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A STUDY

ON

SPEECH ERRORS

OF

CANTONESE SPEAKERS

Peony LAU Pan Ying
(52186113)
Department of Chinese, Translation and Linguistics
City University of Hong Kong

In partial fulfillment of the requirements for CTL2204
Cecilia Y. H., CHAN
10 December, 2012

ABSTRACT
This paper examines speech errors among young native Hong Kong Cantonese speakers. The
study is based on a Chinese text, two picture books as well as a speech topic. Researcher
outlines several types of speech errors suggested by Fromkin (1971) and also occurrences of
hesitations and repairs. It is concluded that speech errors, hesitations and repairs often emerge
in both literary and colloquial readings. The study suggests that (1) types of speech errors
vary in different styles of speaking; (2) occurrence of repairs is related to the rate of speech;
and (3) hesitations seldom occur in reading aloud.
Keywords: Chinese, Cantonese, speech disfluency, speech planning, spontaneous speech,
automatic speech, speech error, stuttering, hesitation, monitoring, self-repair, instant
repair, anticipatory retracing, fresh start, repetition

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I am indebted to Cecilia Chan Yuet-hung, my professor of this course, for her teaching and
guidance throughout my research. She has solved every single problem of my research.
Without her, I would have been so lost that I could hardly proceed with my research.

I

would like to give my special thanks to Dr. Lee Wai-sum and Professor Eric Zee Yun-yang.
They taught me a lot in phonetics and phonology, and aroused my interest in these fields.

I

am especially grateful to Dr. Peppina Lee Po-lun and Mr. Tom Lai Bong-yeung, who have
always been my good teachers and friends, for their continuous support and help.

It is them

who gave me much advice when I was at my study crossroads.
I thank all of my friends who helped me in this research, including Li Yan-chung, Wong
Hiu-lam, Wong Ching-fung, Ng Ka-chun, Chan Yik-lun, Wong Ka-wai and Cham Man-ho.
I particularly would like to express my deepest gratitude to Li Yan-chung, who provided a lot
of help intellectually.

He was always there whenever I needed help or someone to chat with,

and he encouraged me during the days I burnt out.

Wong Hiu-lam, being my friend and

fellow student in university, also helped pretty much in linguistics knowledge.
I am sincerely thankful to my parents, who have given me the greatest love and support in my
university life.
want.

They never demand me do well in schoolwork, but allow me do whatever I

Last but not least, I want to express my greatest love for God who has given me the

strength to go on with my university studies.
I dedicate this thesis to all the ones I love.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
ABSTRACT

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

ii

TABLE OF CONTENTS

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1.

2.

INTRODUCTION

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1.1

DEFINITION AND LITERATURE REVIEW
1.1.1 Slips of the Tongue
1.1.2 Speech Disfluency
1.1.3 Structure of Self-repairs

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1
2
3

1.2
1.3

AIMS OF STUDY
HYPOTHESIS

3
3

METHODOLOGY

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2.1

DESIGN AND MATERIALS
2.1.1 Reading Aloud
2.1.2 Storytelling
2.1.3 Spontaneous Speech
RESEARCH PROCEDURES
2.2.1 Experiment Procedures
2.2.2 Transcription Procedures

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5
5
6
6
6
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SUBJECTS’ BACKGROUND

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2.2

2.3
3.

RESULTS

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3.1

SPEECH ERRORS
3.1.1 Speech Errors in Task 1
3.1.2 Speech Errors in Task 2
3.1.3 Speech Errors in Task 3
HESITATIONS
3.2.1 Unfilled Pauses
3.2.2 Filled Pauses
3.2.3 Clearing of Throat

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11
16
32
43
43
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3.2.4 Lengthening of Sounds
3.2.5 Laughters and Breaths
REPAIRS
3.3.1 Instant Repairs
3.3.2 Anticipatory Retracing

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46
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3.2

3.3

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3.1. Subject D 67 68 68 71 73 75 v. Subject A ii.1.2. Storytelling Materials 1.3 Locations 4. Subject C iv.1.3.2.3 4. 烏鴉喝水 2.2 4. TRANSCRIPTION NOTATIONS TRANSCRIPTS i.4 Literary Reading and Colloquial Reading HESITATIONS AND REPAIRS 4. 48 3.3.4 Grammaticalization of Lexicon 53 54 LIMITATION 4.2 Distribution 4.2.3 Fresh Starts CONCLUSION 57 REFERENCES 58 APPENDICES 60 I.4 5.3 Phonetic Variations 4.1 Types 4.2. 螞蟻和蟋蟀 60 60 61 61 64 II.1.1 Types 4.4.2 Rates 49 49 50 50 51 52 52 52 4.1 SPEECH ERRORS 4.4 Repetitions 48 DISCUSSION 49 4.2 Weakness of Hesitation Study FUTURE DIRECTIONS 55 55 56 56 4. 3. 79 Subject E iv .1 Ambiguity on Error Judgement 4.3. TASK MATERIALS i. III. Reading Aloud Text ii. Subject B iii.

1971. Garrett. Some people are more prone to speech errors than others. tired. 1967. 1975. 層: cang4) 5. Slips of the tongue can be categorized into eight basic types (Hockett. 1968.1. 1 . Perseveration 精神 can4 面 (神: san4. including shift. addition. They tend to occur in highly regular patterns (Fromkin. Addition 自己係一個係點樣嘅人 (係一個點樣嘅人) 烏 ngaa1 (鴉: aa1) 6. or drunk. 1969). 1971. have been studied since before the time of Freud. perseveration. Hesitations. Anticipation gak3 得 (覺: gok3) 4. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Slips of the Tongue Speech errors. Deletion 所以藝術家不能有錢,二不能自我感覺良好。(一不能有錢) o5 o3 得 (我覺: ngo5 gok3) 7. anxious. Fromkin. Exchange jang4 san1 (人生: jan4 sang1) 3. The non-anomalous nature of anomalous utterances. They can affect different kinds of linguistic units.1 Definition and Literature Review 1. Substitution 為表演形象 (形式) 可 lang4 (能: nang4) seok6 於 (屬: suk6) 8. morphemes and phrase (Boomer.1. Shift 藝術,是生存 (生死存亡) 2. The non-anomalous nature of anomalous utterances. Garrett. Blend 是互為表 lek1 (裡的) tyun6 食 (斷: dyun6/tyun5) Previous studies indicate that speech errors are more common when speakers are nervous or under stress. Table 1. changes of mind. substitution and blend. Nooteboom. deletion. repetition of sounds or words.1 Major Types of Slips of the Tongue Type Example 1. such as phonemes. exchange. commonly called “slips of the tongue”. but they are not part of the same class of slips of the tongue. 1975). 2008). anticipation. are also counted as errors. and so forth. Carroll.

For hesitations. Hesitation helps speakers decide what to say next (Bortfeld. However. Carroll. are /uh/ and “I mean”. as there are fewer synonyms of science terms. 2008). an inference is men may tend to control the floor more than women. On the other hand. The sheer number of words from which we choose also influence hesitation pauses (Taylor. Levelt’s (1983) study support this hypothesis by finding that pauses occurred more often before low-frequency words. Linguistic planning is very cognitively demanding.. (1991) examined the number of filled pauses in lecturers in humanities. Suprasegmental hesitations can be in the form of paralinguistic means. In light of the view that filled pauses may serve to hold the floor. 1983). social science and natural science. (Beattie.1. articulate. 1967. there is no significant evidence that filled pauses increase with anxiety. Schober. The findings of the experiment suggest that humanists use far more filled pauses in their lectures than scientists do. 1976). 2001). Hesitations are presented on two levels – suprasegmental and segmental. there are often cycles of hesitation and fluency. & Brennan. Studies suggest that sentences are not planned in their entirety before the initiation of speech (Lindsley. such as editing expressions (Hockett. disturbances of spontaneous speech are positively related to the speaker’s anxiety. pause to plan the next portion. Leon. According to Mahl’s (1987) research. Segmental hesitations are pauses with discourse markers or repetitions. Brennan and Schober 2001).2 Speech Disfluency During linguistic planning. and so on. Shriberg’s (1994) study shows that men produced significantly higher rates of filled pauses than women. 1975). Schachter et al. presegmental means. it also happens because of high uncertainty (Lounsbury 1965. and unfilled pauses (silent pause). such as coughing and laughing. lengthening of sounds. The rate of FPs is correlated to gender. glottal stop. etc. Bloom. as we express a portion of intended message. there are various forms. 1959). Examples Clearing of throat and silence pauses could also be hesitation 2 . such as filled pauses.1. which are also known as fillers (Maclay & Osgood.

to the troublesome element. which is to replace the troublesome item with a new one. On the other hand. Another way is anticipatory retracing. I would like to investigate the factors that may influence the frequency of speech errors and why some people are more prone to speech errors than others. 1. 1. and examines their amount and locations in reading aloud. It is assumed that more hesitations would be found in casual 3 . which is to start with fresh material but still repeat part of the original utterance. 1989) analyzed three ways of restarting. By comparing the number of occurrences of speech errors in formal speech and casual speech. As spontaneous speech requires more linguistic planning. which is very cognitively demanding. instant repairs do not require immediate interruption. Several hypotheses would be proposed in the next section.1. 1984. The speaker drops the original syntactic structure and starts with a new construction. A hypothesis on stylistic aspects is proposed. I would like to account for the differences.2 Aims of Study This research aims at collecting and analyzing spontaneous errors. 1. I would like to find out where hesitations and repairs appear and whether there are regular patterns on the occurrences. The interruption can be delayed. repairs and hesitations might be more frequent in informal and casual discourse contexts as in storytelling and spontaneous speech.3 Hypothesis This research suggests that speech errors occur in all types of speech. storytelling and spontaneous speech. There is also a special type of fresh start – prespecification.3 Structure of Self-repairs Levelt (1983. It is to retrace to and repeat some word prior The third way is by making a fresh start. Apart from studying the nature of speech errors. but their amount and types vary in different speech styles. The first one is called instant repairing. hesitations and repairs in speech production.markers.

Analyses would be made in terms of the amount of speech errors and disfluency. (1991) states that speech disfluency does not depend on which subject the speaker is in. 2008). No hypothesis is made on sociolinguistic aspects as the all subjects are of the same gender. while information of their economic background was not collected. Lastly. in which those in reading aloud are due to mispronunciation or related to sight-reading of the text. while those in casual speaking are owing unclear organization or thoughts. Repairs would be found in both reading aloud and casual speaking. although Schachter et al. In terms of suprasegmental features. I propose that subjects studying language or linguistics would have better speech performance than those stuying pure science or engineering. 4 .speaking style – correlating with brainstorming from mental lexicon – than in the part of reading aloud. it is suggested that slow speaking rate is associated with fewer speech errors (Carroll.

As it requires subjects’ imagination to construct an intact story. Researcher discovered that most comics contain descripting text. based on the pictures in the books and elaborate with their own imagination. Three tasks are required to complete by the subjects: 2. the words used in the text should not be too difficult lest subjects do not know how to pronounce. pure pictures or cartoons without words should be used. intonation and fluency of speech. They are “烏鴉喝水” (“The Crow Drinks Water”) and “螞蟻和蟋蟀” (“The Ants and the Cricket”). 2.1.1 Reading Aloud The first task aims at recording speech sounds in the most formal style when speakers are supposed to be very aware of their articulation. Experiments on subjects were carried out. METHODOLOGY 2. relaxed and informal style. A text of purely Chinese words should be used in this part.2 Storytelling Task 2 aims at recording subjects’ colloquial speeches in a casual. A text of about 450 words extracted from a preface “飢餓、斷食與藝術” (“Hunger. passage is written in modern Chinese in a moderate level of difficulty. but the words and syntax of the text should not be too easy or there would be very few speech errors and little amount of disfluency. Two short picture story books were chosen at last. Subjects were asked to tell the two stories informally and colloquially for 3-5 minutes. 5 .1 Design and Materials This paper will look into speech performances of native Hong Kong Cantonese speakers. Plus. was selected.2. Fasting and Art”) written by Dung Kai-cheung for a drama performance. To ensure the text is new to all subjects. the text should not be from famous books or writers. while those without text are often too short or not easy to understand. The Subjects were asked to read aloud the text formally and literarily for about 2 minutes without former preparation.1.

in tasks 2 and 3. and. All subjects are told to perform the three tasks in the sequence of this: reading aloud. 2.2. All speeches were measured with a stop watch in Sony Xperia Ion mobile phone. After finishing the first book. Lastly. and the subject should perform a spontaneous speech promptly. With no time glancing through the book. researcher immediately guided the subject tell the second story. the speaker should tell the first story.3 Spontaneous Speech The last task aims at studying speech in the most casual and extemporaneous way. the topic should not be discipline-specialized so that there would not be any bias against certain subjects. Researcher started the sound recorder. with a briefing session before the interview. A topic is specified by researcher.1. 6 . the topic. spontaneous speech and finally storytelling. The reading passage was given to the subject and he was instructed to read a part of it. instructing that he should tell a story from the pictures and describe each picture as much as he could. Then.2. without any preparation time. as the sound recording continued. how do you think is a meaningful university life?”) Subjects were asked to give an improvisation informally and colloquially for 3-5 minutes. A quiet place was arranged by researcher for every subject. Plus. researcher told the subject the specified speech topic. and subjects were reminded to speak in merely Cantonese. what are your goals and wishes in your university life. researcher gave the subject the first picture book. Some points should be considered while setting First. Background information of the subject was inquired.1 Experiment Procedures Experiments were carried out on an individual basis. the spontaneous speaking ability might differ among subjects.2 Research Procedures 2. In light of the above factors. a common question has been set: “談談你對大學生活的目標和願望,以及在你眼中有意義的大學生活。” (“As a university student. if possible. immediately after he had been told the topic.

the distribution of FPs was determined in the following way: if an FP occurred between two phrases. as this research does not demand the precision of the quantitative data on the span of pauses. rate of fillers produced. Unless necessary. 1. Filler sounds of subjects which cannot be transcribed in Cantonese characters are marked as uh (/ə/). as a sociolinguistic variable. 7 .2. 2. rather than at the end of the first one.3 Subjects’ Background Five subjects are invited for the research.All interviews were recorded using the phone recorder. The following personal information of speakers was collected for data analysis.Word 詞語: 誒. As for filled pauses (FPs).2 Transcription Procedures All recordings were transcribed in Jyutping. hm (/hm/) or mm (/m/). the Cantonese Romanization system designed and proposed by the Linguistic Society of Hong Kong (LSHK) (The Linguistics Society of Hong Kong . 2012). the lengths of short UFPs (less than 1.The Jyutping Scheme. it was analyzed as being at the beginning of the second phrase. 2. all subjects are male. In Gender. affects the In Shriberg’s (1994) study. For unfilled pauses (UFPs). 1993). this research. The filler sound /ɛː/ is transcribed as “誒” as in the Linguistic Corpus of Mid-20th Century Hong Kong Cantonese (香港二十 世紀中期粵語語料庫 .0 second) were estimated roughly. Gender All speakers must be of the same gender for similar linguistic performances. men produced significantly higher rates of filled pauses than women. Durations of longer ones (over 1. All transcription notations used in this research is attached in the appendices. um (/əm/).0 second) were not recorded. IPA symbols would not be not used in transcripts as the phonetic and phonology variations of speech sounds are not main foci of this research.

Plus. (2001).2. which may affect speech performance. older speakers have more difficulty retrieving words than younger speakers do. right handed subjects are selected because of their popularity. speakers aged between 20 and 21 years old (those who were born in 1991) are selected to guarantee similar linguistic performances. 4. “age” is set to be an independent variable. it is suggested that students studying engineering or mathematics may not have the same level of language performance as students in Language or Linguistics do. Researcher hopes to compare their differentiations under this hypothesis. motor and perceptual functioning. although the ability to define words may improve with age. hence influencing their language processing ability. 3. In this research. Age correlates to cognitive. students in humanities may make more self-repairs in spontaneous speech than students in engineering. Therefore. 6. According to Bortfeld et al. regarding the difficulty of the passage for task 1. so all subjects should be of similar age. For example. Program of study University program that the speaker is studying might have an impact on his/her language ability such as usage of vocabularies. Plus. in this research. Age In this research. 8 . subjects should have acquired enough Chinese knowledge. 5. HKALE Chinese oral examination grade It is assumed that language ability correlates with the amount of speech errors. Current university students are chosen for adequate knowledge of Chinese and full language development. Educational background Similar educational background of subjects should be ensured. Handedness All subjects ought to have the same handedness because of the fact that brain dominance of right-handed people and that of left-handed people are different.

Also. all subjects are healthy native Hong Kong Cantonese speakers who are born in and reside in Hong Kong. (There are definitely other factors leading to speech errors and self-monitoring. Apart from the above stratifications. 9 . Though one’s oral grade might not be a strong evidence for his speaking performance. None of them have any history of speech and language disorders. such as dyslexia or cerebral dysfunction. they possess normal reading and speaking ability and normal intelligence.hesitations and repairs. but it is still recorded as reference.) One’s language ability could partly be reflected by oral examination grade.

and an “o” means that the error is one occurred across two different linguistic levels. Incomplete sound segments or sounds which the meaning is unclear are marked in italics. It may also refer to a previous similar speech error. “p”. Here are the basic keys of eight types of speech errors: S – Shift.3. errors for each of the three tasks are listed. 2. These cases are represented by an “i”. B – Blend To distinguish different linguistics types of speech errors. 3. Here are some rules and constraints on defining speech errors: 1. 5. 4. “c”. If the source or original target of an error is unclear. an “m” stands for morpheme or word level. The “Speech Error Sample” column shows only the core part where the error occurs.1 Speech Errors In this section. A – Addition. “o” or “i” are added after the error key if applicable. a “t” stands for tonal or any other suprasegmental levels. the sounds of sentence final particles (SFP) are not considered. while mispronunciations are in parentheses after the target character. small letter alphabets “m”. If the error type is ambiguous. A “p” stands for phoneme or sound level. There is a special deletion error where a sound is cut off abruptly. P – Perseveration. a question mark is added in the “Type” column. D – Deletion. E – Exchange. a question mark is added in the “Remarks” column. 10 For . RESULTS 3. If the error type is vague and undefined. all possibilities are listed and ordered by their likelihood. which is usually either sentence constituents or phrases. or the correct form. “t”. In this research. a “c” stands for constituent or phrase level. T – Substitution. N – Anticipation. The “Remarks” column makes notes on the possible triggers or causes of an error. with a slash (“/”) between the possible types. leaving an incomplete sound segment.

as the onset /n/ was substituted by a /l/ and the coda /ng/ was replaced by a /n/. such as pronouncing “當然” as “dong1 jin2”.1 List of all speech errors occurred in Task 1 # [Speaker]. [Error no.{. Tp occurred twice. For deletion of sounds.1. Even if one pronounced “ze1 e6” in the editing expression “即係”.生俱來”. in “與 s. However. The deletion of the original sound segment (Dp) and the deletion of the word (Dm) that would have been uttered otherwise are combined to a deletion error for incomplete sound segment (Di).1 Speech Errors in Task 1 Table 3. Unclear utterances are not analyzed.}一定包含 Dp A08 並不 b. 3. is not regarded as error. 7. For example. Dp jat1 A05 當(don1)中 Tp A06 並不一定包括 Tm dong1 含 A07 並不(ba1)b. Variations of sounds and tones of most SFPs are not considered to be speech errors.{. the lazy pronunciation would not be considered. 6. tonal assimilation in vernacular speech. the “s” sound is produced but cut off abruptly. 9.] Speech Error Sample Type Remarks A01 ×3 飢餓(o6) Dp ngo6 A02 狀(zon6)態 Tp zong6 A03 描述一(at1)種 Dp jat1 A04 這一(a1)內涵 Dp. pronunciations of “ne1” and “le1” are both accepted. Sounds and tones of all editing expressions are not analyzed. say. 8. for a mispronounced “lan4” in “bat1 nang4”.}一定包含 Di 11 bat1 不一定包含 . A colloquial reading of a character instead of its literary reading in task 1 is counted as a speech error. For deletions of sounds. for the particle “呢”. every omitted phoneme counted as one deletion error.instance. Situations like this are counted as only one deletion error. 10. Similar to rule 5.

Tp B17 把那 ng.A09 因為對藝術 Dc 飢餓藝術家 A10 因(ja1)為 Dp A11 捱餓一點難度都沒有 Tm jan1 也 A12 而又(a4)同時 Dp.}描述 Tp B08 「斷食」是現象 Tm zak1 表 B09 而是藝術家 Dm 指藝術家 B10 是他與 s. Dp.──生俱來的 Dp 生 B11 磨: 難(laan6) Tp naan6 B12 ×2 精神層(can4)面 Pp/Tp cang4 B13 肉體層(can4)面 Tp B14 是互為表 lek1──{.}是可以 s- Tc.──的信念 Di 這樣的信念 B01 ×5 斷(tyun5)食 Tp B02 意思並不完全相同 Tm dyun6 義 B03 不(bak1)過 Tp bat1 B04 更(gan3)準: 確地 Dp gang3 B05 狀(zon6)態 Tp zong6 B06 斷(tyun6)食 Bm dyun6/tyun5 B07 則(zat1){. Pt A13 所以藝術家不 Dm A14 嚴格來說{.}被世人尊重 Tm 界 C01 則(zat1)描述 Tp B06 C02 難(laan4)度 Tp naan4 C03 所以藝術家不 Dm A04 12 jau6 一不能 .}嚴格來說 Tp 嚴? (jim4) A16 只有抱有這樣 s.}表裡的 Bp cang4 裡的 B15 不能(lang4) Tp nang4 B16 ×2 不能(lan4) Tp.──餓而不死的 Di ≈B15 餓 B18 往(won5)不可能的方向 Tp wong5 B19 不(ba1)可能的 Dp bat1 B20 ×2 不可能(nan4)的 Tp nang4 B21 死亡(mon4)的方向 Tp mong4 B22 死亡的方向(hoen3) Tp hoeng3 B23 ×4 生(san1)存的 Tp B24 藝術,是生存 Sm sang1 生死存亡 B25 不{. Di Line skip 是慢性自殺 A15 jek4──{.

}是甚麼的本質 Dp 是/甚 D11 行(han4)為 Tp hang4 D12 藝(ai6)術的 Dp ngai6 D13 藝術家透過飢餓 Tm 通 D14 內(loi6)涵 Tp noi6 D15 當(don1)中 Tp A05 D16 並{. Tp nang4 D20 磨難(laan6) Tp naan6 D21 屬(seok6)於 *Assimilation (vowel) Tp suk6 D22 ×2 精神層(can4)面 Pp/Tp B11 D23 肉體層(can4)面 Tp B12 D24 ×2 不能(lang4) Tp nang4 D25 那(laa5) Tp naa5 D26 不(ba1)可能的 Dp B18 D27 往(won5){.}不一定包括(kwu3) Tm.}死亡(mon4)的 Tp mong5 D29 方向(hoen3) Tp D30 極端行為 Tm hoeng3 作 D31 只有抱 j.──{.C04 由此而來(noi4) Tp loi4 C05 只有抱有這樣信念的人 Dm ≈A07 D01 ×4 飢餓(o6) Dp A01 D02 ×6 斷(tyun5)食 Tp B01 D03 ×2 不(bak1)過 Tp B03 D04 更(gan3)準確地 Tp D05 「飢餓」是指──{.──{.}的 Tp joeng6 D33 自我(o5) Dp ngo5 E01 ×17 飢餓(o6) Dp A01 E02 ×3 斷(tyun5)食 Tp D02 13 .}有 Di 有 D32 這樣(joen6){.}指的是 Tc B04 指的是 D06 身體的狀況 Tm 態 D07 ×3 狀(zon6)況 Tp A02 D08 本質(zak1) Tp D09 飢餓是本 Dc zat1 甚麼的本質 D10 s. Dp A01 D17 難(laan4)度 Tp C02 D18 ×4 與生(san1)俱來的 Tp sang3 D19 ×3 本能(lan4) Tp.}死亡的 Tp wong5 D28 ×2 往{.

