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Romaine Newbold Reviewed work(s): Source: Journal of Biblical Literature, Vol. 30, No. 2 (1911), pp. 161-204 Published by: The Society of Biblical Literature Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3260001 . Accessed: 23/12/2011 08:03
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161 AND NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN THE ODES SOLOMON OF
Bardaisan and the Odes of Solomon'
WM. ROMAINE NEWBOLD
UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA
of Solomon present THE newly discovered Odes literature problems asto the student of early Christian fascinating as they are difficult. The author is a poet, and a poet of no mean order, but he is much more than that - he feels himself inspired by the Spirit of the Lord and illumined by His light; the resources of language, even when strained to the utmost limits of poetic license, are inadequate to express the richness of that new life which has transfigured his inner self and filled him with the joy and peace that pass all understanding. Yet when one endeavorsto see the worlds of matter and of spirit as the singer saw them2 and to grasp his conception of their mutual relations, in brief, to reconstruct his philosophy and to determine his age, his environment, and the school of thought to which he belonged, one encounters peculiar difficulties. He is as much at home in the Psalms and Wisdom-literatureas any Jew, and yet is not in sympathy with the more distinctive tenets of Judaism. He acknowledges no circumcision save that of the heart (xi. 1-2), no sacrifice save that of "1God's thought," of "righteousness and purity of thought and lips" (xx. 1-7), no peculiar people, for his sympathies are as broad as humanity (vi. 7-17; xiv. 14-29). He is a Christian, familiar with the leading events-of Christ's life -the miraculousbirth (xix. 6-10), the baptism (xxiv. 1-3), crucifixion and descent
1 I desire to acknowledge to the editors my obligations for their kind revisionof the proofs duringmy absencefrom the country, and in particular revision of my translationsfrom the Syriac. ProfessorMontgomery's 2 The author's general point of view has been characterizedby many; perhapsthe best is that of Gunkel, ZNTW, xi. 1910, p. 320.
into Hades (xlii. 1-26 et al.), yet he absolutely ignores many of the most characteristic doctrines and practices of Christianity. He makes no explicit allusion to the resurrection or ascension of Christ's material body, or to baptism, or the eucharist. He knows of sin and evil as facts (xxxiii. 8; xxxviii. 12 ff. et al.), but they seem to lie outside the range of his own present concern; even his conception of redemption seems unconnected with the crucifixion. Moreover, amidst the profusion of poetic and allegorical images in which he expresses his ideas, there are some which one can scarcely regard as merely poetic and allegorical and which fit but ill into the traditional system of Christian theology. The "worlds" 4 et al.), the "garment of light" (xi. 10; xxi. 2), the (xii. "perfect virgin" (xxiii. 5), the "abysses " (xxiv. 3; xxxi. 1), - these, and perhaps others, are somewhat more than hints that the author's view of the universe is not that of the orthodox Christian theologian. The theories proposed to account for this puzzling complex belong to three leading types. The representatives of the first type, led by Rendel Harris, the distinguished discoverer and first editor of the Odes, regard them as belonging to a period when the new life which was stirring men's hearts had not as yet moulded their thoughts after its own image nor found words adequate to its expression, when Christian theology was as yet in the making and clear formulations had no existence, in brief, to the period, approximately, of the New Testament itself. A second group, led by Harnack, cannot believe that conceptions so disparate as are found in the Odes could ever have coexisted as the elements of the world-view of any single mind. They believe them, therefore, to be a composite product, the original Odes being the work of a Jew of unusually catholic sympathies, into whose text a Christian hand has incorporated a few of the more essential elements of Christianity. But Harnack also refers the Odes in their present form to a very early period - about the end of the first century of our era. A third group of students regard them as giving imperfect
AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON
expression to some peculiar system of Christian theology, accepted by some minor sect, probably of the second century, and endeavor to identify the sect in question with some one of those mentioned by the church historians. But upon this point no agreement has as yet been reached. Gunkel thinks them Gnostic, and Preuschen has announced3 that he will endeavor to prove them a part of the Valentinian Psalmbook; Batiffol4 regards them as representing a docetic tendency, perhaps a forerunner of the great Christian Gnostic movement of the second century and akin to that combated by Ignatius. But Conybeare 5 and Fries 6 would have them Montanist. In my opinion the weight of evidence is distinctly in favor of the third point of view. While the considerations urged by Gunkel and Batiffol are not all of equal force and it is not probable that all will stand the test of further criticism, the main thesis for which they contend seems to me established - that the Odes unmistakably reveal the influence of Gnostic speculation. Yet the evidence falls far short of proving them Gnostic, for many of the leading characteristics of Gnosticism, as of Judaism and of Christianity, are conspicuous by their absence. The system of eons, for example, upon the elaboration of which with every detail suggested by pagan mythology or a perfervid imagination the Gnostic thinkers so loved to dwell, is represented in the Odes by nothing but the "worlds," and of them so little is said that it is impossible to determine at first glance what the author meant by them. Again, the Gnostic was essentially an exclusive faith. It drew a sharp line of demarcation between the true Gnostic, or, as the Valentinians called him, the "pneumatic" man, and the common herd, whether Christian or not. In the Odes the "elect" (viii. 21; xxiii. 1-3 et al.) might be regarded as representing the pneumatic man, but their relation to the mass of men is conceived in a very different and more catholic spirit, for the poet looks forward to the time when all mankind will be numbered among the saved (iii. 12;
ZNTW, xi. 1910, p. 328, n. 3. r ZNTW, xii. 1911, pp. 70-76.
Bibl., NS, viii. part 2 (1911).
6 Ib., p. 108.
Nor true Gnostic. 27. one does not turn to a hymnal for a system of theology. so far as our information enables us to judge. But one does expect a hymn writer. . note 41. Such a man. vii. 9 Felix Haase. have been acquainted with the doctrines of the Syrian Gnostics also. will deny that Bardaisan. And he was also a gifted poet. of broad vision. p. The argument from silence is. was Bardaisan of Edessa. 22 ff.9 No one who reflects that Bardaisan's youth fell in a period in which Gnosticism was at its height. was thoroughly familiar with Gnosticism and had borrowed from it much of his imagery and some of his doctrines. 8 Born A. died 222. Knowledge probably means gnosis. " Zur Bardesanischen 1910.). receptive as he was to all sciences and sensitive to all intellectual influences. of marked originality. then. a man whose heart was full of love for God and his fellowman. to employ those elements of his theological system which lend themselves most readily to poetic treatment. nor shall anything be dumb. 88. He must also have been a man who knew the life of the spirit by immediate personal experience. speak of the time when "Nothing that breathes shall be without knowledge. Gnosis. in a preeiminent degree. dangerous. it is true.D.164 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE vi." Texteund Untersuchungen. One should not forget that it was the most enlightened minds that found something infectious in Gnosticism. was the stupendous drama of the Valentinian theology. of the Odes we must postulate a man who. must. and that he lived in a land the peculiarity of whose culture made it the mother soil of Gnosticism. See the text. and such. 178. at least." 7 As the author.p.8 I cannot better express my own impression of the relation between Bardaisan and the Gnostics than by translating a passage from Haase's recent monograph. while not in the technical sense a Gnostic. if he be not wholly devoid of the poetic gift. passim. who believed himself divine and could the regarded all other men as akin either to animals or dead matter. the aim of which was essentially nothing other than a solution of the " World-riddle" with the 7 vii. a man of deep sympathies. 154.
and Gnostic influence. HE. But if we find in his doctrines passages that unquestionably have a Gnostic ring. ap."" Epiphanius describes him as "one of the finest Euseb. U To~0rrop Oat dpOorpaTr yPr v .: alp&rews ?67roP. Eusebius' assertion that Bardaisan was at first a disciple of Valentinian. and astronomical knowledge. ibid. who composed and committed to writing in his own tongue. -Trl 'EXXhvwv ." p 7rXEL~rrotL rap utprw i7rkelTwrw. then was converted to the true faith without altogether giving up his old heresy. 30. but will simply assume Gnostic influence. ETxr& So0ydd-rwP tWaX6yovevoT-•7~47'e0os. J6Ket Jeal U& r9j KcaraLTpoy0 raT?7~. the "Gnostic " elements. It will remain a hopeless task to pick out.d. Lit. 9. and he therefore worked out a peculiar doctrine of his own. 4 W raptC-ar/AgJ Gatb VrVaTwrj T'3 X6"Y' 8XhKao-&wcwv7^J. and remains. which his pupils . in the age of Gnosticism. at least so far as its second part is concerned. It cannot indeed be determined at what period of his life Bardaisan had belonged to a Gnostic sect. besides many other works. altchr. it is enough to maintain that astronomy in particular. Tre T7 pwp cqWJ Lrs Bap5eo•dpi7e dvlp tKavdraT•cT6s 7rpbs TrOb TKar& MapKriwva Kal Tr'vaL ErTpov0 /taq6pwv ^ r^ 15L 7rapgs5wKe ydTbrfr rE KaL-paq /.rb Tr s26pwo /eTaLSe- 7rpoOcrraFdov . i. Bardaisan is. &TpwP. . laid the foundation of his peculiar doctrine. Nau and Hort are quite right in protesting against reckoning Bardaisan among the Gnostics in the usual sense.10 Bardaisan's keen intellect must have recognized the weak points in the Valentinian or [other] Gnostic system. p.of whom he had many. One will scarcely find a name that adequately and accurately expresses his teaching. aro~10 -TVyypal ica .NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 165 aid of all that the heathen sciences and Christianity had achieved. I therefore regard as natural and credible. U ov• l ysdpLtAom. 185: JP AvOo7rotasL d•reXg'y a. based upon his own philosophical.. make the explanation unnecessarily difficult. Eusebius describes him as "a most able man and a skillful disputant in the Syriac language.. theological. we will not. a heretic. To Bardaisan's intellectual ability all our authorities bear witness. for he was a doughty defenderof his doctrine.translatedfrom Syriac into Greek. in so far. OkaXeTi'oP 5' dpa obrot rpo'Trepop Kear& orXOXfl•. Harnack. XEK. 10o TE Tr7g KaTcl raXatai 11 iv. dialogues against the followers of Marcion and certain other representatives of diverse doctrines. and his formal classification with the Gnostics by ancient and modern historians does him no wrong. Gesch. in this doctrine.KCtraTro.le-raEEOar ctAlq ?S o0 EavT r 7rw aclrbs tdjJ ye direppoa-ro KiTrareXwC 7rXEUTcrd -I r 9'l rbr 7?7I 5La- Id. 1.
" "1eloquent" both in Syriac and in Greek." 14 To Bardaisan's gifts as a poet no trustworthy evidence survives. . p. 1900.p ircitra 1eyMXwOSKEKO7c0Lfl/. 186: dptar6s rts oa. 33. p. . etc. p. 16 Le. Ephraem Syrus does indeed frequently speak of the charm which the Bardaisanite hymns exercised upon the minds of the people and attributes them to Bardaisan.. Overbeck. in rhythmic and accentual measures. 14 Comm. For he formed hymns and set them to tunes. 63. cuius etiam philosophi admirantur ingenium.16 And [so] he set beforethe simple folk bitter [mixed] with sweet .166 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE of men.. eund. that the body is of the evil [principle]. Duval.. 6yto . "such was Bardaisan. rh 18De vir. ii. He divided the words in measures and weights. Paris. and composedsongs and introducedmeters. 553: 15bEphraem discusses this doctrine at length. 12Haer. 187: talis Bardisanes. ap." 12 Jerome says that he was regarded as "distinguished" and that the Syrians extol the ardor of his intellect and his vigor in argument. in Osee. Haer. eund. ii. et aliorum Opera Selecta. ap. the stars. brethren. 1865. Ed. Vatican ed. .that the soul [consists] of seven [parts]. 14 sqq. p. 18).5b and [all] the rest. and that it has no resurrection. the signs of the zodiac. eund.. (R. . whose intellect even philosophers admire.dVOS.13 And again. Eph.. 10. p. contr. Syr.sick folk they. Ad Hypatium. inl. he says: Love for you.. Oxon. ardens eius a Syris praedicatur ingenium et in disputatione vehemens.. 186: clarus habitus est . 53.'5of the impeding substances. p. La litterature syriaque. "highly adorned with all the graces. For example. 15 Or. that I may not expatiate upon those things which Bardaisan alleges among his doctrines. 56. ap. in S. . constrains that you bear the repetition of their words.
