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Formula Sheet

# Formula Sheet

4.25

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01/29/2013

# Trig Cheat Sheet

Definition of the Trig Functions
Right triangle definition For this definition we assume that 0 <θ <

Formulas and Identities
Tangent and Cotangent Identities sin θ cos θ tan θ = cot θ = cos θ sin θ Reciprocal Identities 1 1 csc θ = sin θ = sin θ csc θ 1 1 sec θ = cos θ = cos θ sec θ 1 1 cot θ = tan θ = tan θ cot θ Pythagorean Identities sin 2 θ + cos 2 θ = 1 tan θ + 1 = sec θ
2 2

π

2

or 0° < θ < 90° .

Unit circle definition For this definition θ is any angle.
y

( x, y )
hypotenuse opposite
y 1 x

θ
x

Half Angle Formulas 1 sin 2 θ = (1 − cos ( 2θ ) ) 2 1 cos 2 θ = (1 + cos ( 2θ ) ) 2 1 − cos ( 2θ ) 2 tan θ = 1 + cos ( 2θ ) Sum and Difference Formulas sin (α ± β ) = sin α cos β ± cos α sin β cos (α ± β ) = cos α cos β ∓ sin α sin β tan α ± tan β 1 ∓ tan α tan β Product to Sum Formulas 1 sin α sin β = ⎡cos (α − β ) − cos (α + β ) ⎤ ⎦ 2⎣ 1 cos α cos β = ⎡cos (α − β ) + cos (α + β ) ⎤ ⎦ 2⎣ 1 sin α cos β = ⎣sin (α + β ) + sin (α − β ) ⎦ ⎡ ⎤ 2 1 cos α sin β = ⎡sin (α + β ) − sin (α − β ) ⎤ ⎦ 2⎣ Sum to Product Formulas ⎛α + β ⎞ ⎛α −β ⎞ sin α + sin β = 2sin ⎜ ⎟ cos ⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎛α + β ⎞ ⎛α − β ⎞ sin α − sin β = 2 cos ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ sin ⎜ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎛α + β ⎞ ⎛α −β ⎞ cos α + cos β = 2 cos ⎜ ⎟ cos ⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎛α + β ⎞ ⎛α − β ⎞ cos α − cos β = −2sin ⎜ ⎟ sin ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ Cofunction Formulas tan (α ± β ) =
⎛π ⎞ sin ⎜ − θ ⎟ = cos θ ⎝2 ⎠ ⎛π ⎞ csc ⎜ − θ ⎟ = sec θ ⎝2 ⎠ ⎛π ⎞ tan ⎜ − θ ⎟ = cot θ 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛π ⎞ cos ⎜ − θ ⎟ = sin θ ⎝2 ⎠ ⎛π ⎞ sec ⎜ − θ ⎟ = csc θ ⎝2 ⎠ ⎛π ⎞ cot ⎜ − θ ⎟ = tan θ 2 ⎝ ⎠

θ
adjacent sin θ = opposite hypotenuse adjacent cos θ = hypotenuse opposite tan θ = adjacent hypotenuse opposite hypotenuse sec θ = adjacent adjacent cot θ = opposite csc θ = sin θ = y =y 1 x cos θ = = x 1 y tan θ = x 1 y 1 sec θ = x x cot θ = y csc θ =

1 + cot 2 θ = csc 2 θ Even/Odd Formulas sin ( −θ ) = − sin θ csc ( −θ ) = − cscθ cos ( −θ ) = cos θ tan ( −θ ) = − tan θ Periodic Formulas If n is an integer. sin (θ + 2π n ) = sin θ sec ( −θ ) = sec θ cot ( −θ ) = − cot θ

Facts and Properties
Domain The domain is all the values of θ that can be plugged into the function. sin θ , θ can be any angle cos θ , θ can be any angle 1⎞ ⎛ tan θ , θ ≠ ⎜ n + ⎟ π , n = 0, ± 1, ± 2,… 2⎠ ⎝ θ ≠ n π , n = 0, ± 1, ± 2,… csc θ , 1⎞ ⎛ sec θ , θ ≠ ⎜ n + ⎟ π , n = 0, ± 1, ± 2,… 2⎠ ⎝ θ ≠ n π , n = 0, ± 1, ± 2,… cot θ , Range The range is all possible values to get out of the function. csc θ ≥ 1 and csc θ ≤ −1 −1 ≤ sin θ ≤ 1 −1 ≤ cos θ ≤ 1 sec θ ≥ 1 and sec θ ≤ −1 −∞ ≤ tan θ ≤ ∞ −∞ ≤ cot θ ≤ ∞ Period The period of a function is the number, T, such that f (θ + T ) = f (θ ) . So, if ω is a fixed number and θ is any angle we have the following periods. sin (ωθ ) →
cos (ω θ ) →

