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Romaine Newbold Reviewed work(s): Source: Journal of Biblical Literature, Vol. 30, No. 2 (1911), pp. 161-204 Published by: The Society of Biblical Literature Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3260001 . Accessed: 23/12/2011 08:03
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161 AND NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN THE ODES SOLOMON OF
Bardaisan and the Odes of Solomon'
WM. ROMAINE NEWBOLD
UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA
of Solomon present THE newly discovered Odes literature problems asto the student of early Christian fascinating as they are difficult. The author is a poet, and a poet of no mean order, but he is much more than that - he feels himself inspired by the Spirit of the Lord and illumined by His light; the resources of language, even when strained to the utmost limits of poetic license, are inadequate to express the richness of that new life which has transfigured his inner self and filled him with the joy and peace that pass all understanding. Yet when one endeavorsto see the worlds of matter and of spirit as the singer saw them2 and to grasp his conception of their mutual relations, in brief, to reconstruct his philosophy and to determine his age, his environment, and the school of thought to which he belonged, one encounters peculiar difficulties. He is as much at home in the Psalms and Wisdom-literatureas any Jew, and yet is not in sympathy with the more distinctive tenets of Judaism. He acknowledges no circumcision save that of the heart (xi. 1-2), no sacrifice save that of "1God's thought," of "righteousness and purity of thought and lips" (xx. 1-7), no peculiar people, for his sympathies are as broad as humanity (vi. 7-17; xiv. 14-29). He is a Christian, familiar with the leading events-of Christ's life -the miraculousbirth (xix. 6-10), the baptism (xxiv. 1-3), crucifixion and descent
1 I desire to acknowledge to the editors my obligations for their kind revisionof the proofs duringmy absencefrom the country, and in particular revision of my translationsfrom the Syriac. ProfessorMontgomery's 2 The author's general point of view has been characterizedby many; perhapsthe best is that of Gunkel, ZNTW, xi. 1910, p. 320.
into Hades (xlii. 1-26 et al.), yet he absolutely ignores many of the most characteristic doctrines and practices of Christianity. He makes no explicit allusion to the resurrection or ascension of Christ's material body, or to baptism, or the eucharist. He knows of sin and evil as facts (xxxiii. 8; xxxviii. 12 ff. et al.), but they seem to lie outside the range of his own present concern; even his conception of redemption seems unconnected with the crucifixion. Moreover, amidst the profusion of poetic and allegorical images in which he expresses his ideas, there are some which one can scarcely regard as merely poetic and allegorical and which fit but ill into the traditional system of Christian theology. The "worlds" 4 et al.), the "garment of light" (xi. 10; xxi. 2), the (xii. "perfect virgin" (xxiii. 5), the "abysses " (xxiv. 3; xxxi. 1), - these, and perhaps others, are somewhat more than hints that the author's view of the universe is not that of the orthodox Christian theologian. The theories proposed to account for this puzzling complex belong to three leading types. The representatives of the first type, led by Rendel Harris, the distinguished discoverer and first editor of the Odes, regard them as belonging to a period when the new life which was stirring men's hearts had not as yet moulded their thoughts after its own image nor found words adequate to its expression, when Christian theology was as yet in the making and clear formulations had no existence, in brief, to the period, approximately, of the New Testament itself. A second group, led by Harnack, cannot believe that conceptions so disparate as are found in the Odes could ever have coexisted as the elements of the world-view of any single mind. They believe them, therefore, to be a composite product, the original Odes being the work of a Jew of unusually catholic sympathies, into whose text a Christian hand has incorporated a few of the more essential elements of Christianity. But Harnack also refers the Odes in their present form to a very early period - about the end of the first century of our era. A third group of students regard them as giving imperfect
AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON
expression to some peculiar system of Christian theology, accepted by some minor sect, probably of the second century, and endeavor to identify the sect in question with some one of those mentioned by the church historians. But upon this point no agreement has as yet been reached. Gunkel thinks them Gnostic, and Preuschen has announced3 that he will endeavor to prove them a part of the Valentinian Psalmbook; Batiffol4 regards them as representing a docetic tendency, perhaps a forerunner of the great Christian Gnostic movement of the second century and akin to that combated by Ignatius. But Conybeare 5 and Fries 6 would have them Montanist. In my opinion the weight of evidence is distinctly in favor of the third point of view. While the considerations urged by Gunkel and Batiffol are not all of equal force and it is not probable that all will stand the test of further criticism, the main thesis for which they contend seems to me established - that the Odes unmistakably reveal the influence of Gnostic speculation. Yet the evidence falls far short of proving them Gnostic, for many of the leading characteristics of Gnosticism, as of Judaism and of Christianity, are conspicuous by their absence. The system of eons, for example, upon the elaboration of which with every detail suggested by pagan mythology or a perfervid imagination the Gnostic thinkers so loved to dwell, is represented in the Odes by nothing but the "worlds," and of them so little is said that it is impossible to determine at first glance what the author meant by them. Again, the Gnostic was essentially an exclusive faith. It drew a sharp line of demarcation between the true Gnostic, or, as the Valentinians called him, the "pneumatic" man, and the common herd, whether Christian or not. In the Odes the "elect" (viii. 21; xxiii. 1-3 et al.) might be regarded as representing the pneumatic man, but their relation to the mass of men is conceived in a very different and more catholic spirit, for the poet looks forward to the time when all mankind will be numbered among the saved (iii. 12;
ZNTW, xi. 1910, p. 328, n. 3. r ZNTW, xii. 1911, pp. 70-76.
Bibl., NS, viii. part 2 (1911).
6 Ib., p. 108.
. it is true. was thoroughly familiar with Gnosticism and had borrowed from it much of his imagery and some of his doctrines. was Bardaisan of Edessa. one does not turn to a hymnal for a system of theology. a man of deep sympathies. 27. and that he lived in a land the peculiarity of whose culture made it the mother soil of Gnosticism.164 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE vi. of broad vision. He must also have been a man who knew the life of the spirit by immediate personal experience. must. Such a man. will deny that Bardaisan. the aim of which was essentially nothing other than a solution of the " World-riddle" with the 7 vii. in a preeiminent degree. The argument from silence is.D. nor shall anything be dumb. One should not forget that it was the most enlightened minds that found something infectious in Gnosticism. " Zur Bardesanischen 1910.p. Nor true Gnostic. Gnosis. vii." Texteund Untersuchungen. of marked originality. See the text. to employ those elements of his theological system which lend themselves most readily to poetic treatment. speak of the time when "Nothing that breathes shall be without knowledge. if he be not wholly devoid of the poetic gift. 8 Born A.). then. was the stupendous drama of the Valentinian theology. passim. But one does expect a hymn writer. while not in the technical sense a Gnostic.9 No one who reflects that Bardaisan's youth fell in a period in which Gnosticism was at its height. have been acquainted with the doctrines of the Syrian Gnostics also. 88. a man whose heart was full of love for God and his fellowman.8 I cannot better express my own impression of the relation between Bardaisan and the Gnostics than by translating a passage from Haase's recent monograph. 9 Felix Haase. at least." 7 As the author. so far as our information enables us to judge. 22 ff. and such. dangerous. note 41. of the Odes we must postulate a man who. died 222. And he was also a gifted poet. receptive as he was to all sciences and sensitive to all intellectual influences. who believed himself divine and could the regarded all other men as akin either to animals or dead matter. Knowledge probably means gnosis. p. 154. 178.
U ov• l ysdpLtAom. It cannot indeed be determined at what period of his life Bardaisan had belonged to a Gnostic sect.. we will not. p. based upon his own philosophical. the "Gnostic " elements. a heretic. and astronomical knowledge. at least so far as its second part is concerned. 30. &TpwP. Tre T7 pwp cqWJ Lrs Bap5eo•dpi7e dvlp tKavdraT•cT6s 7rpbs TrOb TKar& MapKriwva Kal Tr'vaL ErTpov0 /taq6pwv ^ r^ 15L 7rapgs5wKe ydTbrfr rE KaL-paq /. . and his formal classification with the Gnostics by ancient and modern historians does him no wrong. Eusebius' assertion that Bardaisan was at first a disciple of Valentinian. 1. I therefore regard as natural and credible. who composed and committed to writing in his own tongue. ETxr& So0ydd-rwP tWaX6yovevoT-•7~47'e0os. To Bardaisan's intellectual ability all our authorities bear witness. dialogues against the followers of Marcion and certain other representatives of diverse doctrines. then was converted to the true faith without altogether giving up his old heresy. -Trl 'EXXhvwv . make the explanation unnecessarily difficult. which his pupils . XEK. Bardaisan is. aro~10 -TVyypal ica . It will remain a hopeless task to pick out. Nau and Hort are quite right in protesting against reckoning Bardaisan among the Gnostics in the usual sense. Gesch. One will scarcely find a name that adequately and accurately expresses his teaching.: alp&rews ?67roP. for he was a doughty defenderof his doctrine. HE. Harnack. it is enough to maintain that astronomy in particular. i. Eusebius describes him as "a most able man and a skillful disputant in the Syriac language. and Gnostic influence. in the age of Gnosticism. laid the foundation of his peculiar doctrine. ibid."" Epiphanius describes him as "one of the finest Euseb.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 165 aid of all that the heathen sciences and Christianity had achieved.KCtraTro.10 Bardaisan's keen intellect must have recognized the weak points in the Valentinian or [other] Gnostic system.rb Tr s26pwo /eTaLSe- 7rpoOcrraFdov . altchr. but will simply assume Gnostic influence. ap. 10o TE Tr7g KaTcl raXatai 11 iv." p 7rXEL~rrotL rap utprw i7rkelTwrw. Lit. and remains. theological. 9.d. and he therefore worked out a peculiar doctrine of his own.of whom he had many. OkaXeTi'oP 5' dpa obrot rpo'Trepop Kear& orXOXfl•.le-raEEOar ctAlq ?S o0 EavT r 7rw aclrbs tdjJ ye direppoa-ro KiTrareXwC 7rXEUTcrd -I r 9'l rbr 7?7I 5La- Id.. But if we find in his doctrines passages that unquestionably have a Gnostic ring. 4 W raptC-ar/AgJ Gatb VrVaTwrj T'3 X6"Y' 8XhKao-&wcwv7^J. besides many other works. in so far. U To~0rrop Oat dpOorpaTr yPr v . J6Ket Jeal U& r9j KcaraLTpoy0 raT?7~. 185: JP AvOo7rotasL d•reXg'y a. in this doctrine.translatedfrom Syriac into Greek.
Haer. constrains that you bear the repetition of their words..'5of the impeding substances. (R. p. 1865. 53.that the soul [consists] of seven [parts]. p. Ed. he says: Love for you. "highly adorned with all the graces. p. Paris. 10. Vatican ed. inl. that I may not expatiate upon those things which Bardaisan alleges among his doctrines." 12 Jerome says that he was regarded as "distinguished" and that the Syrians extol the ardor of his intellect and his vigor in argument. 12Haer. 63. For he formed hymns and set them to tunes. that the body is of the evil [principle]. 1900. 56. Ad Hypatium. p. 187: talis Bardisanes. 553: 15bEphraem discusses this doctrine at length. Duval. p. Syr. Oxon. 6yto . and that it has no resurrection.. 186: dptar6s rts oa.dVOS. the signs of the zodiac. ii. "such was Bardaisan. eund. He divided the words in measures and weights. contr. eund. .16 And [so] he set beforethe simple folk bitter [mixed] with sweet . et aliorum Opera Selecta. .p ircitra 1eyMXwOSKEKO7c0Lfl/. . 14 sqq. Ephraem Syrus does indeed frequently speak of the charm which the Bardaisanite hymns exercised upon the minds of the people and attributes them to Bardaisan. etc.. and composedsongs and introducedmeters. 16 Le. For example. . p. in S.5b and [all] the rest. in Osee. . 186: clarus habitus est .sick folk they. rh 18De vir. brethren." "1eloquent" both in Syriac and in Greek. in rhythmic and accentual measures. ardens eius a Syris praedicatur ingenium et in disputatione vehemens. La litterature syriaque. Eph. whose intellect even philosophers admire. ap. 18). ap.13 And again. ap. cuius etiam philosophi admirantur ingenium. 33." 14 To Bardaisan's gifts as a poet no trustworthy evidence survives. ii.. 14 Comm... eund. Overbeck..166 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE of men. 15 Or. the stars.
