P. 1
data com

data com

|Views: 3|Likes:
Published by ADSR
addressing data com
addressing data com

More info:

Categories:Topics, Art & Design
Published by: ADSR on Jan 23, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PPT, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

01/23/2013

pdf

text

original

Addressing the network IPv4

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

1

IP addressing – works at
 OSI model layer 3  TCP/IP model Internet layer Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data link Physical
HTTP, FTP, TFTP, SMTP etc

Data stream Segment

Application Transport Internet Network Access

TCP, UDP

Packet
Frame Bits

IP
Ethernet, WAN technologies

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

2

Addressing topics
 Binary and decimal  Types of IP addresses

 Assigning addresses
 Network part and subnet masks  Calculating addresses

 Ping and Traceroute Utilities

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

3

Binary and decimal
 Convert to 8-bit binary  248

 187
 89  Convert to decimal

 00110100
 01010101  11001111

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

4

248 to binary
128 1 64 1 32 1 16 1 8 1 4 0 2 0 1 0

248 -128 120

120 -64 56

56 -32 24

24 -16 8

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

5

187 to binary
128 1 64 0 32 1 16 1 8 1 4 0 2 1 1 1

187 -128 59

59 -32 27

27 -16 11

11 -8 3

3 -2 1

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

6

89 to binary
128 0 64 1 32 0 16 1 8 1 4 0 2 0 1 1

89 -64 25

25 -16 9

9 -8 1

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

7

00110100 to decimal
128 0 64 0 32 1 32 16 1 16 8 0 4 1 4 2 0 1 0

32 +16 + 4 52

52

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

8

01010101 to decimal
128 0 64 1 64 32 0 16 1 16 8 0 4 1 4 2 0 1 1 1

64 +16 + 4 + 1 85

85

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

9

11001111 to decimal
128 1 128 64 1 64 32 0 16 0 8 1 8 4 1 4 2 1 2 1 1 1

128 + 64 + 8 + 4 + 2 + 1 207
© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public

207

10

Binary and decimal
 Convert to 8-bit binary  248 11111000

 187
 89

10111011
01011001

 Convert to decimal

 00110100
 01010101  11001111

52
85 207

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

11

IPv4 address
192. 11000000 168. 10101000 21. 00010101 17 00010001

octet

octet

octet

octet

network part

host part

Prefix /24 Subnet mask:
255. 11111111 255. 11111111 255. 11111111 0 00000000

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

12

Find the network address
192. 11000000 168. 10101000 21. 00010101 17 00010001

In a network address, all the host bits are 0.
192. 11000000 168. 10101000 21. 00010101 0 00000000

The router needs to do this for every packet.

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

13

Logical AND
192. 11000000 168. 10101000 21. 00010101 17 00010001

255.
11111111 192. 11000000

255.
11111111 168. 10101000

255.
11111111 21. 00010101

0
00000000 0 00000000

Do a logical AND at each position
© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public

14

Find the broadcast address
192. 11000000 168. 10101000 21. 00010101 17 00010001

In a broadcast address, all the host bits are 1.
192. 11000000 168. 10101000 21. 00010101 255 11111111

The broadcast is the last address in the network.

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

15

3 types of address
 Every network has:  Network address – the first one

 Broadcast address – the last one
 Host addresses – everything in between

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

16

Classful addressing
A
10. 17. 53. 60

network part

host part
16. 38. 201

B

172.

network part

host part

C

192.

168.

21.

17

network part

host part

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

17

Classful addressing
 Easy to work out but very wasteful.  Routers and hosts still assume class subnet masks by default  Class A  Class B /8 /16 255.0.0.0 255.255.0.0

 Class C

/24

255.255.255.0

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

18

Classless addressing
 Any suitable prefix can be used  We (and devices) need to know what the prefix is.

 More flexible, less wasteful.

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

19

Classless addressing /16
 172.16.0.0/16 mask 255.255.0.0  Broadcast address 172.16.255.255
172.
10101100

16.
00010000

0.
00000000

0
00000000

 Hosts 172.16.0.1 to 172.16.255.254
 65534 host addresses

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

20

Classless addressing /24
 172.16.0.0/24 mask 255.255.255.0  Broadcast address 172.16.0.255
172.
10101100

16.
00010000

0.
00000000

0
00000000

 Hosts 172.16.0.1 to 172.16.0.254
 254 host addresses

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

21

Classless addressing /22
 172.16.0.0/22 mask 255.255.252.0  Broadcast address 172.16.3.255
172.
10101100

16.
00010000

0.
00000000

0
00000000

 Hosts 172.16.0.1 to 172.16.3.254
 1022 host addresses

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

22

Classless addressing /26
 172.16.0.0/22 mask 255.255.255.192  Broadcast address 172.16.0.63
172. 10101100 16. 00010000 0. 00000000 0 00000000

 Hosts 172.16.0.1 to 172.16.0.62  62 host addresses

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

23

Classless addressing /28
 172.16.0.0/28 mask 255.255.255.240  Broadcast address 172.16.0.15
172. 10101100 16. 00010000 0. 00000000 0 00000000

 Hosts 172.16.0.1 to 172.16.0.14  14 host addresses

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

24

Calculating addresses
 A host has IP address 192.168.1.70/24  What is the subnet mask?

