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Romaine Newbold Reviewed work(s): Source: Journal of Biblical Literature, Vol. 30, No. 2 (1911), pp. 161-204 Published by: The Society of Biblical Literature Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3260001 . Accessed: 23/12/2011 08:03
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161 AND NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN THE ODES SOLOMON OF
Bardaisan and the Odes of Solomon'
WM. ROMAINE NEWBOLD
UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA
of Solomon present THE newly discovered Odes literature problems asto the student of early Christian fascinating as they are difficult. The author is a poet, and a poet of no mean order, but he is much more than that - he feels himself inspired by the Spirit of the Lord and illumined by His light; the resources of language, even when strained to the utmost limits of poetic license, are inadequate to express the richness of that new life which has transfigured his inner self and filled him with the joy and peace that pass all understanding. Yet when one endeavorsto see the worlds of matter and of spirit as the singer saw them2 and to grasp his conception of their mutual relations, in brief, to reconstruct his philosophy and to determine his age, his environment, and the school of thought to which he belonged, one encounters peculiar difficulties. He is as much at home in the Psalms and Wisdom-literatureas any Jew, and yet is not in sympathy with the more distinctive tenets of Judaism. He acknowledges no circumcision save that of the heart (xi. 1-2), no sacrifice save that of "1God's thought," of "righteousness and purity of thought and lips" (xx. 1-7), no peculiar people, for his sympathies are as broad as humanity (vi. 7-17; xiv. 14-29). He is a Christian, familiar with the leading events-of Christ's life -the miraculousbirth (xix. 6-10), the baptism (xxiv. 1-3), crucifixion and descent
1 I desire to acknowledge to the editors my obligations for their kind revisionof the proofs duringmy absencefrom the country, and in particular revision of my translationsfrom the Syriac. ProfessorMontgomery's 2 The author's general point of view has been characterizedby many; perhapsthe best is that of Gunkel, ZNTW, xi. 1910, p. 320.
into Hades (xlii. 1-26 et al.), yet he absolutely ignores many of the most characteristic doctrines and practices of Christianity. He makes no explicit allusion to the resurrection or ascension of Christ's material body, or to baptism, or the eucharist. He knows of sin and evil as facts (xxxiii. 8; xxxviii. 12 ff. et al.), but they seem to lie outside the range of his own present concern; even his conception of redemption seems unconnected with the crucifixion. Moreover, amidst the profusion of poetic and allegorical images in which he expresses his ideas, there are some which one can scarcely regard as merely poetic and allegorical and which fit but ill into the traditional system of Christian theology. The "worlds" 4 et al.), the "garment of light" (xi. 10; xxi. 2), the (xii. "perfect virgin" (xxiii. 5), the "abysses " (xxiv. 3; xxxi. 1), - these, and perhaps others, are somewhat more than hints that the author's view of the universe is not that of the orthodox Christian theologian. The theories proposed to account for this puzzling complex belong to three leading types. The representatives of the first type, led by Rendel Harris, the distinguished discoverer and first editor of the Odes, regard them as belonging to a period when the new life which was stirring men's hearts had not as yet moulded their thoughts after its own image nor found words adequate to its expression, when Christian theology was as yet in the making and clear formulations had no existence, in brief, to the period, approximately, of the New Testament itself. A second group, led by Harnack, cannot believe that conceptions so disparate as are found in the Odes could ever have coexisted as the elements of the world-view of any single mind. They believe them, therefore, to be a composite product, the original Odes being the work of a Jew of unusually catholic sympathies, into whose text a Christian hand has incorporated a few of the more essential elements of Christianity. But Harnack also refers the Odes in their present form to a very early period - about the end of the first century of our era. A third group of students regard them as giving imperfect
AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON
expression to some peculiar system of Christian theology, accepted by some minor sect, probably of the second century, and endeavor to identify the sect in question with some one of those mentioned by the church historians. But upon this point no agreement has as yet been reached. Gunkel thinks them Gnostic, and Preuschen has announced3 that he will endeavor to prove them a part of the Valentinian Psalmbook; Batiffol4 regards them as representing a docetic tendency, perhaps a forerunner of the great Christian Gnostic movement of the second century and akin to that combated by Ignatius. But Conybeare 5 and Fries 6 would have them Montanist. In my opinion the weight of evidence is distinctly in favor of the third point of view. While the considerations urged by Gunkel and Batiffol are not all of equal force and it is not probable that all will stand the test of further criticism, the main thesis for which they contend seems to me established - that the Odes unmistakably reveal the influence of Gnostic speculation. Yet the evidence falls far short of proving them Gnostic, for many of the leading characteristics of Gnosticism, as of Judaism and of Christianity, are conspicuous by their absence. The system of eons, for example, upon the elaboration of which with every detail suggested by pagan mythology or a perfervid imagination the Gnostic thinkers so loved to dwell, is represented in the Odes by nothing but the "worlds," and of them so little is said that it is impossible to determine at first glance what the author meant by them. Again, the Gnostic was essentially an exclusive faith. It drew a sharp line of demarcation between the true Gnostic, or, as the Valentinians called him, the "pneumatic" man, and the common herd, whether Christian or not. In the Odes the "elect" (viii. 21; xxiii. 1-3 et al.) might be regarded as representing the pneumatic man, but their relation to the mass of men is conceived in a very different and more catholic spirit, for the poet looks forward to the time when all mankind will be numbered among the saved (iii. 12;
ZNTW, xi. 1910, p. 328, n. 3. r ZNTW, xii. 1911, pp. 70-76.
Bibl., NS, viii. part 2 (1911).
6 Ib., p. 108.
And he was also a gifted poet. died 222. if he be not wholly devoid of the poetic gift. But one does expect a hymn writer. note 41. and that he lived in a land the peculiarity of whose culture made it the mother soil of Gnosticism. of marked originality." 7 As the author. was Bardaisan of Edessa. was thoroughly familiar with Gnosticism and had borrowed from it much of his imagery and some of his doctrines. The argument from silence is. then. 88. to employ those elements of his theological system which lend themselves most readily to poetic treatment. dangerous. 154. it is true. at least. nor shall anything be dumb. He must also have been a man who knew the life of the spirit by immediate personal experience.p. Knowledge probably means gnosis. 22 ff. 27. so far as our information enables us to judge." Texteund Untersuchungen. have been acquainted with the doctrines of the Syrian Gnostics also. and such. who believed himself divine and could the regarded all other men as akin either to animals or dead matter. See the text. 178. one does not turn to a hymnal for a system of theology. the aim of which was essentially nothing other than a solution of the " World-riddle" with the 7 vii. a man of deep sympathies.8 I cannot better express my own impression of the relation between Bardaisan and the Gnostics than by translating a passage from Haase's recent monograph. in a preeiminent degree. Gnosis. of the Odes we must postulate a man who. " Zur Bardesanischen 1910. vii. receptive as he was to all sciences and sensitive to all intellectual influences. was the stupendous drama of the Valentinian theology. speak of the time when "Nothing that breathes shall be without knowledge. .9 No one who reflects that Bardaisan's youth fell in a period in which Gnosticism was at its height. must.). p.D. Such a man. of broad vision. One should not forget that it was the most enlightened minds that found something infectious in Gnosticism. 8 Born A. Nor true Gnostic. will deny that Bardaisan. a man whose heart was full of love for God and his fellowman. passim. while not in the technical sense a Gnostic. 9 Felix Haase.164 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE vi.
. aro~10 -TVyypal ica . altchr. 185: JP AvOo7rotasL d•reXg'y a. 10o TE Tr7g KaTcl raXatai 11 iv. but will simply assume Gnostic influence. which his pupils .KCtraTro. ap. U ov• l ysdpLtAom. HE. XEK. Tre T7 pwp cqWJ Lrs Bap5eo•dpi7e dvlp tKavdraT•cT6s 7rpbs TrOb TKar& MapKriwva Kal Tr'vaL ErTpov0 /taq6pwv ^ r^ 15L 7rapgs5wKe ydTbrfr rE KaL-paq /. Gesch. it is enough to maintain that astronomy in particular.10 Bardaisan's keen intellect must have recognized the weak points in the Valentinian or [other] Gnostic system. &TpwP. a heretic. dialogues against the followers of Marcion and certain other representatives of diverse doctrines. 1.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 165 aid of all that the heathen sciences and Christianity had achieved. U To~0rrop Oat dpOorpaTr yPr v . and astronomical knowledge. It will remain a hopeless task to pick out. and Gnostic influence. To Bardaisan's intellectual ability all our authorities bear witness. based upon his own philosophical." p 7rXEL~rrotL rap utprw i7rkelTwrw. i. theological..rb Tr s26pwo /eTaLSe- 7rpoOcrraFdov . Harnack. and his formal classification with the Gnostics by ancient and modern historians does him no wrong. in so far. It cannot indeed be determined at what period of his life Bardaisan had belonged to a Gnostic sect. But if we find in his doctrines passages that unquestionably have a Gnostic ring. laid the foundation of his peculiar doctrine. 4 W raptC-ar/AgJ Gatb VrVaTwrj T'3 X6"Y' 8XhKao-&wcwv7^J.. Eusebius' assertion that Bardaisan was at first a disciple of Valentinian. make the explanation unnecessarily difficult. and remains. ETxr& So0ydd-rwP tWaX6yovevoT-•7~47'e0os. at least so far as its second part is concerned. I therefore regard as natural and credible.le-raEEOar ctAlq ?S o0 EavT r 7rw aclrbs tdjJ ye direppoa-ro KiTrareXwC 7rXEUTcrd -I r 9'l rbr 7?7I 5La- Id. Eusebius describes him as "a most able man and a skillful disputant in the Syriac language. for he was a doughty defenderof his doctrine.: alp&rews ?67roP. who composed and committed to writing in his own tongue. then was converted to the true faith without altogether giving up his old heresy. and he therefore worked out a peculiar doctrine of his own. ibid. J6Ket Jeal U& r9j KcaraLTpoy0 raT?7~."" Epiphanius describes him as "one of the finest Euseb.d.translatedfrom Syriac into Greek. in this doctrine.of whom he had many. Lit. One will scarcely find a name that adequately and accurately expresses his teaching. Nau and Hort are quite right in protesting against reckoning Bardaisan among the Gnostics in the usual sense. Bardaisan is. 30. in the age of Gnosticism. besides many other works. the "Gnostic " elements. p. OkaXeTi'oP 5' dpa obrot rpo'Trepop Kear& orXOXfl•. we will not. 9. -Trl 'EXXhvwv .
cuius etiam philosophi admirantur ingenium.. and that it has no resurrection. that the body is of the evil [principle]. etc. 187: talis Bardisanes. . 33.dVOS. .166 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE of men. He divided the words in measures and weights. rh 18De vir. that I may not expatiate upon those things which Bardaisan alleges among his doctrines." 14 To Bardaisan's gifts as a poet no trustworthy evidence survives. Ephraem Syrus does indeed frequently speak of the charm which the Bardaisanite hymns exercised upon the minds of the people and attributes them to Bardaisan. in rhythmic and accentual measures. 186: dptar6s rts oa.that the soul [consists] of seven [parts].13 And again. Oxon. Duval. Overbeck. 63. "such was Bardaisan.5b and [all] the rest. La litterature syriaque. 6yto . 553: 15bEphraem discusses this doctrine at length. 18). contr. For example. "highly adorned with all the graces. Haer.. eund. 1865.. 14 sqq.. ap. 53. (R. 16 Le. he says: Love for you. Syr. . Eph. the stars. p." "1eloquent" both in Syriac and in Greek.p ircitra 1eyMXwOSKEKO7c0Lfl/. brethren. in Osee. . Vatican ed. constrains that you bear the repetition of their words. in S. p. p.. Ed. 10. inl. Paris. and composedsongs and introducedmeters. ap. ii. p. whose intellect even philosophers admire. p. . 1900. eund. ii. ap. 186: clarus habitus est . For he formed hymns and set them to tunes. 15 Or. eund. the signs of the zodiac. Ad Hypatium. ardens eius a Syris praedicatur ingenium et in disputatione vehemens.16 And [so] he set beforethe simple folk bitter [mixed] with sweet ." 12 Jerome says that he was regarded as "distinguished" and that the Syrians extol the ardor of his intellect and his vigor in argument.. et aliorum Opera Selecta. 56..sick folk they. 12Haer.'5of the impeding substances. p. 14 Comm.
