Bardaisan and the Odes of Solomon Author(s): Wm.

Romaine Newbold Reviewed work(s): Source: Journal of Biblical Literature, Vol. 30, No. 2 (1911), pp. 161-204 Published by: The Society of Biblical Literature Stable URL: . Accessed: 23/12/2011 08:03
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Bardaisan and the Odes of Solomon'

of Solomon present THE newly discovered Odes literature problems asto the student of early Christian fascinating as they are difficult. The author is a poet, and a poet of no mean order, but he is much more than that - he feels himself inspired by the Spirit of the Lord and illumined by His light; the resources of language, even when strained to the utmost limits of poetic license, are inadequate to express the richness of that new life which has transfigured his inner self and filled him with the joy and peace that pass all understanding. Yet when one endeavorsto see the worlds of matter and of spirit as the singer saw them2 and to grasp his conception of their mutual relations, in brief, to reconstruct his philosophy and to determine his age, his environment, and the school of thought to which he belonged, one encounters peculiar difficulties. He is as much at home in the Psalms and Wisdom-literatureas any Jew, and yet is not in sympathy with the more distinctive tenets of Judaism. He acknowledges no circumcision save that of the heart (xi. 1-2), no sacrifice save that of "1God's thought," of "righteousness and purity of thought and lips" (xx. 1-7), no peculiar people, for his sympathies are as broad as humanity (vi. 7-17; xiv. 14-29). He is a Christian, familiar with the leading events-of Christ's life -the miraculousbirth (xix. 6-10), the baptism (xxiv. 1-3), crucifixion and descent
1 I desire to acknowledge to the editors my obligations for their kind revisionof the proofs duringmy absencefrom the country, and in particular revision of my translationsfrom the Syriac. ProfessorMontgomery's 2 The author's general point of view has been characterizedby many; perhapsthe best is that of Gunkel, ZNTW, xi. 1910, p. 320.





into Hades (xlii. 1-26 et al.), yet he absolutely ignores many of the most characteristic doctrines and practices of Christianity. He makes no explicit allusion to the resurrection or ascension of Christ's material body, or to baptism, or the eucharist. He knows of sin and evil as facts (xxxiii. 8; xxxviii. 12 ff. et al.), but they seem to lie outside the range of his own present concern; even his conception of redemption seems unconnected with the crucifixion. Moreover, amidst the profusion of poetic and allegorical images in which he expresses his ideas, there are some which one can scarcely regard as merely poetic and allegorical and which fit but ill into the traditional system of Christian theology. The "worlds" 4 et al.), the "garment of light" (xi. 10; xxi. 2), the (xii. "perfect virgin" (xxiii. 5), the "abysses " (xxiv. 3; xxxi. 1), - these, and perhaps others, are somewhat more than hints that the author's view of the universe is not that of the orthodox Christian theologian. The theories proposed to account for this puzzling complex belong to three leading types. The representatives of the first type, led by Rendel Harris, the distinguished discoverer and first editor of the Odes, regard them as belonging to a period when the new life which was stirring men's hearts had not as yet moulded their thoughts after its own image nor found words adequate to its expression, when Christian theology was as yet in the making and clear formulations had no existence, in brief, to the period, approximately, of the New Testament itself. A second group, led by Harnack, cannot believe that conceptions so disparate as are found in the Odes could ever have coexisted as the elements of the world-view of any single mind. They believe them, therefore, to be a composite product, the original Odes being the work of a Jew of unusually catholic sympathies, into whose text a Christian hand has incorporated a few of the more essential elements of Christianity. But Harnack also refers the Odes in their present form to a very early period - about the end of the first century of our era. A third group of students regard them as giving imperfect





expression to some peculiar system of Christian theology, accepted by some minor sect, probably of the second century, and endeavor to identify the sect in question with some one of those mentioned by the church historians. But upon this point no agreement has as yet been reached. Gunkel thinks them Gnostic, and Preuschen has announced3 that he will endeavor to prove them a part of the Valentinian Psalmbook; Batiffol4 regards them as representing a docetic tendency, perhaps a forerunner of the great Christian Gnostic movement of the second century and akin to that combated by Ignatius. But Conybeare 5 and Fries 6 would have them Montanist. In my opinion the weight of evidence is distinctly in favor of the third point of view. While the considerations urged by Gunkel and Batiffol are not all of equal force and it is not probable that all will stand the test of further criticism, the main thesis for which they contend seems to me established - that the Odes unmistakably reveal the influence of Gnostic speculation. Yet the evidence falls far short of proving them Gnostic, for many of the leading characteristics of Gnosticism, as of Judaism and of Christianity, are conspicuous by their absence. The system of eons, for example, upon the elaboration of which with every detail suggested by pagan mythology or a perfervid imagination the Gnostic thinkers so loved to dwell, is represented in the Odes by nothing but the "worlds," and of them so little is said that it is impossible to determine at first glance what the author meant by them. Again, the Gnostic was essentially an exclusive faith. It drew a sharp line of demarcation between the true Gnostic, or, as the Valentinians called him, the "pneumatic" man, and the common herd, whether Christian or not. In the Odes the "elect" (viii. 21; xxiii. 1-3 et al.) might be regarded as representing the pneumatic man, but their relation to the mass of men is conceived in a very different and more catholic spirit, for the poet looks forward to the time when all mankind will be numbered among the saved (iii. 12;

ZNTW, xi. 1910, p. 328, n. 3. r ZNTW, xii. 1911, pp. 70-76.

A Rev.

Bibl., NS, viii. part 2 (1911).

6 Ib., p. 108.

passim. p. in a preeiminent degree. 154. Knowledge probably means gnosis." 7 As the author. to employ those elements of his theological system which lend themselves most readily to poetic treatment. a man of deep sympathies. of broad vision. note 41. Such a man. See the text. the aim of which was essentially nothing other than a solution of the " World-riddle" with the 7 vii. then. who believed himself divine and could the regarded all other men as akin either to animals or dead matter." Texteund Untersuchungen. a man whose heart was full of love for God and his fellowman. while not in the technical sense a Gnostic. 88. was Bardaisan of Edessa.p. 9 Felix Haase. at least. one does not turn to a hymnal for a system of theology. vii.D. 22 ff. 178. of the Odes we must postulate a man who. have been acquainted with the doctrines of the Syrian Gnostics also. was thoroughly familiar with Gnosticism and had borrowed from it much of his imagery and some of his doctrines. He must also have been a man who knew the life of the spirit by immediate personal experience. dangerous. One should not forget that it was the most enlightened minds that found something infectious in Gnosticism. died 222. And he was also a gifted poet.164 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE vi. if he be not wholly devoid of the poetic gift. Gnosis. But one does expect a hymn writer.9 No one who reflects that Bardaisan's youth fell in a period in which Gnosticism was at its height. speak of the time when "Nothing that breathes shall be without knowledge. of marked originality. receptive as he was to all sciences and sensitive to all intellectual influences.8 I cannot better express my own impression of the relation between Bardaisan and the Gnostics than by translating a passage from Haase's recent monograph. 8 Born A. will deny that Bardaisan. it is true. The argument from silence is.). was the stupendous drama of the Valentinian theology. Nor true Gnostic. and that he lived in a land the peculiarity of whose culture made it the mother soil of Gnosticism. nor shall anything be dumb. and such. " Zur Bardesanischen 1910. . must. 27. so far as our information enables us to judge.

laid the foundation of his peculiar doctrine. &TpwP. in the age of Gnosticism.10 Bardaisan's keen intellect must have recognized the weak points in the Valentinian or [other] Gnostic system. 4 W raptC-ar/AgJ Gatb VrVaTwrj T'3 X6"Y' 8XhKao-&wcwv7^J. J6Ket Jeal U& r9j KcaraLTpoy0 raT?7~. Eusebius' assertion that Bardaisan was at first a disciple of Valentinian. Harnack.translatedfrom Syriac into Greek. But if we find in his doctrines passages that unquestionably have a Gnostic ring. ap.rb Tr s26pwo /eTaLSe- 7rpoOcrraFdov . then was converted to the true faith without altogether giving up his old heresy. . HE. 1.d."" Epiphanius describes him as "one of the finest Euseb. we will not. Lit. in so far.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 165 aid of all that the heathen sciences and Christianity had achieved. altchr.le-raEEOar ctAlq ?S o0 EavT r 7rw aclrbs tdjJ ye direppoa-ro KiTrareXwC 7rXEUTcrd -I r 9'l rbr 7?7I 5La- Id. XEK. in this doctrine. 185: JP AvOo7rotasL d•reXg'y a. To Bardaisan's intellectual ability all our authorities bear witness. but will simply assume Gnostic influence. 9. ETxr& So0ydd-rwP tWaX6yovevoT-•7~47'e0os. and Gnostic influence. based upon his own philosophical. and his formal classification with the Gnostics by ancient and modern historians does him no wrong. and he therefore worked out a peculiar doctrine of his own. Eusebius describes him as "a most able man and a skillful disputant in the Syriac language. Bardaisan is. the "Gnostic " elements. 30. aro~10 -TVyypal ica .of whom he had many. it is enough to maintain that astronomy in particular. ibid.. OkaXeTi'oP 5' dpa obrot rpo'Trepop Kear& orXOXfl•." p 7rXEL~rrotL rap utprw i7rkelTwrw. theological.KCtraTro. U ov• l ysdpLtAom. at least so far as its second part is concerned. and astronomical knowledge. p. 10o TE Tr7g KaTcl raXatai 11 iv. One will scarcely find a name that adequately and accurately expresses his teaching. -Trl 'EXXhvwv . i. for he was a doughty defenderof his doctrine.: alp&rews ?67roP. Gesch. Tre T7 pwp cqWJ Lrs Bap5eo•dpi7e dvlp tKavdraT•cT6s 7rpbs TrOb TKar& MapKriwva Kal Tr'vaL ErTpov0 /taq6pwv ^ r^ 15L 7rapgs5wKe ydTbrfr rE KaL-paq /.. It cannot indeed be determined at what period of his life Bardaisan had belonged to a Gnostic sect. who composed and committed to writing in his own tongue. I therefore regard as natural and credible. a heretic. and remains. which his pupils . Nau and Hort are quite right in protesting against reckoning Bardaisan among the Gnostics in the usual sense. dialogues against the followers of Marcion and certain other representatives of diverse doctrines. It will remain a hopeless task to pick out. besides many other works. make the explanation unnecessarily difficult. U To~0rrop Oat dpOorpaTr yPr v .

