THE

A

B C OF
A

MINING

Handbook for Prospectors

TREATING FULLY OF EXPLORATORY AND PREPARATORY WORK OF THE PHYSI PROPERTIES OF ORES, FIELD GEOLOGY, TUB OCCURRENCE AND Associ/ TIONS OF MINERALS, METHODS OF CHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND ASSAY, BLOW-PIPE TESTS, PROMISING INDICATIONS, AND SIMPLB METHODS OF WORKING VALUABLE DEPOSITS, TOGETHER WITH CHAPTERS ON QUARTZ AND HYDRAULIC MINING AND ESPECIAL DETAILED INFORMATION ON PLACER MINING, WITH AN ADDENDA ON CAMP LIFE AND MEDICAL HINTS.

BY

CHARLES

A.

BRAMBLE,

D. L.

S.,

Late of the Editorial Staff of "The Engineering and MiningJournal," and formerly a Crown Lands and Mineral Surveyor for the Dominion of Canada.

ILLUSTRATED.

CHICAGO AND NEW YORK RAND, McNALLY & COMPANY,
:

1898. McNally & Cc .Copyright. by Rand.

BY CHARLES A. TOGETHER WITH CHAPTERS ON QUARTZ AND HYDRAULIC MINING AND ESPECIAL DETAILED INFORMATION ON PLACER MINING. S." and formerly a Crown Lands and Mineral Surveyor for the Dominion of Canada. CHICAGO AND NEW YORK RAND.. METHODS OF CHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND ASSAY. WITH AN ADDENDA ON CAMP LIFE AND MEDICAL HINTS. L. FIELD GEOLOGY. Late of the Editorial Staff of "The Engineering and MiningJournal. D.THE A B C OF A MINING Handbook for Prospectors TREATING FULLY OF EXPLORATORY AND PREPARATORY WORK OF THE PHYSI PROPERTIES OF ORES. BRAMBLE. PROMISING INDICATIONS. : . BLOW-PIPE TESTS. ILLUSTRATED. TUB OCCURRENCE AND Associ/ TIONS OF MINERALS. AND SIMPLB METHODS OF WORKING VALUABLE DEPOSITS. McNALLY & COMPANY.

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ILLUSTRATED." and formerly a Crown Lands and Mineral Surveyor for the Dominion of Canada. WITH AN ADDENDA ON CAMP LIFE AND MEDICAL HINTS. : . TUB OCCURRENCE AND Associ/ TIONS OF MINERALS. BLOW-PIPE TESTS. McNALLY & COMPANY. D. S.THE A B C OF A MINING Handbook for Prospectors TREATING FULLY OF EXPLORATORY AND PREPARATORY WORK OF THE PHYSI PROPERTIES OF ORES. TOGETHER WITH CHAPTERS ON QUARTZ AND HYDRAULIC MINING AND ESPECIAL DETAILED INFORMATION ON PLACER MINING. PROMISING INDICATIONS.. AND SIMPLB METHODS OF WORKING VALUABLE DEPOSITS. BY CHARLES A. FIELD GEOLOGY. CHICAGO AND NEW YORK RAND. Late of the Editorial Staff of "The Engineering and MiningJournal. BRAMBLE. METHODS OF CHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND ASSAY. L.

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METHODS OF CHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND ASSAY.. Late of the Editorial Staff of "The Engineering and MiningJournal. BRAMBLE. PROMISING INDICATIONS. TOGETHER WITH CHAPTERS ON QUARTZ AND HYDRAULIC MINING AND ESPECIAL DETAILED INFORMATION ON PLACER MINING. BLOW-PIPE TESTS. AND SIMPLB METHODS OF WORKING VALUABLE DEPOSITS. S. McNALLY & COMPANY. CHICAGO AND NEW YORK RAND. L. BY CHARLES A." and formerly a Crown Lands and Mineral Surveyor for the Dominion of Canada. ILLUSTRATED. TUB OCCURRENCE AND Associ/ TIONS OF MINERALS. D. FIELD GEOLOGY. WITH AN ADDENDA ON CAMP LIFE AND MEDICAL HINTS. : .THE A B C OF A MINING Handbook for Prospectors TREATING FULLY OF EXPLORATORY AND PREPARATORY WORK OF THE PHYSI PROPERTIES OF ORES.

by Rand. McNally & Cc .Copyright. 1898.

This sounds easy diorite. so that to the man study of this subject a determination who is has made always possible. but it must be confessed that there are almost as many theories as there are disputants. Each one differs from all the rest Often this difference will be an in some particular. . Wonderfully rich placer ground has already been found and there can be no reason to doubt that very much larger areas remain unproved.PROSPECTING. He must know also that mysterious rock which the western miner calls porphyry. not to mention mining engineers and practical prospectors. have disputed over the source of the gold already found. and gneiss. diabase. in a dozen a different ways. the problem of seeking for it might be made easier. geologists. They may differ in weight. Could it be known with certainty how and under what conditions the gold got where it is found. etc. in hardness. mineralogists and chemists. Unfortunately . rnotigh but the student will find that a good deal of hard work is necessary before he can readily recognize each of these rocks. 9 and the truly igneous rocks trap. On account of the wonderful discoveries in the Canadian Northwest and in Alaska. and to which is ascribed most wonderful virtues in the way of ore attraction while dolerite and dolomite must be to him familiar terms and substances. but to the careful investigator the recognition of the substance will be in the end certain. in color. the eyes of thousands are turned towards those fields. It is even more necessary that he should learn the metals thoroughly. Where this gold comes from is an open question. obscure one.

It is do not travel far is because gold not an invariable rule that the gold increases in coarseness as the stream is ascended. and the deposits being unearthed to-day have been accumulating in these northern streams since the world . We only know that the miners who makes his to account for. so enormously heavy its specific gravity being about nineteen times that of water it seeks the bottom of the stream and stays there. but it is a very general one. It is quite within the bounds of probability that no very rich quartz veins exist in Alaska. This is difficult many cases is believed to be caused by the modern river robbing the bed of some one or more ancient water-courses whose beds crossed the valley of the present stream. This may or may not be the case. On some rivers rich and poor stretches of goldbearing gravel succeed one another as the explorer way up or down stream. some of the quartz lodes. and all prospecting for the home of the precious metal is more or less a groping in the do know that the heaviest particles of gold dark. this is not the case.10 ABC OF MINING. We from where they were first deposited. The gold would not travel far. It does not follow from the richness of the placers that the gold is derived from very rich but flour gold. but in found coarse gold on the lower regions of such rivers as the Frazer were miserably disappointed when they reached stretches near the source and found nothing This same feature has been noticed in Alaskan rivers. because this amount of gold may really represent the product of a vast amount of rock that has been ground to powder and washed away in the course of ages.

Often the soil will have been washed away from near the top of the mountain. but of course there is no certainty of such a happy issue. when the fragments of quartz. ies made that invariably render prospectLocal peculiarities are noted certain characters are found to be common to the ore-bearing'boddiscoveries are . water-courses are nature's ground sluices. and the gold may have been deposited by solution in these fractures. and thus show that they have r soon round these minerals on their sharp come from some little distance. they have not traveled far. . diorite. Quartz. the lines of deposits become known. and the lode from which they have been derived should be close at hand. *Dislocation of the strata. and porphyry pebbles are grounds for expecting a profitable result. so that layers of stratified rock are seen to be duplicated on each side while they are covered at the summit. while in other cases the reverse has obtained. or galena are rough.PROSPECTING. light is then shed upon a very diffi- problem. pyrite. Upheavals have formed faults* and fractured the strata. As a rule. and a good deal of cult or deposits. The prospector keeps his eye open as he goes along and notes carefully the character of the fragments of rock he finds in the streams. As soon as the district begins to be fairly well known certain ing easier. diabase. chalcopyrite. It is possible that one stream has cut through the Sometimes this has impoverdrainage of another. II was young. ished the first and enriched the second. Water and attrition edges.

and the deposits being unearthed to-day have been accumulating in these northern streams since the world . This is difficult many cases is believed to be caused by the modern river robbing the bed of some one or more ancient water-courses whose beds crossed the valley of the present stream. The gold would not travel far. this is not the case. On some rivers rich and poor stretches of goldbearing gravel succeed one another as the explorer way up or down stream.10 ABC OF MINING. This may or may not be the case. so enormously heavy its specific gravity being about nineteen times that of water it seeks the bottom of the stream and stays there. but it is a very general one. We only know that the miners who makes his to account for. but in found coarse gold on the lower regions of such rivers as the Frazer were miserably disappointed when they reached stretches near the source and found nothing This same feature has been noticed in Alaskan rivers. We from where they were first deposited. because this amount of gold may really represent the product of a vast amount of rock that has been ground to powder and washed away in the course of ages. It does not follow from the richness of the placers that the gold is derived from very rich but flour gold. some of the quartz lodes. It is do not travel far is because gold not an invariable rule that the gold increases in coarseness as the stream is ascended. and all prospecting for the home of the precious metal is more or less a groping in the do know that the heaviest particles of gold dark. It is quite within the bounds of probability that no very rich quartz veins exist in Alaska.

and the pressure to which they were subjected from deep down in the earth's crust is removed. granite. Nature's preparation for the reception of great ore The crust of the deposits is somewhat as follows: earth is prepared for the reception of the metals by great outbursts of igneous or melted rocks the metals . These metals are deposited in the veins as soon as the waters begin to cool. known to the miners as float. happen help is at hand.PROSPECTING. quartzites. shales. there can be another at far less proportionate expense than a single one could. By co-operating they may Should any accident carry a more complete outfit. and more surely. slates. 13 Although most prospectors travel alone from sheer no doubt that three or four men forming a party and working together have the advantage. though very probably many occur in these outcrops. Three or four claims may be worked in conjunction with one necessity. themselves being carried in suspension in the heated water that everywhere traverses the strata. and diabase. over the hills and encumber the courses of the stream. A great mineral country is usually marked by the outcrops of the veins being persistent in their courses and traceable for breaks may many miles. whereas the solitary wanderer often dies as the result of some accident that would have been trivial had he had a companion. They can do their work cheaper. A central line of eruption may often be traced by masses of altered rock. and beds of lava . more thoroughly. porphyry. Fragments of mineral may be littered and gangue. The rocks asso- ciated with great ore bodies are lime.

and that all the money he has put into crushing apparatus is wasted. push and perseverance. albe adapted for stamping. is found mineral probably exists below. and the most common is oxygen. Nearly all . and are harder to treat. or mundic. We and thus become dolomatized. Whenever a heavy deposit of pyrites. The prospector should therefore act very cautiously capital mine with a small though the first ore may trying to develop a behind him. been melted and the limestone has acquired magnesia.14 ABC OF MINING. The cubes of pyrite are not always valueless. he when before he has gone down fifty feet. There are some sixty or seventy elements in the world. may find. He re- quires ability and experience. They have become sulphides. find the granite has or other volcanic products. He Prospecting is a search for valuable minerals. not be very deeply learned in either geology or mineralogy. Without the prospector there would be no mining and the world would yet be in the stone age. and leave the quartz honeycombed. He is not appreciated at anything like his real worth. they may contain gold in addition to the iron and sulphur. that it can only be treated in a smelter. When the pyrites decay under the influence of the weather. In sinking the shaft soon gets below this altered quartz and the ores are then combined with sulphur. because. these cavities often contain concentrated gold. for which reason you often get a higher assay from the surface than from any point lower down in the vein. but he must have a keen eye and good may natural powers of observation.

or but this means of renewal was much in the past by hot springs. Wind. In a few instances famous mines have no veins. but it is quar- .PROSPECTING. while petroleum than it is is all that in remains of vast schools of fishes that seas. rain. has ore that is worth less than four dollars a ton. on Douglas Island. tilted at all have burst through them in places. clay. more powerful now. but owing to subsequent volcanic action they are. The famous Treadwell mine. By this agency. 15 the coloring matter of rocks comes from iron. frost. and heat. The action of internal heat renews different rocks. and carries off the deposits of mineral by eruption. but are literally hills of mineral. swarmed Devonian Stratified rocks are either sand. changed their character. divided them by intrusive masses. In their natural position they were horizontal. points to the theory that the contents of veins were deposited in the lodes by infiltration. or calcareous. and by floating ice. owing the vast quantity of ore. they are then of low grade. snow. Coal is a legacy from forests that flourished ages ago. and generally enriched conceivable angles. but much more remunerative than aver- now known age high grade mines. eruptive rocks The them with mineral Everything deposits. Alaska. in some localities. and distributes the particles. which means lime-bearing. cause a crumbling of the and running water wears them away. Organic matter found in the crust of the earth was derived from animals or vegetables. and the ease with which it can be mined. they are often removed to long distances.

. green or blue for carbonate and red for oxide or metallic copper. over- The outcrop of a vein is never the same as its strike. and none of them has walls. so as to give sufficient fall to get rid of the mineral when it is hoisted. shoot. about a dollar a ton profit. In developing a ledge or lode.16 ABC OF MINING. of the vein. and a good deal of exploration may have to be done before it is of tons are treated annually. it Explore your lode along the surface. first find out what Gold is shown in the mortar. Each of these deposits was found as an outcropping on the bare top of a low hill. and down its dip. especially the ore is. across. The ore often differs in various parts after roasting. by its vivid colors. tests. or not. by assay Silver may be recognized at sight. in Tasmania. The Mount Bischoff. There is ried. A fault may throw the vein up or down. or chimney. and 640 stamps work day and night. will be time enough to think of a vertical The top of a shaft must be timbered with logs. and hundreds of thousands tin mine known as and the Burra copper mim. may be strung out. When you find it continuous shaft. first The more complete thing the prospector has to consider is his this is the better. A lenticular vein consists of a series of double pointed ore bodies like lenses which lapping.in Australia are other instances. A stringer of ore branching off from the main vein is known as a chute. or or blow pipe copper. recovered. but nine- . The outfit. except on a level surface.

One ounce ash. like to have. and the mass should be stirred thoroughly. But most pros- . . deadly poison. should be added. fully all his samples. for two hours if you can stand it. and held over a brisk fire will soon show the yellow If you have no mould you may make color of gold. which will save the precious metal even when it is in minute particles. he can resort to pan-amalgamation. a flask of quicksilver is for. one of clay. put your gold therein with a little borax. he must have. : more precious to him even than gold. and very soon. you will have a tiny ingot of the precious metal. Then. In this he will wash carewell. A pound This process may be described as follows or two of the ore in powder is placed in the pan and water is added until the mass becomes a thin pulp. 17 ty-nine times out of a hundred the difficulties of transportation in a wild region are so enormous that he will have to do without a great many things that he would He must endeavor to make up for the lack of tools by ingenuity then he may get along fairly A pan. Then turn in water and wash off the dirt and the amalgam will be found in the bottom of the pan. having it. This you must collect very carefully.PROSPECTING. You should have a square piece of chamois skin or a piece of strong white cotton cloth. of quicksilver and a small piece of that known to the chemist as cyanide of pot- and as prussic acid to the ordinary man. In either case the amalgam is put in the center of this square and the cloth twisted until all the superfluous quicksilver is pressed out and your amalgam remains nearly This amalgam placed on a shovel free from mercury. the fire being hot enough.

nitrate of cobalt in solution. their pectors are satisfied when they have obtained sponge gold. and do not carry their operations further in these rough and ready tests. five pounds of bone ash. With this outfit he can determine any mineral he may come across. a couple of dozen scorifiers. The prospector of to-day is often a very different man from his predecessor of a generation ago. one cupel mould. By patience and observation the man who starts out . ditto of ammonia. In shovel and pan. a more delicate one showing troy grains and pennyweights. a pouring mould. ditto sulphuric acid.i8 ABC OF MINING. his stead men are now taking the field who have had the benefits of a thorough education. and provided with all the equipment necessary for their work. As a blow pipe outfit he will take a blow pipe. a spirit lamp. a sheet or two of filtering paper and a couple of threeinch glass filters. a 4O-mesh sieve. ditto of hydrotwice as chloric acid. ditto of granulated lead. cyanide of potash. yellow prussiate of potash. The old gold hunter used to sally forth armed with a pick. much alcohol and two pounds or so of gran- ulated zinc. a pint of nitric acid. spirit lamp. and usually a very little grub. five or six pounds of borax and about as much carbonate of soda. together with a pestle a rough scale for pulp. a dozen test tubes. two annealing cups. tongs to handle the cupel and scorifiers. a burro furnace and muffle. Some : of these an outfit somewhat as follows An men carry iron mortar hold- ing half a gallon. both practical and theoretical. red prussiate of potash.

quartzsandstones. and the prospector who finds gold in gravel should seek in the adjacent country for the quartz lodes from which it came. limestones. for it is undoubtedly true that most placer gold has come from quartz veins. however. The most reliable assays are made or by either at the different some of the large government assay offices metallurgical works whose but the world wide. 1 19 to take up prospecting as a road to fortune may easily master the rudiments of his business. may be expected at or about the unconformability where slates. is believed not to be inreputation is life is variably the case. It will not take him long to become familiar with the commoner rocks. a recent school of mineralogists contending that pure masses of alluvial gold have been formed from the accretion or growth of the gold deposited from certain gold salts. This. only the explorer should have courage. and the more valuable ores. and good temper. and in this matter he should be very guarded. hope. for each and every one will be as necessary in his chosen vocation as his pan and pick. . Important deposits line of ites. His own rough tests in the field must be confirmed by competent assayers upon his return to civilization. healthy and full of excitement. This is in any case probably exceptional. schists and other sedi- mentary deposits are pierced by intrusive masses of igneous rocks. When alluvial or placer gold has been found it is reasonable to suppose that the vein from which it was derived may also reward diligent search. shales. Prospecting is hard work.PROSPECTING.

In any case. the cracks that once existed between two known as contact veins. Curiously enough large masses of true igneous rock rarely contain valuable deposits of mineral. on account of the dense growth of forest with which the soil is covered. In an open country the prospector should keep to the hill tops if on the lookout for veins. POCKET LENS. but where such intrusive masses cut dikes or walls of porphyry. but alluvial deposits are only found in valleys and along the borders of streams. Such veins are often very rich. as the outcrops show more distinctly on the bare ridges. much of the northern part of this continent can only be prospected by following the streams. the region is worthy of careful investigation. The true line . or diorite.20 Veins filling ABC OF differing rocks are MINING.

but there is visible to the naked eye more or less iron. more primitive instrument than the pan A is the is is batea. and pan. A good pocket lens. cut off obliquely. shovel. it is well to crush the quartz into coarse fragments. are absolutely necessary to a prospector's proper equipment. 21 of strike of a vein can be determined only on a level The line of strike and the line of dip are always at right angles to one another. the outcrop may stretch. follow the strike or it may not. 2.\ inches the center. cheesecloth screen. much made This requires more skill than the pan. and other base metals. copper. It is made from a black ox horn. and in favor with South American miners. The regular gold miner's pan is 13! inches in diameter across the top. It of hard deep in wood. and is always bright from use. inside measurement. the . The best are made of sheet iron and have a joint around the bottom rim which is of some pick. while.PROSPECTING. A assistance in retaining the spangles of gold. and sloping gradually to nothing at the sides. The pan is the most essential part of the outfit. had these measures not been taken. at least a black one is the best as it shows the gold better. 10 inches across the bottom and 2| inches deep. and small iron pestle and mortar are often useful. The horn spoon has been handed on from antiquity. venient tool over a hot the mortar. When gold is suspected in quartz. 20 inches in diameter. Roast on a shovel or other confire. If and finally pulverize in panned it will now reveal much of its gold. it is eight to ten inches long by three inches wide.

After pulverizing. Thus: Sample is to 2. the ore should be passed through the cheese cloth screen before panning. 20 pounds. although it is not well to fill quite full in actual work. When broken to medium sized lumps 20 cubic feet may be taken as representing a ton. as a false estimate is bound to follow and only too probably eventual loss. and it becomes more and more abun- Above dant as the lode abruptly.22 A HC OF MIXING. is equal to four cents. About 13 cubic feet of quartz weigh a ton before being disturbed. is approached that until it finally ceases This indicates the vein has been reached or passed. it is better for the tyro to have a small pair of scales with grain weights. Float is detached fragments of the vein or gangue. If the approximate value of the ore is sought. The float and mineral of course drift down hill. and a trench dug throughout the alluvial soil at right angles to the assumed line of the vein will probably reveal it.000 Ibs. A yard of gravel before being dug makes one and A pan of dirt is usually about a half yards afterwards. if tolerably pure. grain of gold. as gold found is to Ans. sample might have given negative results and been declared valueless. Many a valuable mine has been found by following up "float" ore. and the resulting gold weighed. A all things avoid the too common error of panning the pick of the rock. Al- though experience teaches the miner to estimate very closely the value of his sample. the sample must be dried and weighed before crushing. if the side of the mountain be .

level these veins run to sulphides in which decomposition has not set in. Much gold is derived from copper and iron pyrites. known as "gossan" or the "iron hat.PROSPECTING. and a tent of one-fifth. silver." i. from that hill. the atmosphere has acted upon the iron pyrites. will not give up its gold to mercury without a preliminary treatment. is and the gold contained in the quartz no longer "free milling. that is to say. but concave the force of gravity will concentrate it within a narrow space in the ravine. steel malleable. almost invariably contains sometimes to the ex- A little pector to recognize it. Gold is almost always found in this last matrix. by oxide of iron. encourage mining opera- Native gold is hammer." Such quartz is Below the water frequently honeycombed and rotten. The gangue or vein-rock in Which the metal is found may be calcite if or calc spar. saddle-shaped the float will spread out like a fan as 23 it washes down. as a rule. e. freeing the sulphur and staining the quartz This is yellow. The upper parts of most quartz lodes are usually oxidized. as it is almost certain that below the oxidized sulphides a body of mineral exists likely to tions. fluor spar. Whenever the explorer comes across a mass of gossan he should sink a trial shaft to the vein. . Float found at the foot of a hill has come. red. heavy spar or baryta. or quartz. The nearer the vein the less worn will be the edges of the float and mineral. practice will enable the prosfor there is but one king metal. or brown. will flatten out under the It knife will cut it with ease.

