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Angus Hall - Mythology Greek and Roman.

Angus Hall - Mythology Greek and Roman.

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Published by Amber Banks
Digitized book concerning mythology. 1885. Translated from German by Friedrich Nosselt.

Knowledge is power!
Digitized book concerning mythology. 1885. Translated from German by Friedrich Nosselt.

Knowledge is power!

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Published by: Amber Banks on Jan 24, 2013
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For this book doth


of a path that leadeth to a Living







is not only a text-book in schools. Madam. Believing that want." Worsley's "Odyssey. but has also obtained a place on the book-shelf of every cultivated I shall be amply rewarded. b . I thought might be worthy of their acceptance. where home. sealed Classics are generally a book to the young : I have therefore interspersed throughout carefully selected extracts from Wright's and Pope's "Iliad. —more I believe. Dr it Nösselt's to Mythology would supply this was induced should undertake the as popular in present transla- become it England as it is in Germany. I tion. a great fit want in this country of a book on Mythology." and Garth's "Ovid." ley's " Euripides " Buck- and Blackwood's " Ancient Classics for English Readers " have been of great assistance.FE3^: *2 *oi " 11 ^s TO ItflJ. $rinass (Ehristmn. and." Morris' "Virgil. and also generally useful especially as there is. for the general reader and essential to the education of the young. In asking for the permission so kindly granted this translation of by your Royal Highness to dedicate Nösselt's Dr "Handbook of Mythology" to your daughters it the Princesses Victoria and Louise.

whom it dedicated. respect. spelling of The names is almost entirely in accordance with that of Smith's "Classical Dictionary. and. I desire Before concluding friend my thanks to my Mrs FitzHugh. I remain. Christmas. the Greek names have been kept almost without exception. as historical it point of view Mythology is most tells of those early ages when men were to struggling instinctively towards the Light. daughter of Mr James Mure. AMALTA HALL. in the myths. Southampton. Your Royal Highness' Most obedient and devoted humble servant. From an valuable. through whose hands the book passed before it went to press. . learnt to honour the good and brave and to express despise the weak and cowardly. Trusting that this volume well as instruction to the may give some amusement to as is young Princesses. With the greatest Madam. as well as to the general reader. even in their darkness. Claremoxt. 18S4.viii Dedication." and.

. I. L— Grecian and Roman Divinities.CONTENTS. I'acjb Introduction I Part Chap.

Danaos 256 . Combat between Paris and Menelaos . Deucalion and Pyrrha .— Mythological History of the Greeks.. Death of Adrastos XX. .. 386 389 XXIII. Diomed and Glaucos XXI. I. XXIV. Pelops VI. Part II. . .... Fight between Hektor and Ajax . The Calydonian Hunt XII. Continuation of the Trojan War . -395 . Pandion and his Daughters Philomela 243 and Procne III. Hektor and Andromache . The Argonautic Expedition . Chap. -343 . Herakles or Hercules VIII. XXII... 309 XIV. Pandaros 358 and 367 371 XVIII. to conciliate 393 XXV. Combat between Diomed and Aeneas .. Nyx. . The Combat between the Lapithae and the Centaurs XIII. Page 222 230 Deities known only to the Inhabitants of Italy . The Wounding of Ares by Diomed XIX. 377 378 381 . Cecrops. The vain Attempt of Achilleus . The Trojan War . . Perseus 257 257 VII. Artreus and Thyestes IX. 352 XVI. . Agamemnon ... .. . XXIII.. . Kadmos .. . XV. or Night. . Eteocles and Polynices XI. . . The Steeds of Rhesos . . Theseus ..Contents. 264 278 280 292 299 305 X.. Strife between Achilleus and Agamemnon .. 239 II. and her Children .. V. XVII. . XXII. 247 IV.

XI Page XXVI. 575 . XXIX. Journey 463 476 479 491 XLI. XXXII. and Kirke . Return of Odysseus to Ithaka the Swineherd XLVIII.. 509 XLV. Burial of Patroklos XXXVII.. Orestes and Iphigeneia Tauris . Odysseus returns to his Home known . Odysseus and Eumaios XLIX. Lament for Hektor XXXVI. Odysseus of Odysseus in Phaeacia XLIII.. The Death of Sarpedon XXX. and Kuklopes XLIV. Funeral of Hektor. Odysseus' Account of the Seirenes. Peisandros. The Wounding XXVIII. Charybdis. Lotophages. Iphidamas 397 XXVII. Odysseus' Account of the Aeolian Islands (Lipri) the Laistrygonen. The Death of Hektor 426 433 435 Achilleus' last XXXV. 1 Combat and 439 Destruction of Troy.. Death . The Kikones. and Koon . Return of Odysseus from Troy of Telemachos to Pylos and Sparta XL. 533 The Vengeance of Odysseus to his 549 LI.. XXXVIII. Death of Agamemnon in LIV.. Shipwreck XLII.Contents. Odysseus makes himself LII. Death of Hippolochos. 184 449 461 XXXIX. XLVI. Lament Reconciliation of Agamemnon and of Achilleus . L. Death of Patroklos of Achilleus over Patroklos 410 414 418 421 XXXI. Chap. Odysseus Visits Laertes Household 560 56S 573 LIII. Achilleus XXXIII. The Heroic Deeds XXXIV. and the Herds of Helios 512 518 521 XLVII. Odysseus' Descent into the Underland 506 Scylla an< . Battle at the of Diomed and Machaon 400 403 407 Greek Entrenchments .

Page The World as Known to the Greeks Law to Eros v Zeus dictating the 29 Ganymede feeding the Eagle Hebe Hephaistos .LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 47 5* 114 Hero and Leander Hermes Orpheus and Eurydice Odysseus accepting the Arms of Achilles 148 162 200 44S .


Helios (the Sun). Uranus.Helios. Hecate. Main as. Victoria. Skylla. Index. Titan. Fortuna-Occasio. Hekate. Rheia-Kybele. Rhea. Kronos. Kentauros. Maenas (PI. Scylla. Okeanos. . Saturn. Neptune. Auster. Jupiter. Proserp ina. Persephone. Pan. Pallas. Favonius. Ouranos. Phoibos. Melikertes.XIV In Greek. Vesta. In latin. Vulcan. Latona. Pluton. (also Cupid). Selene. Cybele. Adrastea. Moira. Faunus-Pan. Palaimon (Melikertes). Pluto. Leto. Minerva. Phoebus. Nike. Notos (South Wind). Nemesis (Adrasteia). Poseidon. Mercurius. Aurora. Fortuna. Hera. Hephaistos. ades). Leukothea. Cerberus. Tyche-Kairos. Sol. Zephyros (West Wind). Hestia. Apollon. Himeros Kairos. Centaur. Fatum-Parcae. Kyklopen. Cupido. Zeus. Pollux.Libera. Pegasos. Tartaros.Athene. Melicertes. or Palaemon. Hermes. Oceanus. Kerberos. Sol. Pegasus. Kybele. Cyclopen. Juno. Tartarus. or Here. Mercury. Portunus. Luna. Polydeukes.

that in Asia is life it of was not certain. but whether in the valley of the Caucasus is or the mountain plains of Kashmir. as their numbers increased. They lived an innocent us. Their childlike simple belief in one through their own fault. but these powers trials. took possession of the neighbouring countries. further Their descendants. only became perfected by later experiences and is It not probable that they were rude and cruel like the of savages America and the South Sea Islands.INTRODUCTION. hatred. but rather complete children of nature. passed away in gentle sleep. God they lost early Then they turned to the elements of nature. or elsewhere. by envy or and with neither evil passions nor strong emotions to weaken their bodies. spreading and further until they populated the most distant regions of the earth. They reached a good old age. and either feared or trusted as they received benefit or injury from them. without sickness or infirmity. The with first inhabitants of the world were undoubtedly gifted all powers of mind and feeling. Where the actual scene of this beautiful natural our first parents lay has not been ascertained . as far removed from at least so the wild barbarity as from the crimes that civilization brought in its train. known. and after a long series of happy most ancient legends tell — — uninterrupted life. When A they heard the warring . years.

in the course of time. they invariably adapted them to their own requireto ments. Increased. tning struck when a flash down a tree before their eyes. Sometimes one nation adopted the gods of another. and the rivers flooding and devastating the its land. offering them sacrifices and prayers. and called upon them in all the important affairs of life. they rid luat of the sun warmed and Beem intuitively to have felt that there was some unknown mighty power which directed all these elements. men endowed the gods with all their own crimes and vices. completed. their gods were innocent. they identified these various powers. of No nation the olden time was so distinguished . and often added. they imagined that each that these often element had own special deity. and warred one with another. and lifferent and singers. And for this reason it is often difficult to trace the origin of the worship of certain deities. As time went on. until they myths were in time connected by the poets who improved. or the comforted them. When they and looked upon them as individual gods. the water overcoming the fierce flame. degenerated. but even when this was the case. bringing to mankind cither happiness or misery. and benefactors of their country were immortalized after their death. gradually blended them into a perfect whole. the wind lashing beheld them struggling the sea. with each other. tally ancient monarchs. Thus so long as they themselves were innocent. only in endowed a higher degree. of gods rapidly as more mighty than the rest. however. heroes. all and the others With they the qualities which they themselves possessed their gods.2 Introduction. They worshipped these deities. of the storm or the crashing of the thunder. but still they ever The number regarded One as subordinate. they When.

beautiful and perfect than those of the human Greek art delighted only in race. To portray the gods was the highest aim of the painter and sculptor. the nation at large received worthy representations of their great deities. for beauty of imagination 3 as the Greek. None of their gods were monstrosities. fore for especially that of the painters.. the gods were often made to take a visible part. especially in tragedies. . Greeks and confine It is there- our poets. In plays. or else their deeds were related and brought forward. By mythology we mean Romans. essential that every well-educated girl should know at the so much of it as will enable her to understand and appreciate the various works of art and poetry and same time give her a better insight into the manners and customs of the ancients. human figures. as among the Hindoos they had mostly beautiful. as noble forms. and. great mass of the people continued in the simple handed down to them by their fathers. so that the people became more and more acquainted with them. and sculptors themselves principally to these two nations. and read all the myths and art representations of the gods literally but the more educated tried to see and find a higher meanbelief The ing in them. Introduction. but grander and more .




of which were regarded as individual Beings. the — a disc. and had created this all things. not as a round ball but as space into two parts. an old Greek poet.— L— THE GRECIAN ACCOUNT OF THE CREATION. believed that each had gained his They further kingdom from his father and predecessor by rebellion and warfare. visible world was made out of very imperfect elements. and who relates the following : In the beginning everything was empty and void infinite dark space. and brought to its present state of perfect beauty by means of wonderful changes and all terrific combats among the Powers of Nature. Neither Chronos nor Uranus was worshipped by the Greeks as supreme lord. Chronos.c. Even the Greeks did not According to them the grand conception. nected and best known of these myths is that of Hesiod. and Zeus. These various evolutions they classed under the head of three divine kingdoms. Ge or Gaea.. very few seem to have been imbued with the cherish idea that a Supreme Being had existed from Eternity. thus dividing the infinite the Upper and Under world— Heaven and Tartarus —the . is not said) flat an Out of this arose (how the Earth. who lived probably about 900 b. called Chaos. the successive monarchs of which were named Uranus. Among the accounts of ancient writers as to the Creation of the World. and master: all religious honour and worship were The most congiven to Zeus and his divine house alone.

the Greeks regarded Uranus and Gaea as man and wife.— — S latter Uranus and his Descendants. of each. heaven (Uranus) which surrounded her. their sisters. arose Hemera (day) on the Earth. Japetus. and Rhea. Out of Nyx and Erebus. friendly disposition. remaining in darkness called Erebus (eternal night). He was of a Me. and in the movement and light of the &c inus was the the whole earth. without beginning or god of the mighty stream that encircled end (he must not be mistaken for Pontus. Mnemosyne. •1 as an old man rated in a carriage drawn by sea-monsters. These twelve represented the fire.— URANUS AND HIS DESCENDANTS. But the earth also was still in darkness. and this darkness was called Nyx (night). and his children were the rivers. primitive powers of nature.) all the Gods. Themis. II. as they appear in the forces of water and . As everything on earth appeared to have been brought by the combined powers of Earth and Heaven. and surrounded . and above her Aether (upper Then did the Earth bring forth the starry air). also the mighty Ocean and the Mountains. and did not take any part with a bull's head. only four were well known Tethys. Thia and Phoebe seldom mentioned. the Mediterranean Sea. and Hyperion. Crius. or else in the revolt of his brothers. whose waters were salt). for as yet there was nothing to light it. and Chronos. The others were Coeus. and forth the ancestors of (i. Of are the Titanidae. Their children were six The Titans and Titanidae. Of the Titans three only are celebrated — Oceanus. both supposed to be divine beings.

Achelous. fearing his offspring. Atlas (part XI. the giants. Chronos or Saturn. Among rivers . wafted gently by the wings of the wind. having first He sunk down into the depths of Tartarus. and delights in the ships that sail on the broad bosom of the ocean. His wife was his sister Tethys. wounds rose the and other monsters. from that hour. also the Oceanidae. the queen in the sea-coloured garments. Chronos placed him- and having received a sickleshaped knife from his mother. and advised them to rise Uranus. predicted punishment to his sons for their un- natural conduct. generally. where But Gaea. who rolls round the earth.). . blowing horns. 9 by mermaids. clouds. their they lay chained in everlasting darkness. hereafter. and springs. the streams counted as the children of Oceanus is and Tethys and waters Japetus. had pity on her children. and mermen or Tritons.Uranus and his Descendants. and breaking the force of the waves against the rocks. She takes care of the sea-monsters.* An old poem describes her as the black-eyed wife of Oceanus. the youngest of the Titans. is the mother of fogs. Their father. had thrown them into Tartarus. who is honoured as the king of who appear as nymphs of springs and his sons. rushed up to his father. mother. greatly against their father.). Out more of the blood that sprang from his dreadful Erinyes. and mother of Achilles. was at the same time the most cunning. latter was a daughter of Nereus and Doris. self at the This they did. are the links between the gods and mortals. and wounded him while sleeping. of whom The * Tethys must not be mistaken for Thetis. so that he -remained insensible head of his brothers. Prometheus and Epimetheus (part VII. sea-dogs.

In old legends his reign Rome he was is called the Golden Age. As Time swallows his chil- children . Rhea. When the sixth child its was born. rise against him. months. Hestia (Vesta). Chronos fearing that the prediction of Uranus might come true. wonderful to say. was brought and when at the end of a year he was full grown. fearing it might share the fate of brothers and sisters. and Poseidon (Neptune). one was called. as the little Dp a cave in Crete. everything. his sister. swallowed all his children as soon as they saw the light of day. for Time down biting its tail. Uranus and Gaea. and afterwards Jupiter's wife. gave Chronos an emetic. wrapped in swaddling clothes. the years. and in his hand a scythe. and days return again. veil. without sorrow. covered with a as a sign that The back of his Time only shows In us the present. that his sons would. Metis. who became the children. all the five children ! Chronos represented Time. and then. People ke the Gods. (Jupiter). and to give the greedy father a stone. instead. he determined to revenge himself on his unnatural father. so did Chronos' offspring. or labour. asked the advice of her parents. Sometimes also with a snake an emblem of Eternity. and as and days. months. the stone he had swallowed. this made him bring up first. and the earth brought forth her increase and riches.i o Uranus and his Descendants. do to They told her to hide it in a cave in the island of Crete. Demeter (Ceres). called Saturn. in their turn. the future remains hidden. Free from . Hera (Juno). as to what she should save it. Chronos then married mother of five Rhea. so Chronos swallowed his the years. grief. She did so. dren. He is always depicted as an old man with a long beard. one of the daughters of Oceanus. and Chronos owed Zeus in it so quickly that he never noticed the fraud. Pluton (Pluto).

celebrated human race. Happiness and joy reigned everywhere. and the latter had to submit to the most laughable punishments if they failed to acquit noblest themselves properly. the mark of freedom. a country in Asia Minor. he had wished for. in the middle of The feast began by the Saturnalia. guarding the of this happy time. private business All public and was put on one side . Rhea. nursed by lions and panthers. and a toga with a red stripe like the Roman. and people gave each other presents as at our Saturn's wife. one of the kings of Phrygia. no criminal was punished. who was specially honoured in Phrygia. had a daughter born As. death came and them away in a soft sleep. own Christmas time. pleasure . and what most distinguished these festivals was the freedom which the slaves enjoyed. son. After this they invisible spirits. and expected a to him. 1 1 the people's lives flowed on in unbroken happiness. and allowed to wear a hat. and this act loosed the various burdens laid on the citizens. for their bodies till and spirits retained their youthfulness and vigour. however. no war begun. pain. where she was girl off to a neighbouring mountain. was afterwards confused with the goddess Cybele. They knew no carried no old age. Romans every year. he sent the little first . Not only were they free. became remembrance In the removal of the woollen bandages in which the feet of the statue were wrapped during the rest of the year. and She grew up very afterwards brought up by old women. They were also allowed openly to complain to their masters of anything they wished changed. The people only lived for banquets were held. The legend of the origin of her worship is as follows : Maeon. the December. all toil. but they were waited on by their own masters at a bounteous table.— Uranus and his Descendants. the courts of justice and the schools were empty.

and thither. children and animals. on which This was carried into the temple and presented to her with these words. horns were heard over every is . grief. and Her principal festival h. taught the use of healing herbs. and was beloved by everyone. good. the angry Gods it. wherever she went. driven to despair. and was known by all as the I ' ' beautiful. he was furious. the nephew of a neighbouring king. the anxious expectation." hither Purin- her journeys d. less. left her father's castle. were secretly married the what his They mutually fell in love. left and fled to the mountains. and had Attys . »ther of the Mountain. there to nurse her bitter faithful accompanied only by the her. and clever. however. invented the drum. instituted feasts in her honour. to Cybele. but killed. to live sociably together. they veral altars. helping and and attended by her faithful servant Marsyas. and to build permanent While she was thus travelling through strange lands. day a pine tree was cut down. Tee brought to thee.\2 Uranus and his Descendants. Cybele. Marsyas. The people wished to obey." On the second day. The oracle was questioned as to what ought to be done to put an end to as a Goddess. teaching the people to cultivate the ind. ly Then the Phrygians made a "Worship Cybele -ure like Attys and buried it. In »uses." was the answer. fifes. sent a dreadful famine into Phrygia. she bo ame acquainted with the shepherd Attys. was from the 22nd to the 27th of The first hung a figure of Attys. and amid the sound of drums and doing good she hurried from country to country. and when the father of Cybele (thus "Good Mother of the Mountain" called) heard daughter had done. and honourably bury Attys. but not a vestige of the unfortunate youth's was to be found. who never still With Hying hair.

and placed another monster. the Hecatoncheires and the Cyclopes. At last. feet recklessly. amidst the noise of drums. and where the and Arges). the Corybantes. a pine torch in one hand.e. back. cording to Hesiod. ramparts. acWherever depths of the .. hill 1 and valley. a knife in the other. Her dress fastened at the waist with a girdle. Steropes. besides the Titans and Titanidae. and cymbals. volcanic mountains arose. at the entrance of their prison. a crown with towers. but her mantle hangs loosely down veil and is brought like a over her head at the i. and turrets. Briareus. rushed madly about. with a noble and calm face. were also mighty giants. (Gyges. strong. are placed beside her. in her left a small In her right hand a drum. Uranus and Rhea had. or else above the mural crown. the cries of joy. horns. They were not wicked or cruel. or the sun on one side Sometimes wheat ears and the moon on the (2. She is generally seated on a also in a carriage is throne with a couple of lions beside her drawn by two or four in front. On her head she wears a mural crown.3 Uranus and his Descendants. and with flying hair and wild screams. two other sets of children. priestesses of the goddess. each having no less than fifty heads and one hundred hands. the fifes. The Hecatoncheires or Centimanes and Cottus) were enormous giants. This represented the wailings of Cybele while searching for Attys. and of dreadful appearance.) other. on the With wild third day. lions. (3. a cap with the sun and the moon. gashing depicted as a tall their arms and Rhea or Cybele is handsome woman . that their own father imprisoned them in Tartarus. powerful.) The Cyclopes (Brontes. Campe. but so terrible on account of their great strength. to guard them. long looked for one was found. sceptre.

many artistic works. "always ready to do a just and kind all and dislikes ill-deeds. there were they supposed to have but their abode. only one eye t: the middle of their foreheads. -GAEA OR GE. the Mediterranean Sea. sea. and herbs were her special delight and she. D she and air." prophecy. . He represented the calm. where his rejoiced the winds shut ire. a is sea-god. the Earth. she Lad others who were hers : These were Nereus. the all-powerful and creator as well as destroyer of things. He up in hidden caves. hot forth streams of fire. Pontus. two ordinary ones in addition They were very skilful.— 14 Gaea or Gc. and invented eyes. He Hesiod. and loosed them when they had to disturb the surface of the is always changing. is called in old Greek legends and all the mother of the gods and men. a as small carriage wheel. AND HER DESCENDANTS. and lived at the He had the gift of bottom of the sea. III. the poets ascribe the power of being able to take different iha] . sometimes green and sometimes blue. Besides the had by Saturn. Some them three •rad eye. As the sea takes the form of whatever - it is in. as in Mount Etna and in the Lipari Isles. th sea. I flowers. " and depicted as a mild and just god. him by their songs and dances. and as water has no shape of its own. ml the honoured mother of all things nurtures the creatures of earth. and her Descendants.

of whom more anon. the colours being always either blue or green like the colour of the sea. petual joyousness. they were lovely. from steep. They had fifty daughters. Iris was at once and her path was marked by the brilliant rainbow. were quite as attractive. The poets sing of their lovely feet. Nereics is 1 generally represented as an old man. their rosy arms. the Nereides and Doreides. Their garments were gracefully wound round them. and rode on dolphins. with an oar over his shoulder. : required the waters of the Styx to be brought up from the nether-world for the oath of the gods. walking arm-in-arm on the sea with his wife Doris. does not appear after this.) Thaumas. and join in the games of the merry dolphins. sky-capt rock The far-famed . The most celebrated of the Nereides are Amphitrite and Thetis. seahorses. and called those with whom she wished to speak. (3. special attendant of the latter Queen of Heaven. Sometimes also she did the bidding of Zeus and the other gods as when Jove sent off. water.5 Gaea or Ge. dark eyes. or other marine animals. prepared the couch of her august mistress. and her Descendants. and They knew that woe to all mortal maidens who imagined themselves more beautiful than the Nymphs. he " Sends Iris down To bring the great oath in a golden ewer. the wonderful. Iris. the Rainbow. was the messenger of the Gods. They dwelt at the bottom of the danced merrily over the waves. Sometimes they appear in the form of various sea-animals. but his children. graceful figures. Iris and the Harpies. though not so beautiful as the goddesses. beautiful golden hair. who. On Olympus she sat next to Hera. their and persea. awaiting her commands. lovely sea-nymphs. and the Whenever the had any business to transact on earth. play a very prominent part in mythology.

or sculptors. nine years entire are So great an oath the deities of heaven Decreed the waters incorruptible. is not either reis presented by ancient poets. Beneath the earth Abundant from the sacred river-head Through shades of darkest night the Stygian horn Of ocean flowers a tenth of all To the dread oath allotted : the streams Who And of immortals. eat ravenously without ever being satisfied. and her Descendants. is libation pours forsworn. — He. "Theogony" Iris is (Elton). and long sharp claws. but they are always shrivelled and women's faces. he one whole year entire repast. that inhabit still Olympus topped with snow.) large coarse ears.Celaeno. painters. Distilling in cold stream. with (4. half Two and sometimes four are mentioned Aello. frightfully scraggy. They were not always depicted in the same way. was a sea-god. fell greedily on all the food before them. women. Once joins he." — Hesiod. and destroyed and spoiled all that was left. He Ceto. who quickly came. Lies reft of breath.1 6 Gaca or Ge. Phorcus. thin. When the Gods wished to punish anyone they summoned the Harpies. but only mentioned as being the father of several monsters. : half birds. and married to his Their children were : sister. always represented as a young girl with saffron- coloured or golden wings.and Podarge. like Thaumus. birds' bodies. nor yet approaches once The nectared and ambrosial sweet nine years From His everlasting deities remote : lot is cast in council till nor in feast full. The Harpies were hideous monsters. Ocypete. the beautiful .

grey haired from their very birth. A wild. and furiously through the clouds.) large as a boar's tusk. the abode it of the Here drove Zeus took harnessed to his chariot. {b. flew it. somewhere beyond the Atlas Mountains in Africa. snakes instead of ally wondrously beautiful. killed off her head. who lived in perpetual darkness at the uttermost ends of the earth. mortal. one of the heroes of ancient Greece. where reigned perpetual night. At one day. the third They were monsters with broad inflated faces. later fable says : Pegasus was pasturing.Gaea or (a. Perseus. and was therefore difficult depict The Gorgons. They had only one eye and one latter as it tooth them. iron hands. had long and vainly tried to tame the creature. Pegasus was a winged to the body (a. between These were to used by turns. I 7 The Greece. for the Gorgons. Old women. and cut Minerva placed the that frightful it trophy on her shield. and Medusa. but having offended the goddess Pallas Athene. free and beside some last springs near Corinth. a noble youth. which as soon as gods. snakes wound round their bodies. Whoever Medusa had been originbeheld them was turned to stone. the two immortal. and her Descendants. and golden wings.) it horse.) Ge. Euryale. was created. the goddess appeared to . hair. When her. Of these there were three first : Stheno. Bellerophon. were supposed to live in people into stone. enormous teeth. like the Graeae. flashes of lightning darting- out of the horse's hoofs. she was changed into a hideous monster. The blood of From the blood which gushed forth from Medusa arose Pegasus and Chrysaor. while sleeping in the temple of Pallas. and even there the sight of turned dropped from the head produced all the numerous snakes with which Africa abounds. those far distant parts of Africa. the them.

making it stand still but where his powerful feet had struck the ground. the horse of the Bellerophon soon became ambitious and arrogant. awoke. On this account the animal was called Pegasus. threw its rider. he succeeded forth. So called because he was . the Goddess of the Gods and Dawn. She then harnessed him to her carriage. and her Descendants. and rose up towards heaven. of Stamping with his mighty hoofs on the summit in Mount Helicon.— 8 . Yes Mount Helicon itself was so elated with joy. became dark and murky.e. sent Pegasus down to stop the rising mountain. 1 Gaca or Ge. But when the Muses began. and presented him with a golden bridle. who who only just quickly punish arrogance. and the seas and rivers stood still. with whose waters inspired divine those who drank them of powers. The Gods. their song w as so heavenly that both the sky and the earth paused to listen the stars stayed their courses. sent a hornet to sting the horse. escaped with his of the Pegasus then flew to the home served Zeus. which rearing wildly. The hero it him. i. that it rose higher and higher.. (b. his stole quietly with in hand to where the horse was drinking. begged him for herself. swung himself on his winged steed into the air. a spring gushed all called Hippocrine. found the bridle beside him. fearing it : r r . spring. and drove him through the skies every morning. the whole air Helicon. caused by the discord of their voices. until Eos. ! might reach heaven. threw it over him and succeeded in jumping on his back. life.) Pierus were changed Chrysaor or Goldsword. The into presumptuous daughters chattering magpies. Another and later poem says The nine daughters of King Pierus once challenged the Muses to a trial of music. that w as to be held on Mount While the girls were singing. until Poseidon.

quickly devoured them. guarded the entrance to the lower regions. one of the sons of Gaea and Tartarus. mythology says nothing further than that he was the father of two monsters. the giant Eurytion. he at once attacked and devoured them.) Echidna was a monster of a different type. heads. a frightful dog. 1 About him born with a golden sword in his hand. sometimes spoken of as her husband.) Cerberus. she encircled into the them with her cavern. snake's When tail.) Orthrus. only allowed to enter. and ker Descendants. (a. surrounded by a mane of hissing He and the hinder part of his body. whilst the lower part was an enormous snake. the above named two-headed dog. Hercules once brought him up out of Tartarus by squeezing his three heads together between spirits his knees. (b. He was been a king of Spain or the Balearic Isles. : (a. and sometimes as her son. and drawing them She had two husbands Typhon. The (b.) Geryon. unless first If any atpropitiated with corn and honey cakes. serpents. said to have and two wings. where her beautiful face attracted the passing sailors. Orthrus. with no less than three bodies. and owned magnificent herds of cattle. tempted to leave the Underworld. a dragon's tail. She lived in a deep underground cave in the all Pityusian Isles. six feet. Her children were also monsters among them were . that were tended by his nephew. . and guarded by the two-headed dog Orthrus who was slain by Hercules. they came near. and growled at all mortals. with large dark eyes and rosy cheeks. upper half of her body was like a beautiful nymph. with three (according to fifty) Hesiod.: 9 Gaea or Ge. a giant of fearful aspect. Geryon and Echidna. six hands.

half lion. and large She hovered about the neighbourhood of Thebes travellers. (f. the centre Hercules conquered it. him. He was of gigantic this. and so smooth and glossy that no one could climb it Her body was covered with wolves and sea-dogs. a monster with a woman's tail head and neck. and She dwelt in Lycia. in large Peloponnesus.20 (r.) frightful hissing noise. who all added to the frightful roaring. the Dragon who guarded the Golden Apples garden of Hesperides. and This a swamp near one being immortal. so called The Lernean Hydra. and her Descendants. (d. monster with a terrific necks and each of which made roaring noise. had fifty heads.) the south coast of Asia Minor. a province on constantly spitting fire. on Pegasus. from each of which issued a (//. the town. (g. and attacked her as she flew through the (c. watching for pounded a at riddle. was so high that she lay and watched ( the passing ships. of a dragon. Scylla. the body of a lion. half goat. and was at last killed by Bellerophon. to every one of whom she proand those who could not guess it were. who leapt air.) Gacci or Ge. Her its twelve useless between summit reached to the clouds. This fable arose from the fearful . once devoured.) The Sphinx. Here to a rock. with great difficulty. and she inhabited a cave.) Notwithstanding and could not Hercules overcame Ladon.) The Nemean Lion lived in a cave near size Nemea in the Peloponnesus. which often suc- umbed to her wiles. six heads. the from the town of serpent lived in Lerna. but only Chimaera. standing in the straits It Italy had grown on and Sicily. be wounded. the wings. from which only her upper half projected. another monster. a in the He six had one hundred heads.

— . roaring then. the giants. and her Descendants. : Virgil gives the following beautiful account of her " Straight through the mighty Libyan folks is Rumour on : the wingRumour. which formerly rushed through the straits with great rapidity. she springeth Her feet are say. sea. and bloometh oft. O strange a watchful ! eye And there wag tongues. and babble mouths and hearkening ears up stand : As many all a-dusk by night she flies 'twixt sky and land Loud clattering. youngest of the daughters of the Earth. Earth spurred by anger 'gainst the Gods. . had been conquered. wrecked. . 2 1 noise caused by the waters. on the Gods. it was said the monster had destroyed The Dragon of Colchis lay in a wood close to that on the eastern shores of the Black Sea. so that she might make Fama had a temple in Athens. on whom so many as there lie under each there lurks. never sleeping. shifting A soon aloft on the worldly soil. her head the clouds o'erlay. By day she keepeth watch high-set on houses of the street. throughout the caves excavated by the and when any ships were them.) city. huge. he guarded the Golden Fleece. never shutting eye in rest of slumber sweet. and the 5. their misdeeds known. Of Coeus and Enceladus earth : the latest sister birth. begot her as they little thing. Gaea or Ge. day or night. She was the Goddess of News. of whom nought swifter is of any evil thing She gathereth strength by going on. forth to revenge herself Gaea brought her after her children. Fama. Swift are her wings to cleave the air. afraid at first. (i. where. swift-foot she treads the A monster dread and The feathers.

and his body. His birthplace was Cilesia. His whole body was covered with feathers." —Virgil. his shoulders. brought forth by the Earth. that his He was so out his head touched the clouds. their wound round heads rising and long black tongues hanging out of their mouths. probably because there are many volcanic rocks and small craters there. grew from trembled. and tall earthquakes are of frequent occurrence. "^Eneid" (Morris). immortals who had been thrown as down by walls. for as a punishment to the Gods having condemned her children. in the wicked Their had to suffer punishment everlasting darkness. and Hecatoncheires.22 Gaea or Gc. as well as Uranus. above with fiercely glaring eyes. hands had no hideous snakes but instead a hundred dragons. His fingers. men of enormous size and strength. such the Titans floor. and her Descendants. a frightful monster. chin descended a long shaggy beard. In him were imprisoned those. Two enormous wings and whenever he raised his voice. the conquering Gods. and from his his. stiff bristles grew on his head. Or on the towers aloft she sits for mighty cities' fear : And lies and ill she loves no less than sooth which she must bear. and dragons' tails . He was depicted with a brass after metal and an as iron gate. Later on the poets described death. in Asia Minor. Tartarus was Gaea's husband. and when he stretched arms they reached from sunrise to sunset. the Titans and giants to live in Tartarus. Tartarus the place where. They were frightful figures. terrific the roaring and howling were so that all the hills The giants that arose from the drops of Uranus' blood were also called children of the Earth. with long hair growing from their heads and chins. son was Typlion.

Megaera. especially the torments of conscience. their In hands they carried a scourge of snakes and a torch or Whenever they were angry. and following which were rage. dead silence was approaching a place even when praying to preserved. drops of poison fell dagger. war. for fear of waking them had to be done with closed lips and after the them. wrinkled faces. and plagues. instead of feet. claws instead of fingers. All human ills as punishments sent by the Gods. and from hence they rose to the earth to torment criminals during their lives. As soon as to country.Gaea or Ge. Their appearance was so frightful that and even the sun hid his face The Eumenides origin. 23 the very stars turned pale. haggard. and black from head to foot. lived at the entrance of the Kingdom They Here they They received the souls of the wicked. even at night. him down looked upon to the Netherworld. prayer was ended. in fear. or Erinyes (Furies) had the same Only three of these are known by name. and did When not even venture to mention their names aloud dedicated to them. . They represented the punish- ment that follows all misdeeds. murder. No wonder that the people were afraid of them. and Tisiphone. the Furies appeared and followed him incessantly with torches and They whipped him from country scourges made of snakes. spots of blood all round their glowing eyes. . were depicted as hideous women with broad. came from them. the suppliant departed without looking Non-wine-producing fruits and black animals back. madness. tongues hanging out of their mouths. illnesses from their mouths to the earth. it ! . causing dreadful and destroying vegetation. never leaving him. anyone had committed a crime. Alecto. snakes instead of hair. such as of Death. and her Descendants.

and a cave in the island of Crete. His kingdom was the the mighty lord sky. gave him an emetic Chronos. that vital power that shows itself in of everything that that has life. IV. and ordered the Curetes. that. he was strong enough of to revenge himself on his father. to make As soon loud noises by clashing their arms. was therefore only natural that he was specially honoured. Zeus was the God of the Upper Regions.24 Zeus or Jupiter. the armed priests of Crete. Bees were also supposed to have brought him food. to as he was born. his mother gave him in charge Themis. use of it ^Egis. and elder. who drove along in the midst It of thunder and lightning. Gods begged Gaea to with- draw her from the goat was hidden in This was accordingly done. the Goddess Wisdom. only were sacrificed to them. for Metis. and everything took place there was his work. but her skin shield became the famous (Minerva). where she nursed Zeus. to prevent Chronos hearing the frightful little one cry. who was obliged . Amalthea. and to them the crocus and narcissus were sacred. however. and Zeus made fighting with the giants. and the cedar. was such a looking animal that the their sight.-ZEUS OR JUPITER. where she still shines under the name of Capella.. and was looked upon as the first among the Gods. Amalthea was afterwards placed among the stars. who got the goat Amalthea to nurse him. the of Pallas Athene It was perfectly impenetrable. the gracious sender of rain. i e. spirit Zeus was regarded by the Greeks as the living Nature. when Zeus grew so rapidly after a year. wood used was elm.

anew. tremendous war in the mountainous Zeus and the other immortals stood on Mount Olympus. First new power. Making use of his weapons. they prepared themselves for The and clever Cyclopes gave Poseidon the mighty trident. Poseidon the but Zeus retained the heavens and the earth for himself. to call the Cyclopes At last Gaea advised the gods and the Hecatoncheirae to help them. These monsters were still where they had been imprisoned. earth. guarded the entrance. battle. Before he could enjoy his fight many a battle. threw them into and placed the Heca- . who began a districts of Thessaly. in Tartarus. Campe. slew Campe. of courage. and for ten long years they warred against each other. which made him invisible. Joyful. and divided with his two brothers. Pluto. Gods then chained them. he let loose the which threw lightning and dust in the eyes of the combatants.Zeus or to bring Jupitei'. till the Titans were completely overcome by the " hundred armed Ones. The victorious the gruesome depths of Tartarus. Pluto and Poseidon. Then commenced a terrific combat. Pluto received the Underworld. against led monster. and and full the freed prisoners the Titans. however. and sea were filled with the roar of battle. till heaven. 25 up all the five children he had swallowed. and opposite on Mount Othrys stood the fearful Titans. sea. it Zeus then deprived him of his kingdom. he had to came the Titans. After Zeus had refreshed the his fellow- combatants with nectar and ambrosia." and were obliged to confess themselves vanquished. the helmet. while for Zeus they brought the flashing lightning from the depths of the earth. and another Zeus appeared. fight began storms.

which so the assembled Gods that they all fled to Egypt. there another was overthrown by redhot iron. where they changed themselves into various animals. islands A third fell under Hercules' and volcanoes were thrown. however. piled mountain on mountain it order to reach heaven. their assistance. Selene (the to shine. and Hercules worked bravely with them. They came forth out of in the earth. Typhon might not recognise them. eager for war. she searched magic herbs. toncheirae to guard them. and himself cut all the magic herbs. the dreadful Typhon. at on others Jupiter left. forbade all the Gods of Light. and and club. fate But the Earth lamented over the of her sons. But they were of . but while doing so. that they could only conquer the Giants by the aid of a mortal. and then rushed towards with burning oak trees and enormous pieces of rock. so that moon) Gaea found none. by which she could protect her sons against the arms of mortals. created the Giants. While the gigantic snakes that wound round him hissed fearflames issued from his mouth. Eos (sunrise).26 Zeus oi r Jupiter. those dreadful monsters. Even mighty Jove fled. for Zeus called the powerful Hercules to As soon as Gaea heardt his. Here one Giant was killed by arrows. Now began the terrible conflict. and he rushed towards heaven throwing enormous pieces of burning rock. Helios (the sun). hurled thunderbolts behind him as his pursuers came ever nearer and nearer. and brought forth a monster more terrible than any that had preceded it. last flung his mighty thunderbolts killed all that were Once again the angry Earth tried to avenge the overthrow of the Titans and Giants. the Well may as Gods have feared such an onslaught ! But an oracle had foretold. Zeus. that terrified fully. and in order to punish the Gods for their severity. All the Gods helped. before whom the very stars turned pale.

fitted them again into their proper places. with the winged steeds.Zeus or Jupiter. . fleeing refuge in the Caucasus. and whenever he turns or moves. when suddenly. Already Zeus thought he had conquered. and threw him to the ground. Typhon. God than he and at last the monster turned and . but no sooner did fled Typhon perceive and took refuge in Thrace. He his thunder-chariot. the earth . on Mount Haemus. where the Parcae perGod. no avail. Typhon secured and feet. the sickle. cut out the sinews of Zeus's hands carried threw him across his shoulders and him to Sicily. The to sinews he wrapped in a bear's skin. fled through the sea to Sicily. still. heard the moans of the wounded Zeus. where he shut him up in a horrible sulphurous cave. him to take some fruit to refresh himself. Here they again met in mortal combat. placed a dragon off to find the other guard them. and pursued the monster. and. took conflict between him and the God of Heaven took place. blood streamed from the thousand wounds that Typhon had received. and in this they succeeded . the approaching . 27 and not until he raised his sharp diamond-sickle was the monster quelled. till hastily got into Typhon fled before the thunderbolts of the Mount Nysa. and lo ! Zeus was well and sound once more. They crept cautiously forward. where a mighty in his turn. in the Meanwhile Pan and Hermes. where he met his rolling ground and he lies doom Jupiter throwing him to the There Mount Etna on the top of him. who were hiding neighbourhood. the innumerable snakes that grew on his body wound themselves round the God. whole Jupiter hurled thunderbolts and lightnings mountains but the thunderbolts were the most destructive. stole the sinews from the dragon. They did suaded he reached so with the view of giving Zeus time to overtake him. and hurried Gods.

when he breathes. was the stag. to back sat back to a pillar in the netherworld. Ephialtes demanded Hera (Juno). endowed them with the faculty of in height and one yard in Thus. devouring last entrails as fast as they grew. Zeus or Jupiter. also called Aloidae. hitting each other. Artemis (Diana) to wife. he of was overcome. and Otus. and they sank lifeless to the As punishment for their presumption they were condemned after their death to remain chained. at nine years of age. the giants Otus and Ephialtes. out Hermes (Mercury) only. their father Poseidon having growing every year one fathom breadth. . with snakes. however. is said.2S shakes . ground. (Poseidon) had two sons. by cunning that the giants could be conquered. This was the against combat that the monsters attempted sovereignty the Gods. Now at last the power of Zeus was established. have been conquered the had been grown up. At first Ares (Mars) opposed them. after their foster father Aloeus. the mountain smokes. bound. There Neptune was but one more battle which we shall relate. The Gods were it startled at this and would. which by a vulture cries never allowed them to sleep. ran right between the two armies. Ossa. flames and fire rush out of the crater. their arrows missed him by stratagem. and Olympus. their while was ever beside them. and which It thrown rescued into prison. its On this pillar an owl. Artemis. assuming the disguise of a stag. and when lie rages. and as they shot at the animal. they declared war against the Gods. attack. When only nine years old they were nine fathoms high. one on the top of the other. but although he was very strong and giants experienced in warfare. threatening to take piling the Heaven by storm by mighty if mountains Pelion. who now enjoyed their undisturbed.



Ovid. amongst others. . however. he thought he would prove his omniscience. riches and poverty. in Asia Minor. Wishing. experienced. The fate of men.— Zeus or Jupiter. Zeus equally rewarded those who practised the rights of hospitality. Zeus. his and sending down throne in rain. He is represented as driving in his thunder-chariot with winged horses through the clouds scattering . Then Zeus' mighty anger was roused in flames. : The Roman that poet. in Greece. hail. into his country. inhabited. hearing that he killed every stranger who came the doings of men. snow. especially. life He was looked upon. and placed a dish of child's flesh before him. report. Zeus reigned supreme. and punished all This. but was had been now covered by the sea. a high mountain also called the Olympic. all earthly happiness and misfortune. whose summit generally surrounded with clouds. gathering the clouds and and them has again. . those who failed in this duty. flashing lightnings. as the guardian of hospitality. Very soon the others present divined he was a god. Lycaon. He the heavens on Mount is Olympus. 29 Over all Gods and people and everything in heaven and earth. and began to worship him but the king only laughed at them and determined to kill him in the night. . gives us the following example There was a in ancient times district in Phrygia. this determined to prove the correctness of Assuming the human form. the king's house stood suddenly and in trying to escape Lycaon was turned into the cowardly but murderous wolf. all depend on Zeus. and death. is On this account he From thence he looks down on and keeps them and the Gods in order. to be quite sure that his guest was not a god. Here also stand the magnificent palaces where the Gods hold their feasts and sit in council. King of Arcadia. he went to Lycaon's house.

both commanded. the seat to raise . And many toilsome steps together trod : For harbour at a thousand doors they knocked . Nor aim'd at wealth. .. but the best she had then rakes the load Of ashes from the hearth. Coarse. Till in a cheerful blaze the flames arose at last the With brushwood and with chips she strengthens these. both obeyed. officious Baucis lays . . : Inur'd to want. With leaves and bark she feeds her infant fire : : It smokes . and spreads abroad The living coals and lest they should expire. professing to be poor. or for servant here to call. : Inviting each his weary limbs to rest But ere they sate. For master. thus formed. enter'd through the (their hearty settle little door : The man welcome first expressed) A common Two drew for either guest. one his rod . From lofty roofs the gods repulsed before. Or rather. Hermes came. she sets the kettle on (Like burnish'd gold the seether shone): Next took the coleworts which her husband got From his own ground (a small well-water'd spot) . . o ITcrc Jove with Zeus or Jupiter. Was thatch'd with reeds and straw together bound. where only two were all Command was none. Now stooping. though little was their store. There Baucis and Philemon liv'd. where equal love was paid . Not one of all the thousand but was locked. cushions stuff'd with straw. their poverty they bore. Was all alike. . the roof not far from ground. and there Had liv'd long married. At last an hospitable house they found A homely shed. and then with trembling breath she blows. And adds The fire boughs of rotten little trees. and a happy pair Now old in love. but in disguise Of mortal men concealed their deities One laid aside his thunder.

on a driv'n nail with water. gently warmed. there was. the borders. tucking : The The tables set th' invited gods lie up her gown. after with clean towels Sallow the feet. for their sakes alone. the flow'r of country fare. A wholesome herb that breathed a grateful scent. . Which. A blot which prudent Baucis overcame. Pallas began the feast. such robes as these alone. well pickled and preserved. the host produced the genial bed. but scarce enough for one . they set : Before their guests in this they bath'd their feet. radishes. 3 the best. The time between. This in the pot he plunged without delay. A garden salad was the third supply Of endive. trivet table of a foot was lame. To tame the flesh. . . : . on which a beechen pail : A beam Hung by This filled the handle. and succory Then curds and cream. Yet a large portion of a little store. High o'er the hearth a chine of bacon hung Good old Philemon seized it with a prong And from the smoky rafter drew it down Then cut a slice. And dry their sweat. black and green Autumnal cornels next in order serv'd In lees of wine. So was the mended board exactly rear'd Then rubbed it o'er with newly gathered mint. Which with no They laid The good But coarse old garments yet. . down. where first was seen The parti-coloured olive. and the stead costly coverlet they spread. at feasts or holidays. and them with handy care she dressed.1 Zeus or Jupiter. Who thrusts beneath the limping leg a sherd : . And shorten'd the delay by pleasing chat. and drain the salt away. : . before the fire they sat. This done. She She stripp'd the stalks of all their leaves cull'd. old housewife. he wish'd were more. .

enlarge the little treat : All these a milk-white honey-comb surround. and wrinkled dates were t' set. apples. One goose they had ('twas all they could allow). nuts. All these in earthenware were serv'd to board . to see the feast . you might discern with ease.32 Zeus or Jupiter. On which with eager appetite they dine. and of their feet. that serv'd to relish wine The wine itself was suiting to the rest. stor'd liquor of the best the cottage could afford table's . and lin'd within. Devotion seized the With wine. By this the boiling kettle had prepared And to the table sent the smoking lard. Yarnish'd with wax without. and fell to pray'r. In canisters. and of their wintry store and grapes. and an open face in the : Which In all they did. ornament and pride. : The second course succeeds Dry figs. And new-laid eggs. Meantime the beechen bowls went round. and a desire to please. and on duty now Whom to the gods for sacrifice they vow . willing mind. an earthen pitcher. A sav'ry bit. their country fare. And With next in place. without hands. : midst the country banquet crown'd But the kind hosts their entertainment grace With hearty welcome. pair. and Though often emptied were observ'd to fill. Still working in the must. : This was the . Excusing as they could. own accord Ran without and dane'd about the board. A wakeful sentry. : Her with malicious zeal the couple view'd . which Baucis' busy care Turn'd by a gentle fire. and of no common grape increas'd And up they held their hands. With figures wrought like pages at his side Stood beechen bowls and these were shining clean. Plums. . Fill'd A still. and lately pressed. like that before. and roasted rare.

— Zeus or Jupiter. with looks serene " Speak thy desire. what he was. O woman. in height and bulk to grow A -stately temple shoots within the skies. supplied." They haste. follow where we lead the way : Leave these accurst. : tiles of gold. as in an remains. now no more forbidden lies : eyes : Lost in a lake. And . " Shall justly perish for impiety stand alone exempted but obey With speed. Philemon thus prefers their joint request " We And crave to serve before your sacred shrine. only worthy found To be with such a man in marriage bound." . And owned Ye the God. . The trusty staff (their better leg). : 33 Full well the fowl perceived the . close between the legs of Jove she lies He. And saved her life then. the floated level A wat'ry desert covers all the plains isle. and . and what their tardy feet deny'd. . rites divine . The gates with sculpture grand. Wond'ring with weeping eyes. while they deplore Their neighbours' fate. And would not make her master's compliment But persecuted. one ran for life. but spent with travel. declared. The pavement polish'd marble they behold. scarce large enough for two. thou only just of men And thou. Their little shed. C . Seems. The crotchets of their cot in columns rise." : : said he. An arrow's flight they wanted to the top. with a gracious ear. and to the mountain's height Ascend nor once look backward in your flight. to the Powers she flies. And there secure. from the ground increas'd. the spires and Then thus the sire of Gods. " The neighbourhood. and country now no more. Their cot alone. and limping they pursued bad intent. the suppliant heard. offer at your altars. : Awhile they whisper then to Jove addressed. . stop Then turn their .

and were often punished for dis- obedience. they dreaded his anger. he had once to seek for foreign help against some of the Gods. He once. when their hour was come. and years after. stiffen in Their bodies a rising rind : Then. And saw his lengthened arms a sprouting wood : . combined to overcome him. was changed into an oak. O faithful spouse " they said ! : At once th' — Ovid. He for trees. the people pointed out the sacred many All the Gods looked upon Zeus All. Nor weeping I. that neither she. as their father and lord." Book incroaching rinds their closing lips invade. bowed before and might. action of our life with domestic strife : We beg one hour My of death. " Not all the Gods could aid thee if I were to hold thee with my all-powerful hands." The godheads sign their suit. (Dryden). Old Baucis is by old Philemon seen Sprouting with sudden leaves of sprightly green Old Baucis look'd where old Philemon stood. may live to bury me. and she into a lime. They run their race In the same tenour all th' appointed space Then. They give and take at once their last adieu. On hearing this. his strength even the mightiest of them." Notwithstanding this. from the Underworld. said to Hera. may bear breathless Baucis to the sepulchre.34 And since not any Has been polluted Zeus or Jupiter. " Farewell. New roots their fastened feet begin to bind. ere the bark above their shoulders grew. while they relate . These past adventures at the temple-gate. " Metamorphoses. viii. With widow'd tears. Hera. one of the Hecatoncheirae. Poseidon. in anger. with withered arms. Thetis hurried off and fetched the mighty Briareus. and Athene had . At once.

and First came a gorgeous which we will briefly describe. procession led by the bridal couple. and only later their frauds. father. holding a sword and scales. Goddess of Wisdom. in presence of all the . a sister of Zeus. 35 placing himself beside the God. a later unknown to the ancients. who him. Themis was the Goddess of Order. that all Zeus should be wise above others. 2. dared any to touch As it was necessary. customs in vogue among the Greeks were observed. ? . Her mother took her to Oceanus and who nursed and brought her up with great care. founded with her daughter Dice. and gave the Hesperides charge of the beautiful At this marriage all the rites and gardens in which it grew. awe-inspiring maiden. She was. but eyes. and was also eaten by her Tethys. seated on a splendid was celebrated in Crete. the Goddesses the following were his wives Metis. Her children were Hours and the Parcae. in order to rule the world. wife. one of She was a the Hours and protectress of all ordinances. Goddess of Justice. and Equality. Themis. Regularity. to delineate her with is bandaged idea 3. a daughter of Chronos and Rhea.— Zeus or Jupiter. first wife was Metis. his yet. who administered the emetic to Chronos. and on did he discover although not a sound escaped him. : Amongst 1. the serious. Goddess of Wisdom. Her daughter was Pallas Athene (Minerva). a daughter of Oceanus. From Gaea she received a branch with golden apples this she planted. Hera or Juno. and presided over the She was condivision of the food at the Gods' banquets. he was outwitted by the other Gods. one of the Titanidae. as already stated. She was regarded as Zeus's principal riage Their mar- Gods and Goddesses. who each brought a wedding gift.

myrtle was substituted. fastening two anvils Once he hung her up in the sky. jealous. hung thee trembling all I a golden chain. . This happened very often. followed footsteps suspicion. Nor pall the unwilling vengeance on thy head. On each side went torch-bearers and musicians friends. decorated with wreaths. fierce Boreas toss'd The shipwreck'd hero on the Coan coast. until they reached the bridegroom's house. ? And the raging gods opposed in vain hurl'd Headlong Stunn'd in the them from the Olympian hall. remember. and found revenged herself unmercifully herself. and other fruits before them. was not with a of fidelity. and our fury dread. on to her feet. her jealous nature estranged him. mented him. he reminded her of it. balm. Him And through a thousand forms of death I bore. This led to stormy scenes between them." Book xv. a wife.36 car. beautiful as she was. by thy wiles induced. and dittany. when bound and in fix'd on high. on whom more amiable than for. and threatened " Hast thou forgot. and breathless with the fall. whirl. She constantly his Zeus he reproaches. Later. pattern and protectress she though certainly. as the foundress as Hera was looked upon of marriage. . Zeus or Jupiter. horses. and drawn by two magnificent Bride and bridegroom were crowned with mint. where the housekeeper received them. for she was quarrelsome. : and his native shore. For godlike Hercules these deeds were done. singing behind the carriage came the bridegroom's joyous songs." sent to Argos. figs. tormented with all and deceitful. Nor seemed the vengeance worthy such a son When. Hear this. as she constantly crossed his plans. From I the vast concave of the spangled sky. (Pope). and placed cakes. " Iliad. and when she again torto repeat it.

First. Isle of to reconcile her father. during the Trojan war. in order to see this carried out. Hera now approached Zeus. 37 When. She said she wanted estranged.. however. seated himself on the top of Mount Ida. to the ends of the earth in order to reconcile Oceanus and Tethys. Oceanus. husband she could make herself very agreeable. and. who favoured the she bathed stain Greeks. as they had been for some time flew to Having obtained it. its But the girdle did his wife look Zeus thought he had never seen and entreated her with kindly words to take a Gladly she obeyed. which made it all those who wore it irresistible. Mount where he hid himself behind the highest peak of the mountain. to remove every spot and oil. The principal ornament was. . which shone like the sun. where he kept strict watch. with his wife Tethys. when Zeus had commanded that none of the Gods should take any part in it. Hera. determined to put him to sleep. in the celestial waters. she quickly Lemnos. Sleep allowed himself to be persuaded and accompanied her to Ida. however. she wanted to get anything from her Thus. and shrouded herself in a beautiful garment. and hastening to Aphrodite. wanting. fastened in front with She then placed precious rings in her ears. wrought by the artistic fingers of Athene. she begged the loan of her girdle. and went into her chamber to deck herself carefully. and wrapped a veil round her head. and begged the God of Sleep the to cover the ever-wakeful eyes of Jupiter with slumber. down gently and closed his eyes. The Gods had only so beautiful. still golden hooks. and soon Sleep sank seat beside him. Zeus or Jupiter. which fell in luxuand shining tresses from her regal head. telling him she was only passing on her way work. then she anointed herself with sweet-scented combed riant and arranged her magnificent hair.

led them against the Trojans. however. and threatened her with his anger. led by the head priestess. formed. Hephaestus (Vulcan). a hecatomb (a hundred head) of oxen were sacrificed. ! feel the power of her vengeance. beauti- and particularly laud her beautiful and commanding eye and white arm. and caused frightful At last Zeus awoke and saw destruction amongst them. She. the fully deceived him. and often a as name was added. ing of followed by various warlike games. to the Neptune hastened camp of the Greeks. but more especially her. As soon as the procession arrived. of Greece in besides at Argos outside fete the Peloponnesus. He discovered that Hera had the fearful confusion. Her children were : Ares (Mars). the other of women. Juno . parts She was worshipped in many other Samos. Juno Sospeta. she was worshipped under the wife. In Rome sur- name of Juno. sacred. and the himself to be quieted. declared herself innocent. where a magnificent temple the town was erected to Every year her one consistarmed and mail-clad men. God allowed All the poets unite in praising beauty of Juno. for To his her the peacock was he is cry to foretell the changes in the weather. air.. of They majestic describe her as tall. and Hebe. Zens or Jtipiter. The Isle here she was specially Samos was her birthplace venerated. as Jupiter's and Goddess of Light and Marriage. who was seated on a car drawn by white bullocks. such Juno Lucina. said by and Juno princi- represented the lower regions of pally where they occur. Woe to the mortal maiden who thought herself more Mythology relates numerous beautiful than the Goddess instances in which Juno made both women and maidens a presence. and a number of peacocks of kept in her honour. celebrated was by two processions. o8 waited for this.

39 Regina as the latter. who. and on another.. and placed Mars on one high hill. and and gentle Goddess. a dragon to follow her enemy. One says Delos was a and as such was not included in Hera's . Latona came to a lake and attempted to drink. where a temple was built for her on Mount Aventine. Zeus or Jupiter. in order that she might find no rest. and the friend Nevertheless she was unmercifully of Gods and men. were changed into island of Delos. and in her temple in the Capitol sacred geese were kept in her honour. . Regina. whereupon they At length she found rest on the Of this there are floating island. frogs. of the Titans. she had rendered the Romans another service When in the town of Veji. Leto Latona was the daughter of Coeus. Tired. sent while she parched with thirst. that her behests were carried out. the in her temple. 4. Here she was or especially worshipped by married women. made all continents and islands promise not to Iris harbour her. the most was depicted as a kind beneficent of all those on Mount Olympus. she was also called the Capitolian. one starlight night. of which she was patroness. place. and at the end of it found themselves The town was conquered. She represented the persecuted by jealous Hera. but dared not do this without first They therefore went to the temple asking her leave. they dug a passage under they were besieging this the walls into the city. Romans wished to carry the mighty Goddess back with them to Rome. two accounts. and it was said of them that during the wars As Juno with the Gauls their vigilance saved Rome. and asked the figure whether she would go with them she graciously bent her head and was carried in triumph to Rome. but the peasants drove her away. to see.

This probably meant to convey that her Soon had a son called Perseus. and sent Hermes to guide the Goddess thither. his altar and that the should never die out. determined that his daughter should never marry. and one day. by wafting the chest to the isle of Lere'phos. warders allowed themselves to be bribed with gold. her father was so enraged relate further on. had pity on fell the unfortunate captive. having been forewarned that he should die by the hand Zeus. however. he of adventures. and threw it into the sea. of his grandson. But Delos was afraid of incurring Hera's in. and Zeus stood before her. were born. took an oath that Apollo's temple should be built there. and shut her up in a brazen tower. Poseidon so pitied Latona that this island he raised (which had hitherto lain at the bottom of the sea) with his trident. per- went forth into the world search . (i. Besides these wives. Zeus or Jupiter. Surprised and Danae gathered up the the glittering drops. It had therefore taken compassion on the wandering Goddess. celebrated of whom a daughter of Acrisius. shower of golden rain into is in. anger by taking her Latona. This satisfied fire on and quieted Delos. King of Argos. after she where the king took it in. that he placed both her and her child in a chest.) four goddesses. whose history we shall As for Danae. who. however. in the Peloponnesus. and soon after Latona's two immortal children.40 prohibition. The kind and pitying sea nymph saved them both. When in Perseus grew up. steady The other legend says. as she stood by the open window of her prison. Apollo and Artemis. when lo ! the metal changed God of Heaven. and as soon as she stepped on to it. a delighted. Zeus had several mortal were : The most Danae. four pillars rose from the bottom of the sea to support and it.

1 Zeus or formed many wonderful tormented Jtipiter. as he does to Hera. repeated by a thousand echoes. made the earth tremble and shake. 4 to the island. she heard the roaring of a terrific storm. Lightnings flashed through the dark night. during his absence. Hardly. last At the God Heaven approached and stood before her in . King of Thebes." Semele fell into the trap. and he was forced to fulfil her wish. ever jealous and determined to destroy her. Maia bore Zeus one son of in Arcadia. greatly his mother. For a long time Semele was happy for the till belief that at last she was beloved by the mighty Zeus. " the proof. all and casually her lover was You can easily put him added she cunningly. the stronger grew Semele's suspicion that her lover was not the God. "by asking him to appear to you in all his glory. When Zeus came to her again. and strengthened it by taking the oath of the Gods. and returned where. and took his mother to Argos. was a daughter of Atlas. finding that the king had. had Semele expressed her wish. which he had brought with him. Atlas had seven daughters. Zeus form. (2.) Maia. Then suddenly not the mighty to God of Heaven.) Hermes Semele. however. who were afterwards placed in the heavens. Hera. and formed the constellation of the Pleiades. he turned him into stone with the Medusa's head. He promised to do whatever she asked. restless. she begged him to grant a request. feats. and entreated her to withdraw her foolish request but the more he begged. than Jupiter regretted his oath. daughter Cadmus. called (3. ventured to She came disguised as a remark that perhaps after slave." . fell in love with her and often visited her in human his in no mortal could endure the splendour of divine glory. and of thunders. or Mercury. and grand-daughter of the Titan Japetus.

and determined to carry her off. the jealous anger of Hera he changed himself into a bull. world. swam the sea. as a beautiful (4. hurried to the sea shore. and allowed herself to be carried about the meadow. Europa was a Phoenician. two kings of Crete. celebrated for their justice and wise laws. the beautiful Callisto. the incensed Artemis changed her into a bear. Europa even ventured wreathing his neck with flowers. made judges in the Under- Europa was also married to a king of Crete. he quickened his pace.) Callisto.) abode of the immortals. It has already been related how Zeus (5. was a great lover of the chase. and came to land just where Europa was sitting. however. but alas sight. and on this children were account were. daughter of Agenor. they gathered round him and stroked the beautiful creature.42 Zeus or Jupiter. however. punished Lycaon. ! resplendent glory. her spirit rose to the son was Dionysus or Bacchus. remained sitting. after their death. fearing no danger. where she became Her Minos and Radamanthus. the inhospitable king of Arcadia. He lay on the grass near the maidens. her companions were playing in a meadow and gathering flowers. she could not bear the blinding and as his burning rays turned her mortal body into ashes. One day his when her son Areas was hunting in the woods he met . Her She is always represented maiden with long flowing hair. and looked so gentle and quiet. Zeus had persuaded her to marry him. Suddenly. Now he rose. and often hunted in the woods in the suite of Artemis. and jumped into the waves before the other maidens could come to her rescue. but Europa to seat herself on his back. His daughter. and Once whilst she and sister of Cadmus. with her to the Island of Crete. King of Thebes. When. that. fell in To escape love with her. He swam his wife. Zeus saw her from his seat in the clouds.

who prayed Tethys not to allow that con- stellation to sink into the sea with the rest to cool itself. startled. to (whom he did not and was about recognise to kill formation). mother 43 under her transbut Zeus. During the day she fed under his eyes. was not deceived. Hera. and grand-daughter of Oceanus. and on sets this account. Zeus. and of begged make her a present of the beautiful animal. her. two only of which slept at one time. But even there Callisto was followed by the jealous anger of Hera. who had seen and loved her. Another fable says that Zeus himself changed Callisto but gyrates in into a bear to 'hide her from Hera. placing both in the heavens as is stars. missing her husband. nothing escaped his glance. to however. the Great Bear never everlasting circles round the Pole. quickly changed Io into a white cow. looked it on the Night earth. Hera now placed the unhappy maiden under the charge of Argus. Wherever Io might wander. but he spread dark night over the earth to prevent her escape. she heard the voice of Zeus. after which Zeus placed them in the sky. afraid him Very her unwillingly Zeus confirming suspicions by refusing. in whose head were a hundred eyes. noticing her vicinity. attempted to fly. seeing day. ever on the watch. quickly changed him also into a bear. She.) Io. say the ancients. consented. and covered with black night in the middle of the suspicious became and ordered to retire. One day when she had w andered rather further than usual from her father's shores. but she saw through the deception and caused Artemis to shoot both her and Areas. and at night she . river (6. and Areas the Little Bear. Hence Callisto is always called the Great Bear.Zeus or Jupiter. was a daughter of the God Inachus in Argolis. prevent the murder. that she might thus escape Hera's wrath. r Io.

and cut head of the slumbering monster. with her traced the name " Io " on the sand. began to play on his shepherd's pipe.44 was firmly In vain Zeus or tied. she tried to ! out her arms entreatingly towards him. forth the hitherto Quickly Mercury drew off the hidden sword. At last she came to the shores of her father's river. Argus. the Naiads. Mighty Jove to at last took compassion on her. for But even now poor Io was not free. listened. now saw only a cow's head with crumpled There were her playmates. while tears of anguish fell from her eyes. and they all drove her about from place to place at last over the earth. so that Jtipiter. Mercury then told him so many amusing stories. and ordered Mercury flew to kill Mercury instantly down the earth. and Inachus loudly complained at the misfortune that had But Argus quickly chased the unhappy maiden further on. there was stretch no possibility of escape. befallen his Then they child. that. licked her father's hands. and fed her with herbs. for clear waters she started back with instead of the sweet face that was wont to be reflected there she horns. till she sank down exhausted beside the shores of the . and seated himself on a mount that he might observe her better. but no one recognised her. and driving his goats close to where Argus was sitting. Hera sent the terrible Erinyes into her heart. they noticed that the cow followed them lovingly. Unable to make herself known. and its when she looked into terror. and begged him to come and sit beside him. so they She stroked the gentle creature. assisted by the magic wand of the God. disguised himself as a goatherd. the hundred eyes gradually closed in sleep. foot. Argus. quite enchanted. suspected who she was. she. and her With wonder father Inachus. pitiful Alas she had no arms now ! and the cries she uttered were only fearful bellowings.

and also carried her off. bravery. was taken as a sign that. never again give her cause for jealousy. changed made Aphrodite. Nile. They Dioscuri. Zeus saw her. and. and Pollux Both took part sailors in the Argonautic expedition. promising that Io should Thereupon Hera and Io was restored to her original form. fearing no evil. tiny flames (the it of St Elmo) appeared on the tops of the masts. while he pretended to fly for safety into Leda's arms. The kind-hearted queen. them fire for help. were famous for their great brotherly love and and their skill in all the arts of war . and ever after. a storm arose. especially for his horsemanship. although invisible. and the tempest was stilled. used to pray to during a thunderstorm. all while in the Black Sea. became mixed up with the worship of (7. took him up. flames of fire suddenly appeared on the brothers' heads. Castor more for pugilism. during storms. Isis. and he entreated Hera to put an end to the unhappy one's sufferings. chase him. Once. they were there. Helen and Clytemnestra.— Zeus or Jupiter. Of their brotherly love. loosened the spell. the following is an instance : . and himself into a white swan. Her son Epaphus was supposed to have been born in Egypt. 45 Her sighs and tears and her pitiful bellowings were heard by Zeus. By this it was known that they were the sons of a god. Some myths say that Castor and are also called Pollux both came out of one egg. was the wife of Tyndareus. sailors. and while the prayed to the Gods for help.) LeJa. Her children were Castor and Pollux. where she was afterwards worshipped as a goddess. enchanted with her beauty. As she Goddess is always represented with horns like the Egyptian the legend of Io gradually Isis. but no sooner had she touched him than he stood transformed before her. If. who had changed herself into an eagle. King of Sparta.

Proteus. left when in Troy. his beloved brother not being there. and ordered . Here. on account of she soon did not care. and are depicted with a star on their heads. but Pollux had only been stunned by the blow of a stone. and she chose be satisfied with it. he could find no happiness. — at length he forgave her wife and true after her return to Sparta she became a good and spouse. Menelaus. but always together. took possession of her and Paris from the country. so the two brothers lived alternate days between Heaven and They were afterwards placed among the constelHades. Tyndareus then told them that as only one could obtain her. Another legend says that she was wrecked during a storm while flying with Paris to Egypt. hearing from her attendants all The king of who she that was. and holding spears in their hands. or else without horses. or else to allow Castor to participate with him in the delights of heaven. Helen was known and all as the most beautiful maiden in Greece. her treasure. One poet relates that. Zeus chose a middle course. lations. He to allowed Castor to spend one day in the sky. for his cowardice. but the . so Zeus raised him to the abode of the Gods. she reproached herself bitterly for having her husband and followed Paris. King of Sparta. Castor had been slain in battle. however. and Pollux his brother the next to the accompany Underworld. they should take an oath to let the decision rest with her and They took the oath. Accounts differ as to her fate after the destruction of Troy. whom. either on horseback or standing beside their steeds. Menelaus found sword fell from his hand.46 Zeus or Jupiter. They are never apart. When Troy was and would have killed her. taken. the kings' sons sought her in marriage. country. and he entreated Zeus either to kill him and let him join his brother in the Underworld.



and resolved to pursue But before he arrived there Proteus was dead. had scarcely the power to Menelaus landed just as she had sunk keep her alive. 47 his lost wife. Menelaus. The temple of Zeus shrines. all each other.Zeus or Jupiter. was built in the year and was It in the was of .. the They recognised and embraced King of in joy to Egypt allowing the re-united couple to depart Sparta. Clytemnestra became the wife of Agamemnon.e. King of such Tiryus. was a descendant of Perseus. his who reigned tomb of in his that she fled from the palace. i. heard that she had fled to Egypt. down on late the grave of Proteus. and even the assurance of Hermes that she would one day see her husband again. was the most celebrated of his 450 usual form of the Greek temples.c. favourite of Zeus was a boy called Ganymede. She. with wine. so persecuted Helen and found a resting-place Here she spent her days in stead. all unearthly beauty she She the was the mother of Hercules. b. that and was of Zeus. who could not forget her. and the past was forgotten. live with the Gods. (8. Zeus flew down in the shape of an enormous eagle and carried From that time he continued to him gently to the skies. King of Mycene. in Elis. boy was watchinghis father's flocks on Mount Ida. Alcmene. the most celebrated of heroes. weeping. near the west coast all of the Peloponnesus. and at their banquets filled the goblets The Troas. like her husband fascinated Amphitryon. and son. an oblong. Meanwhile.) in the Peloponnesus. It at Olympia. The lad was so beautiful that Zeus One day while the determined to have him for his own. calling on the spirit of her protector for aid. in the Proteus.. son of King of Troy.

half men. in were supposed to be creatures. the front of which carved. On his golden in masses over his shoulders. and in his In his right hand he held left a sceptre. was the God in all his He curls. had accomplished majesty. Some- . the fairly first time he saw wor- completed. nobility. wonderful was it was in the and goodIndeed. was of superhuman which fell ivory. The throne stood on a gigantic square of marble.48 Zeus or Jupiter. the Goddess of Victory. it that the artist himself. so ness that pervaded the countenance of the God. But where the sculptor's skill surpassed itself calm majesty. and surmounted by an eagle. with a golden shield front gilt statue of the Goddess of in one hand and the Medusa's head in the other. on which were relief. ebony. and the latter The doors worked. of the temple were of brass. this masterpiece. the great Athenian sculptor. and his golden robe was ornamented with lilies and figures of animals. half horses. while on each side stood the was beautifully Hours and Graces. while his robe size and was made of and sandals were of gold. reposed an olive wreath of gold. the Centaurs. cunningly fashioned in various metals. and fell down and shipped his own handiwork. was surmounted by a Victory. was overcome. and Oenomaus. Both That in in white marble surrounded with Doric colonnades. all But the most remarkable thing of inside the temple. inlaid with ivory and gold. was the wonderful statue of Zeus Seated on a throne ol Phidias. On one side was depicted the race be- tween Pelops. King of On the other side was the battle of the Lapithae and Elis. front and behind the roof formed a high gable. the son of Tantalus. The former were a Thessalian race. all the deeds of Hercules. Representations of Zeus were very numerous. the look of grandeur. His naked breast was half covered with the golden curls of his massive beard.

which. ringing far and near. and beneath it the priests used to and listen to the rustling and murmuring of the sayings leaves. from these tones they predicted future events. and origin was supposed to be as follows temple of to the : In very ancient times two black doves flew away from the Amnion at Thebes. and dried up at noon was considered sacred and prophetic. limes he is 49 throne. and. The oldest and most its celebrated was the one at Dodona. All round the temple brazen priests were hung. in Upper Egypt. and soon crowds flocked from far and near hear and consult the God. surrounded it as usual with colonnades. well satisfied with the result. in human all the inhabitants to build a temple to Zeus. Not far from the temple was the holy well. his temple being there to built. An eagle is generally seated at his feet. and flashing lightnings and thunders on the cowering Giants beneath. voice.— Zeits or Jupiter. had the gift of speech. One came Libyan Desert. which always this also overflowed at midnight. holding his sceptre in his hand at others. seating herself on a tree in an oasis. . seated called herself on an oak surrounding and. was the origin of the oracle of Zeus Amnion. The people to erected the temple. the trees of which. they pretended. sea Epirus. sometimes. according to the legends. driving his chariot. . and from time to time the would them till the sound. as being the one on which the dove had settled. in Epirus. as well as the colonnades. were the bowls strike of Zeus. seated on his hurling his mighty thunderbolts . depicted . One oak was sit especially sacred. Several Oracles were sacred to him. were covered Close to the temple was the sacred grove of oaks. for the walls of the temple. Many must have been with votive offerings. The other flew across the tree.

ennobled mankind. and winter (autumn Justice. as well as helping . same. spring. Parcae. Their number is there were only two. Here all the principal sacrifices were offered. for in the East there are only two seasons. chief of the Gods. They provided good laws. V. summer. and Irene. His chief temple was on the Capitol at Rome. GRACES. We must say something of Zeus's daughters : the Horae. saw justice properly carried out. Tarquin the elder began the building. re- presented the seasons. the Parcae. kept the peace. Sometimes four are mentioned. learned the knowledge of Zeus from the The Romans They honoured him as and gave him the epithets of Best and Greatest. and called him Jupiter. and Graces. there is are three. and though it was several times burnt down. Decorum. which would correspond to our four seasons. MUSES. with Minerva on his right hand and Juno on his left. (i. however. i. and superintended the well-being of the country. for the Hours were also the Goddesses of domestic life. On Olympus it was their duty to feed and harness Hera's horses. and Peace. Domitian. where he was represented seated on his throne. and the Sybilline books and public documents were kept. which office three Hours. so the Greeks generally adopted and called them.— HORAE. cently than before.) PARCAE. The poets all praise them greatly. and provided riches and prosperity generally. and Tarquinius Superbus completed it. in the end of the first century after Christ. In Greece. rebuilt it more magnifiGreeks. Graces. At first daughters of Zeus and Themis. Eumonia. Muses. Dice. not noticeable). the dry and the wet. not always the The Horae..50 Horac.e. they likewise performed for the Sungod. the Muses.

The poets especially praise Dice. She took an interest in all festivals and friendly gatherings. Then Dice still left the earth. and thus . do what he liked. for she During the personated the highest wisdom and virtue. listen to her. Astraea. and when once a man's Fate was decided. and is Avenging (2. she But the mortals would not commenced. Fatum. and even Jove The Gods often.Horae. and was the promoter of peace and kindly intercourse. Moirae. it would overtake him at last. sitting beside Zeus. The Gods themselves were under the power of Fate. and the degenerate took refuge in the mountains. and she punished anyone who practised it and upset her scales of justice. Graces. heaven. With justice she metes out each one's destiny. the Gods could alter. Parcae. Muses. as and the iron age and turned towards called where she shines a star-maiden. and smoothes away all unfairness. the Goddess of Justice. was not exempt. any injustice made her very angry. but she hated excess. They were the daughters The ancient Greeks believed that everyone had a fixed destiny which neither he nor the The Greeks called it Moira. The Parcae or of Zeus and Themis. They also waited on the Goddesses and helped to deck them. dissensions. especially Zeus. 51 him to clothe and to divest himself of his shining armour. observing the doings of mankind. sometimes mixed up with Nemesis. and injustice. age began. always considered by the poets as a person. whence she only occasionally descended to warn mankind that she would leave them altogether if they did not abandon their avarice. This Fatum was pronounced the Fate of mortals. golden age she still dwelt among mortals.) She was represented as a stern-looking woman. whom They they sometimes describe her as confused with her mother Themis. but silver when that had passed away. Romans.

the we must not omit the Children of As death was represented as something terrible that no prayers or entreaties could turn aside. very old to women. whom we already Titanidae. Parcae. did not deal out Fate with justice. because on his decision all destinies hung. Goddesses of Fate. These were . (3. the poets imagined some very cruel and inexorable Goddesses the Parcae. for they loved bloodshed. Graces. Muses. Amongst Night. and sometimes even foretold him. as they sat together weaving their work. the They did not it dwell in Olympus. and attended every where they fought furiously with their claws over the bodies of the dead warriors. The they meted out were always cruel.52 Horcic. Thus Atropos looked and Clotho into and singing over into the past. of Destiny called Keres. and Atropos. and they were the Mnemosyne. but destinies Under- world. unlike the Parcae. Clotho held the spindle and fastened the thread. Lachesis into the present. They were supposed destinies. From the justice of these Goddesses. the future. Mnemosyne means memory. They knew the fate of it man from his birth. tearing other.) them from each The Muses. as daughters of Jupiter and know one of the nine. while Lachesis continued to spin until man's fatal hour having struck. The Greeks acknowledged three who were always depicted as as a child : Clotho. Lachesis. the inexorable Atropos came to cut the thread. to deal out both mortal and immortal and were called the daughters of Zeus. sacrifice. arose the myth of the Parcae or Moirae. but delighted in murder. who. and was their business to see that Pluto never wanted a battlefield. As soon was born they began spin the thread of its life. and loved to bring misfortune and destruction in on mankind. the Parcae were generally termed the daughters of just Themis.

Helicon. i. the Muse of history . but in later years each had a special art assigned to her. holding a nine-stringed which she . Muses. has a tambourine in one hand. Graces.e. Parcae. as the leader of their choir. Erato.— Horcie.. was lyre. 5. Euterpe. wears a veil In one hand she holds a dagger. When on Mount Olympus. the flute. Parnassus. she carries a half-opened roll 2. Muse of erotic poetry. and at her feet a comic mask. were dedicated and Pindus. is often depicted in a lute. and Hippocrene and Aganippe on Mount Helicon. espe- cially the 3. the Muse of choral dance and song. a shepherd's crook in the other. Sometimes she wears a goat's skin round her shoulders. : Their names and attributes are as follows 1. the past but he who wished to retain and sharpen his memory. dancing posture. At first they were all worshipped alike. Muse of lyric poetry and music. in mountains Greece. 53 Mount Olympus was Muses . leader of the Muses. the over her head. three Out of to them. has generally one or two flutes in her hand. Apollo. The streams of Lethe and Mnemosyne were to also sacred them : whosoever drank of the former. represented playing on a seven-stringed 6. completely forgot . 4. they played and sang during the banquets of the Gods. The Muses were beautiful young maidens in loose flowing garments. in the other a tragic mask. tasted the waters of the latter. of papyrus in her hand. Terpsichore. the Muse of comedy. the oldest place of worship of the afterwards. Muse of elegy and tragedy. was named Musagetes. Clio. Thalia. \ these rose springs. the waters of which were miraculous the Castalian spring on Mount Parnassus. without any distinctive attributes. Melpomene.

8.54 Horae. and a stylus in the other. for striking the strings. "Theogony" They were also called Camoenae. Urania. From the Muse And Phoebus. in 9. Pierides. the Muse's minister. and a small her right. Graces. the plectron (a small stick of strikes with wood or ivory). used instead of the fingers 7. holding a celestial globe in her left hand. and from the Pieria. and generally has the forefinger of her right hand on her lips. appears wrapped a loose She sometimes bears a scroll. is represented as looking up towards the sky. Unutterably blest He whom the Muses love. Their competition with the daughters of . though stricken : to the soul. archer-god. : nor aught of all his griefs Remember so the blessing of the his Muse (Elton). with delicate feet leading " The mazy measure. arise on earth Minstrels and men of song." —Hesiod. Parcae. She has often also waxen tablets beside her. with which she points out the stars. in also speech and mimicry. He shall forget. Hesiod says they used to bathe in the pure stream of Hippocrene. mantle. Mieses. Polyhymnia. : Awakes the strain he sings the mighty deeds Of men of yore and straight. district of Hath instantaneous turned woes away. : A melting voice and is there one Whose aching heart some sudden anguish wrings his lip Flows ever from But lo ? ! the bard. the Muse of sacred songs and myths. breathing grace. Calliope. staff. and on the vast and holy Mount of Helicon held dances at night. the Muse of astronomy. carries a folded scroll of parchment in one hand. Muse of epic poetry.

that they forgot to partake of any food. in pity. a whole nation heard them. and the shore was covered with the blanched bones and remains of their victims. Graces. into grasshoppers. The Syrens. changed them river god Achelous and Terpsichore. lutes. they. themselves on one of the rocks that on the coast of Sicily. Fate had told them they would die if they allowed any to pass by. quite shrivelled up. sailed past in safety. and at length died. where they were at once changed into rocks. Pierus has already been related. and were so enchanted with their music. These terrible beings varied from two to eight in number. Melpomene. while the crew. Then the Muses. Muses. and in despair. and Calliope. withstanding this. sang on board the ship so enchantingly to his lute. living on an island near the coast of southern Italy. they seated As soon as it jut out into the sea. Here they sat and From the Muses were descended a.— — 55 Horae. undisturbed by their witchery. for Then the Syrens threw away they remembered the dire prophecy that Fate had foretold them. daughters of the sang so enchantingly that the strains fascinated mariners all the by the music. and began their But what was their amazement when Orpheus. attracted their island without who passed and when charming them by their music. that they had to leave off their own their songs to listen. the beautiful singer. Now came the ship of the Argonauts approached. when they were playing and singing. landed on the island. in sight. Parcae. bewitching songs. The Greek poets pictured them as nymphs. dashed themselves down Not- from the precipitous heights into the depths of the sea below. Another instance of the : power of their song is the following legend all Once. they are later on still mentioned by the . they were attacked by the Syrens and killed.

after wandering and tossing about for ten years. Ulysses. with wings and web-footed. alone will brave the if I danger. The Syrens birds' are variously described. to enter into a trial of skill with the Muses. Parcae. Once they were persuaded by Hera claws. did they take the wax from their ears or loosen beckoned to his bands. companions to loosen his them redoubled their exertions to get quickly away from the spot. Fortunately he had been warned against them. I will therefore fasten all your ears with wax. but bind entreat me with ropes to the mast. only fasten my bands the tighter. that ye cannot hear them. others hastened to bind him more firmly. on his return from Troy. but while some of Ulysses. Listen. who alone heard their music. Muses. said to his companions. dear friends. out the beautiful feathers of the Syrens' wings who pulled and made them (Z>. like the Harpies.— 56 poets. while some say he was the son of Dionysus and Aphrodite (Venus). but they were completely vanquished by the heavenly singers.e. and Frantically he past warnings were forgotten. nearly lost his senses with all longing and delight. came past their island. of the Muses. till we are in safety. The legend about him as follows ." Scarcely had he stopped his companions' ears. and not till the Syrens were quite out of sight. we are now approaching I the Syrens with their magic so voices. and one not certain . but which of them or Hymen A is son of Zeus. He was the God of wedding is festivities : and marriage. Syrens came floating by and began their songs. and even and beg you with every possible gesture to loosen me. and when " nearing the dangerous spot. Graces. Sometimes with sometimes as women. i.) into victors' crowns for themselves. Horae. and sometimes as beautiful young girls with hens' feet. Hymenäeus. than the Ulysses..

they fast asleep.) The Caryatides or Graces. killed the and then returned quickly to promised the bereaved parents to restore their daughter to them. with wings. Athens. To this they joyHe brought back the captured maidens fully consented. was quiet. barely He is represented as a beautiful youth. the house fell in. but /Esculapius woke him up from death. They are called the . and never before was there such a wedding seen done became the custom at future as his. While his wedding Hymen is always numbered is among the attendants of Aphrodite. 57 In ancient times there lived in Athens a beautiful youth called Hymen. beyond the age of boyhood. whose parents even allow would not give their consent to her marriage. he had the good fortune to find his Suddenly some pirates landed on the coast betrothed. Mies es. rose up. where he kept awake. and carried off all the girls to a desert island. and songs were . He was supposed to preside at weddings. himself as a maiden. where. and in his hand he carries an upright torch. for she was and he was poor. Graces. girl. and he was killed. and as soon as pirates. and therefore often represented with her and Eros or Amor. weddings in Athens. if they would bestow her on him. and sandals of marjoram. feast was going on. always sung in his honour. He therefore took advantage of the great feast that was held every year at Eleusis in honour of Demeter. All that was then Marriage. and he was ever after looked upon as the God of to Athens. songs were composed in honour of Hymen. a saffron on his head he has a wreath coloured garment. however. or him to see her. He loved a young rich. Parcae. all Hymen.Horae. in which only women and girls were allowed to take part disguising . Another legend says that Hymen was a youth of Argos. (4. tired fell with their journey.

it was by their aid that was bathed and anointed. in a dancing posture. a very charming allegory. and the (5. Even the Goddess of Beauty could not do without them if Their names were : festive gatherings.) Hebe. daughter of Oceanus. because she to had once stumbled while and given Ganymede. after his ascent to . Apollo and Dionysus. she wished to please and fascinate she . and is Eurynöme. Goddess of Youth. and clothed in shining raiment. One of them is sometimes called the wife of the little God of Sleep. Parcae. They were the Godgenerally named as their mother. and the constant attendants of the immortals at their banquets and Euphrosyne (Joyousand Thalia (Thoughtfulness). Aglaia (Brilliancy).58 Horae. A daughter of Zeus and Hera. their arms interlaced. and sleep and gracefulness in The Graces beautiful are generally represented a group as young girls. nude. was depicted as a very young girl. for grace and beauty should not be hidden. three in number. desses of Grace and Beauty. the wife of Her cules. for beauty is ever most lovely are inseparable. children of Zeus. joy and pleasure attending their footsteps. performing it. ness). Graces. standing back to back. when asleep. The Graces always followed Zeus and Hera. this office was taken from her. Mtises. she became Olympus. and branches and flowers are in their hands. At first her duty in Heaven was But to fill the goblets of the im- mortals with nectar.



and hid her son where he was brought up by shepherds. at ^Egea. he drove over the waves . and called the storms together so that they agitated his watery kingdom till gigantic billows rose. Nereids. but often retired to his magnificent palace at the bottom of the sea. When he struck the earth the element he represented. on the borders of the ^Egean Sea. and Seals. VENUS OR and sisters. In the Trojan War he sided with the Greeks. allowed them to rain into the sea. like the rest of his brothers was.Poseidon or Neptune. tops of the mountains trembled. as Zeus did the heavens with the He was passionate. and then he calmed the ocean with one wave of his all-powerful trident. With four strides he could accomplish the distance between his Sometimes he was kindly disposed palace and Olympus. and when the three brothers fell divided the universe between them. until mighty Jove forbade any of the Gods and Goddesses to . always with Tritons. towards mankind. Pontus (the sea) his to share. after his birth. After Chronos had been thrown into Tartarus Poseidon substituted for its closed iron gate upon him. AMPHITRITE. and every it .— POSEIDON OR NEPTUNE. Whales. and fierce. the trident in his hand and surrounded by Dolphins. and even the Underworld began to quake. 59 VI. but most generally he was antagonistic them and every disturbance of the ocean. The Cyclops forged the mighty trident with which he ruled the sea. alive. wild. shipwreck. He united the clouds. Standing in his chariot. swallowed but one legend us that Rhea in a sheepfold. him a new-born colt. like the sceptre. was attributed to him. and art to was he who taught the Greeks the of navigation . tells Poseidon.

he mounted the car : His whirling wheels the glossy surface sweep . him . The enormous monsters rolling o'er the deep Gambol around him on the watery way. in an island not far from the Trojan coast. (Pope).— 6o Poseidon . And heavy whales in awkward measures play The sea subsiding spreads a level plain. On reaching the Grecian ships he unharnessed his them in a cavern. o?' Neptune. and remained seated on a mountain. and hurried into the midst of the Greek host. he encouraged them to go on The vicinity of Zeus on Mount Ida prevented fighting. So Hera devised his taking any actual part in the combat. and owns the monarch of the main The parting waves before his coursers fly. . and saw with anger how Poseidon had disobeyed his the head of the Greeks. Exults. She went beautifully a means of allowing him to do so." Book xiii. under the guise of a priest. to disobey For a long time none ventured even when Hera herself begged Poseidon to interfere he at first refused. and with four steps Harnessing reached his palace at the bottom of the sea. gave them ambrosial food. Then Poseidon at once plunged into the fight. placed attired to Zeus on Mount Ida. he suddenly left the jagged peak. horses. and succeeded. and with his richly chased golden scourge in his hand. Suddenly Zeus awoke. but at length. in lulling him to slumber. placed himself at and forced the Trojans to fly. The wondering waters leave his axle dry. looked down on the battlefield. in his splendid golden his chariot he arrayed himself apparel. fastened fetters round their feet to prevent their running away. take part in the combat. seeing the Greeks were really hardly pressed. . with the help of the God of Sleep. where. —"Iliad.

however. or to join the Gods on Olympus. " I am his brother. " and when we divided the universe." and he the Greek host to dive again to his own kingdom. or wilt thou not rather give me another answer?" "Thou art right. and when messenger appeared." answered Poseidon. that his overbearing sensible. Heaven fell to his share. while the Earth is our joint frighten property. commands. Must I really carry back such words to the all-powerful Jove. He smiled graciously on her. message should hurt and incense me.1 Poseidon or Neptune. The horse was it. but not me." Iris. he comto manded her other to go down Poseidon and bid him. The human people ancients believed that the Dolphins were fond of the race. who 700 lived at the court of Periander. bade her the fair call Iris to him. " and thy words are prudent and But thou cannot blame me. in who were danger of being drowned." said he. and the Sea Therefore to mine. ruler of Corinth. He was very wrathful at Zeus's interference. but she called heaven and earth to witness that Poseidon was not fighting at her request. which pacified Zeus. and often rescued They also gave warning of a coming storm by playing on the surface of the sea. especially sacred to him. and invented the bridle. this Still it is left better that once I should give in to him. about riches on a journey through This musician had accumulated great Italy and Sicily. he " may and daughters with his imperious words. and were especially fond of the singer w ere r great lovers of music. message to Poseidon. soothed him gently. by his . Iris in Zeus's name. At first 6 the artful his rage was turned on Hera. his sons I shall not obey him . He had created and was therefore always prayed all to for help and protection by those engaged in races.c. to return at once to the sea. and carried the Quickly departed on her errand. b. Arion.

and carried him safely to the southern point of the Peloponnesus." said he. would sink to down this. and as he of touched the water one swam up to him. curls. but in vain He then ! offered them all he had.62 Poseidon or Neptune. he stepped on the edge of the ship. into my watery grave. they answered. on reaching Corinth in safety. well." They permitted him do and arrayed in rich robes. and plunged into the waters beneath. Let me die as I have I in festal garb. standing on the backs of sea-horses. "yet grant lived : me this one request." left Arion ? " asked the monarch. Poseidon was generally depicted nude . His hair was bluish black. "Where have " He died at sea. as a Gods among the stars. placed by the The faithful Dolphin was. who listened his lyre to you In a short time the sailors also arrived. it was his spirit. throw him overboard and take possession of his riches. him. and Arion's Lyre also forms one of the most beautiful of the constellations. thinking guilt. insisted on his death. sang a song. and then suddenly the singer himself stood before The men. and had embarked with his treasures to But the covetous sailors determined to return to Corinth. falling on his shoulders in full The sea-horses were represented as half horses and . while the sailors thought he was drowned. let him mount his back. Arion. afraid that he would " It is betray them. but they. went to Periander and told him of his wonderful rescue. But the marvellous tones of Dolphins. He entreated them to spare his life. either driving in a chariot. my lyre in my hand. cross. imjust mediately confessed their and suffered their punishment on the reward. or sitting on a dolphin. but almost always with his trident in his hand. had attracted a shoal him entranced. enchanting songs.

does not however bespeak much beauty. most beautiful of fuge with Atlas. according to our idea. but nowhere to listen could she be found. a daughter of Nereus and Doris. At last a Dolphin discovered her. was Poseidon's . and among the stars. Sometimes she rides on a Dolphin. Triton. When Poseidon first sought her in marriage she disdained him. and despatched his servants in every direction. 6$ and sometimes two often four were harnessed Often the God was alone. pirates Poseidon. long. abreast. Now she became Queen of the great Ocean Kingdom. She is generally de- picted without garments. lived on the flesh of lions. the son of the God and Aphrodite. The when describing her loveliness.Amphitrite. whoever possessed and fierceness. call her the " Blue- footed One. he gained fresh wildness." a surname which. and then again accomwife. half fish. was called a son of and sea-robbers being reckoned among them. and standing in her chariot. and sought re- Poseidon searched for her everywhere. but even he found it difficult to overcome him. lifted him off the ground and crushed him all Amphitrite. — — panied by his Besides Amphitrite. and the clever animal succeeded in persuading her favourably to the God's wooing. his principal wife. whose mother was the Earth. he for had several minor ones. out of gratitude placed the Dolphin poets. size. strength. was the the Nereids. or is seated in a gigantic shell drawn by Dolphins. and forced all strangers to fight with him. while the wind softly wafts her veil above her head. till at length Hercules with a mighty pull in his arms. One of them was the giant Antaeus in He was sixty yards Libya. At last the mighty Hercules appeared. also a great many sons. the strength. for every time the monster touched his mother Earth.

and then forced him to animals. his body and hands were covered with scales. His general attendant. and could swim marvellously. But grew a herb. swimming beside his chariot. he endeavoured to escape obliged to foretell the future. and they were represented with human heads. wished to consult this God. and bodies ending in fishes' tails. showing enormous teeth. caught a great quantity of and when they were dead in the grass he laid them on the grass. and blowing through This blowing noise was at times so pierced conch-shells. . and on his chest and body were Later on the number of Tritons was greatly increased. warm self at noon he rose from the waves. and to foretell the future. in Another sea-god was Glaucus. terrific that it was powerful enough to still the wildest roaring of the ocean. and lay down thus disguised amongst the sea- But no sooner was Proteus asleep than Menelaus jumped up. He usually tended Poseidon's horses. Meneby changing himself into all sorts of shapes. his fingers had claws instead of nails. a son of Oceanus and As he had formerly been King of Egypthe frequented that coast. who was originally a fisher Once he had Boeotia. and sunned himOften with the seals on uninhabited and rocky islands.64 Aphrodite. and had the gift of being able to change himself into any shape he liked. bound him firmly. but always carefully When counted them lest any should have got away. his hair was mouth was large and broad. They generally accompanied Poseifins. his return from Troy. When the sun shone bright and Tethys. and was a sea-god and animal. on so he and three other Greeks wrapped themselves in sealskins. fish. like green seaweed. disclose the future to him. Another of the sea-gods was Proteus. under his ears were gills. don. laus. he slept in the midst of the animals.

when the latter descended to the Underworld to bring back Alcestis to Earth. where ^Esculapius laid some healing balm on the wound. life came to again. his body His covered with blue scales. That he took part in the war with the Titans has already been related. He also had the gift of fortune-telling. leapt up.* Pluto. drawn by four black horses. and changed him into a sea-god. Furious with rage and pain he rose and went up to Olympus. arms were also blue. was called Hades by the older Greeks. E . rendered him described as gloomy and His palace in the Underworld is silent. After his birth he fared no better than his brothers . life-giving properties. Glaucus rushed after to re-capture them. and the entrance to it was guarded by the monster Cerberus. upon which Oceanus and Tethys received him graciously. his chest broad and deep . VII. half fish. and received an arrow in his shoulder.. Not far from it grazed When he drove out he stood on a chariot Pluto's horses. but fell when the three divided the universe the Underworld to his share. harnessed with golden reins. and is generally represented as half man. He once had a combat with Hercules. which had all 65 and in a short time they and sprang back into the sea. and water dropped from his long waving hair. his beard was green. The statues of this God can always be recognised by the fig.— PLUTO AND PERSEPHONE OR PROSERPINE. and ending in a fish's tail. 26. * Plate IX.Phito arid Persephone or Proserpine. another son of Chronos and Rhea. For this purpose the Cyclops forged him the helmet which invisible.

is body bare. with a wreath of cypress round his head. after death. which was pictured as a vast gloomy space below the surface of the earth. wild and disordered state of the hair. for as far as the sky lie was above the it. two slowly . SickAge. Trouble. giving a very fierce expression. Having once passed these. sprinkled the animal about to be sacrificed (either a black bullock or a black goat) first with incense between the horns. Sleep. and if any one had the misfortune to fall into it from the earth he was blown about for a whole year before reaching Tartarus far itself. 66 Pluto and Persephone or Proserpine. Sorrow. either on a throne of ebony.. it would take ten days and nights before it reached the bottom At the entrance to Tartarus stood the Palace of Night beneath ! did Pluto's Kingdom here lived ness. so as to On his head he wears a helmet. Dreams. and all the ills that : man is heir to. were led as shadows by Mercury to the Underworld. a staff or key. Zeus and Poseidon always have leave the forehead free. and a At his feet lies Cerberus. All his sacrifices were offered The priest. Hunger. offered to the God. believed that all The Greeks people. Death. Envy. where perpetual darkness (Erebus) reigned it. War. and having it burnt it. Hatred. earth. or a crown of ebony. if an anvil were to fall. for sunlight could never penetrate this Frightful storms raged through waste. seated. Every dark cave or gloomy abyss they imagined to be one of the entrances to Tartarus. or at night. which hangs over the forehead. or else Sometimes the upper part of his he is clothed in a tunic. so and the pillars that supported the celestial vault reached right up from Hades. wreath of narcissus and maidenhair. whereas their's carefully parted. The cypress and box were sacred to him. . In his hand are a double-pointed sceptre. and he is in a chariot.

their waters formed a dull. ever entered here. not go across : Those who had not been buried could they must wander up and down the shores across of the lake. listening on in a pleasant twilight. in. and the ground brought forth a plentiful harvest three times a year. lot of No troubles nor sorrows. sat to give judgment. marshy Here Charon. the Styx and the Cocytus. Thence they wandered streams. and where they met. . without labour of any kind. beside crystal and to fresh green meadows full of lovely flowers. The first was called Elysium and lay to the right. They dwelt in perfect peace. sur- to prevent any unhallowed being entering all was rounded on spirits sides by the river Lethe. and only did that which they had loved best to Some danced to the sound of do when on the earth. Acacus. where Cerberus kept watch. where the three judges of the Underworld.Phdo and Persephone rolling rivers or Proserpine. or resting in woods and scented groves. for a hundred years. the dark and sinister looking boatlake. At last a large open space was reached. All the happy drank of the silvery waters. or among the condemned. with unkempt locks and ragged clothes. and Rhadamanthus. Once the lake the shadows came to a cavern. the songs of birds. it while. and to decide whether the Spirit was to go into the kingdom of the blessed. fall to the mankind on Every mornfelt ing brought fresh joys. and immediately every sad and mournful recollection faded from memory. No heat nor cold was for perpetual spring reigned. Minos. man. 67 came in view. beautiful felt. so that no living man should enter the Kingdom of the Shades. such as earth. ferried the shadows across in his rotten boat for the sum of two oboles (about twopence). where the palace of stern Pluto guarded its entrance. without intermission or respite. and every day the happy spirits how blessed were these realms. black.

who had lately been stolen from her.68 Pluto and Persephone or Proserpine. In order to avoid punishing the innocent with life the guilty they brought the slaughtered boy to again. who killed their husbands here one night by perpetually all command the of their father. Those condemned by Minos to go to Tartarus. But the ungrateful monarch stole gave it to his servants. Tisiphone. and gave him an ivory shoulder in place of the one he had lost. their nectar and ambrosia and and when the immortals afterwards dined with him. seized the victim. Here all the wicked of fiery waters of Phlegethon. But the wicked father was condemned to everlasting punishment. had once been a favourite of the Gods he had eaten at their table. and others had friendly the lyre. to the left towards the rest of the condemned. The Gods perceived his wicked deed. He was thrown into Tartarus. feeling their task. did not notice the fraud. one of the Furies. fifty the The Danaides. to prove their omniscience. combats. killed his own son Pelops and served him up at the feast. received from Rhadamanthus the punishment destined for them. and plunged in the . he. dragged him her. a King of Phrygia. and was considered worthy of their friendship. and rose in anger from the table. and had already eaten a piece of the shoulder. the while hopelessness of Tantalus. calling on the other Furies to assist In order to prevent the wicked from ever leaving this it spot and the this was surrounded by the roaring floods of Acheron. absorbed in grief for the loss of her daughter Persephone. Only Demeter. daughters of King Danäos of Argos. were employed drawing water in bottomless utter buckets. some wandered about. . and scourged him pitilessly. in earth suffered unspeakable tortures. in Asia Minor.

he dared once more to cheat the Gods. King had often Gods. him return once again The God permitted him to go. as other crimes. after endless labour. and he could not Frightful hunger also assailed him. and he had to ask Ares to free Death from the chains. obtain a single drop. used to watch for travellers on the sides of a narrow pass whence there was crime Zeus sent no escape. and thence For this threw down pieces of rock and killed them. fruits but although trees laden with tempting branches hung their down to his very lips. and then. When at length Sisyphus in his turn came to die.Pluto and Persephone or Proserpine. which he longed. the waters of 69 . and for this evasion. which reached to his chin a burning thirst perpetually he stooped to drink. but Another legend relates that his punishment consisted of fall a perpetual terror that an overhanging rock would and crush him in vain to pieces. piece of rock up hill. wife not to have He besought his him to let buried. reach them than they away from for Thus was he condemned always to see that never to obtain it. and begged Pluto reproach her. Death prisoner and loaded him with fetters. in great wrath. he complained bitterly of her hard-heartedness. ! but — his He feet were rooted to the spot of Corinth. He was condemned to a huge and whenever. but whenever the waters receded. never returned. consumed him. Then Pluto. At length Pluto remarked that no more spirits came to the Underworld. middle of the lake. But Sisyphus took Death to him. . he could not offended the move. fell no sooner did he attempt to his grasp. when he reached to earth to Tartarus. Sisyphus. he well as his many now suffered his wellroll merited punishment. He tried to save himself. to fetch but Sisyphus sent Hermes the king to Tartarus.

