I S: 1893- 1984

lndian Standard
CRITERIA FOR EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT
DESIGN OF STRUCTURES
(Fourth Revision )
First Reprint JULY 1999
UDC 699.841 : 624.042.7
0 Copyright 1986
BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS
MANAK BHAVAN, 9 BAHADUR SHAH ZAFAR MARG
NEW DELHI 110002
Gr 14
June 1986
( Reaffirmed 1998 )
IS t 1893 - 1984
Indian Standard
CRI TERlA FOR EARTHQUAKE RESI STANT
DESI GN OF STRUCTURES
( Fourth Revision )
Earthquake Engineering Sectional Committee, BDC 39
Chairman
DR J AI KRI SHNA
61 Civil Lines, Roorkee
M#mb.ws Rcprssenting
SHRI A. ANANTHAKRI SRNAN Ministry of Shipping and Transport ( Develop-
ment Wing j _
SRRI T. R. SUBRAM~NYAM ( Alternate)
DR A. S. ARYA University of Roorkee, Roorkee
DR A. R. CHANDRASEKARAN ( Alternate I )
DR BRI J ESH CHANDRA ( Alternate I I )
SHRI S. P. CHAKRABORTI Ministry of Shipping and Transport ( Roads
SHRI M. K. MUKHE~J EF: ( Alternate )
Wing )
SI I RI T. A. E. D’SA Concrete Association of I ndia, Bombay
SHRI N. Cl. DU~UAL ( Alternate )
DI RECTOR
SHRI J . G. PADALE ( Alternate )
SERI D. S. DESAI
SERI V. S. GOWAIKAR
SHRI R. PATNAI K ( Alternate )
SHRI A. D. GUPTA
SHRI N. S. DANI ( Alternate)
SHRI I NDER MOHAN
SHRI C. VASWANI ( Alternate )
J OI NT DI RECTOR STANDARDS
( B & S ) PSC
DEPUTY DI RECTOR STANDARDS
( B & S ) CB ( Alternate )
SHRI M. Z. KURI AN Tata, Consulting Engineers, Rombay
SHRI K. V. SUBRAMANI AN ( Alternate )
SHRI T. K. D. MUNSI
SHRI R. K. GROVER (Alternate )
Engineers I ndia Limited, New Delhi
( Continued on page 2 )
Central Water and Power Research Station, Pune
M. N. Dastur & Co Pvt Ltd, Calcutta
Department of Atomic Energy, Bombay
Fertilizer Corporation of I ndia Ltdi Dhanbad
North Eastern Council, Shillong
Railway Board (RDSO), Lucknow
@ Copyright 1966
I NDI AN STANDARDS I NSTI TUTI ON
This publication is protected under the Indian Copyright Act ( XI V of 1957 ) and
reproduction in whole or in part by any means except with written permission of the
publisher shall be deemed to be an infringement of copyright under the said Act.
( Continued from page
Members
SERI C. RAMA RAO
1)
REpresEnting
Public Works Department, Government of
Arunacbal Pradesh
SHRI S. N. KRI SRNAN ( Alfernate)
SERI R. V. CR_~LAPATHI RAO Geological Survey of I ndia, Calcutta
SHRI N. B. G. TI LA~ ( Alternnte )
R~PRERENYATI VE
I nternational Airport Authority of I ndia,
New Delhi
REPRESENTATI VE
Structural Engineering Research Centre, Roorkee
REPRESENTATI VE
Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd (Research and
Design Division ), Hyderabad
REPRESENTATI VE Central Building Research I nstitute, Roorkee
SHRI ht . P. v. SHENOY Engineer-in-Chief’s Branch, Army Headquarters
New Delhi
IS : 1893 - 1984
SHRI D. K. DI NKER ( Alternate )
SHRI K. S. SRI NI VASAN National Buildings Organization, New Delhi
Dn H. N. SRI VASTAVA I ndia Meteorological Department, New Delhi
SHRI S. K. NAQ ( Alternate )
DR P. SRI NI VASULU Structural Engineering Research Centre, Madras
Dn N. LAKSHMANAN ( Alternate )
Dn A. N. TANDON
SHRI N. VE~XBU
SHI ~I A. K. MI TTAL ( Alternote )
SRI ~I S. N. VERMA
SHRI S. PASUPATI ( Allernalc)
SHRI G. RAMAN,
Director ( Civ Engg )
I n personal capacity ( B-7150 Safdarjung Enclave,
flew Delhi )
Central Public Works Department, New Delhi
Metallurgical & Engineering Consultants ( I ndia )
Ltd, Ranchi
Director General, I SI ( Ex-ojicio Member)
Secretary
SERI N. Cl. BANDYOPADHYAY
Deputy Director ( Civ Engg ), I S1
Maps Subcommittee, BDC 39 : 4
DR S. N. BHATTACHAZ~YA
SHRI A. N. DATTA
SHRI A. GHOSH
SHRI D. R. NANDY ( Alternate )
DR HARI NARAI N
DR K. L. KAI LA ( Allcrnate )
SHRI G. S. OBEROI
I ndia Meteorological Department, New Delhi
Oil and Natural Gas Commission, Dehra Dun
Geological Survey of I ndia, Calcutta
National Geophysical Research I nstitute (CSI R ),
Hyderabad
Survey of I ndia, Dehra Dun
‘) SHRI K. N. SAXENA ( AltErnate ,
Dn P. C. SAXENA
Central Water and Power Research Station, Pune
SEIRI I . D. GUPTA ( Alternate )
SERI L. S. SRI VASTA~A University of Roorkee, Roorkee
DR A. N. TANDON
In personal capacity ( B-7150 Safdarjung Enclave,
New Delhi )
2
IS:1893 - 1984
I ndian Standard
CRI TERI A FOR EARTHQUAKE RESI STANT
DESI GN OF STRUCTURES
( Fourth Revision )
0. FOREWORD
0.1 This Indian Standard. ( Fourth Revision) was adopted by the Indian
Standards Institution on 16 November 1981, after the draft finalized by
the Earthquake Engineering Sectional Committee had been approved by
the Civil Engineering Division Council.
0.2 Himalayan-Nagalushai region, Indo-Gangetic plain, Western India,
Kutch and Kathiawar regions are geologically unstable parts of the coun-
try and some devastating earthquakes of the world have occurred there. A
major part of the peninsular India has also been visited by strong earth-
quakes, but these were relatively few in number and had considerably
lesser intensity. The earthquake resistant design of structures taking into
account seismic data from studies of these Indian earthquakes has become
very essential,. particularly in view of the heavy construction programme at
present all over the country. It is to serve this purpose that IS : 1893-1962
‘Recommendations for earthquake resistant design of structures’ was pub-
lished and subsequently revised in 1966.
0.2.1 As a result of additional seismic data collected in India and further
knowledge and experience gained since the publication of the first revision
of this standard, the Sectional Committee felt the need to revise the stan-
dard again incorporating many changes, such as revision of maps showing
seismic zones and epicentres, adding a more rational approach for design
of buildings and substructure of bridges, etc. These were covered in the
second revision of IS : 1893 brought out in 1970.
0.2.2 As a result of the increased use of the standard, considerable
amount of suggestions were received for modifying some of the provisions
of the standard and, therefore, third revision of the standard was brought
out in 1975. The following changes were incorporated in the third
revision:
3
IS: 1893 - 1984
a>
b)
4
4
e>
The standard incorporated seismic zone factors ( previously given
as multiplying factors in the second revision ) on a more rational
basis.
Importance factors were introduced to account for the varying
degrees of importance for various structures.
In the clauses for design of multi-storeyed building the coefficient
of flexibility was given in the form of a curve with respect to
period of buildings.
A more rational formula was used to combine modal shears.
New clauses were introduced for determination of hydrodynamic
pressures in elevated tanks.
f) Clauses on concrete and masonry dams were modified, taking into
account their dynamic behaviour during earthquakes. Simplified
formulae for design forces were introduced based on results of
extensive studies carried out since second revision of the standard
was published.
0.3 The fourth revision has been prepared to modify some of the provi-
sions of the standard as a result of experience gained with the use of this
standard. In this revision a number of Important basic modifications with
respect to load factors, field values of N, base shear and modal analysis
have been introduced. A new concept of performance factor depending on
the structural framing system and brittleness or ductility of construction
has been incorporated. Figure 2 for average acceleration spectra has also
been modified and a curve for zero percent damping has been
incorporated.
0.4 It is not intended in this standard to lay down regulations so that no
structure shall suffer any damage during earthquake of all magnitudes. It
has been endeavoured to ensure that, as far as possible, structures are able
to respond, without structural damage to shocks of moderate intensities
and without total collapse to shocks of heavy intensities. While this stan-
dard is intended for earthquake resistant design of normal structures, it has
to be emphasized that in the case of special structures detailed investigation
should be undertaken, unless otherwise specified in the relevant clauses.
0.4.1 Though the basis for the design of different types of structures is
covered in this standard, it is not implied that detailed dynamic analysis
should be made in every case. There might be cases of less importance and
relatively small structures for which no analysis need be made, provided
certain simple precautions are taken in the construction. For example,
suitably proportioned diagonal bracings in the vertical panels of steel and
concrete structures add to the resistance of frames to withstand earthquake
forces. Similarly in highly seismic areas, construction of a type which
IS : 1893 - 1984
entails heavy debris and consequent loss of life and property, such as
masonry, particularly mud masonry and rubble masonry, should be avoi-
ded in preference to construction of a type which is known to withstand
seismic eflects better, such as construction in light weight materials and
well braced timber-framed structures. For guidance on piecautions to be
observed in the construction of buildings, reference may be made
to IS : 4326-1976*.
0.5 Attention is particularly drawn to the fact that the intensity of shock
due to an earthquake could greatly vary locally at any ~given place due to
variation in the soil conditions. Earthquake forces would be affected by
different types of foundation system in addition to variation of ground
motion due to various types of soils. Considering the effects in a gross man-
ner, the standard gives guidelines for arriving at design seismic coefficients
based on type of soil and foundation system.
0.6 Earthquakes can cause damage not only on account of the shaking
which results from them but also due to other chain effects like landslides,
floods, fires and disruption to communication. It is, therefore, important
to take necessary precautions in the design of structures so that they are
safe against such secondary effects also.
0.7 It is important to note that the seismic coeficient, used in ihe design
of any structure, is dependent on many variable factors and it is an extre-
mely dificult task to determine the exact seismic coefficient in each given
case. Tt is, therefore, necessary to indicate broadly the seismic coeficients
that could generally be adopted in different parts or zones or the country
though, of course, a rigorous analysis considering all the factors involved
has got to be made in the case of all important projects in order to arrive
at suitable seismic coefficients for design. The Sectional Committee respon-
sible for the formulation of this standard has attempted to include a seis-
mic zoning map ( see Fig. 1 ) for this purpose. The object of this map is to
classify the area of the country into a number of zones in which one may
reasonably expect earthquake shock of more or less same intensity in future.
The Modified Mercalli Intensity ( see 2.7 ) broadly associated with the
various zones is V or less, VI, VII, VIII and 1X and above for zones I,
II, III, IV and V respectively. The maximum seismic ground acceleration
in each zone cannot be presently predicted with accuracy either on a
deterministic or on a probabilistic basis. The design value chosen for a
particular structure is obtained by multiplying the basic horizontal seismic
coefficient for that zone, given in Table 2, by an appropriate Importance
Factor as suggested in Table 4. Higher value of importance factor is usually
adopted for those structures, consequences of failure of which, are serious.
However, even with an importance factor of unity, the probability is that
*Code of practice for earthquake resistant design and construction of buildings
(Jr& revision ).
5
IS t 1893 - 1984
a structure which is properly designed and detailed according to good con-
struction practice, will not suffer serious damage.
It is pointed out that structures will normally experience more severe
ground motion than the one envisaged in the seismic coefficient specified
in this standard. However, in view of the energy absorbing capacity avail-
able in inelastic range, ductile structures will be able to resist such shocks
without much damage. It is, therefore, necessary that ductility must be
built into the structures since brittle structures will be damaged more
extensively.
0.7.1 The Sectional Committee has appreciated that there cannot be. an
entirely scientific basis for zoning in view of the scanty data available.
Though the magnitudes of different earthquakes which have occurred in
the past are known to a reasonabIe amount of accuracy, the intensities of
the shocks caused by these earthquakes have so far been mostly estimated
by damage surveys and there is little instrumental evidence to corroborate
the conclusions arrived at. Maximum intensity at different places can be
fixed on a scale only on the basis of the observations made and recorded
after the earthquake and thus a zoning map which is based on the maxi-
mum intensities arrived at, is likely to lead in some cases to an incorrect
conclusion in the view of (a) incorrectness in the assessment of intensities,
ib) human error in judgement during the damage survey, and (c) varia-
tion in quality and design of structures causing variation in type and
extent of damage to the structures for the same intensity of shock. The
Sectional Committee has, therefore, considered that a rational approach to
the problem would be to arrive at a zoning map based on known magni-
tudes and’ the known epicentres (see Appendix A) assuming all other condi-
tions as being average, and to modify such an average idealized isoseismal
map in the light of tectonics ( see Appendix B ), lithology ( see Appendix C)
and the maximum intensities as recorded from damage surveys, etc. The
Committee has also reviewed such a map in the light of past history and
future possibilities and also attempted to draw the lines demarcating the
different zones so as to be clear of important towns, cities and industrial
areas, after making special examination of such cases, as a little modifica-
tion in the zonal demarcations may mean considerable difference to the
economics of a project in that area. Maps shown in Fig. 1 and Appendices
A, B and C are prepared based on information available up to 1986.
0.8 In the formulation of this standard due weightage has been given to
international coordination among the standards and practices prevailing
in different countries in addition to relating it to the practices in the field
in this country.
6
As in the Original Standard, this Page is Intentionally Left Blank
IS : 1893 - 1984
0.8.1 In the preparation of this standard considerable help has been
given by the School of Research and Training in Earthquake Engineering,
University of Roorkee; Geological Survey of India; India Meteorological
Department and several other organizations.
0.9 For the purpose of deciding whether a particular requirement of this
standard is complied with, the final value, observed or calculated, express-
ing the result of a test or analysis, shall be rounded off in accordance with
IS : 2-1960*. The number of significant places retained in the rounded off
value should be the same as that of the specified value in this standrd.
1. SCOPE
1.1 This standard deals with earthquake resistant design of structures and
is applicable to buildings; elevated structures; bridges, concrete, masonry
and earth dams; embankments and retaining walls.
1.2 This standard does not deal with the construction features relating to
earthquake resistant design in buildings and other structures. For guidance
on earthquake resistant construction of buildings, reference may be made
to IS : 4326-1976T. Further, provisions of this standard shall be used along
with IS : 4326-1976t.
2. TERMINOLOGY
2.0 For the purpose of this standard, the following definitions shall apply.
NOTE - For the definition of terms pertaining to soil mechanics and soil dyna-
mics, reference may be made to IS : 2809-19721 and IS : 2810-1979s.
2.1 Centre of Mass - The point through which the resultant of the
masses of a system acts. This corresponds to centre of gravity of the
system.
2.2 Centre of Rigidity -- The point through which the resultant of the
restoring forces of a system acts.
2.3 Critical Damping - The damping beyond which the motion will
not be oscillatory.
2.4 Damping - The effect of internal friction, imperfect elasticity of
material, slipping, slidin,, 0‘ etc, in reducing the amplitude of vibration and
is expressed as a percentage of critical damping.
*Rules for rounding off numerical values ( revised ).
tCode of practice for earthquake resistant design and construction of buildings (first
reo1sion ) .
fGlossary of terms and symbols relating to soil engineering (Jirst rcvisio~t ).
§Glossary of terms relating to soil dynamics (Jitst revision ).
.*_ 2
‘,i
IS : 1893 -1984
2.5 Epicentre - The geographical point on the surface of earth vertically
above the focus of the earthquake.
2.6 Focus - The originating source of the elastic waves which cause
shaking of ground.
2.7 Intensity of Earthquake - The intensity of an earthquake at a
place is a measure of the effects of the earthquake, and is indicated by a
number according to the Modified Mercalli Scale of Seismic Intensities
( see Appendix D ).
2.8 Liquefaction - Liquefaction is a state in saturated cohesionless soil
wherein the effective shear strength is reduced to negligible value for all
engineering purposes due to pore pressures caused by vibrations during an
earthquake when they approach the total confining pressure. In this condi-
tion the soil tends to behave like a fluid mass.
2.9 Lithological Features - The nature of the geological formation of
the earth’s crust above bed rock on the basis of such characteristics as
colour, structure, mineralogic composition and grain size.
2.10 Magnitude of Earthquake ( Richter’s Magnitude ) _- The
magnitude of an earthquake is the logarithm to the base 10 of the maxi-
mum trace amplitude, expressed in microns, with which the standard short
period torsion seismometer ( with a period of 0.8 second, magnification
2 800 and damping nearly critical ) would register the earthquake at an
epicentral distance of 100 km. The magnitude hf is thus a number which
is a nieasure of energy released in an earthquake.
2.11 Mode Shape Coefficient - When a system is vibrating in a normal
mode, the amplitude of the masses at any particular instant of time expre-
ssed as a ratio of the amplitude of one of the masses is known as mode shape
coefficient.
2.12 Normal Mode - A system is said to be vibrating in a normal mode
or principal mode when all its masses attain maximum values of displace-
ments simultaneously and also they pass through equilibrium positions
simultaneously.
2.13 Response Spectrum - The representation of the maximum res-
ponse of idealized single degree freedom systems having certain period and
damping, during that earthquake. The maximum response is plotted
against the undamped natural period and for various damping values, and
can be expressed in terms of maximum absolute acceleration, maximum
relative velocity or maximum relative displacement,
IS: 1893 - 1984
2.14 Seismic Coefficients and Seismic Zone Factors
2.14.1 Basic Seismic Coejicient (a,) - A coeficient assigned to each
seismic zone to give the basic design acceleration as a fraction of the
acceleration due to gravity.
2.14.2 Seismic <one Factor (F,) - A factor to be used for different seis-
mic zone along with the average acceleration spectra.
2.14.3 Importance Factor (I) - A factor to modify the basic seismic coeffi-
cient and seismic zone factor, depending on the importance of a structure.
2.14.4 Soil-Foundation System Factor (/3) - A factor to modify the basic
seismic coefficient and seismic zone factor, depending upon the soil founda-
tion system.
2.14.5 Average Acceleration Coejicient - Average specturm acceleration
expressed as a fraction of acceleration due to gravity.
2.14.6 Design Horizontal Seismic Coejkient (cq,) - The seismic coefficient
taken for design. It is expressed as a function of the basic seismic coeffi-
cient (a,) or the seismic zone factor together with the average acceleration
coefficient, the importance factor (I) and the soil-foundation system
factor (6).
2.15 Tectonic Feature - The nature of geological formation of the bed
rock in the earth’s crust revealing regions characterized by structural
features, such as dislocation, distortion, faults, folding, thrusts, volcanoes
with their age of formation which are directly involved in the earth
movement or quakes resulting in the above consequences.
3. GENERAL PRINCIPLES AND DESIGN CRITERIA
3.1 General Principles
3.1.1 Earthquakes cause random motion of ground which can be resol-
ved in any three mutually perpendicular directions. This motion causes the
structure to vibrate. The vibration intensity of ground expected at any
location depends upon the magnitude of earthquake, the depth of focus,
distance from the epicentre and the strata on which the structure stands.
The predominant direction of vibration is horizontal. Relevant combina-
tions of forces applicable for design of a particular structure have been
specified in the relevant clauses.
3.1.2 The response of the structure to the ground vibration is a function
of the nature of foundation soil; materials, form, size and mode of construc-
tion of the struture; and the duration and the intensity of ground motion.
This standard specifies design seismic coefficient for structures standing on
soils or rocks which will not settle or slide due to Ioss of strength during
vibrations.
11
IS:1893 - 1984
3.1.3 The seismic coefficients recommended in this standard are based
on design practice conventionally followed and performance of structures
in past earthquakes, It is well understood that the forces which structures
would be subjected to in actual earthquakes, would be very much larger
than specified in this sta.ndard as basic seismic coefficient. In order to take
care of this gap, for special cases importance factor and performance factor
( where necessary ) are specified in this standard elsewhere.
3.1.4 In the case of structures designed for horizontal seismic force only,
it shall be considered to act in any one direction at a time. Where both
horizontal and vertical seismic forces are taken into account, horizontal
force in any one direction at a time may be considered simultaneously with
the vertical force as specified in 3.4.5.
3.1.5 The vertical seismic coefficient shall be considered in the case of
structures in which stability is a criterion of design or, for overall stability,
analysis of structures except as otherwise stated in the relevant clauses.
3.1.6 Equipment and systems supported at various floor levels of struc-
tures will be subjected to motions corresponding to vibrations at their
support points. In important cases, it may be necessary to obtain floor
response spectra for design.
3.2 Assumptions - The following assumptions shall be made in the
earthquake resistant design of structures:
a>
b)
Cl
Earthquake causes impulsive ground motion which is complex
and irregular in character, changing in period and amplitude each
lasting for small duration. ‘Therefore, resonance of the type as
visualized under steady state sinusoidal excitations will not occur
as it would need time to build up such amplitudes.
Earthquake is not likely to occur simultaneously with wind or
maximum flood or maximum sea waves.
The value of elastic modulus of materials, wherever required, may
be taken as for static analysis unless a more definite value is avail-
able for use in such condition.
3.3 Permissible Increase in Stresses and Load Factors
3.3.1 Permissible hcrease in Material Stresses - Whenever earthquake
forces are considered along with other normal design forces, the permissi-
ble stresses in materials, in the elastic method of design, may be increased
by one-third. However, for steels having a definite yield stress, the stress
be limited to the yield stress; for steels without a definite yield point, the
will stress will be limited to 80 percent of the ultimate strength or 0.2 per-
cent proof stress whichever
is smaller and that in prestressed concrete
members, the tensile stress in the extreme fibres of the concrete may be
permitted so as not to exceed 213 of the modulus of rupture of concrete.
12
IS : 1893 - 1984
3.3.2 Load Factors - Whenever earthquake forces are considered along
with other normal design forces, the following factors may be adopted:
a) For ultimate load design of steel structures:
UL = 1*4(DL+LL+EL)
where
b)
UL = the ultimate load for which the structure or its elements
should be designed according to the relevant Indian
Standards for steel structures;
DL = the dead load of the structure;
LL = the superimposed load on the structure considering its
modified values as given in the relevant clauses of this
standard; and
EL = the value of the earthquake load adopted for design,
For limit state design of reinforced and prestressed concrete
structures.
The partial safety factors for limit states of serviceability and collapse
and the procedure for design as given in relevant Indian Standards ( ste
IS : 456-1978* and IS : 1343-1980t ) ‘may be used for earthquake loads
combined with other normal loads, The live load values to be used shall
be as given in the relevant clauses of this standard.
NOTE I.-- The members of reinforced or prcstressed concrete shall be under
reinforced so as to cause a tensile failure.
Further, it should be suitably designed so
that premature failure due to shear or bond may not occur subject to the provisions
of IS : 456-1978* and IS : 1343-1980t.
NATE 2 - The members and their connections in steel structures should be so
