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(isolation of) John Jacob Abel, U.S., 1897.
Erik Rotheim, Norway, 1926.
George Westinghouse, U.S., 1868.
Willis Carrier, U.S., 1911.
(non-rigid) Henri Giffard, France, 1852; (rigid) Ferdinand von Zeppelin, Germany, 1900.
(by electrolytic action) Charles M. Hall, U.S., 1866.
(De fabrica corporis humani, an illustrated systematic study of the human body) Andreas Vesalius, Belgium, 1543; (comparative: parts of an organism are correlated to the functioning whole) Georges Cuvier, France, 1799–1805.
(first use of anesthetic—ether—on humans) Crawford W. Long, U.S., 1842.
(first demonstration of antibiotic effect) Louis Pasteur, Jules-François Joubert, France, 1887; (discovery of penicillin, first modern antibiotic) Alexander Fleming, Scotland, 1928; (penicillin's infection-fighting properties) Howard Florey, Ernst Chain, England, 1940.
(surgery) Joseph Lister, England, 1867.
Emil von Behring, Germany, 1890.
(fan) Schuyler Wheeler, U.S., 1882; (flatiron) Henry W. Seely, U.S., 1882; (stove) Hadaway, U.S., 1896; (washing machine) Alva Fisher, U.S., 1906.
Jacques-Yves Cousteau, Emile Gagnan, France, 1943.
Dr. Felix Hoffman, Germany, 1899.
The Antikythera device, Greece, first century B.C.. Found off island of Antikythera in 1900.
(nuclear model of) Ernest Rutherford, England, 1911.
S. Automobile: (first with internal combustion engine. c. Bacteria: Anton van Leeuwenhoek. Glidden. Barometer: Evangelista Torricelli. Rutherford model) Ernest Rutherford. (wire suspension) Marc Seguin. England. Italy. 1884. not carriage with motor) René Panhard.. c. 1970. Bullet: (conical) Claude Minié.100 B. 1829. (first modern model) James Starley. England. England. 1783.1910. England.C. Belgium. hot-air: Joseph and Jacques Montgolfier. Calculating machine: . 1849. Lucretius. (cosmic microwave background radiation discovered. (proposed current concept of atomic structure. Emile Lavassor.C. U.. Wilson. (carburetor. 1948. 1662. 1970. Gamow. Penzias and Robert W. first successful test. Sperry. 1965.. France. U. Bar codes (computer-scanned binary signal code): (retail trade use) Monarch Marking. 1683. England. Democritus. Big Bang theory: (the universe originated with a huge explosion) George LeMaitre. Bicycle: Karl D. 1892..S. in a Curtiss flying boat. 1820. 1885. 1927. Lyons. Germany. (modern) John Dalton. 1811. von Sauerbronn. Duryea.. Rome c.. France. Germany. (industrial use) Plessey Telecommunications.S. Balloon. 1628. Denmark. France. 1825.S. (truss) Ithiel Town.S. U.(formulated nuclear model of atom. 1911. 1891. 1808.. Germany. 1816. The Netherlands. France.S. 1885. (modified LeMaitre theory labeled “Big Bang”) George A. 1912. U. (first true automobile. circulation of: William Harvey. Avogadro's law: (equal volumes of all gases at the same temperature and pressure contain equal number of molecules) Amedeo Avogadro. iron chains) James Finley. Autopilot: (for aircraft) Elmer A. U. Boyle's law: (relation between pressure and volume in gases) Robert Boyle. 1643. Ireland. 1800.S. 250 rpm) Karl Benz.. 500 B. U. 1913. Greece. Braille: Louis Braille. Bridges: (suspension. Atomic theory: (ancient) Leucippus. the Bohr model) Niels Bohr. Barbed wire: (most popular) Joseph E. (first with practical highspeed internal combustion engine. Italy. confirms theory) Arno A. U.. spray) Charles E. 900 rpm) Gottlieb Daimler. Pa. 1873. Blood.
