A

vazi_
sicocxlis xe

UNIVERSITÉ D’ETAT DE TBILISSI IVANÉ DJAVAKHISHVILI

La vigne – l’arbre de vie
LE RECUEIL

ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universiteti

vazi _ sicocxlis xe
krebuli

wignSi Tavmoyrili masala mxolod erTi, magram mniSvnelovani kuTxiT ganixilavs qarTul kulturas. es aris misi mimarTeba vazTan da RvinosTan. qarTveli siamayiT da amave dros marTebulad ambobs, rom `saqarTvelo Rvinis akvania~, `saqarTveloSi vazis kultia~, magram am sityvebs mxolod maSin mieniWeba Rirebuleba, roca is aRiqvams, ramdenad ganuyofelia vazi da Rvino misi yoveldRiuri yofisgan, rac, aucileblad, kulturaSiac hpovebs asaxvas. wignis mizanic swored es aris, warmoaCinos vazisa da Rvinis rogorc gamoyenebiTi, aseve mxatvruli funqcia, romlis gareSec warmoudgenelia qarTuli kulturis moazreba. wigni gankuTvnilia humanitaruli fakultetis studentebisTvis da zogadad erovnuli kulturiT dainteresebuli farTo mkiTxvelisaTvis.

redaqtori recenzentebi:

Tamar SarabiZe Tsu asoc. prof. nana gonjilaSvili Tsu asoc. prof. irma ratiani Tamaz kandelaki guram wibaxaSvili

wignis ideis avtori fotoebi

© Tbilisis universitetis gamomcemloba, 2010 ISBN 978-9941-13-142-4

5

Sinaarsi
pirveli werili

asmaT oqropiriZe vazi – sicocxlis xe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 winaTqma. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 vazi qarTul qristianul xelovnebaSi. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 reliefuri venaxi taZarTa fasadebze . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 stelebi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Weduroba . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 monumenturi mxatvroba . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 xezekveTiloba . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 saeklesio naqargoba . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 boloTqma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
meore werili

eldar nadiraZe eTnografiuli mimoxilva . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 venaxi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 rTveli . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 marani . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 sawnaxeli . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 qvevri – Wuri. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 orSimo – kope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 mevenaxis stumarTmoyvareoba . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 ritualebi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 saeklesio Rvino . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 qarTuli sufra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 qarTuli mevenaxeoba saqarTvelos gareT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 saRvine WurWeli . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
mesame werili

zurab kiknaZe vazi da Rvino xalxur sityvierebaSi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 puri da Rvino . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 venaxis RvTaeba. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Rvino da stumarmaspinZloba . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 abramis leqsi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 qarTuli sufra, Rvinis smis wesi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 simRera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59

meoTxe werili

revaz siraZe vazi da Rvino qarTul mwerlobaSi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 bibliuri simboloebi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 hagiografia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 saero mwerloba . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
mexuTe werili

Tamar SarabiZe XIX saukune . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 aleqsandre WavWavaZe. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 grigol orbeliani . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 vaxtang orbeliani . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 mixeil TumaniSvili . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 nikoloz baraTaSvili . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 rafiel erisTavi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 ilia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 akaki . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 vaJa-fSavela . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
meeqvse werili

Tamar SarabiZe XX saukune . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .103 konstantine gamsaxurdia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 grigol robaqiZe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 galaktioni . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 `cisferyanwelebi~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 paolo iaSvili . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 tician tabiZe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 giorgi leoniZe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 lado asaTiani. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 Tanamedroveni . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 SoTa niSnianiZe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 murman lebaniZe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 muxran maWavariani . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 ana kalandaZe. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 bolosityvaoba . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162 La vigne – l'arbre de vie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164

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7

pirveli werili

asmaT oqropiriZe

vazi – sicocxlis xe
winaTqma
aTaswleulebis siRrmeSi ikargeba saqarTvelos istoriis saTaveebi. dasavleTisa da aRmosavleTis, CrdiloeTisa da samxreTis gzagasayarze mdebare es patara qveyana civilizaciaTa mudmivi gadakveTis, mimoqcevisa da Sexlis alagi iyo, magram misma istoriam mainc saukuneebs gauZlo da dResac sakvirveli simtkiciT agrZelebs Tavis arsebobas. `da mainc, rogor gamoaRwia JamTa siaves am patara – mcirericxovanma da mciremiwianma – erma? pasuxi saqarTvelos kulturis plastebis siRrmeebSia saZiebeli, radgan eris arseboba mis fizikur ganzomilebebze ar daiyvaneba. rogorc adamianis saxe misi sulieri simaRlea, aseve eris arsebobac metafizikuri fenomenia. igi izomeba sulieri mwvervalebiT da ara fizikuri maCveneblebis meqanikuri jamiT. am mxriv, patara saqarTvelo marTlac rom sakvirveli qveyanaa. miTosuri yofierebis siRrmeSi ikargeba ambavi kavkasiis mTebze mijaWvuli amiranisa, romelmac kacobriobas cecxli moutana. misma saxem STaagona da dabada miTi berZnuli promeTesi. uZvelesi kolxeTis miwidan gaitaces Zvelma berZnebma oqros sawmisi, romelic wuTisoflis amao mdinarebisagan gawmendiT iunjebda uxrwnelebisa da maradiulobis xats – oqros (igive `uqros~ – uqrobels). oqros sawmisTan, anu kacobriuli cxovrebis farul sazrisTan erTad gaitaca berZnulma civilizaciam aietis brZeni asuli medea da masTan erTad saqarTvelos sakvirveli mcenareuli samyaros macocxlebeli da mkurnali madli (medea-medicina). adamianuri Semoqmedebis TiTqmis yvela arsebiT dargSi qarTvels Tavisi sityva uTqvams. gana ar kmara, TxuTmeti damwerlobidan erT-erTi rom qarTulia?! mas araCveulebrivi sisadave da sizuste axasiaTebs; xolo misi ganviTarebis sami safexuri (mTavruli, xucuri, mxedruli) am anbanis TviTmyofadobisa da didi Sinagani sicocxlisunarianobis utyuari maniSnebelia. TviT qarTuli ena iberiul-kavkasiur enaTa umTavresi Tu ara, erT-erTi mTavari xeTagani – moicavs imgvar ganStoebebs (svanuri, megruli, lazuri), romelTa siRrmeebic civilizaciaTa saTaveebSi ikargeba (protoenis cocxali mexsiereba).

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qarTuli simRera araCveulebrivad sada da amasTanave mravalxmiani... dRes saqarTvelo aRiarebulia polifoniis erT-erT umTavres samSoblod, romlis `Cakruloc~ dedamiwam galaqtikis sivrceebSi gauSva, rogorc kacobriuli Sesaqmis fenomenuri gamoxatuleba, xolo saeklesio musika miCneulia qristianuli galobis erT-erT srulyofil da amasTanave TviTmyofad enad. qarTuli xuroTmoZRvreba ukve Zveli welTaRricxvis V aTaswleulidan iRebs saTaves – qarTveli aSenebs sacxovriss, romlis centrSic kera da dedaboZia. es mTavari siwmindeebi ubralod, magram mtkiced gasdevs mTel mis istorias, vidre XX saukunemde. igi moicavs ara marto saero-sacxovrebel arqiteqturas, aramed kompoziciurad socialur-sakultosac. kerZod, eklesias, romlis dominirebuli RerZic centralur-gumbaTur sivrces moikrebs. swored am kompoziciis genialuri gamoxatulebaa mcxeTis jvari. igi msoflios xuroTmoZRvrul SedevrTa rigs ganekuTvneba rogorc bunebasTan mimarTebiT, aseve arqiteqtonikurobis, minimalizmis, ubraloebisa da sisadavis, masalis TavisTavadobis gamovleniTa Tu sxva niSnebiT, gansakuTrebiT ki nawilTa Tanafardobis Rrmad gaazrebuli, maTematikuri harmoniiT. qarTuli sityviereba, samwuxarod, mcirericxovani eris mwerlobaa, amitom mas jerovnad ver icnobs msoflio. es literatura ar gamoirCeva sqeltaniani, mravalricxovani proziT. misi dominanti poeziaa, sada da ubralo, magram Rrma da gamomsaxveli. rogorc amboben, `yoveli qarTveli poetia, xolo yoveli qarTveli poeti – orgzis poeti~. aq poezia cxovrebis mdinarebiT iqmneba, igi cxovrebis wesis ganuyofeli nawilia, msgavsad qarTuli xalxuri simRerisa. qarTuli xalxuri poeziis Sedevrebi tols ar udeben e.w. `profesiul~ literaturas. vinc `vefxisa da moymis balada~ icis, amas ueWvelad dainaxavs. qarTuli poezia, msgavsad simRerisa, xalxuria ara `naivur-folkloruli~, aramed ufro maRali ganzomilebiT – `nacionaluris~ masStabiT. magram amasTanave qarTveli kacis sulis sarkea SoTa rusTavelis `vefxistyaosani~ – es udidesi poeturi qmnileba, romelic `odiseas~, `ramaianas~, `Sahnamesa~ da `faustis~ rangSi dgas. qarTuli mxatvroba mTeli Tavisi niSan-simboluri arsiT zogadqristianulia, magram amasTanave axasiaTebs Rrmad erovnuli, sakuTari saxis mqone niSnebi. saqveynod cnobilia niko firosmanis saxeli. misi ferweruli tiloebi sakvirveli ubraloebiT atareben mTeli civilizebuli samyaros udides sulier gamocdilebas Sumeridan pikasos CaTvliT. aRarafers vambobT qarTul erovnul cekvaze, romelic sisadavisa da energiulobis sakvirveli SexamebiT ganadidebs adamianis sxeuls, rogorc RvTis xatis Rirsebis gamomxatvel instruments. magram suliereba mxolod xelovnebaSi ar Cans. eris TviTmyofadoba misi arsebobis yovel gamovlinebaSi ikiTxeba. am kuTxiT kidev ufro sakvirvelia saqarTvelos yofiTi kulturis istoria. es patara qveyana iTvleba iseTi mniSvnelovani dargis uZveles kerad, rogoricaa rkinis damuSaveba da, zogadad, meliToneoba. saqarTvelos gansakuTrebuli Rirseba da sixaruli ki puri da Rvinoa – adamianisaTvis yvelaze mniSvnelovani sazrdo. xorblis ocdaerTi Zireu-

vazi – sicocxlis xe

9 li jiSidan Tvrametis samSoblo saqarTveloa. aq misi saxesxvaoba, iseve rogorc vazisa, ramdenime aseuls iTvlis. arqeologiurma gaTxrebma aRmoaCines Zv.welTaRricxvis VI aTaswleulis uZvelesi wipwa – am sakvirveli mcenaris Tesli. puri da Rvino gansakuTrebuli sazrdoa adamianisaTvis. swored am ors ergo pativi, gamxdariyo qristes xorcisa da sisxlis winasaxe. swored puri da Rvino miaqvs ZRvnad monanie kacobriobas taZris samsxverploze, sadac saRvTo madlis gardamosvliT TviT ufali iesos macxovnebel sisxlad da xorcad gadaiqceva. amitomac am or mcenares kacisaTvis gamorCeuli mniSvneloba aqvs. uneburad giCndeba kiTxva – rogor da ratom miiRo esodeni pativi RvTisagan am patara erma! igi mcirericxovania, magram rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, mdebareobs civilizaciaTa kveTis centrSi. umniSvnelovanesia misi mdebareoba: mcire teritoriaze myinvarebisa da subtropikebis, mwvervalebisa da naxevarudabnoebis uCveulo SexamebiT TiTqos kacobriuli landSaftis mTeli speqtria warmodgenili. gansakuTrebiT unda gamoiyos misi mcenareuli safari – samxreT kavkasia xom aRiarebulia e.w. `oqros samkuTxedad~, sadac ikvaleba planetis mTeli mcenareuli safaris dvrita. Tu am konteqstiT kidev erTxel gadavxedavT saqarTvelos geografiul mdebareobas, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom igi – es patara qveyana –mdebareobs civilizaciaTa centrSi, rogorc edemi samoTxis gulSi. am konteqstSi faqiz JReradobas iRebs qarTvelis uZvelesi sacxovrisi, Zv. welTaRricxvis V aTaswleulSi pirvelqmnili (xeliT naZerwi) Tixisagan nakeTi. mas kvercxis (igive qvevris) forma aqvs, xolo mis centrSi kerasTan – saRvTo cecxlTan – dedaboZia aRmarTuli, igive sicocxlis xe, rogorc gaucnobierebeli sasoeba samoTxiseuli sicocxlis xisa. swored sicocxlis xea is mTavari simbolo, romelic am uZvelesi droidan mokidebuli qarTul sacxovriss moucileblad gasdevs. igia mTavari simbolo warmarTuli saqarTvelosi. swored misi sazrisiT cocxldeba saqarTvelos geografiis dafaruli saxismetyveleba – civilizaciaTa gzajvaredinis guli, intensiuri mcenareuloba, sicocxlis xis kulti da vazisa da puris uZvelesi kultura. yvelaferi ki ikribeba erT mistikur sxeulad – es aris wminda ninos jvari, Sekruli vazis nasxlevisagan, romelic sakvirveli gamWvirvalebiT aerTianebs sicocxlis xes, jvarsa da vazs. ninos jvari, arsebiTad, simboloa mTeli qarTuli kulturisa pirvelidan merve dRemde.
asmaT oqropiriZe

vazi – sicocxlis xe

bunebrivia, Cndeba kiTxva, Tu ra kavSiri SeiZleba iyos jvars, sicocxlis xesa da vazs Soris. pasuxi saZiebelia im WeSmarit moZRvrebaSi, romelic ganacxada TviT amqveynad mosulma Ze RvTisam – ieso qristem. es aris qristianoba, romelsac imTaviTve eziara qarTveli eri da ganuxrelad misdevs am gzas dRemde. `me var venaxi WeSmariti da mama Cemi moqmedi ars. yovelman rtoman, romeli Cem Tana ars da ara moiRos nayofi, aRiRos igi da yovelman, romelman moiRos nayofi, ganiwmindis igi, raTa ufrosi nayofi gamoiRos. me var venaxi da Tqven rtoni. romeli daadgres Cem Tana da me mis Tana, aman moiRos nayofi keTili~ (ioane 15). ager ukve ori aTasi welia, rac kacobriobas esmis uflisa da macxovris, ieso qristes, es sityvebi. vazi, venaxi, mtevani, Rvino – ai, is usayvarlesi metaforuli saxeebi, romelTac itvirTes kacobriobis xsnisaTvis jvarcmuli uflis erT-erTi saxeli. eqvs dRes qmnida ufali samyaros: erTmaneTs ganaSora bneli da naTeli, ca da miwa, wyali da xmeleTi, aRmoacena mcenareuli, Seamzada da srulyo samyaro, rogorc uzado samkvidrebeli da Semdeg Seqmna adamiani xatad da msgavsad uflisa, gauziara mas umaRlesi Tviseba – Tavisufali neba da mianiWa umTavresi unari – moqmedeba. adamiani – Sesaqmis gvirgvini, megobari uflisa – ubralod da umizezod cxovrobda samoTxis baRSi. man Seimecna da daarqva saxeli yovelive arsebuls – suldgmulsa da arasuldgmuls. edemis centrSi aRmoacena ufalma xe sicocxlisa da xe borotisa da keTilis Secnobisa; dauwesa adams da mis neknidan Seqmnil evas, emarxulaT – ar egemaT nayofi am ori umTavresi xidan, vidre Jami ar dadgeboda. magram uborotesma da ubrZenesma gvelma acduna Sesaqmis gvirgvini, daarRvevina saRmrTo mcneba, agemebina nayofi xisa – cnobadisa da keTilisa da borotisa. ar Seinana adamma Tavisi moqmedeba da radgan masSi Sesuli iyo urCeba da unanebloba, amitom gandevna ufalma adami da eva edemidan; karSi cecxlovani qerobini daayena maxviliT, devnilT ki WiriTa da ofliT cxovreba ganuwesa, raTa amgvari msxverpliT sinanulamde mieyvana megobari da msgavseba Tvisi. edemidan gamodevnis Semdeg gamravlda adamis modgma, gamravlda pirvelqmnili codvac. miwa moicva ganukiTxaobis simZimem da sibnelem. gaampartavnebulma adamianma camde asvla moindoma, aago babilonis godoli, magram saxierma ufalma keTili sasjeliT enebad dayo umaduri modgma, raTa ar emZlavra borotebas. kacobriobaSi Rrmad iyo CabeWdili codna samoTxis Sesaxeb. igi gadmovida adamisagan, romelic edemSi pirispir idga uflis winaSe. man icoda, ra iyo ukvdaveba, ra iyo sinaTle da mSveniereba. magram codvam SebRala adamiseuli mexsiereba, gawyda codnis krialosani, romlis calkeuli marcvlebic daifanta warmarTobis sibneliT mocul kacobriobaSi. yoveli ena (eri, kultura) zrdis am marcvals xsnis molodinis sasoebiT.

10

vazi – sicocxlis xe

11 jer kidev samyaros Seqmnamde, manam, sanam adams miwisgan Seqmnida, ufalma icoda sisuste Tavisi xatisa da msgavsebisa, icoda, rom igi daecemoda. amitom Jamis uwinaresve wminda samebis gangebulebiT Ze RmrTisa mxolodSobili ganmzadebuli iyo tarigad (msxverplad), raTa gamoexsna Tavisi qmnileba. Seswira ufals marTalma abraamma mxolodSobili isaaki. ixila ra misi sufTa guli da sasoeba, ufalma ar Seiwira msxverpli sisxliT da piriqiT – aRuTqva msxverplad Tavisi mxolodSobili Ze ieso qriste da niSnad misca kravi. gamoxda xani. uflis rCeulma erma – israelma – aRmoacena yovladwminda qalwuli mariami, patiosani WurWeli, romelic Rirsi Seiqmna gamxdariyo wiaRi uflis gankacebisa. uflis gankacebiTa da SobiT samyaroSi daiwyo axali aRTqma, ganxorcielebulma iesom erT gvamad SeaerTa srulad RmerTi da kaci, ca da miwa, ukvdavi da mokvdavi. magram Zveli adami eloda nayofs sicocxlis xisa, romelic man edemSi ver igema mcnebis darRvevis gamo. es nayofi ki aucilebeli iyo misi ukdavebisaTvis. uflis saidumlo gangebulebiT angelozma lots samoTxidan sicocxlis xis rto gamoutana. swored am totidan aRmocenebuli xisagan gamoiWra golgoTis jvari. masze ecva tarigi – ufali, nebiT ewama, mokvda, raTa Casuliyo jojoxeTSi, Seelewa misi bWeni, gamoexsna pirveli adami, xolo mkvdreTiT aRdgomiTa da amaRlebiT ukuSeeqcia kacebrivi sxeuli edemis wiaRSi. golgoTaze jvarcmuli uflis gverdi laxvriT gangmires. misgan gadmosuli sisxli da wyali gaxda is macxovnebeli wyaro, romelsac Seeziareba yoveli adamiani, Tuki sinanuliTa da siyvaruliT moZebnis ufals. Tu sulieri TvaliT kidev ufro CavuRrmavdebiT golgoTis ambavs, maSin advilad mivxvdebiT, rom iq arsebiTad ikribeba samoTxiseuli sicocxlis xe, qceuli msxverplad (anu jvrad) da misi nayofi – qriste. golgoTaze arsebiTad gardaiqmna samoTxis xe. igi iqca axali aRTqmis sicocxlis xed – golgoTis jvrad, romelmac gamoiRo msxverpli – qriste. misi simbolo ki gaxda vazi da xorbali; am orma mcenarem miiRo uflisagan pativi, nivTierad qceuliyo qristes sisxlad da xorcad. rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, uZvelesi droidan qarTul kulturul sivrceSi idga dedaboZi, rogorc saqarTvelos erT-erTi umTavresi warmarTuli simboloTagani. igi aracnobierad (Tu cnobierad) samoTxiseuli sicocxlis xis molodini da wyurvili iyo. amasTanave qarTveli uvlida vazsa da xorbals – Tavisi miwis wilxvdomil kulturebs. qristes mosvlam gamoavlina is udidesi madli, romelsac atarebda saqarTvelo – patara, magram mniSvnelovani qveyana (uflisaTvis ar arsebobs umniSvnelo qveyana – samyaro yvela wertilSi saRvTo sunTqviT arsebobs. Cven vlaparakobT ara saqarTvelos erTaderTobasa da aRmatebulebaze, aramed mis Tvisobriobasa da individualobaze). saxieri winaswargangebulebiT golgoTaze wilnayari kvarTi mcxeTaSi moabrZana sjulierma eliozma. igi mis dasTan – sidoniasTan – erTad daefla
asmaT oqropiriZe

vazi – sicocxlis xe

saqarTvelos gulSi – mtkvrisa da aragvis SesarTavTan. kvarTze aRmocenda xe, romelmac mianiSna im udidesi siwmindis Sesaxeb, uflis jvarcmulma sxeulma (rogorc axalma saflavma) rom datova miwaze. saidumlod Sesrulda rjuli gankacebuli uflisa, rogorc srulad kacisa. am xiT sabolood gacxadda, rom qarTuli kulturisaTvis (enisaTvis) warmarTul simboloTagan mTavaria xe (igive dedaboZi). swored amitom, pirvelive saukuneSi qristes mxurvale mociquli, pirvelwodebuli andria, Wris did Wyons (muxas – gaucnobierebel sasoebas samoTxiseuli sicocxlis xisa) da cvlis mas WeSmariti ZeliT anu jvriT. wm. andria pirvelwodebulis mier dawyebuli qarTlis moqceva ukve IV saukuneSi ganasrula ierusalimidan mosulma kabadokielma qalwulma ninom, romelmac qarTlSi ixila `eri ucxo¡, ucxoTa RmerTisa msaxuri~, romelic `cecxlTa, qvaTa da ZelTa Tayvanisscemdes~. kvarTze amosuli xe iWreba, ikveTeba; saRvTo gangebulebiTa da wm. ninos locviT igi gardaiqceva im `cxovel~, cecxlovan svetad, romelic samyaros erT-erTi umTavresi RerZTagania – uflis dafluli sxeulisa (romlis fizikuri mowmobac aris wminda kvarTi) da zecad amaRlebulis maerTebeli `cxoveli~ (cocxali) svetia. swored amitom sveticxoveli samoTxeSi danergili sicocxlis xis kosmosuri xati da `metoqionia~; igi – xe sicocxlisa – gadmoenerga miwaze kacTa xsnisaTvis. wminda ninom – `sulisa wmindisa qnarma~ – ganWvrita yoveli RvTivkeTilgangebuli da sicocxlis xis moTayvane da msasoebel qveyanas SeuTxza jvari (axali sicocxlis xe), romelic Sekra vazis nasxlevisagan, anu im mcenarisagan, romelic saRvTo SesaqmisTanave ganmzadebuli iyo, rogorc msxverpladgaRebuli ieso qristes sisxlis winasaxe. swored wminda ninos jvarSi erT sxeulad ikvanZeba saqarTvelos arsebobis mTeli saRvTo swrafva – molodini gadarCenisa da xsnisa, romelic qristesTan ziarebiT ganxorcieldeba. qristianoba – ai, is umTavresi sityva, romelic moicavs saqarTvelos arsebobis mTel sazriss pirvelidan mere dRis CaTvliT. swored wminda ninos jvarSi daqaragmda sveticxoveli – es udidesi siwminde mTeli kosmosisa (da ara marto saqarTvelosi). wminda ninos jvarSi qarTlis miwaze ipova WeSmariti sazrisi vazis uZvelesma istoriamac.

vazi qarTul qristianul xelovnebaSi
vazi – sicocxlis xe

vazi, rogorc aRvniSneT, qristes uzogadesi saxelTagania. amitom saxarebiseul wminda teqstSic, bunebrivia, igi wamyvani saxe-simboloTagania iseve, rogorc qristes eklesiis cxovrebaSi. ukve pirveli saukuneebidan, berZnuli miTosis Rvinis RvTaeba dionise da masTan dakavSirebuli saxviTi xelovneba transformirdeba. kerZod, xdeba misi gawmenda, anu masSi dabindul-dafaruli WeSmariti qristianuli sazrisis win wamoweva, dionises kultiseuli vazis rtoebi, foTlebi, mtevnebi qristes, RvTismSoblis, mociqulebisa da wmindanTa simboloebis mniSvnelobas iZens. es sayovelTao, zogadqristianuli procesi kidev ufro mkafiod da

12

13 mtkiced avlens Tavs qristianuli saqarTvelos kulturul sivrceSi. radgan qarTveli vazis odindeli mcveli da moamage iyo, misTvis miT ufro gasagebi xdeba venaxis qristianuli saxe-simboloebi da, bunebrivia, didi sicxoveliT iTvisebs mas. igi (venaxi) mkvidrdeba saqarTvelos qristianuli xelovnebis yvela dargSi – xuroTmoZRvrebaSi, plastikaSi, oqromWedlobaSi, naqargobasa Tu sxva. amTaviTve unda iTqvas, rom, zogadqristianuli sazrisis miuxedavad, vazis simboluri metyveleba qarTul qristianul xelovnebaSi xasiaTdeba imgvari ganumeorebeli niuansebiT, romlebic yovel enas (kulturas) aqvs mimadlebuli. es ganumeorebloba, SenivTebuli mis zogadobasTan, Znelad gamosaSrevebelia, magram igi uTuod arsebobs. amasTanave ganumeorebloba ganpirobebulia bevri sxva faqtoriTac: drois niSnebiT, masalis specifikuri metyvelebiT, TviT xelovnebis nawarmoebis funqciuri daniSnulebiT da bolos – Semoqmedis individualuri msoflgancdiT (zogadqristianuli msoflmxedvelobis farglebSi). iqmneba araCveulebrivad mdidari suraTi, romelic, ra Tqma unda, ar aris sruli, mZime istoriis gamo (gamudmebuli omebi da ganadgureba), am rigis xelovnebis nimuSebi ufro metad fragmentebis saxiT SemogvrCa; magram yoveli maTgani udavod didi sulieri Semoqmedebis Zeglia. garegnulad sada da martivi es nimuSebi Tavisi Rrma SinaarsiT didi masStabis sazriss gamoxataven, gviCveneben ra ganumeoreblobis, interpretaciis brwyinvale unars, rac efuZneba adamianis – RvTis xatis – Tvisebas, iyos Semoqmedi. bunebrivia, sanam xelovnebaSi vazis asaxvis magaliTebs ganvixilavT, unda gaviTvaliswinoT misi vizualuri maxasiaTeblebi. igi xviara mcenarea, romlis klaknili lerwi gamoiRebs naz, patara ulvaSs (kavebs), riTac rto eWideba garesagnebs, raTa dafiqsirdes. adre gazafxulze vazs gamoaqvs unazesi baci mwvane yvavilebis gundi; igi TandaTan mtevnad yalibdeba, romelic ivseba wveniT da gansruldeba. vazis foToli araCveulebrivad energiulad izrdeba. vegetaciis sxvadasxva etapze mas gansxvavebuli saxe aqvs. zrdasruasmaT oqropiriZe

vazi – sicocxlis xe

li foToli, romlis kideebi faqizad dakbilulia, sami an xuTi nawilisagan Sedgeba. `yovelman vena£man, romel Cem Tana damkvidrebul ars da ara gamoiRos nayofi, mohkueTos igi~ (i. 15.2). uflis es sityvebi adamians mouwodebs, mudmivad ganiwmindos Tavi amqveyniuri amao vnebebisagan. vazi kidev erTxel Segvaxsenebs am WeSmaritebas – Tu gazafxulze igi dagvianebiT gaisxla, misi moWrili lerwidan iwyeba wvenis dena, romelsac qarTvelma sulis Tviseba – tirili – uwoda (`vazis tirili~, `vazis cremli~). igi TiTqos sinanulia `gvian gasxluli codvebis~ gamo; amasTanave zogadad xatia sinanulisa, romelic erT-erTia Svid saidumloTagan. vazis (venaxis) konkretuli fizikuri Tvisebebi Taviseburad transformirdeba ukve qristianul xelovnebaSi, upirveles yovlisa, imis gamo, rom zogadad saxviTi xelovneba yovelive xiluls gadaiazrebs, ganazogadebs da ise gadmoscems. es Tviseba gansakuTrebiT damaxasiaTebelia qristianuli xelovnebisaTvis, romelic yovelive fizikurs metafizikuri ganzomilebiT ganixilavs. igi arsebulSi amoikiTxavs, amoicnobs saRvTo gangebulebas, anu im kanonzomierebebs, romlebic Tavdapirvelad, Sesaqmisas gamosaxa Semoqmedma. igi, rogorc `platonis idea~, uryevad arsebobs saganTa simravlis nebismier nimuSSi da misi gamoxatva TiTqmis maTematikuri kanonzomierebis (formulis) enazec kia SesaZlebeli. swored amgari `maTematikuri~ safuZvlis arseboba ganapirobebs zogadad qristianuli xelovnebis ornamentul bunebas, romelsac zogjer `dekoratiulsac~ ki uwodeben. arsebiTac ki es dekoratiulobaa da ara mkvdari sqematizacia an gaerTmniSvnelovneba. ufro metic, igi ver guobs veranair sqematursa da meqanikurs (iseve rogorc zogadad namdvili Semoqmedeba), yovelTvis sunTqavs sicocxlis ganumeoreblobiT, rac mTlianobaSi qmnis umaRlesi rangis sinTezs – metafizikurisa da fizikuris, kanonzomierisa da ganumeoreblis, mkacrisa da Tavisufalis. amis safuZvelTa safuZveli ki ieso qristea, romelmac gankacebiT SeaerTa SeuerTebeli ca da miwa, RmerTi da kaci, ukvdavi da mokvdavi. swored am sakvirveli SeerTebis usasrulo diapazonSi ibadeba qristianuli xelovneba da, bunebrivia, masTan erTad – vazis gamosaxulebanic.
vazi – sicocxlis xe

reliefuri venaxi taZarTa fasadebze
venaxis (vazis) uadresi qarTuli nimuSebi Semogvinaxa qristianuli plastikis iseTma Zireulma dargma, rogoricaa qvis reliefebi taZris fasadebze Tu stelis bazebsa da svetebze. uZvelesi magaliTebi V saukunidan gvxvdeba. esaa bolnisis sionis (478-493) kapitelebis plastika. samxreT sanaTlavis kapitelze xaris cnobili horeliefis gverdze SemorCenili vazis motivi gviCvenebs realuri venaxis bunebriv plastikas – Rerosa da kavanebis (ulvaSis) zrdas, mtevnis iregularul formas. amasTanave SeimCneva garkveuli ganzogadeba – ornamentirebisaken svla.

14

15 erT-erTi uadresi nimuSia wilknis RvTismSoblis taZris sarkmlis TavsarTi. TviT taZris aRmSenebloba `qarTlis cxovrebis~ mixedviT ukavSirdeba bakur revis Zes. amasTanave VI saukuneSi aq fuZndeba camet asurel mamaTagan erT-erTi – wminda ise wilkneli. wilknis taZari, Taviseburi xuroTmoZRvruli palimfsesti (VI-XVIII ss), bevr samSeneblo Sres moicavs. SemorCenili sarkmlis TavsarTi stilurad VI saukunes ganekuTvneba. vazis lerwi – bunebrivad xviara – TiTqos gadasula sarkmlis TavsarTze, masze gadazrdila. aq Tavs iCens vazis fizikuri Tvisebebis ornamentuli transformaciis saintereso procesi – Rero, romelic obieqturad xviaraa, gadmocemulia usasrulo talRis saxiT, riTac igi ayvanilia maradiulobis xarisxSi. es kidev ufro Zlierdeba, radgan vazis kavebi (ulvaSebi) qmnis mWidro spiralebs, rac agreTve mudmivi swrafvisa da dinebis intonaciis Semomtania. gansxvavebuli konfiguraciis mtevnebi da foTlebi vitaluri ganumeoreblobisa da ornamentuli kanonzomierebis garkveul Tanaarsebobaze migviTiTebs. gansakuTrebiT
asmaT oqropiriZe

vazi – sicocxlis xe

ki yuradRebamisapyrobia SroSanis yvavili, romelic TaRis centrSi klaknil Reroze amosula, riTac moniSnavs Reros dinebis kulminacias. SroSanis yvavili aq aSkarad simboluri JReradobiT Cndeba. mTlianobaSi es motivi Zlier asocirdeba siriul reliefebTan, magram maTgan gansxvavebiT (miuxedavad imisa, rom aq jer kidev `antikuri vizualizmis~kvali didia) ornamentul-dekoratiuli abstragirebis rangSia ayvanili. wilknis analogiuria mcxeTis jvris taZris aRmosavleT fasadis TavsarTTa morTulobac. magram aq igive Tema mxatvrulad ramdenadme gansxvavebulia. Reros srbolaSi metma geometrizmma iCina Tavi, aseve, kidev ufro ganyenebulia mtevnebis forma – igi sam-sami didi kufxlisagan Sedgeba, mkafiod

16

gamokveTili sami elementisagan, romelic qristianulad gaazrebuli ricxvi samis JReradobas iZens. amasTanave mtevani marcvlebad iyofa paraleluri xazebis dinebiT, rac mas garkveulad girCasac ki amsgavsebs, anu izrdeba misi Sinaarsobrivi are. aseve mkacrad samyurad inakvTeba vazis foTolic; Tumca yuradRebas ipyrobs ulvaSis TiTqmis naturalisturi forma, romelic aSkarad realuri mcenaris SesaniSnavi codnis anareklia. magram mcxeTis jvris taZris fasadze vazis ornamenti, wilknis msgavsad, gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobas iZens mTlianad taZris SinaarsTan mimarTebiT. kerZod, wilknis dedaRvTismSoblis taZarSi, sadac dabrZanebuli iyo misi cnobili saswaulTmoqmedi xati, SroSanis yvavili gaJRerda, rogorc RvTismSoblis yovlawmindobisa da uflis umanko gankacebis niSani. gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania mcxeTis jvris semantikac. igi mdebareobs mtkvrisa da aragvis SesarTavze – praqtikulad mTeli samxreT kavkasiis sivrciTi Sekrebis wertilSi (CrdiloeTis, samxreT-dasavleTisa da samxreT-aRmosavleTis). aq, am uZveles miwaze, erT mxares dgas sveticxoveli uflis kvarTiTa da cxovelmyofeli svetiT, xolo meore mxares, gaRma mTis wverze, sadac suliwmindis miTiTebiT mTelma qarTvelma erma – wminda ninos, mirianis, nanasa da episkopos iakobis uSualo monawileobiT – aRmarTa patiosani jvari, rogorc aRTqma qristianobisa. swored es jvari ikurTxa sulTmofenobis dReebSi zeciT – masze gadmovida cecxlovani jvari Tormeti angeloziTa da varskvlaviT. mcxeTis jvari arsebiTad aris qarTlis moqcevis gansrulebis Zegli, misi zeciT kurTxevis beWedi. masSi gansrulda mistikuri cikli `xarebidan sulTmofenobamde~. am semantikur konteqstSi TavsarTTa vazis ornamenti TiTqos gacocxleba da gamravlebaa saqarTvelos moqcevis simbolosi – wminda ninos jvrisa. xuroTmoZRvrebis semantikasTan mimarTebiT aranakleb sagulisxmoa banas taZari. tipologiurad es aris wreSi Cawerili tetrakonqi – xuTjvrovani Zlevis beWedi – arsebiTad asli da xati ierusalimis anastasisisa, amdenad, kosmosuri sayovelTaobis momcveli. es miT ufro sagulisxmoa, ramdenadac misi aRmSenebloba, iseve rogorc mcxeTis jvrisa, bagrationTa saxleuls ukavSirdeba, riTac saxelmwifoebriv masStabs iZens. amitom vazi am umniSvnelovanesi taZris fasadze qarTlis moqcevis istoriis Taviseburi mtkicebulebaa. banas taZris reliefi sxva mxrivac aris gamorCeuli. aq erT mcenaredaa SenivTebuli vazi da broweuli. es erTi SexedviT ucnauri Sexameba sruliad organulia qristianuli saxismetyvelebiT, romelic yovelives maradiulobis ganzomilebiT gaiazrebs, misTvis ucxoa naturalizmi, amitom uSvebs erT Reroze vazisa da broweulis erTobas (iseve, rogorc Semdgom es gvxvdeba samTavisis fasadze an samoTxis gamosaxulebebSi zogadad). simbolurad broweuli qristes eklesiaa, radgan Zowisferi qerqi da yvavilis gvirgvini sameufeo porfiris Sesamosels gvagonebs, xolo wiTeli marcvlebis simravle qristes sisxliT naziarebi da SeerTebuli mrevlis simboloa, amitom broweulisa da yurZnis erToba Rrma da mravalmxrivi miniSnebaa eklesiasa da ziarebaze. sagulisxmoa martvilis taZris gare saxis plastikac. aRmosavleT da dasavleT fasadTa frizebi mTlianad avsebulia vazis stilizebuli motiviT

vazi – sicocxlis xe

17 – es aris msxmoiare rtoebi, romlis mtevnebsac Citebi (igive morwmuneTa sulebi) kenkaven, anu eziarebian qristes. am frizis wiaRSi CarTulia umniSvnelovanesi scenebi: `danieli lomTa xaroSi~, `xareba~, `wm. evstatis nadiroba~ da sxv., anu arsebiTad erTiandeba Zveli da axali aRTqmis saRmrTo istoria, rogorc uflis WeSmariti venaxis xati. am mimarTulebiT kidev ufro sakvirveli isaa, rom swored martvilis taZari dgas wminda andria pirvelwodebulis mier moWrili didi Wyonis adgilze. I saukuneSi suliwmidiT ganbrZnobilma mociqulma ucdomelad ganWvrita ra warmarTuli saqarTvelos mTavari simbolo – xe (Wyoni), rogorc molodini WeSmariti xisa, moWra igi da Secvala jvriT. martvili (Wyondidi) arsebiTad igivea dasavleT saqarTvelos sivrceSi, rac sveticxoveli da jvari aRmosavleT saqarTvelosTvis, igive gulia saqarTvelos qristianuli moqcevisa. amitom venaxic mis fasadebze gansakuTrebiT niSneulia, rogorc qarTvelisaTvis qristianobis momniSvneli erT-erTi umTavresi sityva, rogorc sicocxlis xis yovlismomcveli saxeli. sxva mxrivaa sagulisxmo VI saukunis darbazuli eklesiis – akvanebis – reliefic samxreT Sesasvlelis arqitravze. gamosaxulebis centrSi dgas rvaqimiani jvari (e. w. `bolnuri~), Cawerili dinamikuri grexilis wreSi. es aris jvris triumfis xati – `sikvdiliTa sikvdiliT~ daTrgunvis. misi Ziridan amosuli, ganedebis mimaniSnebeli or-ori ylorti gadmocemulia e. w. `sasanuri lentis~ saxiT, rac amasTanave Zalauflebisa da Zlevis semantikis matarebelicaa. jvris rkalis zeda naxevari, Semkuli cxra samyura yvaviliT, aZlierebs vegetaciurobis gancdas. foTolTa ricxvi – sami – mlocvels sruliad araTavsmoxveulad mianiSnebs sakralur Sinaarsze. ganedlebuli jvris aqeT-iqiT, mTeli reliefis Semavseblad gamosaxulia sam-sami mtevani, Sedgenili burTiseburi marcvlebisagan. mtevnebis siluetis iregularuloba badebs bunebrivis gancdas, magram amasTanave maT sawyisSi amoikiTxeba geometriuli samkuTxedi, riTac es gamosaxulebebi TiTqos Zveli arqeologiuri masalis (kerZod, saiuveliro xelovnebis) stilizaciis principis gagrZelebaa, anu tradiciis uwyvetobis ufaqizesi gamoxatuleba. mtevnebs Citebi kenkaven, maT stilizebul formebSi amasTanave daqaragmebulia konkretuli frinvelis plastikis udidesi SegrZneba. mTlianobaSi reliefi gviqmnis ayvavebuli da msxmoiare baRis suraTs, rac udavod miniSnebaa samoTxeze – qristianobis gzis gansrulebaze maradiulobaSi. magram es araCveulebrivad cxovelmyofeli reliefi, romelic TiTqos mayureblis Tvalwin izrdeba, ifurCqneba da xarobs, gansakuTrebiT sagulisxmoa sxva mxrivac – igi pirdapiri gamoxatulebaa qarTlis moqcevis erTi pasaJisa: `maTve dReTa Sina orgzis da samgzis vixile Cuenebasa Sina mciredsa mas mirulebasa Cemsa mu£lTa zeda: movidian mfrinvelni cisani, STavidian mdinaresa, daibanian da movidian samoTxesa mas da babilosa mas moisTualebdian da yuavilsa mas Zovdian da mowyled Cemdamo RaRadebd, reca Cemi ars samoTxei igi~ (Satberdi, 336). aq sruliad naTelia, rom qarTlis moqcevis istoria metyvelebs adreqristianuli zogadi qristianobis eniT, rac araCveulebrivi intensivobiT mJRavndeba erTi konkretuli reliefis – akvanebis arqitravis – sivrceSic.
asmaT oqropiriZe

vazi – sicocxlis xe

18

vazis gamosaxvis sruliad araordinalur gadawyvetas vxvdebiT gveldesSic. es aris taZris kankelisa da trapezis VIII-1X saukuneebis unikaluri plastikuri ansambli. aRniSnuli periodi umZimesia zogadad qristianuli xelovnebis istoriaSi, radgan xatmbrZolobis gamo Seqmnilia Taviseburi `saxviTi vakuumi~. trapezis gamosaxuleba Sedgeba klaknilisa da patara wre-burTebisagan. es orive elementi Tvisobrivad geometriulia, magram erTianobaSi badebs gamosaxulebebs, kerZod, ori klaknilis talRovani srbola arqetipebis saxviT enaze niSania usasrulobisa, xolo calkeuli mcire burTulebi (wreebi) – maradiuloba-srulyofilebisa. wris centrSi CaburRuli wertilis siRrmidan (romelic TavisTavad usasrulobaa) amosWvivis idumali sibnele, TiTqos metafizikuri sivrce, magram amasTanave erTobliobaSi iqmneba igavuri miniSneba vazis lerwsa da mtevnebze, rac pirdapir kavSirSia trapezTan – saRvTo sufrasTan, sadac suliwmindis gardamosvla Rvinos uflis sisxald aqcevs. trapezis qveda kedelze, svetebis Camoswvriv wre-burTebisagan iqmneba Taviseburi ornamentuli rigi, romlis elementebic ukve margalits mogvagonebs (`margaliti oboli~ – igavurad igive qriste-naTeli); wmindanTa TvalebSi Casmuli wreebic maTi sulebis maradiulobaze orientirebis maCvenebelia (wre-maradiuloba), radgan sanTeli gvamisa Tvalia (maTe 6, 22), `Tvali ganmartebuli~ (anu wre-maradiulobaze orientirebuli) pirovnebis ganRmrTobis niSania. azrobriv JReradobas iRebs agreTve trapezis qvis umsubuqesi momwvano-mofiruzisfro tonaloba, romelic qristianuli saxismetyvelebiT madliT gacocxlebis, cxonebis niuansis matarebelia. gveldesi brwyinvale nimuSia imisa, Tu rogori mdidari Sinaarsis kompoziciebi SeiZleba Seiqmnas sul mcire, magram azrobrivad metafizikuri elementebis SefardebaTa cvliT, maT Soris – vazis gamosaxulebisac, romelic aq TiTqmis geometriul niSanzea dayvanili; da rom Zveli gamosaxulebebi – erTi SexedviT ubralo da elementaruli, arsebiTad Zalze Rrma mniSvnelobis teqstebia, sadac sul umniSvnelo detalsac ki SeuZlia Seqmnas an Secvalos Sinaarsobrivi registri. vazis gamosaxvis gansakuTrebul saxes qmnis sveticxoveli, samTavisi da ananuri – qarTuli qristianuli xuroTmoZRvrebis sami ubrwyinvalesi taZari. Tavi da gvirgvini saqarTvelos eklesiisa sveticxovelia. misi fuZe kvarTia, romelzedac amosuli xe wminda ninos locviT Seicvala zeaRmaval cecxlovan cxovelmyofel svetad. TavisTavad sakvirvelia xis fenomeni. igi izrdeba miwidan (anu sikvdiliT), sZlevs sibnelesa da simZimes da cisken miemarTeba. mas axasiaTebs vegetaciuroba, anu erTi marcvlidan amodis mravali toti da nayofi, rac xatia madlis mier ararsidan arsad moyvanebisa. amasTanave `mdumarebiTa~ da `uZraobiT~ igi gviCvenebs sakvirvel morCilebas, Tavisebur `isixias~. ase rom, xe (mcenare) TvisebebiT udavod mravalmxrivi Segonebisa da Wvretis sagania ganRmrTobis msurveli adamianisaTvis. albaT amis gamo danerga igi ufalma samoTxis gulSi, rogorc WeSmariti sicocxlis magaliTi – uwyveti sikeTe, madlis gamravleba, Rvawli da mdumareba. magram samyaros codviT dacemis

vazi – sicocxlis xe

19 Semdeg WeSmarit sicocxlis xed ieso qriste gacxadda, romelic kacTa xsnisaTvis gadmoenerga miwaze, raTa siyvaruliTa da morCilebiT gamoexsna Tavisi qmnileba. qristes – axali sicocxlis xis – amaRlebisa da `marjveniT mamisa~ dajdomis Semdgom samyaros gamosyidvisa da SeerTebis mismieri madli SeinivTa sveticxovelma, rogorc Taviseburma kosmiurma RerZma. mis siRrmeSi dafluli uflis kvarTi iesos sikvdilisa da saflavad dadebis niSania, xolo svetis Tavze maradiulad myofi `ZvelTa dReTa¡~ – mkvdreTiT aRmdgari da amaRlebuli uflis didebisa. sveticxoveli – umniSvnelovanesi siwminde mTeli samyarosi – mravalmxriv sagulisxmoa qarTuli enis (kulturis) gaazrebisaTvisac. misiT cxaddeba, Tu ratom iyo qarTvelisaTvis mTeli warmarTobis manZilze yvelaze mniSvnelovani simbolo xe, rogorc gaucnobierebeli molodini zogadad samoTxis sicocxlis xisa, aseve konkretulad RvTis nebiT mcxeTaSi mobrZanebuli kvarTisa da masze aRmarTuli sveticxovlis winaswaruwyebac. niSandoblivia, rom axladmoqceuli qarTli IV saukuneSi ierusalimSi, jvris monastris miwaze moniSnavs im siwmindes, romelic paradigmulad misTvis yvelaze maxlobelia – es aris swored im xis Ziri, romlidanac golgoTis jvari Seiqmna. macxovarTan mimarTebaSi sveticxoveli, rogorc axali sicocxlis xe qarTul sivrceSi, kidev erTi simboloTi gamoixateba – es aris vazi, romelic mociqulTa sworma ninom suliwmindis ganbrZnobiT amoicno. swored vazis nasxlevisagan Seqmna man wminda jvari da Sekra igi Tavisi TmiT. rogorc macxovarma ganiRo gverdi kacobriobisaTvis, raTa misi sisxliT ziarebuli adamis modgma aRedgina da ganeRmrTo, aseve vazic uflis gangebiT baZavs Tavis Semoqmeds da gamoiRebs mtevans, romlidanac ziarebis Rvino iwureba. amrigad, vazi – uflis sikvdilis, msxverplisa da sisxlis simbolo – sveticxovlisa da sicocxlis xis simboloc gaxda. amiT isic gacxadda, Tu ratom dasaxa macxovarma saqarTvelo venaxisa da Rvinis samSoblod – rogorc sveticxovlis samkvidrebeli da qristianobis venaxi, romlis mfarvelic RvTisave gangebulebiT RvTismSobelia – edemSi danerguli WeSmariti venaxi. albaT am konteqstSi ukve sruliad gasagebia, Tu ras gamoxatavs sveticxovlis fasadebze reliefuri venaxi. es didebuli taZari marTlac gamorCeulia amgvari reliefebiT rogorc aRmosavleT, ise dasavleT da gansakuTrebiT, samxreT fasadebze. miuxedavad imisa, rom reliefebi XI saukunisaa, igi gamWvirvaled avlens TviT taZris Tavdapirveli siwmindis arss – es aris, upirveles yovlisa, macxovris, sicocxlis xisa da TviT sveticxovlis krebiTi simbolo da ara ubralod vazis dekoratiuli saxe. am gancdas gansakuTrebiT samxreT fasadis gamosaxuleba gviqmnis: taZris oqrosfer qvis kedelze, rogorc mzvareSi, amozrdila vazis ori nergi. upirveles yovlisa, yuradRebas ipyrobs TviT qvis feri – sakvirveli intonaciis wiTeli. misi forebis siRrmidan amosWvivis wiTlis cecxlovaneba, oqros uxrwneleba da laJvardis idumaleba. qveyniuri uTvalavi feradovnebis es sami sawyisi feri erT Zowisfrad SenivTebula, rogorc sameufo porfiri, romelic mosavs meufisave
asmaT oqropiriZe

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20

msxverplis simbolos – venaxs. aq sakvirvelad SenivTebula qriste – tarigi – sicocxlis xe. TviT orive mcenare araCveulebrivad plastikuri metyvelebisaa. mZlavr Reros orive mxares simetriulad gamousxams sam-sami mtevani, romelic energiulad nazardi ylorti-foTlidan amosula. TviT vazi bolovdeba samylortiani, saxeobrivad mravlismetyveli kenweroTi; upirveles yovlisa, igi gvaxsenebs sam wminda mcenares – saros, fiWvsa da naZvs – erT sxeulad SenakvTuls; agreTve im sicocxlis xes, romelic qarTlSi miuval kldeze iyo amosuli da ukvdavebas aniWebda maziareblebs da romlidanac gamoiWra sami jvarpatiosani (igive Zeli cxoveli); siRrmiseulad ki igi amasTanave gamosaxvaa arsebaganuyofeli RmerTis sampirovnulobisa, ris SegrZnebasac aZlierebs foTlis yoveli wilis boloTa gansruleba usasrulobis momniSvneli wreebiT. usasrulobis niSania xis ZirTan gamosaxuli mravalnawiliani vardulic, romlis qveSac morCilebiT gawolili lomi kidev ufro aZlierebs saRvTo meufebis niSandebas. sakvirvelia TviT mcenaris Ziri – sferulad Sekruli sxvili, romelzedac, rogorc xarixaze, asvetila venaxi cxoveli. misgan gamomavali sami wveTisebri fesvi ki isev uflis kvarTis igavmiuwvdomeli sakraliaa. sveticxovlis vazis reliefi (reliefebi) arsobrivad tipuri nimuSia simboluri saxismetyvelebisa, romelic kidec avlens, asaCinoebs siwmindes da amasTanave mistikuri saburveliTve ifaravs mas. igi im odenobiT exsneba adamians, ramdenis datevnac mis guls SeuZlia. sveticxovlis dasavleT fasadze gamosaxuli ori vazic venaxis Temis variaciaa, romelic amasTanave aTvalsaCinoebs cocxali vazis plastikisa da misi metafizikuri ganyenebulobis Serwymis udides sibrZnes. kompoziciiT gamorCeulia aRmosavleT fasadic. am periodis qarTuli eklesiebisaTvis tipuri dekoraciuli TaRnari mTel taZarTan erTad mas xuT safexurad mosazRvravs. TaRis TxemSi aRmarTulia Rero – sicocxlis xe, romlidanac gamosxmuli ori mtevani dedamiwisaken eSveba. xis sxvilis wriuli bruni ocdaoTxfoTlian varduls badebs (ricxvi sawinaswarmetyvelo), romelic gansruldeba farSevangis (uxrwnelebisa da ukvdavebis simbolo) bolosaviT gaSlili Tormeti sxiviT (ricxvi samociqulo). sveticxovelic xom Tormeti mociqulis saxelze agebuli kaTolike eklesiaa. aq sicocxlis xe – vazi – acxadebs Zveli da axali aRTqmis (winaswarmetyvelTa da mociqulTa) erTobas, simboloa qristes eklesiisa da amasTanave miniSneba TviT taZris umTavres siwmindeze – cxovelmyofel svetze, rogorc kosmiur RerZze. gamorCeuli saxismetyvelebisaa samTavisic (1030 w.), romelic qarTuli qristianuli xuroTmoZRvrebis saetapo Zeglia. gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovani misi aRmosavleT fasadis dekoraciaa. tradiciuli lilvebi xuT TaRnarad Semosaltavs mTel fasads. centralur TaRSi, amaRlebuli oTxkuTxa sarkmlis Tavze jvaria gamosaxuli. igi, wreze dabrZanebuli, aSkarad Zlevis Sinaarsis matarebelia. Zlevis intonacias agrZelebs da amtkicebs mTavari TaRidan gamomavali ori momcro lilvic, romelic dinebiT eSveba ra qveviT, qmnis patara tolmklava wriul jvrebs, romlebic amasTanave gvagonebs yurZnis marcvlebs an vazis axlad gaSlil yvavils; xolo sarkmlis qveS simetri-

vazi – sicocxlis xe

21 ulad gamosaxuli ori rombi, gulSi ayvavebuli girCiT, aSkarad miniSnebaa samoTxiseul miwaze. ase rom, am uaRresad daxvewil safasado dekorSi mTeli Tavisi niuansebiT Tvalwin warmogvidgeba ganedlebuli jvari, rogorc sikvdiliTa sikvdilis Zlevis xati, anu axali sicocxlis xe, romelic venaxad gardaisaxeba. venaxis Temas aZlierebs mcire jvrebTan erTad erT kunwulad Sekruli yurZeni da broweuli, romelic fasadis Semomsaltavi wamyvani lilvis gansrulebaa, rogorc xili mcenarisaTvis. maTi erToba (yurZnisa da broweulisa), romelic ukve banas taZarze vixileT, kidev ufro ganavrcobs gamosaxulebis Sinaarss, radgan igi – israelisaTvis aRqmuli miwis simbolo – samTavisis fasadis mTlian konteqstSi arsebiTad gaJRerdeba, rogorc WeSmariti aRTqmuli miwis, anu samoTxis niSanTagani. samTavisis fasadis ubrwyinvalesi elementia fasadTa SeerTebis waxnagze gamosaxuli ayvavebuli vazis mZlavri plastikuri motivi. aq safasado farTo lilvi imgvar grexils qmnis, rom iqceva venaxis Ronier rqad, romlis gulSic mkvrivi mtevania daSvebuli. rqis grexilis SigniT da gareT amoyrilia energiuli ylortebi, romlebic ostats uxvad Seumkia foTlebiT. es ukanaskneli vazis foTlis vegetaciis yvela etapisa da Wrilis sakvirveli asaxvaa, magram amasTanave fasadis erTiani mxatvruli wyobis Sesabamisad ayvanilia umtkicesi wesrigis xarisxSi, rodesac struqtura ukve saRvTo harmoniis eniT iwyebs metyvelebas. samTavisis fasadis sicocxlis xe Tavisi masStaburobiT erT-erTi gamorCeulia marTlmadidebluri mtevnebis plastikis nimuSebs Soris – udavod qarTlis moqcevisa da cxoveli svetis siwmindis sisxlxorceuli gamoxatulebaa. aRsaniSnavia, rom qarTuli kulturuli paradigmis es umniSvnelovanesi simbolo gamoTqmulia eklesiaSi, romelic, Tavis mxriv, miCneulia qarTuli xuroTmoZRvrebis ganviTarebis erT-erT dagvirgvinebadac, sadac maqsimaluri mravalnawilianoba daxvewil mTlianobad aris CamonakvTuli. es udavod metyvelebs maSeneblis – ilarion samTavnelis – sulieri wvdomis siRrmeze. am konteqstSi yuradRebas ipyrobs samTavisis fasadis e.w. `faskunjis~ anu fantastikuri lom-arwivis gamosaxulebac (ufro sworad, gamosaxulebebi, radgan amJamad dakargulia meore analogiuri figura, romelic simetriulad iyo gamosaxuli. uZvelesi kulturebidan momdinare es simbolo qristianul saxismetyvelebaSi sameufeo Zlevis (lomi) da sulieri simaRlis (arwivi) SinaarsiT aRivso, amitom igi farTod gamoisaxeboda bevrgan, magram samTavisis fasadze, cxovelmyofel xesTan konteqstSi, igi axleburi ZaliT iwyebs metyvelebas. kerZod, `qarTlis moqcevis~ Tanaxmad, Zu lomi da arwivi (orbi) wminda ninos metaforebicaa: `vxedav, Svilo, Zalsa Sensa, viTarca Zalsa lomisa Zuvisasa, romeli izaxebn yovelsave zeda oTxfe£sa, gina viTarca orbi dedali. romeli aRvidis simaRlesa aerTasa ufro¡s mamlisa... egreT iyos cxoreba¡ Seni winamZRurebiTa sulisa wmindisa¡Ta...~ (Satb. 330). amrigad, udavoa, rom es faskunji, romelic amasTanave maxarebelTa simboloebiTaa Sedgenili, `sulisa wmidisa qnaris~ – wminda ninos – samociqulo misiasac gamoxatavs, rac afarToebs samTavisis fasadis semantikur sivrces. igi gacxadasmaT oqropiriZe

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22

vazi – sicocxlis xe

deba, rogorc qarTlis moqcevis vaziT daqaragmebuli kosmiuri, monumenturi niSan-simbolo. qarTlis moqcevisa da venaxi-sicocxlis xis Tema Semdgomac met-naklebad aisaxeba safasado plastikaSi. magaliTad SeiZleba moviyvanoT metexis samxreTi kedeli, sadac dekoraciul TaRnarSi mtevania CarTuli (aSkarad samTavisis gavleniT). gansakuTrebiT unda gamoiyos ananuris RvTismSoblis taZari (XVII s.). mis samxreT da dasavleT fasadebze gamosaxulia didi, ayvavebuli, msxmoiare venaxi, romlis centrSic golgoTis jvrebi aRmarTula. es gamosaxulebani aSkarad sveticxovlis reliefebiTaa STagonebuli, magram XVII saukuneSi igi qarTvelTaTvis im erovnuli siwmindis Semaxsenebelia, romelic qarTlis cxovrebis (anu `cxonebis~) arss moniSnavs. aq locvasaviT aRvlenila qveynis sulieri gadarCenisaTvis amotivtivebuli mexsiereba, igi acxadebs qarTveli eris uryev survils – iyos mtkice qristes mcnebaTa dacvaSi, rogorc wminda qeTevan dedofali, romlis nawamebma sxeulmac Ronegamoclili qveyana rvaliviT Seamtkica. vazis gamosaxvis SesaniSnavi nimuSia bagratis taZris samxreT karibWe, kerZod, misi erT-erTi svetisTavi. masze gamosaxuli verZi qriste-msxverplis simboloa. verZis piridan gamodis vazis rqa, romelic mZlavrad viTardeba sibrtyeze. aq mtevnis vitaluroba umaRlesi ganzogadebis xarisxSia ayvanili. magram bagratis kapitelis ornamenti gansakuTrebiT sagulisxmoa imiTac, rom virtuozul variacias gviCvenebs – erT rtoze gamokveTilia vegetaciis sxvadasxva etapi Sesabamisad sxvadasxva rakursiT, zomiT Tu ritmuli formuliT. faqtiurad aq mocemulia mTeli qarTuli mcenareuli ornamentis saxeobrivi gasaRebi – igi aSkarad STagonebulia vazis foTliT da misiT sazrdoobs. swored amitom amoikiTxeba am mTavari mcenaris saxe TiTqmis yvela ornamentSi – iqneba es zedaznis Tu werovnis qvis plastika, elesas xis kankelis CuqurTma Tu qarTuli taZrebis fasadebi, romelTa ornamentebi walkotiviT ayvavebula; anda sworupovari qarTuli Weduri ornamenti, romelic XI-XIII saukuneebSi gansakuTrebuli variaciulobiT gamoirCeva, Tu sxva. yovelives safuZveli odindeli qarTuli venaxia, romelic qarTul xelovnebaSi, gafoTlili da ayvavebuli, WeSmariti venaxis – qristes didebis mRaRadebeli gamxdara. amitom umetesad qarTuli mcenareuli ornamentis aRqmisas gviCndeba gancda, rom ganyenebulad vazs uyureb, damoukideblad imisa, gamoisaxeba Tu ara mtevani. amis erT-erTi tipuri magaliTia samTavros CrdiloeT fasadis ornamenti sarkmlebis Tavze (TaRSi), sadac mZlavri Reros ornamentuli grexili aSkarad venaxis rqis gancdas badebs. aRarafers vambobT pirdapir miniSnebebze, rodesac vazi erTian dekoraciul sistemaSia CarTuli. magaliTad, nikorwmindis gumbaTis sarkmlis sapire, an `jvris amaRlebis~ kompozicia karibWeSi, oSkis samxreT karibWe da CrdiloeT fasadi, iSxnis kapitelis ornamentuli morTuloba da sxva.

