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AIDA L. PALOMAR JUNJEN L. PALOMAR
Indonesia, officially the Republic of Indonesia , is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania. Indonesia is an archipelago comprising approximately17,508 islands. It has 34 provinces with over 238 million people, and is the world's fourth most populous country. Indonesia is a republic, with an elected legislature and president. The nation's capital city is Jakarta. The country shares land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor, and Malaysia. Other countries include Singapore, Philippines, Australia, Palau, and the Indian territory of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. 1/21/13 Indonesia is a founding member of ASEAN and a
) Government Type: Official Language: Population: 1/21/13 .008 (July 2012 est.645.Conventional long form: Republic of Indonesia Conventional short form: Indonesia Local long form: Local short form: Former: Indies FACTS ABOUT INDONESIA Republik Indonesia Indonesia Netherlands East Indies. Dutch East Capital: Jakarta Republic Bahasa Indonesia 248.
NATION AL SYMBOL Click to edit Master subtitle style 1/21/13 .
NATIONA L FLAG The Indonesian national flag is called Sang Saka Merah Putih or Click white treasure. red symbolizes courage." Two equal horizontal bands of red "the red andto edit Master subtitle style (top) and white. 1/21/13 . the colors derive from the banner of the Majapahit Empire of the 13th-15th centuries. white represents purity.
Like the Bald mythical bird from subtitle style Eagle in the United States. 1/21/13 . an ancient.NATIONA L EMBLEM Indonesia's official coat of arms is centered on the Garuda. Click to edit Masterthe country's historical epics. the Garuda is often used to represent Indonesia.
A great deal of symbolism runs through the Garuda. The eagle is a symbol of creative energy. Its principal color, gold, symbolizes the greatness of the nation. The black color represents nature. There are 17 feathers on each wing, 8 on the tail and 45 on the neck. These numbers stand for the date Indonesia proclaimed its independence: 17 August 1945. The shield symbolizes self-defense and protection in struggle. The five symbols on the shield represent the state philosophy of Pancasila. The motto Bhinneka Tunggal Ika ("Unity in Diversity") is enshrined on a 1/21/13
The national anthem is called Indonesia Raya, which means "Great Indonesia." The song was composed by Wage Rudolf Supratman at the second All Indonesian YouthClick to edit Master subtitle style 1928 in Batavia, Congress in October now Jakarta. It was at this moment when Indonesian youth of different ethnic, linguistic, religious, and cultural backgrounds resolutely pledged allegiance to: One native land, Indonesia; 1/21/13 One nation, the Indonesian nation;
Pancasila is a creed that Indonesia's first leader, President Sukarno,Click to editon June 1, 1945. style presented Master subtitle To this day, it remains the philosophical basis of the Indonesian state.
or "five." and sila. which means "principles. Belief in the one and only God Just and civilized humanity The unity of Indonesia 2. 3. 1/21/13 Social justice for the whole of the people of Indonesia . 1. 1.PANCASILA • Pancasila is based on two Sanskrit words: panca. Democracy guided by the inner wisdom in the unanimity arising out of deliberations amongst representatives 5." It stands for the five inseparable and interrelated principles at the heart of Indonesia.
HISTO RY 1/21/13 .
what is today called 'Java Man' inhabited Indonesia as early as two million to 500.000 years ago. 'Java Man' is a short name for Pithecanthropus Erectus . 1/21/13 . This period was also related to the first appearance of the Hominids.ANCIENT TIME • Historians believe that Indonesia was linked with the Asian mainland during the Pleistocene period (four million BC). a human-like species whose fossilized remains were discovered by the scientist Eugene Dubois on the island of Java.
this time in history is called the period of BuddhistHindu Kingdoms. It lasted from ancient history to the 15th century 1/21/13 . these kingdoms grew very civilized. Today. Ruled by indigenous Rajas who embraced the Hindu and Buddhist religions. Indonesia developed many wellorganized kingdoms.BUDDHIST AND HINDU KINGDOMS • Much later.
the Hindu kingdom of Mataram began the era of Hindu kingdoms. The dynasty's replacement. the empire enjoyed tributary relationships with territories as far away as Vietnam. Under the reign of King Hayam Wuruk (1331-1364 AD). One of the most famous Buddhist kingdoms in Indonesian history is Sailendra (750-850 AD). The mightiest Hindu kingdom in Indonesia's ancient history was the Majapahit Empire. Cambodia.BUDDHIST AND HINDU KINGDOMS • The first Buddhists arrived in Indonesia from around 100 to 200 AD from India. . the famous Buddhist temple at Borobudur was built. During this period. and 1/21/13 the Philippines.
