# Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley

Documentation Page 1 of 207

What Is In The Dictionary ? This workbook contains 157 worksheets, each explaining the purpose and usage of particular Excel functions. There are also a number of sample worksheets which are simple models of common applications, such as Timesheet and Date Calculations. Formatting Each worksheet uses the same type of formatting to indicate the various types of entry. North 100 100 100 300 =SUM(C13:C15) Text headings are shown in grey. Data is shown as purple text on a yellow background. The results of Formula are shown as blue on yellow. The formula used in the calulations is shown as blue text.

The Arial font is used exclusivley throughout the workbook and should display correctly with any installation of Windows. Each sheet has been designed to be as simple as possible, with no fancy macros to accomplish the desrired result. Printing Each worksheet is set to print on to A4 portrait. The printouts will have the column headings of A,B,C... and the row numbers 1,2,3... which will assist with the reading of the formula. The ideal printer would be a laser set at 600dpi. If you are using a dot matrix or inkjet, it may be worth switching off the colours before printing, as these will print as dark grey. (See the sheet dealing with Colour settings). Protection Each sheet is unprotected so that you will be able to change values and experiment with the calculations. Macros There are only a few very simple macros which are used by the various buttons to naviagte through the sheets. These have been written very simply, and do not make any attempt to change your current Toolbars and Menus.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley

Instructions Page 2 of 207

What Do The Buttons Do ?
View View Sort Sort

This button will display the worksheet containing the function example. 1. Click on the function name, then 2. Click on the View button.

This button sorts the list of functions into alphabetical order.

Category Category

Location Location

This describes the category the function is a member of. Click this button to sort alphabetically.

This shows where the function is stored in Excel. Built-in indicates that the function is part of Excel itself. Analysis ToolPak indicates the function is stored in the Analysis ToolPak add-in. Click this button to sort alphabetically.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley

Colours Page 3 of 207

Using Different Monitor Settings Each sheet has been designed to fit within the visible width of monitors with a low resolution of 640 x 480. This ensures that you do not need to scroll from left and right to see all the data. The colours are best suited to monitors capable of 256 colours. On monitors using just 16 colours the greys may look a bit rough! You can switch colours off and on using the button below.
This may take a Colour On few minutes on any computer !

Alan Bob Carol Total

North 100 100 100 300

Sample Colour Scheme South East West 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 300 300 300

Total 400 400 400 1200

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley

Analysis ToolPak Page 4 of 207

Analysis ToolPak
What Is The Analysis ToolPak ? The Analysis ToolPak is an add-in file containing extra functions which are not built in to Excel. The functions cover areas such as Date and Mathematical operations. The Analysis ToolPak must be added-in to Excel before these functions will be available.
Analysis ToolPak Check For Analysis Load the Analysis ToolPak UnLoad the Analysis

Any formula using these functions without the ToolPak loaded will show the #NAME error.

Undocumented in v5/7/97 Converts a date in the form of text to a serial number Returns the average of selected database entries Converts a serial number to a day of the month Calculates the number of days between two dates based on a 360-day year Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified period using the fixed-declining balance me Counts the cells that contain numbers in a database Counts nonblank cells in a database Converts a decimal number to binary Converts a decimal number to hexadecimal Tests whether two values are equal Extracts from a database a single record that matches the specified criteria Returns the maximum value from selected database entries Returns the minimum value from selected database entries Converts a number to text. Using Ctrl and ` Using LEFT() RIGHT() FIND() SUBSTITUTE() How to calculate time. toward zero Returns a value along a linear trend Returns a frequency distribution as a vertical array Returns the greatest common divisor Tests whether a number is greater than a threshold value Returns values along an exponential trend Converts a hexadecimal number to decimal Looks in the top row of an array and returns the value of the indicated cell Converts a serial number to an hour . using currency format Adds the numbers in the field column of records in the database that match the criteria Returns the serial number of the date that is the indicated number of months before or after the Returns the serial number of the last day of the month before or after a specified number of mo Returns a number corresponding to an error type Rounds a number up to the nearest even integer Checks to see if two text values are identical Returns the factorial of a number Finds one text value within another (case-sensitive) Formats a number as text with a fixed number of decimals Rounds a number down.2000 Peter Noneley FunctionList Page 5 of 207 Age Calculation AutoSum shortcut key Brackets in formula FileName formula Instant Charts Ordering Stock Percentages Project Dates Show all formula Split ForenameSurname Time Calculation TimeSheet For Flexi ABS AND AVERAGE BIN2DEC CEILING CELL CHAR CHOOSE CLEAN CODE COMBIN CONCATENATE CONVERT CORREL COUNT COUNTA COUNTBLANK COUNTIF DATE DATEDIF DATEVALUE DAVERAGE DAY DAYS360 DB DCOUNT DCOUNTA DEC2BIN DEC2HEX DELTA DGET DMAX DMIN DOLLAR DSUM EDATE EOMONTH ERROR. location. Example flexi time sheet. or contents of a cell Returns the character specified by the code number Chooses a value from a list of values Removes all nonprintable characters from text Returns a numeric code for the first character in a text string Returns the number of combinations for a given number of objects Joins several text items into one text item Converts a number from one measurement system to another Returns the correlation coefficient between two data sets Counts how many numbers are in the list of arguments Counts how many values are in the list of arguments Counts the number of blank cells within a range Counts the number of nonblank cells within a range that meet the given criteria Returns the serial number of a particular date Calculates the difference between two dates. Returns the absolute value of a number Returns TRUE if all its arguments are TRUE Returns the average of its arguments Converts a binary number to decimal Rounds a number to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance Returns information about the formatting.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .TYPE EVEN EXACT FACT FIND FIXED FLOOR FORECAST FREQUENCY GCD GESTEP GROWTH HEX2DEC HLOOKUP HOUR Sample Sample Sample Sample Sample Sample Sample Sample Sample Sample Sample Sample Mathematical Logical Statistical Engineering Mathematical Information Text Lookup Text Text Mathematical Text Engineering Statistical Statistical Statistical Information Mathematical Date Date Date Database Date Date Financial Database Database Engineering Engineering Engineering Database Database Database Text Database Date Date Information Mathematical Text Mathematical Text Text Mathematical Statistical Statistical Mathematical Engineering Statistical Engineering Lookup Date Sample Sample Sample Sample Sample Sample Sample Sample Sample Sample Sample Sample Built-in Built-in Built-in Analysis ToolPak Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Analysis ToolPak Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Analysis ToolPak Analysis ToolPak Analysis ToolPak Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Analysis ToolPak Analysis ToolPak Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Analysis ToolPak Analysis ToolPak Built-in Analysis ToolPak Built-in Built-in Using DATEDIF() Using Alt and = Sample Using MID() CELL() and FIND() Using F11 Stock Ordering How to calculate various percentages Example using date calculation.

as text Rounds a number to a specified number of digits Rounds a number down. away from zero Converts a serial number to a second Returns the sign of a number Returns the straight-line depreciation of an asset for one period Returns the k-th smallest value in a data set Estimates standard deviation based on a sample Calculates standard deviation based on the entire population .2000 Peter Noneley FunctionList Page 6 of 207 IF INDEX INDIRECT INFO INT ISBLANK ISERR ISERROR ISEVEN ISLOGICAL ISNA ISNONTEXT ISNUMBER ISODD ISREF ISTEXT LARGE LCM LEFT LEN LOOKUP (vector) LOWER MATCH MAX MEDIAN MID MIN MINUTE MINVERSE MMULT MOD MODE MONTH MROUND N NA NETWORKDAYS NOT NOW ODD OR PERMUT PI POWER PRODUCT PROPER QUARTILE QUOTIENT RAND RANDBETWEEN RANK REPLACE REPT RIGHT ROMAN ROUND ROUNDDOWN ROUNDUP SECOND SIGN SLN SMALL STDEV STDEVP Logical Lookup Lookup Information Mathematical Information Information Information Information Information Information Information Information Information Information Information Statistical Mathematical Text Text Lookup Text Lookup Statistical Statistical Text Statistical Date Mathematical Mathematical Mathematical Statistical Date Mathematical Information Information Date Logical Date Mathematical Logical Statistical Mathematical Mathematical Mathematical Text Statistical Mathematical Mathematical Mathematical Statistical Text Text Text Mathematical Mathematical Mathematical Mathematical Date Mathematical Financial Statistical Statistical Statistical Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Analysis ToolPak Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Analysis ToolPak Built-in Built-in Built-in Analysis ToolPak Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Analysis ToolPak Built-in Built-in Analysis ToolPak Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Analysis ToolPak Built-in Analysis ToolPak Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Specifies a logical test to perform Uses an index to choose a value from a reference or array Returns a reference indicated by a text value Returns information about the current operating environment Rounds a number down to the nearest integer Returns TRUE if the value is blank Returns TRUE if the value is any error value except #N/A Returns TRUE if the value is any error value Returns TRUE if the number is even Returns TRUE if the value is a logical value Returns TRUE if the value is the #N/A error value Returns TRUE if the value is not text Returns TRUE if the value is a number Returns TRUE if the number is odd Returns TRUE if the value is a reference Returns TRUE if the value is text Returns the k-th largest value in a data set Returns the least common multiple Returns the leftmost characters from a text value Returns the number of characters in a text string Looks up values in a vector or array Converts text to lowercase Looks up values in a reference or array Returns the maximum value in a list of arguments Returns the median of the given numbers Returns a specific number of characters from a text string starting at the position you specify Returns the minimum value in a list of arguments Converts a serial number to a minute Returns the matrix inverse of an array Returns the matrix product of two arrays Returns the remainder from division Returns the most common value in a data set Converts a serial number to a month Returns a number rounded to the desired multiple Returns a value converted to a number Returns the error value #N/A Returns the number of whole workdays between two dates Reverses the logic of its argument Returns the serial number of the current date and time Rounds a number up to the nearest odd integer Returns TRUE if any argument is TRUE Returns the number of permutations for a given number of objects Returns the value of Pi Returns the result of a number raised to a power Multiplies its arguments Capitalises the first letter in each word of a text value Returns the quartile of a data set Returns the integer portion of a division Returns a random number between 0 and 1 Returns a random number between the numbers you specify Returns the rank of a number in a list of numbers Replaces characters within text Repeats text a given number of times Returns the rightmost characters from a text value Converts an arabic numeral to roman. toward zero Rounds a number up.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

2000 Peter Noneley FunctionList Page 7 of 207 SUBSTITUTE SUBTOTAL SUM SUM_as_Running_Total SUM_using_names SUM_with_OFFSET SUMIF SUMPRODUCT SYD T TEXT TIME -Timesheet TIMEVALUE TODAY TRANSPOSE TREND TRIM TRUNC TYPE UPPER VALUE VAR VARP VLOOKUP WEEKDAY WORKDAY YEAR YEARFRAC Text Built-in Mathematical Built-in Mathematical Built-in Mathematical Built-in Sample Sample Lookup Built-in Mathematical Built-in Mathematical Built-in Financial Built-in Text Built-in Text Built-in Date Built-in Sample Sample Date Built-in Date Built-in Lookup Built-in Statistical Built-in Text Built-in Mathematical Built-in Information Built-in Text Built-in Text Built-in Statistical Built-in Statistical Built-in Lookup Built-in Date Built-in Date Analysis ToolPak Date Built-in Date Analysis ToolPak Substitutes new text for old text in a text string Returns a subtotal in a list or database Adds its arguments Sample Using SUM(jan) Sample Adds the cells specified by a given criteria Returns the sum of the products of corresponding array components Returns the sum-of-years' digits depreciation of an asset for a specified period Converts its arguments to text Formats a number and converts it to text Returns the serial number of a particular time Sample Converts a time in the form of text to a serial number Returns the serial number of today's date Returns the transpose of an array Returns values along a linear trend Removes spaces from text Truncates a number to an integer Returns a number indicating the data type of a value Converts text to uppercase Converts a text argument to a number Estimates variance based on a sample Calculates variance based on the entire population Looks in the first column of an array and moves across the row to return the value of a cell Converts a serial number to a day of the week Returns the serial number of the date before or after a specified number of workdays Converts a serial number to a year Returns the year fraction representing the number of whole days between start_date and end_d .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

2000 Peter Noneley FunctionList Page 8 of 207 .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley FunctionList Page 9 of 207 .

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . This works well until the total time goes above 24 hours. See the TimeSheet example for an example. Start 1:30 8:00 8:00 AM End 2:30 17:00 5:00 PM Duration 1:00 =D24-C24 9:00 =D25-C25 9:00 AM If the result is not shown correctly. Adding time You can add time to find a total time. rather than 12.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 B C D E F G H I Time Calculation Page 10 of 207 J Time Calculation Excel can work with time very easily. You must leave a space between the number and the text. as in the example below. There are one or two oddities. Usually this gives an incorrect result.30 1:30 12:30 20:15 22:45 Excel can cope with either the 24hour system or the am/pm system. Example 1 : Incorrect formatting Start End Duration 7:00 18:30 11:30 8:00 17:00 9:00 7:30 17:45 10:15 Total 6:45 Example 2 : Correct formatting Start End 7:00 18:30 8:00 17:00 7:30 17:45 Total =SUM(E49:E51) Duration 11:30 9:00 10:15 30:45 =SUM(E56:E58) . Look at the section about formatting further in this worksheet. such as 12:30. but nothing which should put you off working with it. For totals greater than 24 hours you may need to apply some special formatting. the result needs to be formatted with a Custom format. Typing time When time is entered into worksheet it should be entered with a colon between the hour and the minutes. 1:30 AM 1:30 PM 10:15 AM 10:15 PM Finding the difference between two times You can subtract two time values to find the length of time between. Start 1:30 8:00 7:30 AM End 2:30 17:00 5:45 PM Duration 1:00 9:00 10:15 20:15 Formatting time When time is added together the result may go beyond 24 hours. You may need to reformat the answer. To use the am/pm system you must enter the am or pm after the time. To correct this error. Time can be entered in various different formats and calculations performed.

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Time Calculation Page 11 of 207 J

How To Apply Custom Formatting The custom format for time use a pair of square brackets [hh] on either side of the hours indicators. 1. Click on the cell which needs the format. 2. Choose the Format menu. 3. Choose Cells. 4. Click the Number tag at the top right. 5. Choose Custom. 6. Click inside the Type: box. 7. Type [hh]:mm as the format. 8. Click OK to confirm.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 B C D E F G H I

TimeSheet For Flexi Page 12 of 207 J K

TimeSheet for Flexi
Week beginning Mon 05-Jan-98 Day Mon 05 Tue 06 Wed 07 Thu 08 Fri 09 Arrive 8:00 8:45 9:00 8:30 8:00 Lunch Out Lunch In 13:00 14:00 12:30 13:30 13:00 14:00 13:00 14:00 12:00 13:00 Normal Hours Depart 17:00 17:00 18:00 17:00 17:00 Total Hours 37:30 Total 8:00 7:15 8:00 7:30 8:00 38:45 1:15

=(F6-C6)-(E6-D6)

=SUM(G6:G10) =IF(G3-G11>0,G3-G11, "-") =IF(G3-G11<0,ABS(G3-G11),"-")

Under worked by Over worked by This is simple example of a timesheet. Instructions : Type the week start date in cell C3, the Week beginning. Use the format dd/mm/yy, the name of the day will appear automatically. The date is then passed down to the Day column. Type the amount of hours you are expected to work in G3, the Normal Hours. This is used later to calculate if have worked over or under the required hours. Type the times you arrive and leave work in the appropriate columns. Use the format of hh:mm. Note The Total Hours cell has been formatted as [hh]:mm. This ensures the total hours can be expressed as a value above 24 hours. If the [hh]:mm format had not been used the Total Hours would show as : If the [hh]:mm format does not show in the cell format dialog box on your computer, it can be created using Format, Cells, Number, Custom.

14:45

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 B C D E F

Split ForenameSurname Page 13 of 207 G H

Split Forename and Surname
The following formula are useful when you have one cell containing text which needs to be split up. One of the most common examples of this is when a persons Forename and Surname are entered in full into a cell. The formula use various text functions to accomplish the task. Each of the techniques uses the space between the names to identify where to split. Finding the First Name Full Name Alan Jones Bob Smith Carol Williams First Name Alan Bob Carol

=LEFT(C14,FIND(" ",C14,1)) =LEFT(C15,FIND(" ",C15,1)) =LEFT(C16,FIND(" ",C16,1))

Finding the Last Name Full Name Alan Jones Bob Smith Carol Williams Last Name Jones Smith Williams

=RIGHT(C22,LEN(C22)-FIND(" ",C22)) =RIGHT(C23,LEN(C23)-FIND(" ",C23)) =RIGHT(C24,LEN(C24)-FIND(" ",C24))

Finding the Last name when a Middle name is present The formula above cannot handle any more than two names. If there is also a middle name, the last name formula will be incorrect. To solve the problem you have to use a much longer calculation. Full Name Alan David Jones Bob John Smith Carol Susan Williams Last Name Jones Smith Williams
=RIGHT(C37,LEN(C37)-FIND("#",SUBSTITUTE(C37," ","#",LEN(C37)-LEN(SUBSTITUTE(C37," ","")))))

Finding the Middle name Full Name Alan David Jones Bob John Smith Carol Susan Williams Middle Name David John Susan
=LEFT(RIGHT(C45,LEN(C45)-FIND(" ",C45,1)),FIND(" ",RIGHT(C45,LEN(C45)-FIND(" ",C45,1)),1))

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A B 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 C D E F G H I

Percentages Page 14 of 208 J

Percentages
There are no specific functions for calculating percentages. You have to use the skills you were taught in your maths class at school! Finding a percentage of a value Initial value % to find Percentage value 120 25% 30 =D8*D9

Example 1 A company is about to give its staff a pay rise. The wages department need to calculate the increases. Staff on different grades get different pay rises. Grade A B C Name Alan Bob Carol David Elaine Frank % Rise 10% 15% 20% Grade A B C B C A Old Salary Increase £ 10,000 £ 1,000 £ 20,000 £ 3,000 £ 30,000 £ 6,000 £ 25,000 £ 3,750 £ 32,000 £ 6,400 £ 12,000 £ 1,200

=E23*LOOKUP(D23,\$C\$18:\$C\$20,\$D\$18:\$D\$20) =E24*LOOKUP(D24,\$C\$18:\$C\$20,\$D\$18:\$D\$20) =E25*LOOKUP(D25,\$C\$18:\$C\$20,\$D\$18:\$D\$20) =E26*LOOKUP(D26,\$C\$18:\$C\$20,\$D\$18:\$D\$20) =E27*LOOKUP(D27,\$C\$18:\$C\$20,\$D\$18:\$D\$20) =E28*LOOKUP(D28,\$C\$18:\$C\$20,\$D\$18:\$D\$20)

Finding a percentage increase Initial value % increase Increased value 120 25% 150 =D33*D34+D33

Example 2 A company is about to give its staff a pay rise. The wages department need to calculate the new salary including the % increase. Staff on different grades get different pay rises. Grade A B C Name Alan Bob Carol David Elaine % Rise 10% 15% 20% Grade A B C B C Old Salary Increase £ 10,000 £ 11,000 £ 20,000 £ 23,000 £ 30,000 £ 36,000 £ 25,000 £ 28,750 £ 32,000 £ 38,400

=E48*LOOKUP(D48,\$C\$18:\$C\$20,\$D\$18:\$D\$20)+E48 =E49*LOOKUP(D49,\$C\$18:\$C\$20,\$D\$18:\$D\$20)+E49 =E50*LOOKUP(D50,\$C\$18:\$C\$20,\$D\$18:\$D\$20)+E50 =E51*LOOKUP(D51,\$C\$18:\$C\$20,\$D\$18:\$D\$20)+E51 =E52*LOOKUP(D52,\$C\$18:\$C\$20,\$D\$18:\$D\$20)+E52

The manager knows what has been spent by each region in the previous year. the manager hopes to predict what will need to be spent in the next year.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .000 Last years Quarters as % of last years Total Region Q1 Q2 North 9% 2% South 7% 4% East 2% 8% West 8% 9% Total 26% 23% Next years budget 150.000 South 7.000 Q3 2.2000 Peter Noneley A B 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 C Frank D A E 12.000 34.000 7. The manger needs to specify what will be required each quarter.000 Q4 7.\$D\$18:\$D\$20)+E53 J £ £ Finding one value as percentage of another Value A Value B A as % of B 120 60 50% =D59/D58 You will need to format the result as % by using the % button on the toolbar.000 West 12.500 Total 39.500 7.000 12.500 Q3 9% 9% 7% 6% 31% Q4 7% 5% 3% 5% 20% =G74/\$H\$78 =G75/\$H\$78 =G76/\$H\$78 =G77/\$H\$78 =G78/\$H\$78 Q3 13.000 8.500 6.000 23.000 3.\$C\$18:\$C\$20.000 Total 26.000 East 2.500 Q4 10.000 13.500 10.000 5.500 13.000 5.000 20.000 Total 100.000 Next years estimated budget requirements Region Q1 Q2 North 13.000 6. By analysing the past years spending.200 =E53*LOOKUP(D53.000 Finding an original value after an increase has been applied Increased value % increase Original value Example 4 150 25% 120 =D100/(100%+D101) .500 7.500 9.500 4.500 30.000 31.000 9.500 3.000 4.000 =G82*\$E\$88 =G83*\$E\$88 =G84*\$E\$88 Total 150.000 9.000 West 8.000 Percentages Page 15 of 208 F G H I 13. Example 3 An manager has been asked to submit budget requirements for next year.000 East 3.000 9.000 46. Last years figures Region Q1 Q2 North 9.000 South 10.

00 £ 35.50 £ 100.00 £ 117. The claim needs to show the VAT tax portion of each receipt. Unfortunately the receipts held by the employee only show the total amount.49 £ 235.00 £ 17.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .00 £ 8.00 £ 200. VAT rate Receipt Petrol Hotel Petrol 17.51 £ 1. The employee needs to split this total to show the original value and the VAT amount.50 =D115/(100%+\$D\$110) Percentages Page 16 of 208 J =D113-D113/(100%+\$D\$110) .2000 Peter Noneley A B 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 C D E F G H I An employ has to submit an expenses claim for travelling and accommodation.50% Total Actual Value Vat Value £ 10.

2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 B C D E F G Show all formula Page 17 of 207 H Show all formula You can view all the formula on the worksheet by pressing Ctrl and `. (The screen may look a bit odd.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . 10 30 50 70 20 40 60 80 30 70 60 30 .) Press the same combination to see the original view. The ' is the left single quote usually found on the key to left of number 1. Press Ctrl and ` to see the formula below.

Jan 45 30 35 20 Feb 50 25 10 50 Mar 50 35 50 5 North South East West Total If it does not work ! The feature may have been switched off on your computer. You can switch it on by using Tools.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . This formula can be copied to D16 and E16.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 B C D E F G SUM_using_names Page 18 of 207 H SUM using names You can use the names typed at the top of columns or side of rows in calculations simply by typing the name into the formula. and the names change to Feb and Mar. Try this example: Go to cell C16 and then enter the formula =SUM(jan) The result will show. Calculation. Options. Accept Labels in Formula. .

Then press F11.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 B C D E F G Instant Charts Page 19 of 207 H Instant Charts You can create a chart quickly without having to use the chart button on the toolbar by pressing the function key F11 whilst inside a range of data. .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Jan 45 30 35 20 Feb 50 25 10 50 Mar 50 35 50 5 North South East West Click anywhere inside the table above.

CELL("filename"))-1) To pick the Worksheet name. To just pick out the workbook or worksheet name you need to use text functions.FIND("]". This can be done by using the CELL() function.xls.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .CELL("filename"))-FIND("[".CELL("filename"))+1.1.FIND("[". \\vboxsrv\conversion_tmp\scratch_2\[125965236.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 B C D E F G Filename formula Page 20 of 207 Filename formula There may be times when you need to insert the name of the current workbook or worksheet in to a cell. To pick the Path.ms_office.255) .ms_office. shown below. \\vboxsrv\conversion_tmp\scratch_2\ =MID(CELL("filename").xls =MID(CELL("filename").xls]AND =CELL("filename") The problem with this is that it gives the complete path including drive letter and folders.CELL("filename"))+1. AND =MID(CELL("filename").CELL("filename"))-1) To pick the Workbook name.xls.FIND("]". 125965236.FIND("[".

resulting in 30 Then the 30 is multipled by 2 resulting in 60 . Example 1 : The wrong answer ! 10 20 2 50 =C12+C13*C14 You may expect that 10 + 20 would equal 30 And then 30 * 2 would equal 60 But because the * is calculated first Excel sees the calculation as 20 * 2 resulting in 40 And then 10 + 40 resulting in 50 Example 2 : The correct answer. The * and / operations will be calculated before + and .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . The need for brackets occurs when you mix plus or minus with divide or multiply.. Mathematically speaking the * and / are more important than + and . (also known as 'braces').. 10 20 2 60 =(C27+C28)*C29 By placing brackets around (10+20) Excel performs this part of the calulation first.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 B C D E F G Brackets in formula Page 21 of 207 H Brackets in formula Sometimes you will need to use brackets. This is to ensure that the calculations are performed in the order that you need. in formula.

If the age is 20.07 =(TODAY()-C23)/365.TODAY().TODAY(). (Makes you wonder what else Microsoft forgot to tell us!) Birth date : Years lived : and the months : and the days : 1-Jan-60 53 0 24 =DATEDIF(C8."ym")&" Months and "&DATEDIF(C8. Birth date : Age is : 1-Jan-60 53. but it is in 2000. The calculation uses the DATEDIF() function. the . which creates a text version."y") =DATEDIF(C8.5.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 ."ym") =DATEDIF(C8.TODAY().TODAY(). "&DATEDIF(C8."y")&" Years. 7 or 97.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 B C D E F G Age Calculation Page 22 of 207 H Age Calculation You can calculate a persons age based on their birthday and todays date. 0 Months and 24 Days ="Age is "&DATEDIF(C8. Age is 53 Years.5 represents 6 months.25 ."md") You can put this all together in one calculation. The DATEDIF() is not documented in Excel 5.TODAY()."md")&" Days" Another way to calculate age This method gives you an age which may potentially have decimal places representing the months.TODAY().

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Try it here : Move to a blank cell in the Total row or column. or Select a row. Jan 10 20 30 40 Feb 50 60 70 80 Mar 90 100 200 300 Total North South East West Total .2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 B C D E F G AutoSum Shortcut Key Page 23 of 207 H AutoSum Shortcut Key Instead of using the AutoSum button from the toolbar. column or all cells and then press Alt and =. you can press Alt and = to achieve the same result. then press Alt and =.

25 =ABS(C4) =ABS(C5) =ABS(C6) =ABS(C7) What Does it Do ? This function calculates the value of a number.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . In calculating the difference between the Required Length and the Actual Length it does not matter if the wood was cut too long or short. Table 1 shows the original calculations.25 Absolute Value 10 10 1. The machine needs to cut timber to an exact length. Example The following table was used by a company testing a machine which cuts timber.25 1. the percentage should still be expressed as an absolute value. The Difference for Test 3 is shown as negative.25 -1. Three pieces of timber were cut and then measured. Table 1 Test Cut Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Required Length 120 120 120 Actual Length 120 90 150 Difference 0 30 -30 =D36-E36 Error Percentage 0% 25% -25% Table 2 shows the same data but using the =ABS() function to correct the calculations. Table 2 Test Cut Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Required Length 120 120 120 Actual Length 120 90 150 Error Percentage 0 0% 30 25% 30 25% =ABS(D45-E45) Difference . no special formatting is needed. irrespective of whether it is positive or negative. Syntax =ABS(CellAddress or Number) Formatting The result will be shown as a number. which has a knock on effect when the Error Percentage is calculated.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 B C D E F G ABS Page 24 of 207 H ABS Number 10 -10 1. the measurement needs to be expressed as an absolute value. Whether the wood was too long or short.

