SUSTAINABLE URBAN DESIGN
Kajang future development
PROF. IR. DR. RIZA ATIQ ABDULLAH OK RAHMAT
Done by: Hassn ahmed h hassn Malek m a algadi ID P64139 ID P64143
ABSTRACT Urbanization is a complex process of social and economic change whereby a society is transformed from an essentially rural to a predominantly urban one. While “urbanization” has to do with metropolitan growth, urbanism is one of the consequences of urbanization. The purpose of this task is to examine the policies, programs, and practices on sustainable regional development in Kajang Town and presents strategies to address identified issues and challenges. This paper commences with an overview of social and urban trends in Kajang, which leads to a discussion on urbanization and sustainable development issues. The rapid pace of urbanization in Kajang poses a wide range of challenges. In 2008, the population was 229,655 consists of 51.3 percent Malays, 38 percent Chinese, 9 percent Indians, and other ethnic group 1.7 percent.
CONTENTS PAGE NO.
ABSTRACT CONTENTS INTRODUCTION LAND USE AND DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY LANDSCAPE AND BIODIVERSITY SECURITY AND SAFETY RENEWABLE ENERGY INTEGRATING TRANSPORT AND DEVELOPMENT DEVELOPMENT ACCESS PARKINGS URBAN DESIGN PRINCIPLE MINIMUM ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT WATER QUALITY AND DRAINAGE AIR QUALITY QUALITY OF DEVELOPMENT CONCLUSION 2 3 4 5 10 14 18 21 25 32 36 40 41 46 48 53
4 Kajang, with a population of 229,655 (as of 2008), is a city in the eastern part of Selangor, Malaysia. This town is also the district capital of Hulu Langat. It is located about 20 kilometers south of Malaysia’s capital, Kuala Lumpur. The current location gravity of growth in Kajang would be Sungai Chua. The total population of Kajang has grown rapidly in the past few years. As of 2004, a few townships have been developed in Kajang, such as Taman Prima Saujana, Taman Kajang Perdana, and Taman Sepakat Indah (Sungai Chua). Area surrounding these new townships is easily accessible via the SILK Expressway.
1. LAND USE AND DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY 1.1. Introduction The development strategies for next 20 years are focused on Kajang to become an urban town. The population in Kajang now 229,655 people and set to increase until 300,000 over next 20 years. This city need to be devised based on the context of a city is already have a limited space to expand. 1.2. Existing Situation and Issues Table below indicates the existing land uses by sector based on Majlis Perbandaran Kajang (MPKJ). This land uses included Hulu Langat District, Cheras District, Hulu Semenyih District, Semenyih District, Beranang District, and Kajang District.
Figure 1: Districts under MPKJ
Figure 2: Land Uses under MPKJ
Land Use Category Residential Commercial Industrial Institute (UKM) Open Space Golf Field Enterprise Zone Reserved Forest Agriculture Undeveloped Land Community Facilities : a) Education b) Facilities c) Religious d) Cemetery e) Other Facilities Total : Utilities : a) Oxidation Pond b) Pond/Lake c) Sanitary Landfill Total : Total
Area (in Acre) 30700.227 2169.7024 5963.5418 1177.3220 5403.9046 2504.5622 1392.7813 10725.029 47796.263 601.41602 601.41602 1545.0371 113.67897 405.58580 10829.529 13495.247 76.115193 46.648005 306.43553 429.19873 122359.1951 Table 1: Lands use area by category
Percentage (%) 25.09 1.77 4.87 0.96 4.42 2.05 1.14 8.77 39.06 0.49
Figure 3: Land uses in Kajang Town 1.2.1. Residential Area Existing Situation From Table 1, the agriculture is the largest land use component for all area under Majlis Perbandaran Kajang. But, at the centre of Kajang Town, the land uses more on Community Facilities component. Many residential areas at the edge of town. Issue
8 o Rapid growth of residential lands use at the edge of town.
1.2.2. Commercial Area Existing Situation Commercial lands use growth more at the city centre of Kajang. But, there also have some commercial lands use near residential area. The growth area of Kampung Sungai Chua has had respectable increase in industrial and commercial lands use.