"i. in the interval Bardaisan's doctrines reason to believe that had been modified by the influence of Manichaism and probably by other influences as well.rdr 6 vrap abrov KaXovuJV7lV 6o T7Y actp7jorLv craTO.oUvoLKO r 7)P ?OsraOpaSo KcaaOdrEp v^ KGCal IroXXdKLS o0 1Appo rt'dXXovorL. TavraO cs 666as " Since he [Harmonius]was not entirely outside the limits of his father's sect and the views entertainedby the Greekphilosophers regardingthe soul.. too. cit. otd ye brb VXpad Ovvrypdtaro avvOels. David's] truth he deserted. and imitated his number [only]. The circumstantialcharacter of this account gives it claim to credence. rpoo'Itt/. was the first to adapt his mother tongue to meters and musical rules. His [i. Kcal'Apu6.op.. as in other Christian churches. 6 pat 56e r imv "EXXrort rap' Xbyw ao rpWrotLdrpOLS KGL aly6OLs dxO•rcra 4 r OpLy Kc ."1 He wished to make David his model. p. 187: Obt dyivo . the birth and dissolutionof the body and transmigration." 18 Sozom. 16. ap.). if I understand aright the following sentence.. ct irep XpcbevoL. XOPO rdptvwLO bra-ya 0.E .NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 167 who chose not wholesome food. TrosOIKelOLS YpdttCZaTv.CS Kal .Theodoret (HF. ap. iii.8S These varying accounts are easily reconciled. Harm. Harnack. K rdXaL JXXoyLtcrTarotroTroPvbY 7rp6Tro Tre. Harmonius. 187) also states that Harmonius.. It is probable that in the Syriac.wrote much in Syriac. " Les malades n'eurent point le choix d'un remade salutaire. but does not distinguish his work from that of his father.yevP40CW Ka & 7d gov7resr otdrobvt. op.." and indeed.seeing that he set to the lyre what he [Bardaisan] had composed. rvyypdALLczcrL. that he might be adorned with his beauty and praised for his likeness.cit. irel ydlp ob raWdI r-tv &K769 JP37^9 rarTpCaCs TE q0paopaiO a65aTO0 KaZl 0l StbXororcZXtyyeIcrl o ap? EXXi1ro iPVX27S. ot iroAs 'Apwoviov • . cit. as well as Bardaisan. he.e. my brethren. Sozomen explicitly asserts that Bardaisan's son.Vos Bap8iodovu avveoT• rats. CI . But it must be borne in mind that Ephraem is writing There is about 150 years after Bardaisan's death. p. Bap8a7. the canonical Psalms had been used in public worship from the 17 Duval (loc. with the view expressed in his own compositions. composed 150 songs. rap' 'Oopovo^s dyI-opro.e. dXX& To tLs X& Kal caIPpIOeOs. " having had a Greek education. HE. It is also more than probable that the hymns in use among the Bardaisanites were not of his composition. he expressly implies that Bardaisan's poems were set to the lyre by Harmonius and not by Bardaisan himself.he commingledthese views with his own compositions..
There are also several allusions in the Odes. It is probable on the face of it that Bardaisan. which. Bardaisan had been converted from Gnosticism to Christianity. it is more probable that the Bardaisanite hymns in meter known to Ephraem were the work of Harmonius and other writers. would endeavor closely to imitate the Psalms with which they were already familiar." and so on. it is at any rate certain that their introduction into the church at Edessa was ascribed by Ephraem to Bardaisan. Ephraem. but. in view of Sozomen's evidence. who was engaged in a fierce warfare with the Bardaisanite heretics. and so ascribes them all indiscriminately to him. Just such imitations the " Odes of Solomon" unquestionably are. The poet says "the way of error I have left " (xv. and invite many to the banquet. "I was delivered from vanity " (xvii. and there is every reason to accept his evidence." and a "bride who is corrupted. 4)." who "lead astray and corrupt the whole world. harmonize singularly well with the little we know of Bardaisan's life and activity. the whole of Ode xxxviii. Whether other psalms and hymns were used along with those " of David " in the other churches is a question into which I need not enter. while wholly insufficient of themselves to prove authorship." and is "adorned. xxvi. and there is no doubt that such practices were widespread among many Gnostic sects. celebrates his deliverance from a form of error portrayed by a "bridegroom who corrupts and is corrupted. in his earliest efforts to produce hymns acceptable to his congregation.168 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE earliest times. probably had not the ability and certainly had no desire to distinguish in the mass of heretical psalms and hymns the compositions of Bardaisan from those of his successors. 2). 6). and give them to drink of the wine of their intoxication so that they may vomit up their wisdom and knowledge. There is no reason to charge the Valentinians with . This reads like a condensed abstract of the account given by Epiphanius of his own experiences when young among the "Gnostics " of Egypt (Haer. It may be that Bardaisan was also the first to write hymns in meter similar to those Syriac hymns with which we are familiar.
like Epiphanius.. p. and was almost appointed to the order of confessors. e. It would fit in very well with the recorded statement that Bardaisan had been ordained deacon. xxviii. and declaring that he had no fear of death. Marcion and others. cit. 20 Le livre des lois re avroeos i Tbv 6. Of more weight is the general impression conveyed by the Odes as to the author's relation to his readers. 7'." 19 There are several Odes which intimate that the speaker has suffered persecution. " He withstood Apollonius. Harnack. Antoninus' friend.. .20but the context in Ode xx. op. had as a youth just escaped the temptations of some such sect. 6. p. rdEcMoXoaylar Kosarder. 7-c Lr BtaotLXet AL iTreliTOL. rather suggests spiritual than ecclesiastical priesthood. might have served to draw a band of devoted followers about their gifted author. and wrote against the heretics.plvaro.. 186: 'A'rwuvvov 'ralpy Ur 6 U? Pelas uv8pelws diroXoyod5evos. despays. and bearing such clear evidence of deep and sincere religious feeling. X6ayovs e8tivac d7re. 56. ix.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 169 them. O my 19Epiphan. but it is quite possible that the poet. The much discussed opening verses of the 4th Ode -" No man. His " work is the Psalm of the Lord " (xvi. Other Odes. for it must necessarily ensue even if he did not disobey the Emperor. but the suggestions are too vague to be of value. suggest that the persons for whom he writes are not unacquainted with persecution. and replied in clever speeches. and his addresses to his readers intimate that he anticipates something more than a hearing. viii. The same must be said of the allusion in xx. We are told that Bardaisan came very near suffering martyrdom.. ap. 8div Odvarov P/L q1jas. 'AroXXwv•Pt 6 tK7K1 7 70T0 irp rd0EfOCLL. but it is not always possible to distinguish between what he says in his own person and what he says in the person of Christ. 1. KbP Nau." etc.. when exhorted by him to deny that he called himself a Christian. 10... Ilcer.. Bardaisan believed himself to be orthodox. xxv. xxix. manfully defending [the true] religion. v. xxxv. One can readily imagine that Odes so beautiful as these. 2). " I am a priest of the Lord. which would be appropriate to the age of the Antonines. e.g.g. &viteTpe rapavolatbroos 4pvoraacOaLtb XpwLrLavbv Eavrb'v XI-yewv.
as I have shown. Havr. But two objections present themselves. 16. and in particular of his relation to the development of Syriac hymnology. On the other hand. surely Bardaisan might have used Greek in Syria. Bardaisan is supposed to have written in Syriac. and raise a presumption in favor of the theory that the original was Greek. changeth thy holy place. (Dind. Gunkel. Bardaisan was certainly able to write Greek. much as it was in the Roman church a little earlier. The occurrence of Greek words in the Coptic version proves. The words and phrases of the Syriac text upon which Schulthess. distinctly favors the hypothesis that he might have written the Odes of Solomon.170 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE God. 48. and the Odes are supposed to be translations from a Greek original. . 1.21 It appears then that the little we know of Bardaisan's life and activities. If Hermas could make his revelation in Greek to the Latin-speaking Roman Christians.. Epiphanius. it is not yet proved that the Odes were first written in Greek. because he hath no power over it. the language of the Odes and their title. even about the middle of the 21Epiphan. 21. 442. moreover. describes him as "eloquent both in Syriac and Greek. are much more easily explained as an attack upon the Montanist claim that the holy place." It is. ii. possible that in the last quarter of the second century Greek was a privileged tongue in the church of Edessa. and it is not possible that he should change it and put it in another place. but they are not sufficient to put the question beyond doubt. the true Jerusalem which came down from heaven. ii. indeed. and others base their opinion are indeed suggestive. 14.2 The fact that these Odes. 49. But neither of these suppositions is as yet beyond question. of course. for thy sanctuary thou hast designed before thou didst make other places "--in which Conybeare sees Montanism. which had been in large measure bilingual for centuries. was to be found at Pepuza in Phrygia. no more than that the author of the Pistis Sophia was working from a Greek text-not that the text was the original.) 22 I am inclined to believe that the original was Greek.. 444.
Ed. in ZDMG. The Syriac was then again translated into Greek."in 1855.2 The book professesto be a record 23 Besides Cureton's second edition. The argument."in order to prepare the way for the interpretation of the Odes. from the latter version Eusebius' quotations and those of the Recognitionsare derived. indeed. presupposes good faith on the part of the author of Pistis Sophia--he was deceived by the fact that the poems had been long current.and there would have been little likelihood that the fraud ever would be detected. Le livre des lois des pays. were regarded as canonical and used as such by the author of Pistis Sophia. I have used that of Nau. after a minute comparison of the " Book of the Laws" with the quotations in Eusebius and the Recognitions. cit. already bore the name of Solomon. the discussion for and against a Greek original by Schulthess and Nildeke.). 1863). 1910." which was translated by his pupils into Syriac. Moreover.in his "Spicilegium Syriacum. and.the fact that such works met with easy acceptance proves that the membersof these sects were as uncritical as their leaders were unscrupulous. 555. Paris. 44 sqq." Lack of space preventsme from entering into my reasonsfor dissentingfrom this latter conclusion. if a stray copy of the Odes fell into their hands and seemed to them capable of being used to support their doctrine. pp.B. and Merx's translation (in Bardesanes von Edessa. of course. 91. The Gnostic group from which the Pistis Sophia emanated. many early sects. forged works in support of their peculiar tenets with the utmost freedom. he found them in his copy of the Bible. concludes that Bardaisan wrote in Greek a dialogue "Against Destiny. From this Syriacversionthe existing "Book of the Laws " is derived. I shall find it necessary to give a fairly complete outline of the "Book of the Laws of the Countries..NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 171 second century.] . and again. pp. I can see no force in such considerations. and so on. with an English translation. The men who forged books wholesale certainly would not have hesitated. Halle. Bardaisan'soriginal work did not contain the doctrineof planetaryinfluence ascribed to him by the "Book of the Laws. to attach to it the name of Solomon. This book contains the only fairly trustworthy evidence as to the views of Bardaisan himself. 1899. Haase (op. probably not fifty years after Bardaisan's death. [N. It was first published by Cureton in 1847. has been very generally accepted as proof that they must have originated at least a hundred years earlier.
