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Sections

  • INTRODUCTION
  • AMMONIA INKS
  • ISRAEL'S SECRET INK AND DEVELOPERS
  • TEMPERATURE-SENSITIVE INKS
  • MAGIC TRICK INKS
  • MISCELLANEOUS INKS AND PAPERS
  • COVERT PENS

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THE
SECRET SCIENCE OF

COVERT

INKS

THE
SECRET SCIENCE OF

COVERT INKS

Samael Rubin

Loompanics Unlimited Port Townsend, Washington

!7A 98j6g ISBN 0-915r79_44-X Library of Congress Card Catalog Number g6_g2957 .S.A.THE SECRET SCIENCE OF COVERT INKS @L987 by Ioompanics Unlimited All fughts Reserved Printed in U. Pablisbed by: loompanics Unlimited PO Box 1197 Port Townsend.

j2 Vanishing Inks .... . ..73 ...9 ..... .... ... Temperature-Sensitive .overt Pens C.. .. ...77 ... .... .. .. .5 . Israel's Secret Ink and Developers... Incendiary and Pyrotechnic Inks Gamblers'Secret Inks. Reagent Secret Inks .....23 ........30 Inks Ultraviolet Inks Vapor Inks. Miscellaneous Inks and Papers C. ... Appearing and Disappearing Inks .. .. Luminous Inks...overt ..... Magic Trick Inks.9L Chemical and Physical ... ..7I .. Ammonia Inks. ...jj ..19 .. Data . Poison Inks ...TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction.1 ...65 I7ater Inks.L2 .4j .. .49 .. ....3S .68 .........9S Mail Openirg .. ..

federal agencies. counry sheriffs. intelligence agencies and others. not in the process of obtaining information. which gives the impression rhat no message at all has to information I !t ll been sent. prison wardens and others . he has to send it to his organization. It is a "how-ro. Many new inks have been discovered by . about ninety percent are caught. there is a need for something lite invisibie ink. and this is the most dangerous part of his work." self-study book for police and security officers. Thus. It is not enough for a spy to obtain information. c One of the most remarkable features of the world-wide clash of spies is their rivalry to concoct new and more effective covert inks.INTRODUCTION This is a reference volume for those desiring ready access abour the covert inks used by criminals. long messages are always dangerous. This book is offered as the basis for such a course of instruction. there is no course in covert inks available to enforcement and security officers in the United States.for anyone who wishes to improve their knowledge of secret inks. Of all the spies who are captured. Although codes are popular in secret service work. but when they attempt ro report it through rheir secret channels. since they can express more in less space. srate police. Covert inks are commonly used in espionage. Except for the limited instruction in spy centers.

lt would bi profitable for the reader to remember rhat mixing chemicals may be a dangerous business and rhat careless handling or ignorance r_night result in death or serious injury. or is concealedln such aiticles. soap. gamblers. invenlors. neckties.. the ink is mide to resemble medicine. Israel is the only country thar has sending supplies of invisible ink ro spies have 6. roothpaste.-and to dry them afterwards. However. mentalists. Sfhen the ink is needed. cotton gloves. such as chemists. sexually unfaithful lovers and business executives. mouthwash. perfume or other toilet prepararions. and by interviewing people with expert knowledge of the subject. though the would-be writer of a novel about espionage mighi berre?it . Great care has been taken to insure that no information on covert inks has been given which is classified by the governmenr as "rop secret. since the neiessary information alo. secret service agents. pomade.r. forgers.made a systematic investigation of the coverr ink phenomenon and now leads all others in rhis field. such research." affecting the national defense of the United States within the meaning of the Espionage Laws. handkerchiefs. police. scarves. Sgme very ingenious methods of secrerly carrying or discovered. This is not a book for the general reader.ut each compound is given. magicians. the cloth covering of buttons. shoe laces. deteciives. ir is recovered by soaking the articles in distilled warer. Do not inhale any vapors. scientists. A knowledge of chemistry is not a prerequisite for the study of these secret inks. in experimenring with any of the techniques discussed herein. criminals. One method of carrying supplies is ro saturate socks. or soft collars with the writing solution. In some cases. The information conrained in this book was obtained by studying both published and documentary materials concerning the use of covert inks. It does not have the excitement of a spy stofy or an adventure novel. However. SJery goggles and rubber gloves should be worn when irandling acids and poisons.

it describes how governments and others use such inks for covert communication. it is a comprehensive volume on the use of secrer inks by intelligence agenrs and others.r I l i I i greatly from using it as a reference. In any case. Illustrated by numerous case histories. .

any rctponclblllty lor thc ute or mlcutc ol tnlormailoln contalned ln thlt book. Be warnedl .Nelther thc author_-nor the publhhcr asrumc. lt lt cold lor enterhlnmcnt purpotos only.

The children admitted they had been recruited by a teacher in Gaza. commonly available in supermarkets. Household ammonia. or else are developed with ammonia fumes. is extremely soluble in water: under ordinary temperarure and pressure. security measures in Israeli villages. one volume of water can dissolve 700 volumes of ammonia. were raken into custody in Rehovot. Knowing that the Israeli government will nor prosecute children. is ammonia gas dissolved in warer.AMMONIA INKS Ammonia is a colorless gas having a srrong pungent odor. It is necessary ro agitate rhe mixture each . and had received a seven day course in which they were taught to identify weapons and submit information on troop movements. It INKS WHICH CONTAIN AMMONIA Syrian Permanent Inuisible Ink . ages 14 to 16. The secret inks in this chapter either contain ammonia. and the location of military camps in invisible ink made by mixing one part linseed oil. Four Arab high school students. and 100 parts of water. the Narional Security Bureau in Syria recruits young boys and girls as spies.20 parts warer of ammonia.

glycerin. INKS WHICH ARE DEVELOPED WITH AMMONIA in this section are developed with ammonia. which will leave an oily stain on the paper. simply dip the paper into cold water. it will be invisible. To make the invisible writing or sketches appear. or else a little of the oil may separate and float on top. Upon drying. but upon application of ammonia. The writing *itt appear blue. It disappears again when the ammonia vaporizes. This ink is invisible after drying. this ink is made by mixing one parr each of phenolphthalein. Sfhen dry. spray with a solurion of cobalt nitrare. lfhen you put the paper with the invisible writing in the jar. The inks Cbinese Red Secret Ink Used by agents of the Chinese Ministry of Public Security. They produce writing which when dry is invisible. This is used as a printing ink and messages are placed on the back of and sometimes between the lines of routine public bulletins. To develop the message. it is colorless. it turns reddish. Undergroand Blue Secret Ink This secret ink has been used by FBI agents working undercover in the Communist Party. and carbon tetrachloride. the traces disappear agaii. Put a few drops of ammonia water on a piece of absorbent cotton and place it in a jar or bottle.time the pen is dipped into it. !7hen the writing is thoroughly dry. the message comes out clear and distinct. alcohol. 6 . The "ink" itself is merely a strong solution of ammonia water use it jusr as you get it from the supermarket.ind reappear with each succeeding immersion in water.

dry. 2 Dissolve L24 grams of copper sulphate in one liter of distilled water to which has been added 80 drops of sulphuric acid. but turns pale blue in ammonia fumes. Austria was a hotbed of spying. British. and add a few drops of sulphuric acid. former-Gestapo members are corresponding with each other using a secret ink made as follows. Gestapo Blood-Red Seuet __ Ink According ro the Federal Office of Crime Investigation in potash. A little gum or sugar should be added ro prevent running. Pour a few spoonfuls of ammonia into a saucer and lay the paper over it. the ink turns pale blue when developeJin the vapors of ammonia. due to its common borders with several countries and thepresence of United Srates. Sfhen the ammonia has evaporated. Mix 640 cc of distilled water with 350 cc of acetone and 4 grams each of phenolphthalein and caustic with ammonia. Turkisb (MIT) Black Secret Ink The Turkish Spy Agency (MIT) has used this ink. It will dry invisible and come out black in the presence of ammonii fumes. This ink is invisible when dry. Israeli Pale Blue Secret Ink No. Invisible *h.. Dissolve 80 grams of ferrous sulphate in a liter of distilred water. Germany (Bundeskriminalamt).Israeli Pale Blue Setet Ink This simple ink is made by dissolving 8 grams or less of copper sulphate (blue stone) in a pint of waier. French and Soviet agenrs. Austrian . it will disappear again. Invisible writing made with rhis ink is developed S7iesbaden. and reappear when the process is repeated. Austrian Black Secret Ink After WWII.

iuy"a information viral to US nationar security ro rwo . Try this ink..o intelligence agencies was written with a L07o solution of nitrate of protoxide of mercu ry.rtphoc'yunide vapors (be careful .ii Ay these two vapors. 8 . writing will turn red when .these fumes are very ioxicj.rte with more distilled water until the writin! is invisiLle.Security Aggl. and may be made to alternately appear and disapp r.ammonia. dil. *us foundro hirne . Dilute to one liter.solve 135 grams of ferric chloride in distilled warer containing 20 ml of concentrated hydrochloric acid. To develop.". place sulphuric acid and potassium cyanide in a longnecked flask and hold the papei over the iop.-froy'. of a foreign governmenr. Dis. the -_ National.*poi. and turn black when moistened with liquid AN INK WHICH USES AMMONIA AS THE DISAPPEARING AGENT Double Agent Red Secret Ink 4. and if the writing is visible. Characters written with this ink are invisible.y (NSA). below. it. citizens convicted for spying on behalf of foreign powers admitted that a great." em_ployee of the hush-hush US spy agency.d to the s. using the secret ink described . The message will disappear-when exposed to ammonia fumes.deal of the informatio"n *ta .

infusion of galls and sulphuric acid. Write the meaningless message with this mixture. and the developer is a mixture of sulphate of iron. A hidden mesiuge is written with the invisible ink and a completely harmless message which no one would rhink of stopping is written ooer it.the message will be invisible. FRENCH CLOAK AND DAGGER BLACK SECRET INK caught an Arab sheik using this ink to illegally copy French classified documents. The Service de Documentation Exterieure et Contre Espionage (SDECE). the French counrerpart of the FBI. The visible ink is a mixrure of sulphate of iron and irifusion of galls. When the second message is made to disappear. The invisible ink is a solution of sub-carbonate of potass. whi-ch is 9 . Ifrite the secret message on paper wirh a solution of subcarbonate of potass . Mix together equal parts of sulphate of iron and infusion of galls. the first message appears.APPEARING AND DISAPPEARING INKS These inks make a visible message disappear and an invisible one appear in its place.

It involves a visible ink. Ifet the paper with this compound. The acid will discharge the color of the visible message.tartling and clever effect. The ink is made as follows: 100 drarns of water containing a little gum 3. To develop the secret message. It is a black ink that can be erased after reading.black. write a message on a sheet of whire cardboard. The eraser is any suitable rubber eraser. a disappearing ink.5 grams magnesium carbonate 3. srrith a clean pen. BRITISH BLACK AND BLUE SECRET INK British intelligence developed this secret ink.5 grams finely divided graphite. and a developer. rubber. use rhe visible ink with a little sulphuric acid. and can be developed again into blue writing if the information is neede d aglin. prepare a solution of sodium carbonate and soak a pieie of 10 . The developer is a solution of equal portions of iron alum and bisulphare of potash. such as India MAGICIAN'S APPEARING AND DISAPPEARING TRAVELING INK TRICK Magicians have used this ink trick to obtain a very s. DISAPPEARING INK: IThile the visible ink is drying. proceed as follows: VISIBLE INK: Prepare a solution of equal parts of ferric ammonium sulphate and sodium ferrocyanide. and cause the invisible ink ro appear black. enough to d-prive it of color. an invisible ink.5 grams mixture of an alkaline solution of yellow prussiate of potash 3.

TO PERFORM THE TRICK: place rhe first card and wet blotter on an easel on the right side of the stage. Tell the audience that you are going to make the message travel across the stage.ureJ. in separate conrainers. in this solution. a solution of sodium ferrocyanide and one of ferric ammonium sulphate. Now wrire the same message on another card with the ferric ammonium sulphate solution. DEVELOPER: Impregnate or soak another piece of blotting paper. in the sodium ferrocyanide solution.blotting paper. rubbing the same way you did on ihe firsr. the same size as the first. INVISIBLE INK: Nexr prepare. When the wer blotting paper is removed. then place the wet blotter ouer t[e cardboard on the rigii and press slighdy on it as if you were rubbing it off. the same size as the cardboard. and the second card on an easel of the left side.rd sheet. 11 . Remive the blotter and the message has disapp. the message will appear on the seco. Go across the stage to the other ease-l and place the Jeiond sheer of blotting paper over rhe second prepared sheet of cardboard.

is ideal for developing the reagent secrer inks. rhe chemists of an intelligence service must apply in proper succession all of the analytic reagents. every chemical that will react with anorher chemical to produce a color will make a secrer ink of this kind. Be sure to clean it each time a new solution is used. But. In fact. of course. I have more than five hundred differenr reagenr secret ink formulas in my files. The developer is a I2 . An ordinary atomizer. which can be purchased at any drug store. But obtaining the desired result requires lengthy manipulation and comes at the expense of the neatness of the document. the ones I list are better than some of the others. In order to develop such a piece of secret writing. This ink is a solurion of j3 grams of potassium ferrocyanide in 1 liter of water.REAGENT SECRET INKS Reagent secret inks are those in which the writing is developed by a substance used to ascertain the nuturJ ot composition of the ink by means of their chemical interaction. Following arc the formulas for fifteen colored reagenr inks: (L) Blue Secret Ink. A message written in such an ink is invisible and will be affected only by certain specific reagents or a given group of chemical compounds. far roo many to list here.

The "i >l writing will appear a beautiful reddish brown. dissolve 73 grams of cobalt nitrate in 1 liter of water.rg solution of ammonia water. (3) Naay Blue Secret Inh. To T3 ./rite with a solution of 27 grams of iron chloride in 1 liter of water. (4) Brown Secret Ink. After rhe writing has dried. Senet Ink. Spray with a solutilon of sodium sulphocyanare to develop.re. Tie writing will be red.. (6) Deep Red Secret Ink. (8) Light Red. (2). (7) Red secret Ink. (5) Red-Broutn Secret Ink. s7hen #riting is perfectly dry. The-witing iill upp. The writing wiliappear dark blue. v. Developer is a s. bl. dissolve 1 gram of phenolphthalein in 50 cc of arcohol and io cc of *ute?. This ink consist s of 73 grams of cobalt nitrate dissolved in 1 liter of water. This ink is a solution of copper sulphate.ur blue.diluted solution of iron sulphate applied ro rhe invisible writing (after it has thorougily dried)-via sponge or aerosol. The writing will be deep red.Ts of potassium iodide in 1 liter of *ater. The developed writing will appear brown. To make rhis ink. develop by spraying with a solution grams of potassium ferrocyanide ln 1 liter of water. To make this ink. ' " Iight Blue Secret Ink.rio. The developed writing will appea. develop by spraying with a solution of g3 g. The develo-per is a solution of 53 grams of postassium ferrocyanide in i liter of water. dissolve 6g grams of chloride of mercury in 1 liter of waier. Develop the writing_ by spraying with a . To make this ink. This ink is a solution of 62 grams of copper sulphate in 1 liter of water.l.trgng solution of ammonia water.

The writing will be violet. (I3) Dark Green Secret Ink. The developer is a solution of 70 grams of cobalt chloride in 1 liter of water. (lI) (I2) Green Secret Ink. develop by spraying with a solution of 53 grams of potassium ferrocyanide in 1 liter of water. Make a solution by adding 1 dram of potassium bromide and 1 dram of pure copper sulphate to I/2 ounce of clear water. used on a yellow-tinted paper. (9) Yellout Secret Ink. this is a very weak solution. the writing is a golden yellow. Make this ink by carefully dissolving 20 grams of phenol (or carbolic acid) in 1 liter of water. since a strong solution will burn the paper. Ink. This solution is nearly colorless. Ink. Developed by heat. The wriring will be green. it is completely invisible. The writing will be light red. T4 . The writing will be brilliant yellow. Make a solution of 73 grams of cobalt nitrate in 1 liter of water. It will be dark green. spray with a solution of 14 grams of copper sulphate in I liter of water. Vlrjte on tinted paper using a solution of 50 grams of copper chloride in 1 liter of water. IThen the writing is dry. Sfhen the writing is dry. spray with a solution of I59 grams of sodium carbonate in 1 liter of water. V|rite with a solution of 68 grams of chloride of mercury in 1 liter of water. (14) Bright Green Secre. The writing will be dark green. Spray with a solution of 27 grams of iron chloride in 1 liter of water to develop. This ink is a solution of 6 grams of sodium chlorate in 1 liter of water. Develop with a solution of 1 gram of caustic soda in 1 liter of water. Secret (I0) Golden Yellout Violet Secret Ink.develop the writing.

3'cc of sulphutic acid in 12 cc of water. After writing a message with this solution in the usual manner. A good way to apply the developer is ro sarurare a blotter with it.(15) Vbite Secret lnk.BLACK SECRET REAGENT INK This is an example of the reagent secret inks used by counter-intelligence agents. Mix and dissolve 60 grains of gallic acid (trihydroxy-benzoic) and 10 grains of powdered acacia in 6 ounces of distilled water. BLUE SECRET REAGENT INK Klaus Barbie allegedly used this secret ink to supply information to American intelligence agencies during ihe 1960s. The writing is then permanenr and can be removed only with a first-class eraser. a weak solution of sulphuiic acid. either chemical or mechanical.6L grams of barium chioride in I liter of water. let it dry without blotting.arf or running as brushing the developer on the writing is likely to do. a former Gestapo officer. had been employed T5 . the solution must not be darker than a pale straw color. spray with the developer. The acacia used should not be so colored as to make the writing visible. This developer. This produces lines without :me. Barbie. applied to the writing. Vlrire on dark colored paper (black or dark blue) with a solution of. wil bring it out in a pale greenish or bluish-black color ai firsr. it will gradually darken until it is coal black. !7hen the writing is perfectly dry.) The developed writing will be white. The developer for this ink consists of 30 grains of ferrous sulphate dissolved in 8 ounces of distilled water. (Sulphuric acid must be poured slowly and carefully in making this solution. then press it down on the writing. COAL. But with continued exposure to air.

S. When dry. a solution of ferric ammonium sulphate and water. This rice ink was the favorite means of secret communication between members of the Indian nationalist movement for independence from Britain. Spray the paper with a solution of potassium iodide and the writing will appear with a purple color. The writing is developed with a blotter moistened with a solution of ferric ammonium sulphate. KITCHEN SECRET BLACK INK prisoner planned and carried out his escape from Champ Dollon prison in Geneva. Army as an anti-Soviet intelligence agent in Europe in 1948. enabling him to escape. The developer. A KITCHEN SECRET PURPLE INK Another ink was used by a convict working in a prison kitchen to correspond secretly with his gang on the outside. simply brew some very strong tea. The ink consists of 1 level teaspoon of tartaric acid in 2 cups of water. strain off the water and use it as an ink. T6 . He is presently in prison in France awaiting trial on charges of having committed "crimes against humanity" during STorld War II. To make this ink. To make this ink. the writing will be invisible on white paper. Switzerland. Before the rice is thoroughly cooked. in collaboration with confederates on the outside with whom he corresponded using a secret ink. is applied to the paper with a bit of cotton.by the U. The developed writing is blue. The ink was made from tea which he obtained while working in the kitchen. boil about a handful of rice in a pint of water.