BOROBUDUR TEMPLE 1/21/13 .
BOROBUDUR TEMPLE 1/21/13 .
and the east part of Lombok. and Perlak. Ternate and Tidore in the northern part of Maluku. Minangkabau. Palembang. Islam then spread further east to the Bone and Goa Sultanates in Sulawesi.ISLAM ARRIVES • Gujarati and Persian merchants who embraced Islam started to visit Indonesia in the 13th century. Besides those areas. Pasai. Along with trade. particularly in the coastal areas of Java. 1/21/13 . they introduced Islam to the Indonesian Hindus. Islam also expanded to into Banjarmasin.
the Dutch established an organized merchant trade called Dutch East India Company (VOC) in 1602 to tap the rich spices territories." EUROPEIAN PERIOD 1/21/13 . landed in 1512.• European influence in Indonesia began when the Portuguese. Meanwhile. in search for spices. the Dutch enjoyed a trade monopoly in the "Spice Islands. Both the Portuguese and the Spanish spread Christianity in Indonesia. After the seizure of Ambon in Maluku (1605) and Banda Island (1623).
the Indonesian archipelago once again became a Dutch possession in 1815. Indonesians had been fighting for their 1/21/13 EUROPEIAN PERIOD • . Indonesia fell under the rule of the British East India Company. when Holland was occupied by France.• In 1814 the British came to Indonesia. Throughout the period of colonization. the British and Dutch signed a convention in which it was agreed that Dutch colonial possession dating from 1803 onwards should be returned to the Dutch administration in Batavia (present-day Jakarta). Thus. During the Napoleonic wars in Europe. After the fall of Napoleon.
and was heard by thousands of Indonesians nationwide 1/21/13 through a secret radio broadcast from a captured . 1945. On 17 August 1945. the Japanese surrendered to the Allied Forces. Three years later. the power vacuum in Jakarta looked like an open window of opportunity to proclaim their independence. on August 14. Mohamad Hatta proclaimed Indonesia's independence on behalf of the Indonesian people. the Japanese occupied the Dutch East Indies after the surrender of the Dutch colonial army in March 1942.INDEPENDENCE • When World War II broke out. The proclamation took place at Jalan Pengangsaan Timur No. Jakarta.56. Indonesian national leaders Soekarno and Dr. To Indonesia's leaders.
CULTURE Click to edit Master subtitle style and RELIGI 1/21/13 .
the islands have been known by many different names.• Srivijaya. In all. over the centuries. one of the earliest archaelogical discoveries of human life named "Java Man....“ One way of grasping the successive waves of human settlement shaping Indonesian history is to observe the composition of Indonesia's 180 million citizens as they are today.Majapahit... But it embraces a people whose roots stretch deep into antiquity.. 1945. Indonesia 1/21/13 is home to nearly 300 separate linguistic groups.. CULTURE AND RELIGION • . may be relatively young among the world's roster of nations. Dutch East Indies.. born on August 17. The modern Republic of Indonesia ..Spice Islands.. Indeed.Mataram....
. the Minahasan people of North Sulawesi.. dispersing throughout the archipelago in widely varying family structures and language groups. the Malay people split into dozens of smaller subgroups.. the people of Bali. Of these.. famed for their changeless ways. The Bugis and Makassars of South Sulawesi.• Historically. the most numerous and culturally influential within Indonesia today are the Javanese. 1/21/13 CULTURE AND RELIGION • . inhabitant of Central Java. and of course... But equally enduring cultural traditions are to be found among the Sundanese of West Java.
