkYonf rsufESmjzLujym;rsm; jzpfaomfvnf; oydwfarSmufudpw
ö Gif wufwuf<u<u yg0if½Hkomru oydwfpcef;rsm;ü
wm0ef,laqmif½GufcJholrsm; jzpfonf/
vlonf ta&;MuHKvmvQif pGefYol? wGefYol? aemufqkwfol? xGufajy;ol? opömazmufol? avSeHESpfzuf
eif;olrsm; ½Sd\/ trSm;udk jrifí trSefzufodkY ul;ajymif;vm&Joludk ynm½Sdol? owådaumif;ol[k uifyGef;wyf&rnf/
oydwfarSmuf&ef vHIYaqmfolrsm; tm;vHk;onf ynm½Sdrsm;? owådaumif;olrsm; jzpfonf/ trsm;rdk;cg;a&aomufí
vdkufaomufolrsm; r[kwf? udk,fhudk,fudk a0zefí todÓPfESifh ydkif;jcm;NyD;rS rdk;cg;a&aomufMuolrsm; jzpfonf/
udkxGef;tkHonf azazmf0g&Dv (25) &ufaeYwGif uefYuGufqE´jy&ef bwfpfum; (30) pD;udk urm½Gwf*wfwJ
teD; jynfvrf;ay:ü toihfpDpOfxm;&ef udkodef;az (odef;azjrifh) tm; wm0efay;xm;onf/ azazmf0g&D (24) &ufaeY
73

jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif; - atmifxGef;
nü 1934-35 or*¾trIaqmif udo
k ed ;f aza&;om;aom ]ewft;kd uG}J pmwrf;rSm ausmif;aqmifrsm;ü rd;k usa½Tu,
kd u
f o
hJ Ykd
yvlysH vmayonf/

ewft;kd uGJ

Source: Portraits (DTY)

Armqdkwm ocifrsKd;? uRefrsKd;r[kwf
odkYtwGuf ocifusifh usihf? ocifMuH MuH?
'l;rwkefbl;? &ifrckefbl;/
rnfolYtapmfum;rS rcH/
apmfum;wJholudk 'l;eJYwdkufr,f/
udo
k ed ;f az (ode;f azjrif)h

jrif;pD;í txD;rSef; trrSef;rodvQif vltvle[k ac:Muonf/ odkYjzpfvQif igwdkYwawGonf igwdkY oifMum;
aeaom ynmonf ynmwkavm? ynmppfavm[k a0zefrodvQif igwdkYtm; urÇmu vltvleawG[k ac:qdkavrnf/
o[mu Oóz,m;avm? pdefppfavm? vlt? vle? vlnHh? vlYrEl;reyf? vlpdrf;pyf tjzpfrsKd; ra&muf&ef igwdkY
ckoifaeaom ynmvnf; tb,ftajctaeqdkonfudk igwdkY odzdkYvdkavonf/ a½S;u wuúodkvfynmukd uRefynm[k
vnf;aumif;? NrdKUtkyfynm[k vnf;aumif; trsKd;rsKd; ac:Muayonf/ xdkpum;onf igwdkY ckacwfü rrSefawmh/
tck igwdkY ynmonf ewftdk;uGJynmomwnf;? ewftdk;uGJwdkY rnfonf tb,fae&mrQ oHk;í raumif;ay/
ewftdk;uGJynm [kwfyg\avm? rSefyg\avm? uJ jy½kyfxkwfMupdkY/
bDtufpfpD atmifvQif bmvkyfwwfygoenf;/ tjcm;wdkif;jynfrsm;ü pufbufuqdkygvQif em&D? armfawmfum;?
av,mOfysH ponfwdkYudk vkyfwwfonf/ qyfjym? acgif;vdrf;qDrSpí txnftvdyf? ouúvyf? ydk;? zJ ponfwdkYudk
vkyfEdkifonf/ a<uyef;uef? a<uu&m;rSpí oHxnf? oHtoHk;taqmifrsm; vkyfenf;ü uRrf;Muonf/ igwdkY odyÜHbJGU
yk*¾dKvfausmfBuD;rSmrl em&DwvHk;udkrS ae&mwus wyfjcif;? jzKwfjcif; rjyKwwf? qyfjymwwHk; jzpfatmif rvkyfwwf?
jzpfjyefygvnf; toHk;rus? toHk;r0if? a<uu&m;vkyfzdkY aeaeomom a<u&nfudk yHkroGif;wwfacs/ b,f"mwfESifh
b,f"mwfpyfu bmjzpfvnf;? b,f"mwfudk rD;tylay;vdkufu b,fvdkjzpfoGm;onf? b,f[mudk bmac:vnf;?
b,f'if; bmaMumifh jzpf&onf? b,f[mESifh b,fnmaygif;u b,f[mjzpfonf wdkYudkum; oifyg\/ onf"mwfESifh
onf"mwfaygif;vdkY onf[mjzpfvmwmudk b,fvdkae&m toHk;cs&rnfudkum; roifMum;/ b,f"mwfudk rD;tyl
xdvdkufaomf b,fvdkjzpfoGm;wmyJ/ tJonfawmh b,fvdk toHk;cs&w,fqkdwmudkawmh roif/ OyrmqdkvQifum;
prkefrsKd;ig;yg;? ZmwdyædKvf? qm;ykwfcJ? EG,fcsKd a&maygif;í axmif;u vsufqm;jzpfonfudk oifyg\/ onfvsufqm;udk
acsmif;qdk;vQif vsuf&rnfavm? 0rf;csKyfvQif oHk;&rnfavm? rdef;rvdkcsifawmh aqmif&rnfavm? odkYr[kwf wuúodkvf
ausmif;awmfBuD; tay:qHk;xyfwufawmh rl;vdkY½I&rnfavm ponfrsm;udkrl ay,smvuef 0uGufí csefcJhonf/
pdefESihf oHyk&mazsmfvdkuf[k vl½dkif;wa,mufudk cdkif;\/ 'gbmvkyf&rvJq&m[kqdkvQif rif;aumif;r,f xifovdk
Munfhvkyf[k jyefMum;avu vl½dkif;onf bkrodbrodESifh pdefoHyk&mukd aomufvdkufvQif aozdkYyif ½Sdawmhonf/
igwdkYtm; oifydkYaomynmonfvnf; xdkYtwlyifwnf;/
ocsFm*kPfxl;wef; ausmif;om;rsm;onf tyifyef;BuD;cHí oifMu&yg\/ pmtkyfawG vefcsm;ESpfpD;wdkufrQ
zwf&yg\/ odkYaomf xdkynmrsm;onf avmuESifhbmrQrqdkif? ausmif;om;wdkY oifwdkYonf ynmukdb,fae&m toHk;jyK
Muawmh[k rñTef;acs/
tjcm; tjcm;aom EdkifiHwdkYü wuúodkvfausmif;rsm;ESihf wGJum puf½HkBuD;rsm;? tvkyf½HkBuD;rsm; xm;½Sdonf/
igwdkY Armjynfu wuúodkvfrSm tpdk;&u rsufESmjzLrsm;udkom tdrfaumif;? ,maumif; aqmufí ay;onf/ igwdkYtwGuf
puf½Hktvkyf½Hkrsm; aqmufay;&ef ydkufqHr½Sd[k nmMuonf? jzef;Muonf? ajAmifvdrfonf? tpdk;&onf igwdkYtm;
uwfAm&D acsmuvdwfudk rauR;? awmfzDavmufudkom auR;aeonf/
wzef 0dZÆmwef;awGudk MunfhMuygOD;/ 0dZÆmqdkwm {&mryk*¾dKvfBuD;awG[k ac:prSwfjyKMu\/ 0dZÆmqdkwm
ArmhjynfwGif rnfolESifhrQ rwl? ylZmp ylZmae,smeH? ylaZmfcHxdkufaom yk*¾dKvfrsm;omjzpfonf[k igwdkYu txifBuD;
cJhMuonf/ odkYaomf igwdkY ynmum; usD;tmoD;uJhodkY tay:tqif;om vSí twGif;cH nHhavonf/
t*FvdyfpmwGif ½SdwfpyD;,m;? bdkif½Gef? rpfvwef? *dkvfprpfwdkY oif&yg\/ xdkpmwdkYudk zwf&ojzifh tysKdpm

74

udkvdkeDacwfaESmif; - 1935 rS 1936 - e,fcsJYqefhusifa&; vGwfvyfa&;BudK;yrf;rI trsKd;om;a&;toGif
a&;wwfjcif;? tysif;ajy pmzwfwwfjcif;? pdwfEl;nHhí uRefoabm jzpfcsifjcif;rS wyg; tjcm;taMumif;udk rwwfacs/
onfpum;ESifh ywfoufí jrefrmpmñGefYaygif; ed'gef;usrf;wGif
I hope this work will furnish ample materials to write text books in Burmese for use in all
schools and colleges in Burma with a view to inculcating imperial idea as it is intended.

ponfjzifh pmwnf;ua&;cJhonf/ xdkYtwl txufygq&mBuD;rsm; pmudkoifay;aeonfrSm tifyD&D,,f
&xm;BuD; rSefrSefNidrfNidrf armif;Edkif&efjzpfonf/
Political Science udk oif&müvnf; Political Science vdkY bmhaMumifhac:&yHk/ State qdkonfum;
b,fvdkb,f0g? Constitution qdkonfum; onfuJhodkY ponfjzifhom oif&if; tcsdefukefcJhonf/ ,HkrSm OD;csKdr½Sd?
a>rrSm ajcrayguf qdkoavmufom ½SdcJhonf/
odkYjzpfí 0dZÆm? odyÜHynmonf þenf;twdkif;qdkvQif ysm;&nfr½Sdaom ysm;tHk? tqHr½Sdaom opfMum;oD;?
teHYr½Sdaom aygufaygufyef;ESifhom wlbdonf/ K.S.M, A.T.M ponfhbGJUrsm;udk igwdkYausmif;om;rsm;onf uJh&JUcJh
Mu\/ igwdkY B.A, B.Sc. wdkYESifh xdkbGJUrsm;rSm rsm;pGmruGmvSonfudk owdjyKrdyg\avm/ a½S;url xdkpmar;yGJrsm;
atmifvQif tpdk;&xHü tvkyf&ao;\/ olaX;wdkYxHü tvkyf&Muao;\/
,ckrl tpdk;&u tvkyfaemufxyf rcefYonfhtjyif vuf½Sdrsm;udkvnf; jzKwfypfaeacsNyD/ olaX;wdkufrsm;wGif
vnf; B.A, B.Sc., awG B.L., awG nyfaeNyD/ igwdkY ae&mr&Muawmh? acG;ae&mr&awmhonfESifh rjcm;awmhNyD/
Armav;awG arQmfvifhjcif;uif;í xif&mr&rf;Mu&ef I.C.S., B.Sc., tpdk;&ynmoifponfrsm;u ½Sdygao;\/
odkYaomf w&mwa,mufrQ r½Sd&um; aygufyifudk armhMunfhum aygufyGifhudk trJom;rSwfí ajrmfrdrSm;aom acG;yrm
igwdkY 'ku©ESifhawGUzdkYom ½Sdawmhonf/
aemif- onfxuf Armrsm; cufawmhrnf/ wGJzuftpD&ifcHpmwGif igwdkYawGU&onfrSm rD;&xm;? taumuf½Hk;
paom ae&mrsm;udk t*Fvdyfujym;rsm;twGuf tvkyfoD;oefYxm;&ef jzpfojzifh aejrifhav t½l;&ifhav qdkouJhodkY
MumavnHhav jzpfcJhNyD/ abmvHk;uefwwfonfh wdkifatmif taumuf½Hk;ü tvkyf&csifrS &awmhrnf/ igwdkYESifhwuG
igwdkYwrsKd;vHk; epfemacsNyD/ aumif;EdkifMuygao;\avm/
þodkY tESpfr½Sd tumtwdjzpfaom ynm&yfrsm;udkyifvQif igwdkYArmuav;rsm;rSm aiGukef? tcsdefukefcHí
oifMum; aeonfomru ausmif;wGif aeonfhtcgvnf; ausmif;tkyfBuD; paom q&mrsm;\ trsKd;rsKd; csKyfcs,fjcif;udk
uRJ? EGm;rsm;yrm cHMuapvdkao;\/
tdk- ausmif;awmfom;wdkY? igwdkY vlBuD; rdbwdkYonf om;orD;rsm;udk vljzpf&ef þausmif;odkY xm;jcif;
jzpfonf r[kwfygavm/ odkYjzpfvQif b,ftwGuf vlYtcGifhta&;udk em;rvnfoa,mif? aMumifawmifawmif vkyfí
aeMubdoenf;/ rdrdwdkY tcGifhta&;½SdorQ ajyma&;qdkcGifh[lorQwdkYudk ]qdka&;½Sdu qdkwwfpG} qdkouJhodkY ajymMu?
jyMu? vkyfMurS oifhayrnf/ odkYr[kwfygu igwdkYomru wrsKd;vHk;ESihfwuG aemiftqufquf þausmif;odkY a&muf½Sd
rnfh igwdkY\ trsKd;tEG,frsm;\ *kPfusufoa&udkyg xdckdufysufjym;rnfudk ,cku igwdkYu q,fwif&ef 0wå&m;½Sd
ayonf r[kwfwHkavm/ oifwdkY vkyf&nfudkif&nftwGuf aemifvmaemufom;wdkY tusKd;cHpm;&vQif toifwdkY emrnfonf
aemif &mZ0ifwGif O'gef;wGif&pf Muayvdrfhrnf/ toifwdkY\ 0wå&m;ukd toifwdkYraqmif½Gufu aemifvmaemufom;
wdkY\ wHawG;cGufwGif tarmifwdkY emrnfawG yufvufajrmMuvdrfhrnf/
xdkYaMumifh igwdkYab;udk igwdkYumuG,f&efrSm ]rnfolrjyK rdrdrI} qdkouJhodkY igwdkYBudK;pm;um aqmif½GufMu&
vdrfhrnf/ igwdkY 'ku©rsm;rSm þnHhzsif;pkwfcsmaom ynma&;pepfaMumifhjzpfonf/ tdrfa[mif;udk zsufí tdrfopf
aqmufouJhodkY igwdkY ynma&;pepf pkwfBuD;udk zsufí igwdkY tdrfopfaqmufMu ukefthH/ igwdkY ArmvlrsKd;ESihf
wefaom igwdkY&xdkufaom ynmudk&atmif BudK;pm;MuukeftHh/ igwdkYonf 0dZÆm? odyÜHatmifvQif tvkyfvufrJhjzpfapaom
pepfudkrvdk? igwdkYtm; xdkab;rS u,fq,frnfh ynmudk&apygonf/ pdeftppfudkay;rS auseyfMurnf/ Oóz,m;
udkay;rl vm;vm;rQ r,lvdk/
tdk- a½SUa&; aemufa&;udk arQmfawG;wwfMuaom wuúodkvfausmif;om;wdkY? ]vdv
k QiMf uq
H enf;vrf;&}? ]BuKd ;pm;u
bk&m;jzpf} ponfwdkYudk a½SUaqmifxm;í nDnDnmnm BudK;pm;Muygukef/
tdrfaqmuf&mü opf½Sm? 0g;ckwf? vTwdkuf? aqmufxGif;? yJcGyfudkif ponfjzifh toD;oD; 0wå&m;½SdorQudk
aqmif½GufMurS igwdkYESifhwuG aemifvmaemufom;rsm; vltjzpf wnfEdkifMurnf jzpfownf;/
odef;az

¤if;pmudk ausmif;om;rsm; atmfBuD;[pfus,f zwfMuonf? oabmawGUMuonf/
1936 azazmf0g&Dv (25) &ufaeY? aeYvnf (2) em&DausmfrSpí wuúodkvfe,fajr vIyfvIyf½G½G jzpfvmonf/
or*¾taqmuftODü ausmif;om;rsm; [dkwpk? 'Dwpk pkpk½Hk;½Hk;jzpfaeonf/ xdkaeYeHeufxkwf jrefrmowif;pmrsm;
75

jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif; - atmifxGef;
wGifvnf; ausmif;om;xktpnf;ta0; nae (4) em&DwGif jyKvkyfrnfhtaMumif; ygvmonf/ udkatmifqef;udkvJ
ausmif;xkwfvdrhfrnf[k owif;xGufaeonf/ xdkowif;aMumifh ausmif;om;rsm; ydkírauseyfMuay/ ]igwhkd tepfemcH
MurS aemifvmrnfU ausmif;om;rsm; aumif;pm;rnf} [k ausmif;om;rsm; oabmaygufvmMuonf/ ,HMk unfvmMuonf/
rcHcsifpdwfrsm; wzGm;zGm; jzpfay:vmonf/ pdwftm;xufoefonfxuf xufoefvmonf/ qE´jya&;xuf oydwf
arSmufa&;yg pdw0f ifpm;vmMuonf/ nae (4) em&D tpnf;ta0; rwdik rf t
D csdef oydwo
f nf rd;k csKef;ouJo
h Ykd jrnf[;D í
ay:vmayonf/
nae (4) em&D? or*¾tpnf;ta0;cef;rBuD;wGif ausmif;om; 700 ausmf½Sdonf/ trmcH ausmif;om;tcsKdU
or*¾a½SU jrufcif;jyifü pk½;kH aeMuonf/ tpnf;ta0;cef;r Ouú|\ ukvm;xdik f aemufausmbufwiG f o&Jatmifvu
H dk
tvsm;vdkuf csxm;onf/
Ouú|udEk k 0ifvmaomtcg ausmif;om;tm;vH;k vufcyk f em;uGv
J rk wwf wD;Muonf/ ud&k m½Spf 0ifvmaom
tcg yxrenf;wl tm;ay;Muonf/ udkEkonf ausmif;xkwfcH&NyD; ausmif;om;r[kwfawmhí tpnf;ta0; obmywd
rvkyb
f J owif;axmufrsm;\ a½SUqH;k tv,fwef;ü xdik o
f nf/ udEk \
k nmbufü udak tmifqef;xdik o
f nf/ ud&k m½Spu
f
obmywd? udkoD[efu twGif;a&;rSL;vkyfonf/ ukd&m½Spfonf tpnf;ta0;ac:&onfh taMumif;&if;udk t*Fvdyfvdk
tus,fw0ifh ½Sif;jyonf/
udk&m½Spfu ]udkEk ausmif;xkwfcH&onfU udpöESifUywfoufí tm;vHk;odNyD;jzpfaMumif;? udkatmifqef;udkvnf;
pmar;yGJrvkyfrD rwfvavmufü ausmif;xkwfrnf[k tcdkiftvHk od½Sdxm;aMumif;? aemif or*¾trIaqmif 3? 4 OD;
udv
k nf; ausmif;xkwv
f rd rUf nf[k tcdik t
f vHk od½x
dS m;aMumif;? xdahk MumifU ¤if;wdhk xkwcf &H onfukd uefu
h u
G o
f nft
U aeESiUf
rdrdtrIaqmiftzGJYonf pmar;yGJrajzMu&ef qHk;jzwfaMumif;? ausmif;om;rsm;udkvnf; wdkufwGef;vdkaMumif;? odkhaomf
þtpnf;ta0;rS qHk;jzwfcsufudk vufcHrnfjzpfaMumif;} ajymMum;oGm;onf/
udkcifarmifuav;u ]ausmif;tkyfBuD;rpöwmpavmh jyKrlcsufrsm;onf tvGefyif emusnf;p&maumif;onf/
usaemfwo
hkd nf vlnaUH wGr[kw?f oHrPdrsm;jzpfonf/ oHrPdpw
d "f mwf½adS Mumif; ,ckjy&rnf} [kajym&m MobmoHBuD;rsm;
qlnHoGm;onf/
udkpdefwdk;u ]udEk Ek iS Uf udak tmifqef;tm; ausmif;xkwv
f u
kd o
f nft
U wGuf rpöwmpavmUtm; aus;Zl;wifaMumif;}
tqdkwifoGif;onf/ udkoD[efu axmufcHonf/
udkvSazu ]ausmif;tkyfBuD;\ jyKrlcsufrsm;onf ausmif;om;rsm;udkomru Armjynfudkyg apmfum;&m
a&mufonf/ ausmif;qufaeí tusK;d r½S?d oydwaf rSmufMuyg} [k tqdkwifoGif;onf/ udkatmifjrifhu axmufcHvdkuf
onf/
]pw½dkuf? pw½dkuf}
]oydwfarSmuf? oydwfarSmuf}
toHrsm; tpnf;ta0;wcef;vHk; qlnHaeonf/
udkausmfNidrf;u ]olonf arQmfvifUcsufrsm;pGm pGefhvTwfí ausmif;rSxGuf&ef qHk;jzwfNyD;jzpfonf/ olhuJUodkh
ausmif;om;rsm; ausmif;rSxu
G &f ef} tqdkjyKvkdufonf/ udkvSazu axmufcHonf/ tpnf;ta0;wckvHk; oydwfarSmuf?
oydwfarSmuftoHrsm; qlnHvmonf/
udkvSazu ]azazmf0g&Dv (23) &ufaehuyif or*¾trIaqmifrsm;? tzGJY0ifrsm;ESifUtwl pmar;yGJrajzbJ
ukd,fcsif;pmoydwfarSmufrnf[k uwday;xm;NyD;jzpfonf} [kajymonf/
udkomvSu ]olonf tvGefqif;&J\/ olhOD;av;u ausmif;xm;í ausmif;ae&onf/ ausmif;rS axmufyHUMu;
awmif;cHae&onf/ ol\b0&nfrSef;csufudk pGefhvTwfí pmar;yGJudk oloydwfarSmufvdkufNyD} [kajymonf/ udkpdk;jrifh
(rdk;ndK) u ],aeh 'kwd,trsKd;om;aeh} [kajymonf/
xdktcg udkEku ]nDtudk armifErS wd?hk usaemfausmif;xkwcf &H í ,ckuo
hJ hkd qlyal eMuonfrmS xef;oD;a<ucdu
k f
usD;em;vdkufwJU oabmomjzpfw,f/ tdEd´,u yJpm;wJUukvm;awGvdkh ac:ayr,fh ukvm;rsm;onf bDatbGJYrsm;? tdkif
tufpD&mxl;rsm; jyeftyfMuonf/ usaemfwdkhonf bDatbGJYavmufom jyeftyfEdkifojzifU ½Sufp&maumif;onf/ tdEd´,
bk&ifcHcsKyf armifUavmU'ftm0ifu ]tdEd´,jynfonf uRefouf½Snf½SnfaeoGm;&ef ynma&;Xmeudk tkyfcsKyfa&;XmeuJhodkh
tkyfcsKyf&rnf/ ynmoifMum;a&; p&dwfBuD;BuD;xm;&rnf} [kajymoGm;onf/ 'Dtcsuf (2) csuf½SdaeorQ umvywfvHk;
oydwaf rSmufzhkd wifoiG ;f &rSmyJ} [k udkEku ajymvdkufaomtcg 1930 urÇmhpD;yGm;ysufuyfESifh Armjynf pD;yGm;ysufuyf
usa&mufaecsdef jzpfí wuúodkvfausmif;om;rsm;u ausmif;vcESifh tjcm;p&dwfrsm;avQmh&ef awmif;qdkcJhaomfvnf;
76

udkvdkeDacwfaESmif; - 1935 rS 1936 - e,fcsJYqefhusifa&; vGwfvyfa&;BudK;yrf;rI trsKd;om;a&;toGif
ausmif;tkycf sKyfa&;tzGUJ u vspfvsL½Ico
hJ nf/ 1934-35 wGif ausmif;p&dwaf vsmhaygha&;udk xyfraH wmif;qdck ahJ omfvnf;
wuúodkvf tkyfcsKyfa&;aumifpDu ausmif;om;tcsKdUudk ac:,lESpfodrfhjzm;a,mif;um uwdrwnfrIrsm; jyKcJhavonfrSm
½SdaecJhí tpnf;ta0;cef;onf tkwftkwfusufusufESifh
]oydwfarSmuf? oydwfarSmuf} atmfoHrsm; yJhwifxyfoGm;onf/ tcsKdUausmif;om;rsm; aemufaz;avSum;rS
jyefMu&ef ajy;Muonf/ aemufaz;avSum;ü udkxGef;tkH? udkbqufESifh trmcHausmif;om;wcsKdU½Sdonf/ ¤if;wdkYu
]usaemfwu
hkd kd eif;Ny;D qif;oGm;yg}[k avSum;xdyfü xdkifcsvdkufonf/ udkodef;azu xdktcsdefwGif vufwdkYí bwfpfum;
rsm;udk urm½Gwf*wfwJteD;rS or*¾taqmuftODa½SUodkY armif;0ifvmaponf/
obmywd udk&m½Spfu oydwfarSmufwifoGif;xm;onfhtqdkudk jyefpOf;pm;&ef (3) Budrfajymonf/
udkcifarmifuav;onf a'gowBuD; xdkif&mrSxNyD; ]a[U &m½Spf? rif;pum; ½kyfodrf;? rMum;csifbl;uG} [kajym&if;
ausmif;om;rsm;bufoYkd vSn&hf if; ]oydwaf rSmuftqdu
k kd b,fvo
kd abmxm;ovJ} [kar;vdu
k &f m ausmif;om;rsm;onf
]pw½du
k ?f pw½du
k ?f oydwaf rSmuf? oydwaf rSmuf} [k jyefatmfMuonf/ udk&m½Spfu oydwfarSmuftqdkudk jyefpOf;pm;&ef
ajymjcif;onf ausmif;om;rsm; pdwfudk qGay;jcif;jzpfonf/ ausmif;om;rsm; pdwf"mwfjyif;xefvmatmif vHIUaqmf
ay;jcif;jzpfonf/
tpnf;ta0;onf w½ke;f ½ke;f ESihf wa0ga0gjzpfaepOf ausmif;om;wa,mufonf or*¾cef;ra½SUbuf jyLwif;
aygufudk vufn§dK;xdk;í tif;vsm;aqmifrS ausmif;olor*¾udk,fpm;vS,frsm; (15) OD;cefY - rcifjr (aemif uxdu?
ynma&;wuúodkvf)? jcif;Mum;rrBuD; (udkxGef;tkHZeD;)? rtrm (aemif vlxka':trm)? rodef;Munf (ykodrf) wdkYESifh
ausmif;ol (15) a,mufcefY - tm;jyNyD; ]rde;f cav;awGyg&if a,mufsm;av;awG bmowÅad MumifwmvJ? xrde0f wfMua[h?
pw½dkuf pw½dkuf} [k atmfMujyefonf/ ausmif;om;tcsKdUonf udkEktm; ykckH;xrf;í atmufodkY ac:oGm;onf/
udk&m½Spfu ]uJ oydwfarSmufzdkh qHk;jzwfNyD;NyD? or*¾&Jabmfwdkh? vdkufygzdkhawmU rwdkufwGef;vdkygbl;? 'gayr,fU 'DudpörSm
igwdkh wm0ef½Sdw,fvdkh ,lqNyD; trsKd;om; pdwfjyif;xefwJUolawG vdkufygEdkifygw,f? tpnf;ta0; NyD;qHk;aMumif;}
tEdkifEdkifajym&if; ausmif;om;tcsKdUu csKdif;ESpfbufrSr,lí atmufokdY ac:aqmifoGm;Muonf/ tif;vsm;aqmif½Sd
ausmif;olrsm;onfvnf;Rightly or Wrongly
My Country is My Country

-[laom aqmifyk'ft& oydwfarSmuf&efxGufvmNyD; oydwfarSmufausmif;om;rsm;udk vufckyfwD;í
BudKqdkMuonf/
oydwf oydwf? arSmuf arSmuf
pavmU pavmU? xGuf xGuf
udkatmifqef;udk ausmif;rxkwfeJh
udkEkudk ausmif;rxkwfeJh
uRefynma&;pepf? zsufypf zsufypf
ocifrsKd;a[U 'dkhArm
a<u;aMumfoHrsm; a<u;aMumfí t"dywdvrf;rS ausmif;tkyfBuD;tdrfodkY vnf;aumif;? ausmif;aq;½Hk a½SUodkY
vnf;aumif;? a½Tw*d akH pwDawmf &m[kaxmifh wefaqmif;BuD;qDoYkd wNrdKUvH;k vSnv
hf nfNyD; oydwpf cef;zGi&hf ef xGuv
f m
Muonf/ &efuek w
f uúov
kd Bf uD;onfum; oydwaf rSmufausmif;om;rsm; xGuv
f mNyD;aemuf Nidro
f ufajcmufaoGUuse&f pfchJ
onf/ *kPfxl;wef;rS ausmif;om;BuD;rsm;vnf; yg0ifcJhMuonf/ bDat? bDtufpD rufarmívnf;aumif;?
axmuf y H h a Mu; jyKwf r S m aMumuf a om ausmif ; om;tcsKd U rS v G J í 80% ausmf oyd w f a rS m uf M uonf /
xdkausmif;om;rsm;xJwGif aemiftcg 0efBuD;? I. C. S.,? B. C. S.,? oHtrwf? wdkif;rif;BuD;? twGif;0efjzpfMurnfholrsm;
ygvmayonf/ udk,fusKd;udk pGefYoifh pGefYxdkufonfh tcsdefwGif udk,fusKd;pGefY&J0Hhaom ausmif;om;rsm;aMumifh 1936
ck? 'kwd,tBudrfausmif;om;oydwfBuD; jzpfay:vm ayonf/

(!) oydwjf rifuiG ;f
wuúodkvfausmif;om;rsm;onf rdrdwdkYpdwfxufoefpGmjzifh wuúodkvfOya'udk rBudKufESpfoufí jyifqif
&eftwGuf vnf;aumif;? Armjynfausmif;om;rsm;udk vufatmufcHuRefynma&;pepf qGJoGif;onfh ynmoifausmif;
77

jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif; - atmifxGef;
BuD;udk rpifykyfuJhodkY ½GH½Smvmí vnf;aumif;? Oya'rsm;udk rkef;wD;½HG½Smvmaompdwfjzifh udk,hfudk,fudk tepfemcHNyD;
vGefcJhaom (15) ESpfu aemifawmfBuD;rsm;\ ajc&mudkeif;í wnDwnmwnf; a<u;aMumfoydwfarSmuf xGufvmjcif;
jzpfonf/ tif;vsm;taqmifol rsm;rSmvnf; rdrdwkdY\ Eki,faomtjzpfukd rawG;rdbJ t0wfwxnf udk,fwckESifh
&JeDrrsm;yDyD vdkufygvmMujcif;jzpfonf/ ausmif;om;? ausmif;olrsm;onf rsufESmjzLtpdk;&\ tcsKyftcs,fcHae&
aomtjzpfrS ½ke;f xGuv
f Mkd uonft
h wGuf vGwv
f yfa&;&rS at;awmhrnf[al ompdwjf zifh oydwaf rSmufvu
kd jf cif; jzpfonf/
xdkoydwfwGif &efukefwuúodkvfrS ausmif;om; 80%? ,k'oefaumvdyfrS ausmif;om; 20% yg0ifonf/
ausmif;om;xkBuD; wcJeuf oydwfarSmufvdkufonfhtwGuf e,fcsJUtpdk;& rsufvHk;jyL;? rsufqHjyL; jzpfoGm;onf/
þoydwf BuD;onf 1938 ck? yxrtaxGaxGoydwfBuD; a½SUajy;ozG,f jzpfvmawmhonf/ oydwfarSmufausmif;om;
acgif;aqmifrsm;onf t&if;½Sife,fcsJU NAdwdoQpepfqdk;\ &ufpufzdESdyf½IwfcsrIudk rsuf0g;xifxif ay:vGifatmif
vlxak ½SUarSmufoYkd wifjyMuonf/ xdt
k cg vlxw
k &yfv;kH onf t&if;½Sief ,fcsJUpepfukd tjrpfrv
S eS í
f Ekwyf pfvpkd w
d rf sm;
wzGm;zGm;ay:vmonf/
&efukefwuúodkvf ausmif;om;BuD;rsm; oydwfarSmufxGufvmNyD;aemuf a½Twd*HkapwDawmf ajrmufzufpcef;
Z&yfwGif oydwfarSmufaumifpDukd zGJUpnf;cJhonf/ oydwfarSmufaumifpDrSm1/ udk&m½Spf
Ouú|
2/ udkausmfNidrf;
twGif;a&;rSL;
3/ udktkef;
4/ udkoD[ef
5/ udkvSaz
(Adv
k v
f ufsm)
6/ udkxGef;tkH
7/ udkxGef;wif
8/ udkwDaubGef;
9/ udkat;csKd
10/ udkndKjr
(udkodef;wif)
11/ udkomvS
12/ o&Judkbat;
13/ udkndKxGef;
14/ rtrm
(vlxka':trm)
15/ udkpdk;armif
16/ rtkef;
17/ rrrBuD;
18/ rcifjr
19/ udkvSarmif
(&rnf;oif;)
20/ udkñGefY
21/ udkvScifarmif
22/ udkodef;az
23/ udkatmifqef;
24/ udkEk
25/ rcifBuD; tygt0if (29) OD;
oydwfarSmufaumifpDtzGJUonf oydwfta&;rwdrf;apmif;ap&ef tcsdef½Sdaeoa½GU aqG;aEG;aeMuonf/
apmifah ½Smufa&;wm0efcrH sm;onfvnf; &efyakH iGtwGuf pmtkypf mwrf;rsm; a&mif;csjcif;? oydwaf rSmuf&yHu
k kd ZmwfaMumif;
jyefajymí vlxkxH tvSLcHjcif;? vlxkuvJ rdrdwkdYpm;rnfhxJrS acRwmum? qeftdwftrsm;tjym; ay;ydkYulnDjcif;rsm;
jyKvkyfcJhonf/ wuúodkvfoydwfarSmuf apmifha½Smufa&;tzGJUudk zGJUpnf;cJh&m1/ 'D;'kwfOD;bcsKd
2/ OD;ausmfjrifh (0wfvHk)
3/ a'gufwmOD;ausmfNidrf;
78

udkvdkeDacwfaESmif; - 1935 rS 1936 - e,fcsJYqefhusifa&; vGwfvyfa&;BudK;yrf;rI trsKd;om;a&;toGif
4/ a':ESif;jr wdkY acgif;aqmifyg0ifonf/
wdkYArmtpnf;t½Hk;rS ocifrsm;onf vma&muftm;jznfh ulnDMuonf/ a'gufwmOD;ausmfNidrf;onf em;usyf
udkifí ausmif;om;rsm;tajctae vSnfhvnfMunfh½Ionf/ 'D;'kwfOD;bcsKdonf oydwfpcef;rsm;udk rdrdwdkYausmif;aqmif
trnfrsm; ay;xm;avonf/
armfvNrdKifZ&yfwGif trsKd;orD;rsm;udk ae&mcsay;onf/ rrBuD; (jcif;Mum;)? rcifjr? r&D&D? rtkef;? rm*&uf
zdk;au (zsmyHk)? rcifBuD;wdkYu OD;aqmifí tif;vsm;aqmifopf[k emrnfay;xm;onf/
jyefMum;a&;tzGJUü udkodef;wifESifh udkxGef;azu acgif;aqmifí ausmif;om;rsm; vdkvm;awmif;qdkcsufrsm;udk
udk&m½Spfu OD;aqmifa&;qGJavonf/
NrdKUrdNrdKUzrsm; tultnDjzifh ausmif;om;rsm; pepfwus wdu
k yf 0JG ifco
hJ nf/ A[ko
d ydwaf pmifah ½Smufa&;tzGUJ wGif
wdkYArmtpnf;t½Hk;rS ocifav;armif yg0ifaqmif½Gufí ulnDcJhonf/ owif;pmrsm;onf ausmif;om;rsm;ukd vdIufvSJ
ysLiSmpGm todtrSwfjyKNyD;? trsKd;om;ol&Jaumif;rsm;tjzpf owfrSwfMuonf/

(¡)

oydwft&Sdefwufvmjcif;

ausmif;om;? ausmif;olrsm;xJwGif tdEd´,wdkif;&if;om;rsm;? t*Fvdyfujym;rsm; yg0ifcJhonf/ ajcwzufjywf
[dE´LvlrsKd; ausmif;om;wa,mufvJ ]trsKd;om;jcif; csD;jr§ifUyg} [laom jrefrmpmwrf;udk udkifaqmifvmí oydwfrSm
t½Sed jf rifv
h monf/ ausmif;om;? ausmif;olrsm; pdwx
f w
J iG f rdrw
d YkdoifMum;&ef,x
l m;aom bmom&yfrsm;ukd jyefvnfpOf;
pm;&m aemif toufarG;0rf;ausmif;udk rwwfEikd af om bmom&yfrsm;? rdrw
d Ydkpw
d f ,Ofaus;odraf rGUatmif rjyKvkyEf ikd af om
bmom&yfrsm;? ZmwdaoG;? Zmwdrmef wazG;azG; wufaprnfhtpm; arG;oaE¨yg pdwful;pdwfjrwfrsm;udkyif aysmufuG,f
apEdkifaom bmom&yfrsm;udk ,lxm;rdaMumif; odvmMuonf/ trdArmjynfu ppfrSefaom acgif;aqmifEdkifrnfhol
wOD;udk trSefwu,f vdktyfaeonf? tvsiftjreftvdk½Sdae\/ Armwdkif;twGuf ar;cGef;jzpfae\/ wOD;wa,muf
pdwaf ysmhnrhH aI Mumifh ArmawGukd aumuf½;kd rD;[k rpGypf rJG yd gapESi/hf oifwa,muf aoG;aMumifraI Mumifh Armh*P
k f rysufyg
apESifh/ oifwa,muf wudk,faumif;qefrIaMumifh Armqdkwm tpmjyac:&wmyJ[k olrsm;tqdk rcH&ygapESifh/ oif
wa,muf opömysufrI? uwdysufrIaMumifh wrsKd;om;vHk; repfemygapESifh/ oif\ aemufwGefYrI? owdåenf;rI? ZGJaysmh
rIaMumifh aqmif½Gufcsufrsm; raESmifhaES;ygapESifh/ tm;vHk; wnDwnmwnf; aqmif½GufMu&ef ta&;BuD;ayonf/
ausmif;tkycf sKyfa&;wm0efcrH sm;u ausmif;om;rdbrsm;xH rdro
d m;orD;rsm;udk oydwpf cef;rS ausmif;odYkjyefyYkd&ef
aMu;eef;½dkuf awmif;yefpnf;½Hk;cJhaomfvnf; rdbrsm;onf wkefYjyefrI rvkyfcJhonfhtjyif ausmif;om;rsm;vkyf&yfudk
axmufcH tm;ay;cJhonf/
]ighom;? rif;rrdkufeJh? q&mBuD;u rif;udkausmif;xkwfNyD; emrnfqdk;ay;vdkuf&if rif;woufvHk; vlñGefhwHk;
oGm;vdrfUr,f/ rif;pOf;pm;aemf? ukefxm;&wJU aiGawGuvnf; renf;bl;? wESpfvHk; aiGukefcH vlyef;NyD; oifxm;&wJU
ynmawG? pmar;yGeJ ;D rS0ifrajzbl;qd&k if t½H;I Bu;D ½H;I rSmyJ? rrdu
k ef ihJ go
h m;&,f} [k awmif;yefMuaom rdbrsm;udk ausmif;om;
rsm;u]tarwdkh&,f? a*:&if*sDawGudkMunfU? olwdkhrSma½S;wkef;u ohlrif;olhcsif;eJh? &mZ0ifrSm pHwifavmufwJU trsKd;aygh/
aemifvrl sK;d jcm; vufatmufa&mufawmU waehwjcm;ysujf ym;&muae ckawmUZmwdrmefrNUJ y;D olwum&JeY if;jym; jzpfaewm
tarwdkh odwJhtwdkif;yJ/ [dkvlhjrif aMumuf&? 'Dvlhjrif ½Sdcdk;&awmUrvdk? uav;eJhacG;awmif olwdkhudk yrmrcefhbl;/
ArmawG xD;usK;d pnfaygujf zpfNy;D vlrsK;d jcm; vufatmufa&mufwm ESpf (50) ausmNf y/D waehxufwaeh qkw,
f w
k v
f mwm
uae aygah ygq
h qaer,fq&kd if a*:&if*sv
D kd tajcrvSwb
UJ 0 a&mufomG ;r,f/ 'Db0ra&mufcsi&f if tckuae owd0&D ,
d
a½Sx
Y m;Ny;D trsK;d om;a&;udk BuKd ;pm;&r,f/ 'grS aemifrsK;d qufawG aumif;pm;rSm}[k ausmif;om;rsm;u jyefajymcJhavonf/
ausmif;om;rsm;onf e,fcsJUqefYusifa&;vIyf½Sm;rIudk jynfolrsm;ESifhvufwGJNyD; tm;oGefBudK;yrf;Muonf/
jynfow
l &yfv;kH cHpm;ae&aom NAdwo
d Qe,fcsUJ \ zdEydS cf sKyfcs,rf t
I 00udk azmfxw
k w
f ifjy vHUI aqmfMuonf/ e,fcsUJ tpd;k &
ay;rSurf;rS roxma&pmudk t½dk;t&if; udkuf&onfh? pm;cGufvk 91-Xme tkyfcsKyfa&;udk rufrufarmarm
vQmapmif;xd;k í oGm;a& wjrm;jrm;usum atmufajcvGwaf eMuaom vufa[mif;Edik if aH &;orm;BuD;rsm; wefc;kd xGm;NyD;
qif;&Jom;0HomEktzGJUacgif;aqmif a'gufwmbarmf eef;&if;0eftjzpfaqmif½Gufí ñGefYaygif;tpdk;& tkyfcsKyfae
csdefjzpfonf/ a'gufwmbarmfESifh rEÅav;OD;bOD;wdkYonf trsKd;om;wuf<uvIyf½Sm;rI? e,fcsJUqefUusifa&;udprö sm;ukd
ykvyd t
f zGUJ ? ppfyv
k yd t
f zGUJ rsm;oH;k um NzdKcG&J onftxd e,fcsJUqefYusifa&; tiftm;pkrsm;udk Edik if w
H 0Sr;f u *,uf½u
kd cf wf
79

jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif; - atmifxGef;
atmif tiftm;jyoMuonf/
ArmwEdkifiHvHk;wGif ausmif;om;ta&;? tvkyform;ta&;? v,form;ta&;? ukvm;-Arm t"du½kPf;
ta&;rsm; AGufaygufatmif vIyf½Sm;aecsdefjzpfonf/
oydwfarSmufausmif;om;rsm;onf udk,fhtkyfpkESifhudk,f wm0ef,lí oydwfrarSmufao;aom rpf½Sifausmif;
rsm;ESihf tpd;k &ausmif;rsm;odYk omG ;um oydww
f m;Muonf/ oydww
f m;aom ausmif;om;pku oydww
f m;í oydww
f &m;
a[maom ausmif;om;pku oydwt
f iftm;jznhw
f if;&ef BudK;yrf;Muonf/ a½Tw*d akH pwDawmf oydwpf cef;ü usef&pfaom
ausmif;om;xkrmS vnf; oydwaf rSmufausmif;om; &Jabmfopfrsm;tvmudk 0rf;omtm;& qD;BudKMuonf/ oydwaf rSmuf
umvtwGi;f waeYwmukeq
f ;kH onfh tcsdew
f ikd ;f wGif oydwaf rSmufausmif;om;rsm;tm; acgif;aqmifrsm;u aoG;pnf;nD
ñGwfa&;? enf;ñTefvrf;jy ynmay;w&m;rsm; a[majymavh½Sdonfudk oydwfarSmufausmif;om;tm;vHk; pdwftm;xuf
oefpmG pka0;em;axmifMuonf/ 1920 wuúov
kd f yxrausmif;om;oydwf tawGUtMuHK&cJo
h vdk oydwaf rSmufausmif;
om;acgif;aqmifrsm;tzdkYvnf; tawGUtMuHK &ifhusufcJhNyDjzpfonf/ NAdwdoQe,fcsJUenf;y&d,m,fudk 1936 oydwf
ausmif;om;acgif;aqmifrsm; em;vnfxm;Muonf/
oydwft½Sdefjrifhwufvm&m tifvsm;aqmifrS ausmif;ol (150)? udkodrf;armifacgif;aqmifaom ,leDAmpDwD
*syfqifausmif;om;rsm;yg0ifvmonf/ udkbZHacgif;aqmifaom &cdkiftrsKd;om;rsm;vnf; ygvmonf/ aq;aumvdyf
oydwfudk udkvSa½T (udkvSaznD tmPm½SifudkvSa½T) acgif;aqmifcJhonf/
NrdKUvkH;uRwfausmif;om;rsm;? txufwef;ausmif;om;rsm;yg 0ifa&mufvmí oydwft½Sdefjrifhvmonf/
te,fe,ft&yf&yf½Sd ausmif;om;rsm;uvnf; pGrf;tm;½SdorQ yg0ifulnDí wdkYArmtpnf;t½kH;uvnf; te,fe,f
t&yf&yf½Sd tpnf;t½kH;cGJrsm;odkY ñTefMum;csufrsm;ay;ydkYí yg0ifulnDaponf/ jynfvkH;uRwfausmif;om;oydwfodkY
a&mufcJh&ef axmuful oydwfarSmufay;cJhaom ausmif;rsm;rSm jynf? BudKUyifaumuf? vufyHwef;? okH;q,f? rif;vS?
aysmfbG,f? rEÅav;? rkH½Gm? armfvNrdKif? ajrmif;jr? yJcl;? jrif;jcH? ykodrf? rdw¬Dvm? zsmykH? a½Tbdk? anmifav;yif? yckuúL?
rif;bl;? tif;pdef? awmifBuD;? aygif;wnf? usKdufvwf? [oFmw? awmifil? rk'kHNrdKUrsm;½Sd ausmif;aygif; (45) ausmif;
yg0ifcJhavonf/ oydwform;rsm;pcef;udk *sDpDbDat orwBuD; OD;pdk;odrf;a&mufvmonf/ olonf *sDpDbDatwGif
e,fcsJUqefYusifa&; tjyif;xefqkH; acgif;aqmifwOD;jzpfum &mxl;r,lbJ tm;vkH;udktwdkuftcHvkyfcJhonf/ ]rif;wdkh
atmifqef;wdkhvdk vkyf&r,f? 'grsKd;rS igwdkhydkaumif;r,f? ydkwdk;wufr,f}[k ajymMum;cJhonf/ udkEk? udk&m½Spf? udktkef;ESifh
tjcm;acgif;aqmifrsm;onf NrdKUrsm;odkYoGm;a&mufí awmif;qdkcsufrsm;wifjyum vlxktpnf;ta0;BuD;rsm;
jyKvkyfavonf/

(P) awmif;qdck suf (10) csuf
rdef;uav; (36) a,mufyg vl (700) ausmfESifh (25) &uf? nbufü *syfqifaumvdyfrS vl (20) xyfrH
a&muf½SdvmNyD; oydwfpcef;rSm tiftm;rsm;jym;vmonf/ xdknwGif tcsuf (10) csufyg awmif;qdkcsuf a&;qGJcJhonf/
¤if; (10) csufrSm1/ ,leDAmpDwDtufOya'udk jyifay;&ef?
2/ aumvdyfausmif;raeaomfvnf; ,leDAmpDwDu ppfaq;aom pmar;yGJrsm; 0ifa&mufajzqdkcGifhay;&ef?
3/ ausmif;vc? xrif;zdk;ESifhwuG pmar;yGJ0ifcGifhrsm; avsmhcs&ef?
4/ or*¾rS ausmif;om;rsm;udk,fpm; epfemcsufrsm;udk ajymqdkcGifhESifh ausmif;om;udk,fpm;vS,frsm;udk
ausmif;tkyfcsKyfa&;u vufcHajymqdkrnfr[kwfqdkaom qkH;jzwfcsufudk zsufodrf;ay;&ef?
5/ udkatmifqef;tm; ausmif;xkwfypfrnfqdkaom trdefYtwnfjzpfvQif xdktrdefYudk y,fzsufí olYtm;
pmar;yGJ0ifcGifhay;&efESifh ausmif;xkwfcHausmif;om;rsm; ausmif;jyefwufcGifhay;&ef?
6/ ausmif;tkyfq&mBuD;\ vufwGif;ü ausmif;om;rsm;udk xkwfy,fEdkifaom tcGifhtmPmudk ½kyfodrf;í
tkyfcsKyfa&;tzGJUüom xdktmPmxm;½Sd&ef?
7/ tpdk;&ESifh wuúodkvfausmif;u rEÅav;aumvdyfudk rzsufyg[k wm0efcHcsufay;&ef?
8/ ausmif;om;rsm; rdrdwdkYpmar;yGJtajzpmtkyfudk MunfhcGifhay;&ef?
9/ oydwfarSmuf&yfpJaomtcg ausmif;om;rsm; pmusufcsdef&&eftwGuf pmar;yGJudktenf;qkH; wva½TU
qdkif;&ef?
80

udkvdkeDacwfaESmif; - 1935 rS 1936 - e,fcsJYqefhusifa&; vGwfvyfa&;BudK;yrf;rI trsKd;om;a&;toGif
10/ oydwfarSmufausmif;om;rsm;tm; wdkuf½kdufjzpfap? oG,f0dkufíjzpfap ppfaMumar;jref;jcif;? tjypfay;
jcif;rsm; jyKvkyfrnfr[kwf[k 0efcHcsufay;&ef?
-ponfwdkYjzpf\/
txufygawmif;qdck surf sm;udk 'dik t
f mcDtpd;k &? ,leAD mpDwaD usmif;tkycf sKyfa&;tzGUJ ponfwYkdukd ay;ydYkawmif;qdk
aomfvnf; ausmif;tkycf sKyfa&;tzGUJ u usi;f yaeMupmar;yGu
J o
kd m tcsed rf eS u
f si;f y&ef pDpOfco
hJ nf/ wuúov
kd t
f yk cf sKyfa&;
aumifpDonf azazmf0g&Dv (28) &ufwGif ausmif;om;rsm;udk ta&;,lcH&rnf jzpfaMumif; ajymMum;cJhonf/ xdkpOfu
0efBuD;csKyf (2) OD;jzpfaom OD;babESifh a'gufwmbarmfu wwfEdkiforQ vkyfaqmifay;rnf[kajymaomfvnf; Oya'
aumifpDwGif *VKefOD;apm\ uefYuGufrIjzifh oydwfarSmufausmif;om;rsm;\ awmif;qdkcsufrsm; r&½Sday/

(w) 1936 ref;Oypmaumvdy?f udAk [de;f ESihf ppfuikd ;f 0dik ;f pOfu
1936 &efuek w
f uúov
kd rf S udEk ?k ud&k m½Sp?f udak tmifqef;wdYk OD;pD;NyD; oydwaf rSmufaomtcg ref;Oypmaumvdyf
ausmif;om;rsm;onf azazmf0g&Dv (27) &ufwGif aemifawmfwuúodkvf ausmif;om;BuD;rsm;udk ulnDonfhtaeESifh
0dkif;0ef; oydwfarSmufMuonf/ 1934 ckwGif ref;Oypmaumvdyfü ausmif;om;or*¾ zGJUpnf;NyD;jzpfonf/ Ouú|rSm
udkA[def;jzpfí? twGif;a&;rSL;rSm udkcifarmifwif jzpfonf/ udkA[def;ESifh udkcifarmifwifwdkYonf ta&;awmfykHtwGif;
rEÅav;NrdKUay:rS ausmif;rsm;odkY vSnfhvnfNyD; oydwfarSmuf&ef vIHYaqmfonf/ oydwfarSmufausmif;om;rsm;udk Oypm
aumvdyfausmif;om;BuD;rsm;u OD;aqmifí xdef;ay;Muonf/ txufwef;ausmif;rS ausmif;om;aygif; (2000)
ausmf yg0ifcJhonf/ oydwfpcef;rSm ousoD[bk&m;twGif;? taemufawmifaxmifh tkwfZ&yfBuD;jzpfonf/ xdktcsdef
rEÅav;NrdKU ESifh teD;qHk;jzpfaom ppfudkif;txufwef;ausmif;rSm oydwfrarSmufao;ay/ ref;OypmaumvdyfwGif
ppfudkif;rS ausmif; om; (10) OD;cefY½Sdaomfvnf; ppfudkif;ausmif; oydwfarSmuf&ef rBudK;pm;Edkifay/
ppfudkif;ausmif;wGif aeYausmif;om;rsm;rSm (350) cefY? (120) cefYrSm taqmifausmif;om;rsm;jzpfonf/
aeYausmif; om;rsm;om pnf;½Hk;í&ojzifh aeYausmif;om;rsm;u ref;Oypmaumvdyf½Sd ausmif;om;rsm;tultnDESifh
oydwaf rSmufMu onf/ pmar;yGrJ sm;jyKvkyí
f rEÅav;wGio
f ydww
f m;&m ppfuikd ;f wGiv
f nf; oydww
f m;&ef vdv
k mayonf/
xdktcg ref;oydwfodkY tultnDawmif;&m udkA[def;ESifh udkcifarmifwif acgif;aqmifí oydwfausmif;om;
(100) cefYonf ppfudkif;odkY oGm;a&muf oydwfwm;Muonf/ ppfudkif;ausmif;0if;twGif; ydwfqdkY½HkrQrvHkavmufbJ
pmoifcef;rsm; ukdyg ydwfqdkY&ef vdkvmonf/ tb,faMumifhqdkaomf ppfudkif;ausmif;0if;rSm oGwfeef;BudK;
av;wef ; umxm;íjzpf o nf / ausmif ; xJ u d k ud k o d e f ; armif (aemif Ad k v f r S L ;od e f ; armif ) ES i f h ud k j rif h u
tvHudkifí0ifoGm;onf/ xdkYaemuf q&mrsm;ESifh pum;ajym&ef udkjrihfESifh udkA[def; ae&mvJvdkufonf/ ausmif;tkyfBuD;
rpöwma'gif;u udkA[def;wdkYudk oydwfrwm;&efESifh ausmif; ayguf0udk ½Sif;vif;ay;&ef
]rif;wdkh xGufoGm;} [kajymqdkaomtcg udkA[def;u
]usaemfrxGufEdkifaMumif;? oydwfarSmufaumifpD\ trdefht& vma&mufjcif;jzpfygaMumif;? xGufroGm;Edkifyg
cifAsm;? tu,fí usaemfwdkh usL;vGefonfxifygu ykvdyfudk taMumif;Mum;ay;yg} [kajymonf/
xdktcg ausmif;tkyfBuD;u
]ig ykvyd u
f kd *½krpdu
k }f [kajymNyD; olYnmvufz0g;jzifh udkA[def;yg;udk ½dkufcsvdkuf&m udkA[def;rSm þae&mü
acGusoGm;onf/ oydwfwm;ausmif;om;rsm; ½kwf½kwfoJoJjzpfaepOf rpöwma'gif;onf tcsdefqGJraebJ ausmif;aqmif
twGif;ü toifhapmifhaeaom ol\tvdkawmf&d abmf'gausmif;om;rsm; bufodkYvSnfhNyD;
]wynfUwdkh? csMua[h? csMua[U} [k xyfrHatmf[pfum trdefYay;vdkufonf/
abmf'gaqmiftwGi;f rS uif;axmuf ausmif;om; (50) cefYonf cavmufww
k Bf uD;rsm; qGu
J ikd u
f m ajy;xGuf
vmNyD; oydwfwm;ausmif;om;rsm; tm;vHk;udk odrf;usHK;NyD; ½dkufESufMuonf/ oydwfwm;ausmif;om;rsm;onf oydwf
aumifpD tpnf;ta0; qHk;jzwfcsuft& bmrS jyefrvkyfMuay/ ausmif;om; (12) OD;cefY 'Pf&mtjyif;txef&½SdNyD;?
udAk [de;f tygt0if ausmif;om;trsm;pk 'Pf&m&½SMd uonf/ tjyif;xefq;kH 'Pf&m&olrsm;rSm udw
k if (aemif Adv
k rf LS ;BuD;
wifpdk;) ESifh udkyk (xdkpOfu 0ufpvD,ef ausmif;om;) wdkU jzpfonf/ ppfudkif;aq;½HkwGif aq;0g;uko&m roufomí
rEÅav;aq;½HkodkY ydkYíuko&avonf/ oydwfwm; ref;Oypmaumvdyfausmif;om; udkcifndK (aemif 'k-AdkvfrSL;BuD;)
rSmvnf; t½dkufcH&ol ausmif;om;rsm;tm; umuG,f&ef vltkyfxJodkY ajy;0ifoGm;í ppfudkif;tpdk;& ausmif;om;
uif;axmufrsm;\ wkwfpmjzpfoGm;onf/
81

jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif; - atmifxGef;

(x) oydww
f m;xGuMf ujcif;
ukd&m½Spfacgif;aqmifaom oydwfarSmufausmif;om;? ausmif;olwdkYpdwf"mwfrSm tjrifhqHk; a&mufaecsdef
jzpfonf/ oydwaf rSmuf ausmif;om;? ausmif;olrsm;\ pm;0wfaea&;udk acgif;aqmiftoD;oD;u wm0ef,l aqmif½u
G f
aeMuonf/ oydwfvkyfief;ay:vpD wuúodkvftmPmydkifrsm;ESifh &ifqdkifa&;udpw
ö Gif oydwfarSmufaumifpD0if (Inner
Circle) ü tjrJaqG;aEG; wdkifyifaeMuonf/ oydwfarSmufolrsm;xJwGif tvdkawmf&d owif;ay;avmufaumifrsm;
½Sdwef&monf/ rnfolrnf0g[k cGJjcm;odEdkif&ef udkausmfNidrf; acgif;xJwGif axmufvSrf;a&;tzGJUzGJU&ef pdwful;ay:vmNyD;
oydwfarSmufausmif;om;rsm;ESifh aumifpD0ifrsm;tm; udkausmfNidrf;\ axmufvSrf;a&;tzGJUrsm;u ½SJ'dk;vkyfonf/
rwfvpmar;yGJudk wuúodkvftmPmydkifrsm;u rjzpfjzpfatmif usif;y&ef qHk;jzwfNyD;jzpfonf/ xdkpmar;yGJ
0ifa&mufajzqd&k ef A[kad usmif;aqmifrsm;wGif ausmif;om;rsm; pkaqmif;aexdik af ponf[k udak usmfNidr;f \ axmufvrS ;f
a&;tzGJUrS oydwfowif; &½Sdonf/ xdktcsdefu ,leDAmpDwDausmif;om; OD;a&rSm (800) ausmf½Sdí aeYausmif;om;OD;a&
(300) ausmf ½Sdonf/ ausmif;tdyfausmif;pm;OD;a& (700) ausmf bk&m;ay:odkY a&muf½Sdaeonf/ ,if;tcsdefwGif
rnfonhu
f pd Eö iS jhf zpfap oGm;a&mufaom ausmif;om;rsm;udk tmPmydik w
f Ykd u A[dak usmif;aqmifrsm;twGi;f aeYa&mnyg
ac:xm;onf/udkausmfNidrf; owif;rSm A[dkausmif;aqmifrsm;twGif; a&muf½Sdaeaom pmar;yGJ0ifajzvdkolrsm;qDu
r[kwfay/ bk&m;&ifjyif oydwfpcef;odkY a&mufvmaom olrsm;qDu jzpfonf/
xdkausmif;xJodkY a&mufvmolrsm;udk tmPmydkifrsm;u ppfaq;NyD; ausmif;aqmifwdkYwGif cGJí oD;jcm;xm;&m
pm;a&;? aomufa&; usyfwnf; usOf;ajrmif;aeonf/ ,if;udpEö iS yhf wfoufí oydwaf rSmufaumifp\
D qH;k jzwfcsuft&
pm;a&;? aomufa&; usyfwnf; usOf;ajrmif;olwdkYtwGuf tpm;taomuf aeYpOfoGm;ydkY&ef bk&m;&ifjyifoydwfpcef;odkY
vmvdo
k rl sm;tm; nt½kPw
f ufcsed f ra&mufcif A[kad usmif;aqmifrsm; 0if;eHab;rS avSum;axmif xGuv
f mEdik af p&efwYkd
jyKvkyfay;onf/ udkomvSESifh udkndKxGef;wdkYu tpm;taomuf ydkYMuavonf/ xdktcg ygarmu©rufudkif;u
0if;wHcg;wGif ydwaf pmifah eonf/ oydwaf rSmuf ausmif;om;rsm;jzpfí 0ifciG rhf ûy[kajymonf/ udo
k mvSEiS hf udn
k Kd xGe;f u
tpm;taomuf rsm;udk oHwikd Mf um;rS ausmif;om;rsm; tm;ay;rnf[k ajymaomtcg rpöwmrufuikd ;f u ]rif;wdo
hk x
d m;zdu
hk
rif;wdhk oydwaf rSmufwm igt
h aeeJh vk;H 0oabmrwlb;l ? 'gayr,fU rif;wd&hk YJ vky&f nfuikd &f nf? pnf;urf;½Srd eI hJ wnfMunfru
I kd
csD;usL;w,f} [k ajym&if; udkomvSESifh udkndKxGef; oHwdkifMum;rS tpm;taomufydkYonfudk bmrSrajymay/
wzef 1936 ck? azazmf0g&Dv? 26 &uf? eHeuf (5) em&DwGif wuúodkvfausmif;odkY ausmif;om;tiftm;
(300) cefYonf armfawmfum;jzifh oydwfwm;&ef xGufcJhMuonf/ oydwfaumifpD0if o&Jbat;u acgif;aqmifonf/
wuúodkvfor*¾½kH;ü tpkcGJí ae&mcsavonf/

Source: Unknown

wuúov
kd af usmif;ü oydww
f m;Mu&mwGif tif;0ausmif;aqmif oHwcH g;0ü vJt
S yd af eMuaom oydwaf rSmufausmif;om;rsm;

82

udkvdkeDacwfaESmif; - 1935 rS 1936 - e,fcsJYqefhusifa&; vGwfvyfa&;BudK;yrf;rI trsKd;om;a&;toGif
(1) tif;0ausmif;aqmif a½SUwHcg;ayguf
(2) tif;vsm;aqmif aemufzufwHcg;ayguf
(3) *syfqifaumvdyfoGm;aom awmifzufvrf;rsm;ay:wGif jzpfonf/ wzufrSvnf; ¤if;aeY oydwfwm;
onfudk wdkif;jynfrS odap&ef at0rf;ac: jrefrmtaqGukrÜPDrS udkwifarmifudk bdkifpukyf½kdufapjcif;? owif;axmuf
rsm;udk "gwfykH½kdufapjcif; jyKvkyfonf/ tif;0ausmif;aqmifzuf ausmif;om;tenf;i,fESifh q&mrsm; acgif;aqmifí
ausmif;wuf&ef xGuv
f mMu&m ausmif;om;rsm; txyfxyf ajrBuD;ay: tdyjf cif;? ausmif;rwuf&ef arwåm&yfcjH cif;rsm;
jyKvky&f m aemufq;Hk rnforl Q ausmif;rwuf0ahH wmhbJ jyefomG ;Muonf/ aeYvnf (2) em&Dtcsdew
f iG f ausmif;wufrnfo
h l
r½Sdaomtcg tm;vkH;or*¾½kH;wGif pk½kH;um a½Twd*kHbk&m;odkY jyefvmMuonf/
ausmif;om;rsm; uwå&map;vrf;ay:wGif vSJtdyfNyD; aeylusJusJü oydwfwm;Mu&m olawmif;pm;ESifh rjcm;
qE´jycJhjcif; jzpfonf/ ausmif;olrsm;xJu rtkH;? rtrm? rcifjr? rrBuD;wdkY yg0ifcJhavonf/ ausmif;olrsm;\
]uRefpdwfarG;wJU wuúodkvfyg? raevdkh xGufcJUwm? wdkhwawG nDnmpk½kH;um? a½Twd*kHay:rSm}
q&mBuD;ocifu,
kd af wmfridI ;f uvnf; qdwEf iS ahf cG; taqGcifyeG ;f zGUJ NyD; tpm½SmxGuo
f uJo
h Ykd &efuek w
f uúov
kd f
rSm t½kdif;atmifqef;eJY ausmuf½kyfndKjrwdkYawGUNyD; tdk;a0r*¾Zif;vkyf&mu ig;yg;arSmuf (0g) oydwfarSmufukefwmyJ[k
ajymayonf/ þodkY (5) &ufquf oydwfwm;cJh&m rwfv (1) &ufaeYwGif wuúodkvftkyfcsKyfa&;aumifpDu pmar;
yGJrsm; udk ZGefv (10) &ufaeYodkY a½TUvdkufonf/
oydwaf rSmufpOfumvtwGi;f ü oydwrf *¾Zif; (The Striken Number) udk xkwaf 0onf/ i&JacG;BuD;vGwf
aeNyD aqmif;yg; ygvmavonf/ udkodef;azonf t*Fvdyftydkif;udk t,f'Dwmvkyfonf/ udkndKxGef;onf jzefYa0a&;
vkyfief;udk vkyfonf/ pmar;yGJa½TUqdkif;vdkufí ausmif;aqmifrsm;rS ausmif;om;tcsKdU tdrfjyefoGm;NyD; oydwfpcef;rS
ausmif;om;rsm;vnf; oydwfpcef;wGif pmusufMuonf/ oydwfacgif;aqmifrsm;u oydwfudpöqufvkyfonf/

(') oydwaf rSmufaphpyfjcif;ESihf oydwv
f eS jf cif;
wuúodkvftkyfcsKyfa&;aumifpDonf tpnf;ta0;ü OD;apmESifh EdkifiHa&;tkyfpkrsm;onf pkHprf;a&;aumfr½Sif
zGUJ pnf;&ef BudK;yrf;cJMh uonf/ {NyDvtxd oydwrf vSeMf uojzifh e,fcsJUtpd;k &onf [du
k u
f w
k rf S w&m;olBuD; OD;jrbl;udk
Ouú|tjzpf xm;í pkHprf;a&;tzGJU zGJUonf/ wuúodkvfaumifpDü ¤if;tzGJU½kH;xdkifí oydwfarSmufausmif;om;
r[kwfaomolrsm;udk pkHprf;ar;jref;cJhavonf/ eef;&if;0ef a'gufwmbarmfonf ausmif;om;rsm;ESifh aphpyfaqG;aEG;í
xd k a umf r wD x J w G i f ausmif ; om;rsm; yg0if a pvd k o nf / xd k t csd e f w G i f oyd w f a cgif ; aqmif r sm;onf
[dkufpul;ausmif;om;rsm; tm;vkH; pnf;½kH;apNyD; oydwfarSmufaumifpDwGif ¤if;txufwef;ausmif;om;
udk,fpm;vS,frsm; yg0ifapavonf/
arvwGif tpd;k &ESihf oydwaf rSmufausmif;om;rsm; aphpyf&m toift
h wifo
h m ajyvnfonf/ wuúov
kd af umif
pDwGif ausmif;om;rsm; ausmif;jyefwufa&;udpöwdkY ajyvnfonf/ oydwfarSmufausmif;om;rsm;udk tjypfray;&/
pmar;yG0J if&ef pmusufcsdev
f aHk vmufpmG &½Sad &;? ref;Oypmaumvdyf ausmif;qufwnfjrJa&;udpw
ö Ykd ajyvnf\/ odYk aomf
jyifyrS wuúodkvfpmar;yGJ ajzcGifhudk a'gufwmbarmf\ ynma&;Xmeu oabmrwl? ausmif;vc taqmifvcvnf;
ravsmhay;? wuúodkvftufOya'udk jyifqifay;&efudpöudk ½kwfw&uf raqmif½GufEdkifao;í w&m;olBuD; (OD;jrbl;)
BuD;rSL;aom aumfrwDodkY vTJtyfvdkufonf/ xdktcg ajyvnfaom tcsufrsm;tay:rlwnfí oydwfpcef;ü tkyfpk
(2) pk uGo
J mG ;onf/ udt
k ek ;f ? ud&k m½Spw
f Ykdu oydwv
f eS &f ef oabmwlnND yD; udv
k aS z? udn
k Kd xGe;f wdYku oydwq
f ufvo
kd nf/
aemufqkH;oydwf&yf&ef oydwfaumifpDu oabmwlNyD; 1936 ck arv (10) &ufwGif oydwfvSef vdkufonf/

(") oydw\
f tusK;d aus;Zl;rsm;
1/ rwfv tv,fwGif ausmif;tkyfBuD; rpöwmpavmh ae&mwGif ygarmu©OD;azarmifwifudk ausmif;tkyfBuD;
tjzpf cefYvdkufonf/
2/ 1920 jynfh ausmif;om;oydwBf uD;xuf 1936 ck ausmif;om;oydwBf uD;onf ausmif;om;xkw&yfv;Hk \
Edk;Mum;rI pdwf"gwf ododomom xifxif½Sm;½Sm; wdk;wufjynfh0rI ½Sdvmonf/
3/ 1936 ck ausmif;om;oydwfBuD;onf tcsdef,lBudKwifjyifqifí oydwfarSmufvdkufaom oydwfBuD;
83

jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif; - atmifxGef;
r[kw/f e,fcsUJ tpd;k &\ ESyd u
f yG v
f eG ;f rIaMumifo
h m jzpfc&hJ aom oydwBf uD;jzpfí oydwaf rSmufausmif;om;xk
BuD;onf wdkYArmtpnf;t½kH;ESifhwuG e,fcsJUqefYusifa&; EdkifiHa&; tiftm;pkrsm;twGuf BuD;rm;aom
EdkifiHa&; tiftm;opfBuD;w&yf jzpfay:cJhonf/
4/ aemiftem*wfwGif e,fcsJUudkwGef;vSefí vGwfvyfa&;BudK;yrf;rnf[k ocifatmifqef;? ocifEk?
ocifodef;az (odef;azjrifh)? ocifvSaz? ocifA[def;? ocifAaqG? ocifoef;xGef;wdkY ay:vm&onf/
5/ ausmif;om;oydwfBuD;rSm aemufqHk; oydwfvSefcJhaomfvnf; vli,fobm0udk azmfjyo½kyfaqmifaom
jiif;cHkrIrsm; ay:aygufjcif;ESifh t,ltqjyif;xefolwdkYu wuúodkvfudk &moufyefpGefYvTwfoGm;Muonf/
udkEk? udkvSaz? udkodef;az? ukdxGef;tkHESifh ausmif;om;tcsKdU ausmif;jyefrwufMuawmhay/ udkodef;azESifh
udx
k eG ;f tko
H nf owif;axmufEiS hf aus;½Gmjyefvnfxal xmifa&; ynmawmfoifq&k aomfvnf; pGeYf vw
T Nf yD;
EdkifiHjcm;odkY roGm;cJhacs/
6/ oydwfacgif;aqmifudkEk\ ]NAw
d o
d Qtpd;k &uzGiaUf y;wJU wuúov
kd rf sm;[m vcpm;uReu
f av;awG arG;xkwf
ay;&ef uRefxkwfukefvkyfief;puf½HkawGjzpfw,f} [laom pum;onf ausmif;om;rsm;pdwfxJwGif pGJusef
&pfcJhonf/
7/ wjynfv;kH ½Sd ausmif;om;xkpnf;½H;k vIy½f mS ;rI ydrk o
kd yd o
f nf;ckid rf mvmNyD; ]ArmEdik if v
H ;kH qdik &f m ausmif;om;rsm;
or*¾ (Auo)} "All Burma Students' Union- ABSU" trnfjzifh azmfxw
k Ef ikd cf o
hJ nf/ Auoonf
e,fcsJUqefYusifa&;ordik ;f pOfwiG f yxrOD;qH;k tBudrf zGUJ pnf;vdu
k af om wjynfv;kH ausmif;om;tzGUJ csKyfBuD;
jzpfonf/
8/ wdkYArmtpnf;t½Hk;\MoZm ausmif;om;xktwGif; us,fjyefYpGm xdk;ESuf0ifa&mufoGm;NyD; wdkYArmtpnf;
t½Hk;ESifh ausmif;om;or*¾rsm; ydkrdkcdkifrmpGm yl;aygif;rdvmonf/
9/ 'kwd,tBudrf jynfvHk;uRwf ausmif;om;oydwfwdkufyGJBuD;onf awmif;qdkcsufrsm; vufiif;tm;jzifh
tjynfht0 r&aomfvnf; EdkifiHa&;atmifjrifcsufrsm;rSmum; ½HI;edrhf&jcif;rsm;xuf omvGefum ordkif;wGif
&pfrnfh atmifjrifcsufrsm; &½SdcJhonf/
10/ 1920 jynfhwGif tufOya'udk jyifqifcsuf oydwfwdkufyGJrS r&½Sdaom ,leDAmpDwDtufOya'udk 'kwd,
ausmif;om;oydwfu atmifjrifpGmjyifqifEdkifcJhonf/
11/ ausmif;om;acgif;aqmifrsm;onf a'gufwmbarmf? wuúov
kd af umifp0D ifrsm;? Edik if aH &;acgif;aqmifrsm;
ESifh awGUqHkaqG;aEG;rIaMumifh todÓPfrsm; zGHUNzdK;vmNyD;? rdrdudk,frdrd ,HkMunfvmum tpkd;&ESifh ygvDref
vkyfaqmifcsufrsm; em;vnfvmonf/ Edik if aH &;vIy½f mS ;rI? wGe;f vSerf EI iS Uf awGq
Y akH qG;aEG;a&;udk em;vnfvm
onf/ awmif;qdkcsufrsm;udk rnfodkhuefhowf&rnf? wdk;csJY&rnfudk em;vnfvmonf/ tcsdefuefhowfrI?
vlxak xmufcrH \
I tquftoG,?f ud,
k u
Uf ,
kd u
f x
kd ed ;f csKyjf cif;ESihf Nird o
f ufpmG vdv
k m;csurf sm; qGq
J efw
h ifjyEdik yf kH
udk oabmaygufvmayonf/
12/ trsKd;om;wuúodkvf ay:aygufvmayonf/

(e) trsK;d om;wuúov
kd jf zpfay:vmyHk
oydwfudktaMumif;jyKí trsKd;om;wuúodkvfwnfaqmuf&ef udkEktMuHxGufvmonf/ xdkYaemuf udkatmif
qef;? 0wfvOkH ;D odr;f armif? olaX;OD;oGi?f ausmif;tkyBf uD;OD;bvGi?f 'D;'kwOf ;D bcsKd? 0wfvOkH ;D ausmfjrifw
h Ykd vufcMH uonf/
trsKd;om;wuúodkvf wnfaxmifoifhNyD[k ,HkMunfMuonf/ 1937 wGif ArmEdkifiHudk tdEd´,EdkifiHrS cGJxkwfvdkufonf/
'dkiftmcDtkyfcsKyfa&;ae&mwGif 91-XmetkyfcsKyfa&; a&mufawmhrnf/ xdktajctaeudk &ifqdkifEdkif&ef Arm ausmif;om;
rsm;onf 0dZmÆ ? odyyHÜ nmrsm;udk us,fus,fjyefYjyefY wwfozd Ykd vv
kd monf/ ¤if;ynmrsm;udk Armpmjzifyh Ykd csvQif vsifjrefpmG
wwfp&m½Sdonf/ þodkYajrmfjrifí acgif;aqmifrsm;u trsKd;om;wuúodkvf wnfaxmif&ef MuH½G,fonf/ trsKd;om;
wuúodkvf &HyHkaiG½Sm&mwGif NrdKUrausmif;ü tpnf;ta0;jyKvkyf&m rsKd;cspfyk*¾dKvfrsm; wufa&mufMuonf/
olaX;OD;oGif em,uvkyfNyD; &efyHkaiGOD;OD;zsm;zsm; 1000d^- usyf xnfhonf/ OD;oGiftvSLaiGudk udkatmif
qef;u rauseyfacs/ &efyHkaiG odef;aygif;rsm;pGmvdkonf/ olaX;BuD;wa,muf\ aiGwaxmifrSm qifyg;pyfESrf;yufo
vdkom jzpfonf/ xdkoabmtwdkif; udkatmifqef;u wHk;wdwdajymonf/ tpnf;ta0;rSm a½SUrwdk;? aemufrqkwf
jzpfaeonf/
84

udkvdkeDacwfaESmif; - 1935 rS 1936 - e,fcsJYqefhusifa&; vGwfvyfa&;BudK;yrf;rI trsKd;om;a&;toGif
trsKd;om;ynm0efOD;zdk;usm;u xí
]trsKd;om;wuúodkvfjzpfajrmufa&;twGuf aiGodef;csD vdkw,fqdkwm rSefygw,f/ odkhayr,fU OD;oGifvdk
yk*¾dKvfBuD;u aiG 1000d^- xnfUwm enf;w,fvdkh rqdkEdkifygbl;/ bmaMumifUvJqdkawmU avmavmq,frSm olhapwem
o'¨gw&m;tavsmuf xnfjU cif;om jzpfw,f/ aemuf wuúov
kd f jzpfajrmufwt
UJ cg apwemawG ydv
k mNy;D xnfv
U rd rUf ,fvhkd
arQmfvifUygw,f/ aemufNyD; 'Davmuftzdk;wefwJU yk*¾dKvfBuD;u wuúodkvfjzpfajrmufa&; tpnf;ta0;ukd tcsdefukef
vlyef;cHNyD; em,uvmaqmif½GufwJUtwGuf wefzdk;[m rqHk;jzwfEdkifatmif BuD;rm;vSygw,f}
xdktcgrS OD;oGif? udkatmifqef;ESifh y&dowfrsm; jyHK;Edkifonf/
Mo*kwfvwGif trsKd;om;wuúodkvf naeydkif;oifwef;rsm;udk NrdKUrausmif;ü zGifhvSpfcJhonf/
xdkoifwef;rsm;ü(1) jrefrmhtvif;OD;pdef - owif;pmynm
(2) ol&d,OD;vSaz - abm*aA'
(3) a'gufwmxifatmif - t*FvdyfpmESifh EdkifiHa&;&mZ0if
(4) ygarmu©OD;atmifvS - ocsFm
(5) OD;xGef;ndK - yx0D0if
(6) 'D;'kwfOD;bcsKd - udk;cef;ysKdU
(7) ynm0efaxmufa[mif; OD;zdk;pdef - jrefrmo'´g
(8) OD;zdk;usm;ESifh OD;oufwif - &mZ0if
ausmif;pmtkyfrsm;udk OD;zdk;usm; yHkESdyfwdkufrS udk,fydkif½kdufESdyf jzefYa0cJhonf/ OD;zdk;usm;onf aemufydkif;wGif
wdk;wufa&;r*¾Zif;odkY vpOfaqmif;yg;rsm;a&;NyD; ¤if;aqmif;yg;rsm;udk ¤if;yHkESdyfwdkufrS vHk;csif;tjzpf xkwfa0cJh&m
wdkif;jynftESHY tusKd;rsm;cJhonf/

(y) trsK;d om;wuúov
kd zf iG yhf JG qmOD;oGirf ed cYf eG ;f tESpcf sKyf
1/ trsKd;om;wuúodkvfonf rnfonfhwuúodkvfESifhrQ *kPfwk*kPfNydKif ESdrfcsvdkí wnfaxmifjcif;r[kwf?
2/ ,leDAmpDwDü roifMum;Edkifaom toufarG;0rf;ausmif;ynm&yfrsm; oifMum;ay;&efESifh txufwef;ynmrsm;udk
jrefrmbmomjzifh oifMum;ay;&ef?
(jrefrmjynfwGifxGuf½Sdaom ukefMurf;rsm;udk ukefacsmzefwD;ay;onfh (College Industries) rsm; jzpfay:vmap&ef?)
3/ ArmvlrsKd;rsm; MuHqwDxGif vmwwfap&ef?
4/ pufrIvufrIaomfvnf;aumif;? ul;oef;a&mif;0,fa&;aomfvnf;aumif; usepGmvkyfudkifí wdkif;jynftusKd;
aqmif½Gufwwfap&ef?
5/ twwfynm tajccHA[kokw½Sdí ½dk;om;ajzmifhrwfNyD;? 0D&d,vHkYvjzifh ÓPfynm tm;xkwfNyD; vkyfudkifjcif;jzifh
BuD;yGm;wdk;wufap&ef?
6/ Armjynfonf tdE,
´d jynfEiS hf cGcJ mG NyD;aemuf pufrv
I ufrw
I ;kd wufa&;twGuf a&aomufjrpfozG,jf zpfaom trsK;d om;
wuúodkvfBuD; tqifhoifhwnf½Sdap&efESifh wdkif;jynfBuD;yGm;wdk;wuf&eftwGuf trsKd;om;wuúodkvf vdktyfaMumif;?
7/ tm;BudK;rmefwufjzifh trsKd;om;wuúodkvfwnfaxmifí wuf<uap&ef?
8/ trsKd;om;wuúodkvfü(u) jrefrmbmom av;wef;rS ckEpS w
f ef;txd oifMum;wwfajrmufaom ausmif;om;rsm;twGuf yxrwef;tqif?h
(c) jrefrmbmom ckEpS w
f ef;rS q,fwef;txd oifMum;wwfajrmufaom ausmif;om;rsm;twGuf 'kw,
d wef;tqif?h
(*) jrefrmbmom q,fwef;atmifjrifaom ausmif;om;rsm;twGuf wwd,wef;tqifhwdkYjzpfonf/
9/ trsKd;om;wuúodkvf\ csKdU,Gif;csufrsm;udkjyKjyifí wdk;wufatmif aqmif½GufoGm;rnfjzpfaMumif;?
10/ ravsmhaomZGJjzifh trsKd;om;wuúodkvfBuD;udk xajrmufatmifjrif&ef BudK;pm;apvdkaMumif;?
11/ trsKd;om;wuúodkvfBuD; wnfwHhcdkifjrJí pufrIvufrI txufwef;ynmrsm;udk vlrsKd;? bmomra½G;? Armjynfom;
tm;vHk; ynmoifMum;Edkif&ef?
12/ wdik ;f jynfEiS Ehf ikd if H tusKd;pD;yGm;jzpfxeG ;f aprnfh trsKd;om;wuúov
kd Bf uD;udk tm;vH;k u 0dik ;f 0ef;axmufyu
hH n
l rD nf[k
arQmfvifhaMumif;wdkY yg½Sdonf/
85

jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif; - atmifxGef;

(z) 1936 yxrtBurd f ArmEdik if v
H ;kH qdik &f mausmif;om;rsm;or*¾ (Auo) nDvmcH
(arv 8 &uf? 1936)

Source: Oway Magazines

oydwfarSmufumv (3) vMumaomtcg &efukefwuúodkvfausmif;om;rsm; or*¾ (wuo) onf
trsKd;om;a&; us,fjyefYaomvIyf½Sm;rIodkY ajymif;vJa&muf½SdvmNyD; ausmif;om;or*¾onf trsKd;om;vli,frsm;udk
acgif;aqmifvmum tusKd;aus;Zl;taeESifh Auoay:vmayonf/
yxrqHk;tBudrf AuonDvmcHukd 1936 arv (8) &ufaeYwGif oydwf
arSmuf ausmif;om;rsm;yg0ifNyD; *sLAvDa[mü usif;y&m yxrqHk; Ouú|taeESifU
ud&k m½Spu
f kd ceft
h yfNy;D ? udkatmifqef;udk 'k-Ouú|tjzpf cefYtyfvdkufonf/ udkA[def;
(txufArmjynf ud,
k pf m;vS,)f ? udjk yefY (aemif ocifjyefY? ucsifjynfe,f)? udx
k eG ;f
½Sed f (aemif Adv
k &f efEikd )f ? udAk aqG (aemif 0efBuD;csKy)f ? udv
k aS ½T (aemif tmPm½Siv
f aS ½T)?
udkodef;atmif (aemif ausmif;om;acgif;aqmif)? udkvSarmif? udkxGef;tHkwdkY wuf
a&mufcMhJ uonf/ ¤if;tpnf;ta0;rS trsKd;om;a&;tzGUJ csKyf tpnf;ta0; us,fjyefY
ap&efESifh trsKd;om;wuúodkvf wnfaxmif&ef? wkdif;&if;om;ausmif;om;rsm;ESifh
jynfwGif;ae vlrsKd;jcm;ausmif;om;rsm; aoG;pnf;&ef qHk;jzwfcsufcscJhonf/
1936 oydwfumvwGif ausmif;om;acgif;aqmifrsm;onf xifjrifcsuf
rsm; uGjJ ym;onf½adS omfvJ trsm;qE´ukd vku
d ef mcJMh uonf/ aoG;pnf;nDñw
G pf mG jzifh
atmif
j
rif
r
u
I
k
d
a½S
;
½I
c
o
h
J
nf
/
ud
E
k
o
k
nf
pH
j
yacgif
;
aqmif
wa,muf
j
zpf
c
o
h
J
nf
/ ¤if;\
yxrqH;k Auo
Oya'oifwef;rS &½Sad om tawGUtMuHKrsm;jzifh ud,
k u
f sihw
f &m;? tao;pdwaf qG;aEG;
Ouú| ud&k m½Spf
rI? pkpnf;rIrsm; jyKvkyEf ikd cf o
hJ nf/ nbufrsm;wGif rdeYfceG ;f ajymMum;&mü oydwaf rSmuf
ausmif;om;rsm; rdrdudk,frdrd ,HkMunfrI½Sdap&efESifh wm0efrsm; ausyGefpGmxrf;aqmif&ef a[majymonf/ ukd&m½Spf?
udkatmif qef;? udkausmfNidrf;? udkxGef;tkHwdkY tjcm;udpörsm; tvkyfrsm;aepOf udkEkonf oydwfpcef;udk aumif;rGefpGm
tkyfcsKyfEdkifonf/ oydwfNyD;aemuf ¤if;wdkYtm;vHk;onf trdajr vGwfvyfa&;twGuf qufvufwdkufyGJ0ifcJhMuonf/
rMumrDumvwGif wuúodkvfajrrS aeí vGwfvyfa&;twGuf tpDtpOfBudK;yrf;rIudk yHkMurf;azmfEdkifchJayonf/
þodYk jzifh Auoonf awmfveS af &;vrf;aMumif; (NAdwo
d Qe,fcsUJ vufatmufrS vGwaf jrmufa&;) vrf;aMumif;
odkY csOf;uyfcJhonf/ wuouJhodkY udk,fydkif zGJUpnf;yHkpnf;rsOf;udk a&;qGJEdkifcJhonf/ e,fcsJUvufa0cH ynma&;ukd
pGefYvTwfí ausmif;om;rsm;onf vGwfvyfa&;wdkufyGJxJodkY a&muf½SdcJhMuonf/ 1937 ckESpfwGif ausmif;om; oydwf
acgif;aqmif udkEk? ausmif;q&m udkoef;xGef;wdkYonf jrefrmvGwfvyfa&;twGuf taxmuftul&ap&ef e*g;eD
pmtkyftoif;udk xlaxmifcJhonf/ ¤if;toif;rS udkodef;az\ q&mvGef;tw¦KyÜwÅd? udkEk\ qdk½S,fvpf0g'? NrdKUr
q&m[de\
f bd&k pfta&;awmfykH ponfh pmtkyrf sm; qufwu
kd f xkwaf 0cJo
h nf/ ausmif;om;rsm;tzdYk xdpk mayrsm;uvnf;
aemufrS aphaqmfcJhonf/ zdESdyfrIawG? vlrIa&; tqifrajyrIawGvnf; wckNyD;wck MuHKawGUae&onf/ e,fcsJUtpdk;&qefY
usifa&; pdwf"mwft[kefonf ydkí <uvmcJhonf/
1936 ck oydwBf uD;onf e,fcsJUrsm;ESihf trsKd;om;a&;tiftm;pkrsm; tMum; tm;NydKifrw
I ckjzpfNyD; ordik ;f qdik &f m
,SOfNydKif wdk;wufrIwckjzpfonf/ ausmif;om;rsm;tm;vkH; AuotzGJUvufatmufwGif aoG;pnf;nDñGwf pdwfyg0if
pm;pGmjzifh yg0ifvmMuNyD; atmifjrifrIrsm; &½SdcJhonf/ 1936 ck oydwfvSefvdkufonf rSefaomfvnf; ¤if;ausmif;om;
rsm;onf ¤if;wdkY t&nftcsif;rsm;ukd xdef;odrf;EdkifpGrf;ESifh ¤if;wdkY\ tiftm;tajctaeESifh vkyfaqmifcsuf? tusKd;
oufa&mufrIrsm;udk oabmaygufvmMuonf/ ausmif;om;rsm;tm;vHk; tajccHtxufwef; tygt0if yxrOD;qHk;
AuotzGUJ csKyf atmufwiG f pkpnf;rdMujcif;jzpfonf/ Auorsm;tzGUJ \ pdw"f mwfqikd &f mrsm; jrifrh m;vmNyD;? tiftm;rsm;
wdk;csJUvmEdkifonf/ wuúodkvfBuD;onfvnf; trSefw&m;\ tdrfawmf? trSefw&m; wdkufyGJ0if&mae&m jzpfvmonf/
1920 ESifh 1936 ausmif;om; oydwfrsm;aMumifh wuúodkvfausmif;om;rsm;onf ¤if;wdkYpdwfxJrS pnf;pdrfcHcsifaom
om,m ,pfrl;onfh pdwf"mwfrsm;tpm; ¤if;wdkY\ xufjrufaom OD;aESmufjzifh qHk;jzwfí? xkdtcsdefumvESifh
udkufnDaom e,fcsJUqefYusifa&; pdwf"mwfrsm; ajymif;vJcJhonf/
1920 yxrausmif;om;oydwfBuD;onf r&ifhao;aomfvnf; 1936 'kwd,ausmif;om;oydwfBuD;rS ydkí
pnf;½Hk;vmNyD; atmifjrifpGm oydwfvSefEdkifcJhjcif;jzpfonf/ wuorsm;tzGJUonf taemufEdkifiHrS or*¾rsm;uJhodkY
86

udkvdkeDacwfaESmif; - 1935 rS 1936 - e,fcsJYqefhusifa&; vGwfvyfa&;BudK;yrf;rI trsKd;om;a&;toGif
ausmif;om;vTwfawmf zGJUpnf;EdkifcJhonf/ (7) wef;rS (10) wef;xd tajccHausmif;rsm;wGifvnf; or*¾toif;rsm;
ay:xGe;f vmcJah yonf/ ¤if;wdYk pw
d w
f iG v
f nf; awmfveS af &;pdw"f mwfrsm; pdr0hf ifysUH ESYH vmonf/ e,fcsUJ AsL½du
k a&pD ynma&;
pepfudk Ncdrf; ajcmufvmcJhonf/ AuotzGJUacgif;aqmifrsm;onf tvkyform;rsm;? awmifolv,form;rsm;? e,fcsJU
pepfqdk;atmuf 'ku©a&mufaeolrsm;udk aumif;pGmpkpnf;EdkifcJhonf/ Auoacgif;aqmifrsm;onf 'Drdkua&pDtcGifhta&;
rsm; &½Sda&;ESifh vGwfvyfa&;twGuf trsKd;om;a&;vIyf½Sm;rI acgif;aqmifrsm;ESifh wGJzufEdkifcJhonf/ ordkif;pmrsufESmopf
zGifhEdkifcJhonf/

(A) e*g;eDpmtkyt
f oif;tp ausmif;om;u

Source: Unknown

udkEkonf wuúodkvfrSxGufNyD;aemuf 'D;'kwf*sme,fwGif 0ifvkyfavonf/ jrefrmhtvif;
owif;pmudk xkwaf 0cJo
h nf/ udv
k aS zu wnfaxmifco
hJ nf/ The New Burma t*Fvyd o
f wif;pmudk
aeYpOfxkwfrS wywf (3) Budrfxkwftjzpf ajymif;vJxkwfa0cJhonf/ ¤if;owif;pmudk a'gufwmodef;
armifu ydkifonf/
1937 wGif ¤if;owif;pmrsm;onf trsKd;om;a&;BudK;yrf;rI rvHkavmufí udkEk? udkvSaz?
udkodef;azwdkYonf e*g;eDpmtkyftoif;udk wnfaxmifcJhavonf/ udkxGef;at;u aiGaMu;
ulnDaxmufyHh ay;cJhavonf/
1936 oydwftusKd;taeESifh ausmif;om;trsm;pkrSm EdkifiHa&;pmayrsm; avhvm&ef pdwftm;
xufoefvmMuonf/ rmhufpf0g'ESifh vuf0Jpmayrsm; (wuúodkvfwGif r½Sdaom) udk e*g;eDpmtkyftoif;rS
avhvmcGihf &vmMuonf/ udb
k aomif;ESihf udEk w
k Ykd a&;om;aom 0w¬KESihf jyZmwfrsm;udk ausmif;om;trsm;pk tav;xm;
avhvmzwf½IvmMuonf/ ¤if;pmtkyftoif;rS ausmif;om;rsm;\ wdk;wufrIpGrf;&nfudk ay;vmEdkifavonf/

(b) Auorsm;tzGUJ \ r[mAsL[mESihf enf;AsL[m
Auorsm;tzGUJ onf vlwef;pm;cGjJ cm;jcif; r½Sad om e,fcsJUqefYusifa&; ausmif;om;trsm;pk\ tzGUJ jzpfonf/
Auorsm;tzGJUonf trsKd;om;a&;vIyf½Sm;rIudk qefYusifonfhtzGJUrsm;udk ,SOfjydKifwdkufcdkufrnf jzpfonf/
xdYk twl vlrsKd;ESihf bmoma&; cGjJ cm;rIuv
kd nf; &ifqikd w
f u
kd cf u
dk o
f mG ;rnf/ ¤if;qefYusifrrI sm;udk vIy½f mS ;rIrsm;? rdeYf ceG ;f rsm;?
pm½Gufpmwrf;rsm;jzifh qefYusifoGm;rnf/
aemufvufwbufjzifh vlrsKd;EG,frsm;? vlrsKd;pkrsm; AuotzGJUodkY pdwfyg0ifpm;pGm yg0ifvmEdkifa&;twGuf
aumfrwDrsm;wGif yg0ifvmEdkifa&;twGuf tjrJowdBuD;pGm aqmif½GufoGm;rnfjzpfonf/ ¤if;uJhodkY tiftm;awmifhwif;
aom? xufjrufaom t½Sdeft[kefjzifh ausmif;om;rsm;tm;vHk;odkY ysHUESHUpGm pdrfh0ifapNyD; ausmif;om;tm;vHk;udk owif;
odap&ef BudK;yrf;aprnf/
ausmif;om;rsm;tm;vH;k yg0ifvm&ap&ef BudK;yrf;NyD; ryg0ifao;aom ausmif;om;rsm;udv
k nf; tpnf;ta0;
rsm;udk zdwfMum;NyD; wufa&muf&ef BudK;yrf;rnfjzpfonf/
Auorsm;tzGJUESifh tjcm;or*¾tzGJUrsm; tpnf;ta0;rsm;wGifvnf; Auorsm;tzGJU\ atmifjrifrIrsm;udk
wifjyrnf/ tm;upm;ESifh ,Ofaus;rIqdkif&m pnf;a0;yGJrsm;wGifvnf; Auo\ tajctaersm;udk wifjyrnfjzpfonf/
AuotzGUJ onf ausmif;om;trsm;pkqE´ukd av;pm;vdu
k ef mNyD; ausmif;om;tenf;pkqE´ukd tav;xm;um
or*¾cGJrsm;\ qE´ESifh ar;cGef;rsm;udk vsifjrefpGm ajzMum;aqmif½Gufrnf jzpfonf/
AuotzGJUonf 'Drkdua&pDvrf;aMumif;ay:ü tajccHwnfaqmufNyD; ausmif;om;trsm;pkqE´udk vsifjrefpGm
taumiftxnfazmf aqmif½Gufrnfjzpfonf/
tajccHynmESifh wuúodkvfausmif;rsm; tm;vHk;ü ausmif;om;rsm; aeYpOfvIyf½Sm;rIrsm;udk acgif;aqmifae&mü
&½Sdap&ef BudK;yrf;oGm;rnf jzpfonf/
ausmif;om;or*¾cGJ toif;tm;vHk;onf toif;tpnf;ta0;udk yHkrSef usif;yaqG;aEG;NyD; aus;vufrsm;txd
pnf;½H;k a&;qif; aqG;aEG;yGrJ sm; yHrk eS jf yKvky&f rnf jzpfonf/ ¤if;a'orS ausmif;om;rsm; pdwyf g0ifpm;&efEiS hf vIy½f mS ;rIrsm;
yg0ifvmap&ef BudK;yrf;&rnfjzpfonf/
ausmif;om;or*¾tzGUJ cGJ acgif;aqmifrsm;? NrdKUe,f? aus;½Gm acgif;aqmifrsm;taeESihf tvkyt
f rIaqmiftzGUJ \
87

jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif; - atmifxGef;
qHk;jzwfcsufrsm;udk yHkrSefowif;vTmrsm; jzefYcsdí ausmif;rsm;wGif vdkufemap&ef aqmif½Guf&rnf/
or*¾a½G;aumufyGJrsm;udk usif;yNyD; AuonDvmcH qHk;jzwfcsufrsm;udk rvdkufemaom? yg0ifvkyfaqmifrI
r½Sdaom or*¾ tzGJUcGJrsm;udk ta&;,lpdppf&rnf/
Auorsm;tzGJUonf tzGJU0ifwOD;OD;u trsKd;om;a&;vIyf½Sm;rIudk qefYusifvQifaomfvnf;aumif;? or*¾udk
qefYusifvQifaomf vnf;aumif; ¤if;udk vsifjrefpGm pHkprf;ar;jref;í or*¾rS trsm;pkjzifh qHk;jzwfcsufcsum ¤if;udk
or*¾rS xkwfy,fEdkifonf/
-ponfwdkY jzpfonf/

88

udkvdkeDacwfaESmif; - 1935 rS 1936 - e,fcsJYqefhusifa&; vGwfvyfa&;BudK;yrf;rI trsKd;om;a&;toGif

OD;Ek
(1935-36)
Source: Internet

jynfaxmifpktzJGUcsKyf Ouú|? EkdifiHawmf0efBuD;csKyf OD;Ekyif jzpfonf/ ajrmif;jrc½kdif? 0g;c,frNrKdUwGif arG;zGm;NyD;
zGm;ouú&mZfrSm 1907 ck? arv (25) &uf jzpfonf/ 0g;c,frNrKd h t*Fvdyf-jrefrm ESpfbmomoifausmif;?
trsKd;om;ausmif;rsm;wGif ynmoifMum;cJhNyD; &efukefNrKdU NrKdUrwkdif;&if;om; txufwef;ausmif;okdY ajymif;a½TU
ynmoifMum;cJ\
h / (10) wef;pmar;yJu
G dk NrKdUrwkid ;f &if;om; txufwef;ausmif;rS atmifjrifcNhJ yD;? wuúov
dk w
f iG f
ynmqufvufoifMum;cJ\
h / 0dZmÆ bGUJ ukd 1939 ckEpS w
f iG f qGwcf ;l cJo
h nf/
yef;waemfEiS hf ok;H cGNrKdU trsK;d om;txufwef;ausmif;rsm;wGif ausmif;tkyBf uD;tjzpf aqmif½u
G Nf yD;aemuf 193435 wGif Oya'ynmqnf;yl;&ef wuúokdvfokdY jyefvnfa&muf½SdcJh\/ vpfvyfaeaom or*¾Ouú| ae&mwGif
0ifa&muf,OS Nf yKdi&f m tEkid &f ½Scd o
hJ nf/ 1935-36 ckwiG f wuo Ouú|tjzpf a½G;aumufwifajr§mufjcif;cH&onf/
1936 ck ausmif;om;ta&;awmfykH ay:aygufcJhonf/ OD;Ekonf 1936 ck ta&;awmfykHtrSwftom; jzpf\/
1936 ckEpS u
f m; e,fcsUJ orm;wefc;dk xGm;aomESpf jzpfayonf/ e,fcsUJ orm;rsm;onf wkid ;f jynf t½Sio
f ciftjzpfjzifh
b0ifjrifMh uayonf/ t½kt
d aoay;rIonf ¤if;wdYktwGuf om,mrufarmzG,f jzpfvm\/ pum;ajymvQif “SIR”
[laom pum;vH;k ukd xnfah jymrS raemcku
d ?f oabmBuKu
d cf o
hJ nf/ wuúov
dk af usmif;om; wOD;u pmoifcef;wGif
q&mbOD;tm; “SIR” pum;vkH;rokH;? ikH;wdwd ajymojzifh ta&;,ljcif; cH&avonf/
or*¾onf ta&;,lcH&aom ausmif;om;bufrS &yfwnfcJh\/ or*¾Ouú| udkEkESifh wuúokdvfausmif;tkyfBuD;
rpöwmpavmhwkdY tjyeftvSef pma&;cJhMuonf/ ausmif;om;bufrS &yfwnfum pma&;cJhaom or*¾Ouú|ukd
ausmif;rS xkwyf pfvu
dk o
f nf/
wzef tk;d a0r*¾Zif;wGif ygaom “Hell hound at large” [laom aqmif;yg;ESihf ywfoufí wm0efct
H ,f'w
D m
ukdatmifqef; (AkdvfcsKyf) tm; ausmif;xkwfjyefonf/ “Hell hound at large” ]i&JacG;BuD;vGwfaeNyD} [l
aom aqmif;yg;onf wuúokdvftmPmykdifwkdY\*kPfodu©mudk xdckdufonf? aqmif;yg;a&;olukd xkwfazmf&ef
awmif;qko
d nf/ wm0efct
H ,f'w
D m udak tmifqef;u xkwaf zmfrajymojzifh ausmif;xkwjf cif;jzpf\/ aqmif;yg;
a&;olrSm ukdodef;wif ,ck tkd;a0 OD;nKdjr jzpfonf/
or*¾Ouú|ESifh trIaqmifwOD;tm; ausmif;xkwfojzifh? ausmif;om;ta&;awmfykHBuD; ay:aygufvmavonf/
ausmif;om;ta&;awmfykHonf wjynfvkH;okd ysHUESHYcJh\/ wuúodkvfrSpí txufwef;ausmif;rsm;txd oydwf
arSmufcJhMuonf/ or*¾Ouú| ukdEku bDat0dZÆmbGJUukd jyeftyf qE´jycJhonf/ ykvdyf½kH;BuD;a½SUwGif t*Fvdyf
,leD,H*suftvHukd rD;½IdUum qE´jycJhonf/
89

jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif; - atmifxGef;

oydwpf pkH rf;a&;aumfrwDzUGJ jcif;? qmjrbl; acgif;aqmifaom pkpH rf;a&;aumfrwDzUJG jcif;jzifh oydwt
f a&;awmfyu
Hk kd
NyD;jywfapcJo
h nf/ ta&;awmfyo
Hk nf (3) vrQMumcJ\
h / or*¾Ouú| ukEd o
k nf ausmif;om;rsm;\ cspMf unfav;pm;
rIudk cH&onf/ ukBd uD;Ek[í
l xif½mS ;cJí
h ,ckwikd yf if ac:vsuf ½SMd uao;onf/ or*¾Ouú| oufwrf;ukeq
f ;Hk í
wuúov
dk rf S xGuo
f mG ;aomfvnf; or*¾wiG f jyóemay:vmonft
h cg a½SUaqmifajz½Si;f jcif; jyKcJ&h avonf/
ukdEkonf wuúokdvfrS xGufNyD; wkdYArmtpnf;t½kH;okdY 0ifa&mufaqmif½Gufonf/ ppfrjzpfrDu wkdif;jynftm;
ynmay;&mwGif ausmMf um;cJah om e*g;eDpmtkyt
f oif;ukd xlaxmifc\
hJ / t*Fvyd ef ,fcsUJ orm;rsm; zrf;qD;jcif;cH&NyD;?
*syef0ifvmaomtcgrS vGwaf jrmufcahJ vonf/
*syefacwfwiG f tpk;d &tzGYJü Ekid if jH cm;a&;0efBuD;tjzpf wm0efc,
H cl o
hJ nf/ ppftNyD;wGif zqyvtzGYJü 'k-Ouú|tjzpf
aqmif½u
G cf NhJ yD;? Adv
k cf sKyfatmifqef;wkYd usqk;H aomtcg zqyv Ouú|ESihf 0efBuD;csKyf jzpfvmcJah vonf/ 1956
ckepf ZGev
f wGif 0efBuD;csKyf&mxl;rS Ekwx
f u
G cf jhJ yD; 1957 ckEpS rf wfvwGif 0efBuD;csKyf jyefjzpfco
hJ nf/
zqyv uGaJ omtcg oefY½iS ;f zqyv Ouú|tjzpf aqmif½u
G í
f Ekid af wmf0efBuD;csKyfyif jzpfjyefonf/ 1958 ck?
atmufwb
dk mvwGif Akv
d cf sKyfae0if;tm; tpk;d &tmPm vTaJ jymif;ay;cJjh yD;? 1960 ckEpS w
f iG f usi;f yaom taxGaxG
a½G;aumufyBJG uD; jyD;aomtcg Ekid if aH wmf0efBuD;csKyf tjzpfyif jyefv
f nfwifajrmufjcif; cH&jyefavonf/ (td;k a0)