CI .e. in the interval Bardaisan's doctrines reason to believe that had been modified by the influence of Manichaism and probably by other influences as well.wrote much in Syriac."1 He wished to make David his model. " having had a Greek education. Harm. otd ye brb VXpad Ovvrypdtaro avvOels. 187) also states that Harmonius. ct irep XpcbevoL.. HE. rpoo'Itt/. TavraO cs 666as " Since he [Harmonius]was not entirely outside the limits of his father's sect and the views entertainedby the Greekphilosophers regardingthe soul. he.. It is also more than probable that the hymns in use among the Bardaisanites were not of his composition. as in other Christian churches. and imitated his number [only]. but does not distinguish his work from that of his father.he commingledthese views with his own compositions. 187: Obt dyivo . too. the birth and dissolutionof the body and transmigration..op...Vos Bap8iodovu avveoT• rats. my brethren. 16. he expressly implies that Bardaisan's poems were set to the lyre by Harmonius and not by Bardaisan himself. rap' 'Oopovo^s dyI-opro. iii.yevP40CW Ka & 7d gov7resr otdrobvt. dXX& To tLs X& Kal caIPpIOeOs. XOPO rdptvwLO bra-ya 0. cit. was the first to adapt his mother tongue to meters and musical rules. p. p.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 167 who chose not wholesome food.e. Harnack. the canonical Psalms had been used in public worship from the 17 Duval (loc. irel ydlp ob raWdI r-tv &K769 JP37^9 rarTpCaCs TE q0paopaiO a65aTO0 KaZl 0l StbXororcZXtyyeIcrl o ap? EXXi1ro iPVX27S. composed 150 songs. Bap8a7. His [i.oUvoLKO r 7)P ?OsraOpaSo KcaaOdrEp v^ KGCal IroXXdKLS o0 1Appo rt'dXXovorL. op.8S These varying accounts are easily reconciled." 18 Sozom.rdr 6 vrap abrov KaXovuJV7lV 6o T7Y actp7jorLv craTO. that he might be adorned with his beauty and praised for his likeness. K rdXaL JXXoyLtcrTarotroTroPvbY 7rp6Tro Tre. with the view expressed in his own compositions. Kcal'Apu6. if I understand aright the following sentence." and indeed.E . cit. The circumstantialcharacter of this account gives it claim to credence. ap. TrosOIKelOLS YpdttCZaTv.CS Kal .).. ap.seeing that he set to the lyre what he [Bardaisan] had composed.cit. Harmonius.Theodoret (HF. It is probable that in the Syriac. 6 pat 56e r imv "EXXrort rap' Xbyw ao rpWrotLdrpOLS KGL aly6OLs dxO•rcra 4 r OpLy Kc ."i. rvyypdALLczcrL. as well as Bardaisan. " Les malades n'eurent point le choix d'un remade salutaire. ot iroAs 'Apwoviov • . David's] truth he deserted. Sozomen explicitly asserts that Bardaisan's son. But it must be borne in mind that Ephraem is writing There is about 150 years after Bardaisan's death.
celebrates his deliverance from a form of error portrayed by a "bridegroom who corrupts and is corrupted. while wholly insufficient of themselves to prove authorship." and is "adorned. probably had not the ability and certainly had no desire to distinguish in the mass of heretical psalms and hymns the compositions of Bardaisan from those of his successors. and there is no doubt that such practices were widespread among many Gnostic sects. There are also several allusions in the Odes. Bardaisan had been converted from Gnosticism to Christianity. and there is every reason to accept his evidence. but. and so ascribes them all indiscriminately to him. The poet says "the way of error I have left " (xv. 6). harmonize singularly well with the little we know of Bardaisan's life and activity. it is at any rate certain that their introduction into the church at Edessa was ascribed by Ephraem to Bardaisan. which.168 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE earliest times. Whether other psalms and hymns were used along with those " of David " in the other churches is a question into which I need not enter. 4). and invite many to the banquet. would endeavor closely to imitate the Psalms with which they were already familiar. It may be that Bardaisan was also the first to write hymns in meter similar to those Syriac hymns with which we are familiar. who was engaged in a fierce warfare with the Bardaisanite heretics." who "lead astray and corrupt the whole world. "I was delivered from vanity " (xvii. in his earliest efforts to produce hymns acceptable to his congregation. 2). This reads like a condensed abstract of the account given by Epiphanius of his own experiences when young among the "Gnostics " of Egypt (Haer. and give them to drink of the wine of their intoxication so that they may vomit up their wisdom and knowledge. Just such imitations the " Odes of Solomon" unquestionably are." and a "bride who is corrupted. xxvi. in view of Sozomen's evidence. the whole of Ode xxxviii. Ephraem. It is probable on the face of it that Bardaisan. There is no reason to charge the Valentinians with . it is more probable that the Bardaisanite hymns in meter known to Ephraem were the work of Harmonius and other writers." and so on.
20 Le livre des lois re avroeos i Tbv 6. xxxv.. despays. Marcion and others.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 169 them. suggest that the persons for whom he writes are not unacquainted with persecution. manfully defending [the true] religion. 2). Ilcer..plvaro. xxviii. " I am a priest of the Lord. and replied in clever speeches. O my 19Epiphan. 6.. . like Epiphanius. " He withstood Apollonius. KbP Nau. and bearing such clear evidence of deep and sincere religious feeling.20but the context in Ode xx. Of more weight is the general impression conveyed by the Odes as to the author's relation to his readers. v. 8div Odvarov P/L q1jas. X6ayovs e8tivac d7re. The much discussed opening verses of the 4th Ode -" No man. 7'. &viteTpe rapavolatbroos 4pvoraacOaLtb XpwLrLavbv Eavrb'v XI-yewv. It would fit in very well with the recorded statement that Bardaisan had been ordained deacon. ix. for it must necessarily ensue even if he did not disobey the Emperor. xxv. Antoninus' friend.. 56. 186: 'A'rwuvvov 'ralpy Ur 6 U? Pelas uv8pelws diroXoyod5evos. op. Harnack. p. 7-c Lr BtaotLXet AL iTreliTOL. 1. rather suggests spiritual than ecclesiastical priesthood. but it is not always possible to distinguish between what he says in his own person and what he says in the person of Christ. e. had as a youth just escaped the temptations of some such sect.. which would be appropriate to the age of the Antonines. and was almost appointed to the order of confessors... when exhorted by him to deny that he called himself a Christian. xxix. Bardaisan believed himself to be orthodox. and wrote against the heretics.g.. e. His " work is the Psalm of the Lord " (xvi. rdEcMoXoaylar Kosarder. but the suggestions are too vague to be of value. We are told that Bardaisan came very near suffering martyrdom. viii." etc. 10. and his addresses to his readers intimate that he anticipates something more than a hearing." 19 There are several Odes which intimate that the speaker has suffered persecution. The same must be said of the allusion in xx. p.g. ap. Other Odes. might have served to draw a band of devoted followers about their gifted author. 'AroXXwv•Pt 6 tK7K1 7 70T0 irp rd0EfOCLL. One can readily imagine that Odes so beautiful as these. but it is quite possible that the poet. cit. and declaring that he had no fear of death.
. surely Bardaisan might have used Greek in Syria. 14.2 The fact that these Odes.) 22 I am inclined to believe that the original was Greek. But neither of these suppositions is as yet beyond question. of course. no more than that the author of the Pistis Sophia was working from a Greek text-not that the text was the original. was to be found at Pepuza in Phrygia. because he hath no power over it. and raise a presumption in favor of the theory that the original was Greek. Havr. are much more easily explained as an attack upon the Montanist claim that the holy place.170 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE God. which had been in large measure bilingual for centuries. (Dind. 48. 442. moreover. and others base their opinion are indeed suggestive. as I have shown. it is not yet proved that the Odes were first written in Greek. 49. describes him as "eloquent both in Syriac and Greek. Epiphanius. The words and phrases of the Syriac text upon which Schulthess. On the other hand. But two objections present themselves. 16. for thy sanctuary thou hast designed before thou didst make other places "--in which Conybeare sees Montanism. ii. and in particular of his relation to the development of Syriac hymnology. ii.21 It appears then that the little we know of Bardaisan's life and activities. indeed. distinctly favors the hypothesis that he might have written the Odes of Solomon. The occurrence of Greek words in the Coptic version proves. 1." It is. possible that in the last quarter of the second century Greek was a privileged tongue in the church of Edessa.. If Hermas could make his revelation in Greek to the Latin-speaking Roman Christians.. much as it was in the Roman church a little earlier. and the Odes are supposed to be translations from a Greek original. 21. the language of the Odes and their title. and it is not possible that he should change it and put it in another place. Gunkel. 444. the true Jerusalem which came down from heaven. even about the middle of the 21Epiphan. but they are not sufficient to put the question beyond doubt. Bardaisan was certainly able to write Greek. Bardaisan is supposed to have written in Syriac. changeth thy holy place.
were regarded as canonical and used as such by the author of Pistis Sophia. concludes that Bardaisan wrote in Greek a dialogue "Against Destiny. 1899.2 The book professesto be a record 23 Besides Cureton's second edition. if a stray copy of the Odes fell into their hands and seemed to them capable of being used to support their doctrine. the discussion for and against a Greek original by Schulthess and Nildeke. I have used that of Nau."in 1855. pp. 1863). It was first published by Cureton in 1847. [N." Lack of space preventsme from entering into my reasonsfor dissentingfrom this latter conclusion. from the latter version Eusebius' quotations and those of the Recognitionsare derived.and there would have been little likelihood that the fraud ever would be detected. 44 sqq. of course.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 171 second century. many early sects. after a minute comparison of the " Book of the Laws" with the quotations in Eusebius and the Recognitions. indeed.the fact that such works met with easy acceptance proves that the membersof these sects were as uncritical as their leaders were unscrupulous. cit. Le livre des lois des pays. presupposes good faith on the part of the author of Pistis Sophia--he was deceived by the fact that the poems had been long current. 91. 555. The Syriac was then again translated into Greek.. Ed. Paris. already bore the name of Solomon. and so on. to attach to it the name of Solomon. probably not fifty years after Bardaisan's death. pp. I shall find it necessary to give a fairly complete outline of the "Book of the Laws of the Countries." which was translated by his pupils into Syriac. Halle. The Gnostic group from which the Pistis Sophia emanated. The argument. I can see no force in such considerations. has been very generally accepted as proof that they must have originated at least a hundred years earlier. forged works in support of their peculiar tenets with the utmost freedom. From this Syriacversionthe existing "Book of the Laws " is derived. Bardaisan'soriginal work did not contain the doctrineof planetaryinfluence ascribed to him by the "Book of the Laws. in ZDMG.). The men who forged books wholesale certainly would not have hesitated. he found them in his copy of the Bible.in his "Spicilegium Syriacum. Haase (op. with an English translation. and Merx's translation (in Bardesanes von Edessa. and again. Moreover. This book contains the only fairly trustworthy evidence as to the views of Bardaisan himself.] ."in order to prepare the way for the interpretation of the Odes. 1910.B. and.