}藝術家來 s.}是指{.}一定{.}意志 Di 意 E16 挑戰肉體和 j.}的 Di 的 E11 ×13 藝(ai6)術的 Dp E12 為表演形象 Tm D12 式 E13 而 z.──{.}把(baan2)那 Tp baa2 E31 不斷{.}把那(naak5) Ap naa5 E32 往(wo5) Dp wong5 E33 不(ba1)可能的 Dp B18 E34 方向(hoen3) Tp D29 E35 最低限度和 Tm 的 E36 極端行為 Tm 作 E37 極(gi6)端行為 Dp gik6 E38 極端(dyu1)行為 Dp dyun1 E39 極端行(haa4)為 Dp hang4 14 .}一定{.──{.}甚麼 d.──藝術家 Di 指藝術家 E15 挑戰肉體和 j.}是指 Di 而是指 E14 而 z.}甚麼 d.──{.──{.}包括 Di ≈A08 E19 並不 b.}的 Bp ngoi6 是甚 E10 飢餓: sip6──{.──{.}包括 Dm A06 E20 因(ja1)為 Dp E21 對{.}飢餓{.}描述 Tp B06 E08 外(oi6)在的 Dp E09 飢餓: sip6──{.} j.}意志嘅極限 Dm 意志的極限 E17 當(don1)中 Tp A05 E18 並不 b.{.{.E03 更(gan3)準確地說 Dp B04 E04 ×2 狀(zon6)態 Tp A02 E05 狀(zo6)態 Dp A02 E06 ×2 斷(dyun5)食 Bm ≈B05 E07 則(zat1){.──{. Tp ≈B15 E30 不斷{.──說 Di A07 說 E22 難(laan4)度 Tp C02 E23 磨難(laan6) Tp B10 E24 ×3 自我(o5) Dp D34 E25 ×2 精神層(can4)面 Pp/Tp B11 E26 但(daa6)是 Dp daan6 E27 肉體層(can4)面 Tp B12 E28 肉體層面(mi2) Dp min2 E29 ×4 不能(lan4) Tp.

) 15 .E40 矛盾(toen5) Tp teon5 E41 進(zoen3)食 Tp zeon3 (Note that duplicated speech errors by each subject are not included. The “×N” in the first column represents the number of occurrences of that error in the whole task.

}有樹啦,有草啦 Di ? [Error no.] 16 . Dp jat1 A03 ×15 唎個(o3) Dp go3 A04 有 c.2 Amount of Different Speech Errors made by Subjects in Task 1 Subjects A Types B C D Total E Shift 0 1 0 0 0 1 Exchange 0 0 0 0 0 0 Anticipation 0 0 0 0 0 0 Perseveration 0 1(2) 0 1(2) 1(2) 3(6) Addition 0 1 0 0 0 1 phoneme - 0 - - - 0 morpheme - 1 - - - 1 15(17) 12(17) 2 19(30) 27(59) 75(125) phoneme 11(13) 11(16) 0 18(29) 25(57) 65(115) morpheme 4 1 2 1 2 10 Substitution 4 8(15) 3 15(24) 12(17) 42(63) phoneme 1 5(12) 3 10(19) 7(12) 26(47) morpheme 3 3 0 5 5 16 0 2 0 0 2 4 phoneme - 1 - - 1 2 morpheme - 0 - - 0 0 sound & tone - 1 - - 1 2 19(21) 25(38) 5 35(56) 42(80) 200 Deletion of Speech Errors Blend Total (The numbers in brackets include duplicated errors.3 List of all speech errors occurred in Task 2 # [Speaker].──{.) 3.1.2 Speech Errors in Task 2 Table 3.Table 3. Speech Error Sample Type Remarks A01 ×5 有(ja5)一個: Dp jau5 A02 ×8 有一(a1)個: Dp.

}枝水嘅 Di ? A20 ×2 但(da6)係 Dp daan6 A21 ×5 但係(ai6) Dp A22 當佢 s.──辦法 Di ? A26 ×5 諗:(lam2) Dp nam2 A27 不(ba1)如 Dp A28 用 ze2 個頭 Bp bat1 自己 A29 daai6 發現 Bp A30 發(fa3)現 Dp A31 玻璃樽 sa6 太硬 Dp A32 行嚟(le4)行去 Dp lei4 A33 行嚟行(haa4)去 Dp haang4 A34 ×2 喺度(ou6) Dp dou6 A35 周(za1)圍 Dp zau1 17 (soeng2.A05 係(ha6)一個 Dp hai6 A06 太陽(joen4)呢 Tp joeng4 A07 ×8 就(za6)好猛烈 Dp zau6 A08 就好(ou2)猛烈 Dp hou2 A09 就 f.──{.}想{.}{誒}{.──{.}伸個 Di hai6 想/伸? A23 伸個(ngo3)嘴 Dp/Tp go3 A24 ×2 喺度(o6)諗: Dp.}喺唎一個: {. san1) zi gei2 但係 daan6 hai6 fat3 實在/實在係 sat6 zoi6 hai6 .}{誒} 山丘嘅上空嗰度飛過喎 Di 飛? (fei1) A10 應該(go1)係 Dp goi1 A11 ×6 噉樣(moen2) Tp moeng2 A12 搵緊(ga2)一啲 Dp gan2 A13 ×10 當佢:(heoi5) Tp keoi5 A14 ×6 時候(au6) Dp A15 jaung6 玻璃罌裝住 Bp hau6 就用? A16 當(do1)佢 Dp dong1 A17 當佢(eoi5) Dp keoi5 Dp ge3 e3)時候 A18 ×4 (zau6 jung6) A19 唎 f.──{. Dp dou6 A25 諗: d.

──{. Tp bin1 就係 A39 流出(coe1)嚟 Dp ceot1 A40 都(do1)係 Dp dou1 A41 將(zoen1)呢個 Tp zoeng1 A42 噉樣(moe2) Dp/Tp.}{誒}{.A36 噉(am2)樣: Dp gam2 A37 旁邊(bi1)有 Dp A38 ze6 用石仔 Bp.──{.}當呢個<h>蟋蟀 哩 常之/常 soeng4 zi1 A60 向螞蟻(nga5)去 Dp ngai5 A61 向 </h> {.}螞蟻去(oe)解釋 Dp.}實在係 Di heoi3 實? (sat6) A63 兩(loe5)隻手 Dp loeng5 A64 兩隻(ek3)手 Dp zek3 A65 ×2 噉樣(moeng2) Dp/Tp joeng2 A66 原來(noi4) Tp A67 zai6 唎個螞蟻哩 Bp loi4 就係 18 zau6 hai6 .}{誒: }{.──就喺度 Di ? A52 非常之(i1) Dp zi1 A53 肚餓(o6) Dp ngo6 A54 佢哋 f.}豐收嘅時 候 Di 豐? (fung1) A55 非 soeng2 勤勞 Dp. Dp A62 啊 s.}喺{.──花俏嘅 Di jai1 巧? (hau2) A51 ha6.──{. Dp joeng2 A43 慢(ma6)慢慢慢 Dp maan6 A44 慢慢(ma2)慢慢 Dp maan2 zau6 hai6 A45 ze3)雀 Dp zek3 A46 jit1)個水 Tp ji1 A47 噉樣(joen2) Tp joeng2 A48 喺(ha2)一個 Dp hai2 A49 ×2 喺一(at1)個 Dp A50 好 ((.h)) 花 ha. Tt A56 勤勞(nou4) Tp lou4 A57 當(don1)呢個 Tp dong1 A58 向(hoen3) Tp hoeng3 Di 螞蟻? (maa5) A59 m.

A68

非常(oe4)之

Dp, Dp

soeng4

A69 ×2

聽(te1)到

Dp

teng1

A70 ×2

聽到(ou2)

Dp

dou2

A71

之後(au6)

Dp

hau6

A72

螞蟻(ai5)

Dp

A73

zy- ──{誒: }住所

Di

ngai5
住? (zyu6)

A74

享(hoen2){.}受

Tp

hoeng2

A75

派(taai3)對

Tp

paai3

B01

烏鴉(ngaa1)

Ap

aa1

B02 ×2

喺度(ou6)

Dp

dou6

B03

因(ja1)為

Dp

jan1

B04

因為(wa6/waa6)

Dp

wai6

B05 ×3

佢(heoi5)而家:

Tp

keoi5

B06 ×3

但(da6/daa6)係

Dp

daan6

B07 ×3

但係(ai6)

Dp

hai6

B08 ×2

嗰個(o3)樽

Dp

go3

B09

唔可(o2)以

Dp

B10

飲 do2 啲水

Bp/Dp

ho2
到嗰/到?

B11

但係(aa6)

Dp, Dp

hai6

B12

諗(lam2)

Tp

nam2

B13 ×7

我(o5)

Dp

ngo5

B14 ×3

喺度(au6)

Dp, Tp/Pp

B15

用: s::- ──用石頭

Di

hai2 dou6
石?

B16

跟(ge1)住

Tp, Dp

gan1

B17

都(da1)係

Tp, Dp

dou1

B18

佢又(aa6)

Dp

B19

另 o6 個

Dp, Dp /N

jau6
外? (ngoi)

B20 ×2

另 o6 個(o3)

Dp/P

go3

B21 ×2

就(za6)係

Dp

zau6

B22 ×2

一(ja1)粒一粒

Dp

jat1

B23

一粒(la1)一粒

Dp/P

lap1

B24

噉樣(moen2)

Dp/Tp, Tp

joeng2

B25

佢(hoe5)哋

Tp, Dp

keoi5

B26

噉樣(moe2)

Dp/Tp, Dp

joeng2

B27 ×2

係度(ou6)

Dp

dou6

B28

好耐(loi6)

Tp

noi6

19

(dou2 go2)

B29 ×2

肚餓(o6)

Dp

ngo6

B30 ×2

可能(lan4)

Tp, Tp

nang4

B31

佢行{.} d-──一路行

Dp

?

B32

真(za1)係

Dp

zan1

B33

佢(heoi3)行到

Tp, Tt

keoi5

B34 ×4

螞蟻(ai5)

Dp

B35

班 m- aa5 蟻

Di

ngai5
螞? (maa5)

B36

aa5 蟻

Di

maa5

B37 ×2

開咗(o2/jo2)

Dp/Tp

zo2

B38 ×2

噉嘅(e3)樣

Dp

ge3

B39

噉嘅樣(joen2)

Tp

B40

入去: {誒} c- ──{誒}入去:

Di

joeng2
坐? (co5)

B41

應該:(go1)

Dp

goi1

B42

準備(mei6)咗

Tp

bei6

C01

今日(mat6)

Dp/Tp

jat6

C02 ×2

烏鴉(ngaa1)

Ap

aa1

C03 ×4

有(ja5)一日

Dp

jau5

C04 ×6

有一(a1)日

Dp, Dp

jat1

C05 ×3

就(za6)有一隻

Dp

za6

C06

就有(au5)一隻

Dp

jau5

C07 ×4

佢(heoi5)

Tp

keoi5

C08

{噉 aa6} j- ──{.}佢就

Di

?

C09

水裏(leo5)便

Dp

leoi5

C10 ×4

但(daa6)係

Dp

daan6

C11 ×4

但係(ai6)

Dp

hai6

C12 ×2

將個(ngo3)嘴

Dp/Tp

go3

C13

佢 lai6──{.}於是哩

Tp

?

C14 ×3

噉樣(moen2)

Dp/Tp, Tp

joeng2

C15 ×4

唎個(o3)

Dp

go3

C16 ×5

諗(lam2)下

Tp

nam2

C17

突然之間(aan1)

Dp

gaan1

C18

佢又(au6)心諗

Dp

jau6

C19 ×2

如果(o2)

Dp

gwo2

C20

石(se6)仔

Dp

sek6

C21

都──d- ──m 未嘗

Di

C22

m- ──未嘗唔係(ma6)

Di

?
唔? (m4)

C23

唔係(ma6)

Dp/Tp, Dp

hai6

20

C24

一(ja1)個

Dp

jat1

C25 ×2

好嘅(e3)

Dp

ge3

C26

c- ──諗深一層

Di

?

C27

敲爛咗(o2/jo2)

Dp

zo2

C28

噉點(nim2)算呢

Dp/Tp

dim2

C29

於是佢(he5)就

Tp, Dp

keoi5

C30

我(o5)

Dp

ngo5

C31

一定(de6)要

Dp, Tp, Dp

ding6

C32

喺(he2)唎個

Tp, Dp

hai2

C33

唎個(a3)時候

Dp, Tp

C34

個水 w- ──{.} s- s- 水瓶

Di

go3
位? (wai2)

C35 ×2

s- s- 水瓶

Di

水? (seoi2)

C36

好多年(lin4)

Tp

nin4

C37

ut6──{.}{誒}{.}途中

?

?

C38

一(at1)隻

Dp

jat1

C39

覺(go3)得

Dp

gok3

C40

咧隻(e3)蟋蟀

Dp, Dp

zek3

C41

佢(hoe5)哋

Dp

heoi5

C42

j- ──{誒}四周圍

Di

?

C43

去敲 j- ──門 naak3

Di

?

C44

螞(maang5)蟻

Ap

maa5

C45

螞蟻(ai5)

Dp

C46

可 mo2 以

Bp

ngai5
唔可

C47

噉(am2)就話

Dp

gam2

C48

噉樣(moeng2)

Dp/Tp

D01

{mm: }{.}ta- ──[火悶]嘅太陽

Di

joeng2
太? (tai3)

D02

曬落去地下 d- 上面

Di

?

D03 ×4

照得地下一片光 ((clear throat)) pi- h{.} ci- h- ──照得

Di

?

D05 ×2

而且 l- {.} j- ──加上

Di

?

D06

好 s- 令人

Di

D07

令人 soe- {.}令人覺得

Di

?
舒? (syu1)

D08 ×2

非常之(i1)

Dp

D09

一個 t- ──{.}廣闊嘅天空

Di

zi1
天? (tin1)

D10 ×14

廣闊嘅(e3)

Dp

ge3

D11

佢好 c- ──{.}飛得

Di

?

21

(m4 ho2)

D12

好開心噉(m2)樣

Dp

gam2

D13 ×3

但(da6/daa6)係

Di

daan6

D14 ×4

覺(go3)得

Dp

D15

好 t- ──{.}口渴

Di

gok3
肚餓? (tou5)

D16 ×2

口渴(hok3)

Tp

hot3

D17

梗(gaa2)係

Dp

gang2

D18 ×8

係(ai6)咪

Dp

hai6

D19 ×7

就(za6)飛落

Dp

D20

唎 ha3 時候

Tp

zau6
個?

D21

daa6 可惜

Dp

D22 ×20

諗(lam2)住

Tp

D23

伸入去{.} s- 水樽裏

Di

D24

時候(au4)

Dp, Pt

D25

一件 h- ──{.}好弊傢伙嘅

Di

si4 hau6
好? (hou2)

D26 ×15

我(o5)個

Dp

ngo5

D27

夾(gaak3)梗

Tp

gaap3

D28

夾梗(aang2)

Dp

ngaang2

D29 ×2

塞(sat1)入去

Tp

sak1

D30

塞入(ja6)去

Dp

jap6

D31

將(soeng1)個頭

Tp

zoeng1

D32 ×4

塞入去個(o3)

Dp

go3

D33

都(do1)係

Dp

dou1

D34 ×5

真(za1)係

Dp

zan1

D35 ×4

真係(a6)

Dp, Dp

hai6

D36 ×3

突然(ji4)之間

Dp

jin4

D37

差啲 d- ── {.} 搖搖欲墜

Di

?

D38

搖搖(ji4)欲墜

Tp

jiu4

D39 ×2

突(da6)然之間

Dp

dat6

D40

突然之間(aa1)

Dp, Dp

D41

啲水咪流晒地下

Dm

gaan1
流晒落地下

D42

噉 oe5 飲唔到

Dp, Dp

佢? (keoi5)

D43 ×5

佢(heoi5)唯有

Tp

keoi5

D44 ×2

喺度(ou6)

Dp

D45

好多 se3──{.}細石頭

Bp/Bm

dou6
細石?

D46

koe- ──{.}叮咗

Di

22

但/但係?
(daan6 hai6)
nam2
水? (seoi2)

(sai3 sek6)
佢?

──加快 Bp D73 ×2 噉樣(moen2) Dp/Tp.}石頭 Tp zoeng1 D62 噉樣(moeng2) Dp/Tp joeng2 D63 抌落(la6)去 Tp. Pt 樽? (zoen1) D60 啲水 m 會 Dp 咪? D61 ×3 將(zoen1){. Dp jau5 D70 就有飲(am2)水 Dp D71 fa6. Tp D74 好多 soek6 頭 Bm D75 將好多 soek6 頭 ba.──依個時候 Di ? D66 ×4 時候(au6) Dp D67 佢就有飲水喇 Sm/Dm hau6 有水飲 /有得飲水 D68 ×7 就(za6)有飲水 Dp zau6 D69 ×2 就有(a5)飲水 Dp.gaai3. sui2) 擺? 落去? (lok6 heoi3) go3 . Tp 23 ? 諗/靈? (nam2.──{誒}提議 Di ? D54 打爛(laang6)個樽 Tp laan6 D55 啲石頭有冇辦法可以{.}飲水哩? Dc 烏鴉有冇辦法 D56 喺唔打爛個樽情況之下 Dm 嘅情況 D57 佢 zem2 下諗 Bp D58 ×2 擺落 g.──{.}靈機一觸 Bm D49 念(lim6)頭 Tp D50 抌爛個 soe.si.──{誒}擺落 Di (zau6 nam2) 個水(樽)? D59 水 zeo2 裏面 Dp.──石頭擺 Di D76 擺 loi6 水樽 Bp D77 唎個(a3)時候 Dp.}否決 Di 否? D53 唎個 d.──加快 Di jam2 快? D72 gaai3. ling4) 就諗? 加快? (gaa1 faai3) joeng2 石/水? (sek6.}靈機一觸 Di D48 lam4──{. Dp lok6 D64 抌落去(eoi3) Dp heoi3 D65 ×2 ji2.}喺唔打爛個樽 情況之下{.──lam4──{.s.D47 叮咗一 g.樽 Di nim6 水? D52 都係 f.

──{uh 誒: }佢: 玩音樂嘅 時間 Di ? D102 一路行(han4) Tp D103 蟋蟀彈嘅 ja. Tp de6 D87 各(got3)人 Tp gok3 D88 為著(zoek3) Tt zoek6 D89 一起(he2)努力 Dp hei2 D90 一(ja1)粒 Dp jat1 D91 一粒(la1) Dp lap1 D92 佢哋(e6) Dp.}蟋蟀 Bp D97 ×2 而唎 a3 蟋蟀 Dp. Tp ngok6 D108 ×2 好聽(ten1) Tp teng1 24 嘅/㗎 (ge3.──工作 Di nou5 做? D85 ×4 五(m5)兄弟姊妹 Tp ng5 D86 佢哋(jyu6) Dp. Dp dei6 D93 返到去(hoe3)屋企 Dp D94 大飽一福 Bc heoi3 大吃一頓/ 大飽口福 D95 噉 o3 話 Dp.──((clear throat)) <h>好享受 Di enjoy? D101 享受佢 ja.D78 經過(go3) Tp gwo3 D79 ×2 經過一(at1)番 Dp jat1 D80 先至(sin13) Bp. Tp D96 ja51 隻{. Bt D107 ×11 音樂(mot6) Dp/Tp. Dp D98 ×2 好興奮噉(am2)樣 Dp gam2 D99 ×3 好興奮噉樣(moe2) Dp/Tp.──非 soeng2 悅耳 Di D106 非 soeng2 悅耳 Dp. Dp sin1 zi3 D81 下午(m5) Tp ng5 D82 螞蟻(ai5) Dp ngai5 D83 努(lou5)──{. gaa3) 有一? (jau5 jat1) 一隻/隻? (jat1.──音樂 Di hang4 音? D104 音樂(ok6/mok6) Dp/Tp D105 覺得{. Dp joeng2 D100 好 en.}努力 Tp D84 噉樣 z. zek3) ngok6 好? 常之 (soeng4 zi1) .}hou.

──將來有機會 Di mong6 機? (gei1) D141 將(zoen1)來(noi4) Tp/Dp loi4 D142 ×3 到咗(o2) Dp zo2 25 .{.── Di 一路向前行 ? D127 gei1 路 ha.──((clear throat)) gei1 路 ha.D109 音樂節目 g 裏面 Dp 嘅? D110 ×2 然之後(au6) Dp D111 佢 za.──尋找下地下 Di ? 找下一? D132 冇 mo1──冇乜 Tp 乜? (mat1) D133 就 go.──((clear throat)) 你彈嘅 Di 咁受歡 ji.──去: 蟋蟀面前聽 Di 聽? D114 聽(te1)下音樂 Dp teng1 D115 聽完(jyu4)蟋蟀彈嘅 Dp jyun4 D116 D117 你以前嘅 s.──{.ja.──一路向前行 ? 嘅? D128 gei1 路 ha.}就 g-話 Di ? D134 就 g-話 Di ? D135 你要(ji3)畀 Dp D136 你要畀 sap.──不如諗下 Di 更? D113 就去 te.──我哋好欣賞 Di ? D138 好欣賞(soe2)你 Dp soeng2 D139 希望(mo6)有 Dp D140 有 g.ha.──走過 Di ngo6 行? D125 走過唎一個 hung1──((clear throat)) ha.── ? 一路向前行 空? D126 ha. Dp D120 一 gyun6: 好淒涼嘅時間 Tp jat1 段? (dyun6) D121 冇(mu5)嘢食 Dp mou5 D122 ×2 捱(aai4)餓 Dp ngaai4 D123 ×4 捱餓(o6) Dp D124 ha.──你要畀心機 Di jiu3 心? (sam1) D137 我哋 j.── {em 哩}{.──一路向前行 Di 行? D129 一路向前(ci4)行 Dp cin4 D130 唯有 h.──((clear throat)) gei1 路 ha.} 嘗試 Di D131 ×3 尋 za.──{誒}受人歡迎 Di ? 迎? D118 其實(sa6)我 Dp sat6 D119 一(a1)gyun6: Dp.}──唎五隻蟋蟀 Di hau6 就? D112 為咗想聽到 gan.

──((h)) 賺唔到錢 Di ? D158 本領(ning5) Tp ling5 D159 彈咗好 ja.──((clear throat)) 蟋──{唔 係}{.D143 寒(hong4)冬 Np/Tp D144 佢哋 ceo.──{誒}成個冬天嘅: Di ? D150 生(san1)活 Tp sang1 D151 外(oi6)面 Dp ngoi6 D152 佢(koe5){. Dp dou1 D164 食唔晒嘅(e2) Dp ge2 D165 小明嘅屋(ak1)企 Tp uk1 D166 各(go3)人 Dp gok3 D167 各人(an4) Dp jan4 D168 各人 ho.──已經嚟到 Di mat6 嚟? (lei4) D148 佢哋 swit1──須要有 Bm/Tp/Bp D149 一個 zik.──((.──au6 aa6 Di D156 ×2 au6 aa6 Di ? 就話? D157 冇 ja.──{uh}好──{.h))好悅耳嘅 Di 好聽? (hou2) D161 gap.──儲好嘅 Di hon4 dung1 儲? (cou5) D145 諗 zy.}打開 Dp keoi5 D153 ×3 蟋蟀先生(saan1) Dp saang1 D154 然之後問(mang6) Tp man6 D155 蟋蟀 s.}好 ho──((.──如果噉樣 Di 噉? (gam2) D162 ×2 不(ba1)如 Dp bat1 D163 我哋都(a1)食唔晒嘅 Dp.──((clear throat)) 入到嚟 Di ? E01 ×9 我(o5) Dp ngo5 E02 講(go2)嘅 Dp gong2 E03 ×10 就(za6)係: Dp zau6 E04 ×11 就係:(ai6) Dp E05 喺 lat1 個 E06 好 fong1 和日麗嘅日子 必須/須? (bit1 seoi1) (zau6 waa6) hai6 Bm/Bp/Ap/ 唎一/一/唎? Tp (li1 jat1) 風 (fung1) Tp 26 .}螞蟻 Di 住? (zyu6) D146 ×2 食物(ma6)哩 Dp D147 因為冬天{. Tp.}le.h))好悅耳嘅 Di 優美? (jau1) D160 好 ho.