166 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE of men. Duval.. 1865. p. . and that it has no resurrection. cuius etiam philosophi admirantur ingenium.16 And [so] he set beforethe simple folk bitter [mixed] with sweet .sick folk they. contr. 186: clarus habitus est . brethren. 12Haer. inl. 6yto . ardens eius a Syris praedicatur ingenium et in disputatione vehemens. "such was Bardaisan. in rhythmic and accentual measures. ap. eund. ii. . 16 Le. etc.. in S. "highly adorned with all the graces. ap. . He divided the words in measures and weights. 14 sqq. La litterature syriaque. and composedsongs and introducedmeters.that the soul [consists] of seven [parts].5b and [all] the rest. 53." "1eloquent" both in Syriac and in Greek.dVOS. 187: talis Bardisanes. 10.. p. 14 Comm. Ad Hypatium. whose intellect even philosophers admire.... 186: dptar6s rts oa." 14 To Bardaisan's gifts as a poet no trustworthy evidence survives. he says: Love for you. 33. . 1900. 15 Or. For example. that I may not expatiate upon those things which Bardaisan alleges among his doctrines. 18). eund.13 And again. 553: 15bEphraem discusses this doctrine at length. et aliorum Opera Selecta.p ircitra 1eyMXwOSKEKO7c0Lfl/. rh 18De vir. constrains that you bear the repetition of their words. eund. Paris. p. Haer. the stars." 12 Jerome says that he was regarded as "distinguished" and that the Syrians extol the ardor of his intellect and his vigor in argument. .. (R. Ephraem Syrus does indeed frequently speak of the charm which the Bardaisanite hymns exercised upon the minds of the people and attributes them to Bardaisan. ii. Vatican ed. 56. in Osee. For he formed hymns and set them to tunes. p. p. the signs of the zodiac. Ed. ap. Eph. that the body is of the evil [principle].'5of the impeding substances. p. Syr. Overbeck. 63. Oxon.

cit. TrosOIKelOLS YpdttCZaTv. cit. with the view expressed in his own compositions.. Sozomen explicitly asserts that Bardaisan's son.8S These varying accounts are easily reconciled. rap' 'Oopovo^s dyI-opro. irel ydlp ob raWdI r-tv &K769 JP37^9 rarTpCaCs TE q0paopaiO a65aTO0 KaZl 0l StbXororcZXtyyeIcrl o ap? EXXi1ro iPVX27S.CS Kal . Harm. he.yevP40CW Ka & 7d gov7resr otdrobvt. as in other Christian churches. otd ye brb VXpad Ovvrypdtaro avvOels.rdr 6 vrap abrov KaXovuJV7lV 6o T7Y actp7jorLv craTO. The circumstantialcharacter of this account gives it claim to credence. was the first to adapt his mother tongue to meters and musical rules.he commingledthese views with his own compositions." 18 Sozom. p. K rdXaL JXXoyLtcrTarotroTroPvbY 7rp6Tro Tre. ap.. op. " having had a Greek education. and imitated his number [only]..oUvoLKO r 7)P ?OsraOpaSo KcaaOdrEp v^ KGCal IroXXdKLS o0 1Appo rt'dXXovorL.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 167 who chose not wholesome food. David's] truth he deserted."i. Bap8a7.e.. iii.e. CI . the birth and dissolutionof the body and transmigration. 187) also states that Harmonius. as well as Bardaisan. ap. His [i. It is also more than probable that the hymns in use among the Bardaisanites were not of his composition. TavraO cs 666as " Since he [Harmonius]was not entirely outside the limits of his father's sect and the views entertainedby the Greekphilosophers regardingthe soul. ot iroAs 'Apwoviov • . that he might be adorned with his beauty and praised for his likeness. cit. the canonical Psalms had been used in public worship from the 17 Duval (loc.Vos Bap8iodovu avveoT• rats. too. in the interval Bardaisan's doctrines reason to believe that had been modified by the influence of Manichaism and probably by other influences as well. composed 150 songs. p. Harnack. HE. rvyypdALLczcrL. Harmonius.seeing that he set to the lyre what he [Bardaisan] had composed. ct irep XpcbevoL. It is probable that in the Syriac.).E . 187: Obt dyivo .. 16. Kcal'Apu6. XOPO rdptvwLO bra-ya 0.wrote much in Syriac. dXX& To tLs X& Kal caIPpIOeOs. rpoo'Itt/. But it must be borne in mind that Ephraem is writing There is about 150 years after Bardaisan's death.. " Les malades n'eurent point le choix d'un remade salutaire. he expressly implies that Bardaisan's poems were set to the lyre by Harmonius and not by Bardaisan himself. my brethren." and indeed. 6 pat 56e r imv "EXXrort rap' Xbyw ao rpWrotLdrpOLS KGL aly6OLs dxO•rcra 4 r OpLy Kc . if I understand aright the following sentence.op. but does not distinguish his work from that of his father.Theodoret (HF."1 He wished to make David his model.

while wholly insufficient of themselves to prove authorship. It is probable on the face of it that Bardaisan. The poet says "the way of error I have left " (xv. 2). but. Just such imitations the " Odes of Solomon" unquestionably are. who was engaged in a fierce warfare with the Bardaisanite heretics. and there is no doubt that such practices were widespread among many Gnostic sects. Ephraem. would endeavor closely to imitate the Psalms with which they were already familiar. 4). in his earliest efforts to produce hymns acceptable to his congregation. There is no reason to charge the Valentinians with . xxvi. and give them to drink of the wine of their intoxication so that they may vomit up their wisdom and knowledge. celebrates his deliverance from a form of error portrayed by a "bridegroom who corrupts and is corrupted.168 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE earliest times. 6). and there is every reason to accept his evidence. and so ascribes them all indiscriminately to him. There are also several allusions in the Odes. it is at any rate certain that their introduction into the church at Edessa was ascribed by Ephraem to Bardaisan." who "lead astray and corrupt the whole world. It may be that Bardaisan was also the first to write hymns in meter similar to those Syriac hymns with which we are familiar. it is more probable that the Bardaisanite hymns in meter known to Ephraem were the work of Harmonius and other writers. This reads like a condensed abstract of the account given by Epiphanius of his own experiences when young among the "Gnostics " of Egypt (Haer. Bardaisan had been converted from Gnosticism to Christianity. probably had not the ability and certainly had no desire to distinguish in the mass of heretical psalms and hymns the compositions of Bardaisan from those of his successors." and is "adorned. harmonize singularly well with the little we know of Bardaisan's life and activity." and so on. the whole of Ode xxxviii. in view of Sozomen's evidence. which." and a "bride who is corrupted. "I was delivered from vanity " (xvii. Whether other psalms and hymns were used along with those " of David " in the other churches is a question into which I need not enter. and invite many to the banquet.

The same must be said of the allusion in xx.. We are told that Bardaisan came very near suffering martyrdom. xxv. xxviii. e. 8div Odvarov P/L q1jas. KbP Nau.. and bearing such clear evidence of deep and sincere religious feeling. but it is quite possible that the poet. and his addresses to his readers intimate that he anticipates something more than a hearing. and wrote against the heretics. manfully defending [the true] religion. 'AroXXwv•Pt 6 tK7K1 7 70T0 irp rd0EfOCLL. but it is not always possible to distinguish between what he says in his own person and what he says in the person of Christ.. viii. p. but the suggestions are too vague to be of value. Of more weight is the general impression conveyed by the Odes as to the author's relation to his readers. Harnack.. The much discussed opening verses of the 4th Ode -" No man.g." 19 There are several Odes which intimate that the speaker has suffered persecution. xxxv. It would fit in very well with the recorded statement that Bardaisan had been ordained deacon. 6. His " work is the Psalm of the Lord " (xvi. Antoninus' friend. cit. op. O my 19Epiphan. ix. rdEcMoXoaylar Kosarder. 186: 'A'rwuvvov 'ralpy Ur 6 U? Pelas uv8pelws diroXoyod5evos. 2). &viteTpe rapavolatbroos 4pvoraacOaLtb XpwLrLavbv Eavrb'v XI-yewv.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 169 them. ap.. when exhorted by him to deny that he called himself a Christian. Other Odes. like Epiphanius. 20 Le livre des lois re avroeos i Tbv 6. rather suggests spiritual than ecclesiastical priesthood. One can readily imagine that Odes so beautiful as these. and was almost appointed to the order of confessors. X6ayovs e8tivac d7re. 56. despays. and replied in clever speeches. Bardaisan believed himself to be orthodox.. had as a youth just escaped the temptations of some such sect. might have served to draw a band of devoted followers about their gifted author.." etc. Ilcer. v. xxix. " He withstood Apollonius. 1. 10. suggest that the persons for whom he writes are not unacquainted with persecution. e. . for it must necessarily ensue even if he did not disobey the Emperor. 7'.g. Marcion and others. " I am a priest of the Lord.plvaro. p. 7-c Lr BtaotLXet AL iTreliTOL.. and declaring that he had no fear of death. which would be appropriate to the age of the Antonines.20but the context in Ode xx.

170 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE God.21 It appears then that the little we know of Bardaisan's life and activities. Havr. Bardaisan was certainly able to write Greek. which had been in large measure bilingual for centuries. ii. ii. and in particular of his relation to the development of Syriac hymnology. the language of the Odes and their title. (Dind. and the Odes are supposed to be translations from a Greek original. the true Jerusalem which came down from heaven. On the other hand. 16. describes him as "eloquent both in Syriac and Greek. surely Bardaisan might have used Greek in Syria. The occurrence of Greek words in the Coptic version proves.. 14. 1. of course. distinctly favors the hypothesis that he might have written the Odes of Solomon. moreover. are much more easily explained as an attack upon the Montanist claim that the holy place." It is. even about the middle of the 21Epiphan. The words and phrases of the Syriac text upon which Schulthess. but they are not sufficient to put the question beyond doubt. 49. and others base their opinion are indeed suggestive. 21. and raise a presumption in favor of the theory that the original was Greek. possible that in the last quarter of the second century Greek was a privileged tongue in the church of Edessa. Bardaisan is supposed to have written in Syriac. If Hermas could make his revelation in Greek to the Latin-speaking Roman Christians. it is not yet proved that the Odes were first written in Greek. because he hath no power over it. 442. for thy sanctuary thou hast designed before thou didst make other places "--in which Conybeare sees Montanism. no more than that the author of the Pistis Sophia was working from a Greek text-not that the text was the original. changeth thy holy place. as I have shown. indeed.. Epiphanius. was to be found at Pepuza in Phrygia. . 48. But two objections present themselves.) 22 I am inclined to believe that the original was Greek.2 The fact that these Odes. Gunkel. 444. But neither of these suppositions is as yet beyond question. much as it was in the Roman church a little earlier. and it is not possible that he should change it and put it in another place.

[N. 1899. presupposes good faith on the part of the author of Pistis Sophia--he was deceived by the fact that the poems had been long current. The men who forged books wholesale certainly would not have hesitated. the discussion for and against a Greek original by Schulthess and Nildeke. 1863). The Gnostic group from which the Pistis Sophia emanated. This book contains the only fairly trustworthy evidence as to the views of Bardaisan himself. From this Syriacversionthe existing "Book of the Laws " is his "Spicilegium Syriacum. pp. I can see no force in such considerations."in 1855.] . in ZDMG. after a minute comparison of the " Book of the Laws" with the quotations in Eusebius and the Recognitions.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 171 second century.and there would have been little likelihood that the fraud ever would be detected. Moreover. Ed. pp. already bore the name of Solomon. to attach to it the name of Solomon. Paris. and again. 555.). with an English translation. were regarded as canonical and used as such by the author of Pistis Sophia. and so on.. from the latter version Eusebius' quotations and those of the Recognitionsare derived. and. The Syriac was then again translated into Greek."in order to prepare the way for the interpretation of the Odes. has been very generally accepted as proof that they must have originated at least a hundred years earlier. 91. Haase (op. and Merx's translation (in Bardesanes von Edessa. concludes that Bardaisan wrote in Greek a dialogue "Against Destiny.2 The book professesto be a record 23 Besides Cureton's second edition. Le livre des lois des pays. I shall find it necessary to give a fairly complete outline of the "Book of the Laws of the Countries. probably not fifty years after Bardaisan's death. I have used that of Nau. cit. It was first published by Cureton in 1847. he found them in his copy of the Bible. if a stray copy of the Odes fell into their hands and seemed to them capable of being used to support their doctrine. indeed. 44 sqq. forged works in support of their peculiar tenets with the utmost freedom." which was translated by his pupils into Syriac. Bardaisan'soriginal work did not contain the doctrineof planetaryinfluence ascribed to him by the "Book of the Laws.the fact that such works met with easy acceptance proves that the membersof these sects were as uncritical as their leaders were unscrupulous.B." Lack of space preventsme from entering into my reasonsfor dissentingfrom this latter conclusion. 1910. The argument. of course. Halle. many early sects.

