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The propulsion of a 12 500TEU container ship
JS Carlton, Lloyd’s Register, London The paper considers the propulsion of a 12 500TEU container ship in conceptual terms and builds on the earlier propulsion studies that were published by Lloyd’s Register in 2001/2.The cases for single and twin screw hull forms are considered as well as the various trade-offs that inevitably form part of the design process. Conclusions are reached about the feasibility of achieving an acceptable propulsion solution. Within the discussion the problems of rudder erosion are also addressed. The mechanical propulsion aspects are examined from the points of view of propulsion efficiency, the achievement of acceptable shaft-line vibration behaviour and the static and dynamic alignment characteristics
AUTHOR’S BIOGRAPHY Following training as a mechanical engineer and mathematician, John Stephen Carlton served in the Royal Naval Scientific Service under taking research into underwater vehicle hydrodynamic design and propulsors. Five years later he joined Stone Manganese Marine Ltd at Greenwich as a propeller designer and research engineer, specialising in controllable pitch propeller and transverse propulsion unit technology but also under taking analysis into other aspects of ship propulsion technology. In 1975, he joined Lloyd’s Register, first in the Technical Investigation Depar tment and after nine years transferred to the Advanced Engineering Depar tment as its Deputy Head. He later moved to the newly formed Performance Technology Depar tment where he initiated and led several research and development activities but subsequently returned, in 1992, to the Technical Investigation Depar tment as the Senior Principal Surveyor and Head of Depar tment. In 2003 Mr Carlton was invited to become the Global Head of Marine Technology and Investigation for Lloyd’s Register repor ting directly to the Marine Director. During his career he has presented some 80 technical papers on several aspects of marine technology, written many ar ticles for technical journals as well as a textbook on marine propellers and propulsion. Mr Carlton is a Denny Gold Medallist of the Institute of Marine Engineers Science and Technology and has also won the Stanley Gray Award for Marine Technology twice. Additionally, he sits on a number of international and government committees and is a visiting lecturer and external examiner to universities in the UK and abroad. Earlier this year he was awarded the honorary degree of Doctor of Science for his contribution to marine technology and shipping.
he conceptual design and propulsion of large containerships was examined and initially reported by Lloyd’s Register.1,2 The driver for that early work was to test the feasibility of current technology to accommodate the design of large container ships and to identify where, if necessary, further research and development was required. In addition the problem of whether such a ship would provide a cost-effective means of marine transport for containers was considered.1 Since that time a considerable body of work has been done internationally and a continuing programme of further study has been undertaken within Lloyd’s Register.3 Within these programmes a range of ship sizes has been considered up to and including 18 500TEU ships. While such large sizes may be developed in the future, current developments of post-Panamax ships are largely governed by the present port sizes and their planned developments. Set against this background the present paper examines the propulsion aspects of a nominal 12 500TEU container ship. Lloyd’s Register’s ultra large container ship design study, published in 20021, determined that the largest container ship which could be accommodated by the majority of the world's large container terminals would have a capacity of around 12 500TEU. In order to test this finding to the fullest extent, the original concept design was developed on the assumption that a larger proportion of high cube containers will be carried in the future than at present. In this context high cube containers were defined as 9' 6" high, whereas, historically most containers have been 8' 6" in height. Consequently, in keeping with this definition, the depth of the ship, taken as 29m, was based on the following parameters: i. Depth of double bottom (according to the Rule formula) = 2.377m ii. Height of 9 tiers of high-cube containers = 26.061m
No. A8 2006
Journal of Marine Engineering and Technology
However. the behaviour of the shafting system requires exploration under both static and dynamic conditions: the latter embracing aspects of steady state operation. When considering the propulsion of large container ships the propeller and rudder need to be considered together since the propulsion solution adopted for the propeller will have a significant influence on the performance of the rudder. Furthermore. furthermore. The single screw. the development of a satisfactory rudder design which will be tolerant of the onerous hydrodynamic conditions within which it is required to operate has been problematic in a number of recent smaller designs.0m 384.0 20. Consequently. relatively few geometric changes have been implemented to reflect our current understanding of large container ship hydrodynamic behaviour.0 10.630 0.990 0. consequently. Length between perpendiculars Lpp Length along the waterline Lwl Moulded breadth B(Mld) Design draught Tdes Block coefficient at Tdes Midship section coefficient at Tdes Waterplane area coefficient at Tdes Longitudinal centre of buoyancy at Tdes 381. this tenet forms the initial starting point of this study and its feasibility is considered in the context of the larger ship sizes. If this trend persists then it will have a helpful influence on the propeller design problem since the accommodation of a significant change of draught condition over a round trip potentially becomes less important than previously was the case.0 40. The principal dimensions of the ship based on design draught are shown in Table 1.0 45. Consequently. it would overestimate the number of container lifts required and. The basis of the developed hull form for the 12 500TEU ship2 is still considered valid when viewed against the experience gained with the increasing size of container ships in the intervening four years. Recent analysis of container types being transported by sea3 indicates that the proportion of high cube containers is increasing. a lesser constant operating draught has been considered for the ship powering based upon analysis of the economic and operating trends.0 0. Indeed.0 5.0 30. Notwithstanding this increase. then the capacity of the nominal 12 500TEU ship would increase to 13 970TEU. If. the ship’s capacity was re-defined in terms of standard height containers. slow speed diesel engine propulsion option for container ships is well established and is one that has gained much favour with ship owners and operators. therefore. Analysis of operational container ship draughts used in service3 have shown that in recent years a greater equality between eastbound and westbound draughts is achieved for ships engaged on the Far Eastern to European trade routes than was the case some years ago. consequently. lateral and axial vibration dynamics. however. HULL FORM The trends in container ship principal dimensions are shown in Figs 1 and 2. It is clear that the trends in ship design show that moulded beam has been steadily increasing to around 46m for a 10 000TEU ship while the maximum draught has been maintained a sensibly constant value at just below 15m. section form and rake and skew distributions. it is considered that to use such a definition within a conceptual study of this type may overestimate the earning capacity of the ship compared to today's fleet and. Various options are discussed whereby the potential for minimising the occurrence of structural erosion may be achieved. the blade chord lengths. while the design draught has been maintained at 15m.0m 15. the former showing overall length while the Table 1: Principal hull form parameters 4 Journal of Marine Engineering and Technology No. A8 2006 . Therefore.0 5000 Moulded beam & draught (m) Length overall (m) 350 Moulded Beam 300 Draught 250 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 200 5000 Ship nominal capacity (TEU) 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 Ship nominal capacity (TEU) Fig 2:Variation of beam and draught with ship capacity latter shows the variations in moulded beam and maximum draught with nominal ship capacity. Both these principal dimensions have been constrained by existing port configurations: the former by gantry outreach while the latter by water depth. first to embrace the effects of variations and trade offs about the standard ship operational conditions of draught and speed and then explores the boundary for a single screw propulsion design with a reasonable expectation of success. manoeuvring and operation in rough weather. The analysis then expands. the primary variability in dimension has been in ship length as shown by Fig 1. the turn round time in port. but also has a profound influence on the propeller blade design in terms of the required blade area and.0m 57.0 35. This.25% Aft Fig 1:Variation in ship length with capacity A ship depth of 29m will also accommodate a mixed stow of 8’ 6” and 9’ 6” containers ten tiers high.0 15.0m 0. These problems are examined within the context of alignment and the torsional. tends to vindicate the earlier assumption of high cube containers acting as the basis for defining the capacity of the ultra large container ship. the correct selection of operating draught is of particular importance since not only does it determine the power requirement for the ship.Numerical optimisation of propeller-hull configurations at full scale 400 50. Consequently.0 25. Within the overall machinery design problem the design of the propulsion shafting is an important consideration.786 -2.
