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Romaine Newbold Reviewed work(s): Source: Journal of Biblical Literature, Vol. 30, No. 2 (1911), pp. 161-204 Published by: The Society of Biblical Literature Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3260001 . Accessed: 23/12/2011 08:03
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161 AND NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN THE ODES SOLOMON OF
Bardaisan and the Odes of Solomon'
WM. ROMAINE NEWBOLD
UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA
of Solomon present THE newly discovered Odes literature problems asto the student of early Christian fascinating as they are difficult. The author is a poet, and a poet of no mean order, but he is much more than that - he feels himself inspired by the Spirit of the Lord and illumined by His light; the resources of language, even when strained to the utmost limits of poetic license, are inadequate to express the richness of that new life which has transfigured his inner self and filled him with the joy and peace that pass all understanding. Yet when one endeavorsto see the worlds of matter and of spirit as the singer saw them2 and to grasp his conception of their mutual relations, in brief, to reconstruct his philosophy and to determine his age, his environment, and the school of thought to which he belonged, one encounters peculiar difficulties. He is as much at home in the Psalms and Wisdom-literatureas any Jew, and yet is not in sympathy with the more distinctive tenets of Judaism. He acknowledges no circumcision save that of the heart (xi. 1-2), no sacrifice save that of "1God's thought," of "righteousness and purity of thought and lips" (xx. 1-7), no peculiar people, for his sympathies are as broad as humanity (vi. 7-17; xiv. 14-29). He is a Christian, familiar with the leading events-of Christ's life -the miraculousbirth (xix. 6-10), the baptism (xxiv. 1-3), crucifixion and descent
1 I desire to acknowledge to the editors my obligations for their kind revisionof the proofs duringmy absencefrom the country, and in particular revision of my translationsfrom the Syriac. ProfessorMontgomery's 2 The author's general point of view has been characterizedby many; perhapsthe best is that of Gunkel, ZNTW, xi. 1910, p. 320.
into Hades (xlii. 1-26 et al.), yet he absolutely ignores many of the most characteristic doctrines and practices of Christianity. He makes no explicit allusion to the resurrection or ascension of Christ's material body, or to baptism, or the eucharist. He knows of sin and evil as facts (xxxiii. 8; xxxviii. 12 ff. et al.), but they seem to lie outside the range of his own present concern; even his conception of redemption seems unconnected with the crucifixion. Moreover, amidst the profusion of poetic and allegorical images in which he expresses his ideas, there are some which one can scarcely regard as merely poetic and allegorical and which fit but ill into the traditional system of Christian theology. The "worlds" 4 et al.), the "garment of light" (xi. 10; xxi. 2), the (xii. "perfect virgin" (xxiii. 5), the "abysses " (xxiv. 3; xxxi. 1), - these, and perhaps others, are somewhat more than hints that the author's view of the universe is not that of the orthodox Christian theologian. The theories proposed to account for this puzzling complex belong to three leading types. The representatives of the first type, led by Rendel Harris, the distinguished discoverer and first editor of the Odes, regard them as belonging to a period when the new life which was stirring men's hearts had not as yet moulded their thoughts after its own image nor found words adequate to its expression, when Christian theology was as yet in the making and clear formulations had no existence, in brief, to the period, approximately, of the New Testament itself. A second group, led by Harnack, cannot believe that conceptions so disparate as are found in the Odes could ever have coexisted as the elements of the world-view of any single mind. They believe them, therefore, to be a composite product, the original Odes being the work of a Jew of unusually catholic sympathies, into whose text a Christian hand has incorporated a few of the more essential elements of Christianity. But Harnack also refers the Odes in their present form to a very early period - about the end of the first century of our era. A third group of students regard them as giving imperfect
AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON
expression to some peculiar system of Christian theology, accepted by some minor sect, probably of the second century, and endeavor to identify the sect in question with some one of those mentioned by the church historians. But upon this point no agreement has as yet been reached. Gunkel thinks them Gnostic, and Preuschen has announced3 that he will endeavor to prove them a part of the Valentinian Psalmbook; Batiffol4 regards them as representing a docetic tendency, perhaps a forerunner of the great Christian Gnostic movement of the second century and akin to that combated by Ignatius. But Conybeare 5 and Fries 6 would have them Montanist. In my opinion the weight of evidence is distinctly in favor of the third point of view. While the considerations urged by Gunkel and Batiffol are not all of equal force and it is not probable that all will stand the test of further criticism, the main thesis for which they contend seems to me established - that the Odes unmistakably reveal the influence of Gnostic speculation. Yet the evidence falls far short of proving them Gnostic, for many of the leading characteristics of Gnosticism, as of Judaism and of Christianity, are conspicuous by their absence. The system of eons, for example, upon the elaboration of which with every detail suggested by pagan mythology or a perfervid imagination the Gnostic thinkers so loved to dwell, is represented in the Odes by nothing but the "worlds," and of them so little is said that it is impossible to determine at first glance what the author meant by them. Again, the Gnostic was essentially an exclusive faith. It drew a sharp line of demarcation between the true Gnostic, or, as the Valentinians called him, the "pneumatic" man, and the common herd, whether Christian or not. In the Odes the "elect" (viii. 21; xxiii. 1-3 et al.) might be regarded as representing the pneumatic man, but their relation to the mass of men is conceived in a very different and more catholic spirit, for the poet looks forward to the time when all mankind will be numbered among the saved (iii. 12;
ZNTW, xi. 1910, p. 328, n. 3. r ZNTW, xii. 1911, pp. 70-76.
Bibl., NS, viii. part 2 (1911).
6 Ib., p. 108.
p. . must. 154. and such. He must also have been a man who knew the life of the spirit by immediate personal experience. to employ those elements of his theological system which lend themselves most readily to poetic treatment. 9 Felix Haase. at least. the aim of which was essentially nothing other than a solution of the " World-riddle" with the 7 vii.8 I cannot better express my own impression of the relation between Bardaisan and the Gnostics than by translating a passage from Haase's recent monograph. was thoroughly familiar with Gnosticism and had borrowed from it much of his imagery and some of his doctrines. nor shall anything be dumb. Gnosis. so far as our information enables us to judge. " Zur Bardesanischen 1910. a man of deep sympathies. of broad vision." 7 As the author. in a preeiminent degree. died 222. One should not forget that it was the most enlightened minds that found something infectious in Gnosticism. receptive as he was to all sciences and sensitive to all intellectual influences.D. vii. 88. one does not turn to a hymnal for a system of theology. was Bardaisan of Edessa.164 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE vi. then. Nor true Gnostic. 178. Such a man. if he be not wholly devoid of the poetic gift. and that he lived in a land the peculiarity of whose culture made it the mother soil of Gnosticism. 8 Born A. See the text. 27. was the stupendous drama of the Valentinian theology. speak of the time when "Nothing that breathes shall be without knowledge. of the Odes we must postulate a man who. have been acquainted with the doctrines of the Syrian Gnostics also.9 No one who reflects that Bardaisan's youth fell in a period in which Gnosticism was at its height. of marked originality.). while not in the technical sense a Gnostic." Texteund Untersuchungen. 22 ff.p. But one does expect a hymn writer. it is true. a man whose heart was full of love for God and his fellowman. who believed himself divine and could the regarded all other men as akin either to animals or dead matter. The argument from silence is. note 41. will deny that Bardaisan. And he was also a gifted poet. passim. dangerous. Knowledge probably means gnosis.
a heretic. and his formal classification with the Gnostics by ancient and modern historians does him no wrong. in so far. 4 W raptC-ar/AgJ Gatb VrVaTwrj T'3 X6"Y' 8XhKao-&wcwv7^J. ibid. Tre T7 pwp cqWJ Lrs Bap5eo•dpi7e dvlp tKavdraT•cT6s 7rpbs TrOb TKar& MapKriwva Kal Tr'vaL ErTpov0 /taq6pwv ^ r^ 15L 7rapgs5wKe ydTbrfr rE KaL-paq /.d. Harnack. and Gnostic influence. altchr.KCtraTro.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 165 aid of all that the heathen sciences and Christianity had achieved.rb Tr s26pwo /eTaLSe- 7rpoOcrraFdov . 9. theological. in the age of Gnosticism. One will scarcely find a name that adequately and accurately expresses his teaching. but will simply assume Gnostic influence. It cannot indeed be determined at what period of his life Bardaisan had belonged to a Gnostic sect.. then was converted to the true faith without altogether giving up his old heresy. &TpwP. laid the foundation of his peculiar doctrine. 1. and remains..translatedfrom Syriac into Greek. dialogues against the followers of Marcion and certain other representatives of diverse doctrines. XEK. Gesch. the "Gnostic " elements.: alp&rews ?67roP. 30. Bardaisan is. 185: JP AvOo7rotasL d•reXg'y a."" Epiphanius describes him as "one of the finest Euseb. for he was a doughty defenderof his doctrine. ETxr& So0ydd-rwP tWaX6yovevoT-•7~47'e0os. -Trl 'EXXhvwv . Eusebius describes him as "a most able man and a skillful disputant in the Syriac language. i. p. in this doctrine. Eusebius' assertion that Bardaisan was at first a disciple of Valentinian. make the explanation unnecessarily difficult. it is enough to maintain that astronomy in particular. U ov• l ysdpLtAom. OkaXeTi'oP 5' dpa obrot rpo'Trepop Kear& orXOXfl•. aro~10 -TVyypal ica . we will not." p 7rXEL~rrotL rap utprw i7rkelTwrw.of whom he had many. and he therefore worked out a peculiar doctrine of his own. at least so far as its second part is concerned. which his pupils . . But if we find in his doctrines passages that unquestionably have a Gnostic ring. and astronomical knowledge.10 Bardaisan's keen intellect must have recognized the weak points in the Valentinian or [other] Gnostic system. based upon his own philosophical. ap. It will remain a hopeless task to pick out. Nau and Hort are quite right in protesting against reckoning Bardaisan among the Gnostics in the usual sense. HE. Lit. To Bardaisan's intellectual ability all our authorities bear witness. 10o TE Tr7g KaTcl raXatai 11 iv. J6Ket Jeal U& r9j KcaraLTpoy0 raT?7~. I therefore regard as natural and credible. U To~0rrop Oat dpOorpaTr yPr v .le-raEEOar ctAlq ?S o0 EavT r 7rw aclrbs tdjJ ye direppoa-ro KiTrareXwC 7rXEUTcrd -I r 9'l rbr 7?7I 5La- Id. besides many other works. who composed and committed to writing in his own tongue.
. "such was Bardaisan. in Osee. in S. . he says: Love for you.. Overbeck. eund. p.. 33. . 186: dptar6s rts oa. that I may not expatiate upon those things which Bardaisan alleges among his doctrines. p. p. rh 18De vir. He divided the words in measures and weights. Ephraem Syrus does indeed frequently speak of the charm which the Bardaisanite hymns exercised upon the minds of the people and attributes them to Bardaisan. and that it has no resurrection. For he formed hymns and set them to tunes. Oxon. 16 Le. 18). etc. p. Duval. ii. et aliorum Opera Selecta. 63. the stars. .. inl. ap.16 And [so] he set beforethe simple folk bitter [mixed] with sweet .that the soul [consists] of seven [parts]. p. Vatican ed. 187: talis Bardisanes. ap. (R. that the body is of the evil [principle]. 553: 15bEphraem discusses this doctrine at length. 14 Comm. the signs of the zodiac. and composedsongs and introducedmeters. Haer. Syr.. 12Haer. in rhythmic and accentual measures. eund.dVOS.. 56. ardens eius a Syris praedicatur ingenium et in disputatione vehemens. La litterature syriaque. ap. cuius etiam philosophi admirantur ingenium. .5b and [all] the rest.166 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE of men. contr. p.'5of the impeding substances. 53. . Ad Hypatium. Ed." 12 Jerome says that he was regarded as "distinguished" and that the Syrians extol the ardor of his intellect and his vigor in argument." "1eloquent" both in Syriac and in Greek. brethren. 1900. eund. Eph. ii. For example. Paris.p ircitra 1eyMXwOSKEKO7c0Lfl/..sick folk they. constrains that you bear the repetition of their words. 15 Or. 6yto .13 And again. 1865. 14 sqq. whose intellect even philosophers admire. "highly adorned with all the graces. 10. 186: clarus habitus est ." 14 To Bardaisan's gifts as a poet no trustworthy evidence survives.