Greatly offended at his audacity. ing furnace where he perished miserably. Ixion. seeing his alone was wanting. and with this celestial fire. a Thessalian prince and the father of the Centaurs. and endowed with from every animal. begged the Gods to to join their celestial pardon him. down into the depths of Tartarus. Taking some Life clay. image he had made. and Zeus. where he a torch the rays of the Sun's chariot. put life into the was the first man created. racking his body in a true and striking picture of the restless torments of an evil conscience. and begin again his hopeless task. and afterwards let him fall through a trap-door into a burnIxion. hid him beneath her lighted and took him in to Mount Olympus. and Here he was fastened by snakes to a wheel which the stormy winds blew perpetually hither and every joint . belonging therefore to the celestial race. it he had nearly reached the summit. she withdrew in anger. had quarrelled with his but feigning to be friendly with father-in-law (Dei'oneus). and a brother of Atlas and Epimetheus. half horses. difficulty. Then Athene. last made him proud and himself as to overbearing. threw a hurled him thunderbolt at him. the son of one of the Titans. had created the it first man. seized with remorse for his wicked deed. Thus and from him all the world . it he had shaped attributes into the human form. and at he so far forgot in love with imperial Hera. but became so fond of him This that they allowed him fall banquets. and they not only forgave him. thither. incensed.yo Pluto and Persephone or Proserpine. he invited him to a grand banquet of reconciliation. while Sisyphus had to spring on one side to prevent being crushed. him. creatures half men. Prometheus. an unseen power rolled down again with relentless force. shield.

" O Zeus. the other was to be for mankind. more perfect to human and yet hardly from one. fat. greatest and mightiest of all the Gods. stole the fire however . . which consisted only of the bones. with came mankind fatherly protection. the Gods would leave it and choose the other pile. wreathed with garlands of rare flowers and sweet-scented herbs. so He. that they 7 The Gods. it a second time. threw a beautiful veil round her. was away from mankind." his But Zeus detected the fraud. Then he prayed to the King of Heaven. however. this exquisite image. he the ascended to Olympus. Prometheus divided to the sacrifice into two parts. neatly arranged. the skilful workman. order to ratify this contract a sacrificial offering was at once to take place. the Gods were choose one.1 Pluto and Persephone or Proserpine. while the mortals in their turn should worship them and offer up sacrifices . not to be daunted. paunch and skin to make it unsightly. and took the fire warmth-giving Prometheus hiding earth. theft brought down to But the was quickly discovered by Zeus. intended and entrails with the thinking that he covered the flesh. became populated. to make a lovely Athene then image equal to the Goddesses in beauty. When than a the Gods saw being. well pleased down from heaven and made an agreement would grant them in at this. and placed a golden crown of rare workmanship. and well-covered with a layer of fat. they were both astonished be distinguished and delighted. dressed her in an exquisite silver garment. and declared that Prometheus would never discover the fraud. and anger was kindled. and it inside a hollow reed. to deceive the divine powers. choose as thy inmost heart directs thee. also made by Hephaestus. who ordered Hephaestus. took her. He reproached Prometheus for his duplicity. upon her head.

an enormous giant. and the punishment was remitted. and warned his brother Epimetheus not to accept any present from the Gods for Prometheus. In vain Prometheus entreated him his curiosity got the better to have nothing to do with it of him he opened it and those evils that have troubled . where an eagle perpetually hovered round him gnawing his liver. Only Hope remained at the bottom of the box. was not yet for his audacity satisfied. load. ever. his body covering nine acres. was well on his guard. or "afterthought." was far more clever than j Epimetheus. and to Prometheus he chained him to a pillar in Tartarus. as fast as it was eaten by day. where Hercules found him. shut grief the lid before she could trouble crush is away .. — down brother's and Epimetheus. was also tormented in Tartarus. and thus Jove. last for grew again during the night. fair Hope punish however. According to another myth. who had once dared to offend Leto. notwithstanding warning. however. or at least for thirty thousand years but later on the Gods relented. hunger. Prometheus was chained to the Caucasus. hatred. which." Pandora— thus was the image The named his Gods now to sent earth. "forethought.*. not wishing to make mankind fly quite miserable. *. and begged him to open the lid for her. lay He extended on the ground. in mercy. freed the unfortunate victim of the wrath of mighty Tityus. This torture was to . wife of Zeus. He. and evil passions of every sort and kind. Alas ! he did not ! She gave know all the evils she would bring on mankind him a box that she held in her hand. and thus when and mankind beneath their heavy ever ready to console and comfort them. . slew the eagle. received and welcomed her joyfully.72 Pluto and Persephone or Proserpine. — — the world ever since flew out : sickness. and Zeus. Zeus. sorrow.

as to his future fate . driving their beaks and talons into him and gnawing his entrails." tells how ^Eneas. is the breath bears aloft unto the hollow heaven. " ^neid " (Morris). at the same time pouring wine on the animals' foreheads. to consult the Sybil. draw your sword from the scabbard. with mouth that gapeth wide. Two in his " ^Eneid. . tearing away it. another to Gaea. ^Eneas. 73 vultures sat on him." cried the Sybil. These and many others were to be seen suffering untold torments in the gloomy depths of Hades. The thus described : A deep den is there. burning incessantly . a frightful rumbling noise was heard the hills and woods shook and trembled. words she dashed forward into the yawned before ^Eneas following quickly. and how she then led him down entrance to it is the Underworld. to near Naples. summon up all your courage. its blackened jaws bring forth such venoming. pebble-piled. and calling on Hecate. while he in vain tried to drive them away with his hands. When all was ended. The Sybil offered four black oxen to Hecate. who there lived in a cave. But you.— Pluto and Persephone or Proserpine. the Trojan city of Prince. away all ye who are unclean. and a young heifer to Proserpine." With these rocky depths that her. and follow me. issued " forth. and while the sacrifices were still burning on the altars. the howling of dogs. while the animals were sacrificed. " Hecate will now appear. Then ^Eneas offered a black ewe lamb to Nyx. resembling the hair from between their horns. when fleeing from Troy went to the Cumea. —Virgil. Virgil. and fearful sounds. And over it no fowl there is may wend upon the wing 'scape the And Such bane it . Black mere and thicket shadowy-mirk the secret of it hide.

But just in time his guide reminded him that they were only spirits without bodies. As tells the tale. : But Its in the midst a mighty Elm. dusk as the night. through the empty house of Dis. and squalid fashioned Lack. and witless Hungering. was set full in the threshold's way. the death-bearer. Lo. are there . when God hath hidden And black night from the things of earth. Death's : brother. still clinging close. the woods. terrible to see with Shapes eye . neath all every the leaf-side mirk. in the first of Orca's jaws. And those Well-willer's iron beds there heartless Discord lay. the colours clear hath driven. —Virgil. and the Lust of Soul. that sickeneth And War. . the land of nought at all. The Sorrows and Avenging thing. folded Briareus. sudden fear seized ^Eneas. outspread immemorial boughs and limbs. and Eld. and Lerna's Worm of dread and Chimaera's length and fire-behelmed head. many-shaped. Gorgons and Harpies. "^Eneid" (Morris). wood beasts The Centaur's stable by the porch. And hundred Fell hissing . where lying dreams there lurk. when niggard light doth On foil Upon some way amid heaven. E'en as beneath the doubtful moon. They had now arrived on the marshy banks of Acheron. Sleep. Withal most wondrous. close to the doorway side. and the shape of that three-bodied Shade. At sight of all these monsters. the woeful And And Fear. Griefs have set their beds to bide There the pale kin of Sickness dwells. and two-shaped Scylla's fare. and he drew his sword to overcome them. dim amid the lonely night on thro' the dusk they went. . and Toil of Men and Death. Whose Viper-breeding hair about was bloody filletted.74 All Pluto and Persephone or Proserpine.

" what means all this throng beside the stream ? Why do some wander up and down the shore while others are taken across ? " tell " I will thee. one there. "all that mass of beings that drifts about so helplessly." asked . wild. all and bridegrooms. the 75 dark waters of which flow into the slimy Cocytus. had not received the funeral He spoke to several of them. and praying be ferried across to the opposite shore. youths. But gloomy Charon picked out. rites having been drowned at sea." answered the Sybil.Pluto and Persephone or Proserpine. his eyes shooting fiery and a ragged cloak thrown round his shoulders. grey beard. he called out to him for " Who ! art thou that comest armed to these tell shores ? Speak and thy errand ! Stand back. Charon beheld ^Eneas. his shadowing his face. " Tell me. As soon insolently. one here. each one wishing to be Here were mothers and fathers. . is the spirits of those who have not been buried on carry those across earth. with his long. entreated him as earnestly to throw some earth over their un- buried bones. and they of the grave. Charon dare only whose bones are laid at rest in the The rest must wander round these shores for a ground. by throwing mud and slime at them. giants. Here they found Charon. shaggy hair glances. . maiden./Eneas of his guide. hundred years after which lapse of time they may once more approach these swamps. brides. heroes. the first to get in. and chased the others away. in untold numbers. to entreatingly stretching forth their hands." With great sorrow ^Eneas now recognised amongst the wandering spirits many old friends. especially those who. As soon as his boat approached the shore all those waiting crowded and pushed eagerly forward.

for here reign Sleep and Night alone. he lieth in a den that hath them full in face And when the Adders she beheld upon his crest up-borne. all descend to the Netherworld.).J6 Plato and Persephone or Proserpine. was and No sooner did Charon see this branch than he at once brought his boat to the strand. which often as plucked always sprouted again. and blent of wizard's all scorn. and to his joy discovered that they settled on a tree where grew the golden branch. and driving back the thronging mass of spirits." but they gained nothing by The Sybil replied shortly. even after it was found. This branch grew very in a wood closely surrounded . difficult to find it those could pluck to by thick bushes." The Sybil had previously informed ^Eneas that no one could be admitted to the Underworld who did not bring a golden branch as a present to Proserpine. only to whom Fate had granted permission After vain search in flying. . however. only intended to carry light so that with ^Eneas' weight the slimy waters began to ooze in between the rotten boards. directions. He had broken it now bore it with him to the Underworld. behold here the golden branch which he has brought with him. It was. True (Part ! Hercules. came down here it. If who has come hither to see his father. She him : then his threefold throat wild with hunger's . honey-steeped cast lack. ! this is the region of spirits No living being dares cross this water in my boat. took ^Eneas spirits. and while. yEneas saw a pair of doves He followed them. in. A sleepy morsel. The three-mouthed bark of Cerberus here filleth all the place. is you will not grant him free admittance. " This man is the celebrated hero y£neas. and Pirithöus II. But at length both iEneas and the Sybil reached the opposite shore in safety. Theseus. As huge. it off.

weeping here. and all in bitter ending hid. And hard upon Our way the place. ^Eneas caught upon the pass the door-ward's Slumber gave. Nor in the very death itself may wear their trouble out. —Virgil.Pluto and Persephone or Proserpine. Ill-doers' souls. pine. On. There those whom hard love eat away with cruel wasting. the right hand highway goes. Most of them still bore the wounds of which they had died. "^Eneid" Next yEneas saw the spirits of the suicides. no man may pass again. first . to that Elysium the left drags on to woes. How gladly would these return to the Upperworld How willingly would they endure either poverty or trouble to get back ! again ! But this is denied them. Farther on ^neas found the spirits of all those who were Upperworld congregated together. the inexorable Styx flows nine times round their place of confinement. —Virgil. and sank his monstrous bark. enormous thro' the cave. but his guide hurried him on. where cleaves the road a-twain. Not far from thence. And many sounds they heard therewith. And fled the bank of that sad stream. And there he lay upon the earth. "^Eneid" (Morris). behold the meads The mourning-meads in tale far spread on every have they such very name and side. and among them the Trojan Prince recognised many old friends warriors in the with whom he would have stayed to speak. and bringeth them to Godless Tartarus. >Eneas." : . Are hidden in the lonely paths with myrtle groves about. snatch'd from the breast away. by the walls of mighty Dis. The black Day hurried off. threshold Whom without share of Life's delight. 77 He opened wide and caught at it. (Morris). a wailing vast and vain For weeping souls of speechless babes round the lay. " Night falls. us is we wear the hours in vain . sign.

sleepless. . preto sumptuous Salmoneus of like Elis who dared imitate his thunder and lightning. a flaming river rolled. which wanted to is guarded by the Dragon with heads. too. and lo. O maiden " ? he asked. and insisted on being worshipped him . further saw the proud. And iron clanking therewithal of fetters dragged about. can therefore you what is going on. holdeth night —Virgil. but. who dethrone Zeus. cruel sisters to her aid.) ? " What frightful lamentations are these. grieved hospitality. a city lay Widespread 'neath crags upon the left. Stern Rhadamanthus there executes justice. and threw is him the into these unfathomable incessantly. But suddenly yEneas turned. with rattling. stony roar In face with adamantine posts was wrought the mighty door. girt with a wall threefoh And round about in hurrying flood. The Aloidae I also are there. he whose body covers nine vultures and whose all liver gnaw abused There. and forces sinners to confess all the sins and wickedness they have committed whilst on earth. : Who. betrayed friends. nor might of heaven-abiders high May cleave with steel an iron tower thence riseth to the sky And there is set Tisiphone. armed with her scourge of snakes. the Titans are imprisoned. : .. seizes the culprit and calls her Behind that double iron gate of fifty doom. Tityus also there.8 Pluto and Persephone or Proserpine. acres. " Sinless ones cannot penetrate into that place of condemnation . with girded blood-stained gown. but Hecate once led I me round tell there and shewed me everything. Then Tisiphone. Great wail. are their fathers. Such as no force of men. depths. Oh. " " ^neid" (Morris. that city sendeth out. "what crimes are being punished here The Sybil replied. fool ! the almighty father hurled his thunderbolt. E'en Phlegethon of Tartarus. Then fearfully ^neas stayed and drank the tumult in. and day. the doorway of the town. those who hated their their brothers. and cruel sound of stripes.

. all Therein a more abundant Heaven. sold their country it for gold. I tell o'er. I now an hundred mouths. " ^Eneid" (Morris). The full flood that Eridanus athwart the whence earthward rolleth wood doth pour. and their own sun. well paid in They come and greensward fair manner meet. the blessed dwelling-place. of the palace to which." gift that we so far have brought. good. an hundred might the ! tongues at An iron voice. lay adown the gift that brings us grace. Thus both reached the doors after having sprinkled himself with fresh water. about the meadows wide. So. Where we are bidden. Feasting or joining merry mouths to sing the battle won. wrought And now the opening of the gates is lying full in face. " I see the walls in Cyclop's furnace ! woe those evil deeds are worth. . Others he saw to right and left. they strive and play the play Some beat the earth with dancing foot. the Goddess' into a joyous land. gift. ^Eneas fastened the golden branch. their bodies breathing gay . . or ruled as tyrants. all guise of evil deed . all being done. Or on the yellow face of sand. despised the Gods. and now with ivory reed. and their own stars they Here some in games upon the grass. and some the song they say . And therewithal the Thracian man. Amid the happiness of groves. and sweet.: Pluto and Persephone or Proserpine. hoarded up treasures returned evil for 79 for themselves without helping others. Amidst the scented laurel grove. And now he smites with finger touch. " Nor had need. on. Or run adown names of Now to the road fulfil the " Haste on " she saith. light. in flowing raiment sings Unto the measure of the dance on seven-folded strings . clothes face the meadow's With purple have." —Virgil.

men who spake things worthy Phoebus' Lo. or winged thing of dreams. they who bettered life . a thicket fair. But down amid a hollow dale. while they in : And And And on earth by new-found mastery left a tale for men to name them by all they had their brows about with snowy fillets bound. but each time the spirit eluded his grasp. then led the way. in fresh with running streams. Lo. priests of holy heart and chaste. the tears running down his cheeks." —Virgil. with murmuring of the trees. I will set your feet in easy path. who in their country's life — — . shady groves we bide. they at last found Anchises seated in a beautiful green As soon as he recognised his son he stretched out both hands. And swam and every mighty wave. : None hath a And meadows side. Now unto them the Sybil spake as there they flowed around. god-loved poets. E'en as the breathing of the wind. lilies Settle on diverse flowery things and round the white . while loving words fell from his lips. and beds by river But if O'ertop yon ridge and such longing and so sore the heart within you hath. . and after wandering up and down." —Virgil. "^Eneid" (Morris). sword-wounded bodies bore life had part Lo. " Say happy souls. "^Eneid" (Morris). He valley. . what place Anchises hath the floods of Erebus ? for whose sake came we here. meanwhile . And And Lethe's stream that all along that quiet place doth wend O'er which there hovered countless folks and peoples without end: as when bees amid the fields in summer tide the bright. What land. One " of the heroes then answers her certain dwelling place . ^neas opened his arms three times to embrace his father.they fight.— 8o Pluto and Persephone or Proserpine./Eneas sees A secret grove. and greeted him joyfully. they whose good deeds .

especially those He ants : then showed him the various who were destined to distinguish themselves as his descendCaesar. the sea. when a thou- Elysium till in course of time every stain they stand clean and without blemish. The heavens above. sand years have elapsed. And asketh what it all may mean. 8 Go streaming so the fields were filled with mighty murmuring. one of the Gods spirits calls the cleansed to the river Lethe." replied ^Eneas. many faults and sins darken the divine spark that shines within them." —Virgil. birds. alive. others are washed . what rivers these may be. Julius F . Romulus." figures. : : The draught that is the death of care." answered Anchises. . And who the men that fill the banks with such a company. and for this reason they continue to be tormented. animals. With some the storms and winds blow away their sins. there to drink forgetfulness. and Then. Pompilius.— 1 Pluto and Persephone or Proserpine. "/Eneid" " Father. Then spake Anchises " These are the souls to whom Fate oweth now New bodies there they drink the draught by Lethe's quiet flow. moon the bodies of men. that everything bad in them may be expiated by punishment. the earth. the long forgetfulness. to the Upperworld without any and take a fresh form. the luminous sun and and sea-monsters. All these souls are of heavenly origin. but clean in the river. to very few is it Only granted to live in the beautiful fields of is worn away. Augustus. (Morris). others are purified by the flames. and has a spirit. so that they may return recollection of the past. Unlearned ^Eneas fell aquake at such a wondrous thing. Numa. disembodied earthly spirits ! " I can hardly believe that would ever wish to return to their " abode again " I will tell thee the reason. " See. Even after death corruption still clings to them. everything in Nature is my son.

Springing out. hyacinths. farewell.82 Pluto and Persephone or Proserpine. and notwithstanding his chariot. the Nymphs. she felt a shock. aye. Suddenly the earth and a wide chasm yawned before her. such as neither Gods nor men had ever seen before. The truth was. Delighted maiden withdrew from the rest of her companions to gather flowers and make them into garlands. flowers springing Violets. The wife of Pluto was Persephone (Proserpine). crocuses. the God of the he seized Underworld. On and on she wandered. daughter of Zeus and Demeter (Ceres). in marriage day when she had grown up was playing with her to his brother One into a most lovely maiden she meadows of Sicily. till at last. After this they bid each other and ^Eneas returned to the Uppenvorld. when a child. two of they performed some charming dances. new and more beautiful blossoms tempted her further. promised the beautiful Persephone. placed her in The horses dashed away. hundreds from one root. in the flowery Led by Artemis and Athene. and even they only heard them at a great distance. all the frightened maiden. narcissus sprang forth in luxurious wantonness. out of which rose a golden chariot. roses. but soon the horses plunged into a deep abyss. Zeus's daughters. Seated in it was Pluto. friends. up beneath their feet at every step. and many others. without Pluto. As long as she could see the heavens above her Persephone hoped for a rescue . and no one heard her and lamentations but Helios (the Sun-God) and Hecate (Goddess of Witchcraft). cries her struggles. began fiery to tremble. Demeter's knowledge. far away from her companions. the earth closed . the Zeus had. she sat down to rest and twine with this wonderful beauty. Pluto had entreated Gaea to let the rarest blossoms shoot forth so as to charm the maiden with their scent. the artless her beautiful blossoms into wreaths. drawn by black steeds.

and wandered about for the tenth day had heard the cries of the maiden. hastened to the spot in the greatest anxiety. the dark ruler of the Spirit-world. Demeter. and no be found anywhere. As she was so miserable herself everything else should be miserable too ! All the plants and —the ground became When trees withered and died barren and scorched — and the whole Demeter to world was soon a vast dead waste. as she placed herself before None other than Zeus himself is the cause of the theft. and even the birds no one could afford her any information. who has carried her off to his kingdom. ? she should never see her again for Demeter knew whoever once went ! down into the dark spirit-world could never again ascend either to earth or heaven Driven wild with despair she pronounced the curse of unfruitfulness on the whole earth. She then lighted her trace of her could . Zeus looked down from Olympus and saw the dreadful state of the earth he sent Iris to beg ." mighty Zeus. 8j over her.Pluto and Persephone or Proserpine. hearing the stillness reigning last cry of her child. Plunged in the deepest grief. thy son-in-law is the equal to him in Celestial Majesty. seeking for her. from whose sight nothing is hid. "Who has stolen away my child?" asked Demeter. " for he promised her to his his steeds. What to even if her daughter were thus exalted. and men. brother of the O Goddess. her. On she met Hecate. who told her that she also (Helios). and thick darkness surrounded the trembling maiden. " brother. and But the words did not consolation was if it comfort the unhappy mother." answered Sol. but did not know where she was. they both hastened to Sol nine days and nights. around — torch by the flames of Mount Etna. But be of good cheer. In vain she questioned all the Gods. but not a sound disturbed the her daughter was gone.

and flowers die. the herbs. the earth clothed in green. Then all the Immortals came to her at Eleusis. when in Spring Pluto's is wife leaves the Underworld. but she not listen. and dedicate to to Persephone. the earth should also mourn. that did not permit her to remain in the Upperworld. and thus had for ever identified herself with It is Orcus ! true she returned to the it earth with Hermes fruit in Pluto's chariot. but not wholly. Two-thirds of the year she was allowed to live among the to return to Gods in heaven. to beg Pluto Pluto agreed.. In the joy of her heart at the prospect of seeing her mother. and take away the curse. It was customary among the Greeks to cut the hair of it those about to die. The early poets say the God of Death . the other four months she had Pluto in the Underworld. Thus. refusal until she should once again have seen her lost child Zeus sent Hermes down to Orcus. but was only for a short time. she told her of the inevitable decrees of Fate. for she determined that while Proserpine was in Orcus. could never more be separated from it. and everything is glad and rejoices with her and Demeter. and a bare solitude spreads over the face of sorrowing Nature. would return to heaven. in order make death easy. Demeter now withdrew the curse of barrenness. and promised her the most magnificent gifts if she would She only persisted in her return with them to Olympus. At last who had tasted the fruits of the Shadow Kingdom. 84 Pluto and Persephone or Proserpine. the earth loses all its beauty. and when of the Demeter heard that her daughter had tasted of the Underworld. leaves. she eat a few mouthfuls. when she has to return to her husband. for to send back the maiden to her mother. but in the Autumn. Somewhat comforted. and he had cunningly persuaded Proserpine to share a pomegranate he knew that anyone with him.

and thus the hearth and all became the rallying point of social life. mencement of culture and all When the fire was fire kindled on the hearth servants. was looked upon by men as the most beneficent of the Elements. while the images of the it. Fire was its holy and sacred. No wonder. that Fire Hestia. she received hers first. and when the Greeks brought and to sacrifices to all their Gods. she was always to be the centre of every house. to receive the best at sacrifices. 85 cut off the locks. and presented them as an offering to Persephone. the family used to assemble over Gods were usually placed on the hearth was sacred to Hestia. had the seat of honour. who was regarded as the Goddess of domestic and social life. regarded as something Among the ancients. the Romans. make the Goddess do it VIII. Hestia or Vesta. Zeus decreed her special honours. that she would remain a virgin for ever. means hearth. and although both Apollo and Poseidon had sued She for her hand. and worshipped by them as a Deity. both masters and round it. collected the family. placing her hand the while on Zeus's head. On this account. . She was the eldest daughter of Chronos and Rhea. The Greeks called it Hestia.. she of the Goddesses. and as the hearth was generally in the centre of the dwelling.— HESTIA OR VESTA. Vesta therefore. for discovery and use was the comcivilization. and vowed by the perpetual oath of the Gods. round it. all the be worshipped by mankind as the eldest Even in the assembly of the Gods. love had never touched her heart. as the fire that burnt refused them both. but the later ones herself.

she was not only the protectress of the house. Italy. it was and the careless maiden who had so shamefully neglected her duties was scourged by the fearful misfortune. sacrifices When a Vestal had served thirty years. with the temple. But Numa Pompilius built her a temple in Rome. During the first ten years they received instruction from the elder priestesses. surrounded stood in the centre of the by colonnades. which more hereafter guarding the Palladium. . beneath which stood the altar where the sacred flame was kept perpetually burning . ^Eneas was supposed to have introduced her worship into and her first temple was at Alba Longa. It was circular. town. and from among these the required number were chosen by burning. or ancient picture of and other duties connected . In Rome she was still more highly honoured. If re- by any chance the garded as a fire on the altar died out. They had and had ten. for Not many temples were her Her temple always altar was the hearth in every home. Chief Priest . which had always to be kept lot. Pallas. of Their duties consisted in tending the sacred flame on the altar. or Pontifex Maximus. should per- form the services of her temple their . Tarquin the elder increased all to number to ten. collected twenty such children. but of the whole town. in the next ten years they performed the duties themselves. and ordered that four priestesses. this happened very rarely. between the ages of five and The chief priest. she was allowed to quit the temple.S6 Hestia or Vesta. the fire was rekindled by the rays of the sun. and surmounted by a dome. were offered to propitiate the and prayers and angry Goddess. built to her in Greece. and marry . and during the last ten years they had in turn to instruct the younger ones. to begin their service be of Patrician blood. called Vestals or Vestal Virgins.

Hestia or Vesta. into which she had to get by means of a ladder. As soon as it was discovered her lover was scourged to death. oil Slowly she watched the drops of every hour of her air life. a pitcher of water. Entirely shrouded in a thick veil she was slowly and solemnly carried across the market-place in a covered and all who met her stepped aside and joined the procession. separated left from all the world. and a cruse of oil. as those 87 had not been very happy in their forbidden to marry while in the service of the temple . a lighted lamp. and frightful was the punishment of any Vestal who might have been persuaded secretly to tried it who had . had this dreadful punishment been inflicted on guilty Vestals. till decreasing and lessening. and rescued her by a miracle. The day of the execution of a Vestal was looked upon as a day of universal mourning in Rome. raising his hands towards heaven the while. She had been falsely accused. Here the litter was put down close to a small vault in the town wall. At the bottom stood a litter. Twelve times. the pains of hunger or want of put an end to her miserable existence. small bed. from the commencement of the reign of Tarquin to the end of that of the Emperor Domitian. which went on till it reached the Collinian Gate. In one instance the Goddess listened to the prayers of her priestess. was alone in her frightful solitude. married life but it was strictly transgress this rule. The Chief Priest then repeated several prayers to himself. and she herself condemned to be buried alive. a jug of milk. a loaf of bread. where the unhappy maiden. and when the coverings were removed he dragged forth the unfortunate Vestal and led her to the vault. and sacrifices were offered without ceasing to try and propitiate the anger of the Goddess. and in order to clear herself she . and the executioners proceeded to close up the vault. The priests then hurried away from the spot.

At In return. but the Chief admonished her to dress quietly and be more in her Priest serious behaviour for the future. life If a criminal met a Vestal she asserted on his way to execution his was spared. a golden circle round the head. made a decree by up. nothing wrong could be proved against her. and there poured it out at the feet of the priests. therefore. habits when of simplicity had departed from Rome. for her qualifications (domesticity and this morality). all plays and races the best places were kept for them. she was liberated. and there in the sight of all the people she drew water in a sieve. went before to clear the way. but whenever they walked abroad a lictor. they were expected to be very strict and serious in their behaviour. however. had long since departed from Rome. as they did not consider become the honours bestowed compensated for all they had to give The Emperor Augustus. if that the meeting was accidental and not premeditated. and in. after the most careful search and enquiry. A Vestal was brought to judgment merely for wearing too many ornaments. There are still several statues .SS went down Hcstia or Vesta. carried it to the marketplace. this naturally sank the status of the priestesses of Goddess. which the daughters of freed slaves were admitted to the order. to the Tiber. armed with a fasces. They were allowed not only to have the entire control of their fortunes. if. and being too lively in her manner. Later on. and a thick veil worn whenever they offered up sacrifices. which was permitted to no other woman. luxury and voluptuousness crept families refused to the young girls out of the Patrician Vestals. To compensate these virgins for their solitary life great honour and distinction were paid them in Rome. The dress of the Vestals consisted of a long white gar- ment bound round the bottom with a purple border.

which sceptre sometimes ornamented with a cross. and was the second daughter of Chronos and Rhea. Demeter. and was therefore specially designated as The regular cultivation of the " Goddess of Harvest. live without these. she was looked upon as a specially beneficent Deity. Sometimes she holds a torch. knew anything of agriculture they honoured Demeter bestowed length the it as the kind on them all Goddess who." the Greeks Long before cultivation. a long garment falling They represent a majestic woman in down over her feet. ground of useful plants Demeter was supposed to have taught the people agriculture. . 89 Vesta in existence. and As man cannot civilization always worshipped as the " Gracious Mother. defend this property led them to contowns. a veil at the back is of the head. or only some of her Vestals. they became possessed of individual need of help to property. born near the town of Enna. and cause plants and trees to shoot forth and grow. and the mutual states. in the beautiful island of also swallowed by her father.Demeter or and bas-reliefs of Ceres. and a sceptre in her hand." especially grain. was Sicily. with flames generally stands beside her. the ground obliged the people to have settled abodes. and gregate together. When at was discovered sorts by sowing seeds in were obtained. An altar IX. in Attica that. a lighted lamp. without any fruits and eatable roots. In her the Greeks lie worshipped the secret powers of Nature that in the ground. and his well-being and depend on the cultivation of the ground. or else the Palladium.— DEMETER OR CERES. but we cannot be sure for the whether they are meant Goddess herself. thus arose villages.

took the form of an old woman. Metanira. so that which again could only be kept together by laws Demeter was also the foundress of National Laws. however. still oppressed with grief. sprang a seat. and coming where to to Eleusis. Demeter. King of water. close to the Maidens' Well.go Demeter or Ceres. " My name is Dos. would gladly take her as nurse to her son Demophoon. seated laid aside her divinity. and wrapped in a thick veil and long black garment. In the story of Persephone that it . form and refused to take When. their had promised daughter in marriage to Pluto. the queen Metanira. I managed to escape." answered the Goddess. a town herself on the Stone of Sadness. the bereaved mother. Eleusis. and whence she came. and get girls me some place as nurse or housekeeper. and soon returned with the welcome message that their mother. sadly and wearily sought her lost child for nine days and nights. while Demeter. they were preparing their food. the slave . has already been related also Demeter had married her brother Zeus. filled with astonish- ment and to greatly terrified. and standing up in all her glorious majesty flooded the whole little apartment with dazzling light. During her mournful sojourn she to the west of Athens. and no idea that the old woman was. rose and followed them. how he who carried her off to the Underworld. up to lead the Goddess but she quickly resumed her humble servant's it." The young hurried home. " I was While carried off by pirates and brought to these shores. But scarcely had she stepped across the threshold of the palace than her divinity became apparent. they asked her who she now I entreat you to help me. all the young girls in the neighbourhood were wont the daughters of come and draw Celeus. Among them came and as the maidens naturally had sitting there was a goddess. No longer overwhelmed with grief she raised her head.

! . and begged for a drink of water. but still she would taste no wine. Thus the boy grew up endowed with exquisite beauty. and Demeter. " Foolish parents ! ye are without sense and befall know not the good or ill that may Now therefore ye must both suffer for your had sworn by the Styx to grant the boy perpetual youth and undying fame. New he cannot escape Death and the common doom of man. the honoured Goddess. Crying out in terror she destroyed the sacred charm." 1 Demeter or Ceres. and leave only the immortal part. when one beheld the nurse place the boy in the flames. and Metanira. exclaimed. The parents were amazed. 9 seat she accepted Jambe (Mockery) brought her another it. who bestows happiness and usefulness on Gods and men With these words she stood before them in all her divine you I ! folly. might destroy all that was earthly in him. for he has lain in my arms and rested on my knee. and breathed a celestial spirit into him. which she took but drew her veil over her face. fed him entirely on nectar and ambrosia. Then Metanira brought Goddess all Demophoon and gave him into her charge. with some flour and herbs. When Night came and everyone was asleep she would lay the child in the sacred flame of the hearth. refused quite absorbed in her grief. as she took the child from the fire and placed him on the earth. and brought him magic. she this change. all food. seemed as a secret sacrifice to herself. the promising to guard him against healing herbs that warded off up without any earthly food. am Demeter. and bestow perpetual youth on him. for she wished to change him into a God. Fame. so that the fire She knew the witchcraft. determined to watch and discover the reason of night. and At length she was obliged to smile at the mad pranks and absurd sayings of Jambe. however. to her horror. fired with curiosity. is still I his.

and in it he flew through the countries of the East and West.e. even the lands of the wild Scythians and the Getae and that. splendour. are several opinions as to what this allegorical poem really from her glistening robe. which seemed to emanate filled the air. . he taught them how to till and cultivate the ground. Another legend says that Demophoon represented the Goddess' favourites. and bright flashes of up the apartment. and as she placed the child in the fire to sanctify it.92 Don eter or them hill Ceres. and also the use of the plough and the carriage. and Celeus at once began building the temple. so the corn has to be dried and roasted in the flame to make it palatable. Celeus had an older son Triptolemus. and also how they might soften the anger of the A delicious perfume. He . whom Demeter now selected as her favourite. One legend is says : Under the figure of the child nursed by Demeter represented the grain which the earth has brought forth and nourished. so they also should purify their souls and not lose them by any earthly fear or want of faith. lightning lit means. the agricultural inhabitants of by the burning of Demophoon. . tell them what way she wished to be wor- shipped. although threatened with danger on every side from the wild and uncouth inhabitants. She taught him how to cultivate the ground. i. (probably the inhabitants of Southern Russia) were visited by him and wherever he went. and Gods. She gave him a winged chariot drawn by two Dragons. she wished to point out to them that her worshippers ought to conquer everything earthly. that as Demophoon retained fame after death. overcome all sensuality. where she would teach in men. which henceThere forth became the principal place of her worship. and ordered to build her an altar and temple on a near the town.. Eleusis. and ennoble their souls further. Then she vanished.

Carnabon. He had actually attacked Triptolemus. . a plough beside him and wheat-ears in his hands. The earth rejoices at sight of the plants and flowers. and changed the wicked king into a fox. condemned him to carry the is still dead Dragon for ever on his shoulders. for his name a thrice ploughed He is always represented a youth seated in a dragon-chariot. In vain the . one of the Getaen kings. but this monarch. and throwing him towards heaven. After his death Triptolemus was worshipped beside the Goddess in the temple of Eleusis. When ings his at length Triptolemus returned from his wander- own till father Celeus tried to kill him . Underworld has taken mother searches for her the whole face of nature mourns her loss. and then boast of his knowledge. and the father no peace he abdicated in favour of his son. The whole signifies story of Triptolemus is probably only allegorical. and represents the as history of agriculture field. and already killed one of the Dragons of his chariot.Demeter or Ceres. and of the of it. when the angry Goddess appeared. As regards the myth daughter of the all of Demeter and her : the following appears to be the meaning Persephone. but the face they fade and wither. when he had elicited all he possibly could from the wise Triptolemus. one of the Scythian kings. 93 was hospitably received by Lynceus. sometimes with lost daughter. and the seed disappears quickly from of the earth when it is strewn on the ground. however. the is productive earth (Demeter) the seed. fared no better. determined to kill him secretly Demeter. as the benefactor of his country. The dreaded monarch possession child. protected her favourite. but Demeter left effected a reconciliation between them. And he to be seen bearing his burden among the constellations.

He had ventured to cut down a large grove in Thessalia. Notwithstanding these signs he did not cease. angry at the deed. he struck and when one of his slaves tried to him down with his axe: even herself appeared before to desist. the earth. stood ever in front ready to devour him. But secretly and unseen the seed developes itself in the lap of the earth.94 Demeter or Ceres. and everything shares in her joy. him among the Erysichthon was even more sacrilegious than his father. but on the contrary redoubled his prevent him efforts. The inhabitants. what was dead is now alive. and at length it starts forth . to the Goddess. everything sorrows and grieves with her. after six months the face of nature and the seed returns to the darkness of the shadow-world. But only time . sacred to Demeter. with wide-opened mouth. and blood gushed from the wound. drove him out of the country. but the plaintive dying tones of the heart. He also wished to cut down a grove dedicated . and began with a magnificent oak-tree that was inhabited by one of the Dryads all this tree was much beloved by of them. Then Demeter Dryad did not touch his him as a he only mocked Priestess. The and story of Demeter is also connected with that of Triopas his son Erysichthon. all decked with fresh green. because it was their wont to dance and hold their revels beneath its wide-spreading branches. At length he was cast before a dragon. rejoices for a its at the recovery of her long-lost daughter. the leaves paled. As Erysichthon made the first cut the sacred tree shook. which. again loses beauty. killed the This perpetual dread of death unhappy man. in order to build himself a palace. and warned him . Triopas was the son of either Helios (Sol) or of Poseidon. and Demeter afterwards placed stars. and Demeter punished him with insatiable hunger.

given the maiden the power of changing herself into Thus she escaped from her master various forms. but at last it could no longer satisfy him. cow. in a twofold sense as the foundress of agriculture. her with divine beauty. At fell a crash. she every time escaping Thus for some either as a horse. who sold her over and over again. and amid the lamentations of her the sisters the life of Dryad died out with it. consisted chiefly of a procession of all noble women of Athens. But even this would not have very fond of lasted him long had not Poseidon. horrible Demeter was worshipped Order. and at last began on gnawing his own entrails. or bird. in order to procure fresh food with insatiable the money thus obtained. up his horses and cats. Dishes innumerable were placed before him. this last 95 time in the oak all Again she appeared before him. and summoned dread Hunger from his abode in the desert to spread his scraggy wings over the couch of the murderer. but with no effect. who . and having eaten up the whole of his fortune he at last sold his daughter Hypermestra as a slave. disguised as a fisherman. Ceres. When Demeter heard doom their cries she pronounced the fearful that Erysichthon should for ever be tormented by a perpetual gnawing hunger. an hunger perpetually tortured him. and as by the Greeks Goddess of Law and They used to celebrate yearly in her honour the Thes- mophoria feast or Festival of Laws. time she was enabled to supply Lher ravenous parent with food. he eat himself. and returned to her father. who was her.Demeter or her. The origin of this It goes back to the very earliest ages. sheep. till he died a most death. and fill him with his poisonous breath. but failed to satisfy. and having sisters to reduced his parents and his two beggary.

later but they are of date than the Thesmophoria. gifted with a fine His voice. his hair. and represented Hermes or Mercury.e.) the others he wore a purple raiment and myrtle wreath. They (on which were inscribed the Still to the temple of Eleusis. and Besides these inferior priests assisted at he represented the four chief priests many priestesses moon. under the name of Melissae. flowed in long locks over his shoulders. who. He also wore a and a diadem. i. to They also were crowned with myrtle. . noble presence. portant were the Eleusinian Feasts sacred to on a took their name from the town of Eleusis. and a diadem ornamented his At the festival he represented the Creator of the forehead. (2.e. a purple garment. attendant of the altar. and These latter were the festival. (3. wreath of myrtle. dress suited his high station . was indispensable as mediator whenever men wished to approach the Immortals. His dress was the same as the others. the torch-bearer.) Daduchus.6 9 carried the tables original laws) Demeter or Ceres. first and more imDemeter. where. in the centre of the town the temple of the Goddess Their origin also belongs to early Grecian history. or revealer of sacred things. these festivals were The (i. and unspotted life.. he wore a long crowned with a wreath of myrtle. were sacred to Demeter.) Epibomius. purple garment. carried the torches at the sacred festival. i. being makers of honey.. bees. mound stood. and represented the sun. the messenger of holy tidings. world. Priest of all Attica. i.. i. as the messenger of the Gods. pure.) priests who conducted :— The Hierophant. Like Hieroceryx. (4.e. and had be of unblemished character.. perhaps so known called because bees. He to was at the same time Chief and had be a man of mature age. and leading a simple.e.

There were the great and the latter lesser Mysteries. It is Ceres. kept the soul free from sin and crime. and gave him the means of attaining perfect virtue. near the G . children were introduced. 97 to take part in the Eleusinian initiated into the preparatory ceremonies connected with them. and their crime commemorated by being engraved on a pillar. the power of living a spotless life. helped to spread good-will They declared. placed man under the special protection of the Gods. called The Greeks laid great stress on the the Pillar of Shame. and those who had neglected to join them before always tried to make amends on their . the hope of a peaceful death. those who ventured to disclose advantages derived from the that it initiation. the being a sort of preparation for the former. and not to accident. even by They were celebrated close to Athens. deathbeds. a clearer understanding. We may therefore surmise that the fully initiated were instructed in a higher and nobler worship. called the Eleusinian not known of what these really consisted. In order to make the mysteries more attractive the priests assured all those who participated in them that. while the mass of the people was taught to believe literally various myths and fables still related of the Gods. and everlasting bliss hereafter. they would have a higher place in Elysium. but even their memory was held in obloquy. in them . it was necessary to be a free-born have committed a murder. To be admitted into these Greek. all for the strictest secrecy was required of who took part any of the ceremonies to the uninitiated were not only punished with death. and a more intimate whereas the uninitiated would intercourse with the Gods Thus even young always remain in outer darkness.Demeter or Only those were allowed Feasts who had been first Mysteries. after death. among men.

to make sure that none but those who had clean hands. in at September. least ." to On this day.98 river Ilissus. and by wonders self-denial and serious thought to prepare for the about to be revealed to them. and pure souls should approach. but were not yet permitted to enter the innermost sanctuary of the Temple. The feast lasted nine days. to withdraw from All earthly pleasures so as to examine themselves. After this they were styled Mystas. a year before. Demeter or Ceres. Daduchus on the skins of animals which had been sacrificed to Zeus. The * first day was called " The Gathering. We will first describe the and peaches. themselves all where stood a small temple dedicated to who intended joining had to prepare by fasting and solitude. affairs Nine Arch on s were chosen every year manage the of Athens. the priests circling round the while in mystic dances. to all of which written answers were prepared. and The Great Mysteries were celebrated all who wished to join them had. commanded the initiated to wash their hands in consecrated water. beans. pure tongues. crowned with myrtle. to pass through the lesser Mysteries they were fish. The Hierophant then put them through a series of questions. and were allowed to take part in the Great Eleusinian Feasts. Then and all the priests in their robes of office stepped forward. . and began by the second Archon* and four assistants offering up sacrifices and prayers for the welfare of Greece. Demeter. and when After they had bathed in the river Ilissus the made them place their left feet they had satisfactorily gone through the prescribed formulas they were placed on a throne. and take the oath of silence. and then give an account of the inauguration of the votaries. and had to abstain from eating apples. celebration of the festival.

the fifth "Day of Torches. there it is no certainty. for all the novices sion to the shore. The second day was sea. bidden. parched corn. Bacchus. when they partook of seedcakes. represent the wanderings of the Goddess in quest of her daughter. and sup- the sacred wine. This The greatest day of all was the sixth. both relating to the worship of the Goddess and her son. or fan of plaited reeds. there to had to go in a procesbathe and purify themselves in the sea water. salt. and every one fasted All pleasures were strictly till nightfall.Demeter or all Ceres. with torches in their hands. 99 who had passed through the Lesser mysteries. named Jacchus. carried. the sacrifices to Demeter and all Persephone. a dis- day carried in tance of about twenty miles. called " Halade Mystre " (to the ye initiated !). they waved about and changed The torches to from hand to hand. As to the fourth day. pomegranates. and a basket. the Daduchus himself heading the procession with a large torch. assembled to participate in the Greater. in round the temple of Demeter." the ini- tiated. inasmuch statue representing as the vine grows out of the earth. and was at the loss of for- supposed to commemorate Demeter's grief Persephone (Proserpine). The third day was the Day of Mourning. such as Various symbols were also a winnow. A Jacchus crowned with myrtle and a torch in this his hand was solemn procession by the initiated all on the way from Athens to Demeter's temple in Eleusis. who as a child of was always looked upon Demeter. mixed with milk and honey. name really meant the God of Wine. . but it is posed that was devoted to joint day. walked at nightfall. On pairs.

all Instruments of various shouting the name of Jacchus. and the earth. kinds were played. was also very solemn. dressed in their sacerdotal garments. times Several they stopped on the way to offer sacrifices and perform mystic dances. the road which the procession took was called the " Holy Road. or : " . procession was accompanied by an enormous crowd of people." any had by chance entered who were not votaries. while the Neophytes collected in the outer hall of the Temple. night between the sixth led into the temple." and was paved with On the seventh day the statue of broad. they now hurriedly left the Temple. one bowl towards the East. flat stones. for. like the of Roman for Catholic pilgrimages. and attended with numerous ceremonies. of The eighth day all who had not been able priests to attend offered and on the ninth day. if afterwards discovered. the priests meanwhile muttering mystic words.000 or 40. sometimes amounting to 30. in. the inhabi- tants of the villages or towns joining was set apart the inauguration before.i oo The Demeter or Ceres. and sacred songs were sung. the Amidst various other a drink offering. The return journey Jacchus was carried back to Athens. Away from here all ye that are not If whose souls have not been freed from sin. came forward. they herald proclaimed purified. The inauguration of the novices took place during the and seventh days. which was then poured on the earth. " stations " Several places were again stopped at. as the father and mother of all all the initiated standing round and gazing alternately at the heavens and creation.000. when they were and the second Archon opened the The priests then ceremony with prayers and sacrifices. ceremonies two great flat-bottomed earthen bowls were filled with wine. the other towards the West. Then a the inner and most sacred being still locked.

their hair was torn. The gates of Tartarus. drove the unhappy victims incessantly to and never letting them rest a moment. lay before them their cries of anguish. who represented world. questions they and to make still more sure that who were present had to answer the Then they washed themselves had learnt. and cries of pain resounded on all sides. and renewed the oath of secrecy. Next they took off their ordinary garments. and expounding what was passing before their eyes. . while dreadgroans. and went away. the shrieks like of the condemned in Tartarus. i o i no intruder remained. the abode of the condemned. shaking the very foundations of the Temple. as well as heard. their hopeless remorse. The Furies. leaving them alone in the Temple. was heard warning and threatening the novices.Demeter or were punished with death . Meanwhile the loud the judge of the voice of the Hierophant. up the darkness and displayed fearful forms. Suddenly terrific peals of thunder resounded. They heard and their vain ! regrets for the Paradise that was all lost to them. all again in consecrated water. and they were beaten and thrown last to the ground. and now they saw. Ceres. and a fearful scene appeared before their eyes. girded them- and put on new selves with the whereupon the priests wished them joy of all the garments. which was now in entire skins of young does. The novices were taken hold of by invisible hands. the tortures of the conrelentless scourge demned. happiness their initiation would bring them. At a faint light illumined the distance. vivid flashes of lightning lit ful sighs. armed with and flaming torch. fro. darkness. It may well be imagined that all these fearful scenes so terrified and frightened them that drops of anguish fell from their brows. Suddenly the brazen gates were thrown open with a terrific crash. and they did not know where to hide themselves.

that of the " Prophets. with the mystic basket and torch. i. She wore a long robe or tunic. . where the blessed danced. heavenly music entranced their souls . and they had a softer expression her forehead was lower. were clear-seeing. the same grand figure. when the Emperor Theodosius the Great ordered the Temple at Eleusis to be closed. some- times also she was seated in a dragon-chariot.. and majestic look and carriage. wheat-ears. in dazzling light. both as a thank-offering for the fruits of the earth received. and over this a sort of cloak which hung down behind. fell in straight folds to her feet. or a wreath of wheat-ears. brilliantly decked and gleaming with precious .. at different times of the year. i02 Demeter or Ceres. which . There was yet a higher rank. and these hand wound into a wreath last were usually held round her head . Her worship was the same in Rome as in Greece. and instead of a diadem she had only a simple band. now called Epoptae. and also to ask a blessing for their con- . who had innocent games and pastimes. a cloudless perfumed the air and in the distance they beheld lovely flowering meads. and were continued up to about 385 after Christ. The Cerealiae were instituted in her honour. tinuance." but only the Priests were admitted to this. and amused themselves with The votaries. fragrant scents sky o'ershadowed them hitherto been only Mystae. At length the gates of Tartarus closed and now the innermost sanctuary of the Temple lay open before them . only with more gentleness for her eyes were not so wide open.e. In the midst stood the statue of the Goddess. She had Demeter was pourtrayed almost like Hera. and poppies or . stones . These Eleusinian Mysteries go back to very early ages. in her Her attributes were a sceptre.

On the 1 2th April the town Cerelian a Feasts were celebrated in Rome. and were called still This name was king. Ceres. just before At this a sow harvest. In the latter. spring These celebrated. specially for the country people. continued even after Romulus became and instituted a special order of priesthood for this Brothers.Demeter or As soon feasts. to bless them. and Romulus' foster mother. On nth May the public Romulus was supposed to have Acca Larentia. fields. the Vestal Virgins. the wife of the shepherd Faustulus. especially Ceres. as well as on Janus. instituted them. called the Ambarvalian They were distinguished by a white band round and wreaths of wheat ears. All the participators in this feast were dressed in white. crowned with wheat ears. after which the animal was sacrificed amid prayers and offerings. Ambarvaliae took place. They led the sacrificial oxen round the town. possessed land took an it animal (an ox was preferred). the rest of the priesthood. heads. and the Augurs following. used to make a The story goes that triumphal procession round their the Ambarvalian brothers. their feast. They began with solemn pro- cession to the Racecourse. were had disappeared. towards the end of any family who fields. Jupiter. while performing grotesque dances. decked it with a wreath. April. There was another feast in the middle of July. and when one of these died. had twelve sons. she adopted Romulus in his stead. The picture of the winged in Goddess of Victory. a palm branch one hand. and while offering the entrails and wine they called on the Goddess. crowned with oak leaves. and a . and sang various harvest songs. was sacrificed to Ceres. On a certain day every year these twelve brothers. and Juno. 103 as the cold weather called the Ambarvaliae. feasts were both public and private. led sacrificed it in triumph round the and then the to the Gods.

who had taught mankind to cultivate the ground. led by beautifully dressed Then all the Magistrates. — PALLAS ATHENE OR MINERVA. and appealing to Hephaestus (Vulcan) to open it with his hammer. Juno. we will now speak of his children. &c. first. who led the sacrificial animals. the Senate. Minerva. and bandying for the sacri- jokes in all directions. When sacrifice chariot-races began. and implements and last of all. a spear forth. wreath in the other. the mass of the people. Then came the priests and their servants. the . All joined in sacred songs in honour of Ceres. &c. and the wrestlers. After these followed the Knights. various musicians. carrying the vessels fices. It has already been stated that Metis. Uranus and Gaea had told him that she would have a son and a daughter who would rule Olympus. the third of boys swordsmen. one of the Oceanidae. Having completed the history of mighty Zeus's brothers and sisters. and knocking both ! . because was one of his wives. fully armed. in one hand. was carried Then came statues of Jupiter. dressed in different disguises. the choirs of singers. and lastly. the horses which were to ran. the second of youths.104 Pallas Athene or Minerva. X. had reached the racecourse and when these were ended a solemn was offered to the Goddess by priestesses dressed the whole procession entirely in white. the slaughterers. and Zeus had no wish to lose the mastery of heaven. He swallowed her. lo Pallas Athene sprang She had a helmet on her head. a shield in the other. But no sooner had he done this than he complained of frightful pains in his head. three first of men. the sons of boys.

And The Power views contending Gods with careless eyes.! — Pallas Athene or Minerva. as his sport. from Homer's Iliad. and especially protected Whenever Athene is referred to as Ulysses and Diomed. she presided over all the battles of Gods and men. but as Goddess of Wisdom. On her breast she wears the vEgis. which is ornamented with two griffins at the sides and a sphinx in front. The following. waves a magnificent horse-hair plume. the fine arts. the dreadful scene descries. This helmet was so heavy that one hundred warriors could not lift it. . the seat of all knowledge and wisdom ? As Goddess of War. the sea roared. of Battles lifts his brazen spear . Goddess of War she is always depicted as fully armed. having in its centre the terrific Medusa's head. : . is a very good account of a combat between her and Ares before the walls of Troy . that the whole the earth this of Olympus began to shake. and sciences. made such a warlike din and noise. She took part in the wars between the Titans and the Giants taught Bellerophon how to bridle Pegasus and overcome the Chimaera and assisted Perseus and Hercules in their heroic deeds. and the sun-chariot stood still to behold wonder She was worshipped not only as the Goddess of War. She took part with the Greeks in the Trojan War. From her golden helmet. trembled. for had she not sprung from the head of Zeus. : The warring Gods in fierce contention join : Rekindling rage each heavenly breast alarms : With horrid clangour shook the ethereal arms Heaven in loud thunder bids the trumpet sound And wide beneath them groans the rending ground. and in her right hand she carries a gleaming lance. Jove. 105 together.

: And. That. as he lies. and smote the long-resounding Which bears Jove's thunder on its The adamantine aegis of her sire. Joves' Cyprian daughter. craggy. this. and mix all : . . forsakes the plain. vast cast. : dreadful field That turns the glancing bolt and forked fire. propp'd on her fair arm. scarcely breathes with pain. And. And partial aid to Troy's perfidious race. beaming round.—— io6 Pallas Athene or Minerva." eyes away. whom thou rebellious darest withstand. scoffing. fix'd A There from eldest times . And. the Goddess in her mighty hand stone." He spoke. The Goddess spoke and turned her Lent to the wounded God her tender hand Slowly he rises. size : This at the heavenly homicide she Thundering he falls. a mass of monstrous And seven broad acres covers. heaven in fight? What wonder mood Thou drovest a mortal to insult a God ? Thy impious hand Tydides' javelin bore. This the bright empress of the Heavens survey'd. thus the prostrate god reviles " Hast thou not yet. Corrects thy folly thus by Pallas' hand Thus meets thy broken faith with just disgrace. Then heaved shield. stooping on the land. thus to War's victorious maid " Lo what an aid on Mars' side is seen The smile's and love's unconquerable Queen : ! ! ! . insatiate Fury known How far Minerva's force transcends thy own ? : : : ! Juno. diffused celestial day. glorying. black. And first assaults the radiant queen of War " What moved thy madness. when in thy frantic And madly bathed it in celestial gore. thus to disunite Ethereal minds. the limit of the neighbouring land. The stunning stroke his stubborn nerves unbound Loud o'er the fields his ringing arms resound The scornful dame her conquest views with smiles.

. on the east coast of Asia. Witness the sad story of This maiden was the daughter of a celebrated dyer in Colophon. and worked all the garments of the Gods. and coming in the disguise of an old woman. This made her vain and presump- and she challenged the Goddess to a trial of skill. — — . fell (her spirits fled) ! On " earth together. so fierce. and had been instructed by the Goddess herself in the art of weaving. and skill the shuttle. wisdom. of the neighbouring rivers and mountains came admire her handiwork. Athene good-naturedly wished to spare her.. in open view She moves let Pallas. except those connected with and metal skilled which pertained to Hephaestus or Vulcan. pursue " Minerva smiling heard. the distaff. Mark with what insolence. Her name of Athene was generally applied to her as the Goddess of the peaceful arts. and understanding whereas that of Pallas was more properly her warlike designation. She was in the use of the needle. When to one of the children of men displayed any special he was supposed any mortal who to have been taught by her. " Iliad" (Pope) Book xxi. but ! woe dared to compete with her Arachne. —Homer. Under the former appellation all works of fire skill were ascribed to her. as Venus is to me Then from the lowest stone shall Troy be moved. if she dares. tried to dissuade her from ." Thus she. So dread. a town in Ionia. unresisting. the pair o'ertook. lay the lovers spread And like these heroes cries) (Minerva be the fate of all who guard the Trojan Wall let ! To Grecian Gods such the Phrygian be. Her skill had become so great that all the to nymphs tuous. Pallas Athene or Minerva. and Juno with a smile approved. And slightly on her breast the wanton strook ! : 107 : She.

chariot- and painters. and to her her trial piece of work. Arachne did in truth make a wonderful in her foolish undertaking. poets. The other myth seems have been invented by the Athenians themselves to vex the Thebans. and dropping the juice of some strong herb upon her. orators. but her wrath was terrible when she saw that Arachne had skilfully woven into her tapestry Immortals. They said that one day Athene had found the leg-bone of a gazelle . and Of her invention of the flute relates : there are two versions. As Goddess of Art. and finding she could bring forth very sweet tones. But it was all in vain. the snakes on their heads made such lamentable hissings. Athene then took compassion on her. because was often placed beside science and industry bring riches. . so she was turned into a spider. she appeared own form. when this failed. her statue that of Plutus. who prided themselves on their flute-playing. as well of doctors. the God of Riches. and breathed into them. and the other two Gorgons were crying and running after the murderer. gold and makers. sculptors. driving her to such despair that she went and hanged herself. and beat the shuttle about the maiden's head. One myth —When Perseus had Medusa. all the weaknesses and wickednesses of the artistic Fiercely she tore the web in pieces. silver workers. she breathed into it.io8 Pallas Athene or Minerva. that Athene tried to killed the imitate their piteous tones. and thus it comes that even to the present day this insect weaves such won. All occupations that require ledge and learning were under her care and control. And to to do so she cut some reeds growing by the sea shore. and the commenced. and Athene could find no fault with it. but it could not be in her former called her back to life shape. builders. knowShe as was the patroness of dyers. derful webs.

she was never conquered by Aphrodite. which was built by order of Pericles. a Theban. for the curse that could not be recalled. entreated her to give His mother Chariclo. and punishment was skinned as the poets express Athene was never married. some remained at ? " she thought. staff as had once been pronounced him a black he a guide. and dared at to challenge Apollo to a musical contest. as a Marsyas alive. and severely punished all Tiresias. and was thus able to foretell the future for the ancients believed that one flight could prophesy from the song of birds. but what was her vexation when. her to let 109 the Vanity impelled assembled Gods hear the new instrument. instead of the applause she had expected. . The on curse Marsyas. lost the wager. the renowned soothsayer. and made . 07' Minerva. the story of Cybele. or. their their and even at way of eating. gave impossible. and ornastood mented by Phidias and other renowned artists. but he was punished with perpetual blindness. found the last practised it. while playing. But this was him back his eyesight. "What can they be laughing and went to a spring to look at herself She started back with horror when she saw ! her cheeks all puffed out with the effort of blowing angrily she threw the instrument away. it. Athene's most beautiful temple was the Parthenon It Athens. who has already been mentioned flute. however. silent. thought one day to watch her while bathing. a worshipper of the Goddess.Pallas Athene invented the flute. afterwards infringed them. pronouncing a curse on whoever should pick bore in fruit sadly. his hearing so acute that could understand the voices of the birds. She laid great stress on all those who decency and good habits. while Hera and Aphrodite laughed at her mockingly. it up and play upon it. She.

which flourished particularly given them well there. art. The principal feasts of the Goddess in Athens The Athenae. stood the Like most of the Grecian temples. and this was done thrice every year. battle of the giants against the All the parts of the bodies that were visible ivory. On her head was a helmet. In one hand she held a lance. The shield at it her side was a wonderful work of On one side represented in bas-relief the flight of the Athenians and the were of It Amazons. of arts and which Athens was the centre. so that the statue could be at washed. to her feet in in the other a narrow folds. on the other the Gods. while the armour and the dresses were of gold. with bas-reliefs. the Goddess was so arranged that it could be taken off. surrounded Inside was a by colonnades of Doric pillars. the walls of which were decorated five-sided pillared archway. in the centre of which. marble and of an oblong shape. instituted even before the time of Theseus. . Here passing through a marble steps led to the summit. winged Goddess of Victory. the votary came to a large open space. were celebrated every year j whereas the Panathenae were only held every . hill it on the Acropolis.l io Pallas Athene or Minerva. but she had also the olive tree. justice that the was with Athenians specially honoured all Athene. for she was not only the patroness of sciences. statue of the Goddess in ivory and gold. which had been were called Panathenae. it was built temple. made by Phidias. its A broad flight of pre-eminent. a in the position alone rendering middle of the town. with It was thirty-six feet high. the Aegis a sphinx in front and griffins on each side guarded her breast and her long flowing garment fell down entirely of white on all sides . on slightly elevated ground.000 dollars (.000). was valued The dress of 600. On these days it w as r strictly prohibited for any man It to go near the Temple.£ 120.

fully armed. with a thoughtful but hard expression. and he and the wily Ulysses climbed the wall at night and carried it off. on landing in Italy. In Rome she was worshipped under the name of Minerva. the ceremonies being grander in the latter and accompanied by races. grandfather city Priam. was soon after conquered by the Greeks. Ilos. she has an owl or a snake beside her. beside those of Jupiter The Palladium. kept in the temple of Vesta at figure of Pallas. roughly carved out of feet Rome. would not give it up. 1 1 r years. gave it to one of yEneas* com- . after building the asked it Zeus to him a visible sign that he would take under his special protection. Besides the lance. however. and from but if at that time the Trojans firmly believed that as long as they could keep time this figure their it town would be or stolen. he. any should be lost some dreadful calamity would overtake them. itself in its the Grecian camp. give was a small about three of high. at the whereabouts was betrayed to Diomed. in the Capitol. Pallas Athene was generally represented as a warrior. The king built a temple for it. robbed of her guardian. siege of Troy. The Greeks. safe . but always in addition the helmet and the Aegis : the owl and olive were sacred to her. and was found the next morning outside his tent. Her face was cold and stern. and Troy. its The story further relates that.Pallas Athene or Minerva. But an oracle having warned Diomed not to keep it. four feast. She usually wears the ordinary dress of the Greek women. enraged at finding air. The Palladium. and sometimes an olive tree with an owl flying over it. wood. and her statue was and Juno. During the night the Palladium fell down from heaven. King of Troy. while drops of sweat stood eyes on its brow. sprang three times in the flashing wildly.

by whom it was brought into the neighbourhood of yEneas saved it it the future site of Rome. was allowed to see it except when it was shown on the occasion of any high festival. Thus supposed to have been brought to Greece from Egypt. which no one was King Amasis of Egypt. as the welfare of Rome depended in on its preservation. for the in all respects resembling Pallas Athene. The greatest architectural wonder was. and no man. enlarged and beautified the temple by adding an immense outer hall of rare and costly stones. panions. in Egypt.2 1 1 Pallas Athene or Minerva. but just as they were setting . in the year of came to Attica from Sais. This monolith had been brought a twenty days' journey from the stone quarries of Southern Egypt. where was placed by his descendants in the Temple ot Rome. that was. it is of Pallas Athene Athens is very old. When it was finished. it brought inside the temple. Egyptians paid homage to a goddess called Neith. who lived during the reign of Cyrus. in the destruction of Troy. who. not even the chief priest. with the following : mysterious inscription over the doorway " I am everything that is. relates that after it Another legend afterwards Vesta. Amasis wished to have She was allowed to raise. a small chapel attached to it cut out of one stone. and fled with to Italy. and for three years 2000 masons worked at it. and to save it in case of fire. however." entirely covered with a veil that will be . and goes back as far as the time of Cecrops. and No mortal has ever lifted my veil. Here the inner and most sacred place in the Temple was reserved for it. The worship the world 1550. There was a large and magnificent temple at Sais. The Vestals had strict orders to guard it carefully.

both beneficent and destructive. Amasis took this for an evil omen. so wherever there were burning mountains. was the God of Hephaestus. — HEPHAESTUS the son of Zeus OR VULCAN. Hephaestus was also the god of all iron. that which burned under the earth came also from him. Mount Etna. were supposed to have their workshops. and they then found wood together they could produce fire thought that the of Heaven. and Hera. the Cyclopes.3 Hephaestus or Vtclcan. artistic work in steel and His workshop was in his brazen palace on Mount Whatever metal things the Gods required were made by him. and stopped the workmen. about it. The fumes that issued forth from his forge. and he was getting tired of the work. so the monolith remained where it was at the the chief had already taken so entrance. and occasioned earthquakes and volcanoes . . and the thunder and crashing of the eruptions. . and all the most beautiful and artistic arms of mankind were his handiwork but the most celebrated things he manufactured were the golden tripods on which the Gods H Olympus. XI. and the Lipari Islands. Fire. Lemnos. . Besides the fire from above. in Sicily. 1 1 mason sighed deeply because the building long. because Hera represented air. they God of Fire must be a son of Zeus. were the mighty blows of the Cyclopes' hammers on the particularly in the Isle of anvil. the God Some poets asserted that Hephaestus had no whence all father. Men first obtained fire showed them therefore that by rubbing the lightning striking the trees wood could burn. he and his assistants. from heaven that . but was Hera's son alone. the lower storms emanate.

and so uncouth and awkward that he was continually the butt of the other Gods. To see halt Vulcan puffing round the court. (Wright). at meals When : Gods were he used often to carry the goblets round. Poseidon's trident. was a wonderful piece of workmanship. for on it he had to depicted every animal there is. ." Book i. and various other works of Of course from the nature of his employment. and his lameness only increased his awkwardness. as he was lame and weak on his legs. The golden goblet and sun- chariot of Helios are ascribed to him. to east. thereby " Fair Juno smiled. Mount Olympus. and strong-armed. . and these were Several of the not only but had also understanding." —Homer. the banquet. broad-shouldered. and disappeared again had also made alive. " Iliad. which placed themselves in readiness for when it was over. provoking their mirth by his ungainliness And smiling took the goblet from her son Meanwhile he filled to each a brimming cup. large. Drawing sweet nectar from the golden bowl. And bore it round in order from the right While inextinguishable laughter rose. arms of the ancient heroes were ascribed in bas-relief. His thin legs were all the more conspicuthe ous when compared with his unwieldy body. On his head he generally wore a slightly rounded cap. helmet. the latter being that on which Sol drove back every night from west Also the palaces of the Gods on sceptre. to him. Zeus's Pluto's invisible art. Hephaestus was often dirty and smutty.4 . in parti- cular the beautiful shield of Hercules almost entirely covered He also made Pandora. He himself two golden slaves as supports in sat at their meals. who was so destructive Her golden fillet Epimetheus and mankind in general. for walking. He is likewise described as being very ugly. 1 1 Hephaestus or Vulcan.



was a great friend of Aphrodite. to the brass-floored hall. of War. Goddess of Love and Beauty. being round and fair. Suddenly the net fell ! Helias at once informed Hephaestus that ceeded. through the all-seeing Sun-god Helias. Ere long the unconscious over them his all Ares appeared. (Worsley). In haste he manufactured a it. net so fine that none could see and all yet so strong as to be quite unbreakable. who doth limping go. the fleetest that on high doth dwell. Come ye and laugh at this inveterate pair.— Hephaestus or Vulcan. From the future-giving Gods meanwhile Laughter unquenchable uprose apace. : Now mark how swift is evil-workers thrive not well. called see the two caught in the net. in her breast The Zeus-born Aphrodite Scorns for my lameness. . that Ares. unwisely.working Phoebus. " stratagem had sucthe Gods together to O Father Zeus. Luck-bringing Hermes. Soon Hephaestus learnt. Ares. and affects him there. Caught with shrewd cunning. and laying off it round his palace. While I halt from my birth. Came great Poseidon who doth earth embrace." Thereat the Gods came trooping one and all." — Homer. and all immortals blest. " Odyssey. The overtaken of the slow. Is by Hephaestus. and he. and conversed and amused himself with Aphrodite." Book viii. the God and often came to see her. called 1 1 5 Phrygian. But the race Of Goddesses abode within Shamed. And the far. It is strange that the ancients should have given the lovely Aphrodite. as wife to this ugliest of surprising that they did not care all the Gods . Soon as they marked the shrewd Hephaestus' guile And each to other spake with jest and mutual smile " . Ares Destroyer. their place. and it is not much for each other. and doth forfeit owe. set on a pretended journey.

at But they also laughed Hephaestus for his simplicity in not being better able to manage his household. Hephaestus was twice thrown down from heaven . There the lame architect the Goddess found. Both these falls are related by Homer. the azure Goddess came : : : Charis. the roaring bellows blew. In moulds prepared the glowing ore he pours. his labour claim'd : That day no common task Full twenty tripods for his hall he framed. Thetis. second time by Zeus. press'd. o erwrought with flowers. : And smiling. While bathed in sweat from fire to fire he flew . instinct with spirit roll'd From place to place. Obscure in smoke. and he was obliged to free the prisoners on Poseidon's assuring him that it should not happen again. thus the " What Goddess. around the blessed abodes Self-moved. in The : fall is recounted Achilles. of the Iliad. Just as responsive to his thought the frame Stood prompt to move. Book xviii. the first the time on Hera's account. this watery Queen addressed unusual favour draws ? . when he fell into the sea . the mother of goes to Hephaestus (Vulcan) Meanwhile the silver-footed dame ! Reach'd the Vulcanian dome. Where heaven's far-beaming brazen mansions shine. (Wondrous to tell). who cast him on to the isle of Lemnos.n6 Hephaestus or Vulcan. eternal frame High-eminent amid the works divine. his forges flaming round. And purring loud. That placed on living wheels of massy gold. as it will make much first of Vulcan's history plain to our readers. obedient to the beck of Gods For their fair handles now. his spouse. a grace divinely fair With purple fillets round her braided hair Observed her entering her soft hand she . and we will give his recital in full.

at our board to share The genial rites and hospitable fare While I the labours of the forge forego. concealed from man and God . bracelets." replied the God. Deep in a cavern!d rock my days were led The rushing ocean murmured o'er my head. Till And various artifice. " our powers may claim. then calling said.7 Hephaestus or Vit lean." his anvil the Then from Wide with lame artist rose. with unequal gait He reach'd the throne where pensive Thetis sate There placed beside her on the shining frame And . The monarch's steps two female forms uphold. distorted legs. That moved and breathed in animated gold To whom was voice and sense and science given Of works divine. say For such desert what service can I pay ? Vouchsafe. 'tis Thetis asks your aid. an ever honoured name. with stars of silver grae'd. oblique he goes." " Thetis. and taste the dainties of the bower. An ever dear. the Queen she placed A footstool at her feet. in a happy hour Approach. pendants." High on a throne. (such wonders are in heaven !) On these supported. " Vulcan draw near. All hail ! 1 1 . And bid the roaring bellows cease to blow. all their toys I wrought. Now since her presence glads our mansion. eye) And soft received me on their silver breast. When my proud mother hurled me from the sky (My awkward form it seems displeased her She and Eurynome my griefs redressed. . a stranger. Nine years kept Secure I secret in the dark abode : lay. stills the bellows and (in order laid) Locks in their chests his instruments of trade. He thus addressed the silver-footed dame : . Even then these arts employed my infant thought : Chains. and welcome whatsoe'er the cause now. O Thetis.

till he shines no more To her the artist-god " Thy griefs resign. by my prayer he won ! ! ! ! : Grace with immortal arms this short-liv'd son. " Thee. A silver chain suspends a massy round . the bellows turn'd Their iron mouths and where the furnace burn'd." To whom the mournful mother thus replies ! : (The crystal drops stood trembling in her eyes) " O Vulcan say was ever breast divine So pierced with sorrows. ah never shall receive him more But thou. Resounding breathed at once the blast expires. They raise a tempest. the father of the fires To the black labours of the forge retires. And stubborn brass and tin and solid gold first . Five ample plates the broad expanse compose And godlike labours on the surface rose.8 — —— — 1 1 Hephaestus or Vulcan. the moon completely round : . . And to the field in martial pomp restore. welcome Goddess what occasion calls (So long a stranger) to these honoured walls ! ! 'Tis thine. Then he formed the immense and solid shield. . so o'erwhelmed as mine Sprung from my bed. And Vulcan's joy and duty to obey. a godlike hero came. Rich various artifice emblased the field Its utmost verge a threefold circle bound . in pity. there heaven. or they gently blow In hissing flames. now low. . Just as the God directs. : " ! Secure. ? The bravest sure that ever bore the name To Troy I sent him but his native shore Never. fair Thetis. To shine with glory. what Vulcan can. . huge silver bars are roll'd. now loud. There shone the image of the master mind There earth." Thus having said. is ever thine. the command to lay. . And twenty forges catch at once the fires . Soon as he bade them blow. . there ocean he design'd The unwearied sun.

they fall. on the turrets stand. . Hyads. . and two shepherd swains. one would burn the place. shines exalted on the ethereal plain. beside the silver flood. They fight. swarm a numerous train debate. And each bold figure seem'd to live or die. and met the eye . the shepherd swains The bellowing oxen the besiegers hear They rise. mighty hosts a leaguer'd town embrace. superior by the head ! A place for ambush fit they found. armed with silent care. dead. And steers slow moving. around the axle The bear revolving. i 1 The starry lights that Heavens' high convex crown'd The Pleiads. . Another a prospect differing far refulgent arms and horrid war. a townsman slain. in the forum The subject of part. their radiant garments gold. The waving silver seemed to blush in blood. . . one and one of war. Soon the white flocks proceeded o'er the plains. They march by Pallas and by Mars made bold Gold were the Gods. take horse. approach and meet the war. And gold their armour these the squadron led Glowed with Two And : : : : August. one would pillage. divine. his blazing forehead in the main. Nor bathes Two cities radiant on the shield appear of peace The image. ! .— —— — — 9 Hephaestus or Vulcan. There. And all amidst them. points Still of the sky his golden eye. and the northern team And great Orion's more refulgent beam . and the watchful band Of trembling parents. and stood Covered with shields beside a silver flood. Meantime the townsmen. And the whole war came out. their children. A secret ambush on the foe prepare Their wives. To which. In arms the glittering squadron rising round Rush sudden hills of slaughter heap the ground Whole flocks and herds lie bleeding on the plains.

Behind. A figure dance succeeds : such once was seen. the men withstood. : : They tore his flesh this. In lofty Gnossus for the Cretan Queen. A ready banquet on the turf is laid Beneath an ample oak's expanded shade The victim ox. and seem to low in gold. on whose sounding shores. and folds. deep furrow'd next the God design'd. And seized a bull. and drank his sable blood. that whiten all the scene. . Next ripe in yellow gold. Rear high their horns. The maids in soft simars of linen dress'd. .— A deeper dye the dangling cluster show. the master of the herd He roar'd in vain the dogs. in order glow : A darker metal mix'd entrench'd the place And pales of glittering tin the enclosure grace. at once descend. erect and bold. The master meets them with his goblet crown'd.—— i 20 Hephaestus or Vulcan. A rapid torrent through the rushes roars. Next the eye of Vulcan leads fair forests. by the sweating hind. a vineyard shines Bent with the ponderous harvest of its vines. The youths all graceful in the glossy vest. And speed to meadows. . . and between fleecy flocks. . the sturdy youth prepare The reaper's due repast. With bended sickles stand the reaper train :— With sweeping strokes the mowers strow the lands. Deep through and a length scatter'd cots of meads . How all at once they rise. tho' formed of molten gold. Two lions rushing from the wood appeared. The gatherers follow and collect in bands. . Another field rose high with waving grain A field The third time laboured . Here herds of oxen march. the rising earth in ridges rolled And sable looked. : And And stalls. And curl'd on silver props. Still as at either end they wheel around. the women's care.

whate'er a warrior's use requires. " Iliad. " Iliad. With well taught feet ." Book i. O my " Although afflicted lest Thee stricken. Swift from Olympus' snowy summit flies. mother " he exclaimed. and the golden crest. Although in this speech Vulcan appears as a very loving . And with the setting sun in alive. So irresistible the King of Heaven. And rapid as it runs. He himself speaks of this in the to Zeus and Hera having quarrelled. — The second time heaven. forged the cuirass that outshone the fires . to help thee in thy woe. he fell that on the Isle of Hephaestus was cast down from Lemnos. From the celestial gates. the moving maze So whirls a wheel. The greaves of ductile tin. There scarce men of Sintia raised My sinking frame. mine eyes behold thee so loved and I bewail ! ." — Homer. Thus the broad shield complete the artist crown'd With his last hand. : And bears the blazing present thro' the skies. and hurl'd me down." Book xviii. the helm impress'd With various sculpture. He This done. and bound the whole. For to thy rescue when erewhile I sped. i 2 r now shape in oblique ways Confusedly regular. the Lemnos dropp'd. the single spokes are lost. in giddy circle toss'd. he tried pacify his " mother Be patient. (Tope). Homer. This was the cause fall of his lameness. At Thetis' feet the finished labour lay She as a falcon cuts the aerial way. My lack of power. and poured the ocean round. He seized me by the foot. (Wright). In living silver seemed the waves to roll.: Hephaestus or Vulcan. All day I fell . And beat the buckler's verge. Iliad.

trust the glory of thy might/' He then rose up early the next morning and hastened to his forge. in the Lipari Isles. none of the Gods could help her. went down from upper air. Whate'er in iron may be done. where ^olus. to revenge himself seat. 122 Hephaestus or Vulcan. there hangs an island close of Eolus. of ^Eneas were also Vulcan's handiwork. power held and Vulcan spite of the utterly refused to come all to her assistance. . and thro' the cave. eaten deep : thence men hear the anvil's cry 'Neath mighty strokes. Besides the artistic works already mentioned the arms manufacture by the Cyclops. the god of the winds. Upon the To Lipari Beneath it flank of Sicily. Thither the master of the fire.. in united entreaties of the immortals. he was not always so his first fall. this craft of Thy longing shall have whatsoe'er fire mine may lend . that he knew not what he was doing and then. lived. son. that she required. for once. forced him to release his parent. leading him up into Heaven. for he made and sent her a golden nothing. with shear-hewn smoky steep. she could not An invisible her fast. . suspecting tried down upon ! it. sat She. The house is Vulcan's. thunder caves and dens ^tnean. to her husband. and pants the forge with flame. the hissing sparkles forges of the Cyclops With fly From the iron of the Chalybes. Vulcan. At length Bacchus (Dionysus) made him drink so much wine. but when she to rise. . unaccustomed to delightedly promised to do " all be thus addressed by her. or silver golden blend Whatever wind and But may do : I prithee pray no more. and Virgil gives a fine description of their He relates how Venus went him to and with friendly words entreated make a suit of armour for her son ^Eneas. and the land Vulcania hath to name.

And hurry tarrying. and sevenfold ring on ring." No more he spake . : : o'er. Brontes in the midst of it mighty den. and roar and dread they . Where Cyclop Pyraemon folk in 1 2 3 of the naked limbs. nor windy winging lack. the flame that floweth on. A mighty match all weapons held By Latin men.Hephaestus or Vulcan. Some of the Cyclops were busy with Mars' chariot. some in the breezes take And then give forth some dip the brass all hissing in the Lake. They were manufacturing a thunderbolt : for Jupiter. others fearful shield. "lay by the labour so far done. Pallas' when Vulcan stepped " in and called out : away. were finishing the dreaded Aegis. . with plenteous might to aid They rear their arms with grip of tongs they turn the iron shield they set on foot. Cyclops of Etna turn your minds to this one thing alone Arms for a great man must be wrought." he said. And all the Cavern is agroan with strokes on anvil laid There turn and turn about betwixt. And soft the Chalybbane-master flows in the forges' hold. Betake ye to your nimble hands and all your mastery's all sleight. won. to . they : Fall swift to work and portion out the labour of the day " The brazen rivers run about with metal of the gold. but was not yet completed Three rays they wrought of writhen storm. about it weld. into haste. were forging iron gear and Steropes. And now the work of fearful flash. three of the watery wrack Nor do the three of ruddy flame." . betake ye to your all ! Do : might. Meanwhile in windy bellow's womb. And blent amid their craftsmanship.

that he In Sparta. He was a son of Zeus and Hera. and ran beside it. Terror. his hung round with his protection. on his head. lance. —ARES OR MARS. and the forehead is broad. to symbolize that In Greece his temple was always built outside the town. 124 XII. it is knotted between the eye- . and robbers who distinguished themselves by wild and bloodthirsty deeds. with helmet. and walking times he is seldom he sitting or standing still. Besides these. with a helmet .— Ares or Mars. but on account of his warlike proclivities was not much beloved by his father. short broad. accompanied him wherever he went. . Fright and Fear. but continue to give them is He generally represented nude. were and followed him everywhere in battle. sword. A " learned antiquarian thus describes His face has something terse him and powerful about : it. war should not enter the city . human sacrifices were offered to him. signs of victory frightful behind him.. Phobus and Deimus. but instead of being arched and rounded at the sides. but that he loved Aphrodite. Fear. and Anger. and also. The God of War has already been mentioned. greatly to Hephaestus' annoyance. all fierce and strong warriors. where statue was might guard the town from the approach of enemies. however looked upon as his children. and cuirass chariot. i. harnessed his chariot. is also depicted seated in a war- driven by the Goddess of War.e. He had no wife. Eris (Discord) was his sister she also we have just recounted. were called his sons. chains. so that he should not escape from the Spartans during their wars. Some- fully armed. and before him forms representing War Cries.

therefore. threatening. Numa Pompilius had governed the Romans for about eight years when a frightful pestilence broke out all over Italy. which gives him an air of conscious power and self-sufficiency. 125 The bridge of the nose is broad. and the care chosen of them was given to twelve trustworthy citizens. it The king assured the had been foretold him that Rome's wellbeing depended on this shield. somewhat stern. terrifying the whole nation. with a broad chest. and wearing broad brass girdles . and suddenly a brazen Greeks than among the Romans. the left leg brought forward. while resting on the right one. partly on account of their numerous wars and strong warlike propensities. a clear open look. impetuous. and lips full. The and expression of his face fierce. from among the patricians. his whole appearance denotes a powerful. powerful arms and shoulders rather agility. shield fell down from heaven. brows. and is his hair is thick and short. notwith- standing. and partly because he was the reputed father of Romulus and Remus. but the thighs and legs are he combines strength with speed and His very position. as it. In short. and . the mouth small. His eyes are deep but have. In order. who were called On the ist of Salii March —the —that proceeded through the month being sacred to Mars streets of Rome. and easily roused warrior. clothed in rich purple garments. the king had eleven other shields made people that exactly like it. They were called the Ancilla.Ares or Mars. is very compact. so that not even he himself could distinguish the original. set. so that no curls cover his strong muscular throat. has something peculiar in noticed in him alone. and that as long as it was safely preserved the city would flourish. to do this. Salii. His body slight.'' Fewer representations of Ares are found among the To these last he was essential.

with dis- hevelled hair. These processions took place several times during March. called Enyo by the Greeks. We must not forget to mention here the Goddess of They never War. amid solemn ceremonies. holding a torch in one hand and a whip in the other. XIII. the ancient writer : the following account Now And swift-circling. a white foam arose. In pillar Rome she had a large and spacious temple it. which they at the beat the shields that they held in their time singing martial songs and performing warlike dances. The wafting waves First bore her to Cythera the divine : To wave-encircled Cyprus came she then. green herbage flow'ring Her Aphrodite gods and mortals name.— APHRODITE Of " OR VENUS. and were always followed by a great banquet. Hesiod gives the origin of Venus. They same carried short swords in their right hands. her with The Romans in generally depicted Mars. . a small stood in front of in which a short spear was placed upright. had any representation of her. to the accompaniment of flutes and horns. with left . dressed flowing garments. though she is always mentioned as the sister or friend of Mars. sprang. and as delighting in bloodshed and destruction. . their waists and helmets on their heads. a goddess in the charms Of awful beauty. Where her delicate feet Had pressed the sands. a nymph was nourished in its midst. whenever war was declared against any foreign nation. Bellona. And forth emerged.— 126 round — Aphrodite or Venus.

and when she reached Cyprus. . and beautiful Desire Pursued while soon as born she bent her way Towards heaven's assembled Gods her honour these From the beginning whether Gods or men Her presence bless. placed golden ornaments on her neck and arms. or risen from the sea. when the They describe Greek poets cannot sufficiently praise her. where she was received with delight and amazement. and gentle extasy. silver footed. — — and Hera. Soft zephyrs wafted her over the waves. Even storms and the wild waves of the sea were . to her the portion falls Of Virgin whisperings and alluring smiles. also Anadyomene. smiling. gold and violet crowned. when she wore that magic girdle.) As the Goddess of Beauty. &c. She was especially fascinating nay. Some legends represent her to be the daughter of Zeus and Dione. (Love and Longing) were ready to receive Flowers bloomed beneath her feet as she walked. And smooth deceits. her as the golden one.. and sweet spoken. one of the Oceanidae others say she was the daughter of ^Ether and Gaea. the rosy fingered. For that she touched Cythera's flowery coast : 1 27 And Cyprus. She was worshipped under three forms: (1. "Theogony" (Elton)." Hesiod. whose irresistible powers we have already described when speaking of Zeus . Aphrodite or Venus. Thus adorned. &c. : : — She was called Aphrodite. Love tracked her steps. Eros and Himeros her. or foam-born. tender footed. and crowned her with violets. The foam-born Goddess and her name is known As Cytherea with the blooming wreath. the rosy Hours arrayed her in heavenly garments. for that on the Cyprian shore She rose amid the multitude of waves. they conducted her into the presence of the assembled Gods.

at . she carried a scourge. (3. Pygmalion. One poet. the god of put an end to the discussion by suggesting that she should be given to the ugliest among them. by it. She was Cupid (Himeros). as well as snaring how the latter punished her by net. and everything in nature acknowledged her sway to Diana. the Goddess of Persuasivescourge and a key. where the Graces received her. and Peitho. and. and then constrained them In all myths and legends where love appears to love. This proposal was unanimously accepted. them both in the invisible Ashamed and retired indignant at the laughter of the Gods she to the Grove of Paphos. 128 stilled Aphrodite or Venus. and its power wound. and Vesta alone never succumbed to her power. raillery. (2. she was bestowed on Vulcan. bathed and anointed her. entreating it to return his till love. when Hymeneus is invariably her generally — attendant. King of Cyprus. when Momus.) As Goddess of Marriage and Wedlock. Venus ever plays a prominent part. Minerva. was also a sculptor. Having carved a lovely figure of a maiden out of ivory. and a bow and arrows in her hand. and forgetting that it was lifeless. with the latter of men's hearts. To indicate the force of Beauty.) As Goddess of Love all paid her homage. that he remained lost in admiration of it. and held a which she opened accompanied by Amor (Eros). in order to explain why the ugliest God for should wife. That she liked Mars better than her husband Vulcan has already been told. amid great merriment. in Cyprus. and clothed her in lovely garments. ness. each one wishing to have her. a key. he was so fascinated with his own creation.. pressed it enthusiastically to his heart. His passion became daily more uncontrollable. have obtained the most beautiful Goddess relates that the his Gods all disputed the possession of Venus.

her tears flowing the while but all in vain. wandered with him for days in the forests while he was hunting. often entreat- ing him not run needlessly into the dangers that his But he despised fearlessness brought him in contact with. grow soft as he presses them. with the other immortals had succumbed to her power and loved One day Venus made some mortal. which her warnings. times the flowers on the sacrificial altar rose high in the a sign of acquiescence. to punish her for this audacious assertion. last 129 he went to the altar of Aphrodite. all the that. the eyes begin to and at last his ears are ravished by the sound of the young girl's voice thanking him for giving her life. it Adonis shot at the animal. feels the beating of the heart. One day he encountered a wild boar. missing his aim. Zeus. contrary to her usual habits. and the handsome lad became greatly loved by Aphrodite. of Love to endow with life Three air. and prayed the Goddess the result of his skill. She used every remedy to restore him to life. and Zeus in pity turned her tears and his blood into flowers. Pallas. and the Goddess. the beautiful red rose springing up from loved. Pygmalion's grandson was the beautiful Adonis. the cold hands . to rushed madly towards him. The nymphs brought him up. He rushed up to the figure as he kisses the lips they warm at his touch. he shine. a boast before the assembled Gods exception of Artemis. becoming anxious at the non-appearance of her be- and at last found him lying on the ground weltering in his own blood. caused her 1 . and trembling with hopes and fears Pygmalion hurried home. Aphrodite or Venus. and Hestia. his life-blood and the lovely white wood Anemone from the Goddess's tears. went to search for him. Aphrodite.. He was devoted to the chase. but that she herself had ever remained free. but turned upon him and tore him in pieces.

and panthers — came fawning came the lyre. whom she found playing on When he saw the Goddess he sprang up and be- sought her on bended knees to give him her blessing. she hurried Paphos in Cyprus. to who fed his flocks on Mount Fired with passion. Hermes descended among solable with grief us. " I am no divinity. is I will have him brought up by the Dryads. mistaken. when he tried to comfort me by assuring me that thou wouldst take me for thy wife. dour of the him. in love with Anchises." she answered " Thou art him . feet. and carried me away. sight. Ida. There the Graces bathed and anointed her. When he five years is and thou canst say that he a wood nymph's son. at least partly. a at handsome youth of the family of the Trojan kings. her Taking a human form. waking suddenly. I was incon- and despair. and can promise to bring thee a good dowry. As I and of my companions were dancing at a feast of Artemis. and lived when one night. old he shall return to thee. near the city of Troy." she answered. lions. His eye could not bear the splenand turning away he begged her to spare first " Fear not. she to the tent of Anchises. then returned to all She Mount to Ida. divine. all her divine beauty. listen ! When our son is born. for notwithstanding that she stood before him in mortal shape.1 30 once to fall Aphrodite or Venus. Anchises saw the Goddess standing beside him in . but only several a daughter of one of the Phrygian kings. And now. it But on pain of death never divulge that was Artemis who deemed thee ." It did not need this last inducement to make the enraptured Anchises willingly acquiesce. so wondrously beautiful that the wild beasts of the woods— bears. and dressed her in glorious apparel. together in the greatest happiness They were married immediately. he thought she must be. I have come therefore to beg for thy favour. " thou art not the mortal that has been favoured.

Aphrodite had pro- mised him her protection. her suitor a start. and thus saved him. He escaped with his life.1 Aphrodite or Verms. he began to boast that Aphrodite was his wife. then following quickly. where the old man afterwards died. As an oracle had predicted that. The legend Aphrodite the the island is of Hippomenes and Atalanta. vowed she would only give herself to him who could outrun her in a race all whom she outstripped would be put to Notwithstanding this. gave began. she determined to remain a maiden. then hurrying after them with a spear in her hand. many suitors came to comdeath. Atalanta allowed them to start before her. she placed his head as a trophy at the Several had already thus fallen victims. with which connected. however. not far of Scyros. in the from had one beautiful daughter called Atalanta. as was her wont. Just before king named Schoenus was living in Archipelago. and had given him three golden The race apples. and to rid herself of the numerous candidates for her hand. worthy of her love. though lamed for the rest of his days. Eubea. telling him exactly what to do with them. 1 3 this Anchises his promised to obey tongue was loosened by wine. and after having killed an unfor- tunate competitor. candidate named Hippomenes appeared. if ever she married she would change her form. came close up to him and was about to pierce him with her spear. when a goal. but his faithful son ^Eneas bore him away on his shoulders." charge. He pete in the dangerous races. Atalanta. Immediately Zeus hurled his the threatened punishment descended. when thunderbolt upon him. but one day. when Hippomenes let fall one . . And for this reason he could not flee when Troy was in flames. They had all to run unarmed . taking him to Italy. Trojan war a may also be given here. she threw it at them when sufficiently near.

Although the story of the judgment of Paris known. it. was remarkable alike for his beauty and his wisdom. to look at it. The maiden. and there left. Ac- cordingly he received the maiden for his wife. The Seers Hecuba would have a son who. dazzled by its brightness and beauty. who turned them into a pair of lions. and so succeeded in arriving first at the goal. is so well it. that they could not restrain their loving glances. of the golden apples.132 Aphrodite or Venus. stopped a fresh start. Themis therefore wisely advised that she should be married to a mortal. before year. as soon as the child was born he was taken to the neighbouring Mount Ida. and Peleus. once avenged by that Goddess. the son of Laomedon. even when This insult was at in the temple of Cybele. until he was old enough to guard the flocks. and later on a shepherd brought him up. thus giving Hippomenes in like He dropped the other two apples manner. who was after: . The case was this Thetis. was King His wife Hecuba once had an alarming dream it of a torch. we must not omit minent part in of Troy. and had later on the good luck or misfortune to be chosen as Umpire between three goddesses. and to punish this ingratitude she filled both their hearts with such an intense passion for one another. and harnessed them to her chariot. he attained his thirtieth overthrow of Troy. that set the whole of thus interpreted : Troy on fire. King of Thessaly. son he would become greater and mightier than his father. A she-bear found and nursed him. To prevent would cause the complete this. the daughter of Nereus and Doris. was so lovely that both Zeus and Poseidon sued But fate had decreed that when she had a for her hand. He was called Paris. his benefactress. as Aphrodite played such a pro- Priam. But in the joy of his success he forgot to offer a thank-offering to Aphrodite.

