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NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR HOME STUDY COURSE
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction ................................................................................................................................. 1 Chapter 1- AC Motor Fundamentals
Electromagnetism ........................................................................................................................................... 1 AC Motor Components ................................................................................................................................... 4 Principles of Operation ................................................................................................................................... 5 AC Motor Fundamentals - Quiz ....................................................................................................................... 6
Chapter 2 - The Nameplate
Industry Standards ......................................................................................................................................... 7 Nameplate Data .............................................................................................................................................. 7 Load Considerations ...................................................................................................................................... 14 Additional Motor Data .................................................................................................................................... 17 The Nameplate - Quiz .................................................................................................................................... 27
Chapter 3 - Application Considerations
Variable Frequency ........................................................................................................................................ 28 Environmental Considerations ........................................................................................................................ 31 Efficiency and Energy Legislation .................................................................................................................. 32 Starting Methods ........................................................................................................................................... 35 Application Considerations - Quiz ................................................................................................................... 40
Chapter 4 - Product Offering
Standard and Premium Efficient Open Dripproof Motors .................................................................................. 42 Standard and Premium Efficient Totally Enclosed Motors ................................................................................ 43 Hostile Environment Motors ........................................................................................................................... 44 841 Plus ........................................................................................................................................................ 45 Explosionproof Motors ................................................................................................................................... 45 “ Face and Pump Motors ............................................................................................................................. 48 C” Special Purpose Motors ................................................................................................................................. 48 U.S. Motors’ Product Offering - Quiz ............................................................................................................... 52
General Formulas and Conversion Tables ................................................................................ 53 Quiz Answers ............................................................................................................................ 57 Glossary .................................................................................................................................... 61 U.S. ELECTRICAL MOTORS
DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO.
NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR HOME STUDY COURSE
Approximately 90% of all industrial applications use three phase induction motors. Why? The standard utility service is three phase, 60 hertz. It is the most practical motor for uses requiring over five horsepower. Special mechanical or electrical features for unusual conditions can be readily incorporated into a three phase induction motor. The three phase induction motor is simpler, more rugged, more easily maintained and less expensive than any other motor type. It is truly the workhorse of the industry! The purpose of this home study guide is to familiarize you with AC motor fundamentals, motor terminology and the U.S. Motors product offering. AC motors are used all over the world in residential, commercial, industrial and utility applications, and U.S. Electrical Motors manufactures a wide variety of these motors for a wide variety of applications. You will find a brief quiz at the end of each section in the course - we urge you to take a few minutes to answer the questions before moving to the next section. A thorough understanding of this material will give you the ability to select and price the right AC motor for you or your customer’ application. s We hope that you find the format of this course user-friendly; it has been designed to provide you with simple, straightforward answers to your AC motors questions.
About three thousand years ago, an unusual mineral was discovered in Asia Minor. The mineral had the ability to attract iron objects. It was the first known magnetic material. Man-made magnets were put to practical use in about the twelfth century, but the connection between magnets and electricity was not made until the mid-1800’ This discovery led to the invention s. of the first electric motor in 1887 by John Tesla. A substance is called a magnet if it has the property of attracting materials, such as iron. Magnets are comprised of two poles: a north pole and a south pole. These poles represent the points of maximum attraction. In the case of a bar shaped magnet, the strongest magnetic effect is produced at each end. Magnets not only have south poles and north poles, but they also have magnetic lines of force, often called magnetic flux.
U.S. ELECTRICAL MOTORS
DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO.
A moving charge produces a magnetic field and a magnetic field exerts force on a moving charge. ELECTRICAL MOTORS DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO. An electromagnet consists of a coil of wire that carries an electric current. generators and many other electrical devices. They form the basis for understanding motors. or it may be moving through a vacuum. Every magnetic object can be acted upon by the magnetic field of another object. Every magnetic object creates a magnetic field that can affect other magnetic objects. and like poles repel. 2. Magnetic fields are important because of the relationship between magnetism and electricity. the paper clips will cling to the bar of metal when electrical power is applied. These two parts of the relationship between magnetism and electricity have a great practical value. . A change in cranking speed would produce a change in output speed. The following diagram shows a device that demonstrates how magnetic fields can transmit mechanical torque without making contact. The charge may be moving along a conductor. except they only have magnetic properties when electrical power is applied to the coil.NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR HOME STUDY COURSE The most basic law of magnetic force is that unlike poles attract each other. the bar of metal no longer has magnetic properties and the paper clips fall. 2 U. The strength of the magnetic field depends on the speed and the strength of the charge. Every moving electrical charge produces a magnetic field. One of the most important magnetic devices using electricity is the electromagnet. When electrical power is removed.S. Electromagnets are the same as permanent magnets. As the example below shows. Two important considerations apply to magnetism: 1.
Alternating current.S. the realignment of the magnetic poles takes place due to the normal voltage reversals of the AC power. if we mounted three coils of wire about the shaft equal distances apart. as the name implies. In the majority of alternating current (AC) motors. This would then be “ three phase”or “ polyphase”current. each coil would produce an alternating current. moment. U.NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR HOME STUDY COURSE One other important feature of the electromagnet is its ability to change magnetic polarity due to a change in the direction of electric current flow through the coil. The figure below shows an example of how AC current changes with time. However. A reversal of magnetic poles brought about by a reversal of connections to the battery terminals is shown below. SINGLE PHASE The figure shown above is a “ single phase” current. 3 . ELECTRICAL MOTORS DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO. is continuously reversing at a rate determined by its frequency. But since the coils are equally spaced around the “ circle of rotation” each coil will have a different amount of current at a particular .
The phase voltages are 120 electrical degrees apart. They have the same magnitude and lag their respective phase voltages by the same angle.S. the 3-phase currents are also 120 electrical degrees apart. 4 U. The rotor is made up of the shaft. The other major part is the stator. The stator is formed from thin steel laminations stacked and fastened together so that the notches (called slots) form a continuous lengthwise slot on the inside diameter. . A fabricated rotor core with air ducts is shown here. ELECTRICAL MOTORS DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO. AC MOTOR COMPONENTS Two major assemblies make up an AC motor: the rotor and the stator. rotor core (a stack of steel laminations that form slots and aluminum conductors and end rings formed by either a die cast or fabrication process) and sometimes a fan. This is the rotating part of the electromagnetic circuit.NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR HOME STUDY COURSE THREE PHASE The stator currents that flow in the three phases of a 3-phase motor are identical to each other.
The stator windings are connected directly to the power source.NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR HOME STUDY COURSE Insulation is inserted to line the slots. The coils are wrapped around the iron material of the stator. The magnetic field. and produces a torque that causes the rotor to turn. and then coils wound with many turns of wire are inserted into the slots to form a circuit. Each of the pairs of coils are connected to the three phases of the power supply. U. together with the steel core it surrounds. To explain the relationship of the coils we can use an example of six coils. The induction motor derives its name from the fact that the rotor is not connected electrically to the source of power supply. Each motor winding becomes a separate electromagnet. rotating around the outer surface of the stator. It is also known as a torque producing device. PRINCIPLES OF OPERATION A motor is a device that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. The stator is connected to a 3-phase AC power supply. The three phase windings are placed 120 degrees apart. The coils are wound in such a way that when current flows in them one coil is a north pole and its pair is a south pole. cuts across the conductors embedded in the rotor and induces voltages in the conductors.S. The coils operate in pairs. 5 . form an electromagnet. These coils are referred to as motor windings. two coils for each of the three phases. Each grouping of coils. the induction motor depends on a rotating magnetic field. The voltages induced in the rotor windings (squirrel cage) cause currents to flow in the rotor conductors. The currents that circulate in the rotor conductors are not produced directly by the voltage of the power supply. They result from the voltage being induced in the rotor by the magnetic field of the stator. This causes a repelling force between the conductors and the field. This field is set up by the current flowing in the stator windings. For its operation. Electromagnetism is the principle behind motor operation. ELECTRICAL MOTORS DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO. The current-carrying conductors are then exposed to a magnetic field. Torque is defined as a turning or twisting force supplied by a drive to the load.
9. True _____ False _____ What is the main difference between a permanent magnet and an electromagnet? 2. True _____ False _____ In three phase alternating current. 8. 6 U. 7. ELECTRICAL MOTORS DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO. . each winding produces an alternating current of the same amount at any given moment. The most basic law of magnetic force is that unlike poles attract and like poles repel each other. What is the difference between single phase and three phase alternating current? 4. 3. High electrical currents produced by the stator do not produce any magnetic field in the rotor.S. True _____ False _____ Alternating current is continuously reversing (changing polarity) at a rate determined by its frequency. True _____ False _____ Explain what is meant by an “ induction”motor. True _____ False _____ An electromagnet has the ability to change magnetic polarity due to a change in the direction of electric current flow through the coil.QUIZ 1.NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR HOME STUDY COURSE AC MOTOR FUNDAMENTALS . 6. What are the two major components of an AC motor? 5.
which sponsors the National Electrical Code (NEC) is used by insurance inspectors and many government bodies regulating building codes. The city of Manhattan was on DC. the Japanese Standards (JEC).NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR HOME STUDY COURSE INDUSTRY STANDARDS Motor development began in the 1800’ with Oersted and Faraday’ research on magnetism.on DC. Edison was working in his Pear Street station . dimensions. they have established standards for a wide range of electrical products. Because of this. the Canadian Standards Association (CSA). Davenport received the first patent on an electric motor in 1837. MG-1. International standards exist as well. Many of today’ motor s standards have been established through organizations such as the National Electrical Manufacturers’ Association (NEMA). time rating. U. rated volts and full load amps. These regulating agencies assist in the proper selection and application of motors. tests and performance. These standards can be found in NEMA Standard Publication No. 7 . and Philadelphia was utilizing two phase power. including motors. NAMEPLATE DATA As a basic requirement of the National Electrical Code (NEC). IEEE is another agency that has established electrical standards and recommended practices for the motor industry. Standards established include definitions. This course will limit itself to NEMA standards. the induction motor nameplate must show eight specific items. and Sturgeon’ development of s s s the electromagnet in 1825. but many diverse routes were being taken at this time. NEMA is primarily associated with motors used in North America. a number of organizations were established to standardize the motor industry.S. with organizations such as the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). rated horsepower and locked rotor indicating code letter. AC generating stations came into being. including the manufacturer’ name. Niagara Falls was generating at 25 cycles. ELECTRICAL MOTORS DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO. By 1890. rated full s load speed. IEC is the organization responsible for motor standards in the European community. application data and safety. Underwriters’Laboratories (UL) is an independent testing organization that sets standards for motors and other electrical equipment. California at 50 cycles. NEMA will be referred to frequently in this course. rated temperature. ratings. These standards differ from NEMA standards. the British Standards (BS) and at least one organization for each country that exists. The National Fire Protection Association. rated frequency and number of phases. These motors are referred to as IEC motors. The standards developed represent general industry practices and are supported by the motor manufacturers. and can be found in IEC 34-1-16.
