Bardaisan and the Odes of Solomon Author(s): Wm.

Romaine Newbold Reviewed work(s): Source: Journal of Biblical Literature, Vol. 30, No. 2 (1911), pp. 161-204 Published by: The Society of Biblical Literature Stable URL: . Accessed: 23/12/2011 08:03
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Bardaisan and the Odes of Solomon'

of Solomon present THE newly discovered Odes literature problems asto the student of early Christian fascinating as they are difficult. The author is a poet, and a poet of no mean order, but he is much more than that - he feels himself inspired by the Spirit of the Lord and illumined by His light; the resources of language, even when strained to the utmost limits of poetic license, are inadequate to express the richness of that new life which has transfigured his inner self and filled him with the joy and peace that pass all understanding. Yet when one endeavorsto see the worlds of matter and of spirit as the singer saw them2 and to grasp his conception of their mutual relations, in brief, to reconstruct his philosophy and to determine his age, his environment, and the school of thought to which he belonged, one encounters peculiar difficulties. He is as much at home in the Psalms and Wisdom-literatureas any Jew, and yet is not in sympathy with the more distinctive tenets of Judaism. He acknowledges no circumcision save that of the heart (xi. 1-2), no sacrifice save that of "1God's thought," of "righteousness and purity of thought and lips" (xx. 1-7), no peculiar people, for his sympathies are as broad as humanity (vi. 7-17; xiv. 14-29). He is a Christian, familiar with the leading events-of Christ's life -the miraculousbirth (xix. 6-10), the baptism (xxiv. 1-3), crucifixion and descent
1 I desire to acknowledge to the editors my obligations for their kind revisionof the proofs duringmy absencefrom the country, and in particular revision of my translationsfrom the Syriac. ProfessorMontgomery's 2 The author's general point of view has been characterizedby many; perhapsthe best is that of Gunkel, ZNTW, xi. 1910, p. 320.





into Hades (xlii. 1-26 et al.), yet he absolutely ignores many of the most characteristic doctrines and practices of Christianity. He makes no explicit allusion to the resurrection or ascension of Christ's material body, or to baptism, or the eucharist. He knows of sin and evil as facts (xxxiii. 8; xxxviii. 12 ff. et al.), but they seem to lie outside the range of his own present concern; even his conception of redemption seems unconnected with the crucifixion. Moreover, amidst the profusion of poetic and allegorical images in which he expresses his ideas, there are some which one can scarcely regard as merely poetic and allegorical and which fit but ill into the traditional system of Christian theology. The "worlds" 4 et al.), the "garment of light" (xi. 10; xxi. 2), the (xii. "perfect virgin" (xxiii. 5), the "abysses " (xxiv. 3; xxxi. 1), - these, and perhaps others, are somewhat more than hints that the author's view of the universe is not that of the orthodox Christian theologian. The theories proposed to account for this puzzling complex belong to three leading types. The representatives of the first type, led by Rendel Harris, the distinguished discoverer and first editor of the Odes, regard them as belonging to a period when the new life which was stirring men's hearts had not as yet moulded their thoughts after its own image nor found words adequate to its expression, when Christian theology was as yet in the making and clear formulations had no existence, in brief, to the period, approximately, of the New Testament itself. A second group, led by Harnack, cannot believe that conceptions so disparate as are found in the Odes could ever have coexisted as the elements of the world-view of any single mind. They believe them, therefore, to be a composite product, the original Odes being the work of a Jew of unusually catholic sympathies, into whose text a Christian hand has incorporated a few of the more essential elements of Christianity. But Harnack also refers the Odes in their present form to a very early period - about the end of the first century of our era. A third group of students regard them as giving imperfect





expression to some peculiar system of Christian theology, accepted by some minor sect, probably of the second century, and endeavor to identify the sect in question with some one of those mentioned by the church historians. But upon this point no agreement has as yet been reached. Gunkel thinks them Gnostic, and Preuschen has announced3 that he will endeavor to prove them a part of the Valentinian Psalmbook; Batiffol4 regards them as representing a docetic tendency, perhaps a forerunner of the great Christian Gnostic movement of the second century and akin to that combated by Ignatius. But Conybeare 5 and Fries 6 would have them Montanist. In my opinion the weight of evidence is distinctly in favor of the third point of view. While the considerations urged by Gunkel and Batiffol are not all of equal force and it is not probable that all will stand the test of further criticism, the main thesis for which they contend seems to me established - that the Odes unmistakably reveal the influence of Gnostic speculation. Yet the evidence falls far short of proving them Gnostic, for many of the leading characteristics of Gnosticism, as of Judaism and of Christianity, are conspicuous by their absence. The system of eons, for example, upon the elaboration of which with every detail suggested by pagan mythology or a perfervid imagination the Gnostic thinkers so loved to dwell, is represented in the Odes by nothing but the "worlds," and of them so little is said that it is impossible to determine at first glance what the author meant by them. Again, the Gnostic was essentially an exclusive faith. It drew a sharp line of demarcation between the true Gnostic, or, as the Valentinians called him, the "pneumatic" man, and the common herd, whether Christian or not. In the Odes the "elect" (viii. 21; xxiii. 1-3 et al.) might be regarded as representing the pneumatic man, but their relation to the mass of men is conceived in a very different and more catholic spirit, for the poet looks forward to the time when all mankind will be numbered among the saved (iii. 12;

ZNTW, xi. 1910, p. 328, n. 3. r ZNTW, xii. 1911, pp. 70-76.

A Rev.

Bibl., NS, viii. part 2 (1911).

6 Ib., p. 108.

dangerous.9 No one who reflects that Bardaisan's youth fell in a period in which Gnosticism was at its height. of marked originality. 154. was Bardaisan of Edessa. Gnosis. But one does expect a hymn writer. a man of deep sympathies. passim. " Zur Bardesanischen 1910. Knowledge probably means gnosis. The argument from silence is. was the stupendous drama of the Valentinian theology. speak of the time when "Nothing that breathes shall be without knowledge. 22 ff. the aim of which was essentially nothing other than a solution of the " World-riddle" with the 7 vii. one does not turn to a hymnal for a system of theology. was thoroughly familiar with Gnosticism and had borrowed from it much of his imagery and some of his doctrines. if he be not wholly devoid of the poetic gift. have been acquainted with the doctrines of the Syrian Gnostics also. and that he lived in a land the peculiarity of whose culture made it the mother soil of Gnosticism. See the text. to employ those elements of his theological system which lend themselves most readily to poetic treatment. receptive as he was to all sciences and sensitive to all intellectual influences. 27. while not in the technical sense a Gnostic. who believed himself divine and could the regarded all other men as akin either to animals or dead matter. it is true. at least. 178.164 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE vi. died 222. of broad vision. will deny that Bardaisan.8 I cannot better express my own impression of the relation between Bardaisan and the Gnostics than by translating a passage from Haase's recent monograph. then. . and such.). 88. of the Odes we must postulate a man who. And he was also a gifted poet. He must also have been a man who knew the life of the spirit by immediate personal experience. p." Texteund Untersuchungen. 9 Felix Haase. nor shall anything be dumb.p. Such a man. vii. Nor true Gnostic.D. note 41." 7 As the author. so far as our information enables us to judge. 8 Born A. One should not forget that it was the most enlightened minds that found something infectious in Gnosticism. in a preeiminent degree. must. a man whose heart was full of love for God and his fellowman.

in this doctrine. ETxr& So0ydd-rwP tWaX6yovevoT-•7~47'e0os. To Bardaisan's intellectual ability all our authorities bear witness. J6Ket Jeal U& r9j KcaraLTpoy0 raT?7~. and he therefore worked out a peculiar doctrine of his own. ap. 4 W raptC-ar/AgJ Gatb VrVaTwrj T'3 X6"Y' 8XhKao-&wcwv7^J. U ov• l ysdpLtAom." p 7rXEL~rrotL rap utprw i7rkelTwrw. in so far. 9. I therefore regard as natural and credible.translatedfrom Syriac into Greek. a heretic. make the explanation unnecessarily difficult.10 Bardaisan's keen intellect must have recognized the weak points in the Valentinian or [other] Gnostic system. It will remain a hopeless task to pick out. i.d."" Epiphanius describes him as "one of the finest Euseb. 1. which his pupils . and Gnostic influence. U To~0rrop Oat dpOorpaTr yPr v . It cannot indeed be determined at what period of his life Bardaisan had belonged to a Gnostic sect. in the age of Gnosticism. ibid. .le-raEEOar ctAlq ?S o0 EavT r 7rw aclrbs tdjJ ye direppoa-ro KiTrareXwC 7rXEUTcrd -I r 9'l rbr 7?7I 5La- Id.KCtraTro. the "Gnostic " elements. for he was a doughty defenderof his doctrine. it is enough to maintain that astronomy in particular. and remains. at least so far as its second part is concerned. besides many other works. -Trl 'EXXhvwv .: alp&rews ?67roP. who composed and committed to writing in his own tongue. Tre T7 pwp cqWJ Lrs Bap5eo•dpi7e dvlp tKavdraT•cT6s 7rpbs TrOb TKar& MapKriwva Kal Tr'vaL ErTpov0 /taq6pwv ^ r^ 15L 7rapgs5wKe ydTbrfr rE KaL-paq /. 10o TE Tr7g KaTcl raXatai 11 iv. theological.rb Tr s26pwo /eTaLSe- 7rpoOcrraFdov .. we will not. Bardaisan is. p. &TpwP. altchr. based upon his own philosophical. but will simply assume Gnostic influence.of whom he had many. aro~10 -TVyypal ica . One will scarcely find a name that adequately and accurately expresses his teaching. then was converted to the true faith without altogether giving up his old heresy. laid the foundation of his peculiar doctrine. XEK.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 165 aid of all that the heathen sciences and Christianity had achieved. Lit. HE. Harnack. Eusebius' assertion that Bardaisan was at first a disciple of Valentinian. Gesch. 185: JP AvOo7rotasL d•reXg'y a. and astronomical knowledge. and his formal classification with the Gnostics by ancient and modern historians does him no wrong. dialogues against the followers of Marcion and certain other representatives of diverse doctrines.. OkaXeTi'oP 5' dpa obrot rpo'Trepop Kear& orXOXfl•. But if we find in his doctrines passages that unquestionably have a Gnostic ring. Nau and Hort are quite right in protesting against reckoning Bardaisan among the Gnostics in the usual sense. 30. Eusebius describes him as "a most able man and a skillful disputant in the Syriac language.

whose intellect even philosophers admire. 18). ap. ap.. 1865. 15 Or.. 53.5b and [all] the rest. brethren. eund. 6yto . ii. He divided the words in measures and weights.p ircitra 1eyMXwOSKEKO7c0Lfl/.." 14 To Bardaisan's gifts as a poet no trustworthy evidence survives. 553: 15bEphraem discusses this doctrine at length.dVOS. Ad Hypatium. Eph. p.that the soul [consists] of seven [parts]. ." 12 Jerome says that he was regarded as "distinguished" and that the Syrians extol the ardor of his intellect and his vigor in argument. Haer. the signs of the zodiac. . Duval. that the body is of the evil [principle]. 186: dptar6s rts oa. Overbeck. 56. contr. p. Oxon. (R. inl. ap.sick folk they. eund. Ephraem Syrus does indeed frequently speak of the charm which the Bardaisanite hymns exercised upon the minds of the people and attributes them to Bardaisan.16 And [so] he set beforethe simple folk bitter [mixed] with sweet . cuius etiam philosophi admirantur ingenium. p. 33. in S. ardens eius a Syris praedicatur ingenium et in disputatione vehemens. Vatican ed. . in Osee. . 186: clarus habitus est . p.'5of the impeding substances.. "such was Bardaisan. rh 18De vir. For example.13 And again. and composedsongs and introducedmeters. La litterature syriaque. that I may not expatiate upon those things which Bardaisan alleges among his doctrines. p. constrains that you bear the repetition of their words. and that it has no resurrection. 63. For he formed hymns and set them to tunes. the stars. ii. 16 Le.. 187: talis Bardisanes. etc..166 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE of men.. 10." "1eloquent" both in Syriac and in Greek. in rhythmic and accentual measures. et aliorum Opera Selecta. 1900. "highly adorned with all the graces. eund. 14 sqq. p. Ed. 14 Comm. he says: Love for you. Paris. . 12Haer. Syr.

