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YOGACARA

YOGACARA

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VASUBANDHU YOGACARA
VASUBANDHU YOGACARA

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Sections

  • Yogācāra in Historical Context
  • The Four Noble Truths
  • Process-Aggregate Theory of Personhood
  • Mediation Between Extreme Ontological Views
  • Convertible Terms for Consciousness
  • TSN 6-9: The Structure of Consciousness
  • TSN 10-13: Existence and Non-Existence
  • TSN 14-16: Duality and Non-Duality
  • TSN 17-21: Interrelationship Among the Svabhāva
  • TSN 22-26: Epistemological Conventions
  • TSN 27-30: Analogy to Illusion (The Illusory Elephant)
  • TSN 31-34: Knowledge, Cessation and Obtainment
  • Table 43- Svabhāva and Non-Difference of the Perfected and Non-Perfected
  • VM 1: Thesis of Vijñapti-Mātra
  • VM 2-9: Response to Hypothetical Realist Objections
  • VM 10: Subtle Teachings Concerning Ātman and Dharmas
  • VM 11-15: Response to Atomist Objections to Vijñapti-Mātra
  • VM 16-22: Response to Additional Objections to Vijñapti-Mātra
  • TM 1-2a: Threefold Vijñāna-Pariṇāma Stated
  • VM 2c-5a: Ālayavijñāna
  • TM 8-9: Acquisition of the Six-fold Object
  • TM 10-14: Categories of the Sarvatragas and Kleśais
  • TM 25-30: Enlightenment Through Vijñapti-Mātra
  • Metaphysical Questions
  • Rejection of Ontological Dualism
  • Rejection of Substantialism
  • Possibilities for Pluralism
  • Functional Pluralism
  • INDEX OF SANSKRIT TERMS
  • RESEARCH BIBLIOGRAPHY
  • VITA

VASUBANDHU’S CONSCIOUSNESS TRILOGY: A YOGĀCĀRA BUDDHIST PROCESS IDEALISM

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A Dissertation presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School University of Missouri-Columbia -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Doctor of Philosophy ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------By MELANIE K. JOHNSON-MOXLEY Dr. Bina Gupta, Dissertation Supervisor MAY 2008

© Copyright by Melanie Johnson-Moxley 2008 All Rights Reserved

The undersigned, appointed by the Dean of the Graduate School,

have examined the dissertation entitled

VASUBANDHU’S CONSCIOUSNESS TRILOGY: A YOGĀCĀRA BUDDHIST PROCESS IDEALISM

Presented by Melanie K. Johnson-Moxley A candidate for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy

And hereby certify that in their opinion it is worthy of acceptance.

Professor Bina Gupta

Professor John H. Kultgen, Jr.

Professor Barbara P. Wallach

Professor William S. Bondeson

Professor Donald Sievert

Dedicated to My Most Glorious Advisor, Bina Gupta and My Favorite Thoughtful Fellow, David Moxley

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I extend heartfelt gratitude to the members of my dissertation committee, Dr. Bina Gupta, chair, and readers Dr. John H. Kultgen, Dr. Donald Sievert, Dr. William Bondeson and Dr. Barbara Wallach for their support and encouragement. I am also indebted to Dr. Bill Sheehan, Jill Housh, Anne Weller and Nancy Moen for helping me rediscover my path and resume walking it. Thank you to Susan for knowing that perfection is overrated, to Beth for ringing the bell, to Anne for cheering, and to Pablo for reminding us all to relax. Finally, I express my unending appreciation to David Moxley for thinking that this project was a really fine idea, even if it meant making a lot of changes. I owe you one.

ii

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Acknowledgements ............................................................................................................. ii List of Illustrations ............................................................................................................. vi List of Tables ................................................................................................................... viii Abstract ............................................................................................................................... x Chapter 1: Vasubandhu’s Yogācāra in Context • • • • Thesis ............................................................................................................... 1 Research Method .............................................................................................. 4 Yogācāra in Historical Context......................................................................... 7 Assumptions of Yogācāra Buddhism o The Four Noble Truths........................................................................ 10 o Doctrine of Dependent Co-Origination (Causality) ............................ 10 o Aggregate Theory of Personhood ....................................................... 12 o Mediation Between Extreme Ontological Views ................................13 o Convertible Terms for Consciousness ................................................ 16 Notes ................................................................................................................17

Chapter 2: Trisvabhāva-Nirdeśa • • • • Overview ......................................................................................................... 23 TSN 1-5: The Trisvabhāva Stated .................................................................. 24 TSN 6-9: The Structure of Consciousness ...................................................... 32 TSN 10-21: Application of Mediation to the Definitions of Svabhāva o TSN 10-13: Existence and Non-Existence ..........................................38 o TSN 14-16: Duality and Non-Duality..................................................44 o TSN 17-21: Interrelationship Among the Svabhāva ........................... 49 TSN 22-26: Epistemological Conventions ..................................................... 56 TSN 27-30: Analogy to Illusion (The Illusory Elephant) ............................... 63 TSN 31-34: Knowledge, Cessation and Obtainment ...................................... 69 TSN 35-38: Enlightenment in Understanding Citta-Mātra o TSN 35: Four Arguments for the Thesis..............................................74 o TSN 36: Consciousness-Occasion .......................................................75 o TSN 37-38: Enlightened Perception ....................................................77 Summary ......................................................................................................... 79 Notes ............................................................................................................... 87

• • • •

• •

iii

Chapter 3: Viṃśika-Kārikas • • • • • • • • Overview ....................................................................................................... 135 VM 1: Thesis of Vijñapti-Mātra ................................................................... 137 VM 2-9: Response to Hypothetical Realist Objections ................................ 143 VM 10: Subtle Teachings Concerning Ātman and Dharmas........................ 159 VM 11-15: Response to Atomist Objections to Vijñapti-Mātra ................... 161 VM 16-22: Response to Additional Objections to Vijñapti-Mātra .............. 170 Summary ....................................................................................................... 182 Notes ............................................................................................................. 186

Chapter 4: Triṃśika-Kārikas • • • • • • • • • • • Overview ....................................................................................................... 217 TM 1-2b: Threefold Vijñāna-Parināma Stated ............................................ 218 TM 2c-5a: Ālayavijñāna ............................................................................... 220 TM 5b-7: Manāna ......................................................................................... 223 TM 8-9: Acquisition of the Six-Fold Object................................................. 227 TM 10-14: Categories of the Sarvatragas and Kleśais................................. 229 TM 15-19: Trai-Parināma and Vijñapti-Mātra ............................................ 231 TM 20- 24: Tri-svabhāva and Tri-nih-svabhāva .......................................... 239 TM 25-30: Enlightenment through Vijñapti-Mātra ...................................... 246 Summary ........................................................................................................254 Notes ............................................................................................................. 259

Chapter 5: Vasubandhu’s Yogācāra Idealism • • • • • • • • • • Metaphysical Questions ................................................................................ 282 Rejection of Ontological Dualism ................................................................ 284 Rejection of Substantialism ......................................................................... 285 Possibilities for Pluralism ..............................................................................286 Subjectivity and Objectivity ..........................................................................287 Functional Pluralism ..................................................................................... 289 Subjects ..........................................................................................................290 Objects ...........................................................................................................292 Conclusion .....................................................................................................297 Notes ............................................................................................................. 297

Appendix I: Instruction on the Threefold Own-State-of-Being .......................................300 Appendix II: Twenty Verses on Consciousness-Occasion ..............................................306 Appendix III: Thirty Verses on Consciousness and Phenomena .....................................310 iv

........................................................ 314 Research Bibliography ...............................................................................................................................................................................................Index of Sanskrit Terms ...339 Vita............................344 v .....................................................

Assumptions of Yogācāra Buddhism...Three Modes of Consciousness Compared ............. 220 Illustration 6................Modes of Abhūta-Kalpa ....................... 36 Illustration 4................... 26 Illustration 3............. 257 vi .............................................Three Modes of Consciousness.................................................................LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Illustration 1... 10 Illustration 2........... 38 Illustration 5....................................Reflecting Cause-and-Effect Consciousness ......................................................................................Threefold Nature of Phenomenal Appearance ......

.TSN 16........................................................................................................................................................Transliterated and Translated Resources Used............. 54 Table 24............ 50 Table 21.......................TSN 11................................................... 61 Table 29................................................. 32 Table 9.................................................TSN 10............................................................................................................... 72 Table 37................................................. 33 Table 10..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Svabhāva and Non-/Existence and Non-/Duality ...............................................................................................................................................................................................Selected Works and Commentaries of Vasubandhu .................... 82 vii ...................................................................................TSN 17...... 51 Table 22...............................................................................................................TSN 26.......................LIST OF TABLES Table 1................................................................................................. 60 Table 28......................................................... 45 Table 18............................................TSN 32................. 79 Table 42.......................... 66 Table 32.. 30 Table 8................................. 27 Table 6.......... 6 Table 3................................................... 46 Table 19...................................................... 37 Table 13......................................................... 42 Table 16....................................................................................TSN 21........................................................................................ 29 Table 7...TSN 9.... 67 Table 33........................ 77 Table 41...Convertible Terms for Consciousness ............TSN 24...................................................................................................................................................... 75 Table 39...........................................TSN 7....TSN 25............ 71 Table 36............................................................................... 36 Table 12............TSN 34..............................................TSN 31..............................................TSN 36.................................................................................................................TSN 14.....................................................................................TSN 23................ 25 Table 5.......................... 73 Table 38........................TSN 33................ 56 Table 25............................ 68 Table 34........................ 34 Table 11............................................TSN 12................................... 59 Table 27..................................... 53 Table 23.................................................................................................TSN 38.............................. 57 Table 26......................... 80 Table 43.................................................TSN 37...................................................................................TSN 2.............................. 43 Table 17.......................................TSN 13......................................................................................................... 39 Table 14.............................TSN 22....... 76 Table 40.............................................TSN 29...TSN 28........................................... 64 Table 31..............................................................................................TSN 15.....................TSN 27.................................................. 70 Table 35................................................................... 16 Table 4................................ 5 Table 2............................................................................................. 63 Table 30........................................TSN 19...................................................................................TSN 3............................................................................................................................TSN 30...........TSN 1................Svabhāva and Non-Difference of the Perfected and Non-Perfected .............TSN 5...............................................................................TSN 35.............................................................................................TSN 6................................................................................................TSN 4................................TSN 8..................................TSN 18.............TSN 20....................................................................................................................................................... 48 Table 20........ 41 Table 15........

......... 180 Table 79................... 234 Table 81............................................ 219 Table 72.............................................................................................................................................VM 1b ................................................TM 25 ...................................................VM 2 .......................VM 21 ............................................. 243 Table 85................................................................................................................. 144 Table 50...... 181 Table 71.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................TM 22 ...........TM 9 ..................................... 147 Table 52.............VM 11 .... 244 Table 86....... 228 Table 76......TM 26 .....................................................................TM 8 .......................................................................... 169 Table 64....... 164 Table 61.......................................................................................................VM 7 ................. 229 Table 77....TM 15 .................................................................................................................................VM 1c-d................................................................. 82 Table 45....................................TM 7 ................................................... 225 Table 74.....................................................TM 27 ...................................TM 18 .............................VM 5 ...................................................................................................... 226 Table 75........... 160 Table 59......Table 44....................................................... 153 Table 56...........................................................................................................................................................VM 6 and commentary ....................................VM 20 ............TM 19 ...............................................................................................................TM 16 ............................................................................................TM 23 ................ 155 Table 57.....VM 13 .............................................................................................................................................................. 149 Table 54.....................................................VM 3a ...............................................VM 10 .................................................... 248 Table 89......................................... 249 viii ...............................................TM 17 .....VM 16 ...............................................................................................................................................................VM 4 ...................................................................................................................................................................... 146 Table 51............................. 173 Table 66............ 241 Table 90......................................................................................................................................VM 3b-d ............................ 148 Table 53....VM 22 .......... 137 Table 46......................................................................................................................VM 9 and commentary .................................................... 179 Table 69............. 223 Table 73....................................................VM 1a ...................................................................................................................................................TM 2c-5a .............................................................................. 232 Table 79............................................................ 237 Table 82.................TM 1........................................................................................ 152 Table 55........... 162 Table 60... 167 Table 63....................................................................................................... 141 Table 49.......................................................................................... 171 Table 65...............VM 1 commentary ........................................Categories of the Sarvatragas and Kleśais .......................................VM 14 ......................Svabhāva and Epistemological Krama........................................................TM 5b-6 ............................................ 177 Table 68................................ 245 Table 87..... 175 Table 67............................................................TM 24 . 231 Table 78...............VM 17 ................................................................................... 165 Table 62...................TM 20-21 .........................................VM 12 ............ 139 Table 47............................................................... 158 Table 58...................................................VM 18 ....... 233 Table 80...................................................................... 238 Table 83.... 140 Table 48......................... 247 Table 88..........................................................................VM 19 ............VM 15 ....................................................2b ..............................VM 8 ....

.............................................................TM 30 ............. 252 Table 92....TM 28 ............................................................................................Table 90............................................TM 29 ....................................................... 253 ix .................................................. 251 Table 91............

While Vasubandhu’s position in the trilogy is indeed idealist and monist.VASUBANDHU’S CONSCIOUSNESS TRILOGY: A YOGĀCĀRA BUDDHIST PROCESS IDEALISM Melanie K. In this way much apparent logical tension is diffused. challengers have urged predominately psycho-epistemological readings of Yogācārin works. Bina Gupta. this does not entail a rejection of objectivity. Dissertation Supervisor ABSTRACT This work is a philosophical investigation into Vasubandhu’s consciousness trilogy.”) and the Vijñaptimātra-Kārikas (“Verses on Consciousness-Occasion. However. x . neither an exclusively metaphysical or exclusively epistemological reading is warranted. the more interesting and difficult case is that these themes are necessarily interwoven throughout the early Yogācāra canon. and a more complete picture of Vasubandhu’s Yogācāra emerges. including the consciousness trilogy. Johnson-Moxley Dr. comprised by the Trisvabhāva-Nirdeśa (“Instruction on the Threefold Own-Stateof-Being.”) Although early Indian Yogācāra Buddhism was once non-controversially described as a form of absolute ontological idealism. Functions are substituted for substances in ontological discussions. The ālayavijñāna (“storehouse-consciousness”) concept is developed so that it can serve the explanatory function of material cause.”) divided into the Viṃśika-Kārikas (“Twenty Verses”) and the Triṃśika-Kārikas (“Thirty Verses.