Formatting When used by itself it will show TRUE or FALSE.D7<=52) What Does It Do? This function tests two or more conditions to see if they are all true. It can be used to test that a number or a date falls between an upper and lower limit. Normally the AND() function would be used in conjunction with a function such as =IF(). The =AND() function has been used to test that each score is above the average.Test2) Note that there can be up to 30 possible tests.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 B C D E F G H AND Page 26 of 207 I AND Items To Test 500 800 500 25 25 500 12 Result TRUE FALSE FALSE TRUE =AND(C4>=100.D5>=100) =AND(C6>=100.E38>=AVERAGE(\$E\$29:\$E\$38)) Averages 47 54 60 . The teacher wants to find the pupils who scored above average in all three exams. Syntax =AND(Test1. It can be used to test that a series of numbers meet certain conditions.D38>=AVERAGE(\$D\$29:\$D\$38).D6>=100) =AND(D7>=1. Example 1 The following example shows a list of examination results.D4>=100) =AND(C5>=100. Name Alan Bob Carol David Eric Fred Gail Harry Ian Janice Maths 80 50 60 90 20 40 10 80 30 10 English 75 30 70 85 30 60 90 70 10 20 Physics 85 40 50 95 Absent 80 80 60 20 30 Passed TRUE FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE =AND(C38>=AVERAGE(\$C\$29:\$C\$38).Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . The result of TRUE is shown for pupils who have scored above average in all three exams.

then the Ctrl key was held down before selecting the green range. If it is a single block the result will be 1. If it is a multiple block the result will be the number of ranges selected.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . or whether it is a multiple selection.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 B C D E F G AREAS Page 27 of 207 H AREAS Pink Name Alan Bob Carol Name David Eric Fred Age 18 17 20 Age 20 16 19 2 =AREAS(PeopleLists) Green What Does It Do? This function tests a range to determine whether it is a single block of data. Example The example at the top of this page shows two ranges coloured pink and green. The function is designed to be used in macros. These ranges have been given the name PeopleLists. In the above example the pink range was selected as normal. The =AREAS(PeopleLists) gives a result of 2 indicating that there are two separate selections which form the PeopleLists range. . When a Range Name is created it will consider both Pink and Green as being one range. Syntax =AREAS(RangeToTest) Formatting The result will be shown as a number. Note To name multiple ranges the CTRL key must be used.

If the cell is blank or contains text. Syntax =AVERAGE(Range1.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 B C D E F G H I J K L M AVERAGE Page 28 of 207 N AVERAGE Temp Rain Mon 30 0 Mon 30 0 Tue 31 0 Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Average 32 29 26 28 27 29 =AVERAGE(D4:J4) 0 4 6 3 1 2 =AVERAGE(D5:J5) Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Average 32 29 26 28 27 28.667 =AVERAGE(D12:J12) Rain 0 Reading 0 4 6 3 1 2.Range3. through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed.. Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Average 30 No 32 29 26 28 27 24. the cell will not be used in the average calculation.667 =AVERAGE(D8:J8) 0 4 6 3 1 2.571 =SUM(D31:J31)/COUNTA(D31:J31) 0 Reading 0 4 6 3 1 2 =SUM(D32:J32)/COUNTA(D32:J32) Mon 30 0 Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Average 32 29 26 28 27 28.. If the cell contains zero 0.667 =SUM(D35:J35)/COUNTA(D35:J35) 0 4 6 3 1 2.3333 =AVERAGE(D9:J9) Temp Rain Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Average Temp 30 No 32 29 26 28 27 28. Note To calculate the average of cells which contain text or blanks use =SUM() to get the total and then divide by the count of the entries using =COUNTA(). the cell will be included in the average calculation.Range2.3333 =AVERAGE(D13:J13) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the average from a list of numbers.3333 =SUM(D36:J36)/COUNTA(D36:J36) Temp Rain Temp Rain Further Usage .

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 B C D E F G H BIN2DEC Page 29 of 207 I BIN2DEC Binary Number Decimal Equivalent 0 0 1 1 10 2 11 3 111111111 511 1111111111 -1 1111111110 -2 1111111101 -3 1000000000 -512 11111111111 #NUM! =BIN2DEC(C4) =BIN2DEC(C5) =BIN2DEC(C6) =BIN2DEC(C7) =BIN2DEC(C8) =BIN2DEC(C9) =BIN2DEC(C10) =BIN2DEC(C11) =BIN2DEC(C12) =BIN2DEC(C13) What Does It Do ? This function converts a binary number to decimal. Negative numbers are represented using two's-complement notation. . Syntax =BIN2DEC(BinaryNumber) The binary number has a limit of ten characters. Formatting No special formatting is needed.

MultipleToRoundUpTo) The ValueToRound can be a cell address or a calculation.30) What Does It Do ? This function rounds a number up to the nearest multiple specified by the user. This results of the division are not whole numbers. and the builder cannot hire just part of a truck.1) =CEILING(C7.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 B C D E F G CEILING Page 30 of 207 H CEILING Number 2. Formatting No special formatting is needed. Table 1 Item Bricks Wood Cement Units To Be Moved 1000 5000 2000 Truck Capacity 300 600 350 Trucks Needed 3.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .1) =CEILING(C5.71 =D45/E45 =D46/E46 =D47/E47 .33 5. Each product needs a particular type of truck of a fixed capacity. The properties being rented are only available on a weekly basis.33 8. When the customer supplies the number of days required in the property the =CEILING() function rounds it up by a multiple of 7 to calculate the number of full weeks to be billed.30) =CEILING(C8. Syntax =CEILING(ValueToRound.7) Example 2 The following table was used by a builders merchant delivering products to a construction site. Example 1 The following table was used by a estate agent renting holiday apartments.1) =CEILING(C6.9 20 25 40 Raised Up 3 2 2 30 30 60 =CEILING(C4.30) =CEILING(C9.7) =CEILING(D30. Days To Be Billed 7 7 14 Days Required Customer 1 3 Customer 2 4 Customer 3 10 =CEILING(D28.1 1.7) =CEILING(D29.5 1. Table 1 calculates the number of trucks required by dividing the Units To Be Moved by the Capacity of the truck. The merchant needs to hire trucks to move each product.

Raises the decimal to 0.62000 1.81818 2.25 £28.75000 1.99 1. The cost of the item is calculated by dividing the Box Cost by the Box Quantity.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .99) Explanation =INT(E83) =MOD(E83.75000 =D69/C69 =D70/C70 =D71/C71 =D72/C72 Table 2 shows how the =CEILING() function has been used to raise the Item Cost to always end in 99 pence.0. and thus given the exact amount of trucks needed.25 £28.99 =INT(E83)+CEILING(MOD(E83.99 5.81818 1.0.10 £28 Cost Per Item Raised Cost 1.60714 2. Table 1 Item Plugs Sockets Junctions Adapters Box Qnty 11 7 5 16 Box Cost £20 £18.62000 5. The shopkeeper buys products by the box.60714 5.1) =CEILING(MOD(E83). Table 2 Item Bricks Wood Cement Units To Be Moved 1000 5000 2000 Truck Capacity 300 600 350 Trucks Needed 4 9 6 CEILING Page 31 of 207 H =CEILING(D54/E54.1) =CEILING(D55/E55.1) Example 3 The following tables were used by a shopkeeper to calculate the selling price of an item.99 .2000 Peter Noneley A 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 B C D E F G Table 2 shows how the =CEILING() function has been used to round up the result of the division to a whole number. Table 2 Item Plugs Sockets Junctions Adapters In Box 11 7 5 16 Box Cost £20 £18. The shopkeeper always wants the price to end in 99 pence.99 2.1). Table 1 shows how just a normal division results in varying Item Costs. Calculates the decimal part of the price.1) =CEILING(D56/E56.99) Calculates the integer part of the price.10 £28 Cost Per Item 1.

0 for unlocked. The type of cell protection.D3) 9 =CELL("prefix".(\$#.D3) =CELL("type".00% 0.##0_). Numeric Format General 0 #.D3) =CELL("contents".##0_). 0 =CELL("color".D3) =CELL("row".##0.D3) 1 for yes. Formatted for coloured negatives.##0. Codes used to show the formatting of the cell.ms_office.D3) 1 for yes.D3) 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 Formatted for braces ( ) on positive values.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 B C D E F G H CELL Page 32 of 208 I CELL This is the cell and contents to test.00E+00 # ?/? or # ??/?? m/d/yy or m/d/yy h:mm or mm/dd/yy. Formatting No special formatting is needed. 0 =CELL("parentheses".xls]CELL =CELL("filename".(\$#.##0.00 #. The number format fo the cell. ^ for centre.D3) What Does It Do ? This function examines a cell and displays information about the contents.175 v =CELL("address". \\vboxsrv\conversion_tmp\scratch_2\[125965236.50% \$D\$3 4 3 0.2 C0 C0C2 C2P0 P2 S2 G D4 D1 D2 D3 D5 D7 D6 D9 D8 Example . Shown as b for blank.xls. The actual contents of the cell. Shown as ' for left. v for value.##0.D3) =CELL("format".D3) =CELL("col". The alignment of the cell.D3) 12 P2 =CELL("width".00_). 0 for no.00 \$#. The type of entry in the cell.##0) \$#.D3) 1 for a locked. The cell address. " for right. Syntax =CELL("TypeOfInfoRequired".[Red](\$#. The filename containing the cell. l for text. position and formatting. The width of the cell. The row number. 1 =CELL("protect".0 F2 . (See the table shown below) 17.##0.00) 0% 0.[Red](\$#.##0 0.00_).CellToTest) The TypeOfInfoRequired is a text entry which must be surrounded with quotes " ".Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .00) \$#. d-mmm-yy or dd-mmm-yy d-mmm or dd-mmm mmm-yy mm/dd h:mm AM/PM h:mm:ss AM/PM h:mm h:mm:ss Code G F0 . 0 for no.##0) \$#. The column number. Nothing is shown for numeric entries.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .CELL("filename"))+1.xls.2000 Peter Noneley A 56 57 58 59 B C D E F The following example uses the =CELL() function as part of a formula which extracts the filename.ms_office.FIND("[".CELL("filename"))-FIND("[".FIND("]".xls =MID(CELL("filename"). The name of the current file is : 125965236.CELL("filename"))-1) CELL Page 33 of 208 G H I .

< = > ? @ A B C D E F G H I J K 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z [ \ ] ^ _ ` a b c d 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z { | } 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 ~ • € 151 152 153 154 ‚ 155 ƒ 156 „ 157 … 158 † 159 ‡ 160 ˆ 161 ‰ 162 Š 163 ‹ 164 Œ 165 166 Ţ 167 168 169 Ř 170 ř 171 Ŗ 172 ŗ 173 • 174 Ŕ 175 ŕ ˜ ™ š › œ ţ Ÿ ¡ ¢ £ ¤ ¥ ¦ § ¨ © ª « ¬ ® ¯ 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 ° ± ² ³ ´ µ ¶ · ¸ ¹ º » ¼ ½ ¾ ¿ À Á Â Ã Ä Å Æ Ç È 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 É Ê Ë Ì Í Î Ï Ð Ñ Ò Ó Ô Õ Ö × Ø Ù Ú Û Ü Ý Þ ß à á 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 â ã ä å æ ç è é ê ë ì í î ï ð ñ ò ó ô õ ö ÷ ø ù ú 251 252 253 254 255 û ü ý þ ÿ . Example The following is a list of all 255 numbers and the characters they represent.70 . Note that most Windows based program may not display some of the special characters. 71 / 72 0 73 1 74 2 75 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Note 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 ! 58 " 59 # 60 \$ 61 % 62 & 63 ' 64 ( 65 ) 66 * 67 + 68 . 69 . these will be displayed as a small box.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U CHAR Page 34 of 208 V W CHAR ANSI Number Character 65 A 66 B 169 © =CHAR(G4) =CHAR(G5) =CHAR(G6) What Does It Do? This function converts a normal number to the character it represent in the ANSI character set used by Windows. Syntax =CHAR(Number) The Number must be between 1 and 255. Formatting The result will be a character with no special formatting.

Q R S T U CHAR Page 35 of 208 V W .2000 Peter Noneley A 51 B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Number 32 does not show as it is the SPACEBAR character.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

18%) What Does It Do? This function picks from a list of options based upon an Index value given to by the user."Gold"."Bronze").15%."Carol") =CHOOSE(C5."Alan"."Bronze")."Carol") =CHOOSE(C6."Bronze").10%. due to the fact the =CHOOSE() has only three items in it.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 B C D E F G H I CHOOSE Page 36 of 207 J CHOOSE Index Value 1 3 2 3 1 2 Result Alan Carol Bob 18% 10% 15% =CHOOSE(C4."Bob".CHOOSE(D34."Alan"."Silver"."Bronze")."unplaced") 5 unplaced =IF(D33<=3."unplaced") =RANK(C34."Silver".10%. Item1."Silver"."Gold"."Gold". Item2."unplaced") 1 Gold =IF(D32<=3.15%.C30:C34) .15%. The Time for each athlete is entered.18%) =CHOOSE(C8.CHOOSE(D31.18%) =CHOOSE(C9."Bob". as this would cause the error of #VALUE to appear. Syntax =CHOOSE(UserValue."unplaced") 4 unplaced =IF(D31<=3. Example The following table was used to calculate the medals for athletes taking part in a race.CHOOSE(D30. The =IF() has been used to filter out any positions above 3. Item3 through to Item29) Formatting No special formatting is required.CHOOSE(D32."unplaced") 3 Bronze =IF(D34<=3."Silver"."Bronze")."Gold". The =CHOOSE() then allocates the correct medal."Alan".10%.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 ."Silver". Name Alan Bob Carol David Eric Time 1:30 1:15 2:45 1:05 1:20 Position Medal 2 Silver =IF(D30<=3."Carol") =CHOOSE(C7.CHOOSE(D33."Gold". The =RANK() function calculates the finishing position of each athlete."Bob".

Syntax =CLEAN(TextToBeCleaned) Formatting No special formatting is needed. The result will show as normal text. These nonprinting characters are often found in data which has been imported from other systems such as database imports from mainframes.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 B C D E F G H CLEAN Page 37 of 207 I CLEAN Dirty Text Hello He llo Hello Clean Text Hello =CLEAN(C4) Hello =CLEAN(C5) Hello =CLEAN(C6) What Does It Do? This function removes any nonprintable characters from text. .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . < = > ? @ A B C D E F G H I J K 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z [ \ ] ^ _ ` a b c d 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z { | } 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 ~ • € 151 152 153 154 ‚ 155 ƒ 156 „ 157 … 158 † 159 ‡ 160 ˆ 161 ‰ 162 Š 163 ‹ 164 Œ 165 166 Ţ 167 168 169 Ř 170 ř 171 Ŗ 172 ŗ 173 • 174 Ŕ 175 ŕ ˜ ™ š › œ ţ Ÿ ¡ ¢ £ ¤ ¥ ¦ § ¨ © ª « ¬ ® ¯ 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 ° ± ² ³ ´ µ ¶ · ¸ ¹ º » ¼ ½ ¾ ¿ À Á Â Ã Ä Å Æ Ç È 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 É Ê Ë Ì Í Î Ï Ð Ñ Ò Ó Ô Õ Ö × Ø Ù Ú Û Ü Ý Þ ß à á 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 â ã ä å æ ç è é ê ë ì í î ï ð ñ ò ó ô õ ö ÷ ø ù ú 251 252 253 254 255 û ü ý þ ÿ . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 ! 58 " 59 # 60 \$ 61 % 62 & 63 ' 64 ( 65 ) 66 * 67 + 68 . the result will be shown as a number between 1 and 255. There are 255 characters in the ANSI set. Syntax =CODE(Text) Formatting No special formatting is needed.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 B C D E F G H I J CODE Page 38 of 207 K CODE Letter A B C a b c Alan Bob Carol ANSI Code 65 66 67 97 98 99 65 66 67 =CODE(C4) =CODE(C5) =CODE(C6) =CODE(C7) =CODE(C8) =CODE(C9) =CODE(C10) =CODE(C11) =CODE(C12) What Does It Do? This function shows the ANSI value of a single character. 71 / 72 0 73 1 74 2 75 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : . or the first character in a piece of text. 69 .70 . Example See the example for FREQUENCY. The ANSI character set is used by Windows to identify each keyboard character by using a unique number.

D6) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the highest number of combinations available based upon a fixed number of items.GroupSize) Formatting No special formatting is required.D41) The colours Red Green Blue Yellow Black Scheme 1 Red Scheme 2 Red Scheme 3 Red Scheme 4 Red Scheme 5 Red . How many colours schemes can be created ? Available Colours Colours Per Scheme Totals Schemes 5 3 10 =COMBIN(C41. The internal order of the combination does not matter.D5) =COMBIN(C6. Syntax =COMBIN(HowManyItems.D25) Example 2 A decorator is asked to design a colour scheme for a new office.D4) =COMBIN(C5. The decorator is given five colours to work with.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 B C D E F COMBIN Page 39 of 207 G COMBIN Pool Of Items 4 4 26 Items In A Group 2 3 2 Possible Groups 6 4 325 =COMBIN(C4. but can only use three in any scheme. Total Characters 4 The proof ! Group Size 2 The four letters : Pair 1 Pair 2 Pair 3 Pair 4 Pair 5 Pair 6 Combinations 6 ABCD AB AC AD BC BD CD =COMBIN(C25. Example 1 This example calculates the possible number of pairs of letters available from the four characters ABCD. so AB is the same as BA.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 B Green Blue Scheme 6 Green Blue Yellow C Green Yellow Scheme 7 Green Blue Black D Green Black Scheme 8 Green Yellow Black E Blue Yellow Scheme 9 Blue Yellow Black F COMBIN Page 40 of 207 G Blue Black Scheme 10 ?????? .

C8) =CONCATENATE(D9.Text2. "&C30 . the result will be shown as normal text. Note You can achieve the same result by using the & operator. "."..". Syntax =CONCATENATE(Text1.D6) =CONCATENATE(C7.D4) =CONCATENATE(C5. "&C29 =D30&". Name 1 Alan Bob Carol Alan Bob Carol Name 2 Jones Williams Davies Jones Williams Davies Concatenated Text AlanJones BobWilliams CarolDavies Alan Jones Williams. Carol =C25&D25 =C26&D26 =C27&D27 =C28&" "&D28 =D29&".D7) =CONCATENATE(D8. Carol =CONCATENATE(C4." ". Formatting No special formatting is needed.C9) What Does It Do? This function joins separate pieces of text into one item.. Bob Davies.Text30) Up to thirty pieces of text can be joined.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 B C D E F G CONCATENATE Page 41 of 207 H CONCATENATE Name 1 Alan Bob Carol Alan Bob Carol Name 2 Jones Williams Davies Jones Williams Davies Concatenated Text AlanJones BobWilliams CarolDavies Alan Jones Williams. Bob Davies.Text3.D5) =CONCATENATE(C6. ".

E9) =CONVERT(C10.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 B C D E F G CONVERT Page 42 of 207 H CONVERT Amount Converting To Convert From 1 in 1 ft 1 yd 1 1 1.5748 =CONVERT(D34.D8. Example The following table was used by an Import / Exporting company to convert the weight and size of packages from old style UK measuring system to European system.E4) 0.81 3 2.UnitToConvertTo) Formatting No special formatting is needed.5146 2 1.UnitToConvertFrom."ft"."lbm".9144 =CONVERT(C6.D5.D11."ozm".E10) =CONVERT(C11.D4.D6."m")+CONVERT(E34."kg") Feet 12 8 5 Inches Metres 6 3.D10.E6) 365. such as Inches to Centimetres."in".54 =CONVERT(C4.5 yr day hr mn Converting To cm m m day hr mn sec Converted Amount 2. to the same value expressed in a different type of unit."kg")+CONVERT(E28.E8) =CONVERT(C9.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .) g kg sg lbm u ozm m mi Nmi in ft yd ang Pica yr . Syntax =CONVERT(AmountToConvert.E5) 0.E11) What Does It Do ? This function converts a value measure in one type of unit."m") Weight Height Length Width Abbreviations This is a list of all the possible abbreviations which can be used to denote measuring systems.D9.3048 =CONVERT(C5.25 24 90 30 =CONVERT(C8.35301 =CONVERT(D28. Weight & Mass Gram Kilogram Slug Pound mass U (atomic mass) Ounce mass Time Year Distance Meter Statute mile Nautical mile Inch Foot Yard Angstrom Pica (1/72 in.5 0. Pounds Ounces Kilograms 5 3 2.

Using "c" as a prefix to meters "m" will allow centimetres "cm" to be calculated.2000 Peter Noneley A 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 Day Hour Minute Second Temperature Degree Celsius Degree Fahrenheit Degree Kelvin Force Newton Dyne Pound force Energy Joule Erg Thermodynamic calorie IT calorie Electron volt Horsepower-hour Watt-hour Foot-pound BTU B C day hr mn sec D E Pressure Pascal Atmosphere mm of Mercury Liquid Teaspoon Tablespoon Fluid ounce Cup Pint Quart Gallon Liter Power Horsepower Watt F Pa atm mmHg G CONVERT Page 43 of 207 H C F K N dyn lbf tsp tbs oz cup pt qt gal l J e c cal eV HPh Wh flb BTU HP W Magnetism Tesla Gauss T ga These characters can be used as a prefix to access further units of measure.00E+06 M 1.00E-15 1.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .00E+18 E 1. Prefix exa peta tera giga mega kilo hecto dekao Multiplier Abbreviation 1.00E-06 1.00E-09 1.00E+12 T 1.00E+09 G 1.00E-01 1.00E+15 P 1.00E-02 1.00E+03 k 1.00E+02 h 1.00E+01 e Prefix deci centi milli micro nano pico femto atto Multiplier 1.00E-18 Abbreviation d c m u n p f a .00E-12 1.00E-03 1.

The correlation shows that there is an 0.000 £1. In Table 2 the Cost of advertising has been compared to Sales.864 realtionship between the data.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 B C D E F G H I CORREL Page 44 of 207 J CORREL Table 1 Air Cond Sales 100 200 300 200 400 400 Table 2 Advertising Costs £2.000 £30.Range2) Formatting The result will normally be shown in decimal format.000 £8.H5:H10) What Does It Do ? This function examines two sets of data to determine the degree of relationship between the two sets.000 £1. The correlation shows that there is an 28% realtionship between the data.000 £40.000 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Avg Temp 20 30 30 40 50 50 Sales £20. The result will be a decimal between 0 and 1.E5:E10) Correlation 28% =CORREL(G5:G10.864 =CORREL(D5:D10.000 £5. .000 £1. It can be formatted as percentage % to show a more meaning full result. In Table 1 the Monthly temperature is compared against the Sales of air conditioning units.000 £20.000 £20.000 Correlation 0. The larger the result.000 £40. the greater the correlation.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Syntax =CORREL(Range1.

Example The following table was used by a builders merchant to calculate the number of sales for various products in each month.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed.000 Wood £5. text and errors..Range3.000 Metal £1. It will ignore blanks. Syntax =COUNT(Range1.777674 30 10 30 10 Hello 30 10 #DIV/0! 30 Count 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 =COUNT(C4:E4) =COUNT(C5:E5) =COUNT(C6:E6) =COUNT(C7:E7) =COUNT(C8:E8) =COUNT(C9:E9) =COUNT(C10:E10) =COUNT(C11:E11) =COUNT(C12:E12) What Does It Do ? This function counts the number of numeric entries in a list..Range2.000 Count 3 2 =COUNT(D29:D32) Mar 0 .000 Glass £2.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 B C D E F G H I COUNT Page 45 of 207 J COUNT Entries To Be Counted 10 20 30 10 0 30 10 -20 30 10 1-Jan-88 30 10 21:30 30 10 0.000 £1. Item Jan Feb Bricks £1.

The school also needed to know how many exams were taken by each pupil.. The school needed to known how many pupils sat each exam.Range3. A failure was entered as Fail. Maths Alan Bob Carol David Elaine Fail 2 Fail 1 English 1 1 3 Art 1 3 1 Fail 2 History Exams Taken By Each Pupil 2 3 3 2 4 =COUNTA(D39:G39) 1 Fail How many pupils sat each Exam.Range2. 2 or 3. Example The following table was used by a school to keep track of the examinations taken by each pupil. Syntax =COUNTA(Range1. Each exam passed was graded as 1.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 B C D E F G H I COUNTA Page 46 of 207 J COUNTA Entries To Be Counted 10 20 30 10 0 30 10 -20 30 10 1-Jan-88 30 10 21:30 30 10 0.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .55745 30 10 30 10 Hello 30 10 #DIV/0! 30 Count 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 =COUNTA(C4:E4) =COUNTA(C5:E5) =COUNTA(C6:E6) =COUNTA(C7:E7) =COUNTA(C8:E8) =COUNTA(C9:E9) =COUNTA(C10:E10) =COUNTA(C11:E11) =COUNTA(C12:E12) What Does It Do ? This function counts the number of numeric or text entries in a list.. The =COUNTA() function has been used because of its ability to count text and numeric entries. Maths English Art History 4 3 5 2 =COUNTA(D35:D39) . through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed. It will ignore blanks.

Example The following table was used by a company which was balloting its workers on whether the company should have a no smoking policy. The response to the question could be Y or N. As the results of the vote were collated they were entered in to the table."N") Blanks 2 =COUNTBLANK(C4:C11) Factory 1 Factory 2 Factory 3 Factory 4 Factory 5 Factory 6 Factory 7 Factory 8 Factory 9 Factory 10 N Y Y N Y Y N N N Votes not vet registered : Votes for Yes : Votes for No : ."Y") =COUNTIF(C32:F41. The =COUNTBLANK() function has been used to calculate the number of departments which have no yet registered a vote. Syntax =COUNTBLANK(RangeToTest) Formatting No special formatting is needed.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 B C D E F G H COUNTBLANK Page 47 of 207 I COUNTBLANK Range To Test 1 Hello 3 0 1-Jan-98 5 What Does It Do ? This function counts the number of blank cells in a range. Each of the departments in the various factories were questioned. Admin Y Accounts N Y Production Y N Y Y Y Y Y Personnel N N N Y Y 16 14 10 =COUNTBLANK(C32:F41) =COUNTIF(C32:F41.

Syntax =COUNTIF(RangeOfThingsToBeCounted.CriteriaToBeMatched) The criteria can be typed in any of the following ways.">100") Formatting No special formatting is needed.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . such as =COUNTIF(A1:A5. such as =COUNTIF(A1:A5. To match a specific number type the number. service What Does It Do ? This function counts the number of items which match criteria set by the user.E18) How many Brake Shoes Have been bought."Hello") To match using operators surround the expression with quotes.">=100") =COUNTIF(C4:C12."Tyres") =COUNTIF(E4:E12."Brakes") =COUNTIF(C4:C12. How many items cost £100 or above. How many Tyres have been bought. such as =COUNTIF(A1:A5.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 B C D E F G COUNTIF Page 48 of 207 COUNTIF Item Brakes Tyres Brakes Service Service Window Tyres Tyres Clutch Date 1-Jan-98 10-May-98 1-Feb-98 1-Mar-98 5-Jan-98 1-Jun-98 1-Apr-98 1-Mar-98 1-May-98 Cost 80 25 80 150 300 50 200 100 250 2 3 5 2 =COUNTIF(C4:C12. .100) To match a piece of text type the text in quotes. Type the name of the item to count.

2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 B C D E F G H I DATE Page 49 of 207 J DATE Day Month 25 12 25 12 33 12 Year 99 99 99 Date 12/25/99 =DATE(E4. Syntax =DATE(year.D4.month.day) Formatting The result will normally be displayed in the dd/mm/yy format. 2000 =DATE(E6.C6) What Does It Do? This function creates a real date by using three normal numbers typed into separate cells.Number.C5) January 2. By using the Format.Cells.D6.Date command the format can be changed.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .C4) 25-Dec-99 =DATE(E5.D5. .