enclosure type. as well as a few other countries. The cost effectiveness and efficiency of the three phase induction motor makes it the natural s s U. Thus. 60 Hertz power is utilized throughout the United States and Canada. the frame size. the motor must be designed to cope with some voltage variations. In most industrial and commercial installations.S. the ‘ mark for sales to the European Community and the Canadian Standards Association logo. This information might include the motor service factor. The best way to approach a basic understanding of what standardization means and to cover some of the material fundamental to standard induction motors is to examine in detail the nameplate information contained on a typical motor. Motors rated for these voltages will operate within the limits established by NEMA at rated voltage. the power systems.NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR HOME STUDY COURSE Additional information will normally appear on most nameplates as well. CE’ Rated Volts and Full Load Amps. a motor with a nameplate voltage rating of 230 could be expected to give satisfactory but not necessarily ideal performance when supplied with power ranging from a low value of 207 to a high extreme of 253 volts. and consequently the induction motors. will either be single phase or three phase. Since line voltage is apt to vary over a period of time due to power system load conditions. connection diagrams and unique or special features. Each AC motor is designed for optimum performance with a specific line voltage applied. Rated Frequency and Number of Phases This indicates the frequency for which the motor is designed in hertz (cycles per second). ELECTRICAL MOTORS DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO. Motors are designed to tolerate a frequency variance of plus or minus 5%. including the UL recognition label. and a motor should be able to handle both voltage and frequency variations at the same time. Standard induction motors are designed to tolerate voltage variations plus or minus 10%. Manufacturer’ Name. The most frequently used domestic voltages for three phase systems are 230 and 460. s You will also note that we have logos of additional agencies shown on the nameplate. 8 .
ELECTRICAL MOTORS DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO. s 9 . or actual speed. SINGLE PHASE THREE PHASE Rated Full Load Speed The rated full load speed. the full load speed. The single phase graph shows how AC current changes with time.NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR HOME STUDY COURSE choice for all requirements where three phase power is available. A three phase power system is built around a set of three equal AC voltages. This is also known as slip.S. Those windings are displaced by 120 electrical degrees within the generator so that the sinusoidal voltage produced by each is physically displaced by one-third of a cycle from each of the other two. Alternating current is defined as the flow of electrons which periodically changes in amount and direction. Following are graphs showing the sine wave for both single and three phase alternating current. On standard induction motors. where three phase power is not available (usually through a maximum horsepower rating of 10 HP). all superimposed on the same circuit. each produced by a separate set of windings within an electric generator. U. Single phase motors may be used on fractional horsepower requirements (less than one horsepower) and in applications such as agricultural installations. or rpm (revolutions per minute) of a motor is the speed at which the motor will operate under full torque conditions when applied voltage and frequency are held constant at the rated values. Most generators produce three separate current flows. will normally be between 95 and 99% of synchronous speed.
Please keep in mind that motors are designed to withstand some very high temperatures. F and H. B. This standard 20. For simplicity. The temperature of the air surrounding the motor. ELECTRICAL MOTORS DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO. 10 . The formula for obtaining synchronous speed is S = 120 x F — — — P where S = synchronous speed in revolutions per minute F = frequency in hertz P = number of poles in the motor The number of poles and the speed of an induction motor are used interchangeably. Class B is rated at 130°C. s U. these materials have been broken into classes A.000 hour life temperature class is based on ambient plus the heat created within the motor during operation. This is the ambient temperature. or 54 degrees above the boiling point of water. 2. The maximum allowable safe operating temperature occurring at the hottest spot within a motor is determined by: 1. The heat created within the motor due to its operation at a fully loaded condition. The thermal capability of all the insulating materials used within the motor. which is 266°F. Motors have been designed to withstand this type of heat.S.NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR HOME STUDY COURSE Synchronous speed is the theoretical speed of a motor based on the rotating magnetic field. 3. This is the temperature rise. you can determine the other with the formula shown above. If you know one. Standard rpms are as follows: TYPICAL ACTUAL SPEED 3530 1750 1175 880 SYNCHRONOUS SPEED 3600 1800 1200 900 NUMBER OF POLES 2 4 6 8 Rated Temperature Rise Or The Insulation System Class and Rated Ambient Temperature s One of the most critical items relating to the life of any type of electrical equipment (ranging from televisions to giant power generators) is the maximum temperature that occurs at the hottest point within the unit and the length of time that the high temperature is allowed to exist. Motors are rated using a 40°C ambient (104°F). As an example.
it limits the effects of voltage variations. 15 minutes. ELECTRICAL MOTORS DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO. When application horsepower requirements fall between two standardized values. As an example. Rated Horsepower s This represents the rated horsepower output when the motor is loaded to rated torque at rated speed. well-defined applications where they will be operating for short periods of time. the larger size is usually chosen. from fractional through thousands of horsepower. since they would rarely operate for a longer period of time. When motors are to be utilized for specific. 1 1-1/2 2 3 5 7-1/2 10 15 20 25 STANDARD HORSEPOWER RATINGS 1 THRU 4000 HP 30 300 1250 40 350 1500 50 400 1750 60 450 2000 75 500 2250 100 600 2500 125 700 3000 150 800 3500 200 900 4000 250 1000 U. it is possible to reduce their size. garbage disposals are normally rated for 15 minutes. 30 minutes. Insulation System Classes are as follows: CLASS A B F H Time Rating 20. The standard time ratings are 5 minutes. This adds a margin of safety that will reduce the motor’ operating temperature rise and s extend the operating life of the motor. weight and cost by loading them to higher torques than would be possible if they were to operate continuously. 60 minutes and continuous.NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR HOME STUDY COURSE Insulating materials prevent metal to metal contact or interaction of phase to phase shorts.S. 11 .000 HOUR LIFE TEMPERATURE 105°C 130°C 155°C 180°C s General purpose motors will be rated for continuous duty. This is also known as dielectric strength . The standard horsepower ratings from 1 through 4000 are shown below. NEMA has established standard horsepower ratings.
thirty-three feet. It is the amount of work done in a given amount of time. It was determined that a horse could lift 1000 pounds.NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR HOME STUDY COURSE The illustration below shows how the term horsepower came about. From this.000 -ORFOOT POUNDS PER SECOND 550 HP = 12 U. ELECTRICAL MOTORS DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO. in one minute. our formula for horsepower is HP = FOOT POUNDS PER MINUTE 33. The work capacity of a horse was used to define the power of an electric motor. .S.
you will note that a one horsepower.S. With only speed as the variable. Torque and horsepower are related to each other by a basic formula that states: The following graph shows the relationship between horsepower and torque. 1800 RPM motor. 600 RPM motor would have approximately the same output torque as a three horsepower. ELECTRICAL MOTORS DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO. U.341 x KW The relationship between horsepower and torque should also be noted here.746 x HP Kilowatts can be converted to horsepower with this formula: HP = 1.NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR HOME STUDY COURSE AC motors used in North America are generally rated in horsepower. Equipment manufacturing in Europe is generally rated in kilowatts (KW). 13 . Units of measure are inch pounds or foot pounds. Torque is the turning or twisting force supplied by a drive to the load. Horsepower can be converted to kilowatts with the following formula: KW = .
There are three basic load types.NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR HOME STUDY COURSE LOAD CONSIDERATIONS Note that only after the load has been started and adequate torque is available to run the load. . other than pumps. surface winding machines. does speed become a factor. About 90% of all applications. and lower values of torque at higher speeds. Constant torque applications are those that have the same torque at all operating speeds. positive displacement pumps and piston and screw compressors. hoisting loads. 14 U. Constant horsepower applications have higher values of torque at lower speeds.S. and these types are classified by the relationship of horsepower and speed. and horsepower varies directly with the speed. drill presses and center winders. Examples include lathes. ELECTRICAL MOTORS DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO. Examples of this type include conveyors. milling machines. are constant torque loads.
When a larger hole is being drilled. the drill is operating at low speed. but it requires a very high torque to turn the large drill in the material. U. ELECTRICAL MOTORS DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO. the drill is operated at a high speed.S. 15 . The torque required varies as the square of its speed. When a small hole is being drilled. fans and centrifugal compressors. When a machine is designed to produce a fixed number of pounds per hour regardless of whether it is making small parts at high speed. punch presses and eyeletting presses will frequently have torque requirements falling somewhere between the characteristics of constant horsepower and constant torque. or large parts at a lower speed. turbine pumps. but it requires a very low torque to run the small drill in the material. A general test for deciding if a machine might require constant horsepower would be to study the machine output. Examples include centrifugal pumps. The last basic load type is variable torque. Spring coilers. the drive requirement is apt to be constant horsepower.NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR HOME STUDY COURSE The drills in the diagram below are an example of a constant horsepower application. and horsepower requirements increase as the cube of the speed. centrifugal blowers.
S. but. This failure could occur even though the motor might have more than adequate torque and horsepower capacity to drive the load after it reaches the required running speed. centrifuges. The high inertia aspect of a load generally only becomes a problem during acceleration. extractors.40. For example. Inertia is the tendency of an object that is at rest to stay at rest or an object that is moving to keep moving. many other types of motor driven equipment. We tend to think of flywheels as having high inertia. 16 U. equipment manufacturers will be able to provide the typical inertia values for a given application. such as large fans. hammer mills and some types of machine tools. A load is considered to be ‘ high inertia’ when the reflected inertia at the motor shaft is greater than five times the motor rotor inertia. a series of code letters group motors depending on the range of inrush in terms of kilovolt amperes. there is a possibility that the motor could be damaged or fail completely on its first attempt to start. In order to define the inrush characteristics and present them in a simplified form. By using the kilovolt ampere basis. s . A good example of high inertia that most of us are familiar with would be a ferris wheel or a large fan. The electrician installing the motor uses this information to properly size the starter for the motor. Following is a listing of the code letter designations. General guidelines on the inertias that standard motors can safely accelerate are given in MG1-14. a simple letter can be used to define both the low voltage and high voltage inrush values on dual voltage motors. they draw line currents substantially greater than their full load running current rating. if a standard motor is applied to a large high inertia blower. In most cases. have inertias that have to be identified and analyzed in order to produce satisfactory applications. ELECTRICAL MOTORS DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO.NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR HOME STUDY COURSE And a discussion of load types would not be complete without including information on high inertia loads. The magnitude of the so-called inrush current is a function of motor horsepower and the design characteristics of the motor. Locked Rotor Indicating Code Letter When AC motors are started with full voltage applied.
