Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT

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Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT)
Failure Due To Brittle Cracking

Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT)
Prerequisites As with any other non destructive inspection method, there are various prerequisites that should be considered prior to performing visual examination. Some of the more common attributes to consider are discussed as follows:

. Consideration should be given to near and far vision with natural or corrected vision.Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Visual Acuity One of the most obvious prerequisites is that the visual examiner should have sufficient visual acuity to perform an adequate inspection.

CSWIP – Visual Inspector or Welding Inspector. .Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Visual Acuity A documented periodic visual inspection of the requirement of many codes & specifications and is generally considered good practice. An eye examination by a qualified examiner is a prerequisite for the certification by AWS as a Certified Welding Inspector (CWI) or A Certified Associate Welding Inspector (CAWI).

. Both method can be formal (classroom) or on the job.Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Experience & Training Another obvious prerequisite is that the visual inspector should have sufficient knowledge and skill to perform the examination successfully and meaningfully. Knowledge and skill can be imparted or obtained through the education and training processes.

sufficient exposure to the many types of workmanship variances should be allowed.Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Sufficient time should be allowed for different individuals to properly grasp key points pertaining to: Joint Preparations Welding preheat Interpass temperature Weldment distortion Welding consumables and other materials. . Additionally.

Certification is a testimony of qualification. it may be desirable to have visual inspection personnel formally certified. .Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Certification Programme To provide assurance that visual inspectors are qualified (that is. sufficient prerequisites are obtained and maintained).

Other programme such as TWI / CSWIP also offers such programme.Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Certification Programme The American Welding Society offers Certified Welding Inspector (CWI) and Certified Associate Welding Inspector (CAWI) programme. .

fumes. heat. etc. . gases. ultraviolet light.Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Safety Visual inspectors should receive sufficient indoctrination on welding safety practices.). There are many potential safety hazards present (electricity.

Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Fundamentals Of Visual Inspection. . It can be an invaluable tool when properly applied. Many programme instituted by the manufacturer or fabricator to control quality of the products utilise visual examination as the primary. evaluation method of inspection. visual examination can be an excellent process control technique to help identify subsequent fabrication problems. and in some instances the only. In addition to locating surface flaws.

This will allow visual inspection of the exposed surfaces as they occur in the fabrication sequence. any conscientious quality control programme consisting essentially of visual inspection should include a continual sequence of examinations performed during all phases of fabrication. . Consequently.Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Visual examination is a method for identifying surface flaws and imperfections.

and after welding can result in discovery of the majority of all defects which would have been detected later using more expensive test methods. during.Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Discovery and repair of any defects at that time results in substantial cost reduction. It has been shown that a conscientious programme of visual inspection occurring before. .

the better the coverage. The sooner the examination process is introduced into the system. and after welding). . during.Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) The effectiveness of visual inspection is improved when a system is instituted which provides for coverage at all phases of the welding process (before.

Prior to welding.Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Inspection Prior To Welding. some typical action items requiring attention by the visual inspector include: Review drawings and specification Check qualification of procedures and personnel to be utilised Establish check points Set up a plan for the recording of results Review materials to be utilised • • • • • .

It is very important that the inspector knows exactly what requirements are to be met. • Check for base metal discontinuities • Check fit-up and alignment of weld joints • Check preheat.Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Inspection Prior To Welding. Governing construction codes and specifications will provide these data. many problems which might occur later can be prevented. if required If the inspector pays particularly close attention to these preliminary items. .

Joint Configuration .

. This is of utmost importance on large construction projects or massive welded fabrications. Consideration should be given to the establishment of hold points or check points where an examination is to occur prior to the accomplishment of any further fabrication steps.Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Hold Points.

Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Welding Procedures Another preliminary step which should occur is to ensure that the applicable welding procedures comply with the job requirements. . The drawings and specifications will dictate what base metals are to be joined and what filler metal will be utilised. The proper documentation of the qualification or certifications of the individual welders should be reviewed.

and position to be welded. welding is normally carried out in accordance with qualified procedures which record the essential variables of the process and by welders qualified for the process. An example of a procedural step is that when low-hydrogen electrodes are specified.Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Welding Procedures For structural welding and other critical applications. . storage facilities as recommended by the manufacturer are required. material. Additional procedural steps might be needed to accommodate certain materials.

If a discontinuity. Very often. such as a plate lamination. identification of the material type and a thorough examination of the specific base metal should be made.Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Base Materials. it may affect the overall structural integrity of the weldment. especially on a flame cut edge. a lamination will be visible along plate edge. is present and remains undetected. . Prior to welding.

The importance of the joint fit prior to welding cannot be stressed enough. the visual examination of joint fit-up is of highest priority.Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Joint Fit-up. Therefore. the most critical part of the base material is that area which has been prepared to accept weld metal in some form of joint shape. For a weld. .

Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Joint Fit-up. Items that may be considered prior to welding include: Groove angle Root opening Joint alignment Backing Consumable insert Joint cleanliness Tack welds Preheat .

Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Joint Preparation / Fit-up .

Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Joint Preparation .

Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Preheating .

Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Preheating .

If the fit-up is poor. Sometimes. but these becomes areas of concern and can be watched carefully during later stage. then the weld will most likely be of substandard quality as well. examination of the joint prior to welding will reveal irregularities within code limitations. All of these factors could have a direct bearing on the resultant weld quality. . Extra care taken during the joint assembly can greatly improve welding effectiveness.Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Joint Fit-up.

So. and final determination of weld size compliance can be correctly interpreted. the size of the required fillet weld should be increased by the amount of the root opening present. if the inspector knows that this situation exists. For example.Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Joint Fit-up. the drawing or weld joint can be marked accordingly. . if a T-joint for fillet weld exhibits an excessive root opening.

Joint Fit-up .Excessive Gap .

Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) During Welding. . Visual examination is the primary method for controlling this aspect of the fabrication. there are a number of items which require control so that the resulting weld will be satisfactory. During welding.

.e. i. etc. speed.Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) During Welding. voltage. Some of these aspects of fabrication which can be checked include: Quality of weld root bead Joint root preparation prior to welding the second side Preheat and interpass temperature Sequence of weld pass Subsequent layers for apparent weld quality Cleaning between passes Conformance with the applicable procedure. amperage. heat input.

.Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Weld Root Pass Perhaps the most critical part of any weld is the weld root pass. Consequently. many defects which are later discovered in a weld associated with the weld root bead. Problems which exist at this point in the progression combine to make the successful completion of the balance of the weld difficult to accomplish.

or grinding. Once this removal process has been accomplished. . thermal gouging. This is to assure that all discontinuities have been removed. This usually includes removal of slag and other irregularities by chipping. examination of the excavated area prior to welding the second side is required.Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Weld Root Pass Another critical joint root condition exists whenever second side treatment is applied to a double welded joint.

Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Preheat & Interpass Temperature Preheat & interpass temperature can be critical and. The limits are often described as a minimum. to help in controlling the amount of heat in the weld zone. Also. the sequence and placement of the individual passes can be important. a maximum. or as both. be measured. . if specified.

. Often.Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Preheat & Interpass Temperature The inspector should always be conscious of the extent and location of any distortion or shrinkage caused by the welding heat. corrective measures can be taken as the welding heat progresses to alleviate the problem.

This also provides a check to determine if adequate cleaning is being accomplished between passes. This may help to alleviate the occurrence of slag inclusions in the final weld. it is prudent to examine each layer visually to judge its integrity.Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Between Layer Examination To evaluate the quality of the weld as work progress. .

In that case.Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Between Layer Examination Many of these items may be addressed in the applicable welding procedure. visual inspection performed during the welding is basically a check to determine id there is compliance with the requirements of the welding procedure. .