PLO SECRET RED PRINTING INK No one in the United States government is supposed to talk about the National Security Agency and what it does. soda ash or caustic soda. Secret Black Anatomy Ink Used by Soviet spies to transmit atom bomb secrets. Since washing soda ii harmless and universally obtainable. it is almost completely invisible. SECRET ANATOMY INKS Ifriting secrer messages on humans takes on a multitude of forms. This vehicle is a solution of canary-colored dextrine cooked into glycerine at a low temperature. together with a sufficient proportion of alumina (aluminum oxide) and opaque white to mask the slighr cream color. But when rhe printed rh. To make this ink. the printing will immediately lppear in a very striking brilliant red. spies use anatomy inki for secret writing d "t sketches on parts of their own bodies. rhe L7 . IThen this ink is printed on white stock and allowed to dry. and dispatch him with his communication after his growing hair covered the writing. Knowing this. when it was common to shave the head of a messenger. it uses secret inks. rhis type of seciet ink is quite popular with the PLO.et is dipped into a dilute solution of almost any alkali. The oldest known employment occurred in Roman times. such as this one. but foreign diplomats in New York and S7ashington take it for granted that all of their conversations and diplomatic traffic are routinely monitored by the NSA. wrire a secrer message. the pLO never uses the telephone or cable to transmit important messages. For covert communication. grind a small amount of phenolphrhalein crystals into a dextrine-glycerine vehicle. such as *ashirrg soda. Today.

invisible previously. Hitler's Secret Crimson Anatomy Ink Adolph Hitler allegedly used this secret anatomy ink for sex games with Eva Braun. The ink was a solution of sodium sulphocyanate. When you place your hand in a basin of water containing a small amount of iron sulphate. on the back of the hand. and the developer a solution of iron chloride. and the developer is iron sulphate solution. will appear black. If you write on any pafi of your body with a solution of sodium sulphocyanate. Eva would hide printed messages on various parts of her body. the writing. but will appear crimson when a solution of iron chloride is applied. lfrite with a small amount of tannic acid solution. say. the writing will be invisible.ink is tannic acid solution. and Hitler would come to bed armed with an atomizer containing the reagent which would reveal the messages. 18 .

r ISRAEL'S SECRET INK AND DEVELOPERS Mossad may be the most skillful intelligence service in the world. Mossad's knowledge of exceptional secret inks and developers used by the Soviet Onion is the CIA's mosr valuable source of intelligence abour the matter." However. the following will show some of the developers and an ink used by ihe Israelis. perosmic acid (HrOsOr). prodicing osmium gray-black color. Srares by the Israelis. ihu-t the Israelis time and again have been able to penetrate the world's inner sancrums is no accident. It is a triumph of careful organization-and painstaking preparation by their chemists well versed in secret inks. or colorless crystalline compound which is reducid by organic matter' such as invisible inks containing carbon. I cannor reveal the information on developers and inks furnished the United. since rhis is classified "top s€cret. REDUCTION DEVELOPER Osmium tetroxide. The coloration is pirmanent. so it is no surprise that the accomplishmenrs of the Israelis with secret inks have earned them rhe grudging admiration of intelligence studenrs around the *oild. is a 19 .

and because of the nature of the molecule of which it forms a part. REDUCTION DEVELOPER be immersed in a bath of silver nitrate Certain invisible inks containing metallic compounds may (one-percenr solution) and a reducing agent. This is applied in an extremely thin. uniform layer by passing the paper through two rollers moistened with the solution. containing no more than one part of the active agenr in 50. 20 . (Ordinary sunlight will develop the writing. bur takes longer to do so.Apply a one-percent aqueous solution of the reagent with a brush to the invisible writing to be developed. then exposed to ultraviolet.) Such writing photographs extremely well and can be preserved f.000. such as hydrogen sulphide. When the Israelis examined samples of such inks. ELECTROCHEMICAL DEVELOPER Some inks used in secret writing are exrremely dilute. the metal in this sort of ink is protected from ordinary developers. SILVER NITRATE DEVELOPER The best method of developing secret invisible writing on paper involves the use of a l0-percent solution of silver nitrate. Allow the paper to dry naturally. whereby a thin coating of silver is deposited on the invisible writing. sunlight hastens the reduction. they detected organic compounds of silver of the so-called protargol type. Because of its extreme dilution.000 parts. The paper is allowed to dry. revealing the writing in a few seconds. which is thereby rendered visible.or a year or more if kept in absolute darkness. or even 500.

utmost care must also be taken when crushing the aluminum chloride into fragments. making them visible. will als?. Nascent silver (proluced when silver nitrate and a reducing agenr are combined) is the most easily used variety of this rype of developer.be revealed in great detail. in practice.. But.000 parrs. the letters will sta^nd out bofdly. MOSSAD SECRET INK DEVELOPER This deveJoper is made with 4 grams of potassium iodide. however. If the aluminum chloride is added too rapidly to the Jolution of the other ingredients. then-th-e latte^r will be deposited by electrolysis upon the previousry-deposited metal traces (which are more or lesi good cbndictors). finally discovered a reagent capable of. 5 grams of sodium chl6ride. 3 milliliters of glycerin and "30 cc of distilled warer. An advantage of rhis formula is that it leaves no tell-tale stains. 2 grams of aluminum chloride. so far no subsranie has been found capable of affording protection against this developer. 2t . it_will produce a violent reaction. . -this is seldom a serious inconvenience.r* will reveal most invisible inks known to science... revealing texts written with such enormiusly iit".1 gram of iodine. and th"e paper is placed in a medium containing a nascenr metal. In about five minutes. solutions as those containing only one part of thl active agent in 100.The Israelis. If a sheet of paper bears infinitesimar rraces of cerrain metals deposited on its surface by writing on it with one of the extremely dilute invisible inki. and will remain visible for some time. The aluminum chloridle'must be adJed little by little and the solution kept cool. This developer is applied to a document with a pad of cotton wool. even if slight. This .u!. It has"the disadvantage rhat accidental abrasions and other damage to the surface of the document.

make much use of a Special Process Secret Ink composed of one part napthol. Dip the entire sheet of paper in rhis mixture until all the letters appear. 22 . as well as Aman and Shin Bet. Next dissolve 50 grams of sodium acetate in 200 cc of water. The reagent used to develop the invisible wriring requires two solutions. and sixty parrs acetone. Afterwards. Then mix 20 cc of this second solurion with 100 cc of the first solution. and add one gram of sodium acetate. First mix 5 cc of sulphuric acid with 50 cc of nitric acid in a liter of water. wash the paper in distilled water and dry ir between sheets of blotter PaPer. twenty pams collodium.ISRAELI SPECIAL PROCESS SECRET INK Agents of Mossad.

TEMPERATURE-SENSITIVE INKS CAR BOMB TIMING (SECRET INK FOR TEMPERATURE-SENSITIVE PAPER) A car bomb usually consists of. $7hen the engine has run long enough. So before the bomb is placed. At I45 degrees the color ii maroon. as it causes not only an explosion. Professional killers attach the fuse to the exhaust manifold.2 or 3 sticks of dynamite. Paper impregnated with temperature-sensitive ink 23 . Decomposition begins at 300 degrees. This does a thorough job of murdering. changes color when heated. it will ignite the fuse. At that remperature it begins to darken. Professional killers like to know how long the engine will have to run before the explosion will occur. becoming noticeably darker at 135 degrees. tt ltZ degrees it is black. and the temperarure of the exhaust manifold reaches 300 degrees. but a crash as well. remperarure-sensitive paper is wrapped around the exhaust pipe of another car. then to a dark chocolate at 160 degrees. At Ir5 degrees the color changes to a light chocolate. The engine is started and the time required for the paper to go from bright red to decomposition is noted. It is bright red below 130 degrees F. a blasting cap and a length of fuse.

since all invisible inks w]il show on glazed-paper. 1. In the morning. lemon juice and other fruit and vegetable juices (formalin added to a fruit juice will somewha-t inhibit the development of the writing by heat).423. Then add about 1 pound of syrupy phosphor-ic acid. Heat develops writing made with fluids such as cobilt salts. solutions of sugar' dilute sulphuric acid and urine. TEMPERATURE.This temperarure-sensitive ink consists of 1 part (by weight) of cuprous iodide and 1 part of mercuric^chloride ground to a fine powder and mixed with a thin. milk. This is no doubt due to the ready accessibility of heat and its slight cost. Stir a little to produce a homogenous Inaisible mixture. the flakes will be a gelatinous mass. Occasionally the addition of a litrle ferric ammonium solution is helpful. The best way ro develop such writing is with a carefully regulated air oven. The writing becomes black with the application of heat. 24 . a lighted candli. In some cases. The writing should be done on unglazed paper. but a hot iron also g-ives good results. It is applied to thE surface of the paper with a brush. a march.246 (1922) First. copper salts. prepare two pounds of aqueous solution of ferric sulphate by soaking small flakes of ferric sulphate in cold water overnight.SENSITIVE INVISIBLE INKS The most commonly used invisible inks seem ro be those that are made visible by the application of heat. the writing can be developed *Ith u small amount of heat. Ink Patent No. non-acid oil or spirit varnish. a warm electric bulb or warm breath may bJ enough.light-colored. Black Inaisible Ink This ink consisrs of a weak solution of nitrate of mercury.

The writing will appear blue-green when developed.agid (1 part sulphuric acid and 17 p"ri. Permanent Black Inaisible Ink Dissolve 1 parr powdered sugar in 50 parus dilute sulphuric. cabbage jiice or lime juice. This is a commercial formula for an invisible ink which turns brown with careful heating. in permanent black. It sirould be washed clean in warer as soon as ihe writing is done. grapefruit juice. This ink hai the disivantuge of destroying thc paper. Ir is best used with a quill pen. Ironing with a hot flatiron is the best way to develop it. If a clean pen is used. If a quill pen is not hund^y. 4 This ink consists of any of the following juices: artichoke juice. Broutn Inaisible Ink No. the writing will be invisible.Blue-Grem Inahible Ink Make a five or ren-percent solution of cobalt chloride in soft or distilled warer.. a cheap gold-plated pen point on a fountain pen will do. Broutn Inaisible Ink No.pru. I Dissolve 8 ounces of sulphate of copper and g ounces of bromide of potassium in 1 gallon of disiiiled water. 3 This ink consists simply of buttermilk (which works b::::t than regular milk).r. i. Broutn Inuisible Ink No."since the acid attacks metal. *"t. leek juice. lTriting becomes visible when held over a small flame. Broutn Inahible Ink No. strain ro remove any specks of dirt. too. commercial battery lcid).e. 2 Mix ammonium chloride (sal ammoniac) with 15 parts water. 2' .The developed wriiing will up.

Broutn Inahible Ink No. Broutn Inaisible Ink No. 6 This ink consists simply of vinegar. I7hen dry. the writing is absolutely colorless. such as from a lighred candle or march. 7 This ink is a strong solution of ferric ammonium sulphate (alum) in water. I7ith the application of heat. Broutn Inuisible lnk No. Add formalin to the lemon juice (use the commercial 4O-percent solution of formaldehyde). Higb Temperatare Broutn Inuisible Ink Characters written with lemon juice will become visible when the paper is heated.Characters written with any of these juices will become very visible when the paper is heated. and a higher temperature than usual will be needed to develop the writing. Broun Inuisible Ink No. the writing develops to a deep reddish-brown. and may be obtained by plunging the pen into a peeled onion. which becomes very visible when heated. 5 This ink consists of 30 grams of sodium chloride dissolved in 100 cc of water. Deep Reddisb-Broutn Inaisible Ink The ink consists simply of onion juice. simply dissolve some chlorate of potash in water. 26 . 8 To make this ink.

. 100 cc of water. once thii ink is developed by heat. Protect your love life.Y I i I i I I r I Tamper Infonnation Inaisible Ink Some of the invisible inks developed by the application of heat will disappear again after cooling. a solurion of equal parts of resoiclinol and paratoluidin in 8 drops of water and 6 drops of sulphuric acid can be used.riui i. Grcen Inaisible Ink To make this ink." So reads one pulp m^gizine advertisement offering this ink for sale by miil ord'er.I7rite 9ev9l9p a beautiful rose tint when heat is applied. invisible love messages in passionate-red inviiible ink which only you and your lover ian make appear and disappear. 5 grams of nitrate of nickel and 10 grams of chloride of cobalt in 1 ounce of distilled water. dissolve 5 grams of chloride of nickel. the paper can be marked with signs which will become visible with heat and which will nottisappear. But'i^n order to determine if an unauthorized person his rampered with a document. Indelible Inaisible Ink Dissolve 100 parts of alum in warer and bring the solution to a boil. Add 100 parts of white garlic juice t-o the boiling solution. Red Inaisible Louers' Ink If a weak solution of cobalt nirrare is used as ink. it will . Yellout Inaisible Ink Make two solutions by dissolving 30 grams of copper sulphate in 100 cc of water and 30 grams olsal u*-o. This produces pale red or light yJllow lines which turn black or brown when heated. For this purpose.. then let cool. bring to a boil once again. Then mix the two solutions together. ir cannot be effaced with moisture. 27 .

It disappears upon cooling. Heat makes the message appear. The ink is made with I/2 ounce of oxide of cobalt (cobaltous oxide). This is a non-poisonous invisible ink which children can play with safely. 4 ounces of water. Give one to your cigarette-borrowing friend. dissolved or ground into either a very pale-colored lithographic varnish or a vehicle made by cooking straw-colored dextrine into glycerine at a low temperature with continuous stirring to prevent burning of the dextrine. Cigarette Moocber Secret Ink Use this ink to send a message to your friends who are always borrowing cigarettes because they are too cheap to buy their own. the printing is BIue Press Pinting almost completely invisible. write the word "moocher" on some cigarettes with this ink. Using a gold-plated penpoint. Cbildren's Green Non-poisonous Commercial Inuisible Ink To make this ink. and 1 dram of mucilage of gum acacia. \U7hen the dried sheet is exposed to mild heat.Inahible Ink One type of printing press ink consists of a heat-sensitive salt. When this type of ink is applied to a white or slightly pinkish paper and dried. combine I part vinegar with 2 parts of saturated solution of sodium chloride. A considerable amount of cobaltous salt must be used to make the ink sufficiently concentrared to be practical. Cold makes it disappear. the printed matter turns a light blue. It consists of sulphuric acid in water. such as cobaltous chloride. !7hen he lights it and 28 . Heat makes the message appear. Let them dry rhoroughly. enough muriatic acid to dissolve the oxide of cobalt. Secret Postal Card Ink This ink was used by a German posing as a neo-nazi to send information about cryptology and electronic warfare to the Soviets on postal cards. A sufficient quantity of alumina hydrate must also be ground into the ink.

. the letters of the word .moocher. 29 ..starts smoking. will appear one ar a time as rhe heat reaches them.

If you filter out the white light from sunlight or a srrong white light. but some of these will activate only under light of a specific wavelength. if he has unwittingly picked up traces of invisible anthracene powder from. intelligence agencies use black light to reveal and read secrer messages.ULTRAVIOLET INKS ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION SECRET INKS "Black light" is the popular term for ultraviolet radiation beyond the visible range of light. a lock previously sprinkled with it. Law enforcemenr officers can mark ransom money with an invisible substance which will show up under ultraviolet light. A thief may be identified using black light. Of course.) For this reason. you can have an invisible mark made on rhe back of your hand. If you leave a dance hall or a race track.000 substances can be used for the secret inks visible under black light. Over 3. say. some 30 . Many laundries are using black light and invisible marking inks. rhe remaining black light rays will activate certain secret inks by causing them to floresce. (The wavelength of light is measured in angstrom units. This phenomenon has been pur to use in various ways. the mark glows under black light. and wish to be allowed to re-enter later without paying a second admission.

Ideally.40. 100 (red-purple). 14.Following are some of the available black light lamps which can be used for developing secret messages (best results are obtained in a darkened room): 1.activating range 30 inches. 40. .3600 angsrroms activating range 20 to 40 feet watrage: 100 lclear). Cold quaftz 10 warr . 200 (clear).15. Tubular (Special phosphor). But no one light is suitable for every setret ink. 30. But a great deal can be made florescent at 3600 angstroms. 6 different lamps . Argon 2 l/2 watr 3900 angstroms activating - - 2.30.40. range 4 inches. 6.3650 angsrroms . but it gets too hot. Black Bulb 250 watt .excellent light. 100 (flood).2550 angstroms . do not An let it burn continuously. The tubular lamps are ideal for producing this wavelength. and 3b . 5 different lamps 3300 to 3600 angstroms wamage: 4. These lamps work best with a filter of ordinary blue glass.30. (clear). . 4 different lamps . 100 (spotlight). Mercury.15. one's black-light equipment should include both :h91. 3. All but the 100 watt red-purple require special heatresisting filters.40 activating range (in inches): 14. 4.intelligence units use blacklight lamps producing the exact wavelengths of light necessary to activati specificiecret inks. The 400 watr clear is the best lig[t for range and coverage. It is on or near this wavelength that mosr secret inks floresce the strongest. 5. A few secret inks show up brightest under short rays.activating range (in inches): L0. and long wavelengths. L8.6. 400 3t .activating range 10 inches. though the lesJ expensive black bulb is also an excellent light source for -a 3600 angstrom wavelength. Tubular (Red-purple). Even the little argon lamp will do the trick.3600 angstroms with filter wattage:6.9. such as those produced by the cold-quartz lamp.

" 32 . This solution. The florescent substance may either be organic.By falsely promising confidentiality in this way. This is an ominous form of snooping by "Big Brother. research firms. for example. anthracene. Dark paper which has been padded to prevenr impressions is prefirable for the final message. . dissolve quinine sulphate in a small amount of water to which a few drops of sulphuric acid has been added. is invisible in sunlight but shows a blue florescence under ultraviolet light. applied ro paper and allowed to dry. Pur the coated paper in a typewriter instead of carbon_ copying paper and you can type invisible messages readable only under ulrraviolet light. This ink is being used for the invisible coding of supposedly confidential questionnaires so that the individual respondent can be identified although he does not give his name. The extremely short rays from this light must be kept away from the body. But the coldquartz lamp is used mainly for a few special inks.are harmless to eyes and skin. zinc sulphide phosphor. e_xcept All of the lamps listed above INVISIBLE TYPING CARBON PAPER A florescent substance is coated on paper in a base of several percenr drying wax and an organic solvent. or inorganic. for instance. BIG BROTHER BLUE SECRET INK To make this ink. the cold-quartz lamp. detectives and others are able to trick peopie into providing information about personal matters *ch "s income or drinking habits.

But the wriring will be -visible under ultraviolet light. a letter from the Gestapo ro German-Americans in the yorkville neighborhood of New York City was intercepted. American code break. YORKVILLE DEEP VIOLET SECRET INK Esculetin may be used as an invisible writing fluid. The messages are written wirh a toothpick dipped in the solution. stumped until the confidential numbers were discovered. a prosecution witness.r. lfhite paper written on with this fluid will appear blank in ordinary light. SOVIET CIPHER BRILLIANT BLUE SECRET INK agenrs recovered the charred remnants of a soviet codl book fr"om a battlefield in Finland. *. to be-put in gas tanks. rhe Russian code involved hidden five-digit-groups of numbers as weil as the five-digit groups listed in the code book.S. U. However.r. testified that the accused had sent informarion to Rus=sia using this secret ink. During !7orld STar Two.NORWEGIAN SOFT BLUE SECRET INK Puling the trial of five Norwegians accused of spying on NATO installations in Norway on behalf of Moicoi. or sugar. The developer is ultraviolet light. A secret message written with this invisible ink urged German_ Americans to commit minor acts of sabotage such as leaving the lights on and the water running in their homes. a former soviet secret agent. During \UTorld STar Two. It consists of an aqueous solution of pyraniidon. intelligence 33 . to be dumped in engine oil systems. They were also instructed to carry condomi filled with graphite.

and photograph it. I7hen a spy is arrested. t9 the object being photographed. is almost colorless in daylight and green under ultraviolet light. then expose to ultraviolet light unril the writing atrains ma*imum brightness.) Place the lamp so that the ultraviolet light comes as nearly as possible at i right angle . when applied in the same way. any papers he is carrying are usually tested for invisible writing. merely being questioned and released. using rhis secret laundry marking ink. The message will be invisible in daylight.For such photography. the 18A filter is necessary to stop the visible light. a spy may write any such information on his shirt. one needs a common black light tube and an ultraviolet filter Number 18A to be placed over the camera lens. dissolve anrhracene (purified by recrystallization from pyridine) in benzine.written in secret ink. in documents stolen by the FBI from the office of the Soviet Purchasing Commission in New York City. rhen let dry. (Since ultraviolet light tubes-emit both 34 . To make this ink. (Crude anthracene. The photography must be done in a dark room. To develop such secret writing on cloth.) BRIGHT BLUE SECRET LAUNDRY MARKING INK An invisible laundry ink which floresces a bright blue under ultraviolet light is made by dissolving beta-napthol in water and alkalinizing with sodium hydroxide. The time of exposure will bi ai much as ultraviolet radiation and visible light. Dry in a dark room. \7rite on paper with this solution. if he carries no confidential information on paper. but will show a brilliant blue florescence under ultraviolet light. This ink is good for writing on rayon. dip the cloth in a lO-percent solution of silver nitrate to which a little acetic acid has been added. cotton and other kinds of cloth. But he may Jvade detection. For this reason.

the writing becomes florescent and begins to glow. a prisoner had given detailed insrructions for the break.GREEN SECRET INK Allegedly used by Saudi Arabian slave dealers to correspond with their agents.20 or 30 minutes. Despite censorship of mail. powders which he used to make an invisible ink. BRIGHT YELLOWISH. Those headache powders were composed of acetyl salicylic acid. Under ultraviolet light. of letrers ro a partner on rhe outside. A special ultraviolet photometer will give the exact time of exposure. S7riting on the back of a 4-page letrer. 35 . it floresces a bright yellowish-green.. By feigning illness and complaining of headaches. An aspirin dissolved in water makis an invisible writing fluid which leaves no percepcible trace. using urine as an invisible ink. and had drawn three diagrams of the prison. this ink consists of a solution of t/2 gram of uranyl nitrate and 50 cc of water. the convict was able ro organize -rhe escape by sending messages In 1916. a man made the most daring of all prison breaks. It should not be used on foods or other items intended for human consumption. PRISON BLUE SECRET INK an escape from the Sing Sing Death House. Bur under an ultraviolet lamp.rnd called aspirin. he got headachi backs written with secret ink on the PRISON URINE SECRET INK Two men were charged with conspiracy to effect rhe escape of prisoners from the House of Detention in New York City. which is now sold in a white crystalline compo.