1962 ck? rwfv (2) &ufaeY AdkvfcsKyfBuD;ae0if; OD;aqmiftmPmodrf;csdef txd EdkifiHawmf0efBuD;csKyftjzpf
aqmif½u
G cf o
hJ nf/ Adv
k cf sKyfBuD;ae0if; OD;aqmiftmPmodr;f cJah om awmfveS af &;aumifpt
D pd;k &rS OD;Ektm; 1966
ckEpS f txd xdr;f odr;f xm;cJonf/ 1968 ckEpS f 'DZifbm (2) &ufaeUwGif awmfveS af &;aumifpu
D zJUG aom (33)OD;
jynfwiG ;f nDñw
G af &;tMuHay;tzJUG wGif yg0ifonf/
1969 ckESpf xdkif;EdkifiHodkU xGufvmNyD; ygvDref'Drdkua&pDygwD xlaxmifNyD; rqvtpdk;&tm; vufeufudkif
awmfveS cf o
hJ nf/ 1980 ckEpS ?f Zlvikd v
f (29) &ufwiG f vGwNf idr;f csr;f omcGijhf zifh jrefrmEdik if o
H Ykd jyefomG ;cJo
h nf/
1988 ckEpS ?f pufwifbm (9) &ufaeY 8888 vIy½f mS ;rIumtwGi;f Mum;jzwftpd;k &zGYJ pnf;NyD; Edik if aH wmf0efBuD;csKyf
tjzpf aMunmonf/ OD;atmifBuD;ESifh a':atmifqef;pkMunfwdkYtm; ¤if;Mum;jzwftpdk;&wGif yg0if&ef
zdwaf c:cJah omfvnf; uefYuu
G cf í
hJ Mum;jzwftpd;k &zJYG pnf;rI ratmifjrifcahJ y/
1988 pufwifbm (18) &uf ppfwyf (e0w) rS tmPmodr;f tNyD; Edik if aH &;ygwDrsm; zJYGciG ahf y;aomtcg tapmqH;k
wnfaxmifonfh 'Dru
kd a&pDEiS Nhf ird ;f csr;f a&;tzJYGcsKyu
f kd OD;pD;wnfaxmifonf/ Mum;jzwftpd;k &zJYGpnf;rIukd jzwford ;f &ef
jiif;qefojzifh OD;Ektm; e0wtpdk;&rS 1989 ckESpf? 'DZifbmv (29) &ufaeYwGif tus,fcsKyfcs zrf;qD;cJhonf/
1992 ckEpS ?f {NyDv (23) &ufaeYwiG f aetdrt
f us,fcsKyfrS jyefvw
T af y;cJo
h nf/
1995 ck? azazmf0g&Dv (14) &ufaeUwGif &efuek Nf rdKUü uG,v
f eG o
f nf/
rSwfcsuf- pmvHk;tapmif;ESifh azmfjycsufrsm;onf aemufqHk;vuf½Sd tajctaetxd qufvufpkaqmif; a&;om;azmfjyxm;jcif;jzpfonf/
tifwmeuf- 0DuDyD'D,m^ {&m0wDtifwmeufpmrsufESm^ 'DADbDowif;Xme/ OD;Ek\ ig;ESpf&moDArmjynf? 1941-45?
{&m0wDpmaywdkuf/ wyfrawmfordkif;-yÍörwJG? 1962-1974? pm-108/

90

udkvdkeDacwfaESmif; - 1935 rS 1936 - e,fcsJYqefhusifa&; vGwfvyfa&;BudK;yrf;rI trsKd;om;a&;toGif

1936 'kw,
d ausmif;om;oydwu
f mv ausmif;om;acgi;f aqmifrsm;
0JrS,m- udn
k Kd jr? udEk k (vufnK§d ;axmifí pum;ajymaeol)? udx
k eG ;f wif? trnfrod? udx
k eG ;f tH?k udb
k at;? udt
k ek ;f ? trnfrod? udn
k Kd xeG ;f
pm;yJw
G zufjcrf;wGif xdik af eolrsm; (0Jr,
S m)- udck ifarmifuav;? trnfrod? udv
k aS z (Adv
k v
f uFsm)

oydwaf rSmufaumifp0D if udv
k aS z
(AdkvfvusFm)

oydwaf rSmufaumifp0D if rtrm
(vlxak ':trm)

oydwaf rSmufaumifp0D if udt
k ek ;f
(aemif oHtrwfBu;D )

udck ifarmifuav;
(aemif 0efBu;D Adv
k cf ifarmifuav;)

Source: Unknown; Portraits (DTY); Unknown;
ASO's 50 Years; Portraits (DTY); Portraits (DTY);

oydwaf rSmufaumifpD twGi;f a&;rSL;
udak usmNf ird ;f (aemif 0efBu;D )

91

jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif; - atmifxGef;

1935-36 td;k a0r*¾Zif;aumfrwD tzJ0YG ifrsm;? a½Sw
Y ef; (0J) rS 'kw,
d - wm0efct
H ,f'w
D m udak tmifqef;? wwd,- udo
k ed ;f wif (td;k a0OD;ndKjr)

Source: Unknown

1935-36 ckEpS f td;k a0r*¾Zif; wm0efct
H ,f'w
D m udak tmifqef;

92

1936 ck wuúov
kd o
f ydwaf rSmufaumifp0D ifrsm;

udkvdkeDacwfaESmif; - 1935 rS 1936 - e,fcsJYqefhusifa&; vGwfvyfa&;BudK;yrf;rI trsKd;om;a&;toGif

wDaubGef;

udkxGef;wif

OD;xGe;f ndK

udak tmifoed ;f

udpk ;kd armif

rpöwmAm;rm;

udkbquf

udktkef;

udkvSarmif

udkoD[ef

udkbat;

Source: Unknown

udkñGefh

93

jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif; - atmifxGef;

a½Tw*d o
kH ydwpf cef;rS tvSLcHxu
G v
f maom ausmif;om;rsm;

a½Tw*d o
kH ydwpf cef;½Icif;rsm;

xrif;csuw
f m0ef,&l aom td;k olBu;D tzJYG

bk&;ay:ü awG&Y aom oydwaf usmif;olrsm;

armfvNrKd iZf &yfü aumfzaD omufcsed f

Source: Unknown

94

a½Tw*d kH awmifbufapmif;wef;½Sd wuúov
kd o
f ydwpf cef;jzpfaom
armfvNrKd iZf &yfa½Y w
S iG f awG&Y aom ausmif;om;rsm;
aY½w
S ef;- udak usmNf ird ;f ? udn
k Kd jr? udñ
k eG ?hf
aemufwef;- udo
k mvS? udck ifarmifuav;? udx
k eG ;f tH?k trnfrod

udkvdkeDacwfaESmif; - 1935 rS 1936 - e,fcsJYqefhusifa&; vGwfvyfa&;BudK;yrf;rI trsKd;om;a&;toGif

1936 ck wuúov
kd f oydwaf rSmuf&mwGif ausmif;ol? ausmif;om;rsm; &efuek Nf rKd w
Y iG ;f ü pDwef;vSnv
Uf nfMuonf
a½Sq
Y ;kH wef; vuf0b
J ufrS yxr trsK;d orD;- rcifjr (aemif ynma&;uxdu)? 'kw,
d - rtH;k (aemif ygVd ygarmu©? rEåav;)
1936 ckEpS ?f arv (10) &ufaehnwGif a½Tw*d &kH ifjyifay:ü ausmif;ol? ausmif;om;rsm; oydwv
f eS t
f pnf;ta0;usi;f yaeyHk

Source: Unknown; YU History (Diamond Jubilee)

95

jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif; - atmifxGef;

Source: RU History (Diamond Jubilee)

96

1936 ck &efuek w
f uúov
kd f
'kw,
d ausmif;oydwf
o½kyaf zmfumwGe;f

udkvdkeDacwfaESmif; - 1935 rS 1936 - e,fcsJYqefhusifa&; vGwfvyfa&;BudK;yrf;rI trsKd;om;a&;toGif

Source: RU History (Diamond Jubilee)

1936 ck 'kw,
d ausmif;oydwf Ny;D aemuf wuúov
kd rf *¾Zif;ü azmfjycJah om umwGe;f rsm;

97

jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif; - atmifxGef;

tcef; (7)
udv
k ekd aD cwfaESmif;ydik ;f
e,fcsUJ qefu
Y siaf &; vGwv
f yfa&;BuKd ;yrf;rI trsK;d om;a&;toGif
ausmif;om;vIy&f mS ;rIordik ;f
(1937 rS 1938)

(u) &Srf;-Arm aoG;pnf;a&;tp wuo

Source: Portrait (DTY)

aoG;cGJtkyfcsKyfjcif;onf e,fcsJUwkdY\ enf;y&d,m,fjzpfonf/ ½Srf;? ucsif?
u&if? csif; paom awmifay:om;rsm;ESifh Armrsm;ukd tquftqHrsm;pGm r½Sd&efESifh
wOD;ESiw
hf OD; r,kMH unf&ef NAdwo
d Qu aoG;cGx
J m;onf/ ½Sr;f jynfoYdk ArmjynfrS wkd;
wufaom EkdifiHa&;orm;rsm; 0ifcGifhrjyK/ ref;Oypmaumvdyfor*¾ ausmif;om;
acgif;aqmif ukAd [de;f ESihf ukad X;NrdKif ('*kew
f m&m) wkYd ½Sr;f jynfe,f odENDé rdKUokYdtvnf
vm&m yk'fr (10) jzifh csufcsif;e,fESif vTwfcJhonf/ wuúodkvf a&muf½Sdaeaom
½Srf;ausmif;om;rsm;ukd ygarmu© a'gufwmyD;aumuf tkyfcsKyfaom? tif;0ausmif;
aqmifwGifom aexkdifapí wuúokdvfausmif;om;rsm;or*¾okdY 0ifcGifhrjyKay? ½Srf;
ausmif;om;rsm; aexkid q
f ufqrH w
I Ydkudk ausmif;tkyBf uD;u ½Sr;f jynftpk;d &okYd vQKUd 0Suf
tpD&ifcHpmrsm; tcsdefrSefrSef ay;ykdY&avonf/
]&efuek w
f uúov
dk f ½Sr;f jynfausmif;om;toif;} ukd 1936 ckEpS w
f iG f wnfaxmif
cJah yonf/ 1936 ausmif;om;oydwBf uD;wGif ukw
d if{ tygt0if ½Sr;f ausmif;om;t
ukw
d if{ (OD;wifat;- ½Sr;f jynf)
oif; taeESifh wuoESifh qufoG,fjcif; r½Sdao;ay/ ½Srf;jynfausmif;om;toif;
Ouú|u wuoukd qlyla&;orm;tjzpf pGyfpGJykwfcwfvsuf owif;pmwGif aqmif;yg;a&;avonf/ olukd,fwkdifyif
pdwyf gí a&;oavm? tyrSí
D a&;oavm rod&ay/ xkt
d csdef wuoOuú| uk&d m½Spu
f ½Sr;f jynf ausmif;om;Ouú|onf
]rdrd\ aESmifBudK;ukd wyfrufqJ} ½Sdao;aMumif; jyefvnfacsya&;om;avonf/
ukw
d if{onf ukAd [de;f ? ukAd aqG? ukad X;NrdKifwYdk EiS hf &if;ES;D vmNyD; aEG&moDausmif;ydw&f ufrsm;wGif ½Sr;f jynfoYdk
jyefa&mufaomtcg pmMunfw
h u
dk ?f pmzwftoif;rsm; wnfaxmifziG v
hf pS af yonf/ a<u;aMumfot
H aejzifh e*g;eDocD si;f ukd
twk,í
l tvif;a&mifwefc;dk jzifh trsK;d *kPw
f ufaprnf[al om aqmify'k Ef iS t
hf nD tvif;a&mifpmMunfw
h u
dk rf sm; zGiv
hf pS í
f
98

udkvdkeDacwfaESmif; - 1937 rS 1938 - e,fcsJYqefhusifa&; vGwfvyfa&;BudK;yrf;rI trsKd;om;a&;toGif
pmtkyaf qG;aEG;yGrJ sm;? pum;&nfvyk rJG sm;? usbrf;pum;ajymyGrJ sm; ? pmayNydKifyrJG sm;? a[majymyGrJ sm; jyKvkyo
f nf/ xkt
d csed u
f
e*g;eDpmtkyfrsm;udk pmMunfhwkdufwGif ykvdyfrsm;u vma&muf½SmazG&m pmMunfhwkdufrSL;rsm;onf e*g;eDpmtkyfrsm;ukd
vG,t
f dwfxx
J nfí
h pufb;D jzifh vpfc&hJ onf/ xkt
d csdeu
f ½Sr;f jynfwiG f e*g;eDpmtkyu
f dk vGwv
f yfpmG zwfciG rhf &aom
tcsed jf zpfonf/ 1939 'kw,
d urÇmppfjzpfaomtcg ½Sr;f jynfwiG f Ekid if aH &;toif;tzGUJ r½Sad o;ay/ wuúov
dk af usmif;om;
wpkom wuo acgif;aqmifrsm;ESifh vnf;aumif;? wuorS wqifh wkdYArmtpnf;t½kH; acgif;aqmifrsm;ESifh vnf;
aumif; &if;ESD;rI½SdNyD; ckdifjrJpGm qufoG,frI½Sdaeavonf/ ppfNyD;*syefrsm; usqkH;í r[mrdwfrsm; jyef0ifvmaomtcg
*syefacwf wGif vGwv
f yfpmG pnf;½k;H cGi&hf aom tm½Svil ,frS acgif;aqmifrsm;onf ocifp;dk ? ocifoef;xGe;f ? OD;ode;f azjrif?h
ukAd [de;f wdYk oifMum;ay;aom EdkifiHa&;oifwef;okdY vQKdU0SufpGm wufa&mufoifMum;cGifh &avonf/ ¤if;wkdYonf
zqyvESifh tquftoG,f,l ½Srf;? Arm aoG;pnf;a&;ESifh e,fcsJUvufatmufrS vGwfvyfa&; &,la&;ukd pDpOfnd§EIdif;NyD;
]½Srf;jynf jynfolYvGwfvyfa&;tzGJY} ukd w&m;0if yGifhvif;pGm xlaxmifNyD; EkdifiHa&;ukd pwif vkyfaqmifcJhMuonf/
þokdY 1936 wuúokdvf ½Srf;ausmif;om;tcsKdU tpjyKí pcJhaom aoG;pnf;rIvkyfief;rsm; tusKd;aMumifh
1947 azazmf0g&Dv? (12) &uf ½Srf;jynfe,f yifvkHNrdKUü ]yifvkHpmcsKyfBuD;} ukd csKyfqkdEkdifcJhayonf/

(c) 1936-37 AuoESihf wuo trIaqmiftzJUG
The working committee of the All Burma Students' Union (Auo)
The first working committee 1937-38 ( 1936 May to 1937 April)
1/ ukd&m½Spf
&efukefwuúokdvf (&efukef)
Ouú|
2/ ukdñGefY
&efukefwuúokdvf (ppfukdif;)
twGif;a&;rSL;
3/ Mr. T. K. Boon
&efukefwuúokdvf (rEÅav;)
aiGxdef;
4/ ukdxGef;tkH
&efukefwuúokdvf (rEÅav;)
trIaqmif
5/ ukdausmfNidrf;
&efukefwuúokdvf (uom)
arrS pufwifbmtxd
6/ ukdatmifausmf
&efukefwuúokdvf (ykodrf)
7/ ukdbpH
&efukefwuúokdvf (ppfawG)
8/ ukdtkef;
&efukefwuúokdvf (awmifil)
arrSpufwifbmtxd
9/ ukdatmifqef;
&efukefwuúokdvf (ewfarmuf)
10/ ukdvSarmif
*syfqifaumvdyf
11/ ukdA[def;
ref;Oypmaumvdyf (rEÅav;)
12/ ukdausmfjrifh
&efukefwuúokdvf ( &efukef)
(pufwifbmrS {NyD)
13/ ukdvSa½T
&efukefwuúokdvf (zsmykH)
(pufwifbmrS {NyD)
14/ ukdoD[ef
&efukefwuúokdvf (aygif;wnf)
(pufwifbmrS rwf)
15/ ukdcifarmifwif
ref;Oypmaumvdyf (rEÅav;)
(rwfrS {NyD)
1936-37 wuo trIaqmiftzGJY
1/ ukd&m½Spf
Ouú|
2/ ukdatmifqef;
'k-Ouú|
3/ ukdvSa½T
twGif;a&;rSL;
4/ ukdndKxGef;
tkd;a0r*¾Zif; wm0efcH
5/ ukdodef;wif
pmMunfhwkdufrSL;
6/ rpöwmwDaubGef;
aiGxdef;
7/ ukdndKjr
t,f'Dwm vlxkqufqHa&; owif;Xme
8/ ukd0if;armif
Indoor Games Officer
9/ ukdcifarmifa*;vf
twGif;a&;rSL;
10/ Mr. Varma
Editor, Union News
11/ ukdwifarmifMuD;
Ouú|? vlrIqufqHa&; aumfrwDcGJ
99

jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif; - atmifxGef;
12/ ukdwif
pma&; wkdYjzpfonf/
uk&d m½Spo
f nf or*¾ (2) ckpvkH;\ Ouú|jzpfvmNyD;? ukdatmifqef; wuo twGif;a&;rSL; jzpfvmayonf/
¤if;wkdYonf ,leDAmpwDtufOya' jyifqifa&;vkyfief;ukd tvsiftjref jyifqifMu&ef vIHYaqmfcJhMuonf/ aESmifhaES;ae
aom jrbl;aumfrwD aqmif½Gufcsufrsm; vsifjrefvmap&ef wGef;tm;ay;cJhonf/ 1936 oydwfESpfywfvnfaeYwGif
ausmif;om;rsm; xkt
d pD&ifcpH m jyifqifrI vsifjref&ef qE´jycJo
h nf/ ukad tmifqef;ESihf uk&d m½Spo
f nf a'gufwmbarmfEiS hf
awGUqkHí jrbl;aumfrwD tpD&ifcHpm vsifjrefap&ef wGef;tm;ay;cJhonf/

Source: Unknown

1937-38 wuo trIaqmiftzGJY ? (0JrS pía&aomf) 'kwd,- udkvSa½T? wwd,- udkatmifqef; (abmifcyfxm;)? pwkw¦- Ouú| udk&m½Spf

(*) twGi;f pnf; ( Inner Circle)
1935 ckESpf aemufykdif;wGif ausmif;om;acgif;aqmifrsm;onf wuúokdvftmPmykdifrsm;ukd atmifjrifpGm
wGef;vSefNyD;aemuf e,fcsJUqefYusifa&; vrf;aMumif;ay:okdY a&muf½Sdvmonf/ ukdEk? ukdxGef;tkH? ukdvSazwkdYonf
wuúokdvfokdY jyefrwufMuawmhacs/ ¤if;wkdYonf oydwf\ twGif;pnf;xJü yg0ifcJholrsm;jzpfonf/ AuotzGJU
jzpfay:a&;twGuf wuf<upGm yg0ifaqmif½GufcJhNyD; ¤if;AuotzGJUukd wkdYArmtpnf;t½kH;ESifh qufoG,frIrsm; jyKvkyf
ay;cJhonf/ Auoacgif;aqmifrsm;ESihf ukEd k? ukx
d eG ;f tkH? ukad usmfNidr;f wkYd u qufo,
G af y;cJo
h nf/ ukEd w
k Ydk twGi;f pnf;
tkypf o
k nf AuozGUJ pnf;&mwGif ryg0ifawmhacs/ ¤if;wkYd onf Auo tpnf;ta0;rsm; usi;f y&ef tMuHay;jcif;? ausmif;
om;rsm;twGuf ta&;wBuD;udpörsm; aqmif½Gufay;jcif;? or*¾Ouú|rsm; (AuoESSifh wuo) taeESifh ¤if;wkdYESifh
wkdifyifNyD;rS qkH;jzwfcsufcsjcif; ponfh AuotzGJU\ vQKdU0SuftwGif;pnf;ü vTrf;rkd;&,lcJhonf/ ¤if;twGif;pnf;rS
wcsKdUonf wuúokdvfwGif wufa&mufaeNyD; wcsKdUonf &efukefNrdKUüaexkdifum vQKdU0Suf tpnf;ta0; usif;y&efESifh
ta&;MuD;udpörsm; vsifjrefpGm aqmif½Guf&ef csdwfqufxm;onf/
¤if;vQKUd 0Sut
f zGUJ onf 1930 ref;Oypmaumvdyrf S pwifcNhJ yD;? trsKd;om;0HomEka&; pdw0f ifpm;aom ausmif;om;
rsm;ESifh csdwfqufxm;onf/ ¤if;tzGJU0ifrsm;onf 1936 ausmif;om;oydwf jzpfyGm;aomtcg t"duacgif;aqmif
rsm;tjzpf yg0ifcNhJ yD; oydwaf umifp\
D tvkyu
f pd rö sm;ukd vkyaf qmifcMhJ uonf/ oydwaf rSmufausmif;om;rsm;? or*¾
tzGJU0ifrsm;? oydwfarSmuf aumifpD0ifwcsKdU rodMuacs/
oydwNf yD;onfh aemufEpS rf sm;wGif ¤if;tzGUJ onf AuoESihf wuo Ouú|? trIaqmifrsm; a½G;cs,fay;cJo
h nf/
trsKd;om;a&; trSefw&m;ESifh ausmif;om;tusKd;twGuf ckdifrmpGm &yfwnfEdkifrIukd pOf;pm;a½G;cs,fcJhonf/

(C) or*¾rsm; (Auo? wuo) ESihf wkAYd rmtpnf;t½k;H qufo,
G rf I
1937 wGif ukdEkonf 'D;'kwf*sme,fodkY a&muf½SdvmNyD; ¤if;rodbJESifh abbD,ef twGif;a&;rSL; jzpfcJhonf/
OD;apm\vufcsuf jzpfonf/ ukdvSazonf umvuwÅm;rS jyefa&mufvmNyD; jrefrmhtvif;owif;pmudk ulnDcJhonf/
100

udkvdkeDacwfaESmif; - 1937 rS 1938 - e,fcsJYqefhusifa&; vGwfvyfa&;BudK;yrf;rI trsKd;om;a&;toGif
udo
k ed ;f azonfvnf; umvuwåm;rS jyefa&mufvmNyD; ausmif;om;acgif;aqmifrsm;ESihf wkYd Armtpnf;t½k;H udk qufo,
G f
ay;cJo
h nf/ xkEd pS w
f iG f ukv
d aS ½T (ukv
d aS znD) onf wuo twGi;f a&;rSL; jzpfvmNyD;? ukAd [de;f onf ref;Oypmaumvdyrf S
&efukefwuúodkvfokdY a&muf½Sdvmonf/
ukAd [de;f onf ocifoef;xGe;f \ enf;ñTerf u
I dk cH,cl o
hJ nf/ ocifp;dk ESihf ocifoef;xGe;f \ rmhupf f bmomjyef
rsm;ukd ausmif;om;rsm; zwf½IvmMuonf/ ausmif;om;acgif;aqmifrsm;onf wkdYArmtpnf;t½kH;vIyf½Sm;rIukd tm;us
vmMuonf/ yk*¾dKvfa&;t& ausmif;om;acgif;aqmifrsm;ESifh wkdYArmtpnf;t½kH;wkdY qufqHrI½SdcJhonf/ 1935-36
wGif ocifxdef0if;ESifh ukdxGef;tkHwkdY pwif qufoG,frdcsdefrS pí wkdYArmtpnf;t½kH;ESifh wuo qufoG,frdavonf/
ukdxGef;tkHonf or*¾a½G;aumufyGJü yg0if,SOfjydKifcJhonf/ ocifESifh ausmif;om;rsm; twGif;pnf; tpnf;ta0;ü
ukdEk? ukdatmifqef;? ukdodef;az? ukdvSazrS vGJí rnfolrQ rwufa&mufcJhay/ ausmif;om;acgif;aqmifrsm;onf
wkYd Armtpnf;t½k;H rSwqifh qk½d ,
S v
f pfpmayrsm; avhvmcJNh yD; trsKd;om;a&;tay: tajccHonfh tkid ,
f mvefawmfveS af &;
(qifzdef;) tzGJUtaMumif; avhvmcJhMuonf/

(i) 'kw,
d tBurd f AuonDvmcH
1936 ck ausmif;om;oydww
f iG f udAk [de;f onf ¤if;\ BudK;yrf;rIEiS hf vky&f nfuikd &f nfrsm;aMumifh xif½Sm;vm
ayonf/ 1936 ckwGif Arm[kokH;í 1937 ck tpydkif;ü jrefrm? aemufydkif; 1938 ck aemufydkif;rSpí 1962 cktxd Arm
[kac:onfh ArmEdik if v
H ;Hk qdik &f mausmif;om;rsm;uGezf &ifu
h kd rEÅav;wGif usi;f yonft
h cg udAk [de;f onf {nfch aH &; aumfrwD
Ouú| jzpfvmonf/
(i-1) ukdA[def;rS ukdpdefckdokdh ay;ykdhaompm

'kwd,tBudrf
jrefrmEkdifiHvkH;qkdif&mausmif;om;rsm;uGefz&ifU{nUfcHaumfrwD

pmeHygwfA[kdtrsKd;om;ausmif;? rEÅav;NrdKU
aeYpGJ- 31-3-37
rdwfaqGMuD; ukdpdefckdcifAsm;
ay;pmukd &½Sdygonf/ rdwfaqGMuD;wkdY NrdKUrSukd,fpm;vS,fwOD; apvTwfrnf[kod&ojzifh 0rf;ajrmufyg\/
uGefz&ifhtusdK;taMumif;ESifh ywfoufí {nhfcHaumfrwD\ aMunmpmwrf;ukd yl;wGJxnfhvkdufyg\/ uGefz&ifh
tpDtpOfrsm;ukdvnf; owif;pmwkdufrsm;okdY ykdYxm;ojzifh rdwfaqGBuD;wkdY rMumrD awGUjrifMuygvdrfhrnf/
þpmESifhtwl uGefz&ifh{nfhcHaumfrwD\ aMunmpmwrf;rsm;ukdvnf; wifydkYvkdufygonf/ pdwfxufoefaom
rsKd;cspfausmif;om; vli,ftaygif;wkdYxH a&mufatmif a0iSay;apvkdygonf/ þokdYar;jref;ojzifh aus;Zl;wif
ygaMumif;/

A[def;
{nfUcHaumfrwD cs,f,mrif

101

jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif; - atmifxGef;
(i-2) ukdatmifqef;rS ukdpdefckdodkhay;pm

jrefrmEkdifiHvkH;qkdif&mausmif;om;rsm;or*¾toif;
ALL BURMA STUDENTS UNION

wuúokdvf0if;
eHygwf --------------&efukefNrdKU-------------

UNIVERSITY ESTATE
No. ---------------Rangoon-------1937

tpD&ifcHygonf ukdpdefckdcifAsm;
ay;ykdYaompmukd &yg\/ rEÅav;uGefz&ifhodkY ukd,fpm;vS,fvTwfonf Mum;&í 0rf;omyg\/
rD;&xm;bufrS rEÅav;vmvQif toGm;tjyef rkdif (100) txuf a0;aomc&D;twGuf 1ƒ tcrQom
ay;&ygrnf/ Oyrm 0g;c,frrS rEÅav;okdY rkdif (150) a0;onf qkdygpkdY? xkdc&D;toGm;tjyef ½kd;½kd;twGuf 4d^usvQif oufomcGifh&&ef ½kHykdifxHajymvQif 3d^- rQom ay;&ygrnf/ xkdoufomcGifhukd rwfv (23) &ufaeYrSpí
arv (22) &uf txd &Ekdifygonf/ rkdif (100) ESifh (100) xufatmufusaom c&D;twGufum; rkdif (101) c&D;
twGuf usoifhonf pm;p&dwf 1ƒ vkd&ygrnf/ Oyrm 0g;c,frrS rEÅav;okdY rkdif (100) odkYr[kwf rkdif (90) om
a0;onfqkdMuygpkdY? ½kd;½kd;twkdif; toGm;tjyef pm;p&dwf 3d^- usvQif? rkdif (101) c&D;twGuf toGm;tjyef
p&dwfum; 3d^- 4d^- us\/ þokdYjzpfvQif xkdrkdif (100) okdYr[kwf (90) oma0;onfh c&D;toGm;tjyeftwGuf
oufomcGifh&vQif 3d 4J \ 1ƒ om ay;&ygrnf/ okdYjzpfí tp 2d 7J om usygrnf/ wenf;tm;jzifhqdkvQif rkdif
(100) xufyo
dk nfh toGm;tjyef c&D;twGuf ½k;d ½k;d ay;&rnfh tp\ 3^4 omay;&í rdik w
f &mESihf w&mxufenf;aom
c&D;toGm;tjyeftwGuf rdkif 101 toGm;tjyefEIef;\ 3^4 om ay;&ygrnf/ odkYjzpfí rdkifw&mxufydkaom c&D;
twGuf oufomcGifh&ygonf/ xkdxufenf;aom c&D;twGuf oufomcGifhrsm;pGm r&/ Tikcet rsm;udk tp
c&D;puyJ Return Ticket yg ygonfh vufrSwfrsm;ukd 0,f&ygvdrfhrnf/
rD;oabFmESifh rEÅav;rS vmvQif toGm;tjyef c&D;p&dwf\ 3^4 avsmhygvdrfhrnf/ Oyrm- 0g;c,frrS
rEÅav;okYd toGm;tjyef rkdif (300) ½Sdí p&dwfNyD; ½kd;½kd;twkdif;usvQif 6^-omay;&ygrnf/ okdYaomf yxrqkH;
aiG 9d^- ½k;kd ½k;d twdik ;f oabFmvufrw
S cf o
H nft
h cg ay;&ygvdrrhf nf/ onfvadk iGay;onft
h aMumif; ajypmjzwfyidk ;f ukd
awmif;yg/ ¤if;jzwfyidk ;f ESiw
hf uG rdwaf qG\ vdypf mtjynft
h pkyH g uRefawmfxYdk xH ykYd vu
dk yf g/ xkt
d cg uRefawmfwYdk u
{&m0wDrD;oabFmukrÜPD refae*smxH axmufcHpma&;vkdufvQif cifAsm;ay;NyD;rS 3d^- ukd jyefí &ygvdrfhrnf/
uGefz&ifhtaMumif;odvkdvQif rEÅav;odkY pkHprf;yg/ ,cktcg ukd,fpm;vS,frsm;vTwfrnfh or*¾toif;
rsm;rSm (30) cefY½Sdí rnfa½GUrnfrQ vTwfrnfrodao;/ xkdYjyif or*¾toif;r[kwfaom tjcm;e,frsm;rS ukd,fpm;
vS,f vTwfrnf Mum;od&ygonf/ xkdaMumifh ausmif;om;aygif;rnfrQudk ukd,fpm;vS,fykdYrnf wyftyfaocsm
rajymEkdifao;yg/
yl;wGJyg uGefz&ihfEId;aqmfpm ykdYvkdufygonf

atmifqef;

102

udkvdkeDacwfaESmif; - 1937 rS 1938 - e,fcsJYqefhusifa&; vGwfvyfa&;BudK;yrf;rI trsKd;om;a&;toGif
(i-3) ukdatmifqef;rS ukdpdefckdxHay;pm

jrefrmEkdifiHvkH;qkdif&mausmif;om;rsm;or*¾toif;
ALL BURMA STUDENTS UNION

wuúokdvf0if;
eHygwf --------------&efukefNrdKU-------------

UNIVERSITY ESTATE
No. ---------------Rangoon-------1937

tpD&ifcHygonf ukdpdefckdcifAsm;ay;ykdYvkdufaompmukd &½Sdyg\/ rdwfaqGonf rGwfpvifvlrsKd;jzpfaomfvnf; rsKd;cspfpdwf½dSonfukd od&í
txl;0rf;omyg\/ pifppfaomfum; bmomw&m;ESifh rsKd;cspfpdwfonf tvsOf;roufqkdifaom aiGtodef;toef;
<u,f0í bk&m;wum? ausmif;wum trnfcHvsuf½Sdaom {&mrvlMuD;rsm;yif jzpfvifhupm; rsKd;cspfpdwfr½Sdu
(0g) ukd,faumif;MuHu tcsD;ESD;omwnf;/ rdwfaqGor*¾toif; wnfaxmifcsifonf[k ajymojzifh 0rf;omyg\/
1/ rnfonfhtvkyfrqkd vlenf;onfrsm;onfrSm y"mer[kwf? vlig;a,muf½SdvQif ig;a,mufESifhyif
t&ifpí wnfaxmifyg tvkyfusepGm vkyfjyyg? aemufvlBudKufrsm;vmrnf/
2/ toif;wnfaxmifaomtcg 0g;c,frausmif;om;rsm;toif;[k trnfwyfí wnfaxmifyg/
tjcm;ausmif;rsm;½Sv
d Qif t*Fvyd pf moifausmif;[kwo
f nfjzpfap r[kwo
f nfjzpfap ¤if;ausmif;rsm;rS pdw½f dS
olrsm;ESifh wkdifyifí toif;wnfaxmifyg/ toif;rSm EkdifiHa&;0ifa&mufpGufzuf&ef r[kwf/ ausmif;om;rsm;?
vli,frsm;\ usef;rma&;? ynma&;? ukd,fusifhw&m; aumif;rGefa&; twGufom jzpfonf/ b,fygwDudkrS tm;
ray;ESifh b,fygwDukdrS rcsD;ajrmufESifh trsKd;om;aeY? OD;0dpm&aeYrsm;wGifum; atmifyGJrsm;usif;yEkdifonf/ usif;y
&efvnf; wkdufwGef;onf/ pum;ajyma[myGJ? pum;tacstwifyGJ? owif;pmr*¾Zif;rsm;ukd zwfjcif;? pmtkyfaumif;
rsm;pkaqmif;í zwfjcif;? acRwma&; ausmif;om;rsm; aiGpk&aomtavhtx jzpfapjcif;? wkdif;&if;jzpftxnfrsm;
0wfqifa&;? awma'oA[kow
k jzpfz,
G &f m t&yfrsm;ukd oGm;a&muf Munf½h rI w
S o
f m;jcif; tp½So
d nhf vkyif ef;rsm;ukd
aiGtiftm;½Sdovkd Munfhvkyf? aiG&atmif toif;qufaMu;aiGukd trsm;oabmwlEIef;twkdif; aumufcHyg/ t
oif;paxmif&eftwGuf tcsKdUMoZm½Sdaom vlMuD;rsm;ESifhwkdifyifí bk&m;ausmif;Z&yf wckckrSmjzpfap tpnf;ta0;
vkyf/ ¤if;tpnf;ta0;wGif ausmif;om;rsm;ukdom trIaqmiftjzpf wifajr§mufí tvkyfqufvkyfygav/ tvkyf
vkyf&eftwGuf t*Fvdyfvkd a&;xm;aom pnf;rsOf;Oya'ukd ykdYvkdufygonf/ tu,fí em;rvnfvQif rdwfaqGwkdY
NrdKUwGif½Sdaom em;vnfolwOD;OD;tm; ar;jref;yg/ toif;axmifí b,folrS tjypfr&ekdif/
,cktcg rdwfaqGwkdYrSmvnf; pmar;yGJeD;vmNyDjzpfí pmar;yGJatmif&efvnf; BudK;pm;Muyg/ atmifygap
[lívnf; qkawmif;onf/

atmifqef;

103

jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif; - atmifxGef;
(i-4) ukdjrpdefokdh ukdatmifqef;rSay;pm
jrefrmEkdifiHvkH;qkdif&mausmif;om;rsm;or*¾toif;
ALL BURMA STUDENTS UNION

wuúokdvf0if;
eHygwf --------------&efukefNrdKU-------------

UNIVERSITY ESTATE
No. ---------------Rangoon, 27th March, 1937

My Dear Ko Mya Sein,
I do not know whether you passed your examination or not. I saw one name which
resembles yours and I hope it is your and no other. In that case, please accept my hearty
congratulation.
I received your letter. Mr. Raschiad also told me that the date you proposed would suit
him. So he and perhaps Ko Kyaw Myint will visit Bassein and they will inform you later of his
coming. As for me I must go back home and do propaganda in the Magwe District. But I do hope
that you and the Bassein Studnet's Union will do all that lies in your power to accord a cordial
welcome to Mr. Raschiad.
With best wishes from,
Yours Sincerely,
Aung San

(i-5) ukdjrpdefokdh ukdatmifqef;ay;pm
jrefrmEkdifiHvkH;qkdif&mausmif;om;rsm;or*¾toif;
ALL BURMA STUDENT'S UNION

wuúokdvf0if;
eHygwf --------------&efukefNrdKU ------------

UNIVERSITY ESTATE
No. ---------------Rangoon, 20th March, 1937

Dear Ko Mya Sein,
Mr. Raschiad and I propose to visit Bassein about next Sunday. We intend to leave here in
the evening of coming Friday (i.e. 26th March) and halt at Myaung Mya for one day (i.e. Saturday)
and start for your town on the next day. Will this arrangement suit the conveience of the students
of your town? Please reply to us after having consulted with the president or any other member of
the Bassein School's Union. Please reply to me according to this address 20, Parek Lane, Rangoon.

Ko Mya Sein
C/O U Gone Man
Bassein

104

With Kind Regards
Your Sincerely,
Aung San

udkvdkeDacwfaESmif; - 1937 rS 1938 - e,fcsJYqefhusifa&; vGwfvyfa&;BudK;yrf;rI trsKd;om;a&;toGif
(i-6) ukdjrpdefokdh ukdatmifqef;rSay;pm

76, Yegyaw Road
Rangoon
My Dear Ko Mya Sein,
It is not my intention to write to you only whose I have business. I had for long contemplated
communication with you, but some how or other I could not do, not overall be honest due to
pressure of work (the work is there and quite a lot, only I don’t take it) but due to my clever
sluggard. Having seen, heard so many things improper in my eyes and, above all, cheap demagogy
most, I feel rather side of life and politics I have been in for a period of mental and physical reaction,
so to speak. I hardly desire to do anything. Why idealism. Whatever amount there is in me, is and
the just want to eat, sleep and do nothing worth while. I have gone so for in this respect that even
a region is were around me, as is the ease with easy great Man, the region of my being a slugged
and glutton. Of course the great man is misunderstand, he simply proves to be a complete to
ordinary man. Anyway, I have now got over my intention a bit and have just started doing things
construction and all that is necessary for post-war period, preparing for a bigger war of offensive
in future.
You know I like not “the but the depth of soul”; I hate cheap demagogy, that playing to the
gallery business with and murder the night and over stones**. I have that so mad of it recently that.
I become completely side of it and even of life and politics, I say as the start. But as is natural with
life, I must have had and must continue to have in future too such sickness a number of times. Well
I won’t grumble over thing I fail an till I reach my destination.
Now to business, because now you must be in a mood to accept me, after all the above little
sweet in the bear Ko Tun Shwe or call him Thakhin Tun Shwe is sent a definite political mission by
the Great Do Bama Asiayone of which I am the general secretary. He is to prepare arrangements
with you for the reception for our Sayagyi Thakin Kodaw Mhaing, our Great pride Thakin Hla Baw
and our Great friend Thakin Hla Pe (Ko Hla Shwe’s brother). When they arrive at bassein. We know
there is that Mya Be Group which is very willing. But we want to go through people procedure. We
have to examine them an charges of high treasure to the Dobama Asiayone before we accept them,
and therefore in there they have been suppressed. Officially there is no Do Bama Asiayone at
Bassein same month ago you talked to me of Ko Hla Mg and all there people trying to form are
Asiayone to the Mya [xxx xxx*] I have not well old fallen, do every thing necessary for whatever
they will tell you, for the Dobama Asiayone for the Nation, for the cause (all in capitals, I am getting
excited you know). As for well this will be enough (it is sufficiently begin to hide my ignorance).
I have learnt from papers of the fate of you going business. Now what so you proper to do?
Came back to college, man and try to complete your course. Get at least actual. Whatever its actual
value, but is means a lot to life and people. Don’t be cap and fanciful. Be a stern realist, like me, the
great man.
With best wishes to all Mya Sein,
Aung San
rSwcf su-f over stones** - pum;toH;k tEIe;f rwdrusyg/ [xxx xxx*] - rl&if;pmom;rsm; ysuaf eonf/

105

jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif; - atmifxGef;
(i-7) Auo nDvmcH usif;yjcif; jrifuGif; (arv 9-10 &uf 1937)
rEÅav;uGefz&ifh jzpfajrmuf&ef udkatmifqef;? ukdA[def;? ukdodef;atmifwkdY wESpfausmf MudK;yrf;cJh&avonf/
ukad tmifqef;qkv
d Qif twGi;f usus acgif;aqmifyidk ;f taeESihf uGezf &ift
h pDtpOf? rdeYf ceG ;f twkrd sm; n§Ed idI ;f aqG;aEG;vsmxm;
csufrsm;? rEÅav;rS ausmif;om;acgif;aqmifrsm;eJYnd§í? &efukefa&mufvmwJh e,fausmif;om;acgif;aqmifawGudk
½Sif;jyNyD; pnf;½kH;cJh&onf/ &efukefrvmEkdifaom e,fausmif;om;awGqD pma&;½Sif;csufxkwfjcif;? ar;jref;csufawG
jyefMum;jcif;? pDpOfvsmxm;ykH tMurf;zsif; ay;ykdYjcif;rsm; pmtBudrftBudrf tjyeftvSef qufwkdufvkyfcJh&onf/
rEÅav;uGefz&ifh atmifatmifjrifjrif NyD;ajrmufoGm;jcif;onf {nfhcHaumfrwDxJwGif yg0ifaom rEÅav;
ausmif;om;rsm;\ BudK;yrf;rIESifh ukdatmifqef;? ukdvSaz? ukdodef;atmifwkdY\ tultnD? pnf;½kH;rI? {nfhcHaumfrwD
cs,f,mrif ukdA[def;\ raerem; vkH;yrf;tm;xkwfrI? qufqHa&; acsmarmajyjypfrI? tajymtqkd odrfarGYEl;nHHhrIwkdY
aMumifh te,fe,ft&yf&yfrS vmMuaom ukd,fpm;vS,f tm;vkH;vkdvkdu todtrSwfjyKMuavonf/ ukdA[def;onf
{nfhcHaumfrwD zGJUNyD;NyD;csif; Armjynf tNrdKUNrdKUu ausmif;om;or*¾awGu wuf<uaom ausmif;om; wOD;csif;awGqD
pmtwefwef BudKa&;NyD; pnf;½kH;vIHYaqmfcJhonf/
1937 arv (9) &uf? eHeuf (8) em&D tcsdefrSpí rEÅav;NrdKU? A[kdtrsKd;om;ausmif;0if;BuD; twGif;ü
ArmEkdifiHvkH;qkdif&m ausmif;om;rsm;uGefz&ifh 'kwd,tBudrf usif;y\/ xkduGefz&ifhokdY NrdKUay:rS vlBuD;vlaumif;rsm;ESifh
yef'pf*sm0gvmae½l; pum;ajymqkdcsufukd emMum;&efvmaom ukvm;vlrsKd;wkdYrSm rsm;jym;vS\/
tpnf;ta0;rprD eHeuf (9) em&D tcsdefcefYü 0wfvkHawmf& OD;ausmfjrifh? or*¾toif;Ouú|a[mif; ukd&m½Spf?
Ouú|opf ukdatmifqef;? {nfhcHtzGJUcs,f,mrif ukdA[def;wkdYu yef'pf*s0gvmae½l;ESifh ¤if;\orD;tm; tpnf;ta0;
pifjrifhay:okdY ac:aqmifí eHeuf (9) em&Dxkd;onfESifh wNydKifeuf wdkYArmoDcsif;udk wnDwnmwnf; tm;vkH;rwfwyf
&yfí oDqkdMuonf/
ukdA[def;rdefhcGef;

Source: Oway Magazines

udAk [de;f

{nfcHaumfrwD ukdA[def;u]ausmif;om;rsm;\ ArmEdkifiHvkH;qkdif&mtpnf;ta0;BuD;okdh urÇmBuD;w0ef;
vkH;\ csD;rGrf;cH&aom emrnfausmfyk*¾dKvfBuD; yef'pf*s0gvmae½l; <ua&muf
tm;ay; csD;jr§ifUonfUtwGuf twkdif;rodaus;Zl;wifí csD;rGrf;axmremjyKum
0rf;ajrmufvSaMumif;? þokdh ode;f oef;uka#rQaom qif;&Jom;wkdh\ acgi;f aqmifBu;D
onf uREyfk w
f dkh\ &Jabmfrsm;Mum;rS rm;rm;rwfrwf&yfí enf;ay;vrf;jy jyKvkyfjcif;
jzifU ArmEkdifiHBuD;twGuf ,ckuJUokdhaom acgif;aqmifBuD;wOD; vkdaeaMumif;
od&í 0rf;enf;rdaMumif;? þuJUokdh *kPf,lzG,faumif;aom rsKd;cspfpdwf½SdonfU
acgif;aqmifBuD;yef'pfuJUokdhaom yk*¾dKvfaMumifU jrefrmEkdifiHausmif;om;wkdhrSm rsKd;cspf
pdwf wkd;wuf&ifUoefapvdrfUrnf[k ,kHMunfaMumif;? &Jabmfrsm; þtBudrfonf
'kwd,tBudrfajrmuf ausmif;om;&Jabmftcsif;csif; awGYqkHpka0;aqG;aEG;jcif; jzpf
aMumif;} ponfjzifh yg½Sdonf/
(pmrsufESm (104) wGif t*Fvdyfvdk rl&if;udk MunfUyg/)

xkdYaemuf 1936 wuúokdvfor*¾ Ouú| ukd&m½Spfu 1937 wuoOuú| ukad tmifqef;tm; ¤if;&mxl;vTaJ y;
&í wm0efausyeG v
f rd rhf nf[k ajymí ESpcf sKyt
f pD&ifcpH m tjzpftysuu
f dk ½Si;f vif;onf/ xkad emuf jrefrmhEidk if aH &;? ynma&;?
jrbl;aumfrwD tpD&ifcpH m? uif;bJvt
f pD&ifcpH mwkYdEiS hf ywfoufí aqG;aEG;Muonf/
xkad emuf Ouú|opf udak tmifqef;u yef'pf*s0gvmae½l;tm; uGezf &ifBh uD; zGiv
hf pS &f efEiS hf rdeYf ceG ;f ajymMum;&ef
yefMum;ojzifh yef'pf*s0gvmae½l; rdefYcGef;ajymMum;onf/
arv (9) &ufaeY? nae (6) em&Dcw
JG iG f wuúov
dk o
f r*¾toif; Ouú|topf ukad tmifqef;u obmywd tjzpf
aqmif½u
G Nf yD; rdeYf ceG ;f ajymMum;onf/ xkYd aemuf ukad tmifqef;onf jiif;ckzH ,
G rf ½Sad om atmufygtqku
d kd wifoiG ;f onf/
urÇmvk;H qkid &f m ausmif;om;rsm;toif;BuD;ESihf jrefrmEkid if aH usmif;om;rsm;toif;BuD; qufo,
G &f ef? ¤if;tqkd
ukd ukdvSa½Tu axmufcHonf/

106

udkvdkeDacwfaESmif; - 1937 rS 1938 - e,fcsJYqefhusifa&; vGwfvyfa&;BudK;yrf;rI trsKd;om;a&;toGif
ADDRESS OF THE CHAIRMAN
RECEPTION COMMIITTEE
THE 2ND, ALL BURMA STUDENTS CONFERENCE
(Mandalay 1937)
Mr. President, Pandit Jawarharla Nehru and Comrades,
On behalf of the members of the Reception Committee, I hereby extend a hearty welcome.
Words fail to express our sense of pleasure and gratitude that has won the admiration and
respect of the world like Pandit Jawarharla Nehru should have so thoughtfully attend the conclave
of the all Burma students.
That a leader of millions of poverty-stricken should be standing amidst us and instructing
us, makes us feel depressed for Burma, that is denuded of leader. However, we still remain optimistic
that the noble example of a real patriot like Panditji will stimulate the spirit of sacrifice in the Burma
Students.
Comrades, this is the second occasion that students from various towns of Burma assemble
and deliberate. Excluding minor townships, delegates from all the principal towns have assembled.
Even students of village monastic schools that had suffered suppression and oppression in days
by, are present in this assembly.
From comrades who, due to unfavourable circumstances, are unable to attend this Conference
we have received messages wishing us every success. So at this moment, the attention of our
absent comrades of the districts must be focused on this assemble again spirit. For the successful
discharge by this conference on the onerous duties. Although they could not be present in person,
their high minded wishes will be invaluable aid in our road to success.
Comrades, I do not think that I shall be very much off the mark, if I say, that today is such an
important day as to constitute an epoch in the future chronicle of Burma and in that of the world;
the reason being, the students who constitute the life-blood of the nation and who would eventually
guide the destiny of the nation and the world have met in conclave to deliberate over affairs of the
nation and those of the world. Moreover, we have gathered in this place that we have lost the
supreme lost that people can sustain our freedom for self determination.
It was in this place that the hideous monster of imperialism gripped Burman in its clutches
of slavedom; and it is an irony of fate that this self same place that we students who are the sprouts
and shoots of the nations should have assembled with pick-axe and a hovel to bury this hideous
monster.
Comrades, there is a groups of person who in their anxiety for some reasons or other tend
to thwart and suppress the youth movement that rushes onward with the force of tide. These
people utilize the force and unity and courage of the students in immaterial x matters and endeavor
to dissipate the student’s energy. For instance, they preached that student should not participate
in politics and that students should devote all their attention to school worlds. Now, put their
words to an analytical test; the words themselves are not only wrong but motive behind them
reveals the baseness of their author. When the entire machinery into working order, the repairing of
one single part will achieve nothing. So also, when the entire nation is in a state of collapse, the
students who are the future hope of the nation, cannot rest content with attending to one single
part of the national machinery i.e. Education department. Although, education may be an
indispensable department in a downtrodden country like Burma, it is not a factor which by itself will

107

jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif; - atmifxGef;
help bring freedom, prosperity and contentment to nation. Who will give credence to the doctrine
that out of slavish education comes a lordly mentality and freedom. Admitting, for purposes of
argument that exertion in education create a large numbers of educated persons in the country and
that we do not gain say that the country that has a big number of educated persons is more
advanced, yet there comes the problem which is hard of solution - the unemployment problem that
shadows the quantitative regress of education.
To solve this problem, the question of economics must be touched. When we face the
problem of Buma’s economic recovery and a square meal for every body, the alien capitalists who
hold the key positions looms large and grim in the picture, with Burma’s slavedom as a background. When we realize this, the longing for the attainment of worldly bliss and contentment
freedom is the deciding factor. Therefore, is it not proper that we comrades should participate in
politics? “Politics”, “Economics” and “Education” are three very deluding expressions. Should a
foreigner suggest to a Burman, “Don’t you dabble in politics?”, the Burman would no feel it at all;
but should he be advised; “Don’t you strive to regain your freedom?” It would hard him to the
quick. Therefore, to be brief, let us not pay attention or be misled by words and expressions or
shibboleths. As we are Burmans, let us try for Burma’s advancement. Whoever hinders us in this
endeavour not him as an energy of the nation.
Comrades, the problems that we are said to tackle such as costly but valueless system of
education, illiteracy, the daily growing menace of unemployment. Imperialism, defense against
Fascism, prevention of breach of war, etc. are such problems by the judicious handling of which, I
am confident the status of Burma would be raised by one step.
Comrades, in the earlier part of my address, I have said that our deliberations will have a
salutary effect on the world. I will briefly explain how the world will benefit. That the world is
menaced by war, all of us know. Consuming with the fire of greed, fire of hatred and fire of pride one
nation is growling x with menace at the other. Knowing how terrible and how frightful the last war
was, the people are clamoring for peace. The means of achieving peace is in the hands of the
youths.
There are students association in many parts of the world and they are striving for peace.
We also joining and cooperating with youth movement of the other countries should crush
imperialism and Fascism and bring peace, plenty and prosperity to the world.

xkad emuf tNrdKUNrdKU½Sd ausmif;om;or*¾toif;rsm;onf wuúov
dk o
f r*¾toif;BuD;ESihf qufo,
G x
f m;NyD; jzpfonfh
twkdif; trIaqmifvlBuD;rsm;tjzpf todtrSwfjyKxm;aMumif;tqkdukd jynfNrdKUrS ukdoef;wifu wifoGif;í a&eHacsmif;
ukdxGef;wifu axmufcHonf/ þtpnf;ta0;MuD; &nf½G,fcsuft& EkdifiHcsJUxGifa&;0g'ukd 0ifa&mufpGufzufjcif;?
ppfyGJrsm; 0ifa&mufwkdufay;jcif; ponfwkdY rjyKvkyf&eftqkdukd a&eHacsmif; ukdxGef;wifu wifoGif;í? ppfawG ukdom
xGef;atmifu axmufcHonf/
ar (10) &ufaeY? eHeuf (8) em&DwGif tpnf;ta0; qufvufusif;y&m ref;Oypmaumvdyfausmif;BuD;ukd
'D*&Daumvdyfausmif;tjzpf tqifhtwef;jr§ifhay;&ef tpkd;&tm; þtpnf;ta0;u wkdufwGef;aMumif;tqkdukd Oya'
ausmif;om; ukb
d ode;f u wifoiG ;f &m ref;Oypmor*¾toif; Ouú| {nfch aH umfrwD cs,,
f mrif ukAd [de;f u axmufco
H nf/
EkdifiHa&;ESifhywfoufí axmifusaeaom ocif (5) OD;ESifh tvm;wlEkdifiHa&;orm;wkdYukd axmiftwGif;ü
(at) twef;tpm; xm;ap&ef oifah vsmfonf[k þtpnf;a0;BuD;u xifjrifaMumif;tqku
d kd jynfNrdKUu uko
d ef;wifu
wifoGif;í a½Tbdk ukdoef;armifu axmufcHaMumif;? xkdtqkdESifh ywfoufí ukdxGef;½Sdefu ]]ausmif;om;rsm;onf
ynma&;ESifh oufqkdifojzifh ocifawGuJhokdY EkdifiHa&;orm;awGvkd rpOf;pm;xkdufao;aMumif; xifjrifonf/ usaemfrSm
,aeY ausmif;om;yg? ausmif;rS xGufvsif ocifvkyfrnf pdwful;xm;aomfvnf; ausmif;aepOf EkdifiHa&;ESifhywfoufí
ocifawGtaMumif;? yk*v
¾ "d|mef b,fvrkd Q ratmufarhbJ uefYuu
G &f aMumif;}} jzifh ajymqko
d nf/ okYdaomf axmufco
H u
l
108

udkvdkeDacwfaESmif; - 1937 rS 1938 - e,fcsJYqefhusifa&; vGwfvyfa&;BudK;yrf;rI trsKd;om;a&;toGif
jyefvnf ½kwfodrf;í rJrcGJ&awmhay/
Armjynf½Sd ausmif;wkdif; ausmif;wkdif;wkdYwGif ppftwwfynmukd em;vnfMuap&ef? aAmfvH'D,mwyfrsm;
zGJUpnf;ay;&ef tqkdukd ykodrf ukdMunfarmifu wifoGif;í a½Tawmif ukdat;u axmufcHonf/
xkdtqkdü trsKd;orD;rS rwifwif (ae½Sife,f)? Oypmaumvdyf roef;vS? rtwifwkdYu olemjyKwyfrsm;udk
trsKd;orD;rsm;u a,mufsm;rsm;uJhokdY &JtzGJUaqmif½Gufovkd 0ifa&mufvkyfukdifoifhaMumif;? trsKd;orD;olemjyKwyfrsm;
ukd zGifhvSpfoifhaMumif;jzifh jznfhpGufaxmufcHcJhonf/
aeYvnfbufwGif qyfbwf*sufaumfrwDonf Oya'Murf;wckudk aqG;aEG;NyD;aemuf? nae (4) em&DcGJ
tcsdefwdwdü txufArmjynf ausmif;om;rsm;abmvkH;yGJ usif;yonf/
arv (10) &ufaeYwGif Ouú| ukdatmifqef;u or*¾toif;BuD;\ pnf;rsOf;Oya'Murf;udk wifoGif;&m
¤if;Oya'Murf;ü or*¾toif;BuD;okdY qufoG,faMu; (12) usyf &moufyef toif;om;0ifaMu; (25) usyf pDpOfxm;
aMumif;ESifh Ouú| ukdatmifqef;ESifh trIaqmif (9) OD;ukd a½G;cs,fí wifoGif;&m uefYuGufolr½Sd twnfjyKcJhonf/

(p) 'kw,
d tBurd f Auo nDvmcH qk;H jzwfcsurf sm;
jrefrmEkdifiHwGif tcrJhrlvwef; ynmroifrae&aom Oya'jyKvkyf xkwfjyefoifhaMumif; xifjrifoabm&
onfhtwkdif; wkdufwGef;aMumif; tqkdukd ukdñGefYwifu wifoGif;í awmifil ukdxGef;armifu axmufcHonf/
(2)
a½Tbkd½Sd txufwef;ae½Sife,fausmif;ESifh tjcm;NrdKUrsm;½Sd ae½Sife,fausmif;rsm;ukd tpkd;& todrSwfjyK&ef
tqkdukd a½Tbkd ukdodef;armifu tqkdwifoGif;í rEÅav; ukdA[def;u axmufcHonf/
(3)
jrefrmjynftpk;d & ul;oef;a&mif;0,fa&;ESihf pufrv
I ufro
I ifausmif;rsm; trsKd;rsKd;zGiahf y;&ef tpnf;ta0;BuD;
u wkdufwGef;aMumif; tqkdudk ukdomxGef;u wifoGif;í ukdausmfpdef (a&eHacsmif;) u axmufcHonf/
(4)
jrefrmjynf ausmif;wkdif;ausmif;wkdif;wGif tcgtcGifhMuHKonfh yGJrsm;üjzpfap? trsKd;om;aeYrsm;ü jzpfap?
wkYd ArmoDcsi;f rsm;ukd pdww
f uf<uap&eftwGuf oDq&dk ef wku
d w
f eG ;f aMumif; tqku
d dk ukad tmifoed ;f u wifoiG ;f
í ukdjrwfom'Gef;u axmufcHonf/
tqkdrsm; qkH;jzwfjyD;aemuf oydwfarSmufacgif;aqmifwOD;jzpfaom ukdEku pum;ajymMum;onf/
arv (11) &ufaeYwGif trsKd;om;wuúokdvf &efykHaiGtwGuf rEÅav;NrdKUay:ü ausmif;om;ukd,fpm;vS,frsm;
vSnfhvnfaumufcHMuonf/
(1)

(q) 1937-38 AuoESihf wuo trIaqmiftzGUJ
The Working Committee of All Burma Students' Union (1937-38)

Ouú|
'k-Ouú|
twGif;a&;rSL;
tkd;a0t,f'Dwm
aiGxdef;

pma&;

Source: Portraits (DTY)

Auo trIaqmiftzJGY
(1) ukdatmifqef;
(2) ukdvSa½T
(3) ukdjrpdef
(4) ukdA[def;
(5) ukdodef;[ef
(6) ukdvSarmif
(7) ukdausmfjrifh
(8) ukdxGef;wif
(9) ukdoef;wif
(10) ukdxGef;pdef
(11) ukdzkd;tkH
(12) ukdbZH
(13) ukdpkd;armif

udak tmifqef; pma&;om;
qufo,
G cf aUJ om ykord Nf rKd rY S ukjd rpdef
(aemif oHtrwfBu;D )

109

jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif; - atmifxGef;
wuo trIaqmiftzGJY
(1) ukdb*srf;
(2) ukdvSa½T
(3) ukdvSarmif
(4) ukdat;ausmf
(5) ukdndKjr
(6) ukdb½Srf;
(7) ukdatmifqef;
(8) ukdAaqG
(9) ukdwifarmif
(10) ukdjr½Sdef
(11) ukdxGef;az
(12) ukdA[def;
(13) ukdpkd;armif

Ouú|
'k-Ouú|
pmMunfhwkdufrSL;
Editors and publicity officer

aiGxdef;
(Ex: Office)
(Manager away)
(t,f'Dwm Union News)
(Inter University Affairs)
(Chairman-social Sub Committee)

(Z) 'kw,
d tBurd f ArmEkid if v
H ;Hk qkid &f mausmif;om;rsm;or*¾ uGezf &ifrh S wwd,uGezf &ifh rwkid rf D tpD&ifcpH m
(Z-1) jrbl;aumfrwD
'kwd,uGefz&ifhu qkH;jzwfvkdufonfhtwkdif; or*¾toif;BuD;\ tvkyftrIaqmifu atmufygyk*¾dKvfrsm;
yg0ifaom wuúokdvftufOya'jyifqifa&;aumfrwD ukd zGJUpnf;cJhonf/
(1) OD;ausmfjrifh
0wfvkHawmf&
(2) a'gufwmxifatmif
0wfvkHawmf&
(3) OD;wifarmif
t,f'Dwm? e,l;bm;rm;
(4) OD;xGef;oef;
t,f'Dwm? bm;rm;*sme,f
(5) ocifodef;armif
wkdYArmtpnf;t½kH;
(6) udk&m½Spf
(Auotoif;BuD;\ Ouú|a[mif;)
(7) ukdatmifqef;
(Auotoif;BuD;\ vuf½Sd Ouú|) (aqmfMool)
txufyg aumfrwDonf jrbl;aumfrwDtpD&ifcHpmukd tao;pdwf pOfpm;aqG;aEG;NyD; wuúokdvftufOya'
jyifqifa&;tpD&ifcHpmukd a&;om;cJhonf/ ¤if;rSjrbl;aumfrwD\ tpD&ifcHpmESifU ywfoufí ArmEkdifiHvkH;qkdif&mausmif;om;rsm;or*¾toif;rS
cefhxm;tyfaom wuúokdvfjyifqifa&;aumfrwDrSwfwrf;
jyqkdtyfaomrSwfwrf;rSm ArmEkdifiHvkH;qkdif&mausmif;om;rsm;toif; tvkyftrIaqmifu rEÅav;NrdKUwGif
arv (10) &ufaeYü usi;f yonfh 'kw,
d tBudrf ArmEkid if v
H ;Hk qkid &f mausmif;om;rsm;uGezf &ifh qk;H jzwfcsuf trSwf (4)
t& cefYxm;tyfaom wuúov
dk t
f ufOya'jyifqifa&;aumfrwDu ynma&;zuf jrefrmjynftpk;d &okYd wifoiG ;f aom
rSww
f rf;jzpfonf/ tvkyt
f rIaqmifrmS ZGev
f (17) aeYwiG rf S awGUqkEH idk í
f tqkyd gaumfrwDzUJG pnf;&ef txl;usyfwnf;
aeonfudk awGU&ygaMumif;? tcsKUd u aumfrwDwiG f cefYxm;vkad om yk*Kd¾ vBf uD;rsm;rSm e,fwiG ½f adS eí waMumif;? wcsKdUrSm
txl;udprö sm;aeí waMumif;? tvkyt
f rIaqmifrmS yk*Kd¾ vBf uD; ( 6) a,mufrQom qkcH NhJ yD; aumfrwDwiG f cefYxm;Ekid af Mumif;?
¤if; (6) a,muf teufrv
S nf; (2) OD;aom yk*Kd¾ vfBuD;wkYd rmS rvTrJ uif;omojzifh uREkyf w
f Ydk tm; rulnED ikd yf gaMumif;?
okYdjzpf&m useyf *k Kd¾ vBf uD;rsm;jzpfaom 0wfvakH wmf& OD;ausmjf rif?h uk&d m½Sp?f ocifoed ;f armif? OD;wifarmifEiS hf usaemfwYdkonf
(8) &ufwkdifwkdif aeYpOfpOf;pm;í tjrefrSwfwrf;wif&ygaMumif;/
þrSww
f rf;ukd tvkyt
f rIaqmifu aemufZv
l idk f (28) &ufaeY pnf;a0;aomtcg Oya'jyKtzGUJ 0if trwfrif;
wkdYESifh tjcm;jynfolwkdYtm; xkwfa0&ef cGifhjyKvkdufygaMumif;? okdY&mwGif tjcm;tvkyfudpö txl;rsm;í vkyfom;
110

udkvdkeDacwfaESmif; - 1937 rS 1938 - e,fcsJYqefhusifa&; vGwfvyfa&;BudK;yrf;rI trsKd;om;a&;toGif
tpkHtvif r½Sdojzifh þrSwfwrf;ukd þrQMumum xkwfa0&jcif; jzpfygaMumif;/
þrSww
f rf;um; jrbl;aumfrwD tpD&ifcpH mxuf pdw0f ifpm;zG,&f m jzpfaMumif;? þrSww
f rf;um; tmPm?
ÓPf½Sif? tjriftMum; tawmfyifrsm;olrsm;\ vufpGrf;OmPfpGrf;[k r&rf;qEkdifvifhupm; jrefrmjynf½Sd acwfrD
ÓPfrD yk*¾dKvfwdkY\ oabmxm;ukd jy&ma&mufonf[k ,kHMunf,lqygaMumif;/
atmifqef;
(aqmfMool)
(Z-2) rSwfwrf;
1/ qmjrbl;BuD;rSL;onfh wuúokdvftufOay'jyifqifa&;aumfrwD\ tpD&ifcHpmrSm arv? yxr&uf
owåywfwiG f xGuaf y:vm\/ rEÅav;NrdKUü arv (9) &ufEiS hf (10) &ufaeYwYdkwiG f usi;f yaom 'kw,
d tMudrf
jrefrmEkdifiHvkH;qkdif&mausmif;om;rsm; uGefz&ifh0,f þwuúokdvf jyifqifa&;ESifhywfoufí aqmif½Guf&ef
twGuf wuúokdvftufOya' jyifqifa&;aumfrwDwck zGJUpnf;&ef þausmif;om;tzGJUcsKyf tvkyftrIaqmif
wkdYrS ausmif;ydwfaeojzifh ZGefv tv,favmufrSomvQif þtqkdyg wuúokdvfjyifqifa&;aumfrwDukd
cefYxm;&ef pnf;a0;awGUqkEH idk \
f / okYdcefYtyfaom uREyfk w
f Ydk wuúov
dk t
f ufOya'jyifqifa&;aumfrwDtzGUJ onf
cefYNyD; rMumrD awGUqkEH ;DS aESm wkid yf ifMu\/ jrbl;aumfrwDEiS hf ywfoufí wuúov
dk af umifpu
D v
dk nf; Zlvidk v
f wGif
usi;f yrnfjzpfí xkad umifpt
D wGuf qk;H jzwfcsut
f qkrd sm; ay;ydYk Mu&ef ZGev
f (30) &ufaeYtxd awmif;xm;\/
tpdk;&uvnf; jrbl;aumfrwDESifh ywfoufí tMuHÓPfrsm;udk ZGefv (30) &ufaeYtxd vufcHrnf[k
aMunmxm;\/ okYd jzpf&um; uREkyf w
f Ydk aumfrwDonf aeYwikd ;f xkid í
f pOf;pm;aqG;aEG;Mu&\/ jrbl;aumfrwD
tpD&ifcHpm tcsufwYdk udk uREkyf w
f Ydk tm;&yg;& rppfaq;Ekid af omfvnf; t"dupnf;rsOf;rsm;wGiu
f m; uREkyf w
f dkY
tm;vkH; woabmwnf;jzpf\/ uREkfyfwkdY pOf;pm;&orQ tm;vkH;oabmwlnDcsuf &orQcsnf;jzpf\/
2/ uREkfyfwkdY jrbl;aumfrwDtpD&ifcHpmESifh ywfoufí ta&;BuD;aom? t&mygaom tcsufrsm;pGmwkdYwGif
¤if;aumfrwDEiS hf ruku
d n
f o
D nfudk awGU½S&d onf/ okYd &mwGif jrbl;aumfrwDtpD&ifcpH m yg½do
S rQ tao;tzGyJ g
tjypfwifa&;om;&ef rvk&d um; ta&;BuD;aom? t&mygaom axmufccH surf sm;ESihf pyfvsO;f í pOf;pm;ygaMumif;/
3/ þjrbl;aumfrwD tpD&ifcpH mESihf ywfoufí wuúov
dk af usmif;om;rsm; txl;rausreyf jzpfaeMu\/ tu,f
í uREyfk w
f Ydk xifjrifcsurf sm;ukd txl;ojzifh wuúov
dk af umifpw
D iG f tjyiftyrS wuúov
dk t
f &m½SEd iS hf tpk;d &t&m½Sd
r[kwfaomol trsm;tjym; yg0if&efta&;ESifh wuúokdvfESifh aumvdyfausmif;om;rsm; qufoG,fa&; (2)
&yfEiS hf pyfvsO;f í uREyfk w
f Ydk\ xifjrifcsurf sm;ukd wuúodkvftufOya' topfwiG f xnho
f iG ;f ygu wkid ;f jynfEiS hf
wuG ausmif;om;rsm;tm; vufcHzG,f&m jzpfvdrfhrnf[k uREkfyfwkdY ,lqygaMumif;/
4/ jrbl;aumfrwDtpD&ifcHpmwGif pmykd'frsm;ESifh axmufcHcsufrsm;udk eHygwf wyfrxm;ojzifh pmñTef;&ef
cufcJonfhtwGuf 0rf;enf;zG,fw&yf jzpfygaMumif;/
5/ &efukefwuúokdvfonf pmppfwuúokdvftjzpfom½Sdoifhonf (okdYr[kwf) ausmif;tdyfausmif;pm; pmoif
wuúokdvftjzpfom ½Sdoifhonf[laom jyóemukd uREkfyfwkdY Mum½Snfav;jrifhpGm pOf;pm;MuygaMumif;?
uREkfyfwkdYrlum; emrnfynwfavmufudk *½krxm;vkdyg/ rnfonhf wuúokdvfrqkd ¤if;wnf½Sd&m wkdif;jynf\
tajctaeukd vku
d í
f jzpfpjrJyifjzpf\/ odYk &mwGif wuúov
kd u
f kd topfprD t
H yk cf sKyfenf; pOf;pm;&mü ¤if;vuf½dS
tajctaeukdvnf; ay,smvuefí rjzpfay/ aocsmpGmppfaq; Munfhygrlum; ,ck&efukefwuúokdvfonf
pmoifausmif;vnf; rrnf? ausmif;tdyfausmif;pm; ausmif;[kvnf; rqkdom? ausmif;om;rsm;udk pmoif&m
wGif aumvdyfausmif;rsm;wGifom vkH;0oifMuonfukd awGU&\/ &Hzef&Hcg aumvdyfausmif;tcsKdUwkdYrS
ausmif;om;rsm;ukd acRwma&;? oufaomifhoufoma&;twGufom yl;aygif;oifMum;jyo\/ ¤if;tjyif
rsm;pGmaom ausmif;om;rsm;rSmvnf; tdrjf yeftrd pf m; jzpfMu\/ okYd &mwGif qkcd NhJ yD;cJo
h nft
h wkid ;f uREyfk w
f Ydkonf
trnfynwfudk rvkdufvdk? ,ckvuf½Sd tajcaet& wuúokdvfukd a½SUokdY rnfodkYjyKjyifoifhonfukdom
pOf;pm;oGm;rnf jzpfygaMumif;/
6/ a,bk,svu
dk v
f Qirf u
l m; ,ckvuf½t
dS wkid ;f &efuek w
f uúov
dk f ½Sad pvk\
d / wwftm;Ekid af om ausmif;om;rsm;
onf ausmif;tdyaf usmif;pm;aevko
d nf[k jrbl;aumfrwD\ a&;om;csuu
f dk uREyfk w
f Ydk oabmwlyg\/ xko
d Ydk
raeEkid af om ausmif;om;rsm;tm; paumvm;½Sprf sm;ykrd adk y;&efEiS hf xku
d o
f ifah om ausmif;q&mrsm;ukd ynma&;
111

jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif; - atmifxGef;
Xmeu pwkdifyif axmufyHh&efqkdaom tcsufudkvnf; oabmwlyg\/ ¤if;tjyif tjyifty woD;wjcm;
qif;&JEGrf;yg; xkdufoifhaom qif;&Jaom? ausmif;om;rsm;tm;vkH;twGuf wuúokdvfynm&&eftwGuf
wckwnf;aom enf;vrf;[k uREkyf w
f Ydk txl;,kMH unfaom t&mum; aemufq;Hk wuúov
dk pf mar;yGaJ tmifNyD;í
aumvdyrf sm;wGiaf eaom pmoifausmif;om;rsm; oifMum;tyfaom tcsdeaf phNyD;aom tcgrsKd;ü tjcm;tvGwf
ausmif;om;rsm;ukd ½k;d ½k;d wuúov
dk f pmar;yGt
J m;vk;H ukd 0ifa&mufajzqkEd idk &f ef cGijhf yKjcif;yifjzpfygaMumif;? xkad Mumifh
þqkdcJhNyD;aom enf;t&vnf;aumif;? qkdvwåHUaom pnf;urf;rsm;t& vnf;aumif;(1) wuúokdvfokdY0ifcGifh&aom ausmif;om;wkdif; Oypmwef;pmar;yGJukd tvGwf0ifcGifh&í wzef 'D*&D pmar;
yGJukd uefYowfaom tcsdefNyD;aemuf 0ifcGifh&&ef?
(2) tpk;d &aq;ausmif;rS vnf;aumif;? tpk;d &pufrv
I ufrI ynmoifausmif;rS vnf;aumif;? bDtpdk aD umvdyf
rS vnf;aumif;? vkdifpifvufrSwf&aom Oypmwef;rS vnf;aumif; atmifaomolwkdif; (3) ESpfrQ
q&m0ef (okdYr[kwf) pufq&m? tif*sifeD,mtjzpf jyKvkyfNyD;aemuf trfbDbDtufpf pmar;yGJukd
vnf;aumif;? tif*sifeD,m bDtufpDpmar;yGJukd vnf;aumif;? 0ifcGifhay;&ef (tu,fí þuJhokdY
trfbDbDtufpf atmifaom ausmif;om;rsm; NAdwdoQ aq;bufqkdif&maumifpDu todrSwfrjyKvQif
b,fuJhokdY jyKvkyf vQif todrSwfjyKrnfjzpfaMumif; pkHprf;ajymay;apvkdygaMumif;)/
7/ tqkdyg pnf;urf;csufrsm;tjyif tm;vkH;tvGwf0ifausmif;om;rsm;twGuf jzpfap? tcsKdUtwGufjzpfap
vkdonfhtavsmuf atmufyg pnf;urf;csufrsm;udk xm;EkdifygaMumif;(1) avmu"gwf 'D*&DbUJG xl; (okYd r[kw)f 'pfyvkrd mvufrw
S t
f wGuf twef;tpm;t& vkt
d yfaom vufawGU
tvkyu
f dk todrw
S jf yKtyfaom "gwfc½JG w
Hk iG f vkyzf ;l aMumif; oufaocHpm wifjy&ef (okYdr[kw)f xkv
d ufawGU
oifMum;&eftwGuf wuúov
dk af usmif;wGif tjcm;ausmif;om;rsm;ae&aom umvtykid ;f tjcm; w0ufrQ
ae&rnf[k pnf;urf;xm;&ef/
(2) aumvdyfausmif;om; r[kwfaom tvGwfajzolrsm;twGuf &D*spfpwm rSwfykHwifpm&if; wckxm;í
pmar;yGrJ ajzrD ok;H vBudKwifí ¤if;wkYd\ emrnfrsm;ukd rSwyf w
Hk if pm&if;oGi;f xm;ap&ef/ þuJo
h Ydk pnf;urf;
xm;vQif uREkfyfwkdY\ txufyg tvGwfynmoifwkdYtwGuf xifjrifcsufwkdYrSm rvkyfEkdifbG,f r½Sd[k
,lqygaMumif;/
8/ ¤if;tjyif wuúov
dk t
f ufOya'wGif &uf*al v;½Si;f eHygwf (9) (tcef;- 6) ESihf tvm;wl owfrw
S cf surf sm;ukd
xkwyf ,f&ef uREkyf w
f Ydk wu
dk w
f eG ;f ygaMumif;? rnfonfah umvdyaf usmif;om;rqkd ¤if;oiftyfaompmukd tcsdef
aphatmif oif,lNyD;onfhaemuf (2) ESpfuszl;onfjzpfap? wESpfuszl;onf jzpfap (okdYr[kwf) vkH;0pmar;yGJ
rajzbl;onfjzpfap tvGwfpmar;yGJ 0ifoifhygaMumif;? þta&;ESifh ywfoufí jrbl;aumfrwDu wESpf
uszl;aom ausmif;om;rsm;udk tvGwfpmar;yGJ 0ifcGifhay;oifhonf[k axmufcHcsufrSm vkHavmufonf[k
uREkyf w
f Ydk r,lqaMumif;? ausmif;om;wOD;onf rdrad jzqkt
d ahH om pmar;yGt
J wGuf tcsdeaf phatmif oifNyD;orQ
umvywfvkH; tvGwfpmar;yGJ ajzEkdifatmif wESpfus&OD;rnf qkdonfrSm ,kwådrwefvSay/
9/ tvGwfajzqkdaom ausmif;om;rsm;udk cGifhjyKvkdonfhtaMumif;rsm;rSm (2) &yf[k awG;p&m½SdygaMumif;? yxr
taMumif;um; þuJhokdY tcGifhta&;onf wuúokdvfynm\ twef;tpm; avsmhbG,f&m jzpfonf[laom
t&myif jzpfavonf/ þwGif uREkfyfwkdYonf þuJhodkY xifjrifcsufrsm; txl;rSm;onf[k ,lqygaMumif;?
wuúov
dk o
f nf rdrt
d wef;tpm;udk rdrt
d vk½d o
dS vdk owfrw
S Ef idk af Mumif;? xkYd aMumifh þuJo
h Ydk twef;tpm;ukd
&oif&h xku
d o
f nfrmS txl;xif½mS ; vSygaMumif;? xku
d o
hJ Ydk wuúov
dk pf mar;yJrG sm;\ twef;tpm;rsm;rSm jrifae&
orQ umvywfv;Hk tvGwaf jzqko
d rl sm;tm; cGijhf yKojzifh wuúov
dk b
f UJG rsm;rSm b,fenf;ESifhrQ twef;tpm;
avsmhí aps;aygoGm;rnf r[kwfay/ tu,fí wuúokdvfq&mrsm;onf tvGwfajzolrsm;tm; pmjzihf jzpf
ap? ¤if;wkYd tm;vyfcsdew
f iG f jzpfap? pmoifMum;ygu ¤if;wkYd oifMum;tyfaom wuúov
dk f tvky0f wå&m;rsm;
ayghysufp&m taMumif;½SdygaMumif;? xkdokdYoifMum;jcif;udk txl;wm;jrpfygu tvGwfajzqkdolrsm;ukd cGifhjyK
ojzifh b,fykHb,fenf; wuúokdvfynm\ twef;tpm; avsmhoGm;p&m½SdaMumif; awG;awm&ef cJ,Of;vSay
aMumif;? þokdY xifjrif,lqaom olrsm;tm; pum;tykdryg ½Sif;½Sif;wkdwkdESifh taMumif;jyyg&ef uREkfyfwkdYu
ar;jref;vkdygaMumif;/
10/ uREfyk w
f Ydk ,cktMuHay;&mwGif ausmif;om;trsm; aumvdyfausmif;okdY rvmrSmvnf; pkd;&drfbG,f&mr½Sday/
tb,faMumifh tcrf;tem;qef;jym;BuD;us,af om ausmif;awmftaqmuftODrsm;? aysmpf &m? yg;p&m? upm;p&m?
112

udkvdkeDacwfaESmif; - 1937 rS 1938 - e,fcsJYqefhusifa&; vGwfvyfa&;BudK;yrf;rI trsKd;om;a&;toGif
aep&m? qifp&m tcrf;tem;rsm;um; ausmif;om;wkid ;f ESihf ausmif;om;wkid ;f \ rdbwkYdudk txl; pdwfqGJaqmif
ojzifh wwfEidk af omolwidk ;f aumvdyaf usmif;okYd vmrnfrmS ajrBuD;vufcwf rvGEJ idk [
f k qkEd idk af Mumif;? þokYd
jzpf&um; wuúokdvfrSm tvGwfajzolrsm;tm; cGifhjyKojzifh b,fenf;ESifhrQ qkH;½IH;p&mrjrifay/
11/ þtaMumif;rSty þuJhokdY tvGwfajzqkdolrsm;tm; cGifhjyKjcif;onf tvkyftukdif½Sdí axmufyHhp&m vlrsm;
tpk;d &zufwiG f jzpfap? tjcm;zufwiG f jzpfap? a½SUokYd wk;d wufcsiaf om olrsm;pGmwkYd tm; txufwef;ynmukd
oifvadk ompdwf jzpfz,
G &f m ½Syd gaMumif;? þokYd aiGtm; rwwfEidk í
f txufwef;ynm&vkad om olrsm;omvQif
tvGwfajzqkdolrsm; jzpfrnfjzpfaMumif;? wuúokdvfpmar;yGJ twef;tpm;onf jrifhjrifh½SdaevQif xkdpmar;yGJ
atmifEidk o
f nfh tvGwfajzqkdolrSm omrnvlrsm;xuf t&nftcsif;½Sdolyif jzpfavonf/ þokdY tMuHOmPf
rsm;udk pOf;pm;&mwGif &efukefwuúokdvf wckwnf;om jrefrmjynfwGif½Sdonf [lonfh tcsufukd txl;owd
jyKoifhygaMumif;/
12/ txufujyqkcd o
hJ nft
h wkid ;f wcrf;wem; wuúov
dk w
f iG f ae&xkid &f onfuadk xmufí wwfEidk af om ausmif;
om;rsm;onf ausmif;tdyfausmif;pm; jzpfMurnf jzpfaMumif;? pifppftm;jzifh &efukefNrdKUwGif rdb½Sdaom
rsm;pGmaom ausmif;om;rsm;yif ausmif;tdyaf usmif;pm;tjzpf aevkMd uaMumif;? okYd aomf xku
d o
hJ Ydk raevkad om
ausmif;om;rsm;twGuf tb,fuJhokdY xm;rnfenf;/ &efukefNrdKUwGif rdbrsm;ESifh aexkdifaom ausmif;om;
rsm;tm; tdrfjyeftdrfpm;tjzpf vufcHonf rSefaomfvnf; aqGrsKd;om;csif;rsm;ESifh aexkdifaom ausmif;om;
rsm;tm; &Hzef&Hcg ausmif;tdyfausmif;pm; ae&rnf[k twif;tMuyf wkdufwGef;onfudk uREkfyfwkdY awGU½Sd&yg
aMumif;? NrdKUxJwGifaejcif;onf p&dwfoufom acsmifcsdí pm;a&;aomufa&;rSmvnf; aumvdyfausmif;rsm;
xuf rcsKdU,Gif;[k uREkfyfwkdY,kHMunfaMumif;? okdYjzpf&um; &efukefNrdKUwGif rdbrsm;ESifhaexkdifMuaom ausmif;
om;rsm;tjyif bDat? bDtufpD twef;rsm;udk oifMum;Muaom ausmif;om;rsm;tm;vkH;? ¤if;wkdY\ rdb
(okdYr[kwf) tkyfxdef;olrsm;u pmjzifh taMumif;Mum;u NrdKUxJwGif ae&ef cGifhjyKxkdufaMumif;/
13/ wuúodkvfonf ¤if;aumifpDu? ¤if;aumifpDvlBuD;rsm;xJu jzpfap? okdYr[kwf jyifywkdif;jynfzufwGif
vnf;aumif;? ynma&;zufwiG f vnf;aumif; aqmif½u
G af eaom yk*Kd¾ vfrsm;xJu jzpfap? ¤if;t"dywd cseq
f ,f
vm vlMuD;udk a½G;aumufwifajr§muf&ef tcGifhta&; &½SdxkdufNyD[k uREkfyfwkdY av;av;eufeuf ,lqaMumif;?
wuúov
kd o
f nf uk,
d yf idk t
f yk cf sKyv
f yk u
f idk &f aom taqmuftODjzpfonft
h wkid ;f ¤if;tBuD;trSL; em,utjzpf
wifajr§mufvo
dk t
l m; wifajr§mufEidk &f efrmS txl;avsmu
f ef oifjh rwfvaS yaMumif;? xko
d Ydka½G;aumuf wifajr§muf
cH&aom cseq
f ,fvm t"dywdonf bk&ifcx
H uf wuúov
kd t
f a&;rsm;ukd ykrd edk ;D pyfpmG odí pdw0f ifwpm; vku
d pf m;
zG,f&m ½SdaMumif;? ¤if;tjyif rnfonfhtcsdefrqkd wuúodkvfESifh vuf½Sdtpkd;&wdkY tjiif;yGm;Muygu xkduJhokdY
a½G;aumufaom t"dywdonf wuúodkvfbufrS txl;ajymay;rnfjzpfaMumif;? bk&ifcHom t"dywdjzpfae
ygu Mum;rSvnf;aumif;? vuf½SdtrwfcsKyf tpkd;&zufrSvnf;aumif; ae&eftaMumif; ½SdayaMumif;/
14/ jrbl;aumfrwDonf wuúodkvfESifh aumvdyfausmif;rsm; qufqHa&;ESifh ywfoufí wuúodkvfaumifpDwGif
tmPm½Sd? r½Sd[laom tcsufudk tpD&ifcHpm eHygwf (13) ESifh (14)? ¤if;aemuf (26) rS (28) wdkYwGif pOf;
pm; aqG;aEG;MuaMumif;? xdkodkYaqG;aEG;&mwGif jrbl;aumfrwDu wuúodkvfaumifpDwGif tmPmr½Sdqdkaom
pum;rSm tajctjrpfususee r½Sd[kqdkaMumif;? þpum;udk axmufjcif;tm;jzifh jrbl;aumfrwD0if
vlBuD;wdkYonf wuúodkvftwGif;a&;udk aumif;pGmrodaMumif; xif½Sm;vSayonf/ wuúodkvfaumifpDonf
tmPmr½S[
d o
l nfh tcsufrmS txifrQom r[kw?f wu,f tppftrSeyf if jzpfaMumif;? ,ckvuf½dS t"dywd\
aumufcsufwckt&qdkaomf wuúodkvfaumifpD tpnf;ta0;rsm;wGif ¤if;tm; vlBuD;rsm;onf ar;cGef;rsm;
rar;Edik q
f akd Mumif;? wzeftjcm;¤if; aumufcsut
f &um; wuúov
kd af umifp\
D qH;k jzwfcsurf sm;onf qD;edwf
tzGJUESifh wuúodkvfausmif;tkyfcsKyfa&;tzGJUrsm;odkY axmufcHcsuftaersKd;jzifhom qD;edwfESifh aumvdyftkyfcsKyf
a&;tzGJUwdkY tay: rnfodkYrQ wm0efrwnfaMumif;? pwufusL (33) ESifh (34) taMumif;wdkYudk txl;ta&;,l
aomf jyxm;í jrbl;aumfrwDyifvQif txifrSm;? tjrifrSm; jzpfaeayaMumif;? þpwufusL (33-34)
t& csxm;tyfaom pnf;rsO;f tpDtpOfrmS wu,fwef; jzpfajrmufEikd &f ef cJ,Of;vSayaMumif;? tpD&ifcpH mwck
wuúov
kd af usmif; wausmif;rS awmif;qdEk ikd &f ef wuúov
kd af umifpD yxrawGUí aqG;aEG; &OD;rnfjzpfaMumif;?
xdkuJhodkY aqG;aEG;&mwGif tpD&ifcHpmudk awmif;&eftqdkrSm ½IH;aumif; ½IH;EdkifayaMumif;? r½IH;bJ twnfjzpfap
umrl aumvdyfrsm;u vdktyfaom tpD&ifcHpmrsm;udk wifoGif;&ef tcsdef,l qGJOD;rnfjzpfaMumif;? xdkYaemuf
wuúodkvfaumifpDu wzefawGUqkHí aqG;aEG;&OD;rnfjzpfaMumif;? xdktpD&ifcHpmt& ta&;,l&eftqdkonf
113

jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif; - atmifxGef;
yxr ½IH;aumif; ½IH;ayrnf/ r½IH;í twnfjzpfonfhwdkifatmif wuúodkvft"dywd\ oabmwlnDcsuf &½Sd
&OD;rnf jzpfaMumif;/ odkYjzpf&um; {&mrwuúodkvfaumifpDBuD;\ tmPmpufjyif;aom trdefYawmfvTmrSm
qdkif&m aumvdyfwdkYodkY ra&mufcif tcsif;jzpfyGm;aeaom t&mrsm;rSm vufveG Ef iS í
hf NyD;NyDjzpfí teEÅo&l ,
d
trwf owfapaom e&odcrF if;uJo
h Ykd jzpfrnfrmS txl;xif½mS ;vSayaMumif;/
15/ wzef wuúodkvfaumifpDvlBuD;rsm;onf pwufusL (33) t& tb,fodkYvQif rdrdwdkY\ tcGifhta&;udk
tokH;csEdkifygrnfenf;/ aumvdyfausmif;tkyfcsKyfa&;tzGJUrsm;\ tpnf;ta0;rSwfwrf;rsm;udk tjyifrnfolrQ
rod&? owif;pmrsm;wGiv
f nf; raMunm? aumvdyaf usmif;rsm;taMumif; aumifpv
D Bl uD;rsm; b,fyHk b,fenf;
MuHzefí odEikd yf grnfenf;/ ¤if;wdYk odzG,f&mXmerSvGefrS xGufvmaom aumvm[vowif;rsm;om jzpfay
vdrfhrnf/ odkYpOfvsuf jrbl;aumfrwD0iftm;vkH;u wuúodkvfaumifpDonf tmPmtb,f½Sdonf[k ajymqdk
jcif;rSm tHhbG,fyifwum;/ uREkfyfwdkYonf aumvdyfausmif;tkyfcsKyfa&;tzGJUrsm;udk wuúodkvftmPmydkif
tzGUJ rsm; tjzpf[k aMunmonf raMunmonfukd tav;rrlay/ uREfyk w
f Ykd tvd½k o
dS nfrmS wuúov
kd af umif
pDonf pm½Gufay:wGifomr[kwf wu,ftvkyfvkyf&mwGifvnf; tmPm½Sdonfudkom tvdk½SdaMumif;? xkdY
aMumifh aumvdyftkyfcsKyfa&;tzGJUwdkif;\ tpnf;ta0;rSwfwrf;ESifhwuG tjcm;vdktyfaom pm½Gufpmwrf;
rsm;udkyg tkyfcsKyfa&;tzGJUtpnf;ta0;NyD;í &ufowåywf ESpfywftwGif; aumifpDvlBuD;rsm;xHodkY ydkY&ef
txl;wdkufwGef; &ayaMumif;? 4if;tjyif pwufusL (33) ESifh (34) wGif csxm;tyfaom pnf;rsOf; tpDt
pOfudkvnf; rnfonfh aumifpDvlBuD;rqdk ta&;,lEdkifatmif jyifqifoifhygaMumif;? xdkodkYta&;,l&ef tqdk
atmifjrifvQif xdq
k ;Hk jzwfcsurf mS wnfí aumvdyaf usmif;rsm;u vdu
k ef m&rnf jzpfaMumif;? aumvdyaf usmif;
rsm;\ ausmif;tkyfrsm;onf aumifpDvlBuD;rsm; jzpfaMumif;? odkYjzpf&m wuúodkvfaumifpDwGif 4if;tkyfcsKyf
a&;\ tzGJUrsm;\ ,lqykHoabmudk ajymjyEdkifaMumif;? þenf;jzifhomvQif wuúodkvfaumifpDonf tmPm
½Sí
d ¤if;aumvdyrf sm; tay:wGif tkycf sKyfuyG u
f EJ ikd rf nf jzpfaMumif;? þodYk r[kwv
f Qif þ&,fp&maumif;aom
wuúodkvfaumifpDtmPmudk zsufodrf;í wkdif;jynftm;trSeftwdkif; odaptyfvSNyDjzpfaMumif;/
16/ jrbl;tpD&ifcHpm pmrsufESmeHygwf (26-28) wdkYwGif axmufcHcsufwdkYrSm jyif;jyif;xefxef tjypfqdkxdkuf
vSaMumif;/ pmrsufESmeHygwf (28) wGif jrbl;aumfrwDonf jrefrmeef;&if;0efBuD;onf t"dywdjzpfoifh?
rjzpfoifhta&;ukd aqG;aEG;onfu tu,fí EkdifiHa&;tajymif;tvJjrefí 0g'trsKd;rsKd; t,ltqtrsKd;rsKd;
½Sdaom csefq,fvm t"dywdatmufokdY wuúodkvfa&muf&vQif cPcP wuúodkvftkyfcsKyfa&;rSm wrsKd;NyD;
wrsKd; uGJvGJp&m½Sdojzifh onf;rcHEkdifp&m tajcodkY a&muf½SdzG,f jrifayaMumif;[k qkdxm;yg\/ pmrsufESm
eHygwf (20) wGifvnf; Oya'jyKtzGJUrS wuúokdvfaumifpDokdY ukd,fpm;vS,f vTwfoifh? rvTwfoifh ta&;wGif
tvm;wl rSwcf suu
f dk awGU&avonf/ wuúov
dk t
f yk cf sKyfa&;ukd Ekid if aH &;tajymif;tvJtvku
d f r½So
d if[
h al om
xifjrifcsufukd uREkfyfwkdYvnf; BudKufyg\/ okdYjzpf&um; pmrsufESmeHygwf (26-28) wkdYwGif ,leDAmpDwD?
aumvdyf? aq;aumvdyf? q&mjzpfoifaumvdyfwkdYonf ¤if;wkdYukd tpkd;&u axmufyHhxm;í tpkd;&tkyfcsKyf
&rnf jzpfaMumif;[k axmufcHxm;onfukd awGU&aomtcg txl;tHhMozG,f&m jzpfygaMumif;? þokYdqkdvQif
tjrJwrf; y#dnmOf (tkdifpDtuf) trIxrf;wkdY\ tMuHay;csufvkdufemum trwfcsKyftzGJU atmufokdY aum
vdyfausmif;rsm; usa&mufojzifh EkdifiHa&;t&dyftwGif; usrnfr[kwfygavm? aumvdyfrsm; þodkYjzpfvQif
wuúov
dk v
f nf; Ekid if aH &;t&dyrf uif;Ekid af cs? xkYdaMumifh ,k'oefaumvdyu
f o
hJ Ydk tjcm;aumvdyrf sm;udk rxm;bJ
,k'oefaumvdyfukd wuúokdvfvufatmuf oGif;oifhayaMumif;? wuúokdvfonf aumvdyfausmif;rsm;r½Sd
bJ pmoifMum;jcif;ESifh aea&;xkdifa&;ukd ¤if;ukd,fwkdif aqmif½Gufjcif;tm;jzifh jzpfEkdifaMumif;? okdY&mwGif
wuúov
dk rf ½Sb
d J rnfonfah umvdyrf S rjzpfEidk ?f tu,fí aumvdyaf usmif; wausmif;onf þtcsuftvuf
rsm;udk oabmrwlygu wuúokdvftzGJU0if aumvdyftjzpf todrSwfrjyKbJ ¤if;ausmif;rsm;tm; wuúokdvf
pmar;yG0J ifciG u
hf dk ray;bJxm;í Oya'jyKtzGUJ vnf; aiGraxmufyb
hH J xm;&rnfjzpfaMumif;? xkad Mumifh ,k'oef
aumvdyf tkyfcsKyfa&;tzGJUukd jyKjyif&ef rjzpfEkdifqkdonfwGif jrbl;aumfrwDESifh uREkfyfwkYd oabmcsif;rwlay/
,k'oefaumvdyfonf þtcsufrsm; rvkdufemvQif wuúokdvfrS xGufoGm;EkdifonhftaMumif;ukd ½Sif;vif;
jywfom;pGm odap&rnf jzpfaMumif;/
17/ ¤if;jyif wuúokdvfaumifpDonf wu,ftmPm½Sdaom aumvdyfausmif;rsm;tay: MoZmtmPmanmif;&ef
twGuf Oya'jyKtzGUJ u ESppf OfEpS w
f idk ;f wuúov
dk t
f wGuf owfrw
S af om bwf*sufaiGpm&if;ukd wuúov
dk o
f Ydk
om wkduf½kduf ay;apvkdaMumif;? xkdrSwzef aumvdyfrsm;okdY wuúokdvfu a0pkcsay;oifhaMumif;/ þtcsuf
114

udkvdkeDacwfaESmif; - 1937 rS 1938 - e,fcsJYqefhusifa&; vGwfvyfa&;BudK;yrf;rI trsKd;om;a&;toGif
rsm;wGif uREkfyfwkdYonf a'gufwm tufpfata&mhzfwf wifjycsufESifh oabmwlnDygaMumif;/
18/ ,ck qkdtyfcJh&NyD;onfh aumvdyftkyfcsKyfa&;tzGJUwkdYukd wuúokdvfuzGJUpnf;í atmufyg a,bk,sZ,m;
twkdif; zGJUpnf;oifhaMumif;/
- tpkd;&t&m½Sd r[kwfaom aumvdyfausmif;q&mvnf;r[kwfaom wuúokdvfaumifpDu wifajr§mufonfh
vlBuD; (7) a,muf?
- qD;edwfynma&;tzGJUrS (1) a,muf
- ausmif;om;rsm;u wifajr§mufaom vlBuD; (1) a,muf
- ausmif;q&mrsm;rS (1) a,muf
- ausmif;tkyfESifh (q&mjzpfoifaumvdyftwGufom) 'kwd,t"dywdESifh ynmrif;BuD;
- (,leDAmpDwDaumvdyftwGufom) tif*sifeD,mygarmu©
- (aq;aumvdyftwGufom ) jrefrmjynfaq;rif;BuD;
- (,k'oefaumvdyftwGufom) tar&duefomoemjyKtoif;rS (3) a,muf
- ausmif;om;rsm;u wifajr§muftyfaom vlBuD;rSm ausmif;om;rSvGJí &D*spfpwm rSwfykHwifpm&if;oGif;NyD;
wuúokdvfbGJUxl;&olrsm;omru tjcm;vlBuD;rsm;xJrSvnf; jzpfoifhaMumif;/
19/ pmrsufESmeHygwf (14) jrbl;tpD&ifcHpmwGif tufOya'yk'fr (C) qkdvdktyfaom o½kyft"dyÜg,f½SdvsufESifh
trIaqmifaumfrwDonf wuúov
dk af umifp\
D tzGUJ r[kw[
f k qkx
d m;onf/ uREyfk w
f Ydkonf þonfudk oabm
rwl/ yk'rf 2 (C) wGif ay;xm;aom o½kyaf zmfjycsurf mS aocsmpGm rSeu
f efaMumif;? þxifjrifcsuw
f iG f trIaqmif
tzGJUrSm wifajr§muftyfaom vlBuD;rsm;ESifh wuúokdvft&m½Sdrsm;om ½Sdaejcif;u txl;axmufcHvsufyif
½SdayaMumif;? xkdYaMumifh yk'fr 2 (C) ukd rajymif;oifh? ½SdjrJ½Sdapí trIaqmifaumfrwDudkvnf; trIaqmif
aumifpD[k rajymif;vJoifh? trIaqmifaumfrwD tcGifha&;ESifhywfoufí jrbl;aumfrwD okdYavm? okdYavm
awG;awmaep&m rvk?d ½So
d rQtm;vk;H tmPmwkYd udk wuúov
dk af umifpt
D m;vTí
J xkYd aemufrS pwufusLrsm;t&
trIaqmiftzGJUokdY vTJtyfoifhayaMumif;/
20/ qD;edwfukd ynmoifaumifpD[kac:&ef axmufcHcsufudk uREkfyfwkdY uefYuGuf&efrjrif/ þynmoifaumifpD
[lonfh pum;onf qD;edwftzGJU\ &nf½G,fcsufvkyfief;udk ykdrkdxif½Sm;apygvQif bkwf (½kH;) [k wuúokdvf
aumifpD tpm;ay;xm;aom ¤if;\ &nf½G,fcsufvkyfief;udk omíyif rodomaponf[k xifygaMumif;/
xkdYaMumifh wuúokdvfaumifpD[kyif ½Sd&if;pGJemrnfukd xm;oifhaMumif;? okdYr[kwf ynmoifaumifpDrS cGJjcm;
jyovkdrluvnf; tkyfcsKyfa&;aumifpD[k ajymif;vJapvkdygaMumif;/
21/ pmrsufESm (15) (jrbl;tpD&ifcHpm) wGif 'kwd,t"dywdukd a½G;aumuf&rnf[laom axmufcHcsufudk
MudKufEpS o
f ufay\/ okYd &mwGif þuJo
h Ydk wuúov
dk af umifpu
D a½G;aumufwifajr§mufaom 'kw,
d t"dywdudk
csefq,fvm t"dywd\ oabmwlncD suf ½Srd nfqo
dk nfrmS taMumif;rwefvaS y/ wuúov
dk o
f nf tmPm½Sd
aom tzGJUjzpfoifhonfh twkdif;? ¤if;a½G;aumufwifajr§mufvkdaom 'kwd,t"dywdudk a½G;aumuf xkdufay
onf/ xkdokdY a½G;aumufaom 'kwd,t"dywdudk oabmrusEkdifaom t"dywdukd uREkfyfwkdY awG;í r&acs/
22/ wuúov
dk af umifp0D ifvBl uD;rsm;wGif Oya't& jyifyrS tpk;d &t&m½Sv
d nf; r[kw?f wuúov
dk t
f &m½Sv
d nf; r[kw?f
aumvdyaf usmif;q&mvnf; r[kwaf om vlBuD;trsm;tjym;yg0if&ef ½So
d ifah om awmif;qkcd suu
f kd uREyfk w
f Ydk t
xl; axmufcHaMumif;? jrbl;aumfrwDu þawmif;qkdcsufonf tpkd;&drfvGefí awmif;qkdjcif; jzpfonf[k
qk\
d / okYd&mwGif þokYdp;dk &drjf cif;onf tpd;k &wuúov
dk f okYdr[kwf aumvdyt
f &m½Srd sm;jzpfaom tpk;d &t&m½Srd sm;
tay: MoZmtmPm ysHUESHYaprnfxifí jzpfonfqkd&mü rSm;\/ uREkfyfwkdY pkd;&drfonfhtaMumif;rSm tpkd;&
uRefrsm;omru? jynfa&;jynf&mukd vkdufpm;aom vlBuD;rsm;ESifh ausmif;om;rsm;ukdyif zkH;vTrf;aeaom
uRefpdwftwGuf pk;d &drjf cif;jzpfayonf/ xku
d Repf w
d af Mumifh tpk;d &tvkyf r&&m r&aMumif;? tpk;d & todtrSwf
r&&m? r&aMumif; [k xifaom t&mwkdYwGif þuJhokdY vlrsKd;rsm;rSm rm;rm;rwfrwf wkdif;jynfzufrS rae0Hhay/
23/ ynmoifa&;oufouf tzGJUrsm;wGif q&mrsm;ukd avsmhvkdjcif;ukd jrbl;aumfrwDu txl;aMumufvefYaomf
vnf; uREkyf w
f Ydk um; þrQpk;d &drzf ,
G &f mr½S[
d k xifygaMumif;? ynmoifMum;a&; oufouftzGUJ rsm; tay:wGif
tjyifyvltrsm; ½SdoihfaMumif; awmif;qkdcsufrSm r½Sday/
24/ wuúokdvfaumifpD0ifvlBuD;rsm;\ta&twGufukd twnfwusrxm;&efukd jrbl;aumfrwDESifh oabmwl
ygaMumif;? t"dywdcseq
f ,fvmESihf wGb
J ufcseq
f ,fvmwkYd aumifp0D ifvBl uD;rsm; r[kwo
f ifq
h adk om axmufcH
115

jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif; - atmifxGef;
csufukdvnf; uefYuGufp&mr½Sdyg/ okdY&mwGif wGJbufcsefq,fvmonf aumifpDukd rdefYcGef;ajymMum;&ef
t"dywd\ wlnDcsuf&&rnfqkdonfwGif 'kwd,csefq,fvmonf aumifpD\ cs,f,mrifjzpfí ynmrif;
BuD;ESifh aumvdyfausmif;tkyfrsm;onf aumifpD0ifvlBuD;jzpfjcif;udk ruefYuGufyg/
25/ &efuek Nf rdKU½Sd t*Fvyd cf &pf,mef*P
dk ;f ESihf ½krd efuufovpf*P
dk ;f tkyw
f Ydk tm; aumifp0D ifvBl uD;jzpfjcif;udk oabm
rwlyg/ xkdenf;twkdif; omoemykdiftm; aumifpDvlBuD; (2) OD; wifajr§muf&ef tcGifhta&;udkvnf; oabm
rwlyg/ xkdaMumifh yk'fr 11 (1)(C)(i) ESifh (n) wdkYudk wuúokdvftufrS xkwfy,f&ef tMuHay;ygaMumif;/
26/ þenf;twkdif; yk'fr 11 (1)(c) ESifh yk'fr (1)(¡) wkdYwGif ay;xm;aom omoema&;ESifhqkdifaom toif;rsm;
tm; tcGifha&;ay;jcif;ukd oabmrwlyg/ þyk'frtao;wkdYukd y,fzsufí trsKd;om;ynma&;tzGJU(pDtiftD;)
rS (2) a,muf uk,
d pf m;vS,w
f ifciG ?hf tjcm; (10) a,mufukd ynma&;ESiq
hf idk af om tzGUJ rsm;tm; wzGUJ pDjzpfap?
wGJíjzpfap wifajr§mufcGifhay;&ef wkdufwGef;ygaMumif;/
27/ ynmoifMum;a&;aumifpDrS wuúokdvfaumifpDokdY wifajr§mufxdkufaom OD;a&onf wuúokdvfaumifpDrS
ynmoifMum;aomaumifpDokdY wifaom OD;a&ESifh wlnDrQxm;oifhaMumif;? xkdYaMumifh yk'fr 11 (1)(Z) udk
þenf;twkid ;f jyifapvkyd gaMumif;? okYdr[kwf ,ckvuf½t
dS wkid ;f OD;a&xm;vkyd gu atmufygtwkid ;f þyk'rf ukd
jyifapvkdygaMumif;/
]]ygarmu© 5 OD;xufrykdaom ynma&;aumifpD0ifvlBuD; 10 OD; aumifpD0if vlBuD; jzpf&rnf/}}
þtwkdif; jzpfygu yk'fr 14 (1)(i) ukdvnf; ynmoifMum;a&;aumifpDokdY tjyifyrSvlBuD;
(10) a,muf wuúokdvfaumifpDu wifajr§mufEkdifatmif jyifqifay;vkdygaMumif;? yxrtMuHay;csufudk
vufcHygrlum;? pmrsufESmeHygwf (25) jrbl;tpD&ifcHpmwGif axmufcHcsufudk oabmwlygaMumif;/
28/ wuúokdvfaumifpDwGif rSwfykHwifwuúokdvfbGJUxl;rsm;tm; ukd,fpm;vS,fwifajr§mufa&;ESifh ywfoufí
yk'fr 11 (u)(ps) udk jyifqif&ef jrbl;aumfrwDu tMuHay;&mwGif rSwfykHwifwuúokdvfbGJUxl;&ol (50)
vQif wa,mufus aumifpDvlBuD; ½Sd&rnf[kqkdaomtcsufudk oabmwlygaMumif;? okdY&mwGiftenf;qHk;
wuúokdvfbGJUxl;&olrsm; (10) a,muf aumifpDwGif ½Sd&rnfjzpfonfukd oabmwlaomfvnf; (15) a,muf
xufryk&d [kqo
dk nfudk oabmrwlyg/ txufoYdk OD;a&rnfrQ uefYowf&ef rxm;oifyh g/ xku
d o
hJ Ydk wuúov
dk f
bGUJ xl;&olrsm; aumifpw
D iG f rsm;avaumif;av jzpfygaMumif;? þuJo
h Udk jyKojzifh ¤if;wkYd OD;a&rSmvnf; tqrwef
rsm;vm&ef r½Sdyg/ xkdokdY bGJUxl;&olrsm;jzpfaom aumifpD0ifvlBuD;rsm;rSm tenf;qkH; (75) &mckdifEIef;rSm
tjyiftyvlBuD;rsm; jzpfoifyh gaMumif;? ausmif;om;rsm; 'D*&DbUJG xl;rsm;udk &MuonfEiS hf wNydKifeuf rSwyf w
Hk if
bGJUxl;&olrsm;tjzpfodkY a&mufoifhygonf/ wuúokdvfbGJUxl;rsm;ukd &½SdNyD;olrsm;onf xkdtcsdef xdktcgwGif
wuúokdvftwGuf Oya'tzGJU0ifvlBuD;? wuúokdvfaumifpD0ifvlBuD;rsm;udk a½G;cs,f&ef pOf;pm; csifhcsdefwwf
aom t½G,fa&mufNyD;[k ,lqoifhygonf/ ausmif;om;rsm;onf ta½G;aumufrcH&[k pnf;urf;xm;vQif
uREkfyfwkdY\ tMuHOmPfudk vufcHEkdifzG,f r½Sdyg/ jrbl;tpD&ifcHpm pmrsufESmeHygwf (19) wGif rSwfykHwif
tcaiG 10d^- jzpfoifhonf[laom axmufcHcsufukd oabmwlygaMumif;/
29/ &efukef? rEÅav;? ppfawG? armfvNrdKifjrLeDpy,frsm;rS aumifpDokdY ukd,fpm;vS,f vTwfjcif;ukd ½SdjrJ½Sdapoifh
ygonf/ xkdxuftvGef jynf? yJcl;? awmifilNrdKUrsm;rS jrLeDpDyg,frsm;udkvnf; ukd,fpm;vS,fwOD;pD wifEkdifcGifh
ay;oifhygonf/ þNrdKUrsm;rSmvnf; NrdKUBuD;rsm;jzpfygonf/ þokdYay;ojzifh ¤if;ukd,fpm;vS,frsm;ESifh tjcm;
jrLeDpDyg,ftzGJUwkdYtm; ¤if;wkdYt&yfrS wuúokdvf ausmif;om;rsm;tm; aiGaxmufcHpm? tpD&ifcHpm pmrsufESm
(9) wGif tMuHay;onfhtwkdif; jzpfEkdifzG,f&m½SdaMumif;/
30/ wuúokdvfaumifpDwGif Oya'jyKtzGJUrS ukd,fpm;vS,frsm; ½Sdoifhayonf/ NAdwdoQygvDrefESifh atmufpzkdY
wuúokdvfwkdY qufoG,fa&;ESifh &efukefwuúokdvfESifh jrefrmjynfvTwfawmf qufoG,fa&;rSm rwlay/
tpD&ifcHpm pmrsufESm (20-21) wkdYwGif jrbl;aumfrwDu aumifpDokdY ukd,fpm;vS,f vTwfcGifh vTwfawmftm;
tifwifwif ay;xm;aomfvnf; pmrsuEf mS (26-28) wGiu
f m; aumvdyaf usmif;rsm;udk tkycf sKyf&ef tpk;d &vuf
okdY 0uGufí tyfvkdufayonf/ pifppftm;jzifh vTwfawmfokdY wifajr§mufvkdufaom ukd,fpm;vS,frsm;onf
Ekid if aH &; t,ltrsK;d rsK;d rS jzpfEidk af yonf/ okY&d mwGif tpk;d &tzGUJ zGUJ NyD;í aqmif½u
G v
f Qiu
f m; Ekid if aH &; t,ltjrif
wrsKd;wnf; ½Sdrnfjzpfonf/ xkdYaMumifh vTwfawmftm; aumifpDukd,fpm;vTwf&ef tcGifhta&;ay;jcif;onf
aumvdyfrsm;udk tpkd;&vuftyfonfxuf pkd;&drfaMumifhMup&m enf;ayonf/ pmrsufESmeHygwf (21) wGif
txufEiS hf atmufvw
T af wmfwYdk tm; a0ykcH sxm;aom OD;a&udk oabmrwlyg/ txufvw
T af wmfrS aumifpo
D Ydk
116

udkvdkeDacwfaESmif; - 1937 rS 1938 - e,fcsJYqefhusifa&; vGwfvyfa&;BudK;yrf;rI trsKd;om;a&;toGif
(2) a,muf? atmufvTwfawmfrS aumifpDokdY (8) a,muf vTwfoifhaMumif;? þonfomvQif vTwfawmf
(2) ck OD;a&ESifh tcsKd;usayonf/
31/ aumifpo
D Ydk ausmif;om;rsm;u uk,
d pf m;vS,w
f a,muf wifajrm§ ufoifo
h nf[k axmufccH suf (pmrsuEf mS -21) udk
zwf&í 0rf;ajrmufygaMumif;? okYd &mwGif a½G;aumufwifajr§mufc&H aom vlBuD;onf rSwyf w
Hk ifbUJG xl;&olrsm;
rSom r[kw?f ausmif;om;r[kwaf om tjcm;vlrsm;rSvnf; jzpfoifyh gonf/ wuúov
dk o
f nf ¤if;\ ausmif;
om;rsm;tm; trSm;ESifhtrSef a0cGJEdkif&ef oifMum;&eftwGuf jzpf\/ xkduJhodkY ynmoifay;onf qkdygu
&efuek w
f uúov
dk o
f nf ¤if;ausmif;om;rsm;\ a0zefaompdwu
f dk ,kMH unfxu
dk \
f / oifah wmfou
l o
dk m aumif
pDokdY wifajr§mufrnf[k oHo,½Sdp&m r½Sd/ jrbl;aumfrwDu þuJhokdY ausmif;om;ukd,fpm;vS,f xm;jcif;
onf oifhawmfvSonfhtcsuf wuúokdvfvkyfief;w&yf[k rxif[k qkd&mü uREkfyfwkdYum; xkdodkYrMunfh?
ausmif;om;rsm;\ uk,
d pf m;vS,o
f nf ausmif;om;wkYd tzkYd aumifpw
D iG f aps;qpf&efr[kw?f ausmif;om;wkYd \
tmoDotrSef oabmxm; ajymMum;&eftwGuf jzpf\/
32/ tpD&ifcpH meHygwf (21) wGif 'kw,
d cseq
f ,fvma[mif;wkYdukd aumifp0D if &moufyefvBl uD;rsm; jzpfoifo
h nf[k
axmufcHcsufukd oabmrwl? ¤if;trIxrf;ukd tjcm;enf;jzifh todrSwfjyKvkdu jyKEkdif\/
33/ wuúov
dk af umifp\
D oufwrf;onf (3) ESpyf if jzpfoifo
h nf[k pmrsuEf mS eHygwf (22) wGif axmufccH suu
f dk
oabmwlygaMumif;? okdY&mwGif a½G;aumufyGJrSm wBudrfwnf; jzpfapvkdaMumif;? Mum;a½G;aumufyGJwGif
ta½G;cH&olonf umvtykdif;tjcm;twGufom aumifpDvlBuD;jzpfoifhí okH;ESpfwBudrf a½G;aumufyGJBuD;
½SdapvkdaMumif;? þuJhokdYjzpfvQif wuúokdvfta&;ukd ykdrkd vltrsm; pdwf0ifpm;zG,f&m jzpfygonf/
34/ omreftm;jzifh wuúokdvfaumifpDonf wESpfvQif (2) Budrf pnf;a0;oifhygí tpnf;ta0;rSwfwrf;
ykYd &müum; (tpD&ifcpH m pmrsufEmS 23) wuúov
dk t
f rIaqmiftzGUJ ? qD;edwt
f rIaqmiftzGUJ ESihf aumvdyt
f yk cf sKyf
a&;tzGJUwkdY\ rSwfwrf;wkdYukd tpnf;ta0;NyD;onfhaemuf (14) &uf twGif; (þrSwfwrf; tykd'f-16
t&) aumifpDvlBuD;rsm;xHokdY ykdYoifhaMumif;? MumrSykdYvQif ta&;,l&ef cJ,Of;rnf jzpfojzifh aumifpDrSm
,ckuJhodkY 'kHY&if;jyefaeOD;rnf jzpfaMumif;/
35/ pmrsufESm (24) wGif aumifpDrSwifajr§mufaom wuúokdvftrIaqmiftzGJU0ifvlBuD; (7) OD; pvkH; tjyifrS
vlBuD;rsm; jzpfoifhaMumif;/
36/ ref;Oypmaumvdyu
f dk wuúov
dk t
f rIaqmiftzGUJ okYd vTt
J yf&ef pmrsuEf mS (25) wGif jrbl;aumfrwD\ axmufcH
csufukd pOf;pm;&mwGif uREkfyfwkdYonf Oypmtwef;rsm;ukd ynmrif;BuD;u tkyfcsKyfoifh? rtkyfcsKyfoifhudk
vnf; pOf;pm;aqG;aEG;rdaomfvnf; tcsut
f vufpv
Hk ifpmG rod½&dS í ,wdjywf qk;H jzwfcsuf rusygaMumif;?
okYd&mwGif pmrsuEf mS (34) wGif jrbl;aumfrwDu Oypmausmif; (3-4) ausmif;cefY tjcm;NrdKUrsm;wGif (1-2) ESpf
twGi;f xm;&ef axmufccH sufudk uREkyf w
f Ydk txl;tm;ay;ygaMumif;? tu,fí Oypmwef;rsm;onf wuúov
dk f
ynma&; tqift
h wef;yif jzpfoifo
h nfqydk gvQif uREyfk w
f Ydk þrSww
f rf;tyk'd f (17) wGif qkcd o
hJ nfh tm;avsmpf mG
wuúokdvfu Oypmaumvdyfrsm;ukd tkyfcsKyfjcif;udk oabmwlygonf/ þOypmaumvdyfrsm; ta&;wGif
txl;ojzifh rEÅav;aumvdyfta&;wGif þodkYtkyfcsKyfenf;udk jrbl;aumfrwDonf tb,faMumihf BudKufESpf
ouf&oenf;udk pOf;pm;ír& jzpfygaMumif;? tb,faMumifhqkdaomf pmrsufESm (26? 28) wGifum; tjcm;
wGJbufaumvdyfrsm;ESifh ywfoufí þaxmufcHcsufESifh txl;qefYusifí axmufcHjcif;yifwnf;/ uREkfyfwkdY
tm;vkH; aumvdyfrsm;udk wuúokdvfucsnf; tkyfcsKyf&rnfukd av;eufpGm xyfawmif;qkd vkduf&ayaMumif;/
37/ ref;Oypmaumvdyfta&;ukd pOf;pm;&mwGif jrefrmtpkd;&ESifh Oya'jyKtzGJUodkY rEÅav;aumvdyftm; tcsdef
rqGJbJ 'D*&DaumvdyftjzpfokdY jr§ifhwifyg&ef owday;&ygaMumif;/
38/ ynmoifMum;a&;aumifpD (qD;edwf) wGif wuúokdvfaumifpD ukd,fpm;vS,fOD;a& ig;OD;odkY wifajr§muf&ef
axmufcHcsufukd uREkfyfwkdY rSwfwrf;tykd'f (21) wGif qkdcJhonfhtwkdif; axmufcHygaMumif;/
39/ pmrsufESm (26) jrbl;tpD&ifcHpmwGif wuúokdvftufOya' yk'fr (21)? yk'fri,f (2) ukd jyif&ef axmufcH
csufwGif taMumif;rjrif? tb,faMumifh wuúokdvf0ifcGifhOya' xm;&mwGif bk&ifcHESifhaumifpD oabm
wlnDcsuf ½dS&rnfukd awG;qír&yg/ xkdYaMumifh yk'fr 21 (2) wGif bk&ifcHcsKyfESifh aumifpDtkyfcsKyfjcif;udk
twnfxm;í jyKqkdaom pum;rsm;ukd y,fxkwfapvkdaMumif;/
40/ pmrsufESm (29) wGif ygarmu©rsm;ukdk wuúokdvftrIaqmifu cefYoifhonf[k axmufcHcsufukd oabmwl
ygaMumif;? wuúokdvftrIaqmifonf pwufusLt& wuúokdvftmPmykdiftzGJU wckjzpfoifhonf[k jrbl;
117

jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif; - atmifxGef;
aumfrwD\ axmufcHcsuftwkdif; topfwuúokdvf tufOya'wGif xkdokdYjzpfvdrfhrnf[k ,lqaMumif;? xkd
okdYjzpfvQif wuúokdvfaumifpDu trIaqmifu ygarmu©cefYxm;a&;ukd jyefvnfppfaq;cGifh½Sdonf[k ,lq
aMumif; xdkokdYr[kwfygu xdktcsuftvufudk xnfhoGif;apvkdaMumif; qD;edwftrIaqmifESifh wuúokdvftrI
aqmifwYkd tcsif;rsm;MuvQif t"dywdr[kwfbJ wuúokdvfaumifpDxHom tqkH;tjzwfcHoifhygaMumif;/
41/ pmrsufESm (29) wGif yk'rf (23) t& wuúov
dk af umifpu
D pwufusLrsm; jyKvkyEf idk cf iG hf? y,fzsufcGi?fh jyifqif
cGiEhf iS hf ywfoufí jyKjyif&ef axmufccH suu
f dk txl;oabmrusaMumif;? þaxmufccH suu
f m; aemufjyefqw
k f
jcif; jzpfaMumif;? þyk'frrSm wuúokdvftufOya'wGif ESpfaygif; (13) ESpfrQ½SdNyD jzpfí ,cktxd þyk'frudk
wuúokdvfaumifpDu tvGJokH;pm;rjyKcJhonfukd axmufí tdE´d,wuúokdvfrsm;wGif þyk'frudk ei,ftNrD;
wyfonfudk þwuúov
dk u
f vnf; vku
d w
f yfp&m rvkad y/ xkdYaMumifh yk'rf (23) ukd jyifqifjcif;ukd uREkyf w
f Ydk
oabmrusay/
42/ pmrsufESm (31) wGif pwufusL (33-34) wkdYukd tmPmcsKyfuGyf&ef jyifqifcsufukd oabmrusonfhtjyif
uREkfyfwkdY þrSwfwrf; (16) tykd'fwGif azmfjyxm;onfhtwkdif; jyifqifapvkdygaMumif;/
43/ pmrsuEf mS (41) wGif aumvdyt
f yk cf sKyfa&;tzGUJ rsm;\ Ouú|ESihf 'kOuú| wkYdudk a½G;aumuf wifajr§mufoifo
h nf
[k axmufcHcsufukd oabmwlygonf/
44/ pmrsufESm (31) wGif ,leDAmpwDaumvdyfausmif; tkyfcsKyfa&;tzGJUwGif ausmif;om;ukd,fpm;vS,fwOD;
ygxku
d o
f nf[k axmufccH suu
f dk oabmwlygonf/ okYd &mwGif þrSww
f rf; (19) wGif azmfjyxm;onft
h wkid ;f
ajr§mufwifí vlBuD;rSm ausmif;om;r[kwfonfh wuúokdvfbGJUxl;&olrsm;om r[kwfbJ tjcm;vlMuD;rsm;rS
vnf; ajr§mufEkdifcGifh &apvkdygaMumif;( tykd'f-32 ukdvnf; Munfhyg)/
45/ pmrsufESm (31) wGif ,leDAmpwDaumvdyfausmif;tkyfcsKyfa&;tzGJUokdY ausmif;tkyfMuD;u ajr§mufolonf
ygarmu©csnf; r[kwb
f J jzpfEidk o
f nf[k jrbl;aumfrwD\ axmufccH sufukd oabmwlvifu
h pm; ausmif;tkyf
tm; þokdY wifajr§mufcGifhay;jcif;udk oabmrwlyg/ pmrsufESm (31) xkdtykd'fxJwGif axmufcHxm;onfh
twkdif; tkyfcsKyfa&;tzGJUwGif ausmif;q&m (2) a,muf½Sd&eftpm; þrSwfwrf;tykd'f (19) wGif wifjychJonfh
twkdif; q&mwOD;wnf; ½SdoifhygaMumif;/
46/ wuúokdvf0ifcGifh ta&;ESifhywfoufí [kdufpul;zkdife,fpmar;yGJukd (9) ESpf tcsdeftwGuf owfrSwfygvQif
pmrsufESm (34) yxr axmufcHcsufudk oabmwlygonf/ okdYr[kwf [kdufpul;pmar;yGJESifh wuúokdvf
0ifcGifhpmar;yGJ cGJíppf&ef tMuHay;ygonf/ ausmif;om;rsm;onf (2) ck pvkH;ukdjzpfap? wckwefonfjzpf
ap 0ifEidk cf iG &hf ½Sí
d wuúov
dk 0f ifciG hf pmar;yGaJ tmifow
l Ydk om wuúov
dk pf mar;yGrJ sm;ukd ajzqdck iG &hf xku
d af Mumif;?
yx0DESifh &mZ0ifbmom paomar;cGef;rsm;wGif twlwlar;Ekdif&ef taMumif;½SdaMumif;/
47/ jrbl;aumfrwDonf pmrsuEf mS eHygwf (35) wGif wuúov
dk w
f ck jyKvkypf rD yH t
Hk wkid ;f qkv
d Qif ausmif;om;rsm;ESihf
ausmif;q&mrsm; &if;&if;ES;D ES;D r½SMd u[k0efc\
H / okYd &mwGif q&mrsm;ukd az;wD;az;r þuJo
h Ykd r&if;ES;D jcif;onf
ausmif;om;rsm;tm;awGU&ef tcsdefr½Sdí qkdjcif;udk uREkfyfwkdY oabmrwlay/ uREkfyfwdkY oabmt&um;
q&mrsm; txl;ojzifh txufwef;q&mBuD;rsm;rSm tcsdefykd vkHavmufpGm &Muonf[k xif\/ ,k'oef
aumvdyfwGif q&mrsm;ESifh ausmif;om;rsm; txl;&if;ESD;Mu\/ ,leDAmpwDaumvdyfwGifum; xl;xl;jcm;jcm;
txufwef;q&mrsm;ESifh ausmif;om;rsm;rSm tjrJwOD;ukdwOD; apmifvsuf½SdMu\/ þtcsufukd wuúokdvf
onf owdcsyrf ad pvk\
d / þwGif &efuek w
f uúov
dk o
f r*¾toif;tm; tm;vk;H ausmif;om;rsm;ESihf ausmif;q&m
rsm;onf toif;om;rsm;jzpf&rnf[k Oya'xm;í ausmif;om;rsm; tpki,fzGJUí ¤if;wkdYukd zdwfMum;awGUqkH
ygvQif trSefokdY a&mufvdrfhrnf[k xifygaMumif;/ &efukefwuúokdvfor*¾toif;ukdvnf; vwfwavm
aumvdyfESifh wuúokdvfausmif;om;rsm;udpw
ö kdYwGif wuúokdvfaumvdyfwkdYukd wifoGif;ajymzkdY cGifhjyKoifhay
aMumif;? ¤if;tjyif or*¾toif;udk Oya'topfwGif pwufusLt&xm;vQif ab;jzpfp&m rjrifygaMumif;/
48/ wuúokdvf wGJbufaumvdyfrsm;twGif; tvkkyfvkyfykHrsm;ESifh ywfoufí pkHprf;a&;aumfr½Sifwck zGJUpnf;&ef
pmrsufESm (36) wGif azmfjyxm;aom qD;edwftzGJU\ awmif;yefcsufudk uREkfyfwdkYruefYuGuf? okdY&mwGif
xkdaumfr½Sifukdapmihfpm;í tufOya'jyifqifa&;ukdum; raESmifhaES;apvdk/
49/ þrSww
f rf; ed*;Hk rcsKyfrD uREyfk w
f Ydk txl;wku
d w
f eG ;f vkad omtcsuu
f m; wuúov
dk o
f nf jrefrmpmjzifh bmom&yf
rsm;ukd oifMum;&eftwGuf pnf;rsOf;ususee csxm;oifhonf[k xifygaMumif;/ þae&mwGif wuúokdvf
onf tpd;k &ESihf yl;aygif;í vkyu
f idk &f rnf jzpfaMumif;/ ,ckupí xkt
d a&;twGuf pcef;poifNh yD jzpfaMumif;/
118

udkvdkeDacwfaESmif; - 1937 rS 1938 - e,fcsJYqefhusifa&; vGwfvyfa&;BudK;yrf;rI trsKd;om;a&;toGif
pwdwpf aumvm ynmawmfoifrsm;udk ¤if;wkYd jyefvmvQif cefYxm;&rnf[k &nf½,
G í
f vTwo
f ifNh yDjzpfaMumif;?
rMumrDcsufcsif; bmomjyefMum;a&;tzGUJ wckukd aiGtvkt
H avmufjzifh cefYxm;í &mZ0if? abm*aA'? avmu
"gwfusrf; trsKd;rsKd;wkdYudk jrefrmbmomwkdY jyefMum;tyfvSNyD jzpfaMumif;/
(wkid ;f jynf\ tñGeYftan§muf tem*wfjrefrmjynf? jrefrmwEkid if v
H ;Hk tBuD;qk;H uREyfk w
f Ydk\ ausmif;om;toif;ukd
aiGtm;jzifh csD;jr§ifhawmfrlMuyg/)
¤if;tpD&ifcHpmukd jrefrmjynftpkd;& ynma&;XmeokdY ArmEkdifiHvkH;qkdif&mausmif;om;rsm;or*¾
toif;\ tvkyftrIaqmifu wifoGif;cJhavonf/ jrefrmjynftESHYtjym;½Sd ausmif;om;rsm;xHokdYykdY&m
tNrdKUNrdKU½Sd ausmif;om;rsm;u jrbl;tpD&ifcpH m? or*¾tpD&ifcpH mwkYd ukd aqG;aEG;NyD;aemuf tpnf;ta0;BuD;rsm;
usif;yum atmufygqkH;jzwfcsufrsm; csrSwfcJhonf/
(1) jrbl; tpD&ifcpH mwGif azmfjyxm;onfh axmufccH suw
f YdkrmS rsm;pGmrausreyfz,
G f jzpf½o
Hk mru tvGew
f &m
nhHzsif;vSojzifh þausmif;om;rsm;\ tpnf;ta0;MuD;u tjyif;txef uefYuGufaMumif;?
(2) jrefrmEkdifiHvkH;qkdif&m ausmif;om;rsm;or*¾toif;u cefYtyfaom aumfrwDtm; jrbl;tpD&ifcHpmESifh
ywfoufí pmwrf;½Snf a&;onfhtwGuf txl;yif aus;Zl;yum&wifygaMumif;? ¤if;tjyif tpD&ifcH
pmwGifygonfh tcsufwkdYudk vkH;0OókH axmufcH½kHru ¤if;tpD&ifcHpmESifh ywfoufí vkyf&efudpt
ö 00
wkdYukd aqmif½Gufygrnf[k uwdjyKygaMumif;/
(3) wuúokdvfOya'Murf; topf tvsiftjrefwifoGif;jzpfatmif tvsiftjrefta&;,lí atmufvTwf
awmfESifh txufvTwfawmfwGif jyXmef;Muyg&ef Oya'jyKvTwfawmftrwfrsm;tm; awmif;yefygaMumif;/
txufygqkH;jzwfcsufrsm;udk qkH;jzwf½kHru wuúokdvfOya'Murf;topf wifoGif;jzpfatmif Auotoif;rS
trIaqmifu txl;BudK;yrf;aeMuonf/
(Z-3) 1937-38 Auo\ vkyfaqmifrIrsm;
1/ rEÅav;uGefz&ifh\ qkH;jzwfcsuftwkdif; uGefz&ihfusif;yNyD; aemufaeYwGif rEÅav;NrdKU ae&mtESHYtjym;ü
trsKd;om;wuúov
dk f &efyaHk iGtwGuf aumufccH MhJ uonf/ e,ftoD;oD;rS or*¾toif;rsm;uvnf; trsKd;om;
wuúokdvftwGuf aiGaumufcHí &efukefNrdKUtrsKd;om;wuúodkvf tusKd;aqmifaiGxdef;xHokdY ay;ykdYcJhonf/
tvkyftrIaqmiftzGJU0if ukdA[def;onf trsKd;om;wuúokdvf oydwfarSmufacgif;aqmifudkEkESifhtwl txuf
Armjynf tESHYtjym;wGif trsKd;om;wuúokdvftwGuf w&m;a[majymcJhonf/
2/ awmifi?l ppfawG? armfvNrdKif? ajrmif;jr tp½Sad omNrdKUwkYd rS tcsKdUausmif;om;rsm;\ epfemcsufrsm;ukd wkid w
f ef;
csuft& aqmif½Gufay;chJonf/ a&eHacsmif;trsKd;om;ausmif;wGif oydwfarSmufrIjzpf&m udpöNyD;Nidrf;atmif
aqmif½GufcJh\/ tcsKdUausmif;rsm;wGif oydwfarSmufrIrsm;jzpf&m w&uftwGif; NyD;pD;oGm;í tcsKdUrSm
ausmif;tkyfcsKyfolcsif; roifhrwifhjzpfí vnf;aumif;? wkdYrD; ½IdUrD;wkdY\ ya,m*aMumifhaomfvnf;aumif;
jzpfjcif;aMumifh or*¾toif;MuD;u 0ifí rpGufzufcJhay/
3/ uGefz&ifhqkH;jzwfcsuft& ausmif;ydwf&uf½Snfrsm;wGif aus;vufjyKjyifa&; aqmif½GufEkdif&ef pnf;rsOf;ukd
tvkyftrIaqmiftzGJU0if ukdausmfjrifhtm; vTJxm;NyD; ukdausmfjrifhMuD;rSL;onfhtzGJUokdY vTJtyfxm;onf/
e,for*¾toif;rsm;wGif ppfawGNrdKUuvGJí taysmfwrf;wyf[lí rzGJUpnf;&ao;aMumif; awGU&onf/
4/ uGezf &if\
h qk;H jzwfcsut
f & ausmif;om;rsm;or*¾ tpnf;ta0;wkid ;f tpnf;ta0;tpESihf tNyD;wGif trsKd;om;
oDcsif;ukd oDqkdMuonf/ ,cktcg wkdYArmoDcsif;\ aemufqkH;tykd'fukd trsKd;om;oDcsif;[k todrSwfjyKxm;
onf/ trsKd;om;oDcsif;ukd pkHprf;&eftwGuf tzGJUi,fwckukd zGJUpnf;xm;NyD;NyD jzpfonf/
5/ atmufygNrKdUrsm;wGif or*¾toif;rsm;ukd zGJYpnf;xm;onf/ &efukef? rEÅav;? jynf? awmifil? ykodrf? jrif;
jcH? ppfawG? MuHcif;? rkH½Gm? aygif;wnf? a&eHacsmif;? aysmfbG,f? rif;vS? a½Tbkd? rvIdif? [omFw? usKdufvwf?
oHvsif? zsmykHwkdY jzpfonf/ tcsKdUor*¾toif;rsm;rSm zGJUpnf;NyD;aomfvnf; &efukefA[kdtzGJUcsKyfMuD;ESifh
rqufoG,f&ao;acs/
6/ uGefz&ifhqkH;jzwfcsuft& rsKd;ñGefYr*¾Zif;udk pufwifbmvrS pwifí xkwfa0aMumif;? wm0efcHt,f'DwmrSm
trIaqmiftzGJU0if ukdA[def;jzpfonf/ rsKd;ñGefYukd okH;vwMudrf xkwfa0&m ESpfMudrf½SdoGm;NyD jzpfonf/
7/ ,cktcg A[kdtoif;csKyfonf acwå,m,Doabmjzifh &efukefwuúokdvfor*¾wGif wnf½Sdae&m tvkyftrI
aqmiftzGJUonf ukd,fykdiftaqmuftOD wckudk &½Sd&ef MudK;pm;vsuf ½Sdonf/ e,for*¾toif;rsm;vnf;
119

jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif; - atmifxGef;
qkdif&m toif;½kH;rsm; &½Sd&ef MudK;yrf;aeMuonf/
8/ ArmjynftESHYtjym;wGif a&ab;? avab; qkdufa&mufojzifh vl (1) odef;ausmf tkd;rJhtdrfrJhtxd 'ku©jzpfcJh&m
¤if;wkYd u,fq,fa&;twGuf tNrdKUNrdKUt½Gm½GmrS ausmif;om;rsm;u aiG? ypön;f rsm; aumufccH o
Jh nf/ Armjynf
a&ab;? avab;u,fq,fa&;tzGUJ u aumufcaH om u,fq,fa&;&HyaHk iGwiG f w0ufausmfausmfrmS ausmif;
om;rsm; aumufcHay;aomaiG jzpfonf/
9/ rEÅav;ausmif;om;uGefz&ifh qkH;jzwfcsuf trSwf (1) t& urÇmvkH;qkdif&m ausmif;om;rsm;toif;BuD;ESifh
qufoG,fxm;onf/ þtoif;MuD;u MuD;rSL;í 1937 ck? Mo*kwfv (25) &ufaeYrS (28) &ufaeY txd
jyifopfjynf? yg&DNrdKUawmfü usif;yaom urÇmvk;H qkid &f mausmif;om;rsm;uGezf &ifo
h Ydk Armjynfausmif;om;rsm;
ukd,fpm;vS,ftjzpf "EkjzLOD;at;armiftm; wufa&mufapcJhonf/ Armjynf\ ukd,fpm;vS,f "EkjzLOD;at;
armifrSm jAL½kdac: A[kdtvkyftrIaqmiftzGJUodkYvnf; a½G;aumufwifajr§mufcH&onf/ (tifwmae½Sife,f
,kou
f ifrh f (ac:) urÇmvkH;qkdif&m vli,frsm;pka0;&m pcef;odkYvnf; "EkjzLOD;at;armif wufa&mufcJhonf/)
10/ 1291 ck? awmfovif;vqkwf? (2) &ufaeYwGif &efukefaxmifMuD; twGif;ü jyif;xefcsKyfwnf;aom
axmifOya'ukd uefYuGufí (166) &ufvkH; t[m&rrSD0JbJ rdrd\ twåabm tykyfaumifudk pGefYcGmcJhaom
tmZmenf OD;0dpm&\ (8) Mudrfajrmuf txdrf;trSwfukd Auo toif;u BuD;rSL;í ArmjynftESHUtjym;wGif
tpnf;ta0;rsm; usif;ycJh\/ OD;0dpm&aeYESifh ywfoufaom pmwrf;ukdvnf; tajrmuftjrm;½kdufum
¤if;aeYwGif a0iSurf;vSrf;cJhonf/
11/ Ekd0ifbmv (1) &ufaeYwGif jrefrmwEkdifiHvkH;wGif tpnf;a0;BuD;rsm; usif;yí atmufyg qkH;jzwfcsufrsm;
csrSwfcJhonf/
11(1)/ rEÅav;uGefz&ifh\ qkH;jzwfcsuf trSwf (5) jzpfaom e,fcsJUppfyGJrsm;wGif ryg0if? e,fcsJUpepfMuD;
wnfw&hH m wnfwahH Mumif; jzpfaom yGv
J rf;obifrsm;wGiv
f nf; yg0ifjcif; rjyK&ef[al om qk;H jzwfcsuu
f kd
xyfrH twnfjyKaMumif;?
11(2)/ ,cktcg e,fcsJUpepfESifh e,fcsJUpepftvm;wl zufqpfpepfwkdYaMumifh ab;'ku©MuD; qkdufa&muf
aeMuaom w½kwfjynfoljynfom;? pydefjynfoljynfom;wkdYtwGuf Armjynfausmif;om;rsm;u txl;
0rf;enf;aMuuGJvsuf ¤if;wkdYESifhwuG ausmif;om;wkdYonf tjrefqkH; ppfEkdifMuygap[k qkawmif;arwÅm
ykdYaMumif;?
11(3)/ qif;&Jjcif;? tvkyv
f ufrrhJ sm;jcif;? ppfjzpfjcif; ponfwYdu
k kd jzpfymG ;aponfh e,fcsUJ pepftwGi;f okYd vGecf ahJ om
(52) ESpu
f Armjynf usa&mufjcif;aMumif?h wefaqmifrek ;f vqkw?f (8) &ufaeYudk e,fcsUJ pepf uefYuu
G &f maeY
[ktodrw
S jf yKum xkad eUwGif e,fcsUJ pepfudk uefYuu
G o
f nft
h aejzifh Oykoo
f w
D if;apmifh ok;H &ef qk;H jzwfaMumif;?
¤if;aeYwiG f ppfudk igwkYd tvkrd ½S[
d al om pmwrf;ukd a0iSco
hJ nf/ wefaqmifrek ;f vqkwf (8) &ufaeYwiG f
e,fcsUJ pepf uefYuu
G af omaeUudk Armjynft&yf&yf½dS ausmif;om;rsm; txdr;f trSwt
f m;jzifh tpmiwfcMH u&ef
qifx
h w
k cf o
hJ nft
h wkid ;f tNrdKUNrdKU½Sd ausmif;om;rsm;u vku
d ef mcJo
h nf/ &efuek Nf rdKUwGif wuúov
dk o
f r*¾toif;
trIaqmifrsm;? Auotoif;trIaqmifEiS hf tjcm;ausmif;om;wkUd onf ygawmfru
l si;f y&modYk oGm;a&mufMuNy;D
Ouú| ukad tmifqef;u e,fcsUJ pepfuefUuGuaf omaeY (ygawmfral eY r[kw)f ukd tb,faMumifh usi;f y&onfudk
½Si;f vif; ajymqkcd o
hJ nf/ xkad eYwiG f ]bmvJe,fcsJY0g'} ac: pmwrf;udk a0iSMuonf/
12/ trsKd;om;aeYü tpOftvmt& usif;ycJhonf/ tjcm;tpnf;t½kH;rsm;ESifh yl;aygif;aqmif½Guf&ef qifhpmxkwf
cJhonfhtwkdif; tNrdKUNrdKU½Sd ausmif;om;rsm;u vkdufemcJhonf/ xkdaeYwGif ]igwkdhtrsKd;om;0g'} ac: pmwrf;udk
½kdufESdyf xkwfa0cJhonf/
13/ Auotoif;rS ½kdufESdyfxkwfa0cJhaom pmwrf;rsm;rSm(u) Auotoif;\ pnf;rsOf;Oya'
(c) rEÅav;uGefz&ifh\ qkH;jzwfcsufrsm;
(*) taqGjyefwrf;trSwf
(C) ausmif;om;rsm; Ekd;Mum;avmh (t*Fvdyfausmif;rsm;twGuf t*Fvdyfbmomjzifh ½kdufESdyfonf)
(i) wuúokdvftufOya'jyifqifa&; tpD&ifcHpm
(p) 0wå&m;trGef (OD;0dpm&aeYtwGuf)
(q) e,fcsJUpepfukd igwkdYtvkdr½Sd (Ekd0ifbm? 11 &uftwGuf)
120

udkvdkeDacwfaESmif; - 1937 rS 1938 - e,fcsJYqefhusifa&; vGwfvyfa&;BudK;yrf;rI trsKd;om;a&;toGif
(Z) e,fcsJJUpepfudk wkdufckdufMuukefthH ( wefaqmifrkef;vqkwf? 8 &uftwGuf)
(ps) igwdkY trsKd;om;0g' (trsKd;om;aeYtwGuf)
14/ 1297 ckEpS ?f waygif;vqef;? (5) &ufaeYwiG f 'kw,
d oydwMf uD;NyD;aemuf AuotzGUJ ESihf trsKd;om;wuúov
dk f
ay:vmcJhonfhtwGuf xkdaeYukd txdrf;trSwfaeYtjzpf usif;ycJhonf/

(ps) wwd,tBurd f AuouGezf &ifh usi;f y&efjyifqifMujcif;
jrefrmEkdifiHvkH;qkdif&m ausmif;om;rsm;\ wwd,uGefz&ifh (Auo) ykodrfNrdKUü usif;y&ef pDpOfxm;onf/
Ouú| ukdatmifqef;onf ykodrfNrdKUokdY oGm;a&muf pDpOfcJhonf/ atmufyg {nfhcHaumfrwDrsm;ukd zGJUpnf;xm;avonf/
tpnf;ta0;twGuf wm0efcHtrIaqmifrsm;
ukdatmifausmf
ukdatmifBudKif
ukdvSarmif
ukdcifndK

em,u
aiGxdef;
tusKd;aqmifpmcsD
taxGaxGtusKd;aqmifpmcsD

taxGaxGXme
ukdatmifausmf
ukdarmifwif
ukdvSarmif

ukdatmifMudKif
ukdjrpdef
ukdcifndK

ukd[efa½T
rcifñGefY

ukdMuD;armif

ukdbodef;

ukdcsKdvSatmif

{nfUcHa&;Xme

tauR;tarG;Xme

ukdausmfodef;
ukdarmifoGif
ukdat;armif
ukdxGef;xGef;

ukdoef;armif
ukdarmifarmif
ukdxifausmf
ukdausmf0if;
ukdjrifhpkd;

aMujimXme

rdef;uav;rsm; {nfcHXme
rcifñGefY
rcifoef;
rcifapmEk
rwif{

rvSjrifh
rwifwif
rñGefYñGefYoef;
rMunfMunf

rjrMunf
roef;pdef
roef;oef;
rcif&D

q&m0ef OD;0ef

q&m0ef em,m;

usef;rma&;Xme
q&m0efOD;bcsdK

uGezf &ifu
h sif;yjcif;onf Armjynf te,fe,ft&yf&yfrS ausmif;om;rsm; wOD;ESifh wOD; &if;ES;D apjcif;? awGUqkH
&müvnf; ausmif;om;rsm;ta&;? qif;&Jom;rsm;ta&;? wkdif;jynfta&;? urÇmMuD;\ta&; ponfhjyóemrsm;ukd
bGif;bGif;BuD; aqG;aEG;&jcif;? NyD;cJhonf vkyfief;rsm;udk okH;oyfqifjcifNyD; oumv a½SUtzkdY rnfonfhtvkkyfrsm;
vkyfaqmifrnf[k t"d|mefcsjcif;? vkyfief;tpDtpOf useaocsmjcif; ponfwkdYonf Auotoif;BuD;\ vkyfief;rsm;
jzpfonf/ uGezf &ifah tmifjrifrrI mS e,ftoD;oD;? NrdKUtoD;oD;rS ausmif;om;rsm;\ uk,
d pf m;vS,f rsuEf mS pkn
H w
D ufa&muf
121

jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif; - atmifxGef;
jcif; tay:üwnf&m ,ckusif;yrnfh ykodrfuGefz&ifhokdY NrdKUwkdif;? e,fwkdif;rS ausmif;om;ukd,fpm;vS,frsm; wufa&muf
apoif\
h / jrefrmjynf NrdKUe,ftoD;oD;wGif ausmif;om;rsm; or*¾rsm; wnfaxmifa&;? jrefrmEkid if t
H 0Sr;f ½Sd ausmif;om;
rsm;tm;vkH; waygif;wpnf;wnf; jzpfEkdif&ef usif;yrnfh ykodrfuGefz&ifhwGif ausmif;om;pkHnDpGm wufa&mufap&ef
vIYHaqmfay;jcif; ponfwkdYtwGuf AuotvkyftrIaqmifrsm;ukd vlpkcGJí jrefrmjynftESYH apvTwfxm;onf/ NrdKUe,f
ausmif;om;or*¾ rwnfaxmif&ao;aom NrdKUe,frsm;wGif tjrefraES; or*¾toif;rsm; wnfaxmifcg ykodrfuGefz&ifh
wufa&muf&ef udpöudk zdwfMum;cJhonf/ ausmif;om;rsm;uvnf; uGefz&ifhwGif bmawGajymrnf? bmawGvkyfrnf?
bmukad wmif;rnf ponfwYdkukd wifMudKpDrH xm;&rnfjzpfonf/ ykord u
f eG zf &ifEh iS hf yl;wGí
J aEG&moDpcef;rsm;ESihf jrefrmEkid if H
vkH;qkdif&m tar;yGJrsm;ukd usif;yvdrfhrnf/
aEG&moDpcef;rsm; usif;y&jcif;rSm
1/ Armjynf½Sd t&yf&yfausmif;om;rsm;onf wa,mufESifhwa,muf ykdrkd&if;ESD;í wkd;wufaumif;rGefpGm
qufqH&ef?
2/ jrefrmjynf½Sd te,fe,fwkdY\ xl;axGaom taMumif;rsm;ukd ykdrkdod½Sdem;vnfEkdif&ef?
3/ ausmif;om;rsm;\EkdifiHa&; rsufpdtjrifus,fap&ef?
4/ ausmif;om;rsm;ESifh awm½Gmae aoG;&if;om;&if;rsm;jzpfaom trsKd;om;wkdY ykdrkd&if;ESD;ap&ef?
5/ ausmif;om;rsm;onf qif;&Jom;ypönf;rJhrsm;ESifh waoG;wpdwfwnf;½SdaMumif;? ¤if;wkdYESifh yl;aygif;í
vGwfvyfa&;twGuf wkdufckdufrnfjzpfaMumif;udk jyo&ef?
-ponf&h nf½,
G cf sufrsm; yg½So
d nf/ aEG&moDpcef; atmifjrifap&eftwGuf tvkyt
f rIaqmiftzGUJ 0if ukAd [de;f
tm; wm0efvTJtyfxm;avonf/

(n) Auo wwd,uGezf &ifo
h Ydk zdwMf um;olrsm;pm&if;
1/ ukdazoef;
2/ ukdaiGvkH
3/ ukdbapm
4/ ukdñGefYodef;
5/ udkarmifarmif
6/ ukduvufoef;
7/ ukdvIdifOD;
8/ ukdvSarmif
9/ ukdom0if
10/ ukdcifndK
11/ ukdxGef;vIdif
12/ ukdausmf0if;
13/ ukdwifatmif
14/ ukdvSaz
15/ ukdaomif;pdef
16/ ukdvSat;
17/ ukdat;az
18/ ukdjrEkdif
19/ ukdcifjrifh
20/ ukdjrarmif
21/ ukdbkef;a<u
22/ ukdarmifMunf
23/ ukdbarmif
122

pvif;NrdKU
a&eHacsmif;NrdKU
[oFmwNrdKU
rif;bl;NrdKU
taemufMudKUukef;? tif;pdef
rif;bl;
[oFmwNrdKU
[oFmwNrdKU
&efukefNrdKU? tif;vsm;vrf;
rEÅav;NrdKU
rif;vSNrdKU
rEÅav;NrdKU
Akdvfuav;NrdKU
Akdvfuav;NrdKU
&efukefNrdKU
Akdvfuav;NrdKU
ompnfNrdKU
vufyHwef;NrdKU
yef;waemfNrdKU
rEÅav;NrdKU
pOfhukdifNrdKU
rEÅav;NrdKU
MudKUyifaumufNrdKU

udkvdkeDacwfaESmif; - 1937 rS 1938 - e,fcsJYqefhusifa&; vGwfvyfa&;BudK;yrf;rI trsKd;om;a&;toGif
24/ ukdusifarmif
25/ ukdwif½Sdef
26/ ukdtkef;armif
27/ ukdvSjrifh
28/ ukdwifhaqG
29/ ukdusifarmif
30/ ukdarmifarmifav; (1)
31/ ukdomxGef;pdef
32/ ukdazoef;
33/ ukdarmifyg
34/ ukdodef;xGef;
35/ ukdbokduf
36/ ukdarmifaxG;
37/ ukdarmifukd
38/ ukd{ukd
39/ ukdarmifarmif (1)
40/ ukdatmifMudKif
41/ ukdpHa½T
42/ ukdcspfukdvS
43/ ukdwifOD;
44/ ukdxkdufpH
45/ ukdarmifarmif
46/ ukdarmifapmjrtkH;
47/ ukdvSaomif;
48/ Swans Business College
49/ A.T Mc Oreath
50/ E.G Ruller BSQ
51/ jrefrmhtvif;
52/ The Efficiency Press
53/ ol&d, (Sun Press Ltd.,)
54/ e*g;eD Ltd.,
55/ jrefrmjynf pmtkyfjzefYcsda&;Xme
56/ ukdvSarmif
57/ ukdjrpdef
58/ ukdpdefaomif;
59/ ukdwifat;
60/ ukdodef;armif
61/ udktpk
62/ ukdzkd;tkef;
63/ ukdoef;armif
64/ ukd[efwif
65/ ukdatmifMuD;
66/ ukdat;Munf
67/ ukdbcspf
68/ ukdausmf0if;

oxkHNrdKU
ysOf;rem;NrdKU
aygif;wnfNrdKU
armfvNrdKifNrdKU
rkH½GmNrdKU
rdwDÅvmNrdKU
jynfNrdKU
ppfawGNrdKU
pvnf;? rif;bl;NrdKU
oxkHNrdKU
oxkHNrdKU
ppfukdif;NrdKU
yckuúLNrdKU
yckuúLNrdKU
om,m0wDNrdKU
jrif;jcHNrdKU
ykodrfNrdKU
ppfawGNrdKU
a&ausmf? &efukefNrdKU
rauG;NrdKU
vufyHwef;NrdKU
yckuúLNrdKU
oxkH'DpBwdwf
0g;c,frNrdKU
&efukefNrdKU
yef;qkd;wef;
&efukefNrdKU
&efukefNrdKU
&efukefNrdKU
&efukefNrdKU
&efukefNrdKU
ykodrfNrdKU
ykodrfNrdKU
ykodrfNrdKU
ykodrfNrdKU
MudKUyifaumuf
ppfawGNrdKU
aygif;wnfNrdKU
ykodrfNrdKU
pvif;NrdKU
&efukefNrdKU
BuKdUyifaumufNrdKU
Munfhjrifwkdif
123

jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif; - atmifxGef;
69/ Mr. tDA&m[if
70/ ukdtifvkdif;
71/ ukdatmifBuD;
72/ ukdxGef;wif
73/ q&mqkd;
74/ ukdoef;½Sdef
75/ ukdaua,mfpdef
76/ ukdxGef;armif
77/ ukdpHwif
78/ ukdazwif
79/ ukdatmifwif
80/ ukdb
81/ ukdwifa½T
82/ ukdarmif0g
83/ ukdukdMuD;
84/ ukdwkd;,SOf
85/ ukdaomif;pdef
86/ ukdbaumif;
87/ ukdEkdifarmif
88/ ukdjroef;
89/ ukdbarmif
90/ ukdapm
91/ ukdukdMuD;
92/ ukdarmifnGefY
93/ ukdarmifarmif
94/ ocifwifjrifh
95/ ukdcspfjzL
96/ ukdba*;vf
97/ ukdtkef;jrifh
98/ ukdarmifarmifpdef
99/ ukdarmifpdef
100/ ukdvSMudKif
101/ ukdatmifaz
102/ ukdarmifarmifvGif
103/ ukdbabmf
104/ ukdEkdifarmif

xm;0,fNrdKU
aygif;wnfNrdKU
aygif;wnfNrdKU
&efukefNrdKU (wkd;wufa&;owif;pm t,f'Dwm)
iokdif;acsmif;NrdKU
ZD;ukef;NrdKU
a&eHacsmif;NrdKU
tif;pdef
zsmykHNrdKU
bkduav;NrdKU
rvIdifNrdKU
MudKUyifaumufNrdKU
rkH½GmNrdKU
a&eHacsmif;NrdKU
rEÅav;NrdKU (pDeD,m ISC ref;Oypmaumvdyf)
rEÅav;NrdKU
MudKUyifaumufNrdKU
ausmufjzLNrdKU
yif;,aqmif? &efukefNrdKU
zsmykHNrdKU
a&eHacsmif;NrdKU
tvkH
rEÅav;NrdKU
a&eHacsmif;NrdKU
&efukefNrdKU
a&eHacsmif;NrdKU
a½TbkdNrdKU
ausmif;ukef;NrdKU
&efukefNrdKU
rkH½GmNrdKU
jynfNrdKU
Aef;armfNrdKU
[omFwNrdKU
armfvNrdKifNrdKU
aysmfbG,fNrdKU
usKHrai;NrdKU

(#) wwd,tBurd f AuonDvmcHusi;f yjcif; jrifuiG ;f ({NyD 24-25? 1938)
tpnf;ta0;pwifjyKvkyfonfh {NyDv (24) &uf? reuf (8) em&DwGif ausmif;0if;twGif;ü jrefrmpmoif
ausmif;q&mrsm;\ tpnf;ta0;BuD;uJhokdY yifeDtusÐ0wfqifxm;aom ausmif;om;? ausmif;olrsm;ukd awGU&onf/
(9) em&DwGif tpnf;ta0; paomtcg trsKd;om;ausmif;tkyfcsKyfa&;aumfrwDrS vlBuD;rsm;ESifh NrdKUay:rS {nfhonfrsm;rS
wyg; a,mufsm;? rde;f r? vlMuD;vli,ftm;vk;H yifet
D us0Ð wfqifxm;Muonf/ vma&mufowif;,laom pkaH xmufzufrS
(2-3) OD;vnf; yifeDtusÐ0wfqifxm;Muonf/
ausmif;BuD;qif0ifatmufrS pnfawmfBuD;wD;aom (9) em&D? (15) rdepfwGif {nfhcHaumfrwDOuú| ukdvSarmif
124

udkvdkeDacwfaESmif; - 1937 rS 1938 - e,fcsJYqefhusifa&; vGwfvyfa&;BudK;yrf;rI trsKd;om;a&;toGif
onf a½SUaqmif q&mBuD;ocifukd,fawmfrIdif;? Ouú| ukdatmifqef;? toif;tvkyftrIaqmifrsm;? pma&;rsm; pifjrifh
ay:okdY wufa&mufvmMuonf/ aygif;wnfNrdKUrS ukdzkd;tkef;u xkdifNyD; tm;vkH;rwfwyf&yfí wkdYArmoDcsif;udk pdwftm;
xufoefpGm oDqkdMuonf/ ausmif;BuD;wckvHk; [def;oGm;onfhtjyif MuufoD;arG;nif;xrcef; jzpfoGm;Muonf/
oDcsif;qkdNyD;aemuf ukdvSarmifu ukd,fpm;vS,frsm;tm; EIwfqufí yg0ifulnDoltm;vkH;tm; aus;Zl;wif
pum; ajymMum;NyD;vQif tvkyt
f rIaqmifaumfrwDu toif; (Auo) \ Ouú|tjzpf xyfraH ½G;aumufNyD;jzpfaom ukad tmif
qef;tm; em,utjzpf aqmif½u
G &f ef ajymMum;&m ukad tmifqef;onf em,uae&m ,lNyD;vQif q&mBuD;ocifu,
dk af wmfridI ;f
tm; tpnf;ta0; zGiv
hf pS af y;&ef awmif;yefavonf/ q&mBuD;ocifu,
dk af wmfridI ;f tzGit
hf rSmpum; ajymMum;avonf/
xkdYaemuf em,u ukdatmifqef;u (25) rsufESm½Sd rdefYcGef;ukd zwfMum;NyD; ta&;BuD;aom tcsuftvuf
rsm;ukd xkwfEkwf½Sif;jy&m ausmif;BuD; [def;oGm;atmifyif Mobmay;Muonf/ xkdYaemuf em,utoif;BuD;\ tvkyf
trIaqmifvlBuD; wOD;jzpfol &efukefNrdKUr ausmif;om;a[mif; ukdoef;wif uG,fvGefojzifh 0rf;enf;tqkd wifoGif;&m
y&dowftm;vkH; (2) rdepf rwfwyf&yfí 0rf;enf;aMumif; jyoMuonf/ xkdaemuf tpnf;ta0;ukd acwå &yfem;onf/
aeYvnfyidk ;f tpnf;ta0; jyefvnfpwifaomtcg toif;csKyf 'k-Ouú| ukv
d aS ½Tu toif;ESpyf wfvnf tpD&ifcpH m
udk zwfMum;onf/ xkdtpD&ifcHpm zwfMum;NyD;aemuf ukdjrpdefu tdE´d, acgif;aqmifMuD; *s0g[mvmae½l;? tdE´d,EkdifiH
vk;H qkid &f m uGeu
f &uftoif;BuD;wGif bkt
H ,l0g' BudKufaomtzGUJ ESihf jyifopfjynf? yg&DNrdKU½Sd urÇmvk;H qkid &f mausmif;om;
rsm;toif;csKyf tpnf;ta0;MuD; atmifjrifygap[laom qkawmif;aom pm (3) apmif zwfjyNyD;vQif em,u ukad tmifqef;
u jrefrmjynf ausmif;om;rsm;xHrS ay;ykYdaompmrsm; rsm;jym;vGe;f vSí rzwfEidk af Mumif; ajymqkNd yD;vQi?f &efuek w
f uúov
dk f
tufOya'Murf;ukd ,cktxd tpkd;&wkdYu bmrQrvkyfao;ojzifh ausmif;om;rsm; vkdvm;aom awmif;qkdcsuft&
pDraH qmif½u
G f ray;vQif xkt
d csurf sm; r&rae tjyif;txef aqmif½u
G &f ef tqku
d dk ukad usmjf rifh (bDat) u wifoiG ;f NyD;?
ukdxGef;wifu axmufcHonf/
xkdYaemuf ajrmif;jrNrdKUrS wuúokdvfausmif;om; ukdjr½Sdefu tpkd;&u vkyfray;vQif b,fvdkaqmif½Gufrnfukd
twdtvif; xkwfazmfajym&rnf/ a½S;u oydwfarSmufcJh&m bmrS tusKd;r½Sdjzpfonf[k ajymqkd&m ref;Oypmaumvdyf
ausmif;om; ukdwkd;&ifu rdrdtMuHtpnfrsm; xkwfazmf rajymqkdoifh[k ajymqkdonf/ aemufqkH; em,u ukdatmifqef;
u rdrw
d Ykd oydwaf rSmufwidk ;f vk;H 0 ratmifjrifaomfvnf; rdrw
d Ykd vkv
d m;csuf trsm;tm;jzif&h aMumif;? 1936 oydww
f iG f
yxr atmifjrifvmaomfvnf;? rdrdwkdYtm;rSm wjznf;jznf; qkwf,kwfvmojzifh tm;jznfhwif;&ef tdajE´&& ppfukd
qkwcf ahJ Mumif;? ,ckrrd w
d Ykd cGet
f m;½Sv
d mNyD jzpfaMumif;? ,cka½SUESpw
f iG f rdrOd uú|tjzpf aqmif½u
G &f rnf/ þokYd aqmif½u
G f
&mwGif ]atmifqef;aomfvnf;aumif; jyKwf&rnf? tvkyfukdaomfvnf;aumif; atmif&rnf} [k pm;yGJukd vufoD;ESifh
xkNyD; atmf[pfajymqkdvu
dk &f m ausmif;BuD;wckv;Hk ? MobmoH? vufcyk o
f rH sm; qlno
H mG ;onf/ eHygwf (3) tqku
d dk ukad tmif
qef;u wifoiG ;f &rnf jzpfojzifh 'k-Ouú| ukv
d aS ½Tu em,utjzpf aqmif½u
G o
f nf/ ukad tmifqef;u Oya' jyifqifcsurf sm;
wckNyD; wck tus,w
f 0ifh ½Si;f vif;NyD; tqkw
d ifoiG ;f &m? ukx
d eG ;f wifu axmufcNH yD; em,uu þtqku
d dk oabmwlMu
ygovm;[k ar;jref;&m ausmif;om;rsm;u oabmwlygonf[k atmf[pfajymqko
d jzifh em,uu xkt
d qku
d dk twnfjyKygNy[
D k
ajymaepOf ajrmif;jrNrdKUrS wuúov
dk af usmif;om; ukjd r½Sed u
f xvmNyD; uefYuu
G v
f o
dk nf [k ajymonf/ xkt
d cg em,uu
twnfjyKNy;D aMumif;? ruefYuu
G Ef idk af wmh[k ajym&m ukjd r½Sed o
f nf a'goESihf pifjrifah y:rS qif;í tcef;jyifoYdk xGuo
f mG ;aMumif;?
odYkaomf ocifjrbl;u ac:,lxm;avonf/ xkt
d cg ukad tmifqef;u tqku
d dk uefYuu
G &f ef ½S?d r½Sd ar;jref;&ef vko
d mG ;aMumif;
aMunmNyD;ojzifh pnf;urf;t& aemufxyf ajymqkEd idk cf iG hf rjyKaMumif; ajymqkí
d tqku
d dk twnfjyKavonf/
eHygwf (4) tqkdudk wuúokdvfausmif;om; ukdA[def;u a&eHajrtvkyform;rsm; cHpm;aeMu&aom 'ku©rsm;
Mum;&olrsm; rsuf&nfusavmufatmifyif tus,fw0ifah jymqkNd yD; tqkw
d ifoiG ;f &m aygif;wnf ukzd ;dk tke;f u axmufcH
onf/ xkdtqkdukd uefYuGuf&ef jyifqif&ef ½Sd? r½Sd ar;jref;&m jyifqifvkdol½Sdojzifh tcsdefrSm nae (4) em&D xkd;aeNyD
jzpfí (25) &ufaeYrSom qufvuf pOf;pm;&ef ajymqkdNyD; tpnf;ta0; tpDtpOf yxraeY &yfqkdif;vkdufonf/
'kwd,aeY 25? 4? 1938 eHeuf (9) em&DwGif tpnf;ta0; qufvufjyKvkyfMu&m eHygwf (4) tqkdudk
wcgwnf; twnfjyKvkyfMuonff/
eHygwf (5) tqku
d dk BudKUyifaumuf uko
d ef;pdeu
f wifoiG ;f í? ZD;uke;f ukx
d eG ;f ½Sed u
f axmufco
H nf/ ¤if;tqkd
rSm ausmif;om;pmtkyf a½G;cs,af &;tzGUJ wGif ausmif;om;uk,
d pf m;vS,f yg½Sad p&efjzpfonf/ tcsKdUu jyifqifcsuf wifoiG ;f
aomfvnf; jyifqifcsufrSm (24) rJ? (38) rJjzifh ½IH;oGm;onf/ xkdaemuf NrdKUrausmif; ukdarmifarmifu ausmif;okH;pmtkyf
a½G;cs,af &;tzGUJ wGif toif;csKyf\ trIaqmiftzGUJ rS uk,
d pf m;vS,f yg0ifap&ef[al om pum;udk tqkw
d iG f jznfph u
G v
f suf
xkdtqkdukd twnfjyKMuavonf/
125

jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif; - atmifxGef;
eHygwf (6) tqku
d dk a'gifMh u;D ukad zoifu wifoiG ;f í? rvIid f udak tmifwifu axmufco
H nf/ wuúov
dk af usmif;om;
ukb
d av;u jrefrmEkid if w
H iG f (tcvGw)f rlvwef; ynmroifrae&[k jznfph u
G jf yifqifvsuf twnfjyKonf/
eHygwf (7) tqkdukd rkH½Gm ukdwifaqGu wifoGif;&m Oyrm Oyar,sjzifh wefqmqifvsuf rSwfom;zG,f&m
pum;rsm;jzifh ajymqkdaomfvnf; rdrdrauseyfaom tcsuftwGuf a'gopum;av;rsm;ygojzifh em,u ukdatmifqef;
u cPcP owday;&onf/ xdt
k qku
d dk a&eHacsmif; ukad usmpf ed u
f vnf; pum;ajymaumif;aumif;ESihf axmufccH o
hJ nf/
tqkd½Sifu ¤if;tqkdudk raxmufcHvQif trsKd;ESifhpmukd rcspf&musrnf[k ajymoGm;ojzifh rvIdif ukdatmifwifu uefY
uGufaMumif; trsm;yif 0ifa&mufajymqkdNyD;aemuf rJ,laomtcg (4) rJ? (7) rJESifh y,fvkdufonf/
eHygwf (8) tqkdukd &ckdifjynfu ukdbMudKifu wifoGif;í udkpH&ifu axmufcH&m jyifqifjznfhpGuf&ef t
rsm;yif 0ifa&mufajymqkdMuaomfvnf; tqkH;ü rlvtqkdtwkdif; twnfjyKonf/
eHygwf (9) tqkdukd a&eHacsmif; ukdñGefYu tqkdwifoGif;í? a&eHacsmif; ukdausmfpdefu axmufcHavonf/
ukdñGefYrSm vlyifi,faomfvnf; tajymtqkd vGwfvyfyDojcif;? pum;tokH;tEIef; ,Ofaus;jcif;? a&eHacsmif;tpkd;&
ausmif;q&mMuD; OD;[kwv
f idI f ajymqkv
d yk u
f idk cf suw
f YdkrmS anmifO;D u urf;NydKum prÜmem*ku
d EGm;aysmufwmeJY bmqkid v
f YdkvJ
qkdaom pum;ykHrsm; xnfhoGif;NyD; ajymqkdoGm;onfrSm csD;rGrf;zG,faumif;onf/ xkdYaemuf ausmif;om;ukd,fpm;vS,f
wOD;u a&eHacsmif;tpkd;& ausmif;q&mMuD; OD;[kwfvdIifonf xkdausmif;? ausmif;om;or*¾toif;ESifh ywfoufí
ajymqkdvkyfukdifjyKrlcsufrSm tvGefpufqkwfzG,f jzpfojzifh tm;vkH;y&dwfowfrsm; rwfwwf&yfí ½SufzG,f (3) Budrf
atmfNyD; xkdtqkdukd twnfjyK&ef awmif;yefonfhtwkdif; jyKvkyfNyD; reufykdif; tpDtpOf &yfem;avonf/
aeYvnf (1) em&D qufvufusif;y&m eHygwf (10) tqkdonf 'kwd, ta&;BuD;qkH; tqkd ]ausmif;om;rsm;
Ekid if aH &; 0ifvyk cf iG }Uf jzpfonft
h wkid ;f &efuek w
f uúov
dk f ukAd [de;f ESihf rEÅav;Oypmaumvdyf ukw
d ;dk &ifwYdk u tus,fw0Hh
ajymqkNd yD; wifoiG ;f axmufcaH Mumif; ajymNyD;aomtcg? ajrmif;jr ukjd r½Sed u
f ausmif;om;rsm; Ekid if aH &;wGif 0ifa&muf vkyu
f idk f
cGifh rjyKxkdufqkdNyD; xkdtqkdukd uefYuGufaMumif;ajym&m em,u ukad tmifqef;u xkt
d qku
d dk oabmwlorl sm;u ]tkid ;f }
[k ajymMu&ef ajymqko
d jzifh y&dowftm;vk;H avmufyif tkid ;f [k atmfí ukad tmifqef;u oabmrwlorl sm; ]Ek;d } [k ajym
Mu&ef ajymaomtcg (2) a,mufom atmfonf/ xkt
d cg em,uu tqku
d dk twnfjyKaMumif; aMujimvku
d o
f nfEiS hf
wNydKifeuf tm;vk;H atmf[pfNyD; Mobmay;vsuf uefUuGuo
f t
l m; rsKd;zsu[
f k atmfMuaMumif;/ ukad tmifqef;u þuJhokdY
epfematmif rajymqkdxkdufaMumif; ajymqkdNyD;vsif toif;Ouú|a[mif; ukd&m½Spfu t*Fvdyfbmomjzifh tvGefrSwfom;
em,lzG,faumif;aom qkH;rpum;rsm;ESifh jrpfBuD;em;wGif rdru
d ,
dk af wGU tpkd;&u tvGefMuyfwnf;aom Oya'rsm;jzifh
tmPm½SifozG,f tkyfcsKyfykHukd (1) em&DcefY ajymqkdoGm;onf/
NyD;aomtcg em,u ukdatmifqef;\ awmif;yefcsuft& q&mBuD;ocifukd,fawmfrIdif;u tav;ryGJwGif
tEkdif&olrsm;ukd qkcsD;jr§ifhonf/ 1939 ck pwkw¬tBudrf Auo tpnf;ta0;udk armfvNrdKifNrdKU ausmif;om;or*¾
Ouú| ukdarmifarmifvGifu armfvNrdKifNrdKUwGif jyKvkyf&ef zdwfac:onfhtwkdif; Ouú| ukdatmifqef;u 0rf;ajrmuf
aus;Zl;wifpGm vufcHNyD;vsif em,u\ tqkH;owf rdefYcGef;ukd jrGufMum;vsuf? tpnf;a0;BuD;ukd wkdYArmoDcsif;qkdNyD;
½kwfodrf;vkdufonf/
25? 4? 1938 ae nwGif ausmif;om; (70) cefYonf [kdif;MuD;oabFmwGif qif;ítdyfNyD; 26? 4? 1938
eHeuf (6) em&DcGJwGif aEG&moDpcef; armfwifpGef;okdY xGufoGm;Muonf/

(X) 1938-39 AuoESihf wuo trIaqmiftzGUJ
All Burma Student's Union (Auo)

1/ ukdatmifqef;
2/ ukdA[def;
3/ ukdpkd;armif
4/ ukdvSa½T
5/ ukdMunfarmif
6/ ukdbpH
7/ ukdausmfjrifh
8/ ukdjrpdef
126

Ouú|
twGif;a&;rSL;
aiGxdef;
trIaqmif
trIaqmif
trIaqmif
trIaqmif
trIaqmif

udkvdkeDacwfaESmif; - 1937 rS 1938 - e,fcsJYqefhusifa&; vGwfvyfa&;BudK;yrf;rI trsKd;om;a&;toGif
9/ ukdcspfat;
10/ ukdarmifarmif

trIaqmif
trIaqmif

( All Nationalist Members of the House of Representative and of the Senate 12, September 1938)
wuo (Rangoon University Students' Union)

1/ ukdatmifqef;
2/ ukdvSa½T
3/ ukdA[def;
4/ ukdodef;atmif
5/ ukdapmpHau;
6/ ukdatmifwkd;
7/ ukdboef;
8/ ukdxGef;½Sdef
9/ ukdat;ausmf
10/ ukdMunfarmif
11/ ukdaomif;cif

Ouú|
'k-Ouú|
twGif;a&;rSL;
aiGxdef;
t,f'Dwm (tkd;a0)
(Business Manager)

pmMunfhwkdufrSL;

(Executive Committee member)
(Executive Committee member)
(Executive Committee member)
(Executive Committee member)
(All National members of the House of Representative and of the sentate)

(!) ykodrfuGefz&ifhrS aEG&moDpcef;
1938 ck? ykord Nf rdKUwGif usi;f yaom wwd,tBudraf jrmuf ausmif;om;rsm;uGezf &ifo
h nf ausmif;om;or*¾EiS hf
wkYd Armtpnf;t½k;H wkYd ajymifajymifwif;wif; wGrJ Md uNyDjzpfonf/ wESpx
f uf wESpf tm;aumif;vmNyD; ykord u
f eG zf &ifw
h iG f
NrdKUe,frsm; ykdpkHvmonf/ ukd,fpm;vS,f OD;a&vnf; ykdrsm;vmonf/ uGefz&ifhtNyD; ykodrfNrdKUrS armfawmf,mOfjzifh
armfwifpGef;ü aEG&moDpcef; zGifhvSpfcJhonf/ aEG&moDpcef;onf uGefz&ifhtNyD;ü yifyef;orQ tem;,ltyef;ajz&ef
twGu[
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armfwifpGef;? {NyD (27) &uf? reufykdif;wGif rlvtpDtpOftwkdif; yifv,furf;pyfwGif ausmif;om;tm;vkH;
pk½kH;NyD; ukdaZmf0dwf? ukdarmifarmifvGif vkyfjyonfhtwkdif; avusifhcef; vkyfMuonf/ 'Dvkdavhusifhcef;vkyfjyjcif;onf
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wkdufyGJ0ifaomtcg ukd,fum,tm;jzifha&m pdwf"gwftm;jzifhyg pnf;vkH;nDñGwfrI toifhjzpfae&ef BudKwifjyifqif
&nfrSef;csufESifh vkyfjcif;jzpfonf/ tanmif;ajy? tnmajy? ½kd;½kd;usef;rm&eftwGuf r[kwfay/
wcsKdUtpkuav;rsm; teD;tem; ywf0ef;usif vrf;avQmufMuaomtcgwGif ukdatmifqef;? ukdA[def;?
udkjrpdef? ukdvSa½T? ukdoef;xGef;? udkat;ausmf? ukdboef;? ukdMunfarmifESifh ukdausmf&ifwkdY (1937-38? 1938-39
AuoESifh wuo) xJu trIaqmifawG[m tvkyf pMu&onf/ rlvuwnf;u pnf;0g;½kdufxm;onfh twkdif;
uk,
d w
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q&mBuD;u t&ifEkdifiHa&; tzGJUtpnf;awG? acgif;aqmifawGudk r,kHzkdY ? b,fenf;b,fykH ukd,fusKd;½Smum wpfwpfcGcG
ajymNyD;? &efolukdvnf; txifrao;zdkY owd0D&d,½SdzkYd owday;onf/
ukdatmifqef;? ukdA[def;ESifh ukdoef;xGef;wkdYonf olwkdY rsufpdusaom e,facgif;aqmif vufa½G;pifrsm;ukd
127

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nae xrif;pm;NyD;csdef ukdaZmf0dwfonf udkatmifqef;? ukdA[def;? ukdoef;xGef;ESifh ukdtkef;jrifhwkdY tpkav;
xJvmNyD; reufu ausmif;ol? ausmif;om;woku
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ausmif;xkdif q&mawmfrSm Armbkef;BuD;? ½Gmol½Gmom;awG[m A[kokwenf;yg;vSwJh twGuf ausmif;om;acgif;aqmif
rsm;vmNyD; A[kokw jzefYay;&ef? wkdif;jynfrSm jzpfysufwmawG ajymjy&ef zdwfMum;wJhtaMumif;? tjcm;teD;tem;
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bkef;MuD;auR;aom tpmrsm;pm;NyD; w&m;yGJ pMuonf/ w&m;yGJukd ukdaZmf0dwf um,AvESifh pzGifhonf/ xkdaemuf
ukAd [de;f u ausmif;om;rdbrsm;jzpfaom a&eHajrtvkyo
f rm;rsm;taMumif;? ausmif;om;? tvkyo
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rm;vufwGJNyD; vGwfvyfa&; wkduf,l&r,f[k wkdwkd½Sif;½Sif;ajymonf/
ukdatmifqef;u ausmif;om;? tvkkyform;? v,form;ESifh &ckdif? u&if? ½Srf;? csif;? ucsifESifh u&ifeDpwJh
vlrsKd;pk trsKd;om;tm;vkH; vufwGJNyD; vGwfvyfa&;ukd wkduf,l&r,f? awmif;,lvkdY r&bl;? vufeufukdifNyD; olykefxrS
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a& okH;ykH? wykHavmuf ½Sdrnfjzpfonf/ ¤if;ukd Munfhjcif;jzifh ukdatmifqef;onf vufeufukdifwkdufyGJESifh vGwfvyfa&;
&,l&ef yxrqkH; ajAmifa[majymcJhjcif;jzpfonf/ vGwfvyfa&;wkduf,l&ef MuHpnfxm;onfrSm xif½Sm;vSonf/
xkdYaemuf q&mawmfodcsifaom jynfru EkdifiHa&;tajctae? wkdYArmtpnf;t½kH;ESifh ausmif;om; vIyf½Sm;rI
rsm;tm; ½Sif;jycJhonf/ armfwifpGef; jyefa&mufawmh pDtkdif'DawG ukdatmifqef;wkdY aysmufoGm;í ausmif;om;rsm;udk
a&½GwfMudrf;armif; vkyfonfukd od&aomtcg udkatmifqef; tm;yg;w& &,fcJhonf/

(¡) wwd,tMudrf ykodrfuGefz&ifhwGif Ouú| ukdatmifqef; ajymMum;aom tzGifhrdefYcGef;
tcsif;&JabmfwkdhESSpfESpfwdwd igwkdY cJ,Of;NidKjiifpGm vkyfukdifNyD;onfhaemuf wwd,tBudrfajrmuf igwkdY ,ck awGUMu&jyefNyD/
þtcsif;t&monfum; Armjynfvil ,frsm;\ &mZ0ifwiG f tNydKifr½Sd jzpfawmhonf/ ,cknv
D mcHobifü te,fe,frS
igwkdY\ &Jabmfa[mif; &Jabmfopf taygif;wkdYonf vmwufMuukef\/ okdY igwkdYnDvmcH obiftcgwGif a½S;a[mif;
aESmif;jzpfukd igwdkYawG;vkdMupjrJjzpfay\/ okdY&mwGif igwkdY\ a½S;a[mif;rSwfwrf;wkdYum; igwkdYtwGuf taumif;csnf;
rSwfcsuf- ociftkef;jrifh (aevif;- vl½SifocsØKif;rsm;taMumif;)? OD;ausmf&if (taygif;toif;a&mif;&if;wdkY\ausmf&if)

128

Source: Memories of Kyaw Yin

Source: File Photo

udak tmifqef;wdEhk iS t
Uf wl ykord cf &D;vdu
k yf gcaUJ om
(0Jr,
S m) wd;k wufa&; ociftek ;f jrifU
,ckpmtkyfa&;om;&mwGif ulnDcJhjcif;twGuf xyfrHzrf;
qD;cH&onf/ ,ckaxmifrv
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G Nf yD; &efuek Nf rdKUwGif aexdik f
vsuf½o
dS nf/
ygarmu©O;D ausm&f if (avxD;)
oHwJGZmwd? &cdkiftrsKd;om;jzpfonf/ 1936 wGif &efukef
wuúov
kd o
f Ykd a&muf½o
dS nf/ wuo? Auo trIaqmif
wOD;jzpfco
hJ nf/ *syefawmfveS af &;wGif yg0ifcNhJ yD; avxD;
wyfzJGU0ifwOD;jzpfonf/ ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD0if
wOD; jzpfcJhonf/ rEÅav;wuúodkvf ygarmu©csKyftjzpf
1966 ckESpf uG,fvGefcsdeftxd xrf;aqmifcJhonf/

udkvdkeDacwfaESmif; - 1937 rS 1938 - e,fcsJYqefhusifa&; vGwfvyfa&;BudK;yrf;rI trsKd;om;a&;toGif

Source: File Photo

wuoOuúX ukad tmifqef; (1938-39)

129

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aw;oHonf tcgrvyf aumif;uif,HwGif 0Jvsuf? wkd;wufvkdaom jA[®pkd&fw&m;jzifh udef;atmif;vsuf ½Sdaom
olou
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vsuf ½SdMuukefaom vlowå0g taygif;wkdYonf w&m;"r®wnf;[laom tpDtrHukd emcHvsuf urÇmh&mZ0if? urÇmh
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tvGJjyKMu\/ tvkdukdvkdufí xkdokdYZmwfcif;&m Muuf½IH;Zmwf qkHMu&avawmhonf/ okdYaomf ¤if;wkdYonf tcsnf;ESD;
ZmwfqkHMuonf r[kwfay/ okdYwNyD;vnf; owå0gteEÅ\ tusKd;½Sd&m vrf;aMumif;um; rqkH;ao;a,mifwum;/
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cufcJ eufeJvmukefaom jyóem&yfrsm;udk MuHKawGU ajzMum;&jyefavonf/
tcsif;wkdh- igwkdYtrsKd;um; a½S;vGefavNyD;aomtcgu ukd,fhxD;ukd,feef; ukd,hfMuiSmef;ESifh ukd,fhusrf;
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arQmfrSef;wrf;w&m vGwfvyfa&;pcef;odkY wef;wef;ajzmifhajzmifh raumufrauGU wa½GUa½GU oGm;rnfomwnf;/ &mZ0if
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atmifjrifcJhonfh oufaoom"uwkdYum; txift½Sm;yif jzpfawmhonf/ igwkdYtaygif;onfvnf; þtaMumif;
xm;tyfaom vrf;twkdif; tb,faMumifhvsif rvkyfoifhrvkyfEkdiftHhoenf;/
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jyKrdthH? xkdwvSrf;rQaomtrSm;onf wurÇmvkH;tm; ,lMuHK;r&aom 'ku©wGif;okdY usa&mufapawmhrnf/ þrQBuD;rm;
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jyóemrsm;rSmvnf; vGwfvyfa&;? ynma&;? pmwwfajrmufolrsm;jym;a&;? tvkyfvufrJhyaysmufa&;? qif;&Jjcif;
yaysmufa&; ponfjzifh ½Sdukef\? xkdjyóemrsm;um; ykcufwGif; rusef? tbkd;MuD;tdk rvGwf? qif;&Jcsrf;om ra½G;
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r&? rnfolrQ ukd,fta&;r[kwf[lí aumif;aumif;rae&m raeEkdifawmhay/
þum; ajymif;vJaeaom ,ckurÇmMuD;\ tajcaeaywnf;/ okdYajymif;vJaeaomurÇmudk tvGJxifí rdrd
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yk*Kd¾ vftaygif;wkYd onf urÇmysufcgeD;wGif a,mifw;D a,mifw vlb0&vmMuouJo
h Ydk bk&m;w? bk&m;w a½S;xk;H rypf&
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130

udkvdkeDacwfaESmif; - 1937 rS 1938 - e,fcsJYqefhusifa&; vGwfvyfa&;BudK;yrf;rI trsKd;om;a&;toGif
um; ykdrkdrSefuefaom pOf;pm;OmPf avmu"gwf OmPfwnf;[laom rSwfausmufjzifh ¤if;wkdY rod½SmMuay/ olrsm;ESifh
rqkdifaom ukd,fa&;ukd,fwmwGif u,fyg? ,lygwpmpm jyKvkyfae½kHjzifh ,ckacwfMuD;wGif awGUMuKH&aom jyóemwkYd
onf rajz½Sif;Ekdifay/ igwkdYum; xkdjyóemrsm;udk ajz½Sif;&eftwGuf taMumif;ESifhtusKd;ukd ykdrkdrSefuefaom pOf;pm;
a0zefenf; (0g) avmu"gwf ynmenf;ukd vkdayonf/
taMumif;um; þokYd wnf;/ acwfuvnf; ajymif;vm\? jyóemuvnf;ajymif;vm\? igwkYd um; rajymif;
ao;ay/ tjriftm;jzifh vQyfppf"gwf? rD;&xm;? av,mOfysH? armfawmfum;wkdYjzifh wkd;wufaom acwfopf jzpfay\/
okYd&mwGif igwkdYum; avS? vSnf;? AkHarmif;wkdYNzifh aqG;aeaom a½S;a[mif;ukd rypfvkdMuao;ay/ þtcsif;t&mum;
urÇmESifht0Srf;wGifvnf; ½Sdao;\/ ArmjynfwiG u
f m; t0Sr;f rsm;pGm½S\
d / a½S;a[mif;toH? a½S;a[mif;0g'wku
hd m; ,ckwidk f
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hd dk ,ckwikd if gwhdk ok;H vsu½f adS o;\/ ausmif;om;qkv
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[laom trnfudk azmfxkwf&mü igwkdYtm; tkyfcsKyfpkd;rkd;aeolwkdYtm; &nf½G,fí tjyif;pGJpGJwcJcJjzifh usOf;ajrmif;aom
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131

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132

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133

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134

udkvdkeDacwfaESmif; - 1937 rS 1938 - e,fcsJYqefhusifa&; vGwfvyfa&;BudK;yrf;rI trsKd;om;a&;toGif
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135

jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif; - atmifxGef;
t&rf;em;axmifonfh tvkyfukd tm;ray;ESifh? opömynmudk ½Smvdk? qnf;yl;vkdaom qE´tmoDoESifh qefYusifonfh[l
aom oabmukdjyxm;\/ tumrQ oifonfhenf;um; igwkdYtm; pdwfEHkpdwfnHhudkom oifay;\/ igwkdY jynfwGif
rsm;pGmaom vltaygif;wkdYonf tumukd tESpfxifum bk&m;ocifa[mMum;aom vGwfvyfa&;w&m;? jA[®pkd&fw&m;
wdkYukdum; rusifhMuHrlí yumoevkyfief;awG tay:,Hbrf;jy tvkyfawGudkom jyKvkyfaeonfukd awGY&ayonf/
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bk&m;MunfndKaom tm½kHtvkduf igwkdYtm; vrf;vGJaqmifjyKykHukd azmfjytHh/ uREkfyfum; Ak'¨bmomusrf;*efukd oGefoGef
arSmufarSmuf aygufajrmufatmif wwfuRrf;olr[kwf 0efcH\/ okdY&mwGif ,ckvuf½Sd bmomw&m;ESifh ywfoufí
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qDESifh ig;Muif;jyefaMumf\/ Oyrmwck jytHh/ rMumrDu ,cktcg q&mawG oifaeonfh ausmif;MuD;u ausmif;tkyfBuD;
wOD;\ pmwapmifudk zwf&\/ pmxdyw
f iG u
f m; jrefrmbmom ykEH ydS pf mvk;H jzifh tmp&d,*kaPm teaEÅm[k a&;xm;\/
olum; c&pf,mefbmom0if jzpf\/ þokdYvsif igwkdYbmomw&m;um; aumovrif; tdrfruftwkdif; rSefvkdíavm
rod/ uk,
d u
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¨ mom0if uREkyf w
f Ydk \
wkid ;f oljynfom;rsm;tm; uREyfk w
f ck awmif;yefvydk g\/ bmomw&m;[efjzifh tvdrrf cHygESihf bmomw&m;ESihf ywfouf
vQifvnf; tjrifus,fMuyg/ Ak'¨bmom0if r[kwfaomfvnf; tjcm;igwkdY wkdif;oljynfom;rsm;tm; ausmom;&ifom;
rjcm; cifrifwG,fwmMuyg/ jrwfpGmbk&m;onf Ak'¨bmomawGukdom arwåmxm;&rnf[k ra[mMum;/ tm;vkH;tm;
arwåmxm;&ef a[mMum;\/ igwkdYtm;vkH;um; uRefcsnf; jzpf\/ uReftcsif;csif; cGyfí tusKd;r½Sd? igwkdYtm;vkH;
vkdvm;&m vGwfvyfa&; &nfrSef;csufudk rarhMuukefvifh/
ynma&;taMumif;ukd quf&OD;rnf/ igwkdYynma&;um; txufav;aeí atmufao;jzpfae\/ igwkdY
ynmonf vlcsrf;omawG\ rlykdifyrm jzpfaeay\/ igwkdYwkdif;jynf½Sd uav;oli,frsm;wGif awmfapumrl ynm&cGifh
r½S/d xkYd aMumifyh if igwkYd jynfü acgif;aqmifaumif; ½Sm;\/ ajrmufrsm;pGmaom awmaeawmifow
l Ydk rmS urÇmBuD;b,fvdk
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(40) &mckdifEIef;rQ oGm;í t*FvefjynfwGif (10) &mckdifEIef;rQ oGm;onfukd axmufí Armjynf\ txufwef;ynm
zGHUNzdK;aMumif;[lonfyif þum; rsufpdoJyufjcif; jzpf\/ þokdY *Pef;rsm;onf arSmufrSm;p&m jzpf\/ igwkdYum;
*Pef;rsm; aemufoYdk ausmí
f Munf&h rnf/ t*Fvefjynfü vlO;D a&rSm ArmvlO;D a&xuf av;qrQ½\
dS / wuúov
dk af usmif;
awGvnf; rsm;\/ atmufwef;ynmuvnf; txl;aumif;rGef\/ vlrsm;rsm;vnf; ykdrkdoif&\/ xGufoGm;vQif
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f wf? rukid w
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I ufrv
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½Sd\/ ArmjynfrSm (10) wef;atmifvQif wuftm;u aumvdyfoGm;½kHom ½Sd\/ wESpfvQif (2000) cefYrQ aumvdyfodkY
136

udkvdkeDacwfaESmif; - 1937 rS 1938 - e,fcsJYqefhusifa&; vGwfvyfa&;BudK;yrf;rI trsKd;om;a&;toGif
0ifcGifh&olrsm;teuf (800) cefYrQ aumvdyfoGm;EkdifMuonfukd &mckdifEIef; zGJYvkdufaomf (40) &mckdifEIef;yif jzpf\/
t*FvdyfjynfrSmum; (6) ESpfu (15) ESpft½G,fwkdif ynmroifí rae&ay/ xkdrSxGufí ynmoifMuolrsm; csefvSyfí
usefvlrsm;rSm txufwef;ynma&; tcGifh&olrsm; jzpfí þuJhokdY ynma&; tcGihf&olrsm;rSm Armjynfxuf rsm;jym;\/
aumvdyfokdY oGm;Muolrsm;rSm þtcsKd;twkdif; wGufojzifh (10) &mckdifEIef;om ½Sdonf[k xif&jcif;jzpfonf/
þwGif Armjynf½dS ukv
H aHk om rdbrsm;tm; tpD&ifcv
H \
dk / taMumif;um; (10) wef;atmifvQif aumvdyo
f Ykd
csnf; rdrdwkdYom;orD;ukd rykdYrlí teD;tem;½Sd *syef? zdvpfykdif paomEkdifiHrsm;okdY ykdYí v,f,mpkdufysKd;a&;? ArmjynfwGif
jzpfEidk rf nfh pufrv
I yk if ef;rsm;ukd oifaptyfavonf/ þum; þodYk yYdk tyfaom rdbrsm;? om;orD;rsm;om tusKd;cHpm;&
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a&;wwf[k qkd\/ ,cktcg a,muFsm;qkdvQif (56) &mEIef;rQ pmwwf\/ rdef;rqkdvQif (16.5) &mEIef;rQom wwfMu
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igwkYd ynma&;um; vkv
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r½Sdoavmufyif/ oifonfh bmom&yfrsm;rSmvnf; usOf;ajrmif;vGef;\/ rpkHpd/ oif&onfrSmvnf; acwfrrD? tESpf
(20) cefYaemufus\/ avmupdwfynm qkdívnf; wkYdumoDum ausmif;tenf;i,fwGifom oifEkdif\/ ukd,fvuf
usef;rma&; ynmrSmvnf; vkdao;\/ ausmif;a&m wuúokdvfa&mrSm ynmpkHprf;jcif;? vkdufpm;jcif; vkyfonfh tavh
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twkdcsKH;&vQif igwkdhynma&;um; tjrpfupí vSefavSmNyD; jyKjyif,l&rnf jzpf\/ okdh&mwGif þokdhjyKvkyf
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rdwfaqGtaygif;wkdY oifwkdYigwkYdonf xkdokdYaom ocifynm&Ekdifonfh ocifb0ukda&mufatmif MudK;pm;&rnf/ aemif
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um; vGwfvyfa&;wkdufyGJ (wkdufyGJqkdívnf; a½S;uuJUokdh tMurf;t"r®wkdufyGJrsKd; r[kwf? t&rf;rxifMuESifU) twGuf
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aygh&eftwGuf &Hzef&Hcg igwkYd wuúokdvftufOya' jyifqif&ef tp½Sdojzifh atmf&\/ &Hzef&Hcg oydwfarSmufMu&\/
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dk af umifpD
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137

jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif; - atmifxGef;
igwkYd ta&;wGif igwkYd ErS awmf ausmif;olrsm;tm; ykrd v
dk u
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d / urÇmt0Sr;f ESiphf mvQif Zifuv,frQ
½Sad om ArmjynfwiG f (14) oef;rQ tenf;i,faom vlO;D a&½So
d nft
h euf w0ufcefYrQ½adS om igwkYd ArmtrsK;d orD;taygif;
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í zswfzswfvwfvwf tjrifus,fus,f trsKd;om;vkyfief;ukd vkyfoifUvSNyD/ uREfkyfum; a½S;t,loefol r[kwf?
rdef;rqkdvQif vifa,mufsm;\ uRefyrmxifaom pdwf,kwfpdwfnUHudk rwkdufwGef; rBudKufESpfouf/ igwdkY jynfokdY
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h Ykd
vufatmufcEH iS hf eif;jym;wkid ;f jynfwiG f rGv
J nf;rGMJ uolrsm;í jzpfEidk &f ef cJ,Of;onf[k qkad umif;qkad yvdrrhf nf/ avmu
wGif b,ft&mrS vlvkyfí&vQif rjzpfEkdifonfr½Sd/ taES;tjref jzpfEkdifonfcsnf;yif/ þtvkyfpcef;um; igwkdY
tpOfwpkduf rem;raevkyfrnfh t&myifwnf;/ igwkdYum; t½IH;ay;onfhpepfukd tenf;i,frQ rMudKufoifh? igwkdYonf
b,ftcgrS yef;ray;? vufravsmh? ,ckzwfjyvwåHUaom toif;BuD;\ ESpfywfvnf tpD&ifcHpmwGif a½SUESpfwGif
rnfokdY pcef;oGm;rnfukd azmfjyxm;\/ wkdif;jynf\ taxmuftyhHESifhwuG igwkdYvnf; rqkwfrESpfaom ZGJowådjzifh
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f ajymus,af om urÇmjyifus,w
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tajymrcH? atmufus aemufus rae? igwkdY\MudK;pm;tyfaom Oó[ tvkd½Sdtyfaom qE´tm;jzifh tb,frnfaom
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aemufom;udkaomf vnf;aumif;? igwkdY\ &mZ0ifajymifatmif MudK;pm;onfhvkyfief;twGuf tb,frnfaom
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rsm;twGuf pdw½f n
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138

udkvdkeDacwfaESmif; - 1937 rS 1938 - e,fcsJYqefhusifa&; vGwfvyfa&;BudK;yrf;rI trsKd;om;a&;toGif

(P) rsK d;ñGefYr*¾Zif; aqmif;yg;tcsKdU
(P-1) "r®ESifU t"r® (a&;ol-okyPÖu)

"r®ESifh t"r®
Armjynfü aeMuol (90) &mckdifEIef;cefYonf aeYwaeY?
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ypönf;rJh tvkyform;? v,form;rsm;omjzpf\/
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qkdovkd vkyf&if;ukdif&if; iwfoxufiwf? MuyfoxufMuyf
wnf; vmMuayonf/
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ra½Smif vkyfMu&aom v,form;rsm;rSmvnf; wrkd;wGif;vkH;
½THUxJ ukef;cg½kef;cgESifh [if;uav; jrufjrufrS r&? [if;ryg
bJ tvGwfpm;&onfursm;? iwfwvSnfh jywfwvSnfhESifh
MuyfMuyfwnf;wnf;ESifh yifyef;MuD;pGm vkyfcJh&NyD;rS tcsdef
ukefí pyg;odrf;onfhtcg pyg;ykHBuD;ukd Munfh&if; pkí iwf
Mu& jyefavonf/
qif;&Jom;ypönf;rJh tvkyform;? v,form;wkYdrSm vl
wef;aphatmif ynmrsm;roifEkdif? wxGmrQaom 0rf;Akdufu
av; jynfhzkdY&m aeYrtm; nrtm; yifyef;wBuD; tvkyfvkyf&
ojzifh ynmroifMum;Ekdif? tcsdeftm;jyefuvnf; ynmoif
Mum;a&; p&dwfu BuD;rm;vSojzifh rwwfEkdif/
reufajcmufcsuf? najcmufcsufESifh aeYvkyfaeYpm;? n
vkyfnpm; jzpfaeMuojzifhvnf; rdrdusef;rma&; *½krpkdufEkdif?
rrmrusef;jzpfuvnf; aumif;pGm rjyKpkEkdifojzifh raooifh
bJ aoMu&avonf/ qif;&Jom;wkdY\ pm;a&;0wfa&;? ae
a&;xkdifa&;? usef;rma&;tajcaewkdYum; qkd;0g;vSacs\/
uHraumif;ír[kwf/
þrQavmuf 'ku©BuD;pGm cHpm;ae&jcif;rSm uHraumif;
taMumif;roifhí r[kwf? pyg;ay;ESifhwrsKd;? atmf'DrHESifhwzkH
trsKd;rsKd;jzifh rwefwq twkd;BuD;,laom aiGwkd;BuD;pm; aoG;
pkyfaumifrsm;aMumifh vnf;aumif;? rdrdwkdYv,fukd ra&muf
bl;? v,form;wkdY\ 'ku©ukdy"merxm;? igwkdYv,frS v,f
oD;aumuf&rnf[k tMuyfukdifMuaom v,fykdif½SifBuD;rsm;
aMumifh vnf;aumif;? b,fuvmvm nmuvmvm ESHvkduf
rnfqkdaom &mjzwfyGJpm;wkdYaMumifh vnf;aumif;? 'if;wkdYw
awG bmjzpfaeae igwkdYtjrwfrsm;rsm;&vQif NyD;a&mqkdaom
"e½SifukefonfMuD;rsm;aMumihf vnf;aumif;? tvkyf\wefzkd;
udk rMunfh? tcudk wef&mwefcvnf;ray;? vlvdr®m n§Of;
n§Of;qJcg rdrdwdkYtzkdY tjrwftrsm;qkH;&atmif aoG;pkyfMu
aom "e½SifBuD;rsm; puf½kH½SifBuD;rsm;aMumifh vnf;aumif;?
qif;&Jom; v,form;? ypönf;rJh tvkyform;wkdYrSm vlcsif;
rwl? olcsif;rrQ jzpfMu&avonf/

pepfqkd;BuD;
Armjynfu qif;&Jom;ypönf;rJhrsm;om þuJhodkY 0#f'ku©
BuD;ukd cHpm;ae&onfr[kwf? vlw&mvQif (90) ausmfcefY
aom wurÇmvkH;½Sd qif;&Jom;ypönf;rJhwkdYrSm þuJhokdY 0#fMuD;
rsm;cHae&onf/ qif;&Jjcif;? tvkyfvufrhJaygrsm;jcif;paom
uyfqkd;MuD;rsm; vljynfvlavmuwGif qkdufuyfaejcif;onf
tjcm;aMumifhr[kwf/ aZmufxkd;rkd;arQmf jzpfaeaom vlwkdY\
aerIxkdifrI pepfMuD;aMumifh jzpf\/
wnf&if;pGJ aexkid rf I pepfMuD;um; wwkid ;f jynfu wwkikd ;f
jynfukd? vlrsKd;wrsKd;u vlrsKd;wrsKd;ukd? "e½Sifu qif;&Jom;
ukd? tvkyf½Sifu tvkyform;ukd? v,fykdif½Sifu v,form;
ukd EkdifhxufpD;eif; aoG;pkyfaeaom pepfBuD; jzpf\/ "e½Sifu
qif;&Jom;wkdYtm; aoG;pkyfvkdjcif;? "e½Sifrsm; avmbaZmrTef
wufvmjcif; ponfwkdYaMumifh wEkdifiHu wEkdifiHukd twif;
t"r® odrf;,laom pepfonf ay:vm\/
Oyrmqkdaomf t*FvefEkdifiHrS "e½SifMuD;rsm;onf wHcg;
r½Sd "g;r½Sd? vufvGwfwap? ukefa&mif;o,fvdkonfh twGuf
tdE´d,jynf? Armjynf paom jynfrsm;ukd odrf;apcJhonf/
xYkdaMumifhvnf; igwkdYawG uRefjzpfaeMu&\/ pifppftm;jzifh
um; NAdwdoQvlrsKd;wkdYonf pdwfaumif;oabmaumif;ESifh
jynfpkHaomolrsm;jzpf\/ t*Fvefjynf½Sd qif;&Jom;rsm;rSm
vnf; Armjynfonf t*FvdyfvufatmufrSef; odyif rod½Sm
Mu/ ArmjynftaMumif;vnf; rMum;bl;Mu/
pifppfqdk;0g;aeonfum; wHcg;r½Sd "g;r½Sd vGwfvyfpGm
ukefa&mif;0,frI? vGwfvyfpGm aoG;pkyfEdkifcGifh paom NAdwdoQ
"e½SifBuD;rsm; tusKd;iSm e,fy,frsm;odrf;onfh EdkifiHcsJUpepf
BuD;ESifh qif;&Jom; ypönf;rJhwdkY taoG;tom;udk pkyfrsKdaeaom
"e½SifpepfBuD;yifjzpf\/ xdkpepfqdk;aMumifhvnf; igwdkYESifh
uHwltusKd;ay;rsm;jzpfaom t*Fvdyfqif;&Jom;rsm;? ypönf;rJh
rsm;rSm tpmiwfjcif;? tvkyfvufrJhrsm;jcif; paom'ku©awG
wykHwacgif;MuD;ESifh awGUaeMu&\/
"e½SifpepfqkdonfrSm tcsif;csif;aoG;pkwf&rS wnfwHh&m
"e½Sifpepf wnfwHhaeorQ ra&rwGufEkdifavmufatmif
tvkyfvufrhJaygrsm; aernfum;rvGJ/ Mumavqkd;av jzpf
csdrfhrnf/ vuf½SdpepfBuD;wGif aeaeMu&orQ umvywfvkH;
igwkdYynma&;pepf aumif;pm;vmzkdY arQmfvifhzG,fr½Sd/ tvkyf
orm; avsmhyg;vmzkdY vrf;r½Sd? qif;&Jom;ypönf;rJhwkdYrSm
qif;&Joxuf qif;&J? rGJoxuf rGJcsdrfhrnf/
vGwfajrmuf&mvrf;
igwkdYonf Ekdif&mpm; pepfMuD;? "e½Sifu qif;&Jom;ukd
aoG;pkyfaompepf? Ekdifvkdrif;xuf e,fcsJUaompepfwkdYukd NzdK&
vdrfhrnf/ okdYrSom ¤if;wkdY\ tpG,ftyGm;jzpfaom ynma&;

139

jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif; - atmifxGef;
pepfpkwfyJhjcif;? tvkyfvufrJhrsm;jcif;? oef;aygif;rsm;pGm
aomolwkdYiwfrGwfjcif;ponfwkdYukd NzKdzsufEkdifayrnf/ t&if;
vJu? tzsm;xif;jzpfqkdaom pum;uJhokdYyif/
rnfonfh tpk;d &rqkd "e½Sirf sm;? rsufEmS MuD;rsm;? yku
d q
f ½H dS
rsm; MuD;pkd;&mXme ¤if;wkdYtusKd;iSm tokH;jyKaom vufeuf
uav;rQom jzpfojzifh tpkd;&xHrS qif;&Jom;ypönf;rJhwkdY
onf arQmfvifhtm;xm;zG,f r½Sd/ ewfu&m usD;armhouJhokdY
yif rkd;vif;í ysKd;&ifh½kHom ½Sdrnf/
qif;&Jom;wkdYonf qif;&Jom;csif; pnf;vkH;NyD;oumv
wnf&if;pGJ pepfMuD;ukd wGef;vSefNzdKzsuf okwfoifcg qif;&J
om;wkdY tusKd;twGuf tokH;jyK&rnfhud&d,mjzpfaom ]]qif;&J
om;rif;? qif;&Jom;csif;}} tpdk;& wnfaxmif&ayvdrfhrnf/

ponfwkdYukd tokH;jyKvmMu\/
qif;&Jusyfwnf;vGef;ojzifh vIyf½Sm;Muonfukd pufao
ewf? puftajrmufwkdYjzifh ESdrfESif;\/
]]rif;wkdYrsufapmif; taMumif;ra½G;}} xpfueJqkd zrf;
axmifcs vkduf\/ b*Fvm;jynfrS igwkdY\ aoG;csif;om;csif;
rsm;jzpfaom b*FgvDvli,faxmifaomif;ausmfrSm taMumif;
rJhoufouf tusOf;cHae&\/
&mZ0wfjyifqifcsuf Oya'rsm;rSmvnf; wkwfwkwfrQr
vIyf0Hhatmif jzpf\/ pmykHESdyfpufOya'rsm;? owif;pmrsm;ukd
tmrcHawmif;jcif;rsm;rSmvnf; igwkdY\vnfrsKdukdñSpfjcif;yif
jzpf\/ þum; w&m;enf;vrf;twkdif; tmPmrJhwkdYu tif
tm;pkMuonfukd tmPm½Sifrsm;u t"r®ESdrfESif;jcif; jzpf\/

aoG;pkwfolESifU aoG;pkwfcH&ol
avmuü t*Fvdyf? ukvm;? Arm[lí cGJjcm;jcif; r½Sd/
ynwfrQomwnf;/ trSefpifppftm;jzifh "e½SifESihf tvkyfo
rm;? v,form;ESifh v,fykdif½Sif? ocifESifh uRef? rif;ESifh
qif;&Jom;ponfjzifh vltwef;tpm;trsKd;rsKd; uGJjym;aeaomf
vnf; tcsKyftm;jzifhqkd&aomf aoG;pkyfolESifh aoG;pkyfcH&ol
[lí ESpfrsdK;ESpfpm;wnf;om ½Sday\/
aoG;pkyfolrsm;onf "e½SifMuD;rsm;jzifhojzifh tpkd;&vuf
ukdif½SdMu\/ tmPm½SifBuD;rsm;jzpfMu\/ aoG;pkyfcH&olrsm;
rSm qif;&Jom;rsm; jzpfMuí tmPmrJhMu\/ tmPm½SifwkdY
onf rdrdtmPmukd tokH;jyKum tmPmrJholwkdY\ tqDt
aoG;ukd pkyfumtouf½Sif aeMu\/
aoG;pkyfcH&ol tmPmrJhwkdYuvnf; aoG;pkyfol tmPm
½SifwkdYtm; wGef;vSefNzdKzsuf&ef? w&m;enf;vrf;twkdif; tif
tm;pkMu&m aoG;pkyfol tmPm½SifwkdYonf tvG,fESifh z,f
ray;vkdMubJ t"r®rIrsm; jyKvkyfvmMuukef\/

"r®ESifU t"r®
aoG;pkyfcH&olwdkYvnf; ykefuefonfxuf ykefuef? awmf
vSefonfxuf awmfvSef vmMuukef\/ þokdYtm;jzifh aoG;
pkyfolrsm;ESifh aoG;pkyfcH&olwkdYonf wefckd;tmPmvkMu&m
0,f ]]rJqE´}} ]]trsm;oabmwl}} [laom okH;½kd;okH;pOf vuf
eufrsm;ukd tokH;rjyKawmhbJ? AkH;? tajrmuf? "gwfcdk;? "gwfaiGY
ponfh Murf;MuKwfonfh vufeufwkdYukd tokH;jyKvmMu\/
qif;&Jom;ypönf;rJhwkdYrSm vltiftm;aumif;oavmuf
vufeufrJh? tmPmrJh? ypönf;rJhjzpfMuí rdrdwkdYvGwfvyfrI
wefckd;tmPm&rItwGuf tqif;&JcH? tyifyef;cH? tepfemcH?
aoG;xGufoH,kdcHum touftaocHum wkdufckdufaeMu&ay
\/ pydefjynfwGif tkd;rJhtdrfrJh ypönf;rJhwkdYtusKd;ukd aqmif½Guf
tHhaomiSm tpkd;&ESifh "e½SifMuD;rsm;? v,fykdif½SifMuD;rsm;udk
olykefwkdYonf tjyif;txef wkdufckdufaecsif;um; om"u
aywnf;/
þuJhokdYtm;jzifh ypöu©urÇmavmuwGif "r®ESifh t"r®
wkYdonf vGefqGJvsuf½Sdaeay\/ ]]a>rrao wkwfrusKd;}} [l
aom pum;rSm t"dyÜg,f r½Sdawmh/ a>raomfvnf; ao&rnf
wkwf aomfvnf; usKd;&rnf? avSeHESpfzuf eif;í rjzpf/

t"r® pepfBuD;
tmPm½Sife,fcsJUorm; "e½Sift"r®orm;wkdY vTrf;rkd;ykHukd
Munfh? a½S;tcgurl ¤if;wkdY ajcz0g;atmufwGif½SdolwkdYukd
tcsif;csif; roifhrwifhjzpfatmif aoG;cGJay;\/ nHhzsif;vS
aom ynma&;pepfjzifh pdwf,kwfpdwfnHhrsm; oGif;ay;\/
bGJUxl; emrxl; wHqdyfvufrSwfrsm;? &mxl;XmeEÅ& paom
wHpkd;vufaqmifwdkUjzifh vltMunfndKcH&atmif vkyf\/
þuJhokdY y&d,m,fwaxmif? rm,mwodef;? tyvdef;
teEÅwkdYNzifh rdrdwkdY\ tmPmpuf wnfwHhatmif vkyfaomf
vnf; vuf½SdpepfMuD;\ 'Pfrsm;udk ryaysmufEkdif? qkd;o
xuf qkd;vmukef\/
uRefBuD;uRefi,f taygif;wkdYvnf; rdrdwkYd\ csrf;om;rI
twGuf vIyfvIyf½Sm;½Sm; jzpfvmukef\/ tmPm½Sife,fcsJU
orm;wkdYvnf; tenf;i,frQ avsmhray;vkd? qif;&Jom;
ypönf;rJhwkdY\ aoG;ukd pkyfjrJpkyfvkdojzifh Murf;Murf;wrf;wrf;
&uf&ufpufpuf ESdrfeif;vmMuukef\/
a½S;uuJhokdYyif qifajcqifvuf w&m;Oya'wkdYukd rokH;
awmh/ ykvdyf? eHygwfwkwf? vSHpGyf? aoewf? axmif? tusOf;

140

&Jabmfausmif;om;wkdh
igwkdYonf vlwkdY\ csrf;omrIukd tvkd½Sd\/ vuf½Sdpepf
MuD; wnfwHhaeorQ umvywfvkH; vlwkdY\ csrf;omrIukd
ray;Ekdif/ vuf½SdpepfMuD;ukd NzdKzsuf&vdrfhrnf/ wurÇmvkH;
ausmif;om;wkdYonf qif;&Jom;ypönf;rJhrsm;ESifh aygif;onfh
enf;wl? qif;&Jom;ypönf;rJhrsm;ESifh igwdkYaygif;MuukeftHh/
wnf&if;pGJpepfMuD;rSm Armjynfwckwnf;om vTrf;rkd;ae
jcif; r[kwf&um; wnf&if;pGJpepfMuD;ukd NzdKzsufvdkol rSef
orQESifh igwkdYyl;aygif; MuukefthH/
igwkdYonf "e½SifEdkifiHwkdYwGif vlwef;aphrI? vljzpfusKd;
eyfrIwkdYtwGuf tiftm;pkaeMuaom ypönf;rJhwkdYESifh vnf;
aumif;? uRefoabmufb0rS vGwfajrmufrItwGuf vkH;yef;
aeMuaom uRefEkdifiH? oabmufEkdifiHwkdYESifh waoG;wpdwf
wnf; csDwufMuukefthH/

okyPÖu

udkvdkeDacwfaESmif; - 1937 rS 1938 - e,fcsJYqefhusifa&; vGwfvyfa&;BudK;yrf;rI trsKd;om;a&;toGif
(P-2) aoG;pnf;MuavmU (a&;ol- &J&Jawmufoef;wif- NrdKYrausmif; &efukef)

aoG;pnf;MuavmU
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uefYuGufEkdifthHenf;/ uefYuGuf0hHthHenf;/ wkdYjynfjzpfí wkdYjynf[ktwdtvif;qkd\/ wkdYajrjzpfí wkdYwawGae\/ wkdYjynf?
wkdYajrwGifaeaom wkdYwawG (0g) wkdUArmawGum; tb,folawGenf;/ ukvm;eufawGavm? ukvm;jzLawGavm? odkYwnf;
r[kwf w½kwfawGavm aocsmpGmprf;ppf xkwfvkdufaomf wkdYwawGum; þolawGr[kwfacs/
wkdYArm? wdkYArm? 'gigwkdYArm[k waMumfaMumf [pfatmf a<u;aMumfaeaom wkdYArmawGum; wkdYjynf? wkdYajrwGifum;
wkdYjynf? wkdYajrwGifyif aygufzGm;í a&ajra'oXme tenf;i,fpDom uGJjym;í rqkdpavmufaom a0g[m&uGJjym;aeaom
(rGef? &ckdif? u&if? csif;? ½Srf;) paom wkdif;&if;om;rsm;omwnf;/ wkdYwkdif;&if;om;awG &ckdif[lí? u&if[lí trnftm;jzifh
uGJjym;aejcif;um; txl;tqef;r[kwf/ tHhMop&m r[kwfacs/ xm;0,fwGifaeí xm;0,fom;? NrdwfwGifaeí Nrdwfom;?
txuftnmwGifaeí tnmom;? atmufwGifaeí atmufom; ponfjzifh ac:Muaom trnfynwfoabmrQyif jzpfay\/
odkYaomf wkdYjynf? wkdYajrukd t"r® rsufESmjzLwkdY odrf;ykduf,lonfrStp ¤if;wkdYpkd;rkd; tkyfcsKyfvmuwnf;u wkdYwkdif;&if;om;
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awG aoG;uGJjym;ae&\/ ,ckvdkaoG;uGJjym;aejcif;onf wkdYwawG\ pdwf&if;azmufjyefrIr[kwf/ rw&m; tpkd;&\ ZGwftwif;
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aom tpkd;&onf vnf;aumif;? olwkdYbkef;BuD;rsm;vTwfí ¤if;wkdYbmomukd jyefYyGm;atmifjyKNyD;vQif acsmhenf;? ajcmufenf;wkdY
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aygif;pnf;rd&ef rjyKvkyfEkdifp&mtaMumif;onf bmrQr½Sd/ pnf;rdEkdif&rnf/ xkduJhokdY jyefvnfpnf;&ef vuf½Sd aoG;pkwfowÅ0g
opömrJh ñGefUaygif;tpkd;&tzGJUukd vnf;aumif;? tjcm;aoG;npf trwftcsKdUudk vnf;aumif; tm;xm;aeí rjzpfEkdif/
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141

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uJhokdY apmfum;cHrnfavm a0;pG? a0;pG/ okdYaMumifh ArmjynfrSmaevQif Armpdwf ½Sd&rnf/
vlli,fausmif;om;rsm;onf vnf;aumif;? wkdYArmocif? ocifrtaygif;wkdYonf vnf;aumif;? toG,foG,faomenf;
wkdUjzifh wkdUArm wkdif;&if;om;tcsif;csif; trsKd;rsKd;aoG;pnf;í aoG;nD&ef? tjrefñSdMu&ayrnf/ ]]wkdYArm? wkdYArm 'gigwkdYArm}}
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aeYBuD; rkcsjzpf&rnf/ wkdYArmwkdif;jynfBuD;ukd tvkyfvkyfí ukvm;jzLwkdY odrf;oGm;\/ wkdYwawGyJ tvkyfvkyfí jyef,l&rnf/
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(P-3) qif;&Jom;ypönf;rJUrsm;ESifU ausmif;om;rsm;

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]]trsKd;om;a&;}} ]]trsKd;om;0g'}} ponfh pum;rsm;ukd
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,ck ac:a0:tyfaom trsKd;om;a&;qkdwmbmvJ? Arm
wrsKd;vkH;ta&;vm;? ola|;ol<u,fv,fykdif½Sif rsufESmBuD;
rsm;\ta&;vm;? okdYr[kwfvQif vlwef;aphatmifrS rae&?
xrif;eyfrSefatmifrS rpm;&onfhtvkyform;? awmol
awmifom;rsm;\ta&;vm; ponfjzifh pOf;pm;&ayvdrfhrnf/
e,fcsJYa&;pepftp
vGefcJhaomESpfaygif; ESpf&mausmfcefYu taemufEkdifiHrsm;
wGif pufrIvufrIynmacwfBuD; xGef;um;cJhavonf/ xkdt
csdefwGif ola|;? ol<u,f? ukefonfBuD;rsm;onf puf½kHBuD;?
tvkyf½kHBuD;rsm;ukd wnfaqmufcg puf½kHxGufypönf;rsm;ukd
tajrmuftrsm; vkyfukdifMuavonf/ vufESifhvkyfpOfu
waeY ypönf;wckNyD;vQif pufjzifh waeY 20? 25 ckrQ NyD;Ekdif
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tBudwfte,f tNydKiftqkdif vkyfukdifMuojzifh txGufESifh
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rsm;u "e½Sifrsm;tvkdus wkdif;jynfwGif ykdvQHaeonfh puf½kH
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txufygenf;twkdif; t*Fvdyftpkd;&u t*Fvdyf"e½Sif

142

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xlaxmifum jynfwGif;rS tqDtESpfukd pkyfrsKdaeMu\/
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f m;NyD;vQif Arm
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wkdif;&if;om;"e½Sifrsm; qlylvmykH
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twGif; 0ifa&mufcs,fvS,fvkdaomfvnf; tpkd;&u ta&;
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om;rsm;ESifh EkdifiHjcm;"e½Sifrsm;udk wkdufay;avonf/
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vkyfief; pwifay:aygufvmavonf/ ArmjynfwGif Arm
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udkvdkeDacwfaESmif; - 1937 rS 1938 - e,fcsJYqefhusifa&; vGwfvyfa&;BudK;yrf;rI trsKd;om;a&;toGif
awmif;qkdMuavonf/ 1919 ckESpfwGif 0kdiftrfbDat
toif;u MuD;rSL; NyD; (az-yk-½Sdef) wkdYukd t*Fvef? tdE´d,
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aMumif; b,ftcgrSm MuHpnfrnfr[kwf/ xkdaMumihf vuf½Sd
"e½Sif e,fcsJUtpkd;&udk awmfvSef&eftwGuf "e½Sif v,fykdif
½SifBuD;rsm;ukd rnfonfhtcgrQ tm;rukd;Ekdifacs/ NAdwdoQ
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ayGU&ovkd? ykdufayGUxm;Muavonf/
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ajymif;vJonfukd rodvkdufbJESifh EkdifiHjcm;om;awGu vnf
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qif;&Jom;rsm; tajctae
Armt&m½Sdrsm;? Arm"e½Sifrsm;ponhf vufwqkyfrQ
aom vlenf;pkwkdY pnf;pdrfESifh aeEkdifaomfvnf; vlOD;a&wGif
(90) ausmf&mEIef;rQ½Sdonfh qif;&Jom;tvkyform;? v,fo
rm;awGrSm iwfjrJ? jywfjrJyif jzpfaeMuavonf/ qefwef
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pm? npmrSefatmif rpm;Mu&/ t0wftwGufrSmvnf; t½Suf
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ayvdrfhrnf jzpfaMumif;/

A[def;
143

jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif; - atmifxGef;

(w) Auo? wuo Ouú| ukdatmifqef;\ ausmif;ydwf&ufvkyfief;wm0ef vufrSwfygrl
10th September 1938
Dear ----------------------,
As the college is to be closed, would you please held in to get a list of students who would
volunteer to do some work in the districts when they get back there? Further I should be very much
obliged if any student is forth coming to stay out in Rangoon and the help us expedite our work.
The work for volunteers in the districts is not at all heavy. All they have to do is to get
necessary information from us, to explain about our decision to the students and people in their
respective places to help form students union and volunteer corps and guide then with your advice
in consultation with us here while you remain there.
For these who can afford to remain in Rangoon, they will be mostly correspondence,
propanganda and other odd jobs.
Pleas let me know the list of such students by tomorrow so that we may make necessary
arrangements for the Thadingyut Vacation.
Yours Sincerely,
Aung San
President, Rangoon University Student Union

(x) cGyfacgif;tvH teDatmufcH? a&T0ga&mif cGyfa'gif;okH;pGJyHk (1938 twGJ- 7? trSwf- 1 tkd;a0)
Union Flag - Last year flying of the peacock flag was not allowed and the our writes passed a resolution
to the effect that flag, whose design was not approved of by then must be flown. Yet, when
we adopted our present design i.e. a fighting peacock and a red background we were at
a loss of attitude and the part of the authorities who approve that design.