23

stelebi
vazis gamosaxvis gansakuTrebul magaliTebs gvaZlevs adreqristianuli plastikis Zeglebis iseTi TviTmyofadi wre, rogoricaa stelebi. es aris religiuri daniSnulebis qvis svetebi, romlebic mZlavr bazisze aRmarTula da gvirgvindeba Zlevis mimaniSnebeli jvriT. samwuxarod, stelebma Cvenamde Zalzed fragmentuli saxiT moaRwia, magram, amis miuxedavad, mravalmxriv saintereso informacias gvawvdis. upirveles yovlisa, unda iTqvas, rom stela – rogorc religiuri xelovnebis forma – zogadqristianulia. igi, vertikalurad aRmarTuli, Zlevis simboloa da amdenad, qristianobis triumfis Taviseburi `obeliski~. stelebis gavrcelebas saqarTveloSi udavod Rrma Sinaarsi unda edos, kerZod TviT sveticxoveli, romelic arsebiTad aris sveti Zlevisa, xisa da miwis gamaerTianebeli da a.S. swored amitom, bunebrivia, rom qva-svetebma saqarTveloSi zogadqristianuli Sinaarsi erovnuli eklesiisaTvis specifikuri niSan-simboloebiT gamoxata. kerZod, upirveles yovlisa, unda iTqvas, rom aq wamyvania ganedlebuli jvris Tema, rac, cxadze ucxadesia, qarTvelisaTvis qarTlis moqcevis wyarodan momdinareobs. isic bunebrivia, rom ganedlebuli sicocxlis xe vazad gardaisaxeba im qveyanaSi, romlis qristianobis simbolodac mociqulTa sworma ninom jvari vazisa dasaxa. TavSive unda aRiniSnos, rom Cveni kulturisaTvis sisxlxorceuli es leitmotivi sxvadasxva stelaze sxvadasxva interpertaciiT gamoisaxeba. amgvari variaciuloba aSkarad metyvelebs TviT ostatTa udides Sinagan Tavisuflebasa da SemoqmedebiTobaze, rac TavisTavad gulisxmobs simboloTa enis Rrma flobas. upirveles yovlisa, ganvixiloT brwyinvale nimuSi xandisis stelisa, romelic, samwuxarod, ukve aRar arsebobs. SemorCenilia mxolod sveti (da-

asmaT oqropiriZe

vazi – sicocxlis xe

magvirgvinebeli qvisa da bazisis gareSe). svetis oTxive waxnagi Semkulia reliefebiT, romlebic qristianuli kosmogoniis Sesabamisad registrebad iyofa. amjerad yuradRebas mivapyrobT vazis ornaments, romelic RvTismSoblis registrSia gamosaxuli. aq bunebrivad transformirdeba TviT mcenaris vizualuri Tvisebebi. vazis xviara lerwi gadmocemulia talRiT, usasrulobis saxe-simboloTi. TviT vazis kavi (ulvaSi), romelic exveva da mcenares amagrebs, gamoxatulia patara spiralebis saxiT, rac zrdisa da ganviTarebis niSnebia. ylortze Camokidebuli savse mtevani Sevsebulia mrgvali, msxvili marcvlebiT. sagulisxmoa fragmentulad SemorCenili foToli, romelic mayureblis mimarT uCveulod ixsneba da qmnis rombisebur formas, masSi Cakecili sibrtyeebiT ki jvari iqmneba, anu mtevanTan erTad miTiTebaa msxverplsa da nayofze, dabolos, eleganturi ylorti gvirgvindeba SroSanis daxvewili yvaviliT, romelic RvTismSoblisaken ixreba. es, erTi SexedviT, uCveulo gansruleba arsebiTad Rrma simboluri Sinaarsisaa. qristianuli saxismetyvelebis pirobiToba uSvebs sxvadasxva mcenaris erT sxeulad Sekvras. xandisSi SroSani araerTmniSvnelovania, igi genezisiT momdinareobs sparsuli sivrcidan, sadac umaRles Zalauflebaze mianiSnebda, qristianuli msoflmxedvelobiT, umaRlesi mpyrobeli ufalia, amitomac SroSani aq swored ufals (kerZod, qristes) ganadidebs. vazis gamosaxva RvTismSoblis reliefis gverdiT am yvavilis semantikas kidev ufro akonkretebs, kerZod, `qebaTa-qebaTagan~ mokidebuli, SroSani gaiazreba yovladwmindas umankoebis simbolodac. Tu yvelafers SevajerebT, maSin xandisis vazis gamosaxuleba warmogvidgeba rogorc venaxi – RvTismSobeli, romelmac `umuSakod gamoiRo Tavwarsxmuli~ mtevani – qriste – msxverpli kacobriobisa. xandisis stelaze gamosaxuli vazis es umSvenieresi saxe-simbolo kidev imiT aris sagulisxmo, rom ukve VI saukuneSi gviCvenebs srul codnasa da flobas im simboloTa enisa, romelmac XII saukuneSi demetre II-s SeaZlebina RvTismSoblis cnobili sagalobeli – `Sen xar venaxi~ Seeqmna. xandisis analogiuradaa gadmocemuli vazi naTlismcemlis stelazec, sadac damagvirgvineblad gvevlineba rvaqimiani varduli – maradiulobisa da merve dRis simbolo. vazi-SroSanis variaciaa gadmocemuli tarsonis stelis baziszec. masze mocemulia energiuli plastikuri kompozicia. centrSi gamosaxulia rvaqimiani jvari, dagvirgvinebuli maradiulobis momniSvneli rva wriT. ganedlebuli jvris aqeT-iqiT amosulia vazis mZlavri Rero mtevnebiT; igi gansrulebulia SroSanis yvaviliT, romelic iswrafvis ra jvris mklavebisaken, maT Soris Cakecila da Zlevis niSans ganadidebs. pantianis stelis bazisi gviCvenebs jvris amaRlebas (didebas). aq bolnuri jvari gandiddeba mfrinavi angelozebis mier. TviT ganedlebuli jvari amozrdila Ziridan – svetidan. igi svetis dagvirgvinebaa. reliefis qveda ori kuTxidan amodis vazis ori Rero, romelzedac vardulebi, mtevnebi da SroSanebia gamosaxuli; izrdeba ra jvrisaken, vazi amkobs mas da ganadidebs, rogorc sikvdiliT sikvdilis damarcxebis niSans. sruliad originaluradaa komponirebuli saTxis svetis bazisi (V-VI ss.). sibrtyis centrSi gadmocemulia e. w. `bolnuri jvari~ wreSi. mas rkalad ek-

24

vazi – sicocxlis xe

25 vris SroSanis yvavilebi. Zlevis jvari dafuZnebulia dabal Zirze, romlis orsave mxares ganedlebis niSnad amoyrilia ori Rero. es Reroebi TandaTan energiul foTlad transformirdeba da gansruldeba rogorc gvirgvinosani farSevangi, romelsac niskartiT yurZnis mtevani uWiravs. es araCveulebrivad mxatvruli kompozicia semantikuri variaciis Zalzed maxvilgonivrul gadawyvetas gviCvenebs. aq jvari, mcenare, vazi da farSevangi erTmaneTs igiveobis niSniT ukavSirdeba da qmnis sikvdiliTa sikvdilis Zlevis sruliad originalur gamosaxulebas, sadac vazi jvarTan erTad figurirebs, rogorc mxverplis Sedegi da mizani. qvis intensiuri Zowisferi aZlierebs msxverplis intonaciasac da aseve mTlianobaSi – sazeimo iersac, radganac sameufo Rvinis anu wminda ziarebis Zaldautanebel asociacias iwvevs. Zalzed saintereso motivebia dmanisis svetzec. svetis mTavar sibrtyeze gamosaxulia ganedlebuli jvari. igi Cawerilia maradiuli wrebrunvis aRmniSvnel rkalSi, romelic triumfis gancdas badebs. TviT jvari ki amozrdilia mcenaridan, romlis orive mxares vazis mtevnebi eSveba. udavoa sicocxlis xisa da vazis kavSiri! amave stelis meore gverdzec vazis ornamenti viTardeba. yuradRebas ipyrobs foTlis gadmocemis xasiaTi. igi erTdroulad SroSansac gvagonebs da isris pirsac – daserilia paraleluri xazebiT, romlebic energiis talRebiviT gadadis foTolze, rogorc Taviseburi `kosmograma~. sruliad originaluria bolnisis stelis (VIII-IX ss.) interpretacia. vertikali mTlianad kvarcxlbekze aRmarTul Zlevis jvrebs (`bolnurebs~) uWiravs. SemorCenilia sami jvari. gansakuTrebiT sagulisxmoa gamosaxulebis ageba siRrmeSi SekveTili samkuTxa sibrtyeebiT, romlebic kompoziciuri agebis, ase vTqvaT, `pirveladi~ elementia. ricxvi sami sakralurobisa da simdgradis gancdas badebs mayurebelSi. amdenad, es mfeTqavi, cocxali gamosaxuleba, Sedgenili erTi SexedviT martivi elementebisagan, arsebiTad Rrma mistikuri datvirTvis mqonea. es kidev ufro xilulia stelis meore sibrtyeze, sadac Zlevis jvris kvarcxlbekidan eSveba uzarmazari reliefuri mtevani – simbolo ziarebisa da eklesiisa. anu aqac, iseve rogorc sxva stelaSi, ostati qmnis sruliad originalur kompozicias da Sesabamisad – vazis gamosaxvis axal interpretacias.
asmaT oqropiriZe

vazi – sicocxlis xe

Weduroba
vazis xilul da metafizikur bunebas Taviseburad asaxavs qristianuli xelovnebis iseTi wamyvani dargi, rogoricaa liTonmqandakebloba, gamorCeuli Tavisi TviTmyofadobiT. rogorc analizma gviCvena, qarTuli mcenareuli ornamenti umetesad venaxiTaa STagonebuli da warmoadgens mis umaRles doneze abstragirebas. udavod vazis foTlis stilizaciaa is xuTwiliani foTolic, romelic spiralurad daxveuli wreebis uwyvet Rerozea Cawerili. es ornamenti, romelic

Tavisi sqemiT zogadqristianulia, qarTuli Wedurobis nimuSebSi uCveulo mravalferovnebiT, dausrulebeli variaciebiT xasiaTdeba – arc erTi nimuSi meores ar imeorebs (gansakuTrebiT XI saukuneSi). araCveulebrivi daxvewilobiT gamoirCeva saxelganTqmuli anCisxatis beqa opizriseuli moWediloba, sadac vazis ornamenti uzado maTematikur harmoniamdea ayvanili. vazis stilizebuli ornamentiTaa Semkuli xaxulis RvTismSoblis xatic. misi moWediloba daviT IV aRmaSenebelma da misma Zem, demetre II-m – `Sen xar venaxis~ avtorma – daukveTes. mavedrebeli RvTismSoblis xati mooqrovil da ornamentebiT Semkul vercxlis kidobanSia CabrZanebuli. gansakuTrebiT sagulisxmoa TviT xatis sulieri konteqsti. kerZod, deda RvTisa – venaxi keTili, romelmac gamoiRo wminda mtevani – qriste, warmodgenilia venaxisave ornamentis wiaRSi. es samoTxis suraTi amasTanave Taviseburi abstraqciaa saqarTvelosi, rogorc RvTismSoblis wilxvdomili qveynisa da Tvalxiluli gancxadebaa TviT sagaloblis Sinaarsisa.

monumenturi mxatvroba
vazi da Rvino gvxvdeba qarTul monumentur mxatvrobaSic, magram arcTu iseTi intensivobiT, radgan saeklesio xelovneba mTlianad miZRvnilia WeSmariti venaxisadmi – qristes, RvTismSoblis, mociqulebisa da sxva wmindanebis gamosaxvisaken. miuxedavad amisa, gvaqvs ramdenime sagulisxmo magaliTi. aRsaniSnavia boWormis wm. giorgis taZris (X-XI ss.) moxatuloba (XI-XII ssis mijna). igi qarTuli freskuli mxatvrobis erT-erTi ubrwyinvalesi magaliTia da SesaZloa, daviT aRmaSeneblis dakveTiTac ki iyos Sesrulebuli. taZris Crdilo-dasavleT afsidis konqSi gamosaxulia uflis pirveli saswauli – qorwili kanaSi, sadac wylis Rvinod gadaqceva moxda. boWormis scena am saswaulis sruliad Taviseburi interpretaciaa, ra Tqma unda, kondakis dacviT. konqis erT mxares, saydarze, dabrZanebulia macxovari, meore mxares ki savarZelSi zis Tamada. gamoxatulia Tamadis mier RvTisagan nakurTxi Rvinis gasinjvis momenti. scena dro-Jamisagan mniSvnelovnad dazianebulia; mTlianad dakargulia centric, sadac RvTismSobeli iyo gamosaxuli, magram darCenilia mainc Zalze sagulisxmo fragmentebi; kerZod – trapezi, romelic albaT mxatvris Tanadrouli lxinis suraTs gviCvenebs: movardisfro-gamWvirvale sufraze dalagebulia sxvadasxva formis jam-WurWeli, danebi, Tasebi, agreTve puris naWrebi; gansakuTrebiT ki yuradRebamisaqcevia dakluli batkani – calkea tani, Tavi ki erT-erT meinaxes uWiravs. iqve devs ybis Zvalic. scena araCveulebrivad metyvelia. fragmentulobis miuxedavad, igrZnoba mowveulTa Soris cocxali gadalaparakeba. gamorCeulia Tamada – puris ufali – darbaiseli WaRara kaci, romelic sakarcxulze dabrZanebula. erTi xeliT sufraze miuTiTebs, marjveniT ki – misTvis mirTmeul Wiqaze, romelSic aSkarad wiTeli Rvino asxia. konteqstis mixedviT, Rvinis gamosa-

26

vazi – sicocxlis xe

27 xuleba amasTanave mianiSnebs qristes sisxlze, wminda ziarebis dros rom ganaRmrTobs adamians. qriste – tarigze iribad metyvelebs agreTve dakluli batkanic. saocari scenaa, rogorc konkretulobiTa da realobaze gulmodgine dakvirvebiT, agreTve misi gaazrebisa da interpretaciis siRrmiT, rac qarTuli saeklesio mxatvrobisaTvis tipuria. boWormis magaliTi qarTuli tradiciuli lxinis unikaluri gamosaxulebaa. analogad SeiZleba miviCnioT agreTve ikvis wminda giorgis eklesiis CrdiloeT mklavSi gamosaxuli scena – wminda giorgis mier mSoblebisaTvis tyvis dabrunebisa. gamosaxulia momenti, roca didmowamem gamoxsnili ymawvili cxenze Semosmuli daubruna ojaxs. CvenTvis sagulisxmoa ojaxis wevrebi da migebebuli trapezi. moxucis, qalis, mamakacisa da msaxurTa figurebi sainteresoa rogorc mxatvruli, ise eTnografiuli TvalsazrisiT. gansakuTrebul yuradRebas ki ipyrobs tabla – danebiT, puris naWrebiT, mTliani beWiT da a. S., etyoba, gamosaxulia Tanadrouli lxinis fragmenti. sufraze xazgasmulad ikveTeba ori gamWvirvale Wiqa wiTeli RviniT, rac pirdapiri Tu gadataniTi mniSvnelobiT qarTvelisaTvis ziarebaze miTiTeba unda yofiliyo. nabaxtevis `gankiTxvis dRis~ fragmentSi samoTxis naTeli sivrce mTlianad broweulisa da vazis ayvavebuli, msxmoiare xeebiTaa Semkuli. mis wiaRSi qristianuli tradiciisamebr naCvenebia WeSmariti venaxi – dedaRvTisa – gamomRebi WeSmariti mtevnis – ieso qristesi. samoTxe xom is miwaa, romelic jer kidev gankacebamde aRuTqva ufalma israels, risi simboloc vazi da broweulia (bana da samTavisi). kidev erTi magaliTi – daviT aRmaSeneblis freska gelaTis RvTismSoblis taZarSi. didi mefis samosi morTulia vazis imgvari gamosaxulebiT, romelic erTdroulad yvavilsac gvagonebs da nayofsac. amasTanave igi Taviseburad gardamavalia girCasa da mtevans Sorisac. mTlianobaSi ornamenti sagulisxmo simbolur-saxismetyvelebiT konteqsts iZens rogorc taZris patronTan – RvTismSobelTan – mimarTebiT, ise TviT daviT aRmaSenebelTan.
asmaT oqropiriZe

vazi – sicocxlis xe

xezekveTiloba (vazis kari)
arqivma Semogvinaxa erTi umniSvnelovanesi foto – es aris kaxeTis ioane naTlismcemlis taZris aRsavlis kari, romelic Semdgom sionis saeklesio muzeumSi moxvedrila. samwuxarod, misi adgilsamyofeli dReisaTvis ucnobia. igi – mTlianad Wviruli da maqmaniviT faqizi, amasTanave Sinaganad Zlieri – dafarulia wreebiT, romelTagan amosuli naxevarwreebi TiTqos talRebiviT avrcelebs energiis Wavlebs, rac saRvTo madlis aRmocenebis Taviseburi `diagramaa~. aq, ubraloebisa da ganyenebulobis TanaarsebobaSi, gamoxatulia qarTuli plastikuri metyvelebis kostanta (rogorc uZvelesi reliefebisa

da Wedurobis, ise gviani xezekveTilobis); magram es fenomeni gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobas konteqstSi iZens: venaxis erTiani merqnidan gamokveTili kari mowmobs, rom vazi sauflo mcenarea; masSi saocari cxovelmyofelobiT Tanxvdeba edemis sicocxlis xe da qriste-tarigi, dabolos, igi qoronikonis dinebis miRma amozrdila, rogorc wminda ninos vazis jvris morCi – misi mravalJamieri sicocxlis ubralo da anonimuri mowame, cisa da miwis SemaerTebeli.

saeklesio naqargoba (sadac gansakuTrebiT iyara vazma ylorti!)
qarTuli saeklesio naqargoba upiratesad qristian qalTa Semoqmedebaa. qalis xeliT iqsoveboda da iqargeboda samRvdelmTavro samosi, kretsabmelebi, gardamoxsnebi, dafarnebi. qali zogadad krZalviT iyo ganSorebuli saeklesio xelovnebisagan, magram arsebiTad misi TiTebiT SeTxzuli da Semkuli qsovilebi yvelaze axlos idga uflis gankacebis, jvarcmisa Tu aRdgomis im udides saidumlosTan, romelic marTlmadideblur taZarSi drosa da sivrcisagan damoukideblad xorcieldeboda da xorcieldeba dResac. RvTismSobelic xom Zoweuls arTavda, rodesac uflis gankaceba exara. qalis xeliT naqargi egebeba wirvisas dabadebul tarigs da, rogorc beTlemis mRvimeSi Sobisas, masSi exveva macxovari; qalis xeliT naqargi krZalviT mosavs jvarcmuli uflis sxeuls trapezze; xolo Semdeg, rogorc menelsacxeble dedebi aRdgomis xarebisas, sixaruliT egebeba mas iseve, rogorc ierusalimis wminda sivrceSi. dedaTa xelovnebis es marTlmadidebluri Tviseba gansakuTrebiT gamovlinda saqarTveloSi, sadac qals imTaviTve RvTis winaSe movaleobis gamorCeuli pativi hqonda. SemTxveviTi ar aris, rom es qveyana yovladwminda RvTismSoblis wilxvedria da misi kalTiTaa daculi. qveynis moqcevis misiac xom wminda qalwul ninos etvirTa. swored mas gadaeca RvTis nebiT `aTni sityuani msgavsadve ficarTa maT qvisaTa moses ze~ (sabinini, 127), sadac ewera: `arca mamakaceba, arca dedakaceba, aramed Tquen yovelni erT xarT~ (gal. 3, 28). da marTlac, qarTuli naqargoba am sityvebis utyuari mtkicebaa – es sakvirveli xelovneba didi ubraloebiT aerTebs oqromWedlobas, ferwerasa da reliefs – feradovnebiT is xatsa hgavs, oqromkedisa da vercxlmkedis gamoyenebiT – saiuveliro xelovnebaa, xolo TviT naqargis simtkiciTa da SenivTulobiT tols ar udebs adreul reliefebs, anu sakvirvelad aerTianebs erT sxeulad xelovnebis sxvadasxva dargs. TviT qarTuli saeklesio naqargobis saxismetyveleba zogadqristianulis arsebiTi gamoxatulebaa, amitom bunebrivia, rom vazma masSi gansakuTrebiT `iyara ylorti~. upirveles yovlisa, es aris jvrisa da vazis erToba, romelic uZvelesi reliefebis ganedlebuli jvrebis axleburi gamoxatule-

28

vazi – sicocxlis xe

29 baa; magram aq igi sxvagvarad aris mocemuli. Tu reliefi konkretulisa da abstraqtulis Serwymis udides kulturas avlens, naqargobaSi gviani saukuneebisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli detaluri Txroba da vizualizmis momZlavrebaa dafiqsirebuli, magram drois es niSnebi iseTi gemovnebiTa da Rrma sulierebiTaa gancdili da ganwmendili, rom odnavadac ar kargavs metafizikurobas. piriqiT, Zireuli saxeobrioba masSi uCveulo intensivobiT ametyvelebula: farCis silurje zeciuri idumalebis momaswavebelia, mewamuls sameufo sisxlis JReradoba aqvs, oqro saRvTo uxrwnelobis mowmobaa, oqrosa da vercxlis erTad Tanaarseboba – qristesa da RvTismSoblis simboluri erToba da gankacebis dideba; margaliti qristes simboloa – TeTrisa da cisartyelis elferTa erTobiT igi ganasaxierebs gankacebiT SeerTebul sasufevelsa da sofels da ra gasakviria, rom amgvar, mtkice qristianul, SemoqmedebaSi wamyvani saxe venaxia – qristes erT-erTi umTavresi simbolo da wminda ninos jvris sxeuli. sakvirvelia naqargobaSi TviT vazis gamosaxvis variaciebi, misi interpretirebis amouwuraoba, anu is Tavisufleba, romelic yovelTvis upirobod Serwymulia uryev WeSmaritebasTan. mariam dadianiseuli enqeri (XVII s.) gviCvenebs cisa da miwis sakvirvel SeerTebas, sadac enqeris rombi miwaa, xolo mis wiaRSi Casmuli wre – macxovari – ca (ix. rombi samTavisis fasadze). es ca da miwa SeerTebulia vaziT, romlis xveulebSi CarTuli Tormeti mociquli qristes eklesiis simboloa da amasTanave pirdapiri gancxadeba saxarebiseuli sityvebisa: `me var venaxi, Tqven – rtoebi~ (i. 15, 5), anu samociqulo eklesia, rogorc qristes venaxi, cisa da miwis SemaerTebelia da amdenad maxvilia, borotebis ganmkveTeli. gansxvavebulad metyvelebs didi dafarna `cai~, romelic Tamar batoniSvils – erekle II-is dedasa da vaxtang VI-is asuls – 1718 wels mouqargvinebia. oqrosfer atlasze oqromkediTa da vercxlmkediT
asmaT oqropiriZe

vazi – sicocxlis xe

30

vazi – sicocxlis xe

amouyvania xels uCveulod uxvi da metyveli venaxi – TiTqos mTeli talaveri, romlis foTlebi da mtevnebi mnaxvels aRafrTovanebs vazis plastikis gadmocemis unariT. aq yvela foToli, ylorti Tu mtevani iseve ganumeorebelia, rogorc bunebaSi. mkvidri naqargiT Semtkicebulia foTlis konturi da ZarRvebi, ZlivsSesamCnevi xveulebic kia gamoyvanili; magram gviani saukuneebis es tipuri konkretika, romelic ramdenadme nasazrdoebia rogorc evropuli xelovnebiT, ise sparsuli miniaturebiTac, amasTanave oqrosa da vercxlis daxvewili feradovnebiT, ganyenebul, zenivTier ganzomilebaSi adis. aq oqrosferi Tavisi namdvili saxeliT – `uqroTi~ anu `uqrobeliT~ iwyebs metyvelebas; gansakuTrebiT gacxaddeboda es wirvis saidumloebaSi, rodesac `cai~ erTianad dafaravda qriste-tarigis sisxlsa da xorcs (saziarebel WurWels). sionis enqerze saRvTo mewamulis wiaRSi brwyinavs margalitebiT SeTxzuli jvari, romelsac margalitisave marcvlebiT Sedgenili mtevnebi gars Semohxvevia da ganadidebs (qriste – sisxli – venaxi margalitis variaciaa). ana-xanumis barZimis pereqeli (patara dafarna) gviCvenebs venaxs, sadac ylortebisa da mtevnebis simravle erT mtevnad Sekrebil-gansrulebul barZimSi Casawurad aris gamzadebuli, rogorc molodini uflis jvarcmisa da aRTqma msxverplad gaRebuli sisxlisa; ana xanumis did dafarnaze ki, romelic liturgiaSi erTianad faravda msxverpls, ukve mTeli sivrciT gaSlila golgoTis xati, sadac mewamulis fonze golgoTis jvars gamouRia mkvdreTiT aRdgomis venaxi, romlis rtoebi, rogorc samoTxis talaveri, srulad moicavs mTel samsxverplo sivrces. gamorCeulia daviT qsnis erisTavis dedis – qeTevanis– kretsabmeli sionis taZrisaTvis. es brwyinvale naqargoba kvadratuli formiT TavisTavad samoTxis niSania. mis centrSi amosula xe sicocxlisa, romelic gacxadebulia, rogorc vazi – mcenareTagan upiratesi... magram aq vazi kidev ufro konkretdeba – igi warmogvidgeba, rogorc ieses xe – xe uflis gankacebis genealogiisa, rac amasTanave RvTismSoblis didebacaa. da rodesac sionis sameufo kari iketeboda, ibeWdeboda kretsabmeliT, viTarca uflis saflavi lodiT, mkvdreTiT aRdgomis molodinSi igive kretsabmeli anugeSebda qristians gankacebis uqceveli da ucvalebeli saxierebiT. gadauWarbeblad SeiZleba iTqvas, rom saeklesio naqargoba, sadac saocari sifaqiziT aisaxa vazis kulti da gansakuTrebiT `iyara vazma ylorti~, tols ar udebs xelovnebis sxva dargebs.

31

boloTqma
qriste – sicocxlis xe – venaxi – qarTuli kulturis umtkicesi safuZvelia. amitom bunebrivia, rom igi iyo Cveni xelovnebis Taviseburi dvrita drosa da sivrceSi; magram XVIII-XIX saukuneTa mijnaze, saqarTvelos saxelmwifoebriobisa da saeklesio TviTmmarTvelobis dakargvis Semdgom, kulturuli fuZe-paradigma gansacdelSi aRmoCnda; qveyanaSi erTdroulad SemoJona sxvadasxva msoflmxedvelobiT-msoflSegrZnebiTma novaciebma, rac sulieri `imunitetis~ daqveiTebis gamo safrTxes qmnida. bunebrivia, am pirobebSi eris TviTgadarCenis erT-erTi garanti da gamoxatuleba isev vazis kulturis Rrma saxeobriv-simboluri arsi gaxda. igi axali ZaliT Tavs iCens saflavis qvebSi, sadac gardasul qarTvelTa xatebani saiqiosa da saaqaos zRvarze sakuTari SesandobariT Seaxseneben cocxlad darCenilebs wuTisoflis amaoebas da zesTasoflis ucvaleblobas, riTac arapirdapirad mouwodeben sinanulisa da mitevebis qristianuli gzisaken. sulierebis am naivur nakadSic ki gacxadebulia, rom eklesia da vazi qarTvelisaTvis urTierTganuyofelia. am elementarulma WeSmaritebam, bunebrivia, gansakuTrebiT iCina Tavi genialuri firosmanis SemoqmedebaSi – igi kulturaTa didi gzagasayaris (Tu gzaSesayaris) centrSi aRmoCnda – da sakvirveli ZaliT moicva marTlac rom mTeli civilizebuli samyaros sulieri praqtika uZvelesi Sumeridan avangardis CaTvliT. firosmanis samyaro suraTisa da xatis Serwymaa, sofliurisa da zeciuris erTobaa. misi samyaros sivrceSi Rvino da puri sakralurobamde misuli mowiwebulobiT gamoisaxeba, xolo sufris yoveli elementi TiTqos saRvTo Sesaqmiseuli SeubRalavi pirvelqmnadobiT sunTqavs. firosmanis sufris scenebi ieratiulobiTa da uryevobiT Segvaxsenebs, rom uZvelesi tradiciebis mqone qarTuli lxini fesvebiT saRvTo Jamiswirvidan modis da Jamiswirviseuli uxilavi zeimiT gamsWvalula. xolo firosmanis rTvelis suraTebi marTlac rom kacis amqveyniuri cxovrebis monumenturi panoebia. aq rTvels utvirTavs adamianis – Semoqmedis gvirgvinis – sofliuri qmedebis mTeli siRrme, rodesac awmyoseul sicxadeSi erTiandeba da ikribeba samyaros sawyisica da boloc. aq gacxadebulia qarTvelTa `georgianulobis~, anu miwismoqmedobis uflismieri niWi da movaleoba, risi simboloc, bunebrivia, venaxi gamxdara. gansakuTrebuli sazrisis mqonea `glexis qali biWiT~. deda – mSvidi da maradiuli, yrma – misken mswrafi da mavedrebeli – egebeba dedisgan miwvdil mtevans; es ubralo adamianuri siTbos gamomxatveli suraTi iveriis mkvidri qarTvelisaTvis siRrmiseulad aRqmaa RvTis dedis mier mowvdili mtevnisa, romelic saxarebiseul enaze ieso qristea – WeSmariti sicocxlis xe, sveticxovlis kedelze rom xarobs ager ukve meramdene saukunea. dabolos, xati `Sen xar venaxi~ – sadac zeciur venaxs – RvTismSobels – upyria kacobriobisaTvis Sewiruli Ze-tarigi... dedisa da Svilis es yovladwminda erToba gamouxatavs mtevans, romlidanac momdinare ukvdavebisa da kurnebis mironi, rogorc WeSmarit sicocxlis xesTan mimyvanebeli madli, efineba saqarTvelos.

asmaT oqropiriZe

vazi – sicocxlis xe

meore werili

eldar nadiraZe

eTnografiuli mimoxilva
mevenaxeoba-meRvineobis dargis ganviTarebas Cven gvsurs SevxedoT yvelaze farTo gagebiT, misi praqtikuli sicocxlisunarianobis ilustrirebiT, masTan dakavSirebuli esTetikuri Rirebulebebis warmoCeniT. erovnuli kultura iqmneba maSin, roca mis SeqmnaSi mTeli xalxi monawileobs; amitom ganviTarebul mevenaxeoba-meRvineobaze maSin iqneba saubari damajerebeli, Tu naTelvyofT, ramdenad aqvs SeTvisebuli xalxs masTan dakavSirebuli sawarmoo Cveva-gamocdilebani da ramdenadaa mis sulSi, mis yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi es yovelive gamjdari; rogori asaxva hpova vazisa da Rvinisadmi damokidebulebam sayofacxovrebo urTierTobaSi, zneobriv-religiur wes-CveulebaTa CamoyalibebaSi, folklorSi, poeziaSi, arqiteqturasa da zogadad erovnuli mentalitetis gansazRvraSi. kaxeTSi uTqvamT: `dedamiwaze xalxi rom gaCnda, meufem xalxs vazic moayolao~. am xalxur TqmaSi uTuod gamosWvivis gonieri adamianis Camoyalibebis gzaze vazisa da Rvinis gansakuTrebuli daniSnuleba; TiTqos vazi iyos niSansveti am umniSvnelovanesi procesisa; TiTqos vazTan damokidebulebam aqcia kaci namdvil adamianad da mis kulturul Tu esTetikur aRmasvlas am momentidan daedo safuZveli. saqarTveloSi vazis movlis uZvelesi tradiciebi arsebobs, rasac mdidari arqeologiuri masalac adasturebs. saqarTvelos saxelmwifo muzeumSi daculia specialurad vazis movlisaTvis gankuTvnili Sromis iaraRebi: irmis rqisagan da

32

vazi – sicocxlis xe

33 qvisagan gakeTebuli waldebi da sasxlavebi, brinjaos danebi, romlebic C.w.aR-iT II saukunes ganekuTvneba. am periodSi sasxlavi danebis arseboba migviTiTebs rogorc mevenaxeobaSi daspecialebis Sedegze, aseve am dargis mosaxleobisaTvis sasicocxlo mniSvnelobaze.
eldar nadiraZe

venaxi
eTnografiuli mimoxilva

venaxs da venaxis samuSaoebs qarTveli kacisaTvis gacilebiT didi mniSvneloba hqonda, vidre soflis meurneobis sxva nebismier saqmianobas, qarTveli mevenaxe venaxSi ufro met dros atarebda, vidre ojaxSi an sadme sxvagan erTad aRebuls. amitom SemoRobil venaxs, garda venaxisa, misTvis sxva samyaros saxec hqonda SenivTebuli; mixuravda venaxSi Sesuli glexkaci WiSkars da rCeboda Tavis Seqmnil samyaroSi. venaxis TavSi patara farduli hqonda gamarTuli, sadac kasrebi edga, fardulis kedelze daxarisxebulad ekida venaxis samagrebi: sari, Wigo, xardani; iqve axlos – savaze (morkaluli dana), patara xerxi, makrateli, waldi, burWuli. fardulSive elaga didi bari, godrebi da kalaTebi, venaxis SesasvlelSi xasxasa moli iyo – rTvelis dros godrebis Camosadgmelad; venaxis gaswvriv – kaklebi, SigadaSig – qliavi da samaiso bali, Tavad venaxSi ki mxolod da mxolod atami, radgan atams wvrili foTlebi aqvs da vazs ar vnebs. saqarTvelos mevenaxeobaze dakvirvebul rogorc qarTvel, aseve ucxoel avtorebs, SeniSnuli aqvT, rom qarTvel meurnes wesad hqonda sakarmidamo mamulSi ramdenime jiSis venaxis gaSeneba im varaudiT, rom, Tu uamindoba erTi jiSis vazs daazianebda, sxva jiSi gadarCeboda da ojaxi sul uRvinod ar darCeboda, rac yovelTvis did danaklisad aRiqmeboda. bunebrivia, praqtikuli mosazrebidan gamomdinare, glexs orientacia yvelaze gamocdil da misadagebul jiSebze hqonda aRebuli. zogadad ki vazis jiSebis gamoyvanaSi siaxlis grZnoba da Sejvarebis udidesi enTuziazmi mas arasdros daukargavs.

rTveli
mevenaxeobaSi yvelaze did dResaswaulad rTveli iTvleba. sagulisxmoa, rom saqarTveloSi rTvelisa da Rvinis dayenebis Tveebi `sTvlisa~ da `RvinobisTvis~ saxelwodebebs atareben. didi venaxebis anu zvrebis meTvalyures ewodeboda mezvre, yurZnis mkrefels – mesTvle, Rvinis dayenebaze pasuxismgebels – memarne, Rvinis saxmarad gamcems – meRvine, sufraze mimtans – meriqife da Camomsxmels – mwde. rogorc cnobilia, venaxi erTbaSad mwifdeba, amitom yurZnis dakrefa SemWidroebul vadebSi unda moxdes, risTvisac Sromis organizaciis eqstremaluri pirobebia saWiro. feodalTa venaxebSi yurZnis krefa Cveulebriv

34

glexebs evalebodaT, zvris mepatronis valdebuleba ki rTvelis Semdeg maTi gamaspinZleba iyo. me-17 saukunis sabuTidan Cans, rom qvemo qarTlis erT-erTi samefo zvris mesTvleTa raodenoba as kacs Seadgenda. rac Seexeba Tavad glexTa zvrebs, aq uZvelesi droidan miRebuli iyo koleqtiuri Sromis organizaciis formebi – `nadi~ da `oCxari~, romlebic SesaniSnavad iyo organizebuli da sameurneo saqmianobis Sesrulebis paralelurad saerTo-saxalxo dResaswaulad iqceoda xolme. warmatebuli rTveli ojaxis keTildReobisa da baraqianobis ganmsazRvrelad iTvleboda, amitom ojaxi im dRisaTvis sagangebod emzadeboda. sufTavdeboda, SekeTdeboda an xelaxla iwneboda godor-kalaTebi, irecxeboda qvevrebi; ojaxi sufris gasaSleladac emzadeboda, raTa pativiscemiT gaestumrebina mesTvleni. yurZnis mokrefis dros ZiriTadad gamoiyeneboda wnuli WurWeli, romlis keTebis tradicia uZvelesi droidan iRebs saTaves da dResac sicocxlisunariania. saqarTvelos sxvadasxva tipis saglexo bazrobebze xSirad SexvdebiT wnuli WurWlis SesaniSnav nimuSebs, romlebic ama Tu im kuTxisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli TviTmyofadobiT gamoirCeva. wvnis teqnika adamianma, maT Soris Cvenma winaparmac, preistoriul epoqaSi aiTvisa, SesaZloa – ufro adre, vidre meTuneoba. zogierTi mecnieris mosazrebiT, praqtikulma gamocdilebam aiZula meurne, cecxlTan axlomyofi wnuli WurWeli rom ar damwvariyo, TixiT Seelesa, ramac igi meTuneobis gamogonebis gzaze daayena. qarTveli leqsikografi, saba orbeliani, wnuli WurWlis or saxeobas gamoyofs – sfiradsa da Saraguls, romelTagan pirvelSi igulisxmeba balaxeuli mcenareulobisagan usayrdenod moqsovili WurWeli, xolo meoreSi – wnelisa da tkeCisagan mownuli, sayrdeniani. wnuli WurWlis zogierTi nimuSi imdenad daxvewilia, rom mas naqsovis faqtura aqvs miniWebuli da teqnikuri procesic qsovadaa saxeldebuli. sawnel da saqsov masalad saukeTesod iyo miCneuli tirifis nairsaxeobani, Txili, Txmela, uzani, Svindi, aryi, circeli, SoTxvi da sxva. rTvelis dros mkrefavebi xmarobdnen patara kalaTebs, romliTac iolad gadaadgildebodnen SarebSi. kalaTebidan yurZens venaxis TavSi Camwkrivebul godrebSi yridnen an uremze gamarTul mownul jinebSi, romelSic 7-10 godori yurZeni eteoda (mownuli WurWeli mtevans ar laxavs da kargad inaxavs dawurvamde, radgan masSi haeri mudam moZraobs). uaRresad sainteresoa wnuli WurWlis erTob daxvewili nimuSi – gideli, romelic gamoiyeneboda xeze asuli vazis dasakrefad. gidels aqvs konusuri Ziri, romlis meSveobiTac igi advilad ikvlevs gzas foTlebsa da StoebSi da eSveba miwaze, sadac mas sawnaxelSi gadaclian. yurZens Wrian specialuri danebiTa da makratlebiT, zogierTi jiSi ki Tavisi myife muxlis gamo iolad ikrifeba xeliTac. arsebobs uZvelesi droidan dRemde SemorCenili Sexeduleba, rom zogierTi jiSis yurZenze `dana ar miitaneba~. magaliTad, saferavi saziarebeli yurZenia, misgan dawuruli Rvino qristianul liturgiaSi gamoiyeneboda, amitom igi sakralurad iyo miCneuli da misi daniT Sexeba ikrZaleboda.

vazi – sicocxlis xe

35 rTvelis damTavrebis dros venaxSi lamazsa da jansaR qals gadaagorebdnen baraqiani da janmrTeli wlis dabevebis mizniT. am sasacilo process enacvleboda didi sazeimo sufra, Tanmxlebi Sromis simRerebiT (saqarTveloSi dRemde venaxTan dakavSirebuli mravali Sromis simReraa SemorCenili).
eldar nadiraZe

marani
eTnografiuli mimoxilva

qarTveli kacis sakarmidamo kompleqsSi venaxTan erTad maransac ornairi daniSnuleba hqonda: rogorc praqtikuli, aseve sakraluri. marans Zvel qarTulSi ewodeboda `Rvinis saxli~ da igi warmoadgenda mTel kompleqss, sadac Rvinis warmoebis procesi mimdinareobda – yurZnis dawurvidan dawyebuli, Rvinis saboloo gafiltvramde da misTvis mosaxmari funqciis miniWebamde. 864 wels gadaweril sinur saxarebaSi marani naxsenebia, rogorc Rvinis SenaxvisaTvis gankuTvnili nageboba. es funqcia mas dRemde ar daukargavs. saqarTvelos bunebrivma pirobebma ganapiroba marnebis Taviseburebani. aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi gabatonebuli SedarebiT cxeli havis gamo marnebi daxurul nagebobebs warmoadgenda. zogjer am tipis, qviTkiriT naSeni, marani sacxovrebel saxls ebjineboda, zogjer ki damoukidebel nagebobas warmoadgenda. didad iyo gavrcelebuli sacxovrebeli saxlis sardafebSi ganTavsebuli marnebic. dasavleT saqarTveloSi tipuri marani Ria nagebobaa, romlis sami kedeli gadaxurulia, xolo win Riaa da cis qveS, gadauxuravSi, sxvadasxva moculobis Wurebia Cayrili. Zvelad marnebi cixe-saxlebisTvis SeufarebiaT, mtrisagan rom yofiliyo daculi. aseTi marnebi or nawiladaa gayofili: erTSi yurZnis saWyleti saSualebania ganTavsebuli, xolo meoreSi – qvevrebi. am tipis marnebSi xSirad vxvdebiT dedaboZsac – sacxovrebeli saxlis mTavar sayrdens, romelsac praqtikuli daniSnulebis garda, Rrma simboluri datvirTvac gaaCnia. qarTlur da kaxur qviTkiris marnebSi xSirad vxvdebiT wiTeli aguriT gamoyvanil aRmosavluri tipis TaRian niSebs sxvadasxva saxis sawyaoebisa da Rvinis dayenebasTan dakavSirebuli sameurneo nivTebis dasalageblad. meRvineobiT ganTqmul soflebSi – zemo xodaSenSi, xaSmSi, ruispirSi – saTofurebiani marnebia dadasturebuli, rac metyvelebs marnis sxvagvari, rogorc TavdacviTi nagebobis, daniSnulebiT gamoyenebazec. qarTuli marnebis xuroTmoZRvrebaSi aSkarad SeiniSneba sacxovrebeli saxlis elementebi, rac marnis mimarT gansakuTrebul damokidebulebaze migviTiTebs. TavisTavad marnisaTvis `Rvinis saxlis~ darqmevac ganmartebis SesaniSnav safuZels iZleva: adamianis garda, saxli hqonia Rvinosac; igi imdenad dafasebulia, rom aseTi didi pativi daimsaxura. amierkavkasiaSi uZvelesi marnebi urartus teritoriazea aRmoCenili. zogierT maTganSi arqeologebma asamde qvevri daTvales. elinisturi xanis marnebi aRmoCnda oqromravali kolxeTis umdidres qalaq vanSi, aseve iberiis dedaqalaq mcxeTaSi, sadac erT-erT maranSi 5500 dekalitri tevadobis

qvevrebs miakvlies. qvevrSi Camxmari siTxis analizma gamoaaSkarava, rom masSi odesRac saferavis tipis Rvino mdgara. ukanasknel xans iSviaTi konstruqciis marnebi aRmoCnda meRvineobiT ganTqmul kaxeTSi – nekresis erT-erTi nasaxlaris gaTxrisas. sainteresoa, rom Suafeodaluri xanis kldeSi nakveT qalaq varZiaSi 25 marania dafiqsirebuli 200-mde qvevriT. Suafeodaluri xanis marnebis aseTi simravle aSkarad metyvelebs, rom am epoqis saqarTvelos ekonomikuri siZlieris erT-erT ZiriTad wyaros ganviTarebuli mevenaxeoba-meRvineoba warmoadgenda.

sawnaxeli
imis saCveneblad, rom meRvineoba uZvelesi dargia, didi mniSvneloba eniWeba am procesTan dakavSirebuli sameurneo WurWlis mimoxilvas. am mxriv gansakuTrebul yuradRebas iqcevs yurZnis dasaWylet-dasamuSavebeli nivTi, romelsac sawnaxeli ewodeba. sityva `sawnaxelSi~ faqtobrivad gamoxatulia moqmedeba, romelic yurZnis Wyletvasa da wnexvas gulisxmobs. preistoriul adamians yurZeni xeliT unda daewura. sagulisxmoa, rom Zvel saqarTveloSi scodniaT yurZnis dawurva tyavze, godorSi, varclze, selis tomrebSi, magram ganviTarebuli da maRali meurneobis maCvenebeli swored sawnaxelia, romlis uZvelesi nimuSebi kldeebSia amokveTili da IV aTaswleuliT TariRdeba. aseTi kldeSi amokveTili sawnaxlebi amJamadac dasturdeba saqarTveloSi – ufliscixeSi, varZiaSi, garejSi, nekresSi da sxvagan. maTi gamoyenebis praqtikaca da damuSavebis xelovnebac maRali sameurneo donis maCvenebelia. sawnaxlis meore tipi – kirxsnariT agebuli sawnaxeli – uaRresad gavrcelebuli iyo saqarTvelos yvela kuTxeSi, gansakuTrebiT ki qarTlsa da kaxeTSi. aseTi sawnaxeli zogjer orad iyo gayofili, erT ganyofilebaSi iyreboda Savi yurZeni, xolo meoreSi – TeTri. orive nawils cal-calke hqonda wvenis gamosavali. kirxsnariT agebuli sawnaxlebi masStaburi sameurneo procesebisaTvis iyo gaTvaliswinebuli da didi feodaluri marnebisaTvis gaxldaT damaxasiaTebeli. mesame tipis, yvelaze gavrcelebuli, sawnaxeli aris xis. igi Tavisi mravalferovani variaciebiT saqarTvelos yvela kuTxis meRvineobaSia miRebuli. xis sawnaxeli erTi iSviaTi nivTTagani iyo ojaxisaTvis da mas zogan `saganZursac~ uwodebdnen, rogorc Zvirfasisa da mniSvnelovanis aRmniSvnels. sawnaxlis ostatebi amJamadac arian xe-tyiT mdidar regionebSi. maTi xeloba sicocxlisunariania, radgan xis sawnaxeli garegnuladac lamazia da praqtikuladac ufro gamosadegi dRevandel zvarSemcirebul saqarTvelos kerZo meurneobebSi. saukeTeso sasawnaxle xed miCneulia cacxvi. sasawnaxle cacxvs xelosani winaswar igulebs tyeSi, zamTris dasawyisSi moWris da erT wlamde adgilzeve tovebs, mere eCoebiT uReben guls, ukeTeben indurs (mils) da ramdenime wyvili xariT miaqvT saxlSi. sawnaxeli maranSi idgmeba yvelaze myudro adgilas, xis an qvis sadgarebze; bolo imdenze aqvs aweuli, rom wveni Tavisuflad daeSvas gamosavali indurisaken. sawnaxelSi yurZens tkepnian xis Tavga-

36

vazi – sicocxlis xe

37 nieri uroTi an didi zomis kvaxiT. Semdeg mwuravebi SiSveli fexebiT frTxilad dauvlian mTel masas da maqsimalurad datkepnian yurZens im mizniT, rom sawnaxlidan yurZnis wveni uCenCod da uwipwod gamovides. fskerze yurZnis Cayramde afendnen wnelisagan dawnul Celts, am Celtze ki mcenare Cadunas – Cadis foTlebs alagebdnen. zedmeti foTlebi zogjer Rvinos specifikur gemosac aZlevda, aqedan modis gamoTqma – `Cadis gemo~. Caduniani lasti Taviseburi saceris rols asrulebda. wvenis udanakargod miRebisaTvis saqarTveloSi uZvelesi droidanve gamoiyeneboda WaWis sawnexi wber-saqajavebi, romelTa erT-erT variants Waxraki erqva. mis farTod gavrcelebaze mxolod sinonimuri masalaRa mowmobs, romelic am sameurneo iaraRis saxelSia gamoxatuli: saqajavi, saqaCveli, wberi, sanberavi, Waxraki, xarxini da sxva. wberis qvebi yvelgan dasturdeba, sadac ki meRvineoba iyo gavrcelebuli, dResdReobiT es nivTi aRar gamoiyeneba. am arcTu martivi sameurneo manqanis gamarTva da gamoyeneba ukve aRar ZaluZs dRevandel glexkacs.
eldar nadiraZe

eTnografiuli mimoxilva

qvevri – Wuri
Rvinis daduRebisa da Senaxvis praqtikaSi udidesi mniSvneloba eniWeboda Tixis qvevrebsa da Wurebs, romlebic Seucvleli WurWeli iyo yvela epoqis meRvineobisaTvis. Wuris moxsenieba maranTan erTad – Wur-marani – TavisTavad gvixasiaTebs am WurWlis udides mniSvnelobas. Wurebis damzadebis xelosnuri tradiciebi mudam maRal doneze iyo CvenSi. maTTvis vargisi Tixa saqarTveloSi TiTqmis yvelgan moipoveboda, magram yvelaze ganTqmuli centrebi Camoyalibda: imereTSi – Cxirauli, navarZeTi, boslevi, SroSa; qarTlSi – cxavati, unlevi, mejvrisxevi; guriaSi – akeTi, axana; leCxumSi – saime, zubi, ofitara; samegreloSi – muxuri, kvari, WkaduaSi, korcxeli da sxv. am centrebSi dRemdea SesaZlebeli Wur-qvevrebis damzadebis Sesaxeb srulyofili eTnografiuli masalis moZieba. Wurebi sididis mixedviT xarisxdebian: didi Wuri, lagva – saSualo Wuri da maTze patarebi – qvevra, qoco, laxuti, yvibari da sxv. Wuris maranSi Cagdebisas icodnen misi kir-xsnariT da qvebiT dakirva, romelic gamZleobasac aZlevda mas da agreTve zedmeti tenisagan icavda. miRebuli wesi iyo Wuris gasanTvlac. Wurebis sarecxad iyenebdnen grZel tarze wamocmul blis kanebis mravalfenian sarcxebs, xolo Casaval WurebSi – aseTive masalisagan damzadebul mokletarianebs. Cveulebriv, didi Wurebis gasarecxad gamoiyeneboda erT konad Sekruli da morkaluli krazanas cocxebi. Wuris karg gasufTavebas didi mniSvneloba hqonda, radgan pirdapir Rvinis gemosa da xarisxze aisaxeboda, recxva grZeldeboda manam, sanam narecxi wyali Tixisferi ar gaxdeboda. imereTSi, sadac marani TiTqmis Ria cis qveSaa ganlagebuli, Wuri zemodan igliseboda kargad damuSavebuli da dazelili Tixa-miwisagan, raTa masSi wvima ar Casuliyo. aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi, sadac Rvinos wvimis saSiSroeba

ar emuqreboda, qvevrs sip qvas adebdnen zemodan, mere naWers an sufTa tyavs gadaafarebdnen da miwas miayridnen. mSral adgilebSi, rogorc wesi, icodnen Wuris talaxiT dagozva. daglesili da Tavdaxuruli Wuri droTa ganmavlobaSi sul aRar Canda miwis pirze. misi samyofeli mxolod patronma icoda, ganZiviT iyo Senaxuli, uzarmazar sikeTes inaxavda da Tavis Jams eloda. egviptidan saberZneTs mimavalma qsenofontem Tavisi laSqriT mosinikebis miwaze gaiara, sadac Tavdaglesili Wurebi unaxavs. qarTveluri modgmis tomebi mamacurad xvdebodnen moZalade berZnebs, magram Tu isini wesierad moiqceodnen, miwaSi damalul Rvinosac sTavazobdnen, rac maT samarTlian gakvirvebas iwvevda, radgan Rvinis Senaxvis aseTi wesi berZnebisaTvis sruliad ucxo yofila. saerTod, qvevrebSi Casxmuli Rvino saukeTesod inarCunebs Tvisebebs, kargad sunTqavs, Tanabari temperaturis pirobebSia da amave dros daculia arakeTilmosurne pirisagan – mteri iqneba igi Tu ubralod qurdbacaca. msoflios Rvinis warmoebis praqtikaSi amJamad Wuri arsad ar gamoiyeneba, amave dros saqarTvelo rCeba erTaderT qveynad, sadac meTuneobis am unikums axlac amzadeben.

orSimo – kope
Wuridan Rvinis amosaRebad tradiciulad iyenebdnen da dResac iyeneben mware kvaxisagan gakeTebul orSimos. am mcenares sagangebod Tesaven. misi grZeli bardi xeze adis da sxvadasxva sididis nayofs isxams. Semodgomaze dasrulebul kvaxs wyveten, axmoben, yels umokleben, Suaguls asufTaveben, xarSaven, rom simware dakargos da Semdeg ukeTeben tars. Wuridan Rvinis amosaRebad ufro moxerxebuli da bunebrivi WurWeli ar arsebobs. orSimoebi aris sul patarebi – 0,5-litrianebi, romlebic gamoiyeneba qvevridan Rvinis narCenebis amosawurad, da didebic – xuTlitrianebi. SeiZleba, ufro didi zomisac Segvxvdes, magram aseTi orSimo Zneli mosaxmaria da metismeti simZimisagan male ziandeba. iolad Casawvdom WurSi iyeneben grZelyelian utaro orSimos. orSimos garda, guriaSi Rvinis amosaRebad xmaroben kopebsac, aseve mware kvaxis WurWels; oRond orSimosagan gansxvavebiT, mas tari gverdidan aqvs gayrili. Wuridan Rvinis amoReba – es Taviseburi ritualia, gulisyuriT da sifrTxiliT aRsavse. jer miwa gadaiwmindeba ToxiT, Semdeg gadacocxaven gulmodgined, momxdeli xis bars daasvelebs sufTa wyalSi da wriulad, Wuris farflis diametrze, SemoWris ayalo miwas. ayalos qveS gamoCndeba xis badimebi, romlebsac gawmenden, rom miwis patara sorsolac ar moxvdes WurSi, mere frTxilad moxdian da gamoCndeba Rvinis gasarkuli zedapiri, amoiReben sufTa WiqiT, gaxedaven – fers Seumowmeben, daaWaSnikeben – gemos gaugeben, dalocaven gamCens da daleven.

38

vazi – sicocxlis xe

39

mevenaxis stumarTmoyvareoba
RviniT savse da movlili Wuri aris jildo da gvirgvini mevenaxe kacisTvis, romelmac es yovelive mTeli wlis muxlCauxreli Sromis safasurad miiRo. axla ki dgeba dro, roca mas sxvam unda dauWaSnikos Rvino da Seuqos. Tu aseTi adamiani mevenaxes gverdiT ar hyavs, maSin Tavs ubedurad grZnobs. stumarTmoyvareobis uZvelesi qarTuli tradicia qristianuli sarwmunoebis moralma kidev ufro gaaRrmava. stumari saqarTveloSi lamis RvTaebis rangSi aiyvanes; yvelaferi saukeTeso, rac ki qarTvels gaaCnda, stumrisaTvis hqonda gadanaxuli, raSiac savsebiT samarTlianad misi siamayis paTosic ikiTxeba. ucxoel mkvlevarTa da mogzaurTa umravlesoba, vinc ki qarTvelis zneCveulebebs dahkvirvebia, mis erT-erT mniSvnelovan Tvisebad siamayes miiCnevs. es Tviseba dadebiTi da Sesamkobelia adamianisaTvis erTi pirobiT, Tu igi Sromis sidiadezea damyarebuli. uamisod siamaye ampartavnebad iqceva, erT-erT yvelaze did codvad qristianisaTvis. vfiqrobT, vazisa da xorblis kulturis daxvewis saukunovan procesebSi monawileobam Camouyaliba qarTvels is siamaye, romelic radikalurad dacilebulia gulzviadobas. samarTliani iqneba, aseT xasiaTSi dagvenaxa qmnadobisa da masSi Cadebuli gonierebis sxvaTaTvis ziarebis survili, rac kidev ufro aRrmavebs adamianuri urTierTobis uZvirfasesi grZnobis – stumarTmoyvareobis – sidiades. niSandoblivia, rom tradiciuli qarTvelis xasiaTi gansakuTrebiT venaxTan da vazTan mimarTebaSi ikveTeboda. ojaxSi stumrad misuls pirvelad venaxs daaTvalierebinebdnen da mere maranSi daaWaSnikebinebdnen Rvinos. mcnebad iyo miRebuli, kargi venaxis patroni SeZlebul kacad mieRoT da misi Rirseba eRiarebinaT. marani iyo mamakacTa mcire wrisaTvis Sesakrebi adgili. iq iRebdnen da umaspinZldebodnen sapatio stumars.

eldar nadiraZe

eTnografiuli mimoxilva

ritualebi
maranSi, rogorc wminda adgilas, wesad iyo miRebuli saritualo qmedebis Catareba, romelic ZiriTadad gamravlebisa da baraqianobis dabevebis mizniT sruldeboda. italieli kaTolike misioneris, arqanjelo lambertis cnobiT, dasavleT saqarTveloSi arcTu iSviaTad maranSi imarTeboda qorwili, xolo frangi mogzauri Sardeni maranSi bavSvTa naTlobis wessac adasturebs, rac iSviaTi SemTxveva unda iyos qristianuli liturgiis istoriaSi. guriis soflebSi bolo dromde SemorCa ritualuri dResaswauli – kalandoba, romelic axal wels sruldeboda. am dRisaTvis ojaxi sagangebod emzadeboda: saukeTeso fqvilisagan acxobdnen saritualo kverebs, romelTagan zogi Zroxis curis formisa iyo, zogi ki mtevnebisa da vazisa. ojaxis ufrosi did xonCaze Roris Tavs dadebda, garSemo gamomcxvar purebsa da tkbileuls Semouwyobda, zed sanTlebs aanTebda da mTeli ojaxis TanxlebiT maranSi

Sevidoda, gobs samjer waRma Semoatrialebda da dailoceboda, Semdeg Wurs moxdida, Rvinos amoiRebda da RmerTs baraqianobas SesTxovda. yvelani sawnaxelTan Camwkrivdebodnen, xelSi marnis iaraRebs aiRebdnen, sawnaxelze urtyamdnen da Rvinis RvTaebas – agunas – TxovniT mimarTavdnen, yurZnis didi mosavali mieca. aseve ritualuri iyo venaxisaTvis axali wlis milocva. venaxSi gahqondaT kverebi da muSa vazze dartymiT texdnen, mere klavdnen qaTams da sisxls venaxs moasxurebdnen. Tan RmerTs baraqianobas SesTxovdnen. uaRresad gavrcelebuli iyo venaxSi cecxlis danTeba da did xuTSabaTs askilisa da Telis totebiT venaxis morTva, venaxis darkinva galesili namgliT da nakurTxi wylis mosxureba eSmakiseuli Zalebis gandevnis mizniT. aseTi iracionalur -religiuri wesebis paralelurad damkvidrebuli iyo aRkveTebi, romelTac praqtikuli datvirTva gaaCndaT. magaliTad, maisSi, 10-15 dRis ganmavlobaSi, roca vazi yvavilobs, venaxSi Sesvla akrZaluli iyo, xolo fericvalebamde yurZnis Wama ar SeiZleboda misi ekonomiis mizniT da a.S.

saeklesio Rvino
uaRresad sainteresoa salocavisaTvis yurZnisa da Rvinis Sewirvis wesebi, romelic TiTqmis mTel saqarTveloSi sruldeboda. erTi aseTi wesi iyo rTvelis dros saukeTeso yurZenmosxmuli lerwis aWra da salocavisaTvis mirTmeva. am ritualSi pirvelnayofis Sewirvis uZvelesi tradiciaa areklili. Tu mosavali ar movidoda, maSin venaxs lerwebs aWridnen, erT konad Sekravdnen, WurSi Cakidebdnen da daTqmul dResaswaulze salocavis karze miitandnen Rvinis magier. rac Seexeba Rvinis zedaSis Sewirvis faqts – esaa warmarTuli epoqis uZvelesi wesi, romelSic aSkaradaa gamoxatuli Rvinis kulti. zedaSe anu saeklesio Rvino eklesiasa da xats ewireboda avadmyofobisagan Tavis daxsnis, mfarvelobis, gamravlebisa da baraqianobis moniWebis mizniT. adamianebs swamdaT, rom amgvarad SeTqmuli wminda Rvino xatis keTilganwyobas gamoiwvevda. sazedaSe Rvino sxvadasxva dResaswaulebisa da sxvadasxva wmindanTa saxelze iyo Senaxuli; aseT Wurebs saxelebic ki erqva. mag.: saRmrTo, saangelozo, sagiorgiwmindao, samariamobo, saxato, sapurSao, sakalando, saaxalwlo. zedaSe marnis WurebSi isxmeboda, magram zogjer misTvis aSenebdnen calke nagebobas, rac wminda adgilad iyo Seracxuli. samegreloSi aseT nagebobas `oxvameri~ erqva. sazedaSe Rvino, rogorc aRiniSna, saukeTeso xarisxisa unda yofiliyo, ZiriTadad ayenebdnen TeTri ferisas, romelsac ukve dawmendils Caasxamdnen wmindanis saxelobis WurebSi da sanam daTqmuli dResaswauli ar movidoda, Wuri ar ixsneboda. sagulisxmoa, rom aseTi Rvinis amosaRebad arsebobda sagangebo, sazedaSe orSimo, romelsac sxva RvinisTvis ar iyenebdnen. zedaSes kulti saqarTvelos mTianeTis im nawilSic iyo Sesuli, sadac vazi ar xarobda. es kargad Cans kavkasionis uZvelesi tomis – xevsureTis – ma-

40

vazi – sicocxlis xe

41 galiTze: isini barSi Camodiodnen da TavianTi salocavebis saxelze (iaxsari, kopala, laSaris jvari, gudanis jvari) ibevebdnen venaxebis wlis mosavals. venaxis patroni valdebuli iyo, gaemzadebina sazedaSe Rvino daTqmuli droisaTvis. marani da Wuri maTTvis winaswar iyo cnobili. dResaswaulis dadgomisas xevsurebi TavianTi droSebiT, samsxverplo cxovelebiT Cadiodnen barSi, sazedaSo marans gars Semouvlidnen, samsxverplo cxovelis sisxliT ganaTlavdnen, erTmaneTs dResaswauls miulocavdnen, axsenebdnen micvalebulebs da xats simrTelesa da gamarjvebas SesTxovdnen. sazedaSe Rvinos ayenebda rogorc kerZo piri, aseve mTeli ubani an mTeli sofeli erTad. aseTi marnebi gamarTuli iyo salocavis galavanSi; masSi isxmeboda xatis zvrisagan moweuli mosavali, romelsac garkveuli niSniT gaerTianebuli jgufi erToblivad amuSavebda. is, rac sazedaSed iyo gankuTvnili, sagangebo WurSi isxmeboda, xolo zedmet produqts erTmaneTSi iyofdnen an raime sazogado saqmisTvis iyenebdnen. sazedaSe Rvino Sedioda eklesia-monastrebSic im saaRape valdebulebis aRsasruleblad, romlis wesi da rigi qristianuli liturgiis ganuyofeli nawilia. sazedaSe qvevri samegreloSi sakralur obieqtad iyo qceuli da `samgario~ erqva. aseTi qvevris saxelze icodnen Zroxis, xbos, mamlis `dayeneba~, e.i. Sesawiravad arCeva. Sewirulebs did pativs miagebdnen, rom msxverplSewirvamde maTTvis raime ziani ar mieyenebinaT. dResaswaulze msxverpls daklavdnen. ojaxis ufrosi qali sanovagiT gaawyobda xonCas da miulocavdnen `samgario~ anu sazedaSe qvevrs. ufrosi mamakaci moxdida Wurs. yvela daiCoqebda, Semdeg aanTebdnen sanTlebs, xonCas waRma daatrialebdnen da dailocebodnen. rogorc wesi, saritualo arc Rvino da arc sanovage aravize ar gaicemoda, radgan es mxolod ojaxis keTildReobas exeboda da ucxos raime formiT am ritualSi Caziareba ojaxis damizezebas gamoiwvevda. aseTi araTu Rvino, aramed is sameurneo iaraRebic ki Tayvaniscemis obieqtad iqceodnen, romelTac sazedaSe Rvinos moxmarebisaTvis gamoiyenebdnen. sagulisxmoa, rom ritualis aRsrulebisas qals maranSi Sesvla ar SeeZlo, aseve ar hqonda Senawiravis Wamis ufleba. sxvaTa Soris, qarTul sawesCveulebo ritualebSi iSviaTia qalis rolis aseTi daknineba, rac SesaZloa aixsnas imiT, rom mevenaxeoba-meRvineoba mudam mamakacis prioritetul saqmianobas warmoadgenda.
eldar nadiraZe

eTnografiuli mimoxilva

qarTuli sufra
Rvino aris uZvirfasesi saarsebo produqti, romlis Zala kargad hqonda Secnobili muSaobiT daRlil adamians, magram mxolod fizikuri gadarCenisaTvis ar gamxdara igi aseTi mniSvnelovani. RvinoSi mudam moipoveboda sulieri aRfrTovanebisaTvis saWiro energia, amqveyniuri sixarulis mamoZravebeli Zala, romlis gareSe kaci verasdros iqneba srulyofili. amitom adamians adridanve ucdia am srulyofilebisa da sixarulis gancdisTvis raRac

vazi – sicocxlis xe

forma mieca. albaT am survilma gaamravalferovna koleqtiuri TavSeyris orgiastuli qmedebebi, romelTa nivTieri gamoxatulebis saucxoo nimuSebi arqeologiuri gaTxrebis drosaa aRmoCenili da romlis saboloo nayofs tradiciuli qarTuli sufris Camoyalibeba unda warmoadgendes. msoflioSi ar moipoveba mevenaxeoba-meRvineobiT saxelganTqmuli qveyana, romelsac nacionaluri suliskveTebiT ar hqondes gamoxatuli Rivinisadmi damokidebuleba. yvela es tradicia Tanabrad mniSvnelovani da pativsacemia. es Seexeba qarTvelebsac, romlebmac sufra – rogorc mwuxarebis, aseve mxiarulebis – sazogadoebrivi urTierTobis saukeTeso saSualebad aqcies. dRes qarTul tradiciebTan met-naklebad daaxloebul adamians Tavisi azri gaaCnia qarTuli sufris Sesaxeb da Tu es azri yovelTvis aRsafrTovanebeli araa, es savsebiT gasagebi unda iyos, radgan droTa ganmavlobaSi qarTul sufras bevri zedmeti detali SeuZenia, rac SesaZloa gaRizianebasac ki iwvevdes; magram misi arsi rom adamianuri yofierebis umaRles Rirebulebebs Seicavs, es udavoa. qarTuli sufra Tavisi aTaswlovani tradiciebiT, pirvelyovlisa, sufris wevrebs Soris amkvidrebs urTierTpativiscemasa da iseT zneobriv idealebs, rogoricaa samSoblos, winaprebis, mSoblebis siyvaruli, simReris, poeziis, vaJkacobis kulti. misi ZiriTadi laitmotivia, sulieri aRmafrenis saSualebiT adamiani gaxdes ufro kargi, vidre amJamadaa. am institutis saTaveSi mdgomi, didi uflebebiT aRWurvili, Tamada iqceva umaRles pirad, romelic ganagebs sufris wessa da rigs. me-17 saukuneSi saqarTveloSi mogzaurobda cnobili frangi iuveliri da esTeti Jan Sardeni, romelic TbilisSi mefis karze qorwils daswrebia. mis mier aRwerili ceremoniali mravalmxriv iqcevs Cvens yuradRebas, pirvel rigSi ki, qarTuli sufris mSvenierebis warmoCeniT. Sardenis sityviT, sakvirveli wesiereba igrZnoboda sufraze. `Cven aq sami evropeli viyaviT da ufro mets vxmaurobdiT, vidre yvela is asormocdaaTi kaci, romelic sefaSi iyo~. bunebrivia, evropelTa `xmaurobis~ utrireba erTgvari xerxia im araCveulebrivi organizebulobis da wesrigis Cvenebisa, rac mudam iyo damaxasiaTebeli qarTuli sufrisaTvis da rac SeumCneveli ar darCenia Sardens. frangi mogzauris am sityvebSi qarTuli sufris ZiriTadi notia dafiqsirebuli, misi mimarTulebaa amocnobili da xazgasmulia pasuxismgeblobis grZnoba, romelic Cveulebisamebr xSirad irRveva xolme RvinosTan SeWidebul adamianebs Soris.

qarTuli mevenaxeoba saqarTvelos gareT
aRmosavlur qveynebSi Tbilisis epiTetia sixarulis qalaqi, es qalaqi ki dasaxlebulia zeimisa da Rvinismoyvare xalxiT. iraneli istorikosebi yovelTvis did interess iCendnen qarTvelTa miwaTmoqmedebis saukeTeso unarebis mimarT (Sah-abasma iranis mkvdari udabnoebis gasacocxleblad 200000mde qarTveli gaasaxla, saqarTveloSi ki baR-venaxebi gaaCanaga, radgan maTSi

42

43 xedavda qarTvelTa Zlierebis safuZvels) da aRniSnavdnen, rom iranSi swored am saqmeSi daxelovnebuli qarTvelebi mihyavdaT baR-venaxTa gasamSveniereblad. pietro delavales Tavisi TvaliT unaxavs qarTveli mebaReebisagan gamSvenierebuli Sirazisa da ispahanis baRebi, xolo ingliseli jon frai sagangebod aRniSnavs, rom Sirazidan ispahanisken mimavali gzis erT did monakveTze sagangebod dausaxlebiaT qarTveli mevenaxeni, romlebsac kargad movlili zvrebi hqoniaT da maT, am saqmis garda, sxva araferi moeTxovebodaT. swored es iyo mizezi Sirazuli Rvinis saxelovnebisa mTel sparseTSi. adam olearusis cnobiT, Sirazuli RviniT ZiriTadad Sahis kari maragdeboda; Tumca iranelebs religia ukrZalavda Rvinis dalevas, magram aristokratuli fenis warmomadgenlebi, romelTa Soris bevri qarTvelic iyo, mainc ver eleodnen am RvTaebriv siTxes. qarTvelebis swrafva mevenaxeoba-meRvineobisadmi sasuliero sferoSic gamovlinda. Rvinos, rogor qristianuli liturgiisaTvis aucilebel elements, didi mniSvneloba hqonda praqtikuli TvalsazrisiTac. rogorc cnobilia, saeklesio miwaTmflobelobis sistema erTob daxvewilsa da Zlier ujreds warmoadgenda. es iyo saxelmwifos uZlieresi feodi misTvis damaxasiaTebeli struqturiT. eklesia flobda umdidres miwebs, romlis damuSavebaSi CarTuli iyo uamravi yma-glexi. Camoyalibebuli iyo mevenaxeoba-meRvineobis warmoebisa da eklesiisaTvis miwodebis formebi; mTeli es mkacrad dadgenili valdebulebani gansazRvruli iyo saxelmwifo politikiT. magram, rodesac istoriuli Znelbedobis Jams es urTierToba irRveoda da saxelmwifo veRar axerxebda Tavisi movaleobis Sesrulebas, maSin eklesia cdilobda am danaklisis asanazRaureblad sxva saSualeba gamoenaxa. bermonazvnuri avtonomiebis wigni gveubneba, rom sasuliero pirebi Tavad xdebodnen Rvinis mwarmoeblebi, rasac werilobiT wyaroebTan erTad arqeologiuri gaTxrebis Sedegad – rogorc saqarTveloSi, aseve qarTul sazRvargareTul centrebSi – mopovebuli masalac gvidasturebs. italielma virjilio korbom ierusalimSi, bir-el-kuTis gaTxrebisas miakvlia yoreebiT SemozRudul sameurneo nakveTebs, kldeSi amokveTil sawnaxlebsa da marnebs da Tavis daskvnebSi maRali Sefaseba misca qarTvel berTa sameurneo cxovrebas. Sua saukuneebSi ierusalimSi Sesulma jvarosnebma Tavad ixiles qarTvel ber-monazonTa xeliT Seqmnili sameurneo kompleqsebi da gansakuTrebiT dainteresdnen berebis mier movlili venaxebiT. es interesi imdenad didi yofila, rom ierusalimis mefes, bolduin IV-s, jvris monastris berebisaTvis venaxi CamourTmevia da Tavad miusakuTrebia. bermonazvnur tipikonebSi mkacrad iyo gansazRvruli, Tu ra raodenobis Rvino unda mieRo bers, raTa gamoricxuliyo yovelgvari gadaWarbeba; magram zogadad misi moxmareba, rogorc aucilebeli sakvebi produqtisa, yoveldRiur muSaobas SeWidebuli beris mwiri racionis gaZlierebisaTvis nebadarTuli iyo. wiTel RvinoSi dambali puri – `boRliwo~ xom bermonazvnuri korporaciis miRebuli kerZi iyo. aTonis iverTa monastris erT-erTi udidesi simdidre bizantiis imperatorTagan oqrobeWdebiT damtkicebul da naboZeb
eldar nadiraZe

eTnografiuli mimoxilva

miwebze gaSenebuli zvrebi iyo. venaxis movla monastris mamasaxlisis zedamxedvelobiT mimdinareobda. igi Tavis movaleobad Tvlida sagangebo brZanebiT moewesrigebina Sromis organizacia da mieTiTebina, rom berebma TavianTi moRvaweobis didi nawili venaxs unda Seswiron. aTonis bermonazvnuri istoriis araerT mkvlevars saTanadod aqvs Sefasebuli iveriel berTa sameurneo saqmianoba da gansakuTrebiT – daxelovneba Rvinis warmoebaSi (Rvino gamoiyeneboda ara mxolod samonastro saWiroebisaTvis, aramed gasayidadac).

saRvine WurWeli
mevenaxeoba-meRvineobasTan dakavSirebul am zogad mimoxilvas veraviTar SemTxvevaSi ver davasrulebT zogierT saRvino WurWelTan Sexebis gareSe, radgan cocxal eTnografiul yofaSi es WurWeli amJamadac didi raodenobiTaa SemorCenili da misi mravalferovneba kidev erTi Strixia Rvinisadmi saukunovani damokidebulebisa. zogadad adamianis esTetikur moTxovnilebebs Tu gaviTvaliswinebT, WurWeli yovelTvis gamoxatavda ufro mets, vidre misi utilitaruli daniSnulebaa. amitom WurWlis mopoveba, gakeTeba, moxmareba da, rogorc samSvenisis, gamoyeneba misi cxovrebis Tanamdevi movlenaa. aqedan iRebs saTaves meTuneobis, faifuris xelovnebis da oqromWedlobis dargebi, romelTa Semoqmedni mudam yuradRebiTa da pativiT sargeblobdnen. faqtia, rom meRvineobaSi yovelTvis didi adgili eWira Tixis WurWels da mosaxleobis ZiriTadi nawili swored misi saSualebiT moixmarda Rvinos, magram Rvinis moyvaruli da damfasebeli adamiani SeuZlebelia mxolod Tixis jamiT dakmayofilebuliyo da adridanve ar eZebna masze aRmatebuli sasmisi, romelic ufro mSveniers gaxdida Rvinis moxmarebis process. qarTuli istoriuli wyaroebis mixedviT samefo saWurWleSi sxva ZvirfaseulobasTan erTad inaxeboda `samsaxurebelni tablaTani, sasmurni da samwdeoni~, anu Rvinis mosaxmari WurWeli, romlis gamravalferovnebas didad uwyobda xels qarTuli sufris tradicia. safrangeTis konsuli fransua gamba TbilisSi, samefo sasaxleSi, qorwils daswrebia da aRtacebas ver faravs sufraze motanili oqro-vercxlis saRvine WurWlis Rirsebis xilviT. igi gansakuTrebiT gauocebia yaryaras – am marTlac ucnaur sasmiss. es nivTi damaxasiaTebeli iyo Tbilisuri sufrisaTvis, mis samSveniss warmoadgenda da qarTuli lxinis Sejibrul suliskveTebasac gamoxatavda. saerTod, gansxvavebuli sasmisis gamoyenebis zogTaTvis Znelad gasagebi Cveuleba, rac xSirad axsnilia zedmetobisa da gadaWarbebulobis mankierebiT, mxolod zedapiruli azrovnebis Sedegi rodia. Rvinis ufaqizesi buneba, adamianis ganwyobileba da TviT bunebrivi pirobebic ki (sicxe, sicive) ganapirobeben Rvinis dalevis esTetikas, romelic Sesaferisi WurWlis gareSe veraviTar SemTxvevaSi ver iqneba srulyofili. swored am TvaliT unda Sevxe-

44

vazi – sicocxlis xe

45 doT Rvinis sasmisTa mravalferovnebas qarTul sufraze da ara alkoholur midrekilebaTa ZiebiT. Rvino Tavad irCevs sasmiss da adamianis arsi am moTxovnilebas siamovnebiT emorCileba. leqsikograf saba orbelianis ganmarteba, rom yaryara aris `sarwyuli smaSi xmis mimcemeli~, kidev ufro asuraTxatebs am sasmisis fizikur iersaxes: aiRebs msmeli savse yaryaras, nelad miiyudebs tuCze, odnav wamouwevs bolos da daiwyebs Rvino rakrakiT gadmosvlas. ganabulia sufra, gaRimebuli ucqers msmels, ayuradebs am sasiamovno xmas da ixibleba Rvinis ucnauri simReriT. yaryaras tipis WurWlebs miekuTvnebian agreTve kula da WinWila. xis WinWilebi da mware kvaxis kulebi esaa dasavleT saqarTvelos meRvineobis monapovari da maTgan gansakuTrebiT kargad ismeva imereTis momJao Rvino. WinWila, yaryaris msgavsad, sanadimo WurWeli araa. igi ufro saniadagod gamoiyeneba, magram ZiriTadad gazafxulsa da zafxulSi, roca zvarSi sicxiTa da SromiT daRlili mevenaxe Zalebis aRdgenas saWiroebs. WinWilas yelSi Casmuli aqvs pawia tixari – Rvinis nawilobriv Camketi. amitom yelidan Rvino gadmodis `Zunwad~, rakrakiT, rac axangrZlivebs Rvinis dalevis process da msmels did siamovnebas aniWebs. rac Seexeba kulas, mas Sualeduri adgili uWiravs WinWilasa da yaryaras Soris. kulas dasavleTSi mware kvaxisgan amzadeben, aRmosavleTSi ki xisagan da arcTu iSviaTad asevadeben vercxlis elementebiT. am ucnauri WurWlis daxasiaTebiT gvsurs davasruloT mevenaxeoba-meRvineobisadmi miZRvnili es mcire eTnografiuli narkvevi. vfiqrobT, rom qarTvelebis damokidebuleba vazisadmi – esaa savsebiT araordinaluri movlena, sadac naTlad ikveTeba mravalplaniani sameurneo urTierTobis grZeli gza. swored aseTma fundamenturma gulmodginebam gauxsna qarTvel kacs sameurneo cxovrebis idumalebiT moculi samyaro da man savsebiT daimsaxura iseTi rCeuli saCuqari, rogoricaa Rvino.
eldar nadiraZe

eTnografiuli mimoxilva

mesame werili

zurab kiknaZe

vazi da Rvino xalxur sityvierebaSi
puri da Rvino
`da iyo qarTlsa Sina puri da Rvino friadi~, – vkiTxulobT matianeSi. am sityvebiT afasebs (axasiaTebs) meistorie Tavis epoqas. es sityvebi metyveleben purisa da Rvinis adgilze qveynis cxovrebaSi. isini misi keTildReobis niSnebia. nivTier sikeTesTan erTad puri da Rvino moralur-zneobrivi (xSirad religiuri) kategoriebia da ara ubralo sakvebi. maTSi adamianis Rirsebaa ganivTebuli. dRemde cneba-kompoziti `pur-Rvino~ qarTveli kacis yofis Tanamdevia da misi orive nawili samiwaTmoqmedo kulturis umaRlesi gamoxatulebaa. TiTqos aqedan modis qarTvelTa saxelwodeba georgios (eorgian), romelic berZnuli sityvaa da miwaTmoqmeds niSnavs. purisa da Rvinis prioritetulad win wamowevaSi qarTveli uZveles sakacobrio tradicias misdevs. puri da Rvino – es ori produqti ZvelTaganve iyo simbolo yvelafrisa, rasac miwa iZleva da rac adamians kvebavs. bibliis fsalmunebSi madlierebiT aRiniSneba: `romelman, aRmoacena balaxi mTaTa da mwvane samsaxurebelad kacTa, romelman gamoiRos puri qveyaniT, Rvinoman axaris gulsa kacisasa, sacxebelma mxiarul-yvis piri, da purman ganamtkicis guli kacisai~ (fsalm. 103, 15-15); xolo evripides dramaSi berZeni tirezia saukuno sityvebs ambobs: `ori RmerTia, kacTa modgmas rom asuldgmulebs: erTi – demetre, dedamiwa, mSraliT mkvebavi; mere movida dionise, vinc yurZnis mtevans wveni adina, ganaCina Cvenda sasmelad, rom dagviamos wuTisoflis mware vnebani~. Rvinos vazis sisxls uwodeben xalxSi. is erTsa da imave dros msxverplicaa da nayofic, romelTac vazi adamianTaTvis gaiRebs. arc erTi kulturuli mcenare, romelic ki adamians, `mouSinaurebia~, imden pativs, siyvarulsa da mokrZalebas ar imsaxurebs, rogorc vazi. bibliaSi igi nayofier da (amitomac) sayvarel colTan aris Sedarebuli: `coli Seni, viTarca vazi msxmoiare~ (fsalm. 1237,3); is siuxvis gansaxierebaa, dovlaTiT avsebs saxls; magram qarTveli mevenaxisTvis igi ufro Svilia, romelzedac didi amagi aqvs gaweuli. Cndeba kiTxva: amagis safasurad ras moelis mevenaxe vazisgan? `vazo, SviliviT nazardoo~, – am sityvebiT yvelaferia naTqvami. misi zrunva uangaroa.

