Long Term Evolution (LTE) Radio Access Network Planning Guide

Long Term Evolution (LTE) Radio Access Network Planning Guide
1 How to Use This Guide ..............................................................................................................................1 1.1 Introduction ...............................................................................................................................................1 1.2 General Radio Network Planning Process ....................................................................................................1 1.3 Quick Guide to Content of Each Section .....................................................................................................2 2 LTE Fundamentals & Key Technologies .......................................................................................................3

2.1 Overview of Data Market as a Whole ..........................................................................................................3 2.2 3GPP Evolution and Market Expectation .....................................................................................................3 2.3 LTE Modulation Technology Highlight .........................................................................................................4
2.3.1 OFDM Fundamental .....................................................................................................................................................................5 ................................................................................................................................................................7 2.3.2 SC-FDMA Fundamental

2.4 LTE Frame Structure ....................................................................................................................................8 2.5 LTE Resource Block Architecture ..................................................................................................................9 2.6 Reference Signal Structure ........................................................................................................................10 2.7 Timing and Sampling Architecture ............................................................................................................11
2.7.1 Normal and Extended Cyclic Prefix 2.7.2 Synchronization Channel .............................................................................................................................................12 ............................................................................................................................................................13

2.8 Uplink Physical Channel Structure

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2.8.1 FDD Uplink Control, Sounding and Demodulation Reference Signal Structure

2.9 Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO)
2.9.1 3GPP MIMO Mode Definition 2.9.2 Open Loop MIMO 2.9.3 Closed Loop MIMO 2.9.4 Pre-coding Matrix 2.9.5 Beam Forming

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2.10 LTE FDD vs LTE TDD Main Features Comparison ......................................................................................21 2.11 LTE Channels Hierarchy Overview ............................................................................................................22
2.11.1 Physical Channel Modulation Schemes .....................................................................................................................................22 .............................................................................................................................23 2.11.2 Downlink Channel Functionality Breakdown 2.11.3 Uplink Channel Functionality Breakdown 2.11.4 Channel Functionality Description in Detail

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2.11.5 Downlink Control Channel and RE Mapping Relationship

2.12 Cell Search, Synchronization & Mobility–UE Call Flow View
2.12.1 Cell Search and Synchronization

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2.12.2 UE Procedure for Reporting Channel Quality Indication (CQI), Precoding Matrix indicator (PMI) and rank indication (RI) 2.12.3 System Information Bit Definition 2.12.4 Mobility Management

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2.12.5 EUTRAN Hierarchy and Interface Overview

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2.12.6 Summary of Handover Call Flow – 3GPP Example TS36.300

2.13 Example of Peak Data Rate Calculation 3 LTE Frequency and Spectrum Planning

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3.1 Frequency Spectrum Overview - FDD ........................................................................................................30 3.2 Frequency Spectrum Overview - TDD ........................................................................................................30 3.3 Channel Bandwidth and Subcarrier Allocation ...........................................................................................31 3.4 Channel Arrangement ...............................................................................................................................32
3.4.1 Channel Spacing 3.4.2 Channel Raster ........................................................................................................................................................................32 ...........................................................................................................................................................................32 ...................................................................................................................................................33

3.4.3 Carrier Frequency and EARFCN

3.5 Frequency Planning Recommendations
3.5.1 Conventional Frequency Reuse Scheme 1*3*1 3.5.2 SFR 1*3*1 – Downlink and Uplink

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3.5.3 TDD Specific Frequency Planning Considerations 3.5.4 Frequency Band Selection 3.5.5 Cyclic Prefix Planning

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3.5.6 Placing Multiple Technologies@Multiple Frequency Band

4 Link Budget and Coverage Planning

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4.1 Conventional Link Budget .........................................................................................................................41 4.2 Propagation Parameters ............................................................................................................................42
4.2.1 Channel Model ..........................................................................................................................................................................42 .............................................................................................................................43 4.2.2 3GPP Value for Multipath and Doppler Effect 4.2.3 Propagation Model 4.2.4 Penetration Loss 4.2.5 Body Loss 4.2.6 Feeder Loss

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4.2.7 Background Noise

4.3 Equipment-Related Parameters
4.3.1 Transmit Power 4.3.2 Receiver Sensitivity 4.3.3 Noise Figure 4.3.4 Antenna Gain

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4.4 LTE-Related Parameters
4.4.1 MIMO Gains 4.4.2 Cell Edge Rate

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4.4.3 Interference Margin 4.4.4 Beam Forming

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4.5 System Reliability

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4.5.1 Slow Fading Margin

4.5.2 Effect of Earth Curvature

4.5.3 Absence of Fast Fading and Soft Handover Margin

..............2................................................94 ......................................................10 Scheduling Mode ....................................................3.............................................................................65 ...4 GuardBand Requirement: LTE FDD vs LTE TDD .....1 Basic Concepts ...3 Theoretical Analysis of Interference under Site Sharing 5....................................8 S1/X2 Capacity ...................75 .............................................................................................................79 5........................................................................................................................................................................................................3 Guard Band Requirement: LTE-FDD vs GSM/UMTS ................................................................5 Radio (Transmitter) Power Availability 6......................3...................81 5..................................................................................................1 Features Overview 4............96 6...................89 6................................3........73 5..............................................................................................................................................................................................82 ...................................................................................2 TTI Bundling ....................89 6..........................................................................95 ........................................................................................................................................................................6 Radio Access Technologies Co-location Strategies 5.......................RSRP ............................74 5......................................................................................3 Impact of Interference ....................................79 5........1.......................94 6.............................1 Overview 5..........................................................................69 ....4 Reference Signal Power Boosting Gain 4.................91 6................................................................................................................1 Operating Frequency Band 6......................................................................94 .....93 ..................................................................69 .............1 Summary ...........................................3 LTE TDD and WiMAX Systems Co-Location 6 LTE Access Network Capacity Planning .................................7 Summary of Variables inside Link Budget Tools 5 Interference and Guard Band Analysis 5............................................................65 .......................................................63 ..............63 .....................................................................................6....................4 Theoretical Analysis of Interference: Non Colocated eNodeB 5.................................6.................76 ...............2 GSM-LTE Co-Location Examples ....................................................................5 Remote Radio Unit and eNodeB Portfolio 4.........3 EUTRAN Capacity Limiting Factors ..11 Actual Cell Site Placement in Relation to Traffic .............1 Interference between Different Carriers 5.....................3..................................3.........................1 Overview 5..75 ......69 ................9 Application of Special Antenna Technologies (MIMO/BF/V MIMO) 6...........6..................91 6..............................5..........................................................6.......................................................................................................................6 Specific Factors in Link Budget Consideration 4...........................................94 6.......78 5.........................................62 ..............3 Interference Rejection Combining 4.........................3 Impact of Interference on Capacity 6.............................................................................................80 5...1...............................................2 3GPP Services Classification .............................82 ....................................................5......................4 Signal Interference Noise Ratio and Adaptive Coding 6.....................................2 GSM Spectrum Refarming 5......3....................................................7 Base Band Channel Card Processing Capacity 6..............................2 Interference within the Same Carrier ........................................3..............................4...............................................1.................................................................................................80 .................................6....................................82 ......................................................................................................3.............................................................6 Spectrum Bandwidth Availability .................................................94 ................................2 RF coverage ..............................................................2.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................6......................................................................................80 ......................87 5........................2...........................................5 Spectrum Refarming for LTE ...........................77 ............................................................................................3......................................................................................................................................92 .................................................................1 Definition of Capacity ....6.....................................................................93 ...............5...........................................................................................................................65 4............62 ...........................................2 Interference Between TDD Systems 5..94 6..................................................................3 Introduction of Buffer Zone 5.................................................................6...............................................................................................................................................................................3.............................................................................................................2...............2 Analysis of Background Noise 5.........................................................................................3............................................................................................................................

..............................6.................1 Predictions . Cell and Transmitter Listing 7.........................................................................................................................6..............................6.................100 7 U-Net Simulation and Operation ................................................................................................130 7...............5.............1 Power Setting 7............................................................................................................................................97 .......................5 X2 Bandwidth Dimensioning Procedure ..........................................................................4 S1 Bandwidth Dimensioning Procedure ....................................................................................2 Simulation Process ..8........104 ......................................................100 6..........2 Load Setting .......................3.........................................................................119 ..............................................98 6...........................................................................................................................................1 Overview 7..........................................................................................................122 .......................12 UE Capability ..........................3 Equipment .........................99 6...................................................................................7..3........137 7.....107 .............105 7..............................................................................107 ..107 .......................106 7..............................................126 .......................5................................................................115 .........................................................7......7..................................................................................................................7 Inter Radio Access Technology Handover Considerations ...............5...................................................................................................................................................1 Quick Import Function ..........................118 ........................................................134 ...........................................104 7..........................................5........................................................................................................................................................118 7.........................................141 ....................................119 ...................5..................................................................................................................................2 Network Settings 7.....................................................................96 ..........14 Time Slot Allocation for Uplink and Downlink – TDD specific 6........................................113 ..........................132 .............................4 Geographical Information .........................6 Properties of a Single Transmitter 7....5.............................................3.......................................................7...........................2 Defining Coordinate Systems 7.............1 Overview 7..............................................................7 Properties of a eNodeB Template 7..........................................................................6......103 7............135 7..........3 Properties of Clutter Class ...........................................1 Introduction .......................................................................................................................................................................6..........................................................................6 Services .........7...........................................................................................................8 Impact of Parameter Setting on Prediction and Simulation 7..................................................................................................................136 ...............132 .............4 Scheduling Parameters 7.3 Creating Project .......................................................................7 LTE Traffic Model Parameters 7................................................................................................................7 Clutter Related Modelling ................................2 Environments 7........................................................................................................6 Engineering Parameter 7........104 7.....................................................................................................................................97 6.......103 7................................................................................5 Viewing “Hidden” Parameters 7....................141 ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................3 Frequency Planning 7..........................................4 Terminals ................3............................................................................................................103 7.......................................98 6.....................113 .......................................................4.....15 Cyclical Prefix Allocation ........................................................................5...........................................................................4 Site.6 Propagation Model Selection 7.................6......................................3 User Profiles 7....121 ...................115 7..........................................................................................................................................7...........................................................................................................................................5 Mobility Types 7......128 ................................................................................................................................................................................................6 Impact of Latency of X2 on Cell Throughput .............................8 Prediction and Simulation 7................................................6..............7..........................................................................................132 ...............................................................133 ...............13 User Traffic Mix and Call Modelling 6......................................................................................................................5 Equipment Parameter 7.................................................5 Antenna Property ........4.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................7 Traffic Map 7.....................................................6......4..5...125 7...................................

.......................152 7.11......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................169 .................................................7.......................163 8.........................152 7.......................9..2......................166 ...................................................4 Network Coverage Predictions 7...................160 8 LTE Network Key Performance Indicators .................11......................................15 Network and Spectrum Evolution Consideration 9.........2...................................2 Site Distribution .............................................................................................5 Network Capacity Simulation .......................................164 8..........................................................11 Call Model and SmartPhone Penetration Growth Considerations 9................................................................152 7............169 .........................154 ......5 Proposed Key Performance Indicators ...................................1 Profile 7....................165 9 Network Planning Checklist .....2......................9..........................................6 Evaluate Existing Network Condition for InterRAT 9............145 7........151 ..................................1 Overview of Planning Area 7...................................167 9......2 KPI Acceptance Procedure ....................................................8........................2....................................................................................172 ...........................................155 .........................2 Checklist Items Consideration ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................2...........................2...........................154 7.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................8 Scheduler Selection ...........................................................2....... Optional) .....................................................10 Cell Edge Throughput Requirement 9............................................................................................................171 .......................14 Radio Related Equipment Selection ....................................................................166 9.........................................................................................169 ........................5 Highway and Tunnel Coverage Requirement .................................2...........................................................................................9....................................1 Understanding Customer Spectrum Bandwidth Availability 9............................................................................................................................................3 Service KPIs and Network KPIs .........................................................................2.....2.......................................................168 .2.....2.................................................156 7..........................................................11....................151 ......................................................................................12 Base Station Antenna and Other Co-siting Equipment Selection 9.............................................................................2.....................................................................................................................2 Reception ...................2...............................................................................................................4 Result ..................................................18 Understanding of Current Transmission Backhaul Network Capability 9....16 MIMO and Beam Forming Implementation 9....................................................13 Interference Protection and Isolation Requirement 9................................................................4 Location of Customer Coverage Requirement 9.................................................168 9...2............................2................1 KPI Measurement Methodology ..................151 ..........................163 8..........................................9 Indoor Coverage Requirement 9..................................1 Introduction ..........................11 U-Net Planning Case ...............................................................................................................166 .................2 Actual Frequency Band Allocation for LTE ........................10 RF Cell Planning Optimization ..............3 Frequency Band Refarming Requirement for LTE 9......................................................11.............................166 9..................................9 Point Analysis Tool 7.................................3 Signal Analysis 7...........157 ...............................................................................171 ............................................172 9...........................................................165 8.....................................19 UE Distribution and Channel Model : Pedestrian vs High Mobility .......................................................................2 Simulation ....................171 .......................................................2..............17 Cyclic Prefix Planning ...................................................163 8..................................................................................................................................................4 Cluster and Test Route ..166 9..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................171 9............2.........................3 Parameter Configuration and General Assumption 7....................................................................6 Proposed KPIs for Final Acceptance (Stability Acceptance......................................................................................................................9........7 Terrain and Clutter Database Availability and Accuracy 9.......................168 .......................................................169 ....................11.............................164 8...................................................2..............................................170 ...............170 9.........167 .........

................................................................................................................................................................3.................................................................................2.3..........3.........3.............................................................................21 Customized Camouflage 10...............................13 Input Port of Antenna 10.............................................20 TDD Specific Uplink and Downlink Configuration 9.......................................................................................6 Front-to-rear Ratio ........................178 ..174 10.....................174 ...............................................................................................1 Frequency 10.........................................................................................................181 ...................................................................................................................................................................................................8 Polarization Mode 10................................180 ........................................................180 ...........183 .........3.......................................................174 10...........21 Power Boosting Configuration ....20 Camouflaged Antenna Scheme for Sites 10......................................178 10.......................................................................1 Overview ......181 10...............................................172 10 Appendix: RF Antenna Systems ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................3......................174 ..........................................................................................................10 VSWR (Voltage Standing Wave Ratio) 10.................................................................................................................3.................................................................................3......................................................................................................................................................177 .............................3................................17 Work Temperature and Humidity 10..........3............................................3....22 Outlook Camouflage .........................................................................................................................2 Directivity ...........1 Work Band 10................................................182 ..................................................................3 Main Specifications of Antenna 10.......181 10...................................................7 Upper Side Lobe Suppression 10..........14 Passive Intermodulation (PIM) 10................................184 ...........................................................3..............................................2...179 ....................................................3..................................................................................5 Relation between Beamwidth and Gain 10.......................................19 Three-proof Capability ...................................................3...............181 10.............................175 ......................................172 ....................12 Power Capacity .......176 .................................................................................4 Beamwidth ............3 Antenna Pattern 10...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................9.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................181 .........................................15 Dimensions and Weight of Antenna 10.2...........................................3........................................3...........................................................................................18 Lightning Protection 10..................................................................................................................................................................................................................3.........2 Antenna Gain 10.............................................................181 .............................................................................................................................................................................2 Antenna Classification ..............174 10.......179 10...................................................................3...............................................................................................................................................3..............................................3........183 10...........3.................11 Port Isolation 10........................180 .................................179 .................................175 ..........................3......3...........................................................................177 10...............23 Antenna Camouflage in Special Environment 11 References ........................................................16 Wind Load ..............................................................................................2......................180 ......9 Down Tilt ...........174 10......

It covers all the major area that requires technical attention from the conceptual beginning of a network design to the provisioning of final network parameters required for the deployment phases. Specific RF planning information unique to Huawei’s LTE EUTRAN product is also provided.1 Introduction The purpose of this document is to provide systems engineers/planners with a set of guidelines and introductions to LTE deployment planning that may aid the design of a high quality Long Term Evolution (LTE) RF System. In general. 1 .1 How to Use This Guide 1.2 General Radio Network Planning Process The flow diagram below shows one of the more common work procedures recommended by the Radio network planning team. Although there are numerous and detailed references made to particular tools. most of the content provided in this planning guide can be applied to LTE system design with field implementation considerations. Please refer to the official publications of the respective product/tool for their most up to date functionality. 1. it is not the purpose of this planning document to replace any product and tools' operating manual/instruction.

Table 1-1 Quick Guide Chapter # 1 2 Chapter Title How to Use this Guide LTE Fundamentals & Key Technologies Frequency and Spectrum Planning Link Budget and Coverage Planning Interference. The table below outlines the key features of each Chapter. Meanwhile.1. etc. 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 2 . High level view on how to predict and simulate based on U-Net.3 Quick Guide to Content of Each Section The LTE RF Planning Guide is a collection of fairly independent chapters covering various aspects of LTE system RF design and implementation. Overview of LTE capacity planning as well as highlight all the critical factors and considerations that will affect capacity for an LTE network. engineering parameters. Provide LTE KPIs classification and KPI Acceptance Procedure Provide a list of items that Planning engineers need to consider and ideally have answers from customer before performing any detail planning. Learn different interference between two different systems among serials TDD and FDD system. etc. Overview of LTE Spectrum definition as in 3GPP. Understand U-Net operations. ACLR. Guard band and Refarming Analysis LTE Access Network Capacity Planning U-Net Simulation and Operation LTE Network Key Performance Indicators Network Planning Checklist Detailed Description Understand the contents of this document. Learn about some of the basic propagation models as well as critical features that affect link budget values. Learn definition of different parameters such as equipment parameters. Understand some basic concept for interference analyze such as ACS. traffic model parameters. Learn LTE fundamental which includes PHY and MAC layer technology. some key LTE technologies such as MIMO and FFR will be presented in this section. Understanding the various reuse options available to LTE as well as band selection and combination overview Understand the parameters that comprise the LTE RF Link Budget.

2 LTE Fundamentals & Key Technologies 2.1 Overview of Data Market as a Whole Challenges: Limited Investment but 500x Capacity Increment 2.2 3GPP Evolution and Market Expectation Source: Global mobile Suppliers Association – October 2010 3 .

3 LTE Modulation Technology Highlight In Nov. 3. shorter handover latency and interruption time for better user experience • Support of variable and scalable bandwidth (1.2. 15 and 20 MHz) • Backwards compatible with Existing 3G technologies • Works with GSM/EDGE/UMTS systems • Utilizes existing 2G and 3G spectrum and new spectrum • Supports hand-over and roaming to existing mobile networks • Quality of Service Support. It is also important to remember that LTE systems operate in two separate domains. 50 Mbit/s peak uplink • 1G for LTE Advanced • Higher cell edge performance • Reduced latency in setup time. • Wide application • TDD (unpaired) and FDD (paired) spectrum modes • Mobility up to 450km/h • Large range of terminals (phones and PCs to cameras) LTE employs Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) for downlink data transmission and Single Carrier FDMA (SC-FDMA) for uplink transmission. 5. 2004. 10.4. The main goal is to provide • Higher throughput performance • 100 Mbit/s peak downlink. Shorter transfer delay. 3GPP began a project to define the long-term evolution (LTE) of Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) cellular technology. namely time and frequency as shown in the figure below for downlink. 4 .

It can be straightforwardly extended to a multi-access scheme called OFDMA.Figure below is the LTE uplink allocation structure from a time and frequency perspective.3. Frequency Spectral Efficiency Improvement OFDM increases spectral efficiency by incorporating multiple carriers in the same frequency space as a single carrier. 5 . 2. I. where each user is assigned a different set of subcarriers.1 OFDM Fundamental OFDM was selected for the downlink because it can • Improved spectral efficiency • Reduce ISI effect by multipath • Provide better Protection against frequency selective fading OFDM is a scheme that offers good resistance to multipath and is now widely recognized as the method of choice for mitigating multipath for broadband wireless.

Reducing the Impact by Inter Symbol Interference (ISI) Improvement of frequency spectral efficiency requires the reduction of Inter symbol interference (ISI). the frequency coherence bandwidth is much smaller than 3G systems while and correlation factor is much higher. Better Protection Against Frequency Fading Smaller subcarrier and resource block bandwidth increase robustness against frequency related fading With this smaller carrier bandwidth. As a result. This is achieved by tighter frequency roll off and alignment of nulls and peaks between different frequencies. it will also be much easier to implement scheduling algorithm based on Frequency Selective Scheduling to improve system throughput in the manner shown below.II. III. 6 .

At some time instances. The reason is that in the time domain.2 SC-FDMA Fundamental Single Carrier-FDMA is a recently developed single carrier multiple access technique which has similar structure and performance to OFDMA. OFDM signals have a higher peak-to-average ratio (PAR)—often called a peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR)—than single-carrier signals do. which means that the peak value of 7 . SC-FDMA can be viewed as a special OFDMA system with the user’s signal pre-encoded by discrete Fourier transform (DFT).3.Frequency Selective Fading Resistance 2. a multicarrier signal is the sum of many narrowband signals. hence also known as DFT-pre-coded OFDMA or DFT-spread OFDMA. One prominent advantage of SC-FDMA over OFDMA is the lower PAPR (peak-to-average power ratio) of the transmit waveform for loworder modulations like QPSK and BPSK. which benefits the mobile users in terms of battery life and power efficiency. this sum is large and at other times is small.

This high PAR is one of the most important implementation challenges that face OFDM.the signal is substantially larger than the average value. The figure below shows the relationship between OFDM and SC-FDMA in LTE. which is one of the most expensive components in the radio. As a result. Main differences between the two modes are • Frame 0 and frame 5 (always downlink in TDD) • Frame 1 and frame 6 is always used as for synchronization in TDD • Frame allocation for Uplink and Downlink is settable in TDD The sampling rate in both FDD and TDD is the same and both technologies operate under a 1-ms sub-frame (TTITransmission Time Interval) and 0.4 LTE Frame Structure The figure below shows the frame structure for LTE under Time division mode (TDD) Type 2 and Frequency Division mode (FDD) Type 1. the uplink power level due to SC-FDMA also need to be increased by 2~3dB to compensate for the extra noise due to more spreading. 8 . 2. whereas in downlink each subcarrier only carries information related to one specific modulation symbol. The first 3 configurations (0-2) for TDD can also be viewed as 5ms allocation due to repetition.5us timeslot definition. The figure below shows a detailed relationship between rates and frame structure. The major difference between the downlink and uplink transmission scheme is that each subcarrier in the uplink carries information about each transmitted modulation symbol as shown in figure below. because it reduces the efficiency and hence increases the cost of the RF power amplifier.

5ms assignment can contain N resource blocks [6 < N < 110] depending on the bandwidth allocation and resource availability.5ms and contains 12 subcarriers for each OFDM symbol in frequency domain. • One resource block is 0. In summary. 9 . • One frame is 10ms and it consists of 10 sub-frames • One subframe is 1ms and contains 2 slots • One slot is 0. Resource element is the smallest unit of resource assignment and its relationship to resource block is shown as below from both a timing and frequency perspective.2.5ms in time domain and each 0.5 LTE Resource Block Architecture The building block of LTE is a physical resource block (PRB) and all of the allocation of physical resource blocks (PRBs) is handled by a scheduling function at the 3GPP base station (eNodeB). • There are 7 symbols (normal cyclic prefix) per time slot in the time domain or 6 symbols in long cyclic prefix.

2. 10 . The figure below shows the locations of the reference signal within each sub-frame when transmit antennae are used by the cell.6 Reference Signal Structure Reference signal is the “UMTS Pilot” equivalent and it is used by UE to predict the likely coverage condition on offer for each of the eNodeB cell received.

11 . 2. different antennae will be transmitting reference signal at different time and frequency and how these are allocated are shown below. As defined in the standard for TDD operations. due to channel reciprocity. A quick summary of all the physical layer information for LTE is shown below. the channel-sounding mechanism involves the UE’s transmitting a deterministic signal that can be used by the eNodeB to estimate the UL channel from the UE. it can have more than two transmit antennae and in order to avoid reference signals from the same cell interfering with each other. If the UL and DL channels are properly calibrated. the eNodeB can then use the UL channel as an estimate of the DL channel.7 Timing and Sampling Architecture Sampling frequency varies under different bandwidth configuration in LTE and the table below summarizes the possible combinations.As LTE is a MIMO based technology.

the use of the cyclic prefix entails data rate and power losses.1 Normal and Extended Cyclic Prefix The key to making OFDM realizable in practice is the use of the FFT algorithm. the cyclic prefix carries a power penalty of v dB in addition to the bandwidth penalty. is not entirely free. the delay of each path should not exceed the guard interval where the number of waveforms within the integral time of the FFT is an integer The cyclic prefix. to form a cyclic prefix (CP). Also. It comes with both a bandwidth and power penalty. the channel must appear to provide a circular convolution. although elegant and simple. Since redundant symbols are sent. to prevent the guard interval from destroying the inter-sub-carrier orthogonality.2. 12 . Adding cyclic prefix to the transmitted signal to create a signal that appears to be just like circular convolution and this is done by copying the last part of each OFDM symbol to the front of each symbol with the length of a guard interval. which has low complexity. The “wasted” power has increased importance in an interference-limited wireless system.7. In order for the IFFT/FFT to create an ISI-free channel. Similarly. Hence. In summary. an additional symbol must be counted against the transmit-power budget. causing interference to neighboring users. the required bandwidth for OFDM also increases.

due to large cell radius.8 Uplink Physical Channel Structure It is worth mentioning the physical structure of uplink channel. In the case where there is a large delay spread.Where L is the power used for non CP transmission.7. an extended CP option can be used.g.2 Synchronization Channel The diagram below shows the relative position of Primary Synchronization (PSS) and Secondary Synchronization (SSS) within the radio frame in a FDD LTE system. One uplink Slot is as below. 13 . 2. The figure below shows the location of PSS and SSS in LTE-TDD and the major difference from LTE FDD is that LTE TDD embedding the Primary Sync channel in the DwPTS so the location will not be affected by different DL/UL combination ratio 2. e.

