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Romaine Newbold Reviewed work(s): Source: Journal of Biblical Literature, Vol. 30, No. 2 (1911), pp. 161-204 Published by: The Society of Biblical Literature Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3260001 . Accessed: 23/12/2011 08:03
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161 AND NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN THE ODES SOLOMON OF
Bardaisan and the Odes of Solomon'
WM. ROMAINE NEWBOLD
UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA
of Solomon present THE newly discovered Odes literature problems asto the student of early Christian fascinating as they are difficult. The author is a poet, and a poet of no mean order, but he is much more than that - he feels himself inspired by the Spirit of the Lord and illumined by His light; the resources of language, even when strained to the utmost limits of poetic license, are inadequate to express the richness of that new life which has transfigured his inner self and filled him with the joy and peace that pass all understanding. Yet when one endeavorsto see the worlds of matter and of spirit as the singer saw them2 and to grasp his conception of their mutual relations, in brief, to reconstruct his philosophy and to determine his age, his environment, and the school of thought to which he belonged, one encounters peculiar difficulties. He is as much at home in the Psalms and Wisdom-literatureas any Jew, and yet is not in sympathy with the more distinctive tenets of Judaism. He acknowledges no circumcision save that of the heart (xi. 1-2), no sacrifice save that of "1God's thought," of "righteousness and purity of thought and lips" (xx. 1-7), no peculiar people, for his sympathies are as broad as humanity (vi. 7-17; xiv. 14-29). He is a Christian, familiar with the leading events-of Christ's life -the miraculousbirth (xix. 6-10), the baptism (xxiv. 1-3), crucifixion and descent
1 I desire to acknowledge to the editors my obligations for their kind revisionof the proofs duringmy absencefrom the country, and in particular revision of my translationsfrom the Syriac. ProfessorMontgomery's 2 The author's general point of view has been characterizedby many; perhapsthe best is that of Gunkel, ZNTW, xi. 1910, p. 320.
into Hades (xlii. 1-26 et al.), yet he absolutely ignores many of the most characteristic doctrines and practices of Christianity. He makes no explicit allusion to the resurrection or ascension of Christ's material body, or to baptism, or the eucharist. He knows of sin and evil as facts (xxxiii. 8; xxxviii. 12 ff. et al.), but they seem to lie outside the range of his own present concern; even his conception of redemption seems unconnected with the crucifixion. Moreover, amidst the profusion of poetic and allegorical images in which he expresses his ideas, there are some which one can scarcely regard as merely poetic and allegorical and which fit but ill into the traditional system of Christian theology. The "worlds" 4 et al.), the "garment of light" (xi. 10; xxi. 2), the (xii. "perfect virgin" (xxiii. 5), the "abysses " (xxiv. 3; xxxi. 1), - these, and perhaps others, are somewhat more than hints that the author's view of the universe is not that of the orthodox Christian theologian. The theories proposed to account for this puzzling complex belong to three leading types. The representatives of the first type, led by Rendel Harris, the distinguished discoverer and first editor of the Odes, regard them as belonging to a period when the new life which was stirring men's hearts had not as yet moulded their thoughts after its own image nor found words adequate to its expression, when Christian theology was as yet in the making and clear formulations had no existence, in brief, to the period, approximately, of the New Testament itself. A second group, led by Harnack, cannot believe that conceptions so disparate as are found in the Odes could ever have coexisted as the elements of the world-view of any single mind. They believe them, therefore, to be a composite product, the original Odes being the work of a Jew of unusually catholic sympathies, into whose text a Christian hand has incorporated a few of the more essential elements of Christianity. But Harnack also refers the Odes in their present form to a very early period - about the end of the first century of our era. A third group of students regard them as giving imperfect
AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON
expression to some peculiar system of Christian theology, accepted by some minor sect, probably of the second century, and endeavor to identify the sect in question with some one of those mentioned by the church historians. But upon this point no agreement has as yet been reached. Gunkel thinks them Gnostic, and Preuschen has announced3 that he will endeavor to prove them a part of the Valentinian Psalmbook; Batiffol4 regards them as representing a docetic tendency, perhaps a forerunner of the great Christian Gnostic movement of the second century and akin to that combated by Ignatius. But Conybeare 5 and Fries 6 would have them Montanist. In my opinion the weight of evidence is distinctly in favor of the third point of view. While the considerations urged by Gunkel and Batiffol are not all of equal force and it is not probable that all will stand the test of further criticism, the main thesis for which they contend seems to me established - that the Odes unmistakably reveal the influence of Gnostic speculation. Yet the evidence falls far short of proving them Gnostic, for many of the leading characteristics of Gnosticism, as of Judaism and of Christianity, are conspicuous by their absence. The system of eons, for example, upon the elaboration of which with every detail suggested by pagan mythology or a perfervid imagination the Gnostic thinkers so loved to dwell, is represented in the Odes by nothing but the "worlds," and of them so little is said that it is impossible to determine at first glance what the author meant by them. Again, the Gnostic was essentially an exclusive faith. It drew a sharp line of demarcation between the true Gnostic, or, as the Valentinians called him, the "pneumatic" man, and the common herd, whether Christian or not. In the Odes the "elect" (viii. 21; xxiii. 1-3 et al.) might be regarded as representing the pneumatic man, but their relation to the mass of men is conceived in a very different and more catholic spirit, for the poet looks forward to the time when all mankind will be numbered among the saved (iii. 12;
ZNTW, xi. 1910, p. 328, n. 3. r ZNTW, xii. 1911, pp. 70-76.
Bibl., NS, viii. part 2 (1911).
6 Ib., p. 108.
" 7 As the author. And he was also a gifted poet. Nor true Gnostic. to employ those elements of his theological system which lend themselves most readily to poetic treatment. note 41. dangerous.9 No one who reflects that Bardaisan's youth fell in a period in which Gnosticism was at its height. and that he lived in a land the peculiarity of whose culture made it the mother soil of Gnosticism. But one does expect a hymn writer. 9 Felix Haase. 178.). 8 Born A. of broad vision. 22 ff. speak of the time when "Nothing that breathes shall be without knowledge. then. 154. so far as our information enables us to judge. will deny that Bardaisan. while not in the technical sense a Gnostic. at least. the aim of which was essentially nothing other than a solution of the " World-riddle" with the 7 vii.D. See the text. He must also have been a man who knew the life of the spirit by immediate personal experience. One should not forget that it was the most enlightened minds that found something infectious in Gnosticism. must. it is true. if he be not wholly devoid of the poetic gift. one does not turn to a hymnal for a system of theology. passim." Texteund Untersuchungen.8 I cannot better express my own impression of the relation between Bardaisan and the Gnostics than by translating a passage from Haase's recent monograph. The argument from silence is. . nor shall anything be dumb.164 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE vi. was thoroughly familiar with Gnosticism and had borrowed from it much of his imagery and some of his doctrines. Gnosis. a man whose heart was full of love for God and his fellowman. vii. was the stupendous drama of the Valentinian theology. who believed himself divine and could the regarded all other men as akin either to animals or dead matter. of marked originality. 88. and such. died 222. of the Odes we must postulate a man who. receptive as he was to all sciences and sensitive to all intellectual influences. have been acquainted with the doctrines of the Syrian Gnostics also. Such a man. in a preeiminent degree. p.p. Knowledge probably means gnosis. " Zur Bardesanischen 1910. 27. was Bardaisan of Edessa. a man of deep sympathies.
NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 165 aid of all that the heathen sciences and Christianity had achieved.translatedfrom Syriac into Greek. then was converted to the true faith without altogether giving up his old heresy. ap." p 7rXEL~rrotL rap utprw i7rkelTwrw. HE. It cannot indeed be determined at what period of his life Bardaisan had belonged to a Gnostic sect. 185: JP AvOo7rotasL d•reXg'y a. U To~0rrop Oat dpOorpaTr yPr v . who composed and committed to writing in his own tongue. 4 W raptC-ar/AgJ Gatb VrVaTwrj T'3 X6"Y' 8XhKao-&wcwv7^J. It will remain a hopeless task to pick out. 30. in so far. and astronomical knowledge. Nau and Hort are quite right in protesting against reckoning Bardaisan among the Gnostics in the usual sense. i. for he was a doughty defenderof his doctrine. but will simply assume Gnostic influence. Eusebius' assertion that Bardaisan was at first a disciple of Valentinian. One will scarcely find a name that adequately and accurately expresses his teaching. at least so far as its second part is concerned. ETxr& So0ydd-rwP tWaX6yovevoT-•7~47'e0os.rb Tr s26pwo /eTaLSe- 7rpoOcrraFdov . U ov• l ysdpLtAom. I therefore regard as natural and credible. Gesch. and Gnostic influence. 9.KCtraTro.d. J6Ket Jeal U& r9j KcaraLTpoy0 raT?7~.10 Bardaisan's keen intellect must have recognized the weak points in the Valentinian or [other] Gnostic system. the "Gnostic " elements. Eusebius describes him as "a most able man and a skillful disputant in the Syriac language. and remains. p. we will not. 10o TE Tr7g KaTcl raXatai 11 iv. Bardaisan is.of whom he had many. in the age of Gnosticism. aro~10 -TVyypal ica . dialogues against the followers of Marcion and certain other representatives of diverse doctrines.. But if we find in his doctrines passages that unquestionably have a Gnostic ring. theological."" Epiphanius describes him as "one of the finest Euseb. Tre T7 pwp cqWJ Lrs Bap5eo•dpi7e dvlp tKavdraT•cT6s 7rpbs TrOb TKar& MapKriwva Kal Tr'vaL ErTpov0 /taq6pwv ^ r^ 15L 7rapgs5wKe ydTbrfr rE KaL-paq /.le-raEEOar ctAlq ?S o0 EavT r 7rw aclrbs tdjJ ye direppoa-ro KiTrareXwC 7rXEUTcrd -I r 9'l rbr 7?7I 5La- Id. XEK. besides many other works. To Bardaisan's intellectual ability all our authorities bear witness. make the explanation unnecessarily difficult.: alp&rews ?67roP. in this doctrine. &TpwP. based upon his own philosophical. -Trl 'EXXhvwv . and he therefore worked out a peculiar doctrine of his own. Lit. it is enough to maintain that astronomy in particular. OkaXeTi'oP 5' dpa obrot rpo'Trepop Kear& orXOXfl•. 1. altchr. Harnack.. ibid. a heretic. laid the foundation of his peculiar doctrine. . which his pupils . and his formal classification with the Gnostics by ancient and modern historians does him no wrong.
1900. "such was Bardaisan. brethren. ap. p. (R.. cuius etiam philosophi admirantur ingenium." "1eloquent" both in Syriac and in Greek. 12Haer. p.166 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE of men. in S. in Osee.. 187: talis Bardisanes. inl. ii. whose intellect even philosophers admire. Duval. Paris. contr. Ad Hypatium..p ircitra 1eyMXwOSKEKO7c0Lfl/. . 6yto . p.dVOS." 14 To Bardaisan's gifts as a poet no trustworthy evidence survives. Overbeck. he says: Love for you.16 And [so] he set beforethe simple folk bitter [mixed] with sweet . that I may not expatiate upon those things which Bardaisan alleges among his doctrines. 10. Vatican ed. La litterature syriaque. et aliorum Opera Selecta. For example. Ed. 16 Le.'5of the impeding substances. Eph. ardens eius a Syris praedicatur ingenium et in disputatione vehemens.5b and [all] the rest. Oxon.. 553: 15bEphraem discusses this doctrine at length.that the soul [consists] of seven [parts]. Syr. . "highly adorned with all the graces. p. and that it has no resurrection. 33. 53. . 14 Comm.. and composedsongs and introducedmeters. constrains that you bear the repetition of their words. 63. that the body is of the evil [principle]. Haer. ap. 186: dptar6s rts oa.. the stars. 18)." 12 Jerome says that he was regarded as "distinguished" and that the Syrians extol the ardor of his intellect and his vigor in argument. p.13 And again. p. 186: clarus habitus est .. For he formed hymns and set them to tunes. eund. the signs of the zodiac.sick folk they. . ap. 14 sqq. eund. etc. 15 Or. 56. in rhythmic and accentual measures. eund. 1865. Ephraem Syrus does indeed frequently speak of the charm which the Bardaisanite hymns exercised upon the minds of the people and attributes them to Bardaisan. He divided the words in measures and weights. ii. . rh 18De vir.
