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Romaine Newbold Reviewed work(s): Source: Journal of Biblical Literature, Vol. 30, No. 2 (1911), pp. 161-204 Published by: The Society of Biblical Literature Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3260001 . Accessed: 23/12/2011 08:03
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161 AND NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN THE ODES SOLOMON OF
Bardaisan and the Odes of Solomon'
WM. ROMAINE NEWBOLD
UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA
of Solomon present THE newly discovered Odes literature problems asto the student of early Christian fascinating as they are difficult. The author is a poet, and a poet of no mean order, but he is much more than that - he feels himself inspired by the Spirit of the Lord and illumined by His light; the resources of language, even when strained to the utmost limits of poetic license, are inadequate to express the richness of that new life which has transfigured his inner self and filled him with the joy and peace that pass all understanding. Yet when one endeavorsto see the worlds of matter and of spirit as the singer saw them2 and to grasp his conception of their mutual relations, in brief, to reconstruct his philosophy and to determine his age, his environment, and the school of thought to which he belonged, one encounters peculiar difficulties. He is as much at home in the Psalms and Wisdom-literatureas any Jew, and yet is not in sympathy with the more distinctive tenets of Judaism. He acknowledges no circumcision save that of the heart (xi. 1-2), no sacrifice save that of "1God's thought," of "righteousness and purity of thought and lips" (xx. 1-7), no peculiar people, for his sympathies are as broad as humanity (vi. 7-17; xiv. 14-29). He is a Christian, familiar with the leading events-of Christ's life -the miraculousbirth (xix. 6-10), the baptism (xxiv. 1-3), crucifixion and descent
1 I desire to acknowledge to the editors my obligations for their kind revisionof the proofs duringmy absencefrom the country, and in particular revision of my translationsfrom the Syriac. ProfessorMontgomery's 2 The author's general point of view has been characterizedby many; perhapsthe best is that of Gunkel, ZNTW, xi. 1910, p. 320.
into Hades (xlii. 1-26 et al.), yet he absolutely ignores many of the most characteristic doctrines and practices of Christianity. He makes no explicit allusion to the resurrection or ascension of Christ's material body, or to baptism, or the eucharist. He knows of sin and evil as facts (xxxiii. 8; xxxviii. 12 ff. et al.), but they seem to lie outside the range of his own present concern; even his conception of redemption seems unconnected with the crucifixion. Moreover, amidst the profusion of poetic and allegorical images in which he expresses his ideas, there are some which one can scarcely regard as merely poetic and allegorical and which fit but ill into the traditional system of Christian theology. The "worlds" 4 et al.), the "garment of light" (xi. 10; xxi. 2), the (xii. "perfect virgin" (xxiii. 5), the "abysses " (xxiv. 3; xxxi. 1), - these, and perhaps others, are somewhat more than hints that the author's view of the universe is not that of the orthodox Christian theologian. The theories proposed to account for this puzzling complex belong to three leading types. The representatives of the first type, led by Rendel Harris, the distinguished discoverer and first editor of the Odes, regard them as belonging to a period when the new life which was stirring men's hearts had not as yet moulded their thoughts after its own image nor found words adequate to its expression, when Christian theology was as yet in the making and clear formulations had no existence, in brief, to the period, approximately, of the New Testament itself. A second group, led by Harnack, cannot believe that conceptions so disparate as are found in the Odes could ever have coexisted as the elements of the world-view of any single mind. They believe them, therefore, to be a composite product, the original Odes being the work of a Jew of unusually catholic sympathies, into whose text a Christian hand has incorporated a few of the more essential elements of Christianity. But Harnack also refers the Odes in their present form to a very early period - about the end of the first century of our era. A third group of students regard them as giving imperfect
AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON
expression to some peculiar system of Christian theology, accepted by some minor sect, probably of the second century, and endeavor to identify the sect in question with some one of those mentioned by the church historians. But upon this point no agreement has as yet been reached. Gunkel thinks them Gnostic, and Preuschen has announced3 that he will endeavor to prove them a part of the Valentinian Psalmbook; Batiffol4 regards them as representing a docetic tendency, perhaps a forerunner of the great Christian Gnostic movement of the second century and akin to that combated by Ignatius. But Conybeare 5 and Fries 6 would have them Montanist. In my opinion the weight of evidence is distinctly in favor of the third point of view. While the considerations urged by Gunkel and Batiffol are not all of equal force and it is not probable that all will stand the test of further criticism, the main thesis for which they contend seems to me established - that the Odes unmistakably reveal the influence of Gnostic speculation. Yet the evidence falls far short of proving them Gnostic, for many of the leading characteristics of Gnosticism, as of Judaism and of Christianity, are conspicuous by their absence. The system of eons, for example, upon the elaboration of which with every detail suggested by pagan mythology or a perfervid imagination the Gnostic thinkers so loved to dwell, is represented in the Odes by nothing but the "worlds," and of them so little is said that it is impossible to determine at first glance what the author meant by them. Again, the Gnostic was essentially an exclusive faith. It drew a sharp line of demarcation between the true Gnostic, or, as the Valentinians called him, the "pneumatic" man, and the common herd, whether Christian or not. In the Odes the "elect" (viii. 21; xxiii. 1-3 et al.) might be regarded as representing the pneumatic man, but their relation to the mass of men is conceived in a very different and more catholic spirit, for the poet looks forward to the time when all mankind will be numbered among the saved (iii. 12;
ZNTW, xi. 1910, p. 328, n. 3. r ZNTW, xii. 1911, pp. 70-76.
Bibl., NS, viii. part 2 (1911).
6 Ib., p. 108.
who believed himself divine and could the regarded all other men as akin either to animals or dead matter. Nor true Gnostic. a man whose heart was full of love for God and his fellowman. of broad vision. Gnosis. receptive as he was to all sciences and sensitive to all intellectual influences. must. so far as our information enables us to judge. was thoroughly familiar with Gnosticism and had borrowed from it much of his imagery and some of his doctrines. was Bardaisan of Edessa. The argument from silence is." Texteund Untersuchungen. one does not turn to a hymnal for a system of theology. of marked originality. 9 Felix Haase. Knowledge probably means gnosis. And he was also a gifted poet. 27. was the stupendous drama of the Valentinian theology. vii. Such a man. at least. of the Odes we must postulate a man who. and that he lived in a land the peculiarity of whose culture made it the mother soil of Gnosticism. " Zur Bardesanischen 1910. and such. a man of deep sympathies. it is true." 7 As the author.p. note 41.). in a preeiminent degree. if he be not wholly devoid of the poetic gift. See the text.D. One should not forget that it was the most enlightened minds that found something infectious in Gnosticism. nor shall anything be dumb. speak of the time when "Nothing that breathes shall be without knowledge. while not in the technical sense a Gnostic. died 222. passim. to employ those elements of his theological system which lend themselves most readily to poetic treatment. 22 ff. will deny that Bardaisan. 88.164 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE vi. 178. dangerous.8 I cannot better express my own impression of the relation between Bardaisan and the Gnostics than by translating a passage from Haase's recent monograph.9 No one who reflects that Bardaisan's youth fell in a period in which Gnosticism was at its height. the aim of which was essentially nothing other than a solution of the " World-riddle" with the 7 vii. But one does expect a hymn writer. He must also have been a man who knew the life of the spirit by immediate personal experience. then. . 8 Born A. 154. p. have been acquainted with the doctrines of the Syrian Gnostics also.
and his formal classification with the Gnostics by ancient and modern historians does him no wrong.translatedfrom Syriac into Greek. HE. U To~0rrop Oat dpOorpaTr yPr v . in so far. Tre T7 pwp cqWJ Lrs Bap5eo•dpi7e dvlp tKavdraT•cT6s 7rpbs TrOb TKar& MapKriwva Kal Tr'vaL ErTpov0 /taq6pwv ^ r^ 15L 7rapgs5wKe ydTbrfr rE KaL-paq /. and remains.10 Bardaisan's keen intellect must have recognized the weak points in the Valentinian or [other] Gnostic system. It cannot indeed be determined at what period of his life Bardaisan had belonged to a Gnostic sect. a heretic. XEK. ibid. I therefore regard as natural and credible. &TpwP. It will remain a hopeless task to pick out. Eusebius' assertion that Bardaisan was at first a disciple of Valentinian.le-raEEOar ctAlq ?S o0 EavT r 7rw aclrbs tdjJ ye direppoa-ro KiTrareXwC 7rXEUTcrd -I r 9'l rbr 7?7I 5La- Id. One will scarcely find a name that adequately and accurately expresses his teaching. at least so far as its second part is concerned. the "Gnostic " elements.: alp&rews ?67roP. -Trl 'EXXhvwv ."" Epiphanius describes him as "one of the finest Euseb. Nau and Hort are quite right in protesting against reckoning Bardaisan among the Gnostics in the usual sense. To Bardaisan's intellectual ability all our authorities bear witness. 10o TE Tr7g KaTcl raXatai 11 iv. 4 W raptC-ar/AgJ Gatb VrVaTwrj T'3 X6"Y' 8XhKao-&wcwv7^J. then was converted to the true faith without altogether giving up his old heresy. 9. but will simply assume Gnostic influence." p 7rXEL~rrotL rap utprw i7rkelTwrw.KCtraTro. aro~10 -TVyypal ica . and astronomical knowledge. and Gnostic influence..of whom he had many. Gesch. and he therefore worked out a peculiar doctrine of his own. 1. U ov• l ysdpLtAom.. ap. it is enough to maintain that astronomy in particular. OkaXeTi'oP 5' dpa obrot rpo'Trepop Kear& orXOXfl•. J6Ket Jeal U& r9j KcaraLTpoy0 raT?7~. who composed and committed to writing in his own tongue. Harnack. p. i. we will not. dialogues against the followers of Marcion and certain other representatives of diverse doctrines.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 165 aid of all that the heathen sciences and Christianity had achieved. in the age of Gnosticism. laid the foundation of his peculiar doctrine. in this doctrine. . besides many other works. Bardaisan is.d. altchr. ETxr& So0ydd-rwP tWaX6yovevoT-•7~47'e0os. Lit. Eusebius describes him as "a most able man and a skillful disputant in the Syriac language. which his pupils . 30. for he was a doughty defenderof his doctrine. based upon his own philosophical. 185: JP AvOo7rotasL d•reXg'y a.rb Tr s26pwo /eTaLSe- 7rpoOcrraFdov . But if we find in his doctrines passages that unquestionably have a Gnostic ring. theological. make the explanation unnecessarily difficult.
p. and composedsongs and introducedmeters. inl. that the body is of the evil [principle]. . . Ed.dVOS. 186: clarus habitus est . 553: 15bEphraem discusses this doctrine at length. 63. ardens eius a Syris praedicatur ingenium et in disputatione vehemens. For example.5b and [all] the rest. the signs of the zodiac. Syr. and that it has no resurrection. contr.. cuius etiam philosophi admirantur ingenium. 18)." 12 Jerome says that he was regarded as "distinguished" and that the Syrians extol the ardor of his intellect and his vigor in argument." 14 To Bardaisan's gifts as a poet no trustworthy evidence survives. 12Haer. eund. Vatican ed.. 6yto .16 And [so] he set beforethe simple folk bitter [mixed] with sweet . ii.that the soul [consists] of seven [parts]. he says: Love for you. whose intellect even philosophers admire. in Osee. ap. "such was Bardaisan. ii. etc.. Oxon.sick folk they. the stars. et aliorum Opera Selecta. rh 18De vir. eund. . Overbeck.. 56.. p. ap. 187: talis Bardisanes.. Duval." "1eloquent" both in Syriac and in Greek. eund.p ircitra 1eyMXwOSKEKO7c0Lfl/. (R. 16 Le. 15 Or. p.13 And again.166 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE of men. 14 Comm. p. 1900. 1865. He divided the words in measures and weights. "highly adorned with all the graces. 33. Paris.. p. Ad Hypatium. For he formed hymns and set them to tunes. in rhythmic and accentual measures. 186: dptar6s rts oa. Ephraem Syrus does indeed frequently speak of the charm which the Bardaisanite hymns exercised upon the minds of the people and attributes them to Bardaisan. . p. . that I may not expatiate upon those things which Bardaisan alleges among his doctrines. 53. 14 sqq. ap. brethren. Haer.'5of the impeding substances. Eph. La litterature syriaque. constrains that you bear the repetition of their words. in S. 10.