and that he was the author of the Odes. the Odes are devotional poems of a most intimately personal character. by the constellations and planets. It. Their themes are as unlike as possible. in a severely scientific and objective spirit. 2 The theory is obviously eclectic. upon man's body as a part of that world. Man is ruled by three independent principles: Freewill. upon the problems of Destiny and Free-will. but dissents from that form of the principles doctrine of Destiny or Fate which was so generally associated with it. the Book of the Laws does not even profess to be from the hand of Bardaisan himself. Nature. . sickness and sin. Free-will he shares with God and with the angels. The Book of the Laws is a discussion.172 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE made apparently by a certain Philip. of astrology. "Nature" is the organic principle which governs the development and nutrition of his body. but the word which Bardaisanuses (= •l06t) possiblypoints to acquaintance with Peripatetic sources. whence arise in the world discord and confusion. may and frequently do clash. as Haase thinks. being independent.24 These three principles. that the connection is not immediate. and also upon his soul. But in time.) is unmistakably the Aristotelian(q'aos. The conception acquaintance of I"Nature"( . and introduce a reign of peace and love. rve1/Aa). The conception had become a commonplace Greekphilosophylong beforeBardaisan's of day. and confirmsthe statements of the churchhistoriansas to Bardaisan's with Greek. and it is quite possible. Even granting that the Book of the Laws fairly represents Bardaisan's views. Furthermore. "Destiny " is the influence exerted upon the entire material world. of the ultimate laws that govern the universe. as Stoic writers were more disposed to use Stoic terms (•-yos. it is obviously unreasonable to anticipate any considerable degree of coincidence between them. and Destiny. It is at best based upon one of his works. of a dialogue held between Bardaisan and his disciple Avida. It puts into Bardaisan's mouth a He accepts the fundamental theory of marked originality. It is only by accident that the two works occasionally touch upon the same topics. the " great and holy will of God " will put an end to the discord.

While he is of course aware of its existence. the theories of the Book of the finds joy. I give here. to "love. to quote from the Odes at such length as to give an adequate impression of the author's personality--that can be gained only by thorough familiarity with the Odes themselves. It is. I have already referred to the singularity of the poet's attitude towards sin and evil. and the affinity to that of the poet is manifest. is suggestive. it gives a fairly definite impression of certain traits of Bardaisan's character. In the second place. bless. his whole nature seems to turn as naturally towards love. Bardaisan'sconception is very different. It is impossible. primarily. indeed. of course. that man is naturally inclined to sin. nor could it. rather. .and these traits are in striking accord with the character revealed in the Odes. from the notion so prevalent in all Christian ages. it was this that first led me to think of Bardaisanas their possible author. goodness. however. I think. Nearly all the Odes are full of joy and thankfulness. and in doing good which he conceives is. and to pray for that which is good for every one whom he knows " . but it is one of the minor threads in the web of evidence which I am endeavoring to weave.or were common in Syriac literature of his age. as the needle to the pole. offer a very satisfactory interpretation of several difficult Odes. but in default of any evidence to show whether these traits were personal peculiarities of Bardaisan's. their value as evidence is not great. prove that the writers are identical. God. an expression of Bardaisan's own character. in phraseology and sequence of ideas.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 173 The number of coincidences that do occur. have been based in the first instance upon observation of what men actually do. This similarity of character does not. supplemented by informationafforded by Ephraem and other writers. good properly belongs to a brief article. to speak the truth. Bardaisan regards man as imbued with a natural inclination towards good. The real significance of the Book of the Laws is this: In the first place. Indeed. he seems to have no present personal concern with it.

p. 8: " I will make you wise in the ways of truth. Cureton.174 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE those passages26 from the Book of the Laws which are relevant to my present purpose." Bardaisan said: Thou speakest becomingly. and thou wilt be able to know everything. and draweth near to the way of truth n without opposition. " querelle. necessity will compel us to show thee why it does not please us. 3) found destitute of all knowledge of the truth." N. but I began first to question these." and again. 7. tell it to us all. If."Way of truth. and if it please us not. 1. thou hast anything in thy mind respecting this about which thou wast inquiring.2 Nevertheless. and are (p.? 2s The translation is that of Cureton." N. 2. Ode xi. lo! I will speak to you who do believe concerning this which he inquires. 29 S. . Avida's brethren say: "Believe firmly. and he will hear something to his advantage. but are always pulling down and building up." xv. 9 (C)." xxxiii. p." N." C.28 needeth not to be ashamed. 6: " The way of error I have left. by those things which I have mentioned." Bardaisan said: Not Avida alone is unwilling to believe. because they have in them no faith. Avida said: "I am desirous of learning. my son. and is willing to be convinced. nor are they even able to be convinced. but also many. " d'aprs les apparences. because Avida is not willing to believe. because he will certainly give pleasure to him to whom the inquiry is directed. we shall agree " with thee." C . 10." C. " fell from the way of truth. know that he who putteth his inquiries properly. and if it please us also." Cf.ASLZ "cleverly. These modifications are not always indicated." to which Avida objects "But I am not able to believe unless I be convinced. 28 1 P?" obstinacy. . therefore. my brethren. O ?r. 6: "I ran in the way of his peace.freely modified by suggestions derived both from the Syriac and from Nau. 27. because I was ashamed of asking thee. Nevertheless." The simile of a way or path occursabout 17 times in the Odes." C. " serons d'accord. " something more. and have added in footnotes the more striking parallels from the Odes. . 80 wa participate. even the way of truth.

and His hosts are subject to His word. " I will not change and not wane nor 31 a . then." . xvi." Compare. and I have faith in Him".also. would man differ from a harp " which another plays or the cart which another guides ? But God in his kindness did not will that he should create man that know me in the truth. (17) " So he made the sun for the day that it may be 3.9 P . xlii. . 4: " I had faith.oI" ip de conclure. The closest parallel is perhapsviii. But he exalted him by Free-will above many things." N. and the rest of these things which are greater than we in some things. " to speak and to instruct."1 For they have not the foundation of faith to build upon. but it is nowhere so directly connectedwith knowledgeas here. but would have been the instrument of him that moved him. 84tJ. For observe the sun. and know my knowledge. And how. xxviii. I. and the treasuryof the darkness is the night". . And on this account they are not competent to discuss and to draw conclusions. 12." " I will not rise at any time. 1 : "As the hand moves over the harp and the strings speak. xvi. thereforefound I rest. ye that are kept by it." With the next sentence. 4) never says. In the Odes.. xxix.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 175 And he began to say to us: There are many men who have not faith. 88The comparisonof man to a harp upon which another plays. also." C." Also. xxvi. and they have no confidence upon which they may hope." Why did not God create us so that we should not sin and be guilty ? " . for faithful is He in whom I had faith ". " They are instrumentsof the wisdom of God which errs the of not. occurs vi. So N . " de discouriret 82The conception that faith or belief is the first step in the Christian life occursfrequentlyin the Odes." Compare.if man had been created so. that there is not given to them Free-will of themselves. but night brings darknessover the face of the land. and made him equal with the angels.and I speak by His love. 6. 5: " I am strong in His praise. so speaks in my membersthe Spirit of the Lord. 8. he would not have belonged to himself. 6."C. For the sun (p." compare followinglines : (16) " The treasury the light is the sun." nor the moon. the fact that the heavenly bodies never rest is adduced S6 as an illustration of subjection to the command of God. (15) " They know not how to stand and be idle. 12-13: " Keep my faith. 11 . but they are all bound by the command " that they should do only that which was commanded them and nothing else. and the moon. "fixed by ordinance. and the sphere. 18) But as to what Avida was saying .32 (1. . and have not received knowledge from the wisdom of the truth. 14: "1And created things run in their coursesand do their works" . . xxxix. 6 : " Believe and live and be saved. xxxiv.. xiv.

and that there has been given to him Free-will more than to all those elements of which we have been speaking. (1." . 30. not .-ma. (3) " According to His mercies He exalted me.I of God as manifested especiallyin creating man. 2: " According to His praise He made me. 8 "Bounty. and raised my mind to the height of His truth". 27) On this account let it be manifest to you that the goodness Wof God has been great toward man... 3) For everything that exists stands in need of the Lord of All. (1. " and there is no end to his bounty. 19) The commandmentswhich have been given to men are hard and they are not able to perform them. xvii. 1. who also are possessed of Free-will for themselves.for they are the instruments of the wisdom of God which errs not." But the word used is . (p." nor does any one of the stars say. 4. . and more especially of him who has obeyed and submitted to his enemy.~. (l•m s-). For there are two commandmentsset before us such as are suitable and just 88Severalpassagesrefer to the goodness kindness -A? (1Z-on." See. P awm. With the above..) endowing him with powers fitted to raise him above his present status and make him more like God. .." Compare note 40.] but all these things serve and are subject to one command. 17) On this account there has been given to him these things in kindness. 7: "I grew great by his bounty. 9 : "not that Thou wast in need of us.P xxv. For bounty see (j-3a. the hills.. and and mercies (1. and govern himself in a god-like manner.and so of the sea.. and p. that by this same Free-will he may justify himself. also. but that we were in need of Thee. Here follows an account of the fall of the angels through their sin with the daughters of men.176 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE increase. and according to His goodness He gave unto me ". p. so shalt Thou give to me. 5. "I will not rise and I will not set. Bardaisan said : This is the answer of such a one as doth not desire to do that which is good. and associate with the angels. 9 : "I was enriched by his bounty". 9: " According to the multitude of Thy mercies. note 40. 87 Compare iv. 3." that they might minister to him for a season. xi. 7 : " He glorified me by His kindness. 17.4). the earth. xiv. 29 sqq. the winds. For men are not commanded to do anything but what they are able to do." [. and according to His excellent beauty He set me on high ". compare Ode xxix.8 Avida objects: (1.) note 38. 1.

