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HYDRAULICS & PNEUMATICS

SUB CODE: ME73 I.A. MARKS: 25 EXAM MARKS: 100

By M. R. Doddamani

CONTENTS
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Introduction to Hydraulic power The Source of Hydraulic power Hydraulic Actuators & Motors Control components in Hydraulic systems Hydraulic Circuit Design & Analysis Maintenance of Hydraulic Systems Introduction to Pneumatic control Pneumatic Actuators Directional control valves Simple Pneumatic control Signal processing elements Multi-cylinder applications Electro-Pneumatic control Compressed air

BOOKS
Text Books 1. Fluid power with applications by Anthony Espocito 2. Pneumatics & Hydraulics by Andrew Parr Reference Books 1. Oil hydraulic systems by S. R. Majumdar 2. Pneumatics basic level TP 101 by FESTO 3. Fundamentals of pneumatic control engineering by FESTO 4. Hydraulics basic level TP 501 by FESTO 5. Pneumatic Systems by S. R. Majumdar 6. Power Hydraulics by Ashby 7. Fluid power for Technicians by Donald Newton

INTRODUCTION • Requirement of Industrial processes • Device to perform activities • PRIME MOVER Prime movers are mechanical devices. which convert one form of energy into another .

SOURCES OF POWER • 1. . FLUID POWER Common source Widely used in modern industries Power transmission through high pressure fluids (liquid & gases) 2.Engines Power transmission through gears. Basic sources (prime movers) of power in Industries Electrical Electrical motors Power transmission through cables Mechanical I. shafts etc. 3.C.

Fluid Transport system .delivery of fluid (pumping stations. regulate or drives virtually all machines F. control & transmission of power using pressurized fluids It is used to push. equipment ranges in size from huge presses to miniature digital components while the fluids may range from superheated steam to liquid Nitrogen Fluid based system using liquids as transmission media are called Hydraulic systems ( Hydra for water & aulous for a pipe) Gas based system are called Pneumatic systems ( Pneumn for wind or breath) Types of Fluid Systems 1. Fluid power system designed specifically to perform work • • • .P. cross country gas lines etc. pull.) 2.WHAT IS FLUID POWER (FP)? • • • It is the technology that deals with the generation.

gun drives. flight control devices.HISTORY OF FLUID POWER • • • • • • • • • • • • • Use of FP predates the Christian era Usage of water to produce power by means of water wheels Air was used to turn windmills Uses of FP required huge quantity of fluid because of relatively low pressures provided by nature 1650 – discovery of Pascal’s law 1750 – Bernoulli’s equation 1850 – Industrial revolution in Great Britain Late in 19th century – Electricity emerged as dominant technology Little development during last 10 years of 19th century 1906 – development of hydraulic systems for elevating & controlling guns on the battleship USS Virginia 1926 – Development of packaged Hydraulic systems Military requirements in World War – II ( cargo doors.) Influence of expanding economy followed by World War . hydraulic actuated landing gear etc.II .

ADVANTAGES OF FP 1.Usage of simple levers & push buttons Hydraulic operation of aircraft landing gear . Ease & accuracy of control .

ADVANTAGES OF FP 2. Multiplication of force Turntable for handling huge logs .

Constant force or torque FP application in Oceanography .ADVANTAGES OF FP 3.

ADVANTAGES OF FP 4. Simplicity. Safety & Economy Steering control system .

ADVANTAGES OF FP 5. 6. Removal of heat generated FP devices are highly responsive because of weight to power ratio .

8.ADVANTAGES OF FP 7. FP devices are much easier to install than mechanical system FP devices are readily reversible and may be operated at either constant or variable torque in either direction .

3. Hydraulic fluids are messy Susceptible to damage by dirt or contamination Physical injury from high speed particles Fire or explosion hazard Prolonged exposure to loud noise . 4. 2. 5.DISADVANTAGES OF FP 1.

Flexibility in direction changing . No moving parts 2. Force multiplication 3.DRIVING FORCE 1.

but it should always be considered because of its obvious advantages under certain circumstances .We may summarize by saying that fluid power is not always best for all requirements.

APPLICATIONS • Overhead tram .

APPLICATIONS • Harvesting corn Hydraulically driven elevator conveyor .

APPLICATIONS • Brush drives .

APPLICATIONS • Industrial lift trucks Hydraulic lift truck .

APPLICATIONS • Excavators .

APPLICATIONS • Robotic dexterous arm .