The following simplified equations will give approximate results for three phase motors rated for 200. To compensate for low or unbalanced supply voltages. To accommodate inaccuracy in predicting intermittent system horsepower needs. ELECTRICAL MOTORS DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO.9 230 Volts LRA = Code letter value x HP x 2. the code letter value. 4. Do not rely on the service factor capability to carry the load on a continuous basis. when applied to the rated horsepower. The equation to be used is determined by whether the motor is single or three phase. 5. But. This service factor can be used for the following: 1. 10 HP and smaller motors will have code letters of H or higher. To handle intermittent or occasional overloads. NEMA does add some cautions. life and efficiency. Operation at service factor load will usually reduce the motor speed. To lengthen insulation life by lowering the winding temperature at rated load. 3.NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR HOME STUDY COURSE To determine the across the line starting inrush amperes from the code letter designation. The service factor was established for operation at rated voltage. ambient and sea level conditions. 230 or 460 volts: 200 Volts LRA = Code letter value x HP x 2. standard motors of 15 HP or larger will have code letters of G or lower. horsepower and rated operating voltage are inserted in the appropriate equation. when discussing service factor: 1. much more information is generally provided by the motor manufacturer. however. frequency.25 Generally. 3.S. as you have probably noticed. 17 . Motor Service Factor (SF) NEMA defines service factor as a multiplier. 2. which may be carried under the conditions specified for the service factor at rated voltage and frequency. indicates a permissible horsepower loading. s U. To allow occasionally for ambients above 40°C. 2. ADDITIONAL MOTOR DATA We have now covered all of the required data on a nameplate.5 460 Volts LRA = Code letter value x HP x 1.
25 through 1. totally enclosed fan cooled and explosionproof. NEMA standards MG1-1. There is also a totally enclosed non-ventilated (TENV) design which does not use a fan. Totally Enclosed Fan Cooled (TEFC). chemicals. A fan is attached to the shaft and pushes air over the frame during its operation to help in the cooling process. speed reducers and other equipment requiring quick stops. fans. Conversion to brake motors are used on conveyors.NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR HOME STUDY COURSE Enclosure Type s The enclosure of the motor must protect the windings. The ribbed frame is designed to increase the surface area for cooling purposes. The openings are intake and exhaust ports to accommodate interchange of air. The open dripproof motor is designed for indoor use where the air is fairly clean and where there is little danger of splashing liquid. and machines with encapsulated or sealed windings. The most commonly used motor enclosures are open dripproof. totally enclosed machines. and other mechanical parts from moisture. compressors. It is used on pumps. Drops of liquid or solid particles do not interfere with the operation at any angle from 0 to 15 degrees downward from the vertical. blowers and machine tools. but does not make the frame completely airtight. Open Dripproof.S. and the multispeed version can be used on fans. Special protection can be added to the TEFC motor to help it withstand hostile environments such as chemical and pulp and paper applications. but is used in situations where air is being blown over the motor shell for cooling.27 define more than 20 types of enclosures under the categories of open machines. The footless “ face type is used as an input to speed reducers for material handling C” equipment. mechanical damage and abrasion from grit. ELECTRICAL MOTORS DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO. bearings. . The open dripproof motor (ODP) has a free exchange of air with the ambient. such as in a propeller fan application. This type of enclosure prevents the free exchange of air between the inside and outside of the frame. general industrial belt drive and direct connected equipment. 18 U. The TEFC style enclosure is the most versatile of all.
The preferred procedure is IEEE method B.). the maximum motor operating temperature must be below the ignition temperature of surrounding gases or vapors. and stray load loss. due to the fact that there is no single standard method which is used throughout the industry. The explosionproof motor is a totally enclosed machine and is designed to withstand an explosion of specified gas or vapor inside the motor casing and prevent the ignition outside the motor by sparks. and the maximum temperature level that is considered safe for the substance creating the hazard. such as atmospheres containing gases or hazardous dusts. the probability of exposure to the environment. ELECTRICAL MOTORS DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO.S. The standard states that the nominal efficiency shown on the nameplate shall not be greater than the average efficiency of a large population of motors of the same design. group. Machine losses are in the form of heat.NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR HOME STUDY COURSE Explosionproof. s U. quoted or test data. However. JEC-27 (Japanese). NEMA standard MG1-12. even it allows for a variety of test methods to be used. and the power is directly measured. division and temperature code structure. Explosionproof motors are designed. Efficiency Efficiency is defined as the ratio of the power output divided by the power input. Hazardous location motor applications are classified by the type of hazardous environment present. flashing or explosion.54.20 (same as IEEE 112). and include stator winding loss. where the motor is operated at full load. rotor loss. 19 . For safe operation. The most common referred to standards are IEEE 112 (U. IEEE 112 is used more than any of the others in the United States. Care should be taken in comparing efficiencies from one motor manufacturer to another.2 provides instructions for establishing the value of efficiency. core loss (hysteresis and eddy current). friction and windage. The format used to define this information is a class. the characteristics of the specific material creating the hazard. manufactured and tested under the rigid requirements of the Underwriters Laboratories. when operating at rated voltage and frequency. the full load efficiency. shall not be less than the minimum value associated with the nominal value. And. IEC (International).S. These motors are designed for specific hazardous purposes. It is difficult to compare efficiencies based on published. BS-269 (British) and ANSI C50.
This system was developed by NEMA and specific frame sizes have been assigned to standard motor ratings based on enclosure. The suffix T indicates that the motor frame assignment conforms to the current. As a rule of thumb. (“ dimension). . Between 1954 and 1964. In many automotive manufacturing and some process industries. a third set of NEMA standard frame sizes existed. shaft lengths. horsepower and speed. The numbers used to designate frame sizes have specific meanings based on the physical size of the motor.S. by dividing the first two D” digits of the frame size by four. The table which follows shows the various NEMA frame assignments for totally enclosed motors based on speed and horsepower for the original (pre-1952). T” Prior to 1954. Please note that this works on all foot-mounted NEMA frame motors in 143T through 445T frames. These standards cover most motors in the range of one through two hundred horsepower. ELECTRICAL MOTORS DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO. you can calculate the shaft height on horizontal motors in inches. It is important to note that when standard foot-mounted motors have frame sizes that differ only in the third digit. or so called “ frame “ T” Nu-Rate”standards which were adopted in 1964.NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR HOME STUDY COURSE Frame Size. T” 20 s U. the shaft diameters. The current standardized frames for integral horsepower induction motors ranges from 143T to 445T. Motor frame dimensions have been standardized with a uniform frame size numbering system. The “ frame motor is substantially larger and U” U” heavier than an equivalent “ frame motor. “ frame (1952-1964) U” and “ frame (current) standards. there is still a preference for the “ frame motors. a different set of standard frame assignments were utilized. The length difference in the examples above occur between the feet as shown by dimensions A and B. The third digit of the frame size is related to the length of the motor but there is no rule of thumb that can be easily applied. The first two digits are related to the motor shaft height and the remaining digit or digits relate to the length of the motor. and distance from the end of the shaft to the bolt holes in the feet on the shaft end of the motor will be the same.
NEMA frame assignments do no exist for motors larger than 445T and each manufacturer may have different frame designations for these motors. such as the centrifugal pump shown below. or frame size reduction programs were brought about by advancements in motor technology relating mainly to higher temperature ratings of insulating materials. V” U. This “ S” T” S” stands for short shaft. These motors are arranged to be directly coupled to loads. Short shaft motors are intended for use only on direct coupled centrifugal pumps and other direct coupled loads where there will not be a side pull (overhung load) exerted on the shaft by “ belts. 21 . In addition to having a short shaft.S. One additional suffix that may be used on standard motors in frames 284T and larger is an “ inserted after the “ . ELECTRICAL MOTORS DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO. At the present time. improved magnetic steels and improved bearings. the motor will have a small diameter shaft (“ dimension) and the bearing in the drive shaft U” end of the motor will be somewhat smaller than the equivalent long shaft motor.NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR HOME STUDY COURSE TOTALLY ENCLOSED The rerate.
NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR HOME STUDY COURSE
Manufacturer’ Identification Number. This model and/or catalog number is used to establish motor identity and age for s replacement parts and warranty.
NEMA Design Letter
Changes in motor windings and rotor design will alter the performance characteristics of induction motors. Motors are designed with certain speed torque characteristics to match the speed torque requirements of the various loads. To obtain some uniformity in application, NEMA has designated specific designs of general purpose motors having specified locked rotor torque, breakdown torque, slip, starting current, or other values. The following graph shows the relationship between speed and torque that the motor produces from the moment of start until the motor reaches full load torque at rated speed.
Locked rotor torque, or starting torque, is developed when the rotor is held at rest with the rated voltage and frequency applied. This condition occurs each time a motor is started. When rated voltage and frequency are applied to the stator, there is a brief amount of time before the rotor turns. At this instant, a NEMA B motor develops approximately 150% of its full load torque. The magnetic attraction of the rotating magnetic field will cause the rotor to accelerate. As the motor picks up speed, torque decreases slightly until it reaches pull up torque. As the speed increases the torque increases until it reaches it’ maximum s at about 200%. This is called breakdown, pullout or stall torque. Torque decreases rapidly as speed increases beyond breakdown torque until it reaches full-load torque at a speed slightly less than 100% of synchronous speed. Full load torque is the torque developed when the motor is operating with rated voltage, frequency and load. The speed at which full-load torque is produced is the slip speed or rated speed of the motor.
U.S. ELECTRICAL MOTORS
DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO.
NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR HOME STUDY COURSE
Minimum acceptable values for different motor designs have been established and are identified by the letters A, B, C and D. The general shapes of the four typical torque-speed characteristics are shown here.