Figure 4: Commercial area at Kg. Sungai Chua Issue o Slow growth of commercial land uses at area Kajang Utama, Sungai Sekamat, dan Taman Lingkaran Nur. 1.2.3. Community Facilities Existing Situation This community facilities were include education, facilities, religious, cemetery and other facilities. All of these facilities were use in 13495.247 acre. These community facilities centralized at centre of town. When the
9 facilities centralized caused traffic congestion at the centre of town and many people centralized at the centre. Issue o Shortage of suitable site for community facilities beside of city centre of Kajang
Figure 5: Kajang Hospital 1.3. Development Strategies The strategy of balanced growth across the City, this project will come out with a fundamental principle. The development strategy is based on the concept of a hierarchy of urban centers in order to achieve balanced growth across the city. The fundamental principle that will proposed was the Central Planning Area (City Centre) would still maintain its role and function as the business and commercial core of Kajang, and some growth areas were proposed. Measures shall be introduced to consolidate these centers and enhance their amenity value to the community as well as to extend the function of urban centers and improve accessibility. To reinforce these measures, a strong emphasis shall be placed on integrating development and public transportation strategies. Strategies are introduced which are directed towards in proving the living environment of the City to a level commensurate with that enhancement of the
10 natural and build environment and the quality housing and working environment. The development strategies that will propose are summarized below: o Decrease the working, living and business environment of the city centre o Ensure complete and integrated city linkages o Ensure the functional distribution of centers and facilities o Consolidate the development and enhance the environment of stable areas o Consolidate the development and enhance the environment of major entry points 2. LANDSCAPE AND BIODIVERSITY 2.1. Introduction Landscape comprises the visible features of an area of land including physical element such as landforms, living elements of flora and fauna, abstract elements like human activity and build environment. Parallel with Local Agenda 21, the diversity of nature is valued and protected. The initiative has contributed to the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity as well as to the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits from genetic resources. Biodiversity boosts ecosystem productivity where each species have an important role to play and that it is this combination that enables the ecosystems to posses the ability to prevent and recover from a variety disasters 2.2. Existing Situation and Issues 2.2.1. Landscape Existing Situation In Kajang Town, there have place that do not have any landscape and also have some landscape. Even there have some landscape at certain place, it
11 still not enough to sustain the Earth. The landscape at town also not protected.
Figure 6: Existing Landscape in town of Kajang Issues o o Not enough landscape at town The landscapes are not protected
2.2.2. Genetic Diversity Existing Situation Genetic diversity is divided by two parts which are flora and fauna. Some of plants become disappeared when the city become bigger and progressive. Beside that, the climate change like global warming can affect the plants to grow up. Same with plants, animal also gradually disappeared when the city become larger. The forest was intruded.
12 Issues o Decreasing the growth of flora at the city centre o Plants become die o Fauna will be extinct and have no place to live 2.2.3. Ecological Diversity Existing Situation Kajang has a small of species of plants means less variety of crops and small species of animals not ensure that the ecosystem is naturally sustained. These flora and fauna have no place to go and most of the place was replaced with building and roads or other facilities. Issue o The population of plants and animals and will be decrease varies with time o No place for these plants to live and these animals have no place to go 2.3. Development Strategies To enhance the biodiversity aspect, Kajang Structure Plan aims to: o Do not disturb the reserved forest o Planted forest at undeveloped land areas o Do the landscape at town and home o Build more recreation garden o Build a garden for those have big yard at home These strategies are important because biological diversity give benefits to human such as: o Biological resources Food (plants and animals), forest, product, fuel, timber, pharmaceutical, fish
13 o Unknown resources Pharmaceutical, biocides o Genetic resources Enabling us to cross wild species with food or flower species to obtain improved varieties and hybrids o Ecosystem services Providing fresh air, cleansing the water, recycling our waste o Tourism and recreation People like to visit natural places as these become rarer. lettuces spinach
cucumbers peas carrots
Figure 7: Garden at home
Live worms Figure 8: Garden at home
Figure 9: Garden at home
Figure 10: Fauna that will be protected