7. What man. in close connection • with qAj. and the other that we should do that which is good and which we love. but the same phrase recurs. and is then equivalentto d006vws. and there is nothing that is able to hinder them. he is able too to give something of that which he has. also to support by the strength of body him who is sick and broken down. xviii. . 4 : " Lord.. t 40 "Without grudging. 18) But there have been given to us according to the kindness of God commandmentswithout grudgingOsuch as every man .NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 177 for Free-will: one that we separate ourselves from everything that is evil and which we should dislike to be done to would be somewhat Fi. po~ r take Thy Wordfrom me." s are easily confused. 6) to avoid doing all these things.a .•. e. lo i M%." Possibly " in faith" has been lost fromthe text." V P?. and they lie not in the power of the body. 6: "The way of error have I left. Should the evidence ever warrant a definite ascriptionof the Odes to Bardaisan. because of them that are deficient. it is that is not able to do what those devoid of faith " murmur about I know not. For they are easy. and to pray for that which is good for every one whom he knows: and if he be in health and have the use of his hands. ?-a = d7rcrTroL. xxiv. (1. 7 (see p." 2a. and desire that it should be done to us likewise. or impotent in his limbs. 4: "Walk Odes. And accordingto His excellent beauty He hath made me." Commandments. It occurs eight times in the J] and properly means "without reluctance". I should be tempted to emend the text of the Ode.. do not Thou. "salvation. therefore. Who." .. For even if a man be poor and sick and old. And have receivedsalvation fromHimwithoutgrudging. ye in the knowledge of the Most High withoutgrudging. Ode 4 .1 ^ ] . but in the will of the soul. 197). 389 " Devoidof faith. Moreover. i•o consideredin connectionwith that of xxiv.~ more appropriateto receive commandmentsimmediately after leaving the way of error. and have walkedtowardsHim." and ~. or that he should be guilty of hatred and falsehood ? For lo! all these things are subject to the mind of man. or to avoid lying or committing adultery and fornication.. 4 must be om. For I think it is in these commandments more than in anything else man has power. he is able to avoid doing all these things." But it is usually found with verbs of giving. r and the interpretation of xviii.. rather than salvation.g. With the above passage compare xv. For we are not commanded to carry heavy burdens of stones [and so of other tasks]. and to bless. and to speak the truth. is there who is unable to avoid stealing. and as he is able (p. and this too he is able to do. xxiii. And accordingto His bounty He hath given to me. so is he able to love. therefore.

and the attempt to reconstruct the theories of each from the scattered hints in our possession would lead me far beyond the limits assigned me. "I. again. 0 Bardaisan." But the word here translated "what is lovely. 27. and poverty. . 1: "As the impulse of anger against evil. so is the impulse of joy over what is lovely. and who are called tares. My joy is the Lord. for this is the good conduct of a free mind. 42 nor is there any one who doth not delight within himself when he refraineth from wicked things. " I love the Beloved and my soul loves Him. and more especially old age. do you say that they are easy to perform ? Bardaisan said: To him who desires.] have been lost IPo. hence a direct comparison of the two authors on this vital point is impossible. 42 This joy in the good is the most characteristic trait both in Bardaisan and in the author of the Odes. For would not that Judge be unjust who should blame a man for such a thing as he is not able to do ? Avida said to him : Respecting these deeds. 41 ."Every man that possesses a soul within him. every living man. 0=3 . Avida said: Perhaps a man may be able to avoid wicked things. And brings in of its fruits without restraint. For there are many things which impede the action of the body. "the beloved. ' The wording suggests a plausible emendation "I. after J . and conceives "the good" as God Himself. not. but to do good things who among men is able ? ." 5i. and the ?second po is a corrupt dittograph for J?.. 5. and sickness. however. I have said and do say that they are easy.l1_ ? for vii.e. But whereas Bardaisan finds it in human nature as such. to the exclusion of Bardaisan's conception. Bardaisan. and of that soul which has not rebelled against its governors. vii." and a comparison with iii." i." makes it reasonably certain that the passage has no such general application. nowhere definitely states his theory of redemption.178 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE who possesses a soul within him 41can do rejoicing. which as it stands is unintelligible.. The text reads: m )oa loa. with the exception of those who were not made for this grace. the poet finds it in the redeemed and purified soul. is literally. for the poet gives no description of human nature as such. The words ae I~c~l p0?o . and my impulse is towards Him. for there is no man who rejoiceth not when he doth that which is good. There is one passage in Harris's translation which seems to express the doctrine of Bardaisan. and conceives "'the good " as good deeds.

" (p. After developing in some detail the distinction between the true enjoyment which attends good deeds. contentment. 21) But.e. although there may be in it rest (i... and on this account he rejoices whenever he does good.e. as for myself. and by the thought of His heart"."and has given to all things the power which is suitable for each one of them. nevertheless is far removed from the love which is true. 0 Philip.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 179 Bardaisan said : It is more easy to do good than to abstain from (p. there also am I". He fixed the creationand establishedit. (p. incorruptible and indissoluble. They are true in that men speak from the appearanceof what they see. and His rest is forever and ever "." '5 j rulers. as I also once loved it." which has established the worlds. satisfaction) for a moment.] (1. xi. . each of which. 35) But let us speak now and show with respect to m ie]o. heads. some in Free-will. when applied to a planet. astrology]. some in Luck. my soul loves Him. [Some believe in Destiny. know well that there are men who are called Chaldaeansand others who love the knowledge of this art [i. and the false enjoyment which attends evil. Bardaisan proceeds: (1.=. which. 7) evil. they are false. in that the wisdom of God is richer than they. 5-6 : "I love the Beloved." and created man. governors. 12. Greekol0Kos8er6rqs. 20: "The worlds were made by His Word. JrtKpTarwp. 9: "I was enrichedby His bounty. compareix. etc. Comparexxv.a. rpo•o-y6rLos. For the good is the man's own. . 12: "I was justified by His kindness. and receivethe thoughtof the MostHigh ". signifies a definite astrologicalfunction." " Comparexvi. Where His rest is. whose rest is forever. "For this conception of knowledge or wisdom as riches. it seems to me that these three views are partly true and partly false. 4: "Be enrichedin God the Father. and has ordained the governors. 1. " or "peace" occurs about seventeentimes in the Odes. 12: " He spreadout the heavens and fixed the stars. I cannot determinetheir precise meanings. like the . xi."N = U? j -.l. 10: "From above He hath given The conception "rest" me rest that is incorruptible. 11. 24) We ought plainly to understand that the unrestrained ardor of love is called lust. in my humble opinion. 1. 4) I likewise. but the evil is the operation of the enemy and on this account when a man is troubled and not sound in his nature he does wicked things. and they see as things seem to them. iii.

Strictly speaking.OT. In astrology as known to us. p." . 1. 49 Destiny. (p. but it is here used of the total effect exerted by the stars upon the infant at birth. ccelestia signa. 1551). for this very thing itself (p. Pruckner." sometimes "south." 1. Astron.m.. = 1. or when setting--but it cannot change its proper character. "Horoscope. because those heads and governorsupon whom depends the change that is called Horoscope. Adv. any planet is more powerful when in its own "'house.e. its disturbance is due to Destiny. Mat.. used by Ptol. is equivalentto and is. 1. -" The complex. 383. whenever nature is disturbed from its right course. 48 Elements. the horoscope was the sign of the Zodiac rising at the moment of birth (see the admirably clear summary of the leading doctrines of astrology given by Sextus Emp. iii. Corr. libb. intelligences are changed in their descent to the soul. Astrol. Boll has shown (Sphcura. ir=% o i " Those on the right. but here probably means the signs ". 61 Precisely what Bardaisan means by " those on the right." etc. 1 . a translation of aX??arp~ps rs obpavlac KLV75aeWs. 13) which is called Destiny is a disposition (or arrangement) of the motion4 which is given to the governors and the elements4 by God. ed.180 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE Destiny." j.-Procl." "'those on the left. The next section shows how organisms are normally ruled by their respective natures. (v) 12 sqq." probably T-TracLts. elxcapdvfy. and souls are changed in their descent to the bodies. jhz. & Add.g. De diffinitionibus et terminis astrologice (in Jul.." I cannot explain." and sometimes perhaps " west." sometimes "'east. Mars and Saturn maleficent.are opposed one to the other. Tetrab. pp. " Right " and " left" do not seem to bear any definite technical meaning in astrology." None of these seems to fit the present passage. wporTK67roS." or when rising in the eastern sky than when situated elsewhere in the Zodiac." . Basel. that it has not power over everything. And those are on the right 11 called " those which assist nature" and add to as haps. 47Disposition of the motion. Firm. and according to this motion and disposition. per- . 14. The position of a planet makes its proper influence stronger or weaker . 50o . It signifies the total complex of relations constituted by the position of the heavenly bodies at any given moment. viii. and this change is called the Destiny and the Horoscope0 of this complex which is being sifted and purified for the advantage of that which has been receiving aid and will receive it 10until the consummation of all..).. Jupiter and Venus are beneficent. See Otho Brunfels. 10) And know ye well that. "oipdvta arocxe'a. of the Zodiac. n. for clearly " those on the right " are planets or constellations which are always beneficent. 663-664) that " right " sometimes means "north.4 = TOLXX•ta.. N. and Mercury neutral.

" either twy/?ara. and upon one day. the " institutions. 68 Cf. but also." and whenever they occupy the high places they are opposed to nature and not only injure men. 1. all of us are called by the one name of the Messiah . . though bound none the less by the works that have been made and by the institutions which have been established for their help." and if we had no power to do anything. then.. and riches and poverty -this which does not appertain to their Free-will. which is the first. But whenever God wills. For if we were able to do everything we should be everything. and in its "houses " it has a certain position. This may last for a short time. a certain position in the Zodiac fixed for each planet (Ptol.Christians.. and on the appointed days we abstain from food. 10 : "Thy will is perfection. "High places.-Procl. shall we say respecting the new race of ourselves who are Christians. 22). 10) But wherever they be and in whatever place that they are." For this orderliness and government S" Helps them.but by their wickedness and error." For even those that think they withstand it.e. 32. without opposition. 4) What. i. anything can be." 55The " works" are probablythe material universe. which is interpreted. because He is kind and permits all natures to remain as they are and govern themselves by their own will.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 181 its excellence whenever their motion helps them 52 and they stand in high places of the sphere in their own degrees.their natures. withstand . Those on the left are called "bad. (p. especiallythe stars. N Cf. This is the position in which its influenceis strongest. but sickness and health. xxvi. for lo! wherever we be." eachplanet has two " houses" or signs properlybelongingto it. position on or near the meridian. or geovpavgiara.j) that 2•. For there is nothing that can hinder that great ( particular. 34) and holy will." etc. xviii. so also is this visible man not able readily to deliver himself from the commands of his Governors. As the Free-will of men is not governed by the necessity of the Seven. for he is a slave and a subject. and whenever it is governed it is able to resist its Governors. 33.. etc. (p..o .not by their strength . neither does the Destiny of the Governors compel them to make use of things impure to them. i." . we assemble ourselves together." probably. befalls them wherever they are. "Their own degrees. the laws of the countries do not separate them from the laws of their Messiah. we should be the instruments of others. whom in every country and in every region the Messiah established at his coming. 1. when their inherent beneficent influencesare re3nforced by their positions in the Zodiac and relations to other planets and constellations. 11-12: " Who is able to interpret the wonders of the Lord ? For he who could interpret would be resolved into (1oa.