Germany. 1737–1753. 1959. 1669. U. England. 1671. U. 1948. 1877. U.. 1656. Matthias Schleiden. 1876.(logarithms: made multiplying easier and thus calculators practical) John Napier. The Netherlands. Baldwin.S.A. (personal computer) Steve Wozniak. Sweden. Clock. Monroe. Jay R. (digital calculator) Blaise Pascal. 1684. 1972.... William Burroughs. T.S. (UNIVAC.. 1777. pendulum: Christian Huygens. 1929. (“analytical engine” design. John Mauchly. 1665. Portland: Joseph Aspdin. first all-electronic.W. 1632. Chewing gum: (spruce-based) John Curtis.S. Compact disk: RCA. 1848. U. 1830s. U. Italy. 1824.S. “Canals” of Mars: Giovanni Schiaparelli. Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator. (Polaroid Land) Edwin Land. Combustion: (nature of) Antoine Lavoisier. 1976. (multiplication machine) Gottfried Leibniz. Italy. Dorr E. (theory: cells are common structural and functional unit of all living organisms) Theodor Schwann. handled both numeric and alphabetic data) 1951. completed) John Presper Eckert..S. 1883. England.. based on comparative study of forms) Andrea Cesalpino.S. Coca-Cola: John Pemberton. Jr.” Cells: (word used to describe microscopic examination of cork) Robert Hooke.. U. Cholera bacterium: Robert Koch.. Ohdner.S. (classification of plants and animals by genera and species) Carolus Linnaeus. U.. (differential calculus) Gottfried Leibniz. (ENIAC. (phase-shift oscillator) Jack S. U. 1870. W. U. Germany. Dummer.S. Calculus: Isaac Newton. “Motorola. Carpet sweeper: Melville R. Cement. included concepts of programming. all U.S. 1952. integrated: (theoretical) G. taping) Charles Babbage.S. Car radio: William Lear. (important 19th-century contributors to modern machine) Frank S. manufactured by Galvin Manufacturing Co. U. England. Classification of plants: (first modern. Concrete: . 1838–1839. Texas Instruments. 1642. (slide rule) William Oughtred. Universal Automatic Computer. England. 1945. (dedicated at University of Pennsylvania) 1946. 1614. 1888. U.. Kilby. France. Circuit. Germany. Felt.. Elmer Wavering. Camera: (hand-held) George Eastman. Scotland.. 1886. 1835..S.S. England. 1583. (chicle-based) Thomas Adams. England. Computers: (first design of analytical engine) Charles Babbage. Bissell.
Michel Mirowski. Disease: (chemicals in treatment of) crusaded by Philippus Paracelsus. John Rock. U. U. H. Russia. Alois Langer. 4000 B.. England and James D. Crossbow: China. 1856. Cyclotron: Ernest O.. 1912. England. 1932.(reinforced) Joseph Monier. Bessemer: William Kelly. Continental drift theory: (geographer who pieced together continents into a single landmass on maps) Antonio SniderPellegrini. 1527–1541. U. .1910. UK. Italy. Condensed milk: Gail Borden. Electric cooking utensil: (first) patented by St. 1793. Converter. Germany. oral: Gregory Pincus. Watson. Cosmetics: Egypt. 1931. Min Chuch Chang. Deuterium: (heavy hydrogen) Harold Urey. Crick..S. U. France. Dynamite: Alfred Nobel. Carl Djerassi. (determination of double-helical structure) F.S. U. 1953. 1751–1754.S. 1851. Contagion theory: (infectious diseases caused by living agent transmitted from person to person) Girolamo Fracastoro. MD..S.C. 1976.S.C. U.. 1877.S. William Bennett Kouwenhoven. Defibrillator: Dr. (first comprehensive detailed theory) Alfred Wegener. Cosmic string theory: (first postulated) Thomas Kibble. Contraceptive. George Lane-Fox.. Perkin. (implantable) M... Cotton gin: Eli Whitney. 1546. 1980.S. start of synthetic dye industry) William H. c. U. U. 1931. Conservation of electric charge: (the total electric charge of the universe or any closed system is constant) Benjamin Franklin. U. MD. 1867. Lawrence. Germany. (first proposed in lecture) Frank Taylor. 1862–1877. 1869. 1858. 1874. France. 1853. Dr. Dye: (aniline. c. (germ theory) Louis Pasteur. Conditioned reflex: Ivan Pavlov. U. Morton Mower.S. DNA: (deoxyribonucleic acid) Friedrich Meischer.S. 1951. Stephen Heilman. 300 B. c.S. France. England. 1912. MD.. Sweden.