(') 1938 &efukefwuúokdvftufOya' jyifqifcsuf (rlMurf;) udpö
1936 ck ausmif;om;oydwfNyD;aemuf ausmif;om;acgif;aqmifrsm;onf wuúokdvf tufOya'jyifqif&ef
tjyif;txef aqmif½GufcJhMuonf/ jrbl;aumfwDudk 1936? arv (1) &ufaeYwGif zGJUpnf;NyD;aemuf ¤if;aumfrwDonf
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dk a&pDenf;vrf;wus tkycf sKyf&ef
yg½Sd avonf/
jrbl;tpD&ifcHpm xGufay:vmNyD;aemuf a'gufwmbarmfonf ausmif;om;acgif;aqmifrsm;ESifh awGUqkHcJhNyD;
1920 yxrausmif;om;oydwfu wuúokdvftufOya'jyifqif&ef awmif;qkdcsuftwkdif; jyifqifay;cJhNyD;jzpfonf[k
ajymqkdcJhonf/ okdYaomf ukdatmifqef;wkdY\ wuúokdvftufOya' jyifqifa&;tzGJU\ awmif;qkdcsufrsm; rygcJhay/
ausmif;om;trsm;pk\ awmif;qkdcsuft& 1938 ckESpf ausmif;om;vTwfawmfwGif ausmif;om;trsm;pk\
qE´t& jyifqifrI jyKvkyfay;&ef oabmwlcJhonf/
1938 ckESpfonf ausmif;om;trsm;pk\ ta&;BuD;aomESpf jzpfvmonf/ jrbl;tpD&ifcHpmonf NAdwdoQ
144

udkvdkeDacwfaESmif; - 1937 rS 1938 - e,fcsJYqefhusifa&; vGwfvyfa&;BudK;yrf;rI trsKd;om;a&;toGif
tifyg,mukd xde;f odr;f apmihaf ½Smufovkjd zpfonf/ xkYd aMumifh AuoESihf wuoonf pdw"f mwfjyif;xefNyD; trsKd;om;a&;
pdwfwuf<uaom ausmif;om;rsm;udk pkpnf;NyD; AuoESifh wuo Ouú| udkatmifqef;onf jyifqifa&; Oya'Murf;
twGuf ZGefvtxd vIyf½Sm;cJhavonf/ xkdtcsdefu owif;pm acgif;BuD;ykdif;ESifh aqmif;yg;rsm;wGif jyifqifa&;
Oya'Murf;taMumif; trsm;qk;H ygvmaeonf/ c½kid ?f NrdKUe,fausmif;om;rsm; vIy½f mS ;rI jyKvkyv
f mMuonf/ ausmif;om;
acgif;aqmifrsm;onf EkdifiHa&;orm; tcsKdUESifh NAdwdoQtmPmykdifwkdY\ zdESdyfrIrsm; awGUMuHKvm&onf/
1938 ckESpfonf ausmif;om;rsm; atmifjrifaomESpf jzpfonf/ Zefe0g&DvwGif oHvsifa&eHcsufpuf½kHoydwf
jzpfvmonf/ a&eHajrtm;vkH;oYkd ZGefvwGif jyefYESHYoGm;onf/ Zlvkdifv aemufqkH;ywfwGif ukvm;Arm t"du½kPf;
jzpfavonf/ ausmif;om;acgif;aqmifrsm;onf &yfuGuftcsKdUrS ukvm;rsm;ukd u,fwifí ae&mcsxm;ay;onf/
NrdKUrsm;½Sv
d x
l t
k m; aumvm[vowif;rsm; rjzefYcs&d ef wm;jrpfco
hJ nf/ ausmif;om;acgif;aqmifrsm;onf ukvm;-Arm
t"du½kPf;onf NAdwdoQe,fcsJUvufa0cHrsm;u jyKvkyfaomtjzpfom jzpfonf[k owif;jzefYa0cJhonf/ ukvm;&yf
uGuf½Sd Armrsm;tm;vnf;aumif;? Arm&yfuGuf½Sd ukvm;rsm;tm;vnf;aumif; ab;vGwf&mokdY ajymif;ay;chJonf/
xkdYaemuf ukdatmifqef;wkdYonf wuúokdvfOya' jyifqifa&;udpu
ö dk c&D;qufchJMuonf/ (2) ESpfcGJausmfMum
a&;qGJNyD;aemuf Mo*kwfv (25) &ufaeYwGif rlacsm xkwfjyefcJhonf/ Mo*kwfv (23) &ufaeYwGif ausmif;om;xktpnf;
ta0;jyKvkyfNyD; Oya'Murf; jyifqifcsufrsm;udk azmfjyí ¤if;OD;wnfcsufrsm;udk ½Sif;jycJhonf/
¤if;aumfrwD\ axmufcHcsufukd a'gufwmbarmf acgif;aqmifaom tpkd;&u vufcHNyD; Oya'jyKvTwfawmf
wGif wifoGif;awmhrnf tcsdefjzpfaeí ausmif;om;wcsKdU 0rf;omaeMuonf/ ¤if;tcsdefwGif rGwfpvifESifh Ak'¨bmom
t"du½kP;f ay:vmjcif;jzpfonf/ wzufEiS hf wzuf owfjzwfrrI sm; jzpfvmMuonf/ a'gufwmbarmfonf rpöwm&Dcef;\
om;awGeJY aygif;NyD; or*¾Ouú|a[mif; ukdEkudk pGyfpGJcJhonf/ ukdEkonf Ak'¨bmom0ifu rGwfpvifudk cswmvnf;
rBudKufb;l ? rGwpf vifu Ak'b
¨ mom udck swmvnf; rBudKufay/ tpk;d &onf wnfrh wfpmG Mum;aeNyD; tm;enf;onfzh uf
uko
d m aqmif½u
G af pvko
d nf/ xkad emuf ukEd o
k nf Auo Ouú| ukad tmifqef;xHomG ;awGUonf/ rawGUí pmwapmifa&;
cJhonf/
¤if;pmxJwGif(1)
rGwfpvif bmom0ifawGzufuyif Ak'¨bmomawG towfcH&atmifvkyfwJh a'gufwmbarmfukd tvkdr½Sd?
eef;&if0ef&mxl;u tjrefxGufpmukd a&;&ef?
(2)
tJ'DpmxJwGif ausmif;om;? ausmif;om;olrsm; vufrSwfaxmifcsD&atmifvkyf&ef?
(3)
¤if;pmukd eef;&if;0ef a'gufwmbarmfqDvnf;ykdY? owif;pmawGvnf;ykdY&ef pmwapmifa&;cJhonf/
xkdaeYnzufwGif udkatmifqef;wkdY ukdEk½Sd&m e*g;eDpmtkyfwkdufokdYa&mufvmonf/
ukdatmifqef;u
]]ukdEk cifAsm; tpDtpOfraumif;bl;/ 'gxufaumif;wm usaemfpDpOfxm;w,f}}
ukdEku
]]bmvJAsm}}
udkatmifqef;
]]a'gufwmbarmf tpk;d &u 'Dv (1) &uf (12) &ufrmS wuúov
dk t
f ufOya'Murf;ukd vTwaf wmfrmS wifawmhr,f?
vTwfawmftrwfawG 0kdif;NyD; uefUuGufMuvdkY usaemfwkdY vIHYaqmfay;r,f/ usaemfwkdYu tvkdr½Sdbl;vkdY uefYuGufaewJh
txJ a'gufwmbarmftpkd;&u 'DOya'Murf;udk vTwfawmfrSm twif;ZGwfwif&if tpdk;& jyKwfusoGm;Edkifp&m taMumif;
½Sdw,f/ jyKwfusoGm;rSm aMumufvdkY rwifbJqGJxm;&if 'DOya'ukd olYtpkd;&u vkyfay; cJhw,fvkdY a'gufwmbarmf
emrnfr&awmhbl;/ a'gufwmbarmfu 'DOya'eJY ywfoufNyD; odyfukd*kPf,laew,f}}
ukdEku
]][kwfw,f 'DtpDtpOf ykdaumif;w,f}}
aemufaeYwiG f ukad tmifqef;ESifh tvkyt
f rIaqmiftcsKUd onf wuúov
dk Of ya'Murf;udk tvkrd ½Sd 0kid ;f NyD; uefYuu
G f
MuygvdYk ykEH ydS x
f m;wJph m½Gurf sm;udk Oya'jyKvTwaf wmf0if;twGi;f ,lomG ;NyD; trwfrsm;ukd avQmufa0cJo
h nf/ a'gufwm
barmfu 'DOya'Murf;ukd vTwaf wmfrmS rwifawmhb;l [k qGx
J m;vku
d o
f nf/ xkt
d cg ausmif;om;or*¾ tvkyt
f rIaqmif
tzGJUxJrS ausmif;om;tcsKdU rausreyfjzpfvmMuonf/
pufwifbmv (1) &uf (2) &ufaeYn a[majymyGJrsm;wGif udkatmifqef;? ukdA[def;? ukdatmifausmf?
ukdodef;atmifwkdYonf tb,faMumifh Oya'udkuefYuGuf&onf[k a[majymyGJrsm; jyKvkyfcJhonf/ wdkYArm (The Sun)
rSwcf su-f wdkYArm (The Sun) [k azmfjyxm;aomfvnf; onfqef;rSm ol&d,owif;pmjzpfonf/ rl&if;twdkif;jyefvnfazmfjyxm;ygonf/

145

jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif; - atmifxGef;
pmapmifü a'gufwmbarmftqkdukd uefYuGuf&ef ygvmonf/ a'gufwmbarmfu ¤if;uwdukd xdef;NyD; tqkdwifoGif;
rnf[k ausmif;om;trsm;pku arQmfvifhaeMuonf/ ¤if;wkdY 'kdYArmpmapmifxJwGif a'gufwmbarmf vufa0cHwkdYu
ukdatmifqef;udk xkwfypf&ef ausmif;om;trsm;pku arQmfvifhaeMuonf/
pufwifbm (5) &ufaeY owif;pmtm;vkH;wGif AuoESifh wuo yl;wGJtpnf;ta0;jyKvkyfNyD; ¤if;jrbl;
jyifqifcsuu
f dk uefYuu
G af Mumif;ygvmonf/ (The Sun) owif;pmwGif ukad tmifqef;\ jrbl;tufOya'jyifqifa&;udk
tb,faMumifh pGefYy,f&ovJqkdonfh aqmif;yg;ygavonf/
xkdaeY aeYvnf A[kdxrif;pm;cef;ü ausmif;om;xktpnf;ta0;BuD; usif;yvkdufonf/ ¤if;ausmif;om;xk
tpnf;ta0;rS(1)
wuúokdvfausmif;om;or*¾ oif;vkH;uRwftpnf;ta0;BuD; csufcsif;ac:ay;zkdY awmif;qkd&ef/
(2)
oif;vkH;uRwftpnf;ta0;rSm trIaqmiftzGJYudk t,kHtMunfr½Sd tqkdwifoGif;NyD; jzKwfcsypf&ef/
tqkd (2) &yfukd uefYuGufolr½SdbJ qkH;jzwfvkdufonf/ ¤if;tqkdukd udkat;csKdESifhtzGJUu wifoGif;cJhjcif;
jzpfonf/ aemufwaeYwGif udkatmifqef;ESihf tvkyftrIaqmif tzGJU0ifwkdYonf e*g;eDpmtkyfwkdufokdY a&muf½SdvmNyD;
ukdEkESifh wkdifyifonf/
ukdatmifqef;u ]]ausmif;om;awG odyfNyD; tkH<uaew,f? tJ'gaMumifh olwkdY awmif;qkdwJhtwkdif; ta&;ay:
oif;vkH;uRwf tpnf;ta0;udk nae (5) em&DrSm ac:ay;&r,f/ tpnf;ta0;rSm t,kHtMunfr½Sdtqkd wifoGif;NyD;
tvkyftrIaqmiftzGJUukd jzKwfcsvdrfhr,f/ olwkdYrjzKwfcscif usaemfwkdY EkwfxGuf&if aumif;r,fxifw,f}} [k ukdatmif
qef;ESifh or*¾trIaqmifrsm;u ajymonf/
ukdEku
]]wku
d yf rJG S rwku
d &f bJ vufajr§mufNyD; t½I;H ay;vku
d &f wJh vrf;pOfudk igrBudKufb;l / rif;wkYdvrf;pOf twkid ;f qk&d if
t½IH;yJ½Sdr,f/ tEdkifr½Sdawmhbl;/ 'Dawmh rEkwfxGufeJY/ 'DaumifawGukd jyefwkdufMu/ 'Dvkdwkduf&if ½IH;csifvnf; ½IH;r,f/
Ekdifcsifvnf; Ekdifr,f/ tJ'Dt½IH;tEkdif (2) ck½SdwJhvrf;pOfu ykdaumif;w,f/ jyefwkdufMuyg/ raMumufeJY igvnf;ulNyD;
wkdkufay;r,f}}
pufwifbm (6-7) &ufwGif ukdatmifqef;onf oif;vkH;uRwftpnf;ta0; ac:,lcJhonf/ ausmif;ol?
ausmif;om;rsm;onf (5) em&D rxkd;cif t,kHtMunfr½Sdtqkd axmufcH&atmif tpnf;a0;cef;rxJ a&mufaeMuonf/
tpnf;ta0; yxrykdif;wGif ukdatmifqef;ukd atmf[pfqlyl qefYusifcJhMuonf/
xkdYaemuf ukdvSa½Tu qufvuf½Sif;jyonf/ ]]ukdatmifqef;[m wESpfvkH; jrwfEkd;vmcJhwJh 'DOya'Murf;MuD;
jyifqifrmS ukd ody0f rf;enf;aew,f/ 'gayr,fh a'gufwmbarmftpk;d &u vlraI &;udprö sm;udk OD;wnfaeí wzef,ckvnf;
'DOya'Murf;ukd wifoGif;&ef aqmif½Gufaew,f? a'gufwmbarmf[m tdE´d,wkdif;&if;om;rsm; rJvkdcsifí ukvm;Arm t"du½kPf;rSm bufvkdufwmawG ½SdcJhygw,f}}
ukdvSa½T\ajymcsuf? ukdatmifqef;\rdefYcGef;rsm;ukd ukdA[def;u axmufcHajymqkdcJhonf/
xkdYaemuf ukdndKjru ¤if;Oya'Murf;ukd raxmufcHvkdufjcif;rSm ausmif;om;xkw&yfvkH;ukd opömazmuf&m
a&mufjyefonf[k ajymvkdufjyefonf/
ukdat;csKdu qufvufajymjyef&m ]]ukdatmifqef; tjypf½Sdojzifh or*¾rS xkwfy,f&ef}} ajymqkd jyefavonf/
xdktcg udkEkuxajymavonf/
]]usaemf rdeYf ceG ;f ajymzkYd r&nf½,
G yf gbl;/ tm;enf;wJh vl&UJ zufu &yfwnfwhJ oabmyg/ a'gufwmbarmf[m
rGwfpvif-Ak'¨bmom t"du½kPf;rSm Ak'¨bmom0ifawG towfcH&atmif vkyfaeygw,f}} pojzifh (10) rdepfcefYMum
½Sif;jyoGm;avonf/
xkdYaemufukdatmifqef;u ¤if;ESifhtrIaqmifrsm; EkwfxGuf&efudpöudk qkH;jzwfcsufcs&ef ajymqkdavonf/
vufn§dK;axmif rJcGJ&ef qkH;jzwfonf/
ukdatmifqef;wkdY trIaqmiftzGJUxGufay;&ef awmif;qkdonfhbufrS (2) rJ (vufnd§K;ESpfacsmif;) om&NyD;
tjywftowf ½IH;edrfhoGm;onf/
atmufwb
dk m (1) &ufaeYwiG f udak tmifqef; wuorS Ekwx
f u
G Nf yD; 'DZifbm (3) &uf wuo tpnf;ta0;ü
udkvSa½Tu ukdA[def;udk Ouú|ae&m tqkdjyKvkdufonf/ ukdvSa½Tu olaemufqkH;ESpf aq;ausmif;om;jzpfaeí Ouú|
rvkyfEkdifykH ½Sif;jyonf/ ukdA[def;onf wuoESifh Auo Ouú| jzpfvmonf/ ukdAaqGu Auo twGif;a&;rSL;
jzpfvmonf/ ¤if;wuúov
dk f jyifqifa&;Oya'udk 1939? rwfv OD;yk eef;&if;0ef jzpfvmaomtcg twnfjyKcJah vonf/
146

udkvdkeDacwfaESmif; - 1937 rS 1938 - e,fcsJYqefhusifa&; vGwfvyfa&;BudK;yrf;rI trsKd;om;a&;toGif

(") wuúov
dk f Oya'Murf;udk tb,faMumifh pGeyYf ,fvu
dk &f oenf;
("-1) pufwifbm (5) &ufaehowif;pmrsm;wGif Ouú|ukdatmifqef;\ rsKd;cspftrwfwkdhtm; wkdufwGef;EId;aqmfcsuf
AuoESifh wuo (2) oif; trIaqmifrsm;jzpfaom uRefawmfwkdYonf eufjzef pOf;pm;qkH;jzwfrnf jzpfaom
wuúokdvfOya'Murf;udk y,fcs&ef wkdif;cspftrwftaygif;wkdYtm; wkdufwGef;EId;aqmfvkduf&ygaMumif;/
þwkdufwGef;EId;aqmf&mwGif usaemfwkdYonf (2) ESpfcGJausmf MudK;pm;aqmif½Gufí &½SdvmcJhaom wuúokdvf
Oya'Murf;ukd rBuKdurf ESpo
f ufí r[kwb
f J xkOd ya'Murf;ukd twnfjzpfvQif Ekid if jH cm;om;rsm;\oabmudk vku
d af vsm
aeaom ,ckvuf½Sd ñGefYaygif;tpkd;&ukd MunfndKonf[k jy&ma&mufrnfpdk;ojzifh txl;0rfenf;pGmESifhyif rvkdtyfaom
qkH;jzwfcsufudk xkwfjyefvdkuf&aMumif;/
wuúokdvfOya'Murf;udk pwifwifoGif;aom Mo*kwfv (25) &ufaeYrS pí ,aeYtxd ñGefYaygif;tpkd;&\
ajcvSrf;onf wkdif;jynftm; omíomí epfvmp&m jzpfvmayaMumif;/
uRefawmfwYdk ausmif;om;rsm;onf ñGeUf aygif;tpd;k &\ wnfw&hH m wnfwahH Mumif;jzpfapaom Ekid if jH cm;om;
wkdY\rJukd csdef½G,fí tcsdefqGJxm;onfudk awGU&aMumif;/
,ckwzef rvkv
d m;tyfaom ukvm;-Arm½du
k yf u
JG pd o
ö nf xyfrjH zpfay:vm&m xko
d Ykdjzpf&jcif;twGuf ñGeYfaygif;
tpkd;&\ wm0efruif;[kxifjrifp&m taMumif;rsm;pGm ay:aygufaeonfukd awGU½Sd&ayonf/ wkdif;jynf\ tusKd;ESifh
pmvQif tao;tzGJrQomjzpfaom ausmif;om;rsm;\ tusKd;udkom jzpfxGef;aprnfh wuúokdvfOya'Murf;ukd a½SU½Iaeí
aeygwrlum; uRefawmfwkdY wkdif;jynftm; tusKd;,kwfapaom ñGefYaygif;tpkd;&tm; MunfndKonf[k jy&ma&mufonfh
tjyif wkdif;jynftm; uRefawmfwkdYyg tm;ay;ESdyfpufaeonfESifhtvm; usa&mufrnf jzpfygaMumif;/
okYd jzpfygaomaMumifh uRefawmfwYdk onf tvGeaf MuuGv
J pS mG aom pdwEf v
S ;Hk om;jzifh wkid ;f jynf\ tusKd;udo
k m
a½SU½Ií usaemfwkdYtusKd;udk rMunfh½IbJ txufyg rvdkvm;tyfaom qkkH;jzwfcsufudk wkdif;jynftm;od½Sd&ef aMunm
ygaMumif;/
þokdYqkH;jzwf&mwGif ñGefYaygif;0efBuD;csKyftzGJUwGif yg0ifaom rnfoludkrQ yk*¾v"dXmefrxm;bJ "r®"d|mef
tm;jzifhomvQif jyKvkyf&jcif; jzpfayaMumif;/
("-2) AuoESifU wuo trIaqmifwkdh\ jyefwrf;rS aumufEkwfcsuf
1938 ck? pufwifbmv (4) &ufaeY? n (8) em&D tcsdefcefYwGif ta&;wMuD;ac:tyfaom txufyg
toif;trIaqmif (2) zGJU tpnf;ta0;u wuúokdvfjyifqifa&; Oya'Murf;ESifhywfoufí pufwifbm (5) &ufaeY
ol&d,ESifh jrefrmhtvif;owif;pmrsm;wGif xnfhoGif;aMunmonfhtwkdif; qkH;jzwf twnfjyKvkdufaMumif;/ xkdqkH;jzwf
csufjyK&m vGefcJhaom ESpfESpfausmfumvu aqmfMovmcJhorQ taMumif;pkH ,ckvTwfawmftpnf;ta0; rjyKvkyfrDu
pí txufyg qkH;jzwfcsufjyKaom tcsdeftxd Oya'Murf; twnfjzpf&mjzpfaMumif; MudK;pm;vmcJhorQ tjzpfawGukd
uRefawmfwkdYonf aphapha&í pOf;pm;rdygaMumif;/ xkdokdY pOf;pm;rdykHukd o½kyfay:ap&ef tvkdYiSm rusOf;rus,f &mZ0if
cif;í jyygthhH/
&efukefwuúokdvf Oya'ukd 1920 twnfjyKpOfuyif rausreyfjzpfí ausmif;om;trsm; oydwfarSmuf
udpöjzpfcJhonfukd trsm;todyifjzpf\/ xkdodkY trsm;jynfol rMunfjzL rvkdvm;tyfaom Oya'ukd 1924 ckESpfwGif
xyfrH jyifqifcJhaomfvnf; tvGeftajymif;tvJjrefaom þurÇmESifh EIdif;,SOfaomtcg auseyfzG,f r[kwfonfrSm
odom xif½Sm;vmaMumif;/ xkdYaMumifhyif 1936 ckESpf? azazmf0g&Dv? (25) &ufaeYwGif &efukefwuúodkvfu tpjyKí
wzefausmif;om;rsm; oydwfudpö ay:aygufvmayaMumif;/ xkdoydwfudpö wr[kwfjzpfjcif; taMumif;uav;onf
wuúodkvfor*¾ toif;Ouú|tm; ausmif;xkwfcH&onfrS pí jzpfonf[k tay:,HrQ vlwkdif;od½SdaMumif;? okdY&mwGif
trSefpifppfum; xkdoydwfudpö\ taMumif;&if;onf ,ck\ jyqkdtyfaom taMumif;uav;xuf ydkrkdeufeJay\/
(1) &efuek w
f uúov
kd o
f r*¾toif;onf wuúov
kd pf epf em;vnforl sm;ESiw
hf uG trsm;jynfow
l Ydkyg od½o
dS nfh
twkdif; &efukefwuúodkvf wausmif;wkdufvkH;wGif ta&;ygt&ma&mufqkH;aom ausmif;om;rsm;toif;
jzpfonfhtaMumif;ukd txl;½Sif;vif;p&m rvkday/ xkdrQ BuD;us,fí ta&;yg t&ma&mufaomtoif;\
Ouú|um; xkpd Oftcgu ukEd k jzpf\/ ukEd k bDatNyD;í ausmif;xGuo
f mG ;NyD;aemuf trsKd;om;ausmif;q&m
BuD; tjzpfjzifh okH;cG? yef;waemf tp½Sdaom NrdKUrsm;wGif (5) ESpfrQ tvkyfvkyfukdifcJhol jzpf\/ xkdrSwzef
ausmif;okdY jyefvmí Oya'ynmukd xyfrHoif,l&m touftm;jzifh vnf;aumif;? 0gtm;jzifh vnf;
147

jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif; - atmifxGef;
aumif; &ifo
h efow
l OD; jzpf\/ ta&;ygqk;H aom ausmif;om;rsm;toif;Ouú| jzpfvmonft
h cg Armjynf
&mZ0ifwiG f rMuHKzl;atmif ¤if;tm; aemufq;Hk ESpu
f ek f toif;tpnf;ta0;wGif ajymtyfaom pum;tcsuf
wkdYaMumifh xkdpOfu ausmif;tkyfMuD; rpöwmpavmhu ausmif;rS ESifxkwfypfvkdufonf/ taMumif;pkHukd
½Si;f aomf ½Snv
f sm;rnfjzpf\/ twkcd sKyfaomf ukEd u
k m; rsK;d csppf w
d "f mwf xufoefol wOD;jzpfí wuúov
kd f
ausmif;wku
d f wwku
d v
f ;Hk wGif xkt
d csde?f xdt
k cgxd MuD;pk;d vsuf½adS om rpöwmpavmhEiS hf tazmfyg taemuf
wdkif;om;wkdY cs,fvS,faejcif;? ¤if;wkdY trsKd;yifvQif wwkdif;jynfvkH;tm; vTrf;aejcif;wkdYudk txl;rcH&yf
Ekdifjzpfojzifh tmabmiftm&if; oefoefjzifh qlolylol jzpfaomaMumifh ¤if;tm; tcsuf&NyD[k xif&aom
tcsdeüf ausmif;rS xkwyf pfvu
kd jf cif; jzpf\/ xko
d Ykd jzpf&jcif;onf ausmif;om;rsm;\ pdww
f iG f wuúov
kd f
Oya'\ csKdU,Gif;csufaMumifh[k ,lqMu\/ ,lqonfhtwkdif;vnf; 1936 oydwfarSmuf udpöwGif
awmif;qkdcsuf eHygwf (1) um; wuúodkvf Oya'udk jyifqif&ef qdkaom tcsufyifjzpf\/ okdYawmif;qkd
vifhupm; rnDñGwfaom taMumif;rsm;pGmwkdYaMumifh wuúodkvfpkHprf;a&; Oya'aumfrwDudk zGJYpnf;jcif;
rSwyg;? wuúodkvfjyifqifa&;udpöonf a½SUokdY xkdYxufrwkd;bJ ½SdcJhayaMumif;/
(2) xkdokdY rwkd;EkdifbJ½Sdaomfvnf; uRefawmfwkdYonf rqkwfrepfaom vkHYvjzifh ArmEkdifiHvkH;½Sd ausmif;om;
rsm;ukd wvk;H wpnf;wnf; jzpf&ef (2) ESpaf usmf BudK;pm;aqmif½u
G cf í
hJ uReaf wmfwYdk\qE´ukd tcGiMhf uHKwkid ;f
jycJah yaMumif;/ Oyrm txufwiG f azmfjycJah om wuúov
kd Of ya'pkpH rf;a&;tzGUJ okYd uRefawmfwYdk \ xifjrif
csufrsm;ukd a&;om;ay;ykdYcJhayaMumif;/ xkdYaemuf xkdtzGJU (jrbl;aumfrwD) tpD&ifcHpm rxGufrD (2)
Mudrfajrmuf rEÅav;uGefz&ifhüvnf; wuúodkvfOya'jyifqif&ef udpEö Sifhywfoufí qkH;jzwfcsuf wck
cscJhaMumif;/ xkdokdYqkH;jzwfcsuf wck cscJhaMumif;/ xdkokdYqkH;jzwfcJhonfhtcg wkdif;jynfbufrS em;&nf
yg;&nf0aom wuúodkvfjyifqifa&;tzGJUi,f wckzGJUí tpD&ifcHpmESifh ywfoufí xifjrifcsuftpkHukd
wkdif;jynfESifh wuG tpkd;&tm; wESpfvkH; wjynfvkH;wGif odomxif½Sm;apcJhaMumif;/
(3) xkrd S wwd,tBudraf jrmuf ykord u
f eG zf &ifw
h iG f ,ckEpS f Mo*kwv
f vTwaf wmftpnf;ta0;wGif wuúov
kd f
Oya'udk tNyD;tjywf jyifqif&ef qk;H jzwfcsucf srw
S cf ahJ Mumif;/ csrw
S o
f nft
h wkid ;f aqmif½u
G rf nft
h "dXmef
ESifh uRefawmfwdkY onf tNrdKUNrdKU oGm;a&muf vSnhfvnfum w&m;a[mcJhavonf/ xkdYaemuf tpkd;&u
zdwfMum;csuftwkdif; wuúodkvf Oya'jyifqifa&;ESifh ywfoufí usif;ytyfaom tpnf;ta0;rsm;wGif
vnf; uReaf wmfwYdk\qE´udk jyEkid o
f rQjyí awmif;Ekid o
f rQ awmif;cJah Mumif;? xkrd S uReaf wmfwYdk aemufq;Hk
aMunmcsufjyKaom tcsdefxd uRefawmfwkdY aqmif½Gufcsufrsm;onf wkdif;jynfodyif jzpfaMumif;/
("-3) 1938 ck? pufwifbmv? (6) &ufaeh wuúodkvfor*¾"r®m½kHwGif usif;yaom ausmif;om;rsm;tpnf;ta0;wGif
Ouú| udkatmifqef;ajymaom rdefhcGef;
aumif;NyD/ 'gjzifh bmaMumifh onfavmuf vkyfxm;wJh Oya'Murf;ukd rsufpdwrSdwf? vQyfwjyuftwGif;
bmaMumifh y,f&ovJ? usKyfwkdY ñGefYaygif;tpkd;&ukd rauseyfEkdifvGef;vkdY taMumif;jzpfay:vmwmuawmh wjrefaeY
nae (7) em&Davmufu jzpfay:vmwJhtaMumif;u? cifAsm;wkdYvnf; odwJhtwkdif; ukvm;-Arm½dkufyGJ jyefpwm[m
ukvm;&yfuGufu pw,f/ 'gayr,fh Arm&yfuGufrSmom ykvdyfu wm;w,f/ 'Dawmh[m pOf;pm;Munfhyg/ ñGefYaygif;
tpkd;& rvGefvm;vkdY/ vGefwmrvGefwm ta&;rBuD;bl;? onfudpöu onfwifrat;awmhbl; ñGefYaygif;½IdUwJh rD;[m
ñGefYaygif; rEkdifawmh usKyfwkdY 'Dvkd½kdufyGJawGqdkwm tusKd;r½SdbJ? usKyfwkdY&JU wu,ftusKd;½Sd&m tvkyfawG ysuf&w,f/
tu,fíom Armjynf&JU vGwfvyfa&;&r,fqkd&if usKyf[m 0g;udkifNyD; a½SUqkH;u wufNyD; vlowfzdkY rcJ,Of;bl;/
okdY&mwGif 'DvkdtusKd; r½SdwJhtvkyfukd usKyfrvkyfvkdbl;/ onfta&; NyD;apcsifw,f/ 'gayr,fh ñGefYaygif;tpkd;&&JU
rvdr®mrIaMumifh tckjzpfukefMuNyD/ xyfvJ jzpfNyD/ onfrD;at;zkdY&m[m ñGefYaygif;tpdk;& r½SdrS jzpfr,f/
tJonfhawmh onfrSm ar;p&m½Sdw,f/ ñGefYaygif;tpkd;& qkd;wm tckrS odovm;vkdY/ pifppft&yfuvnf;
odw,f/ tvkyform;oydwfudpöawG tp½SdwJhudpöawGrSm odcJhw,f/ 'gayr,fh 'Davmufrqdk;wefbl;vdkY atmufarh
cJJhw,f/ tckawmh usKyfwkdYawGU&w,f/ wckck aumif;wmvkkyfcsif&if qefYiif? qefYiifeJY ukvm;rJ? t*FvdyfrJ Munfhae&
w,f/ 'gwifvm; tckjzpfwJh t"du½kPf;udpörSm ykvdyfawGu e,fawGrSm apmfum;vkdY txl;tjypfwifcH&w,fqkdwm
cifAsm;wkdY todbJ/ usKyfwkdY Oya'Murf; udpörSmawmif w&uf? ESpf&ufwnf;eJY NyD;zkdY tvkyfudk tcsdefykdqGJcJh&wm[m
onft*FvdyftrwfawG vIYHaqmfcsuaf Mumif?h t*Fvyd q
f &mawG&UJ MoZmaMumifh jzpfw,f/ onfvjdk zpfwhJ ckeajymwJt
h wkid ;f
ukvm;-Arm ½dkufyGJawG xyfpwm ukvm;&yfuGufrS pNyD;jzpfw,f/ Arm&yfuGufrSmoGm;NyD; ykvdyfwm;&w,f qkdwm[m
148

udkvdkeDacwfaESmif; - 1937 rS 1938 - e,fcsJYqefhusifa&; vGwfvyfa&;BudK;yrf;rI trsKd;om;a&;toGif
ñGefYaygiftpkd;&onf wkdif;jynftm; ajceJYuefw,fqdkwm txl;xif½Sm;aeNyD/
onfvt
dk pk;d &udk usKyfwYdk umuG,Nf yD; usKyfwYdk &UJ Oya'Murf;av;&atmif ,lr,fqydk gpkYd / usKyfwYdk udk wkid ;f jynf
b,fvkdxifrvJ? tu,fí r&bl;wJh/ b,fvkd vkyfrvJ/ usKyfwkdY oydwfarSmufMuwJhtcg usKyfwkdYajym&vdrfhr,f?
tpkd;&uawmh vkyfay;wmyJvkdY? onfawmh wkdif;jynfu usKyfwkdYudk ajymvdrfhr,f? rif;wdkYu 'Dtpkd;& aumif;w,f
ajymw,f/ igwkYd awmh acgif;jym;atmif teif;cHae&ygvm;qkNd yD; usKyfwYdkukd tMunfnKd ysurf ,f/ aumif;NyD tMunftndK
ysufNyDqydk gawmh usKyfwYdk bmvkyrf vJ/ usKyfwYdk wkid ;f jynfrmS MuD;NyD; wkid ;f jynfudk rS&D w,f/ usKyfwYdk oydwaf rSmufcsif&if
wkid ;f jynfudk tultnDawmif;&w,f/ usKyfwYdk tcktxd Oya'Murf;ukjd zpfatmif vky&f w,f qkw
d muvnf; wkid ;f jynfu
tm;ay;w,f qkdwmodzdkY r[kwfvm;/ ukdif; usKyfwkdYu wkdif;jynfrSm tn§Of;cHae&wJhtcgrSm rMunfh&if usKyfwkdY
tvSnfhMuawmh wkdif;jynfu MunfhygtkH;rvm;/ cifAsm;wkdY 'Dausmif;rSm ½SdwJhq&mawG ESdyfpufcsifwkdif; ESdyfpuf?
&ufpufcsifwidk ;f &ufpufvYdk wkid pf &m tm;ud;k p&m ½Smcsifwv
hJ Ydk ½S&d if tJonfawmh cifAsm;wkYd b,foo
l mG ; tm;uk;d MuvJ/
tJ'gawGudk usKyfwkdY jrifvkdYrkdY? usKyfwkdYonfvdk qkd;wJh ñGefUaygif;tpkd;&ay;wJh Oya'Murf;ukd tpkHrvkdcsifbl;/
wkdif;jynf emaew,fqkdNyD; y,fvkdufw,f/ y,fvkdufawmh b,fES,fhjzpfEkdifovJ/ tkyfcsKyfa&;Oya'xkH;wrf;t& tpkd;&
xGufay;&r,f/ uaeY vTwfawmftpnf;ta0; tjypftwkdif;awmh Oya'Murf;udk tpkd;&u rwifoGif;&Jbl;/ Mum;bl;&JU
vm; tcktpk;d &u &mxl;u qif;ray;ao;ayr,fh usKyfwYdku wkid ;f jynfbufu vlr[kwaf wmhb;l / usKyfwYdk Oya'Murf;
½I;H rSmpk;d vkYd roGi;f &Jawmhygbl;vdYk qkv
d u
dk Nf y/D rSew
f mvky&f if usKyw
f Ydk tckcifAsm;wkYdukd ½Si;f jy&Jovk?d awGU&Jovkd olwYkd rawGU&Jb;l ?
'gu ta½SUukd ñGeYf aygif;tpk;d &[m ajymif;vJypf&r,f/ jzKwf&ifvnf; jzKwf&r,f/ onfEpS v
f rf; wvrf;yJ ½Sad wmhw,f/
Oya'Murf; taMumif;ukd usKyfqufajymtkH;r,f/ usKyfwkdYvufiif;Oya' r&ayr,fh b,fenf;eJY rqkd
aemuf jyef&Ekid w
f ,f/ usKyfwYdk &r,fqv
dk Ydk ck&cgeD;aeNyD/ tJovkd usKyfwYkd qE´om½Syd gap/ Oya'ukd &rSmyJ/ ½Si;f jytk;H r,f/
tck ñGefYaygif;tpkd;& jyKwfvkdY aemufwufwJh tpkd;&[m ñGefYaygif;xuf raumif;awmif rqdk;bl;qkdwm usKyfajym
&Jw,f/ onftpkd;&rSmaum bmhaMumifh 'Dxufraumif;awmif onfxuf rqdk;wJh Oya'r&bJ ½Sd&rSmvnf;/ aumif;NyD
ñGefYaygif; rjyKwfbl;qkdygawmh/ ('gujzpfrSm cJ,Of;ygw,f/) bmjzpfovJ/ (Private Member's Bill) woD;yk*v
¾
trwfwkdY Oya'Murf;tjzpf wifEdkifwmyJ/ pifppfvlwkdYvkyfwJh tvkyf[m wkdif;jynfwjynfvkH; aumif;zkdYvkyfwJh tvkyf
jzpfaum/ tu,fí usKyfwkdYvkyfwJhtwkdif; wrsKd;wrnf ajymif;vJNyD; aumif;vm&if wkdif;jynfu usKyfwkdYukdwkd;NyD;
MunfndKNyD;? usKyfwdkY tusKd;½SdzdkYyJ r[kwfvm;/ tJwmawG pOf;pm;apcsifw,f/
("-4) Auo taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rSL; ukdA[def;\ xkwfjyefaMunmcsuf
pufwifbmv (4) &ufaeY? naetxd igwkdYonf Oya'Murf; twnfjzpfajrmufa&;twGuf BudK;yrf;vsuf½Sd
Muayao;onf/ okdY&mwGif xkdaeYnaeü ½kwfw&uf a½Smifwcif jzpfay:vmaom ukvm;-Arm t"du½kPf;onf
igwkdY\ pdwfudk wrsKd;wrnf ajymif;vJapcJh\/ igwkdY ESpfESpfausmf vkH;yrf;vmcJh&aom xkdOya'Murf;vkyfief;udk
&yfqkdif;apcJh\/ ñGefYaygif;tpkd;&onf rsufESmjzLESifh ukvm;rJukd jr§Lvkdojzifh Armqif;&Jom;rsm;tm; vnfrsKdn§pfcJh
&onfukd igwkdY tcgcgodchJ awGUcJhMu&\/ okdYaomf igwkdY onf;cHcJhMu\/ EkdifiHa&;tajymif;tvJ rnfolrnf0g
tpkd;& jzpfrI? rjzpfrIwkdYrSm igwkdYeJYrqkdif oabmxm;cJh\/ okdYaomf t"du½kPf;udpw
ö Gif ñGefYaygif;tpdk;&onf ppfykvdyf
rsm;udk ukvm;rsm;twGufom apmifha½SmufapcJhjcif; jzpfojzifh wkdif;jynfu pGyfpGJaeaom ñGefYaygif;tpkd;& tay:wGif
xm;cJhaom igwkdY\ onf;cHpdwfwkdYrSm wcgwnf; NydKvJawmh\/ ñGefYaygif;tpkd;& rvdr®mrIaMumifh wkdif;jynfwGif ½Sif
vltrsm; toufq;Hk ½I;H &\/ rsufEmS jzLrJudk tm;ud;k touf½iS af e&aom ñGeYf aygif;tpk;d &onf a&eHajr tvkyo
f rm;rsm;
oydwu
f pd w
ö iG f rsuEf mS jzL bDtpdk b
D ufukd rsuEf mS ajymifajymifxm;um vku
d cf \
hJ / aemufq;Hk ,ckvw
T af wmfwiG f qif;&Jom;
rsm;\ touf½SLcGifh&rnfh (Land Alienation Bill, Land Tenancy Bill) v,form;r[kwfol v,frykdifcGifh Oya'
Murf;ESifh v,foD;pm;Oya'Murf;wkdYudk ukvm;rsufESmjzL v,fykdif½SifBuD;rsm;ukd iJh&aomaMumifh &uftuefYtowfr½Sd
a½TUqdkif;vkduf&\/ þArmqif;&Jom;rsm; tay:wGif &ufpufaom ñGefYaygif;tpdk;&onf tb,faMumifh igwkdY
ausmif;om;rsm; tBudKufudk vkdufavsmchJavoenf;/ þar;cGef;ukd igwkdYonf eufeJpGm pOf;pm;aomtcg atmufyg
tajzudk &ayonf/
(1) ausmif;om;tpnf;t½k;H onf vTwaf wmftjyifbufwiG f tckid rf mqk;H ? tqlyq
l ;Hk ? ta&;ygqk;H jzpfonfukd
ñGefYaygif;tpdk;& od\/ ausmif;om;rsm; wkdif;jynf\tcspfawmfrsm;jzpfonfudk ñGefYaygif;tpkd;& od\/
pifppftm;jzifh ausmif;om;rsm;tpnf;t½kH;\ oabmxm;onf ñGefYaygif;tpkd;&tay:wGif wrsKd;wzkH
ajymif;vJp&m ½Sday\/
149

jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif; - atmifxGef;
(2) ausmif;om;tpnf;t½kH;udk ñGefYaygif;tpkd;&onf aMumufvefY\/ ausmif;om;rsm;onf r[kwfrcH?
ZGwfw½Gwf vkyfrnfudk taotcsmod\/ ausmif;om;rsm;oydwfarSmufvQif tpkd;&\ wm0efvkH;vkH;
jzpf\/ txl;ojzifh wkdif;jynfwGif rausreyf vIyfvIyf½Sm;½Sm; jzpfaeaomtcgwGif ausmif;om;rsm;
qlylvdkufu ñGefYaygif;tpkd;&wnfwHha&;udk txl;xdckdufrnf jzpf\/ xdkodkY tajzxGufvmaomtcg
igwkdY a½SUarSmufwGif vrf;ESpfoG,fonf wr[kwfcsif; ay:aygufvm\/
(3) igwkYd Oya'Murf;jzifh tom;,lcg Armqif;&Jom;rsm;udk xyfrv
H nfrsKñ
d pS &f ef MuHaeaom ñGeYf aygif;tpk;d &
bufukd vku
d rf nfvm; (0g) ñGeYfaygif;tpk;d &u igwkYdtm; vufuidk w
f w
k jf yKvkycf g Armqif;&Jom;rsm;tm;
xyfrHn§Of;;qJrnfudk igwkdYonf rsufaphpHkrSdwfum auseyfaernfavm/
(4) okYdr[kwf igwkYdonf Armqif;&Jom;rsm;\ rdwaf qG? Armqif;&Jom;rsm;\ tm;uk;d &mtjzpfukd jyrnfavm
(0g) Armqif;&Jom;rsm;\ &efolñGefYaygif;tpdk;&u vdrfÓPfESifh ay;tyfaom Oya'Murf;udk jiif;qef
y,fcsrnfavm/
igwkYdonf wkid ;f jynf\ vljzpf\/ igwkYdonf igwkYd\ wuk,
d af umif;tusK;d ukd arQmu
f ;dk um Armqif;&Jom;rsm;
epfemaeonfudk r½IpdrfhEkdif? pifppfaomfum; igwkdY toif;tyif;tpnf;t½kH;rsm; wnfaxmifxm;&onfrSm Armqif;&J
om;rsm;tzdkY jzpf\/ xkdYaMumifh igwkdYonf 'kwd,vrf;ukd vkdufcJh\/ xkdodkYvkdufcJhonfrSm tHhMop&m r½Sd? txl;tqef;
r[kwf/
Oya'Murf;udk igwkdYa½SUukd b,fvkd qufí tvkyfvkyfrnfenf;/ ñGefYaygif;tpkd;& odrf;½kyfoGm;aom
Oya'Murf;rSm rjyefvrf;odkY oGm;NyD[k rrSwfMuavESifh Oya'Murf;onf igwkdY\vufxJwGif ½Sd\/ igwdYk qlylwkdufckduf
rIaMumifh Oya'Murf;onf þtajcokdY a&mufcJh&\/ igwkdY qufvufwkdufckdufvsif Oya'Murf;b0rS Oya'tjzpf
rajymif;vJEkdif[k rnfol jiif;qkd0HhtHh oenf;/ wkdif;jynf qif;&Jom;rsm;ukd iJhojzifhom Oya'Murf;udk tcsdeftenf;i,f
a½TUqkid ;f vku
d &f \/ Oya'Murf;udpo
ö nf NyD;qk;H cef; rwkid af o;aMumif;udk tpk;d &oabmudk azmfjyaeMujzpfonfh &efuek f
a*;Zwf owif;pm uyif 0efcHxm;&\/
igwkdYonf ñGefYaygif;tpdk;&ukd jzKwfcs&rnfqkd&mü rnfhonfhyk*¾dKvf wOD;wa,mufudkrQ yk*¾v"dXmefpGJ r½Sd?
ukvm;rJ? rsufESmjzLrJwdkYjzifh touf½SLae&aomaMumifhom ArmtusKd;udk tcGifh&oavmuf rpGrf;aqmifEkdifaom ñGefY
aygif;tpkd;&tzGJU wckvkH;tjzpfudk igwkdY ½GHU½Smjcif;jzpfav\/ ArmtrsKd;om;csnf;yg0ifaom tpkd;&tzGJU ay:aygufvm
aom tcgwGifvnf; Armqif;&Jom;tusKd;udk vkH;aphywfaph pGrf;aqmifEkdifrnf[k igwkdYrarQmfudk;/ vuf½Sd uRefArmjynf
tkyfcsKyfa&;t& zGJUpnf;tyfaom rnfonfh tpkd;&tzGJYrQ wkdif;jynfudk pdwfwkdif;usatmif rpGrf;aqmifEkdif? odkYaomf
trsKd;om; tpk;d &onf ukvm; rsufEmS jzL? rJrsm;ukd iJ&h aom tqk;d ½Gm;qk;H ñGeYf aygif;tpk;d & xufum; wkid ;f jynftusKd;ukd
ykdrkdaqmif½GufEkdif vdrfhrnf[kí igwdkY wxpfcs ,kHMunfaMumif;/ pufwifbmv (4) &ufaeY naetxd igwkdYonf
Oya'Murf; twnfjzpfajrmufa&; twGuf BudK;yrf;vsuf ½SMd uayao;onf/ okYd &mwGif wkid ;f jynftusKd;ukd ykrd adk qmif½u
G f
Ekdifvdrfhrnf[lí igwdkYwxpfcs ,kHMunfaMumif;/

150

udkvdkeDacwfaESmif; - 1937 rS 1938 - e,fcsJYqefhusifa&; vGwfvyfa&;BudK;yrf;rI trsKd;om;a&;toGif

OD;&m½Spf B. Sc., B. L.,
(1936-37)
Source: Oway Magazines

OD;&m½Spfonf tdEd´,trsKd;om;wOD; jzpfonf/ jrefrmwkdif;&if;om;tjzpf cH,lxm;ol jzpf\/ tdEd´,trsKd;om;
wOD;tm; wuoOuú|tjzpf wifajr§mufjcif;onf or*¾wGif vlrsKd;a&;cGJjcm;rI r½Sdjcif;? acgif;aqmifEkdifoludk
acgif;aqmifae&m ay;tyfjcif;udk jyojcif; jzpfonf/
OD;&m½Spf\ arG;ouú&mZfrSm 1912 ck Ekd0ifbmv (5) &ufaeY jzpfonf/ &efukefwuúodkvfrS 0dZÆm-odyÜHbGJUESifh
Oya'bGUJ rsm;udk &½So
d nf/ &efuek w
f uúov
kd af usmif;om;rsm;or*¾\ yxrqH;k twGi;f a&;rSL;jzpf\/ 1935-36
ckEpS w
f iG f 'k-Ouú|jzpf\/ 1936-37 ckwiG f wuoOuú| tjzpf a½G;umufwifajr§mufjcif; cH&avonf/
1936 ck ausmif;om;oydww
f iG f a½SUwef;acgif;aqmif wOD; jzpfonf/ 1936 ckEpS w
f iG f zGUJ pnf;aom ArmEkid if v
H ;kH
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k pf m;vS,f aumifpv
D Bl uD;tjzpf
wm0ef,l vkyaf qmifco
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d cf o
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jzpfonf/
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f rm;tzGUJ tpnf;rsm;wGif acgif;aqmif wm0ef,cl \
hJ /
ppfNyD;acwfwGif zqyvwGif yg0ifNyD; jynfolYvTwfawmfwGif? vlrsKd;pkvTwfawmfwGif? trwftjzpf ,aeYtxd
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orm;Xme0efBuD;? ul;oef;a&mif;0,fa&;0efBuD;? ow¬KwiG ;f Xme0efBuD; ponfjzifh wm0ef,al qmif½u
G cf YJb;l onf/
tvkyform;ESifh qufpyfaom bkwftzGJUtoD;oD;? pHkprf;a&;aumfrwD trsKd;rsKd;wGif obmywdtjzpf? jynfyodkY
oGm;a&mufaom udk,fpm;vS,ftzGJU trsKd;rsKd;wGif acgif;aqmiftjzpf? tzGJU0iftjzpf vkdufygcJYbl;onf/
,ck jynfaxmifpt
k vkyo
f rm;tzGUJ Ouú|ESihf Ekid if aH wmftpd;k &tzGUJ wGif pufrv
I ufr?I ow¬KwGi;f ESihf tvkyo
f rm;
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dS /

151

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(yk*)H OD;b*sr;f

B.A., B.L.

(1937-38)
Source: Oway Magazines

yk*HNrKdUe,f ustdk½Gm Zmwd jzpfonf/ anmif;OD;NrKdU atbDtrfausmif;? yckuúLNrKdU 0ufpvDausmif;wdkYwGif ynm
oifMum;cJhbl;\/ &efukefwuúodkvfESifh *syfqifaumvdyfwdkYwGif qufvufynm oifMum;cJhí 0dZÆmbJGUrsm;udk
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G cf NhJ yD;? 1937-38 ckEpS w
f iG f
wuo Ouú| jzpfavonf/
1939 ckEpS rf S pí &efuek Nf rKdUwGif a½SUaevdu
k o
f nf/ *syefacwfwiG f ta½SUtm½Svil ,ftpnf;t½H;k udk wnfaxmif
onf/ tpnf;t½H;k Ouú|jzpf\/ ta½SUtm½Svil ,ftpnf;t½H;k udk ppfNyD;acwfü ArmEdik if v
H il ,frsm;tpnf;t½H;k
(Avp) [k trnfajymif;vJcJhonf/ 1952 cktxd Ouú|tjzpf aqmif½Gufonf/
1947 ck Adv
k cf sKyaf tmifqef; acgif;aqmifaom tpd;k &tzJUG wGif 0efBuD;wpfO;D jzpfí Akv
d cf sKyEf iS w
hf uG 0efBuD;wzGUJ vH;k
udk vkyMf uHowfjzwf&mwGif rao use½f &dS pfol (4) OD;teuf wOD;jzpf\/ ,ck &efuek Nf rKUd wGif vTwaf wmfa½SUaeBuD;
wOD;tjzpf vkyfudkifvsuf½Sdonf/ a½Twd*HkapwDawmf b@mawmfxdef;vlBuD;? urÇmat;apwD b@mawmf
xdef;vlBuD;? Ak'¨omoemEk*[
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wm0ef,l aqmif½Gufvsuf½Sdonf/ r[moa&pnfolbJGUudkvnf; &½SdcJholjzpfavonf/

152

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Adv
k cf sKyaf tmifqef; B. A
(1938-39)
Source: File Photo

ewfarmufNrKdU Zmwdjzpfonf/ tz OD;zm? trda':pkwYkd\ om;axG;jzpfí zGm;ouú&mZfrmS 1915 ck? azazmf0g&Dv
(13) &ufaeY jzpf\/ ewfarmufNrKdU OD;aombdw txufwef;ausmif;? a&eHacsmif;NrKdU trsKd;om;txufwef;
ausmif;rsm;wGif ynmoifMum;cJhonf/ 1932 ck ZGefvwGif &efukefwuúodkvfodkY a&muf½Sdí 1937 ckESpfwGif
0dZmÆ bJUG xl;udk qGwcf ;l cJ\
h / Oya'oifwef;wGif wESpaf usmfrQ ynmavhvm qnf;yl;cJYao;onf/
1935-36 rS wuo trIaqmiftzJGUwGif? tdk;a0r*¾Zif; wm0efcHt,f'Dwmtjzpf aqmif½GufcJhonf/
td;k a0r*¾Zif;wGif ygaom (Hell Hound at Large) ]i&JacG;Bu;D vGwaf eNy}D [laom aqmif;yg;ESihf ywfoufí
ausmif;xkwfcH&\/ 1936 ck oydwfta&;awmfyHkwGif jyefMum;a&;Xme wm0efcHjzpf\/ 1936-37 ckESpfwGif
wuo Ouú| jzpfí ArmEdkifiHvHk;qdkif&mausmif;om;or*¾wGif yxrqHk; twGif;a&;rSL; jzpfavonf/ 193839 ckwGif wuo Ouú| jzpfonf/
ukvm;-Arm t"du½kPf; ay:cJYonf/ or*¾onf t"du½kPf;aMumifh 'ku©a&mufolrsm;tm; u,fq,fa&;
vkyfief;rsm;udk aqmif½GufcJhonf/ 1936 ck oydwfta&;awmfyHkwGif zJGUpnf;ay;cJY&aom qmjrbl;aumfrwD
tpD&ifcHpm xGufvmonf/ tpD&ifcHpmukd wuorS uefYuGufcJhonf/ a'gufwmbarmftpdk;& wuúodkvf
tufOya'Murf; jyKvky&f ef pDpOfonfuv
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f nf txd raecJYay/ atmufwb
kd mvwGif ausmif;rS
xGuí
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hJ nf/ 1939 ckEpS w
f iG f
wuo udk,fpm;vS,f aumifpDvlBuD;tjzpf wm0ef,lcJh\/
1941 ckESpfwGif t*Fvdyftpdk;&u qkaiG (5) usyfjzifh 0g;&rf;xkwfjcif; cH&NyD;? *syefjynfodkY a&muf½SdoGm;\/
*syef tultnDudk ,lum &JabmfoHk;usdyfudk a½SUaqmifvsuf? ArmhvGwfvyfa&;wyfrawmfudk xlaxmifcJhonf/
1941 ckEpS w
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f w
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*syefacwfwiG f Armhvw
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tpd;k &tzJUG 0if ppf0efBuD;tjzpfjzihf vnf;aumif; aqmif½u
G cf \
hJ / 1945 ck? rwfv (27) &ufaeUwGif *syefzufqpf
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153

jrefrmEdik if H ausmif;om;vIy&f mS ;rIordik ;f

tcef; (8)
udv
k ekd aD cwfaESmif;ydik ;f
e,fcsUJ qefu
Y siaf &; vGwv
f yfa&;BuKd ;yrf;rI trsK;d om;a&;toGif
ausmif;om;vIy&f mS ;rIordik ;f
(1938 rS 1939)

(u) &efukefwuúodkvfausmif;om;rsm;or*¾ (wuo) zGJUpnf;ykHpnf;rsOf;
THE CONSTITUTION OF THE RANGOON UNIVERSITY STUDENT'S UNION, 1931
(As Amended by the Rangoon University Student's Union at in Business Meeting
Held on 5th July 1937)

1.
2.

3.

4.

154

Rangoon University Student's Union
CHAPTER (I)
Nature of the Organization
This organization shall be called “Rangoon University Student’s Union”.
The objects of the Union shall be to promote a healthy corporate social life, inculcating a
spirit of independence, and to create a sense of duty and responsibility among the students
of the University.
In pursuance of the objects mentioned in Section 2 the Union shall specially.
(1) hold debates,
(2) arrange for and conduct lectures,
(3) maintain a library, reading and writing and indoor games,
(4) discuss and promote the general interests of the students, and
(5) arrange for and hold entertainments.
The Union shall not make any dividend, gift division or bonus in money into or between any
of its members.

udv
k ekd aD cwfaESmif; - 1938 rS 1938 - e,fcsq
YJ efu
h siaf &; trsK;d om;a&;toGif

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.
6.

7.
8.
9.
10.

11.

12.
13.

CHAPTER (II)
Membership and Subscriptions
Only the students, Graduates, Registered Graduates, members of teaching staff of the
University of Rangoon, and past students who have belonged to the University before the
formation of the Union, shall be admitted to membership of the Union except as provided in
section is of this chapter.
Explanation: - Students are those pursuing a course of study in the University with a view to
qualifying themselves for a degree, certificate or diploma in the University of Rangoon.
Those members of Union who are not or cease to be student members shall not enjoy the
right (except as provided in chapter VIII)
(1) to hold any office, and
(2) to vote at Business Meetings and elections.
Persons who are eligible for membership in the Union may apply to become members by
filling and submitting the membership form (which can be had from the General Secretary or
Hall Secretaries an application) duty proposed and seconded by two members of Union: such
applications shall be accompanied by the entrance fee and subscription mentioned in Section 4.
(1) A member who is admitted to the Union shall pay an entrance fee of rupee one.
(2) Student-members shall pay a yearly subscription of rupees two. The subscription shall be
payable in a lump sum at the time of admission.
(3) If a student is admitted to the membership of Union during the period extending from
November to May ( both months inclusive ) we shall pay the full yearly subscription.
(4) Non-Student members shall pay a life membership fee of rupees twenty-four, but it may be
paid in two equal installments, the first at admission and the second within six months
thereafter.
Members are liable to be fined, suspended or expelled.
Any member may resign from the Union by notifying his intention to the General Secretary
provided that he pays all sums due from him to the Union and provided also that the Executive
Committee accepts the resignation of the member after satisfying itself that all conditions
governing the resignation of membership have been fulfilled.
A member who shall resign under Section 6 shall cease to be a member of the Union except as
provided in Section 14.
A member who has resigned may be re-admitted to the Union on payment of an entrance fee
and the full subscription of the current year.
A member shall be expelled from the membership of the Union if a motion for his expulsion be
carried at a Business Meeting.
No motion for the expulsion of a member shall be proposed except by a member of the
Executive Committee and no motion shall be proposed for the expulsion of more than one
member.
No motion for the expulsion of a member shall be carried unless at least one-third of the
student members so voting shall have voted upon it and at least two-thirds of the members so
voting shall have voted in favour of it.
A member who has been expelled can be re-admitted only after a motion for his re-admission
has been carried at a Business Meeting.
The conditions for and restrictions upon the proposal and carrying of motions for re-admission
of a person who has been expelled from membership shall be the same as those imposed in the

155

jrefrmEdik if H ausmif;om;vIy&f mS ;rIordik ;f
14.
15.

16.

17.

18.

1.

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

1.

156

case for the expulsion of a member by Section 9, 10, and 11 of this Chapter.
Any member who has resigned or has been suspended shall be liable to expulsion as if he was
still a member of the Union in respect of acts done while he was a member.
Upon re-admission, a member who has been expelled must pay an Entrance fee and the full
subscription for the current year and all sums due from him to the Union at the time of his
expulsion, which remain unpaid.
Any member who has resigned or has been suspended or expelled shall be excluded on all
occasions from the premises of the Union until and unless his suspension is removed or he
has been re-admitted.
The Executive Committee shall have power, by a majority of two-thirds of those present, to
cancel the membership of any member whom they shall consider not to be eligible for
membership of the Union, and no such member shall be re-admitted without the consent of
the Union at a Business Meeting by a simple majority of those voting. Any member who is the
subject of the such a decision by the Executive Committee shall have returned to him only the
subscription for the current year.
Harm any membership of the Union may, by a resolution carried at a Business meeting by a
majority of three-fourths of those voting, be conferred on persons of distinction provided
that at no time shall the member of such member exceed twelve and that in any academic year,
not more than three such members shall be elected.
CHAPTER (III)
The Property and Premises
No property of any description, designed for use in the premises of the Union shall be
removed from the premises without the permission of the Executive Committee, and the
penalty for such removal shall be a fine of five rupees and if the property so removed is lost
or damaged a further, liability for the current price of such property shall arise.
Any member who shall damage the property of the Union shall pay the expense incurred
on his account by the Union for repair or replacement.
The premises of the Union shall not be used for any other than the ordinary purpose of the
Union expect as provided in Chapter XX.
No one shall be allowed to play any game on stakes on the premises of the Union.
No alcoholic drink shall be stored or drunk on the premise.
The Executive Committee shall have power to regulate the admission of members and nonmembers to the premise and functions of the Union and it may from time to time frame rules
and issue direction for purpose.
CHAPTER (IV)
Officers of the Union
The following shall be the officers of the Union (1) The President
(2) The Vice-President
(3) The Treasurer
(4) The General Secretary
(5) The Librarian
(6) The Editor.

udv
k ekd aD cwfaESmif; - 1938 rS 1938 - e,fcsq
YJ efu
h siaf &; trsK;d om;a&;toGif
2.

3.

4.
5.

6.
7.

8.

9.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

6.

(1) Only those members of the Union who have completed one year of membership of the
Union and who are whole time students shall be eligible for election to the offices of the
President, Vice-President, and General Secretary.
(2)(a) A member shall not be eligible for election to the office of the president, unless in
addition to the qualification laid down in Section 1 above, he has been a member of the
Executive Committee, either as an officer or as an ordinary member for at least one
academic year.
(2)(b) Members who have held office for at least one academic year in the Mandalay
Intermediate College Union shall be exempted from the qualification regarding one year's
membership of the Union laid down in sub-Section 1.
If any officer is absent from Rangoon for period exceeding one month continuously during
any term excluding the vacations or is unable to carry on his duties for one month continuously,
his office shall become vacant.
Any officer may resign his office by notifying his intention to the Executive Committee, but
he shall remain in office until a new officer has been elected in his place.
In case of any officer being absent from Rangoon for a period exceeding three days but not
exceeding thirty days (excluding the vacations) a new officer who shall affiliate in his place
during his absence shall be elected by the Executive Committee from among its members.
If any officer is censured by a Business Meeting, his office shall become vacant, and shall be
debarred from standing as a candidate for any election within one year thereafter.
If any officer shall become prematurely vacant by resignation or otherwise, the vacancy shall
be filled by-election within ten days of its becoming vacant, and the President shall conduct
such by election. Any member of the Union desirous of proposing a candidate for the vacant
office shall not less than two days before the day of election, submit to the president a
nomination paper showing the name of his candidate duty proposed and seconded and
signed by the candidate.
(1) Any officer if being elected to any office at any by-election, has to resign his former office.
(2) Any elected member of the Executive Committee if being elected to the office of President,
Vice-President or Treasurer at any by-election shall ipso facto resign his seat as an elected
member of the Executive Committee.
The term of office for any officer shall expire after General Election.
CHAPTER (V)
The President
The President shall be elected annually.
The President shall be Chief Executive Officer of the Union and shall have the general control
of its premise.
The President shall be the chairman of all meetings of the Union except sub-committees and
select committees.
The President shall be an ex-officio member of all committees and sub- committees.
The President after the expiry of his term of office, shall become an ex-officio member of the
Executive Committee for the ensuing year, but as an ex-officio member he shall not have the
power to vote.
The President shall after the expiry of his term of office never be eligible for re-election to that
office.

157

jrefrmEdik if H ausmif;om;vIy&f mS ;rIordik ;f
7.

8.

9.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

6.

1.
2.
3.
4.

5.

6.

7.

158

The President shall in case of emergency advise any office, member or servant of the Union
as to Union’s rules and practices and any advice so give shall be reported by him to the
Executive Committee so that they may determine whether it is desirable to make any new rule
or practice upon the matter in question.
The President shall in urgent case have power, by giving not less than twenty-four hours
notice call a Special Meeting of the Union or to change the time or the day appointed for any
meeting.
The President shall not address the House from the Chair, except in his official capacity.
CHAPTER (VI)
The Vice-President
The Vice-President shall be elected annually at the same time as the President.
In the absence of the President his duties shall devolve upon the Vice-President, except as
provided in Section 3, 4 and Chapter IV.
The Vice-President shall be in the charge of the Executive department.
The Vice-President shall examine and sign all bills before they are handed over to the treasurer.
The Vice-President shall seven days before the last Business Meeting of each year, place
upon the boards a report for the outgoing term, which shall be read to the Union at the said
meeting and the members present shall have the right to discuss upon the report.
The Vice-President, if he is again not elected to any office after his term of office has expired
shall become an ex-officio member of the Executive Committee for the ensuing year, but as an
ex-officio member, he shall not have the power to vote.
CHAPTER (VII)
The Treasurer
The Treasurer shall be elected annually at the same time as the President and Vice-president.
Only those members of the Union who are graduates of this University and two years standing
as members shall be eligible for election to this office.
The treasurer shall supervise the collection of subscriptions fees and fines and be responsible
for the due application of the Union’s revenues in accordance with the Budget provisions.
The Treasurer shall at the beginning of each year prepare and submit to the Executive
Committee for consideration and sanction a budget containing a detailed estimate of the
income and expenditure for the year together with a statement of all capital and invented
funds under each head of account. The Treasurer may with the consent of the Executive
Committee make transfers of funds from head of account to another provided that the total
amount of expenditure allotted in the Budget shall not be exceeded. The Treasurer shall after
Budget has been passed by the Executive Committee, place it upon the boards.
The Treasurer, may in the case of the late sum for any head of expenditure in the Budget being
insufficient demand additional provision for the head of expenditure and such demand, if
sanctioned by the Executive Committee shall be placed upon the boards by the Treasurer.
The Treasurer shall place upon the boards of the Union not less than fourteen days before
the last Business Meeting of each year a statement of all sums received and paid of liabilities
incurred of the balance in credit existing up to the time of the report and his statement shall be
read and considered at the meeting.
The Treasurer must not keep more than fifty rupees in his hand at a time as soon as he has

udv
k ekd aD cwfaESmif; - 1938 rS 1938 - e,fcsq
YJ efu
h siaf &; trsK;d om;a&;toGif

8.

9.

10.

1.
2.(1)
(2)
3.
4.
5.

1.

2.
3.
4. (1)

more than rupees fifty in possession he must at once deposit all sums over and above fifty
rupees in the bank (mentioned in Chapter XI, section I) except as provided in section 9.
The Treasurer shall draw any sum in the name of the Union with the sanction of the Executive
Committee for the purpose of the expenditure provided of with Budget, but all withdrawal
forms or cheques must be counter-signed by the Vice- President.
The Treasurer shall issue reminders to the members of the Union who have not paid up their
subscriptions fees, fines and other liabilities to the Union within the prescribed period and
inform the General Secretary the names of members, who are liable to be suspended according
to rules.
The Treasurer shall account to his successor for all money received and paid by him up to the
time of his leaving office and shall supply his successor with an account of all Union Funds.
CHAPTER (IX)
Hall Secretaries
The Executive Committee shall annually appoint one or more secretaries from among the
members of the Union for each Hall and for the day students.
A Hall Secretary must be a resident of the Hall for which he is appointed and he shall ipso
facto vacate his office if he goes out of residence in that hall.
A day student secretary must be a day student of the college for which he is appointed and
he shall ipso facto vacate his office, if he closes be a day student or leaves the college.
The President may convene meetings of the Hall secretaries and the General Secretary and he
shall be the chairman of such meetings.
The Hall Secretaries shall make known to the residents of their Halls the nature and object of
the Union and collect Union subscriptions from them.
The Hall Secretaries shall do such other work as may be assigned to them by the President in
connection with the Union in their respective Halls.
CHAPTER (X)
The Executive Committee
The Executive Committee shall consist of
(1) The President,
(2) The Vice- President,
(3) The Treasurer,
(4) The Librarian,
(5) The Editor,
(6) Six members elected by the members of the Union including the General Secretary
(7) Ex- Officio members
(8) The Editor and librarian shall be appointed by the Executive Committee either from among
the six elected members of the committee or from among the student members of the Union.
The election of the members mentioned in Section I, Clause 6, shall ordinarily take place
annually after the election of officers.
Only members of the Union who have been members for at least one year and are still students
of the University, shall be eligible for election to the Executive Committee.
The President and the Vice-President of the previous year the Committee for the current year
as provided in Chapter 5 and 6.

159

jrefrmEdik if H ausmif;om;vIy&f mS ;rIordik ;f
(2)

5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

12.

13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.

22.

1.

160

Members who have been members of the Executive Committee of the Mandalay Intermediate
College Union shall be exempted from the qualification regarding one year’s membership of
the Union Laid down in sub-Section 1.
The General Secretary shall summon all meetings of the Executive Committee at the direction
of the President who shall be the Chairman of the Committee.
The General Secretary shall record the minutes of all meetings of the Committee.
The Executive Committee shall appoint all sub-committees as provided and may also appoint
any sub-committee not specifically provided for.
The Executive Committee shall consider and pass orders on the budget presented by the
Treasurer as provided in Chapter 7, Section 5and 6.
The Executive Committee shall receive all donations endowments and other such moneys as
may be given to the Union.
The Executive Committee shall appoint tradesmen to be employed by the union.
The Executive Committee shall budget to the control of the whole House at their Business
Meetings, regulate the appointment and dismissal of the Union’s servants and determined
from time to time the salaries and wages of such servants.
The Executive Committee shall make such reports to the whole House at their Business
Meetings with regard to the appointment and remuneration of the Union’s servants and with
regard to the tradesmen employed by Union, as the Committee may from time to time determine.
The Executive Committee shall, subject to the control of the whole House at their Business
Meetings make rules for the position of fines on members of the Union.
The Executive Committee shall subject to the control of the whole House at their Business
Meetings, fix the time and period within which the premises will be open.
The Executive Committee shall have power to invite any person or persons not being members
of the Union to speak at any debate or to deliver lectures at Special Meetings.
Five members shall from a quorum for any meeting of the committee.
No member of the Executive Committee shall vote by pray.
Any member of the Executive Committee any ask the president to call a meeting of the
Committee and the president shall convene such meetings as he may deem necessary.
The Committee shall meet to consider motions for business to be put before Business meetings.
The officer concerned shall present their reports at business Meetings as required by the
provisions of the Constitution.
Any elected member of the Executive Committee (other an officer) who goes out of residence
from Rangoon for a period exceeding thirty days during full term of the University or absents
himself from three consecutive meetings of the Committee shall cease to be a member of the
Committee and a new member shall be elected in his place. Members absent from consecutive
meetings of the Committee shall be reminded of their absence by the General Secretary.
The Executive Committee may spend a sum not exceeding thirty rupees in any one term for
exceptional purpose, in pursuance of the objects of the Union in addition to the provisions,
made in the budget and the additional grants mentioned in Chapter 7, Section 6.
CHAPTER (XI)
Finance
All funds accruing to the Union shall be deposited to the credit of the Union in a bank
appointed by the Executive Committee.

udv
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h siaf &; trsK;d om;a&;toGif
2.
3.

4.

5.
6.
7.

8.
(23)

(24)
(25)

1.
2.

3.

4.
5.
6.
(1)

An ordinary fund shall be created in to which shall be paid all sum derived from fees,
subscriptions, fines and other sources allotted to meet the annual expense of the Union.
A reserve shall be created, into which shall be paid sum derived from endowments, donations
interest on investments, or other than those mentioned in Section 2 of this chapter. At least
two-thirds of the balance left from the ordinary fund annually shall be transferred to this fund.
No part of the reserve fund shall be used for any purpose except for replacements of damaged
or worm out furniture and equipment or except by virtue of a resolution passed at a Business
Meetings.
The Executive Committee shall prescribe form or cheque for voluntary subscriptions and
donations towards the Reserve Fund.
The Executive Committee shall appoint a qualified auditor annually.
The accounts of the income and expenditure of the Union shall every year in July be audited
by the auditor (Section 7) and the audited accounts together with the auditor’s report under
his signature shall be placed upon the boards not less than fourteen days before the first
Business Meeting of the Academic year of the University. The Treasurer shall present his
report at that meeting.
The presidency shall check the account and bank books.
The Chairman shall be the sole judge on any point of order and may call any member to order
at any meeting and shall have power to take such action as he may think necessary to enforce
his decisions.
There shall be no voting proxy at any meeting.
A meeting adjourned for lack of quorum shall not require a quorum and the date to which it
has adjourned.
CHAPTER (XII)
Business Meetings
At Business Meetings the financial and administrative business of the Union shall be
transacted.
At such meetings motions for rejection of any act or resolution of the Executive Committee
which is alleged to be in excess of the powers conferred upon the said Committee by the
constitution may be moved.
At such meetings the following motions may be moved;
(1) Motion to amend, add to, or repeal the constitution
(2) Motion for expulsion of any member of the Union.
(3) Motion for re-admission of expelled members.
(4) Motion to censure any office of the Union.
(5) Motion to reverse any decision of the President, under Chapter 5, Section 7.
(6) Motions for appointment of a select Committee for any purpose relating to the Union.
Question relating to the working of the Union or affecting the interest of the Union may be
asked.
The decision arrived at such meetings shall be final.
The procedure at Business Meeting shall be governed by the following rule:A Business Meeting shall be held at least once at the end of each University term, the last
meeting taking place in February; but the president shall have the power to convene emergency

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(2)

(3)

(4)
(5)

(6)
(7)
(8)
(9)

(10)
(11)

(12)

(13)

(14)

(15)

162

meeting by giving three day’s notice.
The President shall convene Extra-ordinary Business Meetings on presentation of a requisition
signed by not less than an-forth of the student members (or) fifty student-members, whichever
is less, Such requisition shall state in writing the object for which the meeting is to be held.
Except in case of emergency, fourteen days notice of a Business Meeting and the general
nature of the business which the Executive Committee will bring forward to be transacted
there at shall be given under the signature of the President.
One-quarter of the number of student-members of the Union shall Constitute a quorum at a
Business Meeting.
Any student-member who wishes to propose a motion at an ordinary Business Meeting shall
forward a copy of the motion to the president so as to reach him not later than ten days before
the date of the meeting; and the President shall, if such motion be in order, course such
motion to be placed on the agenda paper of the meeting at which it is to be moved.
No motion which has been negative or other wise disposed of at a Business Meeting shall be
moved again within six months from the date of the meeting at which it was disposed of.
The President shall issue not less than seven days before the date of the meeting a list of the
motions he has received to be moved at the meeting.
Notice of amendments to motions of the agenda paper shall be in the hands of the President
not less than four days before the meeting.
The President shall issue three days before the date of the meeting a revised agenda paper
showing all motions in the original agenda paper and motion and amendments of which due
notice has been given.
In the absence of the President or Vice-President, the members present shall elect a Chairman
from among themselves.
A motion for adjournment of the House to discuss an urgent and important matter concerning
the Union may be moved at a Business Meeting but notice for such motion shall reach the
President not less than one hour before the meeting starts and the President shall admit such
motion only if he considers the matter to be important and urgent.
The Chairman, on his own motion or if so directed by a meeting from time to time and from day
to day, but no business shall be transacted at an adjourned meeting other than the business
unfinished at the meeting from which the adjournment took place.
Not more than the first thirty minutes of a meeting shall be devoted to answering questions.
Notice of questions to be asked at a meeting must reach the President not less than three
days before the meeting. The officer concerned shall answer such questions.
The order of business - At a Business Meeting the following shall be the order of Business:(a) The election of the Chairman, if necessary.
(b) Questions
(c) Business brought forward by the Executive Committee
(d) Business brought forward by the members of the Union.
The following motions may be move without previous notice:(a) Motion to appoint a Chairman,
(b) Motions for adjournment of the House to another date or time if the business is not
expected to be fully disposed of within the time available.
(c) Motions that any question before the meeting be put to the vote forth with.
(d) Motions that the meeting be dissolved for lack of quorum.

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(16)

(17)

(18)
(19)

(20)

(e) Motions to ask permission to with draw a motion or amendment.
(f) Motions that the House resolve itself into a Committee,
(g) Motions expensing thanks, congratulations or sympathy.
The following amendments may be moved without previous notice:(a) Amendments to any motion admitted without previous notice,
(b) Amendments which are in the opinion of the Chairman of urgent and important nature and
or which he considers that the opinion of the House should be taken forth with.
Motions requiring votes of at least one-quarter of members and two-thirds majority of the
votes so registered shall be:(a) Motions to amend, add to, or repeal any provision or whole of the constitution,
(b) Motions to expel any member of the Union,
(c) Motions to re-admit expelled members
(d) Motions affecting the Reverse Fund.
Motions to confer Honorary Membership and any person of distinction shall require threeforth majority of those voting.
The following shall be the procedure on motions:(a) Every motion admitted without previous notice shall be moved at a time to be appointed
by the Chairman.
(b) Such motions once disposed of shall not be moved again at that meeting.
(c) Every motion effecting the finances of the Union shall specify the amount affected.
(d) A motion that the House resolve itself into a Committee shall specify item or items of
business to be considered in committee.
The following shall be the procedure amendments:(a) Every amendment must be relevant to the motion to which it refers, and must be framed so
as to form there with an intelligible and consistent sentence.
(b) No amendment shall be moved to a motion for adjournment of a meeting except one
appointing a different day or time.
CHAPTER (XIII)
Special Meetings

1.
(1)
(2)
2.
(1)
(2)

(3)

(4)

At special Meetings,
Motions affecting the interests of the students of the University shall be moved, or
Lectures or address may be delivered an any subject or topic other than religious, by any
person and the invitation of the Executive Committee.
The procedure at special meeting shall be governed by the following rules:The president shall fix the day time at which the meeting is to be held and shall gave power to
hold such meeting in place of any data debate.
The Executive Committee shall, and presentation of a requisition of not less than thirty
members of the Union, convene a special meeting. Such requisition shall state in writing the
object for which the meeting is to be called.
The procedure for the satisfaction and submission of motions and amendments shall be the
same as for Business Meeting, but the President shall put before the Executive Committee all
such motions and amendments.
The procedure on motions and amendments shall be governed by the rules prescribed
for Business Meetings except in case of lectures and address.

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(5)

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

6.

7.

8.
9.

1.
(1)
(2)
(3)

(4)
(5)
(6)

(7)
(8)
(9)
(10)

164

No motion shall be moved if a meeting is specially called for the lectures or address.
CHAPTER (XIV)
Debates
Meeting for debates shall be held as far as possible every Friday during full term of the
University except as otherwise decided by the president.
The Debates may be either in Burmese or in English as decided by the president.
The Debates may be any subject other than a religious subject.
The selection of motions for debates shall rest solely with the president.
Any member may suggest a motion for debate and signify his willingness to move it by a
written intimation to the President in selecting motions for debates the President shall take
into consideration suggestions so made.
The President shall be responsible for providing a motion for every debate and he shall
choose at least four principle speakers, i.e. a move and his supporter, and an opposer and his
supporter for each motion.
The Chairman, shall if so directed by a meeting, adjourn the meeting from time to time and day
to day, no Business shall be transacted at an adjourned meeting other than the business left
unfinished at the meeting at which the adjournment took place.
No motion for adjournment shall be moved for any purpose other than that of continuing the
debate an subsequent day.
In the absence of the President, a Chairman of the meeting shall be elected by the members
present from among themselves.
CHAPTER (XV)
Meeting in General
Procedure on motions, resolutions, and amendments at meeting of the Union in general shall
be governed by the following rules:
The speaker shall address the chair and may not read their speeches.
Every motion at a meeting shall be seconded, otherwise it shall drop.
Any motion or amendment standing in the name of a member who is absent from the meeting
or who declines to move it may be moved by other another member with the permission of the
chair.
No motion or amendment once moved shall be with drawn without the leave of the House.
No speech on any motion of amendment shall exceed fifteen minutes but the chairman shall
have power to extend this time.
A member who rises with the permission of the chairman to speak an the conclusion of a
speech has the right to be heard. In case of competition, the chairman shall decide who is in
possession of he meeting.
Except as here in after provided, a member having spoken to a motion is not at liberty to speak
again to such motion.
Any member may (even whilst another is spoken) rise to explain any misconception of
expressions used by him but he shall not make a speech.
There shall be no personal reference to any member except in censure motions and than only
provided that such reference is relevant to the subject.
Any member may call the Chairman’s attention to a point of order even whilst another is

udv
k ekd aD cwfaESmif; - 1938 rS 1938 - e,fcsq
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h siaf &; trsK;d om;a&;toGif
(11)
(12)

(13)

(14)
(15)

(16)
(17)

(18)
(19)

(20)
(21)
(22)
(23)

(24)
(25)

1.
2.

speaking but no speech shall be made on such point of order.
When an amendment to any motion has been proposed, no other amendment shall be proposed,
until the former amendment has been disposed of.
Any member may speak once on a motion and once an each amendment proposed to it, but
no member may speak more than once on any motion or amendment except as provided in
rules (13) and (14).
The propose of any motion may speak an every amendment, and shall have the right of reply
immediately before the final division an his motion. The mover of an amendment has the right
immediately before the division an that amendment.
No member who has spoken on the motion may subsequently move an amendment, but any
member who has only spoken on an amendment may subsequently move and amend.
In the case of amendments which require previous notice, the Chairman shall call on movers
of such amendments one by one to dispose of such amendments, after the mover has moved
the motion.
In the case of censure motions the officer or the member whose conduct is in question shall
have right of speaking again after the mover has replied.
When the Chairman has as certain that no other member who is entitled to address the
meeting desires to speak, he shall ask the propose of the motion to reply upon the whole
debate and after that he shall put the motion to the House.
A motion for the adjournment of the House shall be moved only once at a meeting.
The Chairman has the same right of moving or searching or speaking to a motion or an
amendment as any member but he shall vacate the chair for the whole meeting, and he shall
nominate to the chair a member who has not taken part in the discussion. Without leaving the
chair, the chairman may however at his direction or at the request of any member, explain to
the meeting the scope of any motion or amendment. He may also at the conclusion of a
discussion sum up the discussion if he so desires.
On a division, the Chairman shall appoint tellers to count the House. The manner in which a
division is to be effected shall be determined by the chairman.
The Chairman shall have a casting vote at all divisions where the voting is equal.
All question considered at meetings of the Union shall be decided by a simple majority of
votes of member voting, unless a particular majority is required by the constitution.
The Chairman shall be the sole judge on any point of order and may call any member to order
at any meeting and shall have power to take such action as he may think necessary to enforce
his decisions.
There shall be no voting proxy at any meeting.
A meeting adjourned for lack of quorum shall not require a quorum and the date to which it
has adjourned.
CHAPTER (XVI)
Vacation Officers
If not less than three members of the Executive Committee remain in Rangoon during the
vacations, they shall be the vacation officers.
If less than three such members remain in Rangoon during the vacations, then the Executive
Committee shall before the beginning of the vacations appoint there vacation officers from
among the members of the Union, who will remain in Rangoon to take charge of the Union

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3.
4.
5.
6.

7.

1.
2.
3.
4.

5.

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

11.
12.
13.
14.

166

during the vacation.
The Executive Committee shall place upon the boards the names of these vacation officers
immediately after their appointments.
The vacation officers shall take over charge the offices assigned to them by the Executive
Committee except the Treasurer’s office.
The office of these officers who are leaving Rangoon during the vacations shall be distributed
among the vacation officers.
The Treasurer with the approval of the Executive Committee shall appoint a member of the
Union of not less than two year’s standing to take charge of his office if he is absent from
Rangoon during the vacations.
After the General Election, the vacation officers shall hand over charge of the offices they
held to the elected officers concerned.
CHAPTER (XVII)
Elections
There shall ordinarily be two General Elections annually, one for the officers and the other for
the Executive Committee.
The election of the President, Vice-President and Treasurer shall ordinarily be held before the
election of the Executive Committee and not later than the second week of July.
The retiring President if present after the summer vacations shall conduct the election of
officers.
If the retiring President be not present on Rangoon in time to conduct the election, the
vacation officers shall summon and a Business Meeting not later than first week of July and
this meeting shall elect a Returning officer and four tellers from among the student members
of the Union, who are not standing as contact the election.
Every candidate for election shall be nominated on nomination paper (which can be had from
the Returning officer or the President) signed by a propose and a seconder, entitled
to vote, which or the Returning Officer on or before the day fixed for receiving such papers.
Every such nomination paper shall be signed by the candidate nominated for election.
No member from whom any arrears are due to the Union shall be proposed as a candidate, or
propose or a second candidate or vote at any election.
The president or returning officer shall, within two days after the day fixed for receiving
nomination papers, put upon the boards the list of candidates nominated.
If nomination paper fails to comply with any one of the requirements of the provisions of the
constitution, the candidate then in nominated, shall be disqualified for that election.
A member who is eligible for more than one officer may stand for election for all such offices
but if he is elected two select which office he will accept, and shall resign all other
offices to which he may have been elected and the next candidate on the poll for such office
or offices shall take his place.
No member shall be allowed to address the House with reference to the merits or demerits of
any candidate.
The newly elected officers shall formally enter upon office at the first debate after the election.
The President or the Returning Officers shall give 7day’s notice of the first election to the
members of the Union.
The election shall be decided by means of a straight vote.

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15.
16.

17.

18.
19.
20.
21.

22.

23.

1.

2.
3.
4.

5.

The President elect shall conduct the election for the Executive Committee not later than two
weeks after his election.
If there be more than six candidates for the Executive Committee, the election shall be conducted
by a straight vote. Every member entitled to vote shall have one vote for each seat, but he
shall vote give more than one vote to the same candidate. The six candidates on the top of the
poll shall be declared elected.
The counting of votes shall take place on the someday or on the day following the poll in the
presence of the officers, tellers and candidates or their authorized representative and the
results shall be published on the boards and the officer who conducted the election shall call
out the names of the candidate elected at the first meeting of the House following the election.
In the election shall decide the issue by his casting vote.
No distinguishing mark shall be placed upon the notice issue against the names of candidate
who have served on the Executive Committee or as officers of the Union before.
Every election shall take place by ballot; and the voting papers shall be in such form as the
president or the Returning officer shall direct.
No member shall vote by proxy.
The nomination or voting papers shall not be published in any case or shall they be
subsequently examined unless a scrutinizing be demanded by a candidate or his propose or
by at least ten members of the Union within three days of the announcement of the results of
the election, when the President, thinks fit shall empower two ex-members or ex-officio members
of the Executive Committee to examine the voting paper; and they shall make a report to the
President, whose decision on the question shall be final.
If a requesting signed by fifty or one- fourth of the student members, which ever is less, be
presented to the president within a week after the election, he shall summon a Business
Meeting which shall elect a select- committee of fix members, to investigate any election
called into question by such requesting.
If by a majority of two-thirds of the select-committee so appointed it is held proved that any
candidate has spent more than ten rupees to secure his election by canvassing, such election
shall be declared void and he shall not be eligible for election to any officer or the Executive
Committee for one year.
CHAPTER (XVIII)
Library
There shall be a Library Sub-Committee consisting of a librarian and six members. The librarian
and the members of the Sub-Committee shall be nominated by the Executive Committee from
among its members or the members of the Union, and the Treasurer shall be an ex-officio
member of the Sub-Committee.
The Librarian shall be the chairman of the Sub-Committee.
The Librarian shall be in charge of the library and Reading Room; and the key of the
library shall be kept with the librarian who may entrust them to the chief clerk.
The library Sub-Committee shall buy such books of general interest to the members as they
may decide from time to time and shall keep such periodicals as they may think fit out of the
sum allotted for the purpose.
The library Sub-Committee shall, subject to the control of the whole House at Business
Meetings, make rules relating to the library and Reading Room.

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6.
7.
8.
9.

10.

1.

2.

Any member may borrow any not meant for reference, from the library in accordance with the
library rules.
The Executive Committee shall receive all books presented to the Union Library, and hand
them over to the Librarian.
The Librarian shall issue motives relating to the library and shall present a report with regard
to the library at the last Business Meeting of the year.
The Librarian shall keep a book in the library for suggestions with regard to the library and
Reading Room and a list of books borrowed and a list of all books and equipment belonging
to the library.
At any Business Meeting any member may propose the discontinuance of any newspaper or
periodical taken by the Union.
CHAPTER (XIX)
Union Magazine
There shall be a Magazine Sub-Committee consist of a Editor, a Manager and five members.
The Editor and members shall be nominated by the Executive Committee from among the
members of the Union and the Treasurer shall be an ex-officio member of the Sub-Committee.
The Editor shall be the chairman of the subcommittee and he shall be responsible for the
publication of the Union Magazine.

3.

The Editor shall be responsible for the choice of articles for publication in the Magazine.

4.

The Manager shall collect and supervise the collection of advertisement and other relative
matters, he shall as sit the Treasurer in the collection of advertisement bills etc and he be
generally responsible for the business side of the Magazine.

5.

The Editor shall be the publicity officer of the Union and shall publish all matters handed to
him by the Executive Committee and he shall bring to the notice of the Executive Committee
any criticism or publication effecting the Union or the students of the University.

6.

The Magazine Sub-Committee shall with the approval of the Executive Committee fix the time
for the publication of the Magazine.

7.

The Sub-Committee shall, subject to the control of the whole House at the Business Meeting
make rules relating to matters concerning the Union Magazine not otherwise provide for in
the constitution.

1.

2.
3.

CHAPTER (XX)
Affiliation of Other Societies
Any society of the University or of its constituent colleges may be affiliated to the Union on
application to the Executive Committee who shall have the power of rejecting any application
without assigning any reason.
Every society shall, if affiliated, pay an annual affiliation fee of rupees five and the annual
affiliation fee shall become due on the first day of the first term of each Academic year.
Every affiliated society shall have the use of the Hall on the sitting or Reading Room once in
every month on a day approved by the Vice-President upon payment of rent at reduced rates
to be fixed by the Executive Committee.

Note- Chapter VIII is missing in the orginal copy of Aung Tun. (Anna*: 4 Pice = 1 Anna, 16 Annas = 1 Rupee)

168

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1.
2.

3.

1.

2.
3.

1.

2.
3.

1.

2.

3.

CHAPTER (XXI)
Indoor Games
The Executive Committee may subject to the control of the whole House at Business Meetings
arrange for indoor games.
Only members of the Union shall be allowed to take part in door games, but members may be
permitted to bring guests in accordance with rules laid down by the Executive Committee for
the purpose.
Rules relating to indoor games shall be made by the Executive Committee subject to the whole
House at Business Meeting.
CHAPTER (XXII)
Restaurant
The Union Restaurant may be let out to a messing contractor by calling for tenders annually
until such time as the Executive Committee may decide, with the approval of the whole House
at Restaurant otherwise.
Tenders for letting the Restaurant shall be called for annually unless the Executive Committee
extends the period of lease of the lessee then in occupation.
The Executive Committee shall, subject to the approval of the whole House, formulate the
terms under which the Restaurant is to be let out.
TRANSITORY PROVISIONS
Not with standing anything contained in the constitution, the first elections of officers and of
the Executive Committee shall take place on such days as may be fixed and is such manner as
may be prescribed by the students of the University at a mass meeting.
Not with standing anything contained in the constitution, candidates for such elections must
have completed at least two years of study in the University.
Not with standing anything contained in Section 3, Chapter 11, the first members of the Union
shall be those who being eligible for Membership apply to the president to become members
within one month of the first election of officers, such applications shall be accompanied by
the Entrance Fee and subscription mentioned in Section 4, Chapter 11, but if the activities of
the Union begin in December 1930, the subscription for the remaining period of the Academic
Year shall be rupees three.
SCHEDULE 1
RULES
Premises - The Union premises shall be open from 6:00 a.m to 7:30 p.m on week days during
full term and from 6:00 a.m to 9:00 a.m Saturdays and holidays; but on Debate or other meeting
days the premises shall be kept open till the closing of the meetings.
Fines – Fines for non-payment of any fee or subscription or of any sum amounting to not less
than three rupees after it is due, shall be imposed, at the rate of annas* two for every fifteen
days, provided such five shall not exceed eight annas*.
Suspension of members – If a member does not discharge a liability mentioned in rule 2 within
sixty days after it is due together with the fines, he shall be suspended from the membership
of the Union, such member shall not be released from suspension until his liabilities are
discharge.