8S These varying accounts are easily reconciled. rvyypdALLczcrL. TrosOIKelOLS YpdttCZaTv. cit. Kcal'Apu6.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 167 who chose not wholesome food.. ct irep XpcbevoL..Theodoret (HF."1 He wished to make David his model. p.cit. too. But it must be borne in mind that Ephraem is writing There is about 150 years after Bardaisan's death.e. iii.oUvoLKO r 7)P ?OsraOpaSo KcaaOdrEp v^ KGCal IroXXdKLS o0 1Appo rt'dXXovorL. HE. composed 150 songs. Bap8a7. dXX& To tLs X& Kal caIPpIOeOs.. It is probable that in the Syriac. the birth and dissolutionof the body and transmigration. XOPO rdptvwLO bra-ya 0." and indeed. with the view expressed in his own compositions.he commingledthese views with his own compositions. ap. 187: Obt dyivo . rpoo'Itt/. as well as Bardaisan. as in other Christian churches. op. K rdXaL JXXoyLtcrTarotroTroPvbY 7rp6Tro Tre. p. " Les malades n'eurent point le choix d'un remade salutaire. otd ye brb VXpad Ovvrypdtaro avvOels. Harnack. and imitated his number [only]. 6 pat 56e r imv "EXXrort rap' Xbyw ao rpWrotLdrpOLS KGL aly6OLs dxO•rcra 4 r OpLy Kc ." 18 Sozom. David's] truth he deserted. ot iroAs 'Apwoviov • ..E . the canonical Psalms had been used in public worship from the 17 Duval (loc. It is also more than probable that the hymns in use among the Bardaisanites were not of his composition. His [i. 16."i. Harm.wrote much in Syriac.seeing that he set to the lyre what he [Bardaisan] had composed. Sozomen explicitly asserts that Bardaisan's son. " having had a Greek education. 187) also states that Harmonius. TavraO cs 666as " Since he [Harmonius]was not entirely outside the limits of his father's sect and the views entertainedby the Greekphilosophers regardingthe soul. that he might be adorned with his beauty and praised for his likeness. if I understand aright the following sentence. he.).CS Kal . cit.. my brethren.Vos Bap8iodovu avveoT• rats.e. Harmonius.rdr 6 vrap abrov KaXovuJV7lV 6o T7Y actp7jorLv craTO..op.yevP40CW Ka & 7d gov7resr otdrobvt. rap' 'Oopovo^s dyI-opro. was the first to adapt his mother tongue to meters and musical rules. irel ydlp ob raWdI r-tv &K769 JP37^9 rarTpCaCs TE q0paopaiO a65aTO0 KaZl 0l StbXororcZXtyyeIcrl o ap? EXXi1ro iPVX27S. ap. he expressly implies that Bardaisan's poems were set to the lyre by Harmonius and not by Bardaisan himself. CI . in the interval Bardaisan's doctrines reason to believe that had been modified by the influence of Manichaism and probably by other influences as well. but does not distinguish his work from that of his father. The circumstantialcharacter of this account gives it claim to credence.

in view of Sozomen's evidence. while wholly insufficient of themselves to prove authorship." and a "bride who is corrupted. but. Whether other psalms and hymns were used along with those " of David " in the other churches is a question into which I need not enter. who was engaged in a fierce warfare with the Bardaisanite heretics. The poet says "the way of error I have left " (xv." and is "adorned. it is more probable that the Bardaisanite hymns in meter known to Ephraem were the work of Harmonius and other writers. 2). "I was delivered from vanity " (xvii. 6). and invite many to the banquet. which. It is probable on the face of it that Bardaisan. Ephraem. It may be that Bardaisan was also the first to write hymns in meter similar to those Syriac hymns with which we are familiar. and give them to drink of the wine of their intoxication so that they may vomit up their wisdom and knowledge. harmonize singularly well with the little we know of Bardaisan's life and activity. in his earliest efforts to produce hymns acceptable to his congregation. celebrates his deliverance from a form of error portrayed by a "bridegroom who corrupts and is corrupted.168 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE earliest times. probably had not the ability and certainly had no desire to distinguish in the mass of heretical psalms and hymns the compositions of Bardaisan from those of his successors." who "lead astray and corrupt the whole world. and there is every reason to accept his evidence. the whole of Ode xxxviii. and there is no doubt that such practices were widespread among many Gnostic sects. This reads like a condensed abstract of the account given by Epiphanius of his own experiences when young among the "Gnostics " of Egypt (Haer. Just such imitations the " Odes of Solomon" unquestionably are. There is no reason to charge the Valentinians with . xxvi. and so ascribes them all indiscriminately to him. There are also several allusions in the Odes. 4). would endeavor closely to imitate the Psalms with which they were already familiar. Bardaisan had been converted from Gnosticism to Christianity." and so on. it is at any rate certain that their introduction into the church at Edessa was ascribed by Ephraem to Bardaisan.

viii. KbP Nau. His " work is the Psalm of the Lord " (xvi. &viteTpe rapavolatbroos 4pvoraacOaLtb XpwLrLavbv Eavrb'v XI-yewv. 'AroXXwv•Pt 6 tK7K1 7 70T0 irp rd0EfOCLL. . Other Odes. xxv. and declaring that he had no fear of death. 20 Le livre des lois re avroeos i Tbv 6. e. for it must necessarily ensue even if he did not disobey the Emperor. Of more weight is the general impression conveyed by the Odes as to the author's relation to his readers. The much discussed opening verses of the 4th Ode -" No man. 186: 'A'rwuvvov 'ralpy Ur 6 U? Pelas uv8pelws diroXoyod5evos.. p. manfully defending [the true] religion.." etc. 56.g. despays. might have served to draw a band of devoted followers about their gifted author.. cit. ap. and his addresses to his readers intimate that he anticipates something more than a hearing..g." 19 There are several Odes which intimate that the speaker has suffered persecution. The same must be said of the allusion in xx. We are told that Bardaisan came very near suffering martyrdom.. e. and bearing such clear evidence of deep and sincere religious feeling. It would fit in very well with the recorded statement that Bardaisan had been ordained deacon. 6. v. 8div Odvarov P/L q1jas.. Marcion and others. but the suggestions are too vague to be of value.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 169 them. but it is not always possible to distinguish between what he says in his own person and what he says in the person of Christ.plvaro. X6ayovs e8tivac d7re. Ilcer. had as a youth just escaped the temptations of some such sect. xxix. " I am a priest of the Lord. " He withstood Apollonius. One can readily imagine that Odes so beautiful as these. rather suggests spiritual than ecclesiastical priesthood. and was almost appointed to the order of confessors. but it is quite possible that the poet. Antoninus' friend. when exhorted by him to deny that he called himself a Christian. and replied in clever speeches.20but the context in Ode xx. rdEcMoXoaylar Kosarder. xxviii. 7'. 1. like Epiphanius. and wrote against the heretics. Harnack. ix. op. 2)... 7-c Lr BtaotLXet AL iTreliTOL. p. which would be appropriate to the age of the Antonines. xxxv. O my 19Epiphan. suggest that the persons for whom he writes are not unacquainted with persecution. Bardaisan believed himself to be orthodox. 10.

The words and phrases of the Syriac text upon which Schulthess. Epiphanius.. .21 It appears then that the little we know of Bardaisan's life and activities. 49. but they are not sufficient to put the question beyond doubt. are much more easily explained as an attack upon the Montanist claim that the holy place. On the other hand. Bardaisan was certainly able to write Greek. was to be found at Pepuza in Phrygia. possible that in the last quarter of the second century Greek was a privileged tongue in the church of Edessa. the true Jerusalem which came down from heaven. distinctly favors the hypothesis that he might have written the Odes of Solomon." It is. If Hermas could make his revelation in Greek to the Latin-speaking Roman Christians. and raise a presumption in favor of the theory that the original was Greek. for thy sanctuary thou hast designed before thou didst make other places "--in which Conybeare sees Montanism. of course. 444. 14. surely Bardaisan might have used Greek in Syria. 21. and it is not possible that he should change it and put it in another place. much as it was in the Roman church a little earlier. even about the middle of the 21Epiphan.170 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE God. and in particular of his relation to the development of Syriac hymnology. ii. 48. Bardaisan is supposed to have written in Syriac..2 The fact that these Odes. moreover. changeth thy holy place. ii. as I have shown. because he hath no power over it. Havr. it is not yet proved that the Odes were first written in Greek. and others base their opinion are indeed suggestive. indeed. (Dind. no more than that the author of the Pistis Sophia was working from a Greek text-not that the text was the original. the language of the Odes and their title. which had been in large measure bilingual for centuries. describes him as "eloquent both in Syriac and Greek. Gunkel. 16. But neither of these suppositions is as yet beyond question. and the Odes are supposed to be translations from a Greek original.) 22 I am inclined to believe that the original was Greek. The occurrence of Greek words in the Coptic version proves. 442. 1. But two objections present themselves.

in ZDMG. 1910. and. after a minute comparison of the " Book of the Laws" with the quotations in Eusebius and the Recognitions. Le livre des lois des pays. if a stray copy of the Odes fell into their hands and seemed to them capable of being used to support their doctrine. and Merx's translation (in Bardesanes von Edessa. he found them in his copy of the Bible. to attach to it the name of Solomon.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 171 second century. Paris. has been very generally accepted as proof that they must have originated at least a hundred years earlier. cit." which was translated by his pupils into Syriac. It was first published by Cureton in 1847. 44 sqq. from the latter version Eusebius' quotations and those of the Recognitionsare derived.and there would have been little likelihood that the fraud ever would be detected.B. many early sects. 1899. Halle.the fact that such works met with easy acceptance proves that the membersof these sects were as uncritical as their leaders were unscrupulous."in order to prepare the way for the interpretation of the Odes.). From this Syriacversionthe existing "Book of the Laws " is derived. and again. forged works in support of their peculiar tenets with the utmost freedom. 91. concludes that Bardaisan wrote in Greek a dialogue "Against Destiny." Lack of space preventsme from entering into my reasonsfor dissentingfrom this latter his "Spicilegium Syriacum.. Haase (op. I can see no force in such considerations. pp. of course.] . I shall find it necessary to give a fairly complete outline of the "Book of the Laws of the Countries. [N. I have used that of Nau. Bardaisan'soriginal work did not contain the doctrineof planetaryinfluence ascribed to him by the "Book of the Laws. 1863). This book contains the only fairly trustworthy evidence as to the views of Bardaisan himself. 555. The men who forged books wholesale certainly would not have hesitated. Ed. already bore the name of Solomon. with an English translation. the discussion for and against a Greek original by Schulthess and Nildeke. were regarded as canonical and used as such by the author of Pistis Sophia. pp. probably not fifty years after Bardaisan's death. The argument. The Syriac was then again translated into Greek. Moreover. indeed. The Gnostic group from which the Pistis Sophia emanated."in 1855. and so on. presupposes good faith on the part of the author of Pistis Sophia--he was deceived by the fact that the poems had been long current.2 The book professesto be a record 23 Besides Cureton's second edition.