It will simply provide a check to be sure that the steps taken have resulted in a satisfactory weld. . if all the previously discussed steps have been taken before and during welding. this final phase of visual inspection will be accomplished easily. Many people feel that visual inspection commences once the welding has been completed.Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) After Welding. However.

Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Some of the various items which require attention after welding has been completed are: Final weld appearance Final weld size Weld length Dimensional accuracy Amount of distortion Post weld heat treatment. .

Therefore. visual examination of several things are required. and many of these can occur on the surface of the completed weld. Most codes and specifications describe the extent of discontinuities that are acceptable.Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Final Weld Inspection The basic purpose of final weld inspection is to assure the weld’s quality. .

Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT)
Discontinuities Typical discontinuities in found in welds are: • Porosity • Incomplete fusion • Incomplete joint penetration • Undercut • Overlap • Cracks • Slag Inclusion • Excessive reinforcement.

Weld Discontinuities

Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT)
Weld Discontinuities

the criticality of these surface discontinuities is increased. In conditions such as these. For structures exposed to cyclic or fatigue loading. visual examination of the surface may be the most important inspection which can be performed. . cracks and incomplete fusion defects are not allowed.Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Discontinuities While code requirements may permit limited amounts of some of these discontinuities.

This is why. fatigue loading can cause premature failures which propagate from these discontinuities. .Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Discontinuities The existence of undercut. could perform more satisfactorily than a weld of adequate size exhibiting a poor contour. free from abrupt surface irregularities. often the proper contour of a weld can be much more important than the actual weld size. overlap and improper contour results in stress raisers. since a slightly undersized weld.

Some conditions may require the fabrication of special weld gauges . Fillet size can be determined by using one or several types of weld gauges to provide a more efficient and accurate measurement of size. Groove welds should be measured for proper reinforcement on both sides of the joint. the examiner should check to see if all welds meet drawing requirements for size and location.Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Discontinuities To determine if compliance has been attended.

Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Post Weld Heat Treatment Due to size. Heating at the interpass temperature will not affect the microstructure. shape. . or base metal type. This may involve only the application of heat at or near the interpass temperature range to provide a post weld condition that will aid in metallurgical control of the final weldment properties. post weld heat treatment may be specified in the welding procedure.

. After holding at this temperature for one hour for each once of base metal thickness. Here. then weldment is allowed to cool to about 315º C at a control rate.Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Post Weld Heat Treatment Some conditions may require the accomplishment of a thermal stress relief treatment. the weldment is gradually heated at a prescribed rate to the stress relief range of 590º C to 650º C for most carbon steel.

Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Final Dimensional Examination Another measurement that affects the performance of a weldment is its dimensional accuracy. it may be useless. even though the weld is of adequate quality. If a welded part will not fit an assembly. .

dimensional examination after welding may be required to determine the weldments’s fitness for its intended use. .Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Welding heat will distort the base metal. and can alter overall component dimensions. Therefore.

or location. size. or physical characteristics of the material or weldment. such as lack of homogeneity in the mechanical. . metallurgical.Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Discontinuities & Defects A discontinuity is defined as an interruption of the typical structure of a weldment. distribution. Discontinuities are rejectable only if they exceed specification requirements in terms of type. A discontinuity is not necessarily a defect.

heat affected zone. By definition. shape. Discontinuities may be found in the weld metal. orientation. a defect is a discontinuity whose size. .Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Discontinuities & Defects A rejectable discontinuity is referred to as defects. or base metal of many weldments. or location makes it detrimental to the useful service of the part in which it occur.

Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Four basic weld joints are considered in this presentation: Butt T Corner Lap .

An example is the tungsten inclusion. .Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Discontinuities & Defects Weld and base metal discontinuities of specific types are more common with certain welding processes and joint details are used. which only occurs in welds made using gas tungsten arc welding.

Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Discontinuities & Defects Other conditions. . may lead to a higher than normal incidence of weld and base metal discontinuities. such as high restraint and limited access to portions of a weld joint.