Then the secret writing will appear unburnt. (Saliva. will not. To make the ink. but dip it into the shield occasionally.Although urine has a slightly yellow to amber color. then stroke it on the mouth of the bottle to remove any surplus. Dip the brush into the shield. To make the shield. dissolve anthracene. in benzine.) BRIGHT GREEN SECRET INK This ink consists of barium sulfhydrate (white. mix acetic acid and the white of an egg. SECRET PASS. SECRET FIRE INK AND SHIELD A bogus Soviet defector attempting to penerrate American intelligence used this ink and shield to hide secret messages in his correspondence. rhombicshaped crystals) dissolved in hot or cold water. Although this ink is florescent under ultraviolet light. then add mercury and stir well. purified by recrystallization from pyridine. Use a No. Ifith this shield concealing the secret message. Use it sparingly until the whole letter is covered. however. the shield covers the entire sheet of paper with a brilliant blue florescence under ultraviolet light. Hold the paper until it is completely dry and odorless. Do not saturate the paper. it is invisible on certain types of writing paper. thereby concealing the secret writing. 6 flat sable brush to cover the letter with the shield. Do not let the brush go dry. Ultraviolet light is the developer.OUT INKS Pass-out inks are those inks used in stamping the hands of people who have been admitted to various enrertainmenr 36 . It will floresce under ultraviolet light. in white letters. the only way to read it is to burn the paper.

Both inks are invisible in ordinary light. Use the clear filtrate for the ink. A saturated aqueous alcohol solution of beta methyl umbelliferone may be used as an invisible florescent stamping ink. they can be readmitted without having to pay admission again. An alcoholic solution of turmeric is prepared by washing the ground root powder with water and discarding thE . 37 .It is a relatively easy matter for one person to pay ad-mission. so if they leave the premises. two secret pass-out inks are used. but show up under ultraviolet light.]. go outside. " rubber stamp. it will show a yellowish florescence under ultraviolet light. Prepare with alcohol and filter through -filter paper.establishmenrs. fo prevent this. Invisible in-ordinary light. the ink is invisible. washing-s. and copy his stamp onto others peoples' hands. but shows up blue under ultraviolet light.u. !7hen used with . A little glycerin or other suspending or thickening agenr may be added.

the writing will be reproduced line for line on the second sheet. In each case. They had used secrer vapor inks to transmit information. the chloride is dissolved in water to make a weak solution.VAPOR INKS SECRET MERCURIAL INKS Four different mercurial inks can be made using the following four substances: gold chloride. If the developed writing is then placed in contact with a second sheer of paper previously sensitized with the same solution used for the writing. the metal in the writing solution will then appear in dark tints. platinum chloride. lfriting on white paper done with any of these four solutions will be invisible. If the sheet of paper is held over a dish containing mercury. PLO SECRET VAPOR INK Eight PLO members confessed ro Egyptian security authorities that they had plotted to blow up United States and Israeli embassies and kill Egyptian officials in order to establish a ndical Arab regime. ITriting developed in this manner is very clear and distinct. iridium chloride and palladium chloride. The Israelis notified the j8 .

He said that page-staples were removed from copies of magazines and -"ir"g.. This will immediatery turn the *riti"j aurt ur. writing has been protected wirh a paper bath. . IODINE VAPOR SECRET INK DEVELOPER - . r. ...". .-u. According to this man.rrug.il. after interrogating another pLO member who dJ U.-urlu.1 part of bismuth citrate in tbo p..r1.Egyptian authorities how to de_cipher the secret vapor inks. ." tto *iiri. A suspected letter was pur into the bath. The ink used for writing rhese secret messages is made by dissolving 1 p-a1 of lead lc.ir.... adding. is by means of iodine fumes.. . W.r.. ol *ui.rfrip office.'ir. a solution of sal ammoniac (3 ounces of ammonium chloride and 1 pint of water) untii the whore becomes rransparenr._. ouring"srorH vapor bath was an essential appliince ir. .rr. magazines were used to transmit messages.rr. Iodine tends to settle on rough surfaces. renewed with very dilute nitrit acid.f.1 part of uranium acerare . scratches of a nib. so when the le*er was removed after a jew minutes. margins.ii:.i u"i. this.. A few drops of gum mixed with this solution...u. "ruui. This.develoq aly form of chemical .i.ink.r*i"g. To ievelof. A very good method of developing secre. ii it. grop !I drop.rg'*itt any known fluid that has ever so faintry marked .i _. 39 . of sheet of p_aper can escape the delicat. developed writing will_fadl away in a few rfii"rr. picked up by the Mossad. J'.."it.apparatus consist"a or a rin oven in which iodine was maintained at the lowest temperarure at which it would remain vaporized. .a iodine v-apor' However.rnrYjp.*rr.t"t.r. minute crystals of iodine had settled along the tiny rough edges J*"i.. Iodine vapor baths have been perfected so rhat thev can now.rt.*I.J-uf in. inscribed in the . expose it to thd fumes oi roipirori. *rr.. wrirten with this ink. " acid.fr.method doesn't *oir."." "lq. Then the magazines -were re_stapled and mailed.

However. For a few years. If the process conrinues. the evaporation is greatly increased. The paper rests on two pieces of wood. as well as impressions and certain secrer inks. The container is then covered and the paper left inside it for a few minutes. There are quiie a few kinds -the of . two phony political prisoners planted in his cell blew the whisile on this man.juice. the letters are photographed. Since then all suspected mail of political prisoners is censored by iodine vapor treatment.d r. " coat of iodine spreads over rhe entire surface. 1961. 3_llgwing \U7hen the fumes come in contact with the cold paper. two pieieJ of glass porcelain. Af stains on the paper. especially greasy ones. Fidel Castro's governmenr imprisoned a young man who had taken up arms against the revolution. The paper should not rouch the iodine. Some experts recommend the use of hot iodine fumes for developing secrer writing. BecauG the action oJ hot iodine fumes on paper is very quick and harsh. such as wat. In some cases.-Tierefore. the time during which the iodine is allowCd ro acr on the paper should be just long. eventually the whole paper becomes dark brown and nothing can be distinguished.rrt to the addressee.eno'rgh to bring our the writing. it takes much training to be able ro obtain good results with this method. he improvised these inks by using whatever was handy.r. ani not long enough to allow the paper to darken. appamrus on the market for heating iodine and the fumes to condense on the s.rifuce of the paper. will show up more or less brown. thir. Crystalline iodine evaporares ar normal room temperature. placed on rhe bottom of the contailner. Unable ro ger any chemicals. About 40 . then made invisible again". or even betrer. saliva and urine. In this process. If a little heat is applied to it. onion In Another method is to use only cold iodine fumes. a quantity of iodine is spread over the bottom of a flat glass container and the paper to be examined is placed in the container abour I/2 inch above the iodine. he wrote letters wirh iecret inks describing Cuban prison as hell.

..) rThen treated with the chloride of palladium solution. a small quantity of alum or tannic acid should be added to the chloride of palladium solution. treat it for slightly less than a minute *ith a iolutiJn or . As soon as the color is dark enough. but there are two that are relatively simple. several different ways of doing ro iruo.000 cc of distilled *uter. p"nril or inderible ink. The first consists.five minutes of this trearmenr will usually deverop ail writing. the developed writing will sooi fade away. llgy:{ 1o However. The second method consists of treating the developed writing with a solution of 1 gram of chlor-ide of palladium and 1. (If these ingredients are added. of putring the paper between two glass plates and gluing the idges iogethlr.dl*t into the original chloride of palladium solutioi. The writing will be pr"ier..i. slowty. inrluding trearment with gallic icid. chemical is washed the paper is lway_ with wate r.iom. However.. such as examining an intercepted letter without thl knowledge of the receiver. the treatment is discontinued. been invenrel. In this case. Ths is advantageous for. the resulting solution should not be po.rtp-or. a weak solurion of ammonia is used. if it is later neiessary ro reinove it. t 41 .pqepare iodine-developed writing for photography. it is often necessary to show the writing to a court.r.) If there is writing on__the paper due to an inderibr.d _d_ry indefinitely.. Most of these methods require considerable skill to achieve good results.the writing face down in a fiat^glass container filled with this solution. Since iodine changes from a solid to a gas at room temperature. etc. the superfluous 'and. nitrate of silver. thJ paper is allowed to float with. in which case it is necessary to preserve the *Iitirrg.o th'se used by artists to treat charcoal drawings. To. ltrre solution may alJo be applied with a piece of cotron or a smail atomize*i-i1".p. the writing slowly turns dark brown.

. Sfriting done with this ink turns black when exposed to hydrogen sulfide vapor. Aitch-Tu-Ess cartridges for generating hydrogen sulfide may also be purchased from them. a solution of 8 grams of arsenic trioxide (arsenous acid) in 1 liter of water.. AUSTRALIAN SECRET VAPOR INK The following secret vapor ink is used by some agents of Australian military intelligence. Then thoroughly wash the paper in a stream of water and let it dry. A pad of blank papers is passed to the spectators and the talker asks people to put their initials on the blank paper so they can get the sheet intended for them. Hydrogen sulfide is usually prepared by the action of dilute hydrochloric or sulfuric acid on ferrous sulfide. the developed writing becomes brown or black and can be readily photographed. A lecturer or talker standing beside the Oriental offers to tell fortunes (or.25 gram of tannic acid. The initialed sheets are removed from the pad and placed in a transparent glass 42 . The gas is collected by the displacement of aft. Chemical companies sell saturated hydrogen sulfide solutions.. to write a personal letter of advice) for a dollar. How is Secret Buddha Ink used? At a f. The ink consists of.5 cc of dilute (10 percent) hydrochloric acid and 100 cc of water. \7ith this treatment. flea market or any crowded outdoor place. if fortunetelling is not permitted.gram of palladium chloride. SECRET BUDDHA INK Buddha Ink consists of a ten-percent solution of lead acetate in distilled water.air. park.25 Bram of alum. The invisible writing is developed by exposure to vapors of hydrogen sulfide. carnival. a man or woman stands on a box or platform wearing an Oriental costume to attract a crowd. street corner.

'.i...o-"i"irs u The apparatus for generating the hydrogen sulfide fumes can be consrructed by duplicatirig rhe arrangement shown in the accompanying photo€rapr.The trick is that the fortunes are written on apparenrly blank sheets... liec. . The invisibre writing is then deveroped by exposure to hydrogen sulfide ... . removed from the glass iube and each different fortune o. ".td. -rri"g the if... "nut. " "..1".f"r.-a jrua"". was used in the picture blcause it lan stand. tube. few seconds.l. *-nii. Secret Buddha Ink.. of paper beforehtand. of adrrice.J ." . a long glass rube is used. tube...."f....i-. oi--llf**ur. iri practice.iuur 43 . "tt o". which is placed in the upper breast pocket. the iormerly blank-rh. The tube protrudes from the pocket and'ii visibre .

The rubber tube is extended through the inside lining of the breast pocket. Because of the odor. this gimmick is not suitable for use indoors in small rooms. the air displaces the hydrogen sulfide fumes. air-conditioned stores. It is now partly filled with hydrogen sulfide vapor which can be used in developing the next papers. Ifhen you squeeze the bulb. Here the odor can be camouflaged by burning incense or putting perfume on the jacket. Do not place more than 3 papers in the glass tube at one time. But it is a money-making success outdoors or in large. immediately put the glass tube back in the breast pocket.The apparatus consists principally of a long glass container with two copper tubes soldered through the cap. 44 . For best results. The orher goes to the inside of the jacket breast pocket. one of which is connected to a rubber bulb. Replace the cap tightly to prevent any fumes from escaping. Pour one inch of the saturated solution of hydrogen sulfide into the glass container. Keep them wrapped in a damp towel before use. where they will develop the papers in the transparent glass tube. After removing the developed papers. Connected to these copper tubes are two lengths of rubber tube. the papers should be damp. A saturated solution of hydrogen sulfide (which can be purchased from any chemical house) is placed in the glass container which then is put into one pocket. while the bulb goes into another. but not wet. This apparatus is hidden inside the jacket or costume. forcing them into the tube leading to the breast pocket. which is sewed inside so that it will hold the glass tube over the protruding rubber tube.

Dark Brown Vanishing Ink 1 part lead salt L/L0 part uranium acetate l/70 part bismuth citrate 100 parts water a few drops of sal ammoniac a few drops of gum arabic fumes of sulphuric acid dilute nitric acid 45 . arthougfi t. or exchange. such fraud is a criminil act. dging away with all docume ntary evidence of any kind in the hands of the recipient. News reports several years ago stated that Aristotle ^ onassis was being investigated b--y French authorities on charges. llases. Those who sign uiir. thar he signed a contrac with vanishing ink.h. are caught.VANISHING INKS characters written with the inks in this chapter will yl"irl. promissory nores.y "r. obligations. etc. The complaint was thrown out of court. in vanishi"ng i"t able to evade their contractual.

Shake the mixture until both salts have dissolved. Then add. Add 30 grams of cupric sulfate and 30 grams of sal ammoniac.Dissolve the lead salt. drop by drop. and cool the mixture. The characters will fade away again in a few minutes. To make characters written in this ink visible. I(hen the ink has dried. This ink will fade away in a few minutes. Using a clean pen. This black ink will vanish in 24 hours. which turns them immediately to a dark brown. uranium acetate. a solution of sal ammoniac until the whole becomes transparent. Mix in a few drops of gum anbic. A secret message can be disguised as an ordinary message if you use ordinary blue ink of the same shade as the above disappearing ink. Then dissolve a little gum arabic in it. but can be renewed by a slighr washing with very dilute nitric acid. BLUE SECRET CODE INK Add one gram of sodium ferrocyanide and one gram of ferric ammonium sulfate to two teaspoonfuls of water in a test tube. Swab the writing with the cotton and t 't it will disappear. dip a wad of cotton in a solution prepared by dissolving 8 grams of sodium carbonate in two teaspoonfuls of water. Part of a word or sentence can be written with the vanishing ink and the rest with the ordinary ink. 46 . BLACK VANISHING INK Boil 30 grams of tannic acid in 4 ounces of brandy. and bismuth citrate in the water. The agent swabs the message. write with this ink on a sheet of white paper. and a new. secret message now aPPears. expose them to the fumes of sulphuric acid. This will form a blue colored ink.

The ink consists of an aqueous solution of iodide of starch. If you use equal parts of sulphuric acid and ink. characters written with it vanish. and is deadly if inhaled!) Add to the mixture. This ink is especially intended for love letters. the paper will be corroded in one month. when cooled. This black ink will vanish in a few days. 2 Boil 30 grams of tannic acid in 2 ounces of commercial nitric acid. the writing will eventually disappear by corroding the paper. Many a "man of letters" wishes he had them back! GLAZED PAPER VANISHING INK 1 part iodine 1 part potassium iodide 24 parts mucilage of. along with whatever promises the writer might have made. (CAUTION: nitric acid is corrosive. a blue-black color is produced. In four weeks. \fhen soluble starch is dissolved in a tincture of iodine. some gum arabic and a little sulphuric acid. ANY COLOR VANISHING INK If you mix sulphuric acid with common ink of any color. acacia 100 parts water 47 . BLUE VANISHING INK FOR LOVE LETTERS This is the ink that formerly sold in Paris under the name "Encre pour les Dames" (ink for ladies).BLACK VANISHING INK NO. causes severe burns on contact.

This ink can be used on glazed paper and will vanish in time.Dissolve the potassium iodide in half the warer. Add the rest of the water and mix in the mucilage. and dissolve the iodine in the mixture. 95 parts dextrin 5 parts iodine 10 parts sulphuric ether 5 parts alcohol 10 parts water 10 Mix the alcohol and ether. I7riting will vanish in time. Dry the mixture in a cool dark place. To make a red vanishing ink. Sfhen you wanr to use it. 5 parts tincture of iodine 2 parts arrowroot 100 parts water 9 Mix the arrowroor and water and boil together. VANISHING INK NO. Stir in the dextrin. I7riting done with this ink will vanish when exposed to air for a length of time. mix L VANISHING INK NO. This ink is good on any type of paper and will vanish after a period of time. RED VANISHING INK gram of phenolphthalein to 50 cc of ammonia. then add and dissolve the iodine. Let cool and stir the tincture of iodine. dissolve enough of the substance in water to make the required amount of ink. 48 .

POISON INKS BULGARIAN POISON PEN INK .and. INK The Russian KGB has perfected a pen that sprays a 100_ percent solution of hydrocyanic acid in the tirgit's face.) The "ink" is made by . injected into a victim by colliding with him "accidently. s3* of p-latinurn (ic) chroride anh r I iium of Iridium chloride in as little warer as possible. 49 .p#"i"ly dissolving.The CIA." (The pen point has a minute Jpening and leaves no puncture trace. the KGB and the overseas hir men of the Mossad (Israeli intelligence) include an assortment of these poison pens in their armories. The poison used to kill the defector can arso be carried in a pen. theninixing them together. RUSSIAN "INSTANT HEART ATTACK.A Bulgarian defector was waiting for a bus in London when a man in the crowd jabbed h-im with the tip of his umbrella. The defector had been given a poison injection by an agenr of Durzhauna Sig. .. and he died shortly thereafter.rnost (Bulgarian intilligencei..

However. As a result. modern laboratory techniques can readily detect this poison. however. Thus. Ifhen the bartender rries to evict the guy. bartender then can use either of the "inks" described below. the fact that a crime has been committed may escape detection. It has a faint almond-like odor which is not discernible." The bartender pretends he is writing up the guy's check. which looks like a normal fountain pen and is carried in the shirt or coat pocket. in which case. which soon dissipates. NAUSEA INKS (FOR BARTENDERS) Sometimes a drunk will rry to push other cusromers around. since that type of pen has a reservoir in which the ink can be concealed. he starts to struggle and fight. it may not be realized that a crime has been committed. A few minutes later. thereby unmasking an intended homocide coverup. no autopsy will be performed. It contains an "ink" made by dissolving 3l grams of potassium cyanide in 1 liter of water. and secretly adds one of these inks to the drunk's next drink. producing symproms similar to those of a heart attack. The t0 . A few drops of "ink" squeezed from the barrel will kill quickly. or otherwise cause trouble. The only evidence is the bitter almond odor. the heart vessels of the corpse return to normal. INSTANT KILLER POISON INK Trained covert agents use rhe Insrant Killer Poison Ink Pen. The Instant Killer Poison Ink poses a difficult problem to police and medical examiners because it produces symptoms similar to those of a massive heart attack. The toilet doors are locked and marked "Out of Order. These inks are used with a fountain pen.contracting the victim's blood vessels and causing instant cardiac arrest. The pen. does not write. in an alcoholic drink.

concealed in the reservoir of a fountain pen. be used for various nefarious purposes. of course. rendering the unsuspecting drinker unconscious. In an alcoholic drink. and takes the bluster out of any nasty drunk. the drunk must leave the premises to vomit. 1 is Ipecac syrup. Nausea concealed MICKEY FINN INK Mickey Finn Ink. it takes effect in 15 to 30 minutes and works for 3 to 6 hours. Since the toilet is locked. A doctor will prescribe it upon request to anyone who complains of insomnia. This ink will cause an immediate overwhelming desire to evacuate the intestines. 2 is X-Prep Liquid. This will cause vomiting within 20 minutes. it is very potent. Pentobarbital is a controlled drug (trade name: Nembutal) and is dispensed only by prescription. One fluid ounce is in the fountain pen and added to the nasty drunk's next drink. and this takes all the fight out of him.Ink No. such as blackmailing the victim with compromising photos taken while he is unconscious. It consists of an elixir (alcohol solution) of pentobarbital. It is applied to the drunk as above. can be surreptitiously put in a victim's drink. Nausea Ink No. a highly effective bowel evacuant. 51 . It can.

he will walk into the doomed building. the arsonist can time the fiery blast almost to the minute. Direct ignition with matches is not very common because the fire would start immediately and he could be seen leaving the building. then leisurely walk away.INCENDIARY AND PYROTECHNIC INKS SECRET FIERY INK PEN Professional saboteurs and arsonists created the Fiery Ink Pen.. A small lead tube. However. sufficient to ignite surrounding combustible material.000o F. It will start a fire which will completely consume a building. By experimenting with various thicknesses of cork. a single drop falling into the mixture of porassium chlorate and sugar causes an intense heat explosion of approximately 2. The lower half of the barrel of a fountain or ballpoint pen is filled with a mixture of I/3 potassium chlorate and 2/3 sugar. At the necessary time. 52 . drop the pen in an appropriate spot. It looks harmless. filled with sulphuric acid and sealed with a cork at each end. but burns like a blast furnace and destroys itself. if not controlled in time. The whole technique of the arsonist is concentrated on establishing an alibi. is placed above this mixture. the Fiery Ink Pen is a kind of time fuse. When the sulphuric acid eats its way through the bottom cork.

The owner of the building himself can do the job. A common method is to leave a coat behind with the pen clipped to the inside pocket when he leaves for the day. Hours later, a wall of flame will envelope the establishment. Meanwhile, the owner has established an alibi by dining with
friends.