NEMA Design B motors have normal starting torque, with low starting current. These are the most widely used design, and have locked rotor torques adequate for starting a wide variety of industrial machines and locked rotor starting currents acceptable to most power systems. Some Design B applications would include machine tools, fans and blowers, compressors, chippers, and centrifugal pumps. Design A motors have normal starting torque and high starting current. Typical applications would include equipment having brief heavy overloads, such as an injection molding machine. NEMA Design C motors have high starting torque (approximately 225%) and low starting current. These motors have high locked rotor torque and relatively high full load slip. They are especially suited for starting heavy loads such as reciprocating compressors, stokers, crushers and pulverizes, as well as positive displacement pumps. Design D motors have high starting torque and low starting current, but with high slip. At no load the motor operates with little slip. When peak load is applied the motor slip increases appreciably, allowing the unit to absorb the energy. This reduces power peaks supplied by the electrical system, resulting in a more uniform power requirement. These motors may be used on applications like a low speed punch press with a heavy flywheel, or hoisting applications. Bearing Part Numbers. The bearing part numbers on U.S. Motors’ machines are made conveniently available on the nameplate so that, when required, procurement of replacement bearings can be carried out prior to motor disassembly.
U.S. ELECTRICAL MOTORS
DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO.
NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR HOME STUDY COURSE
Connection Diagrams. Connection diagrams can be found on the nameplate of some motors, or the diagrams may be located inside the motor conduit box or on a special connection plate.
Unique or Special Features. This information could include special features such as refined balance, special insulation treatments, space heaters, internal motor overheat protection, or any one of many other special construction features. Obviously, information such as horsepower, speed, voltage and frequency are very important in determining the right motor for your customer’ needs. However, after getting all the information on a motor requirement, if you don’ ask your customer s t about the assembly position required, the motor you choose may be unusable. The standard assembly positions are:
And, what about the connection to the load? It could be direct connected by a coupling, a clutch or a spline. In this case, good alignment is important, and this type of connection imposes a small load on the bearings.
U.S. ELECTRICAL MOTORS
DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO.
The male motor register is aligned with the female register of the load such as a gear drive or a pump. Good alignment and proper belt and chain tensions are important. ELECTRICAL MOTORS DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO.NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR HOME STUDY COURSE It might be belt. 25 . chain. or gear drive connected to the load. The shaft of the motor might even carry a pinion. a pump impeller or a blower. U. Perhaps your customer requires a face or flange connection. Gear drives may also impose axial or thrust load on the motor bearings. This configuration imposes a radial load on the motor bearings referred to as overhung load.S.
S. this is the same as a C-face except mounting D” holes are thru-holes as opposed to tapped holes. ELECTRICAL MOTORS DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO. adjustable bases or slide rails. Using a NEMA “ flange end shield mounting is another method. either footed or footless. and the motor can be mounted on a solid foundation. . 26 U.NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR HOME STUDY COURSE And what about mounting? The most common type of mounting is the horizontal. This configuration is suitable for any of the connections shown above. The C-face has a male register with tapped mounting holes that attaches directly to the driven equipment. Generally. A NEMA C-Face end shield mounting. rigid foot mounting. can be used.
ELECTRICAL MOTORS DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO.S. 8.NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR HOME STUDY COURSE THE NAMEPLATE . True _____ False _____ U” 10. The standard temperature life of a motor is based on the ambient plus the heat created within the motor during operation. 6. True _____ False _____ 9. True _____ False _____ 5. The shaft height of a motor can be determined from the first two digits of the frame size. What is the locked rotor indicating code letter used for? 7. 27 . Explain how torque and horsepower are related. Rated Frequency and Number of Phases. True _____ False _____ 3. Define efficiency. What letter designates the superstandard and most widely used NEMA design? U. Induction motors are synchronous units. “ frame motors are still in use today. True _____ False _____ 4. Rated Volts and Full Load Amps and the Service Factor of a motor are all required nameplate data according to NEC.QUIZ 1. What is the major purpose of organizations such as NEMA? 2.
if the frequency can be changed. . Variable Frequency Drive and PWM drive (many different terms for the same thing) allows a fixed speed motor to operate at an infinite number of speeds. automate a plant . . AFC. then we can plug some values into the motor formula for speed and see the results. Adjustable Speed Controller. . Utility power is a sine wave type of power. The AC power at the output of the inverter is different from the AC power that is supplied by the utility. s 900 = and. Now. Motor Speed = 120 x frequency # poles 120 x 60 4 1800 = This represents the speed of a four pole motor.S. An inverter. . . let’ change the frequency to 30 . . If we accept the fact that the drive does change the supply frequency. to save money. AC adjustable speed drives eliminate this restriction because they are able to change the supply frequency to the motor. .NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR HOME STUDY COURSE VARIABLE FREQUENCY The AC induction motor is normally a fixed speed device because the utility power is a fixed frequency supply. 300 = 120 x 60 4 120 x 30 4 Now you can see how a previously constant speed motor can operate at more than one speed. ELECTRICAL MOTORS DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO. Why would our customers want inverters? To solve a problem. ASD. If we look back to the previous chapter.and. 28 U. we find that motor speed is a function of the number of poles (which is a constant once the motor is manufactured) and the supply frequency. Adjustable Frequency Controller. 10 hertz . AC adjustable speed power is a synthesized square wave power. VFD. improve a product.
Level 1. U. and even variable frequency drives in the motor. Output frequency range has expanded from 660 hertz to 0-1000 hertz. Dripproof (type DE/RE). micro-drives. most manufacturers today use the PWM (pulse width modulated) technology. The drive technology continues to evolve. Wall size units are now palm size. 3300 feet maximum altitude and all enclosed motors have Class F insulation and are suitable for use with adjustable frequency drives under the following parameters: • • • • • • Up to 10:1 speed range on variable torque loads Up to 4:1 speed range on constant torque loads 1. Low performance standard drives are now high performance multifunction controllers. Please refer to the Inverter Duty Motor Home Study Course for a complete s discussion of the application considerations of PWM inverters and AC induction motors to a total system.40. originally utilizing current source and 6-Step Modulation. Premium efficiency Unimount (type UTE). Analog circuits have been s replaced by digital signals and fast acting computers. Part 31. moving away from SCR’ to the IGBT. General purpose product capable of reliable performance in inverter installations where peak transients do not exceed 1000 volts and/or rise times are not shorter than 2 microseconds. Motors was the first motor manufacturers to develop a motor to meet customer expectations for inverter applications. ELECTRICAL MOTORS DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO. 29 . Custom components and circuits have replaced larger single components and many circuit boards. including pulse resistant magnet wire. Section IV. All of these innovations have made it necessary for motor manufacturers to adjust to the technical challenges presented by today’ drives.42. which makes the savings on energy and maintenance costs and the improved process efficiency even more desirable. slot and cell insulation. Motors was the first to develop and produce a motor product that meets the definite purpose specification. NEMA MG1-1993. The Varidyne motor has a high rigidity stator core treatment and low vibration rotor assembly. Motor manufacturers have accepted these new challenges by developing and publishing industry specifications that define both general purpose duty and definite purpose duty. Obviously. Part 31 .1 microsecond.S. The Varidyne® Series Motor is a total AC Variable Frequency design package. precision phase. Hostile Duty (type CTE). U. The Inverter Grade® insulation system gives you reliable performance and is compatible with all brands of variable frequency drives.S. At the same time. Switching frequencies have increased from 360 hertz to 20k hertz or higher. Auto Duty (type JDE) and Corro-Duty (type TCE) motors meet NEMA MG-1. and maximized steel and copper content.today. the PWM waveform has a tremendous impact on the motor life and performance. Motors also has a complete line of premium efficient and energy efficient products that can be used on AFD’ when the s following parameters are followed.S.S.Level 2. and has continued its research and development as well as improving technical and application assistance for motors utilized on VFD power.0 Service Factor 600 volt or less line power Cable limitations per the following table Standard 2 year warranty U. 1. we see flux vector drives.NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR HOME STUDY COURSE Drive Technology has changed by leaps and bounds . Definite purpose product capable of reliable performance in inverter installations where peak voltages do not exceed 1600 volts and/or rise times are not shorter than . All motors have 40°C ambient.0 service factor on inverter power. U. Part 30 and 31 define what level of ‘ Inverter Duty’ motor is required: Part 30 . costs have dropped.
S. S” Again. 3300 feet maximum altitude and all enclosed motors have Class F insulation and are suitable for use with adjustable frequency drives under the following parameters: • • • • • • Up to 10:1 speed range on variable torque loads Up to 2:1 speed range on constant torque loads 1. All motors have 40°C ambient.0 service factor on inverter power.S. Part 30. Section IV.02. Dripproof (type FD/FR). 30 U.NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR HOME STUDY COURSE Maximum Cable Distance AFD to Motor Switching Frequency 3Khz 6Khz 9Khz 12Khz 15Khz 20Khz 460 Volt Premium 196 ft 138 ft 113 ft 98 ft 88 ft 76 ft 575 Volt Premium 53 ft 37 ft 31 ft 26 ft 24 ft 21 ft 230 Volt Premium 482 ft 340 ft 278 ft 241 ft 215 ft 186 ft 380 Volt Premium 295 ft 209 ft 170 ft 148 ft 132 ft 114 ft For voltages and switching frequencies not listed above please use the following formula to determine maximum cable distance: 1328 . 1. Hostile Duty (type FCT) and Corro-Duty (type FTC) motors meet NEMA MG-1. please refer to the Inverter Duty Motor Home Study Course for full details of the affects of inverter drives on motors and U.0 Service Factor 460 volt or less line power Cable limitations per the following table Standard 1 year warranty Maximum Cable Distance AFD to Motor Switching Frequency 3Khz 6Khz 9Khz 12Khz 15Khz 20Khz 460 Volt Energy Efficient 103 ft 73 ft 59 ft 51 ft 46 ft 40 ft 230Volt Energy Efficient 435 ft 307 ft 251 ft 217 ft 194 ft 168 ft 380 Volt Energy Efficient 218 ft 154 ft 126 ft 109 ft 98 ft 85 ft If application requirements exceed these standards.9.15 x Voltage) = Feet Square Root (Switching Freq) Energy Efficient World Motors® Unimount (type FUT). .(2.3. an output filter must be applied or an inverter rated Varidyne motor or new 841 Plus® “ model with Inverter Grade® insulation must be used. ELECTRICAL MOTORS DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO. Motors full product offering.