This was Eris. first. while Apollo played the lute." Each once claimed for herself. who all brought suitable presents to the bridal Poseidon gave Peleus immortal horses. leaving the field to Hera. especially to a feast. as the beautiful shepherd was well known to be both a critic of beauty and a clever laid the case Arrayed to the utmost advantage the three came and before him. Athene. and the Muses sang and danced. then a flame. the rest retired. filled with ing hall. most after beautiful. in Love. where joy ought to reign ? Eris. Aphrodite or Venus. he succeeded in conquering her. Goddesses. and with reason. which took place on was graced by the presence of the Gods and The bridal feast. they saw curiosity ran to pick the following inscription at written on it it : " To the till. Thetis tried to escape from him by assuming various forms.. decision. One Goddess alone had not been asked. it up. to Paris on Mount Ida. and Aphrodite. and disappeared. to their surprise. Mount pair. however. a long spear. when. 135 wards the father of Achilles. He therefore ordered Hermes to take the three Goddesses arbitrator. Pelion. she appeared as a animal. Zeus would not undertake the knowing well that whichever way he settled the dispute he would bring down the anger of two of them on himself. then a wild untamed all at last overcoming dangers. . till river. and each promised a recomif pense he would award her the prize. Suddenly appearing at the open door she rolled a golden apple into the banquetAll the Goddesses. much disputing.— the Centaur Chiron. was selected. determined to avenge the slight she had received. for who would invite strife. Goddess of Discord . Juno said she would make him the mightiest and Athene promised that he should be wiser than all Aphrodite offered him the greatest good fortune richest king on earth men and .

filled gave the apple to Aphrodite. when. gift a of prophecy. but his wife Helen. be celebrated house. who he could be. For this on taking the side of the Greeks throughout the Trojan War. without either he or King Priam being aware of their relationship to each other. reason. King of Salamis. None knew that the fate of Troy had been already fixed by the judgment of Paris. the other two departed. Paris. the king's Telamon. when. the greatest and most celebrated son of Priam.1 34 Aphrodite or Venus. received Paris most graciously. and promised to The shepherd of Mount Ida therefore competed the among others in games . stepped forth and declared him to be the son of Priam and Hecuba. ascertain if she were still and given her in marriage to Paris was therefore sent to alive. we shall find them later Paris. . beautiful wife. Then of all eyes were turned on the Victor. who had the until Cassandra. even valiant Hector. Sparta. He landed with his fleet at where Menelaus then reigned. behold ! he overcame all his opponents. In a short time Priam sent his son Paris into Greece. carried off sister. the dreaded time foretold by the Seers was believed to be past. honour of one of the princes of his which was a special favourite with should be the prize awarded to the victor. Hesione. the king in One day commanded some funeral games that a magnificent Bull. The king acknowledged him. The king was and at length absent at the time. everyone asking with curiosity daughter the king. with rage and threatening vengeance. after a and a few moments of thought. for long ago Hercules had. continued his lowly occupation of tending the royal flocks. meanwhile. out of revenge. daughter of Zeus and Leda. and to bring her and her descendants back to Troy. and as Paris was now more than thirty years old. Paris.

his wife When Menelaus off.. Proud cities' walls. from out the field By swift-foot Iris led — her delicate skin Now leftward of the field Stained with dark hues. Nor quaff dark wine. describing the wounding of : Aphrodite by Diomed " Diomed meanwhile Was chasing with his spear the Cyprian Queen. — — 135 allowed herself to be persuaded to accompany the stranger back to Troy. all-bloodless are their forms. returned and found that had been carried together with all many treasures. . and with pain convulsed. Is not enough for thee ? Weak women to cajole If thou go forth To war and feats of arms. Stung by pain Loud shrieked the goddess ' . Retire.' Grievously suffering. truly I deem Thou soon wilt shudder at war's very name. thou child of Jove. That Aphrodite took the side of the Trojans during this war has been already stated. or Bellona — strong to raze When high-souled Tydeus' son after long pursuit.' it with voice exulting cried Tydides.— Aphrodite or Venus. And they are called immortal. Fair Venus left the crash.. We will give an extract from the fifth Book of the Iliad.' And quit the * field.. He springing fiercely. Well knowing her a goddess void of strength. and roused the princes of Greece to aid him in a war against Troy. he was furiously enraged. At last o'ertook her. Forth from the wound came trickling blood divine Ichor — such stream as flows in heavenly veins. Her delicate wrist and pierced the ambrosial veil Wrought by the Graces with their own fair hands. with his javelin grazed . For since the blessed gods partake not food. Nor one of those who sway the wars of men Minerva.

my child. and tenderly addressed Which of the blest inhabitants of heaven . As though deserving of such chastisement ? To her the laughter-loving Aphrodite The wound was dealt me by proud Tydeus' : ' son. flew And lashed the steeds. Loosed from the car. your golden-fronted steeds. fierce Mars reclining— his huge spear And rapid steeds encircled by a cloud. and gave ambrosial food. There swift-foot Iris stayed her coursers' flight. ' : Hath wantonly thus injured thee. To bear me to Olympus. mansion of the Gods. Down at his feet the wounded goddess fell. Juno and Pallas. took the reins.' At her behest Mars lent his golden-fronted steeds and she Mounted the chariot. grieves me sore. goddess most divine Bear up. sorrowful at heart. for e'en we who dwell In the Olympian mansions. I pray. by a mortal man With Jove himself Inflicted.' 1 36 She found Aphrodite or Venus. my child. and mutual wrongs inflict. oftentimes Suffer from men.' She spoke. O brother dear.' Answered Dione. Venus meanwhile fell at her mother's knees And in her arms Dione took her child. her pain assuaged. And supplicating spoke ' : Lend me. They not unwilling To high Olympus. looking on meanwhile. Iris. With taunting words sarcastic turned to Jove. Tydides would contend. : Instant the — . Soothed with her hand. and patiently endure : ' Although afflicted . Wound. where the gods Their seats possess. . and wiped the ichor from her wrist hand was healed. ascending with her.

are other cares assigned Than those of war. the world was left desolate . and the whole web tore in pieces. and no marriages were Athene the herself contracted. She continued to weave. a general depression took possession of Gods and men. To Pallas and to Mars Leave these . Immediately new life filled the world the return of Love brought happiness to all. work. the Graces helping her by guiding ! the threads. and be connubial joys thy care. At last complained of her uninvited together. Love having departed with Aphrodite. while the sun and moon watched her at her Meanwhile." Book (Wright). was not to be thus baffled. my child. Then ingly all Gods assembled and Hermes taunt- reminded Aphrodite of the invisible net with which This caused Vulcan had once entrapped her and Ares.' v. where is The following legend also related of Aphrodite one day seated herself at the She loom of Athene intending to : the fine threads weave herself a garment. " —Homer. ashamed and angry. had her revenge on Diomed . To thee. Aphrodite was as gracious and beneficent to her zealous worshippers as she was revengeful and implacable to those . " Iliad. hastily left their presence and hurried back to Cyprus. But. During his absence at Troy she inspired his wife with a liking for another return to Argos she received mined to leave his he was murdered. At Minerva's words Smiled the almighty Sire of gods and And thus to golden Aphrodite spoke ' 137 men : . behold became thick as cords. wound he had given her. universal jeers and laughter. however.: Aphrodite or Venus. however. amidst which the Goddess. guest. for the Aphrodite. and wandered to Italy. and on his him so coldly that he deterkingdom. The goddess.

the serial journeys. on the south coast. in love with him. as myrtle-wreaths and incense. and returned with them to Lemnos. and apple. . rose. As a reward for this service suspecting who she was. And it. She was worshipped less most celebrated being Cyprus. Meadow of Paphos. neglected or slighted her. them by making all the men in the island turn against their wives.138 who little Aphrodite or Venus. Her life at last became a burden to her. had once ferried her across the water. which had the effect of rendering his beauty so irresistible that all the maidens in the island fell Among them was the celebrated whose tender love the inexorable youth poetess Sappho. Leucadian rock into the Ionian sea a leap from this rock would cure for a legend said that all pains caused by love. The women of the island of Lemnos had offended Aphrodite She therefore punished by not offering her any sacrifice. in the offerings. only blood- such . for whoever cast himself lost pains down from thence and life together. shall again hear The myrtle. indeed. spoke truly. But the wronged and deserted wives murdered bands the night of their return. she gave him an ointment. where. treated with cold indifference. where. sparrows. She could no longer bear the pain of and perished by throwing herself from the . a town . unrequited love. his daughter Hypsipyle. a beautiful youth in the island of Lesbos. further on. and swans were sacred to Aphrodite. Setting sail for Thrace they landed. her chariot being drawn by the last named when she performed her at various places. were presented to her name of Amathusia Amathus. their faithless hus- The king Thoas alone was saved by of him. He we fled to the peninsula of Taurus. whence her and the Island of Cythera. The this most beautiful statue of goddess was at Cnidus. Phaon. married new wives. and also doves.

Love being an universal and for his power was irresistible — Even the Gods were obliged to submit will . Eros or Cupid. Even the wild animals acknowand no corner in heaven or earth was and fleeting. now merry and laugh- now sad and crying. Ares of his helmet. deprived in a blaze. At his birth Zeus. 139 of white on the west coast of Asia Minor. Cupid is represented as a lovely winged boy. Dionysus of his thyrsus. He was represented as her son. wringing the water from her hair. for beauty and amiability bring forth love. and was the admiration of the whole of Greece. again gentle and winning. Athene. so called from being in the collection of the great family of Medici in She was generally represented nude. from his influence. was always conspicuous. and brought all under his sway. opposite Rhodes. frivolous. drawn by Nereids and Tritons. sculptured by Praxiteles. where wild animals nursed him. often childish.Aphrodite or Venus. and someshell. . It was marble. Florence. to his He was armed with bow and arrows. all-powerful passion. But the compassionate a wood. and Artemis alone resisted him. the God of Love. arrows. Love being ing. times standing in a large Among the attendants of Aphrodite. Friday was sacred to her both in Greece and Rome. With his torch he set the heaven and earth He disarmed both gods and heroes. Apollo of bow and and Hercules of his club and lion's skin. mother hid him in and misfortune into the world. several times wounding even his own mother. foreseeing that the boy would bring only grief advised Aphrodite to strangle him. — Zeus of his his thunderbolt. Eros or Cupid. ledged his safe sway. or pouting and cross. Of all the ancient statues of her that have been preserved is the most celebrated the Venus de Medici. which latter penetrated to Olympus and Tartarus. Hestia. He was the mightiest of Gods.

gall. others made of lead with poisoned causing pain and hate instead of love. and practised shooting animals. whose poems dilate on the joys of love and wine. took off his armour. envious. x\nacreon at once armed himself like Achilles with corslet and shield. Anacreon. and Aphrodite dipped their points in honey .140 Aphrodite or Venus." : golden pointed. warmed his cold his his ! own. concealing himself in their goblets full of wine. begging for and dripping with rain. Not men steeped them in suspicious. Bros or Cupid. As soon as he was strong enough he made himself an aspen bow and arrows of cypress. The poet. and all as if to try shot the arrows of the small god failed to pierce these defences. and delight. and thou hast won. always trying to do harm. elated when Eros. and departed with peals of laughter. for he was heartless. half frozen to his door. producing rapture tips. The poet goes on to relate that another time Eros came to him offering a trial by combat. " Oh " cried the boy at length. proud. . the more easily to wound them as they drank. and to circumvent man by his cunning." so saying. it and spanning an arrow into the heart of the unsuspecting Anacreon. of did he attempt the hearts and seldom did the wounds caused by his arrows heal. " my arrows are all gone. " the rain my bow. and cruel. but Eros had until quite sure of his skill . " ex- and wrung the water from has spoilt it golden locks. took in the shivering boy. he took it. The poet. shot him to the heart. a contemporary of Miltiades. with a deep sigh. who had cunningly concealed one arrow. shelter and warmth. He often joined with men. Another poet says that Hephaestus forged his arrows. touched with compassion. relates the following Dionysus in fooling : One evening came lost his Eros. ! the contest with his victory. up. Ah claimed Eros suddenly. as he had hands between " I fear way. Eros had two kinds of arrows some honey dipped and is over.

confided her grief to His mother Aphrodite being much troubled Themis. was not sisters happy. withstanding all the admiration lavished on her. ordered her son Eros to punish Psyche. together. who advised her to get Fortunately. cannot thrive 1 4 without return. and presently finds herself on a piece of . most this neglect. dreaded even by the Gods. but sorrowful and dejected when alone. suddenly. The Goddess. and was of such surpassing was universally admired. Psyche stands on the rock. the boy a play-fellow. not- the innocent maiden by inspiring her with love for the wicked inhabitant of the earth. Both her were already married. and received the following sad reply : and most fearful monster. Let her deck herself as a bride. and was always bright and happy when his beloved brother was beside him. Psyche was the loveliness that she youngest daughter of a king.1 Aphrodite or Vemis. meanwhile. and await the arrival of the bridegroom on the summit of a steep rock. child. Anteros (mutual One of the most beautiful allegories of the olden time is that of Eros and Psyche (the human soul). but no mortal youth dared to raise his eyes to her. Aphrodite had another love). Her father enquired of the Oracle what was to be the ultimate fate of his beautiful daughter. She brought the two children upon which Eros quickly began to grow tall and strong. is destined to become her husband. her heart beating quickly with anxious fear. when. Altars w ere r built in and men enraged forgot to pay at homage to Aphrodite. Eros or Cupid. but remained small at this. and even worshipped as a Goddess. Decked as a bride. As love and puny. another poet relates that at first Eros did not grow." The despair of the father " The mightiest may be imagined. honour of her. she feels a gentle zephyr wafting her along. But the Oracle must be obeyed. spread his wings joyously.

and an it. they. no living thing is to be seen. as. they loudly make their plaints. Eros or Cupid. and she importunes her husband to grant her a meeting with her sisters. and when Psyche assures them that she has never seen him. or she will be taken from him. and given up to endless misery. her husband . Before her astonished gaze stands a magniinvisible voice tells her that she ficent castle. At her home. all and quiet. and her sisters vowing that their till also bewail the loss of the beautiful Psyche. present with her. meanwhile. but invisible and. She hears on the top of the rock.. But after a time their wonder turns to envy they ask who is their sister's husband. the is mistress of still Filled with amazement. excitement. self in A deep sweet and when she awakes she finds heris a wood. sleep closes her eyelids. but he to attempt to find out commands her not who he is. Reluctantly he gives them perdistant voices. They are full of grief on her account . is Suddenly she soft wakes . and is soon wrapped in slumber. Zephyrus then brings the sisters to Psyche's charming abode. her happiness must rest on unknown love. velvety turf in a beautiful flowery valley. tired with soft luxurious spirits minister to her wants. persuade her that he must be a fearful dragon. standing mission to visit her. her parents know nothing of her fate. they will not rest they have found her. and even carry out her most secret thoughts and wishes. but enveloped in complete darkness his loving words and toned voice allow her to picture his beauty. out of jealousy. who are at the splendour . Psyche down on a couch. And at length a great desire seizes her to behold once again the companions of her childhood. but warns her not to be persuaded by them to try and identify him. lies Night to rest falls. she enters. 142 Aphrodite or Vemis. How astonished they and magnificence that they see on every side.

Lost in admiration.Aphrodite or Venus. a his shoulder. and he declares his determinareproaches fall tion to leave her at once. amazement when she sees the beautiful God of Love. wounded by one of drop of hot ing up. Tranquil and un- known that love only could have us happy. after the departure of her sisters. she determines to solve the mystery. in all She procures a light his divine splendour. where Pan met her. While rapturously gazing. lying before her. is Now our happiness at an end. is 143 only pampering and feeding her. and in so doing. and a dagger. tried to end her life by throwing herself into a hard by . she fetches the light and dagger. he sees his faithless wife Fierce and angry before him with the light in her hand. but nothing will keep him back. oil his arrows. Quickly night he comes. for know my mother's undying hatred follows thee. and concealing both. from his lips. Even while flying Eros upbraids her for her distrust: "Thy made curiosity alone has brought this great misery on us both. in order to devour her in the end." Thus river Eros. enraged. is she sinks on her knee beside him. despairing. Start- from her lamp falls on awakened by the pain. clings to his feet to is detain him . and I had hoped to hide thee in safety in this secluded valley. This idea takes such hold on her mind that. With the approach of awaits the arrival of her husband. which still fills her heart with passionate love for him. She. and she till dragged with him through the at last her strength gives way. but the gentle waves carried her back to the bank. and persuaded her not again . and she falls to earth. returned to Heaven. fear. her hands let go their hold. and Psyche. and is soon wrapped in sleep. Eros or Cupid. beside herself with grief and air. so that if she discovers he But what is her is indeed a dragon she may kill him.

but. had returned ill where he lay sick and sea. Aphrodite. Eros. and that Zephyrus would waft them down from the attempt to destroy her sisters. to the beautiful valley beneath. and were shattered in to his mother's palace. driven from place to place by grief and despair. Psyche. told summit of the rock believing this. in order to revenge herself on them as the cause of all her misfortunes. and finding rest nowhere. them of her loss. y She then hastened back to herself. furious anger against Psyche took possession of her. and before. and to pray on her knees for her forgiveness. She hurried back to her palace. She then mixed a large heap of seeds of all kinds. with some of the golden wool of the wild sheep Obediently Psyche went . gorgeously apparelled. the whole heap was soon sorted. to Fully they hastened trusting that the the rock. She approached the palace of Aphrodite a slave (Custom) received her. who had been passing her time in bathing and disporting herself in the knew nothing of what had taken place. The goddess met her with scorn and mockery. and ordered her unfortunate victim to separate each kind from each before night. and added. howbecame aware of it. and coming to her assistance. morning the Goddess sent her into a wood. that to bring to her The next commands . meanwhile. and vowed ever. and dragged her in by her hair. when the ants had pity on her. with despair fed there.144 to Aphrodite or Venus Eros or Cupid. When. determined at last to seek the mother of her lost husband. wind would carry them as down. she bitter vengeance against his bride. and after . upbraided her son violently for deceiving her. Psyche was well nigh in despair. much ill usage delivered her over to be tormented by Fear and Longing. that Eros had now determined to select them for his wives. at ease. they threw themselves pieces.

and The Goddess. without danger. from her hand. Charon ferried her across the Styx. which she was to take down into Tartarus and bring back filled with the ointment of Perpetual Beauty from Persephone. but how great is her terror when she saw the well surrounded by fearful Dragons. for the midday sun makes them furious. and they warned her : not approach the wild sheep too closely. K . hide behind a bush for the sheep. a very high mountain was an unfathomable well. Eros or Cupid. in spring. " Do telling her not to lose heart . himself took pity on the unhappy maiden. whose depths rose a black fill Psyche was commanded a goblet with water from this spring. when an invisible hand held her back. and sent his eagle.. and a voice directed her how to carry out the behest of Aphrodite. and they kill every one who comes near. swept down cup with water. Aphrodite or Venus. Aphrodite next gave her a small jar. taking the goblet into the well. She descended into the Underworld from the southern extremity of the Peloponnesus." returned with it Psyche obeyed. and returned it Her trials even now were not at an end. and Cerberus was quieted with a piece of honey-cake which Not allowing herself to be misshe had brought with her. who threatened But even here help was at hand. which. this difficult task. filled the to her. as they pass. and to bring it Willingly and obediently she to her cruel taskmistress. leave their thin wool hanging it among the thorns. climbed the mountain. however. Psyche quite despaired of accomplishing and was about to throw herself from a high tower. had On to a third task ready for her. in her heart. for Zeus to devour her. procured the wool. she 145 was about to throw herself into the river when the rushes growing on the banks comforted her. where you will be able to gather in the evening to Aphrodite. But in the cool of the evening.



Aphrot fite or Venus, Eros or

at last

led by the

numerous phantoms she encountered, she
pala- e

reached the

of Pluto.

and invited her to But, remembering the advice she hao received, she declined, and seated herself

Here Persepho.ie welcomed her
fee st

partake of the

spread before her.

instead respectfully at the queen's feet, merely taking a piece

of black bread.




to her,

Persephone meanwhile filled the jar and and Psyche at once prepared to return.
at an end ; already she saw the daywhen, forgetting the severe lesson she

Her journey was almost
light in the distance,

had received, she again allowed curiosity to get the better of her, and uncovered the jar. An overpowering rush of
steam burst

throwing her to the ground.

And now

she would indeed have been lost had not her husband,

who by


time had recovered his health and forgiven

her, hastened to her


recalled her to


and while she carried the jar to his mother, he hurried to the throne of Omnipotent Zeus, and throwing himself on his knees before him entreated his mercy and
favour on behalf of his beloved Psyche.

Zeus thereupon

assembled the Gods,

who agreed


admit Psyche into

Heaven. Even Aphrodite, touched by the willing obedience shown in fulfilling the tasks she had set her, forgave her, and all the Gods united in celebrating the marriage of Eros and







depicted as a lovely
in her

with butterfly's wings

hand, and Eros, armed with bow and hand or tenderly embracing her. Sometimes they are shown carrying baskets of flowers on their heads, or running hand in hand, Eros holding a sceptre,

and a thyrsus

quiver, holding her

Psyche a



almost as frequently mentioned as Aphrodite in

Aphrodite or Venus Eros or




legends in which love


a prominent influence

for in-

stance, the story of Hero and Leander, familiar to all readers Hero was a priestess of Aphrodite in Sestus, a of Schiller. town of Thrace, on the European side of the Dardanelles. She was beautiful and chaste, and brought daily offerings to But all Eros, hoping by these means to propitiate him. in vain. He mischievously shot one arrow into her heart, and another into that of Leander, a beautiful young hunts-


At the feast of of Abydos, on the Asiatic coast. Adonis they met for the first time, and at once became enamoured of each other. He declared his love, and she

parents also would not give their consent.

but as a priestess she dared not marry her Love, however,

and even the broad sea that lay between them proved no obstacle. Every evening when all


youth swam across the channel to Hero's tower, the lighted torch of his beloved serving him for a Having spent several happy hours with her, he beacon.
slept the bold

returned by the same dangerous way in which he had come. So passed the spring and summer, and when the storms of
winter set in Leander would fain

continue his hazardous

One stormy

night he hesitated to trust himself to

the treacherous waters

the friendly torch however


beckon him on, and he plunged boldly into the waves. But the merciless billows overwhelmed him the storm raged more and more furiously, and at last even extinguished his In vain he called on the Gods of Heaven, guiding beacon. Love, and the Sea for aid in vain he prayed to the God;


dess Leucothea to stretch forth her saving veil
lost consciousness,


at last



his lifeless

body was thrown by the
prey to fearful anxiety at

waves on to the shore

at Sestus.


non-appearance, Hero mounted her tower in the morn-

ing, trembling for the safety of her beloved.

She suddenly



Dionysus or Bacchus,

saw from thence a dead body on the beach, and with horror
recognised the features of Leander.
herself down,

Despairing she threw

and died embracing his dead body. In later years art and poetry increased the train of the God of Love by introducing a number of tiny Cupids or Love Sprites. They were also depicted as small petulant boys, and sometimes so tiny that they could swing on flowers, or rest on the lips and amidst the hair of lovely


Bacchus was


son of


in all


have already learnt how Semele

a victim

to her curiosity,

on beholding Zeus

divine splendour, unable to bear the brilliancy of the


by which he was enveloped, she was burnt to death. the flames in which his mother perished ; and while the flames filled the apartment, thick ivy grew up round the pillars, and protected the child

Her son was saved from


its cool shade. Jupiter then took him to be brought up by Ino, the sister of Semele, wife of King Athamas of Thessaly. But when Juno, the sworn enemy of all Jupiter's

other wives, discovered

and her


this, she vented all her anger on Ino She caused Athamas to become mad, so

that he turned furiously against his wife




had already



eldest son,


Ino, wild with

terror, fled to the

shore with her youngest son in her arms,

and threw herself into the sea. Zeus, in order to save his son Bacchus from the fury of Juno, changed him into a he-



Dionysus or Bacchus.


and sent him with Mercury to Nysa, a town in Thrace, which was afterwards especially sacred to the wine-god, When there to remain under the care of the nymphs.
of old Silenus

Dionysus was old enough Zeus gave him into the charge and he continued under the old man's care

he was


grown, when he went forth and began his

happy journeys through the







taught the culture of the vine, and the making of

wine from

rich clusters of grapes


also the cultivation of

fruit-trees in general,

— thus

he became man's benefactor
as such, the

and was everywhere greeted and honoured
people joyously singing songs in his praise.
followers were a



number of men and women in a state of (or, as the poets more delicately express it, intoxication " inspired by the blessings of Bacchus "), Maenades and The women especially, the Satyrs shouting around him. Maenades and Bacchantes, gave themselves up to unbridled

excitement and

With wildly dishevelled


amidst which snakes were entwined, crowned with ivy and
vine leaves, and with doe-skins hanging from their shoulders,

they ran wildly about, swinging the thyrsus in their hands


was originally a strong vine


wreathed with



subsequently any

wound round

with ivy and having at

one end a
" Evan


cone, hiding a sharp iron spike, was so called.



they shouted, running and leaping wildly

round Dionysus, amidst the weird music of


and fifes. The God himself sat in a triumphal chariot, drawn by lions, tigers, foxes, and panthers. But in some places he was not cordially received. Here and there his gifts were not appreciated, and his teachings were disregarded. In some countries the people would not
cultivate the vine, either

because they did not





Dionysus or Bacchus.
on account of the

trouble, or


favourable to


All such ingratitude

full force of the God's anger. Kings of Thrace, had indeed allowed the vine to be planted but had afterwards caused every vineyard in his territory to be cut down, because once when heated with wine he


and climate being undrew down Lycurgus, one of the


had insulted his mother. In his hatred against Bacchus he hunted the Maenades with thorny sticks when they were celebrating the feast of their God in the woods of Nysa, Dionysus himself leapt completely putting them to flight. into the sea and sought shelter with Thetis, who welcomed him cordially, and received from him a golden vase in return for her kindness. Another legend says that Lycurgus
had thrown the followers of Dionysus into prison. In revenge for this insult the God deprived him for a time of reason, and
in his

madness he cut

off his



and those of


son, instead of the vine stems.

But the anger of Dionysus

was not yet appeased.

Though Lycurgus recovered


Thrace was

by a great famine, and
the answer received

when the people consulted the Oracle

Prosperity would

not return

the king was



they dragged Lycurgus to the mountains,

bound him hand and
death by wild horses.

and caused him


be torn to

Pentheus, King of Thebes, a grandson of Cadmus, was

an enemy





the vine.


Dionysus on

his return

from India came to Thebes to teach

the inhabitants vine-dressing, he was received with scoffs

and mockery by his own family. Pentheus and the sisters of Semele denied that Dionysus was the son of Zeus and a God they declared he was an impostor, and Pentheus even affirmed that he would kill him and his followers. But their punishment quickly followed. The king's mother and her

Dionysus or Bacchus.


were struck with madness, and rushed wildly about


Pentheus followed them hoping to bring Cithaeron. them back; but his own mother, in her insanity, mistook him for a wild beast, and tore him in pieces. After this
their reason, and, seized with terror, fled the country.

catastrophe the victims of the wrath of Dionysus recovered

Orchomenus, another Boeotian town, lived King who had three singularly industrious daughters. Once a feast of Dionysus was being celebrated in the city, and every one ran to take part in it the busy Minyadae alone held themselves aloof, and continued to weave and



spin, hardly looking



up from their work. Even when the to beg them to participate in the

they refused, although

the other


of the

town, ivy-crowned, hair dishevelled, and

each holding a

thyrsus in her hand, were following the procession.
universally feted


god could not brook this slighting disregard. Suddenly the chamber of the industrious maidens became filled with the loud but invisible music of drums and fifes ivy and vines grew quickly out of their garments, and out of the webs they were weaving the air was laden the house began to with the scent of myrtle and vines rock, and flashing torches waved in the air, revealing the The terrified Minyadae dread forms of various wild beasts.


rushed trembling to hide themselves in the recesses of the

chamber, when they were changed into bats, who to


day are afraid of the
in dark corners.


and always conceal themselves

One day Bacchus was

standing on the shore in the form

of a beautiful youth waiting to cross over to the


Naxos, where he often dwelt, when some Italian


passed by, and thinking he was a king's son, they took and

bound him, hoping


enrich themselves by selling him.


Dionysus or Bacchus.
warned them by a miracle of



divine origin



while they were talking together the cords with which they

had bound him

to the ground,

shore calmly smiling.

and he sat down on the The steersman was amazed, and

advised the sailors to have nothing to do with the youth,

fear that

some misfortune might overtake them.


comrades disregarded this warning, bound the youth Retribution afresh, brought him on board, and sailed on.





An enormous


covered with grapes, and entwined with

sprang suddenly

up, and rapidly reached to the top of the mast.



became wreathed with vine and

ivy trails,

and a stream of

the ship.

Dionysus himself then appeared




on deck as a roaring




cabin as a wild bear, and tore the captain of the vessel in



rendered desperate by


overboard, and were immediately changed into dolphins.

Only the steersman was saved, and he was rewarded by

Although the

God revenged

himself so pitilessly on those



reward his

opposed him, he was always ready to worshippers. The story of King Midas affords

a good illustration of his
in his cradle, a

While Midas was


number of

ants appeared, carrying small

seeds which they placed in his mouth.
clared this to be a sign that


augurs de-

the child would one


become a very

rich king.

This prediction was indeed

for while

he reigned over Phrygia, Bacchus passed

through the country.


the God's



lost his

way, the peasants

who found him brought



King Midas, who received him

and himself

conducted him to rejoin Dionysus.
pleased the

This attention so



he offered to grant the king whatever

Dionysus or Bacchus.
he might wish.



Midas, who believed that riches constituted

the greatest happiness, begged for the power of turning The prayer was at everything that he touched into gold.

once granted, and to
himself surrounded by




he soon found

immense lumps of the precious But when he became hungry, and sat down to eat,

he saw with horror that the food, as soon as he touched
also turned into gold,


starvation stared


in the face.
fatal gift.


therefore entreated the


to take

back the

So be it," answered Dionysus ; walk up the stream and dip thy head in the spring." Midas obeyed, and immediately the power of making gold


go to the river Pactolus


But the


ever after contained



Icarius, the Athenian, also experienced the kindness of

When Dionysus came to Athens, Icarius welcomed him gladly, and the wine God presented him with some vines, instructed him as to their culture, and taught him how to make wine from their fruit. Icarius, wishing to
the God.
let his

fellow-countrymen taste the rare



a cart

with casks of wine, and wandered through the land ac-

companied by his daughter Erigone and his dog Maera. One day he encountered some shepherds, who found the new drink he offered to them so delicious that they became and then, imagining that Icarius had intoxicated with it

poisoned them, they killed him.
their senses they buried his


they recovered

body under a



who had been




and moaning the dog crept up to her, and guided her to Beside herself with the spot where the murdered man lay. deeming life to be no longer worth having, she grief, and hung herself on the same tree under which her father was buried. Dionysus, in revenge for the murder of his favourite,



Dionysus or Bacchus.

all the shepherds to go mad, so hung themselves. In obedience to the Oracle, a yearly feast was instituted in honour of the ill-fated Erigone, to which the country people, in addition to other offerings, always brought numbers of small figures, which were hung among the trees to commemorate her

caused the daughters of
that they likewise

tragic end.

Of Ariadne, wife of Dionysus, and daughter of Minos, King of Crete, we shall hear more in the history of

The Greeks

instituted the Dionysian festivals in


of the wine-god

these took place in the middle of March.

Besides the usual ceremonies, consisting of sacrifices and
processions, which were publicly performed, there were also

Mysteries or secret rites connected with these festivals, which were held at night, and in these latter none but the

were allowed to take


Dionysus (or Bacchus, as he was called in Rome)

represented as a fine well-proportioned man, not muscular,

body being rather


and rounded

in appearance,


inclined to corpulency.

His features are pleasing, the

the eyes gentle and languishing.

A diadem


his forehead

his long curls fall


to his shoulders, fastened

together in a knot

behind, and are

entwined with

of vine and ivy.



generally represented nude, but

sometimes with a


garment thrown carelessly round

him, or wearing the skin of the doe Nebris across his chest, and holding the thyrsus and a drinking cup. The lion,

panther, goat, fox, and ass were sacred to him, his

chariot being nearly always

— very rarely by horses or

drawn by some of these beasts


describe the

more important among











a state of frenzy.
twine in

overcome by wine and excitement as to be in Their heads are thrown back, snakes their hair, and they carry in their right hand

a sharp knife or dagger.

of wild fury they


and hang the bleeding skins round their shoulders. Thus they leap around Bacchus, making the woods and valleys resound with
their frantic screams.

the young fawns, eat the flesh raw,

Next comes Silenus. He is represented as an old man, nearly bald, with heavy coarse features, and goat- like
His nose is broad and flat. A pair of small amongst his thin hairs, long pointed ears, a peaked beard, and a small tail, all impart to him a striking resemblance to a goat. At other times he is merely depicted as an ordinary looking old man, stout and very bald. In accounts of Silenus two natures appear in strong contrast to one another. At one time he is described as a learned sage, who educated the young Bacchus, possessed the power of foretelling the future, and opened the paths of wisdom by revealing the secrets of a future life making
horns, visible



emptiness and transitoriness of



and declaring the high calling of mankind. At another he appears in the train of Bacchus as a foolish old drunkard, never sober, riding on an ass or a wine cask, steadied on either side by some of the Bacchanalian following, and keeping the whole troop in roars of laughter by his buffoonery. The Greeks had busts of Silenus, which were made hollow, and opened in two like a door. These were used to preserve beautiful busts from dust and dirt.
Socrates being particularly ugly (his face almost a facsimile

of one of these Silenus busts), but in

character remarkably wise, benevolent

mind and and venerable Plato,

most renowned


drew the



self-willed old Silenus none but those few to whom he chooses to disclose them. parentage the as is God of shepherds distinct : and flocks. and . Pan. beautiful. The Satyrs were of the same class as Silenus. both outwardly and inwardly his exterior being only the veil drawn over the . but passes through In this point the midst of mankind with cynical irony. rich treasures of in him. when bringing Alcibiades into the presence of the great Philosopher. thus too Socrates is is it. " Socrates resembles one of those hollow busts of Silenus. the grandest and most God-like figure appears before us in undying beauty. comparison between them. displayed. I have once caught a glimpse of this hidden nature of his it appeared to me so noble. and who takes no heed of the things so highly prized by the world. When the Silenus mask is opened. He was brought up by nymphs in the Mountains of Arcadia in the Peloponnesus. in which country he was first worshipped. sublime. just as the carved Silenus covers the figure of a God. We give it here as a specimen of the wit of that age. high spirit within.'' later Formerly the Greeks had only one Silenus. They had the same human body. small horns. and not bald. be His doubtful sometimes Zeus and sometimes Hermes is designated as his father. They wore crowns of ivy and vine leaves. that I felt myself compelled to do his bidding. What also he resembles the mocking. 1 56 Satyrs —Pan .. In . and the skins of wild animals hung on their shoulders. and tails . but several are on mentioned amongst the followers of Bacchus. pointed beards. with faces like animals. must considered quite from the Satyrs. but they were younger. have any idea of the great qualities lying beneath his rough exterior. when the inward part of we then behold wisdom do whose outward appearance so little denotes what is stored within .

hills. and bee-keepers. and play sweet melodies on his pipes. as well as To mount the and watch the flocks and herds feeding to hunt the chamois and the deer or to slip through these the forest and lie beside some woodland stream. honoured by them as the pro- tector of their herds. were delighted with him.Pan. . fishermen. his followers found themselves Pan rescued them by blowing on several horns at once. fir. . If he came back fatigued by the chase. On his return from hunting he would drive the lambs into cool shady caves. 157 appearance he resembled the Satyrs. were the darkest recesses of the woods. and so frighten them that they involuntarily took to flight. thereby creating such a wild uproar that the sound rang from mountain to mountain. company with oak. mantle of spotted deer skin. He was the God and protector of herdsmen. and the assailants of the God and his worshippers. summits of the . where he lived in fled. where all the Gods. shepherds. dancing and singing the praises of the Then laying aside his pipes he would don his Gods. terrified. and pine trees. tops. Caves and mountain were sacred to him. especially Dionysus. and the mountain nymphs would surround him. huntsmen. he liked to repose on the soft grass or in a shady cave. Once when Dionysus and attacked and in great danger. and carried him to Mount Olympus. honey and His favourite resorts milk were therefore offered to him. wrapped him in a skin. whereas they feet and a hooked had flat noses. for he would dash indignantly out of his retreat. and join in the dance. and woe betide the shepherds if they disturbed him . but was distinguished from them by having a pair of goats' nose. When he was born his nurse was so horrified at his grotesque appearance that she but Hermes took compassion on the little monster. the nymphs. — were his greatest pleasures.

not knowing whence the sounds came. But when they became His its more civilised. The faces of these statues were often coloured red. as has already been stated. he drew from it the sweetest music. which was sacred to him. and is crowned with ivy and fir. In some parts of Italy Pan was worshipped under the name their of Lupercus. a sudden flight Hence it was that the ancients called (when people. He was principally worshipped in Arcadia. they treated Pan with ceremony. their feelings of respect for him. In earliest times. him . image stood under a were hung the fir tree.158 Pan. shepherd's crook. more lovely than the notes of the nightingale. alarmed. . became heightened. and the whip or syrinx that he holds in his hand. ran away hardly knowing wherefore) a "panic fear. the land of the shepherds. and were wont to scourge his statue when they were unsuccessful in the chase. amidst the branches of which while around first-fruits offered to trunk was fastened the skin of the sacrificial goat. when the Arcadians were yet in a wild and little savage state of existence. He sometimes holds a packs of wolves. or when their herds did not prosper as well as they expected. and seeing no one. and was regarded by the shepherds as special protector against the numerous and savage His statues are easily recognized by the fox or goat-skin with which they are clothed. fled precipitately." Pan was the inventor of the Syrinx. and of thankfulness for his blessings.

Quick hollow. Invention. Not far from the grotto he found a tortoise on the grass taking it up the thought struck him that he : might be able to produce sounds from the hollow shell. poets. and orators. the patron of merchants. himself the the far-famed messenger of the Gods. and behold air. lighted only by the moon. when only four hours old.— HERMES OR MERCURY. amidst lovely dells and flowery pastures. to ! waves of sweet music were wafted out upon the in honour of Zeus and Maia. the son great- God of Intercourse. 159 XV. as thought he returned with it to the cavern. and Industry. the newly discovered instrument in his cradle. who was not a little surprised at such an . for. and having stretched seven sheep-gut cords from one side to the other. he left his cradle and the cave in Arcadia where he was born. and myrtle under the soles of his feet. ness From his very birth his future became apparent . he prepared to return traced. and stretched a piece of ox skin across the empty He then bored holes at equal distances along the shell. Hermes then hid beautiful province in Macedonia. to efface his own Thus he journeyed on in the dead of night. over hill and valley. where. deeming himself safe from discovery. the cattle of the Gods were feeding. . them with a plectrum . edge of the struck fixed reed-canes in them. and went forth to the shadowy hills of Pieria. killed the animal. Hermes. fastening twigs of tamarisk footprints. He was seen by none but one old man. Taking fifty of the finest from the herd of Apollo. lest the track of the cattle should be he led them backwards. and hastened away to possess himself of the beautiful oxen of Apollo.— Hermes 07' Mercury. —was of Zeus and Maia. a which he sang songs Thus was the lyre invented. but.

and would cower before a mother's rebuke all Why should we among the Gods remain here I in this wretched cave? Why should not Zeus will be honoured as well as Apollo ? If my father not aid me. he stamped out the fire. I must do what I can to help let myself. go and rob his temple at Delphi. pieces of wood Here producing a flame by rubbing two hard together. and. and that he had taken his booty to So he hurried to the cave of the grotto in Arcadia. who had watched him to tell the time. who knows not right ? from wrong." Meanwhile the old man had not kept silence. the God consulted the all-wise birds. and lyre. . and now Apollo what he had done. holding in his right the But he could not deceive his all mother Maia.1 60 Hermes or Mermry. " Mother. Then he killed two of the herd. spread their hides to dry on the rock. and to destroy every trace cutting their flesh into twelve pieces. whose flight ately revealed to him that none other than Mercury had committed the theft. threw his tamarisk sandals into the swift stream close by. he collected logs. of his theft. spectacle. Only Apollo find me. with his left a babe among the swaddling clothes. but Immedihad recounted what he had seen to Apollo. and Hermes threatened him with dire he should ever breathe a word of what he had the child safely regained his mother's cave in At last Arcadia. and succeeded in kindling a large pile." she threatened called Hermes calmly. skinned them. Then he hand playing lay quietly like down in his cradle. and it on the fire. on which he burnt these pieces of Burying in the cave what still flesh in honour of the Gods. roasted He then erected an altar. remained. play if he attempts to I will punish me. " dost thou take me for a poor weak mortal child. I will him yet a worse trick. if unwonted vengeance seen.

but finding nothing but nectar." imagine for a moment. a little child. searched the cave in hopes of discovering some carefully traces of his cattle. where Zeus at once assembled the Gods to listen to the plaint of throne of entreaties." to be thus cheated. " that I. and never left my mother's me for L . pressing the lyre close to him. my Apollo. "Release me. looking innocently up. that I I swear to thee thief." he Never cried. All night I slumbered peacefully. 1 6 Maia." and Hermes. : and beautiful raiment he said sternly and ! threateningly " Listen. silver. accompanied his accuser to Mount Olympus." answered "How canst thou Hermes. the world. When defence : he had finished the child Hermes thus began " It his makes me laugh to think that Apollo takes a strong man. wily boy If thou dost not show me the spot where my cattle are hid I will throw thee down into the depths of Tartarus. father's head. ambrosia.1 Hermes or Mercury. but as soon as Hermes saw the God he nestled under the clothes. pretended to be fast asleep like the most innocent babe in He But Apollo saw through this artifice. to Zeus. and my am feet are too soft go on the hard stony ground. from whence neither thy Father nor thy Mother will be able to rescue thee. wrapping the cradle clothes about him. able to carry away a herd of oxen. but yesterday. Then Hermes began to struggle and scream. or sitting on my mother's knee. so without more he took the small rogue up in his arms to carry him ado. and. not the and tender to by my neither do I know who he is. can have stolen thy herds? I am quite happy lying in my Why. I was born cradle. But Apollo was not resistance. will I "and I will follow thee without appear dragged thus before the At last Apollo complied with his father. gold.

He returned with Apollo to the cave. . he promised him forgiveness of lyre and various divine gifts. From all this instru- ment he produced such listened in astonishment. if he would give him his and teach him to play it. Hermes soon afterwards invented the shepherd's pipe. and the God marvelled greatly how such a young child could have killed them. and the guardian- ship of the herds. but the child's divine nature displayed itself. but Zeus was not deceived. The bands round the fell from him. that Apollo was lost in wonder. and eagerly desired to possess the same power. "Go to !" he answered. He recognised the instead of being angry. "show where thou hast hidden the cattle. an invention sometimes attributed to Pan. To prevent his doing any more mischief he bound him fast with willow withes. and at once twined them- selves feet of the oxen." and Hermes did not dare to carry the decepfault tion further. lovely sounds that the Gods Hermes and Apollo then made a compact . and showed him not only those oxen that were alive. and how to each God appointed portion was given. What proof has he of care. 1 62 Hermes or Mercury. rendering them unable to move. When Hermes had ended his theft." Thus spoke Hermes. or rob his temple.. fetched his lyre. and while his ringers swept the sang such wonderful songs of the immortal Gods. the former swore by the holy oath of the Gods that he would never either steal from Apollo his harp or bow. but also the skins of those he had slain. in my turn. the dark earth and his how it was made. accuse him of harshness and injustice. cunning and boldness of the boy. but. returned with Apollo to Mount Olympus. my guilt? I. Then he strings. he only smiled at the . Hermes gladly consented in return the and receiving golden whip.



The origin of this was. and on his striking them with his staff they ceased their combat. Later on these pillars were the streets of Athens. and especially of Zeus. Put not off till to-morrow what can be done to-day. was repre- sented by the Greeks in the shape of a four-cornered pillar. awoke and whatever substance it . He is the strongest who conquers himself. Apollo giving him as a pledge his 163 golden rod. their heads meeting at the point. were conducted by him mankind. and narrowing towards the bottom which a Hermes. His sandals were golden. he was sent to fetch them. like his that he equalled the cap. deep sleep. fastened to it.Hermes or Mercury. These pillars stood in great numbers . to Also the Dreams. whereas Hermes had to seek this knowledge from the winged Moirae. so hand a staff. he is constantly mentioned by Homer. were furnished with wings. The principal occupation of Hermes was to act as the messenger of the Gods. or. Two small wings were souls Hermes was deputed by spirits the of the departed to the Underworld Gods to lead the and if any of \ these had to appear again as witnesses in the Upperworld. As such. and. wind in swiftness. or Mercury. who lived at the entrance of the Underworld. broad in at the top was called proverb. but he kept to himself the gift of foretelling the future. and on such as: . it. touched was turned into gold. With this staff he worked Whoever he touched with it sank into if asleep. and twined themselves round many wonders. each was engraved a Learn to know thyself. that Hermes had once seen two snakes fighting. He held in his round which were twisted two snakes. In very ancient times Hermes. which possessed the power of bestowing happiness and riches .

and he stepped forth a beautiful youth. Apollo was the son of Zeus or and was born in the island of Hardly had he seen the light of day when the Delos. represented as a boy. a tortoise. As or a youth. AURORA OR As has already been stated. the Gods were amazed at the wonderful apparition. two small wings are visible in his left hand is a bag. palm-leaves being then used for paper. He is variously When amidst his curling hair finger of the right lost in thought. This divine food rendered his growth so rapid that the childish clothing fell from him. and a man. while Themis fed him with nectar and ambrosia. 1 64 Phcebtis Apollo. AESCULAPIUS. XVI. Jupiter and Leto or Latona. EOS. walking. surmounted by the head of Hermes. and a ram. announcing boldly that the harp and the his. as if he were meditating some cunning either stratagem. and Delos rejoiced greatly at . his ears and mouth small. the symbol of watchfulness. His body muscular. against which he leans the latter probably an emblem of his invention of the art carriage elastic.— PHCEBUS APOLLO. hand rests against his chin. far-shooting bow would for the future in his glorious beauty. is with hat. A cock. His hair is .. or scrip. a youth. and a . he sitting. descended from the mount on which be specially When he was born to the plain beneath. or the stem of a palm tree. are shown beside him as well as a bowl for offerings. he thus. standing. nymphs came and wrapped him in fine linen and golden bands. or depicted as a boy. heels. his Wings are fastened to his cap and his short and curling. of writing. is represented staff.

bow and quiver in hand. Gods on when he all appeared in the Assembly. his head surrounded with shining rays. Apollo repaired to Pieria Macedonia.Phoebus Apollo. his body clothed in golden raiment. he joined the assembly of the Gods. Coming he wished there to found his his abode. One of the principal seats in the abode of the to Apollo. But the nymph of the spring. 165 being chosen by Apollo as his birthplace and favourite resort. and plunged into the thick dark forests of Bceotia. who sang to the notes of her brother's lyre. and on to the temple. "to make thyself Here canst thou never have The horses and the lowing cattle that come in really intend/' in this place ? . at last to the spring of Thelpusa. Olympus was then assigned rose from their seats to do so that. the Graces and Hours danced. as yet untrodden by the foot of man. thence into Thessaly. fearing that fame would eclipse her own. but build himself a nowhere could he find a place to Therefore he returned to the Grecian mainland. she said. Then with harp slung on his arm. Zeus and . tried to dissuade him. island of Euboea. his mother Leto alone remained seated she. which she locked away. from which he drew the most exquisite melodies. in Descending from Olympus. "Dost thou a home peace. while Zeus handed to him a goblet filled with nectar. Hera (Juno) and Aphrodite (Venus) took part in the dance with Artemis or Diana. hung the bow on one of the pillars of the hall. relieving and at his entrance him of his quiver. where he was universal joy. and bade him take his seat. the newly born twin sister of Apollo. him honour. the Muses sang praises to the bounty of the Gods. received with Music and song resounded on all sides. and the works of men.

1 66 P/iceÖ7is Apollo. laid the foundations of his temple in a where large masses these foundations of rock afforded a sheltering roof. spring. as at the foot of : most sanctuary of the temple now stands. also went towards the chasm. was a deep cleft. where neither chariot nor horse will dis- turb thee. and of As God of Prophecy he was especially honoured in Mount Parnassus he had founded his temple. and coming to Parnassus. was a deep chasm. where lay the mighty dragon Python. A herd of goats browsed near it. On this becoming known of the surrounding country. Of a temple of white marble was afterwards erected by his Not far from the spot was a numerous worshippers. thirst at crowds to quench their plains tempt my fountain would dis- turb the stillness of thy sacred temple. and began to foreto the inhabitants the future. that the goatherd. quite different from its ordinary bleating. Here in the wildest part of the mountain. when only five days old. He looked down hoping to discover some cause for so he but as soon as he did as became : afflicted in the if same manner were the goats tell he sprang about as bewitched. they flocked to examine for . amazed it. and when one of them approached its edge. out of which rose a perpetual column of sulphureous vapour. Go Mount Parnassus. in peace. An old writer thus describes the spot " Where the innerDelphi. There canst thou build thy home cleft. and the noise of and warrather to fare will break the repose of thy holy shrine. and was thenceforth called the Pythian Apollo. it took such astonishing leaps. at this extraordinary occurrence. of Music. killed him with his arrows. The surrounding strife men to battle." Apollo believed her words. encompassed by gigantic shapes of rock. The God. God of Prophecy. Apollo was the Archery. and made such strange sounds.

be- came regarded Gaea or Ge all as a suitable locality for oracle. therefore. was tion of which all the our money. was built in the form of an amphitheatre. and over the chasm. . sprang into the gulf in their wild excitement. and the it suritself rounding scenery was so wild and romantic that inspired a feeling of awe and anxious expectation in those who came to consult the oracle. and as drew near and looked in became inspired. and were never more divine for all. in Over the entrance were the words. two gigantic in on the east and west . In this hollow resounded numerous echos. which increased the awe of those who ventured near this wild and secluded spot." seen. The spot. predictions declared these were attributed to the (Earth). Originally only a small and insignificant temple was built over the cleft.." The inner and most sacred portion of the Here stood a golden statue edifice was called the Pythian. Phoebus Apollo. whence proceeded fumes. chasm and prophesy to each other but as several of them. themselves this 167 many an as wonderful chasm.000. a magnificent temple of Parian marble was erected. On the north it was over- shadowed by the high Parnassus . At first the Greeks believed that it was the Goddess Gaea who here predicted the future but the oracle was subsequently dedicated to Apollo. it was determined that this danger should be prevented by appointing one woman to Round It this abyss gradually arose the town of Delphi. ^60. while inspired. and the Goddess those who desired For a long time it was customary for an oracular saying. to go to the . "Thou art. towards the construc- Greek states contributed the sum of. of Apollo. steep and fantastically and pointed summit of Mount masses of rock completely shut it and on the southern side another shaped cliff formed an abrupt precipice. but in the reign of Cyrus.

1 68 Phcebus Apollo. a branch of the same in one hand. The people of other nations besides the Greeks yet afar off. on which sat the priestess who declared the decision of the oracle. The sacrifice was not pro- nounced tremble to all be ready until the sacrificial animal began to over from the effects of the cold water that had it. and while it became filled with and the gold. placed a tripod. Then. in order to give the priests time to gain full infor- mation about the enquirer. and marble pillars. and. and carried She the tablets into the Pythian to the priestess or Pythia. The sacrifices were generally repeated on the plea that they had not been successful the first time. and the and olive trees. been poured upon At last it was said that the God allowed the questioners to enter. silver. which the gratitude of the enquirOn descending into the ing multitudes had placed there. Before being admitted into the sacred precincts. under the dark shade of laurels A wild rushing music was heard. had been crowned with laurel. by a wall. crowned with laurel. and in the other a laurel wreathed tablet on which were written the questions they wished to have answered. sacrifices. air was filled with fragrant incense. and brought into a chapel separated only from the Pythian. and fasting j especially were they obliged to present the required gifts to Apollo. Here the priests left them. temple stood the enquirer found hollow where the original himself in a sacred grove. had bathed in the Castalian spring. in solemn proces- sion amid wild music. or Most Holy. they were conducted to the temple. holy ardour. was simply dressed. before entering the temple. came those hither for advice who came to consult and guidance. On the heights of the surrounding mountains glistened the roofs of the sacred buildings. and had plucked and eaten some leaves from the laurels . those who sought the oracle had to prepare themselves by baths.

Phcebus Apollo. Kings and wealthy and powerful worshippers enriched the temple at Delphi with quantities of costly and valuable Besides the numbers of gilded statues which presents. this function who performed had by . she foamed at the mouth. the alone amounted to more than one million of gold and modern money. when the inhabitants of Phocis ruthlessly silver broke into and plundered the temple. 169 These preparations senses forsook her. that the The answers were so ambiguously expressed enquirer never clearly knew in what sense the prophecy answer was intended to be taken. plaintive cries burst lips. other occupied every available open place in the vicinity of the temple. . the priests collected her incoherent words. After this three priestesses were appointed. and are still. and from these arranged the God's answers in Hexameters. Her the priests were obliged to hold her. and all recovered her senses. fled in terror. they priests. Once the conso fearful that the and tortures of the Pythia became though well accustomed to these sights. and was at once enveloped from her in the sulphurous fumes. and the several outer buildings over- flowed with treasure. the Any one who could favourite recreations of the Greeks. When the Pythia had been taken from the tripod. Dancing and music were in ancient times. the space in front of it was literally filled with sumptuous once offerings. completed. if the did not prove true. painfully from her lips and as single words dropped between the throes of anguish. It has been said that Apollo was also the God of Music. turns. were carefully written down by the vulsions priests. the priests were always able to say their meaning had been wrongly comprehended. her eyes almost started from their sockets. growing in front of the sacred edifice. so that. so that. she seated herself in the tripod.

if As a musician he any ventured to is of course surpassed mortals. having practised on skill. Apollo. the combat between Otus and latter Ephialtes (better known as the x\loidae).1 yo Phoebus Apollo. the God and his sister were regarded both as . and this combinaThe Muses declared tion won him a complete triumph. his death was always ascribed to the arrows of Apollo or his sister Artemis. an example. however. whether from old age or otherwise. in the wars of the Gods against the Titans. and compete with him he received the reward of his temerity. As however. but Marsyas blew his the same time so loudly that lyre. He was the friend and leader of the Muses. Leader of the Muses. and he was condemned to be flayed alive. wrapt in a golden mantle. and is thus often mentioned in the old myths as for instance. meaning. he quite overpowered the sound of the and thought he had thus gained the victory. and was therefore called Musagetes. If any one died suddenly. was everywhere welcome. at challenged Apollo to a to trial which the Muses were lyre flute at be the umpires. He found the flute that had been thrown away by Athene it. Apollo was considered supreme in the archery. in which the was shot by Apollo in the left eye. it Apollo at once took his and drew from the most enchanting tones. though this name has sometimes been applied to Dionysus also. and. or play for the dance. of Marsyas. sudden death may either be a blessing or a calamity. overreached him by beginning to sing as well as play. Marsyas vanquished. As such did the Greeks picture Apollo. the faithful attendant of Cybele. except that his songs a golden seat On were reserved for the Gods alone. and even all to Hercules. put words to music. skilful practice 01 . he called forth from his harp exquisite melodies while they sat at meat. on Mount Olympus. the wars of the giants.

calling upon all the women to bring offerings of incense to Leto (Latona). " a priestess relates the story as follows : went through the town of Thebes." Penelope." —Homer. Homer relates in the beginning of the Iliad. 1 7 Thus the inhabitants : of a certain island were considered fortunate afflicted " They are with lingering disease. Hadst thou a long Death called ? or did Artemis shoot thee with her swift arrows " death were also attributed to Apollo and his instance. benevolent and as wrathful never divinities. The aged Chryses. Odysseus asked world. when he met her illness before in the Underthee. his priest had been insulted He (Apollo). . King of Thebes. " to gentle Sleep. Amphion. in vengeance for his priest. The " Iliad. that ye prefer Apollo and Artemis to me ? Am not I also descended from the Gods? Have not I . " . because by Agamemnon. but as soon as old age are shot by the painless arrows of overtakes them they Apollo or Artemis. sent a plague that scattered death Throughout the host. Just then Niobe passed by. old poets give a harrowing tale of how Apollo and Artemis punished the arrogance of Niobe. " are ye mad. Those plagues and diseases which speedily terminated in For sister. the wife of Odysseus." Book i. with the king Indignant.1 Phoebus Apollo. " that Artemis would grant me. unhappy that like I and peaceful death. (Wright)." says he. and wife of " What/' cried she haughtily. that Apollo sent a pestilence among the Greeks as they lay encamped before Troy. was a daughter of Tantalus. and She her two divine children. whom Atrides scorned. King of Asia Minor. Ovid graphically " Once. once exclaimed." Oh am a swift And again ! ! his mother.

about —a homeless fugitive ! — Delos received I to lose who of the has but two children while I stand too high for any misfortune to touch me. banish'd from my shrine. lost. who with comfort knew . there that would still ! remain more than double " number Leto possesses Niobe. Through the soft yielding air direct their flight. Their heavenly bodies Then both enshroud in a sable cloud .172 Phoebus Apollo. Beaten and while it daily feels The trampling horse. influenced by her words. more. I. Without the wall there lies a champaign ground With even surface. my children. With grief the Goddess saw the base affront And. just Fate. and rights divine. the Thus boasted proud women of Thebes reluctantly brought their offerings to Leto. and chariot's grinding wheels. all and languish My godhead Nay questioned. and even were one or two my children. many till seven stalwart sons. And to the Theban towers descending light. Reflections with her vile paternal tongue Has dared prefer her mortal breed to mine. levell'd. every moment's while vengeance Diana spoke the same. The mother her twin-offspring thus address'd : : Lo. is deferr'd. and as lovely daughters? ! and She yet ye would give Leto the precedence she who wandered her. " High on the top of Cynthus' shady mount. And called me childless . precedency of place heavenly race. may she repine ! When And to urge more the Goddess was prepar'd. Unless you succour. the imp of Tantalus has flung . . birth. far extending round. Too much we've heard. which. and. Your god-like and thence my glory drew And thence have claim'd From all but Juno of the Must now despair. the abuse revolving in her breast. in disgrace. Phcebus in haste replies.

And. quick discharg'd. Just as he drew the rein to guide his horse Around the compass of the circling course. Tantalus. fondly griev'd their stiffening limbs embraced But in the action falls a thrilling dart. their Next young Phaedimus they took aim : . within his breast : And the reins dropping from his dying hand. And Sipylus next the rattling quiver heard. . Practising there to ride the manag'd steed. with full speed for his escape prepar'd . Part of proud Niobe's young rival breed. who bore his grandsire's name These. . straining ev'ry nerve. And. But an unerring dart O'ertook him. Ismenos. by a double wound.: . And his throat display 'd the point besmear'd with blood Prone as his posture was. try the wrestler's oily sport begun . joining breast to breast When from the bending bow an arrow sent. i 73 Their bridles boss'd with gold. pierc'd him to the heart. he tumbled o'er. While the shaft stuck. Sigh'd deeply. By Phcebus guided. He sunk quite down. . through both their bodies went With grief And smote Then Alphenor saw their doleful plight. were mounted high On stately furniture of Tyrian die. And And To bath'd his courser's at mane with streaming gore. and sickened at the sight : to their succour ran with eager haste. his breast. . it trembling stood. engored. and tumbled on the sand. who by birth had been The first fair issue of the fruitful queen. when their other exercise was done. Phoebus Apollo. Join'd as they were. and the pangs of smart express'd. their skill express'd In closest grapple. But Damascithon. . and sped with art Fixed in his neck behind. Of these.

Then her pale arms advancing to the skies. Superior in number remain. and pierc'd the nervous joint as he stooped to tug the painful dart. and all. : 1 74 Phoebus Apollo. Lifting in prayer his unavailing hands And. And with my woes your thirsty passion quench Cruel Latona My . Swift to the mother's ears the rumour came. . in a vital part : Another struck him Ilioneus. too cruel Yet I'll rival. for yet. and display . she led The throng that from Latona's altar fled. So by a slight and easy wound he died. lay gasping on the ground. And doleful sighs the heavy news proclaim : . she And When Assuming Was now Prostrate state beyond the proudest queen. ! triumph now (she cries) grieving soul in bitter anguish drench. slain. Scarce had she spoke Was heard. the miserablest object seen. Beardless and young. Your conquer'd standard excel still . the steely point And Stuck through his knee. the sounding bow Had sent the shaft. Spare me. . though sev'n are I . Feast your black malice at a price thus dear. O all ye heavenly pow'rs (he cries) Phoebus was touched too late. Fixed in his sinewy ham. While the sore pangs of seven such deaths I bear. among the clay-cold dead she fell. with terror stands .. . and struck the fatal blow Which yet but gently gored his tender side. through the streets in solemn pomp. the last. And kiss'd an undistinguish'd last farewell. who tossed her high disdainful head. confound. . for you've won the day. the bowstring's twanging sound dealt fresh terrors all around Which but Niobe alone. Triumph. ignorant from whom his griefs arise.

Stagnate and dull. within her purple veins. Widow'd and childless (lamentable state !) A doleful sight among the dead she sits Harden'd with woes. " Metamorphoses. and fills the air with shrieks : And The all in vain . Behind her spreading mantle close conceal'd. (Croxall). To every breath of wind unmov'd her hair . and life from every part are gone . When Vainly in flight another's hopes are placed This hiding from her fate a shelter seeks . Its current stopp'd. this youngest I implore. and stung with sudden smart. . Grant me this one request. There yet her marble cheeks eternal tears distil. last. Before the funeral biers. the lifeless blood remains. nor hopes relief." Book vi. all weeping sad. a statue of despair. for now all six had found Their way to death. — . her native country finds There fixed. But stands congeal'd. One on her dying sister breathes her last one. Action. But to grim death her blooming youth resigns And o'er her brother's corpse her dying head reclines. . O grant me this ! she passionately cries : But while she speaks. surpris'd. Borne through the air. : That trembling stands. No more her pliant tongue its motion keeps. In vain attempts to draw the sticking dart. within her frozen lips. Only for this. . with eager care the mother veil'd. . whirled by stormy winds. Yet still she weeps and." OviD. in vests of sable clad . the destin'd virgin dies. she stands upon a bleaky hill. each by a different wound. I ask no more . Stunned and obdurate by her load of grief. Insensible she sits.— Phcebus Apollo. i 75 Her daughters stood.

where he espoused her Telamon. "standing childless and crownless in her voiceless woe. Long before the siege of Troy King Laomedon wished to surround his town with walls. killing Hercules rescued her by faithless the monster.1 76 the Phoebus Apollo. King of Salamis. however. so strong that commanded them They afterwards found made them it the Greeks impossible to destroy them. namely. fields swift as the wind. When. Hercules did not allow this perfidy to remain unpunished. and Alcestis. or treading down corn in the latter. by refusing wonderful to give him the promised reward." Apollo was supposed to have founded as the temple at Delphi j many towns as well he also helped to erect the walls of Troy. As part the god of flocks and herds Apollo plays a prominent in the beautiful myth of Admetus in Thessaly. He killed Laomedon. he for a punishment to build the walls for the king. but Laomedon proved to him also. heights of On Mount Sipylus in Phrygia stands the desolation has rock of Niobe. the daughter of Pelias. Poseidon sent a frightful sea-monster which country. traversed both water the and without either sinking in the former. the king's daughter. The city of Rome in its been called the Niobe of nations. but carried Hesione with him to Greece. Laomedon refused to give to Poseidon and Apollo the reward he had devastated the whole promised. and as Apollo and Poseidon had just then offended Zeus. that. Admetus. his horses. But Pelias had sworn only to give his daughter to the suitor who should come to seek her in a chariot . the sovereign of a neighbouring kingdom. which from a distance resembles the form of a weeping woman. and could only be pacified by the sacrifice of Hesione. King of Pherae fair loved Alcestis. and drove them from him with threats. and gave the kingdom to his friend to his son Priam.

Pelias fulfilled his But his trials promise and gave him Alcestis as his wife. the heavenly herdsman came to his assist- succeeded in persuading the goddess to remove Alcestis enjoyed the reptiles. but she entreated Pluto in vain to permit the daughter of Pelias to . Even But a little while. that the life of The Admetus should be prolonged if another human life were voluntarily But of whom could this sacrifice offered up in his stead.Phoebus Apollo. " There is no darkness for me in the land of Hades. Once again. forgotten to offer her a sacrifice. Zeus having expelled him from Olympus. Apollo serving Admetus as a herdsman. Various causes for the anger of Zeus have been stated. so that. be required ? Then spoke the beautiful Alcestis. was at that time were not yet over. When he returned to his palace he in revenge. But however this may have been. amongst others that Apollo had slain the dragon Python. Fortunately. drawn by a lion i 77 and a wild boar. Apollo befriended Admetus and taught him to tame and harness the wild beasts. of Apollo were in the implacable Parcae to lengthen the thread of his only concession he could gain was. and even the inducing life. and the strength of the fair bride ebbed and the awful Moirae had borne Alcestis to the shadowy kingdom. and Admetus mourned in bitter grief the love which he had lost. the curse of the gods passed from Admetus. no pain in death if only I die for thee. when he arrived in his wonderful chariot. Persephone was touched by his lamentations. and Admetus and unbroken happiness." and even as the words came from her slowly away. happiness so great as at last to excite the envy of some of the gods. lips my husband. however. found it swarming with snakes sent by Artemis Admetus having ance. fell Suddenly Admetus entreaties dangerously ineffectual ill.

Oh art thou gone. Apollo showed especial friendship towards the beautiful youth Hyacinthus. its life and beauty fled So Hyacinth. i j& Phoebus Apollo. near the river Eurotas. decays. and his skill defies. Then him the soul of the brave . A fading lily droops its languid head. and wipes the him bleeding from the ground. stirred within he descended into and in the land of darkness did battle with the powers of inflexible death. return to the Upperworld. in Sparta. Apollo threw the disc but Zephyrus. and rescued Alcestis from the stern King of Hades. and even laid playing quoits and bow.. high in the air . art all my sorrow now And to my guilty hand my grief I owe ! ! . : . with head declined. And bends to earth. and drove against the " (Apollo) rais'd Chafes his cold limbs. and once more the sound of great rejoicing was heard in the halls of Pherae. once my joy. As in a water'd garden's blooming walk. he also loved. he concerned himself little about Delphi. . fell close to it where Hyacinthus The ground being hard lad's rebounded. Hercules was Tartarus. When some rude hand has bruis'd its tender stalk. fatal wound : Then herbs of noblest juice in vain applies The wound is mortal. aside his harp When hunting or wrestling with him. her beauty more radiant than even in the days before the heavy sorrow of her loss had fallen on him. did not respond it guided the quoit that head. Once they were it. so whom stood. Hyacinthus ran to catch angry that the youth. to his friendship. my boy (Apollo cry'd) Defrauded of thy youth in all its pride Thou. So once more she stood before Admetus.

Behold. Far brighter than the Tyrian scarlet shone. during which the celebrated Paean was performed. or but with thee die . my cries thou shalt repeat. sprang . In honour of Hyacinthus the Spartans instituted a great yearly feast. And to this hour the mournful purple wears Ai. the beloved." —Ovid. Phoebus Apollo. and the performance of pantomimic dances. Nor stopped he there the god upon its leaves The sad expression of his sorrow weaves . my verse shall And to a flower transform'd. inscribed in funeral characters. new success attends. A form that it took . its purple hue Was all made a diff 'rence to the view. that sire. it was the blue sword which the poet meant. Ai. Apollo never married. . (Dryden). nor letters call by that name. the blood which stain'd the verdant field. Thus from the hyacinth for that is the blood of the beautiful. This was a song in praise of Apollo. but he loved the most celebrated of relates the many mortal maidens. whom was Daphne." Book x. "Metam. Oh ! i 79 could I for thee. unheard of yet. with accompaniment of lyre or harp. ! But cruel fates to me that pow'r deny Yet on my tongue thou shalt for ever dwell Thy name my lyre shall sound. but a flower full blown. but the dire decree forc'd Of angry Cupid him to desire : Daphne" her name. Is blood no longer lily's . marked with spots lily resembling the Ai . Stamped on thy leaves tell . and Peneus was her Swell'd with the pride. While Phcebus thus the laws of fate reveal'd. not the flower which we is it not always blue.. Ovid thus myth and : " The first fairest of his loves was she Whom not blind fortune. .

while his bow he And thus insults him Thou lascivious : Are arms like these for children to employ ? Know. Take up the torch (and lay my weapons by) With that the feeble souls of lovers fry. and begged her father not Many to deprive her of her freedom." — Ovid. Two different shafts he from his quiver draws One to repel desire." Book i. But mine on Phcebus. allay. from pursuing falcons. not a foe Thus from the lion trips the trembling doe Thus from the wolf the frighten'd lamb removes. He said. And. and make the lover bold One blunt. when I conquer thee. but on Parnassus' airy height. swiftly wing'd his flight Nor stopped. mine the frame shall be Of all thy conquests. after her : and fled " at once his heart longed for her. she : away from him. such achievements are my proper claim Due to my vigour and unerring aim Resistless are my shafts. and soaring. and drives desire away. . 1 80 Phoebus Apollo. be his wife." —Ovid. Stay In vain he called I nymph (he cry'd). and Daphne with the blunt arrow. Now Apollo beheld her. bends. Provokes disdain. follow. and tipped with lead. . i. whose bare .." Book . (Dryden). Whereupon Eros wounded Apollo with the sharp. To whom the son of Venus thus reply'd : Phoebus. . : : In such a feather'd death has found his fate. and one to cause : . neither of which failed to accomplish their work. He sees the stripling. fearful doves Thou shunnst a god. " Metam. . boy. but like the wind. One shaft is pointed with refulgent gold To bribe the love. thy shafts are sure on all beside. and her father but she cared only for a youth had besought her to had often entreated her to marry the chase. " Metam. and Python late. and shunn'st a god that loves.

her arms extend to boughs The nymph is all into a laurel gone Or change my form. " at least as a tree shalt thou be mine. earth. and fasten'd to the ground A filmy rind about her body grows Her hair to leaves." —Ovid. : : The smoothness Still of her skin remains alone. and kissed the wood that seemed to shrink from him. When this was solemnly cleansed and expiation was completed in Athens. and my became at rest when they And words. the Before the Theoria sailed for Delos. (Dryden). when her feet she found Benumb'd with cold." he cried. and felt his breath on her floating hair And now despairing. From god all the neighbouring countries of Greece. cast a mournful look Upon the streams of her paternal brook :— Oh help (she cry'd). Over hill 1 8 and vale till fled Phcebus Apollo. started . Scarce had she finish'd. " As thou couldst not be my bride. for the island of Delos was above others sacred Here a brilliant feast was held yearly in his honour.: 1 Phoebus Apollo. and the crown of the green bush bowed heard these the thick clustering leaves in assent. laurels shall From henceforth quiver. which they had to every nine years to the Minotaur of Crete. the love of Apollo remained. solemn sacri- embassies called Theoria hastened to render thanks to the for having freed the Athenians from the offer human fices. she almost 11 at last her strength Daphne. tenderly he embraced the branches. ! water-gods are deities indeed Gape. and this unhappy wretch entomb If : . whence all my sorrows come. " Metam. it town whence purified. my lyre. The most to him." crown my head. in this extremest need. ordinary surnames of Apollo were Delos and all Cynthius." Book i. : . but nearer yet came began to fail.

Next a solemn banquet took cluded with games. which act was the signal for departure. and was performed by the young rinth. conveying oxen to the gods. repre- senting the sorrows and wanderings of Leto. return of the Theoria. Clouds of incense now rose from the numerous gave the signal for the commencement of the All then separated themselves into choirs. executing mystic dances. Here stood the most beautiful maidens of Delos. as has fifth been said. but every year it celebrated with especial honours. another choir of beautifully arrayed youths sang the praises . and soon the plain Mount Cynthus was crowded with those who and had come to celebrate the birthday of Apollo and Artemis. singing their gifts to the temple. and crowned with wreaths. as a present to Ariadne. representing the mazes of a laby- Theseus had learned first from Ariadne. altars. festival con- This feast was held every year. meanwhile. followed in solemn procession. the priest of Apollo crowned the rudder of the ship with laurel. place. place. the Theoria ambassadors stepped on shore. There. at the foot of Amid the chanting of hymns. and it was he it who introduced it into Delos. men it of Delos : it consisted in innumerable windings. while their companions played on the of Artemis lyre and sang hymns. feast. . of their choir would commence a pantomimic dance. and young girls from Delphi. The Theoria. crowned an ancient statue of Venus. Whoever danced and the was the best received a beautifully chased tripod as his reward. and sacrificing Of all the dances one was specially remarkable. dressed in white The leaders shining garments.j 82 Phoebus Apollo. Until the no punishments or executions took Laurel-wreathed ships came from all parts into the harbour of Delos. Similar feasts also took place at Delphi. which Theseus had brought from Crete hymns.

or sometimes a shepherd's crook. into the wonderful vessel Then the sun-god stepped made by Vulcan. and were arched. and grasshopper were sacred to Apollo also the laurel and olive-tree. son of Hyperion (i. such which were dedicated Mount Parnassus and Mount Helicon. and bathed in the sun-lake. He lived with from Aurora on the east side soon as rosy-fingered Eos had whence. his sun-horses.. near Colchis. and his head surrounded His sisters were Eos or Aurora (the with shining rays. He is represented us). back to his golden palace in the east. drawn by four fiery steeds. and Selene or Luna (the moon). and there cooled The Hours and Nereides hastened forth. and the crown from his head. This sun-lake was separated from Oceanus by high rocks of shining brass. where after having watered his horses.Phcebtis Apollo. He is generally depicted crowned with laurel. with a golden helmet. deer. and his figure was graceful and active. a as the ideal of oval. unharnessed the steeds. chariot. his bow and quiver. . dawn). flashing eyes. Later poets confound Apollo with the sun-god Helios or Phoebus. every morning as opened the gates. The wolf. his He had no hair on his face. he lay down to rest. god was regarded manly beauty the shape forehead was high and of his face was a long curling locks fell on to his shoulders. and threw ambrosial grass before them. The . fastened together in a knot. called the Chalice of Helios. and sailed with incredible speed round the northern half of the earth.e. In the evening he descended into the west to the green waters of Oceanus. and as at other places 183 to the god. he drove across the heavens in his golden of the earth. took the reins from his hands. . eagle. raven. and holding the plectrum. he who goes above Homer calls Helios Hyperion. dolphin.

here were carv'd. For in the portal was display'd on high (The work of Vulcan) a fictitious sky A waving sea th' inferior earth embrac'd.1 84 Phoebus Apollo. and on finding that or as the Romans called him. and Phaethon. And gods and goddesses the waters grac'd. and bade him go to his . and begged her to tell him if Helios. With Doris. . " The sun's bright palace. . . of many more the children. that he Clymene declared was so. and streams. And some on fishes through the waters glide : Though various features did the sisters grace. And with a milder gleam refresh'd the sight : : Of polish'd iv'ry was the cov'ring wrought The matter vied not with the sculptor's thought. . Sol. JEgeon here a mighty whale bestrode Triton. and all her train. While some on rocks their drooping hair divide. Some loosely swimming in the figur'd main. beasts. whose rashness and sad fate Ovid so beautifully describes. and Proteus (the deceiving god). in the description of . (Addison). : the heav'n's refulgent image shines On either gate were six engraven signs. On earth a diff rent landscape courts the eyes. Helios had several wives and Aeetes.. told her of the slight he had received. among Circe others whom we shall hear . With burnish'd gold and flaming jewels blaz'd The folding gates diffus'd a silver light." Book ii. and rural deities. towns." —Ovid " Metam. in distant prospects rise. the Argonautic expedition sorceress. A sister's likeness was in ev'ry face. Phaethon once boasted that he was the son of Helios his assertion was disbelieved. on high columns rais'd. And nymphs. Men. and woods. he hurried glowing with anger to his mother Clymene. was in truth his father. and O'er all.

Whate'er thou may'st desire. and on arriving he sought. Helios cried aloud to him from his throne. with flow'ry chaplets bound Here Summer. " Metam. . On son. . and Phaethon to approach. the ruler of the sky. i»5 and there from his lips receive the assurance Phaethon obeyed her behest. Here Spring appears." In vain did Helios beseech him to recall his words. I swear by the Then . (Addison)." Book ii. Dares try his strength . who as strong as Jove ? . and Ages stand. and as he took him in his allowed thou art arms." the god took from his head the starry crown. And Days. That hurls the three-forked thunder from above. " let me for one day guide thy chariot through the high heavens. telling him even the gods themselves could not drive the chariot. and Years. Styx that I will grant it thee. with purple garments on The Hours. in her wheaten garland crown'd Here Autumn the rich trodden grapes besmear . " Clymene has indeed told thee true my son." And Phaethon answered " O father. perceiving the youth. near the palace stood motionless. if I am really thy son." —Ovid. who d wellest in the dazzling light. that the horses of Helios would obey no earthly master 11 Not Jove himself. so that men may recognize me as such. yet." " Then. dazzled by its wondrous brilliancy : " The god sits high. in order rang'd on either hand." cried the youth. and Months. said. and that men may not doubt it.: Phoebus Apollo. give me a token.. "What must wants my : son? for know thou art my and I call thee so. exalted on a throne Of blazing gems. And hoary Winter shivers in the year. ask of me what thou wilt. father's palace. .

And see the earth and ocean hang below. And the moon shining with a blunter horn. the wheels were orb'd with gold. and persisted in his original at last his father reluctantly yielded. for Lucifer had chas'd stars away. and fled himself at last. But the cautions were in vain : Phaethon would accept and led no other request. father Soon as the saw the rosy morn. And my own heart misgives me at the sight." —Ovid." Book ii. The spokes in rows of silver pleas'd the sight. When they grow warm and all restive to the rein. — 1 8 Phcebus Apollo. when the middle firmament they gain. The steeds climb up the first ascent with pain. " Metam. when from their nostrils flows The scorching fire that in their entrails glows. And steady reins must curb the horses' rage. If downward from the heav'ns my head I bow. He bade the nimble Hours without delay. and of the difficulty of avoiding the stars and wild beasts." Ibid. The seat with parti-coloured gems was bright Apollo shone amid the glare of light. The youth with secret joy the work surveys. . Gold was the beam. Ev'n I their headstrong fury scarce restrain. which formed some of the constellations. (Addison). Many warnings did he give to Phaethon of dangers he would meet. gift as till a substitute. and added " Nor would you find it easy to compose The mettled steeds. When now The The stars the morn disclos'd her purple rays .. And. were fled. E'en I am seiz'd with horror and affright. A mighty downfall steeps the ev'ning stage.6 : : . him to the " dangerous chariot A golden axle did the work uphold.

for ever in the sky. Bring forth the steeds . till the heart of Phaethon sank with fear. he grow dark before him. Then Helios anointed ointment. And leave the breezes of the morn behind. Meanwhile the restless horses neigh'd aloud. Dropping ambrosial foams. and passed through Constellations regions which they had never visited before. Those thanks his father with remorse receives. " He spoke in vain the youth with active heat And sprightly vigour vaults into the seat And joys to hold the reins.— Phoebus Apollo. and pawing where they stood. : the nimble From their full racks. and fondly gives . Soon. the horses felt that the chariot was lighter than usual." Ibid. " Metam. They spring together out. tried to sink into the forbidden At length Phaethon turned felt all his eyes towards the bottomless depths. then his courage entirely forsook him. Wildly they sped along on their way up the heights of heaven. : 187 Hours obey fire. to enable star-crown on his brow.. ." Book (Addison). for mortals do not weigh so heavy as the gods. pale as death. Yet once more he tried to dissuade him from the enterprise. On. which had been condemned to remain ocean. however. and swiftly bear The flying youth through clouds and yielding air With wingy speed outstrip the Eastern wind. placed the directed him how to guide the and which road to take. Breathing out fire. on. the gen'rous steeds retire. and now they in cold left the beaten track. hurried the steeds." ii. . and he . the to face of his son with divine him endure the heat. and snorting —Ovid. and the reins trembled in his hands. and icy spheres were suddenly scorched with heat the Plough or Great Bear. but horses.

And now. with thy lightning. the youth suddenly saw the its frightful constellation of the Scorpion. Scarce can . raise Poseidon attempt At length Gaea. towns and perished. whole nations heaven. and he was encircled by vapour. The clouds dispersed in smoke . in the parched ground . goddess of Earth. fire and black vapours . clouds of Ever since this time it is. than they sprang madly on through a pathless way of unknown regions now mounting to the free . face Thrice and arms above the water. and the reins slipped from feel nerveless to hands. now sinking to the broad plains of earth. highest heaven. so he could not call to them. No sooner did the horses themselves be and unchecked. and Nereus and Doris took refuge in dark grottos. rose from the deepest recesses of the mighty hills great chasms opened scorched . and with her hand before her eyes to shade them from the glare. Through did the cracks in the earth rays of light penetrated even to Tartary. but the heat was so intense that he could scarcely breathe. and rocks. and dense clouds of smoke rose up from earth to Phaethon recovered his senses. He had forgotten the names of the horses. kill me. " If I must perish by the force of cried in a stifled voice : fire. : The were dried up even the ocean itself receded. hitherto hidden. appeared above its surface. that the plains of Africa its have been sandy and scorched and inhabitants black. oh ! Zeus. lifted her head. but each time the burning heat drove him back. crumbled ruins . looked around in hopeless despair. The nymphs rivers of the brooks and springs wailed aloud. The chariot glowed beneath him. the green grass was the trees cities bowed down into their shrivelled heads . extending while still rushing through the air.1 88 Phoebus Apollo. this claws to seize him. At sight his he lost consciousness. startling Pluto to and his Persephone.

with lifted hand. In dreadful thund'rings. living things on the earth must his father's Phaethon should be smitten from on the summit arose and stood of Mount Olympus " Full at his Then. head he hurl'd the forky brand. moved with all compassion at the misery. what has my brother done. (Addison)." Book ii. ! Already the Poles are steaming Atlas can scarce support the glowing heavens on his shoulders. flung the reins And and chariot their ground . and withdrew again head. in the western world. aiming at the youth. the shining fragments lay. Here fell a wheel. and seeing that die unless chariot. buried his body .: Phcebtis Apollo. At once from death and from the chariot Th' ambitious boy fell driv'n." — Ovid. 189 Behold my parched lips utter these few ! words. thunderstruck from heaven. to the depths to Then Zeus. is my offence. And The scattered o'er the earth. \ The nymphs his Helios bitterly lamented in wild son's death Clymene rushed sorrow to his . breathless Phaethon with flaming hair like a falling star. my scorched hair and blinded eyes ashes ! my face covered with What us. Shot from the chariot Till on the Po his blasted corse was hurled Far from his country." She could speak shade her universal no more. Thus th' almighty sire Suppress'd the raging of the fires with fire.. that the waters should be dried pity up? If thou wilt not have on know that the heavens soon will be burnt also. to the The horses started with a sudden bound. and here a silver spoke Here were the beam and axle torn away . . The studded harness from necks they broke . " Metam.

and day over ! his grave. as she grieves. What could. Would rend her hair. this transformation : Ovid thus describes " Four times. harden'd into value by the sun. daughter ! Farewell for ever . Clos'd on their faces. tears the bark that to each body cleaves.— I90 Phoebus Apollo. tears. and hard'ning into wood . mistaken parent. above were female heads display'd. the full moon return'd So long the mother and the daughters mourn'd . and bedewed the marble with her sore night His sisters also bewailed the death of the bright Phaethon. The new-made trees in tears of amber run Which. . but she found Herself withheld. and ! changed them into weeping willows. but fills her hands with leaves One sees her thighs transform'd. and bodies stood Crusted with bark. rest her weary limbs. but could not move Lampetia would have helped her. another views Her arms shot out. : When now To the eldest Phaethusa. . strove . Forbear. crying : " Oh ! Phaethon " till the gods themselves pitied and wept Phaethon them. revolving. and branching into boughs. O ! forbear. and rooted on the ground : A third in wild affliction. . A wounded in each tree you tear Here the bark increas'd. And mouths that call'd the mother to their aid. And now their legs and breasts. Distil for ever on the streams below : The limpid streams their radiant treasure show. tomb. : And from their verdant fingers strips the leaves The blood came trickling. and their words suppress'd. where she tore away The leaves and bark The maids were heard to : say. alas the weeping mother do ? still ! But From She this to that with eager haste she flew.

the south the north .. and never ceases Finding at last that this chirping. . and descends into the West. was granted. which is always dried up and withered as if with age. rosy goddess back dark night to Tartarus.1 Phoebus Apollo. whence she accompanies Helios in his chalice : back to the East." OVID. the east Auster. the bright. traverses the sky in night is front of the fiery chariot of the sun. Shine in the dress of the bright Latian maid. falling on the shores of Eridanus. King of Troy. An old song thus speaks of her heralds the coming Day. a star on her forehead. west." Book ii. and a torch in her Tithonus was also her husband he was the brother hand. vain did she implore the gods to withdraw their immortality. which. Eos loved him dearly. and of Laomedon. she changed Tithonus into a grasshopper. Zephyrus. as old age crept on. " Metam. Thus amber by the sun. were dried and hardened Aurora and as in this or Eos also has a chariot drawn by two horses. " Eos. . rising from slumber to welcome her beaming countenance. : Her wish prayed Zeus to endue him with immortality. Boreas. and there he could be In heard. the She was represented in a saffron coloured robe. and he became at length so old. so weak. is the tears of Phaethon's sisters. 1 9 Mixt in the sand whence the rich drops conveyd. . and Eurus. Her . (Addison). but she had forgotten to ask for her husband the gift of perpetual youth also. she issues from the gates of the East as soon past. hus- band was Astraeus. gift of was impossible. She locked him into a solitary chamber." and with her golden rays drives She is the quickener of life and work : all greet her appearance with joy. and ugly that her love for him departed. and her sons the four winds. groaning and wheezing.

of Trojans. was daughter of Erechtheus. and with the dog Laelaps. make ready She took refuge with Minos. and grief so consumed him that allowed him to return to his wife. hastened to the sea shore. and bade them a ship to take her from her father's land. the becoming jealous of her. goddess could not compensate him for the separation from his beloved Procris. Procris left the and returned to her husband. who. fled and her husband her and overwhelmed Bitterly grieved at this treatment. and becoming enamoured of him. who was very fond of her. King of Crete. a son of Hermes. on the heart of Cephalus. aim. island . went to dwell in another he left her. And At last. but was slain by Achilles. so and mistrust. But Pasiphae. Finding that he still loved her. and overtake any prey. they became reconciled. One morning while Cephalus was hunting. King of Athens and there were none in all the land who dwelt together in a love more deep and pure. she from him. and Eos. • therefrom. Cephalus. but the love of the carried him off to a distant mountain . and she transferred to wife of Minos.192 Phoebus Apollo. was the son of Tithonus The statue of at Memnon which it is that sometimes daybreak beautiful music issued married to Procris. and after some time returned in disguise declaring his love for her. the goddess Eos saw him. Procris was foolish enough not to withhold all hope. after Menmon. was erected to his memory. the words lay heavy that he followed his wife's steps with suspicion to prove her. and presented her with a spear which never missed its who could run as swiftly as the wind. and imploring her to return it. Eos at length But she predicted at parting that for the future he would live very unhappily with Procris. land. aided the in Egypt. said the death of Hector. immediately made himself known to her with reproaches.

By fate to unsuspected ruin led). ah is ! faithless : man ! imagin'd nymph began deceiv'd. tir'd.' This always was the burden of my song. but when love has once been disturbed by distrust and jealousy perfect As Cephalus had formerly peace never again returns. Thou art my joy. Next morn I to the woods again repair. Come. 'suage my flames. And winds that from the mountains. she herself were witness of the deed. Great love is soonest with suspicion tale fir'd : She swoon'd. sweet Aura. Ah And ! wretched heart (she then to curse oft th' cry'd). And. distrusted her. come away. gentle air (so was I wont to say). or dog did call I : With slaughter ' found the single dart to serve for all. that ever she believ'd.. and more than these. ' I said. pierc'd the glade . He thought I had some assignation made And to my Procris' ear the news convey'd. for thy dear sake desert hill.' At last a wandering swain in hearing came.' (These blandishments. Cephalus : Ovid well describes the misery of " Forth to the woods I went at break of day (The constant practice of my youth) for prey Nor yet for servant. Come. him the 1 9 gifts she had received from Minos. and with the almost expir'd. lord to such injustice could proceed. 3 Phoebus Apollo. I love Each and solitary grove. oft hopes she And Her Till chides herself. Come. Sweet Aura. horse. . Yet she doubts. I sought the cooler shade. gentle air. come ' 1 ' along. cheated with the sound of Aura's name. so Procris now jealously followed her husband everywhere. N .

With I rustling noise and motion. ! And I knew. weary with the chase invoke the air Approach. He was the His mother was Coronis. For pity begg'd her keep her breath. and her melancholy Apollo end. and did like Procris sound. saw and loved her. flew by and brought him word that Coronis was god of healing and medicine. her unhappy mistake . we shall presently hear more. From whence a tender sigh my soul did wound 'Ah me/ it cried. like that of Procris. and hair I . breath Procris entreated him not to take her hated rival into his house. her love's dear fatal gift Procris was there . With her last guilty of her death. then a white bird. the other sister of Helios. (Tate). and then the stillness dim.! 1 94 Phoebus Apollo. Then Cephalus understood The coldness but alas too late ! ! of death was on her face. a king in Thessaly. . Before proceeding to Apollo's sister Diana. was caused by jealousy. ." Book vii. And not to leave me —Ovid. lift tore staunch the pressing gore flitting . too well the voice to the place with . In vain attempting from the deadly wound To draw the dart. his we must mention son Aesculapius. till the thicket by. My guilty The beauteous load (If possible) to arms had scarce the strength to my silks. sister of Ixion. ' Yet I proceeded.." " Metam. dear Aura. headlong horror flew Where I beheld her gasping on the ground. but one day a raven. and her eye was already growing One loving look she gave him. Of Selene. . And to the covert threw my certain spear . and my bosom cheer' :— At which a mournful sound did strike my ear . And. drew my eye thought some beast of prey was shelter'd there. of death came upon her.

deep repentance overwhelmed to him. learnt the power of every herb and leaf to stay and to bring back to health the wasted form of men and there even went forth a rumour through the lands that the strength of death had been conquered by Daily the fame of his doings spread more and more. till Pluto complained bitterly to Zeus that the art of Aesculapius was depopulating the dark kingdom of Hades. But great and terrible was idle. the mighty lightnings flashed down on the Great Healer. which exceeded even that of his teacher. and taught him the art of healing. soul of Apollo.Phcebus Apollo. He had sickness. while all the earth the wrath of Apollo at the death of his son. but the divine spirit rose to heaven. But when he saw her dying before his eyes. and men prayed to him as to a God. and smote him to the earth. a sea-port on the east coast of the Peloponnesus. . and Then Zeus across the black river. and shot one of his unerring arrows into her heart. the earthly body of Aesculapius had perished. Here . Charon stood sad and came to be ferried bowed his head. all marvelled at his wisdom. him. The temples of Aesculapius were generally situated near a spring. who brought him up. When at last he grew to manhood. and loved another. Aesculapius was entrusted to the care of the Centaur Chion. . to wear eternal mourning as the herald of evil tidings. and condemned the raven him. Only was this joy left to mankind. that being The most celebrated was at Epidaurus. and he slew who had shaped the thunder- mourned for its loss. . faithless 195 Wrath filled the and bow. the most healthy. for no spirits with his arrows the Cyclops bolt. and he took his quiver In vain he tried to detain the fleeting life her spirit went to the land of shadows and darkness but he took with him her child Aesculapius. and on the summit of an eminence.

one point of the mantle being thrown over the left shoulder. and reveal It was very probable that the sick people with cure. in Greece. His face is that of a middle-aged man. leaving the He may staff. especially those of Apollo and Aesculapius. after which they had to sleep on the bleeding skins of the sacrificial animals in order their god might appear to them in their dreams. and a mantle or cloak covering the lower half. with a thick beard. then their feelings were excited by the relation of all the wonderful of this recital being heightened by deeds of Aesculapius . they were assured by the priests that appeared to them. the effect means of music and song. and had told them what the god had If this did not to do. the priests. while in the other he holds the sacrificial bowl. Those worshippers whose maladies allowed them to go in person to the Temple of Aesculapius were first obliged to fast and bathe. and cures were effected by means of charms and mystic signs. dog. imaginations thus heated should dream of the god. always be recognised by the snake twined round his or held in one hand.c. They then that the their offered their sacrifices. The goat. was a statue of him made of ivory and gold. cock. and raven were sacred in to him. happen. His hair is curling and parted. forehead bare. Although early known he was not worshipped frightful Rome till about 294 city b. and over the porch of the temple were inscribed the words. " None but In ancient days when the science of the pure may enter. were looked upon as physicians." medicine was as yet in its infancy. when a should plague devas- tated the whole and neighbourhood. be advised that Aesculapius The oracle summoned from .196 Phoebus Apollo. Aesculapius was generally depicted with the upper half of his person nude..

Phoebus Apollo. however. though it has been asserted that Urania or Calliope was Apollo loved him greatly. her statue stood in his slender maiden. the strings of this instrument were of flax. sometimes the daughter of Aesculapius. temple. for then the plague would abate . Hygiea. in She is represented as . Here and established remained during it the return voyage. lyre at that time. . it the cabin of the envoys. a solemn embassy therefore was at once despatched. sprang out and crept into the rushes on a small island at the mouth of the river. God's a snake crept from underneath through the town to the itself in Roman ships. When the ship entered the Tiber. legend. Her temple and in was generally erected a tall beside that of Aesculapius. According to another unbridled anger. while beside her is either a wolf or a dog. in the other a cake made of She honey and oatmeal. wrapped a long garment one hand she holds a bowl. contemplation of the it. was the Goddess of Health. Hercules being . so for these Linus subThis so enraged Apollo that. wears a snake round her waist instead of a girdle. 197 Epidaurus. Linus was killed by Hercules with a lyre while instructing him in the art of playing it. Whilst the lost in Roman messengers glided were standing in the Temple. sometimes called the wife. often called the sons of Apollo Linus and Orpheus. which did not produce good tones. we — may mention two musicians. which was therefore selected as the site of the temple of Aesculapius. Linus was the son of the muse Terpsichore. and gave him the his mother. and at once the plague ceased. and that a temple should be built for him. statue. Before we leave the subject of Apollo and his family. which a snake is devouring. in a fit of stituted gut strings. and sometimes also has one lying on her lap. he killed him.

was the his He was the greatest singer as well as the greatest poet of ancient times. and this he resented so deeply that he slew Linus. harp in hand.— 198 Phoebus Apollo. venomous adder bit Eurydice in the foot. My wife alone I seek . they heard the wild beasts and day to after day sat silent in the woods. and him who reigns O'er ghosts. : come not curious to explore your hell . Orpheus. and she felt the faintness of death come over her. reproved him severely. who under earth your realms extend. and the very stones followed him from their rocky beds. And tempt the shades in their obscure abode. : To whom If here I all 'tis portals must one day descend granted sacred truths to tell. His wife was the beautiful nymph Eurydice. and they lived But one day a happily together in unbroken felicity. and determined he would himself descend to the shadowy kingdom of Hades. for her lov'd sake . 1 Thus to the king and queens of shadows sings Ye powers. Persephone he seeks. never opening his lips to sing. more gently when and snakes fawned at his feet. Muse Calliope. Arriv'd. Thus Ovid tells us of what followed " : He leaves the realms of light. tuning to his voice his strings. He besought the gods in vain to restore her him . and hell's uncomfortable plains. and upper air Daring to tread the dark Tenarian road. his teacher clumsy and awkward. . The clouds brightened and sailed along it. laid her head down on the Orpheus was inconsolable at her loss. son of Apollo and the best pupil of Linus. so at last he rose up. So enchanting was their song that the trees of the forest bowed heads to listen. he. and plead for her release. soft grass and died.

And . I Which But if must resign entire. when ripen'd years she shall attain. I doubt. And soon. Now from a troop of shades that last arriv'd. All our possessions are but loans from you. but the transient use of that require. Well known is that omnipotence above But here. Long I my loss endeavour'd to sustain. These terrors I 199 support. Let me She I too. : And And to his lyre accords his vocal strains. and stood reviv'd. Th' impulse of pity in their hearts repel. Then first ('tis said) by sacred verse subdued. soon.Phoebus Apollo. Eurydice was call'd. or late. By the vast chaos of these depths profound By the sad silence which eternal reigns O'er all . The Furies felt their cheeks with tears bedew'd. I'm determined to return no more So both retain. you must be paid your due. the destinies refuse my vow. or both to life restore. too soon.' Thus while the bard melodiously complains. right. And no remission of her doom Know. The very bloodless shades attention keep. allow . again Eurydice receive. his unfelt influence fails And yet a hope within my heart prevails. this journey take. Nor could the rigid king or queen of hell. but strove. ! : in vain strongly strove. . the waste of these wide-stretching plains . Must. seem compassionate to weep . silent. alas won by mighty love At length I yielded. of avoidless be yours again . Let fate her quick-spun thread of life re-weave. ! .

and wandered there for three years amongst the woods lamenting and bewailing his loss. lest her steps And gladsome To of the glimpse of His longing eyes. instant dying. that instant. trees. before he reach the realms of He backward The cast his eyes to view the fair. might stray. When he. last For. forfeit grant. night. . which scarce he heard So soon she dropp'd. when thus his wife he view'd. One day he had seated himself with his lyre. mistrusting. his pressing suit denies Seven days entire. . They well-nigh now had passed the bounds of And just approach'd the margin of the light. " And hell's inexorable gods arraigns. Now through the noiseless throng their the path." Book x. Thus he obtains strict if. dawning day. Dark was and difficult. Metam. The very sight of a woman or maiden was to his mountains. void is made. the bard Eurydice deplores Of rigid fate incessant he complains. All stunn'd he stood. though many tried to win his love. : Disconsolate. and double death subdu'd Now to repass the Styx in vain he tries. (Dryden). . 200 On For Phcebus Apollo.. Charon averse. While he to empty air his One last farewell she spoke. along th' infernal shores. And thick with vapours from the smoky deep. And And she for ever left a lifeless shade. so sudden disappear'd. both with pain the rugged road ascend and steep. — but look'd his arms extends. way they bend. impatient backward cast catch a lover's look. By second fate. the suit so much desir'd : observance of the terms required air. the beasts. Then Orpheus returned hateful to him." —Ovid. she again descends..



earliest —ARTEMIS OR DIANA. where dwelt the Cyclops. all equally lovely. and in the first innocence of youth. swinging the thyrsus in their hands. gave her thirty towns to whom she commanded to make her a bow." delight me. when suddenly a crowd of excited Maenades came rushing by. and dancing town. " Ha ! ! " they cried. eternal virginity.Artemis or Diana. A bow through woods pleasure. mad And thus his spirit met Eurydice once more. quiver. for shall I when I bestow on am tired their me only one walls. and sought Pan. where she selected her nymphs. Artemis was been related. they tore him in pieces in their fury. who presented her with some splendid hounds. " it is he the despiser of women ! " and throwing themselves upon him. and with their hair streaming wildly in the wind. After this she went to Arcadia. These . she him in the following words " Grant me. as they caught sight of Orpheus. and arrows. But but love not to be surrequests. that men may praise and worship me. and arrows with which to follow the chase and over mountains shall be my sole Give me twenty nymphs as companions. youth she formed a determination never entreated Once when sitting on the knees of Zeus. oh : — ! father. her parentage and birth on The Mount Olympus has already In her to marry. XVII. in the land which far away. story of the Goddess of the Chase. Joyfully she hastened to the mountains of Crete. with which she hunted the golden-antlered stags. rounded with Zeus granted her do her honour. She then repaired to the Lipari Isles. 201 and rocks listening as usual to his song. never is again to part.

and relieved her of her weapons.. the choir of Muses and Graces. Her nymphs unharnessed the stags. thus speaks of her : — " She. and gave them to drink out of troughs of gold. of his songs. Hermes received her in the outer court. The bow and the chase. Artemis entered the golden hall of the gods. resound with her mighty and when fatigued she unstrings her bow. to carry the virtuous to Elysium without suffering. she far exceeded them in beauty and stature. . We have already related many of her deeds as. 202 Artemis or Diana. while Apollo bore away the spoils of the chase. earth and sea. the swift. Like her brother. protectress of upright men. footsteps and woods. and of surpassing loveliness. She came at last to Olympus. Here she pursued her favourite lit pastime of hunting. are her only pleasures. by means of one of her painless arrows. Otus and Ephialtes and the shooting of Orion. and leads them. dancand sacred hymns. Niobe when she lost her children the part she took in the war of the Gods against the Aloidae. and flew to the northern mountain. her compassion for . by a flash of Zeus' lightnings. for instance. a fir-tree. the palace of the gods. serving her for a torch. music. She then joins Hills ." Though all her nymphs were youthful. ing. hangs up her quiver and arrows. and waters her steeds in the rush-grown river near Smyrna. retires to Delphi. She ! the ever chaste maiden. pure maiden. she was the source of sudden deaths which she sent both to punish the wicked. follows the chase over wooded mountains and storm-capped heights. even during the night. and Homer. and also. the huntress with the golden arrows. . chanting holy songs to her mother Latona. has never submitted to the power of Venus. she harnessed in front of her carriage of gold. led them to the pastures of Hera. in one seated herself beside her brother Apollo. She also played an active part .