"d" Days between the two dates."md")&" Days" . It can show the result in weeks.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 B C D E F G H DATEDIF Page 50 of 207 I DATEDIF FirstDate 1-Jan-60 1-Jan-60 1-Jan-60 1-Jan-60 1-Jan-60 1-Jan-60 SecondDate 10-May-70 10-May-70 10-May-70 10-May-70 10-May-70 10-May-70 Interval days months years yeardays yearmonths monthdays Difference 3782 124 10 130 4 9 =DATEDIF(C4. These are the available intervals. "&DATEDIF(C8.TODAY()."Interval") FirstDate : This is the earliest of the two dates. "y" Years between the two dates.TODAY(). "md" Days between the two dates."md") You can put this all together in one calculation. "yd" Days between the dates.SecondDate."y")&" Years."md") What Does It Do? This function calculates the difference between two dates. months or years."ym") 24 =DATEDIF(C8. 0 Months and 24 Days ="Age is "&DATEDIF(C8. Syntax =DATEDIF(FirstDate.D8. as if the dates were in the same year.D9.D5.TODAY(). as if the dates were in the same month and year."m") =DATEDIF(C6. "ym" Months between the dates."yd") =DATEDIF(C8.D6."d") =DATEDIF(C5. which creates a text version."y") 0 =DATEDIF(C8. "m" Months between the two dates."y") =DATEDIF(C7. Birth date : Years lived : and the months : and the days : 1-Jan-60 53 =DATEDIF(C8.TODAY(). Formatting No special formatting is needed.D7.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .D4. as if the dates were in the same year."ym") =DATEDIF(C9."ym")&" Months and "&DATEDIF(C8. "Interval" : This indicates what you want to calculate. Age is 53 Years.TODAY(). SecondDate : This is the most recent of the two dates.TODAY().

2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 B C D E F DATEVALUE Page 51 of 207 G DATEVALUE Date 25-dec-99 25/12/99 25-dec-99 25/12/99 Date Value 36519 #VALUE! 36519 #VALUE! =DATEVALUE(C4) =DATEVALUE(C5) =DATEVALUE(C6) =DATEVALUE(C7) What Does It Do? The function is used to convert a piece of text into a date which can be used in calculations. probably after being imported from an external program. Dates expressed as text are often created when data is imported from other programs. The =DATEVALUE function was used because the date has been entered in the cell as a piece of text. Days Until Expiry Date Expiry 25-dec-99 -4780 10-july/99 -4948 13-sep-98 -5248 30/5/2000 #VALUE! =DATEVALUE(E32)-TODAY() Property Ref.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Example The example uses the =DATEVALUE and the =TODAY functions to calculate the number of days remaining on a property lease.Number. This number can be formatted to any of the normal date formats by using Format. Syntax =DATEVALUE(text) Formatting The result will normally be shown as a number which represents the date. BC100 FG700 TD200 HJ900 .Cells. such as exports from mainframe computers.Date.

80 10 5 £40.00 £1.80 25 6 £120.E23:E24) What Does It Do ? This function examines a list of information and produces and average. of the values to be averaged. . such as "Unit Cost" or F3.FieldName.00 £0. Formatting No special formatting is needed.00 15 2 £60. or cell. including the field names at the top of the columns. The CriteriaRange is made up of two types of information. such as the category Brand or Wattage.00 £0. Type the brand name : sunbeam The Average cost of sunbeam is : £1.15 25 0 £0. or 100 as the wattage.CriteriaRange) The DatabaseRange is the entire list of information you need to examine.00 £0.00 £2.00 £1.00 £5.20 25 2 £10. Syntax =DAVERAGE(DatabaseRange. Brand These two cells are the Criteria range.24 =DAVERAGE(B3:I19.00 £0.50 10 3 £15. or names.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .00 To calculate the Average cost of a particular Brand of bulb. which are to be selected.F3.00 3 2 £30. The first set of information is the name.00 £0. of the Fields(s) to be used as the basis for selecting the records.25 10 4 £50.00 £2.50 15 0 £0.00 £0. The second set of information is the actual record.80 20 5 £180.25 10 5 £12. or records. Box Boxes In Value Of Unit Cost Quantity Stock Stock £4.20 40 3 £24. such as Horizon as a brand name.50 4 3 £54.10 20 5 £10.00 £0.00 £0. Examples The average Unit Cost of a particular Product of a particular Brand.20 30 2 £12.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 B C D E F G H I DAVERAGE Page 52 of 207 J DAVERAGE Product Bulb Neon Spot Other Bulb Spot Spot Other Bulb Neon Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Wattage 200 100 60 10 80 100 200 25 200 100 100 10 60 80 100 40 Life Hours 3000 2000 8000 1000 unknown 3000 unknown 3000 2000 unknown 800 1000 1000 2000 1000 Brand Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Horizon Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Horizon This is the Database range.50 £0.00 £0. The FieldName is the name.

2000 Peter Noneley A 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 B C D E Product Bulb The average of Horizon Bulb is : £1."Unit Cost".53 Wattage 100 =DAVERAGE(B3:I19.E67:F68) .E60:F61) The average Unit Cost of a Bulb less then a particular Wattage. Product Bulb Average of Bulb <100 is : £0."Unit Cost".16 F Brand Horizon =DAVERAGE(B3:I19. Product Bulb Average of Bulb 100 is : £0.17 Wattage <100 =DAVERAGE(B3:I19.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .E49:F50) G H I DAVERAGE Page 53 of 207 J This is the same calculation but using the actual name "Unit Cost" instead of the cell address.F3. £1.E49:F50) The average Unit Cost of a Bulb equal to a particular Wattage."Unit Cost".16 =DAVERAGE(B3:I19.

Cells.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 B C D E F G DAY Page 54 of 207 DAY Full Date 25-Dec-98 25-Jan-13 25-Jan-13 The Day 25 Wed 25 25 =DAY(C4) =DAY(C5) =DAY(C6) What Does It Do? This function extracts the day of the month from a complete date.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . but this can be formatted to show the actual day of the week by using Format.Number. Please enter your date of birth in the format dd/mm/yy : You were born on : 3/25/1962 Wednesday 25 =DAY(F21) . Syntax =DAY(value) Formatting Normally the result will be a number. Example The =DAY function has been used to calculate the name of the day for your birthday.Custom and using the code ddd or dddd.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 B C D E F

DAYS360 Page 55 of 207

DAYS360
StartDate 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-98 EndDate 5-Jan-98 1-Feb-98 31-Mar-98 31-Dec-98 Days Between * See the Note below. 4 =DAYS360(C4,D4,TRUE) 30 =DAYS360(C5,D5,TRUE) 89 =DAYS360(C6,D6,TRUE) 359 =DAYS360(C7,D7,TRUE)

What Does It Do? Shows the number of days between two dates based on a 360-day year (twelve 30-day months). Use this function if your accounting system is based on twelve 30-day months. Syntax =DAYS360(StartDate,EndDate,TRUE of FALSE) TRUE : Use this for European accounting systems. FALSE : Use this for USA accounting systems. Formatting The result will be shown as a number. Note The calculation does not include the last day. The result of using 1-Jan-98 and 5-Jan-98 will give a result of 4. To correct this add 1 to the result. =DAYS360(Start,End,TRUE)+1

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 B C D E F G

DB Page 56 of 207 H I

DB
Purchase Price : Life in Years : Salvage value : Year 1 2 3 4 5 Total Depreciation : £5,000 5 £200 Deprecation £2,375.00 £1,246.88 £654.61 £343.67 £180.43

=DB(E3,E5,E4,D8) =DB(E3,E5,E4,D9) =DB(E3,E5,E4,D10) =DB(E3,E5,E4,D11) =DB(E3,E5,E4,D12)

£4,800.58 * See example 4 below.

What Does It Do ? This function calculates deprecation based upon a fixed percentage. The first year is depreciated by the fixed percentage. The second year uses the same percentage, but uses the original value of the item less the first years depreciation. Any subsequent years use the same percentage, using the original value of the item less the depreciation of the previous years. The percentage used in the depreciation is not set by the user, the function calculates the necessary percentage, which will be vary based upon the values inputted by the user. An additional feature of this function is the ability to take into account when the item was originally purchased. If the item was purchased part way through the financial year, the first years depreciation will be based on the remaining part of the year. Syntax =DB(PurchasePrice,SalvageValue,Life,PeriodToCalculate,FirstYearMonth) The FirstYearMonth is the month in which the item was purchased during the first financial year. This is an optional value, if it not used the function will assume 12 as the value. Formatting No special formatting is needed. Example 1 This example shows the percentage used in the depreciation. Year 1 depreciation is based upon the original Purchase Price alone. Year 2 depreciation is based upon the original Purchase Price minus Year 1 deprecation. Year 3 deprecation is based upon original Purchase Price minus Year 1 + Year 2 deprecation. The % Deprc has been calculated purely to demonstrate what % is being used. Purchase Price : Salvage value : Life in Years : £5,000 £1,000 5

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 B C D Year 1 2 3 4 5 E F Deprecation £1,375.00 £996.88 £722.73 £523.98 £379.89 =DB(E47,E48,E49,D56) £3,998.48 G % Deprc 27.50% 27.50% 27.50% 27.50% 27.50%

DB Page 57 of 207 H I

Total Depreciation :

Example 2 This example is similar to the previous, with the exception of the deprecation being calculated on a monthly basis. This has been done by multiplying the years by 12. Purchase Price : Life in Years : Salvage value : Month 56 57 58 59 60 £5,000 £5 100 Deprecation £8.79 £8.24 £7.72 £7.23 £6.78 =DB(E66,E68,E67*12,D75)

Example 3 This example shows how the length of the first years ownership has been taken into account. Purchase Price : Life in Years : Salvage value : First Year Ownership In Months : Year 1 2 3 4 5 £5,000 5 £1,000 6 Deprecation £687.50 £1,185.94 £859.80 £623.36 £451.93 =DB(E74,E76,E75,D84,E77) £3,808.54 % Deprc 13.75% 27.50% 27.50% 27.50% 27.50%

Total Depreciation :

Why Is The Answer Wrong ? In all of the examples above the total depreceation may not be exactly the expected value. This is due to the way in which the percentage value for the depreceation has been calculated by the =DB() fumction.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129

DB Page 58 of 207 I

B C D E F G H The percentage rate is calculated by Execl using the formula = 1 - ((salvage / cost) ^ (1 / life)). The result of this calculation is then rounded to three decimal places. Although this rounding may only make a minor change to the percentage rate, when applied to large values, the differnce is compounded resulting in what could be considered as approximate values for the the depreceation. Example 4 This example has been created with both the Excel calculated percentage and the 'real' percentage calculated manually. The Excel Deprecation uses the =DB() function. The Real Deprecation uses a manual calculation. This is the 'real' deprecation percentage, calculated manually : 27.522034% =1-((E117/E116)^(1/E118)) Purchase Price : £5,000 = 1 - ((salvage / cost) ^ (1 / life)). Salvage value : £1,000 Life in Years : 5 Excel Deprecation £1,375.0000 £996.8750 £722.7344 £523.9824 £379.8873 £3,998.48 Real Depreciation £1,376.1017 £997.3705 £722.8739 £523.9243 £379.7297 £4,000.00 £1.52 Excel % Deprc 27.500% 27.500% 27.500% 27.500% 27.500%

Year 1 2 3 4 5 Total Depreciation :

Error difference :

such as Horizon as a brand name. Horizon 7 =DCOUNT(B3:I19.20 25 2 £10. It can only count values. Syntax =DCOUNT(DatabaseRange. Box Boxes In Value Of Unit Cost Quantity Stock Stock £4.00 £0.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 B C D E F G H I DCOUNT Page 59 of 207 J DCOUNT Product Bulb Neon Spot Other Bulb Spot Spot Other Bulb Neon Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Wattage 200 100 60 10 80 100 200 25 200 100 100 10 60 80 100 40 Life Hours 3000 2000 8000 1000 unknown 3000 unknown 3000 2000 unknown 800 1000 1000 2000 1000 Brand Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Horizon Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Horizon This is the Database range.50 £0.00 £5.00 £0.80 25 6 £120.50 £0. such as the category Brand or Wattage. The second set of information is the actual record. or 100 as the wattage. such as "Value Of Stock" or I3.20 40 3 £24.E23:E24) Type the brand name : The COUNT value of Horizon is : What Does It Do ? This function examines a list of information and counts the values in a specified column.00 £0. which are to be selected.50 4 3 £54.00 3 2 £30. of the Fields(s) to be used as the basis for selecting the records.CriteriaRange) The DatabaseRange is the entire list of information you need to examine.10 20 5 £10. including the field names at the top of the columns.00 £0.00 15 2 £60. The CriteriaRange is made up of two types of information. the text items and blank cells are ignored.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .00 £2.00 £0.00 £0.25 10 4 £50.50 15 1 £37. of the values to Count.00 £0.00 Count the number of products of a particular Brand which have a Life Hours rating.80 20 5 £180.D3.00 £1. or cell. or records. or names.25 10 5 £12.00 £1.20 30 2 £12. The FieldName is the name.75 £0. Brand These two cells are the Criteria range.FieldName. Examples .15 25 1 £3. The first set of information is the name.00 £2.50 10 3 £15. Formatting No special formatting is needed.80 10 5 £40.

E61:F62) The count of Bulb products between two Wattage values.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Boxes In Stock 5 =DCOUNT(B3:I19.E68:G69) .H3."Boxes In Stock".E50:F51) The count of the number of Bulb products equal to a particular Wattage. Product Bulb The count is : 2 Wattage 100 =DCOUNT(B3:I19."Boxes In Stock". Product Bulb The count is : 4 Wattage >=80 Wattage <=100 =DCOUNT(B3:I19. with a specific number of boxes in stock."Boxes In Stock".2000 Peter Noneley A 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 B C D E F G H The count of a particular product. 3 =DCOUNT(B3:I19.E50:F51) I DCOUNT Page 60 of 207 J Product Bulb The number of products is : 3 This is the same calculation but using the name "Boxes In Stock" instead of the cell address.

15 25 1 £3.00 £0.50 4 3 £54.50 15 1 £37. or 100 as the wattage.E23:E24) Type the brand name : The COUNT value of Horizon is : What Does It Do ? This function examines a list of information and counts the non blank cells in a specified column.00 £5. or records. The FieldName is the name.00 £0. The first set of information is the name. Brand These two cells are the Criteria range.80 10 5 £40.50 10 3 £15.00 £1.25 10 5 £12. such as Horizon as a brand name. or names. but blank cells are ignored.50 £0. Formatting No special formatting is needed. The second set of information is the actual record.00 £2.00 £0.00 £0. Box Boxes In Value Of Unit Cost Quantity Stock Stock £4. such as "Value Of Stock" or I3. including the field names at the top of the columns. It counts values and text items.20 40 3 £24.00 £0.CriteriaRange) The DatabaseRange is the entire list of information you need to examine. or cell.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .00 £1.50 £0.20 25 2 £10.00 3 2 £30. such as the category Brand or Wattage.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 B C D E F G H I DCOUNTA Page 61 of 207 J DCOUNTA Product Bulb Neon Spot Other Bulb Spot Spot Other Bulb Neon Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Wattage 200 100 60 10 80 100 200 25 200 100 100 10 60 80 100 40 Life Hours 3000 2000 8000 1000 unknown 3000 unknown 3000 2000 unknown 800 1000 1000 2000 1000 Brand Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Horizon Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Horizon This is the Database range. of the values to Count.00 £2.25 10 4 £50.80 25 6 £120.20 30 2 £12.FieldName. Syntax =DCOUNTA(DatabaseRange. The CriteriaRange is made up of two types of information.00 £0.80 20 5 £180.10 20 5 £10. of the Fields(s) to be used as the basis for selecting the records.00 £0.00 15 2 £60. Examples .E3. Horizon 8 =DCOUNTA(B3:I19. which are to be selected.75 £0.00 Count the number of products of a particular Brand.

Product Bulb The count is : 5 Brand Horizon =DCOUNTA(B3:I19. H I DCOUNTA Page 62 of 207 J Product Bulb The number of products is : 1 Life Hours unknown =DCOUNTA(B3:I19.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 ."Product".2000 Peter Noneley A 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 B C D E F G The count of a product with an unknown Life Hours value.E50:F51) This is the same calculation but using the name "Life Hours" instead of the cell address. 1 =DCOUNTA(B3:I19.E61:F62) The count of particular products from specific brands.D3."Product"."Life Hours".E50:F51) The count of the number of particular product of a specific brand. Product Spot Neon The count is : 3 Brand Horizon Sunbeam =DCOUNTA(B3:I19.E68:F70) .

D19) =DEC2BIN(C20.D20) =DEC2BIN(C21.D17) =DEC2BIN(C18. The result can be padded with leading 0 zeros. It can only cope with decimals ranging from -512 to 511.D21) What Does It Do ? This function converts a decimal number to its binary equivalent.PlacesToPad) The PlacesToPad is optional. although this is ignored for negatives. .2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 B C D E F G DEC2BIN Page 63 of 207 H DEC2BIN Decimal Number Binary Equivalent 0 0 =DEC2BIN(C4) 1 1 =DEC2BIN(C5) 2 10 =DEC2BIN(C6) 3 11 =DEC2BIN(C7) 511 111111111 =DEC2BIN(C8) 512 #NUM! =DEC2BIN(C9) -1 1111111111 =DEC2BIN(C10) -2 1111111110 =DEC2BIN(C11) -3 1111111101 =DEC2BIN(C12) -511 1000000001 =DEC2BIN(C13) -512 1000000000 =DEC2BIN(C14) Decimal Number 1 1 1 1 -1 Places To Pad 1 2 3 9 1 Binary Equivalent 1 01 001 000000001 1111111111 =DEC2BIN(C17.D18) =DEC2BIN(C19. Syntax =DEC2BIN(DecimalNumber.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Formatting No special formatting is needed.

The result can be padded with leading 0 zeros. although this is ignored for negatives.889 Decimal Number 1 1 26 26 -26 Hexadecimal 0 1 2 3 19 1A 1B 1C FFFFFFFFFF FFFFFFFFFE FFFFFFFFFD FFFFFFFFFE FFFFFFFFFF 7FFFFFFFFF 8000000000 #NUM! #NUM! Places To Pad 1 2 3 9 1 =DEC2HEX(C4) =DEC2HEX(C5) =DEC2HEX(C6) =DEC2HEX(C7) =DEC2HEX(C8) =DEC2HEX(C9) =DEC2HEX(C10) =DEC2HEX(C11) =DEC2HEX(C12) =DEC2HEX(C13) =DEC2HEX(C14) =DEC2HEX(C15) =DEC2HEX(C16) =DEC2HEX(C17) =DEC2HEX(C18) =DEC2HEX(C19) =DEC2HEX(C20) Hexadecimal 1 01 01A 00000001A FFFFFFFFE6 =DEC2HEX(C23.887 -549.755.D25) =DEC2HEX(C26. Syntax =DEC2HEX(DecimalNumber.755. Formatting No special formatting is needed.813.D27) What Does It Do ? This function converts a decimal number to its hexadecimal equivalent.888 to 549.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .813.D24) =DEC2HEX(C25. .888 549.755.PlacesToPad) The PlacesToPad is optional.888 -549. It can only cope with decimals ranging from -549.D23) =DEC2HEX(C24.755.813.755.887.813.813.755.813.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 B C D E F G DEC2HEX Page 64 of 207 H DEC2HEX Decimal Number 0 1 2 3 25 26 27 28 -1 -2 -3 -2 -1 549.D26) =DEC2HEX(C27.

If the numbers are the same the result will be 1.SecondNumber) Formatting No special formatting is needed.5 17. It only works with numbers. Syntax =DELTA(FirstNumber.5 17.D10) What Does It Do ? This function compares two values and tests whether they are exactly the same.D35) =DELTA(C36.D34) =DELTA(C35.D33) =DELTA(C34. Number1 10 50 30 17.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 B C D E F G H I DELTA Page 65 of 207 J DELTA Number1 10 50 17.175 Hello Delta 0 1 1 1 1 #VALUE! 1 =DELTA(C4. otherwise the result is 0.5 12 100 150 Number2 20 50 30 18 8 100 125 Total Pairs Delta 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 4 =DELTA(C30.50% Hello Number2 20 50 17.D9) =DELTA(C10.D32) =DELTA(C33. Example The following table is used to determine how may pairs of similar numbers are in a list.D4) =DELTA(C5. The =DELTA() function tests each pair and then the =SUM() function totals them.D31) =DELTA(C32.D36) =SUM(E30:E36) .D30) =DELTA(C31.D5) =DELTA(C6.5 18 0. The formatting of the number is not significant.D6) =DELTA(C7. so numbers which appear rounded due to the removal of decimal places will still match correctly with non rounded values.D7) =DELTA(C8. text values produce a result of #VALUE.D8) =DELTA(C9.

75 £0.00 £5.20 40 3 £24.20 25 2 £10.50 £0.00 3 2 £30.80 10 5 £40. The first set of information is the name.00 £1.80 25 6 £120. or cell.H3. Box Boxes In Value Of Unit Cost Quantity Stock Stock £4.CriteriaRange) The DatabaseRange is the entire list of information you need to examine.00 How many boxes of a particular item do we have in stock? Life Hours Product Bulb Wattage 100 Brand Horizon 5 =DGET(B3:I19. such as the category Brand or Wattage.20 30 2 £12.50 £0.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .00 £2. If more than one record matches the criteria the error #NUM is shown.15 25 1 £3.00 £0.50 4 3 £54. The FieldName is the name.00 £0.00 £1.C23:F24) The number in stock is : What Does It Do ? This function examines a list of information and produces one result. or names.FieldName. Formatting No special formatting is needed.10 20 5 £10. The CriteriaRange is made up of two types of information.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.80 20 5 £180. of the Fields(s) to be used as the basis for selecting the records.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 B C D E F G H I DGET Page 66 of 207 J DGET Product Bulb Neon Spot Other Bulb Spot Spot Other Bulb Neon Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Wattage 200 100 60 10 80 100 200 25 200 100 100 10 60 80 100 40 Life Hours 3000 2000 8000 1000 unknown 3000 unknown 3000 2000 unknown 800 1000 1000 2000 1000 Brand Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Horizon Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Horizon This is the Database range.00 £0. of the values to Get. including the field names at the top of the columns.00 £2. such as "Value Of Stock" or I3.25 10 4 £50. .00 15 2 £60. The second set of information is the actual record which needs to be selected. or 100 as the wattage. Syntax =DGET(DatabaseRange. If no records match the criteria the error #VALUE is shown.25 10 5 £12. such as Horizon as a brand name.50 15 1 £37.00 £0.50 10 3 £15.

"One product found.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .C51:F52) The number in stock is : Example 2 This example extracts information from multiple records and therefore shows the #NUM error.").".H3.TYPE(F88)/3."No such product.H3. How many boxes of a particular item do we have in stock? Life Hours Product Bulb Wattage 100 Brand The number in stock is : #NUM! =DGET(B3:I19.C63:F64) Example 3 This example extracts information from no records and therefore shows the #VALUE error."Duplicates products found.H3.2000 Peter Noneley A 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 B C D E F Example 1 This example extracts information from just one record. =IF(ISERR(F88). How many boxes of a particular item do we have in stock? Life Hours Product Bulb Wattage 9999 Brand The number in stock is : #VALUE! =DGET(B3:I19.H3. How many boxes of a particular item do we have in stock? Life Hours Product Bulb Wattage 9999 Brand The number in stock is : #VALUE! =DGET(B3:I19.C85:F86) No such product. How many boxes of a particular item do we have in stock? Life Hours G H I DGET Page 67 of 207 J Product Bulb Wattage 100 Brand Horizon 5 =DGET(B3:I19.CHOOSE(ERROR.") .C64:F65) Example 4 This example uses the =IF() function to display a message when an error occurs.

80 20 5 £180.10 20 5 £10.00 To calculate largest Value Of Stock of a particular Brand of bulb. Formatting No special formatting is needed. or 100 as the wattage.00 £0. of the values to pick the Max from. such as Horizon as a brand name. including the field names at the top of the columns.20 25 2 £10. The CriteriaRange is made up of two types of information.00 £1.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 B C D E F G H I J DMAX Page 68 of 207 K DMAX Product Bulb Neon Spot Other Bulb Spot Spot Other Bulb Neon Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Wattage 200 100 60 10 80 100 200 25 200 100 100 10 60 80 100 40 Life Hours 3000 2000 8000 1000 unknown 3000 unknown 3000 2000 unknown 800 1000 1000 2000 1000 Brand Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Horizon Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Horizon This is the Database range.CriteriaRange) The DatabaseRange is the entire list of information you need to examine.50 10 3 £15. Examples The largest Value Of Stock of a particular Product of a particular Brand.00 £0.25 10 5 £12.80 10 5 £40. or names.50 15 0 £0.00 £0.00 £1.00 =DMAX(B3:I19.00 £0.00 £5.FieldName. such as "Value Of Stock" or I3.20 30 2 £12. Horizon £60.00 £2. Brand These two cells are the Criteria range.00 £0. The FieldName is the name or cell.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Product Bulb Brand sunbeam .15 25 0 £0.00 3 2 £30.80 25 6 £120. which are to be selected. Box Boxes In Value Of Unit Cost Quantity Stock Stock £4.25 10 4 £50.00 £0.00 £0.I3.50 4 3 £54.00 15 2 £60.E23:E24) Type the brand name : The MAX value of Horizon is : What Does It Do ? This function examines a list of information and produces the largest value from a specified column.00 £0. or records.50 £0. Syntax =DMAX(DatabaseRange.00 £2.00 £0. The first set of information is the name.20 40 3 £24. such as the category Brand or Wattage. The second set of information is the actual record. of the Fields(s) to be used as the basis for selecting the records.

00 Wattage <100 =DMAX(B3:I19."Value Of Stock". £30.2000 Peter Noneley A 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 B C D The largest value is : E £30.00 Wattage 100 =DMAX(B3:I19.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Product Bulb The largest Value Of Stock is : £24.I3.E49:F50) The largest Value Of Stock of a Bulb equal to a particular Wattage. Product Bulb The largest Value Of Stock is : £40.00 =DMAX(B3:I19.E60:F61) The largest Value Of Stock of a Bulb less than a particular Wattage.00 F G H =DMAX(B3:I19.E49:F50) I J DMAX Page 69 of 207 K This is the same calculation but using the name "Value Of Stock" instead of the cell address."Value Of Stock".E67:F68) ."Value Of Stock".

Product Bulb Brand sunbeam .50 £0.80 10 5 £40.00 £0. or cell. of the Fields(s) to be used as the basis for selecting the records. including the field names at the top of the columns.E23:E24) Type the brand name : The MIN value of Horizon is : What Does It Do ? This function examines a list of information and produces smallest value from a specified column.FieldName.00 £0.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .00 £0.00 £0. Box Boxes In Value Of Unit Cost Quantity Stock Stock £4. which are to be selected. The first set of information is the name.00 £2. such as "Value Of Stock" or I3.25 10 5 £12.50 4 3 £54.00 15 2 £60.00 £1.50 £0. Formatting No special formatting is needed. of the values to pick the Min from.00 £0.20 40 3 £24. The CriteriaRange is made up of two types of information. Brand These two cells are the Criteria range. Examples The lowest Value Of Stock of a particular Product of a particular Brand. such as the category Brand or Wattage.CriteriaRange) The DatabaseRange is the entire list of information you need to examine. or records.80 25 6 £120.00 £1. The FieldName is the name. or 100 as the wattage.80 20 5 £180.50 15 1 £37.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 B C D E F G H I J DMIN Page 70 of 207 K DMIN Product Bulb Neon Spot Other Bulb Spot Spot Other Bulb Neon Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Wattage 200 100 60 10 80 100 200 25 200 100 100 10 60 80 100 40 Life Hours 3000 2000 8000 1000 unknown 3000 unknown 3000 2000 unknown 800 1000 1000 2000 1000 Brand Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Horizon Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Horizon This is the Database range.00 =DMIN(B3:I19.00 £0.00 £5. or names.25 10 4 £50. Horizon £10. The second set of information is the actual record.10 20 5 £10.15 25 1 £3.00 3 2 £30.00 £0.I3.20 25 2 £10. Syntax =DMIN(DatabaseRange.00 To calculate lowest Value Of Stock of a particular Brand of bulb.00 £2.75 £0.50 10 3 £15. such as Horizon as a brand name.20 30 2 £12.

Product Bulb The lowest Value Of Stock is : £12.E49:F50) The lowest Value Of Stock of a Bulb equal to a particular Wattage.E60:F61) The lowest Value Of Stock of a Bulb between two Wattage values."Value Of Stock".75 =DMIN(B3:I19.75 F G H =DMIN(B3:I19. £3.I3.E49:F50) I J DMIN Page 71 of 207 K This is the same calculation but using the name "Value Of Stock" instead of the cell address."Value Of Stock".2000 Peter Noneley A 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 B C D The lowest value is : E £3.E67:G68) .50 Wattage 100 =DMIN(B3:I19."Value Of Stock".00 Wattage >=80 Wattage <=100 =DMIN(B3:I19.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Product Bulb The lowest Value Of Stock is : £12.

