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Considerations in Health and Physical Education Instruction TEACHING STYLE:

learning outcomes (active learning, skill development, social development, etc.); activities to be taught (manipulative skills, body management, rhythmic movement, etc.). students (interests, developmental level, experience, motivation, etc.) class size equipment and facilities teacher characteristics (interests, talents, comfort level, etc.)

Teaching styles move on a continuum from high teacher control (direct command and skill practice) to high student control (free exploration). Degree of teacher control will depend on the above mentioned factors. Direct teaching styles generally include modeling of a skill followed by practice and on-going assessment and instruction. Direct teaching style is useful for teaching a physcial skill, especially if there is high risk of accidents. Inquiry teaching styles are more process-oriented and allow students to "discover" aspects of physical activity. Students are more cognitively involved--a Teaching Games for Understanding approach.

Guided Discovery "is used when there is a predetermined choice or result that the teacher wants students to discover." (Pangrazi & Gibbons, 2009, p. 42). Convergent Style puts the teacher in the position of presenting a problem and structuring experimentation and exploration to a "better solution." Divergent Style allows for more than one answer, asking students to come up with a variety of solutions/ways to solve the problem.

Free Exploration limits the teacher's participation to supplying equipment and maintaining safety. This would be useful to introduce new equipment that students will want to explore and for young children. Cooperative Learning focuses on people working together for a common goal. The activity "should require the knowledge and efforts of all members." (p. 43).

APPROPRIATE FEEDBACK:

feedback can be intrinsic (travels through the senses and is intrinsic to the skill, student's own feedback from bodily results) feedback can also be extrinsic (from teacher, peer, video, timer, etc.) o knowledge of results (success, time, number of goals, target, etc.) o knowledge of performance (style, movement, skill, etc.). This is most often provided by teacher--providing positive confirmation and suggesting alterations for improvement. Refer to specific aspects of the performance (e.g., you

brought your arm forward on the follow through that time, you need to bend your knees) rather than general comments (e.g., good throw).

PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS:

size of practice area, ensure that you can see all students and they can hear you,
large enough to allow movement of appropriate speed and pattern; use cones, lines, benches to delineate area equipment, use a station approach if equipment is limited, ensure equipment is in good condition, ensure lines are short and there is limited waiting time, plan distribution to make efficient use of time safety, adequate safety precautions allow students to take reasonable risk, teach students how to address their personal safety and that of others in using equipment, moving in the instructional space, and following rules and guidelines. Planning, written curriculum and appropriate response to injury ensure a safe environment. Informed, developmentally appropriate instruction is a necessary component of a safe envrionment, including proper progression of skill instruction. Ensure that you know the medical history of your students, any conditions or disabilities and how to address them, as well as emergency procedures. Be sure to make a written record of any accidents or injuries.