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8 Mai 2012 Dr. Ing. Titus Constantin Bălan SIEMENS CMT email@example.com
Long Term Evolution
Retele de generatia a 4-a “all IP” Retele LTE (Long Term Evolution) • 3GPP Release 8 • Viteze de transfer mari; costuri reduse; OFDM/MIMO • Suport pentru mai multe retele de acces radio (RAN) eterogene – inclusiv non 3GPP (WiMax) • Mobilitate intre retele de acces radio diferite • Arhitectura simplificata
• Next step for
GSM/WCDMA/HSPA and cdma2000
IMS HSDPA UMTS Rel 99/4 2000 UMTS Rel 5 2003 MBMS WLAN IW HSUPA UMTS Rel 6 2005 IMS Evolution LTE Studies UMTS Rel 7 2007 LTE & EPC
LTE (long Term Evolution)
UMTS Rel 8 2008 2009
• • • • •
3GPP started working on System Architecture Evolution (SAE) in the end of 2004 Feasibility of technical options was studied in 2005-2006 Actual standardisation started after the feasibility study in the beginning of 2007 Nowadays, the system is called Evolved Packet System (EPS) instead of SAE – The PS core part is called Evolved Packet Core (EPC) LTE have been developed by the same standardization organization – 3GPP. The target has been simple multimode implementation and backwards compatibility.
Targets in EPS standardisation
•LTE as true mobile broadband access
– High bitrates (173/58 Mbps) •Delay optimizations – Fast access to services – Minimized latency and round-trip delay •Optimization for IP traffic – Network architecture to match with high bitrate radio – Voice over IP •Harmonized architecture for 3GPP accesses and interworking with non3GPP accesses – Optimized interworking with 3GPP and CDMA accesses – Use of common subscriber and service control solutions •Low cost per bit •Keep-it-simple
Reduced Network Complexity • Flat. IP based architecture Access Core Control MME IMS HLR/HSS Internet Evolved Node B GateWay 5 . scalable IP based architecture Flat Architecture: 2 nodes architecture IP based Interfaces Flat.
drives subscriber uptake .allow for new applications .Comparison of Throughput and Latency • Peak data rates of 173 Mbps/58 Mbps Enhanced consumer experience: . 2x2 MIMO) LTE 2x20 MHz (2x2 MIMO) LTE 2x20 MHz (4x4 MIMO) HSPAevo (Rel8) LTE min max 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 ms DSL (~20-50 ms. peak data rate 350 300 250 Downlink Uplink Mbps 200 150 100 50 0 HSPA R6 Latency (Rountrip delay)* GSM/ EDGE HSPA Rel6 Evolved HSPA (Rel. 7/8.provide additional revenue streams • Low latency 10-20 ms Max. depending on operator) * Server near RAN 6 .
Comparison of UMTS and EPS UMTS Core Network Evolved Packet Core GGSN MSC Iu-CS PGW SGSN Iu-PS S1-U SGW MME S1-MME RNC Iub Iur NB NB NB eNB X2 eNB eNB eUTRAN eNB MME SGW PGW evolved NodeB Mobility Management Entity Serving Gateway PDN Gateway UTRAN MSC NB RNC SGSN GGSN 7 Mobile Switching Center NodeB Radio Network Controller Serving GPRS Support Node Gateway GPRS Support Node .
Overall Evolved Packet System architecture RAN BSC Evolved Packet Core Gxc Gb S16 SGSN Iu S12 S3 S4 SGW S5 PGW Gx Rx+ PCRF 2G NodeB RNC 3G SGi LTE eNodeB S1-U S1-MME MME S11 Gr/S6d S6b Operator Services Internet Corporate Services AAA Non 3GPP S10 S6a S2c ePDG Untrusted Non-3GPP IP Access Trusted Non-3GPP IP Access 8 S2b SWx HSS S2a Control plane User plane .
LTE Network Nodes and Interfaces From IP point of view the LTE network can be split in three parts: • • • Access Network and Transport Network Evolved Packet Core Applications 9 .
