Bardaisan and the Odes of Solomon Author(s): Wm.

Romaine Newbold Reviewed work(s): Source: Journal of Biblical Literature, Vol. 30, No. 2 (1911), pp. 161-204 Published by: The Society of Biblical Literature Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3260001 . Accessed: 23/12/2011 08:03
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161 AND NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN THE ODES SOLOMON OF

Bardaisan and the Odes of Solomon'
WM. ROMAINE NEWBOLD
UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA

of Solomon present THE newly discovered Odes literature problems asto the student of early Christian fascinating as they are difficult. The author is a poet, and a poet of no mean order, but he is much more than that - he feels himself inspired by the Spirit of the Lord and illumined by His light; the resources of language, even when strained to the utmost limits of poetic license, are inadequate to express the richness of that new life which has transfigured his inner self and filled him with the joy and peace that pass all understanding. Yet when one endeavorsto see the worlds of matter and of spirit as the singer saw them2 and to grasp his conception of their mutual relations, in brief, to reconstruct his philosophy and to determine his age, his environment, and the school of thought to which he belonged, one encounters peculiar difficulties. He is as much at home in the Psalms and Wisdom-literatureas any Jew, and yet is not in sympathy with the more distinctive tenets of Judaism. He acknowledges no circumcision save that of the heart (xi. 1-2), no sacrifice save that of "1God's thought," of "righteousness and purity of thought and lips" (xx. 1-7), no peculiar people, for his sympathies are as broad as humanity (vi. 7-17; xiv. 14-29). He is a Christian, familiar with the leading events-of Christ's life -the miraculousbirth (xix. 6-10), the baptism (xxiv. 1-3), crucifixion and descent
1 I desire to acknowledge to the editors my obligations for their kind revisionof the proofs duringmy absencefrom the country, and in particular revision of my translationsfrom the Syriac. ProfessorMontgomery's 2 The author's general point of view has been characterizedby many; perhapsthe best is that of Gunkel, ZNTW, xi. 1910, p. 320.

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into Hades (xlii. 1-26 et al.), yet he absolutely ignores many of the most characteristic doctrines and practices of Christianity. He makes no explicit allusion to the resurrection or ascension of Christ's material body, or to baptism, or the eucharist. He knows of sin and evil as facts (xxxiii. 8; xxxviii. 12 ff. et al.), but they seem to lie outside the range of his own present concern; even his conception of redemption seems unconnected with the crucifixion. Moreover, amidst the profusion of poetic and allegorical images in which he expresses his ideas, there are some which one can scarcely regard as merely poetic and allegorical and which fit but ill into the traditional system of Christian theology. The "worlds" 4 et al.), the "garment of light" (xi. 10; xxi. 2), the (xii. "perfect virgin" (xxiii. 5), the "abysses " (xxiv. 3; xxxi. 1), - these, and perhaps others, are somewhat more than hints that the author's view of the universe is not that of the orthodox Christian theologian. The theories proposed to account for this puzzling complex belong to three leading types. The representatives of the first type, led by Rendel Harris, the distinguished discoverer and first editor of the Odes, regard them as belonging to a period when the new life which was stirring men's hearts had not as yet moulded their thoughts after its own image nor found words adequate to its expression, when Christian theology was as yet in the making and clear formulations had no existence, in brief, to the period, approximately, of the New Testament itself. A second group, led by Harnack, cannot believe that conceptions so disparate as are found in the Odes could ever have coexisted as the elements of the world-view of any single mind. They believe them, therefore, to be a composite product, the original Odes being the work of a Jew of unusually catholic sympathies, into whose text a Christian hand has incorporated a few of the more essential elements of Christianity. But Harnack also refers the Odes in their present form to a very early period - about the end of the first century of our era. A third group of students regard them as giving imperfect

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expression to some peculiar system of Christian theology, accepted by some minor sect, probably of the second century, and endeavor to identify the sect in question with some one of those mentioned by the church historians. But upon this point no agreement has as yet been reached. Gunkel thinks them Gnostic, and Preuschen has announced3 that he will endeavor to prove them a part of the Valentinian Psalmbook; Batiffol4 regards them as representing a docetic tendency, perhaps a forerunner of the great Christian Gnostic movement of the second century and akin to that combated by Ignatius. But Conybeare 5 and Fries 6 would have them Montanist. In my opinion the weight of evidence is distinctly in favor of the third point of view. While the considerations urged by Gunkel and Batiffol are not all of equal force and it is not probable that all will stand the test of further criticism, the main thesis for which they contend seems to me established - that the Odes unmistakably reveal the influence of Gnostic speculation. Yet the evidence falls far short of proving them Gnostic, for many of the leading characteristics of Gnosticism, as of Judaism and of Christianity, are conspicuous by their absence. The system of eons, for example, upon the elaboration of which with every detail suggested by pagan mythology or a perfervid imagination the Gnostic thinkers so loved to dwell, is represented in the Odes by nothing but the "worlds," and of them so little is said that it is impossible to determine at first glance what the author meant by them. Again, the Gnostic was essentially an exclusive faith. It drew a sharp line of demarcation between the true Gnostic, or, as the Valentinians called him, the "pneumatic" man, and the common herd, whether Christian or not. In the Odes the "elect" (viii. 21; xxiii. 1-3 et al.) might be regarded as representing the pneumatic man, but their relation to the mass of men is conceived in a very different and more catholic spirit, for the poet looks forward to the time when all mankind will be numbered among the saved (iii. 12;
8

ZNTW, xi. 1910, p. 328, n. 3. r ZNTW, xii. 1911, pp. 70-76.

A Rev.

Bibl., NS, viii. part 2 (1911).

6 Ib., p. 108.

The argument from silence is. was the stupendous drama of the Valentinian theology. so far as our information enables us to judge. But one does expect a hymn writer. vii. the aim of which was essentially nothing other than a solution of the " World-riddle" with the 7 vii." 7 As the author. at least. dangerous. it is true. died 222. 154. speak of the time when "Nothing that breathes shall be without knowledge. will deny that Bardaisan. have been acquainted with the doctrines of the Syrian Gnostics also. must. who believed himself divine and could the regarded all other men as akin either to animals or dead matter.9 No one who reflects that Bardaisan's youth fell in a period in which Gnosticism was at its height. 88. passim. a man of deep sympathies." Texteund Untersuchungen. 9 Felix Haase.D. 22 ff. receptive as he was to all sciences and sensitive to all intellectual influences. a man whose heart was full of love for God and his fellowman. Such a man. of marked originality. " Zur Bardesanischen 1910. And he was also a gifted poet. to employ those elements of his theological system which lend themselves most readily to poetic treatment. He must also have been a man who knew the life of the spirit by immediate personal experience. of the Odes we must postulate a man who. 27. See the text. and that he lived in a land the peculiarity of whose culture made it the mother soil of Gnosticism. Knowledge probably means gnosis. p. one does not turn to a hymnal for a system of theology. One should not forget that it was the most enlightened minds that found something infectious in Gnosticism. nor shall anything be dumb. Nor true Gnostic. 8 Born A. while not in the technical sense a Gnostic. of broad vision. and such. if he be not wholly devoid of the poetic gift. note 41.). in a preeiminent degree. Gnosis.8 I cannot better express my own impression of the relation between Bardaisan and the Gnostics than by translating a passage from Haase's recent monograph.p. was Bardaisan of Edessa. . was thoroughly familiar with Gnosticism and had borrowed from it much of his imagery and some of his doctrines.164 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE vi. 178. then.

then was converted to the true faith without altogether giving up his old heresy. HE.KCtraTro.rb Tr s26pwo /eTaLSe- 7rpoOcrraFdov . To Bardaisan's intellectual ability all our authorities bear witness. in the age of Gnosticism. who composed and committed to writing in his own tongue.: alp&rews ?67roP.. 1. and Gnostic influence. 10o TE Tr7g KaTcl raXatai 11 iv. Eusebius describes him as "a most able man and a skillful disputant in the Syriac language. Lit. 9. It will remain a hopeless task to pick out."" Epiphanius describes him as "one of the finest Euseb.10 Bardaisan's keen intellect must have recognized the weak points in the Valentinian or [other] Gnostic system. Tre T7 pwp cqWJ Lrs Bap5eo•dpi7e dvlp tKavdraT•cT6s 7rpbs TrOb TKar& MapKriwva Kal Tr'vaL ErTpov0 /taq6pwv ^ r^ 15L 7rapgs5wKe ydTbrfr rE KaL-paq /. which his pupils . in so far. at least so far as its second part is concerned. ap. One will scarcely find a name that adequately and accurately expresses his teaching. for he was a doughty defenderof his doctrine. based upon his own philosophical. altchr. and he therefore worked out a peculiar doctrine of his own. and remains." p 7rXEL~rrotL rap utprw i7rkelTwrw. but will simply assume Gnostic influence.le-raEEOar ctAlq ?S o0 EavT r 7rw aclrbs tdjJ ye direppoa-ro KiTrareXwC 7rXEUTcrd -I r 9'l rbr 7?7I 5La- Id. 30. and astronomical knowledge.translatedfrom Syriac into Greek..of whom he had many. &TpwP. theological. . the "Gnostic " elements. U ov• l ysdpLtAom.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 165 aid of all that the heathen sciences and Christianity had achieved. a heretic. XEK. aro~10 -TVyypal ica . i. Gesch. J6Ket Jeal U& r9j KcaraLTpoy0 raT?7~. 4 W raptC-ar/AgJ Gatb VrVaTwrj T'3 X6"Y' 8XhKao-&wcwv7^J. 185: JP AvOo7rotasL d•reXg'y a. But if we find in his doctrines passages that unquestionably have a Gnostic ring. I therefore regard as natural and credible. we will not. ibid. Bardaisan is. Harnack. OkaXeTi'oP 5' dpa obrot rpo'Trepop Kear& orXOXfl•. U To~0rrop Oat dpOorpaTr yPr v . laid the foundation of his peculiar doctrine. p. ETxr& So0ydd-rwP tWaX6yovevoT-•7~47'e0os. dialogues against the followers of Marcion and certain other representatives of diverse doctrines. -Trl 'EXXhvwv . besides many other works. and his formal classification with the Gnostics by ancient and modern historians does him no wrong. make the explanation unnecessarily difficult. Nau and Hort are quite right in protesting against reckoning Bardaisan among the Gnostics in the usual sense.d. Eusebius' assertion that Bardaisan was at first a disciple of Valentinian. it is enough to maintain that astronomy in particular. in this doctrine. It cannot indeed be determined at what period of his life Bardaisan had belonged to a Gnostic sect.

" 14 To Bardaisan's gifts as a poet no trustworthy evidence survives. p. . in Osee. Ad Hypatium. Ed. Eph. Overbeck. eund. he says: Love for you. 12Haer.5b and [all] the rest. p." "1eloquent" both in Syriac and in Greek. ap. 1900. rh 18De vir. p. 15 Or. Paris. 63. 53. and that it has no resurrection. Haer. 186: clarus habitus est .dVOS. the signs of the zodiac. Syr. "such was Bardaisan. that the body is of the evil [principle]. 14 Comm. cuius etiam philosophi admirantur ingenium." 12 Jerome says that he was regarded as "distinguished" and that the Syrians extol the ardor of his intellect and his vigor in argument. Oxon. ardens eius a Syris praedicatur ingenium et in disputatione vehemens. 18). whose intellect even philosophers admire.. ap. contr. 553: 15bEphraem discusses this doctrine at length. Duval. 186: dptar6s rts oa. 14 sqq.. .. "highly adorned with all the graces. the stars. ap. For he formed hymns and set them to tunes. (R. ii. For example. 16 Le. constrains that you bear the repetition of their words.that the soul [consists] of seven [parts].166 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE of men. Ephraem Syrus does indeed frequently speak of the charm which the Bardaisanite hymns exercised upon the minds of the people and attributes them to Bardaisan. in S. . and composedsongs and introducedmeters. p. .. eund..p ircitra 1eyMXwOSKEKO7c0Lfl/.. Vatican ed. .13 And again. La litterature syriaque.sick folk they.16 And [so] he set beforethe simple folk bitter [mixed] with sweet . 10. 6yto .. 187: talis Bardisanes. et aliorum Opera Selecta. p. inl. He divided the words in measures and weights. eund. 33. in rhythmic and accentual measures.'5of the impeding substances. p. 56. brethren. ii. 1865. etc. that I may not expatiate upon those things which Bardaisan alleges among his doctrines.

