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STANDARDS/MANUALS/ GUIDELINES FOR SMALL HYDRO DEVELOPMENT

Civil Works – Layout of Small Hydro Plants

Sponsor: Ministry of New and Renewable Energy Govt. of India

Lead Organization: Alternate Hydro Energy Center Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee

May 2011

Power Canal 1. Other Water Conduction Structures 1.3. Determination of plant flow capacity 1.2.8. Guidelines for layout of shp 1.9.5.1.3. Feeder Canal 1.CONTENTS S.1.8. 1.4.9.8. Layout of Run – off – river Schemes 1. Conceptual Design 1. types of scheme 1.No.7.9. toe of dam schemes 1.2.9.9.9. Introduction 1. run – off – river scheme 1.8.4.1.6. renovation of existing plants 1.5.7.2. Desilter 1.3.8.9. layout methodology – general 1. canal falls schemes 1. Forebay Tank 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 4 6 6 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 10 . Mapping and site investigations 1. Field Visit 1.5. TITLE Page No. map studies 1.8.9.6. Data collection 1.4. Determination of FSL of Head Pond 1. Guidelines for Layout of small hydro plants 1.

9. Layout of Canal Falls Schemes 3.9. Penstock 1. Weight of Steel Surge Tank 3.1.1.5.2.7.9.8.6. Provision for Future Expansion 3.8. Layout of Dan Toe Schemes 3. References 3. Powerhouse and Tailrace 3.10. Lowest Down Surge 3.9. Examples of Project Layouts 10 10 12 13 13 13 13 14 14 14 14 16 16 17 .9.3. Determination of Capacity and Energy Benefits 3. Surge Tanks 2. Benefits and Economic Evolutions 3.4. Penstock Intake 1. RET Screen 3.

as given in the following checklist.1 GUIDELINES FOR LAYOUT OF SMALL HYDRO PLANTS.2 Guidelines for Layout of SHP The following topographical features favour the development of economic layouts: a) Waterfalls b) Rapids c) Irrigation canal falls d) Toe of dam locations e) Canyons and narrow valleys f) Major river bends Small hydro plants are most often associated with features a) to d) and infrequently with e) and f). weight and width limitations on bridges. • Access to site and space for structures and site roads. hydraulic and structural design of civil works and on the maintenance of civil structures and related hydro mechanical equipment.CIVIL WORKS PREAMBLE This part provides guidance on layout.1 Check List on Site Conditions Factors to consider: • Climate • Condition of main road to the area. If the findings of this phase show that a scheme appears technically and economically feasible then more detailed prefeasibility and feasibility studies can be commissioned. 1. This section provides guidelines on the conceptual design of small hydro plants. • Foundation conditions and slope stability AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ Civil Works – Guidelines For Layout Of Small Hydro Plants /May 2011            1  . Table 1. 1 1. Often the work of this phase is done with incomplete site data. Introduction The objective of this phase of study is to produce estimates of preliminary costs and benefits of a scheme and to assess its economic viability. In layout studies (conceptual design) the engineer shall also take into account other site specific conditions. The initial findings can be useful in designing the scope of investigations needed to reliably evaluate the scheme.

The silt flushing outlets from desilter should flush the silted water in the drain / river above the high flood level. Preferably. A typical layout of a mini hydro scheme is shown in Figure 1. tunnels. depending on site conditions. pipelines or inverted siphons. lumber and impermeable fill.5 Canal Falls Schemes Canal falls are locations along an irrigation canal where the level of the canal is stepped-down in a fall structure to better conform to ground elevations. where relatively flat land can be found. turbine flow alone is sufficient.1.4 Run-of-River Schemes A typical run-of-river project would normally comprise: • Diversion structure = and intake (head works) • Intake channel/tunnel • Desilter • Power canal / Power Tunnel • Forebay tank / Surge Tank with spilling arrangement • Penstock • Powerhouse • Tailrace If the water carries a substantial sediment load (say more than 200 ppm on average) a desilter would also be required. It should be noted that the waterways upstream of the desilter must be designed for turbine plus flushing flows and while for downstream reach. Although AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ Civil Works – Guidelines For Layout Of Small Hydro Plants /May 2011            2  .• • • • • • 1. 1. aggregates.3 Developable head Penstock/head length ratio Availability of construction materials (sand.4. portions of the water conductor system may have to be constructed as box culverts. however. Most often the water conductor system will be a lined canal . the desilter would be built as close to the intake as possible. as required) Local services and skills availability High water levels and tail water and head pond flow rating curves Others Types of schemes The most common development schemes for Indian small hydro projects are of the following types: • Run-of-river • Canal falls • Toe of dam • Renovation of existing plants 1. aqueducts.

