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NON-PROJECTED AV AIDS

Presented by Shyam Das

INTRODUCTION
Audio aids are any instructional device that can be heard but not seen. Visual aids are any instructional device that can be seen. But not heard. Audio Visual Aids are those sensory objects or images which initiate or stimulate and reinforce learning. (Burton)

DEFINITION

Audio visual aids are any device which can be used to make the learning more effective, more concrete, more realistic and more dynamic. -Kinder

OBJECTIVES OF USING AUDIO-VISUAL AIDS

To increase the effectiveness of the teaching. To hold the attention span of the learner for the duration of instruction. To save time. To make learning experiences last longer.

CLASSIFICATION OF AV AIDS:
A.V aids can be broadly divided into 2 types based on their operation.
1. 2.

Projected aids Non projected aids

TYPES OF PROJECTED AIDS:

OHP

Slides
Film strips Films LCD projector Audio & video conferencing projector

NON-PROJECTED
Non-projected, 2-D Charts Flat pictures Diagrams Maps Graphs cartoons

Non-projected; 3-D Models mockup display materials, globes, 3-D specimens

CHARTS
Usual materials required to prepare charts are sheets of thick white or light colored paper, fiber tipped round point and chisel point color markers, graphic materials, scissors, drawing aids and adhesives. Before making one should plan the contents in terms of objectives and decide the layout.

THE FOLLOWING POINTS MUST BE OBSERVED WHILE PREPARING A CHART:

The size of the chart, size of letters and contrast of display material should be such that it is readable by farthest viewer. Standard paper in sizes 90x60cm and 70x55cm is suitable for most purposes. The size of letters for captions, labels and keywords written should be 2&3cm for a class room of depth 6m. The line thickness should be 2&3mm. the display material should be contrasted with background.

CONTD

Light colored chart papers are better suited for dark colored pens. Flat pictures and material from books should be enlarged sufficiently before planning on charts. Simple hand drawn charts with non-decorative lettering are more effective than elaborately drawn or machine made charts. One chart should convey one idea or one principle. Charts crowded with information are less effective.

CONTD

Numerical data should be presented in the form of tables. Relationship between two or more variable are better demonstrated by drawing graphs. Classification, organization and processes are better represented by means of flow diagrams. Colors should be used meaningfully i.e. to stimulate real colors to highlight.

EFFECTIVE USE OF CHARTS

Single sheet chart must be shown when necessary.


It should be displayed before its needed for teaching.

When a chart is to be used in the classroom, the teacher should make sure that there is provision for hanging a chart at a perfect point.

CONTD

Teacher should use a pointer to point out specific facts in the chart. Charts should be carefully stored and preserved for use in future.

PICTURES

Pictures are most commonly available graphic aids. Pictures include photographs, paintings, illustrations clipped from magazines, newspapers, etc. The picture can be flashed in front of the class and related questions asked to initiate the lesson. A series of pictures related to a lesson can be displayed in the classroom to arouse the curiosity and interest before lesson begins on the topic.

CONTD

The related pictures if they are small, can be passed around in the class for students to have look at them and related question asked to initiate the discussion. The picture should be large enough for the class to see it properly. The picture must have clear details for attention and interest. whole

arresting

The picture should be related to the lesson and meaningful for students.

CONTD

The picture should arouse curiosity, imagination and thinking.


The picture should be authentic and identifiable. The picture should be able to build up the proper learning environment. The picture should lead class to purposeful activity.

DIAGRAMS/DRAWING

A diagram is the simplified drawing designed to show interrelationship primarily by means of lines as symbols. E.g. science figures, geometry designs, facial expressions, etc.

STANDARD OF A GOOD DIAGRAM

Technically correct Neatly drawn in proper proportions

Well labeled and explained


It can be moved and seen from all the angles

PREPARATION OF DIAGRAM

Diagram to be large enough to be seen by class. Make the outline features of diagrams sharp.

whole

Include only relevant and essential parts of diagrams pertaining to topic.

Caption and label the diagrams boldly.

MAPS
A map is a graphical aid representing the proportionately as a diagram, the surface of the earth, world. Map is always drawn to a scale which is mentioned on one corner of it.

EVERY MAP SHOULD HAVE THE FOLLOWING


DESCRIPTION ON IT

A caption or title A grid

A key
These days colorful maps are commercially available.

GRAPHS
Graphs are the visual teaching aids for presenting statistical information and contrasting the trends or changes of certain attributes.

TYPES OF GRAPHS
1.

Bar graph Line graph

2.

3.

Pie graph

BAR GRAPH
PREPARING A BAR GRAPH

Before making the bar chart make a rough sketch of it in notebook. For drawing the bar graph use the chart paper of 50x72cm size.
Use two different colors for the two contrasting groups.

