The Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels


The Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels
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The Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels Author: Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels Release Date: April, 1993 [Etext# 61] [Most recently updated January 20, 2003] Edition: 12 Language: English Character set encoding: ASCII The Project Gutenberg Etext of The Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels This file should be named manif12.txt or Corrected EDITIONS of our etexts get a new NUMBER, manif13.txt VERSIONS based on separate sources get new LETTER, manif12a.txt This etext was prepared by: allen lutins


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navigation. therefore.The Legal Small Print To this end. steam and machinery revolutionised industrial production. a rapid development. the leaders of whole industrial armies. for which the discovery of America paved the way. Modern Industry. in almost all of these classes. Modern industry has established the world-market. From these burgesses the first elements of the bourgeoisie were developed. The East-Indian and Chinese markets. the epoch of the bourgeoisie. in a word. directly facing each other: Bourgeoisie and Proletariat. Each step in the development of the bourgeoisie was accompanied by a corresponding political advance of . Meantime the markets kept ever growing. again. feudal lords. either in a revolutionary re-constitution of society at large. The discovery of America. opened up fresh ground for the rising bourgeoisie. now hidden. Thereupon. trade with the colonies. plebeians. journeymen. division of labour between the different corporate guilds vanished in the face of division of labour in each single workshop. the rounding of the Cape. the place of the industrial middle class. this distinctive feature: it has simplified the class antagonisms: Society as a whole is more and more splitting up into two great hostile camps. to communication by land. and thereby. to navigation. French. guild-master and journeyman. This development has. now open fight. under which industrial production was monopolised by closed guilds. The manufacturing system took its place. gave to commerce. into two great classes. commerce. slaves. In ancient Rome we have patricians. and in proportion as industry. new forms of struggle in place of the old ones. carried on an uninterrupted. BOURGEOIS AND PROLETARIANS The history of all hitherto existing societies is the history of class struggles. The modern bourgeois society that has sprouted from the ruins of feudal society has not done away with class antagonisms. however. in the same proportion the bourgeoisie developed. oppressor and oppressed. The feudal system of industry. stood in constant opposition to one another. 7 In the earlier epochs of history. The place of manufacture was taken by the giant. an impulse never before known. the demand ever rising. Flemish and Danish languages. a manifold gradation of social rank. vassals. and pushed into the background every class handed down from the Middle Ages. reacted on the extension of industry. the modern bourgeois. guild-masters. we find almost everywhere a complicated arrangement of society into various orders. the colonisation of America. From the serfs of the Middle Ages sprang the chartered burghers of the earliest towns. serfs. The guild-masters were pushed on one side by the manufacturing middle class. in the Middle Ages. patrician and plebeian. knights. now no longer sufficed for the growing wants of the new markets. Our epoch. It has but established new classes. railways extended. or in the common ruin of the contending classes. This market has given an immense development to commerce. the increase in the means of exchange and in commodities generally. lord and serf. to be published in the English. and sketched the following Manifesto. to navigation. of a series of revolutions in the modes of production and of exchange. new conditions of oppression. by industrial millionaires. a fight that each time ended. Communists of various nationalities have assembled in London. We see. Even manufacture no longer sufficed. subordinate gradations. to industry. in its time. Italian. to the revolutionary element in the tottering feudal society. possesses. increased its capital. apprentices. how the modern bourgeoisie is itself the product of a long course of development. Freeman and slave. German. I.

Roman aqueducts. brutal exploitation. but raw material drawn from the remotest zones. which Reactionists so much admire. into its paid wage labourers. settle everywhere. but in every quarter of the globe.The Legal Small Print 8 that class. unconscionable freedom -. conquered for itself. Conservation of the old modes of production in unaltered form. and man is at last compelled to face with sober senses. are swept away. direct. has set up that single. there taxable "third estate" of the monarchy (as in France). by industries that no longer work up indigenous raw material. all new-formed ones become antiquated before they can ossify. shameless. fast-frozen relations. it has conducted expeditions that put in the shade all former Exoduses of nations and crusades. and his relations with his kind. The bourgeoisie has torn away from the family its sentimental veil.Free Trade." It has drowned the most heavenly ecstasies of religious fervour." and has left remaining no other nexus between man and man than naked self-interest. patriarchal. than callous "cash payment. the bourgeoisie has at last. The bourgeoisie has through its exploitation of the world-market given a cosmopolitan character to production and consumption in every country. wherever it has got the upper hand. the first condition of existence for all earlier industrial classes. and with them the whole relations of society. an armed and self-governing association in the mediaeval commune. afterwards. All old-established national industries have been destroyed or are daily being destroyed. here independent urban republic (as in Italy and Germany). The bourgeoisie. everlasting uncertainty and agitation distinguish the bourgeois epoch from all earlier ones. To the great chagrin of Reactionists. the priest. we find new wants. And in place of the numberless and feasible chartered freedoms. It has pitilessly torn asunder the motley feudal ties that bound man to his "natural superiors. in fact. idyllic relations. in the icy water of egotistical calculation. requiring for their satisfaction the products of distant lands and climes. In place of the old wants. It must nestle everywhere. not only at home. veiled by religious and political illusions. the poet. All fixed. found its fitting complement in the most slothful indolence. and. Constant revolutionising of production. was. It has been the first to show what man's activity can bring about. The bourgeoisie has disclosed how it came to pass that the brutal display of vigour in the Middle Ages. The bourgeoisie has stripped of its halo every occupation hitherto honoured and looked up to with reverent awe. naked. corner-stone of the great monarchies in general. All that is solid melts into air. They are dislodged by new industries. the lawyer. in the modern representative State. in the period of manufacture proper. whose introduction becomes a life and death question for all civilised nations. It has resolved personal worth into exchange value. on the contrary. uninterrupted disturbance of all social conditions. has put an end to all feudal. all that is holy is profaned. of chivalrous enthusiasm. with their train of ancient and venerable prejudices and opinions. it has drawn from under the feet of industry the national ground on which it stood. exclusive political sway. An oppressed class under the sway of the feudal nobility. The need of a constantly expanding market for its products chases the bourgeoisie over the whole surface of the globe. and thereby the relations of production. has played a most revolutionary part. It has accomplished wonders far surpassing Egyptian pyramids. establish connexions everywhere. industries whose products are consumed. the man of science. In one word. and has reduced the family relation to a mere money relation. since the establishment of Modern Industry and of the world-market. satisfied by the productions of the country. for exploitation. of philistine sentimentalism. The bourgeoisie. The executive of the modern State is but a committee for managing the common affairs of the whole bourgeoisie. serving either the semi-feudal or the absolute monarchy as a counterpoise against the nobility. and Gothic cathedrals. his real conditions of life. historically. The bourgeoisie cannot exist without constantly revolutionising the instruments of production. In place of the old local and . It has converted the physician.