The conception acquaintance of I"Nature"( . 2 The theory is obviously eclectic. it is obviously unreasonable to anticipate any considerable degree of coincidence between them. . that the connection is not immediate. "Nature" is the organic principle which governs the development and nutrition of his body. upon the problems of Destiny and Free-will. and also upon his soul. It is only by accident that the two works occasionally touch upon the same topics. Furthermore. It. It puts into Bardaisan's mouth a He accepts the fundamental theory of marked originality. upon man's body as a part of that world. But in time. and confirmsthe statements of the churchhistoriansas to Bardaisan's with Greek. The Book of the Laws is a discussion. the Odes are devotional poems of a most intimately personal character.) is unmistakably the Aristotelian(q'aos. "Destiny " is the influence exerted upon the entire material world. being independent.24 These three principles. but dissents from that form of the principles doctrine of Destiny or Fate which was so generally associated with it. of astrology. may and frequently do clash. The conception had become a commonplace Greekphilosophylong beforeBardaisan's of day. Even granting that the Book of the Laws fairly represents Bardaisan's views. as Haase thinks. of a dialogue held between Bardaisan and his disciple Avida. sickness and sin. Free-will he shares with God and with the angels. rve1/Aa). whence arise in the world discord and confusion. the Book of the Laws does not even profess to be from the hand of Bardaisan himself. and it is quite possible. of the ultimate laws that govern the universe. but the word which Bardaisanuses (= •l06t) possiblypoints to acquaintance with Peripatetic sources. and Destiny. as Stoic writers were more disposed to use Stoic terms (•-yos. the " great and holy will of God " will put an end to the discord.172 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE made apparently by a certain Philip. and that he was the author of the Odes. Man is ruled by three independent principles: Freewill. Nature. and introduce a reign of peace and love. Their themes are as unlike as possible. by the constellations and planets. in a severely scientific and objective spirit. It is at best based upon one of his works.
Indeed. nor could it. bless. I have already referred to the singularity of the poet's attitude towards sin and evil. Bardaisan'sconception is very different. supplemented by informationafforded by Ephraem and other writers. Nearly all the Odes are full of joy and thankfulness. but it is one of the minor threads in the web of evidence which I am endeavoring to weave. rather. to speak the truth.and these traits are in striking accord with the character revealed in the Odes. is suggestive. have been based in the first instance upon observation of what men actually do.or were common in Syriac literature of his age. it was this that first led me to think of Bardaisanas their possible author. . and the affinity to that of the poet is manifest. In the second place. It is. and to pray for that which is good for every one whom he knows " . It is impossible.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 173 The number of coincidences that do occur. The real significance of the Book of the Laws is this: In the first place. indeed. however. God. to quote from the Odes at such length as to give an adequate impression of the author's personality--that can be gained only by thorough familiarity with the Odes themselves. I think. as the needle to the pole. he seems to have no present personal concern with it. Bardaisan regards man as imbued with a natural inclination towards good. good properly belongs to him. While he is of course aware of its existence. goodness.man finds joy. that man is naturally inclined to sin. from the notion so prevalent in all Christian ages. and in doing good which he conceives is. in phraseology and sequence of ideas. This similarity of character does not. the theories of the Book of the Laws. prove that the writers are identical. I give here. their value as evidence is not great. offer a very satisfactory interpretation of several difficult Odes.in a brief article. primarily. his whole nature seems to turn as naturally towards love. an expression of Bardaisan's own character. but in default of any evidence to show whether these traits were personal peculiarities of Bardaisan's. of course. to "love. it gives a fairly definite impression of certain traits of Bardaisan's character.
" The simile of a way or path occursabout 17 times in the Odes. O ?r. Ode xi." xxxiii. . " serons d'accord." Cf. ." C. but are always pulling down and building up. 80 wa participate.174 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE those passages26 from the Book of the Laws which are relevant to my present purpose. and is willing to be convinced. my son. and draweth near to the way of truth n without opposition." N. and if it please us not. my brethren. nor are they even able to be convinced.28 needeth not to be ashamed. 28 1 P?" obstinacy. These modifications are not always indicated. because they have in them no faith." Bardaisan said: Thou speakest becomingly. p.freely modified by suggestions derived both from the Syriac and from Nau. " querelle. Avida's brethren say: "Believe firmly. by those things which I have mentioned. and have added in footnotes the more striking parallels from the Odes. Cureton. . know that he who putteth his inquiries properly. lo! I will speak to you who do believe concerning this which he inquires. 7. therefore. 9 (C). 6: " The way of error I have left." and again. even the way of truth. " d'aprs les apparences. If. p. 29 S. " fell from the way of truth. 1. 2. 8: " I will make you wise in the ways of truth." Bardaisan said: Not Avida alone is unwilling to believe." xv. and are (p. because I was ashamed of asking thee. but also many.ASLZ "cleverly. Avida said: "I am desirous of learning. Nevertheless. we shall agree " with thee." to which Avida objects "But I am not able to believe unless I be convinced." C. and thou wilt be able to know everything. because Avida is not willing to believe. 10. necessity will compel us to show thee why it does not please us." N. 27." N.2 Nevertheless. and if it please us also. because he will certainly give pleasure to him to whom the inquiry is directed. thou hast anything in thy mind respecting this about which thou wast inquiring. but I began first to question these. tell it to us all."Way of truth. 6: "I ran in the way of his peace. " something more. 3) found destitute of all knowledge of the truth. and he will hear something to his advantage." C ." C.? 2s The translation is that of Cureton.
."1 For they have not the foundation of faith to build upon." N. and the sphere. " to speak and to instruct. For observe the sun. xxix. 6. 4: " I had faith. 6. but they are all bound by the command " that they should do only that which was commanded them and nothing else.. And on this account they are not competent to discuss and to draw conclusions. ye that are kept by it. 5: " I am strong in His praise. " de discouriret 82The conception that faith or belief is the first step in the Christian life occursfrequentlyin the Odes. also." C. the fact that the heavenly bodies never rest is adduced S6 as an illustration of subjection to the command of God. 88The comparisonof man to a harp upon which another plays. 18) But as to what Avida was saying . and the rest of these things which are greater than we in some things. I. And how. . xxviii." Compare. but night brings darknessover the face of the land. For the sun (p. " I will not change and not wane nor 31 a . 12-13: " Keep my faith. xiv. then. " They are instrumentsof the wisdom of God which errs the of not. xxxiv. for faithful is He in whom I had faith ". and know my knowledge. also. "fixed by ordinance. but it is nowhere so directly connectedwith knowledgeas here. 11 . The closest parallel is perhapsviii." " I will not rise at any time.and I speak by His love." Compare. and I have faith in Him". xlii. so speaks in my membersthe Spirit of the Lord. that there is not given to them Free-will of themselves.32 (1. 12. . and the moon. he would not have belonged to himself. 6 : " Believe and live and be saved.9 P . and His hosts are subject to His word. xxvi. 4) never says.ye that know me in the truth. occurs vi.. 1 : "As the hand moves over the harp and the strings speak. would man differ from a harp " which another plays or the cart which another guides ? But God in his kindness did not will that he should create man so. (17) " So he made the sun for the day that it may be bright. thereforefound I rest."C." .oI" ip de conclure." compare followinglines : (16) " The treasury the light is the sun. 8. and the treasuryof the darkness is the night". 14: "1And created things run in their coursesand do their works" ." nor the moon. (15) " They know not how to stand and be idle. 84tJ. So N .NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 175 And he began to say to us: There are many men who have not faith. In the Odes. xxxix. xvi. and have not received knowledge from the wisdom of the truth. but would have been the instrument of him that moved him. xvi.also.to . and made him equal with the angels. and they have no confidence upon which they may hope.pa." Also.if man had been created so." With the next sentence." Why did not God create us so that we should not sin and be guilty ? " . But he exalted him by Free-will above many things. 3.
176 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE increase." Compare note 40.~. 17. 9 : "I was enriched by his bounty". the winds. p. and raised my mind to the height of His truth". xi. Bardaisan said : This is the answer of such a one as doth not desire to do that which is good. the earth. 30. 2: " According to His praise He made me.) endowing him with powers fitted to raise him above his present status and make him more like God. so shalt Thou give to me. and p. note 40.) note 38. (1. P awm. that by this same Free-will he may justify himself. 17) On this account there has been given to him these things in kindness." [. but that we were in need of Thee.. who also are possessed of Free-will for themselves. compare Ode xxix. 27) On this account let it be manifest to you that the goodness Wof God has been great toward man. (p. 1. (l•m s-). and that there has been given to him Free-will more than to all those elements of which we have been speaking.I of God as manifested especiallyin creating man. the hills. 8 "Bounty. and govern himself in a god-like manner..] but all these things serve and are subject to one command. For bounty see (j-3a. and according to His goodness He gave unto me ". 4. 87 Compare iv. and more especially of him who has obeyed and submitted to his enemy. 9: " According to the multitude of Thy mercies. 1." See. 19) The commandmentswhich have been given to men are hard and they are not able to perform them.-ma. and according to His excellent beauty He set me on high ". 7 : " He glorified me by His kindness.4). "I will not rise and I will not set. xiv. not . 7: "I grew great by his bounty.P xxv." nor does any one of the stars say.8 Avida objects: (1. Here follows an account of the fall of the angels through their sin with the daughters of men. 5." .. xvii. " and there is no end to his bounty." that they might minister to him for a season. . (1.and so of the sea. 9 : "not that Thou wast in need of us. 3.." But the word used is .. For there are two commandmentsset before us such as are suitable and just 88Severalpassagesrefer to the goodness kindness -A? (1Z-on. also.for they are the instruments of the wisdom of God which errs not. and associate with the angels. 3) For everything that exists stands in need of the Lord of All. (3) " According to His mercies He exalted me.. For men are not commanded to do anything but what they are able to do. 29 sqq. With the above. . and and mercies (1.
lo i M%. in close connection • with qAj. and the other that we should do that which is good and which we love. 6) to avoid doing all these things. r and the interpretation of xviii. or impotent in his limbs. is there who is unable to avoid stealing.•. also to support by the strength of body him who is sick and broken down.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 177 for Free-will: one that we separate ourselves from everything that is evil and which we should dislike to be done to ourselves. And accordingto His excellent beauty He hath made me. rather than salvation. Ode 4 . I should be tempted to emend the text of the Ode. ?-a = d7rcrTroL. it is that is not able to do what those devoid of faith " murmur about I know not.. Should the evidence ever warrant a definite ascriptionof the Odes to Bardaisan. For even if a man be poor and sick and old.g. so is he able to love. 7." 2a. and to speak the truth. . 389 " Devoidof faith." and ~.a ." s are easily confused. What man." Commandments. And accordingto His bounty He hath given to me. or that he should be guilty of hatred and falsehood ? For lo! all these things are subject to the mind of man. po~ r take Thy Wordfrom me. xxiii.1 ^ ] ." But it is usually found with verbs of giving. For I think it is in these commandments more than in anything else man has power.. he is able too to give something of that which he has. and this too he is able to do. therefore. 197). xxiv. And have receivedsalvation fromHimwithoutgrudging. It occurs eight times in the J] and properly means "without reluctance".. xviii. (1. and is then equivalentto d006vws. 18) But there have been given to us according to the kindness of God commandmentswithout grudgingOsuch as every man . but the same phrase recurs. and they lie not in the power of the body." Possibly " in faith" has been lost fromthe text. and as he is able (p. ye in the knowledge of the Most High withoutgrudging. he is able to avoid doing all these things. For we are not commanded to carry heavy burdens of stones [and so of other tasks]. With the above passage compare xv. 4 must be om.. and to bless. and desire that it should be done to us likewise. do not Thou. 4: "Walk Odes. i•o consideredin connectionwith that of xxiv. "salvation.~ more appropriateto receive commandmentsimmediately after leaving the way of error. Moreover. because of them that are deficient. 7 (see p." V P?. Who. or to avoid lying or committing adultery and fornication. e. but in the will of the soul. 4 : " Lord. For they are easy.it would be somewhat Fi. and to pray for that which is good for every one whom he knows: and if he be in health and have the use of his hands. and there is nothing that is able to hinder them.. t 40 "Without grudging." . 6: "The way of error have I left. therefore. and have walkedtowardsHim.