and also upon his soul. upon the problems of Destiny and Free-will. of the ultimate laws that govern the universe. It. "Destiny " is the influence exerted upon the entire material world. . It puts into Bardaisan's mouth a He accepts the fundamental theory of marked originality. It is at best based upon one of his works. The Book of the Laws is a discussion. of a dialogue held between Bardaisan and his disciple Avida. and confirmsthe statements of the churchhistoriansas to Bardaisan's with Greek. that the connection is not immediate. Man is ruled by three independent principles: Freewill. Even granting that the Book of the Laws fairly represents Bardaisan's views. the Odes are devotional poems of a most intimately personal character. 2 The theory is obviously eclectic. It is only by accident that the two works occasionally touch upon the same topics.172 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE made apparently by a certain Philip. Furthermore. but the word which Bardaisanuses (= •l06t) possiblypoints to acquaintance with Peripatetic sources. sickness and sin. upon man's body as a part of that world. The conception had become a commonplace Greekphilosophylong beforeBardaisan's of day. it is obviously unreasonable to anticipate any considerable degree of coincidence between them. as Haase thinks. the Book of the Laws does not even profess to be from the hand of Bardaisan himself.) is unmistakably the Aristotelian(q'aos. and it is quite possible. but dissents from that form of the principles doctrine of Destiny or Fate which was so generally associated with it. The conception acquaintance of I"Nature"( . and introduce a reign of peace and love. But in time. by the constellations and planets. as Stoic writers were more disposed to use Stoic terms (•-yos. rve1/Aa). "Nature" is the organic principle which governs the development and nutrition of his body. and Destiny. in a severely scientific and objective spirit. the " great and holy will of God " will put an end to the discord. and that he was the author of the Odes. Free-will he shares with God and with the angels. of astrology. may and frequently do clash.24 These three principles. whence arise in the world discord and confusion. being independent. Nature. Their themes are as unlike as possible.

primarily.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 173 The number of coincidences that do occur. however. Bardaisan'sconception is very different. from the notion so prevalent in all Christian ages. It is. as the needle to the pole. his whole nature seems to turn as naturally towards love. rather. that man is naturally inclined to sin. supplemented by informationafforded by Ephraem and other writers. Nearly all the Odes are full of joy and thankfulness. it gives a fairly definite impression of certain traits of Bardaisan's character. nor could it. in phraseology and sequence of ideas. to "love. and in doing good which he conceives is. The real significance of the Book of the Laws is this: In the first place. This similarity of character does not. he seems to have no present personal concern with it. . and the affinity to that of the poet is manifest. but in default of any evidence to show whether these traits were personal peculiarities of Bardaisan's. but it is one of the minor threads in the web of evidence which I am endeavoring to weave. God. I think. bless. I give here. I have already referred to the singularity of the poet's attitude towards sin and evil. Indeed. their value as evidence is not great. and to pray for that which is good for every one whom he knows " . It is impossible.or were common in Syriac literature of his finds joy. offer a very satisfactory interpretation of several difficult Odes. an expression of Bardaisan's own character. prove that the writers are identical. Bardaisan regards man as imbued with a natural inclination towards good. good properly belongs to a brief article. to speak the truth. to quote from the Odes at such length as to give an adequate impression of the author's personality--that can be gained only by thorough familiarity with the Odes themselves. indeed. of course. have been based in the first instance upon observation of what men actually do. the theories of the Book of the Laws. While he is of course aware of its existence. it was this that first led me to think of Bardaisanas their possible author. goodness.and these traits are in striking accord with the character revealed in the Odes. In the second place. is suggestive.

and is willing to be convinced. . 3) found destitute of all knowledge of the truth. 10." C. " d'aprs les apparences. Cureton. Avida's brethren say: "Believe firmly. my brethren. 28 1 P?" obstinacy. 8: " I will make you wise in the ways of truth. we shall agree " with thee. necessity will compel us to show thee why it does not please us. my son. by those things which I have mentioned." to which Avida objects "But I am not able to believe unless I be convinced. " serons d'accord. know that he who putteth his inquiries properly. but I began first to question these."Way of truth. 27." Cf. because he will certainly give pleasure to him to whom the inquiry is directed. and draweth near to the way of truth n without opposition. and if it please us also. 80 wa participate. " querelle. 6: " The way of error I have left. Ode xi." and again. but also many." Bardaisan said: Thou speakest becomingly.174 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE those passages26 from the Book of the Laws which are relevant to my present purpose. . " something more." C. and are (p. Avida said: "I am desirous of learning. and if it please us not.2 Nevertheless. p." xv.ASLZ "cleverly. because Avida is not willing to believe. 9 (C). 7. If." xxxiii. 29 S.freely modified by suggestions derived both from the Syriac and from Nau. 6: "I ran in the way of his peace. because I was ashamed of asking thee. and thou wilt be able to know everything. therefore.28 needeth not to be ashamed. but are always pulling down and building up. because they have in them no faith. and have added in footnotes the more striking parallels from the Odes. 2." N. p." The simile of a way or path occursabout 17 times in the Odes." Bardaisan said: Not Avida alone is unwilling to believe. 1." C. " fell from the way of truth." C ." N. lo! I will speak to you who do believe concerning this which he inquires." N. These modifications are not always indicated. even the way of truth. Nevertheless. . tell it to us all. thou hast anything in thy mind respecting this about which thou wast inquiring. nor are they even able to be convinced.? 2s The translation is that of Cureton. and he will hear something to his advantage. O ?r.

xvi."C.9 P . 88The comparisonof man to a harp upon which another plays. and the sphere. 3." C. xvi. so speaks in my membersthe Spirit of the Lord.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 175 And he began to say to us: There are many men who have not faith. he would not have belonged to himself. also. xiv. " They are instrumentsof the wisdom of God which errs the of not. (15) " They know not how to stand and be idle. The closest parallel is perhapsviii.."1 For they have not the foundation of faith to build upon. and the rest of these things which are greater than we in some things. .. 11 .also." nor the moon. but it is nowhere so directly connectedwith knowledgeas here. 18) But as to what Avida was saying . " de discouriret 82The conception that faith or belief is the first step in the Christian life occursfrequentlyin the Odes. ye that are kept by it." Also. I.if man had been created so. And how. would man differ from a harp " which another plays or the cart which another guides ? But God in his kindness did not will that he should create man so. "fixed by ordinance. 14: "1And created things run in their coursesand do their works" . occurs vi. For the sun (p. 6. 8.and I speak by His love. but would have been the instrument of him that moved him. that know me in the truth. 4: " I had faith. 6 : " Believe and live and be saved. but they are all bound by the command " that they should do only that which was commanded them and nothing else. the fact that the heavenly bodies never rest is adduced S6 as an illustration of subjection to the command of God.oI" ip de conclure." Compare. 1 : "As the hand moves over the harp and the strings speak. 12. thereforefound I rest." N." With the next sentence." Compare. and I have faith in Him". 12-13: " Keep my faith. xxxiv. that there is not given to them Free-will of themselves. " I will not change and not wane nor 31 a . 5: " I am strong in His praise. for faithful is He in whom I had faith ".to ." . For observe the sun. . and they have no confidence upon which they may hope. and His hosts are subject to His word. and the treasuryof the darkness is the night"." compare followinglines : (16) " The treasury the light is the sun. xxviii. (17) " So he made the sun for the day that it may be bright." Why did not God create us so that we should not sin and be guilty ? " . 6. xxxix." " I will not rise at any time. And on this account they are not competent to discuss and to draw conclusions. So N . and have not received knowledge from the wisdom of the truth. and made him equal with the angels. 4) never says. In the Odes. But he exalted him by Free-will above many things. xxvi. xlii. and know my knowledge. but night brings darknessover the face of the land. and the moon. . 84tJ. then. " to speak and to instruct.32 (1.

who also are possessed of Free-will for themselves. For there are two commandmentsset before us such as are suitable and just 88Severalpassagesrefer to the goodness kindness -A? (1Z-on. and that there has been given to him Free-will more than to all those elements of which we have been speaking. that by this same Free-will he may justify himself. 1. the winds." that they might minister to him for a season. 7: "I grew great by his bounty." . . (l•m s-)." [. Here follows an account of the fall of the angels through their sin with the daughters of men. and and mercies (1. 4.. and govern himself in a god-like manner. "I will not rise and I will not set.. xvii. 30. 19) The commandmentswhich have been given to men are hard and they are not able to perform them.~. 9: " According to the multitude of Thy mercies. P awm. 29 sqq. so shalt Thou give to me. With the above. . xiv. and more especially of him who has obeyed and submitted to his enemy. and according to His excellent beauty He set me on high ". 7 : " He glorified me by His kindness. (p.) endowing him with powers fitted to raise him above his present status and make him more like God. and p.4). not . (1. note 40.] but all these things serve and are subject to one command. 87 Compare iv. Bardaisan said : This is the answer of such a one as doth not desire to do that which is good. 27) On this account let it be manifest to you that the goodness Wof God has been great toward man. p. For men are not commanded to do anything but what they are able to do. 3) For everything that exists stands in need of the Lord of All.and so of the sea. 5." But the word used is . 8 "Bounty. For bounty see (j-3a.P xxv." nor does any one of the stars say. (3) " According to His mercies He exalted me. the earth. xi. 1. but that we were in need of Thee.-ma.8 Avida objects: (1. and associate with the angels.. 9 : "I was enriched by his bounty". and raised my mind to the height of His truth". 17. (1. and according to His goodness He gave unto me "." Compare note 40. the hills.. 2: " According to His praise He made me.for they are the instruments of the wisdom of God which errs not..I of God as manifested especiallyin creating man. 3. " and there is no end to his bounty. 9 : "not that Thou wast in need of us..) note 38. compare Ode xxix. also.176 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE increase. 17) On this account there has been given to him these things in kindness." See.

xviii. Moreover. What man.1 ^ ] .it would be somewhat Fi.•. e. and to speak the truth. and there is nothing that is able to hinder them. but the same phrase recurs. is there who is unable to avoid stealing. 7." . t 40 "Without grudging. because of them that are deficient. and have walkedtowardsHim. in close connection • with qAj." 2a. It occurs eight times in the J] and properly means "without reluctance". also to support by the strength of body him who is sick and broken down. For we are not commanded to carry heavy burdens of stones [and so of other tasks]. and is then equivalentto d006vws." Commandments." Possibly " in faith" has been lost fromthe text. 4: "Walk Odes. he is able to avoid doing all these things. "salvation. so is he able to love. 4 must be om. 6) to avoid doing all these things. therefore. but in the will of the soul. and to bless.. rather than salvation. Who. it is that is not able to do what those devoid of faith " murmur about I know not. (1. or to avoid lying or committing adultery and fornication. 6: "The way of error have I left. he is able too to give something of that which he has. For they are easy.g. or that he should be guilty of hatred and falsehood ? For lo! all these things are subject to the mind of man. and desire that it should be done to us likewise. And have receivedsalvation fromHimwithoutgrudging." and ~. I should be tempted to emend the text of the Ode. With the above passage compare xv.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 177 for Free-will: one that we separate ourselves from everything that is evil and which we should dislike to be done to ourselves. xxiv. r and the interpretation of xviii. xxiii. po~ r take Thy Wordfrom me. i•o consideredin connectionwith that of xxiv. therefore." But it is usually found with verbs of giving. ?-a = d7rcrTroL. . And accordingto His bounty He hath given to me.~ more appropriateto receive commandmentsimmediately after leaving the way of error." V P?.. and as he is able (p. 4 : " Lord... do not Thou. And accordingto His excellent beauty He hath made me. lo i M%. Should the evidence ever warrant a definite ascriptionof the Odes to Bardaisan. and the other that we should do that which is good and which we love. 389 " Devoidof faith. or impotent in his limbs. For even if a man be poor and sick and old. ye in the knowledge of the Most High withoutgrudging. For I think it is in these commandments more than in anything else man has power. and they lie not in the power of the body. Ode 4 . 197)." s are easily confused. and to pray for that which is good for every one whom he knows: and if he be in health and have the use of his hands. and this too he is able to do.a .. 7 (see p. 18) But there have been given to us according to the kindness of God commandmentswithout grudgingOsuch as every man .

