Bardaisan and the Odes of Solomon Author(s): Wm.

Romaine Newbold Reviewed work(s): Source: Journal of Biblical Literature, Vol. 30, No. 2 (1911), pp. 161-204 Published by: The Society of Biblical Literature Stable URL: . Accessed: 23/12/2011 08:03
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Bardaisan and the Odes of Solomon'

of Solomon present THE newly discovered Odes literature problems asto the student of early Christian fascinating as they are difficult. The author is a poet, and a poet of no mean order, but he is much more than that - he feels himself inspired by the Spirit of the Lord and illumined by His light; the resources of language, even when strained to the utmost limits of poetic license, are inadequate to express the richness of that new life which has transfigured his inner self and filled him with the joy and peace that pass all understanding. Yet when one endeavorsto see the worlds of matter and of spirit as the singer saw them2 and to grasp his conception of their mutual relations, in brief, to reconstruct his philosophy and to determine his age, his environment, and the school of thought to which he belonged, one encounters peculiar difficulties. He is as much at home in the Psalms and Wisdom-literatureas any Jew, and yet is not in sympathy with the more distinctive tenets of Judaism. He acknowledges no circumcision save that of the heart (xi. 1-2), no sacrifice save that of "1God's thought," of "righteousness and purity of thought and lips" (xx. 1-7), no peculiar people, for his sympathies are as broad as humanity (vi. 7-17; xiv. 14-29). He is a Christian, familiar with the leading events-of Christ's life -the miraculousbirth (xix. 6-10), the baptism (xxiv. 1-3), crucifixion and descent
1 I desire to acknowledge to the editors my obligations for their kind revisionof the proofs duringmy absencefrom the country, and in particular revision of my translationsfrom the Syriac. ProfessorMontgomery's 2 The author's general point of view has been characterizedby many; perhapsthe best is that of Gunkel, ZNTW, xi. 1910, p. 320.





into Hades (xlii. 1-26 et al.), yet he absolutely ignores many of the most characteristic doctrines and practices of Christianity. He makes no explicit allusion to the resurrection or ascension of Christ's material body, or to baptism, or the eucharist. He knows of sin and evil as facts (xxxiii. 8; xxxviii. 12 ff. et al.), but they seem to lie outside the range of his own present concern; even his conception of redemption seems unconnected with the crucifixion. Moreover, amidst the profusion of poetic and allegorical images in which he expresses his ideas, there are some which one can scarcely regard as merely poetic and allegorical and which fit but ill into the traditional system of Christian theology. The "worlds" 4 et al.), the "garment of light" (xi. 10; xxi. 2), the (xii. "perfect virgin" (xxiii. 5), the "abysses " (xxiv. 3; xxxi. 1), - these, and perhaps others, are somewhat more than hints that the author's view of the universe is not that of the orthodox Christian theologian. The theories proposed to account for this puzzling complex belong to three leading types. The representatives of the first type, led by Rendel Harris, the distinguished discoverer and first editor of the Odes, regard them as belonging to a period when the new life which was stirring men's hearts had not as yet moulded their thoughts after its own image nor found words adequate to its expression, when Christian theology was as yet in the making and clear formulations had no existence, in brief, to the period, approximately, of the New Testament itself. A second group, led by Harnack, cannot believe that conceptions so disparate as are found in the Odes could ever have coexisted as the elements of the world-view of any single mind. They believe them, therefore, to be a composite product, the original Odes being the work of a Jew of unusually catholic sympathies, into whose text a Christian hand has incorporated a few of the more essential elements of Christianity. But Harnack also refers the Odes in their present form to a very early period - about the end of the first century of our era. A third group of students regard them as giving imperfect





expression to some peculiar system of Christian theology, accepted by some minor sect, probably of the second century, and endeavor to identify the sect in question with some one of those mentioned by the church historians. But upon this point no agreement has as yet been reached. Gunkel thinks them Gnostic, and Preuschen has announced3 that he will endeavor to prove them a part of the Valentinian Psalmbook; Batiffol4 regards them as representing a docetic tendency, perhaps a forerunner of the great Christian Gnostic movement of the second century and akin to that combated by Ignatius. But Conybeare 5 and Fries 6 would have them Montanist. In my opinion the weight of evidence is distinctly in favor of the third point of view. While the considerations urged by Gunkel and Batiffol are not all of equal force and it is not probable that all will stand the test of further criticism, the main thesis for which they contend seems to me established - that the Odes unmistakably reveal the influence of Gnostic speculation. Yet the evidence falls far short of proving them Gnostic, for many of the leading characteristics of Gnosticism, as of Judaism and of Christianity, are conspicuous by their absence. The system of eons, for example, upon the elaboration of which with every detail suggested by pagan mythology or a perfervid imagination the Gnostic thinkers so loved to dwell, is represented in the Odes by nothing but the "worlds," and of them so little is said that it is impossible to determine at first glance what the author meant by them. Again, the Gnostic was essentially an exclusive faith. It drew a sharp line of demarcation between the true Gnostic, or, as the Valentinians called him, the "pneumatic" man, and the common herd, whether Christian or not. In the Odes the "elect" (viii. 21; xxiii. 1-3 et al.) might be regarded as representing the pneumatic man, but their relation to the mass of men is conceived in a very different and more catholic spirit, for the poet looks forward to the time when all mankind will be numbered among the saved (iii. 12;

ZNTW, xi. 1910, p. 328, n. 3. r ZNTW, xii. 1911, pp. 70-76.

A Rev.

Bibl., NS, viii. part 2 (1911).

6 Ib., p. 108.

See the text.9 No one who reflects that Bardaisan's youth fell in a period in which Gnosticism was at its height. one does not turn to a hymnal for a system of theology. a man of deep sympathies. died 222. But one does expect a hymn writer." 7 As the author. have been acquainted with the doctrines of the Syrian Gnostics also. and that he lived in a land the peculiarity of whose culture made it the mother soil of Gnosticism. vii. if he be not wholly devoid of the poetic gift. then. was the stupendous drama of the Valentinian theology. Gnosis. must. of marked originality. while not in the technical sense a Gnostic. speak of the time when "Nothing that breathes shall be without knowledge. 154. nor shall anything be dumb. to employ those elements of his theological system which lend themselves most readily to poetic treatment. at least. of the Odes we must postulate a man who. 178. " Zur Bardesanischen 1910. Nor true Gnostic. 9 Felix Haase. the aim of which was essentially nothing other than a solution of the " World-riddle" with the 7 vii. One should not forget that it was the most enlightened minds that found something infectious in Gnosticism. and such.p.8 I cannot better express my own impression of the relation between Bardaisan and the Gnostics than by translating a passage from Haase's recent monograph. 22 ff. 88. The argument from silence is.). it is true.D. will deny that Bardaisan." Texteund Untersuchungen. Knowledge probably means gnosis. who believed himself divine and could the regarded all other men as akin either to animals or dead matter. in a preeiminent degree. was Bardaisan of Edessa. Such a man. . And he was also a gifted poet. passim. a man whose heart was full of love for God and his fellowman. 8 Born A. He must also have been a man who knew the life of the spirit by immediate personal experience. 27. was thoroughly familiar with Gnosticism and had borrowed from it much of his imagery and some of his doctrines. so far as our information enables us to judge. of broad vision. receptive as he was to all sciences and sensitive to all intellectual influences. note 41.164 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE vi. dangerous. p.

it is enough to maintain that astronomy in particular. Eusebius describes him as "a most able man and a skillful disputant in the Syriac language. we will not. aro~10 -TVyypal ica . 9. OkaXeTi'oP 5' dpa obrot rpo'Trepop Kear& orXOXfl•.le-raEEOar ctAlq ?S o0 EavT r 7rw aclrbs tdjJ ye direppoa-ro KiTrareXwC 7rXEUTcrd -I r 9'l rbr 7?7I 5La- Id. U To~0rrop Oat dpOorpaTr yPr v .KCtraTro. based upon his own philosophical..translatedfrom Syriac into Greek. ap. for he was a doughty defenderof his doctrine. To Bardaisan's intellectual ability all our authorities bear witness. 4 W raptC-ar/AgJ Gatb VrVaTwrj T'3 X6"Y' 8XhKao-&wcwv7^J. U ov• l ysdpLtAom. make the explanation unnecessarily difficult. Eusebius' assertion that Bardaisan was at first a disciple of Valentinian. It will remain a hopeless task to pick out. in this doctrine. It cannot indeed be determined at what period of his life Bardaisan had belonged to a Gnostic sect. I therefore regard as natural and credible. which his pupils .of whom he had many. dialogues against the followers of Marcion and certain other representatives of diverse doctrines. ibid. and his formal classification with the Gnostics by ancient and modern historians does him no wrong. in so far. &TpwP.rb Tr s26pwo /eTaLSe- 7rpoOcrraFdov . One will scarcely find a name that adequately and accurately expresses his teaching. Tre T7 pwp cqWJ Lrs Bap5eo•dpi7e dvlp tKavdraT•cT6s 7rpbs TrOb TKar& MapKriwva Kal Tr'vaL ErTpov0 /taq6pwv ^ r^ 15L 7rapgs5wKe ydTbrfr rE KaL-paq /. XEK. Bardaisan is. 30.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 165 aid of all that the heathen sciences and Christianity had achieved. . ETxr& So0ydd-rwP tWaX6yovevoT-•7~47'e0os. Lit. i. altchr. Nau and Hort are quite right in protesting against reckoning Bardaisan among the Gnostics in the usual sense." p 7rXEL~rrotL rap utprw i7rkelTwrw. Harnack. Gesch. and he therefore worked out a peculiar doctrine of his own. -Trl 'EXXhvwv .: alp&rews ?67roP.. 10o TE Tr7g KaTcl raXatai 11 iv. J6Ket Jeal U& r9j KcaraLTpoy0 raT?7~. laid the foundation of his peculiar doctrine. 1. and Gnostic influence. besides many other works. and remains. then was converted to the true faith without altogether giving up his old heresy. but will simply assume Gnostic influence.10 Bardaisan's keen intellect must have recognized the weak points in the Valentinian or [other] Gnostic system. theological. HE.d."" Epiphanius describes him as "one of the finest Euseb. and astronomical knowledge. in the age of Gnosticism. p. who composed and committed to writing in his own tongue. the "Gnostic " elements. a heretic. But if we find in his doctrines passages that unquestionably have a Gnostic ring. at least so far as its second part is concerned. 185: JP AvOo7rotasL d•reXg'y a.

p. . Duval. 14 sqq. eund. ii. 186: dptar6s rts oa. 12Haer. 187: talis Bardisanes. ap.. eund.dVOS. p. p. and that it has no resurrection.. 1865. rh 18De vir. and composedsongs and introducedmeters. 56.'5of the impeding substances. ap.. 33. Ad Hypatium. 10." 14 To Bardaisan's gifts as a poet no trustworthy evidence survives... 53. Syr. . (R." "1eloquent" both in Syriac and in Greek. p.that the soul [consists] of seven [parts]. in rhythmic and accentual measures. 1900. "such was Bardaisan. La litterature syriaque. Ephraem Syrus does indeed frequently speak of the charm which the Bardaisanite hymns exercised upon the minds of the people and attributes them to Bardaisan.. the stars.. ardens eius a Syris praedicatur ingenium et in disputatione vehemens. that the body is of the evil [principle]. 16 Le. p. contr. Overbeck. 18).166 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE of men. Ed. p. . cuius etiam philosophi admirantur ingenium. For example. Eph. "highly adorned with all the graces. Paris.16 And [so] he set beforethe simple folk bitter [mixed] with sweet .13 And again. ii. Haer. he says: Love for you. in S. ap." 12 Jerome says that he was regarded as "distinguished" and that the Syrians extol the ardor of his intellect and his vigor in argument.p ircitra 1eyMXwOSKEKO7c0Lfl/. 186: clarus habitus est . whose intellect even philosophers admire. 6yto . etc. . inl.sick folk they. the signs of the zodiac. et aliorum Opera Selecta. that I may not expatiate upon those things which Bardaisan alleges among his doctrines. He divided the words in measures and weights. 553: 15bEphraem discusses this doctrine at length. Vatican ed. constrains that you bear the repetition of their words. 63.5b and [all] the rest. brethren. Oxon. eund. . For he formed hymns and set them to tunes. in Osee. 14 Comm. 15 Or.

