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Schulz, Mississippi State University
Design, Modeling, and Simulation of Power Generation and Electric Propulsion System for IPS for All-Electric Ships
To meet the Navy’s increasing demand for more propulsion power and service power, the whole power system onboard is moving toward the integrated power system (IPS) for future allelectric warships. This paper presents the design, modeling, and simulation of power generation and electric propulsion system for IPS. The architecture of this power generation and electric propulsion system (PGAEPS) is designed as a part of IPS and has an interface to connect other parts of the IPS. Modeling of the whole power generation and electric propulsion system is based on SIMULINK. Simulation results show performance and effectiveness of the power generation and propulsion system, and help better understand the impact of the design of a power generation and propulsion system on the performance of the IPS. around it rather than create a tailored mechanical propulsion system for the ship (Marine Reporter 2002). Sizes and locations of machines in mechanical propulsion systems reduce the space available for cargo and passengers and limit efficient loading and unloading. The considerable length of the shaft in mechanical propulsion systems makes efficient space use challenging. All of these factors limit ship design flexibility (Marine Reporter 2002). In electric propulsion systems, there is no direct link, such as shaft and gearbox, between the prime mover and the propeller. Figure 1 shows a structural comparison between electric and mechanical propulsion (McCoy 2002). The feature of no direct link between the prime mover and the propeller in an electric propulsion system provides ship designers with two advantages. One is that the turbine speed becomes fully decoupled from the propeller speed, making it possible for ship designers to optimize the turbine speed with regard to fuel efficiency. Another is that ship designers have more design flexibility (Sudhoff and et al 1998). On the other hand, high power-to-weight ratio of electric machines in an electric propulsion system reduces the needed ship internal space for machines installation, and can accommodate more cargo and passengers for commercial ships and more weapons and personnel for warships. Compared with mechanical propulsion systems, the electric propulsion systems improve fuel efficiency, provide flexible design ability, and require less internal volume for electric machines installation. Electric propulsion systems are widely used in large commercial ships and especially warships that demand a high level of maneuverability or a lot of slow speed (Marine Reporter 2002).
With the invention and development of external combustion engines and internal combustion engines, traditional commercial and military ships employed a mechanical propulsion system that uses gas turbines as the prime mover. A typical ship mechanical propulsion system includes a gas turbine, a shaft with a gear box, a propeller, ship dynamics, a shaft speed controller, a propellor pitch controller, and a main controller (Izadi-Zamanabadi and Blane 1999). The main controller will coordinate behaviors of the governor and the propellor pitch controller, as well as control ship speed and optimize efficiency. A mechanical propulsion system is so large and heavy that ship designers have to design and construct the rest of the ship
nor aim to future integrated power systems. Many papers on electric propulsion systems for ships have been published. the power distribution system with distributed generators (DG). Yin and Zou (2004) discuss studies on a new electric propulsion system with nuclear power generation. But neither of these papers focus on the combination of electric generation and electric propulsion. In current warships the electric propulsion system separates from ship electric power systems for hotel loads and weapon loads. DG. published in the Proceedings of the IEEE Electric Ship Technologies Symposium 2007. Mindykowski. Future all-electric warships with an integrated power system (IPS) are capable of redirecting the large amounts of power dedicated to propulsion and releasing this power for hotel and weapon loads. the whole power system can show dynamic behavior and provide an accurate platform for later voltage stability analysis. pulsed weapons. these models are not suitable for IPS. the power and the load have almost the same magnitude. but also illustrate the impact of the PGAEPS design on the performance of the IPS. and experience with MATLAB/SIMULINK software. Electrical vs. and Zheng (2004) describe an architecture of an electric propulsion system without detailed modeling and simulation. The architecture of the PGAEPS designed here should be easily integrated as a part of IPS and has an interface (common bus) to connect other parts (such as the distribution system. The move to IPS design will significantly improve efficiency. and survivability. and the power control and management system all together. Several papers.Figure 1. and energy storage system) of the IPS. and high power sensors. The IPS for all-electric ships combines the power generation system. growth continues in the need for electric power for hotel loads. At the same time. and modeling and simulation of electric propulsion system. based on the consideration of availability. However. Xu. dealt with an overview of integrated electric power and propulsion system. With a real power generation system replacing an ideal power source. DESIGN OF PGAEPS FOR IPS . effectiveness. Modeling and simulation of the PGAEPS are implemented with SIMULINK. Mechanical Propulsion (modified from McCoy 2002) Current large warships demand more and more propulsion power in a way that modern techniques for power generation and ship configuration almost reach a bottleneck. the energy storage system for pulsed weapons. familiarity. the electric propulsion system. For shipboard power systems. This paper focuses on the design of power generation and electric propulsion system (PGAEPS) for IPS for future all-electric warships. Simulation results not only show performance and effectiveness of the PGAEPS. Large amounts of power locked in the mechanical propulsion system are not available for other uses even when ships do not need to move with full speed.