Bap8a7. iii. David's] truth he deserted. op. cit.). 16. HE.rdr 6 vrap abrov KaXovuJV7lV 6o T7Y actp7jorLv craTO. the birth and dissolutionof the body and transmigration. XOPO rdptvwLO bra-ya 0. and imitated his number [only].yevP40CW Ka & 7d gov7resr otdrobvt.e. my brethren."1 He wished to make David his model.Vos Bap8iodovu avveoT• rats. p.cit.. TrosOIKelOLS YpdttCZaTv." and indeed.wrote much in Syriac.. too. K rdXaL JXXoyLtcrTarotroTroPvbY 7rp6Tro Tre. rvyypdALLczcrL. Kcal'Apu6. Harmonius. ap. in the interval Bardaisan's doctrines reason to believe that had been modified by the influence of Manichaism and probably by other influences as well.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 167 who chose not wholesome food.CS Kal .op. ap. was the first to adapt his mother tongue to meters and musical rules. " having had a Greek education. but does not distinguish his work from that of his father. Sozomen explicitly asserts that Bardaisan's son. rpoo'Itt/.he commingledthese views with his own compositions.. But it must be borne in mind that Ephraem is writing There is about 150 years after Bardaisan's death. otd ye brb VXpad Ovvrypdtaro avvOels. composed 150 songs.E . if I understand aright the following sentence. irel ydlp ob raWdI r-tv &K769 JP37^9 rarTpCaCs TE q0paopaiO a65aTO0 KaZl 0l StbXororcZXtyyeIcrl o ap? EXXi1ro iPVX27S. Harm. as well as Bardaisan. as in other Christian churches. ct irep XpcbevoL." 18 Sozom. p. he expressly implies that Bardaisan's poems were set to the lyre by Harmonius and not by Bardaisan himself. The circumstantialcharacter of this account gives it claim to credence.. 6 pat 56e r imv "EXXrort rap' Xbyw ao rpWrotLdrpOLS KGL aly6OLs dxO•rcra 4 r OpLy Kc . CI ."i. dXX& To tLs X& Kal caIPpIOeOs. ot iroAs 'Apwoviov • . It is probable that in the Syriac. 187: Obt dyivo .oUvoLKO r 7)P ?OsraOpaSo KcaaOdrEp v^ KGCal IroXXdKLS o0 1Appo rt'dXXovorL. 187) also states that Harmonius.seeing that he set to the lyre what he [Bardaisan] had composed. His [i.e. TavraO cs 666as " Since he [Harmonius]was not entirely outside the limits of his father's sect and the views entertainedby the Greekphilosophers regardingthe soul... It is also more than probable that the hymns in use among the Bardaisanites were not of his composition. rap' 'Oopovo^s dyI-opro.8S These varying accounts are easily reconciled. the canonical Psalms had been used in public worship from the 17 Duval (loc. that he might be adorned with his beauty and praised for his likeness.Theodoret (HF. cit. Harnack. with the view expressed in his own compositions. " Les malades n'eurent point le choix d'un remade salutaire. he.
4). and give them to drink of the wine of their intoxication so that they may vomit up their wisdom and knowledge. and there is every reason to accept his evidence." and is "adorned. Whether other psalms and hymns were used along with those " of David " in the other churches is a question into which I need not enter. 2). It may be that Bardaisan was also the first to write hymns in meter similar to those Syriac hymns with which we are familiar. harmonize singularly well with the little we know of Bardaisan's life and activity. but." who "lead astray and corrupt the whole world. Just such imitations the " Odes of Solomon" unquestionably are. There are also several allusions in the Odes. xxvi. who was engaged in a fierce warfare with the Bardaisanite heretics. 6). it is more probable that the Bardaisanite hymns in meter known to Ephraem were the work of Harmonius and other writers. the whole of Ode xxxviii. in his earliest efforts to produce hymns acceptable to his congregation. and so ascribes them all indiscriminately to him. which. There is no reason to charge the Valentinians with . while wholly insufficient of themselves to prove authorship. It is probable on the face of it that Bardaisan. "I was delivered from vanity " (xvii. Bardaisan had been converted from Gnosticism to Christianity.168 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE earliest times. and there is no doubt that such practices were widespread among many Gnostic sects." and a "bride who is corrupted." and so on. probably had not the ability and certainly had no desire to distinguish in the mass of heretical psalms and hymns the compositions of Bardaisan from those of his successors. celebrates his deliverance from a form of error portrayed by a "bridegroom who corrupts and is corrupted. in view of Sozomen's evidence. it is at any rate certain that their introduction into the church at Edessa was ascribed by Ephraem to Bardaisan. Ephraem. This reads like a condensed abstract of the account given by Epiphanius of his own experiences when young among the "Gnostics " of Egypt (Haer. and invite many to the banquet. would endeavor closely to imitate the Psalms with which they were already familiar. The poet says "the way of error I have left " (xv.
g. Bardaisan believed himself to be orthodox. It would fit in very well with the recorded statement that Bardaisan had been ordained deacon. KbP Nau. had as a youth just escaped the temptations of some such sect. His " work is the Psalm of the Lord " (xvi. Harnack. xxix. like Epiphanius.. O my 19Epiphan.. when exhorted by him to deny that he called himself a Christian. ap.g. " He withstood Apollonius. xxxv. which would be appropriate to the age of the Antonines. v. rather suggests spiritual than ecclesiastical priesthood. Other Odes. We are told that Bardaisan came very near suffering martyrdom. 10. ix. for it must necessarily ensue even if he did not disobey the Emperor. The same must be said of the allusion in xx. e. 56. p. despays. The much discussed opening verses of the 4th Ode -" No man. 7-c Lr BtaotLXet AL iTreliTOL. 20 Le livre des lois re avroeos i Tbv 6. 6. 7'. xxv. but it is quite possible that the poet. suggest that the persons for whom he writes are not unacquainted with persecution. Ilcer. and replied in clever speeches. manfully defending [the true] religion. and his addresses to his readers intimate that he anticipates something more than a hearing. 186: 'A'rwuvvov 'ralpy Ur 6 U? Pelas uv8pelws diroXoyod5evos. 1. 8div Odvarov P/L q1jas. 2). Marcion and others...plvaro.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 169 them. xxviii. 'AroXXwv•Pt 6 tK7K1 7 70T0 irp rd0EfOCLL. op. " I am a priest of the Lord. and wrote against the heretics. Of more weight is the general impression conveyed by the Odes as to the author's relation to his readers. &viteTpe rapavolatbroos 4pvoraacOaLtb XpwLrLavbv Eavrb'v XI-yewv. X6ayovs e8tivac d7re. cit. but the suggestions are too vague to be of value.... might have served to draw a band of devoted followers about their gifted author. e. and bearing such clear evidence of deep and sincere religious feeling." etc. .. and was almost appointed to the order of confessors. but it is not always possible to distinguish between what he says in his own person and what he says in the person of Christ.20but the context in Ode xx. viii. Antoninus' friend. One can readily imagine that Odes so beautiful as these." 19 There are several Odes which intimate that the speaker has suffered persecution. and declaring that he had no fear of death. rdEcMoXoaylar Kosarder. p.
The words and phrases of the Syriac text upon which Schulthess. moreover. indeed. On the other hand. which had been in large measure bilingual for centuries. Epiphanius. because he hath no power over it. Havr. 49. If Hermas could make his revelation in Greek to the Latin-speaking Roman Christians. 442. describes him as "eloquent both in Syriac and Greek. 16. ii. for thy sanctuary thou hast designed before thou didst make other places "--in which Conybeare sees Montanism. and in particular of his relation to the development of Syriac hymnology. But two objections present themselves. the language of the Odes and their title. the true Jerusalem which came down from heaven. even about the middle of the 21Epiphan. changeth thy holy place. The occurrence of Greek words in the Coptic version proves. 14. 444. 21. and it is not possible that he should change it and put it in another place. (Dind.2 The fact that these Odes.21 It appears then that the little we know of Bardaisan's life and activities. as I have shown. possible that in the last quarter of the second century Greek was a privileged tongue in the church of Edessa. distinctly favors the hypothesis that he might have written the Odes of Solomon. Gunkel. Bardaisan is supposed to have written in Syriac.. it is not yet proved that the Odes were first written in Greek. was to be found at Pepuza in Phrygia. . ii. and the Odes are supposed to be translations from a Greek original. 1. Bardaisan was certainly able to write Greek. but they are not sufficient to put the question beyond doubt. are much more easily explained as an attack upon the Montanist claim that the holy place." It is. of course. 48.) 22 I am inclined to believe that the original was Greek. and raise a presumption in favor of the theory that the original was Greek.170 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE God.. But neither of these suppositions is as yet beyond question. surely Bardaisan might have used Greek in Syria. no more than that the author of the Pistis Sophia was working from a Greek text-not that the text was the original. and others base their opinion are indeed suggestive. much as it was in the Roman church a little earlier.
From this Syriacversionthe existing "Book of the Laws " is derived." Lack of space preventsme from entering into my reasonsfor dissentingfrom this latter conclusion. Le livre des lois des pays. 44 sqq. Bardaisan'soriginal work did not contain the doctrineof planetaryinfluence ascribed to him by the "Book of the Laws.B. concludes that Bardaisan wrote in Greek a dialogue "Against Destiny. after a minute comparison of the " Book of the Laws" with the quotations in Eusebius and the Recognitions. Haase (op. Ed.. I shall find it necessary to give a fairly complete outline of the "Book of the Laws of the Countries. 91. cit. has been very generally accepted as proof that they must have originated at least a hundred years earlier. It was first published by Cureton in 1847."in order to prepare the way for the interpretation of the Odes. and so on. The men who forged books wholesale certainly would not have hesitated. The Syriac was then again translated into Greek. with an English translation.and there would have been little likelihood that the fraud ever would be detected.2 The book professesto be a record 23 Besides Cureton's second edition. I have used that of Nau."in 1855.in his "Spicilegium Syriacum.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 171 second century. Moreover. Paris. already bore the name of Solomon. forged works in support of their peculiar tenets with the utmost freedom. I can see no force in such considerations. of course. 555. The argument.the fact that such works met with easy acceptance proves that the membersof these sects were as uncritical as their leaders were unscrupulous. and Merx's translation (in Bardesanes von Edessa. Halle. many early sects. [N. were regarded as canonical and used as such by the author of Pistis Sophia.] . This book contains the only fairly trustworthy evidence as to the views of Bardaisan himself. 1910. and again. probably not fifty years after Bardaisan's death. presupposes good faith on the part of the author of Pistis Sophia--he was deceived by the fact that the poems had been long current." which was translated by his pupils into Syriac. pp. pp. if a stray copy of the Odes fell into their hands and seemed to them capable of being used to support their doctrine. The Gnostic group from which the Pistis Sophia emanated. indeed.). he found them in his copy of the Bible. 1899. the discussion for and against a Greek original by Schulthess and Nildeke. and. 1863). in ZDMG. to attach to it the name of Solomon. from the latter version Eusebius' quotations and those of the Recognitionsare derived.