csc (θ + 2π n ) = csc θ

cos (θ + 2π n ) = cos θ sec (θ + 2π n ) = sec θ tan (θ + π n ) = tan θ cot (θ + π n ) = cot θ Double Angle Formulas sin ( 2θ ) = 2sin θ cos θ cos ( 2θ ) = cos 2 θ − sin 2 θ = 2 cos 2 θ − 1 = 1 − 2sin 2 θ 2 tan θ tan ( 2θ ) = 1 − tan 2 θ Degrees to Radians Formulas If x is an angle in degrees and t is an angle in radians then π πx 180t t = ⇒ t= and x = π 180 x 180

T= T T T T T

tan ( ωθ ) → csc (ωθ ) →
sec (ω θ ) →

cot (ωθ ) →

ω 2π = ω π = ω 2π = ω 2π = ω π = ω

Unit Circle y
⎛ 1 3⎞ ⎜− , ⎟ ⎝ 2 2 ⎠ ⎛ 2 2⎞ , ⎜− ⎟ ⎝ 2 2 ⎠ ⎛ 3 1⎞ ⎜− , ⎟ ⎝ 2 2⎠

Inverse Trig Functions
Definition y = sin −1 x is equivalent to x = sin y Inverse Properties cos ( cos −1 ( x ) ) = x cos−1 ( cos (θ ) ) = θ sin ( sin −1 ( x ) ) = x tan ( tan −1 ( x ) ) = x Alternate Notation sin −1 x = arcsin x cos −1 x = arccos x tan −1 x = arctan x sin −1 ( sin (θ ) ) = θ tan −1 ( tan (θ ) ) = θ
⎛1 3⎞ ⎜ , ⎟ ⎜2 2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ 2 2⎞ ⎜ ⎜ 2 , 2 ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ 3 1⎞ ⎜ , ⎟ ⎜ 2 2⎟ ⎝ ⎠

( 0,1)

π
2 2π 3 90° 120° 60°

y = cos −1 x is equivalent to x = cos y y = tan x is equivalent to x = tan y Domain and Range Function Domain y = sin −1 x y = cos x y = tan −1 x
−1 −1

π
3

3π 4

π
4
45°

5π 6
150°

135°

π
30°

−1 ≤ x ≤ 1 −1 ≤ x ≤ 1 −∞ < x < ∞

6

≤ y≤ 2 2 0≤ y ≤π

π

Range

π

π
2

< y<

π
2

( −1,0 )

π 180°

360°

0 2π

(1,0 )

x

Law of Sines, Cosines and Tangents
β

c
7π 6 210°
225°

a

330° 315° 7π 300° 270° 4 5π 3π 3 2 ⎛
( 0,−1)

⎛ 3 1⎞ ⎜− ,− ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ 2

⎛ 2 2⎞ ,− ⎜− ⎟ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2

5π 4

11π 6

4π 3

240°

⎛ 3 1⎞ ⎜ ,− ⎟ ⎝ 2 2⎠

α

γ

⎛ 2 2⎞ ,− ⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2

b
Law of Sines sin α sin β sin γ = = a b c Law of Cosines a 2 = b 2 + c 2 − 2bc cos α Law of Tangents a − b tan 1 (α − β ) 2 = a + b tan 1 (α + β ) 2 b − c tan 1 ( β − γ ) 2 = b + c tan 1 ( β + γ ) 2 a − c tan 1 (α − γ ) 2 = a + c tan 1 (α + γ ) 2

⎛ 1 3⎞ ⎜ − ,− ⎟ ⎝ 2 2 ⎠

1 3⎞ ⎜ ,− ⎟ ⎝2 2 ⎠

For any ordered pair on the unit circle ( x, y ) : cos θ = x and sin θ = y Example ⎛ 5π ⎞ 1 cos ⎜ ⎟ = ⎝ 3 ⎠ 2 3 ⎛ 5π ⎞ sin ⎜ ⎟ = − 2 ⎝ 3 ⎠

b 2 = a 2 + c 2 − 2ac cos β c = a + b − 2ab cos γ
2 2 2

Mollweide’s Formula a + b cos 1 (α − β ) 2 = c sin 1 γ 2