# Satellites for Beginners

Overview of Satellites Types of Orbits Orbital Mechanics Keplerian Elements Satellite Tracking Antenna Basics Simple Transmitters/Receivers Satellites for Beginners
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Types of Orbits

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000 kms Geosynchronous Orbit 36000 kms 3 .600 kms Medium Earth Orbit 10.Types of Orbits Low Earth Orbit 290 – 1.000 – 16.

Orbital Mechanics 4 .

Orbital Mechanics 5 .

Orbital Mechanics 6 .

Orbital Mechanics 7 .

Keplerian Elements CATALOG NUMBER EPOCH TIME ELEMENT SET NUMBER INCLINATION RAAN ECCENTRICITY ARGUMENT OF PERIGEE MEAN MOTION ORBIT NUMBER CHECKSUM 8 .

9e-07 rev/day^2 Epoch rev: 35748 Checksum: 348 9 .6797 243.6797 deg RA of node: 243.0012017 Arg of perigee: 165.68802813 -.7959 194.3449 deg Mean motion: 12.Keplerian Elements NASA 2 Line format AO-07 1 07530U 74089B 04197.9770 0012017 165.3449 12.53568878 rev/day Decay rate: -2.7959 deg Mean anomaly: 194.9770 deg Eccentricity: 0.00000029 00000-0 10000-3 0 2955 2 07530 101.53568878357487 AMSAT FORMAT Satellite: AO-07 Catalog number: 07530 Epoch time: 04197.68802813 Element set: 295 Inclination: 101.

Manual tracking of Satellites Satellite Tracking 10 .

Satellite Tracking Computer Tracking 11 .

Globe view Satellite Tracking 12 .

Antenna Basics Directional properties Transmitting vs. Receiving properties Efficiency Polarization Isotropic Antenna 13 .

14 .Antenna Basics Antenna’s not for beginners.

Antenna Basics Antenna’s for Beginners 15 .

Antenna Basics Vertical-plane gain patterns Showing the relative field intensity for half-wave dipole above perfectly Conducting ground. (A) is for height of ¼ wavelength. 16 . and (C) is for height of 1.5 wavelengths. Pattern at right angles to dipole. (B) Is for height 3/8 wavelength.

Antenna Basics 17 .

Antenna Basics 18 .

Antenna Basics 19 .

VHF/UHF ¼ wave antenna. 20 .5 W for the hand held.Simple Transmitters/Receivers VERY BASIC LIST: VHF/UHF FM transceiver/hand held transceiver. Azimuth & Elevation control rotator. INTERMEDIATE LIST VHF/UHF Multimode. 2. VHF/UHF beam antennas. Higher power for the elliptical orbit satellites.

Satellites for Beginners INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION (ISS) . RZ3DZR USA callsign NA1SS Packet station mailbox callsign RS0ISS-11 Packet station keyboard callsign RS0ISS-3 Digipeater callsign ARISS 21 . 1998 Status: Operational Digipeater: Active The current Expedition 12 crew is: Commander: William McArthur – KC5ACR Flight Engineer: Valery Tokarev – (no call) Worldwide packet uplink: 145.200 MHz FM Worldwide downlink: 145.ARISS Catalog number: 25544 Launch date: November 20.800 MHz FM Russian callsigns RS0ISS.990 MHz FM Region 1 voice uplink: 145.

850 145.90 to 146.80 to 435.870 145.910 MHz 1200-baud BPSK or 9600-baud FSK Callsign: 8J1JCS Digitalker: 435. 22 .00 MHz CW/LSB Downlink: 435.or.910 MHz FM Downlink: 435.795 MHz Digital Mode JD Uplink: 145.Satellites for Beginners FO-29 JAS-2 Catalog number: 24278 Launch Date: August 17.910 MHz Please send the reception reports to lab2@jarl. 1996 Status: Operational Voice/CW Mode JA Uplink: 145.90 MHz CW/USB Beacon: 435.jp . Please use the subject line: 'FO-29reception report'.