. and Destiny. of a dialogue held between Bardaisan and his disciple Avida. being independent. sickness and sin.172 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE made apparently by a certain Philip. and confirmsthe statements of the churchhistoriansas to Bardaisan's with Greek. rve1/Aa). and it is quite possible. and also upon his soul. Nature. Man is ruled by three independent principles: Freewill. Free-will he shares with God and with the angels. by the constellations and planets. upon the problems of Destiny and Free-will. Furthermore. of astrology. The conception had become a commonplace Greekphilosophylong beforeBardaisan's of day. upon man's body as a part of that world. The Book of the Laws is a discussion. It puts into Bardaisan's mouth a He accepts the fundamental theory of marked originality. of the ultimate laws that govern the universe. the Book of the Laws does not even profess to be from the hand of Bardaisan himself. the Odes are devotional poems of a most intimately personal character. it is obviously unreasonable to anticipate any considerable degree of coincidence between them. It is only by accident that the two works occasionally touch upon the same topics. 2 The theory is obviously eclectic. The conception acquaintance of I"Nature"( . whence arise in the world discord and confusion. Their themes are as unlike as possible. but dissents from that form of the principles doctrine of Destiny or Fate which was so generally associated with it. "Destiny " is the influence exerted upon the entire material world. in a severely scientific and objective spirit.24 These three principles. It is at best based upon one of his works. and that he was the author of the Odes. that the connection is not immediate. It. and introduce a reign of peace and love. "Nature" is the organic principle which governs the development and nutrition of his body. But in time. may and frequently do clash. as Haase thinks. as Stoic writers were more disposed to use Stoic terms (•-yos.) is unmistakably the Aristotelian(q'aos. but the word which Bardaisanuses (= •l06t) possiblypoints to acquaintance with Peripatetic sources. the " great and holy will of God " will put an end to the discord. Even granting that the Book of the Laws fairly represents Bardaisan's views.
man finds joy. It is. prove that the writers are identical. I think. from the notion so prevalent in all Christian ages. and to pray for that which is good for every one whom he knows " . primarily. God. good properly belongs to him. his whole nature seems to turn as naturally towards love. Indeed. and in doing good which he conceives is.and these traits are in striking accord with the character revealed in the Odes. to "love. as the needle to the pole. that man is naturally inclined to sin. of course. Nearly all the Odes are full of joy and thankfulness. While he is of course aware of its existence. indeed. in phraseology and sequence of ideas.in a brief article. It is impossible. it gives a fairly definite impression of certain traits of Bardaisan's character.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 173 The number of coincidences that do occur. he seems to have no present personal concern with it. supplemented by informationafforded by Ephraem and other writers. I have already referred to the singularity of the poet's attitude towards sin and evil. to speak the truth. goodness. The real significance of the Book of the Laws is this: In the first place. their value as evidence is not great. offer a very satisfactory interpretation of several difficult Odes. but in default of any evidence to show whether these traits were personal peculiarities of Bardaisan's. Bardaisan regards man as imbued with a natural inclination towards good. bless. it was this that first led me to think of Bardaisanas their possible author. Bardaisan'sconception is very different. and the affinity to that of the poet is manifest. rather. In the second place. an expression of Bardaisan's own character. I give here. nor could it. This similarity of character does not. however. is suggestive. have been based in the first instance upon observation of what men actually do. but it is one of the minor threads in the web of evidence which I am endeavoring to weave. the theories of the Book of the Laws.or were common in Syriac literature of his age. . to quote from the Odes at such length as to give an adequate impression of the author's personality--that can be gained only by thorough familiarity with the Odes themselves.
we shall agree " with thee. and if it please us also. even the way of truth. 10." xxxiii. but are always pulling down and building up." C. " querelle.freely modified by suggestions derived both from the Syriac and from Nau. and have added in footnotes the more striking parallels from the Odes. but I began first to question these. thou hast anything in thy mind respecting this about which thou wast inquiring. p.174 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE those passages26 from the Book of the Laws which are relevant to my present purpose. . 27. because he will certainly give pleasure to him to whom the inquiry is directed. my brethren." C .? 2s The translation is that of Cureton." C. O ?r. because I was ashamed of asking thee.ASLZ "cleverly. 80 wa participate. If. therefore. and is willing to be convinced. 8: " I will make you wise in the ways of truth. but also many. Avida said: "I am desirous of learning.2 Nevertheless. and if it please us not. Cureton." Bardaisan said: Not Avida alone is unwilling to believe. 3) found destitute of all knowledge of the truth." N. 9 (C). and thou wilt be able to know everything." The simile of a way or path occursabout 17 times in the Odes." Cf. 28 1 P?" obstinacy. These modifications are not always indicated. 6: " The way of error I have left. 2. p. tell it to us all. . and draweth near to the way of truth n without opposition. 6: "I ran in the way of his peace." C. know that he who putteth his inquiries properly." N." and again. by those things which I have mentioned. and he will hear something to his advantage. necessity will compel us to show thee why it does not please us." xv."Way of truth." N." to which Avida objects "But I am not able to believe unless I be convinced.28 needeth not to be ashamed. . " d'aprs les apparences. 7. 29 S. " something more. because Avida is not willing to believe. Avida's brethren say: "Believe firmly." Bardaisan said: Thou speakest becomingly. nor are they even able to be convinced. my son. " serons d'accord. because they have in them no faith. 1. Ode xi. lo! I will speak to you who do believe concerning this which he inquires. " fell from the way of truth. and are (p. Nevertheless.
" With the next sentence.pa. 11 . But he exalted him by Free-will above many things.and I speak by His love. xxviii. In the Odes. and the treasuryof the darkness is the night". " de discouriret 82The conception that faith or belief is the first step in the Christian life occursfrequentlyin the Odes." " I will not rise at any time. and know my knowledge." Also." Why did not God create us so that we should not sin and be guilty ? " ." Compare. but would have been the instrument of him that moved him." N. but night brings darknessover the face of the land." nor the moon.oI" ip de conclure. xxxix. and have not received knowledge from the wisdom of the truth. . xvi. 6 : " Believe and live and be saved. ." .also. And on this account they are not competent to discuss and to draw conclusions. 5: " I am strong in His praise." C. but it is nowhere so directly connectedwith knowledgeas here.. occurs vi. ye that are kept by it. " They are instrumentsof the wisdom of God which errs the of not. And how. . so speaks in my membersthe Spirit of the Lord. for faithful is He in whom I had faith ". and the sphere. xxvi. xxxiv. 88The comparisonof man to a harp upon which another plays. 4) never says." Compare. I. 12. 1 : "As the hand moves over the harp and the strings speak. and they have no confidence upon which they may hope. 6. 12-13: " Keep my faith.."1 For they have not the foundation of faith to build upon. 3.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 175 And he began to say to us: There are many men who have not faith. " to speak and to instruct.to . 84tJ.32 (1. " I will not change and not wane nor 31 a . The closest parallel is perhapsviii."C. xlii. xvi. also. and I have faith in Him". then. 6.9 P . (17) " So he made the sun for the day that it may be bright." compare followinglines : (16) " The treasury the light is the sun. and the rest of these things which are greater than we in some things. but they are all bound by the command " that they should do only that which was commanded them and nothing else. would man differ from a harp " which another plays or the cart which another guides ? But God in his kindness did not will that he should create man so. xiv.if man had been created so. 8. and the moon. 18) But as to what Avida was saying . So N . also. "fixed by ordinance. thereforefound I rest. and His hosts are subject to His word. 14: "1And created things run in their coursesand do their works" . For the sun (p. he would not have belonged to himself. and made him equal with the angels. xxix. that there is not given to them Free-will of themselves. the fact that the heavenly bodies never rest is adduced S6 as an illustration of subjection to the command of God. For observe the sun. 4: " I had faith. (15) " They know not how to stand and be idle.ye that know me in the truth.
. not . also. 1." Compare note 40. (1. 3. . 17) On this account there has been given to him these things in kindness. For there are two commandmentsset before us such as are suitable and just 88Severalpassagesrefer to the goodness kindness -A? (1Z-on. 1. and and mercies (1..~. note 40." nor does any one of the stars say. Bardaisan said : This is the answer of such a one as doth not desire to do that which is good. 2: " According to His praise He made me. (1. compare Ode xxix. the hills. p. "I will not rise and I will not set. the earth.for they are the instruments of the wisdom of God which errs not.P xxv. 7: "I grew great by his bounty.-ma. so shalt Thou give to me. who also are possessed of Free-will for themselves.. 4. .) endowing him with powers fitted to raise him above his present status and make him more like God. that by this same Free-will he may justify himself. but that we were in need of Thee. and raised my mind to the height of His truth"." .. With the above. 87 Compare iv. (p. For men are not commanded to do anything but what they are able to do. 19) The commandmentswhich have been given to men are hard and they are not able to perform them. and according to His goodness He gave unto me ". and more especially of him who has obeyed and submitted to his enemy." See. 5.) note 38. For bounty see (j-3a. 9 : "I was enriched by his bounty". and associate with the angels.and so of the sea. Here follows an account of the fall of the angels through their sin with the daughters of men. and that there has been given to him Free-will more than to all those elements of which we have been speaking. 9 : "not that Thou wast in need of us.." But the word used is . 7 : " He glorified me by His kindness..176 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE increase. 3) For everything that exists stands in need of the Lord of All. xvii." that they might minister to him for a season. (3) " According to His mercies He exalted me.8 Avida objects: (1. 9: " According to the multitude of Thy mercies. and p. 30.] but all these things serve and are subject to one command. " and there is no end to his bounty.4). the winds. P awm. xi. 29 sqq. xiv. and govern himself in a god-like manner." [. 17. and according to His excellent beauty He set me on high ".I of God as manifested especiallyin creating man. (l•m s-). 8 "Bounty. 27) On this account let it be manifest to you that the goodness Wof God has been great toward man.
.1 ^ ] . rather than salvation. .. lo i M%. do not Thou. 4 : " Lord. t 40 "Without grudging. xxiv." But it is usually found with verbs of giving. and is then equivalentto d006vws. because of them that are deficient." 2a." ." Commandments. 7. ye in the knowledge of the Most High withoutgrudging. i•o consideredin connectionwith that of xxiv. (1. it is that is not able to do what those devoid of faith " murmur about I know not. e. and to speak the truth. For we are not commanded to carry heavy burdens of stones [and so of other tasks]." and ~. he is able to avoid doing all these things. and to bless. r and the interpretation of xviii. therefore. For they are easy. in close connection • with qAj. is there who is unable to avoid stealing." Possibly " in faith" has been lost fromthe text.•. Who. or that he should be guilty of hatred and falsehood ? For lo! all these things are subject to the mind of man. 4: "Walk Odes.. and this too he is able to do. Ode 4 . For I think it is in these commandments more than in anything else man has power. Should the evidence ever warrant a definite ascriptionof the Odes to Bardaisan. And have receivedsalvation fromHimwithoutgrudging. What man. For even if a man be poor and sick and old. and the other that we should do that which is good and which we love. xxiii. and to pray for that which is good for every one whom he knows: and if he be in health and have the use of his hands. but in the will of the soul.g. also to support by the strength of body him who is sick and broken down. It occurs eight times in the J] and properly means "without reluctance". 7 (see p. and they lie not in the power of the body. 4 must be om. And accordingto His excellent beauty He hath made me. or impotent in his limbs. po~ r take Thy Wordfrom me. so is he able to love. 197)." s are easily confused. And accordingto His bounty He hath given to me. therefore. and have walkedtowardsHim. or to avoid lying or committing adultery and fornication. and desire that it should be done to us likewise. "salvation. but the same phrase recurs.a .NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 177 for Free-will: one that we separate ourselves from everything that is evil and which we should dislike to be done to ourselves. 389 " Devoidof faith. 18) But there have been given to us according to the kindness of God commandmentswithout grudgingOsuch as every man .~ more appropriateto receive commandmentsimmediately after leaving the way of error. and there is nothing that is able to hinder them. he is able too to give something of that which he has. xviii. Moreover.. and as he is able (p. 6) to avoid doing all these things. ?-a = d7rcrTroL. 6: "The way of error have I left.it would be somewhat Fi. With the above passage compare xv.. I should be tempted to emend the text of the Ode." V P?.