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electric: Joseph Henry. France.. 1947. U. law of: Sir Isaac Newton. c. 1637. Best. 1852. U. temporary artificial: Willem Kolff.S. Carothers. 1828. (research on polyesters and polyamides.C. U. French Anderson. Geometry. Japan. 1868. 300 B.S. (first synthesized).. Sperry. Robert Jarvik. Induction. Frozen food: Clarence Birdseye.. (VHS) Matsushita. W. U. (analytic) René Descartes. (human) Steven Rosenberg. (single rotor) Igor Sikorsky. c. Austria. Japan. (nylon) Wallace H..1665 (published 1687). U. Michael Blaese.S.S. Insulin: (first isolated) Sir Frederick G. Banting and Charles H.700. Egypt. 1966. Swiss-American. U..(nitrocellulose fibers treated to change flammable nitrocellulose to harmless cellulose. basis for modern man-made fibers) U. Intelligence testing: . China. England. elements of: Euclid. France. laws of: Gregor Mendel. 1889. (rayon) Count Hilaire de Chardonnet.. Heart. 1840.. U. Netherlands. (discovery first published) Banting and Best. 1936. 1922. Gunpowder: China. 1939. and Pierre de Fermat. 1989. Helicopter: (double rotor) Heinrich Focke. Gyroscope: Jean Léon Foucault. England. Alexandria. 1883.S. 1930s. Germany. England. 1921. Gyrocompass: Elmer A. U.S. 1982. U.. 1865. France. Halley's Comet: Edmund Halley. U.. Stanley Cohen. (Nobel Prize awarded for purification for use in humans) John Macleod and Banting. Switzerland. permanent artificial: Dr.. Heredity. Home videotape systems (VCR): (Betamax) Sony. Helium first observed on sun: Sir Joseph Lockyer.S.S. R. England. Gravitation. Germany. 1905. Gene transfer: (recombinant DNA organism) Herbert Boyer. 1924. 1975. 1935.S. England. precursor of rayon) Sir Joseph Swann.S. Ice age theory: Louis Agassiz. Heart implanted in human. Canada. England.. England. 1705. 1975. Holograph: Dennis Gabor. 1921. c. (Celanese) Henry and Camille Dreyfuss. 1973. 1957.. 1923.S.
nature of: (wave theory) Christian Huygens. U.C. H. England. 1801. 1851. Gatling. c. The Netherlands. N. speed of: (theory that light has finite velocity) Olaus Roemer. Theodore Simon.Alfred Binet. (practical single barrel.S. belt-fed) Hiram S. England. Germany. (largest steam-powered) Union Pacific's “Big Boy. Switzerland. Aston. Switzerland... Joseph-Marie Jacquard. 1936.S. (electromagnetic theory) James Clerk Maxwell. Maiman. two-beamed) Egypt. Denmark. Loom: (horizontal.S. (first practical. 1746. LCD (liquid crystal display): Hoffmann-La Roche. van Musschenbroek. 1884.S. 1862. Basov. England. Locomotive: (steam powered) Richard Trevithick. A. Arthur L. Prokhorov. Pomerania. U.” U. Anglo-American. England. England. 1745. c. 1919. (aircraft) Heinkel He 178.S. bifocal: Benjamin Franklin. 1678. U.1760. (stable isotopes) J.. (flying shuttle) John Kay.R. 1905. Leyden jar: (prototype electrical condenser) Canon E.S. Magnet. France. England. (Jacquard drawloom. J. G. 1960. Jean Lindemann. Maxim. Earth is: .. 1830–1831. 1873. Isotopes: (concept of) Frederick Soddy. 4400 B. (existence demonstrated by mass spectrography) Francis W. due to multiple-fire-tube boiler) George Stephenson. Kinetic theory of gases: (molecules of a gas are in a state of rapid motion) Daniel Bernoulli. U. independently evolved by Cunaeus and P. (power-driven loom) Edmund Cartwright. Jet propulsion: (engine) Sir Frank Whittle. 1733.S. 1829. England. 1958. England. 1675. pattern controlled by punch cards) Jacques de Vaucanson. France. Interferon: Alick Isaacs. 1752. from where name originated... 1957. Schawlow. John Ferrabee. U. Machine gun: (hand-cranked multibarrel) Richard J. Townes.. (first working model) T. Light. 1913. England. 1912. Lawn mower: Edwin Budding. Hans von Ohain. von Kleist of Kamin. 1970. 1939. Switzerland. 1745. cylinder: Linus Yale. 1785.S. U. 1804. Thompson. 1738. Laser: (theoretical work on) Charles H. Lens.. Holland. U.S. Lock. England. England. University of Leyden. Light. 1941. Lightning rod: Benjamin Franklin..