 What is the network address?
 What is the broadcast address?  What is the range of host addresses in the network?

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

25

192.168.1.70/24 – fill in the table
Last octet binary Host Subnet mask Network Broadcast First host Last host Last octet decimal Full

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

26

192.168.1.70/24
Last octet binary Host Subnet mask Network Broadcast First host Last host 01000110 00000000 00000000 11111111 00000001 11111110 Last octet decimal 70 0 0 255 1 254 Full 192.168.1.70 255.255.255.0 192.168.1.0 192.168.1.255 192.168.1.1 192.168.1.254

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

27

Calculating addresses
 A host has IP address 192.168.1.70/26  What is the subnet mask?

 What is the network address?
 What is the broadcast address?  What is the range of host addresses in the network?

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

28

192.168.1.70/26 fill in the table
Last octet binary Host Subnet mask Network Broadcast First host Last host Last octet decimal Full

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

29

192.168.1.70/26
Last octet binary 01000110 11000000 01000000 01111111 01000001 01111110 Last octet decimal 70 192 64 127 65 126 Full 192.168.1.70 255.255.255.192 192.168.1.64 192.168.1.127 192.168.1.65 192.168.1.126

Host Subnet mask Network Broadcast First host Last host

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

30

Calculating addresses
 A host has IP address 192.168.1.70/28  What is the subnet mask?

 What is the network address?
 What is the broadcast address?  What is the range of host addresses in the network?

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

31

192.168.1.70/28 fill in the table
Last octet binary Host Subnet mask Network Broadcast First host Last host Last octet decimal Full

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

32

192.168.1.70/28
Last octet binary 01000110 11110000 01000000 01001111 01000001 01001110 Last octet decimal 70 240 64 79 65 78 Full 192.168.1.70 255.255.255.240 192.168.1.64 192.168.1.79 192.168.1.65 192.168.1.78

Host Subnet mask Network Broadcast First host Last host

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

33

Unicast, Multicast, Broadcast
 Unicast – a message addressed to one host  Broadcast – a message addressed to all hosts on a network. Uses network’s broadcast address or 255.255.255.255 locally  Multicast – a message addressed to a group of hosts. Uses an address starting 224 - 239

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

34

Private IP addresses
 Unrestricted use on private networks. Not routed across the Internet.  10.0.0.0 – 10.255.255.255 (10.0.0.0/8)  172.16.0.0 – 172.31.255.255 (172.16.0.0/20)  192.168.0.0 – 192.168.255.255 (192.168.0.0/24)

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

35

Public IP addresses
 Routed over the Internet  Master holder is IANA

 Assigned to regional registries and then to ISPs
 ISPs allocate them to organisations and individual users

 Use is strictly controlled as duplicate addresses are not allowed

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

36

Special addresses
 0.0.0.0 “all addresses” in default route. Hosts cannot be given addresses starting 0.  127.0.0.1 is loopback. Hosts cannot be given addresses starting 127.  240.0.0.0 and higher – reserved for experimental purposes.

 169.254.0.0 - 169.254.255.255 local only
 192.0.2.0 to 192.0.2.255 for teaching

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

37

Network address translation
 A large number of hosts on a network use private addresses to communicate with each other.  The ISP allocates one or a few public addresses.  NAT allows the hosts to share the public addresses when they want to use the Internet

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

38

Addressing hosts
 Static addressing – address is configured by an administrator  Servers, printers, routers, switches need static addresses  Dynamic addressing – address is allocated automatically by DHCP by leasing addresses from a pool  Dynamic addressing is best for workstations

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

39

Blocks of addresses
Use Network address User hosts Address range 192.168.1.0 192.168.1.1-127 Summary 192.168.1.0/25

Servers
Peripherals Network devices Router Broadcast

192.168.1.128 - 191
192.168.1.192 - 223 192.168.1.224 - 253 192.168.1.254 192.168.1.255

192.168.1.128/26
192.168.1.192/27 192.168.1.224/27

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

40

Subnetting 192.168.1.0/24
Last octet binary
Address Subnet mask 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 00000000 00000000

Borrow 1 bit from host part, give it to network part, /25
Addresses 192.168.1.0 192.168.1.128 255.255.255.128 00000000 10000000 10000000