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(c) 1939-40 AuoESifh wuo trIaqmiftzGJU
wuo
1/ udkvSa½T
Ouú|
2/ udkausmfjrifh
'k-Ouú|
3/ udkaX;NrdKif
twGif;a&;rSL;
4/ udkjrwfapm
t,f'Dwm
5/ udkbpH
6/ udkodef;armif
7/ udkoufaz
8/ rpöwmatvwpf (Mr. A. Latif)
9/ rpöwmwDyD0rf (Mr. T. P. Wan)
Auo
1/ udkvSa½T
2/ udkausmfjrifh
3/ udkxGef;½Sdef
4/ udkarmifarmif
5/ udkbuav;
6/ udkjrwfapm
7/ udkoufaz
8/ udkbpH
1940-41 wuo
1/ udkvSarmif
2/ udkoef;armif
3/ udkxGef;½Sdef
4/ udkjrpdef
5/ udkjr
6/ ukdjrwfapm
7/ udkaX;NrdKif
8/ udkarmifarmif
9/ udkvS

(pma&;q&m '*kefwm&m)

Ouú|
'k-Ouú|

Ouú|
'k-Ouú|
twGif;a&;rSL;
t,f'Dwm
(Social)
(Debates)
(Librarian)
(Games Officer)

(*) yxrtBudrf ausmif;om;vTwfawmftwGuf jyifqifMujcif;
1939 ck atmufwdkbmvwGif yxrtBudrf ausmif;om;vTwfawmfudk usif;yrnfjzpfonf/ ykodrfuGefz&ifhü
twnfjyKvkdufaom Auo pnf;rsOf;Oya' tcef; (2)? tyd'k f (3) wGif
]toif;Bu;D onf wkid ;f jynf tkycf sKyaf om Ekid if Ha&;vkyfief;wGif udk,fxdvufa&muf aqmif½Gufjcif; r½Sdap&/
¤if;tjyif rnfonfUEkdifiHa&; *dkPf;*PESifUrQvnf; aygif;pyfjcif; r½Sdap&/}
ykodrfuGefz&ifhtNyD; xGufaom aMunmpmwrf;wGifvnf;
]igwkdh toif;um; wkdif;jynftkyfcsKyfaom EkdifiHa&;vkyfief;wGif udk,fxdvufa&muf aqmif½Gufrnfr[kwf?
rnfonfUEkdifiHa&; *kdPf;*PESifUrQ rqkdif/}
1938 ck? pufwifbmv (6) &ufaeY? n wuúodkvfor*¾toif;½Hk;wGif pnf;a0;aom ausmif;om;rsm;
tpnf;ta0;wGif Ouú| udkatmifqef;u
170

udv
k ekd aD cwfaESmif; - 1938 rS 1938 - e,fcsq
YJ efu
h siaf &; trsK;d om;a&;toGif
]aumif;NyD wcsKu
Yd ajymw,f? 'guEkid if aH &;yJ? ausmif;om;tvkyf r[kwb
f ;l ajymMuw,f? jyprf;yg b,fEidk if rH mS
b,fausmif;om;awG[m usKyfwkdhvkd rvkyfMubl;vkdh *smrPD? jyifopf? t*Fvef? pydefudkMunfU? w½kwfjynfMunfU
cifAsm;wdv
hk dk at;at;aq;aq;awmif raeEkid b
f ;l / ppfwu
dk af e&w,f/ ukvm;jynfuMkd unf?U tmPmzDqefa&; vkyMf uwke;f u
ausmif;om;awG trsm;BuD; axmifxJrSm a&mufaew,f/ tD*spfjynf vGwfvyfa&;wdkufyGJrSm ausmif;om;awG ygcJUw,f/
olwdkh trsKd;om;tzGJY (0gzf) ygwDzufu aecJUw,f/ tJ'gawGMunfUawmU ausmif;om;awG tvkyfrvkyfbl;vdkh qdkOD;rSmvm;?
usKyfwkdh ckvkyf&wmu pifppf eJeJav;yg/}
udkatmifqef; rdefYcGef;NyD;aemuf ausmif;om;or*¾rsm;toif; tvkyftrIaqmiftzGJU0ifwkdYonf ñGefYaygif;
tpkd;&jzKwfcsa&;twGuf vHk;yrf;í vmcJhMuonf/
tu,fí ausmif;om;rsm;tm;vHk; EkdifiHa&;vkyf&ef qE´½Sdygu
]pnf;rsOf;Oya' tcef; (2)? tydk'f (3) udk jzKwfypf&ef tcgodkha&mufvmacsNyD}
ykodrfuGefz&ifhu wuúokdvfjyifqifa&; Oya'Murf;udk Mo*kwfv vTwfawmftpnf;ta0;wGif twnfjyK
jzpfajrmuf&ef? rjzpfajrmufygu oifah wmfovkv
d yk &f ef tvkyt
f rIaqmiftzGUJ tm; tmPmvTcJ \
hJ / wuúov
dk Of ya'Murf;
onf vTwfawmfokdY a&mufvm\/ ñGefYaygif;tpkd;& ay;onfudk tvdkr½Sdí y,fcJh\/
uGefz&ifh tmPmzDqef&m a&muf ra&muf tcgajymif;cJhí tmPmzDqefcJhjcif;onf vrf;rSef a&mufNyDxm;OD;?
wuúodkvf tufOya'jyifqifa&;twGuf rnfuJhodkY qufvkyfrnf/ azazmf0g&D vTwfawmftpnf;ta0;wGif wuúodkvf
Oya'jyifqifa&;rnfodkY ½Sdrnf/ ñGefYaygif;tpkd;&vufrSawmh wuúokdvf Oya'jyifqifa&;udkawmh r,l qHk;jzwfcJhNyD;
ñGefYaygif;tpkd;& rjyKwfjyKwfatmif jzKwf&awmhrnf/ ,ck (2) ESpftwGif; rjyKwfvQif 1941 ckESpf a½G;aumufyGJwGif
ausmif;om;rsm;u rdrdwdkY trwfrsm; wif&awmhrnf/
1/ ausmif;om;rsm; udk,fBudKufaomtrwfrsm;wifEkdif? rwifEkdif/
2/ ñGefYaygif;tpdk;& jzKwfcsa&; vHk;yrf;ae&ojzifh(u) Armjynfynma&;pepf jyKjyifa&;?
(c) roifrae& ynma&;pepfwDxGifa&;ponfh ausmif;om;rsm;ESifh avmavmq,f oufqdkifaom
jyóemrsm;udk acgufxm;oifh? racgufxm;oifh/
3/ ausmif;om;wdkYonf EkdifiHa&;*dkPf;*PtjzpfESihf wnfEkdif? rwnfEkdif/
4/ igwdYk onf ½SiBf uD;0rf;vnf; 0ifcNhJ yD? ½Siif ,f0rf;vnf; 0ifcNhJ yD? igwkYd tm;ay;cJah om *dP
k ;f wkYd onf rnfuo
hJ Ykd
*dkPf;rsm;enf;/

(C) yxrtBudrf ausmif;om;vTwfawmf
1936 ck oydwfaemufydkif; tpdk;&u ,leDAmpDwDtufOya'jyifqifa&;? w&m;0efBuD; qmjrbl; acgif;aqmif
aom aumfrwDudk cefYxm;í 1937 ck? 'DZifbmvtwGif;ü tpD&ifcHpmxGuf&m &efukefNrdKUawmfcef;rrS aeí &efukef
ausmif;om;xk uefYuu
G ½f rkH u wjynfv;kH te,fe,fuefYuu
G Nf yD;aemuf jrbl;aumfrwDtpD&ifcpH m tay: xyfrjH yifqif
a&; tpD&ifcHpm aumfrwD w&yfudk udkatmifqef; tygt0if zGJUpnf;um jrbl;tpD&ifcHpm tay: jyifqif jznfhpGufcsuf
tpD&ifcHpm w&yfudk 17? 12? 37 aeYuyif ynma&;0efBuD;odkY ydkYcJh\/
jrbl;aumfrwDtpD&ifcHpmESifh ausmif;om;tzGJUaumfrwDwdkY\ jyifqifjznfhpGufcsufwdkYtay: tajcwnfí
wuúodkvfOya'Murf; jyifqifcsufukd 1938 ck? Mo*kwfv (25) &ufaeY ygvDref vTwfawmfwGif wifoGif;jyXmef;&ef
ñGefYaygif;tpdk;&onf jyifqifBudK;yrf;cJh\/ odkYaomfta&;ay: tajctaeajymif;vJí ¤if;&ufESifh uyfí (wuo)
ausmif;om;rsm;or*¾rS wuúodkvfOya'Murf;udk pGefYy,faMumif; aMunmvdkufonf/
,if;aMunmcsufü wuúodkvfOya'Murf;udpöwGif ñGefYaygif;tpdk;&tm; tjypfrwifomaomfvnf; qif;&J
om;wdkY\ tusKd;jzpfxGef;aprnfh Oya'Murf;rsm;udkum; usepGmppfaq;NyD;vsufESihfyif ñGefYaygif;tpdk;&\ wnfwHh&m
wnfwahH Mumif; jzpfapaom Edik if jH cm;om;wdYk \ rJuckd sdeí
f tcsdeq
f x
JG m;onfukd awGU&aMumif;? wdik ;f jynf\ tusKd;ESiphf m
vQif tao;tzGrJ Qjzpfaom ausmif;om;rsm;\ tusKd;udo
k m jzpfxeG ;f aprnfh wuúov
kd Of ya'Murf;udk a½SU½Iíaeygrlum;
usaemfwdkYonf wdkif;jynftm; tusKd;,kwfapaom ñGefYaygif;tpdk;&tm; MunfndKonf[k jy&m a&mufonfhtjyif
wdkif;jynftm; usaemfwdkYyg tm;ay;ESdyfpufonfhtvm; usa&mufrnfjzpfygaMumif; ajymqdkcJhonf/ ,if;oabmrSm
bmudjk yoenf;qdak omf ausmif;om;wdYk onf 1938 ck? Mo*kwv
f twGi;f uyif b,fvrf;udck sDwufawmhrnf[k rD;pdr;f udk
171

jrefrmEdik if H ausmif;om;vIy&f mS ;rIordik ;f
jyxm;onfhozG,f jzpfaMumif;/
1938 ck? Ekd0ifbmv yxrywfwGif ausmif;om;vTwfawmfudk wjynfvHk;rS ausmif;om; udk,fpm;vS,f
(95) OD; wufa&mufNyD; qHk;jzwfcsufrsm;rSm(1) y,fcscJhaom Oya'Murf;udk tjrefwifvdkaMumif;[laom tqdk?
(2) v,fo;D pm;Oya'Murf;ESifh v,f,majrajymif;vTaJ &; Oya'Murf;udk tjrefwifvakd Mumif;tqdu
k dk qH;k jzwf
cJhonf/
xdkvTwfawmfrS a½SUaqmif½Guf&ef tvkyftrIaqmifrS tmPmawmif;NyD;aemuf atmufygtwdkif; aMunmcsuf
w&yfudk twdtvif;aMunmonf/
]]ñGefYaygif;jyKwfusa&;ESifh tjcm;ygwDwck\ [',0w¬KauseyfrIwkdYudk uREkfyfwdkY txl;rjyKayaMumif;?
ñGeYfaygif;tpd;k &onf tvkyo
f rm;buf? v,form;buf? ynma&;buf ponfh tzufzufwYkdwiG f wdik ;f jynftm; epfreG ;f
apcJah vNyD/ ñGeYf aygif;i,f touf (2) ESpcf t
JG wGi;f v,form;rsm;ESihf ywfoufí a<u;xljcif;? ajrrJjh cif;? vuf½dS ajr
pepft& v,f,majr ajymif;vTJa&; Oya'Murf;? v,foD;pm; Oya'Murf;rsm;wdkYudk axmufí odEdkif\/ ausmif;om;
ynma&; pdwrf auseyfp&mrsm;? csKyfcs,cf surf sm; (wuúov
kd Of ya'Murf;rS ty)? rlvwef;ynma&; Oya'Murf;wGiv
f nf;
ynma&;tmPmydik w
f Ykd tm; xif&mjyKEkid cf iG hf ay;xm;onf/ ukvm;-Arm½du
k yf EJG iS hf yufoufí ñGeYf aygif;tay: tjypfwif
p&mrsm;onf wuúokdvfOya'Murf;udk twnfjzpfatmif vkyfEkdif? rvkyfEdkif ar;pOfuvnf; eef;&if;0efonf rdrd\
tajc rcdkifrnfudkom rwifrus ajymcJhonf/ xdkYaMumifh Mo*kwfv vTwfawmfwGif uREkfyfwkdYu waMumif;wnf;aom
Oya'Murf;udk pGefYy,frIvrf; vkdufcJhonf/ ñGefYaygif;onf vuf½Sdtajctaersm;udk odomatmif tcsdefwefí rjyKjyif
cJhvQif Oya'Murf;udpöxufyif vGefía½SUodkY wdk;vdrfhrnfjzpfaMumif; yg½Sdygonf/
,if;um; 1938 ck? 'DZifbmvrS pí jzpfvmcJhaom 1300 jynfh ta&;awmfyHk\ tvm;tvm yPmr
1938 ck? Edk0ifbmvuyif ausmif;om;wdkY EkdifiHa&;tvH csKd;jycJhjcif;yif jzpfonf/
yxrtBudrfajrmuf ArmEkdifiHvHk;qdkif&m ausmif;om;rsm;vTwfawmf Ouú| udkA[def;\ rdefhcGef;
&JabmfwdkY,ck vwfwavmtcsdeo
f nfum; igwdYk ausmif;om;awGtwGuf tawmfta&;BuD;aeaom tcsdejf zpfayonf/
vsifjrefpGm ajymif;vJaeaom urÇmESifh vdkufavsmnDpGm ArmjynfwGifvnf; arQmfvifhzkdY tcsdefr&avmufatmif tjzpf
tysufwkdYjzifh jzpfysuf ajymif;vJae&m Armhta&;wGif wpdwfwa'ojzpfaom igwdkYausmif;om;rsm; ta&;onfvnf;
acwf\ ajymif;vJrIwdkYudk rsufESmrlvsuf c&D;pOfudkMunfhum ajcvSrf;trsKd;rsKd;jyif&if; wdk;wufrIbufodkY vSrf;wufcJh&
avNyD/ þtcsdefwGif ta&;wBuD; ajymif;vJvmaom Armjynf EkdifiHa&;tajctaeudk Munfhum igwkdYausmif;om;
taygif;tm; wESpcf w
JG ikd f a½SUaqmifvmcJah om udak tmifqef;onf rjrifEidk af om ab;'kut
© aygif;wkYd EiS hf a&m>yef;aeaom
ArmhEidk if aH &; ppfajrwvif;odYk xGucf mG oGm;NyDjzpf&um; ppfo&l aJ umif; ½Sm;yg;aeaom ArmjynftwGuf txl; tm;wuf
zG,f jzpfaomfvnf; tcsdefMumjrifhpGmuyif vufyGef;wwD;aecJhMuum ausmif;om;ta&;wdkYwGifvnf; vkyfazmfudkifzuf
a½SUaqmifa½SU½Gufjzpfol wOD;onf aemiftcgwGif igwdkY txJü½Sdawmhrnf r[kwf[laom todOmPfonfum; igwkdY
pdwu
f kd rxdcu
kd b
f J raeEkid cf ahJ cswum;/ udak tmifqef;\ Ekwx
f u
G pf mudk 0rf;enf;pGm vufcv
H u
dk &f aom trIaqmiftzGUJ 0if
wkYd onf ightay:wGif r,dr;f r,kid f ,HMk unfpw
d cf sonfh tavQmuf þBuD;av;vSaom Ouú|wm0efukd udak tmifqef;\
ycHk;xufrS ightay:odkY vJTajymif;vkdufMu\/ igESifh vkyfazmfudkifzuf &JabmfcspfaqGwdkYonf ighudkworwfwnf; ,Hk
MunfMuonf[k od&ojzifh 0rf;rajrmufbJ raeEkid af omfvnf;? Armwjynfv;kH ½Sd ausmif;om;taygif;wdYk \ uHMur®mudk
apmifha½Smuf xdrf;odrf;ay;&onf/ þrQ BuD;av;aomwm0efudk vJTtyfonfhtwGufudkum; olwdkYtm; aus;Zl;wif
aMumif; ajymzkdY EIwfav;aerd\/
igwkdY Armausmif;om;rsm; or*¾toif;BuD; ay:aygufvmonfrSpí (2) ESpfcGJrQMumanmif;vmaom tcsdef
umvtwGif; igwdkY &nfrSef;NyD;oGm;&m vrf;aMumif;wGif½Sdaom ql;ajimifhcvkwfwdkYudk okwfoifz,f½Sm;&mü igwkdY\
&efolrsm;udk wdkufcdkuf&mü atmifjrifonfh tBudrfESifhtrQ aemufqkwf t½IH;ay;cJh&aomtBudrfwdkYudkvnf; igwkdY
&ifqdkifcJhMu&\/ þodkY½IH;ojzifh tn§Of;tyef; tESdyfpufcH&jcif; wkdYonfum; igwdkY\pdwfudk oHrPduJhokdY wif;rm
apNyD;vQif qHk;cef;rwdkifoí ravsmYaomZGJudk cdkifjrJapcJhavonf/ (2) ESpfcGJ vGefajrmufNyD;aom ,cktcsdefwGif igwdkY
toif;BuD;rSm c&D;vrf;qHw
k iG f a&mufvsuf½adS csonf/ &nf½,
G cf suf wckwnf;udk wpdww
f nf;jzifh wdu
k cf u
kd af eMuaom
Armjynf te,fe,frS ausmif;om;taygif;wkdYonf ,ck yxrtBudrf usif;ytyfaom ausmif;om;vTwfawmf twGif;
172

udv
k ekd aD cwfaESmif; - 1938 rS 1938 - e,fcsq
YJ efu
h siaf &; trsK;d om;a&;toGif
vma&muf awGUqHkMu&ayNyD/ ,ckavmavmq,f igwkdY a½SUarSmufü ajz½Sif;&ef apmifhqdkif;aeMuaom jyóemrsm;onf
um; raumufrauGU ajzmifhwef;pGmoGm;&rnfh igwkdY\c&D;vrf;aMumif; ½SmazGa&;ESifh igwkdYoGm;&m vrf;aMumif;udk
wnfhrwfay;rnfh rD;½I;wkdifESifhwlaom 0g'ukd pdppfa&;ponfwkdYyif jzpfayonf/ þjyóemrsm;udk rajzrD ausmif;om;
ta&;\ ausmaxmufaemufcHjzpfaom uRefArmjynf ynma&;pepfudk twdkcsHK;í qef;ppfMunfh&efvdkayonf/ vlESifh
urÇmum; wckESifh wck tjyeftvSef aumif;usKd;jyKvsuf ½SdMuayonf/ vlonf urÇmudk jyKjyifouJhodkY a½SUodkY
wjznf;jznf; jyif;xefaom t½Sdefjzifh wdk;wufvsuf½Sdaom urÇmonfvnf; vludka½SYwef;odkY qGJwifcJhavonf/
þodkY wOD;ESihf wOD; tnrnjyKjcif;jzifh ,cktcsdew
f iG f urÇmBuD; wd;k wufvmonfEiS t
hf rQ vlvnf; wd;k wufvm\/
wd;k wufaom urÇmwGif wnfaeEkdifatmifvnf; rdrdudk,fudk jyKjyifay;&\/ þodkYjyKjyifay;rIwGif ynma&;onfum;
tcsuftcsmyif jzpfay\/ urÇmBuD;onfvnf; rwkd;wufao;? vlvnf; atmufusaemufusESifh ,Ofaus;jcif;
acwfrwdkifrD tcgu txl;taxG ynmqnf;yl;&jcif; r½SdcJh/ om;ig;ESifh toufarG;&aom rkqdk;wHigonfwdkY twGuf
ynmoif&ef rvdk? v,form;tzkdYvnf; ausmif;wuf&ef rvdk? rdbbdk;bGm; tarGcHcJhaom v,fvkyfenf; orm;½dk;us
tajccHjzifh avmutv,fwGif vlwvHk;? olwvHk; vkyfEkdifcJh\/ odkY&mwGif tjrifa&m oabmyg ajymif;vJvmaom
,cktcgwGif þodkY rjzpfEkdifNyD/ odkYaMumifh vlawGudk avhusifhay;&ef? vlxJwGif 0ifqefYEkdif&ef vlYtusdK;aqmifEkdif&ef
pmoifausmif;rsm;udk wnfaxmifay;&\/ wdik ;f jynf? a&ajr? "avhukd vdu
k í
f ynma&;pepf trsKd;rsKd;udk wDxiG af y;&\/
ynma&;pepf\ tajccHrv
l &nf½,
G cf sufrmS vlYtusKd;aqmifa&;? vlxJ 0ifqefYEidk af &;[k igqdck \
hJ / Armjynf
ynma&;pepfonf þ&nf½G,fcsufrsm;twkdif; tajccHoavm? vHk;0r[kwfay? qefYusifbufom jzpfayonf/ ½Sif;tHh/
Armjynf ynma&;pepfonfausmif;om;wkdif; ausmif;om;wkdif;tm; rdrdwdkY qE´tavsmuf oef&moef&m
OmPfynm oefprG ;f oefrmvmatmif jyKjyifí ray;? opfom;yH;k xJxnfí
h n§yt
f yfaom ½TUH ykyu
f o
hJ Ykd ausmif;om;rsm;tm;
wyHkwnf; vkyfay;\/ wvrf;wnf; zGihfay;\/ yef;csD0goemxHkol? pufrIynm pdwfcGJolwdkYtm; wckwnf;aom
n§yyf jkH zifh ESyd cf g? pma&;pmcsD? NrdKUtkyf 0efaxmuf vkyaf y;\/ urÇmOD; vl½ikd ;f acwf? vlay:pacwf\ toH;k tEIe;f jzpfaom
'Pfay;jcif;pepfrSm tpdk;&u trdefYESifh zsufxm;vsufyif rsm;pGmaom ausmif;om;wkdYü toGiftrsdK;rsdK; aqmifvsuf
pGjJ rJaeao;\/ t*Fvyd af usmif;? jrefrmausmif;? t*Fvyd -f jrefrm ESpb
f momausmif;ponfwYkd jzifh tqift
h wef; r½Sad om
ausmif;om;wdkYtm; tqifhtwef; jcm;em;atmif vkyfum aoG;cGJay;\/ ynmoifpepf? jyXmef;aom pmtkyf? tifyg,m
aeY? bk&ifarG;aeY? txdr;f trSwyf JG ponfwYdkjzifh ausmif;om;wkYd tm; uRepf w
d ?f aus;pdww
f Ydkukd oGi;f ay;\/ e,fcsUJ pepfukd
'l;axmufvkdaom pdwfukd arG;ap\/ ajcpHk&yfí acgif;armh? &ifaumhum urÇmudk rsufESmjy&Jaom pdwfukdoGif;ray;?
þum; vGwfvyfcGifh a&aomufjrpfjzifh tñGefYwvlvlwufaeaom vlYpdwfudk Armhynma&;pepfu tñGefYwHk;atmif
vkyfaeyHkjzpf\/
ynmoifMum;&mü p&dwfpu tqrwefBuD;av;yHkrSmvnf; Armjynfynma&;pepf\ emrnfqdk; wckyif
jzpf\/ Armwdik ;f Armwkid ;f yQr;f rQ waeY0ifaiGrmS ydu
k q
f H (11) jym;? wv (5) usycf efYomjzpf&m ausmif;om;wOD;twGuf
wv (1) usyfrS (80) usyftxd ay;,l&aom ynmrSm Armwdkif;tzdkY r&nf½G,faMumif; xif½Sm;vSay\/ tpdk;&u
ynma&;udk axmufyHhyHkrSmvnf; tjcm;wkdif;jynfrsm;ESifh pmMunfhvQif &,fp&m jzpfaeí tpdk;& toHk;rusyHkudk xyfrH
oufao ay;aeovkd jzpfae\/ 1937-38 twGuf Armjynftpdk;&aiG (100) oHk;vQif ynma&;twGuf (6) usyfom
oHk;\/ oD[dkVfuRef;wGif (18) usyf (2) yJ? ,dk;',m;wGif (11) usyf (8) yJ? rav;uRef;wGif (7) usyf (5) yJokH;\/
Armuav;awG aumif;pm;a&;twGuf (6) usyfom oH;k aomfvnf; ArmawG cg;rwGeYf 0ahH vmufatmif &if0udk wnfw
h nfh
csdex
f m;onfh pufaoewf? tajr§mufq?H AH;k qHwYkd twGuo
f m (37) usyfcefY oH;k xm;\/ ynma&;XmewGif {&mrt"dywd
yk*Kd¾ vfjzpfaom ynmrif;BuD;\ roxmp&m aumif;avmufatmif vcaiGudk tqrwef ,lxm;onfrSmvnf; ArmawG
qif;&Jiwfjywf rGaJ wjcif;udk avSmifovk?d oa&mfovdjk zpfaeay\/ olvv
kd al wG rav;uRe;f wGif (1633) usy?f oD[Vdk w
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173

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G cf sufxm;í igwkYd aeYpOfEiS t
hf rQ vkyMf u&rnfh
vkyfief;um; or*¾pnf;½Hk;a&;? tiftm;pka&;wdkYyifjzpfonf/ tvkyform;? v,form;wdkYonf puf½Hk? v,fuGif;jyif?
ppfwvif;wdkYwGif ppfa&;usifhMuouJhodkY igwdkY ausmif;om;rsm;onfvnf; vuf½Sde,fcsJUpepf tajccdkifjrJ&m pmoif
ausmif; ppfwvif;wdkYwGif tm;pkMu ukefthH? pnf;½Hk;Mu ukeftHh/
e,fcsUJ pepfudk wdu
k zf suaf &;wGif igwkYdausmif;om;rsm;\ ,aeUwm0efrmS e,fcsUJ ynma&;pepfukd wdu
k zf suaf &;
yif jzpfavonf/ ausmif;vc avsmha&;? ynmtaxmuftyhH wd;k a&;? ausmif;ydrk kd wnfaxmifa&;? pmar;yGJ atmifpm&if;
wdk;a&;ponfh ao;zGJonhf jyKjyifrIav;awGudk t&if;cHum avhusifhMuNyD;aemuf ynma&;pepf tygt0if jzpfaom
vlwdkif;\aexdkifrIpepfudk tjrpfrSaeí awmfvSef ajymif;vJMuukeftHh/
acwfaemufjyefqaJG eaom pepfwYkd ukd okwo
f ifz,f½mS ;NyD;í vlwikd ;f vlwef;aph aexdik cf iG ahf y;aom tcsdet
f cg
a&mufrS igwdkYwawG arQmfrSef;&m ynma&;pepfudk &Ekdifrnfjzpfí xdktcsdef xdkumv ra&mufao;orQ umvywfvHk;
wpdwfwnf;? wqE´wnf;? &nf½G,fcsuf wckwnf;jzifh igwdkY ausmif;om;awG csDwufMu&ayrnf/ þtcsdefumv
twGif; igwkdYa½SUoGm; acgif;aqmifrsm;onf wa,mufNyD; wa,muf 0ifxGuf vJvS,faeMuayrnf/ igwkdYESifh vkyfazmf
vkyzf uf cspfaqG&aJ bmfwYkd onf tcsdet
f cg rwdik rf yD if igwkYd tm; cGcJ mG oGm;Muayrnf/ odYk &mwGif igwkYd wawG toufay;
um arQmfreS ;f &nfp;l xm;aom &nf½,
G cf suf qH;k cef;wkid f ra&mufao;orQrlum; igwdYk \e,fcsJUpepfwu
dk yf JG rD;½ª;wkid o
f nf
&J&J awmufxed v
f suf ½Sad yrnf/ vGwv
f yfaom ArmjynftwGuf igwdYk wawGrmS terw*¾ rsm;vSaom 'kut
© aygif;wkYd ukd
&ifqdkifMu&OD;rnf/ 'dkYtoufpnf;pdrfudk pGefYvTwfMu&OD;rnf/ igwdkY arQmfrSef;aom c&D;um; tawmf tvSrf;a0;csifu
a0;ayvdrfhrnf/ odkY&mwGif ra&wGufEkdifatmif rsm;jym;vSaom 'ku©trsdK;rsdK;? pdwfnpfp&m toG,foG,fwdkYudk atmifEdkif
cJhaom igwkdY\ arQmfrSef;csuf tjr§Kawpdwf"gwfudkum; tb,folonf igwkdYxHrS o,faqmifoGm;Ekdif ygthhHoenf;/

(i) 1300 jynfhta&;awmfyHkESifh ausmif;om;rsm;
ausmif;om;acgif;aqmifrsm;jzpfMuaom udEk ?k udak tmifqef;? udAk [de;f wdYkrmS wkYdArmtpnf;t½H;k odYk ajAmif0ifNyD;
ociftrnfcHum ausmif;om;ta&;awmfyHk? tvkyform;ta&;awmfyHkwdkYü 0ifa&mufvkyfudkif aeMuNyDjzpfonf/ 1300
176

udv
k ekd aD cwfaESmif; - 1938 rS 1938 - e,fcsq
YJ efu
h siaf &; trsK;d om;a&;toGif
jynfh oydwpf cef;wGif ocifxeG ;f cifEiS hf ocifcifarmifnKd wdYk u oydwpf cef; oydwo
f m;rsm;tm; oydwu
f pd ö t&yf&yfukd
½Sif;vif; a[mMum;NyD;aemuf n (10) em&DwGif ,if;wkdYESpfOD;tm; ta&;ydkiftrdefYjzifh yk'fr (107) ESifh zrf;qD;í
axmifcs vdkufavonf/ xdknwGif;csif;yif oydwfpcef;rS ocifausmf'if? OD;"r®? ocifodef;armif? ocifrmwdkY tcsKyf
axmif twGif;odkY a&mufvmNyD; rauG;NrdKUwGif vlrsm;pka0;jcif; rjyK&? yk'fr (144) udkvnf; aMunmonf/ aemufwaeY
reufwGif ocifvGifonf a&eHajrrS a&mufvmNyD; csufcsif; tzrf;cH&onf/
þuJhodkY &efukefNrdKUodkY OD;wnfcsDwufvmaom a&eHajr oydwfwyfBuD;onf 4? 12? 38 &uf? eHeuf (11)
em&DwGif rauG;NrdKUodkY a&muf½Sdvmavonf/ a&mufvQifa&mufcsif; &yfem;cGifhr&rD acgif;aqmifrsm;jzpfaom OD;0g,r?
OD;aZmwdu? OD;£E´? ODeE´? ocifz;kd vSBuD;? ocifbwif? ocifbarmif? ocifoed ;f azBuD;wdYk ukd e,fcsJUvufyg;aprsm;u
zrf;qD; vdu
k af vonf/ xdt
k cg A[dk wdYk Armtpnf;t½H;k ½Sd ocifoef;xGe;f onf a&eHajroydww
f yf\ rauG;NrdKUjzpfysuyf kH
tajctaepHkudk owif;,l&ef ocifxGef;cifudk vQKdU0SufpGm ydkYvdkufavonf/
ocifxGef;cif\ owif;ay;csuft& ocifazoef;? ocifpkd;? ocifxdef0if;ESifh ausmif;om;acgif;aqmifrsm;
jzpfaom udkA[def;ESifh udkAaqGwkdYudk rauG;NrdKUodkY oGm;a&muf&ef a½G;cs,fapvTwfvdkufonf/ ausmif;om;wdkYonf
yPmrtvHcsdK;jyonfhtwdkif; 1938 ck 'DZifbmv (7) &ufaeY a&eHajrtvkyform; (2000) cefYESifh v,form; (2)
aomif;ausmfudk &efukefodkY csDwufvmrnfhta&; BudKqdk{nfhcHjyifqifa&;twGuf EkdifiHa&;*dkPf;aygif;pHk tpnf;ta0;BuD;
w&yfukd a½Tw*d akH jc&if; OD;b&DZ&yfwiG f ac:qdu
k sif;ycJ&h modYk &J&aJ wmuf udo
k ef;wif? udAk aqGwYkd wufa&mufí wm0ef
,lcJhMuonf/ ,if;tpnf;ta0;wGif em,u ODZ#dv? Ouú| ocifxdyfwifudk,fawmfBuD;? twGif;a&;rSL; ocifpHxGef;
vSESifh ocifoef;xGef;wdkY aqmif½GufMu&m a&eHajrtvkyform;ESifh v,form;rsm;tm; BudKqdka&;? jyifqifrIpDpOf
wm0efcGJa0&mü BudKqdka&;aumfrwDwGif udkAaqG (or*¾) onfvnf;aumif;? auR;arG;a&;ESifh b@ma&;wdkYwGif NrdKUr
&J&Jawmuf udkoef;wifonfvnf;aumif;? yg0ifxrf;½Guf&ef wm0ef,lMuawmhonf/
8? 12? 38 &ufwGif Auo tvkyftrIaqmiftzGJYrS aMunmcsuf xkwfjyefawmhonf/
&Jabmfw-hkd
igwdkY\ aoG;csif;om;csif;rsm;jzpfaom a&eHajroydwfarSmuf tvkyform;rsm;tm; vnf;aumif;? yJcl;?
a0gtp½Sdaom e,frSv,form;rsm;tm;vnf;aumif;? rdrdwdkYepfemcsufrsm;? vdkvm;csufrsm;udk awmif;qdk&ef?
rdrdwdkY qE´tiftm;jy&ef ,cktcg rdrdwdkYqdkif&m e,ftoD;oD;rS csDwuf vmMuukefavNyD/
odYk vQif tqif;&J tepfemcHum ½G½H mS rke;f wD;zG,af umif;vSaom Ekid if cH sJUpepf? aoG;pky"f e½Sirf sm;udk &J&&J if&h ifh
wGe;f vSeNf zdKzsuf&ef csDwufvmMuukeaf om igwdYk \ol&aJ umif; &JabmfwYkd tm; igwdYk Auotoif;rsm;u csDwuf&m
vrf;c&D;wGif½Sdaom (u) c&D;OD;BudKjyKjcif;?
(c) tpm;taomuftwGuf aqmif½Gufjcif;?
(*) ae&mxdkifcif;rsm;twGuf wwfpGrf;oavmuf tultnDay;Mu&ef igwkdY wdkufwGef;\/
xdu
k pd t
ö &yf&yfwYkdukd atmifjrifxajrmuf&ef igwkYd tpnf;t½H;k \ e,for*¾toif;rsm;u rdrw
d Ukd qkid &f mwGif
OD;pD;ívnf;aumif;? rdrw
d Ykdqidk &f m NrdKUrsm;wGif zGUJ pnf;xm;aom apmifah ½Smufa&;tzGUJ rsm;ESihf yl;aygif;í vnf;aumif;?
ulnDaqmif½GufMu&ef igwdkY A[dkor*¾toif;BuD;u xkwfqifh taMumif;Mum; vkduf&ygaMumif;/
AaqG
tusdK;aqmif
ArmEkdifiHvHk;qdkif&mausmif;om;or*¾toif;
udkA[def;ESifh udkAaqGwdkY yg0if&jcif;rSmvnf; ocifvSazESifh ocifxdef0if;wkdYonf udkA[def;wkdYudk wdkYArm
tpnf;t½Hk;odkY zdwfMum;í ausmif;om;rsm;tm; tvkyform;qE´jyyGJrsm;wGif yg0ifulnD&ef zdwfMum;cJhonf/
ausmif;om;ESifh tvkyform; aoG;pnf;nDñGwfa&;rS wqifh vlxkvIyf½Sm;rIqDodkY OD;wnfap&ef wdkYArmtpnf;t½Hk;
acgif;aqmifrsm;u ajymMum;cJo
h nf/ 'DZifbmv (8) &ufaeUwGif wdYk Armtpnf;t½H;k rS apvTwv
f u
kd af om ocifazoef;?
ocifpdk;? ocifxdef 0if;wdkY rauG;odkYa&muf½dSvmonf/ ausmif;om;acgif;aqmif udkA[def;ESifh udkAaqGygvmavonf/
udAk [de;f ESihf udAk aqGwUkd onf a&eHacsmif;NrdKU ausmif;om;rsm;qE´jyyGEJ iS hf ausmk if;om;rsm;y#dyu©ukd ajz½Si;f &ef taMumif;jyK
177

jrefrmEdik if H ausmif;om;vIy&f mS ;rIordik ;f
í xGufcGmvmNyD; a&eHacsmif;wGifacwå0ifum rauG;odkYa&mufvmMuonf/ udkA[def;rSm wuoOuú|jzpfí udkAaqGrSm
twGif;a&;rSL; jzpfonf/
rauG;wGif aomifwifvsuf½adS om a&eHwyfBuD;tm; a½SUaqmifcsDwuf&eftwGuf yxrqH;k XmecsKyfrS apvTwf
vdkufol wm0efcHyk*d¾Kvfrsm;\uwdcH0efcsufrSm1/
2/
3/
4/

igwdkhonf a&eHoydwfwyf wckwnf;udkjzpfap? v,form;wyfBuD; wckwnf;udkjzpfap (odkhr[kwf) ESpfwyf
pvHk;udkjzpfap &efukefodkh ta&mufwm0efcHBuD;rSL;í ac:aqmifcJUygtHU/
igwdkh\wm0efonf &efukefNrdKY ü tvkyform;tpnf;ta0;BuD;rsm;? v,form;tpnf;ta0;BuD;rsm; NyD;pD;í
vlpkuGJonfUtcgrS NyD;qHk;onf[k ,HkMunfygaMumif;/
wm0efNyD;qHk;onhf pcef;odkh ra&mufrcsif; rnfuJUodkh taESmifUt,Sufrsm;ESifU MuHKawGYapumrl rwGefhrqkwfbJ
a½SYodkhom wkd;í wufcJUygtHU/
vlpkuGJapwwfaom vkyfief;rsm;udk b,ftcgrQ rvkyfyg? tusKd;vdka&mif ½lyaqmifí aoG;cGJjcif;? vlpkcGJjcif;
ponfU y&d,m,fwdkhudk tpGrf;ukef a½Smifwdrf;ygownf;/
wm0efcHAdkvfrsm;rSm
1/ ocifxGef;cif
2/ ocifazoef;
3/ ocifpdk;
4/ ocifxdef0if;
5/ udkA[def; (ausmif;om;or*¾)
6/ udkAaqG (ausmif;om;or*¾) wdkYjzpfonf/

'DZifbmv (8) &ufaeYwiG f &efuek f A[dXk mecsKyfrS a&muf½v
dS mMuaom ocifazoef;? ocifp;kd ? ocifxed 0f if;
ESifh ausmif;om;acgif;aqmif udkA[def;? udkAaqGwdkYonf rJxD;ausmif;wkduf oydwfpcef;twGif; ajcvsif oHrPdoydwf
wyfrsm;ESifh twl pwnf;csvsuf oydwfwyfrsm; pdwf"gwfMuHUckdifa&;udk tpGrf;ukefBudK;yrf;Muonf/ pnf;urf;ao0yf
a&;ESifh usef;rma&;ukdk ydkrdkaumif;rGefvm&ef pDpOfMuonf/ rauG;½Sd ausmif;om;or*¾ acgif;aqmifrsm;ESifh qufí
NrdKUvlxk? e,fvlxkwdkYudk oydwfrsm;tm; ulnDaxmufyHh&ef vIHYaqmfpnf;½Hk;Muonf/
udAk [de;f wdYk rauG;odYk a&mufNyD; csufcsif;vdyk if rauG;NrdKU tpd;k &txufwef;ausmif;wGif usif;yaom ausmif;
om;rsm; tpnf;ta0;odkY wufa&mufcJhMuonf/ rauG;ausmif;om; or*¾Ouú|rSm udw
k ifO;D jzpfí udw
k ifO;D ESihf tjcm;
or*¾ acgif;aqmifrsm;pGmwdYkonf ocifpw
d ?f rsK;d csppf w
d f vGepf mG jyif;xefMuonft
h wdik ;f wkYdArmtpnf;t½H;k odYk r0ifMuap
umrl rdrdwdkYudk,fudk rdrdwdkYbmom ocif trnfwyfí ac:vsuf½Sdonf/ ocifazoef;? udkA[def;? udkAaqGwdkYu
a&eHajr oydww
f yfBuD;onf rlv&nf½,
G cf sut
f wdik ;f &efuek o
f Ykdta&muf csw
D ufrnf/ rnfou
l rnfoYkd wm;qD;apumrl
csw
D ufvmMuaom tvkyo
f rm;oydww
f yfBu;D tm; anmifvpS ma&;wef;ESiUf pwdak 'gi½Uf mG t0ifrS &Jrsm;uzrf;qD;&ef vrf;ydwaf pmifMU uonf

178

Source: Year 1300 (Vol-2)

udv
k ekd aD cwfaESmif; - 1938 rS 1938 - e,fcsq
YJ efu
h siaf &; trsK;d om;a&;toGif
a&eHwyfom;rsm;u *½kpdkufrnfr[kwf/ yk'fr (144) xkwfjyefjcif;onf rw&m;wm;qD; xkwfjyefjcif; jzpfonf/ oydwf
orm;rsm;onf xdkrw&m;rIudk iHkUírcH? tjyif;txef wGef;vSefí w&uf? ESpf&uftwGif; rauG;rS xGufMurnf/ &efukef
A[dXk mersm;rS apvTwv
f u
kd af om rdrw
d Ykd onf a&eHwyfBuD;udk a½SUaqmifrnfjzpfonf/ rdrw
d Ykd ukd jynft
h apcHrsm;u a&eH
wyfBuD;udk acgif;raqmifEkdif&ef zrf;qD;csif zrf;qD;vdrfhrnf/ zrf;qD;vQifvnf; wAdkvfwuf wAdkvfqif;pepfjzifh a&eH
wyfBuD; qufvufcsDwufrnf {uefjzpfonf/ a&eHwyfom;rsm;\ ta&;udk rdrdwdkYuJhodkYyif rauG;½Sd ausmif;ol
ausmif;om;? NrdKUolNrdKUom;rsm;tm; 0dkif;0ef;ulnDMu&ef arwåm&yfcHcJhygonf/ ausmif;om;rsm;ESifh wuG NrdKUvlxkuyg
ulnDvQif rauG;NrdKUrS a&eHwyf xGufcGma&;rSm atmifjrifrnf rkcsjzpfaMumif; a[majymonf/ wufa&mufvmMuaom
ausmif;om;ausmif;ol (200) ausmfwkdYuvnf; a&eHwyfom;rsm;ta&;udk tpGrf;ukef ulnDrnfjzpfaMumif; uwday;
qH;k jzwfonf/ 'DZifbm (12) &ufaeY naewGif rJx;D ausmif;wku
d f oydwpf cef;wGif tpnf;ta0;BuD; w&yfusif;yonf/
xdt
k pnf;ta0;ü ausmif;om;? ausmif;ol? vlxrk sm;pGm wufa&mufMuonf/ xdt
k pnf;ta0;wGif ocifxed 0f if;? udAk [de;f
wdkY a[majymonf/ ocifpdk;ESifh ocifazoef;rS 11? 12? 38 &uf nae (6) em&D (5) rdepf tpnf;ta0;ü a[majym
rIjzihf &Jrsm;u zrf;qD;oGm;avonf/
udkA[def;u
]]oydww
f yfBuD; reufzef 'DZifbmv (13) &ufaeYwiG f yk'rf (144) udk wdu
k zf sufí qufvuf csDwufrnfjzpf
aMumif;? jrif;cGmwpfcsuaf yguv
f Qif rD;[ke;f [ke;f awmufap&rnf/ &Jabmfwo
hkd wdÅ urÇmodatmifjyMuyg/ e,fcst
YJ *Fvyd u
f kd
&Jabmfwkdh aoG;pnf;nDñGwfa&; tiftm;jzifU Armjynfjyifyodkh armif;xkwfMuyg/}} xkdodkY a[majymrIaMumifh udkA[def;?
udAk aqGwYdkukd qlyv
l UHI aqmfonf/ tpd;k &tMunfnKd ysuaf tmif a[majymonf[q
k u
kd m &mZ0wfusix
hf ;kH yk'rf (107) t&
zrf;qD;vdkuf&m wjynfvHk;ausmif;om;rsm; yk½GufqdwftHkudk wkwfeJYxkd;rdouJhokdY a'gotkd;aygufuGJMuavonf/ udk
A[def;? udkAaqG? ocifpdk;? ocifxdef0if;? ocifazoef;ESihf (5) OD;udk zrf;qD;vdkufavonf/
Auoonf ausmif;om;rsm;ta&;udk t"duxm;í vIy½f mS ;aepOf ,if;\ wk;d wufjzpfay:rI tvm;tvmudk
BudKwifodjrifol AsL½dku&ufrsm;? ykvdyfpHkaxmufrsm;taejzifh ausmif;om;xkavmutwGif; xkd;azmufNzdKcGif; zdESdyf
zsufqD;&ef wm0efopfw&yf xrf;aqmifvm&awmhonf/ xdkzdESdyfjcif;onf wGef;uefjcif;ESifh &ifqdkif&jrJ"r®wm twdkif;
ausmif;om;xk\ ydkrdkEdk;Mum;rIudk jzpfay:aponf/
1938 ck a&eHajrtvkyo
f rm;rsm; oydwt
f a&;awmfykH ay:aygufvmaomtcg ta&;awmfykH vIid ;f *,ufonf
jynfolw&yfvHk;ESifhtwl ausmif;om;xktwGif;odkY jyif;xefpGm ½dkufcwfcJhonf/ yJcl;pD&ifpk? a0gNrdKUe,f awmifolv,f
orm;rsm; aqmfMoí &efukefodkY v,form;wyfBuD; csDwuf&ef ArmEkdifiHvkH;qkdif&m v,form;uGefz&ifhBuD; w&yf
usif;yí tpk;d &ESihf ta&;qd&k ef pDpOfMujcif;wdYk ukd wk;d wufaom ausmif;om;acgif;aqmifrsm;u owdxm;vsuf½o
dS nf/
xdYktwla&eHajrrS oHrPdoydww
f yfBuD; &efuek Nf rdKUodYk ajcvsicf sw
D ufvmyH?k vrf;c&D;tMum; rauG;NrdKUwGif e,fcsUJ vufyg;
ap jAL½dku&uftmPmydkifrsm;u wm;qD;xm;yHk? oydwfacgif;aqmifrsm;udk zrf;qD;xm;yHkwdkYukd ausmif;om;
acgif;aqmifwYkd awGUjrifMuonf/ rdrw
d Ukd epfemcsufrsm;udk w&m;ojzifh ta&;qdv
k mMuonfh awmifov
l ,form;rsm;udk
rvmEkdif&ef Oya'yk'frtrsKd;rsKd; xkwfí BudKwif[efYwm;jcif;? csDwufvmMuonfh tvkyform;rsm;udk rw&m;wm;qD;
½Hrk u acgif;aqmifrsm;udyk g wa,mufNyD; wa,muf NzdKcGaJ ejcif;wkYdukd rsu0f g;xifxif awGUjrifae&aom ausmif;om;rsm;
onf rw&m; tzdEydS cf &H vsuf&adS om awmifov
l ,form;wdYk EiS fh tvkyo
f rm;wkYd bufrS ud,
k cf sif;pmvsuf rsm;pGmMuifem
axmufxm;jcif;jzihf zdESdyfolwkdYtay:wGifvnf; ½GH½Smrkef;wD;pdwfrsm; wzGm;zGm; ay:aygufvmayonf/

(p) wwd,ausmif;om;oydwftwGuf jyifqifMujcif;
udkA[def;\ ]jrif;cGmwcsuaf yguv
f Qif rD;[ke;f [ke;f awmufap&rnf}[laom &J&Jawmuf rdefYcGef;aMumifh a&eHajr
wyfom;rsm; pdwftm;wufvmMuonf/ udkA[def;? udkAaqGwdkY tzrf;cH&NyD;aemuf wuúodkvfor*¾onf pwif vIy½f mS ;
vmjyefonf/
'DZifbm (13) &uf? n (7) em&D tcsed w
f iG f &efuek w
f uúov
kd af usmif;om;or*¾rS BuD;rSL;í txl; tpnf;ta0;udk
wuotaqmuftODü usif;yavonf/ or*¾ 'k-Ouú| udkvSa½Tu obmywd? udkat;ausmfu tusKd;aqmiftjzpf
aqmif½u
G o
f nf/
xdt
k pnf;ta0;odkY wuúov
kd af usmif;om;? ausmif;olrsm;ESifh 0wfvakH wmf& OD;ausmfjrifh? ocifEk? ocifvSaz?
abbD,efOD;wifhatmif? wufbkef;BuD;odef;az? 0wfvHkawmf& OD;jrifhxl;? rpöwmpDpDul;wdkYtjyif A[kdoHCmhtzGJUrS
179

jrefrmEdik if H ausmif;om;vIy&f mS ;rIordik ;f

Source: Oway Magazines

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uJhodkYcsKyfcs,fxm;onfh Oya'rsm;xkwfonfudk NidrfcHaeMuvQif aemiftcgwGiftdrf
xJü tdyfaejcif;? xdkifaejcif;? pum;ajymaejcif;? tpm;pm;aejcif;? t0wfwefqm
qifjref;aejcif;udyk if wm;jrpfMuvdrrhf nfukd pd;k &dr&f vdrjhf zpfaMumif;? ,cktcg Ouú|
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(rSwcf su-f tpnf;ta0;obmywdEiS fh aq;aumvdyOf uú| udv
k aS ½TrmS wa,mufwnf;yifjzpfonf/)

aq;aumvdyaf usmif;om;rsm;or*¾ Ouú| ukv
d aS ½Tu ]tajymr[kwf tvkyEf iS hf vufawGY jy&ef tcsed af &mufNy?D
wHk;wkdufwkduf urf;wdkufwkduf EkdifiHa&;odkh ajcpHkypfí 0ifvkdufNyDjzpfaMumif;? ,ckta&;rSm qif;&Jom;rsm;u qif;&Jom;
rsm;bufu ae&rnfjzpfaMumif;?} aMunmí 1/ NrdKUrudo
k ef;wifu rEÅav;NrdKUwGif jynfow
l Ykd tm; rw&m;csKyfcs,fxm;onfh yk'rf 23 (7) ESihf &efuek Nf rdKUodYk
csDwufvmaom a&eHajroydwftvkyform;rsm;ESifh awmifolv,form;wkdYtm; yk'fr (144) ESifh &efukef'DpBwdwfw&m;
olBuD;u wm;jrpfxm;jcif;? &efuek Nf rdKUwGif wifBudKxkwx
f m;aom trdeUf ESihf tjcm;NrdKUrsm;wGif zdEydS x
f m;aomOya'rsm;udk
tvQiftjref ½kyfodrf;ypf&ef tqdkwifoGif;ajymqdk&m ukdvSñGefU (vrf;rawmfjrLausmif;) ESifh (ykZGefawmif jrLausmif;)
udkatmifpdefwkdYu axmufcHtwnfjyKvdkufonf/
2/ wuúov
kd o
f r*¾ Ouú| udAk [de;f ESifh twGi;f a&;rSL; udAk aqGwYkdtm; tjrefvw
T &f eftqdu
k kd uefYuu
G o
f rl ½Sb
d J
twnfjyKvdkufonf/ tu,fí &mZ0wfusifhxHk; Oya'yk'fr (107) t& zrf;qD;xm;aom udkA[def;ESifh udkAaqGudk
rvTwfvQif ausmif;om;rsm;udk apmfum;&ma&mufí a½SUodkYwqifhwkd;í ausmif;om;rsm;u tMurf;zufMuvQif ausmif;
om;rsm;\ wm0ef vkH;0r[kwfaMumif;udk rSwf,l&ef þtpnf;ta0;BuD;u qHk;jzwfaMumif;/
tqdrk sm;udk wifoiG ;f NyD; obmywd udv
k aS ½Tu ta&;awmfykH wku
d yf t
JG wGuf wku
kd yf 0JG if&ef &J&aJ wmuf pm&if;
aumuf&m ,cktcg (111) a,muf ½SdNyDjzpfaMumif;? ¤if;wkdYrS pwif&efpojzifh Ouú|ESifh tusKd;aqmifudk vTwfjzpfonf
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(3) &ufMum oydwfarSmufMu&ef jzpfaMumif;ESifh ed*Hk;csKyf pum;ajymMum;í tpnf;ta0;ukd ½kyfodrf; vkdufavonf/
udkvSa½T? udkodef;atmifwdkYrSm tjynfht0 BuD;MuyfrIay;EkdifcJhonf/ Ouú|ae&mudk ESpfBudrfwdwd jiif;qdkcJhaom
udv
k aS ½TrmS ydrk kd xif½mS ;vmavonf/ udv
k aS ½TrS or*¾twGi;f pnf;rS yk*Kd¾ vfrsm;taeESihf vQKUd 0Supf mG aqG;aEG;NyD; ausmif;om;
180

udv
k ekd aD cwfaESmif; - 1938 rS 1938 - e,fcsq
YJ efu
h siaf &; trsK;d om;a&;toGif
acgif;aqmifrsm;onf wdkUArmtpnf;t½Hk; XmecsKyfudk odrf;,lNyD; ¤if;ae&mü ½Hk;cef;zGifhí tpnf;ta0;rsm; jyKvkyf&ef?
qE´jyyGJrsm; &efukefNrdKUwGif;ü jyKvkyf&ef jyifqifcJhMuayonf/ trsKd;om;a&; pdwf"gwf½Sdaom tjcm;ausmif;om;rsm;u
udkvSa½Tudk tcsdefjynfhyg0if ulnDcJhMuonf/ ¤if;wkdYonf yJcl;? a0g? oxHkrS csDwufvmaom v,form;wyfBuD;udk
BudKqkd&ef jyifqifcJhMuonf/
'DZifbmv (14) &uf? nae (4) em&DwGif wuoESifh AuowdkY yl;aygif;í ausmif;aygif;pHk txl;tpnf;
ta0;BuD;udk a½Twd*Hkü usif;y\/ barmf-bOD; tpdk;&tzGJU0if b@ma&;0efBuD; OD;xGef;atmifausmfuvnf; xdktpnf;
ta0;odkY wufa&mufNyD; ausmif;om;rsm;tm; qHk;rpum; tenf;i,fajymMum;vkdaMumif;? tpnf;ta0; obmywdxH
awmif;qdkaomfvnf; obmywdu jiif;y,fonhftjyif ausmif;om;uav;rsm;onf ñGefYaygif;tpdk;&tzGJU0if 0efBuD;
rsm;avmuf rrdkufí qHk;rpum;ajym&ef rvdkaMumif;? ñGefYaygif;tpdk;&tzGJU0ifwkdY\ rsufESmudk rMunfhvdkaMumif;?
½GrH ek ;f aMumif; jyefajymqdv
k u
dk o
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vSnfhvnf&efudkvnf; qHk;jzwfvkduf\/

(q) yxre,fcsJU tmPmzDqefrI
'DZifbmv (15) &ufaeY? nae (4) em&Dcw
JG iG f a½Tw*d akH pwDawmfBuD;\ &m[kaxmifh &ifjyifawmfü &efuek Nf rdKU
vHk;qkdif&m ausmif;aygif;pHk wdk;csJUtxl;tpnf;ta0;BuD; w&yf qufvuf usif;yMuonf/ ausmif;om;rsm; omru
vlxkrsm;yg wufa&mufcJhNyD; &[ef;ysKdtzGJUrS udk,fpm;vS,frsm;? trsKd;orD;tzGJUrS udk,fpm;vS,frsm;yg wufa&muf
Muonf/
NrdKUrausmif;? ykZGefawmif q&mjzpfoif? jrLeDpDy,fausmif;? vrf;rawmf jrLeDpDy,f tv,fwef;ausmif;?
acwfopf aemfraH usmif;? uefawmfav; jrLeDpyD ,ftxufwef;ausmif;? rufo'pfausmif;? yJc;l u&if tv,fwef;ausmif;?
ul½Sifausmif;? pdef*Ref;ausmif;? &efukefwuúodkvf? ,k'oefaumvdyf? tpdk;&[kdufpul;ausmif;? aq;ausmif;rS ausmif;
om;? ausmif;olrsm;omru trsKd;om;? trsKd;orD;rsm;? ocif? ocifrrsm;? A[kdtcGefxrf;tzGJUrS trIaqmifrsm;?
bkef;awmfBuD;rsm;yg tpnf;ta0; rprDuyif BudKwif a&muf½SdMu&m y&dwfowf waomif;ausmf &m[kaxmifh &ifjyif
wGifru teD;em;½Sd Z&yfrsm;yg jynfhESufí oGm;avonf/
xdkaeY wufa&mufMuaom ausmif;ol? ausmif;om;rsm;rSm pdwftm; wuf<uvGef;ojzifh a[majymolwdkY\
rdefYcGef;NyD;wkdif; vdkvdkyif Mum;jzwfí]ta&;awmfyHk atmifygap}
]rD;wkwf? rD;wkwf ½dIY ½YId}
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jc,f wl? wHpOf tvHBuD;ESifh ol&JBuD;atmifvHawmfBuD;udk pkdufxlvTifhwifMuNyD;vQif wkdYArmoDcsif;ESifh tmZmenfoDcsif;
wdkYudk oHNydKifnDnmpGm oDqdkMuonf/
tpnf;ta0;udk Auo 'k-Ouú| udkvSa½Tu obmywdtjzpf vnf;aumif;? wuúodkvfor*¾twGif;a&;rSL;
udkat;ausmfu tusKd;aqmiftjzpf aqmif½Gufavonf/ wuúodkvfor*¾ trIaqmifwOD;jzpfol udkodef;atmifu ]],aeYausmif;om;aygif;pHk pnf;a0;Mujcif;rSm aoG;pnf;&ef jzpfaMumif;? wuúodkvfor*¾ toif;ü ,refaeY
u &Jabmfrsm; aoG;pnf;cJhjcif;rSm "e½Sifrsm;ESifh qif;&Jom;rsm; wdkufyGJBuD;jzpfaeonfh twGufjzpf&m ,cktcsdefrSm
qif;&Jom; awmifolv,form;rsm;ESifh tvkyform;rsm;zufrS ausmif;om;rsm;u ulnD&eftcsdef a&mufvmojzifh
½Gyf½GyfcRHcRH udk,fxdvufa&muf 0ifa&muf aqmif½GufMu&efjzpfaMumif;? ,ckpnf;a0;jcif;rSm tm;,l½HkrQom½Sdao;í
aemifudk wHk;wkdufwkduf? urf;wkdufwkduf tumtuG,fr½SdbJ ZGwfwdk;vkyf&ef &uftydkif;tjcm;rQom vkdawmhojzifh
&ifqidk rf vGaJ wGU&rnf jzpfaMumif;? rdrw
d Ykd ausmif;om;rsm;rSm Ekid if aH &;e,fxo
J Ykd raeYupNyD; ajcpHyk pf0ifaeNyDjzpfaMumif;?
,ckuJhodkY EkdifiHa&; ajcvSrf;rsKd; vSrf;&jcif;rSm ausmif;om;rsm;u qwfaqmhNyD; pwif vSrf;cJhjcif;r[kwfbJ EkdifiHa&;xJ
a&mufatmif tpdk;&ESifh atmufaus;uRefrsm;u pcJhjcif;udk trsm;yif od½SdMuaMumif;? Ouú| udkA[def;ESifh twGif;a&;rSL;
181

jrefrmEdik if H ausmif;om;vIy&f mS ;rIordik ;f
udAk aqGrmS ausmif;om;rsm; udpEö iS hf rauG;NrdKUoGm;pOf a&eHoydwo
f rm;rsm;rSm "e½Sio
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tpkd;&\ tESdyfpufcHaeMu&onfudk awGU&ojzifh trsKd;twGuf w&m;a[majymrd&m rauG;ykvdyfwdkYu tjcm;yk'fr?
yk'fxD; ½SmrawGUojzifh vlqdk;vlawrsm; zrf;onfh &mZ0wfusifhxHk; udk"Oya' (107) t& zrf;qD; csKyfaESmifxm;vkduf
aMumif;? ausmif;om;rsm;\ rScD t
kd m;xm;&m ausmif;om;acgif;aqmif ESpOf ;D udk rw&m;zrf;qD;jcif;rSm ausmif;om;rsm;udk
yxrtBudrf &efpjcif;omjzpfaMumif;? ,cktcg wkdif;jynfwckvHk;rSm epfemí vGwfvyfrI r½Sdonhftjyif pm;rI? aerI?
xkdifrI? oGm;rI? vmrIwdkYüvnf; usD;vefYpmpm;&ouJhodkY jzpfaevQif rnfonfh EkdifiHrqdk ausmif;om;rsm; EkdifiHa&;xJokdY
0ifa&muf&jcif; jzpfaMumif;? xdkYtwl rdrdwdkYvnf; rvGJra½Smifom 0ifa&mufMu&jcif;jzpfaMumif;}} wdkYudk tus,fw0ifh
½Sif;vif; wifjyonf/
wufbkef;BuD;odef;azuvnf; ]]qif;&Jom; awmifolv,form;rsm;? tvkyform;rsm;ESifh ausmif;om;rsm;
onf tcsif;csif; aoG;pnf;nDñw
G Mf uNyD; "e½Si0f g'ysufp;D rIEiS hf "e½Siu
f t
kd m;ay;aeonfh tpd;k & ysufp;D atmif MuHaqmif
BudK;pm;Mu&rnf jzpfaMumif;? awmifoal wmifom; v,form;rsm; rcsrf;omvQif ausmif;om;rsm; rcsrf;omEkid af Mumif;?
"e½Sifpepfudk ulnDtm;ay;NyD; jynfolwkdYudk n§yfyl;n§yfydwf vkyfaeonfh tpdk;&tzGJUudk tjrefjzKwfcs&rnf jzpfaMumif;}}
ponfjzifh a[majymonf/
xdkYaemuf atmufygtqdkrsm;udk uefYuGufrIr½Sd oHNydKif[pfa<u;í twnfjyK qHk;jzwfvkdufMuonf/
1/
(u) rEÅav;wGif jynfol? jynfom;wkdYtm; rw&m;ojzifh xkwfjyefxm;aom 1932 ckESpf jyifqifcsuf
Oya' (23)? tydk'f (7)?
(c) &efukefodkY csDwufvmMuaom tvkyform;wyfBuD;tm; rw&m;ojzifhcsKyfcs,f&ef xkwfxm;aom yk'fr
(144)?
(*) &efukefwGif jynfoljynfom;wdkYtm; rw&m;ojzifh csKyfcs,f&ef xkwfxm;aomyk'fr (144)?
(C) tjcm;NrdKUrsm;wGif wdik ;f oljynfom;wkYd tm; rw&m;ojzifh csKyfcs,f&ef xkwjf yefxm;aom yk'rf trsKd;rsKd;wdYk
twGuf jynfykdiftpdk;&tm; ½IwfcsaMumif;?
(i) þtcsufrsm;rSm jynfolYvGwfvyfrIESifh qefYusifojzifh tjref½kyfodrf;&eftjyif rw&m;zrf;qD;jcif;cH&
aom jynfol? jynfom;wkdYtm; tjrefvTwfay;&ef þtpnf;ta0;BuD;u qkdif&mtpdk;&tm; av;eufpGm
awmif;qdkaMumif;?
2/
aemifjynfolwdkY\ vGwfvyfrIrsm;udk wm;qD;ydwfyifjcif; rjyK&ef qkdif&mtpdk;&tm; þtpnf;ta0;BuD;u
av;eufpGm owday;aMumif;?
3/
rauG;odkY ausmif;om;rsm;udpEö Sifh ywfoufí vdkufygoGm;&aom AuoESifh wuo Ouú| ukdA[def; tjyif
ArmjynfvHk;qkdif&mausmif;om;or*¾rsm;toif;csKyf twGif;a&;rSL; udkAaqGwdkYudk a&eHajr tvkyform;wyf
tm; qlyljcif;iSm vIHUaqmf&efvmonf txifESifh &mZ0wfusifhxHk; udk"Oya' (107) t& rw&m; zrf;qD;csKyf
aESmifxm;onfukd csufjcif;vTwfypf&ef qdkif&mwdkYtm; tjyif;txef awmif;qdkaMumif;?
4/
þtjyKtrlonf Armjynf½Sd ausmif;om;wkdif; ausmif;om;wkdif;tm; ajymifajymifapmfum;&m a&mufaMumif;?
qkdif&mu txufyg awmif;qkdcsuftwdkif; rvkdufemí ausmif;om;rsm; rcHr&yfEkdifjzpfum jzpfcsif&mjzpf
jyKvkycf ahJ omf ausmif;om;rsm;\ tjypfr[kwaf Mumif;udk þtpnf;ta0;BuD;u twdtvif;aMunmaMumif;/
5/
a½SUtzdkY vkyfaqmif&rnfhta&;rsm;udk atmufygausmif;toD;oD;rS udk,fpm;vS,frsm;tm; Auotoif;csKyf
tvkyftrIaqmifrsm;ESifh wkdifyifí qufvufaqmif&Guf&ef þtpnf;ta0;BuD;u wm0efvTJtyfaMumif;/
udkaomif;pdef
pdef*Ref;
udkwifarmif? udkcspf? udkvS
rufo'pf
udkñGefUarmif
uefawmfav;
&J&Jawmuf udkoef;wif
NrdKUr
udkvSa½T
tpdk;&[kdufpul;
udkusifpDG
ykZGefawmifjrLeDpDy,f
udkwifat;
vrf;rawmf
udkvSñGefY
acwfopfaemfref
udkat;
OD;nDykausmif;
udkvS[ef
at;ausmif; wkdYjzpfonf/
182

udv
k ekd aD cwfaESmif; - 1938 rS 1938 - e,fcsq
YJ efu
h siaf &; trsK;d om;a&;toGif

Source: 50 Years

tpnf;ta0;udk nae (6) em&DwGifatmifjrifpGm½kyfodrf;vkdufonf? þ
uJo
h Ykd vufawGUtm;jzifh ñGeYf aygif;tpk;d &\ yk'rf (144) udk tmPmzDqefwu
kd zf suf
Mujcif;jzpfonf/ pdwf"gwfwuf<uum pnf;vHk;nDñGwfvsuf½Sdaom ausmif;om;
rsm;onf rdrt
d a&;qdck sufrsm;udk 'DZifbmv (19) &ufaeY naerwdik rf D ta&;,ljyef
Mum;&efESifh xdkodkYrjyefMum;ygu aemufwqifhxyfrHí jyif;xefaom ajcvSrf;vSrf;
rnf[k ñGefYaygif;tpdk;&tm; taMumif;Mum;&mZoHay;cJhavonf/ okdY&mwGif ñGefY
aygif;tpk;d &taeESihf ta&;,lrrI ½Scd ahJ y/ ausmif;aygif;pHt
k pnf;ta0;\ qH;k jzwfcsuf
t& 'DZifbm (15) &uf? nae (4) em&DwiG f NrdKUrtxufwef;ausmif;ü ausmif;om;
aygif; (7000) ausmfonf pka0;vsuf AuoOuú| udv
k aS ½Tu qE´jya&;tpDtpOf
udk twdck sK;H ajymoGm;\/ ArmhEidk if aH &;vIy½f mS ;rIordik ;f ü rMuHKbl;ao;aom tpk;d &xkwf
jyefxm;onfh yk'fr (144) udk csKd;azmufaomtm;jzifh NrdKUrrS a*:'Gifvrf;? aumfr½Sif
emvrf;? armif*rkd m&Dvrf;? a&ausmt
f rd Bf uD;vrf;? ykZeG af wmift;kd bkt
d xd pDwef;csw
D uf
a'guw
f mbarmf
vrf;avQmufvsuf tmPmzDqefyGJ (Civil Disobidient) udk jyKvkyfMuonf/
a<u;aMumfoHrsm;rSm]ausmif;om;acgif;aqmifawG tjrefvTwf}
]a'gufwmbarmf aoygap}
]qmay:xGef; aoygap}
]ñGefhaygif;tpkd;& aoG;tHygap}
]yk'fr 144 tvkdr½Sd}
]ta&;awmfyHk atmif&rnf}
wdkYArmoHk;a&mif wl? wHpOftvHESifh ol&JBuD;atmifvHawmfudk vTifhxlum]ausmif;om;? ausmif;om; rdkufrdkuf}
]awmifolv,form;rsm;ESifU ausmif;om; aoG;pnf;Mu}
]tvkyform;rsm;ESifU ausmif;om; aoG;pnf;Mu}
tmPmzDqefyGJukd vdyfuefyef;jcHwGif atmifjrifpGm vlcGJvdkufonf/
'DZifbm (18) &ufwGif &[ef;ysKdtzGJUonf rEÅav;ü atmifajreif;um tmPmzDqefa&;ESifh qE´jyyGJrsm;
jyKvkyfcJhonf/ [oFmwNrdKUwGifvnf;aumif;? a&eHacsmif;rS ausmif;om;rsm;oydwfonf rauG;ausmif;om;rsm;ESifh
yl;aygif;í 'DZifbm (19) &ufaeYwGif tmPmzDqefyGJrsm; jyKvkyfum udkA[def;ESifh udkAaqGudk jyefvTwf&ef awmif;qkd
cJhavonf/

(Z) wwd,ausmif;om;oydwfBuD;
ausmif;om;wkYdwiG f aemufwqifw
h u
dk yf 0JG if&ef tpDtpOfrsm;½So
d nf/ odYk&mwGif xdt
k pDtpOfrsm;udrk l usyw
f nf;
pGm vQKdU0Sufxm;Muojzifh rnfolrQ rodMuay/ 'DZifbmv (19) &ufaeYwGif tpdk;&xHrS jyefMum;csuf r&ygu
aemufwaeY (odYk) w&uf? ESp&f uftwGi;f ausmif;om;wkYdonf NrdKUwGi;f ü pDwef;vSnv
hf nfí yk'rf (144) udk csK;d azmufum
tmPmzDqefMuvdrfhrnf[k cefYrSef;Muonf/ ausmif;om;vIyf½Sm;rIonf a&eHajr tvkyform;ta&;ESifh ywfoufí
qufpyfvsuf½Sdonf/ a&eHajr tvkyform;ta&;ESifh a0gawmifolv,form;ta&;rSm wdkYArmocifrsm;u vrf;ñTef
a½SUaqmifvsuf½Sdonf/ ausmif;om;acgif;aqmifESifh wdkYArmtpnf;t½Hk; acgif;aqmifrSm wpdwfw0rf;wnf; qufpyf
vsuf½Sdonf/ xdktcsdefu tvkyform;ta&;? awmifolv,form;ta&;? ausmif;om;ta&;wkdYudk wdkYArmtpnf;t½Hk;
ocifrsm;rSwyg; ygvDreftwGif; tmPm& ñGefYaygif;tzGJU taeESifhvnf;aumif;? tmPmrJh twkduftcH ig;yGifhqkdif?
rsKd;cspfponfh EkdifiHa&;tzGJUrsm; taeESifhaomfvnf;aumif; pdwfyg0ifpm;rIr½Sd? odkY&mwGif OD;apmonf vlyg;vleyf
wa,muf jzpfonht
f wkid ;f ¤if;tiftm;pkrsm;udk rDí
S (odYk ) ta,mifjyí ñGeUf aygif;tpk;d &udk jzKwfcsum ygvDrefenf;t&
tmPm,l&ef pwifpidk ;f jyif;avonf/ odYk aomf OD;apm\ tmPmzDqefa&;wku
d yf rJG mS vlwpkwu
dk yf o
JG mjzpfí ausmif;om;
xk\ tmPmzDqefa&;wdkufyGJrSm vlxkwkdufyGJom jzpfavonf/
udkvSa½Tonf awmufavQmuf ausmif;om;rsm; pdwftm;xufoefrIESihf nDñGwfrI½Sd&ef ½Sif;vif; ajymMum;
183

jrefrmEdik if H ausmif;om;vIy&f mS ;rIordik ;f
cJah vonf/ udv
k aS ½Tonf aemuf&ufrsm;wGif tpd;k & tmPmzDqefa&; udpjö r§iw
hf ifa&;ü wduspGm acgif;aqmif Ekid cf ahJ v
onf/ aemufqHk; tqifhtxd or*¾ tajctaersm;udk aqG;aEG;cJhMuonf/ NrdKUjyOya' tmPmzDqefa&; vIyf½Sm;rIrsm;
jyKvkyfcJhMuonf/ nbufwGif ocifEkESifh ocifodef;azwkdY rdefYcGef;ajymMum;cJhonf/ ocifEku ausmif;om;? tvkyf
orm;? v,form;rsm; aoG;pnf;í EkdifiHa&;vIyf½Sm;rI wcktjzpf a&muf½SdoGm;&ef BudK;yrf;MuzkdY vkdtyfaMumif; ajymMum;
oGm;onf/ ausmif;om;rsm;tm; BuD;rm;aom pGeYf vw
T rf rI sm; jyKvky&f ef ajymMum;oGm;avonf/ tD*spfjynfwiG f ausmif;
om; (4) a,muf aoqHk;ygu? ausmif;om; (40) a½SUodkY wdk;wufvmaMumif; ajymMum;avonf/
rnfonfh EkdifiHyifrqdk wkdif;jynfwjynf\ txG#fa&muf½Sda&;? vGwfvyfpGm wnfwHhckdifjrJa&;? zGHUNzdK;wdk;wuf
a&; ponfrsm;ESifh wkdif;jynfta&; MuHKvmvQif ausmif;om;rsm;\ wuf<uaom pdwf"gwftiftm;ESifh aygif;pnf;
nDnw
G rf ?I vIy½f mS ; BudK;yrf;rIrsm;onf wkid ;f jynftwGuf oufvakH umif;aom vufeufaumif;BuD;ozG,f jzpfvmonfukd
0efcHMu&rnf jzpfonf/
udv
k aS ½T wufvmonft
h csed rf mS ausmif;om;vIy½f mS ;rI tjrifq
h ;kH 'D*&DoYkd a&mufaeNyD[k qd&k ayrnf/ taMumif;
um; xdktcsdeftcgonf ausmif;toD;oD;ü or*¾rsm; wnfaxmifum wpnf;w½Hk;wnf; &efukefausmif;aygif;pHk?
ArmEkdifiHvHk;qkdif&mausmif;aygif;pHkwdkYonf Ouú| udkvSa½TESifh trIaqmifwkdY\ enf;vrf; ñTefMum;&mudk waoG;woH
wrdefYjzifh vdkufemum wkdif;jynf wkefvIyfaponfh ajcvSrf;rsm;udk vSrf;vsuf½Sdonf/
1938 ck? 'DZifbmv (20) &uf? eHeufcif;wGif wuo taqmuftODodkY ausmif;om;? ausmif;olrsm;
a&muf½SdvmMuonf/ t"dywd vrf;ray:wGif bwfpfum; (26) pD; &yfxm;onf/ eHeuf 8em&D (15) rdepf ½SdavNyD/
tpnf;ta0;wGif obmywdudkvSa½Tu ]&Jabmfwdkh cifAsm;wkdh rsufESmawGY jrif&wm ZmwdaoG;? ZmwdrmefawG vQHwuf
aew,f? 'Daeh Armjynf vGwfvyfa&;twGuf qdk&if axmifusus? pufaoewfeJh ypfypf? aemufqHk; toufaoao?
pGefhr,fqkdwJU ckdifrmwJU &J&Jawmuf oH"d|mefcsxm;NyDqdkwm uRefawmf ,HkMunfw,f? 'Daeh ajcvSrf;usJusJeJh tmPmzD
qefMu&r,f vufeufqkd bmwckrQ roHk;&bl;/ tyfwkd wacsmif;awmif r,lcJUMueJh}
ausmif;om;xkBuD;onf vIyfvIyf½Sm;½Sm;jzpfoGm;um ]oGm;r,f? oGm;r,f? ckomG ;r,f} toH½iS u
f m; udak tmif
ausmfyif jzpfonf/ ausmif;om;rsm;onf bwfpfum;rsm;ESifh ukuúdKif;vrf;wavQmuf xdkrSwd&pämef½Hkvrf;rS jzwfum
uefawmfuav; OD;armifarmiftek ;f ckid v
f rf;? pawmh*w
d v
f rf;? armif*rkd m&Dvrf;wdYkukd jzwfum pygwfvrf; (,ck Adv
k af tmif
ausmfvrf;) pdefaygbk&m;½Sdcdk;ausmif; a½SU½Sd a'gufwmbarmf\ tzGJU½Hk;ESifh oHCMo0g'cH qif;&Jom;tzGJUcsKyf½Hk;a½SUwGif
tm;vHk; pk½Hk;Muonf/ ausmif;om;? ausmif;ol (8000) cefY½Sdavonf/
ausmif;om;rsm;onf yxrwGif b,fomG ;&rnf? bmvky&f rnfudk rod&ao;ay/ aemufro
S &d onf/ od&onfh
tcsdefum; twGif;0ef½Hk;udk ywfvnfydwfqkdUaom tcsdefjzpfonf/ trIaqmiftzGJUonf todray;bJ vQKdU0SufpGmtvkyf
vkyfonfhtwGuf ausmif;om;rsm;\ ajcvSrf;udk t&yfom;rajymESifh ausmif;om;rsm;yif roday/ ,ckvnf; twGif;0ef
½H;k 0dik ;f umrS trIaqmiftzGUJ \ vQKdU0Sucf sufukd od&avonf/ ausmif;om;rsm;onf bwfpu
f m;rsm;jzifh NrdKUxJvmMu&m

184

Source: Bo Aung Kyaw Report

20? 12? 38 &ufaehu
twGi;f 0ef½;kH a½SY *dwaf yguf
t0if0wckwiG f ydwq
f í
hkd
oydwaf rSmufaeMuaom
ausmif;ol? ausmif;om;rsm;

udv
k ekd aD cwfaESmif; - 1938 rS 1938 - e,fcsq
YJ efu
h siaf &; trsK;d om;a&;toGif
um;rsm;onf wpkwa0;wnf; roGm;MubJ tcsKdUu wuúov
kd &f yd o
f mvrf; twkid ;f oGm;Mu\/ udv
k aS ½TEiS hf acgif;aqmif
tcsKdUu um;i,fav;wpif;jzifh xGufoGm;\/ or*¾taqmuftODa½SUrS pHkaxmufrsm; b,fbufodkY vdkuf&rSef;rod
usef&pfcJh\/
]a'gufwmbarmf tvkdr½Sd}
]ñGefhaygif;tpdk;& tvdkr½Sd}
]qif;&Jom;qkdif;bkwf jzKwfcs}
pojzifh ajrjyiftufrQ wcJeuf [pfatmfa<u;aMumfMuonf/ xkdYaemuf av;a,mufwGJ pepfwuswGJí
pDwef;um puúax&D,uf (ac:) twGif;0ef½Hk;BuD;udk 0kdif;vkdufMuonf/ xdkYaemuf (1000) tpk? (500) tpk? (300)
tpk tp½Sdojzifh vlpkcGJum twGif;0ef½Hk; t0ifwHcg;rsm; a½SUwGifydwfqdkYum twGif;odkY0if&mvrf;rrsm;ü ajrBuD;ay:wGif
tm;vHk; pk½Hk;xkdifMuNyD; ausmif;ol trsKd;orD;av;rsm;u a½SUu½Sdavonf/ xdktcsdef ½Hk;BuD;t0if av;zufav;rsufESm½Sd
wHcg;tm;vH;k ydwq
f Ykd xm;NyD;jzpf&m 0ifí xGuí
f r&awmhay/ ¤if;rSm NAdwo
d Qtpd;k & A[dt
k pd;k & ½H;k pdu
k &f m ae&mjzpfonf/
(15) rdepftwGif; ykvdyfrsm;? ppfwyfrsm;? jrif;pD;ykvdyfrsm; a&muf½SdvmMuonf/ ausmif;ol? ausmif;om;
rsm;onf twGif;0ef½Hk;udk 0kdif;&ef qHk;jzwf&jcif;rSm xda&mufpGm e,fcsJUNAdwdoQtm; qefUusif uefYuGufEkdif&ef jzpf\/
twGif;0ef½Hk; 0kdif;&onfrSm vG,fulvSonf r[kwfay/ NAdwdoQe,fcsJU bDvl;\ &ufpufMurf;MuKwfpGmaom zdESdyfrIrsm;
urf;ukefcJhonfrSmvnf; rauG;NrdKU a&eHajr tvkyform;rsm; zdESdyfrIu xif½Sm;pGm oufaoxlvsuf ½Sdonf/
odkYaomf jynfhZmenf? rsKd;cspf om;ysKdorD;ysKdwkdYu jynfolUvGwfvyfa&;wkdufyGJ taMumif;w&m;twGuf rdrd
wdYk toufcE¨mwkYd ukd pGeYf vw
T &f ef qyfuyfyal Zmf vSL'gef;&ef qH;k jzwfcsufcsNyD;olrsm; jzpf\/ xkYd aMumifh toufuykd "me
rxm;bJ taocHwu
dk yf 0JG ifrnfh ausmif;om;? ausmif;olrsm;um; tajrmuftjrm;yifjzpf\/ wurÇmvH;k wkev
f yI ½f u
kd cf wf
oGm;atmif NAdwdoQe,fcsJUorm;udk tefwkrnfh ausmif;om;? ausmif;olrsm;u 'kESifha';yif jzpf\/ ausmif;om;wkdYonf
rdrdwdkY acgif;aqmifrsm;\ trdefYñTefMum;csufrsm;udk wduspGm vkdufemcJhMu\/ tdajE´&&? pnf;urf;wus av;a,muf
wwGJpDwef;pDí twGif;0efrsm; ½Hk;udk 0dkif;xm;MuonfrSmvnf; ausmif;om;? ausmif;olrsm;\ pnf;urf;ao0yfrIudk
jyovsuf oufaoxlaeonf/
twGif;0ef½Hk;BuD;tm; txJtjyif 0ifxGufír&atmif ydwfqkdY 0kdif;&HvkdufonfESifh wNydKifeuf tpdk;& ykvdyf
ppfwyfrsm;? jrif;pD; ykvyd rf sm;onf rsufv;kH jyL; rsufqH jyL;jyL;jymjymjzifh twGi;f 0ef½;kH w0ku
d üf ysm;yef;cwfrQ ajccsif;½Iyf
vIyf½Sm;oGm;Muonf/ xkdYaemuf &efukefykvdyfrif;BuD; rpöwmy&ufpawmh? ykvdyfrif;BuD; rpöwma&;Edk;? &mZ0wf0ef
vkyf'g;? OD;xGef;tHk? rpöwmbD(pf) wkdYuvnf; csufcsif; qkdufa&mufvm Muonf/
ol&d, owif;pmwkduf teD;½Sd wHcg;rBuD;rSm t&ma&mufqHk; wHcg;rBuD;jzpfí ausmif;om;rsm; vufrOD;rD
rsufESmjzL a*:&mykvdyfrsm; t&ifa&mufESihfNyD; pDwef; ydwfqdkYxm;Muojzifh ¤if;wdkYa½SUwGif ausmif;om;? ausmif;ol
(400) cefYu wHcg;rBuD;udk ydwfqdkYvkdufavonf/
udkatmifausmfonf ¤if;wm0efusaeaom ol&d, owif;pmwkduf teD;½Sd 0ifaygufü pnf;urf;wus
wm0ef,l uGyfuJvsuf½Sd\/
]rD;wkwf? rD;wkwf ½IdY ½IdY}
]ocifrsKd;a[U 'dkhArm}
]ta&;awmfyHk atmifygap}
a<u;aMumfoHrsm;um; wuf<uvsuf½Sd\/ AD*if'wfvrf;? pywfvrf;? 'gv[kdZDvrf;? *sm'gtDpu,fvrf;wkdY
um; ausmif;om;rsm;ESifh jynfhESufae\/ ylavmifaom aea&mifatmufwGif ausmif;om;rsm; pk½Hk;vsuf½Sd\/ ykvdyfrif;
BuD;wkYd trdefYay;vdu
k o
f nfEiS hf wNydKifeuf a*:&mykvyd t
f csKdUu ausmif;ol tysKd½,
G af v;rsm;udk ajcaxmuf (2) bufrS
udik í
f ajrjyifwiG f w½Gww
f u
dk f &uf&ufpufpuf qGaJ c:oGm;&m wawmifqpf? vufwYdk wiG f yGe;f yJu
h ek o
f nf/ xkid af eaom
ausmif;om;rsm;tm; a*:&mykvyd rf sm;u bdeyfrsm;jzifh uefjcif;? wufeif;jcif;rsK;d jzifh ausmif;om;xkrsm;udk pwifNzdKcGaJ wmh
onf/ vlrqefaom jyKrlaqmif½u
G rf rI sm;aMumifh tuGu
J jJG yJjyJ a0'empGu
J yf? aoG;&J&u
J satmif cHpm;&ojzifh ausmif;om;rsm;
vIyf½Sm;qlyGufvmonfwGif ausmif;om;acgif;aqmifrsm;\ ]&efrvkyef }hJ ]onf;cHMu} [laom toHrsm; tqufrjywf
xGufvmojzifh NidrfcHae&onfrS wyg; acgif;aqmifrsm; pum;udkrvGefqefMu/ ausmif;om;rsm; pnf;urf;wusom
qE´jyjrJjyMu\/ xdkodkY vIyfvIyf½Sm;½Sm;jzpfaepOf NrdKUrausmif;rS tiftm; (1000) cefY½Sdaom ausmif;om;? ausmif;ol
wyfBuD;rSm ajcusnDnDvSrf;í csDwufa&muf½SdvmNyD; ]'dAhk rm? 'dAhk rm} [k wzufESifhwzuf yJhwif½dkufrQ wefjyefatmf[pf
&if; tpkvkdufcGJum wHcg;½SdorQudk xyfqifhydwf aevdkufMuonf/
185

jrefrmEdik if H ausmif;om;vIy&f mS ;rIordik ;f
ykvdyfESifh ausmif;om;wkdY\ yGJBuD;yGJaumif; pavNyD/ ausmif;om; acgif;aqmifxJrS tqGJcH&olvnf; cH&NyD;
tkyfcsKyfa&;ydkif; vlrsm;vnf; ysm;yef;cwfrQ a,muf,ufcwf vrf;ovm; aeMuonf/ rsufESmjzL? rsufESmjzLrrsm;
uvnf; um;BuD;? um;i,frsm;jzifh ausmif;om;rsm;udk vmMunfhMuonf/ ausmif;om; acgif;aqmifwkdYonf þae&m
wGif r[wår*E´DBuD;\ t[doopör*¾enf;udk toHk;jyK[ef½Sdonf/
]cifAsm; vufawG[m odyfNyD;jrifUjrwfvSw,f? cifAsm;vufeJh e,fcsJYvufyg;apawGudk rxdxdkufygbl;}
þenf;ESifh acgif;aqmifrsm;um; y&d,m,foHk;vsuf ausmif;om;rsm;bufrS tMurf;zufrI rygatmif owd
ay;av\/ eHeuf (9) em&DwGif tpdk;&trIxrf;rsm; ½Hk;wuf&ef a&muf½SdvmMuonf/ ausmif;om;rsm;u *dwfwHcg;
ayguf0wGif r0ifEkdif&ef oydwfwm;Muavonf/ rMumrD t&m½Sdrsm; a&muf½SdvmNyD; *dwfaygufrS z,fay;&ef ajymqkd
cJah vonf/ ausmif;om;rsm; oydwaf rSmufjrJ arSmufvsuf ½Sad vonf/ (10) em&DcefYwiG f jrif;pD;ykvyd rf sm; a&muf½v
dS mNyD;
aemuf ausmif;om;rsm;udk xyfrH 0kdif;xm;vkdufonf/
eHeuf (11) em&DwGif ta&;ydkif OD;bdk;p a&mufvmNyD; ykvdyfrsm;? ppfykvdyfrsm;? jrif;pD;ykvdyfrsm;tm; ½kyfodrf;
oGm;ojzifh em&D0uftwGif; r½Sdawmhacs/ ausmif;om;rsm;onf a<u;aMumfoHrsm; a<u;aMumfíaeMuonf/ ausmif;om;
acgif;aqmif udkvSa½Tu ausmif;om;rsm; pnf;urf;½SdyHkESifh trdefYemcHwwfyHkudk *kPf,lpGm ajymMum;avonf/
rdbjynfolrsm;u apwemxufoefpGm vdar®mfoD;rsm;? tpm;taomufrsm;udk auR;arG;Muonf/ aetyludk
xD;rsm;? ,if;vdyrf sm;jzifh umay;olwYkd u umay;avonf/ eHeuf (11) em&DausmfwiG f aeylusJusJü xkid í
f twGi;f 0ef½;kH ü
oydwfwm;vsuf½SdaMumif; owif;Mum;od&aomtcgwGif AdkvfwaxmifESihf a&ausmfw0kdufrS vlxkBuD;vma&muf
tm;ay;Muavonf/ xkdYaemuf ½Hk;rsm;ydwfí e,fcsJUwdkY\ puf,EÅ&m; &yfoGm;onfh tjzpfukd auseyfESpfodrfh&if;
ausmif;om;rsm;jyef&ef vlpMk u\/ twGi;f 0ef½;kH wHcg; toD;oD;wGif ½Sad om ausmif;om;? ausmif;olrsm;tm; pywfvrf;
bufrS vuf0J&pf vSnfhí pkpnf;um wyfacguf jyefMu\/
pywfvrf;rS awmifbuf 'gv[kdZDvrf;odkY vnf;aumif;? xkdYaemuf *sLtDpu,fvrf;rS taemufbufcsKd;í
bD*ef'wfvrf;odkY vnf;aumif; jyefvSnfhvmMu\/ bD*ef'wfvrf;ESifh pywfvrf;a'gifh ol&d,owif;pmwkdufESifh
rsuaf pmif;xk;d odYk a&mufvmav\/ ol&,
d owif;pmwku
d f teD;odYk a&mufaomtcg pywfvrf;xJwiG f jrif;pD;ykvyd rf sm;?
ajcvsif ukvm;ykvdyfwyf? ppfykvdyfrsm; txyfxyf &ifqkdifawGU&\/ yxrOD;pGm jrif;pD;ykvdyfrsm;u wm;onf/
ausmif;om;rsm;u 'gv[kZd v
D rf;rS jyefvn
S rhf nf jzpfonf/ odYk aomf pywfvrf;rS 0ifNyD; a½SUodYk oGm;rnf ajymaomfvnf;
ppfykvdyfrsm;u oabmwl cGifhrjyK twif;tusyf wm;qD;MuonfwGif tajctaerSm wzufESifh wzuf wif;rmvm&m
a½SUqH;k rS ausmif;ol? ausmif;om;rsm;u twif;xd;k xGuf csw
D uf\/ ausmif;om; wyfO;D ESihf ykvyd w
f yfrsm;um; vufwurf;
om vkdawmh\/ udkatmifausmfonf ausmif;om;wyfOD;rS ausmif;om;rsm; uGyfuJum a<u;aMumfoH wkdifvsuf½Sd\/
ausmif;om;xkonf a½SUrSydwfaeaom ykvdyfwyftm; xkd;azmuf&ef [efjyifvsuf½Sd\/
jrif;pD;ykvyd w
f Ykdu a½SUodYkw;kd vm\/ ausmif;om;rsm;u aemufrqkwMf u? a½SUodYkom csw
D ufMu\/ vQyw
f ysuf
twGi;f ,kwrf maom tMuHEiS hf apmifq
h idk ;f aeaom ukvm;ykvyd w
f yf? t*Fvyd yf v
k yd w
f yfwYdk onf ausmif;om;? ausmif;ol
rsm;tm; eHygwfwkwfrsm;jzifh twif;vkdufí ½kduf\/ ausmif;om;? ausmif;olrsm;rSm wpHkw&m ckcHrIrjyK? nDnDnmnm
csDwufaeaom ausmif;om;? ausmif;olrsm; z½kzd &J tNydKNydKtuGu
J JG tvJvjJ zpfuek \
f / tvHuikd x
f m;aom udMk unfarmif
vJusí udkatmifausmfu tvHudk udkifí a½SYodkh csDwufoGm;\/
20? 12? 38 &ufaehu twGi;f 0ef½;kH udk 0dik ;f í qE´jyMuaom ausmif;om;rsm;udk ppfyv
k yd rf sm;u vdu
k v
f ½H u
kd Ef u
S f NzKd caGJ epOf

Source: Bo Aung Kyaw Report

186

udv
k ekd aD cwfaESmif; - 1938 rS 1938 - e,fcsq
YJ efu
h siaf &; trsK;d om;a&;toGif
ausmif;om;rsm;ukd ykvyd rf sm; qJ,
G rf;½du
k Ef u
S af ejcif;? jrif;rsm;jzifh twif;0ifa&mufeif;onfukd ab;rS &yfMunfh
aeaom vlxBk uD;onf rcHr&yfEidk jf zpfum ykvyd rf sm;udk atmf[pfqq
J kd Budr;f armif;Muonf/ jynfow
l Ykd \ a'grmeftoHrsm;
um; twGif0ef½Hk;BuD; ywf0ef;usif w0kdufwGif yJhwifxyfrQ jzpfcJhMu&\/ ausmif;om;rsm;udk xkaxmif;NzdKcGif; zdESdyfí
tm;r&ao;bJ jrif;pD;ykvdyfrsm;onf vlxkBuD;udkygjrif;rsm;jzifh 0kdif;í vdkufvHwkdufcdkuf wufeif;cJhMuao;\/ ausmif;
om;? ausmif;olrsm;onf vlrqefatmif t½dkufcHvmMu&m eHygwfwkwf 'PfaMumifh rcsdrqefY jzpfum t½kyfBudK;jywf
vJusonf/ r½I&uf rjrif&ufEidk af om ausmif;om;rsm;u ausmif;olrsm; a½SUrS umuG,&f if; ud,
k pf m; t½du
k cf MH u&onf/
odYkaomf ausmif;olrsm;rSmvnf; jrif;pD;a*:&m qm*sirf sm;xHrS a0;&modYk rajy;Ekid af y/ jrif;ESiv
hf u
kd í
f wku
d v
f nf;wku
d ?f ½du
k f
vnf;½dkufonf omru aoG;½l;aoG;wrf; xajy;aeaom ausmif;om;? ausmif;olrsm;udkyif tn§mray;/ qifhuJqifhuJ
½du
k Mf uojzifh vrf;wavQmufv;kH aoG;csif;csif; &Jvsuf waxG;BuD;vJaeaom ausmif;om;? ausmif;olrsm;\ &ifemp&m
aMuuGzJ ,
G jf zpftifrmS r½I&uf? rjrif&ufp&m aumif;vSayonf/ aoG;tkid x
f üJ vJusaeaom Adv
k af tmifausmfukd ocifvS
az ayGUíxm;\/ udkatmifausmfrSm owdarh aeNyD/ wudk,fvHk; 'Pf&mrsm; jynfhESufum aoG;rsm; pD;usvsuf½Sd\/
,if;odYkaoG;xGuo
f ,
H ?kd temw& 'Pf&mrGjzifh vJuaJG eMuaom ausmif;om;ausmif;olrsm;udk ab;rS &yfrMunfh
&ufaom t&yfom;rsm;ESifh ol&d,owif;pmwkduf tay:½Sd NrdKUawmf0ef OD;buav;? atmufvTwfawmftrwf OD;xGef;
atmif? OD;tdr?f rEÅav; ol&,
d OD;xGe;f &if? rEÅav; OD;pHvaS bmf? ykord t
f rwf OD;btke;f wkYdu wG,
J x
l rf;yd;k í ol&,
d wku
d af y:
odYk wa,mufNyD; wa,mufwif&m ol&,
d wku
d t
f yk f OD;buav;tcef;ESifh t,f'w
D mcsKyf *VKefO;D apm tcef;rsm;rSm vlem
ausmif;om;? ausmif;olrsm;jzifh jynfhESufvsuf ½Sdaeonf/ trsKd;om;olemjyKwyfrsm;ESifh ol&d,wyfrsm;u aq;0g;
xnfhay;Muonf/ 'Pf&m jyif;xefaom udkatmifausmfESifh wuG ykZGefawmif jrLeDpDy,fausmif;rS udktkef;az? NrdKUrrS
udkoef;atmif? *syfqifaumvdyfrS udkbvIdifwkdY tygt0if vlemwifum;jzifh aq;½HkokdY wokwfNyD; wokwf wifydkYay;
vdkufMuonf/

(ps) wwd,ausmif;om;oydwf*,uf
trsKd;om;olemjyKwyf? NrdKUrolemjyKwyf? rD;owfvlemwifum;rsm;u 'Pf&m&aom ausmif;om;? ausmif;
olrsm;ukd BudK;pm;*½kpdkuf o,f,lydkYaqmifjcif;aMumifh vlem[lorQ aq;½HkodkY csufcsif;a&mufMu&onf/ aq;½Hk
q&m0efrsm;onfvnf; Muifem,k,pGm jyKpkMuavonf/ 'Pf&m&olrsm;\ rcsdrqefYa0'emcHpm; nOf;nL atmf[pfoH
rsm;rSm t0dpDi&Jcef; MunfhjrifMum;od ae&ouJhodkY jzpfaeonf/ ausmif;om;rdb nDtudkarmifESrrsm; vma&mufMuí
atmf[pfidka<u; jrnfwrf;aeyHkrSm Mum;&uf Munfh&ufp&m r½Sday/
ausmif;om;? ausmif;oltm;vkH;udk ykvdyfrsm;u ½kdufESuf owfjzwfukefNyD? 'Pf&m&oltm;vHk; twHk;t½Hk;
aq;½Hak &mufuek Mf uNyD qkad om owif;rSm vQifjrefpmG ysHUESYH í y&dwo
f wfBuD;rsm; 'Da&tvm; aq;½HBk uD;twGi;f w½Sed x
f ;dk
rsm;jym;vmMuonf/ ½kwjf cnf;qko
d vkd 'kw,
d ta&;ydik af [mif; rpöwmwdwq
f o
kd El iS hf ppfyv
k yd rf sm; a&mufvmNyD; ajcmuf
vSeUf ESix
f w
k u
f m aq;½H0k if;twGi;f rnforl Q r0if&ef wm;jrpfcv
H u
dk Mf u&onf/ jynforl sm; rausreyfjzpfvm&m NAdwo
d Qyikd f
tmtD;wD armfawmfum; wpif;udk rGraG Muatmif zsufq;D ypfvu
dk Mf uonf[al om owif;ESit
hf wl odrBf uD;aps; waps;
vHk;rSm yGwfavm½kdufNyD; upOfhuvsm; jzpfum wkefvIyfajcmufjcm; oGm;onf/ 'Pf&m& ausmif;om;rsm;tm; trwf
OD;xGef;atmif? *VKefOD;apm? OD;yk? OD;vSabmf? rEÅav;OD;xGef;&if? rEÅav;OD;xGef;ndK? 'D;'kwfOD;bcsdK? OD;jrifhodef;? OD;
tdrf? OD;btkef;? ykodrfOD;jrwkdY vma&muf Munfh½Itm;ay;orI jyKaecsdefwGif eef;&if;0ef a'gufwmbarmf 'Pf&m&
ausmif;om; rsm; rnfrQ rsm;jym;onfudk odvkdí ar;jref;&m 'Pf&m&olrsm;rSm*syfqifaumvdyfrS
(1) udkatmifausmf
tkdifat txufwef; (Adv
k af tmifausmf)
(2) udkxGef;½Sdef
tkdifat txufwef;
&efukefwuúokdvfrS
(3) udka½Tarmif
(4) udkodef;vIdif
(5) udkwifarmif
(6) udkwifarmif (2)

tkdifat txufwef;
tkdifat txufwef;
tkdifat txufwef;
bDat txufwef;
187

jrefrmEdik if H ausmif;om;vIy&f mS ;rIordik ;f
(7) udkboef;
tkdifat txufwef;
(8) rcifoef;
tkdifat txufwef;
(9) rwifñGefY
tdkifat txufwef;
wkdYrSm 'Pf&mjyif;xefí twGif;vlemtjzpf Muyfrwfukoae&onf/

188

NrdKYrausmif;rS
(10) armifboef;
(11) armifbdk;OD;
(12) armifvSarmif
(13) armifxGef;pdef
(14) armifpdk;vGif
(15) armifoef;jrifh
(16) armifarmif
(17) atmifoef;jrifh
(18) armifausmfcif
(19) armifodef;a½T
(20) armifvSaz

(22ESp)f
(18ESp)f
(21ESpf)
(18ESp)f
(10ESp)f
(17ESp)f
(16ESp)f
(23 ESpf)
(20 ESpf) twGif;vlem
(16 ESpf) twGif;vlem
(17 ESpf)

ausmif;aygif;pHkrS
(21) armifboef;
(22) armif[ef
(23) armifoef;
(24) armifausmfpdef
(25) armifb
(26) armifwifoef;
(27) armifvSarmif
(28) armifarmifBuD;
(29) armifodef;vIdif
(30) armifausmfarmif
(31) armifatmifpdef
(32) armif<u,f
(33) atmifudk
(34) armifxGef;wif
(35) pdefatmifvif;
(36) armifatmifoGif
(37) armifpHvS
(38) armifoef;
(39) pkd;armif
(40) armifwifarmif
(41) armifodef;vIdif
(42) armif½Sdef
(43) armifusif
(44) cifarmifMunf
(45) ocifboef;
(46) ukdxGef;az

(22 ESpf) &Gmopf urm½Gwf
(22 ESpf) ppfudkif;ausmif;aqmif
(16 ESpf) [kdufpul;ausmif;
(20 ESpf) 12? 24 vrf;
(28 ESpf) 119? 94 vrf;
(17 ESpf) pdef*Ref;
(18 ESpf) a&ausmf
(18 ESpf) 111? 42 vrf;
(19 ESpf) trSwf 93? a&Tawmifwef;
(20 ESpf) a&ausmf
(25 ESpf) 17? vefupfpwmvrf;
(14 ESpf) pdef*Ref;
(19 ESpf) 115? ppfudkif;ausmif;aqmif
(20 ESpf) pyg,f½S,faemfrefausmif;
(14 ESpf) rufo'pfausmif;
(22 ESpf) armif*dkrm&Dvrf;
(20 ESpf) rufo'pf
(20 ESpf) xD;wef;? Munfhjrifwdkif
(24 ESpf) 17? yk*Haqmif
(18 ESpf) pdef*Ref;
(18 ESpf) yif;,aqmif
(18 ESpf) pdef*Ref;
(25 ESpf) 74? armfwifvrf;
(18 ESpf) pdef*Ref;
(28 ESpf) 227? yef;qdk;wef;vrf;
(38 ESpf) 59? prf;acsmif;

udv
k ekd aD cwfaESmif; - 1938 rS 1938 - e,fcsq
YJ efu
h siaf &; trsK;d om;a&;toGif
(47) armifausmfñGefY (19 ESpf) 27? yk*Haqmif
(48) armifudkav;
(21 ESpf) 9? yk*Haqmif
(49) armifwifarmif (21 ESpf) 10? yk*Haqmif
(50) udkbvIdif
(20 ESpf) *syfqifaumvdyf
(51) armifausmftHk;
(17 ESpf) ykZGefawmifjrLeDpDy,fausmif;
(52) armifpHodkuf
(20 ESpf) vrf;rawmfjrLeDpDy,fausmif;
(53) armifausmf
(20 ESpf) ykZGefawmif
(54) armiftkef;az
(20 ESpf) ykZGefawmif
(55) armifbñGefY
(19 ESpf) tpkd;&[dkufpul;
(56) armifcspf
(25 ESpf) ausmif;q&m? ykZGefawmifuGufopf
(57) cspfudkvS
(18 ESpf) rufo'pf
(58) armifuef
(22 ESpf) ,leDAmpDwD (twGif;vlem)
(59) armifbaX;
(16 ESpf) ykZGefawmifjrLeDpDy,f (twGif;vlem)
(60) armifwifarmif (20 ESpf) pdef*Ref; (twGif;vlem)
(61) armifausmf
(30 ESpf) 286? pufqef; (twGif;vlem)
(62) armifxGef;wif
(26 ESpf) pyg,f½S,faemfrefausmif; (twGif;vlem)
(63) armifbvIdif
(20 ESpf) *syfqifaumvdyf (twGif;vlem)
(64) armifausmf
(20 ESpf) armfwifvrf; (twGif;vlem)
(65) ocifatmifwif (23 ESpf) 63? 7vrf;
(66) armifodef;atmif (24 ESpf) oxHkaqmif
(67) udkxGef;½Sdef
(20 ESpf) oxHkaqmif
(68) armifwifarmif (19 ESpf) rufo'pfausmif;
(69) rjrjr
(17 ESpf) 156? 48vrf;? ykZGefawmifjrLeDpyg,f
(70) rapm&D
(18 ESpf) bHkabbm;rm;opfpuf
(71) rpdefpdef
(16 ESpf) bHkabbm;rm;opfpuf
(72) armifpdef
(25 ESpf) trsKd;om;olemjyKwyfzGJU
(73) udkausmfpdef
(26 ESpf) owif;vTmt,f'Dwm (twGif;vlem)
(74) OD;xGef;az
(38 ESpf) Oya'jyKvTwfawmf
vufa&;wkd pma&; (3) OD;rSm OD;acgif;a&m vufyg 'Pf&mtBuD;tus,f &½SdNyD; twGif;vlemtjzpf ukoxm;
&onf/ ausmif;om;? ausmif;olwkdYrSm 'Pf&m&½Hkomru tzrf;tqD;udk 'Pf&mudk,fpDESifh cHcJhMu&ao;onf/ or*¾
trIaqmifrsm;jzpfaom udx
k eG ;f ½Sed ?f udw
k ifarmif? udo
k rd ;f atmif? udck ifarmifwif? udo
k ef;ESifh udv
k aS zwkYd rmS 'Pf&mrsm;jzifh
tzrf;cH&NyD; ol&,
d t,f'w
D mrsm;\ tmrcHcsufjzifh aq;½Ho
k Ykd wifyYkd vu
kd Mf u&\/ aemufwaeYxw
k f owif;pmrsm;wGif
pmvHk;rJBuD;rsm;jzifh]odrfarGYaom ausmif;oluav;rsm;ukd Murf;wrf;pGm ESdyfuGyfjcif;}
]&efukefNrdKY u
B D;ü ykvdyfwkwfpGrf; jyjyefNyD}
]a'gufwmbarmf Zmwd½kyfay:NyD}
e,fcsUJ vufuikd w
f w
k f ñGeYf aygif;tpk;d &onf ajz½Si;f csuw
f &yfukd xkwu
f m ausmif;om;rsm;u tMurf;zufvm
í xdef;odrf;&jcif;jzpfaMumif;? &½Sdaom'Pf&mrsm;rSm rajymyavmufaMumif; vdrfnmvsuf½Sd\/ rdrdwdkY\ BuD;rm;aom
trJuGufjypfrIBuD;udk ausmif;om;rsm;tay: yHkcsae\/ udkatmifausmfrSm wuúokdvfaq;½HkwGif Muyfrwfukoaeaomf
vnf; owdr&wcsuf &wcsufjzpfae\/ 'Pf&mjyif;xefvo
S jzifh owd&vmonft
h cg jyif;xefpmG cHpm;ae&\/ ol\
EIwrf v
S nf; ]uReaf wmfwhkd wkid ;f jynftwGuf toufpeG w
hf ,f? aocsiaf oyap? uReaf wmf aoaysmNf y}D wZGwx
f ;kd ajymvsuf½\
dS /
teD;rS ausmif;om;&JabmfwOD;rS pum;rajym&ef wm;aomfvnf; r&ay/ ]udv
k aS ½T b,fE,
S v
hf ?J ausmif;om;awG vGwv
f yfa&;
eD;Ny?D ta&;awmfykH atmif&r,f? atmif&r,f} udak tmifausmrf mS owdvpfomG ;jyefonf/ owd&vmaomtcg pum;rajymEkid f
bJ taMumifom;Munfah eonf/ q&m0eftMuHay;csuft& wuúov
kd af q;½Hrk S aq;½HBk uD;odYk ajymif;a½TUuko&\/ odYkaomf
roufom? ausmif;om;acgif;aqmifrsm;onf udkatmifausmfhtjzpfudkMunfhum e,fcsJUvufudkifwkwf barmf? bOD;
189

jrefrmEdik if H ausmif;om;vIy&f mS ;rIordik ;f

Source: Bo Aung Kyaw Report

ñGeYf aygif;tpd;k &\ ,kwrf mrIu&kd ifemvsu½f MdS u\/ þodYkjzifh wwd,ajrmufaeU
wGif 'DZifbm (22) &uf Mumoyaw;aeY? aeYvnf (1) em&D (25) rdepfwiG f OD;
acgif;wGif eHygwfww
k 'f Pf&m (3) csufawGUí OD;acgif;cGu
H o
JG mG ;av\/ or*¾
taqmuftODtvHwikd rf S tvHonf wkid w
f 0ufoYkd wjznf;jznf; avsmu
h savNyD?
tmZmenf Adv
k af tmifausmf uG,v
f eG af vNyD/
vufeufryg? tMurf;rzuf tEkoufoufjzifh tvGew
f &mEke,fonfh
ausmif;om;? ausmif;oluav;rsm;\qE´jyrIukd a'gufwmbarmf ñGeUf aygif;tpd;k &
AsL½du
k &ufjynft
h apcHyv
k yd w
f Yku
d rn§mrwm &ufpuf½idk ;f jyrIaMumifh &efuek w
f NrKd UvH;k
NrdKUolNrdKUom;rsm;onf jyif;xefpmG ,lMuHK;r& 0rf;enf;Muvsuf tcsi;f csi;f owif;
ar;oluar;? aq;½Ho
k Ydkajy;oluajy;jzpfMuavonf/ rsujf rifawGU½SdMuonfh vef
csm;ukvm;rsm;? bwfpfum;orm;rsm;ESifh jrif;vSnf;orm;rsm;vnf; tvkyf&yf
tmZmenf Adv
k af tmifausmf
qkid ;f vdu
k Mf uonf/ uDvv
D rf;ESihf xD;wef;vrf;½Sd Armopfqidk rf sm;onf 0rf;enf;
onfh txdr;f trSwjf zihf qkid yf w
d v
f u
kd Mf uonf/ n (9) em&DwiG f ausmif;om;owif; wjynfv;kH odYkjzefUrnfp;kd í &efuek yf v
k yd f
tzGUJ onf ol&,
d owif;pmwku
d t
f m;0kid ;f í owif;"gwfyHkrsm;? bavmufrsm;? ½kdufNyD;pmazmifrsm;udk odrf;vdkufMuonf/
6? 2? 39 aeYxkwf? q,foef;owif;pmwGif ausmif;om; Ouú| udkA[def;onf udkatmifausmf aoqHk;&aom
udpEö iS hf yufoufí owif;"gwfykH wckEiS t
hf wl aMunmcsuf wck xkwcf ahJ vonf/ owif;"gwfyrkH mS ausmif;om;rsm;udk
ykvdyfrsm; ½dkufaepOf ½dkuful;xm;aom yHkjzpfonf/ xdkyHkwGif toufraobJ usef&pfcJhygu tjrefqHk; oufaocHpm&if;
oGif;&ef EdI;aqmfwyfvSefY xm;avonf/ xdktcsdefrSm AdkvfatmifausmfaoqHk;rIESifh ywfoufí &efukefNrdKU txl;&mZ0wf
w&m;olBuD; OD;pdecf ikd f ½H;k wGif trIziG phf pfaq;vsu½f adS yonf/ atmuf½;kH w&m;olBuD;url Adv
k af tmifausmf aoqH;k &jcif;rSm
ykvdyfESifh ausmif;om;rsm; ½kef;&if;qefcwfjzpf&mrS rawmfwqjzpfonf[k qHk;jzwfxm;onf/
7? 2? 39 aeYxkwf owif;pm pmrsufESm (14) wGif]atmifausmfudk ½kdufaom wkwfavm}
]ausmif;om;ukd ykvdyf½kdufpOfu usKd;NyD; usef&pfaom eHygwfwkwf awGY Ny}D
]¤if;wkwfudk aocsmpGm ppfaq;&rnf}
ponfh acgif;pOfrsm;jzifh udkA[def;aMunmcsufudk awGU&avonf/
]vGecf o
hJ nfU 'DZifbm (20) &ufaeYwiG f 0efBu;D rsm;½H;k teD; ausmif;om;? ausmif;olrsm;ukd jynft
U apcHyv
k yd rf sm;u
eHygwfwkwfjzifU ½kdufESufMuNyD;aemuf naeydkif;wGif vlwOD;onf ol&d,t,f'Dwm OD;odrf;armifxHokdh vma&mufum
eHygwfwkwf tusKd;wacsmif; ay;oGm;avonf/ xdkeHygwfwkwf tusKd;rSm udkatmifausmfudk ½kdufojzifU usKd;oGm;aom
eHygwfwkwfjzpfaMumif;} ajymoGm;avonf/
tpk;d &cefYxm;aom pHpk rf;a&;aumfrwDa½SUwGif udak tmifausmf toufq;kH ½H;I &um ausmif;om;aygif; (200)
ausmfwdkY\aoG; ajrodkYusapcJhonfh w&m;cHtppfrsm;udk azmfxkwfjy&ef igwdkYwm0efjzpfonf/
xdYkaMumifh eHygwfww
k t
f usK;d udk ol&,
d owif;pmwku
d o
f Ykd ay;tyfcahJ omolonf tjrefq;kH or*¾toif;csKyf
BuD;odkY vma&muf taMumif;Mum;apvkdaMumif;/
A[def;
(Ouú|)
Auo
þodkY udkatmifausmfudk owfaom w&m;cHudk azmfxkwfEkdif&ef BudK;pm;Muonf/ rEÅav;NrdKU tmZmenf (17)
OD; onfvnf; ykvyd v
f ufcsufjzifh aoqH;k cJ&h jyefavonf/ udak tmifausmf aoqH;k rIEiS hf yufoufí wdYk Armtpnf;t½H;k ?
ud,
k rhf if;ud,
k chf si;f tzGUJ 0if atmufvw
T af wmftrwf ocifjrESifh ociftBhH uD;wkYdonf Armjynfb&k ifcx
H o
H Ydk uefYuu
G pf mESihf
twl ygvDreftrwftjzpfrS EkwfxGufpmyg wifvkdufonf/ xkdYtwl tpdk;&u wifajr§mufxm;aom txufvTwfawmf
trwf NrdKUrausmif;tkyBf uD; OD;bvGio
f nfvnf; ausmif;om;ykvyd t
f a&;wGif tpd;k &jyKrlyu
kH kd vH;k 0uefYuu
G ½f rkH Qru trwf
tjzpfyg Ekwx
f u
G af Mumif;? rdrt
d m; ay;tyfxm;aom (autdik t
f w
d cf s)f KIH bGUJ xl;udv
k nf; jyefítyfaMumif;? bk&ifcEH iS fh
jynfxaJ &;XmeodYk pmydYk vu
kd af vonf/ tif;pdeaf xmif bDatwef;wGif a&muf½adS eaom ocifav;armif? OD;tmp&d,ESihf
190

udv
k ekd aD cwfaESmif; - 1938 rS 1938 - e,fcsq
YJ efu
h siaf &; trsK;d om;a&;toGif
ukvm;? jrefrm (17) a,mufonf vnf;aumif;? aemufxyf a&mufvmaom udAk [de;f wdYk (5) OD;onf vnf;aumif;?
ausmif;om;xk aoG;ajruscJ&h jcif;ESihf ywfoufí tpmiwfcH qE´jyMuonf/ rauG;axmif½dS Ekid if aH &;acgif;aqmifrsm;ESihf
oydwf acgif;aqmifrsm;vnf; tvm;wl tpmiwfcHqE´jyMuonf/