2. Sounding and Demodulation Reference Signal Structure The figure below shows the relative position of uplink control channels in the frequency domain in relation to the entire channel bandwidth. 1) PUCCH resources are located at the edges of the spectrum • To maximize frequency diversity 2) Multiple UEs can share the same PUCCH resource block 3) PUCCH is never transmitted simultaneously with PUSCH from the same UE 4) Two consecutive PUCCH slots in Time-Frequency Hopping at the slot boundary 14 .1 FDD Uplink Control.8. In summary.

either better throughput or lower SINR requirement can be achieved and the frequency selective characteristics of LTE is perfect for the implementation of such technologies.1 3GPP MIMO Mode Definition The table below shows the 8 definition used by 3GPP for MIMO modes 15 . For LTE TDD only. Multiple antennae transmit schemes—both transmit diversity and spatial multiplexing—are often categorized as either open loop or closed loop. processing is required at both the transmitter and the receiver in order to achieve gain while removing or at least attenuating the spatial interference.9.9 Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) MIMO and other transmit spatial diversity scheme is a newer application than receive diversity and has become widely implemented only in the early 2000s. Additionally.The Figure below shows respective position of the uplink demodulation reference signal in FDD LTE uplink frame structure including sounding reference signal position. 2. the incremental cost of using them for transmit diversity is very low. SRSs can be transmitted in an ordinary sub-frame or in UpPTS sub-frame to improve spectral efficiency. it uses UpPTS sub-frame. A high level signal processing diagram is shown below. Normally. open and closed loop. In general there are two mode of MIMO. As the signals sent from different transmit antennas interfere with one another. 2. if the multiple antennae are already at the base station for uplink receive diversity. By using multiple antenna to transmit multiple path of information to UEs.

9. As a result. open loop operations occur when the access network does not have information or feedback from the UE to do coding adjustment or signal is not good enough. The figure below shows a possible N Antennae + M input layers setup in spatial multiplexing 16 .2.2 Open Loop MIMO Open-loop systems do not require knowledge of the channel at the transmitter.

Hence. the overall throughput per cell is increased.3 Closed Loop MIMO On the contrary.9. thus necessitating either channel reciprocity—same uplink and downlink channel. The figure below shows a functional view of closed loop MIMO. possible in TDD—or more commonly a feedback channel from the receiver to the transmitter. 17 . closed-loop systems require channel knowledge at the transmitter.2. As a result. unlike open loop. The figure below shows where the pre-coding function may exist in a N Antennae with M input layers In mode 5 (Multi-user MIMO). closed loop operations occur when the access network execute dynamic adjustment based on feedback from the UE. a more accurate coding application can be applied to the communication with the UE. As a result. different UEs are receiving downlink data from different antenna.

its RF chain. If the mobile station has only one antenna. the capacity still grows approximately linearly with since capacity is linear with SINR in the low-SINR regime. In a rich multipath environment. The following is a quick summary of some possible pre-coding matrix combination under different scenarios I.4 Pre-coding Matrix 3GPP 36-211 defines the types of matrix need to be used when multiple antennae are to be used for different conditions. When the SNR is high. multiple antennas in this case are used to increase the data rate or capacity of the system. However. spatial multiplexing is optimal.The capacity. Spatial Multiplexing Matrix Using Two Antenna Ports with Cell-Specific Reference Signals Spatial multiplexing is where multiple independent streams are transmitted across multiple antennas. A 2 × 2 MIMO system doubles the peak throughput capability of LTE but this is unlikely to be possible for all users in the cell due to variation in SINR. Even two appropriately spaced antennas appear to be sufficient to eliminate most deep fades. which paints a promising picture for the potential benefits of spatial diversity. Although capacity gain is much smaller than at high SINR. the capacity of the system can theoretically be increased linearly with the number of antennas when performing spatial multiplexing. but this trade-off is often very attractive for a small number of antennas. 18 . using diversity pre-coding. or maximum data rate. when the SINR is low.9. spatial multiplexing works mainly under good SINR conditions. the capacity maximizing strategy is to send a single stream of data. The cost of each additional antenna. grows as when the SINR is large. On the other hand. This is called Multi-User MIMO (MU-MIMO). and the associated signal processing required to modulate or demodulate multiple spatial streams may not be negligible. One main advantage of spatial diversity relative to time and frequency diversity is that no additional bandwidth or power is needed in order to take advantage of spatial diversity. The matrix used for two antennae spatial multiplexing is shown below. Instead of increasing diversity.2. unlike transmit diversity and beam-forming. the streams can be separated out using spatial multiplexing. LTE can still support spatial multiplexing by coding across multiple users in the uplink. If the receiver also has multiple antennas.

II. III. Transmit Diversity Matrix Using Two Antenna Ports The following matrix applies to input x is and y is the resulting output using a two antenna output configuration. Spatial Multiplexing Matrix Using Four Antenna Ports with Cell-Specific Reference Signals 19 .

IV.5 Beam Forming Multiple antennas in LTE may also be used to transmit the same signal appropriately weighted for each antenna element such that the effect is to focus the transmitted beam in the direction of the receiver and away from interference. the transmitter needs to have accurate knowledge of the channel. 2. beam forming is specific only to LTE TDD and can operate either under 4x4 or 8x2 configurations. capacity. As of today.9. Transmit Diversity Matrix Using Four Antenna Ports The following matrix applies to input x is and y is the resulting output under a four antenna output configuration. To perform transmit beamforming. 20 . The beam-forming weight vector should increase the antenna gain in the direction of the desired user while simultaneously minimizing the gain in the directions of interferers. thereby improving the received SINR. Beamforming can provide significant improvement in the coverage range. and reliability. which in the case of TDD is easily available owing to channel reciprocity but for FDD requires a feedback channel to learn the channel characteristics so it is not implemented in LTE Release 8 or 9 yet.

The various signals can be characterized in terms of the DOA or the angle of arrival (AOA) of each received signal. From these acquired DOAs. Typically. Each DOA can be estimated by using EUTRAN signal-processing techniques as requested in 3GPP-TS 36-214. 21 . Ideally. The DOA-based beam-former in this case is often called the null-steering beam-former.10 LTE FDD vs LTE TDD Main Features Comparison The following table summarizes the major similarity between LTE FDD and LTE TDD The table below summarizes the difference between the two technologies. Thus far.One popular beam-forming algorithm is based on Direction of Arrival where the incoming signals to a receiver may consist of desired energy and interference energy—for example. In practice. the beam-former has unity gain for the desired user and two nulls at the directions of two interferers and can place nulls in the directions of interferers. it is not possible to associate a discrete AOA with a signal impinging the antenna array. 2. The null-steering beam-former can be designed to completely cancel out interfering signals only if the number of such signals is strictly less than the number of antenna elements. from other users or from multipath reflections. In this case. Therefore. there exists a trade-off between interference null and desired gain lost. we have assumed that the array response vectors of different users with corresponding AOAs are known. a beam-former extracts a weighting vector for the antenna elements and uses it to transmit or receive the desired signal of a specific user while suppressing the undesired interference signals. the DOA based beam-former is viable only in LOS environments or in environments with limited local scattering around the transmitter. each resolvable multipath is likely to comprise several unresolved components coming from significantly different angles.

Maximum information block size = 6144 bits and CRC-24 is used for error detection.1 Physical Channel Modulation Schemes Supported modulation schemes in LTE are: QPSK. 22 . 16QAM. 64QAM.11 LTE Channels Hierarchy Overview 2.11. Broadcast channel only uses QPSK and are shown below.2.

3 Uplink Channel Functionality Breakdown 2.2.11.2 Downlink Channel Functionality Breakdown 2.11.11.4 Channel Functionality Description in Detail Physical channels • PDSCH: Physical Downlink Shared Channel • PBCH: Physical broadcast channel • PMCH: Physical multicast channel • PDCCH: Physical Downlink Control Channel • PCFICH: Physical control format indicator channel • PHICH: Physical Hybrid ARQ Indicator Channel 23 .

Reference Signal (RS) • Cell specific RS • UE-specific RS • MBSFN RS Synchronization Signal (SCH) • Primary Synchronization Signal (P-SCH) • Secondary Synchronization Signal (S-SCH) SCH used for: • Symbol synchronization • Frame synchronization • Cell-ID determination SCH/BCH each occupy 72 center subcarriers regardless of system bandwidth BCH indicates: • Basic L1/L2 system parameters • Downlink system bandwidth • Reference-signal transmit power • Multi-media Broadcast over a Single Frequency Network (MBSFN)-related parameters • Number of transmit antennas • HARQ resource allocation Control region is 1-3 OFDM symbols at the beginning of each subframe. composed of control channel elements (CCEs) • 4 Res = Resource element group (REG) • 9 REGs = 1 CCE PCFICH – Physical Control Format Indicator Channel • # of OFDM symbols of control region PHICH – Physical Hybrid ARQ Channel • ACK/NACK signalling PDCCH – Physical Downlink Control Channel • Scheduling • UL power control 24 .

11.5 Downlink Control Channel and RE Mapping Relationship 2.1 Cell Search and Synchronization 25 .12 Cell Search. Synchronization & Mobility–UE Call Flow View 2.2.12.

12. For a-periodic CQI reporting. and RI reporting is periodic or a-periodic. PMI. and RI are controlled by the eNodeB. A UE in transmission mode 8 is configured with PMI/RI reporting if the parameter PMI-RI-Report is configured by higher layer signaling. CQI. A UE shall transmit periodic CQI/PMI. Figure below shows which channels will be used for different CQI reporting scenario 26 . A UE shall transmit a-periodic CQI/PMI. or RI reporting on PUCCH as defined hereafter in sub-frames with no PUSCH allocation.2. For transmit diversity RI is equal to one. where the UE shall use the same PUCCH-based periodic CQI/PMI or RI reporting format on PUSCH. For spatial multiplexing. RI reporting is transmitted only if configured CQI/PMI/RI feedback type supports RI reporting. the time and frequency resources that can be used by the UE to report CQI. otherwise. PMI. the UE shall determine a RI corresponding to the number of useful transmission layers. Precoding Matrix Indicator (PMI) and Rank Indication (RI) As stated in TS 36-213. and RI reporting on PUSCH if the conditions specified hereafter are met. it is configured without PMI/RI reporting. A UE shall transmit periodic CQI/PMI or RI reporting on PUSCH as defined hereafter in sub-frames with PUSCH allocation.2 UE Procedure for Reporting Channel Quality Indication (CQI).

4 Mobility Management 2.5 EUTRAN Hierarchy and Interface Overview 27 .3 System Information Bit Definition 2.12.12.2.12.

300 28 .2.6 Summary of Handover Call Flow – 3GPP Example TS36.12.

2.13 Example of Peak Data Rate Calculation 29 .

1 Frequency Spectrum Overview .4.5-1 E-UTRA frequency bands) has also defined the operating frequency for Time Division Duplex (TDD) based LTE technology in various frequency bands in order to operate in different parts of the world. The table below shows the actual frequency range listed per the specification for the TDD version.104-860 Table 5.5-1 E-UTRA frequency bands) has clearly defined LTE as a system that can operate in various frequency bands into order to suit the need of different operators in the world.3 LTE Frequency and Spectrum Planning 3.2 Frequency Spectrum Overview .104 V9.0 (2010-06). The table below shows the actual frequency range listed per the specification for the Frequency Division Duplex (FDD) version. 30 .TDD 3GPP Release 8/9 (3GPP TS36. Figure 3-1 LTE FDD Spectrum Allocation The most popular commercial LTE bands are 2.FDD 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) Release 8/9 (3GPP TS36. AWS (Band 4) and 700MHz (Band 12) while momentum is being built up also for 1800MHz (Band 3) as well as Public Safety spectrum (Band 14) According to 3GPP TS 36. Band 6 is no longer applicable and Band 15 and Band 16 are listed as Reserved.104-860 Table 5.6GHz (Band 7). 3.

The number of RB supported for each bandwidth is equal to number of sub-carriers divided by 12.Figure 3-2 LTE TDD Spectrum Allocation It is worth noting that around the 2. Operators can assign different channel bandwidth to suit their particular needs per the figure below. at FC +/.3GHz band (Band 40). 31 . there is a significant frequency spectrum overlap (100MHz) between LTE TDD with WiMAX.BWChannel /2. To many WiMAX operators currently in this frequency band. i. it is an ideal opportunity to evolve their network back into the mainstream LTE technologies.e.3 Channel Bandwidth and Subcarrier Allocation According to 3GPP specification. 3. Figure 3-3 Transmission bandwidth configuration NRB in E-UTRA channel bandwidths The channel edges are defined as the lowest and highest frequencies of the carrier separated by the channel bandwidth.

which means that the carrier centre frequency must be an integer multiple of 100 kHz. 3. The nominal channel spacing between two adjacent E-UTRA carriers is defined as following: Nominal Channel spacing = (BWChannel(1) + BWChannel(2))/2 where BWChannel(1) and BWChannel(2) are the channel bandwidths of the two respective E-UTRA carriers.1 Channel Spacing The spacing between carriers will depend on the deployment scenario.4. the size of the frequency block available and the channel bandwidths.Figure 3-4 Definition of Channel Bandwidth and Transmission Bandwidth Configuration for one E-UTRA carrier Figure 3-5 Visualizing the Relationship between Channel Bandwidth.4 Channel Arrangement According to 3GPP specification.2 Channel Raster The channel raster is 100 kHz for all bands. operators can assign different channel bandwidth to suit their particular needs per the table below. 3. The channel spacing can be adjusted to optimize performance in a particular deployment scenario. NRB and Transmission Bandwidth Configuration 3. 32 .4.

5379 5730 .1(NUL – NOffs-UL) NOTE: The channel numbers that designate central carrier frequencies so close to the operating band edges that the carrier extends beyond the operating band edge shall not be used.4149 4150 .4749 4750 .2749 2750 . 24. FUL = FUL_low + 0.22749 22750 . 5. using channel 99 as center frequency will extend the LTE carrier below the allocated spectrum (99*0. This implies that the first 7.3.20399 20400 . for a 20MHz carrier. 15.3 Carrier Frequency and EARFCN The carrier frequency in the uplink and downlink is designated by the E-UTRA Absolute Radio Frequency Channel Number (EARFCN) in the range 0 .9 1710 1427.36349 . 74 and 99 channel numbers at the upper operating band edge shall not be used for channel bandwidths of 1.22949 23010 .3449 3450 .19199 19200 . 25. 15 and 20 MHz respectively because of the bandwidth requirement.5999 6000 .6599 36000 . 49.21799 21800 . 10. 3.23179 23180 .23999 24000 .36199 36200 .9 729 746 758 734 860 875 791 1495.23279 23280 .1199 1200 . 75 and 100 channel numbers at the lower operating band edge and the last 6. 14.5179 5180 .4949 5010 .3799 3800 .6149 6150 .4.3-1 and NUL is the uplink EARFCN.36349 FUL_low [MHz] 1920 1850 1710 1710 824 830 2500 880 1749.6449 6450 .23379 23730 .2649 2650 .3-1 and NDL is the downlink EARFCN.9 1900 2010 NOffs-DL 0 600 1200 1950 2400 2650 2750 3450 3800 4150 4750 5010 5180 5280 5730 5850 6000 6150 6450 36000 36200 Range of NDL 0 .4. FDL = FDL_low + 0.21449 21450 .7.65535.599 600 .7.9 1900 2010 Uplink NOffs-UL 18000 18600 19200 19950 20400 20650 20750 21450 21800 22150 22750 23010 23180 23280 23730 23850 24000 24150 24450 36000 36200 Range of NUL 18000 .19949 19950 .5279 5280 .1 = 9.9MHz but actual requirement is 10MHz from lower edge) E-UTRA Operating Band 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 … 17 18 19 20 21 … 33 34 33 Downlink FDL_low [MHz] 2110 1930 1805 2110 869 875 2620 925 1844.24599 36000 .18599 18600 .22149 22150 .23849 23850 . For example.5849 5850 .9 2110 1475.24449 24450 .20649 20650 .36199 36200 . The relation between EARFCN and carrier frequency in MHz for the downlink is given by the following equation.1949 1950 .1(NDL – NOffs-DL) The relation between EARFCN and carrier frequency in MHz for the uplink is given by the following equation where FUL_low and NOffs-UL are given in table 5.9 699 777 788 704 815 830 832 1447.24149 24150 . 50. where FDL_low and NOffs-DL are given in table 5.20749 20750 .2399 2400 .

3-1 3.1 Conventional Frequency Reuse Scheme 1*3*1 Under this scheme. 74 and 99 channel numbers at the upper operating band edge shall not be used for channel bandwidths of 1.38249 38250 .43589 43590 .39649 39650 . it also opens the door for inter-site and inter-sector interference which is detrimental for urban LTE deployment due to the high site density. Figure 3-7 Conventional 1*3*1 frequency planning scheme Application scenario • Limited application scenario in urban and suburban environment without impacting QoS/QoE.37549 37550 . 50.43589 43590 .36949 36950 . Figure 3-6 E-UTRA channel numbers – 3GPP 36104-A10 – Table 5.E-UTRA Operating Band 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 Downlink FDL_low [MHz] 1850 1930 1910 2570 1880 2300 2496 3400 3600 NOffs-DL 36350 36950 37550 37750 38250 38650 39650 41590 43590 Range of NDL 36350 .41589 41590 . 14. 15. 10.36949 36950 . • Possible application in highly isolated rural scenario where users are also highly scattered 34 .37749 37750 .45589 FUL_low [MHz] 1850 1930 1910 2570 1880 2300 2496 3400 3600 Uplink NOffs-UL 36350 36950 37550 37750 38250 38650 39650 41590 43590 Range of NUL 36350 . 75 and 100 channel numbers at the lower operating band edge and the last 6. a single frequency will be used for the entire system.41589 41590 .39649 39650 . 25. 5.4.45589 NOTE: The channel numbers that designate carrier frequencies so close to the operating band edges that the carrier extends beyond the operating band edge shall not be used. Although it eliminates the need of any frequency planning considerations.7.38249 38250 . 3. 15 and 20 MHz respectively.38649 38650 . 49.5 Frequency Planning Recommendations 3. 24.5.37549 37550 .37749 37750 .38649 38650 . This implies that the first 7.

to serve the cell edge users. also known as the secondary band. The figure below depicts the actual layout Figure 3-9 SFR 1*3*1 Downlink frequency planning scheme 35 . The SFR concept is based on dividing the entire LTE carrier bandwidth into 3 sub-sections as shown below Figure 3-8 SFR 1*3*1 Downlink frequency division scheme Under this configuration. will be used to serve these users. • Easy to deploy. thereby enhancing the throughput of those users. which “1/3” of the entire carrier bandwidth.Advantage • High spectral efficiency and high throughput per site. As a result. also known as the primary band. For those users location near the center of the cell. which is the remaining “2/3” of the carrier bandwidth. the other 2 sections.2 SFR 1*3*1 – Downlink and Uplink SFR (Soft Frequency reuse) is the recommended frequency reuse methodology.5. each sector will only use one of the sub-sections. Both FDD and TDD can use this interference reduction method. the interference level between sectors can be reduced. • Coverage control of cells becomes an important factor in achieving a high throughput level 3. • No special scheduling algorithm required Disadvantage • High level of interference especially on cell edge area • Low throughput on cell boundary and lower QoS/QoE for users on boundary area.

GP and UpPTS). all cells must be operating in time synchronous mode to avoid any extra interference being introduced to the network. • Improve cell edge user throughput and quality of experience. the selection of carrier bandwidth for multiple carrier condition is also more complex in TDD than FDD. Moreover. Failure to include enough separation will create a lot of co-channel interference which will degrade the throughput performance significantly Figure 3-10 Uplink-Downlink Pilot Time Slot and Guard band Configuration Schemes Lastly. 3.Application scenario • Recommended configuration to satisfy high traffic and high site density requirement. IEEE 1588v2 implementation is recommended and will help to ensure the integrity of time synchronization within the LTE TDD network.3 TDD Specific Frequency Planning Considerations It is very common for telecom Operators within the TDD band of LTE have a wider unpaired spectrum than the bandwidth defined maximum carrier bandwidth of 20MHz. co-frequency and time sharing nature between uplink and downlink in TDD also require careful selection of guard band and pilot time slot (DwPTS. As a result. Besides. the coexistence of WiMAX within the same TDD spectrum is also very common and this has further complicated the carrier and bandwidth planning for LTE TDD network from a carrier planning perspective. 36 . carrier bandwidth. Planning engineers need to take all these variations along with customer throughput and coverage requirement into account when it comes to TDD frequency planning. • Best results will require the introduction of Inter Cell Interference Coordination (ICIC) Advantage • Reduce inter-cell interference under a high site density deployment.5. for TDD to work properly.

5.Result Figure 3-12 Cell Coverage Comparison (UL@128kbps) between various frequency bands 37 . antenna gain. However. choosing which band to use for LTE is always an important consideration. Results shown below are typical comparison in coverage radius between different frequency bands. it is important to remember many components on the radio path will have slightly different properties at different frequency bands which will modify the final cell coverage radius. For example.4 Frequency Band Selection As many Operators worldwide possess spectrum in various frequency bands. Parameters that will affect the overall cell coverage will be discussed in the next chapter. propagation characteristics. Final results are highly dependent on the actual parameters used for customer design. feeder loss. cell edge user throughput and penetration loss are all dependent on the operating frequency chosen. power amplifier output. Cell Range in Uplink Case -.Figure 3-11 Synchronization Solution based on IPclk or 1588v2 3.

The figure below shows the difference in symbol configurations between the normal. a bigger cyclic prefix is configured per cell to allow a bigger delay in propagation.5 Cyclic Prefix Planning Although Cyclic Prefix is not directly related to frequency or spectrum allocation.5. By carrying a smaller number of symbols (6). higher frequency bands are likely to deploy more data centric services for high density area (e. LTE is more likely the technology of choice for most Operators looking at launching data services in the higher 38 .6 Placing Multiple Technologies@Multiple Frequency Band Choosing which technologies for which spectrum is a major challenge for many Operators worldwide.5. CBD).g. it will impact the actual cell range that can be served from a logical and signal processing perspective.Cell Range in Downlink Case -. As a result. 7 symbols configuration (norma lCP) against 6 symbols (long CP configuration) Figure 3-14 Cyclic Prefix Comparison 3. This is also known as long CP.Result Figure 3-13 Cell Coverage Comparison (DL@1024kbps) between various frequency bands 3. It is highly dependent on what the Operator already owned and what is their future business plan. Typically.

frequency band. 39 . It is the responsibility of the radio planner and account managers to work with customer to determine the best combination to meet their interest. better user experience. Dual-band Network Deployment is a trend Figure 3-15 Example of Multiple Technologies Deployment to Various Frequency Band SingleSON Solution Benefits: • SingleSON brings synergized automation for GSM. The figure below just some 1 example of what customer may do with multiple technologies and their evolution in different frequency band. UMTS and LTE • It can remarkably reduce operational cost and improve efficiency.

4 Link Budget and Coverage Planning Operators are rightfully focused on the service quality of a system and coverage is an important part of the service quality of a system. Coverage and design requirement must be analyzed in choosing parameters within the following parameter groups: • Propagation-related • Equipment-related • LTE-specific • System Reliability • Specific Considerations Achievable cell radius can be derived from the Excel based link budget tools. and cost so none of these can be considered in isolation. will provide site deployment specific simulation analysis to obtain the number of required base stations in the target area. quality. capacity. GENEX U-net. The coverage area offered by a 3 sector and Omni site along with coverage planning flow is shown below Figure 4-1 Radio network coverage pre-planning flow 40 . Various factors must be considered during LTE system coverage planning and setting of these parameters will affect coverage radius and the quantity of base stations. Network planning tool. The aim of radio network planning is to balance coverage.

repeated coding gain. 41 . 4. and antenna gain • LTE-specific parameters. interference margin. feeder loss. System simulation will be described in Chapter7. and background noise • Equipment dependent parameters. feeder loss. such as the penetration loss. Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) gain.This chapter will focus on the RF link budget itself and radio transmission model. and fast fading margin • System reliability parameters. body loss. and the interference margin of radio links to calculate all gains and losses that will affect the final cell coverage • To estimate the maximum link loss allowed based on the maximum transmit power of the terminal and eNodeB transmit power allocation. edge coverage rate. such as the pilot power boosting gain. antenna gain.1 Conventional Link Budget The purpose of link budget in LTE network planning is: • To use such factors as building penetration loss. Link budget parameters are grouped as follows: • Propagation (Transmission) related parameters. Coverage radius of a base station can be obtained according to the maximum link loss allowance under a certain propagation model. receiver sensitivity. such as the transmit power. such as slow fading margin • Specific features that will affect the final path gain The figure below shows factors that will affect the link budget calculation process. The radius can be used in subsequent design.

Figure 4-2 Link budget model – Downlink and Uplink 4. Such parameters include the penetration loss.101 where the test condition was specified. and the terminal motion speed of the channel. ETU30. 4.2 Propagation Parameters Propagation-related parameters have no relationship with technical systems or equipment vendors.2. different speed/condition can also be introduced and simulated according to specific needs. EVA60 and EVA 120 are applicable to vehicular services. you must set the propagation parameters to be the same values. and background noise. 60km and 120km. fading. EPA3 and ETU3 are applicable to fixed services or pedestrian speed services. feeder loss. ETU120. Propagation-related gains or losses are constant. EVA (Extended Vehicular Model A) and ETU3 (Extended Typical Urban Model at 3km/hr). 42 . If required. and are related to the environment of radio wave transmission. ETU60. Common channel models in LTE systems include EPA (Extended Pedestrian A). 30km. body loss. EVA30. To obtain an objective value when comparing the link budget information of two equipment vendors. Items covered include multi-path conditions.1 Channel Model Channel models used for LTE are defined in 3GPP TS 36. Common models include speed at 3km/h.