op. rap' 'Oopovo^s dyI-opro.e. 187: Obt dyivo .yevP40CW Ka & 7d gov7resr otdrobvt. but does not distinguish his work from that of his father. It is also more than probable that the hymns in use among the Bardaisanites were not of his composition.Theodoret (HF. 187) also states that Harmonius.e. the canonical Psalms had been used in public worship from the 17 Duval (loc. The circumstantialcharacter of this account gives it claim to credence. rpoo'Itt/. ap. too. Harmonius. TavraO cs 666as " Since he [Harmonius]was not entirely outside the limits of his father's sect and the views entertainedby the Greekphilosophers regardingthe soul." and indeed. he expressly implies that Bardaisan's poems were set to the lyre by Harmonius and not by Bardaisan himself.CS Kal .. irel ydlp ob raWdI r-tv &K769 JP37^9 rarTpCaCs TE q0paopaiO a65aTO0 KaZl 0l StbXororcZXtyyeIcrl o ap? EXXi1ro iPVX27S... 6 pat 56e r imv "EXXrort rap' Xbyw ao rpWrotLdrpOLS KGL aly6OLs dxO•rcra 4 r OpLy Kc ."1 He wished to make David his model.he commingledthese views with his own compositions.. His [i. otd ye brb VXpad Ovvrypdtaro avvOels.8S These varying accounts are easily reconciled.seeing that he set to the lyre what he [Bardaisan] had composed. and imitated his number [only]. Kcal'Apu6. Harm. he. CI . Harnack.Vos Bap8iodovu avveoT• rats. was the first to adapt his mother tongue to meters and musical rules.E . David's] truth he deserted.cit. " Les malades n'eurent point le choix d'un remade salutaire. my brethren. as in other Christian churches. p. But it must be borne in mind that Ephraem is writing There is about 150 years after Bardaisan's death."i. It is probable that in the Syriac. ap. XOPO rdptvwLO bra-ya 0. dXX& To tLs X& Kal caIPpIOeOs. Bap8a7. with the view expressed in his own compositions.oUvoLKO r 7)P ?OsraOpaSo KcaaOdrEp v^ KGCal IroXXdKLS o0 1Appo rt'dXXovorL.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 167 who chose not wholesome food. op. cit. in the interval Bardaisan's doctrines reason to believe that had been modified by the influence of Manichaism and probably by other influences as well. K rdXaL JXXoyLtcrTarotroTroPvbY 7rp6Tro Tre.wrote much in Syriac.. ct irep XpcbevoL. cit. as well as Bardaisan. HE. if I understand aright the following sentence." 18 Sozom. rvyypdALLczcrL. " having had a Greek education. TrosOIKelOLS YpdttCZaTv..rdr 6 vrap abrov KaXovuJV7lV 6o T7Y actp7jorLv craTO. iii. 16. the birth and dissolutionof the body and transmigration. Sozomen explicitly asserts that Bardaisan's son. ot iroAs 'Apwoviov • .). composed 150 songs. that he might be adorned with his beauty and praised for his likeness. p.

2). 6). and there is every reason to accept his evidence. 4). It may be that Bardaisan was also the first to write hymns in meter similar to those Syriac hymns with which we are familiar. it is more probable that the Bardaisanite hymns in meter known to Ephraem were the work of Harmonius and other writers. in his earliest efforts to produce hymns acceptable to his congregation." who "lead astray and corrupt the whole world. Just such imitations the " Odes of Solomon" unquestionably are. and invite many to the banquet. Whether other psalms and hymns were used along with those " of David " in the other churches is a question into which I need not enter. The poet says "the way of error I have left " (xv." and is "adorned. in view of Sozomen's evidence. while wholly insufficient of themselves to prove authorship. it is at any rate certain that their introduction into the church at Edessa was ascribed by Ephraem to Bardaisan. the whole of Ode xxxviii. and give them to drink of the wine of their intoxication so that they may vomit up their wisdom and knowledge. who was engaged in a fierce warfare with the Bardaisanite heretics. Ephraem." and a "bride who is corrupted. Bardaisan had been converted from Gnosticism to Christianity." and so on. and there is no doubt that such practices were widespread among many Gnostic sects. It is probable on the face of it that Bardaisan. "I was delivered from vanity " (xvii. celebrates his deliverance from a form of error portrayed by a "bridegroom who corrupts and is corrupted. probably had not the ability and certainly had no desire to distinguish in the mass of heretical psalms and hymns the compositions of Bardaisan from those of his successors. but. which. harmonize singularly well with the little we know of Bardaisan's life and activity. xxvi. There are also several allusions in the Odes. There is no reason to charge the Valentinians with .168 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE earliest times. and so ascribes them all indiscriminately to him. would endeavor closely to imitate the Psalms with which they were already familiar. This reads like a condensed abstract of the account given by Epiphanius of his own experiences when young among the "Gnostics " of Egypt (Haer.

suggest that the persons for whom he writes are not unacquainted with persecution. It would fit in very well with the recorded statement that Bardaisan had been ordained deacon. rather suggests spiritual than ecclesiastical priesthood.. 'AroXXwv•Pt 6 tK7K1 7 70T0 irp rd0EfOCLL. xxxv. . His " work is the Psalm of the Lord " (xvi.g. and his addresses to his readers intimate that he anticipates something more than a hearing. but it is quite possible that the poet. xxix. e.. p. might have served to draw a band of devoted followers about their gifted author. 7-c Lr BtaotLXet AL iTreliTOL. One can readily imagine that Odes so beautiful as these. 7'. which would be appropriate to the age of the Antonines.plvaro. We are told that Bardaisan came very near suffering martyrdom. 6.20but the context in Ode xx. O my 19Epiphan. The much discussed opening verses of the 4th Ode -" No man. for it must necessarily ensue even if he did not disobey the Emperor. Of more weight is the general impression conveyed by the Odes as to the author's relation to his readers. when exhorted by him to deny that he called himself a Christian. e. cit. and wrote against the heretics. Marcion and others. and declaring that he had no fear of death.. Other Odes. Antoninus' friend. like Epiphanius. despays. " I am a priest of the Lord. manfully defending [the true] religion. 1." etc. Bardaisan believed himself to be orthodox. but it is not always possible to distinguish between what he says in his own person and what he says in the person of Christ. p.g. had as a youth just escaped the temptations of some such sect. and bearing such clear evidence of deep and sincere religious feeling. &viteTpe rapavolatbroos 4pvoraacOaLtb XpwLrLavbv Eavrb'v XI-yewv.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 169 them. KbP Nau. and was almost appointed to the order of confessors.. xxviii. ix. Ilcer. 186: 'A'rwuvvov 'ralpy Ur 6 U? Pelas uv8pelws diroXoyod5evos. The same must be said of the allusion in xx... rdEcMoXoaylar Kosarder. v. xxv. ap. op. Harnack. 56.. 10. 20 Le livre des lois re avroeos i Tbv 6." 19 There are several Odes which intimate that the speaker has suffered persecution.. and replied in clever speeches. 2). but the suggestions are too vague to be of value. X6ayovs e8tivac d7re. 8div Odvarov P/L q1jas. viii. " He withstood Apollonius.

Bardaisan is supposed to have written in Syriac. 442.21 It appears then that the little we know of Bardaisan's life and activities. it is not yet proved that the Odes were first written in Greek. surely Bardaisan might have used Greek in Syria. . Epiphanius. possible that in the last quarter of the second century Greek was a privileged tongue in the church of Edessa. The occurrence of Greek words in the Coptic version proves. of course. describes him as "eloquent both in Syriac and Greek.. 49. and raise a presumption in favor of the theory that the original was Greek. and in particular of his relation to the development of Syriac hymnology. 16. the true Jerusalem which came down from heaven. for thy sanctuary thou hast designed before thou didst make other places "--in which Conybeare sees Montanism. moreover. much as it was in the Roman church a little earlier. But neither of these suppositions is as yet beyond question. indeed.. and it is not possible that he should change it and put it in another place. 444. 48. 21. If Hermas could make his revelation in Greek to the Latin-speaking Roman Christians. The words and phrases of the Syriac text upon which Schulthess. even about the middle of the 21Epiphan. Gunkel. Havr. which had been in large measure bilingual for centuries. no more than that the author of the Pistis Sophia was working from a Greek text-not that the text was the original. are much more easily explained as an attack upon the Montanist claim that the holy place. because he hath no power over it. the language of the Odes and their title. (Dind. and the Odes are supposed to be translations from a Greek original." It is.) 22 I am inclined to believe that the original was Greek. ii. 1. distinctly favors the hypothesis that he might have written the Odes of Solomon. ii. but they are not sufficient to put the question beyond doubt. 14. was to be found at Pepuza in Phrygia.170 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE God. But two objections present themselves. Bardaisan was certainly able to write Greek. and others base their opinion are indeed suggestive. as I have shown.2 The fact that these Odes. changeth thy holy place. On the other hand.

and there would have been little likelihood that the fraud ever would be detected. Bardaisan'soriginal work did not contain the doctrineof planetaryinfluence ascribed to him by the "Book of the Laws.. of course." which was translated by his pupils into Syriac. pp. if a stray copy of the Odes fell into their hands and seemed to them capable of being used to support their doctrine.2 The book professesto be a record 23 Besides Cureton's second edition. indeed. forged works in support of their peculiar tenets with the utmost freedom. I shall find it necessary to give a fairly complete outline of the "Book of the Laws of the Countries. were regarded as canonical and used as such by the author of Pistis Sophia. It was first published by Cureton in 1847.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 171 second century. Le livre des lois des pays."in order to prepare the way for the interpretation of the Odes. after a minute comparison of the " Book of the Laws" with the quotations in Eusebius and the Recognitions. 1863). 555. with an English translation. probably not fifty years after Bardaisan's death. and. in ZDMG. The Syriac was then again translated into Greek. 91. The Gnostic group from which the Pistis Sophia emanated. The argument. pp."in 1855.the fact that such works met with easy acceptance proves that the membersof these sects were as uncritical as their leaders were unscrupulous. [N. From this Syriacversionthe existing "Book of the Laws " is derived. presupposes good faith on the part of the author of Pistis Sophia--he was deceived by the fact that the poems had been long current. 44 sqq. cit. to attach to it the name of Solomon. Moreover. from the latter version Eusebius' quotations and those of the Recognitionsare derived. 1910.] . has been very generally accepted as proof that they must have originated at least a hundred years earlier. The men who forged books wholesale certainly would not have hesitated. he found them in his copy of the Bible. already bore the name of Solomon. Halle. This book contains the only fairly trustworthy evidence as to the views of Bardaisan himself. and again." Lack of space preventsme from entering into my reasonsfor dissentingfrom this latter conclusion. concludes that Bardaisan wrote in Greek a dialogue "Against Destiny. the discussion for and against a Greek original by Schulthess and his "Spicilegium Syriacum. I can see no force in such considerations. many early sects. 1899.B. and Merx's translation (in Bardesanes von Edessa. Paris. I have used that of Nau. Haase (op. Ed.). and so on.