His [i. Bap8a7. 6 pat 56e r imv "EXXrort rap' Xbyw ao rpWrotLdrpOLS KGL aly6OLs dxO•rcra 4 r OpLy Kc . ot iroAs 'Apwoviov • . he expressly implies that Bardaisan's poems were set to the lyre by Harmonius and not by Bardaisan himself.. and imitated his number [only].yevP40CW Ka & 7d gov7resr otdrobvt. rpoo'Itt/. Sozomen explicitly asserts that Bardaisan's son." 18 Sozom. Harm. TavraO cs 666as " Since he [Harmonius]was not entirely outside the limits of his father's sect and the views entertainedby the Greekphilosophers regardingthe soul."1 He wished to make David his model. cit.)..e. ap. but does not distinguish his work from that of his father. as in other Christian churches.he commingledthese views with his own compositions. ct irep XpcbevoL. " Les malades n'eurent point le choix d'un remade salutaire. rap' 'Oopovo^s dyI-opro. 187) also states that Harmonius.E .. op.op.. Harmonius. composed 150 songs. CI .. It is probable that in the Syriac. the birth and dissolutionof the body and transmigration. Kcal'Apu6. with the view expressed in his own compositions. p. iii.cit. It is also more than probable that the hymns in use among the Bardaisanites were not of his composition. rvyypdALLczcrL. that he might be adorned with his beauty and praised for his likeness. was the first to adapt his mother tongue to meters and musical rules. 187: Obt dyivo .e. he. in the interval Bardaisan's doctrines reason to believe that had been modified by the influence of Manichaism and probably by other influences as well. irel ydlp ob raWdI r-tv &K769 JP37^9 rarTpCaCs TE q0paopaiO a65aTO0 KaZl 0l StbXororcZXtyyeIcrl o ap? EXXi1ro iPVX27S..seeing that he set to the lyre what he [Bardaisan] had composed. p. if I understand aright the following sentence. The circumstantialcharacter of this account gives it claim to credence. cit. as well as Bardaisan.Theodoret (HF.8S These varying accounts are easily reconciled. Harnack. TrosOIKelOLS YpdttCZaTv. my brethren.rdr 6 vrap abrov KaXovuJV7lV 6o T7Y actp7jorLv craTO. HE. ap." and indeed."i. the canonical Psalms had been used in public worship from the 17 Duval (loc. " having had a Greek education.CS Kal . 16. dXX& To tLs X& Kal caIPpIOeOs.Vos Bap8iodovu avveoT• rats. K rdXaL JXXoyLtcrTarotroTroPvbY 7rp6Tro Tre. XOPO rdptvwLO bra-ya 0.wrote much in Syriac.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 167 who chose not wholesome food. David's] truth he deserted.oUvoLKO r 7)P ?OsraOpaSo KcaaOdrEp v^ KGCal IroXXdKLS o0 1Appo rt'dXXovorL. too. otd ye brb VXpad Ovvrypdtaro avvOels. But it must be borne in mind that Ephraem is writing There is about 150 years after Bardaisan's death.

probably had not the ability and certainly had no desire to distinguish in the mass of heretical psalms and hymns the compositions of Bardaisan from those of his successors.168 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE earliest times. which. The poet says "the way of error I have left " (xv. harmonize singularly well with the little we know of Bardaisan's life and activity." and a "bride who is corrupted. celebrates his deliverance from a form of error portrayed by a "bridegroom who corrupts and is corrupted. It is probable on the face of it that Bardaisan. the whole of Ode xxxviii. "I was delivered from vanity " (xvii. and so ascribes them all indiscriminately to him. and invite many to the banquet." and is "adorned. would endeavor closely to imitate the Psalms with which they were already familiar. Ephraem. Just such imitations the " Odes of Solomon" unquestionably are. 4). 6). This reads like a condensed abstract of the account given by Epiphanius of his own experiences when young among the "Gnostics " of Egypt (Haer. it is at any rate certain that their introduction into the church at Edessa was ascribed by Ephraem to Bardaisan. Bardaisan had been converted from Gnosticism to Christianity. in view of Sozomen's evidence. in his earliest efforts to produce hymns acceptable to his congregation. There is no reason to charge the Valentinians with ." and so on. 2). and give them to drink of the wine of their intoxication so that they may vomit up their wisdom and knowledge. and there is no doubt that such practices were widespread among many Gnostic sects. who was engaged in a fierce warfare with the Bardaisanite heretics. while wholly insufficient of themselves to prove authorship. It may be that Bardaisan was also the first to write hymns in meter similar to those Syriac hymns with which we are familiar. but. it is more probable that the Bardaisanite hymns in meter known to Ephraem were the work of Harmonius and other writers. There are also several allusions in the Odes. and there is every reason to accept his evidence." who "lead astray and corrupt the whole world. xxvi. Whether other psalms and hymns were used along with those " of David " in the other churches is a question into which I need not enter.

rather suggests spiritual than ecclesiastical priesthood. Harnack.. xxix. and was almost appointed to the order of confessors. Antoninus' friend. which would be appropriate to the age of the Antonines.plvaro. " He withstood Apollonius. xxv. O my 19Epiphan. when exhorted by him to deny that he called himself a Christian. 'AroXXwv•Pt 6 tK7K1 7 70T0 irp rd0EfOCLL. e. and bearing such clear evidence of deep and sincere religious feeling.. 8div Odvarov P/L q1jas. 56. and wrote against the heretics. had as a youth just escaped the temptations of some such sect. We are told that Bardaisan came very near suffering martyrdom. and replied in clever speeches.. ix. ap. viii.." 19 There are several Odes which intimate that the speaker has suffered persecution. One can readily imagine that Odes so beautiful as these. The same must be said of the allusion in xx. His " work is the Psalm of the Lord " (xvi. despays. Ilcer.g. Marcion and others.. like Epiphanius. 7'.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 169 them. but it is quite possible that the poet. cit. 186: 'A'rwuvvov 'ralpy Ur 6 U? Pelas uv8pelws diroXoyod5evos. manfully defending [the true] religion. &viteTpe rapavolatbroos 4pvoraacOaLtb XpwLrLavbv Eavrb'v XI-yewv. KbP Nau.g. Bardaisan believed himself to be orthodox. and his addresses to his readers intimate that he anticipates something more than a hearing. X6ayovs e8tivac d7re. xxxv. The much discussed opening verses of the 4th Ode -" No man. p." etc. It would fit in very well with the recorded statement that Bardaisan had been ordained deacon. Other Odes. Of more weight is the general impression conveyed by the Odes as to the author's relation to his readers.20but the context in Ode xx. but it is not always possible to distinguish between what he says in his own person and what he says in the person of Christ. p. rdEcMoXoaylar Kosarder. 1. " I am a priest of the Lord. 2). suggest that the persons for whom he writes are not unacquainted with persecution. 10. op... 6. 7-c Lr BtaotLXet AL iTreliTOL. and declaring that he had no fear of death.. . but the suggestions are too vague to be of value. for it must necessarily ensue even if he did not disobey the Emperor. v. xxviii. 20 Le livre des lois re avroeos i Tbv 6. e. might have served to draw a band of devoted followers about their gifted author.

Bardaisan was certainly able to write Greek. changeth thy holy place. and it is not possible that he should change it and put it in another place. it is not yet proved that the Odes were first written in Greek. Gunkel. for thy sanctuary thou hast designed before thou didst make other places "--in which Conybeare sees Montanism. the true Jerusalem which came down from heaven. 14. distinctly favors the hypothesis that he might have written the Odes of Solomon. The occurrence of Greek words in the Coptic version proves. even about the middle of the 21Epiphan. 21. the language of the Odes and their title. (Dind. no more than that the author of the Pistis Sophia was working from a Greek text-not that the text was the original. . 1. Bardaisan is supposed to have written in Syriac." It is. was to be found at Pepuza in Phrygia. 48. If Hermas could make his revelation in Greek to the Latin-speaking Roman Christians. 49. ii. 442. The words and phrases of the Syriac text upon which Schulthess. But neither of these suppositions is as yet beyond question. which had been in large measure bilingual for centuries. But two objections present themselves. ii.2 The fact that these Odes. of course. On the other hand. as I have shown. and others base their opinion are indeed suggestive.. possible that in the last quarter of the second century Greek was a privileged tongue in the church of Edessa. indeed.) 22 I am inclined to believe that the original was Greek.170 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE God. describes him as "eloquent both in Syriac and Greek. and in particular of his relation to the development of Syriac hymnology. and raise a presumption in favor of the theory that the original was Greek. surely Bardaisan might have used Greek in Syria.. but they are not sufficient to put the question beyond doubt. because he hath no power over it.21 It appears then that the little we know of Bardaisan's life and activities. much as it was in the Roman church a little earlier. Epiphanius. moreover. 16. Havr. and the Odes are supposed to be translations from a Greek original. are much more easily explained as an attack upon the Montanist claim that the holy place. 444.

555.in his "Spicilegium Syriacum. probably not fifty years after Bardaisan's death. concludes that Bardaisan wrote in Greek a dialogue "Against Destiny. Halle. It was first published by Cureton in 1847. 1863). Bardaisan'soriginal work did not contain the doctrineof planetaryinfluence ascribed to him by the "Book of the Laws. Paris. presupposes good faith on the part of the author of Pistis Sophia--he was deceived by the fact that the poems had been long current. I have used that of Nau.and there would have been little likelihood that the fraud ever would be detected. many early sects. to attach to it the name of Solomon. already bore the name of Solomon. has been very generally accepted as proof that they must have originated at least a hundred years earlier.the fact that such works met with easy acceptance proves that the membersof these sects were as uncritical as their leaders were unscrupulous. cit.). the discussion for and against a Greek original by Schulthess and Nildeke. pp. and again. 44 sqq. after a minute comparison of the " Book of the Laws" with the quotations in Eusebius and the Recognitions." Lack of space preventsme from entering into my reasonsfor dissentingfrom this latter conclusion. [N. 91." which was translated by his pupils into Syriac. he found them in his copy of the Bible. This book contains the only fairly trustworthy evidence as to the views of Bardaisan himself.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 171 second century. Haase (op.2 The book professesto be a record 23 Besides Cureton's second edition."in 1855. from the latter version Eusebius' quotations and those of the Recognitionsare derived. indeed. Moreover. with an English translation. The Gnostic group from which the Pistis Sophia emanated.B. forged works in support of their peculiar tenets with the utmost freedom. 1899. From this Syriacversionthe existing "Book of the Laws " is derived. The Syriac was then again translated into Greek.] . Le livre des lois des pays. The men who forged books wholesale certainly would not have hesitated. I can see no force in such considerations. and Merx's translation (in Bardesanes von Edessa."in order to prepare the way for the interpretation of the Odes.. were regarded as canonical and used as such by the author of Pistis Sophia. if a stray copy of the Odes fell into their hands and seemed to them capable of being used to support their doctrine. pp. and so on. Ed. 1910. The argument. in ZDMG. I shall find it necessary to give a fairly complete outline of the "Book of the Laws of the Countries. and. of course.