seeing that he set to the lyre what he [Bardaisan] had composed. Harm. Kcal'Apu6. XOPO rdptvwLO bra-ya 0. TrosOIKelOLS YpdttCZaTv. Sozomen explicitly asserts that Bardaisan's son. irel ydlp ob raWdI r-tv &K769 JP37^9 rarTpCaCs TE q0paopaiO a65aTO0 KaZl 0l StbXororcZXtyyeIcrl o ap? EXXi1ro iPVX27S. as in other Christian churches. Harnack. TavraO cs 666as " Since he [Harmonius]was not entirely outside the limits of his father's sect and the views entertainedby the Greekphilosophers regardingthe soul. with the view expressed in his own compositions. the birth and dissolutionof the body and transmigration. rap' 'Oopovo^s dyI-opro.yevP40CW Ka & 7d gov7resr otdrobvt. too.Vos Bap8iodovu avveoT• rats. ct irep XpcbevoL.. CI . the canonical Psalms had been used in public worship from the 17 Duval (loc. if I understand aright the following sentence." and indeed. composed 150 songs. K rdXaL JXXoyLtcrTarotroTroPvbY 7rp6Tro Tre. The circumstantialcharacter of this account gives it claim to credence. rpoo'Itt/.rdr 6 vrap abrov KaXovuJV7lV 6o T7Y actp7jorLv craTO."1 He wished to make David his model. he. Bap8a7. It is probable that in the Syriac.op.CS Kal .." 18 Sozom. he expressly implies that Bardaisan's poems were set to the lyre by Harmonius and not by Bardaisan himself. " Les malades n'eurent point le choix d'un remade salutaire. 187: Obt dyivo . in the interval Bardaisan's doctrines reason to believe that had been modified by the influence of Manichaism and probably by other influences as well. 6 pat 56e r imv "EXXrort rap' Xbyw ao rpWrotLdrpOLS KGL aly6OLs dxO•rcra 4 r OpLy Kc . iii. and imitated his number [only].. otd ye brb VXpad Ovvrypdtaro avvOels. my brethren.Theodoret (HF. 16. Harmonius. op..oUvoLKO r 7)P ?OsraOpaSo KcaaOdrEp v^ KGCal IroXXdKLS o0 1Appo rt'dXXovorL. 187) also states that Harmonius. p. HE.). cit.cit."i. David's] truth he deserted. as well as Bardaisan. dXX& To tLs X& Kal caIPpIOeOs.he commingledthese views with his own compositions. that he might be adorned with his beauty and praised for his likeness. ap. p.8S These varying accounts are easily reconciled.E . ot iroAs 'Apwoviov • .e. rvyypdALLczcrL. " having had a Greek education. ap. It is also more than probable that the hymns in use among the Bardaisanites were not of his composition.e.wrote much in Syriac.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 167 who chose not wholesome food. cit. But it must be borne in mind that Ephraem is writing There is about 150 years after Bardaisan's death. but does not distinguish his work from that of his father. His [i.. was the first to adapt his mother tongue to meters and musical rules..
in his earliest efforts to produce hymns acceptable to his congregation. in view of Sozomen's evidence. and there is every reason to accept his evidence. 4). The poet says "the way of error I have left " (xv. and there is no doubt that such practices were widespread among many Gnostic sects. probably had not the ability and certainly had no desire to distinguish in the mass of heretical psalms and hymns the compositions of Bardaisan from those of his successors." and a "bride who is corrupted. "I was delivered from vanity " (xvii. celebrates his deliverance from a form of error portrayed by a "bridegroom who corrupts and is corrupted." and is "adorned. the whole of Ode xxxviii. 6). and invite many to the banquet. There are also several allusions in the Odes. harmonize singularly well with the little we know of Bardaisan's life and activity. and give them to drink of the wine of their intoxication so that they may vomit up their wisdom and knowledge. There is no reason to charge the Valentinians with ." and so on. and so ascribes them all indiscriminately to him. xxvi. while wholly insufficient of themselves to prove authorship. but. Bardaisan had been converted from Gnosticism to Christianity. It may be that Bardaisan was also the first to write hymns in meter similar to those Syriac hymns with which we are familiar. who was engaged in a fierce warfare with the Bardaisanite heretics. Whether other psalms and hymns were used along with those " of David " in the other churches is a question into which I need not enter. which. It is probable on the face of it that Bardaisan. it is at any rate certain that their introduction into the church at Edessa was ascribed by Ephraem to Bardaisan. would endeavor closely to imitate the Psalms with which they were already familiar. This reads like a condensed abstract of the account given by Epiphanius of his own experiences when young among the "Gnostics " of Egypt (Haer. it is more probable that the Bardaisanite hymns in meter known to Ephraem were the work of Harmonius and other writers. Ephraem.168 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE earliest times. 2)." who "lead astray and corrupt the whole world. Just such imitations the " Odes of Solomon" unquestionably are.
186: 'A'rwuvvov 'ralpy Ur 6 U? Pelas uv8pelws diroXoyod5evos. e. e. p. 10. and declaring that he had no fear of death. op.. . &viteTpe rapavolatbroos 4pvoraacOaLtb XpwLrLavbv Eavrb'v XI-yewv... " I am a priest of the Lord. and replied in clever speeches. and his addresses to his readers intimate that he anticipates something more than a hearing. might have served to draw a band of devoted followers about their gifted author. We are told that Bardaisan came very near suffering martyrdom. 7'. and wrote against the heretics. 2). One can readily imagine that Odes so beautiful as these. cit. The same must be said of the allusion in xx.. Other Odes. for it must necessarily ensue even if he did not disobey the Emperor. manfully defending [the true] religion. Antoninus' friend. rather suggests spiritual than ecclesiastical priesthood.. xxv. O my 19Epiphan..g. which would be appropriate to the age of the Antonines." 19 There are several Odes which intimate that the speaker has suffered persecution. ix. 56. rdEcMoXoaylar Kosarder. but it is quite possible that the poet. X6ayovs e8tivac d7re. 'AroXXwv•Pt 6 tK7K1 7 70T0 irp rd0EfOCLL. v. xxix. when exhorted by him to deny that he called himself a Christian. like Epiphanius. His " work is the Psalm of the Lord " (xvi. Harnack.. It would fit in very well with the recorded statement that Bardaisan had been ordained deacon. KbP Nau. xxxv. 8div Odvarov P/L q1jas. had as a youth just escaped the temptations of some such sect." etc. Bardaisan believed himself to be orthodox. xxviii. 20 Le livre des lois re avroeos i Tbv 6. and bearing such clear evidence of deep and sincere religious feeling. Of more weight is the general impression conveyed by the Odes as to the author's relation to his readers.g. despays. Ilcer. The much discussed opening verses of the 4th Ode -" No man.20but the context in Ode xx. p. " He withstood Apollonius.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 169 them. but the suggestions are too vague to be of value. 6.. but it is not always possible to distinguish between what he says in his own person and what he says in the person of Christ.plvaro. and was almost appointed to the order of confessors. Marcion and others. viii. ap. 7-c Lr BtaotLXet AL iTreliTOL. 1. suggest that the persons for whom he writes are not unacquainted with persecution.
and it is not possible that he should change it and put it in another place. Bardaisan was certainly able to write Greek. 14. for thy sanctuary thou hast designed before thou didst make other places "--in which Conybeare sees Montanism. and the Odes are supposed to be translations from a Greek original. describes him as "eloquent both in Syriac and Greek. Epiphanius..170 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE God. 48. surely Bardaisan might have used Greek in Syria. but they are not sufficient to put the question beyond doubt. Bardaisan is supposed to have written in Syriac. 444. and others base their opinion are indeed suggestive. the language of the Odes and their title.21 It appears then that the little we know of Bardaisan's life and activities. ii. no more than that the author of the Pistis Sophia was working from a Greek text-not that the text was the original.2 The fact that these Odes. as I have shown. possible that in the last quarter of the second century Greek was a privileged tongue in the church of Edessa. moreover. it is not yet proved that the Odes were first written in Greek. much as it was in the Roman church a little earlier. are much more easily explained as an attack upon the Montanist claim that the holy place. changeth thy holy place." It is. If Hermas could make his revelation in Greek to the Latin-speaking Roman Christians. and in particular of his relation to the development of Syriac hymnology. 1. was to be found at Pepuza in Phrygia. and raise a presumption in favor of the theory that the original was Greek. indeed.) 22 I am inclined to believe that the original was Greek. because he hath no power over it. (Dind. which had been in large measure bilingual for centuries. distinctly favors the hypothesis that he might have written the Odes of Solomon. But neither of these suppositions is as yet beyond question. The words and phrases of the Syriac text upon which Schulthess. Havr. the true Jerusalem which came down from heaven. 442. 21.. even about the middle of the 21Epiphan. 16. On the other hand. ii. The occurrence of Greek words in the Coptic version proves. . 49. Gunkel. But two objections present themselves. of course.
after a minute comparison of the " Book of the Laws" with the quotations in Eusebius and the Recognitions. pp. and Merx's translation (in Bardesanes von Edessa.and there would have been little likelihood that the fraud ever would be detected. Halle.). I can see no force in such considerations. from the latter version Eusebius' quotations and those of the Recognitionsare derived." which was translated by his pupils into Syriac. I shall find it necessary to give a fairly complete outline of the "Book of the Laws of the Countries. with an English translation. 44 sqq. probably not fifty years after Bardaisan's death. The Syriac was then again translated into Greek. the discussion for and against a Greek original by Schulthess and Nildeke.] . already bore the name of Solomon. pp. The men who forged books wholesale certainly would not have hesitated."in 1855." Lack of space preventsme from entering into my reasonsfor dissentingfrom this latter conclusion. in ZDMG. 1910. many early sects.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 171 second century. The argument.the fact that such works met with easy acceptance proves that the membersof these sects were as uncritical as their leaders were unscrupulous. 91. Haase (op. presupposes good faith on the part of the author of Pistis Sophia--he was deceived by the fact that the poems had been long current. and. Moreover.. 555. if a stray copy of the Odes fell into their hands and seemed to them capable of being used to support their doctrine. indeed.2 The book professesto be a record 23 Besides Cureton's second edition. and so on. Ed. of course. This book contains the only fairly trustworthy evidence as to the views of Bardaisan himself. It was first published by Cureton in 1847. 1863). were regarded as canonical and used as such by the author of Pistis Sophia. [N. to attach to it the name of Solomon. From this Syriacversionthe existing "Book of the Laws " is derived. he found them in his copy of the Bible. The Gnostic group from which the Pistis Sophia emanated. Paris. Le livre des lois des pays. and again. cit. I have used that of Nau. 1899. forged works in support of their peculiar tenets with the utmost freedom.B. concludes that Bardaisan wrote in Greek a dialogue "Against Destiny."in order to prepare the way for the interpretation of the Odes. Bardaisan'soriginal work did not contain the doctrineof planetaryinfluence ascribed to him by the "Book of the Laws.in his "Spicilegium Syriacum. has been very generally accepted as proof that they must have originated at least a hundred years earlier.
