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Presented by Najiya KPP Mtech NST
working small, thinking big
From the Greek nanos meaning "dwarf”, this prefix is used in the metric system to mean 10-9 or 1/1,000,000,000.
. • It is all about building things atom by atom & molecule by molecule. • Goal of this technology is to make tiny devices called ‘Nanomachines’.Nanotechnology • Nanotechnology is exciting emerging science & technological field.
purdue.edu www. through the understanding and control of matter at dimensions in the nanometer scale length (1-100 nm).gov www.What is Nanotechnology www.nasa.edu An engineered DNA strand pRNA tiny motor Semiconducting metal junction formed by two carbon nanotubes Nanotechnology is the creation of functional materials. devices and systems.psu.phys. where new functionalities and properties of matter are observed and harnessed for a broad range of applications .
com Fullerenes C60 www.mathworks.What is Nanoscale ww.7 nm 1.27 × 107 m 0.7 × 10-9 m 10 millions times smaller 1 billion times smaller .22 m 0.edu 12.physics.ucr.756 Km 22 cm 0.
2 nm in diameter have blue emission Quantum dots 5 nm in diameter have red emission Evident Technologies evidot Quantum Dots . Color depends on particle size Quantum dots 3. It’s not just about miniaturization.What’s the BIG deal about something so SMALL? Materials behave differently at this size scale.
.Is this technology new? In one sense there is nothing new… • Whether we knew it or not. like any other branch of science. is primarily concerned with understanding how nature works. • Many existing technologies depend crucially on processes that take place on the nanometer scale. every piece of technology has involved the manipulation of atoms at some level. Ex: Photography & Catalysis Nanotechnology.
• The world of the ultra small.Working at the nanoscale • Working in the nanoworld was first proposed by Richard Feynman back in 1959. . • We can't see or touch it. • Because. optical microscopes can't provide images of anything smaller than the wavelength of visible light (ie. nothing smaller than 380 nanometres). in practical terms. • But it's only true in the last decade. is a distant place.
. 1959 This image was written using Dip-Pen Nanolithography. Dec 29. and imaged using lateral force microscopy mode of an atomic force microscope.From “There’s Plenty of Room at the Bottom”.
What makes the nanoscale special? High density of structures is possible with small size. Richard Feynman “There’s plenty of room at the bottom” . Prof.g. electronic. volume). area vs. Physical and chemical properties can be different at the nano-scale (e. chemical).g. optical. The physical behavior of material can be different in the nano-regime because of the different ways physical properties scale with dimension (e. thermal. mechanical.
MIT: web.mit. (2) size. 2001 M. Klabunde. we can create new materials with new properties New technologies . Inc. J. and (3) shape. Bawendi.edu/chemistry/nanocluster Evident.com By controlling nano-scale (1) composition.Physical/chemical properties can change as we approach the nano-scale Melting point of gold particles Fluorescence of semiconductor nanocrystals Decreasing crystal size K.: www.evidenttech.
Nanotechnology is estimated to become a trillion dollar market Areas in which nanotechnologies are expected to impact our everyday lives: • Electronics • Photonics (communications & computing using photons) • Information storage • Energy storage/transport • Materials engineering • Textiles • • • • Mechanical engineering Aerospace Environmental remediation Pharmaceuticals & drug delivery • Biotechnology .
• This law has given chip designers greater incentives to incorporate new features on silicon. .Moore’s Law • The number of transistors on a chip will approximately double every 18 to 24 months (Moore’s Law).
designers can squeeze more transistors into a chip. the circuits that carry electrical signals.• Moore's Law works largely through shrinking transistors. . • By shrinking transistors.
electronic and optical properties due to – Two dimensional quantum confinement – Structural one dimensionality – High surface to volume ratio • Potential application in wide range of nanodevices and systems – Nanoscale sensors and actuators – Photovoltaic devices – solar cells – Transistors. diodes and LASERs Nanowire Solar Cell: The nanowires create a surface that is able to absorb more sunlight than a flat surface – McMaster Univ. 2008 .Nanoscale Materials Nanowires and Nanotubes • Lateral dimension: 1 – 100 nm • Nanowires and nanotubes exhibit novel physical..