1) =DOLLAR(C11.00 \$10 \$10.25 10.00 \$10.0) =DOLLAR(C6.25 Converted To Text \$10. Syntax =DOLLAR(Number.2) =DOLLAR(C8) =DOLLAR(C9. The result will be shown as a text entry.2) What Does It Do? This function converts a number into a piece of text formatted as currency. DecimalPlaces : This is the amount of decimal places needed in the converted number.DecimalPlaces) Number : This is the number which needs to be converted.25 \$10 \$10. Formatting No special formatting is needed.1) =DOLLAR(C7.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 B C D E F G H DOLLAR Page 72 of 207 I DOLLAR Original Number 10 10 10 10 10.25 10. .0 \$10.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .25 =DOLLAR(C4) =DOLLAR(C5.0) =DOLLAR(C10.3 \$10.25 10.

The CriteriaRange is made up of two types of information.00 £1.00 £0.FieldName. The first set of information is the name.00 £0. Formatting No special formatting is needed. Brand These two cells are the Criteria range. which are to be selected.00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.00 =DSUM(B3:I19.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .25 10 4 £50.25 10 5 £12. or records. or cell. Syntax =DSUM(DatabaseRange.50 15 0 £0.00 £1.80 10 5 £40. such as "Value Of Stock" or I3.80 20 5 £180. of the values to be totalled.20 40 3 £24. such as Horizon as a brand name.CriteriaRange) The DatabaseRange is the entire list of information you need to examine.50 10 3 £15.00 £0.00 15 2 £60.00 To calculate the total Value Of Stock of a particular Brand of bulb.00 3 2 £30. The FieldName is the name.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 B C D E F G H I DSUM Page 73 of 207 J DSUM Product Bulb Neon Spot Other Bulb Spot Spot Other Bulb Neon Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Wattage 200 100 60 10 80 100 200 25 200 100 100 10 60 80 100 40 Life Hours 3000 2000 8000 1000 unknown 3000 unknown 3000 2000 unknown 800 1000 1000 2000 1000 Brand Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Horizon Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Horizon This is the Database range.15 25 0 £0. . such as the category Brand or Wattage. including the field names at the top of the columns.50 £0. of the Fields(s) to be used as the basis for selecting the records.00 £2. or names.80 25 6 £120.20 30 2 £12. Box Boxes In Value Of Unit Cost Quantity Stock Stock £4.E23:E24) Type the brand name : The stock value of Horizon is : What Does It Do ? This function examines a list of information and produces the total.50 4 3 £54.00 £0.00 £2.I3.00 £0. or 100 as the wattage. The second set of information is the actual record.20 25 2 £10. Horizon £248. Examples The total Value Of Stock of a particular Product of a particular Brand.10 20 5 £10.00 £5.00 £0.

50 F Brand sunbeam =DSUM(B3:I19. Product Bulb Total Value Of Stock is : £52.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 ."Value Of Stock".E67:F68) .2000 Peter Noneley A 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 B C D E Product Bulb Total stock value is : £54.I3. £54.E49:F50) The total Value Of Stock of a Bulb equal to a particular Wattage.E49:F50) G H I DSUM Page 74 of 207 J This is the same calculation but using the name "Value Of Stock" instead of the cell address.E60:F61) The total Value Of Stock of a Bulb less than a particular Wattage. Product Bulb Total Value Of Stock is : £56."Value Of Stock".50 =DSUM(B3:I19.00 Wattage <100 =DSUM(B3:I19.50 Wattage 100 =DSUM(B3:I19."Value Of Stock".

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E 1 Eastern data. 2 Used by the example for the =INDIRECT() function. 3 4 Jan Feb Mar 5 Alan 1000 2000 3000 6 Bob 4000 5000 6000 7 Carol 7000 8000 9000 8 Total 12000 15000 18000 F EAST Page 75 of 207 Total 6000 15000 24000 45000 .

Syntax =EDATE(StartDate.D30) =EDATE(C31.D48).D6) What Does It Do? This function is used to calculate a date which is a specific number of months in the past or in the future.WEEKDAY(EDATE(C48.Date command. this can be formatted to represent a date by using the Format.Months) Formatting The result will normally be expressed as a number.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .Cells.D33) The company decide not to end contracts on Saturday or Sunday. The Start date is entered. then 5 is subtracted from the =EDATE() to ensure the end of contract falls on a Friday.D27) =EDATE(C28.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 B C D E F EDATE Page 76 of 207 G EDATE Start Date 1-Jan-98 2-Jan-98 2-Jan-98 Plus Months 3 3 -3 End Date 1-Apr-98 2-Apr-98 2-Oct-97 =EDATE(C4.D48).D5) =EDATE(C6. Start Tue 06-Jan-98 Mon 12-Jan-98 Fri 09-Jan-98 Fri 09-Jan-98 Mon 19-Jan-98 Mon 26-Jan-98 Mon 12-Jan-98 Duration 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 End Mon 06-Apr-98 Sun 12-Apr-98 Sat 09-May-98 Thu 09-Apr-98 Sun 19-Apr-98 Sun 26-Apr-98 Sun 12-Apr-98 =EDATE(C27. The =EDATE() function has been used to calculate the end of the contract.D4) =EDATE(C5. The contract Duration is entered as months.D48)-IF(WEEKDAY(EDATE(C48. If the week day number is 6 or 7. (Sat or Sun).Number.D28) =EDATE(C29. The company needed to know the end date of the employment. The =WEEKDAY() function has been used to identify the actaul weekday number of the end date.0) .2)-5.D32) =EDATE(C33. Start Tue 06-Jan-98 Mon 12-Jan-98 Fri 09-Jan-98 Fri 09-Jan-98 Mon 19-Jan-98 Mon 26-Jan-98 Mon 12-Jan-98 Duration 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 End Mon 06-Apr-98 Fri 10-Apr-98 Fri 08-May-98 Thu 09-Apr-98 Fri 17-Apr-98 Fri 24-Apr-98 Fri 10-Apr-98 =EDATE(C48. Example This example was used by a company hiring contract staff.2)>5.D29) =EDATE(C30.D31) =EDATE(C32.

2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 B C D E F EOMONTH Page 77 of 207 G EOMONTH StartDate 5-Jan-98 5-Jan-98 5-Jan-98 Plus Months 2 2 -2 End Of Month 35885 31-Mar-98 30-Nov-97 =EOMONTH(C4.D5) =EOMONTH(C6.Number.Cells.D4) =EOMONTH(C5. . this can be formatted to represent a date by using the Format.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Syntax =EOMONTH(StartDate.D6) What Does It Do? This function will show the last day of the month which is a specified number of months before or after a given date.Date command.Months) Formatting The result will normally be expressed as a number.

.TYPE(E4) =ERROR.TYPE(E5) =ERROR.TYPE(E6) =ERROR.TYPE Page 78 of 207 ERROR. Formatting The result will be formatted as a normal number.TYPE Data 10 10 10 10:00 0 3 3 13:00 The Error #DIV/0! #NAME? #REF! ############## Error Type 2 5 4 #N/A =ERROR. Syntax =ERROR.TYPE(Error) Error is the cell reference where the error occurred.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 B C D E F G ERROR. Example See Example 4 in the =DGET() function.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .TYPE(E7) What Does It Do? This function will show a number which corresponds to an error produced by a formula.

The garage is repairing a fleet of cars from three manufactures. Each manufacturer uses a different type of windscreen wiper which are only supplied in pairs.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 B C D E F G EVEN Page 79 of 207 H EVEN Original Value 1 1.2 2.3 25 Evenly Rounded 2 2 4 26 =EVEN(C4) =EVEN(C5) =EVEN(C6) =EVEN(C7) What Does It Do ? This function round a number up the nearest even whole number. Table 1 was used to enter the number of wipers required for each type of car and then show how many pairs need to be ordered. Table 1 Car Vauxhall Ford Peugeot Wipers To Order 5 9 7 Pairs to Order 3 =EVEN(D28)/2 5 =EVEN(D29)/2 4 =EVEN(D30)/2 . Syntax =EVEN(Number) Formatting No special formatting is needed. Example The following table is used by a garage which repairs cars.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

. The case of the password is important.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .D6) What Does It Do? This function compares two items of text and determine whether they are exactly the same. If there is any difference in the two items of text the result of FALSE will be shown. either red blue or green. only words which are spelt the same and which have upper and lower case characters in the same position will be considered as equal. the correct password has been entered as a series of =CHAR() functions. The =EXACT() function is used to check your guess.D4) =EXACT(C5.D5) =EXACT(C6. You need to guess the correct password.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 B C D E F G H I EXACT Page 80 of 207 J EXACT Text1 Hello Hello Hello Text2 Hello hello Goodbye Result TRUE FALSE FALSE =EXACT(C4. Guess the password : Is it correct : red No (To stop you from cheating. Formatting If the two items of text are exactly the same the result of TRUE will be shown.Text2) Only two items of text can be compared. which use the ANSI number of the characters rather than the character itself!) Its still very easy though. The case of the characters is taken into account. Example Here is a simple password checking formula. The password is the name of a colour. Syntax =EXACT(Text1.

No special formatting is needed.628. The factorial of 5 is calculated as 1*2*3*4*5. . Syntax =FACT(Number) Formatting.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 B C D E F G FACT Page 81 of 207 H FACT Number 3 3..640.5 5 10 20 Factorial 6 6 120 3. which results in 120.000 =FACT(C4) =FACT(C5) =FACT(C6) =FACT(C7) =FACT(C8) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the factorial of a number.902.800 2.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Decimal fractions of the number are ignored.176.etc.432.008. The factorial is calculated as 1*2*3*4.

the first occurrence is used.6) =FIND(D9. it specifies at which point in the text the search should begin.C9) What Does It Do? This function looks for a specified letter inside another piece of text. thus enabling the search to find duplicate occurrences of the letter.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .C8. the result will be shown as a number. When the letter is found the position is shown as a number.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 B C D E F FIND Page 82 of 207 G FIND Text Hello Hello Hello Alan Williams Alan Williams Alan Williams Letter To Find e H o a a T Position Of Letter 2 1 5 3 11 #VALUE! =FIND(D4.C6) =FIND(D7. Syntax =FIND(LetterToLookFor. . If the letter is not found in the text. Formatting No special formatting is needed.C4) =FIND(D5. the result #VALUE is shown.C5) =FIND(D6. StartPosition : This is optional.TextToLookInside. TextToLookInside : This is the piece of text to be searched through.StartPosition) LetterToLookFor : This needs to be a single character. If the text contains more than one reference to the letter. An additional option can be used to start the search at a specific point in the text.C7) =FIND(D8.

0 =FIXED(C6.1) 10.2) 10.000's.0) 1000.23 1.00 =FIXED(C7.00 =FIXED(C4) 10 10 =FIXED(C5.25 10.0) 10 10. The Commas option can be TRUE for commas or FALSE for no commas. Formatting No special formatting is needed.TRUE) What Does It Do ? This function converts a numeric value to text.000.25 =FIXED(C8) 10.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .25 10 =FIXED(C9.Commas) If DecimalPlaces places is not specified the function will assume 2.00 =FIXED(C12) 1000. .3 =FIXED(C10.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 B C D E F G H I FIXED Page 83 of 207 J FIXED Original Converted Number To Text 10 10. During the conversion the value can be rounded to a specific number of decimal places.0) 10. and commas can be inserted at the 1. Number command will not have any effect.000 =FIXED(C13. Syntax =FIXED(NumberToConvert.2) 1000 1.0. Cells.DecimalPlaces.25 =FIXED(C11.1) 10 10. Note that any further formatting with the Format.25 10.25 10. If the Commas is not specified the function will assume TRUE.23 1000 =FIXED(C14.

Commission is only paid for every £1000 of sales.000 £230 £56.500 £56.50) =FLOOR(C8.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . The =FLOOR() function has been used to round down the Actual Sales to the nearest 1000.50) =FLOOR(C9.5 2.50) What Does It Do ? This function rounds a value down to the nearest multiple specified by the user.000 £180 =FLOOR(D29. Syntax =FLOOR(NumberToRound.1) =FLOOR(C7. Example The following table was used to calculate commission for members of a sales team.3 2.125 Relevant Sales Commission £23.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 B C D E F G FLOOR Page 84 of 207 H FLOOR Number 1.890 £18.1) =FLOOR(C6.000 £560 £18.1000) .SignificantValue) Formatting No special formatting is needed. which is then used as the basis for Commission.1) =FLOOR(C5.9 123 145 175 Rounded Down 1 2 2 100 100 150 =FLOOR(C4. Name Alan Bob Carol Actual Sales £23.

The predicted value is based on the relationship between the two original sets of values.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 B C D E F G H FORECAST Page 85 of 207 I FORECAST Month 1 2 3 4 5 6 Type the month number to predict : The Forecast sales figure is : 12 £7.RangeX) ItemToForecast is the point in the future. The =FORECAST() function is used to calculate the predicted performance for the new sales team based upon a linear trend.500 £3. RangeX is the intervals used when recording the historical data.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Syntax =FORECAST(ItemToForeCast.RangeY.000 £2. (Jan to Jun). Example The following table was used by a company considering expansion of their sales team.F4:F9.997 Sales £1.000 =FORECAST(E11.000 30 £8. for which you need the forecast.500 £3. you can use the function to predict what the sales figure will be in any other month.667 Size Of The New Sales Team : Estimated Forecast Of Performance : =FORECAST(E43.800 £4.D39:D41) .500 40 £10. The size of the New Sales team is entered. such as Month number.000 20 £8. If the values are sales figures for months 1 to 6. The way in which the prediction is calculated is based upon the assumption of a Linear Trend. The Size and Performance of the previous teams over a period of three years were entered. such as Sales figures. (or past).E39:E41. 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 Year 1996 1997 1998 Size Of Known Sales Team Performance 10 £5.E4:E9) What Does It Do ? This function uses two sets of values to predict a single value.000 £2. RangeY is the list of values which contain the historical data to be used as the basis of the forecast. Formatting No special formatting is needed.

Unfortunately. Example 1 The following tables were used to record the weight of a group of children.000 Mar £4. A restaurant has asked 40 customers for their rating of the food in the restaurant.000 £10.500 £3. The result shows how many items in the range of data fall between the intervals.15 Kg 2 Above 15 but less than or equal to 20 Kg 4 Above 20 Kg 3 {=FREQUENCY(C30:C38.000 Sales above £4. A.000 and below.E9:E11)} Sales £4.000 up to £6. Weight Kg 20. The ratings were entered into a table as a single letter.83 15.000 Sales above £6. The function is entered in the cells as an array.000 £7.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 B C D E F G H FREQUENCY Page 86 of 207 I FREQUENCY North South East West Jan £5.000 £5.999 What Does It Do ? This function compares a range of data against a list of intervals. P or D. the =FREQUENCY() function ignores text entries.80 8.C41:C43)} {=FREQUENCY(C30:C38. Syntax =FREQUENCY(RangeOfData. that is why it is enclosed in { } braces.800 £3.000 £6.000 £4.500 £12.47 22.66 17. The manager now wants to calculate how many responses fell into each category.000 £6. The =FREQUENCY() function was then used to calculate the number of children whose weights fell between specified intervals.28 20.67 18.01 Number Of Children: Between 0 . so how can the frequency .C41:C43)} {=FREQUENCY(C30:C38. V. £4.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .36 16.000 4 5 3 {=FREQUENCY(D4:F7.E9:E11)} {=FREQUENCY(D4:F7.ListOfIntervals) Formatting No special formatting is needed. E.E9:E11)} {=FREQUENCY(D4:F7.000 £2.74 10.000 £999.000 Feb £6.C41:C43)} Child 1 Child 2 Child 3 Child 4 Child 5 Child 6 Child 7 Child 8 Child 9 Kg Weight Intervals 15 20 100 Example 2 This example uses characters instead of values.

The =CODE() function calculates the unique ANSI code for each character.CODE(UPPER(C60:C64)))} {=FREQUENCY(CODE(UPPER(B67:I71)). As this code is a numeric value.CODE(UPPER(C60:C64)))} {=FREQUENCY(CODE(UPPER(B67:I71)).Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 B C of text be calculated? D E F G H FREQUENCY Page 87 of 207 I The answer is to use the =CODE() and =UPPER() functions.CODE(UPPER(C60:C64)))} {=FREQUENCY(CODE(UPPER(B67:I71)).CODE(UPPER(C60:C64)))} {=FREQUENCY(CODE(UPPER(B67:I71)).CODE(UPPER(C60:C64)))} Customer Ratings V V A A V D P V E e V a E d P A D P V P p A p D A A P E P V D V D a E D d A E D . the =FREQUENCY() function can then be used! Rating E V A P D Frequency 6 8 9 8 9 Excellent Very Good Average Poor Disgusting {=FREQUENCY(CODE(UPPER(B67:I71)). The =UPPER() forces all the text entries to be considered as capital letters.

just Enter alone.B24:B72)} {=FREQUENCY(C10:I16. and how many appearances each number has made during the past seven weeks.C10:I16)) . Table 1 is a record of all the results from the past seven weeks. Table 2 Lottery Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 How Many Appearances 1 1 3 1 2 2 0 1 0 0 1 0 3 0 4 0 2 1 1 1 0 2 2 0 1 0 0 {=FREQUENCY(C10:I16.B24:B72)} Special tip! To count how many unique numbers in a range use the following formula. It has to be entered.B24:B72)} {=FREQUENCY(C10:I16. so press Ctrl+Shift+Enter rather than. as an array. 31 =SUM(1/COUNTIF(C10:I16.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 B C D E F G H FREQUENCY 2 Page 88 of 207 I FREQUENCY 2 This example shows how the =FREQUENCY() function has been used to calculate how often certain numbers appear in the Lottery results.B24:B72)} {=FREQUENCY(C10:I16. Unique values.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Table 1 Week 1 1st Number 2nd Number 3rd Number 4th Number 5th Number 6th Number Bonus Ball 3 6 15 32 37 5 17 Week 2 36 3 44 15 31 22 13 Week 3 5 19 35 32 13 30 15 Week 4 3 37 20 46 22 8 25 Week 5 2 23 47 6 49 49 18 Week 6 41 15 29 45 13 11 17 Week 7 45 4 44 23 43 46 1 Table 2 is the list of possible number from 1 to 49.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 B 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 FREQUENCY 2 Page 89 of 207 C 0 1 1 1 2 0 0 1 1 2 0 0 0 1 0 1 2 2 2 1 0 2 D E F G H I .

.E9) =GCD(C10.D11.D4) =GCD(C5. Where there is no common divisor the value of 1 is used.D9.E10) =GCD(C11.Number2.E11) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the largest number which can be used to divided all the values specified..5 Numbers 72 500 4 96 200 6 =GCD(C9. through to Number29) Formatting No special formatting is needed. The result is always a whole number. Syntax =GCD(Number1.D6) Greatest Divisor 6 100 2 18 300 2.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 B C D E F G H GCD Page 90 of 207 I GCD Numbers 6 15 28 49 5 99 Greatest Divisor 3 7 1 =GCD(C4. Decimal fractions are ignored.D5) =GCD(C6. .Number3.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .D10.

Example The following table was used to calculate how many sales staff achieved their targets. Name Alan Bob Carol David Eric Sales £3.000 £5. the result of 1 will be shown.D7) 101 100 1 =GESTEP(C8.E27) =GESTEP(D28.E30) =GESTEP(D31.D5) 99 100 0 =GESTEP(C6. If the number is greater than or equal.E28) =GESTEP(D29. otherwise 0 is shown.D4) 50 20 1 =GESTEP(C5.D8) 2 1 =GESTEP(C9.D6) 100 100 1 =GESTEP(C7.000 £2.E29) =GESTEP(D30.D9) 2 0 =GESTEP(C10.E31) =SUM(F27:F31) Targets Achieved .000 £2.000 £7.000 £1.000 Target £4. and the results are totalled.000 £4. Syntax =GESTEP(NumberToTest. The =GESTEP() function compares the Sales with Target.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 B C D E F G H I GESTEP Page 91 of 207 J GESTEP Number1 Number2 GESTEP 10 20 0 =GESTEP(C4.000 GESTEP 0 1 0 1 1 3 =GESTEP(D27.000 £2.NumberToTestAgainst) Formatting No special formatting is needed.000 £8.D10) What Does It Do ? This function test a number to see if it is greater than or equal to another number.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

887 -549.813.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 B C D E F HEX2DEC Page 92 of 207 G HEX2DEC Hexadecimal 0 1 2 3 1A 1B 7FFFFFFFFF 8000000000 FFFFFFFFFF FFFFFFFFFE FFFFFFFFFD Decimal Number 0 1 2 3 26 27 549.755.755. Syntax =HEX2DEC(HexaDecimalNumber) Formatting No special formatting is needed.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .813.888 -1 -2 -3 =HEX2DEC(C4) =HEX2DEC(C5) =HEX2DEC(C6) =HEX2DEC(C7) =HEX2DEC(C8) =HEX2DEC(C9) =HEX2DEC(C10) =HEX2DEC(C11) =HEX2DEC(C12) =HEX2DEC(C13) =HEX2DEC(C14) What Does It Do ? This function converts a hexadecimal number to its decimal equivalent. Example The following table was used to add two hexadecimal values together. Hexadecimal F 1A 29 Value 1 Value 2 Result =DEC2HEX(HEX2DEC(C29)+HEX2DEC(C30)) .

they are part of the illustration. The =HLOOKUP() uses FALSE at the end of the function to indicate to Excel that the column headings are not sorted.RangeToLookIn.RowToPickFrom.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .Mar is correct. The problem arises when we need to scan down to find the row adjacent to the name. TRUE for yes. it then scans down the column to pick a cell entry. Formatting No special formatting is needed. Unfortunately. The Sorted/Unsorted is whether the column headings are sorted. When the item is found.Jan. Type a month to look for : Which row needs to be picked out : The result is : What Does It Do ? This function scans across the column headings at the top of a table to find a specified item. even though to us the order of Jan. If they were sorted alphabetically they would have read as Feb.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 B C D E F G H I HLOOKUP Page 93 of 207 J HLOOKUP Jan 10 20 30 40 50 Feb 80 90 100 110 120 Mar 97 69 45 51 77 Feb 4 100 =HLOOKUP(F10. the =MATCH() number is 1 less than we require. so and extra 1 is added to compensate. Syntax =HLOOKUP(ItemToFind.D3:F10.Mar. because the list of names is not as deep as the lookup range. Jan 10 20 30 Feb 80 90 100 Mar 97 69 45 Bob Eric Alan . It then calculates the position of the name in the list. The =HLOOKUP() is used to scan across to find the month. The =HLOOKUP() now uses this =MATCH() number to look down the month column and picks out the correct cell entry. The =MATCH() looks through the list of names to find the name we require.SortedOrUnsorted) The ItemToFind is a single item specified by the user.F11.Feb. The RangeToLookIn is the range of data with the column headings at the top. Example 1 This table is used to find a value based on a specified month and name.FALSE) row 1 row 2 row 3 row 4 row 5 row 6 The row numbers are not needed. FALSE for no. To solve the problem the =MATCH() function is used. The RowToPickFrom is how far down the column the function should look to pick from.

F73:F77. The =HLOOKUP() scans the column headings for the make of car specified in column B. .0)+1.MATCH(F55.FALSE) Example 3 In the following example a builders merchant is offering discount on large orders.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . =HLOOKUP(C127. Maker Vauxhall VW Ford VW Ford Ford Vauxhall Ford Spare Ignition GearBox Engine Steering Ignition CYHead GearBox Engine Cost £50 Vauxhall Ford VW £600 GearBox 500 450 600 £1. which scans the list of spares for the item specified in column C. If a match is not found.200 =HLOOKUP(B79. the function will produce an error. The FALSE option has been used at the end of the function to indicate that the product names across the top of the Unit Cost Table are not sorted. The Unit Cost Table holds the cost of 1 unit of Brick.C48:C52.MATCH(C79. The Discount Table holds the various discounts for different quantities of each product.FALSE) The discount is then looked up in the Discount Table If the Quantity Ordered matches a value at the top of the Discount Table the =HLOOKUP will look down the column to find the correct discount. The Orders Table is used to enter the orders and calculate the Total.2000 Peter Noneley A 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 B C Carol David D 40 50 E 110 120 F 51 77 feb alan G H I HLOOKUP Page 94 of 207 J Type a month to look for : Type a name to look for : The result is : 100 =HLOOKUP(F54. All the calculations take place in the Orders Table. The name of the Item is typed in column C.0)+1.200 Engine 1000 1200 800 £275 Steering 250 350 275 £70 Ignition 50 70 45 £290 CYHead 300 290 310 £500 £1.D47:F54.2. The Unit Cost of the item is then looked up in the Unit Cost Table. This ensures that when the formula is copied to more cells. Using the FALSE option forces the function to search for an exact match.FALSE) Example 2 This example shows how the =HLOOKUP() is used to pick the cost of a spare part for different makes of cars.G72:I77. the =HLOOKUP() then looks down the column to the row specified by the =MATCH() function. The function uses the absolute ranges indicated by the dollar symbol \$. the ranges for =HLOOKUP() and =MATCH() do not change.E111:G112. Wood and Glass. When the make is found.

Using TRUE will allow the function to make an approximate match.D116:D118. and the discount from the 100 column is used.E115:G118.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .0)+1.TRUE) Unit Cost Table Wood Glass £1 £3 Brick £2 Brick Wood Glass Discount Table 1 100 0% 6% 0% 3% 0% 12% Orders Table Unit Cost Discount £2 6% £1 3% £3 12% £2 6% £1 0% £3 15% 300 8% 5% 15% Item Brick Wood Glass Brick Wood Glass Unit Cost Discount Units 100 200 150 225 50 500 Total £188 £194 £396 £423 £50 £1.MATCH(C127.275 =HLOOKUP(C127.TRUE) .0)+1.E111:G112. =HLOOKUP(D127.D116:D118.E115:G118.2. Trying to match an order of 125 will drop down to 100. the next lowest value is used.2000 Peter Noneley A 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 HLOOKUP Page 95 of 207 B C D E F G H I J The TRUE option has been used at the end of the function to indicate that the values across the top of the Discount Table are sorted.MATCH(C127.FALSE) =HLOOKUP(D127. If the Quantity Ordered does not match a value at the top of the Discount Table.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .25 Hour 21 6 =HOUR(C4) =HOUR(C5) What Does It Do? The function will show the hour of the day based upon a time or a number.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 B C D E F G H HOUR Page 96 of 207 I HOUR Number 21:15 0. . Syntax =HOUR(Number) Formatting The result will be shown as a normal number between 0 and 23.

. If the Sales do not reach the target the result of Not Achieved is shown.C45*10%. such as A1=A2."Achieved". Each has their own target which they must reach. This time the Commission to be paid to the sales rep is calculated. A builders merchant gives 10% discount on certain product lines. The ActionIfTrue and ActionIfFalse can be numbers. Name Alan Bob Carol Sales 1000 6000 2000 Target 5000 5000 4000 Commission 50 =IF(C43>=D43."Achieved". the Commission is only 5% of Sales. Example 1 The following table shows the Sales figures and Targets for sales reps.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 B C D E F G H IF Page 97 of 207 I IF Name Alan Bob Carol Sales 1000 6000 2000 Target 5000 5000 4000 Result Not Achieved =IF(C4>=D4.C44*10%. Name Alan Bob Carol Sales 1000 6000 2000 Target 5000 5000 4000 Result Not Achieved =IF(C31>=D31.ActionIfTrue."Not Achieved") What Does It Do? This function tests a condition. Syntax =IF(Condition. the Commission is 10% of Sales. If the Sales are greater than or equal to the Target.C43*5%) 600 =IF(C44>=D44. one of two actions will be carried out. Formatting No special formatting is required. The =IF() function is used to compare the Sales with the Target."Not Achieved") Achieved =IF(C5>=D5.ActionIfFalse) The Condition is usually a test of two cells."Not Achieved") Not Achieved =IF(C33>=D33. text or calculations.C44*5%) 100 =IF(C45>=D45."Achieved". If the condition is not met it is considered as FALSE."Not Achieved") Not Achieved =IF(C6>=D6. Note that the text used in the =IF() function needs to be placed in double quotes "Achieved".C45*5%) Example 3 This example uses the =AND() within the =IF() function."Not Achieved") Example 2 The following table is similar to that in Example 1."Not Achieved") Achieved =IF(C32>=D32. If the condition is met it is considered to be TRUE.C43*10%. If the Sales are greater than or equal to the Target the result of Achieved is shown."Achieved".Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 ."Achieved"."Achieved". Depending upon the result. If the Sales do not reach Target.