46

vazi – sicocxlis xe

47 arc erT xeze, arc erT kulturul mcenareze, arc puris yanaze, arc Tundac cxvarze, romelzedac aranaklebi amagi aqvs mwyemss, msgavsi ram ar Tqmula. vazi ki marTlac SviliviT aris gazrdili, mudmivi zrunviTa da siyvaruliT garemoculi. Tu ara yoveldRiuri yuradReba, is dakargavs Tavis saxes, romelic mravali Taobis mecadineobam SesZina, roca veluri mdgomareobidan gamoiyvana, moaSinaura da gaakeTilSobila; tyeSi aravisi iyo da kacma is Tavisi gaxada; bunebis Svili adamianis Svilad gardaqmna, bunebidan kulturad aqcia; emsaxura, raTa Semdeg mas gaewia samsaxuri da marTlac, vazma aswilad da aTaswilad gadauxada zrunvis amagi. adamiani vazis pedagogad, aRmzrdelad gvevlineba; is aris cultor vitis. qarTvel glexs vazze ufro kulturuli mcenare ar gaaCnia Tavis kar-midamoSi, xalxurma leqsma Tavad vazs aTqmevina yvelaferi – CamoaTvlevina, Tuki ram esaWiroeboda. ai, ras eubneba mevenaxes axalgazrda vazi, romelsac kargi momavali eqneba, Tuki meurne moTminebiT izrunebs masze:
`did venaxSi mivdiodi bariTa da niCabiTa, zeviT bagam1 damiZaxa, aq mobrZandi, me ra giTxra: Sen sasuqi momimzade, TiTo jini TiTo Zirsa, iseT mtevans gavikeTeb, ar Cavides godris pirsa, xandaxan Semoxvidode, Rimi mogdiodes pirsa, sagaisod momikiTxe samamule Cemi rqisa, sawnaxeli momimzade, piri moulese rZiTa, TaRari kargi damidgi, iyos ormoci kokisa, ise gagivseb qvevrebsa, cvari aRar gedgas sxvisa, ucxo da ucxo stumrebi goraobdnen cecxlis pirsa, sul dagiTrob mezoblebsa, veRar gadiodnen xidsa, Wiri bevri mogaSoro da sircxvili mezoblisa~.
zurab kiknaZe

vazi da Rvino xalxur sityvierebaSi

vazi garedan TiTqos Seuxedavia, dabrecilia, mrude. gamocanac aris aseTi: `mama – dabrecili, deda – margaliti, Svili – gadareuli~ (anu: dabrecili mama vazis tania, deda margaliti yurZenia, gadareuli Svili Rvinoa); vazs arc feri aqvs, rom adamiani miizidos, magram Sinagani simarTle da mSveniereba ganasxvavebs mas sxva xeebisagan; is marTlac xeTa da mcenareTa mefea, samefo nergia, amitomac aseTi leqsi gamouTqvamT masze:
`xe mrudo da xe marTalo, xeo, magram kargo xeo, mefeTa da xelmwifeTa maspinZelo, kargo xeo, am soflisa salxinoo, saukunis samoTxeo, maspinZelo mxiarulo, gavixare, ro gnaxeo~.

mas Semdeg, rac Rvino adamianTa yofaSi Semovida, ganuSoreblad Tan axlavs adamians. uRvinod arc sixarulia, arc lxini da arc Sroma.
`venaxsa ganapirasa Caurigeben manasa, vinc Rvinos dagvalevinebs, imas movumkiT yanasa!~ –

amboben glexebi.
1 baga – axladCayrili vazi.

qarTul sofelSi yanis landSaftis nawilia xis Crdili. CrdilqveS an iqve wyaroSi Casacieblad Cadgmuli RviniT savse doqi dRis papanaqebiT damaSvral muSaks elis. magram es Rvino ar aris salxino da damaTrobeli, romelsac stumars gamoutanen xolme. muSakTa Sesasmeli Rvino sadagi Rvinoa, wyalgareuli. misi mowodebaa, yeli gaugrilos mzis gulidan CrdilSi mobrunebulT, raTa kvlav yanas SeeWidon. mxolod aq iTmens qarTveli wyalnarev Rvinos, sxva danarCen SemTxvevaSi is arasdros hkadrebs stumars wyalganarevi anu, rogorc aseT Rvinos uwodeben, `Samani~ SesTavazos. sxvadasxva daniSnulebis RvinoTa ierarqiaSi, romelic sadagidan (sayoveldReo Rvinidan) iwyeba, yvelaze maRla dgas e.w. `zedaSe~. saerTod didad fasobs Zveli Rvino; Tqmac aris aseTi: `Zveli Rvino, Zveli puri, Zveli stumar-maspinZeli~. xom Zvirfasia Zveli Rvino, romliTac gansakuTrebul dRes umaspinZldebian stumrebs, magram zemoT naxsenebi zedaSe sul sxvaa. is wminda, sakraluri Rvinoa. misi yurZeni mohyavT sagangebod romelime wmindanisadmi Sewirul venaxSi da Rvinoc, romelic Sesabamisad am wmindanisadmia Sewiruli, mis dReobaze unda Seisvas. Rvinis gamo marnis sakralizaciac ar unda iyos moulodneli, radgan saRvTo liturgiaSi wminda nawilis dasamzadeblad mTavari elementi purTan erTad Rvinocaa. Rvino da puri qristes sisxli da xorcia, maranic amis gamo wminda nagebobad iTvleboda. aq xSirad naTlobis da jvrisweris ritualic ki sruldeboda. ai, ras gveubneba erTi xalxuri sawesCveulebo leqsi, romelsac wminda giorgis dReobaze mRerian mTian regionSi:
`wminda giorgis karzeda xe alvad amosuliyo, wverSi dausxam yurZeni, saWmelad Semosuliyo, misi uWmeli qal-vaJi udrood daSauliyo~.

qarTuli miTologiuri warmodgeniT alvis xe samoTxeSi darguli sicocxlis xea (`viT edems alva rgulia~, – vkiTxulobT `vefxistyaosanSic~). xalxuri leqsis Tanaxmad igi wverSi isxams yurZens romlis Wamis SemTxvevaSi yovelgvari ubedurebisagan icavs adamians. aq miTologiurad aris gadmocemuli qristianuli relgiis mTavari saidumlo – ziareba. wminda giorgis kari eklesiaa, alvad amosuli xe – saRvTo liturgia, yurZeni – qristes sisxli, misi uWmeli anu uziarebeli qal-vaJi ki – eva da adami, romelTac ver igemes sicocxlis xis nayofi da dakarges ukvdaveba, maradiuli sicocxle. am sakulto leqsma yofaSi sxvagvari saxe miiRo, romelSiac marnis sakralizmic aisaxa:

48

vazi – sicocxlis xe

49
`Cveni maspinZlis maranSi alvis xe amosuliyo, ZirSi miergoT vazebi, zed wverze movlebuliyo. wverSi moesxa nayofi, bolomde Camozrdiliyo. damwifebula yurZeni, Sig Rvino gamosuliyo, maTi damTvrali vaJkaci talaxSi amosvriliyo~.
zurab kiknaZe

am qal-vaJma, romelic gaufrTxileblad daewafa wminda sasmels, bibliuri noes bedi gaiziara.

vazi da Rvino xalxur sityvierebaSi

venaxis RvTaeba
axal welsac ki, roca venaxis sezoni didi xnis gasulia, qarTvel mevenaxes vazi da venaxi ar aviwydeba. wina dRiT acxoben yurZnis mtevnis moyvanilobis purebs, romelTac `mtevani~ an `agunas puri~ ewodeba. ojaxis ufrosi am puriT moivlis venaxs da, rogorc cocxal arsebas, ise miulocavs mas axal weliwads; msxverplis saxiT gadatexavs purs da vazis rqaze Camokidebs. am ritualiT venaxis ZvelTaZveli RvTaeba aguna, romlis xsovna bundovnad SemorCa dasavleT saqarTvelos zogierT kuTxeSi, Sedis venaxSi – Tavis samflobeloSi – da msxverplad ewireba damdegi wlis nayofierebas. ojaxis ufrosi Semoivlis venaxs xmamaRali ZaxiliT: `aguna, aguna, modi CvenTan! Semodi Cvens venaxSi! amxela (maRla aswevs bavSvs, romelic xelSi uWiravs) mtevnebi mogvitane! gvaSore setyva! aguna, daicavi Cveni venaxi. sxvis venaxSi nafoti da furceli!~ amis Semdeg ojaxis ufrosi maranSi Sedis da iqac agunas iwvevs: `aguna, aguna, Semodi Cvens maranSi, Rvinis Rvari dagviyene. gamoRma yurZeni, gaRma furceli!~ Semdeg daimedebuli, rom aguna dovlaTiT aavsebs mis venaxs, gamarTavs lxinsa da purobas.

Rvino da stumarmaspinZloba
qeifs, lxins, wveulebas qarTulad `purobac~ ewodeba. `purads~ guluxv da xelgaSlil maspinZelze ityvian. roca amboben, `kargi puri vWameTo~, mxolod puris Wamas ar gulisxmoben. amiT surT Tqvan, rom kargi lxini hqondaT (e. i. kargi Rvino) da kargi droc gaatares. qarTvels Tu Rvino da puri aqvs, arafris eSinia. moulodneli Tu mosalodneli ubedurebis an dResaswaulebisTvis mas yovelTvis gadanaxuli aqvs Rvino sagangebo WurWelSi. zogjer aT, oc welsac inaxavs, raTa gansakuTrebuli SemTxvevisaTvis (mag., qorwilisTvis) gamarTul sufraze gamoitanos. RviniT egebeba igi Tavis axlad dabadebul Svils, RviniT aqorwinebs mas, RviniT istumrebs imqveynad Tavis micvalebulebs, RviniT xvdeba stumars, wylis nacvlad Rvinos gamoutans mis karze Cavlil adamians. Rvino aucilebelia

religiur Tu sayofacxovrebo dResaswaulebze... saxeldaxelo sufras, romelic soflad Tu qalaqlad raime mzadebis gareSe, moulodneli stumris dasaxvedrad iSleba, purisa da Rvinis garda, aucilebelia amSvenebdes yveli, mwvanili da mwnili, romelic ojaxebSi, gansakuTrebiT sofelSi, yovelTvis gadanaxuli aqvT. Tu ojaxs es minimumi moepoveba, damSvidebuli unda iyos; stumaric mets arafers mosTxovs. mTavaria maspinZlis keTilganwyoba. stumari unda grZnobdes, rom is sasurveli adamiania da misi stumroba ojaxisaTvis sixarulia. `yveli, puri, keTili guli~, – ambobs qarTveli... saqarTveloSi stumars momRimari saxiT xvdebian. rac ar unda didi ubedureba trialebdes ojaxSi, maspinZeli arasdros Tavis dards stumars ar moaxvevs. ecdeba, ar SeimCnios gasaWiri. maspinZelma mxolod stumris karg gunebaze, mis mxiarulebaze unda izrunos. ai, ori striqoni, TiTqos stumarmaspinZlobis kodeqsidan amoRebuli:
`Tu maspinZeli moilxens, stumarsac moelxineba, Tu maspinZeli moiwyens, stumarsac moewyineba~.

maspinZeli diriJoria, romelic marTavs stumris guneba-ganwyobilebas. sxvagvarad stumrobas azri ara aqvs. maspinZels unda uxarodes ojaxSi stumari, stumroba ki RvTis wyalobad unda miaCndes. xalxuri leqsi xatovnad gamoTqvams maspinZlis sixaruls stumris danaxvaze:
`daveswari cis gaxsnasa, qveynebis damyarebasa, xisa furclis gamosxmasa, xilnaris ayvavebasa, Sen rom TvaliT daginaxe, neta Cem gaxarebasa!~1

maspinZlisTvis stumris gamoCena gazafxulia, bunebis ganaxleba da ayvavebaa, metic, mTeli samyaros dabadebaa. ufro martivad, magram aranakleb poeturad gamoTqvams am azrs sxva xalxuri leqsic:
`gazafxul Walais pirsa piri amoyo iama, im RmerTma dambadebelma, me Tqveni naxva miama~.

vazi – sicocxlis xe

– `stumari RvTisaa~, – veubnebiT adamians, romelmac es-esaa Cveni saxlis zRurbls gadmoabija. isic gvpasuxobs ZvelTaganve dadgenili wesiT: `mSvidoba saxlsa amas~. rodis da sad iTqva, stumari RvTis warmogzavniliao, aravin icis. asea yvelgan dedamiwis zurgze, gansakuTrebiT Zvel xalxebSi, romelTa wes-Cveulebani uZveles eposebSia asaxuli. stumarmaspinZloba ormxrivi movaleoba da pasuxismgeblobaa. maspinZeli amayobs rogorc stumriT, aseve Tavisi maspinZlobiTac. arseboben tradiciuli stumar-maspinZlebic...

50

1 mcire SeniSvna: ufro cxadi rom gaxdes leqsis azri, SevniSnav, rom xalxuri warmodgeniT, ca Svid weliwadSi erTxel ixsneba da Tuki am dros raimes inatreb, usaTuod agisruldeba. oRond ar unda gamogrCes es wami.

51

abramis leqsi
ojaxSi Tundac erTxel stumrad misul adamians mTeli sicocxle axsovs es stumroba da sixaruliT ixsenebs mas; meored stumroba erTxel nastumrebi adamianisa xom bednierebaa! ityvian xolme: `dagviZvelda pur-marilio~, e. i. mas ganaxleba esaWiroebao. stumrisaTvis qarTveli ukanasknels gaiRebs, raTa sakadrisi pativi sces mas. stumrisadmi pativiscema maspinZlis Rirsebis saqmea. es dauwereli kodeqsi xalxur leqsSic aris gamoxatuli:
`stumrebo, stumrebis mzema, arcra ustumrod lxinia, ustumrod puri da Rvino mwarea, gana tkbilia? mzeic nu mova ustumrod, mavidas, gana Tbilia?~

zurab kiknaZe

vazi da Rvino xalxur sityvierebaSi

sakmarisia, Tundac ucxo kacma Caiaros qarTveli glexis karTan, is valdebulad Tvlis Tavs, stumari SeipatiJos, puriTa da yveliT saxeldaxelod gaumaspinZldes, rac mTavaria, doqiT Rvino gamoutanos da ojaxis dalocva sTxovos. erTi leqsis mixedviT, kacs ucnobi stumaric rom ewvios, misTvis yvelafers gaimetebs: SeSa rom ar hqondes, urmis gasakeTeblad Semonaxul xis masalas dawvavs; rom ar eyos, xis sxva nivTebs miayolebs; Tu esec ar eqneba, gulis cecxls daunTebs, gaaTbobs da sadils moumzadebs; magram, rac abadia, yvelaferi rom miarTvas, atlasis kabac rom Caacvas, Tu Rvino ar daalevina, maspinZloba amaod Cauvlis. ai, ras ambobs xalxuri leqsi:
`kacsa stumari ewvios, stumari arnaxulisa, daapos urmisa morgvi, zafxulis Senaxulisa, daswvas fiwali, orTiTi, cecxli daanTos gulisa, oTxkuTxiv boli avides, dasvas da anadimosa, atlasis kaba Caacvas, da cxensac Sesvas, pilosa, – yvela tyuilad Cauvlis, Tuki ar asmevs Rvinosa~.

maspinZlobis wesi da rigi ukeT aris Semonaxuli soflebSi. erTi ojaxis stumari mTeli soflis stumrad iTvleba. mis pativsacemad mezoblebs patiJeben, stumars sadResaswaulo ganwyobilebas uqmnian, risi xsovnac mas didxans mihyveba xolme. mezoblebi mezoblis stumris pativiscemaSi erTmaneTs ejibrebian: valdebulad Tvlian, rom mezoblis stumari Tavis saxlSi dapatiJon da qeifi gaumarTon. ramden xansac stumari sofelSi rCeba, imden ojaxSi uwevs mas stumroba. amgvarad iqceva erTi ojaxis stumari mTeli soflis stumrad. es dReebi misTvis dauviwyari xdeba da movaleobadac miiCnevs, kvlav estumros sofels. stumrisa da maspinZlis movaleobani mkacrad aris Camoyalibebuli dauwerel `kodeqsSi~, romelic andazebsa da xalxur TqmebSia gacxadebuli. amboben: `maspinZeli stumris viriao~; `stumarma rom uari Tqvas, maspinZelma Tavisi ar unda daiSaloso~; `maspinZlis siyvaruliTa xucesTa marxva Wamiano~; `dapatiJebul stumars didi guli aqvso~, – ase iTqmis, radgan stumarma icis, rom maspinZlis ojaxSi mas garkveuli uflebebi aqvs. is pativiT aris garemosili, misi survili (Tuki ram isurva) umal Sesrulebuli iqneba. sakmarisia,

stumars maspinZlis ojaxSi moewonos raime nivTi (sulerTia, Rvinis sasmeli yanwi iqneba Tu Tofi), maspinZeli dauyovnebliv da daunaneblad aCuqebs. magram kargi stumari ar sargeblobs maspinZlobis am wesiT; is frTxilad iqceva, cdilobs, ar SeimCnios raime sagnis mowoneba... Tvals mohkravs Tu ara qarTveli Tavisi saxlisken momaval stumars, maSinve iwyebs mis dasaxvedrad mzadebas: klavs qaTams, acxobs Wadebs, Tavs moxsnis axal qvevrs da, sanam namgzavri stumari suls moiTqvams, sufrac mzadaa. Tu stumari RamiT rCeba, mas didi pativiT moasveneben. yvelaze gaWirvebul glexsac ki saxlSi erTi sagangebo oTaxi aqvs, romelSic aravis Zinavs; iq mxolod stumars abinaveben. stumars saukeTeso logins uSlian, Tavad Seviwrovdebian, iatakze dawvebian dasaZineblad, oRond stumarma mSvidad moisvenos; fexakrefiT dadian, rom droze adre ar gaaRviZon. gamoRviZebisTanave patara bavSvebs miugzavnian wyliTa da xelsaxociT, an wyaromde miacileben. dilis sufra ukve elodeba mas, romelic SeiZleba sadilad da lxinad gadaiqces. kargi stumari borotad ar sargeblobs. igi unda grZnobdes im moments, rodis gamoemSvidobos maspinZels da gaemgzavros. am momentis daWera (grZnoba) kulturis niSania; maspinZeli afasebs stumarSi am grZnobas. stumari maspinZels ise ar unda mobezrdes, rom misi wasvla inatros. am delikatur situacias erTi xalxuri leqsi gamoxatavs:
`diliT oqro xar, stumaro, saRamos vercxlad iqcevi, Tu didxans Segagvianda, spilenZad gadaiqcevi.~

stumris taqtze, mis kulturazea damokidebuli, rom maspinZlis TvalSi spilenZad ar gadaiqces, anu ar gaufasurdes. kargi stumari unda grZnobdes, rodis aris gulwrfeli patiJi da rodis – aucilebeli etiketiT gamowveuli. man droze unda datovos maspinZlis saxli, raTa tvirTad ar daawves ojaxs, erTgvari daZabuloba iqmneba, roca saxlSi `gaugebari~ kaci stumrobs, magram es is ubedureba ar aris da arc gakicxvas imsaxurebs. aseTi adamiani mxolod keTili iumoris sagani xdeba da `Segvianebuli~ stumris saxels imkvidrebs. stumar-maspinZlis urTierTobis erTi mniSvnelovani elementi patiJia. ar aris sakmarisi, rom maspinZelma nair-nairi kerZiT gauvsos stumars sufra. rac ar unda uxvi iyos sufra kerZebiT, Tu maspinZeli sityvierad ar mouwodebs, gadaiRos kerZi, stumari pirs arafers daakarebs. dasavleT saqarTveloSi wesad aris mravaljeradi patiJi. saWiroa ganmeoreba, rasac stumari elis da maspinZelic ar ayovnebs. am etiketis azri imdenad kargad esmiT, rom dasavleTSi aseTi Tqmac ki arsebobs: `Cveni mxaris kacia, erTi SepatiJebiT rogor darCebao sadilad~. aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi patiJi ar ician. erTxel getyvian, miirTvio, da aRar gaimeoreben. Tu es ar icis dasavleTidan mosulma stumarma, SeiZleba mSieric darCes. is amaod elis ganmeorebiT patiJs, romlis gareSec pirs arafers akarebs, radgan pirveli patiJis Semdeg Wamas Tavisi Rirsebis Selaxvad Tvlis. gansakuTrebuli statusi aqvs stumars aRmosavleT saqarTvelos mTaSi. andaza – `maspinZeli stumris viriao~ – swored aq marTldeba mTeli sisruliT. zogierT TemSi maspinZeli stumarTan erTad arc ki dajdeboda sufrasTan, muxlmoyrili idga da ise awvdida sasmels, ludi iqneboda Tu arayi.

52

vazi – sicocxlis xe

53 rogorc batons yma, ise emsaxureboda. stumris survili misTvis kanoni iyo, magram, rogorc ukve iTqva, stumari ar sargeblobda am privilegiiT. maspinZlis movaleoba iyo, daecva stumari, Tavic ki gaewira misTvis. qarTvel poet vaJa-fSavelas swored am Temaze aqvs Seqmnili poema `stumar-maspinZeli~: kacma miiRo stumari, romelSic ver gamoicno soflis mteri, bevri adamianis mkvleli, maT Soris misi ojaxis wevrisac. roca es gamJRavnda, mTeli sofeli miadga karze da stumris gadacema mosTxova. maspinZelma ar uRalata stumarmaspinZlobis wminda movaleobas da stumris dasacavad iZulebuli gaxda, momxvduri moekla. man SurisZiebis (sisxlis aRebis) adaTze maRla maspinZlobis adaTi daayena, rasac Seewira kidec: igi da misi ojaxi Temidan (sazogadoebidan) moikveTes. ...damSvidobebis dros stumars bodiSs uxdian, sakadrisi pativi rom ver sces. esec aucilebeli etiketia da iTqmis maSinac ki, roca maspinZels araferi dauklia stumrisTvis. es etiketi gansakuTrebiT dasavleT saqarTvelos kuTxeebSia miRebuli.
zurab kiknaZe

vazi da Rvino xalxur sityvierebaSi

qarTuli sufra, Rvinis smis wesi
`Tamamad SeiZleba iTqvas, rom arsad imden da iseT Zvirfas Rvinos ar svamen, rogorc saqarTveloSi~ (Sardeni). qarTuli sufra TiTqos bibliuri ziraqis Zis wignis mixedviTaa dafuZnebuli, gansakuTrebiT ki sufris xelmZRvanelis – Tamadis – zne da wesi: `Tu Tamadad dagsves, Tavs nu aimaRleb, aramed iyavi danarCenTa Soris, rogorc erTi maTgani. jer maTze izrune da mere dajeqi. roca yvelafers aRasruleb, rac gevaleba, daikave Seni adgili, raTa TanameinaxeebSi moilxino da sufris rigiani gaZRolisaTvis gvirgvini daimsaxuro. isaubre, Tamadas darbaisluri sityva SeSvenis, magram simReras nu CaaxSob. roca gismenen, sityvas nu gaagrZeleb da udroo dros nu brZenob. rac lalis Tvalia oqros beWedSi, igivea xmatkbili simRera nadimobisas. rac zurmuxtis beWedia oqros budeSi, igivea saamo hangi Rvinis smisas~ (`sibrZne ziraqisa~, 32, 1-6). saqarTvelos stumars, ucxoels, Tu oriode dRe mainc gautarebia Cvens qveyanaSi da keTil maspinZels Sin miupatiJebia, pirveli, rac TvalSi moxvdeboda, aris qarTuli lxinis mkacri wesebi, rkiniseburi disciplina sufraze, romelic stumarsac ki ar aZlevs SeRavaTs. qarTveli arsad, yofacxovrebis arc erT sferoSi ar aris iseTi seriozuli da mTeli mondomebiT ar icavs wesrigs, rogorc sufraze. ram warmoSva sufris mkacri wesebi, ra saWiroebam Seqmna qarTuli sufra? pasuxi aseTia: Rvinom, Rvinis Zalam. qarTuli andaza ambobs: `RviniT galaxuls joxiT galaxuli sjobiao~. da ai, Rvinom rom ar `galaxos~ kaci, misi Zlevaa saWiro. qarTuli sufra Tavisi mkacri wesebiT, Tavisi ceremoniebiTa da etiketiT, mWevrmetyvelebis Tundac uzomo demonstraciiT Rvinis Zlevas, misi feTqebadi Zalis moTrgunvas emsaxureba. gavixsenoT bibliuri noe,

rogor aris igi daxasiaTebuli: sruli, marTali kaci iyo noe Tavis TaobaSi da RvTis gzaze dadiodao. ra dReSi Caagdo es RvTis kaci Rvinom? `da Sesva Rvino, daTvra da gaSiSvlda Tavis karavSi~ (dab. 9,21). da es is noe iyo, romelmac kacobriobis istoriaSi pirvelma gaaSena vazi, moiyvana yurZeni da dawura Rvino. amitom aris, rom qarTveli moferebiT Rvinos noes saxels uwodebs: nunua. manve, am marTalma da srulma noem, pirvelma iwvnia Tavis Tavze Rvinis Zala. is, rac noes daemarTa, rac mas Rvinom Caadenina Tundac Tavis karavSi, udides sircxvilad iTvleba. magram qarTuli sufris wevrisTvis aseTive sircxvilia, roca Rvino dasZlevs mas, zedmets alaparakebs, Tundac mcired gadaaxvevinebs zrdilobis wesebs, sufris etikets, daakargvinebs ufrosisadmi rids da mowiwebas, ayal-mayalze xom zedmetia laparaki. sufris amrevs sazogado kicxva elis da is arasdros iqneba sasurveli stumari. amaze Tqmula es xalxuri leqsi:
`kaxuri RviniT daviTver, sami dRe vegde lafSia, amomaTries iqidan, damagdes derefanSia, movida qali lamazi, Camcxo da Camcxo TavSia~.

qarTvels gamocdili aqvs Rvinis daudegari xasiaTi, misi ornairi buneba – keTilismyofeli da gamanadgurebeli. man es gamocdileba poeziaSic asaxa. anonimi poeti ase mimarTavs Rvinos:
`Sen, Rvinov, WaWaneulo, ucecxlod wamoduRdebi, xandisxan Wkuiani xar, xandisxan wamoCxubdebi~1

vazi – sicocxlis xe

leqsi Rvinis Tavnebobaze mogviTxrobs: yurZnis wvenisgan anu maWrisgan rom Rvino dadges, mas ar esaWiroeba gareSe cecxli. is `cecxli~, romelic Rvinos aduRebs, Tavad masSia. Rvino Wkviania, Tu msmelic Wkvianurad daxvda da zomierad Sesva igi; gadareulia da Cxubis gunebaze ayenebs adamians, Tu zomaze meti Sesva. zomierad Sesmuli Rvino ara mxolod guls axalisebs da mxneobas matebs adamians, aramed kargi mrCevelic aris, moCxubarTa damaSoSminebeli (Semarigebeli). ai, rogori gamocdileba gamoiTqva am xatovani andaziT: `erTma Wiqa Rvinom amoRebuli xmali Caagoo~. Rvinis uzomod momxmarebels Tavad Rvinisgan Sexvdeba sasjeli. Tavis borotad gamoyenebas Rvino aravis patiobs: ginda cemiT dausjixarT, ginda RviniT dagikargavs Wkua-goneba, magram andaza ambobs: `RviniT galaxuls joxiT galaxuli sjobiao~, anu RviniT galaxva ufro mwareao. ai, kidev rogor gvafrTxilebs xalxuri leqsi:
`gulisa sagrileblada Rvinis smas arvin dagviSlis, cota ram moWarbebuli Wkuas Tavidan SagviSlis, moyvares mtrad gardagviqcevs, davidarabas agviSlis~.

54

1 mcire ganmarteba: aq Rvinis epiTeti `WaWaneuli~ gulisxmobs Rvinos, romelic kaxuri wesis mixedviT WaWazea dayenebuli.

55 saqarTvelos zogierT kuTxeSi SemorCa wesi, rom sufris xelmZRvaneli (an, SesaZloa, ufrosi, avtoritetiani kaci) ramdenime sadRegrZelos (sasmisis) Sesmas ukrZalavs sufris wevrs, anu `ajarimebs~ mas, Tu Rvinis moZaleba (simTvralis niSnebi) Seatyo. sircxvilia, roca sufris wevri barbaciT tovebs sufras. Tu vinme ise daTvra, rom saxlSi damoukideblad wasvla ar SeuZlia, aseTs Tavad ojaxi patronobs, an saxlamde kacs gaayoleben, an saxlSi gaaTevineben Rames, rom raime xifaTs ar gadaeyaros, diliT ki pativiT gaistumreben. stumris usafrTxoeba da pativi maspinZelma unda uzrunvelyos. sufridan wasul mTvral stumars Tu raime xifaTi SeemTxva – an kldeze gadavarda, an gzaSi gaiyina, an vinmem mokla – pasuxismgebloba maspinZelzea. mas, da ara Rvinos, dabraldeba stumris ubedureba. aseTi SemTxvevebi xSirad ojaxebis (gvarebis) gadamterebasac iwvevda xolme, rac sisxlis aRebiT sruldeboda. miuxedavad eqscesebis, rac ZiriTadad mTvral TanameinaxeTa Soris SeiZleba warmoiSvas, qarTveli kacisTvis Rvinis upirvelesi Rirseba mainc imis simagreSi anu maTrobelobaSi mdgomareobs. andazac aris aseTi: `Rvino ki maTrobela sjobs, ZaRli – Teoze (saxlis win) myefari~. diax, Rvino maTrobela unda iyos, romelsac kaci Rirseulad unda daxvdes, Tavi ar unda daaZlevinos. aba, vis sWirdeba ZaRli, romelic ar yefs? vis sWirdeba Rvino, romelic ar aTrobs? sust Rvinoze ityvian, wyaliao. Rvinis simagres sufraze andamaturi Zala aqvs, is advilad uxsnis enas adamians, ucxoebs aaxloebs, sufris dasasruls isini didi xnis nacnobebiviT emSvidobebian erTmaneTs da kvlav Sexvedris gulwrfel survils gamoTqvamen. xSiria sufraze damegobrebis SemTxvevebic. roca amgvarad damegobrebulebi Sexvdebian erTmaneTs, ase mimarTaven, `dagviZvelda pur-marili~, anu karga xania, rac sufraze aRar SevxvedrivarTo. Rvinisa da sufris atmosferos gamoa, rom zogierTi Rirsebis mqone kaci nebismier adamianTan erTad sufraze ar dajdeba. ikiTxavs, vin da vin iqnebiano, an Tavad maspinZeli etyvis mipatiJebulTa vinaobas. erT sufraze jdoma ase Tu ise avaldebulebs Tanameinaxeebs erTmaneTTan siaxloves, megobrul grZnobas Tu ara, erTmaneTisadmi keTilganwyobis gamoCenas mainc. amitom Tu adamians ar surs, Rvinom da sufram Tavisi sadRegrZeloebis wesiTa da etiketiT daumegobros mas arasasurveli pirovneba, is aseT adamianTan erTad sufraze ar dajdeba. magram isec xdeba, rom damdurebuli adamianebi sufraze Serigdebian xolme. sufra qarTuli yofiTi da, SeiZleba iTqvas, sulieri kulturis tradiciis mniSvnelovani monapovaria. dResdReobiT igi qarTvelobis erT-erTi Zlieri saidentifikacio niSania. rodis Caisaxa igi, qveynis mravalsaukunovani istoriis romel epoqaSi, aravis ukvlevia. mTavaria, rom dResdReobiT misi tradicia arsebobs da, miuxedavad mravali materialuri gasaWirisa, romelic qveyanam ukanasknel xans gamoiara, igi ganagrZobs arsebobas da gadaSeneba TiTqos ar emuqreba. siRaribem, xelmokleobam qarTuli sufra SeiZleba SezRudos, magram mis arss ver Secvlis. igi yovelTvis SeinarCunebs Tavis sazriss. martivia qarTuli sufris struqtura, misi elementebia: Rvino, puri (sakvebis mniSvnelobiT), sadRegrZelo da simRera. am oTxi elementis urTierTmonacvleoba da harmoniuli Sexameba qmnis qarTul sufras.
zurab kiknaZe

vazi da Rvino xalxur sityvierebaSi

qarTuli sufra diferencirebulia: arsebobs lxinis sufra da Wiris sufra, arsebobs sagangebo mravalricxovani oficialuri sufra da megobruli, Sinauruli sufra, arsebobs spontanuri sufrac – yvelas Tavisi wesi aqvs, magram yvelasTvis aris erTi kanoni, ase vTqvaT, erTi dauwereli konstitucia – sufris konstitucia – romelic SeubRalavia; is SeiZleba ganicdides cvalebadobas, magram misi birTvi, misi sazrisi ucvleli rCeba. qarTvelebi sxdebian sufris garSemo ara mxolod Wamisa d smisaTvis, es ar aris maTi TviTmizani. isini sixaruliT ikribebian imis gamoc, rom maTi monawileobiT sruldeba rituali, romlis mizani adamianTa Soris keTilganwyobis damyareba-ganmtkicebaa – erTmaneTTan kavSiri awmyoSi da winaprebTan – warsulSi. aq maT saSualeba eZlevaT, gamoxaton TavianTi simpaTiebi nacnob Tu axalgacnobil adamianebTan, siyvaruli da guliTadi grZnobebi – megobrebis mimarT. sufris etiketiT, gadametebuli keTilganwyoba da grZnobebis gadaWarbebuli gamoxatuleba bunebrivia. uxerxulobad ar iTvleba TanameinaxisaTvis imaze metis Tqma, rasac is sinamdvileSi ar imsaxurebs, `Rvino aTqmevinebso~, – amboben. rasac adamiani daaklebs, imas Rvino avsebs. sufris sivrce garkveuli azriT pirobiTi sivrcea, romelic guliTadi grZnobebiT aris Seferili da gazavebuli. am pirobiTobas sufris yvela wevri emorCileba, TiToeulma icis, rom sufraze yoveldRiuri yofisagan gansxvavebuli wesebi moqmedebs. sufras ar Seefereba gaWianurebuli sadRegrZeloebi, magram ufro metad – Tasis usityvod dacla. Rvinos sityva uyvars, magram ara zedmeti... wesia, Tamadaze did xans sufris wevrma ar unda ilaparakos. sufra misdevs XII s-is poetis – rusTavelis – aforizms: `grZeli sityva mokled iTqmis, Sairia amad kargi~. sadRegrZeloc, sasurvelia, leqsis striqoniviT lakonuri da Sinaarsiani iyos. grZeli, gauTavebeli sityva-sadRegrZelo simTvralis niSania da amave dros SeiZleba sufris areulobis dasawyisic iyos. xalxuri leqsi amgvarad gamoxatavs sufris dauwerel zneobas:
`davexsnaT Wirveulobas, sufras nu avarevinebT, nurc metsa vetyviT erTmaneTs, nurc metsa davalevinebT.~

Zveli romaelebis TqmiT, sufris wevrebi graciebis ricxvze anu samze naklebi ar unda iyvnen da muzebis ricxvs anu cxras ar unda aRematebodnen. samze naklebi ver qmnis sufris ganwyobilebas, xolo cxraze meti, romaelTa fiqriT, Znelad samarTavia. magram qarTuli sufris ricxovnebas SeiZleba iTqvas, sazRvari ara aqvs – aTidan xuTasamde adis. xuTasi da zogjer meti adamianis marTva sufraze, sadac uzomo raodenobis Rvino ismeva, SesaZlebelia mxolod mkacrad dadgenili wesebis meSveobiT da, pirvel rigSi, sufris xelmZRvanelis – Tamadis – wyalobiT. Tamada mkacr kontrols awesebs Rvinis smaze, raTa ar dailios imaze meti, rac dadgenilia sufris wesis mixedviT, rom sufra qaosSi ar gadaizardos. rac Seexeba sufris wevrTa qveda zRvars, samze (anu graciebis ricxvze) naklebi ar unda iyos, radgan qarTuli simReris Sesruleba samze naklebi xmiT SeuZlebelia; simRera ki qarTuli sufris

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vazi – sicocxlis xe

57 aucilebeli elementia. is sufris damamSvenebelia (amas jer kidev homerosi ambobda). lxinis dawyebamde, Tu wveuleba sapasuxismgebloa, wesad aris Rvinis winaswar gasinjva, erTgvari ritualuri degustacia. maspinZeli elis Rvinis Seqebas `degustatoris~ piriT. Seqebac, ra Tqma unda, ar ayovnebs. mcire masStabis saxeldaxelo sufraze Rvinis winaswar gasinjva ar ician. Tu moxda ise, rom Rvino SemJavebulia, uvargisia dasalevad, stumari arasodes SeimCnevs. yofila SemTxveva, rom stumars namdvili Zmari usvams morTmeuli Rvinis saxiT, magram warbic ar Seuxria. usvams patiosnad. raze metyvelebs es epizodi? jer stumris TavdaWerilobaze, Semdeg ki maspinZlis pirovnebisadmi ridze. qarTuli andaza `naCuqar cxens kbils ar usinjaveno~, Rvinozec SeiZleba gavrceldes. qarTul sufraze adgilebi winaswar ar aris ganpirovnebuli garda erTisa – sufris TavSi – sadac dajdomas yvela gaurbis. es sufris xelmZRvanelis – Tamadis – adgilia. Tamadas maspinZeli asaxelebs. misi arCevani xSir SemTxvevaSi aravisTvis moulodneli ar aris. piriqiT, erTi Tvalis gadavlebiT stumari xvdeba, Tu vis daniSnavs Tamadad maspinZeli. simarTle rom iTqvas, mcireT Tu siamovnebT es Tanamdeboba sufraze. umravlesobas urCevnia rigiT Tanameinaxed darCena, radgan Tamadoba sapasuxismgeblo Tanamdebobaa: Tamada sul mudam mobilizebuli unda iyos, rom araferi gamoeparos, yvelas sakadrisi pativi miagos, aravis moaklos yuradReba, aravin gamotovos, sadRegrZeloebi rigis mixedviT, SeuSlelad warmoTqvas; aRkveTos konfliqti, romlis saSiSroeba mravalricxovan sufrebze arsebobs. xalxuri leqsi amgvarad gvixatavs kargi Tamadisa da, saerTod, sufris wevris, saxes:
`Zmao, sufrisa lxini xar, mRera giyvars da RiRini, kaci rom geSarebodes, Sen pirze mogdis Rimili, ieso qristem maCvenos, Seni yviTeli gvirgvini~.
zurab kiknaZe

vazi da Rvino xalxur sityvierebaSi

Tamadis uSualo movaleoba sadRegrZeloebis warmoTqmaa, romelTac met-naklebad mkacri Tanmimdevroba aqvT, rac ganpirobebulia sufris xasiaTiTa da daniSnulebiT. Tamadam unda warmoTqvas aucilebeli sadRegrZeloebi, romelTagan romelimes gamotoveba naklad eTvleba. savaldebulos zeviT igi Tavisufalia. mas eZleva improvizebuli sadRegrZeloebis warmoTqmis saSualeba. sadRegrZeloTa Tanamimdevroba gansazRvrulia, Tumca daSvebulia variaciebi, gadaadgileba, zogierTi maTganis bolosken motoveba. yovel Tamadas Tavisi individualoba, Tamadobis sakuTari stili aqvs. sadRegrZeloSi bevri qebaa, xSirad gadaWarbebuli, ise rom adamiani uxerxuladac ki grZnobs Tavs, magram iZulebulia, fexze idges da ismendes. erTi bewo damsaxureba sadRegrZeloSi xandaxan grandiozul masStabebs iZens, adresati iTmens amas, moTminebiT ismenen sufris wevrebic, aravin am hiperbolur qebas seriozulad ar aRiqvams. yvela mas ritualad miiCnevs. romauli andazis periferazi rom gavakeToT, sadRegrZeloSi unda iTqvas an qeba an araferi. miuxedavad gadaWarbebuli xotbisa, sadRegrZelo sufris wevrebis urTierTgacnobas emsaxureba; Tamada cdilobs, sufris TiToeul wevrSi

58

raime kargi Tviseba dainaxos, gaixsenos keTilSobiluri aqti misi cxovrebidan, odnav Sealamazos, win wamoswios... arsebobs sufraze Semoswrebulis sadRegrZeloc, Semoswrebuli SeiZleba iyos sufris dagvianebuli wevri an stumari, romelic dapatiJebuli ar yofila da SemTxveviT moxvda sufraze. es araviTar uxerxulobas ar uqmnis arc mas da arc sufras. piriqiT, mas sixaruliT da enTuziazmiT egebebian. yvelaze Zvirfasi qarTul sufraze daupatiJebeli stumaria. es kargi niSania, radgan `stumari RvTisaa~. sagangebo sadRegrZelos dros sufraze motanilma sasmisma unda Camoiaros sufris yvela wevri, raTa am erTi WurWliT Sesvas yvelam. amiT gamoixateba pativiscema sadRegrZelos adresatisadmi da amave dros sufris konsolidacia. saerTo sasmisis Camotareba sufraze SeiZleba ramdenjerme ganmeordes. rogorc dasawyisi aqvs sufras, aseve aqvs mas dasasruli. roca amoiwureba sadRegrZeloebis (savaldebuloTa da TavisufalTa) mTeli repertuari, wamodgeba sufris wevri, xSirad uxucesi, TanamesufreTa davalebiT da maTi saxeliT adRegrZelebs Tamadas, Seuqebs mas Tamadobas, madlobas gadauxdis, usurvebs mravalgzis lxinis sufraze Tamadobas da a.S. bolo sityva mainc Tamadas ekuTvnis. bolo sadRegrZelo eZRvneba RvTismSobels. es aris e. w. sayovladwmidao. `yovladwmida~ marTlmadidebel samyaroSi RvTismSoblis upirvelesi epiTetia. es sadRegrZelo aucilebelia. igi asrulebs sufras. imdenad aucilebelia, rom yofila SemTxveva, Tamadas daviwynia misi warmoTqma da Tavis sofelSi wasuli ukan mobrunebula RamiT qarSi da avdarSi. saqarTvelos mTian kuTxeSi, svaneTSi, dRemde Semonaxulia sufris warmarTvis da rigis arqauli wesi. aqac sufras RvTismSoblis xseneba amTavrebs. sadRegrZeloTa rigi aseTia: pirvelad warmoiTqmis didi RmerTis `sadRegrZelo~, sadidebeli; meored axseneben mTavarangelozs (igulisxmeba miqaeli), mesamed – wminda giorgis. am sam kanonikur sadRegrZelos da RvTismSoblis samadlobelo sadRegrZelos Soris, am CarCoSi, sufris manZilze, Tamada warmoTqvams sadRerZeloebs, romlebic eZRvneba Sekrebis mizans (niSnoba, qorwili da sxva). personaluri sadRegrZeloebi aq ar ician. SesaZlebelia, Tamadam Sesvas vinme pativsacemi stumris an uxucesi adamianis sadRegrZelo. gansakuTrebulia glovis sufra. micvalebulis dakrZalvis Semdeg monawileni – naTesavebi, micvalebulis megobrebi, ojaxis axloblebi, mezoblebi – sasaflaodan brundebian saxlSi an midian sagangebod daqiravebul darbazSi (dRes umeteswilad ase xdeba) da imarTeba glovis sufra. amas ewodeba qelexi. igi Sedis dakrZalvis ritualSi, rogorc aucilebeli Semadgeneli, damagvirgvinebeli nawili. amave dros qelexi WirisuflebisTvis nugeSiscemis erTi yvelaze qmediTi saSualebaa. qelexis sufra ufro metad ritualizebulia da mkacrad reglamentirebuli, sadRegrZeloTa rigi da ricxvi (miRebulia kenti – 9 an 13) gansazRvrulia. sadRegrZeloebi Tavs ikrebs micvalebulis garSemo, magram mxolod misi xsenebiT ar amoiwureba. TuSeTSi, saqarTvelos erT-erT eTnografiul regionSi, qelexis sufraze aucileblad iTqmis sxvadasxvagvarad daRupulTa Sesandobari: zvavSi

vazi – sicocxlis xe

59 moyolilTa an wyalSi damxrCvalTa; upatronod gardacvlilTa; maTi, visi saxlic upatronod darCa; maTi, vis saxlSic cecxli arasodes dainTeba; maTi, visac arasodes aravin gaixsenebs; maTi, vinc Tavisi qveynis gareT daixocnen; maTi, vinc mtris miwaze darCa mokluli; maTi, vinc mSobiarobas gadahyva; vinc mounaTlavi an dauqorwinebeli mokvda, vinc Tavi moikla... rogorc vxedavT, Sesandobarebi sakmaod bevria, magram maT patara sasmisebiT svamen... qelexis tipi gansxvavdeba saqarTvelos regionebis mixedviT. Tu aRmosavleT saqarTvelosa da did qalaqebSi qelexi dakrZalvas mosdevs, dasavleT saqarTvelos soflebSi qelexis sufra win uZRvis dakrZalvas. magram es ar aris erTiani sufra: sxvadasxva soflidan mosulebi miusamZimreben Wirisufals, sxdebian sufrasTan, micvalebulis Sesandobrad Sesvamen sam Wiqa Rvinos da dgebian. axla sxva partia miusxdeba sufras da asea micvalebulis gasvenebamde. zogadad qelexis sufra mokrZalebulia: mwvanili, wnili, fxali, Tevzeuli (sxvadasxvagvarad momzadebuli), lobio da, rac mTavaria, samgloviaro sufrisaTvis aucilebelia wandili (TaflSi areuli moxarSuli xorbali). es ukanaskneli usaTuod unda igemos sufris wevrma; amboben, rom is `micvalebuls miudis~. dasavleT saqarTveloSi qelexis sufraze akrZalulia ara marto xorceuli, aramed Tevzeulic – mxolod wnili, flavi da lobio ician. aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi qelexis dasasruls SemoaqvT flavi (Sila-flavi anu xorciani flavi, xolo Tu marxvis dRea, sokoiani), rac niSans aZlevs Tamadas, rom xelmeored Sesvas gardacvlilis Sesandobari da amiT daasrulos sufra. qelexis sufraze Tamadis sadRegrZelo ar Seismis. Wirisufali mas madlobas uxdis da usurvebs, rom momavalSi samxiarulo sufraze eTamados. gardacvalebidan 40 dRis da mere ukve wlis gasvlis Semdeg kvlav ikribebian da Slian sufras. wlisTavze xdeba `Wiris axda~. amieridan Wirisuflebs, ojaxs da sofels neba eZlevaT, gamarTon qorwilebi da sxva samxiarulo nadimebi. zogierT TemSi `Wiris axdis~ niSnad vinme arCeuli kaci mTeli soflis SuagulSi gamodis da mxiarul hangze ukravs fandurs.
zurab kiknaZe

vazi da Rvino xalxur sityvierebaSi

simRera
sadRegrZeloTa Soris pauzebs simRera avsebs. simReras Tamada iwyebs an, Tu Tavad ar SeuZlia (Tumca Tamadis TvisebebSi simReris codnac Sedis), sufris wevrebs mouwodebs, imReron. iSviaTia sufra, sadac TanameinaxeTa Soris ori-sami mainc ar aRmoCndes simReris mcodne. uceb iqmneba improvizebuli `gundi~. zogi pirvel xmas ambobs, zogi – meores, banis mTqmelebic aRmoCndebian da sufris musikaluri gaformebac uzrunvelyofilia. sufruli simRerebis repertuari Zalze farToa. usimRero sufra naklulad iTvleba. erTaderTi glovis sufraze ar iTqmis simRera. xalxuri leqsi kicxavs aseT `puris Wamas~:

`pursa sWamen da Rvinos smen, simReras ar ityviano, ar vici, visme glovoben, ar vici, ar iciano~.

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saqarTvelos zogierT kuTxeSi arsebobda sufraze simRerebis Sesrulebis mkacrad gansazRvruli wesi. sufraze imRereboda ara nebismieri simRera, aramed mxolod da mxolod sufruli simRerebi, Tanac mkacri TanmimdevrobiT. tradiciul sufraze ori an sami gundi TiTqos erTmaneTs ejibreboda: jer erTi gundi iwyebda simReris erT striqons, Semdeg meore gundi meore striqoniT upasuxebda da bolos mesame gundi – mesameTi. iwyebdnen moxucebi. isini simReris pirvel strofs mRerodnen; meore strofiT Suaxnis xalxi CaerTveboda; axalgazrdebi ki mesame strofiT ahyvebodnen. simRerebis Tanmimdevrobac gansazRvruli iyo: icodnen, romeli simReriT unda dawyebuliyo lxini, romliT gagrZelebuliyo da romliT dasrulebuliyo. klasikur sufraze sami simRera imRereboda – es aucilebeli iyo. SeumCneviaT da uTqvamT, sufruli simRerebi sagalobels hgavso. es WeSmaritad asea: bevri qarTuli simRera saeklesio warmoSobisaa. roca droTa viTarebaSi eklesiaSi axali hangis sagaloblebi Semodioda, Zveli ar ikargeboda da sufraze gadadioda. sufram `miibara~ isini da dRemde Semoinaxa, Tumca garkveulad saxecvlili. maT saeklesio warmoSobas zogierTis saxelwodebac mowmobs. ganTqmuli `mravalJamieri~, romelic mTel saqarTveloSi mraval variantad aris gavrcelebuli, sxva araferia, Tu ara saeklesio sagalobeli, romelsac gansakuTrebul SemTxvevaSi asruleben eklesiaSi. mag., Tbilisis `sionSi~patriarqis SebrZanebas gundi omaxiani galobiT – `mravalJamieriT~ – egebeba. es aris igive poliqronion (berZn. polychronion `many years~). aucilebelia aRiniSnos, rom qarTul sufras bevri saerTo aqvs zogierT saeklesio ritualTan, gansakuTrebiT –JamiswirvasTan. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom saero sufra saeklesio dalocvebis sekularuli gardaqmnis Sedegia. rogorc saeklesio galobebi iqca sufrul saero simRerebad, aseve eklesiaSi warmoTqmuli kvereqsebi, sadac saxeldebiT ixseneben cocxlebsa da gardacvlilebs, sufraze sadRegrZeloebadaa saxecvlili. qarTuli purobis liturgiuli warmoSoba yvelaze TvalsaCinod Semdeg moqmedebaSi Cans: micvalebulTa mosaxseneblad sufris TiToeuli wevri puris naWers RvinoSi Caawobs, igemebs mas da mxolod amis Semdeg Sesvams sasmiss, Tan dasZens: `RmerTma Seundos, gaanaTlos misi suli, daumkvidros sasufeveli, naTelSi amyofos~ da sxva. es aucilebeli wesi evqaristuli ritualis gamoZaxilia. amiT aris gamowveuli, rom saqarTveloSi Rvinos mowiwebiT eqcevian, mis smas pasuxismgeblobiT ekidebian. ar aris miRebuli Rvinis Sesma naCqarevad, usityvod. maspinZeli saxlSi Sesul stumars (Tundac SemTxveviTs) Tass awvdis da dalocvas sTxovs. stumaric oriode sityviT dalocavs ojaxs: `keTili iyos Cemi fexi am saxlSi, RmerTma gamravloT, Wiri gaSoroT da a.S.~ xalxs swams, rom RviniT dalocvas didi Zala aqvs...

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meoTxe werili

revaz siraZe

vazi da Rvino qarTul mwerlobaSi
amqveyniur movlenebs xom aTasgvari kavSiri aqvT, magram saocaria kavSiri iseT movlenebs Soris, rogoricaa vazi, qarTuli CuqurTma da mze. TiTqosda, ra saerTo SeiZleba hqondeT?! maT Soris kavSirs amyarebs esTetikuri TvalTaxedva. da Tuki esTetikas SeuZlia erTmaneTs daukavSiros egrerigad daSorebuli movlenebi, maSin mTeli samyaroc esTetikurad erTiani yofila. marTlac, esTetika mTeli samyaros gamTlianebas eswrafvis.

saqarTveloSi Rvinisa da vazis kulti mravalmxriv vlindeba; gansakuTrebiT ki nadimze. nadimi TanameinaxeTa iseTi erTianobaa, sadac sufris TiToeuli wevris individualobaa gamovlenili – yvelas eZleva sityva, yvelas eZRvneba qeba, Tundac zedmeti; aq wesis aRsruleba ufro mniSvnelovania, vidre realoba. sadRegrZelo araa gansja, is ufro sasurveli iluziaa. aqedan gamomdinare, nadims axlavs purobis esTetizeba – ara TviTmiznuri mxiaruleba, aramed sevdis daZleva. esaa esTetikuri udardeloba, rasac uiliam aleni qarTvelTa erT-erT niSan-Tvisebad miiCnevda. qarTuli nadimis xasiaTs qarTuli simRera, misi polifoniuroba gansazRvravs. polifoniurobac qarTvelTa individualizmis daZlevaa. mRerian sam sxvadasxva xmaSi – pirvels, meoresa da bans. samgvari individualoba – sami xma – erTiandeba, magram ise, rom TiToeuli namReri Tavis xmaze rCeba, individualoba ar ikargeba. saqarTveloSi Rvinisa da vazis kulti yovelTvis erTianobaSi moiazreba, maSinac ki, roca erT-erTi maTgania warmodgenili. es exeba rogorc winaqristianul, aseve qristianul xanasac. miTosuri warmodgeniT vazi RvTaebriv mcenared iTvleba. mas Tayvans scemdnen da `sicocxlis xed~ miiCnevdnen (ruseTSi RvTaebriv xed naZvi iTvleboda. amitomac rTavdnen naZvis xes saaxalwlod. Tumca rusul ornamentSic kargad Cans vazis formebi). roca CvenSi umTavresi RmerTi mze gaxda, mcenareTagan mis yvelaze axloblad vazi miuCneviaT, radgan vazi yvelaze metad Seiwovda mzis Zalas,

romelic Semdgom RvinoSi gadadioda da adamians aTrobda. maSindeli rwmeniT, mzis Zalas ara mxolod mtevani da foTlebi, aramed vazis tanic isrutavda. es iyo mzisgan moniWebuli siyvarulis Zala, romelsac mtevanica da vazis tanic qaluri siyvaruliT ganicdidnen. am ZaliT iyo dagrexili vazi da amave ZaliT etmasneboda Wigos, raSic silamaze, Tu gnebavT, mziuri silamaze aRiqmeboda. amitomac daamsgavses vazis mimoxras qarTuli CuqurTma. ufro sworad, CuqurTmaSi vazis silamaze Caawnes. vazi, Rvino da qarTuli CuqurTma mzis ZaliTaa gamsWvaluli. qarTuli CuqurTmis mTavari xazi vazis mimoxras gvagonebs, TiTqos vazi exvevao Wigos. vazis ornamenti Cans uZvelesi xanis TrialeTis Taszec da bediis barZimzec. vaziseuli xazebi uZveles qarTul asoebSia (mrgvlovanSic) gamokveTili. qarTul ornamentSi vazis foTlebi da mtevnebia gamosaxuli. amgvaradaa moxatuli daviT aRmaSeneblis samefo samosi gelaTis freskaze, aseve sveticxovlis taZris fasadebze, ananuris eklesiis dasavleT kedelze da sxva mraval taZarze. agreTve – uZveles balTebze, qarTul naqargobaze, taZarTa svetisTavebisa da tradiciuli qarTuli odis ornamentebze, Weduri xatebis CuqurTmebze. zogjer naqandakar jvrebs naqandakari mtevani hkidia... ase xSirad da mravalferovnad arc sxva ram motivi gvxvdeba qarTul ornamentSi da arc sxva romelime mcenare. wminda nino modioda saqarTveloSi da Tan mohqonda jvari vazisa. am jvriT unda daeloca xalxi, unda daenerga axali rwmena. TiTqosda, moulodnelia jvaris gakeTeba vazisagan. magram ninos unda scodnoda, rom vazs qarTvelebi odiTganve aRmerTebdnen. isini ar icnobdnen qristianobas; SeiZleba, arc macxovris simboluri SinaarsiT naTqvami sityvebi gaegonaT; me vazi da mamaCemi ki mevenaxeo (i. 15,1), magram cnobdnen vazis Zalas, vazis kults. amitom qarTvelebi vazis jvars ufro irwmunebdnen. gadmocemiT, vazis jva-

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vazi – sicocxlis xe

63 ri ninos Tavisi TmebiT Seukravs. Tmebi, ZvelTaZveli warmodgeniT, mzis sxivis simboloa. RvTiurobis momniWebeli. qalRmerTi dali Tavisi oqrosferi TmebiT mziur ZalasTanaa wilnayari. vazis jvris TmebiT Sekvrac mzisa da vazis urTierTkavSirs moaswavebs. amgvari jvriT ninos xalxi unda moenaTla. sityva – `monaTvla~ – xalxSi naTelis Setanas niSnavs. saqarTveloSi dRemdea SenarCunebuli rwmena, rom yurZnis marcvalSi mzis sxivia. es ukve miTosuri rwmena ki aRar aris, aramed vazis esTetizaciaa. Tu adre Rvinisa da vazis kultis esTetizacia miTosiT xdeboda, qristianobaSi igi macxovarsa da macxovris simbolos – mzes – daukavSirda. saerTo motivi orivegan RvTiuri sinaTlea, im gansxvavebiT, rom adre RvTaeba mze iyo, Semdeg ki RviniTa da vaziT simbolizebuli macxovari gaxda.
revaz siraZe

vazi da Rvino qarTul mwerlobaSi

bibliuri simboloebi
Rvinisa da vazis simbolur gaazrebas mTeli biblia gansazRvravs, gansakuTrebiT `axali aRTqma~ (wesic xom aseTia: `Zveli aRTqma~ `axali aRTqmis~ mixedviT unda wavikiTxoT). `axal aRTqmaSi~ gansakuTrebiT yuradsaRebia saidumlo seroba. `seroba~ Rameul purobas niSnavs (`seri~ megrulad Ramea da etyoba, igi saerTo qarTul sityvadac iqca). wm. lukas saxareba (l. 22, 14-20) mogviTxrobs: `roca moaRwia Jamma, dajda macxovari da masTan erTad mociqulebic. da uTxra maT: `didad msurda TqvenTan erTad meWama es paseqi Cemi tanjvis win. rameTu me geubnebiT Tqven, rom aRar vWam mas, vidre ar aRsruldeba igi RvTis sasufevelSi~. aiRo sasmisi, madli Seswira da uTxra maT: `aiReT da gaiyaviT erTmaneTs Soris. rameTu getyviT Tqven: amieridan aRar Sevsvam vazis nayofisagan, vidre ar mova RvTis sasufeveli~. aiRo puri, madli Seswira, datexa, misca maT da uTxra: `es Cemi sxeulia, romelic TqvenTvis miecema. es gaakeTeT Cems mosagoneblad~. aseve aiRo sasmisi serobis Semdeg da Tqva: `es sasmisi aris axali aRTqma Cems sisxlSi, TqvenTvis rom iRvreba~. wm. maTes saxareba amas umatebs: serobis Semdeg `igalobes da gaswies zeTisxilis mTisaken~ (mT. 26,30). aRwerili saRvTo liturgiis, umaRlesi RvTismsaxurebis pirvelnimuSia, romelsac Semdgom maRali RvTismsaxurni aRasrulebdnen xolme. Cveulebrivi purobis dros ki `saidumlo seroba~ Seaxsenebs adamians, siwmindiT miirTvas pur-Rvino da RvinoSi maincdamainc simTvrale ar eZios. qristesmieri saswauli galileis kanaSi gamarTul qorwilze, rodesac RvTismSoblis TxovniT iesom wyali Rvinod aqcia (i. 2, 1-10), kidev erTxel gvarwmunebs, rom adamianis sakvebTagan yvelaze wminda puri da Rvinoa. gavixsenoT, rom Tavad iesoc zogjer miirTmevda Rvinos da mavanni mas ayvedridnen, rogor akeTebs amas mebaJeebTan da codvilebTano (mT. 11,17, l. 7,34).