For would not that Judge be unjust who should blame a man for such a thing as he is not able to do ? Avida said to him : Respecting these deeds. and conceives "the good" as God Himself.178 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE who possesses a soul within him 41can do rejoicing." i. but to do good things who among men is able ? . 42 This joy in the good is the most characteristic trait both in Bardaisan and in the author of the Odes. the poet finds it in the redeemed and purified soul. The words ae I~c~l p0?o . for the poet gives no description of human nature as such. nowhere definitely states his theory of redemption. and the ?second po is a corrupt dittograph for J?. after J . for there is no man who rejoiceth not when he doth that which is good. 1: "As the impulse of anger against evil. Bardaisan. again. 0 Bardaisan. and my impulse is towards Him. But whereas Bardaisan finds it in human nature as such. hence a direct comparison of the two authors on this vital point is impossible. however. vii. 42 nor is there any one who doth not delight within himself when he refraineth from wicked things. "the beloved. 41 . is literally.l1_ ? for vii. not."Every man that possesses a soul within him.e." But the word here translated "what is lovely. 5. for this is the good conduct of a free mind. There is one passage in Harris's translation which seems to express the doctrine of Bardaisan. For there are many things which impede the action of the body. "I. and who are called tares.] have been lost IPo.. with the exception of those who were not made for this grace. " I love the Beloved and my soul loves Him." and a comparison with iii. I have said and do say that they are easy. ' The wording suggests a plausible emendation "I. My joy is the Lord. every living man." 5i. and the attempt to reconstruct the theories of each from the scattered hints in our possession would lead me far beyond the limits assigned me.. and conceives "'the good " as good deeds. and more especially old age. And brings in of its fruits without restraint. and sickness. to the exclusion of Bardaisan's conception. and of that soul which has not rebelled against its governors. Avida said: Perhaps a man may be able to avoid wicked things." makes it reasonably certain that the passage has no such general application. The text reads: m )oa loa. . 0=3 . and poverty. so is the impulse of joy over what is lovely. 27. which as it stands is unintelligible. do you say that they are easy to perform ? Bardaisan said: To him who desires.
4: "Be enrichedin God the Father. 9: "I was enrichedby His bounty. but the evil is the operation of the enemy and on this account when a man is troubled and not sound in his nature he does wicked things. and receivethe thoughtof the MostHigh ". some in Luck. when applied to a planet. they are false. incorruptible and indissoluble. I cannot determinetheir precise meanings. Bardaisan proceeds: (1. 24) We ought plainly to understand that the unrestrained ardor of love is called lust. He fixed the creationand establishedit.." '5 j rulers. as I also once loved it. . 12. xi. iii. and on this account he rejoices whenever he does good. "For this conception of knowledge or wisdom as riches.] (1. it seems to me that these three views are partly true and partly false." and created man."and has given to all things the power which is suitable for each one of them. 20: "The worlds were made by His Word. 1. 12: " He spreadout the heavens and fixed the stars." (p. 10: "From above He hath given The conception "rest" me rest that is incorruptible. JrtKpTarwp. nevertheless is far removed from the love which is true. They are true in that men speak from the appearanceof what they see." " Comparexvi." which has established the worlds. Comparexxv. 35) But let us speak now and show with respect to m ie]o.a. some in Free-will. Where His rest is. and the false enjoyment which attends evil. etc. in that the wisdom of God is richer than they. 1. rpo•o-y6rLos. Greekol0Kos8er6rqs.e. and His rest is forever and ever ". satisfaction) for a moment. 11. After developing in some detail the distinction between the true enjoyment which attends good deeds. For the good is the man's own. 12: "I was justified by His kindness. each of which. and by the thought of His heart".NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 179 Bardaisan said : It is more easy to do good than to abstain from (p. my soul loves Him. know well that there are men who are called Chaldaeansand others who love the knowledge of this art [i. like the . heads. 0 Philip.=. [Some believe in Destiny. compareix. although there may be in it rest (i. as for myself.. there also am I".l. in my humble opinion. and they see as things seem to them. astrology]. governors. which.e. whose rest is forever. . signifies a definite astrologicalfunction. 4) I likewise. xi. (p."N = U? j -. 21) But. contentment. " or "peace" occurs about seventeentimes in the Odes. 5-6 : "I love the Beloved. and has ordained the governors. 7) evil.
Adv. Boll has shown (Sphcura. for clearly " those on the right " are planets or constellations which are always beneficent. 49 Destiny." ." "'those on the left. In astrology as known to us. Jupiter and Venus are beneficent.. 50o . its disturbance is due to Destiny. whenever nature is disturbed from its right course. elxcapdvfy.-Procl." or when rising in the eastern sky than when situated elsewhere in the Zodiac.. jhz. 47Disposition of the motion.4 = TOLXX•ta. any planet is more powerful when in its own "'house. The position of a planet makes its proper influence stronger or weaker . The next section shows how organisms are normally ruled by their respective natures. Corr. p. = 1. wporTK67roS. 61 Precisely what Bardaisan means by " those on the right.OT." sometimes "'east." etc. iii. 1551). It signifies the total complex of relations constituted by the position of the heavenly bodies at any given moment. and according to this motion and disposition. of the Zodiac. N." sometimes "south." probably T-TracLts. but it is here used of the total effect exerted by the stars upon the infant at birth. & Add. 383. And those are on the right 11 called " those which assist nature" and add to as haps. (v) 12 sqq. ccelestia signa. ir=% o i " Those on the right. per- . and Mercury neutral. Pruckner.180 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE Destiny. but here probably means the signs ".m. "oipdvta arocxe'a. or when setting--but it cannot change its proper character. 48 Elements. viii. a translation of aX??arp~ps rs obpavlac KLV75aeWs. " Right " and " left" do not seem to bear any definite technical meaning in astrology. "Horoscope. Strictly speaking. Tetrab.. that it has not power over everything. intelligences are changed in their descent to the soul. and souls are changed in their descent to the bodies.g.." 1." j. is equivalentto and is. Firm." and sometimes perhaps " west. 1. Mat. for this very thing itself (p. used by Ptol.. (p.e. Mars and Saturn maleficent. 1. See Otho Brunfels.). 10) And know ye well that. 663-664) that " right " sometimes means "north." ." None of these seems to fit the present passage. because those heads and governorsupon whom depends the change that is called Horoscope. n.are opposed one to the other." I cannot explain. De diffinitionibus et terminis astrologice (in Jul. libb. 13) which is called Destiny is a disposition (or arrangement) of the motion4 which is given to the governors and the elements4 by God. the horoscope was the sign of the Zodiac rising at the moment of birth (see the admirably clear summary of the leading doctrines of astrology given by Sextus Emp. 14. and this change is called the Destiny and the Horoscope0 of this complex which is being sifted and purified for the advantage of that which has been receiving aid and will receive it 10until the consummation of all. pp. ed. Basel. Astrol. -" The complex.. Astron. 1 .
so also is this visible man not able readily to deliver himself from the commands of his Governors. the " institutions. though bound none the less by the works that have been made and by the institutions which have been established for their help. 10) But wherever they be and in whatever place that they are." For even those that think they withstand it. 32. for lo! wherever we be. But whenever God wills. xxvi. and in its "houses " it has a certain position. 1.j) that 2•.e. 33. and riches and poverty -this which does not appertain to their Free-will." probably. and upon one day.but by their wickedness and error. which is the first. we assemble ourselves together. . "High places. without opposition. This is the position in which its influenceis strongest. 22). and on the appointed days we abstain from food. Those on the left are called "bad." . anything can be. "Their own degrees." and whenever they occupy the high places they are opposed to nature and not only injure men.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 181 its excellence whenever their motion helps them 52 and they stand in high places of the sphere in their own degrees. 68 Cf. befalls them wherever they are. (p.Christians.their natures. i.. (p. which is interpreted." eachplanet has two " houses" or signs properlybelongingto it. N Cf. As the Free-will of men is not governed by the necessity of the Seven.. a certain position in the Zodiac fixed for each planet (Ptol. whom in every country and in every region the Messiah established at his coming. xviii. but also. and whenever it is governed it is able to resist its Governors." For this orderliness and government S" Helps them." and if we had no power to do anything. shall we say respecting the new race of ourselves who are Christians. when their inherent beneficent influencesare re3nforced by their positions in the Zodiac and relations to other planets and constellations. 10 : "Thy will is perfection. etc. for he is a slave and a subject. especiallythe stars. because He is kind and permits all natures to remain as they are and govern themselves by their own will.not by their strength . position on or near the meridian. the laws of the countries do not separate them from the laws of their Messiah.o . For there is nothing that can hinder that great (p. all of us are called by the one name of the Messiah ." 55The " works" are probablythe material universe. we should be the instruments of others. 1.. This may last for a short time. withstand ." either twy/?ara. 11-12: " Who is able to interpret the wonders of the Lord ? For he who could interpret would be resolved into (1oa. or geovpavgiara." etc.-Procl.. but sickness and health. 34) and holy will. For if we were able to do everything we should be everything. 4) What.in particular. neither does the Destiny of the Governors compel them to make use of things impure to them. then. i.
good.. influences severally appropriate to the several tracts of space through which it passed. and later by Plato. and there will be peace and safety. The world is a a. in all its forms. It was probably always associated with the complementary idea that the soul which has thus fallen from her divine estate should seek again to regain it. These influences. is not known and the diverse forms under which it appeared have been but imperfectly investigated. that they should not be altogether injurious or altogether injured. again." 1 education. who probably learned it from the Pythagoreans. that.182 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE which has been given. might be conceived as personal or impersonal. although astrology as a science was as yet unknown to the Greek world at large. or both. the existence of this element. also. by the bounty of Him who is the Lord of all natures. and all rebellions will be brought to an end. both in its ascent and its descent. for it already contains the essential elements of the astrological form of the doctrine." N.. widely prevalent in antiquity. softens down the violence of the natures. Its origin. And at the establishment of that new world. the soul was supposed to encounter. all evil motions will cease. Proclus' interpretations of the myths of the lit. it was adopted by the Pythagoreans. Its present evils can be corrected by a new combination of its elements. in all cases. The doctrine was probably of Oriental origin and was introduced into the Greek world by the Orphics about the seventh century B.and deficiencies will be filled up. in one form or another. however. " training. and mingling of one with another. bad. W a68 . as they were injuring and injured from before the creation of the world." " rvsultat. The doctrine of the soul's descent from heaven here sketched by Bardaisan was. whose equilibrium is maintained by a balance between opposed but system equal tendencies. But there is good reason for believing that the form in which it appears in Plato's works has been directly influenced by Oriental ideas. It is probable.C. although it is not possible to prove. And a time will come when this injuriousness also which remains in them shall be brought to an end by the restraintsmfound in another mingling. and the foolish will be persuaded.