The Book of the Laws is a discussion. the Book of the Laws does not even profess to be from the hand of Bardaisan himself. It. and it is quite possible.24 These three principles. may and frequently do clash. and introduce a reign of peace and love. The conception had become a commonplace Greekphilosophylong beforeBardaisan's of day. being independent. "Nature" is the organic principle which governs the development and nutrition of his body. But in time. but the word which Bardaisanuses (= •l06t) possiblypoints to acquaintance with Peripatetic sources. It is only by accident that the two works occasionally touch upon the same topics. in a severely scientific and objective spirit. of the ultimate laws that govern the universe. . of a dialogue held between Bardaisan and his disciple Avida. as Stoic writers were more disposed to use Stoic terms (•-yos. that the connection is not immediate. by the constellations and planets. Nature. the Odes are devotional poems of a most intimately personal character. as Haase thinks. sickness and sin. and Destiny. Man is ruled by three independent principles: Freewill.) is unmistakably the Aristotelian(q'aos.172 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE made apparently by a certain Philip. Free-will he shares with God and with the angels. and also upon his soul. Even granting that the Book of the Laws fairly represents Bardaisan's views. Their themes are as unlike as possible. whence arise in the world discord and confusion. of astrology. and confirmsthe statements of the churchhistoriansas to Bardaisan's with Greek. It puts into Bardaisan's mouth a He accepts the fundamental theory of marked originality. The conception acquaintance of I"Nature"( . "Destiny " is the influence exerted upon the entire material world. rve1/Aa). the " great and holy will of God " will put an end to the discord. Furthermore. upon the problems of Destiny and Free-will. and that he was the author of the Odes. 2 The theory is obviously eclectic. but dissents from that form of the principles doctrine of Destiny or Fate which was so generally associated with it. It is at best based upon one of his works. it is obviously unreasonable to anticipate any considerable degree of coincidence between them. upon man's body as a part of that world.
nor could it. Bardaisan'sconception is very different. offer a very satisfactory interpretation of several difficult Odes. however. Bardaisan regards man as imbued with a natural inclination towards good. their value as evidence is not great. Nearly all the Odes are full of joy and thankfulness. to speak the truth. .in a brief article. It is impossible. and the affinity to that of the poet is manifest. to quote from the Odes at such length as to give an adequate impression of the author's personality--that can be gained only by thorough familiarity with the Odes themselves. it gives a fairly definite impression of certain traits of Bardaisan's character. I give here. and to pray for that which is good for every one whom he knows " . prove that the writers are identical. bless. he seems to have no present personal concern with it. but it is one of the minor threads in the web of evidence which I am endeavoring to weave. It is. from the notion so prevalent in all Christian ages. I have already referred to the singularity of the poet's attitude towards sin and evil.and these traits are in striking accord with the character revealed in the Odes. Indeed. but in default of any evidence to show whether these traits were personal peculiarities of Bardaisan's. have been based in the first instance upon observation of what men actually do. the theories of the Book of the Laws. God. is suggestive. in phraseology and sequence of ideas. While he is of course aware of its existence. his whole nature seems to turn as naturally towards love. as the needle to the pole. and in doing good which he conceives is. In the second place. indeed. to "love. rather.man finds joy. goodness. good properly belongs to him. an expression of Bardaisan's own character. supplemented by informationafforded by Ephraem and other writers.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 173 The number of coincidences that do occur.or were common in Syriac literature of his age. This similarity of character does not. The real significance of the Book of the Laws is this: In the first place. I think. primarily. it was this that first led me to think of Bardaisanas their possible author. of course. that man is naturally inclined to sin.
we shall agree " with thee. 8: " I will make you wise in the ways of truth. and he will hear something to his advantage. " serons d'accord. 6: " The way of error I have left. " querelle. Ode xi. and have added in footnotes the more striking parallels from the Odes. 80 wa participate. 10. my brethren.freely modified by suggestions derived both from the Syriac and from Nau. These modifications are not always indicated. Avida said: "I am desirous of learning. . 28 1 P?" obstinacy. because they have in them no faith. but also many.2 Nevertheless. but are always pulling down and building up. 29 S. therefore." and again. but I began first to question these. 1. ." C . O ?r."Way of truth." The simile of a way or path occursabout 17 times in the Odes." C." N. and are (p. and if it please us not. and thou wilt be able to know everything. Cureton. 6: "I ran in the way of his peace. lo! I will speak to you who do believe concerning this which he inquires. and if it please us also. my son. necessity will compel us to show thee why it does not please us. thou hast anything in thy mind respecting this about which thou wast inquiring. Nevertheless." Bardaisan said: Thou speakest becomingly." N. " d'aprs les apparences." Bardaisan said: Not Avida alone is unwilling to believe. even the way of truth." N." xxxiii.174 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE those passages26 from the Book of the Laws which are relevant to my present purpose." C. 9 (C). " something more. . know that he who putteth his inquiries properly. 2." C. If." xv. because he will certainly give pleasure to him to whom the inquiry is directed. nor are they even able to be convinced. 3) found destitute of all knowledge of the truth.? 2s The translation is that of Cureton. " fell from the way of truth. because I was ashamed of asking thee. and draweth near to the way of truth n without opposition. p." to which Avida objects "But I am not able to believe unless I be convinced." Cf. 7. p.ASLZ "cleverly. by those things which I have mentioned. 27. because Avida is not willing to believe. tell it to us all. Avida's brethren say: "Believe firmly.28 needeth not to be ashamed. and is willing to be convinced.
But he exalted him by Free-will above many things. and the treasuryof the darkness is the night". . 12-13: " Keep my faith.." With the next sentence. and know my knowledge. In the Odes." Also. xxxix. and made him equal with the angels." Compare. 84tJ. ye that are kept by it. 18) But as to what Avida was saying ." N.pa.32 (1." nor the moon. So N . xxxiv. and they have no confidence upon which they may hope." Why did not God create us so that we should not sin and be guilty ? " . 8. then. that there is not given to them Free-will of themselves. and the rest of these things which are greater than we in some things. but night brings darknessover the face of the land." " I will not rise at any time. And on this account they are not competent to discuss and to draw conclusions. (17) " So he made the sun for the day that it may be bright. occurs vi. xlii. 12. the fact that the heavenly bodies never rest is adduced S6 as an illustration of subjection to the command of God. so speaks in my membersthe Spirit of the Lord. 88The comparisonof man to a harp upon which another plays." . and I have faith in Him". xvi. and the moon. 6 : " Believe and live and be saved. also. but they are all bound by the command " that they should do only that which was commanded them and nothing else.9 P .if man had been created so. and the sphere.and I speak by His love. would man differ from a harp " which another plays or the cart which another guides ? But God in his kindness did not will that he should create man so. 14: "1And created things run in their coursesand do their works" . but would have been the instrument of him that moved him. for faithful is He in whom I had faith ".oI" ip de conclure. 4: " I had faith. 11 . and His hosts are subject to His word.. For observe the sun. . The closest parallel is perhapsviii." C. " to speak and to instruct. " de discouriret 82The conception that faith or belief is the first step in the Christian life occursfrequentlyin the Odes. xiv. And how."1 For they have not the foundation of faith to build upon. " They are instrumentsof the wisdom of God which errs the of not. and have not received knowledge from the wisdom of the truth. " I will not change and not wane nor 31 a . ." compare followinglines : (16) " The treasury the light is the sun. "fixed by ordinance."C. I. (15) " They know not how to stand and be idle.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 175 And he began to say to us: There are many men who have not faith. xxvi. xvi. thereforefound I rest. 4) never says. but it is nowhere so directly connectedwith knowledgeas here.also. 1 : "As the hand moves over the harp and the strings speak. also. xxix. he would not have belonged to himself. For the sun (p. 6." Compare. 6. 5: " I am strong in His praise. 3.ye that know me in the truth.to . xxviii.
" But the word used is . (l•m s-). 8 "Bounty. xvii..and so of the sea. With the above. For there are two commandmentsset before us such as are suitable and just 88Severalpassagesrefer to the goodness kindness -A? (1Z-on.. and govern himself in a god-like manner." See.-ma. who also are possessed of Free-will for themselves.4)." Compare note 40." that they might minister to him for a season. and p. 4. and more especially of him who has obeyed and submitted to his enemy. (1. 7: "I grew great by his bounty. and raised my mind to the height of His truth". and according to His goodness He gave unto me ". the earth. compare Ode xxix.I of God as manifested especiallyin creating man. that by this same Free-will he may justify himself. 7 : " He glorified me by His kindness. 9: " According to the multitude of Thy mercies.. and and mercies (1. 1. and according to His excellent beauty He set me on high ".. not . and that there has been given to him Free-will more than to all those elements of which we have been speaking. 2: " According to His praise He made me. 17) On this account there has been given to him these things in kindness.) note 38.for they are the instruments of the wisdom of God which errs not. 9 : "I was enriched by his bounty". (3) " According to His mercies He exalted me.~.) endowing him with powers fitted to raise him above his present status and make him more like God. "I will not rise and I will not set. 5. Bardaisan said : This is the answer of such a one as doth not desire to do that which is good." nor does any one of the stars say." . but that we were in need of Thee.P xxv. 27) On this account let it be manifest to you that the goodness Wof God has been great toward man. 87 Compare iv. P awm. and associate with the angels. note 40. (p. (1. 9 : "not that Thou wast in need of us. " and there is no end to his bounty. xi." [. 1.. 17. 29 sqq. p. the hills. so shalt Thou give to me.] but all these things serve and are subject to one command.176 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE increase. .8 Avida objects: (1. xiv. the winds. 3) For everything that exists stands in need of the Lord of All. For bounty see (j-3a. For men are not commanded to do anything but what they are able to do. 30. 19) The commandmentswhich have been given to men are hard and they are not able to perform them. also.. . 3. Here follows an account of the fall of the angels through their sin with the daughters of men.
in close connection • with qAj." and ~. Who. 4 : " Lord. And accordingto His bounty He hath given to me. xxiv. r and the interpretation of xviii. but the same phrase recurs. but in the will of the soul." But it is usually found with verbs of giving. For even if a man be poor and sick and old. 6: "The way of error have I left.. and the other that we should do that which is good and which we love. and to bless. 7 (see p." Commandments. It occurs eight times in the J] and properly means "without reluctance". Ode 4 . Should the evidence ever warrant a definite ascriptionof the Odes to Bardaisan. 6) to avoid doing all these things. What man. and to pray for that which is good for every one whom he knows: and if he be in health and have the use of his hands. ye in the knowledge of the Most High withoutgrudging.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 177 for Free-will: one that we separate ourselves from everything that is evil and which we should dislike to be done to ourselves.1 ^ ] . And accordingto His excellent beauty He hath made me. therefore. therefore. and as he is able (p. 197).. or to avoid lying or committing adultery and fornication. 7. do not Thou. 18) But there have been given to us according to the kindness of God commandmentswithout grudgingOsuch as every man .g.. he is able to avoid doing all these things. 4: "Walk Odes.a . 4 must be om. po~ r take Thy Wordfrom me." 2a. With the above passage compare xv. because of them that are deficient. ." V P?. he is able too to give something of that which he has.. And have receivedsalvation fromHimwithoutgrudging. (1.. t 40 "Without grudging. and this too he is able to do. For I think it is in these commandments more than in anything else man has power. Moreover. "salvation. For they are easy. and is then equivalentto d006vws. xxiii. For we are not commanded to carry heavy burdens of stones [and so of other tasks]. or impotent in his limbs. 389 " Devoidof faith. so is he able to love." .~ more appropriateto receive commandmentsimmediately after leaving the way of error. e. xviii. and desire that it should be done to us likewise. is there who is unable to avoid stealing. and they lie not in the power of the body. or that he should be guilty of hatred and falsehood ? For lo! all these things are subject to the mind of man. and have walkedtowardsHim.it would be somewhat Fi. it is that is not able to do what those devoid of faith " murmur about I know not." Possibly " in faith" has been lost fromthe text. also to support by the strength of body him who is sick and broken down. and to speak the truth. I should be tempted to emend the text of the Ode. and there is nothing that is able to hinder them." s are easily confused. ?-a = d7rcrTroL. i•o consideredin connectionwith that of xxiv.•. rather than salvation. lo i M%.
