Bardaisan and the Odes of Solomon Author(s): Wm.

Romaine Newbold Reviewed work(s): Source: Journal of Biblical Literature, Vol. 30, No. 2 (1911), pp. 161-204 Published by: The Society of Biblical Literature Stable URL: . Accessed: 23/12/2011 08:03
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Bardaisan and the Odes of Solomon'

of Solomon present THE newly discovered Odes literature problems asto the student of early Christian fascinating as they are difficult. The author is a poet, and a poet of no mean order, but he is much more than that - he feels himself inspired by the Spirit of the Lord and illumined by His light; the resources of language, even when strained to the utmost limits of poetic license, are inadequate to express the richness of that new life which has transfigured his inner self and filled him with the joy and peace that pass all understanding. Yet when one endeavorsto see the worlds of matter and of spirit as the singer saw them2 and to grasp his conception of their mutual relations, in brief, to reconstruct his philosophy and to determine his age, his environment, and the school of thought to which he belonged, one encounters peculiar difficulties. He is as much at home in the Psalms and Wisdom-literatureas any Jew, and yet is not in sympathy with the more distinctive tenets of Judaism. He acknowledges no circumcision save that of the heart (xi. 1-2), no sacrifice save that of "1God's thought," of "righteousness and purity of thought and lips" (xx. 1-7), no peculiar people, for his sympathies are as broad as humanity (vi. 7-17; xiv. 14-29). He is a Christian, familiar with the leading events-of Christ's life -the miraculousbirth (xix. 6-10), the baptism (xxiv. 1-3), crucifixion and descent
1 I desire to acknowledge to the editors my obligations for their kind revisionof the proofs duringmy absencefrom the country, and in particular revision of my translationsfrom the Syriac. ProfessorMontgomery's 2 The author's general point of view has been characterizedby many; perhapsthe best is that of Gunkel, ZNTW, xi. 1910, p. 320.





into Hades (xlii. 1-26 et al.), yet he absolutely ignores many of the most characteristic doctrines and practices of Christianity. He makes no explicit allusion to the resurrection or ascension of Christ's material body, or to baptism, or the eucharist. He knows of sin and evil as facts (xxxiii. 8; xxxviii. 12 ff. et al.), but they seem to lie outside the range of his own present concern; even his conception of redemption seems unconnected with the crucifixion. Moreover, amidst the profusion of poetic and allegorical images in which he expresses his ideas, there are some which one can scarcely regard as merely poetic and allegorical and which fit but ill into the traditional system of Christian theology. The "worlds" 4 et al.), the "garment of light" (xi. 10; xxi. 2), the (xii. "perfect virgin" (xxiii. 5), the "abysses " (xxiv. 3; xxxi. 1), - these, and perhaps others, are somewhat more than hints that the author's view of the universe is not that of the orthodox Christian theologian. The theories proposed to account for this puzzling complex belong to three leading types. The representatives of the first type, led by Rendel Harris, the distinguished discoverer and first editor of the Odes, regard them as belonging to a period when the new life which was stirring men's hearts had not as yet moulded their thoughts after its own image nor found words adequate to its expression, when Christian theology was as yet in the making and clear formulations had no existence, in brief, to the period, approximately, of the New Testament itself. A second group, led by Harnack, cannot believe that conceptions so disparate as are found in the Odes could ever have coexisted as the elements of the world-view of any single mind. They believe them, therefore, to be a composite product, the original Odes being the work of a Jew of unusually catholic sympathies, into whose text a Christian hand has incorporated a few of the more essential elements of Christianity. But Harnack also refers the Odes in their present form to a very early period - about the end of the first century of our era. A third group of students regard them as giving imperfect





expression to some peculiar system of Christian theology, accepted by some minor sect, probably of the second century, and endeavor to identify the sect in question with some one of those mentioned by the church historians. But upon this point no agreement has as yet been reached. Gunkel thinks them Gnostic, and Preuschen has announced3 that he will endeavor to prove them a part of the Valentinian Psalmbook; Batiffol4 regards them as representing a docetic tendency, perhaps a forerunner of the great Christian Gnostic movement of the second century and akin to that combated by Ignatius. But Conybeare 5 and Fries 6 would have them Montanist. In my opinion the weight of evidence is distinctly in favor of the third point of view. While the considerations urged by Gunkel and Batiffol are not all of equal force and it is not probable that all will stand the test of further criticism, the main thesis for which they contend seems to me established - that the Odes unmistakably reveal the influence of Gnostic speculation. Yet the evidence falls far short of proving them Gnostic, for many of the leading characteristics of Gnosticism, as of Judaism and of Christianity, are conspicuous by their absence. The system of eons, for example, upon the elaboration of which with every detail suggested by pagan mythology or a perfervid imagination the Gnostic thinkers so loved to dwell, is represented in the Odes by nothing but the "worlds," and of them so little is said that it is impossible to determine at first glance what the author meant by them. Again, the Gnostic was essentially an exclusive faith. It drew a sharp line of demarcation between the true Gnostic, or, as the Valentinians called him, the "pneumatic" man, and the common herd, whether Christian or not. In the Odes the "elect" (viii. 21; xxiii. 1-3 et al.) might be regarded as representing the pneumatic man, but their relation to the mass of men is conceived in a very different and more catholic spirit, for the poet looks forward to the time when all mankind will be numbered among the saved (iii. 12;

ZNTW, xi. 1910, p. 328, n. 3. r ZNTW, xii. 1911, pp. 70-76.

A Rev.

Bibl., NS, viii. part 2 (1911).

6 Ib., p. 108.

9 No one who reflects that Bardaisan's youth fell in a period in which Gnosticism was at its height. passim. Knowledge probably means gnosis. He must also have been a man who knew the life of the spirit by immediate personal experience. . was thoroughly familiar with Gnosticism and had borrowed from it much of his imagery and some of his doctrines. it is true. a man whose heart was full of love for God and his fellowman. 8 Born A. of the Odes we must postulate a man who. Gnosis. Such a man." Texteund Untersuchungen. and that he lived in a land the peculiarity of whose culture made it the mother soil of Gnosticism. The argument from silence is. note 41.). must.8 I cannot better express my own impression of the relation between Bardaisan and the Gnostics than by translating a passage from Haase's recent monograph. 178. of marked originality. One should not forget that it was the most enlightened minds that found something infectious in Gnosticism. the aim of which was essentially nothing other than a solution of the " World-riddle" with the 7 vii. one does not turn to a hymnal for a system of theology. receptive as he was to all sciences and sensitive to all intellectual influences. have been acquainted with the doctrines of the Syrian Gnostics also. But one does expect a hymn writer. was the stupendous drama of the Valentinian theology. speak of the time when "Nothing that breathes shall be without knowledge. 9 Felix Haase. See the text.164 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE vi. who believed himself divine and could the regarded all other men as akin either to animals or dead matter. and such. in a preeiminent degree. of broad vision. a man of deep sympathies. so far as our information enables us to judge. nor shall anything be dumb. if he be not wholly devoid of the poetic gift." 7 As the author. 27. to employ those elements of his theological system which lend themselves most readily to poetic treatment. then.p. died 222. 88. " Zur Bardesanischen 1910. 22 ff. will deny that Bardaisan. p. vii. while not in the technical sense a Gnostic. was Bardaisan of Edessa. 154. dangerous. And he was also a gifted poet. Nor true Gnostic.D. at least.

aro~10 -TVyypal ica .of whom he had many. altchr.rb Tr s26pwo /eTaLSe- 7rpoOcrraFdov .. Eusebius describes him as "a most able man and a skillful disputant in the Syriac language. a heretic. Nau and Hort are quite right in protesting against reckoning Bardaisan among the Gnostics in the usual sense. 4 W raptC-ar/AgJ Gatb VrVaTwrj T'3 X6"Y' 8XhKao-&wcwv7^J. Bardaisan is. &TpwP. dialogues against the followers of Marcion and certain other representatives of diverse doctrines. and Gnostic influence. Lit.le-raEEOar ctAlq ?S o0 EavT r 7rw aclrbs tdjJ ye direppoa-ro KiTrareXwC 7rXEUTcrd -I r 9'l rbr 7?7I 5La- Id. ibid. theological. . It cannot indeed be determined at what period of his life Bardaisan had belonged to a Gnostic sect.10 Bardaisan's keen intellect must have recognized the weak points in the Valentinian or [other] Gnostic system. Tre T7 pwp cqWJ Lrs Bap5eo•dpi7e dvlp tKavdraT•cT6s 7rpbs TrOb TKar& MapKriwva Kal Tr'vaL ErTpov0 /taq6pwv ^ r^ 15L 7rapgs5wKe ydTbrfr rE KaL-paq /. but will simply assume Gnostic influence. To Bardaisan's intellectual ability all our authorities bear witness. HE. and remains. It will remain a hopeless task to pick out. and astronomical knowledge. ap. Eusebius' assertion that Bardaisan was at first a disciple of Valentinian. XEK." p 7rXEL~rrotL rap utprw i7rkelTwrw. in so far. J6Ket Jeal U& r9j KcaraLTpoy0 raT?7~. ETxr& So0ydd-rwP tWaX6yovevoT-•7~47'e0os. But if we find in his doctrines passages that unquestionably have a Gnostic ring. we will not."" Epiphanius describes him as "one of the finest Euseb. p. U To~0rrop Oat dpOorpaTr yPr v .: alp&rews ?67roP. OkaXeTi'oP 5' dpa obrot rpo'Trepop Kear& orXOXfl•. in this doctrine. and his formal classification with the Gnostics by ancient and modern historians does him no wrong. who composed and committed to writing in his own tongue. i. U ov• l ysdpLtAom. and he therefore worked out a peculiar doctrine of his own. One will scarcely find a name that adequately and accurately expresses his teaching. laid the foundation of his peculiar doctrine. 10o TE Tr7g KaTcl raXatai 11 iv. based upon his own philosophical. it is enough to maintain that astronomy in particular. at least so far as its second part is concerned. 1. make the explanation unnecessarily difficult.KCtraTro.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 165 aid of all that the heathen sciences and Christianity had achieved. 9.. Harnack. -Trl 'EXXhvwv . which his pupils . 30. then was converted to the true faith without altogether giving up his old heresy. in the age of Gnosticism. Gesch. for he was a doughty defenderof his doctrine. I therefore regard as natural and credible.d. the "Gnostic " elements. besides many other works. 185: JP AvOo7rotasL d•reXg'y a.translatedfrom Syriac into Greek.

that the soul [consists] of seven [parts]. that I may not expatiate upon those things which Bardaisan alleges among his doctrines. . rh 18De vir. p. eund.16 And [so] he set beforethe simple folk bitter [mixed] with sweet . Eph. eund. Oxon. 63. 186: clarus habitus est . 1865.." 12 Jerome says that he was regarded as "distinguished" and that the Syrians extol the ardor of his intellect and his vigor in argument. and composedsongs and introducedmeters. .. in Osee. 33.sick folk they. that the body is of the evil [principle].166 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE of men. ardens eius a Syris praedicatur ingenium et in disputatione vehemens. et aliorum Opera Selecta. inl. Haer.dVOS.. . 6yto . 14 sqq. brethren. whose intellect even philosophers admire.'5of the impeding substances. . in rhythmic and accentual measures. he says: Love for you. 553: 15bEphraem discusses this doctrine at length. (R. p..5b and [all] the rest. 12Haer. 16 Le. and that it has no resurrection. in S.p ircitra 1eyMXwOSKEKO7c0Lfl/.13 And again. the signs of the zodiac. 15 Or.. 14 Comm. ii. 10. Ed." "1eloquent" both in Syriac and in Greek. He divided the words in measures and weights. 53. ap. . 1900. p. 18). For example. Overbeck. Duval. Ad Hypatium. Ephraem Syrus does indeed frequently speak of the charm which the Bardaisanite hymns exercised upon the minds of the people and attributes them to Bardaisan. 187: talis Bardisanes. the stars.. Paris.. ii. contr. ap. p. Vatican ed. ap. constrains that you bear the repetition of their words. Syr. For he formed hymns and set them to tunes. eund. "highly adorned with all the graces. La litterature syriaque. cuius etiam philosophi admirantur ingenium. 56. 186: dptar6s rts oa. p. etc." 14 To Bardaisan's gifts as a poet no trustworthy evidence survives. "such was Bardaisan. p.