. the Dayaks of Kalimantan (the Indonesian portion of Borneo).. and dozens of other tribes of Irian Jaya (the Indonesian province on the island of New Guinea) are of Melanesian stock. rather CULTURE AND RELIGION • . The Dani. with 1/21/13 property passed from mother to daughter. each represent groups of distinct ethnic origins and customs. Indonesia even has one large ethnic subgroup -the Minangkabau of West Sumatra -..whose matrilineal society is ruled by women.• Indonesia also is home to a rich tapestry of other ethnically distinct indigenous people.. The people of Nusa Tenggara (Lesser Sunda) islands. and the Batak of North Sumatra. Asmat.
including Javanese 1/21/13 and ikat weavings from Sumatra and the batik CULTURE AND RELIGION • .• With diverse traditions of social organization and cultural development in place for hundreds of years.and performed actively -.especially gamelan music from Java and dance from Bali -.music and dance -. Indonesia's graphic arts -.are widespread throughout Indonesia.have long been known beyond the borders of Indonesia. Indonesia's people naturally provide a rich and varied mosaic of artistic and cultural activities in all forms of expressions. They are still being learned from childhood -.to this day. The lively arts -.most notably its fabled textiles. Traditional forms -.
nationwide language was essential as a meands of uniting Indonesia's people. Dayak.have developed a strongly characteristic form of artistic expression. local dialects can still be heard in villages throughout the archipelago. Nias and Asmat peoples -. founded on the traditional Malay language. standard. rendered prolifically in ceremonial objects. In the face of such ethnic diversity. To this day. But "Bahasa Indonesia" (which gained formal recognition in the 1920s. the newly-formed republic decided following independence that a single. which is also today's official language in neighboring Malaysia) has met 1/21/13 CULTURE AND RELIGION .• Many of Indonesia's smaller ethnic groups -particularly the Batak. fashioned in unique design motifs from wood and stone.
• The patterns characterizing Indonesia's ethnic history can also be seen in the country's religious development. the country's dominant religion is Islam. Today. Buddhism. Hinduism and Christianity. In spite of this. In successive phases. a freedom guaranteed by national law. CULTURE AND RELIGION • . all major religions continue to be practiced throughout the country. Indonesia was influenced by the spread of Animism. Each of the country's four major religions is honored with at least one 1/21/13 national holiday every year. with over 85 percent of the population following the Islamic faith. Indeed. Indonesia has more Moslem adherents than the entire Arab world.
Borobudur. the largest of its Islamic mosques. stand only a few hundred meters apart. in modern downtown Jakarta. CULTURE AND RELIGION 1/21/13 .in Central Java. the world's most magnificent Buddhist temple. Meanwhile.• Today. the city's Roman Catholic cathedral and Istiqlal.Prambanan -. can be found only a few miles from one of Hinduism's most important historic shrines -.
characterized by intense cathartic internal struggles -. following several years of "growing pains" -. the nation's founding president. the early years of the new republic were focused on forging a consensus of national unity and basic political orientation under the leadership of Sukarno. By the late 1960's.• Because Indonesia achieved national independence through revolution.Indonesia succeeded in resolving its early difficulties. to which it has held firmly CULTURE AND RELIGION . the country launched itself briskly on a path of pragmatic 1/21/13 growth and development. including a period of severe political volatility in 1965-1966. The first two decades following independence were marked by political and economic turbulence not uncommon among countries in the initial stages of nation building. Under the "New Order" government of President Suharto. however.
POLITI CS 1/21/13 .
POLITICS • Indonesia is a republic with a presidential system. The 2004 presidential election was the 1/21/13 . policy-making. Indonesian political and governmental structures have undergone major reforms. judicial. The president appoints a council of ministers. Following the resignation of President Suharto in 1998. and the director of domestic governance. Four amendments to the 1945 Constitution of Indonesia have revamped the executive. and legislative branches. power is concentrated in the central government. who are not required to be elected members of the legislature. commander-in-chief of the Indonesian National Armed Forces. The president of Indonesia is the head of state. As a unitary state. and foreign affairs.
inaugurating the president. the People's Representative Council (DPR). The MPR comprises two houses. It has the power to impeach the president. with 132 members. The DPR passes legislation and monitors the executive branch. with 560 members. Its main functions are supporting and amending the constitution. party-aligned members are elected for five-year terms by proportional representation. and formalizing broad outlines of state policy. and the Regional Representative Council (DPD). Reforms since 1998 have 1/21/13 markedly increased the DPR's role in national .POLITICS • The highest representative body at national level is the People's Consultative Assembly (MPR).