`sibrZne ziraqisa~ gvaswavlis: `kacTa sicocxlisaTvis Rvino saWiroa, Tuki mas zomierad Sesvamen. ra aris sicocxle Rvinis gareSe?! igi xom kacTa sasixarulod Seiqmna~ (31,27), Tumca iqve naTqvamia: `nu amxileb axlobels nadimze Rvinis smisas da mxiarulebaSi myofs nu daamcireb; nu dauwyeb sayvedurs da TxovniT nu Seawuxeb~ (31,31). `qebaTa-qeba~ ase iwyeba: `Rvinoze tkbilia Seni alersi~; Rvinoze Zlieria siyvaruli. bibliidanve ecnobodnen qarTvelebi aseT ambebs: warRvnis Semdeg `daiwyo noem miwismuSakoba da gaaSena venaxi. Sesva Rvino, daTvra da gaSiSvlda Tavis karavSi; dainaxa qamma, qanaanis mamamTavarma, mamis siSiSvle da Seatyobina gareT Tavis or Zmas. aiRes semma da iafetma samoseli, moisxes mxrebze, ukusvliT mividnen da dafares mamis siSiSvle. piri ukan hqondaT miqceuli da mamis siSiSvle ar daunaxavT~. amis Semdeg mosem dawyevla qami da qanaani da daloca semi da iafeti (romlis STamomavlad zogjer qarTvelebsac Tvlidnen). bibliuri ambebi da simboloebi asaxulia qarTul folklorSic, Zvel qarTul mwerlobaSic da yofaSic – saqarTveloSi vazis erT-erT jiSs `noes vazi~ hqvia.

hagiografia
qarTul hagiografiaSi mravalmxriv Cans vazi (`venaxi~) da Rvino. `wminda ninos cxovrebaSi~ (IV s.) yvelaze mniSvnelovani simboloebia jvari vazisa da samoTxe. amasTanave, friad sayuradReboa, rom samoTxec vaziTaa warmosaxuli. wminda nino yveba: `im dReebSi orgzis da samgzis vixile CvenebaSi fexze dgomisas mcire mirulebis dros, rom modiodnen cis frinvelebi, mdinareSi Cadiodnen, ganibanebodnen da baRSi Semodiodnen, babilos mohkortnidnen, yvavils moZovdnen da Cems mimarT gulianad RaRadebdnen, TiTqosda, Cemi yofiliyos es baRi. JRiviliT irgvliv mexveodnen da Cems mimarT xmianobdnen. mSvenieri iyo maTi xilva da es meordeboda mravalgzis~ (ZqalZ, I, 123). wminda ninos mier CvenebaSi xiluli baRi samoTxea. mis mixedviTaa warmodgenili samoTxe qarTul freskebzec, maT Soris, axtalis qarTul taZarSi (romelic amJamad somxeTis teritoriaze mdebareobs). samoTxis am suraTebze Cven vxedavT `babilos~ anu maRlar venaxs. mtevnebiani vazi samoTxis centrSi dgas, e. i. is sicocxlis xes gamoxatavs. mas samoTxis Citebi exvevian. rogorc vxedavT, qarTul qristianobaSi vazma sicocxlis xis funqcia SeinarCuna da samoTxis centrSi moeqca. zemoTqmuli erT ramesac gvavaraudebinebs. mcxeTaSi, sveticxovlis siaxloves arsebuli mixeil mamulaSvilis cnobili baRi SesaZloa SemorCenili nawili iyos Zveli samefo baRis (ZvelqarTulad samoTxis), romlis gverdiT

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65 geTsimaniis baRi unda yofiliyo. geTsimania, rogorc bibliidan momdinare simbolo, aqaurobis saxeldebad dRemdea SemorCenili. purisa da Rvinis siwmindes gamoxatavs `SuSanikis wamebis~ (V s.) cnobili epizodic – puroba. samSoblos, sarwmunoebisa da ojaxis moRalate varsqeni SuSanikis Semorigebas Seecdeba. am mizniT ojaxur purobas gamarTavs, romelzedac Tavis Zmas, jojiks, mis meuRlesa da SuSaniks miiwvevs. jojikis coli SuSaniks RviniT savse Wiqas miawodebs, razedac dedofali ganrisxdeba da Wiqas xels kravs, igi Zirs daecema, gatydeba da Rvino daiqceva. es ar iyo SuSanikis wuTieri afeTqebis Sedegi. man rZali varsqenis Tanamoazred CaTvala. ojaxis wevrebi mxardaWeris nacvlad SuSanikis gadabirebas cdilobdnen. dedofals ki ar surda varsqenTan da mis TanameinaxeebTan purisa da Rvinis gaziareba, radgan qristianisTvis es macxovris xorcsa da sisxlTan ziarebis simbolod aRiqmeboda. maSinac ki, Tu aseTi simboluri gaazreba gamoiricxeboda, SuSaniki am purobas mainc ukeTurobad CaTvlida, radgan ukeTur pirebTan puroba rogorc amJamad, Zveladac ukeTurobad iTvleboda. `serapion zarzmelis cxovrebaSi~ (X s.) erTi metad sayuradRebo fraza gvxvdeba: `dasxdes serobad, iwvdies Rvino da sulieri da xorcieli sixaruli ganazaves~ (ZqalZ, I, 336). aq `seri~ sasulieri trapezi anu sasuliero purobaa, romelsac sasuliero pirebi eswrebian. Rvinoc saRvTismsaxuro aqvT da, rac metad sayuradReboa, `xorcieli sixarulis~ survilic gaaCniaT. igulisxmeba, rom `xorcieli sixaruli~ sulierebamde unda amaRldes, erTmaneTs Seuzavdes sulieri da xorcieli da es yovelive serobaze Rvinis meSveobiT unda ganxorcieldes. `grigol xanZTelis cxovrebidan~ (X s.) sayuradReboa Semdegi epizodi: grigolma sikvdilis moaxloeba rom igrZno, jer Satberds ewvia, mere xanZTas dabrunda, Semdeg ki opizis gzaze mdebare venaxis monaxuleba ineba (aq gasaxsenebelia macxovris sityvebi: me var vazi WeSmariti, mamaCemi ki – mevenaxe~ (i. 15,1). tao-klarjeTis monastrebTan dRemde gvxvdeba vazi, romelic upatronobiT gavelurebulia. arada qarTvelTa Sromis kultura swored venaxTan dakavSirebiT warmoCndeba. venaxi xom iseTive did Sromas moiTxovs, rogorc qarTuli CuqurTmis Wra. `grigol xanZTelis cxovrebaSi~ kargad gamoCnda qarTuli sufris kidev erTi daniSnuleba – is iyo gansjis asparezi. TxzulebaSi aRwerilia javaxeTis kreba, romelzedac saqarTvelos kaTolikoss irCeven. saero gamgebels, guaram mamfals, kaTalikosad surs efremi – awyuris episkoposi. iqaurobis sulieri mamamTavris, arqimandrit grigol xanZTelis zegavleniT kaTalikosad arsens airCeven. ganawyenebuli mamfali wyenas gulSi Caiklavs da yvelas purobaze miiwvevs. mere ki, roca `gamxiarulda guaram RviniTa~, ikiTxavs: aqvs Tu ara eriskacs ufleba, sulierad mniSvnelovani ram xalxs auwyos. mas upasuxeben, rom Tu es marTlac aucilebelia, episkoposs unda gadasces da is auwyebs xalxs. aq Cans naRvinevi kacis simarTle, Tanac sxvisTvis arasasurveli simarTle. saamiso ganwyobilebas ki Rvino qmnis.
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vazi da Rvino qarTul mwerlobaSi

saero mwerloba
mose xonelis saraindo-sadevgmiro romani `amirandarejaniani~ (XII s.) ase iwyeba: `iyo hindoT mefe abesalom, morWmuli (anu Zlevamosili) da gangebiani da ara iyo SeWirveba gulsa missa... orSabaTsa, samSabaTsa da oTxSabaTs – ama samsa dResa – uxmis aTasi didebuli da gascemdis saboZvarsa, raca vis xvdebodis. xuTSabaTsa, paraskevsa da SabaTsa nadirobdis da ganisvenebdis, kviriakesa dResa dajdis da samefosa saqmesa ganagebdis~. aq nadimi uSualod ar Cans, magram igulisxmeba. nadirobas puroba mohyveboda-xolme. asea `vefxistyaosanSic~. giorgi aTonelis `ioanesa da eqvTimes cxovrebaSi~ (XI s.) erTgvarad moulodneli Txroba Cndeba: trapezze anu samonastro purobaze iveronis mamasaxlisi eqvTime aToneli Turme Tavad gausinjavda-xolme gemos Rvinos da mere mevaJines (Rvinis mnes) ase etyoda: `Zmao, amaT ZmaTa nugeSinis sacemeli sxua¡ ara sada¡T aqvs amis trapezis kide. ukueTu subuqi Rvino iyos, yola nu urTav wyalsa, da ukueTu saSuali iyos, jerisaebr urieo~. e. i. TviT eqvTime aToneli nebas rTavda aTonel berebs, Rvino sazrdelad mieRoT da amiT mciredi nugeSi egrZnoT (mogvianebiT `seri-mimwuxri~ sulxan-sabasTan ukve sazrdelia da mxolod sasuliero trapezs aRar gulisxmobs. asea sabas qadagebebSic). `Rvino~ da `Rvino-smuli~ `vefxistyaosanSicaa~ naxsenebi miuxedavad imisa, rom moqmedeba mahmadianur samyaroSi xdeba. ironizebul konteqstSia naTqvami fatmanze:
`mutribTa da momReralTa moyvaruli, Rvinis msmeli~ (1087).

uRirsi Rvinismsmelia fatmanis qmari, vaWarTuxucesi useni. man fatmans piroba misca, rom ar gaamxelda nestanis maTTan yofnas, magram ZRvenis mitanis dros xelmwifesTan uazrod daTvra da fici gatexa:
`ra mefeman usens wina sva mravali dostaqani (sasmisi), kvla Sesves da kvla auvsnes sxva farCni (sasmisi) da sxva Wiqani, daaviwydes igi ficni...~ (1175).

vazi – sicocxlis xe

vaWrebi ara Tu omis umecarni arian, maT wesieri nadimobac ar ZaluZT. mdabali Rirsebisaa WaSnagiric, Rvinis meWaSnike, Tumca es Tanamdeboba mefeTa karze sapatiod iTvleboda. avTandilisa da TinaTinis qorwili poemaSi asea aRwerili:
`iagundis jamebi, iyvis lalisa Wiqebi, kvla ucxo-ferTa WurWelTa hsxdis ucxo-ucxo siqebi... mutribTa modges yovelgniT, ismodis xma winwilisa, SeyriT Zes gori oqrosa da balaxSisa Tlilisa; msmelTaTvis wyaro Rvinisa asgan dis, msgavsi milisa, bindiT ciskramdis sma iyo, gardaxda Jami dilisa~.

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tarielis xataelebze gamarjvebis aRsaniSnavad samefo karma nadimi gamarTa:

67
`Seiqmna didi puroba, msgavsi maTisa Zalisa; sxva gaxareba aseTi ars unaxavi Tvalisa! jami da Wiqa – yvelai firuzisa da lalisa. arvisi brZana mefeman arca gaSveba mTvralisa~ (489).
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cxadia, aq Cans aristokratuli nadimis zedmetoba da arapirdapir isic Cans, rom Tamar mefis didwarmatebul xanas uaryofiTi niSnebic axlda. es kidev ufro naTlad gulanSaros magaliTze vlindeba. gulanSaroeli mebaRe ambobs:
`aqa moslviTa gaymdebis, kacica iyos berebi: sma, gaxareba, TamaSi, niadag ars simRerebi, zamTar da zafxul sworad gvaqvs yvavili ferad-ferebi, vinca gvicnoben, gvnatrian, igica, vinca mterebi~ (1075).

vazi da Rvino qarTul mwerlobaSi

mebaRis sityvebze amgvari paradoqsuli namReri gvaxsendeba: `Tu ase vimxiarulebT, ras dagvaklebs mterio~, sadac mTqmelis TviTironia Zalzed naTelia. igive SeiZleba iTqvas mebaRezec. S. rusTavelis `vefxistyaosanSi~ rigianad warmoCnda samefo nadimis zogierTi fsiqologiuri mxarec. unda gavixsenoT, rom `xelmwifis karis garigebaSi~, sadac Tamar mefis xanis samefo karis ceremonialuri kulturaa asaxuli, aSkarad Cans, rom es normirebuli kultura socialur wesrigsa da darbaislur aristokratizms nergavs. raSi gamoixateba es? TinaTinis gamefebis Semdeg gamarTul nadimze rostevan `mefe smasa da mRerasa iqms, metad moilxinebda~, magram
`dRe erT gardaxda. puroba, sma Wama iyo xiloba, nadimad msxdomTa laSqarTa mun didi Semoyriloba. mefeman Tavi dahkida, da hqonda daRrejiloba. `neta, ra umZims, ra sWirso?~ – Seqmnes amisi ciloba~. (58)

rostevanis mowyenilobam yvela ganacvifra, gansakuTrebiT ki spaspeti avTandili da veziri sograti. swored aq gamoCnda elitaruli nadimis ceremonialuri kulturis daxvewiloba.
`avTandil Tqva: sograt, vhkiTxoT, gviTxras, radmca Segvecila? vhkadroT rame salaRobo, rasaTvismca gagviwbila?!~

sufra iTmenda, rom mefisTvis salaRobo sityviT miemarTaT. etiketi dairRveoda, sruliad moulodneli dasevdianebis mizezi seriozulobiT rom ekiTxaT. avTandili da sograti adgnen, `TviTo aivses Wiqebi, mivlen qceviTa wynariTa~. WiqiT xelSi misvlac sanadimo etiketia. rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, qarTuli nadimi erTgvarad awonasworebs TanameinaxeT, TviT mefesa da vazirebsac ki, Tundac garegnul Tavisuflebas aniWebs maT, amsubuqebs situacias, xsnis daZabulobas. amitomac mefe rostevans avTandili da vaziri, mocinari piriT, win miusxdebian; `vaziri laRobs eniTa wylianad moubariTa~ (60). laRad ekiTxebian mowyenis mizezs: axladgamefebulma Senma asulma Zalze didi saboZvari gasca da xom ar nanob, mefed rom dasvio? iseTi rame hkiTxes,

risic Tavadac ara sjerodaT. es qveteqstiT igrZnoba. mefem Tavdapirvelad maT `gacinebiT Semohxedna~, Semdeg ki ufro mkacrad gaikvirva: `viT mkadrao, an sityvani viT gabedna?!~ magram mainc mouwona saqcieli: `kargi hqmeno, daumadla~, bolos ki ase auxsna dardis mizezi:
`kaci ar aris, siTganca sabrZanebeli Cvenia, rome mas Cemgan eswavlnes samamaconi znenia~ (69).

amaze avTandilma `Tav-modrekiT gaiRimna~. mefes Sehkadra SvildosnobaSi gavejibroT da simarTle iq gamoCndebao. asec gadawyda. mefem TviTonac kargad icoda Tavisi gazrdili avTandilis vaJkacoba. avTandils ki, mefesTan siaxlovis garda, nadimma gaabedina, gajibreba rom SesTavaza. `vefxistyaosanSi~ yuradRebas iqcevs, Tu raoden daxvewilia nadimis ceremonialuri kultura, sityvaxmarebis etiketi, romelsac kargi iumori axlavs, rogor aTanasworebs nadimi Tanameinaxeebs. mefe didad moilxens, Rvinosac miirTmevs da kidec amRerdeba. amiT igi, TviT mefec, mxiarulebis ganwyobas uqmnis sufris wevrebs. aseTi iyo tradiciuli nadimi. magram mainc rCeba kiTxva: raRa maincdamainc am nadimze gaaxsenda rostevan mefes, rom samefoSi Rirseul rainds ver tovebda? xom ar unda vigulisxmoT, rom rostevani, Tundac friad kmayofili am nadimiT da misi guliTadi monawile, mainc grZnobda nadimiseuli ganwyobilebis calmxrivobas; imas, rom sinamdvileSi nadimze aRaravis axsovs qveynis saraindo momavali, rom sanadimo raindoba butaforiulia da iluziuri. am yovelives rostevani albaT Tavis axlo wrezec avrcelebda, rasac unda daesevdianebina igi da daefiqrebina WeSmarit saraindo momavalze. Rvinosa da vazTan mimarTebaSi SeuZlebelia ar gavixsenoT sulxan-saba orbelianis (1658-1725) `leqsikoni~, sadac am TemasTan dakavSirebuli mTeli terminologiaa Camoyalibebuli. gvxvdeba siaxlenic da tradiciuli sityvaxmarebac. `vazi yurZnis xea~, – weria leqsikonSi. yurZenTan dakavSirebiT ki miTiTebulia, naxeo: `katis-yurZena, mohyurZne, ZaRlis-yurZena, xmeli yurZeni (CamiCTan)~. manamde miTiTebulia ricxvTa 13, 21, sadac TviT sulxan-saba orbelianisave naredaqtoral bibliis teqstSi weria: `ra¡ ars queyana igi, anu poxil ars, anu mWle, anu Tu ars xe mas zeda anu Tu ara. da ganekrZaleniT da moiReT nayofisa misgan miss queyanisa. da dReni igi iyvnes dReni zafxulisani da Jami msTvisa (mwifobisa – r. s.) yurZnisa~. `venaxic~ xea, e. i. ukve gaigivebul iqna venaxi da vazi. adre sityva `vazi~ ufro vazis nasxlevs niSnavda da ara xes, Tumca sabasTan ukve aris `vazi – yurZnis xe~. gvxvdeba `usurvazic~, romelic asea ganmartebuli: `krikinas vazi, rZRvamli – qarTulad~, `krikina – veluri yurZeni~. aqve weria: `rZRvamli imierTaganaao~. aris babiloc – `maRlari venaxi~. Zalzed sayuradReboa Rvinis ganmartebani: `Rvino (esaia 5,11) – Rvinonica ganiyofebian: rameTu ra daiwnixa yurZeni, ewodebian tkbili; ukueTu tkbilsa aRazaves wyali, dgvifinas uwoden. da urwyosa tkbilsa – qumasa, vieTni armunWsa uxmoben; ukueTu nawnexsa WaWasa

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69 wyali daasxa da gamoqanCa, uwodes Samansa; ukueTu tkbilsa Zlierad ar daeduRos – amboxsa; axalsa Rvinosa maWari ewodebis da Semdgomad – Rvino; da gawyalebulsa Joqo ewodebis~. `saRvineni arian: sura, sawde, qiSa, farCi da misTanani; Wurni da wnedanica saRvined iTqmian~. `sasxlevi – mevenaxis danaa~; `zedaSe – Sesawiravi Rvino~. mas sxvagvarad `mezedaSe~ da `besinic~ rqmevia. `smad iTqmis yovlisave sasmelisa sma, aramed ufrosad Rvinisa~; `puroba (9,12 tobia) nadimia~, `nadimi – mejliSi~, `mejliSi sparsTa enaa, qarTulad nadimi hqvian~; `tabla ars sufra da yoveli fe£edi ficari win sadgmeli~ (gamosl. 25,23) (sufra niSnavs ara magidis gadasafarebels, aramed Tavad magidas). i. javaxiSvili aRniSnavda: qarTuli tradicia moiSala, sufra magidam Secvalao (es ufro XVII s-Si xdeba. sulxan-saba ganmartavs: `magida maRali sufraao, fexebiani~). qalaqur yofasa da Tbilisur folklors SemorCa aseTi simReris teqsti: `Wrel baRdadze gavSli sufras, zed davidgam doqiT Rvinos~. sparsuli tipis sufrasTan, romelic iatakze iyo gafenili, inaxiT anu fexmorTxmiT isxdnen. Zvel qarTul mwerlobaSi, araTu saeroSi, sasulieroSic, Rvinis sma akrZaluli arsad araa, TviT berTa trapezzec. oRond yvelgan dagmobilia simTvrale. asea jer bibliur teqstebSi, mere ki, gansakuTrebiT, sasuliero qadagebebSi. ioane bolnelis (X s.) qadageba `Rvinis msmelTa da momTvralTaTvis~ gviCvenebs, Tu rogor kargavs kaci Tavis adamianur saxes da xdeba `umsgavso~, RvTis msgavsebis damkargveli. sulxan-saba orbelians aqvs ori qadageba simTvralis winaaRmdeg. sulxan-saba gviCvenebs, rom simTvrale araa mxolod Rviniseuli, yvela ukeTuri fanatikuri swrafva igive sulieri simTvralea, romelsac adamiani herodeseul borotebamdec ki mihyavs. sulxan-saba bibliur swavlebas mihyveba da gvinergavs, rom vazi da Rvino RmerTma sikeTisaTvis Seqmna da ara simTvralisTviso. `daviTianSi~ vazi da Rvino xSirad ar gvxvdeba, ufro vazi warmoCndeba da isic arapirdapiri, simboluri mniSvnelobiT. daviT guramiSvili daRestnis tyveobidan gaipara da didxans midioda ugzo-ukvlod mSier-mwyurvali. amisda miuxedavad, mwerali ar kargavs iumors da yveba:
`Tumc ar meWama me puri Tbil-Taja javaxuria, ar mesva Rvino kaxuri, ar viyav nabaxuria, aTis dRis mSiers momerTva sadili sakvexuria, mouwevari kvinCxi da mkvaxe me kowaxuria~ (439).
revaz siraZe

vazi da Rvino qarTul mwerlobaSi

aq yvelaferi xumrobiTaa naTqvami, Tumca Cans yadri kargi purisa da Rvinis, rac, bunebrivia, enatreboda kaxel Tavads. urcxvi kaxeli diakvnebi atenur Rvinos moisakliseben. maT kaxeTidan mosalaparakeblad qarTlSi agzavnian, isini ki saqmeze metad sxva rameze fiqroben:

`erTman ixumra: viZineb Taflis abanos nuriTa, meorem – TevziT gavZRebi zurgiel-gelaqnuriTa, mesamem – mivibruJebi RviniTa atenuriTa~ (292).

daviT guramiSvilTan vazis kulti simboloebSi Cans. aseTi ram sasuliero lirikaSi, himnografiaSi, iwyeba. gavixsenoT daviT aRmaSeneblis Zis, demetre-damianes cnobili leqsi:
`Sen xar venaxi, axlad aRyvavebuli, morCi keTili edems Sina nerguli, alva sulneli samoTxiT gamosruli, RmerTman Segamko, veravin gjobs qebuli, da TaviT TvisiT mze xar gabrwyinvebuli~.

esaa RvTismSoblis himni, `ave marias~ ciklis qarTuli nimuSi. aq RvTismSobeli simbolurad warmodgenilia `venaxiT~ anu vaziT. amiT Taviseburad xdeba vazis gakulteba, ara TavisTavadi saxiT, aramed gadataniTi formiT – vazis gasulierebiT, misi RvTismSoblis saxiT gaSinaarsebiT. aqve RvTismSobeli gasimboloebulia mziT – vazi brwyinavs mzis brwyinvalebiT. es Soreulad exmianeba miToss, roca mze Tavad iyo RmerTi, xolo mis sworfer, RvTaebriv mcenared vazi iTvleboda. qristianobam es yovelive Secvala. mzec da vazic TavisTavadi raobiT RvTaebriobas daaSora da mxolod simboloebad aqcia. amrigad Seicvala vazis gakultebis formebic. leqsSi `tirili RvTismSoblisa~ daviT guramiSvili wers:
`vaime, TvalTa naTelo, sxio mis mzeTa mzisao! saxiT viT norCo, nayofiT Zir-keTil, Srtov vazisao. gamarkvevelo, ganmwmendo, mnaTobo bnelis gzisao, Sen iyav Cemi gamRebi samoTxis karT razisao~ (107).

aq `vazis Srto~ (anu Sto) qristes gulisxmobs. isaa saxe mzeTa-mzisa. mzeTa-mze ki mama-RmerTia. aqac Taviseburadaa gandidebuli vazi imiT, rom misi Sto qristes simboloa. igulisxmeba, rom Tavad vazi RvTismSobelia. cxadia, amgvari simbolika, rac Zalzed xSiria `daviTianSi~, vazis siyvarulidan modis. erT-erT leqsSi daviT guramiSvili ase mimarTavs RvTismSobels:
`nayofiero venaxo, viT vazo morC-uWknobelo, ukvdavebisa mtevanTa mokvdavTa mosarTlobelo, maCrdilobelo nergo da keTilTa SrtoTa mynobelo! migrile codviT sawvavsa, iesos qristes mSobelo!~ (425).

vazi – sicocxlis xe

rogorc vazi da venaxi, aseve Rvinoc daviT guramiSvils maRalsulier gaazrebaTa sferoSi Seaqvs. igi ambobs:
`sulia Rvino keTili, xorci WurWeli myralia; xorci am soflis gemoTi nebierobiT mTvralia, suli am sofels dasjisTvis SiSiTa sul gamqralia. es sityva CemTvis sxvas uTqvams, axla movuTxrob me sxosa: unda meRvinem saRvine kargvarad gamorecxosa, ganayrevinos, gawmindos, rac SigniT mwikvli ecxosa, Tu misgan waxdes Rvino-Ra, me TavSi keti mecxosa~ (460-461).

70

71 aq sulisa da xorcis siwmindezea saubari Rvinisa da misi wminda WurWlis analogiiT, rac mxolod poeturi gaazreba ki ar yofila, aramed qarTuli mentalobisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli ram, razedac daviT guramiSvilic mianiSnebs. iseve, rogorc sxva mravali wyarodan, Zveli qarTuli mwerlobidanac Cans, rom qarTul nadims yovelTvis axlda simRera, iseTi simRera, romelsac Rviniseuli simTvrale, ase vTqvaT, simReriseuli `simTvraliT~ unda daeZlia. usimRero puroba simReris upativcemuloba iyo (xalxuri simReris sityvebic xom amaze miuTiTebs: `pursa sWamen da Rvinos smen, simReras ar ityviano, ar vici, rasa glovoben, ar vici, ar iciano~). simReras dionisur anu TavdaviwyebiT nadimSi, rogorc ityvian, apolonuri wesrigi Seaqvs. igi ubralod silamazes ki ar aniWebs sufras, aramed silamazis ardaviwyebas avaldebulebs. simReris Tanamonawile xdeba yvela; isic ki, vinc ar mReris, magram TanagrZnobiT ismens mas. simReramac Seuwyo xeli, rom sasuliero sityvaxmareba saero nadimebisaTvis SeZlebisdagvarad miesadagebinaT (daglocav, mravalJamier da sxva). aseT konteqstSi da aseTi ganwyobilebiT unda aRviqvaT daviT guramiSvilis sityvebic: `suliao Rvino keTili~ (460,2). simReraa sufriseuli iluziebis yvelaze mniSvnelovan esTetikur realobad gardaqmna. Tanamedroveobis didi mwerlis, Cingiz aiTmatovis romanSi `Плаха~ (`sajalaTo kunZi~) vkiTxulobT: `roca vismen Zvel qarTul simReras, CemTvis Znelad gasagebia, ra aris es. magram sakmarisia daiwyos simRera, Tundac samma qarTvelma, Tugind sruliad Cveulebrivma, – da gadmoiRvreba suli da sunTqvis xelovneba, ubralo da iSviaTi TanazomierebiT da sulieri zemoqmedebis ZaliT. albaT, es maTTvis miniWebuli gansakuTrebuli wyalobaa bunebisa, tipia kulturisa. CemTvis gaugebaria, Tu raze mRerian isini, CemTvis mniSvnelovania, rom me maTTan erTad vmReri~.
revaz siraZe

vazi da Rvino qarTul mwerlobaSi

mexuTe werili

Tamar SarabiZe

XIX saukune
(vazi da Rvino qarTul mwerlobaSi)
gamorCeuli, saintereso da CvenTvis yvelaze axlobeli saukune, rigiT XIX... gamorCeuli – politikuri da socialuri kataklizmebiT, yofisa da wesis masStaburi cvlilebebiT, Zvelisa da axlis, aRmosavlurisa da evropulis sinTeziT; saintereso – pirovnebebiTa da movlenebiT, TeatriT, operiT, sxvadasxva axlad daarsebuli sazogadoebiT, presis dabadebiT, ganaTlebis sistemis danergviT, evropeizmisaken swrafviT, literaturuli mimarTulebebiT (ganebivrda qarTuli sazogadoeba!); axlobeli – rogorc Cveni winamorbedi saukune, axali kulturis niadagis Semqmneli, Zvelis Semnaxavi da gadmomcemi ... da uaRresad TviTmyofadi, rogorc danarCeni sxva saukuneebi, CaZinebuli `qarTvlis~ ara marto gamomRviZebeli da gamomafxizlebeli, aramed qveynis politikur umoqmedobaSi erovnul-ganmaTavisuflebeli moZraobis amgorebeli. am mRelvare saukunem erTdroulad Semogvinaxa da dagvikarga kidec kulturuli tradiciebi. da Tu xelovnebis dargebma politikuri mizezebisda gamo droebiT dasvenebas misces Tavi, mwerloba, sabednierod, iSviaTi gamonaklisi gamodga da sxvaTa tvirTis zidvac, rogorc yovelTvis, Tavis Tavze aiRo. aiRo da SesZlo sinamdvilis ara marto romantikuli Tu realisturi asaxva, aramed Zvelis, tradiciulis warmoCenac axali gaazrebiT, drois Sesabamisi datvirTviT. es Zveli da tradiciuli, ase xSirad rom vaxsenebT, erovnuli cnobierebis nayofia, romelsac VIII saukunis ukanasknel meoTxedSi ioane sabanisZem iseTi sityvieri gamoxatuleba mounaxa, rom dRemde gaucveTelad Semogvinaxa: `Cveulebisaebr mamulisa svlisa...~ mamulis svlis tradicia sarwmunoebasTan erTad erovnul azrs itevs da gulisxmobs. kidev ufro adre, qristianobamde, igive sxva sityvebiT iTqmeboda. es igive XIX saukuneSic gamoiTqva da XX-Sic. sxvadasxva drosa da sxvadasxva sityvieri formiT gadmocemuli azrebi moicavs rwmenis, tradiciis da pirvel rigSi miwis siyvaruls; miwaSi damarxulisa da misgan aRmocenebulis, miwaze da miwis zemoT myofis: mcenareebis, frinvelebis da a.S. magram rogorc floris, aseve fa-

72

vazi – sicocxlis xe

73 unis, mravalferovani samyarodan siyvaruli da pativiscema yvelas erTnairad rodi ergeba. saukuneTa ganmavlobaSi ikveTeba erTi, romelSiac yvelaze ukeT warmoCndeba miwa da misi mkvidri adamiani Tavisi bunebiT, rwmeniTa da miswrafebiT; anu sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, erovnuli (koleqtiuri) cnobiereba am samyaros warmomadgenelTagan sakultod mxolod erTs amoirCevs xolme. kultis aRmocenebasTan dakavSirebuli legendebi droTa ganmavlobaSi ikargeba, rCeba mxolod siyvaruli, zogjer gaucnobierebelic, magram imdenad Soreuli droidan mosuli, rom TiTqmis mudmivad arsebuli. aseTi kultivirebuli mcenare uZvelesi droidan (Zv.w. VI-V aTaswleuli), sadamdec ki misula saqarTvelos istoriul-arqeologiuri kvleva-Zieba, iyo da aris vazi. vazma xelovnebasa da literaturaSi ara mxolod Rrma, aramed mravlismTqmeli da momcveli saxe-simboloebi Seqmna. is jer miTosur samyaroSi gaCnda sicocxlis xis funqciiT; am samyaroSive SeiZina ritualuri da yofiTi daniSnulebac. poeziam gaaerTiana misi miTosuri – simboluri warmosaxva – da yofiTi mxare, anu misi nayofis wvenisagan miRebuli siamovneba, muzis aRmZvreli da RvTaebriobis SemagrZnobinebeli, da orives esTetizirebuli mniSvneloba mianiWa: miTosurad RvTaebis – mzis – gardasaxva xdeba vazis tansa da mtevanSi, RvTaebrivi energia ki RvinoSi gadmodis, romelic adamians aTrobs da am RvTaebrivs SeagrZnobinebs; amasTanave, rogorc gamorCeulma da yvelaze sayvarelma mcenarem, vazma rwmenis simbolos mniSvnelobac itvirTa, gansakuTrebiT qristianobis Semosvlis Semdgom (Tumca rwmenasTan dakavSirebuli ritualuri daniSnuleba mas adrec hqonda): `me var vazi WeSmariti, mamaCemi ki – mevenaxe...~ (ioane 15, 1); `me var vazi, Tqven rtoni...~(ioane 15, 5); `es aris Cemi sisxli (axali) aRTqmisa, mravalTaTvis rom iRvreba codvebis misateveblad...~ (maTe 26, 28). XIX saukunis literaturaSi vazma kidev erTi funqciac – patriotuli grZnobis gamoxatva – SeiTavsa, romelic mas yovelTvis hqonda, ubralod XIX saukunem is mkveTrad warmoaCina da simbolos mniSvneloba mianiWa. rwmena da siyvaruli – es ori mTavari, erTmaneTze gadajaWvuli niSani erovnuli cnobierebisa itvirTa qarTulma vazma da xelovnebaSi gaaxmovana. am niSan-simboloTamar SarabiZe

XIX saukune

Ta SerwymiTa da yofiT kulturaSi Tavisi ganuzomlad didi adgiliT ixateba vazi da Rvino XIX saukunis qarTul poeziaSi; maTi qebis Semsxmeli poeti ki erTgvari modelieris rols asrulebs, Zvelsa da axals erTmaneTSi aqsovs, aerTianebs da qmnis Seudarebel `poliTematikur~ (sxvadasxva ideis erTdroulad Semcvel) mxatvrul saxeebs: `Semodgomama baxusi sawnaxelSi Caayena~(al. WavWavaZe), `Tovl-Rvino – saxe Seni~ (gr. orbeliani), `vazebs Sua udrovo~ Tamaris wminda samari (vaxtang orbeliani), `oboli vazi~ (ilia), `moxuci vazis rZe~ (vaJa), `wiTeli Rvinis deda~, ulvaSebgadagrexili vaJkaci (rafiel erisTavi), `Cveni qveynis Rvino~, anu winaprebis Zvlebsa da sisxlze aRmocenebuli vazidan (akaki) da a.S. vazi XIX saukunis qarTul literaturaSi rCeba kultivirebul mcenared, aRiqmeba misi warmomavloba, is inarCunebs qristianuli religiis simbolos (qveynis ganaTlebis) mniSvnelobasac; Rvinisagan moniWebuli siamovnebisa da qalaquri lxinis aRwera aRmosavlur poeziasTan amJRavnebs siaxloves, magram ar gaaCnia sufistur-simboluri datvirTva. dabolos, 60-ianelTa poeziaSi vazi patriotuli grZnobis warmomCen erT-erT uZlieres mxatvrul saxed warmogvidgeba poeziasa da prozaSic. vazsa da Rvinos met-naklebad moefera XIX saukunis yvela mwerali da poeti, ganurCevlad maTi wvlilisa qarTuli literaturis istoriaSi. am mRelvare da uaRresad poeturi saukunis literaturuli memkvidreobis gacnoba qronologiurad aleqsandre WavWavaZidan daviwyoT.

aleqsandre WavWavaZe
`netavi natvra manatra, is natvra amixdinao; muxran-batoni ymad momca, kaxis batonis binao... WavWavaZis kargi Rvino miliT Sin momidinao~ .
(xalxuri)

sanimuSo samxedro, ordenebiTa da medlebiT mkerdgaWedili generali, aleqsandre WavWavaZe, saukeTeso memamule gaxldaT da kidev ufro kargi poeti. mxedrul yofas masSi ar Cauklavs myudro, ojaxuri cxovrebis ideali. `yvelam icis, rom me pirveli memamuleTagani var saqarTveloSi~, – ganacxada dakiTxvis dros 1832 wlis SeTqmulebis gamo dapatimrebulma. am sityvebSi ara marto qonebasa da saxels gulisxmobda. pirvel memamules saamayod Tavisi ojaxi miaCnda, amasTanave saukeTesod movlili da napatronevi mamuli; gansakuTrebiT ki venaxiTa da RviniT mohqonda Tavi. mis maranze aseTi gadmocemac arsebobs: TiTqos poets pirveli qvevri qaliSvilis – ninos – dabadebis dRes Caudgams maranSi da mxolod 16 wlis Semdeg gauxsnia, roca ninom da griboedovma iqorwines. aleqsandre WavWavaZis Rvino rom mTel saqarTveloSi

74

vazi – sicocxlis xe

75 iyo ganTqmuli, amas rafiel erisTavis `iveriaSi~ gamoqveynebuli feletonic adasturebs, saTauriT `vin ras inatrebda CvenSi axals weliwadis dRes~. erisTavi CamoTvlis, Tu ras inatrebda kaxeli, qarTleli, guruli, imereli, raWveli da megreli. kaxeli kaci Turme aucileblad WavWavaZianT Rvinos isurvebda. kargi Rvinis patroni maspinZladac kargiao; aleqsandre WavWavaZis maspinZloba marTlac saqveynod iyo cnobili. safrangeTis konsuli, gamba, aRtacebuli werda misi stumarTmoyvareobis Sesaxeb. poetis saxli, Tbilisisa Tu winandlis, qarTveli aristokratiisa da ruseTidan Camosuli elitaruli sazogadoebis Sexvedris adgils warmoadgenda. mis salonSi naxavdiT Congurs, `magram fortepianoc idga da mamadaviTis kedlebze kenWebis nacvlad biliardis burTebs aTamaSebdnen. garda amisa, icodnen rusuli laparaki da yovelgvari evropuli cekva~ (ioseb griSaSvili). Spalergakrul mis lamaz saxlSi bevr gamoCenil adamians Seusvams poetis sadRegrZelo winandlis RviniT. poetis ojaxSi da mis saxls gareTac qarTul sufrebze WavWavaZis mSvenieri leqsebi ismoda, romlebic zepirad icodnen dardimandebma da mRerodnen yvelgan: baRebsa da ojaxebSi. gansakuTrebiT popularuli sanadimo leqsebi yofila, maT Soris `muxambaz-laTaiuri~, romelic imTaviTve sufrul himnad iqca:
`loTebo, netavi Cvena, dRes mogveca Sveba-lxena, Semodgomama baxusi sawnaxelSi Caayena.~
Tamar SarabiZe

XIX saukune

leqss meorenairad `loTuri simRera~ pqvia da naklebad asaxavs aleqsandre WavWavaZis Rvinisadmi damokidebulebas, magram SeuZlebelia masSi moqeife poetis guneb-ganwyoba ar davinaxoT, romelsac Rvinis smasTan erTad garkveul momentSi loTobac moswons da aqebs:
`davexsnaT codnis Zebnasa, Rvino sjobs yovels mcnebasa, brZeni sul sikvdilsa fiqrobs da loTi gamarjvebasa~.

aleqsandre WavWavaZe codna-ganaTlebas ki ar uaryofs, ubralod Tavdaviwyebas miscemia. aseTi mdgomareoba raRac momentSi misaRebia, miT ufro – poetisaTvis. simTvralis saSualebiT sinamdvilis daviwyeba literaturaSi erTgvari mxatvruli xerxia. aRsaniSnavia isic, rom Rvinos aleqsandre WavWavaZisa Tu misi gmiri loTisaTvis mxolod garToba, drostareba da Tavdaviwyeba rodi moaqvs, is vaJkacobis, mxneobisa da Tavdadebis grZnobis gamomRviZebelia:
`vaJkacno, modiT davlioT, sJobs rome Rvino davZlioT, omamdin sisxlad iqceva, mere brZolaSi davsTxioT.~

rogorc cnobilia, samSoblos TavisuflebisaTvis brZola da am brZolis gasaRviveblad yvelaze ufro erovnuli simboloebis gamoyeneba erT-erTi damaxasiaTebeli niSania XIX saukunis meore naxevris qarTveli mwerlebisaTvis. gavixsenoT Tundac akakis `winaprebis sisxliT gajerebuli Rvino~ (`baSi-aCuki~). aleqsandre WavWavaZis sasaxelod unda iTqvas, rom igi aseT erovnul simboloTa Ziebis pirvel mociqulad Cans. Tu mis SemoqmedebaSi Rvino im sisxlad iqceva, romelic brZolaSi unda daiTxios, akakisTan am daTxeuli sisxlidan aRmocendeba vazi, romlis nayofisagan miRebuli Rvino `Cveni qveynis~ Rvinoa da mas sxva gavlena aqvs qarTvelze, vidre sparsul SarbaTebs. es Rvino naTesauri, sisxlxorceuli kavSiriT gadabmula erze; bunebasa da saukuneebs Seuxorcebia isini erTmaneTTan, amitomac aRanTebs igi brZolisaTvis da Wirsac advilad ataninebs; amitomac tiris ilias `oboli vazi~ qveynis bednierebis molodinSi, xolo vaJas `moxuci vazis rZe~ sxvanairad ergeba mis Semsmels. Rvino aleqsandre WavWavaZisaTvis, garda am yvelaze mniSvnelovani Tvisebisa – sisxlad gadaqcevis unarisa – daCagruli, SeSinebuli kacis gamamxnevebelia; grZnobamoreuli, Seyvarebuli adamianis dardis Semamsubuqebeli da TviT ukurnebel senTa wamalia:
`aqimo, Tu gaqvs qamali, scade es Cemi naswavli, rac seni ukurnal iyos, Rvinoa misi wamali~.

aleqsandre WavWavaZe sxva leqsebSic dabejiTebiT aRniSnavs, rom Rvino `avTviseba~ ar SeiZleba iyos, is adamians ki ar asxvaferebs, aramed Zalasa da gambedaobas hmatebs. Tu adamiani `keTil-Tvisebaa~, Rvino kidev ufro umravlebs mas keTils:
`Rvino Tvisebas ar hscvalebs, aramed umatebs Zalebs, keTil-TvisebaT mqoneman jer-ars svas, keTils umravlebs~. (`Rvinis TvisebaTaTvis~)

vazi – sicocxlis xe

aleqsandre WavWavaZe gansakuTrebul yuradRebas aqcevs Rvinis erT unarsac – Wiqa Rvinos adamianTa Soris Surisa da mtrobis mospoba SeuZlia. am unars poeti Rvinis saswaulebriv Tvisebas arqmevs. ase Tu ise warmovaCineT aleqsandre WavWavaZis RvinosTan mimarTeba, magram poetis sityvis didostatoba, gansxvavebuli, poeturi xedva maSin gamoCnda, roca qals Tavisi silamaze da sifaqize sarkis nacvlad wiTel RvinoSi daanaxva da Tavadac masSi aRiqva:
`Sen nargizi axali xar, Tavsa Sensa hstrfob da hyvarob, magra wyalSi Wvretis nacvlad wiTels Rvinos sarked hxmarob. saxe Seni mas RvinoSi sCans, viT vardi, ze dahxarob, mere eSyiT aRnataci Tavsa STanTqmad aRar hzarob~. (`memTvralisadmi~)

76

77 SeiZleba iTqvas, rom aleqsandre WavWavaZe mTel saukuneSi yvelaze metad iyo zoma-wonis yadris mqone kaci, rogorc saqmeSi, aseve RvinosTan mimarTebaSi. srulebiTac ar moswonda gauTavebeli da uzomo sma; Tvlida, rom zogjer gangebac unda aarido Tavi lxins, rom ukeT SeigrZno misi fasi, rom mogenatros; lxini aucilebelia, oRond mas Sroma unda edos safuZvlad (`SeqcevaTaTvis~). es azri kidev ufro metad warmoaCens aleqsandre WavWavaZis pirovnebas, rogorc samagaliTo meurnes da odnavadac ar aqarwylebs mis siyvaruls Rvinisadmi. Rvinom da vazma marTlac rom Camoayaliba aleqsandre WavWavaZe iseTad, rogoric is iyo, yovelmxriv gamorCeuli da kolorituli. Tavis mxriv, poetmac ganaviTara winaprebis danatovari vazis kultura da winandlis Rvinis warmoeba evropul dones gauTanabra. manve daudo safuZveli qarTuli lxinisa da evropuli salonis sinTezs, riTac qarTuli aristokratiis cxovrebis axali stili Seqmna.
Tamar SarabiZe

XIX saukune

grigol orbeliani
grigol orbeliani qarTvel poetebs Soris lxinis yvelaze didi motrfialea rogorc cxovrebaSi, aseve SemoqmedebaSi. yvelasaTvis cnobilia, rom umaRlesi aristokratiuli wris warmomadgeneli, mefe erekles STamomavali grigoli, romelic Tavisive sazogadoebis zogierT wevrs arc ki kadrulobda, qalaqis ubralo sazogadoebasTan megobrobda. siWabukis xanaSi xSirad uqeifia Tbilisis yaraCoxelebTan, uqeifia da kargadac moulxenia. erT-erT imaTgans, lopianas, Turme grigol orbelianis adiutantsac eZaxdnen, radgan dilaobiT cocxali mihqonda poetTan, saRamoobiT ki misi sufris Tanameinaxe xdeboda. mokriveTa da meTevzeTa wridan gamosuli yaraCoxelebis kolorituli saxeebi yaflanianTa gvaris warmomadgenelma Tavis muxambazebSi Zalzed realisturad daxata. am leqsebSi TiTqos arc ki Cans avtori – dabali wris primitiuli fsiqologia, metyvelebis manera da stili, enobrivi sisadave da Jargonia TvalSi sacemi. muxambazebi grigol orbelianis im personaJTa simRerebia, romlebTanac poets siaxlovesTan erTad garkveuli distanciac hqonda, rac bunebrivia; magram zogjer yaraCoxelis niRabqveS SeuZlebelia TviT avtoric ar davinaxoT; isic maTsaviT `mWmunvarebs~ da lxinsa da RvinoSi eZebs Tavdaviwyebas. ar unda daviviwyoT arc is, rom am muxambazTa umravlesoba gadasaxlebis drosaa dawerili – yazarmobis mZime dReebSi da gasakviri ar aris, rom samSoblosgan mowyvetilsa da martodmyof poets sevdis mosaklavad Tbilisuri yofa da nacnobi moqalaqeebis saxeebi gaecocxlebina. grigol orbeliani Tavis gmirebs xatavs, rogorc laRi bunebis adamianebs, nadimisa da Rvinis moyvarulebs; TiToeulis xasiaTsa da garegnobaSi ki individualuri niSnebi Seaqvs: qalebis `lxini da Taigulia~ beJana mkervali, romelic Tavisuflad ynosavs sxvadasxva yvavilis surnels, radgan `rayifni did-kacni damxobilan~ da

`mas darCenia burTi da moedani~. garemoebam beJana ise gaanebivra, rom gareTubnis turfebTan aRarc ki kadrulobs wasvlas da aristokratul salonSi, salomesTan (al. WavWavaZis colTan) miiCqaris sadilad. meore muxambazis mixedviT, beJana salomes `makratlis gvirgvins~ uwodebs da Tan afrTxilebs: `nu gwyins, vardo, yvavilT mefev, rom zogjer iasac vynosavo~ (`salomes beJana mkervalis magir~). beJanasagan sruliad gansxvavebuli personaJia `lxinis papa~ – mirzajana madaTaSvili. igi lxinisa da eSxisaTvis aris dabadebuli. mudam Tamadaa da nadimi uyvars meTare alaverdasa da momReral yoja bulbulTan erTad (`suliT erTno~). mirzajanas muqi feris kani aqvs, `saxiT arabistnelsa~ hgavs da mudam `qudCakecili~ daiareba. dimitri onikaSvili `cecxlSia Cavardnili~. es uabjro, Seyvarebuli raindi Tavisi mzis aivnis qveS aTenebs da aRamebs, im imediT, rom iqneb satrfo gamoCndes, `lamaz TvalebiT Sexedos~ da sirinozis xma gaagonos; maSin `eSxisagan goneba gamoclili~ onikaSvili Tavs camde aiRebs da Zalmocemuli orTaWalis baRebisaken gaswevs. `yelze CiTmerdiniani~, `sakinZCamoxsnili~ dardimandebis sufraze satrfos sadRegrZelos Sesvams (`dimitri onikaSvilis dardebi~). namdvili yaraCoxelia meTevze lopiana, satrfoze Seyvarebuli da misi erTguli, `aTi gza aqvs da aTive satrfosken midis~; ZilSi mxolod mas xedavs, Tvals gaaxels da zed wamwamzed uzis. lopiana natrobs, orTaWalis baRSi naxos misma sanatrelma arsebam, roca `dardimandis lxinSi~ tolumbaSadaa da xelSi jami upyria, an roca muSti-krivSia, maSin SeiZleba satrfosac Seuyvardes da uTxras – `Zvirfasi xar~. meTevze lopianas mier warmoTqmuli muxambazi – `gind meZinos~ – saukeTesoa grigol orbelianis am ciklis leqsebs Soris. martivia Zveli Tbilisis raindTa ocnebebi, survilebi, gulis dardebi, iseve rogorc ubraloa da xalasi maTi guli, uboroto da pirdapiri, amitomac yaraCoxelTa sityvebi miamitobasTan erTad maTi suliviT lamazi da mimzidvelia:
`rto alvisa Seni weli mgonia, mag welzeda cisartyela mgonia, eg Tvalebi – caSi elva mgonia, vardis sunTqva – Seni sunTqva mgonia. gind meZinos, mainc sulSi mizixar, TvalT avaxel – zed wamwamze mizixar~. (`gind meZinos~)

vazi – sicocxlis xe

XIX saukunis qarTul poeziaSi, am JanrSi, iSviaTia aseTi emociurad da saxeobrivad daxvewili taepebi. grigol orbelians erTnairad maRalpoeturad SeeZlo sakuTari anu maRali wris mSfoTvare, Rrma gancdebisa da ubralo xalxis moqalaqeobrivi grZnobebiT gamTbari msubuqi grZnobebis gamoxatva. amitomac safiqrebelia, rom yaraCoxelTa xmaSi, miuxedavad maTTan poetis distanciisa, mainc Jonavs grigol orbelianis dafaruli survilebi da gancdebi, rasac maRali aristokratuli warmoSobis gamo poeti ase aSkarad ver

78

79 ityoda. Tumca, miuxedavad misi daxvewilobisa, piradad orbelianisTvisac ucxo ar iyo drois Rvinosa da eSySi Cakvla. mirzajanas `epitafiaSi~ poeti Tavis gmirs aTqmevinebs:
`muxTals am sofels gsurs visaca iyo bednier, siyvaruliTa da RviniTa Cemebr daiTver! daRupe eSySi da RvinoSi yovli simware, rom gza cxovrebis ganvlo lxiniT, viT me viare...~
Tamar SarabiZe

dardimandTa Tanameinaxem Zalian kargad uwyis, rom usiyvarulod sulac ar aris sanatreli `simravle dReTa~ (`albomSi Rr. opermanisas~), magram aristokratiuli zviadobis gamo dums da Tavis gmirebs aTqmevinebs saTqmels:
`viTa baRi uyvavilod, uvardod, ara miyvars lxini ueSx-usatrfod! modi, mnaTo, savse Tasi salxinod Cagvirige, Tu gind ise, uproStod...~ (`suliT erTno~)

XIX saukune

sufisturi poeziisagan gansxvavebiT grigol orbelianTan Rvinisa da qalis religiur-simboluri gaazreba gamoricxulia. Rvinoca da satrfoc muxambazis gmirisaTvis pirvel rigSi miwieri madlia da orive Trobis moments Seicavs:
`siyvaruliTa da RviniTa Cemebr daiTver... Torem gonebiT gind ca ganvlo, Cemebr iqna mtver!~ (`mirzajanas epitafia~)

dardimanduli suliskveTebaa Caqsovili grigol orbelianis mier azarfeSis warwerad navaraudev aforizmSic:
`bedsa rad hswyevli? rad hswuxar? ras gargebs sulmokleoba? Se ugunuro, dalie, qveyana Seni iqneba~.

grigol orbelianis muxambazebis mxatvruli Semkoba – saxeebi da Sedarebebi – ZiriTadad aRmosavluri xasiaTisaa. magaliTad, muxambazebSi `savaTnavas mibaZva~ da `suliT erTno~ Seqebulia xali, rac qalis silamazis wminda aRmosavluri aqsesuaria:
`magondebis ra mis Rawvzeda xali, siyvarulis guls megzneba ax ali~ (`savaTnavas mibaZva~) `satrfos xali ars taxti siyvarulis, es fiala iyos sadRegrZelo xalis!~ (`suliT erTno~)

1834 wels gadasaxlebaSi myofi grigol orbeliani Tavis megobar antons swerda: `cudia ueSyod cxovreba. esreTi kaci emsgavseba futuros xesa – valkis qalaqSi sofio kruze da aq petronela; am ukanasknelisa radganac var aziati, momwons loyaze xali, da imasac uxarian esreTi qeba. amitom xom ici evropaSi xalis qeba ar ician, gemo ar aqvsT~ (`werilebi~, t. I).

Rvino, qali, satrfos loyaze eSxis aRmgznebi xali... – aRmosavlur-muxambazuri poeziis es atributebi qarTul dardimandul poeziaSic gadmodis da saxeobriobis TvalsazrisiT yvelaze natifad grigol orbelianis poeziaSi ikveTeba. sanimuSod mogvyavs orbelianis leqsi inicialiT `s~, sadac satrfos garegnobaa aRwerili:
`mercxalni – Tvalni Senni, gonebisa sxivT momfenni! vardni – Senni bageni, marad moRimareni. Tovl-Rvino – Senni Rawvni, maTzed gardaSlil zilfni! Seni weli – kiparoz! da Seni xma – sirinoz! xan siamiT mavseben, xan cremlT mafrqvevineben~.

vazi – sicocxlis xe

`Tovl-RvinoTi~ grigol orbelianma qalis saxis Seudarebeli feri daxata, romelSiac satrfos mxolod garegnoba ki ara, pirovnuli niSan-Tvisebebi warmoaCina. is TovliviT civia da RvinosaviT cxeli, orive erTdroulad: amitomacaa RvTaebrivi, tanjvisa da lxenis Tanabrad momniWebeli. Tovli amave dros umankoebas aRniSnavs, Rvino ki ziarebas. es saxe scildeba dardimanduli poeziis farglebs da `Cveni sityvierebis meufis~ (rogorc iliam grigol orbelians uwoda) individualuri niWis gamovlinebaa. rogorc vxedavT, muxambazTa gmirebis satkivari srul disharmoniaSia mamulis bedze mwared Cafiqrebuli grigol orbelianis gancdasTan, magram am Tundac dardimandul poeziaSi SeuZlebelia piradad poetis TavSekavebuli wadilic ar davinaxoT; rac kidev erTxel migviTiTebs imaze, rom grigol orbeliani ar iyo mxolod mgloviare romantikosi, is gaxldaT sicocxliT aRsavse adamiani, romelsac izidavda jansaRi cxovrebis yvela mxare, maT Soris lamazi qali da lxini. Rvino iyo poetisaTvis is niWi, romelic qalis silamazis qebas warmoaTqmevinebda. aramuxambazuri ciklis leqsebSic aSkaradaa gamoxatuli grigol orbelianis swrafva da siyvaruli drostarebisadmi, misi maxvili Tvali ki yvelgan da yovelTvis aRiqvams qalis silamazes, Tundac is misi satrfo ar iyos. am mxriv SesaniSnav masalas gvawvdian grigol orbelianis piradi werilebica da poeturi Semoqmedebis is nawilic, sadac igi sakuTari xmiTa da personiT warmodgeba, e.i. ar malavs Tavis damokidebulebas arc lxinisadmi da arc qalis silamazisadmi. rogorc cnobilia, poeti Tavad axorcielebda yovelive imas, rasac Tavis megobar anton orbelians urCevda:
`he, Wabuko, sixaruliT dReni Senni anetare; imxiarule, Seeqec, ilxine da Seiyvare; erTs wamsac nu dahkargav, gaqvndes saxe mocinare, sicocxliTa awve dahstkbi, mxiarulebs guli vidre~. (`antons~)

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igive ganwyobilebisaa grigol orbelianis puSkinidan Targmnili `lxinic~. sxva leqsSi – `ekaterina WavWavaZisas~ – poets drostareba marto mama-

81 kacTa kuTvnil saqmed ar miaCnia da ekaterines silamaziT moxibluli ase mimarTavs `winandlis vards~:
`imxiarule, vidre sicocxle Seni mSvenivrobs, viT yvavilT jaWvi; vidremdis Sen ze dagnaTis, viT mze, siWabukisa naTel varskvlavi!~
Tamar SarabiZe

XIX saukune

Tumca poetis mowodeba lxinisadmi upirveles mizanswrafvad da sxva saqmis ugulebelyofad ar unda miviCnioT. grigol orbelianis rusulidan gadmoTargmnili prozauli eskizi `samni megobarni~ mis WeSmarit, gaazrebul damokidebulebas warmoaCens rogorc amqveyniur siameTadmi, aseve adamianis namdvili movaleobisadmi – sikvdilis Jams kacs Tavis sam megobarTagan pirvel rigSi tovebs upirvelesi megobari – qveyniuri siameni; naTesavebi da megobrebi samaris karamde miacileben; mxolod mesame megobari – keTili saqme – waruZRveba mas imqveyanaSi (`samni megobarni~). 30-ian wlebSi daweril prozaul konspeqtSi `saqarTvelo Cemis droisa~ grigol orbeliani CamoTvlis yvela im sisaZagles, rasac im drois saqarTveloSi hqonia adgili da maT Soris asaxelebs loTobasac. yovelive zemoTqmulidan gamomdinare, piradad grigol orbelianis lxinisadmi damokidebuleba ase unda gavigoT: nadimi da garToba adamianisaTvis aucilebelia, oRond is ar unda gadaizardos loTobaSi, iseT TavdaviwyebaSi, romelic kacs sifxizles aZulebs; lxini sxvadasxvagvaria; poetisaTvis ki yvelaze metad misaRebi da mosawonia mamapapuri nadimi, vaJkacuri drostareba, darbaisluri qeifi gonivruli sja-baasiTa da Zveleburi `iarali-araliT~, romlis drosac satrfosac aqeben, siyvarulsac umRerian da megobrobasac, magram adamianis upirveles movaleobad mainc samSoblosadmi Tavdadebas miiCneven. swored aseT nadims aRwers grigol orbeliani Tavis cnobil, patriotuli Sinaarsis leqsSi `iarali~ da poemaSi `sadRegrZelo~. unda aRiniSnos, rom `iaraliSi~ poetis mizani ar aris qarTuli sufris aRwera – mwvadis SiSinisa da kaxuri Rvinis smis, qarTuli sufra samSoblos monatrebaa, ucxo cis qveS gardaxvewili ori qarTvelis mier mZafrad aRqmuli. rac Seexeba poema `sadRegrZelos~, es aris klasikuri nimuSi erovnuli cnobierebis adamianTa sufraze sadRegrZeloebis Tanmimdevrobisa. misi pirveli nawili – `winaparTa sadRegrZelo~ – leqsad Tqmuli saqarTvelos mokle istoriaa Tavisi yvelaze Rirseuli, Tavdadebuli Svilebis TaiguliT. grigol orbelianma aleqsandre orbelianis (Tekla batoniSvilis Svili) rCevebiTa da daxmarebiT zustad SeZlo saqarTvelos warsulidan im pirovnebaTa saxeebis gamoyofa, romelTac marTlac gamorCeuli Rvawli dasdes qveyanas. simarTles unda Seeferebodes is mosazrebac, rom ilia WavWavaZem poema `aCrdilis~ istoriuli nawilis Seqmna saWirod aRar CaTvala mxolod imitom, rom grigol orbelianis mier ukve Camoyalibebul istoriul pirTa mxatvruli saxeebis gavlenas ver ascdeboda.

ra Tqma unda, `sadRegrZelos~ ganxilvisas unda gaviTvaliswinoT moqmedebis adgilic, rac poemis srul saTaurSi aisaxeba kidec – `sadRegrZelo anu omis Semdgom lxini, erevnis siaxloves~. lxinis adgils mniSvneloba aqvs nadimis Sinaarsobrivi mxaris gansazRvrisaTvis. omis dros, roca sul axlaxan mimdinareobda sisxlisRvra, sadac daiRupnen TanamebrZolebi da megobrebi, SeuZlebelia iumoriTa da mxiarulebiT aRsavse sadRegrZeloebis warmoTqma, an RviniT uzomo Tavdaviwyeba; am dros mebrZoli SezRudulia, erTi mizniT – mtris damarcxebiT – ganmsWvaluli da omis gagrZelebisaTvis mzadmyofi. amitomac aris, rom `sadRegrZelos~ Tematika ZiriTadad patriotulia, rasac nadimis specifika gansazRvravs; Tamada pirvel rigSi saxelovani winaprebis sadRegrZelos svams, amiT TanamemamuleT qarTvel gmirTa saqmeebs Seaxsenebs da erovnuli siamayis grZnobas uRvivebs:
`Zmano, aRvavsoT fiala winaparT mosaxseneblad, romelTa dasdves sicocxle mamulis asamaRleblad, romelTa saxe didebis sxivs mogvfens gasamxneveblad, romelTa suli maRali Cvenc migvizidebs cad maRlad!~

amave dros Tamada xotbas asxams Rvinos da `WirT manelebel ciur niWad~ miiCnevs:
`da Sen, he, Rvinov, yovlad Zliero, lxiniT, SeqceviT gulni aRgvigzne; gulis WirTmdevno, niWo ciero, vin ars, romel gsva da ar alxine!~

es sityvebi lxinis sadidebel namdvil himns warmoadgens da am poemaSi rom ar yofiliyo CarTuli, uTuod dardimanduli lirikis nimuSs mivakuTvnebdiT. poemis specifika arc imiT zRudavs avtors, rom Tavis tolumbaSs zogadsakacobrio – gonivruli, sibrZniT aRsavse da mebrZolTaTvis damafiqrebeli – sadRegrZeloebi warmoaTqmevinos; magaliTad, adamianis arsebobis azris Sesaxeb:
`sofeli imad ara Rirs, kaci natrobdes Jams grZelsa, Tu fuWi misi sicocxle vera ras argebs mamulsa!~

adamianis movaleobis –
`ra aris Cveni sicocxle, Tu ara saqme keTili? Tu ar aRvadgenT dacemuls, ar veqmneT nugeS-mcemeli? Tu ara vsdevniT borotsa, marTlis ara varT mfarveli? sxvis kvnesa Tu ar gvawuxebs, sxvisi ar gvesmis tkivili?~

vazi – sicocxlis xe

poeti didad afasebs adamianis niWs da Tvlis, rom mas gvariSviloba ar gansazRvravs:
`mieciT niWsa gza farTo, Tayvanis-cema Rirsebas: niWs aZlevs zena mxolod kacs da ara gvaris Svilobas!~

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grigol orbelianis Tamada warmoTqvams megobrobisa da siyvarulis sadRegrZeloebs, im grZnobebis, romelic sulierad amaRlebs kacs da sicocxlis Zalas matebs. am amaRlebuli suliskveTebis poemaSic siyvaruls grigol orbeliani RvTiur, magram xelSesaxeb miwier grZnobad xatavs:

83
`mihxedeT vardsa, maSin hfens umetes sunnelebaTa! odes niavi SexebiT Searyevs misTa rtoebTa!~
Tamar SarabiZe

siyvarulis sadRegrZelos Sesmisas brZolis qarcecxlSi myofi poeti (poemis wera grigol orbelianma ruseT-sparseTis omis dros, 1827 wels daiwyo) mainc Tavdaviwyebas eZleva da siyvaruls umaRles bednierebasa da netarebas – sasufevels adarebs, romelic usiyvarulod kargavs Tavis daniSnulebas:
`Tvara siyvaruls Tu davhkargvide, ukvdavebaman mis wil ra momces? usiyvarulod sasufeveli, viT sapyrobile CemTvis Seiqmnes!~