0 -3.0 -2.0 Extended Typical Urban model 9 0 50 120 200 230 500 1600 2300 5000 PDP # of Paths 4.0 -1.8 Extended Typical Urban Model – ETU Excess tap delay [ns] 0 50 43 Relative power [dB] -1.0 -17.0 -1.EPA Excess tap delay [ns] 0 30 70 90 110 190 410 Relative power [dB] 0.Table 4-1 Typical Propagation Channel Models used for LTE Extended Pedestrian A model 7 0.2 -20.0 0.0 -17.2 3GPP Value for Multipath and Doppler Effect Table below shows some of the propagation conditions that are used for performance measurements in multi-path fading environment at low.0 -5.0 Delay (ns) -8.6 -9.2 -20.0 -7. medium & high Doppler frequencies Model EPA 5Hz EVA 5Hz EVA 70Hz ETU 70Hz ETU 300Hz Maximum Doppler frequency 5 Hz 5 Hz 70 Hz 70 Hz 300 Hz Table below shows possible variation of received power in multi-path fading environment under the various extended delay spread conditions listed below Extended Pedestrian A Model .2.0 -8.0 -1.4 -3.0 0.8 0 30 70 90 110 190 410 0.6 -0.0 Relative Path Power (dB) -3.0 -16.5 -1.0 -1.0 -1.0 0.0 .0 -3.0 -12.9 Extended Vehicular A model 9 0 30 150 310 370 710 1090 1730 2510 -1.0 -2.0 -1.1 -7.

0 0.1 -7. V is the velocity of the train in m/seconds.0 -5.Excess tap delay [ns] 120 200 230 500 1600 2300 5000 Relative power [dB] -1.0 -12. The assumption for this model is where Ds/2 is the initial distance of the train from eNodeB.5 -1.6 -9. and Dmin is eNodeB Railway track distance.0 -1.0 -7.6 -0.0 -3.0 Extended Vehicular A Model – EVA Excess tap delay [ns] 0 30 150 310 370 710 1090 1730 2510 Relative power [dB] 0.4 -3.0 0.0 -16. both in meters.9 A separate high speed train model is also defined and the Doppler shift trajectory is shown in the diagram below. 44 .0 0.

4. Other parameters Indicates a coefficient related to the propagation distance and the effective height of the transmitter. Propagation in free space gives the lowest fade rate. • 3-Deygout with correction • Correct the distance based on the Deygout calculation method. Radio propagation models are classified into outdoor and indoor propagation models. must be considered. Indicates a coefficient related to diffraction loss. • 4-Millington • This diffraction algorithm calculates the diffraction of only one obstacle. landforms and obstructions on the propagation path.3 Propagation Model The radio propagation model plays a key role in the link budget. a short coverage distance and complicated environmental changes. except that the method for calculating the height of obstacles is different. • 2-Epstein-Peterson • This calculation method is the same as Deygout. These two types of propagation models involve different factors. The coverage radius of a base station is obtained based on the maximum propagation loss allowance in the link budget. Although every planning tool will use slightly different method in their propagation calculation. • 1-Deygout • This diffraction algorithm calculates the diffraction of a maximum of three obstacles. 45 .2. Indoor propagation model features low RF transmit power. Signals fade at varying rates in different environments. Method K5 K6 Kclutter This section describes the common propagation models in LTE planning. such as buildings and trees. Indicate K1 and K2 in the none-line-of-sight condition. The fading of signals is larger than free space when radio waves propagate in open areas/suburban areas and fading rate is the largest in urban/dense urban areas. In an outdoor environment. Indicates a coefficient related to the receiver height. Indicates a coefficient related to Effective height of Transmitter. the propagation models are generally based around modifying the following K factors. K1-los K2-los K1-nlos K2-nlos K3 K4 Indicate K1 and K2 in the line-of-sight condition. Method of calculating diffraction includes. • 0-No Diffraction • Do not count the diffraction loss. Indicates a coefficient related to clutter loss.

When electromagnetic waves are transmitted in this medium. In this case.3 + 33.9 .4 + 20log(d ) + 20log( f ) Where. The unit is m. Cost231-Hata Model Cost231-Hata model can be used in macro cells as the propagation model. The unit is m. II. HSS indicates the height of the terminal antenna. then path loss complies with the free space model. If a clear line of sight (CLOS) exists between the transmit antenna and receive antenna. The value of Cm depends on the terrain type. a(hss) indicates the terminal gain function. The application range is as follows: Frequency band: 1500 MHz to 2000 MHz Base station height: 30 meters to 200 meters. Satellite communication and microwave line-of-sight (LOS) communication are typical examples of free space propagation. no reflection. The unit is km. The base station must be higher than the surrounding buildings.13. Free Space Model Free space indicates an ideal.large city in the related protocol) 46 . The unit is km. even. f indicates the carrier frequency. HBS indicates the height of the base station antenna. d indicates the distance between the terminal and the base station. LOS communication between the base station and the terminal is implemented. d indicates the distance between the terminal and the base station. Propagation losses are caused only by the energy spread of electromagnetic waves. scattering.a(Hss) + Cm L = 46. and isotropic medium of space. In certain conditions. This function is related to the antenna height and working frequency of the terminal and the environment. and thus often underestimates propagation loss. The propagation losses in the free space model are as follows: PL = 32.I. This model is applicable to the scenario when the antennas of the base station and terminal are mounted at considerable height and CLOS exists between the base station and the terminal. The preceding formula does not consider the impact of ground reflection.9 × lg( f ) . the antennae of the base station and terminal can be mounted at any height. The unit is MHz. Terminal antenna height: 1 meter to 10 meters Distance between the transmitter and receiver: 1 km to 20 km The Cost231-Hata model can be expressed by the following formula: Total = L . refraction. The values of Cm in the standard Cost231-Hata are as follows: In large cities: Cm = 3 (as defined in Urban . or absorption occurs. The unit is MHz. f indicates the working frequency of the system.6.82 × lg(HBS) + (44.55 × lg(HBS)) × lg(d ) Where.

6 GHz have exceeded the band range of the standard Cost 231-Hata model. that is. UMTS.94 (As defined in Rural (quasi-open) – countryside where the terminal is unobstructed for 100 meters in the front in the related protocol) Since some of the working frequencies of the LTE networks are 2.4dB (as defined in Urban – Suburban in the related protocol) In rural open areas: Cm = -4.5.78 × (lg( f ))2 + 18. 47 . a set of Cm has been created in the experienced model.94 (As defined in Rural (open) – desert in the related protocol) In highways: Cm = -4.33 × lg( f ) -40. CDMA2000. Standard Propagation Model (SPM) The standard propagation model is a model (deduced from the Hata formula) particularly suitable for predication in the 150MHz~3500MHz band over long distance (1Km<d<20Km) and is very adapted to GSM900/1800.In medium-sized cities: Cm = 0 (as defined in Urban – small city in the related protocol) In suburban areas: Cm = -2(log( f /28))2 . The model may be used for any technology. K4 has to be a positive number Losses due to diffraction over an obstructed path(dB) Multiplying factor for log(d)log(HTxeff) Multiplying factor for HRxeff Mobile antenna height (m) Multiplying factor for f(clutter) Average of weighted losses due to clutter The standard propagation model can be used for propagation model calibration through CW (Continuous Wave) test by using simulation tools.78 × (lg( f ))2 + 18. the standard Cost231-Hata model must be corrected based on the CW test result. WiMAX and LTE technologies. This model uses the terrain profile.GENEX U-Net. III.3 GHz and 2.33 × lg( f ) -35. Therefore. 150 MHz to 2000 MHz. According to the planning experience and actual CW test results in multiple scenarios. it is based on the following formula: LSPM = K1 + K2 log (d )+ K3 log (H Txeff)+ K4 Diffractio nLoss + K5 log (d )log (H Txeff)+ K6 H Rxeff + K cluttrt f (clutter) Where: K1 K2 d K3 HTxeff K4 Diffraction loss K5 K6 HRxeff KClutter f(clutter) Constant offset (dB) Multiplying factor for log(d) Distance between the receiver and the transmitter (m) Multiplying factor for log(HTxeff) Effective height of the transmitter antenna(m) Multiplying factor for diffraction calculation. diffraction mechanisms (calculated in several ways) and take into account clutter classes and effective antenna heights in order to calculate path loss. in the actual LTE system design.

suburban and open areas. Japan. Okumura-Hata Model The Hata Model for Urban Areas. ITU Indoor Model The IEEE documents provide a propagation loss model in the indoor base station environment. The model for urban areas was built first and used as the base for others The Okumura Hata model also has two more varieties for propagation in Suburban Areas and Open Areas. The model served as a base for the Hata Model and the following assumptions apply to the use of Okumura Hata model. The original Okumura model for Urban Areas is a radio propagation model that was built using the data collected in the city of Tokyo. The model is ideal for using in cities with many urban structures but not many tall blocking structures. The expression of this model is as follows: Where. reflection and scattering caused by city structures. The traditional Okumura Hata model formula is shown below: V. This model incorporates the graphical information from Okumura model and develops it further to realize the effects of diffraction. This model is based on the Cost231 model. also known as the Okumura-Hata model for being a developed version of the Okumura Model. is the most widely used radio frequency propagation model for predicting the behavior of cellular propagation in built up areas.IV. Frequency: 150 MHz to 1500 MHz Mobile Station Antenna Height: between 1 m and 10 m Base station Antenna Height: between 30 m and 200 m Link distance: between 1 km and 20 km. one for urban. 48 . Okumura model was originally built into three modes.

indicates the constant loss. Ray Tracing Model The ray tracing model involves analyzing electric wave propagation by using the ray tracing method and obtaining the field strength of received signals through theoretical calculation. < 30 cm Light internal walls • Plasterboard • Walls with large numbers of holes (e. brick • Minimum number of holes Description Factor (dB) Lf 18. indicates the loss of neighboring floors. the value of n is 4.6 GHz.LFS Lc kwi n Lwi Lf b indicates the propagation losses in free space.3 Lw1 3. Therefore. the test point. indicates the experience parameter. Determine reflection and diffraction losses based on the Fresnel equation and the geometrical or uniform theory of diffraction. indicates the loss brought by penetration through walls in i mode.e. indicates the number of walls in type i penetration. geological information technologies allow you to identify each building in a city as a right prism in a high precision degree. In this case. obstructions in the propagation environment are often larger than the wavelength of the radio wave. Such a right prism is identified by the top coordinate of the polygon at the bottom and height. that is. The value of Lc is often 37 dB. In this case. 49 . the value can be changed to 3. indicates the number of penetrated floors.9 Caution: In an indoor cell. In normal indoor offices. the ray tracing method can be used to analyze wave propagation. offices) • Hollow pot tiles • Reinforced concrete • Thickness typ.3 GHz and 2. often the antenna height of the base station or terminal is not specified and the deviation of shadow fading in log-normal distribution is often 12 dB. In addition. For capacity calculations in moderately pessimistic environments. VI. The wavelength of the radio wave is several centimeters. according to the features and layout of the buildings on the 3D map. Identify all the propagation routes from the transmission source to each receive point.g. windows) Internal walls • Concrete. Some LTE network uses the higher part of the UHF band such as 2. The basic idea of the ray tracing method is as follows: Determine the position of a transmission source. Table 4-2 Weighted average for loss categories Loss category Typical floor structures (i.4 Lw2 6.

6 Concrete Wall 15~30 Brick Wall 10 Wooden Floor 5 Thick Glass Wall 3~5 Thin Glass Wall 1~3 Lift Door 20-30 50 . Table 4-3 Typical building penetration losses Typical Penetration Loss (dB) Frequency (GHz) 1. In areas where no indoor distributed system is deployed. • The transmitter and receiver are located in a same building.2.8~2. The prediction accuracy of the model is closely related to the precision of the digital maps and accuracy of site engineering parameters. direction angle. Table below lists the penetration losses associated with typical buildings.4 Penetration Loss Penetration loss indicates the fading of radio signals from an indoor terminal to a base station due to obstruction by a building. Therefore. Due to the cost. the ray tracing model is used only in network planning in densely populated areas of large cities. and scattering. This model. For an indoor receiver to maintain normal communications. inverse radiation. electromagnetic wave signals are obtained through diffraction and scattering. Perform the same point coherence stacking of field strengths of all routes to obtain the total received field strength of each test point. The propagation modes of electromagnetic waves are as follows: direct radiation. The indoor receiver obtains radio signals in the following scenarios: • The indoor receiver obtains signals from an outdoor transmitter. 4. terrain. and down-tilt angle. however. diffraction. The ray tracing model is integrated in common commercial planning software. Simulation software GENEX U-Net uses a 3D ray tracing model. building materials.the field strength of each route to each test point can be obtained. penetration. and working frequency. such as the antenna position. requires highly precise (at least to within 5 meters) digital maps that contain 3D building information. See Figure below Figure 4-3 Indoor propagation scenario The link budget is only concerned with the scenario in which an outdoor transmitter is used and the signals penetrate only one wall. the indoor penetration loss is related to the incident angle. height. the signal must be sufficiently strong.

In the link budget, penetration loss values depend on the coverage scenario. Therefore, coverage target areas are classified into densely populated urban areas, common urban areas, suburban areas, rural areas, and highways. Table below lists the area classification principles. Table 4-4 Principles for classifying coverage scenarios
Scenario Name Description In this scenario, buildings are densely distributed, and the average building height exceeds 30 m. In certain areas, buildings are distributed in order. The distance between buildings is narrow and is not fixed. The average distance between buildings is 10 m to 20 m. Most streets that are not main avenues are narrow. These areas are densely populated. In this scenario, the average building height is about 20 m. The average distance between buildings is similar to the average building height. Such areas contain a certain amount of open spaces and greenery. In this scenario, the average building height is about 10 m. Buildings are scattered and the average distance between buildings is 30 to 50 m. The streets are wide. Such areas may contain much greenery and many open spaces. In this scenario, buildings are scarce. The average building height is about 5 m. Such areas are likely to contain vast open spaces, fields, greenery, and roads.

Densely populated urban area

Common urban area

Suburban area

Rural area

The building penetration loss ranges from 5 dB to 40 dB. In link budget, if no actual test data in the target area is available, an assumed penetration loss value must be used. The final assumption is also highly dependent on local customer requirement. For example in sophisticated Asian Metropolis like Hong Kong, Singapore and Shanghai, the indoor coverage expectation will be very high, hence requiring a high penetration loss provisioning. On the other hand, in less developed market such as Africa and Latin America, customer expectation is lower so the penetration loss requirement can be reduced to reduce overall cost involved. During network planning, if no actual field testing data is available, refer to the penetration loss values listed in Table below. Table 4-5 Example of penetration loss
Scenario Densely populated urban area Common urban area Suburban area Rural area Penetration Loss 18 - 25 dB 15 - 18 dB 10 - 12 dB 6 - 8 dB

4.2.5 Body Loss
Body loss indicates the loss generated due to signal blocking and absorption when a terminal antenna is close to the body. This affects handsets in particular. Body loss depends on the position of the terminal. For fixed service, normally USB dongle is used. Terminals, such as indoor and outdoor CPEs, are often mounted on roofs, windows, or desks. An eNodeB antenna is mounted at a height of tens of meters, in which case body loss can be ignored as the body loss value is 0 dB. For mobile applications, especially PDA-based VoIP services, body loss must be considered and in this instance, the body loss is about 3 dB.
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4.2.6 Feeder Loss
Feeder loss indicates the signal loss caused by various devices that are located on the path of the antenna to the receiver. Any device using an external antenna for service provision at either the base station side or terminal side must consider feeder loss. If a USB dongle, an indoor CPE, or an outdoor CPE integrated with an antenna is used, feeder loss can be ignored at the terminal side, but not at the base station side. In the actual link budget, you must calculate feeder loss according to feeder type and length and connector type. Figure below shows the typical connections of the antenna feeder system in an indoor base station.

Figure 4-4 Connections of the antenna feeder system The formula for calculating the feeder loss according to the feeder type and length is as follows: Feeder loss (dB) = Feeder loss per 100 m (dB/100 m) × feeder length (m)/100 The feeder loss per 100 meters is related to the frequency band. Table below lists typical feeder losses. Table 4-6 Typical feeder losses
Frequency (MHz) 450 800 900 1500 1800 2000 2300 1/2" 4.683 6.396 6.822 9.000 10.099 10.693 11.543 7/8" 2.644 3.594 3.861 5.129 5.693 6.089 6.624 5/4" 1.871 2.564 2.762 3.693 4.228 4.416 4.919
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Frequency (MHz) 2400 2500 3000 3300 3500

1/2" 11.733 12.035 13.218 13.932 14.348

7/8" 6.733 6.906 7.525 7.932 8.169

5/4" 5.000 5.129 5.624 5.928 6.105

If a base station is mounted indoors, the link budget must include the losses of all devices from the RF port of the base station to the antenna interface, including the indoor jumper, connector, main transmission feeder, combiners, splitters and the outdoor jumper. If the RRU of a distributed base station is mounted on the tower top, you need to consider only the loss of the outdoor 1/2" jumper. In this case, the total cable loss can be greatly reduced to approximately 0.5dB.

4.2.7 Background Noise
The background noise of the LTE system is the same as that of other communication systems. The calculation formula is as follows: Nth = KTB. K indicates the Boltzmann constant. The value is as follows: 1.38 x 10 ^ (- 23)J/K. T indicates absolute temperature at a value of 290K. The result of KT is the density of the heat noise power spectrum and the value is -174dBm/Hz. B indicates channel bandwidth and in LTE, it can be 1.4MHz/3MHz/5 MHz/10 MHz/15 MHz/20 MHz

4.3 Equipment-Related Parameters
Equipment-related parameters include the base station, antenna, and terminal. The link budget parameters vary with the base stations, antennas, and terminals of different vendors. These parameters affect the link budget result. As a result, the downlink is unaffected in most scenarios.

4.3.1 Transmit Power
Transmit power includes that of the base station and terminal sides. The transmit power at the base station side affects the downlink budget. The transmit power at the terminal side affects the uplink budget. With the adoption of MIMO technology, two or more antennae are used at the same time at the base station for transmission. Therefore, the power combining gain must be considered. The formula for calculating the power combining gain is as follows: Power Combining Gain=10*Log(N) Where, N indicates the number of transmit channels of the base station. For example, when a base station contains two transmitters and two receivers, the power combining gain is 3 dB. Therefore, the transmit power in each sector (2T2R) is as follows: 46 dBm (40 Watt) in total for a 2x2 system with 20W from each transmit path
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Nfloor indicates the multiplication result of K and T and is the density of the thermal white noise power. In link budget tool. 4. The antenna gain quantifies the degree to which an antenna transmits input power in concentration. The value is -174 dBm/Hz. the BLER chosen and whether other quality affecting features are implemented e. Figure below shows the relationship between dBi and dBd. Figure 4-5 Relationship between dBi and dBd The relationship between antenna gain. 54 . In this formula. Two units are used to indicate antenna gain: dBi and dBd. NF is an important index used to measure the performance of a receiver. reduce the lobe width of the radiation at the vertical plane and maintain the omni-directional radiation performance at the horizontal plane.3. The NF of a common LTE terminal is generally 6 dB to 8 dB and the typical value used is 7 dB. 4. The unit is dB. To increase the gain. each of the subcarrier receiver sensitivity can be calculated by the following formula: Sensitivity = SINR + N floor + 10.4 Antenna Gain The antenna gain indicates the power density ratio of the signals generated from the same point by the actual antenna and ideal radiation unit when the input power is identical.15. The dBi indicates the gain of the antenna compared with the isotropic radiator to all directions.3 Noise Figure Noise figure is the ratio of the SINR at the input end to the SINR at the output end of the receiver.3.3.2 Receiver Sensitivity The receiver sensitivity indicates the minimum signal strength required to enable decoding by the eNodeB or UE receiver if there is no interference. Noise figure is highly dependent on both operating bandwidth and eNodeB type.log[15000] + NF SINR indicates the demodulation threshold of the receiver. MIMO and Coding repetition.4. The SINR used in the link budget is obtained from the system simulation result.g. The demodulation threshold is related to the specific code modulation mode involved. G indicates antenna gain. The dBd indicates the gain of the antenna compared with the symmetric oscillator. horizontal beamwidth. The formula for the conversion between these two units is as follows: dBi = dBd + 2. and vertical beamwidth is as follows: G(dBi)=10*log[32000/(A*B)]. A and B indicate the horizontal beamwidth and vertical beamwidth.

we often use 65° 18-dBi directional antennas and 11-dBi omni-directional antennas as the antennas in base stations.In LTE system. Figure 4-6 and Figure 4-7 show the antenna lobes of the 65° 18-dBi directional antenna and 11-dBi omni-directional antenna. Horizontal pattern Vertical pattern Figure 4-6 65° 18-dBi directional antenna Horizontal Pattern Vertical Pattern Figure 4-7 11-dBi omni-directional antenna Figure 4-8 Definition of Features on Horizontal & vertical patterns of directional antenna 55 .

the repeated coding gain. Figure 4-9 Transmit Diversity and Spatial Multiplexing MIMO TS36. the specified uplink/downlink rate at the coverage edge. For Spatial Multiplexing MIMO.We recommend the 65° dual-polarized 18-dBi directional antennas for the base stations that are distributed in densely populated urban areas and common urban areas. The values of the interference margin and the fast fading margin in the LTE system differ from those in other systems.3-1) 56 .1 MIMO Gains MIMO configuration indicates that multiple antennas are used for signal transmission at the transmit end and signal reception at the receive end to improve the quality of service (QoS) for each subscriber.4. The 90° or 65° directional antennas can be used for base stations in suburban areas. The figure below shows one example for Transmit Diversity system structure. since CPE antenna is external. For a traditional single-antenna system. We recommend the 11-dBi omnidirectional antennas for coverage in rural areas. which helps increase coverage radius. MIMO gain is unique parameters of LTE technology. the MIMO technology can be classified into Single Input Multiple Output (SIMO) and Multiple Input Single Output (MISO) according to the number of antennas at the transmit and receive ends. 4. the interference margin. CW0 and CW1 will be fed by 2 different payload streams. The 33° horizontal beamwidth antennas can be used for highway coverage. the LTE terminal market is dominated by USB dongle at this stage and CPE antenna gain values will be based on final product availability. However. such as CDMA and UMTS. and the fast fading margin. The antenna gains of the terminals in the LTE system vary.4 LTE-Related Parameters LTE-related parameters include MIMO gains. 4. gain similar to those currently available in 3G/WiMAX product is expected. This results in a large difference in the coverage scopes of different terminals.211 (fig 6. The gain of such antennas can reach 21 dBi. However. especially in isolated towns.

Interference reduction gain In mobile cellular communications system. You can obtain a spatial multiplexing gain by transmitting multiple parallel data streams over the same time-frequency resources. a power gain of 10log(N) dB can be obtained. the requirements for the power amplifier are high. This ensures that the signal fading of an antenna is independent.2 Cell Edge Rate Similar to other wireless communications systems. thus improving received signal quality. Spatial multiplexing gain The spatial multiplexing gain indicates the improvement of data throughput or transmission rate when the transmit power and bandwidth remain unchanged. The lower the 57 . the MIMO achieves a spatial multiplexing gain. the receiving SINR can be improved. and interference reduction gain. the LTE features a rate layering feature. 5. the distance between antennae is often large. the total transmit power is equal to N times the transmit power from a single antenna signal transmission.In the example above. inter-cell interference cannot be ignored due to the frequency sharing and multiplexing nature both within and between cells. the SINR fluctuation of the received signals after combining stabilizes. Therefore. The spatial multiplexing gain is used to increase system capacity. As a result. 1. however. That is. In a multi-antenna system. You can combine the expected signals and suppress the interference signal through proper multiantenna spatial weight at the receiving end to improve the average SINR at the receiving end. such as CDMA2000 EVDO. 4. That is. Various multi-antenna systems can obtain the array gain. In addition. the smaller the cell coverage radius. Multi-antenna technology can improve system capacity and coverage without largely increasing cost.4. different from white noise. space diversity gain. This is the basis of Interference Reduction Combining feature. Array gain The array gain indicates an improvement in the average signal noise ratio (SINR) at the receive end when the total transmit power is the same. 2. This is because the multi-antenna technology gives the following gains: power combining gain. N transmit channels are available. after the multi-antenna technology is used. In this case. The array gain can be obtained through the coherent combining of various antenna signals. you can also increase the transmit power. the higher the required edge rate. the interference signal is colored noise. 3. the signals in a single-antenna system suffer from deep fading. and implementation cost is complex and increased. array gain. In this case. Space diversity gain Due to the fading nature of wireless channels. However. Power combining gain When multiple antennae (N) are used to transmit signals. 4. This section describes the various gains brought by the MIMO. which is mainly used to increase the system capacity. WiMAX and HSPA. If a single antenna is used to transmit signals. a single data input stream is used to feed two separate antennae but it is equally possible to feed two different input data streams into this setup to provide higher data rate and it is the fundamental principle for Multiple Code Word (MCW) in LTE.

the value should be 1 for single antenna port transmission mode 7 (port 7 or 8). Coding rate indicates the volume coding rate of the channel code.e. 16QAM. In case of BF. Downlink ICIC also disabled). and 6 respectively. the modulation mode levels of QPSK. Modulation model level indicates the number of bits in the modulation mode. In FDD system. the lower the cell edge rate. the larger the cell coverage radius. the volume coding rate of QPSK1/2 is 1/2. A minimum of 1 symbol (12 Res) will be required per RB for control signaling purposes. This comes about due to the fixed power offered by UE (normally 23dBm) being spread evenly to the number of RBs involved in the modulation scheme assigned. and the volume coding rate of 16QAM3/4 is 3/4. the settings of the uplink/downlink cell edge rates (in particular the uplink cell edge rate) will determine the final cell coverage radius. Number can be ranging from 1 (SFBC) to 2 (MCW 2x2). 6 symbols equivalent (72 Res) will be the minimum overhead requirement per TTI. the frame size in LTE networks is 10 ms. Some of the factors that affect the edge rate in the LTE system are as follows: • Uplink/downlink TDD proportion • MIMO schemes chosen • eNodeB Power Amplifier power (affect downlink only) • Number of RB used at the sector edge • Modulation mode (1 of 29 coding methods) • Repeated coding times The formula for calculating the downlink cell edge rate is as follows: Cell edge rate_Phy = Number of Different data stream transmitted x Number of Resource Block assigned to user per frame x Number of available Traffic carrying Resource Element per Resource Block x Coding rate x Modulation model level / Duration of each frame . an understanding of edge coverage requirement is very critical from a network planning perspective. receive sensitivity of a base station is defined by the bandwidth of the RB which is 180 kHz. assuming there is no power control (i. In the link budget. Number of Resource Block Assigned (a single RB is the basic resource assignment level) reflects the number of resource blocks used by user at the edge of the sector. Number of available Traffic carrying Resource Element per Resource Block indicates the number of RE available for each resource block. RB can be assigned down to a per TTI level (1 ms duration) Number of Different data stream transmitted is related to the number of data stream being simultaneously transmitted. Hence. and 64QAM are 2. As regulated by the protocols. In previous version of link budget tools. For example. and 2 streams for dual antenna port transmission mode 8 (port 7 and 8). 4. The smaller the number of resource blocks assigned. In TDD system.Where. a maximum of 3 symbols (36 Res) can be consumed per frame (10ms) for control channel signaling purposes and there is at least 6 more extra RE can be used for Downlink Reference signaling per TTI (1ms). due to frequency sharing and time gap requirement for switching between uplink and downlink. Duration of each frame indicates the frame size. downlink power control must be enabled also (which is executed at 20ms intervals based on UE BER reported value) and edge rate calculation will be more complex and 58 . For example. If Downlink ICIC is enabled.required edge rate. More recent version are using per subcarrier as basis of receiver sensitivity and the conversion value is simply 10log10(12).