" " Then turns his face. in the 203 Trojan war. her right untied The bow. rattling from the case. " Let us rest from the fight. : ' Thy pride to face the Majesty of heaven ? What though tremendous Thy certain arrows pierce in the woodland chase. said. but Apollo. taking the side of the besieged. The quiver'd huntress of the Sylvan shades And is it thus the youthful Phoebus flies. no more unequal war to wage She said. and its plumy pride. ." book of the Greeks. or match thy force with mine ? Learn hence.Artemis or Diana. she winds her from the blow The scattering arrows. About her temples flies the busy bow Now here. . : And from Him thus 1 the senior power submiss retires retreating. now there. but was for interfering. and they all descended immediately to the battlefield. Artemis upbraids. the quiver. blamed Homer gives an account of this in Zeus had allowed the gods again to take part in the war. met in the combat face to face. fearing a conflict with the mighty sea-god. Poseidon on the side of the the twenty-first "Iliad. And yields to ocean's hoary sire the prize ? : How Now Thy vain that martial pomp and the silver dreadful show Of pointed arrows and force can bow ! boast no more in your celestial bovver. ? the savage race How dares thy rashness on the powers divine Employ those arms. . and seized her wrists with eager rage These in her left hand lock'd. Apollo on that of the Trojans. match the great earth-shaking power. . and let the people decide their disputes unaided.' : he heard the queen of woods upbraid Not so Saturnia bore the vaunting maid But furious thus What insolence has driven Silent . far-beaming heavenly fires.

Drop round. characteristics of Artemis propriety. grandson of Cadmus. more handy than the rest. He had been hunting with some of his friends. Some . and arch'd with pumice stone. swell into a lake below. fell For example. Here the bright goddess. trickling. (Pope). whether intentionally or not. Was wont to bathe her in the cool retreat. were great modesty and and whoever violated these feelings. From out its rocky cleft the waters flow. and in a noose Bound it together. and Swift from the idly mark the dusty place. field. there stood. the baffled huntress " Iliad. That ev'rywhere she seemed to vie with art. was severely punished. 204 Diana or Artemis.." —Homer. . Here did she now with all her train resort." And scarce restrains the torrent in her eyes. whilst her own hung loose. Nature had everywhere so play'd her part. and breathless from the sport Her armour-bearer laid her bow aside. he proposed that they should rest in some cool recess of the woods. flies. Gathered her flowing hair. . The Book xxi. Actaeon. Panting with heat. loos'd her sandals. Full in the centre of the darksome wood A precious grotto. and when the sun rose high in the heavens and they had killed a great quantity of game. (The chaste Diana's private haunt). all around o'er-grown With hoary moss. Ovid relates the legend as follows : " Down in a vale with pine and cypress clad. some her veil unty'd Each busy nymph her proper part undress'd While Crocale. And. toil'd and chaf'd with heat. and continue the chase next day. a victim to her dis- pleasure when he once surprised her in the forest.

there his fear prevails.. with silent pace. unaware of her presence. if : And stretches out his neck. Rough is his skin. and ended in a deer A rising horn on either brow he wears.'* " —Ovid. And wonders why he flies away so fast. Or herd among the deer. and pricks his ears . He saw his branching horns. the wondrous sight disclos'd. he flies away in haste. hounds caught and not recognizing their master they rushed . Whilst Artemis was bathing surrounded by her nymphs." Ovid. to the spot Metam. with sudden hairs o'er-grown. He saw the big round drops. Wretched Actaeon in a doleful tone He try'd to speak. but only gave a groan And as he wept. by turns. What should he do ? Or seek his old abodes. within the wat'ry glass.: : : Diana or Artemis. And dash'd them in his face while thus she spoke . and alter'd look. Tell. anger of the goddess to the utmost " Surpris'd. His bosom pants with fears before unknown: Transform'd at length. hairy face. ! . His appearance caused general dismay. Run trickling down a savage. A thou canst. " Metam." Book 205 iii. and unlaid the urns. Fetch up the water. within a neighbouring brook. at first she would have snatch'd her bow. goddess naked to thy view expos'd. Five of the more ignoble sort. the man began to disappear By slow degrees. and skulk in woods ? Here shame dissuades him. While Actaeon hesitated what sight of him. to do. But as by chance." Book his iii. and aroused the Actaeon approached the grotto. But sees the circling waters round her flow These in the hollow of her hand she took.. This said.

and so great skill was magnificence. was Bury the bones of Actaeon make an image of brass. : A . The most celebrated temple of Artemis was at Ephesus. and swiftly ran .: o6 " Artemis or Dia na. to Or only have stood a looker-on: dogs with fury tear But. and did great damage to all around. but wish'd he had indeed been gone. on being consulted. It was counted one of the wonders of the was destroyed on the night of the birth of that it Alexander the Great by Herostratus. and flew Through many a ring. with Doric its pillars. It was entirely of marble. O'er craggy mountains. And called their lord Actaeon to the game He shook his head in answer to the name . In vain he oft endeavour'd to proclaim His new misfortune. " Metam.. tearing him to pieces with their teeth " With dropping tears his bitter fate he moans. with a piteous look he spies. he finds himself too near. and chain it to the rock. panting in a deer. He heard. And turns about his supplicating eyes His servants. The advice given by the oracle." —Ovid. who was . He bounded off with fear. : With eager haste and joyful shouts advanc'd. When this was done. marvellous the artistic ex- pended on world. the spirit of Actaeon rested in peace. His servants. where once he did pursue. and to tell his — Ovid. " Metam.." Book iii. And fills the mountains with his dying groans. to his grief. a madman. so it. and the flow'ry plain Through brakes and thickets forc'd his way." Book name. And feels his rav'nous Their wretched master. ignorant of what had chanc'd. Then his hounds : fell on him. rumour went abroad that a spirit haunted a rock in the wood." iii.

in to afford her greater freedom of movement sandals . but somewhat cold. he lay down to rest in the cool shade Then Selene gazing lovingly down on him of the trees. only a few curls falling on her shoulders. sometimes shooting an arrow. Selene was the sister or daughter of Helios. she called Titania. Like him she drives in a chariot upward through the sky. . the sun-god. is fastened in a knot. would bend from her chariot to imprint a kiss on the lips of the beautiful sleeper. tired and weary. Her hair. Artemis is sometimes spoken of as Goddess of the Chase. the shape of her face is a fine oval. 207 determined to gain notoriety by some means. She always wears a sleeveless tunic. when not at its full. fastened at the waist by a girdle. or magnificent stags . her forehead is open. so Selene. appears to have two horns. because the moon. and drives again into the Her chariot is drawn by two long-maned sea in the west. On . Goddess of the Moon. and caught up over the knee in the chase. She bore him over the sea from Greece to the mountains of Asia Minor.Artemis or Diana. her feet are laced her hand a bow and spear and her quiver is is slung across her shoulders. was by later poets often mistaken for Artemis. The and old poets cannot sufficiently praise her soft beauty as Helios bore the name of Titan. the latter probably. horses. where he hunted in the woods by moonlight until. the was not proof against power of love. The beautiful Endymion was regarded by her with deep affection. and burnt what he could not otherwise destroy. Her figure is tall and graceful like that of Apollo. As Apollo is sometimes confounded with Helios or Phoebus. Although a maiden. like her brother's. and her eye clear and far-seeing. As Goddess of the . sometimes as Goddess of the Moon. she was sometimes like Artemis. Sometimes she represented standing.

with many others. Moon. Some of them were daughters of Oceanus. Thus he peopled the whole of nature with lesser divinities. half crescent with the points upwards. XVIII. her brow is crowned by a and she holds one or two torches in her hands.2o8 The Nymphs. Among these were the nymphs. phenomena in nature. of the springs. of Zeus. man being unacquainted with the grasp things powers of nature. of the mountains and grottos. some of Nereus and Doris. It was unaccountable to him how the springs rose out of the eartL. Naiades . but even this belief did not serve fully to explain the various He to perceived that some unseen power forth. and had the gift of . so he attributed this also to the influence of a special Deity. and whose existence lasted only as long as that of the spring or tree that they guarded. The ones. those of the Mediterranean Sea. The nymphs of the ocean were called Oceanides . made the buds burst and the flowers and fruits grow and ripen. but whose power did not equal that of the gods. could not created all the : idea that one Almighty Hand had he believed there- fore in a plurality of gods . histories and characteristics of all the principal deities having been related. Nereides or Doreides . Dryades and Hamadryades . those of the woods and trees. caused the leaves to shoot. and he thought a spirit must exist in the trees and plants.— THE NYMPHS. we must now mention the lesser In the earliest ages. the rest were generally supposed to be the children All nymphs were beautiful. who were regarded as superhuman. Oreades .

and Eurydike Daphne. for instance. the Cephisus the nymph Echo saw and loved the banks of This unhappy nymph had not the the beautiful Narkissos. and showed great kindness to mortals . was sixteen years old his beauty was so great that he was beloved by all the maidens of the land. enquired of the blind soothsayer Tiresias whether " If he her boy was destined to reach a good old age. a nymph. Although very lovely they had green hair. placed wreaths of rushes and sea-weeds . she was only able to When Hera used to repeat the last words of others. mentioned by special names daughter of Nereus. and gift their garments of the same colour. had done them any jured Erysichthon. The Nymphs. and thus enable Zeus to escape But Hera at length discovered the stratagem. was a youth of While he was yet a child. Galatea. his mother. but woe to those who who in- them. o . descend to earth. power to express her own feelings. their eyes were blue. and amused themselves with games. When Narkissos never beholds himself. and talking. 209 perpetual youth. &c. Echo would engage in conversation. of Zeus. of the nymphs . the mother of Phaethon are ." was the answer.. spinning. the son of a river-god in Boeotia. The sea-nymphs sat in cool grottos under the water. and also the power of rendering themselves Many of them attended on the gods. on which they invisible. surpassing beauty. a The history of Echo must not be omitted here. especially on Artemis and Bacchos. service They possessed the of prophecy. Nar- kissos. but he cared for One day while he was hunting a stag near none of them. full of jealousy and distrust. as has already been seen in the story of Many as. for the pur- pose of watching the movements unperceived. Metis Klymene.

. these cried to Nemesis. : 11 This love-sick virgin. tell her pains. In solitary caves. nor rising mud . Till harass'd out. and coolness of the place. ! " There stands a fountain in a darksome wood. Liv'd in the shady covert of the woods." iii. the avenging goddess : " Oh ! that the heartless one might himself one day feel the pangs of unrequited love " and Nemesis heard the prayer." Book still it doubles every sound. and worn away with care. Besides her bones and voice. together with other nymphs whose At last one of affection Narkissos had set at nought. but had not words to tell : can't begin. pining. had nothing left. " Metam. Thus was poor Echo reduced to a mere voice. To catch his voice. Her bones are petrify'd. Untroubled by the breath of winds it rests. when nothing could Narcissus move. (Addison). and punished the nymph by depriving her of freedom of speech. and to return the sound. The sounding skeleton. but waits for the rebound. Unsully'd by the touch of men or beasts High bowers of shady trees above it grow. still follow'd him behind. The nymph. and she sorrowed and wept. . wander'd the rejected fair.. and dark abodes Where. And rising grass Pleas'd with the form and cheerful greens below.2 1 o The Nymphs. where — Ovid. Nor stain'd with falling leaves. and condemning her to repeat only the last word Ovid thus relates her sad end she had heard. her voice is found In vaults. of blood bereft. . And She She long'd her hidden passion to reveal. overjoy'd to find The boy alone.

nor distant coast. " Metam. he suddenly beholds own face. What lovely eyes and what a swan-like neck. object of his adoration. and hair. Preserves the beauteous youth from being seen. what soft-tinted cheeks He is it fascinated with the beauteous image. gentle youth. and thus began : To vent his griefs.1 The Nymphs. and when I bend to shallow water hinders yet the lovely join My lips to his. but only the cold. Hear. and negligent of food. so perplex'd as I ? And yet no bulwark'd town. he fondly bends to mine. And over-heated by the morning chase. Come from thy well. thou fair inhabitant. . nor oceans flow between. and tell the woods his pain You trees (says he). Still o'er the fountain's wat'ry gleam he stood. smiles my smiles. As he stoops towards the quenching starts clear water to refresh himself by his his thirst. A And my embrace mimic wears a face That kindly smiles.. back of in amazement. lies. Who Tell oft have been the kindly scenes of if e'er love. He His eye with pleasure on my face he keeps. Mindless of sleep. and thou surrounding grove. and pity my complaint. No mountains rise. and when I weep he weeps . At length he ' rais'd his head." Book iii. me within your shades did lie A youth so tortur'd. what an sion irresistibly winning expres! countenance." 2 1 Narcissus on the grassy verdure Ovid. lifeless water meets " his touch. unconscious that Lovingly he extends his arms to grasp the is his own. .

the To the clear fountain. my fate draws nigh . the pride of blooming youth I die." Book iii. youth. belov'd in vain Farewell Narcissus cries ! ' Ah. u And none of those attractive charms remain. Whom. weeping youth again return'd where again he burn'd well. wretched It is me now begin I find out all the long perplex'd deceit myself I love. she griev'd to see. His tears defac'd the surface of the With circle after circle. : . But.2 2 1 The Nymphs. She saw him in his present misery. Driven to despair he beats his breast with his hands. ! and groan'd the to ev'ry . spite of all her wrongs. " Ah. Ah. Whene'er I speak.' This said. Whom How And should I court I ? How utter my complaint ! ? gladly would from myself remove I at a distance set the thing love. vain nymph ' replies. youth belov'd says he ! in . as they fell And now the lovely face but half appears. From his faint lips . and gradually his strength ebbs away. whither (cries Narcissus) dost thou fly ? Ovid. " Metam. fell 5 — the parting sound scarce but she reply'd. To which the slighted Echo sued in vain. . his moving I I lips appear too late : To To utter something. Farewell. She answer'd back ' his sighs. And now In all I faint with grief . and deform'd with tears. oh I see his fate involv'd in mine. Death will the sorrows of my heart relieve : Oh I ! might the visionary youth survive. should with joy ! my latest breath resign . groan : Ah. O'errun with wrinkles. myself see . which ! cannot hear.

and men good it. granting make men happy. gracious goddess. who delighted to sometimes as a fickle." Book iii. r 3 unwholesome earth he gasping To And death shuts up those self-admiring eyes. was one of the She was sometimes regarded as a benevolent. and were thus enabled to continually . She generally represented as a woman for holding either a cornucopia or a boy. The — DAEMONS AND HEROES. XIX. " Metam. Fortuna or Tyche. but superior to They dwelt in the air. She also grasps a rudder in her hand. the cold shades his flitting ghost retires. Later on. and they In the earliest Persians.Danions and Heroes. . God of Riches. And now the sister-nymphs prepare his urn for his corse. fortune only again to deprive them of is and causing more misery than happiness. mere human beings. the Chaldeans. Daemons were considered to be a race of mysterious invisible beings. and other Asiatic nations Daemons. inferior to the Olympian deities. in the Stygian waves itself admires. looking found rising stalk. Fortune governs the world. believed in communicated this belief to the Greeks. closely connected with them." Ovid. Oceanidae. For him the Naiads and the Dryads mourn. ages the gods were often called Daemons. changeable being. in her arms. Plutos. Whom A the sad Echo answers in her turn. Goddess of Fortune. or else she stands on a round ball or wheel to signify her variableness. forming a link between gods and men. they only When. Then on Till th' 2 lies. with yellow blossoms crown'd. and as such were looked upon with terror by the people.

which By their means a conthe gods. being perfect. in mankind. These Heroes. as they were called. as they all worship those in bravery who distinguish themselves above others and valour. The Greeks especially thus regarded all those men to who used their strength and prowess for the public good by overcoming the enemies of their country. in health. snow. . The Daemons appear and in dreams. and noble among men. and prophesy to the hour of death. and storms being alike . The philosopher Plato. such as the islands of the far west. praised and lauded them. and. the most illustrious pupil of Socrates. There they dwelt in un- broken happiness. who aided them to perform their deeds of valour. After death they were borne away by the gods either to Olympus or to some other specially favoured abode. where Kronos peacefully his dethronement. after their death. men in sickness. and destroying monsters and bandits. they read all our thoughts. stant intercourse is maintained between the higher deities and the inhabitants of earth." of these They influence the human soul in and act as Mediators between the gods and Even Socrates believed that every man had one as a guardian angel or protector. and this belief is very general among uncivilized nations. and hate the base and wicked they can feel and sympathise with human joy and grief. worshipped them as superhuman.4 2 1 Daemons and Heroes. beyond the ruled after pillars of Herkules. Daemons The old Greek heroes were regarded as demi-gods. were believed to be the especial favourites of the gods. winter. various ways. cannot do. They considered these mighty be their protectors while on earth. and endowed them with superhuman strength. but with wonderful insight and a clear sharp underThey love the good standing. thus speaks of them : " Although so near the Daemons are never visible to our eyes. surround and influence mankind.

poets assigned to every one a good and a bad genius. The household gods were adorned in the same manner if the master of a house went away incense was burnt. and roads had their guardian spirits. where became care- regarded as the fully Kingdom of the Blessed. of wine. it. sacrificed to and burnt incense. cakes and wines before Among the Romans houses.5 Dae?nons and Heroes. the prevailing genius was called either white or black. for they believed that these departed warriors still protected their country. and some household gods. and as a man proved either virtuous or wicked. Every day a drink the towns and the public buildings. Every one was believed to be protected by Some his genius. These Genii were depicted as beautiful winged boys. they were of wood. birth On each anniversary of his every Roman crowned it. called a libation. placing honeyalso. as well as on all feast-days and public anniversaries. or a cornucopia. and the household committed : . and meat on small wooden dishes was burnt in front of them. The Daemons were known to the Romans under the name of Genii. and that they would even come to its rescue in bodily form when extreme danger menaced it. It 2 1 was not till later times that Elysium was it placed by the poets in the lower world. The Greeks tended the graves of their heroes. the picture or image of his genius. or brass. carrying a bowl. ivory. Some are called public. These were known as Lares and Penates . unknown. towns. weak or strong. they were decked with flowers and crowned with magnificent wreaths. and were placed either in a special generally small figures made temple or on the hearth. streets. On every ist of May. The former protected the whole nation. was poured out before offering them. a snake. who enabled him to perform great deeds. and did them honour by sacrifices and feasts.

and sacrifices offered to them on the last day of February." Then all the : members of the household prayed to the Larvae not to disturb their peace. throwing black beans over his shoulder and pronouncing the words " With these beans I free myself and mine. At midnight the master of the house proceeded barefoot slowly through the dwelling. and beat loudly on a copper vessel. was believed that both had the power of appearing in But to fear. speaking to no one. The rites souls of those who had not received proper funeral were also supposed to re-appear on earth spirits order to tranquillize these restless and in vows were paid . and gave her divinities. if they were spirits dead under uncertain whether the departed placed It were good or wicked. to their care and on If his safe return. Hekate. was the greatest of the very mighty and powerful. a more calf. her above all Hesiod describes her as honoured the other Olympian deities. the Upperworld on three particular days in the year. Greek He says that Zeus . XX.6 2 1 Hecate. in order to scare away the malignant spirits by the noise. . consisting of a lamb or a was offered and Penates. . for to the Larvae could not had cause during the night in harm good people only the wicked them these evil spirits appeared the most frightful shapes. the wicked were called Larvae.-HEKATE. thankofferings were brought to them. souls of the the The Romans also worshipped the name of Maries. extensive sacrifice. The good were among the Lares. grand-daughter of one of the Titans. to the Lares any crime was committed. washed their hands three times.

and flocks and herds prospered or diminished at her will. and the keys of the Kingdom of She protected and encouraged the growth of all herbs from which charmed In some drinks were produced. propitiatory offering to buried in the earth. she is yellow or black garment. Death : a dog stands beside her. and wearing a Sometimes. Hekate was often represented figures back to back. ate during the night this every new moon the wealthy people placed food at cross roads. a snake. 2 1 7 power over everything on earth and sea. or thrown into the sea. especially poisonous ones. among graves and at cross-roads. and fishermen prayed to her for safety and success. : was called the feast of In order that it might be well with the beloved dead. . .Hecate. on the first of every month a Hekate was either laid on the grave. again. living and then she appears as the Goddess and sovereign of the kingdom of death. offered to her to avert all and a black dog or lamb was In Athens at evil influences. or the Underworld). Being the Goddess of Destiny. Mariners none could conquer without her aid. called the daughter of Night or Tartarus (for inspiring or terrible everything awe- was said to proceed from the region of Light. At every sin-offering she was called upon riches and honours were in her power to bestow and those whom she favoured surpassed all their fellows in fame and fortune. special it was almost impossible to give her any representation. Thus combining in herself the powers of the various wrestlers . Sometimes she is spoken of as allied to Proserpine. placed at a point where two roads in the crossed. which the poor came and Hekate. other goddesses. she was treated with great respect by all the immortals. She gave strength and victory to warriors and . of dark magic. In her six form of three female hands she holds a dagger. a bundle of rope.

held a conch shell in his hand to signify his loud roaring. he was . in his hand. the south-east wind. was represented as a swarthy powerful man. Lastly comes Africus. spoken of sometimes as the son of the one of the other. who . Eurus. XXI. he could often advise and forewarn mariners. the two famous sorceresses of olden times. or the north wind.— AEOLOS. pitcher. soft and mild. hand he holds Zephyr. To the north of Sicily also in lie the Lipari Isles. like Delos. Boreas. and his right hand conceals his face. an emptied is laden with flowers. found by sailors. Notos or Auster. known floated as the Aeolian the sea. the west wind. in ancient days Islands. and thick beard. is called the wife of King Acetes of and as such is said to have been the mother of Kirke and Medea. sometimes Aeolos kept the winds in his cavern. the north-east wind. Aquilo. his face is partly enveloped in a cloak. . the south-west in his and wind. brings rain . is covered with a thick garment. the bearer of damp and mist. mythic legends she Colchis. At one time they and could not always be The king of these isles was Aeolos.8 2 1 Aeolos. with wrinkled forehead. only letting them out when he pleased. deity. By him all voyagers who visited his shores were hospitably welcomed and as it was his wont to observe carefully the signs of the weather. is brings the sleet and snow a huge beaker from which he pours snow and hail on to the earth. the south wind. Thus he became regarded both by the Greek and Roman poets as God of the Winds. and being associated in this capacity with both Poseidon and Zeus. therefore.

who. taught by law well known. a-growling angrily About their bars. and overwhelm their sunken ships at sea. Or prithee scattered cast sedly. and in : now casteth loose the reins that hold them ' To whom did The Father enow. . Thou mak'st my realm the sway of all. and make the storm-wind blow. Aeneas.' them forth. 2 1 The most is beautiful description of the cave of Aeolos in the first book of the Aeneid. when Juno. to smooth the sea. therein . in her hatred of him. determined to raise a storm to drive him back. Set on thy winds. things drowned diver- To whom spake Is all ^Eolus toil : ' O thou needest friend. sceptre-holding. " So brooding in her fiery heart the goddess went her way Unto the fatherland of storm. And And far adown a cavern vast the bickering of the winds : roaring tempests of the world with bolt or fetter binds set the mountains murmuring much. while ^olus sits in his burg on high. v^olia hight. and high above a world of mountains thrown And given them therewithal a king. Now draweth. suppliant Juno of the now in e'en such words begin Gods and men hath given thee might : O ^Eolus. Queen. They eager-swift would roll away and sweep adown of space For fear : whereof the Father high in dark and hollow place Hath hidden them. softeneth them.9 Aeolos. was sailing towards Italy. to search out thy desire from the deed should wend. is full fruitful of the gale. and vault of heaven deep. And. and Jove thou mak'st my . after the destruction of Troy. where ^Eolus king of all avail. and strait their wrath doth keep : They Yea but for that the earth and sea.

that doth hold A heart fulfilled of stormy rain. and beam on She lieth. . Three keels the South wind cast away on hidden" reefs that lie Midmost the sea." Book ^Eneas believed himself to be lost." Book i. West together there. and smote aback in the Then break trough the oars. and the sea comes on a mountain huge and rough. . the down upon the sea its lowest deeps upcast. and envied those who had died " warriors' deaths before the walls of Troy. A huge back thrusting through the tide three others from the deep The East toward straits. and swallowing sands did miserably : sweep. Pole thunders unto pole. huge billows shoreward rolled. fell Thus as he cried the whistling North And drave the seas up towards the the sail stars. ". And o'er the tempest and the cloud thou makest me of might. on with sudden gale. And heaven and day all suddenly were swallowed by the clouds Away from eyes of Teucrian men night on the ocean lies. the Afric. and those may well discern The sea's ground mid the gaping whirl : with sand the surges churn. Therewith came clamour of the men and whistling through the shrouds. These hang upon the topmost wave.: 2 20 Aeolos. the bows fall off. i. and still with wildfire glare the skies. and as an ordered band By whatso blast." —Virgil. And all things hold the face of death before the seamen's eyes. (Morris).' Therewith against the hollow hill he turned him spear in hand And hurled it on the flank thereof. door the winds rush out o'er earth in whirling And The driving East. the Altars called by men of Italy. (Morris). "^Eneid.Eneid." —Virgil.

Thine ^Eolus. felt But meanwhile Neptune. The Trojans beaten by the flood and ruin from heaven sent." Book i. And there he saw Eneas' ships o'er all the main besprent. pride of race of yours hath hold upon your That earth and sea ye turmoil so without my will. and look to it this to your king to say That ocean's realm and three-tined spear of dread are given by Fate Not unto him but unto me he holds the cliffs o'er great. and lord it o'er his winds in barred hold. At " last nearly all the vessels are 221 engulphed by the waves. : But Juno's guile and wrathful heart her brother knew full well So East and West he called to him. hath let go. sorely moved. (Morris). and spake such words to tell ' : What mighty minds. Eurus in that hall I bid him then be bold." — Virgil. O winds That such upheaval and so great ye dare without my will ? Whom I But first it comes to hand the troubled flood still . "^Eneid.' So saying and swifter than his word he layed the troubled : : : main. . Thine houses. to For such-like ye pay. the storm And all the turmoil of the main with murmur great enow all .: : Aeolos. fault henceforward though with nought so light Go get you gone. The deep upheaved from abodes the lowest that there be So forth he put his placid face o'er topmost of the sea.

even Zeus feared her. nor the two can one abode At once Till the ! restrain. Lo from the one the far-discerning light Beams upon earthly dwellers but a cloud Of pitchy darkness veils the other round. but grave. her head enveloped in a black veil. Sometimes Nyx is represented driving in a chariot drawn by two horses. and her Children. and is therefore distinct from Erebus." —Hesiod. Nyx was a mighty goddess. who reigned in the Underworld. and stars following her. She dwelt in Tartarus. XXII» — NYX.: 222 Nyx. but they never met. but Night wrapped her beloved son in her dark veil. that Forth issues. clothed in a long black garment. her black wings overshadowing the earth. AND HER CHILDREN. who had deceived him. " Theogony" : (Elton). Once his anger was roused against Sleep. and is in her a torch with the point downwards. that in the mansion waits due season of her travel come. Her face always youthful and lovely. or Night. All those things that . which was also the abode of Hemera. This passes forth and roams The round of earth. OR NIGHT. Black cocks were always sacrificed to her. It has already been stated at the beginning of this volume that Nyx reigned over the Upperworld after the Sun had gone down. At others she holds in her right left hand a flowing black veil spangled with stars. and Zeus dared not displease her by molesting him. Nyx and Heme'ra or Day Hesiod thus describes " This enters.

. her feet. men 223 thought terrible and dreadful. immortal. and took up their abode with the gods. . Such were the pitiless Parcae. the Fates Nemesis. and holy one. Care. saw through all falseness and injustice. but she grows so quickly. to signify that she metes out justice with equity. . was unknown were called the children of Night. . Hunger. or of which the origin to them. and her Children. At first she is of very small stature. venerated Goddess and Queen. for she. Deceit.Nyx. although she was the Goddess of Revenge. In her left hand at either a branch. as if absorbed in the consideration of right and wrong. as is Kind is Nemesis to the upright and contented. as she is the constant companion of war. Goddess of Revenge Eris. a scourge. a sword. only inflicted just retribution on An old song speaks of her as the "all-seeing. Eris. of injury by thoughtless Momus. Old Age. or a cornucopia. but offenders. War." When human wickedness became too great. Nemesis and Shame forsook the earth. . Fear." and honoured her. " the noble. Goddess of Discord. . . pure. grave and her earnest gaze is always bent on the ground. Sometimes she is depicted with a wheel : sometimes she is on which sits a griffin Her countenance is sitting in a chariot drawn by griffins. and rejoicing in his success. . Lamentation . and Oath. dressed in a tunic and long flowing mantle her arm holds is this mantle across the middle of her body. armed with sword and scourge. . was not a cruel deity. she : stern and pitiless towards the unjust and arrogant to these latter she appears as the avenging goddess. right She is represented as a tall woman of serious . describe. or Night. of Discord Ate. presiding over the life All men feared of man. aspect. was sometimes called the sister of Ares. Some of these we will now Nemesis. God of Envy Death words Sleep Dreams Grief. a pair of scales.

thus symbolizing the growth of head reaches She strife. entreating Zeus to pour out his wrath upon them. and sometimes Having once in- duced Ate seized her to make a boast. They bestow their aid on all who honour them. doing harm train. vowing that she should never again be admitted into the assembly of the gods. to is a state of wrath. She dwells with the Furies in the always in Underworld. such as hunger. where the sunlight never Here Sleep lies and thick darkness reigns. in a sombre cave . . her the clouds . and snakes surrounding her head. the by her golden locks and threw her to earth. a torch in her hand. and her children are all the evils that result from strife and war. her face stained with blood. and her Childj'en. and try to repair the ill she has effected. that although her feet tread the earth. Prayer and Petition. Sleep is represented as a youth of great beauty and earnestness of countenance. Ate originally represented thoughtlessness and leading illusive deception. etc.224 NyX> or Night. on a couch. but those who neglect or despise them they abandon to their fate. to all. bloodshed. holding in one hand a bunch of poppies. and bringing trouble has two and misfortune in her Fortunately Ate good sisters. Some poets place the abode of Sleep with the Kimmerii. him. dormouse. Ever since then she has wandered over the earth. plagues. often men into error. which he afterwards repented mighty god in his anger {vide history of Herakles). who follow her steps. pain. misleading even the gods themselves. poppies grow at the people inhabiting the penetrates. her teeth gnashing. a far north. Sleep and Dreams. lies beside He lived with Death in a palace in the Underworld. representing long and deep slumber. and in the other a torch A mole or with the point turned towards the earth.

entrance. animals Their dwelling was also in the Underworld. Morpheus. wishing to acquaint a certain queen with the death of her husband who had been drowned at sea. Arising upwards from the rock below. out of which proceed the Dreams by which he surrounded. through the latter those destined to Ovid gives a beautiful description of these Dreams. and had two Through the former gates. without an air of breath. . The : Phantasos. But safe Repose. dwells the drowsy god . " Indu'd with robes of various And hue she flies. And passing. and a dumb quiet next to death. despatches Iris to the abode of Sleep with a message bidding him send a dream to warn her of the approach of Iris at once obeys her behest fatal tidings. Near the Cymmerians. and Dreams were three The first showed the sleeper human figures and the third. nor the rising sun. An arm of Lethe with a gentle flow. . . in his dark abode. Around all entry nodding poppies grow. draws an arch (a segment of the skies) Then leaves her bending bow. sheds it on the silent plains : P . cool simples that sweet rest bestow Night from the plants their sleepy virtue drains. visits. the second.: : NyXy or Night. Juno. and o'er the pebbles creeps. with soft its And And murmurs calls the coming sleeps. went deceptive be realized. visions. one of ivory and one of horn. Dwells here. Phobetor. 225 He holds a cornuis copia. nor the lightsome moon. and her Children. and deep silence prevails. Nor setting. and from the steep Descends to search the silent house of Sleep. The palace moats. Whose gloomy mansion. inanimate objects. flying Deep in a cavern.

O sacred Rest. Whose balms renew the limbs to labours of the day.' She said. But in the gloomy court was rais'd a bed. and her No On Children. his limbs display'd abroad : About his head fantastic visions fly. uneasy till bow with swift ascent. of all the powers the best O peace of mind. Though against his custom. Before his queen bid the pale spectre stand. creaking hinges turn'd. and brush'd the dreams away The god disturb'd with this new glare of light Cast sudden on his face. . and scarce awake her eyes could keep. to break his sleep. on his bosom knocked his chin At length shook off himself. And rais'd his tardy head. and imitated best : . or Night. . call'd aloud. he slept again. express'd The shape of man. and on an ebon stead Black was the cov'ring too where lay the god. And slept. ' : ! Adorn a dream. Who begs a vain relief at Juno's hand. Stuff'd with black plumes. unseal'd his sight. To whom the goddess thus Sweet pleasing Sleep. Which various images of things supply. . indulg'd the day To the brown cave. repairer of decay. The shape of him who suffer'd in the storm. door there was th' unguarded house to keep. And The swerv'd along her god. of all his numerous train. expressing human form. The virgin ent'ring bright. : Exciting Morpheus from the sleepy crowd Morpheus. Unable to support the fumes of sleep But fled. which sunk again. : And sinking. returning by the way she went. and ask'd the dame (And asking yawn'd) for what intent she came.2 26 Nyx.

joyful and sad. and her Children. in rags and in kingly attire. beautiful and hideous. Sloth. there were two large edifices. Nyx. in heav'n's high hall. : . Of these the chosen Morpheus is dispatch'd. he represents in dreams. and things devoid of soul Earth.. and is Forgetfulness guarding the entrance. where stood a town peopled entirely by dreams of every description and large and small. in the Isle of And again he spoken of as dwelling form Dreams. By other poets Sleep is described as lying surrounded with Ethiopia. or AHght. The gods have nam'd but men Phobetor call." Book xi. whose actions roll On meaner thoughts. " Metam. which gleamed with every colour of of these gates led towards the rainbow. fruits and flow'rs. And solid rocks removed. but all is confln'd Extending not beyond our human kind. and dragons. The to walls of the town. And dreadful images. from which the dreams issued wander over the earth. the gesture could supply his action 227 Plays well. Which done. These three to kings and chiefs their scenes display. the lazy monarch. The walk. where ships lay ready to carry the dreams to . (Dryden). the words. sacred to Night and Scorn. and Peace. A third is Phantasus. In the market place. small temples dedicated to Falsehood and Truth : also. on either side of a well.. and running streams. and beasts. and monster shapes This demon. Another. Down from his propping elbow drops his head Dissolv'd in sleep. Two the harbour. had four gates." —Ovid. and shrinks within his bed. were two . Icelos. apes. The rest before the ignoble commons play. pleasant and disagreeable. overwatch'd. with dreams of flowers in a cave in the woods of various shapes flitting around him. birds.

frequented by numerous owls and All mortals who approached the town were hospitably welcomed. tall poppies. A Death foe. a the fairest promises were made to them. a brother of Sleep. but with a serious expression of countenance. iron : The : other has a heart yea. Death and Sleep. when he climbs The cope of heaven. friendly genii The poet Hesiod thus speaks of these "Sons of gloomy Night. and her Children. There hold their habitation. and represented it They called it Thanatos as a beneficent genius. and in his garland. led to the field of Sloth. : Of Of Of these the one glides gentle o'er the space earth and broad expanse of ocean waves. Stern he retains : e'en to immortal gods (Elton). holding in his right hand a torch. a peaceful death to be all happy transit into the land of Rest. one of iron.: 228 Nyx. butterflies and a He is furnished with wings. and a release from the cares and griefs of this (Mors). the heart within his breast Is brass unpitying whom of men he grasps. lying on the lap of Night. : foreign lands the other two. In a certain piece of beautiful sculpture. and mournfully con- templates the butterflies. Dread deities nor them doth shining sun E'er with his beam contemplate. Close to the town the river of Forgetfulness flowed sleepily and noiselessly through a thick growth of bats. or when from heaven descends. the other of clay. and Death. Death and Sleep are represented as two boys. or Night. symbols of change and transition." —Hesiod. "Theogony" ?s depicted as a youth. point downwards. The Greeks considered life. left hand. Placid to man. beautiful. . and inhabiting the same palace at the entrance of the Underworld.

An example of this is given by Lucian. He declared that the house ought to be its capable of being turned round. Momos was the umpire. or Night. with flashing eyes. a Greek poet. for it with everything. black garment. instead of on his head. or rather of Censure. He is Momos he found was the fault God of Envy. and Poseidon (Neptune) once disputed as to which could produce the most useful thing." This god open. and stretches out his bloodstained hands to grasp his victims. and his mouth . describes Death as a frightful monster. haggard man. sometimes is he would have been able to draw much heavier burdens. so that his fellow-men might look into his heart. who relates as follows: "Athena (Minerva). A man. so that occupant might exchange he said. 229 But Euripides. Hephaestus a man. depicted as a gaunt. his horns had been on his chest. if And as for the ox. at will a bad neighbour for a good one. ought to have a window in his breast. is with wings. whether were done by gods or men. and her Children. dark streaming hair. but he found something to cavil at in each. his face pale and downcast.Nyx. so enormous opens wide his gigantic mouth. and Poseidon an ox. that he can destroy whole towns. and a drawn sword. He gnashes his teeth. Hephaestus (Vulcan). the Greek tragic poet. Athena made a house.

was first worshipped by the Romans Janus. Latins. Janus was the ancient God of the Sun and of Light. some belonging exclusively to and to Rome in particular.sods worshipped by the Romans were those of the Greeks. He. and had been gradually absorbed into the They consisted principally of religion of the Romans. According to old legends. Most of the identical with . These had originated among the old Etruscans. protectors and guardians of ators human life. and Sabines. in the reign of Numa Pompilius. and were worshipped Besides the Lares and Penates as household deities. Thus exit and entrance. the .— DEITIES KNOWN ONLY TO THE INHABITANTS OF ITALY. who acted as medi- between the gods and mankind. daily issuing from and returning to the gates of he is looked upon as the god of Heaven. the opener and closer of gates and doors on earth as well as in heaven. To him came Saturn (Chronos) . but there were Italy. he instructed Janus in the art of agriculture.) : Janus was a king Golden Age. when deprived of power by Jupiter and able welcome accorded in return for the kind and hospit- to him. when peace of ancient Latium. like so many other divinities. In fact he presided over the all commencement and feasts ending of things. and endowed him with a knowledge of the future and a perpetual remembrance of the past. and therefore all were preceded his by sacrifices to Janus. living in the and happiness reigned supreme on earth. XXIII. already mentioned were (i. Janus is represented as an old man with two faces. which he opened and shut.2^0 Deities known only to Italy.

consisting principally fruits. but the seasons and all the blessings of the year depend on his will. The first month of the year was sacred to him. had two faces. only happened three like Rome. of etrennes). After this event the gates always remained open in time of war. as whose hands rested the commencement and end of war. Janus carries a key in his hand. they were closed by with great the consuls This. and all was carefully avoided. and two doors opposite each other. when the latter invaded the open porch.e. for he was regarded as the keeper and opener of the gate of the New Year : hence the name the of January. every one worked hard. but when peace was concluded. The Temple. A legend relates. Whatever happened on this day was received as an augury. signifying the four seasons of the . Christmas-tide. Janus drove them back by causing a hot god sulphur spring to rise suddenly before them.Deities known only to Italy. for not only does he lock and open the gates of the year. times in the history of warhowever. strife was also customary. Janus is sometimes represented with four faces. and in the reign Nero also once closed the of the Emperor Augustus. interchange small whence the French word. was considered a good omen for the rest of the Only pleasant occupations were undertaken. first day of each such as cakes made of honey.. like the god himself. In the Rome in a magnificent temple was erected to him. 231 one looking forward. under the peaceful sway of Numa Pompilius. and if the labours of this day were crowned with success. that once during a war between the Romans and Sabines. parched corn. gates. as at our presents (strenae. it and salt. the other backward. milk. between the first and second Punic wars. i. Various offerings were brought him on year. ceremony and special thanksgivings. to It year.

) Flora.232 year. a garden knife. His wives were Camasena. and of Harvest and field Pomona. and leaning on a staff he entered the garden and spoke with the lovely Pomona. so Vertumnus appeared before the eyes of the astonished become his wife. giving obduracy. Vertumnus was God Commerce. with flowers in her hands and amidst her . and some crowning her brow and fruits were offered both to her and to Vertumnus to propitiate them. and made clever use of this gift in wooing Pomona. who thereupon consented to Pomona is depicted laden with fruit. of married Gradually his conversation turned to the happiness life. or helping to gather the fruit. and he extolled the love and devotion of at the Vertumnus. Goddess of Fruits. and was therefore represented as a young man. and offered his services in pruning the shrubs and vines. by whom he had a son Tiberius. This nymph.) Vertumnus and Juturna. (2. some in a basket on her lap. was represented as a young maiden. crowned with fruit and corn-ears. . Goddess of Flowers. admiring her splendid fruit. A cap covered his disguised himself as an old grey locks. woman. power of assuming various forms. laden presence. or a staff. engrossed in the care of her garden. Deities known only to Italy. all with wheat. and carrying a He had likewise the crook. harvest. same time a warning relinquished to feminine Then suddenly he his disguise. He presided over garden and produce. or carrying on his head a bundle of freshmown hay. thus in various At last he ways gaining a sight of the beautiful maiden. and as the sun breaks triumphantly through the dark clouds. denying them admittance to her But Vertumnus took the form of a reaper. (3. refused suitors for her hand. in order that they might bless the country with a good Pomona.

bearded man. He feet.) Faunus is sometimes mistaken for Pan. and had the gift of foretelling god of fields and woods. to denote that he guarded the forests and His rough voice was often heard at He is said to have night resounding through the forests. and their frolicsome tricks often frightened passers-by. with goats' crowned with branches .) with Faunus. and was said to be the wife of Zephyrus. he encountered nymph whose affection he had rejected. People traversed the streets singing and dancing. represented as a nude. was named Fauna. . and who transformed him into a woodpecker. especially by means of dreams. and merriment houses were decorated with wreaths and tables strewn with flowers. the land Numa Pompilius. in one hand is a sickle. They were represented with small horns. in the other a branch. closely connected friendly disposition. all indulged in innocent frolic . (6. known only to Italy. He was (4. At . and goats' hoofs and are often confounded with the Satyrs. whom he loved.) Terminus was the guardian of boundaries. when he divided among the people. and their children were the Fauni. garlanded with blossoms. tails. nor were crowned with the ivy wreath. 233 By the Greeks she was called Chloris. hooked noses. (5. the another wood-nymph Caucus. to preserve the bound- and render them sacred. instituted the worship of aries Terminus. His wife future events.Deities hair. curling hair. thence. but of a is Silvanus was god of the much more fir herds. the Laurentes. but one day while seeking been a king of planted waste lands. stood in the The statue of this divinity at Temple of Jupiter in and was never allowed to be removed from Rome the Capitol. inhabited the woods. During the festival held at Rome in her honour. though they neither carried the They thyrsus.

surmounted by a carved head of Terminus. them was looked upon as a grave crime. and stood in the Senate house. 234 Deities known field. earliest Rome from the very times . It depicted a lovely and youthful female figure standing on a globe. was worshipped in and the ever-increasing the sacrifices love of war among the Romans rendered offered to her and the statues erected in her honour more and more numerous. and there erected a simple altar of grass. Meetthe ing at the boundaries they united in offering oblations to Terminus. Victoria. which signifies that. After this the people partook of a simple meal. Victoria. the boundary of every as well as at the original limits was placed a stone. no man can grasp or detain her. but the back of her head shaven. 8. Occasio. which they crowned with flowers. The twenty-third of February was set apart for a feast to commemorate the sanctity of boundaries. in addition to which public festivals took place. Then a lamb altar. Occasio was or Opportunity. only to Italy. These were the private feasts. the blood sprinkled on the of the the flesh burnt. victorious Rome was indeed an appropriate home for her Her most celebrated statue was set up by Augustus. interspersed with joyful songs. 7. sented as a woman with winged feet standing on a repre- globe is her hair floats in front of her. but also embassies from neighbouring countries participated. in which not only the Roman magistrates. and to move one of of the city. or Victory. holding a palm . These feasts were continued long after Romans had overcome all the surrounding nations. Those whose lands joined assembled at the boundary. once allowed to pass. and incense and the first fruits land thrown into the flames. or pig was killed. Proud. The erection of these stones was accomplished with solemn ceremonies.! .

and a flower in her right. with a roll of parchment in her left j hand. The worship of Serapis and Isis was introduced from Egypt. Libertas (Freedom) holding in the right hand a and the forefinger of her right placed pointed cap. The three last-named divinities were scarcely regarded rather as as actual gods. among whom may be mentioned Concordia (Harmony). for then the Eastern and Egyptian Gods were At the time of the Punic wars. victory brings both peace and glory. the image also adopted. holding her garment looped up in her left hand. and a and Spes (Hope). a tall. probably meteoric.Deities branch in her victory long. comes quickly and unexpectedly.) Although the Romans at first regarded with distrust the feasts of both Cybele and her favourite Athys. but attributes. and a crown in her right. a stately woman bearing a cornucopia. yet these ere long participated in by the whole festivals were nation. and that of the sun-god Mithras from Persia. left known only to Italy. and priests of the Phrygia to Rome. with her head half veiled and her hands raised in prayer. in the left a lance . a majestic in woman with a pair of scales left . mortals possessing divine There were many others of this nature. active maiden. her right hand. 235 for hand. . Justicia (Justice). cornucopia in her The importation into Rome of the costly treasures of the East was followed by the downfall of the early Roman religion. and is She was winged. on her lips Pietas (Piety). goddess Cebele were brought from (The stone of which the figure was a composed was of dark colour. (Faithfulness). for tarries not Victoria sometimes represented in a war chariot driving winged horses. and an olive branch Fides : .




And Still fogs are shaken from his flaggy wings. he binds With all the race of cloud-dispelling winds The south he loos'd. .: I. therefore. his patrimonial to Not from heaven alone . skies. . with peals resound come pouring to the ground. The following the " The northern breath. Then clad in colours of a various dye. His son Deucalion. . while all the other inhabitants of the earth had become degenerate and wicked.— DEUCALION AND PYRRHA. with his clench'd th' fist He squeezed the clouds. that freezes floods. and established himself with Parnassus. his wandered to Greece. who night and horror brings : . Both Deucalion and honoured the gods. Junonian Iris breeds a new supply To feed the clouds impetuous rain descends The bearded corn beneath the burden bends Defrauded clowns deplore their perish'd grain. imprison'd clouds resist . Jove content pour his vengeance down . The And from pole to pole. first We men have already described how Prometheus made the out of clay. wife Pyrrha on Mount and Pyrrha were good and virtuous. determined to destroy every living being is means of account given by Ovid upon the earth by : a flood. Zeus. neglecting to offer them sacrifices. animating them with fire from heaven. And Is the long labours of the year are vain. as he swept along. . show'rs enlarged. quitting the Caucasus where Prometheus dwelt.

: . climbs a cliff. Who roll from mossy caves (their moist abodes). and without a coast. The The frighted wolf now swims amongst : the sheep . To help him with auxiliary waves. Aid from his brother of the seas he craves. too strongly built to o'er their High Now heads behold a wat'ry wall seas and earth were in confusion lost A One world of waters. : .: . destroy. The solid piles. Their houses upon their household gods. with a sweepy sway. Despair of land and drop into the main. are knock'd against a pine. for. Th' expanded waters gather on the plain They float the fields and overtop the grain Then rushing onwards. your pow'rs employ . long beating on their wings in vain. one in his boat is borne : Or downward driven. in brief. Remove the living stones that stopp'd their way. Bear flocks. To whom. 40 Dmcaiion and Pyrrka. and lab'ring hinds away. and fell folds. they bruise the tender vine. ' Small exhortations need this he thus imparts his will. And proudly swelling with their new command.' The floods. The monsters of the deep now take their place. so Jove requires. The wat'ry tyrant calls his brooks and floods. fall. And where of late the kids had cropt the grass. yellow lion wanders in the deep The The His rapid force no longer helps the boar stag swims faster than he ran before. Or tost aloft. fowls. : And bad world. sapp'd by floods. And gushing from their source augment the sea. by nature enemies to land. Nor safe their dwellings were.

he wept. calmed commanded the Tritons to blow their conch shells. and tion. finding floating alone on the boundless expanse of waters. as the waters fall. A dismal desert. so that Earth might once more clearly behold Heaven. they their vessel the Nymphs seeing of Mount Parnassus whole alive. for. and a silent waste. they called upon divine Themis. to save them. Deukalion and Pyrrha alone warned by the gods of the coming destruc- had prepared themselves a ship. men . Most of the mountains were the few persons entirely 241 and from submerged. behold. survived . In longer time the tops of trees appear. who succeeded in saving themselves drowning died of starvation. the surface of with water. At length the world was all restor'd to view But desolate and of a sickly hue Nature beheld herself and stood aghast. . So marvellously loud was the sound from these shells. and call the rivers back to their usual channels. Deucalion and Pyrrha. and thus to Pyrrha spoke " : : " Oh ! wife beloved. Which mud on their dishonour'd branches bear. and stretching forth his mighty trident. the sea. when Deucalion with a piteous look Beheld. By slow degrees into their channels crawl And earth increases. we are the only people All the sons of left on the face of the desolate Q earth. the earth Then covered dry the Zeus. and that no human beings save Deucalion and Pyrrha remained sent the north wind to atmosphere and drive away the clouds. the Muses. but just contained within their bounds. Now. Poseidon. Which. and immediately the waters abated " The streams.: . that it reached the most distant shores.

your mighty mother's bones. and." Then Deukalion and Pyrrha hastened. to the temple of Themis.' Then ' thus the gracious goddess. the powers above By pray'rs are bent to pity. and with your vestments veil your head stooping lowly down. . veil'd. until at last Pyrrha de- clared that she could not obey the command of the goddess the idea of disturbing her beloved mother's bones filled her with horror. they first unbind : Their vests. But long tradition makes it pass for true) Did first the rigour of their kind expel. they cast the stones behind The stones (a miracle to mortal view. by second birth. Depart. weeping. and we know not how long the gods will spare our lives. and of creating human beings. threw themselves on the steps of the altar.' " Long they stood in amazement." interpretation. and the stones are her bones these which rejoiced we are at to this throw behind us. At last Deukalion spoke is : " Surely the goddess means . Suddenly it occurred to them that some hidden meaning might be contained in the words of Themis. test it And Pyrrha half greatly its and.: : : 242 Deucalion and Pyrrha. though doubting truth. and people desolated earth. that it is the earth our mother. so that upon the earth men might be seen once more. and to love . kissed the cold stones. Tell how we may restore. said . Mankind. nodding. determined to " Descending from the mount. Ah ! had I but my father's power and endowing them with life. have perished in the waters. And Throw each behind your backs. " ' Thus the if saint implor'd : O righteous Themis. with loosen'd zones.

The resemblance between account of the flood other nations. What the man threw.Cecrops. born to bear and harden'd into care. by degrees grow warm . The earliest of these foreign Attica. is this history . Without the rising muscles. man begin ." And went the people. II. and the veins. Imperfect shapes in When the rude chisel does the marble such are seen. . Hence we Laborious derive our nature life. and his father-in-law. And took the rudiments of : human form. in little space. suppled into softness as they fell and swelling. who knew neither father nor mother. — CECROPS. forth to toil through the wide earth. was Cecrops. By help of power divine. very striking legend related in various ways in and the Biblical and we find the same the mythology of many PANDION AND HIS DAUGHTERS PHILOMELA AND PROCNE. . instituted regular marriages. Having married Agranlos. daughter of Actaeus. Cecrops succeeded to the throne on the death of He introduced many improvements. . renew'd the female race. 243 And Then swell'd. king of Attica. While yet the roughness of the stone remains. assum'd a manly face And what the wife. who came from Egypt and landed in where the savage inhabitants joyfully welcomed him. Pauction and his Daughters. and Ancient legends relate that the aborigines of Greece were raised from a wild uncivilized state by various strangers who landed on settlers their shores. besides teaching the natives to .

He had after latter the wife of King of Thrace. my father that her return with as a gift The sight of her face will be to me from the gods. and plant and thus became the benefactor of the country. and prayers to his. Athene gave the olive-tree. all He then decreed that. he implored Pandion to let intrusted his beloved daughter to he care of Tereus : . such as the useful animals. only first-fruits of the land and cakes. round which afterwards rose the town of Poseidon and Athene once had a dispute district. the Tereus. With him take Philomela to her sister. and he determined to carry her tears off. He also erected a castle on a Athens. two daughters. in order to spare bloodless offerings. should be presented to her. Philomela Athens he told Pandion of While he was in the presence of the So the apartment. decided in favour of Athene. or entreat thee. Philomela and Prokne." As soon king. herself entered glorious was her beauty that the heart of Tereus was filled with love for her. Cecrops. Terens sailed for Athens. It is related that as to which of them should own the At last they agreed that whichever should bestow on the people the most useful gift should be the possessor of the land. either take me he with thee to her at let Athens. as Tereus arrived at his wife's request. King Pandion was a descendant of Cecrops. Poseidon struck the earth with his trident and produced the horse. hill. five years their marriage. whom they appointed umpire.: 244 Cecrops. and the unsuspecting maiden herself added her At last Pandion gave his consent. When. Pandion and his Daughters. olive-trees : build houses. cultivate the land. and thenceforth she became the protectress of the land. Prokne entreated to bring her sister him back with him on his return " If thou lovest me.

When she scornfully refused to listen to cruelty. and farewells were exchanged between them. dear my daughter I entrust. to gain her consent to a marriage with him after he should have killed Prokne. he sighed deeply... that she might never his misdeeds. and replied. and offered propitiatory sacrifices on behalf of her spirit.CccropSy " Pandion and his Daughters. on his return to her. And since the least delay will tedious prove. find. Then Tereus.. a monument to memory of Philomela. " Alas ! she dead ! I buried her on my way hither." After sending greetings to Prokne and her children. filled with rage and reveal fear. To know your sister's banish'd from my any sense of duty sways your mind. by means of threats." grief. I love. let it suffice. Prokne. To watch and guard her with a father's eye. cut out her tongue. lifting her white aid of the gods. my Philomel. When about her is Prokne. and arms towards heaven. gave way to the bitterest erected black robes. . son. implored the his wicked designs. And by the gods adjure you to be just By truth. Let me from you the shortest absence If eyes . guard her. he treated her with great she. And you. the history of her wrongs and she persuaded the warder. the old king embraced Philomela. On landing in Thrace. questioned him sister. and imprisoned her in a shepherd's hut. into which she worked . Philomela remained a whole year in hopeless captivity. In keeping from my sight the child With speed return her . believing clothed herself in the his words. determining. Tereus bore Philomela to a dark wood. to convey this to who had been appointed to her . and ev'ry consanguineal tie. 245 With you. At last she spun a very fine garment. weeping.

Across the fled like the wind from his vengeance. Cecrops. even while she felt the child's seizing Furiously arms around her neck. door she bore away the unfortunate Philomela. who drawn sword he rushed frantically in pursuit of the sisters. and Tereus a peewit. Or worse. When At the celebration of the Bacchanalian feasts she joined the throng of Maenades. but defer our time. partook of it. inner apartment.: 246 sister. Pandion and his Daughters. . and Philomela rushed furiously into the chamber with the head of the boy in her hand. if wit. and unheard-of part. Then in these furious words she gave vent to her wrath and anger " Years. some hellish. him to the heart. Prokne a swallow. invent. and rushed wildly hither and Forcing open the thither till she found the solitary hut. she carried him to an little there stabbed fearful deed. A weapon Oh sister! To act more tormenting can I've prepared my stubborn heart. and fields them. weeping and lamenting his son's death. when Prokne disclosed what she had done. Philomela became a nightingale. unavailing. he followed them. and concealed her in her own dwelling. revenge glowed in her heart. and served up to him the flesh of his son. each flew away in a different direction. Tereus. But a expecting to be received with wonted affection. her sister aiding in the Then the cruel mother invited her husband to a banquet. hideous plan entered the mother's mind. With loud cries and imprecations Tereus rose from the Then with table. on bloody vengeance bent. though sorrow sealed her lips. and after the feast called for Itys. never suspecting. until just as he had almost reached all three were suddenly transformed into birds. Prokne beheld what her sister had sent her. and him. The stabbing sword must expiate the crime." Even as she spoke her little son Itys came running to her.

An account has Kadmos. — KADMOS. unbroken to the plough Mark well the place where first she lays her down. " Go seek thy sister in all lands. was the second stranger who settled in Greece. and if thou canst not never let 1 forth and find her. Her Agenor was inconsolable. over hills and plains. 247 III." No sooner had Kadmos left the precincts of the temple Far. and said to Kadmos. raised her head. . There measure out thy walls and build a town And from thy guide Bceotia call the land. he followed her. O'errun with brambles. In which the destin'd walls and town shall stand. his Then Kadmos stooped to kiss the earth. Deep in the dreary den. and then lay down to rest.Kadmos. bellowed fiercely. conceal'd from day. Unworn with yokes. far. son of Agenor. pathless and unworn. King of Phoenicia. whom father Zeus in the form of a bull carried off to Crete." steps. and received " Kadmos enquired : the following reply Behold among the fields a lonely cow. Not knowing whither to bend his of the Delphic oracle. . till at last she stopped. . me behold thy face again. and perplex'd with thorns Amidst the brake a hollow den was found. . than he beheld the cow as the oracle had foretold. and ordered it attendants to fetch water from a neighbouring spring with which to sprinkle the ground and consecrate to Zeus : "O'er the wide plain there rose a shady wood Of aged trees in its dark bosom stood A bushy thicket. already been given of the fate of his sister Europa. With rocks and shelving arches vaulted round.

: He A a whirlwind at the foe tower assaulted by so rude a stroke. sent it in ." . In vain attempt to fight. Then heav'd a and rising to the throw. and . stone. Bloated with poison to a monstrous size Fire broke in flashes when he glanc'd his eyes . . Kadmos. eyes. Sacred to Mars. with their sound Straight he bestirs him. wood in search of them. When the servants let down the pail into the well. Such friends (he cries) deserv'd a longer date But Cadmus will revenge or share their fate. and is seen to rise . In vain the Tyrians on their arms rely. " at the long absence of his followers. wrapped in a and armed with a glistening spear Soon as the youth approach'd the fatal place He saw his servants breathless on the grass 1 .: 248 Kadmos. And now with dreadful hissings fills the skies And darts his forky tongues. and rolls his glaring The Tyrians drop All pale their vessels in the fright." their . Three tongues he brandish'd when he charg'd his foes His teeth stood jaggy in three dreadful rows. out of the watery depths appeared " The sleeping serpent. overlook'd the wood. a mighty dragon lay. Spire above spire uprear'd in air he stood. And gazing round him. and trembling at the hideous sight. Swol'n up with blasts of pestilential breath. in vain to fly : All their endeavours hopes are vain Some die entangled in the winding train Some are devour'd or feel a loathsome death. wondering hastened into the leopard's skin.

increasing with his pain his eyes. . Bears down the forest in his boisterous course. and beats in every vein . Such as th' infernal Stygian waters cast : The plants around him wither in the blast. And writh'd his body to and rag'd in vain. Cadmus gave back. With all its lofty battlements had shook. Which at his back the raging warrior threw Amid the plated scales it took its course. Whilst from his mouth a blast of vapours flows. a knotty oak . But nothing here th' unwieldy rock avails. That firmly join'd. and on the lion's spoil Sustain'd the shock. and furious to engage. Retards his and stops him Full in his throat he plung'd the fatal spear. Kadmos. and fro with pain. whilst the Strikes champion with redoubled might home the jav'lin. and disappoints the blow.. 249 With more success the dart unerring flew. The monster hiss'd aloud. And now Reddens his rage. foe. still the hurt he yet receiv'd was slight For. like : a torrent. his retiring foe Shrinks from the wound. That in th' extended neck a passage found. Now in a maze of rings he lies enroll'd. and without a fold Now. preserv'd him from a wound. and bites the spear. . Now all unravell'd. serpent champs the steel. Rebounding harmless from the plated scales. with a mighty force. The dauntless hero still till pursues his stroke. in the rear And presses forward. then forc'd him to recoil The pointed jav'lin warded off his rage : Mad The But with his pains. Churn'd in his teeth the foamy venom rose.

the mother of Bacchos. A growing host. Fix'd to the reeling trunk. the field the breathing harvest swarms. after who commanded him and to : sow them in the ground ploughed it up " he should have He sows the teeth at And flings the future The clods Pallas's command. And now Now nodding plumes appear. people from his hand. with many a stroke Of his huge Till spent with toil. Of his daughters. While Kadmos stood gazing the monster. Semele. He taught the people agriculture into their country the and the use of iron. only Ino. Cecrops in Attica. and shining crests. and introduced Phoenician gods and the letters of the alphabet. now lay twisting in the pangs of death. to take out the teeth of the dragon." earth began to fight armed men who had thus sprung out of the and slay one another till only five were these helped Kadmos to build the famous city of the like Thebes. he beheld Pallas Athena. pierc'd the solid timber through the wound. of Ino has The tragic fate is already been related : the following the full account given by Ovid. was regarded as the benefactor of Boeotia. Kadmos. Now the broad shoulders and the rising breasts O'er all ." tail. He he lash'd the sturdy oak .250 And Kadmos. and crumble where he sows the pointed spears advance in rows . grow warm. Then left : a crop of men and arms. Juno descends . and lab'ring hard for breath. are and Awtonoe known. . his protectress. suddenly he in wonder at the dead body of : heard a voice ask " Why art thou standing thus and gazing on the dragon ? " Starting back in great alarm.

And soothe immortal wrath. The goddess At swift precipitates her flight. adamantine gate. and eludes his hand. great Juno's majesty was known. : The labour too of Sisyphus is vain . and lend a baleful shade. Through silent labyrinths a passage lies To mournful The regions and infernal skies its : Here Styx exhales fun'ral rites noisome clouds all : and here. Then suppliant couch'd. 1 Kadmos. The tree starts backwards. Before a lofty. Down from the realms of day. . to the 25 Underworld husband Athamas Bacchos to bid the Furies punish for Ino and her having taken charge of the infant " Down a steep yawning cave. souls appear. once paid. foul daughters of the Night. Up the steep mount he heaves the stone with pain. to gratify her hate. forgets her state. The hideous monsters And. rising is their obedience shew'd from their seats. Or from her combs the curling snakes. the Furies sat Th' implacable. A sounding whip each bloody tresses sister shakes. Poor Tantalus to taste the water tries. the noise hell's porter heard. hell arriv'd. But now. to realms of night. This the palace of woe . and stretch'd along the ground. But from his lips the faithless water flies Then thinks the bending tree he can command. where yews display'd In arches meet. here groan the dead . submissive bow'd. triple Th' enormous dog his head uprear'd : Thrice from three grisly throats he howl'd profound. The queen of heav'n.: .

In vain to quit the palace they prepared Tisiphone was there. And joyous re-ascends her native skies Nor enter'd there. guiltless of delays. Now. and pour'd celestial dew. still Belides their leaky vessels Are ever and yet never fill. darting upwards. And springing greens were wither'd. She spoke : The goddess. and thus bring destruction on the hated family " : Then ' fell Tisiphone with rage was stung. To Thebes her flight she sped.' . is done though not yet begun. : ." Juno then informed the Furies that she had come to ask them to cause Athamas to commit some horrible crime. thick clouds the day o'ercast. dismal yellings heard. : flies. And from her mouth th' untwisted serpents To gain this boon. and hell forsook At her approach the Theban turrets shook The sun shrunk back. Confound as much the monarch as the queen. to do. Stretch'd on the rolling wheel Ixion lies .. cruel haste the dire command obeys. there is no need (She cry'd) in formal speeches to proceed. Down The from the summit filling. and kept the ward. rolls the stone again. Himself he follows. Then from her middle locks two snakes she drew. The With faithful fury. till round her Iris threw Ambrosial sweets. flung. . thrown with spiteful care. and himself he flies. Whatever thou command'st Believe it finish'd. : Whose merit from superior mischief grew Th' envenom'd ruin. as she pass'd. 252 Kadmos. strange spectres seen.

The helpless infant flung against the wall. and on its father smii'd A father now no more. from her breast The child Stretch'd little arms. reas'ning faculties control Mix'd with curs'd art. howling. And threw th' exhausted. And to her rueful shades return'd with pride. so blinded was his reason " : still he chas'd his queen. . The grinning Fury her own conquest spied.. And madness. mad with fury. But dealt of plagues unnumber'd store : : Each baneful juice too well she understood Hot hemlock. Young Melicerta in her arms she caught. Improv'd their rage. who now begun Around his head to whirl his giddy son. she direfully around Through all their nerves difms'd the sad compound. Kadmos. saying that he had just seen a lioness with two cubs. flies. called his companion to the chase." Then Athamas. nd with disorder'd tresses. useless snakes aside. toss'd her torch in circles still the same. And its mild. and added flame to flame. quite insensible to nature's call. and cold aconite she chose Whatever can untune th' harmonious soul. Clung to the 253 pair : bosoms of the hapless The hapless pair soon with wild thoughts were fir'd. by Nor did th' a thousand ways inspir'd. unsated monster here give afresh. — Through his palace tore Learchus Then : : And. The same mad poison in the mother wrought. failing to recognise his wife Ino with her two children. o'er.

) Swift as a sea-mew springing from the flood. Poseidon having caused a mighty storm. such strength her fury lent Thence with her guiltless boy. And now And now And now and now the north. ing their nature of all that was human endowed them with Ino became the sea-goddess Leucothea. here. impell'd the floating wood. who had to witnessed all. the south. Climb'd up the cliff. rock there stood. the east the (Herself a mortal once. But now an azure sister of the main. and pity touch'd her breast. The wretched Ino on destruction bent. pitied her. All radiant on the raft the goddess stood : Then thus address'd him : " Thou whom heaven ! decrees To Neptune's wrath.: : 254 Kadmos. Aphrodite. and immortality. Palaemon. thus describes " it The rolling flood. the west wind whirls it o'er the sea. Homer. who wept in vain. in the Odyssey. stern tyrant of the seas . and hollow'd into caves : A Had And The head shot forwards in a bending steep. The wandering chief with toils on toils oppress'd. Leucothea saw. whose side the beating waves long consum'd. while on his way from the island of Kalypso. Now now there. for instance. foamy floods obey. At one bold spring she plung'd into the main. cast a dreadful covert o'er the deep. Poseidon receive the unfortunate pair her son Melicertes. and divesttransform them into sea-gods. of Cadmus strain. when his ship was wrecked. and he himself was perishing in the waters. experienced her rescuing power. bear sway. Leucothea was always regarded as the protectress of Odysseus. shipwrecked mariners." and enand treated He consented.

and as the Bacchanalian feasts were being celebrated. Return the gift. which was confirmed by the shepherd and Zethus and . Cast it far off. King of Thebes. With naked strength. the gods. and the trees bent down to listen he drew forth. Neptune's fury brave.Kadmos. his wife he cast her into prison. left been. reached in safety Lykos. by their mother on Mount Kithaeron. sons of Zeus and Antiope. 255 into the wave." Thus Odysseus. Thither Dirke followed her. neither recognising the other. having while yet babes. Apollo. These youths were ignorant of their parentage. whether Zeus. she joined the throng and searched the forests for Antiope. his brother. Observe my orders and with heed obey. and cast it in the main. was also a descendant of Kad- mos. Soon as thy arms the happy shore shall gain. rescued by the island of Phaeacia. and turn thy eyes away. Soon he skill in this art that gained like Orpheus such marvellous to the enchanting tones the wild beasts followed him. Strip off thy garments . Zethos to deliver her up to Dirke. length At some of the Maenades discovered the unhappy victim. where they were found by a shepherd. but Antiope related her . the goddess. and permitted torment her escaping to cruelly. or gave Amphion a lyre and taught One of Hermes is not known. Seized with a strong antipathy to his niece Antiope. and plunge This heavenly scarf beneath thy bosom bind. him to play it. Dirke to in At length Antiope succeeded Mount Kithaeron. When the captive Antiope stood before Amphion and was about history. and brought her before Zethos and Amphion.

who. . recognising their long-lost mother. at that time King of Argos.256 Amphion Danaos. Gelanor." known by the name of the " Farnesian IV. to bond between them. received him kindly. they marched on Thebes. Collecting a vowed ventheir friends geance against Dirke. fore He therein commanded night. Amphion became king. dearly loving her husband Lynkeus. he determined to leave his country and having built a ship by the advice of Athene. After a quarrel with his brother Aegyptos. and fled with of the night. and. Aegyptos then form a effected a reconciliation with his brother. and Bull. A beautiful marble group depicting her fate is pre- served at Naples. was a son of the Egyptian Belos. his but Danaos rewarded his hospitality by driving him from his kingdom and usurping throne. him in the darkness Having placed him in safety she returned to Danaos. he at set sail for Greece and landed Argos in the Peloponnesus. in his rage against her. threw her into prison. while the cruel Dirke was dragged to death by being fastened by her hair to a wild bull. having slain Lykos.— DANAOS. and. acquainted him with her father's orders. his old disagreement with But Danaos could not forget his brother . Danaos. who. Hypermnestra. moreover. the third settler in Greece. Danaos married the fifty his fifty daughters to sons of Aegyptos. and. . an oracle had predicted that he would die by the hand of one of his sons-in-law. all all his daughters to kill their husbands one They obeyed him except the youngest. band of and companions.

" and he caused R . who challenged promising to give him his daughter successful. called the Danaides. charioteer of Oenomaus. were condemned in the Underworld. his successor." he cried. son of Tantalos. and succeeded Elis to the throne of on the death of his father-in-law. V. at length his He also anger was appeased. and thus arrived He married Hippodamia. Unceasingly they labour on. Pelops. had been warned by an oracle that he would die by the hand of "Never shall that come to pass. to King Oenomaos. was the fourth Landing at foreigner who established himself in Greece. The deadly Thyestes quarrel of the sons of shall relate further on. first bribed the at the goal. Hippodamia in marriage. The ment less forty -nine sisters Hypermnestra. and he released pardoned Lynkeus. King of Phrygia. who afterwards became of her. King of Argos. a descendant of Lynkeus. secure the victory to himself. should he be Pelops. to with water a bottom- vessel by means of bottomless cans. he was welcomed with great hospitality by him to a chariot race. Elis. but in vain — their task is unending.— PERSEUS.— PELOPS. his grandson. on the west coast of the Peloponnesus. 257 the inhabitants of Argos begged for her deliverance. Pelops— Atreus and —we VI. as a punishfill for their unnatural crime. Acrisios. " for my daughter Danae shall never marry .Pelops. But and all —Perseus.

that as in a looking glass. should die. Then the wife of mighty Jove. young hero received the aid of the him a bright helmet. father. When Perseus grew up to manhood. they bore the chest gently over the heaving sea to the island of Seriphos. from Pallas a shield of such everything was reflected in it brilliantly polished steel. Zeus was greater than that of Acrisios. received a diamond sickle. fearing his bold and daring spirit. just at the time when had the monsters were exchanging the one eye which they common. Hermes which rendered him invisible while he wore it gave him winged sandals to enable him to pass through the From Hephaestos he air swifter than the flight of an eagle. and the mother of Perseus. Quickly stretching forth his hand he wrenched the eye from them. and unable to see him. the All around he beheld men and animals that had been turned into stone at . at length he reached the dread abode of the Gorgons. Again fortune favoured Perseus. and then hastened onwards. for the fearful sisters and the snakes which twined round their heads lay And now asleep in their lonesome dwelling. forth on his way to the land And first he came in to the country of the thus they were Graese. Polydektes. — not leave them to perish . gods themselves. Perseus went of the Gorgons. prediction. where she was welcomed by King Polydektes. encouraged him to go in search First Perseus determined to kill the Gorgon of adventures. But the power of and Danae became her to be imprisoned in a dungeon. in great fear for the fulfilment of the her enraged determined that his daughter and her child And Danae was led to the sea-shore— she and her child placed in a large wooden chest and thus thrown But the kind Nereides would to the mercy of the waves. Thus armed.258 Perseus. and in this the Pluto bestowed on . Medusa.

his hair and beard clefts. where. forests. son of Japetus. grasped the head of Medusa. his winged sandals carrying him through the air like a dream. became as. which rose out of the heeaing waters. Uplifting the shield given him by Minerva. and that thus he might protect himself from its deadly effect. and drove him roughly from the door. Only by means of the winged sandals which bore him through the air. Perseus placed it in a bag. who dwelt a splendid palace near and herds. did Perseus escape from their fury. he supported the heavens on his shoulders. in one of the Titans. and bore it from the cave. formed into a range of mountains. he severed the head from the body with one blow of the diamond sickle. And when he was a giant. to hide it from his eyes. the hero beheld a . grew golden apples which were guarded by a dragon. 259 sight of the head of Medusa. but Atlas. Casting a veil over the dead face. and held it Immediately the giant was trans before the eyes of Atlas. On his return he came to the giant Atlas. and the snakes around their heads hissed forth deadly venom. terrible was their anger that the doom of Medusa had been accomplished. Onward again sped Perseus. until he reached the maiden shores of a dark sea. while behind the palace. and the magic helmet which hid him from their sight. in order that the fearful face might be mirrored in it. so now the sky and clouds rest on his crest. But now the awakened Gorgons rushed after him with loud cries . in a lovely garden. fearful that he might be robbed of his golden fruit. his while his arms stretched out into rents and head formed the highest peak of the chain. bid him angrily " Begone. averting his face. Perseus begged for a night's which pastured thousands of flocks lodging from the giant. chained to a huge rock.Persetts." Then Perseus.

had Kepheus. and proudly said none was so fair as she. child's great beauty. which slaves. "Weep not. they only lend their helpless tears. With their sharp beaks the whiten'd ocean plow So when the monster mov'd. : The monster But could not his wild rage restrain. at the floating shadow leap'd in vain. It of surpassing was Andromeda. " Aloud the virgin cries Each parent to her shrieks. In revenge the sea-nymphs had prevailed on Poseidon to send a flood over the land. ." Andromeda." and he promised to rescue her parents would grant her to him marriage as a reward. Then bounding." . daughter of Cassiopea. and the wide. went forth " if said Perseus. Weeping to her they cling no sign appears Of help. Whirl'd from a sling a stone the space would fly. in shrieks replies But she had deepest cause to rend the skies. Maiden. King of Ethiopia. and out of the waters rose a mighty monster. answer came that Andromeda must be chained to a rock. and Perseus meet the beast As well-rigg'd valleys." . her mother. and be devoured by the huge reptile. And in mid air on hov'ring pinions hung. and in only swift aid can help thee. sweating. among all the Nereids. His shadow quickly floated on the main. that furiously lashed the her. Thus was the maiden awaiting her rising waters cruel fate. to Gladly they consented. beauty. amidst the rocks. who spread devastation and destruction far and In fear and terror the oracle was consulted. the roar of the Even : as Perseus reached monster was heard . " the time is short. row. upwards the brave Perseus sprung. once boasted of her that.: 2 6o Perseus. Now to the rock he was advanc'd so nigh. still at his back The furrow'd waters left a foamy track.

the dropping wings. Immediately the rushes were turned to stone " Fresh. And Snatch'd from their element. which did. At last. the Nereids brought. still Fresh. thrust the sword once. Their when expos'd to air. obdurate prove.: Perseus. The nymphs the petrifying seeds And The propagate the wonder through the deep. Loud rang the shouts of joy and gladness from the shore. pliant sprays of coral yet declare stiff'ning nature. move. With flaggy heaviness their master bore. till he sank beneath the waves of the green sea. 261 . the brave Perseus. the scaly armour tries still eludes Of his thick sides : his thinner tail now plies : from repeated strokes. First bounded like and then sunk low again. Perseus did not leave him time to discover his mistake swiftly descending. And bay'd He on the with op'ning mouths of hungry hounds. And the waves redden'd with the streaming blood." . thrice into the side of the dying beast. Now. keep. twice. shrubs beneath the waves. grow stones above. surpris'd." Then. juicy twigs. befoam'd all o'er. a savage boar. juicy twigs the same contagion caught. like bending osiers. and he laid the head of Medusa on some reeds close by. who high. Perseus stooped to wash the blood from his hands. him with an airy flight. when chaf'd with wounds. he drove the crooked sword into the " Impatient of the pain monster's back. foe turns with collected might. and Kepheus and Kassiopea fulfilled their promise that the rescued maiden should become the wife of the great hero. Who And Till. wheeling round. standing on a rock that rose above the waters. out gush'd a flood. But before he left the shore. Those sprays.

far as winds and seas shore. There. and were decorated preparations . killed a third with a fire-brand. heart. And I never curse us with Cephen Medusa more quit the . cause was to defend First pledged to me. a loud noise was suddenly heard. with averted face. brother of Kepheus strode into the palace surrounded by armed followers. with gladness of Perseus. for his promised bride Andromeda had been given to the stranger He had come to avenge himself for the injury. : his foes Phineus. Fierce was the anger in his heart. "Turn aside all ye who on my side ! " as they stood with wrathful faces. all the neighbouring princes came to celebrate the marriage. but those on his side to see that were rapidly falling. Perseus. and gold. Perseus led the palace of her father. in the end yield to force of numbers. and Phineus. . Then fight placing himself with his back against a he cried above the din of the combat. and strife and angry words arose between the two parties. and unveiled the Gorgon's head. Perseus struck down one of his foes with a lance. and great preparations were for the marriage-feast of the hero Andromeda to made All the and his bride. as Can bear thee Hence . to strike. begged for mercy " Hence with the head. chambers shone with silver with flowers from the hearth rose the odour of savoury .262 Now. and hands outstretched were turned to stone. My honest my wife. O warr'd not with thee out of hate or strife. and a fourth with a stamp of his foot . and he began he must pillar. disarmed another with his sword. and mirth and festivity reigned throughout. . While story left all seated at the banquet were listening to the which Perseus was relating of his adventures since he Seriphos.

became a figure of stone. welcomed by his grandfather Acrisius. and now received Perseus coldly. treated Danae most cruelly during the absence of her son. nevertheless thou art doomed. Mine was the title. guided by an unseen power the missile of Perseus struck his grandfather on the Then the hero set sail for Argos. and on his arrival was who by this time had But the decrees of the prediction of the oracle. thyself. thy mercy I implore For life I sue the rest to thee I yield. bearing with him his young wife. and refused to believe in his adventures. and the king was turned to stone." . he raised the ghastly head. . Thus did Perseus avenge to Pallas. The death of Acrisius made him King of Argos. the wrongs of his mother. . shall truth. affirming that the slaying of Medusa was a : mere fable. 263 but the merit thine. and But Perseus sternly answered : Phineus. 'Twas thine to conquer by Minerva's power Favour'd of heaven. and at to Polydectes had length they reached the isle of Seriphos. Bitterly did Perseus grieve for the deed which he had unwittingly done. hurling the quoit in a field near Argos. too. Then Perseus prove its in anger exclaimed " Thou. And now his once more the son of Danae set forth to return mother." and as he spoke he turned the fatal head till its face looked upon his enemy. The head placed it of the Gorgon he presented who upon her shield. "Iron shall not harm thee. forgotten One day as Acrisius and Perseus were fate are unalterable. . but he could not live in a spot which had so He resigned the crown to sorrowful recollections for him. forehead." and bidding all save Poly- dectes turn away their eyes. and the old man fell lifeless to the ground.Perseus.

who frequently interfered in the of mortals. and Tiryns. Zeus came to the assembled gods. was that her son Herakles was also the son of Zeus. should be born The oath of Zeus could not be altered. and therefore a grandson of Perseus. and thus Eurystheus. discerning that the child must be the son of Zeus and Alkmene. She entreated Zeus to confirm his declaration with the solemn This he did. had already chosen Alkmene as his wife. Even while yet a babe. married the beautiful Alkmene.264 his Herakles or Hercules. and with joy and pride announced. for as he lay one day sleeping in . and Hera. while the kingdom of Tiryns descended to his other son Alcaeos. where he bequeathed to his Here he resided. So it On the day on which Herakles was born. worshipped as a hero." It was the evil counsel of Ate which had led Zeus to make this boast. determined to revenge herself. and a temple was VII.— HERAKLES OR HERCULES. and mightiest of the sons of men. exchange received from built the city of him the kingdom of Mykenae. and she hastened to Argos. death Perseus was dedicated to him. not Herakles. the marvellous strength of Herakles displayed itself. and afterwards King of Mykenae. and brought it about that Eurystheus. principally and which After he his son Sthenelos. in kinsman Megapenthes. oath of the gods. also of the race of Perseus. and the son of Alkmene was bound all his life to serve a weak and crafty master. King of Tiryns. " This day shall be born a child who shall be lord of his race. affairs unaware that Zeus. son of Alcaeos. Amphitryon. became lord of his race. before Herakles.

. steep. . he toils that lay came to a spot whence two paths diverged. The one. spoke to him daughter of Pleasure. True. and entreated him to follow her along the flowery path on the left hand. 265 two large snakes sent by Hera came and coiled it. at every step fair scenes will Love me.Herakles or Hercules. to gain which neither trouble nor required. a : ! tall woman jof noble bearing and kind and gentle face. two of superhuman beauty. in all that and he had noble teachers who instructed : was good and wise the clever Linus taught to play the lyre the Centaur Chiron was his friend. but nothing great is ever reached without and as thou advancest farther along it. her path at the commenceit ment is gay with flowers. As he grew him him and men marvelled more and more at his great strength. Seek my path which lies to the right. while tending Amphitryon's flocks on Mount Kithaeron. from whence thou couldst never extricate thyself. themselves about his then Herakles fearlessly stretched forth his strong grasp. his instructor in the use of medicinal herbs. One day. it will labour become beautiful to thine eyes. At first it is narrow. Herakles follow not the white. but soon terminates in a terrible morass. thinking of his future and of the before him. and there are many obstacles in it which thou must overcome. when her companion. saw. hands and crushed them to death in older. then at last greet thee. and raising his eyes. his cradle. and obey my behests. toil were Grasping her hand he was on the point of yielding to her persuasions. danced gaily up to him. while other Centaurs taught him dexterity in wielding arms. . and thorny. advancing towards him. and thine end would be everlasting destruction. Here she promised him innumerflowers women able pleasures. crowned with and clothed in a brilliant red garment. arrayed in pure " Beware.

Eurystheus commanded Herakles to destroy him. "lam Virtue. the maiden answered. devastated the country far and wide. In a rocky cave near the town of Nemea in the Pelo- ponnesus lived a lion. with both hands. cave." "Who And is art thou. my companion Bowing his Vice." So Herakles went forth to do the to toil in will of Eurystheus. Herakles swore to follow the path of Virtue. and received from him for this service his daughter Megara in marriage. and many lands. who knows not the pleasures of toil. Soon now were the great toils of the hero to begin. .. Bitter repentance followed the deed. First he slew an enormous lion on Mount Kithaeron.) Killing the Nemean lion." was the peace to his conscience. a noble reward awaits thee. answer." head. with strength and courage he must do good deeds for the sons of men. and he enquired of the oracle how he could restore "Go to Eurystheus. grasped the monster Stripping off the skin of the huge animal. by whom he had eight But the restless hatred of Hera ever pursued children. which brings to those who choose it renown and immortality. " and perform the twelve labours which he will assign to thee. him. 266 Herakles or Hercules. King of Thebes. and by an effort of superhuman strength strangled him. where. His strength was enormous. and one day she caused him to slay his wife and children in a fit of passion. after all thou wilt reach the home of the undying gods. in a conflict with a neighbouring prince. his ferocity terrible no weapon could penetrate through his skin and as he . the hero Blocking up one entrance to the entered by the other. a descendant of Orthrus and Echidna. thy toils. : These are the labours of the great hero (i. then he aided Kreon. wondrous being?" asked Herakles.

and carried him alive to Eurystheus. (4. as soon as the hero himself had severed the head from the growth of fresh heads. him. and inhabited the swamps of Lernae. difficulty of his task. returned to Mykenae. sent a gigantic which bit his feet. Herakles then threw it 267 and round his shoulders as a mantle.) Hunting the sacred hind. Thus he prevented remained and at last there only the imperishable centre one. hands. and Then Herakles called to his assistance his made him set fire to a forest. which he buried in a deep pit. but at Arcadia roamed a savage boar. Rousing from its he seized it with his strong . and began to cut off one head after the other but from every stump immediately there sprang two fresh heads.) Capture of the Erymanthian Boar. sword-bearer. to add to the crab. nine. pass a burning brand over each stump. by driving him through heavy snow he was easily overtaken. (2. or. and it. but was at length killed by a blow from his club. terror to the hearts of all whose ferocious aspect struck last who Long did Herakles seek he succeeded in vain to capture in so completely tiring that drifts. fifty heads. off nor destroyed.) Death of the Lernean Hydra. the centre one of which could neither be cut was against forth. this terrible it monster that Herakles was sent lair. too. Hera. (3. It This enormous serpent was a descendant of Typhon and Echidna. Then putting forth his mighty strength he threw the boar across his shoulders. Iolaos.Herakles or Hercules. according to had It some accounts. and had horns of . rolling upon it a huge piece of rock. This hind was consecrated to Artemis. Before leaving the spot Herakles dipped his arrows in the poisonous blood of the monster serpent. in On Mount Erymanthus beheld him. that animal.

Herakles roused them from their nests. (6. the latter refused to grant it. he took her (5. terrible birds infested the These swampy shores of Lake and claws. Augeas. which refusal so enraged the hero that he slew Augeas.2 68 Herakles or Hercules. task.) and brought her Destruction of the Stymphalides. Maenalos sufficiently in Arcadia at length near to alive. (7. and mortally wounded whoever they touched. by cutting a canal. King of Elis in the Peloponnesus. Augeas begged him to come and perform for him this task. Herakles hunt her. Then Herakles. to punish the inhabitants of Crete for omitting to . request of the King of Elis. Poseidon. and so cleansed them speedily. turned the waters of the neighbouring river Alpheos into the stables. Having heard of the wonderful strength and mighty deeds of Herakles. although possessing more than thirty thousand had never had his stables cleansed for thirty years. stipulating only that he should accomplish the work in one day. foot. at the same time promising him a reward for Eurystheus allowed him to accede to the his labour. on . and as they lazily rose into the air he shot one Stymphalos. after another with his poisoned arrows.) Cleansing of the Augean stables. by rattling a brazen clapper given him by Athene. was she that neither man For a whole year did among the mountains of he succeeded in coming Thus lamed alive to Eurystheus. nor beast could overtake her. This was a strange oxen. wound her in the foot. They had brazen wings. But when he claimed from the king his promised reward. alleging that Herakles had not executed the task unassisted. and their iron feathers shot forth like arrows. So swift gold and feet of brass.) Capture of the Cretan bull. beaks.

and fell and then was in the act of leading when Geryones himself. queen of the Amazons or women-warriors. Herakles. assuming the form of an Amazon. and on his departure she accompanied him to the which lay his vessel. fed on human flesh. aided by Hera. But Hera. persuaded the subjects of Hippolyte that the stranger intended to carry off their queen.) Seizure of the belt of Hippolyte. 269 perform a certain vow. first slew who guarded them. and were ferocious animals. captured (8. for the mighty hero had found favour shore. Every stranger who landed was given to them to devour. which Herakles was directed to obtain possession of. Carrying off the steeds of Diomedes. which spouted fire from its nostrils. (9. willingly relinquished in it to him. even using force if necessary. Capture of the herds of Geryones. dog away the oxen upon him. and putting to flight the rest of the Amazons.) off the girdle. possessed a belt of wondrous beauty. Herakles. She. carried (10. A his . and then cast his body before the steeds. their mouths emitting smoke and flame. sent to their island a fierce bull. the herdsman Orthrus. secure them. however.) it and brought feat. near the sight of the brave queen. But Herakles killed Diomedes. son of Chrysaor. in obedience to the commands of Eurystheus. and mounting their horses they rushed to rescue her. Herakles. part of believing this to be an act of treachery on the Hippolyte. and thus he succeeded in bringing them to Eurystheus. Hippolyte.Herakles or Herades. for it alive to Mykenae. Far away in sunny Spain pastured the beautiful purple oxen of the three-headed giant Geryones. and committed great havoc. sent by Eurystheus to Eurytion. the horses of Diomedes. They became tame after eating the flesh. slew her. This was a dangerous King of Thrace.

) Fetching the golden apples from the garden of the Hesperides. who kept them. These apples had been intrusted to the daughter of Atlas. unwilling to disclose the way to the . A gigantic flame-breathing robber. He awoke to find several of his oxen missing.2 70 Herakles or Hercules. still undaunted again he descended into the dark cavern. he discovered their footprints. after a . Knowing not where to seek the apples. he must yet go forth again to difficult still perform two other tasks. where he lay down to rest. guarded by a fierce dragon. Passing through Italy he arrived at Rome. for although fierce the giant. the hero commenced his return journey to Greece. Herakles endeavoured to force his way into the cave. had stolen them. combat ensued. succeeded in killing his club. and slept. in a beautiful garden in the land of the setting sun. his labours and he thought surely must be at an end. in killing But the Eurystheus declared that having been assisted Hydra and more in cleansing the Augean stables. blocked So he determined to break in the roof. of oxen to move. not into spair it. He was about to give up the search in de- when he heard the loud bellowing of the animals inside the cave. and to conceal the theft he had dragged them in backwards by their tails. and they were to be than those he had already done. (n. named Cacus. and in no way could he account for their disappearance. however. taking with him the herds. but pairs an enormous piece of rock. furious encounter with Cacus. and in the end. Herakles sought information from the but he. sea-god Nereus . the too heavy for ten entrance. in which Herakles succeeded in slaying Then. him with Now Herakles brought the oxen in safety to Mykenae. but Cacus drove him back by sending forth clouds of smoke and flame. they led out of a cavern hard by. Herakles was.

Eurystheus returned the apples to Herakles. the twelve great . I if Herakles of his burden. Eurystheus but first must I do thou support the weight until I seek one. When Herakles asked him how daughters the apples of the Hesperides could be obtained. tried by assuming various forms to evade answering the questions addressed to him." The giant complied. "Listen. aconite of hellebore. his sprang up. Then the hero journeyed on to the giant Atlas. Other poets relate that the hero himself fetched the fruit. the fierce three-headed watch-dog of Pluto. his eyes seemed starting from his head. The hero descended to Tartaros. his jaws. 2 7 garden.) Bringing Kerberos from the Underworld. who them to the care of the Hesperides. who had not yet been changed into a mountain. them to Athene. to bring from the lower world Kerberos. after long toil. he refused however to relieve said Herakles. (12. but no sooner had he resumed the burden than Herakles secured the apples and hastened away. and Atlas presently returned with the apples . fell and foam dropped from fast. Herakles agreed. and dragged him to the Upperworld. Thus were completed. who died of terror at of the ferocious beast. Kerberos struggled violently when he saw the daylight. At last Herakles finding him asleep. seized him and forced him to point out the road. and slew the dragon who kept guard. But captor held him and brought sight him to Eurystheus.1 Herakles or Hercules. he undertook himself to procure the golden fruit from his if Herakles would support the heavens for him during his absence. whenever the poisonous plant. and he took restored thou wilt take the apples to put a pad upon my shoulders. grasped the Eurystheus now commanded Herakles animal. from his three throats savage issued wild it howls. Then am willing to bear the load .

so Poseidon commanded the waves to subside. mountains on either side of the the pillars of Herakles. were long known as In the war of the gods against the giants and the Aloidae. Herakles in anger slew him. too. and when their owner came to him in search of them. Herakles fought on the side of the former. and he gave Herakles his golden chalice in which to cross the sea. his and rescuing Hesione. and he continued his journey in safety. of the god's tripod threatened to shoot the mighty sea-god with his arrows. and although Poseidon sent a great Herakles. brother of Iole. killing Laomedon. He her on him the gentle maiden. by possessing himself and whilst on his journey to Geryones. Apollo to foretell to . And many which were did he accomplish. killing two of the giants and blinding Ephialtes with his arrows. King of Troy. the rays of the sun so scorched him that he shot at Helios with his arrows. other wonderful deeds labours of Herakles. Then he stole away the horses of Iphitos. such as his bringing Alkestis back from the Underworld. and in the King Eurytos entreated he beheld his lovely daughter father to bestow Iole. the strait. Once during in the island of wanderings Herakles reached Occhalia halls of Euboea. and when he refused. he led him to the top of a . Eurystheus. but them asunder. Once he him the future. now that time Herakles tore Europe and Africa were joined. The forced gods themselves feared his strength. The sun-god admired the boldness of the audacious act.272 Herakles or Heretiles. the mighty hero came to the place which Gibraltar. not at the bidding of On At his way to Spain to fetch the oxen of is Geryones. storm it was powerless to harm him. liberating Prometheus. Other great deeds of Herakles have been already related. and Abyla and Calpe.

carrying away Iole as a slave. ? While one I lopped. and cried : Herakles laughed " Such foes dire snakes my cradle knew. at this artifice. whose lightest behest he was bound to obey. up sprang a dreadful pair. a boy named Hylas. Queen of Lydia. proceeded as Herakles joined in the Argonautic Expedition. thus separating himself from his companions. that he often sat at the spinning wheel. and the answer came : be pardoned when thou hast thyself served for three years as a slave. receiv'd augmented strength He rais'd a hundred hissing heads in air. who continued their voyage without him. clad in woman's clothes. and punished him with severe illness." Hermes then sold the hero to Omphale. by his wounds. So his submissive was he. The gods were wrathful at these He condeeds. In Calydon. while lion's skin. and was captured by the Naiades. 273 high mountain and cast him thence into the sea. Herakles saw and Deianira. they wrestled together. Who. . a town of Aetolia. the beautiful daughter of river-god wooed King Oeneus. but only Here his far as the neighbourhood of Troy. Omphale herself donned and toyed with his club. he transformed himself into a snake. but Accordingly felt when the river-god that the superior strength of Herakles was forcing him to the ground. favourite attendant. Herakles went in search of him. " Only shalt thou sulted the oracle. but the Acheloos also sought her in marriage.Herakles or Hercules. Art thou proportioned to the Hydra's length. landed to fetch water from a spring. when both suitors agreed to contend for her hand. my infant hand o'erthrew .

or Horn of Plenty. What canst thou do. And. Upon my brindled neck. with his straining fingers. and Deianira became the wife of Herakles their son was called Hyllus. this proposal. . quell'd him. and tugg'd it down Then deep he struck my horn into the sand. and round my neck his hands he cast. I In vain strove to loose the forceful grasp. and the vanquished Acheloos river. While deliberating how he should on his back. call (aloud flight. threw cloak and in his bow the opposite bank. to thee I ear. which had overflowed its banks. . and stretch'd dead along. my right set free . and consecrated Cornucopia. too. my lowing the plains. The Naiades took the horn. close as pincers clasp. and wrapping himself lion's Scarcely had he reached the shore swam through the stream. and looking round he saw off. a form precarious. threw himself into his . And felled my bulk among the dusty land. prove To rouse my rage with terrors not thy own ? " He said .. 2 74 Singly I Herakles or Hercules. Straight on the left his nervous arms were thrown . to bear her the Centaur Nessos approached across his and offered Herakles accepted to skin. wrung me fast My throat he tortured. Vain is thy trust in he cries) be timely wise : Thou monster double-shap'd. a third form fills still remains. On his way home with his wife Herakles came to the turbulent river Evenos. From my maim'd front he tore the stubborn horn. Thus vanquished Chang'd to a bull. when heartrending cries from Deianira met his Nessos carrying her " Nessus. Nor yet his fury cool'd 'twixt rage and scorn. carry Deianira through its swollen waters. it as the Thus was the combat ended.

he bore the smart. 275 Think not perfidious wretch. Though wing'd with horse's speed wounds : shall pursue : Swift as his words. entreaton without delay. still journeyed through many lands. the rising flame Sudden dissolves the subtle pois'nous juice. it. . from to fly. And As o'er his shoulders Lerna's poison cast. obeyed her bequest blood of Nessos. doing deeds began her. the fatal arrow flew The Centaur's back admits the feather'd wood." thee with two-fold Having thus spoken. it Quickly dipping a robe in the to ing him to put him by a messenger. first the fire with frankincense he strews. fortitude his patience At length was subdu'd by pain. And through his breast the barbed arrow stood. me . but Deianira had passed away from and she remembered the words of Nessos. And utters to the gods his holy vows And on the marble altar's polish'd frame Pours forth the grapy stream . Which taints With wonted And and all his nerves bedews. him wear a garment steeped will return to and immediately his affection strength. and he. being poisoned. and Herakles died." As the blood streamed from the wound inflicted by the poisoned arrow of Herakles. not a groan confess'd his burning heart. of courage and valour. and sought at last to think that his love it to win to herself again. his blood. Nessos in revenge told Deianira to preserve cold. .: Herakles or Heretiles. it would torture its wearer with excruciating pains. she sent it " Th' unwitting hero takes the gift in haste. He rends the sacred altar from the plain : Oete's wide forests echo with his cries . not knowing that. let " If ever thy husband's love grow in this blood. the Centaur Years passed on.

lifting both his hands aloft. he cries : Dread Empress of the Sate with skies. Eubcean waves his front he rears. cutting his down the trees and then he caused bow. He made himself. air. with fear . flint In ancient days the craggy Still in th' Still was known appears. And hurl'd with more than with an engine's force. Hercules raised him high in the air : " He toss'd him o'er his head with airy course. The two Philoktetes. . And hardens. Thus whirl'd with nervous force through distant The purple tide forsook his veins. and club to he gave to his friend his lion's skin be brought to him.276 Herakles or Hercules. seizing the unfortunate messenger. As the red iron hisses in the flood. the skin he tears." Then feet. the small rock in still human form And the name of hapless Lychas bears. Then. Well did Herakles understand the meaning of these words. he was commanded to erect a funeral pile on Mount Oeta. and enjoy my smart. who. Where'er he plucks the vest. falling at his begged for mercy. all necessary preparations." On enquiring of an oracle what would assuage his pains. and stood there. arrows. To rend the sticking plague he tugs in vain. first on the pile. Now to rip off the dreadful robe he tries. and then he spread stepped on to it. as . Transform'd to stone. by degrees. or raging with his pain. my Look down death the rancour of thy heart. So boils the venom in his curdling blood. leaning on his club. Far o'er th' Eubcean main aloof he flies. All moisture left his limbs. amid the skies. with pleasure.