Contamination. ELECTRICAL MOTORS DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO.S. Motors are usually designed for this temperature unless there is a definite requirement for a machine with some other value. or 104°F. it is impractical to set forth all possibilities. or poor cooling caused by dirt or lack of ventilation. Motor life is prolonged by keeping the motor cool. Heat is one of the most destructive stresses causing premature motor failure. Choosing the best motor for the application and the environment will insure that long life. Arctic duty motors are available from U. but some discussion will help point out the need for application analysis where trouble is experienced. Operation of motors in very cold ambients can result in severe duty on the motor component parts. Because so many conditions contribute toward short service life. dry.S.NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR HOME STUDY COURSE ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS AC motors that are properly selected and used should give many years of satisfactory service. In addition. clean and lubricated. Moisture. Altitude. The standard ambient temperature is 40°C. The opposite is also true. Overheating occurs because of motor overloading. Most motors can be equipped with drains or breathers to allow moisture to drain from the motor. High altitude derating is required above 3300 feet because of lower air density. If the heat is not dissipated. Moisture should be kept from entering a motor. Standard motor ratings are based on operation at any altitude up to 3300 feet (1000 meters). Nonconducting contaminants such as factory dust and sand gradually promote over-temperature by restricting cooling air circulation. This value was selected as one that would seldom be exceeded for any appreciable length of time in the majority of cases. gradually reducing their effectiveness. Motors for use in abnormally hot places are usually designed to accommodate the higher ambient by having a lower winding temperature rise. Motors that U. Overheating. The water alone is conducting. excessive ambient temperatures. Water from splashing or condensation seriously degrades an insulation system. and are sometimes designed in a larger frame size. these may erode the insulation and the varnish. insulation failure and possibly lubrication and bearing failure can damage a motor. low or unbalanced voltage at the motor terminals. The proper type of motor should be chosen for use in a damp environment. Space heaters are also available to prevent moisture condensation in the motor during times the motor is not running like the heater shown below. Nonconducting contaminants are readily converted into good leakage current conductors. Ambient Temperature. 31 .
The only significant difference in performance that may occur is a slight increase in speed. which can result in slight speed increases. the remaining designs C and D account for a very small portion of the market and the benefit to redesign may not be technically feasible or economically justifiable. 60 hertz. 2. and this act. Estimates by NEMA and its member companies put the affects of the energy act at approximately 75% of the 1 to 200 horsepower motors sold in the U. for both open and enclosed motors. 230 or 460 volt. as the representative of the rewind industry. Labeling. This information is based on data available from the Department of Energy. It is also expected that third party labs. In addition to those mentioned above. squirrel cage induction Design A or B motors. . a cast iron. EASA (Electrical Apparatus Service Association). These tables show the nominal and minimum efficiency percentages for general purpose motors as enacted by EPACT92. annually. when applied correctly. EFFICIENCY AND ENERGY LEGISLATION Enactment of the Federal Energy Act of 1992 took place on October 24. Motors Engineering Department has completed some in depth studies on a wide range of motors and applications. among many other products. U. will apply for similar status and accreditation. not only in potentially reducing efficiency of a rewound motor but also of prolonging the life of an older designed product with very low efficiency. which resists the effects of salt water. the losses are less. Several members of the DOE staff are aware of the affects of rewind. 4 and 6 pole designs. The NEMA energy taskforce members have jointly developed a laboratory standard in conjunction with NVLAP (National Voluntary Lab Accreditation Program) that will allow each manufacturer to certify the accuracy of test data within his own facility. Screens can be placed on the openings of an ODP style motor to protect the inside electrical components from small animals. solvents. that are manufactured after October 24. has spent a great deal of time and resource to develop standards of rewind for energy efficient motors. Rewinding of motors is not addressed in the act itself. as the DOE formulates the actual Federal code that will regulate integral horsepower electric motors and releases that information through the Federal Register. single speed. open and enclosed designs. Motor product covered by this act includes general purpose motors from 1 to 200 horsepower. commonly referred to as EPACT92. Since the energy efficient design better uses the motor’ active materials. Seals or slingers can be placed on the output shaft of a motor to help prevent intrusion of liquids or particles.NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR HOME STUDY COURSE are rated for operation down to minus 60°C. 1997. with three digit NEMA T frames.S. The energy act requires that each motor manufacturer label general purpose product with a NEMA nominal efficiency.S. Motor products not covered include definite purpose motors and special purpose motors. They have requested motor manufacturers to supply an ever increasing amount of winding and test data to help them meet their standards. ELECTRICAL MOTORS DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO. It obviously is subject to change. will offer the user a more reliable product that runs cooler and lasts longer than the standard efficient product being replaced. Rewound Motors. Product. various acids and chemicals can be provided. The DOE has asked each manufacturer to verify the accuracy of their correlation method through a series of actual motor tests that would demonstrate the overall reliability and repeatability of the method.S. TEFC motor with CORRO-DUTY protection. three phase. governs the efficiency of general purpose motors. Note that only Design A&B motors are regulated by this legislation. The accuracy of that number will be determined by a manufacturer’ use of a computer simulation program known s as correlation. from 1 through 500 32 U. To address a concern regarding adequate starting torque. rated for continuous duty. A variety of modifications and accessories are available for use on AC motors to protect them from the environment. The question of motor rewind comes up often in discussions of EPACT92. 1997. Motor User Issues. The conclusions reached by this study support the hypothesis that energy efficient and premium efficient motors. NEMA and other nationally recognized associations. s The next two pages contain the tables from MG1-1993. foot mounted. Table 12-10. such as UL.
ELECTRICAL MOTORS DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO. 33 .NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR HOME STUDY COURSE U.S.
ELECTRICAL MOTORS DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO.NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR HOME STUDY COURSE 34 U.S. .
The impedance seen by the power system then is the resistance of the resistor starter plus that of the motor. STARTING METHODS There are a number of ways to start squirrel cage induction motors. U. for both NAM and IEC motors. Series Resistance reduced voltage. a voltage-dropping resistance is placed in series with the motor during starting. 35 . Each method has its own characteristics and place of correct application. Applications: Use where system capacity and stiffness are sufficient to stand the high starting current without excessive voltage drop. Across the line.NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR HOME STUDY COURSE horsepower.S. Motor current equals line current. You should refer to the motor manufacturer for any starting method other than across the line starting. In this method. ELECTRICAL MOTORS DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO. Starting characteristics: Motor terminal voltage equals line voltage. Starting torque equals rated starting torque. It is important to understand that applications requiring any other type of starting method necessitate careful consideration of the motor torque to accelerate the load.
In this method. ELECTRICAL MOTORS DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO. but load torque is high. Where soft start (gradual taking up of slack) is desired. Starting torque is reduced by the square of the terminal voltage.S. Where load torque during acceleration is minimal. . Starting torque is reduced by the square of the terminal voltage. Where rate of acceleration needs to be controlled. is s used to chop the sine-wave system power so that only a portion of the wave is applied to the motor. 36 U. Where current limits exist. current sensor feedback or tachometer feedback. most starters have provisions to reduce the voltage when the loading on the motor is low. The logic circuits can be programmed to respond to any of several sensors to control the voltage: internal time ramp. thus minimizing the no load losses of the motor. consisting of power SCR’ controlled by logic circuits. Starting characteristics: Motor terminal voltage is reduced from line voltage. Applications: Available through 4160 volts.NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR HOME STUDY COURSE Starting characteristics: Motor terminal voltage is reduced from line voltage. May be used for full acceleration or for system voltage recovery. Applications: Usually on low voltage (less than 600 volts). Not often used with large motors because of the high heat loss in the resistors. Where the motor runs at no-load for significant periods. a solid state starter. Motor current equals line current. In addition. Solid state reduced voltage.
an autotransformer is placed in series with the motor during starting. This method is similar to reduced voltage starting. Where line ampere reduction requirements are severe and load torque is not minimal. Impedance seen by the power system is 3 times the impedance of the delta run connection. The transformer action reduces the voltage applied to the motor terminals. s Starting characteristics: Motor terminal voltage is less than the line voltage (by transformer ratio). Applications: Where complete acceleration at reduced amperes is needed. U. Starting torque is reduced by the square of the terminal voltage. Effectively. which reduces the motor’ locked rotor current. WYE Start/Delta Run. ELECTRICAL MOTORS DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO.NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR HOME STUDY COURSE Autotransformer Reduced Voltage.S. the voltage reflected to the stator is reduced by a factor of 1/3. In this method. Motor current exceeds line current (by the inverse of the transformer ratio). 37 .
Starting characteristics: Starting current is 44-75% of normal. ELECTRICAL MOTORS DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO. Applications: Where load torque during acceleration is very low.NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR HOME STUDY COURSE Starting characteristics: Motor terminal voltage is reduced from line voltage by a û3 factor. May be used for partial acceleration. Starting torque is approximately 20-30% of full load torque. Applications: Where power system has automatic voltage recovery and normal starting current would cause unacceptable voltage dip. Should not stay on the start connection more than 1-2 seconds. Primary usage is on centrifuges. but sometimes 2/3) of the motor winding when starting the motor. Starting current is approximately 30% of normal. 38 U. This method uses only a portion (usually 1/2. Part Winding Start. It is to be used only for voltage recovered and must not be left on the start connection for more than 1 to 2 seconds. Winding heating is very high on start connection. depending on the specific winding connection. Starting torque is very low (may not even turn the shaft) (45% to 0% depending on connection). .S. Used more often for European applications. The motor is not expected to accelerate on the start connection and may not even turn.
39 . Caution! May not work successfully on some PWS configurations (i.NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR HOME STUDY COURSE Double Delta. Starting characteristics: Starting current is 60-75% of normal. Applications: Where power system has automatic voltage recovery and normal starting current would cause unacceptable voltage dip.S. and the rate of heating is not so severe. ELECTRICAL MOTORS DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO.e. 4-2 starter). U. This method accomplishes the equivalent of reduced voltage starting by changing a delta connected winding from parallel groups to series groups during the start. depending on the specific winding connection. Starting torque is typically 45% of full load torque. The advantage of double delta is that all of the winding is connected during the start cycle.
All explosionproof motors are UL approved. What type of motor would you suggest using in an extremely cold environment? 10. ELECTRICAL MOTORS DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO. What is TEFC an abbreviation for? 3.QUIZ 1.NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR HOME STUDY COURSE APPLICATION CONSIDERATIONS . An example of variable torque application is a drill press. True _____ False _____ 8.S. What is the most destructive agent to a motor? 9. What is the purpose of the motor enclosure? 2. An open dripproof motor has a free exchange of air with the ambient. True _____ False ____ 4. Pumps are almost always considered variable torque applications. 6. . What purpose does a seal or slinger provide on the output shaft of a motor? 40 U. Name two examples of constant torque applications. True _____ False _____ 7. True _____ False ____ 5.