SECRET FIERY

INK BOTTLE

Some arsonists use a safer method to start fires. A fire bug bragged that the biggest fire he ever ser, burning down a warehouse, was done with a bottle of laundry ink and a box of soap powder. An innocent looking bottle of laundry ink dries up and carches fire if the cork comes loose or air holes are put in the sropper. The laundry ink is made by dissolving nitrate of silver in ammonia, with a little gum anbic or dextrose added. S7hen such an ammonia-silver compound evaporates, the remainder is the highly explosive nitride of silver (AgN). If the cork comes loose or a porous sropper is used, the ink dries up, and the remaining explosive compound is ignited by the presence of gum arabic or dexrrose. To set a fire, a bottle of ink is placed on a radiator or steam pipe, or is taped to the side of either. A box of soap combined with gasoline is used as an improvised incendiary device.

SECRET VIOLENT FIERY

INK BOTTLE

An even more violenr type of fiery ink is an ink botrle filled one-third with sulphuric acid and two-thirds with
gasoline. (The acid is added to the gasoline a drop ar a time; the gasoline is not to be poured into the acid.) The bottle is closed with an airtight cork. Dissolve 57 grams of potassium chlorate and Ilfgrams of sugar in 2 liters of hot warer. Saturate a desk blotter with this solution. \U7hen dry, place it on a desk.

53

!7hen ready to use, the ink bottle is inverted and placed on the blotter. The mixture of acid and gasoline will eventually eat through the cork stopper and will react violently with the blotter (coated with potassium chlorate and sugar), causing an explosion which will generate intense heat and fire. (Mixing these chemicals is dangerous, and the hazard is even greater if you are inexperienced. Protect your eyes with goggles, and be extremely careful.) SECRET PYROTECHNIC STAGE

INK

Add one tablespoon of potassium nitrate to one-third of a wine glass of water, then add a little powdered gum arabic. Stir the mixture until all the ingredients are thoroughly
dissolved.

Ifrite a word or name on a heavy piece of cardboard, using plenty of this solution, making the letters very heavy, and connecting each letter. After the solution dries, bring a lighted match or cigarette or a spark, in contact with any portion of the writing. The dried solution will immediately catch fire, and the word or name will appear in burning
letters. The effect can be enhanced and made more dramatic by turning out all the lights before igniting the writing on the cardboard. When the lights are turned back on, the word or name can be seen burnt in the cardboard.

SECRET PYROTECHNIC COMMERCIAL

PRINTING INK
A similar ink is being marketed commercially and is used

in printing on cardboard or paper in large batches. !7ater
glass (a solution of sodium silicate) is mixed with a powder composed of 5 percent sulfur, 5 percent rosin and 90 percent saltpeter. The mixture can be used as a printing compound to create invisible images which can be revealed by the touch of a lighted cigarette.

,4

GAMBLERS' SECRET INKS
MARKED CARDS OR READERS
Just as there has been a conrinual contesr between the makers of weapons and the inventors of defensive armorcovering, so has there also been a lengthy conresr between pl"yi"g card manufacturers and prof-ssional card sharks. s7hile the latter have been seeking ro concocr a secret ink with which ro mark their cards without spoiling the varnish covering, the former have been trying to ir.rstrate the sharks' efforts by compounding a glaze *hich will spoil such trickery. Formerly, some card manufacturers were successful, and it was know" t-h_"t some cards, such as ,,Bee" playing cards, were unmarkable. Now, however, there are secier inki which will mark any card. Professional card sharks buy such secret card marking inks from gambling supply houses, which_sell do-it-yourself kits. A one oorr.. bott-li (a drams; costs $200. For blockout, dor or line work, the blockout inks listed will last indefinitely, and a drop is sufficient to mark an entire deck. The yellow pages list manufacturers and dealers who can supply all necessiry aniline dyes, and chemical houses who cin iupply all the required chemicals.
below. are v-ery satisfactory. These

55

The ingredients for Secret Red Blockout Ink are: 5 ounces of denatured alcohol. Dissolve 20 grams of phenol (carbolic acid) in a liter of distilled water. or blockout work. and 5-percent aqueous solution. mastic. Gunt. reagent and laboratory grade. 4 56 . It is extremely poisonous. Phenol is a colorless crystalline solid with a charccteristic odor. Liquid phenol can be purchased in chemical houses. Also known as glycerine or glycerol.Following are the chemicals used in the card marking inks: adulterated so as to make it unfit for drinking. This isa fragrant preparation sold by chemical houses and made variously by the distillation of rose petals. This is a poisonous white crystalline compound. There are three grades: reagent (the best). and will not flash. Victoria Blue B Base. Spirit Nigrosine SSB. without destroying other properries useful for making secret inks. laboratory grade. Oxalic acid. Gum sand. The following dyes and dyestuffs are also used in making card marking inks: Rhodamine Base. scroll. Glycerin. This is a white crystalline compound of which one acetyl form is known as aspirin. since liquid phenol will damage ordinary stoppers. SECRET RED BLOCKOUT INK Blockout inks penetrate the surface and mark cards with line. or rub off. Denatared alcohol.S.P. fade. This is alcohol that has been Rose Luarer.. Salicylic acid. They will produce a perfect job. Liquid. There are three grades: U. Bismark Brown Y Base. Methyl Violet 28 Base Concentrate.erac. and Victoria Green I7B Crystals. phenol sol*tion. The bottle should have a glass stopper.

.1 or any other game in which-only a smalf purt oitfr.. dissolve the dyes and gums.tud po\. 3 grams of Rhodamine Base dye. . This is "r.ri!" o" trr. the.. .ingredients in a bottle and shake .ferred by stud poker pluyerrlT*o combinations are -"-d9. Blockout Inks can also be used for line work. It is also used for draw poket or u'"flu. 9 grams of gum mastic und 3z irops of g.i!ry*. in which dors or lines are added to the back design.. rhe 57 . Let it set for 4g hours.rt. I gram of Vicoria Blue"B n^r. "' grams SECRET BLUE BLOCKOUT INK T.d_ye. Lui .". rhe most used in stud pokei. from ace .dlo.. the appropriatery-colored Blockout Ink is used to block out or change riigtrtty'tt e a...il.r'nttu-. 9 grams g"_ sanderac.-. margin.. Again.. n4urked edge work reads from ace to dleuce.o f]ace. but doei not show the suit."r." io d. pr.fr.h. place the inlredients in a bortle and ihake thoroughly to dissolve the dyis and gums. 3 grams oJ Spirit Nigrosin-e_SlB. combination being developed by thickening the line Eetween the margin and the back desig.ounces of liquid phenol.. Enlarged diamonds ur."ra.. 9 grams of gum mastic and i2' dro.. one teading from u. a1rii') gram of Methyl Violet 2 B Base Concentrare dye.lycerine. kt it set for 43 h.'. Blockout Inks are also used for marked edge work. which is done only on cards with a white o. other.ioi" diamonds can be mlde larger or smailei uy rroJi"j-.to be mutk-ptoor. alcohol.. 4 ounces of liquid phenol.. back. ut . . which only the top card is shown. giams 9 of gum sanderac. i. Blockoat lY/ork In blockout work. "f ..rruii points.'i".fr.2 of Bismark Brown y Base dye.is exposed. "Bee" decks are supposed. ingredients for this ink are: 5 ounces of denatured .rtorJ.

thenapply the ink to the card.75 gram of Rhodamine Base dye. 1 gram of Spirit Nigrosine SSB dye and . work it up until it forms a smooth pasre. 0 or No. If the ink shows up dark. Mix thoroughly and label this "working ink. 0 or 00 brush. 00) to a fine point. then briskly polish the marked spot. stroke the blush our more." RED SHADING INK (Stock solution) Red Shading Ink is made in the same way as rhe blue." Put one ounce of denatured alcohol in another bottle (a l-ounce bottle will do) and add 32 drops of the stock solution with an eyedropper. with a wad of corton dipped in powdered soapstone. BLUE SHADING INK (Stock solution) Blue Shading Ink is made with J ounces of denatured alcohol. . excepr for the dyes. place the ingredients in a bottle and shake well to disjolve the gums. The blender is made with the same ingredients as the ink. a blender is necess ary to lighten the shade of the blockout ink. Shading ink may either be applied to a small 58 . Shade lVork Shading ink is applied to the back of cards with a No. 3 ounces of liquid phenol.T9 apply either Blockout Ink. but with the following ingredients: 5 ounces of denatured alcohol. Although all cards are printed in dark shades.25 gram of Victoria Blue B Base dye. Let the card dry for at least 10 minutes. Dissolve the dyes in a bottle and label it "stock solution. Add a few drops of the blender to a small amounr of ti-e ink until the right shade is obtained. some of them have a somewhat lighter shade than the others.5 gramof Bismark Brown Y Base dye and . and the whole surface of the card. 3 ounces of liquid phenol. spread the ink out on a piece of glass. For marking these cards. srroki the brush (No.

he uses Chink Ink. lacking the skill of an expert. blue for blue-backed cards). But he knows where he put it. Shade work shows up better at a distance than close up. There are two ways to discover shade work. The other method is to hold the cards at eye level. When a skilled card cheat has no opportunity to switch a marked deck into play. The first is to lay the cards on the table and look at them from a distance of 5 feet.) SECRET CUTOUT INK Some cheats. The latter requires very fine shade work. Shade work may be put on so fine that even the cheat who uses it may have a hard time locating it at first. Although graphite has been used as a Chink Ink. (Chink Ink is also known as Monte Tell since it is commonly used in games of 3-card monte. carbon paper is a more delicate tool. add white areas to the card-back design by bleaching. transfers to the surface only a short. This leaves a thin line of daub on the rim of the fingernail which. and constant training of the eye makes it for him to see it when the untrained eye will overlook it entirely.portion of the card. However. or by using a sharp 59 . or to the whole of the back with the exception of one spot. You can touch the carbon with the fingernail only. perfect shade work is almost impossible to discover. waxed on a small card which can be carried in the vest pocket. when pressed against the card. no bigger than a typographical dash mark (-). thin line of color. easy SECRET MONTE TELL OR CHINK INK PAPER I Secret Chink Ink consists of a piece of prime quality carbon paper (red carbon paper for red-backed cards. then tip them back and forth looking for blotches or any other irregularity on the back. which can be applied during the game.

Repolish wit'h a wad of cotron dipped in powdered soapsrone. SECRET LUMINOUS { INK Cards marked with luminous ink do not beat any mark visible to the naked eye.t get. since a dull spot app€ars where the ink has been removed. To make the Secret Luminous Ink. 60 . dissolve 1 gram of victoria Green s7 B crysrals dye in 4 ounces of de"natured alcohol. since it looks suspicious to wear red-colored glasses or a red visor while playing cards. To make the secret cutout ink. it will be visible. Do nor use too much of the Luminous Ink on the brush. put 2 ounces of denatured alcohol in a 2 ounce bottle and. add 32 drops of the stock solution. Now. If you don.ea celluloid.ir on heavy enough with the first application. when marking cards. chemifaily removes the color from the surface of the card. or through a visor -"J. After applying it ro the surface -2 of the card.is actually an ink remover. leaving it perfectly white. with ruby ray red lenses. a professional would never think of trying it. If uoo apply it to the white part of the card.knife ro scrape minute areas of ink from the design. A good deal of repolishing of the card back has to be done to restore the card . go over it agatn. the cheat will havi an oprometrist make a pair of tinted contact lenses.il"rr."t.g irc.. 6liginal finish. the mark is large and distinct. using an eyedropper. But amateur ch. V:i"g a No. however. 0 brush. Shak! the bottle to mix thoroughly. which. ofai'rt. appty the ink only to the part of the card back which is coloredi. are the only Jnes who use Luminous Ink.y. uses this secret cutout ink-to add white areas to the design. This ink. remove dissolved ink *ith'" iad of cotton. dissolve 1 ounce of salicylic acid in a mixture consisting of 2 ounces of denatured alco'hol and ounces of liquid phenol. but when viewed through.i. This is the stock soluiion. The professional.

A bettor gives his bookie a wagering slip with the name of a horse in the third race. dissolve 63 grams of oxalic acid in a liter of rose water. allow the ink to dry for 10 minutes. kt it remain there f. Then pick up the moisture with a clean white blotter. A slight irregular blur will be produced which consritures the mark. This tends to give a precipitate if it becomes too cold. lZhile this mark can be seen from a distance of several feet across a room.or 35 to 45 seconds. place in warm warer to liquify the ink. this ink has been used to fleece thousands of bookmakers by getring them to accepr bets on races that have already been run and the winner known. depending on the hardness of the enamel. Invisible when first written. since it shows up undei electric lights.INVISIBLE PROCESS INK This is strictly an amareur's cheating ink which can only be used outdoors in the daylight. the bookie accepts the bet on rhe third race. First introduced in the East. SECRET INK TO CHEAT BOOKMAKERS distinct This ink can be used on any color paper with perfect results. If this happens. To make it. it will come up clear and in twelve minutes without the use of heat or chemicals. and polish the card with a cotton wad dipped in powdered soapsrone. Using a fine brush. Since the second race has just started. it cannot be observed close up under daylight. !7hat he doesn't know is that the bettor has written the name of the 6t . The cheat reads the cards when the light shines on the tilted backs. apply a drop to the place selected for the mark.

SUCKER BET SECRET INK This is a bet which appears to give the taker the best of it. you tell him to close his hand over it and tell you the correct color." But when he opens his hand. which takes place when it combines with the oxygen in the air. PAST POSTING SECRET INK (Oxidation) I This ink is used the same as the previous ink to cheat bookies.. a black precipitate is obtained. the paper is pink. he will take-the offer. You pick the victim and bet him he is color blind.) At the end of the day. Handing him a piece of blue paper. Thinking this is an opportunity to make a few bucks at your e*pens-. 62 . with one a sure winner! (Smart bookies.leaving a clear. The ink is a solution of 80 grams of ferrous sulphate and 10 grams of tannic acid in l liter of distilled water.rder the influence of oxidation. the bookie examines ttie betting winning horse in the first race on the same slip in secrer ink. IThen these substances are mixed. Alternately add single drops of hydroihlorrt acid and sulphuric acid until the precipitatC is dissolved. but does just the opposite. "Blue. This secret ink is made by combining 5 grains of silver littlg". he will say.10 grains of powdered gum arcbic. This secret ink appears u. and enough distilled water to make one ounce.slips and there are now two horses on the said slip. when rhey accepia bet. colorless liquid which turns black as a result of t-he oxidizing action of the atmosphere. Of course. prorect themselves by recording on the betting slip the time ihe bet was made. The ink must be protected from air by having the bottle sropper coated with vasoline. The ink should be keprln a dark bottle and used with a glass or quill pen.

put this solution in a.musr be perfictly dry. SUCKER BET SECRET INK NO. . Your hands.ddrrr. Mix together equal amounts of ferric ammonium sulphate and sodium ferrocyanide. Pour some of the Hypo solution into the wine glass and show it to the victim. i 63 . The four sheets you use are prepared in advance and concealed on your person or in thi washroom. The paper will have a blue color.u.* seconds.If the dupe is still game. if held in a closed hand for u i. !7rite with a toottipick dipped in warer. and ihe writing will appear as if black ink had been used. Correr the wine glass with a cloth. glass pitcher.. bet that ^yo. uging only wate-r as an ink. rhen rub this powder onto a piece of coarse-grained paper towel lying on a flat surface. Then cover the glass and ask wh"at color the water is. . Say that you will get four sheets paper towel from the washroom ro use as writing 9. write in four different colors on four different sheets of paper. Mix together equal amounrs of tannic acid and ferric ammonium sulphate in the dry state. Dissolve a little Hypo in about a pint of water. which will change to pink. oi a-black spot will appear. He'll tell you it's transparent. the liquid will change tJ the color of white ink. Put a few dtops of surphuric acid in a wine glass. But you bet him that it is white ink. SECRET WATER INKS FOR BAR BETS The props for these bers are four sheets of paper towel and clean pe_n points (toothpicks will do). rhen follow the same pro. pour some water in a glass and let him look at it..Soak a small piece of paper in a solution of cobalt chloride and dry it. 2 . In a few seconds. A ^co'operatirre bartender-will give you a glais of warer.f paper.

then proceed as before. The writing . i 64 . u"a sodium salicylate. -proceed as before.* il if brown ink had been used. The *iiri"g *il appear as if written with red ink. sulphate.riff .The wriring will appear as if blue ink had been used.pp'.. usinq . Mix together equal amounts of ferric ammonium r"rfrrui.6oo. Finally.

r.nces of yellow phosphorous and dissolve by careful gentle heating in a water bath.C.Mix 7 pints of cottonseed oil and 1 pint of oil of cassia.. Fields wasn'r the person to believe that you -only should never give a sucker an erren break. when seen in the dark. Handle the phosphorous with care as it_is explosive. Any design drawn *irh ttris ink.rri glow.LUMINOUS INKS HUSTLER'S LUMINOUS SECRET INK l !7. If th-e victim accepts the proposed bet. LUMINESCENT SECRET INK (large quantity for commercial purposes) . $Vear safety goggles when heatin! the ink. because the letter is written *ith u luminous ink. 65 . Mix well. hustlers can take advantage of othersl The hustler produces an envelope containing-a rerter which he insists he can read in total darkness. will appear with a phosphor. To make this luminous ink.rt tu6. put 30 grains of phosphorous and l/2 ounce of oil of cinnamon in a t. he loses. add 14 o. Using ihis luminous ink. cork tightly and dissolve by means of a gentle heat (water bath).. and can only be read in the dark.

the chemicals react and give off igreenish-blue light.supernarural effects producid by so-called spiritualisr mediums. This ink is sold as a novelry item in a plastic tube rhat is full of chemicals which sturt io glow whe-n you bend it and break a glass tube of warer inside.'rdeallli the mixed ingredients should then be formed into tablets or cakes with a binder." CHEMILUMINESCENCE INK This is not an invisible ink. $5. write a love letter ro your girl friend that can be read only in rhe dark! The letters lppear like words of fire! The darker rhe room. then blending them in a powdier mill.) This ink is being advertised and sold in joke and novelty stores.supposedly-..ts_ of sodium perborate.9 par. but an "ink" which emits light yhen brought in contact with water. The magazine ad reads: "Men.00 a bottle. SECRET LUMINOUS LOVER'S This ink contains two ingredients INK yellow phosphorous and 4 drams of oil of cinnamon (cinnamic aldehyde). chemicals that create a r/2 dramof white or 66 . 5 parts potassium ferricyanide u"9 : parts trisodium. Tte ink is prepared by grinding each of the _ingredients to a fine po*d. 1. Mix these togerher.i. It is poisonous and the fumes from a fire are very toxic. the more brilliant the letters appear. drying them at 40" c. !7hen brought in contact with water. cork well and heat gently in a hot warer bath until thiy are thoroughly mixed.write as with any ordinary ink. It consists of 1 pariof 3-amino-phthalhydrazide (approximately 90 perceni). very simple ro use. phos-phate. (Phosphorous is usually kept under warer in can"s because it ignites on conracr with air..Luminous ink such as this can be used to duplicate some of the .

preceding sraremenrs should be construed as a recommendation of any use.420. Among'such uses are marking the surface of rhe warer for a pline making an emergency night landing at sea.infringe on any parent without authority or license from the owners of such a patent. manufacture or sale that may bright glow when dropped on warer have many possible uses for seaman and trans-oceanic fliers. The formula for chemiluminescence ink is the subject of Patent 2. showing life boats oi life rafts to planes searching for them in the dark or giving a "seamark" to aid the navigation of either ships oiplanes.286 issued to rhree chemists. Chemiluminescence ink is used on a large scale-by smugglers to facilitate rendevousing in the dark with boats carrying the contraband goods. None of the ! 67 .

.r. a . immemorial secret ink tricks The fotowing secret hu"rre been ..grass with waterlrl..il 5. '2 it. prepared ink trick requires a pitcher and seven glasses. and"uJril teaspoonful of sulphuric acid to glass 7. Glasses I and 3 are t. 68 . the third grass with warer u"a . w'l appear ro contain black ink. Add ten drops of ammonia water to glass 6. Tell the audience that the pitcher is a magicar one.i. pour enough crean warer i".-. to each.i.. black ink.o*.. also as .. it. ri""auy of many Lff. r'hen filed with warer from the pirlnil"rte first and third glasses wjrrsimply conrain warer. . wh'e the second and fourtir grasses.r. red ink o.rr. put about 10 drops of-oxalic ucii solotio. srarring with.rr. with brack ink..fr ..". the..rrloria. containing iron chroride.a...iffi. rhe first four gt"rt.{ .MAGIC TRICK INKS SECRET q INK MAGIC The science of secrer inks readily production of so_called magical lends itself to the magicians. ui"..r. pitcher to rhe first.oirru"J.ommand it.. From time und 4 are by adding a few drops of iror..dissolve a smalr u-o. as commanded.".--d.o to the seven glasses. which will pour our warer.rrrr'oii"nnic acid in f'r fi' +gilgi"rr-J* 'offi.