proportioned that high ductility is obtained avoiding premature failure due to
elastic or inelastic buckling of any type.
NOTE 3
- Appropriate details to achieve ductility are given in IS : 4326-1976#.
3.3.3 Permissible I ncrease in Allowable Bearing Pressure of Soils - When
earthquake forces are included, the permissible increase in allowable bear-
ing pressure of soil shall be as given in Table 1, depending upon the type
of foundation of the structure.
*Code of practice for plain and reinforced concrete ( third reuision ).
TCode of practice for prestressed concrete (first revision ).
$Code of practice for earthquake resistant design and construction of buildings (Jirsl
revision ) ,
13
NOTE I- The allowable bearing pressure shall be determined in accordance with IS : 6403-1981$ or IS:
1888-1982s.
NOTE 2 - If any increase in bearing pressure has already been permitted for forces other than seismic forces, the
total increase in allowable bearing pressure when seismic force is also included shall not exceed the limits specified
above.
NOTE 3 - Submerged loose sands and soils falling under classification SP with standard penetration values less
than the values specified in Note 5 below, .the vibrations caused by earthquake may cause liquefaction or excessive
total and differential settlements. In important projects this aspect of the problem need be investigated and appro-
priate methods of compaction or stabilization adopted to achieve suitable JY Alternatively, deep pile foundation may
be provided and taken to depths well into the layer which are not likely to liquefy. Marine clays and other sensitive
clays are also known to liquefy due to collapse of soil structure and will need special treatment according to site
conditions.
NOTE 4 - The piles should be designed for lateral loads neglecting laterel resistance of soil layers liable to
liquefy.
NOTE 5 - Desirable field values of N are as follows:
<one Depth below ground level in mdres N Values Remarks
III, IV and V IJpto5 15 For values of depth between 5 to 10 m
linear interpolation is recommended
I and II ( for important up to ‘j” l?
structures only ) 10 20
*See IS : 1498-1970 Classification and identification of soils for general engineering purposes (Jirsf reuision ).
t&‘ee IS : 2131-1981 Method of standard penetration test for soils (first reoision ).
$Code of practice for determination of bearing capacity of shallow foundations (Jirst revision ).
§Method of load tests on soils ( second revision ).
IS : 1893 - 1904
3.4 Design Seismic Coefficient for Different Zones
3.4.1 For the purpose of determining the seismic forces, the country is
classified into five zones as shown in Fig. 1.
3.4.2 The earthquake force experienced by a structure depends on its
own dynamic characteristics in addition to those of the ground motion.
Response spectrum method takes into account these characteristics and is
recommended for use in case where it is desired to take such effects into
account. For design of other structures an equivalent static approach em-
ploying use of a seismic coefficient may be adopted.
3.4.2.1 Unless otherwise stated, the basic seismic coefficients ( a,, )
and seismic zone factors ( F, ) in different zones shall be taken as given
in Table 2 and Appendices E and F.
TABLE 2 VALUES OF BASIC SEISMIC COEFFICIENTS AND SEISMIC
ZONE FACTORS IN DIFFERENT ZONES
(Clauses 3.4.2.1, 3.4.2.3 and3.4.5)
i%.
ZONE No. METHOD
r----
---_---h-__-_-_---_~
Seismic Coefficient Response Spectrum Method
Method ( see Appendix F )
r___h-_-Y
r-----
h_____~
Basic horizontal Seismic zone factor for
seismic coefficient, average acceleration
a0
spectra to be used
with Fig. 2, F,
(1) (2) (3) (4)
i) V 0’08 0’40
ii) IV 0’05 0.25
iii) III 0’04 0’20
iv) II 0’02
0.10
v)
I 0’01 0’05
NOTE - For under ground structures and foundations at 30 m depth or below,
the basic seismic coefficient may be taken as 0’5 a,;
for structures placed between
ground level and 30 m depth, the basic seismic coefficient may be linearly inter-
polated between a,, and 0.5 a,.
The seismic coefficients according to 3.4.2.1 for some important towns and cities
are given in Appendix E.
3.4.2.2 The design seismic forces shall be computed on the basis of
importance of the structure and its soil-foundation system.
3.4.2.3 The design values of horizontal seismic coefficient, CQ-, in the
Seismic Coeficient and Resflonse Spectrum methods shall be computed as given
by the following expressions:
a) I n Seismic Co@cient Method the design value of horizontal seismic
coefficient Mh shall be computed as given by the following
expression:
clh = p I&,
IS:1893 - 1984
0 96 DAMPING
2 vi
NATURAL PERIOD OF VIBRATION IN SECONDS
Fro. 2 AVERAGE ACCELERATION SPECTRA
3.4.5 The vertical seismic coefficient where applicable ( see 3.1.5 ) may
be taken as half of the horizontal seismic coefhcient as indicated in 3.4.2.
In important structures where there is a possibility of amplification of ver-
tical seismic coefficient, dynamic analysis is preferable. In that case F,
values in Table 2 should be multiplied by 0.5.
4. BUILDINGS
4.1 Design Live Loads
4.1.1 For various loading classes as specified in IS : 875-1960*, thehori-
zontal earthquake force shall be calculated for the full dead load and the
percentage of live loads as given below:
Load Class Percentage of Design
Live Load
200, 250 and 300 25
400, 500,750 and 1 000 50
*Code of practice for structural safety of buildings : Loading standards (revised ).
18
IS : 1893 - 1984
TABLE 3 VALUES OF f3 FOR DIFFERENT SOIL-FOUNDATION SYSTEMS
( Clause 3.4.3 )
SL TYPE OB SOI L VALUES OF @BOR
No. MAI NLY
r----------
*_-----_----_~
CONSTI TUTI NG Piles Piles Not Raft Combined I solated Well
THEFOUNDATIO~~ Passing Covered Founda- or I solated RCC Founda-
Through Under tions RCC Footings tions
Any Soil, Co1 3 Footings Without
but Rest- with Tie Tie Beams
ing on Soil Beams or Unrein-
Type I
forced Strip
Founda-
tions
(1) (2)
i) Type I Rock or
hard soils
ii) Type I I Medium
soils
iii) Type I I I Soft
soils
(3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8)
1’0 - 1.0 1’0 1’0 1’0
1-O 1’0 1’0 1.0 1.2 1.2
1.0 1.2 1-o
1’2
l-5 1’5
NOTE - The value of 3 for dams shall be taken as 1’0.
NOTE - The values of importance factor, Z given in this table are for guidance.
A designer may choose suitable values depending on the importance based on eco-
nomy, strategy and other considerations.
SL
No.
(1)
i)
ii)
iii)
iv)
TABLE 4 VALUES OF IMPORTANCE FACTOR, Z
( Clauses 3.4.2.3 and 3.4.4 )
STRUCTURE VALUEO~ I MPORTANCE
FACTOR, Z
( see Note )
(2)
Dams ( all types )
Containers of inflammable or poisonous gases or
liquids
(3)
3.0
2’0
I mportant service and community structures, such
as hospitals; water towers and tanks; schools; im-
portant bridges; important power houses; monu-
mental structures; emergency buildings like tele-
phone exchange and fire bridge; large assembly
structures like cinemas, assembly halls and sub-
way stations
All others
l-5
1’0
19
IS:1893 - 1984
NOTE 1 - The percentage of live loads given above shall also be used for cal-
culating stresses due to vertical loads for combining with those due to earthquake
forces. Under the earthquake condition the whole frame except the roof may be
assumed loaded with live load proportions specified above, without further reduc-
tions in live load as envisaged in IS : 875-1964”.
NOTE 2 - The proportions of the live load indicated above for calculating the
horizontal seismic forces are applicable to average conditions. Where the probable
loads at the time of an earthquake are more accurately assessed, the designer may
alter the proportions indicated or even replace the entire live load proportions by the
actual assessed load.
NOTE 3 - If the live load is assessed instead of taking the above proportions
for calculating. horizontal earthquake force, only that part of the live load shall be
considered which possesses mass. Earthquake force shall not be applied on impact
effects.
4b1.2 For calculating the earthquake force on roofs, the live load may
not be considered.
4.2 Design Criteria for Multi-storeyed Buildings
4.2.1
follows:
a)
b)
C)
The criteria for design of multi-storeyed buildings &ail be as
In case of buildings with floors capable of providing rigid horizon-
tal diaphragm action, a separate building or any block of a build-
ing between two separation sections shall be analyzed as a whole
for seismic forces as per 3.1.4. The total shear in any horizontal
plane shall be distributed to various elements of lateral forces
resisting system assuming the floors to be infinitely rigid in the
horizontal plane, In buildings having shear walls together with
frames, the frames shall be designed for at least 25 percent of the
seismic shear.
In case of buildings where floors are not able to provide the
diaphragm action as
independently;
in (a) above the building frames behave
and may be analyzed frame by frame with
tributory masses for seismic forces as per 3.1.4.’
The following methods are recommended for various categories of
buildings in various zones:
Building Height Seismic <ones Recommended Method
Greater than III, IV and Detailed dynamic analysis
40 m V ( either modal anaylsis or
time history analysis based
on expected ground motion
for which special studies
are required ). For preli-
-_
*Code of practice for structural safety of buildings: Loading standards ( revised ).
Building Height Seismic <ones
Greater than I and II Modal analysis using res-
90 m ponse spectrum method
Greater than All zones
40 m and up to
90 m
Modal analysis using res-
ponse spectrum method.
Use of seismic coefficient
method permitted for
zones I, II and III
Modal analysis using res-
ponse spectrum method.
Use of seismic coefficient
method permitted in all
zones
Less than 40 m All zones
IS:1893 - 1984
Recommended Method
minary design, modal ana-
lysis using response spec-
trum method may be em-
ployed
d) Check for drift and torsion according to 4.2.3 and 4.2.4 is
desirable for all buildings, being particularly necessary in cases of
buildings greater in height than 40 m.
NOTE 1 -For buildings having irregular shape and/or irregular distrikttion of
mass and stiffeners in horizontal and/or vertical plane it is desirable to carry out
modal analysis using response spectrum method ( see al so Note 2 below 4.2.1.1 ).
NOTE 2 - For multi-storeyed buildings, it is assumed that the storey heights are
more or less uniform ranging between 2’7 and 3.6 m. In exceptional cases where one
or two-storey heights have to be up to 5 m, the applicability of the clause is not
vitiated.
4.2.1.1 The base shear VB is given by the following formula:
where
X=
c
=
ah =
w=
7-I
performance factor depending on the structural framing
system and brittleness or ductility of construction ( see
Table 5 ),
a coefficient defining the flexibility of structure with the
increase in number of storeys depending upon fundamen-
tal time period I ( see Fig. 3 ),
design seismic coefficient as defined in 3.4.2;3 (a),
total dead load + appropriate amount of live load as
defined in 4.1, and
fundamental time period of the building in seconds ( see
Note 1 ).
21
IS : 1893 - 1985
NOTE 1 - The fundamental time period may either be established by experi-
mental observations on similar buildings or calculated by any rational method of
analysis. In the absence of such data T may be determined as follows for multi-
storeyed buildings:
a) For moment resisting frames without bracing or shear walls for resisting
the lateral loads
T=O’ln
where
o = number ofstoreys including basement storeys.
b) For all others
where
~ = 0’09 H
2/r
H = too;1 height of the main structure of the building in metres,
d = maximum base dimension of building in metres in a direc-
tion parallel to the applied seismic force.
NOTE 2 - The above clause shall not apply to buildings having irregular shape
and/ or irregular distribution of mass and stiffness in horizontal and/ or vertical
plane. A few buildings of this type are shown in Fig. 4. For such buildings modal
analysis shall be carried out.
2.0 2.4 2.8 3.0
PERIOD IN SECONDS
FIG. 3 C Versus PERIOD
22
1s : 1893 - 1984
PLAZA TYPE BUILDING
(BUILDING WITH SUDDEN CHANGES IN STIFFNESS)
BUILDING WITH FLEXIBLE
FIRST STOREY
[INCLUDING BUILDINGS LIKE
p
,
ASSEMBLY HALLS AND CINEMA
THEATRES WHERE THE CENTRA
BUILDING IN
AUDITORIUM (IN ONE STOREY)
HILLY AREA
COVERS UPTO THREE STOREYS
OF THE SIDE FLANKS]
Fro. 4 BUILDINGS IN WHICH CLAUSE 4.2.1.1 SHALL NOT BE APPLICABLE
23
IS r1893 - 1984
SL No.
(1)
i) a)
b)
ii) a)
b)
iii)
TABLE 5 VALUES OF PERFORMANCE FACTOR, K
(Clause4.2.1.1 )
STRUCTURAL FRAMINQ SYSTEM
(2)
Moment resistant frame with appro-
priate ductility details as given in
IS: 437.6-1976* in reinforced con-
crete or steel
Frame as above with R. C. shear
walls or steel bracing members desi-
gned for ductility
Frame as in (i) (a) with either steel
bracing members or plain or
nominally reinforced concrete infill
panels
Frame as in (i) (a) in combination
with masonry infills
Reinforced concrete framed build-
ings [ Not covered by (i) or (ii)
above ]
*Code of practice for earthquake resistant
( jirst revision ) .
VALUES OB
PERWOR~I~AN~E
FACTOR, X
(3)
1’0
REXARKS
(4)
-
These factors will
apply only if the steel
bracing members and
the infill panels are
taken into considera-
tion in stiffness as well
lateral strength calcu-
lations provided that
the frame acting alone
will be able to resist
at least 25 percent of
the design seismic
forces
1’6
design and construction of buildings
4.2.1.2 Distribution of forces along with the height of the building is
given by the following formula:
where
Qi =
VB =
wi =
lateral forces at roof of floor i,
base shear as worked out in 4.2.1.1,
load ( dead load + appropriate amount of live load ) of
the roof or any floor i ( see Note below ),
.
1s I 1893 - 1984
hi
= height measured from the base of building to the roof or
any floor i; and
n = number of storeys including the basement floors, where
the basement walls are not connected with ground floor
deck or the basement walls are not fitted between build-
ing columns, but excluding the basement floors where
they are so connected.
NOTE - In calculating, Wi, the weight of walls and columns in any storey is
assumed to be shared half and half between the roof or floor at top and the floor or
ground at bottom, and all weights are assumed to be lumped at the level of the roof
or any floor i.
4.2.1.3 The force and shear distributions for at en-storeyed building
are illustrated in Fig. 5.
STOREY
i Wr
No
5A Frame 56 Distribution 5C Distribution of Shears
of Forces
Fro.5 FORGE AND SHEARDISTRIBUTION FORTEN-STOREYEDBUILDING
For a ten-storeyed building in Fig. 5:
VB = CUhK(Wr+ 9 Wt)
25
IS:1893 - 1984
where
Vi = shear injth storey.
NOTE -For other notations, see 4.2.1.1 and 4.2.1.2.
4.2.2 Modal Analysis - The lateral load Qi(r) acting at any floor
level i due to rth mode of vibration is given by the following equation:
QP
= xw, +p c, ah(r)
where
Wi = weight of the floor i as given in 4.2.1.2,
X = performance factor depending upon the type of buildings
as given in Table 5,
4,(r) = mode shape coefficient at floor i in rth mode vibration
obtained from free vibration analysis,
C, = mode participation factor, and
u,,(r) = design horizontal seismic coefficient as defined in 3.4.2.3
!l?? rth mode
corresponding to appropriate period and damping in
.
4.2.2.1 The mode participation factor C, may be given by the follow-
ing equation:
i=n
Z Wi#*)
c, = g
s Wi r #P) I”
i=l
26
IS : 1893 - 1984
where
i, W&@) are same as defined in 4.2.2, and
n = total number of storeys as defined in 4.2.1.1.
4.2.2.2 The shear force, Vi, acting in the ith storey may be obtained
by superposition of first three modes as follows:
3
Y/
3
v, = ( 1 - y) L: vi(r) + y B {Vp)}a
r=l r=l
where
V,(r) = absolute value of maximum shear at the ith storey in
the rth mode; the value of y shall be as given below:
Height, H
Y
up t?*O 0.40
40 0.60
60 0.80
90 1.00
NOTE - For intermediate heights of buildings, value of y may be obtained by
linear interpolation.
4.2.2.3 The total load at Qn and Qr acting at roof level n and floor
level i will be computed from the following equations respectively:
Qn = Vn
QI = Vl - vi $1
The overturning moments at various levels of the building may be
computed by using the above roof and floor level forces.
4.2.3 Drift - The maximum horizontal relative displacement due to
earthquake forces between two successive floors shall not exceed 0.004
times the difference in IeveIs between these floors.
4.264 Torsion of Buildings - Provision shall be made for the increase in
shear resuhing from the horizontal torsion due to an eccentricity between
the centre of mass and the centre of rigidity. The design eccentricity
shall be taken as 1.5 times the computed eccentricity between the centre
of mass and the centre of rigidity. Negative torsional shears shall be
neglected.
29
IS : 1893 - 1984
4.3 Type of Construction - For different types of construction adopted
the constructional details and the appropriate design criteria to be adop-
ted shall be according to 5 of IS : 4326-1976*.
4.4 Miscellaneous
4.4.1 Towers, tanks, parapets, smoke stacks ( chimneys ) and other
vertical cantilever projections attached to buildings and projecting above
the roofs shall be designed for five times the horizontal seismic coefficient
specified in 3.4.2.1. However, compound walls need not be designed for
increased seismic coefficient except where the environmental circumstances
indicate that their collapse may lead to serious consequences,
4.4.2 Ail horizontal projections like cornices and balconies shall be
designed to resist a vertical force equal to five times the vertical seismic
coefficient specified in 3.4.5 multiplied by the weight of the projection.
NOTE - The increased seismic coefficients specified in 4.4.1 and 4.4.2 are for
designing the projecting part and its connection with the main structure. For the
design of the main structure such increase need not be considered.
4.4.3 For industrial structures and frame structures of large spans and
heights, modal analysis using response spectrum method is recommended.
5. ELEVATED STRUCTURES
5.1 General
5.1.1 The elevated structures covered by these provisions include eleva-
ted tanks, refinery vessels and stacklike structures, such as chimneys of
normal pro.portions. In the case of the elevated structures of unusual
proportions, more detailed studies shall be made.
5.2 Elevated Tower-Supported Tanks
5.2.1 For the purpose of this analysis, elevated tanks shall be regarded
as systems with a single degree of freedom with their mass concentrated
at their centres of gravity.
5.2.2 The damping in the system may be assumed as 2 percent of the
critical for steel structures and 5 percent of the critical for concrete
( including masonry ) structures.
5.2.3 The free period T,
in seconds, of such structures shall be
calculated from the following formula:
*Code ofpractice for earthquake resistant design and construction of buildings (Jrsl
revision ) .
28
IS: 1893.1984
where
A = the static horizontal deflection at the top of the tank
under a static horizontal force equal to a WC ight W acting
at the centre of gravity of tank. In calculating the period
of steel tanks, the members may be assumed to be pin-
joined with only the tensile members of the bracing
regarded as active in carrying the loads. No pre-tension
shall be assumed in the bracing rods; and
g = acceleration due to gravity.
5.2.4 The design shall be worked out both when the tank is full and
when empty. When empty, the weight W used in the design ( see 5.2.3 )
shall consist of the dead load of the tank and one-third the weight of the
staging. When full, the weight of contents is to be added to the weight
under empty condition.
5.2.5 Using the period T as calculated in 5.2.3 and appropriate damp-
ing, the spectral acceleration shall be read off from the average accelera-
tion spectra given in Fig. 2. The design horizontal seismic coefficient, Q
shall be calculated as in 3.4.2.3 (b).
5.2.6 The lateral force shall be taken equal to:
UbW
where
alI
- design horizontal seismic coefficient as given in 5.2.5, and
W = weight as defined in 5.2;4.
Thisforce shall be assumed to be applied at the centre of gravity of
the tank horizontally in the plane in which the snucture is assumed to
oscillate for purposes of carrying out the lateral load analysis.
5.2.7 E?_ydodyrzamic Pressure in Tanks
5.2.7.1 When a tank containing fluid vibrates the fluid exerts im-
pulsive and convective pressures on the tank. The convective pressures
during earthquakes are considerably less in magnitude as compared to
impulsive pressures and its effect is a sloshing of the water surface. For the
purpose of design only the impulsive pressure may be considered.
5.2.7.2 Rectangular container
The pressure at any location x ( see Fig. 6 ) is given by:
29
IS : 1893 - 1984
t‘-----” ------j
I
RECTANGULAR TANK (PLAN)
CIRCULAR TANK (PLAN)
(
x
+---- 21 OR 2R-------4
E LE VAT ION
FIQ. 6 RECTANGULAR AND CIRCULAR WATER TANKS
30
IS :1893 -1984
The pressure on the wall would be:
The pressure on the bottom of the tank would be:
where
x, y, 1 and h are as defined in Fig 6 and w is the unit weight of
water, and a1 for tanks located on towers is to be taken as per
response spectrum method and for those located on ground
corresponding to seismic coefficient method [ see 3.4.2.3 (a) 1.
5.2.7.3 Circular container - The pressure on the wall would be :
PI = ah wh ~/~cosI $’
[$-+(f)“]tanh,/ r(%), and
The pressure on the bottom of the tank on a strip of width 2 I! ( see
Fig. 6 ), would be:
where
x, y, I’, R and h are as defined in Fig. 6 and w and ah are as
defined in 5.2.7.2.
5.3 Stacklike Structures
5.3.1 Stacklike structures are those in which the mass and stiffness is
more or less uniformly distributed along the height. Cantilever structures
like chimneys and refinery vessels are examples of such structures
( see Note).
NOTE - Such structures will not include structures like bins, hyperbolic cool-
ing towers, refinery columns resting on frames or skirts. Modal analysis will be
necessary in such cases.
31
IS : 1893 - 1984
5.3.2 Period of free vibration, T, of such structures when fixed at base,
shall be calculated from the following formula:
where
C, = coefficient depending upon the slenderness ratio of the
structure given in Table 6,
wt
= total weight of structure including weight of lining and
contents above the base,
h’ 1 height of structures above the base,
Es = modulus of elasticity of material of the structural shell,
A = area of cross-section at the base of the structural shell, and
g = acceleration due to gravity.
-5.3.2.1 For circular structures, A = 2 x rt where r is the mean radius
of structural shell and t its thickness.
5.3.3 Using the period 2; as indicated in 5.3.2, the horizontal seismic
coefficient uh shall be obtained from
and as in 3.4.2.3 (b).
the spectrum given in Fig. 2
TABLE 6 VALUES OF C, AND Cv
( Clazrses 5.3.2 nnd 5.3.4 )
R*Tro COEFFIClENL' COEFFICIENT
k CT
CV
5
14’4 1’02
10 21’2 1’12
15
29’6 l-19
20 38.4 l-25
25 47’2 1.30
30
56.0 1’35
35 65.0 l-39
40 73’8 1’43
45 82’8 1’47
50 or more 1’8k 1’50
where
k = ratio, h’/re; and
re = radius of gyration of the structural shell at the base section.
32
IS:1893 - 1984
5.3.4 The design shear force V, for such structures at a distance x’ from
the top, shall be calculated by the following formula:
V= Cvah Wt
L
5 x’ 2 x’ *
--- -i-
F h’
( )I
3 h
where
C, = coefficient depending on slenderness ratio k given in
Table 6,
ah =
design horizontal seismic coefficient determined in accor-
dance with 5.3.3, and
Wt and h’ are same as defined in 5.3.2.
5.3.5 The design bending moment M at a distance x’ from top shall be
calculated by the following formula:
M = a,Wig[ 0.6 ($)l’* + 0.4 ($ >‘I
where
h = height of centre of gravity of structure above base. Other
notations are the same as given in 5.3.2 and 5.3.4.
6. BRIDGES
6.1 General
6.1.1 Bridge as a whole and every part of it shall be designed and cons-
tructed to resist stresses produced by lateral forces as provided in the stan-
dard. The stresses shall be calculated as the effect of a force applied hori-
zontally at the centres of mass of the elements of the structure into which
it is conveniently divided for the purpose of design. The forces shall be
assumed to come from any horizontal direction.
6.1.2 Masonry and plain concrete arch bridges with spans more than
10 m shall not be built in zones IV and V.
6.1.3 Slab, box and pipe culverts need not be designed for earthquake
forces.
6.1.4 Bridges of length not more than 60 m and spans not more than
15 m need not be designed for earthquake forces other than in zones IV
and V.
6.1.5 Modal analysis shall be necessary, in the following case, in zones
IV and V:
a) in the design of bridges of type, such as, suspension bridge, bas-
cute bridge, cable stayed bridge, horizontally curved girder bridge
and reinforced concrete arch or steel arch bridge; and
33
IS : 1893 - 1984
b) when the height of substructure from base of foundations to the
top of pier is more than 30 m or when the bridge span is more
than 120 m.
6.1.6 Earthquake force shall be calculated on the basis of depth of scour
caused by the discharge corresponding to the average annual flood [ see IS :
4410 ( Part P/ Set 5 )-1977]*. Earthquake and maximum flood shall be
assumed not to occur simultaneously.
6.2 Seismic Force - In seismic coefficient method, the seismic force to
be resisted shall be computed as follows:
where
Fh -
horizontal seismic force to be resisted,
ah = design horizontal seismic coefficient as specified
in 3.4.2.3 (a), and
W,,, = weight of the mass under consideration ignoring
reduction due to buoyancy or uplift.
b) Fv = uv w,
where
F, = vertical seismic force to be resisted, and
uv = design vertical seismic coefficient.
6.3 Live Load on Bridges