Distinguished by its contributions to early Mahāyāna philosophy of mind.CHAPTER 1 VASUBANDHU’S YOGĀCĀRA IN CONTEXT The Yogācāra (“Method of Cultivating the Mind”) school of Mahāyāna Buddhism is also known as the Vijñānavāda (“Consciousness-Teaching”) or. Chatterjee. indeed Berkeleian.4 In contrast. K. perhaps infamously.5 Similarly. “Mind Only” or “Merely Mind”) school. including also Maitreya and Asaṇga. Vasubandhu of Puruṣapura is one of a triad of figures. focusing on the inter-subjective aspects of Vasubandhu’s system. Sarachandra favors the view that it is a subjective. describes it as a doctrine of collective hallucination. as the Cittamātra or Vijñānamātra (conventionally meaning. that in fact its content is intended as a soteriological device but becomes misconstrued as metaphysical statements. R. is among those who have supported the position that Yogācāra is an absolutism and an idealism. idealism. However. especially in recent years.2 E.3 Thomas Wood. Fernando Tola and Carmen Dragonetti have described Mahāyāna Buddhism in general as embracing idealism as part of its doctrinal rebellion against the realist Hinayāna school. accounts of the refining details of Yogācāra Buddhism have varied widely. the Yogācāra system of thought has traditionally been described as some form of metaphysical idealism. defining ontological idealism from the Mahāyāna perspective as the mediation between nihilism and realism.1 A. It is around Vasbuandhu’s views that the most controversy seems to have developed in contemporary scholarship. Edward Conze has argued that it is neither an absolutist nor a subjective idealism. 1 . who developed this Indian Buddhist school during its nascent period.

herein translated as “consciousness-occasion.8 Alex Wayman and Richard King have expressed reservations about the relevance of the question of idealism in Yogācāra at all.”) This project aims to resolve an aspect of the Yogācāra idealism controversy by suggesting that these two texts not be examined in isolation.”) divided into the Viṃśika (“Twenty Verses” and commentary) and the Triṃśika (“Thirty Verses. as demonstrated in the model of “cause-and-effect consciousness. However. The existence of subjectivity is affirmed. and urges a psychological interpretation.9 And thus there is no consensus regarding the Yogācārin intention.David Kalupahana rejects the description of Yogācāra as any form of metaphysical idealism. such that reality is one and non-different from mentation. It is a central argument of this project that Vasubandhu’s 2 . Vasubandhu’s ontology does appear to be a monistic metaphysical idealism.6 Taking a much different approach. but in close connection with Vasubandhu’s earlier work. this reality is not devoid of some objective aspects. but provides a more complete context for understanding them. with its roots in Maitreya’s Madhyānta-Vibhāga and its emphasis on epistemology. not only introduces some of the themes further developed in the Kārikas.” It thereby avoids being any variety of purely subjective idealism. absolutist or transcendentalist.7 while Bruce Hall sees it as navigating between the extremes represented by both naïve realism and naïve idealism. Thomas Kochumuttom argues for an interpretation of Yogācāra as a kind of realistic pluralism. particularly within his Vijñaptimātra-Kārikas (verses on the meaning of vijñapti-mātra. The locus of much of this controversy lies in the work of Vasubandhu.”) This text. the Trisvabhāva-Nirdeśa (“Instruction on the Threefold Own-State-of-Being.

to a single ultimate reality without significant explanatory tension by virtue of rendering these characteristics as functional. The affirmation of objectivity does not entail the affirmation of objects. specifically any extra-mental. If objectivity is not denied. What is the locus of consciousness. if not a conscious subject? How can one mind be distinguished from one another if there are no discriminable loci of mentality? The ālayavijñāna or “storehouse consciousness” offers some explanation. “Vijñapti-Mātra” means. then what of objects. permanent selves (subjects) or things (objects) is fundamental. The result. explained in the context of a dynamic universe of processes and momentary existence of which we have difficulty being cognizant while in any ordinary frame of mind. that the content of our concepts. as its admission does not also necessarily entail the veracity of a dualist ontology. such as subjectivity and objectivity. the objects that we learn to habitually discriminate from the presentation of phenomena. As in all other Buddhist schools. rather than substantive.Yogācāra is capable of ascribing apparently contradictory characteristics. serving as a kind of karmic delivery system between moments of 3 . In the Yogācārin view. of subjectivity and objectivity. Does then the affirmation of subjectivity also not entail the affirmation of subjects? From a practical standpoint. of ignorance and enlightenment. physical objects really existing in an empirical world? This is a different concern. this is a significant question. is that objectivity need not be rejected. the idea that there are no enduring. in one respect. in this instance. does not cease to be a mental content simply because it circumscribes attributes and qualities of supposed non-mental reality. object-concepts are complex creations of consciousness.

similarly. Tibetan. Research Method My research method has been to examine not only multiple English translations of these the texts constituting the consciousness trilogy. comparing them line by line. five English translations with four Sanskrit transliterations—as well as a transliteration of Vasubandhu’s auto-commentary—were consulted for the Viṃśika. Chinese. English Tibetan. and whether and to what extent perdurance must be ascribed to it. Chinese --Chinese 4 . but where possible also multiple transliterations of Vasubandhu’s Sanskrit. French. Five English translations with four Sanskrit transliterations were consulted for the TrisvabhāvaNirdeśa. Title Selected works of Vasubandhu10 Abhidharma-kośa Bodhicittotpādana-śāstra Buddhatā-śāstra11 Gāthāsaṃgraha-śāstra Karmasiddhipra-karaṇa Pañcaskandhaprakaraṇa Paramārthasaptatikā Śamathavipaśyanā-dvāra-śāstrakārikā Subject Available Language Sarvāstivāda-Vaibhāṣika Hīnayāna Buddhism Enlightenment Buddha nature Morality Karma Dharma Refutation of Sāṃkhya Meditation Sanskrit. Chinese Chinese Chinese Tibetan Tibetan. The question then becomes whether or not then a dynamic subject of some sort must be admitted.consciousness and thus providing a connection between these moments without admitting to a static subject.

and further developing it. French. Tibetan. English --. Chinese.Selected Works and Commentaries of Vasubandhu Additional English translations taken from Hsüan-tsang’s Chinese were also considered. during early seventh century CE. Tibetan. Ch. 2) Rules of debate Rules of debate Vijñapti-Mātra (see.Title Śatadharmavidyādvāra-śāstra12 Śīlapari-kathā Tarka-śāstra Triṃśikā-kārika Trisvabhāva-nirdeśa Vāvavidhi Vādavidhāna Viṃśatikā-kārika Vyākhyāyukti Subject Dharma Moral discipline Logic Evolving Consciousness and Vijñapti-Mātra (see Ch. 3) Teaching the sūtras Language Tibetan. Hsüan-tsang served as the critical figure for transmitting Yogācāra from India to China. 4) Threefold Self-Nature and Citta-Mātra (see Ch. English Tibetan Chinese. English Chinese Table 1. English Tibetan Selected commentaries by Vasubandhu Maitreya’s Madhyāntavibhāga Maitreya’s Dharmadharmatāvibhāgakārika Maitreya’s/Asaṇga’s Mahāyānasaṃgrahabhāṣya Maitreya’s/Asaṇga’s Mahāyānasūtrālaṇkāra Asaṇga’s Vajracchedikāprajñāpāramitāśāstra Discrimination between the middle and extremes Dharma and dharmata Mahāyāna Buddhism Mahāyāna Buddhism Perfection of wisdom Sanskrit. Chinese. Tibetan. Tibetan.16 --Sanskrit. English Sanskrit. Tibetan Sanskrit. Five English translations with four Sanskrit transliterations of the Triṃśika were consulted. 5 . Chinese13 Tibetan14 Chinese15 Sanskrit. Chinese. Chinese. with some reference to an additional six English translations of Hsüan-tsang’s version of the texts.

but want to gain some understanding of the verses that is not filtered solely through other translators.Text Transliteration from Sanskrit English Translation (* = from Hsüan-tsang’s Chinese) Anacker Kochumuttom Tola and Dragonetti Wood Anacker Cook* Hamilton* Kochumuttom Nagao Tola and Dragonetti Wood Anacker Chan* Cook* Ganguly Kochumuttom Lusthaus* Nagao Robinson Wood Trisvabhāva-Nirdeśa (TSN) Viṃśika-Kārikas (VM) Boquist Kochumuttom Tola and Dragonetti Wood Triṃśika-Kārikas (TM) Kochumuttom Nagao Tola and Dragonetti Wood Ganguly Kochumuttom Nagao Robinson Wood Table 2. available in at least one English translation on which half a dozen scholars have collaborated.18 I am not a Sanskrit scholar. to research as many 6 . available in multiple English translations. I have made extensive use of an excellent Sanskrit-English database developed by the University of Cologne.Transliterated and Translated Resources Used Some reference has also been made to Vasubandhu’s commentary on Maitreya’s Madhyāntavibhāga. which is based upon Monier-Williams’ and Capeller’s dictionaries.17 and Maitreya and Asaṇga’s Mahāyānasūtrālaṇkāra. towards this end.

I developed a Visual Basic subroutine to perform most of the necessary diacritical mark and basic readability substitutions I could glean.g. Siddhārtha Gautama.. such that wherever possible all transliterated Sanskrit terms have been rendered with standard diacritical marks. and somewhat hobbled by my lack of experience with Sanskrit grammar. “dhamma” vs. e. due to differences in convention between. In the process of addressing this transcription issue.”)19 Yogācāra in Historical Context The exact dates during which the historical Buddha. Sanskritto-English. this has proved to be a very satisfying approach. While extremely time-intensive. normally in full. However. however. Citations from the online Digital Sanskrit Lexicon are quoted as rendered in the search results retrieved. In the body of the chapters. and then presented the full search results for these terms in notes. lived are not consensually agreed upon.. I have selected certain standard ranges of options for translations of terms. Terms are spelled in the Cologne results may not be the same as those adopted (or cited) in the main text. it appears that most scholars believe that he 7 .g. ordering them as seems appropriate for the context in which they appear. and Chinese-to-English spellings of transliterated terms meaning the same thing (e. rather than the Harvard-Kyoto conventions for ASCIIbased environments and database-specific conventions used by the Cologne search engine. There is one consistent exception made. “dharma. in part from the white paper for the Cologne database project.of the Sanskrit terms appearing in the texts as possible. Pali-to-English.

During its formative years. There appear to be more similarities than differences between Yogācāra and Mādhyamika in their earliest formulations. Both schools were adopted and further developed by Chinese and other non-Indian thinkers over succeeding centuries. the self-ascribed “Greater Vehicle” when compared to traditional Hīnayāna Buddhism’s “Lesser Vehicle. Others put that relationship in reverse. and that the former served as teacher and mentor to the latter upon his conversion to Mahāyāna from a Hīnayāna sect. Yogācāra’s key figures were Maitreya (third century CE) and Asaṇga and Vasubandhu (both fourth century CE). with the Mādhyamika school. in an evolution that leads to contemporary Tibetan Buddhism and Zen (Ch’an) Buddhism.” It is sometimes reported that Asaṇga and Vasubandhu were halfbrothers. founded by Nāgārjuna and his commentators. making Asaṇga the “fictional character. which is the same time that the Mahāyāna school of Buddhism. more of a historical influence than an active contributor to what became the Yogācārin philosophy. Some say that Maitreya is to Asaṇga as Socrates is to Plato. in the region that is now Nepal. when shared influences were common and methodological and theoretical differences were less defined.lived from the late fifth to the early sixth century BCE. serving as its figurative sibling. roughly contemporary to the times of Confucius and Socrates. To complicate matters further. The exact relationship between these figures is unclear. The Indian Prajñāpāramitā literature was developed in the second century BCE. respectively.” came into existence in India. The Yogācāra school is one of two primary branches of Mahāyāna Buddhism. there is a 8 .

in addition to the Yogācārin works considered in this project. including the veracity and usefulness of the four noble truths. E. who authored the Abhidharmakośa while a young member of the Sarvāstivāda-Vaibhāṣikas. Tola and Dragonetti recount the traditional view in which Asaṇga’s brother is the sole Vasubandhu. he presented the argument that there was “Vasubandhu the Old” (320-380 BCE) and “Vasubandhu the Young” (400-480 BCE).line of historical interpretation which asserts that there were two individuals named Vasubandhu. 9 . the doctrine of dependent co-origination. both of whom wrote from the Mahāyāna perspective and lived at roughly the same time. and the aggregate theory of personhood.”20 Therein.21 It is this traditional standpoint regarding a single Vasubandhu that I am adopting. In contrast. this Vasubandhu is also said to have been a member of the Sarvāstivāda sect. but followed the Sautrānika doctrines before his conversion. “On the date of the Buddhist Master of the Law Vasubandhu. The former is said to be brother to Asaṇga. Basic Assumptions of Yogācāra Buddhism The Yogācārins confirmed and built upon certain basic assumptions common to all Buddhist philosophy. The origins of the latter alleged figure are shrouded in mystery. who was first a member of the Hīnayānist Sarvāstivāda-Vaibhāṣika Buddhist sect before converting to Mahāyana Buddhism under his brother’s influence. Frauwallner may have spearheaded the “two Vasubandhus” movement with his 1951 paper. The Younger is said to be author of the Abhidharmakośa and the Paramārthasaptatikā (a refutation of the Sāṃkhya school).

then we are in a position to transform our dispositions and desires. pratītyasamutpāda. and thus transform our suffering. objects in the phenomenal world) as if it were ultimately permanent and real. and grasping after. concerned with “saving” oneself (and in the Mahāyāna tradition. However. These experiences arise from our own dispositions and desires. what is transitory and not quite as it appears to us (e. once we understand this and correct our assumptions. This is foundational in understanding the core Buddhist disposition and mission as epistemo-soteriological. dis-ease and dissatisfaction (duḥkha).Assumptions of Yogācāra Buddhism The Four Noble Truths The four noble truths amount to this: human experience is often characterized by suffering. that is.g. as well as our misunderstanding of.The Four Noble Truths Doctrine of Dependent Co-Origination Method of Mediation Between Extremes Aggregate Theory of Personhood Illustration 1. also “saving” others) from perpetuated suffering through the correction of erroneous beliefs that cause suffering in the first place. Dependent Co-Origination (Causality) The doctrine of dependent co-origination or co-conditioning..22 amounts to an analysis of the causal preconditions (nidāna)23 that lead to 10 .

but always with a sense of “dis-ease” or dissatisfaction 11 . Vasubandhu’s account of dependent co-origination is basically this: a certain epistemological state fosters the introduction of the causal efficacies of past moments of consciousness into the “ground of the arising” of any current experiential moment. This in turn shapes our “craving” to embrace our desires or avoid the objects of our aversion (based on our past experience) in the moments of our supposed or assumed future experience. respectively.25 Vasubandhu provides his own account of these preconditions in his commentary on the Madhyānta-Vibhāga (“Separation of the Middle from the Extremes. Vasubandhu’s version of pratītya-samutpāda.26 Here two different senses of “birth” may be used in this interpretation: one quite literal. ultimately grounds the causal chain leading to “birth” in ignorance (avidya). over and over again. which themselves condition our interaction with and interpretation of the sensory or phenomenal world. if you will) and a psychological being (or the psychological aspect of a human being). as all others.the continual re-creation of the concepts of “self” (ātman) and “things” (dharma)24 in “continuous going” (saṃsāra). and another more figurative. And all of this is the cause of our being “born” into the world. Our contact with this world shapes our experience. The arising of the ego-sense conditions our sensory impressions. or alternatively: being oriented towards the world. referring to a physical being (or the physical aspect of a human being. This is caused by consciousness “being led” into circumstances in which this experiential arising is possible. which causes our willing that there (repeatedly) be a new experiential moment.”) a text that explicates the Buddha’s method of mediation between extremes adopted by both Mādhyamika and Yogācāra Buddhism.