42 This joy in the good is the most characteristic trait both in Bardaisan and in the author of the Odes." But the word here translated "what is lovely. "I. with the exception of those who were not made for this grace. and the attempt to reconstruct the theories of each from the scattered hints in our possession would lead me far beyond the limits assigned me. vii. and conceives "'the good " as good deeds. for there is no man who rejoiceth not when he doth that which is good. so is the impulse of joy over what is lovely. The words ae I~c~l p0?o . My joy is the Lord. 1: "As the impulse of anger against evil. and poverty. " I love the Beloved and my soul loves Him. There is one passage in Harris's translation which seems to express the doctrine of Bardaisan. and conceives "the good" as God Himself. and of that soul which has not rebelled against its governors. for this is the good conduct of a free mind. 5. For there are many things which impede the action of the body. But whereas Bardaisan finds it in human nature as such. 41 . to the exclusion of Bardaisan's conception. and more especially old age. Bardaisan. hence a direct comparison of the two authors on this vital point is impossible. "the beloved. .."Every man that possesses a soul within him. after J . 27. 0=3 . For would not that Judge be unjust who should blame a man for such a thing as he is not able to do ? Avida said to him : Respecting these deeds.178 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE who possesses a soul within him 41can do rejoicing." makes it reasonably certain that the passage has no such general application.. again. and my impulse is towards Him." i. And brings in of its fruits without restraint." 5i. but to do good things who among men is able ? .] have been lost IPo.e. for the poet gives no description of human nature as such. ' The wording suggests a plausible emendation "I. which as it stands is unintelligible. do you say that they are easy to perform ? Bardaisan said: To him who desires. and the ?second po is a corrupt dittograph for J?. however. nowhere definitely states his theory of redemption. and who are called tares. is literally. The text reads: m )oa loa. the poet finds it in the redeemed and purified soul." and a comparison with iii. 42 nor is there any one who doth not delight within himself when he refraineth from wicked things. and sickness. 0 Bardaisan. every living man. Avida said: Perhaps a man may be able to avoid wicked things. I have said and do say that they are easy. not.l1_ ? for vii.
For the good is the man's own. 0 Philip. 12. and they see as things seem to them. astrology]. JrtKpTarwp. 1." and created man. signifies a definite astrologicalfunction. . as for myself. when applied to a planet."N = U? j -. "For this conception of knowledge or wisdom as riches. 12: "I was justified by His kindness. After developing in some detail the distinction between the true enjoyment which attends good deeds. 5-6 : "I love the Beloved. as I also once loved it. heads. They are true in that men speak from the appearanceof what they see.a. He fixed the creationand establishedit. compareix. xi. 35) But let us speak now and show with respect to m ie]o.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 179 Bardaisan said : It is more easy to do good than to abstain from (p." " Comparexvi.e. and has ordained the governors. some in Free-will. and His rest is forever and ever ". (p. my soul loves Him. whose rest is forever.. 10: "From above He hath given The conception "rest" me rest that is incorruptible. like the . contentment. know well that there are men who are called Chaldaeansand others who love the knowledge of this art [i. they are false. 12: " He spreadout the heavens and fixed the stars. nevertheless is far removed from the love which is true." '5 j rulers.l. 11. Where His rest is. 4: "Be enrichedin God the Father. I cannot determinetheir precise meanings. 1. Comparexxv. there also am I". 24) We ought plainly to understand that the unrestrained ardor of love is called lust. which. . " or "peace" occurs about seventeentimes in the Odes. iii." which has established the worlds. 4) I likewise.] (1. and receivethe thoughtof the MostHigh ". it seems to me that these three views are partly true and partly false.e. Bardaisan proceeds: (1. and by the thought of His heart". some in Luck. in my humble opinion. rpo•o-y6rLos. each of which." (p. satisfaction) for a moment. xi. 21) But.=. etc. and on this account he rejoices whenever he does good. but the evil is the operation of the enemy and on this account when a man is troubled and not sound in his nature he does wicked things. Greekol0Kos8er6rqs. 7) evil. although there may be in it rest (i. in that the wisdom of God is richer than they. incorruptible and indissoluble. 9: "I was enrichedby His bounty. and the false enjoyment which attends evil.. governors. 20: "The worlds were made by His Word. [Some believe in Destiny."and has given to all things the power which is suitable for each one of them.
any planet is more powerful when in its own "'house.m. De diffinitionibus et terminis astrologice (in Jul. Adv.. a translation of aX??arp~ps rs obpavlac KLV75aeWs. because those heads and governorsupon whom depends the change that is called Horoscope. N. Jupiter and Venus are beneficent. Tetrab. 49 Destiny. and Mercury neutral.. per- . Corr. but here probably means the signs ". that it has not power over everything. " Right " and " left" do not seem to bear any definite technical meaning in astrology. Mat. ir=% o i " Those on the right. wporTK67roS.." . and this change is called the Destiny and the Horoscope0 of this complex which is being sifted and purified for the advantage of that which has been receiving aid and will receive it 10until the consummation of all. and according to this motion and disposition.-Procl.4 = TOLXX•ta." or when rising in the eastern sky than when situated elsewhere in the Zodiac. viii. Firm. elxcapdvfy. jhz." j. 1551).180 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE Destiny. pp. Astron.. and souls are changed in their descent to the bodies. It signifies the total complex of relations constituted by the position of the heavenly bodies at any given moment. 10) And know ye well that. or when setting--but it cannot change its proper character. ccelestia signa. whenever nature is disturbed from its right course. -" The complex." sometimes "south. n. "Horoscope." and sometimes perhaps " west.. but it is here used of the total effect exerted by the stars upon the infant at birth. its disturbance is due to Destiny." 1. The next section shows how organisms are normally ruled by their respective natures. 383. 61 Precisely what Bardaisan means by " those on the right. is equivalentto and is. 13) which is called Destiny is a disposition (or arrangement) of the motion4 which is given to the governors and the elements4 by God. 47Disposition of the motion.e. Boll has shown (Sphcura." sometimes "'east. Mars and Saturn maleficent." I cannot explain. of the Zodiac.g. 48 Elements." "'those on the left. = 1. 1." None of these seems to fit the present passage. 14.are opposed one to the other. And those are on the right 11 called " those which assist nature" and add to as haps. 663-664) that " right " sometimes means "north. p." etc. See Otho Brunfels. Basel. for this very thing itself (p.." . In astrology as known to us. for clearly " those on the right " are planets or constellations which are always beneficent. 50o . (p. Strictly speaking. the horoscope was the sign of the Zodiac rising at the moment of birth (see the admirably clear summary of the leading doctrines of astrology given by Sextus Emp. libb. intelligences are changed in their descent to the soul. "oipdvta arocxe'a. & Add. ed. 1. used by Ptol. 1 ." probably T-TracLts. The position of a planet makes its proper influence stronger or weaker . (v) 12 sqq.OT. Astrol. Pruckner. iii.).
the " institutions. 10 : "Thy will is perfection. befalls them wherever they are. (p." either twy/?ara. withstand . xxvi. i.. xviii.j) that 2•. and in its "houses " it has a certain position. Those on the left are called "bad. For if we were able to do everything we should be everything. 4) What. and whenever it is governed it is able to resist its Governors. But whenever God wills.their natures. 34) and holy will." For even those that think they withstand it. because He is kind and permits all natures to remain as they are and govern themselves by their own will." and whenever they occupy the high places they are opposed to nature and not only injure men.in particular. 22). when their inherent beneficent influencesare re3nforced by their positions in the Zodiac and relations to other planets and constellations. "Their own degrees. for lo! wherever we be.. which is interpreted. and upon one day. .NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 181 its excellence whenever their motion helps them 52 and they stand in high places of the sphere in their own degrees. N Cf. etc. 68 Cf.." . 1. anything can be. so also is this visible man not able readily to deliver himself from the commands of his Governors.but by their wickedness and error. all of us are called by the one name of the Messiah . This is the position in which its influenceis strongest. but also.not by their strength .o . 1. though bound none the less by the works that have been made and by the institutions which have been established for their help. "High places. 32. (p. position on or near the meridian.Christians." and if we had no power to do anything. or geovpavgiara.." 55The " works" are probablythe material universe. 10) But wherever they be and in whatever place that they are. This may last for a short time. As the Free-will of men is not governed by the necessity of the Seven. neither does the Destiny of the Governors compel them to make use of things impure to them. we should be the instruments of others. and on the appointed days we abstain from food. 11-12: " Who is able to interpret the wonders of the Lord ? For he who could interpret would be resolved into (1oa. a certain position in the Zodiac fixed for each planet (Ptol. shall we say respecting the new race of ourselves who are Christians. i." probably. especiallythe stars." For this orderliness and government S" Helps them. 33. whom in every country and in every region the Messiah established at his coming. we assemble ourselves together. the laws of the countries do not separate them from the laws of their Messiah.-Procl." eachplanet has two " houses" or signs properlybelongingto it. and riches and poverty -this which does not appertain to their Free-will. then. which is the first.e. For there is nothing that can hinder that great (p. without opposition." etc. for he is a slave and a subject. but sickness and health.
and later by Plato. And a time will come when this injuriousness also which remains in them shall be brought to an end by the restraintsmfound in another mingling. the existence of this element. also. W a68 . in all its forms. widely prevalent in antiquity. and there will be peace and safety. The doctrine of the soul's descent from heaven here sketched by Bardaisan was. influences severally appropriate to the several tracts of space through which it passed. is not known and the diverse forms under which it appeared have been but imperfectly investigated. that. both in its ascent and its descent. might be conceived as personal or impersonal. and all rebellions will be brought to an end.. softens down the violence of the natures. that they should not be altogether injurious or altogether injured. in all cases. The doctrine was probably of Oriental origin and was introduced into the Greek world by the Orphics about the seventh century B. in one form or another. by the bounty of Him who is the Lord of all natures. " training. Proclus' interpretations of the myths of the lit. whose equilibrium is maintained by a balance between opposed but system equal tendencies. good.. although astrology as a science was as yet unknown to the Greek world at large." N. Its present evils can be corrected by a new combination of its elements.182 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE which has been given. although it is not possible to prove. And at the establishment of that new world. But there is good reason for believing that the form in which it appears in Plato's works has been directly influenced by Oriental ideas. or both. It was probably always associated with the complementary idea that the soul which has thus fallen from her divine estate should seek again to regain it. the soul was supposed to encounter. who probably learned it from the Pythagoreans. all evil motions will cease. for it already contains the essential elements of the astrological form of the doctrine. and the foolish will be persuaded. however." " rvsultat. again." 1 education. Its origin. bad. The world is a a. as they were injuring and injured from before the creation of the world.and deficiencies will be filled up. It is probable. and mingling of one with another.C. These influences. it was adopted by the Pythagoreans.