The Non-Access Stratum (NAS) signaling terminates at the MME and it is also responsible for generation and allocation of temporary identities to UEs •Interface towards the HSS which stores the subscription relevant information and the currently assigned MME in its permanent data base. •MME handles attaches and detaches to the SAE system. The basic principle is identical to location or routing areas from 2G/3G. It provides all radio management functions An eNB can handle several cells To enable efficient inter-cell radio management for cells not attached to the same eNB. 10 . as well as tracking area updates •NAS signaling & security . It terminates the complete radio interface including physical layer. It replaces the old Node B / RNC combination from 3G.LTE Network Nodes and Interfaces • • Evolved Node B It is the only network element defined as part of EUTRAN. there is a inter-eNB interface X2 specified. • • • • • Mobility Management Entity •It is a pure signaling entity inside the EPC. P-GW & S-GW selection •SAE uses tracking areas to track the position of idle UEs.
• The serving gateway has packet data anchoring function within EPC. • PDN Gateway is comparable to GGSN in 2G/3G networks. • Policy Enforcement (PCEF) • Per User based Packet Filtering (i. • A serving gateway is controlled by one or more MMEs via S11 interface. • Mobility anchor for mobility between 3GPP access systems and non-3GPP access systems.e. HSS AAA PCRF MME Packet Data Network Gateway • The PDN gateway provides the connection between EPC and a number of external data networks. deep packet inspection) • Charging & Lawful Interception support • IP Address Allocation for UE • Packet screening (firewall functionality) PDN SGW PGW SAE GW 11 . • It relays the packet data within EPC via the S5/S8 interface to or from the PDN gateway.LTE Network Nodes and Interfaces Serving Gateway • Manages the user data path (SAE bearers) within EPC • It connects via the S1-U interface towards eNB and receives uplink packet data from here and transmits downlink packet data on it.
HSS AAA PCRF MME SGW PGW PDN SAE GW 12 .LTE Network Nodes and Interfaces Policy and Charging Rule Function • The PCRF major functionality is the Quality of Service (QoS) coordination Home Subcriber Server • Permanent and central subscriber database • Stores mobility and service data for every subscriber • Contains the Authentication Center (AuC) functionality.
• Rx: used by application functions. for serving gateway change • Gx: used by the PCRF to convey policy enforcement to the P-GW. the interface into the IP PDN. to convey policy data to the PCRF. such as the IMS P-CSCF.LTE Network Nodes and Interfaces LTE Interfaces • S1-MME: used for signaling between the Evolved Node B (eNB) and the MME • S1-U: defines user plane between eNB and serving gateways • S10: used by MMEs to support MME changes • X2: used to support intra-MME handover with no packet loss • S11: used by the MME to control path switching and bearer establishment in the serving gateway and PDN gateway • S6a: used by the MME to retrieve subscriber data from home subscriber server (HSS) • S5: a signaling interface for establishing bearers between the serving gateway and the PDN gateway or between serving gateways. • SGi: • S8: analogous to the S5 except that it is used in roaming scenarios. 13 . and also used to retrieve traffic flow data. This is where the IP visibility into the UE IP address(es) is exposed.
Evolution towards a flat architecture Iu over IP Separation of CP and UP: Direct Tunnel Implementation NodeB becomes intelligent. with RNC functionality 14 .
roaming. In an LTE RAN. and OAM procedures. LTE network design goals implies coexistence. monitoring. The expected goal of service providers is to backhaul 2G/3G/LTE mobile traffic through a converged IP/MPLS core network for cost efficiency. interoperability. 3G. the base station itself consists of controller functionality and can communicate with another base station directly via any-to-any topology. 15 . Solutions used in the backhaul IP transport network layer (TNL) for 2G. and LTE should be similar to use and unify operational tasks such as provisioning.3G vs LTE access network • • A hub-and-spoke topology enables communica-tion from base station to controller and controller to base station. and handover between LTE and existing 2G/3G networks and services.