APPLICATIONS Use of variable displacement vane pump Directional control valve is provided for pressure unloading The pressure relief valve is limiting the maximum pressure Infinite pressure displacement is achieved with the use of proportional relief valve For the speed control of the hydraulic motor a flow control valve is employed .

pressure compensated vane pumps are normally used for energy saving and smooth control of each machine heat generation is kept to minimum with variable displacement pumps.APPLICATIONS Variable displacement. .

APPLICATIONS .

APPLICATIONS .

APPLICATIONS .

PRINCIPLES OF HYDRAULICS • Language of physical science for FLUID • Current focus – Oil as a medium • Law of Hydrostatics Potential head .

PRINCIPLES OF HYDRAULICS Potential head is independent of shape & size .

PRINCIPLES OF HYDRAULICS

Potential head is independent of container shape

PRINCIPLES OF HYDRAULICS – PASCAL’S LAW
Pascal found that when he rammed a cork down into a jug completely full of wine, the bottom of the jug broke and fell out

Pressure applied to a confined fluid is transmitted undiminished in all directions throughout the fluid & acts perpendicular to the surfaces in contact with the fluid

BRAMAH’S PRESS PRINCIPLE (Hydraulic Jack)

Principle of Bramah’s press

BRAMAH’S PRESS PRINCIPLE (Hydraulic Jack) P = F1 / A1 F2 = P * A2 P = F2 / A2 (A1 = Π / 4 * D12) (A2 = Π / 4 * D22) P = F1 / A1 = F2 / A2 F2 : F1 = A2 : A1 = D22 : D12 F2 = F1 * A2 / A1 But as A2 > A1 . A2 / A1 is > 1 or F2 is higher than F1 By applying a smaller force F1 on the smaller piston. a bigger force F2 can be generated in the bigger piston .

BRAMAH’S PRESS PRINCIPLE (Hydraulic Jack) .

S2 / S1 = A1 / A2 = F1 / F2 Large output piston does not travel as far as the small input piston F1 S1 = F2 S2 ( work energy) Energy input to hydraulic jack equals energy output from the jack .BRAMAH’S PRESS PRINCIPLE (Hydraulic Jack) Assuming Oil to be Incompressible Cylindrical volume displaced by = Cylindrical volume displaced by the input piston the output piston V1 = V2 A1S1 = A2S2 Where S1 = downward movement of piston 1 S2 = downward movement of piston 2 Thus.

15&3.16 .MECHANICAL LEVER Length of lever arms inversely proportional to the piston areas AE/page-102/Ex-3.

APPLICATIONS OF PASCAL’S LAW Hand operated hydraulic jack .

APPLICATIONS OF PASCAL’S LAW Air to hydraulic pressure booster .

BASIC ELECTRICAL SYSTEM .

COMPONENTS OF HYDRAULIC SYSTEM .

COMPONENTS – PNEUMATIC SYSTEM .

COMPARISION .

COMPARISION .

COMPARISION .

COMPARISION .

STRUCTURE OF HYDRULIC SYSTEM .

Signal input (sensing) Manually Mechanically Contactlessly 2.STRUCTURE OF HYDRULIC SYSTEM Division of Hydraulic system I. Signal processing Operator Electricity Electronics Pneumatics Hydraulics . Hydraulic power section SIGNAL CONTROL SECTION 1. Signal control section II.

Electric motor . Power supply section (energy conversion & pressure medium conditioning) Components used for energy conversion .Pressure gauge . engine .Coupling .Pump Components used for conditioning hydraulic fluid . C.Thermometer .STRUCTURE OF HYDRULIC SYSTEM HYDRAULIC POWER SECTION 1.Heater .Filter .Cooler .I.

Power control section Directional control valves Flow control valves Pressure control valves Non-return valves Drive section Executes various working movements of machine or manufacturing system Energy contained in the hydraulic fluid is used for the execution of movements or generation of forces which is achieved using following components . .cylinders .STRUCTURE OF HYDRULIC SYSTEM 2.motors 3.

BREAKDOWN OF CONTROL CHAIN .

.

POWER CONVERSION IN HYDRULIC SYSTEM .

END OF CHAPTER 1 .

SOURCE OF HYDRAULIC POWER PUMPS .

COMPONENTS OF HYDRUALIC SYSTEM .

HYDRAULIC PUMP .

1 .HYDRAULIC PUMP AP/35/FIG. 2.