6.3.1 The seismic force due to live load shall be ignored when acting in
the direction of the traffic but shall be taken into consideration when
acting in the direction perpendicular to traffic as specified in 6.3.2.
6.3.2 The seismic force due to live load shall be calculated for 50 per-
cent of the design live load excluding impact for railway bridges and 25
percent of the design live load excluding impact for road bridges specified
in the relevant Indian Standards. These percentages are only for working
out the magnitude of seismic force. For calcu!ating the stresses due to live
load, 100 percent of the design live load for railway bridges and 50 per-
cent of the design live load for road bridges specified in the relevant
Indian Standards shall be considered at the time of earthquake.
*Glossary of terms relating to river valley projects: Part 2 Hydrology, Section 5
Floods.
34
Ii:1893- 1984
6.4 Superstructure
6.4.1 The superstructure shall be designed for horizontal seismic coeffi-
cient specified in 3.4.2.3 and vertical seismic coefficient according to 3.4.5
due to the dead load and the live load as specified in 6.3.
6.4.2 The superstructure of the bridge shall be properly secured to the
piers ( particularly in zones IV and V ) to prevent it from being
dislodged off its bearings during an earthquake by suitable methods.
6.4.3 The superstructure shall have a minimum factor of safety of 1.5
against overturning in the transverse direction due to simultaneous action
of the horizontal and vertical accelerations.
6.5 Substructure
6.5.1 The seismic forces on the substructure above the normal scour
depth ( see 6.1.6 ) shall be as follows:
Horizontal and vertical forces due to dead, live and seismic loads
as specified in 6.4 transferred from superstructure to the substruc-
ture through the bearings as shown in Fig. 7.
Horizontal and vertical seismic forces according to 3.4.2.3 and
3.4.5 due to self-weight applied at the centre of mass ignoring
reduction due to buoyancy or uplift.
Hydrodynamic force as specified in 6.5.2 acting on piers and
modification in earth pressure due to earthquake given in 8.1.1
to 8.1.4 acting on abutments.
6.5.1.1 Piers shall be designed for the seismic forces given in 6.5.1
assuming them to act parallel to the current and traffic directions taken
separately.
6.5.1.2 In the case of piers, oriented skew either to the direction of
current or traffic, they shall be checked for seismic forces acting parallel
and perpendicular to pier direction.
6.5.1.3 The substructure shall have a minimum factor of safety of 1.5
due to simultaneous action of the horizontal and vertical accelerations.
6.5.2 For submerged portions of the pier, hydrodynamic force (in addi-
tion to earthquake force calculated on the mass of the pier) shall be assu-
med to act in a horizontal direction corresponding to that of earthquake
motion. The total horizontal force F shall be given by the following
formula:
F-
Ce Uh w,
35
IS t 1893 - 1985
where
G
= a coefficient ( see Table 7 ),
ah = dcns$n horizontal seismic coefficient as given in 3.4.2.3 (a),
W&l
= weight of the water of the enveloping cylinder
(see 6.5.2.2).
A-
ROLLING LOADS
Rl
R2 LROCKER
7A GIRDER SPAN
“.#,
V-
V'
76 ARCH SPAN
RI and RP are reactions at the two supports after being modified due to move-
ment (Fe).
Change in vertical reactions = f Fe/L’
Fl = pR1 ( if ,W1<F’/2 )
FI = F’/2 ( if pLR1 > F’/2 )
F2 = F’ - Fl
Frc.7 TRANSFER OF FORCES FROMSUPERSTRUCTURETO SUBSTRUCTURE
TABLE 7 VALUES OF C,
HEIUET~~SIJBMERCJED Ce
PORTION OB PIER ( H)
RADIUS OF ENVELOPI~
CYLINDER
1'0 0.390
2'0 0.575
3'0 0'675
4'0 0'730
36
IS:1893 -1984
6.5.2.1 The pressure distribution will be as shown in Fig. 8. Values
of coefficients Cr, G’s, Cs and Cd for use in Fig. 8 are given below:
Cl G G G
o-1 6,410 O-026 0.934 5
o-2 O-673 o-093 0.871 2
0.3 O-832 0.184 0.810 3
o-4 o-922 0,289 0.751 5
o-5 0,970 0,403 O-694 5
O-6 o-990 0.521 0.639 0
0.8 0.999 0.760 0.532 0
1.0 1.000 1 a000 0.428 6
.
L
c2pb
r
1. 2 F
t-_Pb’H-a
J -
I
FIG. 8 DIAGRAM SHOWING PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION
r
6.5.2.2 Some typical cases of submerged portions of piers and the
enveloping cylinders are illustrated in Fig. 9.
37
IS:1893 -1984
(‘7)
/
/
i
\
DIRECTION OF \,
- SEISMIC FORCE
FIG. 9 CASES OF ENVELOPING CYLINDER
6.5.2.3 The earth pressure on the back of abutments of bridge shall
be calculated as in 8 (see Note ).
NOTE - The hydrodynamic suction from the water side and dynamic increment
in earth pressures from the earth side shall not be considered simultaneously. The
water level on earth side may be treated as the same as on the river side.
6.6 Submersible Bridges -
For submerged superstructure of submersi-
ble bridges, the hydrodynamic pressure shall be determined by the follow;
ing equation:
P
= 875
ah 4%
where
P=
ah =
H=
hydrodynamic pressure in kg/ ms;
design horizontal seismic coefficient as given in 3.4.2.3 (a);
height of water surface from the level of deepest scour
( see 6.1.6 ) in m; and
Y=
depth of the section below the water surface in m.
6.6.1 The total horizontal shear and moment per metre width about the
centre of gravity of the base at any depth J, due to hydrodynamic pressure
are given by the following relations:
vh =
213 PY
Mh= 4115 PYa
where
vh = hydrodynamic shear in kg/ m, and
Mh = hydrodynamic moment in kg.m/ m.
38
.
1s : 1893 -1984
7. DAMS AND EMBANKMENTS
7.1 General -- In the case of important dams ic is recommended that
detailed investigations are made in accordance with IS : 4967-1968* for
estimating the design seismic parameters. However, where such data are
not available and in the case of minor works and for preliminary design of
major works, the seismic forces specified in 7.2 and 7.3 or 7.4, as the case
may be, shall be considered.
7.2 Hydrodynamic Effects Due to Reservior
7.2.1 Effects of Horitontal Earthquake Acceleration - Due to horizontal
acceleration of the foundation and dam there is an instantaneous hydrody-
namic pressure ( or suction ) exerted against the dam in addition to hydro-
static forces. The direction of hydrodynamic force is opposite to the direc-
tion of earthquake acceleration. Based on the assumption that water is
incompressible, the hydrodynamic pressure at depth y below the reservoir
surface shall be determined as follows:
where
p := hydrodynamic pressure in kg/ ma at depth y,
Cs = coefficient which varies with shape and depth ( see
7.2.1.1 ),
ah =
design horizontal seismic coefficient [ see 3.4.2.3 (b) and
7.3.1 1,
w = unit weight of water in kgims, and
h = depth of reservior in m.
7.2.1.1 The variation of the coefficient Cs, with shapes and depths,
is iIIustrated in Appendix G. For accurate determination, these values may
be made use of. However, approximate values of C, for dams with vertical
or constant upstream slopes may be obtained as follows :
where
c, = maximum value of C, obtained from Fig. 10,
y = depth below surface, and
h = depth of reservoir.
*Recommendations for seismic instrumentation for river valley projects.
39
I8 :1893- 1984
For darns with combination of vertical and sloping faces, an equi-
valent slope may be used for obtaining the approximate value of C,.
The
equivalent slope may be obtained as given in 7.2.1.2.
0.6
0.5
E
& 0.4
w
3
a
I I I
0
0* 26 48 SO’ 60’
INCLINATION OF FACE FROM THE VERTICA
‘L (6)
FIG. 10 MAXIMUM VALUES OF PRESSURE COEFFICIENT ( C,,, ) FOR
CONSTANT SLOPINO FACES
18 : 1893 - 1984
7.2.1.2 If the height of the vertical portion of the upstream face of
the dam is equal to or greater than one-half the total height of the dam,
analyze it as if vertical throughout. If the height of the vertical portion
of the upstream face of the dam is less than one-half the total height of
the dam, use the pressure on the sloping line connecting the point of
intersection of the upstream face of the dam and the reservoir surface
with the point of intersection of the upstream face of the dam with the
foundation.
7.2.1.3 The approximate values of total horizontal shear and
moment about the centre of gravity of a section due to hydrodynamic
pressure are given by the relations:
V,, = 0.726 )~y
Mh = 0.299 by=
where
Vh = hydrodynamic shear in kg/ m at any depth, and
ikfh - moment in kg.m/ m due to hydrodynamic force at any
depth y.
7.2.2 EJ ect of Horizontal Earthquake Acceleration on the Vertical Component
of Reservoir and Tail Water Load - Since the hydrodynamic pressure ( or
suction ) acts normal to the face of the dam, there shall, therefore, be a
vertical component of this force if the face of the dam against which it is
acting is sloping, the magnitude at any horizontal section being:
Wh = ( Vz - VI ) tan 6
where
Wh = increase ( or decrease ) in vertical component of load in
kg due to hydrodynamic force,
V2 = total shear in kg due to horizontal component of
hydrodynamic force at the elevation of the section being
VI =
8=
considered,
total shear in kg due to horizontal component of hydro-
dynamic force at the elevation at which the slope of the
dam face commences, and
angle between the face of the dam and the vertical.
The moment due to the vertical component of reservoir and tail
water load may be obtained by determining the lever arm from the
centroid of the pressure diagram.
41
J S : 1893 - 1984
7.3 Concrete or Masonry Gravity and Buttress Darns
7.3.1 Earthquake Forces - In the design of concrete and masonry
dams, the earthquake forces specifi.ed in 7.3.1.1 to 7.3.1.4 shall be con-
sidered in addition to the hydrodynamic pressures specified in 7.2. For
dams up to 100 m height the horizontal seismic coefficient shall be taken
as 1.5 times seismic coefficient, Q in 3.4.2.3 (a) at the top of the dam
reducing linearly to zero at the base. Vertical seismic coefficient shall
be taken as 0.75 times the value of tch at the top of the dam reducing
linearly to zero at the base. For dams over 100 m height the response
spectrum method shall be used for the design of the dams. Both the
seismic coefficient method ( for dams up to 100 m height ) and response
spectrum method ( for dams greater than 100 m height ) are meant only for
preliminary design of dams. For final design dynamic analysis is desirable.
For design of dam using the approach of linear variation of normal stresses
across the cross-section, tensile stresses may be permitted in the upstream
face up to 2 percent of the ultimate crushing strength of concrete.
7.3.1.1 Concrete or masonry inertja force due to horizontal earthquake accele-
ration
a) Seismic coe&cient method ( dams uj to 100 m height ) - The hori-
zontal inertia force for concrete or masonry weight due to horizontal
earthquake acceleration shall be determined corresponding to the hori-
zontal seismic coefficient specified in 7.3.1. This inertia force shall be
assumed to act from upstream to downstream or downstream to upstream
to get the worst combination for design. It causes an overturning moment
about the horizontal section adding to that caused by hydrodynamic
force.
b) Response spectrum method ( dams greater than 100 m height )
1) The fundamental period of vibration of the dam may be
assumed as:
T = 5.55 g
2/-
zOm_
IL+%
where
H = height of the dam in m,
B- base width of the dam in m,
Wm =
unit weight of the material of dam in kg/ ms,
g = acceleration due to gravity in m/ s”, and
E, = modulus of elasticity of the material in kg/ ms.
2) Using the period in (1) and for a damping of 5 percent, the
design horizontal seismic coefficient CQ shall be obtained from
3.4.2.3 (b).
42
1s : 1893 - 1984
3) The base shear,
VB and base moment MB may be obtained
by the following
formulae:
where
4)
w=
total weight of the masonry or concrete in the dam
in kg,
height of the centre of gravity of the dam above the
base in m, and
ah =
design seismic coefficient as obtained in 7.3.1.1 (b) (2).
For any horizontal section at a depth y below top of the dam
shear force, V,
and bending moment M, may be obtained
as follows:
where C’V and C’, are given in Fig. 11.
RESERVOIR EMPTY
VY = c; vg
MY = c;, t.40
g--l/-VY OR MY
DL
I
‘h
0.6
0.8
- .
I . 0
I I I I I
w
0 0. 1 0.2 0.3 0.6 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.E 0.9
COEFFICIENTS C; AND C;n
FIG. 11 VALUES OF Cv AND Cm ALONG THE HEIGHT OF DAM
L.... I”L,~__.__r _ _“__. ___ ._.-, . .._.. _ ..II, I -. --_.- ---.-. --.
_.._ _“.^ -....-
lS:1893-1984
7.3.1.2 Efict of vertical earthquake acceleration - The effect of vertical
earthquake acceleration is to change the unit weight of water and concrete
or masonry. An accrlrration upwards increases the weight and an accele-
ration downwards decrcascs the weight. To consider the effect of vertical
earthquake acceleration, the vertical seismic coefficient would be as
follows:
a) For seismic coeficient method of design - At the top of the dams it
would be 0’75 times the ah value given in 3.4.2.3 (a) and reducing
linearly to zero at the base.
b) For response spectrum method of design - At the top of the dam it
would be 0.75 times the value of c(h given in 7.3.1.1 (b) (2) and
reducing linearly to zero at the base.
7.3.1.3 Effect of earthquake acceleration on upl;ft forces - Effect of earth-
quake acceleration on uplift forces at any horizontal section is determined
as a function of the hydrostatic pressure of reservoir and tail-water against
the faces of the dam. During an earthquake the water pressure is changed
by the hydrodynamic effect. However, the change is not considered effec-
tive in producing a corresponding increase or reduction in the uplift force.
The duration of the earthquake is too short to permit the building up of
pore pressure in the concrete and rock foundations.
7.3.1.4 Effect of earthquake acceleration on dead silt loads - It is sufficient
to determine the increase in the silt pressure due to earthquake by con-
sidering hydrodynamic forces on the water up to the base of the dam and
ignoring the weight of the silt.
7.3.2 Earthquake Forces for Ouerjow Sections - The provisions for the
dam as given in 7.3.1 to 7.3.1.4 will be applicable to over-flow sections as
well. In this case, the height of the dam shall be taken from the base of
the dam to the top of the spillway bridge for computing the period as well
as shears and moments in the body of the dam. However, for the design
of the bridge and the piers, the horizontal seismic coefficients in either
direction may be taken as the design seismic coefficient for the top of the
dam worked out in 7.3.1 and applied uniformly along the height of the
pier.
7.4 Earth and Rockfill Dams and Embankments
7.4.1 General - It is recognized that an earth dam or embankment
vibrates when subjected to ground motion during an earthquake requiring
thereby a dynamic analysis of the structure for its design. Nevertheless,
currently accepted design procedure is based on the assumption that the
portion of the dam above the rupture surface is rigid. Therefore, the
method given in 7.4.2 which assumes additional horizontal and vertical
loads on the soil mass within the rupture surface shall be adopted. It is,
however, desirable to carry out dynamic analysis for final design of
important dams in order to estimate deformations in dams in probable
future earthquakes.
44
IS 2 1893 - 1984
7.4.2 Seismic Force on Soil Mass
7.4.2.1 The procedure for finding out the seismic coefhcient which
will depend upon the height of the dam and the lowest point of the
rupture surface shall be as follows:
a) Determine the fundamental period of the structure from the
formula:
where
T = fundamental period of the earth dam in s,
Ht = height of the dam above toe of the slopes,
P
=
mass density of the shell material, and
G = modulus of rigidity of the shell material.
NOTE - The quantity +fGT.
p IS the shear wave velocity through the mate-
rial of the dam and may be used if known instead of p and G.
b) Determine S,/ g for this period T and 10 percent damping from
average acceleration spectrum curves given in Fig. 2.
c) Compute design seismic coefficient ah using 3.4.2.3 (b).
7.4.2.2 For checking slope failure with the lowest point of the
rupture surface at any depth y below top of dam, the value of equivalent
uniform seismic coefficient shall be taken as:
where
H = total height of the dam.
7.4.3 Stability of the Upstream Slope
7.4.3.1 The stability of the upstream slope of an earth or rockfill dam
shall be tested with full reservoir level with horizontal forces due to earth-
quake acting in upstream direction and vertical forces due to earthquake
( taken as one half of horizontal ) acting upwards.
7.4.3.2 For preliminary design, a factor of safety of unity shall be
accepted as being adequate for ensuring stability of upstream slope. The
factor of safety need be tested only for failure surface which passes through
the lower half of the dam.
45
fS : 1893 - 1984
7.4.4 Stability of Downstream Slope - The provision of 7.4.3 shall also
apply in determining stability of the downstream slope except that the
horizontal force due to earthquake should be considered acting in the
downstream direction.
7.4.5 Miscellaneous - Earthquake forces shall not be normally included
in stability analysis for the construction stage or for the reservoir empty
condition. Hocvever, where the construction or operating schedule requi-
res the reservoir empty condition to exist for prolonged periods, earth-
quake forces may be included and may be calculated based on 50 percent
of the value obtained from 7.4.3 or 7.4.4.
Provisions in 7.4.3 and 7.4.4 modified to suit the conditions of empty
reservoir shall apply for testing the stability of the upstream and down-
stream s!opes.
Junctions between spillways and abutments shall be constructed with
great care in view of the damage that may be caused by differential
vibrations of the dam and the spillway.
8. RETAINING WALLS
8.1 Lateral Earth Pressure - The pressure from earthfill behind retain-
ing walls during an earthquake shall be as given in 8.1.1 to 8.1.4. In the
analysis, cohesion has been neglected. This assumption is on conservative
side.
8.1.1 Active Pressure Due to Earthfill - The general conditions encounter-
ed for the design of retaining walls are illustrated in Fig. 12A. The active
pressure exerted against the wall shall be:
Pa -
& zoh2 C,
where
P, = active earth pressure in kg/ m length of wall,
W = unit weight of soil in kg/ ms,
h - height of wall in m, and
c,= (1 &av)cos”(~---a) x
cos h toss a cos ( 6 + a -j- h )
[
1
a
l+
{
sin(++6)sin(#---t--A 3
cos(a - L)cOs(a+a+h
II
the maximum of the two being the value for design,
IS : 1893 - 1984
ocI = vertical seismic coefficient - its direction bemg taken consis
ten+ throughout the stability analysis of wall and equal to
t all
IJ = angle of internal friction of soil,
A = tan-1 -.E.L_
1 f Qv
a. = angle which earth face of the wall makes with the vertical,
1 - slope of earthfill,
6 = angie of friction between the wall and earthfill, and
CQ, = horizontal seismic coeficient [ see 3.4.2.3 (a) 4.
12A Active Piessure 12B Passive Pressure
Fro. 12 EARTII PRESSURE I)LJP, TO EARTHQUAKE ON RETAINING WALLS
8.X.1.1 The active pressire may be determined graphically by means
of the method desc ribcd in Appendix H.
8.1.1.2 Point of ap/dication -. Prom the total pressure computed as
above subtract the static active pressure obtained by putting tlh = ccV =
h = 0 in the expression given in 8.1.1. The remainder is the dynamic
increment. The static component of the total pressure shall be applied at
an elevation h/ 3 above the base of the wall. The point of application of
the dynamic increment shall bc assumed to be at mid-height of the wail.
8.1.2 Passive Pressure Due to EarthJ ill -- The general conditions ~encoun-
tered in the design of retaining walls are illustrated in Fig. 12B. The pas-
sive pressurt. against the walls shall be given by the following formula :
I’, =- 4 wh=cp
47
IS: 1893 - 1984
where
P, = passive earth pressure in kg/ m length of wall;
C
p =
( 1 f av ) Co@ ( # + a - h 1
cos A co@ a cos ( 6 - a + A ) ’
L
1 s
l-
t-
sin($+G)sin($+L-_ 4
- __~._
cos ( dc -
c ) cos ( b - a + A
II
the minimum of the two being the value for design; w, h, a, fi
and L are as defined in 8.1.1; and
h c tan-l
ah
1 f av
8.1.2.1 The passive pressure may be determined graphically by
means of the method described in Appendix J.
8.1.2.2 Point of application -
ed by putting ah = ap =
From the static passive pressure obtain-
r\ = 0 in the expression given in 8.1.2, subtr-
act the total pressure computed as above. The remainder is the dynamic
decrement The static component of the total pressure shall be applied at
an elevation h/ 3 above the base of the wall. The point of application of
the dynamic decrement shall be assumed to be at an elevation 0.66 h
above the base of the wall.
8.1.3 Active Pressure Due to UnifTorm Surcharge - The active pressure
against the wall due to a uniform surcharge of intensity q per unit area of
the inclined earthfill surface shall be:
Psh =
qh cos a C
co.3 ( a - C) ’
8.1.3.1 Point of application - The dynamic increment in active pres-
sures due to uniform surcharge shall be applied at an elevation of 0.66 h
above the base of the wall, while the static component shall be applied at
mid-height of the wall.
8.1.4 Passive Pressure Due to Uniform Surcharge - The passive pressure
against the wall due to a uniform surcharge of intensity q per unit area of
the inclined earthfill shall be:
IS : 1893 - 1984
8.1.4.1 Point of afifilication - The dynamic decrement in passive pres-
sures due to uniform surcharge shall be applied at an elevation of 0.66 h
above the base of the-walls while the static component shall be applied at
mid-height of the wall.
8.2 Effect of Saturation on Lateral Earth Pressure
8.2.1 For saturated earthfill, the saturated unit weight of the soil shall
be adopted as in the formulae described in 8.1.
8.2.2 For submerged earthfill, the dynamic increment ( or decrement )
in active and passive earth pressure during earthquakes shall be found
from expressions given in 8.1.1 and 8.1.2 with the following modifications:
a) The value of 6 shall be taken as 4 the value of 6 for dry backfill.
b) The value of A shall be taken as follows:
A = tan-l-$.-)(%
8 l 1 * uv
where
w, = saturated unit weight of soil. in gm/ cc,
CQ, = horizontal seismic coefficient [, see 3.4.2.3 (a) 1, and
av = vertical seismic coefficient which is 3 ah.
c) Buoyant unit weight shall be adopted.
d) From the value of earth pressure found out as above, subtract the
value of earth pressure determined by putting @h=MV=h=O but
using buoyant unit weight. The remainder shall be dynamic
increment.
8.2.3 Hydrodynamic pressure on account of water contained in earthfill
shall not be considered separately as the effect of acceleration on water
has been considered indirectly.
8.3 Partially Submerged Backfill
8.3.1 The ratio of the lateral dynamic increment in active pressures to
the vertical pressures at various depths along the height of wall may be
taken as shown in Fig. 13.
The pressure distribution of dynamic increment in active pressures
may be obtained by multiplying the vertical effective pressures by the
coefficients in Fig. 13 at corresponding depths.
NOTE - The procedure may also be used for determining the distribution of
dynamic pressure increments in 8.1.1.2 and 8.1.3.1.
49
IS:1893 - 1984
+-3(C,- K,)
1
Ca is computed as in 8.1.1 for dry ( moist ) saturated backfills.
C’a is computed as in 8.1.1 and 8.2.2 for submerged backfills.
Ka is the value of Ca when ah =aV = h = 0.
K’a is the value of C’a when @h = av = h = 0.
h’ is the height of submergence above the base of the wall.
h is the height of the retaining wall.
FIG. 13 DISTRIMJ TION OF THE RATIO
LATERAL DYNAMIC INCREMENT
VP,RTICAL EFFECTWE PRESSURE
WITH HEIGIIT OF WALL
50
IS : 1893 - 1984
8.3.2 A similar procedure as in 8.3.1 may be utilized for determining
the distribution of dynamic decrement in passive pressures.
8.4 Concrete or Masonry Inertia Forces - Concrete or masonry iner-
tia forces due to horizontal and vertical earthquake accelerations are the
products of the weight of wall and the horizontal and vertical s&mic
coefficients respectively ( see 3.4.2 and 3.4.5 ).
NATE - To ensure adequate factor of safety under earthquake condition, the
design shall be such that the factor of safety against sliding shall be 1’2 and the
resultant of all the forces including earthquake force shall fall within the middle
three-fourths of the base width provided. In addition, bearing pressure in soil should
not exceed the permissible limit.
9. NOTATIONS AND SYMBOLS
9.1 The various notations and letter symbols used in the formulae and in
the body of the standard shall have the meaning as given in Appendix K.
As in the Original Standard, this Page is Intentionally Left Blank
IS : 1893 - 1981
APPENDIX A
( &“St? 0 7 I )
MAP OF INDIA
SHOWING EPlCiNTRES
MAGNITUDE
MORE THAN 6.0
DEEP FOCUS SHOCKS
NUMBER OF SHOCKS (n)
FROM THE SAME ORIGIN
EPICENTRES AND MAGNlTUDES SHOWN
BY DOTTED CIRCLES ARE APPROXIMATE
53
As in the Original Standard, this Page is Intentionally Left Blank
Class of
Earthquake
I
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII
VIII
IS : 1893 . 1984
APPENDIX D
( Clause 2.7 )
EARTHQUAKE INTENSITY SCALES
D-l. MODIFIED MERCALLI INTENSITY SCALE ( ABRIDGED )
Remarks
Not felt except by a very few under specially favourable circum-
stances
Felt only by a few persons at rest, specially on upper floors of
buildings; and delicately suspended objects may swing
Felt quite noticeably indoors, specially on upper floors of build-
ings but many people do not recognize it as an earthquake;
standing motor cars may rock slightly; and vibration may be felt
like the passing of a truck
During the day felt indoors by many, outdoors by a few, at
night some awakened; dishes, windows, doors disturbed; walls
make creaking sound, sensation like heavy truck striking the
building; and standing motor cars rocked noticeably