• In real world the preferred deployment is to separate management plane form other planes using L2 VLAN traffic separation. For each UE a GTP-U tunnel is build between eNB and S-GW. all are based on IP: • User plane (U): this functional plane is used to transfer user data between eNB and S-GW. Management and Synchronization Plane applications.eNB functional planes The interfaces of eNB are referred as functional planes. • Control Plane (C): SCTP is the protocol used to carry control plane protocols. • Management Plane (M): the O&M traffic to administer the Flexi BTS • Synchronization Plane (S): PTP protocol is used to provide synchronization from grandmaster to base station • The eNB can be configured with separate IP addresses for User. the eNB features a single IP address. Control. S1-AP between eNB and MME and X2-AP between adjacent eNBs. 16 . All applications can share the same IP address.
X2 traffic switched or routed in mobile backhaul network 17 . X2 traffic routed through (central) Security Gateway (SEG) • IPSec with „X2 Mesh“ Architecture: direct IPSec tunnels between eNBs (X2 latency optimization).IPsec Transport eNodeB has incorporated IPSec functionality → each eNodeB site instantiates one Security Gateway function IPSec Architecture can be implemented in two variants: • IPSec with „X2 Star“ Architecture: no direct IPSec tunnels between eNBs.
eliminates the need for TDM link or GPS 18 .LTE synchronization 2G/3G methods to synchronize the base stations • clock reference provision by BSC/RNC over T1/E1 connections • external source such as GPS LTE synchronization • Timing-over-Packet is a solution based on IEEE 1588v2 Precision Time Protocol (PTP) • Synchronization over Packet Network via Ethernet Interface.
LTE Access Network – Last mile Two transport medium are used in LTE • Fiber Access • Microwave technology 19 .
Protocol Stacks UE eNB PDCP GTP-U S-GW GTP-U UDP IP L2 L1 S1-U GTP-U/GRE PDN-GW GTP-U/GRE User Plane PDCP RLC MAC PHY Uu UDP RLC MAC PHY IP UDP IP L2 L1 S5/S8 UDP IP L2 L1 L2 L1 UE eNB NAS RRC PDCP RLC MAC S1AP SCTP IP L2 S1AP SCTP IP L2 L1 S1-MME MME GTP-Cv2 S-GW P-GW Control Plane NAS RRC PDCP RLC MAC PHY Uu GTP-Cv2 PMIP GTP-Cv2 PMIP UDP IP L2 L1 S11 UDP IP L2 L1 S5/S8 UDP IP L2 L1 PHY L1 20 .
in different locations.MME Pooling – S1 Flex • LTE brings the incorporation of a flexible architecture • The S1 Flex concept or MME Pooling provides network redundancy and traffic load sharing • With S1 Flex the eNB is allowed to connect to a maximum of sixteen MMEs • The operator can increase the overall network availability • In practice geographical redundancy is desired. 21 . connecting each eNB to two MMEs. • The equivalent feature in 3G is Iu Multipoint of SGSN Pooling.
Options to design the transport between eNB and core networks when MOCN is in use • Shared Access & Aggregation Network.Multiple Operator Core Network The MOCN enables the service providers to have separate core networks (MME. PDN GW) while the E-UTRAN (eNBs) is jointly shared by them. This is enabled by the S1-flex mechanism by enabling each eNB to be connected to multiple core networks entities. Separate IP Core Networks • VLAN Based Traffic Differentiation for Network Separation 22 . SGW.
pure IP interface. 23 . In LTE the MME is using S6a interface. with SCTP as transport protocol and Diameter as application protocol. • Gr is based on E1 lines and SS7 protocols • SIGTRAN (SS7 over IP) implementation brings IP on this interface.S6a interface In 3G networks the Gr interface between SGSN and HLR is used to fetch the subscriber profile. • HSS is implemented using a frontend/backend architecture. • The design of S6a interface is recommended to be done in such a way that MME maintains Diameter connections to several HSS-FE in parallel (pre-configured Primary and Secondary SCTP paths).