• Nanoelectronics refer to the use of nanotechnology on electronic components, especially transistors. Although the term nanotechnology is generally defined as utilizing technology less than 100 nm in size, nanoelectronics often refer to transistor devices that are so small that inter-atomic interactions and quantum mechanical properties need to be studied extensively. • Besides being small and allowing more transistors to be packed into a single chip, the uniform and symmetrical structure of nanotubes allows a higher electron mobility, a higher dielectric constant (faster frequency), and a symmetrical electron/ hole characteristic.
CARBON-BASED SENSORS AND ELECTRONICS
• Carbon nanomaterials such as one-dimensional (1D) carbon nanotubes and two-dimensional (2D) graphene have emerged as promising options due to their superior electrical properties which allow for fabrication of faster and more power-efficient electronics. • At the same time their high surface to volume ratio combined with their excellent mechanical properties has rendered them a robust and highly sensitive building block for nanosensors
A true example of nanotechnology: an array of individually addressable vertically-aligned carbon nanofibers for sensing applications at the nanoscale. For comparison, a single human hair is 1000 times thicker than any of the nanofibers in the image.
The new nanomaterial. it was shown for the first time that a single sheet of carbon atoms packed in a honeycomb crystal lattice can be isolated from graphite and is stable at room temperature. allows electrons to move at an extraordinarily high speed. This property. A layer of graphene acts as the conducting channel in a field-effect transistor .Graphene transistor • In 2004. together with its intrinsic nature of being oneatom-thick. which is called graphene. can be exploited to fabricate field-effect transistors that are faster and smaller.
Such transistors possess an electron mobility superior to their silicon-based counterpart and allow for larger current densities while dissipating the heat generated from their operation more efficiently. SWNTs inherit the attractive electronic properties of graphene but their cylindrical structure makes them a more readily available option for forming the channel in field-effect transistors. a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) is formed. carbon nanotube-based devices have advanced beyond single transistors to include more complex systems such as logic gates and radio-frequency components . • During the last decade.Carbon Nanotube Electronics • When a layer of graphene is rolled into a tube. Consequently.
An artistic expression of an integrated circuit based on individual carbon nanotubes .
A good example is the carbon nanotube-based mass sensor that can detect changes in mass caused by a single gold atom adsorbing on its surface Any additional gold atom that adsorbs on the surface of a vibrating carbon nanotube would change its resonance frequency which is further detected . high mechanical robustness.Carbon-based Nanosensors • In addition to the exceptional electrical properties of graphene and carbon nanotubes. lower limits of detection. and faster response time. their excellent thermal conductivity. and very large surface to volume ratio make them superior materials for fabrication of electromechanical and electrochemical sensors with higher sensitivities.
as the main building blocks of an electronic circuit. combined with the developed tools of molecular synthesis to engineer basic properties of molecules. . has enabled the realisation of novel functionalities beyond the scope of traditional solid state devices. or a tiny assembly of them.MOLECULAR ELECTRONICS • Recent advances in nanofabrication techniques have provided the opportunity to use single molecules. This.
stores each bit of data by charging up a tiny capacitor. translates to storing less charge in a smaller capacitor. the capacitor can be replaced by a single organic molecule such as Ferrocene. The continuous downscaling of electronic circuits. whose oxidation state can be altered by moving an electron into or out of the molecule . • As memory device dimensions approach the nanometer range. in its most common implementation.Single Molecule Memory Device • A modern memory device. in this context.
Single Molecule Memory Device A neutral Ferrocene molecule is attached to a nanoelectrode representing a “0” state An electron tunnels to the nanoelectrode by the application of an external electrical field The positively charged Ferrocene molecule represents a “1” state .
A tip that can distinguish between 0 and 1 rapidly and unambiguously is being investigated. H atoms would be designated as 0 and F atoms as 1. In this system. .A novel data storage system capable of 1015 bytes/cm2 is being explored.
Organic Transistor Odour Sensor • Organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) are a good example of the scope of traditional electronic devices being augmented by the chemical reactivity of an organic semiconductor material in their channel. the nano-scale chemical reactions upon exposure of the device to a certain atmospheric condition modify the electronic properties of the organic semiconducting material which is further reflected by a change in the current flowing through the transistor • . In an odour sensor.
Such algorithms are implemented in a device that makes direct use of quantum mechanical phenomena such as entanglement and superposition. Since the physical laws that govern the behaviour of a system at the atomic scale are inherently quantum mechanical in nature. the processing centre. the meandering line at the centre is the quantum bus. and the lateral meandering lines are the quantum memory . nanotechnology has emerged as the most appropriate tool to realise quantum computers Quantum computing chip: the two black squares are the quantum bits or qubits.QUANTUM COMPUTING The excitement in the field of quantum computing was triggered in 1994 by Peter Shor who showed how a quantum algorithm could exponentially speed up a classical computation.
