# PRACTICLE NO.

1

Object :
To find the Beta (β) of the transistor( NPN ) .

Apparatus :
    Power supply Digital Multimeter Resistors NPN Transistor

Theory :
A bipolar transistor uses a small current to control a larger current, a little like a relay. Bipolar transistors generally have 3 terminals. The control terminal is called the base. The other 2 terminals are known as the emitter and the collector and they carry virtually all of the current flowing through the transistor. There are 2 basic configurations of bipolar transistors, one is an 'NPN' the other is a 'PNP'. The two are very similar. The biggest difference is the direction of current flow through the collector and emitter. For now we will mainly discuss the NPN transistor.

small changes in base current will thus control the current in the Emitter/Collector circuit. (β). Then. BETA: One parameter tells you the amount of D. Since the relationship between these three currents is determined by the transistor itself. The Common Emitter Amplifier Circuit : R2 100 Ω Q2 R1 20kΩ 2N3904 V1 4V V2 6V In this type of configuration.An NPN transistor can be considered as two diodes with a shared anode. the Current gain of the Common Emitter Transistor Amplifier is quite large as it is the ratio of Ic/Ib and is given the symbol of Beta. gain that the transistor will give you. the current flowing out of the transistor must be equal to the currents flowing into the transistor as the emitter current is given as Ie = Ic + Ib. the emitter–base junction is forward biased and the base–collector junction is reverse biased. . In typical operation. It is generally called beta or hfe. as the load resistance (RL) is connected in series with the collector. Also. any small change in the base current will result in a large change in the collector current.C.