172 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE made apparently by a certain Philip. It is at best based upon one of his works. as Stoic writers were more disposed to use Stoic terms (•-yos. may and frequently do clash. sickness and sin. that the connection is not immediate. Free-will he shares with God and with the angels.) is unmistakably the Aristotelian(q'aos. the Odes are devotional poems of a most intimately personal character. but dissents from that form of the principles doctrine of Destiny or Fate which was so generally associated with it. and confirmsthe statements of the churchhistoriansas to Bardaisan's with Greek. but the word which Bardaisanuses (= •l06t) possiblypoints to acquaintance with Peripatetic sources. and it is quite possible. by the constellations and planets. of astrology. Nature. It. The conception had become a commonplace Greekphilosophylong beforeBardaisan's of day. whence arise in the world discord and confusion. as Haase thinks. The Book of the Laws is a discussion. rve1/Aa). and that he was the author of the Odes. of the ultimate laws that govern the universe. But in time. it is obviously unreasonable to anticipate any considerable degree of coincidence between them. upon the problems of Destiny and Free-will. upon man's body as a part of that world. Man is ruled by three independent principles: Freewill. being independent. the " great and holy will of God " will put an end to the discord. "Nature" is the organic principle which governs the development and nutrition of his body. and also upon his soul. Their themes are as unlike as possible. and Destiny. in a severely scientific and objective spirit. It puts into Bardaisan's mouth a He accepts the fundamental theory of marked originality. The conception acquaintance of I"Nature"( . It is only by accident that the two works occasionally touch upon the same topics. of a dialogue held between Bardaisan and his disciple Avida. . the Book of the Laws does not even profess to be from the hand of Bardaisan himself.24 These three principles. "Destiny " is the influence exerted upon the entire material world. Even granting that the Book of the Laws fairly represents Bardaisan's views. Furthermore. 2 The theory is obviously eclectic. and introduce a reign of peace and love.

The real significance of the Book of the Laws is this: In the first place. but in default of any evidence to show whether these traits were personal peculiarities of Bardaisan's.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 173 The number of coincidences that do occur. but it is one of the minor threads in the web of evidence which I am endeavoring to weave. to "love. in phraseology and sequence of ideas. It is impossible. Nearly all the Odes are full of joy and thankfulness. God. however. I think. indeed. and to pray for that which is good for every one whom he knows " . is suggestive. his whole nature seems to turn as naturally towards love. Indeed. an expression of Bardaisan's own character. have been based in the first instance upon observation of what men actually do.and these traits are in striking accord with the character revealed in the Odes. While he is of course aware of its existence. that man is naturally inclined to sin. it was this that first led me to think of Bardaisanas their possible author. the theories of the Book of the Laws. Bardaisan'sconception is very different. supplemented by informationafforded by Ephraem and other writers.man finds joy. bless. and in doing good which he conceives is. goodness.or were common in Syriac literature of his age. prove that the writers are identical. . offer a very satisfactory interpretation of several difficult Odes. Bardaisan regards man as imbued with a natural inclination towards good. of course. This similarity of character does not. good properly belongs to him. as the needle to the pole.in a brief article. it gives a fairly definite impression of certain traits of Bardaisan's character. It is. to quote from the Odes at such length as to give an adequate impression of the author's personality--that can be gained only by thorough familiarity with the Odes themselves. to speak the truth. their value as evidence is not great. primarily. I give here. In the second place. nor could it. rather. I have already referred to the singularity of the poet's attitude towards sin and evil. from the notion so prevalent in all Christian ages. he seems to have no present personal concern with it. and the affinity to that of the poet is manifest.

my son. and thou wilt be able to know everything. know that he who putteth his inquiries properly." Bardaisan said: Thou speakest becomingly." C . 29 S. . 1." N." N." xv. Ode xi." xxxiii. but are always pulling down and building up. Nevertheless. Cureton. even the way of truth. 80 wa participate. lo! I will speak to you who do believe concerning this which he inquires.ASLZ "cleverly. 6: " The way of error I have left.2 Nevertheless. O ?r. . p. " fell from the way of truth. therefore. " serons d'accord." C. because I was ashamed of asking thee. and if it please us also. Avida said: "I am desirous of learning. by those things which I have mentioned. 7. and draweth near to the way of truth n without opposition. " something more. but I began first to question these. but also many." Cf. tell it to us all. and are (p. p. 27.28 needeth not to be ashamed. . and he will hear something to his advantage." and again. 28 1 P?" obstinacy. because Avida is not willing to believe. " d'aprs les apparences. and is willing to be convinced.freely modified by suggestions derived both from the Syriac and from Nau. thou hast anything in thy mind respecting this about which thou wast inquiring. necessity will compel us to show thee why it does not please us."Way of truth. If. we shall agree " with thee. 6: "I ran in the way of his peace. 3) found destitute of all knowledge of the truth.174 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE those passages26 from the Book of the Laws which are relevant to my present purpose. 9 (C). Avida's brethren say: "Believe firmly. 2. because he will certainly give pleasure to him to whom the inquiry is directed." to which Avida objects "But I am not able to believe unless I be convinced. 8: " I will make you wise in the ways of truth." C. 10. and if it please us not. because they have in them no faith. " querelle. my brethren." Bardaisan said: Not Avida alone is unwilling to believe." C. nor are they even able to be convinced.? 2s The translation is that of Cureton." N." The simile of a way or path occursabout 17 times in the Odes. and have added in footnotes the more striking parallels from the Odes. These modifications are not always indicated.

xxxiv.oI" ip de conclure. 1 : "As the hand moves over the harp and the strings speak.9 P . (17) " So he made the sun for the day that it may be bright. 6. for faithful is He in whom I had faith ". and know my knowledge. 84tJ. also.and I speak by His love. and the sphere.also. " to speak and to instruct." Compare. and have not received knowledge from the wisdom of the truth. and I have faith in Him". xlii.if man had been created so. " I will not change and not wane nor 31 a . The closest parallel is perhapsviii. 11 . 4: " I had faith." C. ye that are kept by it. and the treasuryof the darkness is the night"." Also. And how. the fact that the heavenly bodies never rest is adduced S6 as an illustration of subjection to the command of God.. 5: " I am strong in His praise. So N . xvi. But he exalted him by Free-will above many things. and His hosts are subject to His word. " de discouriret 82The conception that faith or belief is the first step in the Christian life occursfrequentlyin the Odes. xiv." Compare." compare followinglines : (16) " The treasury the light is the sun. 12.to . (15) " They know not how to stand and be idle. 18) But as to what Avida was saying . xxxix. . thereforefound I rest."1 For they have not the foundation of faith to build upon." nor the moon." Why did not God create us so that we should not sin and be guilty ? " . For the sun (p."C." N. but would have been the instrument of him that moved him. xxviii. xvi. then. and they have no confidence upon which they may hope. 4) never says. " They are instrumentsof the wisdom of God which errs the of not. 14: "1And created things run in their coursesand do their works" . And on this account they are not competent to discuss and to draw conclusions. . 3. so speaks in my membersthe Spirit of the Lord. but it is nowhere so directly connectedwith knowledgeas here. occurs vi." " I will not rise at any time. For observe the sun. but night brings darknessover the face of the land.. and made him equal with the angels. and the rest of these things which are greater than we in some things. "fixed by ordinance. would man differ from a harp " which another plays or the cart which another guides ? But God in his kindness did not will that he should create man so. xxvi. also.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 175 And he began to say to us: There are many men who have not faith.ye that know me in the truth. . that there is not given to them Free-will of themselves. he would not have belonged to himself. 8." With the next sentence. xxix. but they are all bound by the command " that they should do only that which was commanded them and nothing else. 6." . 88The comparisonof man to a harp upon which another plays.pa. 12-13: " Keep my faith. In the Odes.32 (1. and the moon. I. 6 : " Believe and live and be saved.

5. 3. For men are not commanded to do anything but what they are able to do. so shalt Thou give to me. (p. not . (l•m s-). compare Ode xxix. With the above. but that we were in need of Thee.] but all these things serve and are subject to one command. and associate with the angels. 3) For everything that exists stands in need of the Lord of All.." Compare note 40. and and mercies (1." ." But the word used is .for they are the instruments of the wisdom of God which errs not.. For there are two commandmentsset before us such as are suitable and just 88Severalpassagesrefer to the goodness kindness -A? (1Z-on. who also are possessed of Free-will for themselves." See. xvii. 27) On this account let it be manifest to you that the goodness Wof God has been great toward man." [.) note 38. 30. that by this same Free-will he may justify himself. "I will not rise and I will not set.~. and raised my mind to the height of His truth". (1. and according to His goodness He gave unto me ". 7 : " He glorified me by His kindness. the winds. 1." that they might minister to him for a season. Bardaisan said : This is the answer of such a one as doth not desire to do that which is good. xi.-ma.. Here follows an account of the fall of the angels through their sin with the daughters of men.P xxv. 4. (3) " According to His mercies He exalted me. " and there is no end to his bounty. 9 : "not that Thou wast in need of us. and p. and that there has been given to him Free-will more than to all those elements of which we have been speaking. 9: " According to the multitude of Thy mercies. 17) On this account there has been given to him these things in kindness. 87 Compare iv. and more especially of him who has obeyed and submitted to his enemy.and so of the sea. the earth. and govern himself in a god-like manner.. 2: " According to His praise He made me.4). p. 17. note 40. 7: "I grew great by his bounty. 1. 9 : "I was enriched by his bounty".I of God as manifested especiallyin creating man. and according to His excellent beauty He set me on high "...176 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE increase. For bounty see (j-3a. (1.) endowing him with powers fitted to raise him above his present status and make him more like God." nor does any one of the stars say. xiv.8 Avida objects: (1. . 8 "Bounty. 29 sqq. P awm. the hills. also. . 19) The commandmentswhich have been given to men are hard and they are not able to perform them.

" V P?. It occurs eight times in the J] and properly means "without reluctance". For I think it is in these commandments more than in anything else man has power. and there is nothing that is able to hinder them. I should be tempted to emend the text of the Ode. and is then equivalentto d006vws. 18) But there have been given to us according to the kindness of God commandmentswithout grudgingOsuch as every man .. 4 must be om. or that he should be guilty of hatred and falsehood ? For lo! all these things are subject to the mind of man. For we are not commanded to carry heavy burdens of stones [and so of other tasks]." s are easily confused.. and this too he is able to do.it would be somewhat Fi." Possibly " in faith" has been lost fromthe text.•. but in the will of the soul. What man. po~ r take Thy Wordfrom me. 6: "The way of error have I left. e. and the other that we should do that which is good and which we love. And accordingto His excellent beauty He hath made me. or impotent in his limbs. rather than salvation.. And accordingto His bounty He hath given to me. Moreover. Who.g.. therefore. and to bless.1 ^ ] . t 40 "Without grudging. xxiv. also to support by the strength of body him who is sick and broken down. 7. xviii. or to avoid lying or committing adultery and fornication. so is he able to love. therefore. 197). (1. in close connection • with qAj." and ~. he is able to avoid doing all these things. ?-a = d7rcrTroL." 2a." . and to speak the truth. With the above passage compare xv.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 177 for Free-will: one that we separate ourselves from everything that is evil and which we should dislike to be done to ourselves. and as he is able (p. it is that is not able to do what those devoid of faith " murmur about I know not.. . 4: "Walk Odes.~ more appropriateto receive commandmentsimmediately after leaving the way of error. and to pray for that which is good for every one whom he knows: and if he be in health and have the use of his hands. because of them that are deficient. Ode 4 . For they are easy. ye in the knowledge of the Most High withoutgrudging. 7 (see p. r and the interpretation of xviii.a . "salvation. Should the evidence ever warrant a definite ascriptionof the Odes to Bardaisan. For even if a man be poor and sick and old. i•o consideredin connectionwith that of xxiv. lo i M%. and have walkedtowardsHim. And have receivedsalvation fromHimwithoutgrudging. but the same phrase recurs. do not Thou. 4 : " Lord. 6) to avoid doing all these things. 389 " Devoidof faith." Commandments. and desire that it should be done to us likewise." But it is usually found with verbs of giving. he is able too to give something of that which he has. is there who is unable to avoid stealing. xxiii. and they lie not in the power of the body.