5CLc4OO'bL KOO•ILKuIC '•O'Tpw7CCt 7 &XXaei asra'v. in so far as the general outlines are concerned.e aucWvTW "yd'otro mmi 5aqCeJva rpbTrov7d biroKe~eOOa ~dXcacr AiC d tral L&Um ftreeOac 7tr rVuep'ry eal al ux1 rjv & epo y'p c lydveoes ot~dv*' o'mTW re'VooG'a rdi•rmw rwirc. depends upon the operation of the celestial orbits which severally exert their diverse influences upon her.57 . she becomes one of the things ruled. . This is Bardaisan's doctrine with one important difference. Proclus' own theory is very similar to that of Bardaisan. So also the soul. in such manner that she is not only a part of the [lower] world.. Proclus holds that the embodied soul is absolutely subject to the influences of the stars. and the body only in so far as not controlled by its nature. of course. is exposed to material spirits.ri7v br oa'av del KalId&Klrov 6 Procl. for he would have to take from the sailors such and such orders and obey the pilot and be exposed to gales of wind. o epG rW^ K6onov IAdpoS. just as though a philosopher were to embark in a ship and become a rower. [in brief]. re A dbrvov 70ooG &dXXC b rt rdv goXdrwv v Kcral Kac cuvat ela rb d Krl ccl'palc 8tocKo0PTWP a7rp olo' et rtr hX6tofoPo s pat' p 5LoLovudIWer rr *a KCL d-~yC7y&p TroTrovKal bIrb Trw 7r& aIKC r 7rXwr7p drcKo~. o hvel rb g-arovCrpoeXOofGa r^ .v rept68wv ylverat Paa~telav r7A7d'AdCYK-I. but the soul is governed by Free-will. In another passage Proclus describes at some length the ed. that of the moon) becomes subject. but is one of its lowest parts. in Remp. .~ 6• X rats d Oprbcrw^ vx. in a sense. arbitrary and fanciful in detail. 7p6etaw U lsr E rb o xarov 7 otpavlwvreptXflc00e6arot7aercv. and as she proceeds thereto she is immersed in all influences [emitted] from the celestial [bodies].NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 183 Republic and Timeus are therefore correct. ii. although. and instead of belonging to those things which rule the Universe. and I cannot supply a better commentary on Bardaisan's statements than by translating one or two short passages from Proclus' intolerably prolix commentary upon the Republic. PT7)TU TrOtOvTwJ' &XXcoM L 77s otbECe 7-P Ir^i . po•ra 6KKEL74 r^ d-'yOp ALXKOS •T 7repL65wv w^i 78allgo . he would. differ in no way from the things which are moved by other things [only]. 345. when she has proceededas far as the lowest of the orbits (i. the eternally subsisting and inflexible dominion of Necessity to which the soul. Kroll. Bardaisan that the body only is subjected to them. is subject to the guiding spirit. 14: . upon falling wholly into birth.e.
but Klotho ratifies them by her own threads.. K y'lp 7 rap' i KsKai 0los. 7 KaL rpo57p~ern ^T T vs o0ev elpopdv2v rolqv70L alOavulrXeIoOAlP avrpd rep elp •Tp ' ov7Pha70o KdTiw 70T rdoews d&retrcltav ol raaXtol Kai d reKdacavTes KXwcOc38td 7rara 7rP Mortpa -KcdXeo••a.. then. from the signs of the Zodiac. cit. XX drb T•K rdP'oTwV Ka 5&&y va ylveEat iZTd•L• v JAwv al h04Kovoal.dbi d7rXcaVWP 1oo0OaL. 342. but Klotho (= "Twister "). 21: 7T drb r o drb p ebX6AeOa Aotpav* obXl T6 7rrwis ei8os b6vov. 7r Xszjavofs 86oel. 8 P PvX) Tr /LOLpazta. and by way of a simile they.6vov w I d&rb T v wv dXXr dov abtrbTwP d7TXavY rXavWpivre 6vWvr. i0ouv Pbvov d&rb ?yl'ot. . dvrl MeT&r 7rava IroLvY ?T•v v'otv 7Lt KXOeL KaL al" WV rapasecadvrm &XXa yet 7f 'ATp6brov. which is twisted and intertwined from all these. the products of her spinning [or twisting]. Tc Uava0Tp676epa XoEV' AaXiaews. ' ?v T& Kal elp". The influence. TW7 7TE K6KXWV " t KE Kai 7Tw V CLVaTOS LOLpPV KaL darb TWP 7TW9V TWdv7r'XavrCoP' TwP daOTIpwV Kal TWP v 8Xw ryUCWV KCai TWP&XXv OvLordeeWov. U KXwOI KvpoT TaGVTa ToLs LavT-fl v7Pha-L Kal KXcSaoLaaotv. KXwOov^r rapapylverat. . upon the ground that they. puoLpav ali Seya'dyXv rip o v &. and through the threads which it gives.. .v7-w XaX&ao^o ~ piwvi&uGv ? Kal Ailry6irmot roXXo irepl rv rpoyV'rJdaerv. . L&8•OLV d4eLrEAcorpoca 8dLV 7 vT7vP Xav cvaPdWV K6KXWV y&p aeTr) rapd7TL Ts oO)K ?w00s . indeed. drypplovwa Ic LTr 7L/v^ T 7TC^ &CXX Kac &rb 7-w rapao . rdvTwv Top 6T0 V r6 Kai S ro6Tw7J IX6YPrTW paCoT7pLOv repi Tis 'EVIeOEL.not merely the kind of life. too. exert a great and effective fateful influence upon nativities. Not only. . for this reason. but also the [influences] imparted to us by the Universe. From Lachesis.PL ObK &pa rI TrI 'yevIVOELs eZT a-vlrX-lpovoaOa TwVPd&vOp&r7rTv T7y ofeo'Oac ' L. d. Kal a y 8 aXdov &~ r6o0YLaLXXOV VKTaLrivra tL lveraT V'roKaraKXtveTaL rTEpL68ots. . KvpwOjvcal fqo-wL 7b 6 1 Kal eleOazL uTLS v pXeac els" 7a rarbXX Tre 86o~"r*cd' var•eXX6. the ancients compared to "twisting" and "turning" together with the stretching of the thread from above downwards. PLa6Ovovoa yp I"rXelo0tv ObKdTL y ?r' &XXoLts77/JL dKeCOev T? KLTV^ ?EW VCa7riv ^rpoEPeL. p. in that she causes to stream upon us the gifts of the celestial from the constellations also which rise simultaneously with each of them there comes to us a generous largess. from whom we got life. then. and from them [the] Chaldean and [the] Egyptian [astrologers] are wont to foretell many events of our lives. •d 8vuvar•b d&PavyeYv Trdos dTLrOeoLav TrotSalpeOe•LOLv. called this Fate. makes what has been twisted incapableof being un58Op. rdpaI dT& KXwo0'dvTa a'T7ry 1yd/rcJTV 7roLOvOav. sphere. we get both.184 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE way in which the soul's total endowment is derived from the constellations and the planets :68 What. a&" 1V 7rTeTLOdaav T•. then. He then brings [the soul] from Klotho to the spinning of Atropos. which finishes the twisting. CXX& cal ra drovepbt6eva 7ytAv T 70 raVrT6. Ei Trl br•eLepa ~rl roT ?rpb abr V el 7 Ba 5p. comes from Klotho ? He (Plato) says she ratifies the destiny we have chosen.
and that the [influence] of the fixed stars. Turning now from Bardaisan to the Odes.NEWBOLD : BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 185 twisted.] 62 V. etc. and of the other constructions [such as the triangles. reluctantly. The Most High hath given him to His worlds-the interpreters of His beauty. (1) (3) He hath increased in me his knowledge. For as the soul descends lower. Wisdom. 5 is unintelligible. 4 -al . I shall endeavor to interpret some of the more difficult Odes in the light of Bardaisan's doctrines. from which she cannot escape until she has brought what she elected to its completion. 7. various [gifts] thence. For upon receiving from Klotho the spinning."' The subtlety of the Word cannot be told. but that from them all results a single train and series reaching to us.. one upon another. 4~•~o. 60 As a stream of water streams the truth from my mouth. (4) (5) 59 Read without points. the narratorsof His praise. 4a. by means of the planetary orbits. but is m Za. Labourt's reading: which yields excellent sense. suppose that the nativities of men or of other living creatures. And the more these secondary [influences] work upon us on top of those which preceded them. [Cf. therefore. she becomes subject to more and yet more orbits. otherwise difficult to defend. and of the stars.. For the mouth of the Lord is the true Word. One should not. are given to us through the planets. 61 I have followed. and the door of His light. the more inevitable do the decrees of destiny become. and of the circles on high and of their degrees.ED.62 Read plural points. are filled up from the fixed stars or the planets exclusively. 60For ao read A. from their motions. Like his subtlety is his piercingness. (2) and my lips show forth his fruits. the chasteners of His works. the confessors of His counsel. she contributes to us. The twelfth Ode runs as follows: The WordI9of truth hath filled me that I may speak of him. inscribed in the Zodiac]. . and of the signs taken as wholes. 22f. the heralds of His thought.
through his influence upon the " worlds " they have become the means of revealing God's beauty." From him came love and concord. praise. Or the ppl. For as his work is. They know the Lord in His truth.e. may be pluperfect." The poet feels himself (vv. in converse were those who were silent. 64V. 5. counsel. through that love " 638 Final end." For the dwelling-place of the Word is man. by that of the Word. and he is impelled to sing of his nature and his work. But intelligence. His meaning sped by his agency. nothing can resist him (v. here seems nearly equivalent to 65 I. they have acquired the power of communicating to one another their thoughts. "Those who were silent" are perhaps those on the " left. They were penetrated by the Word. he pervades the universe (vv. he also inspires love and concord (v. 8. the Word will continue the work of reconciliation in which he is now engaged until all discord has disappeared. thought. Blessed are they whom he has made to know all things. For [it was] the voice of the Most High [that] spake to them. is not the only effect of the Word's activity .186 (6) JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE (7) (8) (9) (10) and endless is his course. "In converse": for the " Word" the poet has used consistently throughout this Ode. 6") . 4). 6a) . 7).Lflj'Ea." see note 51. and they knew him that made them.e. and of " chastening" His works (v. 1-3) inspired by the Word which issues forth from the mouth of God. ipF. and his truth is love. consciousness. (11) (12) This beautiful poem might well be entitled "An Ode to the Word. He is Light and Thought (v. because they were in concord. and they told one another whatever they had [to tell]. ." i. 9a) .6 He is light and the dawning of thought: The worlds through him talk one with another. Never doth he fail but steadfast stands. such is his final end. And knows not his fall nor the way of it.