Furthermore. and that he was the author of the Odes. being independent. the " great and holy will of God " will put an end to the discord. The conception had become a commonplace Greekphilosophylong beforeBardaisan's of day. But in time. . and it is quite possible. It. Even granting that the Book of the Laws fairly represents Bardaisan's views.172 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE made apparently by a certain Philip. Nature.) is unmistakably the Aristotelian(q'aos. it is obviously unreasonable to anticipate any considerable degree of coincidence between them. as Stoic writers were more disposed to use Stoic terms (•-yos. and confirmsthe statements of the churchhistoriansas to Bardaisan's with Greek. rve1/Aa). sickness and sin. of astrology. Free-will he shares with God and with the angels. upon the problems of Destiny and Free-will. and Destiny. The conception acquaintance of I"Nature"( . may and frequently do clash. "Nature" is the organic principle which governs the development and nutrition of his body. by the constellations and planets. The Book of the Laws is a discussion. but dissents from that form of the principles doctrine of Destiny or Fate which was so generally associated with it. It is only by accident that the two works occasionally touch upon the same topics. and introduce a reign of peace and love. upon man's body as a part of that world. of a dialogue held between Bardaisan and his disciple Avida. 2 The theory is obviously eclectic. as Haase thinks. and also upon his soul. the Odes are devotional poems of a most intimately personal character. that the connection is not immediate.24 These three principles. in a severely scientific and objective spirit. of the ultimate laws that govern the universe. Their themes are as unlike as possible. whence arise in the world discord and confusion. Man is ruled by three independent principles: Freewill. but the word which Bardaisanuses (= •l06t) possiblypoints to acquaintance with Peripatetic sources. the Book of the Laws does not even profess to be from the hand of Bardaisan himself. "Destiny " is the influence exerted upon the entire material world. It is at best based upon one of his works. It puts into Bardaisan's mouth a He accepts the fundamental theory of marked originality.

Bardaisan regards man as imbued with a natural inclination towards good. but it is one of the minor threads in the web of evidence which I am endeavoring to weave. their value as evidence is not great. Nearly all the Odes are full of joy and thankfulness. The real significance of the Book of the Laws is this: In the first place. to "love.or were common in Syriac literature of his age. goodness. his whole nature seems to turn as naturally towards love. I have already referred to the singularity of the poet's attitude towards sin and evil. I finds joy. good properly belongs to him. in phraseology and sequence of ideas.and these traits are in striking accord with the character revealed in the Odes. it was this that first led me to think of Bardaisanas their possible author. that man is naturally inclined to sin. While he is of course aware of its existence. It is impossible. have been based in the first instance upon observation of what men actually do. it gives a fairly definite impression of certain traits of Bardaisan's character. and to pray for that which is good for every one whom he knows " . the theories of the Book of the Laws. I give here. nor could it. offer a very satisfactory interpretation of several difficult Odes. supplemented by informationafforded by Ephraem and other writers. to speak the truth. primarily. God. It is. he seems to have no present personal concern with it. Indeed. prove that the writers are identical. indeed. In the second place. Bardaisan'sconception is very different. to quote from the Odes at such length as to give an adequate impression of the author's personality--that can be gained only by thorough familiarity with the Odes themselves. however. an expression of Bardaisan's own character.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 173 The number of coincidences that do occur. of course. This similarity of character does not. but in default of any evidence to show whether these traits were personal peculiarities of Bardaisan's. and in doing good which he conceives is. bless. is a brief article. as the needle to the pole. rather. . and the affinity to that of the poet is manifest. from the notion so prevalent in all Christian ages.

but also many."Way of truth. because they have in them no faith. by those things which I have mentioned. Avida said: "I am desirous of learning. Ode xi." C. 6: "I ran in the way of his peace.ASLZ "cleverly. because Avida is not willing to believe. thou hast anything in thy mind respecting this about which thou wast inquiring. 28 1 P?" obstinacy. 3) found destitute of all knowledge of the truth. because he will certainly give pleasure to him to whom the inquiry is directed. 8: " I will make you wise in the ways of truth. 80 wa participate. 1. 2. and if it please us also. but I began first to question these." xxxiii. because I was ashamed of asking thee. lo! I will speak to you who do believe concerning this which he inquires." N. .? 2s The translation is that of Cureton. my son. and thou wilt be able to know everything. . even the way of truth. " d'aprs les apparences.freely modified by suggestions derived both from the Syriac and from Nau. and are (p. These modifications are not always indicated. Avida's brethren say: "Believe firmly. and if it please us not. and is willing to be convinced.28 needeth not to be ashamed.174 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE those passages26 from the Book of the Laws which are relevant to my present purpose. 27. but are always pulling down and building up. " fell from the way of truth. If. know that he who putteth his inquiries properly. Nevertheless." C ." C. " querelle. p. and draweth near to the way of truth n without opposition." Bardaisan said: Thou speakest becomingly. 10." Cf." C.2 Nevertheless." N." The simile of a way or path occursabout 17 times in the Odes. nor are they even able to be convinced. 9 (C)." N. Cureton. my brethren. " something more. and have added in footnotes the more striking parallels from the Odes. p. we shall agree " with thee. 29 S. tell it to us all." xv. " serons d'accord." to which Avida objects "But I am not able to believe unless I be convinced. 7. necessity will compel us to show thee why it does not please us. and he will hear something to his advantage. therefore." Bardaisan said: Not Avida alone is unwilling to believe." and again. 6: " The way of error I have left. O ?r. .

88The comparisonof man to a harp upon which another plays. the fact that the heavenly bodies never rest is adduced S6 as an illustration of subjection to the command of God. xxvi. "fixed by ordinance." .pa."C. xxviii." C. and made him equal with the angels. and His hosts are subject to His word. " I will not change and not wane nor 31 a . For observe the sun. but would have been the instrument of him that moved him. So N . But he exalted him by Free-will above many things.and I speak by His love." compare followinglines : (16) " The treasury the light is the sun. 84tJ. but it is nowhere so directly connectedwith knowledgeas here. 4: " I had faith. xvi. and the . that there is not given to them Free-will of themselves. 11 . but they are all bound by the command " that they should do only that which was commanded them and nothing else. xvi. 8.also." N. for faithful is He in whom I had faith ". 14: "1And created things run in their coursesand do their works" ." Compare.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 175 And he began to say to us: There are many men who have not faith. also. he would not have belonged to himself. then. In the Odes. 6. xxxiv. . xxxix." nor the moon. 5: " I am strong in His that know me in the truth. 1 : "As the hand moves over the harp and the strings speak.32 (1. thereforefound I rest. xxix. and know my knowledge. " They are instrumentsof the wisdom of God which errs the of not. occurs vi. . and I have faith in Him". xiv. and have not received knowledge from the wisdom of the truth. and the sphere.9 P . but night brings darknessover the face of the land.oI" ip de conclure. I. so speaks in my membersthe Spirit of the Lord. " to speak and to instruct. And on this account they are not competent to discuss and to draw conclusions." Also. " de discouriret 82The conception that faith or belief is the first step in the Christian life occursfrequentlyin the Odes. 3. 6 : " Believe and live and be saved. and they have no confidence upon which they may hope. ye that are kept by it. The closest parallel is perhapsviii. 12-13: " Keep my faith. also. would man differ from a harp " which another plays or the cart which another guides ? But God in his kindness did not will that he should create man so." Why did not God create us so that we should not sin and be guilty ? " . For the sun (p. 12."1 For they have not the foundation of faith to build upon. And how. 6. xlii. and the rest of these things which are greater than we in some things." Compare.if man had been created so. (17) " So he made the sun for the day that it may be bright. . 18) But as to what Avida was saying .." With the next sentence. 4) never says." " I will not rise at any time. (15) " They know not how to stand and be idle. and the treasuryof the darkness is the night".

. 7: "I grew great by his bounty. (l•m s-). the winds.176 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE increase. xvii. 87 Compare iv.for they are the instruments of the wisdom of God which errs not. " and there is no end to his bounty. 5." Compare note 40. and that there has been given to him Free-will more than to all those elements of which we have been speaking. so shalt Thou give to me.) note 38.. 9 : "not that Thou wast in need of us. 29 sqq. With the above. 19) The commandmentswhich have been given to men are hard and they are not able to perform them..] but all these things serve and are subject to one command. but that we were in need of Thee. and and mercies (1. 17) On this account there has been given to him these things in kindness. and according to His excellent beauty He set me on high ". 3) For everything that exists stands in need of the Lord of All.4). 17.) endowing him with powers fitted to raise him above his present status and make him more like God. 1. note 40.P xxv. and p. and more especially of him who has obeyed and submitted to his enemy. not . p. "I will not rise and I will not set." [.and so of the sea." . (3) " According to His mercies He exalted me. who also are possessed of Free-will for themselves. that by this same Free-will he may justify himself. 30. 9 : "I was enriched by his bounty". P awm. .8 Avida objects: (1." See." nor does any one of the stars say. 8 "Bounty. and according to His goodness He gave unto me "." But the word used is . 27) On this account let it be manifest to you that the goodness Wof God has been great toward man. 7 : " He glorified me by His kindness.~. xiv. For bounty see (j-3a.. and associate with the angels. the hills. xi.. 1. For men are not commanded to do anything but what they are able to do. (1. Bardaisan said : This is the answer of such a one as doth not desire to do that which is good. . also. the earth.. 4. For there are two commandmentsset before us such as are suitable and just 88Severalpassagesrefer to the goodness kindness -A? (1Z-on. Here follows an account of the fall of the angels through their sin with the daughters of men. 9: " According to the multitude of Thy mercies. 3. and raised my mind to the height of His truth".I of God as manifested especiallyin creating man. and govern himself in a god-like manner. (p. compare Ode xxix. 2: " According to His praise He made me. (1.-ma." that they might minister to him for a season.

I should be tempted to emend the text of the Ode. therefore." Possibly " in faith" has been lost fromthe would be somewhat Fi. r and the interpretation of xviii. For even if a man be poor and sick and old.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 177 for Free-will: one that we separate ourselves from everything that is evil and which we should dislike to be done to ourselves. xviii. and have walkedtowardsHim. 4 : " Lord. and to pray for that which is good for every one whom he knows: and if he be in health and have the use of his hands. 197). t 40 "Without grudging. he is able to avoid doing all these things. And accordingto His bounty He hath given to me. ?-a = d7rcrTroL. Who. or to avoid lying or committing adultery and fornication. Moreover. and desire that it should be done to us likewise. po~ r take Thy Wordfrom me. (1. xxiii. 6) to avoid doing all these things. It occurs eight times in the J] and properly means "without reluctance". Ode 4 . in close connection • with qAj. and as he is able (p. What man.a . do not Thou. rather than salvation. and they lie not in the power of the body. 4: "Walk Odes. but the same phrase recurs. so is he able to love. lo i M%. ye in the knowledge of the Most High withoutgrudging." But it is usually found with verbs of giving. he is able too to give something of that which he has.1 ^ ] . and this too he is able to do. but in the will of the soul. And have receivedsalvation fromHimwithoutgrudging. and to bless. and the other that we should do that which is good and which we love. 7 (see p. and to speak the truth. With the above passage compare xv. xxiv. e. is there who is unable to avoid stealing. and is then equivalentto d006vws. 4 must be om. . "salvation. Should the evidence ever warrant a definite ascriptionof the Odes to Bardaisan." V P?. For they are easy. 7. 389 " Devoidof faith.•." 2a. 6: "The way of error have I left.. 18) But there have been given to us according to the kindness of God commandmentswithout grudgingOsuch as every man .." ." and ~. For we are not commanded to carry heavy burdens of stones [and so of other tasks].. For I think it is in these commandments more than in anything else man has power." Commandments.~ more appropriateto receive commandmentsimmediately after leaving the way of error. it is that is not able to do what those devoid of faith " murmur about I know not. And accordingto His excellent beauty He hath made me.. or impotent in his limbs. therefore.g. i•o consideredin connectionwith that of xxiv. because of them that are deficient." s are easily confused. and there is nothing that is able to hinder them.. or that he should be guilty of hatred and falsehood ? For lo! all these things are subject to the mind of man. also to support by the strength of body him who is sick and broken down.