this does not necessarily reference the source of the smell or sound outside of the sensor). apart from any cognitions or judgments about objects of sensation. so far as Vasubandhu was concerned. a sound. there can be no perception without a body) and each of which depend. requires particular attention and explanation: how exactly do the causal efficacies of past moments of consciousness condition the ground of arising of the current experiential moment? It is this question that the Yogācārin theory of the evolving/transcendent consciousness (vijñāna28-pāramita)29 addresses. Mental aggregates are divided into four kinds. The first of these is physical form (rūpa).. which includes under one category the body. in turn. and our ignorance as to the true nature of our situation.. there is another essential Buddhist doctrine assumed by the Yogācārins to be addressed for proper context. and “objects of sensation” (e. a process explained as being conditioned by the effects of previous perceptions and thus 12 . which states that there is no self or ego apart from the five aggregates (skandhas) or processes that constitute the dynamic. sense organs. Before turning to that theory. all of which first depend on the existence of the physical aggregate (e. however.g. The next is perception (saṃjña). or sensation experienced just as such. It is the doctrine of anātman. experiential whole of a person. a smell.g. Process-Aggregate Theory of Personhood It is the first portion of this account of dependent co-origination that. changing. The first and most basic of these mental aggregates is bare sensation (vedana). on that which precedes it.because of our desire (tṛṣṇā)27 to grasp and avoid.

existence does not disgust one any longer. as well as the Madhyanta-Vibhaga and other works of Maitreya. which arises only as a result of the previous aggregate processes. and without recourse to positing an enduring self or “I” that exists apart from phenomenal flux. The last is consciousness (vijñāna).able to serve as the causal ground of naming and recognition of forms. Mediation Between Extreme Ontological Views Why is total unity and nondistinction of existence and nonexistence asserted? To reject two extremes of reification and repudiation respectively. without contradicting the axiologically essential idea of karma. I will turn to that theory after addressing one final doctrinal assumption critical for proper context. or any other metaphysical absolutes.-.Mahāyānasūtrālaṇkāra 9:2330 The Mahāyānasūtrālaṇkāra. and to reject value of progress achieved by means of individual vehicle. were influential upon both Nāgārjuna in the Mādhyamika school and Vasubandhu in the Yogācāra school. Both scholars addressed how best to apply 13 . In fact. The third is the sum of those ideas (“mental formations”). one does not engage in reifications. when one knows that the nonexistent is nonexistent. When one knows the existent is existent. and so one does not try to transcend the world by means of the individual vehicle. When one finally knows the nondistinction of the two. one does not engage in repudiations. such as habitual patterns of thought and decision-making. Yogācārin vijñāna-pāramita theory seeks to explain how previous moments of consciousness influence subsequent moments of consciousness. dispositions and volitions (saṃskāras) that ground karma.

on the one hand. “Oh Ananda."33 For example.”34 In other words."31 "And this is the Middle Path: that everything is neither totally empty nor totally non-empty. and mental processes falls prey to over-affirmation of being where there is only non-being. because of its existence. on the other.” A view in which “self” is taken to be an absolute. it is positing the existence of an absolute where one cannot be said to exist. etc. The doctrine directs the philosopher to avoid both the over. ultimately real individual ego as normally 14 . viz. "Therefore."32 "That indeed is the middle path. the existence of the imagination of the unreal within the emptiness. there is the existence of emptiness within the imagination of the unreal. and the view that a self does not exist is the extreme of nihilism. and its existence. It is therefore neither exclusively void nor exclusively non-void. perduring thing apart from phenomenal flux. physical processes. the operation of karma. in his “Refutation of the Theory of Selfhood. personhood.and under-affirmation of the “suchness” or “thatness” (tathatā) and “voidness” (śūnyatā) of the objects of analysis in such inquiry. constant. the right understanding of “self.Maitreya’s method of mediation between extremes to questions of reality. its non-existence. given the Buddhist explanation of the aggregate-process theory of self and its denial of any such absolute.” Vasubandhu demonstrates the application of this principle to a primary concern. and this is the Middle Path.. knowledge. the view that a self exists is the extreme of eternalism. for. and. everything is taught as neither empty nor non-empty.

In the second respect. Vasubandhu states the Yogācārin position to be one that. and is in fact a continuum of its aggregates. from the Yogācārins point of view. and correlatively by over-affirmation (samāropa) of non-being. nor affirming the reality of an absolute which exists independently of this experience. leaving no explanation as to how consciousness and existence originate in the first place. in a manner of speaking. This means that in the first respect.conceived. the “not-ness” of real being in a particular concept. as conventionally conceived. this means making “voidness” itself an absolute. This is. Conversely. the central flaw in the Mādhyamika explanation of persons. such as the absolute self-concept. successfully mediates between these extremes. Correlatively. the reality of the ground. and thus contradicting the doctrine of dependent coorigination and rendering useless the four noble truths. is the middle way between these extremes. a view in which “self” is taken to be nothing at all— not even that which exists only in relation to phenomenal processes. nor even that which is said only to serve as the referent of name and form— is flawed by under-affirmation (apavada) of being.”35 15 . which again renders essential Buddhist assumptions without explanation or ground. that a person. “Therefore our view. This means failing to see. disregarded). is real in name or concept only. this wrong view of self also falls prey to under-affirmation of non-being. process and results of individual experience are denied (or at least. in keeping with Maitreya’s guidelines and logic. neither denying the reality of the ground of our experience.

Convertible Terms for Consciousness In the first verse of the Viṃśika, Vasubandhu states his intention to use the four terms citta (cit), manas, vijñāna and vijñapti interchangeably, as synonyms.

… cittaṃ mano vijñānaṃ vijñaptiś ceti paryāyāh … citta manas mind; memory; intelligence; reason; also noticed; aimed at, longed for; visible, attending, observing; thinking, reflecting, imagining, thought; intention, aim, wish; the heart36 mind (it its widest sense, as applied to all the mental powers), intellect, intelligence, understanding, perception, sense, conscience, will; the internal organ of perception and cognition, the faculty or instrument through which thoughts enter or by which objects of sense affect the soul, distinct from ātman37 act of distinguishing, perceiving, understanding, recognizing, knowing; skill, science, worldly knowledge; in Buddhism: consciousness (one of the five constituent skandhas) mind, (representation of) consciousness, concept, perception; also lit. information, announcement, request; imparting, giving38 synonym, convertible term; revolution; course, repetition, succession, regular occurrence39
Table 3- Convertible Terms for Consciousness

vijñāna vijñapti paryāya

This particular text is not discussed until Chapter 3, but the concept at stake is central to understanding the entire consciousness trilogy. Tola and Dragonetti comment that with regard to this that “It is necessary to have always present the synonymous value of the four Sanskrit terms and their indicated translation, taking into account it is the author himself who, before starting his demonstration of the Yogācāra thesis of the sole existence of mind, points out their equivalence and, in the course of the exposition of his

16

treatise, used them indistinctly.”40 The assumption of this project will be, unless evidence to the contrary is presented, that Vasubandhu follows the method of the Yogasūtras in the convertible use of citta, manas, vijñāna and vijñapti.41 With the mediating principle, the fundamental Buddhist assumptions of dependent co-origination and the aggregate theory of self, and the Yogācārin mission to explain not only how consciousness arises in the first place, but how one moment of consciousness is causally efficacious on successive moments of consciousness all firmly held in view, Vasubandhu’s analysis of mind and cognition can be considered in its proper context.

1

Tola, Fernando and Dragonetti, Carmen. Being as Consciousness: Yogācāra Philosophy of Buddhism. (Motilal Banarsidass, 2004.) 2 Chatterjee, Ashok K. Readings on Yogācāra Buddhism. (Center of Advanced Study in Philosophy, Banaras Hindu University, 1971.) 3 Sarachchandra, Edirivira R. “From Vasubandhu to Śāntarakṣita: A Critical Examination of Some Buddhist Theories of the External World.” Journal of Indian Philosophy 4 (1976): 69-107. 4 Wood, Thomas E. Mind Only: A Philosophical and Doctrinal Analysis of the Vijñānavāda. (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1991). 5 Conze, Edward. Buddhist Thought in India: Three Phases of Buddhist Philosophy. (London: Allen and Unwin, 1962). Ch. 3, “The Yogācārins.” 6 Kalupahana, David J. The Principle of Buddhist Psychology. (New York: State University of New York Press, 1987). 7 Kochumuttom, Thomas A. A Buddhist Doctrine of Experience: A New Translation and Interpretation of the Works of Vasubandhu. (New Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1982). 8 Hall, Bruce Cameron. “The Meaning of Vijñapti in Vasubandhu’s Concept of Mind.” Journal of the International Assocation of Buddhist Studies 9, no. 1 (1986): 7-23. 9 See for example: Wayman, Alex. “A Defense of Yogācāra Buddhism.” Philosophy East and West (Oct. 1996). King, Richard. “Early Yogācāra and Its Relationship With the Mādhyamika School,” Philosophy East and West 44, no. 4 (October 1994): 659-83. 10 This list is derived largely from Tola and Dragonetti, Being as Consciousness, pp. 58 ff. 11 Or Buddhatvaśāstra, or Buddhagoraś, ibid. 12 Or Mahāyānaśata dharmapraksaśāstra, ibid. 13 Sanskrit “reconstruction” available from Sastri, ibid. 17

14 15

English and Sanskrit “reconstructions” available, ibid. Sanskrit “retranslation” available from Tucci, ibid. 16 Extant fragments available quoted in other works, ibid. 17 In addition to those translations included in compendiums such as Anacker’s and Wood’s, there are English translations in monograph: Maitreya. Madhyanta-Vibhaga: Discourse on Discrimination between Middle and Extremes Ascribed to Boddhisattve Maitreya and Commented by Vasubandhu and Sthiramati. (Sri Satguru Publications 1992.) Stcherbatsky, Fyodor Ippolitovich. Madhyanta – Vibhanga: Discrimination Between the Middle and the Extremes Part I (Sri Satguru Publications, 1992.) 18 Jampsal, L., et. al. (translators). The Universal Vehicle Discourse Literature (Mahāyānasūtrālaṁkāra) by Maitreyanātha/Āryāsaṇ Together with its Commentary (Bhāṣya) by Vasubandhu. Editor-in-Chief Robert A.F. Thurman. (New York: Columbia University, American Institute of Buddhist Studies, 2004.) 19 Further information about the database is available at http://www.uni-koeln.de/philfak/indologie/tamil/mwreport.html. 20 Frauwallner, E On the date of the Buddhist Master of the Law Vasubandhu (IsMEO, Rome, 1951) in Tola and Dragonetti, note 10, p. 17. 21 Tola and Dragonetti, p. 55. 22 pratītya n. confirmation, experiment ṚiV. vii, 68, 6; comfort, consolation ib. iv, 5,14 (others mfn. to be acknowledged or recognized); {-samutpāda} m. (Buddh.) the chain of causation Lalit. (twelvefold; cf. ḍharmas. 42). Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results, http://webapps.unikoeln.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 01/21/2007. 23 nidāna n. a band, rope, halter ṚiV. vi, 32, 6 MBh.; a first or primary cause (cf. {nibandhana}) ṚiV. x, 114, 2 Br. Kāṭh.; original form or essence ({ena} ind. originally, essentially, properly) Br.; (with Buddh.) a cause of existence (12 in number) MWB. 56; 103; any cause or motive ḍivyÂv.; the cause of a disease and enquiry into it, pathology (= {nidāna-sthāna} q.v.) L.; = {nidāna-sūtra} Cat.; cessation, end L.; purification, correctness L.; claiming the reward of penitential acts L.; {-tattva} n. {-pradīpa} m. N. of wks.; {-vat} ({nidÁna-}) mfn. funded on a cause, essential TBr. Kāṭh.; {-vid} mfn. knowing the causes or symptoms of a disease BhP.; {-saṃgraha} m. N. of a medic. wk.; {-sūtra} n. N. of wk. on metres and Vedic śtomas; {-sthāna}, ii. the subject of the causes of diseases, pathology (one of the 5 departments of medic. science) śuśr.; {dānÂrthakara} mfn. operating as a cause Bhpr. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results, http://webapps.unikoeln.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 01/21/2007. nidāna n. band, rope, halter; first cause, original form, essence (ph.), cause, reason e.g. -- Instr. {nidānena} originally, essentially, really. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Capeller's 1891 Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results, http://webapps.unikoeln.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 01/21/2007. 24 dharma 1 m. (rarely n. g. {ardharcÂdi}; the older form of the ṚiV. is {dhárman} q.v.) that which is established or firm, steadfast decree, statute, ordinance, law; usage, practice, 18

customary observance or prescribed conduct, duty; right, justice (often as a synonym of punishment); virtue, morality, religion, religious merit, good works ({dhármeṇa} or {māt} ind. according to right or rule, rightly, justly, according to the nature of anything; cf. below; {mesthita} mfn. holding to the law, doing one's duty) ĀV. &c. &c.; Law or justice personified (as Indra ŚBr. &c.; as Yama MBh.; as born from the right breast of Yama and father of Śama, Kāma and Harsha ib.; as Vishṇu Hariv.; as Prajā-pati and son-in-law of Daksha Hariv. Mn. &c.; as one of the attendants of the Sun L.; as a Bull Mn. viii, 16; as a Dove Kathās. vii, 89, &c.); the law or doctrine of Buddhism (as distinguished from the {sañgha} or monastic order MWB. 70); the ethical precepts of Buddhism (or the principal {dharma} called {sūsra}, as distinguished from the {abhi-dharma} or, further dharma and from the {vinaya} or “discipline, these three constituting the canon of southern Buddhism MWB. 61); the law of northern Buddhism (in 9 canonical scriptures, viś. Prajñā-pāramitā, ṅaṇḍa-vyūha, ḍaśa-bhūmîśvara, śamadhirāja, ḷaṅkâvatāra, śaddharma-puṇḍarika, ṭathagata-guhyaka, ḷalita-vistara, śuvarṇa-prabhāsa,ib. 69); nature, character, peculiar condition or essential quality, property, mark, peculiarity (= {svabhāva} L.; cf. {daśa-dh--gata} ṃOṛiE Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results, http://webapps.unikoeln.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 12/08/2006 dharmin mfn. knowing or obeying the law, faithful to duty, virtuous, pious, just ṅaut. MBh. Ri.; endowed with any characteristic mark or peculiar property Hariv. Kāvyâd. (cf. below) śāh.; (ifc.) following the laws or duties of, having the rights or attributes or peculiarities of. having anything as a characteristic mark, subject to any state or condition Mn. MBh. Kāv. Pur. &c.; m. the bearer of any characteristic mark or attribute, object, thing Kap.; N. of the 14th Vyāsa, ḍevībhP.; of a king VP.; (iṇī) f. a kind of perfume L.; N. of a woman (cf. {dhārmiṇeya}). Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on MonierWilliams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results, http://webapps.uni-koeln.de/cgibin/tamil/recherche 01/01/2007 25 1 saṃsāra &c. see {saṃ-sṛi} below. 2 saṃsāra m. going or wandering through, undergoing transmigration ṃaitrūp.; course, passage, passing through a succession of states, circuit of mundane existence, transmigration, metempsychosis, the world, secular life, worldly illusion ({ā saṃsārat}, “from the beginning of the world”) ūp. Mn. MBh. &c. (1119,3); w.r. for {saṃ-cāra} Bhartṛi. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results, http://webapps.unikoeln.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 06/14/2007. saṃsāra m. wandering, esp. from one existence into another, metempsychosis, transmigration, the cycle of existence; life e.g. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Capeller's 1891 Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results, http://webapps.unikoeln.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 06/14/2007. 26 avidya a. ignorant, without knowledge. 5 avidyā f. want of knowledge, ignorance. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Capeller's 1891 Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results, http://webapps.uni-koeln.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 01/21/2007. 27 tṛiśṇā f. thirst, i, vii, ix ĀV. ŚBr. &c.; desire, avidity (chiefly ifc.) Ri. ṛiagh. BhP. &c.; Avidity as mother of Dambha (Prab. ii, 11/12), daughter of Death (Mṛiityu VP. i, 7, 31; 19