For there are many things which impede the action of the body." makes it reasonably certain that the passage has no such general application." i. and poverty. for there is no man who rejoiceth not when he doth that which is good. not. and the attempt to reconstruct the theories of each from the scattered hints in our possession would lead me far beyond the limits assigned me. and the ?second po is a corrupt dittograph for J?. Bardaisan. but to do good things who among men is able ? .l1_ ? for vii. "the beloved. "I. 0 Bardaisan. and conceives "the good" as God Himself. do you say that they are easy to perform ? Bardaisan said: To him who desires. is literally. so is the impulse of joy over what is lovely. I have said and do say that they are easy. hence a direct comparison of the two authors on this vital point is impossible.." But the word here translated "what is lovely. and more especially old age. and sickness. to the exclusion of Bardaisan's conception. with the exception of those who were not made for this grace. for this is the good conduct of a free mind. And brings in of its fruits without restraint. nowhere definitely states his theory of redemption. every living man. 5. which as it stands is unintelligible. 0=3 .. The words ae I~c~l p0?o . ' The wording suggests a plausible emendation "I.e. and conceives "'the good " as good deeds. " I love the Beloved and my soul loves Him. the poet finds it in the redeemed and purified soul. Avida said: Perhaps a man may be able to avoid wicked things. My joy is the Lord. 42 This joy in the good is the most characteristic trait both in Bardaisan and in the author of the Odes. 42 nor is there any one who doth not delight within himself when he refraineth from wicked things. and of that soul which has not rebelled against its governors. But whereas Bardaisan finds it in human nature as such. 27. and my impulse is towards Him." 5i. The text reads: m )oa loa. however. after J . . again. For would not that Judge be unjust who should blame a man for such a thing as he is not able to do ? Avida said to him : Respecting these deeds."Every man that possesses a soul within him. for the poet gives no description of human nature as such. There is one passage in Harris's translation which seems to express the doctrine of Bardaisan. and who are called tares. 41 ." and a comparison with iii.178 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE who possesses a soul within him 41can do rejoicing. vii.] have been lost IPo. 1: "As the impulse of anger against evil.

=." (p. and receivethe thoughtof the MostHigh ". iii."N = U? j -. and His rest is forever and ever ".. and on this account he rejoices whenever he does good.. heads."and has given to all things the power which is suitable for each one of them. and by the thought of His heart". whose rest is forever. etc. but the evil is the operation of the enemy and on this account when a man is troubled and not sound in his nature he does wicked things. signifies a definite astrologicalfunction. like the . " or "peace" occurs about seventeentimes in the Odes. For the good is the man's own. Bardaisan proceeds: (1. Comparexxv. [Some believe in Destiny. 9: "I was enrichedby His bounty. 12: "I was justified by His kindness. xi." and created man.e.a. 21) But. they are false. I cannot determinetheir precise meanings. After developing in some detail the distinction between the true enjoyment which attends good deeds.] (1. governors.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 179 Bardaisan said : It is more easy to do good than to abstain from (p. 4) I likewise. know well that there are men who are called Chaldaeansand others who love the knowledge of this art [i. there also am I". and the false enjoyment which attends evil. (p. each of which. 0 Philip. JrtKpTarwp. which. 1. 35) But let us speak now and show with respect to m ie]o. Greekol0Kos8er6rqs. and has ordained the governors. xi." " Comparexvi." '5 j rulers. some in Luck. 24) We ought plainly to understand that the unrestrained ardor of love is called lust. satisfaction) for a moment. incorruptible and indissoluble. as I also once loved it.l. and they see as things seem to them. rpo•o-y6rLos. some in Free-will. my soul loves Him. . in my humble opinion. in that the wisdom of God is richer than they. when applied to a planet. 10: "From above He hath given The conception "rest" me rest that is incorruptible. He fixed the creationand establishedit. as for myself. 12: " He spreadout the heavens and fixed the stars. 1. nevertheless is far removed from the love which is true. They are true in that men speak from the appearanceof what they see. contentment. . astrology]. compareix.e. 12." which has established the worlds. 7) evil. "For this conception of knowledge or wisdom as riches. 5-6 : "I love the Beloved. 20: "The worlds were made by His Word. it seems to me that these three views are partly true and partly false. Where His rest is. although there may be in it rest (i. 4: "Be enrichedin God the Father. 11.

14. and this change is called the Destiny and the Horoscope0 of this complex which is being sifted and purified for the advantage of that which has been receiving aid and will receive it 10until the consummation of all. iii. Astrol. -" The complex. libb. per- . The position of a planet makes its proper influence stronger or weaker .OT. and according to this motion and disposition. but it is here used of the total effect exerted by the stars upon the infant at birth. any planet is more powerful when in its own "'house.m. viii. De diffinitionibus et terminis astrologice (in Jul. Strictly speaking. 50o ." etc. "oipdvta arocxe'a. pp.. intelligences are changed in their descent to the soul. 1. Adv. whenever nature is disturbed from its right course. 663-664) that " right " sometimes means "north. ir=% o i " Those on the right." probably T-TracLts. Pruckner. N. And those are on the right 11 called " those which assist nature" and add to as haps. 61 Precisely what Bardaisan means by " those on the right. Firm." or when rising in the eastern sky than when situated elsewhere in the Zodiac. n. (p. In astrology as known to us." .e. (v) 12 sqq.. because those heads and governorsupon whom depends the change that is called Horoscope." None of these seems to fit the present passage.are opposed one to the other. its disturbance is due to Destiny." "'those on the left.-Procl. used by Ptol. 48 Elements. wporTK67roS.). = 1. a translation of aX??arp~ps rs obpavlac KLV75aeWs. 1." j. 13) which is called Destiny is a disposition (or arrangement) of the motion4 which is given to the governors and the elements4 by God. "Horoscope. that it has not power over everything. 10) And know ye well that.4 = TOLXX•ta. Basel." sometimes "'east. and souls are changed in their descent to the bodies. Tetrab. Mars and Saturn maleficent.. 47Disposition of the motion." 1. jhz. ccelestia signa." sometimes "south. the horoscope was the sign of the Zodiac rising at the moment of birth (see the admirably clear summary of the leading doctrines of astrology given by Sextus Emp.g. Jupiter and Venus are beneficent." . The next section shows how organisms are normally ruled by their respective natures." I cannot explain. Astron. 1551). but here probably means the signs "..180 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE Destiny. See Otho Brunfels. " Right " and " left" do not seem to bear any definite technical meaning in astrology.. for clearly " those on the right " are planets or constellations which are always beneficent. Corr. and Mercury neutral. Boll has shown (Sphcura. 49 Destiny. 1 . 383. p. is equivalentto and is." and sometimes perhaps " west.. & Add. elxcapdvfy. of the Zodiac. Mat. ed. It signifies the total complex of relations constituted by the position of the heavenly bodies at any given moment. for this very thing itself (p. or when setting--but it cannot change its proper character.

xxvi. .but by their wickedness and error. so also is this visible man not able readily to deliver himself from the commands of his Governors. 34) and holy will. 10 : "Thy will is perfection. (p. without opposition. 33. position on or near the meridian. and in its "houses " it has a certain position. 11-12: " Who is able to interpret the wonders of the Lord ? For he who could interpret would be resolved into (1oa. we should be the instruments of others.." either twy/?ara.j) that 2•. withstand . shall we say respecting the new race of ourselves who are Christians. i. which is interpreted.in particular. 4) What." etc. 68 Cf. then. etc.Christians. (p.. or geovpavgiara." For this orderliness and government S" Helps them.not by their strength . 10) But wherever they be and in whatever place that they are. whom in every country and in every region the Messiah established at his coming. and on the appointed days we abstain from food. especiallythe stars. because He is kind and permits all natures to remain as they are and govern themselves by their own will." and whenever they occupy the high places they are opposed to nature and not only injure men." and if we had no power to do anything. "Their own degrees. For if we were able to do everything we should be everything." probably. for he is a slave and a subject. and upon one day. a certain position in the Zodiac fixed for each planet (Ptol. the laws of the countries do not separate them from the laws of their Messiah. when their inherent beneficent influencesare re3nforced by their positions in the Zodiac and relations to other planets and constellations." eachplanet has two " houses" or signs properlybelongingto it.. This may last for a short time. 1. but also. but sickness and health. 22). though bound none the less by the works that have been made and by the institutions which have been established for their help. Those on the left are called "bad. This is the position in which its influenceis strongest. and whenever it is governed it is able to resist its Governors.. i. which is the first. for lo! wherever we be. neither does the Destiny of the Governors compel them to make use of things impure to them. befalls them wherever they are.o . For there is nothing that can hinder that great (p.e. xviii. N Cf. 32.their natures. But whenever God wills." For even those that think they withstand it.-Procl. we assemble ourselves together. all of us are called by the one name of the Messiah ." 55The " works" are probablythe material universe." . the " institutions.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 181 its excellence whenever their motion helps them 52 and they stand in high places of the sphere in their own degrees. As the Free-will of men is not governed by the necessity of the Seven. "High places. and riches and poverty -this which does not appertain to their Free-will. anything can be. 1.

in all its forms. Proclus' interpretations of the myths of the lit. all evil motions will cease. that they should not be altogether injurious or altogether injured. W a68 .C.182 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE which has been given. Its origin. and there will be peace and safety..and deficiencies will be filled up. again. both in its ascent and its descent. These influences. although it is not possible to prove. influences severally appropriate to the several tracts of space through which it passed. " training. softens down the violence of the natures.. The doctrine of the soul's descent from heaven here sketched by Bardaisan was. whose equilibrium is maintained by a balance between opposed but system equal tendencies. in all cases." N. It was probably always associated with the complementary idea that the soul which has thus fallen from her divine estate should seek again to regain it. although astrology as a science was as yet unknown to the Greek world at large. the existence of this element. who probably learned it from the Pythagoreans. and the foolish will be persuaded. might be conceived as personal or impersonal. The world is a a. however. And at the establishment of that new world. But there is good reason for believing that the form in which it appears in Plato's works has been directly influenced by Oriental ideas. that." 1 education. it was adopted by the Pythagoreans. or both. also. and later by Plato. for it already contains the essential elements of the astrological form of the doctrine." " rvsultat. as they were injuring and injured from before the creation of the world. widely prevalent in antiquity. bad. by the bounty of Him who is the Lord of all natures. And a time will come when this injuriousness also which remains in them shall be brought to an end by the restraintsmfound in another mingling. is not known and the diverse forms under which it appeared have been but imperfectly investigated. Its present evils can be corrected by a new combination of its elements. the soul was supposed to encounter. and all rebellions will be brought to an end. in one form or another. good. and mingling of one with another. The doctrine was probably of Oriental origin and was introduced into the Greek world by the Orphics about the seventh century B. It is probable.