and sickness." makes it reasonably certain that the passage has no such general application. and the attempt to reconstruct the theories of each from the scattered hints in our possession would lead me far beyond the limits assigned me. which as it stands is unintelligible. nowhere definitely states his theory of redemption. but to do good things who among men is able ? . for this is the good conduct of a free mind. ' The wording suggests a plausible emendation "I." i. Avida said: Perhaps a man may be able to avoid wicked things. For would not that Judge be unjust who should blame a man for such a thing as he is not able to do ? Avida said to him : Respecting these deeds. There is one passage in Harris's translation which seems to express the doctrine of Bardaisan. with the exception of those who were not made for this grace.] have been lost IPo. not. "I. for there is no man who rejoiceth not when he doth that which is good.l1_ ? for vii. But whereas Bardaisan finds it in human nature as such. 5. " I love the Beloved and my soul loves Him. the poet finds it in the redeemed and purified soul. after J . I have said and do say that they are easy. 1: "As the impulse of anger against evil. is literally. "the beloved. 27. 42 This joy in the good is the most characteristic trait both in Bardaisan and in the author of the Odes. so is the impulse of joy over what is lovely. 41 .. however. do you say that they are easy to perform ? Bardaisan said: To him who desires. . every living man. and of that soul which has not rebelled against its governors. The text reads: m )oa loa. 0 Bardaisan. and the ?second po is a corrupt dittograph for J?.. The words ae I~c~l p0?o ." But the word here translated "what is lovely. and poverty." 5i. 42 nor is there any one who doth not delight within himself when he refraineth from wicked things. 0=3 . and conceives "'the good " as good deeds. and more especially old age. For there are many things which impede the action of the body. and conceives "the good" as God Himself. again. and my impulse is towards Him. My joy is the Lord. Bardaisan. to the exclusion of Bardaisan's conception. for the poet gives no description of human nature as such. vii. and who are called tares.e." and a comparison with iii. And brings in of its fruits without restraint. hence a direct comparison of the two authors on this vital point is impossible.178 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE who possesses a soul within him 41can do rejoicing."Every man that possesses a soul within him.

l. xi. it seems to me that these three views are partly true and partly false. some in Luck.a. signifies a definite astrologicalfunction. contentment. some in Free-will. 4) I likewise. but the evil is the operation of the enemy and on this account when a man is troubled and not sound in his nature he does wicked things. as for myself." and created man. He fixed the creationand establishedit. 12: " He spreadout the heavens and fixed the stars. I cannot determinetheir precise meanings. JrtKpTarwp. "For this conception of knowledge or wisdom as riches. satisfaction) for a moment. 12. 20: "The worlds were made by His Word. and receivethe thoughtof the MostHigh ". astrology]. 35) But let us speak now and show with respect to m ie]o. and the false enjoyment which attends evil. 5-6 : "I love the Beloved. governors. as I also once loved it. compareix. etc. 4: "Be enrichedin God the Father. 1. iii. 0 Philip. and has ordained the governors. 21) But. like the . each of which. [Some believe in Destiny. rpo•o-y6rLos. After developing in some detail the distinction between the true enjoyment which attends good deeds. Bardaisan proceeds: (1. there also am I". although there may be in it rest (i.] (1." (p. 1. " or "peace" occurs about seventeentimes in the Odes.. (p. in that the wisdom of God is richer than they."N = U? j -. 9: "I was enrichedby His bounty. and His rest is forever and ever ".. 12: "I was justified by His kindness. incorruptible and indissoluble. xi. and they see as things seem to them. and by the thought of His heart". in my humble opinion." " Comparexvi.e. my soul loves Him. 10: "From above He hath given The conception "rest" me rest that is incorruptible. 11.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 179 Bardaisan said : It is more easy to do good than to abstain from (p. and on this account he rejoices whenever he does good. know well that there are men who are called Chaldaeansand others who love the knowledge of this art [i. For the good is the man's own. 7) evil. They are true in that men speak from the appearanceof what they see.e. . ." '5 j rulers. whose rest is forever.=. Where His rest is. nevertheless is far removed from the love which is true. heads." which has established the worlds. 24) We ought plainly to understand that the unrestrained ardor of love is called lust. which. Comparexxv. Greekol0Kos8er6rqs. when applied to a planet."and has given to all things the power which is suitable for each one of them. they are false.

of the Zodiac. wporTK67roS. because those heads and governorsupon whom depends the change that is called Horoscope.. n. 10) And know ye well that... ed. 1 .e. The next section shows how organisms are normally ruled by their respective natures. and this change is called the Destiny and the Horoscope0 of this complex which is being sifted and purified for the advantage of that which has been receiving aid and will receive it 10until the consummation of all. iii. (v) 12 sqq." None of these seems to fit the present passage." j. any planet is more powerful when in its own "'house. that it has not power over everything. viii. Adv. 61 Precisely what Bardaisan means by " those on the right. N." or when rising in the eastern sky than when situated elsewhere in the Zodiac. 663-664) that " right " sometimes means "north. pp.). De diffinitionibus et terminis astrologice (in Jul." and sometimes perhaps " west. " Right " and " left" do not seem to bear any definite technical meaning in astrology. 1. the horoscope was the sign of the Zodiac rising at the moment of birth (see the admirably clear summary of the leading doctrines of astrology given by Sextus Emp. Basel. 14. Firm. its disturbance is due to Destiny. Boll has shown (Sphcura. for clearly " those on the right " are planets or constellations which are always beneficent." probably T-TracLts.4 = TOLXX•ta." 1." "'those on the left. 50o . and Mercury neutral. = 1. In astrology as known to us. whenever nature is disturbed from its right course. 383. jhz. Corr. p. intelligences are changed in their descent to the soul. ir=% o i " Those on the right. and according to this motion and disposition." ..m. 1551). 48 Elements. and souls are changed in their descent to the bodies. See Otho Brunfels. a translation of aX??arp~ps rs obpavlac KLV75aeWs. elxcapdvfy. "oipdvta arocxe'a. but it is here used of the total effect exerted by the stars upon the infant at birth.. 13) which is called Destiny is a disposition (or arrangement) of the motion4 which is given to the governors and the elements4 by God. "Horoscope. 1. (p. or when setting--but it cannot change its proper character. Strictly speaking." etc. per- .g. Pruckner. libb. Jupiter and Venus are beneficent.OT. used by Ptol.. 49 Destiny. 47Disposition of the motion. Astrol." sometimes "south. Astron. is equivalentto and is. but here probably means the signs ". Tetrab. ccelestia signa." ." I cannot explain. -" The complex. The position of a planet makes its proper influence stronger or weaker . Mars and Saturn maleficent.are opposed one to the other. & Add.180 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE Destiny. for this very thing itself (p. Mat. And those are on the right 11 called " those which assist nature" and add to as haps.-Procl." sometimes "'east. It signifies the total complex of relations constituted by the position of the heavenly bodies at any given moment.

22).not by their strength . befalls them wherever they are. and whenever it is governed it is able to resist its Governors. and riches and poverty -this which does not appertain to their Free-will. and on the appointed days we abstain from food. and in its "houses " it has a certain position." etc. which is the first. 68 Cf. because He is kind and permits all natures to remain as they are and govern themselves by their own will. 10 : "Thy will is perfection. As the Free-will of men is not governed by the necessity of the Seven. 1. then. but also. i.o . but sickness and health." probably. "High places. the " institutions. neither does the Destiny of the Governors compel them to make use of things impure to them.. xxvi..their natures.. ( particular. But whenever God wills. 11-12: " Who is able to interpret the wonders of the Lord ? For he who could interpret would be resolved into (1oa. position on or near the meridian." . 32." eachplanet has two " houses" or signs properlybelongingto it. 33. etc. 34) and holy will. the laws of the countries do not separate them from the laws of their Messiah. which is interpreted. so also is this visible man not able readily to deliver himself from the commands of his Governors. withstand ." For this orderliness and government S" Helps them. all of us are called by the one name of the Messiah .e. "Their own degrees. though bound none the less by the works that have been made and by the institutions which have been established for their help." For even those that think they withstand it. without opposition." either twy/?ara. For there is nothing that can hinder that great (p. a certain position in the Zodiac fixed for each planet (Ptol.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 181 its excellence whenever their motion helps them 52 and they stand in high places of the sphere in their own degrees. 1. For if we were able to do everything we should be everything. 4) What.j) that 2•. Those on the left are called "bad. shall we say respecting the new race of ourselves who are Christians. whom in every country and in every region the Messiah established at his coming. and upon one day. for he is a slave and a subject.. when their inherent beneficent influencesare re3nforced by their positions in the Zodiac and relations to other planets and constellations. This is the position in which its influenceis strongest.Christians. xviii. or geovpavgiara. for lo! wherever we be. we assemble ourselves together. we should be the instruments of others. N Cf." and whenever they occupy the high places they are opposed to nature and not only injure men. This may last for a short time." and if we had no power to do anything. especiallythe stars.-Procl. ." 55The " works" are probablythe material universe. 10) But wherever they be and in whatever place that they are. anything can be. (p. i.but by their wickedness and error.