WHAT IS A PUMP? Device for converting mechanical energy into hydraulic energy Heart of the hydraulic system as it generates the force necessary to move the load Main purpose is to create the flow of oil through the system which in turn assists transfer of power & motion Does not develop pressure Generally driven at constant speed by 3 phase AC induction motor Mechanical action creates partial vacuum at pump inlet Atmospheric pressure forces the fluid through the inlet line into the pump Pump pushes the fluid into the hydraulic system .

5-2 .PUMPING THEORY Pumping action of a simple piston pump AE/144/Fig.

PUMP CLASSIFICATION .

2 . 2.PUMP CLASSIFICATION AP/35/Fig.

PUMP CLASSIFICATION POSITIVE or HYDROSTATIC PUMPS Pumping volume changes from maximum to minimum during each pumping cycle Used where pressure is the primary consideration Separation between high & low pressure areas or zones Pumping action is caused by varying the physical size of the sealed pumping chamber Ejects a fixed amount of fluid per rev. of pump shaft rotation Flow enters & leaves the unit at same velocity Capable of overcoming the pressure resulting from the mechanical loads as well as the resistance to flow due to friction .

Variable displacement.Greater flexibility of performance .Widely used in hydraulic system Variations in design .PUMP CLASSIFICATION Examples include Gear. no need of pressure relief valve) .Fixed displacement (constant pump flow output) .Small change of efficiency throughout the pressure range .Variable displacement (change in pump flow due to change in displacement output keeping speed constant) . pressure compensation capability ( less flow as the system pressure builds up.Small. piston screw pumps Advantages .High volumetric efficiency . compact size . vane.High pressure capability .

Minimum maintenance cost .PUMP CLASSIFICATION NONPOSITIVE or HYDRODYNAMIC PUMPS Fluids are displaced & transferred using the inertia of fluid in motion Uses Newton’s 1st law of motion to move the fluid against the system resistance Used for low pressure (up to 40 bar).Simplicity of operation .Low initial cost . high volume flow applications Little use in fluid power field Primarily used for transporting fluids from one location to another Examples include centrifugal (rotational inertia) & axial flow propeller pumps (transnational inertia) Advantages .Capable of handling any type of fluid .Quieter operation .Fewer moving parts .High reliability .

Justify the names Hydrodynamic & hydrostatic for positive & non-positive displacement pumps . Distinguish between positive & non-positive displacement pumps 2.HOME WORK 1.

CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS .

3 .CENTRIFUGAL PUMP SRM / 92 / Fig.1 AE / 145 / Fig. 5. 4.

centrifugal force causes fluid to move radially outwards Behaves interestingly in case of no demand of fluid No positive internal seal against leakage Highly desirable for pumping stations Easily handles large change in demand Reduction in output flow rate with increase in resistance to flow Need of priming CENTRIFUGAL PUMP Impeller imparts kinetic energy to the fluid hence the name Hydrodynamic or Hydrokinetic AE / 147 / Fig. picked up by rotating impeller.Provides smooth continuous flow Fluid enters at the center of impeller. 5-4 (b) .

AXIAL FLOW PUMP .

AXIAL FLOW PROPELLER PUMP

GEAR PUMPS

EXTERNAL GEAR PUMP

AP/42/Fig. 2.7

EXTERNAL GEAR PUMP Internet source .

.

EXTERNAL GEAR PUMP AE/152/Fig. 5-7 .

Min. speed of 3000 to 6000 rpm .Max.Continuous pressure of 200 bar .Min.Min. flow rate of 3 to 100 l/min .EXTERNAL GEAR PUMP One of the gear is connected to drive shaft which in turn is coupled with prime mover Second gear gets driven because of meshing (spur gears) Suction side – teeth unmeshed Discharge side – teeth mesh Vacuum generation due to evacuation of teeth Line contact of the gear teeth over one another prevents flow through the mesh & the close fitting of the housing prevents flow back around the periphery Manufacturing range (commercially available) . pressure range of 10 to 100 bar . speed of rotation from 400 to 500 rpm .

.

AE/150/Fig. 5-6 .

5 . 4.GEAR PUMP CHARACTERISTICS SRM/99/Fig.

4.6 .Center gear is connected to motor shaft Two independent outputs Short sealing range limits the system pressure THREE GEAR PUMP SRM/99/Fig.

HELICAL GEAR PUMP Excessive end thrust .

HERINGBONE GEAR PUMP
Thrust elimination One row of gear right handed while the other left handed Develops much higher pressures

Internet

INTERNAL GEAR PUMP

AE/153/Fig. 5-8

5-9 .INTERNAL GEAR PUMP AE/153/Fig.