wrote much in Syriac. as in other Christian churches. as well as Bardaisan. TrosOIKelOLS YpdttCZaTv. It is also more than probable that the hymns in use among the Bardaisanites were not of his composition." and indeed. he. was the first to adapt his mother tongue to meters and musical rules. Bap8a7. dXX& To tLs X& Kal caIPpIOeOs. ap. Sozomen explicitly asserts that Bardaisan's son.e. The circumstantialcharacter of this account gives it claim to credence.Theodoret (HF. and imitated his number [only]. otd ye brb VXpad Ovvrypdtaro avvOels. Harnack.8S These varying accounts are easily reconciled. ot iroAs 'Apwoviov • . the canonical Psalms had been used in public worship from the 17 Duval (loc.seeing that he set to the lyre what he [Bardaisan] had composed. His [i. if I understand aright the following sentence. HE. iii. David's] truth he deserted. with the view expressed in his own compositions.. K rdXaL JXXoyLtcrTarotroTroPvbY 7rp6Tro Tre. CI . Harmonius. 16. the birth and dissolutionof the body and transmigration. rpoo'Itt/.op.yevP40CW Ka & 7d gov7resr otdrobvt. ap. ct irep XpcbevoL. too. irel ydlp ob raWdI r-tv &K769 JP37^9 rarTpCaCs TE q0paopaiO a65aTO0 KaZl 0l StbXororcZXtyyeIcrl o ap? EXXi1ro iPVX27S.. " having had a Greek education. composed 150 songs. TavraO cs 666as " Since he [Harmonius]was not entirely outside the limits of his father's sect and the views entertainedby the Greekphilosophers regardingthe soul.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 167 who chose not wholesome food. that he might be adorned with his beauty and praised for his likeness. op. cit. 6 pat 56e r imv "EXXrort rap' Xbyw ao rpWrotLdrpOLS KGL aly6OLs dxO•rcra 4 r OpLy Kc . " Les malades n'eurent point le choix d'un remade salutaire.cit.E . p.Vos Bap8iodovu avveoT• rats.he commingledthese views with his own compositions. 187: Obt dyivo . Kcal'Apu6.."1 He wished to make David his model. he expressly implies that Bardaisan's poems were set to the lyre by Harmonius and not by Bardaisan himself.CS Kal .rdr 6 vrap abrov KaXovuJV7lV 6o T7Y actp7jorLv craTO. It is probable that in the Syriac." 18 Sozom..oUvoLKO r 7)P ?OsraOpaSo KcaaOdrEp v^ KGCal IroXXdKLS o0 1Appo rt'dXXovorL. XOPO rdptvwLO bra-ya 0. cit. 187) also states that Harmonius. rap' 'Oopovo^s dyI-opro.. my brethren."i. rvyypdALLczcrL.). but does not distinguish his work from that of his father. in the interval Bardaisan's doctrines reason to believe that had been modified by the influence of Manichaism and probably by other influences as well. But it must be borne in mind that Ephraem is writing There is about 150 years after Bardaisan's death. Harm.. p.e.

" and so on. There are also several allusions in the Odes. who was engaged in a fierce warfare with the Bardaisanite heretics. There is no reason to charge the Valentinians with . probably had not the ability and certainly had no desire to distinguish in the mass of heretical psalms and hymns the compositions of Bardaisan from those of his successors." and a "bride who is corrupted. it is more probable that the Bardaisanite hymns in meter known to Ephraem were the work of Harmonius and other writers. would endeavor closely to imitate the Psalms with which they were already familiar. It is probable on the face of it that Bardaisan. Whether other psalms and hymns were used along with those " of David " in the other churches is a question into which I need not enter. xxvi. harmonize singularly well with the little we know of Bardaisan's life and activity. and give them to drink of the wine of their intoxication so that they may vomit up their wisdom and knowledge. 4). Ephraem. and invite many to the banquet. but. while wholly insufficient of themselves to prove authorship. "I was delivered from vanity " (xvii. the whole of Ode xxxviii. and so ascribes them all indiscriminately to him. The poet says "the way of error I have left " (xv." and is "adorned. in view of Sozomen's evidence. in his earliest efforts to produce hymns acceptable to his congregation.168 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE earliest times." who "lead astray and corrupt the whole world. and there is no doubt that such practices were widespread among many Gnostic sects. which. It may be that Bardaisan was also the first to write hymns in meter similar to those Syriac hymns with which we are familiar. it is at any rate certain that their introduction into the church at Edessa was ascribed by Ephraem to Bardaisan. Just such imitations the " Odes of Solomon" unquestionably are. and there is every reason to accept his evidence. 6). celebrates his deliverance from a form of error portrayed by a "bridegroom who corrupts and is corrupted. 2). Bardaisan had been converted from Gnosticism to Christianity. This reads like a condensed abstract of the account given by Epiphanius of his own experiences when young among the "Gnostics " of Egypt (Haer.

for it must necessarily ensue even if he did not disobey the Emperor. xxv.plvaro. 7'. e. Other Odes. viii. It would fit in very well with the recorded statement that Bardaisan had been ordained deacon. and was almost appointed to the order of confessors. cit... p. 1. The same must be said of the allusion in xx. &viteTpe rapavolatbroos 4pvoraacOaLtb XpwLrLavbv Eavrb'v XI-yewv. 186: 'A'rwuvvov 'ralpy Ur 6 U? Pelas uv8pelws diroXoyod5evos. xxxv.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 169 them. . xxviii. but it is quite possible that the poet. xxix. 56. The much discussed opening verses of the 4th Ode -" No man.. when exhorted by him to deny that he called himself a Christian. His " work is the Psalm of the Lord " (xvi. which would be appropriate to the age of the Antonines. and his addresses to his readers intimate that he anticipates something more than a hearing. Bardaisan believed himself to be orthodox. op. suggest that the persons for whom he writes are not unacquainted with persecution.. rdEcMoXoaylar Kosarder. like Epiphanius. despays.. and replied in clever speeches. v. 2). 7-c Lr BtaotLXet AL iTreliTOL.g. 10." 19 There are several Odes which intimate that the speaker has suffered persecution. O my 19Epiphan. had as a youth just escaped the temptations of some such sect.. manfully defending [the true] religion. Ilcer. and declaring that he had no fear of death. " I am a priest of the Lord. but the suggestions are too vague to be of value. 'AroXXwv•Pt 6 tK7K1 7 70T0 irp rd0EfOCLL. " He withstood Apollonius." etc. ix.. and bearing such clear evidence of deep and sincere religious feeling. and wrote against the heretics. 8div Odvarov P/L q1jas. rather suggests spiritual than ecclesiastical priesthood. Marcion and others. p. might have served to draw a band of devoted followers about their gifted author. X6ayovs e8tivac d7re. Antoninus' friend.20but the context in Ode xx. ap. Of more weight is the general impression conveyed by the Odes as to the author's relation to his readers. 20 Le livre des lois re avroeos i Tbv 6.. KbP Nau. 6. Harnack. e. but it is not always possible to distinguish between what he says in his own person and what he says in the person of Christ.g. We are told that Bardaisan came very near suffering martyrdom. One can readily imagine that Odes so beautiful as these.

ii. surely Bardaisan might have used Greek in Syria. 444. which had been in large measure bilingual for centuries. 16. 49. 48. But neither of these suppositions is as yet beyond question. moreover. Havr. and raise a presumption in favor of the theory that the original was Greek. the true Jerusalem which came down from heaven. 442.21 It appears then that the little we know of Bardaisan's life and activities. the language of the Odes and their title. and in particular of his relation to the development of Syriac hymnology. On the other hand. But two objections present themselves. because he hath no power over it. ii. The occurrence of Greek words in the Coptic version proves. indeed. 1. no more than that the author of the Pistis Sophia was working from a Greek text-not that the text was the original. possible that in the last quarter of the second century Greek was a privileged tongue in the church of Edessa. and the Odes are supposed to be translations from a Greek original.2 The fact that these Odes. but they are not sufficient to put the question beyond doubt. If Hermas could make his revelation in Greek to the Latin-speaking Roman Christians. Bardaisan was certainly able to write Greek. (Dind. and it is not possible that he should change it and put it in another place. 21. 14. changeth thy holy place. Epiphanius." It is. even about the middle of the 21Epiphan. of course..) 22 I am inclined to believe that the original was Greek. distinctly favors the hypothesis that he might have written the Odes of Solomon. . as I have shown. it is not yet proved that the Odes were first written in Greek. Gunkel. Bardaisan is supposed to have written in Syriac.. The words and phrases of the Syriac text upon which Schulthess. for thy sanctuary thou hast designed before thou didst make other places "--in which Conybeare sees Montanism. describes him as "eloquent both in Syriac and Greek. are much more easily explained as an attack upon the Montanist claim that the holy place. was to be found at Pepuza in Phrygia. much as it was in the Roman church a little earlier.170 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE God. and others base their opinion are indeed suggestive.

[N. 555.). The Gnostic group from which the Pistis Sophia emanated."in 1855. and. I have used that of Nau. This book contains the only fairly trustworthy evidence as to the views of Bardaisan himself. forged works in support of their peculiar tenets with the utmost freedom. indeed." Lack of space preventsme from entering into my reasonsfor dissentingfrom this latter conclusion.. The argument. the discussion for and against a Greek original by Schulthess and Nildeke. Le livre des lois des pays. I shall find it necessary to give a fairly complete outline of the "Book of the Laws of the Countries."in order to prepare the way for the interpretation of the Odes. It was first published by Cureton in 1847. many early sects. 91. 1899. concludes that Bardaisan wrote in Greek a dialogue "Against Destiny. 1863).in his "Spicilegium Syriacum. if a stray copy of the Odes fell into their hands and seemed to them capable of being used to support their doctrine. pp.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 171 second century. probably not fifty years after Bardaisan's death. Halle. Moreover. The Syriac was then again translated into Greek. and so on. 1910. to attach to it the name of Solomon. in ZDMG.B.2 The book professesto be a record 23 Besides Cureton's second edition. and Merx's translation (in Bardesanes von Edessa. 44 sqq. with an English translation. he found them in his copy of the Bible. Bardaisan'soriginal work did not contain the doctrineof planetaryinfluence ascribed to him by the "Book of the Laws. I can see no force in such considerations. presupposes good faith on the part of the author of Pistis Sophia--he was deceived by the fact that the poems had been long current.the fact that such works met with easy acceptance proves that the membersof these sects were as uncritical as their leaders were unscrupulous. from the latter version Eusebius' quotations and those of the Recognitionsare derived. From this Syriacversionthe existing "Book of the Laws " is derived. and again. pp. Haase (op. after a minute comparison of the " Book of the Laws" with the quotations in Eusebius and the Recognitions. The men who forged books wholesale certainly would not have hesitated. already bore the name of Solomon. Ed. has been very generally accepted as proof that they must have originated at least a hundred years earlier.and there would have been little likelihood that the fraud ever would be detected.] . of course. cit. Paris." which was translated by his pupils into Syriac. were regarded as canonical and used as such by the author of Pistis Sophia.