' The wording suggests a plausible emendation "I. and the attempt to reconstruct the theories of each from the scattered hints in our possession would lead me far beyond the limits assigned me. and sickness. and conceives "the good" as God Himself. again." 5i. with the exception of those who were not made for this grace."Every man that possesses a soul within him. however. after J . and of that soul which has not rebelled against its governors. There is one passage in Harris's translation which seems to express the doctrine of Bardaisan. 41 . for this is the good conduct of a free mind. The words ae I~c~l p0?o . "I. My joy is the Lord. Bardaisan. and the ?second po is a corrupt dittograph for J?." makes it reasonably certain that the passage has no such general application. For there are many things which impede the action of the body. nowhere definitely states his theory of redemption. 27. so is the impulse of joy over what is lovely. " I love the Beloved and my soul loves Him. to the exclusion of Bardaisan's conception. vii. and poverty. Avida said: Perhaps a man may be able to avoid wicked things. hence a direct comparison of the two authors on this vital point is impossible. 0=3 .178 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE who possesses a soul within him 41can do rejoicing. 5. for there is no man who rejoiceth not when he doth that which is good. "the beloved.] have been lost IPo.. and conceives "'the good " as good deeds." i. 0 Bardaisan.l1_ ? for vii. . but to do good things who among men is able ? . and who are called tares." and a comparison with iii. is literally. every living man. for the poet gives no description of human nature as such. do you say that they are easy to perform ? Bardaisan said: To him who desires. And brings in of its fruits without restraint. and more especially old age. which as it stands is unintelligible.e. I have said and do say that they are easy. the poet finds it in the redeemed and purified soul." But the word here translated "what is lovely. and my impulse is towards Him. 42 This joy in the good is the most characteristic trait both in Bardaisan and in the author of the Odes. But whereas Bardaisan finds it in human nature as such.. The text reads: m )oa loa. 42 nor is there any one who doth not delight within himself when he refraineth from wicked things. not. 1: "As the impulse of anger against evil. For would not that Judge be unjust who should blame a man for such a thing as he is not able to do ? Avida said to him : Respecting these deeds.

l. signifies a definite astrologicalfunction. it seems to me that these three views are partly true and partly false. He fixed the creationand establishedit. as I also once loved it. 21) But. like the . nevertheless is far removed from the love which is true. 11. 4) I likewise. which. Where His rest is." (p. xi. 1. 24) We ought plainly to understand that the unrestrained ardor of love is called lust. 35) But let us speak now and show with respect to m ie]o. in that the wisdom of God is richer than they. whose rest is forever." which has established the worlds. heads. my soul loves Him. 7) evil. satisfaction) for a moment. JrtKpTarwp.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 179 Bardaisan said : It is more easy to do good than to abstain from (p. incorruptible and indissoluble. 4: "Be enrichedin God the Father. 5-6 : "I love the Beloved. "For this conception of knowledge or wisdom as riches. rpo•o-y6rLos." " Comparexvi. They are true in that men speak from the appearanceof what they see. some in Free-will. 12: " He spreadout the heavens and fixed the stars. and receivethe thoughtof the MostHigh ".. 10: "From above He hath given The conception "rest" me rest that is incorruptible. 0 Philip.e. After developing in some detail the distinction between the true enjoyment which attends good deeds. and on this account he rejoices whenever he does good. 12. but the evil is the operation of the enemy and on this account when a man is troubled and not sound in his nature he does wicked things. when applied to a planet. xi. (p. compareix. and has ordained the governors. contentment. in my humble opinion. as for myself." and created man."N = U? j -. Bardaisan proceeds: (1. there also am I". governors.=. iii. 12: "I was justified by His kindness..] (1. [Some believe in Destiny." '5 j rulers. some in Luck. astrology]. Greekol0Kos8er6rqs. and the false enjoyment which attends evil."and has given to all things the power which is suitable for each one of them.e. and His rest is forever and ever ". know well that there are men who are called Chaldaeansand others who love the knowledge of this art [i. " or "peace" occurs about seventeentimes in the Odes. I cannot determinetheir precise meanings. and they see as things seem to them. 1. each of which.a. . and by the thought of His heart". although there may be in it rest (i. they are false. Comparexxv. 20: "The worlds were made by His Word. For the good is the man's own. 9: "I was enrichedby His bounty. etc. .

because those heads and governorsupon whom depends the change that is called Horoscope. Tetrab. See Otho Brunfels. the horoscope was the sign of the Zodiac rising at the moment of birth (see the admirably clear summary of the leading doctrines of astrology given by Sextus Emp." "'those on the left." probably T-TracLts. and this change is called the Destiny and the Horoscope0 of this complex which is being sifted and purified for the advantage of that which has been receiving aid and will receive it 10until the consummation of all.4 = TOLXX•ta. that it has not power over everything. " Right " and " left" do not seem to bear any definite technical meaning in astrology. viii. wporTK67roS. or when setting--but it cannot change its proper character. 10) And know ye well that. jhz. and souls are changed in their descent to the bodies. iii. but it is here used of the total effect exerted by the stars upon the infant at birth. Mars and Saturn maleficent. n. = 1. 48 Elements.are opposed one to the other. for this very thing itself (p. 383." j. Mat. The position of a planet makes its proper influence stronger or weaker . Basel.. -" The complex." None of these seems to fit the present passage. p. a translation of aX??arp~ps rs obpavlac KLV75aeWs. 61 Precisely what Bardaisan means by " those on the right. The next section shows how organisms are normally ruled by their respective natures. "Horoscope. (p. per- . Firm. Corr. and Mercury neutral. And those are on the right 11 called " those which assist nature" and add to as haps. Strictly speaking. Astron. 1. libb. In astrology as known to us. intelligences are changed in their descent to the soul. & Add. ed. Adv. for clearly " those on the right " are planets or constellations which are always beneficent." etc. 50o . (v) 12 sqq. is equivalentto and is. N.-Procl. of the Zodiac. 13) which is called Destiny is a disposition (or arrangement) of the motion4 which is given to the governors and the elements4 by God. De diffinitionibus et terminis astrologice (in Jul. 663-664) that " right " sometimes means "north. Astrol." sometimes "'east. Boll has shown (Sphcura. used by Ptol.OT. ccelestia signa.e. whenever nature is disturbed from its right course. It signifies the total complex of relations constituted by the position of the heavenly bodies at any given moment." sometimes "south. 1 ." . elxcapdvfy. 49 Destiny. 47Disposition of the motion." or when rising in the eastern sky than when situated elsewhere in the Zodiac.m.. ir=% o i " Those on the right.. pp.. 1. and according to this motion and disposition." and sometimes perhaps " west. but here probably means the signs "." . "oipdvta arocxe'a.. any planet is more powerful when in its own "'house. Jupiter and Venus are beneficent." I cannot explain. 1551).180 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE Destiny. its disturbance is due to Destiny.g. Pruckner. 14.." 1.).

all of us are called by the one name of the Messiah . xviii. 22)." . "High places. 1. 32." and if we had no power to do anything.e. a certain position in the Zodiac fixed for each planet (Ptol. neither does the Destiny of the Governors compel them to make use of things impure to them. for he is a slave and a subject. 34) and holy will. (p. i. ." either twy/?ara." For this orderliness and government S" Helps them.. But whenever God particular. we should be the instruments of others. then. because He is kind and permits all natures to remain as they are and govern themselves by their own will. For there is nothing that can hinder that great (p." and whenever they occupy the high places they are opposed to nature and not only injure men. especiallythe stars.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 181 its excellence whenever their motion helps them 52 and they stand in high places of the sphere in their own degrees. xxvi. position on or near the meridian. the laws of the countries do not separate them from the laws of their Messiah.j) that 2•. As the Free-will of men is not governed by the necessity of the Seven.their natures. we assemble ourselves together. and upon one day. for lo! wherever we be." etc. and on the appointed days we abstain from food. the " institutions. (p.. but also." probably. shall we say respecting the new race of ourselves who are Christians. and whenever it is governed it is able to resist its Governors. which is the first. 33. befalls them wherever they are. "Their own degrees.not by their strength . Those on the left are called "bad. This is the position in which its influenceis strongest. and riches and poverty -this which does not appertain to their Free-will. 68 Cf." For even those that think they withstand it." 55The " works" are probablythe material universe. 11-12: " Who is able to interpret the wonders of the Lord ? For he who could interpret would be resolved into (1oa. i. and in its "houses " it has a certain position.-Procl. withstand . 4) What." eachplanet has two " houses" or signs properlybelongingto it. though bound none the less by the works that have been made and by the institutions which have been established for their help.Christians. so also is this visible man not able readily to deliver himself from the commands of his Governors. anything can be. but sickness and health. For if we were able to do everything we should be everything. This may last for a short time..o . N Cf. which is interpreted. whom in every country and in every region the Messiah established at his coming. 10 : "Thy will is perfection. 1. 10) But wherever they be and in whatever place that they are.but by their wickedness and error. or geovpavgiara. without opposition. when their inherent beneficent influencesare re3nforced by their positions in the Zodiac and relations to other planets and constellations. etc.

the soul was supposed to encounter. whose equilibrium is maintained by a balance between opposed but system equal tendencies. And a time will come when this injuriousness also which remains in them shall be brought to an end by the restraintsmfound in another mingling.C. Proclus' interpretations of the myths of the lit. both in its ascent and its descent. that. the existence of this element. all evil motions will cease. bad. again. widely prevalent in antiquity. might be conceived as personal or impersonal.182 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE which has been given. in all cases. The doctrine of the soul's descent from heaven here sketched by Bardaisan was." " rvsultat. or both." N. " training. The world is a a. The doctrine was probably of Oriental origin and was introduced into the Greek world by the Orphics about the seventh century B. And at the establishment of that new world. although astrology as a science was as yet unknown to the Greek world at large. good. and mingling of one with another. Its origin. in all its forms. that they should not be altogether injurious or altogether injured. These influences. But there is good reason for believing that the form in which it appears in Plato's works has been directly influenced by Oriental ideas. softens down the violence of the natures.. for it already contains the essential elements of the astrological form of the doctrine." 1 education. Its present evils can be corrected by a new combination of its elements. W a68 . and later by Plato. influences severally appropriate to the several tracts of space through which it passed. It is probable.. and there will be peace and safety. in one form or another. also. although it is not possible to prove. it was adopted by the Pythagoreans. and all rebellions will be brought to an end. and the foolish will be persuaded. It was probably always associated with the complementary idea that the soul which has thus fallen from her divine estate should seek again to regain it. who probably learned it from the Pythagoreans. by the bounty of Him who is the Lord of all natures. is not known and the diverse forms under which it appeared have been but imperfectly investigated. as they were injuring and injured from before the creation of the world.and deficiencies will be filled up. however.