nowhere definitely states his theory of redemption. vii.. which as it stands is unintelligible. " I love the Beloved and my soul loves Him. do you say that they are easy to perform ? Bardaisan said: To him who desires. The text reads: m )oa loa. and my impulse is towards Him. again. after J ." But the word here translated "what is lovely. and who are called tares. 0 Bardaisan. The words ae I~c~l p0?o . but to do good things who among men is able ? . and of that soul which has not rebelled against its governors.] have been lost IPo.e. for this is the good conduct of a free mind. for there is no man who rejoiceth not when he doth that which is good." 5i. is literally. For there are many things which impede the action of the body. But whereas Bardaisan finds it in human nature as such." and a comparison with iii. and sickness.178 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE who possesses a soul within him 41can do rejoicing. . ' The wording suggests a plausible emendation "I. the poet finds it in the redeemed and purified soul. for the poet gives no description of human nature as such." i.l1_ ? for vii. and the attempt to reconstruct the theories of each from the scattered hints in our possession would lead me far beyond the limits assigned me. however. with the exception of those who were not made for this grace. not. and conceives "the good" as God Himself. 41 . and the ?second po is a corrupt dittograph for J?. and more especially old age. 0=3 ." makes it reasonably certain that the passage has no such general application. every living man. There is one passage in Harris's translation which seems to express the doctrine of Bardaisan. 42 nor is there any one who doth not delight within himself when he refraineth from wicked things. 1: "As the impulse of anger against evil. hence a direct comparison of the two authors on this vital point is impossible. For would not that Judge be unjust who should blame a man for such a thing as he is not able to do ? Avida said to him : Respecting these deeds. and conceives "'the good " as good deeds. so is the impulse of joy over what is lovely. Bardaisan. 42 This joy in the good is the most characteristic trait both in Bardaisan and in the author of the Odes. to the exclusion of Bardaisan's conception. "I."Every man that possesses a soul within him.. "the beloved. My joy is the Lord. 5. and poverty. 27. I have said and do say that they are easy. And brings in of its fruits without restraint. Avida said: Perhaps a man may be able to avoid wicked things.
12. it seems to me that these three views are partly true and partly false. 1. governors."and has given to all things the power which is suitable for each one of them. as I also once loved it. 10: "From above He hath given The conception "rest" me rest that is incorruptible. and on this account he rejoices whenever he does good. 11. Comparexxv. 5-6 : "I love the Beloved. 4: "Be enrichedin God the Father. Greekol0Kos8er6rqs. 4) I likewise.l. my soul loves Him. each of which. and they see as things seem to them. xi. 21) But.. 7) evil. although there may be in it rest (i. satisfaction) for a moment. 1. xi. there also am I". " or "peace" occurs about seventeentimes in the Odes.e. 12: "I was justified by His kindness.=. which. in that the wisdom of God is richer than they. whose rest is forever." '5 j rulers.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 179 Bardaisan said : It is more easy to do good than to abstain from (p. [Some believe in Destiny. iii. some in Luck. but the evil is the operation of the enemy and on this account when a man is troubled and not sound in his nature he does wicked things. they are false. rpo•o-y6rLos. Where His rest is. nevertheless is far removed from the love which is true. He fixed the creationand establishedit.e." " Comparexvi. After developing in some detail the distinction between the true enjoyment which attends good deeds. astrology]. 9: "I was enrichedby His bounty. For the good is the man's own. and has ordained the governors. (p." (p. and the false enjoyment which attends evil. 12: " He spreadout the heavens and fixed the stars. I cannot determinetheir precise meanings.a. contentment. Bardaisan proceeds: (1. signifies a definite astrologicalfunction. "For this conception of knowledge or wisdom as riches. 20: "The worlds were made by His Word. in my humble opinion. 35) But let us speak now and show with respect to m ie]o. know well that there are men who are called Chaldaeansand others who love the knowledge of this art [i. like the .. when applied to a planet. 24) We ought plainly to understand that the unrestrained ardor of love is called lust. compareix. . heads. They are true in that men speak from the appearanceof what they see." which has established the worlds. 0 Philip. JrtKpTarwp. some in Free-will. etc.] (1. incorruptible and indissoluble. and receivethe thoughtof the MostHigh "." and created man. and by the thought of His heart". and His rest is forever and ever ". ."N = U? j -. as for myself.
. viii. It signifies the total complex of relations constituted by the position of the heavenly bodies at any given moment. whenever nature is disturbed from its right course.). 50o . libb. Corr. used by Ptol.m. Pruckner.g.." or when rising in the eastern sky than when situated elsewhere in the Zodiac. Jupiter and Venus are beneficent. p. See Otho Brunfels.180 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE Destiny. 383. for this very thing itself (p. that it has not power over everything. a translation of aX??arp~ps rs obpavlac KLV75aeWs." . 14." j. and Mercury neutral.are opposed one to the other." I cannot explain. & Add. And those are on the right 11 called " those which assist nature" and add to as haps. Boll has shown (Sphcura.-Procl. Basel. Astron. 663-664) that " right " sometimes means "north. of the Zodiac. 48 Elements. 49 Destiny. 10) And know ye well that. 47Disposition of the motion. but here probably means the signs ". De diffinitionibus et terminis astrologice (in Jul. Tetrab. wporTK67roS." etc. N." probably T-TracLts. The next section shows how organisms are normally ruled by their respective natures. Astrol. is equivalentto and is. Mars and Saturn maleficent. 1551). Firm. Adv. "oipdvta arocxe'a. = 1. for clearly " those on the right " are planets or constellations which are always beneficent. 1. "Horoscope. intelligences are changed in their descent to the soul.. and according to this motion and disposition. (p." . iii. In astrology as known to us. Mat. and this change is called the Destiny and the Horoscope0 of this complex which is being sifted and purified for the advantage of that which has been receiving aid and will receive it 10until the consummation of all. or when setting--but it cannot change its proper character.. ir=% o i " Those on the right.OT. pp." sometimes "south. per- ." 1. and souls are changed in their descent to the bodies. but it is here used of the total effect exerted by the stars upon the infant at birth. ccelestia signa. jhz. 1 . ed. any planet is more powerful when in its own "'house. 1. -" The complex. its disturbance is due to Destiny. n." sometimes "'east. The position of a planet makes its proper influence stronger or weaker .. (v) 12 sqq." None of these seems to fit the present passage. elxcapdvfy. because those heads and governorsupon whom depends the change that is called Horoscope.e. 13) which is called Destiny is a disposition (or arrangement) of the motion4 which is given to the governors and the elements4 by God. 61 Precisely what Bardaisan means by " those on the right." and sometimes perhaps " west. Strictly speaking..4 = TOLXX•ta. the horoscope was the sign of the Zodiac rising at the moment of birth (see the admirably clear summary of the leading doctrines of astrology given by Sextus Emp. " Right " and " left" do not seem to bear any definite technical meaning in astrology." "'those on the left.
then." For even those that think they withstand it. 10) But wherever they be and in whatever place that they are. This is the position in which its influenceis strongest. neither does the Destiny of the Governors compel them to make use of things impure to them. i. (p." . As the Free-will of men is not governed by the necessity of the Seven. the laws of the countries do not separate them from the laws of their Messiah. 68 Cf." and if we had no power to do anything.-Procl." eachplanet has two " houses" or signs properlybelongingto it. so also is this visible man not able readily to deliver himself from the commands of his Governors." either twy/?ara. anything can be.not by their strength ." and whenever they occupy the high places they are opposed to nature and not only injure men. or geovpavgiara. and whenever it is governed it is able to resist its Governors.in particular. (p. though bound none the less by the works that have been made and by the institutions which have been established for their help. "High places. N Cf. when their inherent beneficent influencesare re3nforced by their positions in the Zodiac and relations to other planets and constellations. 34) and holy will. and on the appointed days we abstain from food.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 181 its excellence whenever their motion helps them 52 and they stand in high places of the sphere in their own degrees. whom in every country and in every region the Messiah established at his coming. especiallythe stars.j) that 2•. we should be the instruments of others." For this orderliness and government S" Helps them.. etc." 55The " works" are probablythe material universe.. but sickness and health." probably. 11-12: " Who is able to interpret the wonders of the Lord ? For he who could interpret would be resolved into (1oa. which is the first. and in its "houses " it has a certain position. position on or near the meridian. This may last for a short time. 1. for lo! wherever we be." etc. for he is a slave and a subject. befalls them wherever they are. 33. 32. "Their own degrees. For there is nothing that can hinder that great (p.. xviii. withstand . and riches and poverty -this which does not appertain to their Free-will. But whenever God wills.o .their natures. the " institutions.Christians. Those on the left are called "bad.. i. 4) What. 1. and upon one day. 10 : "Thy will is perfection. For if we were able to do everything we should be everything. we assemble ourselves together. but also. all of us are called by the one name of the Messiah . shall we say respecting the new race of ourselves who are Christians.e. because He is kind and permits all natures to remain as they are and govern themselves by their own will.but by their wickedness and error. xxvi. without opposition. 22). a certain position in the Zodiac fixed for each planet (Ptol. which is interpreted. .
who probably learned it from the Pythagoreans.. by the bounty of Him who is the Lord of all natures. that they should not be altogether injurious or altogether injured. softens down the violence of the natures. although astrology as a science was as yet unknown to the Greek world at large. in all its forms. is not known and the diverse forms under which it appeared have been but imperfectly investigated. it was adopted by the Pythagoreans. These influences. again. " training. also. and the foolish will be persuaded. But there is good reason for believing that the form in which it appears in Plato's works has been directly influenced by Oriental ideas.182 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE which has been given. Its origin." " rvsultat. and mingling of one with another. and all rebellions will be brought to an end." 1 education. and later by Plato. W a68 .C. bad. that. influences severally appropriate to the several tracts of space through which it passed. Proclus' interpretations of the myths of the lit. and there will be peace and safety.. all evil motions will cease. might be conceived as personal or impersonal. The doctrine was probably of Oriental origin and was introduced into the Greek world by the Orphics about the seventh century B. in all cases. And a time will come when this injuriousness also which remains in them shall be brought to an end by the restraintsmfound in another mingling." N. It is probable. Its present evils can be corrected by a new combination of its elements. The doctrine of the soul's descent from heaven here sketched by Bardaisan was. both in its ascent and its descent. however. The world is a a. widely prevalent in antiquity. It was probably always associated with the complementary idea that the soul which has thus fallen from her divine estate should seek again to regain it. or both. in one form or another.and deficiencies will be filled up. the existence of this element. And at the establishment of that new world. whose equilibrium is maintained by a balance between opposed but system equal tendencies. as they were injuring and injured from before the creation of the world. although it is not possible to prove. for it already contains the essential elements of the astrological form of the doctrine. the soul was supposed to encounter. good.