Their themes are as unlike as possible. It is at best based upon one of his works. whence arise in the world discord and confusion. The conception had become a commonplace Greekphilosophylong beforeBardaisan's of day. as Haase thinks. of a dialogue held between Bardaisan and his disciple Avida.24 These three principles. The conception acquaintance of I"Nature"( . the " great and holy will of God " will put an end to the discord. Even granting that the Book of the Laws fairly represents Bardaisan's views. sickness and sin. and it is quite possible. being independent. upon the problems of Destiny and Free-will. rve1/Aa). "Destiny " is the influence exerted upon the entire material world. and that he was the author of the Odes.) is unmistakably the Aristotelian(q'aos.172 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE made apparently by a certain Philip. of the ultimate laws that govern the universe. and introduce a reign of peace and love. Nature. it is obviously unreasonable to anticipate any considerable degree of coincidence between them. It puts into Bardaisan's mouth a He accepts the fundamental theory of marked originality. and Destiny. upon man's body as a part of that world. the Book of the Laws does not even profess to be from the hand of Bardaisan himself. by the constellations and planets. Free-will he shares with God and with the angels. may and frequently do clash. But in time. and also upon his soul. 2 The theory is obviously eclectic. and confirmsthe statements of the churchhistoriansas to Bardaisan's with Greek. It. in a severely scientific and objective spirit. It is only by accident that the two works occasionally touch upon the same topics. Furthermore. the Odes are devotional poems of a most intimately personal character. but dissents from that form of the principles doctrine of Destiny or Fate which was so generally associated with it. of astrology. The Book of the Laws is a discussion. "Nature" is the organic principle which governs the development and nutrition of his body. but the word which Bardaisanuses (= •l06t) possiblypoints to acquaintance with Peripatetic sources. that the connection is not immediate. . Man is ruled by three independent principles: Freewill. as Stoic writers were more disposed to use Stoic terms (•-yos.

from the notion so prevalent in all Christian ages. goodness. however. it was this that first led me to think of Bardaisanas their possible author. primarily. as the needle to the pole. I a brief article. to quote from the Odes at such length as to give an adequate impression of the author's personality--that can be gained only by thorough familiarity with the Odes themselves. good properly belongs to him. is suggestive.or were common in Syriac literature of his age. nor could it. I give here. but it is one of the minor threads in the web of evidence which I am endeavoring to weave.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 173 The number of coincidences that do occur. It is. Indeed. it gives a fairly definite impression of certain traits of Bardaisan's character. prove that the writers are identical. God.and these traits are in striking accord with the character revealed in the Odes. an expression of Bardaisan's own character. Bardaisan'sconception is very different. I have already referred to the singularity of the poet's attitude towards sin and evil. he seems to have no present personal concern with it. the theories of the Book of the Laws. and the affinity to that of the poet is manifest. bless. of course. Bardaisan regards man as imbued with a natural inclination towards good. indeed. rather. In the second place. that man is naturally inclined to sin. The real significance of the Book of the Laws is this: In the first place. and in doing good which he conceives is. their value as evidence is not great. and to pray for that which is good for every one whom he knows " . to " finds joy. While he is of course aware of its existence. This similarity of character does not. It is impossible. . to speak the truth. his whole nature seems to turn as naturally towards love. in phraseology and sequence of ideas. supplemented by informationafforded by Ephraem and other writers. offer a very satisfactory interpretation of several difficult Odes. Nearly all the Odes are full of joy and thankfulness. but in default of any evidence to show whether these traits were personal peculiarities of Bardaisan's. have been based in the first instance upon observation of what men actually do.

ASLZ "cleverly. because they have in them no faith. These modifications are not always indicated. even the way of truth. 6: " The way of error I have left. O ?r. nor are they even able to be convinced. " something more. 80 wa participate. p. and have added in footnotes the more striking parallels from the Odes." N." C . 6: "I ran in the way of his peace."Way of truth." Cf. lo! I will speak to you who do believe concerning this which he inquires. but I began first to question these. my son. and if it please us also. and thou wilt be able to know everything. " d'aprs les apparences. and are (p." C. 3) found destitute of all knowledge of the truth." The simile of a way or path occursabout 17 times in the Odes. Nevertheless. Avida's brethren say: "Believe firmly. " serons d'accord.freely modified by suggestions derived both from the Syriac and from Nau. because I was ashamed of asking thee." C. but are always pulling down and building up. because he will certainly give pleasure to him to whom the inquiry is directed. and he will hear something to his advantage. 29 S. Avida said: "I am desirous of learning." and again. tell it to us all. . and draweth near to the way of truth n without opposition. p. 8: " I will make you wise in the ways of truth. because Avida is not willing to believe. If. 1.? 2s The translation is that of Cureton." xxxiii. . by those things which I have mentioned.28 needeth not to be ashamed. and if it please us not. we shall agree " with thee." xv. 9 (C)." C. Ode xi." Bardaisan said: Thou speakest becomingly." to which Avida objects "But I am not able to believe unless I be convinced. my brethren. . " querelle.2 Nevertheless." Bardaisan said: Not Avida alone is unwilling to believe. necessity will compel us to show thee why it does not please us." N. thou hast anything in thy mind respecting this about which thou wast inquiring. therefore. 10." N. 28 1 P?" obstinacy. know that he who putteth his inquiries properly. 27. Cureton. 7. " fell from the way of truth. but also many.174 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE those passages26 from the Book of the Laws which are relevant to my present purpose. and is willing to be convinced. 2.

xvi. (17) " So he made the sun for the day that it may be bright. but they are all bound by the command " that they should do only that which was commanded them and nothing else. And how. and the rest of these things which are greater than we in some things. 84tJ. and I have faith in Him". xxxix. 11 . and know my knowledge." Why did not God create us so that we should not sin and be guilty ? " .. and the moon. So N . and His hosts are subject to His word." C. In the Odes. that there is not given to them Free-will of themselves. 88The comparisonof man to a harp upon which another plays. 18) But as to what Avida was saying .and I speak by His love. so speaks in my membersthe Spirit of the Lord. . and they have no confidence upon which they may hope.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 175 And he began to say to us: There are many men who have not faith. and the treasuryof the darkness is the night"." compare followinglines : (16) " The treasury the light is the sun. ."C. then. 5: " I am strong in His praise. The closest parallel is perhapsviii. . " de discouriret 82The conception that faith or belief is the first step in the Christian life occursfrequentlyin the Odes. 14: "1And created things run in their coursesand do their works" . xlii. 4) never says. 8." nor the moon." " I will not rise at any time.oI" ip de conclure." Compare. but night brings darknessover the face of the land. xxix. (15) " They know not how to stand and be idle.32 (1. " I will not change and not wane nor 31 a ." Also.if man had been created so. ye that are kept by it. But he exalted him by Free-will above many things. also. 6. 12. xxxiv. " They are instrumentsof the wisdom of God which errs the of not. also. I. and the xvi. 1 : "As the hand moves over the harp and the strings speak." N. xxviii. thereforefound I ."1 For they have not the foundation of faith to build upon. for faithful is He in whom I had faith "." . 6 : " Believe and live and be saved. xxvi. and made him equal with the angels.. but it is nowhere so directly connectedwith knowledgeas here. 6. xiv. and have not received knowledge from the wisdom of the truth.9 P . And on this account they are not competent to discuss and to draw conclusions. For the sun (p. "fixed by ordinance. that know me in the truth.also. would man differ from a harp " which another plays or the cart which another guides ? But God in his kindness did not will that he should create man so. 4: " I had faith. but would have been the instrument of him that moved him. the fact that the heavenly bodies never rest is adduced S6 as an illustration of subjection to the command of God. " to speak and to instruct." With the next sentence. 12-13: " Keep my faith. he would not have belonged to himself." Compare. For observe the sun. occurs vi.

xi." See. (1.) note 38.-ma. 17) On this account there has been given to him these things in kindness. and according to His excellent beauty He set me on high ". compare Ode xxix. . xvii. 9 : "not that Thou wast in need of us. (l•m s-).. 7: "I grew great by his bounty. and that there has been given to him Free-will more than to all those elements of which we have been speaking. and raised my mind to the height of His truth". and more especially of him who has obeyed and submitted to his enemy. 17. Here follows an account of the fall of the angels through their sin with the daughters of men. and govern himself in a god-like manner.~. 9 : "I was enriched by his bounty". For there are two commandmentsset before us such as are suitable and just 88Severalpassagesrefer to the goodness kindness -A? (1Z-on. 3) For everything that exists stands in need of the Lord of All. 87 Compare iv. the winds. . and and mercies (1. xiv. 8 "Bounty. (3) " According to His mercies He exalted me.. " and there is no end to his bounty.. For men are not commanded to do anything but what they are able to do. that by this same Free-will he may justify himself. 3. P awm. 9: " According to the multitude of Thy mercies.176 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE increase.I of God as manifested especiallyin creating man. 19) The commandmentswhich have been given to men are hard and they are not able to perform them. 30. "I will not rise and I will not set. p. and according to His goodness He gave unto me ". the earth. 4.and so of the sea. and p.for they are the instruments of the wisdom of God which errs not. (p. 1.) endowing him with powers fitted to raise him above his present status and make him more like God. note 40.." But the word used is ." . but that we were in need of Thee.P xxv. 5.. With the above. For bounty see (j-3a. the hills. 1. 27) On this account let it be manifest to you that the goodness Wof God has been great toward man.. 2: " According to His praise He made me." nor does any one of the stars say." Compare note 40. (1." that they might minister to him for a season." [. also. and associate with the angels. not . 29 sqq.8 Avida objects: (1. who also are possessed of Free-will for themselves. Bardaisan said : This is the answer of such a one as doth not desire to do that which is good. so shalt Thou give to me.4).] but all these things serve and are subject to one command. 7 : " He glorified me by His kindness.

or impotent in his limbs. but in the will of the soul. Who. "salvation. therefore.. ?-a = d7rcrTroL." and ~. and to speak the truth.~ more appropriateto receive commandmentsimmediately after leaving the way of error. 4 : " Lord. For we are not commanded to carry heavy burdens of stones [and so of other tasks]. Moreover. rather than salvation. or to avoid lying or committing adultery and fornication. is there who is unable to avoid would be somewhat Fi." V P?. 7. xxiv. and there is nothing that is able to hinder them. (1.a .. lo i M%. 197). and this too he is able to do. With the above passage compare xv. or that he should be guilty of hatred and falsehood ? For lo! all these things are subject to the mind of man. 6) to avoid doing all these things. do not Thou.•. What man. Should the evidence ever warrant a definite ascriptionof the Odes to Bardaisan." Commandments. Ode 4 . and desire that it should be done to us likewise. but the same phrase recurs. I should be tempted to emend the text of the Ode. po~ r take Thy Wordfrom me.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 177 for Free-will: one that we separate ourselves from everything that is evil and which we should dislike to be done to ourselves. and is then equivalentto d006vws. 7 (see p. And accordingto His excellent beauty He hath made me." . it is that is not able to do what those devoid of faith " murmur about I know not.g. and they lie not in the power of the body. t 40 "Without grudging. because of them that are deficient. 389 " Devoidof faith. xviii." Possibly " in faith" has been lost fromthe text. i•o consideredin connectionwith that of xxiv. For they are easy.. so is he able to love. And have receivedsalvation fromHimwithoutgrudging.. also to support by the strength of body him who is sick and broken down. 18) But there have been given to us according to the kindness of God commandmentswithout grudgingOsuch as every man ." 2a. It occurs eight times in the J] and properly means "without reluctance"." But it is usually found with verbs of giving. therefore. xxiii. ye in the knowledge of the Most High withoutgrudging. and to bless. 4: "Walk Odes. . in close connection • with qAj. e. and to pray for that which is good for every one whom he knows: and if he be in health and have the use of his hands. and as he is able (p. and the other that we should do that which is good and which we love. For even if a man be poor and sick and old. and have walkedtowardsHim.1 ^ ] . he is able to avoid doing all these things. 4 must be om. For I think it is in these commandments more than in anything else man has power. r and the interpretation of xviii. And accordingto His bounty He hath given to me.." s are easily confused. 6: "The way of error have I left. he is able too to give something of that which he has.