──seoi.嘴 Tp ? 27 .──實在太想 Di bun2 實? (sat6) E38 ×4 想(soen2) Tp soeng2 E39 佢 zu.} h.──擘大個口 Di ? E32 擘(maa3)大個口 Dp E33 嗰 si.──{.──{.──好快哩{.──裏便 啲水 Di 水? (seoi2) E28 ×15 但(da6/daa6)係 Dp E29 正當 o6 想去 Dp.──{. Tp daan6 佢? (keoi5) E30 想去 s.} s.} s.──埋去 Di ? E24 ×8 時候(au6) Dp hau6 E25 ×7 諗(lam2) Dp nam2 Di ? E26 畀我飲晒: ──d.──飲水嘅時候 Di maak3 時? (si4) E34 自己(i2) Dp. Bp/Tp zi6 gei2 E35 go.──{. Dp E19 有水 gwo3 Bp jat1 㗎喎? E20 ×11 因(ja1)為 Dp jan1 E21 ×2 咁耐(loi6) Tp noi6 E22 ×10 佢(heoi5) Tp keoi5 E23 當佢哩{.──搵唎個: Di E16 {噉} ə 飛啊飛啊 Dp. Tp E14 佢 seo1.──裏便 啲水 (gaa3 wo3) E27 畀我飲晒: ──d.──根本就 Di ? E36 ×2 根本(mun2) Dp/Tp E37 佢實──{.──草地好綠 Di ? E09 應該(go1)係 Dp E10 就 ja5 隻 Dp goi1 有/有一? E11 就 ja5 隻 w.──seoi.}嗰尐 c.} s. Tp ? 佢? (keoi5) E17 ×4 有一(ja5 a1) Dp jau5 E18 ×4 有一(a1) Dp. Tp hai2 E08 嗰 lul1.──擘大個口 Di ? E31 想去 s.}就須要 Di zoi6 須? (seoi1) E15 須要 l.}烏鴉啦 Di (jau5 jat1) 烏? (wu1) E12 ×4 實(sa6)在 Dp sat6 E13 ×2 實在(a6) Dp.E07 佢喺(ei2)度 Dp.

} 好似 Di di1 似? (ci5) E72 填滿晒{.}樽個(ngo3) Tp/Dp go3 E60 噉樣(moe2) Dp/Tp.}流晒出嚟 Di ? E69 不(b1)如 Dp bat1 E70 ×2 將啲(i1) Dp E71 好 ci. Dp E61 wu.E40 si2 不過 Tp 只? (zi2) E41 不過(o3) Dp E42 塞 go.──塞咗喺個水樽口 Di gwo3 個? (go3) E43 ×2 嗰(o2)度 Dp go2 E44 ×3 辦法(faa3) Dp faat3 E45 將(zoen1) Tp zoeng1 E46 ×3 啲水咪(ma6)會 Dp mai6 E47 ×2 咪會(wu3) Dp wui3 E48 流出(ceo1)嚟 Dp ceot1 E49 ×2 流出嚟(ei4) Dp lei4 E50 向(hoe3)下流 Dp E51 ×2 daa6 佢又 Dp hoeng3 但係/但? E52 ×2 佢又(a6/aa6)諗 Dp.──係會 Di joeng2 會? (wui3) E62 慢(maa6)慢 Dp maan6 E63 逐滴(dek6) Tp E64 佢 l.──{.}個 s.──{.──佢又諗(lam2) Di dik6 諗(lam2)? E65 ×2 如果(go2) Tp E66 敲: 得太大 ge23 時候 Tt? gwo2 嘅? (ge3) E67 啲水咪一 c.}路噉樣 Di ? E68 會 s.──嗰個水位 Di dik1 水? (seoi2) 28 (daan6 hai6) .}個樽佢 Di 水? (seoi2) E73 升咗(ngo2) Dp/Tp zo2 E74 的(dek1)確 Tp E75 嗰啲 s:.──{. Dp jau6 E53 佢(eoi5) Dp keoi5 E54 會(wu5)唔會 Dp wui2 E55 唔會(mui5) Bp m4 wui3 E56 嗰啲(li1)樽 Tp di1 E57 好似 ə ──{.──{.}樽 Di ? E58 嗰個:(o3) Dp go3 E59 ×4 嗰個: {.}我推倒嗰個: {.

}係幾隻螞蟻 啦 Di 螞? (maa5) E107 ×7 螞蟻(ai5) Dp ngai5 29 .}數萬嚿 Di ? E102 ×3 執到嘅(e3) Dp ge3 E103 主角(go3) Dp go3 E104 就係 m.── {.──一隻 m.──z.── {.}{唔係}{. Dp bun2 E91 碎(seoi5)石 Tt/Bt seoi3 水? (seoi5) E92 ×2 太細嚿(gau4) Tt gau6 E93 先至(i3) Dp zi3 E94 執咗成個 j. Dp keoi5 E81 ×2 真(za1)係 Dp E82 w.}{唔係}{.──{.──{.} c.──可以 飲嘞 Di ? E96 飲 ji1 lat1 啖 Ep 唎一 (li1 jat1) E97 同我平時飲 lik1 Tp E98 di1 啲水 Bp/Np/Tp ? 唎啲 (li1 di1) E99 但係 i1 水 Dp/Bp 唎啲? (li1 di1) E100 ×4 經過(go3) Tp gwo3 E101 執咗無數{.} j.──成個下晝 Di ? E95 終於畀佢搵到咁多石頭嘞 j.}係幾隻螞蟻啦 Di ? E106 一隻 m. Dp ? 就? (zau6) E80 ×2 噉佢(eo5/oe5)搵 Dp.──{.──咁 s.}少少 Di E79 噉 aa6 要 Dp.──一隻 m.E76 冇辦(waa6)法 Dp/Tp. Dp mou5 baan6 E77 噉既然{.──{.──佢知道唯一 Di zan1 唯? (wai4) E83 唯一(ja1) Dp jat1 E84 目標喺(ai2) Dp hai2 E85 ×3 雖然(jyun4) Pp/Tp seoi1 jin4 E86 爭少少爭(zaa1)少少 Dp E87 佢 b.}少少 Di ? E78 咁 s.} 繼續去不斷搵 Di zaang1 不? (bat1) E88 ×7 返(faa1)嚟 Dp faan1 E89 根(gaa1)本 Dp gan1 E90 根本(mu2) Tp/Dp.──z.}{唔係}{.}係幾隻螞蟻啦 Di 螞? (maa5) E105 就係 m.──{.

}既然佢有手有腳 Di hai2 有? (jau5) E133 ×2 幫(bo1)手 Dp bong1 E134 有得(da1)食 Dp dat1 E135 隻螞 nga. Dp E139 syu:23 決定 Bp 30 (kam4 ge3) 蟻? (ngai5) 心知/就心? sum1 可? (ho2) nang4 所以 .}搬食物哩 Di ? E123 ×2 實在(o6) Dp. go3) ? 琴嘅 E130 拉小提 gaa3 螞蟻 Bp E131 喺(ha2)度 Dp E132 佢 j. Dp gan6 E110 比較(a3)多 Dp.} zum1 知道 Np/Pp E137 自己 h.E108 ×2 可能(lan4)呢 Tp.──{.──{. Dp zoi6 E124 體力(lə6)勞動 Tp lik6 E125 ×3 拉小提琴(ka4)嘅 Dp kam4 E126 ×2 拉小提琴嘅(a3) Dp. Dp E114 搬緊啲 f.} wa6.}拉小提 gaa3 螞蟻 Di (ge3 gu2) 墶/個? (daat3. Pt/Tt si4 hau6 E116 有一(jat51) Bp jau5 jat1 E117 ×3 坐咗喺(a2)度 Dp.──{.}因為哩 Di ? E121 bo1. Tp E127 螞蟻 gwu3──鼓勵 Bp ge3 嘅鼓? E128 最遠嗰 da3 地方 Dp/Tp/Bp E129 j. Tp nang4 E109 最近(a6)比較 Dp. Dp hai2 E118 ×2 喺度(ou6) Dp dou6 E119 搬緊 c.}因為哩 Di ? E122 swu.──{.}可能唔夠嘞 Di E138 可能(la4)唔夠 Tp.──{.──拎出嚟食啦 Di jiu3 食? (sik6) E113 喺度(o6)搬緊 Dp.──{.──{.} wa6.──{.}食物 Di dou6 貨? (fo3) E115 ×2 時候(au4) Dp. Dp gau3 E111 要(ji3)積蓄防飢 Dp E112 可以 s. Tp.──{.──{.}體力{.}但係嗰隻拉小提琴嘅 Di 螞蟻 E136 就{.──{誒}食物 Di ? E120 bo1.

──{.} z.}螞蟻 Di kam4 ge3 螞? (maa5) E148 覺(go3)得 Dp gok3 E149 捱(aai4)餓 Dp ngaai4 E150 ×3 捱餓(o6) Dp ngo6 E151 z.──{. Dp bun6 嗰啲? E163 sa6 太肚餓 Dp E164 都(do1)好 Dp dou1 E165 走咗(o2) Dp zo2 E166 返到(do3)去 Dp dou3 E167 返到去(heoi6) Tt heoi3 E168 唔係(mai6) Dp/Tp hai6 E169 而係(ha6)好: Dp hai6 E170 ×2 因(ja1)為(a6) Dp.──{. Dp E146 拉小提 aa4 m.──{. ge3) (go2 di1) 實在/實在係 sat6 zoi6 hai6 .──{.} z. Dp seon6 隻/嘅? E155 佢實在 mu. go2) (zek3. Dp.}耷低頭 Di baan6 耷? (dup1) E160 要{.} d. Dp wai6 31 (ge3.}冬天實在 Di ? E152 噉樣(oe1) Dp.}耷低頭 Di ? E161 同伴(bu6) Dp E162 可以畀 o2 i1 食物 Dp.so2 ji3 E140 冇人(an4) Dp jan4 E141 去到(ou3) Dp E142 冬天 ge2 時候 Bm/Tt/Tp dou3 嘅/嗰? E143 當(do1)所有 Dp dong1 E144 有嘢食嘅↑時候 Tt ? E145 ×3 竟(ge2)然 Tp.──{.──{.}螞蟻 Dp.──{. Tt joeng2 E153 頂唔順(soe6)嘞 Dp E154 佢 e3 手震 Dp.──{.} 冇其他辦法 Tp mou5 E156 佢 ji.}雖然佢 Di ? E157 ×3 佢(koe5)辜負咗 Dp keoi5 E158 冇辦(baa6)法 Dp E159 要{. Bp ging2 琴嘅 E147 m.} d.

}冇幫手 Di noi6 幫? (bong1) E175 明白,min4 baa3 goe5- E176 m.──明白佢嘅痛苦 明白佢? Tp.}唱晒歌 Di 唱? (coeng3) 3.5 List of all speech errors occurred in Task 3 # [Speaker].──因為佢哋知道 Di 哋? (dei6) E172 唔肯(man2)返 Dp/Tp.3 Speech Errors in Task 3 Table 3. Dp hai6 A15 依一(a1)個 Dp.──{. Dp zik1 A14 ×3 即係(e6) Dp. Tp jat1 即係? A11 覺(gak3)得 Np gok3 dak1 A12 ×2 大學(ho6) Dp hok6 A13 ×2 即(ze1)係 Tp. Dp. Dp jat1 A16 校園裏(neoi5)面 Tp leoi5 A17 知識上(soen6) Tp soeng6 A18 有長(zoen2)進 Tp zoeng2 32 (zik1 hai6) . [Error no.──明白佢而家 Di ? E178 幾咁(am3) E179 大家{.1. Tp.] Speech Error Sample Type Remarks A01 ×12 我(o5) Dp ngo5 A02 ×17 所謂嘅(e3) Dp ge3 A03 諗(lam2) Tp nam2 A04 目標同(ong4)願望 Dp tung4 A05 ×6 就(za6)係 Dp zau6 A06 ×4 就係(ai6) Dp hai6 A07 ×6 大(daa6/da6)學 Dp daai6 A08 點樣(moe2)嘅 Dp/Tp. (ming4 baak3 Di keoi5) 明? (ming4) Di E177 s.E171 佢 d. Tp hang2 E173 內(loi6)疚 Tp E174 冇 b. Tp. Dp joeng2 A09 ×4 做到一(at1)啲 Dp A10 ze1 做到啲咩嘞 Dp.} coe.──{.

} s.──{.──學業 Di ? A23 尤其是喺(e2) Dp.──佢{.──{.──佢{. Tp.}喺 Di ? A51 佢知 d.}{誒} 基 本嘅 Di A21 另外(o6)一方面 Dp.} c.── {.──唔單止係: Di ? A26 都(do1)喺 Dp dou1 A27 都喺(ei2) Dp. ge3) hai2 *low  mid 亦? (jik6) dou1 認? . Tp jat1 A47 劃(waa6)一嘅 Dp waak6 A48 ×3 覺(go3)得 Dp gok3 A49 ×4 佢(heoi5) Tp keoi5 A50 佢知 d.──好──{.──{.}有意義嘅大學生活 Di dang2 大? (daai6) A45 其實(sa6)係 Dp sat6 A46 ×2 冇一(ak1)個: Dp. Dp hai2 A24 ×2 亦(ji6)都 Dp jik6 A25 {誒: }{. Tp ak1 A39 ×2 亦都有:(au5) Dp jau5 A40 本質(zak1)啊 Sub zat1 A41 生(sa1)命嘅 Dp sang1 A42 生命(min6)嘅 Tp ming6 A43 ×2 等等(dan2) Tp A44 我認為 da.}喺 Di ? A52 ×3 想(soen2) Tp soeng2 A53 得(dat1)到 Tp dak1 33 ge3 基/嘅? (gei1. Tp ≈A33 A36 ×5 自己(ei2)嘅 Dp gei2 A37 ×3 可能(lang4)係 Tp nang4 A38 掌握(ngaak1) Ap.──{. Dp ngoi6 A22 除咗係: {誒: } t.} 亦都 Di A29 ×3 亦都(du1) Tp A30 亦都 j.} c. Tp A28 可以: j.}真係認識下 Di A31 真(zak1)係 Tp A32 自己係一個係點樣嘅人 Am zan1 係一個點樣嘅 A33 ×4 點樣(moeng2)嘅 Dp/Tp joeng2 A34 希望(mon6)有 Tp mong6 A35 點樣(moen2)去 Dp/Tp.A19 中學嘅(ga3)學業 Tp A20 嗰種: {誒: } g.

A54 ×2 你(lei5)揾到 Tp nei5 A55 你係(hei3) Pp.}對研究 Di ? A62 能(lang4)夠 Tp nang4 A63 實(sak6){.}實踐 Tp sat6 A64 ×2 但(da6)係 Dp daan6 A65 覺得(da1)係 Dp dak1 B01 ×17 我(o5)覺得 Dp ngo5 B02 ×2 大學生(san1)活 Tp sang1 B03 ×5 唔係(ai6) Dp hai6 B04 時間(gaa3) Dp gaan3 B05 我喺(e2)大學嘅 Dp. Dp B06 zoe3. Tp joeng2 B11 ×3 因(ja1)為 Dp jan1 B12 ×2 因為(wa6) Dp wai6 B13 ×4 覺(go3)得 Dp gok3 B14 大學(hak6)畢業 Pp daai6 hok6 B15 搵工嗰 an6 時候 Dp/Tp zan6? go3? B16 時候(au6) Dp hau6 B17 搵工嗰 an6 時候有(au5) Dp jau5 B18 入場券(gyun3) Tp hyun3 B19 就(za6)係 Dp zau6 B20 ×3 上(soen5)莊 Tp soeng5 B21 唔好(mou2) Dp hou2 B22 ×3 不過(go3) Tp gwo3 B23 ×2 將:(zoen1) Tp zoeng1 B24 嗰(o2)啲:: Dp go2 B25 ×2 宿生會嘅(e3) Dp ge3 34 .終極目標 Dp hai2 最? (zeoi3) B07 ×4 大(da6)學畢業 Dp daai6 B08 ×5 大學(ho6)畢業 Dp hok6 B09 或(waa6)者 Dp waak6 B10 ×6 點樣(moen2) Dp/Tp. Tt hai6 A56 ×2 嗰個(o3) Dp go3 A57 方(fo1)向 Dp fong1 A58 大學(ok6) Dp hok6 A59 博士噉(jam2)樣 Dp/ Tp gam2 A60 如果佢(eoi5)哋 Dp keoi5 A61 {ze1 e6} g. Tp.──{.

{誒} Di 上? B32 重有: g.}譬如 Di jau5 譬如? C14 ×4 我覺(o3)得 Dp C15 因 wa6.}起碼第時 Di gok3 為? (wai6) C16 起碼第時 da6.──{誒}出到嚟哩: Di 大個? (daai6) 35 (dyun2.──短期嚟講{. Dp dou1 B43 我會(wu3) Dp wui3 B44 講(gon2)座 Tp gong2 C01 ×9 我(o5) Dp ngo5 C02 ×2 都(do1)係 Dp dou1 C03 ×3 但(da6/daa6)係 Dp C04 第一個目標 d.B26 想::(soen2) Tp soeng2 B27 更(gan3)多 Tp gang3 B28 自己(e2) Dp.──{.} Tp gong2 C06 ×2 噉樣(moeng2) Dp/Tp joeng2 C07 ×4 就(za6)係 Dp zau6 C08 ×6 可能:(lang4) Tp C09 榮譽學位嘅 ham2 可能 Tp nang4 噉? (gam2) C10 除咗(o2) Dp zo2 C11 之外(oi6) Dp ngoi6 C12 都有(au5) Dp C13 唔同嘅嘢嘅 pj. dong1) (pei3 jyu4) .──{em: }{. Dp gei2 B29 大學(hot6) Tp B30 大學(hot6)s- Dp hok6 生? B31 去: {誒: }{.}soe.{誒} Di ? B33 大學哩 c.}當然 Di daan6 短/當? C05 ×2 短期嚟講(gon2){.{誒: }重係 Di ? B34 ×3 諗(lam2)下 Tp nam2 B35 ×2 自己(ei2) Dp gei2 B36 嘅一(a1)個 Dp. Dp jat1 B37 不(ba1)過 Dp bat1 B38 不過(o3) Dp gwo3 B39 同埋(maa4) Dp maai4 B40 期間(gaa1) Dp gaan1 B41 其實 z.乜嘢 Di ? B42 乜嘢都(o1) Dp.

──{誒}嘗 試去 Di 去? (heoi3) C29 soe. Dp hai6 C34 課外活動啊嗰(o2)啲嘢 Dp go2 C35 義工啊噉(am2)樣 Dp gam2 C36 將(zoen1) Tp C37 依個 h.}一件 Tp 件 C44 我覺得係會一勁──{. Tp.C17 ×2 你(lei5) Tp nei5 C18 ×2 可能(lan4) Tp.──{誒}嘗試去 Di 嘗? (soeng4) C30 ×2 把握(ngaak1) Ap.──{誒}{.}反而 Di zoeng1 係? (hai6) C38 大學入(ap6)便 Dp C39 唎個係: ──會 j.──係有 Di jap6 有? (jau5) C40 都係 wu.──{em: }soe. Dp ging1 D03 ×3 已經係(ai6) Dp hai6 D04 已經係讀 j.}一件 Sm 我覺得會係 D01 大學生 d.──{. Tp ak1 C31 自己想(soen2)做嘅 Tp soeng2 C32 唔係(ma6) Dp/Tp.──讀 Di ? D05 大學生(saa1) Dp saang1 D06 ×23 其實我(o5) Dp ngo5 D07 ×2 一年(lin4)級 Tp nin4 D08 ×5 如果(o2) Dp gwo2 36 . Dp hai6 C33 淨係(nga6) Dp/Tp.──{.──((clear throat))我而家 Di ? D02 已經(e1) Dp. Tp nang4 C19 ×2 得到一(at1)啲 Dp jat1 C20 ×3 或(wa6/waa6)者 Dp waak6 C21 或者(e2) Dp ze2 C22 但係(ai6) Dp hai6 C23 識多啲朋(pan4)友 Tp pang4 C24 ×2 因(ja1)為 Dp jan1 C25 可能(nan4) Tp nang4 C26 四年(lin4) Tp nin4 C27 覺(go3)得 Dp gok3 C28 就係要 h.}喺 Di gwo2 喺? (hai2) C43 我覺得係會一勁──{.}會 Di 會? (wui3) C41 如果(go2) Tp C42 h.

──li.}關係上面 Di ? D36 世界{.──透過 Dp tau3? D29 大學(hot6) Tp hok6 D30 ×7 大學(ho6) Dp D31 我(o5)哋 wu.──((clear throat)) 我相信,{em} le.D09 ×4 你(lei5) Tp D10 你 w.──{.──問我 Di D11 ×7 大(da6/daa6)學生 Dp D12 hei4 望 Bm D13 喺(e2) Dp.──會 Di hok6 會? D32 好多好 sa. Tp.}各方面嘅{.}g.──人人所 Di 所? D21 ×4 生(san1)活 Tp sang1 D22 對我嚟講(gon2) Tp gong2 D23 我想:(soen2) Tp soeng2 D24 生活(wu6) Dp wut6 D25 覺(go3)得 Dp gok3 D26 覺得(da1) Dp dak1 D27 ×2 過到一(a1)個: Dp jat1 D28 係 ta3.──{誒: }時事 閱歷 Di ? D37 方(fo1)面 Dp D38 都可 deo.──li. Dp D14 大 wut6 Tp hai6 學 D15 大 wut6 s- Di 生? D16 有啲咩: 願望 g.──((clear throat)) 透 gwo.{誒: }{.──可以: 喺大學裏面 37 nei5 話? daai6 希望/期望 (hei1.}{誒: }可以刺激到 Di fong1 對? Di ? Di ? Di 過? D39 D40 D41 我相信,{em} le.}j. kei4) .──好新奇有趣嘅 Di 新? D33 ×4 新奇有趣嘅(e3)事情 Dp ge3 D34 無論(loen6)喺 Tp leon6 D35 人與人之間{.話 Dp 嘅/㗎 D17 梗(ga2)係 D gang2 D18 可以(o3)過好啲 P/N D19 ji1 人 so.──人人所 Tp ho2 ji3 gwo3 人? D20 ji1 人 so.

Tp nang4 D62 大學 g.} 唎個 Tp ? 緊? D50 所: z.──我哋 {.──{誒:}{. Tp faat3 gwat6 D74 地方(fon1) Tp fong1 D75 有啲嘢 h.D42 我(o5)ho. Dp hai6 D72 發(faak3)掘下 Tp faat3 D73 發掘(gwaak6)下 Pp. Tp gaa3 waa2 /ge3 waa2 D67 ×2 就(za6)bi- Dp D68 就 bi.} 我哋 Di D49 經歷 dang2 {.──我(o5)相信 Di 可? D43 將(zoen1)來 Tp D44 將來嘅: s.──唔同嘅 Dp ? D63 ×2 諗(lam2)下 Tp nam2 D64 ×2 係(ha6)咪: Dp hai6 D65 ×2 如果(go2) Tp gwo2 㗎話/嘅話 D66 思索(sok3)gwo2 Bp.──{.}大學嘅生活 Di zau6 變? D69 好(ou2)冇意義 Dp hou2 D70 點樣(moe2)令到 Dp/Tp. Dp hai6 D58 嗰樣(jin6)嘢 Tp joeng6 D59 係(ha6)咪 Dp hai6 D60 我哋 j. Tp joeng2 38 .──{誒}生活上面 Di zoeng1 生? D45 ×2 都會(wu3)可以 Dp wui3 D46 更(gan3)好嘅 Tp gang3 D47 你(le5)話 Tp.} 希望 Di ? D61 ×3 可能(lan4) Tp.──接觸嘅 Di 接? D52 或者 e6 批判嘅 Tp 係? D53 坦白(bak6)講 Tp baak6 D54 其實(sa6)一種 Dp sat6 D55 其實一(a1)種 Dp/P D56 其實一種填鴨式教育 Dm jat1 其實一係種 D57 唔係(ma6) Dp/Tp. Dp joeng2 D71 係(a6)嘗試 Dp.──可能 Di ? D76 上堂噉(ngam2/am2)樣 Dp/Tp gam2 D77 噉樣(moen2) Dp/Tp. Dp nei5 D48 喺 m.