6 pat 56e r imv "EXXrort rap' Xbyw ao rpWrotLdrpOLS KGL aly6OLs dxO•rcra 4 r OpLy Kc . otd ye brb VXpad Ovvrypdtaro avvOels.CS Kal . Kcal'Apu6. TavraO cs 666as " Since he [Harmonius]was not entirely outside the limits of his father's sect and the views entertainedby the Greekphilosophers regardingthe soul. if I understand aright the following sentence. Bap8a7. and imitated his number [only].).. It is also more than probable that the hymns in use among the Bardaisanites were not of his composition.. TrosOIKelOLS YpdttCZaTv.he commingledthese views with his own compositions.Theodoret (HF. His [i. 187) also states that Harmonius.seeing that he set to the lyre what he [Bardaisan] had composed. iii. It is probable that in the Syriac. p.wrote much in Syriac." and indeed. cit.op. p. ap. XOPO rdptvwLO bra-ya 0. Harnack. irel ydlp ob raWdI r-tv &K769 JP37^9 rarTpCaCs TE q0paopaiO a65aTO0 KaZl 0l StbXororcZXtyyeIcrl o ap? EXXi1ro iPVX27S.. the birth and dissolutionof the body and transmigration. ap.e.Vos Bap8iodovu avveoT• rats.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 167 who chose not wholesome food. Harm. 187: Obt dyivo . that he might be adorned with his beauty and praised for his likeness. CI . rvyypdALLczcrL. composed 150 songs. too. ct irep XpcbevoL. with the view expressed in his own compositions." 18 Sozom. HE."1 He wished to make David his model. he expressly implies that Bardaisan's poems were set to the lyre by Harmonius and not by Bardaisan himself. rap' 'Oopovo^s dyI-opro."i.oUvoLKO r 7)P ?OsraOpaSo KcaaOdrEp v^ KGCal IroXXdKLS o0 1Appo rt'dXXovorL. was the first to adapt his mother tongue to meters and musical rules.E . he. But it must be borne in mind that Ephraem is writing There is about 150 years after Bardaisan's death.8S These varying accounts are easily reconciled. Sozomen explicitly asserts that Bardaisan's son. Harmonius. in the interval Bardaisan's doctrines reason to believe that had been modified by the influence of Manichaism and probably by other influences as well. 16. the canonical Psalms had been used in public worship from the 17 Duval (loc. op. ot iroAs 'Apwoviov • . rpoo'Itt/. as well as Bardaisan. dXX& To tLs X& Kal caIPpIOeOs..e. The circumstantialcharacter of this account gives it claim to credence. as in other Christian churches..rdr 6 vrap abrov KaXovuJV7lV 6o T7Y actp7jorLv craTO. my brethren. cit. " having had a Greek education.cit. K rdXaL JXXoyLtcrTarotroTroPvbY 7rp6Tro Tre.. David's] truth he deserted.yevP40CW Ka & 7d gov7resr otdrobvt. but does not distinguish his work from that of his father. " Les malades n'eurent point le choix d'un remade salutaire.
and so ascribes them all indiscriminately to him. probably had not the ability and certainly had no desire to distinguish in the mass of heretical psalms and hymns the compositions of Bardaisan from those of his successors.168 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE earliest times. It may be that Bardaisan was also the first to write hymns in meter similar to those Syriac hymns with which we are familiar. while wholly insufficient of themselves to prove authorship." and so on. celebrates his deliverance from a form of error portrayed by a "bridegroom who corrupts and is corrupted. but." and a "bride who is corrupted. 2). Just such imitations the " Odes of Solomon" unquestionably are. who was engaged in a fierce warfare with the Bardaisanite heretics. The poet says "the way of error I have left " (xv. Ephraem. and there is every reason to accept his evidence. It is probable on the face of it that Bardaisan. which. in view of Sozomen's evidence. Whether other psalms and hymns were used along with those " of David " in the other churches is a question into which I need not enter. "I was delivered from vanity " (xvii. Bardaisan had been converted from Gnosticism to Christianity. would endeavor closely to imitate the Psalms with which they were already familiar. and invite many to the banquet." who "lead astray and corrupt the whole world. There is no reason to charge the Valentinians with . in his earliest efforts to produce hymns acceptable to his congregation. xxvi. harmonize singularly well with the little we know of Bardaisan's life and activity. it is more probable that the Bardaisanite hymns in meter known to Ephraem were the work of Harmonius and other writers." and is "adorned. and there is no doubt that such practices were widespread among many Gnostic sects. There are also several allusions in the Odes. This reads like a condensed abstract of the account given by Epiphanius of his own experiences when young among the "Gnostics " of Egypt (Haer. and give them to drink of the wine of their intoxication so that they may vomit up their wisdom and knowledge. it is at any rate certain that their introduction into the church at Edessa was ascribed by Ephraem to Bardaisan. the whole of Ode xxxviii. 4). 6).
'AroXXwv•Pt 6 tK7K1 7 70T0 irp rd0EfOCLL. might have served to draw a band of devoted followers about their gifted author. which would be appropriate to the age of the Antonines. and bearing such clear evidence of deep and sincere religious feeling. &viteTpe rapavolatbroos 4pvoraacOaLtb XpwLrLavbv Eavrb'v XI-yewv. had as a youth just escaped the temptations of some such sect. op. 186: 'A'rwuvvov 'ralpy Ur 6 U? Pelas uv8pelws diroXoyod5evos.g.. manfully defending [the true] religion. and declaring that he had no fear of death. and his addresses to his readers intimate that he anticipates something more than a hearing. ap.. Ilcer. 7-c Lr BtaotLXet AL iTreliTOL. Bardaisan believed himself to be orthodox. but it is not always possible to distinguish between what he says in his own person and what he says in the person of Christ. viii. xxv. 7'. ix.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 169 them. O my 19Epiphan. xxviii. 56. The same must be said of the allusion in xx. We are told that Bardaisan came very near suffering martyrdom. 6. Antoninus' friend. and was almost appointed to the order of confessors. e.. Harnack. " He withstood Apollonius..plvaro. . like Epiphanius. but the suggestions are too vague to be of value. v. and replied in clever speeches. p. " I am a priest of the Lord. 2). 1. xxix.. despays. X6ayovs e8tivac d7re. rdEcMoXoaylar Kosarder. and wrote against the heretics. 10. e. cit. but it is quite possible that the poet. p.. suggest that the persons for whom he writes are not unacquainted with persecution. Marcion and others. The much discussed opening verses of the 4th Ode -" No man. for it must necessarily ensue even if he did not disobey the Emperor." 19 There are several Odes which intimate that the speaker has suffered persecution. Of more weight is the general impression conveyed by the Odes as to the author's relation to his readers. rather suggests spiritual than ecclesiastical priesthood. xxxv." etc.. 8div Odvarov P/L q1jas.20but the context in Ode xx. His " work is the Psalm of the Lord " (xvi. It would fit in very well with the recorded statement that Bardaisan had been ordained deacon.. when exhorted by him to deny that he called himself a Christian. 20 Le livre des lois re avroeos i Tbv 6. One can readily imagine that Odes so beautiful as these. KbP Nau. Other Odes.g.
. and in particular of his relation to the development of Syriac hymnology. Havr. was to be found at Pepuza in Phrygia.2 The fact that these Odes. but they are not sufficient to put the question beyond doubt. The occurrence of Greek words in the Coptic version proves. moreover. the language of the Odes and their title. as I have shown. ii." It is. 16. (Dind. . Gunkel. distinctly favors the hypothesis that he might have written the Odes of Solomon. it is not yet proved that the Odes were first written in Greek. the true Jerusalem which came down from heaven.) 22 I am inclined to believe that the original was Greek. are much more easily explained as an attack upon the Montanist claim that the holy place. 49.21 It appears then that the little we know of Bardaisan's life and activities. much as it was in the Roman church a little earlier. changeth thy holy place.. But two objections present themselves. Epiphanius. ii. On the other hand. and the Odes are supposed to be translations from a Greek original. 14. and it is not possible that he should change it and put it in another place. of course. 444. for thy sanctuary thou hast designed before thou didst make other places "--in which Conybeare sees Montanism. indeed. The words and phrases of the Syriac text upon which Schulthess. But neither of these suppositions is as yet beyond question. 48. and others base their opinion are indeed suggestive. possible that in the last quarter of the second century Greek was a privileged tongue in the church of Edessa. 1. and raise a presumption in favor of the theory that the original was Greek. because he hath no power over it. describes him as "eloquent both in Syriac and Greek. If Hermas could make his revelation in Greek to the Latin-speaking Roman Christians.170 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE God. 21. surely Bardaisan might have used Greek in Syria. Bardaisan is supposed to have written in Syriac. which had been in large measure bilingual for centuries. no more than that the author of the Pistis Sophia was working from a Greek text-not that the text was the original. 442. even about the middle of the 21Epiphan. Bardaisan was certainly able to write Greek.
"in order to prepare the way for the interpretation of the Odes. in ZDMG. Paris. forged works in support of their peculiar tenets with the utmost freedom. 91."in 1855. the discussion for and against a Greek original by Schulthess and Nildeke. pp. he found them in his copy of the Bible.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 171 second century. already bore the name of Solomon. Bardaisan'soriginal work did not contain the doctrineof planetaryinfluence ascribed to him by the "Book of the Laws..and there would have been little likelihood that the fraud ever would be detected. 555. Halle. Haase (op. of course. indeed. concludes that Bardaisan wrote in Greek a dialogue "Against Destiny. after a minute comparison of the " Book of the Laws" with the quotations in Eusebius and the Recognitions. with an English translation.] . The argument.in his "Spicilegium Syriacum. The Syriac was then again translated into Greek. The men who forged books wholesale certainly would not have hesitated. has been very generally accepted as proof that they must have originated at least a hundred years earlier. I can see no force in such considerations. Le livre des lois des pays. many early sects. pp. From this Syriacversionthe existing "Book of the Laws " is derived. I have used that of Nau. from the latter version Eusebius' quotations and those of the Recognitionsare derived. 1910. Moreover. and Merx's translation (in Bardesanes von Edessa. 44 sqq.). presupposes good faith on the part of the author of Pistis Sophia--he was deceived by the fact that the poems had been long current. [N. to attach to it the name of Solomon. were regarded as canonical and used as such by the author of Pistis Sophia." which was translated by his pupils into Syriac.the fact that such works met with easy acceptance proves that the membersof these sects were as uncritical as their leaders were unscrupulous. Ed.B. The Gnostic group from which the Pistis Sophia emanated. if a stray copy of the Odes fell into their hands and seemed to them capable of being used to support their doctrine. 1863). cit. I shall find it necessary to give a fairly complete outline of the "Book of the Laws of the Countries. probably not fifty years after Bardaisan's death." Lack of space preventsme from entering into my reasonsfor dissentingfrom this latter conclusion. and. and so on. 1899. This book contains the only fairly trustworthy evidence as to the views of Bardaisan himself. It was first published by Cureton in 1847.2 The book professesto be a record 23 Besides Cureton's second edition. and again.