In order to implement single electron transistors. Such transistors can potentially deliver very high device density and power efficiency with remarkable operational speed. These islands. a single electron transistor needs only one electron to change from the insulating to the conducting state. which are referred to as quantum dots. can be fabricated by employing processes made available by the advances in nanotechnology A single electron transistor in a surface acoustic wave echo chamber . extremely small metallic islands with sub-100 nm dimensions have to be fabricated. where the switching action requires thousands of electrons.SINGLE ELECTRON TRANSISTOR In contrast to common transistors.
spin is another fundamental property of matter.SPINTRONICS Similar to electrical charge. consume less power. The extension of the hard disk capacities to the gigabyte and the terabyte ranges was the main achievement of spintronics by taking advantage of Giant Magneto-Resistance (GMR) and Tunnel Magneto-Resistance (TMR) effects which are effective only at the nano scale A close-up look at a hard disk drive improved with the Giant Magneto-Resistance technology . While conventional electronic devices rely on the transport of electrical charge carriers. the emerging technology of spintronics employs the spin of electrons to encode and transfer information. and store more data in less space. Spintronics has the potential to deliver nanoscale memory and logic devices which process information faster.
NANO-ELECTRO-MECHANICAL SYSTEMS (NEMS) • All electronic tools have one thing in common: an integrated circuit (IC) acting as their “brain”. The extent to which this “brain” has influenced our lives has already been tremendous but what if its decision-making capability is augmented by “eyes” and “arms”? Nano-electro-mechanical systems have evolved during the last 10 years to make this dream come true by creating sensors (“eyes”) and actuators (“arms”) at the same scale as the accompanying nanoelectronics. . where information is transferred and stored through a series of electrical and mechanical actions at the nanoscale. • Recent developments in synthesis of nanomaterials with excellent electrical and mechanical properties have extended the boundaries of NEMS applications to include more advanced devices such as the nonvolatile nano-electro-mechanical memory.
. 2006 .Nanochip − Currently available microprocessors use resolutions as small as 32 nm − Houses up to a billion transistors in a single chip − MEMS based nanochips have future capability of 2 nm cell leading to 1TB memory per chip A MEMS based nanochip – Nanochip Inc.
clear video and images that are easy to see at almost any angle. it stimulates organic material between the two.Light Emitting Diode Organic light emitting diode (OLED) technology uses substances that emit red. Without any other source of illumination. When voltage is applied. which emits light visible through an outermost layer of glass. They operate on the attraction between positively and negatively charged particles. OLED displays stack up several thin layers of materials. blue or white light. . As energy passes from the negatively charged (cathode) layer to the other (anode) layer. OLED materials present bright. green. one layer becomes negatively charged relative to another transparent layer.
. the company has a major effort in this area. Intel believes that the future of nanotechnology is silicon based.Intel Celleron Processor Intel entered the nanotechnology era in 2000 when it began volume production of chips with sub100nm length transistors. both in-house and through external research programs.
is what enables the iPod Nano's 4 GB NAND flash memory. in part. .iPod Nano Inside the iPod Nano are memory chips from Samsung and Toshiba. the biggest producer of NAND and DRAM flash memory chips in the world. Samsung. This precision. uses semiconductor manufacturing methods with precision below 100 nanometers.
Like conventional CRTs. was created through the merging of Canon's proprietary electron-emission and microfabrication technologies with Toshiba's CRT technology and mass-production technologies for liquid crystal displays (LCDs) and semiconductors. Electron emitters.SED Display The Suface-conductor Electron-emitter Display (SED) based on a new type of flatpanel display technology. . SEDs utilize the collision of electrons with a phosphor-coated screen to emit light. are distributed in an amount equal to the number of pixels on the display. which correspond to an electron gun in a CRT.
It is applied as a high-tech coating on the Q40's keyboard and palm rest. Silver Nano technology takes advantage of the anti-bacteria properties of silver to protect computer users from potentially harmful germs. certifying that the Q40 uses eco-friendly components and packing materials. and promotes power saving. For extra peace of mind. it also carries the Samsung ECO Mark. molds and bacteria. .Notebook Computers The Q40 also incorporates Samsung's Silver Nano technology and is compliant with RoHS standards that restrict the use of hazardous substances.