3. SECURITY AND SAFETY 3.1. Introduction Kajang is one of the cities that always have crime cases. Parallel with Kuala Lumpur Structure Plan, where more cities in Malaysia, a true microcosm of the country, and it leads by example in the harmonious coexistence of its multi-ethnic and multi-religious society, Kajang Structure Plan will propose and take other initiatives to make Kajang is one of the safety city. Over the next 20 years, Kajang City aims to build on this achievement to create a society secure in its community integration and social harmony that does none the less celebrate the diversity of its culture. 3.2. Existing Situation and Issues 3.2.1. Security and Emergency Facilities Existing Situation The provision of a secure and safe environment for its residents is a significant concern of any major city. In Kajang, more crime like robbery activities and pick pocket. Police station is supplemented by police posts and in addition, there is a system of neighborhood watch centre. To improve safety in the city, the Malaysian Crime Prevention Foundation launched the Safe City Programmed where the communities themselves participate in ensuring the security of their areas. Security and emergency facilities include police station, police posts, neighborhood watch centers and fire station. Issue o High crime cases in Kajang o Police posts were not there on weekdays and just there on weekends o Uneven distribution of police posts
16 3.2.2. Safety Existing Situation There have some places in Kajang that have less safety like in Kajang Town. It is because many illegal residents that live at Kajang. Issue o Less safety in Kajang Town and the center place of residents 3.3. Development Strategies In order to enhance the city living in safety environment, Kajang aims to: o Ensure a safe and healthy living environment that can cater for the need for all groups of people including the disabled, the disadvantaged and the aged o Kajang shall, in consultation with the appropriate authorities, ensure that sufficient police stations, police posts, and neighborhood watch centers are provided and adequately distributed o Place the closed-circuit television (CCTV) at the place that always happen crime activities o The residents must have civic intention and always help people when they in difficult situation o The Local Authority Party must do their own job o Build overhead bridge for pedestrians
Place CCTV here
Figure 11: Proposed CCTV in Kajang Town
Figure 12: Examples of CCTV
Build an overhead bridge for pedestrian here
Figure 13: Proposed overhead bridge 4. RENEWABLE ENERGY 4.1. Introduction Renewable energy is generated from natural resources such as wind, sunlight, rain, and geothermal heat. In 2006, about 18% of global find energy consumption comes from renewable. Figure below indicates the renewable energy by end of 2006.
Figure 14: Renewable energy on the end of 2006 Over half of renewable energy goes to producing electricity. The production of heat and steam is the next largest use for industrial purpose. Besides that, renewable fuel such as ethanol, are also used for transportation and to provide heat for homes and business. The renewable energy plays an important role to supply the energy. Now, the whole of world talking about global warming that happen in our world. Global warming is the increase in the average temperature of the earths near surface air and the oceans since the mid twentieth century ends its projected continuation. Figure below indicates increasing of temperature every 20 years and the mean temperature on 19992008.
Figure 15: Global Temperature and Mean Temperature
20 This renewable energy is very important because it can control the global warming and reduce the green affect. 4.2. Existing Situation and Issues Existing Situation Up to this day, no renewable energy at Kajang. This is because the residents do not exposed about the importance of renewable energy and how extreme our earth if global warming keep on increasing. Issues o Do not have any renewable energy sources o The residents do not know about renewable energy o Do not have place or space to recycle the energy 4.3. Development Strategies In order to enhance the renewable energy in Kajang, some strategies are introduced: o Build the planted forest at vacant land o Protect the forest at Hulu Langat District and Hulu Semenyih District area o Every resident are encourage to do landscape at yard of their house o Turn off the light if no one in room and when not needed o Use compact fluorescent light bulbs to replace the lamp because these bulbs can produce same amount of light but using quarter of electricity only o Buy products that have the Energy Star label on them. Energy Star labels are found on over 40 product categories and in the year 2005 alone is responsible for saving consumers over 12 billion dollars o Use solar power to heat water and pools, cook, and light homes and buildings o Use lawn as an air conditioner
Figure 16: Planted Forest
Figure 17: Compact fluorescent light bulbs
22 5. INTEGRATING TRANSPORT AND DEVELOPMENT 5.1. Introduction Integrated transport planning is concerned with the development of broad plans that address all aspects of the transportation system including benefits and impacts from transport and impacts within the community. This plan sets the broad policy agenda required to establish continuous improvement towards a sustainable transport system. Integrated Transport Plans priorities and schedule project such as bicycle plan, walking networks, education initiatives alongside car and truck based policy. These planning scheme outcome to create urban town, neighborhood and an activity center, bringing people closer to shops, services and job reducing the need to travel long distances and using a car.
5.2. Existing Situation and Issues 5.2.1. Train Commuter Existing Situation In Kajang, the main important modes of transportation to the Kuala Lumpur City Center is using the train commuter. Due to some circumstances, the location of the commuter station is not strategic enough. It is located in front of a school.
Figure 18: The commuter station in Kajang Issues o It is hard for the user to get to the commuter station unless they have transport to get them there. The availability of taxis and buses are unreliable from the Kajang town. Furthermore, during peak hour, the traffic here will be very congested due to the existing school in front of the commuter station. This could be very dangerous to the commuter’s passenger as well as the school children.