(n) udkatmifausmfpmay

vli,f
þaeYum; jrefrmjynf uRefouf (53) ESpf wif;wif;jynfhaom aeYaywnf;/ tcsdefum; (9) em&DcefY ½Sdayrnf/ rdk;um;
wzGJzGJESifh ½Gmvsuf½Sd\/ touf (16) ESpfcefY½Sdaom vli,fwa,mufonf taqmif;vnf;ryg? rdk;½Gmonfudkvnf; *½kpkduf[ef
rwl? wa,mufwnf; cyfjznf;jznf;yif or*¾½Hk;odkY a&mufvmayNyD/ wHcg;0odkYa&mufaomtcgaemufodkYwcsufiJhí Munfh
vdkuf\/ xdkYaemuf cHkbdeyfudk cRwfvkduf\/ ukwftusÐudk puúefYtenf;i,frQ pkdufMunfhae\/ Munfh&if;rsufESmü oabm
rusaom tjcif;t&mwdkY ay:vm\/ csufjcif;tusÐudk cRwfvsuf ab;odkYcsvdkuf\/ xkdYaemuf toif;½Hk;a½SUjrufcif;ay:odkY
qif;oGm;av\/ a'gif;tvHBuD;u rdk;a&xJwGif wkdifw0ufü wnfvsuf½Sd\/ ajcudkpHk&yfí acgif;iHkUvsuf (2) rdepfcefY
tvHudk t½kdtaoay;ae\/ rdk;aygufwkdYu ol\acgif;ay:odkY usvsuf½Sd\/ a'gif;tvHudk wcsufrQarmfMunfhNyD;aemuf
toif;½Hk; xJokdY0ifum cRwfxm;aom tusÐESifh bdeyfudk 0wfvsuf tay:xyfodkY wufoGm;av\/
wzufcef;üum; b,folrQr½Sday? vli,fonf tcef;xJodkY0ifum [kd[kdonfonf avQmufíMunfhav\/ vli,f\
rsufvHk;wkdYonf tvif;owif;pmqDokdY a&mufoGm;\/ rsufvHk;ESifh twlwlygoGm;NyD;vQif owif;pmudk,lvsuf ukvm;xkdif
wvHk;wGif0ifí xkdifvdkuf\/ pm½Gufw½GufNyD; w½GufavQmufí vSefvm&m tv,fem;odkY a&mufívmawmh\/ pm&Gufu
tjcm;pm&Gufrsm;ESifhrwl? pmvkH;wkdYu tpdrf;a&mifwkdYjzifh ESdyfxm;ukefav\/ vli,f\vufonf &yfí oGm;av\/
rsufvHk;wdkUonf pmudkpl;pkdufí aeMuawmh\/ wcef;vHk;um; wdwfvsuf½Sd\/ olum; pmrsufESmav;rsufESmcefY
zwfNyD;onfhaemufwGif ukvm;xkdifay:wGif acgif;udkiJhí rvIyfr,Sufaeawmhav\/
tcef;ab;½Sd trIaqmifa[mif;rsm;\ yHkwdkYonf olYtm;pkdufMunfhvsuf½Sd\/ rsufawmifum; tenf;i,frQ rcwf?
a½SUwGif½Sdaom owif;pmukd 0g;pm;rwwfpkdufí Munfhaeav\/ Munfh&if;Munfh&if; rsufESmrSm ajymif;í vmawmh\/
wjznf;jznf; a'goa&mifvTrf;í vmawmh\/ rsufvHk;onf us,fíus,fí vmawmh\/ vlvnf;a½SUodkY udkif;ívmay\/
xdkYaemuf ]]awmuf}}[k cyfjyif;jyif;acgufcg ae&mrSxvdkuf\/ xNyD;aemuf ab;ywfvnfudk Munfhvdkuf\/ trsKd;om;aeY
wGif udkif&ef? avQmuf&ef pmwrf;rsm;rSm tkwfrsm;ESifhuyfvsuf eH&HwGifaxmifíxm;ayonf/ pmwrf;wckonf olYtm;a½S;OD;pGm
qD;íEIwfqufavonf/ vlum;awGvnf; ½Sday\/ e*kdu a'goa&mifvTrf;aom rsufESmonf ydkíwif;rmvmay\/
rsufvHk;rsm;rSm xdkpmwrf;udk pkdufMunfhae&mrS owif;pmbufodkY wzefjyefí a&mufvmjyefonf/ owif;pmxJ½Sd
"gwfyHkwdkYonf ol\a½SUwGif rvIyfr,Suf wnfvsuf½Sdae\/ rsufvHk;xJrS rsuf&nfwkdYonf rsufawmifESpfcsuf tcwfü
owif;pmay:odkY usum "gwfyHkrsm;ukd oGm;íuefawmhMuav\/ acgif;onf wzefjyefí axmifvmjyef\/ rsufvHk;wdkYum;
ae&majymif;í usufpm;aeMujyefav\/ vlwudk,fvHk; acgif;ESifh rsufvHk;rsm;om vIyfvsuf ½Sday\/
]onf;nnf;cHvQif olhuRefjzpf}
[laompmwrf;onf ol\rsufvHk;udkqD;í {nfhcHjyef\/ vli,f\pdwfESifhpmwrf;onf oabmcsif; wkduf[efwl\/
rsufvHk;wdkYonf ydkrdkípl;pkdufvm\/ rsufESmrSmydkrdkí cufxefvmay\/ tHoGm;wkdYudk uGJoGm;rwwfBudwfvdkuf\/ uspfuspf
ygatmif qkwfxm;aomvufrSm txufodkY tenf;i,fajrmufvm\/ rsufaphum; ... owif;pmodkY vnfjyefav\/
ra½S;raESmif;yif ]][if;}} [k oufrudkcsvdkuf\/ owif;pmxJ½Sd"gwfyHkwdkYrSm ,ciftwdkif;yif½Sdao;\/ pmrsm;um;
vli,f \ pdwfESifh trlt&mudkodMu[efrwl? þtBudrfacgif;vSnfhvkdufaomtcg ]aMumufarG;yg Zm*emeJhElwf} [laom
pmwrf;qDodkY rsufrSef;wrf;í oGm;av\/ oli,frsufESmonf tenf;i,f NyHK;a,mifa,mif&SdvmNyD;aemuf rsufaphudk
ae&ma&TU oGm;jyefav\/ ]aoG;pkyfaumifawG owfypf} tp½Sdojzifh a&;xm;onfhpmwrf;BuD;tm; aygufíoGm;rwwf
pkdufí Munfhaejyefav\/ olYrsufESmonf arSmifrJívmum vlvnf;tenf;i,f wkefvmay\/ rsufESmum; bDvl;0ifouJhodkU
xif&\/ wzefowif;pmudk pl;pkdufMunfh aejyefav\/ MunfhavMunfhav ydkí aMumufp&m aumif;vmayawmh\/
ra½S;raESmif;yif ]]'Hk;}} [k pm;yGJudk vufoD;ESifhxkvsuf ]½kid ;f vku
d af vuGm} [kqkdum tcef;wGif;rS ½kwfw&uf xGufoGm;awmh\/
tcef;wGif;um; ydkrdkwdwfqdwfvsuf usef&pfav\/ pmtkyfrsm;rSm zwfoludk arQmfvsuf ½SdMuukef\/ trIaqmifrsm;\
"gwfyHkrsm;um; eH&Hay:wGif rvIyfr,Suf wnfjrJwnfvsuf aeay\/
]trsKd;twGuf toufpGefhavmU} [laompmwrf;av;rSm avwkdufojzifh tenf;i,fvIyfíoGm;ayawmh\/ tjyifwGif
rdk;um;½Gmvsufyif/

udkatmifausmf
191

jrefrmEdik if H ausmif;om;vIy&f mS ;rIordik ;f
udkodef;atmif / / a[h bkd;atmifqef;? cifAsm;tm;usNyD; uwHk;Adkvfau xm;wJhvl (2) a,mufawmh ½SdNyD? udkvSa½T
&,f? udkatmifausmf&,fav/
udkatmifqef; / / vGwv
f yfwAhJ rmjynfBuD;rSm uReaf wmftmPm½Sijf zpf&iftukev
f ;kH uwH;k Adv
k af uxm;zkYd trdeUf ay;r,f/
udkatmifausmf / / uwHk;Adkvfauu xm;wmcsif;wlayr,fh ½l;wmcsif;awmh udkatmifqef;u omw,f/
udkatmifqef; / / rdkufrJwJhae&musawmh cifAsm;u omygw,f/ cifAsm; ½kyfudku rIefukwfukwf? ykuGuGeJY/

(#) udkatmifausmfpsmye

192rSwfcsuf- 1940-41 ckESpf? tkd;a0r*¾Zif; twJG (8)? trSwf (1) rS udkodef;atmif\ ]]uRefawmfodcJhwJh atmifausmf}} aqmif;yg;rS aumufEkwf
azmfjyonf/ (jrefrmowif;qufoG,fa&;enf;ynm tifwmeufpmrsufESmwGif azmfjyxm;csufjzifh wdkufqdkifppfaq;onf/)

Source: ASO

Source: Unknown

udak tmifausmpf smyeukd wkYdArmtpnf;t½H;k rS a½SUaqmifí &efuek pf &D ifpk wkYdArmtpnf;t½H;k ? ArmEkid if v
H ;Hk qkid &f m
ausmif;om;rsm;or*¾? wuotrIaqmifrsm;tjyif &efukefausmif;om;rsm; tzGJUtpnf; udk,fpm;vS,frsm;? oHCm
awmfrsm;ESihf NrdKUrdNrdKzrsm; yl;aygif;í psmyeaumfrwDzUJG pnf;MuNyD; BuD;us,fcrf;em;pGm usif;yonf/ xdt
k wGi;f &efuek Nf rdKU
twGif;½Sd wuúodkvfESifh txufwef;ausmif;rsm;onf oydwf qufvufarSmufvsuf ½SdMuNyD; NrdKUrausmif;wGif oydwf
pcef;tjzpf xm;½Sdavonf/
'DZifbmv (24) &ufwiG f psmyeaumfrwDonf udak tmifausmf\tavmif;udk aq;½HBk uD; a&cJwu
kd rf S wuo
toif;wkdufodkY ydkY&ef xkwf,lMuonf/ xkdodkY xkwf,laepOf ocifpHxGef;vStm; bk&ifcH\ ta&;wBuD;Oya't&
zrf;qD;xm;Muonf/ 'DZifbm (27) &ufaeYwGif udkatmifausmfpsmyeudk MuHawmokóefodkY ydkYaqmifMu&ef psmye
aumfrwDu pDpOfNyD; udkatmifausmftm; ol&Jaumif; tmZmenftjzpf ]aersKd;oD[ol& Adkvfatmifausmf} bGJUudk ay;
tyf Muonf/ Adv
k af tmifausm\
f psmyetcrf;tem;wGif zwfMum;&eftwGuf udAk [de;f ? udAk aqG? ocifxed 0f if;? ocifp;kd ?
ocifvSarmifponfh &Jabmfrsm;u t"d|mef pmwrf;wapmif ay;ydkY\/
aeYvnf (2) em&DwGif wuúodkvfor*¾toif;a½SUwGif ,leDazmif;0wf wyfom;rsm;u aMuuGJzG,f&m aumif;
avmufatmif c&moHrsm;ESifh udak tmifausmftm; t½kt
d aojyKNyD;aemuf ½kyu
f vmyfukd o,faqmifum ,mOfonf pwif
xGucf mG vmonf/ a½SUqH;k rS oHCmawmfrsm;tzGUJ ? oDv½Sirf sm;? avmu"HtzGUJ rsm;? Armhvuf½;kH wyf? &Jwyf? pnf;umuG,f
a&;wyfom;rsm;? trsKd;orD;tzGJUrsm;? 0wftoif;rsm;? owif;pmwkdufom;rsm;? ausmif;ol ausmif;om;rsm;? EkdifiHa&;
tzGJUrsm; yg0ifMuonf/ tzGJUtpnf;toD;oD;wkdYu 0rf;enf;aom txdrf;trSwftjzpf 'dkYArmtrsKd;om;tvHESihf a'gif;
tvHrsm;? tvHeufBuD;rsm;udk w0ufvTifhxlum vkdufygvmMu\/
tvHrsm;ay:wGif ]tmZmenfAdkvfatmifausmf igwkdhrarUEkdif}
ponfjzifh pmwrf;rsm; a&;om;xm;Muonf/ jrif;NydKifuGif;rS a*smfuDrsm;yifvQif jrif;pD;t0wftpm;rsm;ESifh
vku
d yf gydYk aqmifMuonf/ MuHawmokóefwiG f oHCmawmfrsm;a&mufEiS hf aeMuaomfvnf; vku
d yf gydYk aqmifaom toif;
tzGUJ rsm;ESihf ausmif;om;? ausmif;oly&dowfrsm;rSm wuúov
kd o
f r*¾rS xGuí
f rqH;k ao;ay/ 0J,mwGiv
f nf; Munf½h o
I nfh
y&dwo
f wfBuD;rSm wk;d raygufavmufatmif ½Sad yonf/ okóefoYkd tavmif;a&mufvQif c&mrsm;udk rIwí
f wyfom;rsm;
onf aemufqHk; t½dktaojyKMuonf/ ]tmZmenf Adv
k af tmifausm}f [k oH;k Burd w
f idk f a<u;aMumf&m okóefBu;D wckv;kH
yJUwifxyf jrnf;[D;oGm;avonf/ Akdvfatmifausmfrdcif a':a½Tausmh\ toHcsJUpufESifh ajymoHonf Mum;&olwdkYtm;
,lusKH;r& jzpfaponf/
]]wynfah wmf r,f&h ifaoG;av; om;av; armifatmifausmo
f nf vufeufqí
kd
tyfwacsmif;? wkwfwwkdrQ rudkif&½SmbJvsuf? av;vHaom vufeufBuD;rsm;jzifh
ykvdyfwkdYu ½kdufESufí aoqHk;&jcif;udk wkdif;oljynfom;rsm;ESifh oHCmawmfrsm;uyif
rcHr&yfEkdifatmif jzpfysufyHkudk axmuf½IygvQif wynfhawmf? wynfhawmfrvdk udk;v
vG,f q,fvzGm; ,k,cJh&aom rdcif? zcifwkdYtwGuf ajymzG,f&m r½Sdawmhygbk&m;}}
AuoOuú| udv
k aS ½Tu ]]'Pf&mrsm;&vsuf ol&,
d owif;pmwku
d f tay:rSm
acgif;csif;,SOfNyD; vJaeMupOfu igwkdY trsKd;twGuftaocHr,f? Ouú|udk rxdMuapeJY
vdkY &J&JawmufajymoHawG? aq;½Hkudk igvma&mufpOfuvnf; udkvSa½T uRefawmfwkdY
a½SUqufwdkufMu&r,f qkdNyD; ua,mifuwrf;ESifh pGJvrf;pGm ajymaewmawG? yxr
tBudrf tmPmzDqefwkef;u uRefawmfa½SUqHk;u taocHNyD; tvHudkifyg&apvdkY ajymcJh
wmawGudk ighem;xJrSm Mum;a,mif? jrifa,mif aeao;w,f? udkatmifausmf &Jabmf\
qE´tm; &mZ0ifrSwfwrf; wif&avmufatmif jynfh0cJhygNyD &JabmfwdkY}}
udak tmifausmrhf cd if a':a½Tausmh

udv
k ekd aD cwfaESmif; - 1938 rS 1938 - e,fcsq
YJ efu
h siaf &; trsK;d om;a&;toGif

1938 ck? 'DZifbmv (27) &ufaehwiG f MuaH wmokóefü jyKvyk cf aUJ om Adv
k af tmifausmf psmyetcrf;tem;

NrdKUrq&modef;u psmyeaumfrwDudk,fpm; t"d|mefjyK csD;usL;pmwrf;udk zwfMum;onf/
]]td-k tmZmenf &Jabmfuakd tmifausm?f toifum; vGwv
f yfa&;wdu
k yf w
JG iG f wyfO;D Adv
k rf LS ;tjzpfjzifh igwkYd onf
,aeYupí urÇmwGif ArmwnfaeorQ umvywfvHk; pdwfESvHk;wGif aemufqHk; rSwfpGJwnfjrJapawmh\/ tdk tmZmenf
&Jabmfudkatmifausmf toiftm; rn§mrwm ½dkufESuftyfaom jynfhtapcHykvdyfwdkY\oHwkwfonf igwkdYem;xJü
vGwfvyfa&;wkdufyGJwGif yg0ifqifEJTMu&ef w&Hrjcm; vIHUaqmfouJhodkY tjrJMum;a,mifapvdrfhtHh/
tdk- tmZmenf&Jabmfudkatmifausmf toif\xkxnfBuD;rm;aom cEÅDw&m;onf toifhtm; r&PEkdifiHokdY
ydkYaqmifouJhodkY igwkdYArmvlrsdK;wkdY\ tem*wfvkyfief;onf ArmjynfBuD;tm; udk,fhrif;ukd,fhcsif; tjzpfodkY
a&mufatmifydkYaqmif ay;vdrfhtHh/
td-k tmZmenf &Jabmfuakd tmifausmf zdEydS cf sKyfcs,jf cif; yk'rf trsK;d rsK;d wdYkukd onf;cHjcif;vufeufjzifh rqkwrf epf
wkdufzsuf&mü toif\rGefjrwfvSaom aojcif;onf jrefrmjynf\ESvHk; vGwfvyfa&;yef;wkdifokdY ydkYaqmifrnfh
a½SUajy;erdwfjzpfapvdrfhtHh/
tdk- tmZmenf&Jabmfudkatmifausmf toif\ jrifhjrwfaompdwf"gwf? cdkifjrJaomZGJ? onf;cHEkdifaom owåd?
udk,fusKd;rzufaom oabm? toufpGefUpm;aom t&nftcsif;wdkYrS ul;pufavmifNrdKuftyfaom rD;awmufrD;vQH
BuD;onf igwkdYArmwrsdK;om;vHk;\ pdwfESvHk; twGif;0,f tpOfrjywf w[l;[l;w[kef;[kef; awmufavmifapvdrfh
tHhownf;/}}
]]ta&;awmfyHk atmifygap}}
[k ed*Hk;owfMum;um c&moHrsm;jzifh psmyetcrf;tem;udk tqHk;owfvdkufonf/ Adkvfatmifausmf
usqHk;aMumif; owif;onf wr[kwfcsif; jynfvHk;uRwfysHUESYHum a&eHoydwfBuD; jynfNrdKUodkY qkdufa&mufcsdefESifh
wdkufqkdifonfh tavsmuf xdkjynfNrdKU½Sd oydwfwyfzGJYwckvHk; 0rf;enf;aMuuGJ txdrf;trSwfjzifh (1)&ufrQ csDwufyGJudk
&yfem;um tpmiwfcHqE´jyMuonf/
193

jrefrmEdik if H ausmif;om;vIy&f mS ;rIordik ;f

Adkvfatmifausmf ewfoH
pmtkyfu,frS uavmifav - odyÜHtaygif;? 0duúmatmif;onfh
ausmif;rsm;acgifu
Adkvfatmifi,frS rnfwifh
ausmfwqifhESifh? rif;rifhaemifnD/
ig - - Zmenfudk? vmNyDBudKMu/
oajyyef;ESifh a&csrf;aqmifum
atmifpnfpavmh/
ESri,f jzLjzL?
ynmpD;yGm;? pGrf;tiftm;ESifh
tifvsm;olwkdY
igrltp? a½S;b0u
ESrwdkYES,f
aysmfaysmfyg;yg;? [kdonfoGm;vdkY
Mum;cJhw,f/
/
aemif0,faomcg
ighrd? ighb uRefb0udk
jrif&ravsmf? pdwfraysmffí
&Jabmftrsm;? opömtm;ESifh
MudK;pm&mwGif? Mur®mighuH/
wvlYb0?½IrvSatmif
ighudk,fcHí? &efolvufeuf
qHwdkqHawmif;? bmraqmif;onhf
ighacgif;xufrSm? qufumqufum
0if;0if;vQHawmuf? rl;armfaemufatmif
usa&mufvmaomf ighrSmrcsd
bk&m;u,fyg? atmfjrnfygvnf;
uGmowdESifh? igrd&ifcGif
þajrjyifwGif? igvQifvJí
atmifyGJcHonf? EkdifiHomaMumif;
igqkawmif;rnf aomif;odef;oef;ausmf
wdkY&JabmfwdkY /
/
rif;ok0Pf
194

udv
k ekd aD cwfaESmif; - 1938 rS 1938 - e,fcsq
YJ efu
h siaf &; trsK;d om;a&;toGif

(X)

'dkhausmif;om;oDcsif;

pma&;ol- a½TwdkifñGefh
( w&m;vrf;aMumif; aumif;wmudk&nf rSef&moabmeJh ajymyg&ap? ausmif;om;csif; toif;awmf
udkwnf MuHaqmiforQawG atmif&rnf )2
uRefynmy,fzsufrnf? wu,frrufonf? y,fzsufrnf? onfynm 'dkYrvdkNyD tydkbJ xifawmhonf?
ocifynm½SmpdkYtwnf igwdkYjynf? ½SmpdkYtwnf vkyfudkifumpm;Ekdifonf? xift½Sm;wufvrf;rSD?
odkYrSomyiftwnf? om;auR;rI? r,m;auR;rI wckynm udk,fpDygEkdifrnf/
(oHNydKif) ( urÇmrSm omwnf? wufvlrsm;pGefhpm;NyD; ArmtmZmenf? ausmif;om;awG aqmif½Gufrnf )2
( ckaetcgrSm 'dkhArmjynf? ta&;BuD;vmaygh twnf )2 atmf - - aoG;pnf;ygawmhrnf - or*¾
a½SUaqmifcsufudk rysufatmifMuHpnf ( nDap-nDr,f )2 wu,fhwu,fwef;nD ( wdkhausmif;om; )2
wdkYausmif;olrsm; pGefYpm;zdkYawmfNyD/
1/

wdkif;jynfta&; aqG;aEG;rnf? at;at;awmhjzifh raeEkdifonf? wdkYArmtaygif; aumif;pm;rnf?
ausmif;om;rsm;u aqmif½GufNyD ( owÅdcJrdkh ETJrnf? wdkh&JabmfyDyD )2
[ a[h ] toufudkvJ pGefY0Hhonf trsKd;bmom? omoemtwGuf udk&nf - - /
(oHNydKif) urÇmrSmomtwnf - - ( wdkYausmif;om; )3 rsm; pGefYpm;bdkYawmfNyD/

2/

3/

( vGwfvyfap&ef {uefrvGJNyD? ZGJoef&rnf? ausmif;om;MuH&if cHEkdif½kd;vm;? BudK;pm;tm;xkwfrnf )
tjrJaemfaumif;bkdYom ,HkMunf? &Jabmftaygif;wkdYyg pHknD? *kPfwufatmif MuHaqmifrnf?
ausmif;om;rsm; pdwfxm;nD? tm;xkwfMuawmhonf? rkcsyif atmifEkdifrnf/
À

'dkhausmif;om;oDjcif;
pma&;ol- a½Tnmarmif
(1) 'kdYArmjynf0,f . . qefa&pyg;&,fausmufoHywåjrm;&,f . . aygrsm;ygvsuf? vGwfvyfa&;eJYa0;cJhavw,f .
. rGefjrefrmrsm;r,f? vGefpGm½Sm;w,f . . rcsrf;omEkdifawmhw,f/ rdbrsm; . . qif;&J,ifuG,f? 'kdYausmif;om;awG
vlwef;aphatmif raeEkid Mf uzG,/f uRefynmoif&,ifjzif?h ausmif;xGu,
f if tvkyrf rhJ ,f? 'dYk ArmawG xrif;0atmif
rpGrf;aqmifEkdifbl;wu,f? ocifynm&atmif 'dkYArmrsm; BudK;pm;MuapzG,f/
(0dik ;f qd)k ausmif;om;or*¾toif;BuD;&,f? 'dYk ausmif;om;rsm;&JU? pnf;½H;k &m pka0;&m tm;pk&m atmifajr rSeaf yw,f
(ausmif;om;rsm;wdkh&,f)2 ocifynm&atmif or*¾a½SUaqmifcsufudkry,f . . nDñGwfpGm trSefwu,f ra½Smifwrf;
atmifyef;qGwfzdkY½G,f/
(2) 'kdYausmif;om;&Jabmf . . AdkvfatmifausmfeJY &wemyHka½Tref;NrdKU&,fu tmZmenfrsm;
(ta&;awmfyHkBuD;0,f - wyfOD;u usqHk;cJUw,f)2 'dkYausmif;om;rsm;&,f? trsKd;twGuf wu,f - 'dkYtoufudk
zuf½Gufavmufyif rrIcJhygawmhw,f . . /
(3) &JabmfwkdY . . ta&;BuD;avNyD - aoG;pnf;MuygpdkY . . tcsufus ÓPfajrmfaxmufzG,f - or*¾
tvHawmfatmuf0,f - Armhvw
G v
f yfa&;udk 'kYd aoG;cJeYJ wnfaqmufr,f/ MuHMh uHch idk cf idk ?f r,dik rf ,dr;f bJ 'dYk pw
d Zf &JG ,f
- ocifynmudk-ocifynmudk - r&vQif - r&vQif - &atmif,lpkdYuG,f/
À
ausmif;om;acgif;aqmifrsm;u wuúodkvfor*¾ü *Dwya'omuyGJwckusif;yí 'dkYausmif;om;oDcsif; (2)
yk'fudk tqdkygyGJwGif oDqdkjyMuyg&ef pDpOfMuonf/ xdkoDcsif;teuf a½TwdkifñGefYonf wD;0kdif;tpHkESifhvmaomfvnf;
a½TnmarmifocD sif;udrk l udak X;NrdKif ('*kew
f m&m) u pE´,m;wD;í? udo
k ck ('g½du
k w
f m OD;okc) u pnf;vku
d w
f ;D ay;onf
rSwcf su-f a½Tnmarmif\ ]'dkhausmif;oDjcif;}udk (wuúodkvfausmif;om;a[mif; a½Tnmarmifa&;onfh ]]wuúodkvfrS aw;wyk'f}}?
&efukefwuúodkvfESpf 50 jynfh? 1970? pm-118? 199) rS jyefvnfwdkufqdkifppfaq;NyD; rl&if;twdkif;azmfjyonf/

195

jrefrmEdik if H ausmif;om;vIy&f mS ;rIordik ;f
oDcsif;qdkyGJNyD;aomtcg ausmif;om;acgif;aqmifrsm; csufjcif; tpnf;ta0; xkdifMuonf/ oDcsif; (2) yk'fpvHk;udk
'dkYausmif;om; oDcsif;tjzpf vufcHvkdufonf/

(!) ref;tmZmenf (17) OD; ta&;awmfyHk
1938 wGif ref;Oypmaumvdyfausmif;om;rsm;onf &efukefwuúodkvfrS ausmif;om;tmPm½Sif udkvSa½T?
ref;OypmaumvdyfrS pmar;yGJatmifoGm;í &efukefwuúodkvfwGif qufvuf ynmoifMum;aeaom udkodef;atmifwkdY
acgif;aqmifí ausmif;om;oydwBf uD;udk ulno
D nft
h aeESihf oydwaf rSmufjyefonf/ rEÅav;NrdKUwGif xkwx
f m;aomyk'rf
(144) wdkufzsuf&ef pdkif;jyif;aeMuonf/ e,fcsJUqefYusif awmfvSefa&;yk'fr (144) wkdufzsufa&;t& rEÅav;pD&ifpk
wdkYArmtpnf;t½Hk;onf vQdKU0SufpGm pDpOfaeavonf/ yk'fr (144) wkdufzsufa&;wGif rEÅav;NrdKU vlxkBuD;w&yfvHk;
yl;aygif;yg0ifvm&ef &[ef;ysKdtzGJYBuD;uvnf; tm;oGefBudK;yrf;vsuf ½Sdonf/ yk'fr (144) t"dyÜg,frSm qlylvIyf½Sm;rI?
t"du½kPf;jzpfrI ponfwkdYudk ray:ayguf rjzpfyGm;ap&ef BudKwifwm;qD;xm; aom Oya'jzpfonf/
ref;Oypmaumvdyfor*¾ udkatmif? udkcifndKESifh udkMunfarmif (aemif 'kwd,AdkvfrSL;BuD; jrifhatmif) wkdYyg0if
aom oydwfarSmuf ausmif;om;rsm;or*¾onf &[ef;ysKdtzGJUtm; acgif;aqmifay;&ef ½dkaopGmavQmufxm; yefMum;NyD;
aemuf wdkYArmtpnf;t½Hk; ocif? ocifrrsm;ESifhvnf; NrdKUvlxktm; odrf;oGif;pnf;½Hk;vsuf ½Sdonf/ NrdKUvkH;uRwf
vlxq
k E´jyyGBJ uD; usif;y&efEiS hf ausmif;om;rsm; tpnf;ta0;ESihf qE´jyyGu
J kd tultnDay;&eftwGuf &efuek w
f uúov
kd rf S
udkausmfNidrf;udk apvTwfvdkufaomfvnf; udkausmfNidrf;rSm rEÅav;NrdKUa&mufNyD;umrS &efukefwGif udpaö y:í tvQiftjref
jyefomG ;&ojzifh &efuek w
f uúov
kd f ausmif;om;tzGUJ rS udv
k aS rmif (Akv
d af Z,s? &Jabmfo;kH udsyf) udk xyfraH pvTwcf o
hJ nf/
udv
k aS rmifrmS ref;Oypmaumvdyf ausmif;om;rsm; OD;pD;aom rEÅav;ausmif;om;a[mif;rsm;ESihf vufww
JG u
dk yf 0JG ifco
hJ nf/
rEÅav;NrdKUBuD;onf NidrfoufaeNyD[k trsm;atmufarhaeMuonfh tawmtwGif; tmPm½SifudkvSa½T\
atmufyg trdefYxGufvmaomtcg vIyfvIyf½G½Gjzpfvmonf/
ArmEkdifiHvHk;qkdif&m ausmif;om;rsm;or*¾
xkwfjyefaMunmcsuf
(trSwf 36)

ArmEkdifiHvkH;qkdif&mausmif;om;rsm;or*¾
txufyg trdefYaMunmpmudk MunfhvQif ae&mvyfudkom vlwdkif;rsufpdwGif jrifMu&\/ odkY&mwGif tdajE´
raqmifEkdifatmif MuufoD;arG;nif;xaeonfh ykvdyfawmfrif;wkdY\ tEÅ&m,fjyKap&ef xkwfaomtrdefY[k jrifvm
[efwlojzifh(1) "gwfpuf½HkESifh "gwf&xm;rsm;ydwfapjcif;?
(2) t*FvdyftvkyfwkdufawG ydwfapjcif;?
(3) blwm½Hkudk ppfwyftapmifh xm;jcif;?
(4) bPfwkdufrsm;udk ydwfapjcif;?
(5) *gwfawGudk tapmifhppfwyf xm;jcif;?
(6) eef;awmfBuD;twGif; jrefrm r0if&jcif;?
(7) vufeufa&mif;aom wdkufudk a½TUapjcif;?
ponfh pDrHcsuf ykvdyfawmfrif;rsm;\tjrifus,faom rSefbDvl;rsufvHk;rsm;aMumifh azaz:0g&Dv (8) &uf
aeYu NrdKU&Gm xdwfvefY ajcmufjcm;&onfomru ausmif;om;ESifh &[ef;awmfrsm;udk zrf;qD;&eftwGuf t*Fvdyf ppf
AdkvfcsKyfBuD;? ppfAdkvfuav;? ukvm;ppfAdkvf? ucsifppfAdkvf? ujym;ppfAdkvf vlrsKd;pHkyg0ifaom ppfonfawmfrsm;pGmudk
rEÅav;NrdKUü csxm;avonf/ ¤if;tjyif(1) tdrfomêud tdrfomMum;u acsmif;ajrmif; Munfhí jriforQudk tpD&ifcHjcif;?
(2) refusnf;yifay:rS nOfheufoef;acgif acsmif;ajrmif;í idkufjrnf;NyD;vQif tpD&ifcHjcif;?
196

udv
k ekd aD cwfaESmif; - 1938 rS 1938 - e,fcsq
YJ efu
h siaf &; trsK;d om;a&;toGif
(3) vufbuf&nfqidk ?f umzDqidk rf sm;wGif *syd;k xd;k [ef xkid Nf yD; ykvyd rf eS ;f odou
l kd ajcmufv;kH ? vSeYf v;kH rsm;ay;í
owif;rSef[k pHkaxmufwkdYu xifí tpD&ifcHjcif;?
(4) uav;oli,f vlrr,fwkdYudk ar;jref;í uav;rsm; ajymorQudk tpD&ifcHjcif;?
(5) waeYwrl;ay;í wpfrl;wef pHkaxmufwkdY ajymorQudk tpD&ifcHjcif;?
(6) rdef;rxdef;u tEÅ&m,fuif;&ef tvdkYiSm avmuGwfacsmfí ay;aom owif;udk tpD&ifcHjcif;?
ponfjzifh rzG,fr&m tkef;oD;a<uoHudk ajrNydK[efvkyfí ay;onfh owif;aMumifh NrdKU½Gmajcmufjcm;í tqr
wef aiGukef&acsonf/
xdktcsdef rEÅav;ta&;ydkif rpöwmvuf? &mZ0wf0ef rpöwma&;wdkYonf &efukefNrdKU? jynfxJa&;Xme wm0efcH
rsm;ESihf wku
d ½f u
dk f qufo,
G u
f m rEÅav; Ekid if aH &;tajctaeudk aeYpOf tpD&ifcaH eMu&onf/ 1300 jynf?h wydYkwv
JG qkwf
(5) &uf (8? 2? 39) wGif ausmif;om;wdYk oydwXf mecsKyf vkyx
f m;aom rEÅav;NrdKU? A[kt
d rsKd;om;txufwef;ausmif;udk
ppfwyfjzifh0kdif;NyD; oydwfarSmufausmif;om; acgif;aqmifrsm;jzpfaom1/ udkcsefxGef; (A[dktrsKd;om; txufwef;ausmif;)?
2/ udkMunf (aygufNrdKifausmif;om;)?
3/ udu
k akd v; (0ufpvD ausmif;om;) wkYd tm; zrf;qD;oGm;avonf/ wcsdew
f nf;rSmyif &[ef;ysKdacgif;aqmif
rsm; jzpfaom eef;OD;wdkufrS a½TrsufrSef OD;MobmoESifh tmZmenfOD;okre wkdYudkvnf; zrf;qD;vdkufMuonf/
wydkYwGJvjynfhausmf (6) &ufaeYxJu trsKd;om;txufwef;ausmif;wGifvnf;aumif;? tdrfawmf&mapwD
&ifjyifay:½Sd (14) cef; Z&yfwGifvnf;aumif;? ausmif;om;acgif;aqmifrsm;? ocifacgif;aqmifrsm;onf &[ef;ysKdtzGJU
trIaqmifq&mawmftcsKdUESifh vQKdU0SufaqG;aEG;yGJrsm; nvHk;aygufusif;ycJhonf/ pHkaxmufrsm;onf tdrfawmf&mapwD
&ifjyifodkY rvm0HhMubJ ajrmufzufaygufESifh ta½SUzuf taygufrsm;rS apmif;yg;&dyfacs tuJcwfaeMuonf/ odkY&mwGif
rEÅav;NrdKU av;jyif? av;&yfwiG u
f m; wdYk Armtpnf;t½H;k 0if ocifrsm;? ausmif;om;acgif;aqmifrsm;u &yfuu
G w
f m0efcH
wkdYudk reufjzef eHeuf (8) em&DwGif tdrfawmf&mapwD &ifjyif½Sd (14) cef; Z&yftwGif; vlpkum yk'fr (144) tmPm
zDqefa&; vrf;avQmuf csDwufqE´jyrnf jzpfaMumif; owif;aumif;yg;&if; pnf;½Hk;jcif; jyKMuonf/ &[ef;ysKdtzGJUrS
xkwfa0aom aMunmcsufrsm; yvlysHatmif a0iSMuonf/
1300 jynf?h wydYk wv
JG jynfah usmf (6) &ufaeY? (1) em&DcefY tcsed w
f iG f rEÅav;NrdKU r[mavmu&HoD tdraf wmf&m
bk&m;twGif; (14) cef;Z&yfBuD;ü rEÅav;NrdKU ausmif;om;rdbrsm;ESifh NrdKUvkH;uRwftpnf;ta0; qHk;jzwfcsufrsm;rSmtxl;tqdk (1)
(u) Ak'b
¨ mom ArmwdYk\ pdwEf v
S ;kH udk ,lMuHK;r& xdcu
kd ef musiv
f MS uygí Ak'b
¨ mom0ifwYdk\ 0wåuajrtwGi;f ü
rnfonfh vlrsKd;rqdk rnfonfhudpEö SifhrQ tcgra½G; bdeyfpD;í rwuf&efOya'udk jynfydkiftpdk;&wkdYu twnfjyKvkyf
ay;&ef tqdkudk aejynfawmfcspf &[ef;ysKdtzGJU OD;ukrm&u tqdkwifoGif;í cifruefwdkuf OD;ar@u axmufcH
aMumif;? uefYuGufolr½Sd twnfjyKaMumif;?
(c) azazmf0g&Dv (8) &uf eHeuf (4) em&DtcsdefwGif pHausmif;wkduf tmZmenfOD;okre toQifjrwfudk zrf;qD;
pOfu pHkaxmuftifpywfawmf a';Apfonf ykvdyfbdeyf pD;eif;í tdrfxJodkY 0ifa&mufjcif;udk tpdk;&u av;av;
eufeuf ta&;,lap&ef tqdkudk eef;OD;wkduf OD;nmedaE´mbmo (oHvufoD;) u wifoGif;í bk&m;BuD;wkduf
apmifha½Smufa&; &[ef;ysKdtzGJY OD;ukrm&u axmufcHí twnfjyKaMumif;?
Auotoif;csKyfBuD;rS awmif;qkx
d m;aom tqdrk sm;udk xyfawmif;í (Armjynfv;kH qdik &f m ausmif;om;rsm;
vTwfawmftpnf;ta0;BuD; enf;wl) þrEÅav;NrdKUvHk;uRwf tpnf;ta0;u wnDwnmwnf;? woHwnf;
awmif;qdkaMumif;/
tqdk (2)
(u) vGefcJhaom 'DZifbm (20) &ufaeY eHeufwGif &efukefNrdKUü udkatmifausmfESihf ausmif;om;? ausmif;olrsm;
'Pf&m&í tmZmenf Adkvfatmifausmf aoqHk;cJh&jcif;twGuf pHkprf;a&;cHkorm"dtzGJUwckudk &ufrqGJbJ tjrefac:
ay;&ef Armjynfv;kH qkid &f m ausmif;om;rsm; vTwaf wmftpnf;ta0;BuD; enf;wl þNrdKUvH;k uRwf tpnf;ta0;BuD;u
awmif;qdkaMumif;?
197

jrefrmEdik if H ausmif;om;vIy&f mS ;rIordik ;f
(c) ArmjynfvHk;qdkif&m ausmif;om;rsm;vTwfawmfu awmif;qdkonfudk þrEÅav;NrdKUvHk;uRwf tpnf;
ta0;BuD;u awmif;qdkaMumif;?
(8) txufyg awmif;qdkcsufrsm;udk tus,fw0ifh a&;om;½Sif;vif;í e,for*¾toD;oD;u yHkESdyfí awma&m
NrdKUygrusef urf;vSrf;a0iS&ef oabmwlnDaMumif;/
tqdk (3)
þNrdKUvHk;uRwf tpnf;ta0;BuD;tNyD;wGif pnf;urf;ao0yfpGm vrf;avQmufMu&ef tqdkwifoGif;aMumif;/
tqdk (4)
,ckt*Fvdyftpkd;&wdkYu Armjynftm; ay;tyfxm;onfh tkyfcsKyfa&;topfrSm tESpfryg tumtwdjzpfNyD;
Armjynf½dS tvkyo
f rm;? v,form;? qif;&Jom;wdYk \ aumif;usKd;udk zefw;D ray;Ekid ½f rkH Qru ArmvlrsKd; tcsif;csif;
aoG;uGo
J nfxuf uGaJ prnfh pepfq;dk rsm; ½Sad eonfukd þNrdKUvH;k uRwf tpnf;ta0;BuD;u vH;k 0 axmufcyH gaMumif;?
vuf½ñ
dS eG Yf aygif;tpd;k & rwnfw&hH eftwGuaf omfvnf;aumif;? Ekwx
f u
G o
f mG ;&eftwGuaf omfvnf;aumif;?
twkduftcHrS t,HktMunfr½Sd tqdkwifoGif;í ñGefYaygif;tpdk;& jyKwfusa&;udkaomfvnf;aumif; tjrefqHk;
BudK;pm;Mu&ef/
tqdk (5)
t*FvdyfwdkY Armjynfudk vma&muf odrf;ydkufpOfuwnf;u Armjynf½SdtdrfwGif; pufrIvufrI trsKd;rsKd;wdkY
wdrfaum yaysmufoGm;onfrSm ,aeYwkdifatmifyif jzpfí ,cktcg Armjynf½Sd awmifolv,form; qif;&Jom;rS
pí? ypönf;OpömckdifvHkaom yk*d¾Kvfrsm;txd EkdifiHjcm;rS wifoGif;aom ukefacsmrsm; oHk;pGJaeMujcif;aMumifh Armjynf
aiGrsm; waeYxufwaeY EkdifiHjcm;odkY avsmhqif;onfudk awGU&aMumif;/ þt"du csdKU,Gif;csufudk umuG,f&ef
ArmvlrsKd; rSeforQ1/ ArmtrsKd;om;qkdifrsm;udk tm;ay;&ef?
2/ wdkif;&if;jzpfukefypönf;rsm;udkom tm;ay;&ef?
3/ EkdifiHjcm;jzpf roHk;vQifaeEkdifonfh ypönf;rsm;udk wjynfvHk;u oydwfarSmufatmif ausmif;om;rsm;
aqmif½Guf&ef þNrdKUvHk;uRwf tpnf;ta0;BuD;u oabmwlnDaMumif;?
4/ trSwf (3) tqdEk iS f yh ufoufí oydwaf rSmuf&rnfh ukeyf pön;f pm&if; a&;qG&J ef Auo trIaqmiftzGUJ odYk
vHk;0tmPm vTJtyf&ef þNrdKUvHk;uRwf tpnf;ta0;BuD;u oabmwlnDaMumif;?
5/ txufyg qH;k jzwfcsurf sm; xdxad &mufa&muf aqmif½u
G Ef idk &f ef rEÅav;NrdKUvH;k uRwf tpnf;ta0;BuD;u
wuoESifh AuotrIaqmif (2) zGJUtm; tmPmukef vTJtyfaMumif;?
pDwef;vrf;avQmuf&ef tcsdefr½Sdawmh ojzifh reufjzef eHeuf (11) em&Dxdk; a½TUqdkif;vkdufonf/
rEÅav;vlxo
k nf yxraomf yk'rf (144) tmPmzDqefa&; tpDtpOfrmS vQKdU0Supf mG usdwí
f MuHcahJ omfvnf;
pdwfcs&aom tcsdefa&mufonfESifh wNydKifeuf ajymifajymifwif;wif; vIyf½Sm;vmMuonf/ tkyfcsKyfa&; tmPmydkifrsm;
uvnf; pepfwus wm0efcGJa0í BudKwifjyKjyifoifhonfrsm;udk pDrHxm;Muonf/ rEÅav;aq;½HkBuD;wGif vlemwif
ukwifrsm; toifhjyifxm;onf/ ppfykvdyftzGJUxHrS ,HkMunfpdwfcs&qHk;aom wyfom;rsm;udk a½G;cs,fvsuf tqifoifh
,leDazmif;0wfum trdefYvdkufem&ef (24) em&D wm0efcsxm;onf/
1300 jynfh? wydkYwGJvqef; (7) &ufaeYwGif y&0PftwGif;ü vl (2) odef;ausmf pkrdaeMuNyD/ tdrfawmf&m
apwDwHwkdif;twGif; aemufxyfr0ifEkdifatmif jynfhMuyfvsuf½Sdonf/
&[ef;ysKdtzGJU Ouú| q&mawmf OD;uvsmPonf &[ef;yk*¾dKvf? vlyk*¾dKvfwdkYtm; rJcsí tpDtpOfwus
xm;avonf/ taMumif;rSm e,fcsJUtpdk;& ppfwyfESifh &ifqkdif&ef olYxufiga½SUqHk;u csDwufaecsifMuí jzpfonf/
tzGUJ tpnf;wkid ;f u a½SUqk;H rS csw
D ufvo
kd nf? raMumufr½GUH aemufrwGeYfaom ZGo
J wåEd iS hf Armhpw
d "f mwf &ifu
h sucf ikd rf mrIudk
e,fcsJUNAdwo
d Qtm; tNydKiftqkid f jyovdo
k nf/ yk'rf (144) tmPmzDqefa&; vrf;avQmuf csDwuf&mü &[ef;tzGJU0if
(6) yg; a½SUqHk;rS csDwuf&ef rJusonf/ 'kwd, &[ef;tzGJY0if (10) yg;? wwd, ausmif;om;or*¾? pwkw¬ wdYk Arm
198

udv
k ekd aD cwfaESmif; - 1938 rS 1938 - e,fcsq
YJ efu
h siaf &; trsK;d om;a&;toGif

Source: Aung Tun's Original Copy

199

jrefrmEdik if H ausmif;om;vIy&f mS ;rIordik ;f

Source: Aung Tun's Original Copy

200

udv
k ekd aD cwfaESmif; - 1938 rS 1938 - e,fcsq
YJ efu
h siaf &; trsK;d om;a&;toGif
tpnf;t½H;k tzGJU0if ocif? ocifrrsm;? yÍör &yfuu
G v
f x
l t
k zGUJ tpnf;? qXr tvkyo
f rm;tzGUJ ? owår v,form;tzGJU?
t|r aps;olaps;om;tzGJU ponfjzifhrJusonf/ a½SUqkH; &[ef;awmfrsm;onf okH;a&mifjc,ftvHudk udkifum (26)
bDvrf;ay:odkY a&mufvQif ta½SUpl;pl; vrf;rBuD;twkdif; a<u;aMumfoHrsm; qlnHpGm a<u;aMumfcsDwufvm Muonf/
]"e½Siftpdk;& - ysufpD;ygap}
]zdESdyfcsKyfcs,frI yk'fr (144) tvdkr½Sd}
]rD;wkwf? rD;wkwf - ½IdY ? ½IdY}
]ocifrsKd;a[U - 'dkhArm}
]ta&;awmfyHk atmifygap}
wyfOD;rS &[ef;awmf (6) yg;onf tvHawmfESifhtwl (81) vrf;udk jzwfí aMu;eef;½Hk; awmifbufESifh
,ck a½Twdkuf½kyf½Sif½Hk ajrmufbufMum; a&mufaomtcg ajcvSrf;qHk; &yfvdkufonf/ taMumif;rSm 0g;&if;wkwfudkif
yefcsmyDwyf a½SUrS ta&;ydkifvuf (Mr. H.N. Lett) ESifh &mZ0wf0efa&; (Mr. C. H. Raynes) wdkYu jyefqkwf&ef
t*Fvyd b
f momjzifh wa,mufwvSnhf trdeYf ay;um Budrw
f w
k u
f av; ud,
k pf u
D ikd v
f suf w&rf;&rf; vkyaf eMuaomaMumifh
yifjzpfonf/
wyfOD;acgif;aqmif &[ef;ysKdwpfyg;uvnf;
]]igwkYd rmS bmvufeufrS rygbl;/ igwkYd ukd zdEydS cf sKyfcs,fNyD; rw&m;xkwx
f m;wJh yk'rf (144) jyef½yk o
f rd ;f ay;zdYk
qE´jyw,f/ igwkdY Ouú| q&mawmftrdefYt& pnf;urf; aoao0yf0yfeJY pDwef;vrf;avQmufw,f? igwdkY rif;wdkYudk
&efrrlbl;}}
ta&;ydkifvufu
]]'Dvrf;udk rvmygeJY a½SUudk rwdk;&bl;? jyefqkwfoGm;yg}}
wyfOD; &[ef;ysKdu
]]a½SUwdk;zdkY rwdk;zdkY igwdkYOuú|xH trdefYcHOD;r,f}}
&mZ0wf0efa&;u
]]aemufrqkwf&if aoewfESifh ypf&vdrfhr,f}}
t*FvdyfrsufESmjzL ta&;ydkifESifh &mZ0wf0efwdkYonf (1) rdepfcefY tcsif;csif;&yfí pum;ajymavonf/ xdkY
aemuf yefcsmyDwyfa½SUrS [kdbufonfbuf ul;ajymif; avQmufaeMuonf/ olonf wyfOD;acgif;aqmif &[ef;ysdK
ajymjcif;udk em;vnfonf? em;rvnfonfrl rod? wyfOD;acgif;aqmif &[ef;ysKdtzGJU &yfaomae&mESifh ta&;ydkifvufwdkY
cGJxm;aom ae&mrSm jyw0ufcefYyJ a0;onf/
ta&;ydkifvufrS
]]aemufjyefqkwfoGm;yg? aemufrqkwf&if aoewfeJYypfNyD; vlpkcGJ&vdrfhr,f}}
wyfOD;&[ef;ysKdu
]]igwdkY Ouú|xH oGm;NyD; trdefYemcH&OD;r,f/}}
xdkpOf ta&;ydkifbufrS 0g;&if;wkwfudkif yefcsmyDwyfonf aemufqkwfoGm;NyD; ½dkifz,faoewfwyf ae&m,l
onf/ oydwfwyfzGJUrsm;onf pdwftm;wuf<upGmESifh a<u;aMumfoHrsm;udk oHukef[pfvsuf qlyGufaeMuonf/ wyfOD;rS
&[ef;awmfonf tdrfawmf&mapwD twGif;ü tpDtpOf ae&mcsxm;ay;aeaom Ouú| q&mawmfOD;uvsmPxH trdefY
emcH&ef tvsiftjref xGufvmcJhonf/ xkdtcsdefrSmyif ½kdifz,faoewfoHrsm; xGufvmonf/
&[ef;awmf (7) yg; ajray:odkY vJusoGm;awmfrlonf/ odkY&mwGif tvHudkif &[ef;awmfrSm aoewfxdrSefí
ajray:odYk vJusomG ;aomfvnf; tvHwidk u
f m; ajrodYk rcacs/ tvHwidk u
f kd ycH;k ESihf az;rvsuf rwfrwfaxmif aeaponf/
rdrdudk,fwGif aoewfxdrSefvsuf a0'emcHpm;ae&ygvsuf rmefravsmhaom 0D&d,? ZGJwdkYjzifh awmfvSefa&;tvH ajrrc
atmif xdef;odrf;awmfrlEkdifjcif;rSm Armhordkif;wGif armfuGef;wifxkdufonfh tmZmenfol&Jaumif; r[kwfygavm/
wyfOD;rS &[ef;awmf (7) yg; ajray:odkY vJusoGm;onfESifh wNydKifeuf tawGUtMuHKr½Sdaom vlxkrSm
½kwf½kwfoJoJjzpfum aemufodkY ½SJoGm;avonf/ ausmif;om;? t&yfom; (5) a,mufaoewf xdrSefjyefavonf?
vltkyfxJrS ausmif;om;? tvkyform;? v,form; (4) OD; 'Pf&m&onf/ vltkyfxJrS ukefonfBuD; OD;bvGef;rSm
ae&mwGif yGJcsif;NyD; aoqHk;oGm;cJhonf/ &[ef;awmf (7) yg;udk zrf;qD;cHvkduf&onf/
zrf;qD;cHvkduf&aom &[ef;awmf (7) yg;
(1) OD;em&'
- rpdk;&drfwdkuf
201

jrefrmEdik if H ausmif;om;vIy&f mS ;rIordik ;f
(2) OD;Mobmo
(3) OD;aumae,s
(4) OD;awb0EÅ
(5) OD;nmedaE´mbmo (oHvufoD;udk,fawmf)
(6) OD;ukrm&
(7) OD;OyÜEé
rSm 'Pf&mr&½SdbJ tzrf;qD;cH&avonf/
aoqHk;olrsm;rSm (Adkvf 17OD;)
(1) OD;y@dw
(2) OD;ynmaZmw
(3) OD;a0ykv’
(4) OD;Zedw
(5) OD;tmavmu
(6) OD;auvm
(7) OD;auwk
(8) AdkvfbaX;
(9) AdkvfvSarmif
(10) Adkvfwifatmif
(11) Adkvfrl
(12) AdkvfxGef;atmif
(13) Adkvfatmifxl;
(14) Adkvfcifarmif
(15) AdkvfxGef;td
(16) AdkvfbvGef;
(17) Adkvfcifarmif (ac:) a½T½dk;

- rdk;aumif;wkduf
- cifruefwkduf
- qDrD;xGef;ausmif;wkduf
- Aef;armfwkduf
- ta½SUjyif
- r[mtmZmenftzGJU

- ukodEém½Hkwdkuf
- a*G;csKdwdkuf
- wlarmif;wdkuf? tr&yl&
- pukwkduf
- aiGawmifwkduf
- cifruefwdkuf
- qifwJwkduf
- 0ufpvD[kdufpul;ausmif;om;
- edAÁmeausmif; ausmif;om;
- trsKd;om;txufwef;ausmif; ausmif;om;
- cHkawmfrif;0if;? aMu;eef;½Hk;ajrmufbuf
- qkdif;wef;
- 'ud©P0ef rvGefausmif; ausmif;om;
- omoedu,k0toif;om;
- r&rf;jcH? ukefonf
- o&ufwyif½Gm
- w½kyfwef;&yf? ausmif;om;
(aq;½HkwGif 8 &uftMumrS aoqHk;oGm;onf/)

'Pf&m&olrsm;rSm
aoewfypfc&H ojzifh 'Pf&mtBuD;tus,&f ½So
d rl sm;? aq;½Hw
k ufa&mufae&m 'Pf&maysmufuif;ol atmufyg
(4) OD;tm; rEÅav;axmifBuD;odkY ,laqmifoGm;avonf/
1/ OD;EJGUBuD;
- xD;0if;
2/ umumqif (ac:) armifboef;
- uJvD
3/ armifatmifodef;
- aygufNrdKif
4/ armifvSjrifh
- trsKd;om;ausmif;
aq;½HkwGif usef&Sdolrsm;rSm
1/ udkvSarmif
2/ ocifa½T (ac:) *VKefa½T
3/ OD;bapm
4/ armifaX; (ac:) armifaz
5/ OD;Owår
6/ OD;aumov’
7/ OD;wdavmu
8/ armifcifarmif
202

- &efukefor*¾udk,fpm;vS,f
- qkdif;wef;
- aq;q&m? pdefyef;
- r*Fvmaps;
- eef;OD;wkduf
- awmiforefwkduf
- qDrD;xGef;wkduf
- xD;0if;

udv
k ekd aD cwfaESmif; - 1938 rS 1938 - e,fcsq
YJ efu
h siaf &; trsK;d om;a&;toGif
9/ armifoef;
- aumvdyfwdkYjzpfonf/
aemufaeY azazmf0g&Dv (11) &uf (12) &ufaeYwGif &[ef;ysKdtzGJU Ouú| q&mawmf OD;uvsmP? rEÅav;NrdKU
ausmif;om;or*¾ Ouú| udkatmif? A[kdtrsKd;om;ausmif;rS ausmif;om;acgif;aqmif udkausmf0if;ESifh tcsKdUtm; zrf;
qD; vkdufonf/
(1) udkcsefxGef; (ocifcsefxGef;)
- A[kdtrsKd;om;ausmif;
(2) udkatmifausmf0if; (ocifausmf0if;)
- A[kdtrsKd;om;ausmif;
(3) udkMunf
- aygufNrdKifausmif;
(4) udkudkav;
- 0ufpvDausmif;
(5) a½TrsufrSef OD;Mobmo
- &[ef;ysKdtzGJY
(6) tmZmenfOD;okre
- &[ef;ysKdtzGJY
wdkUtm; axmif (1) ESpfpDvnf;aumif;? q&mawmfOD;uvsmPESifh ukdatmifwkdYtm; axmif (2) ESpfpD tjypf
ay;vkdufonf/

(¡) ref;tmZmenf (17) OD; psmyetcrf;tem;
armfuGef;0ifoDcsif;
oem;p&m? trsm;wumaumif;bkdY&nf? ZmwdrmefpGrf;wJh ref;NrdKU&wemyHkjynf? vGwfvyfapaMumif;
udk&nf - toufudkpGefYMuavonf - - - ArmjynfwGif owif;ESYHavNyD? tmZmenfpdwfrmefxm;um yGm;í
vmonf - - - rsm;ívmonf - - - oGm;avolMunfjzL aZmeJY? w&m;raoG&ygap - - - trQ - - trQ
- - trQ a0ygonf/
aMomf - - - vufeufryg - - - Avmoufouf? onf;cH&ufueJY - - EkdifhxufpD;eif;? igomrif;[k
- xefjyif;pdwfrSm tbdu©emw&m;? vGefjyefYyGm;vdkY trSm;ra½Smif - - - om;aumifozG,f - - acs - '&,fodkY rn§moufouf - - cE¨mysufatmif - - - &ufpufavwm? tmZmenfrsKd;cspfrsm;udkwJhrS - oem;rn§m - - (od*FgoH)/
a'goa½SUxm; - - oem;rn§mwwfwJh tmPmwnf - - - ew&m;obm0eJY - - - t&m&mrnD
tvum;tmPmjywJh Armjynf? c&D;t½Snf &efrrsm;&atmif tjrJpdwfxm; - - - jynfhtapcHrsm;u
wu,fhudk rw&m;trsm;nDNydKifpHa½G;um - - - woufvHk;jrifbdkY EkdifiHa&;rSm rsufvHk;yGifhMuNyD/
aMomf - - - ref;NrdKUXmeD? tmZmenfaygif; axmifaomif;ru wuf<updwfoef - - Zmwdrmefjzihf
MuHzefarQmfawG;? vGwfvyfa&;udk at;csrf;om,m? &apiSm[k ynmOmPf(3)yg;udk ESvHk;MuH&nf? 'dkYbkef;rax&f
oHCmawmf½Sif? vli,frsm;ESihf ausmif;awmfol ausmif;awmfom;wkdYyg pGefYpm;Muawmhonf? vGwfvyfa&;udkwJh
awG;arQmf&nf? toufygcE¨m½Sif;atmif? ESifcJhNyDwJhrS ESifcJhNyD - - - (od*FgoH)/
xm;umrlvnf; - - - a<uvkrnf;qkdif rwwfEkdifygbJ? olEkdifign§if; - - - rif;jyKawmhonf?
twif;t"r®ESdrfoy - - - rif;tpu rcsdefq - - twif;t"r®ESdrfoy? ArmjynftwGuf ajyMuiSef;&u - - - taojref;&wJh a½Tref;NrdKU tmZmenfrsm;udk oem;rdawmhonf/
À
azazmf0g&Dv (17) &ufaeY? tmZmenf (17) OD; tcrf;tem;odkY1/ omoema0ykv’ &[ef;ysKdtzGJY
2/ r[mor*¾ &[ef;ysKdtzGJY
3/ 0Hom[dwum&D &[ef;ysKdtzGJY
4/ A[kdomoemhrmru &[ef;ysKdtzGJY
5/ ZvGef&[ef;ysKdtzGJY
6/ a½Twd*HkapwDawmf a&Munfawmf0wftoif;
7/ &efukefNrdKU? wdkYArmtpnf;t½Hk;XmecsKyf
203

jrefrmEdik if H ausmif;om;vIy&f mS ;rIordik ;f
8/ &efukefoydwfarSmufausmif;om;rsm;XmecsKyf
9/ &efukefNrdKUowif;pmq&mrsm;tzGJY
10/ ArmEkdifiHvHk;qkdif&m vGwfvyfa&;trsKd;orD;rsm;tzGJY
11/ a&TbdkNrdKUrS &[ef;ysKdtzGJUwdkY tjyif
rEÅav;&[ef;ysKdtzGUJ rS tkycf sKyfonft
h zGUJ (3) zGUJ tjyif jrLeDpyD ,f½;kH ol½;kH om;rsm;? rEÅav;a*smfurD sm;? rEÅav;
pD&ifpk wdkYArmtpnf;t½Hk;? rEÅav;NrdKU Ak'¨bmomw½kwfvlrsKd;rsm;toif;? qHyifn§yfqdkifrsm;toif;? [dE´LvlrsKd;rsm;
toif;ESihf at0rf;½ky½f iS t
f zGYJ wYdk vdu
k yf gydYk aqmifonf/ psmyetcrf;tem;odYk &efuek rf S Armjynfvw
G v
f yfa&; trsKd;orD;
rsm;tzGJU? &efukefowif;pm udk,fpm;vS,frsm;tzGJU? &efukefpma&;q&mrsm; udk,fpm;vS,f? &efukefwuúodkvfausmif;
om;or*¾ udk,fpm;vS,frsm; wufa&mufMuonf/
tmZmenf (17) OD;udk ]aersKd;r[moD[ol&bGJY} csD;jr§ifUavonf/
trsKd;orD;rsm;u uBudK;wyfqGJ tacgif;rsm;udk qGJavonf? tzGJUaygif; (42) zJGU yg0ifavonf/ olemjyKwyf
rsm;u vkdufvHí psmyetcrf;tem;odkY a&mufvmolrsm;udk vdkufvHapmifha½Smuf tultnDay;Muonf/ &wemyHk
av;jyif? av;&yfvHk;qkdif&m &[ef;ysKdtzGJU Ouú| q&mawmfO;D uvsmPu trdeYf jyefwrf;ESifh trQa0pmwrf;udk xkwjf yef
&mwGif
]]tdk nDawmfwkdY oifwkdYonf pnf;urf;ao0yfpGm vufeufwpHkw&m ryg Avmudk,fcsnf;om? rdrdwkdY\
vdkvm;csufrsm;udk tpdk;&wkdYtm; azmfjywkkdifwef;vdkMuojzifh pDwef;vSnfhvnfyGJodkY 0ifETJvkdufygMuukef\/
tpd;k &onf igwkYd tay: ,kw,
då w
k må uif;rJph mG olwYkd tapcHrsm; ay;qufMuaom wzufouf tpD&ifcpH mrsm;
udk tm;udk;wck tajcjyKí twGif;ya,m*rsm; yl;0ifaESmifh,SufMuNyD;vQif igwdkYudk olykef[k pGyfpGJxifrSwfMuvsuf
&uf&ufpufpuf iJhuGufn§mwmjcif; vHk;0r½SdbJ ta&;ydkif rpöwmvufu BuD;rª;uGyfuJí ol\trdefYjzifh ppfyGJrsm;rSmom
toHk;jyKaom aoewfrsm;jzifh vufyg;ap ppfom;wdkYu 'vMurf; tBudrfBudrf ypfcwfap\/
þuJhokdY NAdwdoQtpkd;&\ ,Ofaus;rIudk urÇmuodatmif azmfjyvkdufojzifh olwdkY\ ,Ofaus;rIudk igwkdY
oifcef;pm w&yftaejzifh pdwf0,fjcm;em; rSwfom;&ayNyD/ igwdkY\ tMurf;rzuf? tEkoufoufqkdaom 0g'pnf;rsOf;
udkvnf; tajymr[kwf? igwkdY tvkyfjzifh wydkYwGJvqkwf (7) &ufaeYu olwkdY xif½Sm;ydkifydkif odjrifMuayNyD/
xku
d o
hJ Ykd tMurf;ppfy?JG tEkppfyJG ,SOw
f NJG ydKifqidk í
f olEidk f igEkid f tcsufyikd yf ikd f (2) OD; &ifqidk f wku
d cf u
kd Mf u&mwGif
olwYkdonf tMurf;enf;jzifh atmifjrifMuukeí
f igwdYk vnf; tEkenf;jzifh olwYkdukd tjywftowf evefrxl? tvHrjzLEkid f
atmif Ekid v
f u
kd f Muuke\
f / vufeufryg ,Ofaus;odraf rGUpGmjzifh ppfatmifMuonft
h wGuf igwkYd u oifwYdk ukd ppfatmif
aom AdkvfcsLyfBuD;wdkY[lí csD;usL;0rf;ajrmufMu&ayukef\/
odYk &mwGif tpd;k &\ aoewf'Pfcsufjzifh toufq;kH ½H;I jcif;cH&aom oifwYdk ukd 'DaeY? 'D&uf? 'Dtcdsef? 'Dae&mrSm
yif tNyD;wkdif oN*KØ[f&awmhrnfjzpf&mum; igwkdY\ tl? tonf;udk xkwf,lqGJiifonhfyrm vGefpGmylyif ikdyGJqifí
usqif;aom rsuf&nfwdkYrSm oifwkYd\ cE¨mudk,ftwGif;rS aoewf'PfcsufaMumifh ,dkxGufusqif;aom aoG;rsm;ESihf
EdIif;pmaomf tb,frSm usifhxHk;rDp&menf;vnf; jyp&m½SdawmhtHhoenf;/
igwdkY &[ef;awmfrsm;onf Arm&mZ0if tpOftquf jrefrmrif;wkdY\ vufxufrSm rif;q&m &mZ*k½krsm;
jzpfí Armbk&ifrsm;u igwdkYudk (oH) ESihf pyfí tyfEiS rhf Qyif r&G,cf b
hJ ;l onf rSeaf omfjim;vnf;? NAdw
d o
d QvlrsKd;S wkYd tkypf ;kd
í uReftjzpf a&mufaeMu&onfh ,cktcg &[ef;awmfrsm;udk aoewfjzifh ypfowfjcif;cHMu&onfh twGuf NAdwdoQ
vlrsK;d wkYd pdw0f ,f aoacG pGjJ rJaeaom tBudwt
f cJrsm;onf urÇmaMuaomfvnf; aMuaysmufuek q
f ;kH jcif;odYk a&mufEidk Mf u
rnf r[kwfay/
igwdkY rsufpdtm½Hk jzpfMuukefaom vlwkdif; vlwdkif;wdkYrSm NrdKUwGif;ü pDwef;vSnfhvnfonfhtcg vufeuf
rygonfh tjzpfukd igwdYk odMuaomfjim;vnf; olwYkd rsupf rd mS igwdYk tay:ü vS"H g; wajymifajymif udik af qmifvmonf[k
jrifMujcif;rSm rdrw
d Ykd xifovkd vGeu
f sL;ypfrmS ;aom tjypfrsm;udk ydwq
f YkdumuG,t
f ahH omiSm? ud,
k yf ikd Of mPfukd toH;k jyKjcif;
avm? odkYr[kwf aoG;½ll; aoG;ief; tjyif;zrf;qD;NyD; aMumufpdwfrTefí t&rf;jyKvkyfMujcif;avm[k w&mhajcmufq,f
(au) usrf;jyKbG,f&mom jzpfayawmh\/
nDawmfwYdk onf þb0rSm pkawrae? aovGeMf u&ukeaf omfvnf; trsKd;? bmom? omoemudk tjyif;txef
cspfcifvpS mG aom pdw"f gwfwYkd ukd ,kid v
f NJ ydKuJjJG cif; r½SMd uaprlí Ekid af tmif xde;f csKyfMuukev
f suf a&muf&mb0rS igwdYk tm;
tultnD ay;Muukefavmh/
igwkYdonf oifwkdYtm; &nfpl;í oHCmawmf (150) wdkYtm; yifhí a',s"r®? 'guAÁ0wåK tpkpkwkdYjzifh vSL'gef;
204

udv
k ekd aD cwfaESmif; - 1938 rS 1938 - e,fcsq
YJ efu
h siaf &; trsK;d om;a&;toGif
ylaZmfMuygukef\/ igwkdY\ aumif;rItzdkYudk oifwkdYtm; trQay;a0ygukef\/ trQ&Muí oifwdkYtpk csrf;omMuygap
ukefownf;/}}

rEåav;or*¾acgif;aqmif udkarmifudkrdefhcGef;
&Jabmfw-hkd
,aeY,cktcsdefwGif igonf þae&modkY 0rf;om0rf;enf; a0cGJí r&Ekdifaom pdwfrsKd;jzifh wufvmyg\/
igwdkY wkdif;jynfESifh igwdkYtrsKd; aumif;pm;a&;twGuf toufudk y"merxm; &uf&ufa&ma&m wyfOD;rS pGefYpm;&if;
usqHk;oGm;Muayaom &JabmfwdkY\ ol&owåd*kPfudk csD;usL;pum; aus;Zl;qdk&awmhrnf jzpfí ig0rf;ajrmufrd\? ig
0rf;omrd\? igvufyrf;ayguf cwfrd\/ taqG&Jabmf yk*¾dKvfxl;rsm;onf igtm; aemufqHk;tBudrf avmutv,f
wGif zG,fcGma½SmifuGif;í rjyefvrf;udk jref;MuavNyD/
igrlum; ESajrmwo ,lMuHK;r& oifwkdYtwGuf ig\ tonf;ESvHk;wdkYrSm rD;[kef;[kef;awmufí aeavNyD/
tkd &Jabmfudkwifatmifoifonf ig\ rsupf ad tmuf igh\ vufay:wGiyf if BuD;jyif;vmcJ\
h / toifum; i,f½,
G v
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205

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206

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207

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dk cf u
dk jf cif;paom
Murf;MuKwfrIwdkYaMumifh ausmif;ol? ausmif;om;wdkY\ aoG;pdrf;½Sif½SifwdkYrSm pywfvrf; ajrjyifwGif woGifoGipf ;D usum
tkid x
f eG ;f cJo
h nfudk vnf;aumif;? touf (22) ESpf t&G,rf Q½Sad o;aom tvkyt
f rIaqmifwOD;jzpfaom &Jabmf aumvdyf
ausmif;om; Auotoif;om; udak tmifausmrf mS xdak eYu &½Scd ahJ om ykvyd rf sm;\ ½ku
d Ef u
S rf aI Mumifh ,refEpS f jymodv
k qef;
(2) &ufaeYu þavmuBuD;rS pGeYfcmG oGm;&½SmonfwYkdukd vnf;aumif;? igwdYkonf rnfonfh enf;ESihf arhEidk af wmhtehH nf;/
xkdaeUu vlpdwfuif;Muukefaom jynfhtapcH vufyg;apwdkY\ &ufpufrIudk rsuf0g;xifxif ½IjrifMu&ukef
aom vlpw
d ½f o
dS t
l aygif;wdYk onf vnf;aumif;? owif;pum; Mum;odMuukeaf om ArmjynfbmG ; trsKd;om;? trsKd;orD;
rsm;onfvnf;aumif; ]]þavmuBuD;\w&m;ajzmifrh eS jf cif; uif;cJah csNyDwum;? uRefb0jzifah e&aom vlrsKd;rSm þodYk
&uf&ufpufpuf n§i;f yef;ESyd pf ufjcif;udk cH&ygwum;}} [k ,lMuHK;r& ESv;kH tdrrf S pdr,
hf í
kd xGuaf om aoG;uJo
h Ykd eDjref;onfh
rsuf&nfayguf BuD;i,fwdkYonf ArmajrjyifwGif woGifoGif pD;uscJhonfudk igwdkYonf rarhEkdifawmhacs/
þta&;upí wwdik ;f wjynfv;kH rD;[ke;f [ke;f awmufum qlyv
l yI ½f mS ;rIwYdk jzpfay:vmNyD;vQif atmifvNH rdKUrS
Adv
k b
f zd;k rSmvnf; jynft
h apcHwYdk \ &ufpufvaS om aoewf'Pf&mjzifh toufpeG Yf omG ;&½Smonft
h jyif ,refEpS w
f ydYk wJG
vjynfhausmf (7) &ufaeYuvnf; rdrdwdkY vGwfvyfvkdaom qE´udk pDwef;vrf;avQmufjcif;jzifh jyoMuaom rEÅav;NrdKU
awmf½Sd &[ef;oHCmawmfrS pí ausmif;ol? ausmif;om;? NrdKUolNrdKUom; axmifaygif;rsm;pGmwdkYtm; jynfhtapcHrsm;onf
qifjcifww
kH &m; tenf;i,frQ rxm;bJ Muuf? iSu?f wd&pämefwYkdukd &ufpufpmG ypfowfbo
d uJo
h Ykd ½kid zf ,faoewfrsm;jzifh
rn§mraxmuf ypfazmuf ESdyfuGyfjcif;udk jyKojzifh NrdKUolNrdKUom; (40) ausmfcefY 'Pf&m&½Sdonfh teuf &[ef;awmf
(7) yg;ESihf ausmif;om;t&yfom; (10) OD;wkYd &½St
d yfaom aoewf'Pf&maMumifh r&PEkid if o
H Ykd vdu
k yf g&½Smonfuv
kd nf;
igwkdYonf ,aeYwdkif rarhEkdifawmhacs/
igwdkYonf vlYb0udk &onfupí obm0"r®tm;jzifh vGwfvyfaom rEkóvlom;rsm; jzpfMuukef\/
vGwfvyfaom b0udk igwdkY rEkóvlom;rsm;om r[kwfao;? awmaewd&pämef t½kdif;tpkdif;wdkYyifvQif av;jrwf
ESpfouf MunfjzLMuukef\/ vGwfvyfa&;onf avmu"r®wmt& rnfolrqdk tarGcHxdkufaom jrifhjrwfonfh b0
jzpfaMumif;udk igwkdY od½Sdem;vnfvmMuayNyD/
vGwfvyfa&;atmifyef;\ wnf&mc&D;vrf;onfum; tvGefw&m ajymifacsm ajzmifhwef;aom uwå&map;
vrf;rBuD; r[kwfay/ vGwfvyfa&; c&D;vrf;BuD;onfum; tqif;&JcH&jcif;? tESdyfpufcH&jcif;? ypönf;Opöm tqHk;t½IH;
cH&jcif;? axmifwef; tusc&H jcif;? touftaocH&jcif;wnf;[laom ql;ajimifu
h efoif;? csKid w
hf iG ;f url taumuftauGY
wdkYjzifh wefqmqiftyfaom c&D;vrf;Murf;BuD;yifwnf;/
xdkYaMumifh w½kwfvlrsKd;wdkYonf vnf;aumif;? ykdvefvlrsKd;wdkYonf vnf;aumif;? zifvefvlrsKd;wkdYonf
vnf;aumif; rdrdwdkY\ vGwfvyfa&;udk ra&rwGufEdkifaom pnf;pdrftoufwkdYjzifh zvS,fum &efoltaygif;wdkYtm;
wGef;vSefNzdKzsufaeonfukd ,cktcg igwkYd rsufarSmufwGif awGYMuHKaeMu&NyD r[kwfavm/ igwdkYtm; vTrf;rdk;tkyfpkd;ae
onfh t*FvdyfvlrsKdS;onfyif rdrdwdkY vGwfvyfa&;udk waeYaeYwGif xdcdkufvmrnfudk od½Sd&dyfrdojzifh wkdif;i,f jynfi,f
uav;rsm;\ vGwfvyfa&;udk ckcHumuG,f ae&ygonf[k taMumif;vSvS urÇmudkjyNyD; *smrPDemZD&efukd pnf;pdrf
touf ajrmufrsm;pGm tqHk;t½HI;cHí ppfaMunmum NzdKzsufokwfoifaeonfukd igwkdY rsuf0g;xifxif ½IjrifaeMu&NyD
208

udv
k ekd aD cwfaESmif; - 1938 rS 1938 - e,fcsq
YJ efu
h siaf &; trsK;d om;a&;toGif
r[kwfavm/
odkYjzpf&m vGwfvyfa&;\ wefzkd;onf tqHk;tp r½Sdonfhtwkdif; vGwfvyfa&;udk t&,l&ef BudK;yrf;tm;
xkw&f mü pnf;pdrf toufwYkd ukd pGeYf Mu&jrJjzpfonfrmS urÇmY"r®wmjzpfonfudk taxmifaom urÇmY&mZ0ifrsm;uvnf;
axmufcv
H suf ½Sad eayonf/ igwdYkonfvnf; þ"r®wmobm0udk vGeq
f efum tb,frmS vQif vGwv
f yfa&;udk t&,l&ef
jzpfEkdiftHhenf;/ toufpGefYoGm;Muukefaom tmZmenfol&Jaumif;wkdYonf igwdkYtm; vGwfvyfa&; vrf;rSefudk xifxif
½Sm;½Sm; jycJhMuayNyD/ xdktmZmenfol&Jaumif;wkdY\ ajc&mudk waeYaeYwGif igwkdY eif;&awmhrnfrSm rvGJra½Smifomaom
wm0ef0wå&m;yif jzpf\/ vGwv
f yfa&;atmifyef;udk qGwcf ;l vko
d rl sm;um; tiftm;csed YJ ,dr;f EGUJ aeaom rde;f rvsm? vlrrm
wdkY\ t&mr[kwf/ owåd? AswådESifh jynfhpHkaom &J&Jawmuf tmZmenfol&Jaumif;wdkY\ t&momvQifjzpfay\/ usm;udk
cvkwf? opfikwfudk oifjzL;? ql;udk arGY&mozG,f oabmxm;um tcsKyftcs,f? taESmifht,Suf? tqD;twm;[lorQ
wdYk ukd ydik ;f jzwf y,f½iS ;f csO;f eif; okwo
f ifvsuf &J0phH mG ? iga,musmF ;[k BudK;pm;tHcJ ZGeJ bJBuD;olwYdkomvQif vGwv
f yfa&;
atmifyef;udk qifjref;&rnf jzpfownf;/
tdk tmZmenftaygif; ol&Jaumif;wkdY? taqGwdkY\ jyif;xefvSaom xGufoufwkdYonf? pdwf"mwfrsm;onf
igwdkY\ udk,fcE¨mü wnfaeudef;atmif; ygapownf;/
taqGwYkdonfum; vlwYkd\ oufwrf;wGif xrf;aqmif&rnfh rdrw
d Ykd wm0ef0wå&m;udk toufpeG Yfí xrf;aqmif
oGm;Muojzifh &mZ0ifajymifum *kPfarmufMuay\/ taqGwdkYonf trsKd;\ *kPfukd aqmifoGm;EkdifMuouJhokdY igwkdY
vnf; aqmifEkdifatmif tcsdeftcg aumif;onf rMumrwif qkdufa&muf ygapownf;/
tdk tmZmenftaygif; ol&aJ umif;wkYd taqGwYkd \ xufoefvaS om ZG?J jrJpcJG idk rf mvSaom rsKd;cspfpw
d ?f xdyx
f yd f
MuJ wcJeufaom owådponfh rGefjrwfonfh t&nftcsif;wkdYudk igwdkYonf pdwftm;xufoefpGm csD;usL;Mobm
axmyem jyKMuyguke\
f / taqGwYkd\ 0dnmOfpw
d "f gwfrsm;onf vGwv
f yfa&; yef;wdik o
f Ydk a½S;½IomG ;aeMuaom igwdYk tm;
rD;½I;wefaqmifBuD;ozG,f OmPftvif;a&mifudk ay;vsuf½SdacsNyD/
tdk tmZmenftaygif; ol&Jaumif;wkdY igwdkYonf taqGwdkYtm; igwkdY jyKorQ 'geukokdvf tzdkYzdkYudk trQ?
trQ? trQ ay;a0Muygukef\/ taqGwdkYonf Mum;onfhae&mu om"k tEkarm'em jyKEkdifMuonfjzpfí vGwfvyfaom
ok*wdb0wGif vGwfvyfaom yk*¾dKvfrsm;tjzpfjzifh vGwfvyfa&;\ t&omudk aumif;pGm cHEkdifMuygapownf;/
ArmjynfzGm; wkdif;&if;om;taygif;wdkY igwdkYonf ,aeYupí igwkdY wrsKd;om;vHk; OruGJodkufrysuf pnf;vHk;
nDñGwfa&;udk &atmif aeYnrtm; aqmif&GufBudK;yrf;MuygukeftHh/
oef;aygif; rsm;pGmaom ArmvlrsKd;wkYd onf rdrw
d Ykd wdik ;f jynfBuD;udk vH;k 0vGwv
f yfa&; ay;rSomvQif auseyfEikd f
rnf[laom jyif;xefonfh pdwfqE´udk jyMuukeftHh/
igwkYd ArmvlrsdK;wkYd \ pD;yGm;a&;? ynma&;? usef;rma&;? omoem bmoma&;? vlrsdK; wk;d wufzYHG NzdK;a&;paom
BuD;yGm;rI trsKd;rsKd;wdkYudkvnf; igwdkYonf toufaoG;cJ wnfaeorQ umvywfvHk; pGrf;aqmif tm;xkwfMuukeftHh/
igwkdY Armwdkif;? Armwkdif; vGwfvyfa&;udk wu,fvkdvm;aom pdwf"gwfrsm; udef;atmifaeorQ umvywf
vHk; ArmjynfBuD;onf wu,fyif vGwfvyfa&; &rnfrSm rvGJaom taMumif;yif jzpf\/
tkd tcsif;wkYd &J&ifw
h nfMunf ArmyDoolwYkd omvQif Armjynfü vGwv
f yfa&; a&mifjcnfoef;vmNyD[k xif½mS ;
pGm awGUjrifEkdifrnfjzpfownf;/
ta&;awmfykHatmifygap
1301 ckESpf?
&efukefNrdKY? tmZmenfaehaumfrwDtzGJY

209

jrefrmEdik if H ausmif;om;vIy&f mS ;rIordik ;f

OD;A[de;f
(1938-39)
Source: Oway Magazines

wuo Ouú| udak tmifqef; (Adv
k cf sKyf) Ekwx
f u
G o
f mG ;ojzif?h Ouú|tjzpf qufvufwm0ef,&l jcif; jzpfonf/
1279 ck? 0gqdkvqef; (10) &uf? Ak'¨[l;aeY? eHeuf (7) em&D tcsdefwGif tif;0NrKdU udkif;wef;&yfü zGm;jrifonf/
tz OD;rSi?f trd a':OD;wdYk \ yÍörajrmufom;jzpfonf/
rEÅav;NrKdU atbDtrf rdef;uav;ausmif;? ousoD[bk&m; teD; q&midkausmif;? rEÅav;NrKdU A[dktrsdK;om;
txufwef;ausmif;rsm;wGif ynmqnf;yl;cJ\
h / 1934 ckEpS w
f iG f rEÅav;Oypmaumvdyüf pwif ynmoifMum;
cJo
h nf/ 1935-36 ckEpS w
f iG f rEÅav;Oypmaumvdyaf usmif;om;rsm;or*¾ trIaqmifjzpf\/ 1936 ck ausmif;om;
oydww
f iG f ppfuikd ;f tpd;k &txufwef;ausmif;odYk oydwo
f mG ;wm;&m ausmif;tkyBf uD; rpöwma'gif;ESihf paumuf
rsm;u 0dik ;f ½du
k o
f jzifh 'Pf&m&½Scd o
hJ nf/ 1936-37 ckEpS w
f iG f rEÅav;Oypmaumvdyaf usmif;om;rsm;or*¾ Ouú|
tjzpf aqmif½u
G cf í
hJ Oypm txufwef;udk ygVdbmom *kPx
f ;l jzifh atmifjrifcahJ vonf/
&efuek w
f uúov
kd w
f iG f qufvufynmqnf;yl;í 1938-39 ckwiG f wuo trIaqmiftjzpf a½G;cs,w
f ifajr§muf
cH&onf/ wuo Ouú| udak tmifqef; Ekwx
f u
G o
f mG ;aomtcg Ouú|tjzpf wm0ef,&l jcif; jzpfonf/ 193839 ckEpS f Auo Ouú|vnf; jzpfonf/ udAk [de;f udk wuo Ouú|tjzpfxuf Auo Ouú|tjzpf vlord sm;cJo
h nf/
1938 ckESpfü a&eHajroydwf ay:aygufcJhonf/ a&eHajroydwform;rsm;onf &efukefNrKdUodkY csDwufqE´jy&ef?
a&eH acsmif;NrKdUrS xGucf MhJ uonf/ Ouú| udAk [de;f ESihf udAk aqGwYkdonf a&eHacsmif;NrKdUwGif ay:aygufvsu½f adS om
ausmif;om;oydwt
f a&;ESihf a&eHajrrS csDwufvmaom oydwo
f rm;rsm;ta&;udk pHpk rf;&ef c&D;xGucf MhJ uonf/
rauG;NrKUd ü a&eHajrrS csw
D ufvmaom oydwo
f rm;rsm;tm; w&m;a[maepOf tzrf;cHc&hJ avonf/ or*¾ Ouú|ESihf
twGi;f a&;rSL;tm; zrf;qD;ojzifh ausmif;om;oydwf ay:aygufcahJ vonf/
ausmif;om;rsm;onf twGi;f 0efrsm;½H;k odYk csw
D ufqE´jyMu&m? a*:&mpmoifrsm;u jrif;ESihf wdu
k ?f eHygwfww
k Ef iS hf
½du
k o
f jzifh *syq
f ifaumvdyrf S udak tmifausmf usq;kH cJo
h nf/ ausmif;om;trsm;tjym; 'Pf&m &cJMh u\/ ausmif;
om;? tvkyo
f rm;? v,form;oydwf aygif;pHpk pk nf;rdum? 1300 jynfh ta&;awmfy[
kH k ordik ;f 0if rSww
f rf;wif
cJhMuonf/ ausmif;olausmif;om;rsm; NrKdUroydwfpcef;wGif tpmtiwfcH qE´jycJhMuonf/ a'gufwmbarmf
tpdk;&jyKwfusí OD;yktpdk;&wufNyD;? ausmif;om;oydwf NyD;qHk;cJhonf/
udAk [de;f onf 1939 ckEpS w
f iG f wuúov
kd rf S xGuí
f wdYk Armtpnf;t½H;k odYk 0ifa&muf vkyaf qmifco
hJ nf/ 1940
ckESpfwGif zrf;qD;cH&NyD;? *syefacwf a'gufwmbarmf tpdk;&vufxufwGif EdkifiHjcm;a&;Xme twGif;0eftjzpf
aqmif½u
G cf \
hJ / 1945 ck *syefawmfveS af &;wGif awmificl ½dik w
f iG f wm0ef,cl o
hJ nf/
(wpfzufpmrsuEf mS od-Yk )
210

udv
k ekd aD cwfaESmif; - 1938 rS 1938 - e,fcsq
YJ efu
h siaf &; trsK;d om;a&;toGif

a'guw
f mvSa½T
(1939-40)

M.B.B.S

Source: Oway Magazines

1300jynfh ta&;awmfwiG f tmPm½Siv
f aS ½T[k ausmMf um;cJo
h jl zpfonf/ udv
k aS ½Tonf 1300jynfh ta&;awmf\
trSwt
f om;jzpfonf/
ysOf;rem;NrKdUü 1276 ck? e,kev
f jynfah usmf (12) &ufaeYwiG f zGm;jrifí zsmyHNk rKdUü BuD;jyif;cJ&h \/ 1931 ckEpS w
f iG f
&efukefwuúodkvfü pwifynmoifMum;í aq;twwfynmudk qufvufoif,lcJhonf/ 1936-37 ckESpfwGif
wuo twGi;f a&;rSL;? 1938-39 ckwiG f wuo 'k-Ouú|tjzpf wm0efxrf;aqmifcí
hJ 1939-40 ckwiG f wuo
Ouú|tjzpf a½G;aumuf wifajr§mufjcif;cH&onf/
1938-1939 ckESpf 1300 jynfh ta&;awmfyHkBuD;wGif or*¾ Ouú| udkA[def; zrf;cH&NyD;aemuf udkvSa½Tonf
ta&;awmfyHkBuD;udk qufvufacgif;aqmifum wdkufyJG0ifcJhonf/ tmPm½SifudkvSa½T[lí wdkif;jynfu od½Sd
cJMh uonf/ 1300 jynfh ta&;awmfyu
kH kd qufvufacgif;aqmif&if; tzrf;cHc&hJ onf/
1939 ckEpS w
f iG f wuorS BuD;rSL;um Adv
k af tmifausmu
f sq;kH aomaeYukd tmZmenfaeY[k owfrw
S u
f m yxrqH;k
usif;ycJMh uonf/
udkvSa½Tonf q&m0efbJGUudk 1940-41 ckESpfwGif qGwfcl;NyD;aemuf? aq;ynmjzifh toufarG;um {csrf;pGm
aecJo
h nf/ 'kw,
d urÇmppfBuD;tNyD; aq;ynm qufvufqnf;yl;&ef t*FvefEikd if o
H YkdtoGm; 1947 ckEpS f Mo*kwv
f
(23) &ufaeYwiG f yg½Se;f yifv,fauGY? ab;&de;f uRef; teD;wGif av,mOfysufusí tedpaö &mufcahJ vonf/

udkA[def;rS tqufudkA[def;onf ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDudk pwifxlaxmifol wOD;jzpfNyD;? 1946 ck uGefjrLepfygwD ajAmifxl
axmifaomtcgwGif A[dak umfrwD0ifjzpfco
hJ nf/ aemifwiG f ay:vpfAsL½dt
k zJUG 0ifjzpfí Armjynftvkyo
f rm;or*¾
(A.B.T.U.C) \ Ouú|jzpfonf/ 1946 ck? Edk0ifbmv (20) &ufaeYwGif rEÅav;aq;½HkBuD;wGif uG,fvGef
tedpaö &mufco
hJ nf/ jynfaxmifpjk refrmEdik if aH wmf\ vGwv
f yfa&;armfueG ;f 0if pm&if;wGif yxrqifrh S aMunmay;
jcif; cHc&hJ oljzpfavonf/
211

Source: File Photo

rauG;NrKd w
Y iG f udAk [de;f ESit
Uf wl
tzrf;cH&aom
wuotwGi;f a&;rSL; udAk aqG
Source: Aung Tun's Original Copy

jrefrmhtvif;owif;pm t,f'w
D m OD;cspaf rmif (*sme,fausm)f u ay;tyfcahJ om vGwv
f yfa&;wdu
k yf 0GJ if *kPx
f ;l aqmifvufrw
S f erlemyHpk H (1)

212

Source: Portraits (DTY)

udak tmifausmEf iS t
Uf wl t½du
k cf &H aom
udMk unfarmif (aemif Adv
k rf LS ;Bu;D
Munfarmif)

213
Source: Aung Tun's Original Copy

jrefrmhtvif;owif;pm t,f'w
D m OD;cspaf rmif (*sme,fausm)f u ay;tyfcahJ om vGwv
f yfa&;wdu
k yf 0GJ if *kPx
f ;l aqmifvufrw
S f erlemyHpk H (2)

wdAhk rmtpnf;t½H;k wHqyd f
wdAhk rm - owif;pOfrw
S w
f rf; acgi;f pD;trSwt
f om;

Adv
k af tmifausmf tygt0if wuúov
kd af usmif;om;rsm; &efuek f twGi;f 0ef½;kH udk 0dik ;f aepOf

Source: Doh Bamar

214

1300 jynfh ta&;awmfykH zrf;qD;axmifcsc&H onfh rEåav;oydwaf cgi;f aqmifrsm;

Source: Aung Tun's Original Copy

Ouú|q&mawmf OD;uvsmP
av;jyifav;&yfv;kH qdik &f m&[ef;ysKt
d zJcYG sKy?f
a0,efbo
kH mwdu
k f

udak tmif - tdik t
f ufpD txufwef;
(rEåav;ausmif;om;rsm;tzJaYG cgi;f aqmif)

rEåav;oydwfacgif;aqmif
Ouú|q&mawmf OD;uvsmPESifh
ausmif;om;acgif;aqmif
udkatmifwdkhtm; axmif'Pf (2)
ESpfpD toD;oD;csrSwfcHcJh&onf/

axmif'Pf (1) ESpfpD csrSwfcH&aom ausmif;om;acgif;aqmif (4) OD;

udak tmifausm0f if; (10 wef;? A[dt
k rsK;d om;ausmif;)
wydw
hk v
GJ qkwf (12) &ufwiG f trdechf sonf/

udck sex
f eG ;f (10 wef;? A[dt
k rsK;d om;ausmif;)
wydw
hk v
GJ qkwf (12) &ufwiG f trdechf sonf/

udak rmifMunf (ayguNf rKd iw
f u
kd )f
wydw
hk v
GJ qkwf (10) &ufwiG f trdechf sonf/

udu
k akd v; (10 wef;? 0ufpvD,aH usmif;)
wydw
hk v
GJ qkwf (12) &ufwiG f trdechf sonf/

acgi;f aqmif udo
k ed ;f atmif

rEåav;or*¾acgi;f aqmif udak rmifukd

215

216

Source: Aung Tun's Original Copy

217
Source: Aung Tun's Original Copy

rEåav;oydww
f iG f usq;kH cJah om tmZmenf (16) OD;\ psmyeyJG

Source: Aung Tun's Original Copy

Adv
k f (16) OD;\ psmyetcrf;tem; aps;csKad wmf ta½Sb
Y ufwiG f jrif&yHk

218

rEåav;oydww
f iG f usq;kH cJah om tmZmenf (16) OD;\ psmyeyJG

em&DpifauGw
Y iG f ausmif;olrsm;\ ppf&xm;,mOf vGeaf jrmufNy;D aemuf e*g;eDtrsK;d orD; aq;vdycf t
kH zJu
YG kd jrifEikd \
f

Source: Aung Tun's Original Copy

219

ref;tmZmenf (17) OD;
(1)
OD;y@dw

(2)
OD;ynmaZmw

ukoEd mé ½Hw
k u
kd f
toufawmf - 28
0gawmf crnf;awmf - OD;pH
r,fawmf - a':zD
aumhp&Gm? oxH'k pD Bww
d f

a*G;csKw
d u
kd f
toufawmf - 25
0gawmf crnf;awmf - OD;atmifb
r,fawmf - a':zmG ;cspf
qumBu;D NrKd ?Y rtlyif'pD Bww
d f

(3)
OD;a0ykvÈ

(4)
OD;Zedw

wl;armif;wdu
k ?f tr&yl&
toufawmf - 27
0gawmf crnf;awmf - OD;xGe;f vS
r,fawmf - a':v'S eG ;f
jrpfusK;d pmwdu
k ?f yJc;l 'DpBww
d f

pukwu
kd f
toufawmf - 35
crnf;awmf? r,fawmfwrhkd mS
uG,v
f eG Nf y;D ? arG;pm;
r,fawmfrmS yckuLú wGi&f dS
yckuLú 'DpBww
d f

(5)
OD;tmavmu
aiGawmifwu
kd f
toufawmf - 30
0gawmf - 10
crnf;awmf - OD;Edik f
r,fawmf - a':quf
OoQpu
f ek ;f ½Gm? a&eHacsmif;tydik f
rauG;'DpBww
d f

toufawmf - 25? 0gawmf - 5
OD;eE´0o
H av;xyfausmif;ae? ESycf sK½d mG ? jrpfBu;D em;'DpBww
d /f

(7) OD;auwk (qifwJwdkuf)
toufawmf - 41? 0gawmf - 16
r,fawmf - a':bmG ;? carmufx-k cGq½kH mG ? &aoUawmif tydik ?f
ppfawG'pD Bww
d /f

(8) AdkvfbaX; (0ufpvD [dkufpul;ausmif;om;)

(9)
AdkvfvSarmif

(10)
Adkvfwifatmif

OD;edAmÁ eausmif;
touf - 15
owÅrwef;
tb - OD;ul;
trd - a':&if
a[rmZv? rEåav;NrKd Y

A[dak e&Sief ,fausmif;
touf - 15
owÅrwef;
tb - OD;xGe;f vS
trd - a':oed ;f ñGehf
w½kww
f ef;? rEåav;NrKd Y

(11)
Adkvfrl

(12)
AdkvfxGef;atmif

touf - 29? vlysKd
(rif;rsK;d rif;EG,)f
tb - OD;qd;k
trd - a':jrif
ola|;wef;? rEåav;NrKd Y

(owif;pma&mif;í
trdtm;vkyaf uR;aeol)
touf - 18
tb - OD;vS (uG,fvGef)
trd - a':prd hf
qdik ;f wef;? rEåav;NrKd Y

Source: Aung Tun's Original Copy

220

(6) OD;auvm (cifruefwdkuf)

(13)
Adkvfatmifxl;

(14)
Adkvfcifarmif

'udP
© 0ef rvGeaf usmif;
touf - 21
tb - OD;pHaumif;
trd - a':apmcif
'udP
© 0ef? rEåav;NrKd Y

touf - 19
tb - q&matmif
trd - a':oufcikd f
O,smOf0if;? rEåav;NrKd Y

(15)
AdkvfxGef;td
ukeo
f nf
touf - 53
tb - OD;a½TyiG Uf
trd - a':rif;csKH
r&rf;jc?H rEåav;NrKd Y

(16) AdkvfbvGef;
touf - 33? tb - OD;pHcsed ?f trd - a':nrd ;f ?
o&ufwyif&mG ? rEåav;'DpBww
d f

(17)
Adkvfa&T½dk; (ac:) Adkvfcifarmif
Adv
k af &T½;kd onf touf 16 ESprf Qom&Sad o;í rEåav;NrKd ?Y w½kww
f ef;&yf? tb- t0de½f yI ?f trd- rBu;D wdu
hk arG;zGm;aom
w½kwu
f jym; Ak'b
¨ momjzpfí? 0HomEkpw
d x
f ufoefojl zpf&m rMumrDu a&eHoydww
f yf &efyakH iG aumufcaH &;wGif
tm;BuKd ;rmefwuf aqmif½u
G cf o
UJ jl zpfaMumif;/
¤if;rSm w½kww
f ef;? omoedu,k0toif;ESiUf vdu
k yf gNy;D vQif ausmif;om;rsm;a&SrY S wufí aoewf'Pf&m &&SNd y;D vQif aq;½Hw
k iG f
(*) &ufMumrS aoqH;k oGm;&SmaMumif;? aq;½Hük ukopOf rdbrsm; tm;wuf&ef pum;rsm;om ajymMum;oGm;aMumif;/
1300 jynf?U waygi;f vqef; (10) &ufaehwiG f oN*KØ [\
f /

Source: Aung Tun's Original Copy

Adv
k cf ifarmif\ tavmif;udk ol<u,fpk okóefwiG f ,laqmifvmyHk

221

twGi;f 0ef½;kH ü jzpfygG ;cJah om t"du½kP;f ESifh ywfoufí pHpk rf;a&;aumfrwD tpD&ifcpH m
Resolution on the Report of the Secretariat Incident Enquiry Committee

(,ck r[mAE¨Kvvrf;)

(,ck Adkvfatmifausmfvrf;)

(,ck taemf&xmvrf;)

(,ck odrfjzLvrf;)

Source: Ko Aung Kyaw Report

twGif;0ef½Hk;ajryHk

222
-0-

twGi;f 0ef½;kH ü jzpfygG ;cJah om t"du½kP;f ESifh ywfoufí pHpk rf;a&;aumfrwD tpD&ifcpH m

-1-

some on foot. On arrival there each gate was blocked by a group consisting of both boy and girl
students. The ages of the girl students ranged between 13 and a little over 20. These activities of
- 2 -

bring them round to the Sun Press. The students were to be formed into letter "L" and
- 3 -

standing about there waiting for the barriers to arrive before they were put up on the spet.
There was a very large and unruly crowd and we decided to driven them a bit further away
from the corner. As the police party advanced the crowd fell back
- 4 -

than turned around the Sacretariet and when they were about to reach the corner of
Sparks Street and Bigandet Street I saw police force headed two or three mounted
- 5 -

The other members of the House of Representatives, U Ain, U Ba On and U Tun Aung
speak more or less in a similar strain.
- 6 -

of Police. As the police rushed forward to rescue this sergeant we were very heavily
- 7 -

(4) If they had, whether the police asked the students to disperse before force was used
again against them;

- 8 -

the procession was likely to cause a breach of the peace. That brings us to section 128 of the
- 9 -

Sparks Steet was about 30 or 40. Most of them will girls, some of whom were even not older than
13 or 14. We want this aspect of the case to be kept steadily in view because of what we propose
to say in the letter part of our report.
- 10 -

- 11 -

- 12 -

- 13 -

- 14 -

- 15 -

- 16 -

- 17 -

- 18 -

- 19 -

- 20 -

- 21 -

- 22 -

- 23 -

- 24 -

- 25 -

- 26 -

- 27 -

- 28 -

- 29 -

- 30 -

- 31 -

- 32 -

- 33 -

- 34 -

- 35 -

- 36 -

- 37 -

Exhibit A
yHk (u)

Exhibit B
yHk (c)

Source: ASO/ Bo Aung Kyaw Report

Exhibit C
yHk (*)
vJusaeolrSm
udkMunfarmif
- 38 -

Exhibit D
yHk (C)

Exhibit E
yHk (i)

Source: ASO/ Bo Aung Kyaw Report

Exhibit G
yHk (q)
- 39 -

Exhibit H
yHk (Z)

Exhibit I
yHk (ps)

Source: ASO/ Bo Aung Kyaw Report

Exhibit O
yHk (")
- 40 -

Exhibit M
yHk (¡)

Source: ASO Bo Aung Kyaw Report

Exhibit Q
yHk (r)
- 41 -

jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif; - atmifxGef;

tcef; (9)
udv
k ekd aD cwfaESmif;ydik ;f
e,fcsUJ qefu
Y siaf &; vGwv
f yfa&;BuKd ;yrf;rI trsK;d om;a&;toGif
ausmif;om;vIy&f mS ;rIordik ;f
(1939 rS 1940)

(u) 1300 jynfh taxGaxGoydwf aemufyikd ;f umv
a&eHajroydwfwyfBuD;tm; vrf;rawmf? a*:'Gifvrf;? NrdKUrausmif;a½SUwGif oydwfarSmufausmif;om;
ajrmufjrm; pGmwdYk u a<u;aMumf BudKqdck MhJ uonf/ oydww
f yfBuD;ESihf ausmif;om;oydwf tjyeftvSef a<u;aMumfaeaom
toHBuD; onf tcsdeftawmfrQ jrnf[D;aecJhonf/
xdYk aeYu &efuek Nf rdKUtm; wyftoD;oD;ESihf jynfow
l Ykd u odr;f ydu
k x
f m;aomaeU jzpfonf[k ac:qdEk ikd af yonf/
tmvHNrdKUwGif t*Fvdyft&if;½SifwdkYydkif pwD;b&m;om;ukrÜPD qDpufESifh 0gpufrS tvkyform; (2000)
ausmfwdkYonf t&if;½SifwdkY\ zdESdyfcsKyfcs,frIudk rcHEdkifí oydwfarSmuf qE´jycJhonf/ pwD;b&m;om;ESifh ra½S;raESmif;
rSmyif Adkvfatmifausmf usqkH;jcif;ESifh ywfoufí ausmif;om;rsm;oydwf jzpfay:vmonf/
tmvHNrdKU? wdYk Armtpnf;t½k;H onf pwD;puf tvkyo
f rm;oydwu
f o
kd mru ausmif;om;oydwu
f ykd g tifwu
kd f
tm;wdkuf ulnDcJhonf/
wdYk Armtpnf;t½k;H acgif;aqmif bpH tzrf;cH&rIEiS hf ywfoufí ausmif;om;rsm;ESihf vlxw
k Ykd onf tmvH*wf
udk csDwuf0dkif;&Hum]'dkhacgif;aqmifvTwf} [k *dwu
f kd 0dkif;avawmhonf/
vltyk Bf uD;onf ykvyd w
f Ykdukd cJrsm;jzifyh pfonf/ trsK;d orD;rsm;uvnf; 0wfvmaom xrDrS tay:0wfvcHk snfukd
cRwfí ykvdyfrsm;acgif;ay:odkY vTwfwifypfaygufMuonf/
ykvdyfu½dkuf? vltkyfu cJESifhypfESifh? olwjyef igwjyefjzpfaeonf/ &mZ0wf0ef rpöwmpDyDatmonf zrf;xm;
aom acgif;aqmifrsm;udk rMumrDvTwfay;rnf[k atmfajymonf/ vlxku aemufrqkwf? atmfjrJatmfaeonf/
xdktcg &mZ0wf0efonf tmvHta&;ydkifOD;azESifh wdkifyifí vlxkESifh ausmif;om;rsm;tm; eHygwfwkwfrsm;ESifh
vlpkcGJ ½kdufESufawmhavonf/ vl (60) ausmf 'Pf&m&½Sdavonf/ zrf;qD;xm;aom ocifbpH tygt0if (16)
a,mufudk tmvHe,fydkif 0efaxmufu wa,mufpDac:NyD; axmif'PfESifh tvkyfMurf; (3) vpD csufcsif;tjypfay;vdkuf
onf/
264

udkvdkeDacwfaESmif; - 1939 rS 1940 - e,fcsJYqefhusifa&; vGwfvyfa&;BudK;yrf;rI trsKd;om;a&;toGif

(c) udak tmifausmu
f sq;Hk Ny;D aemuf ausmif;om;oydwt
f &Sed jf ri§ w
hf ufvmjcif;ESihf taxGaxGoydwf
1939 azazmf0g&D (7) &uf? eHeufrpS í NrdKUrausmif;wGif pcef;csvsu½f adS om ausmif;ol? ausmif;om;rsm;onf
rdrdwdkY awmif;qdkcsufrsm;udk qdkif&mrSray;bJ vspfvsL½Ií wdkif;jynftusdK;udk toufESifhvJí aqmif½GufMurnf[k
oEdé|mefcsum tpmiwfcH qE´jyMuonf/ tpmiwfcHvsuf½Sdaom ausmif;ol? ausmif;om;wdkYrSm (1000) ausmf½Sdonf/
xdkowif;Mum;&aomtcg wEdkifiHvkH;wkefvIyfíoGm;avonf/ i,f½G,fEke,fol wufopfp ausmif;ol?
ausmif;om; uav;i,frsm; tEÅ&m,fjzpfrnfudk rsm;pGmpdk;&drfMuonf/ ñGefYaygif;tpdk;&udk ydkrdkrkef;wD;vmMuonf/
&efuek Nf rdKU½Sd ausmif;om;rdbrsm;u xdak eYwiG yf if ta&;ay: txl;tpnf;ta0;w&yf usif;yum ausmif;om;
rsm; awmif;qdkcsufudk tpdk;&tjrefqkH;vdkufavsm&efESifh ausmif;om;rsm;uvnf; tpmiwfcHqE´jyjcif; &yfpJMu&ef
ausmif;om;rsm;\ awmif;qdkcsufwdkYudk ausmif;om;rdbrsm; udk,fwdkif a½SUwef;u wdkufyGJ0if awmif;qdkMu&ef qkH;jzwf
vdkufonf/
xdkUtwl ocifrsm;ESifh OD;bpdefacgif;aqmifaom NrdKUrdNrdKUz txl;tpnf;ta0;u? ¤if;ausmif;om;rsm; tpm
iwfcHqE´jyjcif;ESifh ywfoufí tpdk;&tm; jyif;xefpGm uefYuGuf½Iwfcsí tpmiwfcHjcif;udk &yfpJ&ef ausmif;om;rsm;
xHodkY udk,fpm;vS,f apvTwfí arwåm&yfcHMuonf/
aemufqkH; azazmf0g&Dv (8) &ufaeY? naewGif ausmif;om;acgif;aqmif udkvSa½T? udkoef;wifwdkYonf
NrdKUrdNrdKUzrsm;jzpfaom OD;oGi?f ODb;kd aysmh? ol&,
d OD;buav;? OD;oif;armif? NAdwo
d Qbm;rm;OD;ñGeYf ? *VKefO;D apm polwYkd EiS hf
awGUqkHaqG;aEG;Muum ausmif;om;rsm;\ udpöudk vlBuD;rsm; Mum;0ifapYpyf wm0ef,lrnfjzpfonf/
Adv
k af tmifausmf usqk;H NyD;aemuf or*¾ü tpnf;ta0; xyfrjH yKvkyNf yD; udv
k aS ½Tacgif;aqmifaom ausmif;om;
acgif;aqmifrsm;onf xdcdkuf'Pf&m&aom ausmif;om;rsm;twGuf pDrHjyKvkyfNyD;aemuf ausmif;om;rsm;onf aemuf
wBudrf tmPmzDqefrI jyKvkyf&ef qkH;jzwfvdkufonf/
NAdwdoQtpdk;&uvnf; 21? 12? 1938 aeYxkwf owif;pmrsm;wGif twGif;0ef½kH;a½SUü t½kdufcH&aom
owif;"gwfykHrsm; rxnfhEdkif&ef &efukefykvdyfrif;BuD;\ trdefYt& owif;pmwdkufrsm;udk nwGif;csif; 0ifa&mufzsufpD;
vdkufMuonf/
,if;tjzpfudk ausmif;om;or*¾ tvkyftrIaqmifwdkYu rcHbJ xdkacwf xkwfa0aeaom owif;pmtrsm;pkü
t½Guf (8) rsufEmS yg ,if;tjzpftysuf "gwfyrHk sm;ukad zmfjyvsuf ]ausmif;om;rsm; aoG;ajrus} pmwrf;BuD;udk 21? 12?
38 aeY? nwGif;csif; tNyD;½dkufESdyfí wuúodkvfor*¾toif;wdkufESifh &efukefausmif;aygif;pkHwyfpcef; NrdKUrausmif;wGif
vnf;aumif;? nwGif;csif; e,fxGuftaocH pnf;½kH;a&;qif; ausmif;om;Adkvfrsm; tylwjyif;a½G;cs,f oifwef;ay;um
22? 12? 38 wGif wjynfv;Hk odYk vQKd U0Supf mG jyefvw
T v
f u
kd o
f nf/ ausmif;om;wdYk\ taxGaxGoydwBf uD;arSmufNyD[k aMunm
vdu
k o
f nft
h wdik ;f NrdKUrwyfpcef;wGif ausmif;aygif;pkrH S nOft
h yd ?f nOfah e pcef;csaevkad om ausmif;aygif;pkrH S ausmif;om;?
ausmif;olrsm;twGuf 14? 12? 38 aeYxkwf owif;pmwGif zdwfac:um xkwfjyefvdkufonf/ ,if;rSm]]tdk taqG&JabmfwdkY igwdkYoydwfarSmufausmif;om;rsm;onf NrdKUrausmif;awmfBuD;ü wyfpcef;csaeayNyD?
igwdkY pm;a&; aomufa&;rS pí tppt&m&m vdkavao;r½Sd? wdkif;jynfu igwdkYtm; ypfrxm;yg? r[mu½kPm
½SdMuojzifh apmifrMunfh½IMuavNyD/ igwdkY pdwftm;i,fp&m r[kwfacs/
tdk &Jabmfol? &Jabmfom;wdkY igwdkY wyfpcef;cs&modkY vmvSnfhukefavm? oifwdkYtwGuf toufudk pGefY&ef
tqifoifhyif? igwdkU nDñGwfrIudk jyMuukefavm/
ta&;awmfykHatmifygap
oef;wif
NrdKYrwyfpcef;wm0efcH
&efukefoydwfausmif;ol^ausmif;om;rsm;pcef;
Auorsm;tvkyftrIaqmifzGJU Ouú| udkvSa½T 23? 12? 1938 wGif owif;pmrsm;wGif atmufygtwdkif;
xkwfjyefvdkufonf/
265

jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif; - atmifxGef;
awmif;qdkcsufrsm;rSm(1) a&eHajr tvkyo
f rm;csDwufvma&;ESihf Armwjynfv;Hk ½Sd ausmif;om;rsm; tmPmzDqef qlyjl cif;rsm;ESihf
ywfoufJí w&m;pGJcH&ol? tzrf;cH&ol? axmifcscH&ol tm;vkH;udk csufcsif;vTwfypf&ef tpdk;&tm;
awmif;qdkaMumif;?
(2) jynfoYl vw
G v
f yfrrI sm; csKyfcs,x
f m;aom Oya'rsm;ESihf a½Smifwcifxw
k jf yefaom bk&ifc\
H wcsuv
f w
T f
Oya'rsm;udk ½kwfodrf;&ef tpdk;&tm; awmif;qdkaMumif;?
(3) ausmif;om;rsm; oydwfarSmufudpöESifhywfoufí rnfonfhausmif;om;? ausmif;oludkrqdk qdkif&m
t&m½SdwdkYu ta&;r,l&ef?