Gold is gravel of every variety. Sand is nearly always poorer than gravel. but ninety-nine times out of a hundred the richest layer of gravel is just above the bed rock the gravel rests. gravity is It is very fortunate that gold's specific less its so great. There is one thing. for were difficult. time. however. canic eruptions have covered these deposits since the ancient rivers laid them down. Gold may even be the grass roots'. and and lead ores are a very large source of found in supply. and not in the deep pools and bends. When the gold frequently penetrates the bed rock consists of upturned slates it for some little distance.24 ABC OF silver MINING. . that nature can afford to expend in prodigious periods. especially in dry localities where there has been little water to carry it downall upon which found among ward. and in many cases their courses do not in the least agree with the valleys of the shrunken streams that have replaced them. be much more The sluices recovery would and other appa- ratus of the miner are really nothing but the operations of nature imitated on a much smaller scale. The experience of miners in the Victoria gold is fields that gold is always found on the bars >r points. from finest Sometimes volpipe-clay to boulders weighing tons. The great difficulty with which any but the very finest particles of gold can be moved by water accounts for the value of the deposits depending largely upon it the local rocks. while man must not waste a single minute. Gold may be distributed through the whole thick- ness of a bed.

for even gold may be bought too dear. It 25 not being possible to point out where the ancient lie. etc. drill hole sunk less than 50 feet below the old work- A ings revealed a pocket of ore in the vein.. smothered as they are by hundreds of drift. and the lode cross-cut by galleries in more than one spot. The surest test is a mill run. and other later deposits. is the only feasible plan a series of boring with the dia- mond When gold has been discovered the finder must act with the greatest prudence. True sampling necessary. "Quartz mining is for rich men. It is the very great necessity of these expensive preparatory explorations that has given rise to the saying. that is passing 10 to 50 tons through all the operations of crushing.PROSPECTING. and paying quartz was found for many hundred feet below. All parts of the vein should be included. With the improvements in electricity made recently a cheap power has been provided that will permit many . roasting. drifts and rises. and so ascertaining what returns are likely to be obtainable when the deposit is is worked on a commercial scale. In one instance that came to the writer's knowledge a clever mining engineer cleared nearly $200. amalgamating. lava. river bed's feet of overlying drill." gold mines have been abandoned as unprofitmined at a profit had their owners been wealthy and enterprising enough to do Many able that could have been a great deal of expensive prospecting by diamond drill.000 profit by leasing for a term of years a gold mine that was supposed to be exhausted. milling. cross cuts.

tralian squatter picked For instance. These mines. mines to be reopened. after the plant is once installed the cost is almost where turbines can be employed to furnish the power to the generators. The first diamond from South Africa was picked up by an ignorant bush boy and kept with a lot of worthless pebbles in the private collection of the boy's master. a South Ausup a piece of copper ore that a wombat had thrown out of his burrow. Gold was first discovered in California in 1848 by the superintendent of a sawmill who saw it glistening in the flume. no suspicion existed of its value until a passing trader had carried it away and obtained $2. Minnesota. he merely stumbled upon his luck just as the wayfarer once in a while hits his toe against a well-filled pocketbook.26 ABC OF MINING. Machinery capable of delivering power at a distance of several miles from the plant. and the result was the discovery of the great Wallaroo lode. Similarly gold was discovered in both Australia and Brazil by the purest chance. Discoveries of many deposits that have in time been No skill successfully mined were the result of chance. Had not a been uprooted by the wind the vast deposits of Biwabic iron mines of the Mesabi range. guided the finder. may be operated at very reasonable cost as comnil pared to that of other prime movers. which may some day tree soft hematite iron ore in the . might have remained unknown for many a long year to come.500 for it in Cape- town. The saving in working expenses effected by introducing electricity is often very large. In the desolate region to the northward of Lake Huron great stores of nickel ore exist.

chance entering into a mathe other hand.PROSPECTING. Certain minerals are likely to be found associated. and galena may occupy the same vein. were discovered by the accidental uprooting of a bush having spangles of silver ore attached to its roots. were exposed in a railway cutting. The worked Broken Hill mine in Australia it is was claimed as a tin deposit by its finder. is also found with wolfram.000. that purely scientific deductions and calculations have brought to light stores of mineral wealth. ducer in Australasia. the search for one mineral often leads to the discovery of another. On has happened. it jority of mineral discoveries. This was in 1538.000 was taken. and two hundred years later a similar streak of luck revealed the wealth of the Catorce district of Mexico. epidote and hornblende. Magnetite is often accompanied by rocks con- Zinc blend taining garnet. Tradition relates that the enormously rich silver mines of Potosi. from which in thirty years. first The Comstock lode was for gold. Moreover. all containing fluorine.000 to the ton. Cassiterite goes with boron and tourmaline. It fluor spar and lithia-mica. no one dreamed of their existence. and the miners threw away the black sulphide of silver worth $3. now Such the greatest silver proinstances could be multi- plied almost indefinitely. ore to the value of $35. topaz. chlorite and arsenical pyrites. 27 regulate the price of the metal all the world over. which is likely . in Bolivia. not infrequently. fornia The Redington quicksilver mine in Caliwas discovered by some roadmakers.

and red stains iron. outcrop. to be of baryta or heavy spar. cinnabar or quicksilver. quartz. yellow or white. green. his curiosity having been aroused by the delicate green coating given the rocks by an ore containing water. Copper gives green. decomposed and detached mineral.28 ABC OF MINING. galena. . and copper pyrites. stood 20 erals. blue. black Any . pink. nickel and magnesium. stibnite and tetrahedrite. surrounding above the surface. mineral deposits from springs. mispickel. of shale still and a decompose on the surface into more noticeable change is the con- version of ores containing sulphur into oxides. trict special bright coloration of the rocks of a dismerits investigation. cobalt. Much galena carries silver." for which token of underlying wealth the prospector should be eternally watchful. The Rainbow feet silver bearing lode of Montana. Gold is associated with many metallic sul- phides such as iron. red or brown manganese. outcrop often stands up like a wall and miles. Hard beds soft clay. level. vermilion. This alteration may ex- . color. This chemical change causes the gossan or "iron hat. Surface indications may be described as: Form of ground. blend. Soft minare cut into and sunk below the Deposits of Kaolin or China clay are usually so found. . altered or peculiar vegetation and other similar guides. A is hard quartz traceable for Butte. Caledonia were made plorer The known nickel deposits of New to the world by the ex- Gamier in 1863. lead. Gyp- sum accompanies salt. magnetic. such as clay.

white. ke- The of gold ore in the gossan it is very generally more valuthis is especially true set free it able than will be below. Seams containing native sulphur often show no trace of that element on the surface. under similar condiand likewise amalgamates without difficulty. cuprite. Galena becomes anglesite. 29 downward but in four or five hundred feet from the sur- such cases the true weathering has ceased is long before the limit of discoloration the change of substance is due to the face waters reached. Veins of asbestos often decompose into a white powder found in the crevices of the rocks existing in the interior. and filtering of sur- through the vein. Copper pyrite changes into native copper. pyromorphite and mimetite. . arsenate. having weathered into a soft. rargyrite and embolite. manganese gives the black oxides and ores are.PROSPECTING. tend face. fibrous asbestos pools. Gossan varies greatly in its nature. gray or yellowish-white granular. The gold having been oxidation. variety of gypsum. Silver it from the close embrace previous to the tions which the iron pyrite held is latter's now readily caught by quicksilver. and in and silver ores. malachite. becomes chloride. or perhaps into a phosCarbonate of phate. cerussite. silver sulphide known as native silver. chessylite. or pulverulent. melaconite. after weathering. or silicate of the metal. "dipping-needle" is still A valuable to the prospector on . Petroleum shows in an iridescent film upon and the odor is a sure guide to its nature.

The prospector must. fully. Pick. As he compass over the ground the needle dips toward any iron mass he approaches. For in the unsettled parts of the country must even yet rely to some extent upon and game he may be able to secure. have such general knowledge of geol- ogy and mineralogy as to be able to recognize all valuable minerals and confirm his conjecture by simple MINER'S DIPPING NEEDLE. ability to build a rough boat is often the one hope of salvation. shotgun and paddle must also be understood. the lookout for iron ore. Knowing how to bake bread is sometimes more valuthe traveler the fish able than much mathematics. . directly over the carries the ore it becomes vertical.30 ABC OF MINING. shovel and pan must be handled skillwhile the rifle. tests. moreover. and every old prospector becomes a trained hunter and camper. In a wilderness country strength of body and en- durance are important qualificatfons. by its use he may discover masses of magnetic ore and trace their extent.

will give sufficient light. this condition obtains in the upper Yukon district as concerned. barren portions. it will probably be found to hold good for the quartz leads. Where quartz veins are small and the rich pockets separated by wide intervals of poor gangue the gravel As of the district will usually be similar in character. in schists i In slates the proportion may be 22 gold to I it has been known to be a ratio of to i. inclined at a suitable angle over the shaft. With the discovery of valuable gold-bearing gravel on the bare hillsides of the Northwest. The more nearly the gold formation approaches to far as the gravels are the crystalline schists. 31 In sinking a short shaft in a sunny country a large mirror. but they appear character to the higher gold-bearing gravels of the to be somewhat similar in New Zealand terraces. pecting requires perseverance and the Terrace-prosuse of some . the poorer will the quality of the gold be through the larger percentage of silver found in it.PROSPECTING. a vast region has been added to the area the prospector to advantage. Gold is never distributed evenly in veins. may explore experience acquired in ordinary American placer grounds is likely to be of much use No in detecting these Yukon. silver. wEen they shall have been discovered. Lodes or veins following the general trend of the auriferous quartz are much more likely to be rich than are those that cross it. though it may be in great beds of low grade material but more often rich areas alternate with .

32

ABC OF

MINING.

brains, as it is infinitely harder than creek-prospecting. These terraces or benches are the remains of old river

beds.

The whole bench must be
is

over because the gold
part as in the other.

carefully scanned quite as likely to be in one Sometimes it is in half a dozen

Sometimes the different layers one above the other. old river terraces are entirely covered by landslides,
and the majority of such deposits are not
likely ever

DOLLY.
to be found, as
tions.
it is

almost impossible to guess at loca-

In

New

Zealand gold has been found on table-lands

nearly 6,000 feet above sea level, and according to recent information valuable claims have been discov-

ered in Alaska on the very summits of the rounded hills on each side of El Dorado creek.

To understand how such deposits as those of the Northwest may have been made, suppose that such a vein as that of the Idaho, which has been worked for a depth 1,700 feet by a width of 1,000 feet, and

PROSPECTING.

33

from which $17,000,000 have been taken, to have been worn down by glacial or other forces. Is it not conceivable that the gold would gradually have accumulated in the nearest

canyon?
is

To

obtain suitable samples of the vein a dolly

an

efficient apparatus.
is practically a very simple, crude, stamp mill. the end of a solid log, firmly fixed in the ground and standing four feet or so above the surface, a square

This

On

6-inch hole

3 inches deep
intervals.

fitted' wrought iron bars by ^ inch wide, and separated by equal These bars taper below so as to permit free
is

cut in which are

passage of the pounded mineral. A wooden box surblock rounding the grating keeps the ore in place.

A

The wood, shod with iron, forms the stamper. miner hauls on the handles at every blow. The gold is saved on the lower table. No one of experience in mining would look for brown hematite in a granite range, nor for black band, though such might be a likely region for red hematite
of

or magnatite.

The explorer should be familiar in theory at least with the locality where he may expect to find valuable minerals. For instance, should he be searching for
some heavy, detached substance
in placer deposits

that is usually found keep to the low ground and examine carefully the beds of the streams. On the other hand, should his quest be for some ore that is more properly a component of a lode or vein he will examine the side hills and summits where denudation Then he will certainly have exposed such deposits.

he

will

34

.

ABC OF

MINING.

must know the appearance of each ore, and with the methods of making rough and ready tests he must be
perfectly familiar.

Gold is always more or less intimately associated with quartz. Oxide of tin is said never to have been found more than two miles from some granite rock,
one of the components of which was muscovite or white mica. The junction of slates and schists with
igneous or metamorphic rocks often proves a valuable
find of mineral.

Rocks for the purposes of the explorer may be grouped under three heads: Igneous; metamorphic;
stratified. The first includes lavas; trachytes, grayish with rough fracture and mainly glassy; dark basalts; and traps, such as greenstone. Obsidian is a volcanic

been

Metamorphic rocks are thought to have once but to have been altered by heat. They comprise granite, of quartz feldspar and mica; syenite,
glass.
stratified,

containing hornblende instead of mica; gneiss,
granite, but made up of

like

showing lines of stratification; mica schist, mica and quartz and separating easily into
from water, such

layers; slates. Stratified rocks are those deposits as sandstone, limestone, clay, etc.

A prospecting shaft
One 4
feet

need not be of large dimensions.

to 30 feet,

square is amply large for any depth but it must be kept plumb.
shafts are

down

Sometimes
panning

in alluvial gravel,

without

sunk through the pay streak it being detected. Frequent

will guard against this mistake. In the Klondike region it is said early prospectors

this condition obtains in the upper Yukon district as concerned. With the discovery of valuable gold-bearing gravel on the bare hillsides of the Northwest. silver. Lodes or veins following the general trend of the auriferous quartz are much more likely to be rich than are those that cross it. in schists i In slates the proportion may be 22 gold to I it has been known to be a ratio of to i. Gold is never distributed evenly in veins. the poorer will the quality of the gold be through the larger percentage of silver found in it. will give sufficient light. 31 In sinking a short shaft in a sunny country a large mirror.PROSPECTING. may explore experience acquired in ordinary American placer grounds is likely to be of much use No in detecting these Yukon. inclined at a suitable angle over the shaft. barren portions. though it may be in great beds of low grade material but more often rich areas alternate with . wEen they shall have been discovered. it will probably be found to hold good for the quartz leads. Where quartz veins are small and the rich pockets separated by wide intervals of poor gangue the gravel As of the district will usually be similar in character. pecting requires perseverance and the Terrace-prosuse of some . but they appear character to the higher gold-bearing gravels of the to be somewhat similar in New Zealand terraces. a vast region has been added to the area the prospector to advantage. The more nearly the gold formation approaches to far as the gravels are the crystalline schists.

the south pole is drawn down. along the line of at- traction. positive attraction is found. reasonable to conclude that the vein begins with the attraction there. positive attraction is first observed to come on gradually. An attraction which continues on steadily in the direction of the strike of the rock for a distance of many feet or rods. ore or particles of magnetite with rock. The ore may a lies. still it is in the same direction. that is according to its . If. If the attraction diminishes in going northwest. indicates a vein of ore. and the northwest edge of the vein west. change of attraction will be less marked as the depth of the vein is greater. in passing towards the northwest. attraction is strength or vary in its susceptibility to the magnetic influence from impurities in its substance. or as the strike is nearer north and south. it indicates that the vein has continued on without break or ending until too far off to move the compass needle. it does vary according to the position in which it The steadiness and continuance of the much better indication of ore than the amount of the attraction. it indicates the end of the vein or an offset. "In crossing veins of ore from southwest to northwhen the dip of the rock and ore is as usual to the southeast. is indicated by the needle suddenly showing negative This attraction just at the point of passing off it. there is no indication as to the continuance of the ore. and finally dies out without becoming negative.36 ABC OF MINING. but if no attraction shown. If. est and if it is it is positive and strong- towards the southwest. shows that the vein is not ended. on continuing further.

ing to its distance beneath the surface. and carried quite this down to the rock. dip and 37 also varies very much accordstrike. exploration with the magnetic remains to prove the value of the vein by uncovering the ore. In this way materials may soon be accumulated for map staking out the line of attraction." Further instructions are given in the paper from and it which the foregoing extract was taken." . and marking the points upon which observations have been made. Then the ground should be examined more carefully by crossing the line of attraction at intervals of a few feet. or for constructing a for study or reference. some of which follow "It : is sufficient to say that the first examinations are in made by passing over the ground with the compass a northwest and southwest direction. ing the size of the vein. examining its quality. and the variation of the horizontal needle be noted. folds. When the ore is in way proved to be of value regular mining may beIn places where there are offsets in the ore. or it has been subject to bends. and estimating the cost of mining and marketing it. where regularities. at intervals of a few rods. and recording the amount of attraction. so that the miner is at fault in what direc- tion to proceed. or other ir- gin. Observations with the ordinary compass should be made. Uncovering should first be done in trenches dug across the line of attraction. measur"After sufficient it still needle. until indications of ore are found.PROSPECTING. explorations may be made with the diamond drill.

Chemical Composition tested by the blowpipe. CHAPTER II. Specific Gravity as compared with that of water. Cleavage. Hardness. HOW TO TEST FOR MINERALS.38 ABC OF MINING. Odor. Color and Streak. Luster. however. Transparency or otherwise. Fracture. Taste. in the case of a mineral difficult to determine. considers all the following properties: Crystalline form and structure. once acquired. science of crystallography is extremely complicated and long study is necessary to master it. Pyrognostic characters as determined by the use of Mode of occurrence and associated minerals. According to Dana there are six systems. When the mineralogist wishes to know the names of the specimen he holds in his hand. Tenacity. analysis. Unfortunately the Crystalline Form and Structure. it is of paramount usefulness to the student. to one of which every crystal may be referred. They are: . he.

and bohedral division. . (2) Tetragonal. They are regarded forms of the corresponding hexagonal crystals. the lateral axis. In the triclinic system there are three unequal axes and these intersections are all oblique. three equal axes inclined to each other at angles 60 degrees in a common horizontal plane. while the third. intersecting at angles of 1 20 degrees in the vertical axis. Physical Mineralogy. the hexagonal system properly so-called. interrupted. In the isometric system there are three equal axes at right angles to each other. Two of these are equal. is inclined to the vertical. The student who wishes to pursue this subject further should consult Dana's System of Mineralogy. and a fourth vertical axis at right angles. All forms are referred its rhomfour to axes. Cleavage is the line of easiIt may be perfect. . 39 Isometric. There are two divisions of the hexagonal system. The rhombohedral division comprises crystals having but three planes of symmetry. or vertical angle. In the tetragonal system there are three axes at right angles to each other. (4) Orthorhombic clinic. (3) Hexagonal or Rhom(6) Tri- bohedral. and longer or shorter. imest separation in a mineral. perfect. In the orthorhombic system there are three unequal axes at right angles to each other. of which one. while the angles between the others are right angles. is longer or shorter. etc. as half In the monoclinic system there are three unequal axes.HOW TO TEST FOR MINERALS. (5) Monoclinic.

Scratches glass with ease. Topaz. Is diffi- cult to scratch 7. and does not scratch glass. 9. in turn would be rated at 7. any mineral that scratched quartz and is soft enough to be scratched by topaz. Scratches any other substance. Scratched by the ringer nail. 3. or elastic. 2. cleavage Fracture. referring to any surface except that of a fall. at a tern- . Corundum. readily scratches glass. hackly (rough). Fluorite.5. Is re. but with difficulty. For instance. coin Apatite. Scratches glass. but with more difficulty. Talc. may be uneven. Hardness may be intermediate.40 ABC OF MINING. other substances compared with that of water. Tenacity refers to such qualities as malleable.adily 6. The scale in general ore was devised by Mohs. Diamond. It is particularly valuable in determining heavy metals. 8. Harder. brittle. Will not scratch a copper coin. It is: 1. To find the specific gravity of any solid body divide its weight in air by the loss of weight in water. Quartz. Cannot be scratched by a knife and Harder. conchoidal (shell-like). Calcite. Feldspar. 10. Hardness is represented by the difficulty with which a smooth surface is scratched. This is the density of mineral and Specific Gravity. Ditto. flexible. scratched by a knife. Is not scratched by a copper 4. sectile. etc. Scratched by a copper coin. 5. Gypsum. by knife.

however. Transparency. etc. dull. the Pyrognostic Characters. are often detected by their odor. Mode nation. resinous. Color and Streak.HOW TO TEST FOR MINERALS. Chemical Composition. opaque. viz: Splendent'. for the necessary apparatus cannot. grees of intensity of luster recognized. hydrogen is Luster. This may always be determined by suitable tests with reagents. taken as the unit. sub- transparent. such as nitrogen. As a means of readily determining the nature of a specimen the blowpipe is unrivalled if in the hands of one who understands it.. of the yel- There are five deresins. low shining. A . glimmering. sweet. of occurrence and associated minerals. pearly. In the case of gases. silky. Minerals may be transparent. of broken glass. glistening. 41 perature as near 60 degrees F. adamantine. rule. Taste. bitter. This test is is not of much All use with most min- erals until heat petroleum oils. as a Whenever possible. oxygen. Odor. viz: Me- the luster of metals. tallic. Minerals may be salt. The streak is the color of the powder of the mineral when rubbed on unglazed por- celain. or scratched with a knife. translucent. and the quotient will equal the specific gravity. applied. sub-translucent. as possible. etc. that of the diamond. greasy. There are seven kinds of luster. vitreous. A knowledge of these matters often assists in a determi- regular fire assay is not within reach of many prospectors. be carried in the wilderness.

It should take 10 ounces in each pan. "Notes on Assaying" by Dr. especially silver. in the case of SCALE FOR WEIGHING ORE. and show I A -20 of a grain. weighing and tabulating. assay gives the truest results. reduction and fusion. The operation includes testing the ore. inquartation and parting the gold and silver. a fire ABC OF gold and MINING. . A TOLERABLY COMPLETE OUTFIT CLUDES: IN- pair of scales for weighing ore and buttons of base metal. distillation and sublimation. sampling and pulverizing. Ricketts is a very useful manual to have at hand. weighing the ore and reagents. calcination and roasting. scorification and cupellation.42 however.

I Troy milligramme. it should show -20 of a milligramme. tbs. though furnaces may be built of silver the assay gives indicates . metric and "assay.HOW TO A i TEST FOR MINERALS. portable and of medium size. weigh out one A. A muffle and a melting furnace. 2000 I A. as follows: Its derivation ASSAY BALANCE FOR BULLION. Loaded with one gramme. T. of the ore : : : : To and whatever number milligrammes of gold and an equal number of Troy ounces to the ton of 2000 Ibs. troy. I oz. Assay weights save much The unit of the a weight of 29. use this system. Avoirdupois. 43 bullion scale to be kept strictly for the precious metals. system is is Avoirdupois. are handy." calculation.166 grammes. T. Weights.

charcoal. lined with fire brick.44 ABC OF MINING. anthracite or bituminous coal. PORTABLE ASSAY FURNACE. that better for permanent use. . oil or gas. would be of ordinary brick. The fuels may be coke.

of the ashes of burnt bone.HOW TO TEST FOR MINERALS. Hessian sand. and quicklime are necessary to hold the assay. . French clay. Roasting di&hes. Crucibles of black lead. CRUCIBLES. scorifiers and cupels are required. Hessian. and it The cupel is made SCORIFIER STEEL CUPEL MOULD. French Clay.

of lead. and allowed to dry slowly. good one will absorb its own weight A SCORIFICATION MOULD. stamped in a cupel mould. a couple . The crucible. but it is better to calculate on its absorbing but three-quarters of that amount. with water. as the bone ash anywhere without damage. the spot.40 is ABC OF better to MINING. scorification and cupel tongs. whereas the cupels are very fragile. The bone ash is moistened make them on may be carried SCORIFICATION FURNACE.

iron pestle and mortar. 47 hammers. and scorification mould complete the requi- site tools. with glass stopordinary corked bottles. New York pers.HOW TO of TEST FOR MINERALS. ALCOHOL. LAMP. reagents and chemicals. the assayer will require quite a bulky lot of apparatus. HAMMER. sieves from 20 to 100 mesh. and a HORN full SPOON. In addition. and complete assortment will cost about $200 in or Chicago. All dealers keep lists of assayers' supplies on hand. alcohol STEEL MORTAR. . Quart bottles. ring stands. however.

recommended for blow-pipe as litharge. yellow prussiate of potash. charcoal. . carbonate of ammonia and common salt are necessary. as well. iron pans. being mostly a matter of rule of thumb. A preliminary examination will show what the ore difficult. test tubes. chloride of sodium. powdered lime. such borax (crystallized). pure lead. and tested separately. cyanide of potassium. nitric and hydrochloric acids. though to the skilled assayer often unnecessary. horn spoons. distilled water. nitrate of silver and sulphu- hydrogen are also indispensable. Dry reagents. all regular assay work must be postponed until retted . The ore is first powdered. bottles. where means of transport is limited. the outfit provided the assayer has. glazed black paper these will suffice. it may be indeed. TESTTUBE. however. This will seem rather a formidable list. and any metallic flakes picked out fair sample must be selected. although such knowledge will never come amiss. the return to civilization. annealing cups. A otherwise result all the work will be thrown away and the be valueless. argol. metallic iron. starch. probably is. nitre. under certain conditions. sulphur. parting flasks. The blow-pipe is especially useful. As solvents and precipitants. silica.ABC OF lamps. and so. work. sulphuric. Assaying is not. wash MINING. and correct results may be arrived at without a deep knowledge of chemistry.