W a68 . as they were injuring and injured from before the creation of the world. Its origin." N. for it already contains the essential elements of the astrological form of the doctrine. although astrology as a science was as yet unknown to the Greek world at large. The world is a a. The doctrine was probably of Oriental origin and was introduced into the Greek world by the Orphics about the seventh century B. both in its ascent and its descent. is not known and the diverse forms under which it appeared have been but imperfectly investigated.. in one form or another. Its present evils can be corrected by a new combination of its elements. and the foolish will be persuaded. by the bounty of Him who is the Lord of all natures. whose equilibrium is maintained by a balance between opposed but system equal tendencies.. it was adopted by the Pythagoreans. in all its forms. It is probable. But there is good reason for believing that the form in which it appears in Plato's works has been directly influenced by Oriental ideas. It was probably always associated with the complementary idea that the soul which has thus fallen from her divine estate should seek again to regain it. who probably learned it from the Pythagoreans. softens down the violence of the natures. although it is not possible to prove. or both. and all rebellions will be brought to an end. These influences. and later by Plato.182 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE which has been given. bad. the existence of this element. widely prevalent in antiquity. might be conceived as personal or impersonal. And a time will come when this injuriousness also which remains in them shall be brought to an end by the restraintsmfound in another mingling. also. however. influences severally appropriate to the several tracts of space through which it passed.C. that. all evil motions will cease. good. And at the establishment of that new world. the soul was supposed to encounter. Proclus' interpretations of the myths of the lit.and deficiencies will be filled up. and there will be peace and safety. in all cases." 1 education." " rvsultat. " training. The doctrine of the soul's descent from heaven here sketched by Bardaisan was. again. and mingling of one with another. that they should not be altogether injurious or altogether injured.

po•ra 6KKEL74 r^ d-'yOp ALXKOS •T 7repL65wv w^i 78allgo . Proclus' own theory is very similar to that of Bardaisan. PT7)TU TrOtOvTwJ' &XXcoM L 77s otbECe 7-P Ir^i . o hvel rb g-arovCrpoeXOofGa r^ . Bardaisan that the body only is subjected to them. o epG rW^ K6onov IAdpoS. So also the soul. arbitrary and fanciful in detail. in a sense.e aucWvTW "yd'otro mmi 5aqCeJva rpbTrov7d biroKe~eOOa ~dXcacr AiC d tral L&Um ftreeOac 7tr rVuep'ry eal al ux1 rjv & epo y'p c lydveoes ot~dv*' o'mTW re'VooG'a rdi•rmw rwirc. In another passage Proclus describes at some length the ed. depends upon the operation of the celestial orbits which severally exert their diverse influences upon her. and I cannot supply a better commentary on Bardaisan's statements than by translating one or two short passages from Proclus' intolerably prolix commentary upon the Republic.ri7v br oa'av del KalId&Klrov 6 Procl. 14: . although.e. and as she proceeds thereto she is immersed in all influences [emitted] from the celestial [bodies]. but the soul is governed by Free-will. differ in no way from the things which are moved by other things [only]. 345. ii. This is Bardaisan's doctrine with one important difference. in Remp.~ 6• X rats d Oprbcrw^ vx. is subject to the guiding spirit. when she has proceededas far as the lowest of the orbits (i. in so far as the general outlines are concerned. of course. 5CLc4OO'bL KOO•ILKuIC '•O'Tpw7CCt 7 &XXaei asra'v. . but is one of its lowest parts. in such manner that she is not only a part of the [lower] world. just as though a philosopher were to embark in a ship and become a rower. for he would have to take from the sailors such and such orders and obey the pilot and be exposed to gales of wind. 7p6etaw U lsr E rb o xarov 7 otpavlwvreptXflc00e6arot7aercv. she becomes one of the things ruled. is exposed to material spirits. and instead of belonging to those things which rule the Universe. [in brief]. Proclus holds that the embodied soul is absolutely subject to the influences of the stars. and the body only in so far as not controlled by its nature.v rept68wv ylverat Paa~telav r7A7d'AdCYK-I. he would. the eternally subsisting and inflexible dominion of Necessity to which the soul. re A dbrvov 70ooG &dXXC b rt rdv goXdrwv v Kcral Kac cuvat ela rb d Krl ccl'palc 8tocKo0PTWP a7rp olo' et rtr hX6tofoPo s pat' p 5LoLovudIWer rr *a KCL d-~yC7y&p TroTrovKal bIrb Trw 7r& aIKC r 7rXwr7p drcKo~. that of the moon) becomes subject.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 183 Republic and Timeus are therefore correct. upon falling wholly into birth. .57 .. Kroll.

rdvTwv Top 6T0 V r6 Kai S ro6Tw7J IX6YPrTW paCoT7pLOv repi Tis 'EVIeOEL. but Klotho ratifies them by her own threads. d. U KXwOI KvpoT TaGVTa ToLs LavT-fl v7Pha-L Kal KXcSaoLaaotv. Not only. exert a great and effective fateful influence upon nativities. He then brings [the soul] from Klotho to the spinning of Atropos. then. makes what has been twisted incapableof being un58Op.not merely the kind of life. puoLpav ali Seya'dyXv rip o v &. Kal a y 8 aXdov &~ r6o0YLaLXXOV VKTaLrivra tL lveraT V'roKaraKXtveTaL rTEpL68ots. cit. . Ei Trl br•eLepa ~rl roT ?rpb abr V el 7 Ba 5p. PLa6Ovovoa yp I"rXelo0tv ObKdTL y ?r' &XXoLts77/JL dKeCOev T? KLTV^ ?EW VCa7riv ^rpoEPeL. TW7 7TE K6KXWV " t KE Kai 7Tw V CLVaTOS LOLpPV KaL darb TWP 7TW9V TWdv7r'XavrCoP' TwP daOTIpwV Kal TWP v 8Xw ryUCWV KCai TWP&XXv OvLordeeWov. a&" 1V 7rTeTLOdaav T•.. KXwOov^r rapapylverat. 21: 7T drb r o drb p ebX6AeOa Aotpav* obXl T6 7rrwis ei8os b6vov. 7 KaL rpo57p~ern ^T T vs o0ev elpopdv2v rolqv70L alOavulrXeIoOAlP avrpd rep elp •Tp ' ov7Pha70o KdTiw 70T rdoews d&retrcltav ol raaXtol Kai d reKdacavTes KXwcOc38td 7rara 7rP Mortpa -KcdXeo••a. but Klotho (= "Twister "). but also the [influences] imparted to us by the Universe. p. . KvpwOjvcal fqo-wL 7b 6 1 Kal eleOazL uTLS v pXeac els" 7a rarbXX Tre 86o~"r*cd' var•eXX6. and from them [the] Chaldean and [the] Egyptian [astrologers] are wont to foretell many events of our lives. XX drb T•K rdP'oTwV Ka 5&&y va ylveEat iZTd•L• v JAwv al h04Kovoal. dvrl MeT&r 7rava IroLvY ?T•v v'otv 7Lt KXOeL KaL al" WV rapasecadvrm &XXa yet 7f 'ATp6brov.dbi d7rXcaVWP 1oo0OaL. for this reason. and through the threads which it gives. too. drypplovwa Ic LTr 7L/v^ T 7TC^ &CXX Kac &rb 7-w rapao . then. indeed. i0ouv Pbvov d&rb ?yl'ot. in that she causes to stream upon us the gifts of the celestial from the constellations also which rise simultaneously with each of them there comes to us a generous largess. 7r Xszjavofs 86oel. CXX& cal ra drovepbt6eva 7ytAv T 70 raVrT6. The influence.PL ObK &pa rI TrI 'yevIVOELs eZT a-vlrX-lpovoaOa TwVPd&vOp&r7rTv T7y ofeo'Oac ' L. . . then.6vov w I d&rb T v wv dXXr dov abtrbTwP d7TXavY rXavWpivre 6vWvr. which finishes the twisting..v7-w XaX&ao^o ~ piwvi&uGv ? Kal Ailry6irmot roXXo irepl rv rpoyV'rJdaerv. 8 P PvX) Tr /LOLpazta. which is twisted and intertwined from all these. the ancients compared to "twisting" and "turning" together with the stretching of the thread from above downwards. called this Fate. . 342. comes from Klotho ? He (Plato) says she ratifies the destiny we have chosen. L&8•OLV d4eLrEAcorpoca 8dLV 7 vT7vP Xav cvaPdWV K6KXWV y&p aeTr) rapd7TL Ts oO)K ?w00s . we get both. •d 8vuvar•b d&PavyeYv Trdos dTLrOeoLav TrotSalpeOe•LOLv.. Tc Uava0Tp676epa XoEV' AaXiaews. K y'lp 7 rap' i KsKai 0los. rdpaI dT& KXwo0'dvTa a'T7ry 1yd/rcJTV 7roLOvOav. . from whom we got life. From Lachesis. ' ?v T& Kal elp". from the signs of the Zodiac. the products of her spinning [or twisting]. upon the ground that they. and by way of a simile they. sphere.184 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE way in which the soul's total endowment is derived from the constellations and the planets :68 What.

. various [gifts] thence. but is m Za. the confessors of His counsel.] 62 V.NEWBOLD : BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 185 twisted. she becomes subject to more and yet more orbits. from their motions. Wisdom. 5 is unintelligible. 22f. Turning now from Bardaisan to the Odes. she contributes to us. The Most High hath given him to His worlds-the interpreters of His beauty. and of the other constructions [such as the triangles. are given to us through the planets. For as the soul descends lower. 60For ao read A. And the more these secondary [influences] work upon us on top of those which preceded them. but that from them all results a single train and series reaching to us. are filled up from the fixed stars or the planets exclusively. 61 I have followed. and of the stars. 4~•~o. etc."' The subtlety of the Word cannot be told. suppose that the nativities of men or of other living creatures. The twelfth Ode runs as follows: The WordI9of truth hath filled me that I may speak of him. For the mouth of the Lord is the true Word. and the door of His light. therefore. (2) and my lips show forth his fruits. the heralds of His thought. the more inevitable do the decrees of destiny become. otherwise difficult to defend. one upon another.ED.62 Read plural points. One should not. Like his subtlety is his piercingness. and of the circles on high and of their degrees. I shall endeavor to interpret some of the more difficult Odes in the light of Bardaisan's doctrines. and that the [influence] of the fixed stars. 60 As a stream of water streams the truth from my mouth. 4a. (1) (3) He hath increased in me his knowledge. inscribed in the Zodiac]. . by means of the planetary orbits. the chasteners of His works. reluctantly. the narratorsof His praise. Labourt's reading: which yields excellent sense. and of the signs taken as wholes. For upon receiving from Klotho the spinning. 7. (4) (5) 59 Read without points. from which she cannot escape until she has brought what she elected to its completion. 4 -al .. [Cf.

They know the Lord in His truth. the Word will continue the work of reconciliation in which he is now engaged until all discord has disappeared. 1-3) inspired by the Word which issues forth from the mouth of God. by that of the Word. he pervades the universe (vv. 9a) . 6a) . 8. He is Light and Thought (v. they have acquired the power of communicating to one another their thoughts.e." i." From him came love and concord.6 He is light and the dawning of thought: The worlds through him talk one with another." The poet feels himself (vv. and they told one another whatever they had [to tell]. such is his final end." see note 51. "Those who were silent" are perhaps those on the " left. Or the ppl. thought. . For [it was] the voice of the Most High [that] spake to them. They were penetrated by the Word." For the dwelling-place of the Word is man. through that love " 638 Final end. "In converse": for the " Word" the poet has used consistently throughout this Ode. 7). and they knew him that made them. 64V. And knows not his fall nor the way of it.186 (6) JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE (7) (8) (9) (10) and endless is his course. may be pluperfect. praise. and his truth is love. through his influence upon the " worlds " they have become the means of revealing God's beauty. (11) (12) This beautiful poem might well be entitled "An Ode to the Word. Blessed are they whom he has made to know all things. is not the only effect of the Word's activity . because they were in concord. Never doth he fail but steadfast stands. and of " chastening" His works (v. 5. he also inspires love and concord (v. ipF. consciousness. counsel. But intelligence. For as his work is.e. 6") . 4). in converse were those who were silent.Lflj'Ea. here seems nearly equivalent to 65 I. nothing can resist him (v. and he is impelled to sing of his nature and his work. His meaning sped by his agency.