that of the moon) becomes subject. but is one of its lowest parts. just as though a philosopher were to embark in a ship and become a rower. differ in no way from the things which are moved by other things [only]. when she has proceededas far as the lowest of the orbits (i. So also the soul. ii. Bardaisan that the body only is subjected to them. . po•ra 6KKEL74 r^ d-'yOp ALXKOS •T 7repL65wv w^i 78allgo . o hvel rb g-arovCrpoeXOofGa r^ . Kroll. but the soul is governed by Free-will. depends upon the operation of the celestial orbits which severally exert their diverse influences upon her. and as she proceeds thereto she is immersed in all influences [emitted] from the celestial [bodies]. . PT7)TU TrOtOvTwJ' &XXcoM L 77s otbECe 7-P Ir^i . o epG rW^ K6onov IAdpoS. in so far as the general outlines are concerned. 14: .ri7v br oa'av del KalId&Klrov 6 Procl. although. the eternally subsisting and inflexible dominion of Necessity to which the soul.~ 6• X rats d Oprbcrw^ vx. Proclus' own theory is very similar to that of Bardaisan. In another passage Proclus describes at some length the ed. 5CLc4OO'bL KOO•ILKuIC '•O'Tpw7CCt 7 &XXaei asra'v.e aucWvTW "yd'otro mmi 5aqCeJva rpbTrov7d biroKe~eOOa ~dXcacr AiC d tral L&Um ftreeOac 7tr rVuep'ry eal al ux1 rjv & epo y'p c lydveoes ot~dv*' o'mTW re'VooG'a rdi•rmw rwirc.e. arbitrary and fanciful in detail. Proclus holds that the embodied soul is absolutely subject to the influences of the stars. and the body only in so far as not controlled by its nature. in a sense. she becomes one of the things ruled. This is Bardaisan's doctrine with one important difference. in Remp. [in brief]..v rept68wv ylverat Paa~telav r7A7d'AdCYK-I. 7p6etaw U lsr E rb o xarov 7 otpavlwvreptXflc00e6arot7aercv. of course.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 183 Republic and Timeus are therefore correct.57 . upon falling wholly into birth. for he would have to take from the sailors such and such orders and obey the pilot and be exposed to gales of wind. re A dbrvov 70ooG &dXXC b rt rdv goXdrwv v Kcral Kac cuvat ela rb d Krl ccl'palc 8tocKo0PTWP a7rp olo' et rtr hX6tofoPo s pat' p 5LoLovudIWer rr *a KCL d-~yC7y&p TroTrovKal bIrb Trw 7r& aIKC r 7rXwr7p drcKo~. and instead of belonging to those things which rule the Universe. he would. is subject to the guiding spirit. 345. in such manner that she is not only a part of the [lower] world. is exposed to material spirits. and I cannot supply a better commentary on Bardaisan's statements than by translating one or two short passages from Proclus' intolerably prolix commentary upon the Republic.
exert a great and effective fateful influence upon nativities. rdvTwv Top 6T0 V r6 Kai S ro6Tw7J IX6YPrTW paCoT7pLOv repi Tis 'EVIeOEL... . sphere. cit. i0ouv Pbvov d&rb ?yl'ot. the ancients compared to "twisting" and "turning" together with the stretching of the thread from above downwards. then. L&8•OLV d4eLrEAcorpoca 8dLV 7 vT7vP Xav cvaPdWV K6KXWV y&p aeTr) rapd7TL Ts oO)K ?w00s . 342. puoLpav ali Seya'dyXv rip o v &. called this Fate. . TW7 7TE K6KXWV " t KE Kai 7Tw V CLVaTOS LOLpPV KaL darb TWP 7TW9V TWdv7r'XavrCoP' TwP daOTIpwV Kal TWP v 8Xw ryUCWV KCai TWP&XXv OvLordeeWov. and by way of a simile they. a&" 1V 7rTeTLOdaav T•. which is twisted and intertwined from all these. makes what has been twisted incapableof being un58Op. He then brings [the soul] from Klotho to the spinning of Atropos. but Klotho (= "Twister "). Ei Trl br•eLepa ~rl roT ?rpb abr V el 7 Ba 5p. but Klotho ratifies them by her own threads. KXwOov^r rapapylverat. then. . . ' ?v T& Kal elp".. d. for this reason. Tc Uava0Tp676epa XoEV' AaXiaews. which finishes the twisting. we get both. 7r Xszjavofs 86oel. PLa6Ovovoa yp I"rXelo0tv ObKdTL y ?r' &XXoLts77/JL dKeCOev T? KLTV^ ?EW VCa7riv ^rpoEPeL. U KXwOI KvpoT TaGVTa ToLs LavT-fl v7Pha-L Kal KXcSaoLaaotv. . . Kal a y 8 aXdov &~ r6o0YLaLXXOV VKTaLrivra tL lveraT V'roKaraKXtveTaL rTEpL68ots. comes from Klotho ? He (Plato) says she ratifies the destiny we have chosen. p. CXX& cal ra drovepbt6eva 7ytAv T 70 raVrT6. Not only. The influence. rdpaI dT& KXwo0'dvTa a'T7ry 1yd/rcJTV 7roLOvOav. in that she causes to stream upon us the gifts of the celestial from the constellations also which rise simultaneously with each of them there comes to us a generous largess. from whom we got life. •d 8vuvar•b d&PavyeYv Trdos dTLrOeoLav TrotSalpeOe•LOLv.dbi d7rXcaVWP 1oo0OaL. dvrl MeT&r 7rava IroLvY ?T•v v'otv 7Lt KXOeL KaL al" WV rapasecadvrm &XXa yet 7f 'ATp6brov. 7 KaL rpo57p~ern ^T T vs o0ev elpopdv2v rolqv70L alOavulrXeIoOAlP avrpd rep elp •Tp ' ov7Pha70o KdTiw 70T rdoews d&retrcltav ol raaXtol Kai d reKdacavTes KXwcOc38td 7rara 7rP Mortpa -KcdXeo••a.184 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE way in which the soul's total endowment is derived from the constellations and the planets :68 What. KvpwOjvcal fqo-wL 7b 6 1 Kal eleOazL uTLS v pXeac els" 7a rarbXX Tre 86o~"r*cd' var•eXX6. and through the threads which it gives. 8 P PvX) Tr /LOLpazta.not merely the kind of life. drypplovwa Ic LTr 7L/v^ T 7TC^ &CXX Kac &rb 7-w rapao . K y'lp 7 rap' i KsKai 0los. indeed.PL ObK &pa rI TrI 'yevIVOELs eZT a-vlrX-lpovoaOa TwVPd&vOp&r7rTv T7y ofeo'Oac ' L. XX drb T•K rdP'oTwV Ka 5&&y va ylveEat iZTd•L• v JAwv al h04Kovoal. but also the [influences] imparted to us by the Universe. from the signs of the Zodiac.v7-w XaX&ao^o ~ piwvi&uGv ? Kal Ailry6irmot roXXo irepl rv rpoyV'rJdaerv. and from them [the] Chaldean and [the] Egyptian [astrologers] are wont to foretell many events of our lives. upon the ground that they. then.6vov w I d&rb T v wv dXXr dov abtrbTwP d7TXavY rXavWpivre 6vWvr. From Lachesis. the products of her spinning [or twisting]. too. 21: 7T drb r o drb p ebX6AeOa Aotpav* obXl T6 7rrwis ei8os b6vov.
4a.62 Read plural points. one upon another."' The subtlety of the Word cannot be told. the heralds of His thought. . the more inevitable do the decrees of destiny become. therefore. Turning now from Bardaisan to the Odes. she contributes to us. and of the signs taken as wholes. Wisdom. Labourt's reading: which yields excellent sense. and the door of His light.. I shall endeavor to interpret some of the more difficult Odes in the light of Bardaisan's doctrines. For upon receiving from Klotho the spinning. One should not. reluctantly. 60For ao read A. (1) (3) He hath increased in me his knowledge. but is m Za. Like his subtlety is his piercingness. 4 -al . are given to us through the planets. For as the soul descends lower. suppose that the nativities of men or of other living creatures. etc. by means of the planetary orbits. 60 As a stream of water streams the truth from my mouth. from which she cannot escape until she has brought what she elected to its completion. and of the other constructions [such as the triangles. various [gifts] thence. the chasteners of His works. (2) and my lips show forth his fruits. from their motions.] 62 V. 22f. For the mouth of the Lord is the true Word. and that the [influence] of the fixed stars.. 4~•~o. [Cf. 7. and of the stars.NEWBOLD : BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 185 twisted. and of the circles on high and of their degrees. 61 I have followed. 5 is unintelligible. are filled up from the fixed stars or the planets exclusively. And the more these secondary [influences] work upon us on top of those which preceded them. the narratorsof His praise. inscribed in the Zodiac]. The twelfth Ode runs as follows: The WordI9of truth hath filled me that I may speak of him. otherwise difficult to defend. but that from them all results a single train and series reaching to us. the confessors of His counsel. (4) (5) 59 Read without points. The Most High hath given him to His worlds-the interpreters of His beauty.ED. she becomes subject to more and yet more orbits.
e." i. But intelligence. because they were in concord. 6") . 64V. For [it was] the voice of the Most High [that] spake to them. consciousness. 8. nothing can resist him (v. 6a) . ipF. Blessed are they whom he has made to know all things. 1-3) inspired by the Word which issues forth from the mouth of God.Lflj'Ea. and his truth is love. such is his final end. and he is impelled to sing of his nature and his work. in converse were those who were silent." From him came love and concord. . They were penetrated by the Word. he pervades the universe (vv. the Word will continue the work of reconciliation in which he is now engaged until all discord has disappeared." The poet feels himself (vv. and of " chastening" His works (v. For as his work is. they have acquired the power of communicating to one another their thoughts. "Those who were silent" are perhaps those on the " left. is not the only effect of the Word's activity .e. through his influence upon the " worlds " they have become the means of revealing God's beauty.6 He is light and the dawning of thought: The worlds through him talk one with another. here seems nearly equivalent to 65 I. They know the Lord in His truth. His meaning sped by his agency. and they told one another whatever they had [to tell]. praise." For the dwelling-place of the Word is man. may be pluperfect. 4). thought. he also inspires love and concord (v. by that of the Word. Or the ppl. He is Light and Thought (v. 7). 5. and they knew him that made them. "In converse": for the " Word" the poet has used consistently throughout this Ode.186 (6) JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE (7) (8) (9) (10) and endless is his course. counsel. through that love " 638 Final end. Never doth he fail but steadfast stands." see note 51. And knows not his fall nor the way of it. (11) (12) This beautiful poem might well be entitled "An Ode to the Word. 9a) .