Fill all seven glasses from the pitcher. while that in the seventh will appear to be warer. Now you're ready to perform the trick. a small fragment (about the size of a match head) of sodium hydroxide. Blow gently on the surface of the liquid and the red color will disappear. or caustic soda as it is sometimes called.Return the contents of these four glasses ro the pitcher. Dip a glass rod into the caustic soda solution in the test tube. Command the pitcher to pour red ink in the first six glasses and water in the seventh. Pour all the contents of all six glasses back into the pitcher. Now command the pitcher ro pour black ink in the first four glasses. The liquid in all seven will look like ordinary water. The liquid in the first six will be the color of red ink. water in the fifth and red ink in the sixth. Add phenolphthalein solution a drop ar a time ro the liquid in rhe soup plate until it rurns red. but use no more than four or five drops of the phenolphthalein solurion. the liquid in the fifth will look like water. Now command the pitcher to pour water only. a full inkwell and an opaque ink bottle containing lycopodium 69 . BLOWING THE COLOR OUT OF SECRET RED INK In this trick. the magician blows the color out of red ink. To make the secret red ink. is placed in a test tube half filled with water. Now half fill a glass or porcelain dish with water. I MAGIC SECRET INKWELL This trick requires two pieces of white paper. Fill all seven glasses from the pitcher. then dip the rod into the water in the soup plate. and thar in the sixth will appear to be red ink. Fill six glasses from the pitcher: the first four will appear to contain black ink. An old soup plate is excellent for this purpose. Return the contents of all seven glasses ro rhe pitcher.

inkwell.l'. kt the audience r.iJ.of_white paper into a cylinder and dip il i"i" it. Insread of adding irrk to the inkwelt.[ .t.r.r"i?i.rst ieen used up.i.powder. A slight shake removes the powde. paper.rr.-ir.[di.- + 70 . secretly sprinkte lycopodium powder fr"." the surtace of the ink in the inkwell...r..o .rli. uo.U. ink' This shows rhat the inkwerl really contains ink.u*.... paper and it can be given ..-ii it. Now roll the sectnd piece .p..rru..ors for i"r"p. .to replace the ink that has j."..".. Roll the first piece of paper into a cyrinder and dip it into the inkwell. . It will come out as white as when it went ir..il]. t o*'.!. the lycopo{i"f pgyaer prevents the ink rrorn io. Now tell the audienge t!a1 you_ are going to some ink from the ink "di bot'e to rhe inkwell.J"g .i.

The ink consists of magnesium carbonate ground into a slightly heat-bodied Chinawood oil (Tung oil) or a lightbodied. will frequently enhance the effect. 7T .WATER INKS SECRET WATER PRINTING INK NO. Colored antique papers are best for this work. and their slightly rough surface hides the printing well. except for the portions covered by the water-resisting colorless ink. such as calcium chloride. thus increasing the contrast between the darkened paper and the ink. Ifhen the sheet is immersed in water. 1 * This is an invisible printing ink which is developed with water. The dye in the paper must not be soluble in water. It can be used to print novelty advertisements or greeting cards with messages which aPPear out of nowhere when wetted with water. water white linseed oil lithographic varnish. the paper absorbs the water and becomes darker in color. The printing therefore appears as a light tint against the darker paper. since they will absorb a considerable amount of water. tending to whiten the ink when it is moistened. The inclusion of certain hygroscopic chemical salts.

SECRET WATER PRINTING

INK NO.

2

A 5-percent solution of panffin in a mixture of equal amounts of xylene and rerrachloroethane is used for print'ing waterproof invisible characters on paper o, t"*til". Th. printing becomes visible when moisiened.
SECRET WATER INKS NOS. 3.8
Following are the formulas for six more warer inks which in writing with a pen. Alr are developed by being wetted with water.
can be used

*

times.

separare and sta'in the paper. The writing-, developed -by ietting the sheer, disappears again on drying, bui can b! develop?a another immersion. ThiJ may be repeated a nJmber of "!"i" *itf,

dipped. otherwise, a ftaceof oil mighr

No. 3. This ink is a solutio n of 3 ounces of cobalt chroride and 1 ounce of glycerin in 64 ounces of distilled water. No. 4. This ink is made with 1 ounce of oleic acid, 5 grains of tannic acid and 5 grains of ferric surphate. rne a!"eropea writing is blue-black. No. 5. To make this ink, add 1 dram of linseed oil to 2Il2 ounces of ammonia water U.S.p. and shake until ir is saponified and makes a smooth, even emulsion. Then add 12 1/2 ounces of distilled water in portions, shaking *.il urr.. each one. The ink must be *el-shuken when "th.-1." i,

water.

gum camphor in whiskey or dilute alcohol. be done rapidly. No. 7. This ink consists of nitrate of bismuth dissolved in

N:, I Dissolve '$Triting must

No. 8. This ink consists of 1 part of celrurose nitrate (.21'-j percent) and 90 parrs of cellosolve acerate (g9.7i,_9i
percent).

72

I

MISCELLANEOUS INKS AND PAPERS
SECRET EGG

INK

L

This ink has been used by British informants within the IRA to communicate the location of arms, ammunition, and explosives, as well as other secret information. The message is written on the outside of shells of hard boiled eggs. Outwardly unmarked, the eggs travel with fresh eggs ostensibly going to market. The British government agents break open the shells of the hard boiled eggs and the message appears on the white of the egg. The ink is a mixture of alum and vinegar. The alum can be in the form of an antiseptic pencil used for shaving cuts. It is mixed with vinegar to the consistency of ink. The message is written on the outside of the hard boiled egg shell, where ir
is invisible. A few hours later, the message can be read on the

white of the egg. The iron in the alum (ferrous ammonium sulphate) is carried through the shell by the commercial vinegar (acetic acid), which is just strong enough to penetrate the eggshell (calcium carbonate). The white of the egg contains sulphur which combines with the iron to form iron oxide, which is
black.

73

FRUIT INK
The Australian Security and Intelligence Organization (ASIO) is its country'l security agency. A KGB "mole" was discovered lop "uiio"ui inside ,fr. aSfO. The Soviit sDy was expetled after an investigatio" r.;;;i; ;;,il;;a'llut.d informarion bv writing oi rr"ii*iii i'uiribre ink. *.r,, ,hopping"for f;;i;i;;. reporting forThis man il*iyr duty and kepr a bag of fruit on his desk_ vriting on fruit in invisible ink can be deveroped witt-r carbonate of read powder. It it ,o the fruit by'J*ring, sprinkling, spraying,. or appryiii "lpllla

above case, secret writing wasfoJnd " on apples, pears, plums, oranges and bananas. Othe.r fruits, .rp..iuily ,fror" fr"-ui'rrg hard rind such as watermelo", o, p"_pkins have been used " for secret writing.

*rrt,

,"rTirrJ,.

ii

,n.

fl

tb

SECRET FURNITURE

INK

one of Japan's best known companies was charged with conspiring to stear trade secret, fro-ir u'American company and c.onvey them toJapan. An;.;;;r. was arresred when it written inside the drawer, *irt ,..1., ,.rr.. The ink consists of 5,0 cc of water, .2 gramsof cinchonine and a.few drops of surphuri. i;;;ed to write on wood or durable cellurose orod-ucts, it".id. a brighr brue under ultravioler lighr. if ,r,. ,..r"r;il '""i.r..s is done on metal or leather, aluminum powder -"y b;;ed to make it visible.

*:ii:irliftri:i:i:l!6**Hi:,:'J"ffi **|

copperp6wder i, p;;f;bi; to aluminum It is h.ea-1ie1 *a, th.refore, nor so apr powder to flow around, a rendencv which h", b;.; f;;;d il;;oi.#_.," using aluminum powder.
as a developer.

I*:*t,,

74

If the water mark isn't there. But I will meet you tomorrow in the park with the documents'" Is this a trick? The writing m^y be in your contact's own handwriting. Waterproof ink can be made by mixing a little glue with ordinary ink.) After removing it from the formaldehyde solution. the commercial name for a 40-percent water solution of formaldehyde. After waterproofing the ink. The water mark is 75 . Then i immerse the cardboard or paPer in the hot solution.WATERPROOF PAPER AND INK To render cardboard or Paper waterproof without harming or altering the paper. (Note: You can use Formalin. the paper should be dried in the air until the odor of formaldehyde disappears. ITet the writing paper and place a dry sheet over it. Mix ceruse or some other white color with gum traganth. I7hen it is saturated. SECRET ARTIFICIAL WATER MARK { f h Suppose you receive the following note from a contact who failed to show up at the arranged meeting place: "I am so closely watched that I cannot see you as I promised. the waterProofing can be done in a single solution made by dissolving 6 ounces of sodium or potassium bichromate in the gelatin solution. it is a trick. it is possible to wash a drawing with soap and water without the ink running. but what if he has been tortured or otherwise forced to write the note in order to lead you into a trap? You look for the secret artificial water mark that you both previously agreed to use in all correspondence. first heat I pound of sheet gelatin in 10 pints of water until it is dissolved. drain and then immerse in a solution of 1 pint of formaldehyde and 5 pints of water. Messages written with the waterProof ink can be carried on one's person while swimming. then write using a hard blunt-pointed pencil. If a yellowish tint to the paper is acceptable.

p"p. classifies some*hiie 1. ordinary paper vesser and heat iusr warm enough to dissolve the-solids.h.*"...wilt soon c..ffi.irri"g *.l.r. fin.Yi*.t million documents a year.-_spy agency.n. but can be cleady seen in the INK AND PAPER The hush-nrrl.papei-"* impregnated with the fluid. 2 ounces ammonium sulphate 1/8 ounce ammonium alum If 2 ounce boric acid 5/8 ounce sodium borate enough water to make one pint Mix all the materiars in a suitable it 76 . To make fireproof p. the surface...RET are written with ..Iight when the papei is wet. The paper ".i flat on aftet the pores of the. ""ii*ry is then lifted from the fluid by picking up one corner *ith cfip o. while. orr..h'"r'. rir.]i pro".u.* i{l l/4 ounce water is fireproof solutiin.' FIREPROOF invisible when the paper is dry... io JnJ roo ^t:l. out in a shallow pan and float the writing it f"-p. to dry' If " paper currs when it drief rr can be pressed . the Narional Securiry (NSA). " in rime wi'come back :. Documents classified as TOp SE.^y.' detailed treated wirh a below. ]"rrt*ing fireprooii* o' fireproof paper.the with a warm iron. 10 grains platinic chloride 30 grains India black ink 2 grains powdered gum arabic 2 drops carbolic acid i .aper.

BLOW GUN PEN l A blow gun disguised as a standard ballpoint pen can be used as a silent weapon to shoot poisoned or tranquilizer darts. Although hundreds of covert pens exist. I will describe sorne covert and exotic pens. Figare I 77 .COVERT PENS Is the pen mightier than the sword? The previous chapters show quite clearly that the pen plays a vital role in many important activities. terrorists and criminals. revealing how they are used by agents. In this chapter. See Figure 1.I will only describe those in my own collection.

. i. .iJ. Thi: ordinary looking plasric or metal retractable ballpornr pen is " I l/2 explosive bomb.". The blasting cap is a short capsule of-copper.plastic explosive. Regardless of its size.r-rfr.. i" length.. kifi or .. a blasting . L/4 inch in diamerer and I inch long.r_h{ inch battery. A sprjnq is instalred i" r"n".. t i"."'p urra the plunger is depressed. which in turn Drasrrng sets off the plasiiiexplosive.s a booby_trap pen.1 cap. this pen is a powerful bomb urri .u.TERRORIST BOOBY-TRAP PEN molded.ctepending on the size of the pen. The.. Figure 2. ^containing a small quanritv of explosive. It.. tie battery power fires the X!.nd * rt Figare 2 78 a ..putty-like plasric e*ploiiue i. hand of-the petson *ho unwittingly presses the plunj* i.conraining a l..

the pen will show thii via a light-emitting diode. 79 .you are talking to is carrying a "body bog" (al electronic .uo. The pen barrel is knurled for a non-slip grip. ready for action when the pocket clip is pressed. 4 I/2 inch hardened steel. Figure 3 t DAGGER PENS A dagger pen may not be mightier than a sword.BUG DETECTOR PEN This disguised bug detector pen is used when one is uncertain whether or not a confidential conversation is being secretly recorded by the other party. See Figure 3. but it can be a deadly weapon. rounded. The first type has a spring-loaded. The power supply is a 9-volt battery. If the Person. tapered blade which locks out. There are at least four types of dagger or knife pens. pointed.r&opping device) for secret recording.

.j i" rne caP ot the Pen. .riJu"a .dagger pen looks like an ordinary parker ballpoint pen. Th.:f dagger pen opens up like a balisong 1l1l Figue 4a 80 . . It contains r/2 inch poniard blade made of h"rd... The seco^nd lfne looks like a standard felt_tip pen. fourth ryp.knife to reveal its bladelFigures 4a and 4b show all four types closed and open..:Lqy for use just by pultin! it The. third rype of. needte-pointed.a 3 tempered steel.rJ'y f. Th. It is. awl_like toot is .. but hidden *ithin is a razor rt"rp'UtuJ.quickly ."r.

* Figue 4b 81 .

Fiprc 5 Figare 6 82 . driving the aggressor away. the built-in tear gas cartridge is activated by means of a push button in the cap and the*tear gas is emitted.TEAR GAS PEN This is an efficient device for defense against attacks. If one is set upon violently. See Figures j and 6.

HYPODERMIC PEN This is an ordinary looking fountain pen containing a small receptacle of glass. The pen has a sharp hollow needle for injection of the liquid under the skin when the plunger is pressed. rubber or plastic into which a poisonous or tranquilizing liquid is drawn. * 83 . See Figures 7 and 8. metal.

000 to 3. This is a time delay mechanism. See Figure 9. DETONATOR PEN This ballpoint pen contains a black celluloid tube filred with powdered potassium chlorate and sugar. € Figtre 9 84 .explosive. This is more than sufficient to detonare plastic.MINIFLARE SIGNALLING PEN _ {his nice little pen consists of a launcher and cartridges. is also placed in the celluloid tube. SThen sulphuric acid. it reacts violently with the potassium ghloratg and sugar. The cartridges are screwed onto the pen launcher wiih a simple trigger mechanism. eats its way through the cork. The pen is used for distress signalling. A small vial of sulphuric acid. sealed with a cork stoppei. which is very corrosive in nature. Each cartridge has an aluminum case which containi a propellant and a colored miniflare (red. authorities decided that such a device wai used in orler ro bring the bomb onto the plane undetected. In the case of a bombing of aBoeing727. burning with an intense heat of 2. white or green).000 degrees F.

22 caliber bullets. since it will shoot only blank cartridges. a has a steel barrel. But it can be converted into an illegal pen gun that will fire regular . It comes with a tiny earphone for listening while writing. POCKET PEN RADIO This is a radio hidden in a pen barrel. The wand tips are made of polished brass and are 2 L/2 inches long. The wand requires no gun license. Federal law prohibits possession magical supply house sells a shooting wand. The shooting device is just like a gun and of pen guns. See Figure 10. However.PEN GUN I t I Among other weapons. The wand is 15 inches long andL/2 inch in diameter. t Figare 10 8t . It can be used to listen in on conversations picked up by secret wireless microphones.

The receiver and recorder. the film wind-on lever is operated to prepare for the next exposure. A counter indicates the exposure number. pen. This is a disguised microphone designed to meer surveillance requiremeits for I f I i espionage and police work. It is possible to *eu. Little noise is generated in making an exposure. worn in different parts of one-'s clothing. This is a ballpoint pen with a built-in microphoie and inductive transmitter. Also needed is a micro tapi recorder with an inducive receiver. The microphone stures the target right in the face. IThen an exposure has been made by depressing the shutter release. Powered by 23 -vok.dummy case containing an ultra-sensitivl microphone. lirhium batteries.rir. See Figure 13. receiver and recorder) anywhere in one's cl-orhing. but they see only a fountain pen.000 feet away on a standard FM radio. it's a. the pen can be heard 1. A micro cassetre recorder hidden in the clorhing taies rhe conversation noiselessly. This pen microphone is considerably more sensitive than the human ear.. No wires are required. the film cassette of 6 exposures is inserted and the film compartment closed again. The film comparrment is opened.SUBMINIATURE CAMERA PEN This is a camera disguised as a pen for use on surveillance missions. The ball point can wrile while one eavesdrops. A second type of microphone pen is the wired fountain pen microphone and recorder. The third type of microphone pen is the FM transmitter excellent ee vesdropping device.o. EAVESDROPPING MICROPHONE PENS There are three different types of microphone pens. See Figures LL and lI. This disguised pen transmirter is an 86 +_ . will record conversations inconspicuo'usly. The first of these is the wireless inductive microphone pen. since these pen cameras have been specifically designed'for special missions. the combination (pen. Of .

Figare 11 Figare 12 .

The other cheater then plays the machine and secredy uses the drill to pierce a riny hole in the marked spot. He hits the measured spot with the center punch pen. Playing the slot machine. which -provides t . both disguised as pens. quick-return drill.SLOT MACHINE DRILL PEN AND PUNCH PEN CENTER A drill and a center punch. 4 inches up from the bottom and 4 inches in from the back. This indicates where the other cheater should drill. which has a hardened. Usually two cheaters work together at this. are used to fool the "Eye in the Sky" observation post. heattreated. where thl levers that control the machine are. the first cheater uses a four-inch ruler to mark the strategic place to be drilled. in gambling casinos while cheating slot machines. steel point for strength. and helps the drill ro starr cutting without wandering about the surface. The drill pen is a spiral-rachet. Figaw 14 88 \- .

heat-hardened for extra strength. All Some of the unusual covert pens described in this chapter may be purchased from PK Electronics. HAMBURG 1 FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF GERMANY 2OOO 89 . i I I LOCK PICKING PEN types of locks can be picked with the lock picking pen set. After drilling the hole. (Some casinos. have expensive slot machines lined with a steel sheet which the drill Pen cannot pierce. F I I F . After dropping a coin in the slot. he rubs this spot with soap to conceal it and leaves. He takes the wire to the set-up machine and slips the 4-inch-long section into the hole. Bending 4 inches from one end. he bends the wire into an L-shaped form.) The cheater simply pushes down on the spring-loaded shaft to turn the bit. he simultaneously pulls the handle with one hand and the hanger wire with the other. and sometimes a jackpot. the world's largest manufacturer of sophisticated electronics equipment for government use. Their address is: PK ELECTRONIC PRODUKTIONSGESETLSCHAFT MBH KG HEIDENKAMPSWEG 74 & CO. It looks like a regular pen. See Figure 15. They also welcome business from the general public. no matter what symbols appear. He receives a pay-off after each play. vanadiumalloy steel. it becomes an effective pick set.l I i b F s h P the fastest and easiest way to drill a hole in a slot machine by hand. The first cheater cuts a l2-inch length of wire from a coat hanger. however. which is made from high-grade. The professional thief may caffy a lock picking pen to get around state or local laws prohibiting possession of lock picks except by licensed locksmiths. but by taking it apart and reassembling it. See Figurc L4.

PICK PEN * r .'Fr--ol Figare 15 w{(rffi0 90 .

The lead pencil is carefully and slowly rolled along the edge of the flap. However. such as a lead pencil. Mail opening and reading sealed letters is a very specialized field and to treat it properly would require an entire book.OPENING METHOD This method consists of rolling the flap open. it can be detected in the following way. and it is the starting point for removing the contents. in most cases. A blunt instrument. at least. Fibers from the paper will be detached from the upper as well as the under surface of 9r . which. open only one part of the bottom flap and the opposite of the upper flap. Sometimes it is better to start on the under flap because this generally has inferior glue and loosens more readily. where the paste layer ends. is inserted in the opening which almost always exists at either extremity of the flap. I7hen this method of opening letters has been used. will easily oPen.COVERT MAIL OPENING This chapter is not designed to make the reader a competent surreptitious mail oPener. This opening is a weak sPot in the envelope. SOVIET PENCIL MAIL. this chapter will acquaint the reader with a few basic mailopening techniques which have proven to be effective. In this case.