But in time. Their themes are as unlike as possible. upon the problems of Destiny and Free-will. it is obviously unreasonable to anticipate any considerable degree of coincidence between them. that the connection is not immediate. Furthermore. Nature. but the word which Bardaisanuses (= •l06t) possiblypoints to acquaintance with Peripatetic sources. sickness and sin. the " great and holy will of God " will put an end to the discord. and also upon his soul. of astrology. the Book of the Laws does not even profess to be from the hand of Bardaisan himself.172 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE made apparently by a certain Philip.24 These three principles. whence arise in the world discord and confusion. in a severely scientific and objective spirit. and that he was the author of the Odes. rve1/Aa). Man is ruled by three independent principles: Freewill. may and frequently do clash. It puts into Bardaisan's mouth a He accepts the fundamental theory of marked originality. The conception acquaintance of I"Nature"( . of a dialogue held between Bardaisan and his disciple Avida. and confirmsthe statements of the churchhistoriansas to Bardaisan's with Greek. It is only by accident that the two works occasionally touch upon the same topics. Even granting that the Book of the Laws fairly represents Bardaisan's views. "Destiny " is the influence exerted upon the entire material world. as Haase thinks. Free-will he shares with God and with the angels. and Destiny. by the constellations and planets. The conception had become a commonplace Greekphilosophylong beforeBardaisan's of day. but dissents from that form of the principles doctrine of Destiny or Fate which was so generally associated with it. being independent. and introduce a reign of peace and love. the Odes are devotional poems of a most intimately personal character. as Stoic writers were more disposed to use Stoic terms (•-yos. "Nature" is the organic principle which governs the development and nutrition of his body. . It is at best based upon one of his works. It. upon man's body as a part of that world.) is unmistakably the Aristotelian(q'aos. The Book of the Laws is a discussion. of the ultimate laws that govern the universe. 2 The theory is obviously eclectic. and it is quite possible.
to speak the truth. Bardaisan'sconception is very different. . It is impossible. good properly belongs to him. bless. Bardaisan regards man as imbued with a natural inclination towards good. but it is one of the minor threads in the web of evidence which I am endeavoring to weave. supplemented by informationafforded by Ephraem and other writers. primarily. offer a very satisfactory interpretation of several difficult Odes. but in default of any evidence to show whether these traits were personal peculiarities of Bardaisan's.or were common in Syriac literature of his age.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 173 The number of coincidences that do occur. It is. I think. the theories of the Book of the Laws. rather. is suggestive.and these traits are in striking accord with the character revealed in the Odes. to "love. While he is of course aware of its existence. The real significance of the Book of the Laws is this: In the first place. of course. goodness.man finds joy. and in doing good which he conceives is. and to pray for that which is good for every one whom he knows " . Nearly all the Odes are full of joy and thankfulness. I have already referred to the singularity of the poet's attitude towards sin and evil. Indeed. prove that the writers are identical. however. In the second place. have been based in the first instance upon observation of what men actually do. nor could it. his whole nature seems to turn as naturally towards love.in a brief article. in phraseology and sequence of ideas. to quote from the Odes at such length as to give an adequate impression of the author's personality--that can be gained only by thorough familiarity with the Odes themselves. God. it gives a fairly definite impression of certain traits of Bardaisan's character. This similarity of character does not. that man is naturally inclined to sin. and the affinity to that of the poet is manifest. as the needle to the pole. it was this that first led me to think of Bardaisanas their possible author. from the notion so prevalent in all Christian ages. I give here. an expression of Bardaisan's own character. indeed. their value as evidence is not great. he seems to have no present personal concern with it.
necessity will compel us to show thee why it does not please us. O ?r. Nevertheless. These modifications are not always indicated.174 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE those passages26 from the Book of the Laws which are relevant to my present purpose. " querelle. and have added in footnotes the more striking parallels from the Odes." N. Ode xi. 3) found destitute of all knowledge of the truth. Avida said: "I am desirous of learning." Bardaisan said: Not Avida alone is unwilling to believe.2 Nevertheless.28 needeth not to be ashamed. If. but I began first to question these. and draweth near to the way of truth n without opposition. Cureton. " d'aprs les apparences. 6: "I ran in the way of his peace." and again. thou hast anything in thy mind respecting this about which thou wast inquiring." N. 6: " The way of error I have left. by those things which I have mentioned. we shall agree " with thee."Way of truth. my brethren." Cf. but are always pulling down and building up. " something more. Avida's brethren say: "Believe firmly. and if it please us also.ASLZ "cleverly." xv. 2." C." Bardaisan said: Thou speakest becomingly.freely modified by suggestions derived both from the Syriac and from Nau. . know that he who putteth his inquiries properly." The simile of a way or path occursabout 17 times in the Odes." N. 8: " I will make you wise in the ways of truth." C . 9 (C). and is willing to be convinced." to which Avida objects "But I am not able to believe unless I be convinced. 29 S. 27. 1. and he will hear something to his advantage. and if it please us not. 28 1 P?" obstinacy. . p. therefore." C. because they have in them no faith. because Avida is not willing to believe. 80 wa participate. 7. 10. and are (p. because he will certainly give pleasure to him to whom the inquiry is directed." xxxiii. lo! I will speak to you who do believe concerning this which he inquires. but also many. " fell from the way of truth. even the way of truth. " serons d'accord. p. because I was ashamed of asking thee. tell it to us all." C.? 2s The translation is that of Cureton. nor are they even able to be convinced. my son. . and thou wilt be able to know everything.
and the rest of these things which are greater than we in some things. and I have faith in Him".pa. 84tJ." Why did not God create us so that we should not sin and be guilty ? " .oI" ip de conclure. xiv. thereforefound I rest. " to speak and to instruct. 4) never says. xxxiv.also.9 P . 11 ..and I speak by His love. In the Odes." . 6. But he exalted him by Free-will above many things. " They are instrumentsof the wisdom of God which errs the of not. 6 : " Believe and live and be saved. and the moon. (17) " So he made the sun for the day that it may be bright. for faithful is He in whom I had faith ". The closest parallel is perhapsviii." Compare. the fact that the heavenly bodies never rest is adduced S6 as an illustration of subjection to the command of God." nor the moon. 12-13: " Keep my faith. and the sphere. and they have no confidence upon which they may hope. 4: " I had faith. he would not have belonged to himself. xxix. occurs vi. but they are all bound by the command " that they should do only that which was commanded them and nothing else. ye that are kept by it. " I will not change and not wane nor 31 a . 3. xlii. but night brings darknessover the face of the land."1 For they have not the foundation of faith to build upon. and know my knowledge." C. xxvi. I. and His hosts are subject to His word. ." Compare. but it is nowhere so directly connectedwith knowledgeas here.if man had been created so. For the sun (p. 14: "1And created things run in their coursesand do their works" ."C. .NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 175 And he began to say to us: There are many men who have not faith. " de discouriret 82The conception that faith or belief is the first step in the Christian life occursfrequentlyin the Odes. For observe the sun. 88The comparisonof man to a harp upon which another plays." compare followinglines : (16) " The treasury the light is the sun. 5: " I am strong in His praise. xvi. 1 : "As the hand moves over the harp and the strings speak. And on this account they are not competent to discuss and to draw conclusions.. xvi. also. and the treasuryof the darkness is the night". then. xxviii. .32 (1. and made him equal with the angels. (15) " They know not how to stand and be idle. 8. but would have been the instrument of him that moved him. 6." N. xxxix." " I will not rise at any time. also. 18) But as to what Avida was saying . "fixed by ordinance. So N ." With the next sentence. so speaks in my membersthe Spirit of the Lord.to .ye that know me in the truth. and have not received knowledge from the wisdom of the truth. And how. that there is not given to them Free-will of themselves. 12. would man differ from a harp " which another plays or the cart which another guides ? But God in his kindness did not will that he should create man so." Also.
" and there is no end to his bounty. and p. but that we were in need of Thee. (1.for they are the instruments of the wisdom of God which errs not. (l•m s-). p. 87 Compare iv. 1. 30. note 40. (3) " According to His mercies He exalted me. and govern himself in a god-like manner." But the word used is . P awm. the winds. (p.I of God as manifested especiallyin creating man." nor does any one of the stars say.. 27) On this account let it be manifest to you that the goodness Wof God has been great toward man. 7: "I grew great by his bounty. and associate with the angels.~." See." that they might minister to him for a season. so shalt Thou give to me. 2: " According to His praise He made me. 3. 3) For everything that exists stands in need of the Lord of All.. xvii. .P xxv.-ma. "I will not rise and I will not set. xiv. (1. 9: " According to the multitude of Thy mercies. 9 : "not that Thou wast in need of us.. 1. who also are possessed of Free-will for themselves." Compare note 40. xi. 8 "Bounty. 17) On this account there has been given to him these things in kindness. the earth. and more especially of him who has obeyed and submitted to his enemy. 29 sqq.) endowing him with powers fitted to raise him above his present status and make him more like God.. and raised my mind to the height of His truth"." . and and mercies (1. 7 : " He glorified me by His kindness. For there are two commandmentsset before us such as are suitable and just 88Severalpassagesrefer to the goodness kindness -A? (1Z-on. and according to His excellent beauty He set me on high ". 17." [. 9 : "I was enriched by his bounty". For men are not commanded to do anything but what they are able to do. For bounty see (j-3a.4). 19) The commandmentswhich have been given to men are hard and they are not able to perform them.8 Avida objects: (1.. 5. Bardaisan said : This is the answer of such a one as doth not desire to do that which is good. Here follows an account of the fall of the angels through their sin with the daughters of men. 4. and that there has been given to him Free-will more than to all those elements of which we have been speaking.176 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE increase.] but all these things serve and are subject to one command. that by this same Free-will he may justify himself.. . With the above. compare Ode xxix. and according to His goodness He gave unto me ". the hills. not . also.and so of the sea.) note 38.
