BASICS EXAMINATION OF ISNT LEVEL III

Dr.Oruganti Prabhakar Nanyang Technological University Singapore

March 28, 2001

Contents
1 Subject General Knowledge
1.1 Technology of NDT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.1 De nitions and methodology of applying NDT . . . . . 1.1.2 Speci c and distinctive characteristics of these methods 1.1.3 Areas of NDT applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.4 Quality control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.5 Maintenance Defectology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.6 Evaluation of properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.7 Material Failures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.8 Purpose for Use of NDT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.9 NDT IN FRACTURE CONTROL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9

2 FUNDAMENTALS OF MATERIALS TECHNOLOGY

2.1 PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.1 Strength and elastic properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.2 Physical properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.3 Material Properties testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 ORIGIN OF DISCONTINUITIES AND FAILURE MODES . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.1 Inherent discontinuities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.2 Process-induced discontinuities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.3 Service-induced discontinuities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.4 Failures in metallic materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.5 Failures in nonmetallic materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3 STATISTICAL NATURE OF DETECTING AND CHARACTERIZING DISCONTINUITIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1 CLASSES OF PROPERTIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2 SIGNIFICANCE OF PROPERTIES OF DESIGN . 3.3 LOADING SYSTEMS AND MATERIAL FAILURE 3.3.1 Loading systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4 TESTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4.1 The Tensile Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4.2 Compression Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4.3 Transverse Rupture Testing . . . . . . . . . . 3.4.4 Shear Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4.5 Fatigue Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4.6 Creep Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4.7 Notched Bar Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11

3 PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS INTRODUCTION

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13 13 13 13 13 13 14 14 15 15 15 15

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 MATERIAL IDENTIFICATION SYSTEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Carburizing . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Cold Work . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . .8.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Tempering . . . . .1 Ferrous Raw Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. .1 Recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . .8. . . . . . . . . . .3 Annealing . . . . . . . . . . .5 Factor of safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . .7 ALLOTROPIC CHANGES . . . . . . 6. . . . .6 Hardening of Steel . . . . . . 5. . . . . . .2 CONTENTS 3. . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . .6 AGE HARDENING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . .4 SOLID STATE CHANGES IN METALS . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . .2 Austenitization .2 METALLIC STRUCTURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 23 . .3 Plain Carbon Steel . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 SOLIDIFICATION . 5. . . 5. . . . . . . 17 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 6 FERROUS METALS . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Grain Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 3. . . . . . . . . . .1 Approximate Equilibrium Heat-Treatment Processes 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Flame Hardening . . .3 STEEL . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 METAL PROCESSING . . . . . . . . . .3. . . 5. . . . . . . . 21 7 NONFERROUS METALS 7. .4 Normalizing . . . . . . . .5 Spheroidizing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . .8. .5 RECRYSTALLIZATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Primary metals . . . . . . . . . 5. . . .3 Grain Growth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . .2 CAST IRONS . .8. . . . . . . 5. . . . . .8 Bend Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . .5. .5. . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . .1 CHOOSING METALS AND ALLOYS 6. . . . . 5. . . . . . . . 17 4. . . . . .2 Recrystallization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 4. . . . . . .1 Wrought Iron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . .9 CASE HARDENING OF STEELS . . . 6. 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 HEAT TREATMENT OF STEEL . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Alloy Steels . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 THE EFFECT OF ENERGY ON THE ATOM . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . .2 Steel Making . . . . . . . . . . .9.1 RAW MATERIAL PROCESSING .1 Work hardening . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . .9 Hardness Testing . . . . . . .8.8. . . . . . . . .8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 4 FUNDAMENTALS OF FABRICATION AND PRODUCT TECHNOLOGY 17 5 THE NATURE OF MATERIALS AND SOLID STATE CHANGES IN METALS 19 5. .2 Plastic Deformation . . 5. . . . . . . . 5. 15 3. . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . .

. .4 Reverberatory Furnances . . . . . . . . 9. . . . .4 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Green sand molded .2 Crucible . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 CASTING 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.10 Continuous Casting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . 9. .1 Green Sand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 8. . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Dry Sand Molds. . . 9. . . . .3 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 8. . . . INVESTMENT MOULDING . . . . . . . . . .4 shell Molds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . .5 Electric Arc Furnances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Pouring the Gating Systems . . . . . METAL MOLDS . . . . . . 9. . . . . .1 SOLIDIFICATION . . . . . . SOLIDIFICATION OF METALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . .1 Cupola . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . .5 METAL MOLD AND SPECIAL PROCESSES 9. 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 9 FOUNDRY TECHNOLOGY 9. . . . . .7 POURING AND FEEDING CASTING 8. . . THE PROCESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7.2 MELTING EQUIPMENT . .1 8. . . .1. . . . . . . . . .2. . .8 Plaster Mold Casting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . .3 FOUNDARY MECHANIZATION . . . .6. .3 Risers Chill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Floor and Pit Models .1 SAND MOLDING . . . . . . . . .6 Die Casting . . . . .6 Induction Furnances . 9. . . . . . 8.1.7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HEAT TREATMENT . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . 9. . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. 9. . 9. . . 9. . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . .9 Centrifugal Casting . . .CONTENTS 3 . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. .2. . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . .1 Casting Design . . . . . . . . . .7 Investment Casting . .3 Pot Furnances . . . . .

4 CONTENTS .

List of Figures 5 .

6 LIST OF FIGURES .

. . . . .List of Tables 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 7 . . .1 Some typical modulus of elasticity of materials .2 Moh's Hardness Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 3.

8 LIST OF TABLES .

4 1.1 1.Chapter 1 Subject General Knowledge 1.8 1.7 1.1.1.1.1.6 1.5 1.1.3 1.2 1.9 De nitions and methodology of applying NDT Speci c and distinctive characteristics of these methods Areas of NDT applications Quality control Maintenance Defectology Evaluation of properties Material Failures Purpose for Use of NDT NDT IN FRACTURE CONTROL 9 .1.1.1 Technology of NDT 1.1.1.

10 CHAPTER 1. SUBJECT GENERAL KNOWLEDGE .

2.3 2.1 PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS 2.2.Chapter 2 FUNDAMENTALS OF MATERIALS TECHNOLOGY 2.2.1.1 Strength and elastic properties 2.1.5 2.2 Physical properties 2.3 STATISTICAL NATURE OF DETECTING AND CHARACTERIZING DISCONTINUITIES 11 .1.2.2 ORIGIN OF DISCONTINUITIES AND FAILURE MODES Inherent discontinuities Process-induced discontinuities Service-induced discontinuities Failures in metallic materials Failures in nonmetallic materials 2.2.2 2.4 2.3 Material Properties testing 2.1 2.

FUNDAMENTALS OF MATERIALS TECHNOLOGY .12 CHAPTER 2.

C = Yiled point D-E = Work hardening region.1 The Tensile Test The tensile test yields the mechanical properties of a material tested in tension. It is easy to shear this plane along (111) and not perpendicular. Materials with Poorly de ned Yield Point 13 .4. 3. The arrangement of atoms in di erent planes or cross sections will determine the mechanical behaviour of materials. F = Fracture strength. Drawn Nylon laments hasve a tensile strength of 50000 psi which is actually greater than some low strength steels.1 Loading systems 3. Hard Ball Model. It is used as insulators. It should be borne in mind that the shorter the gauge length the higher the value of the percent elongation determined.3.Chapter 3 PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS INTRODUCTION Properties of materials is understood based on the two models: 1. Modulus of elasticity of all plastics is low compared to most metals. Nylon is crystalline.3 LOADING SYSTEMS AND MATERIAL FAILURE 3.4 TESTING 3.2 SIGNIFICANCE OF PROPERTIES OF DESIGN 3. The tensile specimens have to be as per some standard. In the ball model the spherical atoms occupy the xed locations in a crystal structure. 2. Chemical bonds.1 CLASSES OF PROPERTIES 3. They have the following features: Gauge Length A certain portion in the main specimen (pl see Figure) is marked as gauge length. In the case of face centred cubic structure the (111) plane is the close packed plane. It is light in weight. has easily colorability and used in ber reinforced plastics. E = Ultimate tensile strength. This is used to calculate the percen elongation. A-B : Elastic Range B = Elastic Limit: Above this point plastic deformation occurs.