POLITICS • Most civil disputes appear before a State Court (Pengadilan Negeri). and hears final cessation appeals and conducts case reviews. and a 1/21/13 Religious Court (Pengadilan Agama) to deal with . a State Administrative Court (Pengadilan Tata Negara) to hear administrative law cases against the government. and the scope of authority of state institutions. appeals are heard before the High Court (Pengadilan Tinggi). which handles bankruptcy and insolvency. The Supreme Court (Mahkamah Agung) is the country's highest court. a Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi) to hear disputes concerning legality of law. Other courts include the Commercial Court. dissolution of political parties. general elections.
Bali Island BA LI 1/21/13 .
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ECONO MY 1/21/13 Bali Island .
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Indonesia outperformed its regional neighbors and joined China and India as the only G20 members posting growth in 2009.ECONOMY • Indonesia. The government has promoted fiscally conservative policies.1% and 6.4% in 2010 and 2011. The government made economic advances under the first administration of President YUDHOYONO (2004-09). a vast polyglot nation. a small current account surplus. a . During the global financial crisis. the use of Treasury bills. respectively. grew an estimated 6. resulting in a debt-to-GDP ratio of less 1/21/13 than 25%. and capital market development and supervision. introducing significant reforms in the financial sector. including tax and customs reforms.
and unequal resource distribution among regions.ECONOMY • Fitch and Moody's upgraded Indonesia's credit rating to investment grade in December 2011. The government in 2012 faces the ongoing challenge of improving Indonesia's insufficient infrastructure to remove impediments to economic growth. a complex regulatory environment. inadequate infrastructure. 1/21/13 . labor unrest over wages. corruption. and reducing its fuel subsidy program in the face of rising oil prices. Indonesia still struggles with poverty and unemployment.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $1.125 trillion (2011 est.) country comparison to the world: 16 $1.056 trillion (2010 est.) $994.8 billion (2009 est.) note: data are in 2011 US dollars GDP (official exchange rate): $832.9 billion (2011 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 6.5% (2011 est.) country comparison to the world: 38 6.2% (2010 est.) 4.6% (2009 est.) GDP - per capita (PPP): $4,700 (2011 est.) country comparison to the world: 157 $4,400 (2010 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 14.7% industry: 47.2% services: 38.1% (2011 est.)
117.4 million (2011 est.) country comparison to the world: 5
Labor force - by occupation:
1/21/13 industry: 12.8%
6% (2011 est.) Population below poverty line: 12.) • Household income or consumption by percentag : 1/21/13 • .5% (2011 est.1% (2010 est.ECONOMY • Unemployment rate: 6.) country comparison to the world: 70 7.
) country comparison to the world: 186 • • • 1/21/13 Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-): .) Taxes and other revenues: 16.ECONOMY • Investment (gross fixed): 32% of GDP (2011 est.7 billion (2011 est.6% of GDP (2011 est.) country comparison to the world: 13 Budget: revenues: $138 billion expenditures: $147.
) country comparison to the world: 186 • • • 1/21/13 Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-): .ECONOMY • Investment (gross fixed): 32% of GDP (2011 est.) country comparison to the world: 13 Budget: revenues: $138 billion expenditures: $147.7 billion (2011 est.) Taxes and other revenues: 16.6% of GDP (2011 est.
products: (manioc).4% (2011 est. .) Agriculture .1% (2010 est.ECONOMY • Public debt: 24.) country comparison to the world: 120 25.) Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.7% of GDP (2010 est.1% of GDP (2011 est.) country comparison to the world: 140 5. peanuts. cocoa. • • • 1/21/13cassava rice. rubber.