or ruler. or one of those who have been entrusted with the dispensations in heaven. or one of those that direct the affairs of earth. . the things that are in the heights. 6 With this description of the cosmological functions of the Word. Thus then they tell us that the mons were constituted equal to each other in form and sentiment. and Zoe. after the aeons have been produced by the Propator :67 The Holy Spirit taught them to give thanks on being all rendered equal among themselves. and the things that are in the sea. or angel." the thought of God (v.. Blessed indeed must they be who feel themselves possessed of such knowledge as this (v. the earth. p. whose mysteries all the elements faithfully observe. abyss. Am.66 To any one who has any acquaintance with the literature of astrology the " worlds " as described in v.. and have nothing to do immediately with the redemption of the world accomplished by the Soter and by Jesus. But certain elements of the picture certainly are Valentinian. and Spiritus. and it will be remembered that " worlds " is the word used by Bardaisan for the planets [note 45]. for the Word is the voice. ed. Yet the same Word that rules the stars in their courses. and Logos. 10a. 4 will suggest the planets and constellations as conceived by the pious astrologer. fire. the sea. 12). the "meaning. became all as Aletheia. dwells in man. and the things that are in the earth. and his truth is love (v. the heavens and the things that are in the heavens. they are shut up within the limits of the Pleroma. The meonshave no such functions. i. but the very Artificer and Creator of the universe Himself. too. chap. vol.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 187 the worlds become aware of their Creator (v. by whom He made the heavens. Fathers. by whom all things are ordered and bounded and placed in subjection. In the western Valentinian system of which Irenaeus has preserved the best account. whom the moon obeys as He bids her shine by night. air. and Ecclesia. [God sent to earth] " not a subaltern. 6 Ante-Nic." This Epistle exhibits other points of contact with the sphere of ideas common both to Bardaisan and to the Odes. and Christus. 318. the things that are between the two. b). by whom He enclosed the sea in its proper bounds. 11). whom the stars obey as they follow the course of the moon. compare the Epistle to Diognetus. and Anthropos. so that all became as Nous. the things that are in the depths. from whom [the sun] hath received even the measure of the courses of the day to keep them. and led them to a state of true repose. 10Jo d). The female mons. These are not Valentinian weons. cut off from the lower world by the Horos. 7 (Lightfoot-Harmer's translation).
p. Certainly. but chiefly to establish the fact that " worlds.. they next tell us that these beings sang praises with great joy to the Propator. 6 q." in this passage at least.. Then.188 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE Everything. character is easily confused with The emendation . and have made them equal. love and " concord. The Worlds in the Ode receive from the Word knowledge of God. their Father also setting the seal of his approval on their conduct." literally " equality. p. is further confirmed by Lactantius' quotation :72 " Salomon 69 68tirep elXe' #p davrr KdXLOTOV Kal dlVOypbra6To. as conceived by Bardaisan.who himself shared in the abounding exultation. which is given by Moses bar Cepha. 8." 69 and therefore talk to one another. 164). the whole Pleroma of the eons. iv. when written in the Estrangela c. 12." It shows no other points of contact with the Book of the Laws. with one design and desire. note the description of the work of the Word.(and therefrom produced Jesus). brought together whatever each one had in himself of the greatest beauty and preciousness." which. and has not yet been satisfactorily interpreted as a whole. A leading difficulty is the first word of v. being thus established and brought into a state of perfect rest. these two pictures are inspired by one and the same original. yet they contain striking identities of thought. and they resolve to contribute each the best he has68 to the nature of Jesus. The Valentinian aeons sang praise because Christ and the Holy Spirit have given them such knowledge of God as they are able to receive. out of gratitude for the great benefit which had been conferred upon them. ap. p. then. 198. The pictures are similar but not the same. and tell each what70he has. probably means " planets.r. Div. 71 But . For this I read " formed. Harris. I have quoted this Ode partly in order to show how precisely it conforms to what we would expect of Bardaisan as regards its doctrine (compare Haase's summary.71 The nineteenth Ode is one of the most difficult in the collection. 72Inst. and with the concurrenceof Christ and the Holy Spirit. for which no good sense has been found.
I Tim. J r"S 80 j. 76Read L2oa" m.&1. KvTr-aT?o verses changed to suit the sense. e. Himerius. "I (10) and loved in safety and kept in kindness and showed forth in majesty. 74Read pluralpoints as suggestedby the pl. I have followed Labourt'ssuggestionand read . Hallelujah. the Father. et facta est in multa miseratione mater virgo.--a' Kpcd6ret text read: 79 suspect that the original that d-yaXXLdre&. she was empty.75 (6) They moulded the body of the virgin and she received conception and bore. she bore voluntarily. (3) And the Holy Spirit milked Him because His breasts were full and it was not fitting His milk should go to waste. rawplc. 78 7 So alsoFleming. (9) She bore in joy 78 and acquired79in great power. alK Va . The Son is the Cup. of which I can make no sense here. etc. •Las' eyAdX.. (2) and He who was milked.g." Infirmatus est is meaningless. -. part. oSakets.. mid. 76See note 51. e e )rvevXes Kal Kva7cT/r 1h. For the rare aor. (8) and since there was none. (7) She travailed and bore a son without any pain. vii. --= eavUrb. 4. The virgin became a mother with many mercies. (4) and mixed the milk from the two breasts of the Father. without their knowing it. Or.17 like a man. 77&L.QA.AL corresponds to 6'EdtsL. (1) A cup of milk was offered to me. frexev &I K-vaOarO was corrupted into KT7aarTO and the order of the Kcl XOZa. 76 And she sought no midwife.73 The Holy Spirit opened Her [the Spirit's] bosom. and I drank it in the sweetness of the kindness of the Lord. 4 16. gErworep. ]•-. And gave the mixture to the worlds 74 (5) and they that received in its fullness arethey on the right.NEWBOLD : BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 189 ita dicit : Infirmatus est uterus virginis et accepit foetum et gravata est. but informatus est represents with a fair degree of accuracy. of the verb cf. for He kept her safe.
1 %&CMI&3 ' QZA? bj. occursboth in Bardaisanand in the Odes.•. p.190 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE Notwithstanding the strange metaphors.- !- . op.z_'•o0 xA i? irm oZ SV0 -'P?9? b %. cit. so offensive to our taste.- t. but not. i= ...e.?4aOI? 4? z PJI c wiy. and the language in which it is expressed.. is apparent. without pain because she was empty--the precise meaning of this conception I shall discuss presently.3 li? 1•! ! 4. 3 and 4 the Holy Spirit draws from the Father a similar divine influence or substance. A l? 1f.!-li9."30 P jOe . .•Zlo cm •. so far as I have been able to discover.• •io •L •. receive it in its fullness. and she brings forth a son.• 1-. those on the right. 50rka . mixes it in "her" own bosom and i. !. is in general agreementwith the Book of the Laws. God protected her from all harm during the process (vv.Av . In vv."? W 0.o C?5 !. She needed no midwife. Ephraemgives a brief account of Bardaisan'stheory :82 s81The fact that this distinction between planets as on the right and on the left. is significant(see note 51).3 Ibl 1 • fl b. Verses 1 and 2 are introductory and serve as a key to the understanding of what follows.~i.'I. the theory of the Incarnation here set forth is perfectly intelligible.-k- jlQl~m ? t-•. 557 : lv. ii. is the divine influence or Word of which he seems so vividly conscious. 82Homrn.•oo1.in Ptolemy. --•-• R• tb: •'•z Ft1:uo t:•k•_• •.•-•. especially noteworthy are the expressions" the worlds " and "those on the right. literally belly.81 the beneficent planets.. That this theory. The poem closes with the crescendo of vv. 6-8). The milk which the poet has received through the Son as the Cup. 9-10." It remainsto adduce further evidence which will directly connect it with Bardaisan.0 ' 4010 4. " •!. and to which he refers so often. The planets then "mould" or " form" or "shape" the body. gives it to the planets. of the virgin. ai-• otlrq•z . !1ti~2 !o• •-•-• ljm•.
for the pl. were they made manifest to the aeons? A star shone forth in the heavens above all the stars. it certainly is well fitted to express what the poet describes in v." suggests that Ephraem had before him the very milk simile of Ode xix. The word which I have rendered "marriage" may have a more literal sense. sprout. will become living. and its light was unutterable. . 11: "IHe who finds pleasurein the Living One. my brethren. ." The context shows that the Living One is Christ. how much more pure must His divine nature be. unopposed motion. There then follows an allusion to a widespread notion "the mixture was given to the worlds without their knowing it. and "1something" does not necessarily mean more than that Ephraem found Bardaisan hard to understand." literally "1flowed and descended.the which were wrought in the silence of God. for the disciples of Bardaisan. which protects Harris' emendation (the sing. "Flow" is used in Syriac of almost any easy. But the allusion to the "mystery of a marriage " is more significant. 2 8." The theory that Christ's Incarnation was concealed from the powers of this world occurs early in the second century in Ignatius' Epistle to the Ephesians : " And hidden from the prince of this world were the virginity of Mary and her childbearing. then. and its strangeness caused amazement. our Lord he called a 'Nature born from between two.).NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 191 Pray. and procreate. 84 I Cor. then. glory be to Thy Nativity! And in that he said that it was impossible for one ever to germinate. but the star itself far outshone them 88"The Son of the Living One. and likewise also the death of the Lord84-three mysteries to be cried aloud .' in the mystery of a marriage. But too much stress must not be laid upon his phraseology. for He is "light from light. that they may not rave again. How. and all the rest of the constellations.Holy Jesus." CompareOde iii. formed themselves into a chorus about the star." "Something flowed down. as when like children they say something flowed down from the Father of Life and the mother conceived a hidden son and bore him and he was called the Son of the Living 8 One. But even as our Lord's body was not born from between two. 4. Cf. with the sun and moon.
again. The nature of these changes is not further described in the Ode . The changes in the Virgin's body which were prerequisite to the accomplishment of the virgin birth would not be produced by the 4nots of her body . signs of the Zodiacand of other constellationswas supposedto co6perate. escape these influences and appear on earth precisely as he left heaven. p.they must. and there was perplexity to know whence came this 8 The nostrange appearance which was so unlike them. (Italics indicate 85 Eph. so to speak. 180. In Bardaisan's system. pass through the spheres of the several planets s7and receive from them certain modifications. therefore. which is the law for organisms. or relations of the several heavenly bodies. tr.88 The divine Christ in his descent must. Lightfoot. at the moment of birth. All that is not under the control of Free-will. But other sources complement this statement in a very satisfactory way. p. Why. or of nature (fto-qL). in Bardaisan's system their influences represent the sum total of what we call nowadays mechanical laws. and is seen in the personal peculiarities of individuals." tion that souls must encounter the divinities of the planets in their descent and ascent was common among the Gnostics. together with a commentary in which he interprets the doctrines there expressed as those of Bardaisan. Paul. 86See above. . do the planets act as the instrument of God's will in bringing about the virgin birth ? Because. of course. Ig.192 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE all. one to another.86 But here it has a peculiar significance. 182.the "worlds" simply "mould" the body. the intelligences in their descent to the souls and the souls in their descent to the bodies. then. gives quotations from an apocryphal Epistle of the Corinthians to Paul. 87The influenceof the planets is the moreimportant. ch. the total result of which is determined by the horoscope. is subject to the control of the planets. which is the law. be produced by the planets. for conscious intelligences. Ephraem in his commentary upon the Epistles of St. 19 . which has been preserved in Armenian. no doubt that of the 88 See above.