. in Remp.~ 6• X rats d Oprbcrw^ vx.e aucWvTW "yd'otro mmi 5aqCeJva rpbTrov7d biroKe~eOOa ~dXcacr AiC d tral L&Um ftreeOac 7tr rVuep'ry eal al ux1 rjv & epo y'p c lydveoes ot~dv*' o'mTW re'VooG'a rdi•rmw rwirc. o epG rW^ K6onov IAdpoS. depends upon the operation of the celestial orbits which severally exert their diverse influences upon her. po•ra 6KKEL74 r^ d-'yOp ALXKOS •T 7repL65wv w^i 78allgo . Proclus holds that the embodied soul is absolutely subject to the influences of the stars. PT7)TU TrOtOvTwJ' &XXcoM L 77s otbECe 7-P Ir^i . he would. Bardaisan that the body only is subjected to them. o hvel rb g-arovCrpoeXOofGa r^ . 14: . and the body only in so far as not controlled by its nature. she becomes one of the things ruled. . of course. 345. 7p6etaw U lsr E rb o xarov 7 otpavlwvreptXflc00e6arot7aercv. This is Bardaisan's doctrine with one important difference. in such manner that she is not only a part of the [lower] world. and I cannot supply a better commentary on Bardaisan's statements than by translating one or two short passages from Proclus' intolerably prolix commentary upon the Republic. In another passage Proclus describes at some length the ed. Proclus' own theory is very similar to that of Bardaisan. in a sense. and as she proceeds thereto she is immersed in all influences [emitted] from the celestial [bodies]. the eternally subsisting and inflexible dominion of Necessity to which the soul. [in brief]. is exposed to material spirits. arbitrary and fanciful in detail. that of the moon) becomes subject. differ in no way from the things which are moved by other things [only]. re A dbrvov 70ooG &dXXC b rt rdv goXdrwv v Kcral Kac cuvat ela rb d Krl ccl'palc 8tocKo0PTWP a7rp olo' et rtr hX6tofoPo s pat' p 5LoLovudIWer rr *a KCL d-~yC7y&p TroTrovKal bIrb Trw 7r& aIKC r 7rXwr7p drcKo~.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 183 Republic and Timeus are therefore correct. Kroll. in so far as the general outlines are concerned. when she has proceededas far as the lowest of the orbits (i.57 . but the soul is governed by Free-will. although. So also the soul. . 5CLc4OO'bL KOO•ILKuIC '•O'Tpw7CCt 7 &XXaei asra'v. and instead of belonging to those things which rule the Universe.v rept68wv ylverat Paa~telav r7A7d'AdCYK-I.ri7v br oa'av del KalId&Klrov 6 Procl. ii. upon falling wholly into birth.e. is subject to the guiding spirit. just as though a philosopher were to embark in a ship and become a rower. but is one of its lowest parts. for he would have to take from the sailors such and such orders and obey the pilot and be exposed to gales of wind.

rdpaI dT& KXwo0'dvTa a'T7ry 1yd/rcJTV 7roLOvOav. which finishes the twisting. From Lachesis. PLa6Ovovoa yp I"rXelo0tv ObKdTL y ?r' &XXoLts77/JL dKeCOev T? KLTV^ ?EW VCa7riv ^rpoEPeL. which is twisted and intertwined from all these.. K y'lp 7 rap' i KsKai 0los. exert a great and effective fateful influence upon nativities. a&" 1V 7rTeTLOdaav T•. Ei Trl br•eLepa ~rl roT ?rpb abr V el 7 Ba 5p. then. the ancients compared to "twisting" and "turning" together with the stretching of the thread from above downwards. puoLpav ali Seya'dyXv rip o v &. makes what has been twisted incapableof being un58Op. KXwOov^r rapapylverat..not merely the kind of life. and by way of a simile they. sphere. upon the ground that they. XX drb T•K rdP'oTwV Ka 5&&y va ylveEat iZTd•L• v JAwv al h04Kovoal. called this Fate. for this reason. U KXwOI KvpoT TaGVTa ToLs LavT-fl v7Pha-L Kal KXcSaoLaaotv. then. too. and from them [the] Chaldean and [the] Egyptian [astrologers] are wont to foretell many events of our lives. 8 P PvX) Tr /LOLpazta. Tc Uava0Tp676epa XoEV' AaXiaews. then. . Not only. TW7 7TE K6KXWV " t KE Kai 7Tw V CLVaTOS LOLpPV KaL darb TWP 7TW9V TWdv7r'XavrCoP' TwP daOTIpwV Kal TWP v 8Xw ryUCWV KCai TWP&XXv OvLordeeWov. d. 7r Xszjavofs 86oel. but also the [influences] imparted to us by the Universe. cit. p. 21: 7T drb r o drb p ebX6AeOa Aotpav* obXl T6 7rrwis ei8os b6vov. •d 8vuvar•b d&PavyeYv Trdos dTLrOeoLav TrotSalpeOe•LOLv.dbi d7rXcaVWP 1oo0OaL. indeed. KvpwOjvcal fqo-wL 7b 6 1 Kal eleOazL uTLS v pXeac els" 7a rarbXX Tre 86o~"r*cd' var•eXX6. . . . but Klotho ratifies them by her own threads. 342.. drypplovwa Ic LTr 7L/v^ T 7TC^ &CXX Kac &rb 7-w rapao . and through the threads which it gives. CXX& cal ra drovepbt6eva 7ytAv T 70 raVrT6.184 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE way in which the soul's total endowment is derived from the constellations and the planets :68 What. 7 KaL rpo57p~ern ^T T vs o0ev elpopdv2v rolqv70L alOavulrXeIoOAlP avrpd rep elp •Tp ' ov7Pha70o KdTiw 70T rdoews d&retrcltav ol raaXtol Kai d reKdacavTes KXwcOc38td 7rara 7rP Mortpa -KcdXeo••a. . comes from Klotho ? He (Plato) says she ratifies the destiny we have chosen. Kal a y 8 aXdov &~ r6o0YLaLXXOV VKTaLrivra tL lveraT V'roKaraKXtveTaL rTEpL68ots. from whom we got life. from the signs of the Zodiac. ' ?v T& Kal elp". He then brings [the soul] from Klotho to the spinning of Atropos. in that she causes to stream upon us the gifts of the celestial from the constellations also which rise simultaneously with each of them there comes to us a generous largess.v7-w XaX&ao^o ~ piwvi&uGv ? Kal Ailry6irmot roXXo irepl rv rpoyV'rJdaerv.PL ObK &pa rI TrI 'yevIVOELs eZT a-vlrX-lpovoaOa TwVPd&vOp&r7rTv T7y ofeo'Oac ' L.6vov w I d&rb T v wv dXXr dov abtrbTwP d7TXavY rXavWpivre 6vWvr. dvrl MeT&r 7rava IroLvY ?T•v v'otv 7Lt KXOeL KaL al" WV rapasecadvrm &XXa yet 7f 'ATp6brov. i0ouv Pbvov d&rb ?yl'ot. the products of her spinning [or twisting]. The influence. . L&8•OLV d4eLrEAcorpoca 8dLV 7 vT7vP Xav cvaPdWV K6KXWV y&p aeTr) rapd7TL Ts oO)K ?w00s . rdvTwv Top 6T0 V r6 Kai S ro6Tw7J IX6YPrTW paCoT7pLOv repi Tis 'EVIeOEL. we get both. but Klotho (= "Twister ").

The twelfth Ode runs as follows: The WordI9of truth hath filled me that I may speak of him. (1) (3) He hath increased in me his knowledge. For as the soul descends lower. are filled up from the fixed stars or the planets exclusively. For upon receiving from Klotho the spinning. and of the circles on high and of their degrees. The Most High hath given him to His worlds-the interpreters of His beauty.. but is m Za. inscribed in the Zodiac]. by means of the planetary orbits.ED. 61 I have followed. One should not.. the narratorsof His praise.62 Read plural points. 22f. For the mouth of the Lord is the true Word. etc. various [gifts] thence. from which she cannot escape until she has brought what she elected to its completion. Turning now from Bardaisan to the Odes. she becomes subject to more and yet more orbits. 7. the more inevitable do the decrees of destiny become. reluctantly. and the door of His light. 4a. but that from them all results a single train and series reaching to us. Like his subtlety is his piercingness. And the more these secondary [influences] work upon us on top of those which preceded them. the confessors of His counsel. and of the stars. Wisdom. suppose that the nativities of men or of other living creatures. 4 -al . from their motions. and of the other constructions [such as the triangles. the chasteners of His works. the heralds of His thought.] 62 V. 60For ao read A.NEWBOLD : BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 185 twisted. otherwise difficult to defend. she contributes to us. [Cf. Labourt's reading: which yields excellent sense. 4~•~o."' The subtlety of the Word cannot be told. and that the [influence] of the fixed stars. I shall endeavor to interpret some of the more difficult Odes in the light of Bardaisan's doctrines. one upon another. 60 As a stream of water streams the truth from my mouth. are given to us through the planets. (4) (5) 59 Read without points. . therefore. and of the signs taken as wholes. (2) and my lips show forth his fruits. 5 is unintelligible.

" see note 51. and he is impelled to sing of his nature and his work. nothing can resist him (v." For the dwelling-place of the Word is man. 6a) . Never doth he fail but steadfast stands. He is Light and Thought (v. in converse were those who were silent.e. And knows not his fall nor the way of it. by that of the Word. 6") .e.Lflj'Ea.186 (6) JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE (7) (8) (9) (10) and endless is his course. through his influence upon the " worlds " they have become the means of revealing God's beauty. and of " chastening" His works (v. For [it was] the voice of the Most High [that] spake to them. (11) (12) This beautiful poem might well be entitled "An Ode to the Word. counsel. and they told one another whatever they had [to tell]. 64V. they have acquired the power of communicating to one another their thoughts. through that love " 638 Final end. ipF." The poet feels himself (vv. he pervades the universe (vv. "Those who were silent" are perhaps those on the " left. 5." i. They were penetrated by the Word. he also inspires love and concord (v. 9a) . the Word will continue the work of reconciliation in which he is now engaged until all discord has disappeared." From him came love and concord. because they were in concord. such is his final end. here seems nearly equivalent to 65 I. 7).6 He is light and the dawning of thought: The worlds through him talk one with another. praise. Or the ppl. 8. and his truth is love. Blessed are they whom he has made to know all things. "In converse": for the " Word" the poet has used consistently throughout this Ode. 1-3) inspired by the Word which issues forth from the mouth of God. 4). consciousness. is not the only effect of the Word's activity . may be pluperfect. and they knew him that made them. For as his work is. thought. But intelligence. His meaning sped by his agency. They know the Lord in His truth. .

and have nothing to do immediately with the redemption of the world accomplished by the Soter and by Jesus. i. and the things that are in the sea. . [God sent to earth] " not a subaltern. 6 Ante-Nic. but the very Artificer and Creator of the universe Himself. after the aeons have been produced by the Propator :67 The Holy Spirit taught them to give thanks on being all rendered equal among themselves. dwells in man. or one of those that direct the affairs of earth. cut off from the lower world by the Horos. abyss. vol. 10Jo d). and it will be remembered that " worlds " is the word used by Bardaisan for the planets [note 45]. or one of those who have been entrusted with the dispensations in heaven. the earth. from whom [the sun] hath received even the measure of the courses of the day to keep them. the "meaning.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 187 the worlds become aware of their Creator (v. 318. 10a. whom the stars obey as they follow the course of the moon. the heavens and the things that are in the heavens. for the Word is the voice. the things that are in the depths. and Ecclesia. and Anthropos. by whom all things are ordered and bounded and placed in subjection.66 To any one who has any acquaintance with the literature of astrology the " worlds " as described in v." This Epistle exhibits other points of contact with the sphere of ideas common both to Bardaisan and to the Odes. they are shut up within the limits of the Pleroma. and Logos. so that all became as Nous. But certain elements of the picture certainly are Valentinian." the thought of God (v. Thus then they tell us that the mons were constituted equal to each other in form and sentiment. too. Blessed indeed must they be who feel themselves possessed of such knowledge as this (v.. Yet the same Word that rules the stars in their courses. and the things that are in the earth. 12). The female mons. The meonshave no such functions. and led them to a state of true repose. and his truth is love (v. or angel. 7 (Lightfoot-Harmer's translation). chap. In the western Valentinian system of which Irenaeus has preserved the best account. and Zoe. 11). b). These are not Valentinian weons. ed. Am. Fathers. became all as Aletheia. by whom He enclosed the sea in its proper bounds. p. the sea. 4 will suggest the planets and constellations as conceived by the pious astrologer. the things that are in the heights. compare the Epistle to Diognetus. whom the moon obeys as He bids her shine by night. and Spiritus. by whom He made the heavens. or ruler. whose mysteries all the elements faithfully observe. 6 With this description of the cosmological functions of the Word. the things that are between the two. fire.. air. and Christus.