" i. For there are many things which impede the action of the body. 0=3 . And brings in of its fruits without restraint. so is the impulse of joy over what is lovely. which as it stands is unintelligible. and more especially old age. 42 This joy in the good is the most characteristic trait both in Bardaisan and in the author of the Odes. ' The wording suggests a plausible emendation "I. . and of that soul which has not rebelled against its governors. for the poet gives no description of human nature as such.178 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE who possesses a soul within him 41can do rejoicing. The words ae I~c~l p0?o . for there is no man who rejoiceth not when he doth that which is good. But whereas Bardaisan finds it in human nature as such. 0 Bardaisan. again. and my impulse is towards Him. 1: "As the impulse of anger against evil. 5. with the exception of those who were not made for this grace. and who are called tares. and the ?second po is a corrupt dittograph for J?. and poverty. There is one passage in Harris's translation which seems to express the doctrine of Bardaisan. every living man. " I love the Beloved and my soul loves Him.. 41 .] have been lost IPo. do you say that they are easy to perform ? Bardaisan said: To him who desires. hence a direct comparison of the two authors on this vital point is impossible. "I. not. Avida said: Perhaps a man may be able to avoid wicked things. after J . and the attempt to reconstruct the theories of each from the scattered hints in our possession would lead me far beyond the limits assigned me. but to do good things who among men is able ? ." makes it reasonably certain that the passage has no such general application. the poet finds it in the redeemed and purified soul. "the beloved. for this is the good conduct of a free mind. Bardaisan. and sickness..l1_ ? for vii." and a comparison with iii. My joy is the Lord. vii. and conceives "'the good " as good deeds. to the exclusion of Bardaisan's conception. 42 nor is there any one who doth not delight within himself when he refraineth from wicked things."Every man that possesses a soul within him. however. is literally." 5i. 27. I have said and do say that they are easy.e. The text reads: m )oa loa. nowhere definitely states his theory of redemption." But the word here translated "what is lovely. For would not that Judge be unjust who should blame a man for such a thing as he is not able to do ? Avida said to him : Respecting these deeds. and conceives "the good" as God Himself.

and the false enjoyment which attends evil. 12. as I also once loved it. 5-6 : "I love the Beloved. compareix. signifies a definite astrologicalfunction. Comparexxv." and created man. in that the wisdom of God is richer than they. whose rest is forever. and receivethe thoughtof the MostHigh ". Greekol0Kos8er6rqs.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 179 Bardaisan said : It is more easy to do good than to abstain from (p. JrtKpTarwp. xi. "For this conception of knowledge or wisdom as riches. like the . astrology]. 12: "I was justified by His kindness. in my humble opinion. 1. [Some believe in Destiny. and by the thought of His heart"." '5 j rulers. For the good is the man's own. contentment. my soul loves Him. 35) But let us speak now and show with respect to m ie]o. satisfaction) for a moment.l. 4: "Be enrichedin God the Father. some in Free-will. 4) I likewise. 9: "I was enrichedby His bounty. know well that there are men who are called Chaldaeansand others who love the knowledge of this art [i. and they see as things seem to them. iii. 24) We ought plainly to understand that the unrestrained ardor of love is called lust. heads." which has established the worlds. nevertheless is far removed from the love which is true. 20: "The worlds were made by His Word. (p. governors.. and His rest is forever and ever ". 21) But. 11. 1. Where His rest is. and has ordained the governors.. 0 Philip. 7) evil. . there also am I".=. they are false. some in Luck." (p. .e.e. as for myself. and on this account he rejoices whenever he does good. but the evil is the operation of the enemy and on this account when a man is troubled and not sound in his nature he does wicked things."and has given to all things the power which is suitable for each one of them. After developing in some detail the distinction between the true enjoyment which attends good deeds. Bardaisan proceeds: (1. I cannot determinetheir precise meanings. when applied to a planet. They are true in that men speak from the appearanceof what they see. incorruptible and indissoluble. He fixed the creationand establishedit. 10: "From above He hath given The conception "rest" me rest that is incorruptible.a.] (1. although there may be in it rest (i. " or "peace" occurs about seventeentimes in the Odes. each of which. it seems to me that these three views are partly true and partly false. xi. etc." " Comparexvi."N = U? j -. rpo•o-y6rLos. 12: " He spreadout the heavens and fixed the stars. which.

" "'those on the left. Jupiter and Venus are beneficent. iii. Strictly speaking. its disturbance is due to Destiny. 1. (p. De diffinitionibus et terminis astrologice (in Jul. 61 Precisely what Bardaisan means by " those on the right. of the Zodiac.. 48 Elements." probably T-TracLts. any planet is more powerful when in its own "'house. but it is here used of the total effect exerted by the stars upon the infant at birth. " Right " and " left" do not seem to bear any definite technical meaning in astrology.. 10) And know ye well that. but here probably means the signs ". n. p. jhz. and this change is called the Destiny and the Horoscope0 of this complex which is being sifted and purified for the advantage of that which has been receiving aid and will receive it 10until the consummation of all. N. In astrology as known to us. The next section shows how organisms are normally ruled by their respective natures. "Horoscope. pp.. wporTK67roS. 1.). Firm.4 = TOLXX•ta. Astrol. 663-664) that " right " sometimes means "north. The position of a planet makes its proper influence stronger or weaker . = 1. 1 . -" The complex. 14. See Otho Brunfels. for clearly " those on the right " are planets or constellations which are always beneficent.e." etc. ir=% o i " Those on the right. 383. (v) 12 sqq. Basel." 1. It signifies the total complex of relations constituted by the position of the heavenly bodies at any given moment. and Mercury neutral. because those heads and governorsupon whom depends the change that is called Horoscope..180 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE Destiny.m.OT. 49 Destiny. intelligences are changed in their descent to the soul." and sometimes perhaps " west.." .. libb." j." or when rising in the eastern sky than when situated elsewhere in the Zodiac." . Astron. that it has not power over everything.g. Boll has shown (Sphcura. 50o . Pruckner. is equivalentto and is. viii. "oipdvta arocxe'a. a translation of aX??arp~ps rs obpavlac KLV75aeWs.are opposed one to the other. Corr." sometimes "'east. & Add. ccelestia signa.-Procl. for this very thing itself (p. ed. Mat. elxcapdvfy. 1551). or when setting--but it cannot change its proper character." None of these seems to fit the present passage. 47Disposition of the motion. and according to this motion and disposition. Mars and Saturn maleficent. whenever nature is disturbed from its right course. used by Ptol." sometimes "south." I cannot explain. Tetrab. 13) which is called Destiny is a disposition (or arrangement) of the motion4 which is given to the governors and the elements4 by God. And those are on the right 11 called " those which assist nature" and add to as haps. the horoscope was the sign of the Zodiac rising at the moment of birth (see the admirably clear summary of the leading doctrines of astrology given by Sextus Emp. and souls are changed in their descent to the bodies. per- . Adv.

for he is a slave and a subject. 68 Cf. (p. but sickness and health. i. 10 : "Thy will is perfection. For if we were able to do everything we should be everything. the laws of the countries do not separate them from the laws of their Messiah." either twy/?ara. we should be the instruments of others. anything can be. As the Free-will of men is not governed by the necessity of the Seven. whom in every country and in every region the Messiah established at his coming. because He is kind and permits all natures to remain as they are and govern themselves by their own will.. 1. etc. all of us are called by the one name of the Messiah . i. a certain position in the Zodiac fixed for each planet (Ptol. though bound none the less by the works that have been made and by the institutions which have been established for their help. or geovpavgiara. This is the position in which its influenceis strongest." For this orderliness and government S" Helps them. xviii. when their inherent beneficent influencesare re3nforced by their positions in the Zodiac and relations to other planets and constellations. N Cf. 22).-Procl. and in its "houses " it has a certain position. 34) and holy will.j) that 2•. which is interpreted. xxvi. so also is this visible man not able readily to deliver himself from the commands of his Governors." 55The " works" are probablythe material universe. . withstand . especiallythe stars. 10) But wherever they be and in whatever place that they are.. 11-12: " Who is able to interpret the wonders of the Lord ? For he who could interpret would be resolved into (1oa. which is the first. befalls them wherever they are. and whenever it is governed it is able to resist its Governors. 32. "Their own degrees.. But whenever God wills. then.not by their strength . "High places." particular." etc.e.o . (p. for lo! wherever we be. and upon one day.but by their wickedness and error. but also." eachplanet has two " houses" or signs properlybelongingto it.. without opposition. For there is nothing that can hinder that great (p. and riches and poverty -this which does not appertain to their Free-will. the " institutions. shall we say respecting the new race of ourselves who are Christians. and on the appointed days we abstain from food. 4) What.their natures. Those on the left are called "bad." and whenever they occupy the high places they are opposed to nature and not only injure men." .Christians. position on or near the meridian. 1." For even those that think they withstand it. 33." and if we had no power to do anything. This may last for a short time.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 181 its excellence whenever their motion helps them 52 and they stand in high places of the sphere in their own degrees. we assemble ourselves together. neither does the Destiny of the Governors compel them to make use of things impure to them.

and all rebellions will be brought to an end. in all its forms." 1 education. But there is good reason for believing that the form in which it appears in Plato's works has been directly influenced by Oriental ideas." " rvsultat. although astrology as a science was as yet unknown to the Greek world at large. It is probable. Its present evils can be corrected by a new combination of its elements. however.and deficiencies will be filled up. The doctrine was probably of Oriental origin and was introduced into the Greek world by the Orphics about the seventh century B. whose equilibrium is maintained by a balance between opposed but system equal tendencies. and mingling of one with another. also. as they were injuring and injured from before the creation of the world. It was probably always associated with the complementary idea that the soul which has thus fallen from her divine estate should seek again to regain it.. who probably learned it from the Pythagoreans. bad. The world is a a. Proclus' interpretations of the myths of the lit. W a68 . influences severally appropriate to the several tracts of space through which it passed. widely prevalent in antiquity. and the foolish will be persuaded. that they should not be altogether injurious or altogether injured. again.. Its origin. by the bounty of Him who is the Lord of all natures.C. And a time will come when this injuriousness also which remains in them shall be brought to an end by the restraintsmfound in another mingling. that. " training. softens down the violence of the natures. all evil motions will cease. although it is not possible to prove. or both. might be conceived as personal or impersonal." N. the soul was supposed to encounter. These influences. in one form or another. and there will be peace and safety. in all cases. the existence of this element. for it already contains the essential elements of the astrological form of the doctrine. The doctrine of the soul's descent from heaven here sketched by Bardaisan was. good. and later by Plato. And at the establishment of that new world. it was adopted by the Pythagoreans. both in its ascent and its descent. is not known and the diverse forms under which it appeared have been but imperfectly investigated.182 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE which has been given.