Felt by nearly everyone; many awakened; some dishes, windows,
etc,. broken; a few instances of cracked plaster; unstable objects
overturned; disturbance of trees, poles and other tall objects
noticed sometimes; and pendulum clocks may stop
Felt by all, many frightened and run outdoors; some heavy
furniture moved; a few instances of fallen plaster or damaged
chimneys; and damage slight
Everybody runs outdoors, damage negligible in buildings of
good design and construction; slight to moderate in well built
ordinary structures; considerable in poorly built or badly desi-
gned structures; and some chimneys broken, noticed by persons
driving motor cars
Damage slight in specially designed structures; considerable in
ordinary but substantial buildings with partial collapse; very
heavy in poorly built structures; panel walls thrown out of fra-
med structures; falling of chimney, factory stacks, columns,
monuments, and walls; heavy furniture overturned, sand and
mud ejected in small amounts; changes in well water; and
disturbs persons driving motor cars
IS : 1893 - 1984
Class of Remarks
Earthquake
IX Damage considerable in specially designed structures; well desi-
gned framed structures thrown out of plumb; very heavy in
substantial buildings with partial collapse; buildings shifted off
foundations; ground cracked conspicuously; and underground
pipes broken
X Some well built wooden structures destroyed; most masonry and
framed structures with foundations destroyed; ground badly
cracked; rails bent; landslides considerable from river banks and
steep slopes; shifted sand and mud; and water splashed over
banks
XI Few, if any, masonry structures remain standing; bridges destro-
yed; broad fissures in ground, underground pipelines completely
out of service; earth slumps and landslips in soft ground; and
rails bent greatly
XII Total damage; waves seen on ground surfaces; lines of sight
and levels distorted; and objects thrown upward into the air
D-2. COMPREHENSIVE INTENSITY SCALE
D-2.1 The scale was discussed generally at the inter-governmental meet-
ing convened by UNESCO in April 1964. Though not finally approved,
the scale is more comprehensive and describes the intensity of earth-
quake more precisely. The main definitions used are as follows:
a) ,Ty@e of Structures ( 23uildings ) :
Structure A Buildings in field-stone, rural structures, unburnt-
brick houses, clay houses.
Structure B Ordinary brick buildings, buildings of the large
block and prefabricated type, half timbered struc-
tures, buildings in natural hewn stone.
Structure C Reinforced buildings, well built wooden structures.
b) Definition of Quantity:
Single, few About 5 percent
Many About 50 percent
Most About 75 percent
c) ClassiJication ef Damage to Buildings:
Grade 1 Slight damage
Fine cracks in plaster; fall of small
pieces of plaster
Grade 2 M o d e r a t e Small cracks in walls; fall of fairly
damage large pieces of plaster, pantiles slip
off; cracks in chimneys; parts of
chimney fall down
1,
58
Grade 3 Heavy damage
Grade 4 Destruction
Grade 5 Total damage
d) I ntensity Scale:
I
II
III
IV
V
Large and deep cracks in walls; fall
of chimneys
Gaps in walls; pal’ts of buildings may
collapse; separate parts of the build-
ing lose their cohesion; and inner
walls collapse
Total collapse of buildings
Not noticeable.
The intensity of the vibration is below the limit of sensibility;
the tremor is detected and recorded by seismographs only
Scarcely noticeable .( very slight ).
Vibration is felt only by individual people at rest in houses,
especially on upper floors of buildings
Weak , partially observed only.
The earthquake is felt indoors by a few people, outdoors only
in favourable circumstances. The vibration is like that due to
the passing of a light truck. Attentive observers notice a slight
swinging of hanging objects, somewhat more heavily on
upper floors
Largely observed.
The earthquake is felt indoors by many people, outdoors by
few. Here and there people awake, but no one is frightened.
,The vibration is like that due to the passing of a heavily loaded
truck. Windows, doors and dishes rattle. Floors and walls
crack. Furniture begins to shake. Hanging objects swing slight-
ly, Liquids in open vessels are slightly disturbed. In standmg
motor cars the shock is noticeable
Awakening: ,
a) The earthquake is felt indoors by all, outdoors by many-
Many sleeping people awake. A few run outdoors. Ani.
mals become uneasy. Buildings tremble throughout. Hang-
ing objects swing considerably. Pictures knock against walls
or swing out of place. Occasionally pendulum clocks stop.
Unstable objects may be overturned or shifted. Open doors
and windows are thrust open and slam back again. Liquids
spill in small amounts from well-filled open containers. The
sensation of vibration is like that due to heavy object fall-
ing inside the buildings
59
b) Slight damages in buildings of Type A are possible
c) Sometimes change in flow of springs
VI Frightening:
a)
Felt by most indoors and outdoors. Many people in build-
ings are frightened and run outdoors. A few persons lose
their balance. Domestic animals run out of their stalls. In
few instances dishes and glassware may break, books fall
down. Heavy furniture may possibly move and small steeple
bells may ring
b)
C>
Damage of Grade 1 is sustained in single buildings of Type
B and in many of Type A. Damage in few buildings of
Type A is of Grade 2.
In few cases cracks up to widths of I cm possible in wet
ground; in mountains occasional landslips; change in flow
of springs and in level of well water are observed
IS:1893 - 1984
VII Damage of buildings:
a) Most people are frightened and run outdoors. Many find it
difficult to stand. The vibration is noticed by persons driv-
ing motor cars. Large bells ring
b) In many buildings of Type C damage of Grade 1 is caused;
in many buildings of Type B damage is of Grade 2. Most
buildings of Type A suffer damage of Grade 3, few of
Grade 4. In single instances landslips of roadway on steep
slopes; cracks in roads; seams of pipelines damaged; cracks
in stone walls
VIII Destruction of buildings:
4
b)
c)
Fright and panic; also persons driving motor cars are dis-
turbed. Here and there branches of trees break off. Even
heavy furniture moves and partly overturns. Hanging
lamps are damaged in part
Most buildings of Type C suffer damage of Grade 2, and
few of Grade 3. Most buildings of Type B suffer damage of
Grade 3, and most buildings of Type A suffer damage of
Grade 4. Many buildings of Type C suffer damage of
Grade 4. Occasional breaking of pipe seams. Memorials
and monuments move and twist. Tombstones overturn.
Stone walls collapse.
Small landslips in hollows and on banked roads on steep
slopes; cracks in ground up to widths of several centimetres.
Water in lakes becomes turbid. New reservoirs come into
existence. Dry wells refill and existing wells becomes dry.
In many cases change in flow and level of water is observed,
60
IS:1893 - 1984
IX General damage to buildings:
a) General panic; considerable damage to furniture. Animals
run to and fro in confusion and cry
b) Many buildings of Type C suffer damage of Grade 3, and
a few of Grade 4. Many buildings of Type B show damage
of Grade 4, and a few of Grade 5. Many buildings of Type
A suffer damage of Grade 5. Monuments and columns fall.
Considerable damage to reservoirs; underground pipes
partly broken. In individual cases railway lines are bent
and roadway damaged
c) On flat land overflow of water, sand and mud is often obser-
ved. Ground cracks to widths of up to 10 cm, on slopes
and river banks more than 10 cm; furthermore a large
number of slight cracks in ground; falls of rock, many land-
slides and earth flows; large waves in water. Dry wells
renew their flow and existing wells dry up
X General destruction of buildings:
a)
b)
Many buildings of Type C suffer damage of Grade 4, and a
few of Grade 5. Many buildings of Type B show damage
of Grade 5; most of Type A have destruction of Grade 5;
critical damage to dams and dykes and severe damage to
bridges. Railway lines are bent slightly. Underground
pipes are broken or bent. Road paving and asphalt show
waves
In ground, cracks up to widths of several centimetres, some-
times up to 1 metre. Parallel to water courses occur broad
fissures. Loose ground slides from steep slopes. From river
banks and steep coasts, considerable landslides are possible.
In coastal areas, displacement of sand and mud; change of
water level in wells; water from canals, lakes, rivers, etc,
thrown on land. New lakes occur
XI Destruction:
4
b)
Severe damage even to well built buildings, bridges, water
dams and railway lines; highways become useless; under-
ground pipes destroyed
Ground considerably distorted by broad cracks and fissures,
as well as by movement in horizontal and vertical direc-
tions; numerous landslips and falls of rock. The intensity of
the earthquake requires to be investigated specially
XII Landscape changes:
a) Practically all structures above and below ground are
greatly damaged or destroyed
61
IS : 1893 - 1984
b) ‘lhe surface of the ground is radically changed. Considera-
ble ground cracks with extensive vertical and horizontal
movements are observed. Falls of rock and slumping of
river banks over wide areas, lakes arc da.mmed; waterfalls
appear, and rivers are deflected. The intensity of the
earthquake requires to be investigated specially.
APPENDIX E
( Clause 3.4.2.1 and Table 2 )
BASIC HORIZONTAL SEISMIC COEFFICIENTS FOR
SOME IMPORTANT TOWNS
Town
Agra
Ahmadabad
Ajmer
Allahabad
Almora
Ambala
Amritsar
Asansol
Aurangabad
Bahraich
Bangalorc
Barauni
Bareilly
Bhatinda
Bhilai
Bhopal
Bhubaneswar
Bhuj
5
one
III
I I I
I
I I
I V
I V
I V
I I I
I
I V
I
I V
I I I
I I I
I
I I
I I I
V
Basic
Horizontal
Seismic
Coe$icient
,4;4
o-04
0.01
0.02
0.05
0.05
0.05
0 04
o-01
0.05
0.01
o-05
o-04
0.04
0.01
0.02
0.04
0.08
62
Town
Bikaner
Bokaro
Bombay
Burdwan
Calcutta
Calicut
Chandigarh
Chitrgaurad
Coimbatore
Cuttack
Darbhanga
Darjeeling
Dehra Dun
Delhi
Durgapur
Sangtok
Sauhai
Zaya
5
one
I I I
I I I
I I I
I I I
I I I
I I I
I V
I
I I I
I I I
V
I V
I V
I V
I I I
I V
V
111
Basic
Horizonto
Seismic
Coeficient
a0
0.04
0.04
0.04
0.04
0.04
0.04
(1.05
0.01
0.04
.0:04
0.08
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.04
0.05
0.08
0 04
I S : 1893 - 1984
Town
Gorakhpur
Hyderabad
I mphal
J abalpur
J aipur
Jamshed pur
J hansi
J odhpur
J orhat
Kanpur
Kathmandu
Kohima
Kurnool
Lucknow
Ludhiana
Madras
Madurai
Mandi
Mangalore
Monghyr
Moradabad
Mysore
Nagpur
Nainital
Nasik
Nellore
zone
I V
I
V
I I I
I I
I I
I
I
V
I I I
V
V
I
I I I
I V
I I
I I
V
I I I
I V
I V
I
I I
I V
I I I
I I
Basic
Horizontal
Seismic
Coeficient
a0
o-05
0.01
O-08
o-04
0.02
0.02
0.01
0.01
O-08
0.04
0.08
0.08
0.01
0.04
0.05
0.02
o-02
0.08
0.04
0 -05
0.05
o-01
0.02
0.05
0.04
0.02
Town
Panjim
Patiala
Patna
Pilibhit
Pondicherry
Pune
Raipur
Raj kot
Ranchi
Roorkee
Rourkela
Sadiya
Simla
Sironj
Srinagar
Surat
Tezpur
Thanjavur
Tiruchirapalli
Trivandrum
Udaipur
Vadodara
Varanasi
Vijayawada
5
OUZ
I I I
I I I
I V
I V
I I
I I I
I
I I I
I I
I V
I
V
I V
I
V
I I I
V
I I
I I
I I I
I I
I I I
I I I
I I I
Visakhapatnam I I
Basic
Horizontal
Seismic
CoejSient
a0
o-04
0.04
o-05
0.05
0.02
0.04
0 01
o-04
0.02
0.05
0.01
0.08
0.05
0.01
0.08
o-04
0.08
0.02
0.02
0.04
0.02
0.04
0.04
o-04
0.02
NOTE - 7’he coefficients given are according to 3.4.2.1 and should be suitably
modified fc,r iqlortant structures in accordance with 3.4.2.3, 4.4 and 7.1 and should
be read along with other provisions of the standard.
63
APPENDI X F
( Clnuse 3.4.2.1 and Table 2 )
SPECTRA OF EARTHQUAKE
F-l. GENERAL
F-l.1 Spectrum of an earthquake is the representation of the maximum
dynamic response of idealized structures during an earthquake. The idea-
lized structure is a single degree of freedom system having a certain period
of vibration and damping. The maximum response is plotted against the
natural period of vibration and can be expressed in terms of maximum
absolute acceleration, maximum relative velocity or maximum relative dis-
placement, For the purpose of design, acceleration spectra are very useful,
as they give the seismic force on a structure directly by multiplying it with
the generalized or modal mass of the structure.
F-2. AVERAGE SPECTRA
F-2.1 Prof. G. W. Housner has proposed average spectra on the basis of
studies on response spectra of four strongest earthquakes that have occurred
in USA ( see Fig. 2 which shows the average acceleration spectra ).
F-2.2 To take into account the seismicity of the various zones, the ordi-
nate of the average spectra are to be multiplied by a factor F,. This factor
F. depends on the magnitude, duration and form of the expected earth-
quake, distance of the site from expected epicentre, soil conditions and
resistance deformation characteristics of the structure, etc. For elastic
design with permissible increase in stresses or load factors as given in 3.3,
approximate values of this factor are given in Table 2.
NOTE - It may be pointed out that during the expected maximum intensity of
earthquake in the various seismic zones, structures will be subjected to a bigger force.
But the capacity of the structure in plastic range will be available for absorbing the
kinetic energy imparted by the earthquake. Therefore, the structural details are to
be worked out in such a manner that it can undergo sufficient plastic deformations
before failure [see 1.2 and3.3.2 (b) ( Note 3 ) 1.
F-3. DAMPING IN STRUCTURES
F-3.1 The variety of damping displayed in different types of structures has
made the choice of a suitable damping coefficient for a given structure
largely a matter of judgement. However, some values are given below to
indicate the order of damping coefficient in various types of structures:
a) Steel structures 2 to 5 percent of critical
b) Concrete structures 5
,, 10 ,> 7, >,
64
c) Brick structures in cement mortar 5 to 10 percent of critical
d) Timber structures 2 5
,,
e) Earthen structures 10 ), 30 :: :: ::
NOTE - It may be mentioned here that in the elastic range, damping displayed
by structures is much lower than that given above. It may lie between 1 and 4 per-
cent for the above type of structures at low stresses. The values given thus presume
some inelastic deformations or fine cracking to take place when this order of damp-
ing will occur. However, for obtaining design seismic coefficient, the values of damp-
ing mentioned in relevant clauses shall apply.
F-4. METHOD OF USING THE SPECTRA
F-4.1 Let the period of a structure be 0.8 second and the damping 5 per-
cent critical. Further let the soil-foundation system give factor, B = 1.2
and let the structure have an importance factor, I = 1.5. Referring to
Fig. 2, the spectral acceleration, S, is O-12 g. If the structure has mass
M= 12.0 kg sets/ cm and is to be located in Zone V, the design horizon-
tal seismic coefficient ah would be [ see 3.4.2.3 (b)]:
ah = P IF, (&/ id
= 1.2 x 1.5 x 0.4 x 0.12
= 0,086 4
Therefore, horizontal seismic force
P = tLh Mg
= 0.086 4 x 12.0 x 981
= 1 017.1 kg
APPENDIX G
( Clause 7.2.1.1 )
VARIATION OF THE COEFFICIENT C, WITH SHAPES
AND DEPTHS
G-l. The increase in water pressure on the surface of dam due to hori-
zontal earthquake forces depends upon the shape of the dam and varies
with depth. In the equation specified in 7.2.1.1, the coefficient C, defines
the magnitude and distribution of the increased pressure.
G-2. G’s is a function of the shape of dam and, is independent of the mag-
nitude and intensity of the earthquake.
G-3. The magnitude of C, for various shapes of dams, illustrated in Fig.
14 to 18, assuming water as incompressible, has been established by
laboratory experiments. For more detailed analysis, these values may be
adopted.
65
WATER SURPPCE
0 0.2 0.1 O-6 O-8 1.0
1 t DISTANCE BELOW SURFACE
h DEPTH OF RESERVOIR
SHAPE A-1
SHAPE A-2
WATER SURPACE WATEP SURFACE
SHAPE A-3 SHAPE A-4
WATER SURFACE
T-Jj-=
p = CS ah wh
VERTICAL
where
p = hydrodynamic pressure at depthy,
Cs = coefficient which varies with shape and depth,
orb = horizontal seismic coefficient ( ~8s 7.1 ),
w = unit weight of water, and
h = maximelm depth of reservoir.
FIG. 14 VALUES OF C, FOR COMBJ NATION SLOPES IN WHICH THE INCLUSIVE ANGLE IS 15” AND
VERTICAL PORTION OF UPSTREAM FACE IS VARIABLE
1 _ DISTANCE BELOW SURFACE
h-
DEPTH OF RESERVOIR
SHAPE C-l
SHAPE C-2
WATER SURFACE
SHAPE C-3
SHAPE C-4
WATER SURFACE
. . . - - -
--*
Btfy-
VERTICAL
where
fi = Cs ah wh
p = hydrodynamic pressure at depthy,
Cs = coefficient which varies with shape and depth,
ah = horizontal seismic coefficient ( sc.s 7.1),
w = unit weight of water, and
h = maximum depth of reservoir.
FIG. 16 VALUES OF C, FOR COMBINATION SLOPES IN WHICH THE INCLUSIVE ANGLE IS 45’ AND
VERTICAL PORTION OF UPSTREAM FACE IS VARIABLE
s
0.7
O-6
0.5
0.6
0 *:
0.2
O.!
0 0’4 o-6 0.s
1= DISTANCE BELOW SURFACE
h
DEPTH OF RESLRVOlR
SHAPE E-l SHAPE E-2
SHAPE E-3 SHAPE E-4
WATER SUNPACE
r-J-=
VERTICAL
where
p = hydrodynamic pressure at depthy,
Cg = coefficient which varies with shape and depth,
ah = basic horizontal seismic coefficient (set 7.1 ),
UI = unit weight of water, and
h = maximum depth of reservoir.
FIG. 18 VALUES OF C, FOR COMBIXATION SLGPES IN WHICH THE INCLUSIVE ANGLE IS 75” AP;D
VERTICAL PORTIOX OF UPSTREAM FACE IS VARIABLE
IS : 1893 - 1984
APPENDI X H
( Clause 8.1.1.1 )
GRAPHICAL DETERMINATION OF ACTIVE EARTH PRESSURE
H-1. METHOD
H-l.1 Make the following construction ( see Fig. 19 ):
Draw BB’ to make an angle ( 4 - A ) with horizontal. Assume
planes of rupture Ba, Bb, etc, such that Aa = ab = bc, etc. Make
Ba’ = a’b’ = b’c’ etc, on BB’ equal to Aa, ab, bc, etc, in length.
Draw active pressure vectors from a’, b’, etc, at an angle ( 90’ -
6-- a - h ) with BB’ to intersect corresponding assumed planes of
rupture. Draw the locus of the intersection of assumed planes of
rupture and corresponding active
pressure vector ( modified
Culmann’s line ) and determine the maximum active pressure vector
X parallel to BE.
t-ASSUME0 PLANE
MAXIMUM ACTIVE
PRESSURE VECTOR
LINE
‘$5
X
Fro. 19 DETERMINATION OF ACTIVE EARTH PRESSURE BY
GRAPHICAL METHOD
H-l.2 The active earth pressure shall be calculated as follows:
P, = 4 ( ‘,; y”’ ) w XBC
where
X = active pressure vector,
BC = prependicular distance from B to AA’ as shown in
Fig. 19, and
P,, UJ, uV and h are as defined in 8.1.1.
71
gsr1&I93-1984
APPENDIX J
( Clause 8.1.2.1 )
GRAPHICAL DETERMINATION OF PASSIVE EARTH PRESSURE
J -1; METHOD
J -l.1 Make the following construction ( see Fig. 20 ):
Draw BB’ to make an angle ( + - h ) with the horizontal, Assume
planes of rupture Ba, Bb, etc, such that Aa - ab = bc, etc. Make
Ba’ = a’b’ - b’c’, etc, on BB’ equal to Aa, ab, bc, etc, in length.
Draw passive pressure vectors from u’, b’, etc, at an angle ( 90” - u
+ 6 + A ) with BB’ to intersect corresponding assumed planes of
rupture. Draw the locus of the intersection of assumed planes of
rupture and corresponding passive pressure vector ( modified
Culmann’s line ) and determine the minimum passive pressure
vector X parallel to BE.
M’IDIFIED
CIILMANN’S LINE
/-ASSUMED PLANE
OF RUPTURE
MINIMUM PASSIVE
PRESSURE VECTOR x
FIG. 20 DETERMINATION OF PASSIVE EARTH PRESSURE BY
GRAPHICAL METHOD
12
IS:lt333-l!m4
J -1.2 The passive pressure shall he calculated as follows:
where
X = passive pressure vector,
BC = f;rnnddicular distance from B to AA‘ as shown in Fig.
P,, w, av Hnd / \ are as defined in 8.1.2.
APPENDIX K
( Clause 9.1 )
NOTATIONS AND SYMBOLS
K-l. The following notations and letter symbols shall
indicated against each, unless otherwise specified in
standard:
A = Area of cross-section at the base of the
stacklike structures
B = Base width of the dam
have the meaning
the body of the
structure shell in
C = Coefficient defining flexibility of structure
C, = Coefficient for determining active earth pressure ( for
dry-moist-saturated backfills)
CB = Coefficient for determining active earth pressure ( for
submerged backfills )
C, - Coefficient depending on submerged portion of pier and
enveloping cylinder
C, = Maximum value of C,
C’, 5 Coefficient to determine bending moment at any section
from base moment in dams
CrJ -
Coefficient for determining passive earth pressure
C, = Mode participation factor
C, = Coefhcicnt which varies with shape and depth of dam
73
_-__---_l-- __.. -. .-- ___---.
_
IS:1893 - 1984
C, = Coefficient depending on slenderness ratio of structure,
used for determining T
Cv = Coefficient depending on slenderness ratio, used for deter-
mining P
C’v = Coefficient to determine shear at any section from base
shear in dams
d = Dimension of building in a direction parallel to the applied
seismic force
DL = Dead load on the structure
EL = Value of earthquake load adopted for design
En = Modulus of elasticity of the material of the structure
F = Total horizontal force for submerged portion of pier
F, = Seismic zone factor
g
et
h
ST=
L=
h’ f
=
j&
hi =
H=
=
Acceleration due to gravity
Modulus of rigidity of the shell material of earth and rock-
fill dam
Height of water stored in tank, or
Depth of reservoir, or
Height of retaining wall
Height of stacklike structure above the base, or
Height of submergence above base of retaining walls
Height of centre of gravity of stacklike structure or dam
above base
Height measured from the base of the building to the roof
or any floor, i
Total height of the main structure of the building, or
Height of submerged portion of pier, or
c Height of water surface from the level of deepest scour, 07
= Height of dam
Ht
= Height of dam above toe of the slopes
I = Importance factor
k = Slenderness ratio of stacklike structure
ET = Performance factor for buildings
KB = Value of C, for static active earth pressure conditions
X’, = Value of C’, for static active earth pressure conditions
1 = Half the ( longer ) length of the rectangular tank
74
IS : 1893 - 1984
1’ = Half the width of strip in circular tank
LL = Superimposed ( live ) load on the structure
M = Design bending moment at a distance x’ from top, in a
stacklike structure
MB = Base moment
Mh = Hydrodynamic moment in submersible bridges
My = Bending moment at depth y below top of dam
n = Number of storeys including basement storeys
P-
Hydrodynamic pressure in submersible bridges or dams, OY
= Hydrodynamic pressure at any location, x, from the centre
of rectangular tank
pb = Pressure on the bottom of the tank or bottom of submerged
portion of the pier
Pw = Pressure on the wall of the tank
P, = Active earth pressure due to earthfill
P, - Passive earth pressure due to earthfill
(Pi&) Cl
= Active earth pressure due to uniform surcharge
(Pr)a = Passive earth pressure due to uniform surcharge
q = Intensity of uniform surcharge
Qt =, Lateral forces at any roof or floor, i
Q,(r) a
Load acting at any floor level, i, due to mode of vibration
r = Mean radius of structural shell of circular stacklike struc-
tures
r, = Radius of gyration of structural shell at the base section of
stacklike structures
R = Radius of circular tank
8, = Spectral acceleration
t = Thickness of structural shell of circular stacklike structure
I = Fundamental time period of vibration of structure
UL = Ultimate load for which the structure or its element
should be designed
V = Design shear force in stacklike structure at distance X’
from the top
Vr = Total shear due to horizontal component of hydrodynamic
force at the elevation at which the slope of the dam face
commences
75
iSr1893 - 1984
V s = Total shear due to horizontal component of hydrodynamic
force at the elevation of the section being considered
VB -
Base shear
Vh
= Hydrodynamic shear in submersible bridges
VI
= Shear force acting at floor, level, i
v, tr)
- Absolute value of maximum shear at the ith storey, in the
rth mode
VY
= Shear force at depth y below top of the dam
w = Unit weight of water, OY
Unit weight of soil
Wm
= Unit weight of material of dam
WE
= Saturated unit weight of soil
W = Total dead load + appropriate amount of live load in
buildings, OY
Total weight of masonry or concrete in the dam
We = Weight of the water of the enveloping cylinder
Wh = Increase ( or decrease ) in vertical component of load due
to hydrodynamic force
WI = Dead load + appropriate amount of live load of the roof
or auy floor, i
W, = Weight of bridge mass under consideration ignoring reduc-
tion due to buoyancy or uplift
Wt = Total weight of stacklike structure including weight of
lining and contents above base
x = Location in a rectangular tank from the centre of the tank
x’ = Distance from the top of stacklike structure
y = Depth of location or section below the water surface or
top of the dam
a = Angle which earth face of the wall makes with the vertical
a0 = Basic seismic coefficient
ah = Design horizontal seismic coefficient
av = Vertical seismic coefficient
UY
= Equivalent uniform seismic coefficient at depth y below top
of dam
p = Soil-foundation system factor
Y
= Constant used to determine shear force at any floor
76
_
IS:1893 -1984
6 = Angle of friction between the wall and earthfill
n = Static horizontal deflection at the top of the tank under a
static horizontal force
0 = Angle between the face of the dam and the vertical
L - Slope of the earthfill
ah
tan’1 i fav
Mass density of the shell material of earth and rockfill dam
Angle of internal friction of soil
Angle subtended by centre line of circular tank in plan,
with chord width of 2 1’
Mode shape coefficient obtained from free vibration
analysis at floor, i
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AMENDMFNT NO. 1 AUGUST 1987
TO
IS:1893-1984 CRITERIA FOR EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT
DESIGN OF STRUCTURES
(Fourth Revision)
(Page 7, Fig. 1, footnotes) - Add the following
new sentence in the end:
'Lakshadweep falls under seismic zone III.'
4
(BDC 39)
Reprography Unit, BIS, New Delhi, IIndia
'i.