000 £ 500 £ 3.D61*10%. The =AND() function is used with the =IF() to check that the product is on offer and that the value of the order is above £1000.800 £ £ 2.000 £ 2.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Special Offer Yes No Yes Yes Order Value £ 2.D61>=1000).0) .700 =IF(AND(C61="Yes".2000 Peter Noneley A 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 B C D E F G H The discount is only given on products which are on Special Offer. when the Order Value is £1000 or above.000 IF Page 98 of 207 I Product Wood Glass Cement Turf Discount Total £ 200 £ 1.000 £ £ 500 £ 300 £ 2.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . 2 or 3 : 2 The size is : Medium =INDEX(G34:I34. Syntax 1 =INDEX(RangeToLookIn.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 B C D E F G H INDEX Page 99 of 208 I INDEX Holiday booking price list. or non-continuos blocks. Syntax There are various forms of syntax for this function. 2 or 3 : 2 The colour is : Green =INDEX(D32:D34.RowCoordinate. Both of the examples below use the same syntax.ColumnColumnCordinate) This syntax is used when the range is made up of rows and columns.G12) How many weeks required : How many people in the party : Cost per person is : What Does It Do ? This function picks a value from a range of data by looking down a specified number of rows and then across a specified number of columns. People Weeks 1 2 3 1 £500 £600 £700 2 £300 £400 £500 3 £250 £300 £350 4 £200 £250 £300 2 4 250 =INDEX(D7:G9. The Co-ordinate indicates how far down or across to look when picking the data from the range.Coordinate) This is used when the RangeToLookIn is either a single column or row.D36) Size Large Medium Small Type either 1.2. Colours Red Green Blue Type either 1.3 or 4 for the country : . but the Co-ordinate refers to a row when the range is vertical and a column when the range is horizontal. It can be used with a single block of data. Country England France Germany Spain Currency Population Capitol Sterling 50 M London Franc 40 M Paris DM 60 M Bonn Peseta 30 M Barcelona 2 Type 1.H36) Syntax 2 =INDEX(RangeToLookIn.G11.

500 £6.000 Qtr2 £2.000 £9.500 £6. 2.500 Type 1.000 Qtr2 £2.500 £11.500 £7.000 £10.F77.500 £9.RowCoordinate. 3 or 4 for the Qtr : Type 1 for North or 2 for South : The result is : Example This is an extended version of the previous example.000 £6. 2 or 3 for the product : Type 1.AreaToPickFrom) Using this syntax the range to look in can be made up of multiple areas.000 Qtr4 £4.000 Qtr3 £3.500 Qtr3 £3. It allows the names of products and the quarters to be entered.500 £8. In the following example the figures for North and South have been named as one range called NorthAndSouth.500 wood qtr2 Qtr4 £4.ColumnColumnCordinate. EAST Bricks Wood Glass WEST Bricks Wood Glass Qtr1 £1.500 1 3 2 3500 =INDEX(NorthAndSouth.2000 Peter Noneley A 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 B C D E Type 1.000 £8.2 or 3 for statistics : The result is : F 3 Paris G H INDEX Page 100 of 208 I =INDEX(D45:F48.500 Qtr3 £3.000 £7.F76.F51) Syntax 3 =INDEX(NamedRangeToLookIn. These positions are then used by the =INDEX() function to look for the data.000 £10.000 £12.500 £5. NORTH Bricks Wood Glass SOUTH Bricks Wood Glass Qtr1 £1.F78) Qtr4 £4.000 Qtr1 £1. The AreaToPickFrom indicates which of the multiple areas should be used.500 £11.500 £9.F50.000 £5. 2.500 Type 1.500 Qtr2 £2.000 £12.000 £8.500 £8.000 Qtr3 £3.500 £12. 2 or 3 for the product : Type 1.500 Qtr2 £2.000 £6.000 Qtr4 £4.500 £10.000 £11. 3 or 4 for the Qtr : . The =MATCH() function is used to find the row and column positions of the names entered.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .000 £5. The easiest way to refer to these areas is to select them and give them a single name.500 £10.000 £7.000 £9.500 £7.000 £11.500 £5.500 £12.000 Qtr1 £1.

1.C91:C93.D90:G90.MATCH(F100.0).0).MATCH(F101.2))) .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .IF(F102=C95.2000 Peter Noneley A 102 103 104 105 106 B C D E Type 1 for North or 2 for South : The result is : F west 6500 G H INDEX Page 101 of 208 I =INDEX(EastAndWest.IF(F102=C90.

The data on these three sheets is laid out in the same cells on each sheet.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 B C D E F G H I INDIRECT Page 102 of 208 J K INDIRECT North South East West Jan 10 40 70 100 Feb 20 50 80 110 Mar 30 60 90 120 G6 80 =INDIRECT(H9) Type address of any of the cells in the above table. Example 1 This example shows how data can be picked form other worksheets by using the worksheet name and a cell address. The example uses three other worksheets named NORTH. such as C7 : C7 The sum of the range C5:C7 on South is : 1200 =SUM(INDIRECT(G44&"!"&G45&":"&G46)) The =INDIRECT() created a reference to =SUM(SOUTH!C5:C7) . such as G6 : The value in the cell you typed is : What Does It Do ? This function converts a plain piece of text which looks like a cell address into a usable cell reference. but this time the =SUM() function is used to calculate a total from a range of cells. SOUTH and EAST. Type the name of the sheet. such as C5 : C5 Type the end cell of the range. The address can be either on the same worksheet or on a different worksheet. such as North : Type the cell to pick data from. When a reference to a sheet is made the exclamation symbol ! needs to be placed between the sheet name and cell address acting as punctuation. such as South : South Type the start cell of the range.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Type the name of the sheet. such as C8 : The contents of the cell C8 on North is : The =INDIRECT() created a reference to =NORTH!C8 North C8 120 =INDIRECT(G33&"!"&G34) Example 2 This example uses the same data as above. Syntax =INDIRECT(Text) Formatting No special formatting is needed.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A 51 B C D E F G H I INDIRECT Page 103 of 208 J K .

01 Automatic 14. Formatting The results will be shown as text or a number depending upon what was requested. Syntax =INFO(text) text : This is the name of the item you require information about. (PC or Mac) System Information C:\Users\user\Documents\ #N/A #N/A #N/A 166 \$A:\$A\$1 Windows (32-bit) NT 6. .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 B C D INFO Page 104 of 207 E INFO Current directory Available bytes of memory Memory in use Total bytes of memory Number of active worksheets Cell currently in the top left of the window Operating system Recalculation mode Excel version Name of system.0 pcdos =INFO("directory") =INFO("memavail") =INFO("memused") =INFO("totmem") =INFO("numfile") =INFO("origin") =INFO("osversion") =INFO("recalc") =INFO("release") =INFO("system") What Does It Do? This function provides information about the operating environment of the computer.

Table 3 Birth Date 1-Jan-80 5-Feb-81 Term Start 1-Sep-88 1-Sep-88 Age 8 7 =INT((D49-C49)/365.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 B C D E F G H INT Page 105 of 207 I INT Number 1.75 -1. Table 1 shows the age of the child with decimal places Table 1 Birth Date 1-Jan-80 5-Feb-81 20-Oct-79 1-Mar-81 Term Start 1-Sep-88 1-Sep-88 1-Sep-88 1-Sep-88 Age 8. Example The following table was used by a school to calculate the age a child when the school year started.668035592 =(D27-C27)/365.570157426 8.25 7.25 Table 3 shows the age of the child with the Age calculated using the =INT() function to remove the decimal part of the number to give the correct age. Syntax =INT(Number) Formatting No special formatting is needed.25) . The Birth Date and the Term Start date are entered and the age calculated.5 2.504449008 Table 2 shows the age of the child with the Age formatted with no decimal places.8678987 7. A child can only be admitted to school if they are over 8 years old.3 10. This has the effect of increasing the child age.47589 Integer 1 2 10 -2 =INT(C4) =INT(C5) =INT(C6) =INT(C7) What Does It Do ? This function rounds a number down to the nearest whole number. Table 2 Birth Date 1-Jan-80 5-Feb-81 20-Oct-79 1-Mar-81 Term Start 1-Sep-88 1-Sep-88 1-Sep-88 1-Sep-88 Age 9 8 9 8 =(D38-C38)/365.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

25 is to take account of the leap years.25 The reason for using 365.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . . The number of days is then divided by 365.2000 Peter Noneley A 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 B C 20-Oct-79 1-Mar-81 D 1-Sep-88 1-Sep-88 E 8 7 F G H INT Page 106 of 207 I Note The age is calculated by subtracting the Birth Date from the Term Start to find the age of the child in days.

chq5 J Smith Date Received 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-98 2-Jan-98 3-Jan-98 4-Jan-98 Date Cleared 2-Jan-98 7-Jan-98 Amount £100 £200 £50 £1.0. Usually the function is used in conjunction with the =IF() function which can test the result of the =ISBLANK() Syntax =ISBLANK(CellToTest) Formatting Used by itself the result will be shown as TRUE or FALSE. The =ISBLANK() function is used to determine whether the Cleared column is empty or not. While the Cleared column is blank the cheque will still be Outstanding.0) Totals 550 1050 .E36. Cheques Received Num From chq1 ABC Ltd chq2 CJ Design chq3 J Smith chq4 Travel Co. When the Cleared date is entered the cheque will be shown as Banked. It can be used when a spreadsheet has blank cells which may cause errors. Example The following example shows a list of cheques received by a company. Until the Cleared date is entered the Cleared column is blank.E36) =IF(ISBLANK(F36). but which will be filled later as the data is received by the user.000 £250 Banked Outstanding 100 0 200 0 0 50 0 1000 6-Jan-98 250 0 =IF(ISBLANK(F36). When the cheque is cleared the date is entered.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 B C D E F G ISBLANK Page 107 of 207 H ISBLANK Data 1 Hello 25-Dec-98 Is The Cell Blank FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE =ISBLANK(C4) =ISBLANK(C5) =ISBLANK(C6) =ISBLANK(C7) What Does It Do? This function will determine if there is an entry in a particular cell.

E40/E41) . Table 2 Cost Of Crate : Bottles In Crate : Cost of single bottle : £24 0 Try again! =IF(ISERR(E40/E41). which Excel does not do.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Table 1 shows what happens when the value zero 0 is entered as the number of bottles. or if the error is the #NA message. Table 1 Cost Of Crate : Bottles In Crate : Cost of single bottle : £24 0 #DIV/0! =E32/E33 Table 2 shows how this error can be trapped by using the =ISERR() function. by dividing the cost of the crate by the quantity of bottles in the crate."Try again!". Formatting No special formatting is needed. It will show FALSE if the contents of the cell calculate without an error. The #DIV/0 indicates that an attempt was made to divide by zero 0. Syntax =ISERR(CellToTest) The CellToTest can be a cell reference or a calculation.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 B C D E F G H ISERR Page 108 of 207 I ISERR Cell to test 3 #DIV/0! #NAME? #REF! #VALUE! #N/A #N/A Result FALSE TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE FALSE FALSE =ISERR(D4) =ISERR(D5) =ISERR(D6) =ISERR(D7) =ISERR(D8) =ISERR(D9) =ISERR(D10) What Does It Do ? This function tests a cell and shows TRUE if there is an error value in the cell. Example The following tables were used by a publican to calculate the cost of a single bottle of champagne.

Syntax =ISERROR(CellToTest) The CellToTest can be a cell reference or a formula.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . It will show TRUE for any type of error and FALSE if no error is found. Table 1 shows an error due to the fact that the first entry was entered using an inappropriate date format. Example The following tables was used to calculate the difference between two dates.D40-D39) . Formatting No special formatting is needed."Error in data entry". Table 2 Start date : Jan 01 98 End date : 5-Jan-98 Difference : Error in data entry =IF(ISERROR(D40-D39). Table 1 Start date : Jan 01 98 End date : 5-Jan-98 Difference : #VALUE! =D31-D30 Table 2 shows how the =ISERROR() function has been used to trap the error and inform the user that there has been an error in the data entry.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 B C D E F G ISERROR Page 109 of 207 H ISERROR Cell to test 3 #DIV/0! #NAME? #REF! #VALUE! #N/A #N/A Result FALSE TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE =ISERROR(D4) =ISERROR(D5) =ISERROR(D6) =ISERROR(D7) =ISERROR(D8) =ISERROR(D9) =ISERROR(D10) What Does It Do ? This function tests a cell or calculation to determine whether an error has been generated.

Syntax =ISEVEN(CellToTest) Formatting No special formatting is required.6 Hello 1-Feb-98 1-Feb-96 Is it Even FALSE TRUE TRUE TRUE FALSE FALSE #VALUE! FALSE TRUE =ISEVEN(C4) =ISEVEN(C5) =ISEVEN(C6) =ISEVEN(C7) =ISEVEN(C8) =ISEVEN(C9) =ISEVEN(C10) =ISEVEN(C11) =ISEVEN(C12) What Does It Do ? This function tests a number to determine whether it is even.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Note that text entries result in the #VALUE! error.6 3. .2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 B C D E F G H ISEVEN Page 110 of 207 ISEVEN Number 1 2 2.5 3. An even number is shown as TRUE an odd number is shown as FALSE. Note that dates can be even or odd.5 2. Note that decimal fractions are ignored.

The logical values can only be TRUE or FALSE. Syntax =ISLOGICAL(CellToTest) Formatting No special formatting is needed. the result FALSE is shown.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 B C D E F G H I ISLOGICAL Page 111 of 207 J ISLOGICAL Cell To Test FALSE TRUE 20 1-Jan-98 Hello #DIV/0! Result TRUE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE =ISLOGICAL(D4) =ISLOGICAL(D5) =ISLOGICAL(D6) =ISLOGICAL(D7) =ISLOGICAL(D8) =ISLOGICAL(D9) =ISLOGICAL(D10) What Does It Do ? This function tests a cell to determine whether the cell contents are logical.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . the result TRUE is shown. . If the cell does not contain a logical value. If the cell does contain a logical value.

2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 B C D E F G H ISNA Page 112 of 207 I ISNA Number 1 Hello 1-Jan-98 #N/A Result FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE =ISNA(C4) =ISNA(C5) =ISNA(C6) =ISNA(C7) =ISNA(C8) What Does It Do? This function tests a cell to determine whether it contains the Not Available error #N/A. but will be used for data entry in the future. Syntax =ISNA(CellToTest) Formatting No special formatting is needed. The #N/A is generated when a function cannot work properly because of missing data. . The #N/A can also be typed in to a cell by the user to indicate the cell is currently empty. The function is normally used with other functions such as the =IF() function.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

Table 2 Item Radio TV Video Buying Price Mark-up Profit 400 150% 600 800 200% 1600 3OO 150% Retype the Price =IF(ISNONTEXT(D40). Examples The following table is used by an electrical retailer to calculate the selling price of an item based on the buying price and the shop mark-up. 300.D40*E40. rather than text. Table 1 shows the #VALUE! error generated when a number. is entered using the letter O instead of the zero 0. such as typing the letter O instead of zero 0.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . The function is normally used with other function such as the =IF() function. Table 1 Item Radio TV Video Buying Price 400 800 3OO Mark-up 150% 200% 150% Profit 600 1600 #VALUE! =D32*E32 Table 2 shows how the error is trapped using the =ISNONTEXT function and the =IF() function in the calculation."Retype the Price") .2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 B C D E F ISNONTEXT Page 113 of 207 G ISNONTEXT Item To Test 10 Hello 1-Jan-98 1OO Is It A Number? TRUE FALSE TRUE TRUE FALSE =ISNONTEXT(C4) =ISNONTEXT(C5) =ISNONTEXT(C6) =ISNONTEXT(C7) =ISNONTEXT(C8) What Does It Do? This functions tests an entry to determine whether it is a number. Syntax =ISNONTEXT(CellToTest) Formatting No special formatting. It would be used to ensure that only numeric entries are used in calculations. rather than text which looks like a number.

the result FALSE is shown. Syntax =ISNUMBER(CellToTest) The cell to test can be a cell reference or a calculation.C29:E33. ID No. and then the =IF() decides which VLOOKUP to perform. Formatting No special formatting is needed.000 £15.000 Type Employee Name or ID : eric The Salary is : £ 12.2.000 £8.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .FALSE).VLOOKUP(E35. 1 2 3 4 5 Name Alan Eric Carol Bob David Salary £10. If the cell or calculation is not numeric. Example The following table was used by a personnel department to lookup the salary of an employee. If the cell or calculation is a numeric value the result TRUE is shown.FALSE)) . or is blank.000 £12. The employee can be entered as a Name or as a Numeric value.000 £12. The =ISNUMBER() function has been used to identify the type of entry made.D29:E33.000 =IF(ISNUMBER(E35).2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 B C D E F G H I ISNUMBER Page 114 of 207 J ISNUMBER Cell Entry 1 1-Jan-98 #DIV/0! Hello Result TRUE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE =ISNUMBER(D4) =ISNUMBER(D5) =ISNUMBER(D6) =ISNUMBER(D7) =ISNUMBER(D8) What Does It Do ? This function examines a cell or calculation to determine whether it is a numeric value.3.VLOOKUP(E35.

. Note that dates can be odd or even.5 2. Note that text entries result in the #VALUE! error. An odd number is shown as TRUE an even number is shown as FALSE.6 3.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 B C D E F G H ISODD Page 115 of 207 I ISODD Number 1 2 2.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Note that decimal fractions are ignored.6 Hello 1-Feb-98 1-Feb-96 Is it Odd TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE TRUE #VALUE! TRUE FALSE =ISODD(C4) =ISODD(C5) =ISODD(C6) =ISODD(C7) =ISODD(C8) =ISODD(C9) =ISODD(C10) =ISODD(C11) =ISODD(C12) What Does It Do ? This function tests a number to determine whether it is odd.5 3. Syntax =ISODD(CellToTest) Formatting No special formatting is required.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . as the reference will itself be evaluated by the function. Syntax =ISREF(ValueToTest) The ValueToTest can be any type of data. . but when used on the worksheet. Formatting No special formatting is needed. and is normally used in macros rather than on the worksheet. it cannot be a reference to the contents of another cell. or FALSE for any other type of value. Its a bit of an odd one.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 B C D E F G H ISREF Page 116 of 207 I ISREF TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE =ISREF(A1) =ISREF(B99) =ISREF(Hello) =ISREF(10) =ISREF(NOW()) =ISREF("A1") =ISREF(XX99) What Does It Do ? This function shows TRUE if given a cell address.

Example The following table was used by a personnel department to lookup the salary of an employee. If the entry is text is shows TRUE.D27:E31.2. If the entry is any other type it shows FALSE. ID No.VLOOKUP(E33.FALSE). The =ISTEXT() function has been used to identify the type of entry made.VLOOKUP(E33.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .000 =IF(ISTEXT(E33).FALSE)) .000 £8. and then the =IF() decides which VLOOKUP to perform.000 £15.000 £12.000 £12.000 Type Employee Name or ID : 3 The Salary is : £ 8. Syntax =ISTEXT(CellToTest) Formatting No special formatting is needed. 1 2 3 4 5 Name Alan Eric Carol Bob David Salary £10.3.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 B C D E F G H ISTEXT Page 117 of 207 I ISTEXT Cell To Test Hello 1 25-Dec-98 Result TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE =ISTEXT(D4) =ISTEXT(D5) =ISTEXT(D6) =ISTEXT(D7) What Does It Do ? This functions tests an entry to determine whether it is text. The employee can be entered as a Name or as a Numeric value.C27:E31.

PositionToPickFrom) Formatting No special formatting is needed.1) =LARGE(C4:C8. Example The following table was used to calculate the top 3 sales figures between Jan.000 £10.000 £2.2) =LARGE(D24:F27.000 Feb £6.4) =LARGE(C4:C8.3) =LARGE(C4:C8.3) Highest Value 2nd Highest Value 3rd Highest Value Note Another way to find the Highest and Lowest values would have been to use the =MAX() and =MIN() functions.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 B C D E F G H LARGE Page 118 of 207 I LARGE Values 120 800 100 120 250 Highest Value 2nd Highest Value 3rd Highest Value 4th Highest Value 5th Highest Value 800 250 120 120 100 =LARGE(C4:C8. Sales North South East West Jan £5.500 £12.1) =LARGE(D24:F27.2) =LARGE(C4:C8.000 £5.000 £7.000 £6.000 Mar £4.000 =LARGE(D24:F27. Highest Lowest £12. Syntax =LARGE(ListOfNumbersToExamine.800 £3.000 £10.000 £2. Feb and Mar.500 £3.000 =MAX(D24:F27) =MIN(D24:F27) .000 £12.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .5) What Does It Do ? This function examines a list of values and picks the value at a user specified position in the list.000 £7.000 £4.

which is the smallest number that can be divided by each of the given numbers.D6) What Does It Do ? This function calculate the Least Common Multiple.Number3.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 ..Number2.. Syntax =LCM(Number1.D4) =LCM(C5. . through to Number29) Formatting No special formatting is needed.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 B C D E F G H LCM Page 119 of 207 I LCM Least Common Multiple 60 36 1632 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Numbers 6 20 12 18 34 96 =LCM(C4.D5) =LCM(C6.

D8) What Does It Do ? This function displays a specified number of characters from the left hand side of a piece of text. Example The following table was used to extract the first name of a person from their full name.C29)-1) .C27)-1) =LEFT(C28.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 B C D E F G H LEFT Page 120 of 207 I LEFT Number Of Characters Required Left String 1 A 2 Al 3 Ala 6 Cardif 4 ABC1 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 Text Alan Jones Alan Jones Alan Jones Cardiff ABC123 =LEFT(C4. The length of the first name is therefore the position of the space minus one character. The =FIND() function was used to locate position of the space between the first and second name. Syntax =LEFT(OriginalText.D4) =LEFT(C5.FIND(" ".NumberOfCharactersRequired) Formatting No special formatting is needed.FIND(" ".Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .D5) =LEFT(C6.D7) =LEFT(C8.C28)-1) =LEFT(C29. Full Name First Name Alan Jones Alan Bob Smith Bob Carol Williams Carol =LEFT(C27. The =LEFT() function can now extract the first name based on the position of the space.D6) =LEFT(C7.FIND(" ".

including spaces and numbers. Carol Williams 8 . Original Text Carol Williams 6 =FIND(" ".Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Example This example shows how the =LEN() function is used in a formula which extracts the second name from a text entry containing both first and second names. =RIGHT(C24.C24)) This is just the second name. Syntax =LEN(Text) Formatting No Special formatting is needed. Calculated by using the =RIGHT() function to extract the rightmost characters up to the length of the second name.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 B C D E F G H LEN Page 121 of 207 I LEN Text Alan Jones Bob Smith Carol Williams Cardiff ABC123 Length 10 9 14 7 6 =LEN(C4) =LEN(C5) =LEN(C6) =LEN(C7) =LEN(C8) What Does It Do ? This function counts the number of characters.C24) This is the position of the space. Calculated by taking the overall length of the complete name and subtracting the position of the space. =LEN(C24)-FIND(" ".C24) This is the length of the second name. in a piece of text.LEN(C24)-FIND(" ".

When a match is found. . Syntax =LOOKUP(WhatToLookFor.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . If the table has the same amount of rows and columns : the function will look down the left most column and work in just the same way as if the table had more rows than columns.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 B C D E F G H I LOOKUP (Array) Page 122 of 207 J LOOKUP (Array) Name Alan Bob Carol David Eric Francis Gail Jan 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Feb 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 Eric 77 =LOOKUP(F12. (use VLOOKUP or HLOOKUP). If the table has more columns than rows : the function will look across the top row trying to find a match for the piece of information you have asked it to look for. Be careful not to include unnecessary heading in the range as these will cause errors. The way in which the function decides whether to pick from the row or column is based on the size of the table. It always picks the data from the end of the row or column. and then picks an item from the last cell in the adjacent row or column.D4:G10) Mar 97 69 45 51 77 28 73 Type a Name in this cell : The March value for this person is : What Does It Do ? This function looks for a piece of information in a list. the function will look across to the right most column to pick the last entry on the row. the function will then look down to the bottom cell of the column to pick the last entry of the column. as in the description above. The RangeToLook in can be either horizontal or vertical.RangeToLookIn) The WhatToLookFor should be a single item. When a match is found. If the table has more rows than columns : the function will look down the left most column trying to find a match for the piece of information you asked it to look for. so it is no good if you need to pick data from part way across a list.

Table 2 shows the same data. the results of using =LOOKUP() will be correct. but not sorted.G80:J86) . so the column heading of Jan is not included in the lookup range. Table 1 shows the Name column sorted alphabetically. otherwise errors will occur. either as #N/A or incorrect results. Table 1 Name Alan Bob Carol David Eric Francis Gail Name : Value : Table 2 Name David Eric Alan Bob Carol Francis Gail Name : Value : Jan 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Eric Feb 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 Mar 97 69 45 51 77 28 73 Jan 40 50 10 20 30 60 70 Eric Feb 110 120 80 90 100 130 140 Mar 51 77 97 69 45 28 73 77 =LOOKUP(C88. so the row heading of Jan is not included in the lookup range.B80:E86) 45 =LOOKUP(H88.2000 Peter Noneley A 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 B C D Example 1 In this table there are more rows than columns. E LOOKUP (Array) Page 123 of 207 F G H I J Example 2 In this table there are more columns than rows. Alan 100 Bob 100 Carol 100 David 100 Jan Problems The list of information to be looked through must be sorted in ascending order. but other times the result will be an #N/A error or incorrect figure. Jan Alan 100 Bob 100 Carol 100 David 100 Eric 100 Fred 100 Formatting No special formatting is needed.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Sometimes the results will be correct.

RangeToPickFrom) The WhatToLookFor should be a single item. either as #N/A or incorrect results. When a match is found the =LOOKUP() then picks from the second range E38:J38. Syntax =LOOKUP(WhatToLookFor. Formatting No special formatting is needed. Example The following example shows how the =LOOKUP() function was used to match a name typed in cell G41 against the list of names in C38:C43.C38:C43. . If the name Carol is used.F4:F10) Mar 97 69 45 51 77 28 73 Type a Name in this cell : The Feb value for this person is : What Does It Do ? This function looks for a piece of information in a list. The RangeToPickFrom must have the same number of cells in it as the RangeToLookin.E38:J38) Problems The list of information to be looked through must be sorted in ascending order. Be careful not to include unnecessary heading in the ranges as these will cause errors. the match is made in the third cell of the list of names. and then picks an item from a second range of cells.RangeToLookIn. RangeToLookIn Alan Bob Carol David Eric Fred RangeToPickFrom 15 20 5 10 25 30 Type a name : Value : Carol 15 =LOOKUP(G41.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 B C D E F G H LOOKUP (Vector) Page 124 of 207 I J LOOKUP (Vector) Name Alan Bob Carol David Eric Francis Gail Jan 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Feb 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 Eric 120 =LOOKUP(F12.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . otherwise errors will occur.D4:G10. The RangeToLook in can be either horizontal or vertical. and then the function picks the third cell from the list of values.