for the Word is the voice. and the things that are in the earth. whom the moon obeys as He bids her shine by night. compare the Epistle to Diognetus. but the very Artificer and Creator of the universe Himself. 12). dwells in man." This Epistle exhibits other points of contact with the sphere of ideas common both to Bardaisan and to the Odes. or ruler. 4 will suggest the planets and constellations as conceived by the pious astrologer. 10a. the sea. and Anthropos. chap. 7 (Lightfoot-Harmer's translation). the earth. from whom [the sun] hath received even the measure of the courses of the day to keep them. after the aeons have been produced by the Propator :67 The Holy Spirit taught them to give thanks on being all rendered equal among themselves. so that all became as Nous. fire. the things that are in the heights.66 To any one who has any acquaintance with the literature of astrology the " worlds " as described in v. and led them to a state of true repose. the heavens and the things that are in the heavens. or one of those that direct the affairs of earth. by whom He enclosed the sea in its proper bounds. The female mons. and it will be remembered that " worlds " is the word used by Bardaisan for the planets [note 45]. and Christus. Thus then they tell us that the mons were constituted equal to each other in form and sentiment. 11). [God sent to earth] " not a subaltern. and Spiritus. Blessed indeed must they be who feel themselves possessed of such knowledge as this (v. the things that are in the depths. 318. cut off from the lower world by the Horos. The meonshave no such functions. In the western Valentinian system of which Irenaeus has preserved the best account. Yet the same Word that rules the stars in their courses. and Ecclesia.. the "meaning. and have nothing to do immediately with the redemption of the world accomplished by the Soter and by Jesus. too. and his truth is love (v. abyss.. Fathers. whom the stars obey as they follow the course of the moon. air. and Zoe. vol. or angel. 6 Ante-Nic. and Logos." the thought of God (v. These are not Valentinian weons. or one of those who have been entrusted with the dispensations in heaven. 10Jo d). . p. by whom all things are ordered and bounded and placed in subjection. and the things that are in the sea. But certain elements of the picture certainly are Valentinian. became all as Aletheia. b). whose mysteries all the elements faithfully observe. Am. by whom He made the heavens. the things that are between the two. 6 With this description of the cosmological functions of the Word.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 187 the worlds become aware of their Creator (v. ed. i. they are shut up within the limits of the Pleroma.

yet they contain striking identities of thought." in this passage at least. for which no good sense has been found. The pictures are similar but not the same. p. and has not yet been satisfactorily interpreted as a whole. and have made them equal. with one design and desire.who himself shared in the abounding exultation. these two pictures are inspired by one and the same original. being thus established and brought into a state of perfect rest.(and therefrom produced Jesus). 198.. p.188 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE Everything." 69 and therefore talk to one another." literally " equality. 6 q. note the description of the work of the Word. they next tell us that these beings sang praises with great joy to the Propator. brought together whatever each one had in himself of the greatest beauty and preciousness. and with the concurrenceof Christ and the Holy Spirit. the whole Pleroma of the eons. and they resolve to contribute each the best he has68 to the nature of Jesus. love and " concord. Div. 164). iv.r. which is given by Moses bar Cepha. ap. 8. but chiefly to establish the fact that " worlds. their Father also setting the seal of his approval on their conduct. probably means " planets. Certainly. as conceived by Bardaisan. is further confirmed by Lactantius' quotation :72 " Salomon 69 68tirep elXe' #p davrr KdXLOTOV Kal dlVOypbra6To. The Valentinian aeons sang praise because Christ and the Holy Spirit have given them such knowledge of God as they are able to receive. The Worlds in the Ode receive from the Word knowledge of God..71 The nineteenth Ode is one of the most difficult in the collection. 71 But . I have quoted this Ode partly in order to show how precisely it conforms to what we would expect of Bardaisan as regards its doctrine (compare Haase's summary." It shows no other points of contact with the Book of the Laws. Harris. when written in the Estrangela c. then. out of gratitude for the great benefit which had been conferred upon them." which. character is easily confused with The emendation . Then. A leading difficulty is the first word of v. 12. 72Inst. p. and tell each what70he has. For this I read " formed.

part.73 The Holy Spirit opened Her [the Spirit's] bosom. J r"S 80 j. 74Read pluralpoints as suggestedby the pl. of the verb cf. rawplc. mid. etc. she bore voluntarily. (1) A cup of milk was offered to me. Hallelujah. (7) She travailed and bore a son without any pain. e. The Son is the Cup. Himerius. frexev &I K-vaOarO was corrupted into KT7aarTO and the order of the Kcl XOZa. --= eavUrb. 77&L. And gave the mixture to the worlds 74 (5) and they that received in its fullness arethey on the right. of which I can make no sense here. (4) and mixed the milk from the two breasts of the Father. she was empty. (2) and He who was milked. -..--a' Kpcd6ret text read: 79 suspect that the original that d-yaXXLdre&. For the rare aor. ]•-.g. 4. oSakets. without their knowing it. 76Read L2oa" m.&1. (8) and since there was none..QA. I have followed Labourt'ssuggestionand read . •Las' eyAdX. and I drank it in the sweetness of the kindness of the Lord. e e )rvevXes Kal Kva7cT/r 1h. gErworep. 76See note 51. 78 7 So alsoFleming. KvTr-aT?o verses changed to suit the sense. the Father. 4 16. but informatus est represents with a fair degree of accuracy. for He kept her safe. (3) And the Holy Spirit milked Him because His breasts were full and it was not fitting His milk should go to waste. 76 And she sought no midwife.AL corresponds to 6'EdtsL.17 like a man. (9) She bore in joy 78 and acquired79in great power. I Tim. vii.NEWBOLD : BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 189 ita dicit : Infirmatus est uterus virginis et accepit foetum et gravata est." Infirmatus est is meaningless. "I (10) and loved in safety and kept in kindness and showed forth in majesty. The virgin became a mother with many mercies. et facta est in multa miseratione mater virgo. Or. alK Va .75 (6) They moulded the body of the virgin and she received conception and bore.

Av . and she brings forth a son. 9-10.z_'•o0 xA i? irm oZ SV0 -'P?9? b %. and the language in which it is expressed. 82Homrn. 50rka ."30 P jOe . without pain because she was empty--the precise meaning of this conception I shall discuss presently. !. In vv.3 li? 1•! ! 4. gives it to the planets. the theory of the Incarnation here set forth is perfectly intelligible. A l? 1f. especially noteworthy are the expressions" the worlds " and "those on the right. mixes it in "her" own bosom and i. !1ti~2 !o• •-•-• ljm•. i= . is apparent.'I.-k- jlQl~m ? t-•.- !- .0 ' 4010 4. The milk which the poet has received through the Son as the Cup." It remainsto adduce further evidence which will directly connect it with Bardaisan. 3 and 4 the Holy Spirit draws from the Father a similar divine influence or substance..o C?5 !. is in general agreementwith the Book of the Laws. 6-8). receive it in its fullness..•-•.~i. is the divine influence or Word of which he seems so vividly conscious. 557 : lv. Ephraemgives a brief account of Bardaisan'stheory :82 s81The fact that this distinction between planets as on the right and on the left. God protected her from all harm during the process (vv. The poem closes with the crescendo of vv.!-li9.- t. so offensive to our taste. ai-• otlrq•z .3 Ibl 1 • fl b. p."? W Ptolemy. so far as I have been able to discover. --•-• R• tb: •'•z Ft1:uo t:•k•_• •.81 the beneficent planets. those on the right. That this theory. cit. is significant(see note 51).•..e.1 %&CMI&3 ' QZA? bj. and to which he refers so often. occursboth in Bardaisanand in the Odes.•Zlo cm •.. She needed no midwife. op. literally belly. but not. Verses 1 and 2 are introductory and serve as a key to the understanding of what follows.?4aOI? 4? z PJI c wiy. of the virgin.• •io •L •. The planets then "mould" or " form" or "shape" the body. . " •!.• 1-. ii.190 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE Notwithstanding the strange metaphors.•oo1.

our Lord he called a 'Nature born from between two. and all the rest of the constellations." The context shows that the Living One is Christ. as when like children they say something flowed down from the Father of Life and the mother conceived a hidden son and bore him and he was called the Son of the Living 8 One. 11: "IHe who finds pleasurein the Living One. it certainly is well fitted to express what the poet describes in v.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 191 Pray. . But too much stress must not be laid upon his phraseology.).Holy Jesus. There then follows an allusion to a widespread notion "the mixture was given to the worlds without their knowing it. and its light was unutterable." "Something flowed down. will become living. and likewise also the death of the Lord84-three mysteries to be cried aloud ." CompareOde iii. 2 8. How. formed themselves into a chorus about the star. how much more pure must His divine nature be. my brethren. and "1something" does not necessarily mean more than that Ephraem found Bardaisan hard to understand." suggests that Ephraem had before him the very milk simile of Ode xix. then. for He is "light from light. with the sun and moon.' in the mystery of a marriage. then. sprout. were they made manifest to the aeons? A star shone forth in the heavens above all the stars. Cf. 4.the which were wrought in the silence of God." The theory that Christ's Incarnation was concealed from the powers of this world occurs early in the second century in Ignatius' Epistle to the Ephesians : " And hidden from the prince of this world were the virginity of Mary and her childbearing." literally "1flowed and descended. and its strangeness caused amazement. But even as our Lord's body was not born from between two. and procreate. . which protects Harris' emendation (the sing. "Flow" is used in Syriac of almost any easy. But the allusion to the "mystery of a marriage " is more significant. 84 I Cor. for the pl. unopposed motion. for the disciples of Bardaisan. The word which I have rendered "marriage" may have a more literal sense. that they may not rave again. but the star itself far outshone them 88"The Son of the Living One. glory be to Thy Nativity! And in that he said that it was impossible for one ever to germinate.

88 The divine Christ in his descent must. 19 . in Bardaisan's system their influences represent the sum total of what we call nowadays mechanical laws. . 86See above. of course. Paul. Ig. and is seen in the personal peculiarities of individuals. or of nature (fto-qL). which is the law. at the moment of birth. so to speak. 180. and there was perplexity to know whence came this 8 The nostrange appearance which was so unlike them.the "worlds" simply "mould" the body. The changes in the Virgin's body which were prerequisite to the accomplishment of the virgin birth would not be produced by the 4nots of her body . All that is not under the control of Free-will. p. the total result of which is determined by the horoscope. be produced by the planets. tr. is subject to the control of the planets. therefore. pass through the spheres of the several planets s7and receive from them certain modifications.86 But here it has a peculiar significance. then. together with a commentary in which he interprets the doctrines there expressed as those of Bardaisan.192 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE all. for conscious intelligences." tion that souls must encounter the divinities of the planets in their descent and ascent was common among the Gnostics. which is the law for organisms. signs of the Zodiacand of other constellationswas supposedto co6perate. gives quotations from an apocryphal Epistle of the Corinthians to Paul. or relations of the several heavenly bodies. The nature of these changes is not further described in the Ode . no doubt that of the 88 See above. the intelligences in their descent to the souls and the souls in their descent to the bodies. which has been preserved in Armenian. 87The influenceof the planets is the moreimportant. Why. But other sources complement this statement in a very satisfactory way. Lightfoot. again. 182. In Bardaisan's system. Ephraem in his commentary upon the Epistles of St. one to another. do the planets act as the instrument of God's will in bringing about the virgin birth ? Because. escape these influences and appear on earth precisely as he left heaven. p.they must. ch. (Italics indicate 85 Eph.