5m and Vs=25kts 1 0. skew (m).5m the delivered Fig 4: Propeller blade geometry service power at the propeller is shown in Table 3 for a ship speed of 25kts. p(r)/D.989 The shaft rotational speed together with the associated proWaterplane area coefficient 0. allowances of up to 15 and 30% respectively were proposed.0R some of the chemicals in the more effective coatings are in the process of being 0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 360 banned for environmental reasons the full Angular position in propeller disc (deg) propulsion advantages of those coatings Fig 3: Scaled effective wake for the blade outer radii are not now available to the marine industry.9R required allowances.8 0. Rake Consequently.750 peller diameter has a significant influence on the propulLongitudinal centre of buoyancy -2. the added resistance characteristics of modern container ships 0.The propulsion of a 12 500TEU container ship times made a distinction between summer and winter operation on the East-Asiatic route of 15 and 20% respectively. allowing for shaft line mechanical losses. full scale Taylor wake fraction was calculated to be 0.7R paints improved this situation consider0. -1. rake (m) & 10Camber (m) Axial velocity ratio (Vx/Vs) D HYDRODYNAMIC PROPULSION Sea margin is a function of fouling potential and the added resistance weather allowances.0 paints. midship section and waterplane area coefficients tions some sinkage will occur due to the dynamic pressure and the position of the longitudinal centre of buoyancy are field around the hull: typically this will induce a trim by the shown in Table 2. In the case of the North Atlantic. is estimated to be 67. Additionally.613 Midship section coefficient 0.3 0.0 Non-dimensional radius (r/R) For the 12 500TEU hull form at an even keel draught of 13. However. depending upon whether east or west passages were being undertaken.0 0. silicon based 4.6 0.22.5 0.5m solutions whose acceptability is dependent upon the hull parent draught condition at a ship speed of 25kts. although expensive and the subChord ject of a number of full scale trials. Service analysis studies conducted some years ago suggested differing sea margins for different sea routes.2 0. The subsequent introduction of anti-fouling 0. At this draught to be 0. The correct choice of sea margin is a complex issue. favoured propulsion configuration by owners for large conCondition Delivered power (P ) Rev/min tainer ships is the single screw hull form. new technologies are emerging and.9 0.0 trial condition has been used in this study. these being the principal flow features governing the outer propeller blade cavitation dynamics. Block coefficient 0.0% Aft sive efficiency. At this Based on commercial analyses the nominal operating speed the ship’s quasi-propulsive coefficient was estimated draught for the ship has been taken as 13.8R ably and permitted a reduction in the 0.2 0.thickness (m).1 0 Chord (m). particularly in the presently changing scene relating to hull coatings in response to environmental concerns. Since the form and final choice of prime mover.5m. Table 3: Ship power requirements at T=13.4 0. Indeed.4 0. The volumetric mean effective. Harvald4 in pre-improved anti-fouling The ship effective wake field generated by the hull at 25kts was estimated from nominal wake characteristics and the circumferential variations are shown in Fig 3 for the outer propeller radii.94MW 90 ed as the parent hull form for this study. because 1. No. cavitation development and the radiated Table 2: Hull form coefficients at 13. bow with a mean sinkage of around 0.0 gins ranged between 10 and 15%. The power required at this condition from the engine.0 ing technologies. When traditional anti-fouling coatings were able to be used typical sea marThickness 2. for a given ship size there is no unique solution.7 0.3MW.8 1. under normal deep water condithe block.5m draught hull surface pressure signatures.5m. recognising the developCamber 1. this has been adoptService 65. in particular. Nevertheless. A8 2006 Journal of Marine Engineering and Technology 5 .0 tially offer significant propulsion advanSkew tages. potenp(r)/D 3.6 0. rather there is a cluster of The ship’s bulbous bow has been optimised for the 13.0 and the present trends in the container ship industry a 15% sea margin over the 0.74.