ri7v br oa'av del KalId&Klrov 6 Procl. but is one of its lowest parts. Proclus' own theory is very similar to that of Bardaisan. o epG rW^ K6onov IAdpoS. Bardaisan that the body only is subjected to them.~ 6• X rats d Oprbcrw^ vx. in so far as the general outlines are concerned. she becomes one of the things ruled. he would. [in brief]. in such manner that she is not only a part of the [lower] world. PT7)TU TrOtOvTwJ' &XXcoM L 77s otbECe 7-P Ir^i . depends upon the operation of the celestial orbits which severally exert their diverse influences upon her.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 183 Republic and Timeus are therefore correct. of course. In another passage Proclus describes at some length the ed. re A dbrvov 70ooG &dXXC b rt rdv goXdrwv v Kcral Kac cuvat ela rb d Krl ccl'palc 8tocKo0PTWP a7rp olo' et rtr hX6tofoPo s pat' p 5LoLovudIWer rr *a KCL d-~yC7y&p TroTrovKal bIrb Trw 7r& aIKC r 7rXwr7p drcKo~. for he would have to take from the sailors such and such orders and obey the pilot and be exposed to gales of wind. . So also the soul. ii. 14: . 345.e aucWvTW "yd'otro mmi 5aqCeJva rpbTrov7d biroKe~eOOa ~dXcacr AiC d tral L&Um ftreeOac 7tr rVuep'ry eal al ux1 rjv & epo y'p c lydveoes ot~dv*' o'mTW re'VooG'a rdi•rmw rwirc. is exposed to material spirits.v rept68wv ylverat Paa~telav r7A7d'AdCYK-I. o hvel rb g-arovCrpoeXOofGa r^ . arbitrary and fanciful in detail. and as she proceeds thereto she is immersed in all influences [emitted] from the celestial [bodies]. and I cannot supply a better commentary on Bardaisan's statements than by translating one or two short passages from Proclus' intolerably prolix commentary upon the Republic. although. Proclus holds that the embodied soul is absolutely subject to the influences of the stars. 5CLc4OO'bL KOO•ILKuIC '•O'Tpw7CCt 7 &XXaei asra'v. but the soul is governed by Free-will. Kroll.e. po•ra 6KKEL74 r^ d-'yOp ALXKOS •T 7repL65wv w^i 78allgo . is subject to the guiding spirit. This is Bardaisan's doctrine with one important difference.57 . in a sense. differ in no way from the things which are moved by other things [only]. in Remp. just as though a philosopher were to embark in a ship and become a rower. upon falling wholly into birth. and instead of belonging to those things which rule the Universe. 7p6etaw U lsr E rb o xarov 7 otpavlwvreptXflc00e6arot7aercv. .. when she has proceededas far as the lowest of the orbits (i. and the body only in so far as not controlled by its nature. that of the moon) becomes subject. the eternally subsisting and inflexible dominion of Necessity to which the soul.

rdvTwv Top 6T0 V r6 Kai S ro6Tw7J IX6YPrTW paCoT7pLOv repi Tis 'EVIeOEL. 7r Xszjavofs 86oel. in that she causes to stream upon us the gifts of the celestial from the constellations also which rise simultaneously with each of them there comes to us a generous largess. but also the [influences] imparted to us by the Universe. dvrl MeT&r 7rava IroLvY ?T•v v'otv 7Lt KXOeL KaL al" WV rapasecadvrm &XXa yet 7f 'ATp6brov. . . and through the threads which it gives. Not only. exert a great and effective fateful influence upon nativities. . 7 KaL rpo57p~ern ^T T vs o0ev elpopdv2v rolqv70L alOavulrXeIoOAlP avrpd rep elp •Tp ' ov7Pha70o KdTiw 70T rdoews d&retrcltav ol raaXtol Kai d reKdacavTes KXwcOc38td 7rara 7rP Mortpa -KcdXeo••a.. KXwOov^r rapapylverat. Ei Trl br•eLepa ~rl roT ?rpb abr V el 7 Ba 5p. then. a&" 1V 7rTeTLOdaav T•. K y'lp 7 rap' i KsKai 0los. sphere. d. upon the ground that they. drypplovwa Ic LTr 7L/v^ T 7TC^ &CXX Kac &rb 7-w rapao . •d 8vuvar•b d&PavyeYv Trdos dTLrOeoLav TrotSalpeOe•LOLv. indeed. and by way of a simile they. we get both. then. the products of her spinning [or twisting].dbi d7rXcaVWP 1oo0OaL. cit. . . from the signs of the Zodiac. XX drb T•K rdP'oTwV Ka 5&&y va ylveEat iZTd•L• v JAwv al h04Kovoal.6vov w I d&rb T v wv dXXr dov abtrbTwP d7TXavY rXavWpivre 6vWvr. the ancients compared to "twisting" and "turning" together with the stretching of the thread from above downwards. for this reason. 342. i0ouv Pbvov d&rb ?yl'ot.not merely the kind of life. rdpaI dT& KXwo0'dvTa a'T7ry 1yd/rcJTV 7roLOvOav.. CXX& cal ra drovepbt6eva 7ytAv T 70 raVrT6.. but Klotho ratifies them by her own threads. comes from Klotho ? He (Plato) says she ratifies the destiny we have chosen. He then brings [the soul] from Klotho to the spinning of Atropos. U KXwOI KvpoT TaGVTa ToLs LavT-fl v7Pha-L Kal KXcSaoLaaotv. The influence. which finishes the twisting. then. puoLpav ali Seya'dyXv rip o v &. p. from whom we got life. L&8•OLV d4eLrEAcorpoca 8dLV 7 vT7vP Xav cvaPdWV K6KXWV y&p aeTr) rapd7TL Ts oO)K ?w00s .PL ObK &pa rI TrI 'yevIVOELs eZT a-vlrX-lpovoaOa TwVPd&vOp&r7rTv T7y ofeo'Oac ' L. and from them [the] Chaldean and [the] Egyptian [astrologers] are wont to foretell many events of our lives.184 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE way in which the soul's total endowment is derived from the constellations and the planets :68 What. From Lachesis. PLa6Ovovoa yp I"rXelo0tv ObKdTL y ?r' &XXoLts77/JL dKeCOev T? KLTV^ ?EW VCa7riv ^rpoEPeL. called this Fate. which is twisted and intertwined from all these. KvpwOjvcal fqo-wL 7b 6 1 Kal eleOazL uTLS v pXeac els" 7a rarbXX Tre 86o~"r*cd' var•eXX6. ' ?v T& Kal elp".v7-w XaX&ao^o ~ piwvi&uGv ? Kal Ailry6irmot roXXo irepl rv rpoyV'rJdaerv. TW7 7TE K6KXWV " t KE Kai 7Tw V CLVaTOS LOLpPV KaL darb TWP 7TW9V TWdv7r'XavrCoP' TwP daOTIpwV Kal TWP v 8Xw ryUCWV KCai TWP&XXv OvLordeeWov. Kal a y 8 aXdov &~ r6o0YLaLXXOV VKTaLrivra tL lveraT V'roKaraKXtveTaL rTEpL68ots. 21: 7T drb r o drb p ebX6AeOa Aotpav* obXl T6 7rrwis ei8os b6vov. Tc Uava0Tp676epa XoEV' AaXiaews. too. makes what has been twisted incapableof being un58Op. but Klotho (= "Twister "). . 8 P PvX) Tr /LOLpazta.

. The Most High hath given him to His worlds-the interpreters of His beauty. Like his subtlety is his piercingness. one upon another. from their motions. Turning now from Bardaisan to the Odes. are filled up from the fixed stars or the planets exclusively. the narratorsof His praise. 61 I have followed.. 4a. and of the circles on high and of their degrees.62 Read plural points. the heralds of His thought. are given to us through the planets. 22f. (1) (3) He hath increased in me his knowledge. and the door of His light. and of the signs taken as wholes. and of the stars. (2) and my lips show forth his fruits.NEWBOLD : BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 185 twisted. (4) (5) 59 Read without points."' The subtlety of the Word cannot be told.. the more inevitable do the decrees of destiny become. 60For ao read A. reluctantly. otherwise difficult to defend. I shall endeavor to interpret some of the more difficult Odes in the light of Bardaisan's doctrines. various [gifts] thence. 4~•~o. but that from them all results a single train and series reaching to us. and of the other constructions [such as the triangles. the confessors of His counsel. but is m Za. For the mouth of the Lord is the true Word. For upon receiving from Klotho the spinning. [Cf. etc. she contributes to us. 4 -al . and that the [influence] of the fixed stars. For as the soul descends lower. by means of the planetary orbits. from which she cannot escape until she has brought what she elected to its completion. Wisdom.ED. One should not.] 62 V. suppose that the nativities of men or of other living creatures. 5 is unintelligible. inscribed in the Zodiac]. she becomes subject to more and yet more orbits. the chasteners of His works. 60 As a stream of water streams the truth from my mouth. Labourt's reading: which yields excellent sense. 7. The twelfth Ode runs as follows: The WordI9of truth hath filled me that I may speak of him. therefore. And the more these secondary [influences] work upon us on top of those which preceded them.

"In converse": for the " Word" the poet has used consistently throughout this Ode. . They were penetrated by the Word. 5.186 (6) JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE (7) (8) (9) (10) and endless is his course.6 He is light and the dawning of thought: The worlds through him talk one with another. But intelligence. For [it was] the voice of the Most High [that] spake to them. through his influence upon the " worlds " they have become the means of revealing God's beauty. he pervades the universe (vv. such is his final end. nothing can resist him (v. and they told one another whatever they had [to tell]. 1-3) inspired by the Word which issues forth from the mouth of God. in converse were those who were silent. here seems nearly equivalent to 65 I. and his truth is love. counsel. by that of the Word. 6") . 8. Or the ppl. thought. He is Light and Thought (v. 7). the Word will continue the work of reconciliation in which he is now engaged until all discord has disappeared. "Those who were silent" are perhaps those on the " left. and they knew him that made them. he also inspires love and concord (v. (11) (12) This beautiful poem might well be entitled "An Ode to the Word. consciousness. praise. may be pluperfect.Lflj'Ea.e. and he is impelled to sing of his nature and his work. And knows not his fall nor the way of it." see note 51. and of " chastening" His works (v." i. 6a) . 9a) ." The poet feels himself (vv. For as his work is. 64V. His meaning sped by his agency. because they were in concord." For the dwelling-place of the Word is man. is not the only effect of the Word's activity ." From him came love and concord. Blessed are they whom he has made to know all things. they have acquired the power of communicating to one another their thoughts.e. 4). through that love " 638 Final end. Never doth he fail but steadfast stands. They know the Lord in His truth. ipF.