4.4 Beam Forming Currently. there is also a close correlation between actual traffic load and interference margin experienced by the network. we still need a margin for the other cell interference.g. the orthogonal nature of LTE allows a smaller provisioning of cell breathing and interference margin when compared with WCDMA/HSUPA/ EVDO.3 Interference Margin Interference margin accounts for the increase in the terminal noise level caused by the interference from other users. The time synchronous version of LTE TDD on uplink and downlink also makes the implementation of beam forming more attractive than in LTE FDD. FemtoCell. It is mainly based on an adaptive beam patterns that acts to make the strongest point of main-lobe of the system output always be toward the direction of the expected UE and hence reducing the overall interference level for the whole cell. However. Its algorithm is highly complex and utilizes channel state information to achieve array processing SINR gain. The interference margin indicates the degradation of system receive performance caused by internal interference in the system due to system traffic. Figure 4-10 Visualization of Beam Forming 59 . Beam forming scheme is a signal processing technology that is used to direct radio transmission in a chosen angular direction. due to the frequency division nature of LTE. The interference margin in practice depends heavily on the planned capacity so there is a tradeoff between capacity and coverage just like other cellular technologies. the cell edge data rate requirement will still be the single most important factor in any cell planning activities. beam forming is only applicable for TDD version of LTE. 4.4.beyond the formula listed above. In fact. Coordinated Multi-Point) are being proposed by the industry to reduce the level of interference over thermal increase which will further improves the capacity and throughput offered by LTE in the future. However. Relay.4. LTE uplink is orthogonal if it is within the same cell so there is no intra-cell interference. Nonetheless. Various techniques (e.

Mode 7 supports only single data flow so it can mainly improve coverage but Mode 8 can support multiplexing dual data stream as well which means it can improve both throughput and coverage. or the “shadow fading margin”. Figure below shows the relationship between the slow fading margin and cell edge probability.1 Slow Fading Margin Shadow fading indicates the fading brought by obstruction due to a building or a natural feature. Shadow fading changes slowly. this feature can significantly improve downlink system throughput and coverage performance and also provide good user experience by offering higher data rates. 60 . The main drawback here is there is also the requirement of either 4 (4x4) or 8 (8x2) transmit path from the eNodeB side which could make this more expensive to implement. including: • Feedback from receiver • Estimation from reverse link assuming channel reciprocity (particularly true for TDD) As it is based on a multiple transmit configuration. and is thus called “slow fading”. certain allowances must be made. the major concern for shadow fading is those caused by location changes.5.5 System Reliability 4. There are two type of beam forming mode defined by 3GPP. Mode 7 (Rel 8) and Mode 8 (Rel 9). This is called the “slow fading margin”.Channel state information that is required includes: • Fast fading channel coefficient • Direction of arrival (DoA) of signal • CQI information Channel state information can be obtained by different way. To minimize the effect of shadow fading and ensure a certain edge coverage probability. Statistics repeatedly show that the median levels of received signals follow log-normal distribution with the time and location at a certain distance. Fading caused by location (mainly from obstruction) far exceeds fading caused by time. Therefore. 4.

The value ranges from 5 dB to 12 dB.Q( Slow fading margin Standard deviation of slow fading ) The slow fading margin can be obtained through the following formula: Slow fading margin = Q-1(1 . In plain areas. such as rural areas and open areas.Figure 4-11 Impact of the slow fading margin on system reliability The difference found in the slow fading is reflected by the standard deviation of slow fading. Table 4-7 Typical example of standard deviations in slow fading Scenario Densely populated urban area Common urban area Suburban area Rural area Standard Deviation of Slow Fading 10dB 8dB 6dB 6dB The slow fading margin can be obtained based on the cell edge coverage probability and standard deviation of slow fading. Table below lists the typical standard deviations of slow fading in different geological locations. This spread of values approximate to the standard deviation of the signal strength at different test points from similar distances. the standard deviation of slow fading is lower than that in suburban and urban areas.Edge coverage probability) × Standard deviation of slow fading The Q function is expressed as follows: 61 . The formula for calculating the edge coverage probability is as follows: Edge coverage probability = 1 . Standard deviations requirement in Dense Urban area with highly integrated building layout and deeper indoor coverage requirement is even higher than typical urban environment. The standard deviation of slow fading varies with the geological form. The standard deviation of slow fading shows the distribution of the radio signal strength at different test points at similar distances from the transmitter.

1 Features Overview Below is a quick summary of specific features and their corresponding impact on the radio network link budget result if the features or functionalities are deployed 62 . at higher latitude part of the Earth surface. 4. The figure below shows the point of divergence and the difference in path loss (dB) between the two assumptions vs distance (km) Figure 4-12 Propagation Difference: Planar vs Spherical Earth Curvature Assumption 4. 80m high antenna will be required to ensure 40km coverage radius. In fact. it is not necessary to include a fast fading margin in the link budget. b) The absence of soft handover gain between cells also means there will be NO macro diversity (soft handover) gain c) The slow rate of LTE power control (50Hz or 20ms) provides insignificant protection for fast fading condition. the effect of earth curvature into radio propagation must also be considered.5. A 4/3 Earth radius multiplier is generally assumed for a distance larger than around 80km.6 Specific Factors in Link Budget Consideration 4. Hence.3 Absence of Fast Fading and Soft Handover Margin It is also worth noting that in the system reliability part of LTE link budget consideration: a) Fast fading margin is absent in LTE as there is no WCDMA like fast power control gain.2 Effect of Earth Curvature At larger propagation distances. This is the distance where Planar Earth becomes spherical Earth distance from a radio propagation perspective. 4. Suppose that the area coverage probability of a cell is PCov.5. If the area coverage probability of the cell is PCov' = PCov’ the obtained edge coverage probability PEdge of the cell is the actual edge coverage probability of the cell.The edge of coverage probability of a cell is based on area coverage probability. Use this probability to try the edge coverage probability PEdge for multiple times.6.

emulate the distortion occurring from the multi-path channels and. This feature utilizes the spatial separation and characteristics of inter-cell interference to determine the power of the interfering UE which belongs to another cell.6. Once the pattern and power level is determined. In situation where TTI bundling collides with periodic CQI/PMI/RI reports. 4.2 TTI Bundling By repeating the same uplink information. finally subtract all regenerated interfering signals from the uplink received signals to obtain more reliable estimation of original users’ data.4. lower SINR will be required by the receivers at the eNodeB. TTI bundling will take precedent and the periodic reporting will be dropped accordingly. the victim cell can 63 . TTI bundling Gain is included as part of SINR in link budget estimation. The application of this feature is ideal for lower data rate applications such as VoIP and Packet data services requiring slower rate. The code repetition rate will also be affected by the Redundancy Version chosen and it is currently based on Incremental Redundancy for LTE. At least 4 dB gain can be achieved through this data repetition.6.3 Interference Rejection Combining The concept of Interference Rejection Combining (IRC) is to regenerate the transmitted signal based on the estimated data from the previous receptions.

IRC can provide more improvement than MRC especially when there are a reasonable number of receive antennae for IRC to execute the compensation. IRC can enhance network coverage and provide better QoS for cell edge users.then remove the interferer from the received signals. the gain of IRC over MRC is not as significant. In comparison. IRC can increase the uplink users’ throughput significantly and hence improves the users’ experience. Maximum ratio combining (MRC) do not make use of the spatial characteristics of the interference when calculating antenna weighting. simulation has shown a maximum SINR gain of 7dB can be achieved over traditional MMSE interference reduction method. When Uplink IRC is used. if there are a large number of equal power signals arriving at the receive antennae. Therefore. Figure 4-13 MMSE and IRC SINR Requirement vs FER condition 64 . So in cases where there are only a small number of dominating interfering sources. IRC is implemented in the baseband processing module (WBBP) of NodeB. By outperforming Maximum Ratio Combining and MMSE receivers. It can reduce the interference impact of the neighboring users in the uplink. Conversely.

UL Traffic. Radio planning engineers should pay particular attention to the following input parameters: 65 . single transmit branch to two transmit at 40W each.4 Reference Signal Power Boosting Gain Power boosting in LTE is mainly perform on the Reference signal.7dB) or 4x (6dB) accordingly. since the radio power is shared equally by all Resources element.5 Remote Radio Unit and eNodeB Portfolio We offer a comprehensive range of eNodeB and Remote Radio Unit Portfolio for various applications. the RS can be “boosted’ by 2x (3dB).4. Default Power boosting = 1 (2x) for network planning Alternatively.7 Summary of Variables inside Link Budget Tools The link budget tool support the analysis for DL Traffic. reliability of information transmission can also be “boosted” not by radio transmission power but by adjusted to a lower modulation level (MCS adjustment). Possible Radio configurations on offer range from 20W per carrier. 3x (4. depending on the actual length of the cable run from top of base station rack to the antenna location. Then the smallest radius is used as the final coverage radius based on the link balance principle. By increasing the number of Resources element being used as Reference Signal. the power allocation for each RE is fixed. However.6. The introduction of RRU allow the reduction of cable loss by up to 3dB for both uplink and downlink. 4. as well as signaling channel.6. Power Boosting value = 0 if there is no extra resources used. 4.

2x2 SFBC. 15M. 900. We recommend UL MCS coding of QPSK 0. 2600) Bandwidth: 1. (Operator dependent ranging from 90 to 95%) The antenna in a base station is mounted at a height of 30 meters. High Speed Train (HST) Frequency (MHz): Frequency used in this system (700. Please Note. The terminal antenna is mounted at 1. 5M. 1500.25 at the Edge as UE power is shared across only 8 RBs for best Maximum path loss results against other MCS. 2100. 10M. The minimum transmit power by this UE is -40dBm according to 3GPP TS 36.5 meters high. Common values are 30%. Okumura Hata-Huawei. referring to per TX path transmit power value. However. 50%. 850. DL/UL Target Load: Target customer loading should be provided here separately for Downlink and Uplink so the desired interference margin can be incorporated into the link budget. 1x8). 1800. Actual UE power can be reduced by the modulation used.101. EVA. 800. In a AxB configuration. please refer to detailed eNodeB configuration guide for final detail. eNodeB cable loss: Value is dependent on cable configuration at customer site (0. Further information is available in the Propagation Model section below eNodeB Total Transmit Power: Customer configuration specific. 4x2 SFBC+FSTD) and Uplink (1x2. 2300. 1x4. TMA used: Yes/No TMA Gain: 12dB/24dB Morphology: Dense Urban/Urban/Suburban/Rural/Highway Channel Model: EPA. Further information can be seen in the following sections. Cost231-Hata-Huawei.Type of MIMO multi-antenna technology used (At this stage. The Cost231-Hata model that is amended based on planning experience is generally used as the propagation model.2dB for a Class 3 unit. 20M MIMO Scheme: Separately settable for Downlink (1x2. 3M.5dB for RRU) vs 3dB (standard cable length) or more (extended length) for RFU based configuration UE Transmit Power: Typical value is 23dBm +/. SPM. AWS. ETU. A is always refers to the transmit function of the device DL/UL Cell Edge Rate (kbps): Setting in accordance to the actual customer requirements DL/UL Edge MCS: Total of 29 Coding selection that can be chosen separately for DL and UL. default is 2T2R) Design target area coverage probability. Typical value is either 43dBm (20W) or 46 dBm (40W). Okumura Hata (Classic). As UL normally is the weakest link due to limited UE power.4M. Cost231-Micro (Classic) and Cost231-Micro-Huawei. Below listed are some of the critical and “selectable” parameters from the Link Budget tool Duplex Mode: Option Frequency division duplex (FDD)/ Time division duplex (TDD). UE Antenna Gain: Typical value is 0dB in the absence of any external antenna 66 . 70% and 100% Propagation Model: Option include Cost231-Hata (Classic).

7 95.48 128. LTE Link Budget Morphology Duplex Mode User Environment Channel Bandwidth (MHz) Channel Model MIMO Scheme Cell Edge Rate (kbps) Tx Max Total Tx Power (dBm) Allocated RB Subcarrier Power (dBm) Tx Antenna Gain (dBi) Tx Cable Loss (dB) Tx Body loss (dB) EIRP per Subcarrier (dBm) Rx SINR (dB) Rx Noise Figure (dB) Receiver Sensitivity (dBm) Rx Antenna Gain (dBi) Rx Cable Loss (dB) Rx Body loss (dB) Target Load Interference Margin (dB) Min Signal Reception Strength (dBm) Path Loss & Cell Radius Penetration Loss (dB) Std. the designer must discuss with the operator to determine the value of each input parameter in the link budget. As a result.5 0 50.63 0 0 0 70. to design the link budget that reflects the requirement of a particular network.29 Downlink 2×2 SFBC 1024 46 24 15.Below listed is an example for LTE link budget. and can neither ensure the capacity nor coverage reliability of the actual network. Therefore.89 20 11.34 The link budget is based on only theories.5 2600 0.00% 3.19 -2.87 -148.00% 0.71 -3.19 0 0 0 6.26 18 0.96 20 11.5 -132.48 125.00% 9.39 7 -128. depending on the different input parameters.67 -124.18 1.00% 9.21 18 0.5 0 32.of Shadow Fading (dB) Area Coverage Probability Shadow Fading Margin (dB) Pathloss Propagation Model eNodeB/UE Antenna Height (m) Frequency (MHz) Cell Radius (km) Uplink Dense Urban FDD Indoor 20 ETU 3 1×2 256 23 4 6.52 2. the link budget result varies greatly.6 Cost231-Hata 30 2600 0.7 95. The coverage target and requirements also vary with different network requirement and the respective assumptions. 67 .

For a given coverage area. System simulation covers detailed landform distribution.Link budget also assumes a uniform landform. ideal site locations. and subscriber distribution. the number of planned base stations will depend on the system simulation result. The detailed coverage planning must be completed through system simulation. actual site location. and even subscriber distribution. simple terrain. The calculated coverage radius is used for reference in simulated site distribution. 68 . Hence. the link budget result serves ONLY as the theoretical calculation result. terrain type.

1 Overview In mobile communication network.1. The interference to the LTE system is in multiple forms. The signals transmitted by one system are useless signals (that is. interference) to other systems. Spurious interference is generated by a transmitter and usually includes the thermal noise generated and amplified by the power amplifier (PA). 5. When a strong interference enters a receiver. interference is one of the key elements that affect the network quality. With the development of mobile communication technologies. it becomes a common phenomenon that multiple mobile networks with different frequencies and modulation characteristics coexist in the same area. Figure 5-1 Spurious interference Blocking Interference Receivers usually work in linear areas. and transmit inter-modulation product.5 Interference and Guard Band Analysis 5. Inter-modulation products can be generated during the multi-carrier operation and spurious signals can also be generated by frequency mixer.1 Basic Concepts Spurious Interference Spurious interference refers to the additive interference generated by the interference source in the working frequency band of the interfered receiver. in saturation mode as the out of band suppression ratio of the receiver may 69 . This section describes the basic concepts and the method to determine the influence of interference to sensitivity. amplified background noise. Spurious interference includes the out of band power leakage of the interference source. it may also overdrive the receiver to work in non-linear state or even worse. Spurious interference can reduce the signal noise ratio (SNR) of the interfered receiver.

blocking interference is generated by a strong interference signal out of the receive band that makes the receiver work in saturation state and then reduces the gains. this signal. the frequency of the inter-modulation product drops into the useful frequency band of the receiver and generates the inter-modulation interference. When a strong signal is reflected back from the transmitting end of a transmitter back into the transmitter. Unfortunately. When two strong interference signals are received at the same time. This type of interference is called blocking interference. together with the transmitted signal of the transmitter may also generate some inter-modulation products because of the non-linearity of the transmitter. Figure 5-3 Inter-modulation interference Because of the non-linearity of the receiver and the limitation of out of band suppression. multiple harmonic waves are generated on the received signal. the interference signal may mix with the local oscillator signal and then generate the interference in the intermediate frequency (IF). the frequency 70 . Blocking interference can reduce the receiver gains and increase the noise. the inter-modulation product at the receiver is generated by the signals by the front end due to the non-linear circuit of the receiver. Figure 5-2 Blocking interference Inter-Modulation Interference When multiple strong signals with different frequencies enter a receiver at the same time. In addition. Generally.be limited. the inter-modulation product is generated because of the non-linearity of the metals. When multiple signals with different frequencies transverse across conductors at the same time.

Figure 5-4 ACS ACLR Adjacent Channel Leakage power Ratio (ACLR) is measure of transmitter performance and it is defined as the ratio of the transmitted power to the power measured after a receiver filter in the adjacent RF channel.combination such as 2f1-f2 and 2f2-f1 of the two strong interference signals may drop into the band of the receiver and then generates interference. The adjacent channel may be used by the same system or a different system. ACLR represents the suppression capability of the transmit filter to the adjacent channel. Alternatively. The bandwidth is determined based on the system in the adjacent channel. Hence. If you want to eliminate the inter-modulation interference by installing a filter. The capability to resist inter-modulation is a feature of the receiver. ACS Adjacent channel selectivity (ACS) is a protection index to determine the capability of a receive filter. ACLR is the dB value of C (total transmit power of the designated frequency point) subtracting D (total in-band leakage power of the adjacent channel). ACS refers to the capability to receive the power of the local in band channel when the interference signal from the adjacent frequency exists. ACS is the ratio of the receive filter loss on the designated channel to the loss on the adjacent channel. ACLR was also formerly called Adjacent Channel Power Ratio and ACLR is specified in the 3GPP standard. it can be referred to as the ratio of the average power on the designated frequency point to the average power on the adjacent channel. you need to install a receive filter in the interfered system. ACS is the ratio of the receive filter attenuation on the assigned channel frequency to the receive filter attenuation on the adjacent channel(s). As shown in the figure below. 71 .

Figure 5-5 ACLR ACIR It is difficult to separate ACLR and ACS because they coexist. therefore. The result of the consideration is Adjacent Channel Interference Ratio (ACIR) and ACIR is the ratio of the total power transmitted from a source (base station or UE) to the total interference power affecting a victim receiver. The formula is as follows: The interference in the adjacent channel affects both the system coverage and system capacity. Figure 5-6 Near-far effect of the interference in the adjacent channel 72 . resulting from both transmitter and receiver imperfections. ACLR and ACS are usually considered together. interference from the adjacent channel greatly affects the system coverage. When near-far effect exists. and may even cause the dead zone.

1 dB decrease in the receiver sensitivity of the system is regarded as the threshold of interference.As shown in the preceding figure. the interference power of system B to system A is even greater than the useful power of system A. A downlink simulation will thus essentially be a simulation of UE ACS performance. The reason is that ACSUE << ACLRBS. which implies that downlink ACIR ≈ ACSUE. where the terminal cannot access the network. where. Therefore. the eNodeB receive sensitivity decreases by 1 dB. The equivalent noise level of the eNodeB receiver is as follows: No = –174 + 10 log (Bw) + Nf (Unit: dBm) If the demodulation carrier-to-interference ratio C/I (unit: dB) of the eNodeB receive system for a particular modulation scheme (MCS). the limiting design factor is the UE transmitter. BW (channel bandwidth) and Guard Band. OFFSET/BW/GB Figure below is the relationship of the Offset (frequency offset value). The reason is that ACLRUE << ACSBS.1. which implies that uplink ACIR ≈ ACLRUE. In the downlink. it is essentially the UE ACLR performance that is simulated. when the noise level rises by 1 dB. the dead zone occurs. the limiting design factor is the UE receiver. which will dominate the uplink interference. In the system. Thus. and the eNodeB receive noise figure is Nf (unit: dB).2 Analysis of Background Noise Assume that the eNodeB receiver’s IF bandwidth is Bw (unit: MHz). when the terminal in system A enters system B. that is. then the theoretical receive sensitivity of the eNodeB is as follows: So = No + (C/I) m. which will dominate the downlink interference. in an uplink simulation. The noise level directly affects the eNodeB receive sensitivity. (C/I) m is the minimum demodulation C/I. In the uplink. Figure 5-7 Frequency offset relationship 5. 73 .

04 0. 74 . the influence of the interference to the system is that the interference adds to the original equivalent noise of the system and then raises the receive noise level of the system.37 0.5 = 1.5 w. when the original receive sensitivity of the system decreases by 0. the interference level is also 1 w. receiver’s IF bandwidth and noise coefficient are affected by the specific circuits and can never reach the theoretical value or optimum value from a pure analog circuitry perspective. the allowed interference level must be 10 dB lower than the original receive noise level of the system.For LTE.97 0. Table 5-1 lists the receive background noise rise level due to the presence of the external interference at level specified. The interference level is 0 dB lower than the original noise level of the system. Therefore.1 12 0. 0. When the original receive sensitivity of the system decreases by 0. Therefore.5 w/1 w = 1. after the system is interfered. sensitivity is calculated on per subcarrier rather than the entire channel allocation as in GSM. 3. Assume that the original noise level of the system is 1 w: 1. The interference level is 3 dB lower than the original noise level of the system. In the broadband system. the receive sensitivity of the system decreases by 3 dB.5) = 1. The total noise level of the system is 1 + 0. call drop.37 10 0.5). The other values are calculated in the similar way: As shown in the preceding table. the total noise level increase is as follows: 10 log (1.4 dB.5 w. When the interference level is equal to the original receive noise level of the system. In actual component implementation level. 2. the original receiver sensitivity of the system decreases by 1 dB. handover. that is. Assume that the external receive intra-frequency spurious interference has the feature of the quasi-white noise.76 dB.1.1 0.5 6 0.76 1. that is.log(1+10^(△P/10)) △P = new interferer level compared to the original level in dB.97 3 1.3 Impact of Interference Interference is one of the key elements that affect network quality.04 16 0. Table 5-1 Increase of background noise due to the presence of interference levels Original system noise level / new interferer level (dB) Total noise level in system (compared with before) after new interferer is included (dB) Decrease of system receive sensitivity (dB) 20 0. the interference level is 0. WCDMA or WiMAX because it is the basic bandwidth that needs to be demodulated by each UE. the allowed interference level is generally 6 dB lower than the original receive noise coefficient of the system. the total noise level increase is as follows: 10 log (2 w/1 w = 2) = 3 dB.5 times of the original noise level (1/103/10 = 0. The total noise level of the system is (1 + 1 = 2 w). Therefore.76 0 3 3 In general.4 9 0. after the system is interfered. that is. the allowed interference level must be 16 dB lower than the original receive noise level of the system. It deeply affects call quality.5 0. the new total interference increase from original due to extra interferer can be represented by: 10. 5.4 0.1 dB.

which results in the decrease of coverage radius.37% 12.03% 48.61% 48. network coverage and capacity. Figure 5-8 Interference due to Synchronization Misalignment 75 . The figure below provides a quick view of what will happen if there is asynchronous situation between different networks. Table 5-2 lists the relationship between the decrease of sensitivity and the decrease of coverage radius (calculated based on the classic propagation model Okumura-Hata.91% 28.33% 17.33% 23. Table 5-2 Relationship between the decrease of sensitivity and the decrease of coverage Decrease of Sensitivity (dB) 0.2 Interference Between TDD Systems 5.17% 5. with the eNodeB antenna height of 30 m).14% 32. absence of synchronization is one of the main sources of interference between TDD based systems belonging to different carriers.1 Interference between Different Carriers Besides normal neighbor cell interference.21% Decrease of Coverage Area 6% 12.2.21% 73.congestion. faulty transmitters and all the sideband interference scenarios listed in the previous section. How to reduce or eliminate interference is one of the key tasks in network planning and optimization.4 1 2 3 5 10 Decrease of Coverage Radius 3% 6. The decrease of sensitivity is the most direct influence of interference.