" Possibly " in faith" has been lost fromthe text. therefore. and this too he is able to do. or that he should be guilty of hatred and falsehood ? For lo! all these things are subject to the mind of man. or to avoid lying or committing adultery and fornication. Should the evidence ever warrant a definite ascriptionof the Odes to Bardaisan.. and to bless. t 40 "Without grudging. e.it would be somewhat Fi..a . i•o consideredin connectionwith that of xxiv. but the same phrase recurs. therefore. in close connection • with qAj. For they are easy." s are easily confused. because of them that are deficient.. ?-a = d7rcrTroL." . Moreover. 7 (see p. it is that is not able to do what those devoid of faith " murmur about I know not. ye in the knowledge of the Most High withoutgrudging. xviii. What man. or impotent in his limbs. Who. do not Thou. (1. lo i M%.~ more appropriateto receive commandmentsimmediately after leaving the way of error. And accordingto His excellent beauty He hath made me. 6: "The way of error have I left. but in the will of the soul. and the other that we should do that which is good and which we love. and have walkedtowardsHim..NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 177 for Free-will: one that we separate ourselves from everything that is evil and which we should dislike to be done to ourselves..g. With the above passage compare xv. 197). and is then equivalentto d006vws. 6) to avoid doing all these things. and desire that it should be done to us likewise. I should be tempted to emend the text of the Ode. 4 : " Lord. For even if a man be poor and sick and old." and ~. he is able to avoid doing all these things. For we are not commanded to carry heavy burdens of stones [and so of other tasks]. . And have receivedsalvation fromHimwithoutgrudging." But it is usually found with verbs of giving. and as he is able (p.•." Commandments. It occurs eight times in the J] and properly means "without reluctance". 389 " Devoidof faith. 4 must be om. rather than salvation. "salvation." V P?. xxiii. xxiv. For I think it is in these commandments more than in anything else man has power. Ode 4 . he is able too to give something of that which he has. And accordingto His bounty He hath given to me.1 ^ ] . so is he able to love. 4: "Walk Odes. and they lie not in the power of the body. and to speak the truth. 18) But there have been given to us according to the kindness of God commandmentswithout grudgingOsuch as every man . and there is nothing that is able to hinder them. and to pray for that which is good for every one whom he knows: and if he be in health and have the use of his hands. r and the interpretation of xviii. also to support by the strength of body him who is sick and broken down. po~ r take Thy Wordfrom me." 2a. is there who is unable to avoid stealing. 7.
do you say that they are easy to perform ? Bardaisan said: To him who desires." 5i.e. and sickness. Avida said: Perhaps a man may be able to avoid wicked things." i. and my impulse is towards Him. and poverty. to the exclusion of Bardaisan's conception. "the beloved. 42 This joy in the good is the most characteristic trait both in Bardaisan and in the author of the Odes." makes it reasonably certain that the passage has no such general application. the poet finds it in the redeemed and purified soul. There is one passage in Harris's translation which seems to express the doctrine of Bardaisan. for this is the good conduct of a free mind. is literally. 0=3 . and the ?second po is a corrupt dittograph for J?. not. again. and conceives "'the good " as good deeds. for the poet gives no description of human nature as such. 0 Bardaisan. hence a direct comparison of the two authors on this vital point is impossible. The text reads: m )oa loa." and a comparison with iii. so is the impulse of joy over what is lovely." But the word here translated "what is lovely. 1: "As the impulse of anger against evil."Every man that possesses a soul within him. But whereas Bardaisan finds it in human nature as such. after J . with the exception of those who were not made for this grace.] have been lost IPo. for there is no man who rejoiceth not when he doth that which is good. but to do good things who among men is able ? . 27. " I love the Beloved and my soul loves Him. I have said and do say that they are easy.. and conceives "the good" as God Himself. 42 nor is there any one who doth not delight within himself when he refraineth from wicked things. 41 . vii. however. and the attempt to reconstruct the theories of each from the scattered hints in our possession would lead me far beyond the limits assigned me. My joy is the Lord. For would not that Judge be unjust who should blame a man for such a thing as he is not able to do ? Avida said to him : Respecting these deeds. every living man. and who are called tares. ' The wording suggests a plausible emendation "I.178 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE who possesses a soul within him 41can do rejoicing. nowhere definitely states his theory of redemption. Bardaisan. For there are many things which impede the action of the body..l1_ ? for vii. "I. 5. . and more especially old age. and of that soul which has not rebelled against its governors. And brings in of its fruits without restraint. The words ae I~c~l p0?o . which as it stands is unintelligible.
satisfaction) for a moment." which has established the worlds. and they see as things seem to them." " Comparexvi. like the . Comparexxv. 4) I likewise. xi. although there may be in it rest (i.l. my soul loves Him. " or "peace" occurs about seventeentimes in the Odes. JrtKpTarwp. 11. 21) But. 5-6 : "I love the Beloved. incorruptible and indissoluble. know well that there are men who are called Chaldaeansand others who love the knowledge of this art [i. contentment. Where His rest is." and created man. some in Luck. 12: "I was justified by His kindness."and has given to all things the power which is suitable for each one of them. but the evil is the operation of the enemy and on this account when a man is troubled and not sound in his nature he does wicked things. After developing in some detail the distinction between the true enjoyment which attends good deeds. 20: "The worlds were made by His Word. when applied to a planet.] (1. "For this conception of knowledge or wisdom as riches.e. They are true in that men speak from the appearanceof what they see. iii. each of which. xi." '5 j rulers. etc. He fixed the creationand establishedit.." (p. 35) But let us speak now and show with respect to m ie]o. 12: " He spreadout the heavens and fixed the stars. nevertheless is far removed from the love which is true. and has ordained the governors. and by the thought of His heart". some in Free-will. and His rest is forever and ever ". in that the wisdom of God is richer than they.a. . and receivethe thoughtof the MostHigh ". [Some believe in Destiny. I cannot determinetheir precise meanings. they are false. in my humble opinion. heads. (p.. 24) We ought plainly to understand that the unrestrained ardor of love is called lust. . as I also once loved it. For the good is the man's own."N = U? j -. 0 Philip. rpo•o-y6rLos. and on this account he rejoices whenever he does good. it seems to me that these three views are partly true and partly false. signifies a definite astrologicalfunction. 4: "Be enrichedin God the Father. 10: "From above He hath given The conception "rest" me rest that is incorruptible. compareix. governors.e. astrology]. 9: "I was enrichedby His bounty. 1. 1. 7) evil.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 179 Bardaisan said : It is more easy to do good than to abstain from (p. 12. and the false enjoyment which attends evil. Bardaisan proceeds: (1. Greekol0Kos8er6rqs. whose rest is forever. which.=. as for myself. there also am I".
" Right " and " left" do not seem to bear any definite technical meaning in astrology. 663-664) that " right " sometimes means "north." 1. and souls are changed in their descent to the bodies. = 1. its disturbance is due to Destiny.." or when rising in the eastern sky than when situated elsewhere in the Zodiac.e. "oipdvta arocxe'a.-Procl. The position of a planet makes its proper influence stronger or weaker . The next section shows how organisms are normally ruled by their respective natures. because those heads and governorsupon whom depends the change that is called Horoscope. the horoscope was the sign of the Zodiac rising at the moment of birth (see the admirably clear summary of the leading doctrines of astrology given by Sextus Emp." probably T-TracLts.." None of these seems to fit the present passage. and Mercury neutral. a translation of aX??arp~ps rs obpavlac KLV75aeWs. iii. (p. intelligences are changed in their descent to the soul. or when setting--but it cannot change its proper character. but here probably means the signs ". used by Ptol. 14. Corr. of the Zodiac. for this very thing itself (p. per- .180 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE Destiny.OT. Adv." and sometimes perhaps " west. Boll has shown (Sphcura. Firm. 1551)..." "'those on the left. 50o . 49 Destiny. Mat.. It signifies the total complex of relations constituted by the position of the heavenly bodies at any given moment. And those are on the right 11 called " those which assist nature" and add to as haps. p. ccelestia signa.. 1. 47Disposition of the motion. ed. & Add. "Horoscope.4 = TOLXX•ta. 48 Elements. wporTK67roS. 10) And know ye well that. whenever nature is disturbed from its right course. but it is here used of the total effect exerted by the stars upon the infant at birth." .m. See Otho Brunfels. viii. elxcapdvfy. 1 . is equivalentto and is. Pruckner." sometimes "south. Strictly speaking." etc.are opposed one to the other. for clearly " those on the right " are planets or constellations which are always beneficent. libb. 61 Precisely what Bardaisan means by " those on the right.g. Basel. that it has not power over everything. any planet is more powerful when in its own "'house. and according to this motion and disposition." . Mars and Saturn maleficent. Jupiter and Venus are beneficent. 13) which is called Destiny is a disposition (or arrangement) of the motion4 which is given to the governors and the elements4 by God.). In astrology as known to us. N. De diffinitionibus et terminis astrologice (in Jul. pp." I cannot explain. and this change is called the Destiny and the Horoscope0 of this complex which is being sifted and purified for the advantage of that which has been receiving aid and will receive it 10until the consummation of all. 1. Astron. ir=% o i " Those on the right. Astrol." j. -" The complex. Tetrab. (v) 12 sqq. 383. n." sometimes "'east. jhz.
in particular. a certain position in the Zodiac fixed for each planet (Ptol. though bound none the less by the works that have been made and by the institutions which have been established for their help. all of us are called by the one name of the Messiah . 32. befalls them wherever they are.o . we should be the instruments of others.Christians. and whenever it is governed it is able to resist its Governors. This is the position in which its influenceis strongest." and if we had no power to do anything. 4) What. xxvi. we assemble ourselves together. (p. especiallythe stars. for lo! wherever we be. which is interpreted. but also. then. withstand ." For even those that think they withstand it.. anything can be." and whenever they occupy the high places they are opposed to nature and not only injure men.. or geovpavgiara.e. shall we say respecting the new race of ourselves who are Christians. etc. 1. 33. xviii. position on or near the meridian. the laws of the countries do not separate them from the laws of their Messiah. 10 : "Thy will is perfection. For if we were able to do everything we should be everything.j) that 2•. For there is nothing that can hinder that great (p. Those on the left are called "bad. 10) But wherever they be and in whatever place that they are.their natures. neither does the Destiny of the Governors compel them to make use of things impure to them.but by their wickedness and error. As the Free-will of men is not governed by the necessity of the Seven." probably. 1.. N Cf.. . the " institutions. because He is kind and permits all natures to remain as they are and govern themselves by their own will. so also is this visible man not able readily to deliver himself from the commands of his Governors." For this orderliness and government S" Helps them." etc." ." either twy/?ara." eachplanet has two " houses" or signs properlybelongingto it.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 181 its excellence whenever their motion helps them 52 and they stand in high places of the sphere in their own degrees. but sickness and health. and on the appointed days we abstain from food." 55The " works" are probablythe material universe. 22). 34) and holy will.not by their strength . which is the first. "High places. 68 Cf. (p.-Procl. 11-12: " Who is able to interpret the wonders of the Lord ? For he who could interpret would be resolved into (1oa. for he is a slave and a subject. without opposition. whom in every country and in every region the Messiah established at his coming. This may last for a short time. and in its "houses " it has a certain position. when their inherent beneficent influencesare re3nforced by their positions in the Zodiac and relations to other planets and constellations. i. But whenever God wills. "Their own degrees. i. and riches and poverty -this which does not appertain to their Free-will. and upon one day.