Blessed indeed must they be who feel themselves possessed of such knowledge as this (v. Am. p. i.. and his truth is love (v." the thought of God (v. 10a. These are not Valentinian weons. the "meaning. 7 (Lightfoot-Harmer's translation). by whom He enclosed the sea in its proper bounds. the heavens and the things that are in the heavens. The meonshave no such functions. and Ecclesia. vol. Fathers.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 187 the worlds become aware of their Creator (v. air. dwells in man. or ruler. fire. for the Word is the voice. . chap. But certain elements of the picture certainly are Valentinian. whom the moon obeys as He bids her shine by night. by whom He made the heavens. after the aeons have been produced by the Propator :67 The Holy Spirit taught them to give thanks on being all rendered equal among themselves. but the very Artificer and Creator of the universe Himself. Yet the same Word that rules the stars in their courses. compare the Epistle to Diognetus. cut off from the lower world by the Horos. too. and led them to a state of true repose. 12). and the things that are in the earth. the things that are in the heights. they are shut up within the limits of the Pleroma. and Anthropos.66 To any one who has any acquaintance with the literature of astrology the " worlds " as described in v. 11). by whom all things are ordered and bounded and placed in subjection. and it will be remembered that " worlds " is the word used by Bardaisan for the planets [note 45]." This Epistle exhibits other points of contact with the sphere of ideas common both to Bardaisan and to the Odes. 6 With this description of the cosmological functions of the Word.. and Spiritus. [God sent to earth] " not a subaltern. or one of those who have been entrusted with the dispensations in heaven. ed. and Logos. 10Jo d). the earth. b). or angel. the things that are in the depths. In the western Valentinian system of which Irenaeus has preserved the best account. so that all became as Nous. 6 Ante-Nic. or one of those that direct the affairs of earth. the things that are between the two. whom the stars obey as they follow the course of the moon. 4 will suggest the planets and constellations as conceived by the pious astrologer. Thus then they tell us that the mons were constituted equal to each other in form and sentiment. The female mons. from whom [the sun] hath received even the measure of the courses of the day to keep them. abyss. and have nothing to do immediately with the redemption of the world accomplished by the Soter and by Jesus. and the things that are in the sea. and Zoe. whose mysteries all the elements faithfully observe. and Christus. 318. became all as Aletheia. the sea.

the whole Pleroma of the eons.71 The nineteenth Ode is one of the most difficult in the collection. Div.188 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE Everything." 69 and therefore talk to one another. 164). 71 But . iv." which. ap. I have quoted this Ode partly in order to show how precisely it conforms to what we would expect of Bardaisan as regards its doctrine (compare Haase's summary. 8. is further confirmed by Lactantius' quotation :72 " Salomon 69 68tirep elXe' #p davrr KdXLOTOV Kal dlVOypbra6To. when written in the Estrangela c. and with the concurrenceof Christ and the Holy Spirit. but chiefly to establish the fact that " worlds. with one design and desire. yet they contain striking identities of thought. and they resolve to contribute each the best he has68 to the nature of Jesus. Certainly. brought together whatever each one had in himself of the greatest beauty and preciousness. p. out of gratitude for the great benefit which had been conferred upon them. A leading difficulty is the first word of v. For this I read " formed." in this passage at least. then.r. and have made them equal. The Valentinian aeons sang praise because Christ and the Holy Spirit have given them such knowledge of God as they are able to receive. 72Inst.who himself shared in the abounding exultation. Harris. Then. and has not yet been satisfactorily interpreted as a whole. 198. p. for which no good sense has been found. 6 q.. love and " concord.(and therefrom produced Jesus).. being thus established and brought into a state of perfect rest. p. which is given by Moses bar Cepha. their Father also setting the seal of his approval on their conduct. probably means " planets. note the description of the work of the Word. they next tell us that these beings sang praises with great joy to the Propator. character is easily confused with The emendation . these two pictures are inspired by one and the same original. and tell each what70he has. as conceived by Bardaisan." literally " equality. The Worlds in the Ode receive from the Word knowledge of God. 12. The pictures are similar but not the same." It shows no other points of contact with the Book of the Laws.

(2) and He who was milked.g. but informatus est represents with a fair degree of accuracy. 4 16. 76Read L2oa" m. For the rare aor. KvTr-aT?o verses changed to suit the sense. (4) and mixed the milk from the two breasts of the Father. she was empty.QA. 4. e. (3) And the Holy Spirit milked Him because His breasts were full and it was not fitting His milk should go to waste. And gave the mixture to the worlds 74 (5) and they that received in its fullness arethey on the right. vii..&1. ]•-. without their knowing it. et facta est in multa miseratione mater virgo. oSakets. -. (1) A cup of milk was offered to me. •Las' eyAdX. J r"S 80 j. (9) She bore in joy 78 and acquired79in great power. for He kept her safe. I Tim. of which I can make no sense here.75 (6) They moulded the body of the virgin and she received conception and bore. Himerius.--a' Kpcd6ret text read: 79 suspect that the original that d-yaXXLdre&. alK Va . frexev &I K-vaOarO was corrupted into KT7aarTO and the order of the Kcl XOZa.17 like a man. (7) She travailed and bore a son without any pain. 76 And she sought no midwife. gErworep. 78 7 So alsoFleming. --= eavUrb. I have followed Labourt'ssuggestionand read . Hallelujah. she bore voluntarily. "I (10) and loved in safety and kept in kindness and showed forth in majesty.73 The Holy Spirit opened Her [the Spirit's] bosom.AL corresponds to 6'EdtsL.NEWBOLD : BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 189 ita dicit : Infirmatus est uterus virginis et accepit foetum et gravata est. mid. part. 76See note 51. the Father.. 77&L. The virgin became a mother with many mercies. Or. The Son is the Cup. 74Read pluralpoints as suggestedby the pl. of the verb cf. e e )rvevXes Kal Kva7cT/r 1h. and I drank it in the sweetness of the kindness of the Lord. etc. rawplc. (8) and since there was none." Infirmatus est is meaningless.

literally belly. ai-• otlrq•z .~i. those on the right.•.•Zlo cm •. !1ti~2 !o• •-•-• ljm•. especially noteworthy are the expressions" the worlds " and "those on the right. 6-8). That this theory. In vv. . without pain because she was empty--the precise meaning of this conception I shall discuss presently. so far as I have been able to discover.0 ' 4010 4.1 %&CMI&3 ' QZA? bj.• •io •L •.•oo1. 82Homrn.-k- jlQl~m ? t-•. receive it in its fullness. " •!.in Ptolemy.. of the virgin."30 P jOe .81 the beneficent planets. i= .- t.• 1-. --•-• R• tb: •'•z Ft1:uo t:•k•_• •." It remainsto adduce further evidence which will directly connect it with Bardaisan.Av .•-•. 9-10.3 Ibl 1 • fl b. p. Ephraemgives a brief account of Bardaisan'stheory :82 s81The fact that this distinction between planets as on the right and on the left.- !- . is the divine influence or Word of which he seems so vividly conscious.. so offensive to our taste.e. and to which he refers so often. and the language in which it is expressed. A l? 1f. She needed no midwife.'I. God protected her from all harm during the process (vv. The planets then "mould" or " form" or "shape" the body.o C?5 !. gives it to the planets.190 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE Notwithstanding the strange metaphors. The poem closes with the crescendo of vv. but not. and she brings forth a son. is apparent. is in general agreementwith the Book of the Laws.?4aOI? 4? z PJI c wiy. !.z_'•o0 xA i? irm oZ SV0 -'P?9? b %. The milk which the poet has received through the Son as the Cup. 557 : lv. the theory of the Incarnation here set forth is perfectly intelligible..3 li? 1•! ! 4.. 50rka . ii. occursboth in Bardaisanand in the Odes. op. Verses 1 and 2 are introductory and serve as a key to the understanding of what follows."? W 0. cit. 3 and 4 the Holy Spirit draws from the Father a similar divine influence or substance. is significant(see note 51).!-li9. mixes it in "her" own bosom and i.

and its light was unutterable. will become living. but the star itself far outshone them 88"The Son of the Living One.Holy Jesus. and procreate.the which were wrought in the silence of God. which protects Harris' emendation (the sing. our Lord he called a 'Nature born from between two. and "1something" does not necessarily mean more than that Ephraem found Bardaisan hard to understand. were they made manifest to the aeons? A star shone forth in the heavens above all the stars. 2 8. then. then. The word which I have rendered "marriage" may have a more literal sense. But the allusion to the "mystery of a marriage " is more significant. sprout. for the disciples of Bardaisan. glory be to Thy Nativity! And in that he said that it was impossible for one ever to germinate. "Flow" is used in Syriac of almost any easy. formed themselves into a chorus about the star. with the sun and moon. my brethren.' in the mystery of a marriage. and likewise also the death of the Lord84-three mysteries to be cried aloud ." The theory that Christ's Incarnation was concealed from the powers of this world occurs early in the second century in Ignatius' Epistle to the Ephesians : " And hidden from the prince of this world were the virginity of Mary and her childbearing. that they may not rave again.). and its strangeness caused amazement. it certainly is well fitted to express what the poet describes in v. How. 84 I Cor. But too much stress must not be laid upon his phraseology." CompareOde iii. ." literally "1flowed and descended. 11: "IHe who finds pleasurein the Living One." suggests that Ephraem had before him the very milk simile of Ode xix. as when like children they say something flowed down from the Father of Life and the mother conceived a hidden son and bore him and he was called the Son of the Living 8 One. for the pl. and all the rest of the constellations. how much more pure must His divine nature be." The context shows that the Living One is Christ." "Something flowed down. . for He is "light from light. Cf.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 191 Pray. 4. But even as our Lord's body was not born from between two. There then follows an allusion to a widespread notion "the mixture was given to the worlds without their knowing it. unopposed motion.

. no doubt that of the 88 See above. of course. In Bardaisan's system. at the moment of birth. Lightfoot. is subject to the control of the planets.86 But here it has a peculiar significance. escape these influences and appear on earth precisely as he left heaven. which is the law for organisms. Ephraem in his commentary upon the Epistles of St.192 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE all. p. the total result of which is determined by the horoscope. be produced by the planets. 180. or of nature (fto-qL). The changes in the Virgin's body which were prerequisite to the accomplishment of the virgin birth would not be produced by the 4nots of her body .they must. Paul. tr. one to another. gives quotations from an apocryphal Epistle of the Corinthians to Paul. All that is not under the control of Free-will. 19 .the "worlds" simply "mould" the body. Ig. for conscious intelligences. which is the law. The nature of these changes is not further described in the Ode . together with a commentary in which he interprets the doctrines there expressed as those of Bardaisan." tion that souls must encounter the divinities of the planets in their descent and ascent was common among the Gnostics. Why. signs of the Zodiacand of other constellationswas supposedto co6perate. ch. in Bardaisan's system their influences represent the sum total of what we call nowadays mechanical laws. and there was perplexity to know whence came this 8 The nostrange appearance which was so unlike them. the intelligences in their descent to the souls and the souls in their descent to the bodies. which has been preserved in Armenian. do the planets act as the instrument of God's will in bringing about the virgin birth ? Because. and is seen in the personal peculiarities of individuals. again. then.88 The divine Christ in his descent must. 86See above. (Italics indicate 85 Eph. p. 87The influenceof the planets is the moreimportant. pass through the spheres of the several planets s7and receive from them certain modifications. or relations of the several heavenly bodies. 182. But other sources complement this statement in a very satisfactory way. therefore. so to speak.