(*) 'kw,
d tBurd f ausmif;om;vTwaf wmf
oydwftwGif; ac:,lonfh ausmif;om;vTwfawmfudk &efukefNrdKUrausmif;aygif;pkH oydwfpcef;? NrdKUrcef;r
BuD;wGif 30? 1? 1939 eHeuf (10) em&DrS pwifí usif;yonf/ xdkvTwfawmfü qkH;jzwfMuaom tqdkrsm;rSm(1) a&eHajrwyfcsDwuf&mwGif yg0ifvyI ½f mS ; zrf;qD;ta&;,lxm;rI rSeo
f rQudk vTwyf pf&ef? zdEydS cf sKyfcs,faom
Oya'rsm;udk ½kwfodrf;&ef?
(2) ausmif;om;oydwfESifh ywfouforQaom ausmif;om;rsm;? q&mq&mrrsm;udk ta&;r,l&ef?
(3) 20? 12? 1938 twGif;0ef½kH; ykvdyf½dkufyGJ jynfolwdkYyg0ifaom pkHprf;ppfaq;rI ckHtzGJU zGJUay;&ef?
(4) þawmif;qdkcsufrsm;udk wjynfvkH;? awma&mNrdKUyg awmBudKtkHMum;rusef jyefESHYjyKvkyfay;&ef? tNrdKUNrdKU
te,fe,fü uefYuGufyGJrsm; jyKvkyf&ef?
91-XmetkyfcsKyfa&; wdkufzsuf&mwGif atmufygenf;rsm;udk ausmif;om;rsm;u axmufcHaMumif;tqdk ¤if;rSm(u) ñGefYaygif;tpdk;&rjyKwfjyKwfatmifjzKwfcs&ef
(c) ¤if;ñGefYaygif; jyKwfNyD;aemuf tm;vkH;&mxl; vufrcH0hHbJ tkyfcsKyfa&;udk zsuf&eftqdkESifh aemufqkH;
wdkif;&if;jzpfrsm;om 0wfqifMu&efESifh
(8) ñGeYf aygif;tpd;k &\ &ufpufMurf;MuKwfpmG aom zdEySd rf w
I Ykdukd uefYuu
G ½f w
I cf saomtm;jzifh ArmEdik if t
H wGi;f
½Sd a'oEÅ&tzGJUrsm;? jrLeDpDy,f 'DpBwdwfaumifpDrS jynfcspfacgif;aqmifrsm;qdkif&m tzGJUrsm;rS csufjcif;
EkwfxGufqE´jy&ef yefMum;avonf/

(C) ausmif;om;rsm; tpmiwfcq
H E´jyjcif;
,if;oydwftwGif; ausmif;om;vTwfawmfusif;yqJrSmyif udkvSa½T axmifrS tmrcHESifh xGufvmNyD;aemuf
¤if;axmiftwGif;½SdpOfu ñTefMum;cJhaom ajcvSrf;ESpfvSrf; wckck? cifAsm;wdkYBudKuf&m wckckawmh vSrf;rSjzpfrnf?
odYk r[kwu
f usKyfaxmifxJ jyef0if½o
Hk m½So
d nf[k tMuyfuikd w
f ifjy&m tvkyt
f rIaqmifwiG f ¤if;ajcvSr;f ESpv
f rS ;f teuf
rlvuyif udkoef;wifonf azaz:0g&Dvqef; (1) &ufaeYü (Currency Office) aiGwdkuf oydwfum&ef qdkonfudk
oabmwlaMumif;? tvkyt
f rIaqmifrsm;u wifjycJ&h m udo
k ed ;f atmifwYkdu (Wholesale Massacre) tpkvu
kd f tjyHKvku
d f
aoukefMurnf[kqdkum oabmrwlcJhaMumif;? ,ckrSm wjynfvkH; vcxkwf&ufrSmvnf; vGefcJhNyDjzpfí (2) &uf
tpmiwfcH&ef ajcvSrf;udk vufcH&ef½SdawmhaMumif;? 'DajcvSrf;udkvnf; oabmwlaMumif;? udkvSa½T\ cyfjyif;jyif;
vIyf½Sm;rIudkom tMuyfudkifawmif;qdkcsufudk axmufcHajymqdkMu&m 7? 2? 1939 wGif NrdKUrwyfpcef;ü raeomawmhbJ
wNrdKUvkH; oydwfarSmufausmif;om;rsm; qifhqdkum xdkajcvSrf;udk vSrf;Mu&ef qkH;jzwfvdkufMuaMumif;/
azazmf0g&Dv (8) &ufaeYrS pí tpmiwfcHwdkufyJG0ifcJh&m rlvu (3) &uf (6) eyftxd tenf;qkH; tpm
iwfcH oydwaf rSmufxm;rnf[k owfrw
S cf ahJ omfvnf; tpmiwfcH wwd,aeYü (38) OD; aumfrwD &efuek af usmif;om;xk
rdbrsm;u NrdKUrwyfpcef;odkY vma&mufí om;orD; ausmif;om;wdkYtm; arwåm&yfcHonf/
xdkpOfu rdbrsm;\pum;udkem,lí tpmiwfcH oydwfvSefrI vQKdU0SufpGm tpDtpOfjyKvkyfxm;aomfvnf;
8? 1? 1939 wGif ausmif;om; tvkyftrIaqmifjzpfaom ukdvSa½TrStp udkoef;wifyg yef;qdk;wef; jrefrmukefwdkufBuD;
wGif Mum;0ifaphpyfwm0ef,al om vlBuD;rsm;ESihf em;vnfr,
I Nl yD; udo
k ef;wifrmS xdt
k aMumif;udk zGirhf ajymomí zGirhf ajym
266

udkvdkeDacwfaESmif; - 1939 rS 1940 - e,fcsJYqefhusifa&; vGwfvyfa&;BudK;yrf;rI trsKd;om;a&;toGif
bJ eufjzefrS pvSef&efudkum; oabmrwlEdkifao;aMumif; wOD;wnf; trItjzpf tvdkrwlqE´udk ay;cJh\/ xdkpOfu
ausmif;om;r[kwf jyifytultnD twdik t
f yifct
H jzpf &yfwnfaeaom udEk v
k nf; ajymydik cf iG rhf ½S/d odYk aomf ,ckvkd ½kwf
csnf; tpmiwfcH oydwfvSefypfvdkufrnfudk oabmrusaMumif; ajymao;\/ aemufqkH; trsm;ESifhwa,muf tqkH;
tjzwf vufcHvdkuf&m OD;apmu ]'gjzifU OD;owif;pmrSmawmh reufjzefxkwfrSm 'Dnudk xnfUr½dkufygeJhOD;} [k uwd
wvkH;awmif;&m ay;ygonf/
odkYaomf 9? 2? 1939 aeY? eHeuf tpmiwfcHwyfom;tm;vkH; tdyf&mrSrx&ao;rD xdkaeYeHeufxkwf ol&d,
owif;pmü ]ausmif;om;rsm; ,aeheeH uf tpmpm;Ny}D [k owif;yg wygwnf; xifxif½Sm;½Sm; ygvmav\/ NAdwdoQ
bm;rm;refae*sm 'g½du
k w
f mOD;ñGeYf 'g,umjyKaom qefjyKwf vSn;f td;k BuD;rSmvnf; NrdKUrwyfpcef; wHcg;0odYk eHeufapm
apmpD;pD; a&mufvmavonf/
þwGif oydwfarSmufausmif;om;wdkYrSm rauseyfMu qlyGufí ]tpmiwfcH oydwfrvSefbl;} tpmrpm;bl;
ZGwfjiif;Muaomfvnf; ausmif;om;xktm; tawmfpdwfusatmifudkvSa½TwvSnfh? udkoef;wifwvSnfh a[majymem;csrS
rtDrom em,lcg tpmiwfcHoydwfvSefvdkufonf/

(i) qifq
h jkd cif; (2) &yf
tpmiwfcH oydwfvSefNyD;aemuf wyfpcef;rS oydwfvSefí tdrfjyef tem;,lvdkaom ausmif;om;rsm;tm;
jyefcGifhjyKvdkufonf/ t*Fvdyfausmif;rsm; zGifhrnf pmar;yGJppfrnfh tpDtpOf vQdKU0Sufod&ojzifh 15? 2? 1939 xGuf
owif;pmrsm;wGif atmufygtwdkif; ausmif;om;? ausmif;olrsm;tm; ac:qdk&ygonf/
&Jabmfw-hkd
igwdkYonf tpmt[m&ysufcHaom ajcvSrf;udk oydwfpcef;BuD;wGif pk½kH;vSrf;NyD;aemuf &JabmfwdkYtm;
rdbrsm;ESiahf wGU&ef tdrrf sm;odYk jyefciG jhf yKvdu
k af yonf/ &JabmfwYkd onf tdrrf sm;wGif tm;vyfciG ,
hf v
l suf (3) &ufcefY
tem;&ayNyD/ txl;ojzifh 15? 2? 39 rS pí oifwdkYESifh wdkuf½dkufoufqdkifaom vkyfief;rsm; vkyf&ef½SdavNyD/
&JabmfwYkdonf tjrJtvkyv
f yk af e&ef pdw½f o
dS nft
h wdik ;f nDñw
G pf mG vltiftm;jzifh igwdYktvkypf cef;rsm;udk xajrmufpmG
vSrf;Mu? vkyfaqmifMu&ef oydwfpcef;rsm;odkY rysufruGuf eHeuf (7) em&DcGJ ta&mufvmMuygukef/
ta&;awmfykHatmifygap
oef;wif
Ouú|
&efukefausmif;om;rsm;oydwfpcef;
þtwGif; ausmif;om;oydwftiftm;rSm wufíom aeav\? &efukef tdEd´,om; ukvm;ausmif;jzpfaom
bifa*gtu,f'rD? 'DatbD yefcsmyDausmif;ESihf a&'D,m;aumvdyaf c: ukvm;ausmif;rsm; yg0ifvmMuonf? acgif;aqmif
wdkYrSm rpöwmwdk½SDbDa*gqifESifh rpöwmtm&D&mwdkY jzpfonf/
&efukefNrdKUü wdkif;&if;om;bmomoifausmif; (31) ausmif;ESifh t*Fvdyf-jrefrm (2) bmomoifausmif;
(22) ausmif;? 53 ausmif;½Sdonfh teuf wdkif;&if;om;bmomoifausmif;rsm; vkH;0zGifhvSpfí rjzpfawmhbJ (2) bm
omoifausmif; (6) ausmif;rSmvnf; zGifhvSpfonf qdk½kHrQ zGifhvSpfxm;onf/ ausmif;wufaom ausmif;om;OD;a&rSm
w0ufyif r½Sdacs/ tcsKdU av;ig;ausmif;avmufrQom qdkif&mu aoG;aqmifívnf;aumif;? ausmif;om;rdbrsm;xH
vdkufvHí ausmif;um;rsm;jzifh ac:jcif;aMumifh ausmif;om;? ausmif;ol 1^3 ausmf 2^3 eD;yg; wufa&mufaeonf/
xdkodkYaom ausmif;rsm;udk cGJí tvSnfhus oydwfwm;avonf/
14? 2? 1939 wGif oydwfwm;&aom ausmif;rsm;rSm(1) rufo'pfa,musFm;av;ausmif; (5) vrf;rawmf bufywpfausmif;
(2) rufo'pfrdef;uav;ausmif;
(6) pdefAifhqifausmif;
(3) q&mjzpfoifausmif;
(7) 0dwdk&d,ausmif;
(4) pdefar&D (vrf;rawmfausmif;)
þausmif;rsm;udk oydwfwm;&m atmifjrifavonf/
267

jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif; - atmifxGef;

(p) a'guw
f mbarmfjyKwu
f sjcif;ESihf ausmif;om;rsm;aphpyfjcif;
a'gufwmbarmfonf oHCmawmfrsm;rS wqifh aqG;aEG;yGJrsm; jyKvkyfcJhaomfvnf; ausmif;om;rsm;u rEkwf
rxGufcsif; aphpyfrI rjyKvkyf[k ajymqdkavonf/ udkvSa½Tu a'gufwmbarmf EkwfxGuf&efom awmif;qdkavonf/
ausmif;om;rsm;u 1935 tufOa'udk zsuf&efom ajymqdkavonf/
1939 azazmf0g&D (16) &uf vTwaf wmftpnf;ta0;wGif ñGeYf aygif;tpd;k &jzKwfcsa&; t,kt
H Munfr½St
d qdu
k kd
axmufcHol (70)? uefYuGufol (37) a,muf? Mum;ae (11) a,mufjzifh tqdktEdkif&½Sdí ñGefYaygif;tpdk;& jyKwfus
oGm;onf/ xdYk aeY rwdik rf D 15? 2? 39 wGif 91-XmetkyfcsKyfa&; romcsyGJrsm; &efukefwNrdKUvkH;wGif usif;yonf/
wdkYArmtpnf;t½kH;onf aemufxyftpdk;& rzGJUbJ (&mxl; vufrcHMubJ) tkyfcsKyfa&;opfudk vTwfawmfwGif;?
vTwfawmfy wdkufzsufMu&ef vIHYaqmfavonf/ xdkvIHYaqmfrIwGif 20? 2? 39 wGif NrdKUawmfcef;rü vlxktpnf;ta0;
usif;yavonf? &mxl;vufrcH&ef qkH;jzwfavonf/

Source: Aung Tun 's Original Copy

&efuek ,
f el AD mpDwD oydwaf rSmuf
ausmif;om;rsm;tm; vnf;aumif;?
a&eHajroydwaf rSmuf
rsK;d csprf sm;tm; vnf;aumif;?
rEåav; tmZmenf (17) OD;wdt
hk m;
vnf;aumif; tMuifemw&m;uif;rJpU mG ?
vlom;rqefpmG &uf&ufpufpuf
aoewfjzifh ypfouf&ef trdeahf y;cJaU om
e,fcsYJ NAw
d o
d Q\ vufuikd w
f w
k f
a'guw
f mbarmf OD;pD;onfU
ñGeahf ygi;f tpd;k &tm; jynfow
l u
hkd
romcstcrf;tem;w&yf pDpOfum
þod'hk Pfcwfco
hJ nf

a'gufwmbarmfñGefYaygif;tpdk;& jyKwfusoGm;onfhtcg Auoacgif;aqmif udkvSa½Tu aMunmcsufw&yf
xkwfjyefavonf/
&Jabmfw-hkd
ñGefYaygif;tpdk;& jyKwfusoGm;aomfvnf; igwdkYawmif;qdkcsuf r&½Sdao;? &½Sdatmif vkyfMu&OD;rnf/
igwdkY aoG;pnf;wdkufyGJ0ifvdkY jyKwfusoGm;onf/ odkYaomf xyfNyD; aoG;pnf;Mu&OD;rnf/
vSa½T
Ouú|
Auo
xdYk aemuf ausmif;om;rsm;onf ñGeYf aygif;tpd;k & Ekwx
f u
G f jyKwfusomG ;NyD;aemuf vuf½dS jrefrmEdik if b
H &k ifcu
H
tpd;k & zGUJ pnf;ay;&ef ay;tyfonft
h cg tkycf sKyfa&;pnf;rsOf;rsm;jyK vTwaf wmftrwf OD;oGix
f o
H Ykd pma&;om;tyfEMHS u&m
ausmif;om;rsm;u OD;oGifxHodkYay;pmrSm-

268

udkvdkeDacwfaESmif; - 1939 rS 1940 - e,fcsJYqefhusifa&; vGwfvyfa&;BudK;yrf;rI trsKd;om;a&;toGif
OD;oGif
txufvTwfawmftrwf
OD;rif;cifAsm;
1/ uRefawmfausmif;om;rsm;\ awmif;qdkcsufrsm;ESifhwuG wdkif;jynftwGif;ü rausreyf jzpfaeMuaom tcsuf
tvufrsm;udk auseyfpmG ½Sad tmif OD;rif;ud,
k w
f ikd f eef;&if;0ef&mxl;udk vufcrH jS zpfrnf[k ,kMH unfvQif eef;&if;
0ef&mxl;udk vufcHí? txufyg awmif;qdkcsufrsm;udk aqmif½Gufay;yg cifAsm;/
2/ tu,fí txufyg awmif;qdkcsufrsm;udk oifhavsmfaom tcsdeftwGif;ü usaemfwdkY auseyfatmif r½SdcJhaomf
eef;&if;0ef &mxl;rS EIwfxGufcJhyg&ef cifAsm;/
3/ tu,fí txufygtcsuftvufrsm;udk &½SdNyD;aomfvnf; Auorsm;toif; A[dktvkyftrIaqmiftzGJUu
OD;rif;onf &mxl;qufcHaejcif; tm;jzifh tusKd;rrsm;awmh[k oabm&½Sdí xGufay;&ef arwÅm&yfcHaomtcg
&mxl;rS EkwfxGufcJhyg&ef cifAsm;/
,kHMunfav;pm;pGmjzifU
ykH-vSa½T
A[dktvkyftrIaqmiftzGJY (Auo)

OD;oGifESifh NrdKYrdNrdKYzrsm; jyefvnfaMujimcsuf
1/
ausmif;om;rsm;\ awmif;qdkcsufonf oifhavsmfonf[k uREkfyfwdkY oabm&½Sdonfhtwdkif; rnfonfh
tzGJUacgif;aqmifudk rqdk tpdk;&topf rzGJUpnf;MurD ausmif;om;rsm;\awmif;qdkcsufudk aqmif½Gufay;ygrnf[k
bk&ifcHxHrS a½S;OD;pGm *wd0efcHcsuf &½Sdap&ef aqmif½GufoifhaMumif;/
2/
bk&ifcHxHrS xdk*wdcH0efcsuf r½Sdvsif tpdk;&opfzGJU&ef vkyfief;wm0efudk rnfonfh ygwDurQ vufrcH&ef
wdkufwGef;aMumif;/
ykH
(1) OD;oGif
(2) OD;vSbl;
(3) OD;ñGefh
(4) OD;bdkaysmU
(5) OD;jrifU
(6) OD;bdk;atmif (7) OD;xGef;OD;
þuJhodkU OD;ykacgif;aqmifaom tpdk;&opfzGJUpnf;NyD;aemuf wufvmaom eef;&if;0efOD;yk? OD;apmwdkYonf
NrdKUrdNrdKUzac: olaX;OD;oGi?f OD;bdak ysmhtp½Sad om vlBuD;rsm;ESihf udv
k aS ½TwYkd onf 20? 2? 39 rS pí aphpyfaqG;aEG;Muonf/
27? 2? 39 aeYpGJjzifh udkvSa½T vufrSwfjzifh atmufygtwdkif; aMujimcsufxkwfjyefcJhonf/
(u) ArmEdik if v
H ;Hk qdik &f mausmif;om;or*¾toif;u ¤if;wdv
hk ufatmuf½adS usmif;om;tm;vk;H udk atmufygtcsurf sm;
vdkufemap&rnf/
(1) w&m;Oya'ESifh qefYusifaomtrIrsm; jyKvkyfjcif;rSjzpfap? tm;ay;jcif;rSjzpfap a½SmifMuOf&rnf?
(2) ,ckvuf½Sdwuúodkvfausmif;rsm;ESifh pmoifausmif;rsm;oydwfarSmufjcif;&yfpJ&rnf/
(c) tpdk;&u(1) tpdk;&udk tMunfñdkysufatmif a[majymjcif;? tMurf;jyKvkyfjcif;? tMurf;jyKvkyf&ef EdI;aqmfjcif;rsm;
yg0ifaom trIrsm;rSwyg; ,ckqlyloydwfarSmufrIESifhywfoufí rzrf;qD;? odkYr[kwf ppfaMumpD&ifí
tjypf'Pfay;jcif; cH&aom wynfh ausmif;om;rsm;udv
k w
T rf nf?tpd;k &MunfnKd ysuaf tmifa[majymjcif;?
tMurf;jyKvkyjf cif;? tMurf;jyKvky&f ef vIYH aqmfay;jcif; ryg0ifonfh trIrsm;ESihf pyfvsOf;í w&m;½k;H awmf
wGif tppftaq;cHae&olwdkYtwGufrSm tpdk;&rif;wdkYu pD&ife,fpk &mZ0wfw&m;olBuD;tm; qdkif&m
trItvdkufa½SUaewdkYESifh wdkifyifí trIrS ½kwfodrf;cGifhjyK&ef oifh? roifhudk pOf;pm;&eftwGuf ajymMum;
vdrfhrnf/ þtcsdefü w&m;Oya't& w&m;½kH;awmfu qkH;jzwfonfhtwdkif; wnfrnf/
269

jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif; - atmifxGef;
(2) txufyg eHygwf (1) t& wynfhausmif;om;rsm;tm; csrf;omcGifhay;onfh enf;wlyif a&eHajrrS
&efukefNrdKYodkY ajcvQifygvmMuaom a&eHoydwfudprö sm;wGif yg0ifojzifh tjypf'PfcH&olwdkYudkvnf;
csrf;omcGifh ay;vdrfhrnf/
(3) ,aeYrwdkifrD vuf½Sdpmoifausmif;rsm;ESifh wuúodkvfausmif;rsm; oydwfarSmufjcif;rsm;ESifh ywfoufí
usK;vGecf ahJ om trIrsm;twGuf usL;vGeo
f nht
f rIonf tMurf;rIjzpfap? &mZ0wfrjI zpfap? rusK;vGev
f Qif
wynfh ausmif;om;rsm;tm; ausmif;pnf;urf;t& ta&;,lvdrfhrnfr[kwf/
(4) ausmif;pmar;yGrJ sm;ESihf ywfoufí ,ckvuf½dS oydwv
f eS Nf yD;aemuf tenf;qk;H (3) vcGmí aemufxyf
pmar;yGJ usif;yvdrfhrnf/ ¤if;pmar;yGJcrsm;rSm pmar;yGJ0ifonfhausmif;om; ajzqdk&onfh bmom&yf
twGuf tcsKd;us ay;&vdrfhrnf/ wuúodkvfausmif; pmar;yGJrsm;twGuf xdkenf;wlpGm ta&;,l&ef
tpdk;&u qdkif&modkYaxmufcHcsuf ay;rnf/
(5) 1938? 'DZifbmv (20) &ufaeY twGif;0efrsm;½kH;ü ykvdyfESifh ausmif;om;wdkYjzpfyGm;onfh udpt
ö wGuf
pkHprf;a&;aumfrwDBuD;wck cefYxm;vdrfhrnf/ ¤if;tzGJUü tpdk;&t&m½Sd r[kwfaom yk*¾dKvfrsm; yg0if
vdrfhrnf/
(ykH) armifyk
eef;&if;0efBuD;

(ykH) OD;oGif
Ouú| NrdKYrdNrdKYz

(ykH) vSa½T
ausmif;om;or*¾

¤if;tjyif Auoxkwfjyefcsuf trSwf (49) [lí atmufygtwdkif; xGufvm\/
azazmf0g&Dv (26) &ufaeY? nae (5) em&D? rdepf (30) tcsdefwGif OD;oGiftdrfü tpdk;&ESifh NrdKUrdNrdKUzvlBuD;
rsm;onf ausmif;om;rsm; ta&twGuf oabmwlnDcsuf wck&½Sdavonf/ xdkoabmwlnDcsufudk Auotvkyf
trIaqmiftzGUJ onf vufcv
H u
kd Nf yD jzpfaMumif;? xdYk aMumifh Armjynft&yf&yf½dS ausmif;rsm;ESihf or*¾toif;rsm;onf
ausmif;rsm; oydwfvSef&ef tvkyftrIaqmifu qifhqdkvdkufaMumif;/
(ykH)
vSa½T

(q) ausmif;om;rsm; ESpt
f yk pf u
k jJG cif;
udv
k aS ½Tonf tkycf sKyaf &;wdu
k zf su&f ef trwf0efcu
H wdawmif;&mü (67) a,muf tenf;qk;H vd&k m? rsK;d cspt
f rwf
(11) OD;ESihf tjcm;trwf (15) a,mufom &½Scd o
hJ jzifh tkycf sKyfa&;wdu
k zf suf&ef tpDtpOfxajrmufpmG vkyu
f ikd fEdkifzG,f
r½Sdojzifh ,cifu awmif;qdkxm;aom uwday;csufrsm; tokH;jyK&ef taMumif;r½SdNyDjzpfí trwfrsm;tm;vkH;u
0efcHpmrsm; jyeftyfvdkufavonf/
,if;owif;udk 17? 2? 39 xkwf owif;pmrsm;wGif zwfvdkuf&aomtcg vlxk? &[ef;½Sifvl? a½Twd*kH tvkyf
orm;oydwfaygif;pkHpcef;ESifh NrdKUrausmif;om; wyfpcef;wdkYrSm tHhMowkefvIyf *PmrNidrf jzpfukef\/
28? 2? 39 eHeuf (11) em&DcGJ tcsdefwGif wyfpcef;? oydwfpcef; ausmif;om;rsm; xrif;pm;NyD;csdef? wNrdKU
vkH; ausmif;om;wyf acgif;aqmifrsm;udk &yfuGufwdkif; vTwfí NrdKUrpcef;ü ½Sif;vif;yGJBuD;½SdaMumif;? NrdKUrdNrdKUzrsm;tm;
zdwfMum;aMumif; aMunmcdkif;&onf/
aeYvnf (12) em&DwiG f tpnf;ta0;pí &J&aJ wmufuo
kd ef;wifu pdwv
f u
kd rf mefyg ]]OD;yk? OD;oGi?f OD;apmwdYk
ESihf udv
k aS ½TtrSL;jyKaom trIaqmifwYkd uRefawmftyg aphpyfa&;oGm;onfum; trSeyf if? uRefawmfu,
kd w
f ikd f (2) n
tpnf;ta0; a&mufaomfvnf; pdwfvnf;r0ifpm;? xdkntpnf;ta0;rsm;wGif idkufjrnf;rdaMumif;? trSefrSmvnf;
aphpyfp?J ud,
k af wmif;olawmif; ajymqdak eMuvdrrhf nf/ ,ck owif;rsm;ygovdk jAKef;pm;BuD;jzpfomG ;vdrrhf nf[k uReaf wmf
ud,
k w
f ikd f rxifrw
S f r,kMH unfrad Mumif;? bmyJjzpfjzpf usaemfwYkd wdik ;f jynfqE´ukd ,lO;D rnfjzpfaMumif;}} ½Si;f vif;ajymí
tpnf;ta0;udk ½kwfodrf;&m pdwfrysufqufvuf&ef vufoD;vufarmif;wef; tm;ay;ol? pdwfysufrMunf½Tif rsufESm
nd§K;i,folwdkYjzifh NrdKUrdNrdKUzvlxkBuD;rSm xGufcGm oGm;Muayonf/
270

udkvdkeDacwfaESmif; - 1939 rS 1940 - e,fcsJYqefhusifa&; vGwfvyfa&;BudK;yrf;rI trsKd;om;a&;toGif
þodkYjzifh ausmif;om;EdkifiHa&;udk ajcpkHypf0ifNyD[k a<u;aMumfvIyf½Sm;vmaom ausmif;om;oydwfBuD;onf
a'gufwmbarmf ñGeYf aygif;tpd;k & jyKwfMuNyD; 'kw,
d ñGeYf aygif; OD;yktpd;k & wufvmonft
h cg aphpyfa&;jzifh ausat;í
oydwfvSefvdkufMuonf/ t"dujzpfaom tvkyform;rsm;\oydwfta&;um; rNyD;jywfao;? Armrsm; uRefouf½Snf
apOD;rnfh e,fcsUJ t*Fvyd \
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271

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272

udkvdkeDacwfaESmif; - 1939 rS 1940 - e,fcsJYqefhusifa&; vGwfvyfa&;BudK;yrf;rI trsKd;om;a&;toGif
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(#)

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1/
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k w
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f iG af tmifvyk Ef iS hf
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h rd rhf nf/ xdt
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2/ wyfom;pkaqmif;jcif;
oHrPdwyftwGuf ausmif;om; BuD;i,fra½G; touf (8) ESprf t
S xuf tm;vk;H udk vufc&H rnf/ a&;qGaJ eqJ
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&rnf/
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(c) abmif;bDwdk tpdrf;ykwfa&mif
273

jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif; - atmifxGef;
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(C) OD;xkwf ( 0g;zwfOD;xkwf) tpdrf;ykwfa&mif (t0g&pfESifh)
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jyKvky&f mwGif axmifh (45) 'D*&D ½S&d rnf/ owdtrdefUudk vdu
k ef mjyKvkyf&mwGif toufudk atmifhí
vludkjyif;xefpGm awmifhxm;&ef rvdkacs/
(3) oufom
(Stand at Ease) ESifh xyfwlxyfrQjzpfonf/ owdrS oufomodkY trdefYay;vQif b,fajcudk b,fbufodkY
waycefY a½TUí vufESpfbufudkvnf; wNydKifwnf; aemufodkY,lcg nmvufzrdk;udk b,fvufz0g;ESifh qkyfudkif&rnf/
vufrsm;udk aeom,kHqefYí vIyfvIyf½Sm;½Sm; raeap&/ udk,fudk ajcESpfacsmif;ay:wGif tm;jyKí oufompGm ae&rnf/
wudk,fvkH; NidrfNidrfoufouf ae&rnf/ b,fajcudk a½TU&mü nmajcudk vkH;0vIyf½Sm;jcif; rjyK
vkyf&/
oufomrS owdodkY trdefYay;&mwGif wyfom;rsm;onf b,fajcudk nmajcodkY uyfí
vufrsm;udv
k nf; (owd) trdefYrSmuJhodkY ae&rnf/

274

udkvdkeDacwfaESmif; - 1939 rS 1940 - e,fcsJYqefhusifa&; vGwfvyfa&;BudK;yrf;rI trsKd;om;a&;toGif
(4) {ap
(Stand Easy) ESifh xyfwlxyfrQjzpfonf/ (oufom) xuf ydkí vGwfvyfpGm aeEdkifonf/ ajcESpfacsmif;rQ

ty wud,
k v
f ;Hk vIy½f mS ;Edik ?f wyfom;rsm; ({ap) taetxm;wGif &yfaeí trdeUf ay;olu (oHrPd)[k qifq
h v
kd u
kd v
f Qif
tm;vkH; (oufom) taetxm;odkUjyifí aeMuap&rnf/ NyD;rS trdefUay;oHudk apmifhqdkif;Mu&rnf/
(5) aejrJ
(As Usual) ESifh xyfwlxyfrQ jzpfayonf/ taetxm;wckckudk jyKvkyf&ef wyfom;rsm;u trdefYay;NyD;rS

vnf;aumif;? tjcm;wjcm; wpkw
H &maMumifh vnf;aumif;? oabmrusí yxraejrJtwdik ;f aeap&ef trdeUf jzpfonf/
Oyrm-oufomrS om--wd [k trdefYay;onfhtcgwGif wyfom;rsm; aES;vGef;íaomf vnf;aumif;jzpfap?
rnDveG ;f í vnf;aumif;? wOD;wa,mufu rSm;,Gi;f íaomf vnf;aumif; jzpfí oufomodYk ay;aom trdeYf jzpfonf/
(6) oHrPdrSwf - rSm
trdeYf ay;jcif; r[kw/f uRrf;usifaom wyfom;½d;k ½d;k wOD;tm;aomfvnf;aumif;? oHrPdwyfMuyfwOD;OD;tm;
aomfvnf;aumif;? trdeYf ay;olAv
kd u
f wef;pDjcif;wGif acgif;aqmifjyKí a½SUqk;H rS &yfwefY&ef cefYxm;oljzpfonf/ trdeYf
ay;olESifh rsufESmcsif;qdkif ESpfvSrf;tuGmwGif &yfí (owd)taetxm;ESifh ae&rnf/ aemuftrdefYay;olu (oHrPd-oufom) [k trdefYay;rS (oufom) taetxm;wGif ae&rnf/ wyfpkrsm;vQif rsm;ovdk oHrPdrSwf OD;a&vnf;
rsm;&rnf/
(7) twef;pD
(On Parade or Full in) ESifh xyfwlxyfrQ jzpfap&rnf/ wyfom;rsm; &ifabmifwef;pDí trdefYay;jcif;jzpf
onf/ oHrPdtwef; -- pD[k trdefYay;vQif wyfom;wdkYonf ½Sd&mae&mrS tvdktavsmuf (owd) vkyfNyD;vQif
(oHrPdrw
S )f qDoYkd avQmufvmMu&rnf/ oHrPdrw
S af b;wGif wa,mufpD 0if&yfcg(oufom)ü aeMu&rnf/ twef;pD
qdkonfhtcgü wwef;wnf;om r[kwf? ESpfwef;pD&rnf/ aemufwef; yxrqkH;vlonf a½SUwef; 'kwd,vl\ aemuf
wnfw
h nf?h ajcESpv
f rS ;f uGmwGif &yf&rnf/ twef;pDwiG f wyfom;rsm; wa,mufEiS w
hf a,muf wayrQ uGmjcm;ap&rnf/
vltwef; ñdSNyD;onfhwdkifatmif wyfom;rsm; nmbufodkY Munfhaevdrfhrnf/ xdktcg trdefYay;olu (a½SUodkUMunfh)[k
trdefYay;&rnf/ xdkYaemufrS (oHrPd -- oufom) [k ay;&rnf/ oHrPdrSwfonf wyfom;rsm; vIyf½Sm;cdkufwGif
Nidrfae&rnf/ ¤if;teD;rS wyfom; oufomvkyfNyD;rS olvnf; oufomvkyf&rnf/ a½SUwef;ü wyfom;tjynfh ½Sd&rnf/
Mum;vyfí raeap&/ aemufwef;a&m a½SUwef;a&m vljynf&h efrmS pkjH zpfrS jynfo
h nf/ tu,fí vlrjynfv
h Qif aemufwef;
b,fbufqkH;vlrS pí a&;aomf trSwf (3) ae&momvQif uGufvyfwae&m jzpfap&rnf/

trdefh (7) twef;pDjcif;
oHrPdrSwf

ae&mvGwf

ESpfa,mufwwGJ ab;pDjcif;udk (twGJpDjcif;)[k ac:&rnf/ twGJpDcdkufaomf vnf;umif;? twef;pDcdkufaomf
vnf;aumif; ? wyfom;wdkYonf &,farmvIyf½Sm;jcif;wdkYudk a½SmifMuOf&rnf/ tu,fí wpkHwa,mufaom wyfom;
Oyrm- ajctdyf? abmif;bD? tusÐwckck jyifvdkvQif aemufwef;vljzpfvQif aemufodkY wvSrf;qkwfí a½SUwef;vljzpfvQif
a½SUodkY wvSrf;wufum jyifqif&rnf/ trdefYay;olonf Adkvftp½Sdonfh t&m½SdwdkYudk wpkHw&mwdkifwef;vdkygu
txufwGif a&;cJhonfhtwdkif; a½SUaemuf wvSrf;qkwfí owdxGuf&yfaeNyD;rS wdkifwef;&rnf/ oHrPdrSwf rygvnf;
oHrPdrSwfae&mwGif acwå0ifa&muf aqmif½Guf&rnf/
275

jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif; - atmifxGef;
(8) nmu - nd§
wyfom;rsm; vlpDjcif; taetxm; aumif;pGm rnDao;vQif þtrdefUudk ay;&rnf/ xdktcgoHrPdtrSwfESifh
aemufwef; nmbufqkH;vlrS vGJí usefwyfom;tm;vkH; a½SUodkY ajcvSrf;w0ufrQ wuf&rnf/ NyD;rS ajcaxmufrsm;udk
wjznf;jznf; a½TUum rdrdnmbuf wa,mufausmf wyfom;\ ar;zsm;uav;udk jrif&,kH½SdonfhtcgwGif &yf&rnf/
trdefYay;oludk,fwdkif odkYr[kwf vufatmufcH t&m½SdwOD;OD;u wyfom;rsm; nD? rnDudk ab;uaeí Munfh&rnf/
a½SUxGuaf eolwYkdukd aemufa½TU&ef ajym&rnf aemufxu
G af eolwYkdukd a½SUwd;k &ef ñTejf y&rnf/ þtrdeYfukd tcgcyford ;f ay;
&efrvdk/ wyfom;rsm;onf udk,fhbmomudk *½kpdkufí jyifqif&rnf/ ta&;BuD;aom tcgBuD;&ufrsm;wGif þtrdefYudk
okH;jrJjzpfonf/ xdktwef; n§d&mwGif acgif;ESifh rsufpdudkom vSnfh&rnf/ wudk,fvkH;vdkufí ukef;&efuG&ef rvdkay/
nmujyif? b,fujyif [laom trdefYwdkYonf trdefYay;olu wyfom;rsm; wpkHwckjyKvkyf&ef trdefYay;NyD;í? &yfwefY
ae&m taetxm; rnDñGwfí ay;&aom trdefYjzpfonf/ odkYaomf wyfom;rsm;onf wpkHwckjyKvkyf NyD;onfhtcgwdkif;
xdktrdefYudk apmifhqdkif;&ef rvdk/ tvdktavsmuf udk,fwdkifn§d&rnf/
(9) nmodkhMunfU? b,fodkhMunfU
ud,
k u
f kd wnfrh wfpmG xm;í b,fbufoYkd vnf;aumif;? nmbufoYkd vnf;aumif;? acgif;apmif;íMunf&h rnf/
(10) a½SYodkhMunfU
txufutrdefYtwdkif; b,fbufnmbufodkY Munfhae&mrS a½SUodkYMunfhap&ef trdefYwnf;/ wyfom;wdkif;
rsufpdwdkYonf a½SUwnfhwnfhta0;odkY Munfh&rnf/
(11) oHrPd - - - trSwf
wyfom;rsm; trSwaf &&efay;aom trdeUf jzpfonf/ xdt
k cg a½SUwef;nmbuf tpGeq
f ;Hk vl (oHrPdtrSwrf yg)
upí (1-2-3-4-5) ponfjzifh b,fbuftqk;H vlwikd ;f wa,mufpD trSwu
f kd atmfí ½Gw&f rnf/ xdo
k Ykd ½Gwq
f &kd mwGif
acgif;rvSnfh&/ aemufwef;u wyfom;rsm; trSwfatmf&ef rvdk/ ukd,fha½SU vltrSwfudkyif ,l&rnf/
(12) nmvSnfU
udk,fudk wnfhrwfpGmxm;? vufrvIyf&/ (1) nmajczsm;ESifh b,fajczaemifhudk <uí udk,fudk nmbufodkY
vQifjrefpGm vSnfhNyD;rS (2) b,fajcudk nmajcem;odkY jzwfvwfpGm ,lícs/ trSwftwdkif; vltwdkif; ESpfwef; okH;wef;cGJ
vdkufí nmvSnfh? b,fvSnfh usifh&rnf/ odkYrS nDnmvG,faponf/
13) b,fvSnfU
txufygtwdkif; ajymif;jyef vkyf&efjzpfonf/ b,fajczsm;ESifh nmajczaemifh tenf;i,ff <uap&rnf/
(14) aemufvSnfU
nmvSnfhouJhodkY nmajczsm;ESifh b,fajczaemifhudk<uí aemufodkY rsufESma&mufatmif
vSnfhjcif;wnf;/ (aemufvSnfh) onfhtcg rnfonfhtcgrQ b,frSrvSnfh&/
(15) nmapmif;
(Right in- cline) ESifh xyfwlxyfrQ jzpfonf/ b,f-nmvSnfhouJhodkY b,fbuf nmbufrsm;odkY vkH;vkH;
rvSnfh&/ w0ufom vSnfh&rnf/ apmif;NyD;onfh tcgwGif ajcz0g;rsm;rSm (owd) taetxm;rSmuJhodkY ½Sd&rnf/

(16) b,fapmif;
txufygenf;twdkif; b,fbufodkY apmif;&efjzpfonf/
(17) tcsdefrSwf
(Mark-time) ESihf xyfwx
l yfrQjzpfonf/ ae&if;ae&mü b,fajcESihf nmajcudk wvSnphf aD jrmufacs? csacsjyK&

276

udkvdkeDacwfaESmif; - 1939 rS 1940 - e,fcsJYqefhusifa&; vGwfvyfa&;BudK;yrf;rI trsKd;om;a&;toGif
rnf/ udk,fvufwdkYudk rvIyfr&rf;ap&/ ajrmufaeaom ajcESifhajrBuD; tenf;qkH; (8) vufrcefY uGm&rnf/ wwfEdkif
vQif aygifESifh ajrBuD; ,SOfNydKifaeonfh txd ajr§mufEdkifonf/
(18) &yf
tcsdefrSwfaepOf (&yf) trdefYay;&efrSm b,fajc ajrtuswGif (oHrPd) [k owday;pum; qifhqdkvdkufí?
aemufwBudrf b,fajc ajrtuswGif (&yf) [k oHjywfESifh trdefYay;&rnf/ (&yf) [k trdefYay;NyD;onfESifh wNydKifeuf
b,fajcrSm ajrwGifusNyD;jzpfí nmajcudk b,fajcteD;odkY odrf;vdkufcg &yfwefY&rnf/ ajcaxmufESifh wudk,fvkH;rSm
vnf; (owd) taetxm;ü½Sdap&rnf/
(19) tjrefavQmuf
þtrdeYf ukd wyfom;rsm; &yfwefYaecdu
k rf mS jzpfap? tcsderf w
S af ecdu
k rf mS jzpfap? ay;Edik o
f nf/ trdeYf &onft
h cg
udk,fESifhacgif; wnfhrwfpGmxm;í b,fajcaxmufu pí vSrf;&rnf/ vufrsm;rSmvnf; b,fajcESifh nmvuf? nm
ajcESifh b,fvufwdkY wNydKifeuf vTJ&rnf/ vufrsm; vTJ&rf;onfhtcg wawmifudk rauG;&/ vrf;avQmufonfh tcg
ud,
k n
hf mbufu vlrsm;ESihf nDaeap&rnft
h jyif? a½SUuvlEiS v
hf nf; ajcvSr;f jcif; nDaeap&rnf/ wyfom;wdik ;f a½SUuvl?
ab;uvlrsm;ESifh ajcvSrf;nDatmif odkYr[kwf trdefYay;ol\ b,f-nm-b,f-nm[laom trdefYESifhnDatmif avQmuf
Mu&rnf/
(20) &yf
tjrefavQmufaepOf wyfom;rsm;tm; &yfwefY&ef trdefYay;jcif;jzpfonf/ nmajcajrtusü (oHrPd) [k
owday;pum; qifhqdkvdkuf&rnf/ aemufwBudrfnmajcajrtuswGif (&yf) [k oHjzwfESifh trdefYay;&rnf/ xdktcg
wyfom;rsm;u b,fajc wvSrf;wufí nmajcESifhywf&rnf? &yfNyD;onfESifhwNydKifeuf wyfom;rsm;onf (owd) ü
aeMu&rnf/ tjrefavQmufaepOf wrdepfwGif ajcvSrf; (120) ½Sdí wvSrf;ESifhwvSrf; vufr (30) uGm&onf/
(21) twef;vdkufavQmuf
wyfom;rsm; &ifabmifwef; avQmufjcif;wnf;/ rsm;aomtm;jzifh wyfom;ESpfwef; avQmufavh½Sdonf/
twef;vdu
k af vQmufjcif;rSm nDnm&ef rvG,u
f v
l aS cs/ odYk aMumifh yxrtrdeYf ay;olu wyfom;rsm;tavQmuf& vG,u
f l
ap&ef b,f-nm-b,f-nm[k ½Gwfqdkay;&rnf/ trSwfESifhavhusifhEdkifu taumif;qkH;jzpfonf/ (1) qdkvQif b,f
ajc a½SSUwvSrf;wufí nmvufvnf; a½SUodkY ypf&rnf/ (2) qdkvQif nmajcESifh b,fvufa½SUodkY vTJ&rnf/ (3) qdk
vQif b,fajc nmvuf tpOfvdkuf (1-2-3-4-5) ponfjzifh vSrf;oGm;&rnf/ xdkodkY avQmufonfhtcg wyfom;wdkif;
rdrdnmbufuvludk t&dyftuJMunfhí nDnmatmif avQmuf&rnf/ nmbufqkH;wyfom;rsm;rSm ajcvSrf;rSef;í rusOf;
rus,fap&ef txl;*½kpdkufap&rnf/
(22) b,fauGY - nmauGY
auGUaomtcgü b,fjzpfap? nmjzpfap? a'gifrh eS f (Right Angle) jzpfatmif auGUay;&rnf/ ESpaf ,mufjzpfap?
ok;H a,mufjzpfap? av;a,mufjzpfap? twef;vdu
k jf zpfap auGUaomtcgü twGi;f qk;H vlonf (b,fbufoYkd auGUvQif
b,fbufqkH;vl? nmbufodkYauGUvQif nmbufqkH;vl) ajcvSrf;udk qufí rvSrf;bJ tcsdefrSwf aeap&rnf/ tjyif
bufqkH;vlu rdrdESifh &ifabmifwef; vdkonfhbufodkY rsufESmwl½IrS a½SUodkYqufí wnDwnf;vSrf;&rnf/ aemufrSyg
onfh twGJrsm; odkYr[kwf twef;rsm;vnf; þtwdkif; jyKvkyf&rnf/
(23) nm-vSnfU
þtrdefUudk nmajc ajrtuswGif (oHrPd) [k owday;pum; qifhqdkvdkuf&rnf/ aemufwBudrf nmajc
ajrtuswGif (nm) [k trdefYay;&rnf/ xdktcg b,fajconf nmajcteD;odkY uyfvdkufonfESifh wcsdefwnf; (wjydKif
euf)? nmajconf nmbufodkY vSrf;&rnf/
(24)

xdkYtwl b,fbufwGif pí trdefYay;&rnf/ Oyrm- oHrPd (b,f)-- (nm--vSnfh)
277

jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif; - atmifxGef;
(25)
aemufvSnfhwdkif; nmbufrS vSnfh&rnf/ oHrPdaemuf--vSnfh [k trdefYay; (3) cGef;vkH;udk b,fajc ajr
tuswGifom ay;&rnf/ nmajca½SUwvSrf;wdk;í b,fajcudk nmajc a½SUü uefYvefYcGcs/ nmajc<uí aemufbufodkY
vSnfh? b,fajcudk odrf;? nmajcESifh vSrf;í xGuf&rnf/
6/ tMuHay;ñTefMum;csuf
oHrPdwm0efcHrsm;ESifh wyfom;wdkYonf txufygtrdefYwdkYudk vdkufemaqmif½Guf&ef yxrü tawmfyif
tcuftcJEiS hf awGU&ayrnf/ odYk aomf pdwrf ysub
f J pmESiahf &;om;xm;onft
h wdik ;f (jznf;jznf;) tavhtusihf tprf;oyf
(3^4) OD; 0dkif;0ef;í jyKvkyf usifh&rnf/ rSefNyD? ae&musNyDqdkrS wyfom;rsm;ukd wqifhjyoMu&rnf/ ppfa&;jy&mwGif
ydkrdkí em;vnfap&ef tjcm;wwfod em;vnfolrsm;xHodkY csOf;uyfívnf;aumif;? ¤if;wdkY vkyfykHudkifykHwdkYudk Munfh½IUí
vnf;aumif; enf;,l&rnf/ þtrdefYrsm;rSm wyfom;rsm;twGuf avhusifh&ef tajccHrQom jzpfonf/ rMumrD NyD;pD;
awmhrnfjzpfaom oHrPdpnf;rsOf;wGifrS trdefYrsm; tpkHtvif yg0ifvdrfhrnf/ þtrdefYrsm;udk vdkufem vkyfaqmif&ef
pmjzifh MunfhvkyfaeMuvQif tcuftcJawGU&í enf;vrf;rus jzpfaeonfudkvnf;aumif;? wifBudKod½SdNyD;jzpfonf/
rnfodkYyifjzpfap trSm;awGUrS trSefudkawGUrnf/ odkYjzpfí pdwfrysufbJ ZGJaumif;aumif;ESifh udk,fhwm0efudk vkyfaqmif
Muapvdo
k nf/ oHrPdppfa&;jytwef; oifwef;wdYk ukd ,ckEpS t
f wGi;f aomf vnf;aumif;? odkYr[kwf ausmif;rsm;\ ESpf
vnf nDvmcHEiS ahf omf vnf;aumif;? yl;wGu
J sif;y&ef MuHpnf pDpOfxm;onf/ xdt
k cgwGif t&yf&yf½dS oHrPdwm0efcrH sm;
odYk r[kwf oHrPdwyf ud,
k pf m;vS,rf sm;udk oHrPdppfa&;ü uRrf;usiforl sm;u vufxyfoifMum; jyoay;&ef pDpOfxm;
onfjzpfaMumif;/
ta&;awmfykHatmifygap
xGef;½Sdef

(X)

jrefrmEdik if v
H ;Hk qdik &f mausmif;om;rsm;\ umuG,af &;oHrPdtzGUJ

xkwfjyefcsuf (2)
1/
oHrPdvufpJG (ac:) oHrPdpnf;rsOf; tcef; (1)? tyd'k f (4)? tydk'fi,f (*) wGif azmfjyxm;onfh pmtkyu
f kd
tzGUJ BuD;u rxkwaf 0Edik af o;rD tcsed t
f wGi;f wGif trdeYftrSwf (1)? xkwjf yefcsuf (2) ponfh pmwrf;rsm;udk vpOfxw
k af 0í
oGm;rnfjzpfaMumif;/ odkYaMumifh e,f½Sd oHrPdwm0efcHrsm; owdjyK&rnfrSm tvkyf0wå&m; cRwf,Gif;ayghysufí wm0ef
rausjzpfaevQif? oHrPdtzGJUBuD;rS vpOfay;oGm;rnfjzpfaom tvkyfrsm;udk rrDEdkifbJ aemufususef&pfí tcuftcJ
rsm;ESifh awGUMuHKae&ayvdrfhrnf/
2/
oHrPdwyfrsm;? oHrPdpnf;rsOf; tcef; (6)? tykd'f (5)wGif azmfjyxm;onfhtwkdif; oHrPdtkyfcsKyfol t&m½Sd
rsm;onf wyfrsm;udk zGUJ pnf;&mü wyfom;rsm; toufEiS hf t&yftedrhf tjrifh ponfwUdk udk oifah vsmo
f vdk ,m,D pDrEH ikd cf iG ½hf o
dS nf/
okdYaomf wyfrsm;udk tkyfcsKyf&aomtcgwGif ppfwyfESifh wlEkdiforQwlatmif jyKvkyf&rnf/ pnf;urf; ao0yfa&;udk
txl;*½kpkdufyg/ ppfa&;jyaecdkufwGif wyfom;rsm;? &,farmpum;ajymjcif;udk cGifhrjyK&/
3/ t0wftpm;
oHrPdwyf\ &nf½,
G cf sufrmS wyfom;rsm;tm; ppfraI &;&mudk pHv
k ifpmG em;vnfapvdjk cif; jzpfonf/ t0wf
tpm;rSm ta&;tBuD;qHk;tcsuf r[kwf? 'kwd,ta&;BuD;onfh udpörsKd;om jzpfonf/ oHrPd jyXmef;xm;onfh
t0wftpm;udk r0wfEikd o
f jzifh oHrPdwyfom; r[kw[
f k rqdEk idk /f oHrPdpnf;urf;rsm;udk rvdu
k ef mu oHrPdwyfom;
r[kw/f odYkaomf wyfom;rsm; oHrPdt0wftpm;udk 0wfqifEidk o
f nfh tcgwGirf l aooyfusempGm 0wfqif&efvadk yonf/
oHrPdO;D xkyf
0g;zwfOD;xkyf (t0g&pf) ESifh[kqdkxm;&m OD;xkyfrSm tywfwckvHk; 0g&efrvdk? tywf tm;vHk;udk tpdrf;a&mif
qkd;NyD;vQif tay:qHk; tywfrsm;udkom Asufvufrw0ufrQ ½Sdaom t0gpif;jzpfatmif qkd;&rnf/ xdkt0g&pfuav;
atmuf tpdrf;a&mif b,fzufab; tvnfwnfhwnfhwGif teDa&mif t0wfp (Asuf wvufrcGJ? tvsm; ESpfvufr)
a'gifvdkuf wyfqifxm;&rnf/ teDa&miftay:wGif rnfonfh trSwftom;udkrQ ra&;om; rjc,f&/
278

udkvdkeDacwfaESmif; - 1939 rS 1940 - e,fcsJYqefhusifa&; vGwfvyfa&;BudK;yrf;rI trsKd;om;a&;toGif
4/ oHrPdtrdefhay;jcif;rsm;
oHrPdwyfudk trdefYay;jcif;udpöü Oyrm- nmvSnfh[k trdefYay;vQif trdefYay;oltzdkY vG,fulaomfvnf;
trdefYemcH&olrsm;twGuf vdkufem&ef tenf;i,ftcuftcJ awGU&vdrfhrnf/ ajcvSrf; rSm;,Gif;Muonfudkvnf; rMum
cP awGUayrnf/ odYk aomf pdwrf ysufbJ BudK;pm;&ef vdak yonf/ trdeYf rsm;udk pmjzifah &;om;xm;&m t"dygÜ ,f t,ltq
vGaJ umif;vGaJ eayrnf/ r½Si;f vif;aom udprö sm;twGurf l oHrPdtzGUJ BuD;odUk pma&; ar;jref;Ekid o
f nf/ tMuHOmPfvnf;
ay;Ekdifonf/
5/ oHrPdzGJYpnf;yHk
oHrPdzUJG pnf;yH?k &mxl;cefUxm;yHw
k Ukd ESihf ywfoufí A[kw
d iG ½f adS om wm0efct
H rIaqmifrsm;rSm pdwu
f ;l avmufrQ
ESifhom pDpOf&onf/ tu,fí vkyfudkifonfhtcgrsm;wGif rjzpfEkdifonfh udprö sm;udkvnf; awGUMuHK&aumif; awGUMuHK&
ayvdrfhrnf/ xdktcgrsKd;wGif e,foHrPdwyfrsm;onf A[dkodkY tMuHay;ñTefMum;jcif;rsm;udk jyKvkyfapvdkonf/ odkYrSom
rSm;aeaom t&mrsm;udk trSefjzpfatmif jyifqifEkdifí trSefrsm;udkvnf; ydkrdk aumif;rGefatmif pDrHEkdifayrnf/
6/
aemufq;kH owday;vdo
k nfrmS oHrPdzUJG pnf;a&;ESiyhf ufoufí rnfoUkd cufcyJ ?kH taESmift
h ,Suf awGU&yHrk sm;udk
aocsm*PpGm tjrefq;kH tpD&ifcMH uapvko
d nf/ odYk ro
S mvQif xdt
k cuftcJ taESmift
h ,Surf sm;udk rnfoYkdrnfyw
kH eG ;f vSef
NzdKzsufEkdifrnfudk oHrPdtzGJUBuD;u BudKwifpOf;pm;í wjynfvHk;½Sd oHrPdwyfrsm;tm; tMuHay;Ekdifayrnf/
7/ oHrPdtkyfcsKyfol t&m½Sdrsm;ESifh tkyfcsKyfolrsm;
(u) oHrPdwyfMuyf? (c) oHrPdwyfMuyfBuD;? (*) oHrPd wyfMuyfrSL;? (C) vufaxmufAdkvf/
oHrPd t&m½Sdrsm;
(u) Adkvfuav;? (c) wyftkyfAdkvf (*) AdkvfrSL; (C) twkdifyifcHAdkvf (i) AdkvfcsKyf
þ&mxl;rsm;udk tu,fí wdk;csJU&ef vkdvm;tyfaom tcsdefwGif wkd;csJU&ef &nf½G,fxm;aMumif;/
8/ wm0efrsm;
(u) oHrPdtMuyf? oHrPdwyfMuyf
olonf wyfpkwckwGif (4) a,mufxuf ydkí r½SdEkdifacs/ ¤if;onf wyfom;½kd;½kkd;xuf &mxl;tqifhtwef;
wxpfomjrifhonf/ wyfom;½dk;½dk; wa,mufudk tkyfcsKyf&onfh acgifolBuD; oabmrsKd;om jzpfonf/ ol\tvkyf
wm0efrsm;rSm ppfa&;jy&mü olYxuf&mxl;jrifhaom wyfMuyfBuD;? wyfMuyfrSL;ESifh vufaxmufAdkvfuav;wdkYudk ulnD&
rnf/ vufarmif;&pfrSm t½Snf (3) vufr? tus,f vufrw0uf ½Sdap&rnf/ xdkvuf&pfudk ycHk;tqufatmufESifh
tusÐvufzsm;wdkY tv,fwnfhwnfhwGif b,f? nm wyfqif&rnf/
(c) oHrPdwyfMuyfBuD;
olonf wyfpkwckwGif trsm;qHk; (3) a,mufom ½Sdap&rnf/ oHrPdwyfMuyf&mxl; wqifhjr§ifhonf/
olonf ppfa&;jy&mü wyfom; (20) xd udik Ef idk o
f nf/ vuf&pfEpS &f pf wyfqif&rnf/ 'kw,
d t&pfukd yxrt&pfatmuf
wnfhwnfhwGif vufr0ufjcm;íwyfqif&rnf/
(*) oHrPdwyfMuyfrSL;
olonfwyfpkwckwGif ESpfa,mufxufydkí r½Sdap&? ppfa&;jy&mwGif vl (30) txd oifMum;jyoEkdifonf/
olonfwyfom;rsm;udk oifMum;jyo&rnfjzpfojzifh ppfrIa&;&mwGif tawmfwwfuRrf;NyD;ol jzpf&rnf/ wyfrsm;udk
trdefYay;wwfap&rnf/ vuf&pf (3) &pf wyfqif&rnf/ wwd, t&pfudk yxrt&pfxuf vufr0ufwGif wyfqif
&rnf/ olonf tMuyfBuD;xuf &mxl;wqifhjrifhonf/
(C) vufaxmufAdkvf
vufaxmufAdkvfrSm Adkvfuav;atmufwGif½Sdí tMuyfrSL;xuf tqifhtwef;jrifhonf/ olonfAdkvfuav;
r½SdckdufwGif wyfpkwpkvHk;udk MoZmay; pDrHcefUcGJ&rnf/ vufaxmufAdkvf[k qdkaomfvnf; olonf oHrPdtzGJUwGif
t&m½SdwOD; r[kwfacs/ wyfpkwckwGif vufaxmufAdkvf wa,mufom ½SdEkdifonf/ vufaxmufAdkvf cefYxm;&mü
(or*¾rsm;ESifh Adkvfuav;) u rcefY&/ wyfom; (40) odkYr[kwf (40) atmuf½Sd wyfom;rsm;u rJa½G;í wifajr§muf
ap&rnf/
279

jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif; - atmifxGef;
oHrPdt&m&Sdrsm;
(u) Adkvfuav;
Adkvfuav;rSm oHrPdwyfpkudk tkyfcsKyfonfh t&m½SdwOD;jzpfonf/ ,cktcsdefü oHrPdoifwef;rsm; pmar;yGJ
rsm;udk rusif;yEkdifao;ojzifh Adkvfuav;&mxl;udk or*¾toif;toD;oD;rS oifhavsmfrnfh oludk cefYxm;Mu&aprnf/
Adkvfuav;wGif wyfpkudk oabm½Sdovdk oHrPdpnf;rsOf;twkdif; pDrHjc,fv,
S Ef idk o
f nf/ wyfom;wOD;OD;udk xkwyf ,f
ypfEidk o
f nfh tmPm½So
d nf/ wyfpw
k ckv;kH udk tkycf sKyf&mü olonf ta&;BuD;qHk;yk*dK¾ vf jzpfonf/ wyfom; (40) rjynfhbJ
wyfom; (25? 30? 35) qdkvQifvnf; or*¾toif; toD;oD;wdkYonf xkdwyfom;rsm;udk tkyfcsKyf&ef Adkvfuav;
wa,muf cefYap&rnf/ Oyrm- jrif;jcHwGif oHrPdwyfom; (69) a,muf½Sdonf/ xdk (69) a,mufpvHk;udk wyfAdkvf
uav; wOD;wnf;ESifh rudkifEkdif/ odkYjzpfí wyfAdkvfuav; ESpfOD;½Sdap&ef or*¾rsm;u Adkvfuav;wOD;udk aemufxyf
cefUxm;Mu&rnf/ oHrPdtrdefYay;jcif;ESifh qkdiforQ vkyfief;rsm;udk oHrPdwm0efcH Adkvfuav;onf aumif;rGefusepGm
uRrf;usif ap&rnf/ ¤if;tjyif pnf;rsOf;ESifh tjcm;vkyfief; wm0efrsm;udkvnf; uRrf;usif&efvkdayonf/ udk,fwkdif
ppfa&;jyjcif;udk trdeUf ay;wwfap&rnf/ wyfpEk iS yhf wfoufí wpHw
k ck jyKvkypf rD zH ,
G ½f v
dS Qif Adv
k u
f av;onf wyfMuyfrLS ;?
wyfMuyfBuD;? vufaxmufAdkvfwdkYESifh wkdifyifí pDrH&rnf/ rnfodkYyifjzpfap olonf wyfpkwckudk tkyfcsKyfEkdifrnfh
t&nftcsif;ESifh jynfhpHkap&rnf/
(c) wyftkyfAdkvf
olonf wyfom; (160) odkYr[kwf Adkvfuav; (4) OD;ukd tkyfcsKyfoljzpfonf/ olonf Adkvfuav;xuf
&mxl;wqifh jrifhonf/ wyfom; (160) rjynfhaomfvnf; wyfom; (80) u ausmfvQif wyftkyfAdkvfwa,muf ½Sdap
&rnf/ xdkwyftkyfAdkvfudk oHrPdpnf;rsOf; rajymif;ao;rD oHrPdrsm;uyif cefYxm;Mu&rnf/ Oyrm- ajrmif;jrNrdKUwGif
ausmif; (3) ausmif; ½Sdonf/ wausmif;wGif wyfom; (30)? wausmif;wGif wyfom; (50)? wausmif;wGif wyfom;
(45) a,muf½Sdonf[k qdkMupdkY/ wyfom; (30) ½Sdaom ausmif;wGif wyfMuyf (3) a,muf? wyfMuyfBuD; (2)a,muf?
wyfMuyfrLS ; (1) a,muf (þae&mwGif wyfMuyfrLS ;onf vufaxmufAv
kd &f mxl;udk ,lEidk o
f nf/) Adv
k u
f av;wa,muf
½Sdayrnf/ wyfom; (50) ½Sdaom ausmif;wGif wyfMuyf (5) a,muf? wyfMuyfBuD; (3) a,muf? wyfMuyfrSL; (2)
a,muf vufaxmufAdkvfwa,muf? Adkvfuav; wa,muf½Sdrnf/ wyfom; (45) ½Sdaom ausmif;wGif tMuyf (4)
a,muf? odkYr[kwf (5)a,muf? wyfMuyfBuD; (3) a,muf? wyfMuyfrSL; (2) a,muf½Sdrnf/ vufaxmufAv
kd w
f a,muf?
Adv
k u
f av; wa,muf½rdS nf/ wNrdKUvH;k ½Sd wyfom;rsm;udk tkycf sKyf&ef wyftyk Af v
dk w
f OD; ½S&d rnf/ Adkvfuav; (3) OD;udk
ausmif;toD;oD;½Sd or*¾toif;wdkYu wifajr§mufí wyftkyfAdkvfudk NrdKUvHk;qkdif&m or*¾u wifajr§muf&rnf/ Adkvf
uav;rsm;onf wyftkyfAdkvf\ MoZmtmPmudk emcH&rnf/
(*) Adv
k rf LS ;
Adv
k rf LS ;rSm wyftyk Af v
kd rf sm;tay:wGif tkycf sKyfot
l &m½Sjd zpfonf/ ol\wm0efrmS ol\ vufatmufwGif ½Sdaom
wyftm;vHk;wdkY\ wdk;wuf&m wkd;wufaMumif;udk pDrHcefYcGJenf; vrf;ñTefjy&rnf/ e,fvHk;qkdif&m oHrPdt&m½Sdyif
jzpfonf/ AdkvfrSL;udk rnfonhfor*¾rsm;rS rwifajr§muf&/ oHrPdtzGJUcsKyfuom wkduf½dkuf cefYxm;rnf/
9/

oHrPdwyfcGJyHk
40960
10240
2560
640
160
40
10 - 10 - 10 - 10

- wyfrawmf
- wyfaygif;csKyf
- wyfaygif;pk
- wyfaygif;
- wyfzGJU
- wyf
- wyfpdwf

10/
wyfpdwfudk oHrPdwyfMuyf tkyfcsKyfrnf/ wyfudk Adkvfuav; tkyfcsKyfrnf/ wyfzGJU wyftkyfAdkvf? wyfaygif;
AdkvfrSL;? wyfaygif;pk twdkifyifcHAdkvf? wyfaygif;csKyf wyfrawmfAdkvfcsKyfwdkY toD;oD; tkyfcsKyfMurnf/
11/
280

oHrPdtrdefUay;jcif;rsm;/ / trdefYtrSwf (1) rS qufí trdefhtrSwf (23-24) wdkY\ xyfrH½Sif;vif;csuf/

udkvdkeDacwfaESmif; - 1939 rS 1940 - e,fcsJYqefhusifa&; vGwfvyfa&;BudK;yrf;rI trsKd;om;a&;toGif
(23) oGm;vsuf nm - - vSnfU
þtrdefYudk b,fajc ajrtuswGif oHrPd[k owday;pum;udk qifhvkduf&rnf/ aemufwBudrf b,fajc
ajrtuswGif (nm) [k trdefYay;&rnf/ aemufwzef b,fajcajrtuswGif (vSnfh) [k jywfom;yDopGm ay;&rnf/
xdkYaemuf nmajca½SUodkY wvSrf;vSrf;? aemufb,fajc a½SUwvSrf;wuf/ þtcg b,fajca½SU-nmajcaemuf jzpfae
vdrrhf nf/ xdrk S vlwud,
k v
f ;kH nmbufoUkd vSní
hf nmajcESihf pvSr;f cg qufvuf avQmufomG ;&rnf/ trdeYf ay;NyD;aemuf
qufvufí vSrf;jcif;rSm t½Sdefowfjcif; jzpfonf/
(24) oGm;vsuf b,f - - vSnfU
þtrdefYudk nmvSnfh trdefYay;ouJhodkY oHrPd (b,fajc) b,f -(b,fajc) vSnfh/ (b,fajc)? trdefUay;
&rnf/ vSnfh[k trdefYay;NyD;aemuf nmajcESifh t½Sdefowf? xdktcg nmajca½SU-b,fajcaemuf taetxm; ½Sdvdrfhrnf/
xdkYaemuf vlwudk,fvHk;udk b,fbufodkY vSnfhvdkufNyD;vQif b,fajcESifhpí vSrf;&rnf/
(25) oGm;vsuf aemuf - - vSnfU
aemufvn
S w
hf idk ;f nmbufrS vSn&hf rnf/ oHrPd (b,fajc)? aemuf (b,fajc)? vSnhf (b,fajc)/ xkUd aemuf
nmajcudk a½SUwvSr;f wk;d í t½Sed o
f wf/ b,fajcudk nmajc\ a½SUüuyfí uefYvefYcs? ¤if;aemuf nmajcESihf aygufí
aemufvn
S /hf b,fajcwcsufaygufí vHk;0aemufvSnfh nmajcESifh vSrf;íxGuf&rnf/
(26) tav;jyK
tav;jyKtrdefYudk rjyKvkyfrD wyfwzGJUvHk;onf (owd) taetxm;ü ½Sdap&rnf/ oHrPdtav;jyK trdefYay;
aomtcg vufoD;qkyfvsuf nmbufvufudk wHawmifqpfrS txufodkYcsKd;? vufarmif;udk udk,f\ab;ü uyfxm;?
vufoD;qkyfudk a½SUodkYvSnfh? aemufvufarmif; wckvHk;udk rsufvHk;\ab;wGif wef;wef; txufodkYajr§muf&rnf/
vufo;D qkyu
f kd a½SUbufuo
kd m vSnx
hf m;&rnf/ vufukd xkwaf omtcgüvnf; vufarmif;udk a½S;enf;wl wHawmifcsK;d
NyD;rS atmufodkYcs&rnf/ vufudktay:odkY ajr§mufxm;onfhtcgwGif ESpfpuúefYrQ Mumap&rnf/
(27) NyD; - - ap
trdeYf ay;rnf½adS omtcg wyfwckv;kH onf a½SUwef;? aemufwef; ESpw
f ef;om ½Sad p&rnf/ Adv
k v
f yk o
f u
l oHrPd
NyD;ap[k trdeYf ay;vQif wyfom;tm;vH;k onf nmbufoYkd vSn&hf rnf/ xdYk aemuf Adv
k v
f yk o
f u
l kd xH;k pHtwkid ;f tav;jyKí
NidrfoufpGm xGufcGmoGm;&rnf/ wyfom;rsm; t½dktaoay;aomtcg Adkvfvkyfoluvnf; jyefí t½dktaoay;&rnf/
(28) nmujyif
þtrdefYonf oifcgp wyfrsm;ESifh 0ifcgp wyfom;rsm;tzdkY jzpfonf/ vkyfaqmif&mü nmun§drSmuJhodkY
jyKvkyf&rnf/ odYk aomf þtrdeUf rSm avhusifch ef; wckcu
k kd jyKvkyaf qmif½u
G Nf yD;onfh tcgü? twef;ESihf rnDnm jzpfae
aomaMumif?h twef;n§&d efcikd ;f aom trdefYwnf;/ wwfuRrf;NyD;aom wyfEiS hf wyfom;wdkYrmS þtrdefYukd Adv
k u
f ray;
&bJvsuf wyfom;rsm;udk,fwkdif avhusifhcef;wckckudk vkyfNyD;u jyifMun§dMu&rnf/
(29) ajcvSrf;jyif
vrf;oGm;&if; ajcvSrf;rSm;aecJhygu a½SUajczaemifhudk aemufajczsm;ESifh xdí a½SUajcudkyif qufvSrf;&rnf/
odkYr[kwf vSrf;vsuf½Sdaom taetxm;twdkif; (pHk) ckefí a½SUodkY wdk;Ekdifonf/ Oyrm ajcvSrf;rSm;aeolonf oGm;aepOf
a½SUajc? nmaemufajc buf½Sdaeonf xm;MupdkY/ ¤if;ol ajcvSrf;jyifcsifygu aemufajcjzpfaom b,fudk qufí
rvSrf;bJESifh ½Sd&if;taetxm;twkdif; (pHk) ckefvdkufcg ckefwdk;wdk; vdkuf&rnf/ tcsdefrSwfaomtcgü rSm;aeaom ajc
wbufudk ajrmufcsnf-cscsnf ESpfBudrfwkdifwkdif jyKvkyf&rnf/
(30) nm - apmif; (odkhr[kwf) b,f - apmif;
(twef;vku
d o
f mG ;vsu)f ¤if;trdeYf ukd ay;vku
d af omtcg wyfom;rsm;onf b,f (odYk r[kw)f nmodYk apmif;í
(w0ufvSnfhí) avQmufoGm;&rnf/ a'gifhwef;avQmufjcif;yifwnf;/ wyfom;rsm;onf twef;rysufatmif owdjyKí
281

jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif; - atmifxGef;
avQmufMu&rnf/ avQmufaomtcgü rdrd\ a½SUem;usaomvl\ ausmv,fESifh rdrdykcHk; (b,fapmif;u b,fykcHk;?
nmapmif;u nmykcHk;)ESifh wef;atmifxm;í rsufESmrl&modkY wef;wef;rwfrwf avQmuf&rnf/
(31) twGJvkduf b,f (odkhr[kwf) nmapmif;
þtrdefYrSm txufavhusifhcef;uJhodkYyif av;a,mufwGJ (odkYr[kwf) oHk;a,mufwGJ (odkYr[kwf) ESpfa,muf
wGJí twGJvdkuf? apmif;cg a'gihfwef; avQmufapjcif;aywnf;/
12/

,ckvtwGuf ppfa&;jytpDtpOf
,ck wvvHk;twGuf wyfom;rsm;tm; ppfa&;jyo&ef avhusifhcef;rsm;rSm (trdefYtrSwf - 1 ESifh ,ckv
oHrPd xkwjf yefcsuf - 2) ESpcf ak ygif;wGif (27) rsK;d ½So
d nf/ teuf (27) rsK;d vH;k udyk if avhusiMhf uap&rnf/ xdo
k Ykdavhusihf
Muap&mwGif tcsdeu
f kd uefYowfí tvkyv
f yk Mf uapvko
d nft
h wkid ;f atmufwiG f tcsdepf m&if;ESihf tvkyu
f w
kd í
JG jyxm;ay
onf/ ,ckvwvvHk;udk &ufowåav;ywfcGJí jyxm;onf/ ppfa&;jyvQif tenf;qHk; wem&DMumap&rnf/ xdkwem&D
udkvnf; (3) ydkif; ydkif;í yxr (10) rdepf/ 'kwd, (40) rdepf/ wwd, (10) rdepf cGJjcm;xm;onf/
yxrtywfwGif oifMum;&efrSm trdefYtrSwf (1) owdrS pí trdefY trSwf (16) nmapmif; txdwkdYudk
aocsmpGm wwfajrmufatmif jyKvkyo
f ifMum; Murnf/ ppfa&;jyowkid ;f yxr (10) rdepfwiG f wwyfv;kH udk Adv
k u
f ,
kd w
f idk f
,cifu oifMum;jyo NyD;pD;cJhonfwkdYudk jyefvnfjyoap&rnf/ 'kwd, (40) rdepfwGif wyfudk wyfpdwfrsm; cGJvkduf
yg/ qkdif&m wyfMuyfrSL;? vufaxmufAdkvfwdkYtm; ppfa&;jyoap&ef wm0efvTJtyfay;&rnf/ wwd, (10) rdepfwGif
wwyfvHk;udk Adkvfudk,fwkdifBuD;Muyfí xdkaeY jyoNyD;orQ avhusifhcef;rsm;udk jyefvSef jyoap&rnf/ (yxrqHk;upí
ppfa&;jy&aom ppfwyfrsm; tzkdYrSm? yxr (10) rdepf Adkvfu ppfa&;jyrnfhtpm;? wyftaMumif;udk ½Sif;vif;ajym&rnf/
'kwd,tywfwGif trdefYeHygwfpOf (17) tcsdefrSpí trdefYeHygwfpOf (22) avQmufvsuf b,fauGU- nmauGU
txdwdkYudk aocsmpGm wwfajrmufatmif avhusifhay;&rnf/ ppfa&;jyonfhtcsdefESifh wyfrsm;udk avhusifhay;ap&ef
txufenf;twkdif; pDpOf&rnf/
wwd,tywfwGif trdefUtrSwf (23) oGm;vsuf b,fvSnfh-nmvSnfhrSpí trdefYeHygwfpOf (25) oGm;vsuf
aemufvSnfhtxdwdkYudk txufenf;twkdif; cGJjcm;a0zefí oifMum;&rnf/
pwkw¬tywfwGif useftrdefYrsm;udk ukefpifatmif txufenf;twkdif; cGJjcm;a0zefí oifMum;&rnf/
13/
ppfa&;jywm0efrsm;
Adkvfuav;- wyfMuyfrSL;rsm;ESifh vufaxmufAdkvfwkdY wyfpkrsm;udk ppfa&;jyaepOf oGm;a&mufMunfh½I&rnf/
(u) wyfom;rsm;\ 0wfpm;qif,ifyHkudk owdjyK&rnf/
(c) wyfMuyfrSL;rsm;ESifh vufaxmufAdkvfwkdY ppfa&;tjyrSm;aevQif? 0ifa&mufjyifqifjyo trdefYay;&rnf/
(*) wyfom;rsm;\ trnfpm&if;udk ppfa&;jyolwkdif; *½kjyKí pm&if;,l rSwfom;ap&rnf/
wyfMuyfrLS ;ESifU vufaxmufAv
kd -f olwkdYonf Adv
k u
f av; wwyfv;kH udk ppfa&;jycdu
k w
f iG ?f wyfMuyfrsm;? wyfMuyfBuD;rsm;
wkYd\ wm0efukd vH;k 0aqmif½u
G &f rnf/ wyfMuyf? wyfMuyfBuD;wdYkrmS Adv
k u
f av;ppfa&;jycku
d f wyfom;rsm;ESihf a&maESmum
ppfa&;jyo Mu&rnf/
wyfMuyfESifU wyfMuyfBuD;- ¤if;wdkYrSm trdefYay;ol wyfMuyfrSL; (odkYr[kwf) vufaxmufAdkvfwdkY ppfa&;jypOfwGif?
wyfom; ydkrdkem;½Sif;apjcif;iSm trdefYrsm;udk yxrvkyfudkif aqmif½Gufí jyMu&rnf/ wzef wyfom;rsm; ppfa&;jyaom
tcgü trSm;awGUvQif wa,mufpDudk vkdufvHjyifqifay;&rnf/
ta&;awmfyHkatmifygap/
(4? 12? 39)

282

udkvdkeDacwfaESmif; - 1939 rS 1940 - e,fcsJYqefhusifa&; vGwfvyfa&;BudK;yrf;rI trsKd;om;a&;toGif

(!)

jrefrmEkid if v
H ;Hk qkid &f mausmif;om;rsm;\ umuG,af &;oHrPdtzGUJ

xkwfjyefcsuftrSwf (3)
(1)
oHrPdausmif;om;rsm;\ ppfwyfjzpfonft
h m;avQmpf mG ppfa&;ppfrEI iS hf ywfouforQ toH;k taqmif t&m0w¦K
wkYd ukd wwfEidk o
f rQ tpGr;f ukejf ynfph akH tmif pkaqmif;xm;½SEd idk &f ef vdt
k yfonft
h wkid ;f Adv
k v
f yk o
f rl sm;u BudK;pm;Mu&rnf/
oHrPdwyfrsm;wGif ppfrIppfa&;ESifh ywfoufí em;&nf0aeolESifh wwfuRrf;ol (Specilalist) rsm; ½SdMuap&rnf/
oHrPdwyfwikd ;f wGif taxmuf (uif;axmuf War Scouts) twwfukd aumif;pGmwwfuRr;f atmif avhvmolrsm;vnf;
vdkayonf/ ajryHkqGJtwwf? awmckwfcsKHwkd;? wHwm;aqmuf? ajruwkwfwl;qGjcif; twwfwdkYudkvnf; wwfEkdifvQif
avhvmMu&ef vdkayonf/ ppfwyfwwyfvQif txufygwyfom;rsKd;rsm;u wwyfwzGJU? "g;ckwf? vSHxkd;? tajr§muf?
aoewfudkifwG,fí wu,fowfjzwf&ol ppfom;rsKd;uwrsKd; ½SdMupjrJjzpfonf/ wyfrsm;udk tkyfcsKyfol Adkvfrsm;rSmrl
xdktwwftm;vHk;udk tenf;ESifhtrsm; wwfEkdifvQif tpGrf;ukefwwfajrmuf&ef vdkay&m XmecsKyfrS Armjynft&yf&yf½Sd
Adkvfrsm;twGuf oHrPdoifwef;rsm;udk ausmif;ydwf&ufrsm;twGif;ü zGifhvSpfEkdif&ef BudK;pm;aeaMumif;? oHrPdvufpGJ
pmtkyfudkvnf; rMumrDxGufEdkifatmif BudK;pm;rnfjzpfaMumif;/
(2)
e,f½Sd oHrPdwyfcGJrsm; rnfodkYrnfyHk c&D;a&mufaeonfudk XmecsKyfrS taotcsm rod&/ owif;pmrsm;wGif
awGU&oavmufESifh or*¾toif;rsm;xHrS or*¾toif;csKyfxHodkY ydkYpmrsm;wGif Mum;n§yfí pmESpfaMumif;? oHk;aMumif;
avmuf a&;vku
d Mf uorQudo
k m od&onf/ wyfcrJG sm;rS ay;ydYk pmrsm; xifoavmuf ra&muf½adS cs/ þtwkid ;f c&D;oGm;í
rjzpfacs? tpOftjrJvv
kd kd tquftoG,½f adS erSom vkyaf qmifí jzpfajrmufEidk rf nf/ oHrPdwm0efcrH sm;onf rdrw
d Ykda'o½Sd
oHrPdwyf toD;oD;wdkY\(u) wnfaxmif&mwGif tcuftcJ
(c) wyfom;OD;a&
(*) ppfa&;jyonf? rjyonf ponfwdkYudk tjrefqHk; tpD&ifcHMuapvdkonf/ oHrPdwyf rwnfaxmif&ao;
aom or*¾toif;rsm;rSmvnf; wnfaxmifEkdif&ef tjref BudK;pm;oifhMuayonf/
(3)
oHrPdppfa&;jy trdefYrsm;wGif vkdufemvkyfaqmif&ef tcuftcJawGUu XmecsKyfodkY csufjcif; taMumif;Mum;
&ef rarhEiS /hf tMuHÓPfay;oifv
h Qiv
f nf; vufraES;bJay;ydYk u wwkid ;f jynfv;kH twGuf tusKd ;jzpfonf/ oHrPdwyfrsm;
wnfaxmif&jcif;\ taMumif;udkvnf; oifwkdY odNyD;jzpfonf/
(4)

ppfa&;jytrdefhrsm;
(trSwf - 31 rS tquf)

(32) nm - - ESpfcg - - auGY
þtrdefYudk oHrPdwyf ppfcsDwufaepOf ay;&efjzpfonf/ þtrdefYudk (b,fauGU) (nmauGU) rSm uJhodkYyif
ay;&rnf/ Adkvfvkyfol trdefYay;vQif wyfom;rsm;onf yxrnmbufodkY wBudrfauGUvkdufí aemufwBudrf xyfrHum
nmbufodkY auGUum qufvufí ppfcsDMu&rnf/ ppfa&;jytrdefY (25) rSmuJhodkY avQmufvmcJhaomvrf;rSmyif xyfrHí
aemufjyefvSnfhum avQmufjcif;r[kwfbJ wyfwwyfvHk;auGUí aemufodkYjyefavQmufjcif;jzpfonf/ Oyrm wyfom;
(10) a,muf? trSwf (1) rS (10) txd/ a½SUaemuftpOfvdkuf avQmufvmonf qkdMuygpdkY? ppfa&;jytrdefY (25)
twkdif;qdkvQif? trSwf (1) onf yxrwGif a½SUacgif;aqmifí avQmufvmaomfvnf; jyefvSnfhonfhtcg trSwf
(10) wyfom;onf acgif;aqmifí avQmuf&onf/ þtrdefYtrSwf (23) rSm a½SUqHk;rS acgif;aqmif csDwufvmolonf
aemufqHk;odkY a&mufroGm;bJ a½SUqHk;uyif qufvufcsDwuf&ef jzpfonf/
yHkudkMunfUav-

15 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 15
nmESpfcgauGU jyefavQmuf&mü yxrvmcJhaom vrf;\ nmbufem;rSyif uyfíjyefavQmufMu&rnf/
283

jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif; - atmifxGef;
(33) b,f - - ESpfcg - - auGY
nmESpfcgauGUrSm uJhodkYyif acgif;aqmifí avQmufoludk
a½SUqHk;rSxm;í aemufrS wyfom;rsm;onfvnf; acgif;aqmif
wyfom;auGUonfh ae&modkYa&mufrS auGUMuum csDwufcJhonfh
vrf;\ b,fbufem;rS uyfí vmcJhaom c&D;udk jyefvSnfhjcif;
jzpfonf/
ppfa&;jytrdefh - 32? 33 o½kyfjyyHk

(34) nmodkh (odkhr[kwf) b,fodkh av;a,mufpkvsufav;a,muf - wGJ? ESpfa,muf - wGJ (&yfvsuf)
þtrdefYudk wyfom;rsm; &yfwefYaepOf ay;&rnf/ ppfa&;jy&ef pvkdufonfESifh wyfom;rsm;onf (2) wef;
pDcJhNyD; jzpfvdrfhrnf/ xdkYaemuf a½SUwef; (1-2-3-4-5) tp½Sdojzifh a&&rnf/ aemufwef; wyfom;rsm; trSwfa&&ef
rvkd/ aemufwef;wyfom;rsm;rSm rdrdwdkY a½SUwnfhwnfh wyfom;rsm;\ trSwfudkom rSwfxm;&rnf/ av;a,muf
wG[
J k trdeYfay;vdu
k v
f Qif a½SUwef;? aemufwef; pHt
k rSwf (2-4-6-8) ponfjzifh wyfom;rsm;onf aemufoYkd ajcwvSr;f
(vufr-30) b,fajcESifh vSrf;vkdufNyD;vQif nmbufodkY nmajcESifh ajcwvSrf; (vufr-24) vSrf;vkduf&rnf/ xdk
tcg wyfom; twef;ESpfwef;onf av;a,mufwGJpD av;wef;jzpfoGm;í pHk-trSwf wyfom;rsm;onf r-trSwf
wyfom;rsm;\ aemufwnfw
h nfw
h iG f ½SMd uvdrrhf nf/ b,fbuftpGeq
f ;kH wyfom;wdUk onf (r) trSwjf zpfap? (pH)k trSwf
jzpfap? av;a,mufwGJMu&rnf/ b,fbuftpGefqHk;ESifh 'kwd,wyfom;rsm;rSm rnfonfhtcgrQ rwGJ&/
(u) tu,fí wyfom; (16) a,muf twGJ (7) wGJ½Sdonf qdkMuygpdkh
xdktcgwGif av;a,mufwGJ wGJ&ef vG,fvG,fESifh jzpfvdrfhrnf/ tu,fí wyfom; (18) a,muf twGJ (9)
wGJ ½SdaevQif? aemufqHk; (b,fbufqHk;) wyfom;rsm;rSm (r) trSwf jzpfaeaomfvnf; rdrdwdkYnmbuf (pHk) trSwf
wyfom;rsm;ESifh wGJMu&rnf/ aemufqHk; wyfom;rsm;\ nmbuf pHktrSwftom;rsm;rSm rvIyf½Sm;&/ xkdtcgwGif
aemufq;kH wyfom;rsm;ESihf wwGaJ usmf (r) trSwf wyfom;rsm;rSm ESpfa,mufwnf; ½Sdaevdrfhrnf/ xkdwyfom; ESpfa,muf
teuf aemufwef; wyfom;rSm aemufokdYwvSrf; qkwfvkduf&rnf/
(c) twGJpHk- aemufvyfESifU
rSwfcsuf- aemufvyfqkdonfrSm twef;pD&mwGif a½SUwef;ESifh aemufwef; vlrnDrQí Oyrm - a½SUwef; (8) a,muf?
aemufwef; (7) a,mufjzpfaevQif? a½SUwef;ESifh aemufwef; tuGufaphatmif aemufwef; b,ftpGefqHk;rS aeía&
aomf - wwd,ajrmufae&mudk ae&mvyfxm;&rnf/ xdkae&mvyfudk aemufvyf[k ac:onf/
(ppfa&;jy trdefh (7) udk jyefMunfUav)
av;a,mufwGJ[k trdefYay;aomtcg aemufvyf\ nmbufuyfvsuf½Sdaom wyfom;onf aemufodkY
wvSrf; vSrf;ay;&rnf/
(*) twGJr - aemufvyfESifU
av;a,mufwGJ[k trdefYay;aomtcg? aemufvyfae&mudk csefvSyfí tjcm;twGJrsm;rSm - wGJjrJ wGJoGm;
Mu&rnf/ xdktcg aemufvyftwGJrSm - wa,mufwnf;om ½Sdaevdrfhrnf/
(C) a½SYwef;aemufü ½SdaevQif (Oyrm-Adkvfvkyfol wyfom;rsm;tm; aemufvSnfU[k trdefhay;aomtcg)
aemufvyfae&monf a½SUwef;odkY a&mufaevdrfhrnf/ odkYaomf a½SUwef;wGif rnfonfhtcgrQ ae&mvyf
r½Sdap&/ odkYaMumifh aemufwef;rS a½SUae&mvyfESifh wnfhwnfhwyfom;onf a½SUwef;odkY wuf&vdrfhrnf/ xdkYaemuf
av;a,muf wG&J mwGif (pH)k trSwt
f om;rsm;onf nmajcESihf a½SUodUk wvSr;f wufí? b,fajcESihf b,fbufoUkd wvSr;f vSr;f
vdkuf&rnf/ tu,fí a½SUwef;? aemufwef; vltjynfh-twGJ rjzpfvQif? ,cifu aemufodkYqkwf&aom wyfom;onf
,cktcg a½SUodkYwuf&rnf/ (ppfa&;jytrdefh (34-u) udk MunfUav) wzufpmrsufESmrS yHkrsm;ESifUwJGzufMunfUyg284

udkvdkeDacwfaESmif; - 1939 rS 1940 - e,fcsJYqefhusifa&; vGwfvyfa&;BudK;yrf;rI trsKd;om;a&;toGif

trdehf (34)

wJNG y;D yHk

trdehf (34-u) twJpG kH - vlppd x
D m;yHk

wJNG y;D yHk

trdehf (34-c) twJrG - vlppd x
D m;yHk

wJNG y;D yHk

trdehf (34-*) twJpG kH - aemufvyfEiS Uf pDxm;yHk

wJNG y;D yHk

trdehf (34-C) a½Sw
Y ef;aemufü ½Sv
d l

285

jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif; - atmifxGef;
(35) ESpfa,muf - - wGJ
(u)
av;a,mufwGJpOf cGJíwufMu&aom wyfom;rsm;onf udk,fhae&modkY udk,fjyefa&mufatmif b,fajcESifh
b,fodkYvSrf; nmajcESifh a½SUodkYwufMu&rnf/ (ppfa&;jytrdefh (34-u) udk MunfUav)
(c)
aemufwef;onf a½SUü½Sdrl - av;a,mufwGJpOfu cGJxGuf&aom wyfom;rsm;onf? nmajcESifh nmodkY
vSrf;í b,fajcESifh udk,fhae&modkY udk,fjyef0ifMu&rnf/
(*)
aemufodkY wvSrf;qkwf&mom wyfom;rsm;rSm a½SUodkYwvSrf;wufí a½SUodkY wvSrf;wuf&aom wyfom;
rsm;rSm aemufodkY wvSrf;qkwf&rnf/
(36) b,f (odkhr[kwf) nm
ppfa&;jytrdefY (34) udk jyKvkyfNyD;aomtcg? Adkvfvkyfolu b,f (odkYr[kwf) nm [k qdkvdkufvQif Adkvft
rdeYf ay;&mbufoYkd wyfom;tm;vH;k vSnv
hf u
dk &f rnf/ xdYk aemuf (csD - - wuf) [k trdeYf xyfraH y;vdu
k v
f Qif a½SUodYk csw
D uf
Mu&rnf/
(37) b,f (odkhr[kwf) nm -- vSnfU
,cktrdefYrSm b,fodkYvnf;aumif;? nmodkYvnf;aumif; vSnfh&efay;aom ½kd;½dk;trdefYrsKd; r[kwf/ ppfa&;jy
trdefY (36) udk ay;NyD;aomtcg? Oyrm (b,f) [k Adkvfvkyfolu nmvSnfh[kqdkvQif nmbufodkY vSnhf½Hkomru?
trSwf (35) twdkif; udk,hfae&modkYudk,f jyef0ifMuum? (2)a,muf wGJMu&rnf/ Oyrm- AdkvfrS (nm)[k trdefYay;í
b,fodkY trdefYay;í - b,fokdY jyefvSnfhapvdkvQif Adkvfvkyfolu (av;a,mufpkvsuf - nm -- vSnfh) [k trdefY
ay;&rnf/
(38) (2 - a,mufwGJpD ae&mrS) 4 - a,mufwGJ
(u)
xdktcg (pHk) trSwf wyfom;rsmonf nmbufodkY wvSrf;vSrf;vkdufí b,fESifh a½SUodkY wvSrf;wuf
Mu&rnf/ Oyrm- twGJ (1? 2? 3? 4? 5? 6) ½Sdí? twGJ (1) onf a½SUqHk;rS a½SUodkU rsufESmrlaevQif? xdktwGJ\aemufwGif
½Sdaom (2? 4? 6) ponfh pHktrSwfwGJrsm;onf txufyg enf;twkdif; av;a,mufwGJMu&rnf/
(c)
tu,fí (6) trSwfwGJonf a½SUqHk;rS a½SUodkYrsufESmrlí (5? 3? 1) trSwfwGJrsm;onf b,fajcESifh bufbuf
odkY vSrf;í nmajcESifh aemufodkY av;a,mufwGJrdatmif qkwfMu&rnf/

trdehf (38-u)
6

5

4

3

2

1
2
3
1

trdehf (38-c)
6

5

4

3

2

1

2

1
3

286

udkvdkeDacwfaESmif; - 1939 rS 1940 - e,fcsJYqefhusifa&; vGwfvyfa&;BudK;yrf;rI trsKd;om;a&;toGif
(*)
,cifu ppfa&;jytrdefYrsm;t& - a½SUwkd;? aemufqkwf vkyfMu&aom wyfom;rsm;onf ,cktcg ab;odkY
wvSrf;xGufjcif;? 0ifjcif;udkom jyKvkyfMu&rnf/
(39) (tcsdefrSwfpOf) av;a,mufwGJ
þtrdefYudk trdefYtrSwf (35) twkdif; trdefYay;&rnf/ (nmodkY av;a,mufpkvsuf - av;a,mufwGJ)
wyfom;rsm;onf tcsdefrSwfaeMuvdrfhrnf/ b,fajcajrtuswGif yxrtrdefYudk ay;í? 'kwd,trdefY (av;a,muf)udk
b,fajcajrtuswGif xyfrHay;um? aemufwBudrf b,fajcajrtuswGif (wGJ) udk ay;&rnf/ xkdtcg (pHk) trSwf
wyfom;rsm;onf wGJ[k Adkvfu trdefYay;NyD;onfESifh wNydKifeuf nmajcudk ajrodkYjyefcsí b,fajcESifh aemufodkY
qkwfvkdufum nmajcESifh nmbufodkY vSrf;vdkuf&rnf/ nmajcvSrf;NyD;vQif &yfwefYí rae&/ qufvufí tcsdefrSwf
aeMu&rnf/ (b,foYkd av;a,muf pkvsuf av;a,mufw)JG [k qdv
k Qif? nmwGipf í trdeYf ay;NyD;vQif wyfom;rsm;onf
vnf; nmbuf ajcrSpí vSrf;Mu&rnf/
(40) (tcsdefrSwfvsuf) 2 a,mufwGJ
tcsdefrSwfae&mrS - b,fajcajrtuswGif (2a,muf) [k trdefYay;í aemufwBudrf b,fajcajrtuswGif
(wG)J [k ay;&rnf/ wyfom;rsm;onf yxrb,fajcESihf b,fbufoYkd vSr;f vdu
k í
f aemufwBudrf b,fajcajrtuswGif
(wGJ) [k ay;&rnf/ wyfom;rsm;onf yxrb,fajcESifh b,fbufodkY vSrf;vdkufí nmajcESifh a½SUodkYwufMu&onf/
(41) (oGm;vsuf) 4- a,mufwGJ
trdefYudk b,fajcajrtuswGifom ay;&rnf/ (wGJ) [k trdefYay;NyD;onfESifh wNydKifeuf (r)wyfom;wkdYonf
nmajcESihf ud,
k t
f ½Sed f owfvu
dk í
f ESpBf udrt
f csderf w
S Nf yD;vQif qufícsDwufMu&rnf/ (r) wyfom;wkYd tcsderf w
S af ecku
d f
(pH)k wyfom;rsm;onf txufygenf;rsm;twkid ;f av;a,mufwMJG uí qufvuf csDwufMu&rnf/ xdt
k cg (r)wyfom;
rsm;ESifh (pHk) wyfom;rsm;onf ajcvSrf;wnDwñGwf jzpfoGm;vdrfhrnf/
(42) (oGm;vsuf) 2 a,mufwGJ
trdefYudk b,fajcajrtuswGifay;í vkdufemonfh wyfom;rsm;onfvnf; txufygenf;rsm;twdkif; udk,fh
ae&modkY udk,fjyef0ifMu&rnf/ b,fbufwyfom;rsm;onftcsdefESpfcg rSwfMu&rnf/
(43) (&yfvsuf) nmodkh twef;jyK
twef;jyK[k AdkvfutrdefYay;vQif a½SUwef;? nmbufqHk; wyfom;rsm;onf nmbufodkY vSnfhaeí? a½SUwef;
usew
f yfom;rsm;onf trdeYf trSwf (15) rSmuJo
h Ykd nmodYk apmif;vku
d Mf u&rnf/ xdUk aemuf Adv
k v
f yk o
f u
l tjrefavQmuf[k
trdefYay;&onf/ xdt
k cg a½SUwef;? nmbufq;kH nmodkYvn
S x
hf m;onfh wyfom;rsm;onf a½SUodkY ESpv
f rS ;f csDwufNyD;vQif
&yfwefYae&rnf/ twef;wckvHk;onf twef;pDrysufapbJ? nmbufqHk; wyfom;&yfae&mESifh &ifaygifwef;pDrDatmif
csw
D ufNyD;vQif &yfwefYMu&rnf/ aemufwef; nmbufq;kH wyfom;onf a½SUodYk ESpv
f rS ;f wufí a½SUwef;nmbuf wyfom;
\ rlvae&mudk ,lNyD;vQif nmbufoYkd vSnu
hf m &yfwefYae&rnf/ usew
f yfom;rsm;rSm a½SUwef;ESihf wygwnf; tpDtwef;
rysufapbJ? nmbufqHk;wyfom;ESihf &ifaygifwef;rdatmif csDwuf&yfwefYMu&rnf/ b,fodkY twef;jyKvnf; txuf
enf;twkdif; jyKvkyfMu&rnf/
(yHkudk MunfUav)
(44) (oGm;vsuf) twef;jyK
txufenf;twkid ;f yif tvH;k pHk jyKvkyMf u&rnf/ odYkaomf nmbufq;kH wyfom;rsm;rSm ae&mopfoYkd a&mufvQif
&yfraebJ tcsdefrSwfaeí b,fbufrS wyfom;rsm;udk apmifhqkdif;Mu&rnf/ b,fbuf wyfom;rsm;vnf; nmbufqHk;
wyfom;rsm;ESifh &ifaygifwef;rdvQif tcsdefrSwfaeMu&rnf/ Adkvfvkyfolu csDwuf&ef trdefYay;rS qufvuf csDwuf
Mu&rnf/ nmodYk twef;jyKvdv
k Qif nmajcajrtuswiG f trdeYf ay;í b,foYkd twef;jyKvv
kd Qif b,fajcajrtuswiG f trddefY
ay;Mu&rnf/
287

jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif; - atmifxGef;
(45) (twGJrS) nmodkh - twef;jyK
nmbuftwef;onf a½SUqHk;wyfom;rSty usefwyfom;rsm; nmodkYapmif;? b,fbuftwef; nmvSnhf?
tjrefavQmuf[k trdefYay;u? nmbufwef; a½SUqHk;wyfom;rsm;onf a½SUokdY ESpfvSrf;wuf? usefwyfom;rsm;onf
a½SUqHk;wyfom;ESifh &ifaygifwef;rdatmif csDwufMu&rnf/
b,fodkY twef;jyKvkduvnf; b,fbuftwef;onf b,fodkYapmif;í nmbuftwef;onf b,fvSnfh
NyD;vQif a½S;enf;twdkif; qufvufvkyfudkifMu&rnf/ (yHkudk MunfUav)

trdehf (43) &yfvsuf nmodhk twef;jyKykH

rlvtwef;rsm;
nmbufodkh twef;jyKNyD;yHk

a½SYwef;nmapmif;xm;yHk (rlvtwef;)
a½SY (2) vSrf;

trdehf (45) twJrG S nmodhk twef;jyKykH
a½SY (2) vSrf;

nmbufodkh twef;jyKNyD;yHk

rlv (2) a,mufwJG ½SdyHk

a½SYwef;nmapmif;xm;yHk

288

udkvdkeDacwfaESmif; - 1939 rS 1940 - e,fcsJYqefhusifa&; vGwfvyfa&;BudK;yrf;rI trsKd;om;a&;toGif
(46) tcrf;tem;pDjcif;
tcrf;tem;pDjcif; qkdonfrSm t*Fvdyfvdk (Ceremonial Prade) [k ac:onf/ wyfom;tm;vHk;udk twef;
wwef;wnf; jzpfatmif yxrpDvkduf&rnf/ xdktcg tedrfhqHk;wyfom;rsm;rSm b,fbufqHk;wGif ½Sdapí t&yftjrifhqHk;
wyfom;rsm;rSm nmbufq;kH wGif ½SMd uap&rnf/ nmrSpí tpOfvu
kd f trSwfa&&rnf/ (r) trSwfwyfom;rsm;tm;
a½SUodkYwvSr;f ? (pH)k trSwf wyfom;rsm;tm; aemufodkYwvSrf; vSrf;&ef? (r- trSwfwyfom;rsm; a½SUwvSrf;wuf?
pHk- trSwfwyfom;rsm; aemufwvSrf;qkwf - - vSrf;) (vSrf;) [k trdefYay;&rnf/ xdkYaemuf Adkvfvkyfolu (b,fnm- vSn)hf [k trdeYf ay;&rnf/ a½SUwef;wyfrsm;onf nmbufoYkd vSní
hf aemufwef;wyfom;rsm;onf bufbufoYkd
vSnfhvdkufMu&rnf/ xdkYaemuf Adkvfvkyfolu (b,f-n m-vSnfh) [k trdefYay;&rnf/ (tjrefavQmuf) [k trdefYay;
aomtcg? a½SUwef; nmbufqHk; wyfom;rsm;onf &yfwefYae&rnf/ usefwyfom;rsm;onf rsufESmrl&m bufodkY
avQmuf/ aemufwef; wyfom;rsm;onf nmbufodkY auGUcg a½SUwef; aemufqHk;vlESifh qufrdatmif avQmufMu&rnf/
xdkodkY wwef;vnf; avQmufoGm;aepOf a½SUqHk;rS wyfom;rsm;onf aejrJaeí? 'kwd,wyfom;rsm;onf yxrwyfom;
\ nmbufodkU xGufí ESpfvSrf;uGmwGif &ifaygifwef; &yfwefUae&rnf/ wwd,wyfom;rsm;onf yxrwyfom;\
aemufwGif &yfí? pwkw¬wyfom;rsm;onf 'kwd,wyfom;uJhokdY nmbufodkY xGufcg? 'kwd,wyfom;\ aemufwGif
&yf&rnf/ xdkodkY tm;vHk;wyfom;rsm; vkyfudkifNyD;vQif wyfwckvHk;udk jcHKíMunfhygu ywåvm;yHk wnf½Sdvdrfhrnf/

trdehf (45) tcrf;tem;pDjcif;
(u) *Pef;wckukd vlwa,mufvrhkd w
S yf g

(c) r-trSwrf sm; a½Sw
Y vSr;f wuf nmvSn?Uf pH-k trSwrf sm; aemufwvSr;f qkwf b,fvn
S Uf