chap. the things that are between the two. The meonshave no such functions. and it will be remembered that " worlds " is the word used by Bardaisan for the planets [note 45]. cut off from the lower world by the Horos. dwells in man. 10Jo d). by whom all things are ordered and bounded and placed in subjection. the "meaning. and the things that are in the earth. [God sent to earth] " not a subaltern. and Anthropos. they are shut up within the limits of the Pleroma. and Logos. by whom He enclosed the sea in its proper bounds. whose mysteries all the elements faithfully observe. The female mons. became all as Aletheia. too.. Blessed indeed must they be who feel themselves possessed of such knowledge as this (v. In the western Valentinian system of which Irenaeus has preserved the best account. from whom [the sun] hath received even the measure of the courses of the day to keep them. and led them to a state of true repose.. Yet the same Word that rules the stars in their courses. Thus then they tell us that the mons were constituted equal to each other in form and sentiment. the earth. or one of those that direct the affairs of earth. but the very Artificer and Creator of the universe Himself. These are not Valentinian weons. 6 With this description of the cosmological functions of the Word. . by whom He made the heavens. ed. and his truth is love (v. whom the moon obeys as He bids her shine by night. the things that are in the depths. or angel. 7 (Lightfoot-Harmer's translation). 318. Fathers. after the aeons have been produced by the Propator :67 The Holy Spirit taught them to give thanks on being all rendered equal among themselves. Am. and Christus. i. vol. and Ecclesia. b). 4 will suggest the planets and constellations as conceived by the pious astrologer.66 To any one who has any acquaintance with the literature of astrology the " worlds " as described in v. and Zoe. for the Word is the voice.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 187 the worlds become aware of their Creator (v. the things that are in the heights. 11). the sea. the heavens and the things that are in the heavens. abyss. p. or ruler. so that all became as Nous. But certain elements of the picture certainly are Valentinian. 10a. and Spiritus." the thought of God (v. fire. 12). and have nothing to do immediately with the redemption of the world accomplished by the Soter and by Jesus." This Epistle exhibits other points of contact with the sphere of ideas common both to Bardaisan and to the Odes. and the things that are in the sea. whom the stars obey as they follow the course of the moon. or one of those who have been entrusted with the dispensations in heaven. 6 Ante-Nic. air. compare the Epistle to Diognetus.
which is given by Moses bar Cepha. 71 But .188 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE Everything. For this I read " formed." which. and have made them equal. Then." literally " equality. when written in the Estrangela c." It shows no other points of contact with the Book of the Laws.. The pictures are similar but not the same. then. yet they contain striking identities of thought. 164). A leading difficulty is the first word of v. The Worlds in the Ode receive from the Word knowledge of God." in this passage at least. love and " concord. Certainly. the whole Pleroma of the eons. these two pictures are inspired by one and the same original.(and therefrom produced Jesus). and has not yet been satisfactorily interpreted as a whole. The Valentinian aeons sang praise because Christ and the Holy Spirit have given them such knowledge of God as they are able to receive.71 The nineteenth Ode is one of the most difficult in the collection. for which no good sense has been found. their Father also setting the seal of his approval on their conduct. and with the concurrenceof Christ and the Holy Spirit. 198. brought together whatever each one had in himself of the greatest beauty and preciousness. character is easily confused with The emendation . and they resolve to contribute each the best he has68 to the nature of Jesus. p. 6 q. 12. ap. as conceived by Bardaisan. being thus established and brought into a state of perfect rest. is further confirmed by Lactantius' quotation :72 " Salomon 69 68tirep elXe' #p davrr KdXLOTOV Kal dlVOypbra6To. with one design and desire. p. Harris. note the description of the work of the Word. and tell each what70he has. Div." 69 and therefore talk to one another. out of gratitude for the great benefit which had been conferred upon them. but chiefly to establish the fact that " worlds. iv..r. I have quoted this Ode partly in order to show how precisely it conforms to what we would expect of Bardaisan as regards its doctrine (compare Haase's summary. 72Inst. probably means " planets. they next tell us that these beings sang praises with great joy to the Propator.who himself shared in the abounding exultation. p. 8.
mid. and I drank it in the sweetness of the kindness of the Lord. of which I can make no sense here. of the verb cf. I Tim. 4. 78 7 So alsoFleming. for He kept her safe. 76See note 51.QA. 74Read pluralpoints as suggestedby the pl. Hallelujah. J r"S 80 j. vii. but informatus est represents with a fair degree of accuracy. For the rare aor. "I (10) and loved in safety and kept in kindness and showed forth in majesty. (9) She bore in joy 78 and acquired79in great power. The Son is the Cup. (3) And the Holy Spirit milked Him because His breasts were full and it was not fitting His milk should go to waste. gErworep. frexev &I K-vaOarO was corrupted into KT7aarTO and the order of the Kcl XOZa. oSakets.73 The Holy Spirit opened Her [the Spirit's] bosom. -.NEWBOLD : BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 189 ita dicit : Infirmatus est uterus virginis et accepit foetum et gravata est. The virgin became a mother with many mercies. et facta est in multa miseratione mater virgo. alK Va . Or. 76Read L2oa" m. ]•-. she bore voluntarily. --= eavUrb.. e.&1. (8) and since there was none. etc.75 (6) They moulded the body of the virgin and she received conception and bore.--a' Kpcd6ret text read: 79 suspect that the original that d-yaXXLdre&.g. 77&L.. rawplc. e e )rvevXes Kal Kva7cT/r 1h. (2) and He who was milked. And gave the mixture to the worlds 74 (5) and they that received in its fullness arethey on the right. (1) A cup of milk was offered to me. (7) She travailed and bore a son without any pain." Infirmatus est is meaningless.AL corresponds to 6'EdtsL. KvTr-aT?o verses changed to suit the sense.17 like a man. without their knowing it. she was empty. •Las' eyAdX. 76 And she sought no midwife. I have followed Labourt'ssuggestionand read . 4 16. part. the Father. (4) and mixed the milk from the two breasts of the Father. Himerius.
82Homrn.3 Ibl 1 • fl b. is apparent.. !. and the language in which it is expressed. occursboth in Bardaisanand in the Odes."? W 0.. God protected her from all harm during the process (vv.- t.1 %&CMI&3 ' QZA? bj. Ephraemgives a brief account of Bardaisan'stheory :82 s81The fact that this distinction between planets as on the right and on the left. so offensive to our taste.3 li? 1•! ! 4. cit. i= . The milk which the poet has received through the Son as the Cup. !1ti~2 !o• •-•-• ljm•. A l? 1f. 6-8). is in general agreementwith the Book of the Laws. those on the right. literally belly.o C?5 !. is the divine influence or Word of which he seems so vividly conscious. and to which he refers so often.-k- jlQl~m ? t-•. the theory of the Incarnation here set forth is perfectly intelligible. Verses 1 and 2 are introductory and serve as a key to the understanding of what follows. p. ii.•oo1. The poem closes with the crescendo of vv. of the virgin. ai-• otlrq•z .in Ptolemy."30 P jOe . --•-• R• tb: •'•z Ft1:uo t:•k•_• •. 9-10.Av . op..?4aOI? 4? z PJI c wiy. but not. In vv.!-li9. She needed no midwife.- !- . 50rka . 557 : lv.• 1-. mixes it in "her" own bosom and i.•-•.• •io •L •. . and she brings forth a son.. is significant(see note 51). without pain because she was empty--the precise meaning of this conception I shall discuss presently.81 the beneficent planets.0 ' 4010 4.•.~i. receive it in its fullness. 3 and 4 the Holy Spirit draws from the Father a similar divine influence or substance. so far as I have been able to discover." It remainsto adduce further evidence which will directly connect it with Bardaisan. That this theory.190 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE Notwithstanding the strange metaphors.•Zlo cm •.z_'•o0 xA i? irm oZ SV0 -'P?9? b %. " •!.e. The planets then "mould" or " form" or "shape" the body. gives it to the planets.'I. especially noteworthy are the expressions" the worlds " and "those on the right.
" The context shows that the Living One is Christ. which protects Harris' emendation (the sing.the which were wrought in the silence of God. There then follows an allusion to a widespread notion "the mixture was given to the worlds without their knowing it. But too much stress must not be laid upon his phraseology. with the sun and moon. formed themselves into a chorus about the star. that they may not rave again. . unopposed motion." literally "1flowed and descended. it certainly is well fitted to express what the poet describes in v.)." The theory that Christ's Incarnation was concealed from the powers of this world occurs early in the second century in Ignatius' Epistle to the Ephesians : " And hidden from the prince of this world were the virginity of Mary and her childbearing. my brethren. and likewise also the death of the Lord84-three mysteries to be cried aloud . 11: "IHe who finds pleasurein the Living One. How. glory be to Thy Nativity! And in that he said that it was impossible for one ever to germinate. then. and its strangeness caused amazement. But the allusion to the "mystery of a marriage " is more significant. for the pl. will become living. 84 I Cor. then. "Flow" is used in Syriac of almost any easy. and "1something" does not necessarily mean more than that Ephraem found Bardaisan hard to understand. our Lord he called a 'Nature born from between two.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 191 Pray. for He is "light from light. and its light was unutterable. . Cf.' in the mystery of a marriage. as when like children they say something flowed down from the Father of Life and the mother conceived a hidden son and bore him and he was called the Son of the Living 8 One. how much more pure must His divine nature be. The word which I have rendered "marriage" may have a more literal sense. for the disciples of Bardaisan." CompareOde iii. were they made manifest to the aeons? A star shone forth in the heavens above all the stars." suggests that Ephraem had before him the very milk simile of Ode xix." "Something flowed down. sprout. 2 8. and procreate. 4. But even as our Lord's body was not born from between two.Holy Jesus. but the star itself far outshone them 88"The Son of the Living One. and all the rest of the constellations.
the total result of which is determined by the horoscope. together with a commentary in which he interprets the doctrines there expressed as those of Bardaisan. then. signs of the Zodiacand of other constellationswas supposedto co6perate. Ig. again. at the moment of birth. and there was perplexity to know whence came this 8 The nostrange appearance which was so unlike them. Paul. and is seen in the personal peculiarities of individuals. or of nature (fto-qL). escape these influences and appear on earth precisely as he left heaven. In Bardaisan's system. for conscious intelligences. tr. Why. 86See above. All that is not under the control of Free-will. . Ephraem in his commentary upon the Epistles of St. ch. is subject to the control of the planets. (Italics indicate 85 Eph.88 The divine Christ in his descent must. which has been preserved in Armenian. one to another. be produced by the planets. p. which is the law. 87The influenceof the planets is the moreimportant. The nature of these changes is not further described in the Ode . do the planets act as the instrument of God's will in bringing about the virgin birth ? Because. in Bardaisan's system their influences represent the sum total of what we call nowadays mechanical laws. p. therefore. But other sources complement this statement in a very satisfactory way. pass through the spheres of the several planets s7and receive from them certain modifications.192 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE all. 180. the intelligences in their descent to the souls and the souls in their descent to the bodies.86 But here it has a peculiar significance.the "worlds" simply "mould" the body. so to speak. 182.they must. of course. which is the law for organisms. no doubt that of the 88 See above. gives quotations from an apocryphal Epistle of the Corinthians to Paul. The changes in the Virgin's body which were prerequisite to the accomplishment of the virgin birth would not be produced by the 4nots of her body ." tion that souls must encounter the divinities of the planets in their descent and ascent was common among the Gnostics. Lightfoot. or relations of the several heavenly bodies. 19 .