It is also more than probable that the hymns in use among the Bardaisanites were not of his composition. with the view expressed in his own compositions. David's] truth he deserted. iii. ap. in the interval Bardaisan's doctrines reason to believe that had been modified by the influence of Manichaism and probably by other influences as well. too. the canonical Psalms had been used in public worship from the 17 Duval (loc. and imitated his number [only]."i.he commingledthese views with his own compositions. composed 150 songs. TrosOIKelOLS YpdttCZaTv.. rpoo'Itt/. if I understand aright the following sentence. Sozomen explicitly asserts that Bardaisan's son.seeing that he set to the lyre what he [Bardaisan] had composed.yevP40CW Ka & 7d gov7resr otdrobvt." 18 Sozom. 187) also states that Harmonius.Vos Bap8iodovu avveoT• rats. that he might be adorned with his beauty and praised for his likeness. but does not distinguish his work from that of his father. CI .. " Les malades n'eurent point le choix d'un remade salutaire.op..oUvoLKO r 7)P ?OsraOpaSo KcaaOdrEp v^ KGCal IroXXdKLS o0 1Appo rt'dXXovorL. It is probable that in the Syriac. " having had a Greek education.cit. Harm." and indeed. ot iroAs 'Apwoviov • .. as well as Bardaisan. my brethren. op. otd ye brb VXpad Ovvrypdtaro avvOels. Harnack. cit. rvyypdALLczcrL. Bap8a7. dXX& To tLs X& Kal caIPpIOeOs. 6 pat 56e r imv "EXXrort rap' Xbyw ao rpWrotLdrpOLS KGL aly6OLs dxO•rcra 4 r OpLy Kc . as in other Christian churches. cit. HE. was the first to adapt his mother tongue to meters and musical rules. His [i. K rdXaL JXXoyLtcrTarotroTroPvbY 7rp6Tro Tre.Theodoret (HF."1 He wished to make David his model. TavraO cs 666as " Since he [Harmonius]was not entirely outside the limits of his father's sect and the views entertainedby the Greekphilosophers regardingthe soul.rdr 6 vrap abrov KaXovuJV7lV 6o T7Y actp7jorLv craTO. the birth and dissolutionof the body and transmigration. XOPO rdptvwLO bra-ya 0. irel ydlp ob raWdI r-tv &K769 JP37^9 rarTpCaCs TE q0paopaiO a65aTO0 KaZl 0l StbXororcZXtyyeIcrl o ap? EXXi1ro iPVX27S. The circumstantialcharacter of this account gives it claim to credence.. rap' 'Oopovo^s dyI-opro.e.E .wrote much in Syriac.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 167 who chose not wholesome food. Kcal'Apu6. 187: Obt dyivo . ct irep XpcbevoL. ap.e. But it must be borne in mind that Ephraem is writing There is about 150 years after Bardaisan's death. Harmonius. he.CS Kal ..8S These varying accounts are easily reconciled.). p. 16. p. he expressly implies that Bardaisan's poems were set to the lyre by Harmonius and not by Bardaisan himself.
Bardaisan had been converted from Gnosticism to Christianity. It is probable on the face of it that Bardaisan. the whole of Ode xxxviii. The poet says "the way of error I have left " (xv. in his earliest efforts to produce hymns acceptable to his congregation. would endeavor closely to imitate the Psalms with which they were already familiar." and so on. but. celebrates his deliverance from a form of error portrayed by a "bridegroom who corrupts and is corrupted. in view of Sozomen's evidence." and is "adorned. It may be that Bardaisan was also the first to write hymns in meter similar to those Syriac hymns with which we are familiar. and give them to drink of the wine of their intoxication so that they may vomit up their wisdom and knowledge. it is more probable that the Bardaisanite hymns in meter known to Ephraem were the work of Harmonius and other writers. Just such imitations the " Odes of Solomon" unquestionably are. probably had not the ability and certainly had no desire to distinguish in the mass of heretical psalms and hymns the compositions of Bardaisan from those of his successors. while wholly insufficient of themselves to prove authorship. who was engaged in a fierce warfare with the Bardaisanite heretics. Ephraem. This reads like a condensed abstract of the account given by Epiphanius of his own experiences when young among the "Gnostics " of Egypt (Haer. and invite many to the banquet. 2). 6). There are also several allusions in the Odes. "I was delivered from vanity " (xvii. and there is no doubt that such practices were widespread among many Gnostic sects. and so ascribes them all indiscriminately to him." who "lead astray and corrupt the whole world. 4). and there is every reason to accept his evidence. There is no reason to charge the Valentinians with . xxvi. which. it is at any rate certain that their introduction into the church at Edessa was ascribed by Ephraem to Bardaisan." and a "bride who is corrupted. Whether other psalms and hymns were used along with those " of David " in the other churches is a question into which I need not enter. harmonize singularly well with the little we know of Bardaisan's life and activity.168 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE earliest times.
rdEcMoXoaylar Kosarder..g. and bearing such clear evidence of deep and sincere religious feeling. 7'. 7-c Lr BtaotLXet AL iTreliTOL. . Other Odes.plvaro. 1. X6ayovs e8tivac d7re. ap. op. when exhorted by him to deny that he called himself a Christian. p. suggest that the persons for whom he writes are not unacquainted with persecution.. and wrote against the heretics. like Epiphanius.g. We are told that Bardaisan came very near suffering martyrdom.. and replied in clever speeches. rather suggests spiritual than ecclesiastical priesthood. 6. &viteTpe rapavolatbroos 4pvoraacOaLtb XpwLrLavbv Eavrb'v XI-yewv. e. 186: 'A'rwuvvov 'ralpy Ur 6 U? Pelas uv8pelws diroXoyod5evos. and was almost appointed to the order of confessors. e. and declaring that he had no fear of death. xxxv. 56.. Marcion and others. cit. Bardaisan believed himself to be orthodox. Of more weight is the general impression conveyed by the Odes as to the author's relation to his readers. KbP Nau. 'AroXXwv•Pt 6 tK7K1 7 70T0 irp rd0EfOCLL. Harnack. xxix. xxv." 19 There are several Odes which intimate that the speaker has suffered persecution.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 169 them. but it is not always possible to distinguish between what he says in his own person and what he says in the person of Christ. p. despays.20but the context in Ode xx. for it must necessarily ensue even if he did not disobey the Emperor. had as a youth just escaped the temptations of some such sect. ix. which would be appropriate to the age of the Antonines. viii. O my 19Epiphan. Antoninus' friend.. xxviii. " I am a priest of the Lord. " He withstood Apollonius. It would fit in very well with the recorded statement that Bardaisan had been ordained deacon. The much discussed opening verses of the 4th Ode -" No man. Ilcer. 10. His " work is the Psalm of the Lord " (xvi. 8div Odvarov P/L q1jas. but the suggestions are too vague to be of value.. and his addresses to his readers intimate that he anticipates something more than a hearing. might have served to draw a band of devoted followers about their gifted author. One can readily imagine that Odes so beautiful as these." etc. The same must be said of the allusion in xx. 2). 20 Le livre des lois re avroeos i Tbv 6. manfully defending [the true] religion... but it is quite possible that the poet. v.
49. of course. But neither of these suppositions is as yet beyond question.." It is. ii.2 The fact that these Odes. If Hermas could make his revelation in Greek to the Latin-speaking Roman Christians. 14. and the Odes are supposed to be translations from a Greek original. surely Bardaisan might have used Greek in Syria. Epiphanius. and others base their opinion are indeed suggestive. (Dind. as I have shown. distinctly favors the hypothesis that he might have written the Odes of Solomon. 48. moreover. The occurrence of Greek words in the Coptic version proves. Gunkel. The words and phrases of the Syriac text upon which Schulthess. much as it was in the Roman church a little earlier. and in particular of his relation to the development of Syriac hymnology.. the language of the Odes and their title. 1. no more than that the author of the Pistis Sophia was working from a Greek text-not that the text was the original. . 444. for thy sanctuary thou hast designed before thou didst make other places "--in which Conybeare sees Montanism. because he hath no power over it. indeed. and raise a presumption in favor of the theory that the original was Greek. it is not yet proved that the Odes were first written in Greek. even about the middle of the 21Epiphan. Bardaisan is supposed to have written in Syriac. and it is not possible that he should change it and put it in another place. But two objections present themselves. Bardaisan was certainly able to write Greek. are much more easily explained as an attack upon the Montanist claim that the holy place. describes him as "eloquent both in Syriac and Greek. but they are not sufficient to put the question beyond doubt.) 22 I am inclined to believe that the original was Greek. ii. possible that in the last quarter of the second century Greek was a privileged tongue in the church of Edessa. On the other hand. 16. which had been in large measure bilingual for centuries. 21. was to be found at Pepuza in Phrygia. Havr. 442.21 It appears then that the little we know of Bardaisan's life and activities.170 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE God. changeth thy holy place. the true Jerusalem which came down from heaven.
2 The book professesto be a record 23 Besides Cureton's second edition.in his "Spicilegium Syriacum. presupposes good faith on the part of the author of Pistis Sophia--he was deceived by the fact that the poems had been long current. and again. Ed. probably not fifty years after Bardaisan's death." Lack of space preventsme from entering into my reasonsfor dissentingfrom this latter conclusion. 1910. Le livre des lois des pays. Bardaisan'soriginal work did not contain the doctrineof planetaryinfluence ascribed to him by the "Book of the Laws. he found them in his copy of the Bible. From this Syriacversionthe existing "Book of the Laws " is derived. 1863). forged works in support of their peculiar tenets with the utmost freedom. has been very generally accepted as proof that they must have originated at least a hundred years earlier. The men who forged books wholesale certainly would not have hesitated. if a stray copy of the Odes fell into their hands and seemed to them capable of being used to support their doctrine. and Merx's translation (in Bardesanes von Edessa. The Syriac was then again translated into Greek. already bore the name of Solomon. and so on.the fact that such works met with easy acceptance proves that the membersof these sects were as uncritical as their leaders were unscrupulous. Moreover. 44 sqq. The Gnostic group from which the Pistis Sophia emanated. I have used that of Nau.and there would have been little likelihood that the fraud ever would be detected. I shall find it necessary to give a fairly complete outline of the "Book of the Laws of the Countries. of course..). many early sects. Halle. were regarded as canonical and used as such by the author of Pistis Sophia.B. from the latter version Eusebius' quotations and those of the Recognitionsare derived. the discussion for and against a Greek original by Schulthess and Nildeke. Haase (op. after a minute comparison of the " Book of the Laws" with the quotations in Eusebius and the Recognitions.] . 555. This book contains the only fairly trustworthy evidence as to the views of Bardaisan himself. [N. It was first published by Cureton in 1847. The argument. Paris.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 171 second century. to attach to it the name of Solomon. indeed." which was translated by his pupils into Syriac. pp. 1899. 91. I can see no force in such considerations. cit. concludes that Bardaisan wrote in Greek a dialogue "Against Destiny. pp. and."in order to prepare the way for the interpretation of the Odes."in 1855. with an English translation. in ZDMG.