The electric propulsion subsystem includes a rectifier. The power generation subsystem designed consists of a turbine (prime mover). inverter. Combining the power generation subsystem and electric propulsion system together. propeller. we create the whole PGAEPS. which can provide a platform for further shipboard power system stability analysis. Power Generation Subsystem for IPS The IPS for all-electric ships includes the power generation system. the electric propulsion system. The power generation subsystem includes two basic controls: voltage regulation and turbine speed regulation. Here Pref and Vref are the power reference and voltage reference. as illustrated in Figure 3. power flow calculation. motor and motor controller. ship-speed dynamics. respectively. These magnitudes are selected to mirror the power system of the proposed DD(X) national ships. Design of the PGAEPS allows movement closer to the implementation of the IPS. Figure 3.8 kV respectively. respectively.Figure 2. voltage exciter and stabilizer. and rectifier. Diagram of PGAEPS . The rated power and rated voltage are 36 MW and 13. Pe and Vt are the electric power the generator produces and output voltage of the generator. speed governor. and external forces. and the power distribution system all together. as illustrated in Figure 2. transformer. and fault analysis and protection/reconfiguration design. synchronous machine (generator).
as well as maintain a common bus for future IPS. The gates of the PWM inverter are controlled by the voltage regulator to control load voltage.8 kV rated lineto-line RMS voltage and 60 Hz. a transformer with 13. The three-phase three-level PWM rectifier controls the output voltage by adjusting the switching frequency and switch duty ratio. changes in load magnitude and load frequency will cause changes in power generation and generator frequency. with the delta-delta connection. The transformer has twofold roles in the PGAEPS. caused by the nonlinear core B-H characteristic. the undesirable third harmonic magnetizing current. Vabc is the vector of three-phase line-to-neutral voltages. Due to the fact that information on the notional ship is very U dc = 3 6 π VLN (1) here Udc is the DC voltage of the rectifier output. T is the torque the propeller produces. Second. MODELING OF PGAEPS FOR IPS A model of the PGAEPS has been developed with the SimPowerSystem virtual environment of MATLAB/SIMULINK. The diode rectifier is simple and easy to use. The generator is modeled as synchronous machine with 45 MV of nominal power. For a simple PGAEPS. Based on the fact that the ripple of the DC voltage has no impact on the common bus voltage. assuming 13. The exciter and stabilizer are implemented with an excitation system block and a generic power system stabilizer block. and experience with MATLAB/SIMULINK software. the DC voltage. and the output DC voltage can be expressed as U dc = 3 6 π VLN cos α (2) here α is the fire angle. In the PGAEPS. Compared with the diode rectifier. Design of the rectifier is also important for the PGAEPS. will be decreased to around 5 kV.16 kV is used to connect the generator and the rectifier. The thyristor-based rectifier is a converter with gate turn-on but without gate turnoff.8 kV/4. which cannot enter or leave a delta connection. The DC voltage can be expressed as . remains trapped inside the delta winding. the rectifier and inverter can be removed and the generator can directly drive the motor. thyristor-based rectifier. It should be pointed out that it is unnecessary to add a voltage regulator due to the fact that the generator is set up as a swing bus. Thus the power factor of the whole PGAEPS is improved.16 kV voltage ratio. Also it should be noticed that a steam turbine is used to model the gas turbine due to SimPowerSystem library limitations. It should be noted that the PGAEPS also includes a rectifier and an inverter. The rectifier is modeled by the universal bridge block with diodes as power electronics devices. as the output of the rectifier. There are three kinds of rectifiers for our choice: three-phase full-wave diode rectifier. familiarity. First. respectively. and to reduce cost. The DC-toAC PWM inverter is also implemented by the universal bridge block with the IGBT and diode as power electronics devices. The rectifier and inverter are used to decouple the power generation system from the motor drive. and three-phase threelevel PWM rectifier. However. The turbine and governor are modeled by the steam turbine and governor block with 3600 rpm of nominal speed. thus the generator can operate in fuel efficiency mode. The power generation couples with the load and cannot maintain a common bus with fixed voltage and frequency for future integration to IPS. So the output voltage is uncontrollable. based on availability. the diode rectifier was selected. and VLN is the input AC voltage in line-to-neutral RMS value. but can flow within the delta. The thyristor-based rectifier is semi-controllable.8:4.Here Vdc is the DC output voltage of the rectifier. Third harmonic currents are zero-sequence currents. The transformer is implemented with three-phase delta-delta transformer with 13. the thyristor-based rectifier and threephase three-level PWM rectifier can accurately and dynamically control the DC voltage with more complicated structure and more total harmonic distortion.