XIX saukune

rogorc vxedavT, grigol orbelians XIX saukunis qarTul poeziaSi yvelaze mravalmxrivad aqvs Seqebuli lxini. es garemoeba ar gamorCenia akaki wereTlis maxvil Tvals, rodesac e.w. `mamaTa da SvilTa~ brZolis dros, 60-70ian wlebSi, grigol orbelianis gakilva moindoma, dacinvis obieqtad ki swored misi lxinisadmi siyvaruli aqcia:
`rodesac Cem win sufraze cxeli, SuSxuna mwvadia, maSin me samSoblosaTvis yoveli kargi mwadia!~ (`qarTuli patriotoba~)

es marTlac maxvili satira iyo `iaralis~ avtorze, romelic natrobda, `jeirnis mwvadi SiSiniT cecxlzeda datrialebdeso!~ kidev ufro Savi dRe daayara akakim grigol orbelians leqsiT `patriotis aRsareba~, sadac misi qarTveloba mxolod gaSlil sufrasTan warmoaCina. (imasac amboben, ase mware dacinva samagieros gadaxda iyo akakis mxridan, radgan grigol orbelianma erT-erT xelnawerSi – `pasuxi~ – akakiebi-bakakiebio – ixmara.) akakis es tendenciuri Sexedulebebi bevri kritikosis azrs daedo safuZvlad, ris gamoc isini grigol orbelians `kuWis patriotizmis~ warmomadgenlad Tvlidnen. rasakvirvelia, es mcdari mosazrebaa da socialur-istoriuli movleniT – `mamaTa da SvilTa~ polemikuri xasiaTis brZoliT unda aixsnas. grigol orbelianis mTeli Semoqmedeba patriotizmis gamovlinebaa; axal TaobasTan Widilsac Tavisi mizezebi (marTalia, araobieqturi) hqonda (`pasuxi SvilTa~). rac Seexeba grigol orbelianis lxinisadmi siyvarulsa da mis muxambazur poezias, swored aman moutana iseTi didi popularoba, rom saqarTvelos pirvel poetad, `leqsTa mefed~ iTvleboda mTeli Tavisi cxovrebis manZilze. misi avtoriteti imdenad didi iyo, rom mas Zalauneburad SvilTa Taobac iyenebda. grigol orbelians xom yvela icnobda – ubralo qalaqeli mosaxleobaca da maRali aristokratiuli wrec; mis muxambazebs mRerodnen rogorc literaturul salonebSi, aseve orTaWalis baRebsa da samikitnoebSi; Tu poetis Rrma da Sinagani sevdiT gaJRenTili leqsebi maRali wris sazogadoebas kvebavda, yaraCoxurma lxinma da msubuqma trfobam orbeliani ubralo qalaqeli sazogadoebis usayvarles poetad aqcia.

vax tang or be li a ni
vaxtang vaxtangis Ze jambakur orbeliani XIX saukunis erT-erTi kolorituli figuraa; gamorCeuli ojaxiT, warmomavlobiTa da Tundac poeziiT. miuxedavad imisa, rom misi leqsebi didi mravalferovnebiTa da gansxvavebuli poeturi xedviT ar xasiaTdeba, mainc mogvwons siwrfeliTa da uaRresad didi patriotuli gancdiT. es gancda imdenad mniSvnelovani iyo poetisaTvis, rom vaxtang orbelianma uaryo poeziis yvela Tema da mxolod samSoblos siyvarulis ideas uZRvna Tavisi Tavica da poeziac. man uaryo aleqsandre WavWavaZisa da grigol orbelianis dardimanduli lirika da polemikuri Sinaarsis leqsiT – `poets~ – daiwuna muxambazis kilo, Tumca Tavad es leqsi amgvarive, muxambazur kiloze aaJRera:
`me ar miyvars kilo muxambazisa, kintoT kilo, kilo Sua bazrisa, im kiloTi ra imRero poeto, Tu ar Rvino, tolumbaSi da kinto... me ar miyvars suraTebi am-gvari, muxambaziT sxva ras ityvi miTxari?~

am leqsiTve umaRlesi aristokratiis warmomadgenelma, Tekle batoniSvilis Svilma, uari Tqva qalaqur nadimze, Rvinis smasa da garTobaze. es arc aris gasakviri, vaxtang orbeliani yovelTvis garkveuli poziT warmodgeba rogorc cxovrebaSi, aseve poeziaSi. misi Sinagani qedmaRluri buneba kargad Cans maRalfardovan leqsikasa da paTetikur tonSic, rac misi leqsebis pirvelive striqonebidan igrZnoba. Tumca, rasakvirvelia, yvelanair lxins ar uaryofs poeti; misTvis misaRebia bunebis wiaRSi, gomboris mTaze, fiqriT qeifi, roca samSoblos bunebis cqeriT xarobs Tvali da roca samSoblos sadRegrZelo ismeva (RviniT ki ara) kaxuri vazis neqtariT:
`vzivar fiqriTa gomborisa zurmuxtis mTazed, da Tvali xarobs Sens mSveniers gafurCqvnils velzed; vsvam SenT vazT neqtars, da vRiRineb: iyav bednier, iyav bednier, idRegrZele mraval Jamier!~

vazi – sicocxlis xe

vaxtang orbelianma rogorc poeziis Tema SemosazRvra mxolod samSobloTi, igive tendencia sadRegrZelosac miusadaga da bunebasac, – sadRegrZelo unda iyos mxolod samSoblosi; kaxeTi imitom aris lamazi, rom samSoblos saxea, iq patara kaxis gmiruli suli trialebs; kaxeTSive eguleba poets Tamaris saflavi da Tavadac kaxeTSi surs damarxva:
`im ares axlo moyvasno, sadac marxia Tamari, iq vazebs Sua udrovo, sCans misi wminda samari!..~

`vazebs Soris Tamaris wminda samari~ istoriuli TvalTaxedviT moulodneli, magram poeturad daxvewili mxatvruli saxea. Tamari qarTvelTaT-

84

85 vis RvTissadaria da Tu RvTis (romlis simboluri saxe mzea) wili miwaze vazia, maSin Tamaris saflavic vazebs Soris aris mosalodneli. am mxatvrul saxeSi imdeni siyvaruli, tkivili da siamayea Caqsovili, rom Jruantels gvris adamians, romelmac icis saqarTvelos istoria, icis Tamarisa da vazis fasi qarTvelebisTvis da maT simbolur kavSirsac acnobierebs. vaxtang orbeliani vazis jvris apologetia qarTul literaturaSi. mis leqsebSi poetizirebuli saxiT gvxvdeba vazis jvari da wminda nino. misTvis es jvari da iveria erT mTlianobad moiazreba. vazis jvris madli mTel erze gadmodis, rac iZleva iveriis kvlav aRdgenis imeds, es ukanaskneli ki upirvelesi motivia qarTvel romantikosTa SemoqmedebaSi. rogorc vxedavT, vaxtang orbelianis sazogado kvnesa-oxvraSi vazisa da Rvinis Tematikamac iCina Tavi da, rogorc mosalodneli iyo, patriotul grZnobas daeqvemdebara.
Tamar SarabiZe

XIX saukune

mi xe il Tu ma niS vi li
baraTaSvilis siyrmis megobarma, pirveli literaturuli almanaxis, e.w. `anTologiis~ da xelnaweri Jurnalis «Öâåòîê Òèôëèññêîé Ãèìíàçèè»-is gamoSvebis iniciatorma, mixeil TumaniSvilma, gimnaziis damTavrebisTanave saxelmwifo samsaxurSi daiwyo muSaoba. calke samsaxurma da calke mravalricxovanma ojaxma ( 12 Svilis mama iyo ) igi TandaTan CamoaSora mwerlobas, magram misi ramdenime leqsi imdenad popularuli iyo, rom mixeil TumaniSvils poetis saxeli daumkvidra, Tumca mas poeziaSi axali araferi uTqvams; misi ganwyobilebani da Civili gacilebiT adre gamoxata romantikosebis ufrosma Taobam – aleqsandre WabWavaZem da grigol orbelianma; xolo rac Seexeba mis Tanamedrove nikoloz baraTaSvils, miuxedavad erTnairi Tematikisa da msgavsi mxatvruli saxeebisa, mixeil TumaniSvilma ver SeZlo baraTaSvilis poeziasTan axlos misvlac ki. erTi interesebis mqone ori megobridan erTi geniosad Camoyalibda, meore ki Cveulebriv poetad darCa da daiCrdila kidec didi niWierebis gverdiT. da mainc, roca baraTaSvilis leqsTa xsenebac ki ar iyo saqarTveloSi, didi popularobiT sargeblobda mixeil TumaniSvilis ramdenime leqsi da maT Soris `fiala~, romelic lada-zablockim polonuradac ki Targmna. es Targmani daibeWda lada-zablockis TxzulebaTa laifcigis gamocemaSi. leqsis Sinaarsi martivia: Rvinis naperwkali fialaSi duRs da elavs; qalis Rimiliani bage siyvarulis wyurvilis kocniT damaamebelia, ueSxo da Rimilgamqrali ki daclil fialas Camohgavs. qeifisa da qalis damfasebelma qarTvelebma, da ara mxolod maT (albaT polonelebmac), leqsSi damaamebeli, TavianTi ganwyobilebis Sesabamisi azrebi aRmoaCines.

ni ko loz ba ra TaS vi li
warmoudgenelia, isaubro qarTvel romantikosebze da baraTaSvili ar axseno, Tundac imis gamo, rom vazisa da Rvinis Temas poeti saerTod ar Sexebia. Tumca, ver vityviT, rom zogadsakacobrio fiqrebma ise moicva misi goneba, rom yofiTisa da amqveyniurisaTvis aRar ecalao. erosul grZnobas, gansakuTrebiT qalisadmi trfials, baraTaSvilma sakmaod miuZRvna leqsebi. am mxriv man Tavisi winamorbedebis – aleqsandre WavWavaZisa da grigol orbelianis – gza gaagrZela da megobrebs mimarTa:
`ahyeviT sofels, SeurCenels da momReralsa, nu moaridebT siymawviles trfobisa alsa! sasaciloa berikaci rom ymawvilobdes, da sabraloa, rom Wabuki berikacobdes!..~ (`CemT megobarT~)

baraTaSvili qalis xorciel silamazesac moefera. misi amgvari leqsebi gansxvavdeba satrfialo lirikis im nimuSebisagan, sadac poeti namdvil siyvarulze – `mSvenier sulTa kavSirze~ – kosmiuri masStabebiT msjelobs; magram xorciel grZnobasac unazesi sityvieri gamoxatuleba mounaxa Cvenma mgosanma da grCeba STabeWdileba, rom es RviniT SeTamamebuli kacis sityvebia, romelic Tavis gulisnadebs aRar malavs satrfosTan – surs, rom bage misi sayuris qveS `daitkbarunos~, iqve Sesvas ukvdavebis SarbaTi da suliTac zed daekonos. baraTaSvilis erotikaSi bevria tradiciuli, magram bevria siaxlec, individualuri, poeturi TvaliTa da suliT danaxuli, sicocxlis azris, xalisis Semcveli da Rirebuli. ...raoden gasakviria, rom baraTaSvils sawuTroebas Rvino ki ara, ca aviwyebs, Tundac is nelad modudune mtkvris zvirTebSi mosCandes; gadaudebel saqmeebs aragviani aragvi adebinebs da rac unda Sor gzas eSurebodes qarTveli, rogor iqneba, rom aragvis buCqebSi ar `Camoxdes~ da ar `ganisvenos~?!
`samjer xom mainc gadahkravs Rvinos, cxens moaZovebs, Tvals moatyuebs, gamoaRviZebs – Subls ganigrilebs, erTs qarTvelurad kidev SesZaxebs, aragvo, mag Sens amwvanebul mTebs, da mere Tundac daugviandes, igi amisTvis aRar daRondes!~

vazi – sicocxlis xe

mxolod am erT leqsSi gaielva Rvinom baraTaSvilis SemoqmedebaSi da ise SeumCnevlad Cajda poetis mSfoTvare da mRelvare TematikaSi, rom kinaRam gamogvrCa. kidev erT warweras gvinda SevexoT, romelic baraTaSvilma petre baraTaevisadmi miZRvnil azarfeSazed gaakeTa:
`amavseb RviniT, agavseb lxiniT, Sesvi? gaamos!~

86

87 baraTaSvilma am warwerisaTvis uTuod gamoiyena solomon razmaZis `dianas mejlisi~, sadac RmerTqali qarTvel banovanTa qebas warmoTqvams, TiToeuls fialiT asmevs siyvarulis als da Tan dasZens:
`Sesvi? gaamos! aw kvalad iame soflisa siame, mere gananon muzebma nana. Sesvi? gaamos!~
Tamar SarabiZe

XIX saukune

baraTaSvilma am mozrdili nawarmoebidan mxolod refreni aiRo – `Sesvi? gaamos!~ da TviTonac mxolod oTxiode sityva daumata. es eqvsi sityva samudamod darCa, rogorc baraTaSvilis moswrebuli naTqvami, sisxartiT Tqmuli aforizmi, romelic dResac siamayiT JRers qarTul sufrebze.

ra fi el eris Ta vi
`bodbeSi Cavuare erTi Rvinis duqans, sadac ramdenime qarTveli dros mxiarulad atarebda. roca daminaxes, daJinebiT mTxoves maTTan davrCeniliyavi da damelia, magram madloba gadavuxade da moubodiSe. ukan vbrundebodi, isini Sua quCaSi gamovidnen, qudebi moixades da Tasi momawodes. amjerad mis daclaze uari veRar vuTxari, Cemi keTili maspinZlebi seriozulad rom ar gamenawyenebina. es patara incidenti qarTuli xasiaTis saukeTeso gamovlinebaa – roca qarTveli mxiarulobs, surs rom es sixaruli yvelam gaiziaros, winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi, igi ubedurad CaTvlis Tavis Tavs. me minaxavs erTi qarTveli memamule, romelmac ramodenime wuTiT miatova lxini da TavlaSi Sevida, rom Tavisi erTguli cxenisaTvis gaeziarebina sayovelTao mxiaruleba imiT, rom mas bagaSi uamravi qeri dauxvava.~
rafiel erisTavi

`gaumarjos glexkacis marjvenas, cis nams da dedamiwis mosavals!~ – es pirveli WiqiT naTqvami rafiel erisTavis sadRegrZeloa; rafiel erisTavi ki is qarTveli poetia, romelic zedmiwevniT icnobda venaxebiT dafarul `saqarTvelos baRnars~, Tavisi xalxis Sromismoyvare bunebasa da stumarmaspinZlobas, qarTuli Rvinis Taviseburebas, Rirsebasa da nakls, Rvinis smis tradiciebs, sadRegrZeloTa wessa da rigs, Rvinis sasmisebsa da a.S. rafiel erisTavma im glexTa Sromis dasafaseblad, vinc `namdvil~ Rvinos ayenebda, ar erideboda garjas iSviaTi, Znelad mosavleli jiSebis gadasarCenad, TbilisSi (dRevandeli puSkinis quCaze) duqani gaxsna, magram, bunebiT poets, vaWrobis niWi ar aRmoaCnda, yidva-gayidvis magivrad duqani

saqvelmoqmedo dawesebulebad aqcia da male gakotrda kidec. marTalia, poetma RviniT vaWrobas Tavi ver moaba, magram Rvinis damfaseblad sicocxlis bolomde darCa. is iyo vazis, mis movlaze gaweuli Sromis, qarTuli sufrisa Tu qarTuli tradiciuli sasmisebis poeturi sityviT Semamkobeli. `Rvino~, `yanwi~, `rTveli~, `ferxulis xmaze~, `mevenaxis simRera~... – zemoTqmuli leqsTa am saTaurebiTac aSkaraa. rafiel erisTavis mama – daviT erisTavi – mTel kaxeTSi cnobili da SeZlebuli mebatone gaxldaT, deda – avTandil amilaxvris asuli – msxvil feodalTa STamomavali; maTi Svili rafieli ki imiT gamoirCa qarTul mwerlobaSi, rom glexTa cxovrebisa da ocnebis gamomxatvelad iqca; `tetiaTa motrfialec~ ki uwodes, radgan socialuri Tema ara marto prozaSi Semoitana, aramed poeziis sagnadac aqcia. 1824 wels dabadebuli rafieli qronologiurad `Zvel Taobas~ ekuTvnoda da wesiT romantikosi unda gamosuliyo, magram amjeradac ise ar moxda, rogorc mosalodneli iyo da, naxevar saukunes gadacilebuli, realistTa literaturuli Taobis rigebSi aRmoCnda. metad niWier mwerals dro da epoqa albaT ufro warmoaCenda, magram XIX saukunem is iliasa da akakis CrdilqveS moaqcia. sami ZiriTadi motivi gamoiyofa rafiel erisTavis poeziaSi: satrfialo, socialuri da patriotuli. am samive motivSi poetma saxeobrivad gaacocxla vazi da Tavisi myari adgili mounaxa sakuTar SemoqmedebaSi. rafiel erisTavi pirveli poetia qarTul mwerlobaSi, vinc qalis buneba da silamaze, kviparosisa da saros nacvlad, vazSi aRiqva da mas Seadara:
`risTvis miyvarxar? – misTvis rom xar egre lamazi: wynari da mSvidi, masTan mardi, viT rom gavazi, vardis da brolis xar sadari, turfa da nazi... misTvis miyvarxar, radgan xar uflisa vazi~. (`risTvis miyvarxar?~)

vazi – sicocxlis xe

vazTan Sedareba qalis tanis vazisebur moxrilobad ar unda warmovidginoT; vazi mixril-moxrilia, radgan masSi mzis energia anu uflis madlia dateuli; qalis silamazec am madlis gamovlinebaa, – gveubneba poeti, – misi garegnuli mSvenebisa da umanko bunebis Serwymaa. socialuri Tematikac rafiel erisTavma vazis siyvaruliT gaaTbo, roca mudam gaWirvebuli glexis erTaderT imedad da nugeSad vazi dasaxa; vazi, romelic `wiTeli Rvinis dedaa, gamxarebeli gulisa~. amitomac eTayvaneba glexkaci mas da erTgulad msaxurobs:
`Senis zedaSis madls vficav, Sen ar mogaklo baria, gagsxla, Sagyelo, dagToxno, arc ki Cndes monaTxaria, gagfurCqo, gagalamazo, rogorc rom patarZalia, aRar davzogo me SenTvis Cemi Rone da Zalia~. (`rTveli~)

88

89 poeti warmoaCens vazis udides Rirebulebas glexisaTvis, misi movlis sirTules, im mravalgvar samuSaos, romelic mas esaWiroeba (gasxvla, gaToxvna, Seyelva, gafurCqvna), da amave dros im sixaruls, romelic nayofis miRebas moaqvs. rafiel erisTavisTvis rTveli ritualuri procesia – SromaSi yvela CarTulia, yvela aRgznebuli da gaxarebulia, TiTqos Semodgomis baraqianoba da savseoba adamianebzec gadmodis da bunebrivad aTrobs maT:
`mtevnebs hkrefen, hglejen, sWrian, gahkres, gahkres venaxs xeli, kalaTebi izvirTeba – da Seiqna xSiri rTveli... saurmeze godrebi sdgas, kalaTs sclian zedi-zeda, aba biWo marnisaken, Torem Zlier gaiWeda...~ (`rTveli~)
Tamar SarabiZe

XIX saukune

poeti bolomde da Tanac dawvrilebiT aRwers rTvelis process, Tavadac tkbeba misiT da sxvasac am ganwyobilebas gadascems:
`ager tkbilmac moimata, ZlivsRa itevs mokle Rari, Cqafa-CqufiT moCqrialebs, qvevri daxvda umaZRari!~ (`rTveli~)

rafiel erisTavma gviCvena, rom glexis cxovreba, romelic logikiT mwuxare unda iyos, sixaruliTaa aRsavse, radgan Tavad glexic bunebis Svilia da bunebisgan miRebuli jildoc uzomo sixarulsa da siyvaruls aniWebs. glexs da masTan erTad poets qalze ara nakleb vnebianad uyvars vazi da grZnobamowolili dasZaxis:
`vazis Wirime, vazisao...~

mis alersian gancdebSi patriotuli, mSobliuri grZnobac ereva:
`vazo, SviliviT nazardo, ulvaSeb gadgigrexia, Cahkonebixar Wigosa, Suaze gadgitexia... movkvdebi me Sens ZirSia, SeniT var mxne da guladi imediT gasaWirSia~.

Tu satrfialo leqsebSi vazi qalurobis gansaxierebaa, patriotul motivSi igi ulvaSebgadagrexili vaJkacis saxes iRebs, romelsac siyvarulic SeuZlia (Wigos ki ar CasWidebia, aramed Cahkonebia) da Zalis gamovlinebac (es Wigo Suaze gadautexia). amitomac natrobs poeti mis ZirSi sikvdils, misiT aris mxne, guladi da imediani. rafiel erisTavis esTetizirebuli damokidebuleba vazisa da Rvinisadmi qarTuli xasiaTis saukeTeso gamovlinebaa zogadad.

ilia
`ilias puradoba, maspinZloba namdvili `qarTveluri~ iyo, `Cveneburi, Zveleburi~. aiReT Tu ginda imis dReoba, iliaoba, ocs ivliss... vin aRwers am dRisaTvis samzadiss, siuxves saWmel-sasmlisas, sanovagisas? aseTi lxini, Seqceva, nadimi, SehSveniT mxolod troadis gmirebs, rogorc Tvalwarmtacis feradebiT agviwers homirosi Tavis `iliadaSi~. mec unda homirosis kalami mqondes, rom Rirseulad aRvwero iliaoba.~
iakob mansvetaSvili, `mogonebebi~

vazi – sicocxlis xe

iliaoba saguramoSi imarTeboda da sami dRe grZeldeboda. dReobisaTvis ramdenime dRiT adre iwyebdnen mzadebas. stumrebs wina dRiT avWalasa da mcxeTaSi axvedrebdnen etlebs, Sekazmul cxenebs da urmebs bargisTvis, radgan isini wina dResve iwyebdnen saguramoSi Camosvlas. ilias karmidamoSi oTxi-xuTi sufra iSleboda: kaklis qveS – qalaqeli stumrebisaTvis, romelTa Soris iyvnen sazogado moRvaweebi, msaxiobebi, bankis da redaqciis TanamSromlebi, sul asiode kaci; kaklis gayolebaze, xeebqveS winamZRvrianT skolis moswavleebi isxdnen TavianT maswavleblebTan erTad; maT meTaurobda am skolis damfuZnebeli da misi mudmivi gulSematkivari ilia winamZRvriSvili; iqve, gayolebiT, saguramosa da wiwamuris samasamde glexisTvis calke iyo gaSlili sufra; tradiciulad tolumbaSad Seudarebel Tamadas – rafiel erisTavs – irCevdnen. nadimi saucxoo iyo rogorc sufriT – saWmeli saWmels cvlida, erTi Tavi meores, Rvino ismeboda jer WiqebiT, Semdeg TasebiT, jamebiTa da bolos yanwebiT, – aseve Teatraluri sanaxaobiT, pirvel rigSi ki simReriT. qalaqelebi mRerodnen `mravalJamiers~, `yanwiT vsvam Rvinos~, `gulSi Wirime, sulSi Wirimesa~ da sxva amisTanebs. aq moismendiT asiko cagarelis Siqastebsac, zurna-dudukze Sesrulebuls, da mis zomagadasul xumrobebsac. Rvinis dalevis Teatralur sanaxaobas (RviniT savse Wiqis xelis gulze trials da sxva amisTanebs) qalaqeli dardimandi gigo yarangoziSvili marTavda. winamZRvrianTkaris mowafeebi aRniaSvilis xoros repertuaridan tkbilad da Sewyobilad mRerodnen. maTi simRera iyo `mwyobri, smenis damatkbobeli, gulis gamamxiarulebeli. is ara hgavda uxams Siqastas~; glexebi mZlavrad da Ronivrad gugunebdnen. lxinis dros icodnen TamaSi, cangalas Camovla, ferxulis gabma, Widaobis gamarTva... saRamo xans jer mowafeebi iSlebodnen; skolamde sakmao manZili hqondaT gasavleli; maT glexebi mihyvebodnen da bolos qalaqeli stumrebi, romelTa umravlesoba saguramoSive rCeboda. did oTaxSi samocamde logini iyo pirdapir iatakze mwkrivad gaSlili... meore dilas zogi Cais miirTmevda, zogi – Rvinos da zogic Wriantelas anu tyemlis wvens amjobinebda, rom ufro advilad Sedgomoda axal sufras, smasa da Wamas. ilia yvelas urCevda xeli arafrisTvis exloT, radgan maT msuqani xaSi elodebodaT. naadrevad momzadebuli sadilis Semdeg stumrebi zedazens miaSurebdnen, sadac lxini RamisTeviT imarTeboda, mxolod mesame dRes emSvidobebodnen TavianT `guluxvsa da purad maspinZels~.

iakob mansvetaSvili, `mogonebebi~ (gv. 128-134) 90

91 ar moiZebneba meore qarTveli poeti, romelsac imdeni codna hqondes meRvineobis dargSi, ramdenic ilia WavWavaZes aqvs. CamovTvaloT Tundac publikaciebi: `Rvinis qarTulad dayeneba~ (1887w.), `Cveni mevenaxeobisa da meRvineobis saWiroebani~ (1886-1887ww.), `mevenaxe glexTa mdgomareoba~ (1887w.), `mcenareTa Senacvlebis sakiTxi mevenaxeobaSi~ (1889w.), `filoqsera~ (1889w.), `vazis sneulebani~ (1889w.), `venaxebis wamlobis Sesaxeb~ (1890w.), `Cveni Rvinoebis sabazrod qcevis sakiTxi~ (1892w.), `eleqtronis gamoyeneba meRvineobaSi~ (1900w.); CamoTvlil werilTa mxolod saTaurebic ki gviCvenebs, rogori mravalmxrivi codna da gamocdileba daugrovebia profesiiT arameRvine avtors am dargSi. mizezi? ilias mTeli cxovrebisa da moRvaweobis mizezi patriotizmia – qarTveli xalxis saWiroeba; miT umetes, Tu saqme eris suliersa da materialur simdidres exeba. qarTvelTa simdidre ki puri da Rvinoa. `Cven, qarTvelebi, purisa da Rvinis patronebi varT,~– amayad ganacxadebs ilia da qarTvelobas am dargebis aRorZinebisaken mouwodebs, radgan swored es dargebia qarTvelis `ekonomiuris cxovrebis saxsari~. `miwaTmoqmedebas ori sagani moaqvs Cvenis qveynis gasaZRolad~, – wers ilia, – `Rvino da yoveligvari egreTwodebuli sapure marcvali. am orgvars warmoebas didi xania vadgivarT da didi xania mis gzaze vSromobT da Tavs avad Tu kargad vikvebavT~ (`Rvinis dayeneba qarTulad~, t.VII, gv. 73). ilias guli swydeba, rom ruseTis xelisuflebis mxridan da TviT qarTvelebisganac Sesabamisad ar aris dafasebuli am or dargSi aTaswleulebis manZilze Cven mier dagrovili gamocdileba; upiratesoba ucxour codnas eZleva da ugulebelyofilia Rvinis qarTulad dayenebis uZvelesi meTodebi, zogadad qarTuli meRvineoba, `romelic yovelisfriT dedaa Rvinisa~; qarTveli dadumebuli ugdebs yurs ucxoeTidan Camosul kacs da Wkuis maswavleblad saxavs ganurCevlad imisa, swavlulia is Tu uswavleli, Wkviani Tu suleli. did mamuliSvils guli ukvdeba, rom qarTvelebi davbrmavdiT da davijereT, rom `yvelani yvelaferSi Cvenzed ukeTesni ostatebi arian. davijereT da mere rogor? Cveni aRaraferi viwameT, aRaraferi vigulveT. is-ki gonebidam gamogvepara, rom Cvenc gvicxovria, gvimoqmednia Tavis sakvebad, CvenSic yofila xeloba da ostatoba miwaTmoqmedebisa, da Tu Cveni nacxovari, nakeTari da namoqmedari mecnierebamde ar agviyvania, angariSSi Casagdebi, gamosaZiebeli da gamosakvlevi xom aris, rogorc nacadi didi xnisa, rogorc mravalis wlis moRvaweobiT Semowmebuli saqme da saqmianoba~ (iqve, gv. 75). qarTvelis aseT SeSinebas, gamZleobis dakargvas ilia ucxo qveynebiT `Tavbrusxvevas~ abralebs da dawvrilebiT, TiToeuli detalisa da wesis gaTvaliswinebiT iwyebs msjelobas Rvinis qarTulad dayenebis meTodis upiratesobaze. ilia winaswarmetyvelebs: `...igi nakli Cveni Rvinisa, romelsac Cveneburs Rvinos wunad uTvlian Cvenni Sinaurnni Tu gareulni ostatebi, swored igi nakli Rirsebaa Cvenis Rvinisa, da Tu Cveni Rvino odesme gzas gaixsnis saqveyno bazrisas, swored am Rirsebis wyalobiT gaixsnis...~ (iqve, gv. 77). Rvinis qarTulad dayeneba pirvel rigSi gulisxmobs mis bunebriobas – rom yurZnis wvens araferi Seerios: `Rvinos margebel da sasargeblo sasmelada hxdis marto erTi buneba da veravin ver gvetyvis, rom aq Rvinis keTamar SarabiZe

XIX saukune

92

TebaSi bunebas kacma ajobos~ (iqve, gv. 85). ilia uaryofs Rvinis dayenebis evropul meTodebs, romlebic yurZnis wvenSi sxva masalebis Camatebasa da Serevazea dafuZnebuli. misi azriT, mxolod bunebriv Rvinos aqvs is sasargeblo da samkurnalo Tvisebebi, romelic adamians Zalzed rgebs, aRonierebs, xels uwyobs saWmlis monelebas, `aRamaRlebs mis Wkuasa da guls. erTi ylupi kargis Rvinisa gamoaxalisebs moxucsa da gamoacocxlebs sneulsa, igi Rones moukrebs xolme dauZlurebuls da dasustebulsa~ (iqve, gv.85). Tavis werilebSi ilia saubrobs venaxis miwis damuSavebaze, yurZnis krefis droze, dawurvis meTodebze, saqarTvelos sxvadasxva kuTxeSi Rvinis dayenebis specifikaze, Senaxvis wesebze, qvevris upiratesobasa da mis naklzec, qvevris SerCevis siZneleze, marnis mowyobaze, Rvinis xelovnur gakeTebaze, ucxoeTSi SemuSavebul `Rvinis keTebis~ sistemebze, Rvinis gamZleobaze, RviniT vaWrobaze, Rvinis kanonze da a.S. rogorc vxedavT, ilias, am saqmiT dainteresebul pirs, mecnierul doneze Seuswavlia Rvinis qarTulad dayenebis xelovneba da masSi is upiratesobac daunaxavs, rac evropulad dayenebul Rvinos aklda. meRvineobaze Seqmnil werilebSi gvxiblavs ilias logikuroba, azrTa ise ostaturad erTmaneTze gadabma, rom daskvna Tavad mkiTxvels gamoaqvs. ilias stili – logikuroba, Rrma azri da am azris gamoxatva zustad misadagebuli terminologiiT – meRvineobis Temaze Seqmnili werilebisTvisac niSandoblivia, xolo mwerlis gamocdileba soflis meurneobis am dargSi, rasakvirvelia, mxatvrul nawarmoebSic aisaxeba. am mxriv sainteresoa `oTaraanT qvrividan~ `madliani Semodgomis~ aRwera da arCilisa da giorgis saubari venaxis mowyobis sakiTxebze. gansakuTrebiT am meore epizodze gavamaxvilebT yuradRebas, radgan swored aq gamoCnda ilias praqtikuli codna-gamocdileba. axali venaxisaTvis arCilma Wadrakis ficariviT ujra-ujrad dayofil miwaze mwkrivad da larzed gaaSena vazi. aseTi ganawileba, erTi mxriv, kargi iyo, radgan vazs mze da niavi Tanabrad dauvlida, magram ar gamodgeboda mSral miwaze da Tanac ferdobze gaSenebuli venaxisaTvis, sadac vazs weliwadSi erTxel mainc esaWiroeboda morwyva; maRlidan daqanebuli wyali miwas qveviT Caitanda da Carecxavda. swored am epizodis Semdeg aTqmevinebs ilia Tavis gmir arCils, – `arc uwignoba varga da arc marto wignebidam gamoxedva. uwignod TvalTaxedvis isari moklea da marto wigniTac sakmaod grZeli ar aris ... yvela gonieri kaci, Tunda uwignoc, zogjer mwignobarisTvisac ki ostatia~. aseTi ostatia iliasaTvis qarTveli glexi, romlis codna-gamocdileba ara mxolod Cven unda davafasoT, aramed Cvenze bevrad win wasuli evropelebisTvisac samagaliTo unda gaxdes. sakvirvelia, magram ilias lirikaSi Rvinis Temaze mxolod erTi leqsi moiZebneba – `loTis rCeva~– da isic mwerlis TvalTaxedvas nawilobrivadac ar gamoxatavs. piriqiT, leqsSi gakritikebulia Wkuisa da gonebis avtoriteti, rac wamyvania iliasaTvis mudam – cxovrebasa Tu SemoqmedebaSi. leqsis saTauric swored imaze migviTiTebs, rom es loTis rCevebia da ara avtoris, loTisa, romelsac yvelanair didebas qalis kocna da kaxuri RviniT savse Tasi ujobs. sxvasac amasve urCevs: cali xeliT mijnurs exvios, meoreTi ki ka-

vazi – sicocxlis xe

93 xurs ylapavdes, ar daujeros `ugemur Wkuas~, romelic mudam brmaa grZnobis gansjaSi. gasaTvaliswinebelia erTi garemoebac: miuxedavad imisa, rom iliam es leqsi axalgazrdobis asakSi, TiTqmis siyrmis dros dawera, Tavs mainc ar misca ufleba, rom is sakuTar naazrevad warmoeCina da leqss `loTis rCeva~ daarqva. qarTuli poeziisaTvis dauviwyari, RvTiuri da erovnuli niSnis matarebeli saxe-simbolo Seqmna iliam leqsSi `gazafxuli~ oboli vazis saxiT, romelic barbare jorjaZem (imdroindeli mwerali, `mamaTa~ banakis warmomadgeneli) dauwuna `mercxlis WyivilTan~ erTad. iliam `mercxlis WyivilTan~ dakavSirebuli SeniSvna miiRo, `obol vazze~ ki ganacxada: ` ukacravad ar viyo, Tavis alagas kargad ariso. Tqven rom `Sinidan karSi fexi gamogedgaT~, gaigebdiT, rom xmaroben: oboli margaliti, oboli xe, oboli Stoo...~ iliam vazs epiTeti `oboli~ SeurCia. ratom aris vazi oboli? oboli RvTiurobis maniSnebeli epiTetia, Zvirfasi saunjis, xelSeuxebelisa da mitovebulis. siZvirfasis gamoa is RvTissadari; mitovebuloba da martodmyofoba is niSania, romlis gamoc unda gamoirCes. mitovebuli da oboli RvTis anabara myofia, anu masTan ufalia. ilias oboli vazi `metis lxeniTa stiris~. vazis tirils xalxSi uwodeben vazis gasxvlis Semdeg vazis wveroebidan siTxis denas: gasxvla aucilebeli procesia vazis movlisaTvis, raTa `fesvis Zala kenweroSi tyuila ar avides da mcenareebSi ganawildes~. vazis tirils, romelic mcenarisadmi sibralulis grZnobas badebs, lxena moaqvs. lxena nayofia. vazis movlasTan dakavSirebuli es procesi mSvenivrad uwyoda iliam, mevenaxeobis mecnierma, da amitomac, bunebrivia, rom Tavis poeziaSi ara mxolod gamoiyena, aramed saxe-simbolos gaazreba misca. vazi obolia, vazi mtiralia, is uflis anabaraa da ufali mas bednierebas – mtevans – mianiWebs. cxadi xdeba, Tu ratom airCia iliam samSoblos ganaxlebis simbolod `oboli vazi~. is zustad asaxavs qristianul ideals – ubraloa, romelsac Zvirfasi moaqvs; mtiralia, ris safasuradac lxena eniWeba; da obolia, amitom RmerTi ar miatovebs. igive epiTetebi saqarTvelozec SeiZleba gamoviyenoT – ubralo, mtirali, oboli, magram amave dros Zvirfasi, tirilis safasurad ganwmendili da oblobisaTvis – RvTisgan rCeuli. rogorc vazi da mis movlaSi Cadebuli tanjva-Sroma iZleva nayofs, aseTive wvalebiT, SromiTa da ganwmendiT moxdeba saqarTvelos ganaxleba, saqarTvelos amwvaneba, misi gazafxuloba. Tu ar ivno, ver aRdgeba. es qristianuli idea msWvalavs Zvel qarTul mwerlobas da aseTive simboluri mniSvnelobiT gadmodis axali qarTuli mwerlobis warmomadgenelTa azrovnebaSic. mijaWvuli da tanjulia akakis amirani, obolia vaJas Svlis nukri, xmelia wifeli, daWrilia arwivi da obolia ilias vazic. `oboli vazi~ qarTul cnobierebaSi myarad damkvidrebul, mravlismTqmel, farTo masStabis mxatvrul saxed Camoyalibda, romelic gascda vazisadmi, rogorc RvTiuri mcenarisadmi, Tayvaniscemis gamoxatulebas da masSi qveynis momavlis rwmenis idea aisaxa.
Tamar SarabiZe

XIX saukune

aka ki
`sandro ToiZem da iagor mamineiSvilma ganizraxes sakuTari restornis gaxsna. moawyves yvelaferi da axla imis fiqrSi Sevidnen, iseTi ra saxeli davarqvaT, rom mokle iyos da muStaric bevri moizidoso. bevrgan ikiTxes da bolos akakis mihmarTes. – `muqTi~ daarqviTo, – mouWra mokled akakim, – sityva moklec aris da mimzidvelic, muStars veRar auxvalT, ise dagexvevian, rogorc buzi Taflsao. bolos am restorans `pur-Rvino~ daarqves.~
iakob mansvetaSvili, `mogonebebi~ (gv.151)

vazi – sicocxlis xe

`erTxel grigol gurielma miTxra ozurgeTSi, rom erT moxucs, nakaSiZes, Seni naxva enatreba da, Tu nebas momcem, cxens gavugzavni – aqedan Svid verstzea – da Camovayvaniebo. marTlac, im Ramesve movida moxuci da siamovnebiT Semomyurebda, Tumca ki laparakiT Tavs ar gvawyenda. gavabiT saubari Cvenebur lxineb-Seqcevaze da me maSin is azri warmovsTqvi: ra sjobs imas, rodesac maspinZeli ise migiRebs, rogorc Sinaurs-meTqi? moxuci nakaSiZe yurs gvigdebda, aras ambobda da roca gamogveTxova, didis mowiwebiTa gvTxova, rom paraskevs imas vwveodiT. Cvenc, rasakvirvelia, survili avusruleT. migviRo SinaurulaT, sadilze samarxvos meti ara moutania ra, magram im samarxvoebis Wamas ara sjobda-ra...dResac kidev pirSi maqvs maSindeli gemo... sufraze arc tolumbaSi, arc `mravalJamieri~ da arc sadRegrZeloebi, magram ise-ki gavmxiaruldiT yvela, rom Zal-dautaneblad SevzarxoSdiT, TiTqos raRac umanko Zala gvxiblavda yvelas. nasadilevs, wasvlis dros, maspinZeli miubrunda grigol guriels da madli gadauxada: `batoniSvilo, RmerTma nu dagiviwyos, rom gaxsovar da es ymawvili gamacani, – me megona, rom Rvinis daZaleba da sma axalisebda kacs, axla gamodis, rom mxiaruleba da siamovneba asmevs Turme kacs Rvinos. icocxle, dRes me dagixvdebodiT, rogorc Cveuleba mqonda; Zroxasac Tavs gavagdebiebdi da saklavebsac bevrs mivayolebdi, magram Turme sul tyuili xarji iqneboda, Tqven lobio grCevnebiaT. sxva rom vinme damepatiJna, asi maneTiT ver gadavrCebodi da Tqvenze ki ara damxarjvia ra, magram, ravarc vxedav, arc Tqven, stumrebi, damirCiT nakleb nasiamovnebi da mec kmayofili var!... axla ki, Cemo batoniSvilo, es Sesawiri, Tqven rom ufaso Skola gamarTeT, misi iyos, imas cotas waexmareba da mec mogebaSi varo...~ es uTxra da ocdaxuTmaneTiani gadasca. mas aqeT bevri lxini damviwyebia, magram es ki saflavis karebamdi mimyveba.~
akaki wereTeli, `kaxeTSi mogzauroba~, (t.13, gv. 310)

akaki wereTeli gamorCeulad vardis motrfiale poetia, anu bulbulisa da vardis trfobis ambavs xSirad iyenebs sxvadasxva ideis gamosaxatavad; dapirispirebis mxatvrul saxeebsac mis SemoqmedebaSi, erTi mxriv, vardni da

94

95 iani, xolo, meore mxriv, ekal-bardebi da bayayebi qmnian. vazs akaki wereTeli ar mohferebia, Tumca am mcenarem Tavisi mxatvruli saxe mainc Seqmna akakis SemoqmedebaSi. akaki wminda ninosa da vazis jvris Temas Seexo, amitom, bunebrivia, rom vazisa da jvris mxatvruli saxeebi mis leqsSi qarTuli RvTismetyvelebidan ucvlelad gadmodis. vazis jvari qristianuli idealis Tanaxmad ubraloSi – xeSi – Cadebuli brali da simdidrea; simdidrea, radgan rwmena, grZnoba da gulisTqmaa. vazi ki, miuxedavad masalis ubraloebisa, niSania erovnulobisa; amitomac vazis jvarma ori simbolo erTdroulad itvirTa da eris rwmenis gamoxatulebad iqca. swored am simbolikis axsnas gamoxatavs akakis leqsic `ninoobas~:
`mas ar hqonia saunje daudebeli fasisa, simdidred xelSi eWira ubralo jvari vazisa, misis cremlebiT nabani, Sekruli imisive TmiT, surviliT gamagrebuli, ganmtkicebuli gulisTqmiT. da is mogviZRvna qarTvelebs saSviliSvilo simdidred, Cvenc sjuli da erovneba orive maszed vamkvidreT~. (`ninoobas~)
Tamar SarabiZe

XIX saukune

vazs akaki Sedarebis saxiTac iyenebs, Tumca misi meSveobiT Rrma mxatvrul saxes ar qmnis. leqsSi `mestviruli~, sadac akaki sazogado moRvaweebis mamaTa Taobas axal wels ulocavs da TiToeuli maTganis daxasiaTebas iZleva, levan meliqiSvilisadmi (general-leitenanti, romelic 1883 wels mTavarmarTeblis moadgiled daniSnes; cdilobda liberalad moeCvenebina Tavi qarTuli sazogadoebisaTvis, magram Tavisi SexedulebebiT mainc mamaTa Taobas ekuTvnoda) simpaTias da mis ojaxiSvilobas amgvari SedarebiT gamoxatavs:
`erTxmad aqeben yvelani: kargi aris levanio, qarTuli yurZnis vazia... sanaqebo mtevanio~. (`mestviruli~)

axalgazrda qarTveli qalbatonebis bunebis gadmosacemad ki akaki Seudarebel, saucxoo metaforas – `umankoebis vazebs~ – iSveliebs:
`alaverdi `kniaJnebs~! umankoebis vazebs!~ (`alla-verdi~)

umankoeba, romelic qals unda amkobdes, mcenaris Tvisebad iqca, riTac adamianisa da mcenaris – orives – buneba erTdroulad itvirTa. akakis mraval gamocanaTa Soris erT-erTi yurZensa da Rvinos eZRvneba da TiToeuli maTganis Tvisebebsac warmoaCens:

`dedasac vWamT, Svilsaca vsvamT, orive gemrielia; deda axali sjobia, Svili – rac ufro Zvelia.~ (`gamocanebi~)

Rvinis siZveles akaki sxva leqsSic (`Cems megobars~) aqebs da mas moxucis suls adarebs:
`da gvami, rac und dasustdes, mainc Zlierobs sulio, rogorc Zvel, naxmar WurWelSi kaxuri Senaxulio~. (`Cems megobars~)

daZvelebul Rvinos meti siZliere aqvs iseve, rogorc cxovrebagamovlil suls; dasustebuli sxeulic naxmari WurWeliviTaa, romlis siZvirfasec mis SigniTaa moTavsebuli. Rvinis Sedareba adamianis sulTan SemTxveviTi ar unda iyos da am sasmelis RvTaebriobaze unda migvaniSnebdes. akaki Tavis leqsebSi xSirad da sxvadasxva konteqstiT moixseniebs qarTul tradiciul sasmisebs da, SeiZleba iTqvas, maTi aseTi mravalferovnebiT warmoCena me-19 saukunis mwerlobaSi mxolod akakisTan gvxvdeba: erTgan poeti ironiulad saubrobs `qarTul patriotobaze~, romelic zogierTebs Rvinis dalevis Semdeg exsnebaT:
`roca gadavkrav nunuas Tas-yanwiT, ginda kuliTa, maSin mec zecas vavedreb am Cems samSoblos guliTa.~ (`qarTuli patriotoba~)

meoregan, xalxur motivebze Seqmnil leqsSi, sadac weliwadis 12 Tvea daxasiaTebuli, akaki RvinobisTveze ambobs:
`RvinobisTve daacivebs, rTvelSi kaTxas daiWerso. giorgobisTve qorwilSi etyvis `mraval-Jamierso!~ (`xalxuri~)

vazi – sicocxlis xe

mestvirul hangebze Seqmnil leqsSi ki ase epatiJeba pampulas:
`unda lxinSi dagvewvioT, dagixvdebiT wiwiliTa: goWis-kuds zed dagiTavebT, Rvinos gasmevT WinWiliTa~. (`pampula~)

leqsSi `gamofxizleba~ poeti kuliT svams winaprebis Sesandobars:
`da aq ki Sesandobarsa Cavarakrakeb kuliTa

96

97
da SemovZaxeb Tamamad grZnobiT aRvsilis guliTa~. (`gamofxizleba~)
Tamar SarabiZe

rogorc vxedavT, saxezea qarTuli tradiciuli sasmisebis mTeli arsenali: Tasi, yanwi, kula, kaTxa da WinWila. es sasmisebi, romelTac dRes iSviaTad xmaroben, axlobelia me-19 saukunis qarTvelisaTvis, yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi mosaxmari; aqedan gamomdinare, isini poeziaSic moxvdnen, radganac garemoebis sayvirma da tradiciebis motrfiale akakim isini `cxovrebis sarkeSi~ aRmoaCina da leqsSi fotofirsaviT daafiqsira. zemoT CamoTvlil akakis leqsebSi sxvadasxva Tema iSleba, sadac vazi da Rvino mxolod da mxolod imitom Cndeba, rom qarTuli yofisagan ganuyofelia. specialurad Rvinisadmi ki akakis miZRvnili aqvs sakmaod vrceli leqsi `Caisa da Rvinis baasi~. ulvaSaprexili, doinjSemortymuli, mkvexara nunua Tavs ar uyadrebs mduRare da wyal-wyala Cais, romelsac Tavis upiratesobad is miaCnia, rom ucxo qveynis Svilia da ganaTlebas Semohyva saqarTveloSi; uwyinaria da Wirsa Tu lxinSi yvelasaTvis siamovnebiT mosaxmari. Rvinis azriT, Cais popularoba drois bralia – `droni mefoben~, Torem Zvelad Cai Ciradac ar movidoda noes gamogonebul sasmelTan, romelsac pativiscemis niSnad zedaSes eZaxdnen. igi iyo Wirveulis nugeSica da wylulis damaamebelic, misi meSveobiT ismeboda sulis mosaxsenebeli – mkvdrebis Sesandobari da cocxalTa sadRegrZeloc. Cai ase ar fiqrobda: Rvinis karg TvisebebTan erTad mis cudsac xedavda. mas SeeZlo brZenisTvis Wkuis dakargvineba, vaJkacisTvis Ronis gamocla, mWevrmetyvelisTvis enis dabma, uwyinarisTvis codvis Cadenineba. bevrjer mohyolia mas WinWyli, Cxubi, sisxlis da cremlebis Rvra. Rvinis mtkicebiT, esec ukuRmarTma drom moitana, mis Semxedvare kacs ki gza-kvali aeria, veRar gaarCia kargi cudisgan. axalma drom yvelaferi SebRala – yurZnis siwmindec da Zveli Cveulebac. adre sad gaigonebdiT yurZnis Sewamvlas gogirdiT da SabiamniT, gveli xom ar iyo?! nawamli Rvinoc aravis ergeboda. akakis azriT, mouwamlavi aRaraferi darCa – aRarc grZnoba da aRarc Wkua. amis gamo xalxs mter-moyvarec aeria. akakis swams, rom drois Sesafers isev dro waiRebs, rogorc qaris monaberi isev qars miaqvs. simarTlis mTqmeli ki darCeba iseve, rogorc Zveli da tradiciuli sasmeli Rvino. rogorc vxedavT, akaki gamarTlebas uZebnis Rvinis saqveynod cnobil Tvisebas – adamianis gonebaze zemoqmedebas da mas zedmet dozas ki ar abralebs, aramed axal droebas. am erTi leqsiT – `Caisa da Rvinis baasi~ – akakim sakmaod maRali Sefaseba misca Rvinos da igi tradiciulis, mudmivisa da Seucvlelis simbolod dasaxa. rogorc akakis bunebaa zogadad msubuqi, aseTive simsubuqiT waimRera man Rvinozec; mxolod Cafiqrebis Semdeg Tu mixvdeba mkiTxveli, rom `Caisa da Rvinis baasiT~ akakim Sesabamisi saxe mounaxa im ideas, romlis gamoxatvac surda, da misi simboluri gaazrebiT masStaburoba SesZina konkretul Sinaarss. sxvaTa msgavsad, am leqsSic idea da saxe imdenad ganuyrelni arian, rom giWirs

XIX saukune

Tqma, romeli iyo misTvis mTavari, Rvinis tradiciuloba Tu axali drois kritika, Tu zogadad Zvelisa da axlis urTierTmimarTeba, rogorc maTi mudmivi Widili. Zveli da axali drois lxinis Sedareba yvelaze ukeT poema `Tornike erisTavSi~ gamoixata. akakim saukuneebiswinandeli lxini gaacocxla, rodesac mSvidobian dros batoni da yma erTad moilxenda `uqme-dReze~. mis mier aRwerili sadRegrZeloebica da maTi Tanmimdevrobac istoriul-eTnografiuli masalebiT dasturdeba, akakis poeturi eniT ki ase gamoiTqmis:
`mTvraloba da `sadRegrZelo~ saTviToo ar icodnen; Cveni lxini rom enaxaT, sircxviliTac daiwvodnen. pirvel smaze axsenebdnen saqarTvelos da ufalsa, dRegrZelobiT Tayvans scemdnen mefesa da dedofalsa; bolos gmirebs igonebdnen, mamulisTvis omebSi mkvdars, da mRvdelTmTavris kurTxeviTa svamden imaT Sesandobars... sul amiTi Tavdeboda maSindeli sadRegrZelo, Tumca maTSi meti iyo saqebi da sasaxelo~.

98

vazi – sicocxlis xe

sakamaTo ar unda iyos, rom tradiciuli, darbaisluri da vaJkacuri, qarTuli lxinis aRweriT akakim kidev erTxel gailaSqra rusuli yofis, Rreobisa da mTvralobis winaaRmdeg, rac, poetis dakvirvebiT, CvenSi XIX saukunidan damkvidrda. sainteresoa is varaudic, rom saqarTveloSi piradi – `saTviToo~– sadRegrZeloebi ar yofila da esec sxva erTan aRrevis, ucxo, mliqvneluri Cvevebis damkvidrebis nayofs warmoadgenda. bolos gvinda akakis prozasac SevexoT da gavixsenoT biZina ColoyaSvilis sityvebi `baSi-aCukidan~: `tkbilia Tqveni SarbaTebi, magram ver gavcvli im Cem Rvinoze, romelic Cemi mama-papis sisxliT aris wiTlad Seferili!.. gemrielia Tqveni murasa-lavaSebi, magram me mainc Cemi qveynis puri mirCevnia, is puri, romelSiac Cveni Zvelebis nawilebi urevia... diax, nawilebi!.. Cveni sayaneebi maTis ZvlebiTa da xorciT arian dapoxierebuli! marTali aris Cveni glexkacoba, rodesac Rvinis dalevis dros pirjvars iwers da, puris gatexis wineT, jer purs emTxveva!.. is wmida-wmidaTa, ziarebaa CvenTvis...~ akakisaTvis Rvino da puri ara mxolod qristes sisxlsa da xorcTan ziarebaa, aramed mSobeli miwis upirvelesobis, misi `wmidaTawmidobis~ aRiareba, erovnulTan ziareba, qarTvelis cnobierebis gamoxatva anu erTmaneTisgan ganuyofeli rwmena da samSoblo.

99

va Ja- fSa ve la
erTxel vaJas Sua qorwilSi nefionisTvis (siZis naTesavebisaTvis) uTqvams, erT boTlze gepatiJebiTo. naxevari qorwili gamohyolia, lukas cota aqvs sasmeli, marto nefions patiJebso; aba vnaxoT, erTi boTliT vis dagvaTrobso, – misi dacinva, gaxumreba moundaT. lukas ocdaeqvsboTliani erTi SuSa gamouRia, magidaze daudgams da Tan stumrebi gaufrTxilebia: sanam ar dascliT, ar gagiSvebTo. – aki sTqvi, erTi boTli maqvso, – gacetebula xalxi. – maS, cxra xom ar ariso, – upasuxia vaJas. Turme erTimeores eubnebodnen: erTi boTli gvegona da erTi Stofi yofilao... lukam WkuiT gvajobao ... ajoba kidec!
gulqan razikaSvilis naambobi – `mamama RmerTs Camahyara saxeli~ (gv.62)

Tamar SarabiZe

XIX saukune

vaJasTvis ucxoa Rvinisa da vazis kulti. mwerali im kuTxis Svilia, sadac vazi ar xarobs, amitomac verc Rvinos ayeneben. vaJa `mTis arwivia~, rogorc mas xSirad uwodeben, mTaSi ki arays xdian da luds xarSaven. es aris da es. Rvino mxolod baridan amoaqvT, rac ojaxis simdidrisa da maspinZlis siuxvis gamoxatulebaa. vaJasTvis vazi mSobliuri, axlobeli mcenare ar aris. mwerlis saTqmels iani, dekani, Rviani, pirimze da quCi gamoxataven; isini arian vaJas dobilebica da Zmobilebic. miuxedavad amisa, vaJa marto fSaveli xom ar aris, qarTvelia, romelsac samSoblod mTeli saqarTvelo esaxeba Tavisi mTiTa da bariT; amitomac warmoudgeneli iyo, rom mis SemoqmedebaSi vazs, qarTuli sameurneo yofisagan ganuyofel am sakulto mcenares, Tavisi mxatvruli saxe ar Seeqmna. da marTlac, ilias `oboli vazis~ msgavsad mis SemoqmedebaSi vxvdebiT `moxuc vazs~. epiTeti `moxuci~ iseTive intimuria, didi siyvarulisa da axloblobis gamoxatulebaa, rogorc `oboli~, im gansxvavebiT, rom `obols~ Zvirfasis mniSvneloba eZleva – `viT margaliti oboli xelisxel sagogmanebi~, `moxuci~ ki mis uZvelesobasa da qarTul miwaze mis mkvidrobaze migvaniSnebs. Rvino moxuci vazis rZea, romelic wamozrdil ymawvils Subls uxurvebs, avaJkacebs da samSoblos mtris winaaRmdeg welze gordas Semoartymevinebs (`bavSvs~). rogorc rZea aucilebeli Cvilis gamosazrdelad, asevea Rvino ymawvilis davaJkacebisaTvis; isic igive rZea, oRond moxuci vazisa, romlis asakSic Cveni qveynis uZvelesi adaTi, tradiciebi da erovnebiT Tandayolili vaJkacoba igulisxmeba:
`gverds gisxdebian sworebi, vismen Tqvens sufrul mRerasa. iZaxebT `harunanosa~, zed darTuls `deli-delasa~, ra rZe moxucis vazisa Subls SegixurebT yvelasa.

hxarobdi, xaro-iremo, Tvali daudges melasa!~ (`bavSvs~)

es rZe mxolod xar-irmebs ergebaT, omidan dabrunebul da isev mtrisken mziral vaJkacebs, mSiSrebisa da meliebisTvis is gankuTvnili araa. Rvino vaJasTvis, upirveles yovlisa, misi dadebiTi TvisebebiT fasobs. is aviwyebs adamians realuri yofiT gamowveul siduxWires, varams da, miuxedavad misi Cagruli mdgomareobisa, sabrZolvelad ganawyobs, e.i. is adamianis gamamxnevebeli da cxovrebis swori gzisken warmmarTveli sasmelia, amitomac moefera vaJa mis `mSobels~ da pativiscemis gamosaxatavad erTaderTi, magram ganumeorebeli epiTetiT moixsenia – `moxuci vazi~ uwoda da Cado masSi is gancda, romelsac es mcenare zogadad qarTveli kacis SegnebaSi tovebs. es Segneba ki vaJam mTis yofisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli sityvebiTa da kiloTi Camoayaliba leqsSi `qeifi~, romelic nebismieri asakis qarTvelisaTvis sayvareli leqsia:
`damisxi, damalevine, e Rvino oxer-tiali, egeba waRma vifiqro soflis ukuRma triali! egeba gulis varami Cavkla ma jixvis rqaSia, Tvalwin damidges lamazi, JrJola mamkidos tanSia. dezi vkra Cemsa lurjasa, gadaverio zRvaSia. TqvenTan ZaRlurad sicocxles sikvdili mijobs cdaSia, ver maawonebT karg ymasa, rac ar ujdeba WkvaSia!~ (`qeifi~)

`kargi yma~ folkloruli gmiria, romelic mudam mzadaa saxelovani sikvdilisaTvis; `cda~ igive gamocdaa kargi ymisaTvis, omia; mxolod am dros – brZolaSi – eZleva mas iRbali anu RvTis madli, romelic gamoarCevs karg ymas sxva ymebisgan. folklorul motivze Seqmnil am leqsSi kargi ymis pirovnul siZlieresTan erTad ixateba Rvinis is Tviseba, romelic xels uwyobs vaJkacis karg ymad Camoyalibebas. vaJas leqsSi `mTa da bari~ mosavalmdidari da `sTvel-zafxul baraqiani~ baris upiratesobad isic aris miCneuli, rom igi gulis dardebs `wiTlis kaxuris RviniTa~ gadaiyris xolme, rasac mTa moklebulia, magram saqarTvelo xom mTisa da baris erTianobaa da mTielnic sargebloben baris simdidriT. marTalia, ZiriTadad araysa svamen, magram erT-erTi leqsis mixedviT `ZvelT Sesandobars~ xaris yanwSi Casxmuli RviniT miirTmeven da Zvel drosac amgvarad ganadideben:

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101
`kargad cxovrobdnen Zvelada, araysa arc ki kadrobdnen, Rvinos Sovobdnen xelada, vinc yanws ar dasclis, maspinZels is miaCnia mgelada~. (`Semodgoma mTaSi~)
Tamar SarabiZe

leqsSi yanwis bolomde daclis tradiciac gamoixata. yanwi xaris an Txis rqisagan gakeTebuli sasmisia, romlis sufraze dadgma xSirad ver xerxdeba (yiravdeba), amitom is bolomde unda daicalos. tradicia am ritualSi aqsovda mterze gamarjvebis simbolur mniSvnelobasac – yanwis bolomde daleviT bolomde nadgurdeboda mowinaaRmdege. amitomac sasmisis daclis Semdeg gavrcelebulia gamoTqma: `ase mteri dagecalos~, rasac vaJas leqsSi ukiduresi saxe mieca:
`vinc ar dascalos, rac Sasva, Sxamad Saergos, gvelada!..~ (`Semodgoma mTaSi~)

XIX saukune

vaJkacobis ukiduresi saxiT gamoxatva niSandoblivia rogorc folklorisaTvis, aseve vaJas folklorul motivebze Seqmnili leqsebisaTvis. yanwis bolomde arSemsmeli itovebda mters, romelic misi piradi ki ara, qveynis mteri iyo, amitom aseT aravaJkacur saqciels maspinZeli da sufris wevrebi mas ar patiobdnen. mTaSi Rvinis iSviaTobis gamo barad momaval mwyemss imis gafiqrebac ki axarebda, rom kaxeTSi moeloda Rvino da maWari, rac Zal-Rones Sehmatebda:
`da raki kaxeTSi Cava, dahlevs Rvinos da maWarsa, muxlebSi gaimarTeba, daefereba Cafarsa~. (`Semodgoma mTaSi~)

vaJkacobis da Zal-Ronis momatebasTan erTad Rvinos vaJas SemoqmedebaSi kidev erTi saucxoo Tviseba gaaCnia. is Sxams sasargeblod gardaqmnis; oRond yvelasTvis – ara. swored am Tvisebas emyareba kidev erTi, SeiZleba iTqvas, vaJas mTels SemoqmedebaSi gamorCeuli da andazad qceuli xatovani Tqma:
`sicocxlem Sxami masmia, me kaxur Rvinod Savirge~. (`sicocxlem Sxami masmia~)

vaJas genialur sityvebSi mTeli Cveni erisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli optimizmi isaxeba, ramac gadaarCina qarTveloba – es aris sasowarkveTilebis gadalaxva da swrafva sixarulisken, mxiarulebisken; anu damTrgunvel atmosferoSi sixaruliTa da bednierebiT cxovreba, rac vaJas araerTi leqsis Temaa, misi msoflmxedvelobaa da ara marto sakuTriv misi. am azrovnebis safuZveli qristianuli optimizmia, vaJa ki mas araCveulebriv sityvier gamoxatvas uZebnis.

Rvino simboluri da, SeiZleba iTqvas, sakraluri mniSvnelobiTac ixateba leqsSi `damisxi, damalevine~. aq Rvino dedis rZesTan aris Sedarebuli da `kaxuri vazis naJuri~ hqvia. es naJuri, Cvenda sakvirvelad, ar esmeva poets, yelSi ar gadasdis, ugubdeba; naZaladevad miRebuli ki Sxam-naRvelad eqceva. am saocari faqtis mizezi mxolod is aris, rom daberda da ver uSvela Tavis miwas. `TmagaTeTrebuls~ ki raRa SeuZlia?! ukve gviania, e.i. Rvinos orgvari daniSnuleba hqonia: zogisTvis Sxams sasargeblo nivTierebad gardaqmnis, zogisTvis ki Tavad iqceva Sxam-naRvelad. aqedan gamomdinare, is RvTiuri sasmelia: sapirispiro Tvisebebis mqonea da Tavis moqmedebas adamianze TviT ar warmarTavs (e.i. masSi RvTis neba vlindeba, romelic samSoblosaTvis Tavdadebulis mxarezea). sapirispiro Tvisobriobis Semcveloba ki qristianul msoflmxedvelobaSi yovelTvis aRiqmeboda RvTaebriv bunebad, gamomdinare dionise areopagelis traqtatidan `saRvTo saxelTaTvis~, sadac RmerTi gamoixateba rogorc Secnobadi da Seucnobeli, xiluli da uxilavi, uJamo Jami, usaxo saxe da a.S. kontrastis principze agebul aseT saxeebs qristianul RvTismetyvelebaSi antinomiur wyvilTa erTobas uwodeben. es uaRresad saintereso warmoSobis simbolika gadaazrebulia rogorc zogadad qristianul azrovnebaSi, aseve am azrovnebis safuZvelze Seqmnil literaturaSi da RvTiuris mniSvneloba eniWeba. Rvinoc RvTiuri sasmelia, kontrastuli Tvisebebi aqvs, romelTa moqmedeba RvTis nebazea damokidebuli. Rvino vaJkacad ayalibebs adamians, gambedaobas, brZolis unars gamoumuSavebs, yoveldRiur wvrilmansa da beCaobas aviwyebs da mTavari movaleobisaken – samSoblos mtrebis winaaRmdeg sabrZolvelad warmarTavs. Tu adamianma ver SeZlo samSoblos winaSe Tavisi amqveyniuri valis moxda, maSin `kaxuri vazis naJuri~ Sxamad eqceva. amrigad, vazi da Rvino vaJasTan rwmeniT TviTSemecnebaze damyarebuli patriotuli TvalTaxedviT moiazreba da erovnuli grZnobis gamomxatvel mxatvrul saxeTa Soris gansakuTrebuli adgili uWiravs.