or Māra Lalit. xxiv, 20), generated by Vedanā and generating ūpâdāna (Buddh.); cf. {ati}. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results, http://webapps.uni-koeln.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 01/21/2007. tṛiśṇā f. thirst; greediness, strong desire for (---).Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Capeller's 1891 Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results, http://webapps.unikoeln.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 06/20/2007. 28 1 vijñāna n. (ifc. f. {ā}) the act of distinguishing or discerning, understanding, comprehending, recognizing, intelligence, knowledge ĀV. &c. &c.; skill, proficiency, art ūttamac.; science, doctrine śuśr.; worldly or profane knowledge (opp. to {jñāna}, “knowledge of the true nature of God”) Mn. MBh. &c.; the faculty of discernment or of right judgment MBh. Ri. &c.; the organ of knowledge (= {manas}) BhP.; (ifc.) the understanding of (a particular meaning), regarding as Kāś. on PāN. 2-3, 17; 66 &c.; (with Buddhists) consciousness or thought-faculty (one of the 5 constituent elements or śkandhas, also considered as one of the 6 elements or ḍhātus, and as one of the 12 links of the chain of causation) ḍharmas. 22; 42; 58 (cf. MWB. 102; 109); {-kanda} m. N. of a man Cat.; {-kāya} m. N. of a Buddhist wk.; {-kṛitsna} n. one of the 10 mystical exercises called Kṛiitsnas Buddh.; {-kevala} mfn. (with Śaivas) an individual soul to which only {mala} adheres śarvad.; {-kaumudī} f. N. of a female Buddhist Cat.; {-ghaná} m. pure knowledge, nothing but intelligence ŚBr. śarvad.; {-taraṃgiṇī} f. N. of wk.; {-tā} f. knowledge of (loc.) Cāṇ.; {-tārÂvalī} f. N. of wk.; {-tailagarbha} m. ālangium ḍecapetalum L.; {-deśana} m. a Buddha L.; {-naukā} f. N. of sev. wks.; {-pati} m. a lord of intelligence ṭūp.; N. of one who has attained to a partic. degree of emancipation Bādar. śch.; {-pāda} m. N. of Vyāsa L.; {-bhaṭṭāraka} m. {-bhārata} m. {-bhikśu} m. N. of scholars Cat.; {-bhairava}, {-vôddyota-saṃgraha} m. N. of wks.; {-máya} mf({I})n. consisting of knowledge or intelligence, all knowledge, full of intelligence ŚBr. ūp. &c.; {-ya-kośa} m. the sheath consisting of intelligence, the intelligent sheath (of the soul accord. to the Vedânta) or the sheath caused by the understanding being associated with the organs of perception MW.; {-mātṛika} m. “whose mother is knowledge,” a Buddha L.; {-yati} m. = {-bhikśu} Cat.; {-yogin} m. = {vijñānêśvara} Col.; {-latikā} f. {-lalita} or {-ta-tantra} n. N. of wks.; {-vat} mfn. endowed with intelligence ūp. Chūp. śch. Kathās.; {-vāda} m. the doctrine (of the Yogâcāras) that only intelligence has reality (not the objects exterior to us) Bādar. śch.; {-vādin} mfn. one who affirms that only intelligence has reality; m. a Yogâcāra śarvad. Buddh.; {-vinodinī-ṭīkā} f. {-vilāsa} m. {śāstra} n. {-śikśā} f. {saṃjñā-prakaraṇa} n. N. of wks.; {-nÂkala} mfn. = {-na-kevala} above śarvad.; {-nÂcārya} m. N. of a teacher Cat.; {-nÂtman} m. N. of an author ib.; {nÂntyÂyatana} n. (with Buddhists) N. of a world Buddh.; {-nÂmṛita} n. N. of Comm.; {-nÂśrama} m. = {-nÂtman} Cat.; {-nÂstitva-mātra-vādin} mfn. = {-na-vādin} Bādar. śch.; {-nÂhāra} m. spiritual food as nourishment L.; {-nêśvara} m. N. of an author Cat. ({-tantra} n. {-vārttika}, n. N. of wks.); {-nêśvarīya} n. a wk. of Vijñānêśvara Cat.; {nai9ka-skandha-vāda} m. = {-na-vāda} above Bādar. śch. 2 vijjanāman m. N. of a Vihāra called after Vijjā ib. 3 vijñānanā f. (perhaps for {-jānanā} or {-jānatā}) perceiving, understanding L. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier20

Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results, http://webapps.uni-koeln.de/cgibin/tamil/recherche 06/08/2007. 29 1 pāramita mfn. gone to the opposite shore; crossed, traversed; transcendent (as spiritual knowledge) W.; ({ā}).f. (for {-ta-tā}?) coming or leading to the oppositive shore, complete attainment, perfection in (comp.); transcendental virtue (there are 6 or 10, viś. {dānta}, {śīla}, {kśānti}, {vīrya}, {dhyāna}, {prajñā}, to which are sometimes added {satya}, {adhiśṭhāna}, {maitra}, {upêkśā}) MWB. 128 (cf. ḍharmas. xvii, xviii). 2 pāramita {pāraya} &c. see under 1. {pāra}. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results, http://webapps.unikoeln.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 06/20/2007. 30 MSL, 9:23 commentary, p. 124. 31 MV 1 in Anacker, p. 212 32 Ibid. 33 (MV 1 Commentary in Kochumuttom, p. 236.) 34 Triṃśikā cited in Deurlinger, James:”Vasubandhu’s ‘Refutation of the Theory of Selfhood’ (Âtmavâdapratisedha).”Journal of Indian Philosophy 17 (1989), p. 163. 35 Deurlinger, p. 163. 36 citta mfn. “ noticed” see %{a-cítta}; “ aimed at,”longed for ChŪp.vii, 5, 3; “ appeared,” visible ṚV. ix, 65, 12; n. attending, observing (%{tiráś cittÁni}, “ so as to remain unnoticed”), vii, 59, 8; thinking, reflecting, imagining, thought ṚV. Vṣ. ṠBr. &c.; intention, aim, wish ṚV. Vṣ. ĀV. ṬBr. &c.; (ṇaigh. iii, 9) the heart, mind Tṣ. i ṠvetŪp. vi, 5 ṂBh. &c. (ifc. f. %{A} Pañcat.); memory W.; intelligence, reason Kapṣ. i, 59 Yogas. i, 37; ii, 54 Vedântas.; (in astrol.) the 9th mansion VarYogay. iv, 1; cf. %{iha-}, %{cala-}, %{pÚrva-}, %{prÁyaś-}, %{laghu-}, %{su-}, %{sthira-}. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results, http://webapps.uni-koeln.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 11/30/2006. 37 manas n. mind (in its widest sense as applied to all the mental powers), intellect, intelligence, understanding, perception, sense, conscience, will ṚV. &c. &c. (in phil. the internal organ or %{antaḥ-karaṇa} of perception and cognition, the faculty or instrument through which thoughts enter or by which objects of sense affect the soul īW. 53; in this sense %{manas} is always is always regarded as distinct from %{ātman} and %{puruṣa}, “ spirit or soul” and belonging only to the body, like which it is - except in the ṇyāya - considered perishable; as to its position in the various systems see for ṇyāya and Vaiśeshika īW. 63; 67; 76, for ṣāṃkhya and Vedânta ib. 84; 109; 117; in ṚV. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results, http://webapps.uni-koeln.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 11/30/2006. 38 1 vijñapti f. information, report, address (to a superior), request, entreaty of (gen.) Naish. Kathās. Ṛājat. (%{-tiṃ-kṛ}, “ to announce anything, scil. to a superior”; with gen., “ to address a request to”); imparting, giving L. 2 vijñapti f. = %{-jñapti} MW. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results, http://webapps.uni-koeln.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 06/08/2007.

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paryāya m. going or turning or winding round, revolving, revolution KātyṠr.; course, lapse, expiration of time ṂBh. Hariv. Vet.; regular recurrence, repetition, succession, turn (ibc. or %{eṇa} ind. in turn, successively, alternately; %{caturthe paryāye}, at the fourth time) KātyṠr. ḷāṭy. Ṃn. &c.; a regularly recurring series or formula (esp. in the ātirātra ceremony) Br. Ṡrṣ. (%{-tva} n.); = %{-sÛkta} ṣāy.; a convertible term, synonym (%{-tā} f. %{-tva} n.) Pañc. ṣāh. Pāṇ. Sch..; way, manner, method of proceeding (%{anena pary-āyeṇa}, in this manner) ṣaddhP.; probability ṂBh.; (in rhet.) a partic. figure of speech Kpr. ṣāh.; (with Jainas) the regular development of a thing and the end of this development ṣarvad.; opportunity, occasion L.; formation, creation L.; point of contact L.; %{-krama} m. order of succession, regular rotation or turn MW.; %{-cyuta} mfn. one who has lost his turn, superseded, supplanted ib.; %{-pada-mañjarī} f. %{muktÂvalī} f. %{-ratna-mālā} f. ṇ. of wks.; %{-vacana} n. a convertible term, synonym Vārtt. on Pāṇ. 1-1, 68; %{-vākya} n. similar words Hariv.; %{-vācaka} mfn. expressing a corresponding notion; (with %{śabda}) m. a synonym ṂBh.; %{-vṛtti} f. alternate course or action MW.; %{-śabda} m. a synonym ṭattvas.; %{-śayana} n. alternate sleeping and watching W.; %{-śas} ind. by phrases or sentences ĀśvṠr.; periodically Kāṭh. Ṣuśr.; in succession, by turns ṂBh.; %{-śastra} (!) n. pl. ṇ. of wk.; %{-sÛkta} n. a hymn with regularly recurring phrases or sentences ĀV. ānukr.; %{-sevā} f. service by rotation Kum.: %{-yÂtman} m. the finite nature, finiteness ṣarvad. (605,3); %{-yánna} n. food intended for another Yājñ.; %{-yÂrṇava} m. “ ocean of synonyms’. of a lexicon; %{yôkta} n. (in rhet.) a partic. figure of speech (in which the fact to be intimated is expressed by a turn of speech or periphrasis) ṣāh.; %{-yôkti} f. id. Vām. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results, http://webapps.uni-koeln.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 01/13/2007. 40 Tola and Dragonetti, p. 79. 41 See for example: Tola and Dragonetti, The Yogasutras of Patañjali on Concentration of the Mind (1987 Motilal Banarsidass). Translated into English from Spanish by K.D. Prithipaul. Christopher Chapple and Yogi Anand Viraj, The Yoga Sūtras of Patañjali: Analysis of the Sanskrit with Accompanying English Translation (1990 Sri Satguru Publications, Delhi)

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1972-3). followed by an explanation of the trisvabhāva by analogy to magical illusion in verses 28-30.43 both of which are based on Sylvan Lèvi's manuscript (= MS1) per Yamaguchi (= MS1-Y.” the parakalpita. The structure of the Trisvabhāva-Nirdeśa is as follows— verses 1-5 identify the trisvabhāva theory in general terms: the content of any perception has theree “own-statesof-being” or aspects: the paratantra.CHAPTER 2 TRISVABHĀVA-NIRDEŚA I have consulted English translations of Vasubandhu’s Trisvabhāva-Nirdeśa (TSN) from Fernando Tola and Carmen Dragonetti42 as well as from Thomas Wood. verses 35-6 provide arguments supporting the cittamātra theory. I have also considered Thomas Kochumuttom’s English translation46 based on Tucci’s manuscript (= MS2) per Mukhopadhyaya. including its necessity for “liberation” to make sense. and each other. or “the reality or truth of the appearance.” and the pariniṣpanna. 1932-3). Verses 22-7 set out the epistemological order (krama) of the trisvabhāva. or “what appears. “the manner in which it appears. Verses 11-21 apply the method of mediating between extremes to the trisvabhāva theory. duality. Verses 37-38 23 . cessation and attainment.” Verses 6-10 describe the structure of the hetu-phāla-vijñāna (cause-and-effect consciousness). Verses 31-4 address knowledge. I have also consulted translations from Stefan Anacker44 and Ake Boquist.45 whose editions of the text are based on Lèvi's manuscript (= MS1) per Poussin (= MS1-P. this is accomplished by examining the relationships of the three svabhāva with respect to existence.

This is part of the reason that I have taken care to show. My own rough translation of each verse takes into account both MonierWilliams’ and Capeller’s Sanskrit dictionaries. Nagao.g. searchable through the University of Cologne’s database. as succinctly as possible. I found few discrepancies among them. Anacker. regarding ātman and dharmas. (k/MS2)48 24 . as well as the translations provided by contemporary scholars of Vasubandhu (e. TSN 1-5: The Trisvabhāva (Trayaḥ-Svabhāva) Stated Verse 1 kalpitaḥ paratantraś ca pariniṣpanna eva ca/ trayaḥ svabhāvā dhīrāṇāṃ gaṃbhīraṃ jñeyam iṣyate// (td/MS1)47 Kalpitaḥ paratantraś-ca pariniṣpanna eva ca Trayaḥ svabhāva dhīrāṇām gambhīra-jñeyam-iṣyate. Wood.). Although I have consulted and compared multiple English transliterations of Vasubandhu’s Sanskrit per text. and the attainment of right views.conclude the text with affirmations regarding the path to enlightenment through the cessation of wrong views. al. I have selected for inclusion herein the transliterations of two authors who best exhibit any contrast there is to be found.. I use the following method throughout the project for interpreting transliterated Sanskrit. some of the alternatives of meaning available for the Sanskrit words. et. No single translation I could reasonably render in this project would adequately capture the depth of variation and nuance available to each term. this means Tola and Dragonetti and Thomas Kochumuttom. In the current chapter.

real. or against. understood. animate. Absolute. arisen. pious57 having depth. sprung up. serious. at the best or utmost50 + tantra. regular. profound. artificial. perfect. essential. even. the relative (dependent). own state of being. continuous. but. foundation. basis. deliver. also. authority. promote. inter-) dependent or relative ca and. assumed. cause to move quickly. science. distant. lasting.The assumed (invented). performed. supposed. in this way … trayaḥ svabhāvā dhīrāṇāṃ gaṃbhīraṃ jñeyam iṣyate traya svabhāva triple. invented. to be known by the wise. inferred49 paratantra para: far. fully. consisting of three55 own condition. about. natural state or constitution. highest degree.60 iṣyate: “by the wise”61 Table 4. if52 pariniṣpanna pari: round. accurate description of the properties (of things)56 devout. doctrine. innate/inherent disposition/nature/impulse. and the perfected (fully existing). or successively. succeeded54 = developed. profound. kalpitaḥ paratantraś ca pariniṣpanna eva ca… kalpita fabricated. dense. brought about. just. firm. constant. also: the doctrine that the universe was produced and is sustained by the natural and necessary action of substances according to their inherent properties. yet.TSN 1 dhīraṇa gaṃbhīra jñeya iṣyate 25 . existing evam thus. come or gone forth. opposite to or towards. investigated59 seek. also: statement of the exact nature (of anything). descended or derived from. rule. magic. remote or different in space. time or order/number/degree. secret. medicine51 = (other-. to be learned. prepared. perceived. and threefold own-condition (own-being): this is devout. other. thus. announce. impel. in the direction of. severally53 + niṣpanna. Spirit. threefold. abundantly. impervious58 to be known. chief matter. effected. stranger.