By sampling the received signal at the optimum time. difference in propagation delay will create time of arrival variation at the eNodeB and will result in intra-system interference as shown below Figure 5-9 Interference due to Propagation Difference To resolve this problem in LTE TDD system. Implementation of time synchronization equipment such as IEEE 1588v2 as discussed in Chapter three will help to resolve most of the asynchronous systems problem.5. The longest cyclic prefix provides protection for delay spreads of up to 10 km.4 km. For FDD system. 5.Scenarios (a) and (c) described above clearly indicate inter-carrier interference. The CP is a copy of the end of a symbol inserted at the beginning. If this guard period is longer than the delay spread in the radio channel. Cyclic prefix lengths for the downlink and the uplink are shown in the figure below. the inter-symbol interference can be completely eliminated if each OFDM symbol is cyclically extended into the guard period (by copying the end of the symbol to the start to create the cyclic prefix). In the downlink case. Δf represents the 15 kHz or 7.2 Interference within the Same Carrier Even within the same network.5 kHz subcarrier spacing. the receiver can remove the time domain interference between adjacent symbols caused by multi-path delay spread in the radio channel. the delay in propagation can be resolved by using a smaller Cyclic Prefix of 6 (Extended CP) instead of 7 (Normal CP). Figure 5-10 Normal vs Extended Cyclic Prefix 76 . The normal cyclic prefix of 144 x Ts protects against multi-path delay spread of up to 1.2. a longer guard band period can be selected between DwPTS and UpPTS as discussed in Chapter 3.

the most serious interference is the eNodeB>eNodeB interference. In addition. UE->eNodeB. eNodeB->eNodeB. Combiners etc) is greater. Analysis of eNodeB->eNodeB Interference The eNodeB->eNodeB interference can cause serious performance deterioration when the isolation between systems is not good. it is assumed that the time percentage of the interference occurrence is 100%. As ACIR increases.101. UE->eNodeB. network coverage shrinkage and capacity reduction also decreases. both ACS and ACLR are required to be at least 33dB for a Class 3 and Class 4 mobile at +/. II. if interference exists within the entire network. and UE->UE when two systems share the eNodeBs. As specified in 3GPP TS 36. When two UEs of two systems are very close to each other.The interference scenarios can be classified into the following four types: eNodeB->UE. that is. Analysis of UE->UE Interference When two systems are sharing the same site location. I. 77 . when eNodeBs are co-located. Based on our analysis. UE->UE interference does not seriously affect the network coverage and capacity. as listed in Table 5-3 Please note the TDD system can be either WiMAX or LTE TDD Table 5-3 TDD/TDD interference classification Interference Scenario (1) (2) (3) Interference Type eNodeB->UE eNodeB->eNodeB UE->UE UE->eNodeB Risk Normal Severe Severe Normal Victim Link DL UL DL UL 5. eNodeB>eNodeB. Assuming the situation that eNodeB of the interfering system is in transmitting state and the eNodeB of the interfered system is in receiving state. a 5 MHz guard band should ensure the network coverage and capacity losses are limited.3 Theoretical Analysis of Interference under Site Sharing This section provides a simulation analysis of the system performance deterioration caused by the following four types of interference: eNodeB->UE.5MHz from centre frequency. but only a small portion of the subscribers are affected and the influence is only temporary. most installations can meet the interference requirement under a 5MHz guard band setting. the downlink coverage and capacity losses occur as the interfered UE cannot perform in the best fashion. uplink coverage and capacity losses will occur.2. During simulation. and UE->UE. Due to the “spill over” of transmitted signal into the receiving band. When total ACIR of radio equipment (eNodeB. UE->UE interference comes about due to timing misalignment and one UE becomes the interfering system in transmitting state while another UE of the interfered system is in the receiving state. the isolation between the UEs is in the worst scenario. Filter. interference is always there. the network coverage reduction and capacity losses are limited. From simulation result with no filtering. Hence. Therefore. The network coverage and capacity losses caused by the other three types of interference are smaller than 2% even if the guard band is not provided. This section mainly describes the eNodeB->eNodeB interference and UE->UE interference. it is difficult to control the positions of the UEs through network planning.

Assuming the offending eNodeB is in transmitting state and the victim eNodeB is in receiving state. as the eNodeBs’ separation and ACIR increase. Coupling loss between the eNodeBs is calculated based on the free space propagation model by taking into consideration of eNodeB antenna gains caused by the direction angle and tilt.2. From simulation result with no filtering. eNodeB->eNodeB.6% With Interference from Other System 98. I. Hence. This is especially the case when the eNodeBs are from different systems and operating under different bandwidth.5 G No Interference from Other System 98. UE->eNodeB. the most serious interference is from eNodeB->eNodeB. The network coverage and capacity losses caused by the other three types of interference are smaller than 2% even if the guard band is not provided. Figure below shows the simulation result of coverage change due to distance variations between the interfering eNodeB and interfered eNodeB. when the eNodeBs are not co-located.4 Theoretical Analysis of Interference: Non Colocated eNodeB This section provides a simulation analysis of the system performance deterioration caused by the following four types of interference: eNodeB->UE. Both uplink coverage and capacity loss will occur. However. Interference Simulation Analysis with Different ACIRs When the interfering eNodeB is close to the victim eNodeB. Figure 5-11 Influence of distance vs coverage due to eNodeB->eNodeB interference 78 . our focus of analysis is the interference between eNodeBs.2% Downlink Coverage Loss 0. the eNodeB->eNodeB interference can causes serious performance deterioration.Table 5-4 Impact of UE->UE interference to the network coverage – Monte Carlo Spread Downlink Coverage Probability Guard Band (MHz) 0 Frequency Band 2. and UE->UE when two systems are not co-located. the network coverage loss and capacity reduction gradually decrease.4% 5.

3 Guard Band Requirement: LTE-FDD vs GSM/UMTS Configuration is simpler for FDD based systems because both LTE FDD and its neighboring technologies are based on frequency duplex and offer sufficient frequency separation between transmit and receive signals. Figure 5-12 Guard Band definition between LTE and GSM Figure 5-13 Co-Site GuardBand (MHz) between LTE Carrier of different Bandwidth &GSM 5. a 5MHz guard band is still required regardless of whether they are co-located or not. if 2 LTE TDD systems that co-exist but not synchronized. if FDD LTE is to co-exist with LTE TDD. However. 79 . With the introduction of SDR and SRAN product. the requirement of guard band for LTE has been further reduced in a co-located eNodeB. Moreover. no guard band is required for co-location or non co-location if both systems are synchronized. a 5MHz guard band and separate antenna implementation is recommended.4 GuardBand Requirement: LTE FDD vs LTE TDD For two LTE TDD systems.5.

5. As a result. With this approach.5.5 Spectrum Refarming for LTE 5.5. An overview of capacity improvement and KPI achieved with one Operator is listed below.2 GSM Spectrum Refarming As shown in the figure above. Current and the expected migration timeframe for different frequency band are shown below. there is an aggressive drive from Operators in the 1800MHz community to implement LTE due to the relative abundance of spectrum in that band. 80 . Tight Frequency Reuse (TFR) technology helps Operators refarm existing GSM spectrum for the deployment of LTE or UMTS networks. recovery of GSM spectrum is an essential step as most 1800MHz networks are still entrenched with GSM technologies. for Operators not in possession of new LTE spectrum. many networks are expected to perform some level of refarming so new LTE technologies can be deployed there. Figure 5-14 Spectrum Refarming Expectation for LTE Deployment 5.1 Summary Operators worldwide are looking forward to new LTE technologies deployment but not every one of them possess brand new spectrum required for LTE deployment.

148Mbps downlink speed rate in trial test with 20MHz LTE bandwidth for LTE1800. Compact bandwidth produces higher throughput and better user experience. LTE may have to co-exist with other technologies (e. 5. Compact bandwidths for 5 MHz. 10 MHz. • Compact bandwidth need not to accord with standard bandwidth.g. • Compact bandwidth is completely transparent to UE and has no impact to R8/R9 UE.3 Introduction of Buffer Zone Due to financial and/or traffic requirement. GSM) but at different locations. 81 . Operators may opt to deploy LTE only in the core urban area but maintain their GSM system in the same spectrum at the fringe of the network.5. • Compact bandwidth configuration helps operators make full use of anomalous frequency bands and reduce the waste of frequency fragment. radio engineer can introduce a buffer zone concept as shown below to the customer. As a result.Figure 5-15 Tight Frequency Reuse Results LTE1800 eNodeB supports the compact bandwidths by strict filer and RB punching. In order to ensure minimal interference is between the EUTRAN and GSM BTS (or Node B of UMTS). 15 MHz and 20 MHz are supported.

there always needs to introduce new technologies.6. This section plans to provide some high level recommendation for radio engineers on co-location strategies and configurations. interRAT as well as possible frequency planning arrangement but buffer zone concept will remain a feasible option for LTE and GSM co-existence.6 Radio Access Technologies Co-location Strategies 5.6. 5. based on the current antenna availability. Co-location of multiple technologies can save both deployment and operation cost and with SingleRAN solution can definitely help to reduce footprint and TCO. GSM900/1800 system has to use separate antenna to LTE 2.2 GSM-LTE Co-Location Examples Please note the following examples are just some of the possible frequencies combinations but the same concept can apply to other frequencies configurations I.1 Overview As mobile networks around the world evolve to offer more applications and services. traffic requirement. In fact. 82 .Figure 5-16 Buffer Zone for LTE and GSM Co-existence Deployment The final implementation will certainly be more complex due to coverage variations. Different Frequency and Different RFU Co-location The different ports used for 2.6G and 900/1800 in the figures below also indicate the antennae are physically separable. 5.6G.

LTE 2.6G and GSM 900/1800MHz LTE 2.6G with GSM900 (DCS1800) macro BTS antenna solution Figure 5-18 Co-location Setup for LTE 2.6G and GSM 900/1800MHz with RCU and TMA This antenna below for LTE2.6G with GSM900 (DCS1800) macro BTS antenna solution Figure 5-17 Co-location Antenna Configuration for LTE 2.6G and GSM1800 co-antenna solution: 83 .

Figure 5-19 Co-Location Configuration Not Recommended for LTE 2.6G and GSM 84 .The following Configuration is not recommended due to the extra component requirement and addition insertion loss introduced.

Single RAN configuration) Figure 5-20 Co-location Setup for LTE/GSM 1800MHz with RCU and without/with TMA 85 .6G: II. Same Frequency and Same RFU Co-Location The example below shows possible configuration of eNodeB when both GSM and LTE are operating at 1800MHz and the two technologies are sharing the same RF output (e.g.This antenna below for LTE2.

This antenna below for LTE1800 and GSM1800 co-antenna solution: III. Based on field measurement results. OR Figure 5-21 Antenna Physical Configuration Recommendation under LTE/GSM Co-location 86 . Physical Spacing Requirement Physical distance is the separation between the outer physical casing (not from the center of antenna) with both antennae being placed perfectly flat and parallel.5m or vertical separation of 0. a horizontal separation of 0.6G with GSM900/DCS1800.2m between antennae can meet the isolation requirement for co-locating LTE at 2.

The 2nd example shows the isolation requirement when the 2 technologies are located at different sites and a physical distance separation is required. • If different frequency and different RFU Co-Location. In both examples. we recommend different feeder and co. 5.four port antenna.6. The first example displayed the antenna separation required when the two technologies are sharing the same site so only antenna isolation separation is required.5GHz) shown below are based on actual field measurement results and is in close (though not 100% similar) agreement with the theoretical data. it is recommended to synchronize both WiMAX and LTE TDD to remove the guard band requirement.3 LTE TDD and WiMAX Systems Co-Location With the gradual migration of WiMAX network to LTE TDD worldwide. Different Frequency and Different RFU Co-location V. we recommend share feeder and two-port antenna. Two implementation examples (at 2. • If same frequency and different RFU Co-Location.IV. it is also clear that a wider guard band between the 2 technologies will reduce the isolation requirement in antenna or site spacing. In general. WiMAX & LTE TDD Synchronization Scenario Figure 5-22 Benefit of WiMAX and LTE TDD Synchronization 87 . Antenna Feeder Solution Proposal • If same frequency and same RFU Co-Location.four port antenna. there will be medium term need for the colocation of the two technologies. we recommend different feeder and co.

WiMAX & LTE-TDD Co-site and Un-Synchronized Figure 5-23 Antenna Isolation due to LTE TDD and WiMAX Co-location WiMAX & LTE-TDD: Non Co-Site + Un-Synchronized Figure 5-24 Physical Separation due to LTE TDD and WiMAX Co-existence but not co-located 88 .

the traffic mix chosen by the Operators will have a strong influence on the final maximum aggregate data rate that will be required and smart phone will further complicated the situation with their new user behavior pattern. Since the required “average” experience varies across different services. the system capacity could be defined as the maximum aggregated data rate subject to the constraint that the average experienced quality of all flows in the system should be fulfilled according to a given target. the sum of the transmitted data rates (downlink) or aggregated data rate is used. As “average” experienced quality we can mention the “average” delay of all transmitted packets or the “average” packet throughput. A high level summary for capacity planning process and input requirement is listed in the diagram below: 89 .6 LTE Access Network Capacity Planning 6. As this metric represents a bound in performance. in practice. For instance. voice services have long been designed with a probability of error (non connection) ranging from 1% to 3% In the data centric world. The aim of LTE capacity dimensioning is to obtain the PS throughput supported in the network based on the bandwidth available and channel condition of each user. with the increased availability of new services in wireless networks. However. user perceived quality or QoS is now also included in many capacity measures.1 Definition of Capacity A commonly accepted definition of capacity is the one provided by Shannon which states that capacity is the maximum achievable set of rates in multiple access channels with an arbitrarily small probability of error.

and the service heartbeat mechanism periodically communicates with the application server. In addition. the increasing popular level of applications like twitter will hasten the evolution of customer behavior and 90 . Nevertheless. the arrival of smart phone. According to signaling statistics of operator S in Singapore. network planning engineers can determine which customer service level can be met. is going to add a new level of challenges to planning engineers. one smart phone creates 14 times the signaling load of a feature phone.Figure 6-1 Overview of EUTRAN Capacity Planning Process Examples of “Scenario Parameters” and “Equipment Parameters” are listed below. Figure 6-2 Examples of Parameters Related to Capacity Planning Most of these parameters are similar to those used for 2G/3G network dimensioning and by carefully considering the contribution of all these parameters. They frequently changes state between "idle" and "connected". its fast dormancy feature forces the terminal to switch to an "idle" state every six to eight seconds in order to save battery power. which has completely different behavior compared to feature phones.

i. information loss is not tolerable. As an example of this kind of service we can mention Voice over IP (VoIP). Therefore.. when transmitting NRT services the major constraint is the information integrity. On the other hand. expected error rate and delay for each QoS class.2 3GPP Services Classification Being a data centric technology. NRT (Non-Real Time) services do not have tight requirements concerning packet delay although high packet delays are unacceptable. Average subscriber usage at busy hour has rapidly increased from the low 10kbps (since R99/1xRTT) to be in the mid to high 30kbps right now. RT (Real Time) services are characterized by the short time response between the communicating parts and they generally required an acceptable GBR. Web browsing is an example of an NRT service. Figure 6-3 3GPP Service Level Requirement Definition From a EUTRAN design perspective.traffic model in the next few years. Although the dynamic nature of E-UTRAN capacity limiting factors listed below will affect the final user throughput and capacity. it is essential that the network is dimensioned properly in the design stage to reduce the impact of services offer booking and short term surges in services due to unexpected events.3 EUTRAN Capacity Limiting Factors In general. NRT normally is Non-GBR services. However. 6. the following are the major factors that will contribute towards the limitation of EUTRAN capacities: 91 . with Guaranteed Bit rate vs with Non Guaranteed Bit rate. Hence. 6. LTE has well defined classifications for Quality of Service. In general. there are two main classes of service type.e. The table below shows the relative priority. applications of this type must have error-correction or recovery mechanisms. These services have strict requirements regarding packet delay and jitter. how customer chooses the proportion and combination of these different services will be translated into bits per second requirement for the customer network.

• Operating Frequency band • RF Coverage .1 Operating Frequency Band Choosing which frequency band to operate a LTE network is one of the most critical decision an Operator has to make 92 .3.RSRP • Impact of Interference on Capacity • Signal Interference Noise Ratio and Adaptive Coding • Radio (Transmitter) Power Availability • Spectrum Bandwidth Availability • Channel Card (LPPB) Processing Capacity • S1/X2 Capacity • Application of Special Antenna Technologies (MIMO/BF/Virtual MIMO) • Scheduling Mode • Actual Cell Site Placement in Relation to Traffic • UE Capability • User Traffic Mix and Call Modeling • Time Slot Allocation for Uplink and Downlink – TDD specific Figure 6-4 High Level Summary of Critical Capacity Affecting Factors 6.

there is a strong relationship also between the number of users and overall cell capacity. Although intercell interference will not be reflected by RSRP level. 6. The frequency propagation and penetration characteristics will determine the number of sites that need to be built in order to cover the designated area chosen by the Operator.3 Impact of Interference on Capacity Interference is always a main contributor to capacity degradation in 1G to 3G cellular network and LTE is no difference.2 RF coverage . 2. 800MHz is more likely to be used for rural applications due to the more extended coverage (e. Besides external interference. either in the form of throughput or call quality and LTE is no difference in this regard.6GHz is more likely to be used and is best suited for urban environment which also demand higher capacity within a smaller area. coverage is always a leading indicator of the likelihood of getting good service level. it is still a strong indicator of throughput level as long as the initial radio network was designed properly.RSRP As in any other cellular technologies. Germany white spot wireless DSL project) 6. On the other hand. This in turn will decide the final capacity that can be offer for commercial services. Field trial results confirmed that although overall cell uplink throughput is stable. field trial results confirmed the overall cell downlink throughput continues to degrade as the 93 . Coverage Gain with Low Frequency Figure 6-5 Difference in Propagation Loss due to Frequency Band With its shorter coverage range.3. Reference Signal received power is a common measurement that can provide the coverage quality level.when it comes to capacity planning. the per user throughput will decrease as the number of users in the cell increases due to resources sharing On the other hand.3. The figure below gives a high level view of the likely difference in coverage strength offered by the different major frequency band currently chosen for LTE deployment.g.

maximum number of active users and CPU loading. 94 . the final values may vary between different eRan releases due to continuous improvement.3.3.3.6 Spectrum Bandwidth Availability Operators will need to determine how much spectrum bandwidth is available for the deployment of LTE services and there is a direct correlation between available spectrum and the cell capacity for both Uplink and downlink. the most commonly used power in LTE eNodeB is 20W and 40W at this moment. 6. 6.3. 6.5 Radio (Transmitter) Power Availability The selection of radio power will have a significant impact on both the coverage and capacity of an LTE cell. these two features are also critical features from a capacity perspective as they can also improve the efficiency of frequency reuse and reduce the intra-frequency interference within the same cell as well as neighbor cells.8 S1/X2 Capacity As the pipeline connecting eNodeBs to the packet network. Downlink ICIC or efficient power control) as the most important factor in cell capacity protection. 6. Conversely.4 Signal Interference Noise Ratio and Adaptive Coding These two factors are extremely correlated and are both critical factors influencing the overall capacity of the cell and the network.3. 6.9 Application of Special Antenna Technologies (MIMO/BF/V MIMO) As already discussed in Chapter 4. the capacity of the S1 and X2 links will play a critical role to the overall throughput and capacity available to final users. EUTRAN planning engineers must also be aware of the limit due to hardware specific capacity. the per user throughput also decrease as the number of users in the cell increases due to resources sharing.2dB) 6. Although product offers superior capacity. Trial data below confirm the need of high SINR in order to achieve a high throughput in the downlink level and adaptive modulation technology is perfect to meet such requirement.7.3. MIMO and Beam Forming are critical features in determining the actual link budget required for the Operator’s network.5 to section 6.7 Base Band Channel Card Processing Capacity Similar to other technologies. At the same time. Most users are expected to be using Class 3 mobile (23dBm +/. The likelihood of cell edge users overcoming neighbor cells interference will also be highly dependent on the radio transmitter power installed and available at the cell site.number of users increase. The impact is especially obvious for users at the cell edge as the eNodeB is most likely need to change the coding allocating due to the radio power and quality received by the cell edge user. Detailed dimensioning procedures and their impact will be discussed in the section 6. This clearly identifies interference control (either through cell coverage control. As discussed in Chapter 4. the availability of UE power will also determine the uplink coverage and throughput a user can achieved. However. Please refer to the specific product dimensioning guide for detail. Examples of such limit include maximum throughput.

Figure 6-6 Graphical View of 2x2 MIMO in Operation

In addition, We offer a separate antenna related technology in uplink, which is focusing on capacity improvement. This feature is called Uplink Virtual MIMO and it achieves uplink throughput by allocating same RB for different uplink users. Uplink Virtual MIMO can increase overall uplink spectral efficiency and hence increasing the overall uplink throughput. It is similar to a feature called CSM for WiMAX. The network will carefully select two users with the following characteristics: • Highly uncorrelated in the Uplink • Offer the best capacity improvement to the cell after combining • Highest Max PFair output when the 2 users are combined together These selection criteria will allow users with the most uplink data need and most uncorrelated to be chosen first. Since those two users are highly uncorrelated, they can be easily removed from each other’s overall signal.

Figure 6-7 Graphical view of Uplink Virtual MIMO

6.3.10 Scheduling Mode
Scheduler is one of the key RRM algorithms designed to maximize the radio resource usage and capacity availability while meeting the QoS (Quality of Service) requirements of different applications and users in both uplink and downlink. Because different operators may have different traffic mixes and strategies of utilizing their resources, the scheduler is flexible and configurable in order to meet various goals. The design goals of the scheduler include maximization and/or guarantee of the following: 1) Cell throughput 2) Cell edge user throughput 3) VoIP capacity 4) QoS satisfaction rate for various services. Scheduling algorithm enables the system to decide the resource allocation for each UE during each TTI. Scheduler
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algorithm can bring the following benefits: 1) Flexible selection for the scheduling algorithm 2) Flexible configuration for QoS priority parameters 3) Strong QoS guarantee mechanism for different services 4) Optimal tradeoff among throughput, fairness, and the QoS We advanced scheduling algorithm includes Basic Scheduling, Enhanced Scheduling and VoIP Semi-persistent Scheduling.

6.3.11 Actual Cell Site Placement in Relation to Traffic
Similar to other cellular technologies, coverage provided by Macro vs Hotspot (micro/pico) cells and their vicinity to main user groups will have a significant impact on the final offered capacity. For example, limiting spectator traffic to a dedicated stadium only cell means most of its eNodeB power will be available to provide a better service rate instead of spending most of the energy travelling through air from external macro cell. The actual capacity degradation due to the amount of users and their distance from cell antenna is highly variable and will also depend on the actual traffic distribution at the time. A general rule is the further the users are from the cell antennae, the lesser the amount of capacity a cell can offer. Capacity will be degraded even more if more users are to be located towards the edge of cell coverage and it is possible to have a capacity degradation of up to 25% in some situation.

6.3.12 UE Capability
It is important to remember that the composition and penetration of various UE types will also have an impact on the final achievable cell throughput level. A high concentration of relatively low end UEs will result in low resources utilization efficiency, thereby bringing down the overall cell throughput. This will certainly be depending on when the network is launched, pricing model of Operators as well as UE vendors as well as the form factors of UE offered at the time. The figure below summarizes the capability of UEs by their category. E.g. only Cat-5 UE can support 64QAM on uplink initially and will affect user uplink throughput.

Figure 6-8 3GPP Release 8 UE Categories and Capabilities Requirement
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6.3.13 User Traffic Mix and Call Modelling
As listed in previous section, LTE has 10 Quality of Service Classifications. The more freedom eNodeB has in user throughput allocation (represented by Best Effort only users), the more likely the cell will have a higher aggregate throughput as the scheduler can adjust the resources allocation more appropriately based on radio condition. On the other hand, the more Guarantee Bit Rate users are present in the cell, the more likely the cell will have a reduction in its average aggregate throughput.

6.3.14 Time Slot Allocation for Uplink and Downlink – TDD specific
The time division nature of LTE TDD will also require radio engineers to consider how time slots are shared between uplink and downlink based on both customer input as well as commercial users usage pattern between uplink and downlink in that country. This will have a direct impact on the EUTRAN capacity. There are 7 time sharing configuration between Uplink and Downlink in LTE TDD as defined by 3GPP. They are shown in the figure below and in summary, they are (DL : UL) - 1:3 or 2:2 or 3:1 or 2:1 or 7:2 or 8:1 or 3:5

Figure 6-9 Uplink-Downlink Time Sharing Configuration Schemes

Besides time sharing configuration, there is also a need to define how uplink and downlink pilots are configured based on the Guard band requirement. The guard band duration is also a direct result of propagation delay requirement due to the designated cell coverage radius. Inadequate guard band provisioning will result in direct interference between users within the same cell due to difference in signal delay arrival. 3GPP has defined 9 different guard period configuration schemes for Operator to choose. They are listed in the figure below.

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6.4 S1 Bandwidth Dimensioning Procedure The figure below denotes the location of the X2 and S1 link with respect to the other network components within the LTE network 98 . a lower order cyclic prefix value of 6 can be used instead of the common value of 7. This will result in the reduction of OFDM symbols that can be carried per time slot and therefore reducing the overall sector capacity.Figure 6-10 Uplink-Downlink Pilot Time Slot and Guard band Configuration Schemes 6. due to large cell radius coverage).g.15 Cyclical Prefix Allocation In order to accommodate extended propagation delay (e.3.

the traffic on S1 interface is divided into two different plane. Figure 6-12 S1 Interface Composition 6. and the user plane. the X2 data will be combined with the S1 data and transport back to aggregators residing in the switching centre before being rerouted to their target eNodeB. where GPRS tunneling protocol for user plane (GTPU) is adopted as the tunneling method. Main X2 dimensioning factors that need to be considered (in eRan2. Instead.1) include: • The frequency of handover between eNodeBs • The duration time of handover • The overlapping nature between eNodeBs • Hysteresis setting at cell level 99 .0 and 2. the control plane.5 X2 Bandwidth Dimensioning Procedure X2 is the interface between eNodeBs and the bandwidth requirement is very complex. However in realistic network implementation. which uses SCTP (Stream Control Transmission Protocol) developed by IETF for the purpose of transporting various signaling protocols over IP network.Figure 6-11 E-UTRAN Network View In general. it is most likely that there will not be any direct connection between eNodeBs.

the throughput of X2 is estimated to be 3% of the throughput on S1 in order to simplify the dimensioning process. • SRVCC (Single Radio Voice Call Continuity) will come into service once IMS becomes a standard component in Operators’ network • On the other hand. the traffic level in LTE will also increase significantly but likely to be in a gradual fashion. once VoLTE becomes widely available. • LTE networks are unlikely to have contiguous coverage throughout the entire customer network especially outside certain urban area in most cases. 100 . 6.6 Impact of Latency of X2 on Cell Throughput If infinite HARQ process is allowed (as a theoretical study). 6. routing delay may be inherent in Operator’s non cellular core data network and this will create impact on throughput although it is not as severe as in infinite HAQR. Similar to the S1 control plane throughput calculation. Hence.• Average service rate and packet size per handover • Signaling overhead in control plane of X2 interface The throughput on X2 is negligible compared to that on S1. the amount of LTE traffic should be reduced as VoLTE terminal is unlikely to be commercially available till late 2011. Even in normal networks. Resolution of such problem is beyond the responsibility of access engineers. meaning data users at the edge of network are likely to be “offloaded” to UMTS/GSM network • UE redirection from existing UMTS/GSM network back to LTE is unlikely to be available for most customer network upon initial launch due to new software requirement in UMTS/GSM network. Various reasons to support this idea and they are: • IMS are most likely to be absent in many early LTE network so CSFB are likely to be required to carry voice traffic. excessive delay in S1 or X2 routing will definitely affect the service quality and user performance of higher layer applications.7 Inter Radio Access Technology Handover Considerations The offloading and handover impact due to Inter-RAT must also be considered as part of the overall network capacity planning process.