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103

meeqvse werili

Tamar SarabiZe

XX saukune
yovel saukunes axali moaqvs, rogorc sazogadoebriv cxovrebaSi, aseve xelovnebasa da literaturaSi. XX saukunemac Tavisi siaxle moitana. upirveles yovlisa, es iyo saqarTvelos samwliani Tavisufleba – udidesi mniSvnelobis aqti eris sulier cxovrebaSi – da Semdgom misi xelaxali aneqsia, amjerad ukve sabWoTa xelisuflebis mxridan. am yovelives mohyva 20-50-iani wlebis sabWoTa represiebi da qarTvel mweralTa `mogzaurobani~ erTi cixidan meoreSi, katorRa, TviTmkvleloba, fsiqiatriul saavadmyofoebSi sicocxlis dasruleba, ukeTes SemTxvevaSi – emigracia da a.S. ra xdeba literaturaSi? sazogadoebriv cvlilebebs axleburi xedva moaqvs, sagnebisa da movlenebis sxvagvari aRqma, rac, Tavis mxriv, gamosaxvis formebis ganaxlebas moiTxovs. amitomac iyo, rom XX saukunis dasawyisSi Seiqmna simbolistur-dekadenturi mimarTulebebi, radgan Zneli gaxda mwerlobis klasikuri xazis gagrZeleba da gamoxatva saTqmelisa, romelic poeturTan erTad erovnul sakiTxsa da pirovnul xedvas Seicavda. am periodSi, literaturaSi, kvlav gacocxlda miTosi, romelSiac drom Tavisi problematika Caaqsova. miuxedavad amisa, ise ar unda gavigoT, rom literaturuli procesebi amdagvarad azris SeniRbvis

mizniT warimarTa (simarTlis Tqmas literatura mudam, yovelgvar pirobebSi axerxebda. es misi funqciaa), ubralod cxovrebis `zogadi kanonebi~ axal TematikasTan erTad gamosaxvis axali formebis ZiebaSic vlindeba. esaa da es. aqve unda iTqvas, rom `axali~ yovelTvis ar uaryofs `tradiciuls~, radgan WeSmariti literatura tradiciulidan iTvisebs yovelives, rac ki axlis ZiebaSi exmareba da esaWiroeba. vazi da Rvino, rogorc qarTuli literaturis tradiciuli, winaparTagan naanderZevi Tema XX saukunis literaturaSic gadmodis, oRond, ra Tqma unda, icvleba misi gamoxatvis saSualebani – leqsis forma da mxatvruli saxeebi, garkveulwilad icvleba mwerlis aRqmac, magram rCeba tradicia vazis kulturisa, romelsac verc XX saukunis mwerloba acdeboda. utyuari azria, rom tradicia da memkvidreoba xelovnebisaTvis iseTive aucilebelia, rogorc siaxle da novatoroba.

kon stan ti ne gam sa xur dia
konstantine gamsaxurdia samegrelos erT patara sofel abaSaSi daibada. mamamisi, simon gamsaxurdia, aznauri iyo da, rogorc Tavad batoni konstantine aRniSnavs, `vidre 40 wlis gaxdeboda, qeifsa da nadirobas undeboda~. bolos ki mis cxovrebaSi ucnauri ambavi moxda: is daumegobrda da Svilic ki moanaTlina parizidan Camosul monpelies, sameurneo institutis absolvents Tavad dimitri dadians. `dimitri dadianis STagonebiT~, – wers konstantine Tavis avtobiografiul naSromSi `landebTan lacici~, – `mamaCemma Tavi mianeba `pur-marils~, qeifs, nadirobas da Cvens mamulSi moawyo inglisuri parki, TiTqmis pirvelad Semoitana samegreloSi citrusebi, induri xurmebi da sxva eqzotikuri mcenareuli, zanas gadaRma, mdinare abaSamde misi sauflo iyo, moaSena SesaniSnavi venaxi, dablnari. Cveneburi aznaurebi mas sasacilod iRebdnen: aznaurma Toxna da barva daiwyovo ... ` roca general alixanovis saeqspedicio razmis ufrosi kazakTa aseuliT konstantines Zmis – viqtoris – dasapatimreblad gamsaxurdiebis ojaxSi Sevida da xmliT akafa kaklis xeebze gasuli izabelas vazebi, simoni win gadaeRoba `uriadniks~, qarTulad Seagina da uTxra: `Tu am Tavxedobas ar moiSliT, axlave agkepavTo xanjliTa ... ` patara konstantines bavSvobidanve Caenerga qarTuli miwis, misi nayofieri niadagis siyvaruli da gambedaoba am miwis dasacavad. cxovrebis Semdgom gzazec – senakis sasawavlebelsa da quTaisis gimnaziaSi – gamorCeuli pedagogebi aswavlidnen da am garemoebamac udidesi mniSvneloba iqonia mwerlis patriotad CamoyalibebaSi. studentobis wlebi ucxoeTSi gaatara: peterburgis, kenigsbergis, laipcigisa da miunxenis universitetebSi. amas Tan erTvoda dapatimrebebi samSoblosa Tu ucxoeTSi, `mogzauroba~ erTi cixidan meoreSi, gadasaxleba, katorRa, mudmivi represiebi mTavrobisa Tu mweralTa kavSiris mxridan, maswavlebloba da samwerlobo moRvaweoba sabWouri wnexis qveS... konstantine gamsaxurdias arc axalgaz-

104 4

vazi – sicocxlis xe

105 rdobaSi da arc Semdgom dro aRar darCenia mamamisiviT qeifisa da molxenisaTvis, magram vazis kulti mis SemoqmedebaSi mainc aisaxa da, ra Tqma unda, ara drostarebisadmi nostalgiis gamo. konstantine gamsaxurdia – XX saukunis didi prozaikosi – uaRresad didi patriotic iyo; amitom, bunebrivia, rom vazis Tema mis romanebSi ara marto aisaxa, aramed uZvirfasesi simbolos – sicocxlis xisa da mamulis mniSvneloba miiRo. yvelaze Rrmad vazis mxatvruli saxe mis or romanSi – `dionisos Rimilsa~ da `vazis yvavilobaSi~ gamoikveTa. ramdenjerme gagvafrTxila konstantine gamsaxurdiam: gmirisa da avtoris fsiqologias, azrovnebasa da zneobas nu gaaigivebTo. `dionisos Rimils~ bolosityvaobac ki daurTo, `me nu amkidebT konstantine savarsamiZis codvebs, radgan me Cemi codvebic meyofao~. da mainc, kritikam da mkiTxvelma konstantine savarsamiZeSi konstantine gamsaxurdia dainaxa, savarsamiZis gaoreba ki mis gaorebad aRiqva. rasakvirvelia, mwerlis SeniSvna misaRebia, sxva rom ara iyos ra, mxatvruli nawarmoebis gmiri konkretuli realuri pirovneba bolomde mainc ver iqneba da verc mwerali darCeba Tavisi avtobiografiuli momentebiT, fiqrebiTa da gancdebiT gmirisagan esoden dacilebuli, rom maTi msgavsebis safuZvelze saubari gamoricxuli iyos; miT umetes, avtorica da misi gmiric samSoblos mowyvetilni, magram Tavis qveyanasTan myarad dakavSirebulni, evropulis SeTvisebisa da aqedan gamomdinare arCevanis – evropuli Tu mSobliuri, maTi Serwymis Ziebis procesSi myofi adamianebi arian, orive – konstantine. ar daviwyebiaT maT patriarqaluri ojaxi, naxevrad miTosur samyaroSi gatarebuli siyrme: Tu rogor evedrebodnen zamTris yinvisagan xel-fexdamzrali bavSvebi gazafxuls: `Cxana morTia, morTia~ da mere rogor rokavdnen da uvlidnen ferxuls. gansakuTrebiT venaxis dalocva uyvarda konstantines: `nebis kviras ZiZa kverebs daacxobda ojaxis rogorc cocxal, ise micvalebul wevrebisaTvis. kverebs, kakals, Taflis sanTlebs, fetvis marcxvlebs mordu xonCaze daalagebda. ZiZa saxlSi darCeboda. mordus venaxSi mivyavdiT. aq vazis ZirSi daiCoqebda, sujunis wminda giorgis Seavedrebda Tavis venaxs: `Sen daifare, wmindao giorgi~. me gaocebuli Sevhyurebdi mis litaniebs. locvis Semdeg, romelime Cvengani miwas SemoaTxrida vazs. fetvsa da kakals CavyridiT, isev miwas davafarebdiT~. (t. V, gv. 660). ucxoeTSi myofi, unayofo Txmelas daemsgavsa konstantine savarsamiZe; saqarTveloSi dabrunebas ki mxolod sizmrebSiRa xedavda: TiTqos Taflis sanTlebiT ganaTebuli CiCilaki mihqonda saqarTveloSi da Tavis gamzrdel taia SeliasaviT garSemo uvlida venaxs. venaxze fiqri ar asvenebs msoflios gzebze moxetiales. germaniaSi, safrangeTsa Tu italiaSi – yvelgan vazsa da yurZens akvirdeba: bunebasa Tu xelovnebaSi, naxatebsa Tu kedlis bareliefebSi. vazi qarTvelisaTvis erTdrouli simboloa `mSobliuri warmarTobisa da nacionalizebuli qristianobisa~ (s. sigua), amitomac ukavSirdeba is taia Seliasac (TanamedroveobaSi SemorCenil warmarTs) da mamasac (mamulsa da mamulis rwmenas – qristianobas).
Tamar SarabiZe

XX saukune

106 6

konstantine savarsamiZes axsendeba mama da misi ocneba venaxze; mama, romelmac udardel cxovrebas zurgi Seaqcia, oci qceva miwa gadaabruna da kaxuri venaxi Cahyara megrul miwaSi: `xedavda, am saqmianobidan araferi gamodioda, mainc guls ar itexda. mama araCveulebrivi nebisyofis kaci iyo, amitomac vafaseb mis xsovnas. me SevZuldi mas, radgan me ar mesmoda misi saocari ocneba venaxze~. mamisagan gaTiSva, qristes uaryofa da warmarTulis – dionisos gzis – arCeva sulierad Rupavs konstantines. naxevari cxovrebis gzagamovlili, gvianRa xvdeba Tavisi tanjvis mizezs, rac mamis anderZis RalatSi mdgomareobs: mamis miwebi gayida da evropaSi mgzavrobas moaxmara, siWabuke evropel qalebs Sealia, amitomac daemsgavsa unayofo Txmelas. amas xvdeba konstantine, amitomac sul mamis venaxi ezmaneba. survili klavs, saqarTveloSi dabrundes, mamis nasaxlari moZebnos da venaxi gaaSenos; magram misi survili ocnebis sferoSive rCeba. konstantines gaoreba yvelaze STambeWdavad dionisos trfialSi ixateba. es warmarTuli RvTaeba, romlis saxec romanSi rogorc mxatvrobaSi, aseve moqmed gmirebSic vlindeba, aRiqmeba rogorc magia da misteria; dionisos kults upirispirdeba qriste, `udabnos saxedaRrejili RmerTi~. mordus gzas mihyveba savarsamiZe da ara mamisas. ori RmerTi ebrZvis erTmaneTs mis sulSi, amitomacaa gaorebuli – cxovreba da ocneba erTmaneTTan veRar Tavsdeba. bunebiT kacTmoyvare mraval codvas sCadis, `ufskrulebis bilikebze daxetialobs, ufskrulebi eZaxian jojoxeTuri xmiT~, mamis venaxSi ki wili aRar udevs. da mogviTxrobs mwerali igavs mefeze, romelmac dauteva oqro da vercxli, gamoeTxova yvelas, mefis porfirze gadacvala maTxovris ZonZi da udabur adgilas gaiSena venaxi. mwiris saxiT gamoecxada mas dioniso, gaumijnurda mefes da daRupa Seyvarebuli. dionisuri Trobis eqstaziT romanSi gmiris sulieri TviTmkvlelobaa aRwerili. auxda mamis wyevla konstantine savarsamiZes, `daeqca Zveli venaxi da veRarc axali gaaSena~. jojoxeTs Casuli mamas sTxovs Sendobas, magram mkvdars amis unari aRar aqvs. gars bneli artyia mamisagan uaryofils – codvis, umecrebis, warwymedis. venaxi ki sinaTlis saxes iRebs: `sinaTlis venaxi fisonis napiras! da xeebs wiTeli rubini mousxamT, da venaxi asula piniis xeebze. venaxis lerwebze lapis lazulis foTlebi smaragdis mtevnebi.~ `poeturi nawarmoebi uTuod waagavs SifriT nawers~, – wers konstantine gamsaxurdia `dionisos Rimilis~ meored gamocemis gamo, – `am Sifris daxsna arcaa saWiro~. modiT, maincdamainc Cvenc nu SevecdebiT. romanis umoklesi amonaridebidanac TvalnaTelia venaxis mxatvruli saxis mniSvneloba, romelic mSobliuri warmarTobacaa (taia Seliac venaxis patronia), siwmindec (bavSvobasTan dakavSirebuli), nacionalizebuli qristianobac (mama da mamuli) da am yovelives sinTezic. venaxi poliTematikuri mxatvruli saxea. masSi aseve SeiZleba davinaxoT pirovnuli siZliere, nebisyofa, simxneve, rwmena. masTan dapirispireba iwyeba venaxis movlaze uaris TqmiT, mxolod misi nayo-

vazi – sicocxlis xe

107 fisgan miRebuli siamovnebis trfobiT, romelic dionisos damRupveli eqstaziT bolovdeba. venaxis gaSeneba, rogorc pirdapir, aseve simbolurad, rac savarsamiZisaTvis ocnebis sferoSi darCa, realobad iqca konstantine gamsaxurdias meore romanSi `vazis yvaviloba~. vaxtang korinTeli kaxeTSi, kerZod gveleTis zeganze, vazis uZvelesi qarTuli kulturis gavrcelebas Caudga saTaveSi. igi Tvlida, rom yurZnis wvenisagan Rvino pirvelad qarTvelma tomebma daayenes. vazi da Rvino ki qarTvelebisgan unda waeRoT berZnebs; `vazis yvaviloba~ socialuri romania. mwerlis mizania kolmeurneebis Sromisa da Tavdadebis fasad ayvavebuli venaxis – sicocxlis aRorZinebis – Cveneba. sofel bermuxaSi kolmeurneoba gvian Camoyalibda. bermuxelebi mecxoveleobas misdevdnen, `miuxedavad amisa, hqondaT martivad, glexurad movlili vazi TavianT sakarmidamoSi. saxelmwifo masStabi mevenaxeobisa jer arsad sCanda~. bermuxis CrdiloeTiT mdebare araSendas zegani, romelsac mosaxleobam gveleTic ki Searqva, jagiani kordebiT iyo dafaruli, magram nasaxlarebi da vazebis namusrevebi mowmobdnen, rom aq odesRac sicocxle Cqefda. soflis gaveraneba da venaxebis gadabugva Sah-abasis dros momxdara. mosaxleoba mTebSi gaxiznula, Sindabrunebuls aRar mousurvebia gaveranebul adgilze dasaxleba da odnav samxreTisaken, bermuxis midamoebSi, gadaunacvlebia. ZvelTaZveli arxebi da irmis tba, romelic araSendas midamoebs wyliT kvebavda, niaRvrebs amouvsiaT SlamiT da Waobad qceula. `yovelive amis miuxedavad – wers konstantine gamsaxurdia – verc uwylobam da verc yizilbaSebis veragobam ver mospo bermuxaSi vazis gasagisi. Sah-abasis mier amoZirkvul venaxebis nafesvarebma kvlav ifeTqes miwidan da maTma gaveranebulma naSierebma Cvens dromde moaRwies~. vazi konstantine gamsaxurdiasaTvis axali sicocxlis xea, romelsac ver ereva fizikuri mteri – Sah-abasi, bunebis movlenebi – uwyloba Tu niaRvrebi, soflis uxucesTa warmarTuli msoflxedva da konservatizmi – rom araSendas sanaxebi saZovrebad iyos gankuTvnili; vazs upirispirdeba miTosic – rva namuxari ibrZvis arsebobisaTvis (sxva datvirTva eniWeba mecxre muxas – bermuxas, romelic qarTveli xalxis ukvdavi sulis simboloa), vazi imarjvebs maTTan WidilSi da swored aq mJRavndeba misi sicocxlisunarianoba, sicocxlis xeoba. konstantine gamsaxurdia, realistebis msgavsad, bunebis movlenebs simbolur mniSvnelobas aniWebs. vazi tiris, roca gmirTa sulieri mdgomareoba unugeSoa. roca xsna arsaidan Cans, bunebac ki jibrSi Casdgomia adamianebs da setyva daundoblad anadgurebs venaxs: `nagvemi vazebi stirodnen, nasetyvari Wrilobebisagan iRvreboda siTxe. stiroda mravali aTasi vazi alaznis gaRmagamoRma im dRes... da gana marto vazebi!~ vazis yvavilobis saswauli gadajaWvulia adamianTa bedTan da ver ityvi, ra ganapirobebs mas: adamianTa Sroma da nebisyofa, vazis sicocxlisunarianoba Tu zeciuri mnaTobi, romelic saswaulebriv Zalas erTnairad aniWebs bermuxas, vazsa Tu adamianebs. konstantine gamsaxurdias Semoqmedebis analizisas SeuZlebelia yuradReba ar gavamaxviloT mis romanebSi uxvad mimobneuli qarTuli sufrebis
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108 8

aRwerasa da msjelobebs vazisa da Rvinis Sesaxeb, romlebSiac avtoris mier aRqmuli mravali saintereso dakvirvebaa Camoyalibebuli. mogvyavs magaliTebi tetralogiidan `daviT aRmaSenebeli~: `mTeli samyaro svams, rogorc qristianuli, ise islamuri, magram egaa: Rvino, xelovneba da mijnuroba mxolod rCeulTa xvedria. bazarze gatanili arc erTi maTgani ar varga. mejadageebsa da mexamleebs es triada ar esaWiroeba~ (t. IV. 476). `zogs waryvnilsac uyvars Rvino, magram Rvinis motrfialeTa Soris yvelaze ufro didi meWaSnikea rwyili. igi gemos atans mxolod surnelovansa da keTilad dayenebul Rvinos, Txlenarevsa da daZmarebuls ukadrisobs kidevac~ (t. IV, 478). `me Zlier miyvars isini, vinc did gemovnebas iCenen samwdeurebis SerCevaSiac. sagangebod SeiZenen xolme fialebsa da fskitirebs Tirikliis SuSisagan nakeTebT, werosyelian WinWilebs, romelTa piridan gadmodenili Rvino livliviT isxmeba Rvinis moyvarulTa pirSi. Cven Soris gana yvelani Tanabrad ganicdian am silamazes?~ (iqve). `Rvino brolis sarkesaviT gamoaCens adamianis Sinagan bunebas. daTvrnen Tu ara es didebulebi, myisve daemsgavsnen Rvinis sardafebSi gamoleSil upovarebs~ (iqve. 483). `berZnebi miwaze awvenen vazs. es ar varga, ku, zRarbi da maCvi, yovelive qvewarmavalni da mwerni wamoesevian xolme mwife yurZens. kargia qarTuli wesiT sarze da babiloze miSveba~ (iqve. gv. 185). amaRelvebelia daviT aRmaSeneblis naxevarZmis, maxaras, Txovna mefisadmi, romelsac venaxis siyvaruli, tradicia da amave dros miTosuri rwmena udevs safuZvlad: `vinZlo movkvde, mxolod amas gTxovT, nuRar dammarxavT bagratovanTa saZvaleSi xarWisnaSobs, nurc bediaSi, nurc quTaTisSi, naWarmagevis venaxSi dammarxe, mefev batono, sadac sulkurTxeul mamaCems, bagrats, gauSenebia TiTas, ZelSavis, budeSurisa da cxenisZuZus vazebi. sadme uxuces vazisqveS, raTa misma fesvebma asazrdoon Cemi damzrali sxeuli am RvTaebrivi wveniT (t. III, gv. 397). `daviT aRmaSenebelSi~ kidev erTi uaRresad mniSvnelovani mxatvruli saxe Seqmna konstantine gamsaxurdiam, siyvarulisa – rogorc venaxis: `Sen xar venaxi nayofsavse, lxenis baRnari~, – mimarTavs mefe Tavis satrfos, dedisimeds, – `SenTvis saTqmeli sityvebi idumal hxaroben Cems sulSi, rogorc yvavilni vazisa, radgan Sena xar Cemi venaxi, sulo. es Sen iyavi mtili daxSuli, wyaro dabeWduli Cemi... amieridan me var am venaxis patroni da svebednieri mezvre~ (t. III, 153). mefem miizida satrfo `da didxans svamda Tavis venaxis surnelovan Rvinos~ (iqve.). iSviaTia siyvarulis vnebis amdagvari warmosaxva da Semdeg misi simboluri gamoxatva. aq komentaric ki albaT zedmetia. cnobilia, rom konstantine gamsaxurdia weris procesSi wyalSi gareul wiTel Rvinos svamda. etyoba, `am RvTaebrivi wveniT~ sazrdoobda misi poeturi muza.

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109

gri gol ro ba qi Ze
grigol robaqiZe miToss goeTes swavlebiT xsnis, romelsac Tavis werilSi `vaJas engadi~ ase ayalibebs: `...mcenare cxaddeba ganamdvilebiT romelime xtilSi Tavisi viTarebisa: an morCobisas an cenebisas an ylortobisas Tu foTlebisas. ase vTqvaT. wlobiT da ara `mTlad~. Tu es asea, maSasadame, mcenare mTeli yovel xtilSi misi viTarebisa virtualur unda imyofebodes. da ai 1776 wels xedavs vaimareli mesaidumle (goeTe) siciliaSi warmosaxviT `Taurmcenares~ mcenareSi. ese igi: uxilav myofad mcenares, anu Sina-saxes mcenarisa... daskvna: `Taurmcenare~ mcenarisaTvis miTosia – viTar araodes xiluli myofadi, xolo yovelTvis gulvebuli. xedavT, rogor esityveba ese formulas: araodes yofila, oRond yovelTvisa aris!~ grigol robaqiZis miTosis es ganmarteba CvenTvis ormxriv aris saintereso: jer erTi, qarTul mwerlobaSi robaqiZem, vaJa-fSavelas Semdgom, yvelaze metad mimarTa miToss da meorec, man gaacocxla miTosuri mcenare – vazi, ufro sworad am mcenareSi dainaxa misi Sina-saxe da idea, ara xiluli, magram yovelTvis sagulvebeli: `...qalwuli jvars vazis nasxlevisagan gamosWris. sxvebis jvari: an qvisaa an rkinis an ubralo xis. yovelTvis mSrali da wuTxe: aq ki: jvari – vazis. vazi xom saxea: miwis – niadagis – sicocxlis. sxvagan jvari wamebis da dasjis niSania. CvenSi jvari: lxinia TviTon... qalwuli vazis nasxlavs Tavis TmebiT Sehkravs. TiTqo Wriloba Seuxvia nasxlavs: romelic icremleba. jvari – qalis TmebiT Sekruli. miCveneT sxva saxe ufro mwveli da ufro lamazi!! jvari – vazis nasxlevisagan gamoWrili. jvari – qalis TmebiT. qalis Tmebi xom saxea... qalobis – qalwulobis – dedobis... ara... sxva jvari berwia. Cveni ki noyieri da nayofieri~ (`gvelis perangi~, gv. 79). es sityvebi qarTvelTaTvis miTi ar aris. ninos TmebiT Sekruli jvari dResac inaxeba sionis sakaTedro taZarSi. magram robaqiZisTvis istoriuli ambavi grZeldeba: `...jvars lerwebi auyria da lerwebs mtevnebi ausxamT~ (`gvelis perangi~). es azri mravaljer meordeba da fiqsirdeba grigol robaqiZis prozasa Tu poeziaSi (`wminda nino~, `falestra~, `wminda graalis mcvelni~). moTxrobaSi `wminda graalis mcvelni~ miTi grZeldeba: mtevnebi, romlebic ninos jvarma gamoiRo, raindebma dawures da TasSi Seinaxes. es Tasi `graalia~, guli saqarTvelosi... robaqiZe vazSi mis Sina-saxes xedavs. es Sina-saxe miTosia, romelic arasdros yofila da mudam aris. ninos jvris ambavSi miTosuria ara sakuTriv jvari (igi realuria), aramed vazis nayofiereba, jvaris mier mtevnebis gamobma, anu sicocxlis gagrZeleba. TavisTavad es idea qarTuli sinamdvilisTvis Zalze axlobelia. qristianuli Zeglebis – eklesia-monastrebis monumenturi skulpturebi mdidaria jvrisa da vazis erTmaneTTan Rrma simboluri azriT damakavSirebeli gamosaxulebebiT. gvxvdeba mtevanmosxmuli jvaric, romelsac frinvelebi (qristes morwmuneni) kenkaven sulier sazrdod. Zveli qarTuli literatura da, kerZod, demetre I-is `Sen xar venaxi~ mTlianad re-

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ligiur-simboluri xasiaTisaa. religiuri datvirTva, rasakvirvelia, gr. robaqiZis SemoqmedebaSic aRiqmeba, oRond im gansxvavebiT, rom mwerlis Txrobas simbolurze metad zRapris, miTis moyolis saxe aqvs, romelSiac ver grZnob qveteqsts – es namdvilad ase iyo da Tu xandaxan mweralsac eWvi epareba, rom realurad ase ar iyo, am sazrunavs saocari (aseTi mwvelisa da lamazis) miTis Semqmnels – qarTvel xalxs – miandobs. erTi sityviT, isevea, rogorc zRaparSi. amitomacaa robaqiZisTvis vazi miTosuri mcenare, romelmac saqarTveloSi sakraluri mniSvneloba miiRo da yvela sferoSi – yofasa da bunebaSi, xelovnebasa Tu zepirsityvierebaSi gaidga fesvebi; romelic arsebobs, rogorc realuri mcenare da rogorc – warmosaxviTic; romelic wminda ninos Semosvlis Semdeg axali sarwmunoebis simbolod – axal sicocxlis xed – jvrad – iqna moazrebuli. es jvari robaqiZisTvis gamoirCeva sxvaTagan Tavisi sinedliT, sicocxlisunarianobiT, risi niSanicaa gamosxmuli mtevnebi. swored es pirvelSobili sinedle SeigrZnoba qarTul rasaSi, mis bunebasa da wes-CveulebebSi. Zlieria sparsi taba tabais mzera: `misi Tvalebi civia da gamxvreti~; qarTveli vamexis TvalebSi ki `siZlieresTan erTad siTboa da sinele~; irubaqiZeTa xasiaTSi sWarbobs sificxe da masTan erTad – `Cviloba, wva da daudevroba erTdroulad~. aTasi qalis TvalebSi gamoicnob iveriis qalwulTa Tvalebs – `nels – lbils – nazsa da Tviniers~. `iveriis qalwulis Tvalebi. rassa Seureveli da xalasi. siamaye da darcxvena – erTad~, – siamayiT aRniSnavs mwerali (`gvelis perangi~, gv. 214). qarTvel qals – matasis – dawuruli mtevnis surneli asdis da TviTon aris mtevanic, taroc da qarTuli miwac Tavisi xnulebiT da jejilebiT. miwa da adamianis buneba ganuyofelia erTmaneTisagan. `TqvenSi jer miwa ar amomSralao~, – TavisTvis butbutebs taba tabai. amitomac aris amoumSrali miwis mkvidrTa xasiaTSi sinorCe, sinedle, Cviloba, is, rac ayvavebul, cocxal xes axasiaTebs da ara qvis an liTonis jvars. sixalise da sixaruli ixateba qarTvelTa qeifSi – `mwvadebi Jolis Samfurebze. Tasebi~... `sufrac rassis niSania~, – imeorebs robaqiZe erTi qarTveli poetis sityvebs da Tavadac amCnevs im dadebiT Tu uaryofiT niuansebs, romelic mxolod qarTuli sufrisTvis aris damaxasiaTebeli da sxvaTa sufraze ver ixilav. es aris qarTuli sulis – cocxalis, ganusazRvravis – SfoTva, foriaqi, vnebiani grZnoba, rac gawonasworebuli evropelisaTvis (am SemTxvevaSi ingliseli arCibald mekeSisaTvis) TvalSi sacemia da SeiZleba iTqvas – SesaSuric. `mRerian `mravalJamiers~ kaxurs: romelic midis rogorc alaznis veli. jer neli. mere axSirebuli. mere amwvari. Semdeg napirebgadalaxuli. bolos: moqneuli rogorc salte. aq lxinia vaJkacis, romelic omidan dabrunda gamarjvebuli. mRerian `mravalJamiers~ qarTlurs: romelic iRvreba rogorc qarTlis veli mdore. jer isic Senelebuli, Semdeg gaqanebuli. Semdeg qed gazneqili. bolos qedamarTuli. aq aris cixis dacva mecixovneTa mier: romelTac ician gandoba da gatana. gauZlebs cixe yovelTvis Semosulebs?! da simReras boloSi gaguduli boRma gadahkravs odnav. mRerian maRal `delias~ TiTqo damcxral grigals imerTa mTebidan SenelebiT xevebSi CaSvebuls. es simRera iSviaTia: saqarTveloSic ki. aq aris: kaxis lxini da xmali – qarTlis simtkice da fari – svanis javSani da `lile~ – xevsuris Subli da SemarTeba~

110 0

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111 (`gvelis perangi~, gv. 37).simRerisa da cekvis monacvleobaa qarTuli lxini: `cekvaven `lekurs~, es saxeli Seusabamobaa: leks aq ra unda?!~ – ganmartavs mwerali, – `es cekva qarTulia da garda qarTvelisa mas ver icekvebs veravin: rassa ar eyofa... ramdeni vaJuri Seteva da ramdeni qaluri garindeba?! ramdeni kamara siyvarulis Tu trfialis poemis?! bolos: TiTqos qalis datyveveba da aWrili kamariT mis gataceba. magram ara. tyve qmnili qali vaJis mklavebisaTvis mTeli sxeuliT gadaxsnili... uecari mosxletiT vaJis rkalidan gavardeba qalwuluri darcxveniT. cekva TiTqo wydeba. ar Tavdeba. es beWedia qarTuli rassis da misi siraindis~. iSviaTia iseTi niuansuri SegrZneba rasis, rac robaqiZes, rogorc rasists, am sityvis kargi gagebiT, axasiaTebs. robaqiZiseuli aRweris detalebs albaT marto qarTveli Tu igrZnobs an is, visac Tavisi TvaliT unaxavs qarTuli lxini, simRera da cekva... `lekurs~ `mTiuluri~ mohyveba: `ritmi sada – magram lamazi rogorc pirvelsunTqva atexili Walebis. marto cecxli. marto atexva. marto sigiJe. xalisi pirvelmiwis. lxenisaTvis es pirvelritmi ufro saRia da zRudegadamlaxavi~. robaqiZe dionisos fenomensac xsnis, rogorc zogadfilosofiur movlenas da qarTul sinamdviles mas mxolod imdenad ukavSirebs, ramdenadac yvela erSi (rogorc Semosul kults) raRac gamoxatuleba hqonia (mwerali `gonjas~ ixsenebs, magram mis aRweras ar iZleva (`falestra~)). dionisos fenomens igi aRiqvams, rogorc `mes~ garRvevasa da yovladTan ziarebas, adamians ki `dionisos mimarT gavardnil menadad~ miiCnevs, romelic sul mudam ZiebaSia – sakuTari Tavis, satrfos da TviT samSoblos ZiebaSic ki. swored am dionisuri zogadis fonze xdeba `gvelis perangSi~ sakuTaris Secnoba, Tavis aRmoCena, WeSmariti venaxis povna. Secnoba xSirad erotikuli scenebiT gamoixateba, sadac yovelTvis figurirebs yurZeni, rogorc qaluri sisavsis gamomxatveli mxatveli saxe. am scenebs Serwymis, SeerTebis simboluri datvirTva aqvs, saidanac unda gamoikveTos sakuTari, pirovnuli da WeSmariti. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom erotizmi pirvelad, aSkarad da SeuniRbavad, rogorc mxatvruli asaxva, XX saukunis qarTul mwerlobaSi Cndeba da mas robaqiZe amkvidrebs.
`vaJis sityva qals mxrebs uwvavs. qalis tani – TiTqos mocelili – xaliCaze davardeba, fexs fexze gadaidgams – ase ekideba xandanaze dayursuli mtevani~. (`gvelis perangi~, – olRa balaSovasTan trfialis scena, gv. 64)
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Tavidan bolomde erotikuli Sinaarsisaa leqsi `irubaqiZis xasa~. `mxecis wyurviliT~ anTebuli irubaqiZe, poeti, ase mimarTavs `sxeulmzian~, vaJis gasaxeleblad gaqceul, satrfos:
`mec dagewevi da cxelwvivians agiyvan xelSi da gadagisvri did sawnaxelSi – rom Seni taniT davsriso magrad mwife mtevnebi...~ (`irubaqiZis xasa~)

siyvarulis vnebis mTeli simZafriT gamosaxatavad xasadac mTis qals irCevs poeti – TmawiTel Cerqezs, radgan mTaSic da mis mkvidrSic bunebis pirvelqmnadobaa daculi. misi vnebac xasisadmi instinqturia da veluri, amitomac satrfo qarvisferi Rvinis saxes iRebs, romelic poetma erTbaSad unda Sesvas wyurvilis dasaxSobad; misi vneba imdenad didia, rom mzadaa, cxenis Zuazec gamoabas `uZRebi xasa~, `neli da tkbili~, rom masTan erTad `wyvilad~ gadaiqces da Semdeg `darbilebulma da risxvamoSlilma~ erTxel kidev igemos satrfo. aq TiTqos dionisuri eqstazi cocxldeba Cvens Tvalwin (eqstazi, romelic Tavidan bolomde Ziebaa):
`da erTxel kidev gasudrul mtevans gagSoltav loSniT...~

erotikul elfers atarebs arCibald mekeSis samSobloSi dabrunebis scenac, radgan samSobloc igive satrfoa, romelSic (dionisos kultis msgavsad) gaerTianebulia qaluri da kacuri sawyisi. depeSiT vamexi saqarTveloSi Camosvlas sTxovs arCibalds. Cndeba mZime, SiSnarevi asociacia, romelic asociaciadve rCeba mwerlis TxrobaSic – `yurZnis krefa. vamex. sairme. saqarTvelo~. saqarTvelo dakavSirebulia yurZnis krefasTan da im adgilTan, sadac daibada arCibaldi da sadac unda dabrundes. misi gadawyvetileba – vamexs stumrad ewvios – xorciel, vnebian siyvarulSi gamoixateba, romliTac qimera bunebis suraTs xatavs:
`naTeli xviTo. dayviTluli sivrceTa guga. Ria zafrana. yaramfili. mtevani fallos. saZroxes suni. atexili moangrevs palos akvirvebuli tanmagari zangela buRa. xuruSi Tesli materiis da avi xorci. Rvria surneli. vnebis texa. titveli xvati~. (`mzis kevri~)

am yovelives ver axsni da ver gadaTargmni. es bunebis movlenebTagan miRebuli asociaciaa. kevris lewvasa da yurZnis Wyletas – anu rTvels – erTi simboluri datvirTva eniWeba – yurZeni daiwureba, marcvali daifqveba, qali ivneba da es yovelive sicocxlis gagrZelebaa; dabadeba – Rvinis, purisa da TviT adamianis. `kevri ileweba. qimera kvdeba. arCibald mekeSi miemgzavreba saqarTvelosken~. saqarTveloSi ki rTvelia. `cxramuxis talavarSi simRera gaismis qvesknelis guguniT~. qveskneli SemTxveviT araa naxsenebi. arCibaldi qveskneliTaa saqarTvelosTan dakavSirebuli. qveskneluria – ZirZveli – simRerac. muxebi gorakzea Sefenili. Wurebic maT qveSaa. es miTosuri xeebi icaven maT. gorakze Camarxul qvevrebs praqtikuli mniSvnelobac aqvs. wvima miwaSi ar Cerdeba da Reled Caivlis. `miwa aranestiania, xmeli da xurvali~. `Sig Cakirulia mravali Wuri. asCafiani, samocCafiani, ormocCafiani, ocCafiani, aTCafiani, xuTCafiani~. grigol robaqiZe qarTul literaturaSi pirvelad iZleva Wurebis recxvis uaRresad mxatvrul suraTs:

112 2

vazi – sicocxlis xe

113 `Wuris mrecxveli asCafianSia. sarecxeli uWiravs ortariani. xexavs daJinebiT da mReris. meore mrecxavi ormocCafians Tavs adgas. Wuris Tavze ficaria naxvretiani. naxvretSi mrecxavs tari gauyria grZeli. tars boloSi mogebuli aqvs sarcxeli. isic xexavs Wurs. isic RiRinebs. ganze mesame dgas. sWris blis tyavebs dalbobils. axal sarcxels amzadebs. patara biWs ayalo miwa moaqvs. meore biWi am miwas zelavs fexebiT. es miwa Wuris dasagnisia. mesame biWi recxavs sarqvels: prke-modebuls. WurisTavi RobeSemovlebulia. meseris sarebze aqa-iq cxenis Tavebia Camokidebuli. cxenis Tavebs orSimoebi misdeven. zogi didia. erT Tung Rvinos daitevs. zogi momcro: qvevrisTvis. zogi rgvali. zogi wowola. zogi gamoberili. zogi Seferdili. cxramuxis wre araa sruli: erTi mxare swori xaziT gadaiWris. aq gawolilia Tujisferi sawnaxeli daWril gveleSapiviT. sawnaxelidan mosCans vaznari dazneqil da dafenil serze. venaxis foTlebs xmoba SehparviaT: Sabiamanis muri gogirdSi gadadis. moaqvT mtevnebi yviTeli da moSavo. moaqvT kalaTebiT da gidelebiT...~ gr. robaqiZe niuansuri sizustiT gvixatavs sakralur adgils da sakralur movlenas, romlis drosac kanas saswauli unda ganxorcieldes – wveni Rvinod iqces. mzadebaa. bavSvebi fexebs ibanen da sawnaxelSi xtebian. `mtevnebi iwyeben cremlvas, magram sixaruliT~. mweralma SesaniSnavad gamoxata rTvelis arsi – mtevani ivneba, magram sixaruliT da Tavadac sixaruli moaqvs. `sawnaxeli ileSeba dawurulis tboriT. tbors moaqvs surneli – (aris qveyanaze raime am surnelis sadaro?!)~ es samSoblosTan pirveli ziarebaa, romelic yurZnis surneliT xdeba. mas mohyveba glexuri sufra. `patara Zlivs moaTrevs kalaTs: kecze Semwvari qaTami. wveni – isrimisa da mayvlis. isrimi – gviani yurZenis. Wadebi: vazis Tu nigvzis foTlebSi gamocxobili. RviniT savse doqi neSoTi Tavdacmuli: axlad amoRebuli wyaros muclidan. Wiqa. WinWila. kula. muxebis qveS: sigrile xavsian kldeebis. muxebis Tavze: mzis marcvlebis ajejileba...~ (`gvelis perangi~. gv. 140). bunebis suraTSic ki Serwymulia qarTuli xasiaTi – sigrile da simxurvale erTad: is, rac Tavad RvinisaTvis aris damaxasiaTebeli. meored ziareba swored RviniT unda moxdes. arCibaldi da vamexi cxendacxen Sesvamen RviniT savse xeladas. daclil doqs vamexi qvas Seanarcxebs, rom sxva tuCebi aRar Seexos mas da aRarc sxva Rvino inatros misma Semsmelma. `miwam naxa Svili... niSnad: misi zedaSi...~, – TiTqos komentars akeTebs mwerali. mesame ziareba aerTianebs yurZnis nayofs, samSoblosa da sayvarel qals. `did namorze zis arCibald. vaznars dahyurebs... vaznari iSmuSneba: TiTqo Sig veluri cxovelia romelic loSqriani tuCebiT mwife mtevnebs dondlavs~.
Tamar SarabiZe

XX saukune

114 4

sasurvel qals dedis davalebiT puris Reroebisagan mownuli kalaTi miaqvs stumarTan. kalaTi savsea yurZniT. gogona morcxvobs. arCibaldi mtevnebs amoalagebs da yurZnis jiSTa saxelebs ekiTxeba matasis. rqawiTeli, cicqa, kraxuna, safere, colikauri, aleqsandrouli... – CamoTvlis matasi (TiTqos saqarTvelos sxvadasxva kuTxis jiSebi erTad Seyrilan, rom erTiani saqarTvelos saxe Seqmnan). ukve aRar morcxvobs. morcxvobas aqrobs venaxis Svilis bunebisgan boZebuli codna. matasi da venaxi erT xats qmnis. arCibaldi Tvals ar aSorebs venaxs. `iq matasi imaleba foTlebSi~. matasi misTvis arc daa, arc satrfo, arc megobari da imavdroulad, dac aris, satrfoc da megobaric. unda, rom sxva saxeli mounaxos mas. magram ra? Znelia. matasis kalaTi miaqvs Wuris Tavisken. arCibaldi daedevneba da kalaTs arTmevs. Tavisi xeliT yris sawnaxelSi yurZens. matasis `tkbiliT~ savse xapi uWiravs xelSi da stumars sTavazobs. arCibaldi Sesvams, Semdeg TviTonac avsebs xaps da matasis sTxovs, misi xaTriT dalios. qalic svams. mere uceb mowydeba adgilidan da venaxSi garbis. moZraoba, sisxarte, venaxi, sicocxle – gadajaWvulia, gariTmulia erTmaneTTan. arCibalds matasi wminda ninos agonebs, Tavisi TmebiT rom uSrobs vazs sixarulisgan wamosul cremlebs. arCibaldis cnobierebaSi matasis saxeli moenaxa, is ninoa, iveriaze, mis miwasa da venaxze Seyvarebuli, amitomac is unda gaxdes qarTuli rasis, misi STamomavlobis deda. yurZnis `tkbilis~ Sesma venaxTan, sayvarel qalTan da samSoblosTan ziarebaa. samSoblosagan asxletil dionisos menadas ukve veRaraferi daaSorebs Tavis qveyanasTan, misTvis xelaxla aRmoCenil da ziarebadmiRebul samSoblosTan. dionisuri sawyisidan WeSmarit venaxTan misvlas aRwers mwerali. venaxi samSobloa, sayvareli qalia da bolos rwmenaa, romelic qvecnobierad fesvebs idgams pirovnebaSi da myardeba matasis cremlebiT. robaqiZesTan cremlic ki erovnuli niSniTaa dadaRuli. Tamaz mayaSvilis (bedis gamo msoflios sxvadasxva mxares moxetiale da bolos samSobloSi dabrunebuli Tavadis) `Tvalebze gadmogorebuli ori didi cremli – TiTqo gasresili isrimia qarTuli vazis~ (`gvelis perangi~, gv. 285). da ai, qorwilis saidumloeba iSleba mwiris warmosaxvaSi. Tbilisi – saqarTvelosa da arCibaldis dedaqalaqi – sasurveli dedofalia, romelsac mravali saqmro hyolia – `bizantielni. romaelni. sparsebi. xorezmelni. saratinebi. arabebi. yavCaRni. mongolni. rusni.~ da aravis danebebia. `sionis kaJisfer tans exlac axsovs lorwiani xvevna mtarvalis (jalal-eddinis). sionis xsovnas ufro swvavs tirili vazis – mis kedlebSi jvarad dasvenebulis~ (`gvelis perangi~, gv. 219). grZnobs robaqiZe TbilisTan sakralur kavSirs – Tbilisi misi sxeulia, misi zraxvaa da rom `arsis xvedri arsia TviTon.~ Tbilisi xedavs `iveriis qalwulis Tvalebs. xalass da rasaSeurevel Tvalebs: saca mediduroba da darcxvena erTi da igivea. Tvalebs: romlebSiac dainaxav gaCenis pirvel dReebs~ (iqve. gv. 225). amitomac ixdis gvelis perangs arCibald mekeSi da arCil mayaSvilad iqceva – ubrundeba Tavis nasaxlars, Tavis venaxs, mama-papaTa saflavebs da qorwindeba qalze, romlis saxeSic wminda ninos xedavs, qarTul mtevans, simindis

vazi – sicocxlis xe

115 `gaquCrul~ tarosa da qarTul miwas. orsul matasis ki mucliT misi qveynis saSo daaqvs – aseTia mwerlis miTosuri xedva, rac grigol robaqiZis stilur Taviseburebaze migviTiTebs. kidev erT uaRresad originalur, religiur-miTosur mxatvrul saxeze gvinda gavamaxviloT yuradReba, romelic gvxvdeba xoralSi misteriidan `jvari vazisa~, sadac sawnaxeli yurZniT galeSili gveleSapia, romelsac nebismieri giorgi siamovnebiT Cascemda maxvils, raTa peSviT daelia mtevanTa tborebi:
`da pirgaguduli didi sawnaxeli – yurZniT galeSili luSi gveleSapi romelma giorgim ar Casces maxvili mtevnebis tborebi ro xvripos peSvebiT~. (xorali misteriidan `jvari vazisa~)
Tamar SarabiZe

XX saukune

grigol robaqiZe, qarTul miwaze, venaxsa da qarTul rasaze Seyvarebuli mwerali, `cisferyanwelTa~ ufrosi megobari, maTi ideuri sulisCamdgmeli, cxovrebis stiliT – qarTveli dendi – ucxoeTSi, emigraciaSi gardaicvala (swored amitomac gaxda germanulenovani mwerali). misi nawarmoebebi akrZaluli iyo sabWoTa sinamdvileSi da dRemde mas araprofesionali qarTveli mkiTxveli mxolod `gvelis perangiT~ icnobs, romlis dabeWdvac mweralma emigraciamde moaswro da romelsac daveyrdeniT Cvenc, rogorc qarTveli mkiTxvelisaTvis cnobil da xelmisawvdom nawarmoebs.

ga lak ti o ni
`dalev Rvinos da datrialdebian mTebi, airevian Rrublebi. mTebo, ra mogividaT, Rvinos me vsvam da Tqven TvrebiT?!~
(galaktioni. ubis wignaki, gv. 15)

Troba poeturi alegoriaa da loTobas rodi niSnavs. galaktioni mudam mTvrali iyo, mTvrali poeziiT, grZnobebiT – silamazis, sikeTis, siyvarulis – sakuTari Tavis sidiadis da zogjer albaT RviniTac, ra Tqma unda. yvela, vinc ki galaktions icnobda, erTxmad aRiarebs, rom igi cotas svamda, magram male Tvreboda da mTvrali iyo maSinac, roca saerTod ar svamda. amaze bevri miTqma-moTqma iyo Tavis droze da Tavad galaktionsac araerTxel gamouTqvams azri:
`stiroda suli cisfer Rvinoebs, Rvino eZebda sul sxvas piriqiT da Semdeg ucnob pianinoebs atrialebda tanjvis lirikiT~.

galaktionis leqsis `garCeva~ xom SeuZlebelia, am leqssac ver `ganvsazRvravT~, is unda vigrZnoT da vgrZnob kidec, rom is `sul sxvas~ eZebs

RvinoSi, ara loTobasa da Tavdaviwyebas, aramed poetur eqstazs, xelovnebiT, grZnobebiT Trobas. amitomac xarks uxdis Rvinis kults, rogorc grZnobebis gadmofrqvevas, Svebisa da simSvidis moniWebas:
`wynarze wynari mze da Rvino, Svebis wyaro mze da Rvino, me mTvrali var siyvaruliT, ar damcaro mze da Rvino, mSvidad wyaro, Svebis wyaro, ar damcaro, mze da Rvino...~

mze da Rvino erTi mTlianobaa, erTi poeturi saxea da Cven SegviZlia vTqvaT, rom galaktioni ganuwyvetliv mTvrali iyo – mziTa da RviniT, poeziiT da siyvaruliT da romelic gnebavT im grZnobiT, es Rvinis kultia da araviTar SemTxvevaSi – loTobis. galaktioni `xelovnebiT gabruebas~ Trobad miiCnevda da statiac ki dawera saTauriT: `narkozi da xelovneba~. `narkotikebis srulad mospoba ki ara, Secvlaa saWiro!!! xelovneba saukeTeso narkozia am sityvis ufarToesi mniSvnelobiT. xelovneba iZleva yovelive imas, rasac iZleva alkoholi!!! roca wigns kiTxulobs adamiani, TeatrSi zis, suraTs aTvalierebs an musikas ismens, igi Sordeba yoveldRiuri cxovrebis zrunvebs da davidarabebs, Tavs iviwyebs, isvenebs damRalav anda sulisSemxuTav STabeWdilebebisagan...~ poezia galaktionisaTvis saukeTeso alkoholia. svams ararsebul `cisfer Rvinoebs~ da Tvreba vardebiT:
`am vardobisTves vardebiT vTvrebi, kargia Troba~

anda yviTeli foTlebiT daTroba axsendeba (inteleqtualuri Troba):
`sul ramdenime wlis win yviTel foTlebiT Troba xedavs varskvlavTa cimcims mogonebaTa grZnoba~.

galaktioni Tass iTxovs vardebis buCqis CrdiliT:
`momeciT Crdili vardebis buCqis momeciT – TasiT~.
vazi – sicocxlis xe

galaktionisaTvis mtevani yurZnis marcvlebiT ki ara, mzis alublebiTaa savse (`...mtevnebi savse mzis alublebiT~); is amCnevs tirifze asul maRlar mtevansac (`...da tirific maRlar mtevniT, sasacilo tirifi, gadaxrili zedmiwevniT, msubuqi da iribi~), galaktioni poetur xilvebSi cxovrobs da bodleriseburad wers:
`fiqrSi gaxveula bneli derefani, Ramis meetle rom veRar daatia. isev nerviulad rekavs telefoni, – romeli saaTia, romeli saaTia? RmerTo, rogor moxda, wvima mosisxari TiTqos Seuwyveti kupris nakadia, aRar gaTendeba Rame sazizRari!

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117
romeli saaTia, romeli saaTia? iyo Sarl bodleri: `mware da Zvirfasi Trobis saaTia, Rvinis saaTia!~ ase iZleoda pasuxs SekiTxvaze – romeli saaTia?~ (`romeli saaTia?~)
Tamar SarabiZe

ase rom, galaktioni Tu raimeTi mTvrali iyo – poeziiT, musikiTa da grZnobebiT. TviTon wers, `simReriT davTverio~. simReriT daTroba galaktionisaTvis igive rodia, rac sxvisTvis. `me vxedav sizmrebs ara Tqveneburso,~ – ambobda galaktioni da araCveneburadac fiqrobda. erTxel misTvis ugrZnobinebiaT, rom cudad mReroda. galaktions swyenia da uTqvams: `arc ilia mReroda, magram pirveli Tamada ki iyoo~. abezari mokamaTe ar gaCerebula: `ilia roca Tamadobda, winamZRvriSvilis mowafeebi simReriT uvsebdnen naklso~. amaze galaktions saocari ram uTqvams: `aba erTi ilias gulSi Cagexeda maSin, ra simfoniebi gugunebda!! ilias ar umReria iliaobaze, magram `gandegilze~ ki fiqrobdao~. (m. kveselava, `poeturi integralebi~, 1977, gv. 521). galaktionisaTvis `gandegilze fiqri~ da `simfoniebis guguni~ erTi yofila da Cven mas ginda poeturi procesi davarqvaT da ginda `simReriT daTroba~. Tavidan bolomde simReraa misi `qebaTa-qeba nikorwmindas~: sizmriseulia svetebi, qvebis simfonia, xveulebSi mikarg-mokarguli gzneba, frTosani faskunjebi, qarTuli mzera... am yoveliveTi Troba TvaliTac SegiZlia da musikiTac, romelic galaktionis leqsidan ismis. galaktionma TviTon mounaxa Tavis poezias gasaRebi:
`vinac gaigebs CuqurTmas qarTuls, is poezias Cemsas gaigebs~.

XX saukune

`erTxel Turme galaktioni gelaTis gumbaTs Sehyurebda da simRera mounda: modiT, `Sen xar venaxi~ vimReroTo~(m. kveselava, gv. 352). ase momentalurad gadavida suraTi (qva) musikaSi da musika poeziaSi (mis `qebaTa-qeba nikorwmindaSi~ qva ara marto `JRers~, aramed `RuRunebs~; `Sen frTamoRuRunes...~); `Sen xar venaxi~ ki poetis mier SemTxveviT arCeuli sagalobeli rodia. galaktionis ubis wignakSi SemorCenilia erTi iseTi naweri, romelic Zalian kargad gvixsnis misi muSaobis stils, poeturi aRmafrenisaTvis saWiro garkveul niuansebs: `1917 wels moskovidan axlad dabrunebuls Sematyobines, rom quTaisis general-guberenators gankarguleba mieca policiis mier Cemi dapatimrebis Sesaxeb... saxlidan arc dRiT, arc RamiT ar gamovdiodi. aseT mdgomareobaSi ganvagrZobdi `qarTuli ornamentis~ weras! saqme imaSia, rom yrmobidanve Zalian mitacebda qarTuli ornamentis iSviaToba, masSi vgrZnobdi da vxedavdi qarTveli eris, misi xelovnebis, misi adamianebis mTlian bunebas, niWs. vwerdi dRiTa da RamiT, Zalian gulmodgined. wignma ise gamitaca, rom sul gadamaviwyda gubernatori, misi gankarguleba. CemTan sanaxavad mosul poets,

beglar axospirels vTxove Camoetana CemTvis Cveni taZris nangrevebidan raime ornamenti. momitana droTa svlisagan xavsmodebuli ornamenti, yurZnis mtevnis gamosaxulebiT. davide magidaze da ase ganvagrZobdi weras... mas mere bevri xani gavida, bevri ram davkarge, magram is ornamenti ar damikargavs. exlac devs samuSao magidaze (g. tabiZe – ubis wignaki, qarT. lit. sax. muzeumis gamomcemloba `literaturis matiane~, Tb., 1998, gv. 61). `Sen xar venaxis~ sagalobeli, qarTuli ornamenti yurZnis gamosaxulebiT, masSi Cateuli mze da mzis Zala iyo galaktionisTvis STagonebis mimcemi, poeziiT damaTrobeli da mSobliuri miwawylis SemagrZnobinebelic – `cvrian balaxze Tu fexSiSvela ar gaviare, raa mamuli!~ venaxSi mosiarule moxuci mamis nostalgiuri mogonebaa mamuli:
`gaSala veli nelma niavma da melandeba me mis wiaRSi moxuci mama, moxuci mama sasxlaviT xelSi dadis venaxSi. aq TiTo lerwi da TiTo ylorti masze ocnebas daemgvaneba! isev amwvanda mdelo da kordi!.. davdivar... vwuxvar da menaneba!~ (`mamuli~)

venaxi mamis tradiciuli saxea da mamuls miemarTeba. venaxze ocneba ki mamulis gaSenebaze ocnebaa, amitomac aris es saxe galaktionisaTvis Soreuli da Rrma sevdiT moculi. venaxsa da Rvinos, Rvinosa da Trobas galaktionma, ise rogorc yvela qarTvelma poetma, xarki gadauxada. gadauxada rogorc cxovrebaSi, aseve SemoqmedebaSi, magram Tavisi poeturi aspeqtiT galaktionma kvlav gamorCeulad, sxvanairad, `ara Cveneburad~ Tqva Tavisi saTqmeli, riTac kidev erTxel adRegrZela saqarTvelo grZnobebiTa da poeziiT avsebuli yanwebiT:
`me vadRegrZeleb saqarTvelos savse yanwebiT, me vadRegrZeleb...~

cxovrebaze xelCaqneulma poetma sabolood mainc RvinoSi ipova TavSesafari. didi Sinagani brZolis Semdeg da ara wuTieri ganwyobilebis Sedegad, niSnad protestisa, TviTmkvlelobiT daasrula sicocxle.
vazi – sicocxlis xe

`cis fer yan we le bi~
`...didxans hqondaT msjeloba, Tu ra daerqmiaT almanaxisaTvis... paolom Tqva `cisferi yanwebi~ da gaitana kidec, vinaidan mis mets fuli aravis hqonda almanaxis gamosacemad... amis Semdeg Seudgnen satarebeli niSnis Zebnas, vinaidan quTaisSi ar imyofeboda Sesaferi graviori, rom `yanwebi~ gaekeTebina gulze satarebel niSnad. xolo namdvili, veeberTela yanwis mkerdze tareba did uxerxulobas warmoadgenda, afrines kaci argveTSi, iq eqvsi mamali dah-

118 8

119

kles, mamlis dezebi Zalian hgvanan yanwebs, mxolod miniaturulebia, da ase, – Tormeti cali `yanwi~ argveTidan Camotanili, dauriga paolom danarCenebs, da erT mSvenier dRes (istoriul dRed unda CaiTvalos!) quTaisis mzian bulvarze, demonstratiulad gamovida Tormeti axalgazrda mkerdze `yanwis~ niSniT...~ (g. tabiZe, `ubis wignaki~, `literaturis matiane~, Tb., 1998, gv. 12)

Tamar SarabiZe

pa o lo iaS vi li
`...Cven vadidebT sityvas axals, mkacrs da iseT gabeduls, rogorc mefuri xelis gafrena gagiJebul diriJorisa. udidesi Tviseba arsebobisa aris siamaye – amaRldes eri Cveni da TviTSeyvarebiT aocebdes qveynierebas. xalxi, romelic uaryofs didebis survils, hgavs avaTmyofs, romelmac igrZno kocna sikvdilisa da kidev elis sicocxleSi dabrunebas. Cven vklavT SiSs Tavis bnel mantiaSi da vumReriT raindobas, siWabukes da alur siyvaruls...~
(paolo iaSvili, nawyveti cisferyanwelTa manifestidan; `cisferi yanwebi~, 1, 1916 w.)

XX saukune

rogor gabedulad, rogori SemarTebiT gamovidnen es axalgazrdebi cxovrebiseul Tu literaturul sarbielze da TiTqos yanwis dalevis win warmoTqmuli sadRegrZeloebi leqsebad, eqspromtebad da epigramebad mimoabnies. axleburi iyo maTi leqsi, disonansi Sehqonda ukve damkvidrebul literaturul garemoSi, ucnauri iyo maTi qcevac: quCaSi gahkiodnen leqsebs, macxovreblebs ar aZinebdnen, `eqsperimentebs vatarebTo~; Casuqebul vaWrebs yviriliT misdevdnen quTaisis quCebSi, `miscxe spekulantebso~, – aqezebdnen erTmaneTs; arasasurveli dasis gamo aurzaurs awyobdnen TeatrSi da speqtakls Slidnen, RamiT ucnob sadarbazoSi qeifobdnen, mravaljer amouyviaT Tavi miliciaSi, quTaisidan bohemuri cxovrebis gamo asaxlebdnen; maTxovrebTan da SeSlilebTan axloblobdnen; kafeebSi marTavdnen poeziis saRamoebs da rasac Soulobdnen, xelgaSlilad arigebdnen, jibeSi ki fuli arasdros hqondaT... icodnen Zmoba da megobroba, uyvardaT samSoblo, daeZebdnen sulxan-sabas saflavs; iyvnen artistuli sulis patronebi, megobrobdnen rus poetebTan: eseninTan, maiakovskisTan, andrei belisTan, aleqsandre blokTan, boris pasternakTan... mxarSi edgnen gaWirvebul qarTvel xelovanebs da specialurad gamarTuli saRamoebiT maT popularizacias axdendnen; revoluciis pirvel xanebSi, roca qveyanaSi sruli anarqia sufevda, qalaqSi wesrigs amyarebdnen. maTi lideri da meTauri paolo iaSvili iyo, cisferyanwelTa ordenis anu saqarTveloSi dasavleTevropuli simbolisturi skolis damaarsebeli.

TanamedroveTa mexsierebaSi paolo aseTnairad warmosdgeba: `dardimandi da oqropiri, momlxeni, romelic moxdenil sityvebs uxvad fantavda, Seudarebeli Tamada, sufris mSveneba – aseTi iyo paolo cxovrebaSi (Salva afxaiZe, `mziuri iaSvili~, mogonebebi paolo iaSvilze, `merani~, 1995, gv. 41). `wlobiT SegeZlo gemijnura, gegrZno, geloTa, magram zeimad, mudam lxinad gamzadebuli. Zmobis Semkvreli, sufris Tavi, beWis damWreli, gadayolili mruds da marTals... hai, dedasa! ase gicnobda, Tu gicnobda, sadme qarTveli~, – am sityvebiT mimarTavs irakli abaSiZe tragikulad daRupul poets. albaT misi bunebidan gamomdinare, paolos leqsebSi sul yanwi, alaverdi da sadRegrZelo Cans, maTSi ki poetis sulieri tkivilebi, nazi siyvaruli, bohemuri aRmafrena da simbolisturi xatebani isaxeba. kolau nadiraZisadmi miZRvnil leqsSi poeti moskovidan iWvneulad kiTxulobs:
`Zmao, momwere iseTi rame, hqondes Cvens baRSi saubris fasi: Cems sadRegrZelos Tu isev svamen, jer Tu mTelia saCemo Tasi~. (`kolau nadiraZes~).

`avtoportretSi~ rusTavelTan gadadis alaverds:
`xalxis winaSe me viqnebi mudam marTali. Sevxari mzesa, vetrfi mTvaris yviTel xaverdsa da rusTavelTan gadavdivar me alaverdsa~. (`avtoportreti~)

eTim gurjis gacnobiT aRfrTovanebuli, saxalxo poets leqsad mimarTavs.
`dRes pirvelad vnaxe xalxis eTimi, is yofila Cveni gulis eqimi. Rvino, leqsi aris misi adaTi da qoneba – erTi Savi nabadi~. (`eTim gurji~)

mixeil javaxiSvils colTan warsadgen mowmobas aZlevs:
`eZleva ese mowmobis cali `jayos xiznebis~ da `kvaWis~ avtors, rom is davtoveT vaxSamze ZaliT da ticiani mas ZaliT aTrobs~. (`mowmoba~)

vazi – sicocxlis xe

simbolisturi xatebani iSlebian poetis erT-erT yvelaze sayvarel leqsSi `wiTeli xari~. `mzis nadims~ eswrafvis paolo da aqebs wiTel xars, mzis cxovels, yviTel rqebas da cecxlis frTebians. misi wminda qeba `aluri nadimis~ Semadgeneli nawilia (rogorc sadRegrZelo – sufris). paolo poeziaSic farTo asparezs aZlevs Tavis artistul suls da bohemur nadims STamagoneblad, intensiuri niuansebiT, dialogiT asaxavs leqsebSi:

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`bageni lalis mRerodnen simTvrales, pasuxi alis ismoda neli. `Cven daviRaleT, – `Cven didxans geliT~ `Sen sidan moxval?~ – `Soreul veliT~ `o! msurxar Zlier! msurs kocna mwveli!~ (`stirodnen~)
Tamar SarabiZe

rafinirebuli gemovnebaa ametyvelebuli `mefis qorwilSi~. TeTri saqorwino tansacmeli, vezirebi – lalis farCa da oqromkerdi, vercxlis surebSi Rvino da sxva sasmelebi, `...firuzis Tasi qarvisferi RviniT aivso~. am elvare ferebSi mxolod dedoflis saxea fermkrTali, `viT nislSi gedi~. suraTs TiTqos poeti ki ara, mxatvari qmnides. paolos bohemuri cxovrebis stili cnobilma rusma mxatvarma sergei sudeikinma kafe `qimerionis~ kedelze aRbeWda, roca poeti espanuri SlapiTa da yanwiT xelSi gamosaxa broweulis xes miyrdnobili ticianis gverdiT. paolos qcevac misi cxovrebis stilidan momdinareobda: uaRresad gulRia da keTili iyo, Tan artistuli. Zalian itanjeboda, roca maTxovrebisaTvis misacemi fuli ar hqonda. nino tabiZe, ticianis meuRle, igonebs, rogor aesveta erTxel pionerTa sasaxlis win paolos nacnobi maTxovari kaCegara. `paolo aRelda, radgan fuli arc erTs ar gvqonda. maSinve Slapa moixada, gamvlelebs gauwoda da waimRera: `aCuqeT xelmokle poets kvarti RvinisaTvis.~ quCaSi zRva xalxi ireoda. gamvlelebi iRimebodnen da qudSi fuls uyridnen, groSebs ki ara, maneTianebs. oci wuTis Semdeg qudi pirTamde aivso. paolom fuli maTxovars gadasca~ (nino tabiZe, mogonebebi paolo iaSvilze, `mziuri paolo~, gv. 103). artistuli bunebidan gamomdinare, romelsac xSirad niRbis saxe aqvs, paolo ebrZoda tradicias, magram sinamdvileSi misi upirvelesi damfasebeli iyo. misi dekadenturi leqsebi yuradRebas ipyrobda, disonansad iWreboda sazogadoebis maSindel esTetikur SexedulebebSi, arRvevda leqsis dakanonebul formas da gamomsaxvelobiT saSualebebs, ebrZoda did saxelebs. didi miTqma-moTqma gamoiwvia misma leqsma `paolo iaSvils – momewyina yviTeli dante~:
`paolo iaSvils momewyina yviTeli dante. vaqebdi Seqspirs, magram farda – Seqspirs uari, ra vqna, rom CemTvis beThoveni mxolod yru ari da rom warsulma ver gadmomca me andamati~. (`paolo iaSvils – momewyina yviTeli dante~)

XX saukune

paolo qarTuli, Zveli poeturi Taobis udides figuras – akakisac SeebrZola. magram es mxolod da mxolod niRabi iyo iseve, rogorc Seqspirisa da dantes uaryofa. sinamdvileSi paolo da masTan erTad cisferyanwelebi akakis, iliasa da vaJas poeziis udidesi damfaseblebi iyvnen, rac kargad Cans maT leqsebSi. paolo iaSvili, miuxedavad Tavisi simbolistobisa da frangi dekadentebisaTvis miZRvnili leqsebis seriisa, Tavisi poeturi midrekilebiTa da leqsikiT am skolas mainc ar ekuTvnoda. mis leqsebs, ak. gawerelias moxdenili TqmiT, `qarTuli qvevris surneli ufro asdioda~, `mis vizualur

xedvebs Cveni qveynis bunebis niSandoblivi landSaftebi da sanaxebi kvebavdnen, xolo emociebs – rainduli nadimebi da molxenebi.~ aviRoT Tundac misi leqsi `werili dedas~. qalaqis aurzauris gavleniT Seqmnili sulieri depresia saocar sevdian ganwyobilebas qmnis. xelSeuxeb, waubilwav siwminded rCeba ocneba sofelze:
`davtove sofeli, myudro samyofeli, qvitkiris marnebi da katis knutebi – simindis yana! ha, kintos profili, saeWvo tarnebi, da davikuntebi qalaqis quCebSi me – salaxana~. (`werili dedas~)

kintoebisa da yaraCoxelebis motrfiale arc paolo da arc misi jgufis sxva wevrebi arasdros yofilan. salaxanas poeti Tavs mware ironiiT uwodebda. soflis siwmindes mowyvetili qalaqSi ver poulobda sayrdens. leqsSi sofeli da venaxi sulierebis saxes iRebs, Svilis dardiT upegalurjebuli dedis Tvalebi ki vazis foTlebze Sabiamanis galurjebas emsgavseba:
`roca me qurdebi megobrad mracxaven, sofelSi venaxi gaxda mosarwyavi da vazis furclebze ise galurjdeba iq Sabiamani, viT Tvalis upe – roca me ar maxuravs RameSi sabani~. (`werili dedas~)

vazi – sicocxlis xe

saocari sulieri mRelvareba ixateba Svilis TxovnaSi, rom fexSiSvelma dedam moinaxulos wminda xaxuli, qalaqSi dakarguli SvilisTvis gaaTios iq Rame, daunTos misi sigrZe sanTeli, raTa dayuCdes Svilis gulSi `grigali da korianteli~. da saocaria dedis saxec, romelic am yovelives aucileblad gaakeTebs Svilis gulisTvis. Sinagani simSvide da bunebasTan harmoniuli Serwymis suraTebi ixateba paolos im leqsebSi, romlebic mSobliur sofelSi miRebuli STabeWdilebebiT aris nasazrdoebi. `zemour rTvelSi~ paolo misTvis Cveuli mkafio da elvare saRebavebiT xatavs rTvelis suraTebs, Tavis `kbila~ katis RiRins, mezoblebTan mxari-mxar Sromas, marans, romlis `yavris WerSi oqros dana gaurWvia dilis mzesa~. sakmarisia, erTi strofi mainc moviyvanoT am leqsidan, rom Tvalwin warmogvidgeba Semodgomis momxibvleli suraTi – rTveli – ara marto yurZnis wurva, aramed masTan dakavSirebuli tradiciebis niuansebi da detalebi da, rac mTavaria, paolos poeturi fantaziiT Seqmnili ganumeorebeli xilvebi:
`da gaismis soflis velad nanina da orovela Canguruli kilos xmaze... ukve raWis mTebSi bnela,

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mTvare – Zroxis erTi wvela devs perangas qimis jamze~. (`zemouri rTveli~)
Tamar SarabiZe

ara marto mSobliuri sanaxebi kvebaven paolos, misi stiqiaa sanadimo baRebi, naxevarsardafebica da sastumroebic, erTi sityviT – molxena. kritikosi akaki gawerelia ixsenebs, rogor waiyvanes paolo iaSvilma, tician tabiZem da giorgi leoniZem drois gasatareblad kaxeTSi da rogor aRmoCndnen sarTiWalis sasadiloSi, romlis patronsac paolom daavala dedas levanas moZebna, `Tbiliseli Zmebi gepatiJebiano~: `sad iyo, sad ara, male dedas levanac gamoCnda. Txeli, saSualo tanis mamakaci iyo... TuSuri qudi exura, Zalze dinji da mSromeli glexis tips mogagonebdaT. ifiqrebdiT, es-esaa ezoSi ojaxur saqmianobas moacdineso. stumrebi mefurad Seegebnen mas. dedas levanam dinjad Seifera Sexvedris sazeimo rituali... Sevcqerodi Cveni poetebis nadims, romelSic ase naTlad gamosWvioda qarTuli lxinis yvela SesaniSnavi Tviseba: smaSi TavdaWeriloba (marto paolo clida veeba fialas) da Cinebuli mWermetyveleba, rasac leqsebis zepirad warmoTqma, eqspromtebi da dedas levanas Seudarebeli tenori agvirgvinebda. dedas levana Seudarebel piano-s flobda, araCveulebrivad mimzidveli iyo misi xmis qarTuli tembri, ritmuli TrTola gabmuli simRerisa... dedas levanas yoveli simReris damTavrebis Semdeg paolo warmodgeboda, misken gaswevda da fexze mdgarni oriveni mxarze eamborebodnen erTmaneTs. kaxuri vokalisa da iSviaTi Rvinis embazSi TiTqos xelaxla inaTlebodnen qarTveli poetebi! ...erTi simRera uiRblo siyvarulis gamo tirili iyo... simReris dasasruls paolo iaSvilma wiTeli RviniT savse fiala umal iatakze daanarcxa da Tavi Caqindra. dedas levanas bolo simReram Tu aafeTqa misi `tvini verani~ – aki sifxizlis Jams poetis arsebas dardiTa da simZimiliT avsebs xolme wuTisofeli~ (ak. gawerelia, mogonebebi paolo iaSvilze, `mziuri paolo~, `merani~, Tb., 1995, gv. 74). paolo iaSvilma sicocxle sifxizleSi, dardiTa da simZimiliT avsebulma, TviTmkvlelobiT daasrula. es moxda mweralTa kavSiris sxdomaze. rogorc Semdeg gamoirkva, lavrenti beriam mas daavala mixeil javaxiSvilisa da ticianis winaaRmdeg cru braldebis dawera. amas win uswrebda 1924 wels misi Zmis daxvreta da is wumpe, romliskenac mudmivad eqaCeboda sabWoTa mTavroba – socialisturi realizmis `adepti~ gamxdariyo. beriasagan wamosul paolos gzadagza miuRia es gadawyvetileba.