However. such values are thought to be a satisfactory basis from which to achieve hull structural global and local vibrations of acceptable levels. as it is convected towards the rudder leading edge. Given that the 0. The propeller has been designed to be manufactured from nickel-aluminium bronze. Full scale measurements and observations on smaller container ships have shown that the tip vortex may interact with the supercavitating sheet cavitation shed from the trailing edge tip region of the suction surface of the propeller blade. The blade number has been chosen as six. but particularly the radial distributions of chord. the variables are principally draught. camber. Fig 8 shows the von Mises stress distribution for a bollard astern loading condition which represents this type of condition at its severest. During this process the cavitating tip vortex can also reduce in volume: recognising that the cavitating part of the vortex is only the visible part of the total vortex system. A variation in draught about the operating draught of 13. thickness. this is not without problems with respect to scaling and when evaluating the results of model tests recall should be made of previous model to full scale behaviour correlation for similar ships. A further variable is ship speed which is a trading pattern driven requirement. In the tip region of the blades the selection of all of the geometric parameters. This is a beneficial characteristic since it helps to avoid having the absolute stress maxima along the trailing edge where porosity and inclusions can sometimes gather during the casting process of the blade. due to the influence of the chosen skew. Using a mean von Mises tensile stress of 49MPa the corresponding distributions of von Mises stress for the maximum and minimum thrust conditions in the propeller disc are shown in Fig 7. can have a profound local influence on the development of the cavitation and the consequent magnitude and spectral content of the radiated hull surface pressures. if the skew were increased then the tendency for the stress concentration to move towards the trailing edge is more pronounced. during stopping manoeuvres a yield strength criterion is more appropriate since under these types of condition for highly skewed propellers the blade is susceptible to bending in the outer regions.26KT when operating in the service condition and this is considered to represent a satisfactory margin. provided suitably qualified organisations and personnel are employed. The predicted suction side blade sheet cavitation extents are shown in Figs 5a and 5b for a ship speed of 25kts at the operating draught of 13. during this process it has been noticed that the off-blade sheet cavity vol- umes reduce significantly leaving only a fine residue of vapour mist. the maximum concentrations within the stress field tend to occur towards the trailing edge of the blade but not actually on the trailing edge. While pressure excitation magnitude is not the only determinant of excitation force acceptability and both surface pressure amplitude and phase have to be considered together. The analysis of the propeller radiated hull surface pressures due to the growth and collapse of the sheet cavitation on the blade suction surfaces suggested that the first and second blade rate harmonic pressures were of the order of 6. rake and skew. by considering the ship to be driven with the propeller discussed previously and secondly by a purpose 6 Journal of Marine Engineering and Technology No. secondly. Cavitation dynamics of this type significantly increase the risk of broadband excitation being experienced with also the attendant risk of higher harmonic excitation being encountered.038 0. there was sufficient clearance between the propeller and rudder to permit the propeller to be removed without disturbing the rudder and. Since beam is essentially fixed by the dockside gantry over-reach. although in a weaker form. Within the current state of the art excitation minimisation from the tip vortices is best approached from a model testing perspective for a particular design configuration. Fig 6 shows one such set of examples undertaken within the recent EU based EROCAV project in which Lloyd’s Register was a participant. in Lloyd’s Register’s experience the cavitating core of the vortex generally remains in the flow field. It will be seen that the maximum von Mises stress field occurs just off the top-dead-centre position (180deg). direct drive diesel engine as the prime mover for the propulsion system. and length in order to achieve the same container capacity: recognising that the block coefficient needs to be as fine as possible within the Froude Number. With the propeller installed in the hull aperture and located such that first. principally in order to control the effects of cavitation.5 While failure by fatigue action is the dominant consideration for ahead propeller operation. However.3kPa respectively. Diameter Mean pitch ratio Blade area Skew Material Number of blades 9700mm 1. seakeeping and parametric rolling constraints.27D. but recalling that maximum draught is also a port constraint. As expected. Partial ring vortices may then be produced in the direction of the twisting motion and.5m. Such interactions induce the vortex to be twisted violently and then to be thrown outwards and forwards from the vortex core. The leading characteristics of the propeller are shown in Table 4.853 26.15% proof stress of nickel-aluminium bronze is around 270MPa it can be seen that a blade bending failure situation is unlikely to occur. When operating in the scaled ship effective wake field the margin against pressure side cavitation was 0.5deg Ni-Al Bronze 6 Table 4: Leading propeller dimensions The radial distributions of chord. a clearance of 150mm between the blade tips and the ship’s base line. This is due to the influence of the propeller in-plane wake field flow velocities. This material has a good resistance to cavitation erosion and the requirements and procedures for the repair of mechanical or cavitation erosion damage are now well understood. skew and rake are shown graphically in Fig 4. TRADE-OFFS IN HYDRODYNAMIC DESIGN A number of variants about the basic hull form suggest themselves as possible contenders for design options.0kPa and 2.The propulsion of a 12 500TEU container ship Based on a slow speed. A8 2006 6 . the propeller-hull clearance was 0. This has been done in two ways: first. a propeller having a diameter of 9700mm operating at the continuous service rating was designed. furthermore.5m was explored over a range of 12 to 15m. However.
6R 0.9R 0.8R 0.5R 0.3R Cavitation Pattern at 160 deg (ITTC Angle) 0.95R 0.The propulsion of a 12 500TEU container ship Cavitation Pattern at 150 deg (ITTC Angle) 0.95R 0.7R 0.8R 0.9R 0.95R 0. In each case the parent hull has been utilised but with the appropriate hydrostatic particulars relating to each draught condition.7R 0.8R 0.9R 0.5R 0.5R 0.4R 0. These power absorption characteristics have as a pivot the design condition of the ship which relates to a continuous service engine power of 67.8R 0.8R 0.5R 0.6R 0.3R Cavitation Pattern at 190 deg (ITTC Angle) 0. Fig 9 shows the resulting power absorption conditions under service conditions for a range of ship speeds between 23 and 27kts.5R 0.7R 0.8R 0.7R 0.4R 0.8R 0.8R 0. without modification to the prime mover.3R Cavitation Pattern at 230 deg (ITTC Angle) 0.7R 0.95R 0.7R 0.95R 0.6R 0.95R 0.3R Cavitation Pattern at 240 deg (ITTC Angle) 0.3R Cavitation Pattern at 250 deg (ITTC Angle) 0.3R Cavitation Pattern at 260 deg (ITTC Angle) 0.3R Fig 5a: Predicted suction side cavitation extents from 150 to 200degs Fig 5b: Predicted suction side cavitation extents from 210 to 260degs designed propeller for each draught condition.3R Cavitation Pattern at 220 deg (ITTC Angle) 0.9R 0.9R 0.4R 0.7R 0.95R 0.3R Cavitation Pattern at 180 deg (ITTC Angle) 0.4R 0.95R 0.3R Cavitation Pattern at 210 deg (ITTC Angle) 0.4R 0.9R 0.4R 0.5R 0.7R 0.8R 0. Consequently.6R 0.6R 0.5R 0.7R 0.3R Cavitation Pattern at 200 deg (ITTC Angle) 0.95R 0.4R 0.3R Cavitation Pattern at 170 deg (ITTC Angle) 0. In the case where the ship is propelled by the same propeller at various draughts. A8 2006 Journal of Marine Engineering and Technology 7 .8R 0.9R 0.4R 0.8R 0.95R 0.9R 0.9R 0.6R 0.4R 0.3MW and 90rev/min in association with a ship speed of 25kts.5R 0.6R 0.5R 0.95R 0.9R 0.8R 0.7R 0.9R 0.7R 0.6R 0.6R 0.6R 0.6R 0.4R 0.6R 0. While the hull design has been optimised about the design point for effec- Fig 6: Interacting tip vortex and sheet cavitation (Courtesy EROCAV) Fig 7: Propeller blade von Mises stress distributions No.7R 0.5R 0.5R 0.4R 0.95R 0. together with an implied limitation for the propeller since its stressing basis relates to the maximum continuous delivered power.9R 0. for this ship the continuous service rating forms an upper limit on power.5R 0.4R 0.