26 .Threefold Nature of Phenomenal Appearance Verse 2 yat khyāti paratantro’ sau yathā khyāti sa kalpitaḥ/ pratyayādhīnavṛttitvāt kalpanāmātrabhāvataḥ// (td)63 Yat-khyāti paratantro’sau yathā khyāti sa kalpitaḥ Pratyaya-adhīna-vṛttivāt-kalpanā-mātra-bhāvataḥ. the idea (belief) depending upon a mode of acting or being “that” (other). conditions.Vasubandhu begins with the assertion that there are three svabhāva. or dispositions that need to be understood by the devout.62 •How Phenomena Appears •Kalpita K P N •Phenomena (“What Appears”) •Paratantra •Reality of P = Absence of K in P •Nispanna Illustration 2. or three “own. the paratantra. and the (pari-) niṣpanna. or inherent states of being. natures. namely: the kalpita. assuming (constructing) merely existence. (k)64 Wherefore idea (perception) of the relative (dependent) as follows: idea (perception) is assumed (constructed).” natural.

basis. also measure or limit (in space and time). manufacturing. that is: an imagined. condition. inventing. magic. that is. cutting. having. performed. contriving. regular. invented. continuous. at the best or utmost + tantra. according as. inferred yathā sa kalpita … pratyayādhīnavṛttitvāt kalpanāmātrabhāvataḥ pratyaya adhīna vṛtti tvāt (per td) kalpana mātra bhāva belief. supposed. if65 declaration. accompanied by. nature. the manner or form in which it is manifest. Absolute.yat khyāti paratantro’ sau yathā khyāti sa kalpitaḥ… yat khyāti paratantra (from yad). etc. certainty. The khyāti (idea or assertion) is pratyayādhnavṛttitvāt that 27 . thou. assertion. in order that. depending upon70 turning. when. the same68 fabricated. fashioning. as for the fact that. arranging. becoming. “How” that phenomena appears. thy. as. lasting. distant. time or order/number/degree. highest degree. mode of being or acting71 (from tvad). perception. constructed. evidence69 resting or situated in. inter-/otherdependent on causal conditions. knowledge. other. state of being. inter-) dependent or relative as follows. feigning. assumed. atom. making. assumed. occurring. Spirit. stranger. foundation. one. or inferred idea or supposition. idea. doctrine. idea. entity. since. chief matter. renown. existing.73 occasion (from bhū). also: name or denomination. disposition. is kalpita (K). impulse74 Table 5. in which way. medicine = (other-. fame66 para: far. science. element. existence. rule. essential. invented. thee. wherefore. prepared. remote or different in space. (per)forming (in the imagination). like67 supplying the forms of.TSN 2 Phenomena or “that which (flashingly) appears” (P) is paratantra. conviction. firm. correlative of. instant. rolling. knowledge. artificial. being. opinion. authority. also: assuming anything to be real72 having/being/consisting of only/merely. because. constant.

or against. in the direction of.e. existing 28 . purpose. arisen. vanish. knowledge. one. going. proceed. perfected (fully being) own-condition. idea.75 Verse 3 tasya khyātur yathākhyānaṃ yā sadāvidyamānatā/ jñeyaḥ sa pariniṣpannaḥ svabhāvo nanyathātvataḥ// (td)76 Tasya khyātur-yathā-ākhyānam yā sadā-avidyamānatā Jñeyaḥ sa pariniṣpanna-svabhāvo’nanyathātvataḥ. understood. fully. arrogance82 tasya khyāti … jñeyaḥ sa pariniṣpannaḥ svabhāvo nanyathātvataḥ jñeyaḥ sa pariniṣpanna to be known. (k)77 Conveying name (idea): the manner in which it appears is a perpetually ignorant idea. behave80 sadā always. idea. perpetually81 avidya ignorant. abundantly. perish. fame yathākhyānam “the manner in which it appears”79 yā go. having. renown. perceived. ever. also act. come or gone forth. It is also kalpanāmātrabhāvata. severally + niṣpanna. opposite to or towards. also: name or denomination. to be known as the unchanging. effected. set out. perfect. the same pari: round. to be learned. accompanied by. continually. pass. succeeded = developed. descended or derived from. one of six negative dharmas. i. brought about. investigated supplying the forms of. it is belief-depending on-“turning” (or a mode of being/acting). sprung up. tasya khyātur yathākhyānaṃ yā sadāvidyamānatā… flowing or conveying78 declaration. real. design. without knowledge māna opinion. or constructing-the-having-of-a-state-of-being. or successively. depart. opinion.is. assertion. about. perception.

on that occasion. existing. tatra kiṃ khyāty asatkalpaḥ kathaṃ khyāti dvayātmanā… tatra kiṃ khyāti kathaṃ in/to that place. therefore87 (interrogative particle) declaration. perception. accurate description of the properties (of things) unchanging83 Table 6. idea.84 Verse 4 tatra kiṃ khyāty asatkalpaḥ kathaṃ khyāti dvayātmanā/ tasya kā nāstitā tena yā tatrādvayadharmata// (td)85 Tatra kim khyāti-asatkalpaḥ katham khyāti dvayātmanā Tasya kā nāstitā tena yā tatra’dvayadharmatā. (k)86 Therefore in what manner the mistaken idea (constructed belief) about existence? It is dual in nature. assertion. also: the doctrine that the universe was produced and is sustained by the natural and necessary action of substances according to their inherent properties. innate/inherent disposition/nature/impulse. opinion. also: name or denomination. perfected. fame how? in what manner? whence?88 29 . that is. knowledge. in that case. renown.TSN 3 The perpetual absence of K (“how it appears”) in P (“what appears”) is (pari)-niṣpanna (N). also: statement of the exact nature (of anything). Flowing by no means. real.svabhāva ananyathātva own condition. therein. non-existent— Thus proceeding (perishing) state of non-duality. own state of being. natural state or constitution.

possible. What is. nonentity. proceed. How does it (P) appear? It appears to have the nature/condition of being dual. pass. there is not. of dvayātmana. double. the non-existence of duality?— “… therefore proceeding/vanishing therein not twofold-nature/condition. also practice. set out. falsehood89 + kalpa:. for that reason. going. therefore yā go. as regards it. also act. incorporeal94 in that direction. feasible.101 30 .TSN 4 What is it that “appears”? What appears is asatkalpa. not existing. unreal. behave advayadharmata state (of events) of non-duality95.100 It is. bad. “by no means”93 it is not. there. tasya kā nāsti tena flowing or conveying indication of depreciation. dual character or essence. fit. perish.99 It is that in virtue of which there is the nature of being devoid of duality. in that manner. untruth91 twofold. a state of events of non-duality. wrong. also able. untruth. manner of proceeding. wrong supposition.asatkalpa dvaya ātmanā asat: not being. of two kinds or natures92 being one’s self … tasya kā nāstitā tena yā tatrādvayadharmata. asatkalpa is a mistaken (perhaps logically mistaken) idea (perhaps and/or/= a mental function/activity that leads to erroneous beliefs) regarding existence (sat). untrue. thus. first duty90 = asatkalpaña. non-dual essence or nature96 Table 7.98 It is the fact that the essence (of the dependent nature) is the non-duality in it. depart. or will result from (per Kochumuttom). assertion of non-existence. Generally.”97 There will be the state of non-duality. competent. nonexistence. fabrication. a false idea. vanish.

bad. also able. fit. sometimes "that very" or there. reason. intention. manner of proceeding. thus. manner of proceeding. correlative of. accordingly 31 . untrue. observing. likewise. also. fabrication.Verse 5 asatkalpo’ tra kaś cittaṃ yatas tat kalpyate yathā/ yathā ca kalpayaty arthaṃ tathātyantaṃ na vidyate// (td)102 Asat-kalpo’tra kaś-cittaṃ yatas-tena hi kalpyate Yathā ca kalpayati-artham tathā-atyantam na vidyate. also able. falsehood + kalpa: possible. it. in which way. that. nonentity. also practice. nonexistence. wish. not existing. asatkalpo’… cittaṃ yatas tat kalpyate yathā… (or) tena hi kalpyate… asatkalpa asat: not being. resulting from or based on the possession of a thing107 in that manner. the heart from which or what. intelligence. also practice. memory. reflecting. also noticed. untruth. to be conceived or imagined106 citta yatas tad tena hi kalpya … yathā ca kalpayaty arthaṃ tathātyantaṃ na vidyate yathā ca kalpa ārtha tathā as follows. visible. (namely) because. attending. yet. according as. if possible. like and. feasible. he. unreal. tat). for that reason. But in the manner conceived (imagined)… the feasible object thus is absolutely not known. surely. thus. untruth mind. therefore. wrong. indeed105 to be formed from. aimed at. thought. thinking. first duty relating to a thing or object. even. she. aim. just. competent. (k)103 What is mistaken belief about existence? Consciousness. significant. material. but. this. there. therefore for. competent. now104 in that direction. so. fit. feasible. first duty = wrong supposition. imagining. longed for. then. whence (alt. accordingly. in that manner.

learning. it. “Because as it is imagined… “Because whatever is imagined as an object… “(Citta is that by) which it (the interdependent) becomes constructed in such a way… “And whatever causes such imagination… “… it never at all exists as such. mistaken belief regarding existence. tad dhetu phalabhāvena cittaṃ dvividham iṣyate… tad he. then. completely. not. excessively. scholarship. 32 . acquiring.atyanta na vidyā beyond the proper end or limit. therefore.” 111 TSN 6-9: The Structure of Consciousness Verse 6 tad dhetuphalabhāvena cittaṃ dvividham iṣyate/ yad ālayākhyavijñānaṃ pravṛttyākhyaṃ ca saptadhā// (td)112 Tad-hetu-phala-bhāvena cittaṃ dvi-vidham iṣyate Yad-ālaya-ākhyam vijñānam pravṛtti-ākhyam ca saptadhā. also: finding. science.” “… cannot be completely found in that way. she. it is not so109 knowledge.” “… so it is not at all. exceedingly. perpetually108 no. gaining110 Table 8. As repository-called-consciousness and sevenfold-manifestation (sevenfold-function). sometimes "that very" or there.TSN 5 Asatkalpa. this. is citta.” “… is entirely false. (k)113 Thus the conception of cause-effect: Consciousness is twofold. that. absolutely. philosophy.

manifesting. intention. “impulse. the heart twofold.ākhyā (with the name/called –or– make known/communicate/declare). gain/loss. if sevenfold. origin. imagining.” motive114 metaphorical “fruit. causing to be. intelligence. impel. also imagining. manifestation. aimed at. coming forth. of two kinds. inform. called act of distinguishing. just.121 33 . abode. when. because. conception116 mind. memory. announce … yad ālayākhyavijñānaṃ pravṛttyākhyaṃ ca saptadhā yad ālaya ākhyā vijñāna pravṛtti ca saptadhā in order that. animate. promote. progress. act of distinguishing/perceiving/understanding/recognizing/knowing). reason. function. retribution. repository118 to make known. reason for. also noticed. since. also. seven times120 Table 9. moving onwards. affecting. observing.hetu phala bhāvena citta dvividha iṣya accordingly. even. consciousness advance. worldly knowledge. knowing. parts.vijñāna (consciousness.” consequence. science. The causal mode is the ālaya-vijñāna. The mode as effect is pravṛtti (manifestation/function). cause to move quickly. rise. to be named. result. if dwelling. as hetu (cause) and phala (effect). or in this verse. thinking. efficacy119 and. to be precise: ālaya (abode/repository). effect. yet. enumerated. activity. receptacle. communicate. declare. skill. thought. now cause of. as. understanding. longed for. recognizing.TSN 6 Citta has two modes/kinds/aspects. deliver. as for the fact that. producing. visible. but. wherefore. dis/advantage115 (alt. attending.ākhyā (with the name/called) ca saptadhā (sevenfold). wish. reflecting. perceiving. aim. ways117 seek. bhāvana).

the heart … cittaṃ ādyaṃ dvitīyaṃ tu citrākarā pravṛttitaḥ ādya dvitīya tu citrākāra first. (k)123 First. bark. skin. defilement. however. causing pain124 impression of anything remaining unconsciously in the mind.TSN 7 pravṛtti 34 .Verse 7 saṃkleśavāsanābījaiś citatvāc cittaṃ ucyate/ cittaṃ ādyaṃ dvitīyaṃ tu citrākārapravṛttitaḥ// (td)122 Saṁkleśa-vāsanā-bījais-citatvāc-cittaṃ-ucyate Cittam-ādyam dvitīyam tu citra-ākāra-pravṛttitaḥ. disturbance. imagining. the present consciousness of past perceptions. distinguished. manifestation. passion. expression that reveals mental disposition) = strange. also: covered + tvac: (to) cover. consciousness manifests in manifold forms. peel127 mind. being at the beginning. memory. pain. conspicuous. aimed at. figure. knowledge derived from memory125 seed. coming forth. moving onwards. longed for. origin. external aspect. astonishment133 advance. placed in a line. also: “I beg. efficacy Table 10. germ. observing. intention. mental disturbances (“defilements”). on the contrary. excellent. reflecting. form. reason. attending. impressions of past perceptions. saṃkleśavāsanābījaiś citatvāc cittaṃ ucyate… saṃkleśa vāsanā bīja citatvac citta sam: along with. thinking. hide. appearance. and causal elements “seeds”) are collected in consciousness… Second. aim. activity. progress. immediately preceding. brightly colored. together + kleśa. element. yet. visible. rise.” “Do!”130 citra. source. intelligence. thought. suffering. origin126 cita: heaped. wish. earlier128 second129 but. primary cause or principle. wonderful132wonder. collected. manifold131 + ākāra. desire. function. also noticed. various.

imagination of the non-existent is also threefold. having.The ālaya-vijñāna is called “citta” because it collects (is citavāt. supposed. taken for. considered as. also practice.134 Verse 8 samāsato’ bhūtakalpaḥ sa caiṣa trividho mataḥ/ vaipākikas tathā naimittiko’ nyaḥ prātiḅhāsikaḥ// (td)135 Samāsato’bhūtakalpaḥ sa ca-eṣa trividho mataḥ Vaipākikas-tathā naimittiko’anyaḥ prātiḅhāsikaḥ. accompanied by. but. the same caiṣa or ca: and. imagined. esteemed141 … vaipākikas tathā naimittiko’ nyaḥ (or anyaḥ) prātiḅhāsikaḥ vaipākika tathā maturational in that manner. one. measure. The pravṛtti-vijñāna is called “citta” because it acts/functions/evolves in/under/as citra (diverse forms/aspects/ways). … and phenomenal appearances. believed. manner of proceeding. the present consciousnesses of past perceptions. yet. feasible. first duty = imagination of unreal forms139. matter of fact or reality138 + kalpa: possible. so. considered as: maturational. thus. concisely137 abhūtakalpa a: negation + bhūta: become. also. also able. kind mata thought. samāsato’ bhūtakalpaḥ sa caiṣa trividho mataḥ samāsatas succinctly. competent. the construction of that which was not140 sa supplying the forms of. proportion. becoming accumulated/filled with) the bijās (seeds/germs/causes) of vāsanās. accordingly 35 . designed. imaginable. just. if + eṣa ca-eṣa trividhā tri: three + vidhā: part. produced by particular causes. even. likewise. intended. understood. sort. (k)136 Succinctly. be true or real. fit. approved. actually have happened.