Hammer the button into a cube 4 mass has become minutes. The powder Moisture is drawn should be stirred frequently. After fusing. Roasting will eliminate sulphur. crush in mortar and pass through a fine sieve. silver must be separated from gold. at a pinch. To test an ore for gold. Next pour and place it in the cupel. remove it with a hammer. it is sometimes convenient to increase its proportion by the addition of some known weight of the inferior metal. Cupellation. Scorification consists in placing the ore in an open dish with proper reagents. Place in scorifier with an equal amount of litharge.. 49 weighing the ore and the reagents. which must first have . the globule is placed in nitric acid. and the silver parted from the gold. collects them in the bone ash. etc. which may then be weighed. a low heat being sufficient. Cover with borax that has been melted and powdered. antimony. Take onefourth ounce Troy of the powder. This result subtracted from the weight of When the original globule gives the amount of silver. and. arsenic. after the slag has set. so that the air may have free access. A blacksmith's forge might do Heat until the a fluid. and collecting all the volatile ingredients in the slag. off by heating in a crucible. take a pound of it. and must take place in a "flat dish. on the other hand. possibly twenty or thirty into the scorification mould. of which the cupel is composed. and put the scorifier in the muffle of the furnace.HOW TO The next step is TEST FOR MINERALS. Reduction is the operation of removing oxygen. and it takes place usually in a crucible or scorifier.

the metal well fused and clean." e. during the second. in the scorification process. Brittle buttons may be due must be Take ting. and re-scorified before cupellation. and you have the amount of gold and silver in Bounce Troy. the heat should be moderate until During the first. zinc. been thoroughly heated.SO ABC OF MINING. cool. show assay. There are three stages roasting. the muffle too hot. with more lead.. zinc or litharge. Lead that is poor On in silver stands the highest heat without vitiating the i." or flashed. the cupel slowly from the fire to avoid "spitof the by which portions buttons are lost. antimony. A simple sum in proportion gives the amount in a ton. fumes cease to be given off. the heat is raised and a play of colors is seen on the surface of the lead. Watch fle is closely for the brightening. in the closing stage. antimony. the fumes rising slowly. dense. and remove the button with pincers. remove the cupel to the front of the muffle. fusion. all is If going smoothly. and the cupel a cherry red. when this occurs. the other hand. arsenic. Weigh it. Heat until all the base metal has been absorbed by the cupel and the button has "brightened. Silver is volatile at a high heat. All ores containing sulphur. but when the muf- almost white. is the fumes rise rapidly. the heat is lowered for a time until the slag covers the lead. or should be roasted." to arsenic. When the material in the cupel "freezes. when it is again raised for a short time and the scorifier removed. the . falling fumes the temperature is too low. and scorification.

and places it in the pan with water. puzzles nobody but the ignoramus. True. but if you place this precipitate in a crucible and heat. he swirls the water around.HOW TO TEST FOR MINERALS. most prospectors seek so enormously valuable and constitutes so very small a percentage of any ore. The only remedy powder. aqua regia. giving more heat or more lead. made up of three parts of hydrochloric acid and one part of nitric acid. the latter may be coated with some sulphur or arsenic. although it does not look like it. while mica will break roasting. If an ore contains sulphurets and gold. for this is lead would. as it is brown in color. 51 absorption by the cupel stops. so there is no excuse for confounding the two. He crushes his ore thor- oughly. that care must be taken or it may escape detection and be lost. until finally he has a little black sand and perhaps a few grains of yellow substance. with a motion easy to learn but difficult to describe. gold. you will get a precipitate which metallic gold. No as but a solution known single acid will dissolve gold. just as up into a floury Mica is very light. you will get a yellow bead of pure gold. but gold will beat out thin under the hammer. Another test for gold is to take the solution . PanGold. carrying with it the rubbish. If to the solution so obtained you add some sulphate is of iron. or fool's gold. it looks like gold in certain positions and lights. while gold is very heavy. reject the assay and try again. then. Practically. which would prevent the gold from amalgamating. Mica. which is gold. dissolves it. the metal is It is ning is the miner's method. allowing a little of it to escape at each revolution.

weigh out two pounds. and agitate until the mercury has been able to reach all to lose Pan off into another dish so as the gold. hydrochloric acid and potassium The action is more chlorate. of chlo- above obtained and add thereto a solution ride of tin. it is not acted upon by nitric acid. squeeze the amalgam through chamois leather or new calico previously wetted. The pill of hard amalgam may be placed on a shovel over the fire or in a clay tobacco pipe and retorted. four ounces of soda and a half gallon of boiling water. Stir with a green stick. Gold may be distinguished from all other metals by the three following tests: It is yellow. or by any solution producing chlorine. four ounces of salt.52 as ABC OF when you MINING. with four ounces of mercury. rapid in hot than in cold solutions. nitrate of soda and common salt. Gold is readily acted upon by the mixture of nitric and hydrocloric acids known as aqua regia. Some of the mixtures which attack it are bisulphate of soda. Pounded passed should be mortar. it must be roasted before washing in the pan and amalgamating. Pure gold it is soft. and impure gold is more Mercury easily dissolved than pure. Sample well. the pulverized mineral through a cheese-cloth screen stretched over a loop of wood. dissolves gold rapidly at ordinary tempera- . If the course contains much pyrite. no mercury. obtain a purple coloration that has been called the purple of Cassius. put it in a black iron pan. it may be flattened by the hammer. and bleaching powder. and the point of a knife in a will scratch deeply.

veins from which the gold of the world won on an average. and then the tube is partly filled with a solution made by dissolving 20 gr.. lose all their one-tenth of I mercury. one part of gold in 15. Under favorable conditions a proportion not one-fifth as rich as this. etc. the spirit lamp. This is powdered in a steel mortar and well mixed.. hold the precious metal in greater proportion than one part of gold in 70. rubbed with mercury An amalgam is immediately penetrated by containing 90 per cent of mercury is 85 per cent. and hardly any gold. pasty.5 per cent. crystalline. It is next placed upon a piece of platinum foil held in a pincers. After all particles have subsided. 53 amalgam Gold it. allow it to remain for a moment then let it drain. 87.000 not. A able test known as Darton's is believed to be a valu- means of detecting minute quantities of gold in all rocks. The mixture thus formed is of rock. a dividend. About half is placed in a capacious test tube.HOW TO tures. pasty or liquid. may yield a rich return. ore tailings. bright red heat liquid. dip a piece of fine White filter paper in it. In hydraulic mining on a large scale. and heated to redness . These amalgams heated gradually to a. in about i^ ounces water. of iodine and 30 gr. "Small parts are chipped from the sides of a mass about | ounce.000 parts of gravel has paid parts of veinstone.000. amounting in all to shaken and warmed. the TEST FOR MINERALS. and dry it over . being solid. of mercury remains in the is gold until The do it is refined by melting. of iodide of potassium. About per cent.

. ABC OF The paper MINING. If gold is present. etc. and evaporate the which will throw formed proto-sulphate of iron down the gold in the form of a fine. gold is present in the ore. it is allowed to cool and is then examined. method as applicable to such a case: "Take 100 to 1000 grains and attack with aqua regia in a flask cool for about thirty minutes or more dilute with water and filter. This method takes little time.. The precipitate is seldom fine. evaporate and re-dissolve the dry salt in warm water add to the solution so filtrates to . cupellation. is speedily consumed. and the relative amount may be approximately deduced. and both burned over the lamp in a porcelain dish. He states: . it will . stamped ore. If at all purple. dark precipitate." Black sand.. are found associated with the gold.54 over the flame. now filter be held in solution in the filtrate. etc. and must now be dried in the filter paper. an extra amount of fine silver should be added before Then mix the weight of lead. dried precipitate with three times its fuse. then add a little hydrochloric acid. and burn off all carbon. etc. sometimes interferes with the result of a after again heating to Attwood recommends the following gold assay. often with some platinum and iridium. iridium. and is trustworthy. In case platinum. scorify and cupel. which is iron. and the gold button will be found pure. ." In one of his reports the State Mineralogist of California gives a most lucid description of a mechanical assay of gold-bearing sands. being mixed with oxides of iron. Remove the dryness.

Two of the piles pile is may then be put into bags. then shovel into three piles. taking up the fine dust with the larger fragments. as shown by a careful fire assay. As the quantity on the floor be- comes smaller. and with a shovel mix very thoroughly. and passed through a 4O-mesh sieve. It is really milling on a small scale. Take a quantity of the ore the larger the better and break it into egg-sized pieces. It is generally very correct and reliable. until the last pile does not contain more than 30 pounds of ore. generally well understood themselves of the instructions. This quantity is then ground down fine with the muller. floor. is The remainder reduced by a hammer and iron ring to the size of peas. The whole 30 pounds is then spread out. if a quantity of material be sampled. and practical miner. piles. that this is 55 must be understood It only a working does not give all the gold in the rock. it gives what he can reasonably expect to save in a good quartz mill. and after careful mixing portions are lifted with a flat knife. by those who are most likely to avail These rules apply equally to placer gravels. the lumps must be broken finer until at last they should not exceed one inch in diameter. but what is of equal importance to the mine-owner. If the rock . The remaining before. Spread on a good floor. until about 10 pounds have been gathered. TEST FOR MINERALS.HOW TO "It test. mill-man. placing one shovelful upon each in succession until all is dis- posed of. spread on the in the mixed as and shovelled This is same manner into three repeated according to the quantity sam- pled. The only operation which requires much skill is the washing.

when the pan and the small residue are cleaned. a rotary motion is given the dish. poured off. the mercury is all dissolved the acid is nitric acid applied cold. and rejected. As the cyanide dissolves. in a batea. ABC OF MINING. and the whole thoroughly mixed. sieve. "From the thoroughly-mixed sample. and which if water is first used. and. is immediately precipitated . under the influence of the cyanide particles of free gold. This is placed in a pan or. two kilogrammes (2000 grammes) must be carefully laid out. a piece of cyanide of potassium being added with it. which will not pass this These must be placed with the pulverized ore. but if large must be treated separately. best done by holding the arms stiff and moving the body. As the mercury rolls over and ploughs through the sand. and carefully washed down until the gold begins to appear. and the amount of gold allotted to the whole 10 pounds and noted when the final calculation is made. When the collected. Clean water is then used. some the last portion will be found to contain free gold in flattened discs.56 is rich. most of the water is poured off and a globule of pure mercury (which must be free from gold) is dropped in. better. it will collect it together all the is When is certain that all mercury may be carefully transferred to a small porcelain cup or test tube. if the quantity is small. and boiled with strong nitric acid. which must be pure. "The object of w-ashing with acid the second time is to remove any nitrate of mercury which might remain with the gold. more and the gold is then washed \vith distilled water and dried.

57 "The resulting gold is not pure.HOW TO TEST FOR MINERALS.072 gramme. and the fresh edges drawn over the touchstone.70. or one 2OOOth part of the whole. made by mixing 98 parts of chemically pure nitric acid . Suppose the ore yielded by the assay just described. dried. It be observed that 2000 grammes represent a ton of 2000 pounds. and the decimals of a gramme to the decimals of a pound.46 x . Should no reaction follow. as gold is slightly soluble in strong solutions of cyanide of potassium. boiled twice with nitric acid. The cyanide solution should be kept rather weak. and it is only necessary value by the weight of gold obtained $21. fine gold weighing . rolled out or hammered thin. Wipe the stone with soft linen and try with test acid. grammes and decimals to find $301. "The method will of calculating this assay is simple. These streaks are touched with nitric acid on a glass rod. and heated to redness. the gold is at least 640 fine. Now one worth $301." Touchstones are useful in deciding the probable value of gold alloys.46. but has the composition of the natural alloy. then each gramme will be the equivalent of one pound avoirdupois.072 the value of the gold Cyanide is a deadly poison. washed. it must be quite evident that a ton of the ore would yield the same decimal is pound in of gold to multiply this in a ton of ore of one pound. To purify the gold it should be melted with silver. Before accurate calculations of value are possible. Several pieces of the metal under examination are cut with a cold chisel. the gold must be obtained pure and weighed carefully.

adding 25 parts distilled water by measure. try with the copper or silver needle. according to what is supposed to be its value. sionally and any unusual appearance should create suspicion. and with a glass rod convey a few drops of nitric acid from 'the dish to each. and a deposit of mercury will soon be seen upon the colder sides of the tube above the bottom. Occacounterfeit dust is offered. using a higher number each time. continue with the other needles. certain in its results. and make a similar streak on the stone samples. with two parts of hydrochloric acid. Practice and a good eye soon make this method very soon be obtained. Place two watch-glasses (most useful in chem- on paper.current as coin. To test for it. An approximate estimate of the sample will er than Should the gold seem poor640 fine. To the glass on ical tests) . and. Retorted amalgam is likely to contain mercury. or coloration of the acid prove impurities to be present. remembering Test some of the that gold is extremely malleable. In mining regions gold dust passes.58 ABC OF MINING. taking care that it falls quite to the botom. take a touch needle marked 700. Try any doubtful pieces on a small anvil. the other on a black. the one on a white sheet. put a small fragment into a closed glass tube. The tube may be broken and the mercury collected into a globule under water. gold with nitric acid. if necessary. The readiest means by which it may be detected are as follows: The dust from any one district is always much alike. If this has no effect. Heat the gold over a spirit lamp. Compare. effervescence or evolution of red fumes.

Test for copper may also be The sample must be pulverized. mix with a little water. Boil over the spirit lamp until white fumes arise. Add forty drops of nitric acid. merely copper coated with gold. Their places are taken by copper pyrites. it proves If no action is noticed. Filter and add a nail or two to the liquid. The amount the sample multiplied by 32. As "dust" is sometimes dish. . then cast into the fire. and the . and add ammonia. the better plan is to cut all the larger grains in two. made as follows Take an ounce : of the powder. To the other add hydrochloric acid should a white precipitate form. Copper. roast the powdered ore and mix with an equal quantity of salt and candle grease or other fat. even after heating the silver. The copper will be precipitated. and place in a porcelain cup. Sulphide ores are usually difficult to treat.HOW TO TEST FOR MINERALS. The carheating. so that the acid may attack the copper should it be present. When cool. and when they are to be tested it is better to roast them before trying the tests for color. copper in be the copper in a of Should copper be suspected. and may be gathered up and weighed. bonate ores of copper do not extend deep in the mine.000 will ton of the ore. twenty drops of sulphuric acid and twelve drops of hydrochloric acid. The solution should turn dark blue. 59 white paper add a drop or two of ammonia. Copper is a very easy mineral to test for. a blue color would indicate copper. First crush the ore and dissolve it in nitric acid by Then dilute with some water. the dust is genuine.

Mercury. add a solution of caustic potash. MINING. you may be sure your sample is not worth much. a very rough but wonderfully effecTake a clay pipe. Make a cover with some damp Dry thoroughly. pulverize your in the clay. Let the pipe cool after the gas has all escaped. Coal is often more valuable than gold. Scratch it with a knife. and the streak will be bright crimson. The difference in weight between the coke and the twenty pennyweights of coal that were placed in the bowl will represent the combustible matter forced out by the heat. is a sulphide. and put the bowl upside down over a flame. and if the coal was adapted for coke the result will be a lump of that substance in the bowl.60 characteristic ABC OF will appear. weigh off twenty pennyweights. sample. Sulphur is a detriment to coal. You will have more or less asih left. Cinnabar. and you have a yellow . This test is better made at night. Weigh this. and it need not have cost you even the pipe. Your test is complete. and if you notice much of it in the escaping fumes. Dissolve the ore in nitric acid. break off the covering of clay. the common ore of mercury. and place it bowl of the pipe. and may be lit with a match. first flame of copper blue and then green Coal. and the prospector should be prepared to estimate the value of any seams he may come across during his travels. The gas in the coal will come out through the stem. The following is tive test for coal. and the difference in weight of the ash and the coke will be the amount of fixed carbon in the coal. Now take this coke and burn it on a porcelain dish over the lamp.

but the film is easily rubbed off. the bottom of the tube containing the ore and lime. which will pre- Dissolve this cipitate the white chloride of silver.HOW TO A TEST FOR MINERALS. keeping the upper part and the small tube cold with wet rags. . indicating nickel. and add a little water. solution cool. verized in a glass tube with some chloride of lime. Let the acid. then add nitric acid once more. close the top of the tube. Exposed to the light. To detect chlo- rub harshly with a clean. with rich luster. should be boiled over a lamp for a few minutes. and ten or twelve drops of water added. of a brilliant white hue. Nickel may be determined as follows: A little of the powdered ore taken up on the point of a penknife. and place a smaller one thereheat in. Pure silver is the brightest of metals. so bent that it will pass into a basin of water . and if there be silver in the pulp the copper will be coated with it. precipitate with ammonia. ride of silver in a pulp. Filter the whole. Nickel. bright and wet copper cartridge or coin. will have a deposit of quicksilver Silver. Graphite will also whiten copper. 6l very pretty test is to place the ore pulprecipitate. and dissolved in a mixture of ten drops of nitric and five drops of muriatic acid. Silver ore may be detected by dissolving a small quantity in a test tube with a few drops of nitric Boil until all the red fumes disappear. the precipitate soon shows a violet tint. A small quantity of ferro-cyanide of potash will throw down a whitish-green precipitate. and you in the basin. and add a few drops of muriatic acid.

A few grains of Manganese may be proved as follows powdered ore are placed in a test-tube. The next artd held test over a spirit flame. cobalt and nickel. With the first. should be with some ore powdered A drop or two of water and a drop of sulpho-cyanide of potash will reveal iron. aluminum. should such be present. A preliminary examination of a mineral may be made with a pocket lens and a penknife. A small amount of alcohol is to be added to the solution. To acid. while a scratch with the point of the latter will give an idea as to the softness or hardness of the mineral. Should much quartz (silica) be present. : Manganese. as precipitated with ammonia chloride. there be any. Two or three grains of granulated lead or litharge being dropped in. zinc. to the same original nitric acid solution. . Antimony. curdy precipitate will indicate sil- ver. by a deep red coloration. known as aqua regia. Platinum is a most refractory metal to must be boiled for at least two hours in the mixture of muriatic and nitric acid. The platinum is treat. tin. with three or four drops of sulphuric acid. another portion add one drop of hydrochloric and a dense. the color will become pink should manganese be in the ore. a sharp blow with the steel will cause sparks. and the latter filtered. it ABC OF MINING.62 Platinum. any conspicuous constituents may be recognized. several drops of ammonia water would detect copper if Added by a blue color.

lead or mercury ents of the ore he has found. These tests are extremely useful. An analysis gives every substance in the ore. and be in the solution. that is those minerals that contain car- bon and oxygen in addition to the metal. he is effected as follows: Drop a acid. and equal parts of sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate added. It may be silver. will in a is In any case the assay will now be dissolved. It warm it lamp. add three or four drops of hydrochloric acid. and must be tried under the lens. 63 uranium and titanium are best shown by the blowCarbonates. Should all these attempts fail. lead or merprecipitate appears. owing to so few ores being pure. after cooling. Filter. In the latter case. but by no means infallible. spirit little powdered ore in a test tube . though usually the term "analysis" is restricted to the latter. add four times as much hydrochloric acid. dissolved in dilute nitric acid. When the explorer wishes to know all the constitu- must analyze it. a fresh sample must be taken. effervesce when brought into contact with hydrochloric Some sandstones have a small amount of lime acid. Such examinations may be either by the "dry" or "wet" methods. as the bubbles are microscopic. A . and "fire assay" is used to describe the former. TEST FOR MINERALS. Pour ten drops into a test tube. may dissolve or gently over the may not. The contents. add nitric dilute with ^ water. car- bonate.HOW TO pipe. and the whole strongly heated platinum crucible. The wet assay for silver.

will be able to go. Test for lead by filtering. it is lead or mercury.64 cury. grows dark violet after exposure to 40 drops of ammonia dissolves it Should it not dissolve. heat gently. This is as far as the prospector. sunlight. it MINING. . More complex treatment must be reserved until a return to civilization. without the various reagents and chemicals that the analyist has always at hand. then the metal is mercury. and a mirror of quicksilver will appear on the sides of the glass. A bead and yellow incrustation indicate lead. - ABC OF If silver. and heating some of the precipitate on charcoal before the blow-pipe. Should none of these things happen. or 30 or in a few moments. Filter. place in glass tubes.

but doing have so enlarged the amount of apparatus. erals in their ores the blow-pipe. . two or three weeks' patient study under a good master should teach a great deal. and subsequently proficiency would the field. a mill run. even when conducted by a Plattner. 65 CHAPTER III. Nor is this skill at all hard to come by. and complicated the tests so seriously that the simplicity of the lost. BLOW-PIPE TESTS. 5 is made of brass or German with platinum tip. for there are many better ways of determining the value its and of an ore. A good assay or. some very clever men have become so in enthusiastic as to blow-pipe work that they have devised methods by which the amount of metal in so an ore as well as its nature may be determined. better still. BLOW As PIPE. blow-pipe outfit is in danger of being chief advantage of being forgotten.BLOW-PIPE TESTS. is worth incomparably more than any quantitative blowpipe test. come by practice in Unfortunately. . The chemical blow-pipe silver. is unrivaled. in the skillful a means of readily detecting the presence of minhands of a operator.

In the first the substance under examas the reducing flame. known initials as R. it is heated in the air and absorbs oxygen. taking everything into consideration.66 ABC OF MINING. is The best fuel. and generally printed and the oxidizing flame. a paraffin candle in cold climates.. and a stearine canTallow dle in hot ones. F. OXIDIZING FLAME. Well-burnt pine or willow charcoal in slabs 3 inches by if inches is the material upon which the mineral . it may do in an emergency. requires too much snuffing. represented by the O. In the second. ination is with its heated out of contact with the air and parts oxygen. but flames. The blow-pipe can produce two The one REDUCING FLAME. F.

A scraped out of one side of therein. small shallow depression is it and the assay placed Platinum wire. red heat. to be tested is 67 placed.BLOW-PIPE TESTS. A small agate mortar is indispensable. is used to test the coloration of minerals in the flame. From this material what are known as closed tubes may be made by heating a piece of the tubing at or about its center over a spirit lamp. some 3 inches long. and. small pair of forceps with platinum points serve a great variety of purposes. conveniently fused into a piece of glass tube as a handle. when the glass has fused. pull- ing it apart. but the beginner must be careful not to heat metallic substances in them to a A AGATE MORTAR. Glass tubing one-twelfth to one-quarter inch in diameter and from four to six inches in length is used for a variety of purposes. These closed tubes are used in heating substances out of contact with the air. This should be cleaned occasionally in dilute sulphuric acid and then washed in water. as he may thereby cause an alloy of the metal with the platinum and spoil them for future use. It must be .

used for grinding substances softer than itself to a powder. hardly necessary. files. glass tubing may be notched and pulled or pushed apart. is LENS. and the in fitting glass necessary tubing to the cork of wash-bottles and is latter is other apparatus. but it will break if rapped sharply. reduced to powder and the test Two small rat-tailed. as any. as any iron or steel surface will detect the will do.68 ABC OF MINING. By means of the former. A small jeweler's hammer is used to flatten metallic globules upon any hard surface A regular blow-pipe outfit would include a small but it is anvil for this purpose. mineral. OF TEST TUBES. That known as the . one three-cornered and the other must be included in the list of requisites. A good lens is Coddington as good indispensable. especially if it made under water. A magnet presence of any magnetic MAGNET.

nitrate of cobalt. down. cobalt solution. hard glass. point of the paper being on one side of the funnel thickness on the other. Among the clean rainwater or. small and medium and placed in the funnel. A glass funnel 2^ inches in diameter is requisite in The circular filter papers are folded in four filtering. hydrochloric acid. A Of reagents. with stand. test papers of blue litmus and turmeric. better distilled water. ammonia. The one serves as a mouthpiece into which the operator blows. : are all Water dry reagents. A little few glass rods in short lengths do for stirrers. sulphuric acid. all those to be found in a well-appointed laboratory may occasionally be of service. in should not be forgotten. 69 A dozen test tubes of sizes. reaching almost to the bottom of the bottle and ending in a spout outside the cork. borax. cyanide of potassium. ingenuity is better than much apparatus. the former for proving the presence of acid in a solution and the latter that of an alkali. bone ash. The foregoing wet reagents are still. salt. Heating a mineral with carbonate of soda on charcoal is accomplished as follows: The pulverized min- . three thicknesses and one A wash-bottle is made from a flask into which a sound cork has been placed with holes in it for two pieces of glass tubing. permits a stream of water to be forced out of the bottle when it is blown into. nitric acid. lead granulated.BLOW-PIPE TESTS. but the rough and ready prospector can get along fairly microcosmic well with the following: Carbonate of soda. while the other.

Nickel. is placed in the cavity on the coal. Colorless. Yellow when hot. R. Metal. should have a fragment of cyanide of potassium placed upon it after it has been heated for a few seconds. Red when hot. Gray. cold. The following colors are obtained: COLOR OF BEAD. which is very difficult to reduce. A small loop is made at the end of the platinum wire. red-brown. Bottle-green. Green. intimately mixed with three times its bulk of carbonate of soda. or yellow. Antimony. cold Blue. Violet. White.ABC OF MINING. eral. Copper. hot or cold. fumes. brittle. and the flame is then reapplied. White. Iron. O. then touched while hot to the powdered mineral and heated once more. Red when hot. heated again. and it is heated and dipped in borax. Red. None. yellow when cold. and perhaps an incrustation on the coal. Tin ore. hot. Manganese. F. . Green. Yellow or colorless. Blue. hot. The reaction is as follows: Incrustation. Amethyst. Red Cobalt.white when cold. Chromium. None. yellow when cold. . Green. None. hot blue. F. A globule of metal should result.