. . we confess that he [came] through 89Translated from the German version given by Zahn. . 6: a •r6. 176. 24: KcalZ 6 XoTyoU~Ev facryov ab•6r. H. so also did he . The book was written about A. butof for they say he went throughher as somethingnot [coming] from certainangels. 170. the Word himself became flesh without taking anything from without in addition . D. her. accept the Prophets..) "IAnd the words which they speak and teach are erroneous. Kanons. . And they do not admit that he was bornof the Virgin Mary . 597. d. Marinus holds: "1that he (Christ) took a heavenly 9 body . . vol. it is not even certain that it faithfully reproduces the views of the Bardaisanites of that age. xvii. cit. as distinguished by Zahn89 from Ephraem's commentary.D. as the angels appeared to Abraham. 90Der Dialog des Adamantius rept 91 Op. NT.L/L o o 8Ld Maplas. cit. And they call God not almighty. opavv Xev Xwv r• ' al nrtov r' a6ro6.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 193 the quotations..90 It cannot be trusted as evidence for the doctrines of Bardaisan himself. And they say thereis no resurrectionof the body. r ~ elsOeb de6pO^s 7rlarews. ed. .that is. . p. dXX'0K & Maplas. Gesch. 92 Op.." formerly ascribed to Origen. van de Sande Bakhuyzen. . orwal 190. 300. 9: 6 X-yos a6rbo adpt 1.appears as one of the speakers. But this doctrineis that of the schoolof Bardaisan. but with a heavenly body. and of man they say he is not made by God at all. Chr. namely : One should not. Gr. 6: &rt opd•iov oC&a tXape. . In the dialogue " On the right faith in God. Schrift. say they. &Orep ytp v 1JCp & awXjvos tipXeTraL. . IyPve7ro o6bUPv RwOep rpooXfapihp. they say that he who spoke through the Prophets is no almighty God. /tlw•Up Maplas. 178. . And they regard the world not as the creation of God. 174. he himself suffered in appearance .91 It is of value only when confirmedby other evidence. xvi. Mcplar Ka o K~Ic ty o~rw Kal 6 Xbyor rpoo'Xaljdpwpi. 26: cs Kal ol &yyeXot "A8pacl 0oV. but by the seven Guides. a Bardaisanite. p. iv. and ate and drank with him. i/. II. but the Gospel. a certain Marinus.. . he came from heaven with his body .namely. 22: 5OKOet IrrTOVOEv A•r i' Ka u I o-w a.of the seven Guides." Evidently Ephraem knew Bardaisanites who held that Christ went through the Virgin's body without receiving anything of her. And they say our Lord did not come with an earthly body. W.
rhv8et . ch.. for just as water goes through a pipe without taking on anything. aowL) EiS TbV at 6JT7aC -yXaKTr y-aXaciarv TJ o1v7W rpoo'ayopev6/1. . The milk simile is probably a translation into Christian language of an ancient myth. Porphyry's pupil."''93 Thus it was that "she bore a son without any pain."] " Now Capricorn and Cancer are near the Milky Way. he says [al. 68' '50ov^s eIS -YeOtY vyrKVeOae 'br6 ydXa ri vKCEV. . whence regarded 98 So also Philoxenus. i.. constituting its limits. The remainder of the Ode calls for no special discussion. he says. : " There are some of them who say that he sent down the Word a body from heaven. the absence of pain proved that the conditions to which pain would be due were lacking. so [came] the Word through Mary. necromancers offer the souls a libation of honey mingled with milk. 129." 7. Eel. &V *Jt •S . . p." Proclus (in Remp. 904. Spic. For which reason also. and didest assent to thy teacher Bardesan. 28: Aly6Kepw~ ~ Kai KapKlvPO S 'repI p/h rT KapivoS P-6pela Aiy6Kbepw~ & v6Tra8GcLos T7r rdpara abroI eiXyX67res.oW1 s / AL 7owo al c 5aratsTo l//V4vXayWyobl KEKpay•o 'ycXaKTL. 52.yaXacla v 94 De ant.eo& eis y'yveort dr7b TW^v 7Tpeo/d. phys. as thou saidest just now. they say] assemble in the Milky Way. p. and it is so named from the [souls] which are nourished with milk when they fall into birth. because milk naturally is engendered along with them.LEge'XeTJKViaLs epXeoaca als 9 Stobaeus. ap.' which. Heeren: KUal rokotLs HpaKXe5l7V '1 fh&y'bY HorrTLK6Y 1Opilot ew repi T+)' (sic) yacalarv.) repeats Porphyry's account with some variations. ii. ed. Iamblichus. that is.194 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE Mary. And according to Pythagoras the souls are a ' tribe of dreams. p. . . 14 sqq. The earliest detailed account is that of Porphyry :94 [Homer speaks of the solstitial signs. Cancer the northern and Capricorn the southern. vi. 8 d6elpwv KaT( IIHvOay6paV 4/vxal ds avvdyeTOai q5 ' (al. nympharum. Syr. and not of Mary. gives Heraclides of Pontus a clue to the source of the tale95-the Milky Way as the place of the souls. several accounts of which have reached us. with the idea that they are induced to come to birth for the sake of the pleasure (or savor). and since there was none. Because thou hast not comprehended the mind of Bardesan. she was empty". Cureton. who assumeth the body of Christ to be from heaven. Kroll. but not of Mary. Cancer and Capricorn as the "gates of the sun.
"a kid thou art (or.it is a luminous substance. I have) fallen into milk " .Sozomen's language (see note 18) implies some affinitybetween Bartheories. Gr. 1. Phil. it is nourished by the dim light diffused in the Milky Way. the words used by Marinus. 1034 sqq. the Pythagoreans refined the conception . and so I would interpret the sentence found in other. as he was a man of learning. The author of the Odes believed. Heraclides was a pupil of Plato. 660-63) the soul avows itself a " child of Earth and of Starry Heaven " (ry wrai~el/' xaia opaPvoiaTEpde0ToT). It is not at all impossible that the author of the Odes knew of this myth in its Greek form. The theory of the virgin birth presupposed by this Ode is Irenaeus gives it in almost known to be in part Valentinian. Upon returning to its proper home the soul will of course again need nourishment.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 195 they came to earth. d. similar tablets. Ed. he must have had trustworthy sources of information. So in the Orphic burial tablets found in southern Italy and Crete (Miss Harrison. but it is in my opinion certain that an Oriental element enters into them. Bardaisan probably did. The Orphics had taught that the soul is "breath ".). daisan's doctrineand the Orphic-Pythagorean . The origin of the Orphic-Pythagorean doctrines has not yet been discovered. pp. 203). 4. and this is the meaning of the name. that souls consist of light or are robed in a body of light (see p.the departed soul has fallen into the "milk " of the sky. "he who went through Mary 96. as at least some Pythagoreans did. ii. and it may well be that the ancient explanation of the celestial "milk" as being the light with which souls are fed suggested milk to him as an appropriate simile for the divine substance which proceeded from the Father and Holy Spirit and issued through the Virgin into the world as Jesus. Proleg. and I have no doubt that this is a genuine fragment of early Pythagorean doctrine. 3 . his interest in the mystical aspect of Pythagoreanism is well known (Zeller. p. for this light is the heavenly milk designed for souls.956 But he may have drawn it from other sources. to the Study of Greek Religion. 989.
. but son of the Demiurge . and the creeping things died in their holes. But those of the East. But it is closely akin to the theory of Ode xix. the operationof the " worlds" by the " power of the Highest or constructive craft. Valentinian. p. ap. Bardaisan held the orthodox doctrine. She sang over Him.). KaOdlrep 96a wX-o'o Hippolytus. the Jesus who is thus born of the Virgin is not the Son of God. at his baptism. The theory of the incarnationwhich follows is ascribed both to Axionicus and to Bardaisanand may represent Axionicus' conceptionsmore faithfully than Bardaisan's. can be interpreted if viewed in the same light. hcer. the body of Jesus was "psychic. again. among whom are Axionicus and Ardesianes [= Bardaisan]. as a whole.the Spirit as a dove descended.96a Ode xxiv. . hold that the body of the Saviour was spiritual.. according to the western Valentinians.e. i. The milk is representedby the Holy Spirit. Wisdom (Sophia). because He was her Head. and the power of the Highest. i." what the Spirit had given Mary. Hcer. and therefore. 31. (1) The Dove flew upon the Messiah. says that. the body of Jesus is. that is. the Logos of his mother on high.." In the Ode the stars mould the body of Mary. . and the sojourners were moved. i. we have that blending of Gnostic and orthodox elements which I found in Ode xii. (Panar. impliedin Odesxix. for the Holy Spirit came upon Mary. Wisdom. 35. then. Epiph. (2) The inhabitants were afraid." Accordingto Hippolytus also." which " moulds" --the very word of the Ode if my emendationbe correct. formed in the bosom of the Spirit. 1. the divine Christ descends upon him at his baptism. Here. 7. the constructive craft (587uLtoUpY'LK 7dXPYv) in order that what the Spirit had given to Mary might be moulded (8ta7rXaae0). vi. and her voice was heard. Irenueus. 356) : etar Ur ToTrovr G8& ~8wp 8t& TbY Maplas b8osedoavTra. that Christwas divine from his birth and did not acquire divinity at his baptism. . it would seem." 9 But the doctrine of the Ode is In the system described by not. But in the Ode he is the Son of God Himself. 24 (cf. Gr.i. Hcer.196 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE like water through a tube. (3) The birds dropped their wings.. and came to be with the (ydyove 7 ) psychic [Jesus] and raised him from the dead. 9 Cont. and xxiv. and which is believed to have been characteristic of Bardaisan. 2.
. and the final end of their corruption was life. cit.them. But in v. see the parallel from Ecclus.. (8) The Lord has destroyed the thoughts. and spread abroad His grace. op. water. that they might abide." that had been from of old. (5) The abysses were sealed with the seal of the Lord : They perished by His Thought.. Hallelujah.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 197 (4) The abysses were opened. pp. and darkness. because there was none for. sketches in broad outlines the regenerating work of the Word. darkness tried to rise from its place below and a9 Translatedinto French by Nau. For they were corrupt from the beginning. And those that have comprehendedit. And they were rejected. all things that were defective. 200. for some reason not given. (7) There perished from among them. 5. with one of those rapid transitions so characteristic of the writer. those that were exalted in their hearts. his thought leaps forward to its final consummation. of all those that had not the truth. fire. so this Ode depicts a certain stage in that work--the stage initiated by the descent of the Dove. 97 Read . know His holiness. Because it was not possible to give them the Word. commingled one with another. The clearest statement of Bardaisan's theory of the work of the Word is given by Moses bar Cepha. and were spurned: They were crying to the Lord like women in labor. light. because they had not the truth. air. 59-62.m . (10) For the Lord has disclosed His way. had become. (9) For they were defective in wisdom. quoted p. and no food was given them. As Ode xii.98 He held that the five elements.
that is to say the Messiah. it was driven away. to charge him with making them independent of Ephraem God . the birth of Christ was one." Whether this picture of the battle of light and darkness can be found implied in the Odes is a question into which I cannot now enter.99 he conceived them as being. S . The descent of the Dove may be interpreted as another. he removed darkness from the midst of the pure substances. at the sound of this tumult. and he reestablished each of the substances in its order by the mystery of the cross. O. The regeneration of man. is only part of a vaster scheme for the regeneration of the universe. darkness. III. in part. consisted. "Then..Za. and decreed that they should mingle no more. c. vol. the Word of the thought of the Most High. in dualism. *Mo!. In this process many stages can be distinguished. . the last will be the final perfection of the universe. He affirmed the existence of the substances l = oo-ata) in language which caused (-. 99Hom.198 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE mingle with the others. The first step in this process was the creation of the world. into which the Word enters and introduces order. supplemented by the last paragraph of the Book of the Laws. B: " Marcion and Bardaisan blasphemously allege that the Creator is not one.. )o~~~~~t~~~~~3 cuj O ~ ufr-• -•!~ oo• Q•l •0IjtL lJ . the statements of Moses bar Cepha. and the poet describes vividly the effect of that descent upon nature. But as regards the work of the Word. in a state of chaos. therefore.. the pure substances sought refuge in the mercies of the Most High. supply a satisfactory Bardaisan's heresy explanation of several of the Odes. p. And from the mixture of these substances with their adversary.r •:. the Makers of all things they thought to be nothing. and the present mixture was purified by a conception and a childbirth forever. the Son and Holy Spirit they confused with the created things.- \. at one time. contra Hcer. ii. he established this present world. Ij. and fell into the depth of its nature. descended. the deeds of the Maker they ascribed to the things made. 444.4oM 10oL o ' o.." I.