This is Bardaisan's doctrine with one important difference. arbitrary and fanciful in detail. PT7)TU TrOtOvTwJ' &XXcoM L 77s otbECe 7-P Ir^i . he would. . po•ra 6KKEL74 r^ d-'yOp ALXKOS •T 7repL65wv w^i 78allgo . Proclus' own theory is very similar to that of Bardaisan. Proclus holds that the embodied soul is absolutely subject to the influences of the stars. Kroll.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 183 Republic and Timeus are therefore correct. and as she proceeds thereto she is immersed in all influences [emitted] from the celestial [bodies]. 5CLc4OO'bL KOO•ILKuIC '•O'Tpw7CCt 7 &XXaei asra'v. and instead of belonging to those things which rule the Universe. is subject to the guiding spirit.ri7v br oa'av del KalId&Klrov 6 Procl.v rept68wv ylverat Paa~telav r7A7d'AdCYK-I.e aucWvTW "yd'otro mmi 5aqCeJva rpbTrov7d biroKe~eOOa ~dXcacr AiC d tral L&Um ftreeOac 7tr rVuep'ry eal al ux1 rjv & epo y'p c lydveoes ot~dv*' o'mTW re'VooG'a rdi•rmw rwirc. for he would have to take from the sailors such and such orders and obey the pilot and be exposed to gales of wind. re A dbrvov 70ooG &dXXC b rt rdv goXdrwv v Kcral Kac cuvat ela rb d Krl ccl'palc 8tocKo0PTWP a7rp olo' et rtr hX6tofoPo s pat' p 5LoLovudIWer rr *a KCL d-~yC7y&p TroTrovKal bIrb Trw 7r& aIKC r 7rXwr7p drcKo~. . in Remp. o hvel rb g-arovCrpoeXOofGa r^ .57 ..~ 6• X rats d Oprbcrw^ vx. [in brief]. when she has proceededas far as the lowest of the orbits (i. 345. upon falling wholly into birth. but the soul is governed by Free-will. the eternally subsisting and inflexible dominion of Necessity to which the soul. in a sense.e. Bardaisan that the body only is subjected to them. 7p6etaw U lsr E rb o xarov 7 otpavlwvreptXflc00e6arot7aercv. she becomes one of the things ruled. in such manner that she is not only a part of the [lower] world. differ in no way from the things which are moved by other things [only]. is exposed to material spirits. although. but is one of its lowest parts. just as though a philosopher were to embark in a ship and become a rower. So also the soul. In another passage Proclus describes at some length the ed. and the body only in so far as not controlled by its nature. of course. depends upon the operation of the celestial orbits which severally exert their diverse influences upon her. o epG rW^ K6onov IAdpoS. in so far as the general outlines are concerned. 14: . that of the moon) becomes subject. and I cannot supply a better commentary on Bardaisan's statements than by translating one or two short passages from Proclus' intolerably prolix commentary upon the Republic. ii.
drypplovwa Ic LTr 7L/v^ T 7TC^ &CXX Kac &rb 7-w rapao . . the ancients compared to "twisting" and "turning" together with the stretching of the thread from above downwards. 342. •d 8vuvar•b d&PavyeYv Trdos dTLrOeoLav TrotSalpeOe•LOLv. 7r Xszjavofs 86oel. the products of her spinning [or twisting]. KvpwOjvcal fqo-wL 7b 6 1 Kal eleOazL uTLS v pXeac els" 7a rarbXX Tre 86o~"r*cd' var•eXX6. TW7 7TE K6KXWV " t KE Kai 7Tw V CLVaTOS LOLpPV KaL darb TWP 7TW9V TWdv7r'XavrCoP' TwP daOTIpwV Kal TWP v 8Xw ryUCWV KCai TWP&XXv OvLordeeWov. and from them [the] Chaldean and [the] Egyptian [astrologers] are wont to foretell many events of our lives. Tc Uava0Tp676epa XoEV' AaXiaews. exert a great and effective fateful influence upon nativities. . PLa6Ovovoa yp I"rXelo0tv ObKdTL y ?r' &XXoLts77/JL dKeCOev T? KLTV^ ?EW VCa7riv ^rpoEPeL. 7 KaL rpo57p~ern ^T T vs o0ev elpopdv2v rolqv70L alOavulrXeIoOAlP avrpd rep elp •Tp ' ov7Pha70o KdTiw 70T rdoews d&retrcltav ol raaXtol Kai d reKdacavTes KXwcOc38td 7rara 7rP Mortpa -KcdXeo••a. CXX& cal ra drovepbt6eva 7ytAv T 70 raVrT6. comes from Klotho ? He (Plato) says she ratifies the destiny we have chosen. U KXwOI KvpoT TaGVTa ToLs LavT-fl v7Pha-L Kal KXcSaoLaaotv. which finishes the twisting. From Lachesis.not merely the kind of life.6vov w I d&rb T v wv dXXr dov abtrbTwP d7TXavY rXavWpivre 6vWvr. . indeed. puoLpav ali Seya'dyXv rip o v &. Kal a y 8 aXdov &~ r6o0YLaLXXOV VKTaLrivra tL lveraT V'roKaraKXtveTaL rTEpL68ots. then.PL ObK &pa rI TrI 'yevIVOELs eZT a-vlrX-lpovoaOa TwVPd&vOp&r7rTv T7y ofeo'Oac ' L. but Klotho (= "Twister "). and through the threads which it gives. which is twisted and intertwined from all these. rdvTwv Top 6T0 V r6 Kai S ro6Tw7J IX6YPrTW paCoT7pLOv repi Tis 'EVIeOEL. and by way of a simile they. from whom we got life. ' ?v T& Kal elp". from the signs of the Zodiac. 8 P PvX) Tr /LOLpazta. d. upon the ground that they. Not only. rdpaI dT& KXwo0'dvTa a'T7ry 1yd/rcJTV 7roLOvOav. . cit. then. called this Fate. dvrl MeT&r 7rava IroLvY ?T•v v'otv 7Lt KXOeL KaL al" WV rapasecadvrm &XXa yet 7f 'ATp6brov. but Klotho ratifies them by her own threads. sphere. we get both. XX drb T•K rdP'oTwV Ka 5&&y va ylveEat iZTd•L• v JAwv al h04Kovoal.v7-w XaX&ao^o ~ piwvi&uGv ? Kal Ailry6irmot roXXo irepl rv rpoyV'rJdaerv. K y'lp 7 rap' i KsKai 0los. Ei Trl br•eLepa ~rl roT ?rpb abr V el 7 Ba 5p. 21: 7T drb r o drb p ebX6AeOa Aotpav* obXl T6 7rrwis ei8os b6vov. then. The influence. . p. in that she causes to stream upon us the gifts of the celestial from the constellations also which rise simultaneously with each of them there comes to us a generous largess.. makes what has been twisted incapableof being un58Op. L&8•OLV d4eLrEAcorpoca 8dLV 7 vT7vP Xav cvaPdWV K6KXWV y&p aeTr) rapd7TL Ts oO)K ?w00s .184 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE way in which the soul's total endowment is derived from the constellations and the planets :68 What. for this reason.dbi d7rXcaVWP 1oo0OaL. He then brings [the soul] from Klotho to the spinning of Atropos. i0ouv Pbvov d&rb ?yl'ot.. too. .. a&" 1V 7rTeTLOdaav T•. KXwOov^r rapapylverat. but also the [influences] imparted to us by the Universe.
NEWBOLD : BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 185 twisted.ED. For as the soul descends lower. (4) (5) 59 Read without points. and of the other constructions [such as the triangles. one upon another. 60 As a stream of water streams the truth from my mouth.. For upon receiving from Klotho the spinning. 7. Turning now from Bardaisan to the Odes. 61 I have followed. I shall endeavor to interpret some of the more difficult Odes in the light of Bardaisan's doctrines. The twelfth Ode runs as follows: The WordI9of truth hath filled me that I may speak of him. etc. are given to us through the planets.62 Read plural points. the chasteners of His works. the narratorsof His praise. 4~•~o. and of the signs taken as wholes."' The subtlety of the Word cannot be told. . Like his subtlety is his piercingness. reluctantly. For the mouth of the Lord is the true Word. are filled up from the fixed stars or the planets exclusively. 4 -al . the heralds of His thought. by means of the planetary orbits. various [gifts] thence. [Cf. from which she cannot escape until she has brought what she elected to its completion. she becomes subject to more and yet more orbits. inscribed in the Zodiac]. One should not. suppose that the nativities of men or of other living creatures.] 62 V. 22f. and the door of His light. therefore. (1) (3) He hath increased in me his knowledge. (2) and my lips show forth his fruits. otherwise difficult to defend. the more inevitable do the decrees of destiny become. and of the stars. but that from them all results a single train and series reaching to us.. And the more these secondary [influences] work upon us on top of those which preceded them. 5 is unintelligible. The Most High hath given him to His worlds-the interpreters of His beauty. the confessors of His counsel. 4a. but is m Za. she contributes to us. 60For ao read A. Wisdom. and that the [influence] of the fixed stars. Labourt's reading: which yields excellent sense. and of the circles on high and of their degrees. from their motions.
. and they told one another whatever they had [to tell]. 64V." From him came love and concord. For as his work is. "In converse": for the " Word" the poet has used consistently throughout this Ode. through that love " 638 Final end. 6") .186 (6) JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE (7) (8) (9) (10) and endless is his course. ipF. Blessed are they whom he has made to know all things.6 He is light and the dawning of thought: The worlds through him talk one with another. "Those who were silent" are perhaps those on the " left. Or the ppl." For the dwelling-place of the Word is man. here seems nearly equivalent to 65 I." i. (11) (12) This beautiful poem might well be entitled "An Ode to the Word. because they were in concord.e. counsel. 1-3) inspired by the Word which issues forth from the mouth of God. the Word will continue the work of reconciliation in which he is now engaged until all discord has disappeared. nothing can resist him (v." see note 51.e. and they knew him that made them. through his influence upon the " worlds " they have become the means of revealing God's beauty. and his truth is love. They were penetrated by the Word. 9a) . He is Light and Thought (v. 4). he also inspires love and concord (v. may be pluperfect. 6a) . 5. and of " chastening" His works (v. is not the only effect of the Word's activity . in converse were those who were silent. Never doth he fail but steadfast stands. and he is impelled to sing of his nature and his work. For [it was] the voice of the Most High [that] spake to them. They know the Lord in His truth. 7). His meaning sped by his agency. praise. by that of the Word. 8. thought. such is his final end. they have acquired the power of communicating to one another their thoughts. But intelligence." The poet feels himself (vv. consciousness.Lflj'Ea. And knows not his fall nor the way of it. he pervades the universe (vv.