5.2.2. Buses Existing Situation In Kajang town, there are several major buses that operate here. Among the best is Rapid KL. But, there are not even single bus stands in the town itself. Most of the time, the driver of the bus will drop the passenger in the middle of the main road. Issues
24 o The main problem here is that when the bus stopped, the passenger will have to dare to risk their life to cross the road in order to get to the shopping complex nearby. During any time of the day, the road was very busy and the drivers sometimes reckless. If they did not carefully enough, they will hit the bus passenger when they cross the road. Besides that, when the bus were parked beside the main roads, it will cause massive traffic jam to the Kajang town. 5.2.3. Taxis Existing situation In Kajang, taxis do have specific taxi stand. But due to the excessive taxis lately, all those were parked just beside the major road. This had cause several difficulties to other road users.
Figure 19: Taxis were parked near the food court Issues o Due to this reasons, taxis were parked anywhere where they could be seen by their possible passenger. Other road users need to be patient with these taxis. Sometimes they did parked double with other taxis. 5.3. Development Strategies
25 o Commuter is the main modes of transportation to the Kuala Lumpur city, so the station should be located nearer to the city so that the user would not have problems getting to the station. o The school authorities should provide a traffic guard in front of the school during peak hour to make sure the safety of the school children o If possible, the town council of Kajang should provide a bus station in the city so that the bus would have a proper bus station and the level of services would be increased. o Proper bus stand should be constructed along the way from out of Kajang to the city especially from Bangi because there are a lot of potential visitors from here due to the existing of educational institution such as UKM. o Public transport should have proper coordination among them. Excess of public transportation could lead to several major problems to the city. In order to overcome these problems, the Kajang council should limit the number of taxis in the city. Besides improving the traffic condition, it could also helps reducing and maintaining the quality of air in the city. o Besides that, Kajang should have Kajang Sentral. A hub where the all the buses, trains and taxis were gather and integrated together.
26 Figure 20: The location of the new Kajang Sentral
Figure 21: Illustration of the new Kajang Sentral 6. DEVELOPMENT ACCESS 6.1. Introduction
Figure 22: The proposed new commuter train in Kajang.
Walking and bicycling are two most environmental friendly modes of transportation that enhance both personal and social well being. They are also very important travel modes that provide a seamless transportation system that includes other modes of transportation such as buses and commuter rail. In addition to transportation, these two modes of travel provide many public access, health and economics. Effective pedestrian and bicycle network depends on several factors such as accommodating pedestrian and bicyclist on arterial and collectors streets, selecting appropriate facilities, creating and maintaining a system of closely-spaced interconnected local streets and lastly overcoming barriers such as highways crossing, intersection, railroads and rivers. Accessibility for people with disabilities means many things raging from physical access to services and the built environment. The main
27 provision measure is to adapt rail, bus and taxis for easy access and adaptation of toilet and waiting room. 6.2. Existing Situation and Issues 6.2.1. Travel Demands Existing situation Increased into and out migration have both contributed to the present traffic congestion in the Kajang town. It is also significant that the population have grown rapidly by the past few years due to the incoming of the legal and illegal immigrant. Apart from that, the high travel demand has increased due to private transportation especially private cars. As the consequences, the congestion had worsened during peak hour where the capacity is very high. This is the time where people come back from work to go home. Issues o High travel demand to and from Kajang town during peak hour and weekend 6.2.2. Traffic Management Existing situation Traffic management are aimed at optimizing the existing infrastructure and improve the flow capacity and to be more responsive to the traffic demand at different times of the day. Besides that, traffic control measures that contribute to the traffic management in urban area including one-way street system and penalties for illegal on-street parking. Additional measures that relates to the road safety are through the use of traffic signage, pavement line marking and barriers. Issues o Although a lot of traffic management measures have been done and to make it easy for the road user, but it is still not enough to help reduce the traffic congestion. This is because the traffic demands have continuously increased by day.
6.2.3. Pedestrians Existing situation In Kajang, the pedestrian networks were not progressively implemented in the town. There are not single pedestrian bridges in town. There were also no zebra crossings around the town. These make it hard for the people to cross the road during peak hour. The feelings of being hit by the vehicle coming through were always on their mind.