198." which. ap. Certainly. is further confirmed by Lactantius' quotation :72 " Salomon 69 68tirep elXe' #p davrr KdXLOTOV Kal dlVOypbra6To. they next tell us that these beings sang praises with great joy to the Propator. brought together whatever each one had in himself of the greatest beauty and preciousness. The Valentinian aeons sang praise because Christ and the Holy Spirit have given them such knowledge of God as they are able to receive. with one design and desire. then. p. when written in the Estrangela c. 12. and with the concurrenceof Christ and the Holy Spirit. Then." in this passage at least. and they resolve to contribute each the best he has68 to the nature of Jesus.(and therefrom produced Jesus).." literally " equality. and have made them equal. iv. note the description of the work of the Word. Harris. being thus established and brought into a state of perfect rest. Div. The pictures are similar but not the same.r. 8. probably means " planets. 164).who himself shared in the abounding exultation. character is easily confused with The emendation .71 The nineteenth Ode is one of the most difficult in the collection. yet they contain striking identities of thought. For this I read " formed. love and " concord.188 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE Everything. their Father also setting the seal of his approval on their conduct. 71 But . p. A leading difficulty is the first word of v." 69 and therefore talk to one another. 6 q. for which no good sense has been found." It shows no other points of contact with the Book of the Laws. I have quoted this Ode partly in order to show how precisely it conforms to what we would expect of Bardaisan as regards its doctrine (compare Haase's summary. and has not yet been satisfactorily interpreted as a whole. but chiefly to establish the fact that " worlds.. out of gratitude for the great benefit which had been conferred upon them. as conceived by Bardaisan. p. the whole Pleroma of the eons. these two pictures are inspired by one and the same original. The Worlds in the Ode receive from the Word knowledge of God. which is given by Moses bar Cepha. 72Inst. and tell each what70he has.

17 like a man.AL corresponds to 6'EdtsL.. without their knowing it. alK Va . of which I can make no sense here. (2) and He who was milked. •Las' eyAdX. 76Read L2oa" m. frexev &I K-vaOarO was corrupted into KT7aarTO and the order of the Kcl XOZa. (3) And the Holy Spirit milked Him because His breasts were full and it was not fitting His milk should go to waste. for He kept her safe.QA.75 (6) They moulded the body of the virgin and she received conception and bore. The Son is the Cup. 74Read pluralpoints as suggestedby the pl. she was empty. gErworep." Infirmatus est is meaningless. 4 16. J r"S 80 j. I have followed Labourt'ssuggestionand read . vii.NEWBOLD : BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 189 ita dicit : Infirmatus est uterus virginis et accepit foetum et gravata est. (7) She travailed and bore a son without any pain. of the verb cf. 76See note 51. 78 7 So alsoFleming. (4) and mixed the milk from the two breasts of the Father. rawplc. --= eavUrb.--a' Kpcd6ret text read: 79 suspect that the original that d-yaXXLdre&. and I drank it in the sweetness of the kindness of the Lord. 77&L. The virgin became a mother with many mercies. e. Or. but informatus est represents with a fair degree of accuracy. ]•-.g.&1. And gave the mixture to the worlds 74 (5) and they that received in its fullness arethey on the right. (8) and since there was none. Hallelujah. 76 And she sought no midwife. mid. "I (10) and loved in safety and kept in kindness and showed forth in majesty. oSakets. I Tim. -. KvTr-aT?o verses changed to suit the sense. etc. For the rare aor. Himerius. e e )rvevXes Kal Kva7cT/r 1h. part.73 The Holy Spirit opened Her [the Spirit's] bosom. 4. (9) She bore in joy 78 and acquired79in great power. she bore voluntarily. the Father. (1) A cup of milk was offered to me.. et facta est in multa miseratione mater virgo.

3 and 4 the Holy Spirit draws from the Father a similar divine influence or substance." It remainsto adduce further evidence which will directly connect it with Bardaisan.. the theory of the Incarnation here set forth is perfectly intelligible. ii.•.z_'•o0 xA i? irm oZ SV0 -'P?9? b %. !."30 P jOe . mixes it in "her" own bosom and i.?4aOI? 4? z PJI c wiy. receive it in its fullness. !1ti~2 !o• •-•-• ljm•. of the virgin. literally belly. .•oo1.e. 557 : lv. i= . gives it to the planets. In vv.3 Ibl 1 • fl b. A l? 1f. so offensive to our taste. occursboth in Bardaisanand in the Odes. but not. is apparent. cit.0 ' 4010 4. is in general agreementwith the Book of the Laws.~i. is the divine influence or Word of which he seems so vividly conscious.Av .- t.81 the beneficent planets. The milk which the poet has received through the Son as the Cup. God protected her from all harm during the process (vv. She needed no midwife.. 50rka .•-•..• 1-..3 li? 1•! ! 4.in Ptolemy. those on the right. especially noteworthy are the expressions" the worlds " and "those on the right. The planets then "mould" or " form" or "shape" the body. 9-10. Ephraemgives a brief account of Bardaisan'stheory :82 s81The fact that this distinction between planets as on the right and on the left. so far as I have been able to discover.o C?5 !.•Zlo cm •. 6-8). ai-• otlrq•z .• •io •L •. p.'I.1 %&CMI&3 ' QZA? bj. Verses 1 and 2 are introductory and serve as a key to the understanding of what follows.-k- jlQl~m ? t-•. 82Homrn.190 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE Notwithstanding the strange metaphors.!-li9.- !- . The poem closes with the crescendo of vv. and to which he refers so often. is significant(see note 51). op."? W 0. " •!. That this theory. and the language in which it is expressed. --•-• R• tb: •'•z Ft1:uo t:•k•_• •. without pain because she was empty--the precise meaning of this conception I shall discuss presently. and she brings forth a son.

and procreate. then. "Flow" is used in Syriac of almost any easy." The theory that Christ's Incarnation was concealed from the powers of this world occurs early in the second century in Ignatius' Epistle to the Ephesians : " And hidden from the prince of this world were the virginity of Mary and her childbearing.Holy Jesus. and likewise also the death of the Lord84-three mysteries to be cried aloud . with the sun and moon.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 191 Pray. will become living. it certainly is well fitted to express what the poet describes in v." The context shows that the Living One is Christ. but the star itself far outshone them 88"The Son of the Living One. and all the rest of the constellations. then." "Something flowed down. Cf. for the pl. and its strangeness caused amazement. But the allusion to the "mystery of a marriage " is more significant. unopposed motion. 4. But too much stress must not be laid upon his phraseology. 11: "IHe who finds pleasurein the Living One. which protects Harris' emendation (the sing.).' in the mystery of a marriage. There then follows an allusion to a widespread notion "the mixture was given to the worlds without their knowing it. glory be to Thy Nativity! And in that he said that it was impossible for one ever to germinate. . and "1something" does not necessarily mean more than that Ephraem found Bardaisan hard to understand. as when like children they say something flowed down from the Father of Life and the mother conceived a hidden son and bore him and he was called the Son of the Living 8 One.the which were wrought in the silence of God. . were they made manifest to the aeons? A star shone forth in the heavens above all the stars. 84 I Cor. my brethren. for the disciples of Bardaisan. sprout. 2 8. formed themselves into a chorus about the star. how much more pure must His divine nature be. How. for He is "light from light. and its light was unutterable." CompareOde iii. But even as our Lord's body was not born from between two. The word which I have rendered "marriage" may have a more literal sense." literally "1flowed and descended. our Lord he called a 'Nature born from between two. that they may not rave again." suggests that Ephraem had before him the very milk simile of Ode xix.

86 But here it has a peculiar significance. 87The influenceof the planets is the moreimportant. Why. again. the total result of which is determined by the horoscope. then. 182. at the moment of birth. Lightfoot. of course. which has been preserved in Armenian.the "worlds" simply "mould" the body. 180. together with a commentary in which he interprets the doctrines there expressed as those of Bardaisan. and there was perplexity to know whence came this 8 The nostrange appearance which was so unlike them. be produced by the planets. do the planets act as the instrument of God's will in bringing about the virgin birth ? Because. pass through the spheres of the several planets s7and receive from them certain modifications. so to speak.192 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE all. (Italics indicate 85 Eph. which is the law. or of nature (fto-qL). escape these influences and appear on earth precisely as he left heaven. Paul. Ig. tr. which is the law for organisms. one to another. The nature of these changes is not further described in the Ode . or relations of the several heavenly bodies. 19 . All that is not under the control of Free-will. . no doubt that of the 88 See above.they must. and is seen in the personal peculiarities of individuals. 86See above. ch. is subject to the control of the planets. p. gives quotations from an apocryphal Epistle of the Corinthians to Paul. for conscious intelligences. signs of the Zodiacand of other constellationswas supposedto co6perate. p." tion that souls must encounter the divinities of the planets in their descent and ascent was common among the Gnostics. In Bardaisan's system. The changes in the Virgin's body which were prerequisite to the accomplishment of the virgin birth would not be produced by the 4nots of her body . the intelligences in their descent to the souls and the souls in their descent to the bodies. therefore.88 The divine Christ in his descent must. But other sources complement this statement in a very satisfactory way. Ephraem in his commentary upon the Epistles of St. in Bardaisan's system their influences represent the sum total of what we call nowadays mechanical laws.