Often. or that the base metal is of a composition incompatible with the filler metal or process. . The discontinuity formed is generally spherical but may be cylindrical. porosity is an indication that the welding process is not being properly controlled.Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Porosity Porosity is characterised by cavity type discontinuities formed by gas entrapment during solidification. or the base metal or filler metal is contaminated.

Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Porosity .

Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Porosity .

If weld cool slowly enough to allow gas to pass to the surface before weld solidification. or material used or the conditions of the weld preparation. there will generally be no porosity in the weld. . lead to gas formation and entrapment.Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Scattered Porosity Scattered porosity is porosity widely distributed in a single weld bead or in several beads of a multi pass weld. Porosity will be present in a weld if the welding technique.

Linear porosity is a number of pores which are aligned.Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Cluster & Linear Porosity Cluster porosity is a localised group of pores. and developed by contamination that causes gas to be liberated at those locations. It often results from improper starting and stopping of welding pass. the weld root. Conditions causing arc blow can also result in cluster porosity. It often occur along the weld interface. . or an inter-bead boundary.

Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Linear & Clustered Porosities .

it could also be caused by the presence of contaminants on the surface being welded. While it is a discontinuity more commonly associated with weld technique. . Incomplete fusion can result from insufficient heat input or the improper manipulation of the welding electrode.Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Incomplete Fusion Incomplete fusion is termed as fusion which does not occur over the entire base metal surfaces intended for welding and between all adjoining weld beads.

Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Incomplete Fusion .

Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Incomplete Fusion .

Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Incomplete Fusion .

Some welding process have greater penetrating ability than others and would therefore be less susceptible to this problem.Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Incomplete Joint Penetration Incomplete joint penetration is defined as penetration by weld metal that does not extend for the full thickness of the base metal in a joint with a groove weld. improper lateral control of the welding arc. Incomplete penetration may result from insufficient welding heat. Pipe welds are especially vulnerable to these discontinuities. . since the joint is usually inaccessible for welding from the root side. or improper joint configuration.

Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Incomplete Joint Penetration .

. Undercut is generally associated with improper welding technique or weld parameters. and for stress concentrations or notch effect when fatigue is a consideration. is not usually considered a weld defect. excessive welding current or voltages or both.Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Undercut Undercut creates a transition which should be evaluated for a reduction in cross section. Undercuts. controlled within the limits of the specification.

Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Undercut .

Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Undercut .

Underfill is usually defined as a condition where the total thickness through a weld is less than the thickness of the adjacent base metal.Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Underfill Underfill is a depression on the weld face or root surface extending below the adjacent surface of the base metal. . and is rarely acceptable. It results from the failure of a welder or welding operator to completely fill the weld joint.

Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Underfill .

or weld root. Overlap is a surface discontinuity that forms a mechanical notch. is often considered rejectable. It can occur as a result of poor control of the welding process. . If there are tightly adhering oxides on the base metal that interfere with fusion.Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Overlap Overlap is the protrusion of weld metal beyond the weld toe. overlap will often result. improper selection of welding materials prior to welding.

Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Overlap .

Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Overlap .

or magnetic particle testing. penetrant. and are then only detected non destructively by ultrasonic testing. They may also extend to an edge or end where they are visible at the surface and may be detected by visual. Lamination can be completely internal. . generally elongated. base metal discontinuity usually found at the centre of wrought product.Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Lamination Laminations are flat. They may also be revealed when exposed by cutting or machining operations.

. or non metallic inclusions in the original ingot are rolled flat. Tight laminations will sometimes conduct sound across the interface and. therefore.Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Lamination Laminations are formed when gas voids. They generally run parallel to the surface of rolled products and are most commonly found in bars and plates. shrinkage cavities. Some laminations are partially forged welded along their interface by high temperature and pressure of the rolling operation. may not be fully evaluated / detected by ultrasonic testing.

Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT)
Lamination

Laminar Tearing

Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT)
Cracks Cracks form in the weld and base metal when localised stresses exceed the ultimate strength of the material. Cracking may occur at evaluated temperatures during weld solidification, or after solidification, when the weldment has equalised in temperature. Cracking is generally associated with stress amplification near discontinuities in welds and base metal, or near notches associated with the weld joint design. Welding related cracks are generally brittle in nature, exhibiting little plastic deformation at the crack boundaries.

Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT)
Cracks Cracks can be classified as either hot cracks or cold cracks. Hot cracks develop at elevated temperatures. They form on solidification of the metal at temperature near the melting point. Cold cracks develop after solidification id complete. Cracking associated with hydrogen embrittlement, commonly referred to as ‘’delay cracking,’’ is a form of cold cracking. Hot cracks propagate along grain boundaries and through grains.

Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT)
Various Types Of Cracks

Crack orientation may be termed longitudinal or transverse. regardless of whether it is a centerline crack in the weld metal or a toe crack in the heat affected zone of the base metal. This may be limited in size and confined to the weld metal or they propagate from the weld into the adjacent heat affected zone and into the base metal. Transverse cracks lie perpendicular to the weld axis. it is called a longitudinal crack. . When a crack is parallel to the axis of the weld. depending on the crack direction with respect to the weld axis.Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Crack Orientation.

.Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Crack Orientation. transverse cracks will form in the heat affected zone and not in the weld. In some weldments. Longitudinal cracks in welds. are commonly associated with high welding speed and are sometimes related to porosity that does not showed at the weld face. made by machine welding. Welds having high depth to width ratios may also be susceptible to longitudinal cracking due to the resulting solidification patterns.

.Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Longitudinal Verses Transverse Crack.

They are generally. . but not always hot cracks.Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Throat Cracks Throat cracks are longitudinal cracks in the weld face in the direction of the weld axis.

Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Solidification Cracking .

Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Solidification Cracking .

They are generally hot cracks. .Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Root Cracks. Root cracks are longitudinal cracks in the weld root.

Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Root Cracks .

Crater cracks are shallow hot cracks usually forming a multi-pointed star-like cluster. .Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Crater Cracks Crater cracks occur in the weld crater and are formed by improper termination of welding arc. A non standard term for crater cracks is star cracks though they may have other shapes.

Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Crater Cracks .

These cracks are generally the result of thermal shrinkage stresses acting on the weld heat affected zone. They initiate and propagate from the weld toe where restraint stresses are highest.Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Toe Crack Toe cracks are generally cold cracks. . Toe cracks initiate approximately normal to the base metal surface. Abrupt profile changes at the toe caused by excessive convexity or weld reinforcement can amplify stresses. making the weld toe a more likely area for cracking to occur.

Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Toe Cracks .

. They are found at regular intervals under the weld and also outline boundaries of the weld where residual stresses are highest. Underbead and heat affected zone cracks can be either longitudinal or transverse.Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Underbead & HAZ Cracks Underbead and heat affected zone cracks are generally cold cracks that form in the heat affected zone of the base metal.

Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Underbead & HAZ Cracks Underbead cracks can become a serious problem when the following three elements are present simultaneously: Hydrogen Crack-susceptible microstructure Stress .

.Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Slag Inclusion Slag inclusion are nonmetallic solid material entrapped in weld metal or between weld metal and base metal. This solidified slag represents a portion of the weld’s cross section where the metal is not fused to itself. Slag inclusion are regions within the weld cross section or at the weld surface where once-molten flux used to protect the molten metal is mechanically trapped within the solidified metal.

Like incomplete fusion.Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Slag Inclusion This can result in a weakened condition which could impair the serviceability of the component. In fact. . inclusions may also appear at weld surface. slag inclusion are often associated with incomplete fusion. Although normally thought of being subsurface discontinuities. slag inclusions can occur between the weld and base metal or between individual weld passes.