Proceed as above. red scales will be found in the . the outer or reducing flame. As usual. This is formed by inserting the blow-pipe an eighth of an inch into the flame and blowing steadily. Copper. and you Zinc. mortar with water. will get a yellow incrustation on the coal and a button of malleable lead. placed not as circumstances in the cavity and covered or may demand. so that the whole flame playing upon the coal may be yellow in color. Now decant into a allowing the sediment to settle. which is produced by keeping the point of the blow-pipe a little outside the flame and blowing more gently than before. in the ore. A green incrustation will be an evidence of zinc. Place the mineral in the cavity with a and blow upon it with the inner or oxidizing flame. The substance to be tested is 71 generally powdered and moistened. and. pour If off the water. Lead. A white incrustation on the coal. mix the ore and the soda into a paste and fuse it with the oxidizing flame. and a brittle button of antimony should be the result. of carbonate of soda. Treat the suspected lead ore the same way. with a pinch of car- ing results little bonate of soda or other suitable reagent. there was copper test tube. Dig the mass out of the charcoal with the point of a knife and rub it in the test tube. but this time use nitrate of cobalt. may be obtained: The follow- Antimony. and after blowing for a few seconds moisten the incrustation with a drop of Heat once more.BLOW-PIPE TESTS.

and if the button be dissolved in nitric acid. This is addition of a little it a very difficult ore to reduce. and turn on the oxidizing flame. If tellurium be present. silver globule. Make a paste of the ore with carbonate of soda. Break off a small piece of the ore. and the ore contains arsenic you will notice an odor of Tin. leaving a it Should not be pure white. after moistening on the charcoal. as the separation is an expensive matter and the returns are less than they would be from a less . which is a drawback. flame for a second or in the inner two. ore will make Fuse. you will prob- Silver. but the cyanide of potas'h to the powdered easier. carmine and purple colors on the assay will proclaim the fact. The lead will disappear. in the oxidizing flame. Sometimes it is desirable to determine whether tellurium is present in an ore. garlic. more or usually they have antimony associated with them. then drop a little sulphuric acid on the ore and dish. but more or less tinged with yellow. All that is required is a blow-pipe. Make a second paste of bone ash and water. alcohol lamp and a porcelain dish. and ably obtain small globules of tin. ABC OF Heat if MINING. whatever remains behind is gold.72 Arsenic. This is very easy to find out. Bismuth ores are very heavy. add a small piece of lead and fuse into a button. place it in the dish previously warmed. blow upon the ore with the blow-pipe until it is oxidized. and after you have dried it with a gentle flame place the button of silver and lead on the bone ash. it probably contains gold.

the breathing he does through If lead diluted. a white Add ammonia and the precipitate is thrown down. make globule of mercury will result. Heat in the open tube. you will get a bluish-green coloration. times the case. ore be dissolved in nitric acid. there would be no coloration. from which quicksilver a paste of the substance in powder and carbonate of soda. you excess.BLOW-PIPE TESTS. dissolve nitric acid and then add potash in If the ore is one containing bismuth. should have a white precipitate. . specular If the ore be crushed and heated some water added. at a time without the slightest fatigue. Galena is iron ore for instance. a dark blood-red precipitate is thrown down. a crushed sample in 73 In testing for this metal. if it contains cobalt. Bismuth is worth about fifty cents a pound if pure and free from antimony. and an addition made to the solution of a few drops of ferrocyanide of potassium. and a identify cinnabar. often mistaken for other ores. the ore is To obtained. If the ore were galena. the solution and some hydrochloric acid added. low grade pure ore. the blowing is produced by the natural tendency of the cheeks to collapse when distended with A skillful operator can blow for many minutes air. though the reverse is somein nitric acid until dissolved. precipitate remains unaltered. the nostrils. The blow-pipe operator has to learn to breathe and blow at the same time. The so-called steel galena which carries a little zinc is generally richer in silver than the ordinary cube galena.

. Make a paste with carbonate of soda. and removing the mass with the point of a knife lay it on a silver coin and moisten. the substance being heated in air. Sulphur turns silver black. A black sulphide of silver should show quickly on if sulphur is present. The test by reduction with soda on coal in the R. so that it may absorb oxygen.74 ABC OF MINING. F. being detected. Roasting is an oxidizing process. heat on the charcoal. as little as i per cent. Alumina under the the coin same circumstances give a blue color. is particularly valuable in the case of copper ore. Magnesia gives a faint pink color when 'heated and treated with nitrate of cobalt on coal.

as well as in Europe. cryolite. haustible source of aluminum. It is found in Alabama.9 per cent.ECONOMIC ORES AND MINERALS. found abundantly in Greenland. the metal cheaply are few.8 per cent. cryolite and This metal has made rapid strides into favor during the past half-dozen years. Aluminum is white. Cryolite. and very light in weight. is derived from two ores.ooo pounds. In 1895 the production of this metal in the United was 900. In 1899 ^ rose to 6. In ordinary clay there is an inexsince 1827. which they Y . but now bauxite is used in its place.3H 2 O 12. The chemical composition of these ores is: Aluminum. But the ores that yield Until recently. ECONOMIC ORES AND MINERALS.6NaF Bauxite. was the chief source of the metal. The only firm producing aluminum is States the Pittsburg Manufacturing Company of Buffalo. Georgia and Arkansas.000 pounds. IV. It does iron has been replaced not tarnish easily. 73. N. Bauxite is a limonite iron ore in which a part of the by aluminum. Although known it remained a rare substance in the metallic form. A1 2 O 3 .500. Al 2 F 6 . though it is the most abundant of any of the metals in its ore. v who reduce the metal from bauxite. 75 CHAPTER Aluminum bauxite.

in which case a scarcity might soon be The American ore is easier to work than the felt. evaporation and roastNo estimate has yet been made of the amount ing. unless the demand should grow very decidedly. Georgia and Arkansas. 50. and may be As bauxite promises to be in greater demand in the future than in the present. discovered in New Mexico and in Ohio. The Georgia beds are turning out three-fifths of the bauxite produced near the town of in America. and enough has been prospected to assure a supply for some years to come. It contains water. owing to the ever-increasing demand for aluminum.16 per cent. The French seem ahead of the rest of the world in finding new uses for aluminum. and the grains are like minum.76 ABC OF metal is MINING. creamy white when little from iron. or pisolitic. The French beds Baux are 30 miles long and 40 feet In the United States. The ore is in beds and pockets. as it contains A new aluminum-bearing mineral. . alumina. treated available. for it. beds have been found in Alabama. Most of the supply of cryolite comes from "Greenwhere it occurs in veins running through gneiss Glass-makers use it rocks. filtration. this One of the latest uses for to keep for gold miners' pans. of that metal. land. and pay good prices it. is called native alum. thick. obtain in the southern states. silica. peas. the prospector will do well to make It is himself thoroughly familiar with free its appearance. It gives by solution in warm water. Lately makers of aluminum also buy 13 per cent. aluand generally iron.

Impurities may stain it yellow or red or even black. It is still used for making soda and aluminum salts. gum. cleavage. the manufacturers of aluminum would probably fall back on cryolite.5. it exists. Its composition when pure is 72 per cent. At Tvigtuk. is easily melted. and only 300 feet above the level of the tide. or dis- solved in hydrochloric acid. or gray antimony. is 2. and may often Recent discoveries have been made on the coast of British Columbia that are ex- Amber.95. is a fossil resin. even though the cost is higher and the percentage of aluminum smaller. 77 French. granular to massive. and its hardness 2. perfect. The associated minerals . The ore tarnishes quickly. Its specific gravity is It is fusible in the 2.ECONOMIC ORES AND MINERALS. Should the deposits of bauxite give out. on the west coast of Greenland. in gneiss. 4. be found in lignite beds. antimony and Antimony. and an imitation porcelain. gravity. or pected to supply the world. as a very heavy vein. Texture. and yields hydrofluoric acid if treated with sulphuric acid. Fracture. it. opaque. gray. This general use as a flux. conchoidal. flame of a candle. All pipe-smokers know The commercial ore of this metal is the known as stibnite. and manufacturers prefer it to any they can import. Hardness metallic. and snow-white. sulphur. It is semitransparent. 28 per cent. The Arkansas deposits are as thick as the French. Imported bauxite cost $5 to $7 a ton in New York $12 a long ton. It is also in City. American ore costs $5 to Best selected Georgia brings $10. sulphide luster.5 to 3.

N. Y. and carbonate of Baryta may be the gangue or veinstone. It is injurious to copper. the only commercial source is the sulphide.75 per ton. Although antimony occurs in many minerals. It occurs in the old crystali to $i Apatite line of some value and primary rocks of Canada. The ore is worth from $40 to $50 a ton delivered at Staten Island. $3. an artificial phosphate. from $1. and these in turn are being ousted from the markets of the world by Thomas slag. but although still it has yielded the position it once occu- pied to the Carolina phosphate deposits. Stibnite. valued at $241. is a phosphate of lime. although not so rich in acid.78 ABC OF MINING. The price varies greatly. even onetenth of one per cent.250 tons. Antimony is used as an alloy in type metal. containing 43 per cent. The output of 1899 was but 1. of phosphoric acid. and by the The easily-mined natural phosphates of Algeria. being now about 10 cents a pound. reducing the value of that metal very considerably. Apatite suffered in demand when the cheap phosphates of South Carolina were discovered. iron. and less ex- . are softer. are generally the ores of lead. pewter.86. zinc. Antiis mony worth from 10 to 15 cents a pound. The composition of stibnite is: Antimony.250. and babbitt metals. price varies with the quality of the rock. Sb 2 S 3 71 . averaging in 1899.8 per cent The production of antimony in this country is not very large. which.. stibnite.

Its gravity is 1. soda. and has a sweetish taste. but occurring as it does as an incrustation upon the ground over large areas. Specific gravity. The fibers of this material may be woven into cloth that will be fire-proof. Borax. fluctuating.1. It is white. It is being used in Germany to make fireproof paper.3. the the first then sorted. valuable.7. tant past. Hardness. the rock being crushed in a rock-breaker. and 47 per cent. A .736. in It is Canada. It is of considerable. but the sheen is always white. value $598. etc. value. This mineral is borate of soda. gray. as the explorer will surely recognize it should he find it. water. The production in 1899 in United States was 912 tons. and the fiber freed from adhering particles of rock and dust. boric acid. and in Quebec to make asbestos plaster It is generally quarried in for covering wood-work. Asbestos. a detailed description would be superfluous. value $13.ECONOMIC ORES AND MINERALS. Apatite is doubtless derived from the remains of animals or fishes that lived in the dis- The colors are often beautiful green. Borax is 2. Brick-clay contains silica. alumina. 16 per cent. pink. 79 pensive to utilize. 3. This fibrous silicate of magnesia and rocks near lime is to be looked for among primary serpentine dike.266 tons. sition is: Its compo- 37 per cent. 23. the longest fibers going into quality heap. open pits. good bed of clay may be of value in an accessible region.860. for this material is likely to in- though at present the supply is fully equal to demand. Hardness of 4.8. though The demand crease. Clay.

It contains over 90 per cent. of carbon. Anthracite bituminous coal that has been subjected to great heat and pressure. in feldspar rocks. 2 I Ash. c. c. Japan or France. Light-colored clays are preferable for this purpose. They are: Anthracite Bituminous. c. arranged according to their carbon. iron. the larger the percentage of potters' clay. Cannel coal is a variety of bituminous that gives off much gas. . c. c.3 to 2. as iron is prejudicial to a good fire-brick/ Kaolin is the finest porcelain bricks. 95 p. It does not coke. are fine potters' clay. Fire-clay should contain 60 per cent. c. in plain language.6.5 to 1. Good bituminous coal contains about 85 per cent. baked. product of decay out. and the is and alumina as parts of a white clay of fine grain. of silica.45 7 45 p. and the best comes from China. clay. ash left after burning is Hardness. silica It is a is The potash left washed Coal.8o ABC OF MINING. when dry. it will resist great heat. 3 p. These are allowed to and. p. water and ash. 4 8 6 10 p. 80 p. The better the clay. It burns with a bright flame in an open grate. Mixed with sand and burnt into settle. 15 36 p. 5 p. etc. Potters' clay is made by suspending ordinary brick-clay in water. c. c.8. Lignite . and 30 per cent of alumina. . 2. but the composition varies greatly. white or red. Specific gravity 1. Carbon. 80 Water. There is The little or no sulphur in anthracite. and running off the water and fine particles suspended therein. c. of carbon. There are three main divisions of coal. 20 40 p.

ECONOMIC ORES AND MINERALS.

8l

igniting as easily as a candle. Lignite is intermediate between coal and peat. All the Rocky Mountain coals are lignites. It is a very inferior coal at its worst,

while at

its

best

it is

nearly the equal of a poor bitu-

minous

coal.

Some
but a

coals will coke

trial

can

settle this

and others will not; nothing matter in each individual case.

Good coking
Cobalt.

coal is very valuable. Cobalt ores are always found in veins with

other metals.
etc.

Pure cobalt

is

extremely rare.

Cobalt

colors are used for porcelain painting, glass-staining,

Chromium. All chrome is obtained from chromite, which contains 68 per cent, of chrome sesqui-oxide, the remainder being iron protoxide. Hardness, 5.5;
gravity, 4.4 luster, sub-metallic opaque. Steel-gray to almost black. Harsh. Brittle. Cleavage, imper;

;

fect.

Chromite
contains

Fracture, uneven. Texture, massive to granular. in gravel looks like shot. Serpentine often
it,

it is apt to resemble a fine-grained used chiefly in iron and steel alloys, and in making armor plate. It is also used in dyeing But little chrome fabrics and in paint manufacture. ore is produced in the United States. The importa-

when
It is

magnetite.

tion in 1899

was

J

5>793 tons > value $18.03 P er ton '

Chromite,

FeOCr 2 O 3
is

47-68

merchantable at $22 to $25 per ton. Domestic ore ranges from $10 to $12 a ton, while The the pure imported ores are worth $21 a ton.
This ore

82

ABC OF

MINING.

ooo
ore

yearly consumption in the United States is about 16,tons, and the American production 100 tons. This
is

useful as a lining for furnaces,

promises to become important.
to contain large deposits.

and the demand Newfoundland is said
in the

Copper.

Native copper occurs

Lake Superior

region, but the

demands

of

commerce

chalcopyrite or copper pyrites, and copper ore. Many different ores of copper may exist in the same vein. On the surface an iron cap of gossan
reveals the deposit; immediately below may be black oxide of copper with some malachite, lower down red

are supplied from tetrahedrite or gray

oxide, and below the water-line copper sulphides. following are the principal copper ores:

The

Native copper Chalcopyrite Enargite Tetrahedite
Chalcocite Bornite

Sp. Gravity. Hardness. P. C. Cu. 100 8.8 2.8
4.2 4.4
5.0 5.6 5.0 6.2 6.0 2.2
is

3.7 3.0

35

48
35

3.5104.5
2.7 3.0 2.0 to 3.0

80
55

Melaconite
Cuprite Chrysocolla

3.6 3.0

80 89
45

The common ore
with native
distinct.

native copper, often associated

large to

two remaining, chemically, quite Some masses of copper occur that are too handle and must be cut by cold chisels, a
silver, the

metal.

more for labor than the value of the The Lake Superior mines produce 140,000,000 pounds of copper a year, while those of Montana made
method
that costs

ECONOMIC ORES AND MINERALS.

83

the gigantic output of 228,000,000 pounds in 1896. The great Anaconda mine, of Butte, is the heaviest producer, yielding more than half the state's total.

During 1899 the

New York

copper market rate

varied between 14.75 cents and 18.46 cents per pound. Copper is probably abundant in the shape of pyrites in many parts of Canada, especially in the Northwest,

and prospectors in that region should search diligently for it. The Lake Superior mines are unique in being
deposits of native copper. Owing to the great demand for

copper following the extraordinary spread of electricity, copper properties have become so enormously valuable that,

upon

possibly, the explorer will be quite as fortunate in finding copper as in finding gold. Moreover, with the ex-

ception of Spain and Chili, the United States has no serious rivals in copper production, Montana and Michigan, producing the greater part of the output.

The famous Calumet and Hecla mine, in Michigan, is now down 4,000 feet and still yields ore. The most
copper ores are not
is

difficult to distinguish. Every one ruddy hue of pure copper, the color of the native metal. It may be flattened under the

familiar with the

hammer

or cut with the knife.

A

little

of the ore

mixed with grease colors a flame green. Copper ores are heavy, and generally of a bright color, either red,
blue, green, yellow or brown.

Corundum. Nine hundred and seventy tons of this abrasive were produced in the United States in 1899;

Corundum is found in feldspar veins, value, $78,570. and associated with chlorites in serpentine rock. North

gneiss. dolomite.000 pounds. New York.240 pounds) at point of production. next to the diamond. Corundum 9. Ky. 3. It is not likely that the American prospector will come upon the true oriental ruby. The streak 4. etc. such as granite. experience being the only guide the miners have in finding new deposits. and Liumpton Co. and Connecticut ores are worth $3 to $6 per long ton (2.. blues and reds. The ruby is next to the diamond in hardness and in value. Marion. The Maine. The in the Carolina furnishes half the corundum marketed. worth mining when abundant and accessible. he will more probably find the garnet. Topaz and ruby are generally discovered limestones. It is worth $6 a ton of 2. 111. It is always white. . Emery is an impure corundum containing iron. Ky.. Gems are to be looked for in a country of in crystalline crystalline rock. of 53 per cent Specific gravity aluminum and 47 per cent is 4. Specific gravity. Feldspar. while turquoise is usually found in clay slate. The American market is supplied by ore from Rosiclare. chrysolite. The contacts of the olivine rocks with gneiss usually produce rich deposits. is composed oxygen. Hardness... Fluorspar. 111.. This spar is softer than quartz and of most brilliant colors. and imported spar. or olivine rocks. is Hardness. Hardin Co. It is used as a polishing powder.. greens.84 ABC OF MINING. Corundum is the hardest substance known. Pennsylvania. Gems. presence of this substance is always indicated South by serpentine. varying through the yellows. to pure white. and consists pracThe garnet is but as hard tically of pure alumina.

The turquoise which has lately been found in Ariis not a crystal. which is also occasionally mistaken for turquoise. is also blue. mixed. Lazulite. Powdered. and etching action upon glass. charcoal. belongs to the regular or isometric system it is commonly massive or compact. the more valuable gem belonging and the zona rhombohedral. and is a silicate of alumina with some lime and iron. fluorine is disengaged with its characteristic odor. lazulite is softer and contains turquoise. With the blow pipe on . limestone. 85 and is a silicate of alumina with lime and to the a little iron. The blue color which distinit is guishes derived from copper. It is a of alumina with water in composition. and often associated with pyrites and mica.ECONOMIC ORES AND MINERALS as quartz. phosphate In form it is kidney shaped or stalactitic. Lapis lazuli. a far less valuable substance. when it value of a gem depends upon should be submitted to an expert. fine blue color of alumina. that may possibly turn out a gem. and heated with microcosniic salt in the open tube. The so many qualities that . it gives the The explorer who comes upon any hard. brightly colored stone. heated with the cobalt solution. should preserve it carefully until he returns to some city. crystalline. which the turquoise does not. It is found in syenite. but as it crystallizes in the monoclinic system it should not be mistaken for Moreover. They crystallize in different systems. Topaz belongs to the orthorhombic system. magnesia and lime. It is a silicate of alumina with fluorine. less valuable to the isometric system.

make globule of mercury will result. dissolve nitric acid and then add potash in If the ore is one containing bismuth. The blow-pipe operator has to learn to breathe and blow at the same time. and an addition made to the solution of a few drops of ferrocyanide of potassium. though the reverse is somein nitric acid until dissolved. there would be no coloration. and a identify cinnabar. often mistaken for other ores. specular If the ore be crushed and heated some water added. the blowing is produced by the natural tendency of the cheeks to collapse when distended with A skillful operator can blow for many minutes air.BLOW-PIPE TESTS. low grade pure ore. you excess. ore be dissolved in nitric acid. the nostrils. the breathing he does through If lead diluted. if it contains cobalt. the ore is To obtained. at a time without the slightest fatigue. from which quicksilver a paste of the substance in powder and carbonate of soda. . you will get a bluish-green coloration. The so-called steel galena which carries a little zinc is generally richer in silver than the ordinary cube galena. a dark blood-red precipitate is thrown down. Bismuth is worth about fifty cents a pound if pure and free from antimony. Galena is iron ore for instance. a crushed sample in 73 In testing for this metal. Heat in the open tube. If the ore were galena. the solution and some hydrochloric acid added. times the case. should have a white precipitate. precipitate remains unaltered. a white Add ammonia and the precipitate is thrown down.

There are many varieties of it.The pyritic ores of iron. carbonate of Most of these carbonate iron lic ores only range between 30 and 40 per cent of metaliron. pyrrhotite and mispickel. etc. and the ore. Immense beds exist in the triassic sandstones. dark brown to black. yet there seems no chance of in their time. streak of limonite are always yellow. . netic. needle ore. are often taken for gold by the inexperienced. of iron deposits. Siderite assumes many forms. is Magnetite loadstone ore. Conditions of commerce very different . A deep bed. and it is in the secondary rocks below the coal measures. the powder is reddish is It black. or a narrow one. etc. but are in demand as fluxes for other iron ores. clude any profitable development. The powder and It is an important iron. including marcasite. black band. known as ironstone. Native iron is 87 have only found in meteorites that come from space. for instance. found Hematite varies from metallic to dull in luster. acid. as they are bought by makers of sulphuric Iron is so low in price that vast deposits exist which cannot be made use of because they would be too expensive to mine.ECONOMIC ORES AND MINERALS. in the older rocks and is an important ore. It is would pre- known that enormous areas are full northern Labrador. or the slightest difficulty in transportation. Hematite may be slightly magocher. clay-ironstone. called spathic ore. having the slightest economic value for a long if ever. In an accessible region pyrites may be valuable. ore.

PbS 86.5.36 p. granular or foliated. conchoidal. Cleavage. Specific gravity sub-conchoidal. the latter for flux. c. p. the former for fuel.6 Anglesite PbCO 8 PbSO 4 Pyromorphite Pb 3 P 2 O 8 77.7 p. 2. or fibrous. harsh. Color. Brittle. The former contains 87 per cent of lead. tabis 7. Translucent. lar. imperfect. and frequently some silver and gold.6. metallic. although they do not possess the necessary smelting facilities. The two important sources of supply are galena and cerussite. because these deficiencies are counterbalanced by in- exhaustive stores of easily mined ores. vitreous to cerussite contains about 79 per cent resinous. Brittle to sectile (may be ular. Occasionally such regions as that of Lake Superior may be able to compete successfully with others. gray. perfect. Fracture. tation facilities unrivaled in cheapness. The economic Galena Cerusite Lead. and transpor- Lead. perfect to Fracture.5 p. Iron ore is most favorably situated for profitable extraction when it is near coking coal and beds of limestone.c. and hardness. lead-gray. and are unores of lead are: doubtedly often passed by. Luster. plus 1-3 PbCl 2 75. even to Structure.88 to those ABC OF now will MINING. The carbonate lead. have to exist before they obtaining can be utilized. cut). . opaque. c. Smooth. Massive to granuRich carbonate ores look like clay. It is so distinctive as to be easily recognized. c. 67. Luster. Cleavage.