Satellites for Beginners AO-51 ECHO Catalog number: 28375 Launch date: June 29. 9k6 PBP Digital Downlink: 435. 2004 Status: Operational Feb 26 FM Repeater. PBP BBS (Pacsat Broadcast Protocol BBS) TLM Data Active Uplink: 145. V/U Uplink: 145.860 mhz FM.300 mhz FM 9k6 Digital.150 mhz FM. V/U. 9k6 PBP Digital [01292006] The ECHO Operations committee will determine modes and schedules for experiments. 67 hz PL Tone Downlink 435. 23 .920 mhz FM.

Don’t use a verticle antenna. you won’t without the PL tone set. Like most repeaters. Make sure you have your PL tone set to 67hz. Keep your squelch off. 24 . AO-51 is very strong (only the ISS is stronger) so almost everyone can hear it on a good HT with a good whip antenna.How Will I Ever Get In? The good news is that in the weeks following activation of AO-51 the load has lightened and it’s easier to get it if you plan ahead and avoid the pileups. Listen First. 6. Have a look at the AMSAT website entitled “12 Suggestions for Handheld Transceiver Users”. use a handheld computer running PocketSat or PetitTrack to reference the satellite’s position. 5. 5 watts is all that is needed with both an Arrow antenna and a ½ wave whip. Use Dual Headphones! I can’t stress this enough. the dual-band Arrow yagi or the dual band Elk log periodic that are sold at most flea markets in the area. you can’t work them. If you are handheld outside. Many people are able to work Echo successfully. Aruni VE4WMK who is 10 years old uses an HT with an Arrow and is very successful. and if you only hear the signal through one ear. 3. it’s not strong enough to break your squelch in most cases. 4. as Echo does not transmit a 67Hz PL tone back on it’s downlink. 2. Don’t try to use tone squelch either. If you can’t hear other stations. Although Echo is strong. Your brain is the best DSP there is. your brain can’t filter out the noise nor can it react quickly to callsigns. Whips and ground plane antennas should be tilted so that the verticle is 90 degrees off the elevation of the satellite. Know where the satellite is. Keep a tracking program nearby where you can reference it. Here are some of the basics: 1. even if you get a chance to get in.

The AMSAT website also has online pass predictions in the Tools section which will calculate the passes for your location. initially the power was set to 330mw. AO-51 is reprogrammable from the ground and they have made some improvements to it already. •Try to arrange a sked with another station. Visit the AMSAT website and visit the Echo Project page to make sure you have the correct frequencies. That contact can also help you determine how well your signal is doing.How Should I Prepare? When you decide to work AO-51 for the first time. 25 .) If you can work to the north or west or over the ocean. •Try listening on one pass nearby (over 30 degrees of elevation) and see how well you are receiving. AO-51 can operate up to 7 watts. your results will be better because statistically there are fewer people. If you can’t hear the satellite. It’s easier to make a contact with someone who is experienced on the satellites than cold calling.white spots are high density population areas. then 500mw and now is set for 1W. you may need to improve your receive antennas. don’t get discouraged. For example. •Plan on working a pass away from populated areas (see the map . some preparatory steps will help. but it is unlikely they will increase power over 2W since most stations now receive AO-51 full quieting. Most of all.

wavelength. wavelength or designator.5 GHz 3cm 24 GHz 1. or designator / Output (Downlink) frequency. Input (Uplink) frequency.2 GHz 24 cm 2. LINK DESIGNATORS (Frequency) (Wavelength) (Designator) H T V U L S C X K 21 MHz 15 m 29 MHz 10 m 145 MHz 2m 435 MHz 70 cm 1.4 GHz 13 cm 5.V L/U U/S H/V 26 .V/T H/T.2 cm TRANSPONDER NAMES Old Name Mode Mode Mode Mode Mode Mode Mode Mode Mode A B J K KA KT L S T New Name V/T U/V V/U H/T H. A slash “/” is used to separate input and output.New Transponder Mode Designations When naming a transponder the input (uplink) is always specified first.7 GHz 6 cm 10.