the Book of the Laws does not even profess to be from the hand of Bardaisan himself. The Book of the Laws is a discussion. . but the word which Bardaisanuses (= •l06t) possiblypoints to acquaintance with Peripatetic sources. Man is ruled by three independent principles: Freewill. upon man's body as a part of that world. But in time. the Odes are devotional poems of a most intimately personal character. Even granting that the Book of the Laws fairly represents Bardaisan's views. The conception acquaintance of I"Nature"( . and introduce a reign of peace and love.) is unmistakably the Aristotelian(q'aos. and Destiny. that the connection is not immediate. and that he was the author of the Odes. as Haase thinks. of the ultimate laws that govern the universe. whence arise in the world discord and confusion. the " great and holy will of God " will put an end to the discord. and it is quite possible. "Destiny " is the influence exerted upon the entire material world. in a severely scientific and objective spirit. of a dialogue held between Bardaisan and his disciple Avida. but dissents from that form of the principles doctrine of Destiny or Fate which was so generally associated with it. Nature. "Nature" is the organic principle which governs the development and nutrition of his body.24 These three principles. Their themes are as unlike as possible. 2 The theory is obviously eclectic. It. it is obviously unreasonable to anticipate any considerable degree of coincidence between them. of astrology. It is only by accident that the two works occasionally touch upon the same topics. being independent. by the constellations and planets. as Stoic writers were more disposed to use Stoic terms (•-yos. may and frequently do clash. Furthermore.172 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE made apparently by a certain Philip. It puts into Bardaisan's mouth a He accepts the fundamental theory of marked originality. rve1/Aa). Free-will he shares with God and with the angels. and confirmsthe statements of the churchhistoriansas to Bardaisan's with Greek. The conception had become a commonplace Greekphilosophylong beforeBardaisan's of day. and also upon his soul. sickness and sin. It is at best based upon one of his works. upon the problems of Destiny and Free-will.
to "love. Indeed. I think. . Bardaisan'sconception is very different. God. primarily. prove that the writers are identical. an expression of Bardaisan's own character. their value as evidence is not great. I have already referred to the singularity of the poet's attitude towards sin and evil.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 173 The number of coincidences that do occur. good properly belongs to him. I give here. his whole nature seems to turn as naturally towards love. but it is one of the minor threads in the web of evidence which I am endeavoring to weave. but in default of any evidence to show whether these traits were personal peculiarities of Bardaisan's.in a brief article. however. the theories of the Book of the Laws. have been based in the first instance upon observation of what men actually do. supplemented by informationafforded by Ephraem and other writers. Nearly all the Odes are full of joy and thankfulness.or were common in Syriac literature of his age.and these traits are in striking accord with the character revealed in the Odes. bless. offer a very satisfactory interpretation of several difficult Odes. to quote from the Odes at such length as to give an adequate impression of the author's personality--that can be gained only by thorough familiarity with the Odes themselves. nor could it. that man is naturally inclined to sin. This similarity of character does not. and the affinity to that of the poet is manifest. is suggestive. in phraseology and sequence of ideas. goodness. It is. The real significance of the Book of the Laws is this: In the first place. indeed. it was this that first led me to think of Bardaisanas their possible author. of course. from the notion so prevalent in all Christian ages. It is impossible. as the needle to the pole. While he is of course aware of its existence. and to pray for that which is good for every one whom he knows " . to speak the truth. rather. he seems to have no present personal concern with it. it gives a fairly definite impression of certain traits of Bardaisan's character. and in doing good which he conceives is. In the second place. Bardaisan regards man as imbued with a natural inclination towards good.man finds joy.
by those things which I have mentioned.2 Nevertheless. 10. thou hast anything in thy mind respecting this about which thou wast inquiring. " querelle." The simile of a way or path occursabout 17 times in the Odes. and is willing to be convinced. " serons d'accord. necessity will compel us to show thee why it does not please us." xxxiii. but also many. therefore."Way of truth. tell it to us all." and again. 8: " I will make you wise in the ways of truth." Bardaisan said: Thou speakest becomingly. because Avida is not willing to believe. p." N.28 needeth not to be ashamed. Cureton. we shall agree " with thee." Bardaisan said: Not Avida alone is unwilling to believe. Avida's brethren say: "Believe firmly. because I was ashamed of asking thee." Cf.ASLZ "cleverly. " fell from the way of truth." xv." N. Ode xi. and he will hear something to his advantage. If." C . 9 (C). know that he who putteth his inquiries properly. and thou wilt be able to know everything. 27. " something more. These modifications are not always indicated. 1. . 6: " The way of error I have left. 7. Nevertheless." C. . because they have in them no faith. p. and if it please us also." C. even the way of truth. 28 1 P?" obstinacy. nor are they even able to be convinced. my brethren. 29 S. " d'aprs les apparences.? 2s The translation is that of Cureton." N. O ?r. because he will certainly give pleasure to him to whom the inquiry is directed. . and are (p. 6: "I ran in the way of his peace." C. but are always pulling down and building up.174 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE those passages26 from the Book of the Laws which are relevant to my present purpose. but I began first to question these. and if it please us not. and have added in footnotes the more striking parallels from the Odes. 2. 3) found destitute of all knowledge of the truth.freely modified by suggestions derived both from the Syriac and from Nau. my son. lo! I will speak to you who do believe concerning this which he inquires. 80 wa participate. and draweth near to the way of truth n without opposition." to which Avida objects "But I am not able to believe unless I be convinced. Avida said: "I am desirous of learning.
xxxiv. and the treasuryof the darkness is the night". 6. ye that are kept by it. thereforefound I rest. for faithful is He in whom I had faith ". 14: "1And created things run in their coursesand do their works" . xvi. also." With the next sentence. For the sun (p. xxvi. and the rest of these things which are greater than we in some things. In the Odes. 1 : "As the hand moves over the harp and the strings speak. then. but night brings darknessover the face of the land. . " They are instrumentsof the wisdom of God which errs the of not. 5: " I am strong in His praise. 6 : " Believe and live and be saved." nor the moon. 4) never says. 18) But as to what Avida was saying . 12.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 175 And he began to say to us: There are many men who have not faith.also. but they are all bound by the command " that they should do only that which was commanded them and nothing else. 88The comparisonof man to a harp upon which another plays. " to speak and to instruct." C.to . and have not received knowledge from the wisdom of the truth. and know my knowledge. and His hosts are subject to His word.oI" ip de conclure. the fact that the heavenly bodies never rest is adduced S6 as an illustration of subjection to the command of God. " de discouriret 82The conception that faith or belief is the first step in the Christian life occursfrequentlyin the Odes. occurs vi.if man had been created so. and I have faith in Him". The closest parallel is perhapsviii. so speaks in my membersthe Spirit of the Lord. 84tJ. that there is not given to them Free-will of themselves. xlii. but would have been the instrument of him that moved him. but it is nowhere so directly connectedwith knowledgeas here.ye that know me in the truth." " I will not rise at any time. 3. xiv. xxix. (17) " So he made the sun for the day that it may be bright. 8." Why did not God create us so that we should not sin and be guilty ? " . And how. xxviii. I.pa. 6." compare followinglines : (16) " The treasury the light is the sun. But he exalted him by Free-will above many things. " I will not change and not wane nor 31 a . 11 . also."C. and they have no confidence upon which they may hope." . xxxix. So N . For observe the sun." Also.9 P . would man differ from a harp " which another plays or the cart which another guides ? But God in his kindness did not will that he should create man so." Compare. . xvi." N. and the sphere." Compare. "fixed by ordinance.32 (1. And on this account they are not competent to discuss and to draw conclusions. he would not have belonged to himself. 4: " I had faith. and the moon..and I speak by His love."1 For they have not the foundation of faith to build upon.. and made him equal with the angels. 12-13: " Keep my faith. (15) " They know not how to stand and be idle. .
not . and more especially of him who has obeyed and submitted to his enemy. Bardaisan said : This is the answer of such a one as doth not desire to do that which is good." But the word used is . 1.. and govern himself in a god-like manner. who also are possessed of Free-will for themselves. xi. 29 sqq." nor does any one of the stars say.P xxv. P awm.8 Avida objects: (1.. 8 "Bounty." . 1. .176 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE increase.) note 38. and according to His excellent beauty He set me on high ". 9: " According to the multitude of Thy mercies. 5. 3) For everything that exists stands in need of the Lord of All. 3. and associate with the angels." See. note 40.. 2: " According to His praise He made me. (p. 19) The commandmentswhich have been given to men are hard and they are not able to perform them. With the above. " and there is no end to his bounty. compare Ode xxix.. and according to His goodness He gave unto me ". the earth. p. Here follows an account of the fall of the angels through their sin with the daughters of men. and and mercies (1. (l•m s-). xvii.4)." Compare note 40. so shalt Thou give to me.) endowing him with powers fitted to raise him above his present status and make him more like God. For men are not commanded to do anything but what they are able to do. and raised my mind to the height of His truth".~. and p.-ma. 30. (3) " According to His mercies He exalted me.and so of the sea.. 27) On this account let it be manifest to you that the goodness Wof God has been great toward man. the winds. 87 Compare iv. but that we were in need of Thee." that they might minister to him for a season. 17) On this account there has been given to him these things in kindness.I of God as manifested especiallyin creating man. . 4. also. (1. (1. For bounty see (j-3a. the hills. 9 : "I was enriched by his bounty".for they are the instruments of the wisdom of God which errs not.] but all these things serve and are subject to one command. 7: "I grew great by his bounty. and that there has been given to him Free-will more than to all those elements of which we have been speaking. "I will not rise and I will not set. xiv. 7 : " He glorified me by His kindness. For there are two commandmentsset before us such as are suitable and just 88Severalpassagesrefer to the goodness kindness -A? (1Z-on.." [. 17. 9 : "not that Thou wast in need of us. that by this same Free-will he may justify himself.
but the same phrase recurs. Moreover. 4 must be om. and have walkedtowardsHim. do not Thou. It occurs eight times in the J] and properly means "without reluctance". 18) But there have been given to us according to the kindness of God commandmentswithout grudgingOsuch as every man ." s are easily confused.. also to support by the strength of body him who is sick and broken down. or that he should be guilty of hatred and falsehood ? For lo! all these things are subject to the mind of man. "salvation. For I think it is in these commandments more than in anything else man has power. because of them that are deficient. 6: "The way of error have I left. he is able too to give something of that which he has. but in the will of the soul.•. For we are not commanded to carry heavy burdens of stones [and so of other tasks]. I should be tempted to emend the text of the Ode. rather than salvation. For even if a man be poor and sick and old. r and the interpretation of xviii.a .it would be somewhat Fi. 6) to avoid doing all these things. and is then equivalentto d006vws. xxiv. and as he is able (p. it is that is not able to do what those devoid of faith " murmur about I know not. so is he able to love. And accordingto His bounty He hath given to me." V P?. 389 " Devoidof faith. or to avoid lying or committing adultery and fornication. 7. 197). What man. lo i M%. t 40 "Without grudging. ?-a = d7rcrTroL. and the other that we should do that which is good and which we love.. and this too he is able to do. xxiii. ye in the knowledge of the Most High withoutgrudging. For they are easy.1 ^ ] . and to pray for that which is good for every one whom he knows: and if he be in health and have the use of his hands. i•o consideredin connectionwith that of xxiv. and there is nothing that is able to hinder them. And have receivedsalvation fromHimwithoutgrudging." Possibly " in faith" has been lost fromthe text. Who. and to speak the truth." 2a. With the above passage compare xv. (1. po~ r take Thy Wordfrom me. in close connection • with qAj." But it is usually found with verbs of giving.. And accordingto His excellent beauty He hath made me. Ode 4 . he is able to avoid doing all these things. 4: "Walk Odes.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 177 for Free-will: one that we separate ourselves from everything that is evil and which we should dislike to be done to ourselves.~ more appropriateto receive commandmentsimmediately after leaving the way of error." and ~.g. therefore." Commandments. and to bless. therefore.. . and desire that it should be done to us likewise. 4 : " Lord. Should the evidence ever warrant a definite ascriptionof the Odes to Bardaisan." . e. 7 (see p. is there who is unable to avoid stealing. or impotent in his limbs.. and they lie not in the power of the body. xviii.