Proclus' interpretations of the myths of the lit. and later by Plato. The doctrine of the soul's descent from heaven here sketched by Bardaisan was. But there is good reason for believing that the form in which it appears in Plato's works has been directly influenced by Oriental ideas. as they were injuring and injured from before the creation of the world. that they should not be altogether injurious or altogether injured." 1 education." N. " training. Its origin. it was adopted by the Pythagoreans. in one form or another. although it is not possible to prove. is not known and the diverse forms under which it appeared have been but imperfectly investigated. that. all evil motions will cease. and mingling of one with another.and deficiencies will be filled up. These influences. or both. W a68 . who probably learned it from the Pythagoreans. in all cases. the existence of this element." " rvsultat. It was probably always associated with the complementary idea that the soul which has thus fallen from her divine estate should seek again to regain it. The doctrine was probably of Oriental origin and was introduced into the Greek world by the Orphics about the seventh century B. the soul was supposed to encounter. softens down the violence of the natures. both in its ascent and its descent. widely prevalent in antiquity. however. whose equilibrium is maintained by a balance between opposed but system equal tendencies. influences severally appropriate to the several tracts of space through which it passed. good. And at the establishment of that new world. bad. And a time will come when this injuriousness also which remains in them shall be brought to an end by the restraintsmfound in another mingling. and all rebellions will be brought to an end. by the bounty of Him who is the Lord of all natures. The world is a a. for it already contains the essential elements of the astrological form of the doctrine. also.. and the foolish will be persuaded. in all its forms. and there will be peace and safety..182 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE which has been given. It is probable. although astrology as a science was as yet unknown to the Greek world at large. Its present evils can be corrected by a new combination of its elements. again.C. might be conceived as personal or impersonal.
differ in no way from the things which are moved by other things [only]. but is one of its lowest parts. for he would have to take from the sailors such and such orders and obey the pilot and be exposed to gales of wind.ri7v br oa'av del KalId&Klrov 6 Procl.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 183 Republic and Timeus are therefore correct. in such manner that she is not only a part of the [lower] world. he would. In another passage Proclus describes at some length the ed. re A dbrvov 70ooG &dXXC b rt rdv goXdrwv v Kcral Kac cuvat ela rb d Krl ccl'palc 8tocKo0PTWP a7rp olo' et rtr hX6tofoPo s pat' p 5LoLovudIWer rr *a KCL d-~yC7y&p TroTrovKal bIrb Trw 7r& aIKC r 7rXwr7p drcKo~. ii. depends upon the operation of the celestial orbits which severally exert their diverse influences upon her. arbitrary and fanciful in detail. in so far as the general outlines are concerned. just as though a philosopher were to embark in a ship and become a rower. although. po•ra 6KKEL74 r^ d-'yOp ALXKOS •T 7repL65wv w^i 78allgo . and I cannot supply a better commentary on Bardaisan's statements than by translating one or two short passages from Proclus' intolerably prolix commentary upon the Republic. and as she proceeds thereto she is immersed in all influences [emitted] from the celestial [bodies]. 14: . So also the soul. in a sense.57 . in Remp. that of the moon) becomes subject. upon falling wholly into birth.e aucWvTW "yd'otro mmi 5aqCeJva rpbTrov7d biroKe~eOOa ~dXcacr AiC d tral L&Um ftreeOac 7tr rVuep'ry eal al ux1 rjv & epo y'p c lydveoes ot~dv*' o'mTW re'VooG'a rdi•rmw rwirc. and instead of belonging to those things which rule the Universe. Proclus holds that the embodied soul is absolutely subject to the influences of the stars. Proclus' own theory is very similar to that of Bardaisan. o hvel rb g-arovCrpoeXOofGa r^ . [in brief]. is exposed to material spirits.v rept68wv ylverat Paa~telav r7A7d'AdCYK-I. and the body only in so far as not controlled by its nature. 345. PT7)TU TrOtOvTwJ' &XXcoM L 77s otbECe 7-P Ir^i . she becomes one of the things ruled. Kroll. is subject to the guiding spirit. This is Bardaisan's doctrine with one important difference. 5CLc4OO'bL KOO•ILKuIC '•O'Tpw7CCt 7 &XXaei asra'v. . . Bardaisan that the body only is subjected to them. 7p6etaw U lsr E rb o xarov 7 otpavlwvreptXflc00e6arot7aercv. of course. o epG rW^ K6onov IAdpoS.~ 6• X rats d Oprbcrw^ vx. but the soul is governed by Free-will.. the eternally subsisting and inflexible dominion of Necessity to which the soul.e. when she has proceededas far as the lowest of the orbits (i.
upon the ground that they. . then. Kal a y 8 aXdov &~ r6o0YLaLXXOV VKTaLrivra tL lveraT V'roKaraKXtveTaL rTEpL68ots. XX drb T•K rdP'oTwV Ka 5&&y va ylveEat iZTd•L• v JAwv al h04Kovoal. K y'lp 7 rap' i KsKai 0los. The influence. ' ?v T& Kal elp". KXwOov^r rapapylverat. L&8•OLV d4eLrEAcorpoca 8dLV 7 vT7vP Xav cvaPdWV K6KXWV y&p aeTr) rapd7TL Ts oO)K ?w00s . which finishes the twisting. and by way of a simile they. . Tc Uava0Tp676epa XoEV' AaXiaews. a&" 1V 7rTeTLOdaav T•. puoLpav ali Seya'dyXv rip o v &. called this Fate.PL ObK &pa rI TrI 'yevIVOELs eZT a-vlrX-lpovoaOa TwVPd&vOp&r7rTv T7y ofeo'Oac ' L. from whom we got life. He then brings [the soul] from Klotho to the spinning of Atropos. exert a great and effective fateful influence upon nativities. then. KvpwOjvcal fqo-wL 7b 6 1 Kal eleOazL uTLS v pXeac els" 7a rarbXX Tre 86o~"r*cd' var•eXX6. Ei Trl br•eLepa ~rl roT ?rpb abr V el 7 Ba 5p. which is twisted and intertwined from all these. the ancients compared to "twisting" and "turning" together with the stretching of the thread from above downwards. and from them [the] Chaldean and [the] Egyptian [astrologers] are wont to foretell many events of our lives. for this reason. cit. the products of her spinning [or twisting]. . U KXwOI KvpoT TaGVTa ToLs LavT-fl v7Pha-L Kal KXcSaoLaaotv.not merely the kind of life.184 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE way in which the soul's total endowment is derived from the constellations and the planets :68 What. then. from the signs of the Zodiac. Not only. indeed.. •d 8vuvar•b d&PavyeYv Trdos dTLrOeoLav TrotSalpeOe•LOLv. sphere. 7 KaL rpo57p~ern ^T T vs o0ev elpopdv2v rolqv70L alOavulrXeIoOAlP avrpd rep elp •Tp ' ov7Pha70o KdTiw 70T rdoews d&retrcltav ol raaXtol Kai d reKdacavTes KXwcOc38td 7rara 7rP Mortpa -KcdXeo••a. d. 7r Xszjavofs 86oel. and through the threads which it gives. we get both. rdvTwv Top 6T0 V r6 Kai S ro6Tw7J IX6YPrTW paCoT7pLOv repi Tis 'EVIeOEL. From Lachesis.6vov w I d&rb T v wv dXXr dov abtrbTwP d7TXavY rXavWpivre 6vWvr. but also the [influences] imparted to us by the Universe. 342. i0ouv Pbvov d&rb ?yl'ot. PLa6Ovovoa yp I"rXelo0tv ObKdTL y ?r' &XXoLts77/JL dKeCOev T? KLTV^ ?EW VCa7riv ^rpoEPeL. 21: 7T drb r o drb p ebX6AeOa Aotpav* obXl T6 7rrwis ei8os b6vov. CXX& cal ra drovepbt6eva 7ytAv T 70 raVrT6.. rdpaI dT& KXwo0'dvTa a'T7ry 1yd/rcJTV 7roLOvOav. .v7-w XaX&ao^o ~ piwvi&uGv ? Kal Ailry6irmot roXXo irepl rv rpoyV'rJdaerv. but Klotho (= "Twister "). but Klotho ratifies them by her own threads.dbi d7rXcaVWP 1oo0OaL. comes from Klotho ? He (Plato) says she ratifies the destiny we have chosen.. makes what has been twisted incapableof being un58Op. . dvrl MeT&r 7rava IroLvY ?T•v v'otv 7Lt KXOeL KaL al" WV rapasecadvrm &XXa yet 7f 'ATp6brov. . 8 P PvX) Tr /LOLpazta. p. drypplovwa Ic LTr 7L/v^ T 7TC^ &CXX Kac &rb 7-w rapao . TW7 7TE K6KXWV " t KE Kai 7Tw V CLVaTOS LOLpPV KaL darb TWP 7TW9V TWdv7r'XavrCoP' TwP daOTIpwV Kal TWP v 8Xw ryUCWV KCai TWP&XXv OvLordeeWov. too. in that she causes to stream upon us the gifts of the celestial from the constellations also which rise simultaneously with each of them there comes to us a generous largess.
Wisdom. by means of the planetary orbits. 60For ao read A. And the more these secondary [influences] work upon us on top of those which preceded them. are filled up from the fixed stars or the planets exclusively. and of the stars. various [gifts] thence. inscribed in the Zodiac]. but that from them all results a single train and series reaching to us. she becomes subject to more and yet more orbits. 61 I have followed. 4a. 60 As a stream of water streams the truth from my mouth.62 Read plural points. and of the signs taken as wholes. etc.NEWBOLD : BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 185 twisted. from their motions. suppose that the nativities of men or of other living creatures. from which she cannot escape until she has brought what she elected to its completion.. Turning now from Bardaisan to the Odes. are given to us through the planets. [Cf."' The subtlety of the Word cannot be told. 5 is unintelligible.ED. otherwise difficult to defend. the heralds of His thought. For upon receiving from Klotho the spinning. the chasteners of His works. For the mouth of the Lord is the true Word. (4) (5) 59 Read without points.] 62 V. The twelfth Ode runs as follows: The WordI9of truth hath filled me that I may speak of him. (2) and my lips show forth his fruits. the more inevitable do the decrees of destiny become. Like his subtlety is his piercingness. one upon another. (1) (3) He hath increased in me his knowledge. and of the other constructions [such as the triangles. For as the soul descends lower. therefore. I shall endeavor to interpret some of the more difficult Odes in the light of Bardaisan's doctrines. One should not. reluctantly. 4~•~o.. and that the [influence] of the fixed stars. 4 -al . 7. she contributes to us. Labourt's reading: which yields excellent sense. the confessors of His counsel. . 22f. and of the circles on high and of their degrees. and the door of His light. The Most High hath given him to His worlds-the interpreters of His beauty. but is m Za. the narratorsof His praise.
He is Light and Thought (v. Or the ppl. . in converse were those who were silent. Never doth he fail but steadfast stands. But intelligence. he also inspires love and concord (v. through his influence upon the " worlds " they have become the means of revealing God's beauty. For as his work is." The poet feels himself (vv.186 (6) JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE (7) (8) (9) (10) and endless is his course. praise.Lflj'Ea. 64V. here seems nearly equivalent to 65 I. the Word will continue the work of reconciliation in which he is now engaged until all discord has disappeared. consciousness. They know the Lord in His truth. through that love " 638 Final end. For [it was] the voice of the Most High [that] spake to them. and he is impelled to sing of his nature and his work. 8." i. thought. is not the only effect of the Word's activity . and of " chastening" His works (v. 1-3) inspired by the Word which issues forth from the mouth of God." For the dwelling-place of the Word is man." From him came love and concord. "In converse": for the " Word" the poet has used consistently throughout this Ode.6 He is light and the dawning of thought: The worlds through him talk one with another.e. 5.e. may be pluperfect. And knows not his fall nor the way of it." see note 51. such is his final end. and they told one another whatever they had [to tell]. they have acquired the power of communicating to one another their thoughts. 9a) . ipF. "Those who were silent" are perhaps those on the " left. Blessed are they whom he has made to know all things. They were penetrated by the Word. 4). 6a) . 7). and his truth is love. (11) (12) This beautiful poem might well be entitled "An Ode to the Word. counsel. because they were in concord. 6") . His meaning sped by his agency. he pervades the universe (vv. by that of the Word. and they knew him that made them. nothing can resist him (v.