The other is manifesting (functioning) consciousness. different (from). As the subject (seer). special142 other (than).TSN 8 Collectively. object (seen) and knowledge modes of being (functioning). opposed to. the supposition/imagination/creation of forms of subjectivity and objectivity.145 vipāka maturational prātibhāsik a phenomenal naimittika being caused Illustration 3.144 prātib-hāsika: phenomenal. accidental. (mere/flashing) appearances.Modes of Abhūta-Kalpa Verse 9 prathamo mūlavijñānaṃ tad vipākātmakaṃ yataḥ/ anyaḥ pravṛttivijñānaṃ dṛśyadṛgvittivṛttitaḥ// (td)146 Prathamo mūla-vijñānam tad-vipākātmakam yataḥ Anyaḥ pravṛtti-vijñānam dṛśya-dṛg-vitti-vṛttitaḥ. as naimittika (caused). which has the nature of guided maturation. representations Table 11. 36 .naimittika anya prātiḅhāika produced by some particular cause. the other143 appearance. occasional. similitude. another. and as prātibhāsika (phenomenal). This function itself is threefold: as vaipākika (maturational). (k)147 First is root-consciousness. the ālaya-vijñāna and seven-fold pravṛtti-vijñāna constitute abhūta-kalpa.

science. function. And so in this way. The naimittika (caused) and prātibhāsika (phenomenal) modes of abhūta-kalpa are constituted by the eightfold pravṛtti(active/functioning/evolving) vijñāna. rise.prathamo mūlavijñānaṃ tad vipākātmakaṃ yataḥ… prathama mūla vijñāna tad vipāka ātmaka yata first. ground. sometimes "that very" or there. firstly. origin. seeing + vitti.(root/foundation/origin/cause) vijñāna because it has the nature of vipāka (maturation). object (seen). offending152 + dṛg. intelligence. being. prior. vipāka helps produce vikalpa: that is. understanding. knowing. skill. perceiving. consciousness. primary. worldly knowledge. maturity. culpable. restrained. and knowledge modes of being or functioning). foundation. therefore. controlled.TSN 9 The ālaya-vijñāna is called mūla. coming forth. understanding. being found153 = dṛṣyādṛgvitti. original. accordingly. now ripening. manifestation. corruptible. opposed to. mode of being or acting Table 12. foot. efficacy dṛṣyādṛgvitti dṛṣyā (from dūṣyā). limited. consisting or composed of. different (from). the other advance. this. subject (seer). then. activity. acquisition. consciousness he. cause act of distinguishing. like150 held. maturation of 37 . finding. object/seen. also foremost. and knowledge154 vṛtti turning. origin. she. reprehensible. rolling. progress. basis. another. result149 having the nature of. former. initial. recognizing. the first of the three modes of abhūta-kalpa (supposition/imagination of subject and object). moving onwards. guided151 … anyaḥ pravṛttivijñānaṃ dṛśyadṛgvittivṛttitaḥ anya pravṛtti other (than). that. it. preceding148 root. They evolve or arise as modifications depending upon dṛśya-dṛg-vitti-vṛttita (the subject/seer. consequence of actions. source.

the influence of past experiences is causally related to suppositions about phenomenal appearances.Reflecting Cause-and-Effect Consciousness (“…dhetuphalabhāvena cittaṃ…”) TSN 10-21: Application of Mediation to the Definitions of Svabhāva TSN 10-13: Existence and Non-Existence Verse 10 sadasattvād dvayaikatvāt saṃklésavyavadānayoḥ/ lakṣaṇābhedataś ceṣṭā svabhāvānāṃ gabhīratā// (td)155 Sad-asattvāt-dvaya-ekatvāt-saṇkleśa-vyavadānayoḥ Lakṣaṇa-abhedataś-ca-iṣṭā svabhāvānām gambhīratā (k)156 38 . CITTĀ mind HETU cause PHALA effect ĀLAYA-/ PRAVṚTTIMŪLAactive-/ receptacle-/ evolvingrootVIJÑĀNA consciousness Illustration 4.

TSN 10 39 . alteration. self-command. existing. disturbance. unreal. behavior. or a (negation) + sattva. disposition. reality. existence. dense. quality161 division. performance. not being. wisdom. duality and oneness. wise157 asat. real. difference162 movement. separation. change. own state of being. untrue. pain.own condition. that which really is. honest. Mental disturbance (defilement) and purification— Differences in attribute (definition)… own-state (process-of-being) profound. profound. sign.Existence and non-existence. untruth. state of being the abode of. nonentity. beautiful. consciousness. gesture. also characteristic. nature. true. unity159 sam: along with. true essence. impervious Table 13. also: material or elementary substance/matter or entity/thing. secret. being. actual. of two kinds or natures identity. also: the doctrine that the universe was produced and is sustained by the natural and necessary action of substances according to their inherent properties. passion. symbol. together + kleśa. wrong. living or sentient being158 twofold. falsehood + tva. action. nonexistence. accurate description of the properties (of things) gambhīra having depth. bad. sadasattvād dvayaikatvāt saṃklésavyavadānayoḥ… sad asattva (from sat). not existing. good. resolution. effort. defilement. mark. natural state or constitution. attribute. life. doing163 bheda ceṣṭā (caiṣṭā) svabhāva (. also: statement of the exact nature (of anything). na) innate/inherent disposition/nature/impulse. energy. desire. double. right. occurring. suffering. causing pain purification160 dvaya ekatva saṃkleśa vyavadāna … lakṣaṇābhedataś ceṣṭā svabhāvānāṃ gabhīratā (or gambhīratā) lakṣaṇa definition.” being (present). serious.

natural state or constitution. disposition. in this way and. also. yet. even. sattvena gṛhyate yasmād atyantābhāva eva ca… sattvena / svatvena gṛhya yasmād atyanta abhāva eva ca sat (being) or sva (own) + tvena: state (of) = state of being seizing by. also: the doctrine that the universe was produced and is sustained by the natural and necessary action of substances according to their inherent properties. state of being. nature. impulse169 thus. entity. innate/inherent disposition/nature/impulse. the trisvabhāva “are not mutually different in definition. just. but. because. exceedingly. if … svabhāvaḥ kalpitas tena sadasallakṣaṇo mataḥ svabhāva own condition. accurate description of the properties (of things) 40 . (k)166 State of being grasping because absolutely non-existent in this way. Thus the imagined (constructed) own-nature is defined as being. dual and non-dual. excessively. completely. belonging to167 (from yasmāt). as well as dvaya and advaya. absolutely. holding. perpetually absence of: existence. In this way.Each svabhāva is sat (bhāva) and asat (abhāva) real/existent and unreal/non-existent. own state of being. that168 beyond the proper end or limit. since. also: statement of the exact nature (of anything). condition.”164 Verse 11 sattvena gṛhyate yasmād atyantābhāva eva ca/ svabhāvaḥ kalpitas tena sadasallakṣaṇo mataḥ// (td)165 Svatvena gṛhyate yasmād-atyanta-abhāva eva ca Svabhāvaḥ kalpitas-tena sad-asal-lakṣaṇo mataḥ. grasping.

supposed.170 Verse 12 vidyate bhrāntibhāvena yathākhyanaṃ na vidyate/ paratantro yatas tena saddasallakṣaṇo mataḥ// (td)171 Vidyate bhrānti-bhāvena yathā-akhyānam na vidyate Paratantro yatas-tena sad-asal-lakṣaṇo matah. beautiful. believed. taken for. symbol. (k)172 Finding confused imagination: It is not so as it is communicated (said). also imagining. intended. roaming. sign. honest. Thus the nature dependent on particular causes is defined as being. manifesting. that which really is. affecting.” being (present). good. true. false impression.kalpita tena sad lakṣaṇa mata fabricated. science. doubt. approved. acquiring. artificial. gaining wandering. performed. That is. considered as. error. right. existing. understood. prepared. the kalpita is asat because it is atyantābhāva. causing to be. assumed. designed. also: finding. for that reason. bhāvana). At the same time. in that manner. or absolutely/perpetually without (real) existence. moving to and fro. supposed. scholarship. also: characteristic. producing. turning. there. quality thought. occurring. also: confusion. invented. vidyate bhrāntibhāvena yathākhyanaṃ na vidyate… vidyā bhrānti bhāvena knowledge. philosophy. imagined. esteemed Table 14.TSN 11 The kalpita is sat insofar as it is grasped/perceived/thought to be existent. real. supposing anything to be or to exist173 (alt. existing as a sign or definition. inferred in that direction. learning. actual. wise mark. attribute. thus. therefore (from sat). it is sadasallakṣaṇo. conception 41 .

true. wise mark.akhyāna (communication)…”. actual. in that manner. according as. there is “…bhrānti (wandering/confusion/supposition of existence). continuous. basis.” being (present).TSN 12 yatas tena sad lakṣaṇa mata The paratantra is sat because it is sadasallakṣaṇo. other. honest. that which really is. esteemed Table 15. in which way. believed. right. authority. Spirit. not. like communication174 no. characteristic. lasting. considered as. intended. symbol. firm. constant. but it is asat insofar as it does not exist in reality as it appears. essential. supposed.”176 In the second respect. “there being confusion there. existing as a sign or definition. beautiful. doctrine.177 Verse 13 advayatvena yac cāsti dvayasyābhāva eva ca/ svabhāvas tena niṣpannaḥ sadasallakṣaṇo mataḥ// (td)178 Advayatvena-yac-ca-asti dvayasya-abhāva-eva ca Svabhāvas-tena niṣpannaḥ sad-asal-lakṣaṇo mataḥ.bhāvana (manifesting/imagining). imagined. (k)179 Not twofold state because 42 . stranger. approved. occurring. medicine = (other-. existing. there. Absolute.yathā akhyāna na as follows. regular. attribute. quality thought. therefore (from sat). chief matter.yathā (*). time or order/number/degree. remote or different in space. understood. foundation. taken for. highest degree. good. it is not so175 … paratantro yatas tena saddasallakṣaṇo mataḥ paratantra para: far. whence in that direction. science. magic. designed. inter-) dependent or relative from which or what. at the best or utmost + tantra. for that reason. distant. correlative of. rule. sign. thus. real.

own state of being. just. but. as. even. wise mark. definition thought. happen.TSN 13 tena niṣpanna sad asal lakṣaṇa mata 43 . abiding. sign. dwelling. also: statement of the exact nature (of anything). nature. impulse thus. entity. be sufficient or able180 dvaya: twofold.also twofold non-existence. true. existing. in this way … svabhāvas tena niṣpannaḥ sadasallakṣaṇo mataḥ svabhāva own condition. occurring. double. state of rest absence of: existence. also: the doctrine that the universe was produced and is sustained by the natural and necessary action of substances according to their inherent properties. there. understood. esteemed Table 16. of two kinds or natures + asya. sprung up. state of being. designed. yet. beautiful. thus. taken for. sitting. when. imagined. characteristic. arisen. believed. because. effected. actual. descended or derived from. honest. in that manner. therefore come or gone forth. advayatvena yac cāsti dvayasyābhāva (dvayasya-abhāva) eva ca… advaya tvena yac cāsti (ca asti) dvayasya abhāva eva not twofold or double state (of)… (from yad). symbol.” being (present). accurate description of the properties (of things) in that direction. approved. in order that. exist. natural state or constitution. also. as for the fact that. if ca: and. if + asti: be. since. supposed. intended. innate/inherent disposition/nature/impulse. wherefore. attribute. brought about. considered as. condition. for that reason. real. Thus the perfected own-state-of-being is defined as being. that which really is. quality. succeeded (from sat). good. become. right. disposition.

this. alone. sole. significant. abode aika / eka one. identical. unreal. wrong. material. single. entity. it is asat insofar as it is the non-existence of duality. sometimes "that very" or there. assumed. resulting from or based on the possession of a thing asya sitting. artificial. solitary. dwelling. supposed.The niṣpanna or perfected nature is sat because it exists as non-dual. state of bhāvata being. untrue. accordingly. it. dvaividhyāt kalpitārthasya tadasattvaikabhāvataḥ… twofold (state/nature/character). she. abiding. the own-being of the constructed as conceived by the ignorant is both dual and unitary. then. nature. performed. inferred ārtha relating to a thing or object. also variance184 fabricated. state of rest tad he. impulse dvaividhya kalpita … svabhāvaḥ kalpito bālair dvayaikatvātmako mataḥ 44 . untruth. (k)183 Twofold character fabricated with respect to things (objects) abides accordingly as non-existent state of being. not being. bad. or asatva-ekanon-existence. now asatvaikabhāvatah asat. falsehood + tva. not existing. prepared. the same. disposition. belonging to one185 bhāva existence. condition. that.181 TSN 14-16: Duality and Non-Duality Verse 14 dvaividhyāt kalpitārthasya tadasattvaikabhāvataḥ/ svabhāvaḥ kalpito bālair dvayaikatvātmako mataḥ// (td)182 Dvaividhāt-kalpita-arthasya tad-asatva-eka-bhāvataḥ Svabhāvaḥ kalpito balair-dvaya-ekatvātmako matah. nonentity. therefore. one existence (nature). state of being. however. invented.

assumed. double.svabhāva kalpita bāla dvaya ekatvā ātmaka mata own condition. invented. 45 . imagined. taken for. (k)190 The being perceived as manifesting dually is merely conditioned false impression.TSN 14 Kalpita is dvaya (dual) insofar as it is imagined as dual. accurate description of the properties (of things) fabricated.(*) – asat (non-existence/non-truth). own state of being. natural state or constitution. unity187 having the nature of.(assumed/supposed) ārtha. performed. “Dvaividhyāt (twofold (state/nature/character)) kalpita.(material. artificial. inferred young. considered as. supposed. not developed. simple. approved. supposed. consisting or composed of. the dependent (relative) own-nature is understood to be dual and unitary.ekabhāva (oneness)…”188 Verse 15 prakhyānād dvayabhāvena bhrāntimātraikabhāvataḥ/ svabhāvaḥ paratantrākhyo dvayaikatvātmako mataḥ// (td)189 Prakhyānād-dvaya-bhāvena bhrāntimātra-ekabhāvataḥ Svabhāva paratantra-ākhyo dvaya-ekatva-ātmako. prepared. of two kinds or natures identity. but it is advaya (non-dual) in reality. new. early. believed. foolish186 twofold. intended. esteemed Table 17.(*). innate/inherent disposition/nature/impulse. also: the doctrine that the universe was produced and is sustained by the natural and necessary action of substances according to their inherent properties. understood. ignorant. like thought. designed. re: a thing/object). also: statement of the exact nature (of anything).

error. medicine = (other-. condition. magic. declare. also: statement of the exact nature (of anything).prakhyānād dvayabhāvena bhrāntimātraikabhāvataḥ prakhyā dvaya bhāvena bhrānti mātra-eka bhāva (-ta) the being perceived or known191 twofold. basis. nature. Absolute. also: the doctrine that the universe was produced and is sustained by the natural and necessary action of substances according to their inherent properties. highest degree. accurate description of the properties (of things) para: far. “its existence as a mere appearance is singular. single occasion existence. regular. turning. taken for. considered as. esteemed Table 18. false impression. lasting. unity having the nature of. that is. producing. to be named. at the best or utmost + tantra. stranger. chief matter. intended. enumerated. time or order/number/degree. but it is advaya because of the previously mentioned confusion regarding duality. natural state or constitution. also imagining. affecting. moving to and fro. also: confusion. constant. entity.TSN 15 paratantra ākhyā ekatva ātmaka mata The paratantra is dvaya insofar as it appears as dual. like thought. disposition. rule. communicate. supposed. manifesting. other. consisting or composed of. state of being. doubt. roaming. understood. science. supposing anything to be or to exist having/being/consisting of only/merely one. designed. impulse … svabhāvaḥ paratantrākhyo dvayaikatvātmako mataḥ svabhāva own condition. remote or different in space. believed. double. firm. innate/inherent disposition/nature/impulse. doctrine. distant. authority. approved. conception wandering. continuous. own state of being. of two kinds or natures (bhāvana): causing to be. inter-) dependent or relative to make known. essential. Spirit. inform. called identity.”192 “Prakhyānād (the being perceived/known) dvayabhāvena 46 . imagined. foundation.