The whole model of the PGAEPS is simulated with MATLAB/SIMULINK platform. The outputs of the electric propulsion subsystem are illustrated in Figure 5. some physical systems are not available. and external forces. Part A in Figure 5 shows rotor speed deviations dw1. The whole model of the PGAEPS is illustrated in Figure 4. respectively. Part B in Figure 5 demonstrates the torque (T2) between the generator and the low-pressure turbine. which indicates that the power generation subsystem decouples from the propulsion subsystem and works well with proper parameters selection.16 Rectifier C + v - Vdc Vload Scope v stab Generic Power System Stabilizer Excitation System PWM IGBT Inverter g + A B + v - Vab_inv + v - Vab_load Scope1 A B C A B C A B C Vabc a b c Vabc_B4160] ? [Vabc_B138] Double click for more info Vabc_B4160 (V) Vabc_B138 (V) - A B C C Grid LC Filter Measure Continuous 1 z Pulses Uref 50 kW 380Vrms 50 Hz Voltage Regulator Vabc (pu) Vd_ref (pu) Vabc_inv m Discrete PWM Generator 1 Vref (pu) modulation index Figure 4. demonstrate behavior and performance of the real physical systems. These curves are periodic and stable. Thus modeling and simulation are an effective approach for ship proactive design. .16 kV B4.8kV 3600rpm Transformer: delta-delta AC-DC Converter: uncontrolled rectifier DC-AC Converter: PWM inverter 1 -CPref wref dw_5-2 Pref wm Tr5-2 gate Turbine Pm m A B C A a B b C c A B C a b c A a B b C c A B C + d_theta Pm L Steam Turbine and Governor Mass 1= Generator Mass 2= LP turbine Mass 3= HP turbine 1 Vff v ref vd vq In Vstab Vf Vf_ 45 MVA 13. and dw3 in per unit for the generator. Also experiments of physical systems are expensive and even dangerous.limited. Other advantages of modeling and simulation include suppressing disturbances in noisy environments.8kV 3600 rpm B13. 3 Power Generation and Propulsion System Simulation: Generator: 45MVA 13.8 45 MVA-60 Hz 13. and the torque (T3) between the low-pressure turbine and the high-pressure turbine. ship-speed dynamics. and monitoring variables that are not accessible in the real world. it is difficult to determine the ship architecture and model the propeller.8 kV-4. ship-speed dynamics. low-pressure turbine. This is the reason why modeling and simulation techniques are used to simulate real physical systems. dw2. it is not practical to build the ship prototypes first and then make further modification due to time and cost consideration. and evaluate functions and effectiveness of the real physical systems. both in per unit. For ship design and construction. The time step for simulation is 1 microsecond and the sampling time of the voltage regulator for PWM inverter control is 100 microseconds. and high-pressure turbine. Thus a simple three-phase parallel RLC load is used to model <Rotor angle dev iation d_theta (rad)> <Rotor speed wm (pu)> <Rotor speed dev iation dw (pu)> <Stator voltage v d (pu)> <Stator voltage v q (pu)> In In 3 T2 (Gen-LP) T3(LP-HP) [pu] In dw1(Gen) dw2(LP) dw3(HP) [pu] the propeller. and external forces. Model of the PGAEPS SIMULATION OF PGAEPS FOR IPS In the real world.