1590. 1892. Germany. France. (safety) J. 1940. U. England. Metric system: revolutionary government of France. 1938.S. (friction) Charles Sauria. Neutron-induced radiation: Enrico Fermi et al. 1942. Ohm's law: . England.S. Neutron: James Chadwick. Sweden.. 1855. Italy. 1947. Measles vaccine: John F. First picture with synchronized musical score: Don Juan. Microscope: (compound) Zacharias Janssen.S. Nitroglycerin: Ascanio Sobrero. (alternating-current) Nikola Tesla. Germany. 1600.. 1884. 1687. Italy. 1816. 1953. Lundstrom. Philip H.S. U. Motion pictures. Abelson. 1846. 1926. with spoken dialogue: The Jazz Singer. Nuclear fission: Otto Hahn. Thomas Peebles. Germany. Match: (phosphorus) François Derosne. 1827. 1913. McMillan. (electron) Vladimir Zworykin et al. synthesis of) Edward M.... 1822. 1846. Microphone: Charles Wheatstone. Italy. 1893. Nuclear reactor: Enrico Fermi. The Netherlands. 1885. Germany. France. both Warner Bros. England.. Edison. Enders. Motion. Moving assembly line: Henry Ford. sound: Product of various inventions. Microwave oven: Percy Spencer. laws of: Isaac Newton.S. U. England. et al. Canada. Motor. U.S.S. Motorcycle: (motor tricycle) Edward Butler. U.. U. Fritz Strassmann. 1932–1939. England.William Gilbert.. Motion pictures: Thomas A. U. (gasoline-engine motorcycle) Gottlieb Daimler. Neptune: (discovery of) Johann Galle. 1927. E. England. Neptunium: (first transuranic element. 1934. 1831. 1790–1801. electric: Michael Faraday. 1932...
Photovoltaic effect: (light falling on certain materials can produce electricity) Edmund Becquerel. taken together. 1609. Plastics: (first material. 1877. 1841.. France.S. 1779. 1873. U. (Bakelite. nitrocellulose softened by vegetable oil.(relationship between strength of electric current. for handwriting) Lazlo Biro. U. Work of these four men. 1869. Sweden.. (first paper negative from which a number of positive prints could be made) William Talbot. 1888. 1773. Photography: (first paper negative. England.. Periodic law: (that properties of elements are functions of their atomic weights) Dmitri Mendeleev. for marking on rough surfaces) John H. Waterman. Pacemaker: (internal) Clarence W. France. Lenormand. Parachute: Louis S. 1884. 1774. England. U. Piano: (Hammerklavier) Bartolommeo Cristofori. Claude Niepce de Saint-Victor. Argentina. c. 1957. Drake. England.. Pen: (fountain)Lewis E. Holland. 1839. England. Loud. 1709.S.. France. 1944. Italy. camphor. U. 1783. based on work with Niepce. (theoretical background of macromolecules and process of polymerization on which modern plastics industry .S. Edison. 1910. Plant respiration and photosynthesis: Jan Ingenhousz.. and circuit resistance) Georg S.S. Russia. England. 1839. first photograph. Lillehie. 1855. Hyatt. Germany. France. Ohm. (ball-point.S.S. Baekeland.S. 1869. France. Earl Bakk. Phonograph: Thomas A. U. Oxygen: (isolation of) Joseph Priestley. (discovery of fixative powers of hyposulfite of soda) Sir John Herschel. 1869. Ozone: Christian Schönbein. first completely synthetic plastic) Leo H. forms basis for all modern photography. the daguerreotype) Louis Daguerre. 1619. (Celluloid. Periodic table: (arrangement of chemical elements based on periodic law) Dmitri Mendeleev. Karl Scheele. laws of: Johannes Kepler.. U. (First color images) Alexandre Becquerel. (ball-point. Kodachrome) U.. 1839. 1819.S. (pianoforte with sustaining and damper pedals) John Broadwood. precursor to Celluloid) Alexander Parkes.D. Paper: China. U. Planetary motion. (first direct positive image on silver plate. 1848–1860. 1816–1827. Oil well: Edwin L. (commercial color film with three emulsion layers. Germany. Russia. electromotive force. on metal) Joseph Nicéphore Niepce. 1827. Germany. involving recognition of vital effect of camphor) John W. 1935. 1859.100 A.