2 The theory is obviously eclectic. . the Odes are devotional poems of a most intimately personal character. It is at best based upon one of his works. the " great and holy will of God " will put an end to the discord. Their themes are as unlike as possible. It puts into Bardaisan's mouth a He accepts the fundamental theory of marked originality. and Destiny. whence arise in the world discord and confusion. but the word which Bardaisanuses (= •l06t) possiblypoints to acquaintance with Peripatetic sources. sickness and sin. upon man's body as a part of that world. The conception acquaintance of I"Nature"( . of a dialogue held between Bardaisan and his disciple Avida. Man is ruled by three independent principles: Freewill. The Book of the Laws is a discussion. "Destiny " is the influence exerted upon the entire material world.) is unmistakably the Aristotelian(q'aos. of astrology.24 These three principles. and confirmsthe statements of the churchhistoriansas to Bardaisan's with Greek. may and frequently do clash. and introduce a reign of peace and love. that the connection is not immediate. and it is quite possible. The conception had become a commonplace Greekphilosophylong beforeBardaisan's of day. by the constellations and planets.172 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE made apparently by a certain Philip. upon the problems of Destiny and Free-will. and also upon his soul. being independent. but dissents from that form of the principles doctrine of Destiny or Fate which was so generally associated with it. Even granting that the Book of the Laws fairly represents Bardaisan's views. Nature. Furthermore. as Stoic writers were more disposed to use Stoic terms (•-yos. rve1/Aa). it is obviously unreasonable to anticipate any considerable degree of coincidence between them. It. It is only by accident that the two works occasionally touch upon the same topics. and that he was the author of the Odes. in a severely scientific and objective spirit. But in time. "Nature" is the organic principle which governs the development and nutrition of his body. as Haase thinks. of the ultimate laws that govern the universe. Free-will he shares with God and with the angels. the Book of the Laws does not even profess to be from the hand of Bardaisan himself.
the theories of the Book of the Laws. supplemented by informationafforded by Ephraem and other writers. I give here. While he is of course aware of its existence. in phraseology and sequence of ideas. Nearly all the Odes are full of joy and thankfulness. that man is naturally inclined to sin. to quote from the Odes at such length as to give an adequate impression of the author's personality--that can be gained only by thorough familiarity with the Odes themselves. bless. an expression of Bardaisan's own character.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 173 The number of coincidences that do occur. their value as evidence is not great. nor could it. have been based in the first instance upon observation of what men actually do. It is impossible. primarily.man finds joy. to "love. In the second place. offer a very satisfactory interpretation of several difficult Odes. It is. I think. however. is suggestive. but in default of any evidence to show whether these traits were personal peculiarities of Bardaisan's. I have already referred to the singularity of the poet's attitude towards sin and evil. and in doing good which he conceives is. good properly belongs to him. indeed. The real significance of the Book of the Laws is this: In the first place. and to pray for that which is good for every one whom he knows " . his whole nature seems to turn as naturally towards love. but it is one of the minor threads in the web of evidence which I am endeavoring to weave. and the affinity to that of the poet is manifest. it gives a fairly definite impression of certain traits of Bardaisan's character. it was this that first led me to think of Bardaisanas their possible author.and these traits are in striking accord with the character revealed in the Odes. This similarity of character does not. goodness. Indeed.or were common in Syriac literature of his age. to speak the truth. Bardaisan regards man as imbued with a natural inclination towards good. . Bardaisan'sconception is very different.in a brief article. God. as the needle to the pole. rather. prove that the writers are identical. he seems to have no present personal concern with it. from the notion so prevalent in all Christian ages. of course.
and thou wilt be able to know everything. " querelle.28 needeth not to be ashamed. . " fell from the way of truth. therefore. 80 wa participate. my son. 7. 2." The simile of a way or path occursabout 17 times in the Odes." xxxiii. but I began first to question these. 9 (C)." Cf." C. Ode xi." Bardaisan said: Not Avida alone is unwilling to believe. 28 1 P?" obstinacy. Nevertheless." C .2 Nevertheless. know that he who putteth his inquiries properly." Bardaisan said: Thou speakest becomingly. tell it to us all. we shall agree " with thee.freely modified by suggestions derived both from the Syriac and from Nau.? 2s The translation is that of Cureton. because I was ashamed of asking thee. 29 S. but also many. nor are they even able to be convinced. " d'aprs les apparences. and have added in footnotes the more striking parallels from the Odes. . p. 6: " The way of error I have left. 1. O ?r.ASLZ "cleverly.174 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE those passages26 from the Book of the Laws which are relevant to my present purpose. and draweth near to the way of truth n without opposition." N. because they have in them no faith. because he will certainly give pleasure to him to whom the inquiry is directed. " serons d'accord. 27." C." C. because Avida is not willing to believe. . Avida's brethren say: "Believe firmly. Cureton. and are (p. 6: "I ran in the way of his peace." to which Avida objects "But I am not able to believe unless I be convinced. Avida said: "I am desirous of learning. my brethren. necessity will compel us to show thee why it does not please us. p. even the way of truth. 8: " I will make you wise in the ways of truth."Way of truth. and if it please us also." xv. thou hast anything in thy mind respecting this about which thou wast inquiring. " something more." N. and he will hear something to his advantage. 3) found destitute of all knowledge of the truth. and if it please us not. but are always pulling down and building up. If. 10. by those things which I have mentioned." and again. lo! I will speak to you who do believe concerning this which he inquires." N. and is willing to be convinced. These modifications are not always indicated.
xxviii.pa. 4: " I had faith." Compare. he would not have belonged to himself." .ye that know me in the truth. the fact that the heavenly bodies never rest is adduced S6 as an illustration of subjection to the command of God. 8. also. " de discouriret 82The conception that faith or belief is the first step in the Christian life occursfrequentlyin the Odes. The closest parallel is perhapsviii. . and I have faith in Him".oI" ip de conclure.if man had been created so. and His hosts are subject to His word. and the sphere. 1 : "As the hand moves over the harp and the strings speak. xxxiv. In the Odes. 3.. would man differ from a harp " which another plays or the cart which another guides ? But God in his kindness did not will that he should create man so. that there is not given to them Free-will of themselves.also."C." Why did not God create us so that we should not sin and be guilty ? " ." compare followinglines : (16) " The treasury the light is the sun. (17) " So he made the sun for the day that it may be bright. " They are instrumentsof the wisdom of God which errs the of not. also. xvi. But he exalted him by Free-will above many things. and know my knowledge. " to speak and to instruct." C. but night brings darknessover the face of the land." With the next sentence. 12." " I will not rise at any time. " I will not change and not wane nor 31 a . ye that are kept by it. xxxix. . occurs vi.. xlii. 6 : " Believe and live and be saved. thereforefound I rest. and the moon." Compare. (15) " They know not how to stand and be idle. 88The comparisonof man to a harp upon which another plays." nor the moon. but would have been the instrument of him that moved him. so speaks in my membersthe Spirit of the Lord. and they have no confidence upon which they may hope. for faithful is He in whom I had faith ". 18) But as to what Avida was saying . And on this account they are not competent to discuss and to draw conclusions.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 175 And he began to say to us: There are many men who have not faith. xiv. 12-13: " Keep my faith. and the treasuryof the darkness is the night". and have not received knowledge from the wisdom of the truth." N.and I speak by His love. but they are all bound by the command " that they should do only that which was commanded them and nothing else. "fixed by ordinance. And how.9 P . I. 6." Also.to . 84tJ. and the rest of these things which are greater than we in some things. For observe the sun. xvi. but it is nowhere so directly connectedwith knowledgeas here. . 11 . For the sun (p. then. 6. and made him equal with the angels. 4) never says. 5: " I am strong in His praise. 14: "1And created things run in their coursesand do their works" ."1 For they have not the foundation of faith to build upon.32 (1. So N . xxvi. xxix.
-ma. 7: "I grew great by his bounty. the earth... " and there is no end to his bounty. and according to His goodness He gave unto me ".. and govern himself in a god-like manner.." Compare note 40. . (3) " According to His mercies He exalted me. 4. 19) The commandmentswhich have been given to men are hard and they are not able to perform them. that by this same Free-will he may justify himself. so shalt Thou give to me. the winds. 9: " According to the multitude of Thy mercies. (l•m s-).176 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE increase. For there are two commandmentsset before us such as are suitable and just 88Severalpassagesrefer to the goodness kindness -A? (1Z-on. compare Ode xxix.. 3. but that we were in need of Thee. p. . who also are possessed of Free-will for themselves. not .] but all these things serve and are subject to one command.8 Avida objects: (1. and and mercies (1. (1. 3) For everything that exists stands in need of the Lord of All.) endowing him with powers fitted to raise him above his present status and make him more like God." See. 29 sqq. 5. and raised my mind to the height of His truth". 1. and associate with the angels. 8 "Bounty." . For bounty see (j-3a. (p.. 9 : "I was enriched by his bounty"." But the word used is . 1. Bardaisan said : This is the answer of such a one as doth not desire to do that which is good. "I will not rise and I will not set." nor does any one of the stars say. 87 Compare iv. 17) On this account there has been given to him these things in kindness. For men are not commanded to do anything but what they are able to do. and according to His excellent beauty He set me on high ". and p. 9 : "not that Thou wast in need of us. 17. xvii. xi. also. Here follows an account of the fall of the angels through their sin with the daughters of men.P xxv. 7 : " He glorified me by His kindness." [.for they are the instruments of the wisdom of God which errs not. the hills. xiv. and more especially of him who has obeyed and submitted to his enemy.I of God as manifested especiallyin creating man. 30.~." that they might minister to him for a season. 27) On this account let it be manifest to you that the goodness Wof God has been great toward man. With the above.) note 38.4). and that there has been given to him Free-will more than to all those elements of which we have been speaking. 2: " According to His praise He made me. P awm.and so of the sea. note 40. (1.
xviii.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 177 for Free-will: one that we separate ourselves from everything that is evil and which we should dislike to be done to ourselves." 2a. is there who is unable to avoid stealing. What man. and to pray for that which is good for every one whom he knows: and if he be in health and have the use of his hands." s are easily confused. It occurs eight times in the J] and properly means "without reluctance". po~ r take Thy Wordfrom me. 7 (see p. "salvation. and to bless. in close connection • with qAj. I should be tempted to emend the text of the Ode. therefore... he is able too to give something of that which he has. and desire that it should be done to us likewise. or impotent in his limbs. And accordingto His excellent beauty He hath made me. With the above passage compare xv. ?-a = d7rcrTroL. and as he is able (p.. and this too he is able to do. For even if a man be poor and sick and old. and there is nothing that is able to hinder them.1 ^ ] ." Possibly " in faith" has been lost fromthe text.~ more appropriateto receive commandmentsimmediately after leaving the way of error. And have receivedsalvation fromHimwithoutgrudging. For I think it is in these commandments more than in anything else man has power. but in the will of the soul. 4 : " Lord. it is that is not able to do what those devoid of faith " murmur about I know not." V P?. . 18) But there have been given to us according to the kindness of God commandmentswithout grudgingOsuch as every man . Ode 4 .g. or to avoid lying or committing adultery and fornication. 6) to avoid doing all these things. 197). or that he should be guilty of hatred and falsehood ? For lo! all these things are subject to the mind of man. (1. Should the evidence ever warrant a definite ascriptionof the Odes to Bardaisan. r and the interpretation of xviii. and is then equivalentto d006vws." Commandments. he is able to avoid doing all these things." . Who. Moreover. lo i M%. xxiv. 6: "The way of error have I left. t 40 "Without grudging. e. i•o consideredin connectionwith that of xxiv. ye in the knowledge of the Most High withoutgrudging.•. because of them that are deficient." But it is usually found with verbs of giving. And accordingto His bounty He hath given to me. 389 " Devoidof faith. 4: "Walk Odes. For they are easy. do not Thou.it would be somewhat Fi. rather than salvation.." and ~. 7. and have walkedtowardsHim. also to support by the strength of body him who is sick and broken down. so is he able to love. therefore. xxiii. 4 must be om. but the same phrase recurs. and they lie not in the power of the body.. For we are not commanded to carry heavy burdens of stones [and so of other tasks]. and to speak the truth. and the other that we should do that which is good and which we love.a .