INTERNAL GEAR PUMP Consists of an internal gear. a regular spur gear. a crescent shaped seal & an external housing Power is applied to either gear Crescent seal acts as a seal between the suction & discharge ports Motion of the gear draws fluid from the reservoir & forces it around both sides of crescent seal Operates at lower capacities & pressures (up to 70 bar) .

2. 5-11 .9 (b) AE/154/Fig.GEROTOR PUMP AP/44/Fig.

OPERATION PRINCIPLE OF GEROTOR PUMP Internet .

AE/155/Fig. 5-12 .

Max.Continuous pressure 125 bar .GEROTOR PUMP GEROTOR – GENERATED ROTOR Operates much like the internal gear pump Inner gear rotor (Gerotor element) is power driven which draws outer gear rotor Centers of the gears are offset by approximately one-half the tooth depth Inner gear has one tooth less than the outer one Formation of inlet & discharge pumping chambers between the rotor blades Sealing the pumping chamber because of meshing teeth More compact than the external gear pump Gears must be made to high precision Ratings: .Max. speed 2000 to 3600 rpm . delivery 200 l/min .

LOBE PUMP .

LOBE PUMP AP/43/Fig.8 . 2.

.

air.LOBE PUMP Operates in a fashion similar to that of external gear pump Both blades are driven externally (one directly by the source of power & other through timing gears) Physically blades doesn’t come in contact with each other Quieter than other types of gear pumps Greater amount of pulsation in pump output Used for pumping gas. liquid with low pressures with higher flow rate .

SCREW PUMP .

9 (b) . 4. 4.SCREW PUMP 2 Element rotary type SRM/102/Fig.9 (a) SRM/102/Fig.

SRM/103/Fig.10 . 4.

SCREW PUMP .

SCREW PUMP .

.

pump turbulence etc. Most reliable 2. Very quiet in operation . 4. No oil churning. Advantages 1.SCREW PUMP Axial flow positive displacement unit Three precision ground screws deliver non pulsating flow quietly & efficiently Two symmetrically opposed idler rotors acts as a rotating seals Idler rotors are in rolling contact with the central power rotor which are driven by the pressure of the liquid Operate up to 250 bar pressure at 1000 cm3 per min. Oil supply is pulsation free. continuous 3.

Manufacturing of a screw pump poses difficulty in case of close tolerance requirement .Overall volumetric & mechanical efficiency is low .Decrease in pump efficiency with increase in fluid viscosity .Viscosity dependant pressure rating .SCREW PUMP Disadvantages .

VANE PUMP .

5-15 .OPERATION AE/157/Fig.VANE PUMP .

2.UNBALANCED VANE PUMP AP/45/Fig.10 (a) .

UNBALANCED VANE PUMP • Axis of the rotor (splined to drive shaft ) positioned eccentric to the circular cam ring • Rotor (rotates inside the cam ring) has radial slots containing spring loaded vanes • Vane mates with the surface of the cam ring due to centrifugal force exerted by rotor • 1st half revolution of rotor – increase in volume between rotor & cam ring. drop in pressure resulting in suction process • 2nd half revolution – cam ring pushes vanes back into the slots resulting in discharge • The discharge & suction side of the pump are sealed from each other at any time by at least one vane (track between two ports is slightly wider than the space between two vanes) • Pump experiences two different pressures (working pressure at outlet & pressure at pump inlet) .

UNBALANCED VANE PUMP • One half of the pumping mechanism is less than atmospheric pressure while the other half is subjected to the full system pressure • Undesirable side loading on the rotor shaft • Unbalanced forces reduces pump life cycle considerably • Seldom used .

BALANCED VANE PUMP AP/45/Fig. 2.10 (b) .

BALANCED VANE PUMP • Circular rotor with vane slots concentrically positioned with the axis of an elliptical cam ring • Vanes reciprocates twice during one revolution of rotor giving two pumping actions per rotor revolution • Two inlet & two outlet ports are diametrically opposite to each other (pressure ports are opposite leading to zero net force) • Forces acting on shafts are fully balanced • In actual design both inlet & outlet ports are connected together • Intra-vane principle (pressure oil is fed to the underside of the vane in such a manner that maximum force occurs on the vane) • Fixed displacement type pump which operates up to 175 bar pressure • Relatively quite & of simple construction • Can not be designed as variable displacement unit .

