# Receiver Noise Figure

Pass Loss

Tx Output

Pass Loss Rx Noise Figure

Noise Floor

Prof. C. Patrick Yue, ECE, UCSB

Power Spectrum of Global System for Mobile (GSM)

In-band

Close-in interferers i t f

Prof. C. Patrick Yue, ECE, UCSB

Sensitivity vs. Selectivity

Desired Channel to select Input

MIXER

Output

IF Filter

if Received channels after frequency translation

rf Received Channels at RF

if

LO

Received channels after frequency translation

Sensitivity

The minimum (available) signal power needed at the receiver input to provide adequate SNR at the receiver output to data demodulation Noise Insertion Loss Inter-modulation products

Selectivity

Blockers (in-band and out-of-band) Phase Noise Image-Rejection (will be discussed with radio architecture)

Prof. C. Patrick Yue, ECE, UCSB

**Required Receiver Sensitivity – A Qualitative View
**

What is the required receiver NF to achieve a certain level of sensitivity?

Transmit Power Path Loss Receiver S iti it R i Sensitivity Noise Figure Required SNR Noise Floor

**To find Receiver NF
**

Transmit Power – FCC regulated Path loss Receiver sensitivity – govern by standards and applications Required SNR – depends on BER requirement and modulation scheme Noise floor – thermal noise or circuit noise limited depending on the modulation schemes

Prof. C. Patrick Yue, ECE, UCSB

11a (802 11a specification is –65 dBm ) 65
GSM (DCS-1800 ) cellular FCC limits the PSD in 1. UCSB
.5 mW/MHz Channel bandwidth is 16 MHz Transmit Power i 40 mW or 16 dB T it P is W dBm Thermal noise floor –174 dBm/Hz X 16 MHz = –102 dBm Total SNR budget is 16 dB – ( 102 dBm) = 118 dBm dBm (–102 dB ) dB To cover ~300 ft. at 5 GHz results in a path loss of 86 dB
i.11a packet length is 8 kb Worst packet loss < 10%. (1 – BER)8000 = 1 – 10% BER = 10–5
GSM receiver sensitivity specification is –102 dBm 102 Receiver noise figure requirement = Receive sensitivity – Noise floor – Required SNR = –102 – (–121) – 9 = 10 dB
Receiver noise figure requirement = Tx Power– Path Loss – Required SNR – Noise floor = 16 + 102 – 86 – 27 = 5 dB
Prof.8 GHz to 5 mW/kHz Channel bandwidth is 200 kHz Ch l b d idth i kH Thermal noise floor –174 dBm/Hz X 200 kHz = –121 dBm Required SNR for GSM is 9 dB
to keep BER < 10–3
Required SNR for 64QAM (54Mbps) is 27 dB
802. Receiver sensitivity is –70 dBm (802. ECE.11a FCC limits the PSD in 5GHz to 2. Patrick Yue.e. C.Receiver NF Requirement Calculations
IEEE 802 11a WLAN 802.

C. UCSB
.Receiver Sensitivity for GSM
Prof. Patrick Yue. ECE.

ECE.One More Receiver Sensitivity Calculation Example
Prof. C. Patrick Yue. UCSB
.

Patrick Yue.Fundamental Concepts in RF Systems
Receiver sensitivity
Noise Figure Signal to noise ratio (SNR) Thermal noise floor
Receiver selectivity
Nonlinearity y
gain compression inter-modulation desensitization cross modulation
Phase noise and blockers
Receiver spurious-free dynamic range (SFDR)
Lower limit set by sensitivity Upper limit set by selectivity
Prof. ECE. UCSB
. C.