IS t 1893 - 1984

Indian Standard
CRITERlA FOR EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT DESIGN OF STRUCTURES

( Fourth Revision )
Earthquake Engineering Sectional Committee, BDC 39
Chairman DR JAI KRISHNA 61 Civil Lines, Roorkee M#mb.ws
SHRI A. ANANTHAKRISRNAN

Rcprssenting

Ministry of Shipping and Transport ( Develop_ ment Wing j SRRI T. R. SUBRAM~NYAM ( Alternate) University of Roorkee, Roorkee DR A. S. ARYA DR A. R. CHANDRASEKARAN ( Alternate I ) DR BRIJESH CHANDRA ( Alternate II ) Ministry of Shipping and Transport ( Roads SHRI S. P. CHAKRABORTI Wing ) SHRI M. K. MUKHE~JEF: ( Alternate ) SIIRI T. A. E. D’SA Concrete Association of India, Bombay SHRI N. Cl. DU~UAL ( Alternate ) Central Water and Power Research Station, Pune DIRECTOR SHRI J. G. PADALE ( Alternate ) M. N. Dastur & Co Pvt Ltd, Calcutta SERI D. S. DESAI Department of Atomic Energy, Bombay SERI V. S. GOWAIKAR SHRI R. PATNAIK ( Alternate ) Fertilizer Corporation of India Ltdi Dhanbad SHRI A. D. GUPTA SHRI N. S. DANI ( Alternate) North Eastern Council, Shillong SHRI INDER MOHAN SHRI C. VASWANI ( Alternate ) DIRECTOR STANDARDS Railway Board (RDSO), Lucknow JOINT ( B & S ) PSC DEPUTY DIRECTOR STANDARDS ( B & S ) CB ( Alternate ) Tata, Consulting Engineers, Rombay SHRI M. Z. KURIAN SHRI K. V. SUBRAMANIAN ( Alternate ) Engineers India Limited, New Delhi SHRI T. K. D. MUNSI SHRI R. K. GROVER (Alternate ) ( Continued on page 2 )

@ Copyright 1966
INDIAN STANDARDS INSTITUTION This publication is protected under the Indian Copyright Act ( XIV of 1957 ) and reproduction in whole or in part by any means except with written permission of the publisher shall be deemed to be an infringement of copyright under the said Act.

IS : 1893 - 1984
( Continued from page Members

1)
REpresEnting

Public Works Department, Government of SERI C. RAMA RAO Arunacbal Pradesh SHRI S. N. KRISRNAN ( Alfernate) Geological Survey of India, Calcutta SERI R. V. CR_~LAPATHI RAO SHRI N. B. G. TILA~ ( Alternnte ) International Airport Authority of India, R~PRERENYATIVE New Delhi Structural Engineering Research Centre, Roorkee REPRESENTATIVE Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd (Research and REPRESENTATIVE Design Division ), Hyderabad Central Building Research Institute, Roorkee REPRESENTATIVE Engineer-in-Chief’s Branch, Army Headquarters SHRI ht. P. v. SHENOY New Delhi SHRI D. K. DINKER ( Alternate ) National Buildings Organization, New Delhi SHRI K. S. SRINIVASAN India Meteorological Department, New Delhi Dn H. N. SRIVASTAVA SHRI S. K. NAQ ( Alternate ) Structural Engineering Research Centre, Madras DR P. SRINIVASULU Dn N. LAKSHMANAN ( Alternate ) In personal capacity ( B-7150 Safdarjung Enclave, Dn A. N. TANDON flew Delhi ) Central Public Works Department, New Delhi SHRI N. VE~XBU SHI~I A. K. MITTAL ( Alternote ) Metallurgical & Engineering Consultants ( India ) SRI~I S. N. VERMA Ltd, Ranchi SHRI S. PASUPATI ( Allernalc) Director General, ISI ( Ex-ojicio Member) SHRI G. RAMAN, Director ( Civ Engg ) Secretary SERI N. Cl. BANDYOPADHYAY Deputy Director ( Civ Engg ), IS1

Maps Subcommittee, BDC 39 : 4
DR S. N. BHATTACHAZ~YA SHRI A. N. DATTA SHRI A. GHOSH SHRI D. R. NANDY ( Alternate )

India Meteorological Department, New Delhi Oil and Natural Gas Commission, Dehra Dun Geological Survey of India, Calcutta National Geophysical Hyderabad Research Institute (CSIR ),

DR HARI NARAIN

DR K. L. KAILA ( Allcrnate ) Survey of India, Dehra Dun G. S. OBEROI SHRI K. N. SAXENA ( AltErnate ‘) , Central Water and Power Research Station, Pune Dn P. C. SAXENA SEIRI I. D. GUPTA ( Alternate ) University of Roorkee, Roorkee SERI L. S. SRIVASTA~A In personal capacity ( B-7150 Safdarjung Enclave, DR A. N. TANDON New Delhi )
SHRI

2

IS:1893 - 1984

Indian Standard
CRITERIA FOR EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT DESIGN OF STRUCTURES

( Fourth Revision )
0. FOREWORD

0.1 This Indian Standard. ( Fourth Revision) was adopted by the Indian Standards Institution on 16 November 1981, after the draft finalized by the Earthquake Engineering Sectional Committee had been approved by the Civil Engineering Division Council. plain, Western India, 0.2 Himalayan-Nagalushai region, Indo-Gangetic Kutch and Kathiawar regions are geologically unstable parts of the country and some devastating earthquakes of the world have occurred there. A major part of the peninsular India has also been visited by strong earthquakes, but these were relatively few in number and had considerably lesser intensity. The earthquake resistant design of structures taking into account seismic data from studies of these Indian earthquakes has become very essential,. particularly in view of the heavy construction programme at present all over the country. It is to serve this purpose that IS : 1893-1962 ‘Recommendations for earthquake resistant design of structures’ was published and subsequently revised in 1966. 0.2.1 As a result of additional seismic data collected in India and further knowledge and experience gained since the publication of the first revision of this standard, the Sectional Committee felt the need to revise the standard again incorporating many changes, such as revision of maps showing seismic zones and epicentres, adding a more rational approach for design of buildings and substructure of bridges, etc. These were covered in the second revision of IS : 1893 brought out in 1970. 0.2.2 As a result of the increased use of the standard, considerable amount of suggestions were received for modifying some of the provisions of the standard and, therefore, third revision of the standard was brought out in 1975. The following changes were incorporated in the third revision: 3

as far as possible.4 It is not intended in this standard to lay down regulations so that no structure shall suffer any damage during earthquake of all magnitudes. While this standard is intended for earthquake resistant design of normal structures. provided certain simple precautions are taken in the construction. base shear and modal analysis have been introduced. There might be cases of less importance and relatively small structures for which no analysis need be made.1984 The a> standard incorporated seismic zone factors ( previously given as multiplying factors in the second revision ) on a more rational basis. 0. For example. Figure 2 for average acceleration spectra has also been modified and a curve for zero percent damping has been incorporated. of hydrodynamic 4 e> f) Clauses on concrete and masonry account their dynamic behaviour formulae for design forces were extensive studies carried out since was published. field values of N.3 The fourth revision has been prepared to modify some of the provisions of the standard as a result of experience gained with the use of this standard. It has been endeavoured to ensure that. it has to be emphasized that in the case of special structures detailed investigation should be undertaken.1 Though the basis for the design of different types of structures is covered in this standard. taking into during earthquakes. Simplified introduced based on results of second revision of the standard 0.IS: 1893 . Similarly in highly . New clauses were introduced pressures in elevated tanks. In the clauses for design of multi-storeyed building the coefficient of flexibility was given in the form of a curve with respect to period of buildings. without structural damage to shocks of moderate intensities and without total collapse to shocks of heavy intensities. A more rational formula was used to combine for determination modal shears. structures are able to respond. 0. dams were modified. it is not implied that detailed dynamic analysis should be made in every case. construction of a type which forces.4. In this revision a number of Important basic modifications with respect to load factors. A new concept of performance factor depending on the structural framing system and brittleness or ductility of construction has been incorporated. suitably proportioned diagonal bracings in the vertical panels of steel and concrete structures add to the resistance of frames to withstand earthquake seismic areas. unless otherwise specified in the relevant clauses. for the varying b) 4 Importance factors were introduced to account degrees of importance for various structures.

For guidance on piecautions to be observed in the construction of buildings. such as masonry. consequences of failure of which. is dependent on many variable factors and it is an extremely dificult task to determine the exact seismic coefficient in each given case. The maximum seismic ground acceleration in each zone cannot be presently predicted with accuracy either on a deterministic or on a probabilistic basis. particularly mud masonry and rubble masonry.7 ) broadly associated with the various zones is V or less. reference may be made to IS : 4326-1976*. The Modified Mercalli Intensity ( see 2. III. a rigorous analysis considering all the factors involved has got to be made in the case of all important projects in order to arrive at suitable seismic coefficients for design. However. The Sectional Committee responsible for the formulation of this standard has attempted to include a seismic zoning map ( see Fig.1984 entails heavy debris and consequent loss of life and property. Considering the effects in a gross manner. used in ihe design of any structure. II. and construction of buildings 5 . VII. by an appropriate Importance Factor as suggested in Table 4. given in Table 2. It is. Higher value of importance factor is usually adopted for those structures. the standard gives guidelines for arriving at design seismic coefficients based on type of soil and foundation system.7 It is important to note that the seismic coeficient. floods. The design value chosen for a particular structure is obtained by multiplying the basic horizontal seismic coefficient for that zone. important to take necessary precautions in the design of structures so that they are safe against such secondary effects also. The object of this map is to classify the area of the country into a number of zones in which one may reasonably expect earthquake shock of more or less same intensity in future. are serious. Tt is. 0.5 Attention is particularly drawn to the fact that the intensity of shock due to an earthquake could greatly vary locally at any ~given place due to variation in the soil conditions. necessary to indicate broadly the seismic coeficients that could generally be adopted in different parts or zones or the country though. 0. therefore. even with an importance factor of unity. 0.6 Earthquakes can cause damage not only on account of the shaking which results from them but also due to other chain effects like landslides. the probability is that *Code of practice for earthquake resistant design (Jr& revision ).IS : 1893. fires and disruption to communication. VIII and 1X and above for zones I. Earthquake forces would be affected by different types of foundation system in addition to variation of ground motion due to various types of soils. 1 ) for this purpose. should be avoided in preference to construction of a type which is known to withstand seismic eflects better. such as construction in light weight materials and well braced timber-framed structures. VI. IV and V respectively. of course. therefore.

ductile structures will be able to resist such shocks without much damage. 6 . in view of the energy absorbing capacity available in inelastic range.IS t 1893 . It is. 0. Though the magnitudes of different earthquakes which have occurred in the past are known to a reasonabIe amount of accuracy. will not suffer serious damage. an entirely scientific basis for zoning in view of the scanty data available.8 In the formulation of this standard due weightage has been given to international coordination among the standards and practices prevailing in different countries in addition to relating it to the practices in the field in this country. the intensities of the shocks caused by these earthquakes have so far been mostly estimated by damage surveys and there is little instrumental evidence to corroborate the conclusions arrived at. necessary that ductility must be built into the structures since brittle structures will be damaged more extensively. 0. therefore. Maps shown in Fig. 1 and Appendices A. cities and industrial areas. and (c) variation in quality and design of structures causing variation in type and extent of damage to the structures for the same intensity of shock. The Committee has also reviewed such a map in the light of past history and future possibilities and also attempted to draw the lines demarcating the different zones so as to be clear of important towns. ib) human error in judgement during the damage survey. B and C are prepared based on information available up to 1986. lithology ( see Appendix C) and the maximum intensities as recorded from damage surveys. is likely to lead in some cases to an incorrect conclusion in the view of (a) incorrectness in the assessment of intensities. considered that a rational approach to the problem would be to arrive at a zoning map based on known magnitudes and’ the known epicentres (see Appendix A) assuming all other conditions as being average. as a little modification in the zonal demarcations may mean considerable difference to the economics of a project in that area. after making special examination of such cases. The Sectional Committee has. It is pointed out that structures will normally experience more severe ground motion than the one envisaged in the seismic coefficient specified in this standard. etc.1984 a structure which is properly designed and detailed according to good construction practice.7. therefore. However. Maximum intensity at different places can be fixed on a scale only on the basis of the observations made and recorded after the earthquake and thus a zoning map which is based on the maximum intensities arrived at.1 The Sectional Committee has appreciated that there cannot be. and to modify such an average idealized isoseismal map in the light of tectonics ( see Appendix B ).

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As in the Original Standard. this Page is Intentionally Left Blank .

and soil dyna- Centre of Mass - masses of system. 2.1 In the preparation of this standard considerable help has been given by the School of Research and Training in Earthquake Engineering.3 Critical Damping not be oscillatory.1 This standard deals with earthquake resistant design of structures and is applicable to buildings. reference may be made to IS : 2809-19721 and IS : 2810-1979s.2 This standard does not deal with the construction features relating to earthquake resistant design in buildings and other structures. shall be rounded off in accordance with IS : 2-1960*. observed or calculated. masonry and earth dams. 2. in reducing the amplitude of vibration and is expressed as a percentage of critical damping. slipping. SCOPE 1. expressing the result of a test or analysis.The effect of internal friction. etc. Further. a system acts.2 Centre of Rigidity -. - which the resultant of the will The damping beyond which the motion 2.0 For the purpose of this standard. bridges. elevated structures. The point through which the resultant This corresponds to centre of gravity of the of the 2. provisions of this standard shall be used along with IS : 4326-1976t. tCode of practice for earthquake resistant design and construction of buildings (first reo1sion ) . concrete. Geological Survey of India. 0. the final value. reference may be made to IS : 4326-1976T. §Glossary of terms relating to soil dynamics (Jitst revision ). For guidance on earthquake resistant construction of buildings. fGlossary of terms and symbols relating to soil engineering (Jirst rcvisio~t ). *Rules for rounding off numerical values ( revised ). 2..The point through restoring forces of a system acts.1 shall apply. slidin. . 1.9 For the purpose of deciding whether a particular requirement of this standard is complied with. University of Roorkee.4 Damping .8. embankments and retaining walls.1984 0. 1. imperfect elasticity of 0‘ material.For the definition of terms pertaining to soil mechanics mics. India Meteorological Department and several other organizations. the following definitions NOTE . The number of significant places retained in the rounded off value should be the same as that of the specified value in this standrd.IS : 1893 . TERMINOLOGY 2.

9 Lithological Features . The magnitude hf is thus a number which is a nieasure of energy released in an earthquake. and can be expressed in terms of maximum absolute acceleration. maximum relative velocity or maximum relative displacement. mineralogic composition and grain size. In this condition the soil tends to behave like a fluid mass. of the maximum res2.The geographical above the focus of the earthquake.Liquefaction is a state in saturated cohesionless soil wherein the effective shear strength is reduced to negligible value for all engineering purposes due to pore pressures caused by vibrations during an earthquake when they approach the total confining pressure. against the undamped natural period and for various damping values. magnification 2 800 and damping nearly critical ) would register the earthquake at an epicentral distance of 100 km.The magnitude of an earthquake is the logarithm to the base 10 of the maximum trace amplitude. and is indicated by a number according to the Modified Mercalli Scale of Seismic Intensities ( see Appendix D ).7 Intensity of Earthquake .The nature of the geological formation the earth’s crust above bed rock on the basis of such characteristics colour. with which the standard short period torsion seismometer ( with a period of 0. .8 Liquefaction . the amplitude of the masses at any particular instant of time expressed as a ratio of the amplitude of one of the masses is known as mode shape coefficient. originating point on the surface of earth vertically of the elastic waves which cause source 2.A system is said to be vibrating in a normal mode or principal mode when all its masses attain maximum values of displacements simultaneously and also they pass through equilibrium positions simultaneously. during that earthquake. of as 2. 2.The shaking of ground. 2. 2.12 Normal Mode .13 Response Spectrum .5 Epicentre .10 Magnitude of Earthquake ( Richter’s Magnitude ) _. structure.The representation ponse of idealized single degree freedom systems having certain period and The maximum response is plotted damping.8 second. expressed in microns. 2.When a system is vibrating in a normal mode.6 Focus .IS : 1893-1984 2. 2.The intensity of an earthquake at a place is a measure of the effects of the earthquake.11 Mode Shape Coefficient .

) mic zone along with the average .IS: 2.A coeficient acceleration as assigned a fraction to each of the seis- .14. 3.2 The response of the structure to the ground vibration is a function of the nature of foundation soil.1 General PRINCIPLES Principles AND DESIGN CRITERIA 3. It is expressed as a function of the basic seismic coefficient (a.A factor to modify the basic seismic coefficient and seismic zone factor.14. GENERAL 3. This standard specifies design seismic coefficient for structures standing on soils or rocks which will not settle or slide due to Ioss of strength during vibrations.) .1 Earthquakes cause random motion of ground which can be resolved in any three mutually perpendicular directions.4 Soil-Foundation System Factor (/3) A factor to modify the basic seismic coefficient and seismic zone factor. distortion. depending upon the soil foundation system. acceleration 2. size and mode of construction of the struture. 3. 2. faults.1.A factor acceleration to be used for different spectra.14. thrusts.14.3 Importance Factor (I) . 2.1 Basic Seismic Coejicient (a. This motion causes the structure to vibrate. volcanoes with their age of formation which are directly involved in the earth movement or quakes resulting in the above consequences.5 Average Acceleration Coejicient expressed as a fraction of acceleration Average specturm due to gravity. and the duration and the intensity of ground motion.The nature of geological formation of the bed rock in the earth’s crust revealing regions characterized by structural features. distance from the epicentre and the strata on which the structure stands. such as dislocation. the depth of focus. the importance factor (I) and the soil-foundation system factor (6). folding. 2. 2. The vibration intensity of ground expected at any location depends upon the magnitude of earthquake.2 Seismic <one Factor (F. form. The predominant direction of vibration is horizontal.) or the seismic zone factor together with the average acceleration coefficient. 11 .14.1984 2.1. materials.14.The seismic coefficient taken for design. depending on the importance of a structure.6 Design Horizontal Seismic Coejkient (cq. 2.14 Seismic Coefficients and Seismic Zone Factors 1893 . Relevant combinations of forces applicable for design of a particular structure have been specified in the relevant clauses.15 Tectonic Feature .) seismic zone to give the basic design acceleration due to gravity.

horizontal force in any one direction at a time may be considered simultaneously with the vertical force as specified in 3. wherever required.The following assumptions shall be made 3. analysis of structures except as otherwise stated in the relevant clauses. . it may be necessary to obtain floor response spectra for design.6 Equipment and systems supported at various floor levels of structures will be subjected to motions corresponding to vibrations at their support points. may be increased by one-third.3. It is well understood that the forces which structures would be subjected to in actual earthquakes. Increase in Stresses and Load Factors 3. 3. for steels without a definite yield point.1.2 Assumptions earthquake resistant design of structures: in the Earthquake which is complex a>and irregular causes impulsive groundin motion and amplitude each in character. 12 .2 percent proof stress whichever is smaller and that in prestressed concrete members.1984 3. in the elastic method of design. b) Cl Earthquake is not likely to occur simultaneously with wind or maximum flood or maximum sea waves.IS:1893 .4 In the case of structures designed for horizontal seismic force only.3 The seismic coefficients recommended in this standard are based on design practice conventionally followed and performance of structures in past earthquakes. for steels having a definite yield stress.4. 3. changing period lasting for small duration. for overall stability. for special cases importance factor and performance factor ( where necessary ) are specified in this standard elsewhere. Where both horizontal and vertical seismic forces are taken into account. the tensile stress in the extreme fibres of the concrete may be permitted so as not to exceed 213 of the modulus of rupture of concrete.1 Permissible hcrease in Material Stresses Whenever earthquake forces are considered along with other normal design forces. the stress be limited to the yield stress. 3.1.5. In important cases. it shall be considered to act in any one direction at a time. In order to take care of this gap. the will stress will be limited to 80 percent of the ultimate strength or 0. would be very much larger than specified in this sta. However. may be taken as for static analysis unless a more definite value is available for use in such condition.1. resonance of the type as visualized under steady state sinusoidal excitations will not occur as it would need time to build up such amplitudes.ndard as basic seismic coefficient.3 Permissible 3. The value of elastic modulus of materials. ‘Therefore. the permissible stresses in materials.5 The vertical seismic coefficient shall be considered in the case of structures in which stability is a criterion of design or.1.

TCode of practice for prestressed concrete (first revision ).IS : 1893. NATE 2 . DL = the dead load of the structure.The members and their connections in steel structures should be so proportioned that high ductility is obtained avoiding premature failure due to elastic or inelastic buckling of any type.The members of reinforced or prcstressed concrete shall be under Further.2 Load Factors . depending upon the type of foundation of the structure.3.Whenever earthquake forces are considered along with other normal design forces. and prestressed concrete EL = the value of the earthquake b) For limit state structures.When earthquake forces are included. the permissible increase in allowable bearing pressure of soil shall be as given in Table 1. that premature failure due to shear or bond may not occur subject to the provisions of IS : 456-1978* and IS : 1343-1980t. LL = the superimposed load on the structure considering its modified values as given in the relevant clauses of this standard. The live load values to be used shall be as given in the relevant clauses of this standard.1984 3. it should be suitably designed so reinforced so as to cause a tensile failure.3 Permissible Increase in Allowable Bearing Pressure of Soils . and load adopted for design. (Jirsl 13 .3. NOTE 3 Appropriate details to achieve ductility are given in IS : 4326-1976#. 3. *Code of practice for plain and reinforced concrete ( third reuision ). the following factors may be adopted: a) For ultimate load design of steel structures: UL = where UL = the ultimate 1*4(DL+LL+EL) load for which the structure or its elements should be designed according to the relevant Indian Standards for steel structures. $Code of practice for earthquake resistant design and construction of buildings revision ) . design of reinforced The partial safety factors for limit states of serviceability and collapse and the procedure for design as given in relevant Indian Standards ( ste IS : 456-1978* and IS : 1343-1980t ) ‘may be used for earthquake loads combined with other normal loads.-. NOTE I.