• Although LTE capable terminal is required to rescan for LTE network after 6 minutes. The final delay period could also depend on individual UE manufacturer’s rescanning algorithm. Different Inter-RAT handover algorithms are listed below: Figure 6-13 Different PLMN Idle Handover Figure 6-14 Different PLMN Dedicated Mode Handover 101 . this rescanning could be hindered by any active connections to UMTS/GSM during this period.

Figure 6-15 Co PLMN Idle Mode Handover Figure 6-16 Co PLMN Dedicated Mode Handover 102 .

Terminal setting. 3. 103 . Optional.2 Simulation Process Below is a quick summary of the most of steps that need to be taken in a simulation process Simulation Process 1. 11. Mandatory. directly copy and paste the site parameters. Monte Carlo simulation setting. 10.7 U-Net Simulation and Operation 7. 2. select one from two. Set the parameter of the traffic model. Set the Feeder Equipment. Mandatory. For existing sites. Mandatory. 13. Set the parameters of propagation models (including the propagation models for different geographic types). 6. Mandatory. The antenna of the eNodeB is mandatory and that of the terminal is optional. Environment setting. Set the Transmitter table. Mandatory. Mandatory. Planning information for LTE TDD is not yet available and will be added later on once the planning tool is approved by the responsible RNP experts. 8. Mandatory. Mandatory. and relations between parameters in software. 7. 5. Mandatory. Set network parameters. 4. default parameters are automatically set but need adjustment. meanings of common parameters. Set the Transmitter global parameter. Monte Carlo simulation setting. This chapter includes ten sections to give an overview of what U-Net V3R6 can offer from a LTE FDD radio planning perspective as of end of 2010. Set the Frequency Band. Import maps—set the coordinate system. 7. Set the Predictions global parameter. Set the Clutter Classes parameter (standard square deviation of shadow fading). Mandatory. Mandatory. Set the eNodeB Equipment. It is not aimed at replacing the U-Net user manual but is intended to give an overview of U-Net operation. Set the parameters of the eNodeB equipment. Create a simulation project. Mandatory. For new sites. Set the User Equipment. Optional. Set prediction parameters. 12. 9. Service setting. User Profile setting. select one from two. Import the antennae of the eNodeB and terminal. Import site parameters.1 Introduction This chapter describes the basic information of the U-Net in terms of use method. Optional.

7.3 Creating Project
1. Run the U-Net. 2. Click on the toolbar or choose File>New. The Project Templates dialog box is displayed.

3. Select LTE and then click OK. The LTE U-Net project is created. 4. Click on the toolbar or choose File>Save. The Save As dialog box is displayed.

5. Select the storage directory and name of the project from the Save Project File dialog box and save the file, as shown below.

7.4 Geographical Information
7.4.1 Quick Import Function
User can make use of the Quick import function of U-Net under Maps by Right mouse click on Map

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Maps related information can then be imported individually via highlighting each of the following

A lot of project related detail and also set in this menu

7.4.2 Defining Coordinate Systems
Projection of WGS 84 means setting to WGS 84 projection. U-Net actually separates the North and South systems separately and easily changeable via: Path: [Explorer / Geo / Map /Coordinate]

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Display of Coordinate Systems can be changed after importing either Clutter or Height information into the project. It can be changed by calling up the “Map Setting” function in the following way

7.4.3 Properties of Clutter Class
Path: [Explorer / Geo / Clutter /Parameter Management]

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the standard deviation of Model is used. C/ I standard deviation Penetration Loss 7. Description Height Indicates the average height of the clutter. Statistics that indicates height of the clutter above the ground. Unit: m.2 Network Settings I. The value is consistent with that of the Estimation tool.5. The figure below gives a high level view of the relationships between various parameters in U-Net 7. Unit: dB. Indicates the clutter class. Indicates the indoor loss of each clutter class. indoor penetration loss should be considered.5.Parameter Code Name Indicates the code of the clutter class. Indicates the height that above the DTM map if the DTM map is imported. If it is not C/I prediction. Model.1 Overview This chapter describes the setting and related properties of equipment like the eNodeB. Setting Frequencies Path: [Explorer / Transceiver / Frequency Band] 107 .5 Equipment Parameter 7. with a common value of 8-20 dB. Functional when the SPM model is used and not functional when the Cost-Hata model is used. The standard deviation is used to calculate prediction items. Value range: 4-10 dB. If the indoor coverage is considered when estimating. transmitter and UE in the U-Net. The standard deviation is used to calculate the shadow fading margin. The indoor loss is used when buildings exist.

The first channel that can be used.Field Name Channel Width (MHz) Start channel Last channel Excluded channels Frequency (DL) (MHz) Frequency (UL) (MHz) Description Indicates the frequencies and has no impact on the calculation. Indicates the start frequency. The last channel that can be used. Indicates the FDD uplink start frequency. Indicates the bandwidth of each sector. Indicates the start frequency in the time division duplex (TDD) mode and the downlink start frequency in the frequency division duplex (FDD) mode. Channel bandwidth. number normally starting from 0 (or any positive number). The channels between the first channel and last channel that cannot be used. Related to the frequency width and channel bandwidth. 108 .

II. TDD (Time Division Duplex) or FDD (Frequency Division Duplex) mode.Field Adjacent Channel Signal to Interference Ratio Duplexing Method Description The default value is 30. Setting Detail LTE Cell Configuration A detail cell configuration layout will appear and numerous LTE specific parameters will appear. The value range is from 0 to 231 Indicates the duplex mode. 109 .

III. IV. please doublecheck the default value in U-Net as it may differ from the actual requirement. However. Setting Reception Equipment Parameters Path: [Explorer / Data / Terminal / LTE / Reception Equipment] 110 . Setting MCS Parameter Path: [Explorer / Data / Transmitters Parameters/ Services/LTE/PUSCH MCS or PDSCH MCS] Users can then set the value for each of the Uplink and Downlink MCS threshold separately.

Path: [Explorer / Data / Traffic Parameters/Services/LTE/MIMO] Also set the number of Tx/Rx antennae per transceiver here for different services type 111 . By clicking Cell reception equipment or Default UE reception equipment and then followed by clicking on MCS threshold.Users can then match the required MCS table accordingly to Uplink and Downlink table defined above through the selection tab shown below. Make sure all fields are displayed as well. users can also view the MCS value format used in U-Net. Setting MIMO Configuration Path: [Explorer / Data / Transmitters] Set the number of Tx/Rx antennae per eNodeB transceiver here. V.

Path: [Explorer / Data / Traffic Parameters/Terminals/LTE/MIMO] Set the number of Tx/Rx antennae per transceiver here for different terminal type Then enable Space Multiplexing by checking the box under LTE Terminal folder. 112 . All MIMO parameters must be set correctly in order to allow simulation to be performed correctly especially for MCS function. Indicates SM gain. Indicates the number of Rx antenna. Indicates the number of Tx antenna. Description Indicates whether space division multiplexing is supported. Under U-NetV3R6 only downlink spatial multiplexing is enabled. This will allow simulation to switch between SFBC and MCW where appropriate.Field Name Tx_Antennas Rx_Antennas SM_Supported SM_Gain (dB) Indicates the name of MIMO.

Please refer to Chapter 4 for feeder loss at particular frequency.Path: [Explorer / Data / Transmitters/Cell] To enable AMS (Automatic MIMO Switching). both the transceivers and terminals must have between 2 to 4 antennae in their configuration.5. it is better to include connector loss under jumper or miscellaneous loss as U-Net calculates cable loss by cable length. Indicates the thermal noise of the equipment. Description Setting Feeder Equipment Path: [Explorer / Data / Transmitters / Equipment / Feeder Equipment] Field Name dB/100m Indicates the feeder name.4 Site. Unit: dB.g. Indicate the reception gain.3 dB. Indicates the thermal noise parameter. 7. Unit: dB. The Default Noise Figure of U-Net is 2. Cell and Transmitter Listing External Tables can be imported through the following tab 113 . Description Setting BTS Equipment Path: [Explorer / Data / Transmitters / Equipment / Site Equipment] Field Name Noise Figure Description Indicates the Site Equipment Name. DBS 3900. Unit: dB. Indicate the transmission losses.3 Equipment Setting TMA Equipment Path: [Explorer / Data / Transmitters / Equipment / TMA Equipment] Field Name Noise Figure Gain (UL) Loss (DL) Indicates the name of TMA equipment.5. 7. e. Unlike Atoll.

114 . Cell and Transceiver tables can be imported in similar fashion. Similarly.The results should appear as below after importing file with correct format.

6 Propagation Model Selection U-Net has already built in a number of propagation models so users can just select them without any extra adjustment.7. the actual label will appear in an excel like table after the selection has taken place. Examples are shown in the diagram below and detail information on these models can be found in Chapter 4. They can be recalled using the following steps: By checking the corresponding box. 115 .5.5.5 Viewing “Hidden” Parameters Many parameters are not shown in the default U-Net display. Extra fields can also be added according to the user’s requirement 7.

Drive test/CW data can be imported and then used for calibration which is performed in the following steps 116 . diffraction method as well as effective height definition.User adjusted propagation model can also be created by modifying the individual K parameters.

this model can be assigned to each cell in the network accordingly within the Cell table Path: [Explorer / Network/ Transmitters / Cell /] 117 .After choosing/creating an appropriate model for network design.

7.5.7 Clutter Related Modelling
User can configure individual clutter related modeling if Okumura Hata or Cost Hata were chosen with the following tab Path: [Explorer / Data/ Propagation Models / Clutter related Hata /]

Upon completion make sure the right selection is chosen under LTECell/Propagation Model

This will allow each clutter type to be assigned to an appropriate morphology type (Dense Urban/Urban/Suburban/ Rural) and saving the time needed for radio planner to assign different model for different cell.

7.5.8 Impact of Parameter Setting on Prediction and Simulation
The table below summarizes the impact on prediction and simulation results by each of the critical parameters listed for U-Net V3R6 GA version (V300R006SCP300)
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Notes: Target Load/Target Iot for simulation, Actual Iot/Actual Load for coverage prediction

7.6 Engineering Parameter
7.6.1 Power Setting
There are 4 main power related parameters that need to be adjusted and they are under Path: [Explorer / Network/ Transceiver / Cell /]

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I. Max Power The maximum power from the eNodeB by summing all the transmit paths. If eNodeB is a 2x20W configuration, the Max power is 46dBm. An eNodeB of 2x40W will be 49dBm II. RS Power This is the power allocated to the Reference signal and will be dependent on the bandwidth as well as the number of RE (15kHz) channel allocation. For example, if there is 2x20W at a 20MHz spectrum while Power Boosting (PB) = 1, then the RS power RSRE Power = 43dBm (20w) – Log10 1200 (100 RB) + 3 (PB = 1) = 15.2dBm Since different RE will be used for RS at different antennae, U-Net is avoiding any uncertainty in UE RSRP measurement methods by providing only a single path RS power. It is likely the actual RSRP measured in the field be higher due to the implementation of downlink MIMO. III. PB Power Boosting with a range of [0, 1, 2, 3], this value is defaulted to be 1 and represent the number of extra RE used for the addition of Reference signal transmission.

IV. Other Channel to RS Power value of other channels such as PCFICH, PHICH, PDCCH, PBCH, SCH can all be offset against the Reference signal power.
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a value of 1 (100%) is given. a value of 1 (100%) is given II. Radio planner can then choose to “commit” the resulting values or not as the Actual Load and Actual IoT.6.7. Actual Load (UL/DL) The number of RB allowed to be used for Prediction of traffic in cell (out of all available RB). Target IoT (UL) Increase in uplink interference level created by Simulation traffic. U-Net will gather Target load (UL/DL) and Target IoT (UL) from the configuration information. Target Load (UL/DL) The number of RB allowed to be used for Simulation of traffic in cell (out of all available RB). During Simulation. Neighbor load Impact estimation due to interference from Neighbor cell can be set under Properties function of a particular 121 . Actual IoT (UL) Increase in uplink interference level used in Prediction. Path: [Explorer / Network/ Transceiver / Cell /] I. U-Net allows user to simulate the network with loading in both forward and reverse directions.2 Load Setting System loading will have a determining factor on throughput in an LTE network. Typical value is 2-4dB which corresponds to the uplink interference margin in link budget. V. Normally. IV. III. Typical value is 2-4dB which corresponds to the uplink interference margin in link budget. Normally.

Prediction. Neighbor load value will be of 50 – 75%.6. Path: [Explorer / Operation/ Prediction]. If Neighbor load is not selected. 7. Normally.3 Frequency Planning Path: [Explorer / Operation/ LTE Frequency Planning /] Activate the frequency planning function through the following Tab The available Polygon or traffic area will appear for selection 122 . “Actual Load” value of the neighboring sector will be chosen by U-Net in neighbor load calculation.

With multiple frequency reuse (U-Net only support 1x3 currently). all cells will be labeled as using Channel 0 only. ensure the band and channel index shown below are selected I.Before running the allocation. user can select N Channel index (N = 3 under 1x3) and frequency planning function will allocate different Channel to different cell. 123 . Under Single frequency reuse (1x1). Channel Index Path: [Explorer / Network/ Transceiver / Cell /Normal Parameter] Value of Channel Index will determine the frequency reuse pattern.

In U-Net. Basically. the first step is to select the frequency Reuse pattern. ICIC Switch Path: [Explorer / Network/ Transceiver / Cell /Advanced Parameter] ICIC function for Uplink and Downlink can be enabled separately for simulation. 124 . III. then select the Channel index that can be used for frequency planning before “running” the allocation. it shows which 1/3 part of the frequency has been chosen by Automatic frequency plan for the downlink and uplink of a particular sector. II. the frequencies will be allocated according to the table below. Upon completion. Edge Frequency Style The style corresponds to the frequency pattern chosen and only applicable to (1x1). An example output is shown based on 1x3 selection where Channel 0 -2 are chosen. A graphically representation of style for downlink is shown below.

ICIC switch and Channel index will not affect the prediction results as these are mainly used for traffic simulation. Frequency Selectivity Schedule Enabling Uplink and Downlink FSS function separately in simulation. II.6. All these scheduling parameters reside in the LTE-Cell path Path: [Explorer / Network/ Transceiver / Cell /Advanced Parameter] I. Round Robin or Max C/I for scheduling policy. 7. PF is the default and recommended policy.Various settings in Edge frequency Style. Schedule Policy Planning engineers can select between Proportional Fairness.4 Scheduling Parameters U-Net allows users to configure scheduling functions for LTE network simulation. 125 .

Default value is 10. However. 126 .6. 10).III.g. Max Schedule User Controls how many users can be scheduled within a single TTI (1ms) for uplink and downlink separately. user may also need to configure special antennae due to customer’s requirement by incorporating data into the 4 tables under Antenna – New option. 7.5 Antenna Property Path: [Explorer / Data / Antenna] Most common antennae categories are already included as part of U-Net standard tools without any need of new input. 30) exceed the max schedule users (e.g. U-Net scheduler can simulation multiple TTI condition if the number of data transferring users (e.

Unit: dB. Att. (dB) Other Properties The U-Net defines three parameters for antenna data: Beamwidth. Max Frequency and Min Frequency. Value range: 0 –359 Indicates the attenuation value of the current transmission angle. This parameter is not used in calculation. Horizontal Pattern Parameter Figure area Angle Description Indicates the horizontal or vertical beam figure of the antenna. Indicates the antenna angle. Unit: dBi.Parameter Description Indicates the antenna name. all these values are for labeling purposes only and don’t affect prediction results 127 . giving all angles and corresponding fading values. Antenna gain of this angle is represented by: Antenna Gain(θ) = Standard Gain – Attenuation(θ) The antenna angle is from 0° to 359°. However. Indicates the mechanical tilt of the antenna. The naming rule of the U-Net antenna consists of the following four parts: • Half power angle • Antenna gain • Electrical tilt • Application frequency Indicates the antenna manufacturer Indicate the antenna gain. Name Manufacturer Gain Pattern Electrical Tilt I.

6.6 Properties of a Single Transmitter Path: [Explorer/Network/Transmitters/Any transmitter/Properties] I. Indicates the minimum supported frequency.Parameter Beamwidth Max Frequency Min Frequency Description Indicates the antenna vertical beamwidth. General 128 . 7. Indicates the maximum supported frequency.

Equipment Allow user to fill in total loss or add individual component such as TMA separately Indicates the tower-mounted amplifier. Indicates the miscellaneous transmit loss and the miscellaneous receive loss. You can define additional losses. Miscellaneous Losses 129 . Indicates the power allocation to the transmit equipment. II. Indicates the feeder type and will recall feeder table. The feeder loss is equal to the feeder loss per unit length multiplied by the total feeder length. Indicates the name of the site to which the current transmitter belongs. User can simulate a remote transmitter by setting this parameter. Click this button to set the properties of the selected site. such as combiner loss and power splitter loss. Default value = 1 Indicates the transmit feeder length and the receive feeder length. Dy Equipment TMA Feeder Power Ratio Feeder Length Description Indicate the offsets of coordinates X and Y of the current transmitter relative to the site location.Parameter Name Site Description Indicates the name of the current transmitter. The U-Net software does not establish a loss model for each piece of equipment. Antenna Configuration Parameter Dx.

the current transmitter is activated. Main Antenna Selectable between High Speed. Neighborlist or Propagation Models related to this transceiver. 7. If Activate is selected. LTE Cell Most of the critical parameters inside LTE cell table have been mentioned before and the content is shown here again. A transmitter not yet activated does not participate in any calculation.7 Properties of a eNodeB Template Path: [ I. Low Speed and Highway Click this button to view and modify the properties of the Advanced Parameters. High Speed Frequency Band Indicates the Frequency Band used.6. General Define the radius of hexagongrid if it is used for new site design /Template Management/Properties] 130 . Parameter Active Description Indicates whether the current transmitter is activated.III.

The U-Net software evenly allocates the azimuth of the transmitter according to the azimuth of the first sector and the number of sectors of the eNodeB. 131 . LTE Cell Properties Parameter Main Antenna Model 1st Sector Azimuth Indicates the transmitter antenna.II. Description Indicates the azimuth of the first sector for a N sector site.

7. Indicates the user density in subscribers/km2. please see in the section below.2 Environments Path: [Explorer/Data/Traffic Parameters/Environment/Any environment type/ Properties] I.7. For details on the setting of the user type in User Profiles. please see in the section below. the types of traffic maps.7. General Parameter Name User Mobility Density Indicates the name of the environment type.7 LTE Traffic Model Parameters 7. Description Indicates the user type.1 Overview This chapter describes how to set the properties of LTE Parameters folder. 132 . Indicates the mobility type corresponding to the user type. 7. For details on the setting of the mobility type in User Profiles. and the methods for creating traffic maps.

Clutter Weight Field Clutter class Weight %Indoor Indicates the clutter class. indoor loss is added during the simulation.4. Indicates the proportion of indoor users corresponding to the clutter class.3 User Profiles Path: [Explorer/Data/Traffic Parameters/User Profiles/Any User Profiles type/ Properties] 133 . Description Indicates the user distribution weight corresponding to the clutter class. 7. For indoor users. Please refer to 7.3 Properties of Clutter Class. The indoor loss per clutter class is user settable in the clutter properties.7.II.

Parameter Name Service Terminal Calls/hour Duration UL Volume (Kbytes) DL Volume (Kbytes) Indicates the name of the user profile.4 Terminals Path: [Explorer/Data/Traffic Parameters/Terminals Profiles/Any Terminal type/ Properties] Parameter Name Reception Equipment Description Indicates the name of the current terminal type.7. 7. Indicates the uplink user volume. Please refer details on the setting of Service to Services section Indicates the terminal of the current service. Description Indicates the service used by the current user. Indicates the duration of a call in seconds. Please refer to Terminal section for setting detail Indicates the number of calls per hour. Indicates the type of equipment used by the current terminal. Defined under Path: [Explorer/ Data/Traffic Parameters/ Terminals Profiles/Any Terminal type/ Properties] 134 . Indicates the downlink user volume.

Indicates the antenna technology used by the terminal. In general.5 Mobility Types Path: [Explorer/Data/Traffic Parameters/Mobility/Any Mobility type/ Properties] Parameter Name Average Speed Indicates the name of the mobility type. Indicates the terminal rate.7. the terminal is denied by the U-Net and limit the transmit power to Tx Max. During the simulation. If the required transmit power of the terminal is lower than this value. Indicates the receive loss of the terminal.Parameter Description Indicates the minimum transmit power allowed for the current terminal. If the transmit power of the terminal is greater than this value. During the simulation. Description 135 . the U-Net software calculates the transmit power of the terminal required to meet the current network QoS requirements. the U-Net software calculates the transmit power of the terminal required to meet the current network QoS requirements. Min Power Max Power Losses Noise Figure Model Gain Spatial Multiplex Support MIMO 7. Indicates the antenna gain of the terminal. Indicates the number of transmit antennas and the number of receive antennas at the terminal side. this parameter should be left blank. Indicates the maximum transmit power allowed for the current terminal. the terminal transmits signals using this minimum transmit power. Indicates the noise figure of the terminal. Antenna Indicates the model of the terminal antenna.

Indicates the uplink or downlink maximum throughput per service Indicates the uplink or downlink minimum throughput of the service. Downlink: downlink activation factor.7.7. Uplink: uplink activation factor. Value range is from 0 to 1.01 to 1. Indicates the average throughput requested by the service (using in creating a traffic map based on environment only).4.95.01 to 1. 1 represents the lowest priority. 7. You can select the GBR service only after selecting Data. 10. which is the length added to an encapsulated packet during the transmission at the MAC or RLC layer.15. Value range is from 0 to 1. Value range is 0. Uplink: fixed uplink overhead. 5.2.75. The unit is kbit/s. Indicates the GBR service. 136 Activity Factor AMR Rate Max Throughput Min Throughput Average Throughput Transmission Efficiency IBER Offset Body loss . Indicates the fixed uplink/downlink overhead. low-priority services are denied first when the cell resources reach the upper limit. This parameter is used to calculate the application layer throughput.7. Value range is 0 to 100. Indicates the uplink/downlink transmission rate. 6. Indicates the priority of the current service. Indicates the block error rate. Indicates the body loss. Indicates the rate of the CS services. 7. This parameter is required for only the CS services. Uplink transmission rate. Description Indicates the service type. Downlink transmission rate. Value is 0 to 232. which can be set to Voice or Data. which is usually 3 dB for voice services and not considered for data services.2. Indicates the uplink/downlink activation factor. The values are 4. During the simulation.9. Value range is 0. 5.6 Services Path: [Explorer/Data/Traffic Parameters/Services/LTE/Any Services type/ Properties] Parameter Name Type GBR Priority Indicates the service name. Value is 0 to 232. and 12. Downlink: fixed downlink overhead.

Creating a Traffic Map Path: [Explorer/Data/Traffic Parameters/Traffic Map/New Map] Simply select the Map type and hit “Create Map” II. Indicates the traffic map based on user profiles.7. Path: [Explorer/Data/Traffic Parameters/Traffic Map] Parameter Map based on Environments (Raster) Map based on User Profiles (vectors) Map based on Transceiver Coverage Description Indicates the traffic map based on environments. Map based on Environments (Raster) Select the Environment type (DU/U/SU/RU) as discussed in previous section for a particular Polygon chosen to create Environment traffic map.7 Traffic Map The U-Net software provides a total of three types of traffic maps. 137 . The Environment type will have the user type and their density distributed according to clutter weighting defined under Environment. Indicates the traffic map based on the coverage.7. I.

III. Map based on User Profiles (Vectors) Adding Traffic Information 138 .

Indicates the traffic density of the vector area in subscribers/km2.Parameter User profile Mobility Density Indicates the user profile. Map based on Transceiver Coverage Creating a Traffic Map The transceiver selected will be based on the Prediction Group chosen. So only transceiver that had prediction information attached will be part of any prediction group. Indicates the mobility type. A prediction group will only be created after a prediction has been carried out. IV. Path for Predictions are: [Explorer/Operation/Predictions/] Setting the Properties of a Traffic Map Path: [Explorer/Geo/Traffic/Map based on Transmitters and Services & Map based on Transmitters and Services (#Users)/ Properties] 139 . Description Indicates the traffic density in subscribers/km2 Selecting Area (Polygon) Parameter Name Density Description Indicates the name of the area/polyon to which the vector area belongs.

the U-Net software automatically recalculates the ratios. If the total ratio is not equal to 100%.Parameter Terminals (%) Mobility (%) Weight % Indoor Description Indicate the distribution ratios of terminals and mobility of the service or user. The input here is the number of users for each service type 140 . Indicate the distribution weight and indoor distribution ratio of the service or user for different clutter classes.

8 Prediction and Simulation 7. Indicates the number of uplink users corresponding to the FTP service.1 Predictions Path: [Explorer/Operations/Predictions/Properties] User can then select the type of prediction required.8. 141 . which is set in the properties of a single transmitter in the Transmitters folder.Parameter Prediction Group Tx_ID LTEFTP (UL) LTEFTP (DL) LTE (UL) VideoConferencing LTE (DL) VideoConferencing LTEVoIP (UL) LTEVoIP (DL) LTE (UL) WebBrowsing LTE (DL) WebBrowsing Selects a coverage prediction group Description Indicates the transmitter name. Indicates the number of uplink users corresponding to the video conferencing service Indicates the number of downlink users corresponding to the video conferencing service Indicates the number of uplink users corresponding to the VoIP service Indicates the number of downlink users corresponding to the VoIP service Indicates the number of uplink users corresponding to the Web browsing service Indicates the number of downlink users corresponding to the Web browsing service 7. Indicates the number of downlink users corresponding to the FTP service.