. 103 it is -FiM. probably to devour it.. Anz.101 As vv. Jesus. ed. Potter. perhaps. 108See above. 40. and fire. KaST rTYp lIaV Kal Eclogax. 2-3".. Proph. cf.rTpaot6oeVOp T& ~ ? W'i erql YlperaT. remnants of primeval chaos. from which the several genera and their species come.'00 "'Abyss' is something the essential nature of which is unlimited.' for he would not have called water alone 'abyss. They open as the Dove descends through them. the aspect of Bardaisan's theory which Ephraemdesignates by the word "opposing" or "conflicting" substances. Meteor.--they are "spurned. which separate heaven from earth. ii. and give me the eternal crown of victory over every antagonistic principle and power.. 990 : ivooos yhp rb drepdT TO eOeov8al rolVUV U& . have been termed 'abysses. p. " Come now.. cit. 102 E. and iv. So also in the Gnostic "Acts of Philip.1?2 This is.' And yet matter is allegorically described as' water of the abyss. 166." thrust aside. Arist. It is a Jewish conception. mutually destroy one another. n. Since the days of Heraclitus men had been familiar with the conceptionof the elements as consisting of opposites which. r^vdpEL FV'TO'ot u•&voos VXO dXX-l'yoppLcLLr.and 4 describe its effect upon the abysses. that which is expressed in the Book of the Laws by describing the "natures" as "injuring and injured frombefore 100 Ex Script. Tisch. p.. as Clement was largely influenced by that sect. So the material substances. p. thus giving rise to the ceaseless round of transformations which we see. vapor. and let not their dark mist enwrap me. II. op. when brought into contact. also note 66. p. (dp6to-ovu?)i 101 .NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 199 The "abysses" are the vast gulfs of air. that I may pass over the waters of fire and all the abyss. but is found in this sense in Clement of Alexandria. and the effect of the divine influence upon them." Acta Phil. rI ppovV yJv' KGa rTO6r trl KaiTOL Kal vBwp /L6pbovrb Jo&p o'K &v elreV &~Fvoov. Verses 3e and 4 describethe internecinestrife of the elements in a vivid picture. et corr. 7ro70 o?TclaL 4T0 & etp71Trac* ire U'6aTraoLLV. iv. although limited by the power of God." the apostle prays just before his death. chapters iii. and probably it is a Valentinian definition. de gen. 93.g. 2.b describe the effect of the Dove's descent upon animals so 3'. 1..' " It is reasonably certain that this is a Gnostic. ap.
107 b 7TrAos r^ Oopas(?).109a This is a e 104 Note that the word " natures. those that had been of old." The Ode proceeds: "They perished by His thought. 1osSee p." as in Ode xii. Conceived as components they are aTroTxeta 105 See p. finally. LL. In vv.. 2. the poet turns from the cosmological to the anthropological aspect of the work of the Word. p. their warfare stayed. "as is the Word's work.s08 "All defective things "must perish. by the thought or will of God. 86. and Odexxii 11 : "That everythingmight be dissolvedand Jac."1'0 But here the poet depicts it in a vivid image -the abysses have been engaged in devouring one another. then renewed. term for the elements conceived as possessingactive properties. 106 5pC0apgdva (?). they " cry to the Lord" in a state of agonized turmoil and confusion. p. . The descent of the Dove is an event of such commanding import that even the dumb beasts recognize it. is the correct technical . the Word was given to the worlds. . Protev. 10. 9. Zur 24ten Ode Salomos ZNTW. The confused and warring elements are brought to rest. shall be brought to an end by the restraints which are in another mixture. 186).• ." 109 j. "like women in travail.Similar phenomena are describedas attendingChrist's birth. "They were corrupt 106 from the beginning." or. The chief difficulty of this Ode lies in the opening verses.200 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE the creation of the world. 7. and the completion of their corruptionl07 was life "-this present world must pass away to make way for a new heaven and anew earth. in the words of the Book of the Laws. xii." which is almost a translation of a'ro-0 eithoraeav /vo-rov." But their cry is unheeded. the " abysses are sealed with the seal of the Lord. 4. so the Book of the Laws. "this injuriousness 100also which remains in them. See Duensing. such is his final end" (Ode xii. 109 "it was not possible to give them the Word that they might abide. 182. 18. 109. " deficiencies will be filled up" . they have been checked." and the idea is certainly the same. 8.W." 1OLS. in Ecclesiasticus 43 23: translation: Xorytr/Aw Jerome's "cogitatione sua placavit abyssum. 182.
also the descending Christ is committed. At v. Christand the dead who are to be saved. 112 xvii." So in xlii. As it offers no special difficulties of translation. to the more remote results of that stupendous event. 14: "They wereto me as my own members." the great "wheel of the Zodiac " (wcostaKov Ic. ibid.e. 22. is the Word descending to be born of the Virgin. " Many hands " of the Powers of the Spaces. 18."' Upon the wheel is a "sign of the Kingdom and the Government.11obut the seal upon it protects it from them. the Christ. for down to the feet ran the wheel and that which was a sign upon it. govern the operations of mechanical law. for in the Valentinian system the divine Christ does not come to earth until the moment of the baptism.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 201 Gnostic idea. 12 the poet's prophetic eye looks forward from the moment at which the Word entered into the system of nature." her superior. ascribes to the Oe6Xoyom doctrine 111 . repredeparting souls ascend throughCapricorn. that descendingsouls enter the world throughthe Zodiacin the sign Cancer. it sweeps away all obstacles and makes "a broad path. nymph. ch. rush to seize it." probably the Star of Bethlehem. I give merely a paraphrase. But the Dove here does not represent the Christ. It is received by a "wheel. But others of the Oe6\oyoL sent the souls as descendingthrough the moon and ascending through the sun .p. which bears the seven planets to which in Ode xix. a Porphyry.cXo9). when Christ descends into Sheol. here symbolized by the system of planets revolving in the Zodiac which. 29. This same group of astrological conceptions affords a perfectly intelligible interpretation of that very difficult Ode. is "her head." i.e. Death lets go the "feet and the head. Again an indication of the curious blending of orthodox and Gnostic ideas so characteristic of these Odes. the Abysses. for "the Messiah. The "thought" or "will" of God which descends like a letter. the 23d." "The head went down to the feet. 191. de ant.and I wastheir head. The regeneration of the system of natural law inevitably carries with it the triumph of the Gospel. ch." ' The head" 112 is probably Christ as the Head of the Church Comparethe effect of the appearanceof the Star upon the other stars 110 in the passage from Ignatius quoted." i. according to Bardaisan.
viii. his poison." Nor is the doctrine of predestination. xxii. . The revolution of the wheel. established a certain degree of congruity between the doctrines of the Odes and those of Bardaisan. for future events are frequently described in these Odes as accomplished. 114 See p. 3." "who are not made for this grace. Bardaisan himself recognizes 13 that Free-will subsists only by the sufferance of God and will prove no obstacle to the final regeneration of all things. The poet's thoughts are dominated by the consciousness of the work of grace in his own heart and he has no special occasion to deal with Free-will as such. In one passage. implied: x. I think. 14-22). Batiffol objects that it is represented as already accomplished. But this is not. carries Christ there also. In only one passage is it. his seed. The preceding verses speak of the bonds which Christ is to loose. I am not aware of any demonstrable points of incongruity. 178. true that the doctrine of Free-will does not definitely appear in the Odes while it is one of the salient features of the Book of the Laws.202 -the JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE conception of Christians as the body of Christ frequently recurs in the Odes . indeed. 181.g. "to convert the souls of them that were willing to come to Him. indeed. incompatible with the theory that they are the work of Bardaisan. and he also recognizes the existence of "tares. the poet describes the resurrection of the dry bones. which represents the operation of the Gospel under the forms of regenerated natural law. It is. his roots. Another characteristic trait of Bardaisan's teaching was the denial of the resurrection of the body." 114 An ancient is not required to be more consistent than a modern theologian. perhaps. and in the following 113See p. this. of the dragon with seven heads. 8-10. But the context is distinctly against a literal interpretation.the feet are probably the souls in Sheol yet to be redeemed. for believers in predestination are often advocates of Free-will. I think. an objection of any force. is the doctrine to which Ephraem pays most attention. and this Harnack takes as referring to the resurrection of the body. I do not think this settles the question. which is definitely taught in the Odes (e. I have.
So Hippolytus in describing the Docetae that they regarded souls as "the eternal marks (or says imprints) left by the light when it shone from above down below. "the traces of the light were set upon their heart" (x.. 1?6irpgev. and S. 16. 967. dsr c 8•-yeype rov Kil pi irohlqe. 66: Areg4'e oirvO•pca wsj. cit. 10 (D. "in me there shall be nothing that is not bright. the son of God" (xxxvi. 2). 380. 3. Bef. 28. of course. rbv d'Opw116Op. (2) That some of the Odes can be readily interpreted in the light of Bardaisan'stheories. These passages unquestionably point to the well-known doctrine. "although a son of man. obviously borrowed from Ezekiel."17 The conceptionof a corporealresurrection cannot.1" is the and the eastern Valentinians used the same word Saviour's office "to awaken the soul and light the--it spark. Potter: IXNb oDv 6 ZTIwrprby &vXbv PwOeC KcdTrwi ^wrbs Tto alwvlots XapaK'rpOL. then. which is. is also figurative... found in many Gnostic sects-and elsewhere--that the redeemed soul possesses a body of pure light. viii. incompatiblewith the notion of corporeal resurrection. 7b. This presumptionis strengthenedby the passages which clearly do refer to the state of the redeemed.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 203 verses we have the rock which is to be the foundation of all things. The presumptionis that the clothing of the dry bones with flesh. p. I have endeavoredto show: (1) That no antecedentimprobabilityprecludesthe ascription of the Odes to Bardaisan. affliction or suffering" (xxi. 8). "I put off darkness and clothed myself with light and my soul acquired members free from pain. But before Bardaisan's authorship can be regarded as established it must be shown that all the Odes can be intero KareLXi/CdyVoT ." 115 Saturnilus conceived of souls as sparksof light. In a similar sense should be interpreted. have found place in the poet's theology. 3). . 418.. 7b). I was named the Illuminate. . vii. p. lf 115Hipp. p. e b&r R Tfv OrwHOIjpa. 23): . and I was clothed with the covering of Thy Spirit and Thou didst remove from me my raiment of skin" (xxv. 117 Excerpta Theod.
although generallyconstant for a given planet." etc. For the following notes I am indebted to suggestions given me by Prof.and the good or bad effects of that influence.) "High places" are 'wcaLra. cod. e. the later distinguishedbetween the unalterableproperinfluence." .g.who has been so kind as to read this paperin proof. Franz Cumont. as others have done.-Procl. The " degrees " are the " limits " (5pma). IV. The 300 of each sign are apportionedamong the five planets and those to appropriated each are termedits "limits. 1911.) The earlier astrologerstermed planets "Ibeneficent" and "maleficent" (Ptol. JUNE 5.. (See note 51. "Their own degrees. p. To this task I shall not be able to address myself for many months to come.. warming. and I have therefore thought it best to make public my tentative results. I have as yet found no otherillustration. which. 105). But of the ascriptionof exclusivelybeneficent influencesto "those on the right." (See note 52.204 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE preted from the same point of view. I. Cat. in the hope that they may be found to contain some elements of value to the ultimate solution of the problem. astr. also Julius of Laodicea. cf. 5). might be modifiedor transformedby circumstances(ibid.
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