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deep pile foundation may be provided and taken to depths well into the layer which are not likely to liquefy. .Submerged loose sands and soils falling under classification SP with standard penetration than the values specified in Note 5 below. . In important projects this aspect of the problem need be investigated and appropriate methods of compaction or stabilization adopted to achieve suitable JY Alternatively. Marine clays and other sensitive clays are also known to liquefy due to collapse of soil structure and will need special treatment according to site conditions. The allowable bearing pressure shall be determined in accordance with IS : 6403-1981$ or IS: If any increase in bearing pressure has already been permitted for forces other than seismic forces. IV and V The piles should be designed for lateral loads neglecting laterel resistance of soil layers liable to Desirable field values of N are as follows: Depth below ground level in mdres IJpto5 up to ‘j” 10 N Values 15 l? 20 Remarks For values of depth between 5 to 10 m linear interpolation is recommended I and II ( for important structures only ) *See IS : 1498-1970 Classification and identification of soils for general engineering purposes (Jirsf reuision ). t&‘ee IS : 2131-1981 Method of standard penetration test for soils (first reoision ). NOTE 2 total increase above.NOTE I1888-1982s. the in allowable bearing pressure when seismic force is also included shall not exceed the limits specified values less NOTE 3 . $Code of practice for determination of bearing capacity of shallow foundations (Jirst revision ). NOTE 4 liquefy. NOTE 5 <one III.the vibrations caused by earthquake may cause liquefaction or excessive total and differential settlements. §Method of load tests on soils ( second revision ).

4..1. the country is classified into five zones as shown in Fig.4.4.2.4.. 3. the basic seismic coefficients ( a.2.4. ) and seismic zone factors ( F. 3.5) AND SEISMIC i%.2.2 The design seismic forces shall be computed on the basis of importance of the structure and its soil-foundation system.25 0’20 0.1 Unless otherwise stated.3 The design values of horizontal seismic coefficient.10 0’05 (1) i) ii) iii) iv) v) (2) V IV III II I NOTE .4.1904 3. the in by the following expressions: a) In Seismic Co@cient Method the design value of horizontal seismic coefficient Mh shall be computed as given by the following expression: clh = p I&. spectra to be used a0 with Fig.. 1. (3) 0’08 0’05 0’04 0’02 0’01 (4) 0’40 0.2.1 for some important towns and cities 3. 2. For design of other structures an equivalent static approach employing use of a seismic coefficient may be adopted.5 a.4 Design Seismic Coefficient for Different Zones 3. METHOD ---_---h-__-_-_---_~ r---Response Spectrum Method Seismic Coefficient ( see Appendix F ) Method h_____~ r___h-_-Y r----Basic horizontal Seismic zone factor for average acceleration seismic coefficient. ZONE No.4.3 and3. the basic seismic coefficient may be taken as 0’5 a. F.IS : 1893 .4. TABLE 2 VALUES OF BASIC SEISMIC COEFFICIENTS ZONE FACTORS IN DIFFERENT ZONES (Clauses 3. CQ-. for structures placed between ground level and 30 m depth.4. .2. ) in different zones shall be taken as given in Table 2 and Appendices E and F. and 0. 3.For under ground structures and foundations at 30 m depth or below. Seismic Coeficient and Resflonse Spectrum methods shall be computed as given 3.2. the basic seismic coefficient may be linearly interpolated between a.2 The earthquake force experienced by a structure depends on its own dynamic characteristics in addition to those of the ground motion.. to 3. Response spectrum method takes into account these characteristics and is recommended for use in case where it is desired to take such effects into account.1 For the purpose of determining the seismic forces. The seismic coefficients according are given in Appendix E.

.

In important structures where there is a possibility of amplification of vertical seismic coefficient. values in Table 2 should be multiplied by 0.1984 0 96 2 vi DAMPING NATURAL PERIOD OF VIBRATION IN SECONDS Fro.750 and 1 000 *Code of practice for structural safety of buildings Percentage of Design Live Load 25 50 : Loading standards (revised ). dynamic analysis is preferable.IS:1893 . 2 AVERAGE ACCELERATION SPECTRA 3.4.1.1 For various loading classes as specified in IS : 875-1960*. 18 . thehorizontal earthquake force shall be calculated for the full dead load and the percentage of live loads as given below: Load Class 200. BUILDINGS 4. In that case F.4.1.5 The vertical seismic coefficient where applicable ( see 3.5 ) may be taken as half of the horizontal seismic coefhcient as indicated in 3. 500.5. 4.2. 250 and 300 400.1 Design Live Loads 4.

Z given in this table are for guidance.1984 TABLE 3 VALUES OF f3 FOR DIFFERENT SOIL-FOUNDATION SYSTEMS ( Clause 3. assembly halls and subway stations All others iv) 1’0 NOTE .2 (5) 1.The values of importance factor.or Isolated RCC tions Footings Through Under tions RCC Any Soil. large assembly structures like cinemas.4 ) SL No. (1) i) ii) iii) Dams ( all types ) Containers liquids of inflammable or poisonous gases or STRUCTURE VALUEO~ IMPORTANCE FACTOR.2 l-5 (8) 1’0 1. important bridges. schools. such as hospitals.0 1’2 (7) 1’0 1. TYPE OB SOIL MAINLY CONSTITUTING THEFOUNDATIO~~ VALUES OF @ BOR *_-----_----_~ r---------Piles Piles Not Raft Combined Isolated Well FoundaPassing Covered Founda.0 2’0 l-5 (2) Important service and community structures. monumental structures.2 1’5 (1) i) ii) iii) (2) Type I Rock hard soils or 1’0 1-O 1. Co1 3 Footings Without but Restwith Tie Tie Beams or Unreining on Soil Beams forced Strip Type I Foundations (3) (4) 1’0 1. Z ( Clauses 3.0 Type II Medium soils Type III soils NOTE Soft The value of 3 for dams shall be taken as 1’0. A designer may choose suitable values depending on the importance based on economy. water towers and tanks.4. important power houses.3 and 3. TABLE 4 VALUES OF IMPORTANCE FACTOR.2. 19 . emergency buildings like telephone exchange and fire bridge.0 1’0 1-o (6) 1’0 1.4.IS : 1893 . Z ( see Note ) (3) 3.4.3 ) SL No. strategy and other considerations.

’ C) The following methods are recommended buildings in various zones: Building Greater 40 m Height than Seismic <ones III. horizontal earthquake force. a separate building or any block of a building between two separation sections shall be analyzed as a whole for seismic forces as per 3. Where the probable loads at the time of an earthquake are more accurately assessed. For preli( revised ). In buildings having shear walls together with frames. 4. Earthquake force shall not be applied on impact effects.4. without further reductions in live load as envisaged in IS : 875-1964”. the live load may 4. Under the earthquake condition the whole frame except the roof may be assumed loaded with live load proportions specified above. safety of buildings: Loading standards . the designer may alter the proportions indicated or even replace the entire live load proportions by the actual assessed load.2 Design Criteria for Multi-storeyed for design Buildings buildings of multi-storeyed &ail be as a) In case of buildings with floors capable of providing rigid horizontal diaphragm action.The proportions of the live load indicated above for calculating the horizontal seismic forces are applicable to average conditions. tributory masses for seismic forces as per 3.4. NOTE 3 . NOTE 2 .1.The percentage of live loads given above shall also be used for calculating stresses due to vertical loads for combining with those due to earthquake forces. only that part of the live load shall be considered which possesses mass. b) In case of buildings where floors are not able to provide the diaphragm action as in (a) above the building frames behave and may be analyzed frame by frame with independently.If the live load is assessed instead of taking the above proportions for calculating. the frames shall be designed for at least 25 percent of the seismic shear.2.1. The total shear in any horizontal plane shall be distributed to various elements of lateral forces resisting system assuming the floors to be infinitely rigid in the horizontal plane.1984 NOTE 1 .1 The follows: criteria the earthquake force on roofs. V IV and for various categories Recommended Method of -_ *Code of practice for structural Detailed dynamic analysis ( either modal anaylsis or time history analysis based on expected ground motion for which special studies are required ).IS:1893 . 4b1.2 For calculating not be considered.

it is assumed that the storey heights are more or less uniform ranging between 2’7 and 3.1 where The base shear VB is given by the following formula: performance factor depending on the structural framing system and brittleness or ductility of construction ( see Table 5 ).2. modal analysis using response spectrum method may be employed Greater 90 m than I and II All zones Modal analysis using response spectrum method Modal analysis using response spectrum method. 4.1. total dead load + appropriate amount of live load as w= defined in 4. Use of seismic coefficient method permitted in all zones d) Check for drift and torsion according to 4. being particularly necessary in cases of buildings greater in height than 40 m.1 ). the applicability of the clause is not vitiated.1. Use of seismic coefficient method permitted for zones I. Less than 40 m All zones NOTE 1 -For buildings having irregular shape and/or irregular distrikttion of mass and stiffeners in horizontal and/or vertical plane it is desirable to carry out modal analysis using response spectrum method ( see also Note 2 below 4. X= 21 .2.4 is desirable for all buildings. c = a coefficient defining the flexibility of structure with the increase in number of storeys depending upon fundamental time period I ( see Fig. 3 ).IS:1893 Building Height Seismic <ones Recommended .1984 Method minary design.1.2. and fundamental time period of the building in seconds ( see 7-I Note 1 ).6 m.4.3 and 4. ah = design seismic coefficient as defined in 3. NOTE 2 . II and III Greater than 40 m and up to 90 m Modal analysis using response spectrum method.2.2.For multi-storeyed buildings.3 (a). In exceptional cases where one or two-storey heights have to be up to 5 m.

4 2. For such buildings modal analysis shall be carried out.1985 NOTE 1 .0 PERIOD FIG. in a direc0’09 H 2/r number ofstoreys including basement storeys.1 height of the main structure d = of the building in metres. A few buildings of this type are shown in Fig.8 3.The above clause shall not apply to buildings having irregular shape and/or irregular distribution of mass and stiffness in horizontal and/or vertical plane. 2. bracing or shear walls for resisting maximum base dimension of building in metres tion parallel to the applied seismic force.The fundamental time period may either be established by experimental observations on similar buildings or calculated by any rational method of analysis.0 2.IS : 1893 . 3 IN SECONDS C Versus PERIOD 22 . In the absence of such data T may be determined as follows for multistoreyed buildings: a) For moment resisting the lateral loads frames without T=O’ln where o = b) For all others ~ = where H = too. NOTE 2 . 4.

1984 PLAZA (BUILDING WITH TYPE BUILDING CHANGES IN STIFFNESS) SUDDEN BUILDING WITH FLEXIBLE FIRST STOREY [INCLUDING BUILDINGS LIKE ASSEMBLY HALLS AND CINEMA THEATRES WHERE THE CENTRA p AUDITORIUM (IN ONE STOREY) COVERS UPTO THREE STOREYS OF THE SIDE FLANKS] .1.1s : 1893 .1 23 SHALL NOT BE APPLICABLE . BUILDING IN HILLY AREA Fro. 4 BUILDINGS IN WHICH CLAUSE4.2.

2 Distribution of forces along with the height given by the following formula: of the building is where Qi wi = lateral forces at roof of floor base shear as worked i. = load ( dead load + appropriate amount of live load ) of the roof or any floor i ( see Note below ).6-1976* in reinforced concrete or steel b) Frame as above with R.2. STRUCTURAL FRAMINQSYSTEM VALUES OB PERWOR~I~AN~E FACTOR. .1.1984 TABLE 5 VALUES OF PERFORMANCE (Clause4. 4. shear walls or steel bracing members designed for ductility (4) - ii) a) Frame as in (i) (a) with either steel bracing members or plain or nominally reinforced concrete infill panels These factors will apply only if the steel bracing members and the infill panels are taken into consideration in stiffness as well lateral strength calculations provided that the frame acting alone will be able to resist at least 25 percent of seismic the design forces b) iii) Frame as in (i) (a) in combination with masonry infills Reinforced concrete framed buildings [ Not covered by (i) or (ii) above ] 1’6 *Code of practice for earthquake resistant design and construction of buildings ( jirst revision ) . C.1.2.IS r1893 . VB = out in 4.1 ) FACTOR.1.2.1.X (3) 1’0 REXARKS (1) i) (2) a) Moment resistant frame with appropriate ductility details as given in IS: 437. K SL No.

5: .1. where the basement walls are not connected with ground floor deck or the basement walls are not fitted between building columns. and to the roof n = number of storeys including the basement floors. assumed to be shared half and half between the roof or floor at top and the floor or ground at bottom.5 FORGE AND SHEARDISTRIBUTION FORTEN-STOREYEDBUILDING For a ten-storeyed VB = CUhK(Wr+ building 9 Wt) 25 in Fig. Wi. and all weights are assumed to be lumped at the level of the roof or any floor i. 4.In calculating. 5. but excluding the basement floors where they are so connected. STOREY No Wr distributions for at en-storeyed building i 5A Frame 56 Distribution of Forces 5C Distribution of Shears Fro.2.1s I 1893 - 1984 or hi = height measured from the base of building any floor i.3 The force and shear are illustrated in Fig. the weight of walls and columns in any storey is NOTE .

C.4. ah(r) where Wi = weight of the floor i as given in 4.2..2.1 4.(r) = design horizontal seismic coefficient as defined in 3. 4.2.2 Modal Analysis .1.1.IS:1893 .2.2.2.1984 where Vi = shear injth NOTE-For storey. 4. see 4.3 corresponding to appropriate period and damping in !l?? rth mode . = g factor C.(r) = mode shape coefficient at floor i in rth mode obtained from free vibration analysis.The lateral load Qi(r) acting at any floor level i due to rth mode of vibration is given by the following equation: QP = xw.2.1 The mode participation ing equation: i=n Z Wi#*) c. X = performance factor depending upon the type of buildings as given in Table 5. 4. and vibration u.2.1. +p c. = mode participation factor.2. may be given by the follow- i=l s Wi r #P) I” 26 . and other notations.

H Y up t?*O 40 60 90 NOTE .2.(r) = 3 y) L: vi(r) + y Y/ r=l 3 r=l B { Vp)}a absolute value of maximum shear at the ith storey in the rth mode.1.5 times the computed eccentricity between the centre of mass and the centre of rigidity. the value of y shall be as given below: Height.00 heights of buildings.1.004 times the difference in IeveIs between these floors.IS : 1893 .1984 where i.2.2 The shear force. Negative torsional shears shall be neglected.3 Drift .40 0.2.2.264 Torsion of Buildings .2. 4.The maximum horizontal relative displacement due to earthquake forces between two successive floors shall not exceed 0. Vi. 4. W&@) n = are same as defined in 4. value of y may be obtained by 4. 0.60 0.Provision shall be made for the increase in shear resuhing from the horizontal torsion due to an eccentricity between the centre of mass and the centre of rigidity. acting in the ith storey may be obtained by superposition of first three modes as follows: v.80 1.2. 29 .2. The design eccentricity shall be taken as 1. 4.3 The total load at Qn and Qr acting at roof level n and floor level i will be computed from the following equations respectively: Qn = Vn Vl vi $1 QI = The overturning moments at various levels of the building may be computed by using the above roof and floor level forces.For intermediate linear interpolation. and total number of storeys as defined in 4. = ( 1 where V.2.

4.2.2 Ail horizontal projections like cornices and balconies shall be designed to resist a vertical force equal to five times the vertical seismic coefficient specified in 3. for earthquake resistant design and construction of buildings (Jrsl 28 . 4. modal analysis using response spectrum method is recommended.1.The increased seismic coefficients specified in 4.1 General 5.4.5 multiplied by the weight of the projection. calculated from the following formula: of such structures shall be *Code ofpractice revision ) . ELEVATED 5.4. For the design of the main structure such increase need not be considered.4. such as chimneys of normal pro.3 Type of Construction .2.For different types of construction adopted the constructional details and the appropriate design criteria to be adopted shall be according to 5 of IS : 4326-1976*. 5. refinery vessels and stacklike structures. 4. parapets.3 For industrial structures and frame structures of large spans and heights.2.1 The elevated structures covered by these provisions include elevated tanks. elevated tanks shall be regarded as systems with a single degree of freedom with their mass concentrated at their centres of gravity.4. However. In the case of the elevated structures of unusual proportions. 5. NOTE .3 The free period T.IS : 1893 . in seconds.portions.1 and 4.4. 4.1. 5.2 Elevated Tower-Supported Tanks STRUCTURES 5. more detailed studies shall be made.1 For the purpose of this analysis.2 are for designing the projecting part and its connection with the main structure. tanks. 5.1 Towers.4 Miscellaneous 4. compound walls need not be designed for increased seismic coefficient except where the environmental circumstances indicate that their collapse may lead to serious consequences.2.1984 4.4.2 The damping in the system may be assumed as 2 percent of the critical for steel structures and 5 percent of the critical for concrete ( including masonry ) structures. smoke stacks ( chimneys ) and other vertical cantilever projections attached to buildings and projecting above the roofs shall be designed for five times the horizontal seismic coefficient specified in 3.

2 Rectangular container The pressure at any location x ( see Fig.4. In calculating the period of steel tanks.5 Using the period T as calculated in 5.2. When empty. the members may be assumed to be pinjoined with only the tensile members of the bracing regarded as active in carrying the loads. No pre-tension shall be assumed in the bracing rods.2. the spectral acceleration shall be read off from the average acceleration spectra given in Fig.3 and appropriate damping.3 (b). and weight as defined in 5.2.4.7.2.IS: 1893.5.2.2.2. The convective pressures during earthquakes are considerably less in magnitude as compared to impulsive pressures and its effect is a sloshing of the water surface. 5.1984 where A = the static horizontal deflection at the top of the tank under a static horizontal force equal to a WCight W acting at the centre of gravity of tank.2. 5.7. 5.2.3 ) shall consist of the dead load of the tank and one-third the weight of the staging. and g = acceleration due to gravity. Q shall be calculated as in 3.2.4 The design shall be worked out both when the tank is full and when empty.7 E?_ydodyrzamic Pressure in Tanks 5.6 The lateral force shall be taken equal to: UbW alI W = where design horizontal seismic coefficient as given in 5. the weight of contents is to be added to the weight under empty condition.2. 6 ) is given by: 29 .1 When a tank containing fluid vibrates the fluid exerts impulsive and convective pressures on the tank. For the purpose of design only the impulsive pressure may be considered. 2. 5. The design horizontal seismic coefficient. When full. 5. the weight W used in the design ( see 5. Thisforce shall be assumed to be applied at the centre of gravity of the tank horizontally in the plane in which the snucture is assumed to oscillate for purposes of carrying out the lateral load analysis.

6 x 21 OR 2R-------4 E LE VAT ION 30 RECTANGULAR AND CIRCULAR WATER TANKS .1984 t‘-----” ------j I RECTANGULAR TANK (PLAN) CIRCULAR TANK (PLAN) ( +---FIQ.IS : 1893.

will not include structures like bins.IS :1893 The pressure on the wall would be: -1984 The pressure on the bottom of the tank would be: where x. Cantilever structures like chimneys and refinery vessels are examples of such structures ( see Note).2. The pressure on the bottom of the tank on a strip Fig.2.3 Stacklike Structures 5. hyperbolic coolresting on frames or skirts.3./r(%).1 Stacklike structures are those in which the mass and stiffness is more or less uniformly distributed along the height. Modal analysis will be 31 . 1 and h are as defined in Fig 6 and w is the unit weight of water. and a1 for tanks located on towers is to be taken as per response spectrum method and for those located on ground corresponding to seismic coefficient method [ see 3.2. 6 and w and ah are as defined in 5. y.4. would be: where x. 6 ). NOTE . 5. 5.3 (a) 1. refinery columns necessary in such cases. y. I’.7.Such structures ing towers.2. R and h are as defined in Fig.7.3 Circular container - The pressure on the wall would be : and of width 2 I! ( see PI = ah wh ~/~cosI$’ [$-+(f)“]tanh.

of such structures when fixed at base. and re = radius of gyration 14’4 21’2 29’6 38.0 73’8 82’8 1’8k 1’02 1’12 l-19 l-25 1.3.2.3.1984 5.3 Using the period 2.2 Period of free vibration.2 nnd 5.3.IS : 1893 . shall be calculated from the following formula: where C.4 47’2 56.0 65.3 (b). AND Cv ) COEFFICIENT CV ( Clazrses5.3. 32 . h’/re. A = area of cross-section at the base of the structural shell. the horizontal coefficient uh shall be obtained from the spectrum given in and as in 3. TABLE 6 VALUES OF C.30 1’35 l-39 1’43 1’47 1’50 of the structural shell at the base section. 2 5. and g = acceleration of structural due to gravity.2. T. Es = modulus of elasticity of material of the structural shell.4. wt = total weight of structure contents above the base. h’ 1 ratio of the including weight of lining and height of structures above the base.2.3. seismic Fig. -5.4 R*Tro k COEFFIClENL' CT 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 or more where k = ratio. = coefficient depending upon the slenderness structure given in Table 6. as indicated in 5.1 For circular structures.3. A = 2 x rt where r is the mean radius shell and t its thickness.

ah = L F --h’ -i3 ( h )I depending on slenderness ratio k given in design horizontal seismic coefficient dance with 5.1. 6. suspension bridge.3. 5. = coefficient Table 6.1.4 ($ >‘I 6. and 33 .3. in the following case.1984 5. Slab. horizontally curved girder bridge and reinforced concrete arch or steel arch bridge. 6.3. Other notations are the same as given in 5. such as.5 The design bending moment M at a distance x’ from top shall be calculated by the following formula: M = a.2 Masonry and plain concrete arch bridges with spans more than 10 m shall not be built in zones IV and V.5 Modal analysis shall be necessary.1.3. box and pipe culverts need not be designed for earthquake 0. for such structures at a distance x’ from the top.4 Bridges of length not more than 60 m and spans not more than 15 m need not be designed for earthquake forces other than in zones IV and V.1. in zones IV and V: a) in the design of bridges of type. shall be calculated by the following formula: 5 x’ 2 x’ * V= Cvah Wt where C. 6. bascute bridge.3 forces.6 ($)l’* + 0. The forces shall be assumed to come from any horizontal direction.2. BRIDGES 6. 6.1 Bridge as a whole and every part of it shall be designed and constructed to resist stresses produced by lateral forces as provided in the standard. cable stayed bridge.4.3.3.3.1.1 General 6.4 The design shear force V.IS:1893 .2 and 5. and determined in accor- Wt and h’ are same as defined in 5. The stresses shall be calculated as the effect of a force applied horizontally at the centres of mass of the elements of the structure into which it is conveniently divided for the purpose of design.Wig[ where h = height of centre of gravity of structure above base.

1 The seismic force due to live load shall be ignored when acting in the direction of the traffic but shall be taken into consideration when acting in the direction perpendicular to traffic as specified in 6. 100 percent of the design live load for railway bridges and 50 percent of the design live load for road bridges specified in the relevant Indian Standards shall be considered at the time of earthquake..2 Seismic Force . These percentages are only for working out the magnitude of seismic force. = weight of the mass under consideration reduction due to buoyancy or uplift.1.2. ah = design horizontal in 3. For calcu!ating the stresses due to live load.2.horizontal seismic force to be resisted. the seismic force to where Fh . *Glossary of terms relating Floods. 6.. = vertical seismic force to be resisted. to river valley 34 projects: Part 2 Hydrology. 6. b) Fv = where uv w. assumed not to occur simultaneously.IS : 1893 .1984 b) when the height of substructure from base of foundations to the top of pier is more than 30 m or when the bridge span is more than 120 m. and uv = design vertical seismic coefficient. and seismic coefficient as specified ignoring W. 6.In seismic coefficient be resisted shall be computed as follows: method. Section 5 .2 The seismic force due to live load shall be calculated for 50 percent of the design live load excluding impact for railway bridges and 25 percent of the design live load excluding impact for road bridges specified in the relevant Indian Standards.3.3 (a).4.3 Live Load on Bridges 6. 6. F.3.6 Earthquake force shall be calculated on the basis of depth of scour caused by the discharge corresponding to the average annual flood [ see IS : Earthquake and maximum flood shall be 4410 ( Part P/Set 5 )-1977]*.3.