UCSB
. Patrick Yue. the receiver must achieve a minimum Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR)
Detection schemes need a minimum signal-to-noise ratio for adequate performance f
Some analog detectors (AM detectors) improve gradually with increasing SNR Digital detectors improve rapidly past a threshold SNR
Dynamic range
The range of input power (signal and interferer) over which the receiver performs adequately
Measured by performance of the base-band transducer (speaker/video display etc) For system analysis.Key Receiver Metrics
At any input signal level. ECE. Bit Error Rates or final SNR are used
Smallest signal level is the receiver sensitivity Largest signal determines the upper limit of dynamic range (What does ‘largest signal’ mean? We will come back to this point later…)
Prof. C.

LNA & Mixer) are critical design challenges and technology drivers in wireless applications
Prof. ECE. UCSB
. the receiver could be replaced by one mixer
The components shown are usually common to all architectures with possibly different requirements Front-end circuits (e. if low loss. Patrick Yue.Receiver Architecture Considerations
Heterodyne is a well-proven architecture
Monolithic implementation (low-cost integration) is a challenge owing to the large number of BPF’s required
Alternative architecture suitable for integration will be studied later The architecture as shown is a consequence of available technologies
For example. tunable front-end BPFs could be manufactured for channel select. g. C.

Patrick Yue. ECE.Functions of Receiver Components (1)
T/R Switch RF Band Select Filter On O PCB On-Chip Balun LNA Image Reject Filter Channel Ch l Select IF RF Mixer Filter VGA 90 LO1 (Fixed)
o
ADC
I
LO2 (Tuned) ADC Q
IF Mixer Anti-alias Anti alias LPF
RF band select filter
typically a ceramic filter Used to filter and reduce incident power levels of distant interferers at the LNA allows the entire RF Band (all possible useful channels) into the receiver rejects out-of-band signals and attenuates image signals out of band
Transmit / Receive Switch
connects the antenna to the receiver or transmitter in a time-division duplexed systems
Balun
“Bal”anced to “Un”-balanced differential to single-ended converter
Prof. UCSB
. C.

ECE.Functions of Receiver Components (2)
T/R Switch RF Band Select Filter On O PCB On-Chip Balun LNA Image Reject Filter Channel Ch l Select IF RF Mixer Filter VGA 90 LO1 (Fixed)
o
ADC
I
LO2 (Tuned) ADC Q
IF Mixer Anti-alias Anti alias LPF
Low Noise Amplifier (LNA)
Front-end amplifier used to amplify the signal with minimum degradation in the SNR amplifies the signal to reduce impact of noise from latter stages
Image Reject Filter
Ceramic (or SAW) band-pass filter used to provide filtering of distant interferers Used primarily to reject the ‘image frequency’ of local oscillator (LO1) Allows the entire RF Band (all possible useful channels) into the receiverattenuates image-signals before mixing
RF Mixer
converts the incoming RF signal to intermediate frequency (IF) is the difference between the RF and LO1 Usually have stringent linearity and noise requirement
Prof. UCSB
. Patrick Yue. C.

Functions of Receiver Components (3)
T/R Switch RF Band Select Filter On O PCB On-Chip Balun LNA Image Reject Filter Channel Ch l Select IF RF Mixer Filter VGA 90 LO1 (Fixed)
o
ADC
I
LO2 (Tuned) ADC Q
IF Mixer Anti-alias Anti alias LPF
Channel select filter
Select the desired the channel and rejects adjacent channels Typically requires a SAW filter with high attenuation to suppress out of band tones
Intermediate frequency variable gain amplifier (IF VGA)
adjusts the received signal level so that it maps to the dynamic range of the based-band circuits such as the ADC
IF mixers
Down-converts the I & Q signals to base-band for signal processing In the b I th above example. Patrick Yue. ECE. C. UCSB
.
Prof. we assume that the i l th t th image f frequency i greatly attenuated b the is tl tt t d by th channel select filter and therefore image-reject mixers are not used.

UCSB
. gain compression
Prof. voltage gain. stability measures
Low-noise requirements
Noise figure or temperature Desensitization (impact of non-linearity on noise performance)
Linearity requirements y q
Intercept points. C. Patrick Yue.Receiver Requirements
Gain and stability requirements
Power gain. ECE.