So for brittle materials like concrete this test is used.4. This is the total area under the stress. True Stress-True Strain When the tensile test is carried out the specimen is constantly deforming and the cross secional area is constantly decreasing. This is the slope of elastic or the initial part of the stress .2) . 3PL (Sr ) = 2b(d2) (3. It represents the energy that is recoverable. The compression test is carried out much the same way as the tensile testing.strain curve .14 CHAPTER 3. Ductility (L P ercentageElongation = (Lf ) . 3. In a similar way the the strain calculated based on the actual length of the specimen during test is known as True Strain.3 Transverse Rupture Testing This test is usually employed for brittle materials the tensile testing is not very useful.2 Compression Testing 3. Certain materials like are stronger in compression than in tension.1) Resilience and Toughness Toughness Resilience is the area under the stress-strain curve upto the elastic limit from zero load. ) o ) X100 (L o (3. For example cast iron has a compression strength that is twice its tensile strength.strain curve starting from load upto fracture. PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS INTRODUCTION Al alloys 10 X 106 psi Cu alloys 14 to 19 X 106psi Gray Cast Iron 12 to 19 X 106psi Steel 28 to 30106psi Cemented carbide 50 X106psi Table 3.4. True stress is calculated based on the actual area of the specimen during the progress of the test. At elevated temperatures the grains start sliding one over the other and hence large grains are preferable. This value represnts the ability of the material to absorb energy without fracture.1: Some typical modulus of elasticity of materials Modulus of Elasticity It is also known as Young's Modulus and is represted as E. Factors that increase the yield strength of materials at room temperature Features of the microstructure that prevent the movement of dislocations like : Grain boundary ii) Precipitates iii) alloying additions will increase the strength. Precipitates and alloying additions also improve the high temperature strength.

The crack surface formed during this stage appears smooth and polised. This test gives consistent results. II stage: The crack grows during cyclic loading. 100 or 150 kg as the major loads. Di erential depth between the minor and the major loads is then directly read by a dial gauge as a Rockwell hardness number. Moh's test : Moh's scale of hardness varies from 1 to 10.4. Rockwell Test This is also an impression test. P = 2A (3. 3. Talc is 1.kg/mm2 Talc 1 23 Gypsum 2 30 Calcite 3 100 Fluorite 4 160 Apatite 5 400 Orthoclase 6 600 Quartz 7 810 Topaz 8 1200 Corundum 9 1860 Diamond 10 7800 Table 3. Thin material can not be tested by this method. Modern micro processor based equipment are self loading.4.3. Hardness is a measure of the ability of a material to resist penetration of the near surface Creep Testing Notched Bar Testing Bend Testing Hardness Testing .8 3.4. Diamond is 10 and corundum is 9. Brinell test A steel ball is impressed (10 mm in diameter) is impressed on the material whose hardness is to be determined. A mojority of industrial failures are caused by fatigue (about 90I stage: Cracks are initiated. 2. TESTING Moh's Indentation Hardness Number Hardness. The fractured surface developed during this stage shows a well de ned grain structure. It is di cult to convert from one value to another.4 Shear Testing This test is usually carried out for bolts and rivets. Hardness tests: 1.6 3. Hardness is proportional to material properties like strength. III stage: The area of cross section bearing the load is constantly reducing and ata certain stage the cross sectional area remaining connected is so much reduced the stree developed exceeds the yield stress and sudden brittle fracture occurs. It has 10 kg as minor load and 60.7 3.9 material.4.4.4. File test.4. BHN = Load in kg/ Area of impression in mm2 .5 Fatigue Testing 3.2: Moh's Hardness Values Mineral 15 3.3) In fatigue testing the loading is cyclic.