Figure 5. The AC voltage is sinusoidal with a little distortion. From Part A we can see that the peak value is about 5890 V. This voltage will drive motor and propeller. the voltage quality can be improved for stricter load demand in the future. With the delta-delta transformer and proper diode rectifier design. Outputs of the Power Generation Subsystem Figure 6 shows the output voltage of the PWM inverter. the voltage quality can satisfy the demand for the motor drive and propeller. Part B shows that the high side voltage of the transformer is about 19.55 kV. The high side (13. This indicates a good power factor characteristic.8 kV RMS value.8 kV voltage and 60 Hz frequency for the common bus. However. the voltage curves are sinusoidal without distortion. Output Voltage of the PWM Inverter . which is equivalent to 4160V RMS value. The voltages on both high and low sides of the transformer are illustrated in Figure 7. It is essential to maintain 13. Figure 6. With further good design of the filter and inverter controller. which is equivalent to 13. There is also an overshot in the initial time.8 kV) of the transformer will be the common bus for future IPS design. Part A in Figure 7 shows the low side voltage of the transformer.
By adding an AC-DC zonal distribution system. Thanks are also given to the Electric-Ship Group of the Dept. 1999. and fault analysis and protection/reconfiguration system design. Simulation results show the performance and effectiveness of the PGAEPS designed. Voltage Curves of the Delta-Delta Transformer APPLICATION OF MODEL A shipboard power system differs from a terrestrial power system in that it has limited inertia and very short transmission lines. power flow calculation.” Control Engineering Practice 7 pp. REFERENCES Izadi-Zamanabadi. which can provide a platform for shipboard power system stability analysis. maintaining stable voltage and frequency of the common bus in the PGAEPS is essential. This paper presents a model of power generation and electric propulsion system for all-electric ships. and M. For future IPS design. 227—239. which are not applicable for shipboard power systems. “A Ship Propulsion System As A Benchmark for FaultTolerant Control.Figure 7. SUMMARY This paper discusses the design of a PGAEPS. Traditional power system stability analysis approaches and associated software packages are all based on single-machine infinite bus system or multi-machine infinite bus system. R. and a harmonic filter is necessary. and impacts of the PGAEPS design on future IPS. of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Mississippi State University. Blanke. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This research work has been supported by the Office of Naval Research grant N00014-02-10623. with MATLAB/SIMULINK. develops an integrated model of the PGAEPS . this model can be further extended to an IPS. and performs simulation of the model.
Sept. “Power Quality On Electric Ships.F. Jr. Muthumuni. 1 pp. Glover. Robey.. S. Optimal electric ship propulsion system. Dr. Dr.E.” www. and D.com/software/gallery/embedded/Po wer_quality_on_electric_ships.J. Corzine. 343-346. and H.D. Zheng. . and intelligent agent applications to power system reconfiguration. 1. 2002. “Studies on New Electric Propulsion System for Nuclear Submarine for Cruising. modeling and simulation of power systems.S.N. March 1998. and Y. Mindykowsky. Hegner. Zou.J.E. China.S. Her research interest is in computer applications in power system operations including artificial intelligence techniques. B. He also holds an MS in Aerospace Engineering and BS in Mechatronics Engineering from Beijing Institute of Technology (BIT) in Beijing. His current area of research is design. and M. X.. Schulz received her B. Xu.” IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion.” Proceeding of IEEE Power Engineering Society Summer Meeting. T. J. No.E. “DC Link Stabilized Field Oriented Control of Electric Propulsion Systems. 13. Noel N.D. 2002.pdf Sudhoff. Marine Reporter. K. Vol. She has been active in the IEEE Power Engineering Society and is serving as Secretary for 2004-2007.cedrat. She received her Ph. and H. Prousalidis.. S. She is the recipient of the TVA Endowed Professorship in Power Systems Engineering. She was the 2002 recipient of the IEEE/PES Walter Fee Outstanding Young Power Engineer Award.“Trends in Ship Electric Propulsion. in EE from the University of Minnesota in 1995. H..A. Vol. respectively.” The 4th International Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference. 2004. He has a PhD in Aerospace Engineering from MSU in 2001 and a MS in Electrical Engineering in 2003.E. Aug. She has been an Associate Professor in the ECE department at Mississippi State University since July 2001. Quili Yu is currently pursuing his PhD degree from the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department at Mississippi State University.McCoy. Yin. Schulz is a member of Eta Kappa Nu and Tau Beta Pi. “New Concept of Power Quality Improvement Method in Marine Electric Propulsion System. 2004.” 11th International Conference on Harmonics and Quality of Power. She is a NSF CAREER award recipient. J. degrees from Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University in 1988 and 1990.
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