e. 0 Bardaisan. My joy is the Lord. 1: "As the impulse of anger against evil."Every man that possesses a soul within him.. For there are many things which impede the action of the body. Bardaisan. every living man." makes it reasonably certain that the passage has no such general application. after J . but to do good things who among men is able ? . nowhere definitely states his theory of redemption.] have been lost IPo." 5i. I have said and do say that they are easy. and my impulse is towards Him. so is the impulse of joy over what is lovely. for there is no man who rejoiceth not when he doth that which is good." and a comparison with iii. hence a direct comparison of the two authors on this vital point is impossible. to the exclusion of Bardaisan's conception.l1_ ? for vii. the poet finds it in the redeemed and purified soul.. Avida said: Perhaps a man may be able to avoid wicked things. " I love the Beloved and my soul loves Him. vii. The text reads: m )oa loa. ' The wording suggests a plausible emendation "I. for the poet gives no description of human nature as such. again. 41 . "I. But whereas Bardaisan finds it in human nature as such. 0=3 .178 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE who possesses a soul within him 41can do rejoicing. and conceives "'the good " as good deeds. for this is the good conduct of a free mind. and of that soul which has not rebelled against its governors. There is one passage in Harris's translation which seems to express the doctrine of Bardaisan. and poverty. ." But the word here translated "what is lovely. 5. And brings in of its fruits without restraint. The words ae I~c~l p0?o . "the beloved. and conceives "the good" as God Himself. is literally. do you say that they are easy to perform ? Bardaisan said: To him who desires. which as it stands is unintelligible. and who are called tares." i. and the attempt to reconstruct the theories of each from the scattered hints in our possession would lead me far beyond the limits assigned me. and more especially old age. For would not that Judge be unjust who should blame a man for such a thing as he is not able to do ? Avida said to him : Respecting these deeds. and the ?second po is a corrupt dittograph for J?. with the exception of those who were not made for this grace. not. 42 This joy in the good is the most characteristic trait both in Bardaisan and in the author of the Odes. however. and sickness. 42 nor is there any one who doth not delight within himself when he refraineth from wicked things. 27.
5-6 : "I love the Beloved. and on this account he rejoices whenever he does good. etc. 20: "The worlds were made by His Word. know well that there are men who are called Chaldaeansand others who love the knowledge of this art [i."N = U? j -. as for myself. when applied to a planet. my soul loves Him. [Some believe in Destiny. there also am I". compareix."and has given to all things the power which is suitable for each one of them.] (1. 12: "I was justified by His kindness. signifies a definite astrologicalfunction. some in Luck.l. xi. . Comparexxv. in that the wisdom of God is richer than they. 24) We ought plainly to understand that the unrestrained ardor of love is called lust. incorruptible and indissoluble. 11.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 179 Bardaisan said : It is more easy to do good than to abstain from (p. 4: "Be enrichedin God the Father. 9: "I was enrichedby His bounty.. 1. heads." '5 j rulers." which has established the worlds. rpo•o-y6rLos. Greekol0Kos8er6rqs. as I also once loved it.. 21) But. After developing in some detail the distinction between the true enjoyment which attends good deeds." " Comparexvi. They are true in that men speak from the appearanceof what they see. 12: " He spreadout the heavens and fixed the stars. Bardaisan proceeds: (1. it seems to me that these three views are partly true and partly false. each of which. like the . although there may be in it rest (i. in my humble opinion.e. 0 Philip. xi. and they see as things seem to them. 4) I likewise. (p. " or "peace" occurs about seventeentimes in the Odes. and by the thought of His heart". I cannot determinetheir precise meanings. and has ordained the governors. 35) But let us speak now and show with respect to m ie]o. JrtKpTarwp.=. He fixed the creationand establishedit. 7) evil. governors. 10: "From above He hath given The conception "rest" me rest that is incorruptible. 12.e. iii. but the evil is the operation of the enemy and on this account when a man is troubled and not sound in his nature he does wicked things. and His rest is forever and ever ". ." (p. For the good is the man's own. 1.a. nevertheless is far removed from the love which is true. some in Free-will. and receivethe thoughtof the MostHigh ". astrology]. they are false. and the false enjoyment which attends evil. whose rest is forever. satisfaction) for a moment. "For this conception of knowledge or wisdom as riches." and created man. Where His rest is. which. contentment.
. ed. but here probably means the signs ". any planet is more powerful when in its own "'house." and sometimes perhaps " west.180 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE Destiny. -" The complex. for this very thing itself (p. 663-664) that " right " sometimes means "north. Tetrab. Astrol. whenever nature is disturbed from its right course." sometimes "south. Corr.. p.e. or when setting--but it cannot change its proper character.. 13) which is called Destiny is a disposition (or arrangement) of the motion4 which is given to the governors and the elements4 by God. Pruckner. jhz. 50o . 49 Destiny. (p.. Adv. because those heads and governorsupon whom depends the change that is called Horoscope." j. wporTK67roS. 1551). N. Jupiter and Venus are beneficent. Mat. Basel. viii.4 = TOLXX•ta. & Add. a translation of aX??arp~ps rs obpavlac KLV75aeWs." . and according to this motion and disposition." sometimes "'east.. Strictly speaking. The next section shows how organisms are normally ruled by their respective natures. 1. libb." None of these seems to fit the present passage. for clearly " those on the right " are planets or constellations which are always beneficent." or when rising in the eastern sky than when situated elsewhere in the Zodiac." 1.." "'those on the left. It signifies the total complex of relations constituted by the position of the heavenly bodies at any given moment. elxcapdvfy. ir=% o i " Those on the right. its disturbance is due to Destiny. In astrology as known to us." etc. that it has not power over everything. 61 Precisely what Bardaisan means by " those on the right. of the Zodiac. Astron. 47Disposition of the motion." I cannot explain. 1 . used by Ptol. but it is here used of the total effect exerted by the stars upon the infant at birth. And those are on the right 11 called " those which assist nature" and add to as haps. pp. = 1. n.m. the horoscope was the sign of the Zodiac rising at the moment of birth (see the admirably clear summary of the leading doctrines of astrology given by Sextus Emp. and Mercury neutral. is equivalentto and is.are opposed one to the other. The position of a planet makes its proper influence stronger or weaker . and this change is called the Destiny and the Horoscope0 of this complex which is being sifted and purified for the advantage of that which has been receiving aid and will receive it 10until the consummation of all. iii.OT." probably T-TracLts. (v) 12 sqq. 48 Elements.). ccelestia signa.-Procl. " Right " and " left" do not seem to bear any definite technical meaning in astrology. 1." . Firm.g. See Otho Brunfels. Boll has shown (Sphcura. "Horoscope. and souls are changed in their descent to the bodies. 14. 383. intelligences are changed in their descent to the soul. De diffinitionibus et terminis astrologice (in Jul. Mars and Saturn maleficent. "oipdvta arocxe'a. per- . 10) And know ye well that.
o .NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 181 its excellence whenever their motion helps them 52 and they stand in high places of the sphere in their own degrees. for lo! wherever we be.. and whenever it is governed it is able to resist its Governors. For there is nothing that can hinder that great (p. we assemble ourselves together. the laws of the countries do not separate them from the laws of their Messiah. xviii. (p." etc. and upon one day. but sickness and health. shall we say respecting the new race of ourselves who are Christians. and riches and poverty -this which does not appertain to their Free-will.not by their strength . (p. etc. all of us are called by the one name of the Messiah . which is the first. This is the position in which its influenceis strongest. For if we were able to do everything we should be everything. 4) What. i.their natures. which is interpreted.-Procl. and in its "houses " it has a certain position." 55The " works" are probablythe material universe. This may last for a short time. 33. 68 Cf... because He is kind and permits all natures to remain as they are and govern themselves by their own will.in particular. and on the appointed days we abstain from food.. As the Free-will of men is not governed by the necessity of the Seven. N Cf. anything can be. withstand .j) that 2•. 1.but by their wickedness and error. "Their own degrees. position on or near the meridian. 11-12: " Who is able to interpret the wonders of the Lord ? For he who could interpret would be resolved into (1oa. so also is this visible man not able readily to deliver himself from the commands of his Governors. but also." and if we had no power to do anything. . without opposition. the " institutions. whom in every country and in every region the Messiah established at his coming. 10) But wherever they be and in whatever place that they are. we should be the instruments of others. But whenever God wills. especiallythe stars." eachplanet has two " houses" or signs properlybelongingto it. Those on the left are called "bad." For even those that think they withstand it. or geovpavgiara. 22). xxvi." For this orderliness and government S" Helps them. 10 : "Thy will is perfection. then.e. 1. when their inherent beneficent influencesare re3nforced by their positions in the Zodiac and relations to other planets and constellations. 32. for he is a slave and a subject." probably." and whenever they occupy the high places they are opposed to nature and not only injure men.Christians." ." either twy/?ara. befalls them wherever they are. neither does the Destiny of the Governors compel them to make use of things impure to them. 34) and holy will. i. a certain position in the Zodiac fixed for each planet (Ptol. "High places. though bound none the less by the works that have been made and by the institutions which have been established for their help.
and the foolish will be persuaded. The doctrine of the soul's descent from heaven here sketched by Bardaisan was." N. although it is not possible to prove. and later by Plato.. softens down the violence of the natures. however. is not known and the diverse forms under which it appeared have been but imperfectly investigated.. " training. It is probable. and there will be peace and safety.and deficiencies will be filled up. in all its forms. again. for it already contains the essential elements of the astrological form of the doctrine. or both. bad. both in its ascent and its descent. Its origin. it was adopted by the Pythagoreans. the soul was supposed to encounter. in all cases. who probably learned it from the Pythagoreans. by the bounty of Him who is the Lord of all natures. although astrology as a science was as yet unknown to the Greek world at large. But there is good reason for believing that the form in which it appears in Plato's works has been directly influenced by Oriental ideas. W a68 . widely prevalent in antiquity. These influences." " rvsultat. that.182 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE which has been given. And at the establishment of that new world. whose equilibrium is maintained by a balance between opposed but system equal tendencies. Its present evils can be corrected by a new combination of its elements. might be conceived as personal or impersonal. as they were injuring and injured from before the creation of the world. And a time will come when this injuriousness also which remains in them shall be brought to an end by the restraintsmfound in another mingling. also.C." 1 education. The world is a a. Proclus' interpretations of the myths of the lit. and mingling of one with another. and all rebellions will be brought to an end. good. in one form or another. the existence of this element. influences severally appropriate to the several tracts of space through which it passed. all evil motions will cease. It was probably always associated with the complementary idea that the soul which has thus fallen from her divine estate should seek again to regain it. The doctrine was probably of Oriental origin and was introduced into the Greek world by the Orphics about the seventh century B. that they should not be altogether injurious or altogether injured.