In the mountains the ore is a by-product. limestone carrying almost as much magnesia as lime. which is easily recognized by These latter its steel-like cubes. and the carbonates. and tHe lead and zinc ore is easily got at. At any rate. and this rock was undoubtedly deposited in a shallow sea. but they may be distinguished by this infallible sign: the powder of galena is black. are the principal American sources of this metal. Lead ores are frequently rich in silver. are like lightly colored clays when in powder and are very apt to be overlooked. Wisconsin and Illinois lead and zinc are found free from any mixture with the precious metal. Fluor spar is as favorable a gangue for lead as quartz The Rocky Mountains is for gold. geologists incline to the belief that therefore the lead is due to a growth of seaweeds in whose ash this metal and zinc are known to occur. in silver smelting. sandstone. but a very large amount comes from the Mississippi valley.ECONOMIC ORES AND MINERALS. or yellow. The ore flat is found in limestone rocks. in limestone. while in Missouri. that is. being obtained from argentiferous galena. sometimes in openings parallel to the almost horizontal beds. or else in gash veins almost at right angles to these. Kansas. granite 89 They occur and clay. . these deposits now have great economic value. and that of blende brown. Galena and zinc blende frequently resemble one another. The age of these deposits varies from lower Silurian or cambrian to the carboniferous. As lead is often found in dolomite limestone. The com- mercial ores are galena.

is This a very fine grained compact limestone from Bavaria. of fine texture. contains and in bleaching and making manufacture. is also a comsource of supply. uneven. Pyrolusite Braunite Psilomelane MnO Mn O 3 2 2 63. nite harder. perfect. MINING. yet not too soft. 4. To determine the value of manganese ores a somewhat intricate calculation is necessary. its specific gravity is 4. imperto bluish black. Fracture. Specific gravity. Wad little is an impure ore of manganese found in bogs. the Carnegie Steel Company pays according to the following sliding scale: .90 ABC OF Lithographic Stone. massive. metallic. Pa. 4. An ore to be commercially valuable should contain from 40 to 60 per cent metallic manganese. Pyrolusite 63 per cent manganese. a zinc-manganese ore. Texture. Luster. Cleavage. Manganese ores in 1899 amounted in the United States to 143. for This mineral is used steel oxygen. of or no value.476. and free from veins and inequalities. Gray Harsh. Brittle. Delivered at Bessemer. Manganese. porous.25 per cent phos- phorus. is Granular. MangaLuster.3.8.256 tons. sub-metallic. So far nothing equal to the imported stone has been found in America. Opaque. The distinguishing qualities are: Gray. fibrous. and not over 0.3. fect.2 to 0. Hardness.2 69.. Cleavage.68 ? (Variable) mon Franklinite. value $306.0. drab or yellow. 2.

Mercury. generally found in sandstone. its hardness. with lime cinnabar yields quicksilver. An alloy with silver has been found. 6c 6c 6c Mn. c. c. c. 2. 28c 2. though occasional deposits of pure metal are found in drops and small pockets. c. As the appearance of quicksilver must be familiar to all. 46 p.c 26c 250 240 230 22C excess 6c 6c 6c 6c silica in Moreover. 37P-c. It is earthy ore. If copper be held over the fumes of mercury it will be coated with a light film of the metal.0. 43 p. 34 P. in limestone and the softer secondary rocks. though it occasionally cinnabar alone is gravity occurs in Heated gently slates. for each one per cent of of eight per cent a deduction of fifteen cents a ton is made. Per cent over 46 43 40 37 34 31 91 Mn. It is a red brown 9. c. 49 p. shales and serpentine.c. Quicksilver usually occurs in the form of cinnabar.ECONOMIC ORES AND MINERALS. Its specific needs description. 49 p. and mobile.2. Per Unit Fe. 40 p. and a deduction of one cent per unit of mangais made for each 2-100 of one per cent of phosFrom phorous present in excess of l-io per cent. Mercury is heavy. the powder of which is a dull red. The composition of cinnabar is: . extremely brilliant. including shales and slates. which it is evident that there can be little profit in nese impure deposits of manganese.

Sulphur Creek Abbott Great Western JEtna. in metamorphic rocks.879 which were valued at $1. Serpentine.92 ABC OF HgS MINING. the ore from which the quicksilver of commerce is derived. Of these California is by far the most important. is is A study of the foregoing shows that serpentine almost as intimately connected with quicksilver as quartz with gold. These are the things that prospectors should make a note of. Shale-serpentine. Col usa Rock. the prospector is most likely to find cinnabar. With the great increase of gold mining and the limited store . this have supplied country has held rank as second producer. The Mine.155. following table shows the rock in which the most famous Californian quicksilver mines are: flasks in 1899. Mercury is always sold in flasks of 76^ pounds. Porphyry-serpentine. (?) Lake Lake Corona Aat Hill New Almaden Barton Cinnabar King Altoona Napa Napa Napa Santa Clara Siskiyou Sandstone. Per cent Hg. Judging by Californian experience. The production of mercury by the United States (California) was 28. or granite with tin. Sandstone-serpentine. Oregon and Utah having never had any but a small and spasmodic output. Sonoma Trinity Sandstone-serpentine. Shale-sandstone.2 states Cinnabar Although but three American this metal.160. Serpentine. Shale-serpentine. Sandstone. 86. County.

and nickel bloom. or in fire-proof paint manufacture. and consists of about 85 per cent of carbon. are used for insulating purposes in electric plants. Carboniferous and Cretaceous ages are most likely to hold it. to $13 a pound forsheets 10 in. The stratified rocks of the Devonian. A long iron-shod stick is all the prospector requires to take with him in his search for surface indications of oil.ECONOMIC ORES AND MINERALS. . Petroleum. Crude petroleum never found metamorphic or igneous rocks. The warmer the day the easier the search. x I in. but always in combination. The white mica in large sheets is valuThe amber-colored. and 15 per cent of hydrogen. The crude oil is almost black. This ore is never found in metallic form. x 8 in. of cinnabar that rise in is 93 available that ore seems certain to value before long. Pyrrhotite. while the coarser sorts are ground and used as lubricants. merce. The value of Indian mica varies from QOC a pound for sheets 4 in. and spotted. nickelite. or magnetic pyrites. glance. Nickel.0 is Some commerce is derived from in nickelliferous pyrrhotite. Per cent nickel. Rare but valuable ores of nickel are millerite. able. Millerite Niccolite NiS NiAs of the nickel of 64.4 44. and is found in greater quantities than on cold days. as the oil rises to the surface of the streams. is the source of about all the nickel of com- This ore has been already noticed under iron. Mica.

of or no value. Pa. drab or yellow. sub-metallic. To determine the value of manganese ores a somewhat intricate calculation is necessary. MangaLuster.. yet not too soft. 4. fect. perfect. Pyrolusite Braunite Psilomelane MnO Mn O 3 2 2 63. a zinc-manganese ore. imperto bluish black.8. MINING. metallic. Texture.90 ABC OF Lithographic Stone. So far nothing equal to the imported stone has been found in America.256 tons. and free from veins and inequalities. Brittle.68 ? (Variable) mon Franklinite. Gray Harsh. Hardness. Pyrolusite 63 per cent manganese.2 to 0. Manganese. is This a very fine grained compact limestone from Bavaria. porous. Fracture. its specific gravity is 4.476. Manganese ores in 1899 amounted in the United States to 143. value $306. massive. An ore to be commercially valuable should contain from 40 to 60 per cent metallic manganese. Opaque. is also a comsource of supply.3. Luster. The distinguishing qualities are: Gray. Cleavage.2 69. Cleavage. fibrous. the Carnegie Steel Company pays according to the following sliding scale: . contains and in bleaching and making manufacture. 2. is Granular. uneven. Specific gravity. of fine texture. Delivered at Bessemer. and not over 0. nite harder.0. 4. Wad little is an impure ore of manganese found in bogs.3.25 per cent phos- phorus. for This mineral is used steel oxygen.

000 feet long and several hundred wide. In America galena is the principal source of silver.000.ECONOMIC ORES AND MINERALS. as gold always contains more or less of that metal. The very abundance of silver great fall in value. and this has had a most disastrous effect upon many silver mines. As phur silver enters into easily. No precise statement as to the manner of its occurrence may be made and is since it is found all in many different positions. some silver is parted from gold when it reaches the mint. most silver ores are sulphides. and the large quantities has caused pear that its it is that must find their way to market through by-product in lead smelting. as is chemical combination with sul- seen by the black film that forms on silver articles in a room wihere gas is burnt. 10. and is a contact vein between dio- Comstock lode is and diabase. future is not assured. It has fallen. owing to the ease with which it may be produced. Should the fall continue. lastly. while. once to forty-nine cents an ounce. Native silver is found occaOwing to the fall in value of this metal its sionally. during the past year. and it does not apever likely to remain for long at a price exceeding fifty cents an ounce. little will be produced except as a by-product in the treatment of argentifer- ous lead ores. and the price of silver go down to forty cents an ounce.000. a belt of quartz. as seems likely. should silver be present. associated with sorts of . 95 Some metal comes to the surface in a greasy scum. forcing them to suspend operations. From it being a 1859 to 1891 the This lode rite in Nevada produced $325. the chlorides and oxides rank next.

extinct or active. Useful in It is not attacked by boiling sulphuric acid. It is ABC OF MINING. where it occurs in association with augite.96 minerals. is Secstea- Texture. crystalline. Between 1875 and 1891 the world's product rose from $82. The composition of casseterite.599. but of no great value. the arts. Ag 2 S 3Ag 2 SAs 2 S 3 3Ag 2 SSb 2 S 3 5Ag2 SSb 2 S 3 AgCl in Prysagyrite Stephanite Cesargerite 87.1 65.000. air. output was 5. rived from iron pyrites.5 59. Smooth. Talc. Hardness. Luster. its yield of copper In 1896 is its The Anaconda being 125. The scientific silica name of this mineral Its It contains and magnesia. and greasy feel.5 75. It is also de2.693 pounds. tite. Its original source is doubtless the igneous rocks. as breaks up under the influence of water. etc. Sulphur.3 per per per per per cent cent cent cent cent The Anaconda mine of silver in the country. Brimstone is found native in the neigh- borhood of volcanoes. hornblende and mica. The commercial Argentite Proustite ores of silver are: Silver. Color.350. Silver may be expected in mountainous regions of recent origin. green color.9 68. the commer- .000.000 to $185. 2. resinous. Three quarters of this came from the western hemisphere. are very characteristic. it never found in placer deposits.600. tile.also the heaviest copper producer in the United States. pearly luster. Tin. Specific gravity. yellow. Butte is the largest producer ooo ounces.

is whitey-gray and very distinctive. as there is plenty of granite. has so far al- ways been associated with nent yields little tin. which is favorable to this metal. It is worth about thirteen cents a pound. the Most of principal tin ore. for the metal is in great demand. tin put their ore The sample get rid of is first all on a shovel when they wish to test it.ECONOMIC ORES AND MINERALS. certainty. cial 97 ore of tin. is The American conti- not likely the prospector in either the western states or in Canada will stumble upon it. It will be one of the latest ores the young prospector tallic tin. Cassiterite or tin stone will find himself able to name with its with white mica as one of Granite. but as they gained in depth they became more and more valuable for their tin. and five a vein must yield more than per cent of metal to pay the cost of mining and dressing. The streak. constituents. the European tin mines were first worked for the copper they contained. equal to 78. leaving behind the tin and .67 per cent of me- is a heavy ore which occurs in alluvial deposits or in the beds of streams. would have to be roasted. Some of the Cornish mines are three-quarters of a mile in depth. Tin may some day be found in the northern Rockies. Cassiterite. As it is found in the it is streams the expense of mining is very light. and it tin. when the metal is scratched with a knife point. Very lately tin has been discovered and mined in vast quantities in the Straits Settlements. India. The copper was found in the capping. is SnO 2 . and The Cornish miners killing the European mines. though a good deposit of stream tin would enrich him in a short time. crushed fine and a few skillful shakes the gangue.

4. is This another ore that never occurs native. granular crystalline. vitreous. in Cornand it is got rid of by roasting. Harsh. Composition: Zinc oxide. perfect.5 to 7.98 wolfram. is Luster. White. This ore results It would be taken for clay or shale. Australasia and Cornwall produce most of the tin used in commerce. It is a troublesome impurity tains often dark in silver ores. Calamine is a difficult mineral to detect without experience. green or bluish. tin is found. 3 to 3. The appearance of this metal so variable with certainty.5 to 7. Fracture. 25 per cent. Brittle. Specific gravity. in that nothing but a test with reagents determines it Granite is freqently the country rock which Zinc. black. Massive. red or yellow. Brown. opaque. 6. In the New ides zincite Jersey mines the zinc ores are the oxand willemite. Translucent. 67 per cent. Tin is not found native. Other zinc ores are merely curiosities and do not affect the commercial value of the metal. Translucent to Har. It is brown or black from iron. silicate. Hardness. Smithsonite is a carbonate much re- sembling. gray. as when impure it does not look in the least like a metallic ore. is always associated.sh. ABC OF This wolfram MINING.7. Cleavage. otherwise it may be red.6 to 5. 8 per cent. Luster. water. Texture. from the decomposition of zinc blende. 6. with the tin of cassiterite is vitreous to Hardness. and the zinc-iron oxide . Blende con- Calamine or silicate of zinc is the 67 per cent zinc and 33 per cent sulphur. great producing ore. Brittle. adamantine. Specific gravity wall. and often found with. calamine. uneven.

cent. ZnS. gaThe Joplin district in southwestern Missouri and the adjoining region in Kansas are now mainly supplying the markets of the country. 80. .54 58. . franklinite.SO 2 2ZnO.2 Willemite 2ZnO. Blende generally associates with the lead sulphide.SiO 2 .9 5.0 per cent. the highest $51.3 per cent. cent. lena. lowest quotation was $20 a ton.5 54. Smithsonite Franklinite ZnO ZnOCCX (Variable) (?) 67. on the other sphalerite and blende are the typical ores. 99 hand. In the Missouri region. cent. Joplin ore assaying 58 to 62 per cent has varied The greatly in price during the past four years.50. though the New Jersey deposits are very valuable. 51.ECONOMIC ORES AND MINERALS.HO 2 Calamine per per per per cent. Zinc is derived mainly from the following half : dozen ores Sphalerite Zincite Zinc.

where the present gold excitement has attracted many thousand pioneers. In northwestern Canada. even though his operations should not go beyond a shallow trial shaft. CHAPTER MINING. V.100 ABC OF MINING. are composed of so gravel that ter. as the ground is so elastic under the frost that the tamping simply blows out and the re- . after it has become too deep for the sinker to throw the stuff out with a spade. is invariably frozen. Although the scope of this work does not include the very complex problem involved in the working of a great mine. the miners have hitherto been content with a windlass. because the prospector must perforce become a miner as soon as he discovers mineral. summer as well as win- and which requires to be thawed out before it can be worked with a pick. The simplest method of hoisting dirt or rock out of a shaft. as they sink through gravel and not more than thirty Jeet at the most before reaching the bed rock. For their purpose it answers well. which may be either single or double. dynamite cannot be used. Strangely enough. prospecting and the simpler mining operations are so intimately connected that it would not be desirable to make mention of the one and ignore the other. ac- cording to the power required. The alluvial flats in which the coarse gold of the upper Yukon has been discovered. is by a bucket and windlass.

while coarse gold will resist almost a torrent. who are mining in that part of the continent. and added to the dump. and goes to bed. where it must all remain until the warmth of summer shall 'have thawed the streams and permitted sluicing. to adopt methods very similar to those used in Siberia. also. quired effect is 101 not produced. where. feet below the surface. When he awakes next day several feet of the soil have down over the logs. gold-bearing creeks about which we have heard so When the bed rock is reached and the few inches of decayed surface removed. they light large fires over night and in the morning remove the few inches of thawed soil underneath the ashes. After scratching the surface and removing the deep moss that invariably covers it.MINING. at this stage that the windlass ion. placing some inclined logs over it as a roof. in which the gold is sorted from the lighter gravel and dirt by running water. Very fine gold would be carried away by too swift a current. The grade varies according to the coarseness of the gold. or partner. or even thirty. . open at the top. fifteen or twenty. A sluice is really nothing more nor less than a trough. the miner builds his fire against the side of the shaft. and this he has to hoist. though there are few shafts of this depth on the Klondike and the other much. of the soil. the ground is permanently tion has led the frozen to a great depth. This peculiar condi- men. his compan- demonstrates its In a very short time the gravel that the fire has thawed out is hoisted to the surface. fallen It is worked by value. By this painfully slow method they eventually sink to the richer gravel.

There is no rule in this matter. A prop- MINER'S GOLD PAN. and the width varies from one to two feet. while be advisable to diminish Riffles. in twelve. hundred feet and the inclination should not be it more than one foot fourth. are placed across the . usually a dozen feet in length the sides may be six inches or a foot deep. thereby saving nothing but the very coarsest gold. The sluice is built in joints.102 ABC OF . may. in this inclination a case of fine gold. by at least a or cross-pieces. erly constructed sluice should be several in length. board measure the tendency is to make the sluices very small and very short. MINING. but of owing to the extravagant price lumber as much as a hundred and fifty dollars a thousand feet.

It is inexpensive. and slats are placed lengthwise. as the case may warrant. and where fuel and water are to be had any sensible man will use steam power for deep mining. 103 sluice at intervals of a few feet. but it is not Much gold has been recovered from the gravel in which nature has placed it by the aid of the pan. in the first outlay. the miner shuts off the water by closing the gate at the head of the sluice. and with a seven hundred pound capac- but there hoist . a sheet iron dish modeled on the housewife's bread pan. but it necessitates more water and more men. Into the crevices and interstices of these obstructions the heavy gold sinks by its own weight. a considerable improvement upon the cradle. is a gap between the windlass and the steam which the horse whim fills acceptably. to the Next ern prospect. and collects all the gold that has ac- cumulated. This is the simplest. anything used pan the cradle is as little complicated as in the winning of gold. and every few days. beginning at the joint nearest the head and working towards the tail of the sluiceway. or weeks. removes the slats and riffles.MINING. You can bring your bucket from a shaft a hundred and fifty feet deep in two and a half minutes. and costs but little to run. a very simple form of mining. filling up the intervals between the riffles. To a depth of 300 feet a horse whim can usually handle the rock and water. The horse whim is used in developing many a westThe windlass does not work well below forty feet. After this comes the long torn.

.104 ABC OF MINING.

A small stamp mill. and copper tables with amalgamated plates over which the pulp passes after oozing through a fine screen in front of the mortar. 100 pounds.500 pounds. but the prospector rarely has to figure on shafts of that depth. 350 pounds. is a very favorite machine with western men. shaft three hundred feet deep A would require four hours' steady work to bring to surA fair speed with a one-horse face the same amount. 30 inches. of the horse whim is about eight hundred pounds. They require but one horse power and will do good clean work up to their capacity.MINING. If the mine turns out well it is likely to be in the 'hands of a powerful company (of which he should be the principal share- The weight holder) before the three hundred foot level is reached. Weight of stamp Drops per minute Capacity per hour Diameter of pulley Price. run by ihorse power. 1. ity in 105 fifteen tons the bucket. in forty-five trips you could raise a day. has copper plates amalgamated with mercury inside. about $350. where the ore is The mortar in which the stamps work free milling. The following are the specifications of a good one: Total weigfit Weight of heaviest piece. 300 to 400 pounds. It can be taken to pieces and packed anywhere that a mule can travel. . whim from a three hundred foot shaft is one hundred buckets per shift of ten hours. with horse power. 60 to 80. These little mills are so constructed that they can be taken apart or put together in an hour or two. the heaviest piece will not weigh more than a hundred pounds.

.io6 ABC OF MINING.

essentially. that eats into the strata very quickly. grades of four inches in a hundred. but such extensive investigations of the earth's crust are tremendously costly. big banks of light gravel.100. however. 107 diamond drill is a most useful adjunct to exploramine or deposit. ample dumping room. in limestone. so that the character of the rocks and minerals passed through may be known. Very poor Cheap gravel will pay when the conditions are good. diamond crown. and various minor accessories. The great advant- age of the diamond over the percussion drill is that it permits the saving of a core. The diamond drill does better work in hard strata than it does in soft. down to a depth of 200 feet. water. which yielded only 2. center of the drill.000 feet deep have been driven by the diamond drill. the expense need not exceed $2. lining tubes. The rate. rods. Hydraulic mining recovering gold.500 more. labor at a dollar a day. may be about two feet an hour. It is. a hollow drill which may be lengthened at will. Holes 3. is the cheapest known method of In four years the North Bloomfield Mining Company of California worked 325. For a depth of 700 feet.MINING. The cost of the plant for drilling would be $3. and may only be undertaken by governments or rich companies.000.000 cubic yards.9 cents of gold per cubic yard. rotating rapidly and carrying a crown of "bort" or black diamonds at tion of a its A extremity. A complete outfit for boring with the diamond drill includes a steam engine and boiler. and a clever superin- . and realized some profit. Water to is keep it pumped down the hollow cool. large areas of deposits.

mentions it in his Natural History. Miners speak of "surface" "hill and "deep" placers. The gravel is viz. and carry all the material that has collected below the pass. means of tunnels and drifts or horizontal passageways along the length of the deposit. ABC OF make MINING.. of claims. carried to the mouth of the tunnel to be washed in the sluices. mulation of water in a reservoir. with one full tide. a ''drift" is a tunnel into the gold-bearing gravel and hydraulic diggings are those in which water under pressure is . . Deep mining may be divided into drifting and hyIn the former the metal is won by draulic mining. When and there dumped "cemented" it must be broken up by stamps. possible. and made hydraulic mining imIt is followed in Alaska for another reason. of "gulch diggings. used to disintegrate the gravel.the sand bars of existing rivers. into the This practice is extremely ancient." of "bar claims" on. A ground-sluice is a trench cut through the bed rock. Booming is a process requiring a large accu- may be discharged at once. a combination that will yield a profit out of three-cent gravel. of "beach sands" or those that in a few favored localities border the ocean.108 tendent. Pliny sluices. It is usually resorted to in districts where a flow of lava has covered the gold-bearing gravel. which because the constantly frozen ground will not permit of the more remunerative method. The roughness of the natural floor serves for riffles. "sluice" is A a long boxway to catch the gold." of "bench claims" on the old river terraces.

MINING.

109

Rich deep placers may be worked by drifting, but whenever practicable hydraulicing is to be preferred as giving better results. It yields from four to six times
the

amount

of gold that drifting does.

Thorough ex-

ploration should precede the expenditure of large sums in a hydraulic plant. Even should the explorations

been well spent
plant.

result in finding barren gravels the money will have in saving the cost of an unproductive

Black sand (magnetic iron) almost always accompanies gold, but this alone is no sign that gold is present, as black sand may usually be obtained by grinding and washing crystalline rocks.

Ditches and flumes of

wood

or metal are used to

bring the water for hydraulic mining from the region where it was impounded in a catch basin, often a distance of

many miles.

It is said

$100,000,000 have been

invested in ditches and flumes, mining and agricultural, in the western states, and new flumes are being

Some of them consist of planned every month. wrought iron pipe carried over ravines by trestles 250
feet hig-h.

his

In planning a ditch the miner must see to it that water supply is at a sufficient elevation to command

the ground. The more pressure the water works under the better. The supply should be continuous, or

be available during the whole working season. Ditches in regions of deep snow should have a southern exposure. All streams crossed by the ditch should
at least

be diverted into
loss.

it,

to counteract leakage

and other
half mile.

Waste gates must be provided every

no

ABC OF

MINING.

HICHWATER LEVEL

\
7.71
FT.

7
SECTION OF DITCH.

Ditches are better than flumes. Narrow, deep, and steep ditches are to be preferred in mountainous regions, and the reverse in valleys with soft soil. Some

SECTION OP FLUME.
Californian ditches with a capacity of 80 cubic feet per second and grades of 1 6 to 20 feet per mile have been
built.

Sometimes the

face of the country requires flumes;

MINING.
they

Ill

may even be hung along

the face of a
is

cliff.

In

shattered

ground and where water

scarce flumes are
is

better than ditches.

The grade

for a flume

usually

per mile and its capacity is smaller than Pine planking 2.\ inches by 12 to 24 that of a ditch. inches, and 12 feet long, is the dimension stuff gener-

25 to 35

feet

ally preferred.

A flume 2 feet 6 inches square requires and sills of 3x4 inch; stringers 4x6 inch. Great care is needed at curves to avoid slack water and splashing. The boxes must be shortened and the
posts, caps,

outer side

wedged up

until the

water flows as evenly

as in the straight stretches. Should anchor ice form the water must be shut off at once. The life of a flume

seldom exceeds a dozen years, whereas at the end of a similar period a ditch would be carrying 10 per cent more water than at first, owing to the sides and bottom
having become consolidated.