XX saukune

ti ci an ta bi Ze
Tu paolo iaSvili cisferyanwelTa ordenis lideri da damaarsebeli iyo, tician tabiZe mis Teoretikosad gvevlineba. Jurnalis orive nomerSi man gamoaqveyna cisferyanwelTa manifesti saTauriT: `cisferi yanwebiT!~ ticiani werda:

vazi – sicocxlis xe

`qarTvel xalxSi scxovrobs ukvdavi aqtioruli suli. imas unda mudam sxva iyos, imas uyvars Teatralizacia cxovrebis; ratom iRebeba qarTveli qali? esec xom modis brali ar aris. amas CvenSi xom didi istoria aqvs. mizezi aqac igivea, es qarTvel xalxs uyvars niRabi, simbolizmi swored filosofiaa am niRabis, da amitom simbolizmi CvenSi aucilebelia~ (tician tabiZe, `cisferi yanwebiT~, `cisferi yanwebi~, 1, quTaisi, 1916 w.) am aqtioruli suliskveTebiT cxovrobdnen cisferyanwelebi, sul cametni (es ricxvi, cxadia, simboluri iyo. qristesa da misi mowafeebiviT maT erTi mrwamsi da saZmo fici aerTianebdaT. roca am ordenis wevrTa bohemur cxovrebaze Camovardeba xolme laparaki, ar unda davuSvaT, rom aseT cxovrebas maT simdidris gamo mihyves xeli. zogjer piriqiTac xdeba da ase iyo am SemTxvevaSic. gaWirveba, ara marto ekonomiuri, aramed ufro sulieri (isini xom iZulebuli iyvnen sabWoTa mwerlebis rigebSi Camdgariyvnen, `erTi efiqraT da meore daeweraT~) xSirad aiZulebs kacs RvinoSi eZios gamosavali dardis gasaqarveblad, bunebiT ubralo adamiani iyos da amayad eWiros Tavi. ticiansa da galaktion tabiZes 1914 wels quTaisis baRSi mweralTa jgufTan erTad erTi suraTi aqvT gadaRebuli. galaktions am suraTTan dakavSirebiT patara Canaweric ki gaukeTebia: `ticians axlad Sekerili kostumi acvia. gimnazia esesaa daamTavra. titia! maSin ticiani ar erqva. aTi wlis ganmavlobaSi is xels awerda tite tabiZe, t. tabiZe. titia!.. im suraTze aRbeWdilTa Soris yvela uzrunvelyofili iyo, me ki im dRes maxsovs, sadilis fulic ar mqonda. magram Tavs lordiviT viWerdi, sabralo ticianic am mdgomareobaSi iyo, magram isic Tavs iWerda.~ siduxWire poetebs xels ar uSlidaT lordebiviT moqceuliyvnen, ucnaurobebiT aRsavse Tavgadasavlebi gamoevloT, daxeuli SarvliT evloT, moyvasisaTvis ki namdvili Zmebi yofiliyvnen. axalgazrdul suliskveTebas da poetur suls mainc Tavisi gahqonda; isinic qeifobdnen da lxinobdnen sxvagvarad, artistulad, Cveulebriv xalxs ki maTi qceva akvirvebda. 1919 wels ticianis quTaisSi Casvla cisferyanwelebma mdinare wyalwiTelas xidTan mdebare erT ganapira wisqvilSi aRniSnes. yvelani iq iyvnen, mxolod giorgi leoniZe akldaT. trialebdnen wisqvilis qvebi, iatakqveSidan Raris wylis xmauri ismoda, wisqvilis xis Senoba sul mTlad zanzarebda. am dros sandro cirekiZes mis mier qarTul enaze naTargmni malarmes leqsebis wigni amouRia, ticianis da paolosaTvis sagangebod gamzadebuli siurprizi. yvela aRtacebiT Sexvedria am gamocemas. – sad wisqvili da sad malarme! – ecineboda ticians. – araviTari malarme! – zeze wamoWrila aqamde tomaraze wamowolili paolo, – aq qarTuli leqsebi unda vikiTxoTo, – da dauwyia ticianisadmi miZRvnili Tavisi axlad dawerili sonetis kiTxva. mTeli dRis manZilze matarebliT namgzavr ticians Tumca daRliloba emCneoda, magram paolos leqss gamoucocxlebia da TviTonac ahyolia:
`me ar vwer leqsebs, leqsi TviTon mwers, Cemi sicocxle am leqss Tan axlavs.

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leqss me vuwodeb movardnil mewyers, rom gagitans da cocxlad dagmarxavs~. (`leqsi mewyeri~)
Tamar SarabiZe

misi sityva yovelTvis mRelvare iyo. kacs sulSi atanda. ticiani, paolo, valerian gafrindaSvili, Salva afxaiZe, nikoloz Sengelaia, Salva karmeli, raJden gvetaZe leqsebiT erTmaneTs enacvlebodnen. gareT myofni jer karebTan mdgaran da iqidan gaocebulni ugdebdnen yurs maTTvis ucnaur Tavyrilobas, mere TiTo-orolad dauwyiaT Semosvla. male wisqvili xalxiT gavsebula. gaCenila WaWaca da Wiqebic. roca paolom `werili dedas~ waikiTxa, mewisqviles ticianisTvis ukiTxavs: didi xania, rac es ymawvili cixidan gamouSveso? ticians sicili waskdomia. saWiro gamxdara, aexsnaT maTTvis leqsis bunebisa da poeturi fantaziis Sesaxeb. glexebi yuradRebiT ismendnen da xalisianad Sescqerodnen im adamianebs, romlebic Tavs poetebs uwodebdnen; Tumca maTi naklebad esmodaT (sergo kldiaSvilis mogonebidan). `cisferyanwelebs~ poeziaze metad araferi anaRvlebdaT. ticians erTi wuTiTac ar SeeZlo ecxovra poeziis atmosferos gareSe da am atmosferos mas nawilobriv mainc Rvino uqmnida. restoranSi gamoRviZebuli, Sercxvenil -Camoglejili poetis sulSi `raRac mefurs~ aRiqvamda da winaprebiviT mzes uZRvnida qebas, TiTqos Zveli miTosuri rwmena cocxldeboda masSi da axal droSi `dagvianebul~ sagalobels qmnida.
`hkivis orkestri xmaCaxleCili, zarxoSi zangi barbacebs, cekvavs. mec Sercxvenili, Camoglejili movdivar, roca msaxuri rekavs. ...da balaganis movkvdebi mefed, – raRac mefuri iyo Cems sulSi, dagvianebul xmad SemierTeT Tqven, vinc mRerodiT mzeze warsulSi!..~ (`balaganis mefe~)

XX saukune

Rvinis meSveobiT mzis ZaliT aRvsili poeti siyvaruls, maradisobasa da wams SeigrZnobda, SeeZlo – `zecisTvis Camoexsna sxivTa pirbade~ da vnebiT leqsad `amoeqsova~ (`serenada~). ticianic grZnobda paolos `wiTeli xaris~ – mzisa da Rvinis – jiSgamZleobas, romelic poetebs SiSs uqrobda da `leqsis niaRvrad~ gardaqmnida:
`wiTeli xaris gamZlebia magari jiSi da ialaRze Sen iqnebi mudam winamZRvrad, amitom ar aqvs arc erT yanwels aqamde SiSi rom movedebiT saqarTvelos leqsis niaRvrad~. (`paolo iaSvils~)

ticianis poeziaSi ca, rogorc qimerielTa (`cisferyanwelTa~) droSa, mewamuli ferisaa. poetma icis, rom mowameobrivi sikvdili arc maT ascdebaT, axali qristes oTx maxarobels – paolos, giorgi leoniZes, valerian gafrindaSvilsa da mas – ioanes (anu cisferyanwelTa naTlias), amitomac sikvdilis

win (TiTqos saidumlo seroba iyos) sadRegrZelos svams leqsad (`droSa qimerielTa~). Rvino ticianisTvis ocnebisa da leqsis safuZvelia:
`Senze ocnebas vervin momparavs da dResac RviniT daviTuTqebi~. (`ocdasami aprili~)

Rvinoa vaJkacobis STamagonebeli, yvela vaJkaci ki saqarTvelos ukvdavebis mzis madidebelia:
`savsea isev saqarTvelo Rvinis marnebiT da raindebi gadadian yanwebs yanwebze. jer ar momkvdara aq vaJkaci sxva dananebiT, rom ar edidos saqarTvelos ukvdavebis mze~. (`gaWianurebuli madrigali~)

ticianic am vaJkacTa ricxvSia, oRond is sxvagvarad – leqsad – aqebs Tavis qveyanas da misi sityva – `es hiperbola~ – saxtad tovebs bevr poets (am sityvebSi mkveTrad warmoCndeba `cisferyanwelTa~ mrwamsi leqsTwyobisa da poeturi gamomsaxvelobiTi saSualebebis Sesaxeb, aseve dapirispireba winamorbedTa poeziasTan). ticianma Tavad gansazRvra `cisferyanwelTa~ manifestSi, rom maTi mizani `Zvel RirebulebaTa gadafasebis kadnierebaa~, rac aTamamebs maT poetur fantazias, pirvel rigSi qmnis axal leqsTwyobas:
`...da rogorc pulsi momakvdav kacis, es ritmic ise gamoicvala~. (`axali mcxeTa~)

axali dro sxva ritmiT, sxva sityvebiT unda gamoixatos. am sityvebSi vxedavT moulodnel metaforebs, hiperbolebs, vxedavT uxeSobasac, rac axali cxovrebis Sesaferia; da, rac ar unda iZulebiTi qeba uTxras ticianma proletariats, axal mcxeTas Seasxas xotba, mis leqsebSi mainc Jonavs siyvaruli warsuli drois:
`oi, `aragvo, aragviano~, mtkvaro fexmardo, mudam mquxare,. var mogonebis cecxliT mwuxare, utaxto, rogorc is aleqsandre, romelis sevdac am did xeobas jer aqamdisac ver auRobavs~. (`axali mcxeTa~)

vazi – sicocxlis xe

leqsSi cnobili mTiuleTis ajanyeba (1804) igulisxmeba da aleqsandre batoniSvilis brZola ruseTis imperiis winaaRmdeg; aqve cocxldeba baraTaSvilis `bedi qarTlisaSi~ dasmuli problematikac da aragvis xeobaSi Sefarebuli ereklesa Tu baraTaSvilis xatebac. ticianis warmodgeniT, baraTaSvilic am xeobaSi, bunebis wiaRSi svamda Rvinos (`erTxel xom mainc gadahkravs Rvinos~ (n. baraTaSvili `bedi qarTlisa~)); axali Taoba ki kafeebSi daixrCoba,

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127 saflavis magivrad krematoriumSi daiferfleba, vaJkaci veRar dalevs `sakuTari sisxliT dakveTil zedaSes~, `rom Semdeg TaTrebs utiros deda~, saqarTveloSi moispoba qarTuli suli, romelic ticianis leqsSi qarTuli RviniTa da misi smis tradiciiTaa gamoxatuli:
`dasabamidan dRecismaradi saqarTveloSi am Rvinos svamdnen, gadadioda xelSi xelada darubandidan nikofsiamde~. (`dasabamidan...~)
Tamar SarabiZe

XX saukune

poetis warmosaxvas saqarTvelos Zveli dideba, misi sazRvrebi – nikofsiidan darubandamde – xelidan xelSi gadasuli xeladiT gauzomia, erovneba Rvinis smis tradiciiTa da vaJkacobiT ganusazRvravs. guli swydeba, rom axal droSi qarTveloba loTobiT gamoixateba, amitomac mis artistizmsa da poetobas, rogorc axali drois Svilisas, loTobad CaTvlian da Seagineben. es axali droebis ironiaa, romelic SefarviT, magram mkveTrad, aRiqmeba ticianis leqsSi:
`damisxiT, Zmebo, damalevineT, amivseT yanwi wiTel RvinoTi. saqarTveloSi bevri magines, miumateben, rom me var loTi~. (`dasabamidan...~)

axali drois ironia yvelaze metad poetis sulSi aisaxeba, sulieri mdgomareoba ki Tavis mxatvrul gamoxatulebas yanwis saxiT warmodgenil poeziaSi poulobs:
`ax, megobrebo, Cemi suli Wvartlia sxvenis, cremliT savsea Cemi wili Cveni yanwebis~. (`ori aprili~)

miuxedavad drois siduxWirisa, miuxedavad imisa, rom `sxvisi guli Caudes poets saguled~, ticians swams, rom qarTveli maRali unda iyos, Rirsebis mqone, radgan misi qveynis cac maRalia da mTac; da erTxelac iqneba, gairRveva mTebis galia da iqidan qoris `baxali~ gadmofrindeba, amitomac:
`sanam samSoblos ca bairaRobs da myinvars afens Svindisfer xaverds, sanam kaxeTi RvinoTi Rvarobs da alaverdTan midis alaverds, sanam Tbilisze dgas oqroyana, tabaxmelaze – qoroRlis cixe, Tu ver vadido Cemi qveyana – amxanagebo, marTla CamwixleT. cac maRalia, mTac maRalia, da kacic unda iyos maRali; gamoirRveva mTebis galia – gadmofrindeba qoris baxali~. (`cac maRalia, mTac maRalia...~)

saqarTvelos sulier simdidred ticiani Tavisi qveynis bunebasa da istoriul ZeglebTan erTad kaxur Rvinos miiCnevs. da `sanam kaxeTi RvinoTi Rvarobs~, saqarTveloSic ar daikargeba mebrZoli qarTuli suli, rasac galiis garRveva da iqidan jer kidev brZolis uunaro qoris `baxalis~ gadmofrena moaswavebs. Rvino Rvinismoyvarul saxelovan winaprebs axsenebs poets da maTTan samSoblosa da poeziis siyvarulSi gajibrebis surviliT aRanTebs: `mezurneebi dilas ebrZvian gaafTrebiT~, `am dros modioda grigol orbeliani orTaWalidan~, Rvinomowyurebuli saiaTnova ki am dros gahkioda da mtkvars aRviZebda Tavisi leqsebiT:
`– aruTina mqvian, saiaTnova var, leqsebs getyvi, cam quxili daiwyos...~

ticianic, grigol orbelianis msgavsad (`muxambazi~), leqsiT da RviniT ejibreba saiaTnovas da SefarviT, Tavad grigol orbeliansac. saocrad vaJkacuri, mZlavri xmiTa da am xmaSi Cadebuli simkacriT, SeuvalobiT TiTqos yviris misi leqsi:
`savse yanwebi Tamadas elian, mesmis daZaleba: `dalie, aitan!~ tician mqvia, vrCebi ticianad, leqsiT da RviniT yvelam micaniT. leqsebs vityvi, cis quxili ra ari?! saiaTnovas Sig saflavSi gavutexo ficari~. (`muxambazi, romelic ar imRereba~)

poezia sulis moTxovnilebaa, gulis iaraa, zeciuri madlia; mas dro verafers daaklebs, dros mxolod poetis fizikuri mospoba SeuZlia – es azri ikveTeba ticianis sergei eseninisadmi miZRvnil leqsSi:
`ar gamocvlila xom poezia – muzebi ciskris karebs aReben, mxolod Cven sxva dro wamogvewia, Cvenc albaT sadme CagvaZaRleben~

– winaswarmetyvelebs ticiani da imedad eseninis anderZs ixsenebs, amiT gamoTqvams Tavis gulisnadebs:
vazi – sicocxlis xe

`da gulSi stiris Seni anderZi: sadRegrZeloSi gvaxsovde marad. wiTel RvinoSi – Sen puris kerZi wamoizrdebi sisxlis tomarad~. (`sergei esenins~)

uaRresad STambeWdavia ziarebis saidumlos amgvari poeturi, hiperboluri aRqma. sadRegrZeloTi, wiTeli RviniT Seicnob am saidumlos; erTi ylupi ki ara, sisxlis mTeli tomara mogawveba eseninis poeziis saxiT (`roca ticianma gaigo eseninis TviTmkvlelobis ambavi – saxe Seecvala; TiTqos dambla daecao, daemxo da aqviTinda, imitom, rom is grZnobda, eseninis saxiT ru-

128 8

129 sulma poeziam didi danaklisi ganicada; axlo megobari dahkarga. igi werda: `esenin hyavda Zmad cisfer ordens~. Salva afxaiZe, mogonebani). kvlav ziarebis saidumloTi – puriTa da RviniT – moigonebs ticiani firosmans, romelic qarTuli mironiT bans qarTvel xelovanebs:
`rom davjdebodeT dRes puris Wamad, movigonebdeT, Zmebo, firosmans. misi guli gvaqvs Cven Rvinis jamad da aqamdisin qarTul mirons gvbans~. (`imaTi iyos es sadRegrZelo~)
Tamar SarabiZe

XX saukune

sadRegrZelo xelovnebasTan ziarebaa puriTa da RviniT, xelovnebis Tema ki samSobloa; magram xelovani yvela ver iqneba – Svidma (7 sakraluri ricxvia da sxvadasxva simaRled, siZneled, SeZlebad unda warmovidginoT) esrola jixvs, magram is beri papis erTxel nasrolze Camoikeca (vaJas TqmiT, `uZvirfasesi papa~ qarTul poeziaSi daviT guramiSvilia~); Svidma Tqva leqsebi, magram Svidivem aacdina, mxolod vaJa-fSavelam `dagviara Tavs~ da `zvavad gvawveba ilia~; an `vin daTvlis kaxel vaJkacebs~ anu kaxel poetebs, isini poeziaSi sakmaod bevrni arian (poetoba da vaJkacoba, ticianis azriT, erTi da igivea); maTi `mSobeli deda~ saqarTveloa, Tamadoba ki swored `xelovanTa mSobelze~ sityvis Tamamad Tqma aris da sxva araferi:
`Zmebo, aswieT savse yanwebi, da vudRegrZeloT mSobeli deda. amaze rom vTqvaT sityva Tamamad, amitom gvirCevs sufra Tamadad~. (`kaxeTSi~)

`...xelovneba erTi gamwevi nadimia~, – wers tician tabiZe `cisferyanwelTa~ manifestSi, – `xSirad iyo Jamianoba da Tavze gvazvavdebodnen yviTeli urdoebi. xolo qarTuli xelovnebis nadimi, arasdros ar yofila `nadimi Jamianobis dros~, sadac TamadaT aris sasowarkveTa~ (`cisferi yanwebi~, 2, quTaisi, 1916 w.). qarTuli sufra ticianisTvis xelovnebis nadimia; sufris mSveneba ki qarTuli xalxuri simReraa dedas levanasi Tu yaralaSvilis (saxalxo momRerlebi):
`soflidan soflad mexad gadadis mravalJamier Cveni Tamadis, TiTqo winandals setyva urtyamdes, – ra guli itevs simReras amdens~. (`kaxeTSi~)

qarTuli sufris, simRerisa da leqsis, qarTuli xelovnebis safuZvelia samSoblo – goliaTi mTebi, `qondris kacsac rom devad aganTebs~, Tvaluwvdeneli zvrebi, bolo rom ar uCans:
`neta, sada aqvs am zvarebs bolo, vin dargo erTad amdeni vazi. sjobs aRar gvqondes sulac samSoblo, anda ar iyos ase lamazi!~ (`maS gamarjveba~)

dabolos, Rvinis mSobeli miwa da mze, fersac rom Taviseburs aZlevs RvTaebriv siTxes:
`vin misca feri muxranis Rvinos, vin misca feri aragvis velebs, sanamde unda, rom mzed edinos gavarvarebul oqros Tavelebs!~ (`maS gamarjveba~)

samSoblos bunebad ticianisTvis moiazreba ca, mTa, mindor-velebi, maTze daTesili xorbali da aucileblad – vazi da venaxi! tician tabiZem paolo iaSvilTan da sxva `cisferyanwelebTan~ erTad Rvinis kulti poeziis axal safexurze aiyvana, simbolizms aziara. realur yofaSi dakarguli WeSmariteba poetma RvinoSi dainaxa da amitomac waawera Tavisi cxovrebis Tasze:
`vina sTqva, tician Rvinos ver itans, maS tyuilad uTqvamT: `In vino veritas!~ erTxel sikvdils sikvdilic ar hqvian. es yvelas moelis, yvelas xarkia. me siyvaruliT aTjer var mkvdari. gulis wverze maqvs dana Camtydari. `RvinoSi aris WeSmariteba~ – es ki vicani, sxvafriT ugono davrCi ticiani~. (`warwera Tasze~)

1937 weli ticianisTvis ukanaskneli weliwadi aRmoCnda. waiyvanes da kacma ar icis, sad uwia sikvdilma, magram siyvaruliT aTjer mkvdars veraferi daaklo. ticians ukve napovni hqonda WeSmariteba.

gi or gi le o ni Ze
Tavisi yrmobis mogonebebs giorgi leoniZem – XX saukunis poetma (`cisferyanwelTa~ ordenis wevrma), mweralma da mecnierma, saqarTvelos istoriis mkvlevarma – `vazfurcela~ uwoda. am moTxrobebSi cocxldeba patarZeulSi, mis mSobliur sofelSi, gatarebuli bavSvoba; iqauri mezoblebi, megobrebi, soflis ubralo xalxi – misi pirveli maswavleblebi – `CiTiskabianebi, TavSalianebi, farajianebi, tyapuWianebi, qalamnebiani.~ am xalxma aswavla siyvaruli, misca Rirseba, poeturi suli. leoniZes eamayeba, rom maT Soris gaizarda, gamoiwrTo da davaJkacda. patarZeulis buneba misi leqsis deda gaxda, `vazebiT garmodgmuli~ da `qarTulkabiani~, romelic ar Sordeboda poets; `iqidan meRimilebao~, – ambobda (`mSobliur xeTa CrdilebSi~). dasafiqrebelia wignis saTauric – `vazfurcela~. `vazfurcela~ – `asfurcela~, TiTqos erTmaneTs hgavs, zRapars xom ar gulisxmobs?! Tu qaRaldis magivrad vazis furclebze nawer mogonebebs?! ufro am meores. vazi xom

130 0

vazi – sicocxlis xe

131 marTlac leoniZis yvela moTxrobaSia. is TiTqos Sezrdilia patarZeulTan, kaxeTTan, poetis yrmobasTan da mis yvela gmirTan: omidan Sindaburunebuli raJdena sul `aWrili vazis akidos hkocnida~ (`ori Semoxedva~); Wampura ki imas amtkicebda, rom `wiTel RvinoSi mzis madli inaxeba; maS, raT aris nakurTxi zedaSeo?!~ (`Ciriki da Cikotela~); Ciriks `erTi budrugana venaxi hqonda oriode vaziT da erTTavad vazebSi trialebda, vazebs mtlad Semodebuli: xan sars udgamda, xan hfurCqnida, xan hyelavda, xan vazis Zirs balaxs aclida, asufTavebda, Sabiamans asxamda, gogirds ayrida, xan rwyavda, xan yaraulobda. vazi ki ara, vazis kapwalebic ki uyvarda, – vazis Zafebi... Tu venaxSi estumrebodi, xaxaliT mogegebeboda – mebaRis nobaTiT... vazebSi xilis xeebi hqonda Carigebuli, rogorc Zvelad icodnen... venaxidan dabrunebuli cols mxiarulad SesZaxebda: – gaixare, vazma rqa cisaken aswia! ra msxvil mtevans uCans piri! yornebiviT Camosxdebian vazebze Savi saferavis mtevnebio!~ (`Ciriki da Cikotela~). deida Caxtaura, `mZlavri da mkacri dedakaci~, `yvelasagan pativdebuli, soflis qalTaTavi~ gaxldaT. axalgazrdobaSi cxenosnobas uqebdnen, qvrivobaSi ojaxis burji gaxda. uamravi saqmis mcodne, ganTqmuli Semlocvelic yofila. `bani iZra, tye iZra, venaxi iZra... irmis mucelSi Sveli iZra, Svlis mucelSi nukri iZra~, – ase poeturad ulocavda orsul qalebs da am SelocvaSi venaxic eria, rogorc maTi yofis ganuSorebeli nawili, cxovrebis dedaboZi (`saxelis milocva~). omidan werilebi modioda sofelSi: `yanebis dardi gamogvyva! vazi ar gamitialoTo!.. RviniT miTxari, Zmao, Sesandobari, sizmrad vnaxe, rom varskvlavi moswyda maRlidan, dabla daenarcxao, veRar mogivalo~ (`deida maiko~). da sofelic svamda maT Sesandobars saxelis milocvis dRes, romelic gazafxulze aRdgomis kviras imarTeboda. micvalebulebs sasaflaoze saxels ulocavdnen; yvelas – vinc rame saxeli datova – samSoblosaTvis sisxldaTxeulebsac da `Wirnaxulis amagdarebsac~ (isinic gmirebad iTvlebodnen) (`saxelis milocva~). yvelas Wkuis damrigebeli, soflis Tavi cicikorec ki `karze venaxiT~ (saxlis win gaSenebuli venaxiT) suldgmulobda, guls uxarebda `SefoTlili vazi, msxmoiare mtevani~. gzis piras mimavali cicikore Tu venaxSi gulmodgined momuSave glexs dainaxavda, mis gasagonad Cailaparakebda: `mag venaxidan ara gamova rao~. SeZrwunebul glexs ase auxsnida Tavis naTqvams: `gana Sabiamani SeiZleba? ar ici, rom ziarebas wamali ar miekareba! nawamli Rvino da ziareba raRa Rvinoao~ (`cicikore~). anarqisti iorami ki, qveynierebis daqcevis mosurne, roca javri Semoawveboda, TavSi xelebs waiSenda da `miSvelT, miSveles~ ZaxiliT, qveynierebis nacvlad, vazebs daereoda SlegiviT (albaT maT miiCnevda qveynierebad). amtvrevda, lewavda Wigoebs, TviTonac ar icoda, ras sCadioda, guls ioxebda (`soflis Saraze~). saukeTeso Tamada yofila Rvinjua – `mowafebuli yanwis sardali~, `sityvis Waxrakebis~ mcodne, `sityvamzianobasTan erTad dauTrobeli~. imdenad Rvino ki ara, nadimi da lxini hyvarebia. zedmeti sma ar scodnia. `– Rvino,
Tamar SarabiZe

XX saukune

132 2

rogorc vardi, ise unda idges minaSi! wylis dasxma rogor SeiZleba Rvinoze! Wiqa ar unda SeaWanWyaro, rom Rvino ar gafuWdes!.. RmerTma Rvino salxinod mogvca, sanadimod, samegobrod, gana Cxubisa Tu kacis kvlisaTvis? Rvino qarTveli kacis xmaliao!~ – ityoda xolme Rvinjua. misi sadRegrZelo ki ase iwyeboda: `am yanwiTa da am wminda qarTuli guliT, minda gadRegrZelo, icocxle imdeni xani, vidre kaxeTis sawnaxlebsa da qvevrebSi Rvino iwurebodeso~ (`Rvinjua~). stumarTmoyvareobiT gamoirCeoda Taya. is iyo `venaxiani, baraqiani mekomle~. sufrac uyvarda da sufris lazaTic, amitom Tamadis arCevas did mniSvnelobas aniWebda: `kargma Tamadam xorciani, bedauri sityva unda icodeso; ena TafliviT unda hqondes sveli, oqrobageTi unda iyoso... ragindara mizeziT, sufra ar unda aSalos. ar Caamwaros purtkbiloba. unda asaxelos Temi da sofelio~; aseT Tamadad ki mas Rvinjua eguleboda (`Rvinjua~). moTxrobaSi `Rvinjua~ leoniZe Tavidan bolomde aRwers qarTul sufras, misi dadebiTi da uaryofiTi mxareebiT, im niuansebiT, romelsac mxolod dakvirvebuli Tvali da sufris zedmiwevniT mcodne Tu SeamCnevda. magaliTad, is gamoyofs drois im monakveTebsa Tu etapebs, rodesac lxini iwyeba, viTardeba, sruldeba da Semdeg ki aurzaurSi gadadis (am aurzauris mizezebsac naTlad warmoaCens, romelic xSirad Tamadis brali arcaa): lxinis dasawyisSi `civad dabrZandnen stumrebi~... cota xanSi gamxiaruldnen, `gaiSala saubari... sityvam gainavarda~. mesame etapze – `Rvino daruvda~, meoTxeze – `zarxoSoba Seiqmna...~, mexuTeze – `Rreoba gaxurda~, `SeRviniandnen~; Semdeg – `sityva gaRorda: zRvis ryeva daiwyo~, Seiqna zedaxora, jlexa~; es yovelive dasrulda `dawiokebuli sufriT~. aseTi dasasrulis mizezad mwerali uweso da uzneo sufris wevrebs miiCnevs, romelTac moTxrobis dasawyisSi `ficgawyvetili Raribebi~ uwoda, anu iseTi Raribebi, saficaric rom araferi aqvT. Zalzed sainteresoa giorgi leoniZis mier lxinisadmi damokidebulebis mixedviT adamianebis kategoriebad dayofa da Sesaferisi poeturi metaforebiT Semkoba. erTni arian `ficgawyvetili Raribebi~, meoreni – `litris kacebi~ anu kargi moqeifeebi da msmelebi, amave dros saukeTeso meurneebi, `romelTac msxvili kiserica aqvT da msxvili samamule rqac! beReli da Wurmarani savse!~ sufris wesis damrRvevs da amrevs mwerali ase axasiaTebs: `enamTvrali, liklika roxila, Tavaqara, yalaRana~ (`Rvinjua~). diakvan elefTers leoniZe moferebiT `lxinikos~ eZaxis, radganac Rvinis kaci ufroa, vidre sulisa, `Rvinis xapia!~ `saRvTo werils~ uRimRamod kiTxulobs, magram im adgils, sadac weria – `Rvino axarebs gulsa kacisasao~ – didi siyvaruliT, rixiTa da amaRlebiT warmoTqvams (`natvris xe~). usazRvrod mravalferovani da poeturia glexkacis sadRegrZeloTa siac: `RmerTi dausawyisi, camze, dedamiwa uleveli, uSreteli, yanis muxli, vazis deda, mebaRis nobaTi, xaris qudi, akvnis ficari, wisqvilis dolabi, simindis frCxili, axal-nergi; rqadaxveuli yoCi, mindvris Targi, abreSumis Wia, qarfexa cxeni, fuZnari guTani da xmali!~ da vin icis, kidev ramdeni sadRegrZeloao, – dasZens mwerali da imasac SeniSnavs, rom es sia aucileblad `sayvelawmindoTi~ sruldeboda. es rom daviwyeboda Tamadas, ukanve unda dabru-

vazi – sicocxlis xe

133 nebuliyo sufraze, Tundac ukve Sinmisuli, da `sayovelwmindos~ sadRegrZelo daelia, Torem RmerTi am Secdomas ar apatiebda (`Rvinjua~). saocaria giorgi leoniZis mier xalxuri metyvelebidan SeTvisebuli Rvinis maxasiaTebeli sityvebi da epiTetebi. moviyvanT zogierT maTgans. `Taflia Tu TaflRvino? rZec aris da Taflic, erTad Sezavebuli~, – am sityvebiT aWaSnikebda glexi karg Rvinos. leoniZe zogjer iseT sityvaTSexamebasac xmarobs, romelic xalxuri metyvelebis wiaRidan SeuTvisebia, magram axali da gaucveTeli elferi miucia. magaliTad, `piris meRvines~, `Rvinis naTlulebs~, `Rvinis kaps~. `piris meRvine `qarTul xalxur saistorio mwerlobaSia~ dadasturebuli da asea axsnili: `Tamar dedofals hyvanda piris meRvine (Rvino visac ebara)...~ `Rvinis naTlulebi~ Rvinis moyvarulebs unda niSnavdes, xolo Rvinis kapi (`sul mudam Rvinis kapi swyuroda~) sruliad moulodneli Sesityvebaa da misi axsna SesaZlebeli gaxda kapis anu kavis (xis kavi) gadataniTi mniSvnelobis dadasturebiT `moxevur leqsikonSi~. kapi yofila `mdinaris Senakadi, riyeze Zlivs rom moCans: wylis kapi mowanwkarebs~ (e. koSoriZe, `ena mdidari da mSobliuri!~, `burji erovnebisa~ 5, 2000 w.). Rvinis kapi wylis kapis analogiiT nawarmoebi Sesatyvisi unda iyos. mwerliseul TxrobaSi xSirad gvxvdeba gamocdilebisa da dakvirvebis Sedegad Camoyalibebuli azri rogorc sufris wes-Cveulebebis, aseve Tamadis pirovnebis Sesaxeb. magaliTad, karg Tamadas `Rvino ver dasjabnis, Tu gulSi wyena ara aqvs... gajavrebuli kaci ki male Tvreba!~ (`Rvinjua~). g. leoniZis SemoqmedebaSi Zalzed STambeWdavad aris aRwerili glexkacis siyvaruli venaxisadmi da tradiciaTa mouSleloba. moxuci Ciriki CamorTmeul da soflis saerTo mamulad gamocxadebul venaxs verafriT moSorda. veranairad ver auxsnes da verc gaigo, Tavisi kerZo sakuTreba mas ratom aRar ekuTvnoda. mTlad venaxSi daido bina. aRar gamodioda. `isev Tavs dastrialebda vazebs Tavisi moqanculi marjveniT.~ simboluria misi sikvdilis suraTic: `arc aRdgoma dRes moSorebia Ciriki sayvarel vazebs. vazis ZirSi saaRdgomo sanTlebi daenTo. sufra gaeSala, litania Semoevlo venaxisaTvis, mere mimjdariyo vazis ZirSi, gulze xelebi daekriba da micvliliyo. SviliSvils aRdgomis wiTeli kvercxebi Caetana venaxSi da egre ki enaxa!~ mwerlis mier aRwerili es STambeWdavi suraTi kidev erTxel miuTiTebs vazis kultze saqarTveloSi. is ara marto mwerlobasa da poetur azrovnebaSi ukavSirdeba ziarebasa da aRdgomas, aramed xalxis msoflmxedvelobaSic da glexTa SegnebaSic sicocxlis xed moiazreba, rac mweralma realisturad gaacocxla yrmobis mogonebebis safuZvelze, ubralod meti mxatvruloba da poeturoba SesZina. ara marto moTxrobebSi, aramed Canawerebsa da werilebSic leoniZe gansakuTrebul yuradRebas uTmobs venaxTan da RvinosTan dakavSirebul nebismier sakiTxs. is Seiswavlis da Tavis azrs gamoTqvams Semdegi sityvebisa da vazis jiSebis etimologiis Sesaxeb: `badagoni~, `mukuzani~, `qisi~, `kardenaxi~, `sxvilTvala~; msjelobs rTvelis dros gavrcelebul zogierT xalxur Cveulebaze – venaxSi gogos wamokotrialebaze – da a. S. (g. leoniZe, `namcvrevebi~, gamomc. `inteleqti~, Tb., 2000 w.).
Tamar SarabiZe

XX saukune

rogorc vxedavT, g. leoniZis prozaul SemoqmedebaSi, romelic mxolod nawilobriv warmovaCineT, vazisa da Rvinis kultis sakmaod didi poeturi masalaa. es bunebrivic aris, mwerali xom kaxeTSi aRizarda, im mxareSi, romelic `vazebSia gamoxveuli~. es mxare iyo misi STagonebis pirvelwyaro, pirvelsazrdo da pirvelsawyisi. amitomac uwodebs poeti Tavis Tavs `venaxSi rqavaziviT fesvgamdgars~, amitomac miaCnia, rom man `kaxeTis msuqan TeZoebs swova mtevnebi~. rac Seexeba giorgi leoniZis poezias, misi leqsebi suldgmuloben vazebiT, venaxiTa da kaxuri RviniT. rogorc ukve vTqviT, kaxeTi poetisaTvis `vazebSi gamoxveuli~ mxarea:
`yana kaxuri, aTqvirebuli, da yamirebi yaraiisa; vazi – Tormeti furis nawveli, dasxmuli oqros barZimivTa, winandlis Rvino dedisrZiani;~ (`mxare – vazebSi gamoxveuli~)

amaze meti vaJkacuri sulisa da gulis Cataneba leqsSi, sityviT gamoxatva bunebis saganTa mimarT aRZruli grZnobisa, warmoudgenelia. Tumca kaxuri yana leoniZisTvis bunebis sagnebze metia, is aTqvirebulia qaliviT; vazSi 12 furis nawvelis sisavse da oqros barZimis siwminde erTadaa Cateuli; winandlis Rvino ki igive dedis rZea, romelic aucilebelia rogorc yrmis davaJkacebisaTvis, aseve mis mamuliSvilad CamoyalibebisaTvis. leoniZis poeturi warmosaxviT vazSi ara marto mze Cadis, aramed is `varskvlavCaxveulicaa~ (`qarTlis baRi~); kaxeTi misi `vazdaburuli samSobloa~, sadac bunebis ulamazes xatebTan erTad poeti aRiqvams `vazfurclis niavqarobas~ (`kaxeTi~); gansakuTrebiT ki `mSuqari vazis yvavili~ aniWebs simSvides (`maisuri~); g. leoniZisTvis q. goris erT-erT silamazesa da Rirsebas isic warmoadgens, rom moCuqurTmebul aivnebze `xeivnebadaa vazi gasuli~ (`gori qarTlis meTauri~); Tbilisi ki misi Rvinis Wiqaa da marjnis varskvlavTa jami:
`Tbilisi – Cemi Rvinis Wiqaa, muxambazebiT, atmiT, majamiT... xmeleTis guli siTbo Siga maqvs... Tbilisi – marjnis varskvlavTa jami!~ (`me Sens siyvaruls zRvad avidevneb~)

vazi – sicocxlis xe

saqarTvelo mtevania, romelic `swoves, gawures, ver amoswures~, asCafianSi maWris duRilia; poetic swored maWris SxefebiT upirebs sikvdils akuwvas. mxolod leoniZis poeturi fantazia Tu daitevda am didebul mxatvrul saxes – vaJkacur brZolas sikvdilTan xmlis magivrad `maWris SxefebiT~ (`warwera winandlis maranze~); TviT bunebac ki – ivris Rame da misi fSatebis naJuri – g. leoniZis leqsebSi maWariviT Cqefs (`ivris Rame~); misi poeturi fantazia iqamde midis, rom mTvare Ramis Tamadad warmoudgeba, romelic `siyvarulis tbors~, asmevs da asmevs (`mTvare – Ramis Tamada~).

134 4

135 patriotuli leqsebidan, sadac venaxis mxatvruli saxe figurirebs, gansakuTrebiT aRsaniSnavia `mesxi var!~ mesxeTis siZlieres poeti mtris ZlevaSi, kldeSi nakveT taZrebSi, venaxsa da siyvarulis grZnobaSi xedavs:
`mesxma davasxi venaxi, kldeebSi vkveTe taZari, wigni davwere vefxvisa Sig siyvaruli davZari~. (`mesxi var~)
Tamar SarabiZe

XX saukune

venaxi da taZari ganuyofelia erTmaneTisgan; mtrebis Semosevebma, marTalia, bevri daaklo mesxeTs, magram winaparTa xsovnad mainc rCeba kldeSi nakveTi taZari da `xeze gamosuli mtevani~. am leqsSi venaxi rwmenisa da saxelmwifo siZlieris mniSvnelobas iZens da poetic imedad axal rTvels moelis. leoniZis erT patara leqsSi `vazis rto~ ise aris aRwerili vazisa da qristianuli saidumlos – ziarebis – ganuyofloba, rom mkiTxvels, leqsis simsubuqisa da haerovnebis gamo, SeiZleba arc ki daebados es azri da trapezs Semoxveuli akidos udidesi simboluri – rwmenis sazrdos – mniSvneloba ucabedad vazis `ugunuri~ (gulubryvilo) rtos simTvrales gadaabralos:
`Zvel taZarSi sarkmlidan Caparula vazis rto, trapezs Semoxvevia qarvisferi akido. amosvla rom moundes, ukan viRam azidos? ei, hei, mTvralia, ugunuri vazis rto!~ (`vazis rto~)

leoniZis es poeturi xati da qarTuli monumenturi skulpturis saocari gamosaxulebani – jvars Semoxveuli vazi da mtevnebi – erTi da igive, winaparTa qristianuli msoflmxedvelobidan iRebs saTaves. vazi da venaxi leoniZisaTvis ara marto samSoblosa da misi rwmenis mxatvruli saxea, aramed poeturi sityvis mSobelicaa. leoniZe efereba, esiyvaruleba, Tavze evleba samSoblos, mis gulisZgeras da SesTxovs:
`vazdaburulo, gazafxuluro, sikvdilisaTvis gzadaxurulo, gTxov, erTi sityva mec damanebo...~

misi sityva unda krTodes ukuneTSi, elvarebdes qarTlis maxvilSi, radganac is ubralo sityva ki ara, samSoblos madliani nayofi iqneba:
`mec vazis rqa var xom narTvlevari! leqsebze RameganaTevari!~

– amayad acxadebs poeti. marTlac, roca mis sityvas Zala eZleva, `gadawvenili vaziviT~ iSleba (`utruxune~). poeturi procesic ki vazTan poulobs Se-

darebas! misi leqsi ki vazs eZRvneba, rogorc bunebisa da adamianis sulieri samyaros saxes – Tavis wigns poeti, `gulis JrJoliT~ nawers, Cits atans, raTa vazis rqas Semoaxvios (`Cito, waiRe es wigni!~). poetisaTvis qarTuli sityva misi `moieriSe droSa, venaxi da taZaria~ (`qarTulo sityvav!~). poeti vazsa da Rvinos iyenebs satrfos mxatvruli saxis gamoxatvis drosac. satrfo winandlis ayvavebuli vazia – `winandalis vazi ayvavebuli, Camosxmuli oqroTi da TafliTa~ (`ninowmindis Rame~); `misi tuCebi ise tkbilia, rogorc badagi daduRebisas~ (`yivCaRis paemani~); poets udides silamazed miaCnia savseoba, rogorc adidebuli mdinaris, damwifebuli yanis, aseve venaxisa da qalis (`siWabuke da leqsi erTia~); igi venaxSi elodeba paemanze satrfos (`sulamiT~); sadRegrZelos ki misi `tuCis Zowis WiqiT~ svams (`Carirama~). poeti venaxis xats aseve iyenebs maradaxalgazrda qarTveli qalisa da dedis – Tamardedis (qarTveli qalis Zveli saxelia) – Sesamkobad, romelic qarTvelebs umravlebs qveyanas:
`umzeo da unazeso Tavze gadga naTlis Suqi. Sen xom savse venaxi xar, dasxmul mtevnis siWabukiT~.

dabolos, xanSiSesuli poeti sakuTar Tavsac venaxs uwodebs, radgan cxovrebaSi bevri tanjva gamoiara, bevri setyva, qari, cremli, bzari da venaxiviT yvelafers gauZlo:
`daberebulxar, hei, venaxo, daberebulxar, vai, bulbulo!~ (`me erTi Zveli saxli miyurebs~)

– eubneba sakuTar Tavs. sxva leqsSi siberis gamosaxatavad kvlav venaxs moiSveliebs da Tavis SemarTebas axali Rvinis dawurviT gamoxatavs:
`mimWknobia Cemi yrmobis venaxi, magram sawnaxels mainc vaSeneb... kidev davwurav Zveli silaRiT, axal rqawiTels SemovaSveleb~. (`rogor daetyo avi amindi~)
vazi – sicocxlis xe

amouwuravia Rvinisa da vazis Tema giorgi leoniZis SemoqmedebaSi. arc Cven vapirebT mis bolomde Sesmas, giorgi leoniZis nebismieri krebuli aTasjer ukeTesad imetyvelebs am sakiTxze.

136 6

137

la do asa Ti a ni
– `aba, ra unda davweroT me da Sen axali,~ – uTxra erTxel lado asaTianma poet giorgi nafetvariZes, – `jer araferi gvinaxavs – gvian davibadeT, cixe-katorRa, brZola, omebi, revolucia, yvelaferi ganvlili da momxdari dagvxvda. jerjerobiT SemogvrCa es bavSvobis STabeWdilebebi da wignebidan amokiTxuli, yvelasaTvis nacnobi, aTasjer Tqmuli istoriuli ambebi... mimbaZvelobas pirvel xanebSi geniosic ver ascdeba... axali azris gamkafveloba CvenTvis adrea, saamisod ar gveyofa jer arc codna, arc niWi.~ SemoqmedebiTi davaJkaceba marTlac rom ver moaswro lado asaTianma, ise adre wavida am qveynidan. daamTavra cageris skola; Semdeg 1938 w. quTaisis pedagogiuri instituti; TbilisSi cxovreba, razedac ocnebobda, Zlivs moaswro (1938-1942 ww.) da 1942 wels WleqiT gardaicvala. sul 5-6 weli hqonda SemoqmedebiTi CamoyalibebisaTvis; ar dascalda mTlianad gamoeyenebina poeturi wva, Tu gnebavT, energia; magram, rac Seqmna, mudam darCeba, ara rogorc axleburi naazrevi, aramed individualurad, `asaTianurad~ naTqvami Zveli da am Zvel naTqvamze Seqmnili axali (`lado asaTianis cnobil leqss – `salaRobos~ `asaTianuri~ Searqva alioSa sajaiam). alioSa sajaiasadmi erT-erT leqsad miweril werilSi (lados uyvarda werilebis leqsad wera) vkiTxulobT:
`orbelians, WavWavaZes, baraTaSvils Cven ver davTmobT, did rusTavels, did akakis... poeziis ukvdav mnaTobT, Cven gavyvebiT, Cvens gayolas RmerTma xeli moumarTos, gaumarjos saqarTvelos, gaumarjos, gaumarjos!.. Cven gavyvebiT wminda gza-kvals da am kvalze SevqmniT axals~. (`alioSa sajaias~, 1939 w. 4 agvisto, Tbilisi)

Tamar SarabiZe

XX saukune

lado asaTiani marTlac miuyveba winapar poetTa gza-kvals, maT arCeul Tematikas, patriotul SemarTebas da TviT Rvinisadmi damokidebulebaSic erovnul da nawilobriv bohemur mimarTebas amJRavnebs. leqsebSi, sadac samSoblo qveynis buneba warmoCndeba, lado asaTianis ulamazesi `asaTianuri~ eniT daxatuli, iq aucileblad qarTuli vazi da Rvinocaa CarTuli.
`...mTebo, mTebo, ruxo mTebo, nislebis Tavsafrianno, zvaro, zvaro jiSiano, ojaleSis jiSis zvaro, zvaro mtevnebgiSriano, glexi kacis sanukvaro; fiWvis tyeo, fiWvis tyeo, nislebi rom itvirTeo...~ da a. S. (`Cemi qveynis oqroyana~).

lado asaTianisaTvis samSoblo `tkbilia, rogorc dedis rZiT balRi tuCebSeuSrobeli~. am sityvebiT udidesi, SeiZleba iTqvas, nebismieri adamianisaTvis yvelaze amaRelvebeli, cxovelsac rom daimorCilebs, iseTi grZnoba gamoxata poetma – Cvili bavSvisTvis dedis ZuZus sitkbo – mas Seadara samSoblos siyvaruli da ara mxolod mas. poeti iseT suraTebs qmnis, romelTa gaxsenebamac aseTive Zlieri grZnobebi unda gamoiwvios qarTveli kacis gulSi:

`tkbilia, rogorc surneli axlad moxdili Rvinisa~; tkbilia, rogorc simRera da SeZaxili Tamadis: – Cemi samSoblo, zurmuxtis da margalitis sadari, amrigad ayvavebuli, mxare meore sad ari?~ `saamo aris, viT rTveli, mwife mtevnebis naJuri~; `tkbilia, rogorc mtevani, vazze asxmuli Savada~. (`Cemi samSoblo~)

vazze Savad asxmuli yurZnis da axlad moxdili Rvinis surnelisadmi gulgrili arasdros yofila qarTveli kaci. es SeumCneveli ar darCenia Zvel, tradiciul ojaxSi gazrdil lados; im ojaxSi, sadac babuas yovelTvis edga `sveli xelada~ buxarTan:
`is, misi dRe da wuTisofeli, roca swyuroda, sul Rvinos svamda, idga buxarTan xelada sveli da uRviZebda babuas madas~. (`babuaCemi~)

Tavadac yovelTvis siyvaruls da, SeiZleba iTqvas, mowiwebasac grZnobs Rvinisadmi, radgan es sasmeli misTvis mxolod dardebis Semamsubuqebeli ki ar aris (rogorc umravlesobisTvis), aramed, rac poetisaTvis yvelaze mTavaria, poeturi procesis xelis Semwyobi, warmmarTveli, ganmsazRvreli:
`leqsis saTqmelad rom vemzadebi, var ojaleSiT guldasisxluli~. (`me miyvars, roca yanaSi gaxval...~)

`guldasisxluli~ mTvrals ar niSnavs, is ufro moxiblulsa da Seyvarebuls Seesabameba. samSobloze Seyvarebulsa da am siyvaruliT mTvral poets manamde klavs da ar asvenebs grZnoba, sanam leqsad ar amoTqvams:
`samSoblos trfobiT guli davsere, maTrobda, rogorc Rvino yvaruli da vidre leqsad ar gadavwere, manamde mklavda es siyvaruli~. (`vaJa-fSavelas naambobi~)
vazi – sicocxlis xe

swored samSoblos siyvarulma da sxva araferma Seqmna lado asaTianis yvela leqsi, poeti ki Tamadad daudga maT da gaaxmovana:
`samSoblosadmi locvebi am cisfer wignSi Cavwere. Tavad davudeq Tamadad gardasul xmaTa Rreobas, waikiTxe da papaTa dagibrundeba mxneoba!~ (`warwera wignze~)

poeturi sityvis mSobeli, qarTul RvinosTan da TamadobasTan wilnayari samSoblos siyvaruli lados bavSvobidan Caenerga. aki TviTonac ambobs,

138 8

139 poeturi sityvisTvis mxolod bavSvobis STabeWdilebebi SemogvrCao. STabeWdilebebs lados mSobliuri soflisken – bardnalasaken – mivyavarT:
`ra kargi iyo bardnala, bardnalelebis borani... maxsovs, maWriT rom gavbruvdiT da Zlivs rom mivabijebdiT, saxlSi rom veRar davbrundiT, misgan damTvrali biWebi? maxsovs, Rvinian Semodegs aivanze rom Semovdeq?~ (`bardnala~)
Tamar SarabiZe

XX saukune

...cageris bazrobaze leCxumeli ojaleSs yidis; misi Tavgamodebuli Zaxili – `erTi xelada, marto erTi xelada darCa~, – mTel bazars acocxlebs; iqaurobas vardisfrad anaTebs `wvril-wvril WiqebSi saWaSnikod Casxmuli Rvino.~ `cageris bazroba~ poetisTvis ukve mogonebad darCenili warsulia `leCxumuri Semodgomis suraTebTan~ erTad. soflis Seulamazebeli peizaJi ixateba Cvens Tvalwin: orRobeebSi urmis Wriali, ZaRlis gabmuli yefa; nacnob-mezoblebis erToblivad simindis rCeva da uzarmazari sawnaxlis qSena, romlis xmac `venaxSi anTebul atmebs esmiT~. venaxis atami yvelaze gemrielia da gamoirCeva sxva atmebs Soris. atami TavisiT amodis venaxSi da mis peizaJs Tavisebur silamazesa da simyudroves aniWebs. es simyudrove Tu poeturi sanaxaoba, ra Tqma unda, SeuniSnavs lados poetur Tvals da poeziaSi dauTmia misTvis adgili:
`esmiT venaxSi anTebul atmebs uzarmazari sawnaxlis qSena~. (`leCxumuri Semodgomis suraTebi~)

bavSvobis mogonebebs miekuTvneba lado asaTianis leqsi `sarwyuli~ da SeiZleba iTqvas, rom qarTul poeziaSi sxvasTan ver SexvdebiT sasmisis aseT poetur warmosaxvas, mis aseT gaadamianurebas da misdami amdeni siTbos gamoxatvas:
`Tavaweuli, zviadi, gana Cia da sawyluri? TvalnaTliv maxsovs Cvens saxlSi erTi cisferi sarwyuli. garSemo laJvardisferi sinaTlis mimomfinveli, ijda patara sufraze ise, viT lurji frinveli~. (`sarwyuli~)

sasmisi Cvens Tvalwin ocnebis lurj frinvelad iqceva. misgan sufraze ukvdavebis wyali gadmodis, zRaprul wyaroTa dgafuni ismis. cocxalia sarwyuli! Tumca mamapapuria, magram misi `ampartavnoba~ da `yurWreloba~ mis axlandel droSi moqnilobazec migviTiTebs. swored misma `silurjem~ ganapiroba patara lados poetad qceva, misma `silurjem~ STabera leqsis pwkarebs sicocxle da mere, roca cxovrebam Tavisi qna da poetic gaTela, rogorc yvela, sarwyuli mainc bavSvobis cisfer ocnebad darCa:

`kvlav Sen gnatrulob, rom mkerdze sicocxlis wyaro masxuro, bavSvobasaviT cisfero, mamapapuro sarwyulo!~ (`sarwyuli~)

uaRresad saintereso, suraTobrivi da siuJetiani leqsia l. asaTianis `gulbaaT WavWavaZe~. poeti dawvrilebiT aRwers qarTvel TavadTa lxins, moTxrobasaviT Tvalwin gvidgeba erTmaneTze gadabmuli situaciebi: rTveli, yurZnis krefa, `lavaSiT daxuruli~ sefa, gulbaaT WavWavaZis Tamadad dasaxeleba, mis mier ulvaSis gadagrexa yurebze, wesisamebr lukmis gatexva, pirveli sadRegrZelo TasiT da azarfeSas frinveliviT ganavardeba sufraze; cecxlis mfrqveveli Rvinoebis umowyalod sma, yanwebis moqancva, qvevrebis dacla, sasmisebis msxvreva da sefis daqceva. da ai, swored maSin, qeifis bolos, gulbaaT WavWavaZis gadareva da ieriSis mitana wvril WinWilaze:
–`kaci vSobilvar, es cxovreba damilevia da gabmul smaSi WinWiliT ar damilevia~.

lado asaTiani saocari poeturi aRmafreniT aRwers, rogor daamarcxa patara, Wrelma WinWilam qvevrebis msmeli Tavadi da rogor axiTxiTda sufris bolos mTvrali baxusi;
`TiTqos ityoda: `maspinZelo, es ra kacia, qvevrebsa nTqavda da WinWilam viT waaqcia!~

140 0

iSviaTia aseTi mZafri aRqma qarTuli sufris, Tundac gadaWarbebuli sma-Wamis, Tavaduri molxenis; yvela sasmisis Taviseburebis SemCneva da dafaseba; dabolos, baxusis Zalis Cveneba, kameCiviT msmelsac rom daagdebs. lado asaTians qarTuli sufris yvelaferi moswons iseve, rogorc vaJas elamazeba bunebis avica da kargic. lado asaTiani qarTuli sufris esTetizacias axdens. `gulbaaT WavWavaZes~ agebulebiT, siuJeturi TxrobiTa da agreTve qarTuli yofis esTetizaciiT Zalze waagavs leqsi `nadirobis Semdeg.~ aq nadirobis, romelic TavisTavad barbarosuli faqtia, da qarTvel TavadTa bohemuri Seqcevis ambavia moTxrobili. uTvalavi nadiri daxoces Tavadebma `da mere, roca dRe-Rame gaiyara, Ramis gasaTevi SemoxvdaT adgili.~ sasmuri levan dadianma aswia da daloca kurTxeuli adgili – `gaisad umetesi mogveklas nadirio.~ Tavadebis aRmoxdenilma xmam quxiliviT gadaiara tyeze; amayobdnen daxocili nadiriTa da SeubraleblobiT, xarxarebdnen, yayanebdnen da Rvinos asxamdnen sasaklaoze dawyobil cxovelTa sisxlian Tavebs. tye aRar Srialebda, sibnelis samsaliT damTvraliyvnen da daosebuliyvnen xeebi. mxolod TeTrCabalaxiani da TeTrnabdiani levan dadiani zeimobda nadirobas. gvxiblavs lado asaTianis esTetizebuli Txroba, gulSi eWvi gRrRnis – Seaqo Tu dagmo vaJkacuri bunebis, amay da lamaz TavadTa saqcieli?! leqsis mizanic es unda iyos, orive grZnobis erTdroulad gaCena (`nadirobis Semdeg~). lado asaTianis Semoqmedebaze saubrisas gverds ver avuvliT mis `salaRobos~, dardimandTa vaJkacobis, Zveli Tbilisis, firosmanis da saiaTnovas Temebs, romlebic erTmaneTzea gadajaWvuli da erT mTlian – `asaTianur~ – cikls qmnis:

vazi – sicocxlis xe

141
`daukariT Zveleburi loTiani, saiaTnova rom mReroda SaiTanTan, daukariT! gana yvela loTi ari?! gana yvela siyvaruliT daiSanTa?! daukariT Zveleburi loTiani, Torem dardi RrubeliviT gasivdeba, gafrindeba siymawvile SfoTiani, wrfeli guli, cxeli guli gacivdeba!~ (`salaRobo~)
Tamar SarabiZe

XX saukune

kiTxulob an zepirad warmoTqvam am sityvebs da vaJkacuri Jruanteli givlis, amdeni siwrfele arasdros moxvedria guls, grZnoba mTeli Tavisi sigrZe-siganiT Zveli aSuRiviT gahyviris (`salaRobo~). am siwrfelis gamo uyvars poets saiaTnovaca da firosmanic da yvela loTic, vinc Tbilisis cas, havas, rusTavels, orbelianis muxambazs, qarTul Congursa da qarTul salamurs etrfialeba:
`me vetrfi metad rusTvelis saxels, viT saqarTvelos sindiss da namuss, yvela Rvinis msmels da yvela kaxels, am Cem patara ZvelTaZvel mamuls, qarTul Congurs da qarTul salamurs, Tbilisis cas da Tbilisis havas, niko firosmans da saaTnavas!~ (`a. v.~)

etrfis firosmanis daxatul sufras – patarZlis dakrefil qorfa mwvanilsa da SuSa kitrs, xuWuWTmian kravsa da kaxuri RviniT savse tikWoras, qveynis WoriviT gasiebuls (`firosmanis duqani~); mzad aris – ugzo-ukvlod svas firosmanis sadRegrZelo, sardafSi mamapapurad purze daawveTos Rvino da Tqvas: `RmerTma acxonos nikalai~ (`1938 wlis 14 ivlisi~). lado asaTianma xelaxla Seqmna firosmani, Tavis poetur sityvaSi daxata. ar meguleba qarTveli, zepirad rom ar icodes misi sityvebi:
`me firosmanis quCaze vcxovrob da yovel diliT vxvdebi nikalas. Zilgatexili da areuli Wiqa arayiT gaixsnis madas, mere SekrTeba, viT mTvareuli da orTaWalis lamazebs xatavs~. (`ar vici, ase ram Semayvara~)

firosmanisgan STagonebul lado asaTians aRar sZuls loTebi – sulac ar ewyineba lamazi qalis qmars, loTs Tu Searqmeven:
`amisi qmari RvinoSi mokvda, – ase ityvian Senze loTebi, da Senc aseTi nazi da koxta axal siyvaruls daelodebi~. (`amisi qmari sardafSi mokvda...~)

samagierod, sardafSi mkvdars, gaixseneben, rogorc nikalas da mis Tbil samares daabijeben. gvxiblavs lado asaTianis mier Seqebuli qalaquri, dardimanduli lxini, magram vfiqrobT, rom Tavad lado asaTiani upiratesobas kaxelebis soflur nadims aniWebs. kaxur lxinSi TiTqos erTmaneTTanaa Serwymuli mTis idiliaca da mziuri velis wes-Cveulebebic. saqarTvelos sul sxva kuTxeSi – leCxumSi – mdebare Tavisi sofelic swored kaxelebis lxinSi axsendeba poets, sZlevs kuTxur `Cemi ukeTesias~ princips da siamayiT, vaJkacurad aRiarebs kaxelebTan lxinis upiratesobas:
`Cems gvars, uSiSars da imedians, ar mohklebia yurZnis nawuri, magram es raRac ufro metia, ufro sofluri da vaJkacuri~. (`lxini kaxelebTan~)

am leqsSic, iseve rogorc akakisTan, igive azria gamoTqmuli, rom yurZnis wveni avaJkacebs adamians. rogorc grigol orbeliani `sadRegrZeloSi~ qmnis Tamaris droSis qveS gaerTianebuli saqarTvelos suraTs, es mTlianoba lado asaTians kaxur sufraze gadmoaqvs, sadac leCxumeli (lado asaTiani igulisxmeba) brge xevsuri, megreli da vejineli (sofelia kaxeTSi) erTmaneTs xasiaTs uwyoben da mkvidr Zmebad eficebian. TiToeuli maTganis mier warmoTqmul sadRegrZeloSi ki maTi kuTxis xasiaTi ixateba (`lxini kaxeTSi da sadRegrZeloebi~ gv. 83). lado asaTiani imdenad STagonebulia vazisa da Rvinis kultiT, rom sakmaod grZeli odac ki miuZRvna venaxs, sakuTriv venaxs da omaxianad SesZaxa, sworedac rom SesZaxa, aq sxva sityvas ver vixmarT:
`vazebo, Tavi daxareT, mgosani Tqvenze mRerisa, kacis gunebas axarebT, mtevnebi rqawiTelisa~. (`oda venaxs~)

poemaSi `kolxida~ lado asaTiani yvela xilisgan gamoyofs yurZens da mas saqarTvelos mTeli istoriis, dausrulebeli tanjva-wamebisagan daRvrili cremlis nayofad miiCnevs:
vazi – sicocxlis xe

`cremlma daxeTqa kolxidis miwa da daiara cremlma tevrebi, cremlma qveyanas nayofi misca da cremli Cadga yurZnis mtevnebSi~. (`kolxida~)

es udidesi pativi da vazis sxva xilTagan gamorCevaa! lado asaTiani suls udgams am mcenares da adamianad gardasaxavs. mis poetur fantaziaSi fexi audgamT vazebs da modian:
`modian mwife mtevniT vazebi, mamakaciviT fexadgmulebi iRrijebian, viT jambazebi...