the eternally subsisting and inflexible dominion of Necessity to which the soul. 345.v rept68wv ylverat Paa~telav r7A7d'AdCYK-I.57 . he would. po•ra 6KKEL74 r^ d-'yOp ALXKOS •T 7repL65wv w^i 78allgo . PT7)TU TrOtOvTwJ' &XXcoM L 77s otbECe 7-P Ir^i . and I cannot supply a better commentary on Bardaisan's statements than by translating one or two short passages from Proclus' intolerably prolix commentary upon the Republic. ii. in a sense. So also the soul. Bardaisan that the body only is subjected to them. when she has proceededas far as the lowest of the orbits (i. arbitrary and fanciful in detail. of course. upon falling wholly into birth. Kroll. in such manner that she is not only a part of the [lower] world. 14: . is subject to the guiding spirit. Proclus holds that the embodied soul is absolutely subject to the influences of the stars. although. just as though a philosopher were to embark in a ship and become a rower. Proclus' own theory is very similar to that of Bardaisan.ri7v br oa'av del KalId&Klrov 6 Procl. but is one of its lowest parts. 7p6etaw U lsr E rb o xarov 7 otpavlwvreptXflc00e6arot7aercv. .. for he would have to take from the sailors such and such orders and obey the pilot and be exposed to gales of wind. depends upon the operation of the celestial orbits which severally exert their diverse influences upon her. differ in no way from the things which are moved by other things [only]. that of the moon) becomes subject. is exposed to material spirits. she becomes one of the things ruled.e aucWvTW "yd'otro mmi 5aqCeJva rpbTrov7d biroKe~eOOa ~dXcacr AiC d tral L&Um ftreeOac 7tr rVuep'ry eal al ux1 rjv & epo y'p c lydveoes ot~dv*' o'mTW re'VooG'a rdi•rmw rwirc. re A dbrvov 70ooG &dXXC b rt rdv goXdrwv v Kcral Kac cuvat ela rb d Krl ccl'palc 8tocKo0PTWP a7rp olo' et rtr hX6tofoPo s pat' p 5LoLovudIWer rr *a KCL d-~yC7y&p TroTrovKal bIrb Trw 7r& aIKC r 7rXwr7p drcKo~.e. but the soul is governed by Free-will. This is Bardaisan's doctrine with one important difference. in Remp. In another passage Proclus describes at some length the ed. . [in brief].NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 183 Republic and Timeus are therefore correct.~ 6• X rats d Oprbcrw^ vx. o hvel rb g-arovCrpoeXOofGa r^ . and instead of belonging to those things which rule the Universe. and the body only in so far as not controlled by its nature. 5CLc4OO'bL KOO•ILKuIC '•O'Tpw7CCt 7 &XXaei asra'v. o epG rW^ K6onov IAdpoS. in so far as the general outlines are concerned. and as she proceeds thereto she is immersed in all influences [emitted] from the celestial [bodies].

rdvTwv Top 6T0 V r6 Kai S ro6Tw7J IX6YPrTW paCoT7pLOv repi Tis 'EVIeOEL. cit. He then brings [the soul] from Klotho to the spinning of Atropos.not merely the kind of life. p.. Ei Trl br•eLepa ~rl roT ?rpb abr V el 7 Ba 5p. PLa6Ovovoa yp I"rXelo0tv ObKdTL y ?r' &XXoLts77/JL dKeCOev T? KLTV^ ?EW VCa7riv ^rpoEPeL.PL ObK &pa rI TrI 'yevIVOELs eZT a-vlrX-lpovoaOa TwVPd&vOp&r7rTv T7y ofeo'Oac ' L. d. KvpwOjvcal fqo-wL 7b 6 1 Kal eleOazL uTLS v pXeac els" 7a rarbXX Tre 86o~"r*cd' var•eXX6. but Klotho (= "Twister "). 7 KaL rpo57p~ern ^T T vs o0ev elpopdv2v rolqv70L alOavulrXeIoOAlP avrpd rep elp •Tp ' ov7Pha70o KdTiw 70T rdoews d&retrcltav ol raaXtol Kai d reKdacavTes KXwcOc38td 7rara 7rP Mortpa -KcdXeo••a. exert a great and effective fateful influence upon nativities. and through the threads which it gives. which is twisted and intertwined from all these. L&8•OLV d4eLrEAcorpoca 8dLV 7 vT7vP Xav cvaPdWV K6KXWV y&p aeTr) rapd7TL Ts oO)K ?w00s . . XX drb T•K rdP'oTwV Ka 5&&y va ylveEat iZTd•L• v JAwv al h04Kovoal. puoLpav ali Seya'dyXv rip o v &. too. from the signs of the Zodiac. i0ouv Pbvov d&rb ?yl'ot. dvrl MeT&r 7rava IroLvY ?T•v v'otv 7Lt KXOeL KaL al" WV rapasecadvrm &XXa yet 7f 'ATp6brov. in that she causes to stream upon us the gifts of the celestial from the constellations also which rise simultaneously with each of them there comes to us a generous largess. called this Fate. and by way of a simile they. The influence. rdpaI dT& KXwo0'dvTa a'T7ry 1yd/rcJTV 7roLOvOav. but also the [influences] imparted to us by the Universe. the products of her spinning [or twisting]. . then. drypplovwa Ic LTr 7L/v^ T 7TC^ &CXX Kac &rb 7-w rapao . .v7-w XaX&ao^o ~ piwvi&uGv ? Kal Ailry6irmot roXXo irepl rv rpoyV'rJdaerv. U KXwOI KvpoT TaGVTa ToLs LavT-fl v7Pha-L Kal KXcSaoLaaotv. makes what has been twisted incapableof being un58Op. then. From Lachesis. KXwOov^r rapapylverat. but Klotho ratifies them by her own threads. 8 P PvX) Tr /LOLpazta. 7r Xszjavofs 86oel.6vov w I d&rb T v wv dXXr dov abtrbTwP d7TXavY rXavWpivre 6vWvr. K y'lp 7 rap' i KsKai 0los. . Kal a y 8 aXdov &~ r6o0YLaLXXOV VKTaLrivra tL lveraT V'roKaraKXtveTaL rTEpL68ots. CXX& cal ra drovepbt6eva 7ytAv T 70 raVrT6.. comes from Klotho ? He (Plato) says she ratifies the destiny we have chosen.. the ancients compared to "twisting" and "turning" together with the stretching of the thread from above downwards. TW7 7TE K6KXWV " t KE Kai 7Tw V CLVaTOS LOLpPV KaL darb TWP 7TW9V TWdv7r'XavrCoP' TwP daOTIpwV Kal TWP v 8Xw ryUCWV KCai TWP&XXv OvLordeeWov. . for this reason. then. we get both.184 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE way in which the soul's total endowment is derived from the constellations and the planets :68 What. a&" 1V 7rTeTLOdaav T•. and from them [the] Chaldean and [the] Egyptian [astrologers] are wont to foretell many events of our lives. sphere. •d 8vuvar•b d&PavyeYv Trdos dTLrOeoLav TrotSalpeOe•LOLv. which finishes the twisting. indeed. 342.dbi d7rXcaVWP 1oo0OaL. Tc Uava0Tp676epa XoEV' AaXiaews. Not only. 21: 7T drb r o drb p ebX6AeOa Aotpav* obXl T6 7rrwis ei8os b6vov. . ' ?v T& Kal elp". upon the ground that they. from whom we got life.

] 62 V. by means of the planetary orbits. and of the stars. are given to us through the planets. the narratorsof His praise. 4~•~o. but is m Za. 60For ao read A. (2) and my lips show forth his fruits. from which she cannot escape until she has brought what she elected to its completion. And the more these secondary [influences] work upon us on top of those which preceded them. 7. the heralds of His thought. etc. 61 I have followed. For as the soul descends lower. (4) (5) 59 Read without points. I shall endeavor to interpret some of the more difficult Odes in the light of Bardaisan's doctrines. she contributes to us. and that the [influence] of the fixed stars. and of the other constructions [such as the triangles. Like his subtlety is his piercingness.. the more inevitable do the decrees of destiny become. from their motions. Wisdom. are filled up from the fixed stars or the planets exclusively. and the door of His light. 4 -al . the chasteners of His works. Turning now from Bardaisan to the Odes.NEWBOLD : BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 185 twisted. one upon another. .62 Read plural points.ED. she becomes subject to more and yet more orbits."' The subtlety of the Word cannot be told. various [gifts] thence. Labourt's reading: which yields excellent sense. 60 As a stream of water streams the truth from my mouth. [Cf. suppose that the nativities of men or of other living creatures. 22f.. otherwise difficult to defend. and of the circles on high and of their degrees. inscribed in the Zodiac]. One should not. the confessors of His counsel. 5 is unintelligible. therefore. For upon receiving from Klotho the spinning. The twelfth Ode runs as follows: The WordI9of truth hath filled me that I may speak of him. reluctantly. 4a. and of the signs taken as wholes. but that from them all results a single train and series reaching to us. (1) (3) He hath increased in me his knowledge. For the mouth of the Lord is the true Word. The Most High hath given him to His worlds-the interpreters of His beauty.

e. the Word will continue the work of reconciliation in which he is now engaged until all discord has disappeared. . 8. here seems nearly equivalent to 65 I. praise." The poet feels himself (vv. Or the ppl. 9a) . thought. and he is impelled to sing of his nature and his work.Lflj'Ea. For [it was] the voice of the Most High [that] spake to them. may be pluperfect. and they knew him that made them. But intelligence. in converse were those who were silent. 7). such is his final end. 4). "Those who were silent" are perhaps those on the " left. His meaning sped by his agency. Never doth he fail but steadfast stands. and of " chastening" His works (v.e. They know the Lord in His truth. For as his work is. 6a) . Blessed are they whom he has made to know all things." i. he also inspires love and concord (v. because they were in concord. and they told one another whatever they had [to tell]. through his influence upon the " worlds " they have become the means of revealing God's beauty. ipF. counsel. through that love " 638 Final end. They were penetrated by the Word.6 He is light and the dawning of thought: The worlds through him talk one with another." For the dwelling-place of the Word is man. "In converse": for the " Word" the poet has used consistently throughout this Ode. He is Light and Thought (v." see note 51. 5." From him came love and concord. is not the only effect of the Word's activity . 1-3) inspired by the Word which issues forth from the mouth of God. by that of the Word. and his truth is love. they have acquired the power of communicating to one another their thoughts. 64V. consciousness. he pervades the universe (vv. nothing can resist him (v. And knows not his fall nor the way of it. 6") . (11) (12) This beautiful poem might well be entitled "An Ode to the Word.186 (6) JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE (7) (8) (9) (10) and endless is his course.