when she has proceededas far as the lowest of the orbits (i. although.e aucWvTW "yd'otro mmi 5aqCeJva rpbTrov7d biroKe~eOOa ~dXcacr AiC d tral L&Um ftreeOac 7tr rVuep'ry eal al ux1 rjv & epo y'p c lydveoes ot~dv*' o'mTW re'VooG'a rdi•rmw rwirc. that of the moon) becomes subject. 5CLc4OO'bL KOO•ILKuIC '•O'Tpw7CCt 7 &XXaei asra'v. [in brief]. . and instead of belonging to those things which rule the Universe. he would. in Remp.e.ri7v br oa'av del KalId&Klrov 6 Procl. Kroll. the eternally subsisting and inflexible dominion of Necessity to which the soul. This is Bardaisan's doctrine with one important difference. Bardaisan that the body only is subjected to them. PT7)TU TrOtOvTwJ' &XXcoM L 77s otbECe 7-P Ir^i . .~ 6• X rats d Oprbcrw^ vx.v rept68wv ylverat Paa~telav r7A7d'AdCYK-I. is subject to the guiding spirit. is exposed to material spirits. In another passage Proclus describes at some length the ed. 345. arbitrary and fanciful in detail. ii. depends upon the operation of the celestial orbits which severally exert their diverse influences upon her. in so far as the general outlines are concerned. and as she proceeds thereto she is immersed in all influences [emitted] from the celestial [bodies]. po•ra 6KKEL74 r^ d-'yOp ALXKOS •T 7repL65wv w^i 78allgo . Proclus' own theory is very similar to that of Bardaisan. she becomes one of the things ruled. o epG rW^ K6onov IAdpoS. of course.57 .. So also the soul. differ in no way from the things which are moved by other things [only]. but the soul is governed by Free-will.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 183 Republic and Timeus are therefore correct. for he would have to take from the sailors such and such orders and obey the pilot and be exposed to gales of wind. upon falling wholly into birth. o hvel rb g-arovCrpoeXOofGa r^ . re A dbrvov 70ooG &dXXC b rt rdv goXdrwv v Kcral Kac cuvat ela rb d Krl ccl'palc 8tocKo0PTWP a7rp olo' et rtr hX6tofoPo s pat' p 5LoLovudIWer rr *a KCL d-~yC7y&p TroTrovKal bIrb Trw 7r& aIKC r 7rXwr7p drcKo~. in such manner that she is not only a part of the [lower] world. in a sense. 14: . and I cannot supply a better commentary on Bardaisan's statements than by translating one or two short passages from Proclus' intolerably prolix commentary upon the Republic. 7p6etaw U lsr E rb o xarov 7 otpavlwvreptXflc00e6arot7aercv. Proclus holds that the embodied soul is absolutely subject to the influences of the stars. and the body only in so far as not controlled by its nature. just as though a philosopher were to embark in a ship and become a rower. but is one of its lowest parts.
but Klotho ratifies them by her own threads.PL ObK &pa rI TrI 'yevIVOELs eZT a-vlrX-lpovoaOa TwVPd&vOp&r7rTv T7y ofeo'Oac ' L. for this reason. too. Ei Trl br•eLepa ~rl roT ?rpb abr V el 7 Ba 5p. PLa6Ovovoa yp I"rXelo0tv ObKdTL y ?r' &XXoLts77/JL dKeCOev T? KLTV^ ?EW VCa7riv ^rpoEPeL. . and through the threads which it gives. 7 KaL rpo57p~ern ^T T vs o0ev elpopdv2v rolqv70L alOavulrXeIoOAlP avrpd rep elp •Tp ' ov7Pha70o KdTiw 70T rdoews d&retrcltav ol raaXtol Kai d reKdacavTes KXwcOc38td 7rara 7rP Mortpa -KcdXeo••a. then. which is twisted and intertwined from all these. rdpaI dT& KXwo0'dvTa a'T7ry 1yd/rcJTV 7roLOvOav. sphere. from the signs of the Zodiac. cit. . from whom we got life.v7-w XaX&ao^o ~ piwvi&uGv ? Kal Ailry6irmot roXXo irepl rv rpoyV'rJdaerv.dbi d7rXcaVWP 1oo0OaL. indeed. He then brings [the soul] from Klotho to the spinning of Atropos. 21: 7T drb r o drb p ebX6AeOa Aotpav* obXl T6 7rrwis ei8os b6vov. d. then. . From Lachesis. L&8•OLV d4eLrEAcorpoca 8dLV 7 vT7vP Xav cvaPdWV K6KXWV y&p aeTr) rapd7TL Ts oO)K ?w00s . . 342. U KXwOI KvpoT TaGVTa ToLs LavT-fl v7Pha-L Kal KXcSaoLaaotv. in that she causes to stream upon us the gifts of the celestial from the constellations also which rise simultaneously with each of them there comes to us a generous largess. XX drb T•K rdP'oTwV Ka 5&&y va ylveEat iZTd•L• v JAwv al h04Kovoal. then. The influence. upon the ground that they. KXwOov^r rapapylverat. puoLpav ali Seya'dyXv rip o v &. comes from Klotho ? He (Plato) says she ratifies the destiny we have chosen. Kal a y 8 aXdov &~ r6o0YLaLXXOV VKTaLrivra tL lveraT V'roKaraKXtveTaL rTEpL68ots. but Klotho (= "Twister "). 8 P PvX) Tr /LOLpazta.not merely the kind of life. rdvTwv Top 6T0 V r6 Kai S ro6Tw7J IX6YPrTW paCoT7pLOv repi Tis 'EVIeOEL. a&" 1V 7rTeTLOdaav T•. which finishes the twisting. but also the [influences] imparted to us by the Universe.. exert a great and effective fateful influence upon nativities. and by way of a simile they. p. the products of her spinning [or twisting].. i0ouv Pbvov d&rb ?yl'ot. and from them [the] Chaldean and [the] Egyptian [astrologers] are wont to foretell many events of our lives. K y'lp 7 rap' i KsKai 0los. KvpwOjvcal fqo-wL 7b 6 1 Kal eleOazL uTLS v pXeac els" 7a rarbXX Tre 86o~"r*cd' var•eXX6. Tc Uava0Tp676epa XoEV' AaXiaews. CXX& cal ra drovepbt6eva 7ytAv T 70 raVrT6. Not only. called this Fate. ' ?v T& Kal elp". 7r Xszjavofs 86oel. drypplovwa Ic LTr 7L/v^ T 7TC^ &CXX Kac &rb 7-w rapao . TW7 7TE K6KXWV " t KE Kai 7Tw V CLVaTOS LOLpPV KaL darb TWP 7TW9V TWdv7r'XavrCoP' TwP daOTIpwV Kal TWP v 8Xw ryUCWV KCai TWP&XXv OvLordeeWov. . •d 8vuvar•b d&PavyeYv Trdos dTLrOeoLav TrotSalpeOe•LOLv. makes what has been twisted incapableof being un58Op.6vov w I d&rb T v wv dXXr dov abtrbTwP d7TXavY rXavWpivre 6vWvr.. the ancients compared to "twisting" and "turning" together with the stretching of the thread from above downwards. we get both. . dvrl MeT&r 7rava IroLvY ?T•v v'otv 7Lt KXOeL KaL al" WV rapasecadvrm &XXa yet 7f 'ATp6brov.184 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE way in which the soul's total endowment is derived from the constellations and the planets :68 What.
reluctantly. one upon another. 5 is unintelligible. Turning now from Bardaisan to the Odes. 4a. The twelfth Ode runs as follows: The WordI9of truth hath filled me that I may speak of him. the confessors of His counsel. For the mouth of the Lord is the true Word. and of the signs taken as wholes."' The subtlety of the Word cannot be told. 7. various [gifts] thence. For as the soul descends lower. and the door of His light. from their motions. For upon receiving from Klotho the spinning. 61 I have followed. are given to us through the planets. she contributes to us.. from which she cannot escape until she has brought what she elected to its completion. but that from them all results a single train and series reaching to us.62 Read plural points. Wisdom.NEWBOLD : BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 185 twisted. 4 -al . And the more these secondary [influences] work upon us on top of those which preceded them. the chasteners of His works. by means of the planetary orbits. otherwise difficult to defend.ED. (2) and my lips show forth his fruits. 60 As a stream of water streams the truth from my mouth. One should not. suppose that the nativities of men or of other living creatures. I shall endeavor to interpret some of the more difficult Odes in the light of Bardaisan's doctrines. The Most High hath given him to His worlds-the interpreters of His beauty. etc. the more inevitable do the decrees of destiny become. the narratorsof His praise. Like his subtlety is his piercingness. Labourt's reading: which yields excellent sense. 22f. but is m Za. she becomes subject to more and yet more orbits. the heralds of His thought.. inscribed in the Zodiac]. therefore. and that the [influence] of the fixed stars. (4) (5) 59 Read without points. 60For ao read A. and of the other constructions [such as the triangles. (1) (3) He hath increased in me his knowledge. 4~•~o. [Cf.] 62 V. and of the circles on high and of their degrees. are filled up from the fixed stars or the planets exclusively. . and of the stars.
6") .e. 8. ipF. through his influence upon the " worlds " they have become the means of revealing God's beauty.186 (6) JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE (7) (8) (9) (10) and endless is his course. through that love " 638 Final end. 6a) . here seems nearly equivalent to 65 I." see note 51. Or the ppl. counsel. and he is impelled to sing of his nature and his work. is not the only effect of the Word's activity . 4). Never doth he fail but steadfast stands. he pervades the universe (vv. His meaning sped by his agency." For the dwelling-place of the Word is man." From him came love and concord. and of " chastening" His works (v. 7). he also inspires love and concord (v.Lflj'Ea. consciousness. (11) (12) This beautiful poem might well be entitled "An Ode to the Word. They know the Lord in His truth. praise.6 He is light and the dawning of thought: The worlds through him talk one with another. For [it was] the voice of the Most High [that] spake to them. They were penetrated by the Word. . "In converse": for the " Word" the poet has used consistently throughout this Ode.e. thought. by that of the Word. nothing can resist him (v. and his truth is love." The poet feels himself (vv. And knows not his fall nor the way of it. But intelligence. He is Light and Thought (v. and they knew him that made them. 5. "Those who were silent" are perhaps those on the " left. in converse were those who were silent. they have acquired the power of communicating to one another their thoughts. the Word will continue the work of reconciliation in which he is now engaged until all discord has disappeared. 64V. Blessed are they whom he has made to know all things. 9a) ." i. For as his work is. because they were in concord. 1-3) inspired by the Word which issues forth from the mouth of God. such is his final end. may be pluperfect. and they told one another whatever they had [to tell].