) country comparison to the world: 77 Current account balance: $2.146 billion (2010 est.1% (2011 est.) .069 billion (2011 est. textiles. mining.ECONOMY • Industries: petroleum and natural gas. rubber.) country comparison to the world: 41 • 1/21/13 $5. cement. apparel. footwear. chemical fertilizers. plywood. tourism • Industrial production growth rate: 4. food.
commodities: • oil and gas.) country comparison to the world: 27 $158.4% 1/21/13 (2011) .1%. South Korea 8.) Exports . India 6. Singapore 9.partners: Japan 16. textiles. China 11.6%.5 billion (2011 est.1%.1 billion (2010 est. electrical appliances. Malaysia 5.3%. plywood.6%.1%. US 8. rubber • Exports .ECONOMY • Exports: $201.
Singapore 14.partners: China 14.) country comparison to the world: 30 $127.) Imports .ECONOMY • Imports: $166.commodities: • machinery and equipment.9% . South Korea 7.6%.4 billion (2010 est. foodstuffs • Imports . Thailand 5.1%. fuels. chemicals. Japan 11%. US 6.3%. Malaysia 1/21/13(2011) 5.8%.9%.1 billion (2011 est.
21 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 21 $96.) • Debt .7 billion (31 December 2011 est.) country comparison to the world: 32 $179.ECONOMY • Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $110.1 billion (2011 est.) • 1/21/13 Stock of direct foreign investment .external: $190.at home : .1 billion (31 December 2010 est.
85 billion (31 December 2010 est.9 (2008) .abroad: $40.4 (2011 est.) country comparison to the world: 37 $32.ECONOMY • Stock of direct foreign investment .770.) 10.389.) Exchange rates: Indonesian rupiah (IDR) per US dollar 8.090.698.9 (2009) • 1/21/13 9.4 (2010 est.) 9.57 billion (31 December 2011 est.
EDUCATI ON 1/21/13 .
1/21/13 • . all citizens must undertake nine years of compulsory education which consists of six years at elementary level and three in secondary level. In Indonesia. Islamic schools are under the responsibility of the Ministry of Religious Affairs.EDUCATION Education in Indonesia is under the responsibility of the Ministry of Education and Culture (Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan orKemdikbud) and the Ministry of Religious Affairs (Kementerian Agama or Kemenag).
EDUCATION Education is defined as a planned effort to establish a study environment and education process so that the student may actively develop his/her own potential to gain the religious and spiritual level. personality. 1/21/13 Formal education is further divided into • . The Constitution also notes that education in Indonesia is divided into two major parts. intelligence. other citizens and for the nation. behavior and creativity to him/herself. formal and non-formal. consciousness.
EDUCATION • Schools in Indonesia are run either by the government (negeri) or private sectors (swasta). especially with the use of English as medium of instruction or having an international-based curriculum instead of the national one. 1/21/13 . Some private schools refer to themselves as "national plus schools" which means that they intend to go beyond the minimum government requirements.
1/21/13 HISTORY OF EDUCATI ON .
aimed to draw oneself closer to God 1/21/13 . This method is highly religious. Karsyan is a place of hermitage.Early Kingdoms • Education system in the era of HinduBuddhist civilization is called karsyan.
pondok pesantren. The location of pesantren is mostly faraway from the hustling crowd of the city. 1/21/13 . resembling the location of Karsyan.Era of Islamic States • The emergence of Islamic state in Indonesia is noted by the acculturation of both Islamic tradition and Hindu-Buddhist tradition. At this time period. a type of Islamic boarding school was introduced and several of them were established.
Bali Island COMO DO ISLAN D 1/21/13 .
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elementary school) 1/21/13 today. some of these Dutch-founded schools opened the doors for bumiputera (lit. the embryo of what is called Sekolah Dasar (lit. Initially. native Indonesians). • . In 1870.Colonial Era Elementary education was introduced by the Dutch in Indonesia during the colonial era. They were called Sekolah Rakjat (lit. with the growth of Dutch Ethical Policy formulated by Conrad Theodor van Deventer. folk school). it was reserved for the Dutch (and other Europeans) only.
although this was restricted to certain privileged children.Colonial Era • The Dutch introduced a system of formal education for the local population of Indonesia. with the following levels: • ELS (Dutch: Europeesche Lagere School) Primary School for Europeans HIS (Dutch: Hollandsch-Inlandsche School) Primary School for Natives MULO (Dutch: Meer Uitgebreid Lager Onderwijs) .Middle School AMS (Dutch: Algeme(e)ne Middelbare School) High School or College • • 1/21/13 • . The system they introduced was roughly similar to the current structure.