/tlw•Up Maplas... 26: cs Kal ol &yyeXot "A8pacl 0oV. . . so also did he ." Evidently Ephraem knew Bardaisanites who held that Christ went through the Virgin's body without receiving anything of her. 90Der Dialog des Adamantius rept 91 Op. accept the Prophets. II. it is not even certain that it faithfully reproduces the views of the Bardaisanites of that age. The book was written about A. a certain Marinus. ed. p. H. But this doctrineis that of the schoolof Bardaisan.appears as one of the speakers. Marinus holds: "1that he (Christ) took a heavenly 9 body . NT. but the Gospel. 300. Gesch. Chr. r ~ elsOeb de6pO^s 7rlarews. d. they say that he who spoke through the Prophets is no almighty God. 174." formerly ascribed to Origen. 24: KcalZ 6 XoTyoU~Ev facryov ab•6r. but by the seven Guides. a Bardaisanite. 176. vol. . And they say our Lord did not come with an earthly body. . as distinguished by Zahn89 from Ephraem's commentary. 92 Op. dXX'0K & Maplas. cit.91 It is of value only when confirmedby other evidence..) "IAnd the words which they speak and teach are erroneous. And they regard the world not as the creation of God. we confess that he [came] through 89Translated from the German version given by Zahn. . cit. xvi. p. van de Sande Bakhuyzen.. 9: 6 X-yos a6rbo adpt 1. her.of the seven Guides. .D.namely.L/L o o 8Ld Maplas. .90 It cannot be trusted as evidence for the doctrines of Bardaisan himself.. but with a heavenly body.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 193 the quotations. And they do not admit that he was bornof the Virgin Mary . Schrift. he himself suffered in appearance . 6: a •r6. say they. Mcplar Ka o K~Ic ty o~rw Kal 6 Xbyor rpoo'Xaljdpwpi. 22: 5OKOet IrrTOVOEv A•r i' Ka u I o-w a. 178. Gr. W. 597. orwal 190. namely : One should not. 170. opavv Xev Xwv r• ' al nrtov r' a6ro6. IyPve7ro o6bUPv RwOep rpooXfapihp. and of man they say he is not made by God at all. And they call God not almighty. butof for they say he went throughher as somethingnot [coming] from certainangels. D. as the angels appeared to Abraham. he came from heaven with his body .that is. In the dialogue " On the right faith in God. the Word himself became flesh without taking anything from without in addition . . and ate and drank with him. . 6: &rt opd•iov oC&a tXape. i/. . &Orep ytp v 1JCp & awXjvos tipXeTraL. Kanons. iv. xvii. And they say thereis no resurrectionof the body. .

necromancers offer the souls a libation of honey mingled with milk. Spic. &V *Jt •S . aowL) EiS TbV at 6JT7aC -yXaKTr y-aXaciarv TJ o1v7W rpoo'ayopev6/1. phys. several accounts of which have reached us. ch. and not of Mary. The earliest detailed account is that of Porphyry :94 [Homer speaks of the solstitial signs.eo& eis y'yveort dr7b TW^v 7Tpeo/d. that is. ii.' which. she was empty". p. The milk simile is probably a translation into Christian language of an ancient myth.."] " Now Capricorn and Cancer are near the Milky Way. p. vi. constituting its limits. Syr. he says [al.LEge'XeTJKViaLs epXeoaca als 9 Stobaeus. Cancer the northern and Capricorn the southern. . whence regarded 98 So also Philoxenus. and since there was none. for just as water goes through a pipe without taking on anything." Proclus (in Remp. i. so [came] the Word through Mary. The remainder of the Ode calls for no special discussion. the absence of pain proved that the conditions to which pain would be due were lacking. gives Heraclides of Pontus a clue to the source of the tale95-the Milky Way as the place of the souls. Cancer and Capricorn as the "gates of the sun.. Porphyry's pupil. Cureton. and it is so named from the [souls] which are nourished with milk when they fall into birth. because milk naturally is engendered along with them. . For which reason also. nympharum. ap. but not of Mary." 7. p. he says. Kroll. 68' '50ov^s eIS -YeOtY vyrKVeOae 'br6 ydXa ri vKCEV. 129. with the idea that they are induced to come to birth for the sake of the pleasure (or savor). Because thou hast not comprehended the mind of Bardesan."''93 Thus it was that "she bore a son without any pain. 904. 28: Aly6Kepw~ ~ Kai KapKlvPO S 'repI p/h rT KapivoS P-6pela Aiy6Kbepw~ & v6Tra8GcLos T7r rdpara abroI eiXyX67res. Heeren: KUal rokotLs HpaKXe5l7V '1 fh&y'bY HorrTLK6Y 1Opilot ew repi T+)' (sic) yacalarv. . who assumeth the body of Christ to be from heaven. as thou saidest just now. : " There are some of them who say that he sent down the Word a body from heaven. . ed.yaXacla v 94 De ant. 8 d6elpwv KaT( IIHvOay6paV 4/vxal ds avvdyeTOai q5 ' (al.oW1 s / AL 7owo al c 5aratsTo l//V4vXayWyobl KEKpay•o 'ycXaKTL. 52. Iamblichus. . 14 sqq.194 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE Mary. And according to Pythagoras the souls are a ' tribe of dreams. Eel.rhv8et .) repeats Porphyry's account with some variations. they say] assemble in the Milky Way. and didest assent to thy teacher Bardesan.

d. Gr.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 195 they came to earth. pp. ii. Proleg.Sozomen's language (see note 18) implies some affinitybetween Bartheories. and it may well be that the ancient explanation of the celestial "milk" as being the light with which souls are fed suggested milk to him as an appropriate simile for the divine substance which proceeded from the Father and Holy Spirit and issued through the Virgin into the world as is a luminous substance. "a kid thou art (or. as at least some Pythagoreans did. the Pythagoreans refined the conception . The origin of the Orphic-Pythagorean doctrines has not yet been discovered. 660-63) the soul avows itself a " child of Earth and of Starry Heaven " (ry wrai~el/' xaia opaPvoiaTEpde0ToT). "he who went through Mary 96. and I have no doubt that this is a genuine fragment of early Pythagorean doctrine. So in the Orphic burial tablets found in southern Italy and Crete (Miss Harrison. I have) fallen into milk " . he must have had trustworthy sources of information. 989. The Orphics had taught that the soul is "breath ". 1034 sqq. The theory of the virgin birth presupposed by this Ode is Irenaeus gives it in almost known to be in part Valentinian. as he was a man of learning. and so I would interpret the sentence found in other. Heraclides was a pupil of Plato. Bardaisan probably did. for this light is the heavenly milk designed for souls. daisan's doctrineand the Orphic-Pythagorean . 4. the words used by Marinus. Ed.). It is not at all impossible that the author of the Odes knew of this myth in its Greek form. The author of the Odes believed. similar tablets.956 But he may have drawn it from other sources. 203). it is nourished by the dim light diffused in the Milky Way. 1. 3 . his interest in the mystical aspect of Pythagoreanism is well known (Zeller. that souls consist of light or are robed in a body of light (see p. Upon returning to its proper home the soul will of course again need nourishment. but it is in my opinion certain that an Oriental element enters into them.the departed soul has fallen into the "milk " of the sky. Phil. to the Study of Greek Religion. p. and this is the meaning of the name.

we have that blending of Gnostic and orthodox elements which I found in Ode xii. the Jesus who is thus born of the Virgin is not the Son of God. and her voice was heard. hold that the body of the Saviour was spiritual. hcer." what the Spirit had given Mary. Gr. The theory of the incarnationwhich follows is ascribed both to Axionicus and to Bardaisanand may represent Axionicus' conceptionsmore faithfully than Bardaisan's. (2) The inhabitants were afraid. But in the Ode he is the Son of God Himself. that Christwas divine from his birth and did not acquire divinity at his baptism." In the Ode the stars mould the body of Mary.96a Ode xxiv. formed in the bosom of the Spirit. then. Here. Valentinian." which " moulds" --the very word of the Ode if my emendationbe correct. Bardaisan held the orthodox doctrine." 9 But the doctrine of the Ode is In the system described by not. p. (3) The birds dropped their wings. (1) The Dove flew upon the Messiah. (Panar. Epiph. 24 (cf. ap. as a whole. i. i. the body of Jesus is.. Hcer. 2. 1. it would seem. according to the western Valentinians. the constructive craft (587uLtoUpY'LK 7dXPYv) in order that what the Spirit had given to Mary might be moulded (8ta7rXaae0).196 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE like water through a tube. for the Holy Spirit came upon Mary.. .the Spirit as a dove descended. 31. can be interpreted if viewed in the same light. the divine Christ descends upon him at his baptism. KaOdlrep 96a wX-o'o Hippolytus. the operationof the " worlds" by the " power of the Highest or constructive craft. and which is believed to have been characteristic of Bardaisan. the Logos of his mother on high. Wisdom. Irenueus.i. 356) : etar Ur ToTrovr G8& ~8wp 8t& TbY Maplas b8osedoavTra. and the power of the Highest. The milk is representedby the Holy Spirit. impliedin Odesxix. and xxiv. says that. and came to be with the (ydyove 7 ) psychic [Jesus] and raised him from the dead. the body of Jesus was "psychic. but son of the Demiurge . Wisdom (Sophia). 9 Cont. . that is. Hcer. among whom are Axionicus and Ardesianes [= Bardaisan]. and therefore. at his baptism.e. and the creeping things died in their holes." Accordingto Hippolytus also. i. and the sojourners were moved. .). But those of the East. 7. because He was her Head. vi. again. . She sang over Him. But it is closely akin to the theory of Ode xix.. 35.

water. As Ode xii. air.them. and were spurned: They were crying to the Lord like women in labor. 200. commingled one with another. But in v. Because it was not possible to give them the Word. had become. . (8) The Lord has destroyed the thoughts." that had been from of old. (10) For the Lord has disclosed His way. and the final end of their corruption was life. that they might abide.. all things that were defective. so this Ode depicts a certain stage in that work--the stage initiated by the descent of the Dove. see the parallel from Ecclus. pp. of all those that had not the truth. And those that have comprehendedit. his thought leaps forward to its final consummation. with one of those rapid transitions so characteristic of the writer. The clearest statement of Bardaisan's theory of the work of the Word is given by Moses bar Cepha.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 197 (4) The abysses were opened. (5) The abysses were sealed with the seal of the Lord : They perished by His Thought. op. (7) There perished from among them. light. and no food was given them. cit. (9) For they were defective in wisdom. sketches in broad outlines the regenerating work of the Word.98 He held that the five elements. Hallelujah. And they were rejected. and darkness. For they were corrupt from the beginning. because they had not the truth. darkness tried to rise from its place below and a9 Translatedinto French by Nau. for some reason not given. and spread abroad His grace. because there was none for. know His holiness.. fire. 59-62. those that were exalted in their hearts.m . quoted p. 5. 97 Read .

is only part of a vaster scheme for the regeneration of the universe. and he reestablished each of the substances in its order by the mystery of the cross..r •:. The first step in this process was the creation of the world. 99Hom. supplemented by the last paragraph of the Book of the Laws.. vol. the Son and Holy Spirit they confused with the created things. that is to say the Messiah. at the sound of this tumult. The descent of the Dove may be interpreted as another.198 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE mingle with the others. the pure substances sought refuge in the mercies of the Most High. p. and fell into the depth of its nature. it was driven away. B: " Marcion and Bardaisan blasphemously allege that the Creator is not one. to charge him with making them independent of Ephraem God . in dualism. He affirmed the existence of the substances l = oo-ata) in language which caused (-. darkness.. and decreed that they should mingle no more. ii.99 he conceived them as being. III. contra Hcer. And from the mixture of these substances with their adversary.- \. In this process many stages can be distinguished. the Word of the thought of the Most High. descended. 444. in part. at one time. Ij.. the statements of Moses bar Cepha.Za. therefore. S ." I. the deeds of the Maker they ascribed to the things made. supply a satisfactory Bardaisan's heresy explanation of several of the Odes. c. in a state of chaos. the Makers of all things they thought to be nothing. But as regards the work of the Word. and the poet describes vividly the effect of that descent upon nature. the birth of Christ was one. he established this present world. the last will be the final perfection of the universe.4oM 10oL o ' o. he removed darkness from the midst of the pure substances. O. consisted. . into which the Word enters and introduces order. *Mo!. )o~~~~~t~~~~~3 cuj O ~ ufr-• -•!~ oo• Q•l •0IjtL lJ ." Whether this picture of the battle of light and darkness can be found implied in the Odes is a question into which I cannot now enter. The regeneration of man. "Then. and the present mixture was purified by a conception and a childbirth forever.