) H .Brake Motor C .Standard Efficient T .Constant Torq 2WDG E .Hostile Duty J .Vector Blower Cld VN .Finished Goods Kit M .841 Plus A .XP Dual Lbl Steel Frm Y .Des ign C R . B .Constant HP 2WDG HK .S.XP Single Lbl Corro-Duty YJ .S.Farm Duty (1 ph.Inverter Duty Variable Torque W . (First Digit) Default = T Shaft or STD 48 or 56 S = Short Shaft M = JM P = JP J = WCCP 2 = Special T = TM Shaft U = JMV Shaft V = JPV Mounting (Third Digit) Default = Rigid base F-1 R = No base 2 = F-2 Assembly 3 = F-0 Assembly 4 = Resilient Base 5 = W-5 Assembly 7 = Yokemount 8 = W-8 Assembly A .ODP Gen.TEFC U .IEC Metric Motors P . 41 .XP Dual Label CCP XS .Jet Pump Motor KT . CATALOG NUMBER H 2 5 E 2 B S C R () Product Identifier 8P .XP Dual Lbl Corro-Dty XJ .Auto Duty Brakeless Brake BM .XP Single Label YC .Constant HP 1WDG G .XP Dual Label XC .Predator Motors PF .S.Unimount CCP VB .Cap Start D .Elevator FD . Purpose DC .Corro-Duty D .ODP CCP E .Inverter DutyConstant Torque V . Following is our catalog numbering system which will aid you in identifying a motor product.Unimount UJ .Energy Efficient F .Premium Efficient Q .Auto Duty AB .Shunt Wound Mounting-Flange (Second Digit) Default = None B = Roller Bearing C = C-Face D = D-Flange K = TCH (Spcl ‘ ) AK’ Q = Square Flange Y = Special Mounting Single Phase (Fourth Digit) Default = 56 Frame or NEMA 4 = 48 Frame 14 = 140 Frame 18 = 180 Frame 21 = 210 Frame U.Perm Split Cap.Split Phase C .Vector Non-Vent WD .KVAR Torq 1WDG MN .NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR HOME STUDY COURSE U.DC Motors DJ . Electrical Motors offers a full line of three phase AC induction motors for a variety of applications and environments.Washdown Duty X .Close Coupled Pump JT .Power Factor Correction Capacitors T . ELECTRICAL MOTORS DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO. MOTORS PRODUCT OFFERING U..XP Single Label CCP Horsepower 14 = 1/4 13 = 1/3 12 = 1/2 13 = 3/4 1=1 32 = 1 1/2 2=2 3=3 5=5 7 = 7.Constant Torq 1WDG S . Electrical RPM @ 60Hz 1 = 3600 2 = 1800 3 = 1200 4 = 900 5 = 720 6 = 600 9 = MultiSpeed Voltage 2 = 2300 A = 208-230/460 B = 230/460 C = 460 D = 208-230/460 190/380 E = 230/460 190/380 F = 460/380 G = 575 H = 200 I = 115/230 J = 115/208-230 K = 230 L = 110/220 M = 220/440 N = 115 P = 90 Q = 180 R = 220/380-440 S = 460 (PWS) U = 230/460 190/380 220/415 V = 4000 W = 2300/4000 X = 200/400 Y = 500 Z = Other Mounting -Primy.Permanent Magnet P .KVAR Torq 2WDG L .5 10 = 10 15 = 15 20 = 20 25 = 25 etc… .
WorldMotor FD and type DE are energy efficient and premium efficient. utilizing a more pancake style end shield. The WorldMotor FD motor also has dual voltage (230/460) with 12 leads out and is suitable for wye delta start on either voltage. from 30 HP to 400 HP. These energy efficient and premium efficient motors are for normal duty industrial equipment. we are able to extend the product range to additional ratings and requirements with production models that incorporate modifications and accessories such as space heaters. screens and ambients above 40°C. 42 U. In addition to the stock product offerings. Double-shielded bearings with regreasing provisions are standard on the 180 frame and larger. are for continuous duty. The steel frame FD and DE are available with die cast aluminum brackets with steel bearing inserts for improved reliability in severe load applications. types FD and DE on 56-320 frames from 1/3 HP to 60 HP and the cast iron frame types FR and RE on 360-440 frames. They are generally supplied with Class F insulation. 230/460 and 575 volts. World Motor products are suitable for use on 50 or 60 Hertz applications. 208-230/460. The base is steel welded and the 180 frame and larger has a diagonally split conduit box for ease in wiring. and lifting lugs are available on the 210 frame and larger. ELECTRICAL MOTORS DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO. The product has aluminum end shields on 56-250 frames and cast iron end shields on 280-440 frames. These motors fully comply with EPACT ‘ and 92 NRCan efficiency standards. open dripproof motors are available from U. such as compressors.S. Motors. resulting in a motor that is more efficient with greater cooling capacity. thermostats. The Open Dripproof offering consists of two types of products: the steel frame. conveyors. A new designed steel frame was introduced in 1996 that extended the frame of the motor.NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR HOME STUDY COURSE ENERGY AND PREMIUM EFFICIENT OPEN DRIPPROOF MOTORS A variety of three phase. with ball bearings and available in standard voltage ratings of 200.S. pumps and fans. .
and the RE is a premium efficient product. C” The FR meets federally mandated efficiency levels. D” U. The motor has both cast iron frame brackets and a diagonally split conduit box. Sturdy plastic fan and fan cover are provided for maximum cooling and extended life.) and F-1 to F-2 convertibility (180 frame and larger).NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR HOME STUDY COURSE Our type WorldMotor FR and type RE are cast iron frame motors and are available from 30-400 horsepower. This motor line offers the widest range of electrical and mechanical features. in speeds of 3600. 900 and 720 RPM. Mechanical Features include an oversized diagonally split conduit box for easier connections.25 service factor. including a 1. is available on all sizes from production. available from 1/4-30 HP. “ Face. lifting lugs on 180 frame and larger. “ Face kits with clamped C” bearing and “ Flange kits (140 and 180 frames) complete the long list of mechanical features of the Unimount. lbs. The aluminum alloy extruded motor frame improves heat dissipation for cool operation and long life on 180 frame and larger. 1800.S. 43 . Shur Stop brake kits (1-1/2-35 ft. The rugged motor base is removable to allow conversion to footless configuration. and 50 or 60 Hertz operation. die cast aluminum brackets that have steel or cast iron inserts to ensure reliable performance under severe load applications. full Class F insulation system. 1200. All bearings are double-shielded (open on 440 frame) with regreasing provisions. FR and RE ENERGY AND PREMIUM EFFICIENT TOTALLY ENCLOSED MOTORS Our first offering of enclosed motors is our aluminum frame UNIMOUNT motor. ELECTRICAL MOTORS DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO. Other features include horizontal and vertical mounting (Canopy cap kit).
HOSTILE ENVIRONMENT MOTORS Our first offering of hostile duty cast iron enclosed motors is our FCT line.S. The conduit box is steel and the fan cover guard is plastic through 286T frame and steel or aluminum from 324T and above. non-wicking leads. The C” footless “ Face type can be used as an input to speed reducers for material handling. fans. and it has an external neoprene shaft slinger on the pulley end. brass condensation drains and internal bearing caps make this suitable for mill and chemical plants and other hostile environments. A UTF is a “ Face footless type motor.NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR HOME STUDY COURSE The Unimount can be used on pumps. Also available as a premium efficient motor. The exterior of the C” D” FCT is protected by a polyphenolic paint. It also includes a cast iron fan cover guard. The FCT offers tri-voltage through 25 HP and offers “ Face and “ Flange conversion kits from stock. The FUT designates an energy efficiency motor. CORRO DUTY MOTORS The TCE is our next cast iron. type CTE. compressors. The Unimount Multispeed is used on fans. 44 U. C” The Unimount Air Over. speed reducers and other equipment requiring quick stops. blowers and machine tools where more than one standard speed is required (also available from stock). the UTE the premium efficient model. as well as compression type grounding lugs and lead positioning gasket. ELECTRICAL MOTORS DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO. plus CORRO-DUTY. delta-run starting is required. which is an energy efficient motor from 1-350 HP. The conversion to brake motors is used on conveyors. is used on propeller fans where fan air blows directly over the motor. The CORRO-DUTY features include a cast iron conduit box with non-braided. type UTN. Epoxy varnish on rotor core. compressors. general industrial belt drive and direct connected equipment where 12 lead. wye-start. The Unimount Plus is used for pumps. fans. which has all the features of the CTE. TEFC product. Stainless steel nameplate and plated hardware for additional protection. . general industrial belt drive and direct drive equipment.
and has the same size bearings on 250 frame and larger. group. the 841 Plus motor offers superior protection and premium efficiency. In severe duty applications. U. and. division and temperature codes. this is a reference to the maximum frame temperature the motor will experience. The term ‘ is group’ defines the actual characteristics of the substance that is hazardous. and the term ‘ division’is used to define the type of exposure that is expected. A smart ring is located on the fan end bracket that allows field adaptability to a standard Inpro/Seal. ELECTRICAL MOTORS DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO. Machining to the bracket or disassembly is not required to retrofit an Inpro/Seal. has as standard our patented Inverter Grade® insulation system.NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR HOME STUDY COURSE 841 PLUS® MOTOR U. the first to offer a five year warranty. The term ‘ class’ used to define the form of the hazard that is present. division and temperature code structure. The format used to define this information is a class. the characteristics of the specific material creating the hazard. The term ‘ temperature code’is used to define the maximum level of temperature that the hazardous substance will be exposed to during normal or abnormal operation of the motor. exceeds the 1997 federally legislated efficiency levels. Typically. Motors was the first to introduce a motor that meets or exceeds the IEEE 841 specifications for pretroleum and chemical applications. 45 . The 841 Plus motor. the first to offer inverter duty designs from stock. group. The 841 Plus is now the leader within the petroleum and chemical industry.S. Following are the categories for class. the probability of exposure to the environment and the maximum temperature level that is considered safe for the substance creating the hazard.S. EXPLOSIONPROOF MOTORS Hazardous location motor applications are classified by the type of hazardous environment present. The first to offer the VBX Inpro/ Seal® as a standard feature.
nylon. Starch or Grain Dust Division I: Hazard is always present due to normal conditions. T” IGNITION TEMPERATURE vs TEMPERATURE MARKINGS MAXIMUM TEMPERATURE FOR ALL CONDITIONS: w w w w BURNOUT OVERLOAD SINGLE PHASE LOCKED ROTOR 46 U. s Division II: Motors may be TEFC or externally ventilated: (A) (B) Class III (Fibers) Where dust deposits on electrical equipment prevent safe heat dissipation. . Butane. Where deposit or dust might be ignited by arcs or burning material. Coal or Coke Dust G .Carbon Black. Class II (Dusts) Group: E . single phasing and locked rotor. Division II: Location in which easily ignitable fibers are stored or handled. Benzine. ELECTRICAL MOTORS DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO. it is necessary as well to obtain the temperature code for the explosionproof motor.Metal Dust (Special Seals) F . Alcohol Lacquer Solvent Vapors and Natural Gas Division II: Hazard of fire or explosion is present only as a result of an accident. Motors may be dripproof or TEFC. Naphtha. Examples include rayon.) Motors must be explosionproof construction with Underwriter’ label. TEFC enclosure can be used if there is a minimal amount of fibers or flyings in the air.Flour. This code indicates the maximum surface temperature for all conditions including burnout. (Dust suspended in the atmosphere. Hexane. group and division.Acetylene B .Gasoline. overload.NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR HOME STUDY COURSE Class I (Gas or Vapor) Group: A .Ethyl-Ether. Propane.Hydrogen and Manufactured Gases C . saw dust and wood chips. Fibers that are easily ignitable but not apt to be suspended in the air to produce mixtures. In addition to the identification of the class. Ethylene and Cyclopropane D . This “ code must be identified on the nameplate. cotton.S.