6kts and 91rev/min. Considering the hydrodynamic design problem in terms of the recently proposed ITTC Difficulty Index6 the six bladed propeller returns a value of 7. In the case of the deeper draught of 15m the ship speed and propeller speed are 24. This may.1rev/min given the absorption of 67. At the deeper draughts this effect is reduced.038 0. some penalty is incurred by the bulbous bow when the ship is run at the lighter draughts in terms of the pressure resistance.5 101. This has the effect of increasing the resistance of the ship by a small amount.0 10125 1. This will have the effect of reducing the sheet cavity extent over the suction surface of the propeller blades and also slightly improving the propeller radiated hull surface pressures by around 5% for the blade rate harmonic component.0 m Tm=13.5m draught.7 25.8 100 Revolutions (rpm) 90 Tm = 15. Indeed. to understand how the blade rate radiated hull surface pressures might increase and Table 5 shows this variation in percentage terms relative to the six bladed design. Blade number Percentage change in pz 6 0 5 5% 4 16% Table 5: Effect of variation in blade number on blade rate hull pressures Fig 8: Blade bollard pull astern von Mises stress distribution tive power and quasi-propulsive coefficient. In the alternative case of operating at the lighter draught the self propulsion point under service conditions is given by 25.0 m Table 6: Propeller parameters over the ship speed range In each case the power requirements at 13. some difficulty may be experienced in satisfactorily sitting the blades on the boss without increasing the boss diameter and hence weight of the finished propeller. At 27kts the largest diesel engine would need to be supplemented by a shaft electric motor of around 4MW capacity. 12 500 to 13 900TEU as discussed previously.5 m 80 Tm = 12. Nevertheless. therefore. Due to these changes and more importantly the lesser immersion of the propeller the radiated hull surface pressures can be expected to rise by around 7%.0 9700 1.2 128. the propeller cavitation problem will become increasingly severe. within the wake field applicable to this ship.7kts at 13. the blade number were allowed to vary then it is instructive.6 for a four bladed design.792 4. only a few seven bladed propellers have been produced in merchant practice and none of the size contemplated for this ship. Set against their tentative criterion of 7 also reinforces the choice of a high blade number from the hydrodynamic viewpoint but with the caveat of avoiding any hull structural vibration critical frequencies. If propellers were specifically designed for each of the operational speeds at the 13.3kts and 89. however.5m draught can be accommodated by the presently offered range of slow speed diesel engines with the exception of the highest ship speeds when an additional power source would need to be supplied. Ship speed (kts) Diameter (mm) Mean pitch ratio Expanded blade area ratio Blade rate hull surface pressure (kPa) Propeller weight (tonnes) 23.0 27. If.6 164. A8 2006 . The maximum ship speed that can be accommodated by a single slow speed diesel engine operating at its continuous service rating is around 26. The cavitation performance of the propeller at the different draughts also changes.069 0.013 0. together 110 Some advantage in hull surface pressure generation might be gained by the deployment of a seven bladed propeller since this could yield a reduction of around 3% over the six bladed option. at speeds higher than 25kts for a ship of this size.2 with the coefficient rising inversely with blade number to 10.5m draught case the resulting set of propellers would conform to the pattern shown in Table 6. However.0 9200 1. Shaft Power (MW) 70 CSR 67283 Kw 60 50 40 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 Ship Speed Vs (kts) Fig 9: Power absorption for a range of ship mean draughts 8 Journal of Marine Engineering and Technology No. The propeller blade number has been fixed at six for this study. because of the high blade area ratio and the root thicknesses of the propeller blades. dictate that a twin screw hull form should be selected for either larger sizes of ship or ships of this size travelling significantly faster.3MW.985 6.853 6.. This has been to secure a reasonable propeller cavitation performance within the constraints of current merchant ship practice.The propulsion of a 12 500TEU container ship Bollard Astern Back von-Mises Stress Contours 70% MCR RPM Astern 90 R 80 MPa 70 MPa 80 R 60 MPa 60 MPa 70 R 50 MPa 40 MPa 60 R 40 MPa 30 MPa 50 R 20 MPa 20 MPa 10 MPa 40 R 30 R with an increase in the blade surface sheet cavitation extent.