26: cs Kal ol &yyeXot "A8pacl 0oV.D. r ~ elsOeb de6pO^s 7rlarews. 178. a Bardaisanite. and of man they say he is not made by God at all. 6: a •r6. H. 176. . Schrift. . p.of the seven Guides.) "IAnd the words which they speak and teach are erroneous. but by the seven Guides. ed.. but the Gospel. p. i/. as distinguished by Zahn89 from Ephraem's commentary. 174... And they say our Lord did not come with an earthly body. 300. The book was written about A. cit.90 It cannot be trusted as evidence for the doctrines of Bardaisan himself. /tlw•Up Maplas. vol. And they call God not almighty. cit. . Marinus holds: "1that he (Christ) took a heavenly 9 body . and ate and drank with him. iv. so also did he . a certain Marinus. 170. xvii. . And they do not admit that he was bornof the Virgin Mary . butof for they say he went throughher as somethingnot [coming] from certainangels. IyPve7ro o6bUPv RwOep rpooXfapihp. W. it is not even certain that it faithfully reproduces the views of the Bardaisanites of that age. d. Kanons.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 193 the quotations. 597. . namely : One should not. And they say thereis no resurrectionof the body. say they. he himself suffered in appearance . 92 Op. 22: 5OKOet IrrTOVOEv A•r i' Ka u I o-w a. 90Der Dialog des Adamantius rept 91 Op. xvi. .namely. Chr. . II. .. . 6: &rt opd•iov oC&a tXape. her. 24: KcalZ 6 XoTyoU~Ev facryov ab•6r. ." formerly ascribed to Origen. orwal 190. van de Sande Bakhuyzen. In the dialogue " On the right faith in God. D. 9: 6 X-yos a6rbo adpt 1. as the angels appeared to Abraham. Gr.that is. but with a heavenly body. dXX'0K & Maplas. they say that he who spoke through the Prophets is no almighty God. the Word himself became flesh without taking anything from without in addition .91 It is of value only when confirmedby other evidence. he came from heaven with his body . . &Orep ytp v 1JCp & awXjvos tipXeTraL. Gesch. accept the Prophets. And they regard the world not as the creation of God." Evidently Ephraem knew Bardaisanites who held that Christ went through the Virgin's body without receiving anything of her. opavv Xev Xwv r• ' al nrtov r' a6ro6. NT.L/L o o 8Ld Maplas. we confess that he [came] through 89Translated from the German version given by Zahn..appears as one of the speakers. But this doctrineis that of the schoolof Bardaisan. Mcplar Ka o K~Ic ty o~rw Kal 6 Xbyor rpoo'Xaljdpwpi.
oW1 s / AL 7owo al c 5aratsTo l//V4vXayWyobl KEKpay•o 'ycXaKTL. ."''93 Thus it was that "she bore a son without any pain. Cureton.194 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE Mary. ch. 904. ap. and didest assent to thy teacher Bardesan. &V *Jt •S . The earliest detailed account is that of Porphyry :94 [Homer speaks of the solstitial signs.." 7. several accounts of which have reached us. p." Proclus (in Remp. ed.) repeats Porphyry's account with some variations. Kroll. for just as water goes through a pipe without taking on anything. they say] assemble in the Milky Way. The remainder of the Ode calls for no special discussion. aowL) EiS TbV at 6JT7aC -yXaKTr y-aXaciarv TJ o1v7W rpoo'ayopev6/1. so [came] the Word through Mary. with the idea that they are induced to come to birth for the sake of the pleasure (or savor). 28: Aly6Kepw~ ~ Kai KapKlvPO S 'repI p/h rT KapivoS P-6pela Aiy6Kbepw~ & v6Tra8GcLos T7r rdpara abroI eiXyX67res. gives Heraclides of Pontus a clue to the source of the tale95-the Milky Way as the place of the souls. he says. whence regarded 98 So also Philoxenus. but not of Mary. Spic. the absence of pain proved that the conditions to which pain would be due were lacking. Because thou hast not comprehended the mind of Bardesan. she was empty". and it is so named from the [souls] which are nourished with milk when they fall into birth. Cancer and Capricorn as the "gates of the sun. 68' '50ov^s eIS -YeOtY vyrKVeOae 'br6 ydXa ri vKCEV. who assumeth the body of Christ to be from heaven.yaXacla v 94 De ant. 52. The milk simile is probably a translation into Christian language of an ancient myth. Heeren: KUal rokotLs HpaKXe5l7V '1 fh&y'bY HorrTLK6Y 1Opilot ew repi T+)' (sic) yacalarv. . 8 d6elpwv KaT( IIHvOay6paV 4/vxal ds avvdyeTOai q5 ' (al. as thou saidest just now. phys."] " Now Capricorn and Cancer are near the Milky Way. Syr. and since there was none. constituting its limits.rhv8et . he says [al. p.LEge'XeTJKViaLs epXeoaca als 9 Stobaeus. 14 sqq. For which reason also. nympharum. . Iamblichus. because milk naturally is engendered along with them. Porphyry's pupil. that is. Cancer the northern and Capricorn the southern. vi. i. and not of Mary. . Eel. necromancers offer the souls a libation of honey mingled with milk.' which. .. And according to Pythagoras the souls are a ' tribe of dreams.eo& eis y'yveort dr7b TW^v 7Tpeo/d. ii. p. : " There are some of them who say that he sent down the Word a body from heaven. 129.
The author of the Odes believed. The Orphics had taught that the soul is "breath ". 989. Bardaisan probably did. 1. to the Study of Greek Religion. but it is in my opinion certain that an Oriental element enters into them. p. and I have no doubt that this is a genuine fragment of early Pythagorean doctrine. 203). he must have had trustworthy sources of information. ii. for this light is the heavenly milk designed for souls. it is nourished by the dim light diffused in the Milky Way. 4. Heraclides was a pupil of Plato. pp. 1034 sqq. 660-63) the soul avows itself a " child of Earth and of Starry Heaven " (ry wrai~el/' xaia opaPvoiaTEpde0ToT). Upon returning to its proper home the soul will of course again need nourishment.956 But he may have drawn it from other sources. and it may well be that the ancient explanation of the celestial "milk" as being the light with which souls are fed suggested milk to him as an appropriate simile for the divine substance which proceeded from the Father and Holy Spirit and issued through the Virgin into the world as Jesus. as at least some Pythagoreans did. The origin of the Orphic-Pythagorean doctrines has not yet been discovered. daisan's doctrineand the Orphic-Pythagorean . and so I would interpret the sentence found in other. 3 . Gr.). Phil. "he who went through Mary 96. as he was a man of learning. Ed. Proleg. his interest in the mystical aspect of Pythagoreanism is well known (Zeller. I have) fallen into milk " .Sozomen's language (see note 18) implies some affinitybetween Bartheories.it is a luminous substance. the words used by Marinus. The theory of the virgin birth presupposed by this Ode is Irenaeus gives it in almost known to be in part Valentinian.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 195 they came to earth. the Pythagoreans refined the conception . and this is the meaning of the name. It is not at all impossible that the author of the Odes knew of this myth in its Greek form. similar tablets. So in the Orphic burial tablets found in southern Italy and Crete (Miss Harrison. that souls consist of light or are robed in a body of light (see p.the departed soul has fallen into the "milk " of the sky. "a kid thou art (or. d.
(1) The Dove flew upon the Messiah. KaOdlrep 96a wX-o'o Hippolytus. according to the western Valentinians. p.i. says that. the operationof the " worlds" by the " power of the Highest or constructive craft.. But those of the East." Accordingto Hippolytus also. She sang over Him. and which is believed to have been characteristic of Bardaisan. the Jesus who is thus born of the Virgin is not the Son of God. 31. and her voice was heard. But it is closely akin to the theory of Ode xix. 9 Cont. Gr. again. and the creeping things died in their holes. the divine Christ descends upon him at his baptism. the body of Jesus was "psychic. But in the Ode he is the Son of God Himself. 1. ap. can be interpreted if viewed in the same light. (Panar. 2. i. the Logos of his mother on high. Epiph. because He was her Head. then.96a Ode xxiv. The theory of the incarnationwhich follows is ascribed both to Axionicus and to Bardaisanand may represent Axionicus' conceptionsmore faithfully than Bardaisan's. at his baptism. (2) The inhabitants were afraid." what the Spirit had given Mary.the Spirit as a dove descended. vi." which " moulds" --the very word of the Ode if my emendationbe correct. i.. Irenueus. . . . as a whole. it would seem. Bardaisan held the orthodox doctrine. formed in the bosom of the Spirit. we have that blending of Gnostic and orthodox elements which I found in Ode xii. 7. hcer. Hcer. the body of Jesus is. Wisdom (Sophia). Wisdom. .. and xxiv. Valentinian. that Christwas divine from his birth and did not acquire divinity at his baptism. and therefore. that is. for the Holy Spirit came upon Mary. but son of the Demiurge . (3) The birds dropped their wings. i. and the sojourners were moved. 24 (cf." In the Ode the stars mould the body of Mary. hold that the body of the Saviour was spiritual. 35. The milk is representedby the Holy Spirit. among whom are Axionicus and Ardesianes [= Bardaisan].196 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE like water through a tube. Here. and the power of the Highest. the constructive craft (587uLtoUpY'LK 7dXPYv) in order that what the Spirit had given to Mary might be moulded (8ta7rXaae0).).e. impliedin Odesxix. Hcer. 356) : etar Ur ToTrovr G8& ~8wp 8t& TbY Maplas b8osedoavTra. and came to be with the (ydyove 7 ) psychic [Jesus] and raised him from the dead." 9 But the doctrine of the Ode is In the system described by not.
so this Ode depicts a certain stage in that work--the stage initiated by the descent of the Dove. cit. 59-62. that they might abide. (7) There perished from among them. and no food was given them... for some reason not given. As Ode xii. darkness tried to rise from its place below and a9 Translatedinto French by Nau. all things that were defective. op. air. (9) For they were defective in wisdom. The clearest statement of Bardaisan's theory of the work of the Word is given by Moses bar Cepha. But in v. and spread abroad His grace.m . because they had not the truth. And those that have comprehendedit. 200. see the parallel from Ecclus. and were spurned: They were crying to the Lord like women in labor. because there was none for. Hallelujah. know His holiness. commingled one with another.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 197 (4) The abysses were opened. had become. 5. (5) The abysses were sealed with the seal of the Lord : They perished by His Thought.them. For they were corrupt from the beginning. (8) The Lord has destroyed the thoughts." that had been from of old. Because it was not possible to give them the Word. . 97 Read . (10) For the Lord has disclosed His way. those that were exalted in their hearts. his thought leaps forward to its final consummation. light.98 He held that the five elements. of all those that had not the truth. fire. quoted p. with one of those rapid transitions so characteristic of the writer. water. and darkness. and the final end of their corruption was life. sketches in broad outlines the regenerating work of the Word. pp. And they were rejected.
and the poet describes vividly the effect of that descent upon nature..4oM 10oL o ' o. and fell into the depth of its nature. The regeneration of man. to charge him with making them independent of Ephraem God . *Mo!. he removed darkness from the midst of the pure substances. contra Hcer. And from the mixture of these substances with their adversary.. the statements of Moses bar Cepha.198 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE mingle with the others. in a state of chaos. at the sound of this tumult. it was driven away. and he reestablished each of the substances in its order by the mystery of the cross. he established this present world. the deeds of the Maker they ascribed to the things made. the Makers of all things they thought to be nothing. in part. S . consisted. the pure substances sought refuge in the mercies of the Most High.99 he conceived them as being. Ij.. ii.r •:. 444. The descent of the Dove may be interpreted as another. He affirmed the existence of the substances l = oo-ata) in language which caused (-.- \. therefore. at one time.Za.. B: " Marcion and Bardaisan blasphemously allege that the Creator is not one. darkness. and the present mixture was purified by a conception and a childbirth forever." I. In this process many stages can be distinguished. . the last will be the final perfection of the universe. "Then. the Son and Holy Spirit they confused with the created things. supply a satisfactory Bardaisan's heresy explanation of several of the Odes. )o~~~~~t~~~~~3 cuj O ~ ufr-• -•!~ oo• Q•l •0IjtL lJ . But as regards the work of the Word. c. III. descended." Whether this picture of the battle of light and darkness can be found implied in the Odes is a question into which I cannot now enter. vol. O. the birth of Christ was one. and decreed that they should mingle no more. in dualism. that is to say the Messiah. into which the Word enters and introduces order. The first step in this process was the creation of the world. the Word of the thought of the Most High. supplemented by the last paragraph of the Book of the Laws. 99Hom. p. is only part of a vaster scheme for the regeneration of the universe.