Figure 23: There are no pedestrian crossings or bridges Issues o There were lack of legal pedestrian crossing and also lack of continuity for pedestrian open space. o The security is very loose and illegal immigrant seems to be anywhere near the backstreet where that is the only ways to the Plaza Metro Kajang if the people use the public transport. 6.2.4. Bicyclists Existing situation Cycling has been incorporated into the housing area and recreational areas. But in the town of Kajang, bicyclists are rarely seen. The conditions make it hard for the people to cycle under the hot burning sun. Sometimes, only the construction workers were seen using the bicycle.
29 Issues o Cycling in Kajang are quite dangerous. With all those buses and private transport on the roads, plus the unreliable condition on the road, making it dangerous for to use bicycle in Kajang town. 6.2.5. Disabled people Existing solution In Kajang, there were not much seen the facility for the disabled people. In using the public transport, there are no landing ramps for the disabled people. There were still using steps, this make it harder for the people with wheelchair or cane stick. Besides that, there are no braille’s sign for people with low visual impairment.
Figure 24: No speciality for disabled people Figure 25: Improper signage Issues o Lack of awareness among the people in Kajang. 6.2.6. Private Transport Existing situation Recent traffic condition shows that the registered car owner had increased due to the decreasing of world’s oil price. In most of the traffic capacity, private cars account for the largest percentage of all the motorized trips. The Kajang council had taken extra actions in order to reduce the number of private cars enter the town of Kajang. Among the actions are to reduce
30 the number of parking lots and to increase the rate of parking charges to the shopping complex. Issues o Due to the increase of parking charges, the park operators offers seasonal parking tickets which are cheaper. This had encouraged the using of private transport to the town. The willingness to wait for hours if the car parks are full is also the factors that make this problem unsolvable. 6.3. Development Strategies o Redirecting the movement pattern of using the private transport to the public transport. o Improving the quality and as well as extending the services for public transport especially commuter trains and local buses o Improve the traffic management system by implementing the smart system. o Lower the traffic speed limits o Smaller corner turning radii o Cultivation of green strips and green trees. o Improve the existing transportation infrastructure for shared use of streets and roads by bicycle and motor vehicle o Integrating local streets, shared use path and rail-trails into the bicycle network. o Putting ramp instead of steps o Provides layers, well defined signs for people with a visual impairment o Improving the access to toilet or washing facilities. o Ticker gate at commuter station for the disabled. o Wide doors for lifts.
31 o Elevators control buttons positioned at heights that are accessible to wheelchair users. o Increased the parking charges in town o Reduce number of parking in the Kajang town o Increase the price of vehicles sold in Malaysia and also decreases the number of imported cars and motorcycles. o Cashing out subsidies and unbundling pricing
Figure 26 : Proposed pedestrian lanes in Kajang
Figure 27: Proposed pedestrian lanes on a bridge in Kajang
Figure 28 : Proposed bicycle pathway in Kajang
Figure 29 : Proposed bus stand for the disabled people
Figure 30: Ramps to be used instead of steps
33 7. PARKINGS 7.1. Introduction As more and more people owns cars, more parking lots become necessary. Parking as part of an overall transportation system is one of the crucial issues of our times. As the number of automobiles increase exponentially, the need to house them in close proximity creates a challenging design problems. Unfortunately, parking lots can adversely effect the environment as well as detract from the community center. Parking lots should be designed to allow for users and deliveries to reach easily on site, circulate through the parking lots and exit the site. Clear, easily understandable circulation should be designed into the project to allow drivers and pedestrian to move through the site without confusion. 7.2. Existing Situation and Issues 7.2.1. Not enough parking Existing condition In Kajang, the parking provided by the council was not sufficient enough. This could be seen when the peak hour, the cars will be parked double or where it could be parked. This could cause massive traffic jam due to the attitude of the drivers.
Figure 31: Mixed parking between the cars and motorcycles Issues
Figure 32: Doubled parking by the drivers
34 o Vehicles which were not parked in the actual parking lots could worsen the congestion here in Kajang. 7.2.2. Decentralized parking Existing issues The parking here in the town were not centralized. Parking were scattered everywhere in the town. Besides that, there is parking that was not supervised by the Kajang council. Issues o Lack of supervision by the local council. o Also help to worsen the traffic congestion 7.2.3. Excessive of paved parking Existing situation In Kajang, most of the parking was flexible pavement. There is not even a single porous parking. Sometimes, if the heavy load vehicles enter the town, the pavement will be damaged. This could bring danger to the motorcyclist especially during the rainy season. Issues o During heavy rains, the surface runoffs could not precipitated into the ground and enters the drainage system in heavy flow. If the rains were too heavy, Kajang will be flooded. These disasters had happened twice lately. As the consequences, the ground floors of the Plaza Metro Kajang were submerged. These had cause lots of financial damages to the businesses here. 7.2.4. Lack of landscape Existing situation The parking lots in this town do not have any green trees around it. In fact Kajang town do not have so much landscape. The trees were rarely to be seen. Even if there are trees, it is not very healthy and beautiful. Issues o Lack of landscape and steetscapes.