vol. . Thus then they tell us that the mons were constituted equal to each other in form and sentiment. from whom [the sun] hath received even the measure of the courses of the day to keep them. 10Jo d). the heavens and the things that are in the heavens.. and Spiritus. The female mons. The meonshave no such functions. and Ecclesia. and the things that are in the sea. the earth. Fathers. by whom He made the heavens. they are shut up within the limits of the Pleroma. whom the moon obeys as He bids her shine by night.66 To any one who has any acquaintance with the literature of astrology the " worlds " as described in v. and Anthropos. 12).. became all as Aletheia. Yet the same Word that rules the stars in their courses. 4 will suggest the planets and constellations as conceived by the pious astrologer. In the western Valentinian system of which Irenaeus has preserved the best account. But certain elements of the picture certainly are Valentinian. abyss." the thought of God (v. whose mysteries all the elements faithfully observe. and the things that are in the earth. compare the Epistle to Diognetus. and Zoe. 6 Ante-Nic. ed. or angel. and led them to a state of true repose. for the Word is the voice. but the very Artificer and Creator of the universe Himself. chap. or ruler. the things that are in the heights. so that all became as Nous. 318. 10a. cut off from the lower world by the Horos. Am. and Logos. fire. too. [God sent to earth] " not a subaltern. Blessed indeed must they be who feel themselves possessed of such knowledge as this (v. dwells in man." This Epistle exhibits other points of contact with the sphere of ideas common both to Bardaisan and to the Odes. or one of those that direct the affairs of earth. 11). whom the stars obey as they follow the course of the moon. the sea. and it will be remembered that " worlds " is the word used by Bardaisan for the planets [note 45]. air. the things that are in the depths. after the aeons have been produced by the Propator :67 The Holy Spirit taught them to give thanks on being all rendered equal among themselves. i. or one of those who have been entrusted with the dispensations in heaven. by whom He enclosed the sea in its proper bounds. 7 (Lightfoot-Harmer's translation). by whom all things are ordered and bounded and placed in subjection.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 187 the worlds become aware of their Creator (v. These are not Valentinian weons. the "meaning. and Christus. 6 With this description of the cosmological functions of the Word. b). and his truth is love (v. p. the things that are between the two. and have nothing to do immediately with the redemption of the world accomplished by the Soter and by Jesus.
as conceived by Bardaisan. Div. p. The Worlds in the Ode receive from the Word knowledge of God. brought together whatever each one had in himself of the greatest beauty and preciousness." literally " equality. and has not yet been satisfactorily interpreted as a whole.who himself shared in the abounding exultation. yet they contain striking identities of thought. iv.. and have made them equal. but chiefly to establish the fact that " worlds." in this passage at least.71 The nineteenth Ode is one of the most difficult in the collection. out of gratitude for the great benefit which had been conferred upon them. 71 But . Certainly. note the description of the work of the Word.r. 6 q. 72Inst.. when written in the Estrangela c. The pictures are similar but not the same. A leading difficulty is the first word of v. p. and with the concurrenceof Christ and the Holy Spirit. 164). ap. which is given by Moses bar Cepha. for which no good sense has been found. Harris. with one design and desire. 8. 12. the whole Pleroma of the eons. love and " concord. The Valentinian aeons sang praise because Christ and the Holy Spirit have given them such knowledge of God as they are able to receive. and tell each what70he has. is further confirmed by Lactantius' quotation :72 " Salomon 69 68tirep elXe' #p davrr KdXLOTOV Kal dlVOypbra6To." 69 and therefore talk to one another.(and therefrom produced Jesus). 198. p. character is easily confused with The emendation .188 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE Everything. probably means " planets." It shows no other points of contact with the Book of the Laws. their Father also setting the seal of his approval on their conduct. For this I read " formed. these two pictures are inspired by one and the same original. they next tell us that these beings sang praises with great joy to the Propator. and they resolve to contribute each the best he has68 to the nature of Jesus. being thus established and brought into a state of perfect rest." which. Then. then. I have quoted this Ode partly in order to show how precisely it conforms to what we would expect of Bardaisan as regards its doctrine (compare Haase's summary.
•Las' eyAdX. etc. 78 7 So alsoFleming. e. the Father. (8) and since there was none. et facta est in multa miseratione mater virgo. vii.17 like a man. ]•-..g. For the rare aor. she bore voluntarily. 77&L. for He kept her safe. of the verb cf. KvTr-aT?o verses changed to suit the sense. -. 76 And she sought no midwife. without their knowing it. The virgin became a mother with many mercies. frexev &I K-vaOarO was corrupted into KT7aarTO and the order of the Kcl XOZa. oSakets. 4. --= eavUrb. J r"S 80 j. (2) and He who was milked.75 (6) They moulded the body of the virgin and she received conception and bore. rawplc.. (1) A cup of milk was offered to me. gErworep. I Tim. I have followed Labourt'ssuggestionand read . (3) And the Holy Spirit milked Him because His breasts were full and it was not fitting His milk should go to waste. e e )rvevXes Kal Kva7cT/r 1h.AL corresponds to 6'EdtsL. (7) She travailed and bore a son without any pain. Or. she was empty. And gave the mixture to the worlds 74 (5) and they that received in its fullness arethey on the right. 76See note 51. Himerius.&1.NEWBOLD : BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 189 ita dicit : Infirmatus est uterus virginis et accepit foetum et gravata est.--a' Kpcd6ret text read: 79 suspect that the original that d-yaXXLdre&." Infirmatus est is meaningless. and I drank it in the sweetness of the kindness of the Lord. The Son is the Cup. mid. of which I can make no sense here. "I (10) and loved in safety and kept in kindness and showed forth in majesty. part. (9) She bore in joy 78 and acquired79in great power. 74Read pluralpoints as suggestedby the pl. alK Va .QA. 76Read L2oa" m. Hallelujah. but informatus est represents with a fair degree of accuracy. (4) and mixed the milk from the two breasts of the Father. 4 16.73 The Holy Spirit opened Her [the Spirit's] bosom.
The planets then "mould" or " form" or "shape" the body. 6-8). mixes it in "her" own bosom and i.. ii. 9-10.in Ptolemy.1 %&CMI&3 ' QZA? bj. and she brings forth a son.. The poem closes with the crescendo of vv. 3 and 4 the Holy Spirit draws from the Father a similar divine influence or substance. !1ti~2 !o• •-•-• ljm•.-k- jlQl~m ? t-•. and to which he refers so often. A l? 1f.!-li9. .- !- .3 Ibl 1 • fl b. In vv. is significant(see note 51)."30 P jOe . op. and the language in which it is expressed. p. so offensive to our taste. literally belly.• 1-.Av .•oo1. of the virgin. cit. That this theory. those on the right.•.z_'•o0 xA i? irm oZ SV0 -'P?9? b %..- t. !. receive it in its fullness. but not.~i. Ephraemgives a brief account of Bardaisan'stheory :82 s81The fact that this distinction between planets as on the right and on the left.190 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE Notwithstanding the strange metaphors.• •io •L •. The milk which the poet has received through the Son as the Cup. without pain because she was empty--the precise meaning of this conception I shall discuss presently.0 ' 4010 4.e. the theory of the Incarnation here set forth is perfectly intelligible. especially noteworthy are the expressions" the worlds " and "those on the right. is apparent. occursboth in Bardaisanand in the Odes.•Zlo cm •. is the divine influence or Word of which he seems so vividly conscious. " •!." It remainsto adduce further evidence which will directly connect it with Bardaisan. She needed no midwife. 557 : lv. so far as I have been able to discover. ai-• otlrq•z . --•-• R• tb: •'•z Ft1:uo t:•k•_• •.81 the beneficent planets. i= .. 82Homrn. gives it to the planets. 50rka .'I.•-•. Verses 1 and 2 are introductory and serve as a key to the understanding of what follows.?4aOI? 4? z PJI c wiy.o C?5 !. is in general agreementwith the Book of the Laws.3 li? 1•! ! 4."? W 0. God protected her from all harm during the process (vv.
But even as our Lord's body was not born from between two. with the sun and moon." suggests that Ephraem had before him the very milk simile of Ode xix.' in the mystery of a marriage. and procreate. and all the rest of the constellations. then. formed themselves into a chorus about the star. for the disciples of Bardaisan." CompareOde iii. 11: "IHe who finds pleasurein the Living One. how much more pure must His divine nature be.). my brethren.the which were wrought in the silence of God. and "1something" does not necessarily mean more than that Ephraem found Bardaisan hard to understand. There then follows an allusion to a widespread notion "the mixture was given to the worlds without their knowing it." "Something flowed down.Holy Jesus. 4. that they may not rave again. . 2 8. But too much stress must not be laid upon his phraseology." literally "1flowed and descended. and its strangeness caused amazement. glory be to Thy Nativity! And in that he said that it was impossible for one ever to germinate. unopposed motion. and likewise also the death of the Lord84-three mysteries to be cried aloud . and its light was unutterable. for the pl. . "Flow" is used in Syriac of almost any easy. How. The word which I have rendered "marriage" may have a more literal sense. But the allusion to the "mystery of a marriage " is more significant. as when like children they say something flowed down from the Father of Life and the mother conceived a hidden son and bore him and he was called the Son of the Living 8 One. for He is "light from light. will become living." The context shows that the Living One is Christ.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 191 Pray. 84 I Cor. but the star itself far outshone them 88"The Son of the Living One. our Lord he called a 'Nature born from between two." The theory that Christ's Incarnation was concealed from the powers of this world occurs early in the second century in Ignatius' Epistle to the Ephesians : " And hidden from the prince of this world were the virginity of Mary and her childbearing. which protects Harris' emendation (the sing. it certainly is well fitted to express what the poet describes in v. were they made manifest to the aeons? A star shone forth in the heavens above all the stars. sprout. then. Cf.
ch. signs of the Zodiacand of other constellationswas supposedto co6perate. 86See above. In Bardaisan's system. together with a commentary in which he interprets the doctrines there expressed as those of Bardaisan. 19 .88 The divine Christ in his descent must. which is the law. p. or of nature (fto-qL). which is the law for organisms. so to speak. tr.they must. . one to another. the intelligences in their descent to the souls and the souls in their descent to the bodies. But other sources complement this statement in a very satisfactory way. Ig. Ephraem in his commentary upon the Epistles of St. 180. again. do the planets act as the instrument of God's will in bringing about the virgin birth ? Because." tion that souls must encounter the divinities of the planets in their descent and ascent was common among the Gnostics. in Bardaisan's system their influences represent the sum total of what we call nowadays mechanical laws. 87The influenceof the planets is the moreimportant. pass through the spheres of the several planets s7and receive from them certain modifications. at the moment of birth. which has been preserved in Armenian. is subject to the control of the planets. Why. then. of course. All that is not under the control of Free-will. therefore. and there was perplexity to know whence came this 8 The nostrange appearance which was so unlike them. no doubt that of the 88 See above. be produced by the planets. Paul. (Italics indicate 85 Eph. escape these influences and appear on earth precisely as he left heaven. The changes in the Virgin's body which were prerequisite to the accomplishment of the virgin birth would not be produced by the 4nots of her body . the total result of which is determined by the horoscope. The nature of these changes is not further described in the Ode . or relations of the several heavenly bodies.the "worlds" simply "mould" the body. p. for conscious intelligences. and is seen in the personal peculiarities of individuals. gives quotations from an apocryphal Epistle of the Corinthians to Paul.192 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE all.86 But here it has a peculiar significance. 182. Lightfoot.