1.3 shows the main features of this project. The power plant intake and penstock may be incorporated into the diversion works or spillway. as practical. • Powerhouse • Tailrace canal returning flow to a main irrigation canals or river The intake and penstock would normally be constructed in parallel to the outlet works.6 Toe of Dam Schemes A toe of dam project would normally comprise. Therefore sediment abrasion of turbine components would not be a problem with this type of development. Typically. • Compact intake-power house and • Tailrace canal rejoining the irrigation canal below the existing fall structure.0 m) the energy potentials are significant given the large and dependable flows are available. All canal fall projects must include provision for flow bypassing so that irrigation flows can be maintained during periods when the plant may be out of service. Depending on the operating rules of the reservoir toe of dam reservoir may produce significant amounts of firm energy. or constructed as a separate facility in an abutment. A typical canal fall scheme would normally comprise of. Figure 2. to ensure that irrigation on water supply releases would not be interrupted during periods when the plant might be out of service. These plants are often subject to large variation in head and flow and turbine selection must take this into account. 1. • Intake • Short penstock. Almost all canal fall projects undertaken to date have been constructed many years after the original canal project had been completed and were subject to the following constraints: • That the new powerhouse would be constructed without interfering (or with minimum interference) of irrigation system day-to-day operations. toe of dam projects are located below storage reservoirs that would effectively trap sediment entering the reservoir. All efforts should be made to minimize costs while maintaining efficient operation. A typical example of this type of development is the Sirkhinda Mini Hydel. • That the new plant should not jeopardize the safety of the existing structures. or only secondary energy. AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ Civil Works – Guidelines For Layout Of Small Hydro Plants /May 2011            3  . • Off take (power) canal with or without regulating structure.0 m to 5.the developable heads available at such structures are often quite small (2.

preliminary access roads and T. 1110-2-2002. To be shifted to • US army corps of Engineers EM No. head-works.3 Field Visit The field visit provides an opportunity to obtain an appreciation of site topography. 1. aerial photos. their elevations and co-ordinates can be determined with portable GPS AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ Civil Works – Guidelines For Layout Of Small Hydro Plants /May 2011            4  .8. market surveys. previous planning studies.8. These locations.A typical example of a toe of dam development is Dukwan SHP. geology reports should be collected and reviewed. desilting tank and powerhouse and to decide the side of the river best suited for routing of the waterways. If the selected design appears economically viable then more detailed feasibility studies would be undertaken in a later phase of studies. The recommended layout methodology includes the following sequential steps: • Data Collection • Map studies • Field Visit • Mapping and site geotechnical investigations • Conceptual design • Economic evaluation • Report on preliminary studies 1. From these on-site observations it is often possible to identify practical locations for temporary facilities. evaluation and repairs of concrete structures.8 To go to 1. 1.4 shows the main features of this development. flow regime.1 Data Collection All available maps and documents including: site or regional hydrology data.1. It is further recommended that an outline of preliminary studies report be made at this time and a check list prepared before going into the field. 1.L. Figure 2.2 Layout or conceptual design involves the identification of all practical alternatives and the evaluation of such alternatives in order to determine the optimal conceptual design. This will help to establish which important information is lacking in order to obtain it during the field visit.8.2 Map studies Potential development schemes should then be laid out on available mapping for guidance during the field visit.2 Layout Methodology – General This should also go to 1. geology and access for roads and transmission lines. routes.