C. UCSB
.Noise in Receiver
Receiver “noise level” directly limits sensitivity Receiver sensitivity = minimum input power that the receiver can detect Noise figure of cascaded stages g g
Noise figure of RF receivers from antenna to ADC output Noise figure of passive networks Noise figure of ADC g
Prof. Patrick Yue. ECE.

UCSB
.Input-Referred SNR in Terms of Noise Factor
Prof. Patrick Yue. ECE. C.

Receiver Sensitivity – Min. Pin to Achieve Required SNR (1)
Prof. Patrick Yue. UCSB
. ECE. C.

Patrick Yue.Receiver Sensitivity – Min. UCSB
. ECE. C. Pin to Achieve Required SNR (2)
Prof.

Patrick Yue. UCSB
.Receiver Sensitivity – Min. C. ECE. Pin to Achieve Required SNR (3)
Prof.

Noise Figure for Cascaded Stages
Prof. UCSB
. ECE. C. Patrick Yue.

C. ECE. Patrick Yue.Noise Factor of Passive (Lossy) Networks
Prof. UCSB
.

UCSB
. C. Patrick Yue.Noise Figure Calculation of BPF Followed by LNA
Prof. ECE.

ADC is characterized using SNR at the output rather than NF To determine the NF of an ADC we need to compute the degradation in ADC. SNR due to quantization noise after the signal passes through the ADC
Prof. Patrick Yue. UCSB
.SNR of Analog-to-Digital Converter
Typically. C. ECE.

the output signal can b t t d as th input signal id i i.Noise Figure of Analog-to-Digital Converter
NF ADC = SNR in P / N i in Noise Noise N i out = in = Pout / Noise out SNR out Noise in
Since the ADC only performs digitization of the input voltage and thus does not provide any gain. then l i th
NF ( dB ) = Pin − SNR ADC − Noise = Pin − SNR ADC − kTB
in
One can also express NF as the power ratio of quantization noise (at the output) and thermal noise (at the input) which results in:
NF = NP 02( rms ) A p . then
Noise
out
( dBm ) = Pin − SNR ADC
Assume that the noise at the input is due t th A th t th i t th i t i d to thermal noise. ADC =
Prof. Expressing NF in log form. i Pin = Pout. ADC × 4 kTR s B 1 ) 4 = 2 2 N × 12 × R s
2 V FS
⋅
Quantizati on Noise a t Output 1 = kTB Thermal No ise at Inp ut
( A p . th t t i l be treated the i t i l plus quantization noise. ECE. Patrick Yue. we obtain:
NF = Noise
out ( dBm
) − Noise
in ( dBm
)
Assume that the ADC noise is completely due to quantization error. C. UCSB
.e.

increase the ADC resolution
Over-sampling by a factor of 4 results in 6 dB reduction in noise. C. Patrick Yue.Effect of Over-Sampling on ADC NF
Increasing the sampling frequency reduce noise which has the same effect as noise. ECE. or effectively 1 more bit
Prof. UCSB
.

gain compression
Prof. C. UCSB
. ECE.Receiver Requirements
Gain and stability requirements
Power gain. Patrick Yue. voltage gain. stability measures
Low-noise requirements
Noise figure or temperature Desensitization (impact of non-linearity on noise performance)
Linearity requirements y q
Intercept points.

C. Patrick Yue. ECE. UCSB
.Interferers in Global System for Mobile (GSM)
In-band
Close-in interferers i t f
Prof.

C. Patrick Yue. UCSB
.The “Large Signal”
Prof. ECE.

ECE. UCSB
. Patrick Yue. C.Interferers
Prof.