1?2 This is. p. and fire. from which the several genera and their species come. p. that I may pass over the waters of fire and all the abyss. ii. iv. 102 E. Potter. de gen.b describe the effect of the Dove's descent upon animals so 3'. (dp6to-ovu?)i 101 . 2. p.. and probably it is a Valentinian definition.101 As vv. although limited by the power of God. and let not their dark mist enwrap me.rTpaot6oeVOp T& ~ ? W'i erql YlperaT.." thrust aside. and iv. ap.' And yet matter is allegorically described as' water of the abyss. that which is expressed in the Book of the Laws by describing the "natures" as "injuring and injured frombefore 100 Ex Script. Proph.' for he would not have called water alone 'abyss. but is found in this sense in Clement of Alexandria. Since the days of Heraclitus men had been familiar with the conceptionof the elements as consisting of opposites which. and the effect of the divine influence upon them. 40. So the material substances. 93. 2-3".--they are "spurned. as Clement was largely influenced by that sect. et corr.. when brought into contact. 1. Arist. cit. which separate heaven from earth. They open as the Dove descends through them. perhaps. Tisch. p. r^vdpEL FV'TO'ot u•&voos VXO dXX-l'yoppLcLLr. ed.. the aspect of Bardaisan's theory which Ephraemdesignates by the word "opposing" or "conflicting" substances. thus giving rise to the ceaseless round of transformations which we see. Jesus..and 4 describe its effect upon the abysses. " Come now.' " It is reasonably certain that this is a Gnostic. chapters iii. 108See above. II. 166. remnants of primeval chaos. So also in the Gnostic "Acts of Philip. 103 it is -FiM. also note 66. cf." Acta Phil. mutually destroy one another.. n. It is a Jewish conception. KaST rTYp lIaV Kal Eclogax. Verses 3e and 4 describethe internecinestrife of the elements in a vivid picture..NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 199 The "abysses" are the vast gulfs of air.'00 "'Abyss' is something the essential nature of which is unlimited.g. have been termed 'abysses. Anz. 990 : ivooos yhp rb drepdT TO eOeov8al rolVUV U& ." the apostle prays just before his death. rI ppovV yJv' KGa rTO6r trl KaiTOL Kal vBwp /L6pbovrb Jo&p o'K &v elreV &~Fvoov. probably to devour it. 7ro70 o?TclaL 4T0 & etp71Trac* ire U'6aTraoLLV. vapor. Meteor. op. and give me the eternal crown of victory over every antagonistic principle and power.
86. The chief difficulty of this Ode lies in the opening verses." and the idea is certainly the same.Similar phenomena are describedas attendingChrist's birth.W. 10. "like women in travail.109a This is a e 104 Note that the word " natures." 1OLS." The Ode proceeds: "They perished by His thought. "this injuriousness 100also which remains in them. they " cry to the Lord" in a state of agonized turmoil and confusion. 9. In vv. is the correct technical . in the words of the Book of the Laws. 18. so the Book of the Laws. shall be brought to an end by the restraints which are in another mixture." as in Ode xii. the " abysses are sealed with the seal of the Lord." 109 j.s08 "All defective things "must perish. 107 b 7TrAos r^ Oopas(?). 182.200 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE the creation of the world. those that had been of old. Conceived as components they are aTroTxeta 105 See p. 182. finally. 106 5pC0apgdva (?). 8. term for the elements conceived as possessingactive properties. their warfare stayed. then renewed. LL. " deficiencies will be filled up" . ." or. 1osSee p.• . and Odexxii 11 : "That everythingmight be dissolvedand Jac. 109. p. the poet turns from the cosmological to the anthropological aspect of the work of the Word. 2. in Ecclesiasticus 43 23: translation: Xorytr/Aw Jerome's "cogitatione sua placavit abyssum. Protev. p. The descent of the Dove is an event of such commanding import that even the dumb beasts recognize it. they have been checked.. the Word was given to the worlds. "as is the Word's work. xii." which is almost a translation of a'ro-0 eithoraeav /vo-rov. 4. See Duensing. 109 "it was not possible to give them the Word that they might abide. 7. and the completion of their corruptionl07 was life "-this present world must pass away to make way for a new heaven and anew earth. The confused and warring elements are brought to rest."1'0 But here the poet depicts it in a vivid image -the abysses have been engaged in devouring one another. Zur 24ten Ode Salomos ZNTW. 186). such is his final end" (Ode xii." But their cry is unheeded. . by the thought or will of God. "They were corrupt 106 from the beginning.
NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 201 Gnostic idea. that descendingsouls enter the world throughthe Zodiacin the sign Cancer. the 23d. I give merely a paraphrase. This same group of astrological conceptions affords a perfectly intelligible interpretation of that very difficult Ode. which bears the seven planets to which in Ode xix. Christand the dead who are to be saved. ch." the great "wheel of the Zodiac " (wcostaKov Ic. As it offers no special difficulties of translation. ibid. 18. Death lets go the "feet and the head. it sweeps away all obstacles and makes "a broad path. 22. to the more remote results of that stupendous event. the Abysses. a Porphyry. At v. 112 xvii. the Christ. according to Bardaisan.e.and I wastheir head. is "her head. But others of the Oe6\oyoL sent the souls as descendingthrough the moon and ascending through the sun . for "the Messiah. here symbolized by the system of planets revolving in the Zodiac which." probably the Star of Bethlehem. for in the Valentinian system the divine Christ does not come to earth until the moment of the baptism. is the Word descending to be born of the Virgin." i." "The head went down to the feet. repredeparting souls ascend throughCapricorn. govern the operations of mechanical law. rush to seize it." i. nymph.p. It is received by a "wheel." So in xlii.cXo9)." her superior. But the Dove here does not represent the Christ. Again an indication of the curious blending of orthodox and Gnostic ideas so characteristic of these Odes.11obut the seal upon it protects it from them. de ant."' Upon the wheel is a "sign of the Kingdom and the Government. " Many hands " of the Powers of the Spaces. also the descending Christ is committed. ch. when Christ descends into Sheol. 29. 12 the poet's prophetic eye looks forward from the moment at which the Word entered into the system of nature.e. The "thought" or "will" of God which descends like a letter. 191. for down to the feet ran the wheel and that which was a sign upon it. 14: "They wereto me as my own members. The regeneration of the system of natural law inevitably carries with it the triumph of the Gospel." ' The head" 112 is probably Christ as the Head of the Church Comparethe effect of the appearanceof the Star upon the other stars 110 in the passage from Ignatius quoted. ascribes to the Oe6Xoyom doctrine 111 .
viii. of the dragon with seven heads. implied: x. indeed. I do not think this settles the question. which represents the operation of the Gospel under the forms of regenerated natural law. carries Christ there also." "who are not made for this grace. Bardaisan himself recognizes 13 that Free-will subsists only by the sufferance of God and will prove no obstacle to the final regeneration of all things. Another characteristic trait of Bardaisan's teaching was the denial of the resurrection of the body.the feet are probably the souls in Sheol yet to be redeemed. this. In one passage. 8-10. perhaps. I think. true that the doctrine of Free-will does not definitely appear in the Odes while it is one of the salient features of the Book of the Laws. xxii. The poet's thoughts are dominated by the consciousness of the work of grace in his own heart and he has no special occasion to deal with Free-will as such. indeed. 114 See p." Nor is the doctrine of predestination. The revolution of the wheel. and in the following 113See p. But this is not. But the context is distinctly against a literal interpretation. his poison. I think. 178. I am not aware of any demonstrable points of incongruity. for future events are frequently described in these Odes as accomplished. an objection of any force. . for believers in predestination are often advocates of Free-will. In only one passage is it. is the doctrine to which Ephraem pays most attention. 3. Batiffol objects that it is represented as already accomplished. 14-22). which is definitely taught in the Odes (e. It is. and this Harnack takes as referring to the resurrection of the body.202 -the JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE conception of Christians as the body of Christ frequently recurs in the Odes . The preceding verses speak of the bonds which Christ is to loose. the poet describes the resurrection of the dry bones. incompatible with the theory that they are the work of Bardaisan. established a certain degree of congruity between the doctrines of the Odes and those of Bardaisan. I have. "to convert the souls of them that were willing to come to Him. 181. and he also recognizes the existence of "tares. his seed." 114 An ancient is not required to be more consistent than a modern theologian. his roots.g.
p. 7b. 967. "although a son of man. 16..NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 203 verses we have the rock which is to be the foundation of all things. "the traces of the light were set upon their heart" (x." 115 Saturnilus conceived of souls as sparksof light. 3. But before Bardaisan's authorship can be regarded as established it must be shown that all the Odes can be intero KareLXi/CdyVoT . obviously borrowed from Ezekiel.. 8). have found place in the poet's theology. vii. rbv d'Opw116Op.. p. Bef. e b&r R Tfv OrwHOIjpa. I have endeavoredto show: (1) That no antecedentimprobabilityprecludesthe ascription of the Odes to Bardaisan. In a similar sense should be interpreted. 66: Areg4'e oirvO•pca wsj. 23): . 380.1" is the and the eastern Valentinians used the same word Saviour's office "to awaken the soul and light the--it spark. dsr c 8•-yeype rov Kil pi irohlqe. Potter: IXNb oDv 6 ZTIwrprby &vXbv PwOeC KcdTrwi ^wrbs Tto alwvlots XapaK'rpOL. then. . of course. 28. 1?6irpgev. which is. 7b). I was named the Illuminate. So Hippolytus in describing the Docetae that they regarded souls as "the eternal marks (or says imprints) left by the light when it shone from above down below. 2). found in many Gnostic sects-and elsewhere--that the redeemed soul possesses a body of pure light. is also figurative. The presumptionis that the clothing of the dry bones with flesh. 117 Excerpta Theod. cit. and S. lf 115Hipp. These passages unquestionably point to the well-known doctrine. viii."17 The conceptionof a corporealresurrection cannot. 3). and I was clothed with the covering of Thy Spirit and Thou didst remove from me my raiment of skin" (xxv. "in me there shall be nothing that is not bright. incompatiblewith the notion of corporeal resurrection. the son of God" (xxxvi. (2) That some of the Odes can be readily interpreted in the light of Bardaisan'stheories. affliction or suffering" (xxi.. 10 (D. 418. This presumptionis strengthenedby the passages which clearly do refer to the state of the redeemed. "I put off darkness and clothed myself with light and my soul acquired members free from pain. p. .
IV. 5).204 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE preted from the same point of view. cod." etc. also Julius of Laodicea.." (See note 52. in the hope that they may be found to contain some elements of value to the ultimate solution of the problem.. astr. warming." . 1911. Cat. which. I. JUNE 5. "Their own degrees. the later distinguishedbetween the unalterableproperinfluence. as others have done. although generallyconstant for a given planet. I have as yet found no otherillustration. For the following notes I am indebted to suggestions given me by Prof. 105).and the good or bad effects of that influence.who has been so kind as to read this paperin proof.-Procl. Franz Cumont. might be modifiedor transformedby circumstances(ibid. To this task I shall not be able to address myself for many months to come.g. p. and I have therefore thought it best to make public my tentative results.) The earlier astrologerstermed planets "Ibeneficent" and "maleficent" (Ptol. cf.) "High places" are 'wcaLra. But of the ascriptionof exclusivelybeneficent influencesto "those on the right. The " degrees " are the " limits " (5pma). (See note 51. The 300 of each sign are apportionedamong the five planets and those to appropriated each are termedits "limits. e.
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