2.11 .VARIABLE DISPLACEMENT VANE PUMP AP/47/Fig.

flow (Q) is maximum • When ‘e’ is zero.VARIABLE DISPLACEMENT VANE PUMP • In hydraulic system the flow rate of the pump needs to be variable which can be achieved by varying the rpm of the electric motor (economically not feasible & hence is not practical) • Varying the pump displacement can be easily effected • Displacement of the vane inside the pump & therefore its delivery is proportional to the eccentricity between rotor axis and cam ring • When eccentricity (e) is positive. the direction of the flow gets reversed . ‘Q’ is zero • When ‘e’ is negative.

PRESSURE COMPENSATED VANE PUMP SRM/112/Fig.19 (c) . 4.

the pump should stop pumping further oil to the system – Pressure compensated vane pump Consists of an additional spring which is adjusted to offset the cam ring As the pressure acting on the inner contour of the ring is more than the pressure exerted by the spring. it is applied to the piston centralizing the ring and the rotor. reducing pump displacement to zero . the cam ring becomes concentric to the rotor and pumping action stops • In some pumps spring is replaced by a piston & pressure control valve When system pressure reaches the setting of the control valve. it is desired that when the predetermined system pressure is reached.PRESSURE COMPENSATED VANE PUMP • In certain hydraulic systems design.

19 (b) .FLOW-PRESSURE RELATIONSHIP OF PRESSURE COMPENSATED VANE PUMP SRM/112/Fig. 4.

CHARACTERISTIC OF VANE PUMP AT CONSTANT SPEED SRM/112/Fig.19 (b) . 4.

PISTON PUMP .

20 (a) . 4.SRM/115/Fig.

plunger (piston) which moves inside the housing • Shaft of plunger is connected to prime mover (electric motor) • Inlet & outlet ports are controlled by ball valves • Outward motion of plunger – entry of oil • Inward motion of plunger – discharge of oil • Continuous cycling of piston results in supply of oil in pulses Pulsation creates undesirable effects In order to eliminate & minimize the effect of oil pulsation. to increase the flow rate capacity in piston pumps a number of cylinders and pistons are used in parallel .OPERATION OF PISTON PUMP • Consist of finely machined & finished cylinder barrel.

SRM/115/Fig. 4.20 (b) .

4.DELIVERY PATTERN SRM/139/Fig.34 (a) .

DELIVERY PATTERN SRM/139/Fig. 4.34 (b) .

4.34 (c) .DELIVERY PATTERN SRM/139/Fig.

AXIAL PISTON PUMP-IN LINE Exploded View SRM/116/Fig. 4.21 (a) .

AXIAL PISTON PUMP-IN LINE • Pistons are arranged axially parallel to each other around the circumferential periphery of the cylinder block • Pistons are driven to & fro inside number of bores of cylinder • Either a cylinder barrel or a plate (swash plate) is rotated which makes pistons to have to & fro motion • Controlled by ball valves.21 (b) . 4. the oil is sucked in or pumped out SRM/116/Fig.

SWASH PLATE IN-LINE AXIAL PISTON PUMP SRM/117/Fig. 4.22 (a) .

SWASH PLATE IN-LINE AXIAL PISTON PUMP SRM/117/Fig. 4.22 (b) .

cylinder block & drive shaft • As the cylinder barrel is rotated. is made to rotate against a cam plate (tilting plate or swash plate) • Cam plate is kept fixed & positioned at an angle with the axis of the cylinder block • Rotating group includes shoe plate. piston. the piston shoe follows the surface of swash plate • Piston reciprocates inside the cylinder barrel as swash plate is at an angle resulting in suction & discharge of oil .• Different designs of axial piston pumps can be seen in previous two slides • Cylinder body containing the axially placed pistons. shoes.

22 (c) .WOBBLE PLATE IN-LINE AXIAL PISTON PUMP SRM/118/Fig. 4.

WOBBLE PLATE IN-LINE AXIAL PISTON PUMP • Swash plate rotates with drive shaft while the cylinder block is kept fixed • Swash plate in such pumps are called as wobble plate • Shoe plate is prevented from rotation • Swash plate rotating on surface of the shoe plate produces to & fro motion of piston .

4.VARIABLE DISPLACEMENT AXIAL PISTON PUMP SRM/120/Fig.24 .

VARIABLE DISPLACEMENT AXIAL PISTON PUMP • Stroke length of a piston is determined by the swash plate angle • Larger the angle larger will be piston stroke consequently smaller the angle smaller will be piston stroke length • No displacement for swash plate zero angle • Piston displacement & volume flow rate in swash plate pump designs can be varied by by changing the swash plate angle • Maximum angle is generally limited to 17.5° .