• DRA plays similar role as STP in SS7 networks 24 .Optimizing Diameter Network architecture using Diameter Relay Agents • A fully meshed Diameter network is regarded as quite complex in administration and configuration • To optimize the network architecture Diameter Relay Agents are introduced • Diameter Relay Agent is used to forward protocol messages to appropriate Diameter Server.
25 . • A Diameter Proxy Agent has similar function as Diameter Relay Agent but it can modify the content of the message in order to address routing of diameter messages between different domains. admission and provisioning.Diameter Proxies In roaming case the visited MME has to contact the home HSS in order to fetch the profile of the subscriber. S6a is pure IP interface with Diameter protocol at application layer Diameter Based Protocol defines the function of Proxying: • The operator will use edge proxies to connect to GRX provider • Edge Proxy Agent is the only point of contact into and out of an operator network at Diameter application layer • Multiple edge-proxies are recommended for resilience and scalability. resource usage control. • Diameter Proxy Agent can modify messages to enable policy enforcement. functions that cannot be done by Diameter Relay Agent.
• S5-PMIP interface CP is based on Proxy Mobile IPv6 and UP is based on GRE • S5-GTP interface CP is based on GTPv2 and UP is based on GTPv1 26 .Gateway deployments. S5/S8 interface The main change between 3G gateway (GGSN) and LTE gateway is that LTE gateway functionality is spilt in two elements: S-GW and P-GW. The interface between S-GW and PGW is called S5 and has two variants: GTP and PMIP.
Roaming in LTE • Roaming for home routed traffic is the similar scenario used at the moment in 3G data networks • Subscriber traffic is routed from Visited PLMN to Home PLMN via the GRX provider • The S8 interface is the reference point between visited S-GW and home P-GW • S8-GTP is a natural choice for roaming as many operators are using GTP for roaming in 2G/3G 27 .
or if S2a or S2b is used 28 . roles can be changed): • S-GW takes the role of a Mobile Access Gateway (MAG). if PMIP-based S5 or S8 is used • PGW represents the Local Mobility Anchor (LMA) if PMIP-based S5 or S8. Most frequent PMIP roles (depending on roaming scenario.Interworking with other networks Connection to other PDN networks is managed trough different types of interfaces (S2a/b/c) that also imply different logic for IP address preservation in case of handover.
(NetLMM – Network Localised Mobility Management) HA-LMA (Local Mobility Anchor) AR-MAG (Mobile Access Gateway) 29 .Proxy Mobile IPv6 •Managementul mobilitatii localizat •Terminalul mobil nu e implicat in semnalizarea MIPv6 -> router de acces mobil (MoAR) •PMIPv6 .
| | <----------------> | | routing management by NETLMM | -------------------------------Evolved Packet Core | 31 .----------HSS/AAA | ----------| S6 |------------------------------| ----------| | | MME | | ---------------.S5 ----------.S1 | ----------.| SGi | UE |--+--| eNodeB |--+-|--| UPE |--+--|LTE Anchor|-|--+----------------| | (MAG) | | (LMA) | | | --------------------.
No NAS signaling connection between UE and network – ECM-CONNECTED – Signaling connection between the UE and the MME • Mobility Management Procedures – IDLE mobility – TAU inside of LTE – Handover – X2 and S1 handover for different scenarios – Intersystem Mobility – For Idle mobility TAU/RAU and for handover Relocation/PS handover 32 .The UE location is known and UE has at least one PDN connection – ECM-IDLE .The UE is not reachable by a MME – EMM-REGISTERED .Mobility Management Mobility Management – MME – IDLE Mobility and Handovers – S-GW – LTE and 3GPP user plane mobility – P-GW – Mobility for non 3GPP interworking • Mobility Management states – EMM-DEREGISTERED .
MME knows UE location with Tracking Area accuracy MME Tracking area 1 Tracking area 2 Tracking area update 33 .LTE Tracking Area Tracking area (TA) is similar to Location/routing area in 2G/3G Tracking Area Identity = MCC (Mobile Country Code). MNC (Mobile Network Code) and TAC (Tracking Area Code) When UE is in Idle.