Subnet mask

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

41

Subnetting 192.168.1.0/24
Borrow 2 bits from host part, give to network part, /26
Addresses 192.168.1.0 192.168.1.64 192.168.1.128 192.168.1.192 255.255.255.192 00000000 01000000 10000000 11000000 11000000

Subnet mask

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

42

Subnetting 192.168.1.0/24
Borrow 3 bits from host part, give to network part, /27
Addresses 192.168.1.0 192.168.1.32 192.168.1.64 192.168.1.96 192.168.1.128 192.168.1.160 192.168.1.192 192.168.1.224 255.255.255.224 00000000 00100000 01000000 01100000 10000000 10100000 11000000 11100000 11100000

Subnet mask

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

43

Subnetting 192.168.1.0/24
Borrow 4 bits from host part, give to network part, /28
192.168.1.0 192.168.1.16 192.168.1.32 192.168.1.48 192.168.1.64 192.168.1.80 192.168.1.96 192.168.1.112 192.168.1.128 192.168.1.144 192.168.1.160 192.168.1.176 192.168.1.192 192.168.1.208 192.168.1.224 192.168.1.240 11110000 00000000 00010000 00100000 00110000 01000000 01010000 01100000 01110000 10000000 10010000 10100000 10110000 11000000 11010000 11100000 11110000

Subnet mask 255.255.255.240

And so on…
© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public

44

Subnetting 192.168.1.0/24
 Every time you borrow another bit you: Double the number of subnets

Halve the size of the subnets
 Each subnet has a network address, a broadcast address, and everything in between is a host address.  Here are some ways of visualising the process.

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

45

Subnetting 192.168.1.0/24
Bits borrowed No of networks Prefix 1 2 /25 2 4 /26 3 8 /27 4 16 /28 5 32 /29 6 64 /30

Bit value/ network size
No of hosts Subnet mask

128
126 128

64
62 192

32
30 224

16
14 240

8
6 248

4
2 252

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

46

Address space
 Make a spreadsheet or table with numbers 0 to 255  Link to show table

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

47

Subnet chart

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

48

Subnetting
 There are many subnet calculators, but you will not be able to use them in exams.  Start with the biggest subnet and work down to the smallest.  Make sure the subnets are valid sizes with valid subnet masks.

 Make sure that there are no overlaps.

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

49

Ping and traceroute
 Ping sends an ICMP message. If all is well, the destination replies. If not, a router may reply to say the destination is unreachable, or the ping may time out.

 Traceroute sends a series of messages so that each router along the path replies. You get a list of addresses of all the routers.

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

50

IPv6
 Development started in 1990s because of concerns about IPv4 addresses running out  A whole new protocol suite – not just layer 3  Uses 128-bit hierarchical addressing, written using hexadecimal  Simpler header  Integrated security – authentication, privacy  Quality of service mechanisms

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

51

Subnetting - visual

CCNA Exploration Semester 1

Chapter 6

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

52

Prefix /24
Three octets in network part, last octet in host part.

All possible numbers 0 – 255 in last octet belong in the same network. Network address yellow Broadcast address blue
Subnet mask 255.255.255.0

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

53

Prefix /25
First bit of fourth octet taken into network part.

For every bit taken, double number of networks, halve their size. Network address yellow Broadcast address blue
Subnet mask 255.255.255.128

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

54

Prefix /26
2 bits of fourth octet taken into network part.

For every bit taken, double number of networks, halve their size. Network address yellow Broadcast address blue
Subnet mask 255.255.255.192

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

55

Prefix /27
3 bits of fourth octet taken into network part.

For every bit taken, double number of networks, halve their size. Network address yellow Broadcast address blue
Subnet mask 255.255.255.224

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

56

Prefix /28
4 bits of fourth octet taken into network part.

For every bit taken, double number of networks, halve their size. Network address yellow Broadcast address blue
Subnet mask 255.255.255.240

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

57

Prefix /29
5 bits of fourth octet taken into network part.

For every bit taken, double number of networks, halve their size. Network address yellow Broadcast address blue
Subnet mask 255.255.255.248

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

58

Prefix /30
6 bits of fourth octet taken into network part.

For every bit taken, double number of networks, halve their size. Network address yellow Broadcast address blue
Subnet mask 255.255.255.252

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

59

Variable length
/27

/26

/25 Networks do not need to be all the same size.

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

60

Summary
 Hierarchical Design model addresses performance, scalability, maintainability & manageability issues.
 Traffic Analysis is used to monitor network performance.  Hierarchical Design Model is composed of 3 layers:
Access Distribution

Core

 Switches selected for each layer must meet the needs of each hierarchical layer as well as the needs of the business.
© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public

61

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->