air. 318. too. so that all became as Nous. and his truth is love (v. Yet the same Word that rules the stars in their courses. whom the moon obeys as He bids her shine by night.. and the things that are in the earth. . In the western Valentinian system of which Irenaeus has preserved the best account. compare the Epistle to Diognetus. Fathers. abyss. 12). The female mons. and led them to a state of true repose. or one of those that direct the affairs of earth. by whom He enclosed the sea in its proper bounds. and the things that are in the sea. Blessed indeed must they be who feel themselves possessed of such knowledge as this (v. but the very Artificer and Creator of the universe Himself. 10Jo d). i. Thus then they tell us that the mons were constituted equal to each other in form and sentiment. the earth. But certain elements of the picture certainly are Valentinian.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 187 the worlds become aware of their Creator (v. by whom all things are ordered and bounded and placed in subjection. whom the stars obey as they follow the course of the moon. chap. and it will be remembered that " worlds " is the word used by Bardaisan for the planets [note 45]. became all as Aletheia. 7 (Lightfoot-Harmer's translation). ed. dwells in man. and have nothing to do immediately with the redemption of the world accomplished by the Soter and by Jesus. The meonshave no such functions. and Anthropos. the things that are in the depths. [God sent to earth] " not a subaltern. the heavens and the things that are in the heavens. 4 will suggest the planets and constellations as conceived by the pious astrologer. the things that are in the heights." the thought of God (v. fire. 6 Ante-Nic. b). and Ecclesia. 11). Am. 6 With this description of the cosmological functions of the Word." This Epistle exhibits other points of contact with the sphere of ideas common both to Bardaisan and to the Odes. the sea. by whom He made the heavens. the "meaning. 10a. and Zoe. p. and Logos. they are shut up within the limits of the Pleroma. whose mysteries all the elements faithfully observe. or one of those who have been entrusted with the dispensations in heaven. vol. These are not Valentinian weons. after the aeons have been produced by the Propator :67 The Holy Spirit taught them to give thanks on being all rendered equal among themselves. or angel. and Spiritus. or ruler. from whom [the sun] hath received even the measure of the courses of the day to keep them. the things that are between the two.66 To any one who has any acquaintance with the literature of astrology the " worlds " as described in v. for the Word is the voice. cut off from the lower world by the Horos. and Christus..
which is given by Moses bar Cepha. these two pictures are inspired by one and the same original. as conceived by Bardaisan. I have quoted this Ode partly in order to show how precisely it conforms to what we would expect of Bardaisan as regards its doctrine (compare Haase's summary. for which no good sense has been found.r. The Worlds in the Ode receive from the Word knowledge of God.(and therefrom produced Jesus).188 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE Everything.." 69 and therefore talk to one another. 164). 6 q. ap. and they resolve to contribute each the best he has68 to the nature of Jesus. p." literally " equality.71 The nineteenth Ode is one of the most difficult in the collection. Harris. out of gratitude for the great benefit which had been conferred upon them. note the description of the work of the Word. the whole Pleroma of the eons. probably means " planets. 8. The Valentinian aeons sang praise because Christ and the Holy Spirit have given them such knowledge of God as they are able to receive. p. being thus established and brought into a state of perfect rest. when written in the Estrangela c. iv. 12.. with one design and desire. character is easily confused with The emendation . Div. and with the concurrenceof Christ and the Holy Spirit. A leading difficulty is the first word of v." which. Then.who himself shared in the abounding exultation. love and " concord. 71 But . The pictures are similar but not the same. their Father also setting the seal of his approval on their conduct." It shows no other points of contact with the Book of the Laws. p. is further confirmed by Lactantius' quotation :72 " Salomon 69 68tirep elXe' #p davrr KdXLOTOV Kal dlVOypbra6To. then. but chiefly to establish the fact that " worlds. they next tell us that these beings sang praises with great joy to the Propator. 72Inst. yet they contain striking identities of thought. and tell each what70he has." in this passage at least. and have made them equal. 198. and has not yet been satisfactorily interpreted as a whole. Certainly. For this I read " formed. brought together whatever each one had in himself of the greatest beauty and preciousness.
The Son is the Cup. And gave the mixture to the worlds 74 (5) and they that received in its fullness arethey on the right. e. of which I can make no sense here.QA. •Las' eyAdX. I have followed Labourt'ssuggestionand read . 76Read L2oa" m. she bore voluntarily.--a' Kpcd6ret text read: 79 suspect that the original that d-yaXXLdre&. "I (10) and loved in safety and kept in kindness and showed forth in majesty.g. mid. alK Va . 4.73 The Holy Spirit opened Her [the Spirit's] bosom. 76See note 51. Himerius. KvTr-aT?o verses changed to suit the sense. 74Read pluralpoints as suggestedby the pl. rawplc. gErworep.17 like a man. I Tim.AL corresponds to 6'EdtsL. she was empty. Hallelujah. (2) and He who was milked.. (7) She travailed and bore a son without any pain.75 (6) They moulded the body of the virgin and she received conception and bore. part. 77&L. (1) A cup of milk was offered to me. (9) She bore in joy 78 and acquired79in great power. etc. (4) and mixed the milk from the two breasts of the Father. oSakets. 78 7 So alsoFleming.&1. The virgin became a mother with many mercies.. and I drank it in the sweetness of the kindness of the Lord. e e )rvevXes Kal Kva7cT/r 1h. --= eavUrb. -. (3) And the Holy Spirit milked Him because His breasts were full and it was not fitting His milk should go to waste. ]•-. Or." Infirmatus est is meaningless. et facta est in multa miseratione mater virgo. For the rare aor.NEWBOLD : BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 189 ita dicit : Infirmatus est uterus virginis et accepit foetum et gravata est. (8) and since there was none. 76 And she sought no midwife. without their knowing it. J r"S 80 j. frexev &I K-vaOarO was corrupted into KT7aarTO and the order of the Kcl XOZa. for He kept her safe. but informatus est represents with a fair degree of accuracy. the Father. of the verb cf. 4 16. vii.
e."? W 0. so far as I have been able to discover.- t. p.•. gives it to the planets. is in general agreementwith the Book of the Laws.z_'•o0 xA i? irm oZ SV0 -'P?9? b %. occursboth in Bardaisanand in the Odes. i= .1 %&CMI&3 ' QZA? bj.•oo1. !1ti~2 !o• •-•-• ljm•.. 557 : lv. and she brings forth a son.0 ' 4010 4. !..•Zlo cm •."30 P jOe . That this theory. In vv.190 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE Notwithstanding the strange metaphors. The planets then "mould" or " form" or "shape" the body. of the virgin. mixes it in "her" own bosom and i. God protected her from all harm during the process (vv. and to which he refers so often. is apparent. so offensive to our taste. is significant(see note 51).in Ptolemy.o C?5 !.• •io •L •.3 li? 1•! ! 4. receive it in its fullness.~i. The poem closes with the crescendo of vv. literally belly. is the divine influence or Word of which he seems so vividly conscious. and the language in which it is expressed.. --•-• R• tb: •'•z Ft1:uo t:•k•_• •. " •!. .- !- . those on the right. ii." It remainsto adduce further evidence which will directly connect it with Bardaisan. The milk which the poet has received through the Son as the Cup. 50rka .•-•.Av . 9-10. 82Homrn.81 the beneficent planets. She needed no midwife.• 1-.3 Ibl 1 • fl b. Ephraemgives a brief account of Bardaisan'stheory :82 s81The fact that this distinction between planets as on the right and on the left.'I. 6-8). the theory of the Incarnation here set forth is perfectly intelligible. without pain because she was empty--the precise meaning of this conception I shall discuss presently. especially noteworthy are the expressions" the worlds " and "those on the right.-k- jlQl~m ? t-•.!-li9.?4aOI? 4? z PJI c wiy. Verses 1 and 2 are introductory and serve as a key to the understanding of what follows. but not.. op. 3 and 4 the Holy Spirit draws from the Father a similar divine influence or substance. ai-• otlrq•z . A l? 1f. cit.
There then follows an allusion to a widespread notion "the mixture was given to the worlds without their knowing it." literally "1flowed and descended.' in the mystery of a marriage. as when like children they say something flowed down from the Father of Life and the mother conceived a hidden son and bore him and he was called the Son of the Living 8 One." "Something flowed down. formed themselves into a chorus about the star. and all the rest of the constellations. our Lord he called a 'Nature born from between two. . but the star itself far outshone them 88"The Son of the Living One. for the pl." The theory that Christ's Incarnation was concealed from the powers of this world occurs early in the second century in Ignatius' Epistle to the Ephesians : " And hidden from the prince of this world were the virginity of Mary and her childbearing.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 191 Pray. Cf.Holy Jesus. unopposed motion. how much more pure must His divine nature be. for He is "light from light.the which were wrought in the silence of God. "Flow" is used in Syriac of almost any easy. glory be to Thy Nativity! And in that he said that it was impossible for one ever to germinate. But too much stress must not be laid upon his phraseology. for the disciples of Bardaisan. and procreate. will become living." suggests that Ephraem had before him the very milk simile of Ode xix. and "1something" does not necessarily mean more than that Ephraem found Bardaisan hard to understand. 2 8. and likewise also the death of the Lord84-three mysteries to be cried aloud . How. then. and its light was unutterable. which protects Harris' emendation (the sing. But the allusion to the "mystery of a marriage " is more significant. that they may not rave again. 4." CompareOde iii. with the sun and moon. my brethren. 11: "IHe who finds pleasurein the Living One. were they made manifest to the aeons? A star shone forth in the heavens above all the stars. it certainly is well fitted to express what the poet describes in v. 84 I Cor. .). and its strangeness caused amazement." The context shows that the Living One is Christ. The word which I have rendered "marriage" may have a more literal sense. sprout. But even as our Lord's body was not born from between two. then.
. one to another. 86See above. 19 . Ig. is subject to the control of the planets. together with a commentary in which he interprets the doctrines there expressed as those of Bardaisan. But other sources complement this statement in a very satisfactory way. p. ch.86 But here it has a peculiar significance. or relations of the several heavenly bodies. the intelligences in their descent to the souls and the souls in their descent to the bodies. All that is not under the control of Free-will.192 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE all. pass through the spheres of the several planets s7and receive from them certain modifications. be produced by the planets. 182. and is seen in the personal peculiarities of individuals. Why. escape these influences and appear on earth precisely as he left heaven. which is the law for organisms. the total result of which is determined by the horoscope. again. which has been preserved in Armenian. Paul. at the moment of birth. 180. do the planets act as the instrument of God's will in bringing about the virgin birth ? Because. p. of course. no doubt that of the 88 See above. signs of the Zodiacand of other constellationswas supposedto co6perate. 87The influenceof the planets is the moreimportant. (Italics indicate 85 Eph. so to speak. In Bardaisan's system. tr. or of nature (fto-qL). therefore. in Bardaisan's system their influences represent the sum total of what we call nowadays mechanical laws. Lightfoot. Ephraem in his commentary upon the Epistles of St. The nature of these changes is not further described in the Ode .the "worlds" simply "mould" the body.88 The divine Christ in his descent must. then. which is the law. for conscious intelligences. The changes in the Virgin's body which were prerequisite to the accomplishment of the virgin birth would not be produced by the 4nots of her body . and there was perplexity to know whence came this 8 The nostrange appearance which was so unlike them. gives quotations from an apocryphal Epistle of the Corinthians to Paul.they must." tion that souls must encounter the divinities of the planets in their descent and ascent was common among the Gnostics.