etc. innate/inherent disposition/nature/impulse. impulse own condition. also: statement of the exact nature (of anything).”193 Verse 16 dvayabhāvasvabhāvatvād advayaikasvabhāvataḥ/ svabhāvaḥ pariniṣpanno dvayaikatvāmako mataḥ// (td)194 Dvaya-abhāva-svabhāvatvād-advaya-eka-svabhāvataḥ Svabhāvah pariniṣpanno dvaya-ekatva-ātmako mataḥ. of two kinds or natures (absence of:) existence. state of being. also (alt. real. own state of being. natural state or constitution. the perfected (complete) own-nature is understood to be dual and unitary. nature. identical. not two-old or double. descended or derived from. or against. solitary. tvan. succeeded = developed. alone. abundantly.(twofold imagination/manifestation) bhrānti (confusion/supposition of existence) mātraika-eka (being/having only) eka-bhāvata (oneness)…. double. effected. tvam. about. belonging to one tvad advaya aika / eka … svabhāvaḥ pariniṣpanno dvayaikatvāmako mataḥ pariniṣpanno pari: round. come or gone forth. (k)195 Twofold existence (condition). sole. brought about. single. severally + niṣpanna. tvat). dvayabhāvasvabhāvatvād advayaikasvabhāvataḥ… dvaya abhāva svabhāva twofold. thou. fully. disposition. condition. one non-dual own-state (process-of-being). sprung up. accurate description of the properties (of things) one. in the direction of. existing 47 . also: the doctrine that the universe was produced and is sustained by the natural and necessary action of substances according to their inherent properties. partly. thee. or successively. entity. thy. perfect. the same. non-dual one. several. arisen. opposite to or towards.

on the one hand. (unity) because its only nature is non-duality. approved. like thought.. understood.”200 48 . this appears to be one of those times when they do in fact conflict. it is by nature the absence of duality.TSN 16 Although there are few times when the differences between Tola and Dragonetti’s and Kochumuttom’s transliterations differ significantly. believed.. they claim that only the CN (constructed nature) can be a svabhāva in relation to duality.196 Pariniṣpanna is both dvaya and advaya… “… (duality) because it is the (true) nature of duality. taken for. proposes the reading dvaya-abhāva-svabhāvatvād which he translates “it is by nature the absence of duality” explicitly accepting that it does not conform to TSN 10.ekatva ātmaka mata identity. consisting or composed of. 254).”198 “… because it is essentially the existence of duality and also because it is essentially a single nonduality.. Ake Boquist comments that: Tola & Dragonetti… along with La Vallèe Poussin… chooses the reading dvaya-bhāva-svabhāvatvād which they translate: “because it is nature (only) in relation to duality” (p. and. on the other hand. and because of its being the one own-being of non-duality.”197 “… for. other translations deemed contradictory or tautological. it is in the nature of unity without duality. Kochumuttom… on the other hand. Instead. designed. intended. supposed. imagined. esteemed Table 19. unity having the nature of.”199 “Because of its state as the own-being of the two beings. considered as.

science. sign. lasting. regular. in the direction of. together + kleśa. foundation. symbol. inferred para: far. authority. essential.Pariniṣpanna is dvaya because it is the true nature of duality. (k)203 The fabricated and independent are also understood as characterized by defilement. or against. distant. supposed. investigated sam: along with. abundantly. yet. characteristic. other. Spirit. assumed. It is advaya because has the nature of unity without duality. stranger. attribute. disturbance. Absolute. severally + niṣpanna. causing pain mark. performed. if to be known. understood. chief matter. at the best or utmost + tantra. to be learned. passion. or successively. about. kalpitaḥ paratantraś ca jñeyaṃ samkleśalakṣaṇam… kalpita paratantra fabricated. medicine = (other-. defilement. remote or different in space. magic. basis. that is. desire. highest degree. but. artificial. perceived. 49 . time or order/number/degree. continuous.201 TSN 17-21: Interrelationship Among the Svabhāva Verse 17 kalpitaḥ paratantraś ca jñeyaṃ samkleśalakṣaṇam/ pariniṣpanna iṣṭas tu vyavadānasya lakṣaṇam// (td)202 Kalpitaḥ paratantraś-ca jñeyam saṇkleśa-lakṣaṇam Pariniṣpanna iṣṭas-tu vyavadānasya lakṣaṇam. its absence (the absence of appearances in phenomena). also. inter-) dependent or relative and. pain. invented. fully. opposite to or towards. quality. even. suffering. constant. rule. just. The perfected is esteemed as a state of (abiding in) purification. definition ca jñeya samkleśa lakṣaṇa … pariniṣpanna iṣṭas tu vyavadānasya lakṣaṇam pariniṣpanna pari: round. doctrine. prepared. firm.

”205 Verse 18 asaddvayasvabhāvatvāt tadabhāvasvabhāvataḥ/ svabhāvāt kalpitāj jñeyo niṣpanno’ bhinnalakṣaṇaḥ// (td)206 Asad-dvaya-svabhāvatvāt-tad-abhāva-svabhāvataḥ Svabhāvāt-kalpitāj-jñeyo pariniṣpanno’bhinna-lakṣaṇaḥ. falsehood208 twofold. also: “Pray!. succeeded = developed.iṣṭa tu vyavadāna asya come or gone forth. disturbance). also: sacrifice204 but. asaddvayasvabhāvatvāt tadabhāvasvabhāvataḥ… asad dvaya not being. of two kinds or natures 50 . desired. They are both “…jñeyam (to be known) sam.(along with) kleśa. nonentity. brought about. not existing.” “I beg. reverenced.TSN 17 Kalpita svabhāva and paratantra-svabhāva are modified and thus are not “pure” svabhāva. however. descended or derived from. state of rest Table 20. thus the invented (assumed) to be known as non-different in definition from the perfected (fully existing). untrue. yet. abiding. wrong. it is the definition of “purity. bad. sprung up. real. on the contrary. unreal. respected. dwelling.lakṣaṇam (symbol/definition). approved. beloved. arisen. existing sought. double. perfect. untruth. non-existence.(defilement.” Pariniṣpanna-svabhāva is the “… vyavadānasya (purification) lakṣaṇam. effected.” “Do!” purification sitting. (k)207 Not being dual own-state (process-of-being) that non-existent own-state (process-of-being).” Being unmodified.

to be learned. assumed. innate/inherent disposition/nature/impulse. thee. not expanded. come or gone forth. sign. transgressed. severally + niṣpanna. own state of being.abhāva (absence of condition/state of being/nature)//svabhāvāt kalpitāj jñeyo (to be known) niṣpanno’ bhinna (= abhinna. thou. then. abundantly. or against. accordingly. interrupted. investigated niṣpanna / pari: round. nature. non-different) lakṣaṇaḥ. prepared.(dual) svabhāvah. destroyed. disturbed.TSN 18 “(A)sad. thy. performed. disposition. definition Table 21. understood. perceived. disjoined. he. sometimes "that very" or there. about. real. existing abhinna non-different. symbol. she. perfect. or impulse … svabhāvāt kalpitāj jñeyo niṣpanno’ bhinnalakṣaṇaḥ kalpita fabricated. therefore. inferred jñeya to be known. effected. not divided into parts or anything less than a whole. now absence of: existence.(not being) dvaya. also: the doctrine that the universe was produced and is sustained by the natural and necessary action of substances according to their inherent properties. this. attribute. also: statement of the exact nature (of anything). it. pierced.” Pariniṣpanna is non-different in definition from kalpita because kalpita is non-existent duality (“because the nature (of the last one) is the inexistent duality.”210 or “because of (one’s) state as the own-being of a non-existent duality”). succeeded = developed. opposite to or pariniṣpanna towards. brought about. artificial. invented. descended or derived from. arisen. not split.211 while pariniṣpanna is nonexistence of duality (“because the nature (of the first one) is the inexistence of that 51 . supposed. entity. altered209 lakṣaṇa mark. condition. or successively. sprung up. etc. characteristic. natural state or constitution. quality. accurate description of the properties (of things) (from tvad). that.(**). state of being. in the direction of.svabhāva (ta) tvat tad abhāva own condition.(own/innate condition/state of being/nature). fully.

nature. condition. several. cognizable. accurate description of the properties (of things) one. innate/inherent disposition/nature/impulse.”)213 Verse 19 advayatvasvabhāvatvād dvayābhāvasvabhāvataḥ/ niṣpannāt kalpitaś caiva vijñeyo ‘bhinnalakṣaṇaḥ// (td)214 Advayatva-svabhāvatvād-dvaya-abhāva-svabhāvataḥ Niṣpannāt-kalpitaś-ca-eva vijñeyo’bhinna-lakṣaṇaḥ. The perfected (fully existing) and the invented (assumed) thus to be understood as non-different in definition. succeeded fabricated. impulse tvad dvaya abhāva … niṣpannāt kalpitaś caiva vijñeyo ‘bhinnalakṣaṇaḥ niṣpanna kalpita vijñeya come or gone forth. performed. supposed. etc. twofold. arisen. prepared. thou. own state of being. also: statement of the exact nature (of anything).”212 or “because of (the other’s) being the own-being of the non-being of that duality. also: the doctrine that the universe was produced and is sustained by the natural and necessary action of substances according to their inherent properties. descended or derived from. inferred to be perceived or known. effected. tvam. tvat). thee. disposition. invented. of two kinds or natures absence of: existence. double. knowable. sprung up. state of being. artificial. thy. also (alt. 52 . entity. advayatvasvabhāvatvād dvayābhāvasvabhāvataḥ… advaya tva svabhāva not two-fold or double. partly. (k)215 Non-duality being the abode of own-being (non-condition) is also dual absence of being (condition). brought about. natural state or constitution.(duality). non-dual being the abode of own condition. assumed. tvan. or understood.

transgressed.217 and the svabhāva of kalpita is the non-existence of duality (“because the nature (of the first one) is the inexistence of duality. not expanded. regarded as non-different. sign. according as. likewise existence and own-state (process-of-being). quality Table 22. characteristic. interrupted. (k)221 According as it is said non-existence and existence (condition). symbol. destroyed.TSN 19 “(A)dvaya. altered mark.”216 or “for the perfected nature is essentially nondual”).”)219 Verse 20 yathākhyānam asadbhāvāt tathāsattvasvabhāvataḥ/ svabhāvāt paratantrākhyān niṣpanno’ bhinnalakṣaṇaḥ// (td)220 Yathā-ākhyānām-asad-bhāvāt-tathā’satva-svabhāvataḥ Svabhāvāt-para-tantrākhyān-niṣpanno’bhinna-lakṣaṇaḥ.svabhāva… dvaya. not divided into parts or anything less than a whole.abhinna lakṣaṇa to ber recognized. disjoined. The invented (assumed) and the perfected (fully existing) Are known as undivided in definition.(absence of existence) svabhāva…” Kalpita is non-different in definition from pariniṣpanna because the svabhāva of pariniṣpanna is non-dual (“because the nature (of the last one) is nonduality. considered. pierced. attribute. like 53 .(dual) abhāva. not split. disturbed. in which way.”218 or “the imagined nature is essentially the non-existence of that duality. yathākhyānam asadbhāvāt tathāsattvasvabhāvataḥ… yathā as follows. correlative of.(non-dual) (*).

ākhyāna asad bhāva tathā sattva svabhāva (ta) (re) telling. own state of being. nature. to be named. life. true essence. anything less than a whole. enumerated. succeeded not split. expanded. highest degree. basis. also: material or elementary substance/matter or entity/thing. science. also: the doctrine that the universe was produced and is sustained by the natural and necessary action of substances according to their inherent properties. communicating. unreal. existence. attribute. nonentity. wisdom.”223 or “for the former being in the nature of non-existent duality…”224). consciousness. self-command. continuous. non-existence. accurate description of the properties (of things) … svabhāvāt paratantrākhyān niṣpanno’ bhinnalakṣaṇaḥ paratantra para: far. state of being. thus. declare. symbol. altered mark. also: statement of the exact nature (of anything). chief matter. characteristic. untruth. bad. natural state or constitution. brought about. effected. disturbed. wrong. called come or gone forth. interrupted. time or order/number/degree. lasting. other. divided into parts. quality Table 23. relating. rule. accordingly being. legend not being. medicine = (other-. Spirit. story. remote or different in space. magic. disjoined. and pariniṣpanna is the 54 . essential. arisen. living or sentient being222 own condition. destroyed. stranger. falsehood existence. nature. firm. innate/inherent disposition/nature/impulse. communicate. authority. not existing. condition.TSN 20 ākhyā niṣpanna abhinna lakṣaṇa Pariniṣpanna is non-different in definition from paratantra because paratantra is nonexistent as it appears (“because the nature (of the last one) is the inexistent reality. impulse in that manner. foundation. transgressed. disposition. energy. likewise. doctrine. reality. sprung up. untrue. entity. regular. descended or derived from. pierced. inter-) dependent or relative to make known. constant. Absolute. distant. sign. inform. at the best or utmost + tantra. resolution. disposition. so.

state of being. Thus the perfected (fully existing) is understood to be non-different in definition from the invented (assumed). natural state or constitution. own state of being.”)226 Verse 21 asaddvayasvabhāvatvād yathākhyānāsvabhāvataḥ/ niṣpannāt paratantro ’pi vijñeyo’ bhinnalakṣaṇaḥ// (td)227 Asat-dvaya-svabhāvatvāt-yathā-ākhyāna-asvabhāvataḥ/-ākhyāna-abhāvataḥ Niṣpannāt-paratantro’pi vijñeyo-‘bhinna-lakṣaṇaḥ. declare. called absence of svabhāva absence of: existence. entity. like (re) telling. nonentity. thy. falsehood twofold. tvan. impulse 55 tvad yathā ākhyāna asvabhāvata abhāva . (k)228 Not existing as dual. thee. condition. own-state (process-of-being) also said to be absence of own-state (process-of-being) and absence of existence. communicate. inform. also: the doctrine that the universe was produced and is sustained by the natural and necessary action of substances according to their inherent properties.”225 or “… is by nature non-existent in the form in which it appears. in which way. untrue. thou. partly. unreal. also: statement of the exact nature (of anything). legend ākhyā: to make known. disposition. as follows. accurate description of the properties (of things) one. according as. several. nature. of two kinds or natures229 own condition. to be named. double. story. untruth. tvat). relating. correlative of. not existing. tvam. innate/inherent disposition/nature/impulse. wrong.non-existence of appearance (“because the nature (of the first one) is not as it appears. non-existence. bad. also (alt. etc. enumerated. asaddvayasvabhāvatvād yathākhyānāsvabhāvataḥ… asad dvaya svabhāva not being. communicating.