7 (Lightfoot-Harmer's translation). and Ecclesia. or ruler. the things that are in the heights. whom the moon obeys as He bids her shine by night. In the western Valentinian system of which Irenaeus has preserved the best account. the sea. p. after the aeons have been produced by the Propator :67 The Holy Spirit taught them to give thanks on being all rendered equal among themselves. and his truth is love (v. too. the "meaning. 12). by whom all things are ordered and bounded and placed in subjection. Am. and Christus. and the things that are in the sea. Yet the same Word that rules the stars in their courses.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 187 the worlds become aware of their Creator (v. by whom He enclosed the sea in its proper bounds. fire.66 To any one who has any acquaintance with the literature of astrology the " worlds " as described in v. i. and it will be remembered that " worlds " is the word used by Bardaisan for the planets [note 45]. dwells in man. cut off from the lower world by the Horos. and Logos. 10a. ed. Blessed indeed must they be who feel themselves possessed of such knowledge as this (v. the heavens and the things that are in the heavens. or one of those who have been entrusted with the dispensations in heaven. the things that are between the two. b). for the Word is the voice. and led them to a state of true repose. These are not Valentinian weons. they are shut up within the limits of the Pleroma. and Anthropos. 6 With this description of the cosmological functions of the Word. vol. and have nothing to do immediately with the redemption of the world accomplished by the Soter and by Jesus. and Zoe. . the earth. Fathers. Thus then they tell us that the mons were constituted equal to each other in form and sentiment. The female mons. chap. whom the stars obey as they follow the course of the moon. But certain elements of the picture certainly are Valentinian. whose mysteries all the elements faithfully observe. became all as Aletheia." This Epistle exhibits other points of contact with the sphere of ideas common both to Bardaisan and to the Odes. 10Jo d). the things that are in the depths. 6 Ante-Nic. by whom He made the heavens. 318.. from whom [the sun] hath received even the measure of the courses of the day to keep them." the thought of God (v. or one of those that direct the affairs of earth. air. compare the Epistle to Diognetus. and the things that are in the earth. 11). or angel. 4 will suggest the planets and constellations as conceived by the pious astrologer. abyss.. [God sent to earth] " not a subaltern. so that all became as Nous. and Spiritus. The meonshave no such functions. but the very Artificer and Creator of the universe Himself.

and with the concurrenceof Christ and the Holy Spirit. A leading difficulty is the first word of v. Then. 72Inst. p. and has not yet been satisfactorily interpreted as a whole.(and therefrom produced Jesus). and they resolve to contribute each the best he has68 to the nature of Jesus. 8. but chiefly to establish the fact that " worlds." 69 and therefore talk to one another. as conceived by Bardaisan." which. and have made them equal. then." It shows no other points of contact with the Book of the Laws. they next tell us that these beings sang praises with great joy to the Propator. The pictures are similar but not the same. Div. 164). For this I read " formed. brought together whatever each one had in himself of the greatest beauty and preciousness. being thus established and brought into a state of perfect rest. is further confirmed by Lactantius' quotation :72 " Salomon 69 68tirep elXe' #p davrr KdXLOTOV Kal dlVOypbra6To. when written in the Estrangela c. p. The Valentinian aeons sang praise because Christ and the Holy Spirit have given them such knowledge of God as they are able to receive. probably means " planets.71 The nineteenth Ode is one of the most difficult in the collection. 12. these two pictures are inspired by one and the same original.188 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE Everything. Certainly.. Harris. with one design and desire. ap. for which no good sense has been found." literally " equality. I have quoted this Ode partly in order to show how precisely it conforms to what we would expect of Bardaisan as regards its doctrine (compare Haase's summary. 6 q. out of gratitude for the great benefit which had been conferred upon them.. their Father also setting the seal of his approval on their conduct. and tell each what70he has. love and " concord. The Worlds in the Ode receive from the Word knowledge of God.who himself shared in the abounding exultation. note the description of the work of the Word. iv. which is given by Moses bar Cepha." in this passage at least. the whole Pleroma of the eons. yet they contain striking identities of thought. character is easily confused with The emendation . p. 71 But . 198.r.

(8) and since there was none. The virgin became a mother with many mercies.75 (6) They moulded the body of the virgin and she received conception and bore. 78 7 So alsoFleming. And gave the mixture to the worlds 74 (5) and they that received in its fullness arethey on the right. "I (10) and loved in safety and kept in kindness and showed forth in majesty. (2) and He who was milked. 4. oSakets.. 76See note 51. J r"S 80 j.NEWBOLD : BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 189 ita dicit : Infirmatus est uterus virginis et accepit foetum et gravata est. etc. e e )rvevXes Kal Kva7cT/r 1h. (3) And the Holy Spirit milked Him because His breasts were full and it was not fitting His milk should go to waste. and I drank it in the sweetness of the kindness of the Lord. for He kept her safe. vii. Or.&1. 74Read pluralpoints as suggestedby the pl. Himerius. et facta est in multa miseratione mater virgo. she bore voluntarily.73 The Holy Spirit opened Her [the Spirit's] bosom. •Las' eyAdX. (7) She travailed and bore a son without any pain." Infirmatus est is meaningless. 77&L. (9) She bore in joy 78 and acquired79in great power. (4) and mixed the milk from the two breasts of the Father. of the verb cf. rawplc. Hallelujah.17 like a man. but informatus est represents with a fair degree of accuracy. 76 And she sought no midwife. I have followed Labourt'ssuggestionand read . frexev &I K-vaOarO was corrupted into KT7aarTO and the order of the Kcl XOZa.AL corresponds to 6'EdtsL.. the Father. she was empty. 76Read L2oa" m. e. gErworep. -. alK Va . --= eavUrb. part. For the rare aor. The Son is the Cup.--a' Kpcd6ret text read: 79 suspect that the original that d-yaXXLdre&. I Tim. ]•-.g. without their knowing it. KvTr-aT?o verses changed to suit the sense. of which I can make no sense here. (1) A cup of milk was offered to me. mid. 4 16.QA.

so offensive to our taste. is significant(see note 51). especially noteworthy are the expressions" the worlds " and "those on the right. 9-10.~i. but not. Ephraemgives a brief account of Bardaisan'stheory :82 s81The fact that this distinction between planets as on the right and on the left. is the divine influence or Word of which he seems so vividly conscious.0 ' 4010 4..190 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE Notwithstanding the strange metaphors. She needed no midwife."? W 0.•-•. of the virgin. A l? 1f.'I. receive it in its fullness. cit." It remainsto adduce further evidence which will directly connect it with Bardaisan. without pain because she was empty--the precise meaning of this conception I shall discuss presently. 82Homrn. those on the right. and the language in which it is expressed.•. !..•Zlo cm •. 50rka .o C?5 !. is in general agreementwith the Book of the Laws. gives it to the planets.e. 6-8). and she brings forth a son. is apparent. 557 : lv. ii.?4aOI? 4? z PJI c wiy. and to which he refers so often.- Ptolemy.z_'•o0 xA i? irm oZ SV0 -'P?9? b %. p. !1ti~2 !o• •-•-• ljm•. --•-• R• tb: •'•z Ft1:uo t:•k•_• •. . 3 and 4 the Holy Spirit draws from the Father a similar divine influence or substance. so far as I have been able to discover.- !- .3 Ibl 1 • fl b. op."30 P jOe .. In vv.-k- jlQl~m ? t-•. i= . " •!. occursboth in Bardaisanand in the Odes.3 li? 1•! ! 4.81 the beneficent planets.1 %&CMI&3 ' QZA? bj. mixes it in "her" own bosom and i. The milk which the poet has received through the Son as the Cup.• •io •L •.Av . That this theory. The planets then "mould" or " form" or "shape" the body. God protected her from all harm during the process (vv..!-li9.• 1-. the theory of the Incarnation here set forth is perfectly intelligible.•oo1. The poem closes with the crescendo of vv. literally belly. Verses 1 and 2 are introductory and serve as a key to the understanding of what follows. ai-• otlrq•z .

and "1something" does not necessarily mean more than that Ephraem found Bardaisan hard to understand. and all the rest of the constellations. with the sun and moon. were they made manifest to the aeons? A star shone forth in the heavens above all the stars. and its light was unutterable." The theory that Christ's Incarnation was concealed from the powers of this world occurs early in the second century in Ignatius' Epistle to the Ephesians : " And hidden from the prince of this world were the virginity of Mary and her childbearing. which protects Harris' emendation (the sing. "Flow" is used in Syriac of almost any easy. for He is "light from light." literally "1flowed and descended.' in the mystery of a marriage. for the pl. unopposed motion. and its strangeness caused amazement. sprout. formed themselves into a chorus about the star. Cf. for the disciples of Bardaisan. then. 4. There then follows an allusion to a widespread notion "the mixture was given to the worlds without their knowing it. but the star itself far outshone them 88"The Son of the Living One. how much more pure must His divine nature be. that they may not rave again. it certainly is well fitted to express what the poet describes in v.the which were wrought in the silence of God. glory be to Thy Nativity! And in that he said that it was impossible for one ever to germinate." "Something flowed down.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 191 Pray. But even as our Lord's body was not born from between two. But the allusion to the "mystery of a marriage " is more significant.). How. The word which I have rendered "marriage" may have a more literal sense. 2 8. and likewise also the death of the Lord84-three mysteries to be cried aloud . my brethren. 84 I Cor. and procreate. our Lord he called a 'Nature born from between two.Holy Jesus." CompareOde iii." suggests that Ephraem had before him the very milk simile of Ode xix. . . as when like children they say something flowed down from the Father of Life and the mother conceived a hidden son and bore him and he was called the Son of the Living 8 One. will become living. then. 11: "IHe who finds pleasurein the Living One. But too much stress must not be laid upon his phraseology." The context shows that the Living One is Christ.

p. one to another. 19 . the total result of which is determined by the horoscope. therefore. for conscious intelligences. in Bardaisan's system their influences represent the sum total of what we call nowadays mechanical laws. at the moment of birth. which is the law for organisms. of course. so to speak. which is the law. pass through the spheres of the several planets s7and receive from them certain modifications.the "worlds" simply "mould" the body. do the planets act as the instrument of God's will in bringing about the virgin birth ? Because. Ephraem in his commentary upon the Epistles of St." tion that souls must encounter the divinities of the planets in their descent and ascent was common among the Gnostics. escape these influences and appear on earth precisely as he left heaven. or of nature (fto-qL). is subject to the control of the planets. signs of the Zodiacand of other constellationswas supposedto co6perate. Ig. tr. 182. 180.88 The divine Christ in his descent must. gives quotations from an apocryphal Epistle of the Corinthians to Paul. All that is not under the control of Free-will. be produced by the planets. or relations of the several heavenly bodies.192 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE all. then. The nature of these changes is not further described in the Ode . But other sources complement this statement in a very satisfactory way. Why. 86See above. which has been preserved in Armenian. again.they must. Paul. . and is seen in the personal peculiarities of individuals. ch. together with a commentary in which he interprets the doctrines there expressed as those of Bardaisan. and there was perplexity to know whence came this 8 The nostrange appearance which was so unlike them. 87The influenceof the planets is the moreimportant. no doubt that of the 88 See above. the intelligences in their descent to the souls and the souls in their descent to the bodies. Lightfoot. The changes in the Virgin's body which were prerequisite to the accomplishment of the virgin birth would not be produced by the 4nots of her body . (Italics indicate 85 Eph.86 But here it has a peculiar significance. p. In Bardaisan's system.