D78 上一(at1)啲 Dp jat1 D79 一啲 m.──如果 Di ? D83 噉 me2 諗 Dp/Tp.──享受 Di ? E01 ×22 我(o5) Dp ngo5 E02 今日(mat6) Dp/Tp jat6 E03 ×8 就(za6)係 Dp zau6 E04 ×6 大(da6)學嘅 Dp daai6 E05 以我自己(e2)嚟講 Dp. Dp 樣 (joeng2) D84 擗 ma.}目的 啊 Di 目? (muk6) E13 如果 jy.── {.}唎 gi6──<h>{誒: } ? D87 {誒: }{.──{.} da.──{.}想要求做嘅嘢 Di sang1 要? (jiu3/jiu6) E10 ×2 即(ze1)係 Tp zik1 E11 ×3 即係(e6) Dp.──{誒}將 Di 埋? (maai4) D85 懂得去(eo3)享受 Dp. Tp.──{. Dp gei2 E06 嚟講(go2)哩 Dp gong2 E07 ×5 理想嘅(nge3) Tp ge3 E08 大學生(sa1)活 Dp E09 做到自己所有 j. Dp ging1 E15 只不(bwo1)過係 Np bat1 gwo3 E16 ×5 四年(lin4)時間 Tp nin4 E17 ×2 時間(gaa3) Dp gaan3 E18 ×2 但(da6)係 Dp E19 但係哩 h.}定下落嚟嘅: {. Dp heoi3 D86 享受{.──大學生 Di ? 大? (daai6) D88 大學生</h> {.}唔關 ? D81 對{.}g.} 做到嘅話 Di ? E14 已經(i1)係 Dp.──自己: Di ? D80 可能──{.──{.──人生 Di 嘅? (ge3) 39 .} o2──{.}喺大學生活哩,亦 都係 Di 亦? (jik6) E22 咁多年 g.}自己冇興趣嘅嘢 Am ? 自己冇興趣嘅 嘢 D82 你係{. Tp hai6 E12 為自己 m.}──s.}有好多嘢哩 Di daan6 好? (hou2) E20 ×3 發(faa3)展 Dp faat3 E21 喺大學哩 j.

──{.──{.}踏到入嚟 Di 入? (jap6) E51 ×3 依個(o3) Dp go3 E52 之後(au6) Dp E53 係↑j.}要↑{.──{.──覺得 Di E45 好似 e6 唔係 Am ? 好似唔係 E46 唔係(ma6)充實嘅日子 Dp/Tp.}適應 到 Nt hai6 jiu3 sik1 E55 ×2 就係(ai6) Dp hai6 E56 希望(mo6)喺 Dp mong6 E57 ×2 如果(go2) Tp gwo2 40 .──會去 Di ? E29 可能(lang4) Tp nang4 E30 大家 j.}踏到入嚟 Di dong1 到? (dou3) E50 踏 do.──{.──{. Dp moeng2 E40 ×5 學(ho6)生 Dp hok6 E41 好強(koen4)調 Tp koeng4 E42 去 w.──wu6. Dp hai6 E47 噉啦(laa2) Pt laa3/laa1 E48 當(do1)踏 Dp E49 踏 do.──居住嘅 Di 居? (geoi1) E33 ×2 香(hoen1)港島嘅 Tp heong1 E34 香港(ngon2)島嘅 Tp/Dp.──{誒}{.}適應到 Di hau6 要? (jiu3) E54 係: ──{.──jy.} 大家同學 Di E31 大家同學嚟嘅──{.──jy.E23 人(jang4)生(san1)裏便 Ep jan4 sang1 E24 ×11 你(lei5) Tp nei5 E25 ×3 譬(p3)如 Dp pei3 E26 熟悉嘅 s. Tp gong2 E35 學生(saa1) Dp saang1 E36 ×7 因(ja1)為 Dp jan1 E37 因為(wa6) Dp wai6 E38 ×8 新界嘅(e3) Dp ge3 E39 ×3 點樣(moe2) Dp/Tp.}要↑{.}去{.}社區 啦 Di 社? (se5) E27 ×4 噉樣(moen2) Dp/Tp.}充實 Di ? E43 佢哋 go6.──{.──wu6. Tp moeng2 E28 你係 h.──覺得 Di ? E44 佢哋 go6.}背景 Am ? 大家同學嘅 E32 大家 g.}{誒}{.──{.} s.}係↑j.

} j.──{.}出國 Tp.──每個人嘅目標 Di ? E88 嚟(ei4)㗎喎 Dp lei4 E89 嚟㗎(g)喎 Dp gaa3 E90 因為{.}我 Di ? 41 .──你上莊 Di ? 上? (soeng5) E73 真(za1)心嘅 Dp zan1 E74 真心(san1)嘅 Pp/Tp zan1 sam1 E75 朋(pan4)友 Tp pang4 E76 反(faa2)而 Dp faan2 E77 做得(a1)到 Dp.──{.──{.}大學 Di mat6 科技大學? E62 走出自(zyi6)己嘅:: Pp/Tp ceot1 zi6 *back  front E63 大學生(saan1) Tp saang1 E64 ×2 上(soen5)莊 Tp soeng5 E65 出 got3──{.} E85 雖然(jyun4) Pp/Tp E86 唔一定係會 g.──{.o──{.} lei.我覺得 Di ? E70 我覺得(dik1) Tp dak1 E71 你 go.──{. Tp E66 舒適 k.──{.E58 自己眼(aan5)界 Dp ngaan5 E59 好(ou2)似 Dp hou2 E60 事物(ma6)囉 Dp E61 我哋 f.──{.o.──範圍 Di gwok3 區? (keoi1) E67 ×2 範(faa6)圍 D faan6 E68 唔係(mai6) Dp/Tp hai6 E69 g.}都有 Di nei5 有? (jau5) E80 ×2 覺得(dat1) Tp dak1 E81 最重(zyu6)要 Pp/Tp.} ji.} s.──你上莊 Di E72 你 go.} s.──{. Dp E82 最重要目標係 Dm zeoi3 zung6 ≈E63 最重要嘅 E83 嘗試多啲 m.──每個人嘅目標 Am seoi1 jin4 ≈E63. Dp E79 都 j. Dp dak1 E78 ×2 你(lə2)可以 Tp.}{誒: }{.} o. E82 係每個人嘅 E87 唔一定係會 g.──我哋: {.lo.}唔同嘅嘢 Di 唔? (m4) Di 雖? (seoi1) E84 s.

} s.──重要 Di E107 重過一切囉 Dm ? 重要過 E108 你(lei5)j.──{. Dp nang4 E96 留返(faa1)喺 Dp faan1 E97 裏(eoi5)便 Dp E98 噉佢 za6.}點樣去到: Di sam1 faai3 點? (dim2) E117 去到: d.}去到──{.} s.──佢哋 Di leoi5 就? (zau6) E99 唔可以 w.}方面 唔一樣 Ec 追求嘅方面可 能唔一樣 E92 唔一樣(joen6) Tp joeng6 E93 去到(dyut3)──{.──{.──自己: Du gwo2 自? (zi1) 42 .}{誒: }{.──z.}大部分 Di E112 喺 s:.}最後 Di E109 我 j.──{.} 去到踏出 Tp dou3 E94 有啲人(ja4) Dp jan4 E95 可能(la4) Tp.──z.}我認為哩 Di ? 認? (jing6) E110 m.──{.}喺唎四年 Di ? 四? (sei3) E113 生活(wu6)裏便 Dp wut6 E114 過(go3)得 Tp gwo3 E115 開心(saam1)快樂 Np/Tp E116 每個人 d.──{.}大部分 Di ? E111 m.──{.E91 對於個{.──重要 Di ? E106 重 e.──{. Dp dei6 E105 重 e.} 去到──{.──{ze1 e6} Di 話? (waa6) E100 一(ja1)個 Dp jat1 E101 佢(heoi5) Tp keoi5 E102 做嘅嘢(e5) Dp je5 E103 或者係(hei6) Pp ze2 hai6 E104 ×2 佢哋(e6) Dp.}點樣去走 Di 點? (dim2) E118 如果(o2) Dp E119 覺得 z.}目標嘅追求可能嘅: {.──{.──{.

5 No.5 18 8.1 Unfilled Pauses Table 3. of Occurrences 3 3 1 5 7 19 Duration (sec) 4 13.5 27 0 45.5 1. of Occurrences 12 15 0 18 30 75 29.5 1.5 0 3. of Occurrences 0 0 0 2 0 2 Duration (sec) 0 0 0 3.5 219 Duration (sec) Duration (sec) 43 .5 40.7 Distribution of Short UFPs (Indicated by {.5 45.5 No. of Occurrences 15 18 1 25 36 95 33.5 67 76.8 Distribution of Timed (Long) UFPs Subjects T1 Task T2 T3 Total Total A B C D E No.2.2 Hesitations 3.5 68 170 No.3.}) Subjects Task Total A B C D E T1 41 26 1 29 38 135 T2 78 41 60 116 137 432 T3 66 43 60 60 178 407 Total 185 110 121 205 353 974 Table 3.

3.9 Distribution of Pause Fillers Task 誒 No.2 Filled Pauses Table 3. of Occurrences by Speaker Total T1 Total 44 .2. of Occurrences by Speaker T2 T3 A 0 34 45 79 B 0 17 31 48 C 0 14 33 47 D 0 8 14 22 E 0 1 38 39 0 74 161 235 A 0 19 6 25 B 0 6 1 7 C 0 20 7 27 D 0 4 8 12 E 0 15 3 18 0 64 25 89 A 0 0 11 11 B 0 0 3 3 C 0 0 6 6 D 0 0 0 0 E 0 0 13 13 0 0 33 33 A 0 0 0 0 B 0 17 6 23 C 0 0 0 0 D 0 0 0 0 E 0 4 0 4 0 21 6 27 Total 噉 No. of Occurrences by Speaker Total Filler 即係 No. of Occurrences by Speaker Total uh No.

3 Clearing of Throat Clearing of throat did not occur in any of the tasks performed by Speaker A. They are 其實 (kei4 sat6).2. 係啊/係喇 (hai6 aa3 / hai6 laa3).4 Lengthening of Sounds Table 3. of Occurrences by Speaker Total There are some other interjections or discourse markers found in the speech data which may function as pause fillers. 3. of Occurrences by Speaker A 0 0 0 0 B 0 0 0 0 C 0 3 10 13 D 0 0 0 0 E 0 0 3 3 0 3 13 16 A 0 0 0 0 B 0 0 0 0 C 0 0 0 0 D 0 4 5 9 E 0 1 0 1 0 5 5 10 A 0 0 0 0 B 0 0 0 0 C 0 0 0 0 D 0 4 0 4 E 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 4 Total mm No.10 Number of Cases of Sound Lengthening Subjects Task T1 A B C D E 0 5 0 1 9 45 Total 15 . of Occurrences by Speaker Total um No. 19 times in task 2 and 6 times in task 3. Speaker D made a total of 26 times: 1 in task 1.2. Speaker C made two times of clearing of throat in task 2. 3. Speaker B and Speaker E. 可能 (ho2 nang4) and 真係 (zan1 hai6).em No.

we can say that lengthening of sounds occur more in spontaneous speech than in storytelling generally.11 Distribution of In-breaths Subjects Task Total A B C D E T1 0 0 0 0 0 0 T2 3 4 0 2 1 10 T3 2 5 2 2 3 14 Total 5 9 2 4 4 24 Table 3. 3. We can conclude that sound lengthening is extremely rare when speakers speak with the help of a provided text.2. comparing the total number of cases of sound lengthening.12 Distribution of Laughter or Aspirations in Pausing Subjects Task Total A B C D E T1 0 0 0 0 0 0 T2 4 0 2 4 0 10 T3 0 1 1 0 0 2 Total 4 1 3 4 0 12 Table 3. we can see that lengthening of sounds occurs the least in task 1 and the most in task 3.5 Laughters and Breaths Table 3.T2 44 62 22 20 30 178 T3 43 65 58 48 69 283 Total 87 132 80 69 108 476 From the data above.13 Distribution of Laughter or Aspirations within Speech Subjects A B C 46 D E Total . Given that the span of tasks 2 and 3 are close.

} {誒} {. Distributions of these elements do not seem to have a regular pattern.} m.──{.──門 naak3 可 mo2 以 {. 1989).} 藝術家 {.} 一不能有錢 我認為 da. 3.3 Repairs Examples of different types of repairs are provided in this section.} 飢餓藝術的精髓 當呢個 {. 3.──接觸嘅周遭嘅事 啲水咪一 c.──生俱來的本能 於是哩佢就去敲 j.──{.} c.} 數萬嚿(gau4)石頭先搵──執到嘅 當(do1)所有──{.} 借啲嘢食啊: ──畀我啊 我(o5)哋所: z.2 Anticipatory Retracing 嚴格來說 {.} 嚴格來說是慢性自殺 飢餓── {.} 有意義嘅大學生活係 他與 s.3.──成個下晝 47 .──{.} 嗰個喙 e1 表 lek1── {. laughter or aspirations in task 1 are very uncommon.1 Instant Repairs 所以 {.──jek4──{.} 不──{.} 其他螞蟻哩 3.Task T1 2 0 0 0 0 2 T2 4 0 0 3 0 7 T3 0 0 0 1 0 1 Total 6 0 0 4 0 10 From the above tables.}{誒} 都唔會話咁多嘢做 包括(kwu3)── {.3. there are also a kind of repetition of sentence constituent which may function as a hesitation marker.── {.} ((clear throat)) 包含 執咗成個 j.} 表裡的 中學都唔會學── {.} 是可以 s. Apart from the three types of repairs distinguished by Levelt (1983.} 路噉樣 執咗無數 {.} 蚱蜢哩,向 {.} 當呢個<h>蟋蟀哩 所以佢嗰個嘴哩──{.

──我相信我可以 佢好 c.3.} ──飛落去 真係──{.} 重為佢 48 .} 都係正確㗎囉 佢要──{1.} 佢要執 有一隻──{.4 Repetitions 藝術家一不能:── {.3.── ((clear throat)) 我而家家陣已經係 我覺得就: ──我希望可以 3.} 真係非常好聽 填唔滿晒──{.} 有一──{3.3.} 完成一啲 就非常之──{3.} 填唔滿晒個日曆嘅話 都係: ──{.} 重為佢──{.} 飛得好開心噉(m2)樣 {噉哩} 大學生 d.3 Fresh Starts 或者做到一啲──{.0} 有一隻螞蟻哩 重──{.0} 有一隻螞蟻──{2.5} 佢要── {.──{.} ──又諗到 啦啦聲就飛落 {.0} 就攤開兩隻手啦 而我喺大學嘅目標哩就係──最終極目標哩就係 大學生: ── {誒 ze1 e6} 作為大學生 我 ho.} 一不能 佢又諗到 {.} {誒 i 誒} {.

I extract only one typical sample for every type of erros appeared in the speech data.1 Speech Errors 4.}死亡(mon4)的方向(hoen3) laa3/laa1 (D27-29. Task 1) *dyun6 Blend (Bc) 大飽一福── {誒} 大吃一頓 (D94. Task 1) *ngo 49 . DISCUSSION 4. Task 1) *生死存亡 Exchange (Ep) 飲 ji1 lat1 啖 (E96. Task 1) *表裡的 Blend (Bm) 斷(dyun5)食 (E06. Task 2) *aa1 Deletion (Dm) 重過一切囉 (E107.1. mong4. Task 2) *li1 jat1 Anticipation (Np) 覺(gak3)得 (A11. Task 1) *作為 Substitution (Tp) 往(won5){. hoeng3 Substitution (Tt) 為著(zoek3)(D88. Task 1) *wong5. Task 3) Perseveration (Pp) 走出自(zyi6)己嘅:: (E62. Task 3) *係一個點樣嘅 Addition (Ap) 烏鴉(ngaa1)(B01. Shift (Sm) 藝術,是生存 (B24. Task 3) *zi6 Perseveration (Pt) E47 噉啦(laa2) Pt Blend (Bp) 是互為表 lek1 (B14.1 Types Since the size of error data is very large. Task 3) *重要過一切 Deletion (Dp) 飢餓(o6)(A01. Task 2) *大飽口福 Substitution (Tm) 極端行為 (E36. Task 2) *zoek6 Addition (Am) 自己係一個係點樣嘅人 (A32.4.

過 gwo3  go3 /ng/ ~ /m/ e. speakers are aware of their articulations. 先生 sin1 saang1  sin1 saan1 /ang/ ~ /an/ e. a stable and moderate speed is maintained by speakers. Types of phonetic variations found in the speech data are summarized below: Initial Consonants /l/ ~ /n/ e. Plus. 難 naan4  laan4. and glottalization of the latter are common in the speech data. hence reducing the chances of mispronouncing. 我 ngo  o2. However. during fast production of speech.1. Details of these phonetic variations will be discussed in the next section. so they can articulate every word accurately.3 Phonetic Variations Phonetic variations are especially prominent in colloquial speech. /aang/ ~ /aan/ e. 鴉 aa1  ngaa1 /gw/ ~ /g/ e.g. high speech rate is another factor for speech errors. which are due to rapid or unaware speech. 五 ng5  m5. Many of them are so-called “lazy sounds”.g.g. assimilations and coarticulations of sounds often occur. while those in reading aloud are relatively fewer.g. 午 ng5  m4 Rimes Alveolarization of velar nasal endings and velar stop ending.4. resulting in vowel or tonal assimilations. thus no planning of speech content nor grammatical organization is needed. they articulate sounds by looking at the text. Obviously.2 Distribution Speech errors appear mostly in spontaneous speech and storytelling. 聽 teng1  ten1 50 . 佢 keoi5  heoi5 /ng/ ~ Ø e.g. In reading aloud.1. deletions of onsets or rimes and other form of phonetic variations.g. 層面 cang4 min2  can4 min2.g. Since the speech setting is a formal one in the reading aloud task. 4. 等 dang2  dan2 /eng/ ~ /en/ e. 諗 nam2  lam2 /k/ ~ /h/ e.g.

講 gong2  gon2 /oeng/ ~ /oen/ e. subjects are supposed to produce literary reading. For example. and onsets and codas are often omitted. gam2 joeng2  gam2 joen2. In the reading aloud in task 1. 不過 bat1 gwo3  bak1 gwo3 Why speakers tend to produce lazy sounds or phonetic variations? could be the tendency to produce sound with least effort. they had the literary pronunciation in mind. “當 然” (dong1 jin4 v. It is observed that subjects were prone to colloquial readings in storytelling and spontaneous speech.g. which is of a formal speech setting. he started with “好嘞{噉}今日哩講嘅故──{.4 Literary Reading and Colloquial Reading Some Cantonese lexical items have literary reading and colloquial reading. Subject B. both gu3 and gu2 are acceptable. in tasks 2 and 3. dong1 jin2). cou5). “雀” (zoek3 v. he repeated by a second time sounded as gu2. “儲” (cyu5 v. One inference This can be supported by the evidence that vowels are often replaced by more central vowel near schwa.s. etc. This is shown by their blending of the mid-low level tone of dyun6 and the onset consonant of tyun to become tyun6 (B06. However. zoek2). haang4). 狀 zong6  zon6.g. 得到 dak1 dou3  dat1 dou3. Inspite of this.}故仔”.s. Subject D and Subject E tended to choose the colloquial reading for “斷”.1.g. “尾” (mei5 v. 一個 jat1 go3  jaʔ1 go3.s. mei1). One interesting example is a subject awaring of his literary reading when telling the story. 4. In the first story. “掉” was pronounced as diu6 or deu6 in literary None of the subjects pronounced “掉” as diu6 and colloquial readings respectively. 51 . hoeng1  hoen1 /k/ ~ /t/ ~ /ʔ/ e. Other examples found in the speech data are “行” (hang4 v./ong/ ~ /on/ e. However. Task1). There was nothing wrong in his pronunciations. he probably thought that a colloquial reading in storytelling is more appropriate and consequently said the word again. Task1). which is tyun5 instead of the literary dyun6. or the mid-low rising tone of tyun5 and the onset consonant of dyun6 to become dyun5 (E06.s.s. The pronunciation of the first “故” was gu3.

In this research. making his hesitation seems shorter. as well as Speaker C and Speaker D for twice.4.} 好 ((.2. but not all of them. only Speaker C and Speaker D made short coughs in their speech.h)) 花 ha.2.2 Hesitations and Repairs 4. the functions of throat clearing include hiding embarrassment and filling a pause in speech (Soukhanov. Therefore. By definition. it is found that lengthening of sounds occur the most in spontaneous speech but the least in reading aloud. but they are only habits of certain speakers. lip smacking and tutting are only found in the speeches by Speaker B for once. 4.1 Types Several types of hesitations and four types of repairs are discussed in the previous chapter. There occurrences were 2 times and 26 times respectively. It is observed that when Subject D made clearing of throat (especially in task 3). Consider the following example: 一套好靚── {. Also. Yet. we can see that self-repairs are sometimes for narrowing the meaning of message that the speaker want to convey. In the speech data. Lip smacking and tutting are not common in subjects. this example supports the idea that sheer number of words to be chosen would cause speech disfluency. he was trying to cover his speech planning process. 2007). Clearing of throat seems to be a habit of certain speakers. I would discuss a special finding here. As for extended duration of sounds. These two non-verbal activities may also act as a hesitation device. he cut of the sound suddenly as he found that it was “花俏” that was the most appropriate adjective.──花俏嘅西裝 It shows that Speaker A first used “靚” to describe the suit. but he later found another more suitable adjective “花巧”.2 Rates The reason accounting for more hesitations and repairs in spontaneous speech is that 52 .

it is obvious that Subject C and Subject A make fewer hesitations or repairs.} 嘅人生: 嘅目標: 嘅方向  我認為有意義嘅大學生活係 / 誒 / 你揾到 / 你 / 嘅人生 / 嘅目標 / 嘅方向 53 . It was observed that Speaker D seemed nervous while performing the tasks. - 我認為有意義嘅大學生活係 {. Generally. anxiety and the tendency to hold the floor. Here are some examples randomly taken from the speech data. it was overwhelmingly used in both storytelling and spontaneous speech. while Speaker E tended to produce long sentences to control the floor. Formulation of linguistic plans is much easier in reading aloud. However. all of them show constituent or phrasal segmentation as locations of hesitation pauses or repairing fillers occurred between consituents and at the beginnings of clauses.0} 你: {.} {誒} {. it would be rather reckless to conclude that student studying language and linguistic subjects have better spontaneous speech performance as evidence is not significant. It is found that rates of repairs and hesitations of Speaker D and E are relatively high. especially in the clause-initial position. owing to its function as an explanation marker. From the speech data of five subjects. especially in long clauses. There was a significant tendency for hesitations to occur at the beginnings of clauses. as identification of meaning and selection of words are not needed. lexicon retrieval systematic planning of organization and specification of phonetic units are required. Two dominant Cantonese pause fillers found in the speech data are “噉” and “即係”. To produce an utterance. As for “噉”. which are often used by speakers to start a new clauses or phrases in casual speech.} 你揾到 {1. Note that “即係” only appeared in spontaneous speech but not the storytelling task.spontaneous speech requires more of linguistic planning in speech production. There are two reasons that account for this phenomenon.3 Locations The distribution of hesitations was found to be related to the syntactic structure of speech.2. UFPs and FPs also tend to occur in the clause-initial position. 4.