It is almost impossible to match the former edge of the glue line with the-new one. The letter can then be read. Such places are encircled with a fine lead pencil and examined closely. The letter. SOVIET KNITTING NEEDLES MAIL-OPENING METHOD As already mentioned. Now a magnifying glass is used to examine the under surface of the flap and of the envelope. if it is sufficiently thin. Or a special instrument consistin g of a small steel rod may be used. For this purpose. Great care must be taken in lifting this flap so as not to cause new fibers to become detached. study the envelope while illuminated from the back with a strong light. A piece of filter paper soaked with water is put on the suspected sPot. 92 + t . To reseal the envelope. is grasped and rolled on the needles or rod and drawn out through the opening. Two incisions running through the edge of the flap are made with a sharp knife so that only the part of the flap between the two cuts can be lifted. the small flap is lifed with the aid of forceps. When the glue has been dissolved. where the Paste layer ends. a different glue than the one originally present on the envelope must be used. This produces a double glue line when the flap is pressed against the envelope for a second time. Places where the fiber or thin Particles of paper have detached will show up brighter than the rest of the glued border. there is almost always an opening at either extremity of the flap. To detect this method of letter-opening. There is no way whatsoever to hide these marks. Through rhis opening the contents of the envelope may be removed without unsealing it. Often thin lamina will be detached from the paper. two knitting needles fastened together by means of a cork can be used. rolled back on the object used. This can be seen with a magnifying glass or microscope. inserted in the opening and put back in place.the layer of glue. Detached paper fibers or thin particles can be easily seen and are a sure sign of previous opening.

a plate is placed in the frame and the letter is illuminated with very soft X-rays for a short time. The fingerprints of the opener should be looked for. dissolving the glue so that the envelope can be opened. in a frame with sensitive bromide paper behind it. the knitting needle method of mail opening will surely leave marks on the letter. envelopes have been put on the market with linings containing lead. Thus. if the letter is folded and closely written.t b f I I h L Although this examination is a simple one. But careful examination should nevertheless lead to detection in most cases. whoever wishes to protect his mail against such methods should use thick envelopes and thick paper. In order to make it impossible to read letters by X-rays. put the letter on a plate. In this method. letters are illuminated by a strong light coming from the back in the hope of reading through the translucent paper. SOVIET TRANSILLUMINATION METHOD In this method. i : I SOVIET STEAM METHOD This method consists of letting the vapor from boiling water act on the sealed back of the envelope. this will not be possible if the paper and envelope are thick. and use powerful light for some time. The same difficulty may be encountered when using X-rays to make a print. However. Stamps and marks of 93 i I . Soviet mail openers proceed with the utmost care and leave very few traces of their work. however. a very experienced eye is necessary. ) i ) I F I These methods will not leave any markings whereby detection is possible.white on a black background. To make a print of the contents. This method inevitably leaves traces on the paper in the form of waves. Deciphering the contents will be difficult. facilitating detection. Furthermore. The contents will appear on the print .

SOVIET BLOTTING PAPER METHOD A better method than using sream consisrs of passing thin bJotting paper soaked in water over the sealed-edg" 5f th. I7hen the adhesiu_9 9n an envelope does not seal tightly. 94 L . . However. The written or INK This secret ink can be used to detect surreptitious opening of letters by means of water or steam. colorless nail polish as a glue. this will show up under ultraviolet light.rr. It dries almost insi=antiy and leaves no smudge. use. three parts of white lead (lead carbonate) or white zinc (zinc oxide) or a mixture of both. leaving blurs. fl"p. The ether evaporates quickly. il * !lap. A letter sealed in this manner cannor be steamed open. rhis pale yhjte or yellow-tinted secret ink changes to a permanenr dark brown. leaving no-trace. if a glue orher than the originaf is used. SOVIET ETHER METHOD typeq message immediately becomes visible through the envelope. thereby making it transparent. plus a sufficient quantity-of lithographic varnish and turpeniine ro produce an ink of the desired. If water or sream is applied. 1 part of ferrocyanide of potassium. SEALED ENVELOPES SECRET This method is very simple.consistency. *urer. This method injures only a small part of fh. It coniists of I part b! weighr of uranium acerate. Just rub ether over the envelope. To protect the gum flap of an envelope from being opened with iteam o.indelible ink or pencil writing will also be dissolved to some extent. secret ink to mark rhe flap of the envelope. ihi.

Sealing wax of the same color as the original is used to make the new seals. Therefore. but a faithful reproduction of it on the lead plate results. open a letter. since sealing waxes which look alike may have different florescences. Seals made with the plaster cast have some drawbacks. However. examine the wax of the seals on a number of letters to see if any of them differs from the others. it should almost always be possible to detect this type of tampering. In seeking to detect the removal of waxed seals. some openers have used certain dental compositions. Another method is to place a piece of soft lead plate over the seal and to strike it with a strong and absolutely vertical blow with a wooden club. the plaster cast reproduces the original seal quite faithfully. I7hile reproducing all the faults in the original seal. When this has dried. the outlines of letters are never as sharp and clearcut as when made with the metal signet. minute traces of plaster lodged in the false seal may be detected by enlargement. remove the contents. electricallyheated platinum wire.SOVIET METHODS OF REMOVING WAX SEALS pulling One method consists of lifting the whole seal either by it away directly or by inserting a thin. This is then used to make new seals. such as copper amalgam. Furthermore. close it and put on a new seal in about twenty minutes. The seal breaks in pieces. The most commonly used method consists of building a wall of plastelina around the seal and pouring a plaster of Paris mixture on it. however. The seal is replaced either by pasting it back on or by heating its undersurface and roughing the paper to bring about better adhesion. To overcome the drawbacks of the plaster cast. This method is most likely to work if the seal is thick. although an experienced eye is always needed. slight differences in the luminescence do not always mean that the seals have ' 95 . Clever Soviet openers are able to make a plaster cast of the seal. Examination under ultraviolet rays may be useful.

The writing is fixed wirh ordinary fixing solution. since the letters may fade. since the method of melting or burning the sealing wax will produce different florescences in different pieces from the same srick of sealing wax. Be careful to apply the liquid so that the ink does not spread. If a seal has broken in the process of lifting it away from the letter.been made with different waxes. with an infusion of gall nuts (tannic acid) or a solution of prusside of potash slightly acidulated with muriatic acid. 1 gram of citric acid. the opener'will have to repair it by piecing it in place. To determine the rcnge of such differences. ri EMPTY ENVELOPE WRITING DEVELOPER Writing which has had conracr with paper for at least a few hours leaves invisible traces. the different sealing waxes used can be easily detected using ultraviolet light. SOVIET METHOD OF RESTORING FADED WRITING S7riting rendered illegible by aging may be restored by moistening it. using a feather. 96 . and three drops of nitric acid in 100 grams of distilled water. . In such a case. The writing should be photographed before fixing. experiments must be carried out with the same sealing wax. A chemical or microchemical analysis of the sealing wax may also be useful in detecting a difference between the wax of an opened seal and that of other seals. The inside of an envelope containing a letter may have such invisible traces of writing which can be developed in a dark room with a red light using a solution of ) grams of silver nitrate.5 gram of tartaric acid.

SOVIET METHOD OF READING SECOND SHEET A message written on a pad of writing paper and removed can be developed on the sheet underneath. This second sheet is placed in a solution of florescin salts and photographed under an ultraviolet light. t 97 .

Every chemical is unique in its chemical and physical properties. sparingly soluble (30 to 100 parts of the solvent required to dissolve one part of the solid). very slightly soluble (1. with the synonyms under which they are known colloquially. The chemicals listed here represent those used in secret ink formulas and also in less known procedures. slightly soluble (100 to 1000 parts of solvent is required to dissolve one part of the solid). over 90Vo of the solid is soluble (10 to 30 parts of solvent required to dissolve one part of solid). Solubilities have been indicated throughout approximately as: very soluble (1 part solvent required to dissolve one part of solid). freely soluble (1 to 10 parts of solvent required to dissolve one part of solid).000 to 10. The following list which should be scrutinized gives most of the factors which must be 98 I I .CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL DATA This is a reference list for all requiring ready access to chemical and physical data used in secret ink work and manufacturing. soluble. Therefore no chemical can replace another equally in all its characteristics.000 parts of solvent is required to dissolve one part of the solid). partly soluble (4L% to 907o). The chemicals are listed alphabetically under the names accepted as standard in the modern chemical industry.

an official British compendium giving the requirements for purity for many drugs and chemicals. Only those properties which are absolutely essential for secret ink work are listed. indicating the amounts of impurities present.R. This grade is usually the purest grade of chemical i available. A. For this reason. This shows that the product is listed in the National American Pharmaceutical Association.P.P. the extra cost of high quality chemicals should be considered a worthwhile safeguard.P. as the extra expense is almost negligible.F. B. They are used for secret ink purposes in special cases.P. quality arc used primarily for analytical secret ink purposes. C. N. indicates that it meets all the specifications of the British Pharmacopoeia. has been largely replaced by the designation A. Each container usually bears a label of analysis. This is the most common grade of chemical sold. This refers to the Britisb Pbarmacopoeia.F. N.R. Commercial. meets the requirements of Formalary and is recognized by the 99 . A drug or chemical marked B. For example: Silver Nitrate C. Analytical Reagent.R. This grade should not be used for secret ink purposes without investigation. Chemicals of A.P. It is generally more expensive than the other grades but it is not specified except when high purity is required. Such chemicals stand at the top in purity. GRADE OR PURITY OF CHEMICALS In practically every phase of secret ink work the cost of chemicals represents only a small fraction of the total cost involved. Any chemical which does not bear a grade designation can be considered of commercial grade. A few of the chemicals are still sold under this designation because the trade practice has become so firmly established. Stands for Cbemically Pare.considered in searching for a suitable chemical or formula. Crystals. The term C.

. N. For example: Potassium iodide U.the National Formulary. quality are satisfactory for secret ink work because of their uniformity. in degree. A drug or chemical marked U. and Non-Official Remedier and is recognized by the American Medical Association. Chemicals of U. This shows that the product is listed in Neu. Special.S. from all other grades. parts should be taken as meaning units of volume and in the case of solids as units of weight. U. either more or less pure.R." it should be remembered that equivalent units of 100 . This refers to a particular grade made for a particular consumer or industry. Unofficial. DIRECTIONS FOR COMPOUNDING INGREDIENTS IN SECRET INK FORMULAS Formulas are sometimes indicated not in units of weight or volume.P. mean anything from a grain to a ton.P. high purity.S.P. therefore. Its form and packaging may also be different.P.N.S. the edition of which is indicated by the respective Roman numeral. A "part" may. or a minum to a gallon as long as the other quantities are reckoned in the same units of weight or volume. It is different. This refen to the United States Plwrmacopoei4 an official compendium grving the requirements for purity for many drugs and chemicals. and availability. This indicates that the drug or chemical has not been tested by the proper authorities and that it is not yet officially recognized in the pharmacopoeia. In cases where both liquids and solids are indicated in "parts. but in "parts.S..." In the case of liquids. indicates that it meets all the specifications of the United States Pharmacopoeia.

101 . ALUM: See ammonium alum.5% by weight of ethyl alcohol. Uses: Chinese Red Invisible Ink. ALCOHOL: Alcohol is an organic compound containing one or more hydroxyl (OH) groups. Chemicals most frequently referred to in percentage solutions are potassium bromide. such as 2Vz7o. ACETONE: . Secret Fire Ink. a colorless. acetic acid. Secret Pass-Out Ink. Thus ounces for solids will have to go with fluid ounces for liquids. alcohol contains 9lVo by weight of ethyl alcohol and 9Vo of water.CH3COCHT. When small quantities of chemicals are called for in solutions.57o. ACETA: See vinegar. 54. D f il CHEMICALS ACACIA: See gum Arabic. Use: Secret Fire Ink. Secret Ifater Ink. 10. Pharmacopoeia. As used in the U. ACETIC ACID: CH3COOH.or 102o. ALBUMEN: The white or clear viscous part of an egg. weight and volume must be employed. diluted alcohol (proof spirit) contains 45. Israeli Special Process Secret Ink. Uses: Bright Blue Secret Laundry Ink. sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid. potassium alum. ar low temperature it solidifies to glacial acetic acid. ! I I ACETYISALICYLIC ACID: See aspirin.5Vo of water. with cubic cencimeters for liquids. colorless liquid.7 grams) with a reasonable degree of accuracy. Vanishing Ink No. highly volatile and inflammable. Grams for solids. Light Red Secret Ink.w )d ln a E. Mixes in all proportions with warer. d ! I ). Uses: Gestapo Blood-Red Secret Ink. alcohol. smaller than is practical to weigh out on ordinary scales (under 10 grains or 0. ether. the acid contained in vinegar (3 to 6Vo). corrosive liquid with a pungent smell.S. they are usually expressed in rerms of percentage solutions.

suffocating odor. odorless granules or powder. hydrochloric acid odor. Uses: Indelible Invisible Ink. white colorless crystals. Iodine Vapor Secret Ink Developer. Uses: Black Vanishing Ink. soluble in alcohol. Iodine Vapor Secret Ink Developer. Solution: 161 grams per liter of water. PLO Secret Vapor Ink. basic. ). white monoclinic crystals. strong alkaline reaction. styptic taste.24H2O. Insoluble in water. Yellow Invisible Ink. ALUMINUM OXIDE: AlzOr. white powder. Secret Egg Ink. Israeli Pale Blue Ink Nos. Hexagonal. soluble in cold water. Red Vanishing Ink. ALUMINUM ACETATE. Gestapo Blood Red Secret Ink. Uses: Blue Printing Press Invisible Ink. Uses: Austrian Black Secret Ink. Use: Mossad Secret Ink Developer.ALUMINA HYDRATE: See aluminum oxide. Dark Brown Secret Vapor Ink. Colorless crystals or white powder. AMMONIA I(/ATER: See ammonium hydroxide.6HrO. very slightly soluble in acid. AMMONIUM ALUM: Al2(NH4)r(SOr)4. colorless liquid. BASIC: Al(CrHrO. very deliquescent. Solution: dissolve 22 grams of aluminum chloride in 1 liter of water. Navy Blue Secret Ink. Use: Secret Furniture Ink. miscible in all proportions of water and alcohol.O. Freely soluble ) - in water. Light Blue Secret Ink. 1 and 2. insoluble in alcohol.. ALUMINUM PO$(/DER: See aluminum acetate. Double Agent Red Secret Ink. ALUMINUM CHLORIDE: AlCl . Freely soluble in water and ammonium hydroxide. glycerin. ALUMINITE: See potassium alum. ALUMINUM SULFATE: See potassium alum. Secret r02 . intense. AMMONIA: See ammonium hydroxide. Dark Brown Vanishing Ink. Brown Invisible Ink.L.OH. white AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE: NH. Red Secret Printing Ink. P. pungent. AMMONIUM CHLORIDE: NHaCI.

3HzlO. Use: Fireproof Paper. AQUA AMMONIA: See ammonium hydroxide. Contains approximately 507o gold. Underground Blue Secret Ink. a bright goldenyellow crystalline compound. Use: Bright Green Secret Ink. water and alcohol. ANTHRACENE: A coal-tar derivative which can also be synthesized from phtalic anhydride and benzene with a Friedel-Crafts catalyst.2HzO. monoclinic crystalline form. Secret Ink Magic. Uses: Invisible Typing Carbon Paper. AMMONIUM SULFATE: (NHs)zSOn. white rhombic crystals. basic. soluble in hot or cold water. Turkish (MIT) Black Secret Ink. Soluble in cold and hot water. BARIUM SULFHYDRATE: Ba(SH)z 4H2O. the salt existing as a water-soluble crystalline solid. slightly soluble in 103 . ARTICHOKE JUICE: A composite plant somewhat resembling a thistle. Use: Secret Mercurial Ink. AMMONIUM SULPHATE: See ammonium sulfate. Use: Brown Invisible Ink. BARIUM CHLORIDE: BaClz . Soviet Cipher Brilliant Blue Secret Ink. Juice is extracted from the thick and fleshy flower head. BASIC LEAD CARBONATE: See lead carbonate. AMYLUM: See starch. Use: Prison Blue Secret Ink. Source: Fertilizer. colorless. 9. Use: \U7hite Secret Ink. IJse: Vanishing Ink No. AURIC CHLORIDE: AuCls. Use: Australian Secret Vapor Ink. ARSENIC TRIOXIDE: As2O3. insoluble in alcohol. Secret \Vater Ink. soluble in i hydrochloric acid. Solution: 61 grams per liter of water. quite hygroscopic. Soviet Defector's Secret Fire and Ink Shield. nitric acid. ARROI(/ROOT: A nutritive starch obtained from the rootstocks of Maranta Arunacea.Fiery Ink Bottle.HCl. ASPIRIN: CeHa(COOH)CO2CHri a white crystalline derivative of salicylic acid.

ehter. Use: Secret Red Blockout Ink. BRANDY: A strong alcoholic liquor distilled from wine. insoluble in alcohol. BORACIC ACID: See boric acid. triclinic colorless crystalline form. 1. benzene. Use: Fireproof Paper. crystals. chloroform. Soluble in ammonium hydroxide. white triclinic soluble crystals. Very soluble in nitric acid. soluble in acid. oils. BLUE STONE: See copper sulfate. BETAMONOHYDROXY-NAPTHALINE: napthol See beta- * BISMARCK BROS7N Y BASE DYE: A commonly used fabric dye. BISMUTH NITRATE: Bi(NO3 ) t. BISMUTH CITRATE: BiCuHrOr. BORIC ACID: H1BO3. slightly hygroscopic. Decomposes in hot or cold water. white or colorless leaflets or powder. Soluble in alcohol. BISULPHATE OF POTASH: See potassium bisulfare.5HrO. alkaline solutions. Use: Black Vanishing Ink. BORAX: See sodium tetraborate. Use: Bright Blue Secret l^aundry Marking Ink. Uses: Dark Brown Vanishing Ink. PLO Secret Vapor Ink. Solution: 40 grams of bismuth nitrate in 1 liter of dilute nitric acid (use 1 part of nitric acid to 5 parts of water). BETA-NAPTHOL: C.oHtOH. An acid derived from boron trioxide. Use: Soviet Cipher Brilliant Secret Ink. BLUE VITRIOL: See copper sulfate.04 . Dark Brown Secret Vapor Ink.BATTERY ACID: See sulfuric acid. BENZINE: A colorless flammable liquid derived from crude petroleum and consisting of various hydrocarbons. Use: Secret S7ater Ink. BETA-METHYL UMBELLIFERONE: Secret Pass-Out Ink.

a white absorbent. Use: Secret lfater Ink. "CELLOSOLVE" ACETATE: CH r COOCH2 CH2 OC 2H5 .r i I or less acidulous liquid remaining after butter has been churned from milk. Use: British Black and Blue Secret Ink. |} CARBONATE OF LEAD: See lead carbonate. CAUSTIC SODA: See sodium hydroxide. Use: Brown Invisible Ink.6HrO. pleasant odor. CAUSTIC POTASH: See potassium hydroxide. a heavy colorless nonflammable liquid which is poisonous and gives off heavy vapors. gum elastic. 105 . lumpy or crystalline salt. Rubber. etc. CARBONATE OF SODA: See sodium carbonate. sometimes called India rubber. CARBON TETRACHLORIDE: CCla. CALCIUM CHTORIDE: CaCl2. Use: Secret $Tater Printing Ink. Cauliflower. soluble in water. CARBOLIC ACID: See phenol. Use: Chinese Red Invisible Ink. Chemical name: Ethylene glycol monoethyl ether acetate. CAOUTCHOUC: A South American word.oH rcOti a whitish. CAMPHOR: C . an industrial organic compound. volatile and aromatic crystalline substance (tough resin or gum). It is prepared by the reaction between chloride and carbon disulfide. CELLULOSE NITRATE: See pyroxylin. Use: Brown Invisible Ink. CABBAGE JUICE: The common cabbage has a compact head of leaves. translucent. Water white colorless liquid. Use: Secret Monte Tell or Chink Ink. The juice is extracted. Brussels sprouts. Use: BUTTERMILK: The more Secret lfater Ink. CARBON PAPER: Paper faced with a PreParation of carbon or other material. are sometimes classed as cabbages. natural rubber.

CHLORIDE OF PALLADIUM: See palladium chloride. CINCHONINE: C leH 22N2O. Use: Temperature-Sensitive Invisible Ink. a relatively pure hydrated aluminum silicate Al2O. soluble in all proportions in ether. CINNAMIC ALDEHYDE: CoH: CH:CH. COBALT CHLORIDE: See colbatous chloride. r. Use: Empty Envelope Writing Developer. Secret Luminous Lover's Ink.. Use: Secret Artificial !7ater Mark. COBALTOUS ACETATE: Co(CH3COz)zi red-violet color and monoclinic crystalline form. 507o soluble in alcohol.CH:O. CHINA ITOOD OIL: See tung oil. CHINA CLAY: There are many varieties of this material obtained from the decomposition of granite.2SiO. Use: Blue-Green Ink. Soluble tribasic organic acid. CHLORIDE OF NICKEL: See nickel chloride. CHLORIDE OF MERCURY: See mercuric chloride. composed of hydroxide and carbonate of lead. Soluble in cold and hot water. COBATT SALTS: Co. soluble in acid. CITRIC ACID: CiHn (OH)(COOH) colorless rhombic crystals. An alkaloid from the bark of several species of cinchona along with quinine.2H2O. Uses: Hustler's Luminous Secret Ink. colorless needles. Use: Perpetual Writing Pad. Occurs free in citrus fruits. CHTORIDE OF COBALT: See cobaltous chloride. 106 . CHLORATE OF POTASH: See potassium chlorate. but that which is of most interest is a colloidal form prepared by electrical precipitation and giving a very fine suspension in water. silver-white magnetic element that is tough. colorless monoclinic crystals.CERUSE: \7hite lead. very slightly soluble in water. Use: Secret Furniture Ink. lustrous and ductile. COBALT ACETATE: See cobaltous acetate. Kaolin.