NT. butof for they say he went throughher as somethingnot [coming] from certainangels. vol. .. he himself suffered in appearance . II. but by the seven Guides. p. And they say our Lord did not come with an earthly body. iv. p. a Bardaisanite.that is. 9: 6 X-yos a6rbo adpt 1." Evidently Ephraem knew Bardaisanites who held that Christ went through the Virgin's body without receiving anything of her. he came from heaven with his body . And they call God not almighty. In the dialogue " On the right faith in God. 90Der Dialog des Adamantius rept 91 Op. d. opavv Xev Xwv r• ' al nrtov r' a6ro6. van de Sande Bakhuyzen. accept the Prophets. . dXX'0K & Maplas. and ate and drank with him. but with a heavenly body.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 193 the quotations. 24: KcalZ 6 XoTyoU~Ev facryov ab•6r. D. Marinus holds: "1that he (Christ) took a heavenly 9 body . xvii. they say that he who spoke through the Prophets is no almighty God. . 6: a •r6." formerly ascribed to Origen. . cit. . . cit. . 174.. orwal 190. 178. namely : One should not. as distinguished by Zahn89 from Ephraem's commentary. But this doctrineis that of the schoolof Bardaisan.D. it is not even certain that it faithfully reproduces the views of the Bardaisanites of that age. ed.. . r ~ elsOeb de6pO^s 7rlarews.namely. H. W. we confess that he [came] through 89Translated from the German version given by Zahn. . Schrift. but the Gospel.90 It cannot be trusted as evidence for the doctrines of Bardaisan himself. And they say thereis no resurrectionof the body. Mcplar Ka o K~Ic ty o~rw Kal 6 Xbyor rpoo'Xaljdpwpi. 22: 5OKOet IrrTOVOEv A•r i' Ka u I o-w a. .L/L o o 8Ld Maplas. And they do not admit that he was bornof the Virgin Mary . i/. Chr. The book was written about A. 26: cs Kal ol &yyeXot "A8pacl 0oV. and of man they say he is not made by God at all. her.91 It is of value only when confirmedby other evidence. IyPve7ro o6bUPv RwOep rpooXfapihp. 92 Op. 170. the Word himself became flesh without taking anything from without in addition . say they. &Orep ytp v 1JCp & awXjvos tipXeTraL. a certain Marinus. And they regard the world not as the creation of God.appears as one of the speakers. so also did he . 176.. 6: &rt opd•iov oC&a tXape. Gesch. Kanons.of the seven Guides. as the angels appeared to Abraham. 597.) "IAnd the words which they speak and teach are erroneous. 300.. xvi. . Gr. /tlw•Up Maplas.
Cureton. For which reason also. phys. Spic. p. And according to Pythagoras the souls are a ' tribe of dreams. she was empty". Cancer the northern and Capricorn the southern. The milk simile is probably a translation into Christian language of an ancient myth. the absence of pain proved that the conditions to which pain would be due were lacking. 8 d6elpwv KaT( IIHvOay6paV 4/vxal ds avvdyeTOai q5 ' (al.rhv8et . ap.LEge'XeTJKViaLs epXeoaca als 9 Stobaeus.194 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE Mary. Syr. gives Heraclides of Pontus a clue to the source of the tale95-the Milky Way as the place of the souls.) repeats Porphyry's account with some variations.eo& eis y'yveort dr7b TW^v 7Tpeo/d. 14 sqq. and it is so named from the [souls] which are nourished with milk when they fall into birth.' which. he says. he says [al. 28: Aly6Kepw~ ~ Kai KapKlvPO S 'repI p/h rT KapivoS P-6pela Aiy6Kbepw~ & v6Tra8GcLos T7r rdpara abroI eiXyX67res.yaXacla v 94 De ant." 7. they say] assemble in the Milky Way. constituting its limits. who assumeth the body of Christ to be from heaven. aowL) EiS TbV at 6JT7aC -yXaKTr y-aXaciarv TJ o1v7W rpoo'ayopev6/1. several accounts of which have reached us. ed. Iamblichus.. and since there was none. 129. so [came] the Word through Mary. and didest assent to thy teacher Bardesan. &V *Jt •S . .. : " There are some of them who say that he sent down the Word a body from heaven."''93 Thus it was that "she bore a son without any pain."] " Now Capricorn and Cancer are near the Milky Way. i. . for just as water goes through a pipe without taking on anything. p. 68' '50ov^s eIS -YeOtY vyrKVeOae 'br6 ydXa ri vKCEV. . Because thou hast not comprehended the mind of Bardesan. ii. . 904. The earliest detailed account is that of Porphyry :94 [Homer speaks of the solstitial signs. that is. with the idea that they are induced to come to birth for the sake of the pleasure (or savor). whence regarded 98 So also Philoxenus. Kroll. but not of Mary. Cancer and Capricorn as the "gates of the sun. Eel. and not of Mary." Proclus (in Remp. 52. p. nympharum. vi. Porphyry's pupil. . because milk naturally is engendered along with them. The remainder of the Ode calls for no special discussion. as thou saidest just now. ch.oW1 s / AL 7owo al c 5aratsTo l//V4vXayWyobl KEKpay•o 'ycXaKTL. Heeren: KUal rokotLs HpaKXe5l7V '1 fh&y'bY HorrTLK6Y 1Opilot ew repi T+)' (sic) yacalarv. necromancers offer the souls a libation of honey mingled with milk.
similar tablets. the words used by Marinus. to the Study of Greek Religion. ii. the Pythagoreans refined the conception . So in the Orphic burial tablets found in southern Italy and Crete (Miss Harrison.Sozomen's language (see note 18) implies some affinitybetween Bartheories. p. Bardaisan probably did. daisan's doctrineand the Orphic-Pythagorean .it is a luminous substance. The Orphics had taught that the soul is "breath ".the departed soul has fallen into the "milk " of the sky. It is not at all impossible that the author of the Odes knew of this myth in its Greek form. 1. 660-63) the soul avows itself a " child of Earth and of Starry Heaven " (ry wrai~el/' xaia opaPvoiaTEpde0ToT). he must have had trustworthy sources of information. The theory of the virgin birth presupposed by this Ode is Irenaeus gives it in almost known to be in part Valentinian. pp.). and I have no doubt that this is a genuine fragment of early Pythagorean doctrine. but it is in my opinion certain that an Oriental element enters into them.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 195 they came to earth. The author of the Odes believed. The origin of the Orphic-Pythagorean doctrines has not yet been discovered. Phil. and it may well be that the ancient explanation of the celestial "milk" as being the light with which souls are fed suggested milk to him as an appropriate simile for the divine substance which proceeded from the Father and Holy Spirit and issued through the Virgin into the world as Jesus. Heraclides was a pupil of Plato. "a kid thou art (or. it is nourished by the dim light diffused in the Milky Way. Proleg. and this is the meaning of the name. 3 . 989. 1034 sqq. his interest in the mystical aspect of Pythagoreanism is well known (Zeller. I have) fallen into milk " . Ed. Upon returning to its proper home the soul will of course again need nourishment. 203). Gr. d. 4. and so I would interpret the sentence found in other. "he who went through Mary 96.956 But he may have drawn it from other sources. as at least some Pythagoreans did. for this light is the heavenly milk designed for souls. that souls consist of light or are robed in a body of light (see p. as he was a man of learning.
and which is believed to have been characteristic of Bardaisan. (1) The Dove flew upon the Messiah. because He was her Head. 7. at his baptism.e. 356) : etar Ur ToTrovr G8& ~8wp 8t& TbY Maplas b8osedoavTra. i. the Logos of his mother on high. i. Wisdom." what the Spirit had given Mary. Hcer. 35. But those of the East. and her voice was heard. and the power of the Highest. Valentinian. hcer. Wisdom (Sophia). . says that. But it is closely akin to the theory of Ode xix. 24 (cf. we have that blending of Gnostic and orthodox elements which I found in Ode xii.196 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE like water through a tube. ap. formed in the bosom of the Spirit. Hcer." 9 But the doctrine of the Ode is In the system described by not. the operationof the " worlds" by the " power of the Highest or constructive craft.96a Ode xxiv.. and the sojourners were moved. vi. that Christwas divine from his birth and did not acquire divinity at his baptism. then. can be interpreted if viewed in the same light. (2) The inhabitants were afraid. again. hold that the body of the Saviour was spiritual. 1." Accordingto Hippolytus also. Epiph. i. the body of Jesus was "psychic. the constructive craft (587uLtoUpY'LK 7dXPYv) in order that what the Spirit had given to Mary might be moulded (8ta7rXaae0). that is. . the divine Christ descends upon him at his baptism. for the Holy Spirit came upon Mary. but son of the Demiurge . Here. (3) The birds dropped their wings.. it would seem. and xxiv. the body of Jesus is. according to the western Valentinians." which " moulds" --the very word of the Ode if my emendationbe correct. impliedin Odesxix. 31. KaOdlrep 96a wX-o'o Hippolytus.. p. The theory of the incarnationwhich follows is ascribed both to Axionicus and to Bardaisanand may represent Axionicus' conceptionsmore faithfully than Bardaisan's. . 2. among whom are Axionicus and Ardesianes [= Bardaisan]. She sang over Him. and therefore.i.the Spirit as a dove descended. Gr. Irenueus. and the creeping things died in their holes. 9 Cont. the Jesus who is thus born of the Virgin is not the Son of God. The milk is representedby the Holy Spirit. as a whole." In the Ode the stars mould the body of Mary. . (Panar. and came to be with the (ydyove 7 ) psychic [Jesus] and raised him from the dead. But in the Ode he is the Son of God Himself.). Bardaisan held the orthodox doctrine.
5." that had been from of old.m . those that were exalted in their hearts. because they had not the truth. (10) For the Lord has disclosed His way.them. see the parallel from Ecclus. As Ode xii. (7) There perished from among them. and spread abroad His grace. . 200. with one of those rapid transitions so characteristic of the writer.98 He held that the five elements. For they were corrupt from the beginning. light. And those that have comprehendedit.. know His holiness. And they were rejected. Because it was not possible to give them the Word. because there was none for. and were spurned: They were crying to the Lord like women in labor. sketches in broad outlines the regenerating work of the Word. The clearest statement of Bardaisan's theory of the work of the Word is given by Moses bar Cepha. his thought leaps forward to its final consummation.. that they might abide. 59-62. Hallelujah. pp. (5) The abysses were sealed with the seal of the Lord : They perished by His Thought. cit.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 197 (4) The abysses were opened. quoted p. all things that were defective. had become. darkness tried to rise from its place below and a9 Translatedinto French by Nau. commingled one with another. air. and the final end of their corruption was life. 97 Read . fire. of all those that had not the truth. water. (9) For they were defective in wisdom. and darkness. and no food was given them. so this Ode depicts a certain stage in that work--the stage initiated by the descent of the Dove. for some reason not given. (8) The Lord has destroyed the thoughts. op. But in v.
p. The first step in this process was the creation of the world. ii. B: " Marcion and Bardaisan blasphemously allege that the Creator is not one. darkness. in part. )o~~~~~t~~~~~3 cuj O ~ ufr-• -•!~ oo• Q•l •0IjtL lJ . Ij. In this process many stages can be distinguished. the birth of Christ was one. O. and the poet describes vividly the effect of that descent upon nature. the pure substances sought refuge in the mercies of the Most High. and fell into the depth of its nature. it was driven away. contra Hcer. at the sound of this tumult.. consisted. in a state of chaos. the statements of Moses bar Cepha." I.r •:. the Son and Holy Spirit they confused with the created things. *Mo!. The regeneration of man. But as regards the work of the Word. the Word of the thought of the Most High.. 99Hom. supplemented by the last paragraph of the Book of the Laws. in dualism. he established this present world. He affirmed the existence of the substances l = oo-ata) in language which caused (-. vol. is only part of a vaster scheme for the regeneration of the universe. into which the Word enters and introduces order." Whether this picture of the battle of light and darkness can be found implied in the Odes is a question into which I cannot now enter.198 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE mingle with the others. the deeds of the Maker they ascribed to the things made.99 he conceived them as being. And from the mixture of these substances with their adversary. "Then.4oM 10oL o ' o. supply a satisfactory Bardaisan's heresy explanation of several of the Odes. at one time.Za.- \. descended. The descent of the Dove may be interpreted as another. the Makers of all things they thought to be nothing.. c. he removed darkness from the midst of the pure substances. and the present mixture was purified by a conception and a childbirth forever. the last will be the final perfection of the universe. 444. S . . that is to say the Messiah. therefore. III. and decreed that they should mingle no more. to charge him with making them independent of Ephraem God . and he reestablished each of the substances in its order by the mystery of the cross..