in one word. by the rapid improvement of all instruments of production. It is enough to mention the commercial crises that by their periodical return put on its trial. A similar movement is going on before our own eyes. In these crises there breaks out an epidemic that. canalisation of rivers. The cheap prices of its commodities are the heavy artillery with which it batters down all Chinese walls. each time more threateningly. they became so many fetters. one code of laws. would have seemed an absurdity -. it appears as if a famine. Society suddenly finds itself put back into a state of momentary barbarism. i. draws all. machinery. The intellectual creations of individual nations become common property. and has concentrated property in a few hands. nations into civilisation. or but loosely connected provinces. with one government. It compels all nations. clearing of whole continents for cultivation. to adopt the bourgeois mode of production. railways. whole populations conjured out of the ground -. and has thus rescued a considerable part of the population from the idiocy of rural life. the conditions under which feudal society produced and exchanged. National one-sidedness and narrow-mindedness become more and more impossible. Subjection of Nature's forces to man. And as in material. In these crises a great part not only of the existing products. It has agglomerated production. one national class-interest. we have intercourse in every direction. who is no longer able to control the powers of the nether world whom he has called up by his spells. on whose foundation the bourgeoisie built itself up. Independent. accompanied by a social and political constitution adapted to it. Just as it has made the country dependent on the towns. a society that has conjured up such gigantic means of production and of exchange. laws. At a certain stage in the development of these means of production and of exchange. The bourgeoisie keeps more and more doing away with the scattered state of the population. against the property relations that are the conditions for the existence of the bourgeoisie and of its rule. Into their place stepped free competition. and by the economical and political sway of the bourgeois class. The bourgeoisie. electric telegraphs. so also in intellectual production. the feudal relations of property became no longer compatible with the already developed productive forces. of exchange and of property. there arises a world literature. The bourgeoisie has subjected the country to the rule of the towns. in all earlier epochs. with separate interests. application of chemistry to industry and agriculture. became lumped together into one nation.e. by the immensely facilitated means of communication. 9 The bourgeoisie. industry and commerce seem to be . even the most barbarian. nations of peasants on nations of bourgeois. but also of the previously created productive forces. the feudal organisation of agriculture and manufacturing industry. In one word. It has created enormous cities. it compels them to introduce what it calls civilisation into their midst. universal inter-dependence of nations. and of property. For many a decade past the history of industry and commerce is but the history of the revolt of modern productive forces against modern conditions of production.. the East on the West. steam-navigation. They had to be burst asunder. with which it forces the barbarians' intensely obstinate hatred of foreigners to capitulate.what earlier century had even a presentiment that such productive forces slumbered in the lap of social labour? We see then: the means of production and of exchange. and from the numerous national and local literatures. Modern bourgeois society with its relations of production. one frontier and one customs-tariff. is like the sorcerer. a universal war of devastation had cut off the supply of every means of subsistence. it creates a world after its own image. governments and systems of taxation. to become bourgeois themselves.the epidemic of over-production. of the means of production. are periodically destroyed.The Legal Small Print national seclusion and self-sufficiency. has created more massive and more colossal productive forces than have all preceding generations together. The necessary consequence of this was political centralisation. so it has made barbarian and semi-barbarian countries dependent on the civilised ones. were generated in feudal society. has greatly increased the urban population as compared with the rural. they were burst asunder. the existence of the entire bourgeois society. during its rule of scarce one hundred years. on pain of extinction.

almost entirely. it has also called into existence the men who are to wield those weapons -. the more is the labour of men superseded by that of women. In proportion as the bourgeoisie. who must sell themselves piece-meal.all these sink gradually into the proletariat. are organised like soldiers. according to their age and sex. most monotonous. Nay more. The weapons with which the bourgeoisie felled feudalism to the ground are now turned against the bourgeoisie itself. No sooner is the exploitation of the labourer by the manufacturer. partly because their diminutive . than he is set upon by the other portions of the bourgeoisie. and by diminishing the means whereby crises are prevented. they are daily and hourly enslaved by the machine. the modern working class. Not only are they slaves of the bourgeois class.. by the individual bourgeois manufacturer himself. i. and by the more thorough exploitation of the old ones. That is to say. Differences of age and sex have no longer any distinctive social validity for the working class. developed -. and of the bourgeois State. are a commodity. on the other. Hence. These labourers. in other words. they bring disorder into the whole of bourgeois society. He becomes an appendage of the machine. in the same proportion is the proletariat. to all the fluctuations of the market. too much commerce.the proletarians. the handicraftsmen and peasants -. so far at an end.the small tradespeople. in proportion as the use of machinery and division of labour increases. the cost of production of a workman is restricted. and most easily acquired knack.a class of labourers. the landlord. shopkeepers. by the conquest of new markets. But not only has the bourgeoisie forged the weapons that bring death to itself. etc. As privates of the industrial army they are placed under the command of a perfect hierarchy of officers and sergeants. Modern industry has converted the little workshop of the patriarchal master into the great factory of the industrial capitalist. as the repulsiveness of the work increases. and who find work only so long as their labour increases capital. the more modern industry becomes developed. capital.The Legal Small Print 10 destroyed. more or less expensive to use. all charm for the workman. And how does the bourgeoisie get over these crises? On the one hand inforced destruction of a mass of productive forces. too much means of subsistence. that is required of him. and why? Because there is too much civilisation. In proportion therefore. retired tradesmen generally.e. to the means of subsistence that he requires for his maintenance. is equal to its cost of production. the work of the proletarians has lost all individual character. by increase of the work exacted in a given time or by increased speed of the machinery. and it is only the most simple. the pawnbroker. and are consequently exposed to all the vicissitudes of competition. who live only so long as they find work. But the price of a commodity. The conditions of bourgeois society are too narrow to comprise the wealth created by them. crowded into the factory. the shopkeeper. All are instruments of labour. The less the skill and exertion of strength implied in manual labour. is developed. the more hateful and the more embittering it is. The productive forces at the disposal of society no longer tend to further the development of the conditions of bourgeois property. by paving the way for more extensive and more destructive crises. they have become too powerful for these conditions. the wage decreases. by the over-looker. The lower strata of the middle class -. and so soon as they overcome these fetters. endanger the existence of bourgeois property. on the contrary. Owing to the extensive use of machinery and to division of labour. and. too much industry. Masses of labourers. etc.the modern working class -. above all. in the same proportion the burden of toil also increases. The more openly this despotism proclaims gain to be its end and aim. the more petty. like every other article of commerce. and therefore also of labour. and for the propagation of his race. that he receives his wages in cash. and consequently. whether by prolongation of the working hours. by which they are fettered.