General information 142 .I.

it indicates that the interference is calculated according to values of cell PCIs after the modulo operation is performed. only the interference on the RS is taken into consideration. the precision specified for the prediction is used. the probability that the receive signal strength is stronger than the specified threshold at the edge of a cell Indicates whether penetration loss is considered in the calculation Indicates whether frequency offset is considered in the calculation. Indicates the area calculated in coverage prediction. ie. Please refer to Load Setting section Indicates whether shadow fading is considered in the calculation Indicates the probability of cell edge coverage.Resolution Indicates the resolution of the prediction map. the prediction precision is the same as the map precision. If the precision is not specified for a prediction. Intra-Frequency Handover (dB) Inter-Frequency Handover (dB) Polygon Neighbour load With Shadow Cell Edge Coverage Probability Indoor Coverage RS Shifting II. Loading of Neighbour cells. If RS Shifting is selected during the prediction of the counter DL RS SINR. Otherwise. Advanced Frequency Name Channel Index 143 Indicates the name of a frequency band Indicates the ARFCN corresponding to a frequency band . Indicates the handover threshold of intra-frequency cells. This parameter is valid during the prediction of the counters Handover Area and Overlapping Zones. If cell PCIs are not planned. This parameter is valid during the prediction of the counters Handover Area and Overlapping Zones Indicates the handover threshold of inter-frequency cells. the default precision (50m) is used for the prediction. In general.

Viewing Prediction Results User can review the results both statistically or in table format 144 . No calculation is performed if the value of the parameter in the middle of the equality is higher than this value. No calculation is performed if the value of the parameter in the middle of the equality is lower than this value. Condition Parameter Parameter on the left of the inequality Parameter in the middle of the inequality Parameter on the right of the inequality Service Terminal Mobility Interferer Reception Threshold (dBm) Description Indicates the lower limit of the predicted value. Indicates the method used for the current prediction. Indicates the upper limit of the predicted value.III. Indicates a service type Indicates a terminal type Indicates a mobility type Indicates the interference threshold IV.

In either Cumulative Distribution Function or Probability Distribution Function format Or in Table format for other results such as MAC throughput 7.8.2 Simulation Path: [Explorer/Operation/Simulations/] 145 .

Traffic Map needs to be created prior to running simulations. Indicates a calculation area to be selected.I. Setting Monte Carlo method is used by U-Net for traffic distribution. Once it is ready. 146 . Number of users = Size x User density x Scaling factor of user number Indicates a traffic map to be selected. Parameter Global Scaling Factor Select Traffic Maps Select Calculate Area Description Indicates the scaling factor of user number. Planner can adjust the “Source Traffic” table as below.

which is used for checking whether a network is converged. A larger TTI count allow better reflection of scheduling. which is use for checking whether a network is converged. which is used for checking whether a network is converged. Indicates whether TTI Bundling is considered.Finally. Indicates whether interference rejection combining (IRC) is considered. which is used for checking whether a network is converged. U-Net adopts the semi-dynamic simulation to obtain the instantaneous network information as per TTI within a snapshot. Number of TTI Site Corr UL IOT Convergence Threshold UL Load Convergence Threshold (%) DL Load Convergence Threshold (%) UL Throughput Convergence Threshold (%) DL Throughput Convergence Threshold (%) TTI Bundling VMIMO IRC HARQ Fix User Position 147 . therefore increases the precision of simulation results but requires longer calculation period. Indicates the uplink IoT convergence threshold. Indicates the uplink throughput convergence threshold. Indicates the shadow fading factor on the base station side. Indicates the uplink load convergence threshold. which is used for checking whether a network is converged. Indicates the downlink throughput convergence threshold. configuration of “Advance Parameters” Table is also required Parameter Description Indicates the number of transmission time intervals (TTIs) within a snapshot. Indicates whether hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) gain is considered. Indicates whether the virtual multiple-input and multiple-output (VMIMO) is considered. Indicates the downlink load convergence threshold. Indicates whether the location of user is fixed.

148 .

Individual users’ simulation results can also be seen by pointing the mouse on top of the user locations within the Simulation 149 .

II. Planners can then see the average value as well as the distributions of these results graphically. 150 . including cell loading. IoT. and throughput results. Simulation Results Various results can be obtained from the simulation results.

9.9. Path: Click or on tool bar “Window – Point Analysis Tool” 7.7. Choose to display either the path loss or the DL RSRP at the Cursor. User enter the required value and Margin needed will be displayed 7. Parameter Transmitter Path Loss/DL RSRP Cell Edge Coverage Probability Description Indicates the transmitter. you can view the profile of the path from a point on the map to this transmitter.9 Point Analysis Tool This section describes how to use the point analysis window and explains the relevant parameters.2 Reception Parameter Display area Description Indicates the names and signal strength of all the cells available for the terminal at the Cursor location 151 . After you specify the transmitter.1 Profile Purpose of this window is to display the terrain profile in relation to signal loss.

7.the received signal strength and Clutter class 7. the class of clutter in the position where the terminal is located as well as list of cells from which signals can be received. moving speed. Indicate the type of the terminal. and the permitted access carrier of the terminal represented by . service.4 Result This page displays the coordinates and altitude of the current cursor location.10 RF Cell Planning Optimization U-net also offer radio network planners an network planning optimization tool. 152 . whose simulation results are used to simulate the current analysis environment.9.9.3 Signal Analysis Parameter Simulation group Terminal or Mobility or Service Description Indicates a simulation or a group of simulations. 7.

The greater the number of iterations is. Value range is from 0 to 100.768. Description Indicates the name of an RF planning group 153 . Value range is from 0 to 32. Indicates the precision in calculation.Value range is from 0 to 10.Path: [Explorer/Operation/LTE Cell Planning/] Optimization selection steps I. Table value – General Tab Parameter Name Analysis Area Simulation Area Max Iteration Count Resolution RSRP Target Ratio Indicates the RF auto-planning area Indicates the simulation area of RF auto-planning (this area must contain the analysis area.000 Indicates the percentage of the downlink RSRP that reaches the specified threshold in the selected calculation area. the more accurate the planning result is but longer time the calculation takes.) Indicates the maximum number of iterations.

768 to 0. Indicates the minimum adjustment range of the downtilt angle. Here is one case presented as reference. Value range is from 0 to 1.768. Indicates the maximum/minimum downtilt angle. Value range is from -360 to 0. Urban and Suburban. Indicates the step length at which the reference signal is adjusted. Indicates the step length at which the downtilt angle is adjusted. Indicates the maximum adjustment range of the reference signal. The planning area is about 30 square km and shown as the red broken line polygon. the total number of individuals in a population.The value range is from 0 to 180. Indicates the maximum/minimum transmit power of the reference signal. Indicates the step length at which the azimuth is adjusted. Individuals of Population Size are calculated in each iteration and the greater the number of individuals. The value range is from -180 to 0. but the longer time the calculation takes. Indicates whether to perform the RF auto-planning immediately II. that is. Value range is from 0 to 90. 7.768. 154 . Value range is from 0 to 32.768 to 32. Value range is from 0 to 360. Indicates the minimum adjustment range of the azimuth. Indicates the maximum adjustment range of the downtilt angle. Value range is from 0 to 1. Control Parameter Parameter Description Indicates the size of a population. Value range is from 10 to 40.768 Indicates the minimum adjustment range of the reference signal.11. In U-Net. an individual represents the configuration combination of the RF parameters related to all the cells in a calculation area. Indicates the maximum adjustment range of the azimuth.Parameter RSRP FitnessWeight RS SINR Fitness Weight RS SINR Target Ratio Calculate Now Description Indicates the weight of the RSRP performance counter of a cell. RS SINR Fitness Weight + RSRP Fitness Weight = 1 Indicates the percentage of the downlink RS SINR that reaches the specified threshold in the selected calculation area. Value range is from -32. Main morphologies include Dense Urban. Value range is from -32. Population Size Antenna Tilt Max or Min Value Antenna Tilt Max Range Antenna Tilt Min Range Tilt Step Size Reference Power Max or Min (dBm) Maximum Range Minimum Range Power Step Size Antenna Azimuth Max Range Antenna Azimuth Min Range Antenna Azimuth Step Size 7.11 U-Net Planning Case U-Net is widely applied in global LTE planning projects by RNP engineers. RS SINR Fitness Weight + RSRP Fitness Weight = 1 Indicates the weight of the RS SINR performance counter of a cell. Value range is from -90 to 90. Value range is from 0 to 32. Value range is from 0 to 360. the more accurate the planning result is.1 Overview of Planning Area The clutter information and planning target area of City X are presented as below.

9 0.17 0 0 3.42 0.2 14.0 0.35 Percentage (%) 0.11.94 3.01 0.01 0.0 0.71 0 2.61 0.2 Site Distribution 30 site locations have been selected for this planning case.0 1.6 7.0 7.7 0.83 0.4 0.0 0.Clutter Name unclassified sea inland_water wetland barren grass/agriculture rangeland woodland forest village suburban dense_suburban urban dense_urban core_urban building_blocks industrial airport open_in_urban open Area (sq.05 1.10 155 .3 0.8 11.0 0.8 0.2 3.52 2.7 9.31 0 0 0 0.km.) 0 0.0 0.0 2.0 2. All the sector azimuths and antenna downtilts presented in the figure below are automatically tuned by the RF Cell Planning Optimization Function mentioned in Section 7.0 12.6 47.

5 0 0 7 COST231-Hata (Huawei) PDCCH: 3 symbols PUCCH: 9 RBs 156 .5 23 0 1. Necessary assumptions are made based on wireless network planning experiences.6 20 2T2R 1T2R 2x20 2.11. These common assumptions have been applied in global LTE projects Parameter Used DL Spectrum Used UL Spectrum Frequency (GHz) Bandwidth (MHz) eNB Antenna Configuration UE Antenna Configuration eNB Tx Power (W) eNB Noise Figure (dB) eNB Antenna Height (m) eNB Cable Loss (dB) eNB Jumper Loss (dB) UE Tx Power (dBm) UE Antenna Gain (dBi) UE Antenna Height (m) UE Cable Loss (dB) Body Loss (dB) UE Noise Figure (dB) Propagation Model Used Control channel overheads Value 2630-2650 MHz 2510-2530 MHz 2.7. the planning parameters are configured in U-Net.3 Parameter Configuration and General Assumption According to the network design requirements and agreements with Operator.5 According to Engineering Information 0 0.

Downlink RSRP 157 .11.Name unclassified sea inland_water wetland barren grass/agriculture rangeland woodland forest village suburban dense_suburban urban dense_urban core_urban building_blocks industrial airport open_in_urban open Penetration Loss (dB) 0 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 12 14 16 18 20 20 20 14 14 6 6 Model Standard Deviation (dB) 7 7 7 7 4 4 4 4 4 7 7 9 9 11 11 11 7 7 4 4 7.4 Network Coverage Predictions By coverage prediction. I. both Operator and Huawei can forecast the LTE network coverage condition and evaluate the network design.

PDSCH SINR 158 .II. Uplink RSRP III.

Downlink MAC Peak Throughput 159 .IV. PUSCH SINR V.

Uplink MAC Peak Throughput The above coverage prediction plots show that in 95% of the planning area.5 Network Capacity Simulation By Monte Carlo simulation. The network design leads to a good coverage situation. The traffic map is created based on cell coverage and designed as following settings. DL and UL MAC Peak Throughput levels are higher than 5Mbps.VI. PDSCH SINR and PUSCH SINR levels are higher than -5dB. I. 7. both Operator and Huawei can forecast the LTE system capacity condition and evaluate the network design. Terminal MIMO Terminal LTE Mobile Terminal LTE % 100 0 Mobility 30 km/h 50 km/h 60 km/h 90 km/h Fixed Pedestrian % 0 0 0 0 80 20 160 . DL and UL RSRP levels are higher than -115dBm.11. Traffic Map Setting FTP service is considered in the Monte Carlo simulation.

161 .Clutter Class unclassified sea inland_water wetland barren grass/agriculture rangeland woodland forest village suburban dense_suburban urban dense_urban core_urban building_blocks industrial airport open_in_urban open Weight 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 % Indoor 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 II. Part of the simulation result is presented in the table below. Simulation Result Users are created randomly in the Monte Carlo Simulation. One of five Snapshots is presented in figure below.

97 0.39 20.012.397.495.98 0.36 31.17 20.597.540.103.54 8.95 0.10 41.570.95 28.103.829.95 6.13 41.20 41.85 0.67 5.Site 403 403 403 405 405 405 4050 4050 4050 4051 4051 4051 4052 4052 4052 Transceiver 4031 4032 4033 4051 4052 4053 40501 40502 40503 40511 40512 40513 40521 40522 40523 Tx Power (dBm) 41.94 0.99 Load (DL) 0.99 0.28 5.81 8.963.90 0.08 5.994.731.86 33.99 0.91 23.01 23.64 30.89 0.96 0.55 29.18 30.12 41. Cell capacity of this simulation case is good enough.958.00 1.50 14.811.793.51 5.406.70 34.35 17.229.72 6.48 26.832.16 41.57 9.083.99 0.32 24.39 22.09 26.07 41.009.92 0.644. 162 . The cell throughput statistics results (both downlink and uplink) are presented in the figures below.98 0.17 41.96 Cell throughput is the benchmark to evaluate the system capacity.76 MAC Throughput (DL) (kbps) 30.92 0.750.689.13 41.93 Load (UL) 0.454.94 0.90 0.96 0.00 MAC Throughput (UL) (kbps) 22.73 29.21 41.15 41.372.67 22. It shows that over 95% cells can reach over 15Mbps DL throughput and 10Mbps UL throughput in the target area.25 6.14 IoT(UL) (dB) 5.85 27.937.98 0.09 28.00 0.38 24.93 0.605.29 8.92 20.53 6.91 0.611.97 0.87 1.35 7.11 41.69 15.90 20.15 41.14 41.97 0.60 5.20 41.98 0.54 14.452.93 1.852.96 0.93 30.63 27.

Latency. and Subscriber perceived quality. Mobility. KPI Architecture The above KPI classification fully considers the customer experience and focuses on the Quality of Experience. using industry standards as reference to define network counters and KPIs. Retainability. LTE KPI Acceptance Procedure 163 .1 KPI Measurement Methodology The KPIs are formulated to measure the network performance in terms of Accessibility.8 LTE Network Key Performance Indicators 8. preliminary acceptance and final acceptance. are recommended as shown below. LTE KPIs are mainly classified into 5 classes. 8. The KPI architecture is shown in the following figure. Accessibility. Integrity. Retainability. and Integrity. Mobility.2 KPI Acceptance Procedure LTE network KPI acceptance procedure for the two phases. which are. providing a wide range of network KPIs to reflect network factors that are relative to the service quality.

However. the planning of the test route shall consider the handover performance. After on-going optimization while the traffic keeps increasing after commercial launch. etc. (1) Cluster Optimization Performing optimization/acceptance per Cluster is recommended. 8. for Network KPIs. shopping centers. coverage. KPIs will be derived from the drive test analysis and stationary measurements. Whereas. ping delay. planning and optimization capabilities. mainly determined by product performance. We recommend that only one cluster (named pilot cluster) is selected for the evaluation and acceptance for the Service KPIs. Statistics KPIs are not proposed and measured at this stage as the traffic is insufficient. 8. neighboring relations.3 Service KPIs and Network KPIs The Field Test KPIs into two categories: Service KPIs and Network KPIs. throughput. if possible. the Service KPIs’ test is suggested to be performed by Stationary Test (ST) in the area with good RF conditions and close to the cell in order to eliminate the affect of poor RF or non-equipment factor and the test is proposed to be implemented under the condition of one serving cell. configuration and parameter setting.During the phase of preliminary acceptance before commercial launch. statistics will not eligible statistical result without enough samples. In general the test routes shall be planned according to the following criteria: (a) All sectors of each site in the cluster should be covered by the drive route.. along with surrounding neighbor cells. should be performed on the Drive Test (DT) routes in rollout clusters. e. the KPI values of statistics probably might not be same with those in drive test due to different calculations and considerations. and this analysis and measurement are on the basis of cluster which constitutes a group of sites (20-40 sites). 164 . Service KPIs are the KPIs that are not subject to be effected by cluster tuning and optimization activities.g. such as Call setup success rate. tourist attractions and railway stations. major roads. no necessary for repeating the measurement in all clusters Based on the above reasons. (2) Drive Test Route Selection For cluster optimization. which is determined by the radio network environment. Handover Success Rate. Cluster means a group of sites (Normally 20-40 sites) which are geographically neighbor and all the eNodeBs of this test cluster should be integrated and on air. but the actual sites number of per cluster should be flexible to allow a faster rollout and acceptance. etc. the final acceptance of the whole network performance on the basis of statistics will be implemented. (b) Routes shall pass through Key business centers.4 Cluster and Test Route The following contents present recommendation for Cluster Optimization and the selection of Drive Test Route for this project. Call Drop Rate.

8. (2) Final Acceptance (Stability Acceptance. Stats. Stats. low traffic (even empty) is not able to produce sufficient traffic data to evaluate the correlative Statistics KPIs. statistics collection method could be introduced under the condition that a minimum amount of traffic per site at the Busy Hour is reached (the sufficient data are available). Optional) For Final Acceptance (after the commercial launch). 165 . Proposed KPIs for Preliminary Acceptance The following table lists the proposed KPIs for Preliminary Acceptance. KPI Classes Accessibility Retainability Mobility Indicators RRC Connection Establishment Success Rate ERAB Establishment Success Rate Call Drop Rate Handover Success Rate (Intra-system) Proposed KPIs for Final Acceptance Test Method Stats. (1) Preliminary Acceptance For Preliminary Acceptance (before the commercial launch). KPI Classes Accessibility Retainability Throughput Delay/Latency Mobility Indicator E-RAB Establishment Success Rate Call Drop Rate DL Single User Throughput UL Single User Throughput Round Trip Time (Ping 32Bytes) Handover Success Rate (Intra-system) Proposed KPIs for Preliminary Acceptance Test Method Drive test Drive test Stationary Stationary Stationary Drive test 8. Different measurement methods and KPI categories shall be taken into consideration so as to match the following two acceptance phases. Based on worldwide experiences of LTE commercial networks. the following KPIs are suggested for Preliminary Acceptance and Final Acceptance separately. so the Field Test (Drive Test and Stationary Test) KPIs are recommended for this phase. Optional) The following table lists the proposed KPIs for Final Acceptance.5 Proposed Key Performance Indicators There are two types of methods for KPIs’ measurement: Field Test and Statistic Collection. Stats.6 Proposed KPIs for Final Acceptance (Stability Acceptance. The main purpose of Preliminary Acceptance is to verify whether the optimized cluster achieves the coverage and performance requirements or not.

swapping customer current spectrum to another band) • Any spectrum licenses restrictions (e.9 Network Planning Checklist 9. limitations and considerations required for the planning of a LTE network. This chapter will go through the required information step by step from a practical implementation perspective to highlight the approach needed for both radio engineers in deciding on the strategy required for LTE network planning.g. The purpose of the checklist is to ensure all the major aspects are considered either from our intelligence or with customer input. 10MHz.g. different band.1 Introduction By now.2 Checklist Items Consideration Radio planning engineers are highly recommended to review the following checklist items in full and confirm the detail of all these items BEFORE committing to any network site count to begin to perform any network simulation 9. the final network plan created will sure be more customer relevant and less rework will be required. However. 9. radio planners need to know which band is to be given for their network.2. radio planning engineers should have a good understanding on the technological background. With all these information on hand. The final frequency band granted will have a significant impact on site count and hence overall project cost due to the propagation and pathloss characteristics of different frequency bands.g.2 Actual Frequency Band Allocation for LTE Similar to spectrum bandwidth availability. 9. 15MHz or 20MHz bandwidth. it is generally true downtown area would require higher bandwidth (15MHz or 20MHz) due to higher traffic requirement while rural and/or suburban area may only require smaller bandwidth (10MHz).2. • Will customer need to perform migration or refarming of 2G/3G technologies first before spectrum is available for LTE • Any government plan for Spectrum recovery (e.6G but countryside is 800) Too often proposals are based on wrong assumptions on spectrum and the available bandwidth that will be used for new network deployment which results in a significant cost and work implications. will customer buy more spectrum in same band.1 Understanding Customer Spectrum Bandwidth Availability The purpose of detail planning is to determine a solid radio network design for possible deployment so radio engineer should not be using detail planning as a mean to determine or compare the network capacity offering between 5MHz.g. The same five questions/issues raised in “Understanding Customer Spectrum Bandwidth Availability” also need to be 166 . City is 2. Spectrum only available within 100km from City centre) • Will the entire network be running on the same frequency spectrum (e. Further issues need clarifications include • Spectrum availability and timeframe e.

RRU. This is mainly because the final site count is more likely to be determined by coverage requirement and the capacity offered by the network is the product of site count x capacity per site. TMA) which will lead to path loss changes. introducing TFR to improve GSM efficiency first. users are likely to be of lower usage and of higher speed so maximizing coverage through site antenna height or higher terrain is more important. In case where LTE is to be introduced after spectrum refarming. As a result. Guard band spectrum availability? • Additional passive equipment/path loss introduced due to possible equipment swap out (e.g. In summary.g.3 Frequency Band Refarming Requirement for LTE Some of the most popular questions from customer these days are • How they can perform refarming? • When is the best time? • How much spectrum do they need? For radio planners.g. radio planning engineers need to have a good understanding of where customer traffic will be in order to allocate an appropriate distribution of base stations. 9. Currently. there is also a big push in Europe for white spot (rural) wireless DSL coverage in Europe DD spectrum based on LTE.clarified here if it has not be done so before any detail planning activities are to begin. require GSM planning). This allocation can be affected by such factors as indoor 167 . it is recommended until a clear vision is obtained from customer for all 3 questions listed above. Not necessary LTE specific but will be required by 2G/3G e. in rural and highway condition. On the other hand. marketing strategies and even management preferences to showcase their technological leadership or not. growth forecast. high subscriber density and high usage is expected for dense urban and city area. the final capacity offer by the network will be different due to the coverage requirement. antennae change. In general. 9.e. • Extra workload requirement due to refarming which may have human resources impact (e. It is also worth noting here although the bits/Hz value will not change with different frequency band (i. hence it is normal to have more site count being allocated to dense urban/urban environment. In developed markets. answers to these questions are highly variable and every network will be different due to their current capacity status. per cell capacity is bandwidth not frequency band dependent).2. Therefore. high subscriber density area are most likely made up of users with low mobility so the emphasis on site placement for dense urban is more critical and it is important to be closer to users in high traffic area.2. no detail network design activities should begin. jumper cable.4 Location of Customer Coverage Requirement It is critical to have the proposed LTE site locations correspond to where it can best serve the designated traffic area and traffic type. the following items will need to be considered carefully prior to detail network design: • Any co-location with Existing Technology (2G/3G)? • Guard Band in place already? If not. coupler or splitter addition) to enable co-siting with existing technology (CDMA/GSM/UMTS) • Changes in Hardware (e.g. different customers will have different focus on traffic requirement.

it is reasonable to request traffic loading and performance information from the customer regarding the existing network both within and on the edge of the proposed LTE network 9. Google earth (which is normally 3 168 . it is NOT a good practice to rely on the external eNodeBs to provide coverage inside the tunnel. It is very worthwhile to valid the clutter information against other sources of information e. In order to make these InterRAT boundary decision intelligently.2. In general. In any Greenfield LTE deployment. 9. 9. In both situations. This is particularly important before designing any network that requires commitment on KPIs later.penetration margin and slow fading margin in the link budget. it is also important to ensure the clutter data is not shifted from the real structural location. it will be inappropriate to design a radio network with solid coverage everywhere (suburban/rural alike) where customer do not appreciate the value or return on their investment. this means either smaller bandwidth. For instance. • It is also not recommended to place any InterRAT border along interRNC/BSC or inter PLMN border area.7 Terrain and Clutter Database Availability and Accuracy It may not appear to be important but the resolution and accuracy of terrain and clutter information will have a BIG influence on the reliability of the final network design. • Similarly. If customer focus is just in covering dense urban area. For example. Another important factor is when the database was made available and when was the latest update made. 100m and beyond depending on the price paid as well as the location of the clutter. • It is unwise to place an InterRAT border in a heavily congested area. understanding the current status of the underlying network from both a coverage and performance perspective is critical in finalizing the LTE network design and capacity planning. Besides data resolution. it is not appropriate to locate an InterRAT border in location where the existing 3G or 2G network is of poor coverage. Clutter resolution comes as 10m. there will be a need for InterRAT handover either due to coverage hole within the LTE network or on the fringe of the LTE network to area beyond its coverage. 25m.5 Highway and Tunnel Coverage Requirement Most Operators will require good coverage along major highway and major tunnels due to the strategic visibility of services.6 Evaluate Existing Network Condition for InterRAT Radio planning engineers need to understand the existing customer’s network configuration as well as its footprint. small transmit power or even less MIMO complexity as long as coverage is fine. downtown area will require higher resolution while rural town can accept data of a lower resolution nature. In LTE. One major problem for this type of coverage is the feasibility of installation due to for example space and air conditioning restrictions inside tunnel or location restrictions along major highway so Radio planner also need to ensure the appropriate type of eNodeB is chosen. traffic likely to be high speed but low volume so smaller capacity provisioning is acceptable.2. 50m. Hence.g.2. • Try to locate LTE InterRAT border in area where customer network is offering good throughput to reduce the level of future customer complaint.