Wrought iron pipes are employed largely in California to replace ditches and flumes. When the pipe crosses a ravine it is known as an inverted siphon.
Piping
is

also used to

convey water from the "pressure

box" to the "gates" and "nozzle."

Wrought

iron

pipes have to stand pressure varying from 34 pounds Air valves or blowto 800 pounds to the square inch.
offs

of air

must be provided at intervals to allow the escape from the pipe while filling, and to prevent a col-

lapse of the pipe after a break.

A

covering of coal-

Cost tar should be given the pipe both inside and out. varies from one dollar to two dollars a running foot.

The

pressure

box ends

the ditch and from

it

the

water passes into the supply pipe.

The head

of water

which receives the impact of the water and causes the main nozzle to swing right or left. The depth of water in it is such that the mouth of the pipe is always under catches all water. must be turned on gradually. with a side opening and sunk below the level of the ditch. up or upon it to keep the hydraulic giant in down. the first receiving the water and discharging it through suitable openings into the sec- ond. The water supply and the discharge should be The water passes down the feed pipe. and the air valves Water must be open. as the case may demand. is called the "sand box. iron it gates distributing to the discharge pipes. the motive power coming from a A . is a necessity in all hydraulic mining.112 is ABC OF MINING. As no grating in front of the pipe air must be allowed to get into the pipe the water must be 4cept quiet and deep at the pipe-head. The piping terminates in a nozzle with knuckle-joint and lateral movement. and driven by water power. Masts 100 feet high and booms 90 feet long are sometimes used. gravel. box to catch sand and measured from this point. A rubbish. derrick capable of moving heavy boulders. The nozzle is directed by means of a larger deflecting nozzle. Nothing but the most secure bolting to heavy timber and the heavy weighting of the last length of pipe should be relied its place. Should once begin bucking every man within reach of the powerful column of water is in imminent danger. equal." A One and a half inch plank is generally the material out of which the pressure box is made. this is insured by dividing the box into compartments..

this is equal to a 4-4^ per cent grade.MINING. Sluices have their maximum discharge when set Increased grade may be given below any straight. In the old Cariboo diggings on the upper Frazer. Experiments the power was of the wheel. Make drifts T-shaped. and are therefrom. In general. which should be parallel to the face it is required to dislodge. strong companies are now pulverizing the ancient cements that resisted all the efforts of the 59 miners with pow- der and stamp mill. of so-called cement. and the outer side of the sluice must always be raised. much to do with For instance. it rose to 82. deriving large profits mite in gravel. in the sluices Exceptional instances are on record. a grade of 6-6^ inches to the 1 2-foot box is found best. when the water im- pinged against a flat bucket the efficiency of the wheel less than 45 per cent of what it should have been in theory. in placers. impact "hurdy gurdy" have shown that the bucket has direct 113 wheel. There is a great amount other words consolidated gravel. Steps or "drops" help in the recovery of the gold.6 per cent. whereas. or in all the northern and in many California deposits. to be Black powder gives even better results than dynaThe usual allowance of powder is 20 pounds in weight for every 1. In a 4 to 7 per cent grade the water in the sluice should be 10 . where grades ran from i^ per cent to 8 per cent. unavoidable curves with advantage. as well. and tamp the main drift almost to the junction with the arms.000 cubic feet of ground moved. however. with the Pelton bucket.

H4 ABC OF MINING. .

in. Quicksilver is used in the sluices. 6 4 3 ft. ft.000 m.MINING. Grade. 'The longer the better. available a narrow. Refuse material from quartz.000 to 3. details : 115 table gives useful The following Sluice.500 m. i^ p. 1. x 36 X30 x 30 4 to 5 4 p. to five inches. these latter being laid crosswise on the bottom." is the sluice-builder's motto. wedged into the bottom of the sluices. c. The best "riffles" are made of blocks of pine 8 to 13 inches deep. When worn down replaced.000 m. in. c. in. may take the places of dumps. Water. are laid in rows separated by a space of an inch or an inch and a half. hydraulic or other mines is known as tailings. Riffle strips keep them in posi- They tion. deep canyon. 2. in. . in. Tailings are deposited on a dump. the blocks should be This amount of wear will probably require Stone and longitudinal riffles running lengthwise of the box are often preferred. c. ft. It is not placed in the last 300 or 400 feet.800 to 2. 600 to 1. An undercurrent is a broad sluice set at a heavy grade below the level of the main sluice. while the coarse gravel continues on down the sluice. The fine stuff drops through a grating. 14 to 18 flasks being used every fortnight in a long sluice. which in the case of a hydraulic claim must be sufficiently spacious to receive the thousands of When yards of debris deposited on it each day. in. p. or a tunnel. six months. inches deep at least.

wrought iron pipe carried over ravines by trestles 250 feet hig-h. Even should the explorations been well spent plant. 109 Rich deep placers may be worked by drifting. but whenever practicable hydraulicing is to be preferred as giving better results. in the western states. Ditches and flumes of wood or metal are used to bring the water for hydraulic mining from the region where it was impounded in a catch basin. mining and agricultural. It is said $100. but this alone is no sign that gold is present. or be available during the whole working season.000 have been invested in ditches and flumes. it. as black sand may usually be obtained by grinding and washing crystalline rocks. to counteract leakage and other half mile. and new flumes are being Some of them consist of planned every month. result in finding barren gravels the money will have in saving the cost of an unproductive Black sand (magnetic iron) almost always accompanies gold.000. his In planning a ditch the miner must see to it that water supply is at a sufficient elevation to command the ground. Ditches in regions of deep snow should have a southern exposure. The more pressure the water works under the better. Waste gates must be provided every . All streams crossed by the ditch should at least be diverted into loss.MINING. Thorough ex- ploration should precede the expenditure of large sums in a hydraulic plant. The supply should be continuous. It yields from four to six times the amount of gold that drifting does. often a distance of many miles.

Although the dredge has not yet acquired the importance in America that was expected. Zealand the bucket dredge has proved more satisfactory than the suction dredge. 36 and draws 36 inches of water. and as the subject becomes better understood it is conceivable that American mining engineers will be as successful in devising in all other In New improved dredges as they have been branches of their profession. or revolving screens. leaving behind 98 per cent of the gold it once held. is As the dredged and washed.000 cubic yards were worked for 6 cents a cubic yard. The boil- dredge are double. and travels at the rate of fourteen feet a minute. it is successful on one or two western rivers. Before such a dredge the gulch to is is launched. moves to the excavation made by the buckets.000 pounds. a capacity of five cubic feet.MINING.. and weighs nearly 700. the Bucyrus Company has several dredges in successful operation. After ers of this H. in the case of a shallow creek. One is 102 feet long. the now almost valueless gravel goes overboard again. although a hasty conclusion would probably give the latter the palm. and finally by a centrifugal pump. River dredging is another form of gold winning that has been brought to a great state of perfection in New Zealand. and each one has a horizontal drag of eight feet. At Bannack. . There treatment by trommels. which. It is very substantially made. Mont. dumped gravel astern of the up dredge. coppers. yielding 13 cents a cubic yard. 117 large claim 600. a it dam is built across impound sufficient water. feet wide. P. and sluices. and together have 250 are 36 buckets.

John feet long.5 cubic A boom. has Mining and Scientific Press of of the San Francisco a most interesting description progress made in saving the gold from the streams in New Zealand. in part: "After great effort. adapted for work on land nearly Mat. not the best it is not surfailures 'have occurred. The for economical and successful work. however. one of the best authorities. often extensive and rich. W. Zealand. The rivers upon which dredging operations are carried on are swift-flowing streams. where but water is obtainable. subject to frequent floods. the evolution of the industry has been the work of years. numerous trials. The as little it is is really a land-mining machine. 40 Mr. this system of gaining gold has been evolved from crude beginnings into a systematic ana satisfactory method of mining. of dredge is a double pontoon. with boulders and runs of pay dirt interstratified. prising that many The runs of gold are. having a considerable depth of gravel. carries yards' capacity. He says. where more work of this nature has been done than elsewhere. P. a shovel of 1. and conditions are. . The machine travels on bogia tracks. with ladder and chain-bucket arrangement between. Dredging for gold is now attracting attention and bids fair to become an In Xe\v established form of mining for that metal. therefore. and moves 70 cubic yards each hour. A 5O-H. recently written to the Gray. many failures and some large losses. and operations carried on upon such reaches have in a number of cases given "The improved form satisfactory results.Il8 ABC OF traction dredge MINING. boiler supplies the water.

During the last few years. and waste material is handled by The power is usually steam. 119 Screens separate the coarse from the fine material. Under favorable conditions. have been operated in California. 1897. in some localities. "So far in this country (United States). but Very few prove themselves capable . The real cost in actual continued working is much in excess of that figure believed to be very where average condi- tions exist. with poor success. the machines have been rapidly improved and perfected. material has been handled without loss that only yielded a grain of gold to the cubic yard. with a few exceptions.686 for each dredge. although electricity is used in a few instances. supply the water. was an average of $2. Idaho. in size and capacity. The profit on eleven dredges for the four weeks ending July 24. lifted 40 tons per hour when operating. Wide sluicing tables catch the gold. howfinancially successful. Twenty thousand dollars is the cost of a large dredge with all The dredges vary are now built the latest contrivances.MINING. working to a depth of twenty feet below water level. but of large size and great strength. until now. ever. where conditions are favorable. in the way of economical working and high percentage of saving. Montana and Colorado. not yet attained. "One dredge on the Clyde side of the Shotover. centrifugal pumps elevators. dredging operations for gold have not been From crude beginnings. and results are promised. a number of dredges British Columbia. dredges believed to be the most complete yet constructed are being put in operation.

120 ABC OF MINING. in this state. and. Some faulty within themselves. near Smartsville. near Bannack. others were entirely unable to cope with the swift currents and large boulders of the streams upon which they were operated. One man controls the dredge by operated the ladder carrying the means of a . Cal. The dredge is run day and night. composed of two pontoons. Mont. separated by a space five feet in width. has a 25-H. are now carried on successfully upon a large scale. in which is buckets. composed of two flat boats with a large steel scoop between. type. Cost of dredge.000. A dredge upon that river. 96 feet long. is able to out and hoist the gravel and soft bed rock. P. 100 and 150 yards per hour. of the machines were of paying their way. "Perhaps the most interesting dredge yet brought to the notice of the public is one lately built by the Risdon Iron Works. in a dry country. and to handle boulders of from four to six tons' weight. In gravel 10 to 25 deep.. where there is little water. The actual capacities of these 60. 400 cubic yards can be handled every twenty-four hours. dredging is successful upon the Kzamath. has a dredge doing profitable work. San Francisco. $8. or chain-bucket. The upper Sacramento river. It is of the elevator. "Dredging operations on Grasshopper Creek. and re- men for each shift. and now operating machines are upon the Yuba river. This latter is said to have notably proved the case with the dredges tried upon the Frazer and Ouesenelle rivers. in a small way. engine. quires three feet "A large dredge of the chain-bucket variety is operating in Northern Mexico.

and the fine stuff falls through the holes in the screen into a distributing box. 121 power winch with six drums. the actual working capacity would be less. If the capacity of the machine is given without deduction for water raised. Four drums carry lines from the corners of the dredge to anchorages on shore one a head-line and one the ladder line. and the increase in volume of the gravel when broken up in filling the buckets.000 gallons per minute) is supplied to the revolving screen for washing and sluicing purposes by a centrifugal pump. P. the cost of operating would be increased. "In the evolution of the dredge into the elevator or . The material discharges from the buckets into a revolving and perforated screen. The tables are covered with cocoa matting and expanded metal. breakages and repairs. It is claimed for this dredge that in any ground not deeper than 60 feet below water level or more than 20 feet above. The machine is to dredge to a depth of 45 feet.000. The cost of the dredge complete upon the river is said to have been $25.MINING.. and is said to have a gross capacity of 93 cubic yards per hour. The top tumbler of bucket-chain is operated by a vertical compound con- densing engine indicating 35 H. the material can be handled at from 3 to 5 cents per cubic yard. This segregates the large material. which is then conveyed away by the tailings elevator. imperfect filling and general delays. from which it passes to a set of gold-saving tables and thence to a flume. and which contains boulders of not more than one ton weight. which also operates the pump. Water (3. and from these causes and the losses from wear and tear.

in which is buckets. This latter is said to have notably proved the case with the dredges tried upon the Frazer and Ouesenelle rivers. P. 96 feet long. Some faulty within themselves. or chain-bucket. San Francisco. and. are now carried on successfully upon a large scale. is able to out and hoist the gravel and soft bed rock. It is of the elevator. "Perhaps the most interesting dredge yet brought to the notice of the public is one lately built by the Risdon Iron Works. The dredge is run day and night. 400 cubic yards can be handled every twenty-four hours. dredging is successful upon the Kzamath. In gravel 10 to 25 deep. 100 and 150 yards per hour. Mont. The upper Sacramento river. in this state. separated by a space five feet in width. $8. and re- men for each shift. One man controls the dredge by operated the ladder carrying the means of a . quires three feet "A large dredge of the chain-bucket variety is operating in Northern Mexico. engine. and now operating machines are upon the Yuba river.000. and to handle boulders of from four to six tons' weight. in a small way. Cost of dredge. others were entirely unable to cope with the swift currents and large boulders of the streams upon which they were operated. near Bannack. in a dry country. has a dredge doing profitable work.120 ABC OF MINING. "Dredging operations on Grasshopper Creek. has a 25-H. where there is little water. The actual capacities of these 60. near Smartsville.. of the machines were of paying their way. composed of two flat boats with a large steel scoop between. type. A dredge upon that river. Cal. composed of two pontoons.

"The proper capacity of a machine seems to be regulated by the capacity of the gold-saving appliances. "The chain-bucket machine. gold-saving arrangements. I2J conditions. and it would seem quite possible that conditions might be found existing where the suction dredges might be arranged to do good work. The tables are covered with plush or cocoa matting. The tables should be as wide as possible. revolving screen to receive and wash the ma- and separate the coarse from the fine an elevator or contrivance for carrying off the coarse gravel and stones. and regularly to the tables. supplied evenly. Care and attention are required to catch the fine gold. A disregard of the foregoing directions re- . and sufficient water supplied The material should be to keep the material clear. which the is fine material passes and upon which the gold caught. or tables. A dredging company is now constructing. continuously. a pumping apparatus to supply water for washing and sluicing. with frequent drops. over terial . and the fine material should be distributed over the tables in a thin film. two dredges of the suction type to operate upon the Yukon This would indicate that there are those who river. is a combination of the following elements: An excavating apparatus which clears the bottom and handles the material with little agitation and slowly and continuously delivers a regular quantity of gravel to the gold-saving appliances. at Seattle. believe that deposits occur in and along that river which can be successfully worked in this way.MINING. the popular form for operating under average conditions.

124 ABC OF more skill is MINING. Careful examination and investigation of the ground to be worked should be made beforehand. Where the proper conditions exist. or be impossible at any cost. A man skilled in these matters should be in charge of running operations. particularly in the fine gold. and this water can. Dredging requires little water as compared with that required for sluicing and elevating. draulic be supplied at small expense. however. in many dry localities. required to properly design and construct a dredge. The a system which mends ground need not be in a river. The saving of the gold. is what makes dredging operations a commercial success. There is probably a very large extent of country where dredging for gold will be carried on profitably. sufficient to float the if there is seepage water dredge and supply clear water for the saving of the gold. and the care of a competent mechanic is necessary to see that the machine is kept in Mechanical order and economically operated. of being an economical method of mining. Dredges should be built of determined capacities. comand which gives promise. Any power suitable for driving the prime motors can be utilized to run the dredge. it would seem as if a system of min- . and it goes without saying that these matters require engineering and experience. in competent hands. and should be designed to suit the conditions under which they are to operate. suits in great loss. Indeed. and the surrounding conditions skill studied. 'The field for dredging itself. where a supply for hywork or elevating would cost a very large sum. for gold it is seems large.

Four drums carry lines from the corners of the dredge to anchorages on shore one a head-line and one the ladder line. and the fine stuff falls through the holes in the screen into a distributing box. and from these causes and the losses from wear and tear. imperfect filling and general delays. the actual working capacity would be less. breakages and repairs. If the capacity of the machine is given without deduction for water raised.000. P. The material discharges from the buckets into a revolving and perforated screen.. The cost of the dredge complete upon the river is said to have been $25. The top tumbler of bucket-chain is operated by a vertical compound con- densing engine indicating 35 H. the material can be handled at from 3 to 5 cents per cubic yard. from which it passes to a set of gold-saving tables and thence to a flume. The machine is to dredge to a depth of 45 feet.000 gallons per minute) is supplied to the revolving screen for washing and sluicing purposes by a centrifugal pump. The tables are covered with cocoa matting and expanded metal. which also operates the pump. Water (3. and the increase in volume of the gravel when broken up in filling the buckets. "In the evolution of the dredge into the elevator or . 121 power winch with six drums. the cost of operating would be increased. and which contains boulders of not more than one ton weight.MINING. It is claimed for this dredge that in any ground not deeper than 60 feet below water level or more than 20 feet above. and is said to have a gross capacity of 93 cubic yards per hour. This segregates the large material. which is then conveyed away by the tailings elevator.

concentrating is one of the main reliances of the mill man. But the best machine so far invented is the Frue Vanner an endless rubber band drawn over an inclined table. "slickensides. lodes.126 ABC OF MINING. The lighter particles are carried off by water. preliminary treatment to have been by stamps in the battery. in such fashion as to the heavy material separate from the light. and they give better results on fine gold than make FRUE VANNER. The blanket table is undoubtedly the oldest type of concentrating machine. In this system a sharp and frequently repeated blow is given the table. or ledges. and in the former they generally cut the beds at an angle. but it is very inferior to modern inventions. Veins. having both revolving and side motions. Veins are bounded by walls." The upper . "Shaking" and "rocking" tables are favored in some mills. and the heavier collected in a trough. may be found in stratified or unstratified rocks. any of the previously mentioned devices. Percussion tables often do good work. The rock in which a vein Smooth walls are called is found is a country rock.

the exploration ing along A B to the line of fault be continued downward. As regards the comparative merits of chlorination and cyanization. or gangue. When measured by the the miner his attempt to recover the lode. Under A . the hanging wall the other layer of clay between the veins and mass of rock enclosed in the vein wall is a selvage. chlorine gives a higher percentage of gold under others the same may be said of cyanide.MINING. is a horse. A A of a vein that is not mineral." that its A is to say. has lost may brightness and power of amalgamating. comes to a fault. the other. he should follow the greater angle in For instance. The vein stone. wall of an inclined vein is 127 . Y. because the angle A B X will is Y B X. greater than the angle Mercury that has been "sickened. it may be said the one is the equal of certain conditions. on min- A FAULT. description of either process . often be cured by washing with an extremely weak solution of sulphuric acid and adding a little zinc. is The throw of a fault in a vein amount of vertical displacement. is all that part the foot wall.

It is like a cider mill in its principle. Small quantities of mercury. has been found a satisfactory proportion in California. about a tablespoonful to every five tons of gravel. The ore should be crushed to pigeon-egg size. the speed ranging from 4 to 18 turns a minute. . couple of inches off the floor. This humble device may be used to advantage. in a simple elementary Handed down through arrastra is still the centuries. Grinding blocks weighing 400.128 ABC OF MINING. or arms. or perhaps even 1. A circular. revolves in the center of the arrastra. horse. Mule. This pavement is a foot thick. however. less expensive. would be out work. A vertical shaft with an arm. arrastra.000 pounds. Nothing can be simpler. shallow pit. the primitive useful in certain contingencies. or else of the Spanish wine-press. uncut stones of granite. and handle one ton a day of 24 Ores that were so poor they yielded nothing stamp mill have paid well with the arrastra. to the gravels of the Northwest. arrastra 10 feet in diameter will treat 500 or 600 pounds of ore at a charge. water or steam power may be used. or other hard rock. and beneath it is a bed of puddled clay 6 inches deep. basalt. or save a greater proportion of the value in the ore than the An Its limited capacity is its worst fault. is first paved with hard. a dozen feet or more in diameter. of place. are fastened to the arms by chains or rawhide The forward part of each stone is raised a strips. and was probably suggested by recollections of that machine. probably in some of the poorer gold-bearing cemented hours.

The arrastra man who. leaving the gold and amalgam on the floor of the arrastra. charge mitted until the paste is quite thin. the clean-up not taking place oftener than every ten days. After the machine has been.MINING. and this is perhaps one of the reasons for which it has always been so favored in indolent Mexico. A fairrequire 50 pounds of quartz to and the material must be broken into pigeonegg size. while a stamp will cost a . At this stage. times only at intervals of a month or so. and a little water added from time to time.started. and somehalf an. as all the stone work must be taken up each time and all the sand and mud between them must be washed poor is extremely valuable to the discovered a gold-bearing vein. at the least possible outlay. A hour of this treatment suffices and the thin mud is run off. and water then adsized arrastra will it. The rougher the bottom the longer the interval between clean-ups. 129 In a permanent arrastra a layer of neatly-dressed and pointed stones is laid in hydraulic cement. wishes to transfer some of the metal into his own carefully. it within reach of all. Quicksilver must now be added in the proportion of ij ounce for every supposed ounce of gold in the ore being treated. little else need to be done for four or five hours. A second charge of broken quartz is put in and the operation repeated. Two hours' further grinding is given. the quartz and ore will be very finely pulverized. having places Its cheapness pocket. and water should be added until the pulp is as thin as cream. the speed of the arrastra being reduced at the same time so as to allow the amalgam and quicksilver to sink to the bottom.

Free-milling gold and high-grade silver and gold ores are those usually being suited to this any save very costly treated. indeed. it is particularly suited for the poor. the outer stone is traveling 400 feet a minute. to plants. sometimes 250 pounds being put in a single charge. and the owner. nor. It is. Overshot wheels. in case of one arrastra that is working on tailings. Some mill men use chemicals potassium cyanide. The ite. however. lean ores. Rich silver ores are treated with blue stone and salt. only adapted to those that are free-milling. and wood ashes or lye are probably the most useful. basalt or flagging should be of tough. One man a shift can look after a couple of arrastras. others not form of apparatus. or a side gate. coarse rock grancompact quartz are all good. more good Then again the amalgamation being perfect in the arrastra than in any other mill. the ging should be at the very least a foot thick. When silver is the pulp has been ground sufficiently.130 ABC OF deal. A 1 2-foot arrastra will never treat more than two tons a day. This flag. or hurdy-gurdies. or turbines. and often no more than one-half that. . lets the liquid mud out. in the arrastra. Some arrastras have been built to treat old tailings. furnish the power in many cases. A simple mule-power arrastra may be built for $150. quickadded. When arms of a lo-foot arrastra are revolving 14 times a minute. and have paid well when water power could be used. often does everything himself. as the latter cuts grease and the former gives life to the quicksilver. Round holes closed by wooden plugs. MINING.

and this may be done by the exhaust steam. Ample water power is necessary. 131 site of A side hill should be chosen for the a battery. room below the mill for the tailings. mill Automatic ore-feeders are always put in by good men. as Moreover. In cold climates the water that goes through the mill should be heated. as it would prevent the gold from amalgama- . though provision may be made for saving it in catch basins should such a course be desired. sirable at some future time to put them through a second course of treatment. but care is necessary that no grease get into it.MINING. there must be plenty of it may be de- STAMP BATTERY.

have passed over the tables. Tables must be water-tight. and weigh from 700 to 850 pounds.. THREE STAMP BATT1 After the concentrated materials. Below them tables. having the same inclination and covfor a light mill ered with blanketing.132 ting. are used to retain specks of gold that have passed over the plates without amalgamating. . These processes belong. etc. always spoken of as the concentrates. they are often roasted to get rid of the sulphur. according to the fineness of the gold. tin. with half an inch to one inch drop to the foot. may be 3 or 5 in number. and afterwards treated with quicksilver in the pan. or with chlorine or cyanide. ABC OF The stamps MINING. and require the knowledge and experience of an expert to stand a chance of success. to the domain of the professional chemist and metallurgist. however. arsenic.

and then a card mercury removes the last vestiges of is drawn vertically or a piece . 6 diameter. chiefly in evidently a very Prospecting stamp batteries differ from ordinary batbeing of light build and weight. and thus any pulp The that finds its way into one of the holes is certain to battery may require 13 get out again and not clog. Amalgam coming from battery stamps is often mixed with After being gathered. agree in numbers with those of sewing-machine When slots are preferred to needles. Soft unglazed paper thrust into the water. according to individual preference. the latter "important detail of a battery. they are generally f-inch in length and No. Russia iron screens endure 15 to 40 days. dried with a sponge.000 in the United States. teries. Russia sheet iron. The holes. foreign matter picked off the surface and clean quicksilver added. entirely A As the work a stamp can do depends upon how much pulp can escape through the is screen in any given tim. each screen having a surface of about 1 1 square feet. and show no rust or flaws. from o to 10. In Australia 1-16 sheet copper is preferred. when round. holes. or sheet steel i -32-inch thick is the material of which they are made. smooth surface. The number of holes to the square inch ranges between 60 and 800 in Australia. sets of screens a year.e. and between 900 and 10. It should weigh one pound to the square foot. The coarseness infinite 133 is of the mortar screens subject to variety. have a clean. it is all sorts of rubbish.MINING. be very soft and tough. holes in any case must be punched in the sheet so that the rough edges are turned.

one ounce to each 75 pounds of mercury. if possible. This sodium amalgam is not absolutely necessary. the amalgam is retorted. It is next turned into pointed bags of stout canvas and force applied until most of the quicksilver has squeezed through. it of blanket horizontally across the mercury to clean of iron. The quicksome gold. when it is dried with a sponge. is put in the amalgam kettle and the whole stirred.134 ABC OF MINING. Sodium amalgam. but it had better remain . After squeezing. water is poured on the mercury and the whole stirred. All dirt rises to the surface and is removed with a sponge. The cleaning is continued until the mercury seems absolutely free from any impurity. After some minutes. the latter is put on a strong table having an inclined surface with a groove and hole at the lower end to catch any stray globules of quicksilver. All the amalgam is placed in one large kettle and. desirable. but is GOLD RETORT. silver still contains The amalgam remains behind.