and is swamped in the competition with the large capitalists. which class. by taking advantage of the divisions among the bourgeoisie itself. is continually being upset again by the competition between the workers themselves. Thus the ten-hours' bill in England was carried. With its birth begins its struggle with the bourgeoisie. The bourgeoisie finds itself involved in a constant battle. The bourgeoisie itself. the collisions between individual workmen and individual bourgeois take more and more the character of collisions between two classes. At this stage the labourers still form an incoherent mass scattered over the whole country. It was just this contact that was needed to centralise the numerous local struggles. supplies the proletariat with its own instruments of political and general education. whose interests have become antagonistic to the progress of industry.The Legal Small Print capital does not suffice for the scale on which Modern Industry is carried on. then by the operatives of one trade. in many ways. Altogether collisions between the classes of the old society further. able to do so. later on. The growing competition among the bourgeois. but of the union of the bourgeoisie. and the resulting commercial crises. and thus. but only for a time. in other words. every victory so obtained is a victory for the bourgeoisie. with those portions of the bourgeoisie itself. achieve in a few years. is compelled to set the whole proletariat in motion. In all these battles it sees itself compelled to appeal to the proletariat. in order to attain its own political ends. At this stage. into one national struggle between classes. The unceasing improvement of machinery. but in the ever-expanding union of the workers. the petty bourgeoisie. mightier. If anywhere they unite to form more compact bodies. with their miserable highways. Thus the proletariat is recruited from all classes of the population. therefore. to drag it into the political arena. it becomes concentrated in greater masses. the landowners. But it ever rises up again. This union is helped on by the improved means of communication that are created by modern industry and that place the workers of different localities in contact with one another. This organisation of the proletarians into a class. But with the development of industry the proletariat not only increases in number. they smash to pieces machinery. At first with the aristocracy. and nearly everywhere reduces wages to the same low level. It compels legislative recognition of particular interests of the workers. in one locality. all of the same character. makes their livelihood more and more precarious. they destroy imported wares that compete with their labour. at all times. they set factories ablaze. They direct their attacks not against the bourgeois conditions of production. but the enemies of their enemies. but against the instruments of production themselves. required centuries. 11 The proletariat goes through various stages of development. therefore. then by the workpeople of a factory. the modern proletarians. . thanks to railways. And that union. Here and there the contest breaks out into riots. and it feels that strength more. they found permanent associations in order to make provision beforehand for these occasional revolts. its strength grows. At first the contest is carried on by individual labourers. the proletarians do not fight their enemies. against the individual bourgeois who directly exploits them. Now and then the workers are victorious. the course of development of the proletariat. Thereupon the workers begin to form combinations (Trades Unions) against the bourgeois. to ask for its help. The real fruit of their battles lies. in proportion as machinery obliterates all distinctions of labour. and broken up by their mutual competition. not in the immediate result. they seek to restore by force the vanished status of the workman of the Middle Ages. and consequently into a political party. But every class struggle is a political struggle. make the wages of the workers ever more fluctuating. firmer. and is moreover yet. The various interests and conditions of life within the ranks of the proletariat are more and more equalised. ever more rapidly developing. stronger. the non-industrial bourgeois. the remnants of absolute monarchy. partly because their specialized skill is rendered worthless by the new methods of production. they club together in order to keep up the rate of wages. with the bourgeoisie of foreign countries. Thus the whole historical movement is concentrated in the hands of the bourgeoisie. this is not yet the consequence of their own active union. for a time. to attain which the burghers of the Middle Ages.

the struggle of the proletariat with the bourgeoisie is at first a national struggle. the process of dissolution going on within the ruling class. Law. prepare it far more for the part of a bribed tool of reactionary intrigue. its conditions of life. The proletariat of each country must. Nay more. every form of society has been based. Just as. be swept into the movement by a proletarian revolution. are to him so many bourgeois prejudices. they are reactionary. independent movement of the immense majority. modern subjection to capital. as we have already seen. therefore. has stripped him of every trace of national character. The proletarians cannot become masters of the productive forces of society. cannot raise itself up. in fact within the whole range of society. for they try to roll back the wheel of history. up to the point where that war breaks out into open revolution. glaring character. by the advance of industry. morality. The "dangerous class. as we have already seen. a portion of the bourgeois ideologists. All previous historical movements were movements of minorities. those of old society at large are already virtually swamped. religion. the proletariat is its special and essential product. at an earlier period. except by abolishing their own previous mode of appropriation. we traced the more or less veiled civil war. his relation to his wife and children has no longer anything in common with the bourgeois family-relations. behind which lurk in ambush just as many bourgeois interests. and in particular.The Legal Small Print it furnishes the proletariat with weapons for fighting the bourgeoisie. that a small section of the ruling class cuts itself adrift. In the conditions of the proletariat. without the whole superincumbent strata of official society being sprung into the air. Of all the classes that stand face to face with the bourgeoisie today. that passively rotting mass thrown off by the lowest layers of old society. the shopkeeper. raging within existing society. or in the interests of minorities. here and there. the same in England as in France. a section of the nobility went over to the bourgeoisie. the class that holds the future in its hands. In depicting the most general phases of the development of the proletariat. They have nothing of their own to secure and to fortify. on the antagonism of oppressing and . assumes such a violent. 12 Finally. Hitherto. yet in form. but conservative. may. they thus defend not their present. so now a portion of the bourgeoisie goes over to the proletariat. all these fight against the bourgeoisie. These also supply the proletariat with fresh elements of enlightenment and progress. Though not in substance. modern industrial labour. the proletariat alone is a really revolutionary class. and joins the revolutionary class. They are therefore not revolutionary. cannot stir. The lower middle class. If by chance they are revolutionary." the social scum. or are at least threatened in their conditions of existence. the artisan. the small manufacturer. of course. entire sections of the ruling classes are. All the preceding classes that got the upper hand. they desert their own standpoint to place themselves at that of the proletariat. and thereby also every other previous mode of appropriation. The other classes decay and finally disappear in the face of Modern Industry. who have raised themselves to the level of comprehending theoretically the historical movement as a whole. however. to save from extinction their existence as fractions of the middle class. and where the violent overthrow of the bourgeoisie lays the foundation for the sway of the proletariat. in the interests of the immense majority. in times when the class struggle nears the decisive hour. in America as in Germany. precipitated into the proletariat. they are so only in view of their impending transfer into the proletariat. and insurances of. their mission is to destroy all previous securities for. The proletariat. but their future interests. the lowest stratum of our present society. Further. The proletarian is without property. the peasant. first of all settle matters with its own bourgeoisie. The proletarian movement is the self-conscious. sought to fortify their already acquired status by subjecting society at large to their conditions of appropriation. individual property.

