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# Morrow 1 Justin Morrow Mrs.

Keep AP Chemistry 21 December 2012 Iodine Clock Reaction Lab Purpose The purpose of this experiment is to determine the rate law of the iodine clock reaction by using the method of initial rates. Theory Sodium meta-bisulfite (Na2S2O5) undergoes the following transformation when dissolved in water where it dissolves and reacts with the water to form bisulfite (HSO3-): Na2S2O5 + H2O 2HSO3- + 2Na+ When mixed with potassium iodate (KIO3) the following reaction mechanism is proposed leading to the observed color change:

IO3- + 3HSO3- I- + 3H+ + 3SO42I- + IO3- I2 + O32I2 + HSO3- + H2O 2I- + SO42- + 3H+

Slow Fast Fast

If we assume the reactions following the first are much faster in comparison, the rate of the first reaction can be determined by varying the initial amounts of reactions and measuring the rate. Assuming all of the sodium meta-bisulfate is consumed by the time the color change takes place, Rate = -Δ[HSO3] / Δt This rate can be equated to: Rate = k [ IO3- ]x [ HSO3- ]y Mathematically, the variables can be determined with sufficient data.

Procedure

mL 10.mL)=(.0036M Na2S2O5 Run 1 2 3 4 Volume 0.mL Total Volume 280.mL 280.mL 25.mL Total Volume 280.1M Na2S2O5 10. starch solution.10M)(10.20M KIO3 100.20 M potassium iodate solution with distilled water.Morrow 2 1.mL) Md=.mL MdVd=McVc Md(280.mL 280. 2.mL 280.mL) Md=0. Prepare a series of 4 solutions called solution B by mixing differing amounts of 0.mL 5.20M)(100. and time for color change.mL 280.mL 280.mL 100. 3.10 M sodium meta-bisulfite.mL 50. Pour solution B into solution A quickly while stirring and time the reaction using the second hand of a watch (or a digital timer). and distilled water.071M KIO3 . Prepare a second series of 4 solutions (solution A) by diluting 0. Results Calculation Example 1 – Initial Concentration of sodium meta-bisulfite (Na2S2O5) and potassium iodate (KIO3) Run 1 2 3 4 Volume 0.mL MdVd=McVc Md(280mL)=(.mL 280.mL 10. Note the initial concentrations of potassium iodate and bisulfate ion.

The rate also halves when comparing these runs.071M 0. Calculating K With the rate law of: Rate = k [IO3-][HSO3-]2 We can calculate the value of the rate constant.0072M 0.2s = 0. the order of reaction with respect to [HSO3-] is 2nd order.0018M Concentration KIO3 0.0072M HSO3[KIO3] * 1 = [IO3-] (as taken from the balanced reaction equation) (0.0036M Na2S2O5) * 2 = 0.036M 0.071M Calculation Example 2 – Initial [IO3-] and [HSO3-] [Na2S2O5] * 2 = [HSO3-] (as taken from the balanced reaction equation) (0.0036M 0.0072M 0.5 s 16.0036M Rate 0. (in comparing runs 1 + 4) the rate changes by a factor of 1/4. Therefore.071M Initial [HSO3-] 0.036M 0.00041 mol L-1 s-1 Rate Law Between runs 1 + 2. the order of reaction with respect to [IO3-] is 1st order. and 2 + 3 the initial [IO3-] halves. . Therefore.00043 mol L-1 s-1 0.018M 0.0036M 0.018M 0.071M IO3 Calculation Example 3 – “Initial” (Average) Rate Rate = -Δ[HSO3] / Δt 0.071M / 4.071M KIO3) * 1 = 0.017 mol L-1 s-1 Run 1 2 3 4 Time 4.071M 0.0036M 0.0072M 0.0017 mol L-1 s-1 0.00085 mol L-1 s-1 0.9 s Initial [IO3-] 0.Morrow 3 Run 1 2 3 4 Concentration Na2S2O5 0.8 s 8.2 s 8. While the [HSO3-] is halved.

0017 mol L-1 s-1 = k(0. Conclusion Therefore. the calculated initial rate is lower than the real initial rate.0072M 0. This is not true because the initial slope is steeper than the calculated slope.0072M)2 K = (0. there is some error produced by the procedure.0017 mol L-1 s-1 [IO3-] = 0.0017 mol L-1 s-1)/(3. the calculated rate law of this reaction is: Rate = (460 L2 mol-2 s-1) [IO3-] [HSO3-]2 .Morrow 4 Rate = 0.071M [HSO3-] = 0.071M)( 0. [HSO3-] Calculated rate Initial rate time Therefore. It was assumed that the initial rate is found by the slope of the starting concentration to the ending concentration (because the [HSO3-] cannot be found until it is gone).7E-6 mol3 L-3) K = 460 L2 mol-2 s-1 Discussion Although the rate calculated is fairly accurate.