On larger projects. access roads and T.8.4 of the Standards. Their practical knowledge of the area and its people could be invaluable. It is also recommended that surveyors also record ground conditions on their maps. Preliminary design is based on data developed in the above steps and hydrology studies performed in accordance with Section 1. deep soil. size and complexity of the site. geological mapping and (possibly) seismic surveys may also be required. waterways. since their values will not affect the outcomes of comparisons between alternatives. The relative merits of each alternative are then be assessed by economic analysis to determine the best alternative. The extent of the mapping should be sufficient to cover all alternatives envisaged and to allow for reasonable adjustments (re-alignments) of structures. such as: access roads. It is also recommended that the inspection team include at last three professionals: a hydrologist.5 Conceptual Design In this activity preliminary designs and cost estimates are prepared for each alternative and benefits evaluated. It is also recommended that the team include local representatives.L.13 of the Standards. Less attention is needed for determining the cost of common components. but should at least include collection of sand and rock samples to test for suitability for concrete production. AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ Civil Works – Guidelines For Layout Of Small Hydro Plants /May 2011            5  .4 Mapping and site investigations The scope of the mapping and site investigation programs should be prepared following the field visit. 1. a field visit will require 1-3 days depending on the remoteness. Typically. but such changes should be relatively minor and unlikely to change the choice of optimal alternative. broken rock or solid bed rock. These preliminary parameters should later the refined in component optimization studies in detailed feasibility study or design phases.8. In this section preliminary design parameters are suggested to facilitate layout and sizing of project components. diamond drilling. a geologist and a hydropower engineer.equipment. ephemeral on perennial streams. For small projects high head schemes extensive site investigations are rarely required. sparse or heavy forest. such as: grass land. Field visit should be supplemented with photos and a field inspection report prepared. 1. Careful attention should be paid to the cost components with vary from one alternative to the other. routes. as recommended in Section 1.

9. trench intake or Tyrolean intake. Also the MFL should be calculated for the design flood. at which point a lateral flow design should be considered.3 Feeder Canal Feeder canals transport sediment laden water from the intake to the desilter.barrage/gated weir d. For smaller flows canals in masonry would be preferred.9.9. Tyrolean intakes would be favoured for mountain streams and for relatively small plant flows up to about 2 m3/s. conventionally taken as the level for the mean annual flood (Q2).9 Layout of Run-of-River Schemes: 1. Preliminary canal dimensional design should ensure no sediment deposition. They should be designed to carry flushing flow for desilter operation (assuming continuous flushing type). For the lateral type the resulting FSL should be compared with the natural high water level.dam.2. Lateral intakes would be favoured on relatively narrow rivers and for medium to large flows (5m3/s and above).1 Determination of plant flow capacity to be shifted to 1. Section 2.3 water power studies Plant flow capacity should be developed with reference to the flow duration curve (FDC) for the site. and intake structure Three types of intakes are suitable for low head diversions: lateral intake. The following preliminary criteria are suggested: For isolated plants : QP = Q90% For grid connected plants : QP = Q35% Where: QP = plant flow capacity (m3/s). normally Q100 for SHP (or Q10 for temporary type head-works of minihydro schemes).2 Determination of FSL of Head Pond to be revised to include diversion structures a-trench wier b-ungated weir c. 1. The need for spillway gates is determined considering the elevation of the MFL and whether unacceptable upstream flooding upstream flooding would be caused with a simple overflow weir design. while for larger flow reinforced concrete should be considered. 1.1. Trench intakes would be favoured in relatively wide plains rivers for plant flows up to about 20m3/s* (to be reviewed).1 of the Standard provides rules on determination of diversion heads for each type of intake structure. AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ Civil Works – Guidelines For Layout Of Small Hydro Plants /May 2011            6  . QT% = flow equaled or exceeded T% of time.

9. Exceptions to these requirements are: . Choice of construction type would be the same as for feeder canals.2 design 1.2 1.6 Other Water Conductor Structures Where topography is unfavourable other types of water conductor structures may be required. as noted above. For preliminary design the tank volume can be determined considering two minutes storage using the following formula: V = Qp ×120 (m3) The tank area would be calculated assuming a difference of 1.7 Forebay Tank For projects. . In such cases the engineer will have to develop more detailed layouts in accordance with the relevant standards and guidelines.1.9. To go to preliminary design 1.9 Penstock Check head /length (H/L) ratio of the proposed penstock layout. 1.9.4 Desilter A continuous flushing hopper design with multiple hoppers is recommended. go to 1.0m to 2. where water is conveyed by canals a forebay tank is normally required at the transition between canal and penstock to handle transient flows due to changes in plant operation and also to facilitate plant control for plants operating in water level control mode. if H/L > 5 a surge tank or turbine bypass valve may be required.9.0m between the tank FSL (spillway crest) and minimum operating level.High head plants with Pelton turbines Go to design AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ Civil Works – Guidelines For Layout Of Small Hydro Plants /May 2011            7  .5 m/s is recommended for preliminary design of the power canal.5 Power Canal A design velocity of 1. 1.9.Mini hydro plants with load controller.