It is often colored yellowish-brown because of dissolved nitrogen peroxide. Uses: Dark Green Secret Ink. alcohol. Use: Israeli Special Process Secret Ink. monoclinic crystalline form and red color. COPPER CHLORIDE: See cupric chloride. acetone. COPPER BROMIDE: See cupric bromide.5HrO. monoclinic crystalline form and red color. COLOPHONY: See rosin. Soluble in hot and cold water. COBALTOUS NITRATE: Co(NO3). Use: Temperature-sensitive Invisible Ink. COMMON ALUM: See potassium alum. COPPER SALTS: Copper forms two series of salts: cuProus and curpic. COMMERCIAL NITRIC ACID: A water solution containing 687o of pure acid. COPPER SULFATE: CuSoa. Solution: 26 grams per liter of water. soluble in (over 9O% of the solid will dissolve) ammonium hydroxide. Green Invisible Ink. slowly efflorescing in air.6HrO. Navy Blue Secret Reagent Ink. Underground Blue Secret Ink. COBATTOUS OXIDE: CoO. Blue Printing Press Invisible Ink. COLLODION: A solution of pyroxylin (soluble gun cotton) in ether containing a varying Proportion of alcohol. cubic crystalline form and brown color. Uses: Blue-Green Invisible Ink. COMMON SALT: See sodium chloride. blue crystals. Red-Brown Secret Ink. Sucker Bet Secret Ink. Red Invisible Lover's Ink. COPPER POWDER: See cupric chloride. alcohol. Insoluble (40% or less of the solid will dissolve) in cold water. almost white when dehydrated' Freely L07 . Bright Green Secret Ink. COPPERAS: See ferrous sulfate. B il E I h t c s l COLLODIUM: See collodion. Secret Water Ink. E COBALTOUS CHLORIDE: CoClz . See nitric acid. Use: Secret Postal Card Ink. hot water.il h il r.6HzO.

Brown Invisible Ink. CUBE ALUM: See potassium alum. ether. DENATURED ALCOHOL: See methyl alcohol. H roO:)x. Secret Furniture Ink. Yellow Invisible Ink. alcohol. Nearly insoluble in alcohol or water. CUPRIC CHLORIDE: CuClr. Solution: 43 grams per liter of water. Israeli Pale Blue Secret Inks. monoclinic crystalline form and black color. COTTONSEED OIL: The seed of the cotton plant which is used as a substitute for olive oil. Soluble in water. Very soluble in cold water. CUPRIC BROMIDE: CuBr2. ! CRUDE POTASSIUM CARBONATE: See potassium carbonate. Dilute to one liter with water. white cubic crystals.soluble in water. 108 . CUPROUS IODIDE: Curlr. Golden-Yellow Secret Ink. Solution: Dissolve L24. Uses: Black Vanishing Ink. CORROSIVE SUBLIMATE: See mercuric chloride. Use: Luminescent Secret Ink. alcohol. Soluble in water. ether and ammonium chloride. Secret Ifater Ink for Bar Bets. Use: Secret Ink for Temperature-Sensitive Paper. insoluble in alcohol. Use: Bright Green Secret Ink. Light Blue Secret Ink. (Ce DEXTRIN (DEXTRINE): Vanishing Ink No. rhombic crystalline form of green color. Use: BlueGreen Invisible Ink. insoluble in benzene. colorless amorphous crystals. 10. acetone. Uses: Blue Printing Press Invisible Ink. soluble in ammonia. CUPRIC SULFATE: See copper sulfate. Green Secret Ink. Source: Found in swimming pool water treatment kits and germicides. A group of water-soluble gummy substances formed from starch by the action of heat or weak acids.8 grams in distilled water to which 5 milliliters of sulfuric acid has been added. insoluble in alcohol. PLO Red Secret Printing Ink. Brown Secret Ink.

t r l t I ) . ether. I. Solution: 27 grams per liter of water. Red Secret Ink. Use: Yellow Pass-Out Ink. Use: Soviet Mail-Reading Method. Use: Double Agent Secret Ink. transparent. colorless liquid or rhombic crystals. Both salts are light-sensitive. alcohol. soluble in concentrated sulfuric acid. miscible in alcohol. chloroform. 407o alcohol is the equivalent of 40% by volume or 80 proof alcohol. DIETHYL ETHER: (CrHr)rO. prepared by oxidizing ferrous sulfate in the pres6nce of sulfuric acid. FERRIC AMMONIUM SULPHATE: See iron ammonium alum. FERRIC AMMONIUM: See iron ammonium alum. Use: Secret Fiery Ink Bottle. 109 . needles. Fumes are explosive in the presence of oxygen. FERRIC CHLORIDE: FECI . ETHER: See diethyl ether. !t k. Hitler's Secret Crimson Anatomy Ink. soluble in alcohol. very slightly soluble in ether. DEXTROSE (GRAPE SUGAR): CaH . but green scales are preferred for secret purposes. 10.246 (L922). and chloroform. t' d k. ETHYT ALCOHOL (ETHANOL): CzHTOH. It is inflammable. deliquescent. soluble in diluted alkalis.z Oe . soluble in water. occurs also as brown scales. ether. Secret $fater Ink. Secret Ink Magic. Use: Yorkville Deep Violet Secret Ink. Slightly soluble in cold water.. Vanishing Ink No. FERRIC SULFATE: Fe. colorless. Miscible in all proportions with water.(SO4)1. ESCULETIN: (HO)zCoOCoCh:Ch. ether. FERROCYANIDE OF POTASSIUM: See potassium ferrocyanide. Soluble in water. Violet Secret Ink. in many plants.6HrO: orange-yellow opaque masses or lumps.423. the sugar found sugar.E r. benzine. Slightly soluble in cold water. mobile and volatile liquid with a slight characteristic odor. Uncrystallized form. Use: Invisible Ink Patent No. corn E It I D t D t EGG I[/HITE: See albumen.

A colorless or slightly yeilow crystalline acid. Secret Black Anatomy ink. volatile liquid re. colorless. pungent taste. Secret Ink Developer. Coal Black Secret Reugent Ink. Use: Indelible InvisiblE Ink. Use: High Temperature Brown Invisible Ink. Rinse off rusty powder. often rusry in color or white from efflorescence.423. Turkish (MIT) Black Secret Ink.246 (1922). FORMATIN: See formaldehyde. GASOLINE: A volatile flammable liquid consisting of a mixture of hydrocarbons. Waterproof paper. Invisible Ink patent No. monoclinic bluegreenish crystals.sembling acetic or ethyl aldehyde and ciremically intermediate between methyl alcohol and formic acid. 2 I FORMALDEHYDE: HCHO. and an acrid. GALLIC ACID: CuHr(OH)3CO2H. a very srrong smell. They contain much tannin. Use: Soviet Method of Reading Second Sheet. 110 . Pa_s_tjo1ging Secret Ink. GARLICJUICE: A plant of the genus Allim (Allium sarivum is the cultivated variety). Soviet Method of Restoring Faded !7riting. chiefly on an oak. French Cloak gd pagger Ink. Iodirr" Vupo. FERROUS SULFIDE: FeS. insoluble in ammonia. colorless monoclinic needles from warer.THzO. FRUIT JUICE: Use: Temperature-sensitive Invisible Ink. Uses: Blue Secret Reagent Ink. FLORESCIN sAtrs: Also known as resorcinolphthalein.FERROUS SULFATE: FeSOr. soluble in acid. having a bulbous roor. L. irc used in the "nd manufacrure of that article and for making ink and a black dye. Use: Secret Buddha Ink. FUMING SULPHURIC ACID: See sulfuric acid. Use: Coal Black Secret Reagent irrk. GALLS OR GALTNUTS: The galls or gallnuts of commerce are produced by insects of the genus -ynips. Use: Secret -"Violent Fier"y" lnk Bottle. Uses: French Cloak and Dagger Black Secret Ink. a clear.

I I ! I I I p Brown Vanishing Ink.CHOH.t- ! I k GETATIN (GELATINE): Animal jelly. round. readily conducts electric current. as. black solid made up of minute crystals or scales that slide over each other very smoothly. GUM ARABIC: See gum.large. PLO Paper Secret Vapor Ink. clear colorless syrupy liquid. PLO Red Secret Printing Ink. Use: lTaterproof Paper. It is virtually infusible. Dark t b GIUE (ANIMAL): A hard. Yorkville Deep Violet Secret Ink. Glazed Vanishing Ink. Use: S7aterproof Paper. miscible with water.CH2OH. Uses: Chinese Red Invisible Ink._. etc. . Secret Pass-Out Ink. brownish gelatin. Secret Fiery Ink Bottle. pale yellow fruit with an acid flavorful pulp from which the juice is extracted. of animals. Use: Brown Invisible Ink. 111 . GOLD CHLORIDE: See auric chloride. GUM: A vegetable secretion of many trees or plants that hardens when it exudes. Fireproof Ink. chloroform. "Lead" pencils are one source of graphite. hygroscopic. and is insoluble in all common liquids. GREEN VITRIOL: See ferrous sulfate. Israeli Pale Blue Secret Ink. the skins. Uses: Black Vanishing Ink. GLYCERIN (GIYCEROL): CH2 OH. GRAPHITE: Graphite is a soft. Secret Red Blockout Ink. gum arabic. but is soluble in water. alcohol. Secret Water Ink. Mossad Secret Ink Developer. Coal Black Secret Reagent Ink. GREEN COPPERAS: See ferrous sulfate. the gum of the cherry tree. Secret Postal Card Ink. obtained by boiling to a jelly. Uses: British Black and Blue Secret Ink. insoluble in ether. GRAPEFRUIT JUICE: An edible. glutinous material obtained from animal tissues by prolonged boiling. Secret Ink for Cheating Bookmakers. Secret Monte Tell or Chink Ink. gum tragacanth. Secret Pyrotechnic Stage Ink. brittle. hooves.

The gas is poisonous and when even a small quantity of it is inhaled. Secret Buddha Ink. Secret Red Blockout Ink. Soluble (over 907o of the resin is soluble) in ethyl alcohol. Iodine Vapor Secret Ink Developer. Past Posting Secret Ink. HYDROCYANIC ACID (PRUSSIC ACID): HCN. corrosive. fuming liquid. Poisonous. miscible in all proportions with alcohol. aniline and amyl acetate. colorless or slightly yellow. volatile liquid having a characteristic bitter almond odor. GUM TRAGACANTH: A kind of gum procured from a spiny leguminous shrub (Astragalus gummifer) of ITestern Asia. Secret Buddha Ink. Secret Red Blockout Ink. Reduction Developer. Uses: Double Agent Red Secret Ink. The commercial variety is known as muriatic acid. Use: Secret Artificial Water Mark. amyl alcohol. ether. Secret Postal Card Ink. HIGGIN'S ITATERPROOF INK: See waterproof ink.GUM BASSORA: See gum arabic. It is one of the deadly poisons. GUM SANDARAC: A white or yellow resin obtained from a Barbary tree and pulverized for pounce. HOUSEHOLD AMMONIA: See ammonium hydroxide. Uses: Australian Secret Vapor Ink. Soviet Method of Restoring Faded Writing. HYDROCHLORIC ACID: HCI. HYDROCERUSSITE: See lead carbonate. GUM TRAGANTH: See gum tragacanth. A colorless. GUM MASTIC: A resin exuding from the mastic tree and obtained by incision. mobile. Use: Secret Blue Blockout Ink. clear. i: t12 . Secret Blockout Blender. it produces headache and nausea. It is heavier than air and slightly soluble in water. irritating vaPor. HYDROGEN SULFIDE: H2S. Uses: Secret Blue Blockout Ink. Source: formed with a solution of hydrogen cyanide in water. a colorless gas having the extremely offensive odor of rotten eggs. Use: Russian Instant Heart Attack Ink. GUM CAMPHOR: See camphor.

r73 . Uses: Vanishing Ink.. IODIDE OF POTASSIUM: See potassium iodide. IODINE: Ir. used in water colors. INFUSION OF GALLS: See galls or gallnuts. 10. Uses: Appearing and Disappearing Traveling Ink. IRON ALUM: See iron ammonium alum. and consists of lampblack or ivory black and animal glue. Secret STater Ink for Bar Bets. Kitchen Black Secret Ink. dark red. HYDROXYBENZOIC ACID: See salicylic acid. soluble in cold water. The true India ink is sepia. I IRIDIUM CHLORIDE: IrCla. Freely soluble in water. Brown Invisible Ink.24H2O. INK: ITriting ink is a solution mixture of ferrous sulfate and tannic acid with an appropriate dye or coloring agent for color. Blue Secret Code Ink. Uses: Glazed Paper Vanishing Ink. Use: Nausea Ink No. more soluble in a water solution of potassium iodide.HYDROSULFIDE: See barium sulfhydrate. violet efflorescent crystals. Source: Art stores. Vanishing Ink No. Secret Mercurial Ink. Blue Secret Reagent Ink. Use: Fireproof Ink. IODIDE OF POTASH: See potassium iodide. Slightly soluble in water. Called China ink. in air. however. Mossad Secret Ink Developer. deliquescent crystals. (NHa) zSO a. insoluble in alcohol. HYPO: See sodium thiosulfate. INDIA RUBBER: See caoutchouc. Uses: Bulgarian Poison Pen Ink. pure iodine is a crystalline steel-gray solid. Iodine Vapor Secret Ink Developer. very soluble in alcohol.1. It is in rolls or square cakes. IPECAC SYRUP: Rhizome and Cephaelis roots. this color quickly turns to purplish-black. Waterproof Ink. British Black and Blue Secret Ink. IRON AMMONIUM AIUM: Fez(SOa). IRON AMMONIA SULFATE: See iron ammonium alum. INDIA (BLACK) INK: A nearly black pigment brought chiefly from China.

LEMONJUICE: The intensely acidic juice extracted from an oval or roundish fruit resembling the orange.3HrO. Secret Fruit Ink Developer. Uses: Dark Brown Secret Pb(C2H3O ACETATE (SUGAR OF LEAD): Vapor Ink. Source: Hardware or paint store. IRON SULFIDE: See ferrous sulfide. LYE: See sodium hydroxide. Secret S7ater Printing Ink. a white crystalline soluble salt of sweet taste. slightly soluble in aqueous carbon dioxide. 114 .IRON CHLORIDE: See ferric chloride. very poisonous. Uses: Sealed Envelopes Secret Ink. LINSEED OIL: Oil obtained by pressure from flax seed. TemperatureSensitive Invisible Ink. Insoluble in hot and cold water. Dark Brown Vanishing Ink. High Temperature Brown Invisible Ink. LEEKJUICE: A lilaceous herb. Use: Brown Invisible Ink. Uses: Secret Water Ink. Use: Magic Secret Inkwell. * LYCOPODIUM PO!fDER: A fine yellow powder consisting of the spores of the lycopodium plants. Syrian Permanent Invisible Ink. IRON SULFATE: See ferrous sulfate. white hexagonal crystals or amorphous powder. PLO Secret Vapor Ink. Commercial grades ate frequently brown or gray lumps. TITHOGRAPHIC VARNISH AND TURPENTINE: See varnish. Uses: Egg Ink. but with a cylindrical bulb (from which rhe juice is exrracted) and flat leaves. LEAD )z. but much smaller. BASIC: CbCOr. LEAD SALT: See lead acetate. Use: Brown Invisible Ink. allied ro the onion. Secret Buddha Ink. LEATHER PO!(/DER: Use: Secret Furniture Ink. LIME JUICE: A fruit allied to the lemon. LEAD CARBONATE.

becomes thicker with cold. The soluble salts of mercury are poisonous. alcohol and ether. Secret Luminous Ink. colorless. MERCURIC CHLORIDE: HgClr. Secret Ink for TemperatureSensitive Paper. One part very soluble in 100 parts of cold water. insoluble in alcohol. decomposes when boiled. ether. decomposes in hot water. Yellow Secret Ink. carbon dioxide water (soda water). nonflorescent' transParent liquid. Use: Perpetual Writing Pad. clear. ammonia. silvery white and heavier than lead. mercury is the only metal that is liquid at ordinary temperatures. Freely soluble in water. rlt . Uses: British Black and Blue Secret Ink. Uses: Deep Red Secret Ink. 1 part soluble in 100 parts of nitric acid. Secret S7ater Printing Ink. transParent crystals. acetone. MERCURIC NITRATE: Hg(NO t) z. Secret Mercurial Inks. white trigonal crystals. oily. METHYL VIOLET 2 B BASE CONCENTRATED DYE: Use: Secret Blue Blockout Ink. Has high solvent qualities: soluble (10 parts to 30 parts of solvent required to dissolve one part) in water. METHYL ALCOHOL: CH'OH. MERCURY: Hg. MAGNESIUM CARBONATE: MgCO3. Soluble in acid. Extremely poisonous and dangerous to use. mobile liquid. Uses: Secret Fire Ink. MINERAL OIL: A mixture of liquid hydrocarbon obtained from petroleum.2HzO. Secret Red Blockout Ink. Secret Cutout Ink. Colorless. Solution: 68 grams per liter. white powder or heavy colorless crystals. Black Invisible Ink.t MAGNESIA WHITE: See magnesium oxide or carbonate. Uses: Secret Blue Blockout Ink. MAGNESITE: See magnesium carbonate. alcohol. Uses: Austrian Black Secret Ink. Unstable in solution when exposed to light. MILK: Use: Temperature-Sensitive Invisible Ink. Secret Blockout Ink Blender.

deliquescent monoclinic form and green color.6H2O. Use: Israeli Special Process Secret Ink. MURIATIC ACID: See hydrochloric acid. NICKEL CHLORIDE: NiCl 2. OIL OF VITRIOL: See sulfuric acid. Dark Brown Vanishing Ink. NITRIC ACID: HNO3. NITRATE OF PROTOXIDE OF MERCURY: See mercuric nitrate. green NITRATE OF BISMUTH: See bismuth nitrate. NON-ACID OIL: Use: Temperature-Sensitive Paper. OIL OF CASSIA: a variety of cinnamon obtained from the bark (cassia bark) of a tree native to China. Use: Green Invisible Ink. Israeli Special Process Secret Ink. Solution: 59 grams per liter. Very soluble (1 part of solvent will dissolve 1 part of solid) in cold water.1) . PLO Secret Vapor Ink. OCTOHYDRAL ALUM SALT: See potassium alum. NAPHTHOL: C roH zOH. r16 . monoclinic crystalline form. Dark Brown Secret Vapor Ink.. Uses: Black Vanishing Ink. Use: Green Invisible Ink. NEMBUTAL ELIXIR (PENTOBARBITOL ELIXIR): USC: Mickey Finn Ink. NITRATE OF MERCURY: See mercuric nitrate. NITRATE OF SITVER: See silver nitrate. Ni(NO. OIL OF CINNAMON: See cinnamic aldehyde. Solution: 73 grams per liter. either of two isomers which are derivatives of naphthalene and have a white or yellow color.MUCILAGE OF GUM ACACIA: See gum arabic. a corrosive liquid with powerful oxidizing properties. very soluble in hot water. Empty Envelope lTriting Developer. Use: Luminescent Secret Ink.6H 20. I NICKEL NITRATE: color.

waxy substance resembling spermacetti. PARAFFIN: A white. The juice will start to flow almost immediately. PETROL GASOLINE: See benzine. deliquescent. petroleum. PARATOLUIDINE: See toluidine. Use: Reduction Developer. needles crystalline form. tasteless and odorless. 2. Use: Secret \Vater Printing Ink No.COOH. OXIDE OF COBALT: See cobaltous oxide. crystalline form. Soluble in hot and cold water. Source: Photo supply store. then scrape gently. Use: Secret I7ater Ink. ONION: Cut across the grain. Soluble in cold water. PEROSMIC OXIDE: See osmium tetroxide. Source: Photography store. ORTHOACETOXYBENZOIC ACID: See aspirin. Uses: Invisible Process Ink. Source: Grocery store. Iodine Vapor Secret Ink. PHENOL (CARBOIIC ACID. Secret Ink Magic. hydrochloric acid and acetone.OLEIC ACID: CH3(CH2)7CH:CH(CHr)r. OSMIUM TETRA OXIDE (OSMIC ACID): OsOa. PENTOBARBITAL ELIXIR: See nembutal elixir. Uses: Iodine Vapor Secret Ink Developer. an unsaturated fatty acid found in natural fats and oils as a glyceride. Use: PLO Red Secret Printing Ink. PHENIC ACID): CoHTOH. wood tar. dark red color. colorless monoclinic crystals. Soluble in water. ether lr t17 . cubic needles. Uses: Deep Reddish' Brown Invisible Ink. colorless. etc. Secret Mercurial Ink. OSMIUM TETROXIDE: See osmium tetra oxide. PALLADIUM CHLORIDE: PdCl z. by distillation. OXALIC ACID: CzHzOqi a strong poisonous white soluble crystalline organic acid. obtained from coal tar. OPAQUE ITHITE: An opaque pigment used to block out parts of photographic prints.

and alcohol. Solution: 20 grams in a liter of water. Uses: Fireproof Ink, Secret Blue Blockour Ink, Secret Cutout Ink, Secret Red Blockout Ink, Violet Secret Ink. PHENOTPHTHALEIN: C 2sH laOa; rhombic needles from dilute alcohol. Solution: 1 gram in 50 milliliters of alcohol and add 50 milliliters of warer. Uses: Blowing the Color Out of Secret Red Ink, Chinese Red Secret Ink, Gestapo BloodRed Secret Ink, Light Red Secret Ink, pLO Sicret Red Printing Ink, Red Vanishing Ink. PHOSPHORESCENT ZINC SULFIDE: A powder. Use: Invisible Typing Carbon Paper. PHOSPHORUS: See yellow phosphorus. PHOSPHORTC ACrD (ORTHOPHOSPHORTC ACrD): HrPOo; syrupy; soluble in hot or cold water. Solution: 16 grams per liter of water. Use: Invisible Ink patent No. r,423,246 (1922). PLATINIC CHLORIDE: See platinum chloride. PLATINUM CHLORIDE (PLATINOUS CHLORIDE): PtClsHrO; red monoclinic crystals. Very soluble in hot or cold water: Uses: Bulgarian Poison Pen Ink, Fireproof Ink, Secret Mercurial Ink. PLATINUMIC CHLORIDE: See platinum chloride.