Pesantrens were also mushrooming rapidly during this time period. a 1/21/13 2. • School tot Opleiding van Inlandsche Artsen or STOVIA. Ahmad Dahlan founded Muhammadiyah in November 1912. such as: 1.Colonial Era • The segregation between Dutch and Indonesian in Education pushed several Indonesian figures to start educational institutions for local people. and Ki Hajar Dewantara founded Taman Siswa in July 1922. Nederland-Indische . The Dutch colonial government also established a number of universities for native Indonesian on the island of Java. a medical school in Batavia Artsen School or NIAS.
1/21/13 . a technic school in Bandoeng 4. the Dutch had introduced limited formal education to nearly every province of the Dutch East Indies. or THS. a law school in Batavia De Technische Hoges School. Rechts Hoge School. By the 1930s.Colonial Era 3.
and literacy rates improved significantly nationwide.000 primary-school facilities by the late 1980s. This act resulted in the construction or repair of nearly 40. During 1997–98. the financial crisis affected the poorest families the most. according to the World Bank. resulting in their selectively cutting back on their education expenditures. only 1/21/13 2 percent of those between the ages of 15 and 24 .Recent History Great progress has been made toward the goal of universal education since 1973. thenPresident Suharto issued an order to set aside portions of oil revenues for the construction of new primary schools. At that time. when nearly 20 percent of youth were illiterate. Government funding struggled to keep up with rising costs during this period. but by 2002.
known as PAUD (Pendidikan Anak Usia Dini).35% of them are privately operated schools. From the age of 4. Of the 49.Early Education From the age of 2. 99. 1/21/13 . they attend kindergarten (Taman Kanak-Kanak). This education is not compulsory for Indonesian citizens. The kindergarten years are usually divided into "Class A" and "Class B" students spending a year in each class.000 kindergartens in Indonesia. as it is aimed to prepare them for Primary Schooling. some children in Indonesia attend pre-school playgroup.
However. according to the 2000 census only 15 percent of school-age individuals attended religious schools. They can choose between state-run. nonsectarian public schools supervised by the Department of National Education (Depdiknas) or private or semiprivate religious (usually Islamic) schools supervised and financed by the Department of Religious Affairs. Overall enrollment figures are slightly higher for girls than boys and much higher in Java than the rest of Indonesia. although 86.Public Primary and Secondary Education Indonesians are required to attend nine years of school. 1/21/13 .1 percent of the Indonesian population is registered as Muslim.
national unity. humanitarianism. Beginning under Guided Democracy (1959–65) and strengthened in the New Order after 1975. . a key feature of the national curriculum—as was the case for other national institutions—has been instruction in the Pancasila. and its moral and ideological foundations.Public Primary and Secondary Education A central goal of the national education system is not merely to impart secular wisdom about the world but also to instruct children in the principles of participation in the modern nation-state. democracy. and social justice—and were instructed daily to apply 1/21/13 the meanings of this key national symbol to their lives. Children age six and older learned by rote its five principles—belief in one God. its bureaucracies.
and Pancasila began to play a diminishing role in the curriculum. A style of pedagogy prevails inside public-school classrooms that emphasizes rote learning and deference to the authority of the teacher. Teachers customarily do not ask questions of individual students. provincial and district-level administrators obtained increasing autonomy in determining the content of schooling.Public Primary and Secondary Education But with the end of the New Order in 1998 and the beginning of the campaign to decentralize the national government. by the third year of primary school nearly all instruction is conducted in Indonesian. a standard teaching 1/21/13 . Although the youngest children are sometimes allowed to use their local language. rather.
called Sekolah Dasar (SD). 1/21/13 .Public Primary and Secondary Education By not identifying individual problems of students and retaining an emotionally distanced demeanor. though some schools offer an accelerated learning program in which students who perform well can complete the level in five years. teachers are said to show themselves to be sabar (patient). Children aged 6–11 attend primary school. accounting for nearly 93% of all elementary schools in Indonesia. which is considered admirable behavior. Students spend six years in primary school. Most elementary schools are government-operated public schools.