Groups F and G (and on the smaller frame sizes. Our Type LC combines both our explosionproof and CORRO-DUTY features into one UL listed product. ELECTRICAL MOTORS DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO. Available from 1-200 HP for Division I. brass drain and breather and all of our standard CORRO-DUTY features. 50 Hertz operation is available at 190/380 or 380 volts.NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR HOME STUDY COURSE T . These motors are upgraded from the Type L design to include class F insulation. Classifications vary. but most of these products are available for Class I. which is a high efficiency motor. Groups D and C. 47 . available from stock from 1/3 through 15 C” HP. available from 1/2 through 350 HP. Class I Group D. a shaft slinger. A relatively new addition to the explosionproof family is the Explosionproof CORRO-DUTY Type NC for Division II applications. Group E).S. footless design. and Class II. Temperature Code T2B. U. The Type LF is a “ Face.CODES ON NAMEPLATE Our explosionproof offering begins with our Type L. These products are now available from stock from 1-200 HP.
ELECTRICAL MOTORS DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO. ventilating and air conditioning market cooling systems to move water up in multistory buildings. “ Face and “ Flange kits are C” C” D” available in frames 140-360 for Types FCT and TCE. A number of shaft types are available on our CCP motors. The shaft of the close coupled pump motor is directly connected and mounted to the inside of the pump. A 10! (6-60 Hertz) speed range is available for variable torque applications. This product is used in the heating. 48 U. blowers and other industrial equipment using inverter powered applications. and the TEFC hostile duty product from 1 to 200 horsepower. open dripproof inverter duty motors are available from 1 through 250 horsepower. The JM Shaft is a mechanical seal that uses molded or preformed seals held in place by a spring. The JP shaft has packing glands that are the sealing devices which are manually packet and adjusted using braided cotton for the sealing material. Our close coupled pump motors are designed for the specific requirements of centrifugal pumps. We also have available the West Coast shaft. from stock. These motors are used on pumps.S. the CCP motor is available from 1-100 HP. fans. In the open dripproof design. The C” Unimount design is also available as a “ Face. plus 1 to 150 horsepower for 10:1 constant torque. in the Unimount design from 1-20 HP. . SPECIAL PURPOSE MOTORS Inverter Duty Motors. Three phase.NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR HOME STUDY COURSE “C” FACE AND PUMP MOTORS As previously mentioned. and a 5:1 (12-60 Hertz) speed range for constant torque. in stock from 1/4-30 HP footed and footless. The TEFC Unimount motor is available for the same speed ranges from 1 to 20 horsepower. Agricultural use is in the center pivot market. our Type D high efficiency ODP product is available from 40 to 60 HP with a “ Face. which is similar in design to the JM style.
Automotive Duty Motors. Also for vector duty applications.NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR HOME STUDY COURSE All of these motors have our Inverter Grade Insulation® system which meets NEMA MG-1 Part 31. 1800 and 1200 RPM. “ The automotive industry has formulated a set of specifications designed to provide the highest reliability for 24 hours per day. The U. hoists and other flux vector applications.S.and our totally enclosed fan cooled “ frame motors meet the GM. Vector Duty Motors.S. TENV. For conveyors. and is delivered standard with a 5-28 volt 1024 PPR encoder. presses. U” These motors are available from stock from 1/4 through 250 HP. hostile duty motor for 0-1800 RPM (0-60 Hertz) speed range for constant torque applications having constant torque requirements at or near zero speed The TEBC vector duty motor is available from 1 to 200 horsepower.S. The motor includes our Inverter Grade® insulation system that meets NEMA MG-1 Part 31. These vector duty motors also have a three year warranty on inverter power. 49 . U. Motors’ U”frame automotive duty line is designed to provide a long. This TENV motor can handle a 0-1800 RPM (0-60 Hertz) speed range for constant torque applications. hostile duty. TEBC. ELECTRICAL MOTORS DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO. in both high and premium efficiency. U. Motors offers a three phase. we offer the three phase. Ford and Chrysler specifications. 7 days a week service . trouble-free life. and a special three year warranty on inverter power. c-face vector duty motors from 1 to 15 horsepower.
S. humidity and other severe environments.S. emergency stops. The IEC motors feature Class F insulation. It is rust and corrosion protected with USDA approved white epoxy paint. A great brakemotor in a small package . available from 1 through 100 HP. or . high speed movements with short stopping times and precise positioning. and where a user requires a motor replacement on imported equipment. Brakemotors. Type FB. For those OEMs exporting to Europe and Asia. or “ face C” C” footless configurations. baggage handling equipment and general material handling systems. is usually fitted to the non -drive end of the motor. are available from 1/3-2 HP with rigid base. Our 2000 Series Brakemotors.75 KW through 75 KW.15 service factor with Class F insulation. 50 Hz. This TEFC motor has a stainless steel shaft and key and a 1. . 400 or 415 Volt. and C” “ face with rigid base. U. These motors are used in applications where instantaneous response is required. and comes standard with a double dip and baked winding and lip seals in both endshields.the 2000 Series brakemotor is just one inch longer than a standard motor. conveyors. slowing down and stopping high inertia loads. The brake. C” IEC Metric Motors. ELECTRICAL MOTORS DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO. washdown. “ face footed. A brakemotor is an electric motor with a brake.NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR HOME STUDY COURSE Washdown Duty. Motors offers an IEC metric motor. These motors have a stainless steel nameplate and a finned housing made of aluminum alloy with an exterior protective treatment of polyurethane vinyl finish. such as palletizers. 50 U. “ face footless. safety devices. and can be run on 460 volts 60 Hertz. The Washdown Duty motors are offered in 1/2 through 10 HP with the following mountings: rigid base. Its purpose is to hold a load steady. or 380. Our Washdown Duty motor line offers a motor designed for the food processing industry and other applications that are routinely exposed to chemicals. normally operated by an electromagnet against a spring.
51 . is available from 1/3-20 HP. external air gap adjustments and high cycling is required. These brakemotors can be used when manual release.S. These motors have rolled steel and cast iron frames that are suitable for wye-delta start on 250T frame and above. FIRE PUMP MOTORS For fire pump applications per NFPA 20 where contaminants are minimal. conveyors. 1800 and 1200 RPM in a rigid base. cranes and hoists. brake torque adjustments. we have a line of motors from 5 to 250 HP with NEMA B design performance. “ face footed or “ face C” C” footless configuration. ELECTRICAL MOTORS DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO. and part wind start through 125 HP.NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR HOME STUDY COURSE 2000 Series Brakemotor FC Series Brake Motor The FC Series Brakemotor. Typical applications would include bulk material handling equipment. U.
3. Washdown Duty motors are painted white. What type of applications would the multispeed version of the UNIMOUNT be used for? 4. True _____ False _____ 10. ELECTRICAL MOTORS DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO. MOTORS’PRODUCT OFFERING . Name the three different types of shafts available on the close coupled pump motors. 8. True _____ False _____ 2. The TCE is just like the FCT except it has a cast iron conduit box and a cast iron fan cover guard. True _____ False _____ 5. What material is the frame of the IEC metric motor? 52 U. the term “ class”defines the actual characteristics of the substance that is hazardous. For explosionproof motors.S.S.NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR HOME STUDY COURSE U. U. Name three possible applications for the TEFC hostile duty Type FCT and CORRODUTY Type TCE motors.QUIZ 1. True _____ False _____ What is our type designation for an explosionproof motor with CORRODUTY? 7. Name three types of kits available for the UNIMOUNT motor. 9. .S. Motors offers open dripproof motors in both steel and cast iron frames. 6.
ELECTRICAL MOTORS DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO.NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR HOME STUDY COURSE GENERAL FORMULAS AND CONVERSION TABLES U. 53 .S.
S. ELECTRICAL MOTORS DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO.NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR HOME STUDY COURSE GENERAL FORMULAS AND CONVERSION TABLES 54 U. .
S. 55 . ELECTRICAL MOTORS DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO.NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR HOME STUDY COURSE GENERAL FORMULAS AND CONVERSION TABLES U.
ELECTRICAL MOTORS DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO.S. .NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR HOME STUDY COURSE GENERAL FORMULAS AND CONVERSION TABLES 56 U.
4. To assist in the proper selection and application of motors. 2. 57 . but rotation is “ induced”by the magnetic fields of the stator. True. 5. 7. THE NAMEPLATE 1.NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR HOME STUDY COURSE QUIZ ANSWERS AC MOTOR FUNDAMENTALS 1. False. 8. It is used by the electrician installing the motor to properly size the power supply wiring and starter. 2. 6. False. U. True. The rotor is not connected electrically to the source of power supply. False. 5. 4. An electromagnet only has magnetic properties when power is applied. False. ELECTRICAL MOTORS DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO. 9. Horsepower is equal to torque times speed over a constant. 3. In three phase AC. Stator and rotor.S. 3. three different sets of current are present as compared to only one in single phase. True. True. 6.