4.25 (b) .SRM/120/Fig.25 (a) PRESSURE COMPENSATED PISTON PUMP SRM/120/Fig. 4.

oil is discharged from the piston to the inside of the pump core. and the spring returns to the yoke to a greater angle . the compensator valve spring of the piston moves to allow the fluid to act against the yoke actuating piston • The system pressure is dependant on the setting of the compensator spool spring & adjustment • When the pressure is high enough to overcome the valve spring. the spool moves back.PRESSURE COMPENSATED PISTON PUMP • Swash plate is connected mechanically to a piston which senses the system pressure • Piston is called as compensator piston & is biased against a spring • Return spring positions (when compensator piston is extremely right aligned or condition of least system pressure) yoke to full delivery • As the system pressure increases. 4.25 (b)] • If the pressure falls off. spool gets displaced and oil enters the yoke piston • The piston is forced by oil under pressure to decrease or stop the pump displacement resulting no flow [SRM/120/Fig.

BENT AXIS PISTON PUMP AP/49/Fig.15 . 2.

pistons. universal link (keys block to the drive shaft).BENT AXIS PISTON PUMP • Stroking of the pistons is achieved because of the angle between drive shaft & the rotating cylinder block • Rotating group consists basically of a cylinder block. shaft bearing & drive shaft • Cylinder block is supported by the cylinder bearing sub-assembly which is free to rotate on the bearing • As the drive shaft rotates it causes rotation of the cylinder block resulting reciprocation of the pistons • Pump capacity can be adjusted by altering the drive shaft angle • SRM/122/Theoretical displacement .

RADIAL PISTON PUMP AE/170/Fig. 5-29 .

and a rotor containing a reaction ring • Piston remains in constant contact with reaction ring due to the centrifugal force • For pumping action reaction ring is moved eccentrically with respect to the pintle or shaft axis • As cylinder barrel rotates. a cylinder barrel with pistons.RADIAL PISTON PUMP ROTATING CYLINDER BLOCK • Design consists of a pintle to direct the fluid in & out of the cylinder. the pistons on one side travel outwards which draws fluid as each piston crosses suction port of the pintle • When piston passes through point of maximum eccentricity. it is in turn forced inwards by the reaction ring which forces the fluid to enter the discharge port • Displacement can be varied by moving the reaction ring to change the piston stroke STATIONARY CYLINDER BLOCK • Reciprocating motion is imparted to the pistons by a rotating cam .

PUMP COMPARISION .

5-32 .PUMP PERFORMANCE CURVES • Manufacturers specify pump performance characteristics in the form of graphs Variable displacement piston pump AE/176/Fig.

Variable displacement piston pump AE/176/Fig. 5-32 .

AE/177/Fig. 5-33 Radial piston pump .

5-33 .Radial piston pump AE/177/Fig.

AE/177/Fig. 5-33 Radial piston pump .

PUMP PERFORMANCE COMPARISION FACTORS AE/178/Fig. 5-34 .

PUMP PERFORMANCE COMPARISION FACTORS GEAR PUMPS • Least expensive • Lowest level of performance • Efficiency is rapidly reduced by wear • High maintenance cost • Simple in design • Widely used in fluid power industry VANE PUMPS • Efficiency & cost fall between Gear and Piston pumps • Have good efficiencies • Last for longer time • Leakage losses across the faces of rotor & between the bronze wear plates and pressure ring .

PUMP PERFORMANCE COMPARISION FACTORS PISTON PUMPS • Most expensive • Provides highest level of overall performance • Can be driven at high speeds (up to 5000 rpm) • Produces non pulsating flow • Operates at the highest pressure levels • Highest efficiency • Longer pump life • Normally can not be repaired in the field because of their complex design .

thrsh. thrsh. • Common sound levels (dB) are presented in following slide • Intensity is defined as the rate at which sound energy is transmitted through a unit area • The letter “A” following the symbol dB signifies that the sound level measuring equipment uses a filtering system that more closely simulates a human ear.Brain translates electrical signal into sensation of sound. Pressure waves are generated by a vibrating object (pump.) Human ear converts sound wave into electrical signals that are transmitted to brain.)} I = intensity of sound under consideration (W/m2) I (hear. Motor etc.• Noise is a sound that people undesirable • Sound come as a pressure wave through the surrounding air medium. I (B) = log { I / I (hear.)= intensity of sound at the threshold of hearing (W/m2) I (B) = intensity of sound under consideration in units of bels (1 bel=10 dB) NOISE .