A8 2006 Journal of Marine Engineering and Technology 9 .1 602. The effect of this torsional behaviour was investigated for the following three characteristic 14 cylinder systems.5m draught when propellers specifically designed for each speed are utilised to the case where a propeller designed for 25kts is utilised over the speed range. a range of commercially available engines was considered embracing cylinder diameters from 960mm through to 1080mm.9 1032. is shown in Fig 11. Shaft 4 Rule MCR 94 rpm Table 8: Shafting system principal dimensions Although the shafts have diameters in excess of 1m it is considered that they are unlikely to present intractable problems during their manufacture provided that the appropriate measures are taken during production.5 range stress (N/mm2) Torsional vibration analysis The torsional vibration characteristics were evaluated for the range of propulsion systems.7 12. The overall torsional vibration characteristics exhibited similar behaviours in which the II-node resonance of the system was excited. dampers were tuned to dissipate energy at the II-node frequency and.7 1175.3 III-node 1215. described in Table 8.0 14.8 128.1 1129.6 560.5 13.7 12. Ship speed (kts) Propulsion efficiency ratio 23 1% 25 0 27 2% ing conditions the torsional behaviour of the tail and intermediate shafts was satisfactory with the shafting arrangement defined by Table 8.8 14. For the set of systems considered Fig 10 shows a typical set of characteristics under misfiring conditions without a damper fitted.0 15. however. The torsional natural frequencies of the three systems are defined in Table 9. Station 22-23 Propeller shaft Cyl1 misfiring Table 7: Effects on propulsion efficiency ratio PROPULSION MACHINERY For the purposes of this conceptual study the propulsion system comprised the elements shown in Table 8 coupled to a slow speed marine diesel engine. With regard to the slow speed diesel engines.5 range stress (N/mm2) Prop.The propulsion of a 12 500TEU container ship Comparing the ratio of propulsion efficiencies of the ship at 13.4 Cyl 9 Rule MCR 94 rpm 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Shaft speed (rpm) Fig 10c: Crankshaft at cylinder 9 with cylinder 1 misfiring To attenuate this resonance. 0 20 40 60 80 Shaft speed (rpm) 100 120 Fig 10b: Intermediate shaft characteristics with cylinder 1 misfiring Sys-2.5 13. The shafting system was equipped with forward and aft stern-tube bearings and five intermediate plummer bearings supporting the shafting.0 134. The maximum continuous rating speed was taken as either 94rev/min or 102rev/min as appropriate.5 range stress (N/mm2) Inter.7 II-node 649.0 14.0 1145. Table 9:Torsional vibration undamped natural frequencies (cpm) The forced damped torsional response of the systems was predicted. Station 11-12 Cyl 9 Cyl1 misfiring 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Torsional vibratory 0.0 120.8 14. reduce the torsional vibratory peak stresses in the crankshafts at their critical II-node speeds. The crankshaft characteristics were. Table 7.0 15. Shaft Rule MCR 94 rpm 20 40 60 80 Shaft speed (rpm) 100 120 Fig 10a: Propeller shaft characteristics with cylinder 1 misfiring Sys-2. hence. Systems 1 and 2 relate to a 980 and 1080mm bore diesel engine while System 3 refers to a 960mm bore engine.0 102 1018 834 70. the modification of the torsional characteristics by fitting a tuned damper to the shafting arrangement. For the same system shown in Fig 10c. System System-1 System-1 + damper System-2 System-2 + damper System-3 System-3 + damper I-node 136.5 585.0 122. The inclusion of a torsional damper into the systems considerably assisted the suppression of the unwelcome crankshaft torsional behaviour. Sys-2.9 1085. 23 to 27kts.7 133. Station 21-22 Intermediate shaft 4 Cyl1 misfiring 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Torsional vibratory 0.2 532.2 620. Shaft speed at MCR (rev/min) Rule tail-shaft diameter (mm) Rule inter-shaft diameter (mm) Shaft length to engine flange (m) Tail-shaft length (m) Intermediate shaft 1 length (m) Intermediate shaft 2 length (m) Intermediate shaft 3 length (m) Intermediate shaft 4 length (m) 94 1042 853 70. In all cases under both normal and misfir- No. particularly in the misfiring case which resulted in high vibratory stresses in the crankshaft exceeding the permissible stress levels for continuous operation.0 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 Torsional vibratory 0. found to be troublesome in the misfiring conditions and in some engines at the normal firing condition. it is seen that an improvement in propulsive efficiency of around 2% occurs at the high speed end of the speed range.
Cyl 1 misfiring 30 Torsional vibratory 0. However. the two support point Shaft Whirling Container Ship.0 order figuration designed for 94rev/min 160 Figs 12 and 13 show this sensitivi140 ty at blade rate. Station 12-13 Cyl 9 with Geislinger damper. 6.0 order. Sys. with attendant changes in brake mean effective cylinder pressure. critical speeds of the for20 ward and reverse whirls of mode-4 to mode-6 resonances were within 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 Rigid the ±20% of the MCR speed of 94rev/min at a stern tube bearing Sterntube stiffness (tonne/mm) point of support lateral stiffness of Fig 13: Lateral vibration blade rate critical speeds – 2PoS model 50tonne/mm and above.0 order. mode 2 100 These figures show that the -6.The propulsion of a 12 500TEU container ship Sys-2. 6. Critical speed (rpm) Critical speed (rpm) 10 Journal of Marine Engineering and Technology No. The sensitivity of lateral vibraFig 12: Lateral vibration blade rate critical speeds – D/2 model tion natural frequencies to stern tube bearing stiffness was explored and for the shafting conShaft Whirling Container Ship. Predicted critical speeds 20 at the 50 to 100tonne/mm point of 0 contact lateral stiffness were similar 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 Rigid for the D/2 and the two support Sterntube stiffness (tonne/mm) point models. mode 1 variations in the stern tube bearing 100 -0.5 range stress (N/mm2) 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 20 40 60 80 Shaft speed (rpm) 100 120 Cyl 10 Rule MCR 94 rpm machinery options. Sys. mode 2 6. Figs 14 and 15 show 140 the sensitivity of the lateral vibration 120 critical speeds at twice blade rate to 6. The lateral stiffnesses of the stern tube bearings were changed through a range of 50 to 600tonne/mm per support point and a plummer bearing stiffness of 100tonne/mm was assumed for all plummer bearings. mode 1 point of support lateral stiffness for 6. for the single and two points of support 120 models respectively. Fig 11: Crankshaft at cylinder 9 with cylinder 1 misfiring with a tuned damper fitted From Fig 11 the torsional stress in the crankshaft is now just within the limiting value for the engine under misfiring conditions. 6th order. mode 1 blade rate critical speeds of the for80 -6. mode 1 ward and reverse whirls of the NOR speed 60 mode-1 resonance were within +20% NOR limit -20% NOR Limit 40 ±20% of the MCR speed of 94rev/min. and firing order were seen to have minimal influence on the overall system characteristics. intermediate and crank shafts.6 order. mode2 NOR Speed 60 of support respectively. 6. Similarly. it was found that a change in intermediate shaft diameter in association with a tuned damper was sufficient to control the torsional characteristics to an acceptable level in the operating ranges for the propeller. The recommended stiffnesses of the engine bearings were used.0 order. Variations in cylinder number.0 order.0 order. above 150tonne/mm.0 order model predicted a higher critical 160 speed relative to the D/2 model.0 order. NOR Speed -20% 40 12th order. Again these NOR Speed +20% figures show that at twice blade rate. This was varied from the values quoted in Table 8 up to a maximum of a 22% increase keeping the shaft lengths constant.2 2PoS model. but at higher point of contact lateral stiffnesses.2 D2 model. considering a synthesis of the first 12 orders and a propeller specific damping of 30. To explore removing the barred speed range from the normal operating speed range a variational study was undertaken on the intermediate shaft diameter for another of the Lateral vibration Calculations were performed with both a single and two point of support arrangement for the aft stern tube bearing models. Again. A8 2006 . the general torsional characteristic is on a rising flank and some of the systems examined would lead to the introduction of a barred speed range embracing the operating speed range. mode 2 80 models with a single and two points -6. The former model assumed a single support point at half the shaft diameter (D/2) into the bearing from the aft end while the latter model assumed two points of support 100mm into the bearing from each end.0 order.