There are also "domestic science" junior high schools for girls. or SMP) follow elementary school. three years of junior secondary school (Sekolah Menengah Pertama. or students can choose among a variety of vocational and preprofessional junior and senior secondary schools (Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan or SMK).). After completion of the six-year primary-school program. or SMP) may be followed by three years of senior secondary school (Sekolah Menengah Atas or SMA.Public Primary and Secondary Education • Three years of middle school (Sekolah Menengah Pertama. each level of which requires three years of study. There are academic and vocational junior high schools that lead to senior-level diplomas. At 1/21/13 • .
100 percent of the relevant agegroup had completed primary education as of 2003. and music. legal clerking. There were nearly equal numbers of girls • • . but it decreased to 62 percent for secondary schools and 16 percent for postsecondary 1/21/13 schools. plastic arts. The gross enrollment rate for primary schools was 100 percent. Students with disabilities/special needs may alternately opt to be enrolled in a separate school from the mainstream called Sekolah Luar Biasa (lit. Extraordinary School). The completion rate for Indonesian primary schools is high. Indeed.Public Primary and Secondary Education • Special schools at the junior and senior levels teach hotel management.
8 million students and 314. with a total enrollment of 2.Public Primary and Secondary Education • Depdiknas reported that in school year 2007–8 there were 63. 28.061 teachers.018 teachers.762 general senior secondary schools. They indicate that there were 144.9 million students and 629.228 primary schools.9 million students and 1.592 vocational senior secondary schools. with a total enrollment of 3 million students and 246. with a total enrollment of 8. Later statistics are available for primary and secondary levels for school year 2008–9.036 teachers. Additionally.444 kindergartens. and 7.777 junior secondary schools. with a total enrollment of 26.686 special education schools from . with a total enrollment of 3.8 million pupils and 176.5 million teachers. 10. 1/21/13 there were 1.389 teachers.
primary-school teachers have been required to have graduated from a senior high school for teachers. compares favorably with that in other Asian countries such as Malaysia.8 to 1. Student– teacher ratios also compare satisfactorily with those in many Asian nations: They were 23. for primary and secondary schools in 1/21/13 .Public Primary and Secondary Education • Teacher-training programs are varied and gradually being upgraded. and Thailand. and teachers of higher grades have been required to have completed a university-level education course.and secondary-school teachers. respectively.4 to 1 and 18. Since the 1970s. in the 1950s anyone completing a teacher-training program at the junior high school level could obtain a teacher’s certificate. India. however. although low. For example. Remuneration for primary.
1/21/13 . teacher certification. Providing textbooks and other school equipment to Indonesia’s 37 million schoolchildren throughout the far-flung archipelago continues to be a significant problem as well. particularly in the areas of teacher salaries. but serious difficulties remain. and some villages have school buildings but no teachers. especially in more remote areas.Public Primary and Secondary Education • By 2008 the staff shortage in Indonesia's schools was no longer as acute as in the 1980s. books. In many remote areas of the Outer Islands. or supplies. there is a severe shortage of qualified teachers. in particular. and finding qualified personnel.
1/21/13 . The first commences in July and ends in December while the latter commences in January and ends in June.School Grades • The school year is divided into two semesters.
Level/Grade Preschool Pre-school playgroup Kindergarten Primary School 1st Grade 2nd Grade 3rd Grade 4th Grade 5th Grade 1/21/13 Typical age 3-4 4-6 6–7 7–8 8–9 9–10 10–11 11–12 6th Grade .
4th Grade or University) Sophomore. Tertiary education (College referred to as 9–10 Freshman. Junior and Senior years) 5th Grade 10–11 Graduate education 1/21/13 6th Grade 11–12 Adult education .Level/Grade Typical age Middle School Preschool 7th grade 12-13 Pre-school playgroup 3-4 8th Grade 13-14 9th Grade 14-15 Kindergarten 4-6 High School Primary School 10th Grade 15–16 11th Grade 16–17 1st Grade 6–7 12th Grade 17–18 Post-secondary education 2nd Grade 7–8 Ages vary (usually four 3rd Grade 8–9 years.