under the yoke of feudal absolutism. from a historical movement going on under our very eyes. actual relations springing from an existing class struggle. The serf. they point out and bring to the front the common interests of entire proletariat. The advance of industry. raised himself to membership in the commune. PROLETARIANS AND COMMUNISTS In what relation do the Communists stand to the proletarians as a whole? The Communists do not form a separate party opposed to other working-class parties. just as the petty bourgeois. in general terms. The development of Modern Industry. overthrow of the bourgeois supremacy. The theoretical conclusions of the Communists are in no way based on ideas or principles that have been invented. certain conditions must be assured to it under which it can. replaces the isolation of the labourers. therefore. The Communists. that section which pushes forward all others. And here it becomes evident. the condition for capital is wage-labour. the conditions. sinks deeper and deeper below the conditions of existence of his own class. on the contrary. The abolition of existing property relations is not at all a distinctive feature of Communism. and for the sway of the bourgeois class. are on the one hand. cuts from under its feet the very foundation on which the bourgeoisie produces and appropriates products. What the bourgeoisie. that the bourgeoisie is unfit any longer to be the ruling class in society. and to impose its conditions of existence upon society as an over-riding law. instead of rising with the progress of industry. due to association. because it cannot help letting him sink into such a state.The Legal Small Print 13 oppressed classes. They do not set up any sectarian principles of their own. conquest of political power by the proletariat. practically. its existence is no longer compatible with society. Wage-labour rests exclusively on competition between the laborers. at least. they always and everywhere represent the interests of the movement as a whole. they have over the great mass of the proletariat the advantage of clearly understanding the line of march. theoretically. and the ultimate general results of the proletarian movement. But in order to oppress a class. instead of being fed by him. He becomes a pauper. by their revolutionary combination. in the period of serfdom. or discovered. II. whose involuntary promoter is the bourgeoisie. It is unfit to rule because it is incompetent to assure an existence to its slave within his slavery. They merely express. (2) In the various stages of development which the struggle of the working class against the bourgeoisie has to pass through. due to competition. managed to develop into a bourgeois. They have no interests separate and apart from those of the proletariat as a whole. therefore. Its fall and the victory of the proletariat are equally inevitable. The immediate aim of the Communist is the same as that of all the other proletarian parties: formation of the proletariat into a class. that it has to feed him. therefore. Society can no longer live under this bourgeoisie. continue its slavish existence. in other words. The Communists are distinguished from the other working-class parties is only: (1) In the national struggles of the proletarians of the different countries. All property relations in the past have continually been subject to historical change consequent upon the change in historical conditions. above all. The modern laborer. by which to shape and mould the proletarian movement. . by this or that would-be universal reformer. produces. independently of nationality. the most advanced and resolute section of the working-class parties of every country. and pauperism develops more rapidly than population and wealth. is the formation and augmentation of capital. The essential condition for the existence. on the other hand. is its own grave-diggers.

the theory of the Communists may be summed up in the single sentence: Abolition of private property. for example. the present dominates the past. In this sense. The average price of wage-labour is the minimum wage. accumulated labour is but a means to widen. which is absolutely requisite in bare existence as a labourer. therefore. To be a capitalist. in the last resort. What. in its present form. capital is converted into common property.. to promote the existence of the labourer. that quantum of the means of subsistence. It loses its class-character. into the property of all members of society. self-acquired.e. self-earned property! Do you mean the property of the petty artisan and of the small peasant. the development of industry has to a great extent already destroyed it. and is still destroying it daily. We by no means intend to abolish this personal appropriation of the products of labour. merely suffices to prolong and reproduce a bare existence. i. but a social status in production. We Communists have been reproached with the desire of abolishing the right of personally acquiring property as the fruit of a man's own labour. Or do you mean modern bourgeois private property? But does wage-labour create any property for the labourer? Not a bit. nay. while the living person is dependent and has no individuality. abolished feudal property in favour of bourgeois property. All that we want to do away with. a form of property that preceded the bourgeois form? There is no need to abolish that.The Legal Small Print The French Revolution. It is only the social character of the property that is changed. Capital is a collective product. Let us now take wage-labour.. that kind of property which exploits wage-labour. Capital is. therefore.e. When. under which the labourer lives merely to increase capital. not a personal. Hard-won. the wage-labourer appropriates by means of his labour. can it be set in motion. it is a social power. activity and independence. living labour is but a means to increase accumulated labour. in Communist society. an appropriation that is made for the maintenance and reproduction of human life. and that leaves no surplus wherewith to command the labour of others. to enrich. on the exploitation of the many by the few. only by the united action of all members of society. and is allowed to live only in so far as the interest of the ruling class requires it. In Communist society. and which cannot increase except upon condition of begetting a new supply of wage-labour for fresh exploitation. is based on the antagonism of capital and wage-labour. But modern bourgeois private property is the final and most complete expression of the system of producing and appropriating products. the past dominates the present. but the abolition of bourgeois property. and only by the united action of many members. is the miserable character of this appropriation. is to have not only a purely personal. In bourgeois society capital is independent and has individuality. i. personal property is not thereby transformed into social property. therefore. . In bourgeois society. therefore. 14 The distinguishing feature of Communism is not the abolition of property generally. that is based on class antagonisms. Property. Let us examine both sides of this antagonism. It creates capital. In bourgeois society. which property is alleged to be the groundwork of all personal freedom.

have. and of the bourgeoisie itself. to our intended abolition of bourgeois property. etc. only in contrast with restricted selling and buying. i. That culture. of the bourgeois conditions of production. and those who acquire anything. According to this. The whole of this objection is but another expression of the tautology: that there can no longer be any wage-labour when there is no longer any capital. do not work. from that moment. to the bourgeois. But if selling and buying disappears. acquire nothing.e. therefore. therefore. and bourgeois freedom is undoubtedly aimed at. its existence for the few is solely due to its non-existence in the hands of those nine-tenths. Just as. the disappearance of class property is the disappearance of production itself. From the moment when labour can no longer be converted into capital. It has been objected that upon the abolition of private property all work will cease. confess that by "individual" you mean no other person than the bourgeois. a mere training to act as a machine. into capital. the loss of which he laments. This person must. with intending to do away with a form of property. than the middle-class owner of property. Your very ideas are but the outgrowth of the conditions of your bourgeois production and bourgeois property. culture. abolition of individuality and freedom! And rightly so. Precisely so. Communism deprives no man of the power to appropriate the products of society. But in your existing society. free selling and buying disappears also. money. if any. or rent. but have no meaning when opposed to the Communistic abolition of buying and selling. have a meaning. that is just what we intend. In one word. just as your jurisprudence is but the will of your class made into a law for all. you reproach us with intending to do away with your property. be swept out of the way. indeed. law. This talk about free selling and buying. with the fettered traders of the Middle Ages. from the moment when individual property can no longer be transformed into bourgeois property. is. The selfish misconception that induces you to transform into eternal laws of nature and of reason. free selling and buying. for those of its members who work.. you say individuality vanishes. whose essential character and direction are determined by the economical conditions of existence of your class. You are horrified at our intending to do away with private property. By freedom is meant. in the same way. and made impossible. the standard of your bourgeois notions of freedom. and universal laziness will overtake us. private property is already done away with for nine-tenths of the population. for the enormous majority. under the present bourgeois conditions of production. free trade. all that it does is to deprive him of the power to subjugate the labour of others by means of such appropriation. been urged against the Communistic modes of producing and appropriating intellectual products. You reproach us. the necessary condition for whose existence is the non-existence of any property for the immense majority of society. so the disappearance of class culture is to him identical with the disappearance of all culture. The abolition of bourgeois individuality.The Legal Small Print 15 And the abolition of this state of things is called by the bourgeois. a will. bourgeois society ought long ago to have gone to the dogs through sheer idleness. You must. But don't wrangle with us so long as you apply. the social . into a social power capable of being monopolised. bourgeois independence. and all the other "brave words" of our bourgeoisie about freedom in general. All objections urged against the Communistic mode of producing and appropriating material products.