True. 9. Heat. ELECTRICAL MOTORS DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO. 5. Totally Enclosed Fan Cooled. mechanical damage and abrasion from grit. APPLICATION CONSIDERATIONS 1. The motor enclosure must protect the windings. Arctic Duty. Efficiency is the ratio of the power output divided by the power input. 8. NEMA Design B. 8. 9. 4. . 6. Conveyors. 2. 10. Keeps moisture and debris from entering the motor. surface winding machines. hoisting loads. True. 58 U.NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR HOME STUDY COURSE QUIZ ANSWERS THE NAMEPLATE (continued) 7. True. 3. False. screw compressors. True. 7. chemicals. True. bearings and other mechanical parts from moisture. 10.S.
S. ELECTRICAL MOTORS DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO.S. 7. “ bracket kits.NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR HOME STUDY COURSE QUIZ ANSWERS U. “ flange kits and double “ face brake kits. Brake kits. MOTORS’PRODUCT OFFERING 1. 5. False. 8. True. 6. U. 3. foundries. C” D” C” Fans. True. pulp and paper plants. True. Petro-chem plants. Aluminum alloy. 10. JM. 59 . waste management facilities and chemical plants. 4. JP and Westcoast. 9. 2. Type LC. blowers and machine tools. mines.
exerts a retarding force on the load. Duty Cycle . Efficiency . Normally. Ambient Temperature .The back of a motor is the end which carries the coupling or driving pulley (NEMA). This is sometimes called the drive end (D.The ratio of power output to power input indicated as a percent. The mounting holes of the flange are not threaded. Circuit . Breakaway Torque . converts the kinetic energy of the load into electric energy dissipated in resistors. Dimension Drawing . this type of bearing provides a relatively rigid support for the output shaft. 60 U. The bolts protrude through the flange from the motor side.The torque required to start a machine from standstill. into which the heat of the equipment is dissipated.A definite purpose motor is any motor design. Normally D Flange motors are supplied without feet since the motor is mounted directly to the driven machine. Back of a Motor .A system of electric braking in which the motor. For a motor.This type of motor mounting is used for close coupled pumps and similar applications where the mounting holes in the face are threaded to receive bolts from the pump.The relationship between the operating and resting times or repeatable operation at different loads. the C-Face is used where a pump or similar product is to be overhung on the motor. C-Face . In motors. Dynamic Braking . and in doing so. An object so constructed from conducting material that it may be used as a carrier of electrical current.A motor that can continue to operate within the insulation temperature limits after it has reached normal operating temperature.A ball shaped component that is used to reduce friction and wear while supporting rotating elements.). Breakdown Torque . water or earth.NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR HOME STUDY COURSE GLOSSARY Alternating Current .E. for use under service conditions other than usual or for use on a particular type of application (NEMA). floor plan.This type of motor mounting is used when the motor is to be built as part of the machine.A material having many free electrons that can move easily. Continuous Duty . This type of mounting is a NEMA standard design and available with or without feet.S. listed and offered in standard ratings with standard operating characteristics and mechanical construction.Electricity that changes direction at a regular rate. It may also indicate ventilation requirements and space provided for connections or the location to which connections are to be made. Bearing (Ball) .The breakdown torque of an AC motor is the maximum torque which it will develop with rated voltage applied at rated frequency.) or pulley end (P. ELECTRICAL MOTORS DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO.The temperature of the medium.E. when used as a generator.A dimension or outline drawing (base plan. Electrical Conductor . D Flange . it is the effectiveness to which a motor converts electrical power into mechanical power. etc. . Definite Purpose Motor .An electrical network of conductors that provide one or more closed or complete paths for current. such as air.) is one which shows the physical space and mounting requirements of a piece of equipment.
Front of a Motor .P.The end opposite the coupling or driving pulley (NEMA).The physical size of a motor. Integral Horsepower Motor . Energy . Horsepower . Hysteresis Loss . This is the RMS current when starting the motor with or without load.The resistance offered by materials to becoming magnetized results in energy being expended and corresponding loss.This motor has a continuous Class B insulation rating and NEMA B design. Hysteresis loss in a magnetic circuit is the energy expended to magnetize and demagnetize the core.An alternating current motor in which the primary winding on one member (usually the stator) is connected to the power source. whether the body is at rest or moving at a constant velocity. Frame Size .The result when many free electrons move in the same direction.A measure of the amount of work that a motor can perform in a given amount of time. A secondary winding on the other member (usually the rotor) carries the induced current. There is no physical electrical connection to the secondary winding.E. its current is induced. General Purpose Motor .A measure of a body’ resistance to changes in velocity. Full Load Torque . A material or combination of materials which effectively resists the passage of an electric current. Inertia . A magnet in which the field is produced by an electric current.The minimum torque that a motor will develop at rest for all angular positions of the rotor (with rated voltage applied at rated frequency). Upon removal of the electrical current it exhibits little or no magnetic influence. Electric Current .A unit of work. Force .The full load torque of a motor is the torque necessary to produce rated horsepower at full load speed. It is measured in ounces or pounds.The tendency to change the motion or position of an object with a push or pull.S. The work done by a force of one pound acting through a distance of one foot. usually consisting of NEMA defined “ and “ dimensions at a minimum.Steady state current taken from the line with the rotor at standstill (at rated voltage and frequency).). Locked Rotor Torque .The number of complete alternations per second of an alternating current. Induction Motor . The “ D” F” dimension relates to the distance between the centers of the mounting feet holes. 61 .A quantitative property of matter indicating capacity to do work. listed and offered in standard ratings with standard operating characteristics and mechanical construction for use under usual service conditions without restriction to a particular application or type of application (NEMA).A material having a few free electrons that cannot move freely.NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR HOME STUDY COURSE GLOSSARY (continued) Electrical Insulator .A coil of wire that carries an electric current. U. Also called the opposite pulley end (O. The D” F” “ dimension is the distance in inches from the center of the motor shaft to the bottom of the mounting feet. s The velocity can be either linear or rotational. Electromagnet . Locked Rotor Current .A motor built in a frame having a continuous rating of 1 HP or more. Foot Pound . Frequency . ELECTRICAL MOTORS DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO.
City or state regulations may differ from these code regulations and take precedence over NEC rules. Reversing . the slower it runs. No Load .An induction motor that can obtain two.A motor with special operating characteristics. but when no output is required from it.The difference between rotating magnetic field speed (synchronous speed) and the rotor speed of an AC induction motor. Power factor is the ratio of real power (kW) to total kVA or the ratio of actual power (W) to apparent power (volt-amperes).The state of a machine rotating at normal speed under rated conditions. Open Motor . designed for a particular application and not falling within the definition of a general purpose or definite purpose motor (NEMA). expressed in percent of running torque.NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR HOME STUDY COURSE GLOSSARY (continued) Multispeed Motor . the faster the motor runs. Power .A measurement of the time phase difference between the voltage and current in an AC circuit. Service Factor . special mechanical construction or both.The opposition to the flow of current made by an induction coil or a capacitor. ELECTRICAL MOTORS DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO.S. Speed . . NEMA . This is the minimum torque the motor develops between locked rotor and breakdown torque.The National Electrical Manufacturers Association is a nonprofit organization organized and supported by manufacturers of electrical equipment and supplies./min/ = 746 watts.The torque exerted by the motor during the starting period.The torque required to accelerate the load from standstill to full speed (where breakdown torque occurs). three or four discrete (fixed) speeds by the selection of various stator winding configurations. Slip . NEC .000 ft.Changing the direction of rotation of the motor rotor. The more poles the motor has. It is represented by the cosine of the angle of this phase difference. An AC motor is reversed by changing the connection of one leg on the three phase power line. Power Factor .The rotating member of a machine with a shaft. Pull-Up Torque . Reactance .When used on a motor nameplate.The speed at which an induction motor operates is dependent upon the input power frequency. a number which indicates the maximum loading permissible above the nameplate rating without causing serious degradation. Usually expressed as a percentage of synchronous speed. 62 U. the load and the number of electrical magnetic poles for which the motor is wound. Measured in horsepower or watts: 1 HP = 33.The National Electric Code is the recommendation of the National Fire Protection Association and is revised every three years.A machine having ventilating openings which permit passage of external cooling air over and around the windings of the machine. Starting Torque . The higher the frequency. Special Purpose Motor .Work done per unit of time. Rotor .lb.
Work .A force moving and object over a distance.A wiring diagram is one which locates and identifies electrical devices. 63 . Wiring (or Connection) Diagram . but not sufficiently enclosed to be termed airtight. Work = Force x Distance. Measured in foot / pounds (ft.lbs.S. tending to cause rotation.).The speed of an AC induction motor’ rotating magnetic field.A turning force applied to a shaft. U. ELECTRICAL MOTORS DIVISION OF EMERSON ELECTRIC CO. Totally Enclosed Motor . terminals and interconnecting wiring in an assembly. Torque is normally measured in pound / feet and is equal to the force applied times the radius through which it acts.NEMA THREE PHASE AC HORIZONTAL MOTOR HOME STUDY COURSE GLOSSARY (continued) Stator . It is determined by the frequency s applied to the stator and the number of magnetic poles present in each phase of the stator windings. Torque .A machine so enclosed as to prevent the free exchange of air between the inside and the outside of the case.The stationary portion of the magnetic circuit and the associated windings and leads of a rotating machine. Synchronous Speed .
Electrical Motors Prices. TEXAS SANTA FE SPRINGS. St.com Printed in the U. Emerson Electric Co. ILLINOIS MEMPHIS.A .U. TENNESSEE DALLAS.S. QUEBEC/CANADA TORONTO.S.usmotors. WWW Home Page: http://www. Louis. ONTARIO/CANADA MONTERREY. 8100 West Florissant Avenue. specifications and ratings subject to change without notice. COLOMBIA PHONE (800) 361-5509 (905) 475-4670 (52) 8-389-1300 (58) 2-237-7522 (571) 439-5420 FAX (514) 332-5912 (905) 475-4672 (52) 8-389-1310 (58) 2-232-9727 (571) 439-5417 HSC-246-125 8/99 ©1999 U.S. MEXICO CARACAS. CALIFORNIA INTERNATIONAL SALES PHONE (800) 243-2700 (800) 323-5223 (901) 794-5500 (800) 683-4126 (800) 854-3302 (314) 553-2196 FAX (203) 891-1077 (630) 893-0182 (901) 794-0741 (972) 644-0254 (562) 941-1858 (314) 553-2135 REGIONAL OFFICES MONTREAL. MO 63136 REGIONAL OFFICES ORANGE. CONNECTICUT CHICAGO. Electrical Motors Division. VENEZUELA BOGOTA.
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