" Acta Phil. ed. " Come now. p. 2.b describe the effect of the Dove's descent upon animals so 3'.. 102 E. remnants of primeval chaos. r^vdpEL FV'TO'ot u•&voos VXO dXX-l'yoppLcLLr.' " It is reasonably certain that this is a Gnostic. Verses 3e and 4 describethe internecinestrife of the elements in a vivid picture. p. 40.g. 1. ap. They open as the Dove descends through them. Potter. 2-3". It is a Jewish conception. which separate heaven from earth. Tisch. have been termed 'abysses. cit. et corr. and iv. vapor.' for he would not have called water alone 'abyss.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 199 The "abysses" are the vast gulfs of air. and give me the eternal crown of victory over every antagonistic principle and power. 103 it is -FiM.'00 "'Abyss' is something the essential nature of which is unlimited. perhaps. Arist. II. as Clement was largely influenced by that sect..' And yet matter is allegorically described as' water of the abyss. and probably it is a Valentinian definition. iv. the aspect of Bardaisan's theory which Ephraemdesignates by the word "opposing" or "conflicting" substances.. mutually destroy one another. So the material substances. p. that I may pass over the waters of fire and all the abyss.rTpaot6oeVOp T& ~ ? W'i erql YlperaT. but is found in this sense in Clement of Alexandria. So also in the Gnostic "Acts of Philip. p.and 4 describe its effect upon the abysses. that which is expressed in the Book of the Laws by describing the "natures" as "injuring and injured frombefore 100 Ex Script. although limited by the power of God. Meteor. op. rI ppovV yJv' KGa rTO6r trl KaiTOL Kal vBwp /L6pbovrb Jo&p o'K &v elreV &~Fvoov.. KaST rTYp lIaV Kal Eclogax.1?2 This is. 166. n. thus giving rise to the ceaseless round of transformations which we see. Since the days of Heraclitus men had been familiar with the conceptionof the elements as consisting of opposites which.. 990 : ivooos yhp rb drepdT TO eOeov8al rolVUV U& ." thrust aside. Proph. 7ro70 o?TclaL 4T0 & etp71Trac* ire U'6aTraoLLV. when brought into contact.101 As vv. 108See above. also note 66. and the effect of the divine influence upon them. ii.." the apostle prays just before his death. chapters iii. 93. Jesus.--they are "spurned. Anz. from which the several genera and their species come. and fire. (dp6to-ovu?)i 101 .. de gen. cf. probably to devour it. and let not their dark mist enwrap me.

Zur 24ten Ode Salomos ZNTW. In vv. 9. the " abysses are sealed with the seal of the Lord." But their cry is unheeded. The descent of the Dove is an event of such commanding import that even the dumb beasts recognize it. by the thought or will of God." which is almost a translation of a'ro-0 eithoraeav /vo-rov. is the correct technical . See Duensing. 107 b 7TrAos r^ Oopas(?). 8. . " deficiencies will be filled up" .Similar phenomena are describedas attendingChrist's birth. 2. and Odexxii 11 : "That everythingmight be dissolvedand Jac. and the completion of their corruptionl07 was life "-this present world must pass away to make way for a new heaven and anew earth. 4. LL." 1OLS. 18. Protev.W.200 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE the creation of the world. then renewed. 186).109a This is a e 104 Note that the word " natures."1'0 But here the poet depicts it in a vivid image -the abysses have been engaged in devouring one another. p. such is his final end" (Ode xii. in Ecclesiasticus 43 23: translation: Xorytr/Aw Jerome's "cogitatione sua placavit abyssum. . 182. the Word was given to the worlds. 10. 1osSee p. "as is the Word's work. The chief difficulty of this Ode lies in the opening verses.• ." and the idea is certainly the same. 7.s08 "All defective things "must perish. 109. they " cry to the Lord" in a state of agonized turmoil and confusion. Conceived as components they are aTroTxeta 105 See p. "this injuriousness 100also which remains in them. xii. they have been checked. the poet turns from the cosmological to the anthropological aspect of the work of the Word." as in Ode xii. term for the elements conceived as possessingactive properties. "like women in travail." The Ode proceeds: "They perished by His thought. p.. so the Book of the Laws. The confused and warring elements are brought to rest. in the words of the Book of the Laws. finally. 182. shall be brought to an end by the restraints which are in another mixture. 109 "it was not possible to give them the Word that they might abide. "They were corrupt 106 from the beginning. their warfare stayed. 106 5pC0apgdva (?)." or. 86." 109 j. those that had been of old.

22. It is received by a "wheel. This same group of astrological conceptions affords a perfectly intelligible interpretation of that very difficult Ode. 29. But others of the Oe6\oyoL sent the souls as descendingthrough the moon and ascending through the sun . nymph.cXo9). As it offers no special difficulties of translation. de ant. " Many hands " of the Powers of the Spaces. govern the operations of mechanical law." i. to the more remote results of that stupendous event. The "thought" or "will" of God which descends like a letter." the great "wheel of the Zodiac " (wcostaKov Ic. Death lets go the "feet and the head. when Christ descends into Sheol. for in the Valentinian system the divine Christ does not come to earth until the moment of the baptism. is the Word descending to be born of the Virgin." i. ibid. a Porphyry. which bears the seven planets to which in Ode xix. for "the Messiah. The regeneration of the system of natural law inevitably carries with it the triumph of the Gospel. 14: "They wereto me as my own members. 12 the poet's prophetic eye looks forward from the moment at which the Word entered into the system of nature. it sweeps away all obstacles and makes "a broad path." "The head went down to the feet." her superior. also the descending Christ is committed. 18. for down to the feet ran the wheel and that which was a sign upon it. 112 xvii.e. ch.and I wastheir head. I give merely a paraphrase." probably the Star of Bethlehem. ch." So in xlii."' Upon the wheel is a "sign of the Kingdom and the Government. But the Dove here does not represent the Christ. Again an indication of the curious blending of orthodox and Gnostic ideas so characteristic of these Odes. according to Bardaisan. Christand the dead who are to be saved. the Abysses. the Christ. At v. is "her head. ascribes to the Oe6Xoyom doctrine 111 .p. the 23d. repredeparting souls ascend throughCapricorn. that descendingsouls enter the world throughthe Zodiacin the sign Cancer. here symbolized by the system of planets revolving in the Zodiac which. rush to seize it." ' The head" 112 is probably Christ as the Head of the Church Comparethe effect of the appearanceof the Star upon the other stars 110 in the passage from Ignatius quoted.11obut the seal upon it protects it from them.e. 191.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 201 Gnostic idea.

g. for believers in predestination are often advocates of Free-will. of the dragon with seven heads. I am not aware of any demonstrable points of incongruity. his roots. xxii." Nor is the doctrine of predestination. 181. 8-10. an objection of any force. implied: x. I have. But the context is distinctly against a literal interpretation. perhaps. 14-22). But this is not. and he also recognizes the existence of "tares. The revolution of the wheel. which represents the operation of the Gospel under the forms of regenerated natural law. I think. which is definitely taught in the Odes (e." "who are not made for this grace. indeed. 178. his poison.the feet are probably the souls in Sheol yet to be redeemed. this. The preceding verses speak of the bonds which Christ is to loose. Bardaisan himself recognizes 13 that Free-will subsists only by the sufferance of God and will prove no obstacle to the final regeneration of all things. the poet describes the resurrection of the dry bones.202 -the JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE conception of Christians as the body of Christ frequently recurs in the Odes . 3. In one passage. carries Christ there also. It is. 114 See p. and in the following 113See p. Batiffol objects that it is represented as already accomplished. "to convert the souls of them that were willing to come to Him. established a certain degree of congruity between the doctrines of the Odes and those of Bardaisan. indeed. I do not think this settles the question. Another characteristic trait of Bardaisan's teaching was the denial of the resurrection of the body. is the doctrine to which Ephraem pays most attention. true that the doctrine of Free-will does not definitely appear in the Odes while it is one of the salient features of the Book of the Laws." 114 An ancient is not required to be more consistent than a modern theologian. his seed. for future events are frequently described in these Odes as accomplished. viii. In only one passage is it. and this Harnack takes as referring to the resurrection of the body. I think. The poet's thoughts are dominated by the consciousness of the work of grace in his own heart and he has no special occasion to deal with Free-will as such. incompatible with the theory that they are the work of Bardaisan. .

These passages unquestionably point to the well-known doctrine. . This presumptionis strengthenedby the passages which clearly do refer to the state of the redeemed.1" is the and the eastern Valentinians used the same word Saviour's office "to awaken the soul and light the--it spark. 8). So Hippolytus in describing the Docetae that they regarded souls as "the eternal marks (or says imprints) left by the light when it shone from above down below. of course. p. cit. 66: Areg4'e oirvO•pca wsj.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 203 verses we have the rock which is to be the foundation of all things. the son of God" (xxxvi. "I put off darkness and clothed myself with light and my soul acquired members free from pain. affliction or suffering" (xxi.. and I was clothed with the covering of Thy Spirit and Thou didst remove from me my raiment of skin" (xxv. 2). rbv d'Opw116Op. 7b. dsr c 8•-yeype rov Kil pi irohlqe." 115 Saturnilus conceived of souls as sparksof light. "the traces of the light were set upon their heart" (x. is also figurative. e b&r R Tfv OrwHOIjpa. 117 Excerpta Theod. 3. vii. p.. 7b). "in me there shall be nothing that is not bright. 1?6irpgev. 28. I have endeavoredto show: (1) That no antecedentimprobabilityprecludesthe ascription of the Odes to Bardaisan.. 23): . have found place in the poet's theology. p. 10 (D. "although a son of man. (2) That some of the Odes can be readily interpreted in the light of Bardaisan'stheories.. 16. In a similar sense should be interpreted. The presumptionis that the clothing of the dry bones with flesh. incompatiblewith the notion of corporeal resurrection. 418. then. Potter: IXNb oDv 6 ZTIwrprby &vXbv PwOeC KcdTrwi ^wrbs Tto alwvlots XapaK'rpOL. obviously borrowed from Ezekiel. I was named the Illuminate. Bef. which is. and S. 3)."17 The conceptionof a corporealresurrection cannot. . found in many Gnostic sects-and elsewhere--that the redeemed soul possesses a body of pure light. 967. lf 115Hipp. viii. But before Bardaisan's authorship can be regarded as established it must be shown that all the Odes can be intero KareLXi/CdyVoT . 380.

might be modifiedor transformedby circumstances(ibid.g. as others have done. the later distinguishedbetween the unalterableproperinfluence. The 300 of each sign are apportionedamong the five planets and those to appropriated each are termedits "limits.204 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE preted from the same point of view. warming.) The earlier astrologerstermed planets "Ibeneficent" and "maleficent" (Ptol." . I have as yet found no otherillustration.-Procl. and I have therefore thought it best to make public my tentative results. cod. Franz Cumont. also Julius of Laodicea." etc. The " degrees " are the " limits " (5pma).who has been so kind as to read this paperin proof. Cat. 1911. 5).) "High places" are 'wcaLra. To this task I shall not be able to address myself for many months to come.. IV. JUNE 5.and the good or bad effects of that influence. But of the ascriptionof exclusivelybeneficent influencesto "those on the right. "Their own degrees. (See note 51. e. For the following notes I am indebted to suggestions given me by Prof. astr.. p. in the hope that they may be found to contain some elements of value to the ultimate solution of the problem. although generallyconstant for a given planet. cf. 105). which." (See note 52. I.

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