. In its completely developed form this family exists only among the bourgeoisie. about the hallowed co-relation of parent and child. The Communists have no need to introduce community of women. is that they desire to introduce. The bourgeois sees in his wife a mere instrument of production. the more. naturally. in substitution for a hypocritically concealed. But. all family ties among the proletarians are torn asunder. But you Communists would introduce community of women. and determined by the social conditions under which you educate. Abolition of the family! Even the most radical flare up at this infamous proposal of the Communists. not to speak of common prostitutes. Our bourgeois. For the rest. by the intervention. and their children transformed into simple articles of commerce and instruments of labour. and. when we replace home education by social.e. by means of schools. they do but seek to alter the character of that intervention. i. Do you charge us with wanting to stop the exploitation of children by their parents? To this crime we plead guilty. an openly legalised community of women. it has existed almost from time immemorial. Bourgeois marriage is in reality a system of wives in common and thus. on private gain. The Communists are further reproached with desiring to abolish countries and nationality. take the greatest pleasure in seducing each other's wives. For the rest.this misconception you share with every ruling class that has preceded you. of society. of prostitution both public and private. can come to no other conclusion than that the lot of being common to all will likewise fall to the women. He has not even a suspicion that the real point is to do away with the status of women as mere instruments of production. The bourgeois clap-trap about the family and education. and to rescue education from the influence of the ruling class. we destroy the most hallowed of relations. you will say. The bourgeois family will vanish as a matter of course when its complement vanishes.? The Communists have not invented the intervention of society in education. etc. . and both will vanish with the vanishing of capital. what you admit in the case of feudal property. becomes all the more disgusting. you are of course forbidden to admit in the case of your own bourgeois form of property. they pretend. But this state of things finds its complement in the practical absence of the family among the proletarians. the bourgeois family. based? On capital. And your education! Is not that also social. nothing is more ridiculous than the virtuous indignation of our bourgeois at the community of women which. screams the whole bourgeoisie in chorus. is to be openly and officially established by the Communists. What you see clearly in the case of ancient property.The Legal Small Print 16 forms springing from your present mode of production and form of property-historical relations that rise and disappear in the progress of production -. He hears that the instruments of production are to be exploited in common. by the action of Modern Industry. and in public prostitution. direct or indirect. at the most. On what foundation is the present family. it is self-evident that the abolition of the present system of production must bring with it the abolition of the community of women springing from that system. what the Communists might possibly be reproached with. not content with having the wives and daughters of their proletarians at their disposal.

such as Freedom. is one of the first conditions for the emancipation of the proletariat. a philosophical. the ancient religions were overcome by Christianity. "Undoubtedly." "There are. When the ancient world was in its last throes. the exploitation of one part of society by the other." What does this accusation reduce itself to? The history of all past society has consisted in the development of class antagonisms. The ideas of religious liberty and freedom of conscience merely gave expression to the sway of free competition within the domain of knowledge. We cannot take from them what they have not got. views and conceptions. When Christian ideas succumbed in the 18th century to rationalist ideas. generally. changes with every change in the conditions of his material existence. the elements of a new one have been created. to uniformity in the mode of production and in the conditions of life corresponding thereto. . one fact is common to all past ages. When people speak of ideas that revolutionise society. The Communist revolution is the most radical rupture with traditional property relations. But whatever form they may have taken. Justice. must constitute itself the nation. The supremacy of the proletariat will cause them to vanish still faster. antagonisms that assumed different forms at different epochs. despite all the multiplicity and variety it displays. moves within certain common forms. owing to the development of the bourgeoisie. 17 National differences and antagonisms between peoples are daily more and more vanishing. morality philosophy. from an ideological standpoint. But Communism abolishes eternal truths. then. that are common to all states of society. it therefore acts in contradiction to all past historical experience. and all morality. itself national. In proportion as the antagonism between classes within the nation vanishes. they do but express the fact. But religion. eternal truths.. In proportion as the exploitation of one individual by another is put an end to. that the social consciousness of past ages. philosophical and juridical ideas have been modified in the course of historical development. viz. to the world-market. besides. Does it require deep intuition to comprehend that man's ideas. United action. it abolishes all religion. "religious. or general ideas.The Legal Small Print The working men have no country. the hostility of one nation to another will come to an end." it will be said. that within the old society. though not in the bourgeois sense of the word. and. in his social relations and in his social life? What else does the history of ideas prove. instead of constituting them on a new basis. feudal society fought its death battle with the then revolutionary bourgeoisie. moral. no wonder that its development involves the most radical rupture with traditional ideas. the exploitation of one nation by another will also be put an end to. must rise to be the leading class of the nation. which cannot completely vanish except with the total disappearance of class antagonisms. The charges against Communism made from a religious. etc. and that the dissolution of the old ideas keeps even pace with the dissolution of the old conditions of existence. to freedom of commerce. so far. it is. are not deserving of serious examination. Since the proletariat must first of all acquire political supremacy. than that intellectual production changes its character in proportion as material production is changed? The ruling ideas of each age have ever been the ideas of its ruling class. in one word. No wonder. of the leading civilised countries at least. constantly survived this change. political science. and law. man's consciousness.