Syntax =LOWER(TextToConvert) Formatting No special formatting is needed.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 B C D E F G LOWER Page 125 of 207 H LOWER Upper Case Text ALAN JONES BOB SMITH CAROL WILLIAMS CARDIFF ABC123 Lower Case alan jones bob smith carol williams cardiff abc123 =LOWER(C4) =LOWER(C5) =LOWER(C6) =LOWER(C7) =LOWER(C8) What Does It Do ? This function converts all characters in a piece of text to lower case. .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

I4:I7. It can look for an exact match or an approximate match.E4:E7. Using 1 will look for an exact match.1) Using 0 will look for an exact match. The Descending list gives the exact match.TypeOfMatch) The TypeOfMatch either 0. If no match is found the #NA error will be shown. Using -1 will look for an exact match. The list must be sorted for this to work properly. The Ascending list gives the exact match.G40:G43. Ascending 10 20 30 40 20 2 Descending 40 30 20 10 20 3 =MATCH(G45. 1 or -1.WhereToLook. The Wrong Value list cannot find an exact match. The list of values being examined must be sorted for this to work correctly. If there is no match or next lowest number the error #NA is shown. Examples 1 Using the 0 option suitable for an exact match. It can be used with text and numbers.0) What Does It Do ? This function looks for an item in a list and shows its position. or the next lowest number if no exact match exists.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . or the next highest number if no exact match exists. Syntax =MATCH(WhatToLookFor. so the #NA is shown. Value position : 3 =MATCH(I9.2000 Peter Noneley A B 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 C D E F G H MATCH Page 126 of 207 I MATCH Names Bob Alan David Carol Type a name to look for : Alan Type a value : Values 250 600 1000 4000 1000 The position of Alan is : 2 =MATCH(E9.0) Wrong Value 10 20 30 40 25 #N/A Example 2 . If there is no exact match or next highest number the error #NA is shown.

After the =MATCH() function has found the bus..D95:D99.-1) Example 4 The tables below were used to by a bus company taking booking for bus tours. The Wrong Value list finds the next highest number. The Ascending list gives the exact match. The Descending list gives the #NA error.G74:G77. the =INDEX() function has been used to look down the list again and pick out the actual bus size required.G57:G60. They need to allocate a bus with enough seats for the all the passengers. If the number of passengers is not an exact match. The =MATCH() function looks down the list to find the bus with enough seats.1) MATCH Page 127 of 207 I 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 Example 3 Using the -1 option suitable for a descending list to find an exact or next highest match.-1).2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H Using the 1 option suitable for a ascending list to find an exact or next lowest match. Ascending 10 20 30 40 20 #N/A Descending 40 30 20 10 20 3 Wrong Value 40 30 20 10 25 2 =MATCH(G79.MATCH(H94. The number of passengers on the tour is then entered.0) Bus 1 Bus 2 Bus 3 Bus 4 Bus 5 . The Ascending list gives the #NA error.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . The Wrong Value list finds the next lowest number. The Descending list gives the exact match. Bus Size 54 50 22 15 6 Passengers on the tour : 23 Bus size needed : 50 =INDEX(D95:D99. Ascending 10 20 30 40 20 2 Descending 40 30 20 10 20 #N/A Wrong Value 10 20 30 40 25 2 =MATCH(G62. the next biggest bus will be picked. The list of bus sizes has been entered in a list.

The =INDEX() function then looks down the Grade list to find the grade. The pupils scores were entered in another list.2000 Peter Noneley A B 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 C D E F G H MATCH Page 128 of 207 I Example 5 The tables below were used by a school to calculate the exam grades for pupils.0) . The pupils scores are compared against the breakpoints.C111:C114. If an exact match is not found.MATCH(G114.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . The list of grade breakpoints was entered in a list. Exam Score Grade 0 Fail 50 Pass 90 Merit 95 Distinction Pupil Score Grade Alan 60 Pass Bob 6 Fail Carol 97 Distinction David 89 Pass =INDEX(D111:D114.1). the next lowest breakpoint is used.

. 4-Jul-98 =MAX(C7:G7) Example In the following example the =MAX() function has been used to find the highest value for each region.800 £3.Range3.000 £7. Syntax =MAX(Range1.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 B C D E F G H MAX Page 129 of 207 I MAX Values 120 800 100 120 250 Maximum 800 Maximum 27-Dec-98 =MAX(C4:G4) Dates 1-Jan-98 25-Dec-98 31-Mar-98 27-Dec-98 What Does It Do ? This function picks the highest value from a list of data.000 =MAX(C23:E26) .000 =MAX(C23:E23) £7.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .000 £10.500 £3.000 £12.000 Overall Max £12.500 £12. through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed.000 Feb £6.000 £5.000 £2.000 =MAX(E23:E26) Region Max £6.Range2.. month and overall.000 Mar £4.000 £7.000 £6.000 £10.000 £12. Sales North South East West Month Max Jan £5.000 £4.000 £10.

through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed. If there is no exact median number in the group.Range3.. . the two nearest the half way point are added and their average is used as the median.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 B C D E F G H I MEDIAN Page 130 of 207 J MEDIAN Value1 20 2000 10 Value1 20 20 Value2 50 1000 20 Value2 40 20 Value3 10 10 40 Value3 30 40 Value4 30 20 40 Value4 10 20 Value5 40 8000 40 Median 30 1000 40 Median 25 20 =MEDIAN(C4:G4) =MEDIAN(C6:G6) =MEDIAN(C8:G8) =MEDIAN(C11:F11) =MEDIAN(C13:F13) What Does It Do ? This function finds the median value of a group of values. The median is not the average.. Syntax =MEDIAN(Range1. it is the half way point where half the numbers in the group are larger than it and half the numbers are less than it.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .Range2.

5.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 B C D E F G MID Page 131 of 207 H MID Text ABCDEDF ABCDEDF ABCDEDF ABC-100-DEF ABC-200-DEF ABC-300-DEF Item Size: Large Item Size: Medium Item Size: Small Start Position 1 2 5 100 200 300 Large Medium Small How Many Characters Mid String 3 ABC =MID(C4.3) =MID(C9.5.D6.5.5.D5.12.99) =MID(C13.5.12.PositionToStartPicking. only the available characters will be picked. which is inside a piece of text which has no standard format. other than the required text is always between two slash / symbols.99) =MID(C14. Syntax =MID(OriginalText.E5) 2 ED =MID(C6. The function needs to know at what point it should start.E4) 3 BCD =MID(C5. and how many characters to pick.3) =MID(C12.2) NP =MID(C37. Example 1 The following table uses the =MID() function to extract a post code from a branch ID used by a company.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .E6) =MID(C8. Branch ID DRS-CF-476 DRS-WA-842 HLT-NP-190 Postal Region CF =MID(C35. Full Branch Code DRS/STC/872 HDRS/FC/111 S/NORTH/874 HQ/K/875 Postal Region STC FC NORTH K .12.2) Example 2 This example shows how to extract an item which is of variable length.3) =MID(C10.D4. It is assumed that all branch ID's follow the same format with the letters identifying the postal region being in the 5th and 6th positions. If the number of characters to pick exceeds what is available.99) What Does It Do ? This function picks out a piece of text from the middle of a text entry.5.2) WA =MID(C36.NumberOfCharactersToPick) Formatting No special formatting is needed.

Find the second /.FIND("/".FIND("/".2000 Peter Noneley A 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 B C D E F G SPECIAL/UK & FR/876 UK & FR =MID(C50.FIND("/". plus 1 for the Start of the code.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .C50)-1) Find the first /. occurring after the first / Calculate the length of the text to extract.C50)+1. by subtracting the position of the first / from the position of the second / MID Page 132 of 207 H .C50)+1)-FIND("/".C50.

Sales North South East West Month MIN Jan £5.500 £3. Syntax =MIN(Range1. 4-Jul-98 =MIN(C7:G7) Example In the following example the =MIN() function has been used to find the lowest value for each region.000 £4.000 £10.000 £5.000 £3..000 £2. month and overall.Range2.000 £3.000 £2.800 £3.000 Mar £4.000 Overall MIN £2.500 £12.000 £7.Range3.500 Feb £6.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 B C D E F G H MIN Page 133 of 207 I MIN Values 120 800 100 120 250 Minimum 100 Maximum 1-Jan-98 =MIN(C4:G4) Dates 1-Jan-98 25-Dec-98 31-Mar-98 27-Dec-98 What Does It Do ? This function picks the lowest value from a list of data.000 =MIN(E23:E26) Region Min £4.000 £6.500 =MIN(C23:E23) £3.000 =MIN(C23:E26) .000 £4.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .000 £2.. through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Syntax =MINUTE(Number) Formatting The result will be shown as a normal number between 0 and 59.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 B C D E F G MINUTE Page 134 of 207 H I MINUTE Number 1/25/2013 5:57 9:15:00 PM 0. The time functions of =HOUR().1) To convert a time in decimal format to hh:mm format."00") =REPT("|".HOUR(NOW()))&" "&TEXT(HOUR(NOW()).MINUTE(NOW()))&" "&TEXT(MINUTE(NOW())."00") Related Information To convert a time in hh:mm format to decimal format."00") =REPT("|".75 2 0.75 =F38*24 =INT(F38*24) =MOD(F38*24. Only the fraction part of the number is used as it is this which relates to time of day.52 Minute 57 15 28 28 28 =MINUTE(D4) =MINUTE(D5) =MINUTE(D6) =MINUTE(D7) =MINUTE(D8) What Does It Do? The function will show the minute of the hour based upon a time or a number. To update the clock press the function key F9. Enter a time in decimal format : The same time converted to hh:mm format is : 3.75 3:45 =F49/24 . Clock Hour ||||| 05 Minute ||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| 57 Second |||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| 44 =REPT("|". Example The =REPT() function has been used to make a digital display for the current time.SECOND(NOW()))&" "&TEXT(SECOND(NOW()). Enter a time in hh:mm format : The same time converted to a decimal : To extract the hours as a decimal : To extract the minutes as a decimal : 2:45 2.52 1. =MINUTE() and =SECOND() have been used in conjunction with the =NOW() as the basis for the number of repeats.02 0.

Cells.1)/24 MINUTE Page 135 of 207 H I To extract the hours in hh:mm format : To extract the minutes in hh:mm format : The three formula above have also been formatted as hh:mm using the Format.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . .2000 Peter Noneley A 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 B C D E F 3:00 0:45 G =INT(F49)/24 =MOD(F49. Number. Time command.

Size Giant Standard Economy . The =MMULT() function was used to multiply the contents of boxes by the customer orders.000 25. Syntax =MMULT(Range1. The company boxed the chocolates in three differing mixtures of Milk. The formula then showed the correct result. Dark and White. (but not yet entered).Range2) Formatting No special formatting is needed. In the run up to Christmas customers ordered various quantities of each box. The number of rows in the Result should be equal to the rows in Range1. The dimensions of the result range is in direct proportion to dimensions of the two input ranges.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . It is an Array function and must be entered using the Ctrl+Shift+Enter combination. The types of chocolate produced were Milk.500 21.C26:E28) was typed. Getting The Dimensions Correct The dimensions of the Result range are directly related to the two input ranges.500 {=MMULT(C32:E32. The number of columns in the Result should be equal to the columns in Range2. The chocolate company now needed to know what quantity of each type of chocolate to produce. The ranges do not have to be of equal size. Dark and White. The formula =MMULT(C32:E32.C26:E28)} In all three cells How It Was Done Cells C36 to E36 were selected. The keys Ctrl+Shift+Enter were pressed to confirm the entry as an array. Chocolates in the box Milk Dark White 50 50 50 30 20 10 20 5 5 Customers Orders Giant Standard Economy 300 400 500 Quantity To Produce Milk Dark White 37. Example The following tables were used by a company producing boxes of chocolates.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 B C D E F G H MMULT Page 136 of 207 I J MMULT What Does It Do ? This function multiplies one range of values with another range of values. The result of the =MMULT() is the total number of each type of chocolate to produce.

The company has four factories. Range 1 Milk Dark 20 0 20 1 10 5 20 10 Result Eggs 60 62 40 80 Range 2 Eggs 3 2 Production Factory 1 Factory 2 Factory 3 Factory 4 Ingredients Milk Dark Butter 1 2 Sugar 10 5 Ingredients To Order Factory 1 Factory 2 Factory 3 Factory 4 Butter 20 22 20 40 Sugar 200 205 125 250 {=MMULT(C69:D72. set all values in Range1 and Range2 to zero 0. then change a single value in each. The Result range shows the quantities of each ingredient that will have to be ordered to meet the production target. and the width of the Result is the same as the width of Range 2. .2000 Peter Noneley A 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 B C D E F G H MMULT Page 137 of 207 I J Example 2 The following tables were used by the chocolate company to calculate the amount of ingredients needed to produce batches of chocolate. Note the depth of the Result is the same as the depth of Range 1. Range 1 contains the planned production of Milk and Dark chocolate for each factory. Eggs and Sugar needed to make 1 unit of Milk or Plain.G69:I70)} In all cells Hint To get a feel for how the =MMULT() function operates. Eggs and Sugar to ensure they can meet production targets.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Range 2 contains the amount Butter. each of which has to order enough Butter.

Syntax =MOD(Number.D6) =MOD(C7.D4) =MOD(C5.D8) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the remainder after a number has been divided by another number.D7) =MOD(C8.D5) =MOD(C6.Divisor) Formatting No special formatting is needed. .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 B C D E F G H MOD Page 138 of 207 I MOD Number 12 20 18 9 24 Divisor 5 7 3 2 7 Remainder 2 6 0 1 3 =MOD(C4.

2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 B C D E F G H I MODE Page 139 of 207 J MODE Value1 20 40 10 20 10 10 Value2 50 20 10 20 20 20 Value3 10 40 99 99 20 30 Value4 10 10 20 10 99 40 Value5 40 40 20 10 10 50 Mode 10 40 10 20 10 #N/A =MODE(C4:G4) =MODE(C6:G6) =MODE(C8:G8) =MODE(C9:G9) =MODE(C10:G10) =MODE(C12:G12) What Does It Do ? This function displays the most frequently occurring number in a group of numbers. If all the values in the group are unique the function shows the error #N/A.Range2. The =MODE() function has been used to calulate this. For it to work correctly there must be at least two numbers which are the same."10") 3 =COUNTIF(D33:D52... the number closest to the beginning of the group will be used. (Which is not really an accurate answer!) Syntax =MODE(Range1. The shopkeeper wants to keep track of the most commonly sold size. Example The following table shows garments sold in a clothes shop."8") 11 =COUNTIF(D33:D52.Range3. through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed. When there is more than one set of duplicates."12") Count of size 10 : Count of size 12 : .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Order 001 002 003 004 005 006 007 008 009 010 011 012 013 014 015 016 017 018 Garmet Blouse Skirt Shirt Blouse Skirt Dress Shirt Blouse Dress Shirt Dress Skirt Skirt Shirt Dress Shirt Blouse Blouse Size 10 10 8 10 12 8 10 10 8 10 12 12 10 10 8 10 10 8 Most frequently ordered size : 10 =MODE(D33:D52) Count of size 8 : 6 =COUNTIF(D33:D52.

7 .2000 Peter Noneley A 51 52 53 54 55 56 B 019 020 C Dress Skirt D 10 8 E F G H I MODE Page 140 of 207 J Note If the =AVERAGE() function had been used the answer would have been : This figure is of no benefit to the shopkeeper as there are no garmets of this size! 9.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

Cells.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 B C D E F MONTH Page 141 of 207 G MONTH Original Date 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-98 Month 1 January =MONTH(C4) =MONTH(C5) What Does It Do? This function extracts the month from a complete date. Syntax =MONTH(Date) Formatting Normally the result will be a number.Custom and using the code mmm or mmmm.Number. but this can be formatted to show the actual month by using Format. Example The =MONTH function has been used to calculate the name of the month for your birthday. Please enter your date of birth in the format dd/mm/yy You were born in 3/25/1962 January =MONTH(F20) .

2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 B C D E F G H I MROUND Page 142 of 207 J MROUND Number 110 120 150 160 170 Multiple 50 50 50 50 50 Rounded Value 100 100 150 150 150 =MROUND(C4. .D5) =MROUND(C6.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Syntax =MROUND(NumberToRound.MultipleToUse) Formatting No special formatting is needed.D4) =MROUND(C5.D8) What Does It Do ? This function rounds a number up or down to the nearest multiple specified by the user.D7) =MROUND(C8.D6) =MROUND(C7.

5 3. Excel does not really need this function.035 =N(C7) 25-Dec-98 36154 =N(C8) TRUE 1 =N(C9) FALSE 0 =N(C10) Hello 0 =N(C11) 0 =N(C12) What Does It Do ? This function converts a numeric entry to its mathematical value.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 B C D E F G H I N Page 143 of 207 J N Original Converted 1 1 =N(C4) 3 1/2 3. The function is included for compatibility with other spreadsheet programs.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . . due to the fact that Excel calculates in this way naturally. Syntax =N(NumericEntry) Formatting No special formatting is needed.5 =N(C6) 3.5 =N(C5) 3.50% 0. Anything which will not convert is shown as 0 zero.

It can be type directly in to a cell as =NA() or it can be used as part of a calculation.C8+1) North South East West Total =NA() =NA() =SUM(D11:D14) What Does It Do ? This function is a place marker used to indicate that required information is Not Available.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Table 1 shows that when the Tax is not entered. Example The following table was used by a company to calculate the monthly Wage of an employee.C6+1) =IF(ISBLANK(C7).2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 B C D E F G H NA Page 144 of 208 I NA #N/A Value 10 30 Test 11 #N/A 31 Sales 100 #N/A #N/A 200 #N/A =NA() =IF(ISBLANK(C6).C7+1) =IF(ISBLANK(C8). any calculations which depend upon the cell will also show #NA. Table 1 Alan Bob Carol Salary 1000 1000 1000 Tax % 25% 20% Pay 750 1000 800 =C39-C39*D39 =C40-C40*D40 =C41-C41*D41 Table 2 shows how the =NA() has been inserted in the unknown Tax to act as a reminder that the Tax still needs to be entered.NA(). The Salary and Tax percentage are entered. On a large spreadsheet this may go unnoticed and the wrong Wage paid. The Tax is then deducted from the Salary to calculate the Wage.NA().NA(). the Wage is still calculated. Syntax =NA() Formatting No special formatting is required. It is used to indicate that all the data has not yet been entered in to the spreadsheet. When the =NA() is used. Table 2 Alan Bob Salary 1000 1000 Tax % 25% #N/A Pay 750 #N/A =C49-C49*D49 =C50-C50*D50 .

2000 Peter Noneley A 51 B Carol C 1000 D 20% E 800 F G =C51-C51*D51 H NA Page 145 of 208 I .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

Formatting The result will be shown as a number.C29.Holidays) Holidays : This is a list of dates which will be excluded from the calculation.C28. =NETWORKDAYS(Start.EndDate.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 B C D E F NETWORKDAYS Page 146 of 207 NETWORKDAYS Start Date 1-Mar-98 25-Apr-98 24-Dec-98 End Date 7-Mar-98 30-Jul-98 5-Jan-99 Work Days 5 69 9 =NETWORKDAYS(C4.C33:C37) =NETWORKDAYS(B29. Syntax =NETWORKDAYS(StartDate. It will exclude weekends and any holidays.D6) What Does It Do? This function will calculate the number of working days between two dates. Start Date Mon 02-Mar-98 Mon 02-Mar-98 Mon 27-Apr-98 End Date Fri 06-Mar-98 Fri 13-Mar-98 Fri 01-May-98 Holidays 1-May-98 25-Dec-98 1-Jan-97 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-99 Work Days 5 10 4 =NETWORKDAYS(B28.C33:C37) =NETWORKDAYS(B30.C33:C37) Bank Holiday Xmas New Year New Year New Year . To correct this add 1 to the result.End.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . The result of using 1-Jan-98 and 5-Jan-98 will give a result of 4.Holidays)+1 Example The following example shows how a list of Holidays can be created.C30.D5) =NETWORKDAYS(C6. Note The calculation does not include the last day.D4) =NETWORKDAYS(C5. such as Xmas and Bank holidays.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . 2 Used by the example for the =INDIRECT() function.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E 1 Northern data. 3 Alan 4 Jan Feb Mar 5 Alan 10 20 30 6 Bob 40 50 60 7 Carol 70 80 90 8 Total 120 150 180 9 F G NORTH Page 147 of 207 Total 60 150 240 450 .

"Overdue". The date the book was returned is entered. If the book was not returned on time the result Overdue is shown. The period of the Loan is entered."OK") . The =NOT() function has been used to calculate whether the book was returned within the correct time. then the result is FALSE. The date the book was Taken out is entered. Example The following table was used by a library to track books borrowed. If the test is met."Overdue"."Overdue"."OK") =IF(NOT(D35<=B35+C35). otherwise OK is shown. (A type of reverse logic). by adding the Loan value to the Taken date.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 B C D E F G H I NOT Page 148 of 207 J NOT Cells To Test 10 20 10 20 10 20 1-Jan-98 1-Feb-98 Hello Goodbye Hello Hello Result TRUE TRUE FALSE TRUE TRUE FALSE =NOT(C4>D4) =NOT(C5=D5) =NOT(C6<D6) =NOT(C7>D7) =NOT(C8=D8) =NOT(C9=D9) What Does It Do ? This function performs a test to see if the test fails. If the test fails."OK") =IF(NOT(D34<=B34+C34). Formatting No special formatting is needed. Taken 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-98 Loan 14 14 14 Returned Status 5-Jan-98 OK 15-Jan-98 OK 20-Jan-98 Overdue =IF(NOT(D33<=B33+C33).Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . the result is TRUE. Syntax =NOT(TestToPerform) The TestToPerform can be reference to cells or another calculation.

.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 B C D E F G NOW Page 149 of 207 H NOW The current Date and Time 1/25/2013 5:57 =NOW() 41299.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . The result will be updated each time the worksheet is opened and every time an entry is made anywhere on the worksheet.24842 =NOW() What Does It Do? This function shows the current date and time. If it is formatted to show as a number the integer part is used for the date and the decimal portion represent the time. Syntax =NOW() Formatting The result will be shown as a date and time.

.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .4 3. Syntax =ODD(NumberToBeRounded) Formatting No special formatting is needed.9 3 3.9 =ODD(C4) =ODD(C5) =ODD(C6) =ODD(C7) =ODD(C8) =ODD(C9) What Does It Do ? This function rounds a number up to the next highest whole odd number.4 2.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 B C D E F G H ODD Page 150 of 207 I ODD Rounded To Next Odd 3 3 3 3 5 5 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Number 2 2.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 B C D E F G H I OR Page 151 of 207 J OR Order No.0) =IF(OR(E6="Visa".E5="Delta").5. Formatting When used by itself it will show TRUE or FALSE. Normally the OR() function would be used in conjunction with a function such as =IF().E4="Delta").5. AB001 AB002 AB003 AB004 Cost 1000 1000 2000 5000 .0) What Does It Do? This function tests two or more conditions to see if any of them are true. It can be used to test that at least one of a series of numbers meets certain conditions. Example The following table shows a list of orders taken by a company.0) £ 5 £ £ 5 Order No. Payment Type Cash Visa Cheque Delta Handling Charge £ =IF(OR(E27="Visa". A handling charge of £5 is made on all orders paid by Visa or Delta cards.E6="Delta").5.E27="Delta").E7="Delta").0) =IF(OR(E7="Visa". Syntax =OR(Test1. AB001 AB002 AB003 AB004 Cost 1000 1000 2000 5000 Payment Type Cash Visa Cheque Delta Handling Charge £ £ 5 £ £ 5 =IF(OR(E4="Visa".5.Test2) Note that there can be up to 30 possible tests.5. The =OR() function has been used to determine whether the charge needs to be applied.0) =IF(OR(E5="Visa".

000 16.000 25.300 £ 1.530 £ 1. The exhausts are kept in stock until needed.440 £ 1.500 6.500 27.350 £ 1.550 £ 1.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Keeping the exhausts in stock incurs a cost due to capital tied up and warehouse costs.000 19.125 183 £ 4.500 18. Input Data Cost of a single Exhaust system : Cost of keeping Exhaust in stock.315 £ 1. (Expressed in Days) : Suppliers first Price Break and Discount% offered : Suppliers second Price Break and Discount% offered : Output Ordering Interval In Days 1 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 Annual Orders Admin Per Year Cost 365 £ 9.625 . (As a % of the stock value) : Quantity of Exhausts used per day : Admin cost each time new Exhausts are ordered : Average quantity of Exhausts in stock (As % of ordered quantity) : Ordering Intervals to evaluate.000 Order Discount £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ 150 £ 165 £ 180 £ 195 £ 210 £ 225 £ 240 £ 255 £ 270 Annual Total £ 9.5 2 200 750 1% 5% 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 Quantity Per Order 10 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ Order Value 750 1.400 £ 1.500 3. The supplier of the Exhausts gives a discount on large orders.000 13. Objective Find the time interval to order stock which will result in the lowest Admin and Warehouse costs.500 24.450 £ 1.510 £ 1.295 £ 1. The manager orders the exhausts on a regular basis.620 The Best Ordering Interval Best £75 12% 10 £25 0.170 £ 4.305 £ 1. there is a fixed administrative cost.375 £ 1.500 15.500 12.000 4.795 £ 1. Scenario A garage fits exhaust systems.575 92 £ 2.480 £ 1.525 46 £ 1.350 £ 1.150 37 £ 925 31 £ 775 27 £ 675 23 £ 575 21 £ 525 19 £ 475 17 £ 425 16 £ 400 15 £ 375 14 £ 350 13 £ 325 12 £ 300 11 £ 275 11 £ 275 Annual Ware house Costs £ 45 £ 90 £ 180 £ 270 £ 360 £ 450 £ 540 £ 630 £ 720 £ 810 £ 900 £ 990 £ 1.500 21.250 £ 1.000 22.335 £ 1.000 7. Each time an order is made for new stock.665 £ 2.500 £ 1.300 61 £ 1.260 £ 1.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 B C D E F G H Ordering Stock Page 152 of 207 I Ordering Stock This is an example of a spreadsheet to calculate the best time interval to order stock.170 £ 1.225 £ 1.000 10.080 £ 1.500 9.

750 1.000 D 285 300 315 330 345 360 375 390 405 420 435 450 E 10 10 9 9 8 8 8 8 7 7 7 7 F £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ 250 250 225 225 200 200 200 200 175 175 175 175 £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ G 1. This is the smallest ordering period.520 2. Calculation : QuantityOrdered * CostOfExhaust Column D Order Discount The discount which can be subtracted from the order value.000 37.500 30.150 2.500 36.000 43.500 33. then the first Price Break discount is used.160 2.\$H\$25.IF(B29>=\$G\$25.700 H 1.430 2. Change the Ordering Interval to 1 or 30. Calculation : OrderValue * SupplierDiscount The supplier discount is calculated using the =IF() and the =AND() functions. .B29<\$G\$25).2000 Peter Noneley A 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 B 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 580 600 C 28.000 34. The discount is only given on orders which are equal to or greater than the Price Break values set by the supplier. which would require stock to be ordered every day. Explanation Column A Ordering Interval In Days The first of these cells has the value 1 entered in it.500 42.000 31. If the OrderQuantity is equal to or above the first Price Break. Column B Quantity Per Order This is the number of Exhausts which will need to be ordered. the second Price Break discount is used.875 1.075 2. The third and subsequent cells add the ordering interval to the previous cell to create a list of values of the same interval.800 1.800 1. Calculation : OrderingInterval * QuantityUsedPerDay Column C Order Value This is the value of the Order before any discount. Change the Quantity used per day to a larger or smaller number.340 2.425 Ordering Stock Page 153 of 207 I - 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ Things To Try Change the Discount % to 0% and 0%.500 45.890 1. Change the Cost of the Exhaust making it cheaper or more expensive.675 1.0)) If the OrderQuantity is equal to or above the second Price Break.070 2.710 1.000 2.000 40.610 2.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .925 2.200 2.500 39.350 2. =C29*IF(AND(B29>=\$G\$24.275 2.980 2. The second cell picks the ordering interval from the Input Data table.250 2.\$H\$24. but below the second Price Break.

as the manager only wants to know what the lowest values for the overheads associated with ordering and storing the exhaust systems. Calculation : AnnualAdminCosts + AnnualWarehouseCosts .\$H\$24. due to the fact that the number of orders must always be a whole number. zero discount is used. Calculation : QuantityOrdered * AverageStockLevel) * ExhaustCost * WarehousingCost =(B29*\$G\$21)*\$G\$17*\$G\$18 Column H Annual Total This is the full yearly cost of ordering the Exhausts."-") .B29<\$G\$25).2000 Peter Noneley A 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 B Ordering Stock Page 154 of 207 C D E F G H I =C29*IF(AND(B29>=\$G\$24.\$H\$24. The =CEILING() function has been used to 'round up' any decimals to the next highest whole number. based upon how frequently the orders are made. otherwise a dash is shown. giving the lowest annual overheads.\$H\$25.IF(B29>=\$G\$25. there will have to be 365 orders. Calculation : OrdersPerYear * AdminCost =E29*\$G\$20 Column G Annual Warehouse Costs This is the cost of keeping the stock in the warehouse.IF(B29>=\$G\$25. However. such as 2. With an interval of 1.3 This decimal will cause problems. the Discount figure is taken into account as this can be used to offset some of the overheads. =CEILING(365/A29.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 ."Best". It is based on the managers knowledge that on average the stock level is 50% of the quantity ordered.1) Column F Annual Admin Costs This is the administration costs involved in making the orders.B29<\$G\$25). Calculation : 365/OrderingInterval This calculation may give results which are decimal. =C29*IF(AND(B29>=\$G\$24.0)) If the OrderQuantity does not qualify for a discount.\$H\$25.0)) Column E Orders Per Year This is how many orders will need to be made based upon the ordering interval. It compares the value in column H against the minimum value for all of column H. It does not take in to account the actual costs of the Exhausts.OrderDiscount =F29+G29-D29 Column I The Best Ordering Interval This shows the Best ordering interval. If the two values match the word Best is shown. =IF(H29=MIN(\$H\$29:\$H\$59).