35 o Without the trees planted in the town, the town will be hotter and this will decreased the number of pedestrian and cyclist. Besides that, the plants help to filtrate the surface runoff to the ground. 7.3. Development Strategies o Built a plaza that could place all the vehicles in specific place and encourage people to walk to their destination. o Increase the parking charges so that people will use the public transport and hence reducing the usage of private transport. o The council should tighten the security and laws so that there will no longer be illegal parking around the town. o Paved area could be sized to accommodate expected daily use which will likely required less paved area. o Paved only the pathway and utilize porous paving materials in parking spaces. o Pervious pavement could be used, such as the grass and gravel pave lot above to reduce the impact of parking lot runoff. o Maximizes landscape area along the streets and minimizes overall impervious area of the land. o Green streets frontage manages both public and private runoff. Building site and street frontage become one integrated space designed for stormwater management.
Figure 34: Purposed landscaped parking lots
Figure 35: Proposed centralized parking lots in Kajang
Figure 36: Proposed landscaped parking lots
Figure 37: Proposed porous parking lots
8. URBAN DESIGN PRINCIPLE 8.1. Introduction Urban design principles combine aspects of architecture, landscape architecture. Public works, transportation system and public arts to create dynamic urban environment. However with increasing activities of these disciplines, it is better to conceptualized as a design practice that intersects all of the aspects. The design principles seek to foster good development without inhibiting design creativity and flexibility. The basic principles of the designs are contextual sitting, the importance of pedestrian environment, architectural sensitivity, respect for historic structures and durability of building materials. These design principles should guides architects and developers and should serve as a basis to design review committees. 8.2. Existing Situation and Issues 8.2.1. Corridors and gateways Existing situation The street to the outer district from Kajang is quite confusing. The signage and road network were not properly designed
Figure 38: Map of Kajang Issues o This condition needed to be overcome in order to promote Kajang internationally. 8.2.2. Streets Existing Situation In Kajang, especially during nights, the condition of the street are quite dark. Lack of efficient street lighting make it Kajang is not safe enough during that particular time of day. Issues o Lack of lighting during night 8.2.3. Development Blocks Existing situation In terms of development, there are plenty of shopping complexes, schools, police station, fire station, market, hospital, post office and religious worship around the town.
Figure 39: Plaza Metro Kajang
Figure 40: Billion Shopping Complex
As for the residential area, the mixed-income housing was seen clearly just outside the town center. For government sector offices such as JKR, Kajang City Council (MPKj) and SYABAS, all those office were situated in the middle of the town. Issues o During office hour, these areas of town were full with people, but during night, these places were very quite. These could make Kajang town a very dangerous place at night where any possible crime could happen. o Other problem is that when emergency cases occurs, ambulances and fire bridges will be having hard time to go through the congested traffic due to its location. 8.2.4. Parks and open spaces Existing situation In Kajang, there are no parks here. The town does not have green area to be made as recreational parks. Issues o Lack of green areas o Discourage the attitude for exercising for the people in Kajang o Increase the hot temperature during day time.
8.2.5. Landmarks Existing situation Kajang is famous for its “Sate Hj Samuri”. But the restaurant were located in the middle of busy roads Issues o Lack of specific monument representing Kajang town 8.3. Development Strategies o The major corridors that relatives to the building must be identified preserved and enhanced. o Gateways are the main zones of the Kajang city that could make people realize that they were entering the Kajang town. o Implementation the suitable hardscape, softscape street furniture and signage. o High quality of street lighting creates scene of safety for the users. o Streets comprise the greatest portion of the town and dominate the sense of traveling public and the pedestrian. o Require to create flexible development blocks which can support mixed-use including entertainment, office, retail, education, recreation and mixed-income housing. o Design public spaces “ Kajang Theme Park “ and parks which create memorable addresses and animate Kajang o Installation of fountains, sculptures, water gardens and special lighting that can contribute to the life of Kajang and make the experience more meaningful. o Besides that, Kajang council also could built a recreational park where all sorts of activity could be done such as camping, boating, fishing and picnicking. o Built up a statue or monument that could represent Kajang town to the visitors.