Slag Inclusion .

does not add to the strength of the weld but may act as a stress raiser to amplify the applied stress. Weld reinforcement is weld metal in excess of the quantity required to fill a groove weld. . Weld reinforcement. when excessive.Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Weld Reinforcement. All weld reinforcement produces a notch effect at the weld toe. It is that amount of weld metal in a groove weld that is above the base metal surface.

which acts as stress raiser and can produce cracking in service. Reinforcement which are excessive tend to produce significant notch effects at the toe of the weld. Greater reinforcements are associated with reduced re-entrant angles.Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Weld Reinforcement. which result in greater notch effect. .

Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Excessive Reinforcement .

Weld Profile .

Concavity is only considered detrimental when it results in an undersize weld. .Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Convexity & Concavity Convexity is the maximum distance from the face of a convex fillet weld perpendicular to a line joining the weld toes. Like weld reinforcement. the notch created at the weld toe could result in toe cracking. when the amount of this convexity is excessive. Concavity is the maximum distance from the face of a concave fillet weld perpendicular to a line joining the weld toes.

Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Concave Fillet Weld .

Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Convex Fillet Weld .

heat affected metal. Arc strikes result when the arc is initiated on the base metal surface away from the weld joint. .Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Arc Strikes An arc strike is a discontinuity consisting of any localised re-melted metal. either intentionally or accidentally. or change in the surface profile of any part of a weld or base metal resulting from an arc.

.Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Arc Strikes When this occurs. as they could lead to cracking during cooling process or under fatigue conditions. there is a localised area of the base metal surface which is melted and then rapidly cooled due to massive heat sink created by the surrounding base metal. Arc strikes are not desirable and often not acceptable.

Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Arc Strikes .

spatter. especially non destructive testing. Normally. spatter is not considered to be a serious flaw unless its presence interferes with subsequent operations. Particles which are thrown away from the weld and base metal are. by definition. Those particles that are actually attached to the base metal adjacent to the weld are the most disconcerting form of spatter. or the serviceability of the part.Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Spatter Spatter consist of metal particles expelled during fusion welding that do not form a part of the weld. . It might be indicative of the welding process being out of control.

Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Spatter .

Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Inspection Equipment There are numerous inspection devices used by the welding inspector. The following are some of the tools & gauges / instruments most frequently used in visual welding inspection: Ampere meter Temperature sensitive crayons (Tempilstiks) Surface contact thermometer (Pyrometer) Weld gauge Fiberscope & borescope Ferrite gauge .

.Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Ampere meter An ampere meter of the tong test type is a unique. portable instrument that will measure current flowing in a circuit without making an electrical connection to it. a reading in amperes can be obtained. By placing the jaws of the tong tester around the conductor carrying current . This is an efficient way to verify the amperage that is being used during welding.

Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Ampere meter .

Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Temperature Sensitive Crayons Temperature sensitive crayons are frequently used to give an approximate temperature indication. . A crayon mark is made across the metal in the area to be checked. This measurement usually should be made within 25 mm of the weld on the base metal. the temperature of the piece will be at least 100º C when the crayon mark melts. for example 100º C crayon. Crayon marks should never be made directly on the weld because of possible contamination.

Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Temperature Sensitive Crayons .

Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Surface Contact Thermometer The surface thermometer provides a direct indication of the surface temperature of pipe or other joint members. These type of instruments give a more accurate indication than the surface thermometer and crayons. The point of the probe is placed on the work and the temperature is read from the digital scale. The pyrometer is an electrical instrument which offers direct indication of temperature. .

Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Surface Contact Thermometer .

weld reinforcement.Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Weld Gauge The fillet weld gauge offers a quick means of measuring most fillet welds of 3.2 mm through 25 mm in size. and root opening. . It measures both convex and concave fillet welds. such as measuring convex and concave fillet welds. A multipurpose gauge is capable of performing many measurements. Multipurpose Gauge There are several multipurpose welding gauges available on the market today.

Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Multipurpose Gauge .

Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Taper Gauge The taper gauge is inserted into the opening of a joint to measure root opening (gap) The root opening is taken from the gauge at the point where the gauge becomes snug in the joint. and the tool is removed for measurement of misalignment. is used to measure the internal alignment of a pipe joint. the thumb screw is tighten. Hi-Lo Gauge The hi-Lo gauge. also called a mismatch gauge. . After the gauge has been inserted and adjusted.

Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Hi-Lo Gauge .

Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Taper Gauge /Fillet Weld Gauge .

. A flexible fiberscope is basically an optical instrument. These units are also available with magnifying lenses. This allows the inspector to look into small holes and around corners. images can be projected on a screen.Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Fiberscope & Videoscope These are fiberoptic instruments ideal for weld examination where there is restricted access. and the result stored.

Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Fiberscope .

Videoscope .

but not completely. .Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Ferrite Gauge The present of a small fraction of the magnetic delta ferrite phase in an otherwise austenitic (non magnetic) weld metal has a pronounced in the influence in the prevention of weld centerline cracking and fissuring. The amount of ferrite in as-welded weld metal is largely. controlled by a balance in the weld metal composition between the ferrite-promoting elements and the austenite-promoting elements.

This provides sufficient control in most applications where minimum ferrite content or a ferrite range is specified. the weld metal has a tendency to develop small cracks or fissures.Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Ferrite Gauge When welding austenitic stainless steel. and may be bracketed between two values. . with insufficient delta ferrite structure. This small fissures tend to be located transverse to the weld interface in the weld beads and base metal that were reheated to near the melting point. Ferrite content of the weld metal is indicated in ferrite number (FN).

Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Ferritescope .

the inspector may consider this as a demonstration of adequate illumination.8 mm in width.Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Lighting The inspector should have adequate illumination. either natural or artificial. The card should be placed near the area under examination. while performing visual inspection. approximately 0. This may be determined using a fine line. . if this fine line is distinctly visible. drawn on a 18% neutral grey card.

for example 15fc (16lx) for general examination and a minimum of 50fc *54 lx) for the detection of small discontinuities. a flashlight / torchlight will provide sufficient lighting. Some code specify minimum foot candle / lux of illumination that are required while performing visual inspection. .Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Lighting Generally.

As with any type of inspection. is the identification of the defective area by marking directly on the part. . however.Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Records. Perhaps more effective. once completed. identified and repaired. any defective area should be identified in some manner to assure that it will be located and repaired properly. One method commonly used is to record the type. so specific conditions may dictate which marking system would be more effective. Many methods are available. size and location of any defects so that they can be located.

the most basic facts should be included even though they are well known and understood at the time of writing. . In preparing the records. Inspectors should be able to writ clear and concise reports so that superiors will have no difficulty understanding reasons for past decisions if they are reviewed later. Inspection report should be concise.Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Records An inspector should be able to maintain adequate records. yet complete enough to be clear to a reader unfamiliar with the product inspected. since they may not be remembered so clearly later.

examination or tests may also require records. . whether required or not. Thus. good records not only protect the inspectors who wrote them. Any work performed under a specification or code that requires inspection.Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Records. It is also the inspector’s duty to examine all records for completeness and accuracy in accordance with specified requirements and to make certain that they are available when needed. the inspector should kept adequate records. However. they also help in adhering to a policy of uniform standards.

Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Records. . Copies of these records should goes to all persons entitled to receive them. Any records that require the fabricator’s signature should be prepared by the fabricator rather than the inspector. difficulties that occurred. and any defects. and a copy should be kept for the inspector’s own file. Records should be in as much detail as necessary. Any repair should be explained. how well it stayed within prescribed tolerances. The inspector should comment on the general character of the work.

Check lists can be used to document inspection points during fabrication. completely. Lack of explanatory information and documentation can result in costly delays.Visual Inspection Of Welds (VT) Records. . or accurately later. It should be remembered that facts well known at the time of the writing may not be recalled so clearly.

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