2.} 家庭  - 噉嗰啲 / 其實 / 主要 / 誒 / 嗰啲 / 活動 佢哋各人 / uh / 都會 / 為 zoek3 / 為著 / 家庭 或者係 {. some may retain their functions.} 令到自己 {. Consider the morpheme “噉” (gam2) in “我個嘴又掂唔到啲水喎,噉我點飲水哩?” (Now that my beak cannot reach the water.} 動物嘅: {.} 其實 {.} {誒} {.} 世-- {誒} 世界 {.} 都會: {.} {uh} {.} 主要: --{誒} 嗰啲: 活動  - 喺大學入便可以:: {. Meanwhile. However. the functions of the above words are not examined in details.} 唎啲嘢  或者係 / 對於 / 世 / 誒 / 世界 / 各方面嘅 / j.} 嘅: 能力哩  - 喺大學入便可以 / 令到自己 / 對於時間掌握唎一個 / 嘅 / 能力哩 佢哋各人 {.} 山頭啦  又唔係指緊 / 誒 / 冇植物喎 / 而係 / 冇 / 誒 / 動物嘅 / 一個 / 山頭啦 - 噉嗰啲-- {.} 各方面嘅 {. 2012). Another study shows that the filler function of 其實 (kei4 sat6) is quite common in Cantonses spoken context (Szeto.} 對於 {. 即係 (zik1 hai6) can not only be functioned as a copula and a textual connective. it can also act as an explanation marker. how can I drink?) It is better to regard “噉” as a connective meaning “in this way” (“那麼”) than just a pause filler. For example. such as the following examples: 即係/其實/真係/噉樣/噉/可能/然之後/唎個/嘅 These particles or phrases are sometimes overwhelmingly used as discourse markers.} 一個: {. a repair initiator and a pause filler. in Zhang's (2012) study.- 又唔係指緊 {.} 為 zoek3--為著 {.} j./ 誒 / 時事閱歷啊 / 唎啲嘢 4.--{誒: } 時事閱歷啊 {.4 Grammaticalization of Lexicon In the five tasks of spontaneous speech. surpassing their original semantic functions. Further studies on their grammaticalization are needed.} 對於時間掌握唎一個 {.} {誒} 冇植物喎,而係: 冇: {. several lexical items were commonly used. 54 .

3.4. Task 2). the error may also be triggered by the preceding san4. Therefore. However. Hence it could be an addition error (addition of /l/). As we have discuss. There could be more than one possible error types in an error sample. It was not easy to study some rapid utterances with incomplete sound segments. Another ambiguous error sample from Subject E is “hai2 lat1go3” (E05. we do not know whether the subject mispronounced that word.1 Ambiguity on Error Judgement When transcribing speech data. Thus. There were instances that a sound produced appeared to be a homophone to another. we could not justify wheher it is a blend due to fast production (Bp) or a blend of two separate morphemes (Bm) because the subject was thinking of both li1 and jat1 simultaneously.3 Limitation There are a few limitations in this research. 55 . it could be a substitution or a preserveration error. the confusion between /n/ and /ng/ is prominent in casual speech. I encountered some cases of error ambiguity. or he tried to say “di1 seoi2” but repeated “di1” once. In task 1. the phrase “zing1 san4 cang4 min2” was produced as “zing1 san4 can4 min2” (B12. which assimilated the following sound. we could not tell whether he was intended to say “li1 di1 seoi2” but turned out to anticipate the onset /d/ of the second syllable. Compared with task 1. We do not know whether the intended utterance was “hai2 at1 go3”. 4. the rates of speech of subjects in tasks 2 and 3 are relatively high and unstable. a phrase “di1 di1 seoi2” was uttered (E98. the replacement of cang4 by can4 could be due to this phonetic variation. As tasks 2 and 3 require more speech planning than task 1 does. in the storytelling by Speaker E. “hai2 li1 go3” or “hai2 li1 jat1 go3”. Task 1). Even if we could conclude it to be a blend. Task 2). in terms of speech error and hesitation studies. or a blend (merging /li/ and /jat/). judgment on the type of error in the first syllable is ambiguous. D22 & E25. However. For example. a substitution error (/at/ replacing /i/).

we cannot distinguish between advance planning and correction of decisions made earlier. The variations of functions of different pause fillers in spoken Cantonese and the use of some particles or phrases as pause fillers could also be further analysed. Addition. uncommon especially in Cantonese? Is it the case that certain types of errors And what are the reasons? Futher studies could be on these three types of speech errors in Cantonese. 4. reasons behind some very short UFPs in the speech data could not be identified. A short pause between two clauses may be interpreted as consisting a juncture pause component associated with the first clause and a hesitation pause component associated with the second clause. Pauses at sentence junctures can potentially serve for breathing or juncture marking as well as for planning (Barik. If time allowed. It is hard to tell whether the broken sound segments are resulted from mispronounciation or semantic imperfectness. shift and exchange errors are rather rare. variations of speech errors and speech disfluency in terms of age and gender differences could be analyzed as well. Also.4 Future Directions Similar studies with larger sample size are needed to confirm the present findings. calculations on quantitative data of hesitation span could be carried out in the future. Plus.many sound fragments are produced. 56 . 4.3. Even if the hesitation is for planning. it is found that error types are not evenly distributed in all tasks. or any other extralinguistic causes. Therefore.2 Weakness of Hesitation Study The cause of any specific hesitation is not generally obvious. 1968). As the use of language changes through time. it is important and fascinating to examine the changes and their causes.

It is because spontaneous speech requires very much of linguistic planning. in the reading aloud task. but the least in reading aloud. Evidence shows that speakers are extremely aware of their articulation when reading aloud the provided text. Speech errors and speech disfluency of formal and informal speech have been analyzed. Occurrences of repairs and hesitations are always between constituents and most likely at the initial positions of long clauses. we have probed into speech performance by Hong Kong Cantonese speakers in various speech tasks. phonetic errors are relatively few Speech errors commonly happen in casual speech such as storytelling and spontaneous speech. CONCLUSION In this research. exchange errors are extremely uncommon. both semantically and syntactically.5. In the speech data. Thus. 57 . We have found that most of the speech errors occurred in speech tasks are deletions and substitution of sounds. and many of them are lazy sound caused by unaware or rapid speech production. addition errors. Repairs and hesitations appear mostly in spontaneous speech. shift errors.

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Task Materials i. Reading Aloud Text 事實上, 「飢餓」和「斷食」 ,意義並不完全相同。可以說, 「斷食」是前因,飢 餓是後果。不過,更準確地說, 「飢餓」指的事身體的狀態,以及在這種狀態下 的反應和感受; 「斷食」則描述一種外在的行為。 「斷食」是表象, 「飢餓」是本 質。飢餓是甚麼的本質?根據卡夫卡的小說,飢餓是藝術的本質。沒有飢餓, 就沒有藝術。 所謂飢餓藝術,不單指藝術家以斷食為表演形式,而是指藝術家通過飢餓這一 狀態去挑戰肉體和意志的極限這一內涵。當中並不一定包含肉體之苦,因為對 飢餓藝術家來說,捱餓一點難度也沒有,甚至是他與生俱來的本能。他所經受 的痛苦和磨難,在於不被世人尊重和理解,而又同時在於自我懷疑和否定,所 以是屬於精神層面的。但是肉體層面和精神層面是互為表裡的。肉體的飢餓和 精神的貧乏,是藝術的先決條件。所以藝術家一不能有錢,二不能自我感覺良 60 .APPENDICES I.

好。斷食及由此而來的飢餓,嚴格來說是慢性自殺。而飢餓藝術的精髓在於不 斷把那餓而不死的邊界往不可能的方向推移。也可以說,飢餓藝術是往死亡的 方向尋找生存的最低限度的極端作為。藝術,是生死存亡的事情。只有抱有這 樣的信念的人,才能稱為藝術家。矛盾的是,拒絕進食本身,就是拒絕生命、 拒絕世界的姿態。所以飢餓藝術家不被世界尊重和理解只是一種自我應驗。 (extracted from《飢餓、斷食與藝術》by 董啟章. 459words) ii. 烏鴉喝水 61 . Storytelling Materials 1.

62 .

63 .

螞蟻和蟋蟀 64 .2.

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66 .

Transcription Notations Short and untimed pause {.h)) Lip smack or tutting ((pt)) Non-verbal gesture ((clear throat)) Editing expression (Filler) {誒} / {mm} / {uh: } Unclear utterance [火悶] / [XX] Lost material […] Others: Sound with no corresponding written Chinese characters are represented in Jyutping. a Cantonese romanization system developed by the Linguistic Society of Hong Kong (LSHK) in 1993.0)) Aspiration or laughter during speech <h>重好潮添</h> Inhalation ((.0} (for 4 seconds) Abrupt cut-off of sound - Abrupt cut-off of phrase ── Lengthening of sound : Continuing intonation , Final intonation 。 Rising intonation ? Exclaiming intonation ! Rising tone ↑ Falling tone ↓ Aspiration or laughter ((h)) / ((hh. 67 .} Long and timed pause {4.II. 3.

} 去 挑戰肉體 {.} 這一(a1)內涵。當(don1)中並不一定包括──並不(ba1)b.} 一定包含 {.} {em} {.} 嚴格來說是慢性自殺。而飢餓── {.} 極端作為。藝術,是生死存亡的 事情。只有抱有這樣 s.} 這一狀態 {.} </h> 一點難 度都沒有,<h> 甚至是他與生俱來的本能。</h> 他所經受的痛苦和磨難,在於不被世人尊重 {. Subject A Reading Aloud 事實上,「飢餓(o6)」和「斷食」,意義並不完全相同。可以說,「斷食」是前因,飢餓是後果。不 過,更準確地說,「飢餓」 {.} 精神層面的。但是肉體層面 和精神層面 {.} 稱為 {.} {誒} {.} 指的是身體的狀態,以及在這種狀(zon6)態下的反應和感受;「斷 食」 {.} 和 理解,而又(a4)同時在於自我懷疑 {.} 則描述一(at1)種外在的行為。 「斷食」是表象, 「飢餓」{.} 所謂嘅(e3)目 標同(ong4)願望── {ze1 ei6} 我(o5)諗(lam2)嘅(e3)意思就係(za6 ai6)希望我透過 {.{.} 不能自我感覺良好。斷食 {.} {噉} 我(o5)先講: 我(o5)大學生活嘅目標: 同埋願望啦。{噉: 誒} {. 誒: } 吸收到──吸取到一(at1)啲嘅(e3)知識啦,即係:(ze1 ei6)知識上(soen6)有 長(zoen2)進嘅,尤其是係比起中學嘅(ga3)學業,{ze1 e6} 佢 {.} 在於 {.} 不── {.0} 係喇,ze1 做到啲咩嘞。{噉 aa6} {.} 死亡的方向 {.} 飢餓藝術家不被世界尊重和理解 {.} 另外(o6)一方面呢,就係── {1.} 點樣(moe2)嘅成就,或者做 到一(at1)啲── {.} {誒} {2.} 不斷 {.} 藝術家。矛盾的是,拒絕進食本身, 就是拒絕生命、拒絕世界的姿態。所以 {.} 先決條件。所以 {.} {誒 i 誒} {.} {誒: } {.} 同人相處啦: ,待人接物啦: ,{誒} 尤其是喺(e2)大(da6)學裏面呢 {誒} 活動有好多啦: ,亦(ji6)都甚至有: 宿舍啦,{ze1 e6} 我哋 ((.} 把那 {.} 往不可能的方向推移。也可以說,飢餓(o6)藝 術 {. Transcripts i.} 讀大學(daa6 ho6)第一件事當然係有一 (at1)啲學術嘅追求啦,即係(ze1 e6)希望 {.} 和意志的極限 {.──jek4── {.h)) 係 {.} {誒}學習啦。{噉 e1} {.} 最低限度的 {.} 為表演形式,而是指藝術家通過飢餓 {.} 和否定,所以 {.} 完成一(at1)啲咩嘅 {.──學(ho6) 業之外哩,重有,{誒} {.} 是本質。飢餓是甚麼的本質? 根據卡夫卡的小說,飢餓 {.} 一不能有錢,二 {.} 所: 追求嘅(e3)知識係更加 進一步嘅,{誒} 而且更加深入嘅,就唔係 {.} 藝術 家 {.} 餓而不死的邊界 {.──好──{.} 飢餓(o6)藝術的精髓 {.III.} 嗰種: {誒: } g.} 只是一種 {.} 是屬於 {.} 是可以 s.} 自我 應驗。 Spontaneous Speech {誒} {.} 是藝術的本質。沒有飢餓,就沒有藝術。 所謂飢餓藝術,不單指藝術家以斷食 {.} {誒} 唎幾年嘅大(daa6)學生活入便可以 {.} 首先,{誒} {.──的信念的人,才能 {.} 及由此而來的飢餓,嚴格來 說 {.0} 除咗係: {誒: } t.} 是往 {.} 達成一啲 {.} 我(o5)覺(gak3)得,{誒: } {.──唔單止 68 .} 是互為表裡的。肉體的飢餓和精神的貧乏,是藝術的 {.} 尋找生存的 {.} 肉體之苦,因為對藝術-因(ja1)為對 <h> 飢餓藝術家來說,捱餓 {.} s.} {誒} 基本嘅 {.} {誒} a1)個嘅校園裏(neoi5)面, {噉 aa6 .

} 喺忙碌之餘 亦都有: (du1 au5){.} {誒} 有一(ja5 a1)── {.} 對研究有(au5)興趣,噉── {.} 邁向一個:: {.} {誒: } {.} c.} 一定想(soen2)讀書嘅,好想(soen2)係 {.} {誒} 會知道 {.} 喺唎一(a1)個: {.5} {噉} 喺唎個(o3)時候哩,竟然呢,有一(ja5 a1)隻: {.5} {誒} 從前,有一(ja5 a1)個: {誒} 荒野,{噉} 喺唎個(o3)荒野哩,指緊唔係──又 唔係指緊 {.} {誒} {.} {誒} {.} {ze1 e6} 同人相處相交嘅機會。噉 ma1 希望: 可以從中 {ze1 e6} 學習到: {ze1 e6} 啲技巧啦: 又或者 ((.} {誒} 冇植物喎,而係: 冇: {.} {誒} 思 考人生嘅(e3)問題啦,{誒} 第二件事 e1 就(za6)係可能(lang4)係 {.── {.} 同埋你(lei5)係 (hei3)朝住嗰個(o3)方(fo1)向邁進噉我(o5)就(za6)覺(go3)得係有意義嘅(e3){ze1 e6} 舉個(o3)例子有啲人係 {.} {誒} {.} {ze1 e6} g.} {誒} 讀 {.} 非常好,太陽(joen4)呢就好(za6 ou2)猛烈,萬里冇雲。{1.} 一個: {..} 飛得攰嘞,噉樣(moen2) 。噉哩,好似 {.h)) {誒: } 可以: j.── {.} 枝水,{噉 e1} 枝水 e1 jaung6(就用) 69 .} 處理好自己(ei2)嘅(e3)人生啦我(o5)覺得 {ze1 e6} 第一件事就係(za6 ai6){.} 嘅 {.} 我認為 da.} 喺度搵緊(ga2)一啲嘢噉喎!{噉 e1} {.0} ((hh)) 噉哩佢就: 有 c.} 生命嘅: (e3) 本質(zak1)啊,{誒} 生命(sa1 min6)嘅(e3)意義啊等等(dan2 dan2)哪。 {噉} 另外就(za6)係── {.} {誒} 對自己(ei2)嘅:: {誒}時間有更加好嘅(e3)掌握(ngaak1)啦,同埋: {誒} 安排好自己(ei2)嘅(e3)生活啦,噉 樣(moeng2) 。[.} 有唎個: ── {4.} 你(lei5)揾到 {1.} {誒} {.} {誒: } 當佢: (heoi5)一路飛嘅時候(au6)哩,咦發現咗 路上面呢 {.} {誒} {.} 亦都(du1)j.} 山頭啦。{噉哩} 佢哩就 有 {.} 係搵到佢(heoi5)研究嘅(e3)興趣亦都能(lang4)夠 {.} 如果佢(eoi5)哋: {.} {誒: } {.} {誒}山丘嘅上空嗰度飛 過喎,{噉哩} {.} 得(dat1)到啲乜嘢。噉,我(o5)認為有意義嘅(e3)大學生活 係 {.──佢 {.} 雀──有 一(ja5 a1)隻雀(zoek2)哩,就 f.} MPhil 啊 Doctor 啊一路讀落去嘅或者甚至喺大學(ok6)裏面做研究嘅,噉,{誒} 你哋讀 {.} 另外亦都係: ── {..} 喺大(da6)學 裏面佢(heoi5)想(soen2){.} 更加自由嘅(e6)時間: 去學下點樣(moen2)去 {.係: {誒: } 上堂嘅(e3)時間,課餘嘅(e3)時間都喺(do1 ei2)大學裏面渡過嘅噉所以我(o5)哋 {.── {.── {.} 有一(ja5 a1){.} 嘅人生: 嘅目標: 嘅方向。{誒: } {.} {誒: } 睇情形哩: 佢應該(go1)係 {.} 其實(sa6)係 冇一(ak1)個: 好: 劃(waa6)一嘅標準嘅我(o5)自己(ei2)覺(go3)得係,{誒} 一個大(daa6) 學生佢(heoi5)自己有冇一個目標,即係(ze1 e6)佢知 d.── {.} 有意義嘅(e3)大學生活係 {.} 實踐到嘅噉我(o5){.} {ze1 e6} 成為更好嘅人哪。{誒: } {.0} 你: {.} {誒} 碩士啦 博士噉樣(jam2 moeng2)一路讀落去 e3。噉,{誒: } {.} 有樹啦,有草啦,{噉} 係一(ha6 a1)個山丘嚟嘅。{噉哩} {.} 第三樣嘢就(za6) 係: 希望(mon6)有,{其實係} {.} {誒: } 實(sak6){.── {.} {誒} 享受生命,{誒} 亦都(ji6 du1){. technical error for 1-2 sec cut of recording] 排時間哪即係(ze1 ei6){.} 動物嘅: {.} 興趣其實並唔係喺(e6 ai2)學術方面嘅,但係(da6 ai6) 佢喺大(da6)學裏面,{誒} {.} 唎一日哩,{誒} 天氣 {.} 有意義 e3。 Storytelling – 烏鴉喝水 {誒} {3.} 搵到自己(ei2)嘅(e3)一片天,咁我(o5)就覺得(go3 da1)係: {.} {誒} {.── {.} 就覺得噉樣(moeng2)有意義但係(da6 ai6)有啲人可能(lang4) 佢(heoi5)哋覺得,哦,我(o5){.} 真(zak1)係認識下自己 吖 {ze1 e6} 同人嘅對照之間,知道自己係(e6)一個係(e6)點樣(moeng2)嘅人哪。噉從而就: {.} 有非常之多 {.

0} ((hh)) <h> {噉} </h> 但係(da6 ai6)後來諗諗(lam2 lam2 o3)辦法都係(do1 ai6)唔係(ai6)幾好, 有一(a1)個辦法 {.} {誒} 降落咗喺唎 f.0} 噉,飢寒交迫嘅: {.0} 就攤開兩隻(loe5 ek3)手啦,噉樣(moeng2) ,<h> 就 {1.0} {噉} {.} 蟋蟀哩,就只好 {.} 佢(heoi)哋 {.} {噉} {4.} 去打爛 {.} 想 {.} 回應佢嘅。哦噉原來(noi4)哩,zai6(就係)唎個螞蟻哩,非常(oe4)之好人嘅。噉佢(heoi5) 聽到(te1 ou2)蟋蟀── {.} 好 ((.} 試下 {.} 更加好嘅,就係(za6 ai6)哩,將(zoen1)呢個(o3){.} 於是,唎── {.} 個(o3)螞蟻哩就非常之──{3.} 慢慢(ma6 ma2 就開始升高嘞。{噉呢} {.} 螞蟻(ai5)嘅: {誒} zy- 70 .} 終於好: {.} 嘅位置嘞。 噉佢(heoi5)就 {.} 喺唎個時候(au6) 哩,{誒: } 當佢(heoi5)s.} {誒} {.──{.} 豐收嘅(e3)時候(au6)哩就(za6) 非 soeng2(常之)勤勞(nou4) ,所以佢哋 {.} 實在係傷心到 {.} 佢(heoi)聽到(te1 ou2){.5} {誒} {.h)) 花 ha.} 去撞個玻璃樽喎。{噉 e1} daai6(但係)發(fa3) o3)玻璃樽 sa6(實在/實在係?)太硬嘞,點撞都撞唔爛。噉點算好哩?於是哩佢就不停喺 度(o6)行嚟(le4)行(haa4)去,{誒: } 喺度(ou6)周(za1)圍踱步噉樣:(am2 moen2)喺度 (ou6)諗(lam2)辨法啦。{1.} o3)蟋蟀嘅故事之後(au6)哩, 就: {.──{.} 當呢個(o4)<h>蟋蟀哩,向 </h> {.} {誒} 玻璃樽口嗰度喎!噉啊(aa6)飲唔到水啦!{噉 e1} {.0} 點知哩,好景 不常,冇幾耐哩,就(za6)好快哩,就去到: 秋天 naa3。{誒: } {誒: } 樹哩,都變得光禿禿 ak3。{m2} 呢個(o3 : {誒},蟋蟀哩,就非常之(i1)失落喎,噉一定係佢之前冇儲(cou5) 好糧食,所以哩佢(heoi5)而家哩,就(za6)非常之肚餓(o6)嘞。{3.} 樽口 {.} 施捨啲食物畀 佢(heoi5)啦因為螞蟻佢(heoi5)哋 f.} {誒} 去敲: 唎個螞蟻嘅門哪,求佢哋 {.} 流眼淚嘞。{m2 呢} {.──花俏嘅西裝啦 {噉 樣} ha6.} 撞爛個(ngo3)樽吖!噉 於是哩,就(zat6){.} {誒: } {.h)) 好勤勞噉樣(moen2)呢,喺度搬緊食物。 當佢(heoi5)哋一路搬食物嘅時候,旁邊呢,竟然呢 {誒: },瞓左一(at1)隻: 一隻蟋蟀哩,就 {.} 嗰個(o3)洞口哩,實在太細嘞,所以佢(heoi5)嗰個(o3)嘴 哩── {.──{.0} 嚟 </h> {. 9.} 呢個(o3)玻璃樽 naak3! 噉啲水咪可以流出(coe1)嚟,噉就(za6)可以飲囉!{2.} 一套好靚── {.} 石(se6)頭哩, 逐粒逐粒噉樣(moe2)擔入去唎個水樽入便。噉 e1,{誒} {.──就(za6)喺(ha2)度彈: 結他,好似: {.0} 於是啊哩個(o3)時候(au6)啊: ,見到旁邊(bi1)有咁多石仔, 於是就諗(lam2)到一個: 辨法嘞。ze6(就係)用石仔 {.} 螞蟻(nga5) 去(oe)解釋嘅時候(au6)哩,啊 s.} 用 ze2(自己)個頭 {.} 嗰個喙 e1,就塞住咗喺嗰個: {.} ze3)雀哩就竭契鍥而不捨噉樣(moen2 石頭哩擔入去唎個玻璃樽入便 naak3 o3) jit1)個水哩終於升到去 {.0)) 噉哩 </h>,佢哋哩,((.} {誒: } {.} 積存咗好多好多嘅食物。咁呢,當(don1)呢個 {.} {誒} {.} 蚱蜢哩,向(hoen3){.} 開心噉樣(joen2)飲到啲水啊。 Storytelling – 螞蟻和蟋蟀 從前,喺一(ha2 at1)個地方,{噉哩} {.──{.} m.} 枝水嘅(e3)前面 naak3。但係(da6 ai6)哩,{誒: } {.} {誒: } {.} 哩 一隻嘅 {1.玻璃罌裝住嘅。哦當佢(do1 eoi5 e3)時候就(za6)非常興奮噉樣(moen2){.──辦法,去解決唎個問題嘞。噉不(ba1)如 {.} 著住: {.} 喺 {.h)) {誒: } 失望啦,噉佢(heoi5)就喺度(o6)諗: (lam2)d.} o3)地方嘅螞蟻哩,係著衫: 嘅,<h> 而 且,重好潮添!((hhhhh.} 伸個(ngo3)嘴入去: 嗰個玻璃樽嗰度飲水嘅(e3)時 候(au6)哩,就發現呢個──{.──{.} : ((.} 好好客噉樣(moeng2)邀請咗佢(heoi)入去 {.} 好享受噉樣(moen2) 。{3.