necessitate further inroads upon the old social order. The proletariat will use its political supremacy to wrest. and. Abolition of children's factory labour in its present form. class distinctions have disappeared. that the first step in the revolution by the working class. as such. 4. When. of the proletariat organised as the ruling class. 9. A heavy progressive or graduated income tax. but which. and are unavoidable as a means of entirely revolutionising the mode of production. &c. Of course. i. sweeps away by force the old conditions of production. 5. along with these conditions. have swept away the conditions for the existence of class antagonisms and of classes generally. it makes itself the ruling class. all capital from the bourgeoisie. in the course of development. properly so called. 3. if. Extension of factories and instruments of production owned by the State. and on the conditions of bourgeois production. by a more equable distribution of the population over the country. in the course of the movement. 1. by means of a national bank with State capital and an exclusive monopoly. the bringing into cultivation of waste-lands. Combination of agriculture with manufacturing industries. Nevertheless in the most advanced countries. Establishment of industrial armies.The Legal Small Print But let us have done with the bourgeois objections to Communism. and the improvement of the soil generally in accordance with a common plan. Abolition of property in land and application of all rents of land to public purposes. therefore. 7. These measures will of course be different in different countries. Free education for all children in public schools.. by means of a revolution. especially for agriculture. then it will. this cannot be effected except by means of despotic inroads on the rights of property. Centralisation of the means of communication and transport in the hands of the State. 2. the public power will lose its political character. and will thereby have abolished its own supremacy as a class. is merely the organised power of one class for oppressing another. outstrip themselves. which appear economically insufficient and untenable. Political power. . Confiscation of the property of all emigrants and rebels. to centralise all instruments of production in the hands of the State. 8. Centralisation of credit in the hands of the State.e. and all production has been concentrated in the hands of a vast association of the whole nation. 10. gradual abolition of the distinction between town and country. by means of measures. by degrees. &c. by the force of circumstances. Abolition of all right of inheritance. 18 We have seen above.. If the proletariat during its contest with the bourgeoisie is compelled. Combination of education with industrial production. the following will be pretty generally applicable. to organise itself as a class. in the beginning. 6. and to increase the total of productive forces as rapidly as possible. is to raise the proletariat to the position of ruling as to win the battle of democracy. Equal liability of all to labour.

against marriage. the feudalists forget that they exploited under circumstances and conditions that were quite different. charity and poverty. under their rule. But even in the domain of literature the old cries of the restoration period had become impossible. that under the bourgeois regime a class is being developed. despite their high falutin phrases. love. and deserted with loud and irreverent laughter. In pointing out that their mode of exploitation was different to that of the bourgeoisie. But the people. the aristocracy were obliged to lose sight. a serious political contest was altogether out of the question. and to formulate their indictment against the bourgeoisie in the interest of the exploited working class alone. REACTIONARY SOCIALISM A. striking the bourgeoisie to the very heart's core. One section of the French Legitimists and "Young England" exhibited this spectacle. against the State? Has it not preached in the place of these. half lampoon. As the parson has ever gone hand in hand with the landlord. these aristocracies again succumbed to the hateful upstart. In the French revolution of July 1830. Thenceforth. A literary battle alone remained possible. and to barter truth. it became the vocation of the aristocracies of France and England to write pamphlets against modern bourgeois society. half echo of the past. the modern proletariat never existed. . half menace of the future. In order to arouse sympathy. they forget that the modern bourgeoisie is the necessary offspring of their own form of society. witty and incisive criticism. apparently. In showing that. beetroot-sugar. In this way arose Feudal Socialism: half lamentation. monastic life and Mother Church? Christian Socialism is but the holy. by its bitter. and whispering in his ears sinister prophecies of coming catastrophe. Feudal Socialism Owing to their historical position. water with which the priest consecrates the heart-burnings of the aristocrat. with its classes and class antagonisms. at times. so often as it joined them. but always ludicrous in its effect. saw on their hindquarters the old feudal coats of arms. in which the free development of each is the condition for the free development of all.The Legal Small Print 19 In place of the old bourgeois society. which is destined to cut up root and branch the old order of society. so little do they conceal the reactionary character of their criticism that their chief accusation against the bourgeoisie amounts to this. In political practice. celibacy and mortification of the flesh. and potato spirits. as that it creates a revolutionary proletariat. Nothing is easier than to give Christian asceticism a Socialist tinge. waved the proletarian alms-bag in front for a banner. and that are now antiquated. therefore. so has Clerical Socialism with Feudal Socialism. The aristocracy. For the rest. and in the English reform agitation. they stoop to pick up the golden apples dropped from the tree of industry. Has not Christianity declaimed against private property. Thus the aristocracy took their revenge by singing lampoons on their new master. of their own interests. we shall have an association. in order to rally the people to them. and honour for traffic in wool. they join in all coercive measures against the working class. III SOCIALIST AND COMMUNIST LITERATURE 1. and in ordinary life. through total incapacity to comprehend the march of modern history. What they upbraid the bourgeoisie with is not so much that it creates a proletariat.

and the old society. bailiffs and shopmen. however. and. or "True. In those countries which are but little developed. the standard of the peasant and petty bourgeois. this form of Socialism aspires either to restoring the old means of production and of exchange. of Will as it was bound to be. The individual members of this class. German philosophers. eagerly seized on this literature. this French literature lost all its immediate practical significance. the anarchy in production. only forgetting. it pointed out the inevitable ruin of the petty bourgeois and peasant. that when these writings immigrated from France into Germany. had just begun its contest with feudal absolutism. not the only class whose conditions of existence pined and perished in the atmosphere of modern bourgeois society. and beaux esprits." Socialism The Socialist and Communist literature of France. and with them the old property relations. In contact with German social conditions. fluctuating between proletariat and bourgeoisie and ever renewing itself as a supplementary part of bourgeois society. and that was the expression of the struggle against this power. however. of the old nationalities. Thus. would-be philosophers. C. in manufactures. in their criticism of the bourgeois regime. a literature that originated under the pressure of a bourgeoisie in power. where the peasants constitute far more than half of the population. the disastrous effects of machinery and division of labour. In its positive aims. agriculture and commerce. the demands of the first French Revolution were nothing more than the demands of "Practical Reason" in general. the industrial war of extermination between nations. and the utterance of the will of the revolutionary French bourgeoisie signified in their eyes the law of pure Will. German. patriarchal relations in agriculture. Thus arose petty-bourgeois Socialism. of true human Will generally. in that country. or to cramping the modern means of production and of exchange. In countries where modern civilisation has become fully developed. overproduction and crises. It proved. . not only in France but also in England. Its last words are: corporate guilds for manufacture. the concentration of capital and land in a few hands. this form of Socialism ended in a miserable fit of the blues. to be replaced. within the framework of the old property relations that have been. French social conditions had not immigrated along with them. when stubborn historical facts had dispersed all intoxicating effects of self-deception. In countries like France. In either case. and assumed a purely literary aspect. industrially and commercially. incontrovertibly.The Legal Small Print B. the crying inequalities in the distribution of wealth. This school of Socialism dissected with great acuteness the contradictions in the conditions of modern production. Ultimately. to the German philosophers of the eighteenth century. Petty-Bourgeois Socialism 20 The feudal aristocracy was not the only class that has ruined by the bourgeoisie. they even see the moment approaching when they will completely disappear as an independent section of modern society. of the old family relations. are being constantly hurled down into the proletariat by the action of competition. Sismondi was the head of this school. should use. it is both reactionary and Utopian. the misery of the proletariat. was introduced into Germany at a time when the bourgeoisie. a new class of petty bourgeois has been formed. and from the standpoint of these intermediate classes should take up the cudgels for the working class. the dissolution of old moral bonds. as modern industry develops. by overlookers. The mediaeval burgesses and the small peasant proprietors were the precursors of the modern bourgeoisie. It laid bare the hypocritical apologies of economists. and were bound to be. it was natural that writers who sided with the proletariat against the bourgeoisie. exploded by those means. these two classes still vegetate side by side with the rising bourgeoisie.