vol. opavv Xev Xwv r• ' al nrtov r' a6ro6. xvi.appears as one of the speakers. her. and ate and drank with him.namely. And they say thereis no resurrectionof the body. dXX'0K & Maplas. accept the Prophets. 9: 6 X-yos a6rbo adpt 1. 178. W. But this doctrineis that of the schoolof Bardaisan. IyPve7ro o6bUPv RwOep rpooXfapihp. the Word himself became flesh without taking anything from without in addition . 26: cs Kal ol &yyeXot "A8pacl 0oV. H. . . In the dialogue " On the right faith in God. namely : One should not. Gesch. Marinus holds: "1that he (Christ) took a heavenly 9 body . i/.. . 92 Op. as distinguished by Zahn89 from Ephraem's commentary. Gr. /tlw•Up Maplas.. but the Gospel.that is.91 It is of value only when confirmedby other evidence. And they say our Lord did not come with an earthly body. Mcplar Ka o K~Ic ty o~rw Kal 6 Xbyor rpoo'Xaljdpwpi.L/L o o 8Ld Maplas... And they regard the world not as the creation of God. and of man they say he is not made by God at all. . 24: KcalZ 6 XoTyoU~Ev facryov ab•6r. 90Der Dialog des Adamantius rept 91 Op. . . And they do not admit that he was bornof the Virgin Mary . he himself suffered in appearance . II. xvii. he came from heaven with his body .NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 193 the quotations. 6: &rt opd•iov oC&a tXape. . The book was written about A. as the angels appeared to Abraham.D. we confess that he [came] through 89Translated from the German version given by Zahn. a certain Marinus. van de Sande Bakhuyzen. d. &Orep ytp v 1JCp & awXjvos tipXeTraL." formerly ascribed to Origen. . a Bardaisanite. r ~ elsOeb de6pO^s 7rlarews. p. cit. say they. iv. .90 It cannot be trusted as evidence for the doctrines of Bardaisan himself. but with a heavenly body. they say that he who spoke through the Prophets is no almighty God." Evidently Ephraem knew Bardaisanites who held that Christ went through the Virgin's body without receiving anything of her. 300. Schrift. it is not even certain that it faithfully reproduces the views of the Bardaisanites of that age. cit.. 22: 5OKOet IrrTOVOEv A•r i' Ka u I o-w a. but by the seven Guides. NT. 6: a •r6. butof for they say he went throughher as somethingnot [coming] from certainangels. And they call God not almighty. 174. D. ed.of the seven Guides. 597. .) "IAnd the words which they speak and teach are erroneous. 176. so also did he . p. . Chr. 170. Kanons. orwal 190.

ed. Iamblichus.. 8 d6elpwv KaT( IIHvOay6paV 4/vxal ds avvdyeTOai q5 ' (al. gives Heraclides of Pontus a clue to the source of the tale95-the Milky Way as the place of the souls."] " Now Capricorn and Cancer are near the Milky Way. and didest assent to thy teacher Bardesan."''93 Thus it was that "she bore a son without any pain. for just as water goes through a pipe without taking on anything. .yaXacla v 94 De ant. Kroll. constituting its limits. 129. Eel. 14 sqq. ii. For which reason also. that is. 68' '50ov^s eIS -YeOtY vyrKVeOae 'br6 ydXa ri vKCEV. vi. Heeren: KUal rokotLs HpaKXe5l7V '1 fh&y'bY HorrTLK6Y 1Opilot ew repi T+)' (sic) yacalarv. with the idea that they are induced to come to birth for the sake of the pleasure (or savor).194 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE Mary. The milk simile is probably a translation into Christian language of an ancient myth. the absence of pain proved that the conditions to which pain would be due were lacking.LEge'XeTJKViaLs epXeoaca als 9 Stobaeus. and not of Mary. p. so [came] the Word through Mary. And according to Pythagoras the souls are a ' tribe of dreams. ap. Cancer and Capricorn as the "gates of the sun. &V *Jt •S . they say] assemble in the Milky Way. and it is so named from the [souls] which are nourished with milk when they fall into birth. she was empty". aowL) EiS TbV at 6JT7aC -yXaKTr y-aXaciarv TJ o1v7W rpoo'ayopev6/1. Because thou hast not comprehended the mind of Bardesan. The earliest detailed account is that of Porphyry :94 [Homer speaks of the solstitial signs.) repeats Porphyry's account with some variations. p. Syr. 28: Aly6Kepw~ ~ Kai KapKlvPO S 'repI p/h rT KapivoS P-6pela Aiy6Kbepw~ & v6Tra8GcLos T7r rdpara abroI eiXyX67res. he says [al. as thou saidest just now. Spic. . several accounts of which have reached us. Cancer the northern and Capricorn the southern. ch." Proclus (in Remp.rhv8et .' which. he says. The remainder of the Ode calls for no special discussion." 7.. whence regarded 98 So also Philoxenus. : " There are some of them who say that he sent down the Word a body from heaven. 52. and since there was none. p. . because milk naturally is engendered along with them. Cureton. who assumeth the body of Christ to be from heaven. but not of Mary.eo& eis y'yveort dr7b TW^v 7Tpeo/d. phys. necromancers offer the souls a libation of honey mingled with milk. . nympharum. i. . 904.oW1 s / AL 7owo al c 5aratsTo l//V4vXayWyobl KEKpay•o 'ycXaKTL. Porphyry's pupil.

and so I would interpret the sentence found in other.956 But he may have drawn it from other sources. p. "he who went through Mary 96. Proleg. "a kid thou art (or. The Orphics had taught that the soul is "breath ". for this light is the heavenly milk designed for souls. and I have no doubt that this is a genuine fragment of early Pythagorean doctrine. I have) fallen into milk " . ii. 660-63) the soul avows itself a " child of Earth and of Starry Heaven " (ry wrai~el/' xaia opaPvoiaTEpde0ToT). Bardaisan probably did. 203). 1034 sqq. the Pythagoreans refined the conception . The author of the Odes believed.). but it is in my opinion certain that an Oriental element enters into them. It is not at all impossible that the author of the Odes knew of this myth in its Greek form. similar tablets. it is nourished by the dim light diffused in the Milky Way. Upon returning to its proper home the soul will of course again need nourishment. The theory of the virgin birth presupposed by this Ode is Irenaeus gives it in almost known to be in part Valentinian. 4. Ed. and it may well be that the ancient explanation of the celestial "milk" as being the light with which souls are fed suggested milk to him as an appropriate simile for the divine substance which proceeded from the Father and Holy Spirit and issued through the Virgin into the world as Jesus. Phil. 1. and this is the meaning of the name. pp. as he was a man of learning.Sozomen's language (see note 18) implies some affinitybetween Bartheories. daisan's doctrineand the Orphic-Pythagorean .NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 195 they came to earth. as at least some Pythagoreans did. So in the Orphic burial tablets found in southern Italy and Crete (Miss Harrison. to the Study of Greek Religion. The origin of the Orphic-Pythagorean doctrines has not yet been discovered. 989. is a luminous substance. his interest in the mystical aspect of Pythagoreanism is well known (Zeller. Gr. Heraclides was a pupil of Plato. 3 . that souls consist of light or are robed in a body of light (see p. the words used by Marinus.the departed soul has fallen into the "milk " of the sky. he must have had trustworthy sources of information.

196 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE like water through a tube. that Christwas divine from his birth and did not acquire divinity at his baptism. that is. She sang over Him. but son of the Demiurge . . and the sojourners were moved. the body of Jesus is.e. among whom are Axionicus and Ardesianes [= Bardaisan]." Accordingto Hippolytus also. 2." In the Ode the stars mould the body of Mary. 31." what the Spirit had given Mary. . 7..).i. as a whole.. the Jesus who is thus born of the Virgin is not the Son of God. The theory of the incarnationwhich follows is ascribed both to Axionicus and to Bardaisanand may represent Axionicus' conceptionsmore faithfully than Bardaisan's. Wisdom (Sophia). again. i. . and came to be with the (ydyove 7 ) psychic [Jesus] and raised him from the dead. vi.96a Ode xxiv. hcer. and which is believed to have been characteristic of Bardaisan. ap. .. 35. the operationof the " worlds" by the " power of the Highest or constructive craft. and the creeping things died in their holes. we have that blending of Gnostic and orthodox elements which I found in Ode xii. according to the western Valentinians. impliedin Odesxix. the constructive craft (587uLtoUpY'LK 7dXPYv) in order that what the Spirit had given to Mary might be moulded (8ta7rXaae0). The milk is representedby the Holy Spirit. the body of Jesus was "psychic. (3) The birds dropped their wings. the Logos of his mother on high. and the power of the Highest. because He was her Head. Valentinian. Hcer. i. then. But it is closely akin to the theory of Ode xix. formed in the bosom of the Spirit." which " moulds" --the very word of the Ode if my emendationbe correct. the divine Christ descends upon him at his baptism. Wisdom. (Panar. 356) : etar Ur ToTrovr G8& ~8wp 8t& TbY Maplas b8osedoavTra. 24 (cf. But in the Ode he is the Son of God Himself. can be interpreted if viewed in the same light. and xxiv. and her voice was heard. for the Holy Spirit came upon Mary." 9 But the doctrine of the Ode is In the system described by not.the Spirit as a dove descended. Epiph. it would seem. hold that the body of the Saviour was spiritual. Irenueus. and therefore. KaOdlrep 96a wX-o'o Hippolytus. (1) The Dove flew upon the Messiah. But those of the East. at his baptism. Bardaisan held the orthodox doctrine. Gr. i. p. Here. Hcer. says that. (2) The inhabitants were afraid. 1. 9 Cont.

that they might abide. (10) For the Lord has disclosed His way. see the parallel from Ecclus. air. and the final end of their corruption was life. commingled one with another.. For they were corrupt from the beginning. and were spurned: They were crying to the Lord like women in labor. 97 Read . of all those that had not the truth. op." that had been from of old. Hallelujah. . for some reason not given. (7) There perished from among them. (8) The Lord has destroyed the thoughts. cit. The clearest statement of Bardaisan's theory of the work of the Word is given by Moses bar Cepha. darkness tried to rise from its place below and a9 Translatedinto French by Nau. 5.them. had become. quoted p. know His holiness. fire. sketches in broad outlines the regenerating work of the Word. water.m . But in v. with one of those rapid transitions so characteristic of the writer. Because it was not possible to give them the Word. light. and darkness. all things that were defective.98 He held that the five elements. 200. and no food was given them. And those that have comprehendedit. 59-62. so this Ode depicts a certain stage in that work--the stage initiated by the descent of the Dove. because they had not the truth. And they were rejected. pp. and spread abroad His grace. those that were exalted in their hearts. because there was none for. As Ode xii. (9) For they were defective in wisdom. (5) The abysses were sealed with the seal of the Lord : They perished by His Thought. his thought leaps forward to its final consummation..NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 197 (4) The abysses were opened.

ii. the birth of Christ was one. The regeneration of man. at one time.- \. into which the Word enters and introduces order. the pure substances sought refuge in the mercies of the Most High. He affirmed the existence of the substances l = oo-ata) in language which caused (-.. supply a satisfactory Bardaisan's heresy explanation of several of the Odes.. 99Hom. The first step in this process was the creation of the world. descended. c. he established this present world. at the sound of this tumult. that is to say the Messiah.4oM 10oL o ' o. and decreed that they should mingle no more. 444. the last will be the final perfection of the universe. supplemented by the last paragraph of the Book of the Laws. the Makers of all things they thought to be nothing. in part. vol. and fell into the depth of its nature. But as regards the work of the Word. p.. O. *Mo!.Za. in dualism.r •:. S . is only part of a vaster scheme for the regeneration of the universe. consisted. )o~~~~~t~~~~~3 cuj O ~ ufr-• -•!~ oo• Q•l •0IjtL lJ . therefore. B: " Marcion and Bardaisan blasphemously allege that the Creator is not one. darkness. it was driven away. and the present mixture was purified by a conception and a childbirth forever. The descent of the Dove may be interpreted as another.. And from the mixture of these substances with their adversary.99 he conceived them as being. and he reestablished each of the substances in its order by the mystery of the cross." Whether this picture of the battle of light and darkness can be found implied in the Odes is a question into which I cannot now enter. III. the deeds of the Maker they ascribed to the things made. contra Hcer. he removed darkness from the midst of the pure substances." I. to charge him with making them independent of Ephraem God . the Word of the thought of the Most High. "Then. Ij. and the poet describes vividly the effect of that descent upon nature.198 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE mingle with the others. the Son and Holy Spirit they confused with the created things. In this process many stages can be distinguished. the statements of Moses bar Cepha. . in a state of chaos.