} 進食本身,就是 {.} 和意志的極限這一內 {.} {uh:: ze1 aa6} 不停去 join 好 多活動啦。噉,{誒: } 我(o5)覺(go3)得 {.} 信念 的人,才能(nan4)稱為藝術家。矛盾的是,拒絕 {.} 咁多時間擺落去 {.} {ze1 ei6} {.} 讀書已經唔係(ai6)最: 重要啦噉 {.} {uh: } 71 .} {uh::} 好高分啊或(waa6)者點樣(moen2)啦 {ha6 aa3} 總之就要 {.} 極端作為。藝術,是生(san1)存── {.} 自我懷疑和否定,所以是屬於精神層(can4) 面的。但是肉體層(can4)面和精神層(can4)面是互為表 lek1── {.h)) {誒: } 將:(zoen1){.}「斷(tyun5)食」 ,意思並不完全相同。可以說, 「斷(tyun5)食」是前因, 飢餓是後果。不(bak1)過,更(gan3)準: 確地說,「飢餓」指的是身體的狀(zon6)態,以及在 這種狀態下的反應和感受; 「斷(tyun6)食」則(zat1) {.} 難度也沒有,甚至是他與 s.} 受唎個: {誒: } 派(taai3)對同埋唎個(o3)大餐 naak3。 ii.} 磨: 難(laan6) ,在於不被世人尊重和理解,而又同時在於 {.} {uh: } 做嗰(o2)啲:: {.} {誒: } 覺得我(o5) 花喺: 讀書: 上面嘅時間(gaa3)係會少啲啦!{誒: } 而我喺(e2)大學嘅目標哩就係──zoe3-(最) 終極目標哩就係 {.} 只是一種自我應驗。 Spontaneous Speech {誒: } 我(o5)覺得大學生(san1)活哩,我(o5)嘅目標就唔係(ai6)太高嘅。{誒: } 入咗大學 之後,我覺得 {.} 涵。當中並不一定包含 {.} 唎啲唔係(mai6/ai6)唔好(mou2)不過(go3) , 我: 唔會: 選擇: 去: ((.} 由此而來的飢餓,嚴格來說是慢性自殺。而飢餓藝術 的精髓在於不斷把那 ng. Subject B Reading Aloud 事實上, 「飢餓」和 {.} 飢: 餓: 藝術,不單指藝術家以斷(tyun5)食為表演形式,而是藝術家 {.} 通過飢餓這一 狀態去挑戰肉體 {.} 肉體之苦,因為對飢餓藝 術家來說,捱餓一點 {.──餓而不死的邊界 {.} {誒} 又上(soen5)莊啊,跟住 {.} 拒絕生(san1)命、拒 絕世界的姿態。所以 {.} 一不能(lan4)有錢,二不能 (lan4)自我感覺良好。斷(tyun5)食及 {.} 大學(da6 ho6)生(san1)活應該點樣(moen2) 過哩噉我(o5)見到好多:: 人呢,{誒: } 佢哋:: 一入到大學(da6 ho6)哩就好似: {.} 被世人尊重和理解 {.} 大學(da6 ho6)畢業囉!{ha6 aa3} 好簡單。{係嘞} {.} 卡夫卡的小說,飢餓是藝術的本質。 沒有飢餓,就沒有藝術。 所謂 {.} 是本質。飢餓是甚麼的本質?根據 {.} {誒} 有大學(hak6)畢業嗰個 證書我(o5)就可以有個 {.} 尋找生(san1)存的最低限度的 {.} 搵工嗰 an6 時候(au6)有(au5)張入場券(gyun3)囉! {ha6 aa3} 就係(za6 ai6)咁簡單啦!噉: 我覺得 {.} 表裡的。肉體的飢餓和精 神的貧乏,是藝術的先決條件。所以藝術家一不能:(lang4)── {.} 噉:: 都:: ──我唔會:: {誒} 去:: 迫自己去: 要拎 {.} {誒} 大學(da6 ho6)畢業因為(ja1 wa6)我(o5)覺(go3)得 {.} 飢餓藝術家不 {.} 是生(san1)死存亡的事情。只有抱有這樣的 {.──生俱來的本能。他所經受的痛苦和: {.──{誒: } 住所嗰度,{噉 e1} 享(hoen2){.} 推 移。也可以說,飢餓藝術是往死亡(mon4)的方向(hoen3){.} 會 {.} 描述一種外在的行為。 「斷(tyun5)食」 是現象,「飢餓」 {.5} 解 放噉樣(moen2)就會 {.} {誒:: } {1.} 所以我(o5)會 {.} 往(won5)不(ba1)可能(nan4)的方向 {.

} 唔可(o2)以哩, 伸入去飲 do2(到嗰/到?)啲水啊。{3.0} 嘩唎隻蟋蟀 72 .0} {噉哩} 佢飛飛下哩,就: 見到森林(am4)入便呢就有: 一 {.0} ((.0} 嘩!m 所以: {誒} 佢飲完水之後就好開心啦:!噉。 Storytelling – 螞蟻和蟋蟀 好!從前哩就: 有一班: {.} 大喇噉 {.} 因為(ja1 waa6)呢個太陽呢就: 好曬,所以哩佢就好頸渴,噉 {uh} 佢(heoi5)而家: {.} {m2 uh} 佢諗::(lam2)((.──用石 頭 {.h)) 我(o5) 推冧咗嘅話噉啲水流晒出嚟噉: 咪: 飲唔到囉!{.h)) 所以噉就 ((.5} {誒} {7.} 流走架喎。{2.} 去上(soen5)莊啊,去: {誒: } {.} 上面 {.} 推冧 {.{誒} 去上(soen5)莊噉樣(moen2)囉。係嘞。噉: 重有: g.} 樽入便啦。噉 {uh} 放到 {.} 樽 水喎。{2.} {uh} 水飲啊。{1.} 入便 {.} 係度喎。{4.} {誒} {1.} {誒} 所以就喺大學唎 段期間(gaa1)我(o5)都: {.乜嘢都(o1)做得嘅 ((.h)) 噉哩,佢哋 {1.} {誒: } {.h)) 噉樣哩佢就諗住: {.{誒: } 重係一個 {.} 水入便嘅話,噉,啲水咪會升上嚟囉!{1.{誒} 咩目標 {.}──{誒} 啲水哩就升到去個: {誒} 樽口位 嗰度噉 {uh:} 佢就可以飲到啲水嘞。{3.h)) 諗(lam2)aa6 諗:: (lam2) ,喺度(au6)諗::(lam2){.} 諗(lam2)過:(go3) {.} 嘢啦因(ja1)為我嗰科讀完之後就: {誒: }唔係(mai6) 一個 {ze1 e6} 專業嘅科目嚟噉 {uh: } 其實 z.} 搵緊 {.} {誒} 放落去啦──放落去個: {.} 去打爛個樽,跟(ge1)住拎啲水出嚟飲嘅話哩,尐水都係(da1 ai6)會 {.0} 噉我(o5)咪飲到囉!{噉哩} 於是哩佢就: 係噉: 搵啲石頭嘞,就一粒一粒(ja1 la1 ja1 lap1)噉樣 (moen2){.{.h} 有: {.} {誒: } 莊聚啊,同埋: {可 lan4::: } {誒} 去參加: 我(o5)唔知啊宿──宿生會 嘅(e3)活動啊噉樣(moen2)囉。{誒: } 我: (o5)反而會:: 想::(soen2)擺:: 更(gan3)多時間 落: {誒: } 我(o5)自己嘅: {可 lan4} {.} 方法喇繼續。噉 {uh:: } 如果: 佢:: {uh: } 用: s::.} 嘢哩? {4.} 要:: 去:: ((h)) 諗(lam2)下自己(ei2)前途嘅一(a1)個地方啦。{ha6 aa3} 不過 (ba1 o3)之前: 喺中學係冇: 諗:(lam2)過:(go3)唎啲嘢嘅。噉哩所以哩就: {誒}同埋(maa4) 大學(ho6)哩佢有好多: 嗰啲 {.} 將: {誒: } 啲石頭 {.莊務啊 {.} 啲咩: 嘅:::: {.} 教會 {.} 緊食物啦。((.} ((pt)) {誒} {.} ──又諗到另 o6(外?)個(o3)方法喇就係(za6 ai6) {.} soe.0} 噉 {uh:: } 佢又(aa6)諗(lam2)到 {.} 哩?{誒 meme} 重有 {.h)) {誒: } {.} 放落 {.} 蟋蟀 {.0} 嗰個: 水哩 越嚟越──升得越嚟越高嘞。{gam2 e1} 最後哩佢就 {.} 大學(hot6)s.} 下自己 ((.h)) {誒} 我 (o5)會(wu3)嘗試去:: 聽唔同嘅講(gon2)座去睇下自己(ei2)究竟係: 適合 ((.5} 啊: 大學哩 c.5} 但係(da6 ai6)哩因為哩嗰樽水入便::──{誒 誒} 嗰個(o3)樽呢太: {.} 做 嘅(e3)嘢 {.} 將(zoen1) 來會做啲乜嘢啦,{噉 uh: } 聽多啲唔同嘅: {.} 如果: 我:(o5){.} 有意義過我(o5)喺 {.} {誒: } 我 (o5) 覺(go3)得 {.} 流出嚟啦:。但係(daa6 aa6)佢諗(lam2)一諗(lam2)哩,如果 ((.} 身上囉。{ha6 aa3} 因為(ja1 wa6)我(o5)自己 (e2)本身有(au5)返教會嘅。噉 {uh} 我(o5)覺(go3)得 {.5} 行行下哩就見到有隻: {.} 推冧嗰個:: {uh::} 樽哪 噉 {uh} 啲水就 {.h)) {誒} 做啲 乜嘢類型嘅工作囉。 Storytelling – 烏鴉喝水 好,一個好天朗氣清嘅早上呢,{誒:: } 有隻烏鴉(ngaa1)喎,{噉呢} 佢就喺度(ou6)飛緊啦,{gam2 e1} 佢就 {.} 啲 水哩,太少喇,同埋嗰個: {誒} 樽: 嗰個口哩太: 窄啊噉佢(heoi5)個嘴哩就 {.} {誒} 螞蟻噉佢(hoe5)哋哩就好勤力噉樣(moe2)係度(ou6)收集 {.} 做──喺教會 {.} career talk 嗰啲嘢啦。噉 {.

} 可以攞到一個: {.} 迎接 {.} for 將來嘅: {誒: } 升學啊就業啊嗰啲噉嘅嘢。噉願望哩就(za6)係可能:(lang4){.} 佢哩 {.0} 可能(lan4)好耐(loi6)冇食嘢啊,{gam2 e1} {.──一路行一路行啦噉當時: 重要: 落住:: 雪啦真係(za1 ai6)非 常之凍啦。{噉} {.} {uh: } 唎一個: 蟋蟀。 iii.──短期嚟講(gon2){.0} 行行下哩,就見 到有: 間: 屋喎!噉 {uh: } 入便哩就(za6)係──原來係 {.} 譬如係有啲 {誒} 榮譽──榮譽學位嘅 ham2(噉)可能(lang4)會有一級榮譽啊: {.aa5 蟻(ai5)哩就開咗(jo2)門噉 {uh} 見到有隻蟋蟀 {噉 uh: } 見到佢(heoi5)哩好::: {uh:: } {.h)) {uh:: } {2.} 會有一啲: 譬 如係 {1.} 一間: 住咗好多:: 螞蟻(ai5)嘅屋嚟 嘅。噉呢,班螞蟻(ai5)哩就應該:(go1)開緊 party 啊,所以哩就:: {uh:: } {1.} 自 己想點嘅 {噉} 但(daa6)係,{em: } 第一個目標 d.} 凍啊。{2.} 當然係可以 {.0} 準備(mei6)咗 (jo2)好多::: {1.} {誒} {.} 首先入到大學其實,{誒: } 一開始都(do1)係: 唔係好知 {.} 首先係 {.} 就好肚餓(o6)啦, {.} {誒: } 好陰森恐怖嘅:: 森林啊,又肚餓又驚又 {.} 成 功畢到業啦,{噉} {.5} 對於自己 {.0} 噉哩佢行 {.0} 豐富嘅(e3)食物,噉 {uh: } 去:: {.} 確保咗個學位噉樣(moeng2){誒: } 噉,先至可以有,{誒:: } {.} 好 凍啦!又:: 好肚餓(o6)噉嘅(e3)樣(joen2)哪噉 {uh} 邀請佢入去: {誒} c.哩就:: {誒:: } {1.} 一不能有錢,二不能自我感覺良好。 斷食及由此而來(noi4)的飢餓,嚴格來說是慢性自殺。而飢餓藝術的精髓在於不斷把那餓而不死的 邊界往不可能的方向推移。也可以說,飢餓藝術是往死亡的方向尋找生存的最低限度的極端作為。 藝術,是生死存亡的事情。只有抱有這樣信念的人,才能稱為藝術家。矛盾的是,拒絕進食本身, 就是拒絕生命、拒絕世界的姿態。所以飢餓藝術家不被世界尊重和理解只是一種自我應驗。 Spontaneous Speech {誒: 噉} 首先講下: 我(o5)覺得大學生: {.──{誒}入去: 佢 哋屋企啦。{1.} 住咗螞蟻(ai5)嘅。噉哩,班 m.} 佢(heoi3)行到 ((. Subject C Reading Aloud 事實上, 「飢餓」和「斷食」 ,意義並不完全相同。可以說, 「斷食」是前因,飢餓是後果。不過,更 準確地說, 「飢餓」指的是身體的狀態,以及在這種狀態下的反應和感受; 「斷食」則(zat1)描述一 種外在的行為。「斷食」是表象,「飢餓」是本質。飢餓是甚麼的本質?根據卡夫卡的小說,飢餓是 藝術的本質。沒有飢餓,就沒有藝術。 所謂飢餓藝術,不單指藝術家以斷食為表演形式,而是指藝術家通過飢餓這一狀態去挑戰肉體和意 志的極限這一內涵。當中並不一定包含肉體之苦,因為對飢餓藝術家來說,捱餓一點難(laan4)度 也沒有,甚至是他與生俱來的本能。他所經受的痛苦和磨難,在於不被世人尊重和理解,而又同時 在於自我懷疑和否定,所以是屬於精神層面的。但是肉體層面和精神層面是互為表裡的。肉體的飢 餓和精神的貧乏,是藝術的先決條件。所以藝術家不── {.} d.} {誒: } 佢哩: 之前呢可能(lan4)經過: 過: 個: {.} {em: } {.} 嗰啲嘅願望啦。噉,除咗(o2)讀書之外(oi6)其 73 .} 嘅目標係咩啦。{誒: } 大學生: ── {誒 ze1 e6} 作 為大學生 {噉 ho2 lang4: } ── {.0} {gam2 e1} 一入到去屋企哩,嘩!原來係 {.} 但(daa6)係 {.

} 於是哩,點算呢下,噉佢就諗住,啊不如試下將個(ngo3)樽: 推 74 .} 挑戰啊,面 對住唔同── {誒} 或者有── {誒} 一個人,你(lei5){em:: } ((pt)) 時間有限但係(da6 ai6)要 做嘅嘢好多噉,{誒} 時間分配就會係一個: {.} 因 (ja1)為以前: {誒: } 中學都唔會學── {.} 唉,好喇!太好喇!因為水裏(leo5)便── {.} 喺── {.實我(o5)覺得 {.} 時間 {.} 有一(ja5 a1)日啦,{em: } {.} 起碼第時 da6.} 一件有意義嘅事 e3。 Storytelling – 烏鴉喝水 好嘞 {噉} 今日(mat6)哩講嘅故── {.} 大學 {.} ((clear throat)) 都可以 {.}{誒} 做一啲兼職啊: , 又或(waa6)者可能(lan4) ,even 係義工啊噉樣(am2 moeng2) 。((.} 對於時間掌握(ngaak1)唎 一個 {.} 反而係: {ho2 lan4} {.──{.} 大學生活裏便: {.} 水樽嘅時候哩,就發覺,哎呀個樽 太窄喎,{噉} 而── {.} 伸入個: {.}{誒} 都唔會話咁多嘢做噉,我(o5)覺(o3)得大學 {.} {誒} {.} 令到自己 {.} 靠住或者憑住唎一啲嘅人: 際 關係啊可能:(lan4){.} {誒} {.} 做到唎樣嘢。{噉: } 我(o5)覺得唎個係: ──會 j.── {誒} 嘗 試去 {.} 有 一(ja5 a1)個水樽喎。咦 {噉 aa6} j.} 住── {.} 譬如係: {誒} 參加多啲唔同嘅: {.} {en: },{係囉} 睇 ca2(下)點樣可以: 將:(zoen1){.} 主要: ──{誒} 嗰啲: 活動 嚟講我覺(o3)得主要嘅目 {.} 喺大學入(ap6)便要學嘅一樣嘢就(za6)係── {.} 佢就 {.──係有──一件有 意義嘅(e3)事因為,{誒: } 第時出到嚟 {.} 都係 wu.} 當然: {誒: } {.} {誒} 水樽入便重有水。{噉} 但係 (daa6 ai6)哩,正當佢想 {.── {.── {.} 好熱吖 嘛,噉個太陽曬到佢 {.} 唎三年入便所有嘅時間去: 做: 自己想(soen2)做嘅嘢吖,噉,{em: } {.── {.} {em:: } 優勢吖,又或者係一 (at1)啲好處吖噉。{ze1 e6} 或者(wa6 e2)功利少少嚟講(gon2) ,就係噉吖 ((h))。{噉} 但係(daa6 ai6)其實,{誒} 唔係(mai6)──{ze1} 唔係(mai6)話: ── {.} 好實際嘅層面嘅話哩,噉,其 實,{誒} 識多啲朋(pan4)友都冇壞嘅。{噉} ((clear throat)) 大學生──誒有意義嘅大學生活我(o5) 覺得就(za6)係: ── {em: }{.} 好想飲入便啲水吖因為啊 {.} {誒:: em} 分配好啦噉 {其實} 就 {.} 其實 {.} 廣闊嘞,噉就可以去 {.} 的哩,都係: {.} 因(ja1)為其實 {.} 網 絡哩如果闊嘅話 {誒 ze1 e6} 夠 {.} 我(o5)覺(o3) h.} 好口渴吖嘛。 噉佢就── {.} 水── {.h)) {誒:: } 時間唔係(mai6)話長唔係(mai6)話短 哪噉我(o5)覺(go3)得,有意義嘅大學生活就係(za6 ai6)要 h.h)) 噉就 {.} 唔係(ma6)淨係(nga6)讀書吖噉頭先所講都有 {誒} 課外活動啊嗰(o2)啲 嘢。噉可能(lang4)亦都有── {.} 因 wa6.} 都有(do1 au5)其他唔同嘅嘢嘅 pj.} 會面對住唔同嘅: {.} 將個(ngo3)嘴 {.} 唉好口乾,噉點算呢?咦佢(heoi5)飛下飛下嘅時候哩,見到遠處 {.} 欸,好口渴喎,因為,{誒} {.} 會有啲:: 出便: 做── {.} {誒} 三: 年哪,或(waa6)者,可 能(nan4)而家三三四就四年(lin4)哪噉,((.} 唎個時侯哩,就有一(za6 au5 a1)隻烏鴉(ngaa1)喺天空度飛吖,噉佢就: 覺得 {.} 故(gu2)仔啦,就叫做烏鴉(ngaa1)喝水。{噉呢} {.} 喺大(daa6)學入便可以:: {.── {em: } {.} {誒} 入便嘅水哩亦都太少噉根本呢,佢就(za6)係 {.} 職場上亦都可以得到一(at1)啲: {.} 會喺 {.── {誒} {.} 飲唔 到㗎。噉點算呢?佢 lai6── {.} 好重要嘅(e3)因素吖。噉: {hai6 la1} {誒} 如果:(go2) , {ze1 e6} h.──{誒}出到嚟哩:,((pt)) {噉: 誒 ze1 e6} 你(lei5)個人際 {.} 有條── {.} 可能(lang4)係識多啲人嘅我(o5)覺得係,{em: }{.} 把握(ngaak1){.} 有條路啦,{噉} 上便呢,一個人都冇㗎喎。{噉哩} {.} 有一(ja5 a1)個── {.──{em: } soe.} 好熱嘅天氣嚟嘅。{噉哩}{.} {誒}課外活動啦:,噉嗰啲── {.} 嘅: 能(lang4)力哩,喺度,能(lang4)夠,有所提升嘅話噉我(o5)覺(o3)得係會一 勁── {.

} 是甚 麼的本質?根據卡: 夫卡的小說,飢餓(o6)是 {.} 則描述一種外在的行(han4) 為。 「斷(tyun5)食」是表象, 「飢餓」是本質(zak1)。飢餓(o6)是本── {. Subject D Reading Aloud 事實上, 「飢餓(o6)」和「斷(tyun5)食」 ,意義並不完全相同。可以說, 「斷(tyun5)食」是前因, 飢餓是後果。不(bak1)過,更(gan3)準確地說,「飢餓」是指── {.s.} 並 {.} 啊咧隻(e3)蟋蟀都幾懶喎。{噉} 但係(daa6 ai6)哩佢(hoe5)哋 都冇理佢嘞照樣將啲食物 {.} 好開心噉樣(moeng2)喺度: 開緊大食會喎!噉 ((hh)) 係完㗎嘞。((hh)) iv.} 為表演形式,而是指藝術家透過飢餓這一 狀(zon6)態去挑戰肉體和意志的極限 {.} 真係好飲喇: 。 Storytelling – 螞蟻和蟋蟀 {aam6: } {.} 用嚟敲爆個(o3)樽嘅話哩,都──d.} 螞蟻,佢哋就 {.} 指的是身體的狀(zon6) 況,以及在 {.} 這種狀(zon6)態下的反應和感受; 「斷(tyun5)食」 {.} 水樽入便嘅水哩,就 (za6) 慢慢升高嘞。{噉 moen1 呢} {.} 樽口度嘞。欸,隻烏鴉 {.} 蟋蟀 哩,就 {.} 搬返佢(heoi5)嘅巢穴啦。{噉} 去到: {誒} 冬── {誒} 秋天嘅時 候哩,開始 {en: } 落業嘞,{噉 moen2 呢} j.} 蟋蟀哩,喺度彈結他喎。{噉 moen2 呢} {.── {.──m.} 喺 {.水瓶入便嘅水位 哩,終於可以升到去個 {.} 流走晒噉點哩?唎個(o3)方法都唔係咁好。{噉} 於是哩,佢又,諗(lam2)下另一 個方法啦。咦突然之間(aan1)佢又發現哩地下有好多石仔喎,佢又(au6)心諗(lam2)嘞,如果 (o2)啲石(se6)仔可以 {誒: } {.} {em6: } {.──{誒} 四周圍哩都開始冇嘢食嘞。噉唎隻 {.──未嘗唔係 (ma6)一(ja1)個好嘅(e3)方法 {噉} 但(daa6)係,c.} s.} {誒} {.} ut6── {.} {噉 moen1} 於 是乎哩啲螞蟻哩,見到佢(heoi5)咁慘哪噉(am2)就話,啊,好啦,不如: {誒: } 你入嚟吖,同我 哋一齊 {.} 終於飲到水喇。噉佢就好心滿意足就話,唉 唎啲水 {.} 個田裏便呢,搬一啲豆 {.} 但係(daa6 ai6)路中── {.──門 naak3,問 {.} {誒} 入咗去啦噉見到: {.} 唉 {.──諗(lam2)深一層,如果(o2) 敲爛咗(jo2)個(o3)樽啲水都係會流走㗎喎噉點(nim2)算呢?於是佢(he5)就諗(lam2)嘞, 啊我(o5)一定(de6)要諗(lam2)一(a1)個(o3)更加好嘅(e3)方法。噉佢(heoi5)就將啲 石仔哩,一粒一粒噉樣(moen2) ,掉(白讀:deu6)咗入去個水樽度。喺(he2)唎個(a3)時候哩, 水入便── {.} 啲螞蟻就覺(go3)得 {.} 好多好多年(lin4)前呢,有一(ja5 a1)堆 {.──巢穴入便。{噉 e1 } {.} c.} 不一定包 75 .} 最後哩,個水 w.} {誒} 啲螞蟻哩, 就 {.} 借啲嘢食啊: ──畀我啊?{噉 moeng2} {.} 覺得好肚餓啊。噉點算呢?佢就──於是哩佢就去敲 j.} 佢一路: 一路: 噉樣(moen2) 將啲石仔: 抌入去個水瓶度啦。{噉 moen2 呢} {.} 返去佢嘅 {.} s.跌啦: 畀啲水: {誒} 可以流出嚟吖: 噉樣(moen2)就飲到啲水吖嘛。噉但係(ai6)哩,哎呀唔係喎! 如果啲水 {.} 食嘢啦!噉。{m2} : {.} {誒} {.} 啲 螞蟻(maang5 ai5) ,咦,可 mo2 以 {.── {.} 途中哩,就見到一(at1)隻 {.} 這一內(loi6)涵。當(don1)中 {.} 藝(ai6)術的本質。沒有飢餓,就沒有藝術。 所謂飢餓(o6)藝術,不單指藝術家以斷(tyun5)食 {.