Metallic sodium and quicksilver are the necessary ingredients. always in the center. As soon as the sodium touches the mercury a flash and mild explosion will follow. unless he courts salivation and all its attendant ills. the former being kept in a wide-mouthed bottle covered with coal oil. if 135 gold. cut into ^-inch squares and placed with a long pair of tongs in the cenfer of the warm quicksilver. each bottle must be used. but after a few cubes have been introduced into is sodium the frying-pan. As soon as a solid mass of amalgam forms in the and a middle of the pan. and if put into closely-stopped bottles it will keep without further protection for a little time. by the way. Sodium amalgam is best made by the miner himself. Observe all these directions faithfully.MINING. the operator meanwhile keeping religiously to windward of it. Five pounds of clean mercury is poured into the pan. little more sodium added. piece of A wiped dry. is now off the fire and in the open air. . but not much above. which. then there will be no danger of inhaling mercurial fumes nor of being blown to atoms. as gold attracts can always be recovered by retorting. the contents must be stirred slowly. After the amalgam is once made. and heated beyond the boiling-point of water. The whole mass now crystallizes out. Once opened. or there will be a sensible loss of mercury. is to be used again. the mercury it enough for one clean-up at a time. A frying-pan makes a useful mixer. this will cease. It must be dry and clean. and dried with a sponge. fill it is safe as In retorting amalgam never the flask too full. sugar.

and under the influence of the continued side-to-side rocking the dirt is quickly disintegrated. The rocker at is a box 40 inches on the bottom. occupies A light canvas-covered frame is stretched under this. The gravel is The cradle must be placed on an inclination while being worked. forming a riffle. long. and occasionally CROSS SECTION OF ROCKER. and apply the heat gradually. amalgamated copper plates. and always from the top of the flask downward. 16 inches wide and with rockers A hopper 20 inches square and 4 inches deep. are placed in the bottom. like a cradle. Riffles. having the top. passes through the riddle and falls on the apron. fed into the hopper.136 ABC OF MINING. an iron bottom perforated with ^-inch 'holes. From the apron it is conveyed to the inner end of the cradle . sloped each end. the cradle being then rocked by one hand while water is fed by a dipper with the other.

but smaller ones assist in breaking up the lumps of dirt. Two men can wash nearly three times as much dirt in a day as one man. and but one-tenth that of a very poor sluice. from which he ladles it up as required. is led to a little pit on the right side of the operator. and saves a high percentage of coarse gold. 137 floor. the rocker will continue to be used in many districts. or bars. The most convenient way is to lead the water from a stream is. but this More hand often the water of course. the sand will pack. Clean-ups are necessary two or three is taken off first. . Gravel requires at least three times own weight of water to wash it. But in any case. The difference in level of the floor is generally about 2| inches.MINING. through a pipe discharging directly over the hopper. The hopper out. and must be removed before washing can go on. times a day. and panned its out. Every little while the pebbles are turned out and looked over for nuggets. then the apron is slid and washed in a bucket or tub con- taining clean water. One man can wash from one to three cubic yards daily according to the character of the dirt. but every time 'he stops the machine to feed it with gravel or to empty the riddle. having a capacity but one-fifth as great as Long Tom. the rocker is only a primitive that of the machine. impracticable in some places. from which it flows over the riffles. Large stones in the riddle or hopper must be thrown out. but this may be varied according to the nature of the dirt treated. and out at the mouth. but as it is cheap. requires but little water. and finally the gold and amalgam are collected in an iron spoon from behind the riffle bars.

the metal must be coarse and the water plentiful. carrying away all the lighter matter thrown into and separating it from the heavy.ONG TOM. When the operations would not be permanent enough. The Long Tom was invented many years ago by Georgia miners. SLUICE BOXES. with a fall equal to that of the trough and a sufficient depth to keep the material and water from spilling over the sides. A sheet iron plate forms the lower end of the trough. to work riffles. and 8 inches deep. Every sluice is an inclined channel through which flows a stream of water. a ground sluice is preferred to the ordinary box sluice made of boards. It should have four For this means of saving the gold. satisfactorily. The lower or riffle-box is 12 feet long by 3 feet wide. The grade is usually I in 12. It is a trough 12 feet by 15 to 20 inches at the upper end. and 30 inches at the lower. upper trough.138 ABC OF MINING. it. These figures refer to the L. . or sometimes for other reasons.

however.000 feet. though generally 16 or 18 inches. efficacious in arresting the "flour. The copper plate is first washed with a weak solution of nitric acid. No mercury is used. from 30 to 5. fine gold. The boxes are made 4 inches wider at the upper end than at the lower. but are placed some distance down the sluice and are most thick. The bottom should be of i^-inch plank. so as to telescope. The grade is proportioned to the fineness of the gold. bottom It is is .MINING. and the collected coarse gold washed in the pan. 139 Ground sluicing requires. a number of boulders too heavy to be moved by the stream are put into the sluice to act as work. They vary in width from I to 5 feet. six times as much water as does a box sluice to do the same amount of simply a gutter in the bed rock. When treated with quicksilver. The water is turned off riffles. the copper plate amalgamated with mercury on its These plates are never used at the head of a sluice or other situation where there is much coarse gold. as they would be superfluous in such a situation. Sluice boxes may be any length. and then mercury that has been treated with a weak nitric acid solution is rubbed on the plate. As this surface of . and must be handled with care." or excessively Plates are always of copper above 1-16 inch and may be 6 feet or more long. and the sides of i-inch boards. and if the hard and uneven its inequalities will arrest the gold if not. The best method found yet for arresting fine gold is face. and of a width suited to the capacity of the sluice. varying from 8 inches to 2 feet to the 1 2-foot box or length. they become as brittle as glass.

138

ABC OF

MINING.

The Long Tom was invented many years ago by Georgia miners. It is a trough 12 feet by 15 to 20 inches at the upper end, and 30 inches at the lower, and 8 inches deep. The grade is usually I in 12. A sheet iron plate forms the lower end of the trough. These figures refer to the

L.ONG TOM.

upper trough.

The lower or

riffle-box is 12 feet

long

by 3 feet wide, with a fall equal to that of the trough and a sufficient depth to keep the material and water from spilling over the sides. It should have four For this means of saving the gold, to work riffles. satisfactorily, the metal must be coarse and the water
plentiful.

SLUICE BOXES.

Every

sluice

is

an inclined channel through which

flows a stream of water, carrying

away

all

the lighter

matter thrown into

and separating it from the heavy. When the operations would not be permanent enough, or sometimes for other reasons, a ground sluice is preferred to the ordinary box sluice made of boards.
it,

MINING.
ing gently meanwhile, has formed. Let this new
until a thick, pasty

141

compound stand

hours, and squeeze through chamois as proportion of silver may be about I ounce to the square foot of copper to be plated.

amalgam for some usual. The

In facing new copper plates with this amalgam, they should be washed first with dilute nitric acid then in
;

clear water;

the ball of

amalgam being rubbed over

their surfaces,

some little force being applied. Plates should not be used for 24 hours after coating. Porous copper plates of the best quality, and not too heavily
rolled,

should be used.

Follow the amalgam with a

swab, and rub the alloy well into the plate. Zinc amalgam (preferable when mine water containing sulphuric acid is used in the battery) is applied to
the plate after
dilute
it has been cleaned with a moderately mixture of sulphuric acid and water. The zincquicksilver ball is rubbed in and applied while the plate

is still

wet.

Zinc amalgam

is

pfepared as follows

:

Cut

zinc-sheet into small pieces; wash in weak sulphuric acid; and dissolve in mercury. When the quicksilver
will take

rub- in.

no more zinc, squeeze through chamois and Zinc-coated plates should stand a week before

Very weak sulphuric acid will always being used. clean these plates of any scum that may form before they have received a gold coat.
Sometimes the miner
will

be troubled with impure

gold after retorting. If the metal is very dark this shade may come from the presence of large amounts of iron. A heavy proportion of mineral salts, such as
chloride of calcium (CaCl), sodium (NaCl), and

mag-

142

ABC OF
(NgG
this.
2 ),

MINING.
water sometimes ac-

nesium

in the battery

counts for

In such cases amalgamate, retort, pulThen smelt with borax, the iron verize and roast. passing into the slag. If necessary smelt a second time,
the gold should be pure

when

enough

to dispose of.

In extreme cases, the gold the amalgam treated.
procurable, dry washing rich, coarse gold can be
is

may weigh

but one-fifth of
not

In districts where sufficient water for sluicing
resorted to.
this

is

worked by

Nothing but method, and

the dry washer rarely delves far below the surface for his gold. In the Mexican deserts the dirt is laid

on raw hide, all the large pebbles picked out ami the sand rubbed as fine as possible between the hands. The sand is placed in a batea and winnowed by tossing in the air, the lighter material being blown to leaward and the heavy gold falling into the batea. A form of winnowing machine has been patented, which may be driven by horse or hand-power, which is said to give satisfaction. It works by forcing a strong blast of air from a fan through a canvas screen. The inventor claims that it will do the work of three men, and work
dirt for 2,\ cents a cubic yard.

When

there

is

a tenis

dency

in

the material to cake, dry washing

im-

possible.

Properly made. the quickest mode in winter. N..CAMP LIFE. made of canvas or leather. 143 CHAPTER CAMP The Indian heap big fire . but it is generally as full of smoke as a kitchen chimney.. is That is in summer. All same. in use on the plains. truthfully observes: "White man make . original spirits are said to have started for City. and for that reason cannot truthfully be recommended. the tepee is the thing where wood is scarce. etc. fish. W. T. the in the top. however. Some Dawson and ficed. In theory. by the original smoke-dried process. air smoke should all pass out of the opening skin and carefully excluding all from around the lower rim of the tepee. The Scripture declares that he that tarrieth over the wine cup has red eyes next morning. a few years ago with bicycles push carts. as hereand a sturdy pair of legs were supposed to help the wayfarer in that region better than tofore a canoe anything dog-train else. Indian make little fire get close. it will become an admirable place to cure hams. If these means of transport had suf- the world would have learnt something. keep far off. LIFE. VI. and so has he that sleeps in a By using no second smoky tepee." The small fire does best in the circular tepee tent. the of travel. In the . The tepee is quite an institution.

The inventor claims that it will do the work of three men. It works by forcing a strong blast of air from a fan through a canvas screen.142 ABC OF (NgG this. and the dry washer rarely delves far below the surface for his gold. pulThen smelt with borax. the gold the amalgam treated. all the large pebbles picked out ami the sand rubbed as fine as possible between the hands. procurable.\ cents a cubic yard. In extreme cases. A form of winnowing machine has been patented. and work dirt for 2. the lighter material being blown to leaward and the heavy gold falling into the batea. When there is a tenis dency in the material to cake. 2 ). In the Mexican deserts the dirt is laid on raw hide. The sand is placed in a batea and winnowed by tossing in the air. water sometimes ac- nesium in the battery counts for In such cases amalgamate. MINING. dry washing rich. retort. the gold should be pure when enough to dispose of. coarse gold can be is may weigh but one-fifth of not In districts where sufficient water for sluicing resorted to. which is said to give satisfaction. which may be driven by horse or hand-power. passing into the slag. this is worked by Nothing but method. . If necessary smelt a second time. dry washing im- possible. the iron verize and roast.

10 . upturned and narrow. and taking windfalls and down timber in his stride. even to amalgamating and retorting the precious metals.CAMP LIFE. but horse or bull hide will do at a pinch. and flat. while that of the plains is very long. The string is made of moose hide. broad kettle boils in less time than a deep. and the team spreads out like a fan when at work. as with them all things are possible. these things should be the last to go. hard wood. while with them on he sails along gayly. All Matches provisions should be kept in canvas bags. 145 region the dogs are harnessed one behind the other. in a leather case or safe. The shoe in vogue in the forest is short and almost round. but on the Yukon each pulls by a separate trace. latter may be cut from a bush at any time. A camp kit of cooking utensils often begins and tin kettle. Caribou. Without "paddles" on the feet the explorer could hardly make his way through the woods. or reindeer hide. But the loop by which the shoe is fastened on the foot is always the same. narrow one of the same cubic capacity. making a bee-line over frozen lake and water courses. stretched. There is a reason for these modifications. makes the best filling. The frame is usually of ground ash. or in a corked bottle. After Christmas the snow-shoe is generally a necessity in the north. The frying-pan ends with a frying-pan and must have a socket instead of a long handle. or some other tough. at the toe. and greased before use. as the A low. as the tyro will soon find out should he substitute the one for the other in the native habitat of either. Certainly when traveling light.

Now. while in the tropics the explorer gets along very comfortably with rice or an occasional must be carried from A . and trust in the future. happy. the man who elects to dwell with nature has only himself to thank if he does not like his lodgings. their importance is in the order named." the veteran particularly care- take matters as smoothly as he may. He can be comfortable or wretched. and one of the great problems of wilder- ness travel is to provide transport for the supplies that civilization. food is something that is painfully scarce in many parts of the world. heat-producing food. The and three prime wants are food. the trapper and the soldier each learns to look after his own comfort and to seize every opportunity of making life discomfort in his lot to satisfy It is just the same in other . clothing and shelter. Possibly prospectors that have become Now pessimistic drop out of the ranks. walks of life the sailor. rigorous northern climate necessitates a large consumption of strong. hopeI do not remember Especially. being well assured that in any case there will be enough inevitable any reasonable craving. ever meeting one that was not brimful of expectation not penetrated. as pleasant as possible. he ful man. if Blankets are never kicked off sewn up at foot and side into a sleeping bag. according to 'his knowledge of woodcraft and wilderness residence. Whereas the tyro tion of ful to starts out with the avowed intenis "roughing it. The existence of the prospector being passed in regions where the so-called benefits of civilization have is generally a healthy.146 ABC OF MINING. hopeful.

it is said. Other travelers have found that they fared better by copying to some extent the manner and customs of the natives. provided with every canned and potted luxury the stores contain. these two adventurous Norwegians. washed down by draughts of melted snow water. Moreover. did not know what sickness meant." by which robust. Compare such a diet with that of Nansen.CAMP LIFE. although government expeditions. the man of science after a couple of hundred years or so of deliberation confirms the discovery by announcing that the flesh of a swine mixed with the fruit of the bean contains tain life. The lumber- man "It sticks to the ribs.. unstimulat- mg diet of rice suits the liver better under the Equator than the Bass ale and roast beef galore. 147 sl-jnny fowl. have suffered the ravages of scurvy. living on the food their rifles had provided. necessary to susThe moral of all this is that pork and beans outfitting. The laborer having found by experience that the side of a pig and a sack of beans was a good combination to have in the larder. etc. with plantains for dessert. if says not classical. the arctic explorer! He and his companion lived and waxed fat on a diet of lean bear's meat three times a day. must not be forgotten when A few other . phrase he means that he can chop longer without feeling hungry on pork and beans than on al: most any other food. all the carbo-hydrates. power against Fat seal blubber gives wonderful resisting cold. On this continent the working man found out long ago that pork and beans suits him nicely. while a mild. and plenty of boiled and filtered water.

dress resolves itself Cut is into a mere question of warmth and comfort. This list : should suffice for feeding one man for 12 months Sugar Apples (evaporated) Salt Salt pork Pepper Condensed milk Flour Candles 75 pounds. things being desirable. 50 pounds. but only insomuch as it allows free play to the limbs. the following list may be consulted to advantage by the prospective prospector. of importance truly. Home- spun. I case. and cold indeed if an old woodsman is caught traveling through the forest with his burly form encased in . or even fur. 2 barrels. while for winter use a heavy Mackinaw overcoat. heavy tanned duck. Rubber boots and slickers are also necessary to his comfort. doz. I pound. to the arms in digging. for the extreme north. corduroy or moleskin. The the lgs in climbing the stiff side of a canyon. unheard on the mounand beneath the pines. I box. When actually at work the miner is more often in his must the day be shirt sleeves than not. case.148 ABC OF MINING. and to dictates of fashion being tain side. 200 pounds. 25 pounds. Matches Soap Tea Beans i 12 boxes. 212 pounds. and flannel underclothing should be the mainstays of a miner's wardrobe. bars. is advisable.

keep the hands warm enough even at 20 degrees below zero. 6 pairs worsted socks. The favorite style of architecture in the wilderness . and a long pair of knee-high oversocks be drawn over these. muffler. suit oil slickers. and a pair casins. 2 flannel shirts. of leather mitts outside. Boots must be replaced by mocA pair of thick worsted mitts. 1 pair suit gum boots. feet. i pair miner's boots. The first should be stowed into two pairs of wool socks. I I i horsehide jacket. broad-brimmed fur cap. I 1 Mackinaw overcoat. felt hat. i i 1 pair fur mitts. i homespun. 149 For arctic conditions akin to those found on the upper Yukon an outfit such as the following should be chosen : 2 heavy knitted undershirts. pair moleskin trousers.CAMP furs. fingers and face require the most care. At 50 degrees below put on an extra pair or go home until the weather 2 pairs blankets. In cold weather the moderates. 2 pairs moccasins. LIFE. 2 pairs flannel mitts. 2 pairs overstockings.

and damp. dugout is its extreme simplicity. neither Doric nor the Gothic nor yet the RenaisThe beauty of the It is called the dugout. A A as a rabbit. sance. after fighting his way across Europe and back again. hot. by turns. hole in the side of a dry bank. the tent A ing fire dant. Now. comfort. as much perhaps as feed a fair-sized family furnace for a month. or one of those clay. there to await in peace. and. and often simple lean-to shelter. habitation. The only drawback it to the pre-eminence you must have logs on pigeons before she makes pigeon pie and logs are in some districts only known as museum specimens. truth. the dugout or the 'dobe only require a gravel bank.150 is ABC OF MINING. and a roarbadly ventilated. and there veteran miner goes to earth as easily you have it. cold. would . is never at a loss for an Next to the dugout the log cabin deserves mention. like bunny. of the log cabin is that to make just as the cook always insists deposits of argilite that the vulgar persist in calling were it not for this fatal ease of getting. Napoleon found. In is a very uncomfortable and unhealthy make-shift. while the wattle and daub or 'dobe certainly secures third honors. and dignity the arrival of the representative of the "English syndicate" to whom he is destined to sell his claim. are infinitely preferable where wood is abunBut it takes a lot of wood to keep a bivouac warm on a winter's night. a few sods or logs for roof. every miner and prospector would doubtless prefer living in a snug log hut. that his troops were more healthy bivouacking in the open than sheltered in tents.

the second travelers. full-limbed rock maple. but the edifice itself often consumes a tall. or a stately birch between the setting of the sun and the rising of the same. brush-lined gully. not to fritter it away fighting a power against which you may make no real headway. The secret to conserve your energy. or small clump of trees. the lea of a baqk. never pitch a tent with the doorway toward the northwest in winter. having a tent come down about one's ears in the dark must be experienced to be realized. these and other seemingly slight proThe tections sometimes mean life instead of death. Also." and other prairie where fuel is scarce. Two back trappers' logs. because that is the quarter from which comes the cold. as he knows how vitally necessary it is on occasions to be able to kindle a blaze at very short notice. . and the unpleasantness of matches in his pocket. 151 a most regal blaze.CAMP The fire is LIFE. If used by "Lo. do as the animals and Indians do under like circumstances : seek the nearest shelter and lie close until the is weather has moderated. overtaken by storm in any wild northern region. the is first is suited for a "wooden" country. a pair of "hand junks" and a "forestick" are the foundation upon which the structure is reared. as no matter how fine the evening the weather ere morning may be tempestuous in the extreme. There are three ways of making a fire. A shallow. experienced woodsman never leaves camp without and in winter he carries a few pieces of dry birch bark in the bosom of his hunting shirt. A tent should never be pitched loosely.

mouth and ears. and in \\inter is better A than snow goggles to avert blind- But. the mosquito. not necessary to take into the wilderness An old hand thinks himself rich with a few pounds of flour in his sack. The best remedy for the mos- quito and black fly is a mixture of tar and olive oil. unfortunately. with woodsmen. rubbed on all exposed dark green veil will also keep parts of the person. and so on ad infinitum. make life a burden in the north. and will suffice for the next batch of bread. The dough is next covered with a cloth and set in a warm corner to rise. Making bed but the result takes longer in is camp than in the city. proceeds in this fashion: A visit to the nearest hardwood ridge shows him a green parasitic lichen growing on the bark of the maples (lungwort). and soon has a batch of bread baking it To make good bread is either yeast cakes or mixing pan would turn many a housewife green with envy. a few hours later it is re-kneaded and baked. Nothing more just as satisfactory. of the consistency of cream. the black fly and the midge or sand fly. or raised dough. the insect pests out of the eyes. Some that He of this he gathers. it interferes with the enjoyment of the pipe. and hence is not in much favor ness. In the morning he mixes his flour into a paste with this decoction. In summer.l$2 ABC OF MINING. from June until mid-August. comforting than a couch of fir boughs has been de- . using the bag as a pan. The result should be delicious bread. and steeps it over night in \varm water near the embers. Some of the leaven. may be kept.

These he places in layers like shingles on a roof. open will consumption. If sufficiently deep. such a bed will be soft and elastic for a night or two. heard of. ways is. and poor ventila- Leaving the window wide almost always prevent these evil consequences. such ills as pneumonia. and a half dozen lessons from an A old fisherman will teach him all that he requires of these simple but extremely useful accomplishments. They find by experience that they are lucky if they escape with nothing more serious than a heavy cold. the greatest danger the wanderer runs is on his return to civilization..CAMP LIFE. 153 vised by man. engineers. when it will require re-laying. the Indian just as instinctively reclines with his side to it and his way is the most philosophical. are un- Boat building and net making are two arts that the few weeks passed prospector will do well to master. beginning at the foot and laying the butt of each bough toward the head. and others whose work calls them into camp for months at a stretch. etc. wet. Hot. cold. notwithstanding. say a couple of feet or so. in a building yard. stuffy air. tion cause the trouble. In the wilderness. dread their first night in a feather bed. and exposure. Strange as it may seem. with the delicious aroma of the fir Fragrant it balsam. and allow the constitution to become once more tolerant of a lack of oxygen. bronchitis. al- The white man stretches himself instinctively feet to the fire. The best food for sustaining life in the north i . Land surveyors. Choosing a level spot the woodsman cuts several armfuls of the feathery tips of the fir bal- sam.