The doctrine of the soul's descent from heaven here sketched by Bardaisan was. although astrology as a science was as yet unknown to the Greek world at large.C.. and there will be peace and safety. " training. in one form or another. for it already contains the essential elements of the astrological form of the doctrine.. as they were injuring and injured from before the creation of the world. the soul was supposed to encounter. Its present evils can be corrected by a new combination of its elements. is not known and the diverse forms under which it appeared have been but imperfectly investigated. The world is a a. both in its ascent and its descent. These influences. widely prevalent in antiquity. however. might be conceived as personal or impersonal." " rvsultat.and deficiencies will be filled up. Proclus' interpretations of the myths of the lit. softens down the violence of the natures. Its origin. And at the establishment of that new world. good. And a time will come when this injuriousness also which remains in them shall be brought to an end by the restraintsmfound in another mingling. that they should not be altogether injurious or altogether injured.182 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE which has been given. again. it was adopted by the Pythagoreans. by the bounty of Him who is the Lord of all natures. It was probably always associated with the complementary idea that the soul which has thus fallen from her divine estate should seek again to regain it. or both. in all cases." N. It is probable. The doctrine was probably of Oriental origin and was introduced into the Greek world by the Orphics about the seventh century B. influences severally appropriate to the several tracts of space through which it passed. whose equilibrium is maintained by a balance between opposed but system equal tendencies. W a68 ." 1 education. that. bad. and later by Plato. But there is good reason for believing that the form in which it appears in Plato's works has been directly influenced by Oriental ideas. the existence of this element. in all its forms. and all rebellions will be brought to an end. all evil motions will cease. and mingling of one with another. although it is not possible to prove. who probably learned it from the Pythagoreans. also. and the foolish will be persuaded.

arbitrary and fanciful in detail. in Remp. of course. So also the soul. o epG rW^ K6onov IAdpoS. and as she proceeds thereto she is immersed in all influences [emitted] from the celestial [bodies]. o hvel rb g-arovCrpoeXOofGa r^ . po•ra 6KKEL74 r^ d-'yOp ALXKOS •T 7repL65wv w^i 78allgo . Kroll.e aucWvTW "yd'otro mmi 5aqCeJva rpbTrov7d biroKe~eOOa ~dXcacr AiC d tral L&Um ftreeOac 7tr rVuep'ry eal al ux1 rjv & epo y'p c lydveoes ot~dv*' o'mTW re'VooG'a rdi•rmw rwirc. she becomes one of the things ruled. and instead of belonging to those things which rule the Universe. when she has proceededas far as the lowest of the orbits (i. differ in no way from the things which are moved by other things [only]. but is one of its lowest parts. 14: .57 . he would.e. upon falling wholly into birth. re A dbrvov 70ooG &dXXC b rt rdv goXdrwv v Kcral Kac cuvat ela rb d Krl ccl'palc 8tocKo0PTWP a7rp olo' et rtr hX6tofoPo s pat' p 5LoLovudIWer rr *a KCL d-~yC7y&p TroTrovKal bIrb Trw 7r& aIKC r 7rXwr7p drcKo~. 7p6etaw U lsr E rb o xarov 7 otpavlwvreptXflc00e6arot7aercv. and I cannot supply a better commentary on Bardaisan's statements than by translating one or two short passages from Proclus' intolerably prolix commentary upon the Republic. . that of the moon) becomes subject.v rept68wv ylverat Paa~telav r7A7d'AdCYK-I.~ 6• X rats d Oprbcrw^ vx. . just as though a philosopher were to embark in a ship and become a rower. in a sense. Proclus holds that the embodied soul is absolutely subject to the influences of the stars. ii.ri7v br oa'av del KalId&Klrov 6 Procl. but the soul is governed by Free-will. for he would have to take from the sailors such and such orders and obey the pilot and be exposed to gales of wind. This is Bardaisan's doctrine with one important difference. the eternally subsisting and inflexible dominion of Necessity to which the soul. in so far as the general outlines are concerned. depends upon the operation of the celestial orbits which severally exert their diverse influences upon her. 345. although. In another passage Proclus describes at some length the ed. is subject to the guiding spirit. and the body only in so far as not controlled by its nature. in such manner that she is not only a part of the [lower] world..NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 183 Republic and Timeus are therefore correct. is exposed to material spirits. [in brief]. PT7)TU TrOtOvTwJ' &XXcoM L 77s otbECe 7-P Ir^i . Proclus' own theory is very similar to that of Bardaisan. Bardaisan that the body only is subjected to them. 5CLc4OO'bL KOO•ILKuIC '•O'Tpw7CCt 7 &XXaei asra'v.

too. for this reason. and through the threads which it gives.. the ancients compared to "twisting" and "turning" together with the stretching of the thread from above downwards.not merely the kind of life. sphere. Ei Trl br•eLepa ~rl roT ?rpb abr V el 7 Ba 5p. 8 P PvX) Tr /LOLpazta. exert a great and effective fateful influence upon nativities. PLa6Ovovoa yp I"rXelo0tv ObKdTL y ?r' &XXoLts77/JL dKeCOev T? KLTV^ ?EW VCa7riv ^rpoEPeL. . Tc Uava0Tp676epa XoEV' AaXiaews. . upon the ground that they. from whom we got life.6vov w I d&rb T v wv dXXr dov abtrbTwP d7TXavY rXavWpivre 6vWvr. K y'lp 7 rap' i KsKai 0los. TW7 7TE K6KXWV " t KE Kai 7Tw V CLVaTOS LOLpPV KaL darb TWP 7TW9V TWdv7r'XavrCoP' TwP daOTIpwV Kal TWP v 8Xw ryUCWV KCai TWP&XXv OvLordeeWov. called this Fate. we get both. U KXwOI KvpoT TaGVTa ToLs LavT-fl v7Pha-L Kal KXcSaoLaaotv. L&8•OLV d4eLrEAcorpoca 8dLV 7 vT7vP Xav cvaPdWV K6KXWV y&p aeTr) rapd7TL Ts oO)K ?w00s . puoLpav ali Seya'dyXv rip o v &. drypplovwa Ic LTr 7L/v^ T 7TC^ &CXX Kac &rb 7-w rapao . makes what has been twisted incapableof being un58Op. .PL ObK &pa rI TrI 'yevIVOELs eZT a-vlrX-lpovoaOa TwVPd&vOp&r7rTv T7y ofeo'Oac ' L. 21: 7T drb r o drb p ebX6AeOa Aotpav* obXl T6 7rrwis ei8os b6vov. From Lachesis. in that she causes to stream upon us the gifts of the celestial from the constellations also which rise simultaneously with each of them there comes to us a generous largess. 7r Xszjavofs 86oel.. but Klotho (= "Twister "). but Klotho ratifies them by her own threads. Not only. •d 8vuvar•b d&PavyeYv Trdos dTLrOeoLav TrotSalpeOe•LOLv. p. cit. . Kal a y 8 aXdov &~ r6o0YLaLXXOV VKTaLrivra tL lveraT V'roKaraKXtveTaL rTEpL68ots. but also the [influences] imparted to us by the Universe. then. rdvTwv Top 6T0 V r6 Kai S ro6Tw7J IX6YPrTW paCoT7pLOv repi Tis 'EVIeOEL. then. KvpwOjvcal fqo-wL 7b 6 1 Kal eleOazL uTLS v pXeac els" 7a rarbXX Tre 86o~"r*cd' var•eXX6. which finishes the twisting. and from them [the] Chaldean and [the] Egyptian [astrologers] are wont to foretell many events of our lives. 342.v7-w XaX&ao^o ~ piwvi&uGv ? Kal Ailry6irmot roXXo irepl rv rpoyV'rJdaerv. ' ?v T& Kal elp".184 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE way in which the soul's total endowment is derived from the constellations and the planets :68 What. a&" 1V 7rTeTLOdaav T•. CXX& cal ra drovepbt6eva 7ytAv T 70 raVrT6. 7 KaL rpo57p~ern ^T T vs o0ev elpopdv2v rolqv70L alOavulrXeIoOAlP avrpd rep elp •Tp ' ov7Pha70o KdTiw 70T rdoews d&retrcltav ol raaXtol Kai d reKdacavTes KXwcOc38td 7rara 7rP Mortpa -KcdXeo••a. comes from Klotho ? He (Plato) says she ratifies the destiny we have chosen. which is twisted and intertwined from all these. the products of her spinning [or twisting]. and by way of a simile they. XX drb T•K rdP'oTwV Ka 5&&y va ylveEat iZTd•L• v JAwv al h04Kovoal.dbi d7rXcaVWP 1oo0OaL. dvrl MeT&r 7rava IroLvY ?T•v v'otv 7Lt KXOeL KaL al" WV rapasecadvrm &XXa yet 7f 'ATp6brov. KXwOov^r rapapylverat. i0ouv Pbvov d&rb ?yl'ot. He then brings [the soul] from Klotho to the spinning of Atropos. d. . then. The influence. indeed. . rdpaI dT& KXwo0'dvTa a'T7ry 1yd/rcJTV 7roLOvOav. from the signs of the Zodiac..

Like his subtlety is his piercingness. Labourt's reading: which yields excellent sense. and of the other constructions [such as the triangles. but that from them all results a single train and series reaching to us. And the more these secondary [influences] work upon us on top of those which preceded them. 4~•~o. from their motions. from which she cannot escape until she has brought what she elected to its completion.ED. The twelfth Ode runs as follows: The WordI9of truth hath filled me that I may speak of him. 5 is unintelligible.. and the door of His light. by means of the planetary orbits.] 62 V. Wisdom. and of the circles on high and of their degrees. (1) (3) He hath increased in me his knowledge. For as the soul descends lower. she becomes subject to more and yet more orbits. 60 As a stream of water streams the truth from my mouth. suppose that the nativities of men or of other living creatures. are given to us through the planets. (2) and my lips show forth his fruits. One should not."' The subtlety of the Word cannot be told. she contributes to us. . (4) (5) 59 Read without points.NEWBOLD : BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 185 twisted. the heralds of His thought. 4 -al . otherwise difficult to defend. the more inevitable do the decrees of destiny become. For upon receiving from Klotho the spinning. therefore. etc. 61 I have followed. the narratorsof His praise. 4a. one upon another.. are filled up from the fixed stars or the planets exclusively. Turning now from Bardaisan to the Odes. and of the stars. and that the [influence] of the fixed stars. various [gifts] thence. 7. reluctantly. and of the signs taken as wholes. I shall endeavor to interpret some of the more difficult Odes in the light of Bardaisan's doctrines. [Cf. The Most High hath given him to His worlds-the interpreters of His beauty. inscribed in the Zodiac]. 60For ao read A. For the mouth of the Lord is the true Word. the confessors of His counsel. but is m Za. 22f. the chasteners of His works.62 Read plural points.

" i. here seems nearly equivalent to 65 I. may be pluperfect. thought. by that of the Word. But intelligence. Never doth he fail but steadfast stands. 1-3) inspired by the Word which issues forth from the mouth of God. 4). . 5. they have acquired the power of communicating to one another their thoughts. and they told one another whatever they had [to tell]. And knows not his fall nor the way of it. and they knew him that made them." From him came love and concord. because they were in concord." see note 51.6 He is light and the dawning of thought: The worlds through him talk one with another. They know the Lord in His truth. 8. he also inspires love and concord (v. 6a) . For as his work is. For [it was] the voice of the Most High [that] spake to them. and he is impelled to sing of his nature and his work. and of " chastening" His works (v." For the dwelling-place of the Word is man. He is Light and Thought (v. 7). 64V. Blessed are they whom he has made to know all things. through that love " 638 Final end.e. counsel. such is his final end. ipF. through his influence upon the " worlds " they have become the means of revealing God's beauty." The poet feels himself (vv. His meaning sped by his agency. nothing can resist him (v. They were penetrated by the Word. 6") . "In converse": for the " Word" the poet has used consistently throughout this Ode. Or the ppl.Lflj'Ea. praise. is not the only effect of the Word's activity . he pervades the universe (vv.e. "Those who were silent" are perhaps those on the " left. in converse were those who were silent.186 (6) JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE (7) (8) (9) (10) and endless is his course. (11) (12) This beautiful poem might well be entitled "An Ode to the Word. consciousness. 9a) . the Word will continue the work of reconciliation in which he is now engaged until all discord has disappeared. and his truth is love.