Other important questions to be considered before finalizing the network plan are • How much spare capacity the network has to tackle the growth and change in subscriber’s usage without adding extra equipment? • How well data hot spots (e.10 Cell Edge Throughput Requirement The final requirement of Uplink and Downlink throughput requirement at cell edge has to come from customer and is directly related to their pricing as well as branding.8 Scheduler Selection Radio design engineer can choose between different data transmission schedulers in the OSS database depending on the likely radio performance of the network. By assigning appropriate data user model inside U-net.11 Call Model and SmartPhone Penetration Growth Considerations The arrival of Smartphone has introduced a whole new trend in data applications and hence resource usage condition. 9. major pedestrian walkways. major stadium and other high profile locations) are covered? Do they have dedicated cell coverage? • How much penetration margin is provided for indoor coverage? Indoor user will be a major factor for interference generation to other users due to the higher power requirement. Depending on the network morphologies weighting. On the other hand. It is likely high data usage traffic be concentrated around dense urban and urban area while Rural and Highway area will consist of lower than average data user. 9. The final requirement of site count will thereby be directly impacted. subway stations and airports. popular sport stadium. some networks are seeing single smart-phone user consuming up to 14 times network resources normally consumed by traditional non smart phone user. there is always a need of indoor microcell and customer is normally quite willingness to pay for the extra coverage. Canada and Australia. different usage behavior should be simulated accordingly. Sometimes.g. Government legislation to improve rural/ 169 . Nevertheless. big shopping mall.2.2.9 Indoor Coverage Requirement Customer coverage expectation will have a direct impact on link budget considerations for both indoor penetration requirement and standard deviation. white spot coverage in European countries like Germany as well as rural coverage in US.2. PF scheduling is preferred but Max C/I scheduling will give the best throughput for a network with solid coverage. at important indoor locations such as lobbies of major hotels.g. final site count will also be affected as it would be unwise to assume high data traffic usage uniformly across the entire network. As a result. the edge throughput requirement is also a result of special government legislation on Operator e. customer may have difficulties in accessing certain buildings or shopping malls so these areas may need to be covered by outdoor eNodeBs which will increase the penetration requirement.g. There is now a much bigger data requirement especially in short and bursting traffic. 9. 9.2. • Any major driver for surprise usage increase in the near future? (e. Normally.to 6 months late) to ensure critical structures have been included.

Hence.12 Base Station Antenna and Other Co-siting Equipment Selection New LTE network is likely to be overlaying with customer’s existing radio networks. if the LTE network is to be overlay on other vendor’s network within the same frequency band. While use of separate and/or new antenna may incur additional project cost. LTE networks at 2. home DSL replacement package. tunnels and sporting stadium. shutting down of existing data network and migrating users to new LTE networks) 9. However. installation of new antennae in certain locations may not be possible due to local authority restriction. 170 . radio planners need to evaluate the benefit of having this tilting and orientation flexibility carefully on a site by site basis. Please refer to previous discussion in Chapter 5 for guard band. Due the close vicinity to traditional microwave frequencies. radio engineers need to ensure project team or customer can provide appropriate installation feasibility for such locations. Hence. However.3G to 2. In general. Frequency band of the new LTE network will also be a critical factor in antenna selection. combiners. standard isolation would be required if equipment from different vendors are to be combined. filtering as well as vertical/horizontal separation information. Conversely.g.13 Interference Protection and Isolation Requirement Similar to any radio network.suburban usage. In addition. certain network requirements may demand new antennae altogether due to different network coverage requirement. this may come at the expense of limitation in tilting flexibility. Finally. Wideband repeaters operating in the same or even adjacent band to the LTE networks may generate unwelcomed interference. These two factors could lead to extra guard band and worst case full retune requirement for protection purposes. engineers should not rely on tunnel coverage to be provided by radio signals coming from the base station located outside the tunnel premises. New multiband antennae now offered by Huawei Agisson can provide independent electrical tilt for different band which may be useful for some situations. addition loss (e. If SingleRAN solution is already in place and new LTE network is built on frequency band covered by existing antennae. On the other hand.6G may also be subjected to interference either from standard microwave. no additional loss will be incurred.2. 9. antenna selection would be a critical factor in the new LTE radio network design. Existing radio networks are also likely to have additional downtilt for coverage control purposes so independent tilt for Greenfield LTE network may help to reduce the final site count required. satellite transmission or MMDS/LMDS networks.2. indoor DAS (distributed antenna system) may contribute to interference problem particularly on the uplink due to PIM related inter-modulation. over drive of input RF power as well as impedance mismatch between components. for example: inside shared antenna system in major shopping malls. 700/800MHz digital dividend spectrum could be subjected to interference signals coming from big television broadcasting towers. splitters and jumper cables) needs to be included in the prediction design to ensure all the extra combining loss are included due to equipment co-siting.

Careful planning of location update border and coverage control remains two of the most important techniques in resolving this problem.At certain cell site sectors. 9. So for best result. due to installation limitation.14 Radio Related Equipment Selection With the introduction of new Remote radio head technology. beams will be at least a few wavelength apart but the arrival of higher transmit/receive order antenna may well change this situation in the future.g. For instance.15 Network and Spectrum Evolution Consideration Different Operators may have different network evolution considerations. there is a 2. RRU power and guard band/spectrum requirement). Depending on the chosen direction.2.g. radio engineers need to remember the addition of new antennae may incur extra CAPEX and OPEX cost on the operator due to extra mounting pole requirement so prior customer discussion is recommended. Normally.2.2. As a major application for LTE TDD. it is important the benefit of applying such products is reflected in our design proposal and link budget estimation. most FDD based Operators will likely to be focusing on existing spectrum (850/900/1800MHz) refarming while WiMAX Operators will have major concern on co-existence between WiMAX and LTE TDD. a cable length of 30m is assumed but this definitely needs to be reviewed during the design stage on a site by site basis based on customer information (e.5dB reduction in cable loss in using DBS RRU (0. beam forming is very similar to the diversity transmission. radio engineers should choose a spectrum that is relatively clean in both the uplink and downlink for new LTE systems deployment. 9. However. All these considerations will affect the selection of network components involved (e. site drawing) 9.5dB) vs Macro RFU (3dB).17 Cyclic Prefix Planning 171 . However. 9. Although external interference sometimes could be unavoidable due to various reasons.16 MIMO and Beam Forming Implementation The number of antenna deployed per cell will have an immediate impact on the coverage and capacity offered by diversity based technology like LTE. antenna orientation and tilt may need to be adjusted to avoid interference from external sources and existing customer network configuration may give hints in this direction. ideally. For instance. filter bandwidth. the main difference being that in beam forming one typically considers a physical antenna beam being constructed towards the UE. Radio engineers also need to understand the current configuration of customer sites so the realistic cable and/or combiner loss are reflected in their coverage design. interference increase due to traffic loading is always an important consideration especially when subscriber number increases.2. beam forming requires closely spaced antennae and this is unlike the MIMO diversity schemes which require at least a few wavelength antenna spacing. the total path loss will also be different so radio engineers need to discuss with customer in detail on their plan and preference to ensure the discussion results are reflected in the detail network design plan. Finally.

20 TDD Specific Uplink and Downlink Configuration Due to the spectrum sharing and time division nature of TDD. radio engineers should observe the local condition and make appropriate adjustment in their radio plan.2. at initial LTE network launch when loading is low. capability and capacity is made. Transmission expansion based on microwave could be lengthy from a time perspective due to various technical and spectrum regulations so radio planners should report their requirement as soon as possible. there are seven Downlink vs Uplink assignment ration as well as nine Uplink/Downlink Pilot Time Slot vs Guard Band configuration available for radio planner’s selection. for more mobility oriented cities in Western Europe.18 Understanding of Current Transmission Backhaul Network Capability Radio planners should regularly report and remind core and transmission network designers about the LTE access network transmission capacity requirement based on customer edge throughput and traffic requirement.2.2. Radio engineers are recommended to determine the traffic ratio between downlink and uplink from the customer’s current network to assist in the selection of appropriate slot assignment ratio. 9. Hence.g. the perception of customer coverage is likely to be dictated by the “coverage” shown by UEs (e. appropriate proportioning between mobile and pedestrian users can also be configured in U-Net Simulations using the correct channel mode under each of the Environment entries. using the wrong incorrect (higher mobility) channel models will have a higher demand on capacity and throughput estimation. 9. This is because power control works much more efficiently in low mobility environment and its gain diminishes as the speed of mobility increases. On the other hand. using a more pedestrian oriented channel model will most likely result in an under-estimation of equipment requirement.19 UE Distribution and Channel Model : Pedestrian vs High Mobility The impact of user distribution (pedestrian oriented vs high mobility focus) needs to be reflected in the channel model chosen for link budget estimation. The different combination will have an impact on both the coverage and capacity availability especially when there is an extended range requirement. number of signal bars). Although the expansion of backhaul capacity will normally occur in conjunction with LTE access network rollout.21 Power Boosting Configuration Similar to most wireless systems. 9. 9. it is still essential to ensure no commitment of radio access throughput beyond backhaul latency. On the other hand. An appropriate buffer needs to be provisioned by the transmission planners as there will be extra loading due to S1/X2 interfaces as described in Chapter 6.2. North America and Australia/New Zealand. If the target network is a dense metropolis like Hong Kong. Requirement of extended cell can also be determined via customer discussion and current network coverage review to minimize provisioning of guard band in LTE TDD network. Hence. Shanghai or Singapore. possible drop call and QoS/QoE degradation. Result of backhaul congestion will be slower user throughput.Radio engineer should also discuss with customer to ensure any sites needing extended coverage are addressed by using the Long CP configuration as discussed in Chapter 3 and 6. a higher power boosting 172 .

there will be a need to scale back power boosting as • Power Boosting consumes extra RE that could have been used for traffic • The higher the MIMO order.factor will help to improve coverage perception and reduce cell site count as RSRP is always a major requirement from customer. 173 . once network traffic grows steadily. However. the more RE will be consumed • More new sites are likely to be added to enhance coverage as well as capacity so Power boosting will indeed have a negative impact on coverage control in this situation.

10 Appendix: RF Antenna Systems 10. etc 10. the parabolic dish. A matching device is usually required to ease the abrupt transition between the guided and the free wave. the horn.1 Overview Antenna is a device which converts an electric wave guided by a conductor into a free-space. wide-band antennas. They have the highest gain and therefore used for long distance coverage.3 Main Specifications of Antenna The technical specifications of antenna include: • Work band • Gain • Polarization mod • Beam width • Preset down tilt • Down tilt mode • Adjustable range of down tilt • Front-to-rear ratio • Side lobe suppression ratio • Zero point filling • Echo loss 174 . Sectorial antennas radiate primarily in a specific area. 10. or as narrow as 60 degrees. the helicoidal. Directional or directive antennas are antennas in which the beamwidth is much narrower than in sector antennas. the patch antenna. The most popular types of omnidirectional antennas are the dipole and the ground plane. unguided electromagnetic wave.2 Directivity Antennas can be omnidirectional. Omni-directional antennas radiate roughly the same pattern all around the antenna in a complete 360° pattern. The wave guided by the line is radiated into space by the antenna. Electrical energy is fed to the antenna via a transmission line. dual-band antennas. and vice versa. sector or directive. Types of directive antennas are the Yagi. the biquad. triple-band antennas.2 Antenna Classification There are dozens of antenna types and variations of each. The beam can be as wide as 180 degrees. The type of antenna selected for use depends on the propagation characteristics required.2. and many others.2. 10. 10. a conductor which passes electrical energy from one point to another.1 Frequency Antennas can be classified as single-band antennas (narrow-band antennas).

15 dBi • dBi: the capability of concentrating power by actual directional antenna (including omnidirectional) compared with the isotropic antenna. 10. It can neither strengthen the signal nor transmit signal by itself. N or DIN) • Wind load 10. The d in dBd means dipole. • dBd: the capability of concentrating power by actual directional antenna (including omnidirectional) compared with half-wave dipole antenna.g. 900MHz) • 1710-2170MHz (FDD 1800MHz.3.2 Antenna Gain The antenna is a passive device. There are usually two units for antenna gain: dBi and dBd. Gain is a key index for antenna.• Power capacity • Impedance • Third order intermodulation The mechanical specifications of antenna include: • Dimensions • Weight • Number Input ports • Port connector type (e.3. standing for the capability of concentrating the power to a direction.1 Work Band It is the work band of LTE system. Huawei Agisson is offering antenna product of the following frequency band: • 806-960MHz (FDD 850MHz. AWS and TDD Band 33-37. The i in dBi means isotropic. 2100MHz. 175 . Band 39) • 2300-2700MHz (TDD Band 38/40 and FDD 2. The relationship between the two units is as the following equation: 0 dBd = 2.6G) • 824-960/1710-2180MHz (Dual Band) • 2300-2700/2300-2700MHz (for 4T4R MIMO) The only major band not covered by Huawei Agisson is 700MHz band used mainly for US LTE networks. It concentrates the power to a direction by changing the combination of oscillators and changing the feeder mode.

Figure 10-1 Relation between dBi and dBd The antenna gain is relevant to the number of oscillator units. There are also omnidirectional antenna pattern and directional antenna pattern. The antenna pattern is a cubic figure. it is called power pattern. In mobile communication. As a result. • If the pattern is represented by phase. • If the pattern is represented by power density. The surface pattern includes vertical pattern and horizontal pattern. it is called phase pattern. such as heart-shaped antenna and 8-shaped antenna. The directional antenna produces a rear lobe. 10. horizontal and vertical beamwidth. The lobes near the main lobe with the second highest power are the first side lobes. • If the pattern is represented by radiation field strength. Figure 6-2 shows the horizontal and vertical patterns of directional antenna.3 Antenna Pattern The pattern is the electromagnetic field of antenna radiation distributed by coordinate along fixed distance. it is called field strength pattern. the power in some directions is strengthened while the power in some directions is weakened. The directionality of antenna lies in the ranking of oscillators and the variety of feeder phase. the power pattern is the most common. usually represented by two patterns which are vertical to each other in a main plane. 176 . The lobes of various shapes and zero points form. The lobe with the highest power is the main lobe. The second side lobes are those with the third highest power….3. This is the surface pattern. similar to the interferometric effect of optics in principium. There are other special directional antennas.

The common horizontal beamwidth of eNodeB antennas includes 360°.5°. • θ: the horizontal beamwidth in the unit of dBi. 90°. you can calculate the vertical beamwidth. When the antenna gain is fixed. including horizontal beamwidth and vertical beamwidth. the gain is 11 dBi. the horizontal beamwidth is 360°.3. According to the previous formula. It strengthens the power of a direction while reducing the power of other directions. the actual vertical beamwidth of omnidirectional antenna is 177 . • β: the vertical beamwidth in the unit of dBi.5 Relation between Beamwidth and Gain The antenna concentrates power. so the vertical beamwidth is calculated as below: Due to the deficiency of design and manufacturing process.4 Beamwidth The beamwidth is also called the half power beamwidth. 60°. with their relation as below: Wherein. 10. For example. 7°. The horizontal beamwidth and vertical beamwidth is the beamwidth between two points where the power is lower 50% (3 dB) than the maximum radiation power. 65°. if you have known the antenna gain and horizontal. the horizontal beamwidth is in inverse proportion to the vertical beamwidth.3. and 16°. You can usually reduce the horizontal beamwidth to strengthen the power of a direction. 13°. • Ga: the antenna gain in the unit of dBi. and 33°. 10°. for an omnidirectional antenna.Figure 10-2 Horizontal and vertical patterns of directional antenna 10. The common vertical beamwidth of eNodeB antennas includes 6.

the difference between the level of side lobe and the maximum beam in the range of rear 180°±30°. you need lower the upper side lobe that radiates neighbor cells and improve 178 . For an omnidirectional antenna. the antenna gain depends on the number of oscillators.6 Front-to-rear Ratio It is the ratio of signal radiation strength of main lobe to that of rear lobe. for shaped-beam antenna. the vertical beamwidth and horizontal beamwidth are usually large. if the antenna gain increases by 3 dB. the antenna length will double. Figure 10-3 Relation among antenna gain. The front-to-rear ratio of common antennas is between 18 dB and 45 dB. vertical beamwidth. the better the antenna is designed. a positive value.3. to improve the efficiency of frequency reuse and reduce the intra-frequency interference with neighbor cells. Therefore. 10. and horizontal beamwidth According to the figure above.3. The larger the number of oscillators. When the antenna gain is high.usually smaller than the calculated result. the higher the gain is and the larger the aperture of antenna (the effective receiving area) is. 10. the antenna gain is usually within 11 dBi. The less difference between the two beamwidth. the vertical beamwidth and horizontal beamwidth are usually small.7 Upper Side Lobe Suppression In a cellular network. when the antenna gain is low. In addition.

The polarization modes of antennas include the polarization and dual polarization. preset electrical down tilt. The spatial direction of electric field vector is not always fixed. the polarization of which the direction of electric field vector is parallel to ground is the horizontal polarization wave and polarization of which the direction of electric field vector is vertical to ground is the horizontal polarization wave. 10. After the preset electrical down tilt is sold out of the factory. This is invalid to the antennas of macro cell eNodeB. The elliptical polarization usually applies for satellite communication. the down tilt cannot be adjusted. The electromagnetic wave of different bands caters for different polarization modes for propagation.8 Polarization Mode The polarization is a radiation feature for indicating the vector special direction of field strength of electromagnetic wave. 10. • If the endpoint trace of electric field vector forms an ellipse. The common down tilt modes include mechanical down tilt.3. and adjustable electrical down tilt (RET antenna) as below: • Mechanical down tilt: you adjust the mechanical down tilt by lowering the support. The level of the first upper side lobe compared with main lobe shall be smaller than –18 dB.the D/U ratio (the ratio of strength of useful signal to that of interference signal). The mobile communication systems usually choose vertical polarization while the broadcasting systems usually choose horizontal polarization. Assume that: • ZA: input impedance of antenna • Z0: nominal characteristic impedance 179 . The elliptical polarization wave and circular polarization wave have polarization direction.10 VSWR (Voltage Standing Wave Ratio) In mobile communication systems.3.3. The adjustable electrical down tilt is adjustable.5:1 at most. the spatial direction of electric field vector usually serves as the polarization direction of electromagnetic wave. The spatial direction of electric field vector is the direction of maximum radiation by antenna. the VSWR of antenna is 1. the polarization wave is circular polarization wave. If unspecified. 10. The dual polarization antenna in LTE networks usually use ±45° cross polarization mode. • If the endpoint trace of electric field vector forms a circle. and they are all linear polarization. With the ground as a reference. You can adjust the mechanical down tilt and electrical down tilt simultaneously. • Electrical down tilt: you adjust the electrical down tilt by adjusting the phase of oscillators.9 Down Tilt The down tilt of antenna is an important means that you can enhance the signal level of serving cell and reduce the interference with other cells. the polarization wave is elliptical polarization wave. The dual polarization antenna reduces the impact from multi-path attenuation and improves the quality of signals received by the eNodeB by using polarization diversity. The electromagnetic wave of which the spatial direction of electric filed vector keeps fixed any time is the linear polarization wave.

the RL is 13. 10.3. the input port of antenna is 7/16 DIN-Female. the power amplifier may be burnt and the communication system will work abnormally.14 Passive Intermodulation (PIM) The passive intermodulation is caused by non-linearity of the part when the passive parts like connectors. such as dual polarization antenna and dual band dual polarization antenna. the isolation must exceed 30 dB when the Rx port is the TX port. Before the antenna is used. 10. The ratio of the maximum adjacent voltage of standing wave to the minimum adjacent voltage of standing wave is the voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR). therefore. the power capacity per port shall exceed 150 W (in a 65°C ambient temperature). The passive parts are usually considered linear but they may have non-linearity to some degree under high power due to the following factors: • The contact between different metals • The contact between the same metal with rough surface 180 .98 dB. feeders.3. so it can bear a limited power. antennas. the communication distance will be shortened and the reflected power will return the transmitter. The antenna comprises of coupling parts. If the VSWR is over large. 10.3.13 Input Port of Antenna To improve the reliability of passive intermodulation and RF connection.12 Power Capacity It is the average power capacity.3. the reflected and incident waves form standing wave after overlapping on the feeder. such as matching. When the input impedance of antenna is not equal to characteristic impedance. there shall be a protective cap over the port to avoid generating oxide or absorbing impurity. As a result. and filters work under high power of multi-carrier. 10.5:1. and phase shift.So the reflection coefficient is calculated as below: You can also represent the matching character of port with echo loss as below: If the VSWR is 1. balancing. the maximum input power of antenna is 80 W.11 Port Isolation For multi-port antennas. If the power of a carrier is 20 W and a port of the antenna can support four carriers at most.

In urban areas. 10. 10. so the antennas are required to work normally under a wind speed of 36 m/s and to keep complete under a wind speed of 55 m/s. so you shall choose the antennas with small surface area. In some windy areas. and especially the intermodulation products in the receiver band have severe impact on the receiving performance of system. so you must focus on both the technical and non-technical specifications upon antenna selection. In suburban and rural areas.16 Wind Load The antennas are usually installed on high buildings or towers.3. The antenna can usually resist strong wind. and leaf mold-proof. the antenna is required to have a size as small as possible and a weight as light as possible when all the electrical specifications are met. small. and beautiful. and outlook of antenna. hidden.17 Work Temperature and Humidity The antenna of eNodeB shall work in a temperature of –40°C to +65°C and a humidity of 0 to 100%. and safety. The operators have more and more strict requirements on the dimensions. weight. and according with technical requirements. 10. and antennas as below: • Passive intermodulation index of connects: ≤ –150 dBc • Passive intermodulation index of cable: ≤ –170 dBc • Passive intermodulation index of antenna: ≤ –150 dBc 10.3. there are strict requirements on the intermodulation feature of passive parts like connectors.18 Lightning Protection A direct DC connection of each RF input ports of antenna to the ground is required. For an omnidirectional antenna. installation. In the littoral areas. the antennas are damaged due to unstable tower and pole.3. transport. 10. The camouflaged antenna aims to keep consistent with the environment and to avoid being noticed so that the mobile communication project 181 . it can also be installed bottom up and meet the three-proof capacity. the wind is strong with high speed. cable.3.20 Camouflaged Antenna Scheme for Sites A camouflaged antenna is beautiful. As a result. the antenna of eNodeB shall be light. 10.• Loose connection • Rusty or water filled connection • Magnetic objects The intermodulation product interferes with communication systems.19 Three-proof Capability The antenna of eNodeB must capable of damp-proof. there is no such restriction.3. salt mist-proof.15 Dimensions and Weight of Antenna To facilitate storage.3.

The antenna camouflage changes to flexible forms in different scenarios. The antenna camouflage includes the following types: • Customized camouflage • Outlook camouflage • Camouflage in special environment 10. and these antennas usually include the three-side electrical tilting directional antenna.21 Customized Camouflage Some vendors provide special antennas (such as cluster antenna). Figure 10-4 Outlook of customized camouflaged antennas Figure 10-5 The bottom chart of antenna 182 .3. The camouflaged antenna applies for urban site construction and coverage solutions for top grade residence area. You can choose proper beautification modes according to the environment for actual installation. The application of this camouflage is narrow. The customized camouflaged antennas are various in shapes.proceeds smoothly. There are no fixed modes and methods for antenna camouflage. The antenna camouflage aims to hidden it in the environment. as shown in figure below. because the customized antenna is expensive. The following paragraphs focus on some antenna camouflage schemes.

In communities or on streets. the residents reject installing antennas on the roof. such as part.3. and indoor areas. Especially in a community. Figure 10-7 Flat panel antennas camouflaged by advertising board and road sign 183 . as shown in figure below Figure 10-6 Painting camouflage 10. In addition. as the advertising board and road sign shown in figure below. Paint the antenna with an ambient color so that the residents take it as ornament of environment.3. you need design a scheme that the installed antenna accords with the environment and residents can seldom identify the antenna. you can use the flat panel antenna. according to the special installation position of antenna. You can camouflage antennas with the previous methods.23 Antenna Camouflage in Special Environment Residents are sensitive to antennas in some special scenarios.22 Outlook Camouflage For outlook camouflage. community. you can use the following methods.10.

2001 FCC: methods for predicting interference from response station transmitters and to response station hubs and for supplying data on response station systems. General description 3GPP Specification TS 36.322: E-UTRA: Radio Link Control (RLC) protocol specification 3GPP Specification TS 36.S.214: E-UTRA: Physical layer.323: E-UTRA: Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP) specification 3GPP Specification TS 36.16.304: E-UTRA: User Equipment (UE) procedures in idle mode 3GPP Specification TS 36. Stage 2 3GPP Specification TS 36. D.420: E-UTRAN: X2 general aspects and principles V.S.321: E-UTRA: Medium Acces Control (MAC) protocol specification 3GPP Specification TS 36.201: E-UTRA: Long Term Evolution (LTE) physical layer.141: E-UTRA: Base Station (BS) conformance testing 3GPP Specification TS 36.306: E-UTRA: User Equipment (UE) radio access capabilities 3GPP Specification TS 36.331: E-UTRA: Radio Resource Control (RRC).410: E-UTRAN: S1 layer 1 general aspects and principles 3GPP Specification TS 36. Protocol specification 3GPP Specification TS 36. Smith.133: E-UTRA: Requirements for support of radio resource management 3GPP Specification TS 36. K. Measurements 3GPP Specification TS 36. 21-23 April 1999 Huawei Interference Analysis and Co-existence Training Huawei LTE Technology Overview and Introduction Training Huawei LTE InterRAT Handover Management Training Huawei TFR Solution and Performance Training Huawei Genex U-Net Operation Manual 184 .212: E-UTRA: Multiplexing and channel coding 3GPP Specification TS 36.300: E-UTRA and E-UTRAN: Overall description. Erceg. 23 Feb.3c-01/29r1. March. “Channel Models for Fixed Wireless Applications”. 2011 3GPP TSG RAN TSGR#3(99) 231 Technical Specification Group Meeting #3. GSM/3G and LTE Market update: Global mobile Supplier Association.S.104: E-UTRA: Base Station (BS) radio transmission and reception 3GPP Specification TS 36. M.211: E-UTRA: Physical channels and modulation 3GPP Specification TS 36.V. Yokohama. Hari.11 References 3GPP Specification TS 36. IEEE 802.101: E-UTRA: User Equipment (UE) radio transmission and reception 3GPP Specification TS 36.401: E-UTRAN: Architecture description 3GPP Specification TS 36. Baum et al.213: E-UTRA: Physical layer procedures 3GPP Specification TS 36.

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