(*) vlpck GJ avQmufykH

(C) avQmufNy;D pDxm;yHk

289

jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif; - atmifxGef;

(¡)

ausmif;om;rsm;umuG,af &; - oHrPdxw
k jf yefcsuf trSwf (4)

ausmif;om;rsm; umuG,fa&;oHrPdwyf[laom pum;ESifhavsmfnDpGm e,frS wyfom;ESifhAdkvfwkdYonf ppfcsD
ppfwwfESifh oufqkdifaomt&mwkdYudk rsm;pGmoduRrf;em;vnf&ef vkdayonf/ Adkvfvkyfolrsm;onf rdrdwdkYwwfEkdiforQ
tpGr;f ukef ppftwwfukd r&ru vku
d v
f ½H mS azG pkaqmif;Mu&rnf/ ppfwu
dk &f mwGif ta&;BuD;aomtcsufum; vufeuf
tiftm;? vltiftm;? aiGtiftm;ESifh Adkvfrsm;\ t&nftcsif;wnf;/
a&jyif? ajrjyifESifh aumif;uifrSwkdufaom wyf[k tMurf;tm;jzifh (3) pm; cGJvdkufvQif ArmjynftzkdYum;
a&jyifESifh avjyifudk csefvSyfí ajrjyifwkdufaom wyfrsm;twGufom pdkif;jyif;Mu&rnf/
tuG,ftumrsm;
ajrjyifwu
dk af om wyfwYkd twGuu
f m; tuG,t
f umonf 'kw,
d ta&;BuD;qH;k jzpf\/ wkid ;f jynf wjynfwiG ;f ü
csDwufwu
dk cf u
kd pf Of awmwGi;f ? awmifMum;ESihf ajrjyifrsm;wGif csDwufMu&wwfonf/ xdt
k cdu
k t
f wefY &efow
l Ydk tem;odYk
wwfEidk o
f rQ csO;f uyfEidk &f efum;? ud,
k w
fh yfukd &eforl sm;tvG,Ef iS hf rjrifEidk af tmif MuHaqmifMu&rnf/ csw
D ufomG ;vmqJ
ESihf ausmv
f eG cf NhJ yD;aom ae&majruGurf sm;udk aemufcH (Background) ac:&rnf/ ¤if;aemufcEH iS ahf tmufc\
H ta&mift
qif; tajctaewdkYudk aocsmpGm od½Sdxm;&rnf/ odkYod½SdrSom ¤if;aemufcHta&mifudk rdrw
d dYk wyfom;rsm;u vku
d í
f
0wfqifEidk o
f nf/ aemufct
H a&mifukd vku
d í
f 0wfqifjcif; tusKd;um; ta&mifjcif; a&maxG;aeojzifh tvG,fwulESifh
&efolrsm; rjrifEkdif? tjypfum; 0wfNyD; t0wftpm;wdkYudk rMumcP ajymif;vJ&ef cJ,Of;vS\/ odkYaomf wwfEkdiforQ
wlatmif BudK;pm;&rnf/
Oyrm- &efukefNrdKUESifh ywfvnf\ aemufcHESifh atmufcHwdkU ta&mifrSm atmufu jrufaygrsm;onfh tjyif
opfawm xlxyfvSojzifh tpdrf;a&mifjzifh vTrf;awmh\/ xkdodkY aemufcH½Sdaom t&yftwGuf t0wfum; tpdrf;a&mif
taumif;qHk;? tndKa&mif? teufa&mifESifh umuDwkdYudk 0wfqifuvnf; tvG,fESifh jrifEkdifrnfr[kwf/ ¤if;wkdYtpm;
tjzL? teD? t0gwkdYudk oHk;rdrSmrl vG,fulpGm jrifEkdif,HkrQru tpdrf;wGif;üuGufí xif½Sm;pGmjrifjcif;ESifh pufuGif;
jzpfjcif;wkdYrS umuG,f&ef? atmufcH aemufcHwdkYESifha&maom ta&mifudk 0wfqif&rnf/ rdrd0wfaom t0wfa&mifonf
aemufcEH iS hf a&maecJv
h Qif ajrjyifuu
kd f (200) avmuf twGi;f Nidro
f ufpmG arSmufae½Hrk Qyif &eforl sm;u jrifEidk rf nfr[kw/f
(A[dkrS oifUawmfaom t0wfudk jy|mef;ay;vdrfUrnf/)
tuG,ftumtjzpf toHk;jyKEkdifonfwdkYum; opfyif? jrufyifpkuav; wawmifxGmomom½Sd opfyifi,fpk?
csKyH w
k ?f pnf;½k;d wef;? opfyif&yd f (aeajymufMum;aom ae&m) opfiw
k w
f ?dk ajredr?hf uke;f jrifrh S pí? rdrw
d Ykd t&yfa&maeonfh
ae&mudk vkdufí ÓPf½Sdovkd rsufuG,f? usnfuG,f Munfhí ,lMu&rnf/
rdrduG,fumxm;aom t&m\ tultnDtm;jzifh rjrifEkdif½Hkom½Sdaom t&mudk rsufuG,f? rdrdudk &efol
rjrifEkdif½kHomru &efolusnfqHrsm; rrSefatmif uG,fxm;onfh t&mudk usnfuG,f/ odkYaMumifh tumtuG,f,l&mü
usnfuG,f&atmif ,lEdkifu aumif;vS\/ ,ck toHk;csaeaom ppf½kdifz,faoewfrSm 'k (5 - 6) aycefY½SdrS usnfuG,f
Ekid o
f nf/ usnfu,
G u
f m; ud,
k w
f idk w
f ;l xm;aom ajrmif;urlwYkd rmS taumif;qH;k jzpf\/ pnf;½k;d wnf;paom csKHyw
k w
f Ykd rmS
&efolrsm;u tvG,fwul rjrifEkdifaomfvnf; pdwfxifESifhyif pufaoewfESifhvSrf;í ypfvdkufu tm;vHk;pkjyHK aowwf
onf/ tuG,ftum,lonfh ae&mü rnfodkY ,lrnf? rnfonfh ae&muaumif;onf[k taotcsm a&;ay;&efum;
cJ,Of;vS\/ Adkvfrsm;u yifudk,fÓPfudk oHk;í ae&mtaetxm;udk MunfhNyD;vQif oifhovkd ,lMu&rnf/ OyrmurlrS aumif;onf[k a&;xm;aomfvnf; wkdufckdufaeaomtcg urlr½Sdu todkYvQif urludk tuG,ftumtjzpf
toHk;jyKEkdifawmhtHhenf;/
e,frS Adv
k w
f Ydkonf rdrw
d Ykd\ t&yfa'oudk ud,
k w
f idk f pdppfMunf½h í
I rnfoYkdtumtuG,,
f rl nf/ b,fae&mu
awmh aumif;onf/ awmifwef;u b,fvkdpDwef;aeonf paom ajrjyiftajctae (Cover) wdkYudk aumif;pGm od
em;vnf&rnf/ tuG,ftumtwGufrSm e,fu Adkvfrsm;ESifhwuG wyfMuyfrsm;\ ÓPfudkrsm;pGm rSDaeonf/
ykef;uG,fenf;
awmwGif; opfyifrsm;tMum;ü oGm;vm&pOf opfcufopf½GufwdkYudkvnf; vSnfhpm;aeaom tykef;tajc
taejzifh toHk;cs&rnf/ Oyrm- awmwGif;oGm;vmaeygu opfcufrsm;udk wdk;oGm;vQif &efoltvG,fwul jrifEkdifrnf
r[kwf/ xdkYjyif wawmifavmufom jrifhaom opfyifuav;rsm;udk usKd;wdk;usJwJ aygufapaom t&yfjzpfumrl?
¤if;tyifrsKd;udk OD;xkyfüxkd;í arSmufaeygu tjcm;opfyifrsm;ESifh a&maxG;NyD;vQif vludkjrifEkdifrnf r[kwfay/
290

udkvdkeDacwfaESmif; - 1939 rS 1940 - e,fcsJYqefhusifa&; vGwfvyfa&;BudK;yrf;rI trsKd;om;a&;toGif
tumtuG,f ,lNyD;onfah emufü ta&;BuD;onft
h csufum; Nidro
f ufpmG aeEkid zf kdY jzpf\/ Nidro
f ufpmG raebJ
vIyf½Sm;aeygrl? &efolu ta0;rS tvG,fESifh jrifEkdifvdrfhrnf/ vIyfonfhtcgüvnf; ajz;ajz; vIyfrSef;rod vIyf&rnf/
Oyrm- acgif;udk awmifbuf Munfah e&mrS ajrmufbufukd MunfhvdkvQif awmifrSajrmufudk csufjcif;rvSnfh&/ ajz;ajz;
tcsdefudk tukefcHí vSnfh&rnf/ odkYr[kwfu touf½Sd owå0grSef;odrl? wwyfESifhwwyf ,SOfNydKif ypfcwfaeMuaom
tcg? vludkjrifrS ypfrnfr[kwf/ ,cif qdkcJhNyD;onfhtwkdif; txifESifhyif vSrf;íypfcwfwwfojzifh NidrfoufpGm ae
Ekdif&efudk txl;BudK;pm;zkdYvdkayonf/
tuG,ftum,lyHk
tuG,t
f um,lpOfrmS trsm;tm;jzifh tvsm;arSmufvsu½f w
dS wfonf/ tvsm;arSmufíjzpfjcif;? uG,,
f jl cif;rSm
ud,
k u
f a½SUudrk sm;pGm vSr;f í rjrifEidk af omfvnf; &efo\
l usnfxrd eS zf Ydk rmS rsm;pGmcJ,Of;vSonf/ aoewfrmS trsm;tm;
jzifh cg;&if;avmufom vSrf;í ypfwwfonf/ tu,fí ajray:½Syfypfu vlqDra&mufrD vrf;tMum;wGif wkdufí
tjcm;t&m0wåKrsm;udk rSefaeEkdifonf/ trsm;tm;jzifh ,lxm;aom tuG,ftum\aemuf nmbuftpGef; trdwfem;rS
vlae&m,lí arSmufae&onf/ urlrSmvnf; xkdenf;twlyif odkYaomf urlxdyfü opfyifpkuav;rsm;½Sdu xdyfüvnf;
ae&m,lEidk o
f nf/ urlxyd t
f pGe;f ü ae&m,lpOf rsuv
f ;kH wbufuo
kd m azmfxm;&rnf/ nmbufu tuG,,
f rl S aoewfEiS hf
rsufv;kH wbufukd nmbufü xm;í vlukd opfyiftuG,t
f um ponfwYdk u zH;k tkyx
f m;vdrrhf nf/ b,fbufu,lygu
vlwud,
k v
f ;kH azmfNyD;rS aoewfukd xkwaf zmfEidk v
f rd rhf nf/ b,fbufu rnfonfhtcgrQ ae&mr,l&/
tuG,ftumae&m ra&mufrD uGif;jyifrsm;udk jzwfausmfí oGm;p&m½SdvQif vludkjzefYcGJí tjref tajy;oGm;&
rnf/ uGif;jyifr[kwfu rvkd/ tuG,f,lvQif jrefpGm,lí? ¤if;tuG,fudkcGmu vsifjrefpGmcGm&rnf/ awmwGif;ü opf
yif wyifESifhwpfyif ul;&mwGif vsifjrefpGmul;í vludk tenf;i,fjzefYNyD; wNydKifwnf; ajy;&rnf/ odkYrS ypfcwfrnfo
h l
u ypf&ef a½G;cs,fí r&cif? tuG,fudk vla&mufEkdifonf/ vlrcGJbJ ul;u þvlpkBuD;udk wae&mwnf; jrifae&ojzifh
pufuiG ;f aumif; jzpfaevdrrhf nf/ vlcv
JG u
dk í
f tkycf sKy&f usyw
f nf; oGm;wwfonf/ (txl;*½kjyK&rnf) csKHwef;udk ausmf&mü
jzpfEkdifonf/ tu,fí wae&mwnf;rS ausmfí aES;aevQif pufuGif;aumif; jzpfwufonf/ ppfwkduf&mü pufuGif;
aumif; rjzpf&ef rsm;pGma½SmifMu&rnf/ aemufq;kH ypfuiG ;f usu tumtuG,f r½Sad omfvnf; uGi;f jyifwiG yf if arSmufí
ypfMu&onf/ xkduJhodkY ae&m,l&mü tjrefqHk;ajy;í tjrefqHk;arSmufNyD;vQif vludk tus,fqHk;csJ&rnf/ tkyfr&atmif
vnf; rcsJ&/

(P) ajratmufvyI &f mS ;rIEiS hf ausmif;om;rsm;
twGif;pnf;onf 1300 jynfhta&;awmfyHkBuD; ay:ayguf&ef vIHYaqmf&yfwnfay;NyD;aemuf twGif;pnf;rS
udkEk? udkatmifqef;? udkvSazwdkYonf udkA[def;ESifh udkvSa½TwdkYudk vufeufudkifawmfvSefa&;twGuf pnf;½Hk;cJhonf/
twGif;pnf;tzGJUonf vQKdU0SufpGm vufeufudkifawmfvSefa&;twGuf xyfrHzGJUpnf;cJhMuonf/ ausmif;om;jzpfcJhaom
trsm;pkrSm ,aeYxufwdkif vlxkMum;wGif MoZmoufvsuf ½Sdonf/ udkEkonf bmoma&;t& vufeufudkif awmfvSef
a&;udk odyftm;ray;csifaomfvnf; udkatmifqef;url vufeufudkifawmfvSefa&;twGuf qHk;jzwfcJhonf/
'kwd,urÇmppfaMumifh ausmif;rsm;rydwfcif udkvSarmif (rdw¬Dvm)? udkAaqG? udkjr? udkarmifarmif (aq;aum
vdy)f ? oHrPduakd rmifarmif (jrif;jcH)? udo
k ed ;f aqGwYkd onfvnf; vQKdU0Supf mG ajratmufawmfveS af &; zGUJ pnf;aqmif½u
G &f ef
pm½Gufpmwrf;rsm;ESifh wuG ñTefMum;csufrsm; ay;cJhavonf/
Armjynfw0Srf;vHk; vQKdU0SuftzGJUcGJrsm; zGJUpnf;&mwGif ocifESifh ausmif;om;rsm;udk trmcHr@dKifjyKí tvkyf
orm;? awmifolv,form;ESifh jynfcspfyk*¾dKvfrsm; tygt0if zGJUpnf;&ef owfrSwfcJhMuonf/
AuoESifh wkdYArmtpnf;t½Hk;onf yl;wGJtpnf;ta0; usif;yNyD;aemuf vGwfvyfa&;wdkufyGJtwGuf aqG;aEG;
cJMh uonf/ 1940 ZGev
f (9) &ufaeYwiG f ocifygwDEiS hf "g;rygwD tpnf;ta0;odYk ausmif;om;rsm; wufa&mufco
hJ nf/
Zlvdkif (7) &ufwGif *sKAvDa[mü vlxktpnf;ta0;yGJBuD; usif;yNyD;aemuf ocifrsm; tzrf;cH&onfhudpö
udk uefYuGufMuonf/ 0gqkdvjynfhwGif a½Twd*Hkbk&m;ü oHCm? ausmif;om;? jynfoltpnf;ta0;BuD; usif;yonf/
Auo txl;tpnf;ta0;udk 'DZifbm (25? 26) &ufaeYrsm;wGif usif;ycJhonf/ tzGifhtcrf;tem;wGif
AdkvfatmifausmfESifh tmZmenfrsm;udk tav;jyKcJhonf/ rdw¬DvmrS ynma&;0efBuD; OD;b&if? udkA[def;? NrdKUrq&m[def?
'D;'kwOf ;D bcsKd wdYk wufa&mufco
hJ nf/ vGwv
f yfa&;wku
d yf JG e,fcsUJ qefYusiaf &;twGuf vufeufuikd af wmfveS &f ef tcsed u
f s
NyD[k udkvSa½Tu ajymMum;cJhonf/
291

jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif; - atmifxGef;
ausmif;om;or*¾ajratmuftzGUJ udk ocifjrtdrüf zGiv
hf pS cf NhJ yD;aemuf udv
k aS rmifEiS hf udAk aqGwYkd onf udak usmf
Nidrf;? q&mcspf? udkxGef;tkH? e*g;eDudkxGef;a½T? udkvSarmif (AdkvfaZ,s)? ocifxGef;cif? ocifApdef (tkyfpk) wkdYonf
ajratmufavhusifhvkyfief;twGuf 1940 'DZifbmv (3) &uf ,dk;',m;-jrefrm e,fpyfoGm;&ef jyifqifrIrsm; jyKvkyfcJh
ayonf/ ArmhxGuf&yf*dkPf;udk a'gufwmbarmfESifh ygwDtcsKdU qufoG,fvmNyD;aemuf ausmif;om;? ocif? qif;&Jom;
tzGJUudk zGJUpnf;cJhavonf/ *syefjynfodkY &JabmfoHk;usdyf apvTwfNyD; ppfynmoifMum;&mwGifvnf;1/ udkxGef;½Sdef (Adkvf&efEkdif) ausmif;om;or*¾
2/ udkvSarmif (AdkvfaZ,s) ausmif;om;or*¾
3/ udkvS (Adkvfrif;a&mif) ausmif;om;or*¾ wkdUyg0ifcJhavonf/
ArmjynfrS t*Fvdyfe,fcsJUorm;udk wkdufxkwf&mwGif A[dkawmfvSefa&;tzGJUBuD;w&yfzGJUpnf;um ajray:?
ajratmuf awmfvSefa&;tzGJUrsm; zGJUpnf;NyD; vIyf½Sm;Mu&mwGif vnf;aumif;? ausmif;om;vli,fwdkU\ tcef;u@rSm
BuD;rm;aom tcef;u@wck tjzpf yg0ifcJhayonf/ xdkodkY ausmif;om;? vli,ftiftm;pkrsm; yg0ifvIyf½Sm;EkdifrIyif
jzpfayonf/

Source: ASO; 30 Comrades ; 30 Comrades

ausmif;om;or*¾rS
&Jabmfo;kH usyd 0f if
jzpfvmol (3) OD;
udkvSarmif (AdkvfaZ,s)

udx
k eG ;f ½Sed f (Adv
k &f efEikd )f

udv
k S (Adv
k rf if;a&mif)

(w) 'kw,
d tBurd f ausmif;om;rsm;uGezf &ifw
h iG f aMujimcsuf
(1) or*¾tzGJU0if ausmif;om;rsm;wdkif;&if;jzpf 0HomEkyifeD txnfrsm;0wfqif&ef/
or*¾BuD;wnfwchH ikd jf rJa&; OD;wnfcsufrsm;rSm(u) ausmif;om;rsm;\ cHpm;oifh cHpm;xku
d af om tusKd;aus;Zl;? tcGit
hf a&;wkYd ukd umuG,af pmifah ½Smuf&ef/
(c) ,ckyifvQif ½Sdaeaom tvkyfvufrJhjyóemrsm;udk yaysmufaprnfh enf;vrf;rsm; ½SmEkdifjcif;?
(8) ArmjynfwiG f aemifvBl uD;rsm;jzpfrnfh ausmif;om;wdYk tm; aumif;rGeaf ocsmaom Ekid if aH &;ynmudk ay;&ef?
(C) Armjynf½Sd ynma&;udk wkd;wufjyefYyGm;atmif xlaxmifEkdifjcif;?
(i) Armjynf½Sd vGwfvyfa&;twGuf vkyfief;udk vsifjrefpGm ay;Ekdifjcif;/

(x) udAk [de;f ESihf ta&;awmfypkH mapmif
yÍörtBudrf AuonDvmcHtNyD;wGif udkA[def;? udkxGef;½Sdef (Adkvf&efEkdif) ESifh udkudkwkdY OD;pD;NyD; ta&;awmfyHk
pmapmifukd xkwaf 0cJo
h nf/ ocifjr vufEydS pf ufukd toH;k jyKcJo
h nf/ pmrltrsm;tjym;udk udAk [de;f u a&;om;cJah vonf/
ausmif;om;rsm;udk Ekid if aH &;oifwef;tjzpf a'gufwmewf? *d½k ,
S ?f udAk [de;f wdYk u oifwef;ay;cJo
h nf/ trSwf (1) rsuEf mS
zHk;wGif oHaESmifBudK;udk tvkyform;u jzwfawmufypf&efESifh aemufausmzHk;wGif NAdwdoQe,fcsJUorm; ykykuav;tm;
BuD;rm;aom vufo;D jzifh xd;k aeyHu
k kd azmfjyxm;onfh pmapmif\rl0g'rSm e,fcsUJ qefUusiaf &;? vufeufuikd f awmfveS af &;?
jrefrmykvdyf? NAdwdoQppfwyfü ppfom;rsm;tygt0if? tvkyform;? vSnf;aeavSatmif; jrif;apmif;rusef pnf;½Hk;a&;
yifjzpf\/ ]ppf&HyHkaiG rvSLMueJh} [k pmydk'fygvmonf/
(wzufpmrsuEf mS wGif ta&;awmfypkH mapmif aemufausmzH;k udk azmfjyxm;onf/)

292

udkvdkeDacwfaESmif; - 1939 rS 1940 - e,fcsJYqefhusifa&; vGwfvyfa&;BudK;yrf;rI trsKd;om;a&;toGif
ta&;awmfykH trSwf (2) udk ocifoufwifu vufEydS pf uf½u
dk í
f udAk [de;f ESihf udu
k ?kd aemufyikd ;f wGif udx
k eG ;f ½Sed ?f
ocifb*srf; (Adkvfva&mif)? ocifwifatmifwdkYu wm0ef,lcJhavonf/
1940 'DZifbmv Adv
k af tmifausmf aMu;½kyzf iG yhf üJG AuonDvmcHEiS hf wku
d q
f idk cf ahJ vonf/ wuo taqmuf
tODü nDvmcH usif;yaepOf ESD;aESmzvS,fyGJyHkpH ajymif;vJum ]e,fcst
YJ pd;k &pepfBu;D ysuq
f ;D vke;D Nyv
D m;}[laom acgif;pOf
jzifh a[majymMuonf/ ta&;awmfykH atmifjrif&ef tiftm;BuD;rm;aom tyifBuD;udk tjrpfrS ckwv
f rJS S jzpfrnf[k ygvm
onf/ tiftm;tultnDjzifh NzdKvSJ&rnf/ aemufxyf tudkif;tcufi,frsm; tjrpfrwG,frD NzdKvSJypf&rnf[laom
oabmyg ygvmonf/

(')

ArmEkid if v
H ;kH qdik &f mausmif;om;rsm;or*¾toif;

(ESpf0uf tpD&ifcHpm)
1940 ckESpf? 'DZifbm (25? 26) &ufaehrsm;wGif usif;yaom yÍörtBudrfajrmuf ausmif;om;rsm;wdkh\
vTwfawmfwGif wifjytpD&ifcHonf
vGefcJhonfh arv (12? 13) &ufaeUrsm;wGif usif;yaom yOörtBudrfajrmuf ArmEkdifiHvHk;qkdif&mausmif;om;
rsm;nDvmcH obifNyD;qH;k onfrS pí? ,ck yOörtBudraf jrmuf ArmEkid if v
H ;kH qkid &f mausmif;om;rsm;vTwaf wmf usif;yonfh
tcsdeftwGif; or*¾toif;csKyf\ c&D;pOfudk þESpf0uftpD&ifcHpmtjzpf wifoGif;ygaMumif;/
or*¾toif;csKyf pnf;rsOf;Oya' tcef; (5)? tydk'fi,f (u) t& or*¾toif;csKyf Ouú|onf 1940- 41
ckESpftwGuf tvkyftrIaqmiftzGJUopfudk (1941 ckESpf? arv 13 &ufaeYwGif) xkwfjyefaMunmcJhygaMumif;/
tvkyftrIaqmif tzGJYopfwGif(1) udkvSarmif
(rdwDv
¬ m)
(2) udkxGef;½Sdef
(tmvHNrdKU)
(3) udkarmifarmif (jrif;jcH)
(4) udkxGef;½Sdef
(jrefatmif)

Source: Aung Tun's Original Copy

ta&;awmfypkH mapmif aemufausmzH;k

293

jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif; - atmifxGef;
(5) udkxGef;0if; ([oFmw)
(6) udkudk
(ajrmif;jr)
(7) udkcspfvIdif
(a&OD;)
(8) udkodrf;armif (rdwv
Då m)
(9) atau'wåm; (&efukef) wkdYyg0if&m
udkudk (ajrmif;jr) taMumif;rnDnGwfojzifh ausmif;qufvuf raeawmUaomaMumifU wuúodkvfausmif;?
yk*Hausmif;aqmifrS o[m,toif; Ouú| apmatmify ([oFmw) tm; udkudk\ae&mwGif Mo*kwfv (28) &ufaehu
usif;yaom tvkyftrIaqmiftzGJY tpnf;ta0;u cefhxm;cJUygaMumif;? tvkyftrIaqmiftzGJUopftm; wm0eftoD;oD;
cGaJ 0ay;&mwGif wuúov
kd o
f r*¾toif;rS Ouú| udv
k aS rmif (rdw¬Dvm) tm;? 'k-Ouú| udx
k eG ;f ½Sed f (jrefatmif) tm;?
aiGxdef; udkxGef;½Sdef (tmvHNrdKU) tm;? taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rSL; udkarmifarmif (jrif;jcH) tm;? oHrPdAdkvfcsKyfudkxGef;0if;
([oFmw)? udkatmify ([oFmw)? udkcspfvIdif (a&OD;)? udkodrf;armif (rdw¬Dvm)? atau'wåm; (&efukef)wdkYtm;
taxGaxGXmersm;wdkYwGif cefYtyfxm;½SdygaMumif;/
1/ ,cktcsdefxd or*¾toif;csKyfESihf pnf;rsOf;wus qufoG,fxm;aom or*¾toif;rsm;rSm aygif; (65)
oif; jzpfí wGb
J uftpnf;t½H;k rSm wckom ½Sad Mumif;/ wGJbufor*¾toif;rsm;rSm rsm;aomtm;jzifh NrdKUvHk;? ½GmvHk;qdkif&m
or*¾toif;rsm;om jzpfMuí? pD&ifvHk;qdkif&m or*¾toif;rsm;rS jrif;jcHpD&ifpkESifU zsmyHkpD&ifpkvHk;qdkif&m ausmif;om;
or*¾toif;rsm;onf ausmif;ydwf&ufrsm;twGif;u pD&ifpkvHk;qkdif&m ausmif;om;rsm;\ nDvmcHudk usif;yMuaMumif;?
vGecf o
hJ nfh Mo*kwv
f twGi;f u or*¾tvkyt
f rIaqmiftzGUJ onf Armwjynfv;kH odUk pnf;½H;k a&;twGuf ud,
k pf m;vS,rf sm;
apvTwcf &hJ ygaMumif;/ ,ckuo
hJ kdY ta&;BuD;aeaom tcsdet
f cgrsKd;wGif e,for*¾toif;wkdY\ ydrk pkd nf;½H;k rIonf txl;
vkdvm;tyfonfudk þvTwfawmfodkY wufa&mufMuaom udk,fpm;vS,frsm; owdjyKapvkdygaMumif;/ pD&ifpkvHk;qdkif&m
or*¾toif;rsm; zGJYpnf;jcif;jzifh e,for*¾trIaqmifrsm;onf toif;csKyf tvkyftrIaqmiftzGJY\ wm0eftcsKdYudk
cGJ,lum ulnDEkdifMuygaMumif;/
2/ toif;csKyf\ b@ma&;ESifhywfoufí tpD&ifcH&aomf ,ckESpftzdkYtoif;csKyfrSm aiGa&;aMu;a&; tcuf
tcJESifh rMumcP &ifqkdifawGU&ygaMumif;? toif;csKyf\ ESpfpOfysrf;rQukefusaom p&dwfrSm omreftcsdeftcgrsKd;ü
aiG (3000) ESihf (40000) Mum;wGif wnf½&dS m? ,ckEpS f toif;csKyf\ &efyakH iGrmS (1500) rQyif r½Sad o;aMumif;? wGb
J uf
or*¾toif;rsm;rS qufaMu;&onfh 0ifaiGrSmvnf; rajymyavmufatmif enf;yg;vSaMumif;? qufoG,faMu;&onfh
0ifaiGrmS wESpv
f Qif (2000 - 3000) xuf rydb
k ?J ,ckEpS t
f zdYk pkpak ygif; (150) rQom vufc&H ½Sdao;aMumif;? uset
f oH;k
p&dwfrsm;udkrl tvkyftrIaqmifuom 'kdifcHí ½SmazGae&m e,for*¾rsm;onf tvkyfrsm;vSaom tvkyftrIaqmiftzGJU
tm; ulno
D nfo
h abmESihf qufo,
G af Mu;rsm;udk BudK;pm;í ajyvnfatmif wifyYkdMu&ef txl;vkad eygaMumif;/ qufo,
G f
aMu; aiGrsm;rSty NrdKUrdNrdKUz? rsKd;cspftaygif;wdkYxHrSvnf; o'¨gaMu;aumufcHí toif;csKyfvkyfief;rsm; xajrmuf
atmifjrifa&;twGuf tvSLaiGwifydkYMu&ef txl;wkdufwGef; EId;aqmfygaMumif;/
3/ ausmif;om;rsm;? umuG,fa&;oHrPdtzGJU\ vkyfief;pOfudk pdppfMunfh½IrnfqdkvQif ,ckESpftzdkY aiGa&;
aMu;a&; tcuftcJwdkYaMumifh pDpOfxm;½Sdoavmuf vkyfief;rsm;wGifus,fcJhaomfvnf; ArmwjynfvHk;½Sd oHrPd
tiftm;rSm wk;d wufvsuf½ydS gaMumif;? ,cifEpS u
f wjynfv;kH wGif oHrPdwyf (11) wyfom½Sí
d ? wyfom;OD;a& (600)
rQom ½SdcJUaomfvnf;? ,ckESpftzdkh rSwfyHkwifNyD;jzpfaom oHrPdwyfaygif; (20) wyfrS wyfom;OD;a&;aygif; (1100)
omomrQ ½Syd gaMumif;? oHrPdpnf;rsOf; Oya't& AdkvfcsKyfonf (10) OD;xufrrsm;? (4) OD;xufrenf;aom twkdifyifcH
tzGJU0if Adkvfrsm;udk tvkyftrIaqmiftzGJU\ oabmwlnDcsuft& cefYxm;EkdifcGifh&Sd&m? AdkvfcsKyfonf twkdifyifcHAdkvf
(8) OD;udk a½G;cs,fcefhxm;cJUojzifh ,cktcsdefü twdkifyifcH (4) OD;rSm rdrdwdkh wm0eftoD;oD;udk ausyGefpGm xrf;aqmif
vsu½f adS eygaMumif;? oHrPdtoif; oifwef;rsm;udk ,cifESpfuyif usif;y&ef pDpOfcJhaomfvnf; ,ckESpf þvTwfawmf
rwkid rf D &uftenf;i,f twGi;f usryS if atmifjrifxajrmufcyhJ gaMumif;/ tvkyt
f rIaqmiftzGUJ odUk wifjyaom oHrPdwyf
rsm;\ tiftm;udk ydkrdkawmifhwif;atmif BudK;pm;&ef rsm;pGmyif vdkaeao;ayaMumif;/
4/ toif;csKyf\ b@ma&;rSm rsm;pGmrcdik v
f aHk omfvnf; vkyif ef;wGirf l r,kwaf vsmhapbJ cgwkid ;f ESprf sm;xuf
ydkrdkBudK;pm; aqmif½GufcJhygaMumif;/ yÍörtBudrfajrmuf ausmif;om;rsm;nDvmcHwGif wifoGif;qHk;jzwfcJhaom qHk;jzwf
csurf sm;udk NyD;pD;Ekid o
f rQ NyD;pD;atmif aqmif½u
G Mf u&mwGif tcsKUd qH;k jzwfcsurf sm;udrk l tcsed rf usao;ojzifh csev
f yS x
f m;&
ao;ayaMumif;/ þjyKvkyfaqmif½GufzG,f&m usef½Sdaeao;aom qHk;jzwfcsufrsm;udkrl þ'kwd,ESpftydkif;wGif
qufvufaqmif½u
G f vkyu
f idk o
f mG ;Ekid &f ef pDpOfNyD;jzpfaMumif;? e,fcsYpJ epfEiS hf e,fcsJYppfwhku
d kd or*¾\0g'twkid ;f qefhusif
294

udkvdkeDacwfaESmif; - 1939 rS 1940 - e,fcsJYqefhusifa&; vGwfvyfa&;BudK;yrf;rI trsKd;om;a&;toGif
uefhuGuf&mü &efukefNrdKYvHk;qkdif&m uefhuGufyGJBuD;udk a½Twd*HkapwDawmf awmifbuf pwk'DomZ&yfBuD;wGif atmifjrifpGm
usif;ycJhonfU tjyif jynfolhvGwfvyfrIudk csKyfcs,fjcif;rsm;ESifU yufoufí oabmrusaMumif;? qE´jytqdkrsm;udk
csrSwfcJUygaMumif;/ ppfudkuefhuGufonfU pm½Gufpmwrf;rsm;udkvnf; rMumcP xkwfjyefcJUonfrSm udk,fpm;vS,frsm;ESifh
wuG wGJbufor*¾toif;rsm; todyifjzpfygaMumif;/ pmrwwfoyl aysmufa&;vkyif ef;udk vGecf o
UJ nfU atmufwb
kd mv
ausmif;ydw&f ufrsm; twGi;f u ajrmif;jre,fbufohkd c&D;jyif;xGuí
f prf;oyfaqmif½u
G cf &UJ m aumif;pGm txajrmufco
UJ nf
udk awGY&ygaMumif;? þpmrwwfolyaysmufa&;vkyfief;udk aqmif½Gufjcif;tm;jzifU ajrmif;jre,f½Sd awmifolv,form;
rsm;ESifU ausmif;om;rsm;wdkhonf ydkrdkaoG;pnf;ygaMumif;/ or*¾toif;csKyfonf 0g'twkdif; qif;&Jom;? awmifolv,f
orm;? tvkyform;rsm;ESifh yl;aygi;f aoG;pnf;rdMuap&ef tjcm;vkyif ef;wkid ;f wGiv
f nf; ulnaD qmif½u
G f vkyu
f ikd cf yhJ gaMumif;/
(Oyrm- tmtD;wD tvkyform;rsm;wdkU\ oydwfudpöwGif aiGtm;? vltm;? tMuHÓmPftm;wdkhjzifU ulnDcJhygaMumif;)
or*¾toif;csKyf\ vpOfxw
k f rsKd;ñGeYf pmapmifukd xkwaf 0&ef BudK;pm;cJah omfvnf; wGb
J ufor*¾toif;rsm;
\ tultnDudk &oifhoavmuf r&cJhojzifh txrajrmufcJhygaMumif;/ 0g'jzefYjzL;a&;twGuf or*¾toif;csKyfu
BuD;rSL;í xkwfa0aom pmapmifwckckudk ta&;wBuD; vdktyfvsuf½SdygaMumif;/
5/ wGb
J ufor*¾toif;wkid ;f toif;wkid ;f wdkYtm; pnf;urf;ao0yfrEI iS hf ywfoufí usi;f yNyD;pD;cJah om nDvmcH
obiftwkdif; vTwfawmfwkdif;wdkYu ppfom;rsm;? ppfwyfrsm;uJhodkY pnf;urf;ao0yfMu&ef wdkufwGef;cJhaMumif;/ ,ckEpS f
tzdkY wGJbufor*¾rsm;ESifh ywfoufí pnf;urf;ao0yfrI ESpfck ay:aygufcJh&m Armjynfausmif;om;rsm;\ &mZ0ifwGif
(1940) ckESpfü teufuGufrsm; pGef;xifouJhodkU wnf½Sdaeojzifh 0rf;enf;zG,f&m aumif;ygaMumif;? oydwfvufeuf
udk or*¾toif;csKyf tvkyftrIaqmiftzGJU\ wifBudKtrdefYwpHkw&mr&bJ toHk;jyKMuaom oHk;cG ausmif;om;or*¾
toif;ESihf rEÅav;aemfrefausmif;om;or*¾toif;wdYk rmS toif;BuD;\ pnf;rsOf;udk rvdu
k ef m&musygaMumif;/ odYk aomf
xdak e&m ESpcf pk vH;k odUk yif tvkyt
f rIaqmiftzGUJ u ud,
k pf m;vS,rf sm;apvTwu
f m udprö sm;udk NyD;jywfatmif aqmif½u
G af p
cJYygaMumif;/ þuJo
h kdY rauseyfrrI sm;aMumifh rvTu
J if;aom ay:ayguf&aom oydwu
f pd rö sm;wGif awmifwiG ;f BuD;oydwf
udpö ay:ayguf&yHu
k kd tjcm;wGb
J ufor*¾toif;rsm; twk,zl ,
G f aumif;vSaMumif;/ þoydwu
f pd w
ö iG f ausmif;om;rsm;
onf yxrOD;qHk; q&mBuD;udk rdrdwdkY vdkvm;csufudk wifMum;jyoí udprö NyD;jywf ½SdonfhtcgwGif NrdKUrdNrdKUzrsm;tm;
wdik w
f ef;cJah Mumif;/ NyD;rSom toif;csKyf\ trdeYf twdik ;f oydwv
f ufeufukd toH;k jyKcJah Mumif;? rMumao;rDtwGi;f uyif
rEåav;NrdKYvHk;qkdif&m or*¾toif;om;wOD;jzpfol armifxGef;atmiftm; tpdk;&umuG,fa&; Oya't& zrf;qD;onfU
trIEiS yUf wfoufí or*¾toif;csKy\
f *kPo
f u
d m© udk xdcu
dk af ponfU udpw
ö &yf ay:aygucf ahJ Mumif;/ armifxeG ;f atmiftm;
zrf;qD;NyD;onfhaemuf tvkyftrIaqmiftzGJYrS rEåav;axmifodkh udk,fpm;vS,fapvTwfcJUum tvkyftrIaqmiftzGJY
udk,fpm;vS,fonf armifxGef;atmifESifU axmiftwGif; awGYqHkcJUygaMumif;/ tpdk;&tm; rnfonfUenf;ESifUrQ 0efcs
awmif;yefjcif;ponfU trIrjyK&ef trdefhay;cJUaomfvnf; armifxGef;atmifonf rem,lbJ ½SdcJUaMumif;/ þudpörsKd;wGif
NrdKUvHk;qdkif&mor*¾onf pnf;rsOf;udk r½dkaool rSeforQwdkYtay:ü ta&;,l&ef oifhavsmfayaMumif;/ or*¾toif;csKyf
tvkyftrIaqmiftzGJU\ oabmwGif (vkyf&Jolonf cH&J&rnf) jzpfí or*¾toif;om;rSeforQwdkYonf vmrnfhab;udk
ajy;í awGU&Jolrsm;om jzpfMu&rnfjzpfaMumif;/
6/ ,ckESpftzdkY ausmif;om;oydwfarSmufrIrsm;rSm (oHwGJ? awmifwGif;BuD;? &efukef? okH;cG? rEÅav;?
ausmufqnf? wyfukef;) ponfh (7) ae&mwdkYwGif jzpfay:&m? ,cktcgwGif tmvHk;vdkvdkyif oydwfvSefNyD;jzpfaMumif;/
ausmufqnfESifh wyfukef;ausmif;om;oydwfwdkUrSm wGJbufor*¾toif;rsm;u OD;pD;íjyKvkyfonfh oydwfrsm; r[kwf
onfhtjyif toif;csKyfodkY wiful;taMumif;Mum;jcif; r½SdcJhojzifh oydwfjzpfyGm;&mae&mrsm;odkY udk,fpm;vS,frsm;
rapvTwfcJhaMumif;/ awmifwiG ;f Bu;D oydwrf w
S yg; useo
f ydwrf sm;rSm ausmif;om;rsm;\vkv
d m;csurf sm; jynfjU ynfpU pkH &kH ½Sí
d
ausauseyfeyf oydwv
f eS cf MUJ uaMumif;/ þvTwaf wmfusi;f yonfh tcsed rf pS í ESprf ukerf csi;f e,for*¾wYkdonf oydwu
f pd ö
udk wwfEidk o
f rQ qifjcifapvkad Mumif;/ tvkyt
f rIaqmiftzGUJ \ vkyif ef;tpDtpOfwiG f þuJo
h Ykdupd iö ,frsm;udk aqmif½u
G f
ae&ojzifh aESmifhaES;ysufuGufjcif; jzpf&ayaMumif;/ ta&;BuD;aomudpörsm;udk jyKvkyfaqmif½GufMu&awmhrnfh
tcsdeftcgwGif tcsdefonf tvGefta&;BuD;ojzifh tvkyftrIaqmiftzGJUtm; tvkyfrsm;rsm;vkyfEdkif&ef tcsdefrsm;rsm;
ay;MuapvdkaMumif;/
7/ rif;bl;? jrif;jcH? anmifOD;? 0g;c,fr? ajrmif;jr? &efukef? ausmufjzL? rEÅav; paomae&mrsm;½Sd or*¾
toif; (odkYr[kwf) toif;ESifh oufqkdifolwdkYrSm tpdk;&\ taESmifht,Sufrsm;ESifh awGUqHkMu&aMumif;? rif;bl;NrdKYvHk;
qkid &f mor*¾ Ouú|? aiGxde;f rSL;ESihf twGi;f a&;rSL;wdkh\ tdrrf sm;wGif ykvyd rf sm; wufa&muf½mS azGum toif;ESihf oufqidk f
aom pm½Gupf mwrf;wkhdukd odr;f qnf;jcif;? jrif;jc?H anmifO;D wdkhwiG f w&m;a[maom ausmif;om;tcsKYdwkhu
d kd aemufw&m;
295

jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif; - atmifxGef;
ra[myg[k vufrw
S f a&;xk;d cdik ;f jcif;? 0g;c,fr½Sd ocifrsm;udk ausmif;om;rsm;udk {nfUc&H aumif;vm;[k zrf;qD;axmifcsjcif;?
pmrwwfolyaysmufa&;vkyfief;wGif ausmif;om;rsm; udk,fwdkifujyonfU v,form;jyZmwfudk umuG,fa&;Oya't&
ydwfyifjcif;? ArmEkdifiHvkH;qkdif&mausmif;om;or*¾toif;csKyfu BuD;rSL;í &efukefNrdKYwGif usif;yonfU jynfolhvGwf
vyfrIudk csKyfcs,fuefhuGufonfU tpnf;ta0;ü w&m;a[majymrIESifh ausmif;om; (3) OD;tm; twif;vufrSwfa&;xdk;
ckdif;jcif;? toif;csKyfrSxkwfjyefaom tcsKdYpmwrf;wdkhudk ydwfyifjcif;? ausmufjzLwGif ppf&efyHkaiG rwnf&eftwGuf
or*¾toif;rsm; 0ifa&mufujy&ef ausmif;tkyq
f &mBu;D u wku
d w
f eG ;f jcif;? rEåav;wGif ygawmfral eh w&m;a[majymrlEiS hf
ausmif;om;wOD;tm; zrf;qD;jcif;ponfU rvdkvm;tyfaom taESmifht,Sufrsm;udk MuHKawGU&ygaMumif;/ (okdYaomf
rsm;aomtm;jzifh oufqkdifolwdkYu ausauseyfeyfjzpfatmif trSm;udk jyifqifMuygaMumif;/) or*¾toif; ajcvSrf;
rSefrSefBuD; csDwufvsufae&m? vrf;aMumif;c&D;wGif taESmifht,Sufjzpfaprnfh ql;an§mifhcvkwf ponfwdkYudk wwfEkdif
onfeh nf;ESihf z,f½mS ;okwo
f if&rnfukd tm;vH;k owdjyKapvdak Mumif;/ aemufaemiftcgrsKd;wGif þuJo
h Ykd pdwrf csrf;ajrU
zG,f&m udpörsm;udk awGUMuHK&OD;rnf[k rarQmfvifhaMumif;/
8/ or*¾\&mZ0iftaMumif;udjk yí Munf½h pI pfaq;vQif (1920) ckEpS f twGi;f ü wBurd ?f (1936) ckEpS f wBurd ?f
(1938) ckESpfwGif wBudrf? (3) Budrfwdkifwkdif rauseyfrIrsm;aMumifUaomf vnf;aumif;? ArmwrsKd;om;vHk;ESifU oufqkdif
aom taMumif;udpörsm;aMumifUaomf vnf;aumif;? oydwfBuD;rsm;udk wjynfvHk; toHk;jyKcJUMu&m wBudrfxufwBudrf
vnf; ydkrdkí tiftm;aumif;vmNyD;vQif ydkrdk txajrmufonfudk awGY&ygaMumif;/
,ckuJUodkh urÇmw0Srf;vHk; ppfrD;awmufavmifvQuf½SdonfU tcsdefrsKd;wGif ArmjynftwGif;odkYvnf; ppfrD;yGm;
uav;rsm; rul;puf rjyefYymG ;bJ? cgwkid ;f wapuJo
h Ykd yif at;at;vlvl acsmacsmarmarm pcef;oGm;&vdrUrf nf[k rnfol
rQ rajymEkid af Mumif;/ tu,fí taemufEidk if ?H ta½SUEkid if rH sm;rS ppfr;D awmufonf ArmjynfbufoYkd ul;pufco
hJ nf½adS omf
wjynfvHk;½Sd ausmif;om;rsm;onf pmoifcef;rsm;twGif;ü at;at;vlvl pmayoifMum;ae½HkrQESifh ae&musrnfr[kwf
aMumif;/ odkYrSr[kwfbJ wjynfvHk;½Sd ausmif;om;rsm;onf pmayoifMum;ae&m pmoifcef;rsm;rS xGufí ausmif;rsm;udk
oydwfarSmuf ae½HkrQESifhvnf; udpörNyD;/ or*¾toif;rsm;onf rnfuJhodkh aqmif½GufMu&rnfenf;[laom jyóemonf
ta&;wBuD; aqG;aEG;zG,f&m ay:ayguf&aMumif;/ 1938 ckESpf ta&;awmfyHkonf jynfolYvGwfvyfrIwdkhudk csKyfcs,fjcif;
aMumifU jzpf&aMumif;/ tu,fí ArmUvGwfvyfa&;twGuf vmvwÅHYaom tcsdefrsm;wGif ta&;udpöay:aygufcJUaomf
ausmif;om;rsm;onf rnfonfUtcef;rS yg0ifujyMurnfudk BudKwif pOf;pm;xm;Mu&ef txl;vdktyfayaMumif;/
ta&;awmfyHkatmifygap
xGef;½Sdef
taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rSL;
ArmEkdifiHvkH;qkdif&mausmif;om;rsm;or*¾toif;csKyf
(25? 12? 1940)

(")

wuúov
kd t
f ufOya' tqifq
h ifjh yifqifjcif;

&efukefwuúodkvfudkwnfaxmifNyD;aemuf 1959 ckESpftxd &efukefwuúodkvftufOya'udk ½SpfBudrf jyifqif
cJhonf/ yxrOD;qHk; 1924 ckESpfwGif wBudrf? 1939 ckESpfwGif ESpfBudrf? 1949 ckESpfwGif ESpfBudrf? 1951 ckESpfwGif
wBudrf? 1953 ckESpfwGif wBudrfESifh 1959 ckESpfwGif wBudrfjzpfonf/
1924 ckESpf jyifqifjcif;
1923 ckESpf? Ekd0ifbmvwGif 0efBuD;OD;babu wuúodkvftufOya'jyifqifcsuf Oya'Murf;udk jrefrmjynf
Oya'jyKaumifpo
D Ykd wifoiG ;f cJ&h m 1924 ckEpS f {NyDvwGif twnfjzpfvmcJo
h nf/ xkjd yifqifcsuf Oya't& aumvdyo
f pf
rsm; zGUJ pnf;Ekid &f ef tcGit
hf vrf; ay:aygufvmojzifh rEÅav;Oypmaumvdyu
f kd 1925 ckEpS ?f ZGev
f wGif zGiv
hf pS Ef idk cf o
hJ nf/
xdkYtjyif owfrSwfxm;aom tcsuftvuf pnf;urf;rsm;ESifh nDñGwfygu jyifyaumvdyfrsm;udkvnf; taygif;tyg
aumvdyftjzpf todtrSwfjyKEkdifonf/ wuúodkvfaumifpDESifh qD;edwftzGJU\ tmPmudkvnf; wkd;ay;onf/ ,cifu
wuúodkvfaumifpDonf pwufusLOya'udkvnf;aumif;? qD;edwftzGJUonf pnf;rsOf;Oya'udkvnf;aumif;? jznfhpGuf
jyifqifEkdifaomfvnf; t"dywd\oabmwlnDrIudk &,l&onf/ ,ckrl xkdoabmwlnDrI rvkdawmhacs/ yk'fr (4) t&
296

udkvdkeDacwfaESmif; - 1939 rS 1940 - e,fcsJYqefhusifa&; vGwfvyfa&;BudK;yrf;rI trsKd;om;a&;toGif
ay;xm;aom wuúodkvf tcGifhtmPmrsm;udkvnf; aumifpDESifh qD;edwftzGJUodkY cGJa0ay;vkdufonf/ aumifpDwGifvnf;
ynma&;0efxrf; r[kwo
f rl sm; ydrk ykd g0ifvmaponf/ wuúov
dk af umifpw
D iG f tzGUJ 0ifO;D a&udk wd;k csJUcGijhf yKonf/ qD;edwf
tmPmudk t"dywdu qufvuf xdrf;odrf;xm;cJhaomfvnf; aemifoifhavsmfaom tcsdefwGif wuúokdvftm; jyefvnf
vTJtyfay;&ef jyifqifxm;onf/ wuúodkvftmPmydkiftzGJUrsm;\ tmPmrsm;udkvnf; ydkrdkwduspGm jy|mef;xm;cJhonf/
1939 ckESpf jyifqifjcif;
1936 ckESpf? rwfvwGif usif;yaom jrefrmjynf Oya'jyKaumifpDu &efukefwuúodkvftufOya' pHkprf;a&;
aumfr½Sizf UJG &ef qH;k jzwfco
hJ nf/ xdq
k ;kH jzwfcsut
f & tpd;k &onf 1936 ckEpS ?f arv (1) &ufaeYwiG f wuúov
kd t
f ufOya'
pHkprf;a&;aumfrwDudk zGJUcJhonf/ xkdaumfrwDwGif qmjrbl;u Ouú|tjzpf aqmif½Gufí tzGJU0ifrsm;tjzpf vyfcaemif;
wuúov
kd f? 'kwd,t"dywd a'gufwm tm&f-yD-yg&ef*sfydkif? yJcl;wkdif;rif;BuD; bD-'AvsKqGD'ifAifh? *syfqifaumvdyf
ausmif;tkyfBuD; a'gufwm *sD-tufpf-*sK&D? ,leDAmpDwD aumvdyfausmif;tkyfBuD; OD;azarmifwif? a'gufwmb[ef?
OD;odef;armif? OD;ay:xGef;? a'gufwma':&ifar? a'gufwm trf-ata&mhzfESifh twGif;a&;rSL;tjzpf wuúodkvfarmfuGef;
xdef; t,fvfxifpDwdkY yg0ifMuonf/
qmjrbl;acgif;aqmifaom pHkprf;a&;aumfrwDonf tpnf;ta0; (44) Budrfusif;yí tpD&ifcHpmudk 1937
ckESpf rwfvwGif wifoGif;cJhonf/ tpD&ifcHpmyg t"dutcsufrsm;rSm wuúodkvf\obm0? t"dywdESifh 'kwd,t"dywd
cefYxm;a&;? wuúov
kd af umifpED iS fh qD;edwt
f zGUJ 0if wd;k csJUcefYxm;a&;? taygif;ygaumvdyrf sm;\ jyóemESihf ½So
d ifah om
tkycf sKyaf &;tzGUJ rsm;? ygarmu©cefUxm;a&;? pwufusKOya' jy|mef;a&; jyóemrsm;ESihf wuúov
kd pf mar;yGJ udprö sm;udk tus,f
w0ifh tpD&ifcHxm;onf/ tpdk;&u xdktpD&ifcHpmudk wuúodkvfaumifpD? qD;edwftzGJUESifh tjcm;pdwf0ifpm;aom yk*dK¾ vf?
tzGJUtpnf;rsm;\ a0zefrIESifh tMuHay;csufrsm;udkyg vufcHpOf;pm;Ekdif&ef xyfrHa0iScJhonf/ xdktMuHay;csufrsm;ESifh
tpD&ifcHpmyg axmufcHcsufrsm;tay: rSDjirf;jyKum tpdk;&onf jyifqifcsufOya'Murf;udk wifoGif;cJh&m 1939 ckESpf?
ZGefv (15) &ufaeYwGif twnfjzpfvmcJhonf/
þjyifqifcsufaMumifh wuúov
kd t
f "dywdEiS hf 'kw,
d t"dywdwYkd onf a½G;aumufwifajr§muf&aom yk*Kd¾ vfrsm;
jzpfvmum wuúodkvfaumifpD0ifrsm;udkvnf; wdk;csJUcJhonf/ ygarmu©cefYxm;a&; tmPmudk aumifpD\ trIaqmif
aumfrwDodkY vTJajymif;ay;vkdufonf/ wuúodkvfaumifpDwGif c&pf,mef*dkPf;csKyfrsm;ESifh tjcm;c&pf,mef bmoma&;
toif;tzGUJ rsm;\ ud,
k pf m;vS,rf sm; yg0ifjcif; r½Sad wmhbJ [ku
d u
f w
k w
f &m;vTwaf wmf? a½SUaeaumifp?D tdE,
d´ ukeo
f nf
BuD;rsm;toif;? &mxl;0eftzGUJ ? ynma&;toif;tzGUJ rsm;ESihf wuúov
kd o
f r*¾wYkd rS ud,
k pf m;vS,rf sm; yg0ifMuonf/ rSwyf kH
wifbGJU&udk,fpm;vS,f OD;a&vnf; wkd;vmcJhonf/ qD;edwftzGJUwGifvnf; aumifpDrS udk,fpm;vS,fOD;a& wdk;vmNyD;
&mxl;0eftzGJUESifh yxrjyefpmar;yGJaumfrwDwdkYrS udk,fpm;vS,frsm; apvTwfcGifh &½Sdvmonf/
aq;aumvdyfESifh pdkufysKd;a&;aumvdyfwdkYonfvnf; taygif;tyg aumvdyfrsm;jzpfvmum tjcm;tvm;wl
aumvdyfwnfaxmifEkdif&efvnf; vrf;zGifhay;xm;onf/ þjyifqifcsuf Oya't& topfzGJUpnf;xm;aom wuúodkvf
aumifpDonf 1939 ckESpf? Mo*kwfv (24) &ufaeYwGif yxrqHk;tBudrf awGUqHkpnf;a0;í b@ma&;Xme twGif;0ef
OD;wifxGwftm; t"dywdtjzpf vnf;aumif;? jrLeDpDy,frif;BuD;a[mif; a'gufwmOD;quftm; 'kwd,t"dywd tjzpf
vnf;aumif;? a½G;aumufwifajr§mufMuonf/
1939 ckESpf &efukefwuúodkvftufOya' yxrjyifqifcsufwGif trSm;t,Gif;rsm; yg½SdoGm;í xdkESpfrSmyif
'kwd,tBudrf xrfrHjyifqifcJh&onf/ yxrjyifqifcsufrSm 1939 ckESp?f tufOya' trSwf (13) jzpfí 'kwd, jyifqif
csufrSm tufOya' trSwf (20) jzpfonf/
1949 ckESpf jyifqifjcif;
1949 ckEpS f jyifqifcsuo
f nf wuúov
kd zf UJG pnf;yHu
k kd txl;ajymif;vJapcJo
h nf/ ppfBudKacwf aumvdyrf sm;onf
r[mXmersm;jzpfvmum ausmif;tkyfBuD;rsm; ae&mwGif r[mXmerSL;rsm; cefYxm;onf/ taygif;yg aumvdyfrsm;ESifh
aumvdyt
f yk cf sKyfa&;tzGUJ rsm;udk zsuo
f rd ;f vku
d Nf yD; aumifpo
D nf ,cifu trIaqmifaumfrwDokdY vTt
J yfxm;aom tkycf sKyf
a&;tmPmrsm;udk jyefvnf&,lvo
kd nf/ 1939 ckEpS u
f wuúov
kd t
f mPmydik rf sm;[k aMunmcJah om aumifp\
D trIaqmif
aumfrwDESifh qD;edwftzGJU\ tjrJwrf;aumfrwDwdkYonf 1949 ckESpf jyifqifcsuft& yaysmufoGm;onf/ wuúodkvf
aumifpDonf t"dutkyfcsKyfa&;tzGJU jzpfvmum ppfBudKacwfuJhoYdk tzGUJ 0ifO;D a& (70) ausmf ryg0ifawmhbJ (31) OD;
om yg0ifawmhonf/ ppfBudKacwfuo
hJ Ydk wESpv
f Qif (2) Budrf r[kwaf wmhbJ wvwBudrf pnf;a0;&rnf[k jyifqifowfrw
S f
297

jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif; - atmifxGef;
cJhonf/ t"dywdudk a½G;aumufwifajr§mufEkdifcGifh r½SdawmhbJ EkdifiHawmf0efBuD;csKyfonf &mxl;t& wuúokdvft"dywd
jzpfvmonf/ þjyifqifcsuf tufOya't& topfzUJG pnf;cJah om aumifpo
D nf w&m;vTwaf wmfcsKyf w&m;0efBuD;jzpfol
OD;{armiftm; 'kwd,t"dywdtjzpf a½G;aumufwifajr§mufcJhonf/ 1949 ckESpfwGif ,m,Djyifqifcsufw&yf xrfrHjyK
vkyfcJhao;onf/ xkdjyifqifcsufrSm aumifpDodkY a½G;cs,fapvTwfonfh jynfolYvTwfawmfESifh vlrsKd;pkvTwfawmf udk,fpm;
vS,frsm;udk a½G;aumufyGJ rusif;yao;rD ,m,DygvDrefESifh qufvufapvTwf cGifhjyKjcif;jzpfonf/
1951 ckESpf jyifqifjcif;
wuúodkvfvdkawmif;aumfrwD\ tpD&ifcHcsuft& EkdifiHawmftpdk;&onf 1951 ckESpfwGif wuúodkvftuf
Oya'udk xyfrHjyifqif&jyefonf/ xdkaumfrwDu csrSwfaom wuúodkvf\ &nf½G,fcsufESifh vkyfief;rsm;ukd þjyifqif
csuft& tufOya'wGif xnfo
h iG ;f vku
d o
f nf/ tjcm;jyifqifcsufrsm;rSm tkycf sKyfa&;t&m½Srd S tkycf sKyfa&;rSL;jzpfvmaom
&mxl;udk ygarmu©csKyf (Rector) [k jyifqifNyD; aumifpDtzGJU0ifrsm;udk tenf;i,fwdk;csJU ajymif;vJonf/ aumifpD
tzGJU0if t"dywdu cefYtyfaom tzGJU0ifwOD; wdk;vmaom b@ma&;0efBuD;Xme twGif;0efESifh ynma&;0efBuD;Xme
twGif;0efwdkYrSm aumifpDtzGJU0ifrsm; jzpfvmonf/ ausmif;om;udk,fpm;vS,frSm 1949 ckESpf jyifqifcsuft&
wuúodkvfor*¾ toif;0ifrsm;u a½G;aumufwifajr§muf&aomfvnf; 1951 ckESpf jyifqifcsuft& wuúodkvfausmif;
om;rsm;or*¾ trIaqmiftzGJUu a½G;cs,fapvTwfcGifhay;onf/ rEÅav;jrLeDpDy,fu udk,fpm;vS,f apvTwfcGifhudkvnf;
½kwfodrf;cJhonf/ xkdYtjyif qD;edwftzGJUwGif yg0ifaom ygarmu©rsm;? {nfhygarmu©rsm;ESifh uGJjym;ap&ef vuf½Sdwm0ef
xrf;aqmifaeaom XmerSL; ygarmu©rsm;[k jyifqifcJhonf/ þjyifqifcsuftufOya't& a'gufwmxifatmifonf
&efukefwuúodkvf\ ygarmu©csKyfjzpfvmcJhonf/
1953 ckESpf jyifqifjcif;
1953 ckESpfwGif wuúodkvftufOya'udk wBudrf xrfrHjyifqifcJhonf/ odkYaomf þwBudrf jyifqifjcif;onf
Axl;NrdKU½Sd ppfwuúokdvfudk &efukefwuúodkvf\ tquftoG,fjyK aumvdyftjzpf zGifhvSpfEkdif&ef jyifqifjcif;jzpfonf/
1959 ckESpf jyifqifjcif;
tdraf pmift
h pd;k &vufxuf 1959 ckEpS f rwf (12) &ufaeYwiG f &efuek w
f uúov
kd f tufOya'udk jyifqifcjhJ yef
onf/ þjyifqifcsut
f & &efuek Nf rdKUteD;wGif tquftoG,jf yK aumvdyrf sm; wnfaxmifEidk &f ef wuúov
kd ef ,ferd w
d u
f kd
y,fzsuv
f u
kd af vonf/ tjcm;jyifqifcsurf sm;rSm r[mXmerSL;&mxl; y,fzsujf cif;? ausmif;om;a&;rSL;ESihf ausmif;aqmif
a&;rSL;&mxl;rsm; wDxGifjcif;? 'kwd,t"dywdudk aumifpDESifh qD;edwftzGJU\ obmywdtjzpf qufvufxm;½Sdaomf
vnf; trIaqmift&m½Scd sKyt
f jzpfrS y,fzsujf cif;? aumifpo
D Ykd qD;edwt
f zGUJ rS ud,
k pf m;vS,v
f w
T yf kH jyifqifjcif;? ausmif;om;
udk,fpm;vS,fudk wuúodkvfausmif;om;rsm;or*¾rS vTwfEkdifcGifhr½SdawmhbJ ausmif;om;xkw&yfvHk;u a½G;aumufwif
ajr§muf&rnf[k jyifqifcJhjcif;? qD;edwftzGJU wdk;csJUjcif;wdkYjzpfonf/ þjyifqifcsuft& wuúodkvfwGif yxrqHk;tjzpf
ausmif;om;a&;rSL;rsm; cefYxm;cJhonf/ ygarmu©csKyftm; wuúodkvfausmif;om;rsm;\ aexdkifa&;? pnf;urf;ao0yf
a&;? usef;rma&;ESifh wkd;wufzGHUNzdK;a&;wdkUtwGuf BuD;Muyfa&;ESifh tkyfcsKyf&ef wm0efay;tyfcJhonf/ qD;edwftzGJUwGif
vnf; tzGJU0ifrsm;tjzpf ausmif;om;a&;rSL;rsm;? pmMunfhwkdufrSL;? bmomjyefESifh pmtkyfxkwfvkyfa&;rSL;wkdY yg0if
vmonf/

298

udkvdkeDacwfaESmif; - 1939 rS 1940 - e,fcsJYqefhusifa&; vGwfvyfa&;BudK;yrf;rI trsKd;om;a&;toGif

OD;AaqG
(1940-41)
Source: Oway Magazines

qkd½S,fvpfygwD taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rSL;csKyf zqyv Ouú| OD;AaqGyifjzpfonf/ 1915 ck xm;0,fc½kkdif?
tk;H yif½mG wGif arG;zGm;onf/ 1936 ckEpS w
f iG f &efuek w
f uúov
dk üf ynmoifMum;avhvmonf/
1937-38 ck wuo trIaqmiftzGUJ wGif tk;d a0r*¾Zif; t,f'w
D mtjzpf wm0efay;tyfjcif; cH&onf/
1938-39 ckEpS w
f iG f wuo taxGaxGtwGi;f a&;rSL;tjzpf aqmif½u
G o
f nf/ Auo taxGaxGtwGi;f a&;rSL;vnf;
jzpfcJhNyD;? rauG;wGif a&eHajroydwform;rsm;tm; w&m;a[mpOf Ouú| ukdA[def;ESifYtwl zrf;qD;jcif; cHcJh&av
onf/ 1300 jynft
h a&;awmfyHk acgif;aqmifwOD;jzpf\/
1939-40 ckwiG f wuúov
dk rf S xGuí
f ae&yfoYdk jyefaeonf/ 1940-41 ckwiG f wuúov
dk o
f Ydk jyefvnfa&muf½u
dS m
Ouú|tjzpf a½G;aumufwifajr§mufjcif; cH&avonf/
qmjrbl; tpD&ifcpH mwku
d zf suaf &;twGuf qufvufvyk af qmifcYJonf/ wuúov
dk f tufOya' jyifqifa&;twGuf
ta&;qkcd o
hJ nf/ ausmif;aqmifcrsm; avsmhaygha&;twGuf awmif;qkcd o
hJ nf/
1941 ckEpS f t*Fvyd ef ,fcsUJ orm;tm; armif;ESix
f w
k af &;wGif yg0ifaqmif½u
G cf \
hJ / *syefacwfwiG f jynfoYl ta&;
awmfykHygwD (,ck qkd½S,fvpfygwD) ukd vQKdU0SufpGmxlaxmifí uGefjrLepfygwD? ArmhwyfrawmfwkdYESifh yl;wGJum
*syefqefYusifa&; vkyif ef;rsm;ukd vkyaf qmifcYJ onf/ zqyvtzGUJ csKyfudk zGUJ pnf;cJYMuonf/
'kw,
d urÇmppfjyD; 1947 ckEpS w
f iG f zqyv twGi;f a&;rSL;csKyt
f jzpf wm0ef,cl YJonf/ 1952 ckEpS f rSpí Ekid if aH wmf
tpk;d &tzGUJ wGif umuG,af &;0efBu;D tjzpf aqmif½u
G cf YJNy;D 1956-57 ckEpS w
f iG f Edik if aH wmf0efBu;D csKyt
f jzpf wm0efxrf;
aqmifcJhonf/ 1957-58 ckESpfwGif 'k-0efBuD;csKyf? umuG,fa&;ESifh Nidrf0yfydjym;a&;wm0efudk ,lcJh&m? zqyv
tuJx
G yd if jzpfonf/
,ckzqyvtzGJUcsKyf Ouú|? qdk½S,fvpfygwD taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rSL;csKyf? tm½Sqdk½S,fvpfuGefz&ifh Ouú|?
wD,lpDbD tvkyform;tpnf;t½Hk;rsm;tzJGUcsKyf Ouú| tjzpf wm0efxrf;aqmifvsuf ½Sdayonf/ (tdk;a0)

1963 Nidr;f csr;f a&;aqG;aEG;yJG ysujf ym;NyD; aemufyikd ;f wGif tjcm;Edik if aH &; acgif;aqmifrsm;ESit
hf wl zrf;qD;xdr;f odr;f
cH&onf/ 1966 atmufwb
kd m (27) &ufwiG f OD;EkEiS hf w&ufwnf; axmifrS vGwaf jrmufvmonf/ 1968 ckEpS f
'DZifbm (2) &ufaeUwGif awmfveS af &;aumifpu
D zJUG aom (33) OD; jynfwiG ;f nDñw
G af &;tMuHay;tzJUG wGiyf g0ifonf/
OD;AaqGonf &efuek Nf rKdUwGif 1987 ckEpS ?f 'DZifbmvwGif uG,v
f eG o
f nf/
rSwfcsuf- pmvHk;tapmif;ESifh azmfjycsufrsm;onf aemufqHk;vuf½Sd tajctaetxd qufvufpkaqmif; a&;om;azmfjyxm;jcif;jzpfonf/
299
tifwmeuf- 0DuDyD'D,m / wyfrawmfordkif;-yÍörwJG? 1962-1974? pm-108/

jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif; - atmifxGef;

OD;vSarmif
(1941-42)
Source: Oway Magazines

rdwD¬vmZmwdNzpfonf/ 1273 ck? awmfovif;vqkwf (13) &ufaeYwGif zGm;jrifonf/ OD;oefY? a':rrwdkY\
wwd,ajrmuf om;&wemjzpfonf/
rEÅav;0ufpvD txufwef;ausmif; rdwv
D¬ mNrKUd trsK;d om;txufwef;ausmif;rsm;wGif ynmoifMum;cJí
h rEÅav;
Oypmaumvdyüf qufvufynmoifMum;cJ\
h / 1932 ckEpS w
f iG f rEÅav;aumvdyrf S Oypmtxufwef; atmifjrifNyD;
1933 ckEpS w
f iG f *syfqifaumvdyüf ynmqufvuf qnf;yl;cJah vonf/
1936-37 ckESpfwGif wuo trIaqmiftjzpf a½G;aumufwifajr§mufjcif; cH&í EkdifiHwumwuúokdvfrsm;ESifh
qufqaH &;tzGUJ twGi;f a&;rSL;tjzpf wm0efxrf;aqmif&onf/ 1941-42 ckwiG f wuo OuúVjzpfonf/
'kw,
d urÇmppfonf ta½SUzsm;okYd ul;pufvmcJo
h nf/ 1941 ck? 'DZbFmv (8) &ufaeYwiG f *syefu t*Fvyd t
f pk;d &
tm; ppfaMunmojzifh &efukefwuúokdvfukd ydwfvkduf&onf/ wuo vkyfief;rsm;vnf; &yfqkdif;oGm;cJhav
awmhonf/
1951 ckEpS w
f iG f w½kwjf ynfoUl or®wEkid if q
H idk &f m jynfaxmifpk jrefrmEdik if aH wmf oHtrwfBuD;tjzpfjzifh cefYtyfjcif;
cH&í? 1958 ckEpS x
f d tpöa&;jynfqidk &f m jynfaxmifpjk refrmEkid if aH wmf oHtrwfBuD;tjzpfjzifh Ekid if aH wmfwm0efudk
xrf;aqmifvsuf½o
dS nf/ owk;d oD&o
d "k r®bUJG csD;jr§ijhf cif;cHc&hJ ol jzpfonf/

300

vGwfvyfa&;BudK;yrf;rI - 1945 rS 1947 - 'Drdkua&pDa&; vltcGifUta&; trsKd;om;a&;toGif

'kw,
d wGJ
(1945 - 1962)

301

jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif; - atmifxGef;

tcef; (10)
vGwv
f yfa&;BuKd ;yrf;rI
'Dru
kd a&pDa&; vlUtcGit
Yf a&;ESiYf trsK;d om;a&;toGif
ausmif;om;vIy&f mS ;rIordik ;f
(1945 rS 1947)

(u) 1945 Mo*kwv
f rS atmufwb
kd mv ta&;ay:wuúov
kd o
f ifwef;
,m,D wuotrIaqmifaumfrwD
udkpHuif; (aemif0efBuD;)
Ouú|
udkoef;
'k-Ouú|
udkpdefjrarmif
taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rSL;
udkoef;aqG
tdk;a0 (t,f'Dwm) (jrefrm)
udkxGef;atmif
tdk;a0 (t,f'Dwm) (t*Fvyd )f
udkazpdef
pmMunfhwdkufrSL;
udkvSaomf
aygif;oif;qufqHa&;XmerSL;
rcifMunf
trsKd;orD;XmerSL;
ppfBudKacwfu wuo\tpOftvmESifhtquftEG,fudk wuoOuú| OD;AaqGu ppfNyD;acwf yxrajrmuf
wuo\ Ouú| udkoef;vufodkY vufqifhurf; ay;tyfcJhonf/ ppfNyD;acwf wuo ay:aygufcsdefrSm ta&;BuD;í
eufeJodrfarGUaom trsKd;om;vGwfajrmufa&;wdkufyGJ tajctaersm; ay:aygufaecsdef jzpfygonf/ ausmif;om;xk
tygt0if wrsKd;om;vHk; pnf;vHk;nDñGwfa&;udk tvdkvm;qHk; tcsdefvnf;jzpfonf/ 1946 wGif ta&;ay: wuúodkvf
oifwef;rsm; zsufodrf;í &efukefwuúodkvf jyefvnf zGifhvSpfcJhonf/
(u-1) 1945-46 ckESpf wuotrIaqmiftzGJY
1945 ZGefvqef; 'kwd,urÇmppfBuD;tNyD;wGif q&mBuD;OD;bu r*dkvrf;? &ef;a';&D;,m;ausmif; (,ck
txu- 2? yef;bJwef;) wGif ta&;ay: ,m,Dwuúodkvfudk zGifhvSpfcJhonf/
wuo a½G;aumufyGJ jyKvkyf&m ,refESpf wuo Ouú|a[mif; udkAaqG (1940-41) ESifh (1941-42)
302

vGwfvyfa&;BudK;yrf;rI - 1945 rS 1947 - 'Drdkua&pDa&; vltcGifUta&; trsKd;om;a&;toGif
wuo Ouú|a[mif; udkvSarmif (OD;EkESifh 'kwd,urÇmppftNyD;rS jyefa&mufvmol) wdkYu BuD;rSL;í usif;yonf/
udkoef;
Ouú|
udk[efwif
'k-Ouú|
rjrjr
aiGxdef;
udkpdefjrarmif
taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rSL;
udkoef;aqG
tdk;a0r*¾Zif; t,f'Dwm
rcifMunf
trIaqmif
udkvSaomf
trIaqmif
udkxGef;ñGefY
trIaqmif
udkarmif[def; (rif;ndKOD;)
trIaqmif wdkY jzpfvmonf/

(c) 1946-47 wuo trIaqmiftzGUJ
udkoef;armif (ol&d,)
udkoef;<u,f
udkpdefvS
udk&efa0;
udkarmifuav;
rcifvS

Ouú|
'k-Ouú|
aiGxdef;
taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rSL;
trIaqmifrsm;
trsKd;orD;XmerSL;

(aemifOya'bmomjyef t&m½Sda[mif;)
(wuúodkvftaysmfwrf;wyfwm0efcH)
(aygif;oif;qufqHa&;ESifh pmayavhvma&;
wm0efcH)

udkarmifarmifausmf
(r*¾Zif;wm0efcH)
udkñGefYodef;
(jyefMum;a&;)
udkvSñGefY
(ynma&;)
udkbquf
(tdk;a0r*¾Zif;t,f'Dwm)
udkvSñGefY
(pmMunfhwdkufrSL;) wdkYjzpfonf/
ZGefvwGif 'def;rwfü usif;yonfh urÇmYausmif;om; 0efxrf;nDvmcHodkY vnf;aumif;? xkdESpf ZlvdkifvwGif
usi;f yonfh urÇmYausmif;om;rsm;or*¾ (International Union of Students) yxrtBudrf ausmif;om;vli,fyaJG wmf
odkU vnf;aumif; wufa&mufcJhonf/
(c-1) wuo 1946-47 \ vkyfaqmifrIrsm;
1946-47 wuo trIaqmifaumfrwDvufxufwGif trsKd;om;vGwfajrmufa&;ESifh qufpyfaeaom
ocifynma&;pepf wnfaxmifa&;udk wuou xdyfwef;xm; awmif;qdkcJhavonf/ tzGJUtpnf;rsm; nDñGwfa&;udk
aqmif½Guf&mwGif 1946 ckESpf 'DZifbmv (24) &ufaeU wuo ,m,D½kH;cef;wGif usif;yaom wuo trIaqmif
tpnf;ta0;wGif wuor*¾Zif;wm0efcHu ]]Auoonf ausmif;om;or*¾aygif;pHkESifh wuowdkUyg0ifaom wu,f
nDñGwfpGm pepfwus zGJUpnf;xm;aom ausmif;om;tzGJUtpnf;w&yf ay:xGufvma&;udk aqmif½Guf&ef wuorS
vdv
k m;aMumif;}} wifjy&m trIaqmifaumfrwDu aqG;aEG;twnfjyKcJo
h nf/ 1947 ckEpS ?f Zefe0g&Dv (3) &uf wuúov
kd f
or*¾ ,m,D½Hk;cef;wGif usif;yaom wuotrIaqmif txl;tpnf;ta0;yGJwGif AuonDvmcHrS awmif;qdkcsuf
(21) csuEf iS hf wuúov
kd ef pfemcsuf (7) csuu
f kd awmif;qdNk yD; Edik if aH &; awmif;qdck sut
f jzpf (1) ESpt
f wGi;f vGwv
f yfa&;udk
&,l&ef? vGwfvyfaom EdkifiHtwGuf tkyfcsKyfa&;pnf;rsOf; a&;qGJ&eftwGuf wdkif;&if;om;rsm; yg0ifaom wdkif;jynfjyK
vTwfawmfudk tjrefqHk;ac:&eftqdkESifh vHk;0vGwfvyfa&;udk a½SU½Ií csDwuf wdkufcdkufMurnfh t"dXmefudk av;euf
apaomtm;jzifhvnf;aumif;? ausmif;om;rsm;\ epfemcsufrsm;udk r&ruwdkuf,l&ef pdwfydkif; jzwfxm;jcif;udk
jyoaom taejzifhvnf;aumif;? Zefe0g&D (15) &ufrS (31) &uftxd qE´jyoydwfarSmuf&ef? a½SUvmrnfhajcvSrf;udk
Zefe0g&Dv (31) &ufaeUwGif aMunmrnf jzpfaMumif; tqdkrsm;udk oabmwl qHk;jzwfMuonf/
1947 ck? Zefe0g&Dv (14) &ufaeYwGif wuotaqmuftODudk jyefvnf&½SdcJhonf/ xdkaeYrSmyif wuo
trIaqmiftpnf;ta0; w&yfusif;yum zqyvrS ay;ydkYaom y#dnmOfpmwef;udk trIaqmifaumfrwDu vufrSwfa&;
303

jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif; - atmifxGef;
xdk;í zqyv tzGJUcsKyfodkY jyefvnf ay;ydkYcJhonf/ Armjynf vGwfvyfa&;wdkufyGJtwGif; zqyvtzGJUBuD;\ vrf;pOfudk
rrSdwfrokef axmufcHí tNyD;owf vGwfvyfa&;wdkufyGJudkyg yg0ifqifETJrnf[k y#dnmOfay;jcif;udk zqyvrS aus;Zl;
wifí wuotm; vlxu
k *kPjf yKtyfaom tzGUJ jzpfaMumif; zqyvtzGUJ csKyfBuD;u rSww
f rf;wifaMumif;udk av;pm;pGm
taMumif;jyefcJhonf/
vGwfvyfa&;&NyD;aemuf
(1) vGwfvyfa&;wnfjrJa&;
(2) wdkif;jynfwdk;wufa&;
(3) vlxck sr;f oma&; wdYk ukd qufvufaqmif½u
G &f mwGif a½S;,cifuuJo
h Ykd yif y#dnmOfukd zqyvtzGUJ csKyfxH
ay;ydYk co
hJ nf/ y#dnmOfct
H zGUJ tjzpf qufvufy#dnmOfjyK&ef zqyvtzGUJ csKyf taxGaxGtwGi;f a&;rSL; OD;AaqG vufrw
S f
a&;xdk; arwåm&yfcHonf/
(c-2) wuo pnf;rsOf;jyifqifjcif;
1946-47 ckEpS ?f ppfNyD;acwf wuo\ 'kw,
d ajrmuftrIaqmif aumfrwDOuú| udo
k ef;armif vufxufwiG f
ppfBudKacwf wuopnf;rsOf;Oya' tcef; (10)? tydk'f (3) udk acwåxkwfy,fxm;&onf/ 1946 ckESpf? 'DZifbmv
(7) &ufaeYwGif wuo pnf;rsOf;Oya'tcef; (12)? tydk'f (6)? tydk'fcGJ (2) t& txl;tvkyftpnf;a0;yGJ (Extra
Ordinary Business Meeting) ac:,lí wuopnf;rsOf;udk jyifqifay;cJhonf/
¤if;wuopnf;rsOf; Oya' tcef; (10)? tyd'k f (3) wGif wuotoif;0iftjzpf tenf;qHk; (1) ESpf yg0if
zl;NyD; wuúodkvfwGif ynmoifqJausmif;om;rsm;omvQif wuo trIaqmifaumfrwD0iftjzpf ta½G;cHcGifh½Sdonf/
¤if;udk jyifqifvu
kd af omtcg wuúov
kd üf ynmoifMum;vsuf½adS om ausmif;om;wdik ;f wuo trIaqmifaumfrwD0if
tjzpf ta½G;cHcGifh½Sdonf/
(c-3) 1946-47ckESpf ausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIrsm;
1946 ckEpS ?f atmufwb
kd mv (10) &ufaeUzqyvtzGUJ rS Auyudk rxkwrf yD if Auyonf ausmif;om;rsm;ukd
EdkifiHa&;wGif wwyfwtm; yg0ifap&ef uvmyfpnf;rsm;udk tBudKwuúodkvfoifwef;ESifh ta&;ay:wuúodkvfoifwef;
wdkYwGif zJGUpnf;ay;onf/ tBudKwuúodkvfwGif udknDnD? udkpHvGif? udkay:OD; wdkUyg0ifaom uvmyfpnf;ESifh ta&;ay:
wuúodkvfoifwef;rsm;wGif udkoef;xGef;? udkxGef;a½T? udkcifarmifBuD;wdkU yg0ifaom uvmyfpnf;rsm;udk zGJUpnf;ay;cJh
onf/ xdkUaemuf zqyvESifh AuywdkUonf ausmif;om;rsm;udk tNydKiftqdkif vIHUaqmfpnf;½Hk;cJhMuonf/ 1947 ck
ESpfOD;ydkif;wGif wuotaqmuftODü zqyvrS OD;udkudkBuD;ESifh q&m&m*sefwdkUu ¤if;wuúodkvf ausmif;om;rsm;tm;
EdkifiHa&; oifwef;ay;cJhonf/
1946 ckESpf? ZGefvwGif &uoOuú| udkoef;xGef;u t,f'Dwm? &uorS udknDnD (vif;,kefeD) u wm0efcH
xkwfa0aom ]ausmif;om;[pfwikd }f owif;pmapmif xGufvmonf/ txl;ojzifh xdkpmapmifwGif 'dkareD,H paw;wyfpf
(ac:) udk,fydkiftkyfcsKyfa&;ESifh? ausmif;om;ESifh EdkifiHa&; oabmxm;rsm;udk tjyif;txef a0zefa&;om;xm;onf/
AuotrIaqmifrsm;udv
k nf; wEdik if v
H ;kH ½Sd ausmif;rsm;rS ausmif;om;ud,
k pf m;vS,rf sm; yg0ifaom nDvmcHu a½G;aumuf
wifajr§mufjcif; r[kwfí ausmif;om;xk qE´rygí ausmif;om;nDvmcH ac:,lusif;yNyD; Auo trIaqmifopf
a½G;cs,f wifajr§muf&ef tjyif;txef awmif;qdak vonf/ rEÅav;NrdKUwGif zGJUpnf;cJah om txufAuouvnf; &uo
\ ausmif;om;owif;yg awmif;qdkcsufrsm;udk axmufcHí ausmif;om;nDvmcH ac:ay;&ef awmif;qdkavonf/
ausmif;om;nDvmcHwGif(1) ynma&;
(2) trsKd;om;a&;
(3) jyefvnfxlaxmifa&;
(4) Auo tkyfcsKyfa&;pnf;rsOf;opf a&;qGJa&;ESifh trIaqmifopfa½G;cs,fa&; [laom tydkif;BuD; (4) ydkif;
xnfhoGif;aqG;aEG;&ef &uoESifh txuf Auoacgif;aqmifrsm;u awmif;qdkcJhonf/ trsKd;om;a&;wGif zqyvudk
axmufcH&ef vli,fwyfOD;ESifh tvkyform;? v,form;udprö sm;wGif tultnDay;&efESifh yl;aygif;&efwdkUudk azmfjyxm;
onf/ þodYk tjyif;txef awmif;qdrk aI Mumifh AuoXmecsKyfu BuD;rSL;í ausmif;om;nDvmcHukd 1946 ckEpS ?f Zlvikd v
f
(28) &ufrS Mo*kwv
f (1) &ufaeUxd usi;f ycJo
h nf/ udo
k ef;xGe;f tm; AuoOuú|tjzpf a½G;cs,f wifajr§mufcahJ vonf/
304

vGwfvyfa&;BudK;yrf;rI - 1945 rS 1947 - 'Drdkua&pDa&; vltcGifUta&; trsKd;om;a&;toGif
Auo\ trsKd;om;atmifyGJaeUudk zqyvESifh yl;aygif;rusif;ybJ pifNydKif aeol&defZmwf½HkBuD;ü usif;y&m
wyfeD? trsKd;orD; uGef*&ufpaom tzGJUtpnf;rsm; wufa&mufMuonf/ xdktrsKd;om;atmifyGJaeYü awmif;qdkcsuf
(7) csuf wifoGif;cJhonf/ awmif;qdkcsufrsm;rSm1/ (u) rlvwef;ESihf rlvwef;vGeaf usmif;? taqmuftODrsm;udk vHak vmufpmG aqmufvyk af y;&ef? ysufp;D ,d,
k iG ;f aom
taqmuftODrsm;udk tjrefqHk; jyif&ef?
(c) ausmif;oH;k ypön;f rsm;? "gwkak A'? ud&,
d m wefqmyvmrsm;udk vHak vmufpmG ausmif;wdik ;f wGif xm;½Sad y;&efEiS hf
wu,fwef; qif;&Jaom ausmif;om;rsm;tm; oufqdkif&m tpdk;&rS t0wftpm; tcrJh xkwfay;&ef?
(*) ynmydik ;f qdik &f m taqmuftODrsm;rS ppfwyfrsm;ESihf tpd;k &Xmersm;udk 1946 ckEpS ?f Zefe0g&Dv (31) &ufaeUtwGi;f
>cif;csufr½Sd tjrefqHk; ½kwfodrf;&ef?
2/
ausmif;q&mrsm;ESifh 0efxrf;tzGJU(u) tpdk;&ausmif;wdkif; ausmif;wdkif;wGif t&nftcsif;jynfhq&mrsm; OD;a&trsKd;tpm;tvdkuf wdk;csJUí
wESpfywfvHk; cefYxm;&ef?
(c) ausmif;wdkif;wGif t&nftcsif;jynfh avmu"gwfynmoif q&m (1) OD; tenf;qHk; cefYxm;&ef?
(*) ausmif;rsm;wGif pma&;? '&0rfrS pí ausmif;0efxrf;tzGJUudk vHkavmufpGm cefYxm;&ef?
(C) rlvwef;vGef ausmif;q&mrsm;\ vpmEIef;udk txufwef;ausmif;q&mrsm;\ vpmEIef;twdkif; tjref
qHk; jyefvnf owfrSwfxkwfay;&ef?
3/
ausmif;oHk;pmtkyf? cJwH? rifwH ponfwdkYudk tpdk;&ynma&;XmerS vHkavmufpGm rSm,lí tzdk;csKdomaom
EIef;xm;jzifh jrefrmEdkifiH½Sd ausmif;wdkif;ausmif;wdkif;odkU vHkavmufpGm enf;pepfwus jzefYcsd&ef?
4/
ausmif;tkyfcsKyfa&;tzGJUwGif ausmif;om;or*¾\ udk,fpm;vS,frsm; yg0if wGJzuftkyfcsKyfcGifhay;&ef?
5/
wuúodkvfpmar;yGJ jyifqifa&; (1) ESpfoifwef;udk rlvwef;vGef ausmif;wdkif;wGif wGJvsufzGifhay;&ef?
6/
rlvwef; roifrae& tcvGwfynmoifMum;a&;udk a'oEÅ&qdkif&m toufarG;0rf;ausmif; tajccHvufrI
ynm&yfrsm;ESifh wGJzufynm oifMum;ay;&efwdkY jzpfonf/
wuúodkvftkyfcsKyfa&;tzGJYodkY awmif;qdkcsufrsm;rSm1/
wuúodkvfpmar;yGJ pmppfXmersm;udk 'DpBwdwfNrdKUwdkif;wGif wdk;csJUay;&ef?
2/
wuúodkvfpmar;yGJ0ifcEIef;udk avQmhayghí aiG 10d^- owfrSwf&ef?
3/
tpdk;&ppf jrefrmtxufwef;pmar;yGJatmifjrifolrsm;udk wuúodkvfpmar;yGJwGif t*Fvdyfpm wbmomwnf;
0ifa&muf ajzqdkcGifhjyK&ef?
4/
rEÅav;NrdKUwGif 'D*&Daumvdyf wckzGifhay;&ef?
5/
&efukefwuúodkvf\ vufatmufcH aumvdyfausmif;rsm;? pdkufysKd;a&;aumvdyf? tif*sifeD,m aumvdyfwdkUudk
vsifjrefpGm jyefvnfzGifhvSpf&efwdkYjzpfonf/
txufyg (11) csufudk 1947 ckeSpf? Zefe0g&Dv (15) &uf aemufqHk;xm;í jyefMum;jcif; r½SdcJhvQif
Zefe0g&Dv (20) &ufaeYwiG f ArmEdik if v
H ;kH qdik &f mausmif;om;rsm; wnDwñGww
f nf; oydwaf rSmuf&ef qH;k jzwfNyD;aMumif;
yg½Sdonf/ 1947 ckESpf? Zefe0g&Dv (20) &ufaeUwGif AuorS BuD;rSL;í wEdkifiHvkH;½Sd ausmif;rsm; oydwfarSmufonf/
Auo? wuo? &uo wdkYrS wzGJUvQif udk,fpm;vS,f (5) OD;pDyg0ifaom oydwfarSmufaumifpDudk zGJUpnf;í
ausmif;om;oydwfBuD;udk pepfwus OD;aqmifrI ay;cJhonf/

(*) AuoESihf wuo yl;aygi;f xm;aom ArmEdik if v
H ;kH qdik &f moydwaf umifpD (1947)
xdkaumifpDtpnf;ta0;udk wuo taqmuftODwGif usif;yavonf/ AuowGif uGefjrLepfygwDESifh
eD;pyfolrsm; ae&m&xm;onf/
AuowGifudkoef;xGef;
Ouú|
(aemif ordkif;ygarmu© a'gufwmoef;xGef;)
udkxGef;ñGefY
'k-Ouú|
(aemif taumufcGefñTefMum;a&;rSL;)
udkoeff;xGef;udk e,fudk,fpm;vS,ftcsKdUar;jref;&m uGefjrLepfygwD0ifjzpfaMumif; ajymcJhonf/
wuowGif qdk½S,fvpfygwDESifheD;pyfolrsm; acgif;aqmifrI&xm;NyD;? uGefjrLepfygwDESifh eD;pyfolrsm;vnf;
305

jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;vIyf&Sm;rIordkif; - atmifxGef;

Source: Self-portrait (Dr. Than Tun's)

trIaqmiftzGJUwGif yg0ifonf/ jyifyrS OD;aqmifygwDBuD;rsm;\ t½Sdeft0gonf
A[dkausmif;om;tzGJUwGif vma&muf xif[yfaejcif;jzpfonf/
zufqpfawmfvSefa&; tNyD;? NAdwdoQe,fcsJU Armjynf 0ifvmaomtcgwGif
e,fcsJUya,m*? oabmw&m; t,ltquGJ&mrS zqyvwGifyg vuf0JnDñGwfa&;
NydKuGv
J monf/ xdt
k uGt
J jyJonf vlwef;pm; toD;oD;odUk BuD;rm;pGm *,uf½u
dk Nf yD;
A[dkrS ausmif;om;acgif;aqmifrsm;vnf; eD;pyf&m ygwDtvdkuf uGJaeMuonf/
AuonDvmcHwiG f wnDwñGww
f nf;owfrw
S cf o
hJ nfh oydwaf rSmuf&ef &uf
uwrsKd;? wuou oD;jcm;&uf owfrSwfí oydwfarSmuf&ef &ufu wrsKd;jzpf
aeonf/ þuJhodkU ausmif;om;nDñGwfa&; rNydKuGJ&ef ArmEdkifiHvHk;qdkif&m oydwf
arSmufaumifpD (A.B.B.C) udk yl;aygif;zGJUpnf;cJhonf/
e,fausmif;om;rsm;onf Auopnf;½kH;a&; cGiftwGif;rS jzpfí wuo
pnf;½kH;a&;cGifonf &efukefwuúodkvf omjzpfonf[k ,lqxm;onf/
1947 AuoOuú| udo
k ef;xGe;f
(aemif a'guw
f moef;xGe;f )
nDvmcH pwifusif;yaomtcg AuoOuú| obmywd udkoef;xGef;u
ausmif; om;oydwf tajctae? Edik if v
H ;kH qdik &f m oydwaf rSmufaumifpD zGUJ &aom taMumif;&if;? ausmif;om;nDñw
G af &;
twGuf vuf½Sd Auo trIaqmif tzGJUEkwfxGufay;rnf jzpfaMumif;? Auo trIaqmiftzGJU jyefvnfa½G;cs,f&efwdkYudk
½Sif;vif;ajymMum;onf/ aqG;aEG;yGJudk &efukefNrdKUjynfvrf;½Sd tvGwfynmoifausmif; zGifhvSpfxm;aom OD;vSjrwfpdk;\
wdkufatmufxyfwGif jyKvkyfonf/
AuonDvmcHukd tqdyk g wdu
k af tmufxyfwiG f usi;f yonf/ udo
k ef;xGe;f onf pum;ajym&mwGif cyfjywfjywf
eJY bkusyHkvnf;&onf/ ¤if;ajymqdk aqG;aEG;rIrsm;t& owdå½Sd½SdESifh cyfjywfjywfvkyfrnfh yHkay:avonf/ tjyeftvSef
vQKdU 0Suaf qG;aEG;rIrsm; ndE§ idI ;f NyD;aemufwiG f udo
k ef;xGe;f udk AuoOuú| tjzpfwif&ef qH;k jzwfcahJ vonf/ usefwzufrS
vnf; udo
k ef;armifuw
dk ifonf/ tiftm;pk (2) ck tm;NydKifyJG jzpfonf/ rJcq
JG ;kH jzwf&ef jzpfvmonf/ þwGif rnfoal wG
rJay;EdkifcGifh½Sdonf[laom jyóem ay:vmonf/
c½kdifudk,fpm;vS,frsm;udk rJay;cGifhjyK&ef? &efukefc½dkifudkvnf; tjcm;c½kdif udk,fpm;vS,frsm; enf;wl rJay;
cGifhjyK&efwdkYudk wifjy aqG;aEG;Muonf/
udo
k ef;armifwYkdzufrS &efuek cf ½dik af usmif;om;rsm;or*¾ (&uo) Ouú|u &efuek Nf rdKUay:½Sd ausmif;toD;oD;rS
ausmif;om;or*¾cGJ udk,fpm;vS,frsm;udkyg rJay;cGifhjyK&ef pDpOfavonf/ &efukefNrdKUay:½Sd ausmif;om;or*¾cGJ udk,fpm;
vS,frsm;udkyg rJay;cGihfjyKygu c½kdifrsm;tzdkY wlnDaom rJr&ouJhodkU jzpfaeayonf/ aemufqHk;wGif nDvmcH wufcGifh&
aom ud,
k pf m;vS,t
f m;vH;k rJay;cGijhf yK&ef? ajAmifraJ y;&ef qH;k jzwfavonf/ &efuek Nf rdKUay:rS wufvmaom ausmif;om;
or*¾cGJ udk,fpm;vS,frsm; rJjzifh udkoef;armif Ouú|tjzpf ta½G;cH&onf/
nDvmcHwGif tkyfpk (uGJ) jyóem xdyfwef; a&mufvmonf/ ausmif;om;tzGJUtpnf;ü uGefjrLepfygwDESifh
qdk½S,fvpfygwD tm;NydKifrIrsm; jzpfcJhavonf/ aemufqHk;wGif e,fudk,fpm;vS,frsm;\ qE´t&vnf;aumif;? tkyfpk
taetxm; t&vnf;aumif;? AuoOD;aqmifrI awmifhwif;vmap&ef twGufvnf;aumif;? vuf½Sdtajctae xdef;
odrf;&ef twGufvnf;aumif; useftrIaqmifrsm;udk tkyfpk (2) pk cGJí wm0ef,lcJhavonf/

(C) ta&G;cH&aom Auo trIaqmiftzGUJ (1946-47)
udkoef;armif
udkoef;
udkpdefvS
rcifEkEk
udkoef;ñGefY

Ouú|
'k-Ouú|
taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rSL;
trsKd;orD;XmerSL;
trIaqmifrsm;

(C-1) Auo nDvmcH (1946-47) rS awmif;qdkcsufrsm;
ynma&;XmeodkY awmif;qdkcsufrsm;rSm
1/
wuúodkvf0if pmar;yGJwGif ar;cGef;pm½Gufrsm;udk jrefrmbmomjzifh a&;om;xm;aom ar;cGef;pm½Gufrsm;yg
306

vGwfvyfa&;BudK;yrf;rI - 1945 rS 1947 - 'Drdkua&pDa&; vltcGifUta&; trsKd;om;a&;toGif
2/

3/

4/

xm;½dSay;&ef/
,ckESpfrS tpjyKí pmar;yGJrsm; jyKvkyfaomtcg pmar;yGJar;cGef;rsm;udk rdrdwdkYa'otvdkuf oif&aom pm
tqift
h wef; twdik ;f om oufqikd &f mynma&;Xme tmPmydik rf sm;u tpd;k &ppfpmar;yGrJ sm;wGif xkwpf pfEikd rf I
twGuf pDpOfay;yg&ef/
,ckvuf½Sd tajctaet& tpdk;&todtrSwfrjyKaom rlvwef;ausmif; (ig;wef;ausmif;) rsm;rS ausmif;
om;? ausmif;olrsm;tm; tpdk;&todtrSwfjyKaom rlvwef;pmar;yGJ (ig;wef;pmar;yGJ) wGif 0ifa&mufajzqdk
cGifhjyK&ef/
,ckoydwfvSefaomtcg tpdk;&ausmif;wdkif;ESifh wuo rnfonfhausmif;wdkif;urqdk oydwfarSmufausmif;
om;rsm;tm; vHk;0ta&;r,l&ef/

trsKd;om;a&;tqdk (5) &yfrSm
1/
uREyfk w
f Ykd ausmif;om;rsm;onf t*Fvyd ef ,fcsUJ orm;tm; vufeufuikd f ykeu
f efx<u awmfveS rf o
S m vGwv
f yf
a&;udk &½Sdrnf[k ,HkMunfMuonfhtm;avsmfpGm e,fcsJUqefUusifa&; tzGJUtpnf;rsm; nDñGwfMuap&ef tjyif;
txef vkdvm;ygaMumif;?
2/
wdkif;&if;om;tm;vkH; ryg0ifaom jrefrmjynfvGwfvyfa&;onf t"dyÜg,fr½Sd[k ,lqojzifh jrefrmjynfESifh
wygwnf; awmifwef;e,frsm; vGwfvyfrI&½Sdap&ef ,cknDvmcHodkU wufa&mufaom ausmif;om;rsm;u
txl; jyif;xefpGm vdkvm;ygaMumif;?
3/
½Srf;jynfausmif;om;rsm;\ ½Srf;jynf pyfzvHkaumifpDodkY oD;oefYawmif;qdkcsufrsm;udk ,cknDvmcHrS vHk;0
axmufcHaMumif;?
4/
tu,fí e,fcsUJ orm;u jyKvkyv
f mrnfh a½G;aumufyo
JG