" I love the Beloved and my soul loves Him. 41 . There is one passage in Harris's translation which seems to express the doctrine of Bardaisan. and my impulse is towards Him. and conceives "the good" as God Himself. do you say that they are easy to perform ? Bardaisan said: To him who desires. 0=3 . and conceives "'the good " as good deeds. . which as it stands is unintelligible. "the beloved. The words ae I~c~l p0?o . ' The wording suggests a plausible emendation "I. is literally. and the attempt to reconstruct the theories of each from the scattered hints in our possession would lead me far beyond the limits assigned me. For would not that Judge be unjust who should blame a man for such a thing as he is not able to do ? Avida said to him : Respecting these deeds. for there is no man who rejoiceth not when he doth that which is good.. But whereas Bardaisan finds it in human nature as such. For there are many things which impede the action of the body. not. hence a direct comparison of the two authors on this vital point is impossible. nowhere definitely states his theory of redemption. I have said and do say that they are easy.] have been lost IPo. My joy is the Lord. to the exclusion of Bardaisan's conception. 0 Bardaisan." i.l1_ ? for vii. and who are called tares. vii.178 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE who possesses a soul within him 41can do rejoicing. and sickness. 1: "As the impulse of anger against evil. but to do good things who among men is able ? . for the poet gives no description of human nature as such. with the exception of those who were not made for this grace.e. 27. every living man. Avida said: Perhaps a man may be able to avoid wicked things. and of that soul which has not rebelled against its governors. And brings in of its fruits without restraint. again." But the word here translated "what is lovely. the poet finds it in the redeemed and purified soul. however." 5i." and a comparison with iii." makes it reasonably certain that the passage has no such general application. for this is the good conduct of a free mind. and more especially old age."Every man that possesses a soul within him. Bardaisan. 42 This joy in the good is the most characteristic trait both in Bardaisan and in the author of the Odes.. after J . 5. 42 nor is there any one who doth not delight within himself when he refraineth from wicked things. and the ?second po is a corrupt dittograph for J?. so is the impulse of joy over what is lovely. and poverty. "I. The text reads: m )oa loa.
nevertheless is far removed from the love which is true."and has given to all things the power which is suitable for each one of them. know well that there are men who are called Chaldaeansand others who love the knowledge of this art [i..a.e. there also am I". 9: "I was enrichedby His bounty. and His rest is forever and ever ". which. when applied to a planet. 21) But. contentment. Greekol0Kos8er6rqs. but the evil is the operation of the enemy and on this account when a man is troubled and not sound in his nature he does wicked things. 10: "From above He hath given The conception "rest" me rest that is incorruptible.=. xi. and by the thought of His heart". . . For the good is the man's own. and receivethe thoughtof the MostHigh ". I cannot determinetheir precise meanings." '5 j rulers." (p. 4: "Be enrichedin God the Father. 0 Philip. each of which. governors. 11. After developing in some detail the distinction between the true enjoyment which attends good deeds. He fixed the creationand establishedit. astrology]. my soul loves Him."N = U? j -. 4) I likewise. as I also once loved it. 12: "I was justified by His kindness. and on this account he rejoices whenever he does good. 5-6 : "I love the Beloved. some in Luck." " Comparexvi. [Some believe in Destiny. and they see as things seem to them. and the false enjoyment which attends evil. 1. They are true in that men speak from the appearanceof what they see. rpo•o-y6rLos. Comparexxv. 24) We ought plainly to understand that the unrestrained ardor of love is called lust. 1. 7) evil. Where His rest is. some in Free-will.l. iii. " or "peace" occurs about seventeentimes in the Odes. signifies a definite astrologicalfunction. as for myself. compareix.e. in my humble opinion. and has ordained the governors.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 179 Bardaisan said : It is more easy to do good than to abstain from (p. although there may be in it rest (i. Bardaisan proceeds: (1." and created man. in that the wisdom of God is richer than they.. xi. they are false. satisfaction) for a moment. heads. 12. 20: "The worlds were made by His Word.] (1." which has established the worlds. "For this conception of knowledge or wisdom as riches. incorruptible and indissoluble. etc. 12: " He spreadout the heavens and fixed the stars. whose rest is forever. like the . 35) But let us speak now and show with respect to m ie]o. it seems to me that these three views are partly true and partly false. (p. JrtKpTarwp.
whenever nature is disturbed from its right course." and sometimes perhaps " west. Adv. The position of a planet makes its proper influence stronger or weaker . "Horoscope. elxcapdvfy. Astron. and Mercury neutral." I cannot explain. Strictly speaking. 1. used by Ptol. because those heads and governorsupon whom depends the change that is called Horoscope. The next section shows how organisms are normally ruled by their respective natures." or when rising in the eastern sky than when situated elsewhere in the Zodiac. that it has not power over everything. 1. Jupiter and Venus are beneficent. 383. Mat.. the horoscope was the sign of the Zodiac rising at the moment of birth (see the admirably clear summary of the leading doctrines of astrology given by Sextus Emp. Pruckner.). libb. and souls are changed in their descent to the bodies.-Procl. or when setting--but it cannot change its proper character. 47Disposition of the motion. In astrology as known to us. (p. ccelestia signa. iii. N. 50o ." 1." j. for this very thing itself (p. pp.. for clearly " those on the right " are planets or constellations which are always beneficent. -" The complex. "oipdvta arocxe'a. Mars and Saturn maleficent." probably T-TracLts. Basel. 14. but here probably means the signs "." . jhz. 1 . 663-664) that " right " sometimes means "north. and this change is called the Destiny and the Horoscope0 of this complex which is being sifted and purified for the advantage of that which has been receiving aid and will receive it 10until the consummation of all.OT. 61 Precisely what Bardaisan means by " those on the right.. " Right " and " left" do not seem to bear any definite technical meaning in astrology. And those are on the right 11 called " those which assist nature" and add to as haps. 49 Destiny.180 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE Destiny." None of these seems to fit the present passage. Tetrab. intelligences are changed in their descent to the soul.. ed. De diffinitionibus et terminis astrologice (in Jul. It signifies the total complex of relations constituted by the position of the heavenly bodies at any given moment. its disturbance is due to Destiny." sometimes "south. Boll has shown (Sphcura.e. & Add.4 = TOLXX•ta. Astrol. and according to this motion and disposition.g. 10) And know ye well that." "'those on the left. a translation of aX??arp~ps rs obpavlac KLV75aeWs. Corr.are opposed one to the other.m. 13) which is called Destiny is a disposition (or arrangement) of the motion4 which is given to the governors and the elements4 by God. See Otho Brunfels.. ir=% o i " Those on the right." etc. any planet is more powerful when in its own "'house. 48 Elements. p. per- . = 1." sometimes "'east. (v) 12 sqq. 1551). Firm. of the Zodiac. wporTK67roS. viii." . but it is here used of the total effect exerted by the stars upon the infant at birth.. n. is equivalentto and is.
we assemble ourselves together. though bound none the less by the works that have been made and by the institutions which have been established for their help.o . For there is nothing that can hinder that great (p.j) that 2•. 33. because He is kind and permits all natures to remain as they are and govern themselves by their own will. xviii. For if we were able to do everything we should be everything. 1.their natures. (p. neither does the Destiny of the Governors compel them to make use of things impure to them. 22). 11-12: " Who is able to interpret the wonders of the Lord ? For he who could interpret would be resolved into (1oa.Christians. i. But whenever God wills. 1. 4) What." For this orderliness and government S" Helps them. shall we say respecting the new race of ourselves who are Christians. but also. so also is this visible man not able readily to deliver himself from the commands of his Governors. for he is a slave and a subject. especiallythe stars. then." etc. i. and riches and poverty -this which does not appertain to their Free-will. Those on the left are called "bad. . and whenever it is governed it is able to resist its Governors. 32. befalls them wherever they are. "High places.. 10) But wherever they be and in whatever place that they are. all of us are called by the one name of the Messiah . withstand . (p." eachplanet has two " houses" or signs properlybelongingto it." and if we had no power to do anything. whom in every country and in every region the Messiah established at his coming. when their inherent beneficent influencesare re3nforced by their positions in the Zodiac and relations to other planets and constellations. for lo! wherever we be. This is the position in which its influenceis strongest. but sickness and health. a certain position in the Zodiac fixed for each planet (Ptol. or geovpavgiara." either twy/?ara. N Cf. the " institutions.. position on or near the meridian. we should be the instruments of others." ..in particular. without opposition. xxvi. "Their own degrees. and on the appointed days we abstain from food. 34) and holy will." probably." For even those that think they withstand it. which is interpreted. etc. anything can be.not by their strength .-Procl.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 181 its excellence whenever their motion helps them 52 and they stand in high places of the sphere in their own degrees. and upon one day." 55The " works" are probablythe material universe." and whenever they occupy the high places they are opposed to nature and not only injure men.but by their wickedness and error. and in its "houses " it has a certain position. which is the first.. This may last for a short time. 68 Cf. 10 : "Thy will is perfection.e. the laws of the countries do not separate them from the laws of their Messiah. As the Free-will of men is not governed by the necessity of the Seven.
who probably learned it from the Pythagoreans. the soul was supposed to encounter. in all its forms. and later by Plato. that. bad. Its origin. although astrology as a science was as yet unknown to the Greek world at large. influences severally appropriate to the several tracts of space through which it passed.C." " rvsultat. or both. and there will be peace and safety. It was probably always associated with the complementary idea that the soul which has thus fallen from her divine estate should seek again to regain it. although it is not possible to prove.182 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE which has been given. however. The doctrine was probably of Oriental origin and was introduced into the Greek world by the Orphics about the seventh century B. whose equilibrium is maintained by a balance between opposed but system equal tendencies. W a68 . the existence of this element." 1 education. and all rebellions will be brought to an end. It is probable. widely prevalent in antiquity. softens down the violence of the natures. both in its ascent and its descent. and the foolish will be persuaded. by the bounty of Him who is the Lord of all natures. for it already contains the essential elements of the astrological form of the doctrine. Its present evils can be corrected by a new combination of its elements. good. " training. in one form or another.. it was adopted by the Pythagoreans. again. The world is a a. and mingling of one with another. And at the establishment of that new world. But there is good reason for believing that the form in which it appears in Plato's works has been directly influenced by Oriental ideas. Proclus' interpretations of the myths of the lit. These influences. as they were injuring and injured from before the creation of the world. The doctrine of the soul's descent from heaven here sketched by Bardaisan was.. And a time will come when this injuriousness also which remains in them shall be brought to an end by the restraintsmfound in another mingling. that they should not be altogether injurious or altogether injured. also. all evil motions will cease. in all cases.and deficiencies will be filled up." N. might be conceived as personal or impersonal. is not known and the diverse forms under which it appeared have been but imperfectly investigated.