{

PONTIANAK: See spirit varnish.
POTASH: See potassium carbonate. POTASH ALUM: See potassium alum. POTASSIUM ALUM: K2At z(SOi 4.24HzO; targe, colorless, hard, transparent crystals or white crystalline powder. Freely soluble in water, glycerin; insoluble in alcohol. Use: Secrer Egg Ink. POTASSIUM BISUTFATE ACID (POTASSIUM HYDROGEN SULFATE): KHSO4; dissolves in water; decomposes in alcohol. Use: British Black and Blue Secrer
Ink.

118

POTASSIUM BROMIDE: KBr; white crystalline granules or powder. Uses: Brown Invisible Ink, Golden-Yellow Secret
Ink.

POTASSIUM CARBONATE: Kz COr; deliquescent powder of white color. Soluble in hot and cold water. Solution: 207
grams per liter. Use: Black Appearing and Disappearing Ink. POTASSIUM CHLORATE: KCIOr; transparent, colorless, crystals or white powder. Uses: Brown Invisible Ink, Detonator Pen, Secret Fiery Ink Pen, Secret Fiery Ink Bottle.

POTASSIUM CYANIDE: KCN; cubic colorless or white granular deliquescent crystals: extremely poisonous. Very soluble in hot and cold water; soluble in methyl alcohol. glycerin; slightly soluble in alcohol. Solution: 33 grams in 1 liter of water. Uses: Double Agent Red Secret Ink, Instant Killer Poison Ink, Soviet Method of Restoring Faded STriting, Soviet Method of Removing ITax Seals. POTASSIUM DICHROMATE: K 2Cr2O7; red triclinic crystals. Soluble in water; insoluble in alcohol. Use: l7aterproof Paper. POTASSIUM FERRICYANIDE: K3Fe(CN)6; ruby-red lustrous crystals. Freely soluble in water; slightly soluble in alcohol. Unstable, deadly poisonous, dangerous to handle. Use: Chemiluminescence Ink. Note: potassium ferricyanide is most unsatisfactory for secret writing since it decomposes on the paper and becomes visible. b

POTASSIUM FERROCYANIDE: KnFe(CN) 6.3HzO; yellow monoclinic crystalline form. Soluble in water. Solution: 53 grams per liter of water. Uses: Blue Secret
Reagent Ink, British Black and Blue Secret Ink, Brown Secret Ink, Dark Green Secret Ink, Reddish-Brown Secret Ink, Sealed Envelopes Secret Ink.

POTASSIUM HYDROXIDE: KOH; deliquescent lumps or sticks. Poisonous; attacks the skin, inflicting severe burns. Soluble in hot and cold water; very soluble in alcohol; slightly soluble in ether. Alkali solutions must be protected from air

TL9

by having the bottle stoppers coated with vaseline. Use:
Gestapo Blood-Red Secret Ink.

POTASSIUM IODIDE: KI; cubic colorless or white crystals, granules or powder. Soluble in cold and hot water, alcohol, ammonia; slightly soluble in ether. Uses: Deep Red Secret Ink, Glazed Paper Vanishing Ink, Kitchen Secret Purple Ink, Mossad Secret Ink Developer. POTASSIUM NITRATE: KNOr; known as saltpeter. Colorless; rhombic, trigonal crystalline form. Insoluble in alcohol and ether. Solution: 10 grams per liter of water. Uses: Secret Pyrotechnic Commercial Printing Ink, Secret Pyrotechnic Stage Ink. POTASSIUM SULFATE: See potassium alum. POI7DERED ACACIA: See gum arabic. PRUSSIDE OF POTASH: See potassium cyanide. PYRAMIDON (AMIDO PYRINE): C a water 'rH "NrO; prevent soluble crystalline solid, used chiefly to reduce or fever and to relieve pain. Pyramidon is the pharmaceutical

rl

name

for amido pyrine, which is also known A

as

dimethylamino antipyrine, amino pyrine, dimethyl-aminophenyl-pyrazolone. Use: Norwegian Soft Blue Secret Ink. substance resembling gun cotton in composition and properties, but distinct in that it is more nitrilied and is soluble in alcohol, ether, etc. Use: Secret Water Ink.

PYROXLYIN:

.fflot.rcettt needles. Use: Big Brother Blue Secret Ink. QUININE SULPHATE: See quinine sulfate.

QUININE SUTFATE: (C ,oH roNrO, )2.H2SOa; -silky
REDUCING AGENT: Reduction is the Process of removing oxygen from a compound. A substance which can effect such a removal of oxygen is called a reducing agent. Use: Electrochemical DeveloPer.

r20

SILVER CHLORIDE: AgCl. Reduction Developer. ROSE WATER: A fragrant solution created by distilling the oil from roses and combining it with warer. monoclinic colorless needles. SILVER NITRATE: AgNOI. SATTPETER: See potassium nitrate. RHODAMINE BASE DYE: A red dye obtained by heating an amino derivative of phenol with pirthalic anhydiide. containing enzyme and ptyalin. viscid. a colorless crystalline benzene derivative obtained from certain resins. Use: Secret Pyrotechnic Prinring Ink. Use: Secret Cutout Ink. 12I . Use: Invisible process Ink. Use: Iodine Vapor Secret Ink Developer. Empty Envelope l7riting Developer. SALICYLIC ACID: CuHn(OH)(IXCOOH)(2). Use: Tamper Information Invisible Ink.largely abietic acid. RESORCINOL: C6 Ha (OH). SALT OF SATURN: See lead acetare. Use: Kitchen Secrer Purple Ink. Source: Music stores (used on bows of stringed instruments). Used as a fragrance or in cooking. Silver Nitrate Developer. Secret Fiery Ink Bortle. a white crystalline salt of silver. Use: Black Invisible Ink.SALT: See sodium chloride. . obtained from the dissolution of silvir in dilute nitric acid. Use: Commonest and cheapest resin. RICE: A well-known cereal grass (Oryza sativa) and its seed.. Blue Secret Laundry Marking Ink. Graded according to color. Secret Ink to Cheat Bookmaklrs.Secret Red Blockout Ink. ROMAN ALUM: See potassium alum. Elecrrochemical Develop_er. Iodine Vapor Secret Ink Developer. ROSIN (COLOPHONY): CroH zoOz. slightly acid fluid which is secreted !y the glands of the mourh. SALIVA: The watery. white cubic crystalline form. lr SAL AMMONIAC: See ammonium chloride.

Solution: 1 part of the salt in 10 parrs of water. SODIUM DICHROMATE: NazCr zOt. slightly soluble in alcohol. Very soluble in water. soluble in water. transparent. Uses: Brown Invisible Ink. Light Red Secret Ink. Mossad Secret Ink Developer. SODIUM CHLORIDE: NaCl. Crystals effloresce in air. Source: Art supply stores. Uses: Appearing and Disappearing Traveling Ink Trick. white crystalline granules or white powder. Secret \U7ater Ink for Bar Bets. SODIUM CHTORATE (CHLORATE OF SODA): NaClOr. Soluble in water. colorless. SODIUM ACETATE: NaC2H tOz. Blue Secret Code Ink. cubic colorless crystals. SODIUM BICHROMATE: See sodium dichromate. hydrochloric acid.SOAPSTONE: A massive variety of talc in soft stone form with a soapy or greasy feel. Use: Israeli Special Process Secret Ink. SODIUM FERROCYANIDE: NaaFe(CN)6. SODIUM BORATE: See sodium tetraborare. i SODIUM CARBONATE: Na2CO3. efflorescent crystals. Use: lfaterproof Paper. insoluble in alcohol. 122 . Use: Green Secret Ink. Freely soluble in water. cubic or trigonal crystalline form. Blue Secret Code Ink. very soluble in alcohol. liquid ammonia.lOH2O. SODA ASH: See sodium carbonate.1OHzO.3HzO. Dissolves when heated. SODA: See sodium carbonate. PLO Red Secret Printing Ink. glycerin.2HzO: red monoclinic crystals. Children's Green Non-poisonous Commercial Invisible Ink. Soluble in cold or hot water. sofuble in glyierin. soluble in alcohol. LJse: Blue and Red Blockout Inks. monoclinic crystalline form and yellow color. white deliquescent lumps or sticks. insoluble in alcohol. Soluble in cold and hot water. SODIUM HYDROXIDE: NaOH. colorless crystals. Uses: Appearing and Disappearing Traveling Ink. Soluble in water.

ether. Use: Blue Vanishing Ink for Love Letters. Source: Photography store. Use: Secret Blue Blockout Ink. Sucker Bet Secret Ink No. alcohol. insoluble in sodium or potassium salts. Use: Temperature-Sensitive paper. PLO Red Secret Printing Ink. Uses: Blowing the Color Out of Secret Red Ink. SODIUM SULPHOCYANATE: See sodium thiosulfate' SODIUM TETRABORATE: NazBnOr. ammonia. Use: Secret Pyrotechnic Printing Ink. 2. glycerin. Yellow Secret Ink. SPIRITS OF NITRE: See nitric acid. a white amorphous hygroscopic powder that yields dextrin by hydrolysis. alcohol. Red Secret Ink. Soluble in water. Soluble in water. SPIRIT NIGROSINE'SS B DYE: One of the blue-black dyes which are derivatives of aniline. insoluble in alcohol. A solution of gum or resin in alcohol that dries quite rapidly. insoluble in acetone. Uses: Hitler's Secret Crimson Anatomy Ink. r23 . monoclinic colorless efflorescent crystals. SODIUM THIOSULFATE: NazSzOr.lOHzO. Soluble in water. STARCH GUM: See dextrin. glycerol. ! SOLUBLE STARCH: See starch. Use: Chemiluminescence Ink. white crystals. Use: Secret I7ater Ink for Bar Bets. a white crystalline salt. SODIUM SALICYLATE: NaC7H5O3. a salt formed by the reaction between a borate and hydrogen peroxide. Soluble in cold and hot water. Use: Fireproof Paper. Source: Available in grocery stores (laundry section) as borax. SODIUM HYPOSULFITE: See sodium thiosulfate. SPIRIT VARNISH: A special type of paint. SODIUM PERBORATE: NaBO t. insoluble in absolute alcohol. Blue Secret Laundry Marking Ink. Solution: 1 part in 40 parts of water. STARCH: (CeH roO:)*. HzO.SHzO. SODIUM SILICATE: NazSiOr. amorphous.

dissolves in alcohol. SUTPHURIC ETHER: See diethyl ether. !7hite Secret Ink. SUGAR OF LEAD: See lead acerate.Israeli pale Blue Secret Ink No. Secret Furniture Ink. Black Vanishing Ink. care mu-=st be taken to avoid dangerous spattering that would result if steam. milcible with hot water.SUB-CARBONATE OF POTASS: See potassium carbonate. Miscible with cold warer (evolvei heat). Cigarette Moocher Secret Ink. Secret Fiery Ink pen. ordinary cane sugar or beet sugar.Israeli Pale Blue Secret Ink. past Posting Secret Ink. Turkish (MIT) Black Seiret Ink. SULPHATE OF COPPER: See copper sulfate. pale yellow. Tamper Information Invisible Ink. crystalline solid.Israeli Special Process Secret Ink. TemperatureSensitive Invisible Ink. Secret Violent Fiery Ink Bottle. 2. Dark Brown Vanishing Ink. Detonator pen. SUTFURIC ETHER: See diethyl ether.nlF. miscible with organic solvents. Use: Secret Pyrotechnic Printing Ink. Temperature-sensitive Invisible Ink. SULFUR: S. Uses: Detonator Pen. In making a dilute solution of the acid. Permanent Black Invisible Ink. Dark Brown Secrer Vapor Ink. pLO Secret Vapor Ink. SULFURIC ACID: HzSOr. Violei Secret Ink. SUGAR (SUCROSE): Crz}JrrOll. were produced. Permanent Invisible Ink. aciompaniea Uy constarii :tt. SYRUPY PHOSPHORIC ACID: See phosphoric acid. SULPHURIC ACID: See sulfuric acid. Uses:-Big Brother Blue Secret Ink. dissolves readily in carbon disulfide. Secret Fiery Ink Pen. 124 . colorless oily liquid or hexagonal crystals. SULFATE OF IRON: See ferrous sulfate. brittle. Insoluble in water and most acids. SUGAR SOLUTION: Use: Temperature-Sensitive Ink. Secret Ink Magic. Sucker Bet Secret Ink. Secret Fiery Ink Bottle. This is done by pouring the acid slowly into the water (never the reverse).

Secret Black Anatomy Ink. Iodine Vapor Secret Ink Developer. almost white to yellow crystalline compound. Secret S7ater Ink for Bar Bets. especially the commonest one. Secret Ink Magic. 3. 3-dihydro and 4phthalazinedione. TARTARIC ACID: (CHOHCO zH)zi colorless monoclinic crystals. Past Posting Secret Ink. Soviet Method of Restoring Faded ITriting. Uses: Blue Vanishing Ink for Love Letters. yellow amorphous powder. or r25 . Solution: 1 part of acid in 3 parts of water. Use Chemiluminescence Ink. carpets. Uses: Blue Secret Reagent Ink. Source: "Cream of Ta*ar" in grocery stores. TOTUIDINE: CHiC6H4NH2. Camellia sinensis. any one of three isomeric amino derivatives of toluene analogous to aniline and paratoluidine. Uses: Black Vanishing Ink. TETRACHLORO-METHANE: See carbon tetrachloride. alcohol. Vanishing Ink No.TANNIC ACID (TANNIN): CuH roOgi lustrous. TETRACHLOROETHANE: ClsC. Very soluble in water. Dilute to 1 liter with alcohol. TINCTURE OF IODINE: Solution: add 70 grams of iodine and 50 grams of potassium iodide to 50 milliliters of water.IDE (LUMINOL): NHzC6Hl. such as hydrogen pyroxide. dissolve 750 grams of tartaric acid and dilute to one liter. Use: Kitchen Secret Black Ink. Also known as 5-amino-2. etc. Used by police department homocide squads to bring out bloodstains on floors. whose leaves are used to make beverages. Empty Envelope I7riting Developer. It gives off a brilliant luminescence when it is treated in an alkaline solution with an oxidizing agent. For a saturated solution. 9. Use: Secret STater Printing Ink No. miscible in alcohol and ether. TEA: An evergreen plant. colorless liquid.AMINO-PHTHALHYDRAZ. Source: Grocery store.CH2CI. Insoluble in water. 2.

consisting of a solution of resinous matrer in an oil or a volatile liquid. yellow-green in color. Temperarure-Sensitive paper. TUNG OIL: A yellow to brown oil extracted from the seed of a Chinese tree. TRISODIUM PHOSPHATE: phosphate. store. Dark Brown Vanishing Ink. 126 . insoluble in carbon disulfide. Soluble in cold water. Use: Perpetual STriting Pad. VEGETABLE JUICE: Use: Temperature-sensitive Invisible Ink. See tribasic sodium Secret Ink. slightly radioactive uranium compound. Secret Pass-Out Ink.2HzO. Uses: Blue Printing Press Invisible Ink. Also known as spirits of turpenrine or oii of turpentine. Envelopes Secret Ink. rhombic URANYL NITRATE: UNr. Source: paint VARNISH: Sealed VENICE TURPENTINE (VENICIAN TURPENTINE): Turpentine from the common larch. dissolves in hot water. A viscid liquid. pinus larix. TURPENTINE: A resinous compound obtained from pine Sealed Envelope Secret Ink. URANIUM ACETATE: See uranyl acetate. Use: Secret ITater Printing Ink. Source: Available in mosr paint srores. Use: Bright yellowishGreen Secret Ink. white trigonal crystalline form. Use Tamper Information Invisible Ink. {Jse: yellow crystals. Uses: Sealed Envelope trees. TURMERIC: The powder made from the root of an Easr Indian plant of the ginger family.paratoluidine.12HzO. Uses: Dark Brown Secret Vapor Ink. URANYL ACETATE: UOz(CzHtOr)r. which is obtained as a white crystalline substance. TRIBASIC SODIUM PHOSPHATE: Na3POn. Use: Chemiluminescence Ink. PtO Secret Vapor Ink. Sealed Envelopes Secret Ink.

I(/HITE PHOSPHORUS: See yellow phosphorus. IUTHITE TINSEED OIL LITHOGRAPHIC VARNISH: Use: Secret Water Printing Ink. Insoluble in water. Use: Secret STater Printing Ink No.. 2. soluble in alcohol. clear with little color and a sharp odor. Use: Secret lVater Ink. Children's Green Non-poisonous Commercial Invisible Ink. Secret Egg Ink. obtained chiefly from petroleum. Source: Gray Pharmaceutical Co. VITRIOLIC ACID: See sulfuric acid.v. !7HITE LEAD: See lead carbonate.VICTORIA BLUE B BASE DYE: Use: Secret Blue Blockout Ink.. WHITE GARLIC JUICE: See garlic juice. !7ATER GLASS: See sodium silicate. 50 lTashington St. 2. X-PREP TIQUID: A standard extract of senna fruit. '$7ATERPROOF INK: Use: Soviet Method Of Removing Wax Seals. VICTORIA GREEN Sf B CRYSTALS DYE: Use: Secret Luminous Ink. Used as a laxative. r$(/HITE ZINC: See zinc oxide. CT 06856. '$7OOD SPIRIT: See methyl alcohol.). Use: Secret Egg Ink. colorless liquid. Source: Grocery Store. \U7OOD NAPTHA: See methyl alcohol. !(/ASHING SODA: See sodium carbonate. XYLENE (XYLOL): C6Ha(CH3)r. VINEGAR: A mixture of water and acetic acid (q. Use: Brown Invisible Ink. Norwalk. very soluble in ether. \UTAX: A white or colorless waxy mixture of hydrocarbons not easily acted upon by reagents. 127 . potatoes. Use: Nausea Ink No. TS7HISKEY: An intoxicating liquor distilled from grain. etc.

YELLOW PHOSPHORUS: Pa. ammonium hydroxide. Uses: Hustler's Luminous Secret Ink. cubic colorless to yellowish waxlike solid. Use: Sealed Envelopes Secret Ink. Secret Luminous Lover's Ink. t28 . YELTOIY PRUSSIATE OF POTASH: See potassium ferrocyanide. Luminescent Secret Ink. Slightly soluble in hot water. Soluble in mineral acid. white or yellowish amorphous powder. dilute acetic acid. ZINC OXIDE: ZnO.

95. police techniques in surveillance. soft coyer. 99. Name Clly/Slate/Zlp . Fixei'and mobile surveillance. i'l/z x 8r/2. eavesdropping. B6bV-mounteO transmitters.5h x gh. soft cover. Vehicle su-rveillance. Honn. or conduct a stake-out? Here is a no_ tr55052 nonsense guide support methods! Topics covered include: Fact vs. Wireless llludnled. techniques. Wiretapping. Concealed microphones. and this book tells you exactly how he's doing it! tgE3. 5/z x 8%.95. Electronic surveillance. Contents include: Shadowing and tailing. And much more! we oller the very finest in controversia! and unusualbooks please turn to the catalog announcement on the next page. this book details professional techniques for spying and eavesdropping. And much more. $10. 1986. g9. Undercover operations and their relation to the techniques of espionage have acquired a mystique and image of glamour that overshadows how iruly. l4g W. by Burt Ropp. This new book will clear up the misconceptions and give the real inside story on undercover operations and iow to conduct lhem. fiction in surveillance. A how_to_ do-it manual lor government agents. by Burt Rapp. 124pp.YOU WIL ALSO WANT TO READ: tr55043 covERT SURYEILLANcE AND PENETRATTON. I have enclosed g (including $3. A Comptete Hendbook.g1. SHADOW|NG AND SURVETLLANCE: A Comptere Guldebook. edfled ELEcTRoNIc by Wliltem B. lntercepting computer data. photographic surveillance.-And much more! ls Big Brother watching you?you bet he is. WA 98008 Please send the books I have checked above. illustrated. tr55053 UNDERcovER woRK. Want to tail somebody witlhout them knowing. and the abuses that can result from [hem. roll covcr. Telephone bugging. grimy they often are. lgE6. - Loompanlcr Unllmltcd/PO Bor 1197/Port Townrcnd. Stake-outs. with the emphasis on do-it-yourself and low_ to shadowing and surveillance Planning for a tail.00 for shipping and handting). 136 pp.

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t r: t'- .?1-qq-X :'i: ' .51. r*' t .ISBN 0-11.

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