5 Factor of safety . PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS INTRODUCTION 3.16 CHAPTER 3.

2 METAL PROCESSING 4.Chapter 4 FUNDAMENTALS OF FABRICATION AND PRODUCT TECHNOLOGY 4.1 RAW MATERIAL PROCESSING 4.2.1 Primary metals Metal ingot production Wrought primary metals 17 .

FUNDAMENTALS OF FABRICATION AND PRODUCT TECHNOLOGY .18CHAPTER 4.

19 .1 THE EFFECT OF ENERGY ON THE ATOM 5.1 Grain Size 5. twinning etc.1 Work hardening The strength of metal is increased by plastic ow and the elastic limit is raised. In most metals dislocation processes are accompanied by discrete releases of mechanical energy called stress waves. 5.2 METALLIC STRUCTURE Microstructure is the appearance of the polished specimen under the microscope.2 Plastic Deformation This includes slip.3 SOLIDIFICATION 5.Chapter 5 THE NATURE OF MATERIALS AND SOLID STATE CHANGES IN METALS 5.4 SOLID STATE CHANGES IN METALS 5.3. 5.4.4. Cold work makes the metal(which is strain hardening by nature) stronger and harder.

4.9. Higher the cold work it is easier to recrystallize the metal.8.5 5.1 Recovery 5.3 Cold Work 5.6 AGE HARDENING 5.5.9.1 5.2 Flame Hardening Approximate Equilibrium Heat-Treatment Processes Austenitization Annealing Normalizing Spheroidizing Hardening of Steel Tempering .8.8. This is called recrystallization.3 Grain Growth Cold worked metal has strained grains.8. 5.8.8.2 5.5.6 5. A heat treatment can produce new and unstrained grains.4 5.8 HEAT TREATMENT OF STEEL 5.7 ALLOTROPIC CHANGES 5.7 5.1 Carburizing 5.5 RECRYSTALLIZATION 5.8.3 5.9 CASE HARDENING OF STEELS 5.2 Recrystallization 5. THE NATURE OF MATERIALS AND SOLID STATE CHANGES IN METALS 5.5.20CHAPTER 5.

3.3.3.1 6.3 6.1 Ferrous Raw Materials 6.1.1 CHOOSING METALS AND ALLOYS 6.3.2 CAST IRONS 6.3 STEEL 6.4 Low Alloy Structural Steels Low Alloy AISI Steels Stainless Steels Tools and Die Steels Cast Steels Wrought Iron Steel Making Plain Carbon Steel Alloy Steels 21 .Chapter 6 FERROUS METALS 6.2 6.

22 CHAPTER 6. FERROUS METALS .

Chapter 7 NONFERROUS METALS 7.1 MATERIAL IDENTIFICATION SYSTEMS 23 .

NONFERROUS METALS .24 CHAPTER 7.

7.6 Green sand molded METAL MOLDS INVESTMENT MOULDING HEAT TREATMENT THE PROCESS SOLIDIFICATION OF METALS 8.1 Casting Design 8.3 Risers Chill 25 .5 8.1 SOLIDIFICATION subsectionShrinkage 8.6.2 8.4 8.7 POURING AND FEEDING CASTING 8.2 Pouring the Gating Systems 8.7.7.Chapter 8 CASTING 8.3 8.1 8.

26 CHAPTER 8. CASTING .

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3 9.6 Permanent Mold Casting Dry Sand Molds.2.5 9.7 9.1.1 SAND MOLDING 9.2 9.1.1.1.1 9.28 CHAPTER 9.1 Green Sand Patterns Flasks Sand Compaction Cores Green Sand Advantages and Limitations 9.6 9.9 9.1. FOUNDRY TECHNOLOGY Chapter 9 FOUNDRY TECHNOLOGY 9.10 9.2.5 9.2 MELTING EQUIPMENT Cupola Crucible Pot Furnances Reverberatory Furnances Electric Arc Furnances Induction Furnances Die Casting Investment Casting Plaster Mold Casting Centrifugal Casting Continuous Casting .1.2.1.8 9.2.3 9.4 9.1.4 9.2.2 9.2.1. Floor and Pit Models shell Molds METAL MOLD AND SPECIAL PROCESSES 9.1.

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