66 To any one who has any acquaintance with the literature of astrology the " worlds " as described in v. 10a. and Anthropos. vol. by whom He enclosed the sea in its proper bounds. and the things that are in the sea. the earth. chap. too. so that all became as Nous. air. 7 (Lightfoot-Harmer's translation). and have nothing to do immediately with the redemption of the world accomplished by the Soter and by Jesus." the thought of God (v. Yet the same Word that rules the stars in their courses." This Epistle exhibits other points of contact with the sphere of ideas common both to Bardaisan and to the Odes. 11). or one of those that direct the affairs of earth. fire. The meonshave no such functions. but the very Artificer and Creator of the universe Himself. the "meaning. and it will be remembered that " worlds " is the word used by Bardaisan for the planets [note 45].. after the aeons have been produced by the Propator :67 The Holy Spirit taught them to give thanks on being all rendered equal among themselves. they are shut up within the limits of the Pleroma. and Spiritus. and the things that are in the earth. whom the moon obeys as He bids her shine by night. In the western Valentinian system of which Irenaeus has preserved the best account. became all as Aletheia. Fathers. and Ecclesia. for the Word is the voice. 4 will suggest the planets and constellations as conceived by the pious astrologer. or ruler. or one of those who have been entrusted with the dispensations in heaven. Blessed indeed must they be who feel themselves possessed of such knowledge as this (v. and Christus. 318. the things that are in the depths. whom the stars obey as they follow the course of the moon. dwells in man. Am. 6 With this description of the cosmological functions of the Word. ed. 6 Ante-Nic. by whom all things are ordered and bounded and placed in subjection. and led them to a state of true repose. Thus then they tell us that the mons were constituted equal to each other in form and sentiment.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 187 the worlds become aware of their Creator (v. compare the Epistle to Diognetus.. and Zoe. and Logos. from whom [the sun] hath received even the measure of the courses of the day to keep them. [God sent to earth] " not a subaltern. p. whose mysteries all the elements faithfully observe. the sea. and his truth is love (v. 10Jo d). b). the things that are in the heights. These are not Valentinian weons. abyss. cut off from the lower world by the Horos. The female mons. the things that are between the two. the heavens and the things that are in the heavens. . or angel. But certain elements of the picture certainly are Valentinian. i. by whom He made the heavens. 12).

The pictures are similar but not the same. 72Inst. brought together whatever each one had in himself of the greatest beauty and preciousness." in this passage at least. iv. The Valentinian aeons sang praise because Christ and the Holy Spirit have given them such knowledge of God as they are able to receive. with one design and desire.71 The nineteenth Ode is one of the most difficult in the collection. they next tell us that these beings sang praises with great joy to the Propator. out of gratitude for the great benefit which had been conferred upon them. For this I read " formed." It shows no other points of contact with the Book of the Laws. and with the concurrenceof Christ and the Holy Spirit. but chiefly to establish the fact that " worlds.(and therefrom produced Jesus).who himself shared in the abounding exultation. A leading difficulty is the first word of v. and has not yet been satisfactorily interpreted as a whole. 8. p. as conceived by Bardaisan. Harris. I have quoted this Ode partly in order to show how precisely it conforms to what we would expect of Bardaisan as regards its doctrine (compare Haase's summary. and they resolve to contribute each the best he has68 to the nature of Jesus. then. 164).r. for which no good sense has been found." which. being thus established and brought into a state of perfect rest. 71 But . Div. and tell each what70he has. ap. character is easily confused with The emendation . Then.. note the description of the work of the Word. the whole Pleroma of the eons. which is given by Moses bar Cepha. p. Certainly. and have made them equal. 198. p. when written in the Estrangela c. their Father also setting the seal of his approval on their conduct. yet they contain striking identities of thought. love and " concord." literally " equality.." 69 and therefore talk to one another. probably means " planets.188 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE Everything. The Worlds in the Ode receive from the Word knowledge of God. is further confirmed by Lactantius' quotation :72 " Salomon 69 68tirep elXe' #p davrr KdXLOTOV Kal dlVOypbra6To. 12. 6 q. these two pictures are inspired by one and the same original.

--= eavUrb. she was empty. The Son is the Cup. 4. part. the Father. 4 16. ]•-. Or. KvTr-aT?o verses changed to suit the sense. alK Va . 74Read pluralpoints as suggestedby the pl. (1) A cup of milk was offered to me.&1. I have followed Labourt'ssuggestionand read ." Infirmatus est is meaningless. •Las' eyAdX. but informatus est represents with a fair degree of accuracy.NEWBOLD : BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 189 ita dicit : Infirmatus est uterus virginis et accepit foetum et gravata est.QA. I Tim. etc. et facta est in multa miseratione mater virgo. 78 7 So alsoFleming. (4) and mixed the milk from the two breasts of the Father. (3) And the Holy Spirit milked Him because His breasts were full and it was not fitting His milk should go to waste.--a' Kpcd6ret text read: 79 suspect that the original that d-yaXXLdre&. "I (10) and loved in safety and kept in kindness and showed forth in majesty. 76See note 51. e. J r"S 80 j. And gave the mixture to the worlds 74 (5) and they that received in its fullness arethey on the right. for He kept her safe. 76Read L2oa" m. For the rare aor. oSakets.g. frexev &I K-vaOarO was corrupted into KT7aarTO and the order of the Kcl XOZa.75 (6) They moulded the body of the virgin and she received conception and bore.17 like a man. (7) She travailed and bore a son without any pain. without their knowing it. (9) She bore in joy 78 and acquired79in great power. vii. e e )rvevXes Kal Kva7cT/r 1h. Himerius. 77&L.AL corresponds to 6'EdtsL. of the verb cf. gErworep. The virgin became a mother with many mercies.. (8) and since there was none. Hallelujah. mid.. -.73 The Holy Spirit opened Her [the Spirit's] bosom. 76 And she sought no midwife. she bore voluntarily. and I drank it in the sweetness of the kindness of the Lord. of which I can make no sense here. (2) and He who was milked. rawplc.

. without pain because she was empty--the precise meaning of this conception I shall discuss presently."30 P jOe .!-li9. op. the theory of the Incarnation here set forth is perfectly intelligible. literally belly. 82Homrn.3 Ibl 1 • fl b.- !- . ii.- t.Av . mixes it in "her" own bosom and i. 6-8). and the language in which it is expressed. 557 : lv." It remainsto adduce further evidence which will directly connect it with Bardaisan. receive it in its fullness.. " •!.-k- jlQl~m ? t-•. so far as I have been able to discover. gives it to the planets. 3 and 4 the Holy Spirit draws from the Father a similar divine influence or substance. In vv. 9-10. Ephraemgives a brief account of Bardaisan'stheory :82 s81The fact that this distinction between planets as on the right and on the left.•oo1. The planets then "mould" or " form" or "shape" the body. A l? 1f. 50rka .. is significant(see note 51). i= ."? W 0. p. The poem closes with the crescendo of vv.• 1-.•. is apparent.3 li? 1•! ! 4. is in general agreementwith the Book of the Laws.81 the beneficent planets. so offensive to our taste. . The milk which the poet has received through the Son as the Cup.1 %&CMI&3 ' QZA? bj.190 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE Notwithstanding the strange metaphors.• •io •L •. and she brings forth a son..?4aOI? 4? z PJI c wiy. but not. --•-• R• tb: •'•z Ft1:uo t:•k•_• •.in Ptolemy.0 ' 4010 4.z_'•o0 xA i? irm oZ SV0 -'P?9? b %. !1ti~2 !o• •-•-• ljm•. those on the right. Verses 1 and 2 are introductory and serve as a key to the understanding of what follows.e. !.~i. especially noteworthy are the expressions" the worlds " and "those on the right. of the virgin. ai-• otlrq•z .•Zlo cm •. That this theory. She needed no midwife. God protected her from all harm during the process (vv. occursboth in Bardaisanand in the Odes.'I. and to which he refers so often.•-•. cit.o C?5 !. is the divine influence or Word of which he seems so vividly conscious.

How.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 191 Pray. and likewise also the death of the Lord84-three mysteries to be cried aloud . will become living. then. "Flow" is used in Syriac of almost any easy. and "1something" does not necessarily mean more than that Ephraem found Bardaisan hard to understand." The context shows that the Living One is Christ. The word which I have rendered "marriage" may have a more literal sense. glory be to Thy Nativity! And in that he said that it was impossible for one ever to germinate.Holy Jesus." suggests that Ephraem had before him the very milk simile of Ode xix. our Lord he called a 'Nature born from between two. unopposed motion. that they may not rave again. for the pl. 2 8. were they made manifest to the aeons? A star shone forth in the heavens above all the stars. as when like children they say something flowed down from the Father of Life and the mother conceived a hidden son and bore him and he was called the Son of the Living 8 One." literally "1flowed and descended. formed themselves into a chorus about the star. But even as our Lord's body was not born from between two. with the sun and moon. which protects Harris' emendation (the sing. 11: "IHe who finds pleasurein the Living One.). my brethren.' in the mystery of a marriage. There then follows an allusion to a widespread notion "the mixture was given to the worlds without their knowing it. it certainly is well fitted to express what the poet describes in v. for the disciples of Bardaisan. Cf.the which were wrought in the silence of God. 4." The theory that Christ's Incarnation was concealed from the powers of this world occurs early in the second century in Ignatius' Epistle to the Ephesians : " And hidden from the prince of this world were the virginity of Mary and her childbearing. and all the rest of the constellations. But the allusion to the "mystery of a marriage " is more significant. and its light was unutterable. how much more pure must His divine nature be. . 84 I Cor. but the star itself far outshone them 88"The Son of the Living One. and its strangeness caused amazement. for He is "light from light." CompareOde iii. sprout. But too much stress must not be laid upon his phraseology. then." "Something flowed down. and procreate. .

19 . In Bardaisan's system. no doubt that of the 88 See above. signs of the Zodiacand of other constellationswas supposedto co6perate.192 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE all. which is the law. and there was perplexity to know whence came this 8 The nostrange appearance which was so unlike them. Lightfoot. . ch. then. The nature of these changes is not further described in the Ode . which is the law for organisms. The changes in the Virgin's body which were prerequisite to the accomplishment of the virgin birth would not be produced by the 4nots of her body . 180. so to speak. is subject to the control of the planets. gives quotations from an apocryphal Epistle of the Corinthians to Paul. 86See above.the "worlds" simply "mould" the body. tr. (Italics indicate 85 Eph.86 But here it has a peculiar significance. But other sources complement this statement in a very satisfactory way. pass through the spheres of the several planets s7and receive from them certain modifications. 87The influenceof the planets is the moreimportant. together with a commentary in which he interprets the doctrines there expressed as those of Bardaisan. and is seen in the personal peculiarities of individuals. p. 182.88 The divine Christ in his descent must. do the planets act as the instrument of God's will in bringing about the virgin birth ? Because. therefore. Ephraem in his commentary upon the Epistles of St. Why. the total result of which is determined by the horoscope. at the moment of birth. of course. Paul. which has been preserved in Armenian. Ig. be produced by the planets. one to another. p. or of nature (fto-qL)." tion that souls must encounter the divinities of the planets in their descent and ascent was common among the Gnostics.they must. the intelligences in their descent to the souls and the souls in their descent to the bodies. for conscious intelligences. All that is not under the control of Free-will. in Bardaisan's system their influences represent the sum total of what we call nowadays mechanical laws. or relations of the several heavenly bodies. again. escape these influences and appear on earth precisely as he left heaven.