for he would have to take from the sailors such and such orders and obey the pilot and be exposed to gales of wind. .e. and the body only in so far as not controlled by its nature. o hvel rb g-arovCrpoeXOofGa r^ . [in brief]. is exposed to material spirits. o epG rW^ K6onov IAdpoS.57 . the eternally subsisting and inflexible dominion of Necessity to which the soul. and I cannot supply a better commentary on Bardaisan's statements than by translating one or two short passages from Proclus' intolerably prolix commentary upon the Republic. PT7)TU TrOtOvTwJ' &XXcoM L 77s otbECe 7-P Ir^i . Proclus holds that the embodied soul is absolutely subject to the influences of the stars. arbitrary and fanciful in detail. and instead of belonging to those things which rule the Universe. but the soul is governed by Free-will.. 5CLc4OO'bL KOO•ILKuIC '•O'Tpw7CCt 7 &XXaei asra'v. 7p6etaw U lsr E rb o xarov 7 otpavlwvreptXflc00e6arot7aercv. Kroll. So also the soul.v rept68wv ylverat Paa~telav r7A7d'AdCYK-I. Proclus' own theory is very similar to that of Bardaisan. just as though a philosopher were to embark in a ship and become a rower. depends upon the operation of the celestial orbits which severally exert their diverse influences upon her. . of course. although. in a sense. 345. 14: . when she has proceededas far as the lowest of the orbits (i. This is Bardaisan's doctrine with one important difference. and as she proceeds thereto she is immersed in all influences [emitted] from the celestial [bodies]. Bardaisan that the body only is subjected to them. differ in no way from the things which are moved by other things [only]. in Remp. that of the moon) becomes subject. ii.~ 6• X rats d Oprbcrw^ vx. po•ra 6KKEL74 r^ d-'yOp ALXKOS •T 7repL65wv w^i 78allgo . in such manner that she is not only a part of the [lower] world. he would. upon falling wholly into birth. is subject to the guiding spirit. in so far as the general outlines are concerned.ri7v br oa'av del KalId&Klrov 6 Procl. but is one of its lowest parts. she becomes one of the things ruled.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 183 Republic and Timeus are therefore correct. In another passage Proclus describes at some length the ed. re A dbrvov 70ooG &dXXC b rt rdv goXdrwv v Kcral Kac cuvat ela rb d Krl ccl'palc 8tocKo0PTWP a7rp olo' et rtr hX6tofoPo s pat' p 5LoLovudIWer rr *a KCL d-~yC7y&p TroTrovKal bIrb Trw 7r& aIKC r 7rXwr7p drcKo~.e aucWvTW "yd'otro mmi 5aqCeJva rpbTrov7d biroKe~eOOa ~dXcacr AiC d tral L&Um ftreeOac 7tr rVuep'ry eal al ux1 rjv & epo y'p c lydveoes ot~dv*' o'mTW re'VooG'a rdi•rmw rwirc.
too. then.. .dbi d7rXcaVWP 1oo0OaL. and by way of a simile they. CXX& cal ra drovepbt6eva 7ytAv T 70 raVrT6. drypplovwa Ic LTr 7L/v^ T 7TC^ &CXX Kac &rb 7-w rapao . KXwOov^r rapapylverat.PL ObK &pa rI TrI 'yevIVOELs eZT a-vlrX-lpovoaOa TwVPd&vOp&r7rTv T7y ofeo'Oac ' L. 7 KaL rpo57p~ern ^T T vs o0ev elpopdv2v rolqv70L alOavulrXeIoOAlP avrpd rep elp •Tp ' ov7Pha70o KdTiw 70T rdoews d&retrcltav ol raaXtol Kai d reKdacavTes KXwcOc38td 7rara 7rP Mortpa -KcdXeo••a. From Lachesis. and through the threads which it gives. Tc Uava0Tp676epa XoEV' AaXiaews. •d 8vuvar•b d&PavyeYv Trdos dTLrOeoLav TrotSalpeOe•LOLv. XX drb T•K rdP'oTwV Ka 5&&y va ylveEat iZTd•L• v JAwv al h04Kovoal. i0ouv Pbvov d&rb ?yl'ot. . KvpwOjvcal fqo-wL 7b 6 1 Kal eleOazL uTLS v pXeac els" 7a rarbXX Tre 86o~"r*cd' var•eXX6. 342. 21: 7T drb r o drb p ebX6AeOa Aotpav* obXl T6 7rrwis ei8os b6vov. rdvTwv Top 6T0 V r6 Kai S ro6Tw7J IX6YPrTW paCoT7pLOv repi Tis 'EVIeOEL.6vov w I d&rb T v wv dXXr dov abtrbTwP d7TXavY rXavWpivre 6vWvr. a&" 1V 7rTeTLOdaav T•. and from them [the] Chaldean and [the] Egyptian [astrologers] are wont to foretell many events of our lives. which is twisted and intertwined from all these. PLa6Ovovoa yp I"rXelo0tv ObKdTL y ?r' &XXoLts77/JL dKeCOev T? KLTV^ ?EW VCa7riv ^rpoEPeL. sphere. 8 P PvX) Tr /LOLpazta. Not only. cit. makes what has been twisted incapableof being un58Op. exert a great and effective fateful influence upon nativities. dvrl MeT&r 7rava IroLvY ?T•v v'otv 7Lt KXOeL KaL al" WV rapasecadvrm &XXa yet 7f 'ATp6brov. The influence. He then brings [the soul] from Klotho to the spinning of Atropos.v7-w XaX&ao^o ~ piwvi&uGv ? Kal Ailry6irmot roXXo irepl rv rpoyV'rJdaerv. . we get both. d. rdpaI dT& KXwo0'dvTa a'T7ry 1yd/rcJTV 7roLOvOav. puoLpav ali Seya'dyXv rip o v &. ' ?v T& Kal elp". from whom we got life. K y'lp 7 rap' i KsKai 0los. TW7 7TE K6KXWV " t KE Kai 7Tw V CLVaTOS LOLpPV KaL darb TWP 7TW9V TWdv7r'XavrCoP' TwP daOTIpwV Kal TWP v 8Xw ryUCWV KCai TWP&XXv OvLordeeWov.not merely the kind of life.. Ei Trl br•eLepa ~rl roT ?rpb abr V el 7 Ba 5p. indeed. L&8•OLV d4eLrEAcorpoca 8dLV 7 vT7vP Xav cvaPdWV K6KXWV y&p aeTr) rapd7TL Ts oO)K ?w00s . but also the [influences] imparted to us by the Universe. comes from Klotho ? He (Plato) says she ratifies the destiny we have chosen. for this reason. . 7r Xszjavofs 86oel. in that she causes to stream upon us the gifts of the celestial from the constellations also which rise simultaneously with each of them there comes to us a generous largess. the ancients compared to "twisting" and "turning" together with the stretching of the thread from above downwards. . Kal a y 8 aXdov &~ r6o0YLaLXXOV VKTaLrivra tL lveraT V'roKaraKXtveTaL rTEpL68ots. then.184 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE way in which the soul's total endowment is derived from the constellations and the planets :68 What. p. but Klotho (= "Twister "). but Klotho ratifies them by her own threads. called this Fate. the products of her spinning [or twisting]. from the signs of the Zodiac. upon the ground that they. then.. . U KXwOI KvpoT TaGVTa ToLs LavT-fl v7Pha-L Kal KXcSaoLaaotv. which finishes the twisting.
. and of the other constructions [such as the triangles. For as the soul descends lower. from which she cannot escape until she has brought what she elected to its completion. otherwise difficult to defend. are filled up from the fixed stars or the planets exclusively.] 62 V. And the more these secondary [influences] work upon us on top of those which preceded them. therefore. suppose that the nativities of men or of other living creatures. Labourt's reading: which yields excellent sense.ED. but that from them all results a single train and series reaching to us.. by means of the planetary orbits. are given to us through the planets. (4) (5) 59 Read without points. For upon receiving from Klotho the spinning.NEWBOLD : BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 185 twisted. The Most High hath given him to His worlds-the interpreters of His beauty. she becomes subject to more and yet more orbits. Wisdom. etc. she contributes to us. the narratorsof His praise. from their motions. the more inevitable do the decrees of destiny become. 5 is unintelligible. For the mouth of the Lord is the true Word. 7. various [gifts] thence.62 Read plural points. 60For ao read A. but is m Za. and that the [influence] of the fixed stars. Like his subtlety is his piercingness. The twelfth Ode runs as follows: The WordI9of truth hath filled me that I may speak of him. the heralds of His thought. 61 I have followed. ."' The subtlety of the Word cannot be told. 22f. inscribed in the Zodiac]. Turning now from Bardaisan to the Odes. 4~•~o. (1) (3) He hath increased in me his knowledge. and of the circles on high and of their degrees. the chasteners of His works. and of the stars. one upon another. and of the signs taken as wholes. and the door of His light. [Cf. (2) and my lips show forth his fruits. One should not. I shall endeavor to interpret some of the more difficult Odes in the light of Bardaisan's doctrines. the confessors of His counsel. 60 As a stream of water streams the truth from my mouth. 4a. 4 -al . reluctantly.
is not the only effect of the Word's activity .e. 4). Blessed are they whom he has made to know all things. 9a) .6 He is light and the dawning of thought: The worlds through him talk one with another. He is Light and Thought (v. For as his work is. may be pluperfect. through that love " 638 Final end. here seems nearly equivalent to 65 I. They were penetrated by the Word. in converse were those who were silent." i.e. thought. and he is impelled to sing of his nature and his work. through his influence upon the " worlds " they have become the means of revealing God's beauty. he also inspires love and concord (v." From him came love and concord. by that of the Word. consciousness. because they were in concord. Never doth he fail but steadfast stands. For [it was] the voice of the Most High [that] spake to them. praise. They know the Lord in His truth. and of " chastening" His works (v. 6a) . 7). "Those who were silent" are perhaps those on the " left. 8. the Word will continue the work of reconciliation in which he is now engaged until all discord has disappeared. 5. nothing can resist him (v. he pervades the universe (vv. And knows not his fall nor the way of it. (11) (12) This beautiful poem might well be entitled "An Ode to the Word. such is his final end. But intelligence." see note 51. Or the ppl." For the dwelling-place of the Word is man.186 (6) JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE (7) (8) (9) (10) and endless is his course. ipF. they have acquired the power of communicating to one another their thoughts. 64V.Lflj'Ea." The poet feels himself (vv. counsel. 6") . and they knew him that made them. 1-3) inspired by the Word which issues forth from the mouth of God. and his truth is love. "In converse": for the " Word" the poet has used consistently throughout this Ode. and they told one another whatever they had [to tell]. His meaning sped by his agency. .
or one of those that direct the affairs of earth. the sea. The female mons. the things that are in the heights. whom the moon obeys as He bids her shine by night. 11). and Christus. compare the Epistle to Diognetus. 12). or angel. fire.66 To any one who has any acquaintance with the literature of astrology the " worlds " as described in v. Fathers. and the things that are in the earth. air. and Spiritus. and it will be remembered that " worlds " is the word used by Bardaisan for the planets [note 45]. became all as Aletheia. and Anthropos. by whom He made the heavens. too. 318. abyss. and led them to a state of true repose. and have nothing to do immediately with the redemption of the world accomplished by the Soter and by Jesus.. chap. from whom [the sun] hath received even the measure of the courses of the day to keep them. whom the stars obey as they follow the course of the moon. for the Word is the voice. Thus then they tell us that the mons were constituted equal to each other in form and sentiment. and the things that are in the sea. the things that are between the two. so that all became as Nous. The meonshave no such functions. But certain elements of the picture certainly are Valentinian. Blessed indeed must they be who feel themselves possessed of such knowledge as this (v. but the very Artificer and Creator of the universe Himself. In the western Valentinian system of which Irenaeus has preserved the best account. 4 will suggest the planets and constellations as conceived by the pious astrologer. These are not Valentinian weons. whose mysteries all the elements faithfully observe. by whom He enclosed the sea in its proper bounds. by whom all things are ordered and bounded and placed in subjection. 10Jo d). . the heavens and the things that are in the heavens. Am. vol. 10a. they are shut up within the limits of the Pleroma. and his truth is love (v. 7 (Lightfoot-Harmer's translation)." This Epistle exhibits other points of contact with the sphere of ideas common both to Bardaisan and to the Odes. the "meaning. [God sent to earth] " not a subaltern. 6 Ante-Nic. Yet the same Word that rules the stars in their courses. 6 With this description of the cosmological functions of the Word. p." the thought of God (v. and Logos. ed. or ruler. i. b).. and Ecclesia. and Zoe. dwells in man. cut off from the lower world by the Horos. the things that are in the depths. the earth. or one of those who have been entrusted with the dispensations in heaven. after the aeons have been produced by the Propator :67 The Holy Spirit taught them to give thanks on being all rendered equal among themselves.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 187 the worlds become aware of their Creator (v.