} 噉一嚟,梗(ga2)係 {.} 自我 {.0} 但是肉體層(can4)面和精神層(can4)面是互為表裡的。肉體的飢餓和精神的貧乏, 是藝術的先決條件。所以藝術家 {.} 一種 {.} 一 {.──會面對好多 {.} 的信念的人, 才能(lang4)稱為藝術家。矛盾的是,拒絕進食本身,就是拒絕生(san1)命、拒絕世界的姿態。 所以飢餓藝術家不(bak1)被世界尊重和理解 {.{.} 希望 {.} 好多好 sa.} 更(gan3)好嘅(e3)發揮啦。{mm: } {5.} ((clear throat)) 包含肉體之苦,因為對飢餓藝術家來說,捱餓一點難(laan4)度 也沒有,甚至是他與生(san1)俱來的本能(lan4)。他所 {.} 只是 {.} 會(wu3)去 {.──人人所羨慕嘅大學生嘅生(san1)活啦。{噉: } 其實,{噉: } 對我(o5)嚟講(gon2) , 一個: 我(o5)想: (soen2)過嘅大學生嘅生活(wu6)係點樣呢(le1)?噉: 我(o5)覺(go3) 得(da1)就: ──我希望可以過到一(a1)個: {.} 過咗: 好多: 年(lin4)中學 嘅生活 {其實},可以坦白(bak6)講其實(sa6)一(a1)種填鴨式教育嚟嘅。{m2} 大學 {.──好新 奇有趣嘅(e3)事情啦,{誒: } 無論(loen6)喺人與人之間 {.──((clear throat)) 透 gwo.} 得著唎啲嘢嘅話,我(o5)ho.} {誒: } 一 年(lin4)級啦噉樣。啱啱入嚟 {.} 不能(lang4)有錢,二 {.} ──如果(o2)你 76 .──li.} 可以 {.} 得著或者係: 有啲咩: 願望 g.──讀大學生(saa1)啦噉其實我(o5)係(ai6){.5} 大學生嘅: 生活 ((clear throat)) {噉哩} 大學生 d.} 世── {誒} 世界 {.──接觸嘅周遭嘅事作出有 啲── {誒: } 思考啊,或者 e6 批判嘅動作吖,因為,其實,我哋 {.} 我(o5)哋做嗰樣嘢係(ha6)咪: 正確啦。噉: ,如果(go2){.── ((clear throat)) 我(o5)而家 (aa1)家陣已經(e1)係(ai6)讀 j.} 往不(ba1)可能(lan4)的方向推移。也可以說,飢餓藝 術 {.──{誒: } 時事閱歷 啊 {.括(kwu3)── {.──唔同嘅活動裏面,都可以諗(lam2)下 反思究竟 {.} 有這樣(joen6) {.話,{m2 其實} {.} 大學 g.──我(o5)相信我(o5)可以喺將(zoen1)來嘅: s.} 畀我(o5)自己人 生閱歷有更多啦係 ta3.} 是慢性自殺。 {1.} ── {誒: } 可以刺激到我 (o5)嘅思維啦,噉: ,我相信,{em} le.} 各方面嘅 {.} 是往(won5) {.─ ─{誒} 生活上面啊,都會(wu3)可以 {.──{.} 希望: {.} 懷疑和否定,所以是屬(seok6)於精神層(can4) 面的。 {2.} 或者係 {.} 我哋 {.} 唎啲嘢。唎啲方(fo1)面哩,都會── {.} 關(gwaa1)係上(soe6) 面啦,{誒: } {.} 不能(lan4)自我感覺良好。 斷(tyun5)食 {.} 我 哋經歷 dang2 {.((clear throat)) 有啲咩: {.} 經受的痛苦和磨難(laan6),在於不 被世人尊重和理解,而又同時在 {.} {mm: } {.} 對我(o5)嚟講,都會係: ((.} 透過喺大學 裏面,可能(lan4)上堂啊,或者係其他嘅 {.──我(o5)哋 {.} 大學。噉: 如果(o2)你(lei5)w.} 思考嗰 樣(jin6)嘢係(ha6)咪真確。我(o5)哋 j.} 喺 m.} 死亡(mon4)的方向(hoen3)尋找生(san1)存的最低限度的極端行為。 藝術,是生(san1)死存亡(mon4)的事情。只有抱 j.} 於 {.} 唎個大學嘅生活嘅同時,都對: 於: 我(o5)哋所: z.} 對於 {.} 可以: ── ((pt pt)) 可以 {.} 有 {.}──我(o5)hei4(希/期?)望喺(e2)大 wut6 s.} 希望可以(o3)過好啲,{誒} 比較:: ──ji1 人 so.0} {mm: } 如果(go2)你(le5)話,有意義嘅大學生(san1)活,我(o5)係: {.} 自我(o5)應驗。 Spontaneous Speech {m2 其實} {3.──可以: 喺大學(ho6) 裏面 {.} 唔係 (ma6)要我(o5)哋填鴨式囉!大學(da6 ho6)希望嘅係 {.} 及由此而來的飢餓,嚴格來說 {.──問我(o5)話: ,大(daa6) 學生嘅: {.} 唎啲各方面嚟講都可以 deo.} 在 於不斷把那(laa5)餓而不死的邊界 {.──{.} j.h)) 可以── ((pt)) ((clear throat)) ((pt)) {mm: } {hai la} {.} 嘅 g.{誒: } {.5} 而飢餓藝術的精髓 {.──透過唎個大學生(san1)涯裏面。{噉其實(a6)} 眾所周知大學(hot6) ──大學(da6 ho6)生活裏面我(o5)哋 wu.

0} 後尾(mei1) ,佢諗(lam2) 緊,啊,噉唔打爛(laang6)個樽,但係(da6 ai6)啲石頭──我(o5)又想飲水喎──啲石頭有冇 辦法可以 {.} 飛得好開心噉(m2)樣,但(daa6)係,飛下飛下,佢就覺(go3)得,好 t.} 同埋 {.h)) 去發(faak3)掘(gwaak6)下 {.5} 點算好哩?烏鴉好心急,因為佢真係(za1 a6)好口渴(hok3) 啊。佢嘗試過 {1.樽吖!但係 (da6 ai6) 佢之後 {.──{.0} 突然(ji4)之間,差啲 d.──{.} 有意義嘅(e3)話係(a6)嘗試 {.──lam4── {.} 口渴(hok3) {.} 啊。{係囉} {.} 有趣嘅(e3)地方(fon1)哪。因為,有啲嘢 h.} 唎 gi6 ─ ─<h>{誒: } {.} 廣闊嘅(e3 佢好 c.} 將(soeng1)個頭塞(sat1)入去個(o3)水樽裏面, 可惜都(do1)係塞唔到嘅(e3) 。{3.h.} 有 {za1 ai6} 好多 se3── {.} 可能(lan4)──{.} 死版囉,就好(ou2)冇意義囉。{mm: } {5.} 然之 後,koe.} ta.0} ((clear throat)) {.} 大學生活有意義。{3.── {誒} 將(zoen1)大學唎啲嘢擗埋一便[XX]好沉悶啊唔想理佢噉 樣囉。如果(o2)你(lei5)要去──有意義㗎話首先,就要 {.──如果(o2)係(ai6)噉 me2 諗(lam2)㗎話,我(o5)哋好多時候就會 {1.} 都係──都係 f.── {.──加 上些少微風,吹落去,睇落去個感──景象,好 s.0} 係嘗試去: ──{.{.} 地下 {.} 當中: {.水樽裏嘅時候(siau4) ,就(za6)發覺一件 h.──大學(da6 ho6)生(san1)</h> {.──照得地下一片光明。{mm: } 而且 l.} 又──都係(a6)會流走喎!{3.} 抌爛個 soe.} ci.} 上一(at1)啲 m.} 懂得去(eo3)享受 {.} g.} 噉佢就好口渴嘞。噉佢點呢?{2.} 擺落 g.} 變得好: {.h.} 將(zoen1)啲嘢擗 ma.{.} 靈機一觸,諗(lam2)到個念(lim6)頭,{.} 唔關 自己事或者係對 {.上面, 照得地下一片光 ((clear throat)) pi.} s.} ──飛落去水樽附近嘞。佢一望個水樽,haa3 水樽重有 好多水啊!烏鴉唎 ha3 時候非常之開心,因為有水飲吖嘛!{3.} da.5} 㧬(ung2)冧(lam3)個水樽,希望啲水流出嚟吖。好大力噉撞啊,撞,撞啊, 撞,撞啊,撞,{3.} 叮咗一 g.5} 於是,佢覺得唎個方法唔得嘞。佢(heoi5)唯有,繼續喺度(ou6)諗(lam2)另一個方法,{5.──享受大學(da6 ho6)裏面 嗰啲嘢先。 Storytelling – 烏鴉喝水 {mm hm} {.} ──s.(lei5)唔思索(sok3)gwo2 {其實},大學(da6 ho6)就(za6)bi.} o2 ── {.} 細石頭喎。佢諗下啲石頭有咩作用吖,{.} 好弊傢伙嘅事嘞。 死嘞,個樽又太窄,我(o5)個嘴 {.} 啊,不如將啲石頭 {.} 飲水哩?佢又──佢 zem2(就諗?)下諗(lam2) ,諗(lam2) 下諗(lam2) ,諗(lam2)到,{.──自己: {.} {噉} 喺一個風和日麗嘅早上,{mm: } {.} 我(o5)覺(go3)得,點樣(moe2)令 到大學生活 {.} 搖搖(ji4)欲墜嘅時候,烏鴉突(da6) 然(ji4)之間(aa1)諗(lam2) ,一撞,啲水咪流晒地下,我(o5)點飲啊?噉 oe5 飲唔到喎。{1.──{誒:} {.} j.5} {hai la} {誒: } {.} 自己冇興趣嘅嘢啦,{m2} 但(daa6)係,{其實},如果(o2)你(lei5)係 {.} 令人覺得非常之(i1)舒服嘅。{mm: 噉} 喺 {.──{誒} 擺落個水 zeo2 裏面吖! 77 .5} 佢 見到 {.} 否決唎個 d.─ ─ {誒} 提議嘅(e3) 。因為啲水 {.── {.} 不如 攞石頭去 {.} 大學(da6 ho6) 嘅生活 {其實} 就(za6){.0} daa6 可惜,烏鴉諗(lam2)住 {.} ((.──{.── {.} 伸入去 {.── {.} 將個嘴 {.{.令人 soe.0}佢就飛下飛下,就突然之間見 到一個水樽喎。噉唎個時候唔知見到個水樽會點樣呢?噉口渴喎,梗(gaa2)係想飲水啦係(ai6) 咪先!所以烏鴉就啦啦聲就(za6)飛落 {.} 又掂唔到啲水喎,噉我(o5)點飲水哩?佢不停嘗試,夾梗 (gaak3 aang2)塞(sat1)入(ja6)去── {.──可能(lan4)我(o5)哋上堂噉(ngam2) 樣(moen2)有機會係: {.s.} 一個 t.} 喺唔打爛個樽情況之下 {.──[火悶]嘅太陽,曬落去地下 d.

} 叫小明。小明哩,就(za6)有五 (m5)兄弟姊妹──{誒} 五(m5)兄弟姊妹嘅。佢哋(heoi5 jyu6)各(got3)人 {.──去: 蟋蟀面前聽(ten1)d.} [XX] 有 {.} 於是{.} 抌落去(la6 eoi3)水樽裏面嘞。{3.} ja51(有一)隻 {.} 為咗想聽到 gan.ha.}好興奮噉樣(am2 moe2) 彈住結他,{.} 就: {.──不如諗(lam2)下,不如聽多陣音 樂(mok6)先哪!於是 {.ja.} 就諗(lam2)住去 {.──{誒} 受 人歡迎㗎?而蟋蟀就話,其實(sa6)我(o5)唔係啊,我(o5)之前呢,係經過一(a1)gyun6: {.──工作。{um:: } {.} 去為咗 {.} 就去 te.} 有一隻螞蟻(ai5){.噉然之後,擺得多㗎話,啲水 m 會慢慢湧出嚟囉!於是,佢就將(zoen1) {.} 冇──冇 78 .si.} 更多嘅(e3)體力 {.──一路向前(ci4)行,唯有 h.──非 soeng2(常之)悅耳。啊,唔 {.} ──{啊 maa} 唎五(m5)隻螞蟻(ai5){.gaai3.} 一粒一粒 {.} 將啲石頭 {.}──一隻蟋蟀,((h)) {噉然之後} ha.} 蟋蟀,而唎 a3(一隻 / 隻)蟋蟀 {.} 真係 ── {.} 努(lou5) 力噉樣(moen2)z.}──fa6.} [X] ((clear throat)) 佢嘅(e3)音樂(mot6){.} 好淒涼嘅時間㗎。嗰時候,我啲音樂(mok6){.h)) ((clear throat)) 經過(go3)一(at1) 番好辛苦嘅(e3)工作,先至(sin13)飲──{誒 rr } {.──依個(o3)時候烏鴉非常之開心,{2.──加快速度噉樣(moen2)將(zoen1) 啲石頭擺落去水 {.} 甚至好 興奮噉樣(moe2)問蟋蟀,蟋蟀啊,你(lei5)以前嘅 s.} 都 會: {.} 啱啱湧到去 {.──尋找下地下有冇啲 {.} 一──而一起(he2)努(lou5)力。{um: } 𠵱一日, 佢哋 {.} 然之後(au6)── {.{.──((clear throat)) <h>好享受噉樣(am2 moe2)去</h>──{.} 好大啊!噉,我哋可 以返到去(hoe3)屋企就(za6)可以 {.} 大飽一福── {誒} 大吃一頓,噉 o3 話就可以 ((clear throat)) {.} 真係(za1 ai6)非常好聽(ten1) ,好聽到可以: {.} 一直都係(ai6)咁受歡 ji.} 就(za6)係(ai6)一(ja1) 粒(la1)好大嘅(e3)種子。{1.} 樽口位,好開心啊唎個(a3)時候烏鴉,因為佢有得飲水嘞。{2.──{uh 誒: } 佢: 玩音樂嘅時間。佢哋一路行(han4),聽到──聽到蟋蟀彈嘅 ja.} 家庭去工作嘞。{2.0} 佢哋(heoi5 e6)心諗(lam2),種子 {.} 我(o5)唯有 {.} 冇人賞識,((h)) ((clear throat)) 生活非常之──((clear throat)) 非常之(i1)辛苦,甚至有時候冇嘢食,冇(mu5)嘢食重要捱(aai4)餓(o6) ,噉嗰個(o3) 時候 {.} 家庭 {.──音樂 (mok6) ,覺(go3)得 {.} hou.} 噉樣(moeng2){.0} 果然冇錯,水樽裏面嘅水 {.}──上到音樂(mok6)節目 g 裏面, 去表演下𠻹。{.5} 因為,佢諗(lam2)到,啲水湧得多, 湧到上去樽口嘅時候(au6) ,佢就(za6)有(a5)飲(am2)水(有水飲 / 有得飲水)喇。一諗(lam2) 到噉嘅時候,烏鴉繼續喺度 {.} 石頭 {.} 為著(zoek3)──為著 {.──((clear throat)) 你(lei5)彈嘅(e3) 音樂(mok6)真係(za1 a6)好好啊!你(lei5)係咪 {.}── 覺(go3)得唎 a3(一隻 / 隻)蟋蟀 {.} 享受佢(heoi5) ja.} 飲到嘅(e3)時候(au6),烏鴉覺得啲水 零舍好飲嘅。 Storytelling – 螞蟻和蟋蟀 喺一個下午(m5) ,((clear throat)) 一群螞蟻(ai5)家族 {.──石頭擺 loi6(落去?)水 樽之後,啲水 {.──走過 唎一個 hung1──((clear throat)) ha.} 佢 za.} 佢見到 {.0} 去到最後,佢將好多 soek6 頭 ba.5} 當諗到啲水係好辛苦噉──嘅時候──好辛苦嘅:(e3)──((.} 搬: {.} 抱住支結他,一個人 {.─ ─{.} 食物嘞。佢哋搵到嘅食物 {.──聽──{uh: } 蟋蟀附近, 再仔細聽(te1)下音樂(mok6)嘞。當聽完(jyu4)蟋蟀彈嘅音樂(mok6)之後,佢哋 {.} 開始慢慢 噉升高,ji2.} 好 en.} {uh} {.} 去上 {.──((clear throat)) gei1 路 ha.} 樽裏面。{3.} ──唎五(m5)隻蟋蟀 {.} 嘗試尋 za.}──覺(go3)得 {.} 就嚟: ──((clear throat)) 就嚟 {.} 喺度(ou6)努(lou5)──{.0} 當佢(heoi5)哋搬食物嘅 時候,{.

── {.} 因為── {.} j.{.h)) 好悅 耳嘅(e3)音樂(mok6) ,一諗(lam2)到噉,就覺得 {.──{uh} 好── {.──{誒} 成個冬天嘅: {.} 藝(ai6)術家來 s.} 肉體之苦,因(ja1)為 {.} 一定 {.} 冇乜營養嘅食物。{4.} 包括 {.──((.} 本質?根據: 卡夫卡的小說,飢餓: (o6)是藝(ai6)術的本質。沒有飢餓(o6),就 沒有藝(ai6)術。 所謂: 飢餓(o6)藝(ai6)術,不單指藝(ai6)術家以斷食為表演形象── {.──將(zoen1)來(noi4)有機會再聽你(lei5)嘅音樂(mok6) 啦!{.} 甚麼 d.─ ─{.} 儲(cou5) 咗(o2)好多嘅食物。{um: } 佢諗(lam2)住: ── {.} 生(san1)活。喺唎個 時候,突(da6)然(ji4)之間,外(oi6)面,又敲響咗度門喎!佢(koe5) {.}「斷(tyun5)食」,意義並不完全相同。可以說, 「斷(tyun5)食」是 前因,飢餓(o6)是後果。不過,更(gan3)準確地說, 「飢餓: (o6) 」指的事身體的狀(zon6)態, 以及在這種狀(zo6)態下的反應和感受; 「斷(dyun5)食」{.── ((clear throat)) 入到嚟嘅時候(au6) ,佢見到有(a5)好多食物,((clear throat)) 佢諗(lam2) 到,我(o5)冬天唔使捱(aai4)餓(o6)喇。認識到小明,真──同埋佢屋企人,真係(za1 ai6) 太好喇! v.} 好 ho.──如果(o2)噉樣而餓(o6)死, 真係(za1 a6)太慘喇!所以,佢哋邀請佢入屋,小明就講到嘞,蟋蟀!蟋蟀先生!不(ba1)如你 (lei5)入嚟一齊同我地渡過唎個: 冬天吖我(o5)哋儲咗(o2)好多食物(ma6)啊!其實我(o5) 哋都(a1)食唔晒嘅(e2)!不(ba1)如你(lei5)一齊嚟,我(o5)哋一齊分享食物啦!{2.──{.} 飢餓(o6) {.} 支結 他爛<h>咗,彈唔到音樂(ok6)</h>,((.} 是 指 {.} 的 {.} 當佢諗(lam2)住要 {.} 對 {.5} 去支持佢哋一個 zik.──藝(ai6)術家通過飢餓(o6)這一 {.── {em 哩} {.} 各(go3)人(an4) ho.} {然之後} 佢聽完之後, ((clear throat)) 就 go.} 就嚟到 ((clear throat)) {.──au6 aa6(就話) ,o5,我(o5)今次 ((clear throat)) {.──已經(ing1)嚟到,佢哋 swit1──須 要有更多嘅食物,去 {1.──說,飢餓(o6)一點 {.── ((h)) 賺唔到錢,好<h>辛苦啊,[XX],又 冇嘢食喎!</h>我(o5)就嚟餓(o6)到死喇。佢哋唎個(o3)時候(au6)諗(lam2)返起蟋蟀 {.} 意志 嘅極限這一內涵。當(don1)中並不 b.──我(o5)哋好欣賞(soe2)你(lei5)嘅(e3) 音樂(mok6)㗎!希望(mo6)有 g.} le.h)) ((h)) {um} {ha la} {.} {噉} 光陰似箭、日月如梭,到咗(o2)寒(hong4)冬嘅(e3)時候嘞!唎──佢哋 ceo.} 點 解要儲(cou5)咗咁多食物(ma6)哩?因為冬天 {.} 打開度門一 {.} 係有一(at1)手好好嘅結他本領(ning5) ,彈咗好 ja.} 描述一種外(oi6) 在的行為。 「斷(dyun5)食」是表象, 「飢餓(o6)」是本質。飢餓: (o6)sip6 ──{.0} 我(o5)哋 j.mo1──冇乜── {.0} 蟋 蟀先生(saan1) {.} gap.──你(lei5) 要畀心機喇!((clear throat)) {1.} 狀(zon6)態去挑戰肉體和 j.} 形式,而 z.─ ─儲(cou5)好嘅(e3)食物,諗(lam2)zy.h)) 冇 ja.} 螞蟻 {.──((clear throat)) 蟋──{唔係} {.0} ((.} 難(laan4)度也沒有,甚至是他 79 .} 小明嘅屋(ak1)企,佢見到 {.} 睇! 咦?咪就係(za6 ai6)之前見到嘅蟋蟀先生(saan1)!然之後(au6)問(mang6) ,蟋蟀先生(saan1)! 點解你(lei5)又: 噉樣嘅?蟋蟀 s. Subject E Reading Aloud 事實上,「飢餓(o6)」和 {.} 則(zat1) {.} 就 g-話,蟋蟀啊,噉你(lei5)要(ji3)畀 sap.