. D. 300. opavv Xev Xwv r• ' al nrtov r' a6ro6. 174. i/. butof for they say he went throughher as somethingnot [coming] from certainangels. but by the seven Guides. p. orwal 190.L/L o o 8Ld Maplas. accept the Prophets. they say that he who spoke through the Prophets is no almighty God. xvii. but with a heavenly body. And they do not admit that he was bornof the Virgin Mary .D. r ~ elsOeb de6pO^s 7rlarews.of the seven Guides. . /tlw•Up Maplas.90 It cannot be trusted as evidence for the doctrines of Bardaisan himself. 178. Mcplar Ka o K~Ic ty o~rw Kal 6 Xbyor rpoo'Xaljdpwpi. And they say thereis no resurrectionof the body. ed. a Bardaisanite. 6: &rt opd•iov oC&a tXape. cit. 176.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 193 the quotations. 6: a •r6. H. .91 It is of value only when confirmedby other evidence. as distinguished by Zahn89 from Ephraem's commentary. he himself suffered in appearance . Gr. so also did he . 24: KcalZ 6 XoTyoU~Ev facryov ab•6r. The book was written about A. ..namely. he came from heaven with his body . 26: cs Kal ol &yyeXot "A8pacl 0oV. W. p.. &Orep ytp v 1JCp & awXjvos tipXeTraL. NT. the Word himself became flesh without taking anything from without in addition . . IyPve7ro o6bUPv RwOep rpooXfapihp. . 9: 6 X-yos a6rbo adpt 1. her. II.. Schrift. 597. and ate and drank with him. Gesch. say they." Evidently Ephraem knew Bardaisanites who held that Christ went through the Virgin's body without receiving anything of her. In the dialogue " On the right faith in God. . Marinus holds: "1that he (Christ) took a heavenly 9 body . d. iv." formerly ascribed to Origen. 170. . 22: 5OKOet IrrTOVOEv A•r i' Ka u I o-w a. Kanons. xvi. as the angels appeared to Abraham. .. And they say our Lord did not come with an earthly body. But this doctrineis that of the schoolof Bardaisan. cit. van de Sande Bakhuyzen. vol. . it is not even certain that it faithfully reproduces the views of the Bardaisanites of that age. 90Der Dialog des Adamantius rept 91 Op. namely : One should not.) "IAnd the words which they speak and teach are erroneous.appears as one of the speakers. . Chr. And they regard the world not as the creation of God. dXX'0K & Maplas. 92 Op. and of man they say he is not made by God at all. . a certain Marinus. we confess that he [came] through 89Translated from the German version given by Zahn. but the Gospel.that is. And they call God not almighty.

phys. i. . ap. p.oW1 s / AL 7owo al c 5aratsTo l//V4vXayWyobl KEKpay•o 'ycXaKTL. who assumeth the body of Christ to be from heaven. 14 sqq. . he says. ch. Eel. The milk simile is probably a translation into Christian language of an ancient myth. 8 d6elpwv KaT( IIHvOay6paV 4/vxal ds avvdyeTOai q5 ' (al. and not of Mary. Heeren: KUal rokotLs HpaKXe5l7V '1 fh&y'bY HorrTLK6Y 1Opilot ew repi T+)' (sic) yacalarv. Porphyry's pupil.eo& eis y'yveort dr7b TW^v 7Tpeo/d. . 68' '50ov^s eIS -YeOtY vyrKVeOae 'br6 ydXa ri vKCEV. 52. constituting its limits.) repeats Porphyry's account with some variations. &V *Jt •S . and since there was none. Iamblichus. she was empty".194 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE Mary. for just as water goes through a pipe without taking on anything. vi. as thou saidest just now. 28: Aly6Kepw~ ~ Kai KapKlvPO S 'repI p/h rT KapivoS P-6pela Aiy6Kbepw~ & v6Tra8GcLos T7r rdpara abroI eiXyX67res.yaXacla v 94 De ant.LEge'XeTJKViaLs epXeoaca als 9 Stobaeus. they say] assemble in the Milky Way. ii. For which reason also.. with the idea that they are induced to come to birth for the sake of the pleasure (or savor). and it is so named from the [souls] which are nourished with milk when they fall into birth. nympharum. p. so [came] the Word through Mary. Kroll. Cancer the northern and Capricorn the southern. whence regarded 98 So also Philoxenus. but not of Mary.rhv8et . he says [al. . Cureton. . aowL) EiS TbV at 6JT7aC -yXaKTr y-aXaciarv TJ o1v7W rpoo'ayopev6/1. that is. And according to Pythagoras the souls are a ' tribe of dreams. : " There are some of them who say that he sent down the Word a body from heaven. gives Heraclides of Pontus a clue to the source of the tale95-the Milky Way as the place of the souls. because milk naturally is engendered along with them. The earliest detailed account is that of Porphyry :94 [Homer speaks of the solstitial signs. 904. 129. necromancers offer the souls a libation of honey mingled with milk. ed. The remainder of the Ode calls for no special discussion. Because thou hast not comprehended the mind of Bardesan. and didest assent to thy teacher Bardesan. the absence of pain proved that the conditions to which pain would be due were lacking. Spic.. Cancer and Capricorn as the "gates of the sun. several accounts of which have reached us." 7. p."] " Now Capricorn and Cancer are near the Milky Way.' which."''93 Thus it was that "she bore a son without any pain. Syr." Proclus (in Remp.

Phil. I have) fallen into milk " . 203). as at least some Pythagoreans did.956 But he may have drawn it from other sources. Upon returning to its proper home the soul will of course again need nourishment. The Orphics had taught that the soul is "breath ". daisan's doctrineand the Orphic-Pythagorean . Bardaisan probably did. similar tablets.the departed soul has fallen into the "milk " of the sky.Sozomen's language (see note 18) implies some affinitybetween Bartheories. d. 3 . Gr. as he was a man of learning. and so I would interpret the sentence found in other. Heraclides was a pupil of Plato. but it is in my opinion certain that an Oriental element enters into them. 1. the words used by Marinus. So in the Orphic burial tablets found in southern Italy and Crete (Miss Harrison. for this light is the heavenly milk designed for souls. "he who went through Mary 96.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 195 they came to earth. to the Study of Greek Religion. it is nourished by the dim light diffused in the Milky Way. his interest in the mystical aspect of Pythagoreanism is well known (Zeller. that souls consist of light or are robed in a body of light (see p. 1034 sqq. 660-63) the soul avows itself a " child of Earth and of Starry Heaven " (ry wrai~el/' xaia opaPvoiaTEpde0ToT). he must have had trustworthy sources of information. The theory of the virgin birth presupposed by this Ode is Irenaeus gives it in almost known to be in part Valentinian. and I have no doubt that this is a genuine fragment of early Pythagorean doctrine. "a kid thou art (or. Proleg. and this is the meaning of the name. the Pythagoreans refined the conception . p. is a luminous substance. The origin of the Orphic-Pythagorean doctrines has not yet been discovered. 4. ii. pp. and it may well be that the ancient explanation of the celestial "milk" as being the light with which souls are fed suggested milk to him as an appropriate simile for the divine substance which proceeded from the Father and Holy Spirit and issued through the Virgin into the world as Jesus.). The author of the Odes believed. 989. It is not at all impossible that the author of the Odes knew of this myth in its Greek form.

i. (1) The Dove flew upon the Messiah. ap. then. and the creeping things died in their holes. the Logos of his mother on high. i." what the Spirit had given Mary. we have that blending of Gnostic and orthodox elements which I found in Ode xii. 31. KaOdlrep 96a wX-o'o Hippolytus. that is. can be interpreted if viewed in the same light. . but son of the Demiurge . hold that the body of the Saviour was spiritual. the Jesus who is thus born of the Virgin is not the Son of God. But it is closely akin to the theory of Ode xix. But those of the East. But in the Ode he is the Son of God Himself. 356) : etar Ur ToTrovr G8& ~8wp 8t& TbY Maplas b8osedoavTra. among whom are Axionicus and Ardesianes [= Bardaisan]. Wisdom (Sophia). 35. 24 (cf." Accordingto Hippolytus also. Hcer. the body of Jesus was "psychic. it would seem. hcer. 2. . Epiph.i. . i. . and her voice was heard.). the operationof the " worlds" by the " power of the Highest or constructive craft.96a Ode xxiv. the constructive craft (587uLtoUpY'LK 7dXPYv) in order that what the Spirit had given to Mary might be moulded (8ta7rXaae0). at his baptism.. 7.196 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE like water through a tube. impliedin Odesxix. (Panar. Gr. 1. (2) The inhabitants were afraid. that Christwas divine from his birth and did not acquire divinity at his baptism. The milk is representedby the Holy Spirit.. according to the western Valentinians.e. and the power of the Highest. Here. and xxiv. the divine Christ descends upon him at his baptism." which " moulds" --the very word of the Ode if my emendationbe correct. says that. and the sojourners were moved. The theory of the incarnationwhich follows is ascribed both to Axionicus and to Bardaisanand may represent Axionicus' conceptionsmore faithfully than Bardaisan's. Wisdom. because He was her Head. Irenueus.the Spirit as a dove descended. 9 Cont. and therefore." In the Ode the stars mould the body of Mary. vi. formed in the bosom of the Spirit. She sang over Him. and came to be with the (ydyove 7 ) psychic [Jesus] and raised him from the dead. again." 9 But the doctrine of the Ode is In the system described by not. p. as a whole. (3) The birds dropped their wings.. the body of Jesus is. for the Holy Spirit came upon Mary. Valentinian. Bardaisan held the orthodox doctrine. and which is believed to have been characteristic of Bardaisan. Hcer.

97 Read . And those that have comprehendedit. his thought leaps forward to its final consummation. because they had not the truth. because there was none for. As Ode xii. light. commingled one with another. see the parallel from Ecclus.. that they might abide. and spread abroad His grace." that had been from of old. and were spurned: They were crying to the Lord like women in labor. The clearest statement of Bardaisan's theory of the work of the Word is given by Moses bar Cepha. pp. For they were corrupt from the beginning. Because it was not possible to give them the Word. And they were rejected. 59-62. darkness tried to rise from its place below and a9 Translatedinto French by Nau. all things that were defective. (10) For the Lord has disclosed His way. sketches in broad outlines the regenerating work of the Word. . 5. (5) The abysses were sealed with the seal of the Lord : They perished by His Thought. so this Ode depicts a certain stage in that work--the stage initiated by the descent of the Dove. 200. air. and no food was given them. (7) There perished from among them. But in v. fire. water. had become. (9) For they were defective in wisdom.m . for some reason not given. Hallelujah.98 He held that the five elements.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 197 (4) The abysses were opened. and the final end of their corruption was life. op.. know His holiness. (8) The Lord has destroyed the thoughts. of all those that had not the truth. those that were exalted in their hearts. cit. with one of those rapid transitions so characteristic of the writer. and darkness. quoted p.them.

vol. *Mo!." Whether this picture of the battle of light and darkness can be found implied in the Odes is a question into which I cannot now enter. the Son and Holy Spirit they confused with the created things. "Then. in a state of chaos. and the present mixture was purified by a conception and a childbirth forever. And from the mixture of these substances with their adversary. the statements of Moses bar Cepha. In this process many stages can be distinguished. S . But as regards the work of the Word. ii. and he reestablished each of the substances in its order by the mystery of the cross. that is to say the Messiah. 99Hom. O. the Word of the thought of the Most High.99 he conceived them as being. 444. the birth of Christ was one. and fell into the depth of its nature. it was driven away. the last will be the final perfection of the universe. therefore. The first step in this process was the creation of the world.r •:. . The regeneration of man.. B: " Marcion and Bardaisan blasphemously allege that the Creator is not one. darkness. supply a satisfactory Bardaisan's heresy explanation of several of the Odes. The descent of the Dove may be interpreted as another. in part.- \. descended. )o~~~~~t~~~~~3 cuj O ~ ufr-• -•!~ oo• Q•l •0IjtL lJ . into which the Word enters and introduces order.198 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE mingle with the others. the Makers of all things they thought to be nothing. III. and decreed that they should mingle no more. he established this present world. at one time.Za.. is only part of a vaster scheme for the regeneration of the universe. contra Hcer. He affirmed the existence of the substances l = oo-ata) in language which caused (-. Ij.4oM 10oL o ' o. to charge him with making them independent of Ephraem God . at the sound of this tumult. p. the pure substances sought refuge in the mercies of the Most High. the deeds of the Maker they ascribed to the things made. c. supplemented by the last paragraph of the Book of the Laws. consisted. in dualism..." I. he removed darkness from the midst of the pure substances. and the poet describes vividly the effect of that descent upon nature.