4 9.The propulsion of a 12 500TEU container ship Shaft Whirling Container Ship.0 order.9 19.7mm: this was the resonance of vibratory modes 5 and 6. it is considered unlikely that these critical speeds in a detailed No.0 order.4 70. mode 3 12.0 order.0 order.8 10.locations from aft end of shafting system Whether these lateral vibration modes could be significantly excited by the propeller was examined by a finite element model using the two point of support model for the aft stern tube bearing with a point of support lateral stiffness of 100tonne/mm. The most significant lateral displacements were at blade rate and located at the propeller for all systems at approximately 3. 12. Sys.0 order.0 order. All other responses at blade rate were below 1mm. mode 6 12. mode 3 12.52 9. The propeller was modelled as a disc with an equivalent total wet polar moment of inertia of the propeller.8 10. mode 5 12. mode 4 12. mode 4 12. mode 7 -12.2 50. mode 7 -12. mode 5 -12.0 order. mode 4 -12. mode 7 Fig 14: Lateral vibration twice blade rate critical speeds – D/2 model Critical speed (rpm) 200 150 100 50 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 Rigid Sterntube stiffness (tonne/mm) Shaft Whirling Container Ship. some systems attained lateral displacements of up to 1. A8 2006 Journal of Marine Engineering and Technology 11 . All other responses at twice blade rate were below 1mm.0 order. mode 6 12.6 60.0 order.2 2PoS model. ∆L is the distance between adjacent bearings. Sys.7 30. Vorus and Parsons’ method7 was used to predict the added mass and damping coefficients due to the propeller entrained water.8 9. mode 5 12.0 order.0 order.0 order 300 NOR Speed NOR Speed +20% NOR Speed -20% 12.0 order.9 10. For the twice blade rate frequency at the mid-span of intermediate shaft 1. Fig 16 shows the resultant lateral displacement response of a shafting system at the propeller station under propeller blade rate excitation. mode 5 -12. mode 6 -12. Table 11 indicates the lateral vibration critical speeds at blade and twice blade rate derived from Campbell diagrams specific to the 1080mm and 960mm bore engine shaft systems.0 order.0 order 300 250 NOR Speed NOR Speed +20% NOR Speed -20% 12. The propeller entrained water damping coefficients and the gyroscopic damping are functions of shaft speed and the forced damped response analyses were analysed with these coefficients at the MCR shaft speed since the primary range of interest was MCR shaft speed ±20%. there is a strong similarity between the critical speeds as might be expected.2 40. mode 6 -12. Clearly. The bearing arrangement for the lateral vibration computation is presented in Table 10 where the bearing location represents the distance from aft end of the shafting system to the point of support at the named bearing. 12.0 order. The lateral vibration analysis showed that the propeller span mode gives the largest response and although lateral vibration natural frequencies occur within the ±20% MCR speed range.0 order.2 D2 model. mode 3 -12.0 order.0 order. mode 4 -12.0 order. mode 3 -12.0 order.0 order. mode 7 250 Critical speed (rpm) 200 150 100 50 Fig 15: Lateral vibration twice blade rate critical speeds – 2PoS model 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 Rigid 1000 Sterntube stiffness (tonne/mm) Bearings Fwd stern tube Plummer bearing Plummer bearing Plummer bearing Plummer bearing Plummer bearing Engine bearing 1 1 2 3 4 5 Location (m) 9.4 ∆L (m) Table 10: Bearing arrangement .2mm.
as specified 1.000388 < ε < 0. the alignment characteristics of the shafting systems were based on the empirical criterion of the maximum relative slope between the aft stern tube bearing and the shaft being less than 0. in each of the systems two shafting system models were considered: one with a single point of support and the other with a two point of support model.50E-03 bearing loads for the system to Sys2a Sys2b which Fig 17 refers.The propulsion of a 12 500TEU container ship Critical speeds (rev/min) 1080mm 960mm 68.00E-03 with only small but.7 100. a white 0.9 105.00E-03 MCR 94rpm +/-20% load limits were satisfied: the Sys3 1. As previously.50E-03 important differences occurring between them.8 85. The data in this case.1 In addition to the engine builder’s requirements. All systems required slope boring of the aft stern tube -2 with the magnitude of the shaft Sys3 -4 angular deflection under static Bearings conditions lying in the range -6 0.0 102. The limits of Fig 17: A typical hot static prescribed alignment condition engine flange shear force and bending moment for either the hot and cold static conditions or.8 82.000431rad.1 38. The vertiwith stiffness of 100tonne/mm cal shaft deflections shown here for one of the prescribed alignments of the set of shafting systems may be considered as representative 4.00E-04 tube maximum specific load was at 8bar for. depending upon the particular sys-8 tem. since these are very long engines care needs to be attenuate the lateral response in the shafting spans.9 94.1 85. None of the propulsion systems exhibited any untoward globConsequently. the static alignment analysis shows that al axial vibration characteristics.0003rad.4 103.2 99. Figs 17 and 18. the minimum and design would cause a problem.6 36.0 92.8 76.5 73. nevertheless. alternatively.7 172. The propeller was assumed to be fully immersed and typical thermal rises ranged from 0. additional minor maximum load on the aft engine bearings 1 to 3 were satisfied.1 34. However.9 41.00E-03 by the manufacturer.00E-03 Fig 18 shows the equivalent 2. All bearing 2. in this case. and the stern 5.6 85. 3.1 77.29 and Table 11: Lateral vibration critical speeds of shafting systems 0. Alternatively.8 91.39mm depending upon the choice of prime mover.3 76. In the case of the forward stern tube bearing the bearing was assumed to be supported at its mid position.1 92.6 82. a sysShaft speed (rpm) tem could be configured for a nonFig 16: Lateral displacement at the propeller station and blade rate order metallic stern bearing arrangement.00E+00 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 metal bearing. Shaft alignment 12 Journal of Marine Engineering and Technology No. was defined for the hot static condition.50E-03 MCR 102rpm +/-20% plummer bearing maximum specific loads were 10bar.0 120. The prescribed alignment. Fig 17.8 98. In the case of the main engines -10 the load limits were specified by the Shaft length (mm) engine manufacturers.6 92. Moreover. A8 2006 . exercised in the set up of the engine and to ensure that the foundations provide adequate support throughout the range of the Axial vibration ship’s operating conditions. rearrangement of the bearing locations would most likely further Nevertheless. is presented for the hot System 3 and cold static cases where the for2 mer is presented for the D/2 and the two point of support aft stern 0 0 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000 60000 70000 80000 90000 tube model. 3.5 82. in a detailed adequate alignment margins can be achieved for a ship of this Vertical deflection (mm) Displacement (m) Engine Bore Blade rate Mode-1 Mode-2 Twice blade rate Mode-1 Mode-2 Mode-3 Mode-4 Mode-5 Mode-6 Mode-7 Mode-8 Mode-9 Mode-10 Mode-11 Mode-12 Mode-13 design some localised problems may be encountered and these will need to be dealt with as appropriate.8 85.0 94.