or rather. dosed the German working-class risings. 21 It is well known how the monks wrote silly lives of Catholic Saints over the manuscripts on which the classical works of ancient heathendom had been written. In Germany the petty-bourgeois class. By this. directly represented a reactionary interest. with its corresponding economic conditions of existence. in annexing the French ideas without deserting their own philosophic point of view. of Man in general. The French Socialist and Communist literature was thus completely emasculated. they wrote "Alienation of Humanity. The industrial and political supremacy of the bourgeoisie threatens it with certain destruction. against bourgeois competition. The introduction of these philosophical phrases at the back of the French historical criticisms they dubbed "Philosophy of Action. presupposed the existence of modern bourgeois society. the very things whose attainment was the object of the pending struggle in Germany. and since then constantly cropping up again under various forms. namely. a relic of the sixteenth century. This annexation took place in the same way in which a foreign language is appropriated. became more earnest. against representative government. it. in the nick of time. that the French criticism. and everything to lose. just at that time. This German Socialism. the liberal movement. the interest of the German Philistines. To the absolute governments." and so on. not true requirements. at the same time. is the real social basis of the existing state of things. who belongs to no class. in other words. he felt conscious of having overcome "French one-sidedness" and of representing. For instance. since it ceased in the hands of the German to express the struggle of one class with the other. by translation. against feudal aristocracy and absolute monarchy. To preserve this class is to preserve the existing state of things in Germany. meanwhile gradually lost its pedantic innocence. It was a sweet finish after the bitter pills of floggings and bullets with which these same governments. professors. who exists only in the misty realm of philosophical fantasy." and so forth. of hurling the traditional anathemas against liberalism. And. beneath the French criticism of the economic functions of money. whose silly echo it was. on the one hand. with their following of parsons. German Socialism forgot. The German literate reversed this process with the profane French literature. by this bourgeois movement. While this "True" Socialism thus served the governments as a weapon for fighting the German bourgeoisie. and the political constitution adapted thereto. of the Prussian bourgeoisie. bourgeois liberty and equality. and especially. country squires and officials. and extolled its poor stock-in-trade in such mountebank fashion. from the concentration of . it served as a welcome scarecrow against the threatening bourgeoisie. the long wished-for opportunity was offered to "True" Socialism of confronting the political movement with the Socialist demands." "True Socialism." "Philosophical Foundation of Socialism." and beneath the French criticism of the bourgeois State they wrote "dethronement of the Category of the General. but the requirements of truth. has no reality. but the interests of Human Nature. not the interests of the proletariat. bourgeois freedom of the press. They wrote their philosophical nonsense beneath the French original. bourgeois legislation. and of preaching to the masses that they had nothing to gain." "German Science of Socialism. which took its schoolboy task so seriously and solemnly.The Legal Small Print The world of the German literate consisted solely in bringing the new French ideas into harmony with their ancient philosophical conscience. The fight of the German.

form of this Socialism sought to depreciate every revolutionary movement in the eyes of the working class. The Socialistic bourgeois want all the advantages of modern social conditions without the struggles and dangers necessarily resulting therefrom. therefore. that in no respect affect the relations between capital and labour. but should cast away all its hateful ideas concerning the bourgeoisie.The Legal Small Print 22 capital. temperance fanatics. this form of Socialism. moreover. its own calling as the bombastic representative of the petty. This is the last word and the only seriously meant word of bourgeois Socialism. It went to the extreme length of directly opposing the "brutally destructive" tendency of Communism. based on the continued existence of these relations. and simplify the administrative work. members of societies for the prevention of cruelty to animals. Socialistic interpretation. served to wonderfully increase the sale of their goods amongst such a public. This form of Socialism has. and the German petty Philistine to be the typical man. The robe of speculative cobwebs. organisers of charity. It spread like an epidemic. Protective duties: for the benefit of the working class. that the proletariat should remain within the bounds of existing society. on the other. in economic relations. OR BOURGEOIS. but only a change in the material conditions of existence. Free trade: for the benefit of the working class. They desire the existing state of society minus its revolutionary and disintegrating elements. reforms. all the so-called Socialist and Communist publications that now (1847) circulate in Germany belong to the domain of this foul and enervating literature. And on its part. embroidered with flowers of rhetoric. They wish for a bourgeoisie without a proletariat. but. and bourgeois Socialism develops this comfortable conception into various more or less complete systems. could be of any advantage to them. at the best.bourgeois Philistine. German Socialism recognised. from the rise of a revolutionary proletariat. it becomes a mere figure of speech. In requiring the proletariat to carry out such a system. "True" Socialism appeared to kill these two birds with one stone. of bourgeois government. in order to secure the continued existence of bourgeois society. By changes in the material conditions of existence. hole-and-corner reformers of every imaginable kind. an abolition that can be effected only by a revolution. but administrative reforms. however. more and more. been worked out into complete systems. SOCIALISM A part of the bourgeoisie is desirous of redressing social grievances. To every villainous meanness of this model man it gave a hidden. Prison Reform: for the benefit of the working class. To this section belong economists. when. and thereby to march straightway into the social New Jerusalem. lessen the cost. humanitarians. but less systematic. by no means understands abolition of the bourgeois relations of production. and of proclaiming its supreme and impartial contempt of all class struggles. it but requires in reality. improvers of the condition of the working class. A second and more practical. It proclaimed the German nation to be the model nation. We may site Proudhon's Philosophie de la Misere as an example of this form. the exact contrary of its real character. . higher. steeped in the dew of sickly sentiment. The bourgeoisie naturally conceives the world in which it is supreme to be the best. CONSERVATIVE. With very few exceptions. this transcendental robe in which the German Socialists wrapped their sorry "eternal truths." all skin and bone. 2. philanthropists. Bourgeois Socialism attains adequate expression. and only when. by showing that no mere political reform.