and iv. mutually destroy one another." Acta Phil. de gen. " Come now. when brought into contact.'00 "'Abyss' is something the essential nature of which is unlimited. ap. and the effect of the divine influence upon them. 1. It is a Jewish conception. 166. Jesus. Tisch. ii. Meteor. 2-3". and fire. Potter. KaST rTYp lIaV Kal Eclogax. and probably it is a Valentinian definition. 103 it is -FiM. Since the days of Heraclitus men had been familiar with the conceptionof the elements as consisting of opposites which.. 102 E. ed. 990 : ivooos yhp rb drepdT TO eOeov8al rolVUV U& . which separate heaven from earth. op. also note 66.rTpaot6oeVOp T& ~ ? W'i erql YlperaT. cit. 93. p. although limited by the power of God.--they are "spurned. p.b describe the effect of the Dove's descent upon animals so 3'.. vapor. probably to devour it. et corr. Proph.. p.101 As vv. n. 2. cf. They open as the Dove descends through them. that I may pass over the waters of fire and all the abyss. remnants of primeval chaos.. 40. So also in the Gnostic "Acts of Philip. II. 7ro70 o?TclaL 4T0 & etp71Trac* ire U'6aTraoLLV. So the material substances. have been termed 'abysses. rI ppovV yJv' KGa rTO6r trl KaiTOL Kal vBwp /L6pbovrb Jo&p o'K &v elreV &~Fvoov..' And yet matter is allegorically described as' water of the abyss.' for he would not have called water alone 'abyss.g.' " It is reasonably certain that this is a Gnostic.and 4 describe its effect upon the abysses." the apostle prays just before his death. but is found in this sense in Clement of Alexandria. r^vdpEL FV'TO'ot u•&voos VXO dXX-l'yoppLcLLr. (dp6to-ovu?)i 101 .1?2 This is. and give me the eternal crown of victory over every antagonistic principle and power. that which is expressed in the Book of the Laws by describing the "natures" as "injuring and injured frombefore 100 Ex Script. perhaps. Arist." thrust aside. Anz. Verses 3e and 4 describethe internecinestrife of the elements in a vivid picture.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 199 The "abysses" are the vast gulfs of air.. chapters iii. 108See above. as Clement was largely influenced by that sect. from which the several genera and their species come. and let not their dark mist enwrap me.. iv. thus giving rise to the ceaseless round of transformations which we see. p. the aspect of Bardaisan's theory which Ephraemdesignates by the word "opposing" or "conflicting" substances.
they " cry to the Lord" in a state of agonized turmoil and confusion.s08 "All defective things "must perish. xii.200 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE the creation of the world. the Word was given to the worlds. In vv." The Ode proceeds: "They perished by His thought. is the correct technical ." and the idea is certainly the same. 9.Similar phenomena are describedas attendingChrist's birth. 18. Protev. their warfare stayed. 107 b 7TrAos r^ Oopas(?). p." as in Ode xii. 1osSee p. The confused and warring elements are brought to rest. LL. the " abysses are sealed with the seal of the Lord. Conceived as components they are aTroTxeta 105 See p. . the poet turns from the cosmological to the anthropological aspect of the work of the Word." 1OLS. 182." which is almost a translation of a'ro-0 eithoraeav /vo-rov. "like women in travail..• . The descent of the Dove is an event of such commanding import that even the dumb beasts recognize it. they have been checked." 109 j. "this injuriousness 100also which remains in them. by the thought or will of God. finally. shall be brought to an end by the restraints which are in another mixture. 10. 8. 186). p. The chief difficulty of this Ode lies in the opening verses. 2. and Odexxii 11 : "That everythingmight be dissolvedand Jac. 109. 109 "it was not possible to give them the Word that they might abide. those that had been of old. 106 5pC0apgdva (?)." But their cry is unheeded.W.109a This is a e 104 Note that the word " natures. and the completion of their corruptionl07 was life "-this present world must pass away to make way for a new heaven and anew earth. term for the elements conceived as possessingactive properties. "as is the Word's work. in Ecclesiasticus 43 23: translation: Xorytr/Aw Jerome's "cogitatione sua placavit abyssum."1'0 But here the poet depicts it in a vivid image -the abysses have been engaged in devouring one another. 182. 86. 7. "They were corrupt 106 from the beginning." or. Zur 24ten Ode Salomos ZNTW. in the words of the Book of the Laws. such is his final end" (Ode xii. See Duensing. so the Book of the Laws. . " deficiencies will be filled up" . then renewed. 4.
" probably the Star of Bethlehem." i. it sweeps away all obstacles and makes "a broad path. nymph. also the descending Christ is committed." the great "wheel of the Zodiac " (wcostaKov Ic. Death lets go the "feet and the head. de ant. to the more remote results of that stupendous event. for in the Valentinian system the divine Christ does not come to earth until the moment of the baptism. a Porphyry. Christand the dead who are to be saved. is "her head. which bears the seven planets to which in Ode xix. " Many hands " of the Powers of the Spaces." ' The head" 112 is probably Christ as the Head of the Church Comparethe effect of the appearanceof the Star upon the other stars 110 in the passage from Ignatius quoted. when Christ descends into Sheol. 29. This same group of astrological conceptions affords a perfectly intelligible interpretation of that very difficult Ode. But the Dove here does not represent the Christ. repredeparting souls ascend throughCapricorn. according to Bardaisan. ibid. I give merely a paraphrase. At v. ascribes to the Oe6Xoyom doctrine 111 .p. the 23d." So in xlii. here symbolized by the system of planets revolving in the Zodiac which."' Upon the wheel is a "sign of the Kingdom and the Government. 18. As it offers no special difficulties of translation. 112 xvii. 12 the poet's prophetic eye looks forward from the moment at which the Word entered into the system of nature.and I wastheir head. that descendingsouls enter the world throughthe Zodiacin the sign Cancer. The regeneration of the system of natural law inevitably carries with it the triumph of the Gospel. the Christ. for down to the feet ran the wheel and that which was a sign upon it. govern the operations of mechanical law." her superior. rush to seize it.cXo9).NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 201 Gnostic idea. is the Word descending to be born of the Virgin. 14: "They wereto me as my own members. Again an indication of the curious blending of orthodox and Gnostic ideas so characteristic of these Odes. It is received by a "wheel." "The head went down to the feet.11obut the seal upon it protects it from them.e. ch. the Abysses. ch." i. 191. The "thought" or "will" of God which descends like a letter. But others of the Oe6\oyoL sent the souls as descendingthrough the moon and ascending through the sun . 22.e. for "the Messiah.
The preceding verses speak of the bonds which Christ is to loose. implied: x." "who are not made for this grace. established a certain degree of congruity between the doctrines of the Odes and those of Bardaisan. Batiffol objects that it is represented as already accomplished.the feet are probably the souls in Sheol yet to be redeemed. indeed. which represents the operation of the Gospel under the forms of regenerated natural law. his poison. and he also recognizes the existence of "tares. I think. In only one passage is it. an objection of any force. of the dragon with seven heads. 8-10. perhaps. is the doctrine to which Ephraem pays most attention. I think. I have. I do not think this settles the question. 114 See p. carries Christ there also. 178. I am not aware of any demonstrable points of incongruity. 3. The poet's thoughts are dominated by the consciousness of the work of grace in his own heart and he has no special occasion to deal with Free-will as such. for future events are frequently described in these Odes as accomplished. true that the doctrine of Free-will does not definitely appear in the Odes while it is one of the salient features of the Book of the Laws. indeed." Nor is the doctrine of predestination. viii. and in the following 113See p.202 -the JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE conception of Christians as the body of Christ frequently recurs in the Odes . 14-22). which is definitely taught in the Odes (e. Another characteristic trait of Bardaisan's teaching was the denial of the resurrection of the body. his seed. Bardaisan himself recognizes 13 that Free-will subsists only by the sufferance of God and will prove no obstacle to the final regeneration of all things. the poet describes the resurrection of the dry bones. In one passage.g. this. his roots. xxii. 181. The revolution of the wheel." 114 An ancient is not required to be more consistent than a modern theologian. and this Harnack takes as referring to the resurrection of the body. It is. But the context is distinctly against a literal interpretation. for believers in predestination are often advocates of Free-will. . But this is not. "to convert the souls of them that were willing to come to Him. incompatible with the theory that they are the work of Bardaisan.
8). (2) That some of the Odes can be readily interpreted in the light of Bardaisan'stheories. found in many Gnostic sects-and elsewhere--that the redeemed soul possesses a body of pure light. 16.. 380. "in me there shall be nothing that is not bright. p. and I was clothed with the covering of Thy Spirit and Thou didst remove from me my raiment of skin" (xxv. incompatiblewith the notion of corporeal resurrection. p. 7b. and S. "I put off darkness and clothed myself with light and my soul acquired members free from pain. "the traces of the light were set upon their heart" (x. 23): . I was named the Illuminate. viii." 115 Saturnilus conceived of souls as sparksof light. the son of God" (xxxvi. Bef. 418. have found place in the poet's theology.. lf 115Hipp. dsr c 8•-yeype rov Kil pi irohlqe. p. In a similar sense should be interpreted. 967. 1?6irpgev. affliction or suffering" (xxi.. . 2). then.."17 The conceptionof a corporealresurrection cannot. These passages unquestionably point to the well-known doctrine. rbv d'Opw116Op. 10 (D. is also figurative. The presumptionis that the clothing of the dry bones with flesh. Potter: IXNb oDv 6 ZTIwrprby &vXbv PwOeC KcdTrwi ^wrbs Tto alwvlots XapaK'rpOL. 7b). So Hippolytus in describing the Docetae that they regarded souls as "the eternal marks (or says imprints) left by the light when it shone from above down below. 66: Areg4'e oirvO•pca wsj. "although a son of man. vii. But before Bardaisan's authorship can be regarded as established it must be shown that all the Odes can be intero KareLXi/CdyVoT . which is. 28. . obviously borrowed from Ezekiel. This presumptionis strengthenedby the passages which clearly do refer to the state of the redeemed. 3). 3. I have endeavoredto show: (1) That no antecedentimprobabilityprecludesthe ascription of the Odes to Bardaisan.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 203 verses we have the rock which is to be the foundation of all things. 117 Excerpta Theod.1" is the and the eastern Valentinians used the same word Saviour's office "to awaken the soul and light the--it spark. of course. cit. e b&r R Tfv OrwHOIjpa.
"Their own degrees. I have as yet found no otherillustration. in the hope that they may be found to contain some elements of value to the ultimate solution of the problem. 5).who has been so kind as to read this paperin proof. For the following notes I am indebted to suggestions given me by Prof.) "High places" are 'wcaLra.and the good or bad effects of that influence. To this task I shall not be able to address myself for many months to come. e. cf." (See note 52.. The 300 of each sign are apportionedamong the five planets and those to appropriated each are termedits "limits. 1911. the later distinguishedbetween the unalterableproperinfluence. cod. p. 105)." etc. might be modifiedor transformedby circumstances(ibid. I. and I have therefore thought it best to make public my tentative results.g. astr. also Julius of Laodicea. (See note 51. But of the ascriptionof exclusivelybeneficent influencesto "those on the right. The " degrees " are the " limits " (5pma). as others have done. although generallyconstant for a given planet. IV. JUNE 5.204 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE preted from the same point of view. Franz Cumont..) The earlier astrologerstermed planets "Ibeneficent" and "maleficent" (Ptol.-Procl. which." . Cat. warming.
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