. 6: a •r6. 24: KcalZ 6 XoTyoU~Ev facryov ab•6r. butof for they say he went throughher as somethingnot [coming] from certainangels. And they regard the world not as the creation of God. dXX'0K & Maplas. but by the seven Guides. and of man they say he is not made by God at all. Marinus holds: "1that he (Christ) took a heavenly 9 body . . as the angels appeared to Abraham. 170. .NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 193 the quotations. 26: cs Kal ol &yyeXot "A8pacl 0oV. Schrift. they say that he who spoke through the Prophets is no almighty God. 22: 5OKOet IrrTOVOEv A•r i' Ka u I o-w a." formerly ascribed to Origen. H. II. cit. orwal 190. But this doctrineis that of the schoolof Bardaisan. . but the Gospel.that is. he himself suffered in appearance . 300. Mcplar Ka o K~Ic ty o~rw Kal 6 Xbyor rpoo'Xaljdpwpi.appears as one of the speakers. r ~ elsOeb de6pO^s 7rlarews.D. .L/L o o 8Ld Maplas. . i/.of the seven Guides. as distinguished by Zahn89 from Ephraem's commentary. The book was written about A. p. a Bardaisanite. And they say our Lord did not come with an earthly body. D. 9: 6 X-yos a6rbo adpt 1.namely. 6: &rt opd•iov oC&a tXape.) "IAnd the words which they speak and teach are erroneous. 174. In the dialogue " On the right faith in God. ed. namely : One should not. 92 Op. . ... p. W. it is not even certain that it faithfully reproduces the views of the Bardaisanites of that age. but with a heavenly body. cit. . and ate and drank with him. we confess that he [came] through 89Translated from the German version given by Zahn. IyPve7ro o6bUPv RwOep rpooXfapihp. xvii. the Word himself became flesh without taking anything from without in addition . Chr.90 It cannot be trusted as evidence for the doctrines of Bardaisan himself. And they say thereis no resurrectionof the body. /tlw•Up Maplas. ." Evidently Ephraem knew Bardaisanites who held that Christ went through the Virgin's body without receiving anything of her. say they. so also did he . 597. accept the Prophets. And they call God not almighty. NT. opavv Xev Xwv r• ' al nrtov r' a6ro6. he came from heaven with his body . van de Sande Bakhuyzen. &Orep ytp v 1JCp & awXjvos tipXeTraL. And they do not admit that he was bornof the Virgin Mary . xvi.. 176. Gr. vol. . . d. 90Der Dialog des Adamantius rept 91 Op.. Gesch.91 It is of value only when confirmedby other evidence. Kanons. a certain Marinus. her. iv. 178.
Eel. with the idea that they are induced to come to birth for the sake of the pleasure (or savor). Kroll.rhv8et . vi. ii. and it is so named from the [souls] which are nourished with milk when they fall into birth. ed. Spic. p. she was empty". Cureton. nympharum. For which reason also. ap.. Iamblichus. as thou saidest just now. 14 sqq. p. Syr." Proclus (in Remp. because milk naturally is engendered along with them. Because thou hast not comprehended the mind of Bardesan. who assumeth the body of Christ to be from heaven.LEge'XeTJKViaLs epXeoaca als 9 Stobaeus. the absence of pain proved that the conditions to which pain would be due were lacking.eo& eis y'yveort dr7b TW^v 7Tpeo/d. &V *Jt •S . . p."''93 Thus it was that "she bore a son without any pain. several accounts of which have reached us. The remainder of the Ode calls for no special discussion. he says. so [came] the Word through Mary. 28: Aly6Kepw~ ~ Kai KapKlvPO S 'repI p/h rT KapivoS P-6pela Aiy6Kbepw~ & v6Tra8GcLos T7r rdpara abroI eiXyX67res. for just as water goes through a pipe without taking on anything. The earliest detailed account is that of Porphyry :94 [Homer speaks of the solstitial signs. Heeren: KUal rokotLs HpaKXe5l7V '1 fh&y'bY HorrTLK6Y 1Opilot ew repi T+)' (sic) yacalarv.yaXacla v 94 De ant. 129. he says [al. but not of Mary. 904. and didest assent to thy teacher Bardesan. whence regarded 98 So also Philoxenus.. : " There are some of them who say that he sent down the Word a body from heaven. . Porphyry's pupil."] " Now Capricorn and Cancer are near the Milky Way. 68' '50ov^s eIS -YeOtY vyrKVeOae 'br6 ydXa ri vKCEV. . 52. The milk simile is probably a translation into Christian language of an ancient myth. they say] assemble in the Milky Way. ch. .oW1 s / AL 7owo al c 5aratsTo l//V4vXayWyobl KEKpay•o 'ycXaKTL. that is.194 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE Mary. and not of Mary." 7. necromancers offer the souls a libation of honey mingled with milk. Cancer the northern and Capricorn the southern. aowL) EiS TbV at 6JT7aC -yXaKTr y-aXaciarv TJ o1v7W rpoo'ayopev6/1. 8 d6elpwv KaT( IIHvOay6paV 4/vxal ds avvdyeTOai q5 ' (al. And according to Pythagoras the souls are a ' tribe of dreams. i.) repeats Porphyry's account with some variations. constituting its limits. Cancer and Capricorn as the "gates of the sun. gives Heraclides of Pontus a clue to the source of the tale95-the Milky Way as the place of the souls. . and since there was none. phys.' which.
and so I would interpret the sentence found in other. The Orphics had taught that the soul is "breath ". for this light is the heavenly milk designed for souls. the words used by Marinus. and this is the meaning of the name. Upon returning to its proper home the soul will of course again need nourishment. Heraclides was a pupil of Plato.it is a luminous substance. p. 203).NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 195 they came to earth. daisan's doctrineand the Orphic-Pythagorean . Bardaisan probably did. and I have no doubt that this is a genuine fragment of early Pythagorean doctrine.956 But he may have drawn it from other sources. and it may well be that the ancient explanation of the celestial "milk" as being the light with which souls are fed suggested milk to him as an appropriate simile for the divine substance which proceeded from the Father and Holy Spirit and issued through the Virgin into the world as Jesus. 4. So in the Orphic burial tablets found in southern Italy and Crete (Miss Harrison. Phil.). as at least some Pythagoreans did. his interest in the mystical aspect of Pythagoreanism is well known (Zeller. he must have had trustworthy sources of information. It is not at all impossible that the author of the Odes knew of this myth in its Greek form. 989. 3 . Ed. 660-63) the soul avows itself a " child of Earth and of Starry Heaven " (ry wrai~el/' xaia opaPvoiaTEpde0ToT). 1. the Pythagoreans refined the conception . Gr. The theory of the virgin birth presupposed by this Ode is Irenaeus gives it in almost known to be in part Valentinian. pp. The origin of the Orphic-Pythagorean doctrines has not yet been discovered. as he was a man of learning.the departed soul has fallen into the "milk " of the sky. ii. to the Study of Greek Religion. it is nourished by the dim light diffused in the Milky Way. I have) fallen into milk " . d. 1034 sqq. "a kid thou art (or. that souls consist of light or are robed in a body of light (see p. "he who went through Mary 96.Sozomen's language (see note 18) implies some affinitybetween Bartheories. Proleg. but it is in my opinion certain that an Oriental element enters into them. similar tablets. The author of the Odes believed.
7. Irenueus. . The theory of the incarnationwhich follows is ascribed both to Axionicus and to Bardaisanand may represent Axionicus' conceptionsmore faithfully than Bardaisan's. 9 Cont. at his baptism. Bardaisan held the orthodox doctrine. as a whole. and the sojourners were moved. 31. (1) The Dove flew upon the Messiah. the constructive craft (587uLtoUpY'LK 7dXPYv) in order that what the Spirit had given to Mary might be moulded (8ta7rXaae0). and the creeping things died in their holes. Epiph. and came to be with the (ydyove 7 ) psychic [Jesus] and raised him from the dead. it would seem. because He was her Head. vi. and therefore.. impliedin Odesxix. the divine Christ descends upon him at his baptism. . p. i. Gr. i. Hcer.. But it is closely akin to the theory of Ode xix. (Panar." 9 But the doctrine of the Ode is In the system described by not." Accordingto Hippolytus also. 35." which " moulds" --the very word of the Ode if my emendationbe correct.).i. the operationof the " worlds" by the " power of the Highest or constructive craft. hcer. The milk is representedby the Holy Spirit." In the Ode the stars mould the body of Mary. .e. the Logos of his mother on high. the body of Jesus was "psychic. the body of Jesus is. (3) The birds dropped their wings. for the Holy Spirit came upon Mary. among whom are Axionicus and Ardesianes [= Bardaisan]. and the power of the Highest. Here. 2. and which is believed to have been characteristic of Bardaisan. according to the western Valentinians. we have that blending of Gnostic and orthodox elements which I found in Ode xii. (2) The inhabitants were afraid. But in the Ode he is the Son of God Himself. but son of the Demiurge . can be interpreted if viewed in the same light. hold that the body of the Saviour was spiritual. 1.. the Jesus who is thus born of the Virgin is not the Son of God. says that. Hcer. i." what the Spirit had given Mary. then. But those of the East. 356) : etar Ur ToTrovr G8& ~8wp 8t& TbY Maplas b8osedoavTra. again. Wisdom (Sophia). Valentinian. . formed in the bosom of the Spirit.the Spirit as a dove descended. and xxiv. 24 (cf. ap. Wisdom. She sang over Him. and her voice was heard. that Christwas divine from his birth and did not acquire divinity at his baptism.196 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE like water through a tube. that is. KaOdlrep 96a wX-o'o Hippolytus.96a Ode xxiv.
cit." that had been from of old. because there was none for. all things that were defective. those that were exalted in their hearts. so this Ode depicts a certain stage in that work--the stage initiated by the descent of the Dove. 5. And those that have comprehendedit. and the final end of their corruption was life. (9) For they were defective in wisdom. that they might abide.m . And they were rejected. (7) There perished from among them. with one of those rapid transitions so characteristic of the writer. his thought leaps forward to its final consummation. (8) The Lord has destroyed the thoughts. for some reason not given. had become. and no food was given them.. darkness tried to rise from its place below and a9 Translatedinto French by Nau. light. op. pp. fire. Hallelujah. Because it was not possible to give them the Word. (10) For the Lord has disclosed His way. quoted p. and spread abroad His grace. 59-62.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 197 (4) The abysses were opened.. 97 Read . and were spurned: They were crying to the Lord like women in labor. sketches in broad outlines the regenerating work of the Word. . (5) The abysses were sealed with the seal of the Lord : They perished by His Thought. know His holiness. of all those that had not the truth. air. because they had not the truth. commingled one with another. For they were corrupt from the beginning. water.them. The clearest statement of Bardaisan's theory of the work of the Word is given by Moses bar Cepha. 200.98 He held that the five elements. As Ode xii. But in v. and darkness. see the parallel from Ecclus.