From this figure it can be seen that size for all of the systems examined. the proshows. In the alternative case of carbon fibre blades. The primary reason for the eccenting procedure to be formulated which will allow the designed tricity in the higher speed ranges is due to the in-plane wake contact stresses to be achieved. this technology. in-turn. The figure ered some years ago when contemplating the propulsion of a one million tonne tanker. With this type of blade there is also the added potential ability to utilise the blade flexure so as to achieve an added control over the cavitation performance over the blades. measured outboard of the stern seal and recorded over a tially possible either through the use of the built-up concept or by period of two minutes during the turning manoeuvres. the 12 500TEU ship will be of the order of 128t. a series of port and peller weight is significant when considered against contempostarboard 10deg rudder angle turning manoeuvres undertaken rary propellers although not necessarily by the standards considwhen at full speed with a clockwise rotating shaft. It would be reasonable to expect the dry propeller weight for such a design to reduce by some 50% and clearly this would ease the stern tube alignment problem. However. Nevertheless. These changes occur in varying degrees to the flow velocities in each of the three Cartesian directions of flow and generate additional components of loading over the blades.9rev/min to 87rev/min. such blades would be constructed from a predetermined sequence of linear and bi-directional weaves based on the nature of the blade chordal and radial loading distributions in order to achieve the required strength and radial and torsional flexibility. In the case of accelerating manoeuvres in calm water. Bearing load (kg) Shaft dynamic behaviour The operation of ships in a seaway or when undertaking turning or changes of speed manoeuvres causes a series of spatial and temporal changes to occur in the velocity field presented to the propeller. when looking forticularly in relation to fitting a high number of blades on to the ward. Load Min. shows the envelopes of a set of instantaneous positions of the Options to lighten the propeller or components of it are potenshaft. It is the use of carbon fibre laid-up blades. These loadings. at the start of the manoeuvre. Such a finished In the alternative case of turning manoeuvres then a more propeller weight will be within the casting capabilities of the extreme set of shaft orbit excursions can be anticipated. which has been relatively successful in small ship applications. in this case for a nominal 4000TEU ship. have to be reacted by the bearings through the influence of the lubricant films. Then as the manoeuvre No. the movement of the shaft increases both in its orbit size as Given that the propeller will be of the keyless type and that well as eccentricity during an increase in speed from it will have a shaft taper sufficient to enable an acceptable fit46.The propulsion of a 12 500TEU container ship Bearing Loads Sys3 250000 200000 150000 100000 50000 0 0 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000 60000 70000 80000 Hot Static 2PoS Hot Static D2 Cold Staic D2 Max. Fig 20 principal large propeller manufacturers. then the propeller dry weight for field components. A8 2006 Journal of Marine Engineering and Technology 13 . Load Shaft distance (mm) Fig 18:Typical prescribed alignment static bearing loads boss and also in controlling cavitation development in the root region. the measured loci of the shaft disFig 19: Loci of shaft displacement during an accelerating manoeuvre placement measured just aft of the oil seal are shown in Fig 19. again for a smaller container ship. In the former case some clearly seen that for the turns to port the propeller shaft is forced difficulty may be experienced with the propeller boss design: parupwards and towards the 11 o’clock position. would represent a significant extrapolation of current service experience.
In contrast. some evidence to suggest that more compliant materials may be able to withstand the micro-jet impingement of cavitation attack. These results. cavitation erosion also facilitates several forms of corrosion attack which. Frequently. have often met with only partial success and have required continuous maintenance during the service life of the ship. To achieve an acceptable solution for high powered ships a careful design strategy comprising elements of computation and model testing requires implementation. These results were derived from a Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics study in which the propeller inflow was modelled for the continuous service rating. For larger rudder angles at high speed these tendencies became more pronounced: when undertaking port turns the shaft endeavoured to take up more extreme positions while for starboard turns the position in the bearing can traverse the whole of the region from 3 o’clock to 9 o’clock. It is also noticeable that greater levels of positional instability were seen at very high rudder angles. nevertheless. recognising that this latter flow field component will require some modification from model scale values due to the significant scale effects present on a large container ship. In quantitative terms. at least in the more mild cases of erosion attack. it is true that many rudders fitted to large container ships experience erosion. Figs 21 to 23 show the local cavitation number over the surface of a large container ship rudder for a range of rudder angles that would normally be associated with an auto-pilot range of movement. Such attempts. Such a strategy might involve the measurement of the rudder incident flow field generated by the propeller and the ship’s boundary layer. These shafting behaviours are characteristic of single screw ships and a similar behaviour in terms of the qualitative characteristics of the shaft motion might be expected for a 12 500TEU ship. in contrast to the normal straight line leading edge. underline the importance of studying at the rudder design stage the range of likely auto-pilot angles that will be encountered in service. in order to permit the greatest cavitation free incidence ranges to be obtained for the components of the rudder. Such a study can either be done in a large scale cavitation tunnel or with the aid of computational fluid dynamics studies such as these. starting close to the former location and as the manoeuvre progresses moving towards the latter position. Because the rudder operates in a combination of the helicoidal flow field produced by the propeller and the ship’s boundary layer. however. this behaviour has profound implications for the positioning of the lubricant wash-ways in the bearings since if the shaft lands on the edge of a wash-way during such a manoeuvre the oil film is likely to be broken and the lubrication condition compromised. In this context the local cavitation number (σ) is defined as being the ratio of the local static pressure head divided by 1/2 ρ v2. A8 2006 . the incident flow presented to the rudder has a strong rotational component as evidenced by the behaviour of the propeller blade tip vortices. the absolute magnitudes of the shaft motions will vary depending upon the weights of the shaft and propeller. Consequently. Additionally. attempts have been made to attenuate these erosive effects of cavitation by the fitting of stainless steel or stellite armour to the rudder and horn: particularly. RUDDER HYDRODYNAMICS When high power and speed are required careful attention to the rudder design is essential if a continuing series of cavitation erosion problems are to be avoided. In the case of large container ships attention to the rudder profile and detail of the design is paramount. Following this defini- 14 Journal of Marine Engineering and Technology No. where ρ is the density of sea water and v is the velocity close to the rudder surface. the forces and moments developed from the propeller working in the actual wake field and the design of the ship’s stern aperture in relation to the restrictions it places on the development of the transient aspects of the wake field. There is. tends to compound the operational maintenance problems. in addition to the erosion. While the presence of cavitation does not necessarily imply erosion. through the small but extremely important changes in local cavitation number and their consequences for erosion. Having defined this inflow field a first iteration for the rudder geometry design can then be produced which may suggest the desirability of a contoured leading edge. Furthermore. the rudder tends to distort the flow field such that the slipstream generated by the propeller often expands up the leading edge of the rudder by a small amount.The propulsion of a 12 500TEU container ship Fig 20: Envelopes of shaft positions during turning manoeuvres develops the shaft then starts to fall back towards a more central location. during the starboard manoeuvre the shaft is forced to between a 3 o’clock and 6 o’clock position. in the leading edge regions but also on other parts of the rudder.