" * is the so-called Another beautiful piece of sculpture is the Torso. Of the ancient statues of him that have been preserved. or Hercules. Olympus was Herakles welcomed by became exemplifying that youth and strength are generally combined. . has since been removed to Naples. In his swift car his honour'd offspring drove ." in the halls of the ever-living gods. * So called from having been long preserved in the art collection of the Farnese Palace in Rome. but this. until that was earthly in : Herakles perished. until his name was known throughout the earth for the brave and good deeds begin. broad-chested. the most celebrated " Farnesian Hercules.Heraides banquet. in the Vatican at Rome. and with short curling hair and beard. . and only his god- like nature " remained So when Alcides mortal mould resign'd. Herakles is most often represented as a tall. Goddess of Youth. And There lodge the hero in the starry sky. Long had he laboured among men. and Hebe. Hyllos. 277 to join a his calm and unconcerned as though he were about The pile at was set alight at his behest toil by son and thus length did the of the great hero come to an end. High o'er the hollow clouds the coursers fly. His better part enlarg'd. and grew refin'd August his visage shone almighty Jove . broad-shouldered. as well as the Farnesian Bull. his wife. Now his time of rest was to Fiercer all and fiercer raged the flames around the pile. muscular man. that he had done. the remains of a statue of Hercules.

not knowing who he was. King of Mykenae. whom Herakles served. Although he came in disguise to Mykenae he was captured in the very act of committing murder. Thyestes up the most violent youth was incited by his uncle to kill Atreus. and then commenced a deadly quarrel between them. caused him to be put to into the boy as he grew . sought shelter with Eurystheus. the sole thought of Atreus was how to avenge the death of his son. Thyestes vowed vengeance on his brother. Then Thyestes revenge. Atreus drove him from his palace and kingdom.278 Atreus and Thy estes. . VIII. rejoiced at the success of his thou He sent a message to know whom thou hast thus Atreus. Atreus and Thyestes. saying tortured scheme of " Dost : and slain ? It was none other than thine own son. Having instilled carried off the infant son of Atreus. hatred against his father and at last the death with frightful tortures. and at his death Mykenae. —ATREUS AND THYESTES. he was trying to gain the love of Aerope. into which the old poets introduced all the most length. having murdered Chrysippos. and Atreus. Thyestes still his son-in-law succeeded him as King of but at continued to live with his brother. because they imagined their father loved him the most. not knowing that he himself was his son. their half brother sons of Pelops." Horror-struck at the deed he had been forced to commit. but soon wards bestowed on Atreus his daughter Aerope in marriage. fired with fierce anger on perceiving that fearful crimes of which man in his wildest state is capable. Not only did after- he grant his protection to the two brothers.

Thyestes. having slain Atreus. 279 Therefore he sent to Thyestes." he said. Come. the sun-god. fled from the dwelling of his unnatural brother. asked him with a fiendish laugh " Canst thou not guess whose flesh it is which thou hast meat to just eaten?" And at the same moment he threw down had caused the youths prepared for their to the heads and hands of the sons of Thyestes before the face of their father. for Thyestes that Agamemnon recovered his father's kingdom. . indeed fulfilled. for Helios. " let us bury all old feuds. and celebrate our renewed friendship by a brotherly banquet. that his son and course he should pursue. proposing a reconciliation. son of Thyestes. secretly repast. in bitter anger. He be murdered and their flesh father's Horror and dismay seized on all. and driven away his sons Agamemnon and Menelaos. and darkness overshadowed the earth. and consulted the oracle as to what The reply was. that no light might shine on the fearful deed. placed his own father upon It was not till after the death of the throne of Mykenae. grandson would avenge the deed and this prophecy was . some years afterwards . and became King of Mykenae. hid his face.: Atrcus and Thycstes./Egisthus." Thyestes came : " Atreus at the feast caused a dish of be placed before his brother. and when he had heartily partaken of it.

Taking these with him Theseus. did his mother tell him that he was the son of the brave Aegeus. having bidden his mother farewell. At length he sought the advice of the Delphic oracle. and not until he became a fine manly youth. IX« — THESEUS. By them I shall know that is indeed son. But before his departure he showed to her his sword and left : her he sandals " These. King of Thrace. Aegeus. but the answer received was so mysterious that he could not comprehend it. but afterwards Aegeus recollected that his wife Chalciope was Not daring rival. . him the meaning of the oracle's reply. had been twice married. to rouse her anger by bringing home Aethra with her father Pittheus. Then he me my Athens. Proudly she led him to the rock. and asked declared Aethra.2 8o Theseus. Pittheus at once it to be that Aegeus should marry his daughter The wedding was yet alive. which he lifted with ease. " I will place beneath that mass of rock. possessed of courage and heroism far beyond his years. When till our son is is born tell him not lift that I am his father he at strong enough to take and wear my let him sword and sandals." he said. but had no son. and send him unto this stone." Thus Theseus grew up in ignorance of his father's name. went to seek his father. and there beneath it lay the sword and sandals. celebrated with great festivities. which none but a very powerful man can move. which was a sore grief to him. On his way back he went to Pittheus. one of the descendants of Kekrops and Pandion.

seize Theseus. for he had made a vow not to appear before his father until he had gained for himself fame and renown. First he went to Epidaurus. At last Theseus came to the robber Prokrustes. put Sinis himself to death in the Theseus same manner. upon him. with Sinis. tured those ! whom contrary the captive was tall. crying. His shortest way was by ship to Athens. hurled them from the rocks on which he was seated into the watery abyss beneath. which spring asunder. But when he tried to force Theseus to wash his feet the hero turned quickly upon him. and flung Skiron himself into the foaming depths. but 281 he chose the longer by land.Theseus. . the hero grasped him with his strong arms. a robber his who slew all wayfarers who fell into hands by he bent together and then fastening them between two let fir-trees. and then. he put him on his two iron beds." and then he cut off But when Prokrustes approached to his legs and head. But wait. smaller bed. "but soon will I fit thee to the bed. where dwelt the giant Periphetes. and then proceeded onward till who compelled all travellers to stop he encountered the giant Skiron. " How short thou art and he stretched the limbs of will soon make thee taller." he would say. who killed all passing travellers with an enormous As soon as Theseus approached he rushed iron club. but the valiant youth was too strong. who tor- he captured by placing them on one of If his victim was short. swung it high in the Next he met air and struck him lifeless to the ground. Prokrustes placed him on the " Thou art much too large. I the longest bed." If on the his wretched prisoner till he tore him in pieces. and wash his feet. as they stooped to do his bidding. and wrenching the club from his hands. wishing to do battle on his road with the giants and monsters with which it was infested.

Now Theseus raised the poisoned cup to his lips. who wished to obtain the succession to the throne for her own son. the goblet of Theseus Unsuspecting any danger. embraced him. but Medea soon discovered who he was by means of her magic arts. and seized their arms. But the fifty sons for himself glory Thus having won arrived in Attica. if no direct heir appeared. and determined to accomplish his destruction. tidae." and she rested not until Aegeus consented that she should with a deadly potion of aconite. placed him in his turn on the bed. it. he saw that the face of Theseus was as the face of the maiden Aethra. and cut off his head and legs. and soon Athens was divided into two parties the one for — . also who were called the Pallan- had hoped. for the weapon in the hand of the stranger with its curiously carved handle was none other than his own. at whose court dwelt the sorceress Medea. 282 Theseus. The forth his servants set a and he drew sword to cut Then old memories stirred the heart of the king. but ere he could drink it was struck from his hand and Aegeus. and the whole town and disturbance. " Beware of the stranger youth." she said fill to the king "treachery lurks in his heart. the of Pallas.. in fear of the deed which had almost lost him his child. and renown. dish of meat before him. and he knew that this must be his son. and acknowledged him before the assembled guests as his son and successor. Theseus kingdom of his father Aegeus. Then the Pallantidae rose in anger. was in a state of uproar Theseus did not at first make himself known. to secure the throne for themselves. brother of Aegeus. the pretensions of They therefore were enraged at Medea and her son. the hero took his seat at the banquet. . left so long ago under the stone in the land of Thrace. And as he looked again.

the other for his nephews. On in triumph through the reaching the town at length. amidst the acclamations of the people. . " I will He have nothing but a few herbs. but she if thou wilt I prepare thee a salad of them.Theseus. however. and on ness. and so assiduously did Hekale attend on him. After a severe struggle the Pallantidae surrendered. Having encountered and vanquished the bull. A fierce wild bull ravaged and laid waste the broad plain of Marathon. he stopped at a small hut. praying heaven the while to grant him success in his dangerous enterprise." Theseus gladly partook of this frugal repast. replied. and on entering he found the old woman lying dead. which commemorated disinterested hospitality. his return to Athens. the captured bull was led streets. and Theseus determined to conquer and. bring him alive to Athens. and Medea fled from the vengeance of the brave son of Aethra in her chariot drawn by dragons. that the hero. greater service. in freeing tribute Theseus also rendered the Athenians another and still them from the terrible human which they were obliged to send every nine years to Minos. On his way to Marathon. touched by her kindpromised to revisit her hut on his return journey. if possible. He buried her. An opportunity of gaining the love and gratitude of the Athenians soon presented itself to Theseus. stopped. 283 Aegeus. where he was kindly received by a good old dame named Hekale. But the courage and might of Theseus decided the contest. King of Crete. Theseus He bound him and proceeded to lead him to Athens. instituted in her honour a feast called Hecalisae. but asked her for food. on his way to recount his success to Hekale but all was silent in the hut. who afterwards became one of the judges in the . the origin of which impost was this : Minos.

to and he caused Minos then revenge himself upon Aegeus. but he thrust Scylla from him with horror. jealousy and anger man to be treacherously murdered. but so strongly a fish. once came to Athens to take part in the games. brother of Aegeus. and an oracle had said to him : " thou hast " it. where Nisus. fate has willed must inevitably be accom- daughter of Nisos. so that she forgot her father. he had defeated most of the Athenians. cut off the golden lock wherein lay his safety and that of his people. reigned. filled his heart. While kingdom will never depart from thee. Scylla. Then Minos hastened onwards . and Nisos slept. and thought only of how she might win the heart of the stranger. Athens he besieged the town of Megara. . and conveyed it to King Minos. Minos thereupon easily took the town. But what plished. and he laughed to scorn the preparations for attack which he saw Minos making." Who could deprive me of my hair?" said Nisos. the walls. the Beware lest any man take thy hair. This prince had golden or red hair. had a son named Androgeus.284 Theseus. This youth Underworld. and being unusually strong. and was transformed into to Athens. she crept stealthily into beheld stature his chamber. Therefore when night fell. and was Scylla cast herself changed into an eagle by the gods. ? The unhappy Nisos. looking from the castle King Minos. for how should a faithless daughter become a faithful wife his wild despair. On his army way into Greece. When Aegeus the young led an heard the people shouting the praises of to Androgeus. and the sight of his majestic and noble countenance filled her heart with love for him. in threw himself upon his sword. into the blue depths of the sea.

commanding him. he he might see from a distance whether or not his son were Then amid solemn sacrifices and propitiatory still alive. " cried Theseus . by means surrender. the hero sought King Minos. that if he were unsuccessful. " I will go to Crete and free it "Ye shall you from it. Twice already had the Athenians been forced to pay this terrible tribute." Let it be as thou hast said. announcing himself to return with 11 me unharmed to our own land. as satisfaction for the murder of Athenians should send to Crete maidens and seven youths." With great reluctance Aegeus gave consent. but this time. to put it But up in place of the black on the return voyage. that all his were unavailing. was to retain the black." said he. famine Minos and plague forced the town to demanded. It was customary for the ship that bore the victims to their destination to hoist a black sail. Aegeus provided the steersman with a white sail.Theseus. He of entreated the aid of the gods. to be every nine years seven imprisoned in the Labyrinth and devoured by the frightful his son. was about to be sent for the third time. to the gods. my companions. no longer be subject to this humiliating calamity. and now. in addition. On his arrival in Crete. " but think . and the Minotaur: "If I come forth a confight with queror. and be one of the Athenian victims. and Theseus immediately prepared for the expedition." replied Minos. requested permission to go alone into the Labyrinth. who. that the monster Minotaur. Theseus and his doomed companions offerings set sail from Athens. fortified 285 efforts to take it was that city. "then shall these. when Theseus arrived at Athens. should Theseus be successful.

" Fasten this at the entrance as thou goest. safely The victor hastened joyfully away. saying. from one winding path to another. After a prolonged struggle Theseus. . A fierce combat ensued. felt the tenderest and to assist him in finding his way out of the secret mazes of the Labyrinth she gave thread. where they rescued the with them youths sails. the daughter of Minos.286 Theseus." Theseus gratefully accepted her his and armed with Labyrinth. But ! vows made by men in the heat of passion Ariadne consented to become the wife of Theseus. not that thou wilt be able to overcome the Minotaur. But Ariadne. struck the Minotaur such a tremendous blow on the head with his club that the huge monster fell lifeless to the ground. Then he sought for the and with heartfelt assured her of his undying love and gratitude. who assured that. and he quitted the presence of Minos. With great the filled rejoicings they carrying maidens. iron club. bravery and matchless skill being brought to bear upon brute force and ferocity. him a ball of and unwind it gift. boldly entered the dangerous On and on he went holding fast to the thread." The issue of all combat felt rests with the gods alone. seizing his advantage. to Athens. wafted Favourable winds to them and and soon the small island of Naxos. extricate himself he would yet find impossible to from the Labyrinth. with a terrible until at last he reached the innermost recess whence the Minotaur rushed upon him roar. even should Theseus succeed in it slaying the monster." answered Theseus. for no mortal " may withstand him. and to set accompany him sail. Ariadne. pity for the hero. By this means shalt thou be able to retrace thy steps. and was thanks alas ! guided by the thread out of the maze.

my if I beloved the brave the displeasure of ? Yet what mortal gods? Besides. descended from Olympus and wandered over his domain till he came to the grotto. to whom the island was especially dedicated. when the thought flashed upon him that it would be cruel to take " But. darkness reigned around of the god " this : he started from his couch. 287 landed to take rest. When Ariadne awoke next morning and missed Theseus. Let the gods do what they will with Ariadne. Bacchos." So saying he rushed from the grotto. that he is himself and carry her to not worthy of her . I have actually beheld the menacing countenance of the god." thought he." he cried. and heard his wrathful words." Thereupon he appeared to Theseus dream. But when the dark wings of night overshadowed the earth. was no dream.Theseus. I will now prove whether in a or not he loves her above all else. and awaking his companions and the sailors. and here in a cool grotto. Theseus and Ariadne made themselves a soft couch of moss. He was on the point of awakening her. and lay down to rest. "Surely. Here he stood transfixed. " it may be her from her husband. fruit for her. threaten- ing him with the vengeance of the gods unless he immediately left Ariadne. to reveal Heaven as his bride. the last words still ringing in his ears. set sail with all speed. he threatened me with death is it disobeyed his will . who longs my return ? No. she thought he had but gone to gather At . for Eros had wounded him with one of his arrows. he may not sufficiently prize the treasure he possesses. How may can I quit Ariadne. I must fly without delay. enchanted with the wondrous beauty of Ariadne. Theseus awoke . of what avail therefore for me to remain here if I must then die? for And how could I so grieve my aged father. Terror-stricken.

Ariadne yielded at length to her despair. for ere break of day the faithless one sailed away from these " shores. alarmed the ! at his long absence. The hot tears had grief. Blossoms sprang from the rocky ground beneath the feet of the god. and her head was bent low with so she knew not that a form of divine beauty was standing before Bacchos. and in the arms of Bacchos she rose to Olympus. calling she sought : him among Theseus mountain passes. where all united in celebrating the marriage feast. sacrificed to Theseus meanwhile sailed onwards to Delos." Weaned and wept bitterly in with a heart filled with sorrow. On quitting Naxos the wreath of Ariadne was flung by Bacchos up into the heavens. as a thank-offering to the god. and told her. and once more set sail for Athens. In a gentle voice he spoke to Ariadne. a golden image of Aphrodite. attended by a thousand nymphs. Crete he left there. blinded her. Echo alone answered pityingly. and sinking on a rock. where he Apollo in gratitude for his safe voyage from . and with loving words at length he soothed her grief. her great loneliness.288 length Theseus. All that was earthly in her nature departed. her. and she became his wife." At last the Onades of the island took compassion upon her. a brilliant constellation. " Theseus. "Thou seekest him in vain. given to him by Ariadne. Theseus. and Eros. forgot to bid the steersman hoist the white or it may be that he wished to excite the fears of his father. the source of all Ariadne's misery. where it still remains. As his vessel neared the town he either sail. and fruit-laden vines arched their fragrant branches above him. in order afterwards to give him the greater joy. himself. the immortal spirit alone remained. aloud " Theseus. .

Prince of the Lapithae. and so perished. to the king to announce Quitting the temple. at Immediately on landing. as he scanned the horizon. But on hearing the fatal news of the death of Aegeus. beheld. on a high rock overlooking the sea. and hurried to the palace with loud lamentations. As it drew nearer he recognised the and overwhelmed with grief at the supposed vessel. standing. as was his wont. cast aside the wreaths with which the people had crowned him. now there. here. that the Archipelago Aegean Sea. the whole of Athens mourning with him over the fate of their king. he instituted a yearly return. he wrung his hands.Theseus. but T . greatly to the dissatisfaction of the Athenians. who heard So invariably did he join in all the great enterprises undertaken by the Greeks (among these was the Calydonian Chase) that at last " Nothing without Theseus " became a proverb. Theseus now became King of Athens. at the same time despatching a messenger his arrival. and at and gained the affections of his people. reigned But soon his passion for adventure and desire to achieve great deeds of drove him from Athens. 289 Aegeus. an approaching black sail. His faithful friend and companion was Pirithous. Theseus went into the temple the entrance of the town to sacrifice to the gods. threw himself into the foaming waves beneath. seldom saw him in him now own town. the Athenians thronging round him and strewing his path with flowers. festival to commemorate first his safe wisely. After he had performed the funeral rites of his father. It was from this circumstance was in ancient days known as the death of his son. a people of Thessaly once he had stolen their . he hastened with joy to embrace his beloved father.

but no combat followed. world. dreary captivity. who thereupon committed the child to the care of his mother Aethra. until she should be grown up. discovering the theft. the Furies. enter their town. During his imprison- ment her brothers Castor and Pollux had come and set The Athenians had allowed the two heroes to her free. the daughter of Tyndareus and Leda. and Pirithoos remained a prisoner in the underworld for two hundred years. Their owner. a was undertaken by the two companions. that they had won universal affection and esteem. the earth quaked so terribly that he was forced to desist.290 Theseus. for as soon as Pirithous heard that the animals belonged to the great Theseus. thrown to the ground. they had treated the citizens with so much kindness and consideration. On the return of Theseus to Athens he found that his bride Helen was no longer there. and drew lots as to whose she should be. He offered his hand to the hero in friendship. and since their arrival. until Herakles came down to the land of shadows to fetch Kerberos. who sufficiently indeed were audacious to attempt to carry off Persephone herself from Pluto. dancing in the temple of Artemis. he once restored them to him. He liberated Theseus. fresh quest But in order to gain a bride for Pirithoos. was so surpassingly beautiful that the two friends carried off. at once went in of the marauder at . pursuit from Athens the beautiful oxen of Theseus. But they were seized by and chained in the under- Here they remained in dark. her Although then but ten years old. When Theseus and Pirithous were at Sparta they saw she Helen. but when he endeavoured to take off the fetters from Pirithoos. and the two remained ever after firm friends. They had . Fortune favoured Theseus.

. thinking about 450 b. Hippolytus having been carried off when quite a had never seen him. believing its king. his step-mother * The temple of Theseus has withstood the storms of centuries. in the Aegean Lykomedes. . rose a beautiful temple. At their greatest hero should rest so far from his own land. A magnificent tomb was erected him in the centre of the town. neither 2 9 appropriated nor extorted anything . When he had grown up into a beautiful youth. to be his friend but this faithless ally had joined the enemies of his guest. whom he now determined to slay. is and his son Hippolytus. and has now been turned into museum. Theseus then sought the island of Skyros. they rose against him and forced him to fly from Athens. and when he sternly tried to recall them to their former allegiance. and flung him headlong from thence into the depths beneath. their sole request had been. and Phaedra was a sister of well latter known. of showing him the surrounding country. brothers So completely indeed had the twin of the won the hearts Athenians. . the second wife of Theseus. it the Athenians. child. a reproach that the bones of last. sent Kimon to bring his to remains to Athens.1 Theseus. over which. in later times. was a son of the Amazon Queen Antiope. that King Theseus received but a cold. he led him to the summit of a high mountain on pretence sea. it In *he middle ages xi was used as a church. and unaware who he was. she one day met him on a journey. The Ariadne. even going so far as to tell him of it. that they might be initiated into the Eleusinian Mysteries. For several hundred years after this.c. fell in love with him.* The story of Phaedra. Receiving Theseus hospitably. the grave of Theseus was shown on the isle of Skyros. ungracious welcome.

The gods. When Phaedra heard of his terrible death she was beside herself with grief. that he would punish him. Theseus. had at the same time inspired Hip- polytos with such a dislike to her. fall in But Aphrodite. Therefore errief and horror filled the hearts of Laius and Zethus. and then went away and hung herself. that he turned from her with loathing. This horses of Hippolytos. The god heard his prayer. and an oracle had once foretold that the first child that should be born to the royal couple would kill his father and marry his mother. who ever took compassion on the innocent. the chariot overturned. His wife Jocasta was the daughter of a Theban noble. and told her husband that the youth had wanted to carry her son. told him all. and we see him shining in the heavens as the constellation of Auriga the charioteer. and the unfortunate youth was dragged over the rocks. she hastened to Theseus. and out of them apparition so appeared a terrified the frightful sea-monster. Wild with shame and anger she returned to Athens. who. off. returned to Amphion and .292 Etc odes a nd Poly 11 ices. X. that they rushed wildly onwards. One of the descendants of after the Thebes and ascended the throne of his father. allowed Aesculapius to restore Hippolytos to life. and entreated who had once promised to grant him a wish. and when Hippolytos was driving in his chariot along the seaPoseidon. shore. recognising Hippolytos to be his at his daring to was incensed do this. the waves suddenly rose angrily. Full of self-reproach and seized with deep remorse. and dashed to pieces. — ETEOCLES death of AND POLYNICES. Kadmos was Laius. who out of mischief had caused Phaedra to love with him.

he rubbed them with an ointment of healing herbs. he was ever the foremost. all other youths in strength and In the chase.: Etcodes a nd Polyn ices." "May the gods defend me from such a crime." she answered. my child." cried Oedipus. and then instead of killing it. else shalt thou kill thy father and marry thy mother. The man took the child. and at length they taunted him. until jealousy began to fill the hearts of his companions. or " thick foot. and went away. attracted the attention of the shepherd of King Polybos of Corinth. Jocasta." Then he carried him to Periboea. telling him that he was not in truth the son of King Polybos. but only a foundling whose parents were unknown. and seeing that they were much swollen. Grief filled the heart of Oedipus when he heard these words. he cut the rope by which his feet were fastened. " thou art not in the our son. and the king take the child and to slay it commanded a slave to in a wood. the boy Oedipus. and sorrowfully he went to the queen to ask the truth. Time passed on. and by her he was brought as Oedipus grew up he excelled agility. not A shepherd found thee woods. 293 and when their son was born they determined he should be put to death. in sports and games. who thy parents are. who was herding his flocks near by. startled and horrified . " No. " never will I return again . and I know that. however. The cries of the little one. and went forth to the wooded Mount Kithaeron. Wouldst thou learn left then must thou consult the oracle. the Queen of up as her own son. Corinth and went the answer And came " Beware of returning to thy native land." So when Oedipus became a man. and Corinth. he hung it to a tree by its feet. he to consult the oracle at Delphi. and named Finding the child tied. leaving it to starve or to be eaten up by wild beasts.

294 to Eteocles for and Poly niees. horses filled. and have the hand of the widowed Jocasta in marriage. brother it had just perished in this manner. though others had When is he drew near to the Sphinx. in the hope that failed. and then the morning. Oedipus continued his journey. country. . The charioteer cried to Oedipus to become of make way for the and as he did not immediately obey. With a light heart Oedipus went forth. where he found the whole city in grief and sorrow. . As he came near path. and soon arrived at Thebes. he cried to her." he still and Periboea were his parents. perchance he might be successful. believed that Corinth was his Corinth. pressed the upon him. on two at noon. " What " thy riddle. king. and now had been promised to whoever should slay the monster that he should sit on the throne of Thebes. to devour all who could not answer her riddles. a monster having the face of a woman and the body of a lion. and Therefore he journeyed onwards with a heart full of sorrow. he was told that Hera to punish the Thebans had sent the terrible Sphinx. Enquiring the reason. he slew both the king and Thus was the first part of the prediction fulhis servant. to Jocasta. and turned his steps towards Thebes. little dreaming that by that Polybos so doing he was in truth fulfilling the prophecy of the oracle. Then the anger of Oedipus was aroused. O Sphinx ? And she answered " What is it that goes on four legs in : and on three in the evening " and when it has most feet its movement is slowest ? Oedipus pondered the riddle for a few moments. who was on his way to consult the oracle at Delphi as to what had son. to the city a chariot met him in a narrow his In it was seated King Laius. The son of Creon. and hastily drawing his sword.

the slave When Oedipus heard her words. and with his own hand he put out his eyes. called up and then accused who Oedipus of being the murderer. for in childhood he creeps stands on two feet. Thus was fulfilled literally the whole of the prophecy. while Oedipus returned to Thebes amidst the rejoicings of the excited people. Jocasta lay dead. in upon manhood he In despair at her riddle being threw herself guessed.Etcodes and Polynices. his 295 answer came : " It is a man. he was unaware that he had slain Laius. in old age he has a staff to aid him. and that thus he was only her adopted son. None however knew who had slain the king. having killed herself in her misery. and Jocasta was given to him in marriage. and when Oedipus would for him as his father. a great feast was held. until at length a frightful plague broke out in the city of Thebes. But even now Oedipus did not imagine any evil. the spirit of Laius from the underworld. he sought who had carried him to the wood. and his movement is slowest when he is an infant " all fours. for as yet He repudiated the crime. Periboea recounted to him how a shepherd had found him on Mount Cithaeron. truth. and . Therefore they sent for the wise old soothsayer Tiresias. and from him he learnt that he was in truth the son of Laius. Filled with horror at the fearful deed he had unconsciously light committed. and he re- ceived the crown of Thebes. Oedipus cried out that eyes which had seen such fearful crimes ought never again to behold the of the sun. the Sphinx down from Then her rock and was killed. and had brought him to her. But too soon he learnt the have mourned King Polybos of Corinth died. and the oracle declared the plague would not cease until the death of Laius was avenged.

but Eteocles wished to reign alone. and when he told his errand they laughed to scorn. the blind king lived to a very old age. and entreated King the country. and bestowed on them his daughters Argia and Deipyle in marriage. and the other a wild boar. Adrastus believed that these were the sons-in-law appointed by the oracle. their father had commanded that they should reign conjointly. was sent to Thebes to ask Eteocles to allow share the his brother to kingdom with him. therefore. and having done Just as he so. him Wrathful at being thus treated. The curse that had lain on Oedipus followed his two sons Eteocles and Polynices. where in a hidden dell or grove. Now Adrastus had two daughters. panied by his faithful daughter Antigone. and compelled his brother to fly Polynices went to Argos. In addition he was quite willing but he wished to try to grant the request of Polynices fair means before resorting to force. with the skin of a wild boar. sacred to the Eumenides. son of Oeneus of Calydon. two princes appeared at his court. however. bravely he fought. left and slain them all. Being twins. he prepared to depart. and therefore Tydeus . At in Attica. the city was filled with grief and woe for the fearful calami- Accomties which had come upon the house of its king. . Polynices with a lion's skin hung over his shoulder. and of them an oracle had predicted that one must marry a lion. fifty the gates of Thebes.296 Eteocles and Polynices. armed men fell upon him and surrounded him. When. Adrastus to aid him in recovering his rights. and wandered length he far came to Colonus from the land of Cadmus. and Tydeus. till But Tydeus was forty-nine of his not to be overcome. Oedipus left Thebes. he offered to fight with all the partakers of the banquet in turn. The Thebans were just sitting down to a banquet when Tydeus arrived.

King of Nemea. and war known as that of the " Seven against Thebes. she could not do holding the child." the warning. When she wished to it draw some water for them. rode by they begged the maiden to show them a spring at which they might quench their thirst. and then the to the city to tell the people of the fate of his comrades. from which island Hypsipyie had been driven away by the inhabitants into . but for Lykurgos threw her into prison. with a child in her arms. for an oracle has said that he must never touch the earth until he Hypsipyie promised to recollect is old enough to run. and guarded the child so carefully that she When the seven heroes never let him go out of her arms. at one she had then fallen time King of Lemnos. high- growing ivy near the spring. last 297 one ran back around him. they were joined by is five other heroes. The to heroes killed the dragon." When wayside. who sold her as a slave to had entrusted to her the " Recare of his little son Archemorus. the dragon who guarded the well crept out and devoured the to fetch the water. however. funeral games were and these later on were merged in games which took place every three years. with these words member never to place the babe upon the ground. so she placed him on some thick. the heroes came to the town of Nemea. He immediately to a neighbouring well. to the Nemean . seated This was Hypsipyie. instituted. the hands of pirates. child. they saw a by the beautiful maiden. In remembrance of Archemorus.Rteocles foes lay dying and Poly niccs. After this Adrastus and Polynices determined to make war on Thebes from this the . and then descended the steps While she was engaged in this. and besought the king forgive Hypsipyie for her thoughtlessness. where she remained many years. daughter of Thoas. and she led them : Lycurgus.

and now instead of taking her life he concealed her in a solitary shepherd's hut. but he had long secretly loved the noble Antigone. threw fell lifeless himself on his sword. and the night she stole through the gates of the city. Some years passed. and as the city now arrived at Thebes. death. they set forth. Kreon undertook the government of Thebes. in bitter grief. and then Kreon was told that not only was Antigone still alive. he caused her to be buried alive. Eteocles seven and Poly nices. in which Eteocles and Polynices killed one another. Then his fury knew no bounds. and at last Arastus alone survived of Argos. could not rest while the body of her brother lay unburied . Argia saved herself by flight. and years later the sons of the heroes on her grave. Haemon. A fearful carnage ensued. by Argia. who had been slain before Thebes determined to avenge the deaths of their hardly needing the persuasions of Adrastus to induce them to undertake the expedition against the city.298 The stand. and out rushed seven Theban heroes. the son of Kreon. unable to live without her. on pain of But Antigone. the widow of Polynices. buried the body. and ordered the offenders to be brought before him. Out of gratitude she became his wife. all the seven heroes who had come from After the death of Eteocles. The oracle promised a successful issue. should bury the body of Polynices. Haemon Ten fathers. so in the darkness of and aided Kreon was informed of this. the faithful daughter of Oedipus. and commanded that no one. and eight in number. was commanded to put the maiden to death. but that she had become the wife of his son. they each chose one. . had a seven gates. before which to make Suddenly the gates opened. but Antigone was captured and sentenced to die. seizing the unfortunate Antigone. while he pretended that she was dead.

When a son was born this time there reigned in Aetolia. and the next day the heroes from Argos entered Thebes without opposition. which Ovid thus describes " His eye-balls glare with fire suffus'd with blood His neck shoots up a thick-set thorny wood His bristled back a trench impal'd appears. . she placed set it it carefully away that no heedless hand might again When Meleager grew up a presented a thank-offering alight. for his father to the gods a bountiful goddess. in- harvest. u Meleager shall live only so long as the brand that lies now fire. like a fills field of spears . strong. . courage but Atropos said . And stands erected. but of they suffered a complete defeat. Oeneus. This they agreed to do. brave man. and taking all their treasures with them. 299 meet them and offered battle. Clotho bestowed on him generosity Lachesis. sent : a savage wild boar. plundered the city. About to —THE CALYDONIAN HUNT. and his wife Althaea. and the Moirae or Fates came to bring him gifts. what they should do. unfortunately omitting Artemis. them they named him Meleager. XI. and burnt it to the ground. King of Calydon. . and extinguishing it. they went on board ship under cover of the night. and part befoams the ground." burning on the hearth is not destroyed by Quickly the mother snatched from the hearth the burning brand. The censed at this slight. They then enquired and he counselled them to give up the town to the victors.: The Calydonian The Thebans came Tiresias to Htint. part he churns. . his chaps. Froth And he sends a grunting sound.

tion of Atalanta " Ovid gives this descrip- Amongst the rest. . at length on account of and he committed such havoc all around that to join Meleager invited the heroes of Greece youths. Her sounding quiver. Castor Pirithous. . accepted the invitation. Jason. and Pollux. fair ." fierce boy. And empty air.: 300 The Calydoiiian Hunt. nor the grooms their bulls can keep. Such was her face. ground is strow'd. and one a bow supply'd. him in a hunt. The tender corn. He burns the leaves the scorching blast invades . Amid the fold he rages. flow'd upon the ground And shewed Which in her buskin'd legs her head was bare. He tramples down the spikes. in order to kill the boar. Admetus. One hand a dart. And grapes ungather'd shed their generous blood. on her shoulder tied. . and intercepts In vain the barns expect their promis'd load : the year. For tusks with Indian elephants he strove. Atalanta came.'' exercise their flails in With olives ever-green the All the country people fled into the towns the terrible animal. as in a nymph displayed boy betray'd The blushing beauties of a modest maid. the great huntress. or in a A fair Among the assembled heroes were the Dioscuri. for her native ornament of hair a single knot was tied above. nor the sheep Their shepherds. Thirty-two valiant with Atalanta. And Jove's own thunder from his mouth he drove. and shrivels up the blades Or suffering not their yellow beards to rear. that else had . nor ricks are heap'd abroad : In vain the hinds the threshing floor prepare. Grace of the woods a diamond buckle bound Her But vest behind. Iolans. Nor barns at home. Theseus.

and a fourth only saved himself by climbing a help of his lance. the Dioscuri were unable to effect. but they either missed the mark or else harmlessly beside the boar. and first reached a dense forest where a marshy they spread nets and uncoupled their dogs. white their horses ." White were : . tracked the monster to his lair. Then they swamp thickly overgrown with willows and rushes. brandish'd at the foe Nor had they miss'd but he to thickets fled. And his red eye-balls roll with living sling. he rushes on the right. appear their habits. and many others. from an engine thrown Amid the foes. however. his nostrils flames expire. so flies a mighty stone. of fury. not pervious to the steed. The chiefs o'erborne. the fair . the future stars. he rushed forth trampling down the brushes and trees in his path. What." . " The beast impetuous with his tusks aside Deals glancing wounds the fearful dogs divide All spend their mouths aloof. 301 When all had arrived. they set forth in quest of the boar. but none abide. " This chaf'd the boar.The Calydonian Hunt. As flew the beast the left wing put to flight. and both in act to throw Their trembling lances. : From all sides arrows rained fell upon him. were Conspicuous both. unable to penetrate his skin." Whirl'd from a : Already three of the heroes lay stretched along the ground. the lower part of the trunk of the " Now Leda's twins. No full sooner did he become aware of their approach than. beating heart on the tree with the From thence he looked down with huge animal as he made wild rushes at tree. Conceal'd from aiming spears. or fire.

and when turned furiously round upon him he drove his hunting knife right into his heart. Loud were monster. huntress Atalanta accomplished. And all at once employ their thronging darts. and piercing him with his sharp tusks. was the first just below the and went the fair. right Meleager. victory. Althaea had gone to the temple to return thanks for . One hurled his double-edged axe at the animal.302 The Calydonian Hitnt. Weak woman as thou art. hand struck the boar through his head. his spear pierced the it instead of the boar. At length Meleager was back of the animal. who thronged dying round. virtuous envy seized the crew They shout the shouting animates their hearts. He said." At the same time they snatched the spoil from her hand. and that of Jason struck one of the dogs successful. in the heat of anger he slew first one and then the other. threw him to the ground. together with the it head and presented to Atalanta as a sign of her This roused the anger of the brothers of Althaea. cried : and they " Lay down those honour'd spoils. maiden. but he turned on him. hit The lance of Theseus glanced aside and only an oak. off his skin. the prize of war. A . An arrow shot by her ear. a Nor shall thy valour want the praises due. . who loved brave to point out this successful shot to his companions. and marvelled at the enormous size of the Then Meleager drew and tusks. and after fierce words. But Meleager would not quietly suffer this. nor think to share. the rejoicings of his companions." the On all sides now heroes attacked the boar.

: Now pale her cheeks. while Thestius stands depriv'd of two ? Ah Ye ! whither am I hurried ? Ah ! forgive. 303 when the dead bodies of her brothers were brought to her.: The Calydonian Hunt. and view . she held the fatal brand Then thrice before the kindled pile she bowed. the manner. : . come." and by whom they fell. blows And first she strews The hearth with heaps of chips. the victory. her robes cause. Shall fate to happy Oeneus still allow One son. A mother cannot give him death though he . Sister. Two doubtful titles. High in her hand Thus while she spoke. come. Let the whole household in one ruin fall. Althaea drew forth the brand. But blood for blood. " Pale at the sudden sight. in one tender breast And now her eyes and cheeks with fury glow. . but hearing tell 'Twas grief Within her soul. and mother. or grief and rage were one Filled with anger against her own. long the scales divide But the beam nodded on the sister's side. revenging sisters. and death for death sister crime is fit. I punish and a crime commit. And the three Furies thus invoked aloud Come. and after : Thrice heav'd her hand. her eyes with pity flow. A A paying her dead brother's due. on the preservation of which his " life depended. And may Diana's cause o'ertake us all. and let your sister's issue live . no more. she changed her cheer. And The with her cheer. shades. and heav'd she thrice repress'd The sister and the mother long contest.

This pleads compassion. and repents the fact. Thou liv'st by me to me thy breath resign . Thy life by double title I require . And let the house's heir and perish I withal and the hop'd kingdom . And me to them who fell by thee restore. and. my son. Then call'd his brothers. I fire my son's image stands and now their angry hands My brothers hold. The Calydonian Hunt. drops the brand. 304 Deserves it. Or drew or seem'd to draw.. Averts her eyes. . though unjustly. and would have shrunk away. in infant years. his pains . . and I pronounced his doom would. but cannot . Ah ! hadst thou died. Then shall th' unpunish'd wretch insult the slain ? Perish this impious. The hand amid the flaming fuel thrown. shall o'ercome. : My brothers. sire around. fall. or add one murder more. but only griev'd to die Without an honest wound. Before my sight . Then loath*d their impious food. half-unwilling. Once given at birth. this detested son Perish his sire. a dying groan The flares themselves but faintly lick'd their prey. she lifts her hand. At this. for the last time. and vengeance these exact. and by a death so dry. Thy little hearse had been bedewed with tears. he deserves it not from me. He pleads in vain. But he with manly patience bore He fear'd not fate. And her to whom his nuptial vows were bound . And The in those absent flames began to fry : blind contagion rag'd within his veins. sisters. : Just then the hero cast a doleful cry. and once preserved by One murder pay.

inconsolable with grief. sisters of Meleager. For as the flames augment. . Now lofty all Calydon in ruins lies . They rise and sink by fits at last they soar In one bright blaze.The Lapithce and the Centaurs. two and the somewhat more civilised The Centaurs were descendants of Ixion. only of gigantic . who to this day the grave. : Till the last burning breath shoots out the soul in air. lies prostrate on the floor. degrees unsluice their eyes .— THE COMBAT BETWEEN THE LAPITHAE AND THE CENTAURS. and : tear Their habits. in real —there — that country which lies in were represented as human u beings. Perhaps his mother a long sigh he drew. and root up their scatter'd hair The wretched father (father now no more). and at length Artemis took compassion give forth their plaintive cry. of Hellas In the mountains of Thessaly the north nations: the wild Centaurs Lapithae. All ages. first ancient days. Even when still XII. and transformed them into guinea-fowls. 305 . And punish'd on herself her impious deed. and at dwelt." The the face. and then descend no more Just so his inward heats. Matrons and maidens beat their breasts. took his last adieu. By steel her stubborn soul his mother freed. at height impair. With sorrow sunk. dead body of their brother. his voice failing. while their tears his fell embraced on his body was buried they refused to leave upon them. And.

The Centaurs immediately mounted some of the horses which were running wild among the mountains. skins. and attacked From the oxen. and soon the tale spread abroad the mountains lived a strange race. time between these two but the latter. shaggy Ixion had on one if occasion promised them a great reward they should suc- ceed in destroying a herd of wild oxen. and is all the guests hastily rose. also formed the subject The tale runs thus Pirithous. the Many a fierce combat took place from time to tribes. and at length one of them laid hold of the bride off. Not far Lapithae. in up them quite a novel sight). whom they soon succeeded in destroying. intending to try and carry her while the at the rest seized the other women and maidens who were Theseus sprang from banquet. by her hair. Many of the old poets the story of the fight of the it Lapithae and the Centaurs. his wrathful voice was heard: this ? "What Know. in the end succeeded tell in conquering the Centaurs. phrenzy possesses thee? what madness that while I live. from the Centaurs lived the other race. half man. fiery words rose to their lips. imagined half horse. the Centaurs. and of numerous pieces of sculpture. which had become savage and were devastating the neighbourhood." name of Centaurs. and among the But the copious wedding guests were the Centaurs. the daughter of Adrastus. son of Ixion.— o 06 stature The Lapithce and and having hairy. draughts of wine excited the wild guests . was celebrating his marriage with Hippodamia. this feat they received their killers. Then while in fierce anger his seat. as being the more civilised. seeing (to them afar off mounted on horses man and that steed to be one. or " oxen- as the neighbouring people. thou wrongest not Pirithous .

struck Theseus on the breast. howling with glowing iron hastily The fled rest of the Centaurs. and this was the signal for a general conflict. and he rage. and swinging directed high in the head. broke a leg from shattered his off the table. Quickly the arms. he thrust aside the Centaur and freed the bride.The Lapithcc and alone. on which fire was burning. and with two fierce blows stretched his foe along the ground. the eyes. But the offender. One Centaur " What glory canst thou gain by killing the child." rest of the tribe rose with wild cries of " To Goblets. beakers. next he slew a young boy of the Lapithae. stools. and fiercer. to arms. was air." the Centaurs. but in return had his eyes put out by one of his antagonists with a pair of stag's antlers. One rushed to the altar. who fell senseless to the ground. from the grotto. and hurled at the Centaur. the having turned as he ran. hurled from all sides. 307 and to show that the threat was meant. but for sole answer the Centaur thrust the burning brand down the speaker's throat. but two friends in one. another of the Lapithae pierced his fled. he . Terrible was the tumult that ensued. roused by the act. and In revenge. he turned. one of the Lapithae. fiercer Thus the combat raged ever struck his enemy with a burning brand." cried one. and threw some of the burning brands among his enemies. received a scorching wound between One of them had been so intent on drinking that he had been Overcome with wine. as shoulder with a red hot spear. fearing the last one. One of the lay stretched on the ground on a bearskin. The hero it seized a heavy goblet from the table. One of the Centaurs tore the lighted it sconce from the ceiling. every implement they could seize. it full at one of the Lapithae. quite unconscious of the fearful din. But retribution followed him .

where they had a second combat with Hercules. who drove them out of all the caves and which they had concealed themselves. and the rest of the Centaurs the The wild tribe fled through Hellas. his and was impaled on a tree. Theseus performed wonders. his foes to the stem of an oak tree with two others he cut down with one blow of his sword ." and drove : the point of it into his throat. his spear.308 The Lapithce and the Centaurs. so that the black blood last. until at length the Lapithae remained victors. Centaur. hurled it it at Theseus. a fourth was pierced through the head. Springing on to the back of a Centaur he broke his ribs by the pressure of his knees. tree. and across isthmus into Arcadia. and a fifth attempting to fly from him slipped down the steep rock He pinned one of lance . cried Lapithae caught sight of him as he lay there. the but he managed to evade beside him. Those who escaped him then fled to the Isles of the Syrens. and the sleeper painlessly breathed his Pirithous was victorious above all the rest in this conflict. where dens in they were devoured by those monsters. . tearing up a large fir it. and grasping " Drink wine in the river Styx. though killed man For some time longer the took to flight. at the same time knocking him on the head with Five others were slain by his hand at last one his club. streamed out. . fight continued.

the half-brother of Aeson. determined. still more so as an oracle had foretold that he who should attend the sacrifice wearing only one shoe would Pelias as his nephew. and he did his master. One day Pelias offered a solemn which he invited all sacrifice to Poseidon. to and among them came On his way the young man reached a river. and at length he retired. stood an old dame who entreated him to take her across. in Thessaly. had been entrusted to the care of the wise and clever Centaur. in this disguise had come to prove When Pelias Jason arrived at Iolcus he presented himself before and demanded his father's kingdom. it. possible. therefore Pelias. Here Jason. In Iolcus. Now his sudden appearance startled him. throne to his son Jason. giving up the reigned King Aeson. and carried her safely to the opposite side. . Chiron. so that he was obliged to his relations. meanwhile. but so if much did he like the power he held that he it. governed for him . the northern boundary of Greece. to retain Jason. and had entirely forgotten him. But the cares of the kingdom hung heavy on him. Quickly recovering himself. continue his journey without The old woman was really no other than Hera.The Argonautic Expedition. but one of his sandals remained sticking in the mud. The lad was still very young. who Jason. 309 XIII. had not seen him since he was a child. full honour to Among all the old Greek heroes the son of Aeson was one of the greatest. Without hesitation he raised her in his arms. —THE ARGONAUTIC EXPEDITION. deprive him of the crown.

Phrixus and Helle seated themselves on the back of the animal. and fly through the air. He had more than human and a marvel of his kind. he swore by the gods to go forth and accomplish it. it. but Nephele appeared to her children in a dream and commanded them instantly to fly. however. who hated her step- them harshly and cruelly. lies the Golden Fleece of Phrixus. Go where. son Phrixus and a daughter Helle. he arranged a scheme by which to rid himself of the hated nephew. "So be of a king. but first he said. carefully guarded. now called the Dardanelles. of which By his first wife Nephele he had a Athamas was king. Hence the Greeks gave the strait the name of Hellespont or Sea of Helle. father. and were carried by him to the sea-shore.J io The Argonautic Expedition. but as he was crossing the narrow strait. it When thou returnest with to Iolcus. "thou shalt have the throne of must thou go forth and win a name worthy to Colchis. There he sprang into the water intending to swim with them to the other shore. Not far from Iolchus. treated across the sea. sending to aid them a beautiful strong ram. and at length persuaded her husband to offer them both up as a sacrifice to the gods. lay the small kingdom of Alus. and dazzled by the glory of so great an enterprise. could speak. Influenced by Ino." Iolcus. and was drowned. understanding. fall off. Phrixus feared he too might but the ram reassured him. but after a time he put aside Nephele and married Ino. a present to her from Hermes. The ram was a creation of Poseidon. The history of the Golden Fleece was as follows." then shalt thou ascend the throne of thy Jason did not perceive the artifice. slipped off. Athamas prepared willingly to accede to her wishes. and his fleece was golden. Helle lost her hold. . or swim children.

all And to this they Among them were Herakles. to construct one. the singer Orpheus. The ship was of Argonauts or sailors of the Argo." he said. where Phrixus was kindly After remaining there welcomed by King Aeetes. all the Greek heroes to come and call take part in the expedition to Colchis. went down to the shore at the Argo was found to be Iolcus to embark. Amphion. all of whom Now Colchis his aid. a son of Helios. a very clever architect. and Calais and Zetes (two sons of Boreas) were sons either of gods or kings. across the Black Sea to Colchis. when lo ! named the name and those who sailed in her immovable ropes round ! Casting aside their arms. Peirithoos. desired Phrixus to sacrifice him. " 31 Fear not. and after- wards became so celebrated. having finished his work. ready to start on the expedition. Jason called upon responded. here came The Queen of Heaven commanded Athene to to provide a ship. she it put in a piece of the speaking oak of Dodona received thus was that the vessel was able to the Argo. the protectress of Jason. Meleager. Castor and Pollux. where it is still visible among the constellations. its During building . At length the vessel was finished. Caucasus. Theseus. and the immortal part of the ram ascended to heaven. talk. the sun-god. and all the heroes. Pelius (the father of Achilles). the son of Phrixus. Phrixus did as he was desired. sacred either to and to hang up his golden Ares or Artemis. some time he married the daughter of the king. . a town at the foot of Mt. " thy fate is otherwise decreed." And he hurried on. while the fleece was hung up. and she at once directed Argus. and then the ram.1 The Argonautic Expedition. the lad Hylas. their chests all fastened strong to and endeavoured move her by . only a vessel was needed to carry the warriors to and Hera. fleece in a grove.

. the steersman. proposing that their choice should fall on Herakles. the " Argonautica. was heard to murmur. in the days of my innocent childhood Quickly Stirred I * the hearts of the heroes." At once Argus sprang on board the Tiphys. Now all was ready. he called " Me unto him. by and else that was needed. that I by the power of my music with fresh courage inspire their long and wearisome Might labours. the waters Then as her prow kissed Quickly they parted asunder." supposed to have been written by Orpheus himself. but the hero himself refused the honour. and as I sent forth the cadence. She still remained firmly emforce. my harp I uplifted. but not for long. Bethinking him of main Orpheus. the mast and all vessel. and suddenly the vessel began to move : " Bright glanced her sides as she sped the length of the flat shingly margin. * This of Heaven was enemy.2 3 1 The Argonautic Expedition. To his this the others agreed. and then the oars were brought down. Then the oak. He knew that the mighty Queen Jason. followed sails were put in. Then Jason's brave heart failed him for an instant. out of which part of the ship's keel was built. Gaining the small sheltered bay." With renewed ardour they set to work. bedded in the shingle. and the helm fastened to the rudder. Taught by my mother divine. and Jason reminded them that a leader of the expedition should be chosen. for the song of Orpheus put fresh vigour into their hearts. but in vain. but the protectress of therefore he begged the Argonauts to select the and the following stanzas are from an ancient Greek poem. the sweet singer of Thracia. rejoicing the heart of brave Jason.

Wreaths of the olive green. I Jason commanded then. gifts gathered with pious devotion .: — o l The Argonautic Expedition. Only the heart cakes. and the request was gladly Jason demanded that his companions should take the oath of obedience to him." — " Argonautica. and placed a huge earthen On the ground in their midst. which he thus describes the low sandy shore. Holding the sacred drink which with many a prayer I had mingled Demeter's all precious gift. I bade them bind round their foreheads. with a torch to fire the offering. severed his head from his body." and the milk of the sheep Then he bade " his comrades gather round the sacrifice. Placing thereon for gods. the bard r stretched forth his hands. and placed on the oil. Which with the sacred draught. And handed the I filled a rich golden goblet. all o as leader. and Orpheus prepared a solemn sacrifice. whose I crest o'er his fellows high towered. son of Aeson agreed to. the : " Now to we brought the strong limbs of the oak tree. and thrust their spears and swords into it." Speedily the sacrifice was reduced to ashes by the flames. I vessel. crying . for each in turn to partake of. Next I the mighty steer slew. and lastly the brine of the ocean. flat baken wheat o'er Pouring some rich golden the offering. I cut up. the flour that mankind sustaineth Next the blood of the steer. and then turning to the w hite-crested waves. And with one powerful thrust. mixture round.

who guard the lone shores." — " Argonautica. And the dreaded Erinnyes follow our ever be witness. as her sharp through the waters. each to his own native country." to all. Daemons of watery depths. by dolphins. and the Argo flew on her way prow clave Through the deep endless Scattering the white-crested foam. to aid him in all his hard contests. the oath we have given Ever to be at his side. ! and golden-hued dawn of the morning. Star-spangled ether above. we faithlessly break this. Hera flood. I invoke. and their the after laying arms under the " seats. May the all-judging Dice." . But if unmindful of this. grasped the oars. the ancient and father of all. and furthermost waters of Tethys Nereus. and dark shrouded daughter of evening. Spirits . who unite with the heroes in power Naiads and nymphs of the rivers. and the all-powerful Triton Restless swift-coursing winds. our promise. and fair foam-born Amphitrite Proteus also and Phorcus. who rush to the boundless . all gifted with beauty supernal Glaucus surrounded . 314 The Argonautic Expedition. ocean taken. When the oath had been administered Argonauts stepped on board the vessel. So shall we safely return. footsteps for ever. and thy fifty daughters. sent a favourable wind. surging home. " Powers of the great sounding deep — ye gods of the mighty oceans. thee too.. ! Come from your So long as we Jason. Thee. against us. and list to the oath we have to faithfully keep.

By morning Pelion." — " Argonautica. begged and taking the lyre from Achilles. and they " See ye. It rose to the mountain tops. and placed wine and venison before them." said Peleus. of the Centaurs and Lapithae. Then he prepared a sit couch of dried leaves. " that wooded rock in the distance. and their in his turn with Herakles. stood the son of Peleus and Bringing forth sweet dreamy strains. landed. After they had partaken of the food. the powerful form Centaur. saying he dared not compete with one so renowned and famous as the Centaur. Then Orpheus sang and the heavens. the heroes begged Orpheus to sing to the accom- paniment of Chiron's lyre. to please the ear of the master. and the birth of all the lesser gods about Chaos. my friends. best There hither. son. But the singer at first refused. the and wisest of all Centaurs. the creation of earth and Kronos. him fight to join in a contest. sang the battle Chiron himself. that mine eyes may once more behold him. of the While with Thetis. however. of Eros and : " And the narrow cave rang with the sound. made them down. his lyre in his hand. When received Chiron beheld the princes. he rose and them with great gladness.5 The Argonautic Expedition. that Thetis bring Achilles when he might be educated by him. and the wooded valleys of Pelion. 3 1 they were in sight of the lofty peak of Mount all Tiphys steered towards the shore. the skies." joyfully. . let us My heart longs to embrace my go therefore to the cave. Wisely did silver-footed yet a babe. and there in the darkened Lay outstretched on the ground. is the cave of Chiron. sea." " Soon we arrived entrance at the cave.

the isle of Lemnos. pressed a kiss on his brow. trees that for a thousand years in the pine woods. Thus they journeyed till they came to Here they were so hospitably received . Chiron bestowed on the singer Orpheus a beautiful skin as a parting gift. up their weapons. circled the stables of Chiron. . prayed to the gods for their safe return. that they felt no inclination to go away from the island even Jason was so captivated by the beauty of the princess. Splitting the rocks that they forest. their way. the and when the heroes went back to their Centaur accompanied them to the shore." wonder at the Chiron was lost in beauty of the song. and ashamed of the weakness they had shown. and taming the beasts of the Drawing them music. and continued the voyage. in their greedy and forgot both their nests and their natures. and swiftly bearing soon the vessel was cleaving the blue waters." — " Argonautica. so they hastily took left. and raising his hands towards heaven. of the expedition. and now. had stood fell. and bade him farewell. that he wished But Orpheus reminded them of the object also to remain. But before he brave Peleus raised his son in his arms.3*6 Bending the The Argonautic Expedition. as Orpheus concluded. Tiphys came in and exhorted them to depart. and with tears in his eyes. Then them on the Argonauts took up their oars once more. they returned to their vessel. by King Thoas and his daughter Hypsipyle. ships. all to the cave by the wond'rous power of its While Paused e'en the eagles and vultures that flight.

in so doing he accidentally killed King Cyzicus. was hindering their But at midnight. whilst he was asleep. Fearful was the combat which ensued. who had hurriedly seized their weapons. they fell on them. however. unable to explain the mystery. and as soon as they beheld the Argonauts. sacred to Rhea. and reached an island. brandishing large fir trees. hasten which is to the hill yonder. and beautiful garments and carpets for their journey. they went on till they came into the Sea of Marmora. and commanded him and his companions to go on shore. at the death of Cyzicus. He gave them a hearty of which Cyzicus was king. but Herakles succeeded in comsent pletely vanquishing his foes . 3 1 7 Next they passed through the Hellespont. the mother of all. and offer up to her a special sacrifice. where Athene them favouring winds. which they had torn up by the roots." . and had six arms and hands. But when night approached. would not enable them the more they the knots became twisted Tiphys was that held the ship : When the heroes prepared to depart. and erected a huge stone in her honour. They were of enormous size. unfortunately. wine. and offer up a death honour of their dead host.The Argonautic Expedition. for he did not know that Rhea. Athene sacrifice in appeared to him. and the heroes had lain down to rest. " and Then would Rhea. them . they found to their surprise that all their united efforts to loosen the cable tried. a number of wild men who lived in the mountain fastnesses of the island sent by Hera came down to slay Herakles. prepared a magnificent banquet for them. pardon when ye have finished these sacrifices. as well as other offerings to the gods of the Underworld. and presented them with food. who had hurried down to try and separate the combatants. and having landed there. angry departure. the closer . welcome.

awoke the others. furthest. and they all hastened to to heaven. and honey. Herakles. and Pollux. The Argonants now proceeded to Rhea's mountain. a set of golden horse trappings. water. they caught sight of the body of Cyzicus covered with dust and blood. The Argonauts were of their host.8 1 The Argonautic Expedition. once again took up their This time the cable loosed itself. as the sacrifice was burning. and and sweet songs. related his dream. and placed it in a grotto. and the victor's laurel wreath was therefore given to him. Peleus was the swiftest runner. carved a figure of Rhea. and flew like an arrow back Then Tiphys hurriedly sprang from his couch. and memory it Also gathering dry boughs. with prizes for hallowed the offering with prayer Then Jason arranged some the winners : the best wrestler received the beautiful golden goblet that Hypsipyle had given to Jason. There. So saying. with sadness raised a they saw to the this. as dawn crept slowly across the sky. worked by Athene. funeral games. which they cut in the rock. the goddess departed. the shore. and they buried the body. sang some songs in her honour. On this last they sprinkled blood and wine. while Orpheus poured over oil mixed with milk. last Tiphys hurried them away . while Jason erected an altar. the best rider. a silver Castor. At oars. a magnificent carpet. Jason himself surpassed them all in archery. Argos having cut down a vine. who could throw the jug of exquisite workmanship . and having embarked. and got a purple mantle. whilst Orpheus received a pair of golden winged sandals as a reward for his music. and the goddess was completely propitiated when Orpheus. and Rhea favoured . they offered an oblation to the goddess Rhea. and surrounded by the tall forms of the wild filled men he when tomb had slain. they descended the mountain.

and at length took shelter in a small creek on the Asiatic coast. was a strong leather band with iron. reigned as king. and Hylas. some and shouted to Herakles. the wind became so strong that they had to keep close in to the shore. drew their swords. He was also plagued by the Harpies. that no one if The Argonauts wished and he promised to consult Phineus as to their journey. while the rest of the Bebryces were soon vanquished by the heroes. Calais and of Boreas. son of Agenor and brother of Cadmus and Europa. flew down. Soon. Herakles went on shore to get try and kill some game in the woods. and he was seen no more. the hand and arm to make the blows more wrestle with When the Argonauts were summoned to at Amycus. All was in vain. The winds drove wrestle with him. as soon as the Harpies flew Zetes. and overthat they coming them. their 3 1 departure. left. where Phineus. Next they landed in Bithynia. and as they could obtain no answer. in these wrestling the Argo to the coast of the Bebryces. a district of Asia Minor. they departed without him. as soon as was spread. Tiphys urged a speedy departure. snatched the food from his table his mouth.9 The Argonautic Expedition. however. The gods had afflicted him with blindness. as a punishment for foretelling the future. wound round effectual. and killed the king almost at the first blow. Pollux once accepted the challenge. made them take an oath would . who used to make matches this travellers In ancient days they used the caestus . the sons down to snatch the food. who. The wind having now calmed. and so completely destroyed what was could touch it. to satisfy them they would free him from these monsters. all where dwelt King Amycus. stopped at a spring to But the Naiads. Accordingly. following him. thinking the beautiful boy must be the son of a god. and they called water. drew him down into the spring.

while the Argo passed through in safety. which constantly as constantly separated again. palace. When Tiphys saw these rocks his heart fairly failed him. only just escaping being crushed. act. Tiphys. but also gave them much other good advice. and while passing up it. till the sound echoed through the high vault of heaven. Again the rocks separated. now until they reached the harbour of Then Jason. No incident occurred Colchis. by the loss of his tail feathers. and Ancaeus took his place. the heroes seized the oars and rowed with all their might. council. and settled on the mast of the Argo. and. Very grateful for this leave Phineus alone for the future. together and came They crashed together and parted asunder.320 The Argonautic Expedition. the king not only told the Argonauts about their journey. held by the power of his song. he should go to Aeetes' Speaking him fair with soft words. No sooner had this taken place. and entreating his friendship. and demand the prize we had . his help and Or boldly confess our come for." design. and ere they had time to close. and the angry billows rushed round them with a terrific roar. After escaping this danger. the rocks stood still and the sea calmed down. Even then the vessel must have been crushed had not Orpheus grasped his lyre. and with them in haste took Whether alone by himself. but just then an eagle flew down between them. became and remained fixed in the sea as the Moirae had decreed. At (also last the wayfarers reached the Bosphorus. or floating islands known as the Symplegades). only to meet with 'another crash. where floated about in the sea the Cyancae Insulae. the Argonauts kept to the right side of the Black Sea. the steersman died. than the Symplegades stationary. " Called together the heroes.

But his eye grew stern and dark. There in the sunlight gleaming. for now that they had reached the wished-for goal." Now close to the shore floated a strange vessel. the stately Argo. as he saw the vessel approaching. Rode King Aeetes the great. 321 They determined that they would not all go thither. fear had taken possession of them. bright shone their arms in leader. where 'mid the been their wont. With fatherly pride he gazed on the stately daughters beside him . to rushes Erst had it come with their vows and petitions. he sprang the river and the Black Sea. flowering Down to the banks of the stream. rolled the bright car of Aeetes. commanded them to offer sacrifices : to the river-god. and being carried calling to his daughters.' And glorious above his fellows. in order to avert any " coming danger Then in his golden chariot. in stature. all through the glistening tall meadows. Aeetes meanwhile had been troubled by a dream in away across which he saw his daughter Medea seized with fear." Rising in the chariot he called fiercely across the water to the strangers : . And Flashed the golden rays of the crown encircling his forehead. was Jason the mighty his At sight of Aeetes Jason and for. and their hearts began to fail. in his hand he held the sceptre glancing like lightning. and the forms of the heroes could be plainly seen: " God-like they seemed the sunlight. kt companions trembled. his beauteous daughters beside him.The Argonautic Expedition. from his couch. and. quickly harnessed his golden steeds.

it would be no honour Hearken." of Aeetes flashed with anger. descended from heroes and the immortal gods. and what is the errand that brings ye? Truly not even my fame hath stayed you from coming hither. to destroy thy land or to risk our own lives wantonly. leaving the Argonauts if among you. throne of Iolchos until.'" to at The Argonauts had not even courage to this answer a word length : speech of the king's. Neither are we impelled in time past I by covetous greed. ! O for us to conquer so few of you. the nation which bends 'neath my And sceptre. Nor fear of the Colchian folk. then shall you carry away with you the golden fleece. my comall panions are no nameless adventurers." and he returned to his palace. after for this may not gain the I many dangers surmounted. however. I was destined service by Pelias. but true friends to me. Now. as I combats that I will prepare for him. and acquainted with the art of warfare. and he answered " We come not. ever ready to fight.322 " ' The Argonautic Expedition. Choose therefore the shall noblest from be victorious. How they regretted ! now that they had not waited for Herakles At last they selected Jason to represent them. These all return thither bearing the golden fleece. but he suppressed his wrath. while he answered " : great had you come here armed and in numbers to fight for the golden fleece no doubt you would have gained it. stranger. us If thou wilt so receive we will come to Then the eyes thee as friends. are impervious even to Ares. . Oh King Aeetes. my father's uncle. until Hera strengthened the heart of Jason. and he doubt not that he will be. devising a scheme by which to destroy Jason. Say of what nation are ye. in the paralysed with fear.

can be no evil greater than to betray one's father. and by the father of Aeetes thing. and sow in the furrows some poisonous dragon's teeth that Phrixus had once given to These teeth would quickly grow up into armed whom he would have to fight. a stately youth. men. told him exactly field what he would have The next morning the people thronged to the sacred of Ares.The and soon after. had not Medea. 323 Aeetes' grandson appeared. the king's daughter. . with that guarded the golden fleece. there to place an offering on the altar of Hecate. entreated her help him." So she hastened into the depths of a dark wood. so that nothing could to use against the wound him . On to her way she met Jason. In return he obtained his from her some wondrous herbs with which to anoint body. He spoke to her. with iron hoofs. come to his rescue. and when he had vanquished them. A rgonautic Expedition. her his wife if she would him in the coming Medea who resisted no all longer. he would have to conquer the dragons Aeetes. determined to put love on one " there side. and Jason swore by the sacred gods. harness them to a diamond plough. dressed in purple robes. and immediately all her good resolutions were forgotten. " for. also a magic stone armed men. and for some time hesitated whether to help him. that sees every- he would never leave her." she said to herself. Aeetes also appeared. and then she to do. for this maiden Medea was a sorceress and could weave spells and charms. At last her better nature conquered. and she Jason would have been completely lost. and promised to assist make trials. She had seen and fallen in love with the noble Grecian hero. harrow four acres of a field dedicated to Ares. or to remain faithful to her father. : bringing the following message from the Colchian king Jason must capture two wild fire-breathing oxen. she promised to aid him.

" —Ovid. on fresh attempts he goes. and fiercely turned on Jason. and plays his part. The glebe. To unknown yokes like brawny necks they yield." Book vii.. and raise stare . . " Metam.. And furnaces with fiercer fury glow. But bravely Jason went forth to meet them. when love conspires. their dewlaps strokes with soothing their hand . passive savages like statues stand. With serpents' teeth the fertile furrows sows . steel-tipt Brandish their horns in threatening rage : With brazen hoofs they beat the ground. their nostrils breathing flames of fire. advent'rous youth the monsters turn and eager to engage. " While on th' Their glaring eyes.324 The Argonautic Expedition. Their champion's courage with inspiring praise. and choke The ambient air. plough the wond'ring field. the Grecians shout. the grass burning beneath their feet. The While he And. and when the Argonauts saw these armed men . with clouds of dust and smoke. When With such a water on the pouting mass ye throw noise from their convulsive breast. his sceptre in his hand. Embolden'd now. fermenting with enchanted juice. The Colchians tame oxen. The iron mass sprang up from the earth. " Metam. . Each gazing Grecian for his champion shakes." Book vii. Thro' bellowing throats the struggling vapour press'd. and (thus Ovid relates it) "As forges rumble with excessive fires. While bold advances he securely makes Through singing blasts such wonders magic art Can work." — Ovid. Makes the snake's teeth a human crop produce. and when he bowed his head the fierce bulls rushed forth.

There was still the dragon to conquer but Aeetes. they covered their faces in anguish : "And where What must Her such hardy warriors are afraid. who for his safety undertook She knew the virtue of the spoils she gave. Jason now took the magic stone. him left her no peace. Her strong reserve of secret arts she brings. . . She knew their force. On that the hero the morrow Jason might kill fight the dragon . stands the far-seeing goddess : . and seize the golden fleece The poem the theft of the golden fleece " — of Orpheus thus describes Near to the royal palace rose a wall of nine fathoms.The Argonautic Expedition. and surrounded by bastions severe. He said that enough had been done for that day. . There aloft o'er the entrance. and urged the hero to follow her at once ere day should break." —Ovid. the warriors. she told him of her father's intention. would not allow him to go on. the blood her cheek forsook. " Metam. 325 levelling their spears at him.. and that he wished to rest. Pierced by three brazen gateways surmounted by pinnacles golden. angry had so successfully overcome the two first trials." Book vii. lo they turned from him and began ! fighting with each other till not one was left. the tender and enamoured maid ? spirits sink. Guarded by mighty towers. last. She fears. for Again Medea came to Jason's assistance. his intention being to the strangers during the night. And her never-failing song she sings. and knew her lover brave But what's a single champion to a host ? Yet scorning thus to see him tamely lost . and threw it in amongst when. Hurrying down Her anxiety to the vessel at nightfall.

Castor and Pollux. I Medea accompanied them. Artemis. stretching its mighty arms almost " And there 'neath the leafy boughs. terrible dragon. way to the sacred wall of the grove. . on whom the atoning Colchians and terror. While Medea the sorceress added herbs of magical powers/' — " Argonautica. and laid them on the pile. and garden from Medea. Golden-hued scales protect him. 3 26 The Argonautic Expedition." Then Orpheus slew three young black dogs. as his angry eye wanders incessant. while its midst a giant oak reared into the clouds : head.for none dare approach these precincts. having received this description of the the obstacles. branches of sweet-scented cedar. Elder. .'' In the centre of the enclosure was a dark shady grove of laurels in the and cornel trees. By dogs with fierce flaming eyes on every side it is guarded." — " Argonautica. be he native or stranger." — " Argonautica. with gracefully waving palms. and one other Argonaut to be at hand in case they were to try lyre. and dug out a three-cornered trench. to lay at the feet of the goddess. and Then they made their " Quickly stooped to the ground. and black thorns. cold and proud Call both in fear Except they first bring offerings.. Herein I placed with care. feared they would not be able to overthey begged Orpheus to offer sacrifices to Artemis for a propitious ending to their venture. and tame the dragon by the sweet tones of his Thereupon the bard chose Jason. impervious to every weapon Impatient he lashes his tail." The come and Argonauts. No mortal can ever here enter. also. mixed their blood with the magic herbs. hangs the golden fleece of Aeetes. wanted. Watched with incessant care by the fearful. and the sorrowful weeping willow.

and in the centre a fierce wild lion. Alecto. Then self in 327 over all he poured oil and water. stern and solemn. and rending the air with his cries. rose from the depths of Tartarus. Suddenly the ground opened.The Argonautic Expedition. while a thick black smoke ascended to heaven." — " Argonautica. the figure of Artemis over the her hands. lashing the ground with beneath the lessly his tail. while the very trees shook from their roots. passed slowly round and round the trench sacrifice. but Orpheus and his companions fell Medea fear- advanced. on her right a hind's. in which was the and Hekate joined the Furies in a magic Then. close followed behind by brave Jason. and the steps of the altar of Zeus. 4< I was the first to enter. and the noble sons of Tyndareus. and Tisiphone. in The dogs. and wrapping him- black garments. we neared the oak. After us But as came Medea. now fawned upon them. the portals opened wide. of fierce and terrible aspect. Lo ! with a terrible roar. well known in Pluto's dark kingdom. while in her hands she held two gleaming swords. and the sacrifice fiercely glowed and burned. before so fierce. sacrificed to the gods of the Under- world. feet of the heroes. bearing in her hands some of the magic . Pandora ring. the mighty dragon espied us. and the earth trembled back. having three heads : on her left shoulder a thickly-maned horse's head." Raising his head he uncoiled his huge body. and Hekate. the dread Erinyes. back sprang the mighty bolts of the brazen gates. marvellous to relate. and Megaera. her gateway dropped the torches she held watchful gaze turned to the sky. Now in the midst of the flames appeared other beings from the Underworld. and there before the Grecian heroes lay the mysterious grove. Iron Pandora.

3 28 herbs. Aeetes meanwhile had heard from his servants of Medea's departure. unfastened the golden fleece. however. but fearing lest her flight might be made known to her father. way they had come. Then the Argonaut hastened forward. and threw his body into the sea. which could be seen sparkling on the trunk of the oak-tree above the dragon. and offered up prayers and thanksgivings to the immortal gods. and sent his little son Absyrtos to go and find his sister. Medea's crime. The Argonauts. was not to go unpunished." As the God of Sleep approached. The boy came to the vessel of the heroes. and sleep " Ruler of gods and of men. softly The Argonautic Expedition. he raised : his lyre. his powerful spell. and gently wrapping in slumber all who had toiled long and sorely Floated on golden wings. instead of returning the wandered about toward the north. They saw many king- . where their comrades received them with the utmost rejoicing. and she knew that at break of day Aeetes would discover the theft. and when the bard saw and sweetly supplicated this. almost as if death had come upon scales of his body. to the flowery meadows — " Argonautica. who were weary and sad. suddenly began him. killed him. and they all returned at once to the ship. neck sank down on to the shining Even Medea herself was surprised at the effect of the spells. for the night was already half done. the maiden laid hold on her brother. might That 'neath vanish." of Colchis. the dragon's great strength Slowly he came to All my call. and at last his long the eyes of the dragon to close. Then she hurried the Greeks in their departure. and there found Medea in the midst of them. but she urged Jason at once to secure the precious prize.

" " Argonautica. Therefore the poet relates how the Argo sailed on and on without interruption. consisted of sand and shingle. Then Ancaeus spoke gently to his tired comrades. Imbued with fresh courage. or long-lived gift. In the fields they gather that they need them for food. and leaping into the shallows proceeded to draw the Argo. and persuaded them at last to get out on the marshy shore. and by fastening a strong rope to the prow endeavour to drag the vessel along. reigned a dreary silence The shores they passed now. Here in the Northern Ocean there was no wind. they complied with his request. neath the polar wain. however. until at last on the tenth day after their departure they came to the great Oceanos that encircles the earth. the shores peopled with nations were quickly passed. 329 doms. their arms began to weary. Here. people. heroes had to take to their oars after a time.. for they were making hardly any way at all. and passed through the sea of Azov without knowing where they were. for beverage. and still. who. low and : and over and eternal all " Death-like. they might return to Greece by the pillars of river Herakles. while and nectar and the dew of heaven suffice they have beauty more than is given to other mortal men : . that. At that time the Greeks believed that the sea of Azov joined the Arctic Ocean. and the furthermost waters of Tethys. The Argonautic Expedition. crossing the North Sea." — Now they came to the land of the Macrobii. blessed with every good live free all from sorrow and pain. The steersman Ancaeus then turned the vessel to the left. and the . flat. and that where Russia and Poland lie there was nothing but water.

They also passed the rocky chasm through which Acheron dashes down into the Underworld. was changed to that of Euxinus. dwell in their bright cheerful faces Old men as well young. Then should heroes. later on. when its shores were peopled by Greek colonists. with thoughtful and lovingaccents. i. In this splendid town dwells a wondrous nation.330 " The Argonautic Expedition. Crushed 'gainst the cliffs of Axinos." — " Argonautica. I not have to hear the infamous crime of the Sea received the name of Axinus." Next the Argo reached the land of the Cimmerii. Crowning their deeds of kindness. know how to speak from the heart. The mast was set when suddenly from the bottom of words : vessel the sacred oak that formed part of the keel startled the heroes with the following "'Woe ! ah. living in the far north. they beheld the town of Hermioneia. "the " the inhospitable. There perpetual darkness reigns. far out beyond the plain. and may pass at once through the portals of Hades to the land of shadows and dreams. . a people on whom Helios never sheds his rays." . and the streets are wide and well built.* lay 'neath its dark sullen waters. Now the Argonauts again entered their ship. And then. for high towering cliffs keep away the light of the sun. up and the the sails hoisted. for a zephyr gently ruffled the surface of the ocean. woe ! hapless vessel ! would that mid sorrow and I wailing." * In ancient times the Black hospitable. encircled by fair meadows. which name. The city is surrounded by strong walls and towers. also. Peace and happiness. so upright and just that when they die they are exempt from paying toll to the ferryman of Acheron.e..

having coasted the northern side of the earth.The Argonautic Expedition. Now with renewed vigour the heroes again grasped their oars. the stormy wind filled the sails. They began to think whether it would not be better her become food for guessing their thoughts. and gleaming in the sunshine. throw Medea overboard. Little did he dream how much pain and sorrow this wicked . but the Argonauts were filled with fear. in a close covering veil. Evils and mischiefs attend us." Then the oak became silent. and with arrow-like speed they flew over the Atlantic Ocean. they reached the western shore. She was a sister of Aeetes. At length. to maiden was yet to bring upon him. and possessed of wondrous beauty. far above that of ordinary mortals. Now ever behind stands Erinys Seeking the murdered Absyrtus. not knowing whither they were going. and let the monsters of the deep but Jason. while following close in our pathway. that on account of Jason's love for Medea many evils were still to await them. where lay the island of the sorceress Circe. as she looked upon the strangers " But : when her keen searching glance Medea. when he was met on the shore by the lady Circe.' " — " Argonautica. flowed over her shoulders. 331 Lost to all honour and fame. to ! fell on the sorceress Wrapped hide the pale shame on her features Pity softened her breast. and was about to send out spies to find what sort of people the inhabitants were. and the Argonauts were Her beautiful golden hair lost in wonder at sight of her. giving a celestial halo to her face. entreated them to spare her life. and thus she spake to the maiden : . Here Jason landed.

and came to Sardinia and Sicily : " Now round the three-sided fly isle. entered the Mediterranean Sea by the pillars of Hercules. Therefore ye shall not regain the shores of your country. Here lay the vessel hemmed in. one to what dire misfortune has Cypris condemned ! ! Ill-fated thee Surely ye cannot forget the crime that has brought hither you Trying to land on our island. is and useless. For ye have both wronged your and cruelly murdered native your brother. eddying around in the whirlpool. Here then ye may not enter. But there is nought to prevent my sending you all ye have need of. thus with the aid of Orpheus. a soft breeze sprang up.' — " Argonautica. and servants carry wine and food down to the ship.t we bent to our oars with fresh vigour. Hopeless the task father. . * Maleia or and here it Malea was the most southern point of the Peloponnesus. the heroes loosened the cable. favoured by fortunate winds. a barrier in either direction. on the shingly strand of Maleia. and the Argo. till from the ban ye are loosened. was that they were to be reconciled to the gods. Trying to from Mount Etna. f Sicily. whose fires did hinder our voyage." made her Then she returned to her dwelling. And from the chasm beneath Charybdis her arms extended. the waves surged over the vessel. Backwards and forwards she circled. Till own Ye sacrifice to the gods." S3 2 ' The Argonautic Expedition. As with a mighty upheaving.* purging away your transgression. and of meat a plentiful storing. Bread and refreshing wine.

Then from waters and out of the wild seething Rescued the Argo divine. the heroes now listened enraptured. the bright footed. right through the waters of Ocean. I sang as my mother had taught me. about swift coursing steeds rose a powerful Zeus. leading him on to destruction Charmed with their soul-thrilling song. And as their oars they rested. enraged at his Cronian* brother Had with his golden trident parted his land of Lycaon." Thus Here delivered they next came to the isle of the Syrens : in a deep sheltered creek. the Syrens with music celestial Welcome the homeward bound traveller. the headland. The name . from the dangers that would have engulphed her. Quickly my harp I uplifted. her husband the far-seeing the ocean she rose. given to Zeus from his being the son of Cronos. the blue waters lap the white shingle. Wished to behold once again. Gone was all wish to depart — the sweet witching lay had straight for enthralled them. Soon in the 3 03 dark fearsome depths. Dashing * it all asunder. While on the high rocks above. and quarrel. the chords." — " Argonautica. Thetis. in How in the a voice loud and clear. Peleus. to drown the lay so destructive: days of old. And how the mighty sea-god. the Argo had perished for silver- ever. Ancaeus steered Now And Sang was as my I struck time for action. But that the daughter of Nereus. 'Twixt the old Poseidon the ruler of Ocean.The Argonautic Expedition.

Then from waters. Thus did I pour forth my lay." by a race of Argo reached the island of Corcyra. Trembled Medea with fear. mid the wild foaming waves. Knowing their doom was fulfilled. Mournful. who. messengers were sent to the palace of Alcinous to u demand the surrender of the fugitive. whose king Alcinous was known as the wise and just. Then. One dropped of Lotus. on hearing her flagrant misconduct." into — " Argonautica. and from the snow-covered headland. and sadly despairing. These had been sent by King Aeetes. the lute from her hand. inhabited sailors. and the heroes landed to offer sacrifices to Zeus and Apollo. the Sirens ceased their soft cadence. and that Death would now be their master. enraged at the flight of Medea and the murder of his young son.334 The Argonautic Expedition. they were changed dangerous forelands. when they beheld the filled with armed men approaching. islands sea girded. Scarcely had they stepped on shore. the home of Amphitrite. The vessels having also anchored in the harbour. the dizzy heights. had fitted out the force to follow the Argo and bring back his Now a mighty fleet ships faithless daughter. Forming three and well known the goddess to all as Euboea. and Cyprus. they threw themselves into the Where. of Love. each covered her face and lamented. Sardo. the other her flute made And with a heart-rending sigh. . and terror distorted her visage Lest the brave King of Phaeacia.

disguised as a servant. and soon after dropped anchor in the harbour of Iolcus. Here they landed. . and for the last time." heard the message he at once ordered that When Alcinous Medea should be handed over to the men of Aeetes. hurried down to the Argo to tell all them of the decision of Alcinous. Might for JOD she had her infamy send her. A storm threatened them with destruction off the coast of Africa. and when they sought on an island a brazen serpent prevented them from landing. she was married Jason might retain his wife. and as Circe had advised. After their departure yet from Corcyra the Argonauts had more dangers refuge to encounter. and persuaded her husband not thus to cast forth a stranger decided that who had sought their protection. the to king Jason she must be given up if. Now the marriage had not taken place. These and many other perils they overcame with the help of the gods.The Argonaiitic Expedition. Therefore if Medea were not already married . and Medea was not given up. till at last they came to the promontory of Malea on the shores of their native land. the Argonauts stepped on board their vessel. so Hera. however. Orpheus praying aloud to Neptune to grant them a safe return to Iolcus. They knew not what evils would follow the coming of the maiden Medea to their land." — " Argonautica. but the Queen Arete had compassion on the maiden. back to the home blighted. for In great haste the preparations marriage were completed. offered sacrifices to the gods. upon which he returned again to Alcinous. reporting that the marriage had already taken place. and palace arrived when the messenger from the the he found the heroes seated at wedding banquet. Then once again.

but loose her hair . . then." She waited for three days till the moon was full. To them (that only wak'd) she rears her arms. muttering spells. . She turned her On . Jason then wife Medea to endow his aged father with arts. the magazine that yields . mountains. Her garments closely girt. friend to my design Songs. that when the sun retires. and birds in soft repose lay charmed. Of secrets. ' O night. your magic forces join . the return of the Argonauts the inhabitants When on was absent. yelling thrice a most enormous sound. She traverses the terrors of the night. as oft she threw her pale tresses the nocturnal dew Then. sense but what the twinkling stars express'd . Ye wat'ry powers of fountain. The midnight sorcerer drugs skies. And And Support his empire with succeeding fires thou. implored his of Iolcos brought thank-offerings to the gods. . And thus commences her mysterious charms. thrice about." answered all. ' thou confident and guide . such as darkness ought to hide Ye stars and moon. and gods of night awake. stream and lake Ye sylvan gods. fields . . Men. for Aeson alone he was now old and weak. .: 336 The Argonautic Expedition. All elements chain'd in unactive rest. like a solitary sprite. . With the help of Hekate I will accomplish it. youth and strength by means of her magic even if in so life. thou. beasts. doing she were to deprive himself of some years of his "The latter will I life not do. .' said she. . . No No boisterous winds the mountain-woods alarmed . . great Hecate. Her bare knee bended on the flinty ground. O earth. Medea j " I will not shorten thy at Nevertheless thy father shall become young again. Thus sally'd. so relates Ovid " Medea steals from court her ancles bare. .

Whose stores she ransacks. But now to bolder action I proceed. . Oft by your aid. to distant Greece Through cheated guards convey'd the golden fleece. back to their fountain head $37 . . . my resistless rhymes drew down. drawn by dragons. while the dragon slept. swift currents I have led Thro' wandering banks. using the roots of some. That withered years back to their bloom can bring. . my lover freed. Their hostile rage upon themselves their fatal strife. for lo ! the stars with sparkling : fires. . or fall And stubborn lawless winds obey my call. Strokes the snake's necks. And You you'll perform't will : . broke. and trembling mountains come." —Ovid. And when And by the sons of earth with fury burn'd. Thee. Having thus driven about Y . fury of the fiery bulls I . " Metam. . . turn'd. and frighted ghosts forsake their tomb. could Aurora's virgin blush avail. and shakes the golden rein. or sunshine tempests rise. . . And in dead winter raise a second spring. and raving billows sleep Made clouds. Nor Nor The stronger Titan could their force sustain ." Book vii. Up . . And. by the roots vast oaks and rocks could draw Made forests dance. . Made sleeping billows rave. With muttered words disarmed the viper's jaw.The Argonautic Expedition.. to Their stubborn necks submitting my I yoke. and the stems and leaves of others for her magic brew. And now beneath her fruitful Tempe lies. Presage as bright success to my desires And now another happy omen see ! A chariot. waits last for me ! With these words. Of such prevailing juices now have need. Cynthia. then to Crete she flies. Earth groan. . . she leaps into the wain. And gathers together herbs from all the mountains of Greece.

. and having dug two trenches to catch the blood. . Last a crow's head to such an age arrived. she placed his body beside the Then she ordered Jason and the attendants to retire. and throwing them while she sprinkled the old man thrice with water. paced wildly round the burning altars. roots. to grant the old with man renewed the youth. and nine nights in the chariot. With gems i' th' eastern ocean's cell refined. and flowers . and with dishevelled hair. for no unhallowed eye might watch her work. sulphur. Blending into the mash the various powers Of wonder-working juices. And such as ebbing tides had left behind To them the midnight's pearly dew she flings A screech-owl's carcase. for to enter the palace would have broken the charm . Holding a jar of clear honey in one hand. the dragons having only lived on to that time. . wood fire : in the blood. Pluto and Perse- phone. She remained between the outer porch and the door in the open air. and ill-boding wings . weak and tottering Aeson to be brought to her. she killed two black sheep. . dipping small at the splinters of piles. conciliated the dark powers. and a bowl of proceeded to cry new milk in the other. and strewed them with magic herbs and wild brushwood. she commanded arts. Having thus. and putting him into a deathlike sleep through her magic herb-strewn altars.$3% The Argonautic Expedition. and " In a large cauldron now the med'eine boils Compounded of her late collected spoils. . many a long and secret prayer. the sorceress next loudly to the powers of the Underworld. Now Medea commenced weave her spells. erected two altars of grass. she returned air all for nine days to Iolcos.

she grasped a sharp knife and all cut the throat of Aeson." grass.The Argonautic Expedition. Which the next minute with ripe fruit were crowned. Sprang out with vernal Of blooming May. came his beautiful Medea was loved by all. while Jason was filled with gratitude towards his wife for rapidly through all the veins. the bent having thus restored his' father's youth. " Metam. But Medea could not rest in doing good by her charms." Book vii. into 339 her pot she threw . That he had now nine centuries survived. dis- appeared. Pelias and his daughters (one of whom was Alcestis. a ruddy colour spread over the features. the and as the new blood coursed and aged body became straight and strong. and all the pride —Ovid. afterwards the wife of Admetus) received her gladly. palace. Craftily she relates to . and ere long the his for house to withholding the throne from Jason. Aeson awoke. fresh verdure . that the old blood might run Then she the ! body with the mixture from the life-giving cauldron. When Medea out. the wrinkles shrivelled limbs filled out. takes . where'er the liquid fell. . and soon she determined to take vengeance on Pelias and So she and told how she and Jason had quarrelled. begging the king to protect her. Then with a withered olive-bough she rakes The bubbling broth the bough. than the grey hair and beard changed into dark curling locks. saw filled this. and to his surprise the health and strength of youth had returned. These. and behold no sooner did the stream enter the veins of the old man. and with these a thousand more that grew In sundry soils. The foaming juices now the brink o'er-swell The barren heath.. Green leaves at first the perish'd plant surround.

they would not " Wherefore do ye hesitate." If ye truly love him ye filial will life and no longer Then the daughters. a young lamb jumped out. and while the king's daughters were still marvelling at the sound. it immediately shrunk to half dipped the body in the magic brew. promising her great rewards if she should succeed. throat. and its size. and began gambolling round sight. and She caused Pelias into a deathlike summoned his daughters. bring hither the oldest ram in your flock. and how she had succeeded in restoring Aeson to youth.34-0 The Argonautic Expedition. them. and it was not until after numerous entreaties that she " So be it then but that you may not be afraid. I will then turn him into a lamb before : ! your eyes. death of your father. earnestly than ever to try her magic power on On the fourth night after this Medea to again prepared her fall magic cauldron." An old ram with skill large crooked horns was brought for her to try her upon. from the depths of the cauldron bleating was heard. venture to pierce his throat : faint-hearted ones? " cried the old blood run out Medea. took their father's up the sharp knife and pierced their eyes. and Medea pierced his throat with a sharp knife. but although they approached the bed where their father lay. Lost in amazement at the wonderful they entreated Medea more their father. although their feelings rose up against such a deed. But they turned away . they prayed her to restore their beloved father also. hesitate. said and more fully trust in my power. At first Medea artfully pretended great unwillingness. " draw the knife and let that I may fill his veins with the In your hands rest the fresh stream of youth. slumber. the horns disappeared. when she told the maidens her wondrous powers.

The Argonautic Expedition. as thunder-struck. the sorceress had arranged with Jason that he and his friends should hold themselves in readiness. what infernal charm."' —Ovid. and their weapons dropp'd Medea then the mortal blow bestows." Book vii. and thus as soon as they saw the burning torches they were to attack the palace. His corse into the boiling caldron throws. the tragic scene to close. In however. Medea housetop with his daughters. that she must first make an offering to Selene or the moon. As. " Metam. Jason did not like to take possession of the crown of Iolcos after the great crime that had been committed. Then. And. he essays : (Welt'ring in blood) his feeble arms to raise This barbarous usage ? From whence What is my offence arm : ? What fatal fury. they stopp'd Their resolution. that performed. afraid to gaze 341 on what their hands had so unwillingly done " : Waking in consternation. where he received a In Corinth they lived friendly welcome from King Creon. fell This he did. however. and the castle of Pelias his into the hands of nephew. all appeared with torches in their hands. dreading the revenge that must ensue. he made it over to the son of the murdered monarch. the belief that their father they therefore reality. who were still would come forth from under She then pretended the cauldron with renewed youth. but . High mounted on her dragon coach she flew. ? 'Gainst a kind father does his daughters Hearing his voice. Another legend went up to the relates that after Pelias was dead.. and went with Medea to Corinth. gradually Jason began to care less and for ten years.

the inside of which she had on the day of her marriage. Then he spoke to Medea that she should leave him of her own accord. Medea for craftiness. skin began to burn. begging her with loving words to wear ing no evil. the daughter of King Creon. it had yet to upon Creon and Jason. sending down also flames of fire which consumed both Creon and his palace. and her magic became filled with love for Creusa or Glauke. the bride put with fearful pains. to Jason. wild with grief at the death of Creusa and his children. Then she descended to Athens. When she refused to do this. and was received there with great kindness by King Aegeus. . but soon she was seized her eyes shone with a fiery light. The poets give very various accounts of the end of this wicked woman. and having first murdered them. during the long time that had elapsed since she left. and Still fall she returned to Colchis. others that. her mother's brother Perses had driven her father Aeetes from his throne. Some is relate that she became reconciled whose end also uncertain. and she died in Medea's vengeance was not satisfied. and gave the kingdom back to her father. forsaken. But hatred filled the heart of Medea on finding herself and under pretence of friendship she sent a beautiful garment to her rival. threw them one by one down to the earth as she passed through the air. Medea caused her uncle to be murdered. her breath failed. others that he sur- vived Medea.34 2 less for The Argonautic Expedition. Dreadit on. the leader of the Argonauts killed himself. She took her children in her dragon chariot. but here. too. and his heart preparations for his marriage with Creusa. her wicked deeds soon became known. terrible agony. her it previously rubbed with poisonous herbs. he cast her off in anger. and made he feared her powers. where.

who after the death of his father-in-law became King of Now Menelaos demanded the promised help. and heard all of the loss of his wife and his treasure. It is true Menelaos alone had sustained the injury. . Although more reliance can be placed on accounts of the War and the destruction of Troy than on the pre- vious myths. had left the decision to her. during the absence of her husband from Sparta. but the Grecian princes were gone bound by an oath. by whose advice he invited the other Grecian princes to join him in an expedition to avenge his wrongs. yet so much concerning these episodes relates that Heroes and Legends of Mythology it we must not pass over here. all but as King Priam refused satisfaction. When Menelaos returned from Crete. war preparations were undertaken in earnest. King Troy to of Mykenae. Prince of Troy. to look nearly the whole of Greece came to his assistance. however. and in time to come would defend her and her husband from all dangers and insults that should be offered The choice of the maiden fell upon Menelaos. making the suitors promise that they would be satisfied. by Paris.The Trojan War. First. striven together for the hand of the beautiful Helen. to avoid offending any of them. 343 XIV. was The cause the abduction of Helen. and hastened to his brother Agamemnon. taken in byupon the abduction of Helen as an Once had all the princes of Greece affront to them all. as has already been related. the wife of Menelaos. to them. and Sparta. he was furious with rage. years. and her father. of the war. they sent messengers to ask for restitution. Trojan to the —THE TROJAN WAR.

It had been foretold to his mother Thetis that her son would either live a long and quiet life or a short and renowned one . j dipped him into the that thereby she might to dip. the sons of A treu s. ninety years of age. over him. Odysseus or Ulysses. and now in his old age he was reverenced and honoured by all on account of his great wisdom. This Ithacan king underwent more misfortunes on his return from Troy than any of the others. They found him with an ox and a pony salt harnessed to a plough. For to this reason he did not wish to join the expedition. Therefore he had to join them. Therefore when he was born. a man. the former if he remained quietly at home. that if he went against Troy he should return after twenty years as a beggar to his own country. the plough carefully declared that he was only acting a part to deceive them. and when Menelaos and Agamemnon came to him. and celebrated for his eloquence and cunning. while he was sowing instead of corn in the furrows. Achilleus has already been mentioned as a boy in the cave of the Centaur Chiron. the loving mother river Styx. In youth and manhood Nestor had been one of the bravest Nestor. Taking raised his But the princes saw through the little son Telemachos. were King of Elis. without any protection. a son of Laertes. who had already seen three generations rise and pass away. the latter if he went to war against Troy. he pretended be crazy. leaving behind his wife Penelope and his child. render him invulnerable one part only she forgot .: 344 T/ie Trojan War. The most celebrated of the princes who fought against Troy besides Menelaos and Agamemnon. upon which they just in the way of the plough. King of Ithaca. It had been foretold to him. of the heroes. seeing the child. they laid him Odysseus. artifice.