" Evidently Ephraem knew Bardaisanites who held that Christ went through the Virgin's body without receiving anything of her. &Orep ytp v 1JCp & awXjvos tipXeTraL. cit. so also did he . IyPve7ro o6bUPv RwOep rpooXfapihp.that is.. . 26: cs Kal ol &yyeXot "A8pacl 0oV. p. . they say that he who spoke through the Prophets is no almighty God. .90 It cannot be trusted as evidence for the doctrines of Bardaisan himself.namely. ed. Gr. 170. 24: KcalZ 6 XoTyoU~Ev facryov ab•6r. 178. . And they do not admit that he was bornof the Virgin Mary . . D. but the Gospel. we confess that he [came] through 89Translated from the German version given by Zahn. 6: &rt opd•iov oC&a tXape." formerly ascribed to Origen. xvii. And they say our Lord did not come with an earthly body. Mcplar Ka o K~Ic ty o~rw Kal 6 Xbyor rpoo'Xaljdpwpi. and ate and drank with him.. The book was written about A. Marinus holds: "1that he (Christ) took a heavenly 9 body . p. her. /tlw•Up Maplas. 300. opavv Xev Xwv r• ' al nrtov r' a6ro6. But this doctrineis that of the schoolof Bardaisan.of the seven Guides. And they say thereis no resurrectionof the body. 9: 6 X-yos a6rbo adpt 1. . vol. van de Sande Bakhuyzen. Gesch. a certain Marinus. xvi. NT.. say they. a Bardaisanite. Kanons. and of man they say he is not made by God at all. 6: a •r6. . . 174. . accept the Prophets. II. W.appears as one of the speakers. namely : One should not. it is not even certain that it faithfully reproduces the views of the Bardaisanites of that age. i/. 597. he himself suffered in appearance . 22: 5OKOet IrrTOVOEv A•r i' Ka u I o-w a. dXX'0K & Maplas.91 It is of value only when confirmedby other evidence. but with a heavenly body. 176. . he came from heaven with his body .NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 193 the quotations. In the dialogue " On the right faith in God. d. H.. the Word himself became flesh without taking anything from without in addition .) "IAnd the words which they speak and teach are erroneous. butof for they say he went throughher as somethingnot [coming] from certainangels. iv. 90Der Dialog des Adamantius rept 91 Op. orwal 190. And they call God not almighty. . as distinguished by Zahn89 from Ephraem's commentary. but by the seven Guides. cit. And they regard the world not as the creation of God. 92 Op. Schrift. r ~ elsOeb de6pO^s 7rlarews.D.L/L o o 8Ld Maplas. Chr.. as the angels appeared to Abraham.

.eo& eis y'yveort dr7b TW^v 7Tpeo/d. Spic. because milk naturally is engendered along with them. Cancer and Capricorn as the "gates of the sun. 129."] " Now Capricorn and Cancer are near the Milky Way. And according to Pythagoras the souls are a ' tribe of dreams.yaXacla v 94 De ant. and didest assent to thy teacher Bardesan. that is.oW1 s / AL 7owo al c 5aratsTo l//V4vXayWyobl KEKpay•o 'ycXaKTL. Porphyry's pupil. so [came] the Word through Mary. ed. phys. and it is so named from the [souls] which are nourished with milk when they fall into birth. who assumeth the body of Christ to be from heaven. the absence of pain proved that the conditions to which pain would be due were lacking. p.rhv8et . gives Heraclides of Pontus a clue to the source of the tale95-the Milky Way as the place of the souls. 904. necromancers offer the souls a libation of honey mingled with milk.LEge'XeTJKViaLs epXeoaca als 9 Stobaeus. with the idea that they are induced to come to birth for the sake of the pleasure (or savor). they say] assemble in the Milky Way. aowL) EiS TbV at 6JT7aC -yXaKTr y-aXaciarv TJ o1v7W rpoo'ayopev6/1. several accounts of which have reached us.) repeats Porphyry's account with some variations. Cureton. Syr. Iamblichus. 8 d6elpwv KaT( IIHvOay6paV 4/vxal ds avvdyeTOai q5 ' (al. Cancer the northern and Capricorn the southern."''93 Thus it was that "she bore a son without any pain." 7. 14 sqq. for just as water goes through a pipe without taking on anything. he says [al. whence regarded 98 So also Philoxenus. Heeren: KUal rokotLs HpaKXe5l7V '1 fh&y'bY HorrTLK6Y 1Opilot ew repi T+)' (sic) yacalarv. i. For which reason also. &V *Jt •S . . 28: Aly6Kepw~ ~ Kai KapKlvPO S 'repI p/h rT KapivoS P-6pela Aiy6Kbepw~ & v6Tra8GcLos T7r rdpara abroI eiXyX67res.194 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE Mary.. he says. p. she was empty". and not of Mary. ch. Because thou hast not comprehended the mind of Bardesan. but not of Mary. The remainder of the Ode calls for no special discussion." Proclus (in Remp. ii. The milk simile is probably a translation into Christian language of an ancient myth. nympharum. 52. and since there was none. . p.. . constituting its limits. ap. : " There are some of them who say that he sent down the Word a body from heaven. Kroll. . 68' '50ov^s eIS -YeOtY vyrKVeOae 'br6 ydXa ri vKCEV. vi. The earliest detailed account is that of Porphyry :94 [Homer speaks of the solstitial signs. Eel.' which. as thou saidest just now.

956 But he may have drawn it from other sources. It is not at all impossible that the author of the Odes knew of this myth in its Greek form.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 195 they came to earth.Sozomen's language (see note 18) implies some affinitybetween Bartheories.the departed soul has fallen into the "milk " of the sky. The author of the Odes believed. 4. pp. d. 3 . 1034 sqq. Upon returning to its proper home the soul will of course again need nourishment.). and it may well be that the ancient explanation of the celestial "milk" as being the light with which souls are fed suggested milk to him as an appropriate simile for the divine substance which proceeded from the Father and Holy Spirit and issued through the Virgin into the world as Jesus. The theory of the virgin birth presupposed by this Ode is Irenaeus gives it in almost known to be in part Valentinian. similar tablets. 660-63) the soul avows itself a " child of Earth and of Starry Heaven " (ry wrai~el/' xaia opaPvoiaTEpde0ToT). his interest in the mystical aspect of Pythagoreanism is well known (Zeller. and I have no doubt that this is a genuine fragment of early Pythagorean doctrine. 1. 989. the Pythagoreans refined the conception . The Orphics had taught that the soul is "breath ". he must have had trustworthy sources of information. for this light is the heavenly milk designed for souls. and so I would interpret the sentence found in other. that souls consist of light or are robed in a body of light (see p. Heraclides was a pupil of Plato. I have) fallen into milk " . and this is the meaning of the name. The origin of the Orphic-Pythagorean doctrines has not yet been discovered. Ed. the words used by Marinus. So in the Orphic burial tablets found in southern Italy and Crete (Miss Harrison. to the Study of Greek Religion. but it is in my opinion certain that an Oriental element enters into them. daisan's doctrineand the Orphic-Pythagorean . p. Phil. Bardaisan probably did. is a luminous substance. "he who went through Mary 96. 203). "a kid thou art (or. as at least some Pythagoreans did. Proleg. as he was a man of learning. ii. it is nourished by the dim light diffused in the Milky Way.

" what the Spirit had given Mary. The theory of the incarnationwhich follows is ascribed both to Axionicus and to Bardaisanand may represent Axionicus' conceptionsmore faithfully than Bardaisan's. 9 Cont. 2. the constructive craft (587uLtoUpY'LK 7dXPYv) in order that what the Spirit had given to Mary might be moulded (8ta7rXaae0). (1) The Dove flew upon the Messiah. then. i. p.. impliedin Odesxix. Irenueus. The milk is representedby the Holy Spirit. among whom are Axionicus and Ardesianes [= Bardaisan].e. but son of the Demiurge . i. . KaOdlrep 96a wX-o'o Hippolytus. Valentinian. because He was her Head. and the creeping things died in their holes. and her voice was heard. for the Holy Spirit came upon Mary.. and the power of the Highest. (3) The birds dropped their wings.196 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE like water through a tube. the Jesus who is thus born of the Virgin is not the Son of God.96a Ode xxiv. the operationof the " worlds" by the " power of the Highest or constructive craft. ap. Wisdom (Sophia). 35. and the sojourners were moved.the Spirit as a dove descended. the body of Jesus is. vi. according to the western Valentinians.i. can be interpreted if viewed in the same light. and came to be with the (ydyove 7 ) psychic [Jesus] and raised him from the dead. But it is closely akin to the theory of Ode xix. 356) : etar Ur ToTrovr G8& ~8wp 8t& TbY Maplas b8osedoavTra. the divine Christ descends upon him at his baptism.. the body of Jesus was "psychic. (Panar. and xxiv. i. hcer. the Logos of his mother on high. Wisdom. ." Accordingto Hippolytus also. 24 (cf." 9 But the doctrine of the Ode is In the system described by not. . Hcer. She sang over Him. as a whole. we have that blending of Gnostic and orthodox elements which I found in Ode xii. (2) The inhabitants were afraid.)." In the Ode the stars mould the body of Mary. at his baptism. it would seem. again. Gr. that is. and which is believed to have been characteristic of Bardaisan. Hcer. 1. But in the Ode he is the Son of God Himself. and therefore. Epiph. 31." which " moulds" --the very word of the Ode if my emendationbe correct. that Christwas divine from his birth and did not acquire divinity at his baptism. 7. says that. But those of the East. hold that the body of the Saviour was spiritual. Bardaisan held the orthodox doctrine. Here. . formed in the bosom of the Spirit.

But in v. cit. 59-62. that they might abide. know His holiness. 5.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 197 (4) The abysses were opened. commingled one with another. 200. Because it was not possible to give them the Word. For they were corrupt from the beginning.them. and the final end of their corruption was life. (9) For they were defective in wisdom. 97 Read . his thought leaps forward to its final consummation. see the parallel from Ecclus. because they had not the truth. The clearest statement of Bardaisan's theory of the work of the Word is given by Moses bar Cepha.98 He held that the five elements. And those that have comprehendedit. (7) There perished from among them. Hallelujah. air. of all those that had not the truth.. had become. (8) The Lord has destroyed the thoughts. sketches in broad outlines the regenerating work of the Word. and no food was given them. light. As Ode xii. (5) The abysses were sealed with the seal of the Lord : They perished by His Thought. so this Ode depicts a certain stage in that work--the stage initiated by the descent of the Dove. all things that were defective." that had been from of old. water. (10) For the Lord has disclosed His way. quoted p. those that were exalted in their hearts. darkness tried to rise from its place below and a9 Translatedinto French by Nau. pp. and spread abroad His grace. with one of those rapid transitions so characteristic of the writer. And they were rejected.m . op.. and darkness. fire. . and were spurned: They were crying to the Lord like women in labor. because there was none for. for some reason not given.

.- \. the birth of Christ was one. In this process many stages can be distinguished.198 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE mingle with the others. S . "Then. at the sound of this tumult. 99Hom. it was driven away. He affirmed the existence of the substances l = oo-ata) in language which caused (-. in dualism.. But as regards the work of the Word.. the Makers of all things they thought to be nothing. darkness. the last will be the final perfection of the universe. is only part of a vaster scheme for the regeneration of the universe. the deeds of the Maker they ascribed to the things made. III. at one time. the pure substances sought refuge in the mercies of the Most High. that is to say the Messiah.r •:. consisted.Za. he removed darkness from the midst of the pure substances. supply a satisfactory Bardaisan's heresy explanation of several of the Odes. . 444. and he reestablished each of the substances in its order by the mystery of the cross. O. And from the mixture of these substances with their adversary. The first step in this process was the creation of the world." I. The regeneration of man. ii. he established this present world. contra Hcer. vol. and decreed that they should mingle no more. therefore. and the poet describes vividly the effect of that descent upon nature. The descent of the Dove may be interpreted as another. to charge him with making them independent of Ephraem God . the statements of Moses bar Cepha. in a state of chaos. supplemented by the last paragraph of the Book of the Laws. c. descended. into which the Word enters and introduces order." Whether this picture of the battle of light and darkness can be found implied in the Odes is a question into which I cannot now enter. in part. Ij. *Mo!. and the present mixture was purified by a conception and a childbirth forever. B: " Marcion and Bardaisan blasphemously allege that the Creator is not one. and fell into the depth of its nature.4oM 10oL o ' o.. the Son and Holy Spirit they confused with the created things. p. )o~~~~~t~~~~~3 cuj O ~ ufr-• -•!~ oo• Q•l •0IjtL lJ .99 he conceived them as being. the Word of the thought of the Most High.