and probably it is a Valentinian definition. Tisch. that I may pass over the waters of fire and all the abyss. 40.. de gen. Verses 3e and 4 describethe internecinestrife of the elements in a vivid picture." thrust aside. mutually destroy one another. ap.' And yet matter is allegorically described as' water of the abyss. It is a Jewish conception.rTpaot6oeVOp T& ~ ? W'i erql YlperaT.. 2. " Come now." the apostle prays just before his death. the aspect of Bardaisan's theory which Ephraemdesignates by the word "opposing" or "conflicting" substances. p. vapor. ii. r^vdpEL FV'TO'ot u•&voos VXO dXX-l'yoppLcLLr. and give me the eternal crown of victory over every antagonistic principle and power.g. although limited by the power of God. when brought into contact. Anz. 166. n. probably to devour it. So the material substances. perhaps. Since the days of Heraclitus men had been familiar with the conceptionof the elements as consisting of opposites which. and iv. 93. So also in the Gnostic "Acts of Philip. p. p.b describe the effect of the Dove's descent upon animals so 3'. and the effect of the divine influence upon them. Potter.. also note 66.. and let not their dark mist enwrap me. from which the several genera and their species come. They open as the Dove descends through them. KaST rTYp lIaV Kal Eclogax.. op. 108See above. 990 : ivooos yhp rb drepdT TO eOeov8al rolVUV U& .and 4 describe its effect upon the abysses. 102 E. which separate heaven from earth. p.1?2 This is. 103 it is -FiM. but is found in this sense in Clement of Alexandria.' for he would not have called water alone 'abyss. iv. et corr. Proph. have been termed 'abysses.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 199 The "abysses" are the vast gulfs of air. 7ro70 o?TclaL 4T0 & etp71Trac* ire U'6aTraoLLV. rI ppovV yJv' KGa rTO6r trl KaiTOL Kal vBwp /L6pbovrb Jo&p o'K &v elreV &~Fvoov. as Clement was largely influenced by that sect. Jesus. Arist. Meteor. remnants of primeval chaos. chapters iii.. (dp6to-ovu?)i 101 . cf. 2-3"." Acta Phil. that which is expressed in the Book of the Laws by describing the "natures" as "injuring and injured frombefore 100 Ex Script.'00 "'Abyss' is something the essential nature of which is unlimited. ed.. thus giving rise to the ceaseless round of transformations which we see.' " It is reasonably certain that this is a Gnostic.--they are "spurned. 1.101 As vv. cit. II. and fire.

Protev. Conceived as components they are aTroTxeta 105 See p. p." The Ode proceeds: "They perished by His thought."1'0 But here the poet depicts it in a vivid image -the abysses have been engaged in devouring one another. 109." 109 j. their warfare stayed. 8. p. those that had been of old. such is his final end" (Ode xii. shall be brought to an end by the restraints which are in another mixture. 106 5pC0apgdva (?). 7. "They were corrupt 106 from the beginning. "this injuriousness 100also which remains in them. in the words of the Book of the Laws. and the completion of their corruptionl07 was life "-this present world must pass away to make way for a new heaven and anew earth. The confused and warring elements are brought to rest.. xii. 4. the Word was given to the worlds. LL.200 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE the creation of the world. 86. then renewed. "as is the Word's work. is the correct technical . . and Odexxii 11 : "That everythingmight be dissolvedand Jac." But their cry is unheeded." 1OLS. " deficiencies will be filled up" .W. they " cry to the Lord" in a state of agonized turmoil and confusion." which is almost a translation of a'ro-0 eithoraeav /vo-rov. The chief difficulty of this Ode lies in the opening verses. so the Book of the Laws." or. 109 "it was not possible to give them the Word that they might abide. "like women in travail. 2. 9. 182. 186).s08 "All defective things "must perish. 1osSee p. the poet turns from the cosmological to the anthropological aspect of the work of the Word.• . Zur 24ten Ode Salomos ZNTW." and the idea is certainly the same. the " abysses are sealed with the seal of the Lord. 10.Similar phenomena are describedas attendingChrist's birth. 107 b 7TrAos r^ Oopas(?). 18." as in Ode xii. finally. In vv. . by the thought or will of God. in Ecclesiasticus 43 23: translation: Xorytr/Aw Jerome's "cogitatione sua placavit abyssum. See Duensing. they have been checked.109a This is a e 104 Note that the word " natures. The descent of the Dove is an event of such commanding import that even the dumb beasts recognize it. 182. term for the elements conceived as possessingactive properties.

ch. 112 xvii. But the Dove here does not represent the Christ.e. ibid. ch. As it offers no special difficulties of translation. At v. " Many hands " of the Powers of the Spaces. govern the operations of mechanical law. 29. the Abysses."' Upon the wheel is a "sign of the Kingdom and the Government. also the descending Christ is committed. for down to the feet ran the wheel and that which was a sign upon it. is the Word descending to be born of the Virgin. which bears the seven planets to which in Ode xix." "The head went down to the feet." i. nymph. 18. here symbolized by the system of planets revolving in the Zodiac which. repredeparting souls ascend throughCapricorn. the Christ. rush to seize it. to the more remote results of that stupendous event. 191. when Christ descends into Sheol. 22." probably the Star of Bethlehem. The regeneration of the system of natural law inevitably carries with it the triumph of the Gospel. This same group of astrological conceptions affords a perfectly intelligible interpretation of that very difficult Ode." So in xlii. is "her head. according to Bardaisan.e. a Porphyry. the 23d.11obut the seal upon it protects it from them. ascribes to the Oe6Xoyom doctrine 111 . But others of the Oe6\oyoL sent the souls as descendingthrough the moon and ascending through the sun . Christand the dead who are to be saved. 14: "They wereto me as my own members." i. It is received by a "wheel.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 201 Gnostic idea. for "the Messiah.and I wastheir head. Death lets go the "feet and the head." ' The head" 112 is probably Christ as the Head of the Church Comparethe effect of the appearanceof the Star upon the other stars 110 in the passage from Ignatius quoted. The "thought" or "will" of God which descends like a letter. it sweeps away all obstacles and makes "a broad path.p. that descendingsouls enter the world throughthe Zodiacin the sign Cancer. for in the Valentinian system the divine Christ does not come to earth until the moment of the baptism.cXo9). 12 the poet's prophetic eye looks forward from the moment at which the Word entered into the system of nature." her superior." the great "wheel of the Zodiac " (wcostaKov Ic. Again an indication of the curious blending of orthodox and Gnostic ideas so characteristic of these Odes. I give merely a paraphrase. de ant.

for future events are frequently described in these Odes as accomplished. I do not think this settles the question.202 -the JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE conception of Christians as the body of Christ frequently recurs in the Odes . his poison. In one passage.the feet are probably the souls in Sheol yet to be redeemed. true that the doctrine of Free-will does not definitely appear in the Odes while it is one of the salient features of the Book of the Laws. implied: x. "to convert the souls of them that were willing to come to Him. the poet describes the resurrection of the dry bones. viii. 3." "who are not made for this grace. and he also recognizes the existence of "tares. I have. indeed. 8-10. . his seed." Nor is the doctrine of predestination.g. I think. and this Harnack takes as referring to the resurrection of the body. I think. incompatible with the theory that they are the work of Bardaisan. The revolution of the wheel. this. The preceding verses speak of the bonds which Christ is to loose. is the doctrine to which Ephraem pays most attention. which is definitely taught in the Odes (e. In only one passage is it." 114 An ancient is not required to be more consistent than a modern theologian. perhaps. 181. carries Christ there also. Batiffol objects that it is represented as already accomplished. his roots. for believers in predestination are often advocates of Free-will. But the context is distinctly against a literal interpretation. The poet's thoughts are dominated by the consciousness of the work of grace in his own heart and he has no special occasion to deal with Free-will as such. xxii. an objection of any force. which represents the operation of the Gospel under the forms of regenerated natural law. 114 See p. I am not aware of any demonstrable points of incongruity. indeed. Another characteristic trait of Bardaisan's teaching was the denial of the resurrection of the body. 14-22). Bardaisan himself recognizes 13 that Free-will subsists only by the sufferance of God and will prove no obstacle to the final regeneration of all things. established a certain degree of congruity between the doctrines of the Odes and those of Bardaisan. It is. and in the following 113See p. of the dragon with seven heads. But this is not. 178.

then. 967. Potter: IXNb oDv 6 ZTIwrprby &vXbv PwOeC KcdTrwi ^wrbs Tto alwvlots XapaK'rpOL. In a similar sense should be interpreted. Bef."17 The conceptionof a corporealresurrection cannot. I have endeavoredto show: (1) That no antecedentimprobabilityprecludesthe ascription of the Odes to Bardaisan.1" is the and the eastern Valentinians used the same word Saviour's office "to awaken the soul and light the--it spark. and I was clothed with the covering of Thy Spirit and Thou didst remove from me my raiment of skin" (xxv. incompatiblewith the notion of corporeal resurrection. which is. cit. 117 Excerpta Theod. 1?6irpgev. 7b).. the son of God" (xxxvi. found in many Gnostic sects-and elsewhere--that the redeemed soul possesses a body of pure light. is also figurative. 7b. and S. These passages unquestionably point to the well-known doctrine. have found place in the poet's theology. . lf 115Hipp. affliction or suffering" (xxi. "although a son of man.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 203 verses we have the rock which is to be the foundation of all things. rbv d'Opw116Op. So Hippolytus in describing the Docetae that they regarded souls as "the eternal marks (or says imprints) left by the light when it shone from above down below. of course. obviously borrowed from Ezekiel. 3. p. 66: Areg4'e oirvO•pca wsj. 3). This presumptionis strengthenedby the passages which clearly do refer to the state of the redeemed. (2) That some of the Odes can be readily interpreted in the light of Bardaisan'stheories. vii. . 10 (D. 8). "I put off darkness and clothed myself with light and my soul acquired members free from pain. 16... 418. But before Bardaisan's authorship can be regarded as established it must be shown that all the Odes can be intero KareLXi/CdyVoT . dsr c 8•-yeype rov Kil pi irohlqe. "the traces of the light were set upon their heart" (x. 380." 115 Saturnilus conceived of souls as sparksof light.. e b&r R Tfv OrwHOIjpa. p. p. I was named the Illuminate. 28. The presumptionis that the clothing of the dry bones with flesh. 2). "in me there shall be nothing that is not bright. viii. 23): .

204 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE preted from the same point of view." etc. although generallyconstant for a given planet. Franz Cumont. p.who has been so kind as to read this paperin proof. warming. and I have therefore thought it best to make public my tentative results." .g. 1911. might be modifiedor transformedby circumstances(ibid. For the following notes I am indebted to suggestions given me by Prof. 105). The 300 of each sign are apportionedamong the five planets and those to appropriated each are termedits "limits.. 5). I have as yet found no otherillustration. cf. "Their own degrees. astr.) "High places" are 'wcaLra. cod. e. The " degrees " are the " limits " (5pma). I. IV. also Julius of Laodicea. which. JUNE 5.." (See note 52.) The earlier astrologerstermed planets "Ibeneficent" and "maleficent" (Ptol. But of the ascriptionof exclusivelybeneficent influencesto "those on the right. in the hope that they may be found to contain some elements of value to the ultimate solution of the problem.-Procl. Cat.and the good or bad effects of that influence. as others have done. the later distinguishedbetween the unalterableproperinfluence. To this task I shall not be able to address myself for many months to come. (See note 51.