COMMON SOUND LEVELS AE/179/Fig. 5-35 .

pressure pulsation & other components connected in the circuit • External gear & the piston pumps are nosiest while screw pumps are very quiet with vane & internal gear pumps somewhere between • Any pump which generates noise above 90dB (A) is a loud pump & those around 60 dB (A) or less are considered quiet • Noise developed in typical pumps is shown in following slide.methods applied to eliminate vibration .pump mountings .rigidity .manufacturing & fitting accuracies of pump elements .speed of rotation .PUMP NOISE • Generated noise levels vary with .pump component materials . .

31 (a) . 4.PUMP NOISE Noise developed in typical pumps SRM/135/Fig.

I. . flow rate.PUMP NOISE • Comparative noise behavior of two pumps with 32 l/min (PR 32 H) & 20 l/min (PR 20 H) capacity respectively working at 1500 rpm with oil viscosity of 32 cSt is shown in the following slide • The noise level of a pump kept in a noise isolating room is found to be less by almost 18 dB (A) compared to the noise level at site for a pump installed on a C. Oil reservoir. pressure etc. speed. • Pattern of rise of noise level depends on the pump construction.

PUMP NOISE SRM/136/Fig. 4.31 (b) Noise intensity in protected room &near pump installation measured at 1 m away .

32 (a) Rise of noise level with pressure. flow & RPM .PUMP NOISE SRM/137/Fig. 4.

PUMP NOISE SRM/137/Fig. flow & RPM . 4.32 (b) Rise of noise level with pressure.

operating pressure (P) & volume of oil per revolution of the pump (v) • Rise in noise level is observed with increase in n.PUMP NOISE WITH REFERENCE TO PREVIOUS SLIDE • Rise in noise level is considerable influenced by the rotational speed (n). 4.32 (a) & Fig. a vane pump produces less noise when n.32 (b)] • In comparison to an axial piston pump. p and v are increased by same amount under similar working parameters [Fig. P & v on case of both the axial piston pump & vane pump [Fig. 4. 4.32 (b)] .

4.PUMP NOISE Noise level increases with the increase in power rating of pump Dependence of power & noise intensity SRM/137/Fig.33 .

Speed.Noise vs. 4.5 . Pressure & Displacement SRM/138/Fig.

• Variable axial piston pump is found to generate more noise level at higher power rating compared to low power rating • A fixed displacement pump generates less noise intensity than a variable displacement pump under similar working parameters & size • Rise in noise intensity by a positive displacement pump with increase of pump speed. is higher than that with increase of pressure or displacement volume. 4.PUMP NOISE WITH REFERENCE TO PREVIOUS SLIDE • Rise in noise intercity generated in a positive displacement pump with an increase in pump speed is higher than with an increase in pressure or displacement as seen from Table. [SRM/138/Fig.5] .

noisy pump .clamping of hydraulic piping at specifically located supports • Usage of sound absorption materials Some of the materials are presented in following slide .Control • Make changes to source of noise .improperly installed pump/motor mounting plates .pump cavitation .Misaligned pump/motor coupling .Excess pump speed or pressure • Modify components connected to primary source of noise .PUMP NOISE .

PUMP NOISE – Barrier Materials SAPT 220 SBM5 MAT SA25FF/B/6 .

NOISE IN CENTRIFUGAL PUMP Things that can cause noise in a centrifugal pump: • Pump Cavitation • Pump is experiencing water hammer • Rubbing of components • Rubbing of impeller against the volute because of thermal expansion or improper adjustment. . • Shaft is hitting a thermal bushing in the end of the stuffing box. • Bearings are bad • The mechanical seal has come loose from the shaft • A foreign object has entered into the stuffing box • The seal faces are running dry • You have hit a critical speed • Coupling misalignment • The noise is coming from the motor or some near by equipment.

If the bubble gets big enough at the eye of the impeller. the pump will lose its suction and will require priming • A reduction in the head of the pump . It is this compression that can change the head . .Bubbles. Occurs when pump suction lift is excessive & the pump inlet pressure falls below the vapor pressure of fluid. are compressible. unlike liquid. Cavitation has been described as: • A reduction in pump capacity.PUMP CAVITATION Cavitation occurs due to entrained air bubbles in the hydraulic fluid or vaporization of the hydraulic fluid.Happens because bubbles take up space and one cannot have bubbles and liquid in the same place at the same time . which erodes metallic components subsequently shortening pump life. Air or vapor bubbles which form in the low pressure inlet region of pump are collapsed when they reach high pressure discharge region. This produces high fluid velocity & impact forces.