dXX'0K & Maplas. but by the seven Guides. he came from heaven with his body . namely : One should not. D. he himself suffered in appearance . but the Gospel. xvi. and of man they say he is not made by God at all. W. 170. butof for they say he went throughher as somethingnot [coming] from certainangels.91 It is of value only when confirmedby other evidence. cit. and ate and drank with him. IyPve7ro o6bUPv RwOep rpooXfapihp. And they do not admit that he was bornof the Virgin Mary . 22: 5OKOet IrrTOVOEv A•r i' Ka u I o-w a.of the seven Guides.." Evidently Ephraem knew Bardaisanites who held that Christ went through the Virgin's body without receiving anything of her.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 193 the quotations. .that is. The book was written about A. Kanons. accept the Prophets. Schrift. vol. as the angels appeared to Abraham. Chr. they say that he who spoke through the Prophets is no almighty God.D. 26: cs Kal ol &yyeXot "A8pacl 0oV. .appears as one of the speakers.namely. . d. xvii. . 178. H. . But this doctrineis that of the schoolof Bardaisan. the Word himself became flesh without taking anything from without in addition .. 92 Op... &Orep ytp v 1JCp & awXjvos tipXeTraL. II. as distinguished by Zahn89 from Ephraem's commentary. opavv Xev Xwv r• ' al nrtov r' a6ro6. say they. van de Sande Bakhuyzen. so also did he .L/L o o 8Ld Maplas. And they call God not almighty. Gesch. a Bardaisanite. 9: 6 X-yos a6rbo adpt 1. 6: a •r6. NT. 176. iv. 90Der Dialog des Adamantius rept 91 Op. but with a heavenly body. /tlw•Up Maplas. r ~ elsOeb de6pO^s 7rlarews.90 It cannot be trusted as evidence for the doctrines of Bardaisan himself. 597. cit. . 6: &rt opd•iov oC&a tXape. And they say thereis no resurrectionof the body. a certain Marinus. . we confess that he [came] through 89Translated from the German version given by Zahn. Gr. 24: KcalZ 6 XoTyoU~Ev facryov ab•6r. And they regard the world not as the creation of God. p." formerly ascribed to Origen. ed. it is not even certain that it faithfully reproduces the views of the Bardaisanites of that age. . . p. 174. i/. . orwal 190. her. And they say our Lord did not come with an earthly body.. In the dialogue " On the right faith in God. Mcplar Ka o K~Ic ty o~rw Kal 6 Xbyor rpoo'Xaljdpwpi.) "IAnd the words which they speak and teach are erroneous. . 300. Marinus holds: "1that he (Christ) took a heavenly 9 body .

nympharum. 8 d6elpwv KaT( IIHvOay6paV 4/vxal ds avvdyeTOai q5 ' (al. p.194 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE Mary. vi. . And according to Pythagoras the souls are a ' tribe of dreams. 904. and not of Mary. but not of Mary. Kroll. ed. 14 sqq. p.. and didest assent to thy teacher Bardesan."] " Now Capricorn and Cancer are near the Milky Way. as thou saidest just now." Proclus (in Remp. ap. i.LEge'XeTJKViaLs epXeoaca als 9 Stobaeus. p. they say] assemble in the Milky Way. . and since there was none.eo& eis y'yveort dr7b TW^v 7Tpeo/d."''93 Thus it was that "she bore a son without any pain. The earliest detailed account is that of Porphyry :94 [Homer speaks of the solstitial signs. 28: Aly6Kepw~ ~ Kai KapKlvPO S 'repI p/h rT KapivoS P-6pela Aiy6Kbepw~ & v6Tra8GcLos T7r rdpara abroI eiXyX67res. The milk simile is probably a translation into Christian language of an ancient myth. because milk naturally is engendered along with them. Syr. Heeren: KUal rokotLs HpaKXe5l7V '1 fh&y'bY HorrTLK6Y 1Opilot ew repi T+)' (sic) yacalarv. with the idea that they are induced to come to birth for the sake of the pleasure (or savor). that is. she was empty". the absence of pain proved that the conditions to which pain would be due were lacking.rhv8et .. 68' '50ov^s eIS -YeOtY vyrKVeOae 'br6 ydXa ri vKCEV.yaXacla v 94 De ant. constituting its limits. he says. several accounts of which have reached us. for just as water goes through a pipe without taking on anything. Cureton. The remainder of the Ode calls for no special discussion. 129. whence regarded 98 So also Philoxenus. Eel.) repeats Porphyry's account with some variations. Cancer and Capricorn as the "gates of the sun. who assumeth the body of Christ to be from heaven. gives Heraclides of Pontus a clue to the source of the tale95-the Milky Way as the place of the souls. .' which. ch. so [came] the Word through Mary. . For which reason also. . Because thou hast not comprehended the mind of Bardesan. he says [al. phys. Cancer the northern and Capricorn the southern. 52. : " There are some of them who say that he sent down the Word a body from heaven. and it is so named from the [souls] which are nourished with milk when they fall into birth.oW1 s / AL 7owo al c 5aratsTo l//V4vXayWyobl KEKpay•o 'ycXaKTL. &V *Jt •S . aowL) EiS TbV at 6JT7aC -yXaKTr y-aXaciarv TJ o1v7W rpoo'ayopev6/1. necromancers offer the souls a libation of honey mingled with milk. Spic." 7. Porphyry's pupil. Iamblichus. ii.

daisan's doctrineand the Orphic-Pythagorean .NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 195 they came to earth. ii. and this is the meaning of the name.). The author of the Odes believed. as he was a man of learning. but it is in my opinion certain that an Oriental element enters into them. his interest in the mystical aspect of Pythagoreanism is well known (Zeller.956 But he may have drawn it from other sources. I have) fallen into milk " . similar tablets. 660-63) the soul avows itself a " child of Earth and of Starry Heaven " (ry wrai~el/' xaia opaPvoiaTEpde0ToT). to the Study of Greek Religion. Bardaisan probably did. d. and it may well be that the ancient explanation of the celestial "milk" as being the light with which souls are fed suggested milk to him as an appropriate simile for the divine substance which proceeded from the Father and Holy Spirit and issued through the Virgin into the world as Jesus. The theory of the virgin birth presupposed by this Ode is Irenaeus gives it in almost known to be in part Valentinian. 1.the departed soul has fallen into the "milk " of the sky. the words used by Marinus. The Orphics had taught that the soul is "breath ". p. 4. "a kid thou art (or. The origin of the Orphic-Pythagorean doctrines has not yet been discovered. Heraclides was a pupil of Plato. it is nourished by the dim light diffused in the Milky Way. the Pythagoreans refined the conception . that souls consist of light or are robed in a body of light (see p. Upon returning to its proper home the soul will of course again need nourishment. Phil. 989.it is a luminous substance. "he who went through Mary 96. Gr. So in the Orphic burial tablets found in southern Italy and Crete (Miss Harrison. for this light is the heavenly milk designed for souls. Proleg. and so I would interpret the sentence found in other. he must have had trustworthy sources of information. Ed. 203). and I have no doubt that this is a genuine fragment of early Pythagorean doctrine. as at least some Pythagoreans did. pp. 3 . It is not at all impossible that the author of the Odes knew of this myth in its Greek form. 1034 sqq.Sozomen's language (see note 18) implies some affinitybetween Bartheories.

(Panar. can be interpreted if viewed in the same light. Here.196 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE like water through a tube. as a whole. and xxiv. Epiph. for the Holy Spirit came upon Mary.i. the body of Jesus was "psychic. and the creeping things died in their holes. KaOdlrep 96a wX-o'o Hippolytus. the operationof the " worlds" by the " power of the Highest or constructive craft. the divine Christ descends upon him at his baptism. 31. again." Accordingto Hippolytus also. The milk is representedby the Holy Spirit.96a Ode xxiv. formed in the bosom of the Spirit. the Jesus who is thus born of the Virgin is not the Son of God. that is. it would seem. at his baptism. 356) : etar Ur ToTrovr G8& ~8wp 8t& TbY Maplas b8osedoavTra. p. among whom are Axionicus and Ardesianes [= Bardaisan]. 35. (2) The inhabitants were afraid. Wisdom. (3) The birds dropped their wings. says that. . i. hcer.. i. and the power of the Highest. . impliedin Odesxix. . because He was her Head. Hcer. But it is closely akin to the theory of Ode xix. vi. The theory of the incarnationwhich follows is ascribed both to Axionicus and to Bardaisanand may represent Axionicus' conceptionsmore faithfully than Bardaisan's. and came to be with the (ydyove 7 ) psychic [Jesus] and raised him from the dead. ap. then. and which is believed to have been characteristic of Bardaisan. and the sojourners were moved." In the Ode the stars mould the body of Mary. 7. the body of Jesus is. 2.). hold that the body of the Saviour was spiritual. that Christwas divine from his birth and did not acquire divinity at his baptism." which " moulds" --the very word of the Ode if my emendationbe correct." 9 But the doctrine of the Ode is In the system described by not. according to the western Valentinians. But those of the East. and therefore. and her voice was heard. . the constructive craft (587uLtoUpY'LK 7dXPYv) in order that what the Spirit had given to Mary might be moulded (8ta7rXaae0). but son of the Demiurge . Wisdom (Sophia). the Logos of his mother on high.the Spirit as a dove descended... Hcer. 24 (cf. i. Gr. (1) The Dove flew upon the Messiah." what the Spirit had given Mary. 9 Cont. Bardaisan held the orthodox doctrine. She sang over Him. we have that blending of Gnostic and orthodox elements which I found in Ode xii.e. 1. Valentinian. But in the Ode he is the Son of God Himself. Irenueus.

air. 59-62. pp. sketches in broad outlines the regenerating work of the Word. light. so this Ode depicts a certain stage in that work--the stage initiated by the descent of the Dove. with one of those rapid transitions so characteristic of the writer. 97 Read . because they had not the truth. water.. his thought leaps forward to its final consummation.m . see the parallel from Ecclus. (10) For the Lord has disclosed His way. op. Because it was not possible to give them the Word. darkness tried to rise from its place below and a9 Translatedinto French by Nau. had become. of all those that had not the truth. know His holiness.98 He held that the five elements. (5) The abysses were sealed with the seal of the Lord : They perished by His Thought. 5. quoted p.them. and no food was given them. for some reason not given. those that were exalted in their hearts. The clearest statement of Bardaisan's theory of the work of the Word is given by Moses bar Cepha. fire.. . Hallelujah. (7) There perished from among them. cit. that they might abide. 200. And they were rejected. For they were corrupt from the beginning. (8) The Lord has destroyed the thoughts. And those that have comprehendedit.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 197 (4) The abysses were opened. As Ode xii. commingled one with another. (9) For they were defective in wisdom. and the final end of their corruption was life." that had been from of old. because there was none for. and were spurned: They were crying to the Lord like women in labor. and darkness. But in v. all things that were defective. and spread abroad His grace.