5 against overturning in the transverse direction due to simultaneous action of the horizontal and vertical accelerations.1.1 The seismic forces on the substructure depth ( see 6.5 Substructure 6.2 acting on piers and modification in earth pressure due to earthquake given in 8.4 Superstructure 1984 6.4. 35 .3.5 due to the dead load and the live load as specified in 6. The total horizontal force F shall be given by the following formula: FCe Uh w.4 transferred from superstructure to the substructure through the bearings as shown in Fig.1.1 to 8. 6.2.4. Horizontal and vertical seismic forces according to 3.1. 6.1. oriented skew either to the direction of current or traffic. Hydrodynamic force as specified in 6.4 acting on abutments. hydrodynamic force (in addition to earthquake force calculated on the mass of the pier) shall be assumed to act in a horizontal direction corresponding to that of earthquake motion.2 For submerged portions of the pier.5 due to self-weight applied at the centre of mass ignoring reduction due to buoyancy or uplift.1 The superstructure shall be designed for horizontal seismic coefficient specified in 3.4. 6.4.1 assuming them to act parallel to the current and traffic directions taken separately.1.2.5.5. 7.3 and 3.2 In the case of piers. 6.4.5 due to simultaneous action of the horizontal and vertical accelerations. 6. 6.2 The superstructure of the bridge shall be properly secured to the piers ( particularly in zones IV and V ) to prevent it from being dislodged off its bearings during an earthquake by suitable methods.Ii:18936.3 The superstructure shall have a minimum factor of safety of 1.6 ) shall be as follows: above the normal scour Horizontal and vertical forces due to dead.4.5.1.1 Piers shall be designed for the seismic forces given in 6. live and seismic loads as specified in 6.3 The substructure shall have a minimum factor of safety of 1.5.3 and vertical seismic coefficient according to 3. they shall be checked for seismic forces acting parallel and perpendicular to pier direction.4.5.5.5. 6.

V- V' 76 ARCH SPAN after being modified due to move- RI and RP are reactions at the two supports ment (Fe). HEIUET~~SIJBMERCJED PORTION OB PIER ( H) RADIUS OF ENVELOPI~ CYLINDER 1'0 2'0 3'0 4'0 Ce 0.2).7 TRANSFER OF FORCES FROMSUPERSTRUCTURETO SUBSTRUCTURE TABLE 7 VALUES OF C. A- ROLLING Rl 7A GIRDER R2 LROCKER SPAN “. as given cylinder LOADS dcns$n horizontal seismic coefficient of the enveloping in 3.2.Fl Frc.575 0'675 0'730 36 .IS t 1893.#.4.5. Change in vertical reactions = f Fe/L’ Fl = pR1 ( if .2.3 (a).390 0. W&l = weight of the water (see 6.1985 where G = ah = a coefficient ( see Table 7 ).W1<F’/2 FI = F’/2 ) ( if pLR1> F’/2 ) F2 = F’ .

8 I portions of piers and the DIAGRAM SHOWING PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION 6.000 O-026 o-093 0. 8 are given below: Cl G G G o-1 o-2 0.1 The pressure distribution will be as shown in Fig. G’s.5.0 6.532 0. Values of coefficients Cr.289 0. 9.403 0.5.2 Some typical cases of submerged enveloping cylinders are illustrated in Fig.970 o-990 0.2 t-_Pb’H-a F FIG. 8.999 1. 37 .2.184 0. Cs and Cd for use in Fig.760 1 a000 0.IS:1893 -1984 6.871 0.751 O-694 0.639 0.934 0. 1.521 0.2.428 5 2 3 5 5 0 0 6 L r c2pb J- .3 o-4 o-5 O-6 0.8 1.410 O-673 O-832 o-922 0.810 0.

m/m. 38 . H= height of water surface from the level of deepest scour ( see 6. The water level on earth side may be treated as the same as on the river side. 6.6. the hydrodynamic ing equation: For submerged superstructure of submersipressure shall be determined by the follow.1. due to hydrodynamic pressure are given by the following relations: vh = 213 PY Mh= 4115 PYa where vh = hydrodynamic Mh = hydrodynamic shear in kg/m.2. ah = design horizontal seismic coefficient as given in 3. 9 CASES OF ENVELOPINGCYLINDER 6. FIG.3 The earth pressure on the back of abutments be calculated as in 8 (see Note ).2.6 ) in m.5. P where = 875 ah 4% P= hydrodynamic pressure in kg/ms. and Y= depth of the section below the water surface in m. 6.IS:1893 -1984 (‘7) / / i \ - DIRECTION OF SEISMIC FORCE \.6 Submersible Bridges - ble bridges.1 The total horizontal shear and moment per metre width about the centre of gravity of the base at any depth J.3 (a).The hydrodynamic suction from the water side and dynamic increment in earth pressures from the earth side shall not be considered simultaneously.4. and moment in kg. of bridge shall NOTE .

with shape and depth (b) ( see and which design horizontal 7.1.In the case of important dams ic is recommended that detailed investigations are made in accordance with IS : 4967-1968* for estimating the design seismic parameters.1 1. h = depth of reservior 7.1 General -. 10. shall be considered. the hydrodynamic pressure at depth y below the reservoir surface shall be determined as follows: where p := hydrodynamic Cs = ah = w = coefficient 7.2. 39 . is iIIustrated in Appendix G. depth below surface. as the case may be.Due to horizontal acceleration of the foundation and dam there is an instantaneous hydrodynamic pressure ( or suction ) exerted against the dam in addition to hydrostatic forces. However. in m. obtained and from Fig.2.1.2 Hydrodynamic Effects Due to Reservior 7.1 The variation of the coefficient Cs. = y = h = maximum depth value of C. 7. *Recommendations for seismic instrumentation for river valley projects.2. approximate values of C.4.3 or 7.4. seismic coefficient and [ see 3. for dams with vertical or constant upstream slopes may be obtained as follows : where c. these values may be made use of. where such data are not available and in the case of minor works and for preliminary design of major works.1 ). of reservoir. The direction of hydrodynamic force is opposite to the direcBased on the assumption that water is tion of earthquake acceleration.3 unit weight of water in kgims. with shapes and depths.1 Effects of Horitontal Earthquake Acceleration . DAMS AND EMBANKMENTS 7.2.1s : 1893 -1984 7.3. pressure varies in kg/ma at depth y. For accurate determination.2 and 7. the seismic forces specified in 7. incompressible. However.

10 OF FACE FROM THE VERTICA ‘L (6) MAXIMUM VALUES OF PRESSURE COEFFICIENT ( C. The equivalent slope may be obtained as given in 7. an equivalent slope may be used for obtaining the approximate value of C... 0.2.I8 :1893- 1984 For darns with combination of vertical and sloping faces. ) FOR CONSTANT SLOPINO FACES ..1.6 0.2.4 w a 3 0 0* I I 26 48 SO’ I 60’ INCLINATION FIG.5 E & 0.

use the pressure on the sloping line connecting the point of intersection of the upstream face of the dam and the reservoir surface with the point of intersection of the upstream face of the dam with the foundation.2. = 0. and force at any ikfh - moment depth y. the magnitude at any horizontal section being: Wh = ( Vz VI ) tan 6 where Wh = increase ( or decrease ) in vertical kg due to hydrodynamic force.726)~y 0.3 The approximate values of total horizontal shear and moment about the centre of gravity of a section due to hydrodynamic pressure are given by the relations: V. therefore. 8= The moment due to the vertical component of reservoir and tail water load may be obtained by determining the lever arm from the centroid of the pressure diagram.2. 41 . component of load in V2 = total shear in kg due to horizontal component of hydrodynamic force at the elevation of the section being considered. be a vertical component of this force if the face of the dam against which it is acting is sloping.. analyze it as if vertical throughout.1.m/m due to hydrodynamic 7.299 by= Mh = where Vh = hydrodynamic shear in kg/m at any depth. 7.1.1984 7. there shall. VI = total shear in kg due to horizontal component of hydrodynamic force at the elevation at which the slope of the dam face commences.2. If the height of the vertical portion of the upstream face of the dam is less than one-half the total height of the dam.18 : 1893.2 EJect of Horizontal Earthquake Acceleration on the Vertical Component of Reservoir and Tail Water Load .2 If the height of the vertical portion of the upstream face of the dam is equal to or greater than one-half the total height of the dam.Since the hydrodynamic pressure ( or suction ) acts normal to the face of the dam. in kg. and angle between the face of the dam and the vertical.

the design horizontal seismic coefficient CQ shall be obtained from 3.3.3. It causes an overturning about the horizontal section adding to that caused by hydrodynamic force. This inertia force shall be assumed to act from upstream to downstream or downstream to upstream moment to get the worst combination for design. b) Response spectrum method ( dams greater than 100 m height ) 1) The fundamental assumed as: T = where H = Bheight of the dam in m. tensile stresses may be permitted in the upstream face up to 2 percent of the ultimate crushing strength of concrete. the earthquake forces specifi. Both the seismic coefficient method ( for dams up to 100 m height ) and response spectrum method ( for dams greater than 100 m height ) are meant only for preliminary design of dams.1 to 7. = modulus of elasticity of the material 2) Using the period in (1) and for a damping of 5 percent.2.4 shall be considered in addition to the hydrodynamic pressures specified in 7.2.ed in 7. base width of the dam in m.1.3.4. 7.1 ration a) Seismic coe&cient method ( dams uj to 100 m height ) The horizontal inertia force for concrete or masonry weight due to horizontal earthquake acceleration shall be determined corresponding to the horizontal seismic coefficient specified in 7.3 (b).JS : 1893.55 g 2/- zOm_ IL+% Wm = unit weight g = acceleration E.3 Concrete or Masonry 7. For final design dynamic analysis is desirable.4.2. For design of dam using the approach of linear variation of normal stresses across the cross-section.1 Earthquake Forces In the design of concrete and masonry dams.3. and in kg/ms. Q in 3.1.1.5 times seismic coefficient.1. 42 . For dams up to 100 m height the horizontal seismic coefficient shall be taken as 1. be taken as 0. in m/s”. For dams over 100 m height the response spectrum method shall be used for the design of the dams.3 (a) at the top of the dam Vertical seismic coefficient shall reducing linearly to zero at the base.75 times the value of tch at the top of the dam reducing linearly to zero at the base. of the material due to gravity of dam in kg/ms.1984 Gravity and Buttress Darns 7. period of vibration of the dam may be Concrete or masonry inertja force due to horizontal earthquake accele- 5.3.

by the following VB and base formulae: moment MB may be obtained where w= total weight in kg. 11.6 I 0.7 I 0.0 0 0.9 COEFFICIENTS C. 11 VALUES OF Cv AND Cm ALONG THE HEIGHT OF DAM . AND C. I.40 OR MY g--l/-VY DL I ‘h 0.1. RESERVOIR VY = c.3 0.6 I 0.1 0.5 I 0.2 I 0.1 (b) (2). vg EMPTY MY = c.1984 3) The base shear.. and bending moment M.8 . V.E w 0. section at a depth y below top of the dam 4) For any horizontal shear force. t. are given in Fig.1s : 1893 .6 0. and ah = of gravity design seismic coefficient as obtained in 7. of the masonry or concrete of the dam in the dam above the height of the centre base in m.3. may be obtained as follows: where C’V and C’.n FIG.

3. b) For response spectrum method of design . currently accepted design procedure is based on the assumption that the portion of the dam above the rupture surface is rigid.3.The effect of vertical earthquake acceleration is to change the unit weight of water and concrete or masonry. the horizontal seismic coefficients in either direction may be taken as the design seismic coefficient for the top of the dam worked out in 7. 7. In this case. However. the vertical seismic coefficient would be as follows: a) For seismic coeficient method of design .At the top of the dam it would be 0. During an earthquake the water pressure is changed by the hydrodynamic effect.ft forces .lS:1893-1984 7.2 which assumes additional horizontal and vertical loads on the soil mass within the rupture surface shall be adopted.2. desirable to carry out dynamic analysis for final design of important dams in order to estimate deformations in dams in probable future earthquakes.3 (a) and reducing linearly to zero at the base.The provisions for the dam as given in 7.75 times the value of c(h given in 7.4 Effect of earthquake acceleration on dead silt loads .1.4. the height of the dam shall be taken from the base of the dam to the top of the spillway bridge for computing the period as well as shears and moments in the body of the dam.1 (b) (2) and reducing linearly to zero at the base.3. the change is not considered effective in producing a corresponding increase or reduction in the uplift force. An accrlrration upwards increases the weight and an acceleration downwards decrcascs the weight. however. the method given in 7.4 Earth and Rockfill Dams and Embankments 7.4 will be applicable to over-flow sections as well.1 and applied uniformly along the height of the pier.3. To consider the effect of vertical earthquake acceleration.1.4.1.3.2 Earthquake Forces for Ouerjow Sections . for the design of the bridge and the piers.1. The duration of the earthquake is too short to permit the building up of pore pressure in the concrete and rock foundations.3.3 Effect of earthquake acceleration on upl.1.2 Efict of vertical earthquake acceleration .It is sufficient to determine the increase in the silt pressure due to earthquake by considering hydrodynamic forces on the water up to the base of the dam and ignoring the weight of the silt. 44 .1 General . Therefore. However.Effect of earthquake acceleration on uplift forces at any horizontal section is determined as a function of the hydrostatic pressure of reservoir and tail-water against the faces of the dam. 7. It is.3. 7.3.It is recognized that an earth dam or embankment vibrates when subjected to ground motion during an earthquake requiring thereby a dynamic analysis of the structure for its design.4.At the top of the dams it would be 0’75 times the ah value given in 3. Nevertheless.1 to 7. 7.

7. 2.2. NOTE.1 The stability of the upstream slope of an earth or rockfill dam shall be tested with full reservoir level with horizontal forces due to earthquake acting in upstream direction and vertical forces due to earthquake ( taken as one half of horizontal ) acting upwards. The factor of safety need be tested only for failure surface which passes through the lower half of the dam. P = mass density of the shell material. and G = modulus of rigidity of the shell material.4.4. a factor of safety of unity shall be accepted as being adequate for ensuring stability of upstream slope.3. the value of equivalent uniform seismic coefficient shall be taken as: where H = total height of the dam.1984 7. c) Compute design seismic coefficient ah using 3. 7./g for this period T and 10 percent damping from average acceleration spectrum curves given in Fig.2.1 The procedure for finding out the seismic coefhcient which will depend upon the height of the dam and the lowest point of the rupture surface shall be as follows: a) Determine formula: the fundamental period of the structure from the where T = fundamental period of the earth dam in s.The quantity +fGT.4.3 Stability of the Upstream Slope 7.2.4.IS 2 1893 . Ht = height of the dam above toe of the slopes. 45 .3.3 (b).2 Seismic Force on Soil Mass 7.4.4.2 For preliminary design. ISthe shear wave velocity through the matep rial of the dam and may be used if known instead of p and G. b) Determine S.2 For checking slope failure with the lowest point of the rupture surface at any depth y below top of dam.4. 7.

In the analysis.1 Active Pressure Due to Earthfill . 12A. Hocvever.= - (1 &av)cos”(~---a) cos h tossa cos ( 6 + a -j.1. 8. RETAINING WALLS shall be constructed with be caused by differential 8. height of wall in m.1.3 or 7.4.3 and 7.Earthquake forces shall not be normally included in stability analysis for the construction stage or for the reservoir empty condition.1 Lateral Earth Pressure .4.h ) 1 l+ sin(++6)sin(#---t--A . Provisions in 7. cohesion has been neglected.4 modified to suit the conditions of empty reservoir shall apply for testing the stability of the upstream and downstream s!opes.5 Miscellaneous . This assumption is on conservative side. Junctions between spillways and abutments great care in view of the damage that may vibrations of the dam and the spillway.1. W encounterThe active & zoh2 C.3 shall also apply in determining stability of the downstream slope except that the horizontal force due to earthquake should be considered acting in the downstream direction.4. earthquake forces may be included and may be calculated based on 50 percent of the value obtained from 7.fS : 1893.4.4. unit weight of soil in kg/ms.4.4. II 3 a . and x h c.4 Stability of Downstream Slope .The general conditions ed for the design of retaining walls are illustrated in Fig. pressure exerted against the wall shall be: Pa where P. where the construction or operating schedule requires the reservoir empty condition to exist for prolonged periods.4.The provision of 7.L)cOs(a+a+h { cos(a [ the maximum of the two being the value for design. = = active earth pressure in kg/m length of wall.1 to 8. 7. 8.1984 7.4.The pressure from earthfill behind retaining walls during an earthquake shall be as given in 8.

12 Active Piessure 12B Passive Pressure EARTII PRESSURE I)LJP.2 Point of ap/dication -. The remainder is the dynamic increment.1. A = tan-1 a.E.1.1 The active pressire may be determined of the method desc ribcd in Appendix H. The point of application of the dynamic increment shall bc assumed to be at mid-height of the wail. the wall and earthfill. The static component of the total pressure shall be applied at an elevation h/3 above the base of the wall. EARTHQUAKE ON RETAINING WALLS TO graphically by means 8.1. = angle which earth 1- slope of earthfill. against the walls shall be given by the following formula : I’.4.4wh=cp 47 . Prom the total pressure computed as above subtract the static active pressure obtained by putting tlh = ccV = h = 0 in the expression given in 8.= horizontal 12A Fro.L_ 1 f Qv face of the wall makes with the vertical.X. [ see 3. 8. and friction of soil.2 Passive Pressure Due to EarthJill -.The general conditions ~encountered in the design of retaining walls are illustrated in Fig. 12B.1.1. =.its direction bemg taken consis ten+ throughout the stability analysis of wall and equal to IJ = t all angle of internal -.1. between seismic coeficient 6 = angie of friction CQ. The passive pressurt. 8.IS : 1893 .3 (a) 4.1984 ocI = vertical seismic coefficient .2.

__~.The passive pressure against the wall due to a uniform surcharge of intensity q per unit area of the inclined earthfill shall be: .1.2.3. w.1.From the static passive pressure obtained by putting ah = ap = r\= 0 in the expression given in 8. h.4 Passive Pressure Due to Uniform Surcharge .2.1.3 ( a .1. The point of application of the dynamic decrement shall be assumed to be at an elevation 0. subtract the total pressure computed as above._ t.1. 8. The remainder is the dynamic decrement The static component of the total pressure shall be applied at an elevation h/3 above the base of the wall. a.C) ’ 8.66 h above the base of the wall. = passive earth pressure in kg/m length of wall.1 Point of application .1.The active pressure against the wall due to a uniform surcharge of intensity q per unit area of the inclined earthfill surface shall be: Psh = qh cos a C co.1 The passive pressure may be determined means of the method described in Appendix J.IS: 1893 . fi and L are as defined in 8.c ) cos (b a A . 8. while the static component shall be applied at mid-height of the wall.1. C ( 1 f av ) Co@( # + a .+ II graphically by 1 f av 8.The dynamic increment in active pressures due to uniform surcharge shall be applied at an elevation of 0.2 Point of application .cos ( dc .66 h above the base of the wall. 8. and hc tan-l ah L l- 1 sin($+G)sin($+L-_ .3 Active Pressure Due to UnifTorm Surcharge .h 1 p= cos A co@ a cos ( 6 - a + A) ’ s 4 the minimum of the two being the value for design.1984 where P.2.1.

1984 8.1.2 For submerged earthfill.1.1.3 Hydrodynamic pressure on account of water contained in earthfill shall not be considered separately as the effect of acceleration on water has been considered indirectly. 8.1. the saturated unit weight of the soil shall be adopted as in the formulae described in 8.2.The dynamic decrement in passive pressures due to uniform surcharge shall be applied at an elevation of 0.3 Partially Submerged Backfill 8.2. the dynamic increment ( or decrement ) in active and passive earth pressure during earthquakes shall be found from expressions given in 8. d) From the value of earth pressure found out as above.1.1.1 Point of afifilication .2 with the following modifications: a) The value of 6 shall be taken as 4 the value of 6 for dry backfill. subtract the value of earth pressure determined by putting @h=MV=h=O but The remainder shall be dynamic using buoyant unit weight. and av = vertical seismic coefficient which is 3 ah.IS : 1893 .66 h above the base of the-walls while the static component shall be applied at mid-height of the wall. see 3. 8.2.1 For saturated earthfill. 8. 13 at corresponding depths.3.The procedure may also be used for determining dynamic pressure increments in 8.2.-)(% 8l 1 * uv where w.3. c) Buoyant unit weight shall be adopted.4.= horizontal seismic coefficient [.2 and 8.4.2 Effect of Saturation on Lateral Earth Pressure 8. in gm/cc. the distribution of 49 . 8. b) The value of A shall be taken as follows: A= tan-l-$. The pressure distribution of dynamic increment in active pressures may be obtained by multiplying the vertical effective pressures by the coefficients in Fig. NOTE . increment.1 and 8. CQ.1 The ratio of the lateral dynamic increment in active pressures to the vertical pressures at various depths along the height of wall may be taken as shown in Fig.1. 13.1.3 (a) 1. = saturated unit weight of soil.

2.1 for dry ( moist ) saturated as in 8.) 1 Ca is computed C’a is computed as in 8. FIG.RTICAL EFFECTWEPRESSURE WITH HEIGIIT OF WALL 50 .1. backfills.1. K’a is the value of C’a when @h = av = h = 0. 13 DISTRIMJTION THE RATIO OF LATERAL DYNAMICINCREMENT VP.1 and 8.IS:1893 .2 for submerged backfills. wall.- K.1984 +-3(C. Ka is the value of Ca when ah =aV = h = 0. h’ is the height of submergence h is the height of the retaining above the base of the wall.

IS : 1893 - 1984
8.3.2 A similar procedure as in 8.3.1 may be utilized for determining the distribution of dynamic decrement in passive pressures.

8.4 Concrete or Masonry Inertia Forces - Concrete or masonry inertia forces due to horizontal and vertical earthquake accelerations are the products of the weight of wall and the horizontal and vertical s&mic coefficients respectively ( see 3.4.2 and 3.4.5 ).
the NATE - To ensure adequate factor of safety under earthquake condition, design shall be such that the factor of safety against sliding shall be 1’2 and the resultant of all the forces including earthquake force shall fall within the middle three-fourths of the base width provided. In addition, bearing pressure in soil should not exceed the permissible limit.

9. NOTATIONS

AND

SYMBOLS

the body of the standard shall have the meaning as given in Appendix K.

9.1 The various notations and letter symbols used in the formulae and in

As in the Original Standard, this Page is Intentionally Left Blank

IS : 1893- 1981

APPENDIX ( &“St? 0 7

A
I )

MAP OF INDIA
SHOWING EPlCiNTRES

MAGNITUDE

MORE THAN 6.0 DEEP FOCUS SHOCKS NUMBER OF SHOCKS (n) FROM THE SAME ORIGIN EPICENTRES AND MAGNlTUDES SHOWN BY DOTTEDCIRCLESARE APPROXIMATE

53

.

As in the Original Standard. this Page is Intentionally Left Blank .

a few instances of cracked plaster. specially favourable circumof by a few persons at rest. considerable in poorly built or badly designed structures. specially on upper floors and delicately suspended objects may swing Felt quite noticeably indoors. factory stacks.7 EARTHQUAKE D-l. heavy furniture overturned. walls night some awakened. standing motor cars may rock slightly. disturbance of trees. doors disturbed. etc. panel walls thrown out of frafalling of chimney. sand and mud ejected in small amounts. at dishes. damage slight to moderate in well built good design and construction. noticed by persons driving motor cars Damage slight in specially designed structures. sensation like heavy truck striking the building. windows. considerable in ordinary but substantial buildings with partial collapse. broken. very heavy in poorly built structures. monuments. and damage slight negligible in buildings of Everybody runs outdoors. columns. specially on upper floors of buildings but many people do not recognize it as an earthquake. and standing motor cars rocked noticeably Felt by nearly everyone. many awakened.IS : 1893 . ordinary structures. a few instances of fallen plaster or damaged chimneys. changes in well water. outdoors by a few. and vibration may be felt like the passing of a truck During the day felt indoors by many.. unstable objects overturned. windows. MODIFIED MERCALLI ) D INTENSITY INTENSITY Remarks SCALES SCALE ( ABRIDGED ) Class of Earthquake I II III Not felt except by a very few under stances Felt only buildings. some dishes. and disturbs persons driving motor cars IV V VI VII VIII . some heavy furniture moved. make creaking sound. and some chimneys broken. med structures. poles and other tall objects noticed sometimes. 1984 APPENDIX ( Clause 2. and walls. many frightened and run outdoors. and pendulum clocks may stop Felt by all.