And from the mixture of these substances with their adversary.Za.198 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE mingle with the others. *Mo!. in dualism. c. and fell into the depth of its nature. the Word of the thought of the Most High. p. )o~~~~~t~~~~~3 cuj O ~ ufr-• -•!~ oo• Q•l •0IjtL lJ ." I. he removed darkness from the midst of the pure substances. to charge him with making them independent of Ephraem God . .r •:. O... But as regards the work of the Word. descended. The regeneration of man. the Makers of all things they thought to be nothing.. 444. the statements of Moses bar Cepha. Ij. vol. the birth of Christ was one. B: " Marcion and Bardaisan blasphemously allege that the Creator is not one. supply a satisfactory Bardaisan's heresy explanation of several of the Odes. the deeds of the Maker they ascribed to the things made. the last will be the final perfection of the universe. that is to say the Messiah. ii. he established this present world..4oM 10oL o ' o. and decreed that they should mingle no more. The first step in this process was the creation of the world. contra Hcer. In this process many stages can be distinguished. in a state of chaos. is only part of a vaster scheme for the regeneration of the universe." Whether this picture of the battle of light and darkness can be found implied in the Odes is a question into which I cannot now enter. and the poet describes vividly the effect of that descent upon nature. the pure substances sought refuge in the mercies of the Most High. "Then. consisted. therefore. S . and he reestablished each of the substances in its order by the mystery of the cross. at one time.- \. at the sound of this tumult. in part. into which the Word enters and introduces order. the Son and Holy Spirit they confused with the created things. III. The descent of the Dove may be interpreted as another. 99Hom. darkness. He affirmed the existence of the substances l = oo-ata) in language which caused (-. it was driven away. supplemented by the last paragraph of the Book of the Laws.99 he conceived them as being. and the present mixture was purified by a conception and a childbirth forever.
rI ppovV yJv' KGa rTO6r trl KaiTOL Kal vBwp /L6pbovrb Jo&p o'K &v elreV &~Fvoov. also note 66. have been termed 'abysses. but is found in this sense in Clement of Alexandria. n. cit. (dp6to-ovu?)i 101 . They open as the Dove descends through them. 990 : ivooos yhp rb drepdT TO eOeov8al rolVUV U& . 1. Potter. Arist. as Clement was largely influenced by that sect. and the effect of the divine influence upon them." Acta Phil. Proph. and probably it is a Valentinian definition.b describe the effect of the Dove's descent upon animals so 3'. p. 40. iv. chapters iii. 166. Jesus. p. that I may pass over the waters of fire and all the abyss. 2-3". from which the several genera and their species come.'00 "'Abyss' is something the essential nature of which is unlimited. 93. and iv. ii.1?2 This is. It is a Jewish conception. and let not their dark mist enwrap me. Since the days of Heraclitus men had been familiar with the conceptionof the elements as consisting of opposites which. which separate heaven from earth.' And yet matter is allegorically described as' water of the abyss.' " It is reasonably certain that this is a Gnostic.. et corr. thus giving rise to the ceaseless round of transformations which we see. ed. when brought into contact. the aspect of Bardaisan's theory which Ephraemdesignates by the word "opposing" or "conflicting" substances. So the material substances.and 4 describe its effect upon the abysses. vapor. op. So also in the Gnostic "Acts of Philip. r^vdpEL FV'TO'ot u•&voos VXO dXX-l'yoppLcLLr.101 As vv. Anz. Tisch. that which is expressed in the Book of the Laws by describing the "natures" as "injuring and injured frombefore 100 Ex Script. 7ro70 o?TclaL 4T0 & etp71Trac* ire U'6aTraoLLV. Meteor. and fire. probably to devour it. p. II. 103 it is -FiM. remnants of primeval chaos. 108See above. Verses 3e and 4 describethe internecinestrife of the elements in a vivid picture. perhaps.. 2.. KaST rTYp lIaV Kal Eclogax. de gen. p.rTpaot6oeVOp T& ~ ? W'i erql YlperaT. although limited by the power of God. mutually destroy one another. and give me the eternal crown of victory over every antagonistic principle and power..NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 199 The "abysses" are the vast gulfs of air.g.. " Come now. 102 E." the apostle prays just before his death." thrust aside.' for he would not have called water alone 'abyss.. cf..--they are "spurned. ap.
then renewed. " deficiencies will be filled up" . p. their warfare stayed. in the words of the Book of the Laws." 1OLS. those that had been of old." 109 j. The confused and warring elements are brought to rest.s08 "All defective things "must perish. The chief difficulty of this Ode lies in the opening verses. 8. 106 5pC0apgdva (?). Protev."1'0 But here the poet depicts it in a vivid image -the abysses have been engaged in devouring one another. Conceived as components they are aTroTxeta 105 See p. 182. 86. term for the elements conceived as possessingactive properties. 9. 18. "as is the Word's work.W.. In vv. such is his final end" (Ode xii. 182. the poet turns from the cosmological to the anthropological aspect of the work of the Word. shall be brought to an end by the restraints which are in another mixture." which is almost a translation of a'ro-0 eithoraeav /vo-rov. 109 "it was not possible to give them the Word that they might abide. 109." as in Ode xii. they " cry to the Lord" in a state of agonized turmoil and confusion. 4. .Similar phenomena are describedas attendingChrist's birth.• . 2. so the Book of the Laws. 7. Zur 24ten Ode Salomos ZNTW. 1osSee p. "this injuriousness 100also which remains in them. and the completion of their corruptionl07 was life "-this present world must pass away to make way for a new heaven and anew earth.200 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE the creation of the world. The descent of the Dove is an event of such commanding import that even the dumb beasts recognize it. p. 10. and Odexxii 11 : "That everythingmight be dissolvedand Jac. See Duensing." and the idea is certainly the same. by the thought or will of God. finally. LL." The Ode proceeds: "They perished by His thought." But their cry is unheeded. is the correct technical . the Word was given to the worlds. in Ecclesiasticus 43 23: translation: Xorytr/Aw Jerome's "cogitatione sua placavit abyssum. "They were corrupt 106 from the beginning.109a This is a e 104 Note that the word " natures. xii. 186). the " abysses are sealed with the seal of the Lord. 107 b 7TrAos r^ Oopas(?). "like women in travail." or. they have been checked. .
here symbolized by the system of planets revolving in the Zodiac which." ' The head" 112 is probably Christ as the Head of the Church Comparethe effect of the appearanceof the Star upon the other stars 110 in the passage from Ignatius quoted. also the descending Christ is committed. the 23d." the great "wheel of the Zodiac " (wcostaKov Ic. repredeparting souls ascend throughCapricorn. ch. which bears the seven planets to which in Ode xix.11obut the seal upon it protects it from them. 191. for "the Messiah. Christand the dead who are to be saved. the Christ.NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 201 Gnostic idea. ch. rush to seize it. is "her head." i." i.e.e. nymph. Again an indication of the curious blending of orthodox and Gnostic ideas so characteristic of these Odes. a Porphyry. according to Bardaisan. But the Dove here does not represent the Christ. that descendingsouls enter the world throughthe Zodiacin the sign Cancer. the Abysses." "The head went down to the feet. 12 the poet's prophetic eye looks forward from the moment at which the Word entered into the system of nature.p. when Christ descends into Sheol. The regeneration of the system of natural law inevitably carries with it the triumph of the Gospel. As it offers no special difficulties of translation. for down to the feet ran the wheel and that which was a sign upon it. " Many hands " of the Powers of the Spaces. 112 xvii. 22." probably the Star of Bethlehem. is the Word descending to be born of the Virgin. The "thought" or "will" of God which descends like a letter." her superior.cXo9). ibid.and I wastheir head. for in the Valentinian system the divine Christ does not come to earth until the moment of the baptism. At v. This same group of astrological conceptions affords a perfectly intelligible interpretation of that very difficult Ode. it sweeps away all obstacles and makes "a broad path. Death lets go the "feet and the head. govern the operations of mechanical law. But others of the Oe6\oyoL sent the souls as descendingthrough the moon and ascending through the sun . It is received by a "wheel. to the more remote results of that stupendous event. ascribes to the Oe6Xoyom doctrine 111 . 14: "They wereto me as my own members." So in xlii. de ant."' Upon the wheel is a "sign of the Kingdom and the Government. I give merely a paraphrase. 29. 18.
indeed. indeed. 3. his poison. true that the doctrine of Free-will does not definitely appear in the Odes while it is one of the salient features of the Book of the Laws." Nor is the doctrine of predestination. I think. 8-10. incompatible with the theory that they are the work of Bardaisan.g. I am not aware of any demonstrable points of incongruity. which represents the operation of the Gospel under the forms of regenerated natural law." 114 An ancient is not required to be more consistent than a modern theologian. 178. of the dragon with seven heads. viii." "who are not made for this grace. But the context is distinctly against a literal interpretation. I have. But this is not. In one passage. It is. this. xxii. I do not think this settles the question. which is definitely taught in the Odes (e. perhaps. the poet describes the resurrection of the dry bones. for believers in predestination are often advocates of Free-will.202 -the JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE conception of Christians as the body of Christ frequently recurs in the Odes . and he also recognizes the existence of "tares. his seed. for future events are frequently described in these Odes as accomplished. 181. The poet's thoughts are dominated by the consciousness of the work of grace in his own heart and he has no special occasion to deal with Free-will as such. Batiffol objects that it is represented as already accomplished. is the doctrine to which Ephraem pays most attention. In only one passage is it. 114 See p. carries Christ there also. and in the following 113See p. Another characteristic trait of Bardaisan's teaching was the denial of the resurrection of the body. "to convert the souls of them that were willing to come to Him. I think. The revolution of the wheel. . 14-22).the feet are probably the souls in Sheol yet to be redeemed. Bardaisan himself recognizes 13 that Free-will subsists only by the sufferance of God and will prove no obstacle to the final regeneration of all things. The preceding verses speak of the bonds which Christ is to loose. and this Harnack takes as referring to the resurrection of the body. his roots. established a certain degree of congruity between the doctrines of the Odes and those of Bardaisan. implied: x. an objection of any force.
dsr c 8•-yeype rov Kil pi irohlqe. rbv d'Opw116Op. found in many Gnostic sects-and elsewhere--that the redeemed soul possesses a body of pure light.. 23): . 117 Excerpta Theod. 16. p. I have endeavoredto show: (1) That no antecedentimprobabilityprecludesthe ascription of the Odes to Bardaisan. viii. In a similar sense should be interpreted. 1?6irpgev. p. "although a son of man. 3.1" is the and the eastern Valentinians used the same word Saviour's office "to awaken the soul and light the--it spark. and S. . and I was clothed with the covering of Thy Spirit and Thou didst remove from me my raiment of skin" (xxv. is also figurative. 10 (D. 28. cit. affliction or suffering" (xxi. I was named the Illuminate. "in me there shall be nothing that is not bright. These passages unquestionably point to the well-known doctrine. So Hippolytus in describing the Docetae that they regarded souls as "the eternal marks (or says imprints) left by the light when it shone from above down below. Bef. e b&r R Tfv OrwHOIjpa. Potter: IXNb oDv 6 ZTIwrprby &vXbv PwOeC KcdTrwi ^wrbs Tto alwvlots XapaK'rpOL. 7b. lf 115Hipp. "the traces of the light were set upon their heart" (x. 3). the son of God" (xxxvi.. The presumptionis that the clothing of the dry bones with flesh. 2).NEWBOLD: BARDAISAN AND THE ODES OF SOLOMON 203 verses we have the rock which is to be the foundation of all things. obviously borrowed from Ezekiel. 418. . incompatiblewith the notion of corporeal resurrection. 380. p. (2) That some of the Odes can be readily interpreted in the light of Bardaisan'stheories. have found place in the poet's theology." 115 Saturnilus conceived of souls as sparksof light.. 8). This presumptionis strengthenedby the passages which clearly do refer to the state of the redeemed. "I put off darkness and clothed myself with light and my soul acquired members free from pain. 7b). of course. 66: Areg4'e oirvO•pca wsj. vii. which is."17 The conceptionof a corporealresurrection cannot.. But before Bardaisan's authorship can be regarded as established it must be shown that all the Odes can be intero KareLXi/CdyVoT . then. 967.
-Procl.and the good or bad effects of that influence. cf. IV. 105). in the hope that they may be found to contain some elements of value to the ultimate solution of the problem. The 300 of each sign are apportionedamong the five planets and those to appropriated each are termedits "limits. The " degrees " are the " limits " (5pma). "Their own degrees. (See note 51. astr." etc. But of the ascriptionof exclusivelybeneficent influencesto "those on the right. also Julius of Laodicea. 1911. Franz Cumont. cod. although generallyconstant for a given planet. warming..g. e. I. which. I have as yet found no otherillustration.204 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE preted from the same point of view. as others have done. the later distinguishedbetween the unalterableproperinfluence. 5).) The earlier astrologerstermed planets "Ibeneficent" and "maleficent" (Ptol. To this task I shall not be able to address myself for many months to come. Cat." . p.) "High places" are 'wcaLra. and I have therefore thought it best to make public my tentative results. For the following notes I am indebted to suggestions given me by Prof. JUNE 5..who has been so kind as to read this paperin proof. might be modifiedor transformedby circumstances(ibid." (See note 52.
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