Germany. 1654.1400.S. Quarks: Jerome Friedman.S.S. Germany. Anderson. 1941. (officially approved) 1955. c. Schmiegel.. 1952. 1919. 1922. Positron: Carl D. Prozac: (antidepressant fluoxetine) Bryan B. Germany. Germany. 1972. c. Joseph W.) 1960. England. offset) Aloys Senefelder. before 3000 B. Rabies immunization: Louis Pasteur.C. Pulsars: Antony Hewish and Jocelyn Bell Burnel. Plutonium. (first practical radar—radio detection and ranging) Sir Robert Watson-Watt. Salk.. Polio. Quantum theory: (general) Max Planck. 1967. U. Paul Hogan. c... U. Richard Taylor.S. Quasars: Marten Schmidt. 1884. Radio: . Henry Kendall. U.S. U. Printing: (block) Japan. 1912–1915. 1913. France. 1885. and Pierre de Fermat. Germany. Johann Gutenberg.S. Psychoanalysis: Sigmund Freud. Radar: (limited to one-mile range) Christian Hulsmeyer. 1796.. (movable type) Korea. 1958.S. Sabin. Wahl. 1932. Plate tectonics: Alfred Wegener. Germany. Merle Tuve. 1954. Seaborg. Scotland. 1963. U. England.S. 1900.S. (safe oral live-virus vaccine developed) Albert B. 1904. Germany. Kennedy.S. Switzerland. (released for use in U.1450.1904. (effective large-scale field trials) 1954.. (polypropylene and low-pressure method for producing high-density polyethylene) Robert Banks. U.S. (linotype) Ottmar Mergenthaler.. 1679.700. Edwin M. 1925.rests) Hermann Staudinger.) Eli Lilly & Company. Arthur C..S. U. (available in the U. U. England. forked: Mesopotamia... U. 1987. Plow. 1934–1935. Pressure cooker: (early version) Denis Papin. McMillan. (rotary press) Richard Hoe. (quantum mechanics) Werner Heisenberg. 1967. synthesis of: Glenn T. U. (lithography. Proton: Ernest Rutherford. 1844. Denmark. c. (pulse modulation. Malloy. 1925. Erwin Schrödinger. (sub-atomic) Niels Bohr. and Klaus K. vaccine: (experimentally safe dead-virus vaccine)Jonas E. used for measuring height of ionosphere) Gregory Breit. Probability theory: René Descartes. Austria.. U. France. France.S.
Pierre Curie. France. 1901. c. Rifle: (muzzle-loaded) Italy. Armstrong. Karl Jansky. (triode amplifying tube) Lee de Forest. Richter scale: Charles F. 1913. theory of) James Clerk Maxwell. Germany. Italy. France. 1904. 1895.1866.S. France. U. Germany. 1851..S. U. Richter. 1906..S.S. U. (first with a compressor device) the Domelse. generator of electromagnetic waves) Heinrich Hertz. Greenwich: established in 1675 by Charles II of England.S.100 B. Rubber: . U. 1933. France. Roentgen. England. U. Libby. (first demonstrated) U. Germany. 1889. Refrigerator ship: (first) the Frigorifique.S. c.1475. Roller bearing: (wooden for cartwheel) Germany or France. U. Relativity: (special and general theories of) Albert Einstein.S. allowing long-distance sound reception) Edwin H. France.. (first long-distance telegraphic radio signal sent across the Atlantic) Marconi..S.S.S..S.. Radiocarbon dating. Germany. c. 1835. 1850. successfully marketed) King Gillette.. cooling unit designed by Charles Teller. 1901. (breech-loaded) England. James Harrison. Armstrong. 1905–1953. (radioactive elements. (first practical system of wireless telegraphy) Guglielmo Marconi.S. France.S. Rocket: (liquid-fueled) Robert Goddard. U. Switzerland. 1947. 1873. Rotation of Earth: Jean Bernard Foucault. Chicago.. England. 1912. Australia. 1900..S. 1895. 1928. Germany. 1932. U.. (automatic) John Browning. (vacuum electron tube. carbon-14 method: (discovered) Willard F. (regenerative circuit. 1900.. 1877.S.. basis for radio telephony) Sir John Fleming. (radioactivity of uranium) Henri Becquerel. 1898. 1886. 1931. Radioactivity: (X-rays) Wilhelm K. engineer. (spark coil. U. Refrigerator: Alexander Twining. (gamma radiation) Paul-Ulrich Villard. France. originating from the Galactic Center. 1918. Radio waves: (cosmic sources. U.C. Revolver: Samuel Colt. radium and polonium in uranium ore) Marie Sklodowska-Curie.S. (electric) Jacob Schick. extraterrestrial: first known radio noise signals were received by U. Reaper: Cyrus McCormick. 1834.. 1935.. John Flamsteed first Astronomer Royal. U. U. Royal Observatory.(electromagnetism. Germany.S. 1950. 1931. (frequency modulation—FM) Edwin H. 1926... U. Radio signals. (classification of alpha and beta particle radiation) Pierre Curie.S. (bolt-action) Paul von Mauser. U. U. Razor: (safety. 1896.. led to radio astronomy) Karl Jansky. U.