" literally " equality. I have quoted this Ode partly in order to show how precisely it conforms to what we would expect of Bardaisan as regards its doctrine (compare Haase's summary. love and " concord." which. 8. the whole Pleroma of the eons." It shows no other points of contact with the Book of the Laws. iv." in this passage at least. For this I read " formed. is further confirmed by Lactantius' quotation :72 " Salomon 69 68tirep elXe' #p davrr KdXLOTOV Kal dlVOypbra6To. with one design and desire. which is given by Moses bar Cepha.r. yet they contain striking identities of thought. character is easily confused with The emendation .71 The nineteenth Ode is one of the most difficult in the collection. 71 But . brought together whatever each one had in himself of the greatest beauty and preciousness.(and therefrom produced Jesus). Certainly. and has not yet been satisfactorily interpreted as a whole. they next tell us that these beings sang praises with great joy to the Propator..188 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE Everything. and tell each what70he has. and they resolve to contribute each the best he has68 to the nature of Jesus. p. Div. 6 q. A leading difficulty is the first word of v. then. The pictures are similar but not the same. these two pictures are inspired by one and the same original. The Valentinian aeons sang praise because Christ and the Holy Spirit have given them such knowledge of God as they are able to receive. p. and with the concurrenceof Christ and the Holy Spirit. 164). when written in the Estrangela c. Then.who himself shared in the abounding exultation. being thus established and brought into a state of perfect rest. as conceived by Bardaisan. Harris. for which no good sense has been found.. and have made them equal. 198." 69 and therefore talk to one another. but chiefly to establish the fact that " worlds. 12. note the description of the work of the Word. ap. out of gratitude for the great benefit which had been conferred upon them. 72Inst. their Father also setting the seal of his approval on their conduct. probably means " planets. p. The Worlds in the Ode receive from the Word knowledge of God.
(9) She bore in joy 78 and acquired79in great power. (2) and He who was milked. -. Hallelujah. but informatus est represents with a fair degree of accuracy. 74Read pluralpoints as suggestedby the pl. ]•-. J r"S 80 j." Infirmatus est is meaningless. e. KvTr-aT?o verses changed to suit the sense. 77&L. (3) And the Holy Spirit milked Him because His breasts were full and it was not fitting His milk should go to waste. she was empty. for He kept her safe. without their knowing it. (1) A cup of milk was offered to me. 4 16. gErworep. 76Read L2oa" m.g. 4. 76 And she sought no midwife.QA.75 (6) They moulded the body of the virgin and she received conception and bore. oSakets. --= eavUrb.. of which I can make no sense here. Himerius. For the rare aor.&1. "I (10) and loved in safety and kept in kindness and showed forth in majesty. 76See note 51. Or. alK Va .. e e )rvevXes Kal Kva7cT/r 1h. (7) She travailed and bore a son without any pain. I have followed Labourt'ssuggestionand read . The virgin became a mother with many mercies. etc. frexev &I K-vaOarO was corrupted into KT7aarTO and the order of the Kcl XOZa. and I drank it in the sweetness of the kindness of the Lord.17 like a man. (4) and mixed the milk from the two breasts of the Father. I Tim. •Las' eyAdX. the Father. of the verb cf.--a' Kpcd6ret text read: 79 suspect that the original that d-yaXXLdre&. mid. vii. The Son is the Cup.NEWBOLD : BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 189 ita dicit : Infirmatus est uterus virginis et accepit foetum et gravata est. (8) and since there was none.73 The Holy Spirit opened Her [the Spirit's] bosom. 78 7 So alsoFleming. et facta est in multa miseratione mater virgo.AL corresponds to 6'EdtsL. rawplc. And gave the mixture to the worlds 74 (5) and they that received in its fullness arethey on the right. she bore voluntarily. part.
1 %&CMI&3 ' QZA? bj. so offensive to our taste. 6-8).. 82Homrn. .e. A l? 1f. especially noteworthy are the expressions" the worlds " and "those on the right. 3 and 4 the Holy Spirit draws from the Father a similar divine influence or substance.• 1-. is apparent. God protected her from all harm during the process (vv. 557 : lv.~i. Ephraemgives a brief account of Bardaisan'stheory :82 s81The fact that this distinction between planets as on the right and on the left. the theory of the Incarnation here set forth is perfectly intelligible.-k- jlQl~m ? t-•. 50rka . 9-10.3 li? 1•! ! 4.•-•.. Verses 1 and 2 are introductory and serve as a key to the understanding of what follows. is significant(see note 51).. She needed no midwife.Av . i= . so far as I have been able to discover.81 the beneficent planets. without pain because she was empty--the precise meaning of this conception I shall discuss presently. of the virgin."? W 0.. --•-• R• tb: •'•z Ft1:uo t:•k•_• •.•oo1.o C?5 !. The planets then "mould" or " form" or "shape" the body. ai-• otlrq•z .•. those on the right.• •io •L •.?4aOI? 4? z PJI c wiy. ii.- t.'I.!-li9. p.190 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE Notwithstanding the strange metaphors. mixes it in "her" own bosom and i.in Ptolemy. cit. The milk which the poet has received through the Son as the Cup. !1ti~2 !o• •-•-• ljm•. " •!. receive it in its fullness. literally belly. but not. op.•Zlo cm •. That this theory. and to which he refers so often. occursboth in Bardaisanand in the Odes.z_'•o0 xA i? irm oZ SV0 -'P?9? b %. !.0 ' 4010 4. In vv."30 P jOe . is the divine influence or Word of which he seems so vividly conscious. gives it to the planets. The poem closes with the crescendo of vv." It remainsto adduce further evidence which will directly connect it with Bardaisan.- !- . and she brings forth a son. and the language in which it is expressed. is in general agreementwith the Book of the Laws.3 Ibl 1 • fl b.
and "1something" does not necessarily mean more than that Ephraem found Bardaisan hard to understand. and all the rest of the constellations. The word which I have rendered "marriage" may have a more literal sense. But even as our Lord's body was not born from between two. 11: "IHe who finds pleasurein the Living One. formed themselves into a chorus about the star. There then follows an allusion to a widespread notion "the mixture was given to the worlds without their knowing it. unopposed motion.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 191 Pray. But too much stress must not be laid upon his phraseology. will become living. for the pl. Cf. 4. with the sun and moon." suggests that Ephraem had before him the very milk simile of Ode xix. it certainly is well fitted to express what the poet describes in v. glory be to Thy Nativity! And in that he said that it was impossible for one ever to germinate. and its strangeness caused amazement. and its light was unutterable." CompareOde iii. which protects Harris' emendation (the sing." "Something flowed down. How.' in the mystery of a marriage. were they made manifest to the aeons? A star shone forth in the heavens above all the stars. for He is "light from light.the which were wrought in the silence of God.Holy Jesus. then. But the allusion to the "mystery of a marriage " is more significant. but the star itself far outshone them 88"The Son of the Living One.). as when like children they say something flowed down from the Father of Life and the mother conceived a hidden son and bore him and he was called the Son of the Living 8 One." literally "1flowed and descended. . and procreate. my brethren. ." The context shows that the Living One is Christ. and likewise also the death of the Lord84-three mysteries to be cried aloud . 2 8." The theory that Christ's Incarnation was concealed from the powers of this world occurs early in the second century in Ignatius' Epistle to the Ephesians : " And hidden from the prince of this world were the virginity of Mary and her childbearing. 84 I Cor. for the disciples of Bardaisan. how much more pure must His divine nature be. our Lord he called a 'Nature born from between two. then. that they may not rave again. "Flow" is used in Syriac of almost any easy. sprout.
or relations of the several heavenly bodies. (Italics indicate 85 Eph. p.88 The divine Christ in his descent must. Lightfoot. the intelligences in their descent to the souls and the souls in their descent to the bodies. the total result of which is determined by the horoscope. in Bardaisan's system their influences represent the sum total of what we call nowadays mechanical laws. The changes in the Virgin's body which were prerequisite to the accomplishment of the virgin birth would not be produced by the 4nots of her body . be produced by the planets. p. at the moment of birth. In Bardaisan's system. which is the law. which has been preserved in Armenian.86 But here it has a peculiar significance. signs of the Zodiacand of other constellationswas supposedto co6perate. together with a commentary in which he interprets the doctrines there expressed as those of Bardaisan. 182. tr. 19 . 180.they must. Ephraem in his commentary upon the Epistles of St. Why. again. and is seen in the personal peculiarities of individuals. The nature of these changes is not further described in the Ode . pass through the spheres of the several planets s7and receive from them certain modifications. then." tion that souls must encounter the divinities of the planets in their descent and ascent was common among the Gnostics. or of nature (fto-qL). one to another.192 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE all. is subject to the control of the planets. for conscious intelligences. All that is not under the control of Free-will. gives quotations from an apocryphal Epistle of the Corinthians to Paul. no doubt that of the 88 See above. ch. Ig. and there was perplexity to know whence came this 8 The nostrange appearance which was so unlike them. Paul. 87The influenceof the planets is the moreimportant. so to speak. of course.the "worlds" simply "mould" the body. do the planets act as the instrument of God's will in bringing about the virgin birth ? Because. escape these influences and appear on earth precisely as he left heaven. . 86See above. But other sources complement this statement in a very satisfactory way. therefore. which is the law for organisms.
that is..L/L o o 8Ld Maplas. II. 24: KcalZ 6 XoTyoU~Ev facryov ab•6r. Kanons. xvii. her.D. . . r ~ elsOeb de6pO^s 7rlarews. the Word himself became flesh without taking anything from without in addition . .91 It is of value only when confirmedby other evidence.) "IAnd the words which they speak and teach are erroneous. ed. The book was written about A. dXX'0K & Maplas. 6: a •r6. Chr. iv. D. And they regard the world not as the creation of God. 22: 5OKOet IrrTOVOEv A•r i' Ka u I o-w a. but with a heavenly body. . it is not even certain that it faithfully reproduces the views of the Bardaisanites of that age. i/. 174. namely : One should not. as the angels appeared to Abraham. they say that he who spoke through the Prophets is no almighty God. he came from heaven with his body . And they say thereis no resurrectionof the body. he himself suffered in appearance .. a certain Marinus. NT. but the Gospel. . 6: &rt opd•iov oC&a tXape. xvi. . 176. cit.appears as one of the speakers. a Bardaisanite. 90Der Dialog des Adamantius rept 91 Op. 178. d. as distinguished by Zahn89 from Ephraem's commentary. and of man they say he is not made by God at all.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 193 the quotations. p. Gr. accept the Prophets. 300. 9: 6 X-yos a6rbo adpt 1. . IyPve7ro o6bUPv RwOep rpooXfapihp.. In the dialogue " On the right faith in God. so also did he . 92 Op. . butof for they say he went throughher as somethingnot [coming] from certainangels. /tlw•Up Maplas. And they call God not almighty. say they. vol. but by the seven Guides. opavv Xev Xwv r• ' al nrtov r' a6ro6.of the seven Guides. And they say our Lord did not come with an earthly body. Marinus holds: "1that he (Christ) took a heavenly 9 body . Gesch. 597. van de Sande Bakhuyzen. &Orep ytp v 1JCp & awXjvos tipXeTraL. ." formerly ascribed to Origen. H.." Evidently Ephraem knew Bardaisanites who held that Christ went through the Virgin's body without receiving anything of her.namely. orwal 190. p.. and ate and drank with him. Mcplar Ka o K~Ic ty o~rw Kal 6 Xbyor rpoo'Xaljdpwpi. . cit.90 It cannot be trusted as evidence for the doctrines of Bardaisan himself. Schrift. . 170. And they do not admit that he was bornof the Virgin Mary . But this doctrineis that of the schoolof Bardaisan. 26: cs Kal ol &yyeXot "A8pacl 0oV. we confess that he [came] through 89Translated from the German version given by Zahn. W.