} 肉體層(can4)面 (mi2)和精神層(can4)面是 {.5} 畀──{.} 著重於 {唎個}──{.} 是慢性自殺。而飢餓(o6) 藝(ai6)術的精髓 {.} ((pt)) 比較: ── {.─ ─{.} 意 思即係(ze1 e6)指 {.} 大(da6)學嘅: {.} 推移。也可以說,飢餓(o6)藝(ai6)術是往 死亡 {.──{.} 充實自己啦,而反 而哩,香(hoen1)港島嘅學(ho6)生呢,可能(lang4)哩會 {.} {誒} 新界嘅學生: 同埋: :: {.──{.} 當(do1)踏 do.──人(jang4)生 (san1)裏便呢,係: ── {.} 以我(o5)自己(e2)嚟講(go2)哩,我(o5)自己認為最: {.} 不斷 {.} 往 (wo5)不(ba1)可能(lan4)的方向(hoen3){.} 做到自己所有 j.} 香港(hoen1 ngon2)島嘅學生(saa1)大家嘅性格都好唔同啦。因為(ja1 wa6)我 (o5)發(faa3)現呢,{誒: } {.} 喺咁多年(lin4)g.} 好明顯嘅(nge3)例子就(za6)係譬如 {.} o3)大(da6)學之後(au6) e1 就(za6)發(faa3)現咗 {.} 適 應到唔同嘅: 環境啦,{誒} 噉唎個哩就(za6)係同 {.} 的 {.} 及由此而來的飢餓(o6),嚴格來說 {.──{.} 佢哋要去 {.} {誒: } {.} 社區啦譬(p3)如好似你(lei5)住嘅地方啊: 噉樣(moen2) 。你(lei5)係(e6) h.} 要↑ {.──wu6.} 期望哩,我(o5)都希望哩如果 jy.} 有好多嘢哩,都可以喺唎四年(lin4)時間(gaa3)裏便哩,{誒: } {1.} 畀我哋去發(faa3)展嘅(nge3 : {.} s.} 定下落嚟嘅: {.} 大家同學嚟嘅── {.} 喺之前 {.} 的 {.── {.} 如果日子填唔滿晒── {.} ((pt)) {誒} {.} ((pt)) 誒 {.} 一不能(lan4)有錢,二不能(lan4)自我(o5) 感覺良好。斷(tyun5)食 {.} {誒: } 喺── {.} 只是一種自我(o5)應驗。 Spontaneous Speech 好喇,{噉} {.} {誒: } ((pt)) 去 w.} 在於 {.} 喺大學 哩 j.} 做到嘅話就已經(i1)係一個大學嘅 {.── {.} 先決條件。所以藝(ai6)術家 {.} {誒} 著重於 {唎個: }──{.} {ze16} 佢哋 go6.── {.} 喺大學──{.──{.} 填唔滿晒個日曆嘅話就覺(go3)得好似 e6 唔係(ma6)充實嘅日子噉 laa2。{ze1 ei6} {.} 的貧乏,是藝(ai6) 術 {.} 我(o5)今日(mat6)要講嘅哩,就(za6)係 {.──會去──{.} 大家 j.} 點樣(moen2)為之── {.5} 其實,大學生活哩,只不(bwo1)過係 {.} 飢餓(o6) 藝(ai6)術家不被世界尊重和理解 {.} 會去到 {.} {誒: } {.} 好似: {.── {.} 背景都唔同吖因為,大家 g.} 係: ── {.} {ze1 e6} 你(lei5)會接觸到好多 唔同嘅(nge3)人唔單止係譬(p3)如 {.} 想要求做嘅嘢啦。即係── {.} 去 {.} {誒} {.} 小學啊,中學個裏便哩,係做 80 .} 喺大學生活哩,亦都係 {.──{誒} {.} 理想嘅(nge3) 大學生(sa1)活哩,就(za6)係 {.──居住 嘅 {誒: } 社區都唔同啦。好── {.} {誒} 比較 {.} 短短嘅四年(lin4)時間(gaa3)啦, 但(da6)係哩 h.} 互為表裡的。肉體的飢餓(o6)和精神 {.} 為自己 m.──{.} 尋找: 生存的最低限度和──的極(gi6)端(dyu1)行(haa4) 為。藝(ai6)術,是生死存亡的事情。只有抱有這樣的信念的人,才能(lan4)稱為藝(ai6)術家。 矛盾(toen5)的是,拒絕進(zoen3)食本身,就是拒絕生命、拒絕世界的姿態。所以 {.} 磨難(laan6) ,在: 於: 不被世人尊重和理解,而又同時在 於自我(o5)懷疑和否定,所以是屬於精神層(can4)面的。但(daa6)是 {.} 唔單止係你(lei5)平時: 熟悉嘅 s.} 生活啦。{誒: } {.──jy.} 可能(lang4){.} 餓(o6)而不死的邊界 {.} 新界嘅(e3)學生比較係: {.} 生活 啦。因為 {1.與生俱來的本能。他所經受的痛苦和: {.} {誒} 點樣(moe2)去到 {.} e3) 生活同埋 {.} 把(ban2)那(naak5){.} 目的啊,目標啊,或者所有 嘅: {.} {係囉} {.} 學習啦。而: {.} 好多唔同嘅地方啦譬(p3)如好似 {.} 讀大學噉 ə,{誒} {.} 注重於個社交吖 {ze1} 佢哋好強(koen4)調 {.} 係↑ j.} 方向(hoen3) {.} {誒: } {.──覺(go3)得 {.

} s.} 一(ja1)個好想去跨越自己嘅(e3)人唔可以話 j.──每個人嘅目標 嚟㗎(ei4 g)喎,因(ja1)為 {.} 枉過咗啊。因(ja1) 為佢哋──因(ja1)為嗰班── {.} 自己嘅(e3)目標啦但(da6)係唔一定係會 g.──自己: 滿足嘅話就已經 {.} 去到──{.──{.──{.} ji.} 每──{.} 誒 {.──{.} 舒適 k.5} 希望──{1.} 舒適嘅: {.──你(lei5)上(soen5)莊,{誒: } {.} 大(da6)學嗰度哩經 常都強調一樣嘢就(za6)係 {.} ((.} 籠統一啲啦。{誒:: } {.} 嘗試去接觸唔同嘅新 嘅事物(ma6)囉。{誒} 我(o5)喺: {.} 自閉啊或者係: {.h)) 我(o5)j.} 佢 哋,{ze1} 佢哋自己本──{.} 希望(mo6)哩 {.──{誒: } {.──{.} 點樣(moe2 : ──{.} 大(da6)學生(san1)活 {誒: } {.──重要──{.} {em: } 佢哋對於個(o3) {.} lei.──{.} 要 {.} 我(o5) 之前都有講啦 {ze1 hei6} {.lo.} j.我(o5)覺得(go3 dik1) , 只要 {.} 我(o5)認為哩,{ze1 e6} m.} 足夠喇。 81 .} {em: } {.h)) 啊,我(o5)覺(go3)得我(o5)自己: {.} 你(lei5)唔可以 w.} 舒適區域裏便嘅人呢,佢哋其 實──佢哋嘅 {.} 開心(saam1)快樂, 舒適嘅話,{ze1 e6} 無論係 {.} 有第一次 {.──{.} 方面唔一樣(joen6)哪所以哩,{誒} 唔一定個個都 {.} 只要踏出唎一步嘅話,{誒:: } 好多嘢都可以 做得(a1)到囉就算今次失敗嘅話你(lei5){.} 自己平時唔係(mai6)做開一樣嘢嘅而自己 {.} 都係走出自己嘅: {.} 每個人 d.} 都係正確㗎囉 總之佢哋──{.} 佢哋 {.} {誒: } {.──{.} 選擇 {.} {誒: } {.─ ─{.} 嘅結果係(ai6) 點樣(moen2)你 go.} 留返(faa1)喺個: {.} {誒: } {.} 去 {.} 挑戰自己囉。而: {.─ ─{ze1 e6} {.} {誒: } 我(o5)應該噉講嘅就(za6)係: {1.} 勇氣去 {.} 如果(o2)佢(heoi5)覺(go3)得 z.} {誒: } {.5} 希望(mo6 lin4)裏便呢,就: {1.o.} 大部分──{.} 區域啦,{噉} {.} 自身嘅快樂哩其實我(o5)覺得重 e.} {em6} {1.} 走出自(zyi6)己嘅:: {.} 佢 冇做到自己: 做嘅嘢(e5)或者係(hei6){.} 都係: ──{.} 喺大學裏便有好多唔同嘅人哪 {ze1} 佢哋: {.──我(o5)哋: {.──範(faa6)圍啦因(ja1)為 {.} {誒: } {.} ja1)為 {.──z.} 嗰班 {.} 去到── {.} 最後,大家會唔會識到一 班好真心(za1 san1)嘅(nge3)朋(pan4)友,{誒: } {.} 自己有 冇 {.唔到㗎啦。{噉} {.} 出 got3──{.} 喺 s:.} 因(ja1)為你(lei5){.} 喺 唎四年(lin4)嘅大學(ho6)生活(wu6)裏(eoi5)便,過得(go3 dat1){.──{.} 大學生(da6 ho6 saan1){.} 唎個唔重要囉反(faa2)而係 {.} {ze1 e6} 大部分嘅學(ho6)生呢,只要 {.} {ze1 ei6} 如果係: {.} 嗰──{.} o.──{.──{.} 唎 個其實我(o5)覺得係 {.h)) 後──{.} 我(o5)自己嘅(e3)目標啦我(o5)個(o3)目標哩就係(za6 ai6) {其實係: } {.} 嘅 勇氣,你(lə2)可以鼓勵到你(lei5)自己去做第二次嘅話,噉咪第二次,都 j.} 舒適嘅範(faa6)圍 裏(eoi5)便,過得好開心,過得好快樂嘅話,噉佢 za6.} {ze1 ei6} {.} 嗰一(at1)種人係 {.} 講返 {.} 你 (lei5)究竟係 {.} 去到(dyut3)──{.} 個雖然(jyun4)係我(o5){.} {誒} {.} 佢哋(e6)覺得佢哋(e6)嘅(e3)大學嘅生活係好快樂㗎喎。噉所以哩,{.o.} 佢(heoi5)冇踏── {.} 下次 {.} 你(lei5)j.} 目標嘅(e3)追求可能(lang4)嘅: {.} {誒: } {.} s.} 如 果(go2)──{.──佢哋── {.} 最後得到啲咩成就啊: ,最後你(lə) 得到咩結果啊所以哩其實 ((.} 都有機會去 成功囉。所以我(o5)覺得(go3 dat1) ,大學(da6 ho6)最重(zyu6)要目標係,嘗試多啲 m.5} {誒: } 要 {.── {.} 大──{.} 一直留喺: {.} 點樣(moe2)去到: d.} 我(o5)哋 f.0} 點講哩? 如果(go2)我(o5)講,擴闊自己眼(aan5)界就好(ou2)似比較: {.── {.} 最:: 重要要做嘅嘢,無論係 {.} 重過 一切囉即係(ze1 e6)重要過 {.} 唔同嘅嘢,同埋,敢於去到:: {.} 出國遊學啊噉 樣(moen2) ,唎啲都係 {.} {誒} {.} s.──{.} g.──{.} 跨越自己嘅(e3)有啲人(ja4)可能(la4) 話,((.} 上(soen5)莊啊,又或者係: {.} 去到踏出 {.

} 少少石頭唔得喇噉 aa6(就?)要搵多啲 石頭喎。嘩噉佢(eo5)搵啊: 搵,佢真係(za1 ai6)太口渴喇已經差唔多係 {.──佢知道唯一(ja1)一(a1)個方法就(za6)係飲水。佢見到目標喺(ai2)前便,{噉} {.} 嗰啲(li1)樽──個樽佢(heoi5) ,噉啲水哩,就唔會 好似 ə ──{.} 好口渴喎, 因為哩,個天氣實在(sa6 a6)太炎熱嘞,熱到哩 {.} 個水樽 {.} 口有啲遠,噉哩,佢哩, 就冇辦法(waa6 faa3)喇。噉既然 {.0} 執咗成個 j.5} 噉佢(heoi5) 繼續執啦,{1.} 好似填窿窿噉樣(moe2)填滿晒 {.} 佢哩,就: {.} 流晒出嚟?跟住佢諗(lam2)到個(o3)更 加好嘅方法啊!就(za6)係,既然有石頭嘞,不(b1)如將啲(i1)石頭 {.} 嗰尐 c.Storytelling – 烏鴉喝水 {mm} {.──咁 s.} 個 s.──實在太想(soen2) 飲水嘞,但(da6)係,根本(mun2)佢 zu.0} {噉哩} {.} 佢哩就一喎沿住嗰條 {.5} 去搵一個: ((pt)) 有水嘅地方。{噉} ə 飛啊飛啊,飛到: {.──好快 哩 {.} 咦?唎個 {.} 烏鴉啦,唎隻烏鴉叫小黑啦。{噉哩} {.} 個烏鴉哩,就諗(lam2)到一(a1)個辦法(faa3) 喇。不如,將(zoen1){.} 路噉樣(moe2)會 s.} 佢 seo1.} s.} h.0} 如果我(o5)推跌咗佢(heoi5)嘅話,噉尐水咪會 {.──裏便啲水?實在太口渴喇!但係 (da6 ai6)佢──正當 o6 想去 s.──{.} 就 ja5(有/有一?)隻 w.} 我(o5)推倒嗰個: (o2 o3){.0} 但係(daa6 ai6) 佢 l.} 就須要 l.} 推跌咗佢(heoi5) ,噉啲水咪(ma6)會(wu3)流出嚟(ceo1 ei4)囉!因(ja1)為打斜嗰時候(au6),噉啲水會向(hoe3)下流噉啲水會流出嚟嘎嘛。daa6(但 係/但?)佢又(aa6)諗(lam2) ,{2.} 又再諗(lam2)喇。啊, 會唔會(wu5 mui5) ,搵啲石頭,敲爛咗: {.} 秋天嘅時分。{2.──{.──搵 {唎 o3: } ((pt)) 水源呢 {.──{.──{.} 繼續去不斷搵啲石頭返嚟(faa1 ei4) 。因(ja1) 為哩,附近嗰啲係──根本(gaa1 mu2)係碎(seoi5)石嚟嘅;太細嚿(gau4)喇啲石頭,所以佢 要──{1.} 應該(go1)係 {.} 嗰 lul1.} 佢 {.} 嗰 si.} 塞唔入裏便──個水裏便,噉佢(heoi5)應該點算呢?佢實──{.─ ─埋去個 {.} 真係 流出嚟,噉我(o5)──流晒出嚟我(o5)咪飲唔到囉!噉佢(eoi5){.} 掉(deu6)晒落去, 好 ci.} 佢哩,就好開心 啦因(ja1)為,嘩飛咗咁耐(loi6) ,終於畀我(o5)搵到有水嘞。佢──當佢(heoi5)哩 {.} 雖然(jyun4)自己已經係 {.} s.5} 佢要── {.} 春天──{.} 去: 搵啦,{1.──嗰個(o3)水位高咗喎!但係(daa6 ai6)哩,仍然離嗰個: {.} 我(o5)而家: {.} 冇晒氣力喇但(daa6) 係哩,w.} 咁上 下哩,見到有一(ja5 a1)個水樽喎,個水樽裏面有水 gwo3(㗎喎?) 。{噉 e1} {.──{.} j.} 要講(go2)嘅故事就係: (za6 ai6){.} 就嚟郁唔到喇但(daa6)係, 佢知道,爭少少爭(zaa1)少少,所以哩,佢 b.──根本(mun2) 就 {.} ((pt)) 山路哩 {.} 好 fong1(風?)和日麗嘅日子裏便哩,嘩!佢喺(ei2)度──{.嘴連啲水都掂唔到,si2(只?)不過(o3)塞 go.──成個下晝,終於畀佢(heoi5)搵到嘞──終於畀佢(heo5)搵到 82 .── 草地好綠,同埋: {.─ ─係會慢(maa6)慢 {.──{.──{.} 樽個(ngo3)──噉樣(moe2)會流出嚟,wu.──飲水嘅時候(au6)哩,佢發覺,自己(i2)個嘴太大喎,go.} 水樽嗰度時候(au6)哩,佢就諗(lam2)喇,嘩今舖重唔畀我(o5)飲晒: ──d.} 敲: 得太大 ge23 時候(au6) , 噉,啲水咪一 c.} 逐滴(dek6)逐滴(dek6)噉樣(moe2)流出嚟哩!{2.──{.─ ─seoi.──{.} 嚟到解渴啦。{噉哩} {.──佢又諗(lam2) ,但係(daa6 ai6)如果(go2)我(o5)萬一 {.} 但(daa6)係,雖然(jyun4) {.} 佢要執好: 多好多好多嘅石頭先至(i3)得嘞。{噉} {2.} 流晒汗所以哩 {.} 烏鴉喝水啦。{噉} 喺 lat1 個 {.──擘 (maa3) 大個口 {.── 塞咗喺個水樽口嗰(o2)度,噉點算呢?{噉哩} {.} 個樽佢(heoi5)噉咪(ma6)可 以──啲水咪會(ma6 wu3)升咗(ngo2)上嚟囉!咦!的(dek1)確係唔錯喎!的確係有進展喎! 嗰啲 s:.

} d.} 搬緊: ──{.} 其他螞蟻哩,有嘢食嘅↑時候(au4) , {3.──{.} 可能(lan4)呢,就(za6)係因(ja1)為,最近呢,就係(za6 ai6)要──{.} 竟(ge2 aa4(琴嘅)m.} 螞蟻而著想(soen2)naa3──其他螞蟻而著想(soen2) 哪,但(daa6)係哩,{2.0} 去到(ou3) 冬天 ge2(嗰/嘅?)時候(au6)哩,當(do1)所有──{.} 搬食物哩實在(sa6 o6)太:: 需 要體力(lə6)勞動嘞,所以哩,佢哋冇──{.──{.──{.} wa6.} 螞蟻(ai5)哩,畀人 {.} 耷低頭,走返(faa1)返(faa1)去 {.} 喺: {.──可以飲嘞。嘩,飲 ji1 lat1(唎一?)啖,簡直係楊枝甘露。{噉} {.0} 有一(ja5 at1)隻螞蟻(nga5)哩,喺佢哋經過(go3){.──{.} 有儲糧就(za6)可以 s.0} 冇人賞識喎!啲人覺得哩,佢實在太懶嘞!{2.── {.} 搬──搬運緊貨物喎。{3.} 可能(la4)唔夠嘞所以哩,{.──{誒} 食物嗰啲螞蟻哩,而打氣喎。{3.咁多石頭嘞 j.──{.──{.} 唔想返(faa1)去佢屋企,因為(ja1 wa6)佢知道佢(koe5)辜負咗 {.0} 為: {.0} {係喇噉} {.} 而家喺度 {.} 有啲──{.} 成──成拃 螞蟻(ai5)群嘅: ──{.0} 佢覺得哩,佢 j.──{.──拎出嚟食啦。{噉} 當 {.0} {好嘞},但(daa6)係哩,雖然(jyun4) : {.} 體力 {.──z.} 行為哩,就 {.5} 喺度(ha2 ou6)啦喇,nge: nge nge。{2.──{.──{.} 拉小提琴(ka4)嘅(a3)螞蟻(ai5)gwu3 (嘅鼓?)──鼓勵哩,可能(lan4)呢就(za6)行唔到去: 最遠嗰 da3 地方嘞──{.} 既然佢有手有腳,應該幫(bo1)手去搬啲食物,到冬天嗰時候(au6)大家咪有得(da1)食囉。 但係(daa6 ai6)哩,((pt)) 隻螞 nga.0} 佢 {.} 數萬嚿(gau4)石頭先搵──執到嘅(e3) 。嘩唎啲水簡直係 {.} 搬唔到啲食 物,syu:23(所以)決定哩用第二種方法回報,但(daa6)係冇人(an4)會明白佢喎!{2.} 因(ja1)為哩,swu.} 拉小提 gaa3(琴嘅)螞蟻(ai5)哩,就 {.0} 佢冇份搬嘅話,噉,佢自己 {.5} 有 葉啦,嘅時候哩,{2.5} {噉} 唎幾隻螞蟻(ai5)哩就 {.} 行唔到返(faa1) 屋企嘞。{噉哩} {.} 嗰條路: 隔離哩,就(za6)坐咗 喺(a2)度喎!佢喺度(a2 ou6)坐喺(a2)度做咩?拉小提琴。{6.} j.} 助慶。{2.0} {係 嘞} 佢哩,bo1.} 決定喇,為 佢哋 {.0} 有一(ja5 at1)隻螞蟻─ ─{2.} 既然啲食物 {3.} zum1 知道自己 h.} 佢話,嘩唎 啲水真係好飲啊!同我平時飲 lik1,簡直係唔同啊!{噉} 佢(oe5)又(a6)諗(lam2) ,雖然,di1 (唎?)啲水係同平時啲(i1)水係一模一(at1)樣,但係 i1(唎啲?)水 {.} 冬 天實在(sa6 o6)太凍啦落晒雪噉樣(oe1) 。{3.} { } 糧食啦所以佢哋要(ji3)積蓄防飢嘞。所以哩,佢哋哩,就要預先呢儲(cou5) 定啲食物,去為 {.──{.0} 佢哩,實在頂唔順(soe6)嘞佢──{1.──一隻 m.} 佢老家: {.} 拒諸門外喎!因(ja1)為佢覺(go3)得 {.──{.} 對佢嘅期望。但(daa6)係,佢(koe5)冇辦(baa6)法,佢真(za1)係 要 {.} 貴 過(go3)晒全世界所有嘅水啊! Storytelling – 螞蟻和蟋蟀 好喇,{噉} 唎個故事哩,首先,個主角(go3)就(za6)係 m.} 最近(a6) 比較(a3)多 {.──{.} 出便 {.0} 係嘞,佢哩,好似哩就(za6) 係想(soen2){1.} 冇其他辦法(faa3)嘞。佢 ji.} 嘅門口 {.} 有一(jat51)──{3.} 食物嘅時候(au4) ,有: {.──{.} z.0} 有一(ja5 at1)隻──{.} 佢實在 mu.} {唔係} {.} 冇唎隻 {.──{.} 成千上萬嘅螞蟻(ai5)哩, 喺度(o6)搬緊啲 f.} 係經過(go3) ((.} c.} 搬緊 c.} : {.5} 佢 e3 (隻/嘅?)手震晒,{3.} 但係(daa6 ai6)嗰隻拉小提琴(ka4)嘅(e3)螞蟻 (ai5)哩,就 {.} 提子啦,有芒果(go2)啦,有──{1.} 冬天來臨嘅時候(au6)哩,當佢(heo5)冇食物嘅時候(au6)哩就係(za6 ai6) {.h)) 千 辛萬苦,執咗無數 {.} 捱(aai4)餓(o6)抵死啦!自己搵食物啦到時候。但係(daa6 ai6)哩,z.──{.} 係幾隻螞蟻啦。{1.} 敲門, 83 .0} 竟(ge2)然──{.} 雖然佢 唔: 想──{.

} 嘅食物嘞。 84 .{3.──{.} 拉小提琴(ka4)嘅(a3)螞蟻,終於返嚟我哋屋企嘞。佢之前一直都唔肯(man2)返 (faa1)係因為太──實在(sa6 a6)太內(loi6)疚嘞。冇 b.──明白佢嘅(e3)痛苦。s.} 同伴(bu6),可以畀 o2 i1(嗰啲?) 食物畀佢(heoi5)──施捨少少食物畀佢(heoi5),就算,係丁多(doe1)都冇所謂因(ja1)為, sa6(實在/實在係?)太肚餓(o6)喇就算畀我(o5){.} {1.} 嘩!好耐(loi6)冇食過(go3){唎個: } {.} 唱晒歌跳晒舞噉, o3 去──去到 {.} 求佢 {.──誰不知,佢一(a1)返到(do3) 去(heoi6) ,竟(ge2)然,成拃螞蟻群,佢哋唔係(mai6)拒絕咗佢喎!而係(ha6)好: 歡──{.} 少少──{.} 幾咁(am3)飢餓(o6) ,所以,佢(koe5)好熱烈噉 {.──明白佢而家有幾 ──{.} 冇幫(bo1)手搬嘢食,daa6 (但係/但?)佢哋明白,min4 baa3 goe5.──m.0} h.} 邀請佢回家,{2.──{.} 都(do1)好吖! 跟住,佢下──{.} 下定決心,走咗(o2)返(faa1)去。s.──因為(ja1 a6)佢哋知道, 啊!唎隻 {.} 品嚐 {.} coe.} 重 為佢──{.} 歡迎佢返嚟喎!因(ja1)為,佢終於知道 {2.0} 重──{.5} 同──{.0} 因為(ja1 a6)佢 d.} 一塊樹葉 {.──{.} {.} 希望 {.