Kajang Theme Park
Figure 41: Proposed Kajang Theme Park
Figure 42: Proposed Theme Park for Kajang
Figure 43: Proposed Water Front in Kajang Figure 42: Proposed landmarks for Kajang
Figure 44: Proposed highways in Kajang
Figure 45: Proposed intersection
9. MINIMUM ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT DUE TO SURGE IN TRAVEL DEMANDS 9.1. Introduction
41 Kajang already exhibit many problems associated with unmanaged urbanization such as pollution, inadequate water supply, weak sewerage infrastructure, waste disposal, high crime rates, foreigners, and traffic congestion. Population growth and migration has also result in the premature conversion of productive agriculture land, for residential and other urban users.
9.2. Existing Situation and Issues 9.2.1. Air Pollution Issues o Most of the facilities are available at the center of the City which makes people focus on the Kajang Town. This situation will cause high density of private cars which result on traffic congestion, noise, and air pollution 9.2.2. Poor drainage system Issues o The attitude of some people which always throw rubbish into the drain which result clogged up in the drain. o Flooding will occur when there is a heavy downpour in the city 9.3. Development Strategies In order to enhance the problems, our aim is to: o Do maintenance to the sewerage system to prevent from flood problem. o Maintaining the flow capacity of the rivers and ensuring there is no clogging.
42 o The feasibility of constructing gross suspended solid traps upstream and at other strategic locations to collect waste and reduced clogging should be investigated to provide more effective long-term measures to prevent flooding
10. WATER QUALITY AND DRAINAGE 10.1. Introduction The City environment includes, on the other hand, the quantifiable aspects of the ambient environment such as air, water quality and noise level and less measurable visual and sensual aspects of city space and amenities. It is also an important component of the quality of life that the city can afford its population and contributes to the overall image and identify of the city. 10.2. Existing Situation and Issues Issues o Sungai Langat have massive suspended solid loading as is
10.2.1. Poor Water Quality
evident from their muddy colour. A major contribution to the situation is the discharge of silt from construction site. o Water Quality Index for Sungai Langat is in poor condition
that requires special treatment.
Figure 46: View of Sungai Langat
10.2.2. Flood Prone Area Issues o Flooding has been a regular occurrence in Kajang Town
whenever there is a heavy downpour especially in City Centre. These frequent flash floods disrupt the City functioning, damage property, and threaten human lives. o The development of structures within the river reserves has
further reduced the flow capacity of the city’ rivers thus, increasing the likelihood of flooding.
Figure 47: Flood occurs in Kajang Town 10.2.3. Poor Drainage System Issues o The attitude of some people who liked to throw rubbish that caused the drain clogged up.
Figure 48: Drainage system in Kajang Town
Development Strategies In order to enhance the problems, our aim is to: o Do maintenance to the sewerage system to prevent from flood problem.
45 o Maintaining the flow capacity of the rivers and ensuring there is no clogging. o The feasibility of constructing gross suspended solid traps upstream and at other strategic locations to collect waste and reduced clogging should be investigated to provide more effective long-term measures to prevent flooding.
Figure 49: Quality drainage system to prevent from flood problems
46 Figure 50: Improvement of drainage system in Kajang.
Figure 51: Proposed of Base and Drainage System in Kajang
11. AIR QUALITY 11.1. Introduction Based on the Malaysia Environmental Quality Report 2006, the Air Pollutant Index (API) showed that the air quality for Kajang is moderate (API 51-100) most of the time. As state in Draft Structure Plan Kuala Lumpur 2020, “Clean air” is a prerequisite for good quality of human life as well as for the health of animals and the evidence of damage to plants, soils and buildings. City Planner must ensure that the infrastructure must also ensure that the infrastructure, environment, city, management and cultural, social community facilities meet the highest expectations of the majority of its residents, visitors and investors.
Existing Situation and Issues Issues o ‘Unhealthy’ air quality conditions were occasionally recorded in Kajang and were mainly due to presence of high levels of ozone, formed by the reaction of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile compounds (VOCs) emitted from motor vehicles and industrial resource, react in the presence of sunlight and heat. o The main sources of air pollution in the City are open burning, emission from motor vehicles and construction work, together with the minor contribution from industries in the fringe areas of the City. The deterioration of air quality can be a serious hazard to human health leading to respiratory diseases as well as a reduction in visibility. o The five major pollutants in the ambient air, namely, suspended particulate matters (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and ozone (O3).