W. The meat is cut in thin flakes and air. "Why . G. These are rammed by main force into a bag of green hide. Dawson. and in none of them has the footfall of a white man yet been echoed.000. one-third pure hunch and one-third service berries (A canadensis). . Dr. the best authority on the subject. and pounded until as solid as a Such a solid mass of food will keep for years rock.000 square miles he divides into deposits. has said there are 1. sixteen separate areas. or of the deer. fat. or caribou. Perhaps the reader may be inclined to exclaim: so much about the North why not more about the East.000.154 ABC OF It MINING. in a cool climate. was once made out fried then a mixture is made of one-third dried meat.000 square miles of virgin territory in Canada to-day. substituted. others half that of Europe. pemmican. now is of buffalo meat. South or West?" My reply to such would Because the great finds of the future will surely be: be made in the North. and no doubt a very large proportion of it contains mineral This 1. some half as large as Ireland. but the flesh of the moose.

the greatest danger the wanderer runs is on his return to civilization. beginning at the foot and laying the butt of each bough toward the head. They find by experience that they are lucky if they escape with nothing more serious than a heavy cold. and allow the constitution to become once more tolerant of a lack of oxygen. stuffy air. wet. and exposure. the Indian just as instinctively reclines with his side to it and his way is the most philosophical. when it will require re-laying. say a couple of feet or so.. are un- Boat building and net making are two arts that the few weeks passed prospector will do well to master. such ills as pneumonia. engineers. cold. These he places in layers like shingles on a roof. such a bed will be soft and elastic for a night or two. and others whose work calls them into camp for months at a stretch. 153 vised by man. The best food for sustaining life in the north i . dread their first night in a feather bed. tion cause the trouble. Land surveyors. heard of. notwithstanding. In the wilderness. with the delicious aroma of the fir Fragrant it balsam. If sufficiently deep. etc. and poor ventila- Leaving the window wide almost always prevent these evil consequences. and a half dozen lessons from an A old fisherman will teach him all that he requires of these simple but extremely useful accomplishments. in a building yard.CAMP LIFE. al- The white man stretches himself instinctively feet to the fire. open will consumption. Strange as it may seem. ways is. Hot. bronchitis. Choosing a level spot the woodsman cuts several armfuls of the feathery tips of the fir bal- sam.

are usually limited. and by squinting back. and in that SURVEYING COMPASS. the needle is fairly reliable. and the surveyor standing some little distance behind it on . but when such attraction exists the compass is unsatisfactory. To range by rods the course of the line having been determined by retracing the route followed to the last reliable mark. or rocks containing magnetite." a local attraction may be detected. case ranging by rods must be resorted to until the compass needle once more seeks its true position. however. a stake is driven in at that point. though never perfectly accurate. taking what is known as a "back sight.156 ABC OF MINING. Such areas of attraction.

etc. or else an allowance it made for the inclination at which was held when the measurement was taken.. ten chains ($ mile) have been covered." and cuts a notch in a stick. is preferred. usually the hind chainman. find himself beyond the reach of the local attrac- tion that deflected his needle and can resume compass work. 157 the correct line directs an assistant to place another rod in such a position that the first hides it from view. and this operation being continued the surveyor will. other- measurements face. in due time. fold a square of paper across. made of light wire links. Careful chaining is the essence of good surveying. the leader carrying ten pins of iron or wood. When all are used. A chain is 66 feet long. for all surveyors' of areas are theoretically on a flat sur- To ascertain the height of a tree. Two men do the chaining. and the rear man taking one up as each chain is measured off.SURVEYING. which could of course be done by means of an ordinary tape measure in an emergency. Oftentimes in mountainous or brush-covered countries a half chain of 33 feet. or the length of a plumb line falling from its summit. Then its height is the same distance as the distance from where you stand to its foot. . calls out "Tally one. and glancing along the hypothenuse (longest side) of the right angle so found. ascertain at what point your line of sight just catches the top of the object. The chain must always be kept horizontal. tower. It will then be on a prolongation of the line. The men exchange pins and the tally man. wise the results will be misleading.

158 ABC OF MINING. together with the height of your eye above the ground. but one of the simplest is as follows: . next measure your own. added. The area is of a square equal to the square / I of one of its sides. The areas of figures containing more than three sides may always be found by resolving such figures into a series of right angled triangles. There are many ways of solving such a problem. Then As your shadow your height so is is to the shadow its of the object to height. area of a triangle is equal to the base multiplied by half the height. object Another method on a level is to measure the sh'adow of the surface. Very frequently the surveyor is called The upon to measure an inaccessible line.

proceed as follows: As there are ten square chains to one acre. and drive in a stake at Z.e line Y-M. multiply the content in acres by 10 to reduce to square chains. as little errors. Then chains. almost exactly equal to of the you know the content and length of one . Then lay off the bas. While these simple surveying problems are solved. Whose square root is 15. Should you wish to lay off a certain acreage as a square. Ans. 159 to Supposing the required distance is that from bank bank of a river (Y-X). the prospector should never forget that easily mine experience and accuracy. Sight from P to X. If is 15 chains 81 links square. For instance: To lay off 25 acres as a square: 25 times 10 equals 250 square chains. driving stakes at each end. fledged mine. The plot must be Seventy average paces the side of a square acre. Efe will do well always to call in the service of a mining engineer should his "prospect" ever become a full- surveying requires skill. make M-P at right angles to Y-M. of direction are particularly costly mistakes when they occur underground.81. Then: ZM :MP::ZY:YX.SURVEYING. find the square root of this number of square and that will be the length of a side of the square required.

or rocks containing magnetite." a local attraction may be detected. and by squinting back. To range by rods the course of the line having been determined by retracing the route followed to the last reliable mark. and in that SURVEYING COMPASS.156 ABC OF MINING. however. Such areas of attraction. are usually limited. case ranging by rods must be resorted to until the compass needle once more seeks its true position. a stake is driven in at that point. taking what is known as a "back sight. though never perfectly accurate. but when such attraction exists the compass is unsatisfactory. and the surveyor standing some little distance behind it on . the needle is fairly reliable.

producer he should try rather to organize a company. and shows that it is likely to prove a profitable deposit. 11 and if he has faith as he should have in the . and consequently insist upon a bargain. Should the prospector discover mineral that inamount as the mine is opened. Business men dearly like to see great masses of ore in the shafts and cuts. They take all risk. of which he should be a shareholder the controlling one if possible as then the output of the mine will probably make him a rich man. he will have little difficulty in selling out to some wealthy But if his mine is likely to become a big syndicate. FLOATING A COMPANY. therefore. Nor is it reasonable to suppose he should. The more money a prospector can invest in the development of a good mine the better price he is likely to get when he sells. 161 CHAPTER VIII. and may never materialize. lay open his prospect as thoroughly as he can with the means at his disposal. It is rare that a proscreases in pector selling outright obtains anything but a fraction of the value of a good mine. the profits of the buyers are all in the future. and are always more willing to pay a distinctly handsome price when they know something promising about the purchase. When 'he sells.FLOATING A COMPANY. Let the prospector.

Such areas of attraction. the needle is fairly reliable. and the surveyor standing some little distance behind it on . or rocks containing magnetite. and by squinting back. case ranging by rods must be resorted to until the compass needle once more seeks its true position. though never perfectly accurate.156 ABC OF MINING. To range by rods the course of the line having been determined by retracing the route followed to the last reliable mark." a local attraction may be detected. however. and in that SURVEYING COMPASS. are usually limited. taking what is known as a "back sight. but when such attraction exists the compass is unsatisfactory. a stake is driven in at that point.

Let some one else do the experi- away with menting. The more ore in sight the better for the future of the mine. while the unfortunate share- holders. . and that one an honest man.9 per cent of rude to them. whose misspent money freighted these things to their final resting place. with new and wonderful appliances for saving 99. The only ore is real guide to the economic value of an it the treatment of a large bulk of in the mill. the time There are at will have come to spend money on it.FLOATING A COMPANY. No sooner is a mine floated than all sorts of knaves and fools appear on the scene. perchance. remember that thieving sometimes takes place on rather a large scale. Lastly. Plenty of ore should be kept blocked out ahead of the workings. but as you value your salvation do not hearken to them. are now. Drive them all the value in the ore. and be on the watch to detect it. and even then he may not be found. 163 dozen other things rolled into one. "touching" the belated Chicago or New York pedestrians for a nickel. the present moment thousands of tons of costly machinery rusting in lonely that all were in their Rocky Mountain canyons day "novelties. New processes are to be shunned until they have proved their worth and ceased to be new. when you know a process is good. sticks Be and stones if necessary." warranted to save the values in the ore. Very low grade ore would probably pay but he in the hands of such a paragon of perfection must be sought for long and diligently.

demanding great nerve and skill. Mining is not a gamble as some would have the world believe. But there is a bright side to mining as well as a dark. .164 ABC OF MINING. but not infrequently rewarding the possessors of these admirable attributes by wealth almost inexhaustible. 5 or 8 cents for the stock of a mine that now sells for $7 can see it quite plainly. and there are many such. and sometimes great patience. and those fortunate men who paid 3. but a legitimate occupation.

should he live in a minlittle ing camp. the patient should drink freely of warm milk. Mustard. are tolerably efficacious. Deep down in the mine the air is usually very bad. While the emetic is warm water or acting. The remedy for this state of affairs is to get all the fresh air possible. hardy lot of men. but a dose of 60 grains of ipecac is more effectual. and there is very seldom a doctor near at hand. an emetic ought to be given as quickly as possible. Moreover. The want so-called miner's of fresh air. or salt and warm water. The miner is consumption is caused by passes most of his life in places where there a great deficiency of oxygen. Miners as a rule are a healthy. Should poison have been swallowed. In case of apparent drowning the body should be stripped down to the waist. rapidly dried. while the places in his amusement. and the hut in which he sleeps is which he seeks too often overcrowded. are usually better. and hot bricks applied to the feet. by the very nature of their work they are particu- larly liable to accidents. but nevertheless they are occasionally taken ill. Breathing should . MEDICAL HINTS. placed on a flat surface with the head and shoulders raised a little. 165 CHAPTER IX. being full of smoke and damp.MEDICAL HINTS. then consumption is not to be feared.

In case of a wound which bleeds freely. If any considerable sur- is burned the patient fatal. or at least very dark. bleeding must be controlled by pressure below the wound. with the stone directly above the artery. which is always more dangerous. farther away from the heart. Scurvy whenever a disease that is very much to be dreaded scarce. it will be nearly black. while in the case of an artery. or grated raw potato. When from a vein. Sometimes a pad should be placed between the handkerchief and the artery. that is. a distinction must be made between blood issuing from a vein and blood issuing from an artery. It is fresh meat and vegetables are now thought to be a condition of acid-poisoning. or olive oil. A pebble rolled up in a handkerchief and tied around the limb. be imitated by raising the arms above the head and turning the body on its side. turn the body back on the face and press the arms down to the side. immediate pressure must be made above the wound on the line of the artery between the wound and the heart. in the second. In the first instance. although they all is may be very pain-' The best application of is linseed oil and lime water. is in great danger. is a good face to spread over a burn. but small burns are rarely ful. and . and tightened by twisting a stick in it. or boiled linseed. is good rough-and-ready means to stop bleeding. such as wheat flour. Do this about sixteen times a minute. Anything that excludes the air. it will be bright red and spurt forth. and keep it up half an hour if necessary.166 ABC OF MINING.

In cold weather a diet of almost exclusively fresh fat most fatal in crowded camps. such as carbonate of soda or carbonate of potash. the 167 remedy is alkaline salts. usually fresh air. is meat Pneumonia will keep off scurvy. . Lime juice is also an antiscorbutic.MEDICAL HINTS. where the men do not get a sufficient amount of pure.

in the second. such as wheat flour. is a good face to spread over a burn. Anything that excludes the air.166 ABC OF MINING. is good rough-and-ready means to stop bleeding. turn the body back on the face and press the arms down to the side. that is. Scurvy whenever a disease that is very much to be dreaded scarce. although they all is may be very pain-' The best application of is linseed oil and lime water. is in great danger. be imitated by raising the arms above the head and turning the body on its side. with the stone directly above the artery. or olive oil. A pebble rolled up in a handkerchief and tied around the limb. When from a vein. It is fresh meat and vegetables are now thought to be a condition of acid-poisoning. but small burns are rarely ful. while in the case of an artery. bleeding must be controlled by pressure below the wound. it will be bright red and spurt forth. or grated raw potato. and keep it up half an hour if necessary. If any considerable sur- is burned the patient fatal. In case of a wound which bleeds freely. Do this about sixteen times a minute. and tightened by twisting a stick in it. a distinction must be made between blood issuing from a vein and blood issuing from an artery. and . which is always more dangerous. In the first instance. it will be nearly black. farther away from the heart. Sometimes a pad should be placed between the handkerchief and the artery. or boiled linseed. or at least very dark. immediate pressure must be made above the wound on the line of the artery between the wound and the heart.

the 167 remedy is alkaline salts. such as carbonate of soda or carbonate of potash. Lime juice is also an antiscorbutic. usually fresh air. . where the men do not get a sufficient amount of pure.MEDICAL HINTS. In cold weather a diet of almost exclusively fresh fat most fatal in crowded camps. is meat Pneumonia will keep off scurvy.

or grated raw potato. while in the case of an artery. although they all is may be very pain-' The best application of is linseed oil and lime water. in the second. immediate pressure must be made above the wound on the line of the artery between the wound and the heart. is in great danger. that is. bleeding must be controlled by pressure below the wound. Anything that excludes the air. In the first instance. When from a vein. It is fresh meat and vegetables are now thought to be a condition of acid-poisoning. and tightened by twisting a stick in it. If any considerable sur- is burned the patient fatal. or at least very dark. turn the body back on the face and press the arms down to the side. is good rough-and-ready means to stop bleeding. which is always more dangerous. it will be nearly black. A pebble rolled up in a handkerchief and tied around the limb. and keep it up half an hour if necessary. Do this about sixteen times a minute. or olive oil. is a good face to spread over a burn. Scurvy whenever a disease that is very much to be dreaded scarce.166 ABC OF MINING. a distinction must be made between blood issuing from a vein and blood issuing from an artery. such as wheat flour. be imitated by raising the arms above the head and turning the body on its side. with the stone directly above the artery. or boiled linseed. Sometimes a pad should be placed between the handkerchief and the artery. and . it will be bright red and spurt forth. farther away from the heart. In case of a wound which bleeds freely. but small burns are rarely ful.

is meat Pneumonia will keep off scurvy. In cold weather a diet of almost exclusively fresh fat most fatal in crowded camps.MEDICAL HINTS. such as carbonate of soda or carbonate of potash. usually fresh air. where the men do not get a sufficient amount of pure. the 167 remedy is alkaline salts. Lime juice is also an antiscorbutic. .

farther away from the heart. When from a vein.166 ABC OF MINING. although they all is may be very pain-' The best application of is linseed oil and lime water. that is. is in great danger. turn the body back on the face and press the arms down to the side. such as wheat flour. in the second. or at least very dark. immediate pressure must be made above the wound on the line of the artery between the wound and the heart. a distinction must be made between blood issuing from a vein and blood issuing from an artery. is a good face to spread over a burn. Anything that excludes the air. A pebble rolled up in a handkerchief and tied around the limb. Scurvy whenever a disease that is very much to be dreaded scarce. and tightened by twisting a stick in it. bleeding must be controlled by pressure below the wound. and keep it up half an hour if necessary. or grated raw potato. Do this about sixteen times a minute. is good rough-and-ready means to stop bleeding. In the first instance. be imitated by raising the arms above the head and turning the body on its side. with the stone directly above the artery. but small burns are rarely ful. In case of a wound which bleeds freely. or boiled linseed. it will be nearly black. it will be bright red and spurt forth. while in the case of an artery. and . If any considerable sur- is burned the patient fatal. which is always more dangerous. It is fresh meat and vegetables are now thought to be a condition of acid-poisoning. or olive oil. Sometimes a pad should be placed between the handkerchief and the artery.

MEDICAL HINTS. In cold weather a diet of almost exclusively fresh fat most fatal in crowded camps. such as carbonate of soda or carbonate of potash. where the men do not get a sufficient amount of pure. Lime juice is also an antiscorbutic. usually fresh air. the 167 remedy is alkaline salts. is meat Pneumonia will keep off scurvy. .

Sometimes a pad should be placed between the handkerchief and the artery. It is fresh meat and vegetables are now thought to be a condition of acid-poisoning. in the second. In the first instance. and tightened by twisting a stick in it. or grated raw potato. bleeding must be controlled by pressure below the wound. A pebble rolled up in a handkerchief and tied around the limb. it will be nearly black. a distinction must be made between blood issuing from a vein and blood issuing from an artery.166 ABC OF MINING. it will be bright red and spurt forth. Scurvy whenever a disease that is very much to be dreaded scarce. turn the body back on the face and press the arms down to the side. In case of a wound which bleeds freely. is in great danger. and . Do this about sixteen times a minute. that is. be imitated by raising the arms above the head and turning the body on its side. If any considerable sur- is burned the patient fatal. is a good face to spread over a burn. such as wheat flour. is good rough-and-ready means to stop bleeding. but small burns are rarely ful. although they all is may be very pain-' The best application of is linseed oil and lime water. with the stone directly above the artery. farther away from the heart. immediate pressure must be made above the wound on the line of the artery between the wound and the heart. or boiled linseed. or olive oil. When from a vein. or at least very dark. and keep it up half an hour if necessary. while in the case of an artery. Anything that excludes the air. which is always more dangerous.

MEDICAL HINTS. the 167 remedy is alkaline salts. usually fresh air. In cold weather a diet of almost exclusively fresh fat most fatal in crowded camps. . such as carbonate of soda or carbonate of potash. where the men do not get a sufficient amount of pure. is meat Pneumonia will keep off scurvy. Lime juice is also an antiscorbutic.

a distinction must be made between blood issuing from a vein and blood issuing from an artery. Scurvy whenever a disease that is very much to be dreaded scarce. although they all is may be very pain-' The best application of is linseed oil and lime water. but small burns are rarely ful. It is fresh meat and vegetables are now thought to be a condition of acid-poisoning. Anything that excludes the air. or at least very dark. it will be bright red and spurt forth. and . or boiled linseed. while in the case of an artery. turn the body back on the face and press the arms down to the side.166 ABC OF MINING. be imitated by raising the arms above the head and turning the body on its side. in the second. If any considerable sur- is burned the patient fatal. When from a vein. immediate pressure must be made above the wound on the line of the artery between the wound and the heart. is a good face to spread over a burn. that is. and tightened by twisting a stick in it. or olive oil. or grated raw potato. is in great danger. with the stone directly above the artery. A pebble rolled up in a handkerchief and tied around the limb. such as wheat flour. farther away from the heart. In case of a wound which bleeds freely. Sometimes a pad should be placed between the handkerchief and the artery. and keep it up half an hour if necessary. bleeding must be controlled by pressure below the wound. which is always more dangerous. it will be nearly black. is good rough-and-ready means to stop bleeding. Do this about sixteen times a minute. In the first instance.

MEDICAL HINTS. is meat Pneumonia will keep off scurvy. . Lime juice is also an antiscorbutic. where the men do not get a sufficient amount of pure. such as carbonate of soda or carbonate of potash. In cold weather a diet of almost exclusively fresh fat most fatal in crowded camps. usually fresh air. the 167 remedy is alkaline salts.

although they all is may be very pain-' The best application of is linseed oil and lime water. or boiled linseed. If any considerable sur- is burned the patient fatal. that is. In the first instance. or olive oil. in the second. such as wheat flour.166 ABC OF MINING. be imitated by raising the arms above the head and turning the body on its side. is good rough-and-ready means to stop bleeding. bleeding must be controlled by pressure below the wound. is a good face to spread over a burn. Sometimes a pad should be placed between the handkerchief and the artery. In case of a wound which bleeds freely. and keep it up half an hour if necessary. and . or at least very dark. is in great danger. with the stone directly above the artery. When from a vein. or grated raw potato. it will be nearly black. a distinction must be made between blood issuing from a vein and blood issuing from an artery. A pebble rolled up in a handkerchief and tied around the limb. but small burns are rarely ful. while in the case of an artery. which is always more dangerous. Scurvy whenever a disease that is very much to be dreaded scarce. Do this about sixteen times a minute. and tightened by twisting a stick in it. immediate pressure must be made above the wound on the line of the artery between the wound and the heart. it will be bright red and spurt forth. farther away from the heart. turn the body back on the face and press the arms down to the side. Anything that excludes the air. It is fresh meat and vegetables are now thought to be a condition of acid-poisoning.

is meat Pneumonia will keep off scurvy. usually fresh air.MEDICAL HINTS. In cold weather a diet of almost exclusively fresh fat most fatal in crowded camps. . the 167 remedy is alkaline salts. where the men do not get a sufficient amount of pure. Lime juice is also an antiscorbutic. such as carbonate of soda or carbonate of potash.

In case of a wound which bleeds freely.166 ABC OF MINING. and keep it up half an hour if necessary. Do this about sixteen times a minute. and tightened by twisting a stick in it. with the stone directly above the artery. bleeding must be controlled by pressure below the wound. in the second. turn the body back on the face and press the arms down to the side. is in great danger. Scurvy whenever a disease that is very much to be dreaded scarce. it will be bright red and spurt forth. Sometimes a pad should be placed between the handkerchief and the artery. immediate pressure must be made above the wound on the line of the artery between the wound and the heart. be imitated by raising the arms above the head and turning the body on its side. while in the case of an artery. it will be nearly black. Anything that excludes the air. or at least very dark. but small burns are rarely ful. that is. is good rough-and-ready means to stop bleeding. is a good face to spread over a burn. When from a vein. although they all is may be very pain-' The best application of is linseed oil and lime water. In the first instance. or olive oil. If any considerable sur- is burned the patient fatal. farther away from the heart. which is always more dangerous. A pebble rolled up in a handkerchief and tied around the limb. a distinction must be made between blood issuing from a vein and blood issuing from an artery. or grated raw potato. and . such as wheat flour. It is fresh meat and vegetables are now thought to be a condition of acid-poisoning. or boiled linseed.

Lime juice is also an antiscorbutic. where the men do not get a sufficient amount of pure. In cold weather a diet of almost exclusively fresh fat most fatal in crowded camps. usually fresh air. the 167 remedy is alkaline salts. .MEDICAL HINTS. is meat Pneumonia will keep off scurvy. such as carbonate of soda or carbonate of potash.

it will be bright red and spurt forth. and . It is fresh meat and vegetables are now thought to be a condition of acid-poisoning. such as wheat flour. and tightened by twisting a stick in it. or olive oil. A pebble rolled up in a handkerchief and tied around the limb. that is. Do this about sixteen times a minute. or grated raw potato. is good rough-and-ready means to stop bleeding. When from a vein. Sometimes a pad should be placed between the handkerchief and the artery. In case of a wound which bleeds freely. which is always more dangerous. it will be nearly black. immediate pressure must be made above the wound on the line of the artery between the wound and the heart. turn the body back on the face and press the arms down to the side. but small burns are rarely ful. bleeding must be controlled by pressure below the wound. If any considerable sur- is burned the patient fatal. In the first instance. in the second. Anything that excludes the air. or boiled linseed. with the stone directly above the artery. and keep it up half an hour if necessary. although they all is may be very pain-' The best application of is linseed oil and lime water. while in the case of an artery. or at least very dark. is in great danger. is a good face to spread over a burn. be imitated by raising the arms above the head and turning the body on its side. a distinction must be made between blood issuing from a vein and blood issuing from an artery. Scurvy whenever a disease that is very much to be dreaded scarce. farther away from the heart.166 ABC OF MINING.

the 167 remedy is alkaline salts. is meat Pneumonia will keep off scurvy. where the men do not get a sufficient amount of pure. usually fresh air. Lime juice is also an antiscorbutic.MEDICAL HINTS. In cold weather a diet of almost exclusively fresh fat most fatal in crowded camps. . such as carbonate of soda or carbonate of potash.

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