PUMP CAVITATION
• • Formation of bubbles in a low pressure area of the pump volute. A noise that can be heard when the pump is running. - Any time a fluid moves faster than the speed of sound in the medium you are pumping, a sonic boom will be heard. (speed of sound in water is 1480 meters/sec). • Damage on the pump impeller and volute. TYPES OF CAVITATION 1. Vaporization cavitation A fluid vaporizes when its pressure gets too low, or its temperature too high 2. Air ingestion cavitation The bubbles collapse as they pass from the eye of the pump to the higher pressure side of the impeller. Air ingestion seldom causes damage to the impeller or casing. The main effect of air ingestion is loss of capacity.

PUMP CAVITATION
3. Internal recirculation cavitation Fluid recirculates increasing its velocity until it vaporizes and then collapses in the surrounding higher pressure. Flow turbulence cavitation Vane passing syndrome cavitation Impeller tip gets damaged due to its passing too close to the pump cutwater. The velocity of the liquid increases if the clearance is too small lowering the pressure and causing local vaporization. The bubbles collapse just beyond the cutwater and there is where you should look for volute damage

4. 5.

PUMP CAVITATION CONTROL
• Increase the suction head - Raise the liquid level in the tank - Elevate the supply tank. - Put the pump in a pit. - Reduce the piping losses. - Retrofit the pump with a higher specific speed impeller. - Install a booster pump or inducer. - Pressurize the tank. - Be sure the tank vent is open and not obstructed. Some vents can freeze in cold weather. • Lower the fluid inlet temperature – Injecting a small amount of cooler fluid at the suction is often practical. – Insulate the suction piping from the sun's rays. – Be careful of discharge re-circulation and vent lines re-circulated to the pump suction; they can heat up the suction fluid.

.If possible install an inducer .Do not install an elbow too close to the pump suction.Do not run the impeller too close to the pump cutwater.Use a double suction pump . • Reduce the net positive suction head required (NPSHR) . .Use a pump with a larger impeller eye opening. .Use a lower speed pump. .PUMP CAVITATION CONTROL • Decrease the fluid velocity .Reduce the speed of the pump.Remove obstructions in the suction piping .Reduce the capacity of the pump. .

PUMP RIPPLE Small variations of flow that take place during pumping are called ripple .

particular application .reduction in fluid flow rates for a given system power .Multi-pump system Varying demand within narrow band .Fixed displacement pump Demand at a series of fixed levels . smaller bore pipes & smaller components Maximum delivery Pump must be capable of delivering maximum flow rate demanded by the circuit Constant demand .smaller pumps.availability of components .higher component cost .lower choice of components . Maximum operating pressure Determined by .PUMP SELECTION PARAMETERS 1.Variable displacement 2. .type of fluid Higher the operating pressure .power requirements of the circuit .

Constant power control Pump drive speed Fluid delivery rate is proportional to speed of rotation Higher the pump drive speed.PUMP SELECTION PARAMETERS 3.Manual servo control . Type of control . shorter will be its life Type of fluid Pumps are designed to operate within a particular range of fluid viscosity Mineral oils works satisfactorily with most of the pumps Operating with synthetic or water based fluids reduces the working life of the pump 4.Constant flow control .Pressure compensated control . . 5.

In the mobile hydraulic field the trend is to reduce the weight of the hydraulic system by increasing the operating pressure.PUMP SELECTION PARAMETERS 6. . operating pressure. Volumetric Overall Pump type Efficiency Efficiency Piston plunger in-line <= 99 % <= 95 % radial > 95 % > 90 % axial > 95 % > 90 % Precision gear pump <= 95 % <= 90 % Vane pump <= 90 % <= 80 % 8. reducing the size of reservoir etc. speed & fluid viscosity pumped. Efficiency Efficiency depends upon design. Pump noise Noise increases with speed & pressure Size & Weight of pump Actual size & weight of pump depends upon the particular manufacturer’s design. 7.

Lower cost units are gear & vane pumps. Cost Initial cost of a pump is usually of secondary importance to running & maintenance costs. Availability & interchangeability 11.PUMP SELECTION PARAMETERS 9. Maintenance & spares . with sealed valve in-line plunger pumps probably being most expensive 10. the piston types much dearer.

END OF CHAPTER 2 .

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