– No X2 interface or MME change – MME handle handover signalling and update S-GW Inter RAT handover – Relocation used in UTRAN – PS handover used in GERAN Forwarding of Data Downlink Data Uplink Data Path Switch Request UP Update Request UP Update Response Downlink Data End Marker Path Switch Ack Release Recourse HO Completion Source Target MME SAE GW • X2 HO as an example Procedure 34 .Mobility Management Procedures Handover: eNodeB eNodeB Ue MKu • X2 handover (X2 interface between eNodeBs) – UE Moves from eNodeB to eNodeB using X2 HO Preparation – MME is not changed S-GW can be changed – eNodeBs makes preparation – MME update HO execution • GW for downlink S1 handover – The S1-based handover procedure is used when the X2-based handover cannot be used.
Terminology in LTE and in 3G Connection and Mobility Management 3G LTE Connection management GPRS attached PDP context Radio access bearer EMM registered EPS bearer Radio bearer + S1 bearer Mobility management Location area Routing area Handovers (DCH) when RRC connected RNC hides mobility from core network 35 Not relevant (no CS core) Tracking area Handovers when RRC connected Core network sees every handover .
Voice solutions IMS provides: •service info via Rx interface •SIP session control for VoIP •Voice application server (CS compatible) •QoS and policy control (Gx. Rx interface) •VoIP emergency call •Gm over Gi (SIP) for voice data transfer Voice solutions over EPS: •IMS based VoIP •Single Radio Voice Call Continuity (SRVCC) •Circuit Switched Fallback (CSFB) •NVS VoIP over EPS 36 .
IMS based VoIP • IMS Voice machinery is used for PS Voice • Gx is used for dynamic policy control • EPS offers dedicated GBR bearer for Voice RAN EPC PCRF MME Gx+ Rx+ IMS S1-MME S11 Gateway Serving PDN LTE S1-U Operator Services SGi Internet Corporate Services Control plane User plane 37 .
Reţele auto-organizante SON Standardizate 3GPP. NGMN şi studiate în proiectul EU FP7 SOCRATES Auto-configurare : integrarea automată în reţea a noilor staţii de bază LTE cu ajutorul procedurilor de auto-conectare şi auto-configurare Auto-optimizare : reglarea parametrilor reţelei pentru funcţionare optimă cu ajutorul măsurătorilor Auto-vindecare : detecţie automată. localizarea şi eliminarea erorilor Auto-planificare : recalcularea dinamică a planului de reţea 38 .
Reţele auto-organizante SON • • • • • • • Procedura de autoconfigurare Relaţii de vecinătate automate – procedura ANR Economisirea energiei Optimizarea acoperirii si a capacitatii Adaptarea schemelor multi-antenă (SIMO. MIMO) Optimizarea robustă a mobilităţii (Mobility Robust Optimization) Optimizarea distribuţiei sarcinilor la mobilitate 39 .
service providers can „virtualize‟ many of the critical elements of their networks by converting them into software which is run in the cloud and accessed on demand” Ericsson – Network-enabled Cloud concept • “The Network-Enabled Cloud builds on computing power in today's telecom assets to both embed enhanced functionality and to expose network capabilities for new service creation” 40 . Backbone and even Core going towards virtualization Automatic management of resources Complex networks are self-managed and self-organized Examples of virtualization of telecom elements: Nokia Siemens Networks – “Open Core System” concept • “Virtualization achieves extreme flexibility and efficiency in open core networks” • “Open Core software application runs on legacy equipment. RAN. on the latest state-of-the-art Commercial off-the-shelf ATCA platforms and on other generic multi-purpose hardware.New concepts for telecom networks Virtualization Virtual Operator Concept.” Alcatel Lucent – CloudBand concept • “Using CloudBand.
org/ftp/Specs/html-info/23060.3gpp.htm http://www.org/ftp/Specs/html-info/23402.htm http://www.org/ftp/Specs/html-info/23401.org/specs/numbering.3gpp.htm http://www.3gpp.3gpp.References http://www.htm 41 .