Development Strategies In order to enhance the quality of life in the City to a level commensurate with its vision to be a sustainable city, our aim is to: o Create a tropical Garden City sensitive to it natural site and appropriate to its tropical regional location. o Continue to maintain a judicious balance between development, ecology and national heritage. o Enhance a city living environment. o Attain an environment which is free from the major forms of pollution.
Figure 52: Design of Tropical Garden City
12. QUALITY OF DEVELOPMENT 12.1. Introduction Quality of life encompasses the fulfillment of all human needs such as satisfactory standard of material life, health, education, security, the satisfaction of living in a clean environment as well as the enjoyment of the aesthetic and the spiritual. For the individual, a prerequisite of a good quality of life is an adequate income, sufficient to permit access to the facilities that the city can provide.
Existing Situation and Issues Issues o Kajang has a number of new and old shopping complexes. The Billion Shopping Center in Kajang town has been around for more than 20 years. It was located in the heart of Kajang town. Metro Kajang and Metro Point are other shopping complexes in Kajang. o There has been a recent boom of new hypermarkets in Kajang. Giant was the first hypermarket in Kajang. Tesco Kajang, which is located at Saujana Impian, nearby Giant hypermarket, was the second hypermarket. Also, Jusco Balakong is around 5 minutes away from Jalan Cheras of Saujana Impian
Figure 53: Shopping complexes 12.2.2. Facilities and Amenities Issues o Public hospitals found within and around Kajang town are Hospital Kajang, Hospital Kajang, and Hospital Putrajaya. There are also
50 medical centers functioning 24 hours such as Kajang Plaza Medical Centre (KPMC) and Kajang Specialist Hospital (KPJ) o The Hulu Langat District Police Headquarters are also located in the town centre, near the stadium and MPKj main office. Other facilities include the post office, government clinics, a stadium, a wet market and several government departments including the National Registration Department, Immigration Department and Hulu Langat Education Office Figure 54: Facilities in Kajang 12.2.3. Education Issues o Kajang is schools, SMAP a town mainly Kajang, surrounded by many
Kajang High School, SMK Yu Hua Kajang, SMK Sultan Abdul Aziz Shah Kajang and many more. Kajang High School is reported to be one of the oldest schools in Kajang. There are also few private schools located within Kajang namely Sri ABIM, Al-Amin, and Sri Ayesha o Kajang also has a few institutions of higher learning. One of the universities located near Kajang is Universiti Tenaga Nasional (UNITEN). Another, National University of Malaysia (UKM) is nearby Bangi, is one of the largest national universities
12.2.4. Food and Tourism Issues o Kajang is famous for its Sate Kajang, a form of skewered barbequed meat. Informally, Kajang is known as the ‘Sate Town’ and it is famous among tourist and locals alike. The famous place to eat satay is Haji Samuri which has a huge restaurant next to the local stadium as well as Malaysia Restaurant which is located near Plaza Metro Kajang. o Though Kajang is a well-known tourist destination for satay, tourists rarely stay overnight. Hence, accommodation is not readily available. The most notable is Metro Inn which is located approximately 2 kilometers from the heart of Kajang town. Other hotels in Kajang are New City Hotel and Crystal Oriental Hotel which are located approximately 2 kilometers from the heart of Kajang town. Uptown Hotel is located apposite Metro Point 12.3. Development Strategies In line with the vision of a World-Class City, the objectives related to quality of life are to: o Provide opportunities and facilities for residents to attain economic and social progress. o Provide a clean, pleasant, and save living environment and access to high quality community and cultural facilities as well as public services that are supported by efficient infrastructures. o Create different types of public transport. For example, boat to encourage people to use public transport than private cars.
• • Figure 55: Cruise
CONCLUSION As a conclusion, the public participation should assist in achieving sustainable development in optimal utilization of available resources. The concept of eco-partnership which places emphasis on the concerted efforts of various stakeholders such as private enter prices, various government agencies and community based and non governmental organizations (CBOs and NGOs) to carry out study activities aimed at increasing public awareness on sustainable environment should be promoted and enhanced. The public should also be encouraged to adopt the 3R concept of ‘Reduce, Reuse, Recycle’