KaST rTYp lIaV Kal Eclogax. chapters iii. Jesus. 102 E.. 1. but is found in this sense in Clement of Alexandria. 40. cit. and probably it is a Valentinian definition. Anz. cf.101 As vv.. as Clement was largely influenced by that sect.rTpaot6oeVOp T& ~ ? W'i erql YlperaT. Tisch. ed.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 199 The "abysses" are the vast gulfs of air. op. n. Proph. iv. and iv. 108See above. although limited by the power of God.' " It is reasonably certain that this is a Gnostic.' And yet matter is allegorically described as' water of the abyss. 93. 7ro70 o?TclaL 4T0 & etp71Trac* ire U'6aTraoLLV. have been termed 'abysses. de gen. r^vdpEL FV'TO'ot u•&voos VXO dXX-l'yoppLcLLr." Acta Phil. perhaps. Arist.b describe the effect of the Dove's descent upon animals so 3'..--they are "spurned. 103 it is -FiM. which separate heaven from earth. ap.and 4 describe its effect upon the abysses. also note 66. So also in the Gnostic "Acts of Philip. p. p.. 990 : ivooos yhp rb drepdT TO eOeov8al rolVUV U& . p. and let not their dark mist enwrap me." thrust aside." the apostle prays just before his death.'00 "'Abyss' is something the essential nature of which is unlimited.' for he would not have called water alone 'abyss. and the effect of the divine influence upon them. mutually destroy one another. probably to devour it. They open as the Dove descends through them. Since the days of Heraclitus men had been familiar with the conceptionof the elements as consisting of opposites which.g. Potter. and give me the eternal crown of victory over every antagonistic principle and power. p. when brought into contact. rI ppovV yJv' KGa rTO6r trl KaiTOL Kal vBwp /L6pbovrb Jo&p o'K &v elreV &~Fvoov. remnants of primeval chaos. the aspect of Bardaisan's theory which Ephraemdesignates by the word "opposing" or "conflicting" substances. that which is expressed in the Book of the Laws by describing the "natures" as "injuring and injured frombefore 100 Ex Script. 2-3". It is a Jewish conception. et corr. II. vapor. thus giving rise to the ceaseless round of transformations which we see. 2. So the material substances. Verses 3e and 4 describethe internecinestrife of the elements in a vivid picture. and fire. that I may pass over the waters of fire and all the abyss... Meteor. (dp6to-ovu?)i 101 . " Come now. from which the several genera and their species come..1?2 This is. ii. 166.

s08 "All defective things "must perish. Zur 24ten Ode Salomos ZNTW."1'0 But here the poet depicts it in a vivid image -the abysses have been engaged in devouring one another. 106 5pC0apgdva (?). and Odexxii 11 : "That everythingmight be dissolvedand Jac. 8. "They were corrupt 106 from the beginning. "like women in travail. LL. 182.109a This is a e 104 Note that the word " natures." The Ode proceeds: "They perished by His thought. xii. p. p." or. 4.W. and the completion of their corruptionl07 was life "-this present world must pass away to make way for a new heaven and anew earth.• ." 1OLS. 86. by the thought or will of God.. 9." and the idea is certainly the same." But their cry is unheeded. Conceived as components they are aTroTxeta 105 See p.Similar phenomena are describedas attendingChrist's birth. 186). then renewed. "as is the Word's work. The confused and warring elements are brought to rest. . The descent of the Dove is an event of such commanding import that even the dumb beasts recognize it. in the words of the Book of the Laws. shall be brought to an end by the restraints which are in another mixture. 182. "this injuriousness 100also which remains in them. Protev. 1osSee p. 2. 7. " deficiencies will be filled up" . they have been checked. the " abysses are sealed with the seal of the Lord. See Duensing." which is almost a translation of a'ro-0 eithoraeav /vo-rov. in Ecclesiasticus 43 23: translation: Xorytr/Aw Jerome's "cogitatione sua placavit abyssum. is the correct technical . In vv. the poet turns from the cosmological to the anthropological aspect of the work of the Word. The chief difficulty of this Ode lies in the opening verses. their warfare stayed. . finally. those that had been of old. they " cry to the Lord" in a state of agonized turmoil and confusion. the Word was given to the worlds. 109. 109 "it was not possible to give them the Word that they might abide. so the Book of the Laws. 10." as in Ode xii.200 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE the creation of the world." 109 j. term for the elements conceived as possessingactive properties. 107 b 7TrAos r^ Oopas(?). 18. such is his final end" (Ode xii.

the Abysses." "The head went down to the feet. ch. Christand the dead who are to be saved. to the more remote results of that stupendous event." i.e. But others of the Oe6\oyoL sent the souls as descendingthrough the moon and ascending through the sun . 22.cXo9).e. also the descending Christ is committed."' Upon the wheel is a "sign of the Kingdom and the Government. for in the Valentinian system the divine Christ does not come to earth until the moment of the baptism." ' The head" 112 is probably Christ as the Head of the Church Comparethe effect of the appearanceof the Star upon the other stars 110 in the passage from Ignatius quoted." i." her superior. 112 xvii. Death lets go the "feet and the head.p. according to Bardaisan. when Christ descends into Sheol. Again an indication of the curious blending of orthodox and Gnostic ideas so characteristic of these Odes. ibid. 12 the poet's prophetic eye looks forward from the moment at which the Word entered into the system of nature. here symbolized by the system of planets revolving in the Zodiac which. ascribes to the Oe6Xoyom doctrine 111 . that descendingsouls enter the world throughthe Zodiacin the sign Cancer." So in xlii." probably the Star of Bethlehem. The regeneration of the system of natural law inevitably carries with it the triumph of the Gospel. 14: "They wereto me as my own members. govern the operations of mechanical law.11obut the seal upon it protects it from them. At v. it sweeps away all obstacles and makes "a broad path. the Christ. ch.and I wastheir head. for down to the feet ran the wheel and that which was a sign upon it. " Many hands " of the Powers of the Spaces.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 201 Gnostic idea. But the Dove here does not represent the Christ. The "thought" or "will" of God which descends like a letter. I give merely a paraphrase. 191. is "her head. a Porphyry." the great "wheel of the Zodiac " (wcostaKov Ic. 29. which bears the seven planets to which in Ode xix. repredeparting souls ascend throughCapricorn. 18. for "the Messiah. It is received by a "wheel. de ant. is the Word descending to be born of the Virgin. nymph. As it offers no special difficulties of translation. the 23d. rush to seize it. This same group of astrological conceptions affords a perfectly intelligible interpretation of that very difficult Ode.

the feet are probably the souls in Sheol yet to be redeemed. I think. implied: x. But this is not. and this Harnack takes as referring to the resurrection of the body. 14-22). incompatible with the theory that they are the work of Bardaisan. Another characteristic trait of Bardaisan's teaching was the denial of the resurrection of the body. which represents the operation of the Gospel under the forms of regenerated natural law." "who are not made for this grace. established a certain degree of congruity between the doctrines of the Odes and those of Bardaisan. I do not think this settles the question. which is definitely taught in the Odes (e. true that the doctrine of Free-will does not definitely appear in the Odes while it is one of the salient features of the Book of the Laws." 114 An ancient is not required to be more consistent than a modern theologian. indeed. In one passage. viii. "to convert the souls of them that were willing to come to Him. 114 See p. this. 3. and he also recognizes the existence of "tares. his poison. Batiffol objects that it is represented as already accomplished. The poet's thoughts are dominated by the consciousness of the work of grace in his own heart and he has no special occasion to deal with Free-will as such. is the doctrine to which Ephraem pays most attention.202 -the JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE conception of Christians as the body of Christ frequently recurs in the Odes . his seed. 178. for believers in predestination are often advocates of Free-will. I am not aware of any demonstrable points of incongruity. The revolution of the wheel. the poet describes the resurrection of the dry bones. indeed. 8-10. In only one passage is it. I have. 181. The preceding verses speak of the bonds which Christ is to loose. I think. But the context is distinctly against a literal interpretation.g. and in the following 113See p. Bardaisan himself recognizes 13 that Free-will subsists only by the sufferance of God and will prove no obstacle to the final regeneration of all things. perhaps. It is. xxii. an objection of any force. . carries Christ there also." Nor is the doctrine of predestination. his roots. for future events are frequently described in these Odes as accomplished. of the dragon with seven heads.

967. p.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 203 verses we have the rock which is to be the foundation of all things. "in me there shall be nothing that is not bright. "I put off darkness and clothed myself with light and my soul acquired members free from pain. But before Bardaisan's authorship can be regarded as established it must be shown that all the Odes can be intero KareLXi/CdyVoT . In a similar sense should be interpreted."17 The conceptionof a corporealresurrection cannot. Bef. the son of God" (xxxvi. and S. (2) That some of the Odes can be readily interpreted in the light of Bardaisan'stheories. 418.. I have endeavoredto show: (1) That no antecedentimprobabilityprecludesthe ascription of the Odes to Bardaisan. "the traces of the light were set upon their heart" (x. Potter: IXNb oDv 6 ZTIwrprby &vXbv PwOeC KcdTrwi ^wrbs Tto alwvlots XapaK'rpOL. found in many Gnostic sects-and elsewhere--that the redeemed soul possesses a body of pure light. viii. have found place in the poet's theology. 7b. I was named the Illuminate. .. 117 Excerpta Theod. cit. This presumptionis strengthenedby the passages which clearly do refer to the state of the redeemed. 66: Areg4'e oirvO•pca wsj. 380. The presumptionis that the clothing of the dry bones with flesh. then. 2).. So Hippolytus in describing the Docetae that they regarded souls as "the eternal marks (or says imprints) left by the light when it shone from above down below. 3. 16. which is. affliction or suffering" (xxi. 1?6irpgev. and I was clothed with the covering of Thy Spirit and Thou didst remove from me my raiment of skin" (xxv. of course. p. . rbv d'Opw116Op.. 7b). p. obviously borrowed from Ezekiel. 10 (D. 8). dsr c 8•-yeype rov Kil pi irohlqe. vii. 28. lf 115Hipp. These passages unquestionably point to the well-known doctrine. 3).1" is the and the eastern Valentinians used the same word Saviour's office "to awaken the soul and light the--it spark. e b&r R Tfv OrwHOIjpa. "although a son of man." 115 Saturnilus conceived of souls as sparksof light. 23): . incompatiblewith the notion of corporeal resurrection. is also figurative.

The 300 of each sign are apportionedamong the five planets and those to appropriated each are termedits "limits. astr.who has been so kind as to read this paperin proof. (See note 51. might be modifiedor transformedby circumstances(ibid. The " degrees " are the " limits " (5pma). and I have therefore thought it best to make public my tentative results. IV.and the good or bad effects of that influence. p. warming. 5). although generallyconstant for a given planet. I have as yet found no otherillustration. also Julius of Laodicea. For the following notes I am indebted to suggestions given me by Prof. To this task I shall not be able to address myself for many months to come.-Procl." (See note 52. 1911. "Their own degrees. as others have done..g." etc.204 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE preted from the same point of view. in the hope that they may be found to contain some elements of value to the ultimate solution of the problem. cf." .. 105). JUNE 5. e. which. the later distinguishedbetween the unalterableproperinfluence.) The earlier astrologerstermed planets "Ibeneficent" and "maleficent" (Ptol. Franz Cumont. But of the ascriptionof exclusivelybeneficent influencesto "those on the right. I. Cat. cod.) "High places" are 'wcaLra.

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