King of Salamis and Hesione. Odysseus travelled to Scyros. king of the Locrians in Hellas. Ajax. He son of Achilleus. As soon as Achilleus saw the arms. and thus betrayed to Odysseus that he was a warrior. 345 namely the heel by which she held him. attired him as a girl. Long did they search in vain. for the expedition was well suited live a short life he would far rather to his warlike spirit and earn unending fame. he seized them with eager delight. wounded Venus and Mars before Troy. and there king before the delighted eyes of the daughters of the all amongst them a sword. a relation and great friend of Achilles. a tall and stately youth. from the island of Aegina near Salamis. the Greeks were going to Troy they sought everywhere for Achilleus. Having completed his education under Chiron. a Thessalian king. until at length the cunning Odysseus discovered where the youth was hidden. Thetis brought her son to the isle of Scyros. the king then told him of the object of his journey. and under this guise he dwelt among the king's daughters. and a bow of splendid workmanship. son of Oileus. an oracle having declared that Troy should not be taken unless he formed part of the expedition. but he also took part in the Trojan war. however. disguised as a merchant. Patroklos. In order to make sure that his discovery was right. When displayed sorts of raw articles. Ajax the lesser. a rough but brave man. the youth gladly agreed to accompany him. was only twelve years old. Diomedes.The Trojan War. And it was in this spot that he afterwards received his death-wound. to whom Herakles before . King of Argos. son of Telamon. a lance. than spend all his : days in peaceful inactivity. When. and son of Tydeus. Philoctetes. Pyrrhos or Neoptolemos.

and then one by one the Greeks assembled in the harbour of Aulis in Boeotia. renowned for his Lastly. Greek poets. is variously related : according to some Agamemnon had killed a beautiful stag dedicated to Artemis. whom the Greeks had chosen for their leader. without which. Others again say that he had promised the finest fruits of the year to the huntress queen. and at length the murmured loudly. and demanded that the wise priest Calchas should discover who it was that had brought down host the anger of the gods upon them. not kept his vow. and took with him the arrows. Troy should not be taken. Having been by a snake while in the Greek camp. Teukros. the friend of Menelaos. and half-brother to Ajax. as related by the great Homer and and also for their displeasure writers. Two years of preparation passed. until at length Odysseus and Diomedes succeeded in obtaining them from him. The reason and no wind came to fill the drooping sails. skill as an archer. which he would give up to no one oracle bitten else. death gave his poisoned arrows.346 his The Trojan War. This placed the Greeks in some perplexity. Philoctetes retired to Lemnos until the wound should heal. and had then boasted that no god could equal and had him in shooting. war. . and now they only waited for a favourable wind to cross to the opposite shores of Asia Minor. fell Then the words of the seer slowly and sadly on the ears of the sons of Atreus. King of Crete. until at length all had arrived. And Idomeneus. But the anger of the gods was kindled against Agamemnon. so an had said. The wind still continued unfavourable. now we will proceed to give the history of the Trojan Euripides. more especially by the Roman poet Virgil. another son of Telamon.

the protectress And Agamemnon his sent forth a herald to proclaim to the host that they would be disbanded. at length persuaded his brother to appease the wrath of Artemis. of Aulis. obtained possession of the Bitterly did he reproach Agamemnon for his fickleness. he added that Achilleus would not go to Troy until Iphigenia had become his wife and been for that Achilleus sent to his home in Pthia. too. at Mykenae. mayest tread justice under foot. . never would he allow daughter to be thus sacrificed. my own child. then the daughter of Agamemnon. to hasten her departure the more." disputing. and Agamemnon sent mes- sengers to his wife Clytemnestra (the sister of Helen).The Trojan War. and sent a second messenger to Mykenae to tell his wife not to send their daughter to Aulis. The horrid deed would haunt me the night and day. " I cannot become the murderer of said. Menelaos. " If the winds are to 347 the walls of become favourable and must Iphigenia. as the marriage had been postponed." he Thou. with prayers and entreaties. and never While they were grief still more should I have peace. suspected his brother's change of purpose. In order. but the king maintained that he would not sacrifice his daughter. Scarcely had the messenger departed when the father repented him of having yielded. and waylaying the messenger letter. but never will I murderously stain my hands in the blood of " my children. Troy to fall. as he left the camp. would wed her." die on the altar of Artemis. But Menelaos. Agamemnon was his beside himself with and dismay. and bade her send his daughter at once to Aulis. in thy wild passion for revenge upon one who has been faithless to thee. news was brought of arrival of Iphigenia. and sorrow even touched Menelaos. however.

she threw herself down before Achilleus in the " Oh son of the sea goddess Thetis. encountered the and expressed her joy at the ap- proaching connection." But when the slave assured her of the truth of his statement. Thou it art not thy child. " thou hast lost thy senses. Scarce could myself from The words I I just now uttered I will take back. I my brother." she cried. right. Alone and friendless. the mother of Iphigenia. " and whatsoever it poor arm can do Cost what it may. Have pity on her mother. the maiden shall not suffer this great misery. The it." he tears streaming cried. from thine eyes. our great ancestor. . chieftain. refrain my very soul was moved. by Pelops. when I saw the tears. and we are I grieve for saved. ! husband must be mad ere he would consent to such a crime. Oh 'tis too fearful." Meanwhile Clytemnestra. shall my sword Let this suffice thee. Stretch forth thine hand in our behalf. and be- be sure will. have pity on the unhappy maiden who has been called thy bride. however. agony of her grief. assured her he had never thought of and while both were wondering why Agamemnon should have deceived them in this manner. " Man. a faithful old slave came up and told them that the king had decided to Artemis. slay I will not be wrathful with thee. shall not kill thy child. without thy help we are lost.348 " I swear to thee " that The Trojan War." Pity filled the heart of Achilleus thee. myself declare that is not just." : " Truly do this he answered. Grant us thine aid. had accidentally latter. offer up his daughter as a sacrifice to The unhappy mother would not believe the tale. having accompanied her daughter to the Greek camp in order to be present at her marriage with Achilleus. oh ! My ! child of Peleus. Agamemnon defend her.

' Thus spake we. now " learned her fate. receive the was name of father." Then they agreed that make another attempt to change her if this failed. and repay thee for the careful nurture of my youth. send I •' not before first from my time to visit whom thou didst the land of shadows. these I have. who had . lieve in 349 my sincerity Clytemnestra should husband's decision interfere. look upon Well do I me. my father. while ' my hand thee caressed thy beard as does now. . Sweet is the light of the sun to my eyes. Then will I receive my house as an old man with great honour. but thou. then would I have called it to mine aid. one kiss." " My daughter. " hard it is for me But how can I to sacrifice thee. remember these thy words. that I may have at one token of thy love to carry with me when I die. slay me not. by the charm of my voice cause rocks to and by my words soften as I will the hearts of men. told him what she had move his heart Iphigenia also. Behold the . thou hast forgotten them. could follow me. Achilleus promised to Then she went to heard. What has the marriage of Paris and Helen to do with thee ? Came he to Greece for my destruction ? Father. oh. least Give me one glance. Now tears are my only skill. do otherwise." answered Agamemnon. and truth. and now wouldst slay me. these do I offer thee. " I had I the eloquence of Orpheus. and tried to Agamemnon. added her entreaties that her life might be spared. My father.The Trojan War." thus she spoke. Behold as a suppliant bough I lay me at thy feet. And I thou wast wont to say : ' My daughter how gladly shall one day behold thee happy and seems thy birth.' in blessed in the home of a husband such as be- And it I did answer thee.' the first to stand beside thy knee to give and in return receive sweet tokens of affection. my me the father.

And none will of these shall ever see the towers of Troy. The Trojan War. nor unless thou die. The will eyes of all Greece are upon me. I who burn it if army of the reach the plain of Troy. and when he had tried to pacify them they had taken up stones to stone him. and none shall me waver or change my Achilleus stood lost in admiration'of the wonderful courage of the maiden. die. in case at the last she should change her determination.35° whole Greek fleet. " said I Iphigenia. then my name purpose." my mother." be honoured among men make I give my life for Greece. come to defend her Hear me. For Greece victims to the needs must I offer thee. and Calchas took the knife. Iphigenia tore herself from her arms. And having thus king hurried T away. The anger said. by compulsion. and he promised to be at hand to protect her. the of Artemis must be appeased. . he and his companions had against the whole host. and destruction come upon Troy for ever. to the walls of Priam's castle It is So has will the augur said. but honourably of my own free have not will. In vain did Clytemnestra try to dissuade her daughter. " Nevertheless. as he had promised. vain for all fall me go against the of the gods. The Greeks and imperiously demanded the sacrifice of the maiden. and the temple. thy country asks thy death. and was lead away to All was prepared. determined to through "hear what has entered into my mind. me . when suddenly a thick cloud enveloped the maiden. leaving the mother and daughter alone w ith their Now had Achilleus appeared." grief. accompanied by his armed fol- lowers. We should to Greeks. and raised his arm to give the death-blow. See how many fall kings are ready armed. shall the fleet be freed. was impossible. to say that all rescue risen. the altar ready. Nor matters be willing or unwilling.

so that may for a few short I may tell him how great is my love for him." The gracious gods.The Trojan War. How long they would have remained thus cannot be said. Once more she was allowed to clasp him in her arms. Among the assembled just as the Greek heroes was Protesilaus. war broke out. and Laodamia entreated him not to join the host. and then he descended again into Hades. Protesilaus joining the expedition. now none whoever of the Greeks would land. on a hind which the pitying goddess had sent Thus was Iphigenia saved. granted her wish. him. Great was the love which they bore to one another. for But even his wife's persuasions would not be deterred from he also was one of those who had given the oath to Gyndareus. He sprang from the vessel on to the shore. grant that I hours behold his face yet once again. sails and the of the waiting vessels. but said. whither the loving wife soon followed him. Now filled the wind veered round to a favourable quarter. for an oracle first stepped on the shore would die. and ere long arrived off the coast of Troy. the blow fell 351 in her place. were in vain. a grand- daughter of Pelias. had married Laodamia. and in her stead the animal was sacrificed. for he soon after died by Hector's hand. offered to sacrifice himself for his had not Protesilaus nobly country. When Laodamia was inconsolable." she cried. as it had been foretold to him that he should die before the walls of Troy. and thus hurried on his fate. a Thessalian prince. who. The had fleet set sail. she " Ah ! could I but have said farewell to Ye gods. The Greeks raised a tomb in honour of Protesilaus near . pleased at her devotion. " received the tidings of his death. while the wrath of Artemis was appeased.

— STRIFE the BETWEEN ACHILLEUS AND AGAMEMNON. ransom Atreus to restore her to him. who fell to Achilleus. commenced attacking After Greeks had landed. When Chryses heard of the capture of his daughter he and entreated the sons of But Agamemnon treated him with scorn.35 2 Strife between Achilleus Troy. and proposed that Calchas should ask Apollo wherefore they had incurred his anger. XV. they spread over the they country before Troy for itself. and Calchas thus replied offered a large for her. the slaves of the victors. and planted elm trees round only grew tall and Agamemnon. priest of Apollo. Then Chryses paced sorrowfully along the sea shore. it . destroying the neighbouring towns and collecting treasure and booty. the trees. Achilleus called the chiefs together. striking both men and beasts with a pestilence. as soon as they beheld the city the leaves faded and died. he grasped his bow and quiver. and Briseis. Among those prisoners were two maidens : daughter of Chryses. This was done. enough to be in view of Troy. years. and prayed The god heard his prayer and his to Apollo for help. daughter of the priest Briseus. who was given to Agamemnon. and under cover of the dark night shot his arrows into the Greek camp. : . anger being roused that the daughter of one of his priests should have been stolen. however. and This desultory warfare continued all nine the prisoners that were taken became the Chryseis. and sent him out of the Greek camp. After the plague had lasted nine days.

and fierce words ensued between him and Achilleus. caught hold of him by his auburn locks. but their hearts Then they w ere r full of hatred. Agamemnon her back to placed Chryseis on board a ship and sent her father. till continued of Nestor rose up and tried to pacify them. from the lips But angry words both princes. Achilles sat beside the hoary sea. separated. z . 353 sacrifice or prayer The god is wroth. but he called the gods and witness that he would take men to was both hurt of at : her loss no and further part in the war." Book i. hecatomb the god To Chrysa Then haply may Accept propitiation and repent. when Pallas. and. With offering of a sacred led. Achilleus sur- rendered the maiden. as the former said he would only give up the maiden if the other princes would make him some compensation. let the sword to fall fall back into the sheath. son dishonoured. sent by Hera. for he at the overbearing arrogance Agamemnon " From his friends withdrawn. recognizing the goddess." — HOMER. when he came With ransom for his daughter hence these woes Nor will far-darting Phoebus stay the plague. (Wright). Amazed. and Achilleus had just laid his hand on his mighty sword to draw it forth. The strife waxed hotter. to her loving sire. Whom Atreus' : Unbought. he turned round. Till he restore the maid of glancing eye. and unseen by the other Greeks.Strife between Achilleus " Not for neglect of and Agamemnon. " Iliad. unransomed. but at the same time insisting that Achilleus should also give up Briseis. Agamemnon refused to do this. but for his injured priest. .

" Gloomily Achilleus told her his trouble. and rising from the sea she sat down beside him. Insults the wide-ruling king. robs me. me. . assist the and begged her to Trojans in order go to Zeus and entreat him to that the Greeks might be defeated. to his : . throne. and pre" Gladly would I grant thy wish. Surely the Olympian should at least have crowned Thy son with glory glory he denies in tears . Hera at once began to taunt him. What and let sorrow wrings thy heart ? Speak hide me share thy grief. but sented her petition. my it son not ? . When. for he wished feel his loss.: " 354 Strife between Achilleus and Agamemnon. . . Already she declares that I assist the Trojans . and my prize retains. 11 But angrily Replied the sire of gods and all men : 'Aspire not. returned. mother. and Zeus sought again his palace." was the reply of the mighty Jove. to hold a great banquet. And Agamemnon. go thy way. twelve days had elapsed they and at once Thetis hurried to Olympos. trying to discover the nature of the request of Thetis." So Thetis returned to her caves under the sea. at present they had all gone with Zeus to the land of Ethiopia. Juno. Then in the deep caves of ocean mother Thetis heard her son's complaint. them to Thetis promised to perform this as soon as the gods returned to Olympos . and thus she spoke " Why weep. Gazing Then ' upon the boundless deep mother prayed with outstretched hands O. I will endeavour to accomplish thy desire. fondly soothed him with her hand." Book his i. " were it not for the anger of Hera. however. where all the gods received As soon as he had seated himself on his him standing. " Iliad. since so brief my term on earth.' —Homer. my thoughts to learn. (Wright).

Strife between Achilleus Hard e'en for thee. telling him that now was the time to attack the Trojans. Vain be the aid of Olympian —Homer." And lift my the unconquered hand. and amid loud shouts they dragged the siege. and Agamemnon. Hurriedly she sent Athene to the fleet. related his dream. 355 my consort. . Nor e'er do I thy searching ken escape. to please Achilleus. the goddess. for his heart was wrung with pain and sorrow. At last he sent a dream to Agamemnon. He should quickly set. " Book i. lest when approach. he counselled them to give up the and to return home. and the gods seated themselves at their banquet and feasted retired to their palaces. flying Approaching him. Then the whole multitude rushed to the shore. Suspicion ever in thy bosom . until the sun when they Zeus could not rest. to divine. host. Yet shalt thou not prevail and thy design Will but estrange from thee my heart the more I still : accomplish what against thee all my will approves. found Odysseus standing beside his bark. Silenced by the menace. Even of the plan. she said . and advised an immediate attack. Hera refrained from answering. assemble the Greek host. But and sleep did not visit his breast. When Agamemnon awoke. I Be thou submissive. he called together the princes. through the hours of the night he lay deeply pondering how. which however he had not moved. he might send destruction on the Greeks. The embarkation would have been carried out had not Juno interfered. and vessels down with arrow -like swiftness. lurks . and Troy would fall that very day. down into the sea and prepared to depart. and Agamemnon assembled the host that he might discover their wishes. wise Nestor approved In order to prove them.'" Iliad.

' " —Homer. To whom Jove gives the sceptre and the laws. Flocking tumultuous to your well-oared ships ? ye leave behind a glorious boast Argive Helen. and the assembled host all returned to the camp. ? . Great in resource. So to fulfil his delegated trust. and hurrying back met Agamemnon. Thus at last " Iliad." . will And In Troy. and gathered tow'rds his breast." Book ii. Of no repute in council or in war. and by and " words persuaded the princes to remain. was order restored. " Ugliest was he of all who came to Troy His legs were bandy. Let one alone be king." Book ii. To Priam and the Trojans For whom so many Greeks have given their lives. fares the state Where many rule. Haste then amid the ranks each man persuade Nor let them drag their well-poised ships to sea. (Wright). from whom he took the leader's Then he flattering retraced his steps to the ships. Odysseus obeyed. are ye indeed thus bent On flying home to your dear native land. and one foot was lame His shoulders round. —Homer.. Base Ill art thou. He threw aside his cloak." Book ii." —Homer. who was ever ready to find fault with the princes. His head high-tapering to a peak. All are not born to rule. struck him with his sceptre. He ' Heard he some vile plebeian brawling loud. : : And listen to thy betters. (Wright). -besprent With thin and woolly down. (Wright). heaven-descended prince. " Iliad. . far distant from their native land . — 356 Strife between Achilleus and Agamemnon. and rebuked Fellow be still regard what others say. except Thersites. fair " Iliad. " Son of Laertes. sceptre.

of the ill-treatment all he had received wiping away his heartily. (Wright). while all stood amazed to see it ? Have ye forgotten how Kalchas in vain." Strife between Achilleus After lie and Agamemnon. and your parents. even that as the serpent slew the nine sparrows so should we. next their mother. interpreted this sign. How is canst thou ? know whether I it be best to return or to stay fool.' —Homer. how. not Odysseus. nine fruitless years. Then Thersites cowered down and complained tears. wait. and then was turned into stone. but Odysseus rose up rebuked him " Hold thy foolish tongue." Book ii. But will ye. the while But the princes only laughed and declared that Odysseus had done no greater deed than stopping this babbler's mouth. fight but that the tenth should witness our triumph " ' ? Wait then in patience. 357 suade the people to and sternly had loudly abused Agamemnon he tried to perinsist on returning. . your children. O ye Greeks. the ninth. a and twined itself round a plane tree. after waiting ? now give up all hopes of success Have snake ye forgotten the sign sent to us by the gods before we sailed from Aulis. and how the serpent first devoured the eight small birds. at the hands of Odysseus. till we achieve Their consummation in the fall of Troy. " Iliad. Now Odysseus addressed the warriors. and do not pluck thy gar- ments from thee. on the topmost branches of which lay a nest with eight young sparrows. for nine long years. If e'er again I find thee playing thus the my name . from beneath the sacred crept forth altar. Pallas Athene standing beside him in guise of a herald " None can blame : you. for wishing to return and see your wives. thou : babbler. and send thee back with shame unto the ships " and with his sceptre he struck him across the shoulders till the tears started from his eyes.

in every breast Infused such strength to combat through the day. exquisitely wrought. (Wright). the Loud was shout of approval that greeted this speech. and no longer was any Agamemnon and ordered all to word spoken of returning. while above them all towered the tall form of Agamemnon. That sweeter soon because the battle roar Than thoughts that whisper of a distant home. ing the principal chiefs. arm and prepare the horses offer battle to the chariots. The honoured With this she ranged the camp. Diomedes. invit- and Agamemnon himself offered a splendid feast.— COMBAT BETWEEN PARIS AND the roar of distant waves. like sprung up and hastened to their ships. as he intended to enemy. each worth a hundred beeves. the Greeks MENELAOS. Soon the whole leader " Iliad. the two Ajax." Book ii. Of golden thread. and Nestor to the the heralds to " Then he commanded : summon the Greeks to arms Amid the host Stood bright-eyed Pallas. And under the form of the ." —Homer. aye exempt from age. From all parts of the camp food. And. bearing on her arm Aegis. rose smoke either from sacrifices or preparations of bull. And everlasting. XVI. plain was filled with armed men. each own band. Odysseus. urging speed. Round about it waved A hundred tassels. Idomeneus.358 Combat between Paris and Menelaos. With loud cries. Zeus now sent swift-footed Iris to Troy to announce to King Priam that marshalling his the Greeks were approaching. fierce gazing round all to .

or as the sand. did Paris see cowardice " Would thou never hadst been born. that the two nations be at peace. the brave and noble son of Priam. prove thou bid the Greeks and Trojans to abstain from combat. sword. she urged the Trojans instantly to prepare for the combat. and while swinging aloft two brazen pointed spears. king's son Polites. " Battles full many have I seen. " or that thou hadst died ere thy hand was put forth to carry : Helen away. Better far byword for the Greeks." he cried. he challenged the bravest of the Greeks to single combat. " Iliad. the gates of the town were flung open. wilt Yet am I no coward. Combat between Paris and Menelaos. a panther hung over his shoulders in his hand he carried a As soon as the ." —Homer. " my To valour is it. (Wright). impatient to assault The city. led by Hektor. When Menelaos beheld him he leapt from his chariot. but ne'er Witnessed so gallant and so great a host For countless as the leaves. in face of both the hosts. not so if great as thine. and he hurriedly withdrew behind his Then bitterly Hektor reproached him for his friends. Let the victor keep Rejoicing what he wins." " to die than to live contemptible." answered Paris. and out rushed a mighty throng of both horse and foot with deafening tumult. Paris A bow and the skin of stepped forth from the Trojan host. but no sooner who the champion was than conscience made a coward of him. a Thou art right. 359 who had been sent as a scout to watch the Greeks. fight alone with Menelaos for Helen and his stolen treasure. then will I. Quickly they flew to their arms.. They sweep the plain." Book ii. two armies approached each other." . burning to punish the abduction of Helen .

with bent bows and uplifted spears. and the war is ended for Paris and Menelaos are to decide the dispute in mortal combat." Hastily wrapping herself in her silvery veil. of tapestry. let him die. ye contending silence Menelaos replied hosts Fain would I end this war. : But Agamemnon waved them back. and thus addressed her haste. Trojans and Greeks. while Hektor sent two heralds to Troy to summon the king and prepare the lambs. hurried forth to the Scacan Gate. Hektor at at the words. once went forward alone to meet the Greeks. a white one and a black. (Wright). appeared in the 'guise of one of her Helen. and stood in peace beside each other. the former for the sun. Iris. hold . dear and behold the wonderful change that has come over the hosts. and amid still deeper " Hear me also. meanwhile. and thou art to be the prize of him who wins the ! day. Then let King Priam attend to ratify singly with Menelaos for : ! the treaty. For Hector of the waving plume would speak. He who wins shall retain them both. and let the rest be reconciled. sisters-in-law to who was working : a beautiful piece sister." Book fell iii. they laid aside their arms. and cried " Hold. Now bring ye forth two lambs. " Come. their ears. therefore whichever of us is fated.— o 60 Combat between Paris and Menelaos. showered stones and darts upon him." —HOMER." Gladness filled the hearts of both the hosts. where Priam Helen and the . " Paris Helen and her treasure." He ceased. will fight Silence reigned while Hektor's voice " on Hark ye." he cried. and we all will join hands in sign of peace and amity. the latter for the earth. They are both at rest. and to Zeus will we dedicate a third. " Iliad. Argives. who.

Telamon. came to meet them. and all her wealth and let the Greeks Ida. to whom owe this mournful war. let him take Helen. dear daughter. Who punish perjured souls. and thou Earth. (Wright." Book iii. together with a golden beaker and goblets. lay but in vain did she look and Pollux. and Idomeneus for Castor . which he prayed to Zeus " : O father Jove. Beside him sat the hero Antenor.) He then made her point out to of the Greeks. which the heralds divided among the chiefs of both armies. enthroned and thou. and swiftly the coursers passed through the Scacan Gate on to the plain beyond. . and behold spouse. and who hearest all Ye Rivers. Agamemnon and Odysseus commenced. " Iliad.: Combat between Paris and Menelaos. great On and glorious. . blame not thee I blame the gods. and one of them coming up to Priam delivered the message of the princes. Quickly he ordered forth took hold his horses. and ye below. and guard our plighted faith. Sun. and thy friends. and she showed him Ajax. Sail homeward in their sea careering barks. thy kindred. and stepping into the chariot of the reins. When they reached the hosts the king and iVntenor dismounted. . Odysseus. noblest of the Trojans were assembled to witness the 361 fight. be witnesses Of this our league. Should Paris slay his rival. And now the heralds brought the lambs. Who seest all things. and the sacrifice Agamemnon after himself cut off the forelocks of the lambs. When the king saw Helen he called to her " Come. I I Thy former by me. —Homer." sit . little knowing that already they beneath the cold earth. him the most celebrated Agamemnon.

and angrily flashing eyes. dashed be his brains to earth. " I must return to Ilium. Then Menelaos : raised his lance and prayed aloud to Zeus . even as this wine Is sprinkled — on the ground ." then cried Priam. ye Greeks and Trojans. Should Menelaus of the golden hair Slay Paris. Paris threw the first spear. Trojan or Greek. stay and combat for the forfeit here.— 362 " Combat between Paris and Menelaos. and sped back on his way to Troy. If Priam and his sons Refuse to I ratify the covenant. Hear me. I Till all sought in warfare be achieved. His and his children's. but it failed to pierce the shield of his antagonist. When they were ready they hastened forth into the space between the hosts with fierce hatred burning in their hearts. Who ever first shall violate the oath. and instantly threw two — the lot of Paris sprang forth." —Homer.) and poured the wine from : the goblets on to the earth." —Homer. and lots into an helmet to decide who should first hurl the spear. for mine eyes may not endure the sight of the fierce combat between my son and Menelaos and as he spoke the aged king mounted his chariot with Antenor." Book iii. and let their wives Be given " to strangers. and forfeit pay. (Wright). and ye undying gods." Book iii. Then having slain the lambs. he continued " Most glorious Jove. Hektor and Odysseus then measured out the ground. " Iliad. . " Iliad. and shall to future times Record the deed. let the Trojans straight restore Helen with all her wealth. (Wright. Hektor shook the helmet. All now to seated themselves while for the Paris and Menelaos went arm combat. Such as is just.

for that Paris awaited her there arrayed in who But Helen soon perceived that it was the goddess herself spoke. and turned with renewed wrath on Paris. to fetch the princess. cried " Oh ! Father Jove. festal garb. ! the gods malignant most art thou Vengeance. and snapped the leather thong. iii. That men to the remotest day may dread To abuse the friendship of a generous host. Jove. 363 And let the aggressor fall beneath my hand." Book iii. disguised as an aged crone who usually prepared Helen's wools. was mine. With these words he hurled his lance it penetrated both the shield and armour of Paris.: Combat between Paris and Menelaos. death. crested helmet was too strong." Broke my hands —my spear —Homer. so that the empty helmet alone remained in the grasp of Menelaos. but Aphrodite shrouded him in a thick mist and led him in safety back to his own chamber in Seizing Paris by his horse-hair Troy. and reproached her as being the cause of all . (Wright)." —Homer. " Grant. (Wright). And now Paris would indeed have been lost had not Aphrodite perceived the plight of her favourite. a just revenge ." Book . Angrily he tossed it from him. plume he dragged him towards the Greek host. but my is sword hurled in vain. and would have pierced his side had he not flinched from the blow and thus escaped Menelaos now drew his sword and struck his foe. I deemed. and nearly choked him by the embroidered strap that bound his helmet. and reminded her that it was time to go home. and surely thought Of all To punish the aggressor in . " Iliad. Then she went forth. " Iliad. and the blade was but the Then turning his eyes to heaven he shivered in his hand.

" Indignantly the goddess answered her " Vex me not wrath. Enough her misery for me. . Reproach me not with thy taunts Helen." death —Homer. (Wright). whom thou in olden time Didst vaunt thou couldst surpass in warlike feats ! Of sword and javelin Go defy again The gallant Menelaus. for that may be the conqueror. Yet forbear Nor with the hero of the golden locks . — Provoke rash combat. . ." fall —Homer. leave the heights of Olympus and sit beside thy Paris. even the . lest I desert thee in my And Lest boundless hate succeed to boundless love. . Beneath his spear. that all the Trojans deride and hold : me up to scorn. Paris replied. My husband once. Dismayed by these words. " Book iii. palace. I will not return to him.: 364 Combat between Paris and Menelaos. depends on the favour of the gods alone. Lady. quickly she hurried back and going up to Paris thus upbraided him " to the Hast left the field ? Would thou hadst perished. and an Be thine." lest thou quickly " Iliad. hereafter I in vain for his Menelaos meanwhile rode through the crowd searching enemy." Menelaos wins to-day. (Wright)." Book iii. " Iliad. no one had seen him. Let us then dispute no longer. I inspire deep hatred in the breast evil Of Greek and Trojan. slain by valiant chief. but lay aside all warlike thoughts. : ! " O heartless one dost thou wish to lure me on again ? Have I not suffered enough ? Shall I have to wander on through other lands and there awaken fresh love just as it pleaseth thee ? Go.

" Iliad. and such forfeit paid. whereas Aphrodite is ever present with the Trojans. whom " all alike detested. then thy hatred will be will. and Hebe was filling their goblets with Then spake Zeus: "Two of ye who grace our nectar. I will Over- thou now stay my labours. not grudge Send Athene quickly it . this During time the gods were assembled in council on Mount Olympos. side with the Greeks. " What ! wouldest thou thus frustrate all my labour and toil to bring destruction on Priam's house?" : Wrathfully Zeus answered her \ Implacable When ! what harm all has Priam done to thee ? Far better slay him and satisfied." With dissentient heart. With all her treasures. but this only bear in mind : Have thy may wish to not turn give thee to destroy my some city favoured by thee. Argos. Agamemnon allies 365 Trojans would not have concealed the faithless prince. ye Trojans.Combat between Paris and Menelaos." So be it. for shalt I Troy. Athene sat in silence. wilt. but Hera with rage exclaimed. Dagdans. Sparta." —Homer. As shall to future times record the deed. I his sons at once." Book iii. and Mykenae. " there my altar never lacked sweet smelling sacrifices. At last said : Hear me. thou Reluctant am wrath away from it. for us to decide whether the war begin again or whether the two nations should form a league of peace. only do not to the battle- ." replied the goddess to . Hera and Athene. and With Menelaus sides the victory : :— Therefore let Argive Helen be restored. court. Loud shouts proclaimed the assent of the Greeks. (Wright). and has now even It remains therefore saved Paris from impending death. " there are three cities which are dear throw them if me.

and now fulfil Life's destined term. one. if thou die.366 field to Combat between Paris and Menelaos. nor shall the curse Be unaccomplished. : fancied he was dangerously wounded. (Wright). for thanks to her glanced from the corslet and grazed the surface of the skin. and flew down to the fired with fresh zeal. fall When Saturn's son. seeing his brother's blood flow. Menelaos. and battle-loving Priam's race . still unsatisfied. and persuaded Pandaros Pandaros allowed himself to shoot to an arrow . Shall shake his sable Aegis over all. but not in a guidance." Book iv. Exposing thee alone to fight for Greece ! With enemies who trample upon oaths ." Zeus assented. day draws near when sacred Troy shall Priam. assumed the form of one of the heroes. Pallas Athene Trojan host. . Loathing this treachery . urge the Trojans on. their wives. dearest brother . in ether high enthroned. Heavy atonement E'en with their own. When the famed physician arrived he quickly healed Menelaos' wound with the soothing balm his father had received from Chiron. sent a herald to Machaon. A For in my heart and soul I surely know. entreating him to come at once and set his mind at rest. Menelaos assured him that the wound was not a deadly Agamemnon. the Trojans shall have paid for their perfidy. him where the girdle and the Agamemnon. that they may be the first to break their oath and attack the Greeks. it vital part. and children's blood. only piercing corslet met. O brother. a son of Aesculapios. at be persuaded the arrow hit the hero. . ." —Homer. ill-starred league I struck. and cried " Ah. but " Iliad. Yet what anguish mine.

367 XVII. with his brother. shields fell commenced. wrathfully shouted. Trojans. " The on both battle Iliad. and taking him by the hand. BETWEEN DIOMED AND PANDAROS AND AENEAS. she went up to him. and clashed mightily together. and sides. hastened to arm themselves for And now the king and with his lordly step passed 4 through the ranks. Stalks upon earth. Baneful to both . had advanced towards the Greeks. On the other side Athene inspired the Greeks with fresh ardour. the gods taking part Ares encouraged the Trojans. encouraging the timid. she soon uprears her crest. tamers of the steed Greece the glory of the day . Redoubling all the miseries of war. and " Fear and flight. (Wright). but Apollo. many mail-clad warriors At last the Trojans began to give way. Thus the two armies in the fight. and ever-restless strife." Book iv. and through the ranks swift passed. Pallas Athene the Greeks. the Trojans. and praising those who were already prepared." Book iv. urging the dilatory. approached each other. ." — Homer.Combat between Diomcd. — COMBAT shouts. arc." —Homer. standing on the walls of Troy. That it should turn the piercing javelin's force. and lifts her head to heaven. Small at the first. swords. Nor yield to " On. (Wright). and where she saw Ares at the head of the Trojans. who battle. Sister and friend of hero-slaughtering Mars. While Agamemnon was amid loud returned. persuaded . spears. For not of stone or iron is their flesh. " Iliad. She now threw down contention in the midst.

sweeping down every time whole phalanxes of Trojans with his single arm. Thus she deprived the Trojans of the more bravely than here. . he cannot long survive. saw him thus dealing destruction on all around him. forth." he cried. : * In Wright's " Iliad " Latin names are chiefly used. so that it all the Greeks none fought He was rushed across the plain. and declares That never shall mine eyes again behold The sun's bright beam. " Iliad. difficult to now now there. and coming up to him thus spoke " Be of good cheer. " my arrows have pierced the But bravest of the Greeks. Loudly Pandaros rejoiced brave Trojan. the far-famed archer. her. crafty äfe. Then he raised his voice to heaven * daughter of the Aejis-bearing Jove. know to which side he belonged. words to leave the battle-field with saying that then Zeus could bestow the victory on whichever side he chose. Avoid the forms divine in the gods from mortal men." Diomed turned stream gushed " to his charioteer Sthenelos. and given renewed strength I will also give thee power to distinguish the to thine arms." Befriend me —Homer. O — My father's friend or mine in battle-shock. Invincible if ever thou didst stand . mighty god of war. Minerva. with thy aid.368 him with Combat between Diomed. so that : the blood " Courage. the right shoulder." Book v. (Wright) Athene heard the prayer of the hero." When Pandaros. and sped an arrow. brave Diomed. I have filled thy heart with fresh courage. Among Diomed. And bring within my javelin's reach the man Who stealthily hath struck me. now. which pierced his corslet and wounded him on streamed forth. he drew his bow. and bade him as the purple : withdraw the arrow from the wound.

I will await the combat here on foot." to me him with the point of my Both then mounted the chariot. it own coursers. to the chariot seat 2 and seize the A . should they turn restless or swerve. and risk not thy precious life. If it is Diomed. thine to receive my voice. &c." to wound her.: Combat between Diomed." " Speak not to me of flight. and comWhen Aeneas mitted fearful havoc among the Trojans." said Pandaros. brave Tydides. for one of my winged arrows pierced deeply into his shoulder through his coat of mail. therefore. O Pandaros. unless it is one of the immortal gods. perchance they might not obey Drive." was the stern answer of the hero . friends. a god must aid him. Guide thou the steeds. fear not thou wilt. " for if Diomed and follows us. Pierce yonder chief. and hastened to meet Diomed." Pandaros replied " It must be Diomed. let us flee. and leave spear. fight. him thus raging. if With redoubled fury Diomed again went forth. is thy bow with its feathered shafts? who has slain so many of our noble : and lay him low. do thou fasten the reins and if I succeed in slaying them both. they would enable him to slay us both. but when Sthenelos saw them advancing he spake words of warning to the son of Tydeus " Quick. " mount thou my chariot." " That can be easily remedied. or crouch in the hour of danger. and decide which of us two and which shall wield the weapons." replied Aeneas. he called to Pandaros and said saw " Where. Had I but my chariot and horses here but alas I left them at home. And now I see that even with my arrows I can do nought ! ! on foot. " it is not my father's son who will flee from the com: bat." " shall drive. and yet it has not quelled him. 369 but if Aphrodite meet thee and provoke thee.

but Apollo shrouded him in a dark mist lest the Greeks should kill him." — HOxMER.: . battle-field. and Pandaros." Meanwhile the Trojan chariot approached. so that he fell senseless to the ground. to guard the body of his at but Diomed grasped a huge stone that no two other hurled it could have Aeneas and smashed his hip. pierced both the shield and breastplate of Diomed. but each time Apollo placed his glittering shield before him when out he time at him. but Diomed. Crying with pain she let Aeneas fall. answered him " exult. where to kill Aeneas. his chariot. Aphrodite then asked Ares for the loan of to and was driven by Iris back her mother Dione tried to soothe her. however. At once he began to undismayed. friend. and Pandaros fell lifeless from the chariot. throwing his long spear. Book Then swiftly grasping his spear it (Wright). he hurled it at his enemy's his face with such force that came out at the back of head. 37° Combat between Diomed. while Sthenelos secured Diomed. they are above price and the fleetest coursers on the earth. and wounded her in the hand with his javelin. the god . I . had recognized the goddess. He too would now have died. Aeneas jumped out lifted. Then wrapping her arms round him she secretly carried him men away from the stormy the far-famed steeds. &c. had not his mother Aphrodite spread her silvery mantle over him to preserve him from the darts that flew around. and following her he so saved him. Three times again did Diomed essay rushed a fourth Olympos. Nor will ye rest till one deem. all steeds of Aeneas. Sate with his blood the sturdy warrior Mars. v. Thou hast missed thy aim at least.

Who. my friends . sides " Iliad. part in the fight again. and Diomed encouraged them " Courage. and the slaughter on both Hektor. Odysseus. where he was nursed and cured by Leto and Artemis strength till he had regained his former and vigour. few will perish many will survive : . now there. seemed in every part of the When Diomed saw the God of War he field at once. thanks to the care of Apollo. trembled. however. enhance The love of glory by the dread of shame So. The Trojans were led by Ares and fierce Enyo. : But cowards neither fame nor safety win. inspiring them return to the on- slaught with zeal. Thus encouraged they again attacked was the enemy with ardour. especially Hektor. while he himself looked on from the walls of Troy. Priam's son. unabated fury. fighting in each other's sight. Slowly and unwillingly the son of Tydeus withdrew and Aeneas was carried by Apollo to Troy. XVIII. idle either. Aeneas to was well enough. (Wright)." Book v. terrible.— THE WOUNDING OF ARES BY DIOMED.: : 1 The wounding of Ares by Diomed. take The Greeks. and now here. acquit yourselves like men. Ares therefore to hurried down among the Trojans. The battle continued to rage with and now Apollo encouraged Ares to attack Diomed so that he might no longer harm the Trojans. were not and the two Ajax. and turning to his friends he cried . 37 warned him back with angry threatening words." —Homer.

The tires were brass. If Mars we check not in his mad career. The Trojans still came on. and Hektor slew numbers of the Argives." . (Wright).. child of Aegis-bearing Jove. Then Juno. Pallas she addressed these winged words ! : unconquerable child of Jove Vain promise we to Menelaus made Of safe return. daughter of the mighty Jove. Valiant in fight." Book v. . Then towards the foe Your faces turn but step by step retreat Nor with the gods unequal combat wage. While Hebe to the iron axle fixed The eight-spoked wheels of brass. who gave way when they heard Ares was fighting for Troy. Minerva. " Iliad. —Homer. And through it passed the straps of burnished Juno herself the swift-winged coursers led. venerable goddess. silver the pole : To this she bound the splendid golden yoke. gold. Showered down on her celestial father's floor The variegated robe her hands had wrought. with all haste Prepared her golden-fronted steeds for fight. Impatient for the battle and the shout. proud Ilium's walls o'erthrown. And buckling on the corslet of her sire. Haste let us also mingle in the war." She spoke nor did Minerva disobey. . and skilful with the spear Some deity is ever at his side. whose fellies shone With undecaying gold. . ! 372 The wounding of Ares by Diomed. A wondrous work silver the naves on thongs Of silver and of gold the chariot hung . thus described in Wright's translation : "When Juno saw To 'Alas ! the slaughter of her Greeks. Dread. Who wards off death and near him now stands Mars In mortal garb arrayed. : : : Two circling rims in front .

Huge. And thus bespoke the ruler of the skies O father Jove. ponderous. She hath learnt the art— Practised full well— to vex him with sharp pains. Kept by the Hours. not unwilling. from the other gods apart.' He spoke nor did Minerva disobey. strong. flew . while quietly look on Venus. they found imperial Jove High-seated. and Phoebus of the silver bow Delighted. and drive To her replied the cloud-compelling Jove : field?' 1 Against the cruel god do thou incite Warlike Minerva. to whom is given in charge. The wounding of Ares by Made Diorned. at her approach Spontaneous opened wide the gates of heaven. Her flaming car she mounted. The vast Olympus. and garlanded with Fear : In In it were pictured Discord. On many-cragged Olympus' loftiest peak. Wilt thou be angry if with grievous stripes him from the I scourge fierce Mars. and Rout dreadful head.— in which might be contained The marshalled armies of a hundred towns. doomed to feel her wrathWith the lash Juno the coursers urged. Passing through these.. they. shall Mars his thousands slay : 1 And thou unmoved behold these ruthless deeds. There white-armed Juno stayed her rapid steeds. Her brow She crowned with golden helm. with which she overthrows The ranks of heroes. mounted with studs. With heavy cloud. Child of a mighty father. Unknowing of restraint ? O father Jove. or to block the approach. or roll it darkling back. 373 preparation for the mournful war. it the Gorgon monster's Portent of Aegis-bearing Jove. Force. She decked her shoulders with the dreaded Aegis With fringes girt. That wring my heart. And four-fold crest. and spur on the insensate god. seized her spear. : Lashing her steeds.

to our very ships. and heaven's star-spangled As far as one high seated on a rock And looking o'er the dark expanse of ocean. Argives. and to the spot Where Simois and Scamander's streams unite. in guise There Juno stayed her course. : That reached as far as shout of fifty men Shame. . who in form alone excel Mock heroes While divine Achilles fought. Cooling the wound that Pandarus had dealt. and spread thick mist around. or like boars. W hen. Tydeus' son ! Tydeus. Compact. Chafed was his arm with pressure of the strap That held 7 his buckler. The Trojans dare not pass beyond the gates. Of sturdy strength. Can compass — through such a space Sprang the loud-neighing coursers at a bound. " Oh. at thy father's side erewhile . yoke.374 The wounding of Ares by Diomeci. When now they came to Troy. he wiped away the gore.' She spoke and roused fresh zeal ! ! . So great their dread of his resistless spear Now. Loosed from the car. shouting. Midway 'twixt earth. and his hand fatigued. While Simois stream gave forth ambrosial food. to aid the Greeks. the goddess pair advanced. though I Was As great in fight stood. at a glance . vault. like raw-fed lions. To valiant Diomed Minerva came. They push the war. not easily subdued. Of high-souled Stentor ' of the brazen voice. touching with her palm the chariot's The goddess spoke Is : how unlike his sire slight of frame. Arriving now Where round the might of valiant Diomed Eager Warriors the bravest and most numerous stood. There white-armed Juno stayed her rapid steeds. Lifting the belt. Him near his steeds she found. Like timid doves. far from the town. In every breast.

Nor sloth enthrals me but I bear in mind : ' : — . And rushed amain against fierce Tydeus' son. From To all encounter with the blessed gods.' Then answered Diomed I know thee well. Whirl thy steeds Against him first.' Thus saying. or other god. Venus.—— The wounding of Ares by Diomed. Thou daughter of the Aejis-bearing Jove Freely I therefore speak Nor heartless fear. She seized the reins and to elude the sight Of Mars. Secure in my protection. dread Mars Left Periphas extended on the plain. and bid thy soul toil Rise with the rising war. I here the warrior band. Then lashed her steeds against the god. see. . While groaned the axle underneath the load Goddess so dread. should descend battle : I wounded with my I Thus at thy bidding. and hero so renowned. . with strong hand she seized the son Of Capaneus. her Unless Jove's daughter. or spirit-crushing fear Unmans thee. and strike him hand to hand ' ! . is in the field for Troy. — Depressing Deadens thy limbs. Thee. and thy strict injunctions — to refrain spear. So stand I 375 now by thee. Mounted herself. and by Tydides sat. . yet now forsooth Forgets his word. and dragged him from the car. myself retreat. . and sides with perjured Troy. When now the combatants approached. Be no longer deemed the son Of valiant Tydeus. my soul's delight Quail not beneath this Mars. And gather round me Since Mars. Seeing illustrious Diomed. Mars first . concealed her head in Pluto's helm . sprung from Oeneus' race. Nor have respect for this infuriate Who late to me and Juno gave his plight Of succour to the Greeks.' : To him the goddess of the flashing eye Tydides Diomed.



The wounding of Ares by Diomed.
Over the yoke and reins stretched forth his arm, Grasping a brazen spear, on slaughter bent
But bright-eyed Pallas seized

with her hand

And from

the chariot turned

its fruitless

Brave Diomed next hurled his brazen spear This Pallas guided on, piercing the belt That girt fell Mars, and tore his tender skin Then, as she drew the dart from out the wound, Stung with sharp pain, loud bellowed brazen Mars,Loud as the shout ten thousand warriors raise, Closing in dread encounter. Trembling seized

so roared insatiate Mars. Trojan and Greek Like the dim haze that in the sky appears, When hot and sultry blows a noxious wind

So brazen Mars to Diomed appeared, As, mingled with the clouds, he heavenward rose. Reaching Olympus, mansion of the gods, Grieving he sat beside Saturnian Jove, Showed the immortal blood that from the wound Profusely gushed, and spoke these winged words

O father Jove, With lamentable voice Canst thou unmoved these ruthless deeds behold Dire are the ills we gods oft-times endure



One from the other, through our love to man. Thee we all blame,— sire of a frenzied child,
Destructive, ever bent on lawless acts.

All other gods are subject to thy sway,


yield to thee obedience


— she alone


licence to indulge her will,
in action or in speech,

Checked not by thee

Because thy daughter. She alone hath urged Imperious Diomed to vent his rage Against the Immortals. Venus first he struck, In close encounter, on her delicate wrist, Then like a demon, furious rushed on me And had my speedy feet not borne me off, There had I long been doomed to suffer woe,

Death of Adrastos.
'Mid heaps of slain


and, since


might not

Been bruised and beat by storm of pitiless blows.' Him, frowning, answered cloud-collecting Jove


Bring not to me,


waverer, thy complaints.

Of all the Olympian deities art thou The most detested— thou whose chief delight In thy bosom dwells Is blood and battle. Thy mother Juno's fierce unbending spirit,
Spirit e'en

have scarcely power

to check.

From plots of her invention flow, I ween, Thy grievous pangs. Yet mayst thou not endure to me Affliction long :— thou art my son Thy mother bore thee else hadst thou been plunged



since below the sons of Uranus." Homer, "Iliad,"





then Jove

summoned Paeeon, who

placed on the

of Ares healing balms, and ere long completely

Soon after, too, Hera and Athene and mounted upwards to Olympos. turned
assuaged his pains.

Although the gods had now quitted the

battle-field, the


Adrastos, a beautiful youth, one of the Trojan
carried off in his chariot




affrighted steeds, which

At length the wheels caught thrown to the in a shrub, the axle broke, and Adrastos was his scattered senses, Before he could collect ground.
dashed wildly across the

Menelaos was beside him with uplifted spear ready to craved his strike, but Adrastos clasped his knees, and


Diomed and
Take me


alive, Atrides,



In his ample halls

Are many precious




and gold


And when he hears that I am still alive, Thy prisoner at the ships, he will provide
Rich ransom."


" Iliad,"




was about to hand him over to

Thus spake Adrastos, and Menelaos, touched with pity, his companions to take him to the ships, when Agamemnon came up and said


Loved brother, do thy


Deserve such pity?

Surely they have wrought


service to thy house.

Let none escape,

Yea, perish




the whole race of


Be swept away, unburied and unknown." —Homer, " Iliad," Book


His words changed the purpose of Menelaos, he thrust the
youth on one


and Agamemnon pierced him with


but Menelaos turned away, he could not witness the

death unmoved.

Already the Trojans had given the battle up as


were returning to the


and Hektor saying

Priam, celebrated for his " Brave princes, do not

when Helenos, one of the sons of skill in auguries, came to Aeneas

the Trojans

return yet to the city.

But while you, Aeneas, reform the

let Hektor return back to Ilium and bid our mother Hekabe that she go to the temple of Athene and

Diomed and



on the knees of the goddess the richest and most prized

garment that she hath, and vow besides twelve spotless heifers if she will have compassion on the Trojan women and children, and save the city from the hand of savage Diomed. Even Achilleus himself, though of a goddess born,

was ne'er so

fierce as he."

Hektor, obedient to his brother's words, sprang quickly from his chariot, and rallied the Trojans



of mighty soul,

Trojans, and ye allies of world-wide fame, Be of good courage ; quit yourself like men


While I, ascending lofty Pergamus, Exhort our wives, and aged counsellors To appease the gods with sacrifice and prayer."

Glaucos on the

" Iliad,"




So saying, he turned back to Troy.

Diomed now met

and struck with




addressed his foeman

Whence, and what art thou of the sons of men Undaunted chief ? for never have mine eyes
Beheld thee in the glorious fight before. Thine is a confidence beyond compare

Thus to await my lance. Of luckless parents who

Children are they


strength confront.

from heaven thou come, and boast thyself Of birth divine, I strive not with a god. If thou feedest on terrestrial food,



and speed thee

to the goal of death." " Iliad,"

Glaucos answered him




" Noble chief,

Of Tydeus sprung, why ask me of my birth ? The race of man is like the race of leaves The summer leaves are scattered by the wind


But spring

Diomed and


and the reviving wood
so generations change


forth again


springs to


another dies away."
" Iliad," I

" But as thou hast asked




me who

am, know that


from Argos.


grandfather was the hero Bellerophon,
the Chimaera, after which he wandered

who vanquished

through Asia Minor, for those at



sought his


His son Hippolochos




and he


who has


hither to aid

King Priam, charging me

to lead the

way and ever be

among my brave companions."

When Diomed

heard these words, his heart was

with joy, and laying



sword he said



As our

were friends in days gone by, so must we two also


entertain the noble Bellerophon,



For many days did my grandfather Oeneus and at parting they exgifts. Let us therefore exchange arms, that

may know our

to stand like that of our as those of enemies in


Our lances must not meet




avoid a combat.

Let other Trojans




hand, and do thou prove thy valour against other

Glaucos, indeed, rather lost by this exchange, for his

golden armour was worth twelve oxen, while the iron



Diomed was
by impulse,

only worth nine


but when the heart



self-interest is forgotten.

Hcktor and Andromache.




Hektor meanwhile had arrived at the Scacan gate, and was at once surrounded by all the women of Troy, asking He exhorted them to pray for tidings from the battle-field. and hurried on to the palace, where the first he to the gods,
encountered was his mother Hekabe.*
Lovingly taking his
hand, she questioned him in an anxious tone

Why leave the glowing battle, O my son ? My fears are true. The walls are compassed round
thou, sore harassed


by the accursed Greeks,

Art prompted by the impulse of thy mind
lift thy hands to Jove in Pergamus. But stay, till I before thee set sweet wine, That thou mayest drink, when thou hast first poured forth Libation to the gods. Grateful is wine

To weary warrior, who like thee, my son, Has laboured long to guard his native land." Homer, "Iliad," Book vi.
But the brave hero answered her


" Bring forth

no wine
then he





dare not offer libations or prayer


Zeus with these blood-stained hands."


told his errand, bid her lead the


to Athene's fane,

and continued, " I go myself in quest of Paris perchance he will now hearken to my words, and again go forth to the Would that the earth might open and hide him battle.
from our eyes.


for the destruction of our city

that Zeus created him.


but see him sunk into

Hades, of a truth I should forget half our sorrows." So Hekabe parted from her son, and at the head of the

maidens of Troy went

to the

temple of Pallas Athene, and

In Latin Hecuba.


Hektor and Andromache.

there presented to her the splendid robe



all in



of his brother, and found him in
nishing his arms, and

and twelve spotless Hektor sought the abode his chamber quietly bur-




her maidens,

assigning to each her task of embroidery.

In grief and anger Hektor spoke


" Art thou not ashamed

to rest here in idleness, while before the walls the

whole of

fear ?


fighting for thee ?

Of what

avail is sullenness or


thyself wouldst

blame such conduct

in another.




that the

enemy burn not our

city with fire

to the ground."


Paris answered


" Hektor, thy reproach



but neither sullenness nor cowardice detains
only to brood over





grief that I





now Helen
Wait but

hath urged



go forth again to the

have armed, or go thou

will follow thee."

But Hektor stood silent, and answered not a word. Then " Brother, baneful is the influence Helen gently spoke Would that a tempest had seized me that I bear with me. and carried me away when I was born, or that the waves of the ocean had engulphed me, ere such fatal deeds were But since I was doomed by the gods to create all wrought. this misery, oh that a braver husband had been my fate, one who would at least care for the reproaches of others.

Paris hath neither courage, valour, nor constancy.


brother, repose here awhile, for thou thyself hast borne all


toil for


me and



dare not,"


in the battle-plain.

answered Hektor, "the Trojans But urge thou this loiterer on,

he overtake


ere I reach the gate.





hasten home, longing to see household, and my infant child


Hektor and Andromache.
For whether


fate ordains


to return,


not, or if unpropitious
to perish here

Doom me

gods by Argive hands."
" Iliad,"

where he
learnt that his wife




as he spoke he hurried forth to



Andromache and

their little

son Astyanax had gone to the Scacan gate, thence to look

down on the field of battle. Thither he turned his steps, and Andromache, seeing him from afar, hastened to meet

Then on




in silence, the

fond father smiled,

While near him stood Andromache in tears, Clung to his hand, and to her husband spoke O wondrous chief Alas, thine own great heart Pity thou hast none, Will be thy ruin Or for thy child, or me thy hapless wife, Soon to be left thy widow— all thy foes
: '
! !

Assailing thee at once.

Better to die,

Forlorn of thee


for other comforter

Will none remain when thou shalt meet thy doom, Grief my portion. Father I have none,

Nor honoured mother

My father slew. My seven brothers, whom


for divine Achilles

I left at home, Descended all to Hades in one clay, Slain by divine Achilles, as they watched Their snow-white sheep and lazy-footed kine. My mother, once the queen of woody Plaucus, He bore away to Troy with other spoil, But for an ample ransom freed again.

Her Artemis, Smote in her

the arrow-loving maid,
father's halls. All, all are



father, mother, brother, live in thee,


noble, loving husband.

Oh, have pity




Hektor and Andromache.
Stay with



Nor make thy son an orphan, and




stay with

me on

the tower

thy wife

Answered the hero of the waving plume
Partner beloved


" All these thy anxious cares are also mine,


but how can I endure scorn of Trojans and their long-robed wives, Should they behold their Hector shrink from war,

And act

a coward's part


Nor doth my


Prompt the base thought. Ever have I been trained To fight amid the foremost, and to guard My father's deathless glory, and my own. For well doth my presaging mind foresee A coming day, when sacred Troy shall fall, Priam, and battle-loving Priam's race. Yet all these threatened evils all that Troy Shall suffer, and e'en Hecuba herself, And Priam, and my kinsmen many and brave,

Destined to


beneath their foeman's


Rack not my heart so deeply as the thought Of thee a captive thee amid thy tears Carried to Argos by some mail-clad Greek, And there in labour of the loom employed, Or bearing water at a stranger's beck.

And some one who

beholds thy tears shall say


This was the wife of Hector, most renowned
the Trojans, tamers of the steed,

Of all


time the battle raged round Ilium's


Thus some one

thee from slavery's evil day. But o'er my mouldering corse may earth be Ere thy lament and captive cry I hear."

Thy grief for Had shielded

and fresh will flow such a husband, whose strong arm



" Iliad,"




Thus spake the noble Hektor, and then he stretched

Hektor and Andromache.



his arms to clasp his child, who, fearful of the glittering brass and waving plume, drew back with a frightened cry. Smiling, the father removed the helmet from his brow, and then, holding the little one close to his breast, softly rocked it,

while he prayed to heaven



Let this my son Jove, and all ye gods Shine, as his father shone, pre-eminent


the Trojans,

and with vigorous arm

Rule over Ilium so in days to come, Some one beholding him return from war, Bearing the bloody spoils his foeman slain Shall say, How doth the son surpass the sire And in her heart his mother shall rejoice."


Then he placed

the child in


mother's arms, and she took

smiling through her tears, and fondly caressed


Hektor, his brave heart thrilled by her sorrow, tenderly placed his arm around her, and gently spoke again
" Grieve not too deeply,

Of mortal cannot




my beloved ;— the hand me to the shades When destiny draws near,

Nor brave nor coward may avert his fate. Now home there ply thy proper arts— the loom And distaff task thy maidens there. Be war The care of men, my care above the rest."


the noble hero replaced his helmet on his head,

and, with a sorrow-laden heart, Andromache hastened home, looking back many times through her tears to where the
gallant form of her

husband was



At length

she reached the palace, and there too her handmaidens were weeping, their hearts filled with the same sad forebodings as hers, for they thought never again to hear the voice

of Hektor, or to behold his noble form.
2 B

J 86

Fight between Hektor and Ajax.

Paris having at length donned his armour, overtook his brother ere he reached the gate, and together they sallied
forth to the battle-field,

where the Greeks




beneath their powerful blows.


" Surely

sooner did Athene perceive this than she flew from There Apollo met her. to the plain beneath.

Wherefore comest thou hither in such haste ?
if it is



only to assist the Greeks,


us decide to sus-

pend the

fight for this day.

For on the unfortunate Trojans

thou hast no pity." " So be it," replied Athene, "but
the conflicting hosts ?



thou separate

" This will I do," answered the god, " I will inspire Hektor with a strong desire to call forth the bravest of the

Greeks to single combat." The wise Helenos overheard these secret counsels and sought Hektor, encouraging him to challenge one of the
opposing host to mortal combat.
and, with his lance,

Joyfully Hektor agreed, waved back the combatants on each

while in

a loud voice (the two gods disguised as




a neighbouring beech tree)




" Hear

ye Trojans, and ye Greeks.


war may quickly end

one among the Greek host stand








remains the victor

him have

his opponent's arms, but

the body be returned to the friends of the slain without


and may Zeus be witness

to the keeping


the compact."

Fig lit between Hektor and Ajax.
Astonished at


this bold defiance, the Greeks remained none wished to encounter brave Hektor alone. At last Menelaos spoke, calling the Greeks " women" for being so cowardly, and offered himself to take up the gage. But Agamemnon would not suffer this, for he thought that Menelaos was not strong enough to fight with Hektor.

blamed the Greeks for their want of he himself would have at once stepped forward to accept the challenge, had it not been for his great age. His example now roused several others, and among those who came forward were Agamemnon, Diomed, both Ajax, Idomeneus, and Odysseus. Lots were drawn, and the decision fell upon Ajax, the son of Telamon. Quickly he armed himself, and rushed at Hektor with

Then Nestor


courage, and

said that

such fury that even the mighty hero was somewhat daunted.



Hektor," he cried, "that there are yet


the Greeks


dare to face thee.





commence, and no longer delay the mortal combat." "Think not," replied Hektor, "to frighten me with
threatening words like a child,

trained to fight, war has

in fair and open field, no mean advantage of a noble foe." With these words he threw his lance, which, however, did not

me no




for I will take

penetrate the shield of his enemy.

Then Ajax threw his spear, which not only pierced Hektor's shield, but also his corslet, and would have gone through to the flesh if he had not swerved to one side.


each other.

both recovered their lances, and again rushed upon Hektor's lance was bent on the shield of Ajax,

but that of Ajax pierced the buckler of his


in the neck.

Then Hektor stooped

to the ground,

and wounded and


a huge stone which he threw on the boss of the


making the brass resound with a

terrific noise.

" Book vii. . the rest was prepared for a Then Nestor said " Let us not : and fat to banquet fight for the heroes. so that he sank to the ground. Apollo. seized a fragment of rock. who have been and build a wall. esteem in their hearts. who richly embroidered belt. : ' . " Let us rest from our combat. and dig a trench around. " Iliad. made these chiefs contend " And each brave foe was in his soul a friend. wounding him in the knee. And now the heroes would have renewed the fight with their swords.' —Homer. however." unanimous consent. again at some future day." then it said the noble Hektor. this will then serve as a protection both to To this proposal the Greeks gave us and to our ships. for night was approaching. to-morrow. and straining Ajax. but glory. in his turn. (Pope). Not hate. but ere we " Let us Exchange some gift that Greece and Troy may say. but the heralds separated them. in return presented him with his Thus they parted with mutual Agamemnon now the entrails slaughtered a bull. was at hand. With that the Trojan hero gave his silver studded sword and baldric to Ajax. and having sacrificed Zeus. that funeral Near the those we may have time to bury our dead. pile we will erect a mound in memory of slain.388 Fight between Hektor and Ajax. " to renew separate. every nerve sent thundering through Hektor's buckler. and quickly he raised the it gallant chief.

were burned. he took in his hands the golden whip and the speed of lightning to Mount Ida. Triumphant shouts and dying groans arise.— Continuation of the Trojan War. and the Greeks raised their huge wall. " Iliad. whose manes were of gold and hoofs of brass. and The dead on both sides the Greeks willingly agreed to it. and wrapping round him his glistening mantle. drawn by the ethereal steeds. and flew with There on its summit watch the two nations on the plain beneath. and sternly forbade them to take any further part If any dared to disobey him he threatened to in the war. As soon Zeus streaks of dawn appeared convened all the gods on the heights of cloudy Olympos. In Troy. The fight had again commenced "Victors and vanquished join promiscuous cries. shrouded in clouds he took his seat to reins. Trojans. throw the offender into the lowest depths of Tartaros. " to-morrow let our herald go forth and ask for a truce. 389 XXIII. for that the gods would give them no success until this was done. though willing to restore the treasure. that we may burn our dead. " Listen. But Paris. mound and in the sky while both hosts feasted as the first till late in the night. meanwhile. Then the mighty Jove stepped into his chariot. Then Priam rose to quiet the rising tumult. would not give up Helen.— CONTINUATION OF THE TROJAN WAR." he cried." Universal assent was given to this proposal." Book viii. . (Pope)." —Homer. Antenor urged that Helen and the stolen treasure should be given back to Menelaos.

fled to their ships. " Iliad. the Grecian balance lies Low sunk on earth. and unmans their souls. and Trojan's " With awful sound : Roll'd the big thunder o'er the vast profound Full in Tydide's face the lightning flew . (Pope).. when. The sire of gods and men his golden scales suspends. Enraged at the insult of his foe three times did Diomed essay to turn back. —Homer. and they hastened back to the camp. and Hektor. : 39° Continuation of the Trojan War. With equal hands in these explored the fate Of Greece and Troy. and then slew the together they turned against Hektor. transported at this gracious . Book viii. and poised the mighty weight : Pressed with its load. Nestor alone remaining by Paris had killed one of the horses of the aged chief. Thick lightnings flash the muttering thunder rolls Their strength he withers. The ground before him flamed with sulphur blue The quivering steeds fell prostrate at the sight And Nestor's trembling hand confess'd his fright ." . Then quickly he turned the chariot. the Trojan strikes the skies. until and continued " noon. But Diomed came to dart shot his aid. Then Jove from Ida's top his horrors spreads . The Greeks behind." —Homer. . pursued by the scornful words of Hektor. had not Zeus taken compassion upon the Trojans. The mighty hero's fate would now have been sealed. and when Hektor saw his plight he rushed towards him intending to slay him. (Pope)." " Iliad." Book viii. A made Nestor come charioteer into his chariot. Diomed and then attacked Hektor himself. : He dropp'd the reins : and shook with sacred dread. but each time Jove's thunders sounded from Mount Ida.

O goddesses." she cried. but the sea-god would not consent. The harassed Greeks now thronged behind their wall. Swift as the wind flew the various coloured maid to meet " Whither haste ye. Teukros. your steeds. in spite of Zeus' command to the contrary . and hurl you headlong to the ground. and Agamemnon besought the great father of heaven to save them. persuaded Pallas to get into her chariot and go But to the aid of the Greeks . distinguished he had already killed eight Trojans Hektor alone he could not harm. raged at the death of his friend. seeing this. Jove then sent down his eagle as a sign of encouragement to them.Continuation of the Trojan War. and as the gates of heaven sprang open the blazing car flew lightly earth. who tried to persuade Poseidon to aid the Greeks. sign 391 from Zeus. all others. he has sworn that his lightning shall lame host. greatly fearing the wrath of his mighty brother. Two Greeks at once carried him back into the camp. Enprotecting him. so that he sank down senseless in the chariot. Filled with pity. son of Telamon. himself above . for Apollo was At last he shot Hektor's charioteer. " great Jove will not sanction your assisting the Greek If ye do. down Ida. again sallied forth and attacked the Trojans. Again Zeus encouraged the Trojans. Iris stop the disobedient goddesses. killing a great number. Priam's great son raised a huge stone from the plain. the skilful archer. who. called on the Trojans to pursue the Greeks. trench outside the Hera. and the . and the Greeks. the chariot. to Zeus beheld sent them from Mount to and greatly incensed. fired with renewed bravery. This gave dire offence to Hera. and threw it at the breast of Teukros. advanced as wall. led by the far as the noble Hektor.

Pallas and Hera? Well was reached you. " this day would have seen the end of the war." The near approach to retire of night now compelled the Trojans from the field. again attack them." Pallas inwardly murmured at the reproof. and." . : but Hera. years. and his himself left Mount Ida to return to entering the assembly of the gods took gold. Then at break of day we will and decide whether Diomed or I shall remain the victor. under cover of the night. thus answered him " Well we know that thou art mightier than we. of the gods. and Hektor called the chiefs together in council. bread. retired sorrowfully to their golden And now Zeus Olympos. the goddesses turned back their steeds.392 Continuation of the Trojan War. therefore we " still did not intend to aid the Greeks. however. but only to advise them. that the Greeks escape with their ships. " for so hath fate decreed (and nothing thou canst will turn its course) : by the Trojans. " Had the shades of evening not descended so quickly. seat on the throne of The ground trembled beneath his footsteps." replied all-powerful do shall Hektor not cease the strife until Achilleus comes again to join the Greeks." The first rays of to-morrow's sun shall see the Greeks further harassed Jove. Now." said he. and thus he addressed the offending goddesses : "Why it sit ye thus in silence. when they again reached the abode seats. and wine. unable to restrain her wrath. to them. that so thine anger might not entirely crush them. my my messenger would have launched thunders at you. feed your and then let horses and look well us refresh ourselves with meat." wounds caused by his thunderbolts shall not heal in ten Abashed at the awful threat. and never more could ye again have enthat ye turned back when ye not done so I Had tered Olympos. Also gather fuel to keep alight numerous watch- fires. may not.

Agamemnon had for a called them together and strongly advised their return home. twenty richly-chased goblets. however. and. and after the banquet Nestor urged Agamemnon to make friends with Achilleus. " Thou art right. and advised that Nestor." . he said. twelve steeds unmatched for fleetness. shall have his share when we have conquered Troy he of the booty. while the chiefs assembled for supper in the tent of Agamemnon. would certainly not fall without the aid of the son of Peleus. the Trojan warriors looked eagerly forward to the coming morn. XXIV. thus am I ready to compensate him : I give him ten talents of pure gold. soon numerous brightly and while they feasted and rested. likewise. To if this. seven sacred tripods. listen . passed a restless and night. Nestor. Also." replied Agamemnon. in addition. gleaming fires illumined the surrounding darkness. for Troy. " I ought not to have insisted that Achilleus should surrender Briseis. and he may choose of my three daughters the fairest to wife. seven beautiful slaves.Attempt to conciliate Achilleus. unhappy secretly. and settled what course they should pursue. on the other hand. seven cities in my own land. sided with Diomed.— THE VAIN ATTEMPT OF AGAMEMNON TO CONCILIATE ACHILLEUS. will now listen. The Greeks. The advice of the sage old warrior was taken. Diomed would not fight till moment Agaall memnon liked he might return. I will restore Briseis. but the others would remain and Troy was taken. sentries should be posted. 393 In silence the troops obeyed . But.

Peleus had sent with him. home whom his and now he had made up his mind to return Ajax and his old tutor Phoenix. They found him playing on graciously. and rose eagerly what success they had had. and sought to persuade him to be reconciled to Agamemnon. ciled. thy cares engage : To calm thy passions. First to take part in the war." Book ix. bless ! Thy arms may Juno and Minerva Trust that to heaven : but thou. . to Achilleus. "how thy father Peleus warned thee to avoid contention. he solicited the and then set forth. but nothing left and the chiefs him debating whether little to start once or to remain yet a longer. with glory and success. " Iliad. and entered But the tent of Agamemnon. and subdue thy rage From gentler manners let thy glory grow. (Pope). accompanied by several of the princes.: 394 Attempt to conciliate Achilleus. expedition. " My child ! with strength. after which Odysseus disclosed his mission. and relating the deeds He received them and made them partake of meat and wine." he urged. both tried to overcome would alter at it." Homer. and to induce Then Odysseus undertook to go him again aid of the gods. obstinate resolve. the sure source of woe That young and old may in thy praise combine. to ask all the others were awaiting them. When the princes reached the camp again. . He utterly refused to be recon- Small thanks had he received for his part in the the next day. to seek the tent of the mighty son of Peleus. "Bethink thee. the lyre. in these words of the heroes to his friend Patroklos. And shun contention. — But neither the wise counsels of Odysseus nor the peaceoffering of Agamemnon made any impression on the wrathful spirit of Achilleus.

The remainder of the night was passed by the Greeks in slumber. . they decided to hold a council of war. promising her rich gifts in return. oppressed with many troubling thoughts. on their dangerous mission. with whom. to go. left the tents behind an eagle suddenly flew As they past. Nestor to join them. but he advised them to They therefore some of the other chiefs. — THE STEEDS OF RHESOS. and they prayed the goddess to grant them success undertaking. well armed. called Diomed. Agamemnon. XXV. At last Agamemnon rose from his couch. with the exception of Menelaos and who.The Steeds of Rhesos. under cover of the darkness. try to overhear the consultations of the this daring- enemy. seemed to the rest of the Greeks as their toil and labour had been for nought. and in in their this they recognised a good omen sent to them by Athene. Menelaos came to rouse him. but he only and in a short space of time these two mighty warriors sallied forth. Ajax. after having visited the outposts and seen that they were on the alert. when they heard 395 the answer of Achilleus they were struck . were unable to close their eyes. dumb But it with sorrow and consternation Diomed if alone ven- tured to say that they might yet conquer without Achilleus. and as he was to arming. and others. They agreed waken Nestor and was ready instantly take as well go round to visit the guards. Nestor proposed that one of them should steal into the Trojan camp and venture. Odysseus. but none could be found to undertake till at length Diomed himself offered be his all. Many instantly volunteered to chose Odysseus out of them companions.

Swiftly he sped across the to let field which separated the two camps. These the heroes determined to capture. Athene appeared to Diomed. forcing him to stand. Rhesos himself amongst them. Diomed slew the himself at the traitor who had country. a man rich in this world's goods. but before his wild entreaties to starting. which the mighty Trojan readily promised to do. He also suggested the advisability of cautiously approaching the Greek to discover their plans. camp and promised a magnificent chariot and horses as a reward to whoever should volunteer for this service of danger. Diomed laid about him with such energy that soon twelve Thracians. for Apollo. But they did not pass unobserved. where he had two splendid white steeds with magnificent silver harness. had just arrived. but devoid of any charms of nature.396 The Steeds of Rhesos. while Odysseus secured the white Now to his departure. Dolon stepped forward. tell Then they compelled him them the exact position and strength of the Trojan host. Eager to earn the prize. King of Thrace. It was midnight in the Trojan camp. and first moving aside him pass. they turned and overtook to him. and bade him hasten and he and Odysseus swung themselves on the steeds and hurried back to their own camp. tried to save expense of his their way to that part of the field where Rhesos encamped. and the noble Hektor held a solemn council of war. and learnt also from him that Rhesos. although very swift of foot. He begged Hektor to give him the chariot of Achilleus should he succeed in getting it. seeing the part . on the ground. and had taken up his position at the end of the camp. but Odysseus and Diomed heard his footsteps. and then took his departure. in spite of be spared. Making lay lay lifeless coursers.

Death of Hippo lochos. but for his Rhesus most Now while on Rhesus' name he calls in vain. The yet warm Thracians panting on the coast For each he wept. 397 which Pallas Athene had taken. " Iliad. No to the sooner had fair Eos opened the gates of heaven with her rosy fingers." —Homer. Agamemnon called on the people to arm. And wondering view the slaughters of the night. AND KOON. and related all that they As Diomed and his host.— DEATH OF HIPPOLOCHOS. nation to nation. (Pope). when the two friends sprang from their horses." Book x. and on both sides the onslaught was terrible . IPHIDAMAS. than Zeus sent down baneful Eris Greek ships. she stirred up afresh their love of war and strife. man to man . therefore. Athene and sent loud peals of thunder in honour of the mighty Amid wild shouts and tumult the Greeks and king. The gathering tumult spreads o'er all the plain . companion approached the Greek tramp of horses' feet. and saw the field deform'd with blood. An empty space where late the coursers stood. hearing the had done. XXVI.: : . great was the rejoicing. PEISANDROS. with wild affright. On heaps the Trojans rush. Hera Trojans again met. the heroes. &c. and as he himself appeared in all his splendour. where. placing herself in their midst with her torch of discord. feared an attack. hastened to the Trojan camp to awaken the comrades of Rhesos : " He rose.

amongst them two of the sons of Priam. not in battle slain. The carnage continued mid-day gave way before him. but about to Agamemnon came the front. in Large heaps of brass And steel well-tempered." Book xi. Hippolochos and Peisandros were both in one wildly over the field. the whole morning. : Swells the red horrors of this direful plain The gods in peace their golden mansions fill. ransom shall be told. The latter had joined the party which so strenuously opposed the restoration of Helen to Menelaos. Jove now took up such a position that he could overlook the whole battle-field. &c. . chariot. and persuasive gold/ : These words. while they the chariot and prayed for mercy like a lion ' on their knees " O spare our youth. " Discord with joy the scene of death descries.: 39^ And Death of Hippolochos. (Pope). " Iliad. sons of Antimachos. Ranged in bright order on the Olympian hill. and Hippolochos and Peisandros. : The Grecian ships his captive sons detain. The youths addressed to unrelenting ears The vengeful monarch gave this stern reply ' : If from Antimachus ye spring. Agamemnon fell rushed at them in on his prey. and thus his sons fell victims to the victorious arms of the king of men. and determined that this time the Trojans should be victors. attended with a flood of tears. that. of the immortal train. drinks large slaughter at her sanguine eyes all : Discord alone. and for the life we owe. the horses dashed Seeing this." —Homer. ye die . Antimachus shall copious gifts bestow Soon as he hears. and the reins having fallen from their hands. and everything Several of the noblest Trojans lay dead at his feet.

but the weapon missed mark." Homer. — the Trojans. and Iphidamas returned it the blow so fiercely with his spear that his foe must have killed had not his belt of silver plates turned the point. Hektor resist. and towards their city. And as he spoke he pierced Peisandros through the breast. Agamemnon now and having been only its just married first had very reluctantly left his bride. (Pope). 399 peace ! and sues forfeit of his seed for grace ? and pay the — Homer. and host. Hippolochos then leapt down from the chariot.Death of Hippolochos. Hektor was to mount in his chariot and pursue the Greeks down to the haven. a Koön. Quickly the king grasped his sword. (Pope)." Book xi.'" Iliad. " Iliad. in his wrath. who. The brass-hoofed steeds tumultuous plunge and bound. " your race. Obedient to the divine behest. with one blow severed the head and arms of the unfortunate youth from his body. and with one mighty stroke Iphidamas fell lifeless on the ground. hardly pressed by the Greeks. . left his car. had come to aid the Trojans in the defence of their city. but as soon as the king should be wounded. with his brother countered Iphidamas. but the king. from the summit of Mount Ida sent Iris to the noble Hektor with the command to avoid Agamemnon so long retire : as he raged through the battle-field .' Book xi. Agamemnon hurled his javelin at him. And till the thick thunder beats the labouring ground. For No. and enencouraged the Trojans to Thracian hero. From the dry fields thick clouds of dust arise. The " horses and chariots of both armies had now come to close quarters. The daring wretch who once in council stood To shed Ulysses' and my brother's blood. began to Then Zeus lent his aid. proffer' d die. Shade the black and intercept the skies. &e.

turned on Koön. and. monarch staggered. seeing the frightful carnage. he threw it with such force at his Hektor that the noble Trojan sank on knee. he covered his eyes to shut out the painful sight then rushing unperceived by him at Agamemnon. " Iliad. rushing into the midst of the Trojans. they killed numbers of them. . Zeus keeping the fight equally balanced. : Mark how The storm this way yon bending squadrons and Hector 5 rolls on. and the remainder fled to their ships. When Hektor saw that the Greeks were again gaining ground he hurried to the front. Odysseus." Book xi. (Pope). And levelling his lance. he stepped into As soon as and was driven back to the camp.' —Homer. he had . and as the latter was trying to remove his brother's body. When Koön saw his brother fall . however. with one blow struck off his head. rules the field Here stand his utmost force. urged Diomed to help him to check the victorious career of Hektor. Agamemnon's wound becoming painful. could deal him the death-blow. he called to the Trojans to attack Hektor perceived Numbers fell at this onthe Greeks with renewed vigour. his chariot. a large host following him then seized with fear. thus both brothers descended together to the Underworld. " Diomed cried to Odysseus yield. slaught. —THE WOUNDING OF DIOMED AND MACHAON. Ere Diomed. he pierced his arm so deeply that the But he quickly recovered himself.: 400 The wounding of Diomed and Machaon. XXVII. this.

! ." Book xi. and Paris. nevertheless he held death blows to all who came within his antagonists . At length Menelaos." ! . . And hovering vultures scream around their prey. city. Odysseus now remained alone. though not mortally. and together they hewed a bloody path through the ranks of the Trojans. Hektor. shoulders. into his heel fell beneath the powerful arm of hidden by a tombstone. 401 recovered himself and was driven back in his chariot to the rear of the host. Trojans turned on Odysseus. who in vain tried to recede from his friends to foes. called to Ajax. hearing the well-known voice. . from his station under the walls of the the wise physician. attacked on all sides by the Trojans. with an arrow. but Odysseus. meanwhile. Among and the were two brothers one he coming to revenge the death of his brother. was fighting on one side of the plain with Idomeneus and Nestor. wretch Thy dying eyes no tender mother close But hungry birds shall tear those balls away. while three times he called loudly on his come to his aid. dealing his reach. (Pope). killed. throwing a javelin. No father shall thy corpse compose Ah. Odysseus wounded. sent an arrow then. 2 Then Idomeneus c . pierced him through the other. The warrior turned to flee. he re- turned at once to the camp. Diomed. And now all the " Iliad. succeeded in wounding Machaon. Heaven owes Ulysses yet a longer date. —Homer. " and called out Famed son of Hippasus there press the plain There ends thy narrow span assign'd by fate.— The wounding of Diomed and Machaon. Several more Trojans until Paris. his ground. compelled by the severe pain.

" (Pope). entreated Nestor to take the wounded man for in his chariot and return with him " to the camp. " Iliad. Nestor had brought Machaon into the Greek camp. but he reproached the hero that. utmost that a friend can say Such gentle force the fiercest minds obey forgot. he avoided Ajax. A Is wise physician skill'd our wounds to heal. but although he cut down his enemies The latter. then come thou forth to . may move Book xi." —Homer. he had withdrawn himself from the fight. Though great Achilles shine In strength superior. (Pope). be obdurate. Yet cooler thoughts thy elder years attend Let thy just counsels aid. and rule thy . Now fierce for the first conflict going hastened thither.' Thus spoke your father at Thessalia's court Words now Ah though now of vast import. seeing the chario tdrive past. sudden terror when he saw Hektor approaching. time Hektor became aware of the on round Ajax and Menelaos. sent his friend Patroklos to the tent of Nestor that he might ascertain who Very kindly Nestor received him.: 402 The wounding of Diomcd and Machaon. and of race divine. " But should he still Iliad. : " ' My son ! be brave. ! try the : ." —Homer. seized with right and left. Some favouring god Achilles' heart glory. forgetting how his father at parting had said to him was the wounded man. like Achilleus. and The chariot rolled over mangled corpses and broken weapons." more than armies to the public weal. took to flight. . pursued by the Trojans. friend. and now Achilleus. Though deaf to he may " yield to love. Book xi.

the bird sacred to Jove. the Greeks poured assailants a while. Accordingly the warriors mounted. whereupon the bird fall in the midst of the . 403 Trojans and bid him give thee believe it is his armour. covering themselves with their shields. that the may the son of Peleus himself. quit his chariot . the reptile. left round by the open gate through which the But here stood two of the Lapithen (one of them a son of the mighty hero Peirithoos). frightened by the sharpened stakes on the opposite wall side. fight. heads bearing in his talons a bleeding serpent alive. still turned round and bit the breast of the let it eagle. right Hektor and Polydamas were still vainly attacking the wing of the wall. deeply moved. XXVIII. their An eagle. but the Then he glistening horses refused the leap. and. upon which Polydamas all wisely counselled that they should leave their chariots dis- and attack the on foot. rampart. when suddenly an omen was seen in the skies. Asios alone would not guiding his horses to the ditch he tried to enter by the fugitive Greeks were pressing. passed over ." Thus spake the wise old warrior. returned again to the tent of Achilleus. who defended the entrance most gallantly against Asios and the thronging Trojans. their entrenchments.Battle at the Greek Entrenchments. and Patroklos. tried to cross the trench with his chariot.— BATTLE AT THE GREEK ENTRENCHMENTS. from the top of the down on the heads of their shower of stones and arrows. began the attack with redoubled vigour. Meantime Hektor succeeded in driving the Greeks as far as and forced them back inside their wall.

went to Zeus on Mount Ida. under the leaderwall.404 Trojan Battle at the Greek Entrenchments. that. and. Diomed. Still the hero pressed forward. and Odysseus. impatient to destroy Troy charged the first. took their places in the foremost ranks " : The Thus breathing death. host. and. Thick as a " The stones descend in heavier showers. notwithstanding taken. had not Poseidon. unseen by Zeus. have been and Europa) had already torn down the breastwork. . who were at all parts of the wall in resist encouraging their countrymen to hail-storm. with the aid wrapped him in a sound slumber so that he neither saw nor heard what was going on beneath him. turn. the Trojans stormed the and battering-rams were brought to bear upon the towers bravely defended by the Greeks. close compacted legions urged their way . A storm just then arose on Mount Ida. for Sarpedon (son of Zeus all efforts. now quite recovered. and urged on his people to a fresh attack. still further convinced him that he was right. and Hector first of Troy. and advised Hektor immediately to stop the fighting and to return to Troy but the hero scorned the counsel. Polydamas declared this to be an unlucky omen." but the wall would. and inspired the wearied warriors with fresh vigour. Agamemnon. : Fierce they drove on. and of the God of Sleep. Poseidon then called on the Greeks. ship of the two Ajax. and so fascinated him by her renewed beauty. Hera also determined to aid her favourites. in terrible array. she himself joined their ranks. while all the wounded heroes. As from some mountain's craggy forehead . begging the loan of Aphrodite's girdle. to the last. passing over to the Greek camp. quietly crept into the Greek camp.

and. a dead and hollow sound. . like an oak of the " So forest struck by lightning. . leaps. 405 A rock's round fragment flies. and give the death-blow to their great opponent. : At last the mighty Ajax hurled a huge stone with main force against the breast of the Trojan prince. Loud rang " Iliad." Book xiii. dropp'd his fainting head His load of armour. fallen leader. (Pope). . the triumphant shouts of the Greeks. —Homer. Clanks on the field. Hera . he receiving defeat. and once they hastened to seize him. . when he saw the frightful tumult below and heard safely back to irresistible force. Still the Greeks bore on with and their enemies began to give way in all directions. knew to that the Trojans were Deeply incensed. the shouts of the Greeks. : . command. and. (Which from the stubborn stone a torrent rends). Precipitate the ponderous mass descends From steep to steep the rolling ruin bounds At every shock the crackling wood resounds Still gathering force. he turned of subterfuge . but with secret anger burning in her heart. and thunders down." . sinking to the ground. (Pope). lies great Hector prostrate on the shore His slackened hand deserts the lance it bore His following shield the fallen chief o'erspread Beneath his helmet. impetuous to the plain There stops so Hector. Whirls. " Iliad. But the Trojans rallied round their and covering him with their shields bore him the town. Hera and accused her Obliged to obey the then with threatening words he bade her to send Iris and Apollo him at once. . But now Zeus awoke from his slumber. it smokes and urged amain. with fury borne." Book xiv.Battle at the Greek Entrenchments." —Homer.

" —Homer. and smiting his breast. seat. Dares. thus reproved him for his " By what Striv'st wild passion. Iris and Apollo So saying she led him back to his to Zeus on Mount Ida. (Pope). immortals thus shall Mars obey Forgive me." Book xv. and yield my vengeance way Descending first to yon forbidden plain. 4o6 flew to Battle at the Greek Entrenchments. foolish anger : shield.: . Shall not the Thunderer's dread command restrain. : The god of battles dares avenge the slain . before the assembled gods. government and assumption that he was greater than all other gods. and sent . And Ilion in thy guilt involve the host of heaven The and Greece no more should Jove engage. — Homer. he had caused great grief to Ares by allowing one of his As soon as Ares heard sons to be killed in the battle. Only now. cried fiercely then. Thus ! . would yield an ampler scene of rage Guilty and guiltless find an equal fate And one vast ruin whelm the Olympian state. But quickly Athene sprang after the incensed god. complained of this he sprang " to his feet. (Pope). And was imperial Juno heard in vain ? Back to the skies would'st thou with shame be ? driven." skies ." Book xv. Olympos. And commanded his " Iliad. though the thunder bursting o'er my head Should hurl me blazing on those heaps of dead. Cease then thy offspring's death unjust to call Heroes as great have died and yet shall fall. while he went to put on his armour. she added. and lance. the Graeae and pale Fear to harness chariot. gods. depriving him of helmet. " Iliad. furious ! art thou toss'd ? thou with Jove ? thou art already lost. and. and Zeus's there.

Zeus then despatched at Iris to 407 Poseidon." Book xv. Iris spoke gently to him." —HOMER. levelled the ditch. . now sent by Zeus with orders to frighten and endow Hektor with fresh strength and He found the hero weak. And save the relics of the Grecian name. rose from his couch and at once encouraged his countrymen to renew the fight. . hope our country We paid the fattest firstlings of the fold thou sign'st our wishes with thy nod Perform the promise of a gracious god If e'er ! . This day preserve our navies from the flame. XXIX. recognising his celestial visitor. encouraging the Greeks to hold out. Jove! if ever. " Iliad. Apollo was the Greeks. One Greek If e'er. courage. . once more the Trojans approach the ships. and : then he prayed aloud " O. and was at last useless. on his native shore. the brave Trojan. and when he approached. and returned again to his ocean home. with cries of victory entered the a furious slaughter from rank to rank. but slowly reviving. succeeded in convincing him that resistance So in sullen acquiescence he left the scene of battle. camp of the enemy.The Death of Sarpedon.— THE DEATH OF SARPEDON. Now Aged Nestor went unceasingly ensued. On and they came. in enrich'd thy shrine with offer'd gore to behold. Once more the Greeks began to retired. broke through the wall. (Pope). fight. with Apollo at their head. which raged fiercely and terribly as ever. once to withdraw from the brother's commanding him The mighty sea-god great anger. received his command But with and refused to obey his orders.

he poured out wine and the troop went forth. saw the conflagration." —Homer.— 4o8 — The Death of Sarpedon. aud smote his breast Achilleus as he ex- claimed " Arm. prince of and Europa. while dense clouds of smoke rolled to the skies. Encouraged by this prayer the Greeks rushed to defend The fiercest of the fight their vessels from the enemy. ere our vessels catch the spreading flame. and Achilleus gathered his warriors together." Book xvi. with the exception of the spear. in truth. arm. son of Zeus Then Sarpedon. they believed and as the Greeks rushed forward they retreated. With a heart he was fully filled " Iliad. ere the Grecians be no more a name . Meanwhile Hektor had broken in two the spear of Ajax. Having harangued the men. and soon equipped in the armour of Achilleus. from which there immediately burst forth flames. Lycia. I haste to bring the troops. Hektor flung a firebrand into his ship. saw that the hearts of the . . Arm. as a libation to Zeus. sonal part in the fight. and when the Greek hero fled. (Pope). the blaze aspires ! The glowing ocean reddens with the fires. and entreated him to lay aside his anger and take pity on the harassed Achilleus persisted in his refusal to take any perGreeks. with joy Patroklos obeyed. Achilleus. Patroclus ! Lo. Arm. and to lead his followers to the assistance of their countrymen. it When the Trojans saw Patroklos their hearts trembled was. raged round the ship of Protesilaos but when Patroklos beheld it he hastened to the tent of Achilleus. but he allowed his friend to wear his armour. nessed to the chariot. which none but the mighty warrior Then the immortal steeds were harhimself could wield.

Let Sleep and Death convey." . to his future praise. by thy command. but too late to save him. Hektor saw the chieftain fall. he trembled queen of heaven. His friends and people. left And Jove hearkened to her words. (Pope). And lasting honours to his ashes give His fame ('tis all the dead can have) shall live. great dying prince. strife ensued over the body of the Zeus had watched the combat from afar. so that the life-blood flowed from the wound. turning to the thus he spoke or shall I " must Sarpedon rescue him and bear him : " Alas. But when great Jove beheld the encounter. " Iliad. and at length Patroklos thrust his spear into Sarpedon's side. breathless body to his native land. what will the other gods say. " Give the bold chief a glorious fate in fight And when The the ascending soul has winged her flight . —Homer. men of Troy were filled 409 with fear. safely away from the Hera's artful battle-field to his Lycian home ? " How ." was answer now thou stretchiest forth thine hand to save ? him." Book xvi. and. whose sons have fallen The doom if of Sarpedon is already sealed by the fates . and was determined that Patroklos also should die. only thou lovest him. die. and quickly he went forward to meet Patroklos. and both Ajax coming up at the same moment. The Death of Sarpedon. his son unaided to Fierce was the combat between the two heroes. canst " if thou question thus. A marble tomb and pyramid shall raise. but not before Therefore he struck the Trojans had returned to Troy. and finish his fight with Patroklos. my beloved son . and hurried to his aid. and the darkness of death closed his eyes. so that they began to waver. .. for the fate of his son.

" fell Then Patroklos recognised the god. son of Zeus. who. cried. and Patroklos ran forward to . and the mighty Trojans believing they were overpowered. But Apollo kept guard. Patroklos now pursued the flying Trojans with his foaming coursers close up to the walls of the city." —Homer. and hurled a stone at the forehead of Hektor's charioteer. and gently their when he had washed away the came floating on their noiseless and softly they bore him homewards in still arms through the night. when he saw him." he : not decreed that thou shalt conquer Troy. fled with his comrades. and each time drove him back. cease.— DEATH OF PATROKLOS." Book xvi. and blood. which he thrice essayed to scale. So once more Hektor drove out to meet Patroklos. (Pope). to return to the fight "In Patroclus' blood efface thy shame Perhaps Apollo shall thy arms succeed. And the king of heaven sent Apollo to bathe the loved body in the waters of the stream. sprang from his chariot. leaving the body of Sarpedon in the hands of the Greeks. while Apollo encouraged Hektor. and back. charioteer fell Lifeless the to the ground. A but the god warned him back "it is fourth time the gallant prince ventured.: 4-io terror into the Death of Patroklos. XXX. " Iliad. And in the far Lycian land there were sorrow and mourning for the noble chieftain who had fallen before the walls of Troy. So died Sarpedon. whose courage had quite given way. " Patroklos. Sleep and Death wings. heart of Hektor. And heaven ordains him by thy lance to bleed.

" by thy " side. . And thy soft pleasures served with captive dames. with such force that he fell forward senseless. the joy Lie there Patroclus pride once promised. Greeks and Trojans. this important day. Greek chieftain over the while his helmet rolled on the ground. Unthinking man I fought those towers to free. and when Patroklos attacked Hektor a fourth time. and when the wounded man sought shelter among the Greeks. that again he lay prostrate. : With faint. . but the soul of Hektor was filled with anger at the deed. . 4 l secure his arms. the chief replies —Homer. thy turn shall come shalt Death stands already fall. not Apollo torn my Let armour from me thou wouldst not have conquered. 5 say. and fiercely he fought with the great dead body. The fancied scenes of I lion ! And guard But that beauteous race from lords like thee : thou a prey to vultures shall be made . and by Achilleus . As dying now he lies. Had . : ! . . " Boast not of thy victory ? " Iliad. Supine and wildly gazing on the skies. shrouded in mist." 1 Death of Patroklos. and triumphant cries and with thee. Thy own Achilles cannot lend thee aid Though much at parting that great chief might And much enjoin thee. Apollo. wrapt in flames. of subverting Troy Thy at Hector's feet He ' sternly views him. thou He faints the soul unwilling wings her way . expiring breath. Hektor followed and struck him so fiercely with his lance. as a lion fights for his And now the combatants were joined by other prey. dealt him a blow from behind. while the life " blood flowed from his wound. me tell thee." Book xvi. One of the Trojans pierced him with a lance.

But thou knowest that it great Jove at times inspires even the bravest with dread. encouraged by Apollo. wretched . " and Iliad." Book xvi. . trembles and recedes with fear . and Troy. : " . : was filled with pity for the great hero ! A man unmindful of thy end moment's glory and what fates attend In heavenly panoply divinely bright " Ah. came up to take possession of the bright armour of Achilleus. but when Hektor. ! ! . calling upon Ajax sent to come to Thus Hektor secured the armour. When his heart Zeus beheld him in the brilliant accoutrements. . it back to from and the Trojan retreated to his own camp. Let Ajax once appear. And lo already thou prepar'st to fly. Thus was with me even now. (Pope)." Book xvii. and he his assistance. : "Iliad. his courage gave way. Come let us hew our way the through yonder squadrons. Menelaos saw Patroklos from the Trojans \ fall. fell back. tried to rescue his body he killed one enemy who opposed him. And Hector Thou darest not meet the terrors of his eye ! . yet have I feared to Hektor answered him " Speak not so foolishly. (The beauteous body Flits to the lone. where Glaukos reproached him for his cowardice in evading the combat to sever the Then he turned head of his foe the body. uncomfortable coast. until he should return from the town." — Homer. but Ajax appeared. then shalt thou witness that I neither fear nor shun the foe." Then he exhorted Trojans to fight bravely. whither he was going to put on Achilleus' armour.412 Death of Patroklos. Never meet the foe. left a load of clay)." —Homer.

and a furious onslaught took place. And Antilochos was also to entreat mighty son of Peleus to come and aid his countrymen in defending the body of the dead." Book xvii.3 Death of Patroklos. Which once the greatest of mankind had worn." —Homer. 4 1 and armies tremble ! at thy sight. (Pope). as it was being borne back to the ships amid the victorious Trojans. ! For ah With joyful tears to no more Andromache shall come welcome Hector home. so bravely for them. the Trojans At still last gained the victory. Thou As at stand'st. Menelaos with a loud voice called upon the other Greek heroes to rescue. While the Trojans were advancing. and several more responded to the summons. to bear the sad tidings of the death of his friend and the loss of his arms the and armour. Achilles' self beneath thy dart Lies slain the great Achilles' dearer part. Thus spake the god. to the tent of Achilleus. come to the Ajax. while Hektor descended into the plain and led his comrades to the fight. " Iliad. promising half the spoil to whoever should succeed in taking the body of Patroklos from Ajax. A blaze of glory ere thou fad'st away. Yet live ! I give thee one illustrious day. the son of Nestor. but the Greeks held possession of the body of the noble hero. . Thou from the mighty dead those arms hast torn. and Menelaos who had fought now sent Antilochos. Idomeneus.

woe filled the soul of Achilleus at the dreadful his and even the captives in ships rushed forth and beat their own and Patroklos' breasts. Achilleus thought with anxiety of Patroklos." —Homer. The circling Nereids with their mistress weep. With hoary Nereus. Book xviii. " 414 Lament of AcJiillcus over Patroklos. And all the sea-green sisters of the deep. who was only to much sorrow and trouble to bear " ' Hear how his sorrows echo through the shore ! . ! thou must hear ! . Seated beside his tent. and his soul was troubled with fear of the ills that might befall him. XXXI. The mother-goddess from her crystal throne Heard his loud cries.' " Iliad. with cries and in tears. and the watery train.: . should have so : lamented that her son.— LAMENT OF ACHILLEUS OVER PATROKLOS. At last he beheld Antilochos coming towards him. Grief and tidings ." Book xviii. Bitterly Thetis live so short a time. watching from afar the fight. while Antilochos kept the hands of the prince to his life : his firm grasp. with hasty step. " Iliad. (Pope). (Pope). and thus he spoke " ' Sad is tidings. and answer'd groan for groan." — Homer. and tears streaming from his eyes. And wretched the unwilling messenger ! Dead Patroclus : His naked corse his For his corse they fight arms are Hector's right. to prevent his putting an end " Far in the deep abysses of the main. son of Peleus I.

and I was not even there to aid him Oh. of my friend. their : . for there is no rest or peace for me till I have pierced proud Hektor with is all my my lance. Reveal the cause. will Patroklos I Agamemnon. but I must deplore at least to bear a tender part. care. mingled clamours ran. and so revenged the death of : my beloved friend. the grotto and returned to the depths of the ocean. and trust a parent's — Homer." exclaimed " since I was unable to save the I life Achilleus. thou hast not many more days to live upon the earth. to his sighs replied Along the coast ' . 41 I go cannot ease them. then I should have Now. life will have run course. O ! that had never striven with been beside however. who was dearer to me than life. when Patroklos." " Would that I might die at once." Book (Pope). so have the Fates For when thou slayest Hektor.' —Homer. I know that soon thy span of decreed. that thou hadst never wedded Peleus against his foe.' xviii. " Iliad. As she spoke the Nereids left " Iliad. ." Book xviii. . My fate . Never again will I return to my native land." Tearfully Thetis replied " My its son. is dead? By the hand of Hektor has he fallen. And mourn my loved-one with a mother's heart. at the fateful moment to go forth avenge his murder. And thus the silver-footed dame began Why mourns my son ? thy anguish let me share. while Thetis rose from the waters by the Greek camp to comfort her son " : The immortal mother. standing close beside Her mournful offspring. " Then avail with deep sighs Achilleus answered her : Of what fame and honour now. now wouldst thou not have to witness thy son's death. (Pope). ." " 5 ! Lament of Achilleus I over Patroklos.