LEge'XeTJKViaLs epXeoaca als 9 Stobaeus. ii. Iamblichus. aowL) EiS TbV at 6JT7aC -yXaKTr y-aXaciarv TJ o1v7W rpoo'ayopev6/1.) repeats Porphyry's account with some variations. The milk simile is probably a translation into Christian language of an ancient myth. Because thou hast not comprehended the mind of Bardesan. phys. he says [al.. ch. and didest assent to thy teacher Bardesan. Porphyry's pupil. for just as water goes through a pipe without taking on anything. p. Cureton. 129. . Cancer and Capricorn as the "gates of the sun. constituting its limits. whence regarded 98 So also Philoxenus. ." Proclus (in Remp. 28: Aly6Kepw~ ~ Kai KapKlvPO S 'repI p/h rT KapivoS P-6pela Aiy6Kbepw~ & v6Tra8GcLos T7r rdpara abroI eiXyX67res. 904. : " There are some of them who say that he sent down the Word a body from heaven. . so [came] the Word through Mary.rhv8et ."''93 Thus it was that "she bore a son without any pain. p. i. For which reason also. vi. &V *Jt •S . The earliest detailed account is that of Porphyry :94 [Homer speaks of the solstitial signs.eo& eis y'yveort dr7b TW^v 7Tpeo/d.. ed. several accounts of which have reached us. Heeren: KUal rokotLs HpaKXe5l7V '1 fh&y'bY HorrTLK6Y 1Opilot ew repi T+)' (sic) yacalarv. and it is so named from the [souls] which are nourished with milk when they fall into birth. ap. .194 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE Mary."] " Now Capricorn and Cancer are near the Milky Way. 68' '50ov^s eIS -YeOtY vyrKVeOae 'br6 ydXa ri vKCEV. Eel. Syr. 8 d6elpwv KaT( IIHvOay6paV 4/vxal ds avvdyeTOai q5 ' (al. Cancer the northern and Capricorn the southern. the absence of pain proved that the conditions to which pain would be due were lacking.yaXacla v 94 De ant." 7. he says. that is. Spic. she was empty". gives Heraclides of Pontus a clue to the source of the tale95-the Milky Way as the place of the souls. and not of Mary. . but not of Mary. And according to Pythagoras the souls are a ' tribe of dreams. 14 sqq. nympharum. with the idea that they are induced to come to birth for the sake of the pleasure (or savor). as thou saidest just now.' which. they say] assemble in the Milky Way. 52. necromancers offer the souls a libation of honey mingled with milk. The remainder of the Ode calls for no special discussion. because milk naturally is engendered along with them. p. Kroll. and since there was none. who assumeth the body of Christ to be from heaven.oW1 s / AL 7owo al c 5aratsTo l//V4vXayWyobl KEKpay•o 'ycXaKTL.
to the Study of Greek Religion. The author of the Odes believed. 3 .Sozomen's language (see note 18) implies some affinitybetween Bartheories. his interest in the mystical aspect of Pythagoreanism is well known (Zeller.956 But he may have drawn it from other sources. p. and I have no doubt that this is a genuine fragment of early Pythagorean doctrine. So in the Orphic burial tablets found in southern Italy and Crete (Miss Harrison. Phil. The Orphics had taught that the soul is "breath ". d. Gr. that souls consist of light or are robed in a body of light (see p. I have) fallen into milk " . and so I would interpret the sentence found in other.). 4. The origin of the Orphic-Pythagorean doctrines has not yet been discovered. Proleg.it is a luminous substance. for this light is the heavenly milk designed for souls. and it may well be that the ancient explanation of the celestial "milk" as being the light with which souls are fed suggested milk to him as an appropriate simile for the divine substance which proceeded from the Father and Holy Spirit and issued through the Virgin into the world as Jesus.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 195 they came to earth. daisan's doctrineand the Orphic-Pythagorean . and this is the meaning of the name. Ed. Upon returning to its proper home the soul will of course again need nourishment. similar tablets. Heraclides was a pupil of Plato. Bardaisan probably did.the departed soul has fallen into the "milk " of the sky. "he who went through Mary 96. 1034 sqq. 660-63) the soul avows itself a " child of Earth and of Starry Heaven " (ry wrai~el/' xaia opaPvoiaTEpde0ToT). pp. 1. as he was a man of learning. he must have had trustworthy sources of information. as at least some Pythagoreans did. The theory of the virgin birth presupposed by this Ode is Irenaeus gives it in almost known to be in part Valentinian. ii. the Pythagoreans refined the conception . It is not at all impossible that the author of the Odes knew of this myth in its Greek form. 989. the words used by Marinus. but it is in my opinion certain that an Oriental element enters into them. "a kid thou art (or. 203). it is nourished by the dim light diffused in the Milky Way.
But those of the East. and the creeping things died in their holes. it would seem. and the power of the Highest. 356) : etar Ur ToTrovr G8& ~8wp 8t& TbY Maplas b8osedoavTra. Epiph.196 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE like water through a tube. that Christwas divine from his birth and did not acquire divinity at his baptism. (3) The birds dropped their wings.. the divine Christ descends upon him at his baptism. vi. again. (Panar. 31." Accordingto Hippolytus also. Irenueus. p. can be interpreted if viewed in the same light. the operationof the " worlds" by the " power of the Highest or constructive craft." what the Spirit had given Mary. and xxiv. Wisdom (Sophia). because He was her Head. and came to be with the (ydyove 7 ) psychic [Jesus] and raised him from the dead. impliedin Odesxix. the body of Jesus is.. Here. among whom are Axionicus and Ardesianes [= Bardaisan]. 9 Cont. Gr.). . 1.96a Ode xxiv. (2) The inhabitants were afraid. (1) The Dove flew upon the Messiah. i. formed in the bosom of the Spirit.e. that is. . 2. Bardaisan held the orthodox doctrine. and her voice was heard. 35. hold that the body of the Saviour was spiritual.i. ap. 24 (cf. hcer. The milk is representedby the Holy Spirit. as a whole. Hcer. . i. says that. and therefore.the Spirit as a dove descended." In the Ode the stars mould the body of Mary. the Logos of his mother on high. for the Holy Spirit came upon Mary. at his baptism. The theory of the incarnationwhich follows is ascribed both to Axionicus and to Bardaisanand may represent Axionicus' conceptionsmore faithfully than Bardaisan's. But in the Ode he is the Son of God Himself. KaOdlrep 96a wX-o'o Hippolytus. . i. but son of the Demiurge . and the sojourners were moved." which " moulds" --the very word of the Ode if my emendationbe correct. according to the western Valentinians. and which is believed to have been characteristic of Bardaisan. Valentinian. She sang over Him." 9 But the doctrine of the Ode is In the system described by not. Wisdom. the constructive craft (587uLtoUpY'LK 7dXPYv) in order that what the Spirit had given to Mary might be moulded (8ta7rXaae0). we have that blending of Gnostic and orthodox elements which I found in Ode xii. Hcer. then. 7. the Jesus who is thus born of the Virgin is not the Son of God.. the body of Jesus was "psychic. But it is closely akin to the theory of Ode xix.
all things that were defective. (8) The Lord has destroyed the thoughts. 200. fire. And they were rejected. 5.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 197 (4) The abysses were opened. his thought leaps forward to its final consummation. and were spurned: They were crying to the Lord like women in labor. light." that had been from of old. (9) For they were defective in wisdom. had become. cit. And those that have comprehendedit. because they had not the truth. sketches in broad outlines the regenerating work of the Word. op. air. But in v. pp. For they were corrupt from the beginning. (5) The abysses were sealed with the seal of the Lord : They perished by His Thought. (7) There perished from among them.98 He held that the five elements. and no food was given them. water. so this Ode depicts a certain stage in that work--the stage initiated by the descent of the Dove. because there was none for. those that were exalted in their hearts. that they might abide. The clearest statement of Bardaisan's theory of the work of the Word is given by Moses bar Cepha. . and spread abroad His grace. Because it was not possible to give them the Word.. see the parallel from Ecclus. know His holiness. quoted p. (10) For the Lord has disclosed His way.them. As Ode xii. darkness tried to rise from its place below and a9 Translatedinto French by Nau. and the final end of their corruption was life.. 59-62. with one of those rapid transitions so characteristic of the writer.m . Hallelujah. of all those that had not the truth. for some reason not given. 97 Read . and darkness. commingled one with another.
Za. to charge him with making them independent of Ephraem God . in part.- \. )o~~~~~t~~~~~3 cuj O ~ ufr-• -•!~ oo• Q•l •0IjtL lJ . contra Hcer. the Son and Holy Spirit they confused with the created things.. into which the Word enters and introduces order. at the sound of this tumult.4oM 10oL o ' o. He affirmed the existence of the substances l = oo-ata) in language which caused (-. c. supplemented by the last paragraph of the Book of the Laws. the birth of Christ was one. p. "Then. therefore. vol. III. S . he removed darkness from the midst of the pure substances. in dualism. *Mo!.198 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE mingle with the others.99 he conceived them as being. .. B: " Marcion and Bardaisan blasphemously allege that the Creator is not one. at one time. is only part of a vaster scheme for the regeneration of the universe. In this process many stages can be distinguished. 444. O. And from the mixture of these substances with their adversary. that is to say the Messiah. The regeneration of man." I. it was driven away. the deeds of the Maker they ascribed to the things made. descended. The descent of the Dove may be interpreted as another. and the poet describes vividly the effect of that descent upon nature. the Makers of all things they thought to be nothing." Whether this picture of the battle of light and darkness can be found implied in the Odes is a question into which I cannot now enter. and fell into the depth of its nature. and decreed that they should mingle no more. The first step in this process was the creation of the world. 99Hom. But as regards the work of the Word. and the present mixture was purified by a conception and a childbirth forever. the pure substances sought refuge in the mercies of the Most High. Ij. the Word of the thought of the Most High. and he reestablished each of the substances in its order by the mystery of the cross.. consisted.r •:.. the statements of Moses bar Cepha. supply a satisfactory Bardaisan's heresy explanation of several of the Odes. ii. darkness. the last will be the final perfection of the universe. in a state of chaos. he established this present world.