1500–1600. U. (establishment of planetary orbits as elliptical) Johannes Kepler. Seismograph: (first accurate) John Milne. U. 1851. permitting production of yarn to keep up with demands of modern looms) Samuel Crompton. 1769.. 1779. Germany. England. completed mechanization of spinning. Solar system. 1836.S. worked independently of and simultaneously with Smith. Robert Bunsen. U. Italian monk. (Saxony wheel. (modern condensing. 1572. 1683. U. The Netherlands.. Seat belt: (three point) Nils Bohlin. Steam engine: (first commercial version based on principles of French physicist Denis Papin) Thomas Savery. 1929.S. Saturn. Ira Remsen. ring around: Christian Huygens. U.S. (continuous stitch) Isaac Singer. England. “Scotch” tape: Richard Drew. Solar energy: First realistic application of solar energy using parabolic solar reflector to drive caloric engine on steam boiler. Safety pin: Walter Hunt. England. 1859.S. (atmospheric steam engine) Thomas Newcomen. England. England. John Ericsson.S. 1639. Smith. England.S. 1880.. (spinning mule. Saccharin: Constantine Fuhlberg. Spinning: (spinning wheel) India. introduced to Europe in Middle Ages. England. 1764. U. 1849. (infinity of universe) Giordano Bruno.. U. (spinning jenny) James Hargreaves. double acting) James Watt. Newcomen. (high-pressure) Oliver Evans. Germany. Warsaw. 1659. Screw propeller: Sir Francis P. 1609. 1804.. John Ericsson.S. 1962. continuous spinning of wool or cotton yarn) England. Spermatozoa: Anton van Leeuwenhoek. 1705.. 1839. (steam engine for pumping water from collieries) Savery. 1665–1666. 1584. c. 1543. England.. 1837. Spectrum analysis: Gustav Kirchhoff. 1846. 1879.(vulcanization process) Charles Goodyear. Spectrum: (heterogeneity of light) Sir Isaac Newton. Steamship: . U. Sweden. Star catalog: (first modern) Tycho Brahe.. Denmark.S. universe: (Sun-centered universe) Nicolaus Copernicus. 1782. The Netherlands. (spinning frame) Sir Richard Arkwright. 1725. England. England. 1860s. Sewing machine: Elias Howe.