The compound has been tested and proven effective against various bacteria. . The coating uses two mechanisms to deactivate enzymes and proteins of bacteria from surviving on the surface of the product.Keyboard & Mouse IOGEAR's Wireless Keyboard and Optical Mouse combo is coated with a Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) and Silver (Ag) nano-particle compound.
The chip includes three of these cores. It features 165 million transistors fabricated using IBM's 90 nanometer Silicon on Insulator (SOI) technology to reduce heat and improve performance. each with two simultaneous threads and clock speeds greater than 3 GHz.XBOX The chip features a customized version of IBM's industry leading 64bit PowerPC core. .
It's a self-emitting device. OLED screens emit their own light and are lighter. OEL were introduced to the world by Pioneer in 1999. and you can keep your eyes on the road longer. featured in select Premier and Pioneer models. smaller and more energy efficient than conventional liquid crystal displays. OEL displays. namely: you can read the display from wide angles and even in bright sunlight (what a concept!). have some intensely great advantages over normal displays. it’s also easier to control. so there’s no need for backlighting and it’s really efficient to operate. .Organic Electroluminescent Display Made of nanostructured polymer films. and head units have never looked the same since. Since it’s easier to read.
. A breakthrough technology applied to the negative electrode uses new nanoparticles to prevent organic liquid electrolytes from reducing during battery recharging.Lithium-Ion Battery The new battery fuses Toshiba's latest advances in nano-material technology for the electric devices sector with cumulative know-how in manufacturing lithium-ion battery cells. The nano-particles quickly absorb and store a vast amount of lithium ions. without causing any deterioration in the electrode.
so as to improve the vulnerability of previous image sensors in mobile phones. This produces higher density as well as lower power consumption. .Sensors We apply nanotechnology during sensor development. enabling us to minimize sensor size and increase unit pixels integrated into a limited area.
like wires. Lasers made from arrays of these wires have many potential applications in communications and sensing for NASA. Researchers are studying light emission from a semiconductor nanowiretypically 10-100 nanometers wide and a few micrometers long-which functions as a laser. has possibilities as new technology for devices and sensors. .Nanolasers Nanolasers The complex interaction between light and nanometer structures.
Understanding the complex quantum physics involved via simulation guides design. . Such molecules and nanostructures are expected to revolutionize electronics.AN ENGINEERED DNA STRAND An engineered DNA strand between metal atom contacts could function as a molecular electronics device.
compact.• Onboard computing systems for future autonomous intelligent vehicles powerful.climate modeling • • • • • • • Revolutionary computing technologies Smart. radiation hard • High performance computing (Tera. nano-rovers for planetary exploration Novel materials for future spacecraft . ultrasmall probes Advanced miniaturization of all systems Microspacecraft 'Thinking' spacecraft Micro-. low power consumption. compact sensors.and Peta-flops) processing satellite data integrated space vehicle engineering .
20% less emission. 20% less noise) Revolutionary Aircraft Concepts (30% less mass. 25% increased range) Bio-Inspired Materials and Processes Increasing levels of system design and integration Materials • Single-walled nanotube fibers • Low-Power CNT electronic components • In-space nanoprobes • Nanotube composites • Molecular computing/data storage • Nano flight system components 2004 2006 • Integral thermal/shape control • Fault/radiation tolerant electronics • Quantum navigation sensors 2011 • Smart “skin” materials • Nano electronic “brain” for space Exploration • Integrated nanosensor systems • Biomimetic material systems • Biological computing Electronics/ computing Sensors. s/c components 2002 • NEMS flight systems @ 1 µW 2016 > .NASA Nanotechnology Roadmap C A P A B I L I T Y Multi-Functional Materials Autonomous Spacecraft % less mass) Adaptive (40 Sel f-Repairing Space Missions High Strength Materials (>10 GPa) Reusable Launch Vehicle (20% less mass.
radiation resistant molecular computing CNT Devices Compute Capacity . Space Science and Earth Science 2002 2005 2010 2015 hn eSensor Web Mission Complexity Robot Colony Nano-electronic components Europa Sub Ultra high density storage RLV Biological Molecules Biomimetic.Nanoelectronics and Computing Roadmap Impact on Space Transportation.