abyss. vol. 4 will suggest the planets and constellations as conceived by the pious astrologer.. the sea. In the western Valentinian system of which Irenaeus has preserved the best account. Am. the things that are in the heights. These are not Valentinian weons.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 187 the worlds become aware of their Creator (v.66 To any one who has any acquaintance with the literature of astrology the " worlds " as described in v. became all as Aletheia. and led them to a state of true repose. and Anthropos." This Epistle exhibits other points of contact with the sphere of ideas common both to Bardaisan and to the Odes. 11). dwells in man. the "meaning. the heavens and the things that are in the heavens. by whom He enclosed the sea in its proper bounds. ed. p. or one of those who have been entrusted with the dispensations in heaven. and his truth is love (v. compare the Epistle to Diognetus. the things that are between the two. chap." the thought of God (v. Yet the same Word that rules the stars in their courses. or angel. cut off from the lower world by the Horos. by whom all things are ordered and bounded and placed in subjection. Fathers. Blessed indeed must they be who feel themselves possessed of such knowledge as this (v. or ruler. whose mysteries all the elements faithfully observe. Thus then they tell us that the mons were constituted equal to each other in form and sentiment. [God sent to earth] " not a subaltern. for the Word is the voice. and Christus. but the very Artificer and Creator of the universe Himself. the earth. whom the moon obeys as He bids her shine by night. and the things that are in the earth. 318. The meonshave no such functions. air. fire. i. from whom [the sun] hath received even the measure of the courses of the day to keep them. and Zoe. after the aeons have been produced by the Propator :67 The Holy Spirit taught them to give thanks on being all rendered equal among themselves. 10a. 6 Ante-Nic. too. 6 With this description of the cosmological functions of the Word. 7 (Lightfoot-Harmer's translation). 10Jo d). But certain elements of the picture certainly are Valentinian. they are shut up within the limits of the Pleroma. and it will be remembered that " worlds " is the word used by Bardaisan for the planets [note 45]. so that all became as Nous. by whom He made the heavens. . and Ecclesia. or one of those that direct the affairs of earth. b). and Logos. and have nothing to do immediately with the redemption of the world accomplished by the Soter and by Jesus. the things that are in the depths. and the things that are in the sea. and Spiritus. whom the stars obey as they follow the course of the moon. 12). The female mons..
yet they contain striking identities of thought. Then." which. 198.who himself shared in the abounding exultation. with one design and desire.188 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE Everything." in this passage at least.r." It shows no other points of contact with the Book of the Laws. out of gratitude for the great benefit which had been conferred upon them. note the description of the work of the Word. A leading difficulty is the first word of v.(and therefrom produced Jesus)." literally " equality. their Father also setting the seal of his approval on their conduct. which is given by Moses bar Cepha. brought together whatever each one had in himself of the greatest beauty and preciousness. and has not yet been satisfactorily interpreted as a whole. 72Inst. when written in the Estrangela c. Harris. For this I read " formed. probably means " planets. but chiefly to establish the fact that " worlds. The Valentinian aeons sang praise because Christ and the Holy Spirit have given them such knowledge of God as they are able to receive. Certainly. then. 164). for which no good sense has been found. these two pictures are inspired by one and the same original. is further confirmed by Lactantius' quotation :72 " Salomon 69 68tirep elXe' #p davrr KdXLOTOV Kal dlVOypbra6To. and with the concurrenceof Christ and the Holy Spirit. Div. ap. character is easily confused with The emendation . p.71 The nineteenth Ode is one of the most difficult in the collection. 71 But . they next tell us that these beings sang praises with great joy to the Propator. I have quoted this Ode partly in order to show how precisely it conforms to what we would expect of Bardaisan as regards its doctrine (compare Haase's summary. the whole Pleroma of the eons. p. and they resolve to contribute each the best he has68 to the nature of Jesus. iv. The Worlds in the Ode receive from the Word knowledge of God.. and tell each what70he has.. 12. p. 8. 6 q. and have made them equal. The pictures are similar but not the same. as conceived by Bardaisan. being thus established and brought into a state of perfect rest." 69 and therefore talk to one another. love and " concord.
mid. 74Read pluralpoints as suggestedby the pl. ]•-. For the rare aor. I have followed Labourt'ssuggestionand read . of which I can make no sense here. Hallelujah. --= eavUrb. she was empty.75 (6) They moulded the body of the virgin and she received conception and bore. vii. e. frexev &I K-vaOarO was corrupted into KT7aarTO and the order of the Kcl XOZa. 77&L.NEWBOLD : BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 189 ita dicit : Infirmatus est uterus virginis et accepit foetum et gravata est. but informatus est represents with a fair degree of accuracy. And gave the mixture to the worlds 74 (5) and they that received in its fullness arethey on the right. KvTr-aT?o verses changed to suit the sense. (1) A cup of milk was offered to me. (9) She bore in joy 78 and acquired79in great power.QA. (2) and He who was milked. Himerius. e e )rvevXes Kal Kva7cT/r 1h. The virgin became a mother with many mercies. The Son is the Cup. •Las' eyAdX. alK Va . 76See note 51. 76Read L2oa" m.g. J r"S 80 j. "I (10) and loved in safety and kept in kindness and showed forth in majesty. (8) and since there was none.&1. of the verb cf. the Father. et facta est in multa miseratione mater virgo. and I drank it in the sweetness of the kindness of the Lord. rawplc.." Infirmatus est is meaningless. (7) She travailed and bore a son without any pain. -. (4) and mixed the milk from the two breasts of the Father.73 The Holy Spirit opened Her [the Spirit's] bosom.--a' Kpcd6ret text read: 79 suspect that the original that d-yaXXLdre&. 4. 76 And she sought no midwife. Or.17 like a man.. oSakets. gErworep. for He kept her safe. she bore voluntarily. 78 7 So alsoFleming. part. 4 16. etc. I Tim. without their knowing it.AL corresponds to 6'EdtsL. (3) And the Holy Spirit milked Him because His breasts were full and it was not fitting His milk should go to waste.
The planets then "mould" or " form" or "shape" the body. ii.!-li9.• •io •L •. p.- t. those on the right. and she brings forth a son. especially noteworthy are the expressions" the worlds " and "those on the right. is the divine influence or Word of which he seems so vividly conscious. of the virgin. is apparent.o C?5 !. but not. 50rka .•Zlo cm •. the theory of the Incarnation here set forth is perfectly intelligible. i= . Verses 1 and 2 are introductory and serve as a key to the understanding of what follows. Ephraemgives a brief account of Bardaisan'stheory :82 s81The fact that this distinction between planets as on the right and on the left.0 ' 4010 4. !. and to which he refers so often.z_'•o0 xA i? irm oZ SV0 -'P?9? b %." It remainsto adduce further evidence which will directly connect it with Bardaisan. . !1ti~2 !o• •-•-• ljm•. 9-10.•-•. She needed no midwife.. ai-• otlrq•z . The poem closes with the crescendo of vv. --•-• R• tb: •'•z Ft1:uo t:•k•_• •. occursboth in Bardaisanand in the Odes.•oo1. 82Homrn. The milk which the poet has received through the Son as the Cup. 6-8).e..-k- jlQl~m ? t-•. receive it in its fullness. so far as I have been able to discover.'I.3 li? 1•! ! 4. is significant(see note 51). so offensive to our taste."? W 0.• 1-. literally belly. In vv. is in general agreementwith the Book of the Laws. cit.•. " •!. 3 and 4 the Holy Spirit draws from the Father a similar divine influence or substance..- !- .Av .~i. gives it to the planets. A l? 1f. op. without pain because she was empty--the precise meaning of this conception I shall discuss presently. mixes it in "her" own bosom and i.?4aOI? 4? z PJI c wiy. and the language in which it is expressed.190 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE Notwithstanding the strange metaphors. God protected her from all harm during the process (vv.81 the beneficent planets. That this theory.1 %&CMI&3 ' QZA? bj.3 Ibl 1 • fl b."30 P jOe ..in Ptolemy. 557 : lv.
2 8. for He is "light from light. But the allusion to the "mystery of a marriage " is more significant. "Flow" is used in Syriac of almost any easy. unopposed motion. 4. with the sun and moon. and all the rest of the constellations. and its strangeness caused amazement. The word which I have rendered "marriage" may have a more literal sense." The context shows that the Living One is Christ.the which were wrought in the silence of God. . and procreate. and its light was unutterable. but the star itself far outshone them 88"The Son of the Living One. and likewise also the death of the Lord84-three mysteries to be cried aloud .Holy Jesus.). formed themselves into a chorus about the star. How. as when like children they say something flowed down from the Father of Life and the mother conceived a hidden son and bore him and he was called the Son of the Living 8 One. it certainly is well fitted to express what the poet describes in v. then. sprout. that they may not rave again. and "1something" does not necessarily mean more than that Ephraem found Bardaisan hard to understand. then. will become living." "Something flowed down. 84 I Cor. for the pl. my brethren. our Lord he called a 'Nature born from between two. for the disciples of Bardaisan. Cf. But even as our Lord's body was not born from between two. 11: "IHe who finds pleasurein the Living One. which protects Harris' emendation (the sing." The theory that Christ's Incarnation was concealed from the powers of this world occurs early in the second century in Ignatius' Epistle to the Ephesians : " And hidden from the prince of this world were the virginity of Mary and her childbearing. were they made manifest to the aeons? A star shone forth in the heavens above all the stars.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 191 Pray. glory be to Thy Nativity! And in that he said that it was impossible for one ever to germinate.' in the mystery of a marriage. how much more pure must His divine nature be." CompareOde iii. But too much stress must not be laid upon his phraseology." suggests that Ephraem had before him the very milk simile of Ode xix." literally "1flowed and descended. . There then follows an allusion to a widespread notion "the mixture was given to the worlds without their knowing it.
86See above. 19 . 87The influenceof the planets is the moreimportant. the total result of which is determined by the horoscope. do the planets act as the instrument of God's will in bringing about the virgin birth ? Because.86 But here it has a peculiar significance. 182. Lightfoot." tion that souls must encounter the divinities of the planets in their descent and ascent was common among the Gnostics. . which is the law for organisms. In Bardaisan's system. Ig.they must. or of nature (fto-qL). But other sources complement this statement in a very satisfactory way. ch. Ephraem in his commentary upon the Epistles of St. 180. again. (Italics indicate 85 Eph. together with a commentary in which he interprets the doctrines there expressed as those of Bardaisan. pass through the spheres of the several planets s7and receive from them certain modifications.the "worlds" simply "mould" the body. p. escape these influences and appear on earth precisely as he left heaven. The nature of these changes is not further described in the Ode . Paul. signs of the Zodiacand of other constellationswas supposedto co6perate. p. so to speak. which has been preserved in Armenian. in Bardaisan's system their influences represent the sum total of what we call nowadays mechanical laws. and there was perplexity to know whence came this 8 The nostrange appearance which was so unlike them. which is the law. at the moment of birth. no doubt that of the 88 See above. The changes in the Virgin's body which were prerequisite to the accomplishment of the virgin birth would not be produced by the 4nots of her body . one to another. then. is subject to the control of the planets. of course.192 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE all. be produced by the planets. therefore. All that is not under the control of Free-will.88 The divine Christ in his descent must. for conscious intelligences. the intelligences in their descent to the souls and the souls in their descent to the bodies. Why. gives quotations from an apocryphal Epistle of the Corinthians to Paul. and is seen in the personal peculiarities of individuals. tr. or relations of the several heavenly bodies.