142 2

143
da dionise loyebwiTeli, ulvaSiani da jiSiani – maT win miuZRvis, Tan moaqvs xeliT asi wlis vazi, foTolT SrialiT~. (`kolxida~)
Tamar SarabiZe

am Tavyrilobas Tavazianad egebeba grigol orbeliani da qebas uZRvnis vazsa da Rvinos. lado asaTiani ki didi rusTvelis ebans natrobs, rom `patiosan mkiTxvels~ imedi ar gaucruos da SesZlos, gadmosces kolxidis miwis am baraqiani xilis gemo (`kolxida~). dabolos, lado asaTianis pirovnebis ukeT warmosaCenad werili misi erTi leqsiT minda davasrulo. es leqsi TiTqos gviambobs, rogori yofila lado. arc dardimandi moqeife, arc Rvinis yanwebiT msmeli da momlxeni, arc artistizmis niRabs amofarebuli poeti. uyvarda SuaRamemde quTaisis `cisfer kafeSi~ – rionis piras – poetebTan erTad jdoma or litra Rvinoze an surnelovan Caize da mama-papaTa gmiruli ambebis gaxseneba. is iyo erTi wesieri kaci, ver itanda uzrdelur sityvas da uxams qcevas; wuxda, rom mis leqsebs cenzura amaxinjebda, ar mouxdia droisaTvis xarki, icxovra siRaribeSi, hqonda erTi ocneba:
`rusTavelis prospeqtze siaruli nu momiSalos RmerTma, viyo mudam ase mxiaruli, qarTveli poeti merqvas. puris natexi da erTi litra Rvino simdidred CamiTvaleT. Tu meti vinatro an es viTakilo, – ver vnaxo samoTxis mTvare... mxolod drodadro damaretianos qaSveTis Semoxedvam – rusTavelis prospeqtze xetiali nu momiSalos RmerTma!~

XX saukune

Ta na med ro ve ni
XX saukunis 50-ian wlebSi qarTul mwerlobaSi axali Taoba movida da moitana axali leqsi; axali, rogorc poeturi formiT, aseve Sinaarsobrivi TvalsazrisiT. am Taobis warmomadgenlebi arian: murman lebaniZe, muxran maWavariani, SoTa niSnianiZe, ana kalandaZe, arCil sulakauri, moris focxiSvili; cota mogvianebiT maT SeuerTdnen: oTar da Tamaz WilaZeebi, tariel Wanturia, vaxtang javaxaZe, jansuR Carkviani da sxvebi. ra iyo axali maT poeziaSi, risi Tqma surdaT? garda imisa, rom TiToeuli WeSmariti poeti yovelTvis axal sityvas ambobs, epoqac moqmedebs masze. 50-ianelebs epoqam ubiZga sazogadoebrivi movlenebidan sakuTari Tavisken gadmoetanaT mzera, sakuTar sulSi CasaRmraveblad moecalaT, raTa acdenodnen pirmoTneobas da iq epo-

vaT ufro Rirebuli. da ai, am gardatexaTa uSualo nayofi gaxlavT pirovnul xedvaSi moqceuli sazogadoebrivi da erovnuli Rirebulebebi, ara mxolod poeturi asociacia (simbolizmi), aramed tradiciuli poeziis Zirebze dayrdnobili realoba da aratradiciuli sityva, sityvaSi CaRrmaveba. es zogadi niSnebi, ra Tqma unda, vazisa da Rvinisadmi miZRvnil nawarmoebebSic mJRavndeba, Tumca es Tema imdenad tradiciulia, rom siaxle arc iyo mosalodneli. magram drois tendencia da individualuri poeturi xedva aqac gamoCnda. daviwyoT SoTa niSnianiZiT, poetiT, romlis SemoqmedebaSic `axalTa~ Soris yvelaze meti simZafriT gamoixata vazisa da Rvinis kulti.

So Ta niS ni a ni Ze
SoTa niSnianiZis pirovnul xedvaSi mTeli istoria moqceula, TiTqos mematiane atrialebs karusels, romelzedac erTad hkidia iranis lomica (Sah -abasi) da `gvirgvindaclili~, `pativayrili~ sionic da ismis wyevlad: `vinc mamulis venaxs moaclis Wigos – wyeulimc iyos!~ SoTa niSnianiZis poeziaSi wyevlad, ori sityviT gamoxatul, magram uaRresad mniSvnelovani sityviT, Semodis is didi siyvaruli, romlis gadmosacemad, vin icis, ramdeni sityva unda daxarjuliyo (`sikvdilis karuseli bavSvebisaTvis~). SoTa niSnianiZis poezias xSirad metaforuls uwodeben, anu metaforaa misi poeturi xelwera. samSoblosa da mSobliuris metafora ki vazia. sad vazi da sad qarTuli anbani?! magram Turme anbanic imas unda emsgavsos, rac yvelaze metad Zvirfasia:
`TiTs gaayolebs asoebs: vazis lerws, namgals, niamors, enas qarTulad aidgams da ityvis: ai, iao~. (`gogebaSvilis `deda ena~)

vazi – sicocxlis xe

poeturi gamomsaxvelobis amgvar magaliTebs araerT leqsSi vxvdebiT da yvelgan, sadac ki qarTul sulzea laparaki, vazi gvevlineba metaforad, Sedarebad Tu hiperbolad. is gaSlilia rwmenaSic, anbanSic da simReraSic:
`vazia Cveni biblia da Cveni anbanic, qarTvelma kacma galobac ki vazs miamgvana. diax, vazia lxinis RmerTi, lxinis ufali, Wirnaxulis Tu Wirvaramis Wirisufali. `vazo, SviliviT nazardo...~ uTqvams winapars. mironi icxo vazis jvriT da gza gailampra~. (`natvra~)

144 4

`Cemo venaxeTo~ – ase efereba SoTa niSnianiZe Tavis samSoblos (`isriT dakawruli, sizmrad gadasuli~). misTvis saqarTvelos foliantebic ki `venaxdeba~ da saerTod, poets swams, rom saqarTvelo vaziT da freskiT icnoba,

145 freskiT, romelSiac kvlav vazia gamosaxuli (`cixe-taZarTa sagalobeli~). araCveulebrivi sityvebi dabada poeturma azrovnebam – `venaxeTi~ da `venaxdeba~. swored rom sityvas uRrmavdeba poeti: mis arsSi Sedis da iq eZiebs mis Zireul, Tu gindac – poetur – mniSvnelobas. `gixaroden~ CvenTvis bibliuri sityvaa da angelozis mier uflis xarebas niSnavs. am sityvis refrenze agebs poeti mTel leqss:
`gixarodes – fexi Seni bednierad daibweni... daebeda qarTul sityvas vazis fesvi, vazis wveni~. (`gixarodes~)
Tamar SarabiZe

XX saukune

poets imis Tqma surs, rom fexbednieri iqneba vazi qarTuli poeziisaTvis da mudam iarsebebs masSi, radgan ukve daebeda. `gixarodes~ Tanamedrove erovnul-patriotuli poeziis Cinebuli nimuSia. agebulebiT mas Zalze waagavs da qarTul sagalobels mogvagonebs SoTa niSnianiZis `Sen xar venaxi~. demetre I-is sagaloblisagan gansxvavebiT, venaxi leqsSi samSoblos xatia, is aerTianebs miTosursa da qristianuls, Zvelsa da axal rwmenas. venaxi zogadi simboloa samSoblosi. arsebobs `vazis venaxi~, `qvis venaxi~, `wignis venaxi~, `xmlis venaxi~, `sulidan, Zvlidan, xorcidan amoxeTqili venaxi~ – amdeni venaxia erT leqsSi, radgan Tavad samSoblo nawildeba vazSic, qvaSic, wignSic, xmalSic, Cvens Zval-xorcsa da sulSic erTianad. rogorc akakisTvis Conguri saqarTveloa da Cven misi simebi varT, SoTa niSnianiZisTvis venaxi saqarTveloa, Cven ki misi Wigoebi varT (`Sen xar venaxi~). S. niSnianiZis SemoqmedebaSi venaxs, samSoblos garda, sxva datvirTvac aqvs. poeti mas xan Tavis Taobas adarebs –`Taobav Cemo, msxmoiare oqros venaxo~ (`Zvelisa da ukanasknelis Sesaxeb~), xan Svilis xmas, venaxiviT rom exveva mamas (`Zlivs SemeCvie~), xanac poets, mze rom asxia mtevnebad da Semoqmedebis procesSi maradisobas rom uerTdeba (`Semoqmedeba~). SoTa niSnianiZe qmnis `vazis simfonias~, romelic namdvili himnia Tavisi emociuri ganwyobilebiT, amaRlebuli intonaciiT, patriotuli TematikiTa da agreTve daufaravi siamayis grZnobiT. es leqsi kidev erTxel mowmobs saukuneTa wiaRSi saqarTveloSi Casaxuli vazis kultis dRevandelobamde motanas. venaxi aerTianebs saqarTvelos sxvadasxva kuTxes:
`qarTl-kaxeTi legendaa, imereTi – zRapari, samegrelo ocnebaa – gafrenili fafari. guria ki simReraa, xolo raWa – sizmari, yvela erTad – venaxia Cveni dasaficari~. (`vazis simfonia~)

`mercxlis budesaviT Sekruli mtevani~ poetisaTvis bunebis RerZicaa, qalRmerTis ZuZuc da wyurvilis momkvleli `uflis peSvic~, e. i. aramxatvrulad rom vTqvaT, is rwmenaa – uflis sisxlTan ziareba. poetis uflisadmi vedreba ki isaa, rom amer-imeri vaziT gadaburos, `amomtevnos CuqurTma~ da `amofoTlos striqoni~, radgan vazi sicocxlea, is CuqurTmaSic aris, leqsSic da simReraSic:

`Semodgomis uRels mze xariviT ubia da qarTuli simRerac vazis tyupia~.

xaris simbolo warmarTuli azrovnebidan modis da adamianis saukeTeso sulier zraxvebs, samSoblos siyvarulsa da Tavdadebas ukavSirdeba. marTlac gmirebi weren `vazis poemas~ – `lega biWebi... naRdi kaxeli devebi... Salva, biZina, elizbar pirs naTelgadafenilni~, maTTan erTad arian mSromeli adamianebi, mevenaxeebi. Sroma da gmiroba erTadaa Serwymuli vazis simfoniaSi. poeti saqarTvelos amer-imers `RmerTebis did venaxsa~ da `vazis adgilis dedas~ uwodebs, locavs da usurvebs:
`iyav vaziviT ukvdavi, iyav vaziviT maradi, vaziviT dafesviandi, imsxmoiare, gamravldi!~ (`vazis simfonia~)

mtris Semosevis mxatvrul suraTsac ki SoTa niSnianiZe, mtris saxe-xatis gareSe, vazis akafviT gamoxatavs:
`qarTul venaxs, qarTul jvars, – qveynis oTxiv mxares, rogorc iatagani, sxeps Turquli mTvare~. (`Tevdore~)

samSoblosaTvis Sewirul Zes, Tevdores, ki poeti aCexil venaxs, waqceul saydarsa da Sewyvetil galobas adarebs. S. niSnianiZisaTvis Rvino devis sisxlia (ase eZaxian kaxeTSi), vaJkacobisa da gmirobis STamagonebeli. amitomac boRliwoTi (RvinoSi dalbobili puri) gazrdili bavSvi boRvera mgeli gamova, venaxis suls Caidgams da mters ar gaaxarebs.
`mag devis sisxlSi puri CafSveni, Cemo warsulo Se qvriv-oxero, – daizrdebian Cveni bavSvebi, rogorc algeTze mglebi boRvera: maTac CaudgeT suli venaxis da Tu mogixta sparsi an Turqi, – ver gaixaros – mterma ver naxos mag boRliwoTi gazrdilis zurgi~. (`qarTuli laSqris sadidebeli~)

vazi – sicocxlis xe

poetis dakvirvebuli Tvali Rvinis yvela Tvisebas amCnevs, mis naklsac da dadebiT mxaresac. marTalia, is ucecxlod duRdeba, magram yvelas rodi uduRebs tvins, Wkvians brZnad aqcevs, uWkuosTan ki duRs da gadmoduRs. mxiaruli maWris zne SfoTia, amitomac mas cetebi etanebian; roca mwardeba maWari, Rvindeba da brZendeba. namdvili Rvino anugeSebs bedkruls, bebers aymawvilebs, laCars avaJkacebs, Zunws guluxvs xdis, moSurnes droebiT mainc

6 146

147 (sufraze) imegobrebs. amitomac qarTveli kaci da Rvino erTmaneTisgan ganuyofelia. Rvinis arqona misi sircxvilia: qarTvelis buneba RvinosTan damokidebulebaSic mJRavndeba:
`ustumros, upurmarilos qvevrSi usxia qeZafi, qarTveli avadmyofobas uqeifobas eZaxis~. (`qarTuli laSqris sadidebeli~)
Tamar SarabiZe

XX saukune

vazi imdenad ganuyofelia qarTuli yofisagan, rom is saflavis qvazec ki gamosula, cixe-monastrebzec amosula da wamebuliviT atyorcnila TaRisken. wamebuli vazi – es sruliad axali saxea qarTul literaturaSi da samarTlianad dgeba ilias `oboli vazisa~ da vaJas `moxuci vazis~ gverdiT. SoTa niSnianiZe vazis siwmindis gamosaxatavad ufro Sorsac midis da mas yvelaze sanukvar saxels arqmevs, macxovrad saxavs:
`iyav kurTxeuli vazo macxovaro, amer-imeris ZuZus mawovaro. Seni simfonia lerweb krimanWula gafoTlila qarTul rokva-galobaSi, xeze gasulo da svetze mikanWulo, Sen ki genacvale gavla-gamovlaSi~. (`qarTuli laSqris sadidebeli~)

`vazi macxovari~ bibliidan momdinare arqetipuli saxea. is araerTxel gvxvdeba qarTuli qristianuli monumenturi skulpturis ZeglebSi. amaRlebul ganwyobas, romelsac vazisa da saqarTvelos ganuyofloba qmnis, poeti Sinaurul intonaciasac urevs da moferebiT mimarTavs Tavis qveyanas:
`sufra da stumari RvTiT dagewminda ra, – Caicv, saqarTvelov, venaxis wvrilTvala!..~ (`qarTuli laSqris sadidebeli~)

zogjer SoTa niSnianiZe mTeli leqsis azrs erT-or striqonSi atevs da mxatvruli azrovnebis SesaniSnav nimuSebs – poetur eskizebs – qmnis Rvinoze:
`zogjer sifxizle ufro brmaa, vidre sizmari~. (`qarTuli laSqris sadidebeli~) `samyaros warRvnas mxolod loTi noe gadurCa~. (`ubis wignakSi CaniSnuli~)

SoTa niSnianiZe xSirad mimarTavs miTossa da qarTuli zRapris personaJebs, gansakuTrebiT weliwadis droebisa da qarTuli sufris aRweris dros. Semodgoma Tavisi Zal-RoniT qarTveli bavSvebisaTvis kargad nacnob zRapris gmirs – amirans – emsgavseba, romelic devs yelamde svams miwaSi, oRond amiranisagan gansxvavebiT, SoTa niSnianiZis Semodgoma ezo-ezo, kardakar siaruliT mTvralia:

`fexqveS gaTela Semodgomam xeWeWurebi, Camoiara ezo-ezo savse xeladiT, amiraniviT moiqnia es brge Wurebi, moiqnia da devebiviT dafla yelamdi~. (`Semodgoma~)

giorgobis Tves galeSili daiareba qarTuli zRapris aranakleb cnobili gmiri oCokoCic:
`giorgobis TveSi, nunua wvims CvenSi, galeSili oCokoCi daCindrikobs tyeSi, garbian da gamorbian gzebi alTa-balTas da Rlabucobs oCokoCi oqrosTmian alTan~. (`imereTi... giorgobisTve~)

marnebis mteri gamxdara oCopintre.
–`oCopintrev! oCopintrev! haita Se eSmakis naWlikaro, baxusi rom Camoivlis, marnebSi ras dajirgalob~.

–ase SemouZaxebs mas poeti, TiTqos misi axlobeli an mezobeli iyos. patiosan da mamac winaprebs `venaxis mindiebi~ Searqva SoTa niSnianiZem (mindia vaJa-fSavelas poemis `gvelismWamelis~ gmiria. man icis mcenareTa ena), kaxeTs ki `devis marani~ (`kaxeTs – vazis gvirgvinosans~). S. niSnianiZe bibliur warmodgenas xalxur sityvierebas uxamebs da sruliad axal zRaprul-poetur suraTs qmnis, romelic imdenad Sordeba realurs, rogorc zRapari sinamdviles:
`iqneb mze Camogorda babilonis godlidan. Camoimsxvra daxlebze da Rvinod gadmodinda? anda devma sazamTro daagora zRapridan da kldis Ziras miafSvna mtkvris elvare napirTan?~ (`qarTuli bazari~)

vazi – sicocxlis xe

– es zRapari ar gegonoT, qarTuli bazris aRweraa, romelsac kidev ufro zRapruli suraTi agvirgvinebs: RrublebSi xevsurma warmarTuli RvTaeba dalanda, romelsac xelSi jixvis yanwi eWira, xorxocebda da zemodan uCinrad gadmohyurebda `vazis qalaqs, mzis qalaqs~, Zirs ki duRda da qoTqoTebda babilonis godoli. qarTuli bazari Tavisi siuxviT, areulobiT, enaTa siWreliTa da qoTqoTiT marTla rom babilonis godols waagavs! miTosi kvlav erwymis bibliur saxeebs da ai, leqsSi `qarTuli zRapari~ `viRaca qali bJolas sxepda da vazs umagrebda Wigos~. poets is glexis qali egona da `Turme RvTismSobeli iyo~. ai, namdvili moulodneloba, rasac mxolod leqsSi Tu Sexvdebi! es moulodneloba mSvenieria, esTetizirebulia, radgan RvTismSobeli swored vazs umagrebs Wigos; im Wigos, romlis amomgdebic sxva leqsSi dawyevla poetma. miTologiur masalazea Seqmnili leqsic `lxini kaxelebTan~:
`SarSan mTeli zafxuli mSvild-isriT da kaparWiT zRaparSi gavatare, sul zRaparSi, zRaparSi~. (`lxini kaxelebTan~)

8 148

149 kaxelebis lxins poeti uwodebs warmarTul Rreobas, sadac, rogorc zRaparSi, 9 ricxvi figurirebs:
`ver damaTrobs cxra biWi, cxra xelada, cxra kvarti, roca Winkac xiTxiTiT WinWilaze dayuncda, –Sen dauka, dauka! – damaWides baxusTan. mgoni, Tavi momeWra, – bevri Sevsvi kaxuri, Cems CurCut siberes, sizmrad rom myavs naxuli, erTi ociode wliT amovkari panRuri~. (`lxini kaxelebTan~)
Tamar SarabiZe

XX saukune

lxinSi adamians Rvino aTamamebs da Tavs axalgazrdad grZnobs. es grZnoba uaRresad poeturad da vackacurad – siberisadmi panRuris amokvriT – gamoxata SoTa niSnianiZem. miTosur masalaze Seqmnili leqsebisaTvis erTi niSanicaa damaxasiaTebeli – poeti araqarTuli miTologiis personaJebsac qarTul suls udgams, qarTul garemoSi, ise rogorc sakuTar saxlSi, gvixatavs maT da miTs agrZelebs:
`dionise – lxinis RmerTi (vinc gvexata maranze) kolxidaSi izrdeboda – RmerTebis agarakze. bavSvobaSi aq darboda cxeniswyalTan, rionTan maSin, roca Cvens quTaiss, quTaia hqvioda... ...aq mReroda Wuris Tavze yelmaRala doqebTan... da cekvavda horizonti am ritmebiT gazrdili, cekvavda da kolxeTis tans exveoda vaziviT~. (`mkvidrno maradisobis...~)

leqsSi `elasa, melasa anu qarTuli lxini~ avtori cdilobs miTosur personaJTa fonze – amiranis, aqilevsis, baxusis, heqtoris, odisevsis da sxvaTa magaliTze qarTuli xasiaTi warmoaCinos, romelSic kargic aris da cudic. amiT poeti Tanamedrove sinamdvilis mtkivneul sakiTxsac wamoWris (T. paiWaZe – `gamorCeviT mqmneli~ poeti). kargia da misasalmebeli, rom qarTul sufraze yvela erTia, yvela didia, yvelas qeba guluxvad ismis, warmoCndeba qarTvelTa zrdiloba da talanti, magram cudia maTi bedovlaToba, erTmaneTis Wori da qiliki, mxolod simTvraleSi gamoCenili sikeTe, mgosnis mier meore mgosnis Cumad gayidva da a. S. rogorc vxedavT, kritika da qarTuli sufris poeturad aRqmuli silamaze leqsSi erTmaneTTanaa Sexamebuli da sizmris simbolikazea dafuZnebuli. am da sxva leqsebSic igrZnoba mSobliuri kuTxis bunebisa da siyvarulis mtkivneuli gancda:
`CuqurTmaSi vazi tiris qaragmulad~ (`sizmrad maqvs naxuli...~)

– ambobs poeti da Cvens Tvalwin erT striqonSi iSleba saocari tkivili da sevda samSobloze, romelic CuqurTmaSi qaragmulad Caxatuli vazis tiriliT gamoixateba da am sityvebiT Zalian bevri ram aris Tqmuli. es ar aris vazis lxeniT tirili, es tkiviliani tirilia da Tu gadavxedavT SoTa niSnia-

niZis – Cveni drois poetis – saqarTvelos, vnaxavT, rom marTlac bevri hqonia satirali. sixarulica da satkivaric, Zvelic da axalic, rwmenaca da samSobloc, Sromaca da gmirobac SoTa niSnianiZem vazs daukavSira da axal qarTul poeziaSi kidev ufro gaamyara am miTosuri da qristianuli mcenaris kulti.

mur man le ba ni Ze
SeuZlebelia yuradReba ar gavamaxviloT murman lebaniZis poeziaSi vazisa da Rvinis mxatvrul saxeebze; Tumca am poetis SemoqmedebaSi vazis kulti yvelaze naklebad Cans, magram ramdenime nimuSi misi gamorCevisa aqac SeiZleba moviZioT:
`var qadagi Cveni floris, jer saerTod, Semdgom oris – vetrfi yurZnis xes da nigozs mraval mwvanilovanT Soris~.

es siyvaruli qarTveli kacis, qarTuli bunebis gamoZaxilia. imitomac etrfis murman lebaniZe vazs, rom is samSoblos ganuyofeli nawilia, rogorc qarTveli xalxi da saqarTvelos buneba. poetis ocnebac Tavisi eris simravlesTan erTad saqarTvelos miwis msoflio venaxad gadaSlis hiperbolur saxeSi gamoixateba:
`mindoda qarTveli Tormeti milioni, sul aTi-Tormeti mindoda menaxa – aragvis siaragve, rionis sirione da miwa gaSlili msoflio venaxad~.

erovnuli tkivilis saocari simZafriT gadmocema, rac damaxasiaTebelia murman lebaniZis poeziisTvis, am Temaze Seqmnil zogierT leqsSi mxatvruli aRqmis maqsimalizmsac aRwevs: murman lebaniZis lirikuli gmiri, Tavisi eris warsuliT amayi, awmyoSi gulgatexili da nerviuli toniT mosaubrea; leqss lamaz safarvels, amaRlebul ganwyobas acilebs, raTa ukeT da bolomde gamoxatos Tavisi saTqmeli – Tanamedroveobis tkivili – winaparTagan mowyveta:
vazi – sicocxlis xe

`venaxSi ori saflavi gqonda, erTi alvis xec ver gauxare!~ `risi alvis xe? arc ici iqneb, oci welia, venaxic gaxma!~ `ki, adgilzea saflavi ori, magram venaxSi venaxi ar Cans...~ (`isev fiqrebi~)

venaxdakarguli drois Svili mxolod ocnebaSi xedavs vazis saxes da winapris sulis Sesandobars nayidi RviniT svams. am faqtis dafiqsireba – sakuTari garjiT moyvanilisa da dawurulis magivrad nayidi Rvino – TavisTavad

150 0

151 mis uaryofiT mxareze migvaniSnebs. venaxis gaxmoba samSoblos simbolur dakargvasTan erTad murman lebaniZisTvis erovnebis realurad dakargvas niSnavs:
`momelandeba qalaqSi vazi, xapi da xapTan yurZeni xviriT – argasacvleli samSoblo sxvaze – da suls vuxseneb nayidi RviniT~. (`isev fiqrebi~)
Tamar SarabiZe

XX saukune

poeti Seulamazebeli sityvebiT gadmoscems epoqis tkivils, rasac ver ascda misi lirikuli gmiri, magram am Seulamazebel tkivilSi silamazesac aqsovs. es silamaze venaxSi gaTxril saflavebSia, romlebzedac `TiTo vazi waxrila oblad...~ venaxi sulierebis, samoTxis baRis saxes iRebs. masSia yvelaze sanukvari, poetisaTvis yvelaze sayvareli ori arsebis saflavi. saflavidan ki sveticxovlis sicocxlis xis msgavsad vazia amosuli. poeti mijaWvulia rogorc saflavTan, agreTve saflavidan amosul vazTan, iq Tavisi pirmSoc mihyavs, raTa masac gadasces Tavisi grZnobebi. winapari da venaxi ukavSirdeba samSoblos (winaparTa gansasvenebels) da sulierebis baRs (Tumca gamxmars, magram mainc venaxs). sxva leqsebSi venaxebis Semcirebis gamo wuxilicaa gamoxatuli; kerZod is faqti, rom raWaSi Zneladmosavleli yurZnis jiSebis nacvlad sxvagan nayid yurZens wuraven (`da usindisod sxvis yurZens vwuravT~). poetis azriT, es upatiebeli codvaa:
`sircxvili – CvengniT argasamxeli! sircxvili – Cveni damamxobeli! aRarc venaxi! aRarc namyeni! aRarc mynobeli! aRarc sofeli!~

winaparTa danatovars gafrTxileba sWirdeba. qarTveli `bare ormoc saukunes~ agugunebda `mravalJamiers~ (sufrul simReras), `lileos~ (svanebis gmirul himns), agebda `dakbilul~ cixeebs. swored man Seqmna:
`sveticxoveli da – saocari! kacs rom gelandeba ZilSi! erTi `vefxistyaosani~ da xuTasi vazis jiSi!~

vazis jiSebi sveticxovelTan da `vefxistyaosanTan~ erTad poets erovnul saganZurSi Sehyavs da Tvlis, rom amis fass verafers dautovebda winapari. murman lebaniZisTvis uberebelia poezia, romlis mudmivi Temac `Rvino, duduki da qalebia~. am sam uZveles siamovnebas poeti `sam mravalJamiers~ uwodebs, romelic amave dros `maradaxalia~ da amaRlebuli. ise ar unda gavigoT, rom `Rvino, duduki da qalebi~ murman lebaniZisTvis dardimanduli lxinis trfials niSnavs. poets arasdros Seuqia aseTi lxini. Rvinis siyvaruli misTvis glexkacis Sromis dafasebiT gamoixateba, rac umTavresad rTvelisa da Semodgomis kaxeTis aRweraSi vlindeba. sxvaTagan gansxvavebiT, le-

baniZe rTvelis masiur suraTs rodi xatavs. mas mudam pirovneba ainteresebs; misi lirikuli gmiri gansxvavdeba zRaprul gmirTagan da adamianuri tkiviliT cxovrobs – beberi besos ojaxi rTvelisaTvis emzadeba. col-Svili lampriT xelSi Tavs adgas ojaxis mamas; didis ambiT, sinaziT, zar-zeimiT banen jafisagan gaZvalebul fexebs. beso xapSi dgeba, sress yurZens, uwiTldeba beberi fexebi. aq ar Cans amaRlebuli ganwyoba, rogoric rTvelis drosaa mosalodneli; arc gmiris SemarTeba da Sromis dafasebiT miRebuli sixaruli. piriqiT, beso mowyenili da dadardianebulia: `ver vargiyo venaxi welso!..~ miuxedavad araesTetizirebuli, realuri suraTis aRwerisa, poets qarTveli glexisTvis Zalian mniSvnelovani daskvna gamoaqvs (romelsac sakmaod damajerebels xdis leqsis ori kontrastuli nawili):
`leki – ise ar emzadeba namazisaTvis, frangi – ise ar emzadeba lamazisaTvis, arca – mavani da mavani vercxlis TvlisaTvis, rogorc – qarTveli glexi – rTvlisaTvis!!!~ (`rTveli~)

sxva leqsSi – `kaxeTi, Semodgoma~ – poeti qarTvel xalxs mezveresa da mexiles uwodebs, `sasxlavians~, vazis movliT `xelebkoJrians~, qarTul miwas – `savenaxes~ vazs – `qoCrians~ da Tavisi aRmatebuli grZnobebis dasaokeblad imasac ki natrobs, rom, netavi, sul ar exila es miwa da xalxi:
`cao varskvlaviano, vazo qoCriano, xalxo sasxlaviano, xelebkoJriano! ...xalxo mezverev, mexilev, miwav savenaxev, netav sul ar mexile, sul ar damenaxe!~ (`kaxeTi, Semodgoma~)
vazi – sicocxlis xe

murman lebaniZisTvis saqarTvelo is qveyanaa, sadac, Wiris dRea Tu lxinis, yvelgan ufulod gawvdian Rvinos; sadac yvela poeti – vaJa, ilia, akaki Tu galaktioni – umReris qarTul sufras:
`sadac Sexvedi, Rvinos gawvdian, dRea Wiris Tu lxinis; Tumnis gadaxdas Sen ar gacdian – guli madlobas yviris~. `oh, saqarTvelov, Carglis, yvarelis, WyviSis, sxvitoris tkbilis, W¡rime Seni puris, marilis, Sengan mowvdili Rvinis!~

2 152

153 murman lebaniZe Ramis Cumi da myudro peizaJis aRweraSic ki sruliad moulodnelad iyenebs xmauriani dResaswaulis atributebs – qvevrsa da Rvinos. am gansxvavebuli ampluiT isini pirvelad Cndebian qarTul poeziaSi da uaRresad originalur mxatvrul saxeebs qmnian:
`veeba qvevrebs abodebs ZilSi – Cu! Rvinoebi damxdaran avad!~
Tamar SarabiZe

dadebiTi emociis gamoxatvisa da moferebis mizniT sxvadasxva Temaze Seqmnil leqsebSi murman lebaniZe xSirad iyenebs qarTuli yurZnis jiSis Rvinoebs:
`tkbiliT savse tikWora xar, qvemo raWas wanwkara xar, ... mTis raWisTvis xvanWkara xar~

XX saukune

– mimarTavs poeti raWis patara sofel ximSos. zog leqsSi `daTvisisxla Sav Rvinos~ ixsenebs (`maxsovs~), zogan `aladasturis... Wigoze brWyals~ (`erTxel... suloris mxridan, zemoTiT...~) da a. S. miuxedavad imisa, rom Tavis poeziaSi murman lebaniZes Rvinis kulti ar Seuqmnia, poetma gverdi ver auara vazsa da Rvinos da maT pirovnul lirikaSic originaluri da gansakuTrebuli adgili mouZebna.

mux ran ma Wa va ri a ni
muxran maWavarianis leqsebs `xorkliani~ uwodes Cvens saliteraturo kritikaSi. am `xorklianobaSi~ upirveles yovlisa is vaJkacuri grZnoba igulisxmeba, romelic leqsis wakiTxvisTanave gulze xvdeba mkiTxvels da poetis TiTqmis yvela leqsSi SeigrZnoba. muxran maWavariani Rvinisa da vazis Tematikas specialurad ar uZRvnis leqsebs, magram es Tematika mis mTlian SemoqmedebaSia Serwymuli da swored rom `xorklianobiT~ gamoirCeva, radgan yurZnis gemo igrZnoba masSi (`yurZnis igrZnoba haerSi gemo...~ (`dgas~)). muxran maWavarianis Semoqmedebis mTavari Tema patriotizmia. saqarTvelos kuTxeebSi sxvadasxva Rirsebas xedavs poeti, romliTac mTel saqarTvelos gamoarCevs msoflios sxva qveynebisagan. kaxeTis Rirseba ki misi Rvinoa:
`rac ki zaria Semokruli dRemde alaverds, – madli im zarTa Sesweodes mezvre manavelT, mezvre CumlayelT, mezvre SildelT, mezvre axmetelT! me vinaidan RvinoebSi kaxurs vaRmerTeb~. (`madli im zarTa~)

manavi, Cumlayi, Silda, axmeta kaxeTis soflebia. TiToeul maTganSi saucxoo Rvino ician. Tu RvinoebSi poets saukeTesod kaxuri miaCnia, duniaze (mTel qveynierebaSi) mxolod mamuls aRmerTebs. sxva leqsebSic, sadac qarTvelisaTvis saamayo saxelebs (sul erTia – adamianTa Tu geografiuls) CamoTvlis poeti, aucileblad ixsenebs kaxur Rvinosac:
`bzifo, enguro, alazano, mtkvaro, ioro, ager, axlaxan gardacvlilo galaktiono; qinZmaraulo, tibaano, Rvinov kaxuro; gamosrolilo xevsureTiT leqso xalxuro...~ (`anduyafaro, liparito...~)

muxran maWavarianisTvis poetur sityvas swored am saxelebiT esxmeba frTebi da mas veRaraferi SeaCerebs. saqarTvelos RirsebaTa CamoTvlisas poeti yuradRebas amaxvilebs Semdeg istoriul faqtebze: qarTvelma pirvelma moiSinaura veluri vazi, man sxvaze uwin Seqmna sacxovrisi saxli, gamoWeda rkina da qristeSobamde dawera wigni. amitomac muxran maWavariani akeTebs qarTvelisaTvis ueWvel, sxvaTaTvis SeiZleba paTetikur, daskvnas: sxva eri bavSvia mis samSoblosTan SedarebiT; qarTvelis sisxlis fasi ki, romelSiac amdeni Rirseba `mimodis~, mTel qveyanaze ar moipoveba:
`yvelaze uwin vinc gasxla vazi, qva sxvaze uwin vinc dasva qvaze, vinc sxvaze uwin gasWeda rkina, vinc sxvaze uwin ixmara ina, qristes Sobamde vinc Seqmna wigni, – sisxlad mimodis dRes CemSi igi~. (`sisxlad mimodis dRes CemSi igi~)

sxva leqsSic – `amer-imeri~ – poeti igive azrs imeorebs – saqarTvelos Rvinis uZveles qveynad miiCnevs, rasac erT-erT mniSvnelovan Rirsebad Tvlis Cveni qveynis mraval RirsebaTa Soris:
`amer-imeri – simxdaleSi usazRvrod Zunwi. amer-imeri – zRvidan zRvamde gaSlili uwin. amer-imeri – arasodes morCili bedis. amer-imeri – sicocxleze sicocxliT meti. amer-imeri – uZvelesi qveyana Rvinis, amer-imeri – dedamiwis lamazi Svili...~ (`amer-imeri~)

vazi – sicocxlis xe

saqarTvelos Rirsebani, romelTac TiTqmis yvela leqsSi umReris poeti, gamjdaria TiToeuli qarTvelis xorcsa da sisxlSi. es sisxlxorceuloba garkveuli procesia, romelsac poeti Rvinis moZraobas adarebs:

4 154

155
`viTarca Rvino – qvevridan xapSi – xapidan doqSi – doqidan jamSi – qarTuli sisxli, qarTuli suli, qarTuli sityva qarTuli guli gadadioda kacidan kacSi~. (`viTarca mtkvari~)
Tamar SarabiZe

XX saukune

muxran maWavariani qarTuli lxinis mSvenier suraTebsac xatavs, romelTa ZiriTadi atributi kaxuri Rvino da qarTuli simReraa. `kaxuriT gulis xSirdeba Zgera~, xolo qarTuli simRera napirebgadmolaxul alazans hgavs:
`gaxurda lxini: Seewna xma xmas, xma gaimeta cis lurjma TaRmac – da roca eSxSi Sevidnen ukve, mamapapurma simReram msuyem – ialazana, ialazana, – ormagi misca alazans Zala da gadmolaxa napirni wyalma~. (`lxini alaznis WalaSi~)

gansakuTrebiT sasiamovnoa qarTuli lxini, roca Tamadad poetia. maSin misi xmiT TviT ca laparakobs. muxran maWavariani Tamadobasa da poetur process erTmaneTs ukavSirebs da orives RvTisgan boZebul SemoqmedebiT niWad miiCnevs:
`martodmarto caa roca caSi, zeca roca krialaa maSin, poetia roca tolumbaSi, caa roca tolumbaSis xmaSi~. (`caa roca tolumbaSis xmaSi~)

poets uyuradRebod ar darCenia qarTvelis erTi Tvisebac, rom is marto arasdros nadimobs:
`marto viT gaswevs nadimsa, vinc naRdi qarTveli ari~. (`nadimi~)

miuxedavad qarTuli lxinisadmi Tayvaniscemisa, Tavisi sityvebisaTvis ufro meti damajereblobis micemis mizniT poeti gardacvlil opizars moixmobs da mas aTqmevinebs:
`dajdebi qoxSi, sasaxleSi, Tu xis griloSi:

Rvino Sen unda dalio da ara Rvinom – Sen~. (`Tqva opizarma~)

muxran maWavariani Rvinis smaSi zomierebas emxroba, zogjer yanws Wiqas amjobinebs, wertilis droul dasmas ki adamianis saukeTeso Tvisebad miiCnevs:
`iZaxis leqsic, yanwic: – ar dagvekarga, jobda! – uZvirfasesi ganZi, – zomierebis grZnoba!~ (`Zaxil-wuxili~)

poeti filadelfos kiknaZis (qarTvel Tavad-aznaurTa 1832 wlis SeTqmulebis erT-erTi meTauri. dapatimrebamde moRvaweobda Sua mTis monasterSi) sityvebiT kicxavs Rreobas. Tvlis, rom aravin Seundobs iseT qarTvels, visac jixvis rqebsa (yanwebsa) da qeifze uWiravs Tvali. momavali warsuls cocxiT Slis, is mkacria da lxinis garda sxva saqmesac moiTxovs, amitomac qarTuli sufra Sromis nayofad unda iqces, raTa gaimarjvos:
`ibasianos, droa, droa, qarTulma sufram! – modis mermisi – cocxiT xelSi – mkacri da sufTa~. (`sityva Tqmuli filadelfos kiknaZis mier ZmaTa TvisTa Tana SuamTaSi~)

calke rTvelis qeba muxran maWavarians ar moucia, magram Semodgomis aRwerisas poeti Seudarebel mxatvrul saxeebs qmnis:
`yurZeni venaxidan gamorbis kodebiT~; (`Semodgoma~) `sawnaxels sisxli waskda cxviridan, – WurSi orSimom Catuntra cxviri~; (`Semodgomis suraTebi~) `sawnaxeli – kameCebiT miTreuli – warsuliviT umzers wiflis xeTa~. (`marani wiflebSi~)

vazi – sicocxlis xe

yvelaze `xorkliani~ mainc sawuTros xilTan Sedarebaa:
`kvlavcaa, viT iyo, sawuTro alubluri: Sexedav, – balia! igemeb, – tyemali! da mainc kaia yurZeni galumpuli, baasi xilTani da xilTa qebani~. (`sawuTro~)

156 6

157 marTalia, gemovnebaze ar daoben, magram muxran maWavarianis – maRali poeturi da ara mxolod poeturi – gemovneba erTi leqsiT SegviZlia davaxasiaToT:
`qali?! – miyvars, miyvars qali. Rvinoc, oRond ara qarxnis. puric, oRond ara furnis. puri – Tornis Rvino – Wuris qali – msgavsi gazafxulis~.
Tamar SarabiZe

XX saukune

ana ka lan da Ze
dabolos, vazisa da Rvinis es amouwuravi Tema ana kalandaZis poeziiT gvinda davasruloT; poeti qalis SemoqmedebiT, romlis saxelic ase myarad da gancalkevebiT damkvidrda qarTuli poeziis Semqmnel amden mamakacTa Soris. gancalkevebiT – vambobT, radgan qarTul poeziaSi ana erTaderTi qalia, romelic mxolod saxeliT, gvaris gareSe moixsenieba. es udidesi dafaseba da gamorCevaa poetis. da raoden mniSvnelovania, rom saqarTveloSi aseTi gamorCeuli qalic ki vazsa da Rvinos umReris. ana kalandaZes vazis kulti ar moucia. is zogadad aqebs Cveni qveynis mTel mcenareul samyaros, yovelives, sadac ki sulierebas xedavs: vards, SroSans, lilians, mindvris velur yvavilebs – ias, enZelas, yayaCos; akacias, lerwams, alvas, naZvs, libanis kedarT; xexils – nuSs, atams, tyemals; da amden mcenareTa Soris mainc gamoyofs vazs. Tu yvavilebi anasTvis dedamiwaze ganfenili sulierebaa, vazi miwisa da zecis wminda kavSiria:
`wminda kavSirad miwis, zenasi, vazi daeSva izabelasi... dgas miwis suni~.

Tavis damokidebulebas vazisadmi poeti Cveuli intimuri grZnobiT gamoxatavs, romelic martiv sasaubro intonaciasa da uSualo mimarTvis formaSi mJRavndeba:
`Seni venaxis qoxi, gadaxuruli walmiT... Tu gawvimdeba, maSin... Semoval erTi wamiT... o, mxolod erTi wamiT, Sevefarebi SenTan...~ (`Seni venaxis qoxi...~)

venaxSi Sesvla saxarebiseuli simbolikiT RvTis mcnebaTa wiaRSi Sesvlaa. `warvediT Tquenca vena£sa Cemsa da, ra¡ igi iyos samarTali, migce Tqven~ (maTe 20,4). ana kalandaZisaTvis marTali kacis venaxi uflis venaxs emsgavseba da poetic masSi Sesasvlelad, wvimisagan Tavis Sesafareblad emzadeba. am leqsiT anam qarTul poeziaSi daumkvidra adgili erT-erT saukeTeso vazis jiSs, qarTlSi mcired gavrcelebul muq-wiTela danaxaruls:
`danaxarulis vazi yels moxvevia Wigos, – Seni trfobiT var savse, eCurCuleba TiTqos...~

vazi – sicocxlis xe

siyvarulis momReralma poetma Wigos Semoxveul vazSic siyvaruli dainaxa da kidev erTxel Seaqo igi. – rogor dawereT es leqsi? ram moitana venaxSi Tavis Sefarebis ganwyoba? vis venaxs gulisxmobdiT? – vekiTxebi qalbaton anas. – `universitetis damTavrebis Semdeg enaTmecnierebis institutSi gamanawiles, sadac dRemde vmuSaob~, – mixsnis qalbatoni ana, – `qarTuli enis ganmartebiTi leqsikonisTvis masalebs vagrovebdiT da arnold Ciqobavam saqarTvelos sxvadasxva kuTxeSi gagvanawila. warmoSobiT dasavleTelebi aRmosavleTSi gagvagzavna, aRmosavlelebi ki dasavleTSi. me kaspis raionSi aRmovCndi. sruliad ucnobi, zRapruli samyaro gadaiSala Cems Tvalwin. iqauri enobrivi normebi Cems leqsebSic gamoviyene. iq vnaxe danaxarulis vazis jiSic, danarCeni ki poeturi warmosaxvaa, romelic SeiZleba sulac ar iyos realur ambavTan kavSirSi. am leqsSic, ra Tqma unda, konkretuli venaxi ar igulisxmeba.~ uSualoba da grZnobaTa sifaqize ana kalandaZis poeziis gamosarCevi niSania. im leqsebSic ki, sadac Rvino da simTvrale Cndeba, maTi vaJkacuri aRqmis an Tundac qalisagan mosalodneli gakicxvis nacvlad, ana maTSi sulierebas aRiqvams. omar xaiamisadmi miZRvnil leqss man nizamis sityvebi waumZRvara epigrafad: `omar xaiams buxaraSi yofnis dros eTqva: Cemi samare iq unda iyos, sadac xeebi yovel weliwads yvavilebsa da foTlebs gulze damayriano. me vinaxule xaiamis samare niSaburSi, igi marTlac foTlebiTa da balaxiT iyo dafaruli. maSin momagonda xaiamis sityvebi da tirili daviwye~. tiris anas leqsic: suls Rvino SerCenia xaiamis gaxsenebisas, mTvrali yayaCo mobarbacebs, xeebi ki foTlebiT svamen Rvinos da mTvral yvavilebs gulze ayrian mis saflavs. ana Tavis poetur samoselSi xvevs omar xaiamis sityvebs, riTac gardacvlili poetis maradiulobas gamoxatavs da ase mimarTavs Rvinis trfials:
`surebi Seqmnes Seni talaxiT, Rvino moulxens yelmoxatulebs... Seni sunTqvaa lurji balaxi, fexs rom ukocnis lamaz xaTunebs~. (`am suriT svamen~)

8 158

159 anas leqsebSi buneba iziarebs adamianTa gancdebs. kalandis dros, roca adamianebi sixaruliT elian siaxles, maranTan Cavlili qaric ki Tvreba:
`qari Tvreboda RviniT naqebiT grZneul maranTan... Semodioda CiCilakebiT CvenSi kalanda~ (`Semodioda CvenSi kalanda~)
Tamar SarabiZe

XX saukune

aRweris detalebi, kiTxviTi winadadebebi, romlebic poetis uSualo grZnobis gamoZaxilia, da amas TandarTuli nawyveti xalxuri leqsidan, kidev ufro axalxurebs anas Semoqmedebas da kidev ufro miaqvs mkiTxvelis gulTan:
`ia gangebam daxata Tu firosmanis yalamma? yayaCos `Rvino salxino~ rogor ar Sesvas anama? `JuJuna wvima movida, didi mindori danama...~ (`JuJuna wvima movida~)

lalisferi Rvino `salxino~ poets yayaCos Rvinod warmousaxavs da mis Sesmaze sulac ar apirebs uaris Tqmas, miT umetes – rom salxino ganwyobazea, yvelaferi axarebs: jejili, Tvalgaxelili yana, mTiT monaberi niavi, nargizis iavnana da patara Cioras muxis totidan misalmebac ki. ana samSoblos dRegrZelobas sTxovs TanamoZmeebs:
`papis monacemi, marad saocnebo, kar-midamo Cemi damiloceT, Zmebo!~

papis danatovar karmidamos, romelic leqsSi detalebiT da am detalebSi Cateuli saTqmeliT aris warmoCenili, samSoblos mniSvneloba eniWeba, radgan TiToeuli qarTvelisaTvis swored am detalebiT aRiqmeba winaparTa cxovreba:
`akaciis tevri... wnelis susti Robe... qudmoxdili qvevri... Rviniani kope... aq – mziT damwvar xelSi Rviniani Wiqa... iq – cariel qvevrSi damwyvdeuli Winka...~ (`damiloceT, Zmebo~)

wnelisagan Semoqsovili Robe, Rvinis tradiciuli WurWeli – qvevri, mware kvaxisgan gakeTebuli Rvinis amosaRebi – kope da TviT glexkacis mzisagan garujuli xelic ki qarTuli yofis damaxasiaTebeli niSnebia; Winka ki qarTuli zRaprisa da crurwmenis ganuSorebeli elementia, warmoSobiT – boroti suli, romelsac ise SeCvevia qarTveli, rom Sinauradac gauxdia da qvevrSi daumwyvdevia gaumaZRari.

– `papaCems ori uzarmazari marani hqonda~ – merTveba am werilis kiTxvis dros qalbatoni ana – `da didi miwa, romelic Semdgom CamoarTves da ramdenime ojaxs gaunawiles (Caasaxles Cvens miwaze). Cems bavSvobaSi marnebi ukve gauqmebuli iyo da sul iseTi SegrZneba mqonda, rom am veeberTela cariel WurebSi mxolod WinkebiRa saxlobdnen~... bavSvobisdroindeli SegrZnebebi suraTebis saxiT, nawyvet-nawyvet gadmosulan anas leqsebSi, magram nawyvetebSi ratomRac mTavari detalebi moxvedrila. ana kalandaZis poeziaSi uxvad gvxvdeba bibliuri, kerZod ki saxarebiseuli motivebi, romlebic ZiriTadad poetis sulier mdgomareobasa da ganwyobas gamoxataven. TiTqos satrfialo Tema JRers mis erT-erT usaTauro leqsSi, romelic moulodnelad saxarebiseuli igavis sul sxvagvari gaazrebiT bolovdeba:
`sanTelTa brwyinvas xati misi mivusadage da tani misi cad atyorcnil svetTa simaRles, serafimTa da qerubimTa frTa rom Seaxes... Rvino axali Txiersa Zvelsa mivusadage~.

Tu satrfos xati, vinc ar unda iyos is – adamiani Tu samSoblo, sanTelTa brwyinvas esadageba, tani – udidessa da uwmindes simaRles, serafimebi da qerubimebi frTebiT rom exebian, moulodnelobas iwvevs poetis bolo azri – axali Rvinis Zvel tikSi Casxma. saxarebisda mixedviT: `arc axal Rvinos Caasxamen Zvel tikebSi, sxvanairad tikebi skdeba, Rvino iqceva da tikebic iRupeba, aramed axal Rvinos asxamen axal tikebSi da orive inaxeba~ (maTe 9,17). igavis azria, rom qorwilis dRes (laparakia saqorwino nadimsa da qristeze, rogorc siZeze) ver imarxuleb, sixarulis dros ver iqnebi mwuxare, es erTmaneTisadmi SeuTavsebeli mcnebebia iseve, rogorc Zvel tansacmelze dakerebuli axali qsovili da axali Rvino Zvel tikSi (anu qristianobis gaziareba da warmarTuli qceva). ana kalandaZis poetur sulSi ki erTmaneTs esadageba siyvarulisgan miRebuli sixarulica da naRvelic, qristianobaca da warmarTuli qcevac, radgan es yovelive adamianuri bunebaa. ana am bunebis mexotbea, sxvadasxva grZnobis erTmaneTTan misadagebis xelovani. cnobili saxarebiseuli igavia wylis qceva Rvinod – kanas saswauli, romlis drosac ieso qristem sabolood ganamtkica Tavisi mowafeebis rwmena. ana kalandaZis leqsSi ki Rvino wylad iqceva, rac rwmenis dakargvisa da SebRalvis maniSnebelia. leqsis siuJetic bibliur Temazea agebuli da daniel winaswarmetyvelis ambavs gadmogvcems: babilonelni iudeidan naalafari taZris

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161 wminda WurWeliT mirTmeven Rvinos, eamayebaT ama qveynis Zlieroba da ver xvdebian, rom amiT wminda WurWels bRalaven. moulodnelad Sewydeba maTi Rreoba. mefe balTazari (bibliurad belSacari, nabuqodonosoris Ze) kedels miaCerdeba, sadac ucnobis xeli SiSismomgvrel simarTles dawers:
`aravin xelyoso siwminde sxvisi, qars gahyvebao dideba fuWi!~
Tamar SarabiZe

XX saukune

– mogviTxrobs ana da leqss uflismieri, kanas msgavsi saswauliT asrulebs, oRond im gansxvavebiT, rom saxate WurWelSi Rvino wylad iqceva. gvebadeba kiTxva: bibliuri ambis galeqsviTa da misi interpretaciiT (Rvinis wylad qcevis saswaulis damatebiT) gafrTxilebas xom ar gvaZlevs poeti?! ra Tqma unda, es asea, magram ana kalandaZis moxdenil TqmaSi, specialurad moxmobil da mxatvrulad gaazrebul siuJetSi, saerTod dakargulia didaqtikis kvali. ana kalandaZisTvis Rvino kvlav uflismieri sibrZnis gamoxatvis saSualebad rCeba. oRond poeti am sibrZnes Taviseburad warmogvidgens da ise, rom arqetips Zlier ar daSordes, mis mxatvrul gadamuSavebas iZleva. – `CemTvis maSin marTlac gawyalda Rvino, sul ubralod, uceb wylad gadaiqca~, – komentars akeTebs qalbatoni ana; Tu – ratom, es mis saidumlod rCeba, romlis gaxseneba aRarc ki surs. ana kalandaZis cnobili leqsia `fexi damadgiT~, romelic daviT aRmaSeneblis `galobani sinanulisanis~ STagonebiT unda iyos Seqmnili. saqarTvelos mTeli istoriis manZilze yvelaze Zlierma mefem anderZad daibara, daesaflavebinaT gelaTis karibWeSi, raTa yvela gamvlels mis saflavze fexi daedga. mefis es udidesi sinanulis gamomxatveli anderZi leqsSi Semdegi sityvebiT aris gamoTqmuli:
`fexi damadgiT, gulze damadgiT fexi yovelman, wyaloba hyaviT... saqarTvelois yovlis mpyrobelman visurve, daviT... fexqveS gacviTeT saflavis lodi yurZnis mtevnebiT...~

yurZnis mtevnebi anas poetur warmosaxvaSi sinanulTan dakavSirebuli asociaciaa, romelsac adamianisaTvis sulis simSvide da utkbilesi grZnoba moaqvs. wm. mamebi xSirad mimarTaven am udidesi grZnobis (sinanulis) yurZnis WyletasTan Sedarebas: `iseve rogorc manqana, romelic dawurul yurZens awveba da sress (Cveulebriv yurZens jer fexebiT wuraven, xolo Semdeg mZime qviT Wyleten, raTa mas mTeli wveni gamoadinon), aseve RmrTis SiSi da misi marTlmsajulebis SegrZneba qvis lodiviT Semusravs kacis xorcsa da Zvlebs, daTrgunavs mas da daamdablebs yvelas winaSe. xolo rodesac misi siamaye da pativmoyvareoba motydeba, maSin mas zegardmo miecema msubuqi da utkbilesi

grZnoba simdablisa, lodiviT daawveba, gamoswuravs misgan xorciel vnebebs da mas keTilmsaxurad aqcevs... (wm. svimeon axali RvTismetyveli). daviTis saflavis lodic, romelic saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi adamianTa fexis dadgmiT yurZnis mtevnebiviT gaisriseba da gaicriceba, mefis arawamieri, aramed mudmivi sinanulis gamoxatulebaa. es sinanuli anas leqsSi qristianul msoflmxedvelobaSi Camoyalibebuli gaWyletili yurZnis mtevnis mxatvruli saxiT gamovlinda. religiuri Tematika ana kalandaZis STagonebis wyaroa, am TematikaSi ki vazisa da Rvinis simboluri aRqmacaa CarTuli, rogorc misgan ganuyofeli nawili, misi mxatvruli Rirebulebis erT-erTi ganmsazRvreli. –`es marTlac asea, biblia Cems cxovrebaSi realurad monawileobs, mudam axali modis misgan. erTs ki saidumlod getyviT~, – meubneba qalbatoni ana, – `Cems cxovrebaSi wveTi Rvino ar damilevia!~ `miT umetes!~ – mxolod es sityvaRa momdis azrad – `miT umetes!~ ana tipuri qarTveli qalia, qali da poeti, romelsac wveTi ar daulevia da mainc umRera vazsa da Rvinos. es simRera mis poetur warmosaxvaSi qarTulma genma Tu moitana.

bo lo sity va o ba
(Temisa `vazisa da Rvinis kulti axal da uaxles qarTul poeziaSi)
`mecxramete saukune mtkvars mihyveba tiviT~ – wers XX saukunis poeti SoTa niSnianiZe. Cven ki vityodiT, rom XX saukunec dros gahyva, oRond ara tiviT, aramed swrafad msrboleli avtomobilebiT da dRes ukve XXI saukunea – kompiuterebisa da teqnikis epoqa. qarTulma leqsmac met-naklebad icvala buneba, moirgo axleburi forma, SeimCneva avangardistuli mimarTulebebisaken swrafva, ucxouri mxatvruli gamosaxvis saSualebaTa damkvidreba da kidev, rac niSandoblivia, Tematikis Zirfesviani cvlileba. XXI saukuneSi kidev ufro momravldnen anakreontis mimdevari mwerlebi, romelTaTvisac simTvrale da Tavdaviwyebaa mTavari, vidre vazisa da Rvinis tradiciuli kulti. da raoden mniSvnelovania, rom dRes saqarTveloSi mainc SemorCnen poetebi (SemorCnen sakmaod didi raodenobiT), romelTa SemoqmedebaSi cocxldeba tradiciuli motivebi, winaparTa saqmis siyvaruli da keTilxmovaneba qarTuli leqsisa. omaxianad JRers axali Taobis sityva, gabeduleba da SemarTeba ar aklia mas:

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`yuri damigde, Sen ki ara, me var venaxi! foladis mtevnebs vaCxrialeb mCate sxeulze, eniseli var, rqawiTeli da kardenaxi, yurZnis tevri var, sawnaxelSi gamomwyvdeuli. kargad Semxede, Sen ki ara, me var venaxi!~ (zurab rTveliaSvili, `me var venaxi~)
Tamar SarabiZe

XX saukune

amin! – vetyviT Cven maT. gvsurs axal TaobaSi venaxi vixiloT!!!

La vigne – l’arbre de vie
(La vigne et le vin dans la culture géorgienne)
En Georgie on compte quelques centaines d’espèces de vigne. La supériorité et même le culte de cette plante dans le pays sont évidents. En outre, la vigne est considérée comme l’arbre de vie et c’est ainsi qu’elle s’enracine dans la conscience des Géorgiens. En plus, la notion de vigne s’étend également sur toute la culture nationale : peinture monumentale, façades des églises, ciselure, gravure sur bois, broderie utilisée comme décor à l’intérieur de l’église, folklore, chant, littérature ancienne et moderne, peinture et poésie contemporaines, la vigne est partout présente. Au V–ième millénaire avant notre ère le logement ancien d’un géorgien a la forme d’un oeuf (de tonneau). Au centre du logement (près du foyer) se dresse la colonne principale, comme l’arbre de vie au milieu du paradis. L’arbre de vie est le symbole essentiel de la Géorgie païenne ainsi que de l’univers chrétien. À l’Éden Adam ne put pas goûter le fruit de l’arbre de vie, nécessaire pour son immortalité, mais il attendait ce fruit et ses descendants l’attendent toujours. Par la divine providence l’ange apporta du paradis une branche de l’arbre de vie à Loth. La croix du Calvaire fut fabriquée justement avec du bois de cet arbre qui poussa sur cette branche. Du corps blessé du Christ crucifié au Calvaire on vit couler du sang et de l’eau qui est connue dans la théologie comme l’eau vivifiante – l’eau de vie. Au Calvaire l’arbre de vie se transforma en arbre de vie du Nouveau Testament - croix du Calvaire, qui donna son fruit – le Christ. Cette conception prend une signification particulière dans l’univers géorgien. Le chiton du Messie partagé au Calvaire fut apporté à Mtskhéta – ancienne capitale de la Géorgie, par le croyant Héliose. Il fut enterré au centre de la Géorgie, où le fleuve Aragvi se joint au Mtkvari . Sur ce lieu poussa un arbre – signe de la plus grande sacralité que le corps du Dieu crucifié laissa sur cette terre. Ce n’est pas par hasard que Saint André abattit le grand chêne – l’arbre païen et le remplaça par la croix. L’oeuvre commencée par le Saint André fut poursuivie par la Sainte Nino, celle qui convertit des Géorgiens. Sur son indication l’arbre poussé au-dessus du chiton fut abattu et par la force de sa prière fut transformé en colonne de feu, c’est-à-dire colonne vivante. Cette colonne vivante (svétitskhovéli) est l’image de l’arbre de vie du paradis replanté sur la Terre pour le salut des hommes. Ce n’est pas par hasard que pour le pays divinisant l’arbre de vie, la sainte Nino fit la croix justement en vigne qui symbolise le sang de Jésus et c’est la croix de Nino qui symbolise la colonne vivante (svétitskhovéli). Toute la culture géorgienne porte l’empreinte symbolique de vigne, surtout l’art chrétien qui traite toutes les notions physiques à travers les dimensions métaphysiques, ce qui provient du côté visuel de la plante même. Les œuvres d’art chrétien qu’on rencontre sur les façades des églises, les bases et les colonnes des stèles, gardent les premiers
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modèles de l’image de vigne, dont Les plus anciens remontent au V- ième siècle. En général la conception symbolique de ces images est la suivante: à l’instar de Jésus qui se sacrifia à l’humanité pour ressusciter la postérité d’Adam communiée à son sang, la vigne produit la grappe qui à son tour produit le vin de communion. Ainsi en Géorgie la vigne – symbole de la mort de Jésus, de sacrifice et de son fruit – le sang est devenu en même temps symbole de l’arbre de vie et de la colonne vivante (svétitskhovéli); Et la Géorgie, patrie de vigne et de vin fut conçue comme demeure de la colonne vivante et du vignoble du christianisme; vignoble qui par la divine providence est protégé par la Vierge. Dans les chants religieux la Vierge est mentionnée comme vignoble planté en Eden. Les exemples particuliers des images de vigne nous sont fournis à partir des monuments de l’art plastique de la première période de l’art chrétien – les stèles dont il n’en reste que quelques vestiges. L’ornement végétal géorgien dans la sculpture en métal pour la plupart est inspiré par le vignoble et représente son abstraction. Le vin et la vigne figurent également dans la peinture monumentale, mais pas aussi fréquemment. Nous possédons de nombreux modèles de gravure sur bois et de broderie, dont la symbolique des images est caractéristique pour le christianisme en général. Le Christ – l’arbre de vie – le vignoble, forment une base solide de la culture géorgienne. Quand cette base fut menacée à l’époque où la Géorgie perdit sa souveraineté, et quand le paradigme culturel se trouva en danger, l’instinct de survie se manifestant une fois de plus, l’image symbolique de vigne se révéla d’une nouvelle force sur les pierres tombales, ainsi que dans l’oeuvre du peintre naïf –Pirosmani. La vigne et le vin occupent leur place stable dans le folklore géorgien dès les temps les plus anciens. “Et on trouvait en Karthlie du pain et du vin en grande quantité “ – lit-on dans les chroniques. C’est ainsi que l’historien apprécie son époque. Ces mots soulignent l’importance du vin et du pain dans la vie du pays. Leur abondance démontre le bien-être de l’État. Outre le bien matériel le pain et le vin désignent des catégories morales et ne correspondent pas seulement à la nourriture. Le vin est appelé par le peuple le sang de vigne. Il représente en même temps le sacrifice et le fruit que la vigne apporte aux hommes. Aucune plante ne mérite autant de respect, d’amour et de soin que la vigne. Elle incarne l’abondance, mais l’attitude du vigneron géorgien envers la vigne ressemble plutôt aux relations qu’ont les parents avec leurs enfants. “Vigne, élevé comme un enfant” – ce fragment poétique en est un exemple éloquent. Le peuple géorgien consacre de nombreuses poésies à la vigne. Nous ne nous arrêterons pas ici sur les traditions géorgiennes de l’hospitalité, de table et de vin, nous noterons seulement que le festin géorgien sans chant n’est rien et le répertoire des chansons de table est très varié. Beaucoup de chants de table prennent leur origine au sein de l’église. Quand les nouveaux chants remplaçaient les anciens à l’église, ces derniers ne tombaient pas dans l’oubli, au contraire ils étaient chantés à table. C’est grâce à cette tradition qui les chants anciens furent sauvés, conservés et même modifiés. La fameuse chanson “Mravaljamiéri” en est un magnifique exemple.

La perception symbolique de vin et de vigne est évidente à travers la littérature géorgienne - ancienne, nouvelle et contemporaine. “ La vie de la Sainte Nino” (IVs.) représente le jardin du paradis. Sur les fresques aussi le paradis était peint suivant cette représentation. Sur ces images on voit “Babilo”, la vigne hautaine. Au centre du paradis se dresse une vigne avec des grappes qui symbolise l’arbre de vie. Les oiseaux de paradis planent autour. Comme on voit, dans le christianisme géorgien, dans l’art ou la littérature la vigne garde la fonction de l’arbre de vie et se retrouve au centre du paradis. Dans l’oeuvre du grand poète géorgien David Gouramichvili la branche de vigne incarne le Christ, Le Grand Soleil c’est le Père Dieu, et la vigne même – la Vierge. Avec la représentation mythique et symbolique de la vigne, la poésie géorgienne chante des louanges au plaisir éprouvé en buvant le jus de raisin tout en lui accordant une importance esthétique. Selon la mythologie la divinité - le Soleil se transforme en corps et grappes de vigne, et l’énergie divine passe dans le vin qui enivre l’homme et le communie au divin. Dans la littérature du XIX siècle la vigne acquiert encore une fonction - celle de l’expression des sentiments patriotiques. Elle en possédait toujours, mais le XIX siècle la révèle plus particulièrement et lui accorde l’importance du symbole. La vigne géorgienne se charge de l’expression de deux signes essentiels de la conscience nationale étroitement liés l’un à l’autre – la croyance et l’amour, tout en les manifestant dans l’art. Le vin et la vigne se reflètent dans la poésie géorgienne du XIX siècle justement par l’union des ces symboles et par l’immense place occupée dans la culture; et le poète, les glorifiant, a le rôle d’un sculpteur qui unit l’ancien et le nouveau, tout en créant de magnifiques images artistiques polyvalentes : “l’automne plaça le Bacchus dans le pressoir” ( A. Tchavtchavadzé), “ton visage – mélange de neige et vin” (G.Orbéliani); “la tombe sainte de la Reine Thamar entre les vignes” (V. Orbéliani); “la vigne orpheline” (I.Tchavtchavadzé); “le lait de la vielle vigne” (Vaja-Pchavéla); “mère de vin rouge” “vigne – chevalier à fortes moustaches” (R.Éristhavi); “ le vin de notre pays, c’est-àdire le vin de vigne poussée sur les os et le sang de nos ancêtres” (A.Tsérétéli) etc. Le vin et la vigne furent plus ou moins traités par tous les écrivains et poètes du XIX siècle indépendamment de la place qu’ils occupent dans l’histoire de la littérature géorgienne. Ce sujet, traditionnel pour la littérature géorgienne passa aussi dans la littérature des XX et XXI siècles. Bien sûr, les méthodes d’expression – la forme de poésie et les images artistiques, ainsi que la conception du monde, changèrent, mais la tradition de la culture de vigne reste et elle ne pourrait pas être ignorée par la littérature contemporaine. Nous avons essayé de démontrer brièvement la place que la vigne occupe dans la culture et la vie géorgienne. Nous pensons que cette plante garde son statut de culte même aujourd’hui. Un seul exemple pourrait servir de preuve – récemment un paysan a abattu les vignes de son vignoble en signe de protestation contre le gouvernement. C’était une sensation largement médiatisée. Malgré cette attitude tendre et affectueuse, il est regrettable que chez nous il n’y ait pas de tradition de consommation quotidienne de vin, à table on boit du vin en grande quantité ce qui est nocif pour la santé. Historiquement, en Géorgie il y avait une période où le vin avec le pain était considéré comme un produit
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alimentaire important. On n’en buvait que trois verres en prononçant trois toast (il existe des informations le démontrant dans les textes historiques et littéraires). On connaissait de différentes recettes de traitement par le vin qui figurent dans les anciens livres médicaux. La partie progressive de notre société n’ignore pas ce problème et essaie de le surmonter en prenant l’exemple des pays du “vieux monde” (pays grands producteurs de vin) où l’oenothérapie est assez développée et la consommation quotidienne de vin est une habitude ancrée dans la conscience. Un autre pays qui a la même attitude face au vin et qui peut être cité en premier lieu c’est la France. Si nous prétendons que “la Géorgie est le berceau de vin” - c’est à - dire le pays où le vin fut produit pour la première fois, la priorité de vin et de vigne doit être reflétée non seulement dans la culture,mais ils doivent prendre une fonction d’ importance étatique. Le vin géorgien remplit cette fonction pendant des siècles. La culture géorgienne en est un témoin infaillible.

redaqtori ydis dizaini dakabadoneba

maia ejibia TinaTin CirinaSvili naTia dvali

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