" replied Iris. Only before Achilleus " falls shall many a Trojan cold and dead be- neath his hand. himself." Thou . which Athene strengthened so mightily that tumult and confusion Every heart ceased beating from seized upon the Trojans. meanwhile. last he persisted. terror. and as he reached the trench he raised a fierce shout. had followed the Greeks as they were retreating with the seize it. my son." mournfully answered the sea- goddess " to succour the is Greeks and avenge the death of thy friend a task worthy of thee. and success would have at efforts." How can I go forth unarmed is ? " fiercely all answered the host Achilleus. saying had not Hera quickly sent Iris to " Rise. destiny. Three times did he but each time the two Ajax drove him back from Still the dead. art right. Hektor. Pallas his shoulders and crowned his head with glorious hung her mighty Aegis on rays. bidding him forge at once a costly equipment. : attended his Achilleus.4-i6 Lament of Achillea s ' over Patroklos. let escape his me die." Then Achilleus arose. body of Patroklos. rise. and even the horses were so dismayed that they . armour are in the hands of Hektor. without the knowledge of Zeus or the other gods. "go only as far as the trench." "We know well that thou hast no arms. son of Peleus. could also lie may meet not as it pleaseth Zeus. Herakles." she turned away and sought out the God of Fire. and he himself has already joined the fight. " There not another Greek in whose armour I could wear save only that of Ajax Telamon. It is by comof Hera that I come hither. formed by Hephaistos' hands. But thy weapons and Wait only till I bring In haste thee fresh ones. and rescue the mand " body of Patroklos from the hand of Hektor. the Trojans will fear the sight of thee even unarmed.

and thrice the Trojans turned back in confusion and dismay. would bring again laden with rich spoils How doth almighty Jove cut short the plans of man. As night approached the baffled Trojans assembled in council. But Hektor would not to this advice. and never more back will Peleus or his father's my to halls. He did not fear Achilleus. gathered round the fallen hero. mother Thetis welcome their son But ere I follow thee to the grave. and insisted that the Trojans should attack the ships on the following morning. " O when I I left my ! native shores I prohis noble mised wise Menoitios that son in safety. I will avenge thy death 2 and recover mine D . " If great Achilles rise in all his His be the danger : I shall stand the fight. were lamenting the death of Patroklos. and hot tears coursed down the cheeks of Achilleus at the sight of his noble friend lying dead before his eyes. and then they sat down to their evening meal. The cried : Greeks. slain by the Trojan arms. and they had better restrict themselves to defending the walls of their listen town. Patroklos.. their hearts filled with woe." —Homer. Now are we both destined to stain the sands of Troy with our blood. and Polydamas advised their return to the city for now that Achilleus had once again taken part in the fight no hope remained of taking the ships." Book xviii. city. (Pope). might. meantime. Lament of A cht Ileus turned over Patroklos. and Achilleus. clasping the cold body ye gods ! in his arms. 41 7 and fled wildly towards the Thrice did the Greeks it Achilleus repeat the dreadful shout. on a lofty while all his friends. Loud was this " Iliad. Then took the rescued body of Patroklos and placed bier. the applause with which the chiefs received resolution.

" Then the noble warrior begged his friends gently and tenderly to wash the blood and dust from the body. still Delighted at the gift. and through the long hours of the still. He himself went to call the Greeks together. ing beside the whom she found still body of his friend. obtained a greater boon from the goddess. dark night rose the sound of plaints and wailings for the dead. His head shall be offered to thy shade. fated to infest The race of mortals. enter'd in my breast. All the host rejoiced greatly. and Agamemnon thus addressed them " Ye sons of Greece. that the body of his friend should remain unperishable. but the . he offered reconciliation to his enemy Agamemnon. . Angry With fell Errinys. oft have ye blamed me for my quarrel with divine Achilleus. Jove's dread daughter. and when all were assembled. What then could I against the will of heaven ? Not by myself. fault lay not in me 1 : and all-compelling Fate. XXXII.— RECONCILIATION OF AGAMEMNON AND ACHILLEUS. but vengeful Ate driven Jove. Thetis having obtained the arms from Hephaestos now hasweep- tened to bring them to her son. and so gloriously did they shine that they blinded all but Achilleus. Gently she placed the the warrior arms beside him.8 41 Agamemnon and Achilleus. urged my : She. and twelve Trojan youths shall bleed upon the battle-field in honour of thee. wrath that day When from Achilles' arms I forced the prey. arms from Hektor.

and am willing to make an that all endless atonement. And make me empress Accept these grateful tears ? for thee they " For thee. (Pope). and saw the dead body of Patroklos lying there. twelve splendid steeds. youth for ever dear. in his native land. inextricable woes . for ever kind. that ever felt another's woe — Homer. 41 Not on the ground that haughty fury treads. you promised I should prove . dried my sorrows for a husband slain : . inanimated clay What woes my wretched race of attend ! ! Sorrows on sorrows. Once tender I friend of my in distracted mind . and lastly the beautiful Briseis but when she reached the tent of Achilleus. ! — Homer. never doom'd to end My three brave brothers in one mournful day All trode the dark. This he did amply." Book xix. she threw herself beside it on the ground in an agony of grief. But prints her lofty footsteps on the heads Of mighty men inflicting as she goes Long festering wounds. flow. ten talents of gold. " Ate brought on Briseis ." Odysseus then advised should the strengthen battle. irremeable Thy And The That friendly way hand upreared me from the plain. For he gave to Achilleus seven tripods. ' 9 . beauty gay life Now find thee cold. " ! Iliad. " Ah. twenty golden goblets. themselves with food and wine for coming and that Agamemnon should bring peace offerings.— Agamemnon and Achilleus. . " Iliad. seven fair slaves. but now I see me the guilt that I robbed Achilleus of my fault. the dearest partner of his love rites divine should ratify the band. and cried aloud ." Book xix. ! ! left thee fresh in life. Achilles' care first. (Pope).

and went forth to fight for the Grecians. in Phthia dreads to hear His son's sad fate.o 42 " Agamemnon and Achilleus. should Neoptolemus the brave. W hat more. What more." At the word of her mighty father Pallas quickly descended from Olympos and strengthened the hero with nector and ambrosia. ! But now. fail for want of food. resign'd. and drops a tender tear. field upon Hektor. alas to death's cold arms What banquet but revenge can glad What r greater sorrow could if afflict my mind ? my breast. and sad and touching was his plaint for the ! dead : " Thou too. (Pope). stay'd Achilles. . hoary Peleus were deceased ? Who. down upon the sorrowing one. perhaps. and dost thou desert him who is so great in war ? See." Book xix. Patroclus (thus his heart he vents) Once spread the inviting banquet in our tents : Thy sweet Once society. There was no rest nor peace for him until he should have revenged himself in the His thoughts were ever of his friend. now. and Athene to his side said. " Is Achilleus then no longer thy care. thy winning care. he alone refuses rest and nourishment. while others satisfy their wants. that thus his strength might not Then Achilleus mounted his chariot. My only offspring. sink into the grave ? Homer. In pity Zeus looked calling " Iliad. sat The Greeks now down to partake of the banquet. rushing to the war. Achilleus alone refused to join them.

: Eagerly the divine powers descended to the battle-field Athene. the Immortals joined the fight fierce rage and anger When distorted every face. Artemis. as field. trembled and the towers of Troy tottered at his frown. and Hephaestos were in the Greek ranks. and Discord sounded loud alarms. But Apollo. in guise of a Trojan. saying : Aeneas. Hera saw this. 42 XXXIII.— THE HEROIC DEEDS OF ACHILLEUS. encouraged Aeneas to intercept him. Poseidon. then will I also aid Achilleus. while Achilleus other.. and hurled and Aeneas rushed impetuously at each Neither was hit. gave them permission to help both was now going to take part be lost if the war. While gods were thus exercising their Achilleus sought Hektor. he fired each Trojan heart with fresh courage. for as Achilleus in array. the Trojans would no god came to their assistance. took part with the Trojans. but Ares or Apollo help Aeneas. The Then and as Ares hovered over Troy." The gods therefore seated themselves on a mount to look on. and the mountains powers. the river god Xanthus. while Ares. Leto." answered Poseidon. trembled with fear at the re-appearance of Achilleus. then their lances. before their arrival. . Hera. Apollo. the two nations rushed to meet each other in the shores trembled at Athene's call. and " Here comes called to Poseidon and Athene.1 The Heroic Deeds of Achilleus. While the Trojans and Greeks were assembling in battle Zeus sent Themis to call the gods together. we must drive him back. and Aphrodite. and sides. who. " if let them fight alone. or defend the son of Peleus." " Not so. stern Poseidon the shook the ground.

and enveloped him harmlessly at his feet . and the latter. but perchance the gods may guide my hand to take thy life. Priam's The Greek pierced him fell through with his lance. so that he terrible cry. Poseidon saw placing himself behind Aeneas. I But Hektor answered: "Why waste vain words? know thou art braver and stronger than I. Hektor. and with divine power carried Aeneas under cover of it to the rear of the Trojan camp. " Achilleus What unseen on the plain all force." he cried scornfully. and Aeneas raised a Achilleus drew his sword. Now I will therefore save him. huge stone which no two other that men could have Aeneas was in danger from Achilleus' sword. however. arms was Polydore. with a Apollo withdrew him from his reach." ? he said." and launched his javelin at him. rejoiced greatly foe. so and then. and concealed him in the midst of the Trojan host. filled with martial ardour. Fiercely brother's murderer. for it was Apollo who beguiled him into this strait. when at length he beheld before him his hated receive thy fate." and lifted. " urged thee to meet If thou wouldst live. wounding and slaying wherever he went. their With a wild shout the son of Peleus rushed into midst.422 The Heroic Deeds of Achilleus. found that Then Aeneas had escaped him. . and said. "Come and Pallas. hurried forth to meet Achilleus. he was unable to he rushed his contain himself any longer. Now. " I have compassion on him. to the ground with a at When Hektor who saw this. the victims to his Among youngest and most beloved son. henceforth avoid him with thy care. but Apollo warned him back. blew the shaft aside. when Achilleus that it fell furious cry rushed to close on the Trojan prince." the god removed the mist from before the eyes of Achilleus. to his amazement. he spread thick dark- ness before the eyes of Achilleus.

" others fell Several beneath his hand. At length his arm and he dragged twelve Trojan youths alive bound them and sent them to the ships as destined Lycaon. unarmed. began to weary. have pity upon I am no real brother to Hektor who slew thy friend. Thou must therefore die. and leaping from continued his slaughter until the waters were red with the blood of his enemies. when at length the river-god . son of Priam. strong. and at last he cried out angrily " This time thou mayest escape me. yet less when it is one of Priam's house. but we shall then thou shalt not evade thy doom. but why deplore thy fate ? Is not Patroklos also dead ? And look on me. and he sank down lifeless at his feet he flung the body scornfully back into the water. great son of Peleus ! My brother me ! Polydore thou hast slain. many Trojans shall pay for thine escape." field of battle. to land. my doom in is near. of Xanthos. a speedy death awaits me. in a thick mist. He chief turned again to the and chief after fell beneath his sword." But mercilessly Achilleus answered " Speak not to me of Before Patroklos fell I too was well inclined sparing life. but oh. his chariot and threw themselves into the waters still pursued them. and on perceiving Achilleus went towards him and fell at his knees." he said. but now all sue in vain to me." Once again Lycaon Achilleus raised his sword lifted his arms entreaty. mighty as I am. until Achilleus many of the Trojans fled in terror before him. now raised himself out of the water. victims to the shade of Patroklos. " as food for the May no mother mourn thee. 423 his dart in : Four times Achilleus plunged vain into the cloud. crying entreatingly : " Spare my life. : to spare the Trojans. " Lie there. but as and plunged it into his neck. but let the swift waters fishes. and Meantime.The Heroic Deeds of Achilleus. of the stream carry thee out into the open sea. meet again.

and whilst I call the south and west winds to my aid." left So saying they for him. Achilleus feeling his strength ebbing away prayed anxiously to heaven : "O mighty Jove ! ! is there me I from such a death Had I fallen should at least have died like it no god who will save by the hand of Hektor a hero." . and the Trojans are driven back into their town. " ! Book xxi. Then Hera is per- ceived Achilleus' need. be burned. to join the sea. 424 The Heroic Deeds of Achilleus. As he spoke Poseidon and Athene appeared beside him in human form. by a hero's hand on a rainy day." . his Xanthos raised mighty voice and rebuked him for having thus polluted his waters with blood: they were so choked with the bodies of the dead that they could scarcely go down hero. and he. O God of Fire. Thou art not destined thus to die. the torrent sweeps away.' — Homer." but were a shameful death to be thus drowned. both men and arms. battled bravely with the ever-increasing fury of the waters. greater than that of Xanthos ! Hasten then. Xanthos followed him with angry on each roars. and taking his hand the God of Ocean " Fear not. and hastily rising said to Hephaestos : " Surely thy power. After that thou canst retire to the ships. Iliad. filled with fresh strength. And when to rise Achilleus would not stay his hand. Achilleus said we have come by Jove's : command to succour thee. the waters began and boil wildly round the He tried to reach the shore again. whom Crossing a ford. and the Trojans. 1 Like some vile swain. Thou hast still to fight bravely until Hektor has fallen beneath thine arm. spreading his billows wide over the banks side. but the angry waves threw him back with great force and threatened completely to overwhelm him. send thou thy flaming red torrent along the banks of Xanthos that the waters may he dried.

in the fierce and the waters hissed and bubbled the circling fires. burning the dead. the conflagration continued. while Achilleus raged over the battle-field and laid many a Trojan low. and even the waters fell a prey to its The fishes began to pant for breath. the all-devouring fury. return quietly to my Only let Hephaestos leave me in peace. and then attacked the banks of the stream itself." Then Hera had compassion on him. but the with him on behalf of mortals. and commanded her son no longer to torment the river-god. plants. When Artemis heard this. 425 Hephaestos. but to withdraw his fire. poured forth a fiery stream. but I will thou layest thy commands on me. Still.The Heroic Deeds of Achillcus. which first did its work on the plain. and his heart laughed within him as he beheld them arming for the fray. mighty goddess? does thy son have done no if in siding with the Trojans. for the waters were now boiling point. Zeus heard Now the tumult from where he sat on distant Olympus. . Ares and Aphrodite strove with Athene. where trees. embrace of Then Xanthos appealed more than the other gods bed. until at length the river-god reared his languid head and anxiously besought him to withdraw the angry flames. Then Hera came and ill-treated Artemis. eels lay withering in the mud. at however. to Hera : " Why I thus torture me. and soon the stream regained strife its wonted aspect. she upbraided her brother and tried to incite him to take up the contest. grass. oh. latter refused to fight Poseidon challenged Apollo. broke out afresh among the gods. obeying the queen of Heaven.

the first to see him. and as he came up flung his javelin at him. and thus the god him further and further from the walls of Troy. dost thou not know that I am a god ? See. XXXIV. When Achilleus Apollo had led the hero to enough. stay not guardless and alone Hector my loved. But as soon again locked. Achilleus answered him hast thou thus deceived I : " Merciless god why ! me ? how gladly would I fight thee if dared. fled before the Greek." Incensed. and lifting his feeble aged arms. and himself assuming the guise of Agenor. Priam watched the from afar. when Apollo hid the Trojan hero in a thick mist. thou hast allowed the Trojans to return to Troy. stay not. he commanded were safely the warders to open wide the gates. my dearest. Seated on the battlements of Troy.426 The Death of Hektor. who awaited him with firm tread. sadly he cried to Hektor who was awaiting the Grecian hero at the Scaean gate : King Priam was the " Ah." and as he spoke he turned his steps again towards city. fray —THE DEATH OF HEKTOR. ! . led Achilleus followed in pursuit. he turned round and cried ? him : " Why followest thou me thus. and none dared oppose him save only Agenor. Seeing that the tide of battle was turning against his people. as they in. so that the flying Trojans might save themselves. bravest son * ! ! . But although it rang against his armour it did not pierce through. enabling far the Trojans to enter their city in safety. the gates were to be Achilleus pressed hotly on the retreating fugitives. and Achilleus rushed fiercely to attack his daring foe.

whom in his rage (All trembling on the verge of helpless age) ! Great Jove has placed. ' — (Pope). Sudden fear took possesand struck by some unseen god. thy father. sion of Hektor's heart at the sight. Shun Achilles ! enter yet the wall all ! . Obliquely wheeling through the aerial way. and heeded not the words of his added her entreaties. on his shoulder rested the deadly Pelean javelin. parents : "How could I now re-enter his wife point at will I the town? Would not ? every Trojan and me the finger of scorn No." Nearer and nearer approached the mighty Greek. And the too. if a soul so brave life Neglect that thought. Thus at the panting dove a falcon flies (The Just swiftest racer of the liquid skies). Save thy dear Pity. And number all his days by miseries. And spare thyself. sad spectacle of pain : ! The bitter dregs of fortune's cup to drain To fill with scenes of death his closing eyes." Book xxii. and begged her noble son in But Hektor was touching words not to go forth again. old man tore his grey hairs with anguish. these silver hairs . Hekabe." The Death of Hektor. and his glorious go forth to meet Achilleus. thy dearer glory save. Yet cursed with sense a wretch. 427 Methinks already I behold thee slain. . While yet thy father feels the woes he bears. with courage conquer or to die. . spare us . And . either to armour shone like the rising sun. resolved to meet Achilleus. . stretch'd beneath that fury of the plain. when he holds. " Iliad. Homer. or thinks he holds his prey. or. while yet I live. he turned and fled : " Achilles follows like the winged wind.

us. or must he hand of the son of Peleus 1 " " How canst thou question Sternly Athene answered thus? wouldst thou put forth thy hand to save a man Then. — Homer. . (Pope). one chasing. Carry out thy will ." perish by the : " Rest contented. " I my daughter. indeed. driven ingloriously round the city walls ! my heart bleeds for him. pursued by stronger might :) One urged by circling Now . . shrilling cries he springs. . they pass'd. And thus exclaimed great Jove " Alas ! I behold great Hektor." Book : xxii. and as to approach the walls of Troy. one in flight (The mighty fled. had not Phoebos . thus chased by fierce Achilleus. often as Meanwhile Achilleus Hektor tried must have sunk still held closely after his foe. no vulgar prize they play. the Fates must have their way. may the other already claimed by death ? gods call thee partial with good cause. .428 And aims The Death of Hektor." (Such as . Sacrifices without What say ye. : fury. He at last with fatigue. With open beak and his claws. : No vulgar victim must reward the day in races crown the speedy strife :) The prize contended was great Hector's life. Athene hurried down to earth from Mount Olympos. fly. the towering form of the Greek stood between him and them. and shoots upon his wings : No less fore-sight the rapid chase they held. Thus three times round the Trojan wall they The gazing gods lean forward from the sky. beloved of heaven. : Swift was the course . one by fear impelled round the walls their course maintain Where the high watch-tower overlooks the plain." answered her mighty sire. shall number has he ever brought to we save his life. meant it not in earnest. " Iliad. gods." And not waiting any further commands.

hell receives the weight. (Pope). : " ! . Achilleus thus addressed his foe some god has given me fresh courage to try thy fate and But let us first make I must either kill thee or die." face to face with Achilleus." Then him Pallas led the noble Trojan on.The Death of Hektor. and rested on his lance. And weighs with equal hand their destinies. I have watched Achilleus press said : ! thee. Low sinks the scale surcharged with Hector's Heavy with death it sinks." she cried. Now Athene appeared to Achilleus " No longer can Hektor escape thee." fate. while I go to urge him on to fight with : thee and meet his fate. the gods that whoever shall remain victor will a vow unto return the body of his foe in honour to his friends." Book xxii. And the shadow of death began to steal over the great champion of Troy. But now Hektor together let us take our stand and fight him. until she brought and when they met. mine. " Iliad. till I could no longer bear the sight. that show : The fates of mortal men and things below Here each contending hero's lot he tries." Prince ever hast thou been dearer to answered him " : O ! me thy than all my brothers. and Then Phoebus left him. for thou alone hast life come forth honour thee above all and endangered to save mine. A and now on the heights above the "Jove lifts the golden balances. " stay therefore and rest thyself. Hektor No longer do I fly thee. 429 fourth time they failing knees. now will I the rest. . while Pallas in the form of one of Hektor's brothers came to him and " Alas my brother. brave Pelides." Achilleus obeyed. Apollo strengthened his passed round the city plain. — Homer.

. But know. who cried " ' : you boasted to that javelin given. My But soul shall bravely issue from first. Such pacts as lambs and rabid wolves combine. Nor oath nor pact Achilles plights with thee. spoke.' —Homer. " Iliad. so that the weapon Athene returned it quickly. and calls thee to thy death. and raising his javelin. unknown Of what must prove my fortune. Straight flew the weapon into Achilleus' shield. whatever fate I am to try. Detested as thou art and ought to be. Such leagues as men and furious lions join. but Hektor dropped quickly on his knees. My fate depends on heaven. our fears to blind. " Talk not of oaths (the dreadful chief replies. So then. and call forth all thy power.' — Homer. By no dishonest wound shall Hector I shall not fall a fugitive at least. While anger flash'd from his disdainful eyes). by thee deprived of breath. hurled it at his foe. No further subterfuge. (Pope). my breast. this dart " try thou my arm . or thy own Boasting is but an art. (Pope). No Rouse then thy forces this important hour. but it . Till death extinguish rage." Now hovers round. and may End all my country's woes. Collect thy soul. presumptuous as thou art. no further chance 'Tis Pallas. " Book xxii. He unseen by Hektor. Iliad. To such I call the gods ! one constant state : Of lasting rancour and eternal hate thought but rage and never-ceasing strife. Each Grecian ghost. life ! The Prince And with false terrors sink another's mind." Book xxii. Pallas gives thee to my lance. deep buried in thy heart." 430 The Death of Hektor. and thought and life. flew harmlessly beyond him. you have missed. die.

: : " " . (Pope). while Achilleus cried in triumph " ' Who Hector stretch'd upon the plain. what now you Achilles absent was Achilles still At last is fear'd : ! feel Yet a short space the great avenger stayed. I : Heaven wills it. (Pope). and admire ' ! Iliad. prince you should have feared. Yet in a mighty deed Let future ages hear — Homer. and the gods devour. well-directed. and my hour deemed Deiphobus had heard my call. yet I I perish great shall expire. Vexed that his lance had missed. he sadly exclaimed " "Tis so." Book xxii. Great Jove deserts me. been deceived. fell to the ground. . The Death of Hcktor. No refuge now." Book xxii. and kind then welcome fate ! ! ! 'Tis true I perish. no vengeance for Patroclus slain Then. But the son of Peleus raised his shield. but he beheld no one and now feeling that he had . and the son of Jove. Then drawing lance through the his weighty sword he rushed on Achilleus. Mortally wounded he . is nigh. and the fatal weapon. no succour from above. : For ever honour'd and for ever mourn'd While cast to all the rage of hostile power. went right through him. 431 bounded off and struck the ground. The birds shall mangle. Propitious once. A But he secure lies guarded in the wall. with our rites adorn'd. and swinging his pierced Hektor in the throat between the joints of his armour. Death and black fate approach 'tis I must bleed. Then low in dust thy strength and glory all laid. the Trojan prince turned to ask his brother for another. . " Iliad. air. god deceived me Pallas. 'twas thy deed. Peaceful he sleeps. " it.' — Homer.

(Pope). Then he sank back to the lifeless. to bribe me. Could I myself the bloody banquet join the dogs that carcase I ! No — to And resign. implacable too well I knew The furies that relentless breast have steel'd. spoke.' And —Homer. giving thousands.' " . its and his spirit winged way dark realms of death. . offer thousands more Should Dardan Priam. and faintly he replied " ' By thy own soul by those who gave thee By all the sacred prevalence of prayer ! breath ! . 43 2 The Death of Hek tor. . Drain their whole realm to buy one funeral flame Their Hector on the pile they should not see." Book xxii. and his weeping dame." Book xvii. his eyes flashing " No. " Iliad. ! . . when fate's decree angry gods shall wreak this wrong on thee Phoebus and Paris shall avenge my fate. a day will come. . And Hector's ashes in his country rest/" — Homer. and he : relentlessly. And Yet cursed thee with a heart that cannot yield. wretch accursed ' ! . Ah." Book xxii." . Should Troy. —Homer. while his life-blood reddened Thy rage. (Pope). Nor all the sacred prevalence of prayer. (Pope). leave me not for Grecian dogs to tear ! The common rites of sepulture bestow. Once more Hektor the ground " ' : " Iliad. Not those who gave me breath should bid me spare. procure an urn at least. But deadly hatred answered still filled the heart of Achilleus. bring forth ail her store. think. And stretch thee here before the Scaean gate. To soothe a father's and a mother's woe Let their large gifts . " Iliad. Nor rob the vultures of one limb of thee. : Fast failed the strength of Hektor.

into which he at once leapt and drove quickly off. yet " Iliad. and stripped the armour from the body. and covering with earth and blood all that remained of the noble Trojan. ! ! A As senseless corse ! inanimated clay ! " ' —Homer. and almost her god O fatal change become in one sad day late thy parent's pride ! ! O . ? Patient of horrors. 43 00 XXXV. Hekabe tears. why has heaven prolong'd Hector ! this hated breath. the gate Hekabe surrounded by her maidens wailed aloud difficulty that the old : " ' Ah. king was withheld from rushing out at and demanding the body of his son from Achilleus. fastened the body thus to his chariot. Not — LAMENT FOR HEKTOR. tore her hair. while all the Greeks came thronging round. and throwing called piteously for her son even Priam him- could not restrain his tions of the whole city and the cries and lamentaIt was with rose up to heaven. . the dust rising in a cloud. and having passed through them He a leathern thong. drew the bloody lance from the wound. yet was the vengeance of Achilleus accomplished. her hero. The boast of nations the defence of Troy To whom her safety and her fame she owed Her chief." Book xxii Andromache knew not 2 of her beloved husband's E . Fast flew the immortal steeds over the ground. Achilleus pierced his heels. to behold thy death and joy. Fearful was the spectacle for the agonized parents. veil. and gazed with wonder and astonishment at the Then powerful frame and manly beauty of the dead hero.Lament for Hektor. who had witnessed the whole scene from the aside her self city walls.

. ! pains. once comfort of my . my voice I hear amid the cries. . The : shuttle fell from her hands. . and when she : re- covered consciousness. and there beheld the body gazed down upon the across the plain by the fleet steeds of her husband dragged battle-field. " A Backward she sudden darkness overspread her eyes fell. and had commanded her handmaidens quickly to heat water. and prepare a bath for Hektor on his return from the battle-field. of Achilleus. and with a face of anguish the noble matron fled wildly through the streets. and I she cried to her attendants " Oh ! quickly follow me. Long she lay in this deathlike swoon.434 death. the common doom. must away my mother's Painfully my heart beats. and gasped her soul away. with tender delicacy bred. He. trembling knees refuse to carry me. ! Sad product now of hapless love. desolate. remains No more to smile upon his sire no friend To help him now no father to defend For should he 'scape the sword. Lament J"or Hektor. What wrongs attend him. " ' only moaned in a broken voice ! Ö wretched husband of a wretched wife Born with one fate. Suddenly the cries and lamentations of the people reached her ears from without. to one unhappy life Thou to the dismal realms for ever gone ! . . When at length she gained the tower. alone An only child. She sat working a beautiful garment for him. ! And I abandoned. and what griefs to come Even from his own paternal roof expell'd. who. ! ! ! Some stranger ploughs his patrimonial field." lent her wings. followed by her attendants. Alas alas I fear me to hear what has chanced surely it is ! ! that some strange Fear and terror disaster has overtaken Priam's son." .

— BURIAL OF PATROKLOS. the great Grecian hero thus spoke : " Rejoice. ! . ! —Homer." after Innumerable oxen. unhappy boy now no more thy father guards his Troy.Burial of Pairok los. and Hektor's It bleeding corpse now lies at thy feet. And when still evening gave him up to rest. from her well-guarded walls. even in the depths of Pluto's kingdom. The martial scarf and robe of triumph wove. Is Since now that name no more. not the dead " ! . directed by her love. liest exposed in air. Thu tearfully " Iliad. and on dainties fed. and her maiidens joined in her grief. sheep. Must ah what must he not ? Whom thou calls 435 — Astyanax. Achilleus had now reached the camp with the body of Hektor. while twelve noble Trojans are to be sacrificed to thy honour. Sunk soft in down upon the nurse's breast. shall be given a prey to the dogs. Useless to thee. (Pope). and goats were slaughtered. . But thou my Hector. have redeemed my promise. from this accursed day Yet let the sacrifice at least be paid. Now to devouring flames be these a prey. all spoke noble Andromache. With princes sported. then laying his hands on the cold breast of his friend. which they all sat down and partook of a rich banquet. Far from thy parents' and thy consort's care Whose hand in vain. I O Patroklos. memory Three times he and his companions drove lamenting round the dead body." Book xxii. XXXVI. and at once proceeded to do honour to the of Patroklos. An honour to the living.

" Iliad. the soul returns no more When once the last funereal flames ascend. . fate Me has sever'd from the sons of earth. — One boon yet I crave of thee . left his companions he lay down on the shore to soothed by the murmurs still of the rolling deep. that thou wilt bury my bones beside thine own." : 436 When Achilleus rest. for ever since thy father brought me as a child to his castle. Thus wander hopelessly outside the gates of Pluto's kingdom.' Homer. And hears a feeble. his heart spirit was filled with grief. that may enter the abode of Hades. " Iliad. (Pope). Achilleus ? of Patroklos came Thou who wast more than to lay brother to I me in life ? O hasten back." — Homer." Book in the forest. : known. . xxiii. now therefore in death let us share one grave. " Now give thy hand for to the farther shore When once we pass. to converse alone. : The fate fore-doomed that waited from my birth Thee too it waits before the Trojan wall Even great and godlike thou art doom'd to fall. and in his dreams the " to him and thus addressed him Hast thou no longer any thoughts for me. for will now the other spectres chase me not grant me access to the stream. Or quit the dearest." Book xxiii. lamentable cry. No more shall meet Achilles and his friend No more our thoughts to those we loved make ' . and I me beneath the ground. he sees the spirit fly. embrace his smoke. have we been true companions all in arms. but " Like thin arms he asked. Morning came. Burial of Patroklos. and large quantities of wood were cut down by command of Agamemnon and a ." Faithfully Achilleus promised to do forth his that to and lovingly he stretched friend.

honey were placed at the side. " it. two of his favourite dogs.. " Where. Patroclus ! let thy vengeful ghost Hear. 1 00 feet in circumference. . the dead. and anointed with fragrant unguents to preserve over it.' — Homer. the son of Peleus and having dedicated them to them between the hands of his friend. and covered with the fat of the various Beakers filled with oil and animals that were laid round. and exult. Iris. ' he cried : All hail. Sat all the blustering brethren of the sky. funeral pile erected." Book xxiii. " Burial of Patrok los. When they arrived at the burial place. begging them to increase the force of the flames. 437 commenced. and then the body was placed on the top of a funeral pile. But this wish was not fulfilled. and each invites . Achilleus next offered sacrifices to Zephyr and Boreas. foot. hearing his prayer. cut off his long locks of hair. then the legions on and lastly the friends of the dead warrior carrying the body. while Apollo drew a thick cloud to protect it from the scorching rays of the sun. All from the banquet rise. for Aphrodite drove away it the dogs from Hektor's body. Iliad. (Pope). in old Zephyr's open courts on high. Saved from the flames. Behold Achilles' promise fully paid. and lastly the bodies of the twelve Trojan youths whom he had slain. In Then first the burial rites long procession came. on her painted bow The rocky pavement glitter'd with the show. placed Then " setting fire to the whole. hurried off to the dwelling of the winds. for hungry dogs to rend. the chariots. She shone amidst them. and Achilleus laid on the top twelve horses. Twelve Trojan heroes offer'd to thy shade But heavier fates on Hector's corse attend. while Achilleus himself held the head. on Pluto's dreary coast.

After the funeral feast all the Greeks retired to sleep. commanded that the last lingering glow of the ashes should be extinguished with red wine. 438 The ' Bu7'ial of Pa troklos. To the wide main then stooping from the skies. : Till on the all The pile the gather'd tempest falls. (the dame replied). structure crackles in the roaring fires. to rise ! Let on Patroclus' pile your blast be driven. The heaving deeps in watery mountains rise Troy feels the blast along her shaking walls. Not so To sacred ocean. And to their caves the whistling winds return'd. The morning planet told the approach of light And. The western and the north. various common grave. the victors receiving prizes.. Then Achilleus " Iliad. I haste to go . And heaps on heaps the clouds are toss'd before. emerging through the shades of night. with sacrifice. And bear the blazing honours high to heaven. their ashes might rest in a Lastly. the pile no longer burned." Book xxiii. . Aurora's warmer ray O'er the broad ocean pour'd the golden day Then sank the blaze. for rest. and the floods below. and having carefully gathered them together in a golden urn. . games were performed near the restingplace of the much-lamented hero. And the night the plenteous flame aspires. various goddess to partake the rites. that when death should claim him also. spirit. Achilleus alone was unable to he thought of the . But Peleus' son entreats. fast behind. 'Twas when. . (Pope)." : —Homer. word the winds tumultuous flew Forth burst the stormy band with thundering roar. he placed them in a tent.' Swift as the word she vanish'd from their view Swift as the .

the great warrior fastened the body of Hektor to the axle." : who does not show pity even to his See how with savage Angrily Hera replied " Vain are thy arguments. but Achilleus. and child to witness his degradation. for never has sacrifices. Most still of me. but Hektor deserves the favour of the gods. while the cruel son of Peleus. and wandered along by the and when Aurora coloured the east with her rosy harnessed the horses to his chariot. 439 all his At last he rose." " is with right a favourite Not so. but Hera. dead enemy. The immortal gods looked down with pity on the ill-used body of Hektor. however.! Funeral of Hektor. three times round the and dragged it mound which had been it erected in honour of Patroklos. fingers. and shared in joys and sorrows. mutilation. by spreading over OF HEKTOR. has received your aid. and Zeus commanded Hermes to carry him secretly out of the Greek camp. his mother. sea-shore . " 'tis true they may not have equal honour. Athene. Apollo appealed to the assembled gods " Pitiless powers hath not Hektor ever offered ye rich ! — FUNERAL : sacrifices. ACHILLEUS LAST COMBAT AND DEATH. of the gods. Apollo Knowest thou not that Hektor is only mortal. he forgotten to bring to our temples offerings or . days when his friend was beside him. But Apollo guarded the body from the Aegis. joy he ill-treats the senseless clay. and Poseidon would not give their consent." cried mighty Jove. as are other men. XXXVII. and yet ye have allowed his aged father. After ten days had passed. above all the Trojan race. son of a goddess. wife.

" whoever brings me the ransom shall in return swered . Iris plunged into the depths of the where she found Thetis surrounded by her nymphs. however. only . weeping : ! seat below. Thetis shrouded herself in a sable passed through the sea. whom she found absorbed in grief. Now. For nine long days the gods have disputed whether Hektor's body should be taken from Achilleus. at the approaching doom of her god-like son . O Thetis thus delivered her command sea. fair Thetis! and learn wherefore it is that I have called thee thither." he animparted the message of the gods. Then spoke Zeus: "Hearken. seating herself beside him. Zeus sent Iris to Priam to command him to drive to the Greek camp. that he has dishonoured Hektor's remains. While the receive the body. As she entered the assembly of the gods. and Hera presented her with a golden bowl of nectar. we cannot it secretly .440 Nevertheless Funeral of Hektor. tell him the wrath of Jove and thus all the gods is great. to presents. to the Let him now return them Priam. Athene made place for her beside Zeus." mother and son were still communing thus. since such is Heaven's will." veil. and I will send Iris to ransom the body with rich gifts and At once Thetis obeyed the mandate of Zeus. convey his body away. from which she drank and returned it. and came to the tent of her son. and deliver up the body of Hektor. but out of love for thee I have forbidden it. go quickly to thy son. 'tis Jove that calls thee. and flew upwards to heaven. she gently stroked his hand and "Be it so. and from thy Arise." Swift as a whirlwind. Sadly obeying. for Thetis guards I night and day will command but send the goddess hither." tell him to mourning father. her to persuade her son that he accept from Priam the proffered ransom.

Lie pale and breathless round the fields of Troy." —Homer. adding that he need fear nothing for Hermes would guide him in safety " Then down her bow the winged Iris drives." Book xxiv. " Fearless.: : 1 Funeral of Hektor. And teach him mercy when a father prays. : And swift at Priam's mournful court arrives Where the sad sons beside their father's throne And Sat bathed in tears. (Sad scene of woe !) his face his wrapp'd attire Conceal'd from sight with frantic hands he spread A shower of ashes o'er his neck and head. who late their pride and joy. strengthened — Homer. But first he lifted his voice to heaven in supplication " ' O first and greatest ! heaven's imperial lord ! ! On lofty Ida's holy hill adored To stern Achilles now direct my ways. 44 accompanied by a herald to ransom Hektor's body. So from above. Iris having delivered her message. From room to room his pensive daughters roam Whose shrieks and clamours fill the vaulted dome Mindful of those. all amidst them lay the hoary sire. pursue the journey mark'd by Jove. " Iliad. and answer'd groan with groan. (Pope). despatch from yonder sky ! Thy sacred bird.' shall thy suppliant." Book xxiv. Jove heard the prayer and sent the looked-for sign. and the king was about to start. the Olympian monarch turned to Hermes : Still Thou whose constant cares succour mortals. . . If such thy will. . ' " . celestial augury Let the strong sovereign of the plumy race Tower on the right of yon ethereal space . and attend their prayers. when " Iliad. Priam determined at once to repair to the Greek camp.

the observing foe prevent. and o'er the boundless main . mankind. Or in soft slumbers seals the wakeful eye Thus arm'd. fair offspring — Homer. . thus accosts with kind demand Say whither. could'st thou provide Thyself not young. greeting. should these thy treasures view . and upright stood his hair Sunk was his heart his colour went and came afflicted . Then grasps the wand that causes sleep to fly. so numerous and so strong ? What couldst thou hope. the Suddenly they beheld a form aged king : approaching. These. the wings of winds.'* Book xxiv. and fear seized the hearts of the and " his attendant that it was one of their enemies . his flight sustain. For what defence. his golden pinions binds. O'er the wide earth. " of some princely line. to Achilles' tent. thou wanderest through the night ? Why roam thy mules and steeds the plains along. He seem'd ." Iliad. : And stoops on Hellespont's resounding sea. And. a weak old man thy guide ? . Through Grecian foes. . And mounts incumbent on That high. swift Hermes steers his airy way. as Priam and his charioteer to let stopped at the spring near the tomb of horses drink. guard the to thy charge consign'd : If ever pity touch'd thee for sire . who with endless hate thy race pursue alas ! ? .' And safe conduct him The god obeys. touch'd his royal hand. through fields of air. father when each mortal sight : : ' ! Is sealed in sleep.44 2 Funeral of Hektor. A sudden trembling shook his aged frame When Hermes. Behold an object Go. and dusky twilight had already spread her wings over the plain of Troy. Night was approaching. Ilos. The monarch shiver'd with despair Pale grew his face. A beauteous youth. majestic and divine. (Pope). gentle.

! Even A O generous youth this goblet take. : And joyful ' thus the royal sire replied Blest the man who pays the gods above ! constant tribute of respect and love Those who inhabit the Olympian bower My son forgot not. and whirl'd the lash around And : . and had often admired brave Hektor from a distance. in a marvellous lay in the tent of the son of Peleus 11 manner by the care of had been protected the' gods. Priam expressed his joy at having found so fortunate a Hermes replied that companion.: " . But thou. dread From me no harm shall touch thy reverend head. and asked who he was. Yet suffer not thy soul to sink with 443 . pledge of gratitude for Hector's sake And while the favouring gods our steps survey. Safe to Pelides' tent conduct my way. From Greece I'll guard thee too for in those lines The living image of my father shines. it in pieces and given it as a preyAgain Hermes reassured him. . for that although Achilleus daily it dragged the body round the mound. guide and protect him. to the ashes of the just is kind. Then the old man asked still further whether Hektor's body was yet in the camp. and now- Thus spoke is to Priam the celestial guide. he was a friend of Achilleus. answering him that this had not been done.' —Homer. snatch'd the reins. that every virtue bears in mind. then " Took the chariot at a bound. (Pope). " Iliad. in exalted power The And heaven. or whether Achilleus had cut to the dogs.' : ' —Homer. Book xxiv. " Funeral of Hektar. Hermes promised to " Iliad. but he refused to accept the gift." Book xxiv. . (Pope).

prince ! and understand : Thou ow'st thy guidance to no mortal hand Hermes I am. frail confess'd to mortality. . Before the inspiring god that urged them on. Farewell : to shun Achilles' sight I fly." Book xxiv. although took move." Book xxiv. Uncommon Nor stand are such favours of the sky. Priam at once entered the tent of Achilleus. his mother urge him to bestow ! Whatever pity that stern heart can know. who was still awake. Passing unseen through the attendants. And now they reached the naval walls and found repasting. while the bowls go round . removed the bars. and lay thinking. the aged king stood before the slain his man who had son. And pours deep slumber on their watchful Then heaved the eyes : massy gates. as ever. . coursers fly with spirit not their own. Thus the messenger from the shore." 444 The Funeral of Hektor. made of the reeds collected Easily he set wide the enormous bar by it which the gate was closed.' Homer. and which. three ordinary close. Achilleus himself could singly Then alighting from the chariot. and fell down at his feet in supplication. Now fearless enter." —Homer. " Iliad. and prefer thy prayers Adjure him by his father's silver hairs. of the gods brought the old man in safety to the tent of Pelides. descended from above. the messenger of Jove. of his lost friend. " Iliad. And o'er the trenches led the rolling cars. His son. (Pope). the celestial guide to : men thus spake " ' Hear. The guards On these the virtue of his wand he tries. (Pope). Following the advice of Hermes. The king of arts.

Unhappy in his country's cause he fell For him through hostile camps I bent my way. 445 Mute with surprise. no hopes remain. his country's last defence. — ! His father's hope. the bravest. powers divine ! ! Think of thy In me that father's and pity mine reverend image trace. see In all my equal. and his face behold ! ! . that venerable face His trembling limbs. as helpless and as old Though not so wretched there he yields to me. And beg protection with a feeble cry. And. The best. thus grovelling to embrace See him in ! : ! The scourge and ruin of my realm and race : . alas has wretched Priam bled Still one was left their loss to recompense . For him thus prostrate at thy feet I lay . some turn of human fate Expels him helpless from his peaceful state Think. . The first of men in sovereign misery Thus forced to kneel. to chase that foe away. his helpless person. but in misery Yet now. The pledge of many ! a loved and loving dame ! : Nineteen one mother bore Dead. Those silver hairs. thou favoured of the father's age. me. Large gifts proportioned to thy wrath I bear O hear the wretched. and the gods revere Think of thy father. No comfort to my griefs. from some powerful foe thou seest him fly.Funeral of Hektor. still may hope a better day May send him thee. when the kingly suppliant spoke " Ah think. hearing. Yet still one comfort in his soul may rise ! ! : . all are dead How oft. Achilleus gazed at : him. Him too thy rage has slain ! beneath thy ! steel. kissing his hands. of ! my sons are slain I ! Yet what a race ere Greece to lion came. perhaps. He hears his son still lives to glad his eyes.

when Hector restored ? ? fear the Grecian foes. and the watch to blind. May To offer all thy treasures yet contain. and gently he raised Priam from the ground. father ! (thus the vision said is :) Now For dost thou sleep. and made him lie down to rest " Now gods and men the gifts of sleep partake ." — Homer.: 446 Suppliant Funeral of Hektor. Then he examined the rich gifts the king had brought to him. still surviving sons may sue for thee . turn hither your and daughters of Ilium." Book xxiv. the tears flowed also from his eyes. refreshed him with meat and wine. was thus brought back and commanded the handmaids to wash and anoint the body and place it in the chariot. sons : " Haste. The power descending hover'd o'er his head : ' And sleep'st thou.' Waked with the word the trembling sire arose. now meet your hero . or Grecian lord Thy Thy presence here should stern Atrides see. " Iliad. hands yet reeking with their gore. (Pope). and as the remembrance of his to him. And moves in silence through the hostile land. and with loud lamentations and cries of woe she called the Trojans together footsteps. to the heart. . Achilleus granted the request of the white-haired monarch. Thus was the body of Hektor brought back to Ilium. The king's return revolving in his mind. And raised his friend the god before him goes He joins the mules. spare thy age and : offer all in vain. To pass the ramparts." Book xxiv. Touched father " Iliad." : — Homer. (Pope). directs them with his hand. As King Priam entered the city he was met by his daughter Cassandra. my children's And kiss those murderer to implore. Industrious Hermes only was awake.

queen of the Amazons. On the tenth the body was burned on a gigantic funeral pile. who came Peleus. and Hektor's spirit was at peace in the dark the state. Kiss his pale cheek. and him. received her death-blow at the hand of the son of But sadly grieved." —Homer. the hero stood before the mortally wounded queen his fascinated by the great beauty of life. her whom sword had thus deprived of at While thus Achilleus lost in melancholy contemplation. For this deed Achilleus was banished to Lesbos. and rend their scatter'd hair. by many Penthesilea." Obeying her summons. and the ashes were collected in a golden urn and buried in the ground. mockingly jeered turned. bed of body reached the palace it was placed on a and dirges were chanted round it for nine days. When regions of Hades. Later myths relate that Achilleus continued to distinguish himself successful combats before Troy. Now let your sorrows flow for this our common grief. Furious with his fist rage and with one blow of laid the mocker dead upon the ground. camp just as a new ally for Priam had arrived. Thersites came up. 447 dead. and son of Tithonos and . returned to Memnon.Achilleus last Combat and Death. as ye often met him when in life he returned victorious from the field. to aid the Trojans with her warrior maids. frantic with despair. Here ends the story of the Iliad. " Iliad." Book xxiv. and had to offer innumerable sacrifices and perform many sacred rites He before he was pronounced free from blood-guiltiness. King of the Ethiopians. men and women thronged mournfully to meet their king : " The wife and mother. Such were the honours paid to the dead.

stunned him with a blow from his sword and Poseidon rescued the body from the and changed it into a swan. off the Palladium. Towards managed to the end of the siege. . Achilleus last Combat and Death. Then. the only vulnerable part of the son of Thetis. son although impervious to wounds. his heart was filled with love for her. The mighty Greek the very pride of his youth shewn. and the of Poseidon. and declaring that he could not live without her. was killed by the Greek who first then strangled him. he was discussing the conditions with Priam. who. should come upon hero was to be cut down in and strength. and burnt on a large funeral pile. the ashes were collected in an urn. he went to Priam and offered not only to quit the Greek camp but to defend Troy against them. which he himself foresaw. Paris treacherously and vindictively shot an arrow. by Achilleus. victor. and which had been prophesied by his mother and by the dying words of Hektor. wounding him mortally in his heel.448 Eos. Having seen Polyxena. In the time of Alexander the Great the joint tomb was still Achilleus. Diomed and Odysseus and carry treasure lost its scale the walls of Troy. for only so long as retained this wooden was it invincible. obeying his behest. however. one of Priam's daughters. Odysseus received the beautiful arms of the son of Peleus. He also was conquered and fate also slain same hero. and placed beside those of Patroklos in one grave . kill the guard. But the time drew ever nigh that the fate. His body after a fierce and bloody fight was safely carried back to the Grecian camp. While. came upon Kyknos. Thus the town it greatest pro- tection. and after a contest with Ajax.



Homer of the in his " Iliad " goes no further than the death and burial of Hektor.— DESTRUCTION OF TROY.' —Virgil. Machaon. " JEne'id. 'tis an engine wrought with craft bane of our walls to be. they constructed an enormous wooden horse. (Morris). Menelaos. force was of no Therefore. To look into our very homes." Destruction of Troy. sailing hollow of which Odysseus. and several The rest got into their vessels. but Virgil gives a very graphic description fall of Troy in the "Aeneid. glad of the unwonted freedom. others hid themselves. made the left and returned to Greece." Having attempted in vain for ten long years to take the for city the Greeks saw that they must now use stratagem. 2 F . how hath such madness grown ? Deem ye the foe hath fared away ? Deem ye that Danaan gifts May ever lack due share of guile ? Are these Ulysses' shifts ? For either the Achaeans lurk within this fashioned tree. with the help and advice of in the Athene. and away behind the island of Tenedos. trust not the horse Whatso it is. Laocoon. avail. At once the gates of Troy were opened wide. the Danaan folk." Book ii. 449 XXXVIII. stratagem. and some were anxious to take it into the town and But the rest feared some wile or place it in the castle. and. Trojans imagine that they had While they were thus disputing. the inhabitants spread themselves over the plain where the remains of the Greek camp were still to be seen. came up and ' cried to them : " O wretched men. a Trojan priest. 1184. and scale the town perforce Or : Some guile at least therein abides ! : Tcucrians. and counselled that it should be destroyed. yea gift-bearing I fear. Above all they admired the great wooden horse.




Destruction of Troy.
as he spoke he sent a lance into the side of the

animal, which gave forth a deep and hollow sound.


a shepherd brought in a Greek youth

called Sinon as prisoner.

He had allowed himself to be
to mislead the Trojans,


captured, the

more completely



as they all gathered

round he pretended

be greatly


crying out, " Alas



whither shall I go

Greeks have cast
to death."



and now the Trojans




his captors relented,

and bade him give an account
thus continued

of himself, and somewhat reassured he

Happen what may,

I will

speak the truth.

My name



having offended Odysseus,


to flee





will tell

you the

real history of the

wooden horse

for long the

Greeks have wished

to return

home, but storms have always prevented

their so doing.


they sent to ask Apollo, and the reply

came back


With blood and with a

death did ye the winds appease
unto the Ilian shore



ye came,

O Danaan folk,

With blood and with an Argive
For your

soul the gods shall ye adore

—Virgil, " ^Eneid," Book



they heard


the question arose,

who should

be sacrificed?

Odysseus then demanded of Kalchas what
after ten days' silence

were the wishes of the gods, and




Already was the day of
for the sacrifice,


death settled,

and everything arranged
fortune, I succeeded in



making my escape. men of Ilium, and condemn

when, favoured by Have pity on


not to that

death from which

have only now escaped."
tale, and Priam commanded and then told him to continue " Know," said Sinon, the horse.

The Trojans
his fetters to

believed his

be taken

his relation with regard to

Destruction of Troy.



that the Greeks have ever placed the greatest reliance


the aid and protection of Pallas.

But ever since Odysseus

and Diomed

sacrilegiously carried off the Palladium,

goddess has turned from them in anger.
glances, great drops of sweat


the figure

was brought into the camp the eyes flashed

forth wrathful

from her brow, and more
air, still

wonderful than
in her


she thrice leapt into the


hand her




Kalchas counselled an


immediate departure to Argos, there to obtain fresh informafrom the Oracle, and then to return again here. But


his advice



built the

Palladium, to reconcile the goddess, and
that ye might not be able to take

wooden horse made it



so large


through your gates



go back to the city, it would once again render it invincible. Whereas, if now ye were to attempt to destroy




profane hands, endless woe and ruin would be



And now

These lying words completely deceived the men of Troy. a strange and startling incident took place.

Straight from the island of

Tenedos two enormous serpents

came swimming through

the sea, breathing forth flames of

they reared their blood-red heads above the waves, and

as they rushed

on shore out of the water,


the assembled

people fled in


they writhed their deadly coils

round the


Laocoon, who, with his two sons, was

the act of offering a sacrifice to Poseidon.

In vain the

unhappy man drew
children, in vain

sword to defend himself and

He striveth with his hands to And starward sendeth forth a

rend their folds atwain,
cry most horrible."





The monsters

crushed to death the father and his two


Destruction of Troy.
and then crawled away
to the city,

and hid themselves

beneath the shrine of Pallas.



now no


Laocoon had thus been made
to the

to atone for his profanity in

horse sacred to the goddess Athene, and

with wild cries wheels were placed under the horse's feet,

ropes fastened round his neck, and young and old dragged
the gigantic structure with joy into the city, the very walls

being torn


to permit of


entering, since the gates

were too small to allow
rang forth from

to pass through.

Four times


stopped on the threshold

four times the sound of arms

its body as maddened and

was dragged through the

blinded, the people heeded

and the

rest of the

day was spent

in decorating all
at the

the temples with green boughs

amid shouts of joy

supposed recovery of the Palladium. At length night fell, darkness shrouded the
Trojans having feasted and rejoiced,

and the

Then by

the light of the friendly

down to rest. moon, which now rose, the

Greek ships returned from Tenedos, and landed on the Trojan shore. At the same time artful Sinon stealthily opened the door in the body of the horse, and one by one Quickly the) the armed heroes stepped quietly forth. overpowered the guards, and murdered the Trojans, who

sleeping off the effects of the banquet.

they opened the gates to their companions

Then who had now

come up from the ships. Numbers of Trojans





appeared to Aeneas in a dream.


covered with dust and blood, his
leathern thong,


with the

and on


body were the wounds he




Sorrowfully he spoke


Destruction of Troy.



goddess born,

flee forth,'

he said, and snatch thee from the

The foeman hath

the walls,

and Troy


down from topmost

For Priam and for country now enough. If any hand Might have kept Pergamos, held up by mine, it yet should

Her holy

things and household gods Troy gives in charge to

Take these The great

as fellows of thy fate


go forth the walls

to see,

walls thou shalt build,

when thou

the sea hast







disappeared, and Aeneas, starting up from his

heard the roaring of flames and clashing of arms.

Half- stunned he seized his weapons, dashed out into the


calling together the scattered Trojans, hurried to

assist in the

defence of the king's palace





and death of

night, what tongue





Or who may pay the debt of tears that agony was worth The ancient city overthrown, lord for so many a year, The many bodies of the slain that, moveless, everywhere
Lie in the street, in houses
lie, lie


round the holy doors of

— Virgil, "yEneid," Book


met a troop of Greeks, who, mistaking him for one of their own party, abused him for his tardiness. But he and his followers allowing them no time to find out their mistake, fell upon them, slew them all, and, to still deceive the rest of the Greeks, took possession of their arms and weapons. Thus disguised, they were enabled to create

great havoc
ships, while


the Greeks.



back to


others hid themselves under the

body of the



Destruction of Troy.


beautiful daughter of Priam.

number of Greeks dragged forth Kassandra, the With wildly dishevelled hair
hands she raised her burning eyes to heaven, Maddened at this sight, Aeneas
furiously attacked the Greeks, hoping

praying in vain for help.




Suddenly they found themselves by a shower of arrows from Athene's temple, where These, deluded by a number of Trojans were stationed. the armour Aeneas and his followers wore, mistook them for Greeks ; thus were they assailed both by friends and foes. Most of them were slain, only Aeneas and two of his comrelease the maiden.


succeeded at length


reaching the palace of

" Where such a mighty battle was as though none other where as though none others fell in all the town Yet burned



the Greeks fiercely attacked the palace, raising their



heads to keep off the stones and arrows
Others placed ladders against the walls,
their shields in their left

of their enemies.

and the bravest among them, with
hands, scaled the walls.

The Trojans on

their side tore stones

from the roof and
at the point of

which they flung down on

their assailants, while others

defended the various entrances to the palace
the sword.

Aeneas, passing through a secret gate which in happier days had been used by Andromache when she carried young
his grand-parents, went through the castle up to the top of a high tower overlooking the whole of Troy. Here he managed to loosen the upper part of the structure by means of a strong iron rod, and hurling down the gigantic mass with mighty strength he killed thousands of But more and more came on, among the Greeks below.

Astyanax to see

Destruction of Troy.
them Pyrrhos (Neoptolemos), the brave son of
door of the palace that
at length


who, with his powerful axe, dealt such fierce blows on the

gave way, thus opening

wide to the Greeks the halls of Priam.

Within all was terror and confusion, women pale with fear wandered aimlessly through the vast chambers, their cries rending the air, as Pyrrhos, having overcome the guards,
rushed furiously in with his bloodthirsty band, everything

way before him.


aged Priam beheld the door

thus stormed, he girt on his long unused armour, and grasping his sword with his feeble hands hastened to meet the


Meanwhile Hekate, with her daughter, had sought proround an altar that had been erected in an open court overshadowed with laurels. Now when she saw the " O unhappy spouse king, she cried what evil thought makes thee go forth with arms which thou canst no longer wield? Come hither and join us at the foot of this altar, and pray to the guardian Penates. It may be that they will The old protect us if not, we may at least die together." man, heart-broken, gave way at her entreaties, and sat down sadly beside the shrine. Just then Polites, one of his sons, ran through the empty hall, closely followed by Pyrrhos,


with his deadly spear raised


Already he bled from

many wounds, and
down, drawing

as he reached his parents' side he

his last breath.


this sight

Priam could

no longer

refrain himself

" 'Ah, for such wickedness,' he cried, 'for daring such a deed,

aught abide in heaven as yet such things as

this to heed,


the gods give thee worthy thanks, and pay thee well-



That thou hast set the death of sons before my father's eyes, That thou thy murder's fouling thus in father's face hast flung.



Destruction of Troy.
he, Achilles,

whence indeed thou liar hast never sprung Was such a foe to Priam erst for shamefast meed he gave To law and troth of suppliant men, and rendered to the



bloodless Hector dead, and


sent to

mine own


—Virgil, "yEneid," Book


with nerveless

With these words the infuriated father threw his spear arm at the enemy, but the weapon only
grazed the shield of Pyrrhos,




Yea tell him this, go take the tidings down To Peleus' son my father then, of Pyrrhus worser grown And all these evil deeds of mine take heed to tell the tale







^neid," Book



one hand, he raised
blade up to
its hilt

dragging him back to the altar by his grey hair with his sword in the other and drove the
in Priam's side.

The death

of the king

made Aeneas

fear for the safety of

his old father Anchises, his wife Kreusa,


his little son

Ascanius or lulus, and he hurried away to seek them, and met Helen on her way to obtain protection in the temple of


sight of her filled his heart with wrath as


thought of all the misery she had caused, and he was about to slay her, when Aphrodite, gloriously apparelled, appeared

him and stayed the blow


" Wherefore art thou so


son," she said, " wilt thou not rather look after


Surrounded by the horrors of war they would

long ere this have perished had not



Neither Helen nor Paris has caused the overthrow of Troy,
it is

the act of hostile gods ; the gods who know no pity. Behold where Poseidon with his mighty trident is throwing down the walls. See at the gate, Hera calls up fresh Grecian hosts from the ships, and on the palace yonder


Destruction of Troy.


stands Pallas, striking terror into every Trojan heart with

her fearful



Zeus himself encourages the


in every way.

Hasten, therefore, and



while yet there


strive longer



guard thee safely to thy father's house."

She spoke, and disappeared.
'twixt fire

Then Aeneas hastened on

and foe, until at last he reached his father's house. Anchises however refused to leave his native city " Ye, who are young may fly, but leave me here to die in peace, for lame and useless am 1, since the day that Zeus struck me with his thunderbolt." Prayers and entreaties were of no avail, the old man refused to fly.

Then Aeneas
leave the city

I will


" If thou wilt not go, neither will


return into the midst of the


death meets me, while ye


beloved ones are murdered hastily putting on his armour, he was about


to hasten forth,


his wife

and holding up the
on thy way

child Ascanios besought
to die,

Kreusa threw herself him

at his


If thou art

then bear us through




to thee the wise in

Then keep

arms some hope of arms befall, Unto whom giv'st thou Julus house first



yea and mine withal, that once was called thy


— Virgil, "/Eneid," Book



As she thus

wailed, a marvellous portent was suddenly

a bright flame appeared

on the head of the


but without doing him any harm, or even burning a single

Filled with terror, they tried to extinguish


with water,

but Anchises exclaimed: "Almighty Jove! if our prayers can move thee, look down in pity and confirm this sign."


Destruction of Troy.
when a loud
peal of thunder crashed

Scarcely had he ended

and a brilliant star with a shining tail darted along the sky, and disappeared behind the wooded
through the
heights of



Anchises no longer withstood these

but prepared

an immediate departure.


time was to be

louder and louder roared the flames, nearer and nearer


glowing heat of the conflagration, which was

devouring the



Pious Aeneas took his aged father upon his shoulders,

and holding Ascanios by the hand, bade

his wife follow


rest of the

household were to make the best of

to the

temple of Demeter, which stood on a


outside the

they were

Here and having committed the Penates Anchises' hands for safety, they started forth on their

shrouded by ancient cypress-trees.


to meet,

perilous journey.

pursuing footsteps

They had almost reached fell upon

the gates

their ears.

son," cried Anchises, "get thee swiftly

when the sound of " Obey son, my away, for the enemy
aside, and waited on again. At last his dismay his wife
in the


Aeneas stepped

he thought


safe before going

he reached the temple of Demeter, but to was not there She must have missed her way

darkness of the night, or dropped

down from

weariness or

in the care of his friends,

left his father and the child and regardless of the danger to In vain he himself returned again to the burning town. searched all the streets through which they had passed

Frantic with grief, he


everything was silent and deserted.


reached his house,

but there found Greeks in possession, while the flames rose






as he


traversed the streets,

daring even in the dead silence of night to call aloud

" Kreusa

of Troy.


Kreusa," the


of his wife appeared before

Startled at the sight, his hair stood

on end, and

his voice






he could not utter a word.

" Husband beloved


dost thou thus give

The gods have
thee from
longer, but

willed that thy wife should not

Troy, therefore, farewell

way to grief? accompany mourn for me no
So saying

have a care of our beloved son."




Thrice he sought to clasp her in his arms,

but each time she escaped from him like a fleeting breath,


to bear his sorrow alone. to the temple of

Aeneas returned

Demeter, and, aided by

the Trojans

who had

escaped, built a

on the other

side of


Ida, in which they set sail caring not whither

the gods might lead them.


adventures befel them as

they went, and at


they reached the Ionian Sea, and

landed on the islands of the Strophades, where dwelt the


after they

had been driven away by Phineus.



monster woefuller than they, and crueller is none God's plagues and curses dread from Stygian waters


winged thing with maiden face, and hooked hands, and face With hunger that no feeding stints."

for ever pale

— Virgil " /Eneid," Book


The wanderers

did not at

notice these monsters, but

seeing only beautiful herds grazing near the shore they at

a banquet.
the latter,

once killed some of them, and prepared both sacrifices and They were about to set down and partake of




sudden dreadful rush from out the moun-



The Harpy



about their clanging wings they


foul all

Destruction of Troy.
things with filthy touch as at the food they


— Virgil
The Trojans

"^Eneid," Book



fled to a


valley, and, taking refuge

a thick wood, prepared a fresh repast, and again sat


" Again from diverse parts of heaven, from dusky lurking place,

shrieking rout with hooked feet about the prey doth






my company

To arms, that with an evil folk the war may come to pass. They do no less than my commands, and lay along the grass
Their hidden swords, and therewithal their bucklers cover

Wherefore, when swooping


again, they


the curved



Misenus blows the
our folk




a watch-stead


With hollow brass
But nought


will bite


their backs,

on and wondrous battle try. and from their feathers

Glanceth the sword, and swift they

up 'neath the

stars of

Half-eaten meat and token foul leaving behind




" ^Eneid,"





of the monsters, Kelaino, seating herself on a lofty " Descendants of forth this prediction


In that ye have killed their herds and driven

the sackless Harpies

away from the banquet, ye yourselves

ere ye reach the shores of Italy shall suffer from the pangs

of hunger and famine."
terror, the

Then she

flew away, and, filled with

Trojans sailed from the shores of the Strophades,

and turned towards Sicily. On the way Anchises died, and at length Aeneas and his companions landed on the coast of Italy, where the prediction of the Harpies was fulfilled.

Return of Odysseus from Troy.



was obliged


help the inhabitants


a long and
the greatest


war, during

which he was often


want of food.

In the end he conquered and


to rise.


and peace, for he built a city (Alba Longa), from on Rome, the mistress of the world, was



The Greeks had now at last conquered Ilium, but many and various were the mishaps which were still to befall them on their way home. And none among them fared worse
than Ulysses, or Odysseus, the Grecian form of his name,

whose adventures have been related by Homer




It is to

the account of the great poet, therefore,




keep, only giving




sketch of the early history of Odysseus.
Ithaka, one of the Ionian Islands, was the native land of



he went to join the Trojan war he

left at

and and his young son Telemachos, On the virtuous Penelope, news of the fall of Troy reaching Greece, Penelope daily


aged father Laertes,

his wife the beautiful

expected the return of her beloved husband.
year passed by and he

But year


came not, until everyone said that he must have perished and would never return to Ithaka.
Penelope alone refused

to give

up hope,

for in her heart she

him again. In the meantime a number of youths, some writers say one hundred and sixty, mostly princes of the neighbouring towns, became suitors for her hand, and, while awaiting her
that she should see

Penelope no little she should select one of them. devoured the rest till finest of his flocks." answered the god of Heaven. They drank and gave In decision. lived in Odysseus' palace at his cost. for I Have patience yet a am now weaving is ready will make my she unravelled again at night. and for seven years he remained in the island. one of the Cyclops." the work she had spun during the day deceive them. is my daughter. filled with love She promised let him go. so that to an end. him perpetual youth and strength if he would only stay with her. depths of the sea. " longer. distant home. it might never come Homer for the begins the "Odyssey" by placing Odysseus on the island of the nymph Kalypso (Malta). order therefore to gain time she said. whither he would gladly return. his best wines. " Deeply does it grieve me to see Odysseus thus kept in the island of Kalypso by her evil In vain she flatters him and tries her arts upon spells. " Odysseus been ready honour. who. But if we that all him Poseidon cannot harm him. to offer It is a favourite of mine. at " then send Hermes once down to Kalypso's isle. him art . even only to die." "If is indeed thy serious earnest. great hero. and when the web I But she only spoke thus to choice. and . Why thou " still wrathful with him. would not and going to Zeus said. she cannot make him forget his if home in Ithaka. for he has ever sacrifices up and burnt-offerings in for my Poseidon who persecutes him unite in helping having put out the eye of his son Polyphemos. weeping and yearning for a sight of his At last Athene had compassion upon him." replied Athene. O mighty Jove ?" Thou art mistaken.462 Return of Odysseus from Troy. but an irresistible longing for his native land and loved ones filled Daily he sat on the shore gazing into the his breast.

for his lost father. and then demanded dances and songs for their amusement. There she assumed the form of Mentor. her how he longed for his father's return to free his mother from all these suitors. his bosom tall noticed the goddess at the door he instantly rose to welcome the stranger guest. Young Telemachos. while the servants cut up the meat and brought in the wine for the banquet.— JOURNEY OF TELEMACHOS TO PYLOS AND SPARTA. Leading her into a separate chamber he bade a servant bring a golden ewer and silver basin to wash her hands ere sitting down to the feast. While the song was going on. took their seats in due order. command her to free Odysseus. upon which a herald presented the singer Phemios with a harp. wishing he would his thoughts were with As soon as he return to drive away this host of idle suitors." and Nestor as to his father's Athene fastened on her golden sandals. Telemachos took his seat He told beside the goddess and conversed with her apart.Journey of Tclemachos. with which she could cross both land and sea. but that he greatly feared he must . and manly youth. there to enquire of Menelaos return. XL. king of one of the neighbouring islands. and hurried down to Ithaka. I 463 myself will hasten to Ithaka and urge Telemachos to go to Sparta and Pylos. grown a seated in the midst. was torn with hope and fear. partook of the luxurious banquet. minstrel And the passed his hand over the strings and began a glorious lay. When she arrived at the palace she found all the suitors playing at quoits. Soon the crowd of suitors came in.

who were eating him out of The house and home. . and need not despair of his father's return." " And I canst thou demand ? of me. if not by .464 Journey of Telemachos. then by stratagem. the most overbearing : among ? the suitors. and afterwards Menelaos in Sparta. and thus bring endless upon me? No. as well as the suitors. that the night. at Now we learn through one of her maidens again unravelled ! work she has done by day is Hearken. who finished the web she was weaving. Then Mentor urged the youth to tell the suitors they must leave the palace the next day. but will remain to eat of thy flocks and drink of thy wines. as soon as she should have is thy mother. have been drowned and whence she came. Mentor. at sea. " If thou hearest that he is dead. for being faithful to "that should send away my mother my father's memory Would she not at once evil summon the cruel Erinnyes. called upon the former to stand by him against these interlopers. therefore. then erect a monument to his memory. but the gods had did not assured her that he had been detained on his way. not we. Odysseus' old companion and that Tele- She herself machos understand much about auguries. and he himself should to fit out a vessel. to our trifles determination so long as she thus with us we will not take our departure. rudely replied it " Why is complainest thou of us in fault. and find out from them if they knew where Odysseus was. go to Nestor in Pylos. and then he asked who she was Athene replied that she was in arms. For four long years she has kept us here without the hope that she would choose one of our number." replied Telemachos." next morning Telemachos assembled all the people. would now soon arrive. force. Antinoos. and let your mother marry again but try and rid thee of the suitors.

" Book ii. dotard prophesy at home. it was foretold that he would return only after twenty years. nor spare His substance. — —Homer. who. and then my mother may select noisily. and after having passed through many dangers. (VVorsley). my companions and hasten to Pylos "I and I Sparta." replied Telemachos . so loud of speech No nor the oracle which thou. and one among the crowd specially gifted in auguries " Hearken all ye suitors Some great danger cried Odysseus must be near. If hear that he still lives I will return and patiently endure for yet another year. to thine own confusion." Eurymachos answered angrily " Hush.— Journey of Telemachos. Advise him rather to bid the queen assembly. Dost vainly. and will not return to your own lands. preach. " " Odyssey. after hovering threateningly over the some moments. but if erect a tomb to his on the contrary he is dead. and then flew away across the town.'*' ! care. tion is at hand. never shall such a deed disgrace lost to all ! 465 my name But if ye are honour and shame." Thereupon the assembly dispersed 2 while Tele- G ." While he thus spoke Zeus sent two eagles down from the mountains. and do not enrage Telemachos the more or it will be the worse for thee. since all-dreadless we for no man Not even Telemachus. there to find what has chanced to my father. another spouse. fought fiercely for : ! : ! make her choice among " ' us :" For well I know the Achaians till that day Never will cease from their rough suit. old man. ship with twenty of will now go on board Enough. when he started for Troy. for I remember that. All were amazed at the divine sign. then will I ask the gods for help to drive you forth. and your destructhreatens you. I will memory.

and pro- He then returned to the palace in order to arrange about the necessary provisions. o'er earth's wide breast ? Zeus-born Odysseus far from hence hath died 'Mid stranger peoples. dear child. disguised as advice.' " —Homer. where Athene. who were to go with him. was by the only he will of the gods that he undertook the journey. and had also succeeded in getting a ship from . but he allowed them to speak without noticing their scoffs. and as the tears ran down her face she sobbed " ! : 'Ah why. this voyage hast thou vowed? Whither art roaming from thy native nest. until after the twelfth : day of his departure " ' Lest her salt tears despoil much loveliness with woe. at ease. commanded her to say nothing about it to his anxious mother. and ordered wise Eurykleia. The sole one of the mother. Ah bide with thine is own people here pain There no call to suffer useless Wandering always on the barren seas. But the old woman cried out with anguish when she heard his purpose. however. who had nursed him as a child. disguised as Telemachos. (Worsley). " Athene. and this brood unblest When To thou art gone will evil counsels hide cut thee off unwares. Telemachos. calling the men together. to bring forth some measures of wheat and jars of wine for his journey. had gone through the city. gave him good mised to procure a ship for him.466 Journey of Telemachos. ! and all thy wealth divide. consoled the telling it faithful old servant. They derided him with taunting words. accompanied him. meanwhile. and there found the suitors all preparing for renewed feasting and riot. her "Odyssey. still machos went to the shore." Book ii. Mentor.

Odysseus. When herself at length all were seated in the vessel Athene favourite. whom he had offended. And the young chief up libations to the gods. where she wrapt the suitors in a deep sleep. The Greek whereas Menelaos wanted to return home. " Loud and clear Sang the bluff Zephyr o'er the wine-dark mere Behind them. Since that. for . the former wishing to remain and offer sacrifices to Athene. . for after Troy had fallen. Then. a fresh dispute arose. Philoctetes. . and several others shipped Tenedos. where they stayed to however. upsoared.Journey of Telemachos. and he. He therefore advised Telemachos to go to Sparta and see Menelaos. news had reached him that Pyrrhos. " Odyssey. the chieftain 467 in. By Athene's hest he blew . so that only Diomed and Menelaos came back to Greece with Nestor. a violent dispute had arisen between Agamemnon and Menelaos. but of Odysseus he knew nothing. ever. howa cordial welcome from noble Nestor." Book offered onward till the Dawn ii. others changed their minds offer their sacrifices. and received He could not. Noemon. give Telemachos any information regarding Odysseus. and urged Telemachos to hasten his departure. The vessel reached Pylos the next morning. . Loudly the keel rushed through the seething All night the ship clave tide ." (Worsley). Odysseus and some of the and returned to Agamemnon. and Agamemnon had returned home. their protectress. as evening closed the goddess again assumed the form of Mentor. the rowers bent accompanied her young and to their oars. hurried back to the palace. in especial to blue-eyed Pallas. Here. . host was therefore split into two parties : Nestor sided with for Menelaos. Idomeneus. — Homer.

and struck by his great likeness to Odysseus. (Worsley). yet not all lament so much as one Whom to remember robs my eyes of sleep. Menelaos. ! " do mine eyes planned indeed behold the son of that my loved friend I I ever when we both returned from Troy would then give . let The tears others witness he shaded his face with his purple mantle. And mine to mourn without forgetfulness. " Odyssey." Book iv. and Menelaos was unable to restrain his grief at the death of his brother Agamemnon. His was the fate to suffer grievous woe. When also they reached Sparta they were kindly received by Menelaos. had observed him closely. however. Hath ever toiled as he. toiled and won." These words cut Telemachos to the started from his eyes. the talk ran on Troy and its fall. " Perchance his loved ones mourn him now as dead. Odysseus. While seated at the board.' " —Homer. And he yet absent. lately returned from a long sea voyage after visiting various distant countries. While onward and still on the seasons flow. "'All. heart. and I comfortless. concluded that his stranger guest must be Telemachos. Whether he live or die we cannot guess. My lips of food since of the Achaians none . This supposition to his great joy was confirmed by " Nestor's son. which Helen had also re- marked. and horses. And concluded all I weep. and the other friends who had once And fought for him. where possibly he might have heard something of Odysseus. thus enabling Telemachos to make the journey by land. but unwilling to his grief. chariot He also give him his and sent his son Pisistratos as charioteer. O gods ! " cried Menelaos.— 468 he had only : Journey of Telemachos. although he did not know who they were.

of Pharos. and Helen. Aurora streaks the sky with orient light. all Next morning Menelaos enquired what happy fate had brought Telemachos to Sparta. angry at my having on the Egyptian is omitted the usual sacrifices in their honour. " Odyssey. and we should live together as brothers till death came to dissolve the bond. 469 Odysseus a city in my land. and his anxiety for his father's return lived. if he still The king exclaimed against the rapacity of the suitors. and learnt the object of his journey. (Pope). and the gods have prevented his returning home.Journey of Telemachos. and banished past griefs. from dewy shade emerging bright. " 'Truly not O immortal one I replied. and on the shore she isle. till of Odysseus' fate brought tears to the eyes of Nestor's son entreated them to speak of other things : " ' Let not your roof with echoing grief resound. this speech. : for the feast the friendly bowl is crown'd But when." Book iv. Now Let each deplore his dead. ." The thought all. where. and here till we were detained by we nearly lost all hope contrary winds for twenty days of ever seeing our native land again. to Menelaos saw the wisdom of help assuage their virtues of grief. for drove away thoughts of every hidden care and pain. When behold had pity to ! fair Eidothea. it mixed a philter in their wine the which she had learnt in Egypt. !' came me and asked why we thus loitered on the from choice. which only a day's At length we reached the sail from Egypt. on us. with Penelope and Telemachos. long detained my isle coast. " On my way fleet and then gave an account of his own wanderings. from Troy the gods. But such happiness would have been too great for us. daughter of the sea-god as I sat fishing Proteus.' " —Homer. he might dwell in peace.

one of Poseidon's subjects. In the same figure that he whilome wore. I all the old man's sleights to thee will tell.' " I ' O goddess/ then I cried. There will I take you when the Dawn appears And Choose thou well set you couched in order. . O king.' thus she answered me. And then lie down. like shepherd with his sheep. Soon as ye see him couched. Here on * this coast my father Proteus.' tell me what arts to use that To which she answered ' : What time the sun in middle heaven is stayed. and having the gift of prophecy he can tell thee how best to get away from here. But to accomplish this thou must use both care and often comes on stratagem. remember well Your virtue. Around him the whole sea-brood slumbereth. He first the number of the seals will spell. and water. When your purpose shall with words inquire. though to all things that on earth's breast creep He change.470 1 Jozirney of Telemachos. and pretentious fire. Then the beneficent goddess disappeared into the depths I of the sea. bravest of thy mariners. and also what events have happened in thy native land since thy departure. and some ' offended god doth surely hold back the favouring winds. strain the more. Three comrades. and how the wide fish -teeming sea Thou mayst pass over to thy native shore. and ask what god with anguish sore Loads thee. Loose him. Comes up the god to sleep in cavern-shade. and in iron grasp him keep Reluctant. shore. may " ' thus beguile the god.' " Hearken." Book iv. and returned on board the ship. (Worsley). Veiled in dark ripple. Zephyr's air beneath.' —Homer. stronger will A than mine keeps us here. You all the while clasp harder. All by the deep respire their bitter briny breath. " " Odyssey.

sea-god tired and took his former frame. " ' "Odyssey. Which in our nostrils breathed an odour bland. (Worsley)." Book iv. " Thus we lay the whole morning perfectly still. I and Dawn advanced my companions went and guidance. (Worsley). Say. she " ' made us lie down.' — HOMER. snake.' Journey of Telemachos. and a tree with leafy crest. " Odyssey/' Book iv. he became Then water. Then having scooped a hole for each of us in the silvery sand. "At noon Proteus appeared. could a rank sea-beast at such close quarters bear ? —Homer. " But the goddess. Placed ambrosia near the lips of each. at once He. " Next morning 471 when the daughter of the with rosy steps across the sky. found the number correct. lay down When we saw that slumber had closed his eyes. and suspecting no treachery. Till the old . counted his seals. and covered us with the skins : Who Dire was the ambush. made : use of his art and changed himself into various forms "' Lion. At last when the sun was already high in the heavens. But we with clench of iron held our game. on shore and prayed to the gods for help Ere long Eidothea rose from the waves.' —Homer. what god inspired . which she had just taken from the animals. And the sea-monster's stench did overreach. bearing in her hand four seals' skins. son of Atreus. however. (Worsley). panther. rushed forth with a loud shout and seized the god. " Odyssey. long-maned. we to rest. and the stench severe. the seals came up out of the water and stretched themselves on the warm sands all round us." Book Then spoke tome: iv.

Too soon. And. have the Greeks who remained me. For by Poseidon led ' ! . therefore thou must Egypt and sacrifice great hecatombs to . and what require of " the boon thou dost me ? ' And it is I replied. He boasted maugre all the powers on high That he had safely vanquished the great main.' said he do honour now return to thou hast forgotten Jove and all the gods. Not till this has been performed canst thou expect a favouring gale. ." And he O Menelaus. He unto Gyrae's cliffs did safe attain. had he not drawn doom on his own head. is thee with this daring fraud. why Seek a sad knowledge ? 'Tis not meet at all Thine heart should learn what in my breast doth lie. ! . O seer. Troy when Nestor and vouchsafed reply " I left returned in safety home. and breathing deep disdain. yet alive and Ajax hath been slain Among his ships. my and continued all still to question him ' : Tell in great Proteus. Yet of the Achaian leaders died but twain. . though by Pallas hated. might have fled Destruction. Flown with coarse pride. Streamed from thy smileless eyes.' : 47 2 yourney of Telemachos. Returning {you know whom the battle left) One in the wide-realmed ocean doth remain Pent. And lo Poseidon heard the vauntful cry. expiate thy fault. when thou hadst hearkened all. canst thou tell me which of the in order gods " to that keeps me here. ' and what ' I must do to return to ' my to native land ? That is soon answered. son of Atreus. alas a bitter shower would fall. For many were destroyed and many left.' " I was deeply grieved to think I must again retrace steps.

So sank he in the wild sea flow. the thought of action consoled me. sailing o'er the sea-deep wild. And clave it part remained and part did . snow. and avenge thy brother." Book iv. whereon sat Ajax to his woe Mouthing vain scorn. more : It is the Ithacan. And life runs smoothest . until at length the sea-god spoke again mourn thus hopelessly. rain. Rouse thee like a man and hasten home. in mid-ocean isled Of that celestial nymph. . never but the ocean-zephyr's breath.'' Homer. and all his valiant train. Where Rhadamanthus aye inhabiteth. so the high-fate saith. Laertes' child Yea. The gods shall convoy. and life seemed no longer to have any brightness left in it.Journey of Telemachos. mine own eyes have seen him weeping sore Pent in the palace. and I further enquired which of the Greeks were still alive and had not reached : " Wherefore dost thou their homes " ' : So did '• I speak. Nor can he. Thee to Elysian fields. and he replied once . But thou. (Worsley). Come. Menelaos? Tears cure no ills. Sorely I wept and grieved over " He also told return home. " Odyssey. 473 fly Seaward. Never in knight-famed Argos shalt see death. the death of my noble brother. Gaze on the rough dear fatherland again. Reft of both oars and bark. — me of my brother Agamemnon's fate on his Thus he continued the tale until my heart was well nigh breaking. attend the funeral feast." Once more my soul received back hope. Zeus-nurtured one. She her reluctant few doth aye constrain . . Calypso styled. And with his trident smote imperiously On the Gyraean rock a thunderous blow. whither storm. at earth's extreme. by will supreme.

'" . (Worsley). giving him as a farewell gift a capacious silver goblet chased with gold. Zeus-born maid Odysseus. tarry with " And now. recognised in this act his spirit. The herald Medon. manly and and by advice of Antinoos they settled him on his return. In Ithaka. young when I will me for ten or twelve gifts. " Odyssey. attended by her maidens. and undone. " With which words Proteus dived underneath the whirling sacrifices. the work of Hephaestos. iv. o'er hast. having offered the required cenotaph to Agamemnon's name. she was fresh danger still more alarmed when she heard the which threatened him. There. laden with rich this gracious offer. meanwhile. robed herself in new garments." —Homer. for But Telemachos refused he said his let companions awaited his return at Pylos. Because thou Helen — Homer. (Worsley). ascended to the roof of the palace. Winged with cool ease. and hastened to tell Penelope. learning that Telemachos had really departed. while I returned on board and sailed back to Egypt. and save my son Make those hard-hearted fall. defeated. overheard their consultations. Already in great anxiety about her son. Of Remember these things now. By Eurykleia's advice she bathed. prince. ! ." Book happy men doth blow and child of Zeus art so. If here. " Odyssey. in the seasons gone. speed thee hence. and raised a and arrived in home. safety at set sail. the suitors. Antinoos therefore manned a and lay in wait for him at the spot where they thought he would most probably land. and then." days." Book iv. however.474 Journey of Telemachos. and there invoked Athene's aid : " Hearken. waves. Menelaos then him depart. ox or sheep choice offerings ever made. ! O tireless Virgin. independent to kill vessel.

For she is able and hath strength to save. As many a man desires his own life to invest. mine own Penelope. but the shadowy form replied " ' : Calm now thy fears. Journey of Telemachos. She hath heard thy cry.: " . Homer. And to my care but now this message gave To help thee fallen in perplexity. Pallas Athene." —Homer." cried Penelope." . and thus spoke " Liest thou here. ? . no offender to the gods doth seem. "canst if Odysseus is yet alive. "If thou thou not art tell " Odyssey. For yet thy son returneth o'er the deep He. dost thou lament and weep . filled Penelope awoke and hope once again her heart. And " Odyssey. wrapt in slumber Penelope told her sister of her fear that Telemachos would be slain. me indeed a goddess. Still " Odyssey. With thy dear spirit drowned in pain and sleep The easy-living gods have pitied thee Not with their will.' —Homer. (Worsley). with these words swiftly vanished. . thy fainting heart command. sent a 475 prayers." Book iv." Book iv. as she determined to await the arrival of her son. or whether he has already descended to Hades. For such a safeguard on thy son doth rest. dream in the guise of her sister when Penelope had who stood beside her." Book iv." But the phantom cried " Whether he : live or die I may not tell But words like these are idle as the wind. The goddess heard her retired to rest. and. (Worsley). (Worsley).

" Book v. Athene reminded Zeus he had not yet freed Odysseus from the wiles of Kalypso. . When the messenger had departed. which even immortals dread. the nymph thus spoke " Un- no longer waste thy time in idle tears. and waft thee gales. singing melodiously as she golden shuttle. The But great oath Styx. and that dark stream. on which thou canst cross the happy prince ! ! sea. to the lot. ." he seen. trees and build thee a raft. her words. she promised. where he found the beautiful nymph seated in her cool grotto. I not trust myself on so slight a protection as a raft. the gods again that consultation. (Worsley). with temper thy wit plays. to wove a web with her message. Earth. " thou hast ! some other motive than O god- dess will and wilt art only preparing fresh misery for me ! No." Smilingly Kalypso answered " ' . rolling evermore.476 Shipwreck of Odysseus. and obey his commands. Hermes delivered Zeus's much against her will. unless thou swear to me by the solemn oath of the gods that thou hast no hidden design against me. therefore. Yet may the heaven that bendeth over head. nor is filed too fine. Still thy cunning dead. that I Know mean no I guile in my heart's I core. for thy use plan whate'er should explore. Hermes was dispatched to the island." trust on thy way with prosperous But Odysseus would not said. is " Surely." —Homer. Immediately. " Odyssey. shore where Odysseus sat weeping and bemoaning his Approaching him softly. With the assembled in first blush of rosy morn. I will provide thee with food and wine. O versed in wiles. she went down . for Up fell free as the winds I give thee leave to depart. XLI„— SHIPWRECK OF ODYSSEUS.

catch the prosperous winds. Daily my home and Chide my heart longs to me not. I am for willing to bear whatsoever the gods may have in store trees. and main he bade the dark clouds sweep.Shipwreck of Odysseus. but he refused as before. a beautiful island. yet return to I cannot forget her. however. country. " how can ! survive this Surely mighty Jove himself must have swelled this tempest. my sceptre still rules the watery main :" '"Therewith the clouds he marshalled." at sight I Book the ? v." —Homer. in the distance. Before he could reach the shore. south. who had just returned from Ethiopia. if only my wish is granted. " that thy beauty is far superior to that of Penelope. cried angrily surely " Great ! heavens ! the gods must have reversed his sentence if Not thus. with a joyful heart. This was Scheria. stirring the wild deep. and shaking his : azure locks. Poseidon." he said. and on the eighteenth he beheld before him. " he cried. . however. and. Blow their wild chorus. saw him. east and west. Kalypso was " Alas ! " Odyssey. fifth me. " Although I own. And night came rushing from heaven's stormy steep. shall he escape my wrath. spread his sail to Thus he journeyed on for seventeen days. 477 Once again she offered him the gift of immortality if he would remain with her. What raging O thrice happy those who fell winds what roaring waters ! * Now Corfu. all And loosed the blasts of the winds that rave. (Worsley)." Next morning Odysseus began to cut down On the the fourth day the raft was ready. terrified of fearful storm.* where dwelt the happy race of the Phaeaces. and the rough waves leap O'er earth In thunder. Fiercely the sky-born north. and on he took leave of Kalypso. and the wave Smote with his trident.

tore the planks asunder. and rising from the depths of the swelling surges. This infused fresh courage hero. and boldly Leukothea's veil. cast aside his breasted the heaving billows. raft. bursting over him with fearful himself with force. back to their caves. fell Would its the Trojan lances around me. it and getting upon cumbrous garments." mighty wave reared covering the waters. which had raged fiercely for three days. of Troy. till now the goddess Leukothea. fearing that this was but some fresh design of Poseidon's by which to get him off the raft. that day While he thus spoke a crested head and rushed over him. took pity on him. had died. deterBut mined to remain as long as it would hold together. raft. Poseidon watched him uously : " Go forth then sternly. seeing his need. One of these planks Odysseus grasped. the shores of Phaeacia he was to throw it back into the Then she disappeared under the rushing waters. while he was still debating what to do." and turning round his sea-horses he dived down to his glistening palace beneath the ocean. in the fainting heart of the and Leukothea gave him her veil. the angry ocean god sent a mighty wave which. Odysseus. waves. that I also and drawing him down into the surging ing the east. but the nearer he came . now west. placed herself beside him on the raft. keeping Boreas alone to Great was waft Odysseus gently to the neighbouring coast. easily forget whate'er thy fate thou wilt not my wrath. however.478 on the field Shipwreck of Odysseus. telling him to gird Having reached it and to jump into the water. Athene then ordered the winds. now south. and girded himself with Then he let go the plank. and then on thy watery way said contempttill thou reach the island of Phaeacia. his delight when he saw it so close. With great difficulty he at last succeeded in regainand was driven now north.

and weary and exhausted with pain and hunger. further Uncertain whether to land here. When sciousness. thick with an undergrowth of brushwood. mightier than the first. and afar the wet foam-vapours fall. to pre- vent the waters drawing him in again. lay down almost lifeless on the Phaeacian it shore. " Odyssey. he was about to swim on when a monstrous wave carried him straight to Wildly he clung to a jutting cliff the rocky shore." all.— ODYSSEUS IN PHAEACIA." Book v.: Odysseus in Phaeacia. and threw a resting-place. XLII. tore him from his hold and threw lost him back into the seathing billows. appeared in a dream. and thus addressed her: " O indolent one ! thus wasting thine hours lying idly there . Alkinoos. was soon wrapped in peaceful slumbers. back into the and covering himself completely so that no one could see him. he made a soft bed of leaves. But a second wave. The King of Scheria. kindness. No roadstead. To her. whose beauty was equalled by her bravery and courage. Athene. (Worsley). taking the form of her favourite friend. sea. By its aid he battled stoutly with the angry sea till at length he reached a sandy beach. had a fair daughter leaving the heights of Olympos. famed for his wisdom and named Nausikaa. 479 the louder grew the dull roar of the breakers which lay between him and the coveted shore " Full on the coast the great waves' thunder-shocks Roll. he took the veil as the goddess he recovered conhad commanded. no haven seemed at —Homer. after which he went to seek Entering a wood close by. Now veil he would indeed have been had not Leukothea's again saved him.

Arrived at the shore she and her attendants. food. " Odyssey. 5 And make glad a parent's breast. and. " ' Ask a Which to the place of washing shall convey Girdles and robes and rugs of splendid hue. Then laying aside their veils. "wilt thou royal car. soon finished their labours. and having spread the garments to dry on the golden sands. they began with merry laughter to play ball. and let me have the asked." Book streaks (Worsely). thy finest garments. Thither to This for thyself were better than essay walk— the place is distant a long way. As soon as Nausikaa awoke she hurried to her parents. hasten to the stream and I will join thee in thy labours there. a bevy of bright damsels. and wine put in. prepared to return home. : and thou wilt have need and neglect thy duties Arise ! no longer " ' These are the things whence good repute praises that is born. and taking the reins drove off. into game finished. Nausikaa herself sprang into the car. fell her companions. with the first " Odyssey. chariot from thy father. and the mules having been and the clothes.Homer. the bridal morn is so near." Book vi. whereat they all screamed aloud. (Worsley). vi. directed by Athene. they sat down to rest and refresh themselves with food." she and meeting her father at the door grant my prayer. —Homer. picked up the ball and threw it at one of stooping down. Their while Nausikaa with her sweet voice sang to them. It missed. that I may take all my garments down to wash : them at the stream ? " harnessed.' . " Dear father." 480 when of all Odysseus in Phaeacia. they . The the water. of dawn. Alkinoos willingly consented. Therefore. when Nausikaa.

I O have compassion upon me. for I tell know not the people of this Shew me the city. slopes of the fountain-trickling dell Am He I with I men Come. the waves at last threw me on to the rocks of this island. (Worsley). me where may supply in my wants. I bend a suppliant before thee home as his bride. sight of him. where I lay other hath so stately a presence. brave and gentle. dirty.— Odysseus in Phaeacia.' " — Homer. noise 4cS i awoke Odysseus. half-naked. Nausikaa's companions all fled in terror. father none But if thou art a mortal. or goddess ! " Fair ! lend a pitying ear to my sad tale for If thou art a goddess then thou must be Artemis." Book make himself a vi. entreatingly petitioned her maid. and stepped forth from the leafy covert. cold and faint. branches. taking him for some wild mountain spirit. Odysseus. unjust — or love they well ? The stranger. : rising from his leafy bed. who. She alone. till. and the immortal gods revere Surely but Of virgin Or haunt Or green now the female cry did swell nymphs who in the mountains whence the dwell. and mother who possesses so beautiful a daughter. then proceeded to girdle of twisted At and with matted and tangled hair. exclaimed " ' Ay me ! what mortal souls inhabit here ? ? Despiteful. land. Great are the misfortunes which have befallen me. happy the bruised and stunned until your voices woke me. For twenty days and nights have I been tossed about helplessly on the stormy ocean. thee. waited to see if she could help the stranger. wild. and happier still the man who shall one day lead Lady. : still keeping at a distance. the cradles rivers flow. and I beseech thee give me some garments to wrap myself: 2 H which . will that human language know ? soon explore what cheer these coasts bestow. " Odyssey.

" Odyssey." call.'" — Homer. forth from his refreshing bathe. O on stranger. hastened to place a royal robe and sweet-scented ointments in a river. (Worsley). but an and pity. Know that the Phaeacians inhabit this island. I wis. Hasten. And joy to friends but most themselves know their own ! — — bliss. gathering courage from their mistress. And unto thee the heavenly gods make flow Whate'er of happiness thy mind forecast. and garments wherewherefore do ye fly ? This is who craves our care with he may clothe himself. where I will take thee to my Thou canst walk with my maidens beside we come to the gates. having replaced the rest of the garments in the car. Robed in splendid apparel. Then Nausikaa spoke him : " Do not fear. glad to appease his Nausikaa. whosoe'er thou art since fate has thrown thee our shores. supplied Odysseus with food and wine. When in the house one-minded to the last Dwell man and wife a pain to foes. thou shalt want for neither food nor clothing. vi. that he might therewith impress the Phaeacians when he came change. sheltered nook beside the Athene then endowed her favourite with fresh beauty. and I myself am daughter to Alkinoos. took her and come with us father's palace. no foe. Nausikaa was amazed at the marvellous The attendant maidens hunger. . ye coward her companions she cried : maidens ! unfortunate stranger therefore. Obedient to her the attendants. bring hither food and wine." Book gently to ." and turning to " Come back. Husband and home and spirit-union fast Since nought is lovelier on the earth than this. but once we enter seat. and of these he eagerly partook. the carriage till and said: "Fair stranger arise.482 " ' Odysseus in Phaeacia. to the town. their great king.

in these And Such as days on the earth are seen. for the people are a proud and haughty saying. but pass him by. loved and honoured as no wives elsewhere. and at once to address himself Queen Arete. and. and along the magni- ficent buildings. race. She where he stopped and prayed to Athene for help. 483 the city I will go on alone. entered there sits beside her on his royal throne.Odysseus in Phaeacia." she " for my good father lives close by. Remain. heard his prayer. Once go on through all the rooms." So saying the princess drove on. . weaving a web of wondrous beauty. and from where could she have found him Perchance he is some distant shore. he asked her the way to the dwelling of Alkinoos. past the streets of ships. entered the city. "Willingly will I be thy guide. and. not knowing who she was. outside the city walls. she encouraged to the him " to enter boldly.' And thus we should both be blamed. and when thou thinkest I have reached my home. and wrapped him in a thick cloud. surrounded by a circle of bright My father damsels. and Odysseus followed the car until they reached a grove of trees outside the town. replied. name. the great high walls. for we should ever shun offence. Arrived at the palace. so that When he he might reach the king's palace in safety. until thou comest to the queen. disdaining all in this realm. therefore. and might bring a stranger is slur on my spotless 'What this who ? follows Nausikaa. the goddess approached him in the guise of a young girl carrying a pitcher. the queen disclose thy mournful May thine eloquence so prevail that she may give her willing aid to speed thee back unto thy native land. and to tale. and any child will guide thee." And she led the way. the wife of Alkinoos. go into the town. seek my father's dwelling. she has chosen him as her future lord. and justly.

and give the guest his due. house. figures of golden youths held the torches at the nightly feasts. Instead of sconces. When he had finished speaking a general silence ensued. all the people like a goddess hail Beholding. along the walls. and with salutations greet. Oft as she walks along the stately street. the walls of and on each side was a row of gold and silver dogs wrought by the cunning hand of Hephaistos. outside the palace debating what he should Odysseus was struck with the splendour of the buildings. pillars The brass. " Odyssey. and placed before . O great Alkinoos. and people as her rightful share. led him to a seat. to let a stranger sit Stretch forth thine hand. while rich carpets lay spread around on the floors. . Inside. were of silver. in great humility Then bowing he sat the hearth amid the ashes. Since of a noble mind she doth not fail. where she good kindness to entail Even of men the quarrels to unbind Not seldom her well-tempered words avail. and fifty women were kept continually at work weaving or grinding corn. Odysseus went through the halls and flung himself at the feet of Arete. were seats for all the princes who attended the banquets." Then the king raised up Odysseus. had water brought for him to wash his hands. the doors of gold. thee not. (Worsley). spoke : until at length the eldest of the princes "It becomes in the dust.' list " —Homer. and all gazed with amazeso eloquently his ment at the strange man who prayed down on and head earnestly for a gracious reception. yea. Book vii. As he paused say.484 Find honour Odysseus in Phaeacia. covered with rich tapestry. like reverence she doth bear From Her children. fell Immediately the vale of night from him. Yea. Still invisible to outward eyes.

and how he had now been cast upon their shores by the waves. Thus even I. the latter noticing that the garments the stranger wore were some which had been woven by her own hand." all The princes promised to do retired to rest. how when at last she let him go he had been nearly drowned at sea. whatever anguish load our breast. and settle by what means we may transport the stranger to his having pledged ! . asked him whence he had received the from. robes." Book vii. how she had kept him at Ogygia for seven long years. that. notwithstanding . all and then When they had gone. Then .' —Homer. "neither in growth I nor stature do unfortunate resemble the immortals. him a table 485 amply provided with food and wine." returned I Odysseus modestly. native shore. us Makes remember in our own despite Both food and drink. could relate am first but an man who many a wonderful But let tale of all the sorrows he has endured. and where he came Then he told her about Kalypso. my sore trouble. Then all him with their goblets. I may return unto my native land. the king said " Hearken ye chiefs it is late. cannot do without the necessary food but ye. still. left that lay in their power. perchance our guest may be a god himself. for " ' Who Nothing more shameless is than Appetite. we must retire to rest but to-morrow morning we will assemble here in council." "Not so. hasten to accomplish what ye have proposed. me appease the pangs of hunger. with the early dawn. and Odysseus was alone with Alkinoos and Arete.: Odysseus in Phaeacia. " Odyssey. (Worsley). O chiefs. Who knows.