. Using these basic dimensions.addition of extra machine inertia (typically by adding a flywheel to a horizontal axis unit or extra mass to a vertical axis generator).9.2. access and the like will probably determine the optimal arrangement.3 AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ Civil Works – Guidelines For Layout Of Small Hydro Plants /May 2011            8  . foundations. Section 2. Alternatives to surge tanks providing some of the benefits of surge tanks. access and the like will probably decide the optimal arrangement.1. Alternatively. Practical considerations regarding foundation conditions. to control excessive generator runaway speeds and to contribute to system speed regulation. Preliminary Dimensioning and Layout of Hydroelectric Power Houses. for preliminary analysis. Acceleration of flow velocity through the entry is acceptable if economically justified and compatible with flow conditions at the power plant intake.pressure relief devices.installing turbine bypass valves. Layout of Canal Falls Schemes There are rarely more than two alternatives for development depending on which side of the existing canal the diversion canal and powerhouse would be located.6 of this Standard. as explained in Sub-Section 3. Preliminary guidelines on unit selection and basic layout dimensions can be obtained from IS 12800: Guidelines for Selection of Hydraulic Turbine. Deceleration of flow velocity should be avoided. The RETScreen Model can be used to obtain preliminary powerhouse cost estimates. Layout concepts should be based on successful designs of similar plants. As for plants at canal falls. preliminary powerhouse layouts can be prepared. 3. Layout of Dam Toe Schemes.1 Powerhouse and Tailrace Preliminary powerhouse layout requires the selection of appropriate generating equipment and estimation of the main powerhouse dimensions.2 3.10 Surge Tanks Surge tanks are required to protect long penstocks from excessive water hammer pressure rise. include: . Attention must also be paid to hydraulic design to minimize head losses. powerhouse cost estimates by a parametric estimating technique are satisfactory. Coffer dams are not usually needed as interconnecting canals can usually be build during periods when the canal would be out of service for annual maintenance. Central Board for Irrigation and Power (CBIP. As surge tanks are expensive all options should be evaluated.6 of this Standard provides guidelines for this task. practical consideration of site characteristics. 2003) gives an inventory of Indian hydropower plants with salient data and drawings. Occasionally original designs will include provision for 3. .

Benefits and Economic Evolutions The determination of benefits and economic evolution should be carried out in accordance with Sections 1. Design of cofferdams and other protective works must be done with equal care as these works form an integral part of a successful project.6 and 1.7 of the Standard.4. 1.4 Determination of Capacity and Energy Benefits. voltage as appropriate.1 Financial Summary Input : Financial parameters Output : Project costs and savings Results of financial analyses Cost of power.5 AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ Civil Works – Guidelines For Layout Of Small Hydro Plants /May 2011            9  . maximum head loss is normally found to be between 2% and 10% of gross head. For run-of-river hydro schemes average energy benefits are determined by integration of the project flow duration curve (FDC) using the net head appropriate for each flow class.addition of a power plant. For isolated or stand alone projects firm energy is of greater interest. Normally. Examples of successful designs can be found in CBIP (2003). Firm capacity.6. or distribution line. 3. For this exercise it is convenient to express hydraulic losses as a function of Q2. For grid connected plants the optimum capacity should be based on benefit-cost analysis using appropriate incremental costs for energy and capacity. Parmakian. Other References Waterhammer Analysis J. For isolated SHP the capacity providing the least cost of energy should be selected. Dover Publishers (1963) 3. Preliminary Dimensioning and Layout of Surface Hydroelectric Power Houses. Energy output should be expressed in mean kWh per year. 3. Indian practice is to base firm energy determinations on the Q90% flow from the FDC. Firm capacity should be calculated based on the capacity that can be produced with Q90%. 3. firm energy and mean energy should all be referenced to the transmission.8 References Indian Standards Cited IS 12800 (Part 3) Guidelines for Selection of Hydraulic Turbine. Layout concepts should be based on successful designs of similar projects. These values should be selected in consultation with the responsible State or Central Government authority.

CBIP (2003) AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ Civil Works – Guidelines For Layout Of Small Hydro Plants /May 2011            10  .Hydroelectric Power Stations in Operation in India.

9 Examples of Project Layouts: FIGURE: 1.3.4.1 TYPICAL LAYOUT OF MINI HYDEL AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ Civil Works – Guidelines For Layout Of Small Hydro Plants /May 2011            11  .

AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ Civil Works – Guidelines For Layout Of Small Hydro Plants /May 2011            12  .

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