In frequency domain: Y j = X j H j
( ω) ( ω) ( ω)
System transfer function
∞
H( j ω ) =
∫
–∞
h( t) e
– j ωt
dt
Prof. the output can be expressed as a linear combination of the responses to the individual inputs. the output time function is related to the input time function by the convolution integral: ∞
y (t ) =
∫ x( τ ) h (t – τ ) dτ
–∞
where h(t) is the system response to a unit impulse. C.Linear Systems
The Th system S i linear if and only if t is li d l if:
x1 x2 y1 y2 Then: x1+ x2 αx1 y1+y2 αy1 x S y
In other words in a linear system. UCSB
. In a linear system with no initial stored energy. ECE. Patrick Yue.

Device non linearity non-linearity
ID = K(V GS . a mixer.Source of Non-linearity
A system is time-invariant if a time shift in the input results in the same time shift in the output:
x(t) y(t) Then: x(t-τ) x(t τ) y(t-τ) y(t τ)
In linear time invariant systems. A linear time variant system.VT)2
Ic = Ics. a single frequency input can only generate a single frequency output output. which cause non-linearity. can generate frequency components that do not exist in the input. Patrick Yue. E (qVBE /KT) Exp ( V
Prof. UCSB
. C.g. e. ECE.

.
a3 3 a2 2 a3 3 a2 2 = ---. C. we can assume F ti i t l t
x(t) NL y(t)
y(t) = a1 x(t) + a2x2(t) + a3x3(t) + .A ⎞ cos ( ω ct ) + ---. This property is called gain expansion or gain compression.A cos (3 ω c t ) 2 4 2 4 ⎝ ⎠
From this equation we see that the output signal consists of a component at the applied fundamental frequency ωc and spurious signals at dc.. The amplitude of the fundamental component can be greater than a1A (the gain if the two-port is linear) if a3>0 and smaller than a1A if a3 < 0. Patrick Yue. memoryless systems.A cos ( 2 ωc t ) + ---.. the second harmonic 2ωc. UCSB
.A + ⎛ a1 A + 3---.Gain Expansion or Compression due to Nonlinearity
For time-variant.. ECE.
x(t) = Acos(ωct) y(t) = a1Acos(ωct) + a2A2cos2 (ωct) + a3A3cos3(ωct) + . and the third harmonic 3ωc.
Prof.

75a3A2| = 20log |a1| – 1 Therefore for .145 × a1 a3
P-1dB = A-1dB2 / 2R
Prof. A-1dB2 = – 0.75a3A2| Linear Gain = 20log |a1| At the 1-dB compression point.145a1/a3 (a3 < 0) or
A−1dB = 0. UCSB
.1-dB Compression Point
Aout
a 3<0 Ao u t = output amplitude @ ωc 1 dB
Aout A
A1 dB A
A
Gain at fundamental frequency = 20log |a1 + 0. C. the actual gain is 1dB below the linear gain 20log |a1 + 0. ECE. Patrick Yue.

ECE. The blocker tends to reduce the average gain experienced by the desired signal:
Meaning that the effective signal gain at ωc1 (desired signal) is reduced by
For large enough A2. the receiver is “desensitized” as the output at ωc1 is g g p overwhelmed by the blocker.
Prof. C.Blocker and Desensitization
Blocker: If input signal to the receiver consists of a weak desired signal at ωc1 accompanied by a strong interferer at ωc2 (the blocker). Patrick Yue. UCSB
.

Patrick Yue. i 9/4*a3*A3 << a1A) i i l t d i.e.Inter-modulation
Intermodulation products due to two input tones:
4 a1 × 3 a3
= AIP3
IIP3 = AIP32 / 2R
When A = IIP3. C. the 3rd order term = fundamental at the output (gain ( i compression is neglected. UCSB
. 9/4*
Prof. ECE.

e. in. in AIM3. Aint.out at the output IM3.Signal Corruption due to IIP3 of Interferers
Aint.out Aint. in and IIP3. we refer Asig. out / AIM3. To find the dynamic range. Patrick Yue. i.out to the input
Prof. C. out
Given Asig. UCSB
. we want to find the ratio of the signal to IM3 i e Asig. in Asig. ECE. out Asig. out / AIM3.