CONTD

The bars should be equi-spaced. Write the key to the bar graph in a box on the right hand side corner of the chart paper. Number specifying the magnitude of the bars should be on the top on the bars.

LINE GRAPH
A free hand smooth line through various points indicating the instantaneous values of two variables at various moments is called line graph.

PREPARATION

Sketch pens or marker pens can be used to write the caption. Show X axis, Y axis and origin. Scale along X axis, scale along Y axis variable along and actual curve joining different points.

PIE GRAPH

This graph is usually shown as a disc or a circle divided into sectors of different angles to represent the fractions or percentage of the divisions of a distributive attribute.

PREPARING A PIE GRAPH

Find out angles from the percentage or fractions

Draw out on a chart paper of full size using a big compass carrying a sketch or marker pen. Divide the circle into appropriate sectors using the protractor.
Color each section and write the corresponding percentage it represents. Caption the pie graph with a descriptive title.

CARTOONS
A cartoon is humorous caricature which gives a subtle message. It makes learning more interesting and effective.

USES

It is simple, clear which tells story without too much explanation. The symbol used is familiar and represent a concept or idea to which students can react intellectually. A cartoon can be used to motivate students to start a discussion.

A cartoon can be used for making lesson lively interesting.

and

FLASH CARDS
Flash cards are small cards of generally 25x30 cm size which are shown across a message or an idea.

PREPARATION OF FLASH CARDS

Cut a chart paper and cut it into 4 parts to get flash cards. Write the content on it either in the free hand writing or using lettering stencils and sketch pen. The height of writing on the flash card is to be approximate so that the whole class can see the flash card properly.

USING FLASH CARDS

Give brief introduction about the lesson to students. Give instructions to students about their actions while you flash the cards. Flash the cards in front of the class by holding high with both hands so that all students can see.

Let the respond as per instructions already given.

CONTD

Add more information to the student responses. Test the learning by additional flash cards.

Review the lesson by selectively using flash cards.

DISPLAY BOARDS AS TEACHING AIDS


BLACKBOARD

/ CHALKBOARD FLANNEL BOARD

BLACKBOARD / CHALKBOARD
USING BLACKBOARD / CHALKBOARD

Write clearly in cursive handwriting the important points of the topic on the chalkboard. Avoid overcrowding of information.
The size of lettering should be large enough (6cmX9cm) to be seen properly by the students at the rear of the class. Plan chalkboard work in advance in simple brief phrases or keywords.

CONTD

The classroom should be lighted properly and the chalkboard should be glare free. Rub off the information already discussed in the class and noted down by the students.

Use shading & underlining for the stressing key words and statements.
A difficult illustration should be drawn before hand to save class time. Use the other supplementary teaching aids to emphasize and clarify the main concepts.

CONTD

Use color for an aesthetic appeal and for providing contrasts. Use soft cloth piece or foam duster for rubbing off the chalkboard. For rubbing off writing on the chalkboard, it should be rubbed vertically first and then horizontally. Use pointer to draw attention to written material on board. Stand on one side of the board.

FLANNEL BOARD
A display board made of wood, chalkboard or straw covered with colored flannel or woolen cloth
USING A FLANNELBOARD

For telling a story, the teacher adheres the picture on the flannel board along with a commentary or description. For letter recognition and work formation during language teaching in primary classes. For recognition recall testing, appropriate pictures can be used for teaching different subjects.

CONTD

For teaching elementary lessons on numbers, a flannel board can be used effectively. For showing interrelationship between different parts or steps of a process, a flannel board can be used effectively. E.g. nursing process

NON PROJECTED TEACHING AIDS


1.

Models Exhibitions Diorama

2.

3.

MODELS

A model is a recognizable representation of real thing three dimensionally i.e. height, width, depth are felt.

Examples of models: Clay model of heart, eye, etc. Globe and plantation Motor, generators, etc..

EXHIBITION

Requisites/Requirements for exhibition Exhibitions should have central theme with a few subthemes to focus attention to a particular concept. The exhibits should be clean and labeled properly. The exhibits should be so placed that visitors can see them.

CONTD

The place should be well lighted. To capture interest and attention of visitors both motion and sound can be utilized.

Exhibits should have some levers, switches, handles to be operated by visitors to see some happenings. Exhibition should include a lot of demonstration as they involve deeply the students and the visitors both.

DIORAMA
A diorama is 3-D arrangement of related objects, models and cutouts to illustrate a central theme or concept. Eg. A harvest scene, a planting scene, a street scene, etc.

PREPARATION

Box is made using a thick board, a semi-cylindrical form with a cellophane front covering. Curved surface should have a painting to show the background. Top of box covered with hard board carrying a 100 watt bulb.

CONCLUSION
Knowledge regarding preparing and use of nonprojected A-V Aids is necessary for a teacher to teach effectively which enhances learning of a student/learner