The king's in commands were readiness. The king told them how Odysseus had been thrown by the stormy sea upon their island." . he rested more soundly than on the leaves the sky with rosy red." he continued. speedily carried out. " she bade follow her attendants. For we the sons of men were ever a jealous breed. tinted soft And now in the couch to be prepared for the wanderer." answered Odysseus. come ye every one Meanwhile. thinking that thou my me mightest " * deem it presumptuous hadst thou seen it. went through the city calling the chiefs together." ." " Blame her not for that. and now appeared among them like a god. 486 he finished Odysseus in Phacacia. Athene. and prepare a banquet worthy of him also summon the blind singer Demodokos. sailors prepare to accompany him and when all is ready. let us conduct the stranger back to the palace. people. both with harp and song. his tale by launching forth in praise of Nausikaa for. " Only one thing do I blame her the king " she should at once have brought thee to house. ye to my palace and feast ere you depart. " launch speed. that he may rejoice us. the ship was soon and before long the palace was . in guise of a herald. wood As soon as Eos had opened the golden gates rose from their couches to sit and for Helios. who by the goddess's aid had been endued with every grace. Alkinoos and Odysseus to the and repaired market place in council with the princes.' Arete having ordered a the night before. but I refused. and had come to ask him if he would further him upon his way home. princes. " Up then ! my all him a swift vessel with Let fifty-two of our bravest . whose songs are sweeter than all others. and when they were all assembled Alkinoos addressed them." said and her kindness to him. In mute astonishment they gazed at the stranger.

' Why of my — Homer. seeing this.: " Odysseus in Phaeacia. Then one he is of the youths answered slightingly: "Perchance the stranger cares not to want of skill . he buried robe and did not uncover it till the When. there to have games for the amusement of their guest. was moved to tears by the pathos of the singer. my friend. no doubt thy skill is equal But Odysseus answered " ' to thy strength. And lightly bid me on your games attend ? Less toward such pastime than to grief I bend My spirit. himself. quoits. and proposed withdrawing to the outer court. and specially of the combat between Odysseus and Achilleus. 487 When they were seated at the banquet. He. Odysseus was fain once more to hide his face in his his face in his purple mantle. wilt thou not essay thy strength in a contest? Thy frame bespeaks thee strong and mighty. Now none of the Phaeacians had any idea that Odysseus. and. the there much praised hero of the song.Much suffering drained. And king and people urge with supplication sore. . leaping. Now. and boxing." . they came up and entreated Odysseus : " Fair stranger. When they had finished. thronged with people going in and out. Alkinoos. Here I sit with you on this crowded shore." O Laodamas. dreaming of the end. however. mayhap a merchant or a sailor in pursuit of gain. The most skilled among the youths then started various contests in racing. was sitting among them. whose fame reached to the skies. wrestling. and sang to them of the deeds of the heroes. brought the song to a close. to hide his emotion. Ere this many toils I bore. and not a warrior able to compete in games like these. " Odyssey. Demodokos commenced song was ended. the bard took his harp." Book show his viii. again. woes do ye this mockery make. (Worsley).

I am bowed down with grief and sorrow. however. Odysseus " ' greatly elated." So saying. " Odyssey. eloquence and wisdom. O youth ! is gods bestow their gifts Odysseus answered with a frown both forward and unwise. but Alkinoos Thou hast indeed surpassed us in these games of and strength. some on thy return know that in the dance. and sang songs of the olden . art brave in combat. for example." Book — — '" viii. The with partial hand. praise and we know thy worth. it rushed whizzing power. art loved by Jove. at the taunt. youth danced. it. but until lately. All said skill : had gazed " in amazement at the feat. and heavier than those used by the Phaeacians. and that thou But in order that thou mayest give us to thy native land. while the time. wrestle. the race. now. Thy speech. he ordered Demodokos to play on his harp. I will accept the contest to which thou hast challenged for thy words have stung me deep this day. we are masters. it and fiercely flinging air from such his hand. Whoso list Let him come forward and fired his manhood show ? ." Then thicker stooping jquickly to the ground. through the with force and that the bystanders involuntarily stooped to avoid far As : it went beyond the mark. he lifted a quoit. As far or farther. cried Come on now ! soon will I a second throw to try. Thou. or run races what care I Homer. (Worsley). For ye have my soul exceedingly. with the best held rank at will. and on the ocean. and seldom is : one man endowed at once with strength and beauty. Box.488 Incensed " Odysseus in Phacacia. but thou wantest both wisdom and understanding. But me. I am no such novice to these games of skill as thou dost imagine.

ire to countervail. all Then having bathed and been anointed. for befriended him. (Worsley). Then each them gave him an embroidered vest and robe. And for this dear sword no regrets entail. round which Odysseus fastened a band with many cunning knots to prevent any of his treasures being stolen during his home- ward journey. he returned magnificently robed to the hall. ami " Thou art about to leave us now. To which Odysseus answered Heaven Friend. they far exceed that I have ever seen. from our strand viii. gladly came forward to make in amends. and Odysseus exclaimed lost in surprise all : "It is with justice. 489 When rent the the song and dance were ended loud applause air. O stranger. now from where we stand ' ! Let the winds whirl it in oblivion ! And thee.'" Offered with welcome words mine Homer. " Odyssey." : Book (Worsley). Alkinoos then placed the gifts in a polished chest. at him with wondering eyes. Nausikaa timidly gazed said : where the chiefs were already seated at the banquet. Heaven render back to wife and fatherland. and gave him a splendid sword with these words " an ivory sheath. that thou boastest thy dancers to be the best in the ! world I am and admiration all at the sight. Even the youth Eurualos. and a talent of the purest gold." This praise so the princes of delighted the king that he proposed that should bring gifts for the stranger. Hail. O king. guest and father If were said or clone Aught unbecoming. thou too thrice hail ! give thee blessings with an open hand. " ' " Odyssey." — Book viii. although as yet they did not know who the stranger was.'" —Homer. who had at first spoken so slightingly to him. long grieved and friendless. but .: Odysseus in Phacacia.

the tears sprang to his eyes. what strange lands thou hast seen. for " All mortals reverence pay whose voice the loving muse made sweet." Then having taken his seat beside the king the feast began. Demodokos. and he was again forced Alkinoos noticed it. O stranger." . his A herald led the blind bard to place beneath a sculptured arch. But now. and the bard to sing the tale of the Greeks the other heroes hid final destruction filled his themselves in the wooden horse until the of the city . they know whither they have to sail without heed of guidance. some terrible sorrow must and weighs down his heart. " may the gods grant me a safe and prosperous voyage home. and as long as is the spirit in this body." replied the hero. Phaeacians are not as other ships. And taught their fingers on the harp to play.490 when thou Odysseus in Phacacia. and as our banquet is in his honour we must strive to chase all sadness away from him. and to what land thou belongest." Book how Odysseus and viii." tribe That — Homer. readiest thine own shores wilt thou " remember to whom to thou owest thy rescue ? " Royal maiden. (Worsley). but as the song proceeded grief again heart. and : hearing his deep sighs the king cried " Cease thy song. and why the wars of the Greeks before Troy affect thee so mightily. and Odysseus cut him the best piece from the chine of boar. " Odyssey. Tell us therefore how and from whence thou earnest to us. guest for ever since thou hast begun thy lay our grief. Then he asked before Troy. to hide his face in his mantle. . who thy parents are. I will daily remember thee. tell us thy name. that our for the ships of the vessels may carry thee back thither here sighs with surely oppress him. and ever think of the noble Nausikaa as the preserver of my life.

On our departure. the Kikones. : Odysseus thereupon began Alkinoos. O great my my mishaps. the wind carried us to the land of the Kikones. . which yields a juice as sweet as honey. far away to the flowery land of Lotos. island who had caped neighbours to aid them.* and hoped soon to reach our native another hurricane arose. of whose tale.The Kikones. LOTOPHAGES. and coming down to the shore. and I sent three of my companions and a herald to the inhabitants. but towards evening we had to give in. and drove us shores. overwhelmed us with great force. — THE KIKONES. and gave them some lotus * The most southern point of the Peloponnesus. After I and ray companions sailed away from Troy. heaven and darkness. when. six of our number lay dead. and o'er the watery sails waste Boreas raged with fearful fury. king of Ithaka. 49 r XLIII. meantime. son of Laertes. against feast my people. and divided the women and treasure among They. when ! the wind somewhat abated. we passed the foreland of Malea. The whole day we fought. es- my wishes stopped to revel and on the shore called their . Lotophages. I burnt their town. I will gladly tell thee the story of deeds thou hast no doubt already heard. to hear all " Since it is thy wish. but first of all I will disclose my name. " At were rent in and last. however. carried off the men. the vessels tossed helplessly about on the waves. the shreds. lo away to the south. whose only food is the lotus plant. mighty Jove sent a frightful earth were wrapped in total storm upon us. AND KUKLOPES. Here we landed. and the rest only escaped with great difficulty to the ships. and Kuklopes. " I am Odysseus. The Lotophages received the messengers gladly.

shooting a number of the goats. We landed. and wines of all sorts grow without care or trouble.49 2 The Kikones. and. and wept tears of regret and sorrow when I took them away by force. and have no laws. Having landed we saw. quite uninhabited save by wild goats. my for wheat. each one rules his own family. with its column of smoke rising towards the sky. Here sheep and goats rested at night. and we went to Then providing myself with a leather bottle. where companions. The Kuklopes live in caves hollowed out in the mountains. and refreshed ourselves with some of the red wine that we had brought away from the Kikones. when they returned from their distant pasture. home Within the cave lived a creature human being either in face " I chose out the twelve commanded the cave. not like a or figure. Not far from their country lies a small and fruitful island. close to the shore. of enormous stature. leaving the eleven other ships behind. . " Next we came to the land of the Kuklopes (Sicily). the others to guard the ship while most valiant of my shipmates. Here. and even heard the voices of the inhabitants herds. Lotophages. and enclosure surrounded by rocks and fir front of it a large and oak trees. but a perfect monster. satisfied our hunger. fruit to eat but this juice has the peculiarity that whoever it once with tastes thinks no more of his home. . and Knklopes.' So I sailed across. " In the distance we saw the home of the Kuklopes. soil. the inhabitants need not to cultivate the barley. and made them again handle their oars. a gigantic cave in almost hidden by laurel bushes. under cover of the we were driven by the winds into a sheltered harbour. and thus it fared They thought no more of their native land. Next day here. night. while I and the bleating of the flocks and my companions Remain ye take one of the ships and go across to find out I said to : ' what the inhabitants are " like.

and the gods have driven us hither on our way. for surely thou dost reverence the decrees of the gods especially that Zeus himself ever shows kindness to strangers. pails. recovering ' We are Greeks returning from Troy. At last the cave. while we. nearer and nearer he entered came. and a basket of provisions. the quantity of milk he rest for his Next he proceeded to drink half had obtained. crouched down at the back of the cave. ' Poluphemos he roared ' Have but come " to rob me ? At these rough words our hearts began quickly I replied : to fail us. and filled Kn /dopes. So we down first offered up a sacrifice to the gods. and putting away the fire. but deal hospitably with us. Lotophagcs. companions besought me to take possession of the I wished to remain and see the sat and then cheese.' . supper went to light the when the flames. " My food and hurry away. lighting his eyes. for 493 we with rich red wine. which he threw to down with a tremendous crash . he had gone but the sides were lined with cheeses. up the ' inside of the cave. and then we felt the earth tremble beneath the footsteps of the giant as he strode along. filled of kids and lambs were in the stable at the back. The Kikones. but giant himself.. to refresh ourselves with milk and " Presently it we heard a distant bleating. a number and all the buckets. It entered the giant's abode. bearing on his back a mighty pine log. " Then the Kuklopes drove in the sheep and goats. suddenly disclosed us to Who ? ' are ye that dare thus to enter the cave of in a voice of thunder. Be not more wrathful with us therefore. and having milked them took up a great piece of rock and blocked up the entrance. and basins standing about were with milk. not wishing be seen. off with his flocks . was empty.

let out his sheep and goats. dashed them against a stone. and Kit k lopes. rays of early dawn pene- trated through the tiny chinks between the top of the stone and the cave. milked his flocks. and devoured them for his supper. ' speak to me . and raising our hands entreatingly towards great Jove. and replaced it as before. and as I heard his loud snores I thought how easy it would be to pierce him with my sword. implored his help and succour. and reply did the No he turned and seized two of thus " we should still all perish miserably. the monster now lay down to sleep. no one would be able to remove the huge stone he had placed at the entrance of the cave. but because lies me now where the ship that brought thee hither that Knowing. it he only asked us this in : order to ! obtain possession of the vessel. Lotophages.' Kuklopes make. but frowning savagely my comrades. however. I every possible scheme by which now began to think seriously over we might escape. of the gods. and then devoured two more of my unfortunate companions. big as on the ground far in the From this I cut off a piece as large as man could . I answered ' Alas alas ! Poseidon destroyed " when he drove on this shore. At this terrible sight we cried out. At back a last my eye caught the monster's huge club of olive wood. Thou art a fool thus to . on. ? thee Tell " it will not be on their account. Next he shoved aside the stone.' cried the Kuklopes angrily gods. remained the giant would surely devour us the mast of a ship. relighted his fire. for if we all. so that none of us could get away. the giant rose.' 494 " ' The Kikones. His hunger satiated. for we care not for Zeus or any of the we are superior to them all if therefore I spare I please. phemos were killed. lying cave. and thus put an end to But just in time I remembered that if Poluhis existence. Now night had come the until at length when first and dim wearily the hours passed.

" Book ix. That the kindness fell that I mean to show thee. drive the stake into the one eye of the Kuklopes while he was asleep.' is he : Noman devour last of all. while I sharpened it the end. How then dost thou dream Others will seek thy place.' " ' ' Receive the promised boon. " My name trust is Noman. this celestial nectar. O stranger. and thy fierceness doth outgrow All bounds of reason.The Kikones." I refilled the beaker thrice. and let me go Safe homeward.' he cried. and I was the and chosen to be their captain. who off at one draught and begged ' me the bowl ' : Give me more of this honey sweet wine. which having been done we laid carefully away. Thou. and drink after thy meal Consumed of human flesh. Then we lot fell all who should fifth. that thou mayest know The kind of liquor wherein we sailors deal. lift. by this title I am always known. that so Thou mightest pity me. Lotopkages. and the on four.' And as he finished he . 495 and told my companions drew lots as to to smooth it. big skin of wine in my hands. (Worsley). again seized two of said " ' : Cyclops. " Greedily he drank to refill it dost so ruthless seem ?'" " Odyssey. then I said. and Kuklopes. will I my friend. This a drink-offering have I brought. and his " In the evening herd as before. and having milked my companions for Then I went up to him holding the his evening repast. by which time he had grown heavy and stupid. alas with fury extreme ! Art raving. poured out a bowl full. that I may do thee a kindness in return for this delicious draught. take wine. and tell me thy name. —Homer. Poluphemos returned. now 1 that thou wilt not forget thy promise to do me said a kindness.

(Worsley). As it pierced him. They. What fearest thou. for now our time was come. With beating hearts they approached the monster. Lotophagcs. . and when it began to burn. Poluphemos ? they ' cried. if therefore sickness has o'ertaken thee." Book ix.' ' . who in cave and lair 'Mid the deep glens and windy hill-tops dwell. we cannot help thee. . -—Homer.' " When they heard this the Kuklopes were angry.496 The Kikones. strode Pray to thy father Poseidon for aid. ' why dost thou thus disturb our slumbers with thy cries? stealing Is any one craft thy flocks? or trying to slay thee by ' or violence?' friends/ cried the frenzied Poluphemos. and swiftly drove the burning stake into the great eye in the centre of his forehead. I cried out to my companions not I to fear. down on " and his heavy snores soon resounded glow- through the cave. groaning loudly. why dost thou " ' O killing * : thus cry out ? Pain and sickness are sent to thee by the gods . while still my companions helped to push it further in. he groped . and Kuklopes. while I rejoiced at the success of my " The blind giant now arose . trooping to the shriek from far and near. he sent forth a dreadful groan. which resounded through the inmost recesses of the cave. Quick as thought I plunged the stake into the still ing embers. " ' " Odyssey. and they answered him If no man is killing thee. Ask from without what ails him. his couch. cave. Called the Cyclopes. bursting forth into a mighty yell. Then " He the stake wrenched forth amain And.' And they away from the artifice. Noman is me by craft and violence.

and the secret lair confess Wherein my wrath he shuns. I Then under each centre ram I tied one of my companions. : Poluphemos stopped him. whose dear orb. came the great ram that bore me.— The Kikones. and the waters cold. O hadst thou mind like mine. and Kit h lopes. then should his brain Dashed on the earth with hideous stamp impress 2 1 . when I sank controlled With wine. and reservfor ing the largest animal for myself.' last Meanwhile by me. and couldst address Thy master. ' for if they attempt to pass be certain to seize them. and waited anxiously first the coming morn. meadow. ' No one can go out I from hence. walking slowly along. and these fastened together in threes with willow bands. I clung to the thick wool under his body with both hands.' he I shall said. he did not discover the willow bands which fastened on all my companions. and at succeeded in outwitting him. had thought over various schemes. Lotophages. hath darkened treacherously. he seated himself on the ground with his arms extended. With First lordly steps the flowery pastures turn First ever seekest. 497 about with his hands until he came to the entrance of the cave. where. removing the huge stone. Backed by his rascal crew. two at eve returnest to the fold. this Noman vile with infamy. and Last of fleeces being very thick. Now last of all— dost thou thy master's eye Bewail. " No sooner did the all streaks of daylight appear than the animals sprang up ready to go out to the giant only felt The their their backs as they passed him. why dost linger now So late —far other wast thou known of old. and mournfully spoke " ' Ah ! mine own ? fondling. u Among the herd were some splendid rams.

but by means of wine and cunning. One huge fragment came whizzing through the air. but I quickly shoved off the vessel. But stay. I warned them to keep silence and to depart with all speed. make our voices heard on Kuklopes : ' Therefore ! called out to the Cruel Poluphemos those whom remained unavenged thy breach of hospitality has brought on thee a well merited punishment. and fell so close to our ship that the water dashed up round us in thou hast devoured have not ! tremendous waves.49 8 The Kikones. had got away twice the distance. Kuklopes. If ever again shouting to the giant : ' any man asks who blinded thee. and soon reached the ship. a miserable as strong as myself. Then he allowed the ram to follow the rest. a man almost Now a weak pigmy.' " Odyssey. We drove the animals before us. where our comrades rejoiced greatly at our return. Lotophages. (Worsley). but I would have been some great hero. and that not by strength. Pavement and wall. and my comrades rowed with all their might When we thus we soon were out of reach of danger. near enough to I we soon cleared the shallows. they began to lament over the fate of their murdered friends. I could not resist once Hearken. Odysseus. Pushing still off to sea. and Kuklopes.' " These words of defiance made the giant furious. " As soon as it had gone a short distance from freed myself. come back . but were shore.' " When Poluphemos heard this he cried out Alas. then an augur once foretold that a the prophecy has come true : ' ! man named Odysseus thought it should deprive me of my sight. tell him it was Odysseus. however. driving us back to land. . appeasing the fell pain Which from this —Homer. When. I and then untied my companions. creature has blinded me." Book ix. the cave. and rising he broke off great pieces of rock and hurled them after us. Noman-traitor nothing-worth I drain.

to befriend thee I on thy way. and as the giant hurled a larger piece of rock than before after our vessel. the sea god caused great waves to that rise when the rock struck the water so we were almost drowned. 499 to the shore again that I guest. (Worsley). : Poluphemos stretched his hands towards heaven and cried " ' Hear now. thou ." island. great monarch of the raven hair Holder of earth. may treat thee as an honoured will and I will ask my father Poseidon. " Odyssey. If my ! father art indeed. for anger was burning against us The following morning we got on board. all our shipmates when they saw I still There was great rejoicing among us. Waster of walls or should the high Fates will That friends and home he see.' that I were as certain of To which answered : ' Would sending that huge carcase of thine to the Underworld as I am that Poseidon cannot restore thy sight' Then seeing he could not induce me to return. then lone and late and Let him return on board a foreign ship. however. and now sacrificed it to Zeus. ! Thy child Make thou Or ever he the way fulfil." Book ix. and sailed away from the have escaped from the jaws of death. Poseidon.'" —Homer. and we divided the sheep retained the large ram. my " offering. Fortunately we escaped. but the great father disdained in his heart. and succeeded in reaching the island where the rest of the vessels lay. even should fresh dangers still be in store for us. who no doubt also heal " my eye. hear my cry. still " Poseidon heard his prayer. and goats among them. and Kuklopcs. ill And in his house find evil. Lotophagcs. and I Laertes-born Odysseus die. glad thus to .The Kikones.

a long mount of brass. So with a silver cord he bound them fast. &c." Book x. all they still feast on day . stripped the hide Of a nine-seasoned steer. the board from sun to sun. and did ask me there Of I lion and the ships and Argive race. god-loved child of Hippotas. Based on the sheer rock. ACCOUNT OF THE AEOLIAN ISLANDS (LIPARl). THE LAISTRYGONEN. Escapeless only Zephyr he left free. At will to quench and raise by land or sea. and gave it me. loved me. How they sailed homeward. At night Each on elaborate couch of fine array We came down unto their beauteous place Sleeps.' —Homer... There his twelve children the sweet seasons pass. their mother dear and Round the fair court the steamy halls Murmur. All round the island stretched a lucid belt.: 500 Account of the Aeolian Islands. the king. These things I declared In full. To waft us home.. And a whole month with feast and courtly grace . and convoy ask that I may home repair. Therein the courses of the winds he tied. He. . He. came we on. Far otherwise at last Through our own vain will to bitter doom we Chanced . (Worsley). not at all refusing. — ODYSSEUS' Odysseus continued thus " So to Aeolia ' where dwelt Aeolus. " Odyssey. six daughters (each hath And evermore Of dainties on While with lies piled a fragrant wedded mass sire one). ! passed. AND KIRKE. Six sons. XLIV. He their one keeper by the Sire's decree.

thou worst of souls alive ! . I. We found There entering. or bear life a more. came near an end. Half-stunned with the tumultuous roar scared from slumber. his peculiar prey- Tied up. thinking But my the contents. we and having had a long and weary watch now our troubles were at comrades. To fatherland and home. with the help of the friendly west wind." Wrapt in silent thought Paused they awhile. and wheresoe'er Thy mind I incline thee through the seas to fare. thought they would like to see I fell asleep.' thought prevailing. &c. now haste we to essay. Him with his wife and children crouched at meat within his halls magnificent. sat debating sore the rolling heap little Whether to die beneath Of waters. 501 " In nine days. their ill love-gift. till he." Book x. they untied The skin — whom straight the battling tempests bore their country o'er the Far from Weeping. " " Odyssey. to our native isle. ocean wide. this answer brought " Out and avaunt. us back to the Aeolian Isles. wondering what it meant. (Worsley). The storm drove landed. Then all with one accord spake." : grieving " Faithless friends my doom have wrought And sleep pernicious. This gold and silver. on the ground we take our seat Hard by the doors. Odysseus ? what bad fate Lays hold upon thee ? Surely with due care. the sire. " ' Come (for he slumbers in oblivious dream). Armed with each means. we sent thee hence of late. fancying that the leather bag contained gold and silver.: Account of the Aeolian Islands. where we " ' and I again went to the king's palace. u Whence comest thou. as from some dire event. the god's Thus. —Homer. O the loss repair For ye are able.

and for six days and nights were tossed about on the ocean. " Quickly calling her husband. (Worsley). and climbed up a high . not venturing to land. " Odyssey. and ran into a splendid harbour. he came and seized hold of one of my poor comrades. who in reply to their questions as to what the people were like. the monster shouted loudly to his people.502 Account of the Aeolian Islands. daughter of the sun-god For two days and nights we remained on board. running away for their hideous giants rushed vessels with Baulked of to his prey. and who their king was. and it was with vessel. and when the mother of the maiden appeared. Here I sent two men and a herald on shore. and carried difficulty that I men to eat them. enchantress Kirke. smashed the off the huge stones. ! " Driven away by Aeolus. When they entered the town. she filled their hearts with fear. pointed out the palace as her father's house. and continued our voyage. succeeded in cutting away my own we were We got safely away from the shore. " Next fair we came to the island of Aeaea. where dwelt the Helios. for she was like a huge mountain. they were met by a damsel carrying a pitcher of water. the other two lives. we again put to sea. &c. to ascertain what sort of people the inhabitants were. or dismiss with love. Eleven of our ships and crews were thus destroyed. for we I feared the people might harm us. until at last on the seventh we sighted the country of the Laistry- gones." Book x."' Hence —Homer. can I How cherish. The enormous size of the gate struck them. and overwhelmed with grief for the loss of our companions. But on the third day went on shore. and devoured him. but our hearts were heavy. and soon a band of down the shore. One whom the blessed gods will not let thrive ? Thou art hated by the powers above.

they found a fair lady seated before a loom. which had the power of turning them into any form she pleased. " On the way they saw a number of lions and wolves. cliff. who. and saw a column of curling smoke ascending through the trees from Kirke's palace. when I told my companions day. and she at once rose to from her and begged them come in and sit down. This they did. however. suspecting some fraud. it wiser send out On my return I was lucky enough a magnificent stag. not knowing that the animals were in reality all people who had been At last they reached thus transformed by the sorceress. thinking spies. while she sang aloud in a sweet " soft voice. men then all accosted her. and when they entered the hall. alas ! they did not know that Kirke . &c. which Odysseus had seen through the trees. which I carried in triumph to the and we all sat down and feasted for the rest of the Next morning.Account of the Aeolian Islands. weaving a splendid robe. to kill ship. they broke forth into loud lamentations. which were liberally spread But. So I divided them into two parties. Fate decided for the hero Eurylochos and twenty-two men. with everything that the heart of man could desire. and then made them draw lots as to which was to go and spy out the land. that we were again on an island. this I " first Upon to hastened back to the ship. 503 From thence I looked down into a valley. except Eurylochos. had mixed strange herbs in the food and wine. Then they all sat down at the long tables in the hall. and with heavy hearts and eyes dim with tears we beheld them start for the interior of the island. greatly to their amazement. One of the seat. remembering the fate of our late companions. the palace. remained outside the palace. they came up and fawned upon the strangers. but instead of being wild and savage.

—Homer. as they were satisfied. out into the sty. and were driven As soon depart. and fierce design " Odyssey. he did not know where my bow all across my shoulders hurried forth to in spite of re- monstrances. but in vain. that she also. Except I help thee. Since her pernicious wiles I now will tell thee all. as thy comrades have been changed. in of seeing his companions return.' do not change thee Then the god . and immediately they were changed into pigs. my hand .' 1 sword. When she shall smite thee with her wand. thy lifted arm. thou with them shalt stay. " I thereupon grasped my sword. took my way I the palace his of the As I went met Hermes with he said kindly : golden wand. and in thy food will charm Drugs. &c. where straw and acorns were thrown for down hopes them. and slinging Sorrow and grief he could not speak. and wished to rise and Kirke touched them gently with her wand. For I will save thee from thine ills to-day Nor leave like ruin on thy life to fall. Come. For some time Eurylochos waited on retraced his steps to the ship. take this talisman to Circe's hall. or what had become of them. and bind her then by the great oath of the immortals. She will fear Book (Worsley). Drink will she mix. do thou Draw thy sharp To slay her. Ah hapless. all unweeting of thy way ? Thy friends lie huddling in their styes like swine And these wouldst thou deliver ? I tell thee nay ! . because I give thee now This antidote beyond her power of harm. his soul. but when they did not come he but at his weighed heavily on and at first last he managed to tell us that comrades were. ' Whither wouldst thou thy steps incline.— 504 " Account of the Aeolian Islands." avow x. and taking " . and sorceress.

and that they were to . sit beside me. "As soon presented as she saw me she invited me in. thou art If Odysseus. and companions. and let us join our hands in peace. "Now join thy companions in the sty. and at once they again became men. hurried back to the ship. and having given me Olympus. crying : dost thou come ? how is it that ? my potent draught has not transformed thee like the rest Perhaps. and as Hermes bade me. I drew she my fell sword. and begged me to pull the vessel upon the shore. grieving for me. and fetch Therefore I the rest of my companions to her palace. would be vain for me to struggle with thee now therefore put up thy sword. it . and I told her that I could not eat while I was grieving for my lost Kirke instantly left the apartment. while I went on there. but when they found that I had mastered the sorceress. flew back to to the palace of the golden- haired sorceress. Come. indeed. however. ." " Then having made her swear by the sacred oath of the gods that she would do me no harm. she touched them with her wand. and having me with her poisonous draught. brought back my comrades from their styes then placing them before her. touched : me with her wand. I seated myself before the well-spread table. Seeing. Here I found them all sadly walking on the shore. " Then the lady Kirke entreated me to remain with her. whose coming Hermes once foretold to me. &c. so. Terrified. only far younger and more beautiful than they had been before. remained unchanged by means of the magic I herb of which had partaken. saying I. 505 pulled up from the ground a black root which was growing this healing herb.Account of the Aeolian Islands. and rushed murderously at her." however. " Who art thou ? from whence at my knees. she asked me why I was so sad. that I would not touch anything.

But the wish to return to our homes was at last I entreated strong within us. me directions as to my journey " ' When And the ocean thou hast passed soil of reached the dark Persephone. gloom-bound . but told me I should first have to abode of Hades. And poplar. when all thy all toils are passed. and water last And sprinkle the white meal. return to her palace with great joy. felt ashamed of " his doubts. And move towards Hades' house. A heifer And. There. Sown with the fruitless willow. Streaming from Styx and Pyriphlegethon Under a great rock meet the sounding tides. There into Acheron Cocytus glides. mead. visit She the consented. and having heard the history of their transformation we all sat down to a liberal banquet. and gave thither.— ODYSSEUS' DESCENT INTO THE UNDERWORLD.. hale thy bark from the deep sea. promise to the Theban seer . and even he. " Thus we remained for a year in the still island. me they obeyed my behest with Eurylochos alone would not be convinced. and give the dead their own Drink-offerings. withering fast. and call upon The shades. choice and pyre where good things are after. cast. then wine. and tried to keep them back with his foolish fears. On entering the hall they were gladdened by the sight of companions. eternally. hero. land. 5o6 Descent into the Underworld. and scoop a trench anon One cubit square. and vow. when he saw the others preparing to come with me." their lost XLV. and followed with the rest. and let Kirke with tears to us depart.

Then sacrifice a ram and sable ewe Toward Erebus but thou thyself bend still Thine eyes upon the rivers. who skirt the realms of hell. we turned towards home I had first to descend to Pluto's kingdom and question Teiresias. got " Odyssey. thy purpose to fulfil. That people. to shalt kill . and launching our bark. noble sire. One sheep all So when thou black. (Worsley)." Book x. and prepared But when they heard that before start forth. from the crowd advancing. "Having been thus kindly dismissed by the I fair enchantress. And to Persephone and Hades pray. my men on board as quickly as I could. and broke out into bitter lamentations.' " 'Yet came no rescue —Homer. the blind old seer. sailed on the watery main until midnight." Book x. will And in the dead tribes a propitious Wrought by just vows. All thy long voyage shall foretell thee clear- How through the deep fish-teeming thou mayst safely steer ! —Homer. they tore their hair in once again to despair. for their sorrow's sake. . from sweet light secluded well. Then bid thy comrades haste those sheep to flay. But thou with drawn sword seated near the pyre : Warm He from the blood those shades. and burn them down with fire. (Worsley). " " Odyssey. And in sadness we made our way down ourselves to the sea-beaten shore. The dark Cimmerian tribes. when we found on the utmost border of Okeanos' dominions. till thou enquire First of Tiresias. Slain with the knife. and all the crew Of strengthless shades shall flock thy sacrifice to view. "'Where dwell. Shrouded in mist and gloom continually. 507 have ended all thy prayer. thy best of sheep.' Descent into the Underworld.

"Odyssey. and. whereupon he began Know. dangers." Book xi. as he slowly and majestically approached. or when Slope toward the earth he wheels adown the sky But sad night weighs upon them wearily. and — children. the soul of whom also I had to .5o8 Descent into the Underworld. This I willingly promised to do. . according to the instructions I had received from Kirke. and after have drunk of the blood of the sacrifices. O Odysseus that Poseidon : ' ! will retard thy homeward journey by many to thee. — " Then we landed. offered up the required sacrifices and performed the necessary rites. He entreated me to have his and possessed by pale to burn. covered with blood from the wounds received in Fearful were the cries they uttered. Or when he climbs the starry arch. in sight.' Homer. " At last the spirit of the mighty seer Teiresias arose. Immediately the souls of the departed rose up from the depths of Erebos bridegrooms. that so he rest in peace. asked What me. my beloved mother appeared. ' dost thou here. among I the spirits of the dead. ? leaving the realms of day for these dark regions But sheath thy sword. I will foretell the fate to tined thee/ which the gods have desObeying his commands. while I tried to wave Foremost was the spirit of one body buried might as he left as soon as I returned to the island. dread I allowed the sacrifices back the crowding shadows. revenge that you deprived his son Poluphemos of his But the gods are propitious and will end thy woes . of my comrades. (Worsley). old men. O mortal. Never the sun that giveth light to men Looks down upon them with his golden eye. warn away from touching the blood. and. I sheathed my sword. and. who had fallen from the roof of Kirkes' palace whilst he was sleeping. many of the warriors still wearing their armour battle. youths.

Leda. Ariadne. for if thou dost in any way hurt them thou wilt lose all thy companions. returned to Ithaka. by anxiety and still alive. and now I let my mother I ap- proach and partake of the blood. only those who sacrificial blood remember the past and recall With these words Tiresias returned to the scenes of earth. but each time she faded away from my grasp like a dream. They all summons of Persephone. and pining away with grief at my long absence. spoke I kings approaching saw numbers of wives and daughters of heroes or Alkmene. and vanished at the . and then came forward the heroes who had been killed by Aigisthos. mother of the many others. " My death was caused.' I replied. As Dioscuri.' " I thank thee. that Telemachos managed the affairs of the kingdom. tell me why ' does my mother son ? sit there so silently without even once looking " at her She knows thee not/ he answered . and arrival in Sicily only after great and dire misfortunes. and wilt reach thy native shores alone. Then she bade me return quickly to the Upperworld. but even while she sorrow for thee. at length. if 509 thou wilt obey and please them. the noble form of Agamemnon towering far above the rest. faithful to me was and anxiously awaited my return. all and whether had yet as ever. wife of Laios of Thebes. ' ' my much loved son. and in return learnt from her that Penelope. answered her questions.' she added. great Teiresias. but now. On thy beware of injuring the herds of Apollo. asked me how I had come I there. ' 'and will bear courageously whatever the gods have ordained. Epikaste. and that my old father Laertes was living in the country.' ' drink of the the palace of eternal night. when she at once recognised me. Phaedra.' Thrice I tried to embrace the spirit of my dead mother.' Descent into the Underworld. the mother of Herakles : .

even to thy wife forth. but added warningly. . For as the old man stooping seems to meet That water with his fiery lips. Orion. also the giant Tituos. while vultures gnawed his liver. " Odyssey. chasing the dark forms of the animals he had slain when on earth . whose body covers nine acres. his father Peleus. shed relentless many sent bitter tears. soon as he had drunk of the blood he recognised me. and passed on with the others. " ' Never . (Worsley). together with that Telamon and the former asked his son me to tell him whether still alive. but part reveal Show and part suppress. * Or in Latin Clytemnestra. that mighty son of Gaea. . Of the former I him of his son's great deeds. hereafter in thy life. as well as Ajax. lay here writhing in torture. in fierce desire to break His torment.' xi. but and knew when I told . for this. No more " are women spirit to be trusted now. doom had him here. pining with thirst whilst standing in the midst of circling waters which reached to his chin. around his feet. " 'But when he rushed.* and called me happy in having so true a wife as Penelope. Farther on groaned Tantalos.5 1 o Descent into the Underworld. and slake The frenzy of wild thirst. not one drop could he partake. who with his sceptre of burnished gold here judges the spirits of the dead shadowy Neoptolemos were nothing. I also saw the shade of Minos. of Achilleus. — HOMER. crying aloud. ." Book Now appeared the of his friend Patroclos. and I asked him what and he told me how he had been murdered by Aigisthos and his own wife Klutaimnestra. the whole matter. club in hand. he glowed with transport.

while sweat Bathed each laborious limb. for he himself has a place living gods. olive ever young. Back to the nether plain rolled tumbling down. with bent brow. woodland vistas. lions. the great toil resumed. " Next appeared the giant frame of Herakles." Book xi. Across his breast he wore a wondrous golden belt. I saw Sisyphus in travail strong Shove with both hands a mighty sphere of stone. with shining fruitage hung. but this was only his wraith. bears. " Odyssey. With feet and sinewy wrists he labouring long Just pushed the vast globe up. straining. 5 retreat. He. 1 And in his clasp rich clusters seemed to shed. and various scenes of battle. as the spouse among the ever- There he stood dark as night. (Worsley). the enormous weight.' —Homer. some of the other kings of ancient days. the shuddering waves Also the thick-leaved arches overhead Fruit of all savour in profusion flung. wolves. and the brows smoked with And heat.1 Descent into the Underworld. And The Pears and pomegranates. Leaving the dark earth dry. or of beautiful Hebe. and terrified lest Persephone should send dread Kerberos after me. on which were depicted with inimitable art. But when he thought the huge mass to have thrown Clean o'er the summit. but a dense mass of spectres now came thronging past with fearful groans and yells. fair. J lingered on in hopes that I might see Theseus and Pirithoos. glancing fiercely round him. and ready to send the feathered shaft on its unerring way. with many a groan. There citrons waved. I hurriedly left the direful shore . Clutched with his fingers at the branches Came a strong wind and whirled them skyward through the air. the sweet-mellowing fig but whensoe'er : old man. fain to cool his burning tongue.

those cruel maidens is who approach them. dawn found us within and we landed once more there and buried the body of our unfortunate friend. and take up their oars without delay. SCYLLA AND CHARYBDIS. silence she listened to what I had are to relate. " As soon as Kirke perceived us she at once came down to the shore. and whose song them not howsoever beautiful their companions' ears. and learn those which are wilt still before thee. all — ODYSSEUS' " After sailing night the early sight of the Isle of Aeaea. and when the morn will tell on your way. now. ACCOUNT OF THE SEIRENES. Meanwhile I you of the dangers which are yet in store for you I complied with her request. O prince.' Our we spent the remainder of the day in feasting. AND THE HERDS OF HELIOS. &c. unveils her glowing face speed banquet ended. and wine for our refreshment : ' O ye brave men ! ' she cried. for to who bewitch all Heed death! but stop their thee to lay! lash the . meat. us away again from the vessel sped over the waves and bore mighty stream of Okeanos. and order them mast. ' who ! have dared whilst Rest still alive to penetrate into Pluto's abode now awhile and refresh yourselves.512 Account of the Seirenes. hearken. thou reach the Seirenes. and both by land and sea. ordered my companions to Swiftly the set sail. and then comhast menced already : 'Many and passed great the dangers thou through. and hastening back to the ship. her attendants bearing bread. the lady Kirke seated herself beside asked to hear our adventures after me and In we had left her. First. XLVI.

for the steep and slippery sides are impregnable to the foot of man. 2 K . The second its road leads to two other rocks. all They devour ground victims. Shall on his dear wife gaze and lisping babes no more. twelve huge misshapen feet And six long necks. Scylla in secret lurks. high that Half way up this rock.." Book xii. so that not even a bird can fly unhurt between them. And. and the strewn bones of their numerous the " first ' Once past their island two ways are open to thee : leads towards the Cyanean rocks. dread-howling through the gloom Her voice is like the voice of whelps new-born. it. (Worsley). armed with triple rows of teeth. not the swiftest : arrow can reach is a yawning cavern '"Within .. only has ever passed through them in and that because she was protected by mighty Hera.' —Homer. No one head. feeling round the rock with eager care. Frequent and thickly sown and teeming with black death. Yet she such monster as no eyes can meet Rejoicing. lair her heads from the infernal She thrusts. Twelve feet she has. on his native shore. voice. is who come with the within their reach. or with glance of careless scorn. wherefrom she quivereth Six heads of terror. in the whirling wave. ship. "Odyssey. the Argo. Only one safety." 3 Accoitnt of the Sirens. and her prey doth eat With grim jaws.. to fish with. one of which rears proud summit shrouded can reach so its in clouds almost to the skies. &c. Her But waist all is hidden in the hollow cave. Not though a god should pass her dire retreat. with his ears shall find No no welcome. " He who hath quaffed ' 5 1 it. which constantly separate and rush together again.

guarded by two lovely nymphs. come to the of Trinacria where. " Next thou wilt (Sicily). graze the herds of the God of Day. and sea-dogs. " ' On the opposite shore. another rock with a gigantic fig-tree growing on its summit ' " Charybdis fell Sucks the black water in her throat's deep hell Beneath it thrice disgorges in the day.: 514 Account of the Sirens. thy ship and all thy comrades will surely be lost." fell Book xii. for if thou dost. they . free till all danger for us was over.' —Homer. and then. ! Not the Earthshaker's self could then thy doom xii. they heeded not my entreaties to be set We had. or if there Perchance some larger weightier bulk she catch." Book (Worsley). even " if thou thyself escapest. No vessel ever yet passed Scylla without losing several men. safe from their alluring strains themselves. having lashed rowed with all their might. and is only a bow- shot distant. We only escaped from the Sirens because I stopped up with wax. and everything took place as the lady Kirke had foretold. delay. my companions' ears me to the mast. " ' " Odyssey. Heaven from that suction keep thee far away . Such as the deep in myriads feeds.' —Homer. however. " ' " Odyssey. (Worsley). bend come within her reach ye must perish ! O shun the horrid that all and cleave < to Scylla . When to therefore thou approachest Charybdis urge thy to their oars with all their might.' left The next morning we the island. And thrice again sucks up the eddying swell. &c. Beware of harming them. for if ye all men gulf. rather risk some than island should die. For dolphins dips. but rather lower. and.

and in the distance could be heard the bleating and lowing of Helios' herds. hardly escaped this peril 5 1 when we heard the roaring of heavy breakers ahead. lay the island in the rays of the sun. dropped their oars. " Odyssey. my comrades on the rocks. On one side was she. unable to aid them. after we had left the terrible rocks some way behind. " ' With huge throat Gorging salt waves. Drunk with abysmal gurglings. Never can I forget that awful sight. and now steered towards Scylla. &c. But when she gorged again. In vain they cried to me for help ! them against the rocks. fierce Scylla stooped from her cave and snatched away six of my companions. we strained every nerve and as the vessel flew past we escaped the breakers. but Eurylochos insisted that we should land and rest. and telling the steersman to avoid the whirlpool and keep close to the opposite rocks. — " While we gazed in horror at the flood of tumbling waters. Then I remembered the warnings of Tiresias and the lady Kirke. ?' The rest of us escaped with the ship. one might note The dark sands of the immeasurable main Gleam iron-blue." Book xii. but I encouraged them to row on wildly bravely. and.' Homer. we saw them disappear into her yawning jaws. and I wished to avoid the island. (Worsley). we came to the Calm and peaceful beautiful shores of the island Trinacria. on the other Charybdis. persuade them to go on I made them promise not to lay Fiercely she dashed . and.5 Account of the Sirens. and saw the white spray dashing Filled with terror. which when she cast away the steamy froth upshot Wide o'er both rocks. and all the others When I saw that it was vain to try and agreed with him.

hands upon the sacred herds. but these were not enough for our needs.' done " this wicked deed while appeal was all I was But my useless.6 5 1 Account of the Sirens. I would rather feast. In vain quiet . we could catch fish and birds. and a sweet sleep fell o'er " Meanwhile. and. or go near them. I wandered inland and prayed to the gods to send us a favourable wind. me. True. sent down a fearful gale. after offering up a sacrifice to the gods. for Zeus. the scent of the sacrifice was wafted towards ' ' me. so that was impossible for us to put to sea. and threatened to go down earth to the land of if I Hades and never more : to shine on and my companions were not punished for our act ' of sacrilege. then. called the gods together. full of wrath. and we were in great straits. . and. Then spake mighty Jove Rest in peace. the island a whole month. and we only used the meat that we had brought with us in the ship. " Unfortunately. find my grave in the sea than perish by the pangs of When I awoke from my slumber and returned to hunger. wearied and faint of heart. angry that it we had landed. I cried aloud was thus beguiled to sleep. we looked day the waters to become the food after day for and wine which Kirke had given us were consumed. being exhausted by the distance I had come. beating ' my breast ! my I hands. O mighty Zeus why Now my comrades have far away. my comrades. and withdraw not thy kindly light from the face of . &c. however. All this time the sacred herds of Helios had remained untouched. Phoebos Apollo. had persuaded the others to kill some of Apollo's herds. and we They gave the promise I required. and now. Eurylochos. they prepared a For if I have to die. O Helios. we were compelled to remain on landed. I lay down to rest.' he cried. with Chill dread fell on my spirit. taking advantage of my absence.

so that he and his companions may be destroyed. than Zeus brought thick clouds across the heavens. my and by it swung in mid-air. and the mast fell with a mighty sound and killed the steersman. " Higher and higher rose the angry waves. and surrounded only by sky and water. 5 1 the earth. for I will at once hurl a thunderbolt on Odysseus' ship. which bore me back to the I and now whirlpool of Charybdis and the terrible rocks. moaned and groaned as the flames curled round it. &c. until a back the mast. and all flesh. Six days more we remained. and we were thrown I "All at my comrades were drowned. But no sooner were we out of sight of land. Quickly fig branches of the gigantic rock. vivid lightnings flashed from the lurid clouds. and once again we sailed away from the shore. then the storm had abated. released from Again I caught hold of it. till at length the ropes and sails snapped. .' blamed my comrades for their wicked act. and most happily Scylla was still in her cave. both raw and roasted. and bade the winds come up in a hurricane. for already the monster had caught the mast it and was drawing summit of the returning wave away with all down. and the thunders crashed and rolled. alone escaping by clinging to the mast.7 Accoitnt of the Sirens. tree I grasped one of the which hung from the brought Charybdis' jaws. down a thunderbolt which completely into the foaming destroyed our vessel. and swam might. At the same moment " Bitterly I angry Jove cast waters. and soon the gods themselves showed signs of their displeasure. so that I escaped from that danger also. but the deed could not be undone. while the wind increased in fury. The hides of the slaughtered animals crept and quivered as though still alive. all I thought was lost. was drifted helplessly about the mercy of the waves.

O queen. I pray. Phaeacians. bread. " Odyssey. . All that has chanced since then." Willingly was this command obeyed. children. ordering mighty cans of wine libation to to be brought. and while he lay down to sleep. " XLVII. in some far distant day ! now sail homeward." said Alkinoos. — by attendants and wine. an end. thanked the monarch for all his kindness and Odysseus generosity. Odysseus.8 " 5 1 Return of Odysseus to Ithaka. more in the evening Odysseus begged Alkinoos to send him The king agreed to his request. followed Then he went down carrying garments. For nine days and nights I tossed about on the stormy and on the tenth reached the island of Kalypso. Glide in pure gladness deep. Great was the interest with which the king and queen had " Take courage. " surely to now all thy troubles will have come and bring fresh gifts for this our godlike guest. (Worsley). listened to the foregoing tale. therefore they spread a soft couch for him on the deck." Book xiii. the Phaeacians bent to to the ship. With husband." waters. . citizens. mighty prince. and next morning all the rich gifts were put on board the Again the day was spent in feasting.— RETURN OF ODYSSEUS TO ITHAKA. Here may thy life's breath. Night had now set in. and then turned to the queen with these words the gods. till old age or death. offered a and all joined in the parting cup. and once vessel. is already known to thee it needs not to repeat the tale. : " ' O be thou happy thee. Which Find I in all lands all mortals visiteth.' Homer. when I am far away. rise. and back to Ithaka.


Return of Odysseus

to It hak a.



and the

vessel sped

flew over the waves while Odysseus lay

slumber forgetting all his cares, morning reddened the eastern sky the Phaeacians entered
the harbour of Ithaka.

on her way. Swiftly she wrapped in sweet and when the first blush of

Gently the

sailors raised the sleeping


in their arms,

him on





in a cool grotto, placing

the gifts beside him.

Then they went

way home


Poseidon, however, was angry that the hero had
just as the returning vessel

been thus saved, and
Scheria, the

god transformed her into a rock as a warning

to the Phaeacians not to

convoy mortals who were obnoxious him across the sea. With surprise the Phaeacians beheld this island suddenly rise up amid the water. But Alkinoos cried " Alas this


without doubt the fulfilment of the ancient prophecy, which my father often told me how that Poseidon, angry


we always send

strangers safely back to their homes,

would one day punish us by changing one of our returning Therevessels into a mountain right across the harbour. strange fore let us have nothing more to do with these travellers, but we will now offer twelve beautiful oxen to



he may pardon us

this time,

and take us
he knew


again into his favour."
his long sleep

Meanwhile Odysseus awoke from

not where he was, for Pallas Athene had spread a mist

round him, so that he might not be recognized until he had punished the suitors. Then the wanderer spake sadly " O ye gods, where am I ? to the gods in his sorrow among what savage people, and on what wild land have I

now been
to bring



that I

had remained among the


me home.

they have deceived me, after promising But let me count the treasure perchance



Return of Odysseus



they have been faithless, and have robbed





lay beside him, the full

number, none wanting,

therefore he bethought

him where

Athene, in the guise of a shepherd

hide them when came up to him.

Odysseus enquired of the seeming youth what shore this was upon which he was landed, and she cried " What

knowest thou not Ithaka?" Then great gladness filled his heart when he knew that at last he had reached his native land; but he remembered that he wished to remain unknown, and said " Often have I heard speak of Ithaka, but I

knew not meneus of

that this was




slain the

son of Ido-

would rob me of the treasure I had got from Troy ; therefore I fled on board a Venetian But a hurricane came on vessel to go to Elis or Pylos.
Crete, because he

and drove us hither, and while I slept, the sailors put me and my treasure on shore." Then Pallas smiled, and taking the figure of a young maiden,
thus addressed Odysseus
in artful



a truth thou art ever ready

speech or action, and even


that thou hast re-

turned to thy native land thou


dissemblest as thou


a boy.

But now lay

that aside.




Pallas Athene, who,


thy wanderings,
thee what thou

watched over

And now




must do, and to encourage thee to be patient in all that may Above all I warn thee not to disclose to yet befall thee.

anyone who thou


but bear thy griefs yet awhile in

So saying the goddess scattered the mist with which she had surrounded him, and Odysseus now beheld and recogWith rapture he bent down and nized his native land.
pressed his lips to the beloved ground, the sight of which

had been so long denied to his eyes, and then, aided by Pallas, he hid the treasures in the dark recesses of the cave,





Swineherd Eumaios.


and consulted with her how he should
train of suitors.

rid himself of the

First of all," said

Athene, "




the beauty of his

I will change thee, so that and touching him with her wand, form disappeared his face became

seamed with wrinkles, his eyes grew dim, his and his shining raiment turned to rags.
his hand,

hair matted,



placed a beggar's wallet over his shoulders, put a

staff into

and bade him go to the house of Eumaeus, the who had remained faithful to Penelope and Telemachos, while she herself hurried back to Sparta to fetch
the youth himself.




So Odysseus went his way to the house of the swineherd, and found him sitting in the large court-yard surrounded by hedges, and containing styes for six hundred swine, of which the suitors had already consumed half. As soon as the dogs saw Odysseus in his ragged attire they barked and rushed at him, and, had not Eumaios driven



would have torn him

in pieces.


the swine-

herd took the stranger into his house and gave him a seat on a shaggy goat's skin, begging him to rest. Odysseus thanked


for his

kind reception of a poor man, but he answered


would be wrong to despise any stranger however he might be. Ah would that I could do more for poor thee. But he, Odysseus, who would assuredly reward me for my long and faithful service, is far away, and never more 1 Would that the gods had uprooted fear will he return.

" Friend,





Swineherd Eumaios.

Helen and

her kindred ere she had brought so

men low." Then Eumaios went

to the herd, killed

for the refreshment of his guest,

two young porkers and placing food and wine

before him, said
for the strangers

" It


but poor food

have to

offer thee,

who come

to sue for the

hand of Penelope


up the


of the land."

Odysseus partook of the repast,

and, having satisfied his hunger, began to consider ways and

means of revenging himself upon the










lord of


thou sayest he
could give

hath never returned from Troy


thee news of him, for I too have wandered far in distant

But the swineherd answered " Old man, there is small hope that thou canst give us news of him, and even if thou didst, neither Penelope nor I would give credence to thy




already have wanderers





and thou no doubt wouldst say like them, to obtain a new cloak. No, I fear Odysseus has died long ere this, and never more again shall I find so good a master. Even should I return to my own home my father and mother could not treat me with more kindness than
Odysseus has ever done.
to see him, but that wish

queen with marvellous



my whole heart yearns
to pass."

may never come

" Friend, thou art unbelieving and hopeless of heart, but I swear to thee by the gods that Odysseus will return. And



day that he


thou shalt give


as a reward



then I

not have



my heart

despise those


invent falsehood for the sake of gain,
will return this year,

month, to

nay this very unwelcome guests." Friend," replied Eumaios, shaking his head in denial,
free his




home from


" I shall never have to give thee the raiment








Swineherd Eumaios.


that Odysseus will never return to Ithaka.

Therefore drink

thy wine in peace, but grieve


not by speaking again of


noble master.



Telemachos were only


once more, for the suitors are lying in wait for

mighty Jove protect him. And now tell me about thyself, whence thou comest, and what ship brought


thee hither?"

But Odysseus was afraid to trust him with the truth, and " That I will tell thee shortly, for to relate I come all my wanderings would take more than a year. from Crete. My father, who has several other sons, was
he answered

wealthy, and,

when he

died, divided the inheritance



brothers, only giving


but a small portion, since I

was only their half-brother. I, however, took a thrifty wife, and soon distinguished myself in various combats, and was nearly always foremost when an enemy was to be encountered.

Of agriculture I was no friend, neither did I trouble much as to my house or children, but had always a ship and arms ready at hand, and, when the Greeks made
war with Troy,



go with King Idomeneus, and was

present at the taking of the town. " On our return I was induced to land in Egypt, and going


up the Nile I went on shore to see what the country was Meanwhile my companions attacked some of the herds of the inhabitants, who at once rushed to arms and
slew most of



and even


should hardly have
entreated the

escaped had

not laid

down my arms, and

had compassion upon me, and took me back to his palace, where I remained for seven years. In the seventh year a Phoenician persuaded me to leave He took me on board his ship, meaning to the country.
king for mercy.




Libya, and there



But Zeus pre-



by sending a

storm when we were near





Swineherd Eumaios.






drowned except

who clung

to the

mast and was

tossed about for nine days

till at last I was cast on shore. There the king of Crete welcomed me kindly, and from him I heard of Odysseus, who had also landed on the island, and had only just left to go to Dodona, there to enquire of

the oracle as to his return.

His ships lay ready to bring
off in


hither as soon as he returned from the oracle.

The king

kindly sent


a vessel, but on the way

the sailors robbed


which you now
of Ithaka."


my clothes, gave me the rags and landed me after dark on the shores

"Poor stranger, from my heart I pity thee," answered Eumaios, " but one thing yet I do not understand, the
tidings that thou feignest of Odysseus.





and deceive me, old man



well I



not return again, for in their hearts the gods


hatred to him.

Try not then to gain my favour by such welcome it is because Zeus commands and I have pity on thy woes." "Still is thy heart hard of faith?" cried Odysseus, "NeverIf I bid thee as







oath, listen.



master returns not


the servants that they throw

me down from
But even

this steep rock."

this failed to

persuade the doubting swineherd.

And now

the servants



from the


with the

and drove them

into the styes.

of the largest swine killed in

Eumaios had one honour of his guest, and when

had eaten they lay down to rest. The swineherd alone rest, and rising, he took his sword, wrapped himself in his mantle, and went out spear in hand to guard the
could not herds entrusted to his care, while Odysseus inwardly rejoiced
at the faithfulness

he displayed.

Odysseus and the Swineherd Eumaios.


return of Telemachos.

Meanwhile, Athene had hurried to Sparta to hasten the She found him with Peisistratos, the
in front of

son of Nestor, resting

Menelaos' palace, and bend-

ing over him, for he had

just fallen asleep she urged



return at once to Ithaka from fear that the suitors might induce Penelope with rich gifts to marry one of them.

" Nothing," she said, "
therefore watch.


so fickle as the heart of
also that



on thy return thou

not into the hands of thy unbidden guests,

an ambush

for thee.

Travel by night,

who have laid and when thou

readiest Ithaka go not straight to the palace, but spend the
night in the house of

Eumaios the swineherd, and beg him

send Penelope word that thou hast returned." Then Telemachos awoke, and begged Menelaos

him go home, which request the king granted after having first feasted him sumptuously and presented him with rich gifts. Just as they were departing an eagle swooped down,
seizing a goose from the court-yard, carried
it off,



the screams and cries of the bystanders.

This was looked upon as a favourable sign from the gods,

and Helen exclaimed


Hearken and


will utter




The gods

suggest and also



Just as this eagle came from far away, Reared in the bleak rock, nursling of the And in the stormy ravin of his wild will


Seized on the white goose, delicately bred, So brave Odysseus, after countless ill,

Comes from afar off, dealing vengeance dread, " Or waits at home e'en now, to strike the suitors dead.' —Homer, " Odyssey," Book xv. (Worsley).

Then the two young princes bade farewell to Menelaos, As they neared Pylos, Telemachos, not and departed.



and the Swineherd Eumaios.

wishing to be detained, did not go to the palace of Nestor,

but bade farewell to Peisistratos and hurried off to his ship. Just as he was about to set sail a stranger came up to

him and entreated

to be allowed to go with him, as he was being pursued for having committed a murder in his native

He was an augur named Theoklymenos, country Argos. and Telemachos having made him welcome, they departed. Meanwhile Odysseus remained with Eumaios, and wishing to find out whether the latter still wished him to remain

him or


he said


"At daybreak

I will

the town that I

may no

longer be a burden to thee.

go forth into Let

some one show me the way to the gates, from whence I Perchance can make my way to the house of Odysseus. me kindness, if I bring her news Penelope herself will show of her long-lost husband, or mayhap the suitors will give me food if I offer them any services, for none can cut wood, light a fire, roast meat, or hand the wine cup more
deftly than I."





It is

How now




venture wouldst thou try?

but badly thou wouldst


the suitors with such a petition.



such as thou



suit their


It is

by bright

youths gaily dressed in rich garments that they are served. Remain where thou art. Neither I nor my comrades are
give thee a robe

weary of thee, and when Telemachos returns he will surely and vest, and send thee wheresoever thou
This answer pleased Odysseus greatly, and he


him whether the parents of Odysseus Eumaios replied " Laertes is still living, were but he is old and weak and longs for death, for since his son left and his wife died, he has no more enjoyment in
his host to tell

yet alive.




Penelope also


greatly to be pitied, that her house

has been invaded by the suitor crew."



Odysseus and the Swineherd Eumaios.
Then Odysseus asked
he answered that he had

the swineherd of his birth and

parentage, and wherefore he had




been carried

away by Phoenicians

when a boy and

sold as a slave to Laertes.

had at last and so soon as he landed the young prince bade one of his companions take the seer Theoklymenos, and conceal him in his own house. He himself would go to the swineherd while the vessel with the rest of the men went on to the town. It was early morning, and Eumaios and Odysseus were just preparing their repast when Telemachos approached the house, and the dogs at once ran forward to greet him
the ship which bore Telemachos
arrived at Ithaka,

And now


lick his


"Surely," cried Odysseus, "it


a friend

who comes






Eumaios recognized the son of his beloved master, and jumped up so hastily from his seat that he dropped the bowl he was holding. With tears of joy in his eyes he
kissed the hands of the prince

" Look, when a loving father of true heart Kisses his own one child, exceeding dear,


beyond hope from some

far distant part

Of the wide

earth at last in the tenth year

Returning, and for




a tear

Nightly and daily in his grief he shed

So the good swineherd to the prince came near, and kissed his eyes and head, As one from sheer death rescued, and thus weeping Thou, O Telemachus, my life, my light,
Fell on his neck






soul did often say

That never, never more should

have sight

Of thy sweet

face, since

thou didst


Enter, dear child, and



heart allay

Her yearnings



art thou


come from far.' " " Odyssey," Book xvi. (Worsley).


Odysseus and the SwineJierd Eumaios.
will I

" Gladly



answered Telemachos, " for
in her

it is

purposely that


find out

am come hither to speak whether my mother is still

to thee, that


or whether she has

been persuaded to wed one of the

him on these points, they when Odysseus at once rose and " Not so," exclaimed offered his seat to the noble youth. Telemachos, " keep thy seat fair stranger. Youth ever gives way to age, and Eumaios will find me a humbler place." So Odysseus sat down again, and while the swineherd placed
Eumaios having
entered the house together,

food and wine before the prince, with proud delight and
admiration Odysseus gazed at the son


years ago he


a babe in his mother's arms.

Then having


Telemachos asked " Tell me, good father, whence comes this stranger, and what vessel brought him to Ithaka." Whereupon Eumaios related the fable told him by Odysseus, and added that he now gave him over into the prince's care. But Telemachos answered: "What can I do with him, Well thou knowest that I dare not take him Eumaios.

home, for how could I protect him if the suitors should and jeer at him. Besides I know not yet whether my mother still awaits my father's return, or whether she has been persuaded to wed another. I can, however, give the stranger a coat and a good stout sword, and send him forth wheresoever he will. Until then keep him safely by thee,


I will

send down food and clothing that he
I will


not be

a burthen to thee.

not take him to

my own


there to expose


to insult

and abuse."

Then secret anger filled

the breast of Odysseus, and he cried

" Truly these suitors

seem a mighty


and much



to see thee thus sore troubled.


were young, or in thy place.

Or would


Odysseus were




Swineherd Eumaios.
even should


come back,

for then,


me my

head, I would essay to turn out the wanton crew.

would rather lose



than bear dishonour, which

worse than death."
" Nay, friend, it is easy for thee to talk," replied Telemachos, " but how can I, a mere stripling and alone, rid

Unless the gods themselves come must stand patiently by while they devour my substance. But now, go thou to the town Eumaios, and tell my mother of my safe return I will wait here until
foes ? to

myself of so



assistance I


thou come to



Eumaios obeyed. No sooner had he departed than Athene approached the house in the guise of a beautiful maiden, but she was only visible to the sight of Odysseus and
to that of the dogs, who, instead of barking, crept whining
to the farthest extremity of the court-yard.

The goddess

beckoned Odysseus



to his son, at

and bade him make himself the same time promising to aid him in

coming encounter with the suitors. Then she touched him with her golden wand, and immediately he became once more a noble hero, in the full vigour of youth, and clad in a
magnificent mantle.

The goddess


him, and Odysseus re-entered the hut.

In wonder his son gazed at him, and at
believing that he saw before

averted his eyes,

him one of the immortals. " Who art thou, stranger !" he cried, "Art thou indeed one of the bright and beautiful gods ? If so, be propitious, and gladly will we offer sacrifices to thee." But Odysseus answered " Nay, nay, my son. No god





thy long lost father, for


thou hast often

sighed and sorrowed," and with tears of joy he embraced

But Telemachos










and the Swineherd Ewnaios.

" * No, thou art not

my father nor by name Odysseus, but, of power divine, dost long



mock me





grief already

far too strong,



new weepings and a mightier wrong.

of himself could





But God can

make one

old or young,


thou of late wast wrapt in rags and old,
resemblest gods that heaven's dominion hold.'

Who now

" Wherefore does

" Odyssey,"





return so astonish thee ? " replied




help of beneficent Athene,

absence has indeed been long, but by the I have at length regained my

country after twenty years of sorrow and danger.
the same gracious goddess


who transformed me

into a

now has Then Telemachos, no
beggar and





original form."

longer doubting, sprang forward,

"And clung weeping round his father's breast. There the pent grief rained o'er them, yearning thus. Louder they wailed than on the rock's lone crest Eagle or hook-nailed vulture, from whose nest
Rude Thus
churls the unfeathered

young have stolen away.

piteously they wailed in sore unrest." Homer, " Odyssey," Book xvi. (Worsley).

At length Odysseus found

his voice,

how he had been brought
machos, startled

to Ithaka

declared his determination to

and related to his son by the Phaeacians, and attack the suitors. But Tele:

at this, replied

" O,


father, oft




heard that thou

a hero mighty and strong, but

not possible that two

prevail against so

men unaided like ourselves should many. The suitors are more than one


number, besides

servants, the herald, the

bard, and two cooks



may be

that thou knowest of


allies willing to

help us in the encounter."

" While they were thus speaking the vessel that bore Telemachos to his home entered the harbour." Then all said Amphinomos : (worthiest the suitors) is " Let us not and most true-hearted harm Telemachos. and two spears for thee and me. and tell swords. leaving cnly two But none not even Laertes. . No . not even if they should their assistance in the struggle. of other aid if j 53 "What need have we are on our side ? " Zeus and Pallas " they both have answered Odysseus At earliest dawn. The youth must ! surely have been under the let protection of the gods Now. however. incite Let us therefore slay him. go thou unto the palace ill-treat me . two shields. who had just come into the palace. take all the arms in the hall to an upper chamber. for he may assemble the people. — — they were about to dispatch a ship to recall those lying in wait for him. divide the land amongst us. for our object unattainable whilst he There must be no delay. The thought that Telemachos had escaped them filled the suitors with rage. their : leader Antinoos exclaiming " It is incredible that Tele- machos has eluded our vigilance. but as soon as I make thee a given sign. Penelope. and them to rise against us. Eumaios will conduct me to the town disguised as a beggar. good ever gained by shedding royal blood at least let us . This time he not escape us. promised my son. best to compass his destruction on land.1 Odysseus and Ihe Swineherd Eumaios. is us consult how shall lives. No. heed them not. for we kept watch close to the shore all day. and he whom Penelope shall choose of shall have the palace. or Eumaios that I have returned to Ithaka. who were when they themselves appeared. and also to Eumaios. and a herald announced its arrival to Penelope. and during the night cruised about incessantly. and by telling them that we have lain in wait for him. Should the suitors scoff and jeer at me.

At dusk Eumaios returned to his house. them and repairing to the palace they took their seats at the banqueting board. wailing for her lost husband. and cried with indignation." he. that the suitors Penelope. This counsel satisfied consult the will of the gods. who had been once more changed into a beggar. but thou wouldst also raise thine hand had resolved veiled to the entrance of the hall. . having learnt to waylay came and kill her son. till pitiful Athene closed her eyes in slumber. meanwhile." " of the suitors Cast aside these fears." all. over her sorrows. To him he recounted the return of the suitors from their fruitless voyage." answered Eurymachos. touched. they for all lay down to rest so to gain strength what lay before them on the morrow.532 first Odysseus and the Sivineherd Eumaios. not only dost thou devour the substance of thy benefactor and afflict his wife. feigning friendship. ! against his only child. for often in my childhood Odysseus me on his knee and give me meat and wine. where he found Odysseus. and rejoicing greatly over the preservation of Telemachos. who are ever under the protection of mighty Jove ? Ungrateful one rememberest thou not how Odysseus saved thy father from the fury of the people. wouldst thou slay Telemachos? Canst thou thus disregard the cry of the sorrowful and bereaved. who would have murdered him for having robbed our allies ? and now. "Antinoos. whereas he himself was among Somewhat reassured Penelope returned to her chamber and wept the foremost in conspiring against the prince. He who at harms Telemachos will meet with his punishment would take Thus spake my hands. another " not a hair of thy son's head shall be .

(Worsley)." —Homer. to the tower. my life. machos. Fondly she clasped her " O Teleson in her arms. with dark wrongs deeply meant. Then the proud suitors thronged him as he went. robed in and there present a thank-offering to the gods for my safe return. palace. and at last Penelope came forth from her chamber more beautiful than ever. that the people gazed intent. plied with the desire of her son. Scarce had day dawned when Telemachos entered the town to seek the presence of his mother. who ran to greet him with tears of joy." answered the youth. ? me." While Penelope comwhite.: Odysseus returns to his home. 533 XLIX„— ODYSSEUS RETURNS TO HIS HOME. entering the palace the prince first On encountered Eurykleia. friends. my light. beloved mother. weeping for joy over him. Joining his father's he awaited the arrival of the man into whose care he had entrusted the seer Theoklymenos. having bidden the swineherd follow him with the stranger without delay. what hast thou been able to accomplish "Ah. Rather ascend. With fair words on the lip. " harrow not my soul afresh with thy questions. "Odyssey. the only joy remaining to me. Hast thou indeed returned in not suffered on thy account ! safety ? " What tell anxiety have I But now. But he would not stop among them. " and followed by Telemachos traversed the his faithful hounds Athene did with grace endear all His form. spear in hand." Book xvii. All now crowded round him. and accompanied . while I seek and bring hither the guest whom I brought from Pylos. And wondered while he passed without a peer.

" " Odyssey.: — Odysseus returns to his 534 him his home. Therefore hastened onward to having told him where found Menelaos. my father. suitors in the court-yard of the palace sports. Nestor received me as though tell had been his own I son. Proteus. Hearth of the brave Odysseus void of guile. to the market place. the in various disc. till engaged such as throwing the dart and hurling the the hour of noon approached. (Worsley). the hearth which I have found. ungrateful." will I prove that am not While they thus communed in the hall. and bade thy son to mark. the that to Odysseus. First of the gods bear witness Zeus the while. which with dire fulfilment shall be crowned Such omen. hear only knows in part my prophecy is clear. suitors down to their morning while Telemachos thus related his adventures. Then they assisted in slaying and preparing the flesh of the requisite animals for the mid-day meal." exclaimed " On this the seer Theoklymenos He Wife of Laertiades Odysseus. Thy table kind." xvii. whi e I sat beside the bark. E'en now thy husband on his native ground. sat faithful friends (the repast. with neither ships nor men. Sitting or walking. and called aloud." it Book so. I knew. Heaven grant that may be cried Penelope I " then by richly rewarding thee.'" ' ! . : —Homer. and was being detained by Kalypso in her island. some information. guest to From thence he brought back and with Penelope and a few being absent). but not a word could he I me of the fate of Sparta. was unable to his return kingdom. . and from him received sea-god. . the palace. hears an evil sound Of suitors in his hall. " I When I arrived at Pylos. and vengeance dark Broods.

Nor sword nor caldron earn by any manly play. he cried mockingly ever like with like doth pair. with staff patched wallet on his back. raising his : hands towards heaven. they to his tattered home. Odysseus. and for the kids supply Young leaves for pasture. He by the door-posts loitering in the way Will rub his shoulders. who sided with and was now bringing in some kids for their he beheld Odysseus. If thou wouldst lend him for a while to me. clothed which to stay gates. But the ill caitiff of all toil is shy. however. on town. The stalls to sweep. this. Not content with Melanthius his foot. and to sate his greed Prowl mid the suitors for vile scraps of prey. ye fountain-nymphs divine. (Worsley). Odysseus thighs did ever burn or kids. still pursued them. 535 a in garments. his ribs and head the flying stools wear out. Banes of the banquet. let moan doth cringe about I Mark me. at your shrine. the goat-herd. And For with a hell-deep victuals. met Melanthius. But the disguised hero. ! banquet." Homer.: Odysseus returns Now. cried If that " Virgins of Zeus. very wolves to feed. very soon would he Swill the rich whey and nourish a stout thigh. made his way into the As they approached the the suitors. and spurned Odysseus with although sorely tempted to strike his staff. and holding a stout his tottering steps. accompanied by Eumaios. restrained himself. the miscreant dead with Eumaios. set foot for will not lie ! Once Soon him will — mid the suitors' rout. " See When still how God And the worthless doth the worthless lead ! Unenviable swineherd tell me where This wretch wouldst thou bestow ? Not such we need." Book xvii. fat-folded. Of lambs . " Odyssey.

whom Odysseus himself had trained been in years gone by. " but now first let us decide whether thou art to go in and take thy place among enter. and. . and ! The lordly ! the savoury odour of the viands." " Thou art indeed right. and than whom none had swifter in the chase now." replied Eumaios. grasping the " What a magnificent building is swineherd's hand. Not long after Eumaios and Odysseus also arrived. an pricked up his old dog that lay near raised himself It and ears. " go thou in Of hard blows. fool?" cried Melanthius." As they spoke. (Worsley). he seated himself among the guests and joined in the revel. have I borne many. said : this chambers rise tier above tier. to his home." the suitors. " Odyssey. Argos had lain neglected upon the heaps of rubbish outside the gates. Wherein rejoicing thou the poor dost spurn. was Argos. the suitors have slain Telemachos. ! Fulfil the in soul I yearn May God Then will may that man return ! he fling thy finery to the wind. but the pangs of hunger are unconquerable. Recognizing the voice of Odysseus the . Roaming the city. while with evil mind Bad herdsmen waste the flocks which thou hast left beind" Homer." Book xvii. I will wait here. since the departure of his master." And hurrying into the palace." said Odysseus. and then will I carry thee off and sell thee for a slave. — "What " only wait art till thou muttering. or whether thou wilt wait here while I " first. and what I towers and battlements surround the court-yard splendid see also that many guests are assembled at the banquet. As they drew near Odysseus stayed his steps. and the sweet tones of the harp issue forth most temptingly.536 Odysseus returns hope wherewith yet bring him. my friend. and even worse than these.

" . hound in such and he bent down and gently satisfied stroked his head. when. some way renowned : mendicants come unbidden. and whence he came. and say that I bid him go boldly among the suitors. " as if we had not returned already enough of such vile rabble. foolishly. and expressed the glad welcome that he could not filled Tears the eyes of Odysseus at the sight of his noble evil plight. are ever welcome. or in men. Athene." the swineherd " strangers. unseen by beside. Odysseus." Odysseus gratefully accepted the proffered food. and seated himself to partake of it. but eyes." said Melanthius. but they must be great or singers. the faithful back and died. stature The tall Struck by his and manly proportions the suitors asked one another who this beggar could be.. the goatherd. his eyes had once again beheld the face of beloved master. now too feeble to bear him." " Thou speakest truly. Telemachos immediately gave some meat and bread to Eumaios. where Telemachos proNext came in also vided him with a seat near to himself. Eumaios now entered the hall. Odysseus returns aged hound strove limbs were tail to his home. )S/ in vain to approach him. Eumaios?'' cried Antinoos insolently. saying: " Take this to yon mendicant. but where he comes from I know not. hero obeyed her behest without delay. the once strong utter. after so many his long years." "Wherefore didst thou bring this fellow here. approached Odysseus and urged him to mingle with the guests and ask for alms. other either architects. physicians. none would invite or bring them. four-footed friend Then fell with one long gasp. As soon as the sweet sounds of the harp all had ceased. " I have seen him before. and beg something from each. ears. and stood leaning against a pillar. " when the swineherd Eumaios was bringing him into the town.

" 538 " Odysseus returns to his home. and he answered: "What god sent this man to annoy us? Hence. Die unavenged. I was ever ready to succour and help the needy. ere his nuptial night. I. too. was once rich and powerful. . until at he stood before Antinoos: "Thou also must bestow some- what upon me. Why therefore this dost thou answer him ?" to last Odysseus during had continued going from one another of the suitors. " Odyssey." But these words greatly displeased Antinoos. " ' be gods and furies of the poor. upon the palace-floor ! —Homer. " how different is the inward mind from the outward for man ! Nothing can I look from thee since thou wilt not bestow so much as a crumb which from the board where thou thyself hast been is fed. hitting him on the Still The hero. "thou knowest well that Antinoos bitter ever ready to wound with unkind words. (Worsley)." now broke is Telemachos. more enraged. Antinoos raised his and threw it at Odysseus." Book xvii. silence. Now may If there Antinous. receiving food from them. "for thou hast the countenance and bearing of a king. Eumaios. fellow or thou wilt receive more than thou hast ! demanded " ! O ye gods ! " exclaimed Odysseus. however." stool wooden shoulder. saying to the suitors " ' Hear me. in Hold thy peace. white sheep or kine But me (bear witness !) doth Antinous smite Only because I suffer hunger's bite. and I will declare thy generosity far and wide. Defending their own wealth. unwept. ye suitors of the queen divine ! Men grieve not for the wounds they take in fight ." he said. but not thine own. merely bent his head in and returned : to his place at the entrance of the hall. and until it pleased the gods to deprive me of my wealth. Fount to mankind of evils evermore.

sent and bade Eumaios conduct him to her own apartments. known to be both a coward and ! a surly vagrant. and he swore and raved like a greatly to the delight of the suitors. thinking that perhaps the stranger might be able to give her news of Odysseus. the dis who watched : ! putants with great interest. " dost thou not see that the suitors are making signs to me to drive thee away ? Hasten thy steps. wretch ! to his home. crying whichever of you masters a savoury dish of roasted kid the other shall partake of as much of it as he will. old man though J in mine be ! " These words increased tenfold the scorn and in- solence of Iros. " See here is Antinoos urged them both on. lest I smite thee they may give thee. lest thou feel the weight of : my arm. this violation of the and the latter. But Odysseus sent her back word that for fear of the suitors he would wait till evening before seeking her presence. "eat thy food with- out further parley or upon thee. and sit : with us at the board. Another beggar promising to return early on the morrow. and he immediately sought a quarrel with Odysseus." But Odysseus answered " Nay. there is here room both for you and me. we will fall Penelope alone were sorely grieved at laws» of hospitality." " How can an old man like me." answered Odysseus . Eumaios then took leave of Telemachos and departed. friend. and I will not grudge thee ought that Only molest me not.Odysseus returns " Peace." The rest of the suitors joined in Telemachos and mocking and threatening the beggar. a bully. dotard " cried he. and cast thy body out to the dogs. " Hence. anger. 539 " cried Antinoos. seated among her maidens. and do thee some harm. and that then he would recount to her all he knew regarding her husband. well He was named Iros now approached. madman.

' —Homer. exclaiming : " ' Sit. when he beheld fain the marvellous strength fairly of muscle displayed by Odysseus. him with wine and bread. aid. Dogs from O'er the doors. in Penelope to descend into the order to afford Odysseus the opportunity of admiring the fidelity and skill of his wife. (Worsley). nor henceforth dare and foul insults heap " Odyssey." . Iros. And he " Book xviii." : " 54° craftily." if make the ye will pledge yourselves not to lend Iros your agreed. amidst the gibes and laughter of the the spectators. men to lord and learn to keep and swine. Antinoos placed " Odyssey." On strangers and the poor. returned first blow feebly dealt at him by dashing Iros to the ground. driven thereto by hunger. while Athene banqueting now inspired hall. however. Then Odysseus.' ! At public —Homer. dragged him forward. ? " hope to overcome one in the prime of manhood Nevertheless. without exerting his full strength. and compelled him to fight. (Worsley). The suitors. it. before others plentifully supplied him the roasted kids. placed him against the wall of the court-yard. pitiful that thou art. was shrinking back would cowed. quietly resumed his seat in the palace door-way. I will attempt." Book xviii. Odysseus returns to his home. at thy choice dispose Since yonder cormorant his last hath dined charge. and then picking him up. lest a worse thing thou reap. " Eurynome. and the hero prepared himself if To this they • all for the combat but the suitors had been amazed at his great height. all the suitors applauding ' him and saying Thou Zeus and the gods whatever in thy mind list. and have escaped. O stranger.

pleasure in it me since the departure of my beloved Odysseus — nevertheless and Hippodameia attend me. O that Zeus would cause them to be laid low." replied the prince. and endowed her with dazzling beauty. for I would fain their evil practices." " Rightly dost thou speak." replied the aged dame. yet methinks I will nevertheless join them now in the hall. Penelope ! fairest of the fair ! . bathing and hair with ambrosia.urynome had commands of her mistress. however. yet this day thou hast in acted foolishly." departed to carry out the bid my maidens Autonoe As soon as F. " Though thou hast almost my son. my mother. Thou who had sought our shouldst not have suffered a stranger hospitality to be insulted our presence. suitors sprang enchanted with her With her lofty pillars veil thrown round her the queen stood by the which supported the arched roof. even as was Iros !" Thus he answered her." " Ah. by the two maidens. " well thou knovvest my hatred of the suitors. and then Eurymachos exclaimed " : How beautiful thou art. and deck thyself right royally that thy glorious beauty may command " the admiration of all. talk not to " all me has of adornment. and also rebuke warn Telemachos of him for allowing them to insult the stranger. between minated not as the suitors Iros and the stranger hoped and believed. ter- The combat.O dyssetts returns to his home. " but first restrain thy ever-flowing tears. and turning to : her son thus addressed him attained to man's estate. Athene caused Penelope while she slept her face to fall into a deep slumber. the loveliness. "but the riot here puts to flight all just and sober thoughts. attended to their feet." sighed Penelope left . so that when she descended to the hall." Do even as thou hast said. 541 said the queen to her old nurse. my child.

or whether I in Troy shall fall. gifts. life and joy would again be mine.: ' 542 Odysseus returns to his home. (Worsley). Could but the princes of my native land behold thee. tall. Wed whom thou wilt." " Eurymachos. Now " the gods ' fill my life with evil remember. Hurlers of javelins. and leave him here alone. whatever fate befal. when he went away. Of have truly enough. riders of swift steeds. My father and my mother in our hall Remember and yet more when I am gone. He clasped my right hand by the wrist. indeed. believe me shall from Troy be led Well I : Safe homeward but the many shall lie dead. Were he but to return." At these words the most presumptuous of the with they presented to the noble Penelope. suitors sent forth the herald to bring in rich presents. but such as waste my substance. and wide Swerves of the rolling battle very soon decide." answered the queen. They say the Trojans are all warriors tried. and bowmen dread. Therefore I know not whether God will spare My life. that far And And when thy son thou seest bearded." Book xviii. which forth- After she had retired to her apartments the revellers in the hall continued ." —Homer. Thus spake suitors I he. the number of thy suitors would be doubled. then. And even as now. Dear wife. . But thou of all things in my stead take care. and said " Not all the Argives that wear arms to-day. proaching when I and now with dread I see the day apmust become the wife of another. " grief for my beloved Odysseus has robbed me of my beauty. Instead of bestowing on as is me an abundance of precious the custom of our land. " Odyssey. ye prey on me for food and shelter.

he must have been felled to the Are ye all mad ? " exclaimed Telemachos." replied Odysseus for ." exclaimed the enraged Eurymachos. but only to recommence on the morrow the night." The suitors abashed by this rebuke retired. " I would we could now work I a wager. some god has sent hither this beggar my friends." So saying he hurled a wooden stool at Odysseus with such force that. or drive the plough even from night. " Has the wine turned your heads that ye thus brawl and riot at this unseemly hour? Surely it is fully time to seek repose." " Not so. wide though they seem. had he not managed ground. fellow ? wouldst take service head with me. Surely Eurymachos cried tauntingly: "Hearken. thou art but a useless vagabond who would rather lead the idle life of a his ! mendicant. to help in the illumination of the hall with the bright shining baldness of What sayest thou. morn till on into the Or if thou didst employ foremost in the me in battle.Odysseus returns to to his home. " to avoid it. " darest thou to insult art me thus in presence of all these? Surely heated and overcome with wine. be too narrow to afford thee What. means of " flight. " Tele- . Odysseus the Then the torches and fires. then shouldst thou see that can far mow grass." then would these doors. practices of the preceding Odysseus remained in the hall meditating revenge. or else thy triumph thou over Iros has turned thy head. 543 dance and feast the while carefully tending whole night through. But a proud insolent greater than thou for art. or carry home wood from the forest? But. either to work in the fields or to fell trees. man art thou that thinkest thyself far Would that Odysseus were returned. perchance. thou wouldst ever find me fight.

One of them going up "How is stranger? hast thou not already received enough in this house." replied the disguised king." seem ablaze. and my face is furrowed with and care? Time was when I too was young." he said at length. well and happy bethink therefore that a like change may one day fall on thee also. and took her place on her gold and this. Such is the will of the immortals. maiden." " Curb thy forward tongue. Pallas. " because I am clothed in rags. and asked of him : name. "but ponder in thy heart. for the narrative of my sorrows would force me to wail and lament with tears before thee. said: tables. But he answered " Lady. ask me not. Now rest awhile while I seek the presence of the queen. " it is at my desire that the stranger remains here me tidings of Odysseus. and whence he came. Much astonished at the brilliant light that surrounded cried : them the prince divinity is " What " miracle is this. the pillars. all present here. " let us quickly carry all these weapons and all the armour into an upper chamber. ." cried Penelope grief clad. Surely some Speak not of aught that thou all seest. lighting their way with her golden lamp." But when Penelope again urged him to relate to her his . sternly to give . the while invisible to the eyes of Telemachos. while the damsels cleared the banqueting to Odysseus. and recount to her sorrows." returned Odysseus. my father ? the walls. machos." This they did without delay. the roof." Then she made Odysseus his seat himself." 544 Odysseus returns to his home." my Odysseus had not long to wait ere Penelope appeared attended by her maidens. but thou must needs remain here ! ! all night also ? Haste thee begone " Dost thou scorn me. silver seat.

" Book xix. " if but thy words might indeed prove true thou shalt be richly rewarded. ah ! I cannot yet believe in the near approach of my beloved. and who were companions ? " Then Odysseus worn with that the bitter described so minutely the clothes he had tears broidered for queen doubted no longer. but Odysseus betrayed no emotion. And now take comfort." cried Penelope." Odysseus returns history. 545 her that he was a brother of King whose court Odysseus had come on his way to Troy. he had entertained the hero for twelve days. As he spoke of her husband." answered Odysseus." " Dear stranger. Me he sent on . ! never more to I Him shall ! Went to that evil Ilion never to be named. Odysseus is on his homeward journey. but companions are lost. But. and even now not far from here his alone. by a hard fate doubly blamed. (Worsley). "hast thou in truth seen Odysseus ? Tell me. and that. before to prepare thee for his arrival. prepare a soft 2 couch on which he may m . to thought with sorrow of her beloved lord. Penelope could not refrain from weeping. what manner of man was he ? what his raiment did he wear. for she told he Idomeneus. " " Odyssey.' —Homer. for all he returns laden with treasure. " this consuming grief will wear away thy beauty. report speaks truly. Weep not thus. was endowed with more than mortal graces. and exclaimed " Alas that robe mine own hands him " : ! : "'Ah my fond arms reclaimed welcome Far across the sea Odysseus. Maidens ! bring hither water quickly to wash the feet of the stranger. if Nevertheless I blame not thy love for a lord who. Idomeneus being absent. to his home. "And is it indeed as thou hast said?" she asked at length.

and now Odysseus "Silence." thou hast some old dame who could supply all Then Penelope bade him " Eurykleia. thou art both her eyelids with the to his : My darling — child." he laid his said." Odysseus returns and let to his home." answered Odysseus. to molest none henceforth dare or scoff " Lady." replied Odysseus. ! ' Almost beside herself with joy she wished at once to tell Penelope of her discovery. Then Eurykleia knelt to bathe his his foot the scar of Now Odysseus bore on long ago by the an old wound inflicted sharp tusk of a boar. through the care of Athene." " Truly. she let the foot drop from her hands. and thou wilt indeed feel the weight of my wrath. the aged nurse of Odysseus. perhaps that I need. Breathe but a word of what thou knowest. " not knew my king " Odyssey. and spake to him Surely thou art Odysseus yes. hand upon return her. voice. " many who have seen us together have spoken of the same likeness. Gazing at fixedly. but. dame. the old woman Of all the many strangers who have entered these halls none have I seen whose features. no soft bed do I require. holding her back. and stature bore such likeness to my lord as thine." Book xix. so dear to her heart. and 1 —Homer. "neither trouble thy maidens to attend on me. (Worsley). While in her throat the liquid accents die. And She 4 warm tears swim. spilling the Startled. be kept secret. and this mark the old nurse at once recognized. her eyes full of tears the while at the thought said of her master. bring water and wash the feet of the stranger." "my must . water from the bowl beside her " Sorrow at once and joy her soul bedim. the queen had observed nothing of what had passed.— : : 546 repose. at him. beard upraised her hand." feet.

but now that a strange dream. and the woods ring With sorrow. . declare to me its meaning. and said Odysseus had bathed and been anointed Pene" One thing yet : must enquire of thee. lovely variations her sweet tale Trills beautifully well. Whom Veers blindly she cut off Thus ever in the wild passion to breast. " Odyssey. child of Zethus king." Book I xix. or go. Couched in the covert of some leafy dale Green all around her with ambrosial showers. and ever come at my call to take golden grain from my In my dream I beheld an eagle swoop down from hand.Odysseus returns " Nay. my and rends the heart Whether to stay here with my child." As soon I lope recalled him to the hearth. and then fly away. by quitting the palace. kill them all. if thou canst. in the new vernal hours. I should I have. With Pandarus' child. my son. O : stranger. had rid him of these unwelcome guests. the sylvan nightingale. " While my son was yet a child rejected every suitor he has almost reached manhood he himself is desirous that. while her boy she still doth wail. I wist not. and I pray thee. ere . dear Itys." — Homer. I have a flock of twenty geese that bathe their white plumage in the waters of the limpid lake hard by. 547 . with scorn. speak not so sternly. (Worsley). and now doth sadly sing and fro in twain. comes the hour of a rest for those who sleep in sorrow " — to me Daemon sends the restlessness of misery " Even as when." replied Eurykleia : know how as to keep silence from me shall none learn aught of thee. There lay the mountains. however. " well I to his home. Wife of the bravest of the Achaian train. Itys.

Odysseus? Art thou not once more beneath thine own roof." answered the hero. The greedy geese denote thy rapacious suitors. O stranger. I. for to-morrow must my fate be decided. " hast thou trusted in vain to how often human aid. one of ivory and one of horn. whereas those that come forth from the opposite gate bear with them Oh that this dream of mine may belong truth and reality." said Pene- " The land of dreams hath two portals. contains itself tells its own explanation. with the sword. the thought of how of I. and are mere delusions. but ." " True. unhurt. : ' Why upon the battlements. returns to Ins home. as I dead upon the ground. that only Out of the former proceed those visions mock the brain. and close it to thy wife and child. shall escape. Wouldst thou . O divine protectress. thus spake with a human weepest thou. sword." replied "and thee the All thy suitors shall be slain manner of its fulfilment. Penelope retired to her was long ere sleep visited the eyes of Odysseus at length Athene appeared. O queen ? no vain dream is but a prophetic vision." " But there are deceptive visions. voice this. now come as thy husband to free thee from them by my Then I awoke and found my geese alive. end. " but nevertheless. and. ! to these last. Tomorrow the suitors contend in a trial of strength. but wept and lamented over alighting the eagle suddenly reappeared. and my hand is to be the prize of the victor." "Thy dream Odysseus. while hitherto in the form of an eagle." come all these suitors robs me my " Faithless and doubting.' and quietly feeding. shall overrest." Their interview at an apartments.548 his victims O dyssetts my loss. and not one of them lope. a lone man." cried the goddess. and thus addressed him: "Why art thou thus restless and wakeful.

549 my power to help thee now? with sleep." she sealed his eyelids Repose in So saying and hurried back to Olympos. The serving maidens now entered and kindled the fire on the hearth. Odysseus." Odysseus also arose betimes.The Vengeance of indeed doubt peace. or wind bear me away to the farthest shores of Ocean that I All may ills never be forced to wed another than are bearable if. even my broken and disturbed by fearful visions. thy grief slumber for a time. the ever-busy Eurykleia superintending them as they prepared the hall for the suitors. L. and the goat-herd Melanthios con- tributed also the finest of the flock. and prayed to Jove to send him a token that he might know whether his designs met with the divine favour. Even as he prayed a loud clap of thunder resounded through the bright cloudless sky. thus assured of the god's approval. after the sorrowful day. the hero boldly prepared his mind for the task before him. vagrant art thou here ? Wert thou not satisfied with the bounty bestowed on thee . sweet sleep brings alas ! rest. and. washed the dishes ing spring. On the morrow when Penelope awoke she raised herself on her couch and prayed with tears to Artemis. On seeing ! Odysseus he still exclaimed insolently : " What. for and cups. and let O dyssens. " O holy daughter of Jove. others decked the seats with rich coverings. all things. and oblivion of rest at night is but for me. and fetched fresh water from the neighbourEumaios also appeared bringing three porkers the morning meal. wilt thou not at least let the now take from me my life. peace.— THE VENGEANCE OF ODYSSEUS. While some swept.

lackest not sense. I swear to thee. he grasped his hand. perchance. . or thou shalt feel the weight of my arm. Telemachos while the attendants handed round wine." " May the gods grant thy words to be Philoitios." wilt not see my hands remain helpless and The best suitors now crowded into the hall. but only shook his head Next came in Philoitios." answered "Hearken therefore to me . Then they proceeded and sat down to the banquet. to slay the requisite animals. that thy master will return ere thou quit the palace. is now wandering the earth like thee in Before Oh that he would return sore need and misery. father. and disperse this swarm of locusts who devour his substance. deigned no reply. consulting as to the . cowherd." "Methinks thou Odysseus. who brought with him a young bullock "Who is this stranger?" asked he of Eumaios. : " May and who. they recognised therein a divine token. ? All this grieves me to the still. than have befallen our master Odysseus. "he bears a strange resemblance to Odysseus " and going up fate to him. by mighty Jove. on the sudden left hand of an eagle holding in its talons a living dove. man. however. of whom I was reminded when I first beheld thee. but what avails it that they have thriven so well since I must needs ! ! bring the best to the suitors heart . . I cling to the hope that Odysseus will one day return.550 yesterday ? The Vengeance of Odysseus. Take thy departure. and that quickly. he departed he left under my care all his herds. a wise and kindly for the banquet. fulfilled. means of slaying appearance on their Telemachos but. and that thou wilt with thine own eyes see him revenge himself upon the suitors." To this Odysseus threateningly. and postponed their evil intentions. exclaiming have better things in store for thee." returned " and then thou idle.

until at last : lips with anger." answered Telemachos. that he in may reward who has waited upon him. Night folds in dark embrace Your heads." Athene now caused paroxysms of ghastly laughter to seize the suitors. 55 placed food on a side table for his father. " and must trust that she may this day decide. for truly it had been otherwise I my javelin would have pierced thy body." replied Agelaos. him. should bestow on him some the servant It is therefore gift. The hero adroitly evaded the blow. But listen." With these words he took from a basket standing near him a cow's hoof." " Rightly spoken. and struck the wall behind but a terrible smile passed : over his face. the missile passed . but remained one of them named Ktesippos cried out contemptuously " See. for he that On hearing this the suitors bit their silent. insults thee and fear neither scoff nor must answer for it to me. go thou to Penelope and entreat her to choose from amongst us. saying. the beggar has now had his turn his fair portion of I but right that meat and wine. and will not henceforth suffer thy brawlings here. "Ah wretched what is this ? what horrible woe Comes on ye now. As long is as ye still hoped and believed that Odysseus would return ye were not to blame for but now that his death at last undoubted. young prince. " provoke the stranger no more. to the counsel I give to both thee and thy mother. and Telemachos cried angrily self " Count thy- happy." gibe. and as the tears ran over their cheeks so dreadful was their aspect that the seer ! Theoclumenos rose and exclaimed . "Here. my friends. your features." I "That will I readily do. this delay. eat in peace.1 The Vengeance of Odysseus. am now no longer a child. Ktesippos. and your knees below . to have missed thine aim. confusing their ideas and distorting their faces. . and flung it at Odysseus.

" Telemachos looked anxiously from time to time at his hour of retribution had not arrived. Penelope. Odysseus signed to him to desist." Book xx." Three times he to tried. Then cried is . (Worsley). and father to see whether the thus addressed the carousing suitors : "I bring hither Thrust these to you the bow of Odysseus. veiled from head to foot. " if I succeed. the court. fixed the iron staves in a row. and endeavoured to bend the who bow to its full extent : " For. and falleth —Homer." " Odyssey. a black shadow of storm. the suitors again laughed aloud. each surmounted by a into the ground in a this who can span and even line. and she will then know also that I am able and willing to fight my father's battles. but without success . old and Eurymachos it "The ! man surely is mad. now appeared at the entrance of the hall. especially Antinoos. . Who toward the far realms of the west apace Strive with their eyes on Erebus . and twelve iron ring." answered Theoclumenos will . quiver. tears are on the face With ghosts the vestibule. 552 The Vengeance of Odysseus. in imagination. as he was about make a fourth attempt. with arrows. saw himself victorious. already. last firmlv staves. for already I foresee the disastrous fate that ere long come upon all who remain in the halls of Odysseus. my mother may remain with me." he " I may behold " I require no guidance." said he. for he imagines that that night Conduct him quickly out of the palace the light of day." All were delighted at this proposal.. but as yet no sign was made to him. doth swarm. the sun's form * Dies from heaven. He among you bow and send an arrow through the straight twelve rings will I accept as my future husband. Telemachos now divested himself of his sword and cloak. Wild cries are kindled. depart willingly.

5 — HOMER. caused years ago by a wild boar. away all scar. for I myself am here. . and failed. Philoitios Just then together Eumaios and quitted the court-yard : Odysseus followed them and said Odysseus now suddenly side with " My friends. Come to mine own land in the twentieth year. and builded houses near my own And to Telemachus. tell " or with these suitors ? me truly. roaming earth and sea. sec here the At once recognising the mark. but even this was of no avail. mine own dear son. Shall ye be friends and brethren evermore.. as it shall be If God subdue them. were him "If immortal Jove grant him a safe return/' said the cowherd. to return." Book xxi." doubt from your minds. and embraced him weeping. threw their arms round their beloved master. would you Then Odysseus exclaimed " ' : Who And See now and mark. commanded that the bow should be soaked in melted fat to make it more pliable. They all essayed. that they might in turn. 553 suitors. The Vengeance of Odysseus. And to drive " Odyssey. try their skill Then Antinoos soon gave up in despair. The truth will I reveal. I well know that