II. ii. which separate heaven from earth. Anz.rTpaot6oeVOp T& ~ ? W'i erql YlperaT. and probably it is a Valentinian definition. rI ppovV yJv' KGa rTO6r trl KaiTOL Kal vBwp /L6pbovrb Jo&p o'K &v elreV &~Fvoov. Proph. that I may pass over the waters of fire and all the abyss. n. probably to devour it. op. (dp6to-ovu?)i 101 . p.' And yet matter is allegorically described as' water of the abyss.. 2.101 As vv. Since the days of Heraclitus men had been familiar with the conceptionof the elements as consisting of opposites which. 1. 108See above. that which is expressed in the Book of the Laws by describing the "natures" as "injuring and injured frombefore 100 Ex Script.. de gen.' for he would not have called water alone 'abyss. perhaps. Potter.. r^vdpEL FV'TO'ot u•&voos VXO dXX-l'yoppLcLLr. but is found in this sense in Clement of Alexandria. et corr. cf." the apostle prays just before his death. and let not their dark mist enwrap me. p. Arist. p. p." Acta Phil. It is a Jewish conception.. So also in the Gnostic "Acts of Philip. have been termed 'abysses..1?2 This is. So the material substances. 103 it is -FiM. although limited by the power of God. and iv.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 199 The "abysses" are the vast gulfs of air. cit. iv. Jesus. and give me the eternal crown of victory over every antagonistic principle and power. chapters iii. 7ro70 o?TclaL 4T0 & etp71Trac* ire U'6aTraoLLV. mutually destroy one another. They open as the Dove descends through them.and 4 describe its effect upon the abysses.'00 "'Abyss' is something the essential nature of which is unlimited. from which the several genera and their species come. ed. 102 E.b describe the effect of the Dove's descent upon animals so 3'.. when brought into contact.' " It is reasonably certain that this is a Gnostic. vapor. remnants of primeval chaos.. 2-3". the aspect of Bardaisan's theory which Ephraemdesignates by the word "opposing" or "conflicting" substances. also note 66. and fire. Meteor." thrust aside. 990 : ivooos yhp rb drepdT TO eOeov8al rolVUV U& . " Come now.--they are "spurned. Tisch. 166.g. as Clement was largely influenced by that sect. Verses 3e and 4 describethe internecinestrife of the elements in a vivid picture. 93. and the effect of the divine influence upon them. 40. thus giving rise to the ceaseless round of transformations which we see. ap. KaST rTYp lIaV Kal Eclogax.
" as in Ode xii." or. 8. and Odexxii 11 : "That everythingmight be dissolvedand Jac. 109. . The descent of the Dove is an event of such commanding import that even the dumb beasts recognize it. Conceived as components they are aTroTxeta 105 See p. p. "like women in travail. 7. 109 "it was not possible to give them the Word that they might abide. 107 b 7TrAos r^ Oopas(?). " deficiencies will be filled up" . they have been checked. See Duensing. The confused and warring elements are brought to rest. . the " abysses are sealed with the seal of the Lord.W. those that had been of old. 182. the Word was given to the worlds. Zur 24ten Ode Salomos ZNTW." The Ode proceeds: "They perished by His thought. term for the elements conceived as possessingactive properties." 1OLS.s08 "All defective things "must perish. Protev. 186). 1osSee p. "this injuriousness 100also which remains in them. In vv.109a This is a e 104 Note that the word " natures.Similar phenomena are describedas attendingChrist's birth.. LL. in the words of the Book of the Laws. 182. finally.• . so the Book of the Laws. shall be brought to an end by the restraints which are in another mixture. in Ecclesiasticus 43 23: translation: Xorytr/Aw Jerome's "cogitatione sua placavit abyssum." which is almost a translation of a'ro-0 eithoraeav /vo-rov. 86. "They were corrupt 106 from the beginning. 4. xii. the poet turns from the cosmological to the anthropological aspect of the work of the Word. 18. is the correct technical .200 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE the creation of the world. and the completion of their corruptionl07 was life "-this present world must pass away to make way for a new heaven and anew earth. 9. their warfare stayed. such is his final end" (Ode xii. by the thought or will of God." and the idea is certainly the same. 106 5pC0apgdva (?)."1'0 But here the poet depicts it in a vivid image -the abysses have been engaged in devouring one another. they " cry to the Lord" in a state of agonized turmoil and confusion." 109 j. "as is the Word's work. 10." But their cry is unheeded. p. 2. The chief difficulty of this Ode lies in the opening verses. then renewed.
de ant. It is received by a "wheel.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 201 Gnostic idea. govern the operations of mechanical law. 12 the poet's prophetic eye looks forward from the moment at which the Word entered into the system of nature." ' The head" 112 is probably Christ as the Head of the Church Comparethe effect of the appearanceof the Star upon the other stars 110 in the passage from Ignatius quoted." probably the Star of Bethlehem. But others of the Oe6\oyoL sent the souls as descendingthrough the moon and ascending through the sun . according to Bardaisan. nymph. ch. 112 xvii. is "her head. is the Word descending to be born of the Virgin." "The head went down to the feet. ch. a Porphyry. to the more remote results of that stupendous event.11obut the seal upon it protects it from them. it sweeps away all obstacles and makes "a broad path. for "the Messiah. 18. for in the Valentinian system the divine Christ does not come to earth until the moment of the baptism. 14: "They wereto me as my own members. the 23d. As it offers no special difficulties of translation. " Many hands " of the Powers of the Spaces. At v. 29.p. when Christ descends into Sheol." i.e. here symbolized by the system of planets revolving in the Zodiac which. 191. that descendingsouls enter the world throughthe Zodiacin the sign Cancer. rush to seize it. the Abysses. I give merely a paraphrase. ibid. for down to the feet ran the wheel and that which was a sign upon it.and I wastheir head. The "thought" or "will" of God which descends like a letter. repredeparting souls ascend throughCapricorn."' Upon the wheel is a "sign of the Kingdom and the Government." the great "wheel of the Zodiac " (wcostaKov Ic." So in xlii." her superior. The regeneration of the system of natural law inevitably carries with it the triumph of the Gospel.e." i. Death lets go the "feet and the head. ascribes to the Oe6Xoyom doctrine 111 . which bears the seven planets to which in Ode xix. Again an indication of the curious blending of orthodox and Gnostic ideas so characteristic of these Odes. But the Dove here does not represent the Christ. the Christ. 22.cXo9). also the descending Christ is committed. Christand the dead who are to be saved. This same group of astrological conceptions affords a perfectly intelligible interpretation of that very difficult Ode.
But this is not. for believers in predestination are often advocates of Free-will.g. In only one passage is it. indeed. The poet's thoughts are dominated by the consciousness of the work of grace in his own heart and he has no special occasion to deal with Free-will as such. which represents the operation of the Gospel under the forms of regenerated natural law. 14-22). incompatible with the theory that they are the work of Bardaisan. The revolution of the wheel. viii. 3. and this Harnack takes as referring to the resurrection of the body. But the context is distinctly against a literal interpretation. his poison. of the dragon with seven heads. is the doctrine to which Ephraem pays most attention. which is definitely taught in the Odes (e. carries Christ there also. indeed." 114 An ancient is not required to be more consistent than a modern theologian. implied: x. this. Bardaisan himself recognizes 13 that Free-will subsists only by the sufferance of God and will prove no obstacle to the final regeneration of all things. I do not think this settles the question." Nor is the doctrine of predestination." "who are not made for this grace. and in the following 113See p. In one passage. his roots. his seed. I think. Another characteristic trait of Bardaisan's teaching was the denial of the resurrection of the body.202 -the JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE conception of Christians as the body of Christ frequently recurs in the Odes . true that the doctrine of Free-will does not definitely appear in the Odes while it is one of the salient features of the Book of the Laws. I have. 114 See p. the poet describes the resurrection of the dry bones. 8-10. perhaps. for future events are frequently described in these Odes as accomplished. It is. The preceding verses speak of the bonds which Christ is to loose. I think. Batiffol objects that it is represented as already accomplished. an objection of any force. . I am not aware of any demonstrable points of incongruity. 181. xxii. established a certain degree of congruity between the doctrines of the Odes and those of Bardaisan. and he also recognizes the existence of "tares. "to convert the souls of them that were willing to come to Him.the feet are probably the souls in Sheol yet to be redeemed. 178.
. which is. viii. 967. e b&r R Tfv OrwHOIjpa. In a similar sense should be interpreted. I have endeavoredto show: (1) That no antecedentimprobabilityprecludesthe ascription of the Odes to Bardaisan. This presumptionis strengthenedby the passages which clearly do refer to the state of the redeemed. Bef. 16. dsr c 8•-yeype rov Kil pi irohlqe. 117 Excerpta Theod. "I put off darkness and clothed myself with light and my soul acquired members free from pain. p.1" is the and the eastern Valentinians used the same word Saviour's office "to awaken the soul and light the--it spark." 115 Saturnilus conceived of souls as sparksof light.. p. So Hippolytus in describing the Docetae that they regarded souls as "the eternal marks (or says imprints) left by the light when it shone from above down below. incompatiblewith the notion of corporeal resurrection. (2) That some of the Odes can be readily interpreted in the light of Bardaisan'stheories. . cit. 28. is also figurative.. Potter: IXNb oDv 6 ZTIwrprby &vXbv PwOeC KcdTrwi ^wrbs Tto alwvlots XapaK'rpOL. 8). These passages unquestionably point to the well-known doctrine. lf 115Hipp. 3."17 The conceptionof a corporealresurrection cannot. 1?6irpgev. 7b. 23): . 418. 380. vii. then. and S. . of course. "in me there shall be nothing that is not bright.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 203 verses we have the rock which is to be the foundation of all things. and I was clothed with the covering of Thy Spirit and Thou didst remove from me my raiment of skin" (xxv. obviously borrowed from Ezekiel. 3). 2). "although a son of man. The presumptionis that the clothing of the dry bones with flesh. 66: Areg4'e oirvO•pca wsj. rbv d'Opw116Op. But before Bardaisan's authorship can be regarded as established it must be shown that all the Odes can be intero KareLXi/CdyVoT . have found place in the poet's theology. I was named the Illuminate. 7b). the son of God" (xxxvi.. p. 10 (D. affliction or suffering" (xxi. found in many Gnostic sects-and elsewhere--that the redeemed soul possesses a body of pure light. "the traces of the light were set upon their heart" (x.
105). I have as yet found no otherillustration. (See note 51. cf.. might be modifiedor transformedby circumstances(ibid.who has been so kind as to read this paperin proof. as others have done. To this task I shall not be able to address myself for many months to come.g.-Procl. the later distinguishedbetween the unalterableproperinfluence." . e. although generallyconstant for a given planet. The " degrees " are the " limits " (5pma). and I have therefore thought it best to make public my tentative results. in the hope that they may be found to contain some elements of value to the ultimate solution of the problem. "Their own degrees." etc." (See note 52. I. IV. JUNE 5. Franz Cumont. Cat. which..and the good or bad effects of that influence.204 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE preted from the same point of view. For the following notes I am indebted to suggestions given me by Prof. p.) The earlier astrologerstermed planets "Ibeneficent" and "maleficent" (Ptol.) "High places" are 'wcaLra. The 300 of each sign are apportionedamong the five planets and those to appropriated each are termedits "limits. cod. 5). astr. warming. 1911. But of the ascriptionof exclusivelybeneficent influencesto "those on the right. also Julius of Laodicea.