Only from the point of view of being the most suffering class does the proletariat exist for them. In the formation of their plans they are conscious of caring chiefly for the interests of the working class. conditions that had yet to be produced. indeed. they habitually appeal to society at large. But these Socialist and Communist publications contain also a critical element.for the benefit of the working class. Hence. they reject all political. by small experiments. has always given voice to the demands of the proletariat. in their eyes. such as the writings of Babeuf and others. as they find it. without distinction of class. offers to them the spectacle of a class without any historical initiative or any independent political movement. They want to improve the condition of every member of society. and could be produced by the impending bourgeois epoch alone. They therefore search after a new social science. Fourier. Owen and others. 3. owing to the then undeveloped state of the proletariat. as yet in its infancy. and the gradual. as well as the action of the decomposing elements. But the proletariat. They attack every principle of existing society. Bourgeois and Proletarians). Historical action is to yield to their personal inventive action. spring into existence in the early undeveloped period. the economic situation. that are to create these conditions. Hence they are full of the most valuable materials for the enlightenment of the working class. does not as yet offer to them the material conditions for the emancipation of the proletariat. and by the force of example. and endeavour. as well as their own surroundings. those of Saint-Simon. CRITICAL-UTOPIAN SOCIALISM AND COMMUNISM 23 We do not here refer to that literature which. even that of the most favoured. historically created conditions of emancipation to fantastic ones. necessarily doomed to failure. in every great modern revolution. Future history resolves itself. when once they understand their system. into the propaganda and the practical carrying out of their social plans. For how can people. The revolutionary literature that accompanied these first movements of the proletariat had necessarily a reactionary character. after new social laws. these attempts necessarily failed. to pave the way for the new social Gospel. The first direct attempts of the proletariat to attain its own ends. spontaneous class-organisation of the proletariat to the organisation of society specially contrived by these inventors. nay.The Legal Small Print It is summed up in the phrase: the bourgeois is a bourgeois -. of the struggle between proletariat and bourgeoisie (see Section 1. described above. and especially all revolutionary. It inculcated universal asceticism and social levelling in its crudest form. causes Socialists of this kind to consider themselves far superior to all class antagonisms. by preference. fail to see in it the best possible plan of the best possible state of society? Hence. as well as to the absence of the economic conditions for its emancipation. The Socialist and Communist systems properly so called. . to the ruling class. Such fantastic pictures of future society. The founders of these systems see. they wish to attain their ends by peaceful means. action. when feudal society was being overthrown. in the prevailing form of society. Since the development of class antagonism keeps even pace with the development of industry. painted at a time when the proletariat is still in a very undeveloped state and has but a fantastic conception of its own position correspond with the first instinctive yearnings of that class for a general reconstruction of society. made in times of universal excitement. as being the most suffering class. The undeveloped state of the class struggle. the class antagonisms.

POSITION OF THE COMMUNISTS IN RELATION TO THE VARIOUS EXISTING OPPOSITION PARTIES Section II has made clear the relations of the Communists to the existing working-class parties.The Legal Small Print 24 The practical measures proposed in them -. lose all practical value and all theoretical justification. in these publications. the conversion of the functions of the State into a mere superintendence of production. the feudal squirearchy. They hold fast by the original views of their masters. These proposals. without losing sight of the fact that this party consists of antagonistic elements. They. The Owenites in England. indistinct and undefined forms only. Therefore. differing from these only by more systematic pedantry. this fantastic standing apart from the contest. In Poland they support the party that insists on an agrarian revolution as the prime condition for national emancipation. IV. are of a purely Utopian character. The Communists fight for the attainment of the immediate aims. They still dream of experimental realisation of their social Utopias. formed mere reactionary sects. reserving. therefore. The significance of Critical-Utopian Socialism and Communism bears an inverse relation to historical development. of the family. they also represent and take care of the future of that movement. in many respects. In Switzerland they support the Radicals. in opposition to the progressive historical development of the proletariat." of establishing "Home Colonies. and which. however. and the petty bourgeoisie. these fantastic attacks on it. partly of Democratic Socialists. after the fall of the . therefore. in the French sense. and that consistently. to deaden the class struggle and to reconcile the class antagonisms. and the Fourierists in France. only just cropping up. the social and political conditions that the bourgeoisie must necessarily introduce along with its supremacy. violently oppose all political action on the part of the working class. such as the Chartists in England and the Agrarian Reformers in America. and of the wage system. They. in order that the German workers may straightaway use." of setting up a "Little Icaria" -. for the enforcement of the momentary interests of the working class. of founding isolated "phalansteres. that party which fomented the insurrection of Cracow in 1846. point solely to the disappearance of class antagonisms which were. can only result from blind unbelief in the new Gospel. partly of radical bourgeois. in every case. for a single instant. But they never cease. endeavour. therefore. at that time. In France the Communists ally themselves with the Social-Democrats. such action. oppose the Chartists and the Reformistes. they are compelled to appeal to the feelings and purses of the bourgeois. revolutionary. and in order that. the proclamation of social harmony. according to them. but in the movement of the present. against the absolute monarchy.duodecimo editions of the New Jerusalem -. In proportion as the modern class struggle develops and takes definite shape. the right to take up a critical position in regard to phrases and illusions traditionally handed down from the great Revolution.and to realise all these castles in the air. respectively. and by their fanatical and superstitious belief in the miraculous effects of their social science. although the originators of these systems were.such as the abolition of the distinction between town and country. In Germany they fight with the bourgeoisie whenever it acts in a revolutionary way. against the conservative and radical bourgeoisie. of the carrying on of industries for the account of private individuals. By degrees they sink into the category of the reactionary conservative Socialists depicted above. all these proposals. are recognised in their earliest. their disciples have. as so many weapons against the bourgeoisie. to instil into the working class the clearest possible recognition of the hostile antagonism between bourgeoisie and proletariat.

Let the ruling classes tremble at a Communistic revolution. because that country is on the eve of a bourgeois revolution that is bound to be carried out under more advanced conditions of European civilisation. the property question. Finally. they labour everywhere for the union and agreement of the democratic parties of all countries. In . and with a much more developed proletariat. They have a world to win. They openly declare that their ends can be attained only by the forcible overthrow of all existing social conditions. In all these movements they bring to the front. The proletarians have nothing to lose but their chains. UNITE! End of the Project Gutenberg Etext of The Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels The Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels A free ebook from http://manybooks. WORKING MEN OF ALL COUNTRIES.The Legal Small Print reactionary classes in Germany. as the leading question in each. and because the bourgeois revolution in Germany will be but the prelude to an immediately following proletarian revolution. the fight against the bourgeoisie itself may immediately begin. 25 The Communists turn their attention chiefly to Germany. The Communists disdain to conceal their views and aims. than that of England was in the seventeenth. the Communists everywhere support every revolutionary movement against the existing social and political order of things. and of France in the eighteenth century. no matter what its degree of development at the time.

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