her. he himself suffered in appearance . 300. In the dialogue " On the right faith in God.L/L o o 8Ld Maplas. a Bardaisanite. and of man they say he is not made by God at all. orwal 190. And they call God not almighty. 22: 5OKOet IrrTOVOEv A•r i' Ka u I o-w a.91 It is of value only when confirmedby other evidence. 174.appears as one of the speakers. 92 Op. but by the seven Guides. but the Gospel. But this doctrineis that of the schoolof Bardaisan. accept the Prophets. a certain Marinus.namely. .. d. 26: cs Kal ol &yyeXot "A8pacl 0oV. .D.. p. Schrift. And they regard the world not as the creation of God. 9: 6 X-yos a6rbo adpt 1. 176. . p. . Gr." Evidently Ephraem knew Bardaisanites who held that Christ went through the Virgin's body without receiving anything of her. vol. Chr. van de Sande Bakhuyzen. .. Marinus holds: "1that he (Christ) took a heavenly 9 body . W. cit. IyPve7ro o6bUPv RwOep rpooXfapihp. xvi. 178. dXX'0K & Maplas. say they. the Word himself became flesh without taking anything from without in addition .) "IAnd the words which they speak and teach are erroneous. 24: KcalZ 6 XoTyoU~Ev facryov ab•6r. . as distinguished by Zahn89 from Ephraem's commentary.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 193 the quotations. . 6: &rt opd•iov oC&a tXape. &Orep ytp v 1JCp & awXjvos tipXeTraL.." formerly ascribed to Origen. NT. as the angels appeared to Abraham. xvii. . namely : One should not. opavv Xev Xwv r• ' al nrtov r' a6ro6. /tlw•Up Maplas. 90Der Dialog des Adamantius rept 91 Op. so also did he . And they do not admit that he was bornof the Virgin Mary . Gesch. 170.90 It cannot be trusted as evidence for the doctrines of Bardaisan himself.of the seven Guides. but with a heavenly body. II. he came from heaven with his body . And they say thereis no resurrectionof the body. . H. ed. iv. and ate and drank with him. Kanons. 6: a •r6. And they say our Lord did not come with an earthly body. Mcplar Ka o K~Ic ty o~rw Kal 6 Xbyor rpoo'Xaljdpwpi. they say that he who spoke through the Prophets is no almighty God. r ~ elsOeb de6pO^s 7rlarews.that is. it is not even certain that it faithfully reproduces the views of the Bardaisanites of that age. . 597. butof for they say he went throughher as somethingnot [coming] from certainangels. . The book was written about A.. i/. D. we confess that he [came] through 89Translated from the German version given by Zahn. cit.
he says. nympharum. The earliest detailed account is that of Porphyry :94 [Homer speaks of the solstitial signs. And according to Pythagoras the souls are a ' tribe of dreams." 7. i.) repeats Porphyry's account with some variations.. but not of Mary. because milk naturally is engendered along with them. Syr. . Cureton. 904. phys. and not of Mary. 14 sqq. constituting its limits.. . The milk simile is probably a translation into Christian language of an ancient myth. p. they say] assemble in the Milky Way. p. and didest assent to thy teacher Bardesan. she was empty". that is. : " There are some of them who say that he sent down the Word a body from heaven. Eel. gives Heraclides of Pontus a clue to the source of the tale95-the Milky Way as the place of the souls.194 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE Mary."] " Now Capricorn and Cancer are near the Milky Way. he says [al.yaXacla v 94 De ant.oW1 s / AL 7owo al c 5aratsTo l//V4vXayWyobl KEKpay•o 'ycXaKTL. . 68' '50ov^s eIS -YeOtY vyrKVeOae 'br6 ydXa ri vKCEV. Porphyry's pupil. Kroll. 52. The remainder of the Ode calls for no special discussion. 28: Aly6Kepw~ ~ Kai KapKlvPO S 'repI p/h rT KapivoS P-6pela Aiy6Kbepw~ & v6Tra8GcLos T7r rdpara abroI eiXyX67res. the absence of pain proved that the conditions to which pain would be due were lacking. &V *Jt •S . and since there was none. Cancer and Capricorn as the "gates of the sun.LEge'XeTJKViaLs epXeoaca als 9 Stobaeus. Spic. p. so [came] the Word through Mary. as thou saidest just now. .' which. ap. . whence regarded 98 So also Philoxenus. Because thou hast not comprehended the mind of Bardesan. with the idea that they are induced to come to birth for the sake of the pleasure (or savor)." Proclus (in Remp. Cancer the northern and Capricorn the southern.eo& eis y'yveort dr7b TW^v 7Tpeo/d. 8 d6elpwv KaT( IIHvOay6paV 4/vxal ds avvdyeTOai q5 ' (al.rhv8et . aowL) EiS TbV at 6JT7aC -yXaKTr y-aXaciarv TJ o1v7W rpoo'ayopev6/1. for just as water goes through a pipe without taking on anything. and it is so named from the [souls] which are nourished with milk when they fall into birth. vi. Iamblichus. For which reason also. necromancers offer the souls a libation of honey mingled with milk. 129. ch. Heeren: KUal rokotLs HpaKXe5l7V '1 fh&y'bY HorrTLK6Y 1Opilot ew repi T+)' (sic) yacalarv. ed."''93 Thus it was that "she bore a son without any pain. who assumeth the body of Christ to be from heaven. ii. several accounts of which have reached us.
it is nourished by the dim light diffused in the Milky Way. similar tablets. the words used by Marinus. 989. daisan's doctrineand the Orphic-Pythagorean . and I have no doubt that this is a genuine fragment of early Pythagorean doctrine. 660-63) the soul avows itself a " child of Earth and of Starry Heaven " (ry wrai~el/' xaia opaPvoiaTEpde0ToT). Ed. his interest in the mystical aspect of Pythagoreanism is well known (Zeller. p. The author of the Odes believed. for this light is the heavenly milk designed for souls. Heraclides was a pupil of Plato.). The origin of the Orphic-Pythagorean doctrines has not yet been discovered. The theory of the virgin birth presupposed by this Ode is Irenaeus gives it in almost known to be in part Valentinian. and it may well be that the ancient explanation of the celestial "milk" as being the light with which souls are fed suggested milk to him as an appropriate simile for the divine substance which proceeded from the Father and Holy Spirit and issued through the Virgin into the world as Jesus. as at least some Pythagoreans did. and so I would interpret the sentence found in other. that souls consist of light or are robed in a body of light (see p. as he was a man of learning. It is not at all impossible that the author of the Odes knew of this myth in its Greek form. he must have had trustworthy sources of information. and this is the meaning of the name. "a kid thou art (or. So in the Orphic burial tablets found in southern Italy and Crete (Miss Harrison.956 But he may have drawn it from other sources. Phil. Proleg. 1.Sozomen's language (see note 18) implies some affinitybetween Bartheories. Bardaisan probably did. "he who went through Mary 96. pp. the Pythagoreans refined the conception . 203). to the Study of Greek Religion. d. ii. Upon returning to its proper home the soul will of course again need nourishment.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 195 they came to earth. The Orphics had taught that the soul is "breath ". I have) fallen into milk " . 1034 sqq.it is a luminous substance. Gr.the departed soul has fallen into the "milk " of the sky. 3 . but it is in my opinion certain that an Oriental element enters into them. 4.
ap.e. . . can be interpreted if viewed in the same light. She sang over Him. The theory of the incarnationwhich follows is ascribed both to Axionicus and to Bardaisanand may represent Axionicus' conceptionsmore faithfully than Bardaisan's. says that. and the creeping things died in their holes." 9 But the doctrine of the Ode is In the system described by not. 9 Cont. the Jesus who is thus born of the Virgin is not the Son of God. and the power of the Highest. but son of the Demiurge . and came to be with the (ydyove 7 ) psychic [Jesus] and raised him from the dead. Hcer. But it is closely akin to the theory of Ode xix. The milk is representedby the Holy Spirit. the operationof the " worlds" by the " power of the Highest or constructive craft.)." Accordingto Hippolytus also.." what the Spirit had given Mary. the body of Jesus is. But in the Ode he is the Son of God Himself. as a whole. it would seem. formed in the bosom of the Spirit. Here. Irenueus. the body of Jesus was "psychic.i. Hcer. that is. (3) The birds dropped their wings. and which is believed to have been characteristic of Bardaisan. we have that blending of Gnostic and orthodox elements which I found in Ode xii. 356) : etar Ur ToTrovr G8& ~8wp 8t& TbY Maplas b8osedoavTra." In the Ode the stars mould the body of Mary. (Panar. and her voice was heard. because He was her Head. KaOdlrep 96a wX-o'o Hippolytus. But those of the East. hold that the body of the Saviour was spiritual... hcer. impliedin Odesxix. i. Wisdom. (1) The Dove flew upon the Messiah. the Logos of his mother on high. Gr.the Spirit as a dove descended. again. Epiph. i. Bardaisan held the orthodox doctrine.96a Ode xxiv. 35. . . p. the constructive craft (587uLtoUpY'LK 7dXPYv) in order that what the Spirit had given to Mary might be moulded (8ta7rXaae0). and xxiv. and therefore. 1. (2) The inhabitants were afraid. i. Wisdom (Sophia). 2. at his baptism. that Christwas divine from his birth and did not acquire divinity at his baptism. according to the western Valentinians. among whom are Axionicus and Ardesianes [= Bardaisan]. and the sojourners were moved.196 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE like water through a tube. for the Holy Spirit came upon Mary. vi. 24 (cf. then." which " moulds" --the very word of the Ode if my emendationbe correct. 31. the divine Christ descends upon him at his baptism. 7. Valentinian.
those that were exalted in their hearts. Because it was not possible to give them the Word.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 197 (4) The abysses were opened. all things that were defective. 59-62. fire. because there was none for. op. (5) The abysses were sealed with the seal of the Lord : They perished by His Thought. of all those that had not the truth. (10) For the Lord has disclosed His way. 97 Read . And those that have comprehendedit. and no food was given them. (9) For they were defective in wisdom. air. sketches in broad outlines the regenerating work of the Word. (7) There perished from among them. that they might abide. and were spurned: They were crying to the Lord like women in labor. for some reason not given. see the parallel from Ecclus. and darkness. water. pp. (8) The Lord has destroyed the thoughts. so this Ode depicts a certain stage in that work--the stage initiated by the descent of the Dove. quoted p.m . his thought leaps forward to its final consummation.98 He held that the five elements. commingled one with another. Hallelujah. 200. had become. light.." that had been from of old. As Ode xii. The clearest statement of Bardaisan's theory of the work of the Word is given by Moses bar Cepha. cit. And they were rejected.them. For they were corrupt from the beginning. . darkness tried to rise from its place below and a9 Translatedinto French by Nau. know His holiness. with one of those rapid transitions so characteristic of the writer. But in v. and spread abroad His grace. because they had not the truth. 5.. and the final end of their corruption was life.
and the poet describes vividly the effect of that descent upon nature. p. and fell into the depth of its nature. and the present mixture was purified by a conception and a childbirth forever.. c. The regeneration of man. the pure substances sought refuge in the mercies of the Most High. 444.Za.99 he conceived them as being. )o~~~~~t~~~~~3 cuj O ~ ufr-• -•!~ oo• Q•l •0IjtL lJ . he removed darkness from the midst of the pure substances. The descent of the Dove may be interpreted as another. in part. supplemented by the last paragraph of the Book of the Laws. and decreed that they should mingle no more. at the sound of this tumult. the Makers of all things they thought to be nothing. the deeds of the Maker they ascribed to the things made. descended. the last will be the final perfection of the universe. In this process many stages can be distinguished. therefore. at one time. "Then. into which the Word enters and introduces order. The first step in this process was the creation of the world. that is to say the Messiah. the statements of Moses bar Cepha. in a state of chaos. is only part of a vaster scheme for the regeneration of the universe. III. the Son and Holy Spirit they confused with the created things. consisted. and he reestablished each of the substances in its order by the mystery of the cross. the Word of the thought of the Most High. to charge him with making them independent of Ephraem God . S .. vol. Ij.198 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE mingle with the others. B: " Marcion and Bardaisan blasphemously allege that the Creator is not one. supply a satisfactory Bardaisan's heresy explanation of several of the Odes. he established this present world. But as regards the work of the Word. 99Hom. ii.r •:.. contra Hcer." Whether this picture of the battle of light and darkness can be found implied in the Odes is a question into which I cannot now enter." I. the birth of Christ was one.. And from the mixture of these substances with their adversary. He affirmed the existence of the substances l = oo-ata) in language which caused (-. O. in dualism. *Mo!.- \. it was driven away. .4oM 10oL o ' o. darkness.