Patrick Yue.out AIM 3.out =
2 Aint. in 2 AIP 3
(Slope = 1) Aint. ECE.in
= AIP3
Prof.out
(Slope = 3) Aint.out
AIM3. C. take the ratio of the first and third terms from the previous expression and express in terms of IIP3
Aint.IP3 Calculation and Graphical Interpretation
To express IIP3 in terms of the input and output signal amplitudes. UCSB
. in
Aint.in AIM3.

out Asig .Signal Corruption due to IIP3 of Interferers
Aint.out
Aint. in
=
2 AIP 3
× Asig . in = 1μVrms. in = 1mVrms. C.9 = 13. in
=
Aint.out Aint.out AIM 3.out
⇒
3 Aint.out
=
1μ
(1m )
× (70m )3 = 4. in
× Asig .8dB 3
Prof. in Asig. out
Asig. Patrick Yue. in
⇒ Asig ..out AIM 3. out
Asig . in
1
AIM 3. and IIP3 = – 10dBm (AIP3 = 70mVrms on 50 Ω)
Asig .out
=
2 Aint. in
Given Asig. Aint. UCSB
.out Aint. in AIM3. in
2 AIP 3
×
1
Aint.out
Aint.out =
Asig . ECE.

Relation between 1-dB Compression Point and IIP3
A1dB = 0.6
Prof.33 IIP 3 4/ 3
IIP 3 (dB) = A1dB (dB) + 9. C. ECE.145 × a1 a3
(with single tone input)
IIP 3 =
4 a1 × 3 a3
(with dual tone input)
0. UCSB
. Patrick Yue.145 A1dB = = 0.

ECE.IIP3 of Cascaded Stages (I)
Prof. C. Patrick Yue. UCSB
.

ECE.IIP3 of Cascaded Stages (II)
The term consisted of α2 (due to 2nd order distortion) can be neglected if gain of stage 1 has a band-pass characteristic
Prof. UCSB
. C. Patrick Yue.

ECE.Dynamic Range
DR = P1dB – kTB(dBm) – F – SNRmin DR = IIP3 –9. UCSB
. Patrick Yue. C.6 – kTB(dB ) – F – SNRmin 9 6 kTB(dBm)
Prof.

C. Patrick Yue. ECE.Spurious Free Dynamic Range
Prof. UCSB
.

We have seen that IM3 due to two adjacent channels creating spurious tone in the designed signal band Blockers and phase noise of the local oscillator (LO) signal also degrades receiver selectivity. C. UCSB
.
Phase noise i a measure of spectral purity of th LO signal Ph i is f t l it f the i l Blocker
Prof.Receiver Selectivity
A measure of the receiver s ability to reject signal outside of the desired receiver’s band. ECE. Patrick Yue.

C.Phase Noise Requirement
Input Spectrum BW Desired Δf c Phase Noise
S x (f) () f
BL
Receiver
Signal LO Vout
Desired Signal Blocker Mixed Inband
Receiver Output
Local Osc. ECE. UCSB
. Patrick Yue. Output f L0 Δfc
C/Im in
-PN (Δ fc ) f
f
Assume that the receiver is noiseless. therefore required SNR is determined by C/Imin (Carrier / Interferer ratio)
C / I min ( dB ) = S signal − Sblock + PN Δfc (dBc )
(
)
= S signal − Sblock − PN Δfc (dBc / Hz ) − 10 log( BW ) g( PN Δfc (dBc / Hz ) = S signal − Sblock − C / I min ( dB ) − 10 log( BW )
Prof.

Phase Noise Requirement Calculation
PCS 1900 (North America version of GSM)
Desired signal at fo can be as small as –99dBm with –43-dBm blocker at 600kHz GSM required SNR is 9 dB Channel bandwidth is 200 kHz PN (at 600kHz offset) = – 99 – (– 43) – 9 – 10log(2e5) = – 118 dBc/Hz
Prof. UCSB
. ECE. C. Patrick Yue.