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Anthropology

Anthropology

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Published by: Abusayed Adhar on Jan 21, 2013
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Pre-industrial, Industrial, and Post-industrial Societies

Lecture 1-2

Also defined as a social group with territorial affiliation with no specialization of functions ruled by tribal officers. frequent contacts and a certain community of interests.Pre-industrial society • A Pre-industrial society would be defined as a group or band occupying a common territory having a feeling of unity deriving from similarities in culture. or otherwise united in language or dialect recognizing social distance with other tribes. . hereditary.

. having more information at hand about the world. Capitalism needs a vast amount of specialized knowledge and skills due to the complex nature of industrial production. production was relatively simple and.e. • Limited variation of social classes • Communications were limited between different communities in preindustrial societies.i. allowing knowledge transfer and cultural diffusion between them.Some attributes of the pre-industrial societies • Limited production (i. • In contrast. thus. • Pre-industrial societies are largely in rural communities. industrial societies grew with the help of faster means of communication. the number of specialized crafts was limited. In pre-industrial societies. artisanship vs. mass production) • Primarily had an agricultural economy • Limited division of labor.e. Few had a chance to see or hear beyond their own village.

. • Social change and economic development are closely related with technological innovation.Industrialization • The process of social and economic change that transforms a human group from a preindustrial society into an industrial one. • Industrialization also introduces a form of philosophical change where people obtain a different attitude towards their environment and sociological process.

abundant natural resources of various kinds. This was the first industrialization in the world's history. • Factors identified by researchers have ranged from favorable political/legal environments for industry and commerce. . • The first ever transformation to an industrial economy from an agrarian one was called the Industrial Revolution and this took place in the late 18th and early 19th centuries in a few countries of Western Europe and North America. plentiful supplies of relatively low-cost. skilled and adaptable labor.Industrialization cont. beginning in Great Britain.

fuelled by exportations going to countries that have bigger economies: the United States. . Philippines and Mexico have experienced substantial industrial growth. a few countries in Latin America.Industrialization cont. Malaysia. and Africa. China. South Africa. Japan. • In recent decades. Asia. such as Turkey. and the EU.

• How do you think knowledge might be transferred? • Why do you think this transferring of knowledge is so essential to the process of industrialization? .Transfer of knowledge • Transfer of knowledge is essential to product an industrialization movement.

The prerequisites to this economic shift are the processes of industrialization and liberalization. and mass privatization. . This economic transition spurs a restructuring in society as a whole. a diffusion of national and global capital.Post-industrial society • A post-industrial society is a society in which an economic transition has occurred from a manufacturing based economy to a service based economy.

g. such as genetic or electric).Social and economic attributes of the post-industrial society • Within the economy. specialized engineers. and government services are the most decisive for a post-industrial society. • Knowledge is considered a valuable form of capital. health. • The Importance of ‘blue-collar’ manual work (e. • Although services predominate in a wide range of sectors. there is a transition from goods production to the services industry. • Of special importance is the rise of scientists (e. assembly line workers) declines and professional (lawyers) and technical work (computer programmers) come to predominate. .. education. research.g.. Production of such goods as clothing and steel declines and services such as selling hamburgers and offering advice on investments increase.

and control the new and dramatically changing technologies. In fact. the university is crucial to post-industrial society. The university produced the experts who can create. • Examples of post-industrial societies include the United States. • This leads to the need for more universities and university-based student. guide. . and Western Europe. Japan. Canada.Social and economic attributes of the post-industrial society • A new relationship is forged in the post-industrial society between science and new technologies.

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