. the statements of Moses bar Cepha. that is to say the Messiah. and the present mixture was purified by a conception and a childbirth forever. consisted. In this process many stages can be distinguished. c.4oM 10oL o ' o. and fell into the depth of its nature. p.. the deeds of the Maker they ascribed to the things made. supply a satisfactory Bardaisan's heresy explanation of several of the Odes. he established this present world. and he reestablished each of the substances in its order by the mystery of the cross. *Mo!. and the poet describes vividly the effect of that descent upon nature. )o~~~~~t~~~~~3 cuj O ~ ufr-• -•!~ oo• Q•l •0IjtL lJ . at the sound of this tumult.r •:.. But as regards the work of the Word. The descent of the Dove may be interpreted as another. at one time. in dualism.. The first step in this process was the creation of the world. "Then. B: " Marcion and Bardaisan blasphemously allege that the Creator is not one. vol. The regeneration of man. And from the mixture of these substances with their adversary. 444. to charge him with making them independent of Ephraem God . III. he removed darkness from the midst of the pure substances. O." I. contra Hcer. and decreed that they should mingle no more. He affirmed the existence of the substances l = oo-ata) in language which caused (-. the birth of Christ was one.198 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE mingle with the others. S . the pure substances sought refuge in the mercies of the Most High.- \. supplemented by the last paragraph of the Book of the Laws. in a state of chaos." Whether this picture of the battle of light and darkness can be found implied in the Odes is a question into which I cannot now enter. therefore. it was driven away. Ij. ii.Za. the Makers of all things they thought to be nothing. in part.99 he conceived them as being. 99Hom. into which the Word enters and introduces order. descended. the Son and Holy Spirit they confused with the created things. the last will be the final perfection of the universe.. is only part of a vaster scheme for the regeneration of the universe. the Word of the thought of the Most High. darkness.

ii. They open as the Dove descends through them.--they are "spurned.. probably to devour it. vapor.' for he would not have called water alone 'abyss..1?2 This is. also note 66.rTpaot6oeVOp T& ~ ? W'i erql YlperaT. Anz.. KaST rTYp lIaV Kal Eclogax. which separate heaven from earth. p. p. 2.101 As vv. Tisch. mutually destroy one another. and probably it is a Valentinian definition. and let not their dark mist enwrap me. II. op.. ap. So the material substances. 990 : ivooos yhp rb drepdT TO eOeov8al rolVUV U& . cit.b describe the effect of the Dove's descent upon animals so 3'. r^vdpEL FV'TO'ot u•&voos VXO dXX-l'yoppLcLLr. 166. the aspect of Bardaisan's theory which Ephraemdesignates by the word "opposing" or "conflicting" substances. " Come now. cf. So also in the Gnostic "Acts of Philip. de gen. rI ppovV yJv' KGa rTO6r trl KaiTOL Kal vBwp /L6pbovrb Jo&p o'K &v elreV &~Fvoov. Arist. 102 E. p. and the effect of the divine influence upon them. chapters iii. It is a Jewish conception.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 199 The "abysses" are the vast gulfs of air. thus giving rise to the ceaseless round of transformations which we see. and iv. have been termed 'abysses. n. that I may pass over the waters of fire and all the abyss. Proph. 108See above. (dp6to-ovu?)i 101 .and 4 describe its effect upon the abysses. Since the days of Heraclitus men had been familiar with the conceptionof the elements as consisting of opposites which. and fire.' And yet matter is allegorically described as' water of the abyss. Potter. that which is expressed in the Book of the Laws by describing the "natures" as "injuring and injured frombefore 100 Ex Script.. although limited by the power of God. 40. 103 it is -FiM.. 7ro70 o?TclaL 4T0 & etp71Trac* ire U'6aTraoLLV. but is found in this sense in Clement of Alexandria. ed.g.'00 "'Abyss' is something the essential nature of which is unlimited. Verses 3e and 4 describethe internecinestrife of the elements in a vivid picture. as Clement was largely influenced by that sect. et corr. p. 93. 1." the apostle prays just before his death." thrust aside. perhaps. Meteor.' " It is reasonably certain that this is a Gnostic. and give me the eternal crown of victory over every antagonistic principle and power.. iv." Acta Phil. remnants of primeval chaos. Jesus. from which the several genera and their species come. when brought into contact. 2-3".

finally. shall be brought to an end by the restraints which are in another mixture. 182. 186). 109 "it was not possible to give them the Word that they might abide. by the thought or will of God. See Duensing.109a This is a e 104 Note that the word " natures. p. term for the elements conceived as possessingactive properties. the Word was given to the worlds. such is his final end" (Ode xii. in the words of the Book of the Laws. "as is the Word's work. the poet turns from the cosmological to the anthropological aspect of the work of the Word. LL. 9.Similar phenomena are describedas attendingChrist's birth.s08 "All defective things "must perish. "this injuriousness 100also which remains in them." 109 j. 4." But their cry is unheeded..• . Conceived as components they are aTroTxeta 105 See p. 2. 10. xii. Zur 24ten Ode Salomos ZNTW. is the correct technical ."1'0 But here the poet depicts it in a vivid image -the abysses have been engaged in devouring one another. and Odexxii 11 : "That everythingmight be dissolvedand Jac. 1osSee p. . 106 5pC0apgdva (?). those that had been of old. 182. so the Book of the Laws. 109. 18. p." as in Ode xii. The descent of the Dove is an event of such commanding import that even the dumb beasts recognize it. they " cry to the Lord" in a state of agonized turmoil and confusion. . In vv." or. in Ecclesiasticus 43 23: translation: Xorytr/Aw Jerome's "cogitatione sua placavit abyssum. 86. The chief difficulty of this Ode lies in the opening verses. Protev. and the completion of their corruptionl07 was life "-this present world must pass away to make way for a new heaven and anew earth." The Ode proceeds: "They perished by His thought. The confused and warring elements are brought to rest.200 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE the creation of the world." which is almost a translation of a'ro-0 eithoraeav /vo-rov. their warfare stayed." and the idea is certainly the same. 107 b 7TrAos r^ Oopas(?). "They were corrupt 106 from the beginning." 1OLS. 8. they have been checked. " deficiencies will be filled up" . then renewed. 7. "like women in travail.W. the " abysses are sealed with the seal of the Lord.

" probably the Star of Bethlehem. nymph." i. the Abysses. Christand the dead who are to be saved. for "the Messiah. also the descending Christ is committed. The regeneration of the system of natural law inevitably carries with it the triumph of the Gospel. is "her head. 18. It is received by a "wheel. Again an indication of the curious blending of orthodox and Gnostic ideas so characteristic of these Odes. I give merely a paraphrase. is the Word descending to be born of the Virgin. ch. Death lets go the "feet and the head." "The head went down to the feet. 191.e. This same group of astrological conceptions affords a perfectly intelligible interpretation of that very difficult Ode. it sweeps away all obstacles and makes "a broad path. At v. for in the Valentinian system the divine Christ does not come to earth until the moment of the baptism.e. But the Dove here does not represent the Christ.11obut the seal upon it protects it from them. when Christ descends into Sheol. 112 xvii. 14: "They wereto me as my own members." the great "wheel of the Zodiac " (wcostaKov Ic. ibid.cXo9). But others of the Oe6\oyoL sent the souls as descendingthrough the moon and ascending through the sun . rush to seize it. " Many hands " of the Powers of the Spaces. to the more remote results of that stupendous event.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 201 Gnostic idea. a Porphyry. the Christ." ' The head" 112 is probably Christ as the Head of the Church Comparethe effect of the appearanceof the Star upon the other stars 110 in the passage from Ignatius quoted." i. for down to the feet ran the wheel and that which was a sign upon it. 12 the poet's prophetic eye looks forward from the moment at which the Word entered into the system of nature. here symbolized by the system of planets revolving in the Zodiac which. The "thought" or "will" of God which descends like a letter. ascribes to the Oe6Xoyom doctrine 111 ." her superior. repredeparting souls ascend throughCapricorn. de ant. ch. according to Bardaisan."' Upon the wheel is a "sign of the Kingdom and the Government. that descendingsouls enter the world throughthe Zodiacin the sign Cancer. govern the operations of mechanical law. the 23d. 29. 22.p." So in xlii. As it offers no special difficulties of translation.and I wastheir head. which bears the seven planets to which in Ode xix.

The preceding verses speak of the bonds which Christ is to loose. established a certain degree of congruity between the doctrines of the Odes and those of Bardaisan. 8-10. I do not think this settles the question. implied: x. and in the following 113See p. which is definitely taught in the Odes (e. which represents the operation of the Gospel under the forms of regenerated natural law. his roots. is the doctrine to which Ephraem pays most attention. of the dragon with seven heads. and this Harnack takes as referring to the resurrection of the body. this.g. It is. The revolution of the wheel. indeed.the feet are probably the souls in Sheol yet to be redeemed. The poet's thoughts are dominated by the consciousness of the work of grace in his own heart and he has no special occasion to deal with Free-will as such. his seed. his poison. carries Christ there also.202 -the JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE conception of Christians as the body of Christ frequently recurs in the Odes . xxii. incompatible with the theory that they are the work of Bardaisan. 114 See p." "who are not made for this grace. true that the doctrine of Free-will does not definitely appear in the Odes while it is one of the salient features of the Book of the Laws. for believers in predestination are often advocates of Free-will. "to convert the souls of them that were willing to come to Him. perhaps. I have. I am not aware of any demonstrable points of incongruity. 14-22). . 3. and he also recognizes the existence of "tares. the poet describes the resurrection of the dry bones. for future events are frequently described in these Odes as accomplished. I think. indeed. viii." Nor is the doctrine of predestination. 181. Batiffol objects that it is represented as already accomplished. an objection of any force. But this is not. 178. In one passage. In only one passage is it. Bardaisan himself recognizes 13 that Free-will subsists only by the sufferance of God and will prove no obstacle to the final regeneration of all things. I think." 114 An ancient is not required to be more consistent than a modern theologian. Another characteristic trait of Bardaisan's teaching was the denial of the resurrection of the body. But the context is distinctly against a literal interpretation.

."17 The conceptionof a corporealresurrection cannot. and S. "although a son of man. "in me there shall be nothing that is not bright.." 115 Saturnilus conceived of souls as sparksof light. found in many Gnostic sects-and elsewhere--that the redeemed soul possesses a body of pure light. "I put off darkness and clothed myself with light and my soul acquired members free from pain. But before Bardaisan's authorship can be regarded as established it must be shown that all the Odes can be intero KareLXi/CdyVoT . 66: Areg4'e oirvO•pca wsj. p. e b&r R Tfv OrwHOIjpa.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 203 verses we have the rock which is to be the foundation of all things. 16. Potter: IXNb oDv 6 ZTIwrprby &vXbv PwOeC KcdTrwi ^wrbs Tto alwvlots XapaK'rpOL. obviously borrowed from Ezekiel. vii. 28. 7b. 7b). incompatiblewith the notion of corporeal resurrection. 3. (2) That some of the Odes can be readily interpreted in the light of Bardaisan'stheories. So Hippolytus in describing the Docetae that they regarded souls as "the eternal marks (or says imprints) left by the light when it shone from above down below. 8). 117 Excerpta Theod. viii. 23): . 2). These passages unquestionably point to the well-known doctrine. This presumptionis strengthenedby the passages which clearly do refer to the state of the redeemed. of course. . dsr c 8•-yeype rov Kil pi irohlqe.. affliction or suffering" (xxi. Bef. cit. rbv d'Opw116Op. have found place in the poet's theology. and I was clothed with the covering of Thy Spirit and Thou didst remove from me my raiment of skin" (xxv.1" is the and the eastern Valentinians used the same word Saviour's office "to awaken the soul and light the--it spark. . In a similar sense should be interpreted. lf 115Hipp. 1?6irpgev. the son of God" (xxxvi. 967. then. which is. 10 (D. 380. p. p. 3). "the traces of the light were set upon their heart" (x. I have endeavoredto show: (1) That no antecedentimprobabilityprecludesthe ascription of the Odes to Bardaisan. is also figurative. The presumptionis that the clothing of the dry bones with flesh. I was named the Illuminate. 418..

. For the following notes I am indebted to suggestions given me by Prof." (See note 52." . To this task I shall not be able to address myself for many months to come. although generallyconstant for a given planet. 5). the later distinguishedbetween the unalterableproperinfluence. which. and I have therefore thought it best to make public my tentative results.. cf. "Their own degrees. also Julius of Laodicea.) The earlier astrologerstermed planets "Ibeneficent" and "maleficent" (Ptol.-Procl. JUNE 5. Cat. in the hope that they may be found to contain some elements of value to the ultimate solution of the problem. 1911. But of the ascriptionof exclusivelybeneficent influencesto "those on the right. might be modifiedor transformedby circumstances(ibid. IV. I have as yet found no otherillustration. as others have done.who has been so kind as to read this paperin proof.) "High places" are 'wcaLra." etc. 105).204 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE preted from the same point of view. Franz Cumont. warming.and the good or bad effects of that influence. (See note 51. The " degrees " are the " limits " (5pma). astr. I. cod. p. The 300 of each sign are apportionedamong the five planets and those to appropriated each are termedits "limits. e.g.

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