1?2 This is. iv. 93. Meteor. So the material substances. p. 2-3". (dp6to-ovu?)i 101 .g.b describe the effect of the Dove's descent upon animals so 3'.'00 "'Abyss' is something the essential nature of which is unlimited. cf. 1. et corr. ap. 108See above. ed. when brought into contact. probably to devour it. and probably it is a Valentinian definition.. 166. Proph. 990 : ivooos yhp rb drepdT TO eOeov8al rolVUV U& . They open as the Dove descends through them. rI ppovV yJv' KGa rTO6r trl KaiTOL Kal vBwp /L6pbovrb Jo&p o'K &v elreV &~Fvoov. and let not their dark mist enwrap me. n. KaST rTYp lIaV Kal Eclogax.' " It is reasonably certain that this is a Gnostic. Tisch. although limited by the power of God. from which the several genera and their species come.rTpaot6oeVOp T& ~ ? W'i erql YlperaT.and 4 describe its effect upon the abysses..' for he would not have called water alone 'abyss.. 102 E. Potter. ii. Since the days of Heraclitus men had been familiar with the conceptionof the elements as consisting of opposites which.. op. the aspect of Bardaisan's theory which Ephraemdesignates by the word "opposing" or "conflicting" substances.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 199 The "abysses" are the vast gulfs of air. perhaps." thrust aside. Verses 3e and 4 describethe internecinestrife of the elements in a vivid picture. remnants of primeval chaos. II. mutually destroy one another. p.. vapor.101 As vv. " Come now. that I may pass over the waters of fire and all the abyss.." Acta Phil. have been termed 'abysses. 103 it is -FiM. cit. p. chapters iii. and give me the eternal crown of victory over every antagonistic principle and power.--they are "spurned. 7ro70 o?TclaL 4T0 & etp71Trac* ire U'6aTraoLLV. but is found in this sense in Clement of Alexandria. Arist. as Clement was largely influenced by that sect. also note 66. 2. thus giving rise to the ceaseless round of transformations which we see. which separate heaven from earth." the apostle prays just before his death.' And yet matter is allegorically described as' water of the abyss. r^vdpEL FV'TO'ot u•&voos VXO dXX-l'yoppLcLLr. Jesus. Anz. It is a Jewish conception.. and iv. 40. de gen. that which is expressed in the Book of the Laws by describing the "natures" as "injuring and injured frombefore 100 Ex Script. and fire. p. and the effect of the divine influence upon them. So also in the Gnostic "Acts of Philip.

18. The confused and warring elements are brought to rest. 7. Conceived as components they are aTroTxeta 105 See p. the " abysses are sealed with the seal of the Lord. LL. 9. finally. p. In vv.200 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE the creation of the world. . 182. term for the elements conceived as possessingactive properties. and the completion of their corruptionl07 was life "-this present world must pass away to make way for a new heaven and anew earth. "this injuriousness 100also which remains in them. 186). "as is the Word's work. "like women in travail.• . 4." and the idea is certainly the same. their warfare stayed. the Word was given to the worlds. . 182. is the correct technical . See Duensing. xii. the poet turns from the cosmological to the anthropological aspect of the work of the Word. they " cry to the Lord" in a state of agonized turmoil and confusion. 106 5pC0apgdva (?). 86." But their cry is unheeded.W. 2. those that had been of old. The descent of the Dove is an event of such commanding import that even the dumb beasts recognize it. in the words of the Book of the Laws. 109 "it was not possible to give them the Word that they might abide.. and Odexxii 11 : "That everythingmight be dissolvedand Jac. so the Book of the Laws. "They were corrupt 106 from the beginning. by the thought or will of God. they have been checked. The chief difficulty of this Ode lies in the opening verses.Similar phenomena are describedas attendingChrist's birth. 109." as in Ode xii." The Ode proceeds: "They perished by His thought. p.109a This is a e 104 Note that the word " natures. " deficiencies will be filled up" .s08 "All defective things "must perish. Protev. shall be brought to an end by the restraints which are in another mixture." 1OLS."1'0 But here the poet depicts it in a vivid image -the abysses have been engaged in devouring one another." or." which is almost a translation of a'ro-0 eithoraeav /vo-rov. 1osSee p. 10. 107 b 7TrAos r^ Oopas(?)." 109 j. such is his final end" (Ode xii. 8. Zur 24ten Ode Salomos ZNTW. in Ecclesiasticus 43 23: translation: Xorytr/Aw Jerome's "cogitatione sua placavit abyssum. then renewed.

" So in xlii. At v. 191. 22." i. Death lets go the "feet and the head.e. The "thought" or "will" of God which descends like a letter. the 23d. the Christ.and I wastheir head. de ant. ibid. 112 xvii."' Upon the wheel is a "sign of the Kingdom and the Government. 29. according to Bardaisan.p.e. ch.11obut the seal upon it protects it from them. repredeparting souls ascend throughCapricorn. govern the operations of mechanical law." her superior.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 201 Gnostic idea. 12 the poet's prophetic eye looks forward from the moment at which the Word entered into the system of nature. Christand the dead who are to be saved. is "her head." ' The head" 112 is probably Christ as the Head of the Church Comparethe effect of the appearanceof the Star upon the other stars 110 in the passage from Ignatius quoted. Again an indication of the curious blending of orthodox and Gnostic ideas so characteristic of these Odes. here symbolized by the system of planets revolving in the Zodiac which. for "the Messiah. I give merely a paraphrase. when Christ descends into Sheol. " Many hands " of the Powers of the Spaces." "The head went down to the feet. nymph. for in the Valentinian system the divine Christ does not come to earth until the moment of the baptism." probably the Star of Bethlehem. The regeneration of the system of natural law inevitably carries with it the triumph of the Gospel. which bears the seven planets to which in Ode xix. 18. to the more remote results of that stupendous event. But the Dove here does not represent the Christ. for down to the feet ran the wheel and that which was a sign upon it. is the Word descending to be born of the Virgin. This same group of astrological conceptions affords a perfectly intelligible interpretation of that very difficult Ode. rush to seize it. 14: "They wereto me as my own members." the great "wheel of the Zodiac " (wcostaKov Ic. ch. ascribes to the Oe6Xoyom doctrine 111 . the Abysses. that descendingsouls enter the world throughthe Zodiacin the sign Cancer. As it offers no special difficulties of translation. It is received by a "wheel. a Porphyry. also the descending Christ is committed. But others of the Oe6\oyoL sent the souls as descendingthrough the moon and ascending through the sun . it sweeps away all obstacles and makes "a broad path." i.cXo9).

202 -the JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE conception of Christians as the body of Christ frequently recurs in the Odes . Batiffol objects that it is represented as already accomplished. and in the following 113See p. viii. I have. which represents the operation of the Gospel under the forms of regenerated natural law. It is. I think. his roots. The preceding verses speak of the bonds which Christ is to loose. for believers in predestination are often advocates of Free-will. Another characteristic trait of Bardaisan's teaching was the denial of the resurrection of the body. Bardaisan himself recognizes 13 that Free-will subsists only by the sufferance of God and will prove no obstacle to the final regeneration of all things. 14-22). incompatible with the theory that they are the work of Bardaisan. "to convert the souls of them that were willing to come to Him." 114 An ancient is not required to be more consistent than a modern theologian. In only one passage is it. I think." Nor is the doctrine of predestination. perhaps. the poet describes the resurrection of the dry bones. xxii. of the dragon with seven heads.g. is the doctrine to which Ephraem pays most attention. But this is not. I am not aware of any demonstrable points of incongruity. 181. But the context is distinctly against a literal interpretation. 178. indeed. 3. and he also recognizes the existence of "tares. his seed. for future events are frequently described in these Odes as accomplished. In one passage. I do not think this settles the question.the feet are probably the souls in Sheol yet to be redeemed. The poet's thoughts are dominated by the consciousness of the work of grace in his own heart and he has no special occasion to deal with Free-will as such. established a certain degree of congruity between the doctrines of the Odes and those of Bardaisan. this." "who are not made for this grace. 8-10. 114 See p. carries Christ there also. indeed. . The revolution of the wheel. which is definitely taught in the Odes (e. true that the doctrine of Free-will does not definitely appear in the Odes while it is one of the salient features of the Book of the Laws. his poison. and this Harnack takes as referring to the resurrection of the body. implied: x. an objection of any force.

380. obviously borrowed from Ezekiel. 1?6irpgev. the son of God" (xxxvi. vii. lf 115Hipp. 418.. dsr c 8•-yeype rov Kil pi irohlqe. These passages unquestionably point to the well-known doctrine. "in me there shall be nothing that is not bright. found in many Gnostic sects-and elsewhere--that the redeemed soul possesses a body of pure light. of course. and S. affliction or suffering" (xxi. But before Bardaisan's authorship can be regarded as established it must be shown that all the Odes can be intero KareLXi/CdyVoT . and I was clothed with the covering of Thy Spirit and Thou didst remove from me my raiment of skin" (xxv. "I put off darkness and clothed myself with light and my soul acquired members free from pain. p. . I have endeavoredto show: (1) That no antecedentimprobabilityprecludesthe ascription of the Odes to Bardaisan. incompatiblewith the notion of corporeal resurrection. 10 (D. This presumptionis strengthenedby the passages which clearly do refer to the state of the redeemed. In a similar sense should be interpreted. rbv d'Opw116Op.."17 The conceptionof a corporealresurrection cannot. So Hippolytus in describing the Docetae that they regarded souls as "the eternal marks (or says imprints) left by the light when it shone from above down below. 2). e b&r R Tfv OrwHOIjpa. 3).1" is the and the eastern Valentinians used the same word Saviour's office "to awaken the soul and light the--it spark. Bef. (2) That some of the Odes can be readily interpreted in the light of Bardaisan'stheories. then. p.. The presumptionis that the clothing of the dry bones with flesh. cit.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 203 verses we have the rock which is to be the foundation of all things. Potter: IXNb oDv 6 ZTIwrprby &vXbv PwOeC KcdTrwi ^wrbs Tto alwvlots XapaK'rpOL. 28. 16. p. 3. 66: Areg4'e oirvO•pca wsj. 7b. 23): . 117 Excerpta Theod." 115 Saturnilus conceived of souls as sparksof light. 8). "the traces of the light were set upon their heart" (x. "although a son of man. have found place in the poet's theology. is also figurative. I was named the Illuminate. viii. 967. . 7b). which is..

-Procl. 1911.. Cat.) The earlier astrologerstermed planets "Ibeneficent" and "maleficent" (Ptol. which. astr." (See note 52. I have as yet found no otherillustration. 105). although generallyconstant for a given planet. (See note 51. "Their own degrees. might be modifiedor transformedby circumstances(ibid. 5).) "High places" are 'wcaLra. e.who has been so kind as to read this paperin proof. the later distinguishedbetween the unalterableproperinfluence. cod. But of the ascriptionof exclusivelybeneficent influencesto "those on the right.g. For the following notes I am indebted to suggestions given me by Prof. and I have therefore thought it best to make public my tentative results. cf. Franz Cumont. I. To this task I shall not be able to address myself for many months to come. p. warming.and the good or bad effects of that influence. also Julius of Laodicea. as others have done." etc. The " degrees " are the " limits " (5pma).204 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE preted from the same point of view." . in the hope that they may be found to contain some elements of value to the ultimate solution of the problem. IV. JUNE 5. The 300 of each sign are apportionedamong the five planets and those to appropriated each are termedits "limits..

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