John Fitch.. (mechanical disk-scanning method) successfully demonstrated by J. U. camera table) Vladimir Zworykin. U. Italy.. (clinical) Santorio Santorio.. Dunlop. 1908. scale) William Thompson. 1957. Germany.S. France. (reflecting) Isaac Newton. Lord Kelvin. Scotland.S.. 1928. U. Germany. England. All preceded Robert Fulton. 1951. (first all-electric television image) Philo T. 1714. compatible with black and white) George Valensi. (color.L. Baird. 1888. 1923. 1608. c. 1790. sequential rotating filter) Peter Goldmark. U. 1953. Sweden.. 1854. Alfred North Whitehead. John Scheiffer. Superconductivity: (theory) John Bardeen. 1943.S. U. France. (antibacterial activity) Gerhard Domagk. Tank. Television: (Iconoscope–T.S. U. (mercury. France. Leon Cooper. James Rumsey. C. Tire.S. also Fahrenheit scale) Gabriel D. Teflon: DuPont.S.F. 1850. 1918. . 1914. 1819. 1876. 1783.S. mechanical disk) Baird.. Thompson. Stethoscope: René Laënnec. U. compatible with black and white) commercially introduced in U. Morse. B. Denmark. (astronomical) Galileo Galilei.V. military: Sir Ernest Swinton. Germany. 1787. or Kelvin. 1668. (centigrade scale) Anders Celsius. James Joule.1593... 1742. 1910–1913. Jenkins. U. Thermometer: (open-column) Galileo Galilei.. and also kinescope (cathode ray tube) 1928.S. Thermodynamics: (first law: energy cannot be created or destroyed. England. 1845. (color. Northern Ireland. 1843. only converted from one form to another) Julius von Mayer. England.. 1926. England. Germany. (second law: heat cannot of itself pass from a colder to a warmer body) Rudolph Clausius.S.S. (color. Sulfa drugs: (parent compound. (color. The Netherlands.Claude de Jouffroy d'Abbans. (third law: the entropy of ordered solids reaches zero at the absolute zero of temperature) Walter Nernst. Symbolic logic: George Boule. Germany. Telephone: Alexander Graham Bell. (modern) Bertrand Russell. (high-pressure) Oliver Evans. U. 1899. Fahrenheit. 1848. Tape recorder: (magnetic steel tape) Valdemar Poulsen. Austria. 1807. U.S. U. Telescope: Hans Lippershey. 1927. 1938. 1935.1615. (bicycle tire) John B. National Television Systems Committee. (absolute-temperature. 1842. credited with launching first commercially successful steamship. England..S. U.. England. pneumatic: Robert W. Padua. Farnsworth. Telegraph: Samuel F. first introduced..S. 1609. 1837. para-aminobenzenesulfanomide) Paul Gelmo. 1804. c.
Germany. c.S. U. c. Vacuum cleaner: (manually operated) Ives W. at the same time) Werner Heisenberg. 1912. Froelich. McCollum. McGaffey..S. 1882. 1958.. Van Allen (radiation) Belt: (around Earth) James Van Allen. T. (niacin) Conrad Elvehjem. William B.. 1915–1916. U. England. 1781. T. Italy. (vitamin D) McCollum. England. 1796. 1947. 2000 B. 1934. 1912.Toilet. England.S. U. 1993.S. 1922. England. Murray Spangler.3800–3600 B. (folic acid) Lucy Wills.. Walter H. (upright) J. Video disk: Philips Co. Smith. Germany. (B6) Paul Gyorgy. Windmill: Persia. 1989. Casimir Funk. (development of Mosaic browser makes WWW available for general use) Marc Andreeson.S. U. Crete.S. Uranus: (first planet discovered in recorded history) William Herschel.. Germany. The Netherlands. Norway. 1912. Voltaic pile: (forerunner of modern battery. Transformer.S. first source of continuous electric current) Alessandro Volta.. 1926. (riboflavin. England. solid wood) Mesopotamia. flush: Product of Minoan civilization. Hoist. 1869. U.. c.. Alleged invention by “Thomas Crapper” is untrue. England. Brattain. 1912–1914. Wheel: (cart. 1937. 1906.. U. U. Transistor: John Bardeen. Vitamins: (hypothesis of disease deficiency) Sir F. G.S.. U. Davis.C. (vitamin B) McCollum. (vitamin A) Elmer V. (electric) Hubert C. Booth.600. M. 1800. Vaccination: Edward Jenner.S.. .C. 1927. 1933. 1907.S. Hendrick. Tractor: Benjamin Holt.S. electric: William Stanley... World Wide Web: (developed while working at CERN) Tim Berners-Lee.S. England. Wallpaper: Europe. (thiamin. 1900. (vitamin C) C. 1885. E. 1867. Typewriter: Christopher Sholes. 1972. Shockley. Tuberculosis bacterium: Robert Koch. 1901. B1) Casimir Funk. U.. 16th and 17th century. Wassermann test: (for syphilis) August von Wassermann. U.. G.S. U. B2) D. Hopkins. Carlos Glidden. U. A. U. U.S. Uncertainty principle: (that position and velocity of an object cannot both be measured exactly.
Xerography: Chester Carlson. Yellow Fever: (transmission of)Walter Reed. U. U. L. c. Zero: India.S. 1848. 600. cessation of all molecular energy) William Thompson...S. U.S. 1891 . 1938. 1900.. Zipper: W. Judson. England. (absolute zero temperature. Lord Kelvin.