deployment of vortex generators. very careful attention to these details both at the design and rudder fabrication stages are necessary: the latter aspect to ensure that the design intent is achieved because design tolerances are small in these severe flow conditions. In the case of the gap interfaces between the horn and blade. the reliability of this technique for rudder erosion prediction is not yet as good as similar procedures for propeller blades. Depending on the extent of the changes required a further model test may also be desirable.The propulsion of a 12 500TEU container ship Fig 21: Local cavitation number over the surface of a semibalanced large container ship rudder at 0deg helm Fig 22: Local cavitation number over the surface of a semibalanced large container ship rudder at 5deg port helm tion. for the larger container ship and other high speed ship designs. in order to further assess this potential a paint erosion technique might form an integral part of the testing programme. the advised use of profile curvature and. both in overall terms as well as in the detailed behaviour of the design around the pintle housings and the interfaces between the rudder and horn. for these types of rudders computational fluid dynamic studies have shown good correlation between the predicted actuating torques No. on occasions. nevertheless. Such a consideration will normally result in a unique specification for the design for each ship and this may include the incorporation of scissor and deflector plates in order to afford protection from erosion in or near gap regions. have been found to be a particularly valuable aid to design. Within this testing phase it is important to carefully evaluate the influence that the normal range of auto-pilot rudder angles has on the cavitation dynamics since these angular variations. Furthermore. centring particularly on the mid-region of the rudder so as to minimise scale effects. large scale model cavitation tests. for the rotational characteristic of the incident flow from the propeller. Within this context. will strongly influence the erosion potential of the design. An alternative to the conventional rudder horn-blade configuration is the use of the variable geometry spade rudder concept. pintle and blade regions of the rudder.8 Following a model testing phase a second iteration of the design can be made in which detailed geometric changes can be introduced in the knowledge of the individual cavitation bucket assessments of the horn. A8 2006 Journal of Marine Engineering and Technology 15 . Furthermore. This design option allows. large scale model cavitation tests should then be carried out to estimate the full scale characteristics of the design. as seen in Figs 24 and 25. in a mean flow sense.
erosion prediction methods for rudders are in their infancy. 2. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author wishes to thank the Committee of Lloyd’s Register for permission to publish this paper. propulsion at 25kts and with a 15% sea margin is possible using a single screw concept and currently available slow speed diesel engines. moderate skew and a judicious use of rake are essential for the single screw propulsion concept. The rudder design for these large ships needs to be undertaken with care if poor results are to be avoided. The Propulsion of Large Container Ships: 16 Journal of Marine Engineering and Technology No.5. Indeed. then the current range of diesel engines would need to be augmented by an electric motor and the propeller cavitation problems would be considerable. A8 2006 . REFERENCES 1. for these higher speeds a twin screw variant of the design would probably need to be employed. Carlton JS. In addition grateful thanks are also due to Dr K Banisoleiman. Mr A Boorsma. defined using high cube containers. Trans LRTA. Ultra-Large Container Ships (ULCS): Designing to the limit of current and projected terminal infrastructure capabilities. Paper No. Tozer D and Penfold A. CONCLUDING REMARKS This concept study has shown that a 12 500TEU container ship. Dr D Radosavljevic and Mr D Tozer for their valuable contributions and advice on various parts of the work.The propulsion of a 12 500TEU container ship Fig 24: Port pintle velocity distribution during a 5deg turn to starboard Fig 23: Local cavitation number over the surface of a semibalanced large container ship rudder at 5deg starboard helm Fig 25: Starboard pintle velocity distribution during a 5deg turn to port and bearing bending moments and side forces with the results of model tests. It has been shown that a minimum of six blades. Session 2001-2002. To extend the ship speed beyond 26kts towards 27kts. Such a procedure would need to embrace significant model testing at the largest scale possible and over the normal auto-pilot range of angles as well as being supplemented by computational fluid dynamics studies. at this time. Sadly. With regard to the machinery selection it has been shown by a series of parametric studies that systems using existing technology and capabilities are able to be designed to provide the desired propulsion solution.
Colloquium on Nav. 3. 1981. Hamburg. Report of the Propulsion Committee.The propulsion of a 12 500TEU container ship A Note on the Propulsion Options. Parsons MG and Vorus WS. 5. No. 2002. 4. 2005. & Ocean Eng. 8. 1974. Guldhammer and Harvald. A8 2006 Journal of Marine Engineering and Technology 17 . 23rd ITTC. 2001 Int.E. Trans. Trans. Copenhagen. Akademisk Forlag. Added Mass and Damping Estimates for Vibrating Propellers. 7. Sept. EROCAV Project GRD12000-25089. 2001. Ship Resistance – Effect of Form and Principal Dimensions.. 6. Tozer D. Design Challenges of Large Container Ships. Carlton JS. I. Marine Propeller Blade Stresses. Propellers’ 81 Symp. 1984.Mar. Arch. Pusan National University. Boxship 2005. Guidelines for the Design of Propellers and Rudders with Respect to Cavitation Erosion. SNAME.
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