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 B Box size Small Medium Large Small Medium Large Small Medium Large Box size C Sample 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 Sample D E F G PACKERS Page 155 of 207 Packer1 Packer2 Packer3 Packer4 10 10 10 10 20 20 20 21 30 28 35 30 11 9 10 10 21 20 0 20 31 28 30 30 8 10 12 10 22 20 20 19 32 28 30 30 Packer1 Packer2 Packer3 Packer4 .

it is a self contained function. Radius 5 25 Area 78.14159265358979 =PI() What Does It Do ? This function is equal to the value of Pi.50 =PI()*(C21^2) .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Syntax =PI() Formatting No special formatting is needed. It is correct to 15 decimal places.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 B C D E F G H PI Page 157 of 207 I PI p 3.54 1963. It does not need any input. Example To calculate the area of a circle.

Radius 5 25 Area 78. It is the same as using the ^ operator.D6) =POWER(C7.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .50 =PI()*POWER(C22. such as 3^4. Example To calculate the area of a circle.D5) =POWER(C6.2) .D7) What Does It Do ? This function raises a number to a user specified power.Power) Formatting No special formatting is needed. Syntax =POWER(NumberToBeRaised.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 B C D E F G H POWER Page 158 of 207 I POWER Number 3 3 5 5 Power 2 4 2 4 Result 9 81 25 625 =POWER(C4.D4) =POWER(C5.54 1963. Both the POWER() function and the ^ operator are the same as using 3*3*3*3. which result is 81.

Range.Number2. Syntax =PRODUCT(Number1.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 ..) Formatting No special formatting is needed... .Number2.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 B C D E F G H PRODUCT Page 159 of 207 I PRODUCT Numbers 2 5 3 3 10 7 Product 6 50 210 6300 =PRODUCT(C4.. It is the same as using 2*3*5*10*3*7.Number3. which results in 6300. through to Number30) or =PRODUCT(RangeOfNumbers) or =PRODUCT(Number1.10) =PRODUCT(C4:D6) What Does It Do ? This function multiples a group of numbers together.D4) =PRODUCT(C5:D5) =PRODUCT(C6:D6.

and all subsequent letters are converted to lower case.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 B C D E F G H PROPER Page 160 of 207 I PROPER Original Text alan jones bob smith caRol wILLIAMS cardiff ABC123 Proper Alan Jones Bob Smith Carol Williams Cardiff Abc123 =PROPER(C4) =PROPER(C5) =PROPER(C6) =PROPER(C7) =PROPER(C8) What Does It Do ? This function converts the first letter of each word to uppercase. .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Syntax =PROPER(TextToConvert) Formatting No special formatting is needed.

3rd and 4th quarters of the data.E7) 4 100 =QUARTILE(C4:C8.E8) Values 817 748 372 487 140 104 756 993 384 607 640 369 294 185 894 767 703 261 491 182 Quarter No.E6) 3 75 =QUARTILE(C4:C8.75 =QUARTILE(C12:F16. Syntax =QUARTILE(RangeToBeExamined. which can be obtained using the =MIN() function. The Quartile of 4 is actually highest value.1.3 or 4.2. Formatting No special formatting is needed.H13) 2 489 =QUARTILE(C12:F16.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .E5) 2 50 =QUARTILE(C4:C8.E4) 1 25 =QUARTILE(C4:C8.H15) 4 993 =QUARTILE(C12:F16.QuartileValue) The QuartileValue can only be 0. 2nd.H16) What Does It Do ? This function examines a group of values and then shows the values which are of the upper limits of the 1st.H14) 3 750 =QUARTILE(C12:F16. The Quartile of 0 (zero) is actually lowest value.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 B C D E F G H I J QUARTILE Page 161 of 207 K QUARTILE Values 1 25 50 75 100 Quarter No. Quartile 0 104 =QUARTILE(C12:F16. Quartile 0 1 =QUARTILE(C4:C8. which can be obtained using the =MAX() function. .H12) 1 285.

5 25 3. Syntax =QUOTIENT(NumberToBeDivided. Table 1 calculates the crates by simple division. Table 2 Bottles To Pack Item Wine 126 Champagne 200 Rum 15 Beer 250 Bottles Per Crate 12 8 6 20 Crates Needed 10 25 2 12 =QUOTIENT(D39.Divisor) Formatting No special formatting is needed. only showing the whole number.75 12.E39) .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Example The following example was used by a drinks merchant to calculate the number of crates which could be packed using bottles in stock.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 B C D E F G QUOTIENT Page 162 of 207 QUOTIENT Number 12 20 46 Divisor 5 3 15 Result 2 6 3 =QUOTIENT(C4.D6) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the number of times a number can be divided by another number. The merchant can only sell full crates. This however shows decimal fractions which are not needed. Table 1 Bottles To Pack Item Wine 126 Champagne 200 Rum 15 Beer 250 Bottles Per Crate 12 8 4 20 Crates Needed 10. It ignores any remainder.5 =D28/E28 Table 2 uses the =QUOTIENT() function to remove the decimal fraction to give the correct result.D5) =QUOTIENT(C6.D4) =QUOTIENT(C5.

60793733 =RAND()*(10-5)+5 What Does It Do ? This function creates a random number >=0 but <1. Sort or the Sort button the cards will be shuffled.661055 0.485931 0.597850653 0.84845 Lottery 29 34 30 41 40 37 26 32 21 19 7 10 16 8 48 43 44 4 Random 0. A list of cards has been entered in column C.306966545 0.842995 0.809231219 0.877007142 0.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 B C D E F G H RAND Page 163 of 207 I RAND Random greater than or equal to 0 but less than 1. 0.829560739 0.986974307 0.783630959 0.129870203 0. The number will change each time the worksheet recalculates.817748256 0. 8.384665 0. or when F9 is pressed.300779 0.930805 0.960204 0.245676 0.430853 0.383560573 0.725227468 0. Examples The following examples show how the =RAND() function has been used to randomly sort list of information.046440361 =RAND() Random greater than or equal to 0 but less than 10 7. By clicking inside the random numbers and then using Data.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .460171 0.759209887 0.549871947 0.609950722 0.367275732 =RAND()*10 Random between 5 and 10.463724 0.828341 0. The same technique has been used to generate a list of six winning lottery numbers.960807328 0. and =RAND() in column D.074252684 .734503 0. Syntax =RAND() Formatting No special formatting is needed.191389307 0. Card Clubs 8 Clubs 6 Diamond 9 Spades 13 Clubs 9 Diamond 7 Diamond 4 Clubs 10 Spades 3 Hearts 6 Hearts 4 Diamond 8 Hearts 11 Clubs 3 Clubs 13 Spades 5 Diamond 3 Spades 2 Random 0.65200032 0.963236 0.922508 0.253572 0.989813 0.

499721 0.742094 0.991307269 0.750729 0.830807217 0.424055 0.910963 0.721845394 0.072840415 0.435556282 0.931141846 0.137111289 0.910245948 0.178066199 0.642648367 0.844071871 0.751352 0.918668563 0.49659 0.513771 0.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 B C Diamond 6 Clubs 5 Spades 1 Clubs 12 Hearts 10 Hearts 13 Spades 7 Spades 6 Diamond 12 Hearts 3 Hearts 5 Hearts 8 Hearts 1 Diamond 13 Hearts 9 Clubs 4 Diamond 5 Spades 4 Clubs 1 Spades 8 Hearts 7 Diamond 1 Clubs 2 Hearts 2 Diamond 11 Clubs 7 Spades 12 Spades 10 Clubs 11 Diamond 2 Diamond 10 Spades 9 Spades 11 Hearts 12 D 0.572749098 0.783178 0.337860464 0.066921 0.43862 0.186417 0.030861174 0.807502 0.196694328 0.227285 0.736227078 0.544340861 0.188285 0.223877 0.853906 0.678991 0.797069517 0.447051942 0.838918 0.14234692 0.781918 0.13866 0.606658 0.016081 0.665462418 0.636751 0.014958 E F 3 45 47 49 35 27 1 13 31 5 18 39 23 12 11 20 33 42 24 2 14 25 9 38 15 28 17 6 22 46 36 G 0.423533 0.596212303 0.975506 0.439898315 0.366909 0.79985472 0.216999 0.985789 0.106081703 0.313127 0.782401585 0.94823427 0.186525181 0.71277351 H RAND Page 164 of 207 I .572796 0.005327359 0.503855 0.781157 0.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 B C D E F G H

RANDBETWEEN Page 165 of 207 I

RANDBETWEEN
Low 5 1 High 10 49 Random 9 15 =RANDBETWEEN(C4,D4) =RANDBETWEEN(C5,D5)

What Does It Do ? This function produces a random whole number between two specified numbers. The random number will change each time the spreadsheet is recalculated or F9 is pressed. Syntax =RANDOMBETWEEN(LowLimit,HighLimit) Formatting No special formatting is needed. Example The following table shows how the =RANDBETWEEN() has been used to generate six numbers to use for the National Lottery. Note that the function does not check to ensure all numbers are unique, the same number could be generated twice or more. The Winning Ticket! 44 23 47 29 48 34 21

Lottery Numbers 1 49 Press function Key F9 to recalculate.

=RANDBETWEEN(\$C\$24,\$D\$24) =RANDBETWEEN(\$C\$24,\$D\$24) =RANDBETWEEN(\$C\$24,\$D\$24) =RANDBETWEEN(\$C\$24,\$D\$24) =RANDBETWEEN(\$C\$24,\$D\$24) =RANDBETWEEN(\$C\$24,\$D\$24) =RANDBETWEEN(\$C\$24,\$D\$24)

Number 1 Number 2 Number 3 Number 4 Number 5 Number 6 Bonus ball

All OK {=IF(SUM(1/COUNTIF(E24:E30,E24:E30))<>7,"Duplicates! Spin again","All OK")} This formula is used to determine whether all the numbers are different. It is entered as an array using Ctrl+Shift+Enter.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 B C D E F G H

RANK Page 166 of 207 I

RANK
Ranking Position High to Low 4 5 1 3 2

3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Values 7 4 25 8 16

=RANK(C4,C4:C8) =RANK(C5,C4:C8) =RANK(C6,C4:C8) =RANK(C7,C4:C8) =RANK(C8,C4:C8)

10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Values 7 4 25 8 16

Ranking Position Low to High 2 1 5 3 4

=RANK(C11,C11:C15,1) =RANK(C12,C11:C15,1) =RANK(C13,C11:C15,1) =RANK(C14,C11:C15,1) =RANK(C15,C11:C15,1)

17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44

Values 10 30 20 30 40

Ranking Position High to Low 5 2 4 2 1

=RANK(C18,C18:C22) =RANK(C19,C18:C22) =RANK(C20,C18:C22) =RANK(C21,C18:C22) =RANK(C22,C18:C22)

What Does It Do ? This function calculates the position of a value in a list relative to the other values in the list. A typical usage would be to rank the times of athletes in a race to find the winner. The ranking can be done on an ascending (low to high) or descending (high to low) basis. If there are duplicate values in the list, they will be assigned the same rank. Subsequent ranks would not follow on sequentially, but would take into account the fact that there were duplicates. If the numbers 30, 20, 20 and 10 were ranked, 30 is ranked as 1, both 20's are ranked as 2, and the 10 would be ranked as 4. Value 30 20 20 10 Rank 1 2 2 4

=RANK(B34,B34:B37) =RANK(B35,B34:B37) =RANK(B36,B34:B37) =RANK(B37,B34:B37)

Syntax =RANK(NumberToRank,ListOfNumbers,RankOrder) The RankOrder can be 0 zero or 1. Using 0 will rank larger numbers at the top. (This is optional, leaving it out has the same effect). Using 1 will rank small numbers at the top.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 B C D Formatting No special formatting is needed. E F G H

RANK Page 167 of 207 I

Example The following table was used to record the times for athletes competing in a race. The =RANK() function was then used to find their race positions based upon the finishing times. Athlete John Alan David Brian Sue Alex Time 1:30 1:45 1:02 1:36 1:27 1:03 Race Position 4 6 1 5 3 2

=RANK(C53,C53:C58,1) =RANK(C54,C53:C58,1) =RANK(C55,C53:C58,1) =RANK(C56,C53:C58,1) =RANK(C57,C53:C58,1) =RANK(C58,C53:C58,1)

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 B C D E F G H

REPLACE Page 168 of 207 I

REPLACE
Start Characters New Modified Text Original Text Position To Replace Character ABCDEFGH 2 1 x AxCDEFGH =REPLACE(C4,D4,E4,F4) ABCDEFGH 2 5 x AxGH =REPLACE(C5,D5,E5,F5) ABCDEFGH 2 1 hello AhelloCDEFGH =REPLACE(C6,D6,E6,F6) ABCDEFGH 2 5 hello AhelloGH =REPLACE(C7,D7,E7,F7) What Does It Do ? This function replaces a portion of text with a new piece of text. You need to specify where the replacement should start, how many characters to remove and what the new replacement text should be. Syntax =REPLACE(OriginalText,StartPosition,NumberOfCharactersToReplace,NewText) Formatting No special formatting is needed.

3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

000 |||||||||||||||||||| |||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| |||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| |||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| =REPT("||".Repetitions) The maximum number of repetitions is 200.D5) =REPT(C6. The =REPT() function uses the value of Sales.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .D6) =REPT(C7. Clock Hour ||||| 05 Minute ||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| 57 Second |||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| 44 =REPT("|".D29/100) Example 2 The =REPT() function has been used to make a digital display for the current time. Syntax =REPT(TextToRepeat.D4) =REPT(C5.000 £2. =MINUTE() and =SECOND() have been used in conjunction with the =NOW() as the basis for the number of repeats.SECOND(NOW()))&" "&TEXT(SECOND(NOW()). You need to specify the text to be repeated and how many times to repeat it."00") .HOUR(NOW()))&" "&TEXT(HOUR(NOW()).000 £5.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 B C D E F G H REPT Page 169 of 207 I REPT Text To Repeat A AB | Number Of Repeats 3 3 10 10 Repeated Text AAA ABABAB ---------|||||||||| =REPT(C4.D7) What Does It Do ? This function repeats a piece of text a specified number of times. The time functions of =HOUR()."00") =REPT("|"."00") =REPT("|". Formatting No special formatting is needed. Month Jan Feb Mar Apr Sales £1. but this is divided by 100 to scale down the number of repetitions to below the maximum of 200.000 £3. Example 1 The following table was used to display a simple histogram of sales figures. To update the clock press the function key F9.MINUTE(NOW()))&" "&TEXT(MINUTE(NOW()).

D7) =RIGHT(C8. Syntax =RIGHT(OriginalText.D5) =RIGHT(C6.LEN(C30)-FIND(" ". Example The following table was used to extract the second name of a person from their full name.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 B C D E F G H RIGHT Page 170 of 207 I RIGHT Original Text Alan Jones Alan Jones Alan Jones Cardiff ABC123 Number Of Characters Required 1 2 3 6 4 Right String s es nes ardiff C123 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 =RIGHT(C4.D8) What Does It Do ? This function displays a specified number of characters from the right hand side of a piece of text.C29)) Carol Williams Williams =RIGHT(C30.C30)) . Full Name Second Name Alan Jones Jones =RIGHT(C28. The =FIND() function locates the position of the space between the first and second name.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . The length of the second name is calculated by subtracting the position of the space from the overall length of the full name.NumberOfCharactersRequired) Formatting No special formatting is needed.C28)) Bob Smith Smith =RIGHT(C29.LEN(C28)-FIND(" ".LEN(C29)-FIND(" ". The =RIGHT() function can then extract the second name.D6) =RIGHT(C7.D4) =RIGHT(C5.

FALSE) What Does It Do ? This function produces a number shown as Roman numerals in various formats. 2 is even more Concise. This is used if no format is specified. 1 is more Concise.0) =ROMAN(C11. 0 is Classic.1) =ROMAN(C12.2) =ROMAN(C13. .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Note There is no function to do the opposite calculation of Roman to normal.3) =ROMAN(C14. TRUE is Classic FALSE is Simplified Formatting No special formatting is needed.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 B C D E F G H ROMAN Page 171 of 207 I ROMAN Number 1 2 3 5 10 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 Roman I II III V X MCMXCVIII MCMXCVIII MLMVLIII MXMVIII MVMIII MVMIII MCMXCVIII MVMIII =ROMAN(C4) =ROMAN(C5) =ROMAN(C6) =ROMAN(C7) =ROMAN(C8) =ROMAN(C9) =ROMAN(C10.4) =ROMAN(C15.RomanNumberFormat) The RomanNumberFormat can be any of the following. 3 is even more Concise still. 4 is Simplified.TRUE) =ROMAN(C16. Syntax =ROMAN(NormalNumber.

D6) -1 13640 =ROUND(C7.D4) 1 1. .5 =ROUND(C5.48 =ROUND(C6. Syntax =ROUND(NumberToRound.DecimalPlacesToUse) Formatting No special formatting is needed.D7) -2 13600 =ROUND(C8.47589 What Does It Do ? This function rounds a number to a specified amount od decimal places.D5) 2 1.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .D8) -3 14000 =ROUND(C9.47589 13643. If 0 is used the number is rounded to the nearest whole number.47589 1.D9) 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Number 1.47589 1.47589 13643.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 B C D E F G H ROUND Page 172 of 207 I ROUND Places To Rounded Round Number 0 1 =ROUND(C4. If a negative amount of rounding is used the figures to the left of the decimal point are rounded.47589 13643.

4 =ROUNDDOWN(C5.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .D7) -2 13600 =ROUNDDOWN(C8.DecimalPlacesToUse) Formatting No special formatting is needed.48 What Does It Do ? This function rounds a number down to a specified amount of decimal places.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 B C D E F G H I ROUNDDOWN Page 173 of 207 J ROUNDDOWN Places To Rounded Round Down 0 1 =ROUNDDOWN(C4.47 =ROUNDDOWN(C6.47589 1. .48 13643.D5) 2 1. If a negative amount of rounding is used the figures to the left of the decimal point are rounded.D9) 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Number 1.D4) 1 1. If 0 is used the number is rounded down to the nearest whole number.48 13643.47589 1.D6) -1 13640 =ROUNDDOWN(C7.47589 13643.D8) -3 13000 =ROUNDDOWN(C9. Syntax =ROUNDDOWN(NumberToRound.

If 0 is used the number is rounded up to the nearest whole number.D5) 2 1.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 B C D E F G H I ROUNDUP Page 174 of 207 J ROUNDUP Places To Rounded Round Up 0 2 =ROUNDUP(C4.47589 1. If a negative amount of rounding is used the figures to the left of the decimal point are rounded.47589 13643.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .48 What Does It Do ? This function rounds a number up to a specified amount of decimal places.DecimalPlacesToUse) Formatting No special formatting is needed.48 =ROUNDUP(C6. Syntax =ROUNDUPNumberToRound.D8) -3 14000 =ROUNDUP(C9.48 13643. .47589 1.D9) 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Number 1.D4) 1 1.D6) -1 13650 =ROUNDUP(C7.5 =ROUNDUP(C5.D7) -2 13700 =ROUNDUP(C8.48 13643.

The Duration of the call is entered. Example The following table was used by a telephone compnay to calculate the cost of a call. Only the fraction part of the number is used as it is this which relates to time of day.50 0. Cost Per Second : £0. The =CEILING() function rounds the seconds up to the nearest muliple of 5. Syntax =SECOND(Number) Formatting The result will be shown as a normal number between 0 and 59. The =SECOND() function calculates the total number of seconds.25 1 50 £1. The seconds in a call are rounded up to the nearest multiple of 5 before the bill is calculated. The telephone company only deals in seconds which are a multiple of 5. The =MINUTES() function calculates the total number of minutes. The Cost of the call is then calculated.70 2 5 £1.51 1.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .51 Second 44 0 0 24 24 =SECOND(C4) =SECOND(C5) =SECOND(C6) =SECOND(C7) =SECOND(C8) What Does It Do? The function will show the second of the minute based upon a time or a number.5) .10 =CEILING(SECOND(C36).2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 B C D E F G SECOND Page 175 of 207 H SECOND Number 25/Jan/13 05:57:44 12:00:00 PM 0.01 Duration 0:01:08 0:02:03 0:01:47 Billed Duration Minutes Seconds Cost 1 10 £0.

If the value is positive the result is 1. Syntax =SIGN(CellToTest) The CellToTest can be a cell or a calculation.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 B C D E F G H I SIGN Page 176 of 207 J SIGN Value 10 20 0 -10 -20 Positive or Negative 1 1 0 -1 -1 =SIGN(C4) =SIGN(C5) =SIGN(C6) =SIGN(C7) =SIGN(C8) What Does It Do ? This function tests a value to determine whether it is positive or negative. If the value is negative the result is -1. Formatting No special formatting is needed. If the value is zero 0 the result is 0.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . .

£8.LengthOfOwnership) The LengthOfOwnership can be any time period. days.000 =SLN(F9.000.000 . However. be for that time.F10. specifying 2 years ownership as 24 months will give an SLN per month.000 £8.000 / 6 which is £2.F4.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .000.500 =SLN(F3. Syntax =SLN(OriginalCost.000 which is £12. Because you owned the car for 6 years. The result is a uniform depreciation value. months or years.000.F5) Purchase Value Of A New Car Second Hand Value Number Of Years Ownership Annual Straight Line Depreciation £20. (Also known as Fixed Instalment method). An example would be if you bought a new car for £20. then kept it for 6 years. The Straight Line Depreciation is how much the value of an item reduced during a specific period of time. Formatting No special formatting is needed.000 4 £2. the SLN which is calculated will. . the SLN is calculated as £12. The difference between the original and the trade in price is £20.000.F11) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the Straight Line Depreciation of an item. At the end of your ownership you sell the car for £8.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 B C D E F G H SLN Page 177 of 207 I SLN Cost Salvage Life Straight Line Depreciation £12.000 6 £2.SellingPrice.000 £2.

3) =SMALL(C4:C8.1) =SMALL(C4:C8.000 £7.PositionToPickFrom) Formatting No special formatting is needed.000 =SMALL(D24:F27.000 £10.000 =MAX(D24:F27) =MIN(D24:F27) .2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 B C D E F G H SMALL Page 178 of 207 I SMALL Values 120 800 100 120 250 Lowest Value 2nd Lowest Value 3rd Lowest Value 4th Lowest Value 5th Lowest Value 100 120 120 250 800 =SMALL(C4:C8.000 £2.000 Feb £6. Sales North South East West Jan £5.500 £3. Highest Lowest £12. Feb and Mar.4) =SMALL(C4:C8.2) =SMALL(D24:F27. Syntax =SMALL(ListOfNumbersToExamine.000 £5.5) What Does It Do ? This function examines a list of values and picks the value at a user specified position in the list.000 £2.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .000 £4.000 £3.3) Lowest Value 2nd Lowest Value 3rd Lowest Value Note Another way to find the Highest and Lowest values would have been to use the =MAX() and =MIN() functions.1) =SMALL(D24:F27.2) =SMALL(C4:C8.500 £12.800 £3.000 £2.500 Mar £4. Example The following table was used to calculate the bottom 3 sales figures between Jan.000 £3.000 £6.

2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E 1 Southern data. 3 4 Jan Feb Mar 5 Alan 100 200 300 6 Bob 400 500 600 7 Carol 700 800 900 8 Total 1200 1500 1800 F SOUTH Page 179 of 207 Total 600 1500 2400 4500 . 2 Used by the example for the =INDIRECT() function.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

5 0.0500 1.4 1. =MIN(H34:H36) This finds the position of the lowest value. At the end of the day four boxes of soap powder were picked at random from the production of each machine.5 1.0)) Explanation of formula: This finds the lowest value.5 =STDEV(E4:E7) Values 10 11 9 12 1.8 0.5 1.Range3 through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed. .H34:H36.MATCH(MIN(H34:H36).0)) find the machine name.H34:H36.1291 The smallest deviation is : 0.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 B C D E F G H I STDEV Page 180 of 207 J K STDEV Values 10 10 9 10 0.4 1.7 1. =MATCH(MIN(H34:H36).5 =STDEV(C4:C7) Values 10 10 11 10 0.Range2.MATCH(MIN(H34:H36). Example The table below was used by a company interested in buying a new machine to pack washing powder. A sample population is used when the list of values represents a sample of a population. The boxes were weighed and the =STDEV() function used as these boxes only represented a sample of the complete days production.2909944 =STDEV(G4:G7) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the sample population standard deviation of a list of values.0) This looks down the Machine column to =INDEX(C34:C36.H34:H36.6 1.5 0.5 1. Three machines were short listed and allow to run for a day.0500 Machine 1 Machine 2 Machine 3 =STDEV(D34:G34) =STDEV(D35:G35) =STDEV(D36:G36) =MIN(H34:H36) The machine with the smallest deviation is : Machine 2 =INDEX(C34:C36. Soap Powder Box Filling Machine Test Results Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Test 4 Variance 1.5 1.0816 1. The machine with the smallest deviation was the most consistent.6 1. Syntax =STDEV(Range1.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

H32:H34. Example The table below was used by a company interested in buying a new machine to pack washing powder.0)) find the machine name. Syntax =STDEVP(Range1.H32:H34.5 0.5 1.8 0.0433 1.MATCH(MIN(H32:H34).2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 B C D E F G H I STDEVP Page 181 of 207 J K STDEVP Values 10 10 9 10 0.1118 The smallest variance is : 0. A trial run of just four boxes per machine were produced. The result is calculated on the basis that the values represent the entire population.H32:H34.Range3 through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed. The machine with the smallest variance was the most consistent.6 1.5 1.433013 =STDEVP(C4:C7) Values 10 10 11 10 0.Range2.5 0.MATCH(MIN(H32:H34).118034 =STDEVP(G4:G7) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the standard deviation of a list of values. =MATCH(MIN(H32:H34).0707 1.433013 =STDEVP(E4:E7) Values 10 11 9 12 1.0) This looks down the Machine column to =INDEX(C32:C34.5 1.0433 Machine 1 Machine 2 Machine 3 =STDEVP(D32:G32) =STDEVP(D33:G33) =STDEVP(D34:G34) =MIN(H32:H34) The machine with the smallest variance is : Machine 2 =INDEX(C32:C34. ???????????????????? Soap Powder Box Filling Machine Test Results Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Test 4 Variance 1.4 1.5 1.7 1. =(MIN(H32:H34) This finds the position of the lowest value. The boxes were weighed and the =STDEVP() function used as these boxes represented the entire test run.4 1. .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .6 1.0)) Explanation of formula: This finds the lowest value.