1 The scale was discussed generally at the inter-governmental meeting convened by UNESCO in April 1964. fall of small Grade 1 Slight damage pieces of plaster Grade 2 M o d e r a t e Small cracks in walls. shifted sand and mud. ground cracked conspicuously.Ty@eof Structures ( 23uildings ) : Structure A Buildings in field-stone. and water splashed over banks Few. Structure C Reinforced b) Definition of Quantity: Single. landslides considerable from river banks and steep slopes. underground pipelines completely out of service. unburntbrick houses. pantiles slip damage off. buildings of the large block and prefabricated type. fall of fairly large pieces of plaster. and rails bent greatly Class of Earthquake IX X XI Total damage.IS : 1893. broad fissures in ground. lines of sight and levels distorted. COMPREHENSIVE INTENSITY SCALE D-2.1984 Remarks Damage considerable in specially designed structures. well built wooden structures. rails bent. rural structures. and underground pipes broken Some well built wooden structures destroyed. earth slumps and landslips in soft ground. the scale is more comprehensive and describes the intensity of earthquake more precisely. and objects thrown upward into the air D-2. buildings in natural hewn stone. bridges destroyed. waves seen on ground surfaces. parts of chimney fall down 58 . Though not finally approved. Structure B Ordinary brick buildings. few Many Most About 5 percent About 50 percent About 75 percent buildings. most masonry and framed structures with foundations destroyed. very heavy in substantial buildings with partial collapse. XII c) ClassiJication ef Damage to Buildings: Fine cracks in plaster. The main definitions used are as follows: a) . ground badly cracked. masonry structures remain standing. well designed framed structures thrown out of plumb. if any. clay houses. buildings shifted off foundations. cracks in chimneys. half timbered structures.

Furniture begins to shake. Attentive observers notice a slight swinging of hanging objects. the tremor is detected and recorded by seismographs only II Scarcely Vibration especially III noticeable . but no one is frightened. Pictures knock against walls or swing out of place. The earthquake is felt indoors by many people. Liquids spill in small amounts from well-filled open containers. The sensation of vibration is like that due to heavy object falling inside the buildings 59 . fall Destruction Gaps in walls. Weak . Open doors and windows are thrust open and slam back again. partially The earthquake is felt indoors by a few people. In standmg motor cars the shock is noticeable V Awakening: . is felt only by individual people on upper floors of buildings observed only. Buildings tremble throughout. doors and dishes rattle. Liquids in open vessels are slightly disturbed. Floors and walls crack. . mals become uneasy. Hanging objects swing slightly.Grade Grade 3 4 Heavy damage Large and deep cracks of chimneys in walls. outdoors only in favourable circumstances. Unstable objects may be overturned or shifted. outdoors by few. Ani. pal’ts of buildings may collapse. and inner walls collapse Total collapse of buildings Grade I 5 Total damage d) Intensity Scale: Not noticeable. Occasionally pendulum clocks stop. at rest in houses. The intensity of the vibration is below the limit of sensibility. a) The earthquake is felt indoors by all.The vibration is like that due to the passing of a heavily loaded truck.( very slight ). Windows. somewhat more heavily on upper floors IV Largely observed. The vibration is like that due to the passing of a light truck. separate parts of the building lose their cohesion. A few run outdoors. outdoors by manyMany sleeping people awake. Here and there people awake. Hanging objects swing considerably.

and most buildings of Type A suffer damage of Grade 4. The vibration is noticed by persons driving motor cars. 60 VII VIII Destruction 4 b) c) . Memorials and monuments move and twist. Even heavy furniture moves and partly overturns. in mountains occasional landslips. Hanging lamps are damaged in part Most buildings of Type C suffer damage of Grade 2. Domestic animals run out of their stalls.IS:1893 - 1984 b) Slight damages in buildings of Type A are possible c) Sometimes VI Frightening: change in flow of springs a) Felt by most indoors and outdoors. New reservoirs come into existence. Occasional breaking of pipe seams. few of Grade 4. In few instances dishes and glassware may break. Many buildings of Type C suffer damage of Grade 4. Water in lakes becomes turbid. Small landslips in hollows and on banked roads on steep slopes. also persons driving motor cars are disturbed. cracks in stone walls of buildings: Fright and panic. C>In few cases cracks up to widths of I cm possible in wet ground. Many people in buildings are frightened and run outdoors. Dry wells refill and existing wells becomes dry. change in flow of springs and in level of well water are observed Damage of buildings: a) Most people are frightened and run outdoors. A few persons lose their balance. Here and there branches of trees break off. Many find it difficult to stand. cracks in ground up to widths of several centimetres. cracks in roads. Tombstones overturn. books fall down. Large bells ring b) In many buildings of Type C damage of Grade 1 is caused. Stone walls collapse. in many buildings of Type B damage is of Grade 2. Most buildings of Type A suffer damage of Grade 3. In many cases change in flow and level of water is observed. Type A is of Grade 2. seams of pipelines damaged. and few of Grade 3. In single instances landslips of roadway on steep slopes. Heavy furniture may possibly move and small steeple bells may ring b) Damage of Grade 1 is sustained in single buildings of Type Damage in few buildings of B and in many of Type A. Most buildings of Type B suffer damage of Grade 3.

Ground cracks to widths of up to 10 cm. water from canals. Underground pipes are broken or bent. cracks up to widths of several centimetres. Loose ground slides from steep slopes. numerous landslips and falls of rock. Monuments and columns fall. Many buildings of Type B show damage of Grade 4. underground pipes partly broken.1984 General damage to buildings: a) General panic. etc. Many buildings of Type B show damage of Grade 5. Considerable damage to reservoirs. on slopes and river banks more than 10 cm. as well as by movement in horizontal and vertical directions. rivers.IS:1893 IX . New lakes occur XI Destruction: 4 Severe damage even to well built buildings. In coastal areas. Road paving and asphalt show waves b) In ground. sometimes up to 1 metre. lakes. thrown on land. Parallel to water courses occur broad fissures. Animals run to and fro in confusion and cry b) Many buildings of Type C suffer damage of Grade 3. falls of rock. Dry wells renew their flow and existing wells dry up X General destruction of buildings: a) Many buildings of Type C suffer damage of Grade 4. furthermore a large number of slight cracks in ground. highways become useless. and a few of Grade 5. Many buildings of Type A suffer damage of Grade 5. change of water level in wells. From river banks and steep coasts. many landslides and earth flows. most of Type A have destruction of Grade 5. and a few of Grade 4. water dams and railway lines. sand and mud is often observed. underground pipes destroyed b) Ground considerably distorted by broad cracks and fissures. The intensity of the earthquake requires to be investigated specially Landscape changes: a) Practically all structures above greatly damaged or destroyed 61 and below ground are XII . bridges. Railway lines are bent slightly. considerable damage to furniture. and a few of Grade 5. considerable landslides are possible. In individual cases railway lines are bent and roadway damaged c) On flat land overflow of water. large waves in water. displacement of sand and mud. critical damage to dams and dykes and severe damage to bridges.

01 o-05 o-04 0.04 (1.08 0 04 0. APPENDIX E ( Clause 3.IS : 1893 .05 0.04 0.1 and Table 2 ) BASIC HORIZONTAL SEISMIC COEFFICIENTS SOME IMPORTANT TOWNS Town FOR 5one Basic Horizontal Seismic Coe$icient .05 0.05 0. lakes arc da.04 0.04 0.02 0.04 0.mmed.05 0.08 62 .04 0.05 0.2.05 0.4.04 0.4 o-04 0.01 0.01 0.08 0.04 0.02 0. and rivers are deflected. waterfalls appear.05 0 04 o-01 0.05 Town 5one Basic Horizonto Seismic Coeficient a0 Agra Ahmadabad Ajmer Allahabad Almora Ambala Amritsar Asansol Aurangabad Bahraich Bangalorc Barauni Bareilly Bhatinda Bhilai Bhopal Bhubaneswar Bhuj III III I II IV IV IV III I IV I IV III III I II III V Bikaner Bokaro Bombay Burdwan Calcutta Calicut Chandigarh Chitrgaurad Coimbatore Cuttack Darbhanga Darjeeling Dehra Dun Delhi Durgapur Sangtok Sauhai Zaya III III III III III III IV I III III V IV IV IV III IV V 111 0.04 . Falls of rock and slumping of river banks over wide areas.4. The intensity of the earthquake requires to be investigated specially.01 0.05 0.04 0. Considerable ground cracks with extensive vertical and horizontal movements are observed.1984 b) ‘lhe surface of the ground is radically changed.0:04 0.

04 0.02 0.05 0.02 0.02 o-02 0.02 0.04 o-04 0.01 0.08 o-04 0.01 0.05 o-01 0.08 0.01 O-08 o-04 0.02 Jamshed pur Jhansi Jodhpur Jorhat Kanpur Kathmandu Kohima Kurnool Lucknow Ludhiana Madras Madurai Mandi Mangalore Monghyr Moradabad Mysore Nagpur Nainital Nasik Nellore NOTE.04 o-05 Gorakhpur Hyderabad Imphal Jabalpur Jaipur IV I V III II II I I V III V V I III IV II II V III IV IV I II IV III II o-05 0.04 0 -05 0.08 0.4 and 7.05 0.02 Panjim Patiala Patna Pilibhit Pondicherry Pune Raipur Raj kot Ranchi Roorkee Rourkela Sadiya Simla Sironj Srinagar Surat Tezpur Thanjavur Tiruchirapalli Trivandrum Udaipur Vadodara Varanasi Vijayawada Visakhapatnam III III IV IV II III I III II IV I V IV I V III V II II III II III III III II 0.4.04 0 01 o-04 0. 4.04 0.3.4.04 0.04 0.02 0.r iqlortant structures in accordance with 3.7’he coefficients given are according to 3.02 0.05 0.02 0.1984 Town zone Basic Horizontal Seismic Coeficient a0 Town 5 OUZ Basic Horizontal Seismic CoejSient a0 o-04 0.1 and should be suitably modified fc.08 0.2.2.01 O-08 0.01 0.08 0.05 0.02 0.02 0.1 and should be read along with other provisions of the standard.05 0.04 0. 63 .01 0.08 0.IS : 1893 .

NOTE . However. 2 which shows the average acceleration spectra ). as they give the seismic force on a structure directly by multiplying it with the generalized or modal mass of the structure. F-3. 10 .3. W. Housner has proposed average spectra on the basis of studies on response spectra of four strongest earthquakes that have occurred in USA ( see Fig. F-l. distance of the site from expected epicentre. The idealized structure is a single degree of freedom system having a certain period of vibration and damping. F-2. But the capacity of the structure in plastic range will be available for absorbing the kinetic energy imparted by the earthquake. F-2. etc. approximate values of this factor are given in Table 2.It may be pointed out that during the expected maximum intensity of earthquake in the various seismic zones. AVERAGE SPECTRA F-2. Therefore.1 and Table 2 ) SPECTRA F-l.. structures structures 64 .2 To take into account the seismicity of the various zones. DAMPING F-3.1 Prof. For elastic design with permissible increase in stresses or load factors as given in 3. maximum relative velocity or maximum relative displacement. depends on the magnitude.1 The variety made the choice largely a matter indicate the order a) Steel b) Concrete IN STRUCTURES of damping displayed in different types of structures has of a suitable damping coefficient for a given structure of judgement. >. the structural details are to be worked out in such a manner that it can undergo sufficient plastic deformations before failure [see 1. structures will be subjected to a bigger force.2 (b) ( Note 3 ) 1. The maximum response is plotted against the natural period of vibration and can be expressed in terms of maximum absolute acceleration. the ordinate of the average spectra are to be multiplied by a factor F.3. duration and form of the expected earthquake.APPENDIX F ( Clnuse 3.2.2 and3. G. soil conditions and resistance deformation characteristics of the structure. This factor F.1 GENERAL OF EARTHQUAKE Spectrum of an earthquake is the representation of the maximum dynamic response of idealized structures during an earthquake. some values are given below to of damping coefficient in various types of structures: 2 to 5 percent 5 . For the purpose of design. acceleration spectra are very useful.4.> of critical 7..

the values of damping mentioned in relevant clauses shall apply. The values given thus presume some inelastic deformations or fine cracking to take place when this order of damping will occur. However. G’s is a function of the shape of dam and. The increase zontal earthquake with depth.4. 65 .2. Referring to structure has mass the design horizon- F-4.1.It may be mentioned here that in the elastic range. The magnitude of C. 14 to 18.2.1 Let the period of a structure be 0. of the mag- G-2.8 second and cent critical. It may lie between 1 and 4 percent for the above type of structures at low stresses.1.12 = Therefore. WITH SHAPES G-l. F-4.1 kg APPENDIX G ( Clause 7. S. has been established by laboratory experiments.c) Brick structures d) Timber e) Earthen in cement mortar 5 to 10 percent 2 . the spectral acceleration. assuming water as incompressible. 5 10 ). these values may be adopted. 2. for various shapes of dams..4 x 0. tal seismic coefficient ah would be [ see 3.5. is independent nitude and intensity of the earthquake.2. I Fig. METHOD OF USING THE SPECTRA the damping 5 pergive factor.1. G-3. In the the magnitude and in water pressure on the surface of dam due to horiforces depends upon the shape of the dam and varies equation specified in 7. If the M= 12. P = = horizontal tLh Mg seismic force x 981 = 0. B = 1.5 4 x 0.2 0. (&/id 1.086 4 x 12. is O-12 g. the coefficient C.0 1 017. Further let the soil-foundation system and let the structure have an importance factor. For more detailed analysis. 30 :: of critical :: :: structures structures NOTE . illustrated in Fig. defines distribution of the increased pressure.1 ) VARIATION OF THE COEFFICIENT AND DEPTHS C.2 = 1. for obtaining design seismic coefficient. damping displayed by structures is much lower than that given above.0 kg sets/cm and is to be located in Zone V.086 x 1.3 (b)]: ah = = P IF.

1 ).2 1 t 0. horizontal seismic coefficient ( ~8s 7.WATER SURPPCE SHAPE A-1 SHAPE A-2 WATER SURPACE WATEP SURFACE SHAPE A-3 SHAPE A-4 SURFACE WATER T-Jj-= 0 0.1 DISTANCE DEPTH O-6 BELOW OF O-8 1. coefficient which varies with shape and depth. FIG. unit weight of water. FOR COMBJNATION SLOPES IN WHICH THE INCLUSIVE ANGLE IS 15” AND VERTICAL PORTION OF UPSTREAM FACE IS VARIABLE . and maximelm depth of reservoir. 14 VALUES OF C.0 h SURFACE RESERVOIR VERTICAL p = CS ah wh where p = Cs = orb = w = h = hydrodynamic pressure at depthy.

.

.1).--* BtfyVERTICAL SHAPE C-4 1 _ DISTANCE h- DEPTH OF BELOW SURFACE RESERVOIR fi = Cs ah wh where p = Cs = ah = w = h = FIG. horizontal seismic coefficient ( sc.SHAPE C-l SURFACE SHAPE C-2 WATER WATER SURFACE SHAPE C-3 . 16 VALUES OF C. coefficient which varies with shape and depth. and maximum depth of reservoir. hydrodynamic pressure at depthy. FOR COMBINATION SLOPES IN WHICH THE INCLUSIVE ANGLE IS 45’ AND VERTICAL PORTION OF UPSTREAM FACE IS VARIABLE .. unit weight of water.s7.

.

basic horizontal seismic coefficient (set 7. coefficient which varies with shape and depth.D FIG.7 O-6 s 0. and maximum depth of reservoir.s 1= DISTANCE h DEPTH BELOW SURFACE OF RESLRVOlR VERTICAL where Cg = ah = UI = h = p = hydrodynamic pressure at depthy. 18 VALUES OF C. AP.0. FOR COMBIXATION SLGPES WHICH THE INCLUSIVE IN ANGLE IS 75” VERTICAL PORTIOXOF UPSTREAMFACE IS VARIABLE .5 SHAPE E-l SHAPE E-2 0.! r-J-= 0’4 0 o-6 0.1 ). unit weight of water.6 0 *: 0.2 SHAPE E-3 SHAPE WATER E-4 SUNPACE O.

h ) with BB’ to intersect corresponding assumed planes of rupture. 19 H-l. Bb. etc.1 Make the following construction ( see Fig. Draw active pressure vectors from a’. Make Ba’ = a’b’ = b’c’ etc. 19.a . etc. etc. Draw the locus of the intersection of assumed planes of pressure vector ( modified rupture and corresponding active Culmann’s line ) and determine the maximum active pressure vector X parallel to BE.. 71 ( ‘. METHOD H-l. Assume planes of rupture Ba.1..1. uV and h are as defined in 8. prependicular distance from B to AA’ as shown in Fig. bc. in length. = 4 where X = BC = active pressure vector. 19 ): Draw BB’ to make an angle ( 4 . y”’ ) w XBC .1. at an angle ( 90’ 6-. b’. and P. etc. on BB’ equal to Aa. t-ASSUME0 PLANE DETERMINATION OF ACTIVE EARTH PRESSURE LINE ‘$5 MAXIMUM PRESSURE ACTIVE VECTOR X Fro.2 DETERMINATION OF ACTIVE EARTH PRESSUREBY GRAPHICALMETHOD The active earth pressure shall be calculated as follows: P. UJ.1 ) GRAPHICAL H-1.IS : 1893 . ab.A ) with horizontal.1984 APPENDIX H ( Clause 8.1. such that Aa = ab = bc.

20 DETERMINATION OF PASSIVEEARTH PRESSURE BY GRAPHICAL METHOD 12 . 20 ): Draw BB’ to make an angle ( + . such that Aa . Draw the locus of the intersection of assumed planes of rupture and corresponding passive pressure vector ( modified Culmann’s line ) and determine the minimum passive pressure vector X parallel to BE. METHOD J-l.1 ) GRAPHICAL J-1. on BB’ equal to Aa. Bb. at an angle ( 90” .1. in length. b’.2.b’c’. etc.gsr1&I93-1984 APPENDIX ( Clause 8. etc.h ) with the horizontal.1 DETERMINATION J OF PASSIVE EARTH PRESSURE Make the following construction ( see Fig. Make Ba’ = a’b’ .ab = bc.u + 6 + A ) with BB’ to intersect corresponding assumed planes of rupture. etc. etc. Draw passive pressure vectors from u’. etc. bc. ab. M’IDIFIED CIILMANN’S LINE /-ASSUMED PLANE OF RUPTURE MINIMUM PASSIVE PRESSURE VECTOR x FIG. Assume planes of rupture Ba.

Coefficient for determining C. 5 Coefficient to determine bending moment from base moment in dams at any section CrJ .1. = Maximum value of C. = Coefhcicnt passive earth pressure which varies with shape and depth of dam 73 . = Coefficient for determining active earth pressure ( for dry-moist-saturated backfills) CB = Coefficient for determining active earth pressure ( for submerged backfills ) C.2.rnnddicular distance from B to AA‘ as shown in Fig. The following notations and letter symbols shall have the meaning indicated against each. . w. unless otherwise specified in the body of the standard: A = Area of cross-section at the base of the structure stacklike structures B = Base width of the dam shell in C = Coefficient defining flexibility of structure C.Coefficient depending on submerged portion of pier and enveloping cylinder C. = Mode participation factor C. C’. APPENDIX ( Clause 9.1 ) NOTATIONS K AND SYMBOLS K-l.IS:lt333-l!m4 J-1. P.2 The passive pressure shall he calculated as follows: where X = passive pressure vector. av Hnd /\ are as defined in 8. BC = f..

for static active earth pressure conditions X’. = Coefficient depending on slenderness used for determining T Cv = Coefficient mining P ratio of structure. Height of dam 07 h’ f = j& hi = = c = H= Ht = Height of dam above toe of the slopes I = Importance factor k = Slenderness ratio of stacklike structure ET= Performance factor for buildings KB = Value of C. used for deterfrom base depending on slenderness ratio.IS:1893 . = Seismic zone factor Acceleration due to gravity g et h ST= L= Modulus of rigidity of the shell material of earth and rockfill dam Height of water stored in tank. i Total height of the main structure of the building. or Depth of reservoir. = Value of C’. or Height of submergence above base of retaining walls Height of centre of gravity of stacklike structure or dam above base Height measured from the base of the building to the roof or any floor. or Height of water surface from the level of deepest scour.1984 C. or Height of submerged portion of pier. for static active earth pressure conditions 1 = Half the ( longer ) length of the rectangular 74 tank . or Height of retaining wall Height of stacklike structure above the base. shear at any C’v = Coefficient to determine shear in dams section d = Dimension of building in a direction parallel seismic force DL = Dead load on the structure EL = Value of earthquake load adopted for design to the applied En = Modulus of elasticity of the material of the structure F = Total horizontal force for submerged portion of pier F.

= Active earth pressure due to earthfill P.(r) a Load acting at any floor level.1984 1’ = Half the width of strip in circular tank LL = Superimposed ( live ) load on the structure M = Design bending moment at a distance x’ from top. from the centre of rectangular tank pb = Pressure on the bottom of the tank or bottom of submerged portion of the pier Pw = Pressure on the wall of the tank P. Passive earth pressure due to earthfill (Pi&) = Active earth pressure due to uniform surcharge Cl (Pr)a = Passive earth pressure due to uniform surcharge q = Intensity of uniform surcharge Qt =. i. x. in a stacklike structure MB = Base moment Mh = Hydrodynamic moment in submersible bridges My = Bending moment at depth y below top of dam n = Number of storeys including basement storeys PHydrodynamic pressure in submersible bridges or dams. = Radius of gyration of structural shell at the base section of stacklike structures r = R = Radius of circular tank 8. due to mode of vibration Mean radius of structural shell of circular stacklike structures r. OY = Hydrodynamic pressure at any location. i Q.IS : 1893 . Lateral forces at any roof or floor. = Spectral acceleration t = Thickness of structural shell of circular stacklike structure I = Fundamental time period of vibration of structure UL = Ultimate load for which the structure or its element should be designed V = Design shear force in stacklike structure at distance X’ from the top Vr = Total shear due to horizontal component of hydrodynamic force at the elevation at which the slope of the dam face commences 75 .

level. i of live load of the roof W. OY amount of live load in Total weight of masonry or concrete in the dam We = Weight of the water of the enveloping cylinder Wh = Increase ( or decrease ) in vertical component of load due to hydrodynamic force WI = Dead load + appropriate amount or auy floor. i bridges VB Vh = VI = v. OY Unit weight of soil Wm = Unit weight of material of dam WE= Saturated unit weight of soil W = Total dead load + appropriate buildings. tr) - Absolute value of maximum shear at the ith storey. Wt = Total tion due to buoyancy or uplift weight of stacklike structure including weight of lining and contents above base x = Location in a rectangular tank from the centre of the tank = Weight of bridge mass under consideration ignoring reduc- x’ = Distance from the top of stacklike structure y = Depth of location or section below the water surface or top of the dam a = Angle which earth face of the wall makes with the vertical a0 = Basic seismic coefficient ah = Design horizontal seismic coefficient av = Vertical seismic coefficient = Equivalent uniform seismic coefficient at depth y below top UY of dam p = Soil-foundation system factor Y = Constant used to determine shear force at any floor 76 . in the rth mode VY = Shear force at depth y below top of the dam w = Unit weight of water.iSr1893 .1984 V s = Total shear due to horizontal component of hydrodynamic force at the elevation of the section being considered Base shear Hydrodynamic shear in submersible Shear force acting at floor.

free vibration Angle subtended by centre line of circular with chord width of 2 1’ Mode shape coefficient analysis at floor.IS:1893 -1984 6 = Angle of friction between the wall and earthfill n = Static horizontal deflection static horizontal force LSlope of the earthfill at the top of the tank under a 0 = Angle between the face of the dam and the vertical ah tan’1 ifav Mass density of the shell material Angle of internal friction of soil of earth and rockfill dam tank in plan. i obtained from .

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AMENDMFNT NO. New Delhi. 1. footnotes) .Add the following new sentence in the end: 'Lakshadweep falls under seismic zone III. 1 AUGUST 1987 TO IS:1893-1984 CRITERIA FOR EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT DESIGN OF STRUCTURES (Fourth Revision) (Page 7.' (BDC 39) Reprography Unit. IIndia . BIS. Fig.

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