HEDS. optical and bio) Spacestation Sharp CJV 2003 ISPP 1999 DSI RAX Missions too early for nanotechnology impact Nanopore for in situ biomark-sensor Sensor Capacity .Nanosensor Roadmap Impact on Space Transportation. Space Science and Astrobiology 2002 2005 2010 2015 Optical Sensors for Synthetic Vision Mission Complexity Sensor Web Nanotube Vibration Sensor for Propulsion Diagnostics 2020 Mars Robot Colony Europa Sub Multi-sensor Arrays (Chemical.
Nano-Materials Roadmap Impact on Space Transportation. Space Science and HEDS 2002 2005 2010 2015 Generation 3 RLV HEDS Habitats Mission Complexity CNT Tethers RLV Cryo Tanks Production of single CNT NANOTUBE COMPOSITES SELF-HEALING MATERIALS Non-tacky SELF-ASSEMBLING MATERIALS Tacky temperature MULTIFUNCTIONAL MATERIALS Strong Smart Structures Nanotextiles CNT = Carbon Nanotubes .
NANOCOMPUTERS A Nanocomputer is a computer whose fundamental components measure only a few nanometers(<100nm) -Minimum feature size on todays state-of-the-art commercial integrated circuits measure about 350nm -Over 10.000 nanocomputer components could fit in the area of a single modern microcomputer component -Could dramatically increase computing speed & density .
Nanolithography is used to create microscopic circuit as is it the art & science of etching. .writing or printing at microscopic level where the dim of char are in order of nanometer. To further decrease the size the concept “Nanolithography” will be needed.NANOCOMPUTERS Main difference is one of physical scale More and more transistors are squeezed into silicon chips with each passing year.
Using carbon nanotubes to direct electrons to illuminate pixels. such as the process that allows the production of integrated circuits with 22nm wide transistor gates. Using quantum dots to replace the fluorescent dots used in current displays. Combining gold nanoparticles with organic molecules to create a transistor known as a NOMFET(Nanoparticle Organic memory Field-Effect Transistor). Making integrated circuits with features that can be measured in nanometers (nm). . Transistors built in single atom thick graphene film to enable very high speed transistors. millimeter thick “nanoemissive display panel”.Nanoelectronics: Applications under Development Researchers are looking into the following nanoelectronics projects: Building transistors from carbon nanotubes to enable minimum transistor dimensions of a few nanometers and developing techniques to manufacture integrated circuits built with nanotube transistors. resulting in a lightweight. Displays using quantum dots should be simpler to make than current displays as well as use less power. Using electrodes made from nanowires that would enable flat panel displays to be flexible as well as thinner than current flat panel displays.
Developing Molecular-sized Transistors which may allow us to shrink the width of transistor gates to approximately one nm which will significantly increase transistor density in integrated circuits. low power memory devices. Using nanowires to build transistors without p-n junctions. rather than measuring groups of electronics as done in current semiconductor devices. . By applying a current magnetized sections along the length of the wire. Using Self-aligning nanostructures to manufacture nanoscale integrated circuits. Using buckyballs to build dense. As the magnetized sections move along the wire.Nanoelectronics: Applications under Development Using nanosized magnetic rings to make Magnetoresistive Random Access Memory(MRAM) which research has indicated may allow memory density of 400GB per square inch. Using Magnetic Quantum dots in spintronic semiconductor devices. the data is read by a stationary sensor. This method is called Race track memory. Using silver nanowires embedded in a polymer to make conductive layers that can flex. Spintronic devices are expected to be significantly higher density and lower power consumption because they measure the spin of electronics to determine a 1 or 0. without damaging the conductor. Using nanowires made of an alloy of iron and nickel to create dense memory devices.
Research Challenges Nano technology brings on new challenges • Existing tools for investigations at the atomic level are expensive to acquire and maintain • New research tools need to be developed to explore the nano realm • Specialized facilities are required to maintain the cleanliness need for nano technology • A new infrastructure might be required for the equipment yet-to-be-developed .
it is important for researchers to continue to push the understanding of nano technology .Summary • There are many opportunities to incorporate nano technologies into innovative products • Fundamental research is required to understand the potential applications of the properties of nano materials • Future high tech products will incorporate the advantages of nano-materials • From the national interests.
university.Conclusions • Building from Semiconductor provides ability to coordinate industry. and infrastructure roles in developing “nano” in more than electronics • Tools and facilities for nano are expensive • Nano-technology requires being on the leading edge of developments including equipment • Infrastructure development must be sustained • Continual evaluation of “weak” links is required .
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