thus giving rise to the ceaseless round of transformations which we see. (dp6to-ovu?)i 101 . iv.g.. Arist.. 2. 1. 93. but is found in this sense in Clement of Alexandria. remnants of primeval chaos. It is a Jewish conception. ap. that I may pass over the waters of fire and all the abyss. Proph. mutually destroy one another. cf.' " It is reasonably certain that this is a Gnostic. p. and the effect of the divine influence upon them. op. KaST rTYp lIaV Kal Eclogax.. r^vdpEL FV'TO'ot u•&voos VXO dXX-l'yoppLcLLr. and iv. 102 E. as Clement was largely influenced by that sect. and fire." Acta Phil.'00 "'Abyss' is something the essential nature of which is unlimited.--they are "spurned.' And yet matter is allegorically described as' water of the abyss. p. from which the several genera and their species come. vapor.. Since the days of Heraclitus men had been familiar with the conceptionof the elements as consisting of opposites which. probably to devour it. 40. rI ppovV yJv' KGa rTO6r trl KaiTOL Kal vBwp /L6pbovrb Jo&p o'K &v elreV &~Fvoov. p..and 4 describe its effect upon the abysses." the apostle prays just before his death. So the material substances. Anz. that which is expressed in the Book of the Laws by describing the "natures" as "injuring and injured frombefore 100 Ex Script.' for he would not have called water alone 'abyss. de gen. p. Meteor. Jesus. perhaps.b describe the effect of the Dove's descent upon animals so 3'. when brought into contact. and probably it is a Valentinian definition. et corr. 108See above. ed. cit.. Potter. ii. and let not their dark mist enwrap me." thrust aside. Tisch.. 990 : ivooos yhp rb drepdT TO eOeov8al rolVUV U& . 7ro70 o?TclaL 4T0 & etp71Trac* ire U'6aTraoLLV. have been termed 'abysses. They open as the Dove descends through them. also note 66. 166. n. although limited by the power of God.rTpaot6oeVOp T& ~ ? W'i erql YlperaT. " Come now. II.101 As vv. 103 it is -FiM. which separate heaven from earth. So also in the Gnostic "Acts of Philip. and give me the eternal crown of victory over every antagonistic principle and power. chapters iii.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 199 The "abysses" are the vast gulfs of air. the aspect of Bardaisan's theory which Ephraemdesignates by the word "opposing" or "conflicting" substances. Verses 3e and 4 describethe internecinestrife of the elements in a vivid picture.1?2 This is. 2-3".
" and the idea is certainly the same. LL.W. .• . in the words of the Book of the Laws."1'0 But here the poet depicts it in a vivid image -the abysses have been engaged in devouring one another. "as is the Word's work. 10. 106 5pC0apgdva (?). In vv. 109.109a This is a e 104 Note that the word " natures. in Ecclesiasticus 43 23: translation: Xorytr/Aw Jerome's "cogitatione sua placavit abyssum. Conceived as components they are aTroTxeta 105 See p. p. 186). 18. their warfare stayed. The descent of the Dove is an event of such commanding import that even the dumb beasts recognize it." 109 j.Similar phenomena are describedas attendingChrist's birth. . xii. the poet turns from the cosmological to the anthropological aspect of the work of the Word. the " abysses are sealed with the seal of the Lord. 86. 4. The confused and warring elements are brought to rest. then renewed. those that had been of old. p. the Word was given to the worlds. and the completion of their corruptionl07 was life "-this present world must pass away to make way for a new heaven and anew earth. and Odexxii 11 : "That everythingmight be dissolvedand Jac. so the Book of the Laws. 7. The chief difficulty of this Ode lies in the opening verses." as in Ode xii. 2.200 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE the creation of the world." which is almost a translation of a'ro-0 eithoraeav /vo-rov. finally.. is the correct technical . 107 b 7TrAos r^ Oopas(?). such is his final end" (Ode xii." The Ode proceeds: "They perished by His thought. 182. they have been checked. "like women in travail. they " cry to the Lord" in a state of agonized turmoil and confusion. "They were corrupt 106 from the beginning. " deficiencies will be filled up" . 182. Protev. 9. "this injuriousness 100also which remains in them." or.s08 "All defective things "must perish." But their cry is unheeded. See Duensing. 1osSee p." 1OLS. by the thought or will of God. 8. 109 "it was not possible to give them the Word that they might abide. shall be brought to an end by the restraints which are in another mixture. term for the elements conceived as possessingactive properties. Zur 24ten Ode Salomos ZNTW.
11obut the seal upon it protects it from them.p. ch. But others of the Oe6\oyoL sent the souls as descendingthrough the moon and ascending through the sun ." ' The head" 112 is probably Christ as the Head of the Church Comparethe effect of the appearanceof the Star upon the other stars 110 in the passage from Ignatius quoted." "The head went down to the feet. which bears the seven planets to which in Ode xix. for down to the feet ran the wheel and that which was a sign upon it.and I wastheir head. rush to seize it." her superior.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 201 Gnostic idea. 112 xvii." the great "wheel of the Zodiac " (wcostaKov Ic. ch. here symbolized by the system of planets revolving in the Zodiac which. 22. I give merely a paraphrase. ibid.e." i. " Many hands " of the Powers of the Spaces." probably the Star of Bethlehem. a Porphyry. the 23d. repredeparting souls ascend throughCapricorn. when Christ descends into Sheol. This same group of astrological conceptions affords a perfectly intelligible interpretation of that very difficult Ode. that descendingsouls enter the world throughthe Zodiacin the sign Cancer.cXo9). for "the Messiah. The "thought" or "will" of God which descends like a letter. As it offers no special difficulties of translation. also the descending Christ is committed. Again an indication of the curious blending of orthodox and Gnostic ideas so characteristic of these Odes." So in xlii. govern the operations of mechanical law. ascribes to the Oe6Xoyom doctrine 111 ."' Upon the wheel is a "sign of the Kingdom and the Government. is "her head. it sweeps away all obstacles and makes "a broad path. The regeneration of the system of natural law inevitably carries with it the triumph of the Gospel. the Christ. Christand the dead who are to be saved. the Abysses. for in the Valentinian system the divine Christ does not come to earth until the moment of the baptism. to the more remote results of that stupendous event. But the Dove here does not represent the Christ. nymph. 12 the poet's prophetic eye looks forward from the moment at which the Word entered into the system of nature. 18. de ant. At v. 191. It is received by a "wheel. according to Bardaisan. is the Word descending to be born of the Virgin." i.e. 14: "They wereto me as my own members. 29. Death lets go the "feet and the head.
It is. . and he also recognizes the existence of "tares. his seed. indeed. the poet describes the resurrection of the dry bones. established a certain degree of congruity between the doctrines of the Odes and those of Bardaisan. and this Harnack takes as referring to the resurrection of the body. is the doctrine to which Ephraem pays most attention. Batiffol objects that it is represented as already accomplished. Another characteristic trait of Bardaisan's teaching was the denial of the resurrection of the body. of the dragon with seven heads.g. The poet's thoughts are dominated by the consciousness of the work of grace in his own heart and he has no special occasion to deal with Free-will as such. perhaps. which is definitely taught in the Odes (e. In one passage. Bardaisan himself recognizes 13 that Free-will subsists only by the sufferance of God and will prove no obstacle to the final regeneration of all things. I think. this." 114 An ancient is not required to be more consistent than a modern theologian." "who are not made for this grace. his poison. "to convert the souls of them that were willing to come to Him. 3. 8-10. 14-22). I do not think this settles the question. The preceding verses speak of the bonds which Christ is to loose. I have. an objection of any force. true that the doctrine of Free-will does not definitely appear in the Odes while it is one of the salient features of the Book of the Laws. I am not aware of any demonstrable points of incongruity. 114 See p." Nor is the doctrine of predestination. which represents the operation of the Gospel under the forms of regenerated natural law. and in the following 113See p. indeed. xxii.the feet are probably the souls in Sheol yet to be redeemed. his roots. for believers in predestination are often advocates of Free-will. viii. 178. In only one passage is it. 181. But this is not. I think. The revolution of the wheel. implied: x. carries Christ there also. for future events are frequently described in these Odes as accomplished. But the context is distinctly against a literal interpretation. incompatible with the theory that they are the work of Bardaisan.202 -the JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE conception of Christians as the body of Christ frequently recurs in the Odes .
"in me there shall be nothing that is not bright. p. and S. "although a son of man. 7b). lf 115Hipp. vii. e b&r R Tfv OrwHOIjpa. p.. viii. cit. Potter: IXNb oDv 6 ZTIwrprby &vXbv PwOeC KcdTrwi ^wrbs Tto alwvlots XapaK'rpOL.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 203 verses we have the rock which is to be the foundation of all things. So Hippolytus in describing the Docetae that they regarded souls as "the eternal marks (or says imprints) left by the light when it shone from above down below. 967. dsr c 8•-yeype rov Kil pi irohlqe. . and I was clothed with the covering of Thy Spirit and Thou didst remove from me my raiment of skin" (xxv. 117 Excerpta Theod. 8). incompatiblewith the notion of corporeal resurrection. 3.1" is the and the eastern Valentinians used the same word Saviour's office "to awaken the soul and light the--it spark. 418. . I was named the Illuminate. 23): ." 115 Saturnilus conceived of souls as sparksof light.. This presumptionis strengthenedby the passages which clearly do refer to the state of the redeemed. These passages unquestionably point to the well-known doctrine. then. In a similar sense should be interpreted. 66: Areg4'e oirvO•pca wsj. p. 28. 3). of course. 10 (D. which is. I have endeavoredto show: (1) That no antecedentimprobabilityprecludesthe ascription of the Odes to Bardaisan. But before Bardaisan's authorship can be regarded as established it must be shown that all the Odes can be intero KareLXi/CdyVoT . the son of God" (xxxvi. 380. have found place in the poet's theology. 2). Bef. obviously borrowed from Ezekiel. The presumptionis that the clothing of the dry bones with flesh. 1?6irpgev."17 The conceptionof a corporealresurrection cannot. rbv d'Opw116Op. is also figurative. 16. "the traces of the light were set upon their heart" (x. found in many Gnostic sects-and elsewhere--that the redeemed soul possesses a body of pure light.. "I put off darkness and clothed myself with light and my soul acquired members free from pain. affliction or suffering" (xxi.. 7b. (2) That some of the Odes can be readily interpreted in the light of Bardaisan'stheories.
JUNE 5. warming. "Their own degrees. as others have done.g. (See note 51. 5).and the good or bad effects of that influence. To this task I shall not be able to address myself for many months to come. 105).. in the hope that they may be found to contain some elements of value to the ultimate solution of the problem. e. Franz Cumont. astr." . cod.) "High places" are 'wcaLra. although generallyconstant for a given planet.204 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE preted from the same point of view. cf..-Procl. 1911. I have as yet found no otherillustration. But of the ascriptionof exclusivelybeneficent influencesto "those on the right." (See note 52. which." etc. IV. For the following notes I am indebted to suggestions given me by Prof. Cat. The 300 of each sign are apportionedamong the five planets and those to appropriated each are termedits "limits.) The earlier astrologerstermed planets "Ibeneficent" and "maleficent" (Ptol. I. the later distinguishedbetween the unalterableproperinfluence. p.who has been so kind as to read this paperin proof. and I have therefore thought it best to make public my tentative results. also Julius of Laodicea. The " degrees " are the " limits " (5pma). might be modifiedor transformedby circumstances(ibid.
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