Rajah Ampat 1/21/13 .
A distinct and vocal minority of these Muslims prefer to place their children in a pesantren. and the studies are not organized as a progression of courses leading to graduation. Usually located in rural areas and directed by a Muslim scholar. they . the sharia. pesantren are attended by young people seeking a detailed understanding of the Quran. Students can enter and leave the pesantren any time of the year. the Arabic language. mathematics. or Islamic school. and geography.Islamic Schools • The secular and nationalist emphasis in public schools has been resisted by some of the Muslim majority. as well as more modern subjects such as English. Although the chief 1/21/13 aim of pesantren is to produce good Muslims. and Muslim traditions and history.
Others are more traditional and stress the importance of following the wisdom of elders. Bali. Although the terrorist bombings in Kuta. reflecting the views of the Indonesian population as a whole. For those who opt for a pesantren education. including their teachings on science. religion.Islamic Schools • Some pesantren emphasize the autonomy of modern students to think for themselves and to interpret scripture and modern knowledge in a way that is consistent with the teachings of Islam. and family life. the majority of these schools in Indonesia are theologically moderate. a sixth-grade equivalency 1/21/13 certificate is available after successful completion of . in 2002 raised suspicions about whether pesantren promote extremist views.
in the 1970s the Muslim-dominated Department of Religion (now the Department of Religious Affairs) advocated the spread of a newer variety of Muslim school. Madrasah • .Islamic Schools • In order for students to adapt to life in the modern nation-state. the madrassa. This kind of school integrates religious subjects from the pesantren with secular subjects from the Western-style publiceducation system. among Islamic schools a madrassa is ranked lower than a pesantren. Madrasah Tsanawiyah (MTs) is the 1/21/13 Islamic schooling equivalent of SMP. following a curriculum with more focus on Arabic and Islam. Although in general the public believes that Islamic schools offer lower-quality education. Madrasah Ibtidaiyah (MI) is the Islamic schooling alternative to SD.
000 teachers and nearly 1.Higher Education • The higher education institution is categorized into two types: public and private. Indonesia's institutions of higher education have experienced dramatic growth since independence.000 students. academies.5 million students. By 2009 there were 2. and polytechnics.500 students.975 1/21/13 institutions of higher education and more • . institutes. There are four types of higher education institution: universities. In 1950 there were 10 institutions of higher learning with a total of about 6. Both are supervised by the Ministry of National Education. 450 private and state institutions enrolled about 237. In 1970. and by 1990 there were 900 institutions with about 141.
they are in the fields of medicine. These foreign students are dispersed across Indonesia in almost all government universities such as Universitas Sumatera Utara. The government provides only limited scholarship support for students wishing to attend private universities. literature. Most of the 6.000 foreign students studying in Indonesian universities hail from Malaysia. humanities. pharmacy.Higher Education • Universities with a religious affiliation may receive donations or grants from religious organisations. Islamic studies and engineering and the majority are sponsored by the Malaysian government. University of Indonesia. In particular. Gadjah 1/21/13 • .
Indonesian Degrees Type of degree Diploma 1 (D1) Indonesian term Equivalent in English-speaking countries Associate degree Associate degree Profesional ahli pratama Diploma 2 (D2) Profesional ahli muda Diploma 3 (D3) Profesional ahli madya Associate degree Diploma 4 (D4) Sarjana sains terapan Bachelor's degree Sarjana 1 (S1) Sarjana Bachelor's degree Sarjana 2 (S2) Magister Master's degree Sarjana 3 (S3) Doktor Doctoral degree 1/21/13 .
MAJOR EDUCATI ON PROBLEM 1/21/13 .
16% districts have GER < 80%) 1/21/13 . & commitment to teach • School facilities • School management 2. Education quality • Disparity of quality among schools • Teacher deployment.18%.Problems in Education 1. quality. Inequity problem .the higher the level of education the larger the gap of enrollment • Between the poor and the rich • Among districts (while the national GER of JSS is 96.
TERIM A 1/21/13 .
THAN K 1/21/13 .
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