Note To cope with upper or lower case in the substitution you can use other text functions such as =UPPER().D5) Northern Region Region Area Northern Area =SUBSTITUTE(B6. Table 1 Old Text New Text To Remove To Insert Original Text Updated Text Northern Region Region Area Northern Area Northern region Region Area Northern region Northern Region region Area Northern Region Northern Region Region area Northern area Northern Region region area Northern Region =SUBSTITUTE(B39.D11.C5.E11) What Does It Do ? This function replaces a specified piece of text with a different piece of text. Table 1 shows how differing text cases alter the result of the substitution.C7. if it is omitted all instances will be substituted.InstanceToUse) The InstanceToUse is optional. =LOWER() or =PROPER() to ensure that the substitution will take place.C11.C39. Formatting No special formatting is needed.D39) Table 2 shows how the =PROPER() function has been used to take account of the mixed cases.TextToRemove.D6) Sand and Cement and & S& & Cement =SUBSTITUTE(B7. It can either replace all occurrences of the text.E10) =SUBSTITUTE(B11.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Table 2 Old Text New Text To Remove To Insert Original Text Northern Region Region Area Updated Text Northern Area .C10.D7) Old Text New Text To Remove To Insert Original Text ABCABCABC ABC hello Sand and Cement and & Instance To Be Replaced 3 2 Updated Text ABCABChello Sand & Cement =SUBSTITUTE(B10. or a specific instance.TextToInsert.C4. The function is case sensitive.D10.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 B C D E F G SUBSTITUTE Page 182 of 207 H SUBSTITUTE Old Text New Text To Remove To Insert Original Text Updated Text ABCDEF CD hello ABhelloEF =SUBSTITUTE(B4.D4) ABCDABCD CD hello ABhelloABhello =SUBSTITUTE(B5. Syntax =SUBSTITUTE(OriginalText.C6.

PROPER(D50)) SUBSTITUTE Page 183 of 207 H .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A 47 48 49 50 51 B Northern region Northern Region Northern Region Northern Region C D E F G Region Area Northern Area region Area Northern Area Region area Northern Area region area Northern Area =SUBSTITUTE(PROPER(B50).PROPER(C50).

2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 B C D E F G H I SUM Page 184 of 208 J SUM Horizontal 100 Vertical 100 200 300 600 200 300 600 =SUM(C4:E4) =SUM(C7:C9) Single Cells 100 200 Multiple Ranges 100 200 3000 300 600 =SUM(C13. 100 200 300 .E17:E19) 100 200 300 400 500 600 800 =SUM(AVERAGE(C23:C25). It should have been entered as either =C48+C49+C50 or =SUM(C48:C50). The formula is actually doing more work than needed. Syntax =SUM(Range1.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . ranges are from other functions. Note Many people use the =SUM() function incorrectly.E13) 400 500 600 4800 Functions =SUM(C17:C19. Formatting No special formatting is needed.D14... through to Range30). This example shows how the SUM has been combined with plus + symbols. It can be used either horizontally or vertically.MAX(E23:E25)) What Does It Do ? This function creates a total from a list of numbers. The numbers can be in single cells.Range3.Range2.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A 51 52 53 B C 600 D E =SUM(C48+C49+C50) =SUM(C48:C50) =C48+C49+C50 F G Wrong! Correct Correct H I SUM Page 185 of 208 J .

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 B C D E F G H

SUM_as_Running_Total Page 186 of 207 I J

SUM (Running Total)
Using =SUM() For A Running Total Running Total 10 60 90 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

Sales 10 50 30 20

=SUM(\$D\$7:D7) =SUM(\$D\$7:D8) =SUM(\$D\$7:D9) =SUM(\$D\$7:D10) =SUM(\$D\$7:D11) =SUM(\$D\$7:D12) =SUM(\$D\$7:D13) =SUM(\$D\$7:D14) =SUM(\$D\$7:D15) =SUM(\$D\$7:D16) =SUM(\$D\$7:D17) =SUM(\$D\$7:D18)

Type the formula =SUM(\$D\$7:D7) in cell E7 and then copy down the table. It works because the first reference uses dollar symbols \$ to keep \$D\$7 static as the formula is copied down. Each occurrence of the =SUM() then adds all the numbers from the first cell down. The function can be tidied up to show 0 zero when there is no adjacent value by using the =IF() function. Running Total 10 60 90 110 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

Sales 10 50 30 20

=SUM(IF(D7,\$D\$7:D7,0)) =SUM(IF(D8,\$D\$7:D8,0)) =SUM(IF(D9,\$D\$7:D9,0)) =SUM(IF(D10,\$D\$7:D10,0)) =SUM(IF(D11,\$D\$7:D11,0)) =SUM(IF(D12,\$D\$7:D12,0)) The =SUM() only takes place when there is data in column D. Otherwise the value 0 zero is entered.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 B C D E F G H I

SUM_with_OFFSET Page 187 of 207 J

SUM and the =OFFSET function
Sometimes it is necessary to base a calculation on a set of cells in different locations. An example would be when a total is required from certain months of the year, such as the last 3 months in relation to the current date. One solution would be to retype the calculation each time new data is entered, but this would be time consuming and open to human error. A better way is to indicate the start and end point of the range to be calculated by using the =OFFSET() function. The =OFFSET() picks out a cell a certain number of cells away from another cell. By giving the =OFFSET() the address of the first cell in the range which needs to be totalled, we can then indicate how far away the end cell should be and the =OFFSET() will give us the address of cell which will be the end of the range to be totalled. The =OFFSET() needs to know three things; 1. A cell address to use as the fixed point from where it should base the offset. 2. How many rows it should look up or down from the starting point. 3. How many columns it should look left or right from the starting point. Total Jan Feb Mar Apr May 10 10 400 500 600 700 =SUM(E24:OFFSET(E24,0,0)) This example uses E24 as the starting point and offsets no rows or columns which results in the range being summed as E24:E24. 410 10 400 500 600 700 =SUM(E29:OFFSET(E29,0,1)) This example uses E29 as the starting point and offsets 1 col to pick out cell F29 resulting in a the range E29:F29 being summed. 910 10 400 500 600 700 =SUM(E34:OFFSET(E34,0,2)) This example uses E34 as the starting point and offsets 2 cols to pick out cell G34 resulting in a the range E34:G34 being summed. Using =OFFSET() Twice In A Formula The following examples use =OFFSET() to pick both the start and end of the range which needs to be totalled. Total Jan Feb Mar Apr May 400 10 400 500 600 700 =SUM(OFFSET(E45,0,1):OFFSET(E45,0,1)) The cell E45 has been used as the starting point for both offsets and each has been offset by just 1 column. The result is that just cell F45 is used as the range F45:F45 for the sum function to calculate.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 B

SUM_with_OFFSET Page 188 of 207 J

C D E F G H I 900 10 400 500 600 700 =SUM(OFFSET(E51,0,1):OFFSET(E51,0,2)) The cell E51 has been used as the starting point of both offsets, the first offset is offset by 1 column, the second by 2 columns. The result is the range F51:G51 which is then totalled. 1500 10 400 500 600 700 =SUM(OFFSET(E57,0,1):OFFSET(E57,0,3)) The cell E57 has been used as the starting point for both offsets, the first offset is offset by 1 column, the second by 3 columns. The result is the range F57:H57 which is then totalled.

Example The following table shows five months of data. To calculate the total of a specific group of months the =OFFSET() function has been used. The Start and End dates entered in cells F71 and F72 are used as the offset to produce a range which can be totalled. Type in the Start month. Type in the End month. Total 900 1020 Jan-98 10 15 Feb-98 Mar-98 Feb-98 400 20 Mar-98 500 1000 Apr-98 600 2000 May-98 700 3000

13 5 3 10 800 900 =SUM(OFFSET(D79,0,MONTH(F71)):OFFSET(D79,0,MONTH(F72))) Explanation The following formula represent a breakdown of what the =OFFSET function does. The formula displayed below are only dummies, but they will update as you enter dates into cells F71 and F72. Formula 1 =SUM( OFFSET(D79,0,MONTH(F71)) : OFFSET(D79,0,MONTH(F72)) ) This is the actual formula entered by the user. Formula 2 =SUM( OFFSET(D79,0,MONTH(2)) : OFFSET(D79,0,MONTH(3)) ) This shows how the =MONTH function calculates the month number. In this example the values of the months are 2 and 3 for Feb and Mar. These values are the 'offsets' relative to cell D79. Formula 3 =SUM( OFFSET(D79,0,2) : OFFSET(D79,0,3) ) This shows where the month numbers are used in the =OFFSET function. Formula 4 =SUM( F79:G79 ) This shows how the =OFFSET eventually equates to cell addresses to be used as a range for the =SUM function.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 B C D E F G H

SUMIF Page 189 of 207 I

SUMIF
Item Brakes Tyres Brakes Service Service Window Tyres Tyres Clutch Date 1-Jan-98 10-May-98 1-Feb-98 1-Mar-98 5-Jan-98 1-Jun-98 1-Apr-98 1-Mar-98 1-May-98 Cost 80 25 80 150 300 50 200 100 250 160 325 1000 service 450 =SUMIF(C4:C12,"Brakes",E4:E12) =SUMIF(C4:C12,"Tyres",E4:E12) =SUMIF(E4:E12,">=100") =SUMIF(C4:C12,E18,E4:E12)

Total cost of all Brakes bought. Total cost of all Tyres bought. Total of items costing £100 or above. Total of item typed in following cell.

What Does It Do ? This function adds the value of items which match criteria set by the user. Syntax =SUMIF(RangeOfThingsToBeExamined,CriteriaToBeMatched,RangeOfValuesToTotal) =SUMIF(C4:C12,"Brakes",E4:E12) This examines the names of products in C4:C12. It then identifies the entries for Brakes. It then totals the respective figures in E4:E12 This examines the values in E4:E12. If the value is >=100 the value is added to the total.

=SUMIF(E4:E12,">=100")

Formatting No special formatting is needed.

25 £60. takinging into account the markup percentage. and the potential value of the stock when it is sold.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 B C D E F G H SUMPRODUCT Page 190 of 207 I SUMPRODUCT Item Tyres Filters Bulbs Sold 5 2 3 price 100 10 2 526 =SUMPRODUCT(D4:D6.E35:E39.40 £3.790 £2. Product Red Wine White Wine Champagne Beer Lager Cases In Stock 10 8 5 50 100 Case Price £120 £130 £200 £24 £30 Bottles In Case 10 10 6 12 12 Bottle Cost Markup £12.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .00 20% £2. Range. The =SUMPRODUCT() function is used to multiply the Cases In Stock with the Bottles In Case and the Bottle Setting Price. to calculate the potential value of the stock if it is all sold.50 25% =D39/E39 Bottle Selling Price £15.00 £2.00 25% £13.350 =SUMPRODUCT(C35:C39.00 25% £33. Syntax =SUMPRODUCT(Range1.E4:E6) Total Sales Value : What Does It Do ? This function uses at least two columns of values.33 80% £2. Example The following table was used by a drinks merchant to keep track of stock.D35:D39) =SUMPRODUCT(C35:C39.00 £16.13 =F39+F39*G39 Total Value Of Stock : Total Selling Price Of Stock : Profit : £7.440 £9. The merchant needed to know the total purchase value of the stock. The total of all the values is the result of the calculation. The values in the first column are multipled with the corresponding value in the second column.H35:H39) =E44-E43 . Range3 through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed. The =SUMPRODUCT() function is used to multiply the Cases In Stock with the Case Price to calculate what the merchant spent in buying the stock.

33% being £3000.2) =SYD(F3.714 £1. Divide the Total Deprectation by the SumOfTheYearsDigits. £9000/6=£1500. Each of the years is then calculated as a percentage of the sum of the years. year 2 is £3000 and year 1 is £1500.F4.F5. £10000-£1000=£9000.3) As % Of Total Depreciation 0. The depreciation is greatest in the earlier part of the items life. 3.4) =SYD(F3.F5.166667 1.F5. A life of 3 years has a sum of 1+2+3 equalling 6.333333 0.E40. .000 6 £3. What is the Sum Of The Years Digits ? The sum of the years digits adds together the each of the years of the life. year 1 is 17% 6.6) =SUM(F7:F12) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the depreciation of an item throughout its life. 2. using the sum of the years digits. Year 3 is 50% of 6.E41. £9. The total depreciation of the item is then allocated on the basis of these percentages. 1+2+3=6.F5. year 1 is \$4500.500 1 2 3 17% 33% 50% As the greater part of the depreciation is allocated to the earliest years the values are inverted.5) =SYD(F3.F5.000 £1.000 £1.F4.286 £1. 17% being £1500.3) =SYD(F3. A depreciation of £9000 is allocated as 50% being £4500. year 2 is 33% of 6.F4.500 £3.F4.F4.000 £8. Example 1 Purchase Price Of A Car : Salvage Value : Expected Life in Years : Depreciation in Year 1 : Depreciation in Year 2 : Depreciation in Year 3 : £10.143 £571 £12.F5. Subtract the Salvage from the Purchase Price to get Total Deprectation.000 3 £4.5 0.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .500 ===> =SYD(E39.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 B C D E F G H SYD Page 191 of 207 I SYD Purchase Value Of A New Car Second Hand Value Number Of Years Ownership Deprecation in year 1 Deprecation in year 2 Deprecation in year 3 Deprecation in year 4 Deprecation in year 5 Deprecation in year 6 Total Depreciation : £20. Add together the digits of the Life to get the SumOfTheYearsDigits.000 ===> £1.429 £2.000 =SYD(F3.F4.1) =SYD(F3.000 £4.500 ===> £3.857 £2.

800 £900 £9.2.607 £1. 100% . Invert the year digits. £1500.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2. these values are the depreciation values for each of the three years in the life of the item.000 7 £2.700 £1.2 0.2. Multiply 3.3 becomes 3. Purchase Price Of A Car : Salvage Value : Expected Life in Years : Depreciation in Year 1 : Depreciation in Year 2 : Depreciation in Year 3 : Depreciation in Year 4 : Total Depreciation : £10. 1.929 £1. Purchase Price Of A Car : Salvage Value : Expected Life in Years (1 to 10) : Year Year Year Year Year Year Year Year Year Year 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 £10.1 100% Example 3 This example will adjust itself to accommodate any number of years between 1 and 10.2000 Peter Noneley A 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 B C D E F G H 4.1 by £1500 to get £4500.000 £1.PeriodToCalculate) Formatting No special formatting is needed. £3000. 5.250 £1.4 0.Life.000 Syntax =SYD(OriginalCost.1.000 SYD Page 192 of 207 I As % Of Total Depriciation 0.286 £964 £643 £321 As % Of Total Depriciation 25% 21% 18% 14% 11% 7% 4% £9.3 0.SalvageValue.600 £2. Example 2 The same example using 4 years.000 £1.000 4 £3.

then the text is the result of the function If the value is not text. the result is a blank. Syntax =T(CellToTest) Formatting No special formatting is needed.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 B C D E F G H I T Page 193 of 207 J T Cell To Test Hello 10 1-Jan-98 Result Hello =T(D4) =T(D5) =T(D6) =T(D7) What Does It Do ? This function examines an entry to determine whether it is text or not. If the value is text. but is included for compatibility with other spreadsheet programs.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . . The function is not specifically needed by Excel.

2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 B C D E F G H I TEXT Page 194 of 207 J TEXT Original Number 10 10 10 10 10.00") =TEXT(C6. ."0.00 £10."£0.00 10 £10 10.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Syntax =TEXT(NumberToConvert."£0.25 10. The formatting for the text needs to be specified in the function.3 £10."0") =TEXT(C7.FormatForConversion) Formatting No special formatting is required.00") =TEXT(C5.0") =TEXT(C9.0") What Does It Do ? This function converts a number to a piece of text."0.25 Converted To Text 10."£0") =TEXT(C8.3 =TEXT(C4.

E5) =TIME(C6.D5. If a normal number format is applied a decimal fraction is shown which represents the time as a fraction of the day.D4.Minute.60485 =TIME(C4. . Syntax =TIME(Hour.E4) =TIME(C5.Second) Formatting The result will be shown as a time which can be formatted either as 12 or 24 hour style.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 B C D E F G H TIME Page 195 of 207 I TIME Hour 14 14 14 Minute 30 30 30 Second 59 59 59 Time 14:30:59 2:30:59 PM 0.E6) What Does It Do? This function will convert three separate numbers to an actual time.D6.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .604849537 14:30:59 2:30:59 PM =TIMEVALUE(C4) =TIMEVALUE(C5) =TIMEVALUE(C6) What Does It Do? This function will show an actual time based on a piece of text which looks like a time. .2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 B C D E F G TIMEVALUE Page 196 of 207 H TIMEVALUE Text 14:30:59 14:30:59 14:30:59 Time 0. Formatting can be applied for either the 12 or 24 hour clock system. It is useful when data is imported from other applications. such as from mainframe computers. which convert all values to text. Syntax =TIMEVALUE(Text) Formatting The result will be shown as a number representing the time a fraction of the day.

Date 1-Jan-97 10-Aug-97 Days Since 5868 5647 =TODAY()-C20 =TODAY()-C21 Note that the result is actually the number of days before todays date. To calculate a result which includes the current date an extra 1 will need to be added.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 B C D E F G TODAY Page 197 of 207 TODAY Today Is 25-Jan-13 =TODAY() What Does It Do? Use this to show the current date.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Date 1-Jan-97 10-Aug-97 Days Since 5869 5648 =TODAY()-C28+1 =TODAY()-C29+1 Example The following example shows the number of days from today until the year 2000. Example The following example shows how the Today function is used to calculate the number of days since a particular day. Syntax =TODAY() Formatting The result will normally be displayed using the DD-MMM-YY format. Year 2000 01-Jan-2000 Days Until -4773 =C36-TODAY() .

turning it so that the data originally in columns is now in rows. and the data originally in rows is in columns. . and places in it in a new range.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . such as =TRANSPOSE(A1:A5).2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 B C D E F G H I TRANSPOSE Page 198 of 207 J TRANSPOSE Alan Bob Carol Total 0 Jan Feb Jan 10 40 70 120 Alan 10 30 Feb 30 50 80 160 Bob 40 50 Carol 70 80 Total 120 160 {=TRANSPOSE(C3:E7)} As an array formula in all these cells What Does It Do ? This function copies data from a range. The transpose range must be the same size as the original range. the edits can then be made and the Ctrl+Shift+Enter used to confirm it. Next type the formula. Finally press Ctrl+Shift+Enter to confirm it. If changes need to be made to the formula. The function needs to be entered as an array formula. To enter an array formula you must first highlight all the cells where the formula is required. the entire array has to be highlighted. Syntax =TRANSPOSE(Range) Formatting No special formatting is needed.

000 3 £2.774 11 £7. such as Months.B5:B10.B5:B10. The RequiredXs is the range for which you want to make the prediction.E5:E10)} {=TREND(C5:C10.968 15 -£1. The historical data for the past year was entered.300 10 -£2.500 7 -£4.500 4 £3. based upon the past years performance.551 9 £6.B5:B10.000 8 -£3. Formatting No special formatting is needed. the bank would no longer provide an overdraft facility. the company would start to make a profit at the end of the next year.E5:E10)} {=TREND(C5:C10.000 2 £2. 13 to 24.451 17 -£1.E5:E10)} What Does It Do ? This function predicts values based upon three sets of related values. Their bank manager had told the company that unless they could show a profit by the end of the next year.RequiredXs. such as Sales Figures. The prediction is based upon the Linear Trend of the original values. To prove to the bank that. the =TREND() function was used. The function is an array function and must be entered using Ctrl+Shift+Enter. The months to predict were entered.B5:B10.000 Predicted Values Month Profit 13 -£2.E5:E10)} {=TREND(C5:C10.800 9 -£3.E5:E10)} {=TREND(C5:C10.000 {=TREND(C8:C13.B5:B10.163 10 £6.600 4 -£4.800 3 -£4.B8:B13.750 5 -£4.226 14 -£1.386 12 £7.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .800 6 £4.709 16 -£1.E8:E13)} {=TREND(C5:C10.KnownXs.E41:E52)} The same function used in all cells as an .000 2 -£4. Example The following tables were used by a company to predict when they would start to make a profit.800 6 -£4. such as Months.997 Historical Data Month Sales 1 £1. The =TREND() function shows that it will be month 22 before the company make a profit.500 5 £3.193 18 -£935 19 -£676 20 -£418 21 -£160 22 £98 {=TREND(C41:C52.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 B C D E F G H I TREND Page 199 of 207 J TREND WHAT IS CONST b ? Predicted Values Month Sales 7 £4.B41:B52.Constant) The KnownYs is the range of values. Syntax =TREND(KnownYs. Historical Data Month Profit 1 -£5. The KnownXs is the intervals used when collecting the data. months 1 to 12.940 8 £5.

800 D E 23 24 F £356 £615 G array formula H I TREND Page 200 of 207 J How To Enter An Array Formula Select all the cells where the array is required.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . .E41:E52).B41:B52. but do not press Enter.500 -£2. Hold the Ctrl+Shift keys down.2000 Peter Noneley A 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 B 11 12 C -£2. Press Enter to enter the formula as an array. such as F41 to F52. Type the formula such as =TREND(C41:C52.

Multiple spaces within the text will be trimmed to a single space Syntax =TRIM(TextToTrim) Formatting No special formatting is needed.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 B C D E F G H TRIM Page 201 of 207 I TRIM Original Text ABCD A B C D Alan Jones ABCD Trimmed Text ABCD ABCD Alan Jones ABCD =TRIM(C4) =TRIM(C5) =TRIM(C6) =TRIM(C7) What Does It Do ? This function removes unwanted spaces from a piece of text. The spaces before and after the text will be removed completely.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . .

47 =TRUNC(C8.D9) -2 13600 =TRUNC(C10.Precision) Formatting No special formatting is needed.4 =TRUNC(C7.48 What Does It Do ? This function removes the decimal part of a number.D7) 2 -1.47589 1.D8) -1 13640 =TRUNC(C9.47589 -1.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 B C D E F G H I TRUNC Page 202 of 207 J TRUNC Precision For Truncated Truncation Number 0 1 =TRUNC(C4.4 =TRUNC(C5.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .47589 13643.48 13643. .48 13643.D5) 2 1. it does not actually round the number.47 =TRUNC(C6.D11) 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Number 1.D10) -3 13000 =TRUNC(C11.47589 -1.47589 1.D6) 1 -1. Syntax =TRUNC(NumberToTuncate.D4) 1 1.

Example See the example for FREQUENCY.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 B C D E F G UPPER Page 203 of 207 H UPPER Original Text alan jones bob smith carOl wiLLiamS cardiff abc123 Upper Case ALAN JONES BOB SMITH CAROL WILLIAMS CARDIFF ABC123 =UPPER(C4) =UPPER(C5) =UPPER(C6) =UPPER(C7) =UPPER(C8) What Does It Do ? This function converts all characters in a piece of text to upper case. . Syntax =UPPER(TextToConvert) Formatting No special formatting is needed.

SEARCH("??:??". 100% * See explanation below.2000 Peter Noneley A B 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 C D E F G VALUE Page 204 of 208 H VALUE Text Containing A Number Annual turnover was £5000 Value #VALUE! =VALUE(MID(C4. Now when the extraction takes place any unnecessary characters will be spaces which are ignored by the =VALUE() function. errors will occur when the percentage is only one digit long. The result will be shown as a value.SEARCH("??:??".SEARCH("??:??". other than it is preceded by a space.99)) There was a 2% increase in sales.5)) What Does It Do ? This function converts a piece of text which resembles a number into an actual value." "). =FIND().02 .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . 0.5 A 100% increase was achieved. The only way to identify the value is the fact it always ends with the % sign.0625 1:30 10:30 0:30 ")). 0.SEARCH("£". =VALUE(MID(SUBSTITUTE(C11.4)) =VALUE(MID(C14. as alphabetic characters will be included. To extract the values from the following text is complicated! The actual percentage value is of variable length." ". =SUBSTITUTE.SEARCH("???%". If the £ sign is included in the text it will be ignored.C14). =MID(). 1 Only a 2% increase in sales. The same will be true for other recognised formats. The winning time was 0:30 seconds. the result will be a decimal fraction which can then be formatted as a percentage.5)) =VALUE(MID(C15. There was a 2% increase in sales. Explanation of formula shown above. The winning time was 1:30 seconds.5)) =VALUE(MID(C16. 2% Approx 50% increase in sales.C17)." The winning time was 1:30 seconds.C4). If the % sign is included in the text. To get around the problem the =SUBSTITUTE() function was used to increase the size of the spaces in the text. If the original text format appears as a time hh:mm the result will be a time. 50% There was a 100% increase in sales. =LEFT() or =RIGHT().SUBSTITUTE(C11. Syntax =VALUE(TextToConvert) Formatting No special formatting is needed. There is no way to identify the beginning of the value.5)) =VALUE(MID(C17.C15).C16). two or three digits long. The main problem is calculating the length of the value to extract.SEARCH("??:??". 0. based upon the original text. If the number in the middle of a long piece of text it will have to be extracted using other text functions such as =SEARCH().02 There was a 50% increase in sales. The winning time was 10:30 seconds." ". 0. it can be either one. If the extraction assumes the maximum length of three digits and the % sign.

SUBSTITUTE(C52.2000 Peter Noneley A B 51 52 53 54 C There was a 50% increase in sales." E F G VALUE Page 205 of 208 H ")).4)) . There was a 100% increase in sales.SEARCH("???%".Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .5 1 ")." "." D 0. =VALUE(MID(SUBSTITUTE(C52." ".

2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 B C D E F G H I VAR Page 206 of 207 J VAR Values 10 10 9 10 0.6666667 =VAR(G4:G7) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the sample population variance of a list of values.H34:H36.MATCH(MIN(H34:H36). Three machines were short listed and allow to run for a day.0) This looks down the Machine column to =INDEX(C34:C36. =MIN(H34:H36) This finds the position of the lowest value.Range2.25 =VAR(C4:C7) Values 10 10 11 10 0.MATCH(MIN(H34:H36).8 0. Soap Powder Box Filling Machine Test Results Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Test 4 Variance 1.0167 The smallest variance is : 0.0025 1. =MATCH(MIN(H34:H36).H34:H36.5 0.5 1. The boxes were weighed and the =VAR() function used as these boxes only represented a sample of the complete days production.0)) Explanation of formula: This finds the lowest value. The machine with the smallest variance was the most consistent.0)) find the machine name.0067 1. Example The table below was used by a company interested in buying a new machine to pack washing powder.5 1. A sample population is used when the list of values represents a sample of a population.0025 Machine 1 Machine 2 Machine 3 =VAR(D34:G34) =VAR(D35:G35) =VAR(D36:G36) =MIN(H34:H36) The machine with the smallest variance is : Machine 2 =INDEX(C34:C36.6 1.5 1.4 1.Range3 through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed.5 0.25 =VAR(E4:E7) Values 10 11 9 12 1.7 1.4 1.6 1.5 1.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .H34:H36. At the end of the day four boxes of soap powder were picked at random from the production of each machine. . Syntax =VAR(Range1.

Range3 through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed.5 0. The boxes were weighed and the =VARP() function used as these boxes represented the entire test run.MATCH(MIN(H32:H34).5 1. .1875 =VARP(E4:E7) Values 10 11 9 12 1.0019 Machine 1 Machine 2 Machine 3 =VARP(D32:G32) =VARP(D33:G33) =VARP(D34:G34) =MIN(H32:H34) The machine with the smallest variance is : Machine 2 =INDEX(C32:C34.6 1.5 1.0050 1.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .4 1.7 1.5 0.4 1. =MATCH(MIN(H32:H34).0)) Explanation of formula: This finds the lowest value. The variance is calculated on the basis that the values represent the entire population.H32:H34. Soap Powder Box Filling Machine Test Results Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Test 4 Variance 1. Syntax =VARP(Range1.0)) find the machine name.H32:H34.25 =VARP(G4:G7) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the variance of a list of values. Example The table below was used by a company interested in buying a new machine to pack washing powder.5 1.0) This looks down the Machine column to =INDEX(C32:C34.1875 =VARP(C4:C7) Values 10 10 11 10 0.6 1.Range2. =(MIN(H32:H34) This finds the position of the lowest value.8 0.MATCH(MIN(H32:H34).0019 1.H32:H34. A trial run a just four boxes per machine were produced. The machine with the smallest variance was the most consistent.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 B C D E F G H I VARP Page 207 of 207 J VARP Values 10 10 9 10 0.5 1.0125 The smallest variance is : 0.