rule. definition Table 24. brought about. to be recognized. essential. at the best or utmost + tantra. authority. sprung up. interrupted. cognizable. pierced.232 and the svabhāva of pariniṣpanna is the unreality (abhāva) of duality (“because the nature (of the last one) is the inexistent duality. science. other.”231 or “the former being in the nature of non-existent duality”). Spirit. transgressed. knowable. not divided into parts or anything less than a whole. constant. arisen. firm. (k)236 56 . disturbed. not split. not expanded.”)234 vijñeya abhinna lakṣaṇa TSN 22-26: Epistemological Conventions Verse 22 kramabhedaḥ svabhāvānāṃ vyavahārādhikārataḥ/ tatpraveśādhikārāc ca vyutpattyarthaṃ vidhīyate// (td)235 Krama-bhedaḥ svabhāvānām vyavahāra-adhikārataḥ Tad-praveśa-adhikārāc-ca vyutpattyartham vidhīyate. considered. succeeded para: far. quality. stranger. altered mark. magic. it has no svabhāva as it appears (“because the nature (of the first one) is not as it appears. medicine = (other-. remote or different in space. lasting. basis. attribute. highest degree. doctrine. destroyed. inter-) dependent or relative to be perceived/known. disjoined. distant. time or order/number/degree.”233 or “by nature non-existent in the form in which it appears. sign.TSN 21 Paratantra is non-different in definition from pariniṣpanna because paratantra does not exist in the form in which it appears. that is. effected. descended or derived from. regular. foundation. regarded as230 non-different. chief matter./understood. Absolute. characteristic. symbol.… niṣpannāt paratantro ’pi vijñeyo’ bhinnalakṣaṇaḥ niṣpanna paratantra come or gone forth. continuous.

engaging closely in a pursuit or purpose. right. natural state or constitution. derivation. entrance. sometimes "that very" or there. this. innate/inherent disposition/nature/impulse. reference.Order of alterations (divisions) of own-state (process-of-being). dealing239 authority. she. thus. rule. accurate description of the properties (of things) hereby. thus operating rules (epistemological conventions). and growth in knowledge relating to an uncertain thing (object). etymology242 relating to a thing or object. he. growth (in knowledge). now entering. succession237 division. course. action. resulting from or based on the possession of a thing to be uncertain. administration. that. then. yet. development. order. even. tat). proficiency. prerogative. therefore. performing. intrusion into. going. indeed238 doing. also: intentness on an object. manner241 and. own state of being. alteration. kramabhedaḥ svabhāvānāṃ vyavahārādhikārataḥ… krama bheda svabhāva step. but. change. material. separation. topic240 āna vyavahāra adhikāra … tatpraveśādhikārāc ca vyutpattyarthaṃ vidhīyate tad praveśa ca vyutpatt ārtha vidhīya (alt. origin. accordingly. just. scholarship. way. difference own condition. entrance into operating rules (conventions).TSN 22 57 . if production. it. also: the doctrine that the universe was produced and is sustained by the natural and necessary action of substances according to their inherent properties. Accordingly. significant. also trading with. series. hesitate243 Table 25. regular progress. also. also: statement of the exact nature (of anything). relation. being contained in. also property. proceeding. jurisdiction.

highest degree. at the best or utmost … vyavahārasamucchedaḥ svabhāvaś cānya iṣyate vyavahāra samuccheda svabhāva doing. nature. remote or different in space. chief matter. dealing from “to breathe/move”— “self. consisting or composed of far. Absolute termination of convention is own-state (process-of-being) and… by the wise. also: the doctrine that the universe was produced and is sustained by the natural and necessary action of substances according to their inherent 58 . dealing. Spirit. prepared. or epistemological conventions) are established regarding the “things” of empirical observation. artificial. also trading with. about which vyavahārādhikārataḥ (operating rules. performing.There is a krama (order) of the distinctions or changes among the trisvabhāva. the person or body considered as a whole like. other.” (the individual) soul. having the nature of. also: essence.244 Verse 23 kalpito vyavahārātmā vyāvahartrātmako paraḥ/ vyavahārasamucchedaḥ svabhāvaś cānya iṣyate// (td)245 Kalpito vyavahāra-ātmā vyavahartṛ-ātmako’paraḥ Vyavahāra-samuccheda-svabhāvas-ca-anya iṣyate. performed. samucchitti): destruction. inferred doing. performing. character. also trading with. stranger. natural state or constitution. time or order/number/degree. own state of being. distant. kalpito vyavahārātmā vyāvahartrātmako paraḥ… kalpita vyavahāra ātma ātmaka para fabricated. life principle. invented. action. Absolute. abstract individual. conventional practice (alt. termination247 own condition. (k)246 The assumed (invented) is essentially operating rules (conventions). assumed. supposed. innate/inherent disposition/nature/impulse. action.

different from. just.”)250 Thus the inference is that one needs to sublate “mere” empirical observation and inference with something more reliable. “… is essentially of conventional values”. even. “… is the nature freed of all conventional values”. (“The other nature (the absolute. “…is the cause… of that which exists only conventionally. another “by the wise” Table 26.”)249 The pariniṣpanna is the samuccheda (termination) of conventional belief.TSN 23 The parikalpita is conventional belief or practice based on empirical observation. also. “… is that which destroys that which exists only conventionally. if + anya: other than. “… is essentially that which brings about such conventional values”. (“…[The dependent nature]… is the creator of the empirical reality”. “How it is” to the observer will always be effected by the circumstances in which observation happens. “… is that which exists only conventionally. 59 . yet. The inter-dependent is understood.cānya iṣyate properties ca: and. opposed to.”) 248 The paratantra is the cause of that belief.) is the destruction of the empirical reality”. (“…The imaginary (nature) is the empirical reality”. Verse 24 dvayābhāvātmakaḥ pūrvaṃ paratantraḥ praviśyate/ tataḥ praviśyate tatra kalpamātram asaddvayam// (td)251 Dvayā-bhāva-ātmaka-pūrvam para-tantraḥ praviśyate Tataḥ praviśyate tatra kalpa-mātram-asad-dvayam. but. (k)252 Twofold state (process-of-being) having the nature of being prior.

feasible. animate. unreal. consisting/composed of. element. first duty having/being/consisting of only/merely. protracted. constant. not existing. also: intentness on an object. science. therein. at the best or utmost + tantra. remote or different in space. foundation. like being before or in front.Story understood therein merely possible. preceding. nature having the nature of. therefore possible. stranger. not being twofold. of two kinds or natures253 existence. announce. on that occasion. competent. disposition. non-existence. intrusion into. other. tata tatra kalpa mātra asad extended. diffused. untrue. earlier than254 para: far. chief matter. iṣyate: “by the wise” = praviśyate: understood praviśyate … tataḥ praviśyate tatra kalpamātram asaddvayam. lasting. engaging closely in a pursuit or purpose. continuous. firm. occasion not being. falsehood Table 27. authority. composed (tale). manner 255 + iṣya: seek. regular.TSN 24 First one understands the nature of the inter-dependent paratantra. cause to move quickly. manner of proceeding. instant. also measure or limit (in space and time). distant. condition. highest degree. wrong. previous to. entrance. state of being. performed (ceremony)256 in/to that place.”257 60 . in that case. bad. nonentity. double. dvayābhāvātmakaḥ pūrvaṃ paratantraḥ praviśyate… dvaya bhāva ātmaka pūrva paratantra twofold. impel. also able. which “…is constituted by the non-existence of reality” or “…is essentially the absence of duality. Spirit. rule. doctrine. essential. deliver. being contained in. promote. medicine = (other-. atom. basis. magic. fit. prior. former. Absolute. entity. untruth. also practice. inter-) dependent or relative praviś: entering. time or order/number/degree.

(namely) because.TSN 25 61 . in that case. there is not. so. incorporeal Table 28. a certain. protracted. succeeded three enter. surely. nature. (k)260 Story of twofold non-being and being Absolute (complete) nature… understood. arisen. become. of two kinds or natures absence of: existence. at that time Existence and non-existence… (t)ato dvayābhāvabhāvo niṣpanno’ tra praviśyate… tata dvaya abhāva niṣpanna tra praviś extended. be sufficient or able it is not. thus. exist. for. which in contrast is “inexistent duality” or “the duality that is mere imagination. resort to … tathā hyasav eva tadā asti nāstīti… tathā hyasav / hi-asau eva tadā asti nāsti in that manner. double. disposition. accordingly hi. performed (ceremony) twofold. composed (tale). then262 be. there261 thus. go into.”258 Verse 25 ato (sic) dvayābhāvabhāvo niṣpanno’ tra praviśyate/ tathā hyasav eva tadā asti nāstīti cocyate// (td)259 Tato dvaya-abhāva-bhāvo niṣpanno’tra praviśyate Tathā hi-asau-eva tadā asti-nāsti-iti ca-ucyate. in this way at that time. In that manner surely thus in this way.It is then that one understands the assumed or invented parikalpita. effected. brought about. sprung up. impulse come or gone forth. so. happen. assertion of non-existence. indeed + asau (from adas). diffused. thus. entity. that. condition. likewise. state of being. descended or derived from.

One understands the perfected pariniṣpanna by finding the non-being of duality within the dependent paratantra. consisting of three uniting with or approaching something266 own condition. (namely) because. received. sign. quality hi advaya ālabhya ālamba lakṣaṇa … abhāvād atathābhāvāt tadabhāvasvabhāvataḥ. (k)265 Threefold unification of own-state-of-being (own-condition). asylum. natural state or constitution. characteristic. existing and non-existing. receptacle. and understanding that it—the non-being of duality— is itself both asti and nasti. obtained. threefold. innate/inherent disposition/nature/impulse. symbol. non-dual having grasped. Non-existence not likewise that non-existence of own-state-of-being (own-condition) trayo ‘pyete svabhāvā hi advayālabhyalakṣaṇāḥ… traya ‘pyete / api ete svabhāva triple. sacrificed267 support. also: statement of the exact nature (of anything). own state of being. 62 . depending on or from268 mark. namely nondual-[non]-grasping-definition. accurate description of the properties (of things) for. surely. indeed not two-fold or double. attribute. also: the doctrine that the universe was produced and is sustained by the natural and necessary action of substances according to their inherent properties.263 Verse 26 trayo ‘pyete svabhāvā hi advayālabhyalakṣaṇāḥ/ abhāvād atathābhāvāt tadabhāvasvabhāvataḥ// (td)264 Trayo-api-ete svabhāva hi advaya-ālamba-lakṣaṇāḥ Abhāvād-atathā-bhāvāt-tad abhāvasvabhāvataḥ.

then. (the imaginary one).. and (the third’s) being the own-being of that non-being. as dual). it. now Table 29. this. not thus. because its nature is the inexistence of that (duality).e.abhāva atātha tad absence of: existence. The perfected or complete pariniṣpanna non-dual and ungraspable because it is by its very nature the absence of that imagined duality. because of (one’s) simple non-being. entity.270 The three svabhāva have in common non-duality and non-graspability by definition.TSN 26 The three natures are also non dual and ungraspable. she. not accordingly he. because of its inexistence. (the absolute one). accordingly. therefore. not likewise. sometimes "that very" or there. condition. the svabhāva (own-state-ofbeing) of that abhāva (non-being). that. (the other’s) non-being like that (in the manner in which it appears). that is. impulse not in that manner. disposition. The parikalpita (as imagined duality) is non-dual and ungraspable because it—the imagined duality— does not exist.269 These three own-beings have characteristics which are surely nondual and ungraspable. not so. The paratantra (caused or “dependent” phenomenal appearance) is non-dual and ungraspable because it does not exist as it appears (i. nature. (the dependent one) because it does not exist as (it appears). state of being.271 TSN 27-30: Analogy to Illusion (The Illusory Elephant) Verse 27 māyākṛtaṃ mantravaśāt khyāti hastyātmanā yathā/ ākāramātraṃ tatrāsti hastī nāsti tu sarvathā// (td)272 63 .

there is not. (k)273 Accomplished illusion by power of instrument of thought. objects. knowledge. also: essence. according as. on that occasion. yet. ākāra mātra tatra asti nāsti tu sarvātha form. māyākṛtaṃ mantravaśāt khyāti hastyātmanā yathā… māya kṛta mantra vasā khyāti hastī ātmanā yathā illusion. prepared. also measure or limit (in space and time). however. abstract individual. Elephant non-existent. also: “Pray!. obtained.” sacred text/speech/hymn/formula276 something shining. character. made. correlative of. idea. opinion. occasion in/to that place. instant. offended. all matters. wisdom.” “Do!” all things. deception. the person or body considered as a whole 280 as follows. assertion of non-existence. all manner of things.278 force279 declaration. supernatural power274 accomplished. expression that reveals mental disposition having/being/consisting of only/merely. incorporeal but. deceived. atom.” “I beg.277 power. killed. exist. appearance. in which way. fame elephant from “to breathe/move”— “self. also: injured. on the contrary. (in the earliest language) art. renown. be sufficient or able it is not.TSN 27 64 . become. nature. happen. Perception (idea) of elephant-body (-essence) accordingly. life principle. however. brought down275 “instrument of thought. element. unreality. assertion. therein. like … ākāramātraṃ tatrāsti hastī nāsti tu sarvathā. done. in that case. regarding everything281 Table 30. therefore be.Māyā-kṛtam mantravaśāt-khyāti hasti-ātmanā yathā Ākāra-mātram tatra-asti hastī nāsti tu sarvathā. also: name or denomination. external aspect. perception. All objects (manner of things).” (the individual) soul. performed. figure. External aspect (form) being merely on that occasion-of existence.

its appearance or form exists only momentarily. which are spoken formulas or instruments of thought. firm. rule. materially or essentially. it. Although some materially or essentially real thing appears to be there. sometimes "that very" or there. svabhāvaḥ kalpito hastī paratantras tadākṛtiḥ… svabhāva own condition. Spirit. lasting. artificial. prepared. other. continuous. chief matter. regular. assumed. authority. stranger. science. highest degree. doctrine. essential. that. constant. also: the doctrine that the universe was produced and is sustained by the natural and necessary action of substances according to their inherent properties fabricated. remote or different in space. (k)284 Own-state-of-being (own-condition): Assumed elephant inter-dependent (relatively caused) that very appearance… therein non-existent elephant… perfected nature by the wise. distant. she. medicine = (other-. natural state or constitution. There is no real elephant there.The assumed. innate/inherent disposition/nature/impulse. at the best or utmost + tantra. invented parikalpita may be likened to the manifestation of an elephant through the power of mantras.282 Verse 28 svabhāvaḥ kalpito hastī paratantras tadākṛtiḥ/ yas tatra hastyabhāvo’ sau pariniṣpanna iṣyate// (td)283 Svabhāvaḥ kalpito hastī para-tantras-tad-ākṛtiḥ Yas-tatra hasti-abhāvo’sau pariniṣpanna iṣyate. inferred elephant para: far. Absolute. basis. then. own state of being. performed. invented. supposed. this. foundation. This is true of all manner of parikalpita. 65 kalpita hastī paratantra tad . magic. inter-) dependent or relative he. time or order/number/degree.

succeeded = developed. therefore a. 66 . accordingly. announce. not. descended or derived from. nature. kind. impulse pariniṣpanna pari: round.+ bhāva. promote. condition. deliver.. state of being. disposition. arisen.ākṛti therefore. effected. species285 … yas tatra hastyabhāvo’ sau pariniṣpanna iṣyate. non. form. in the direction of. or successively. sublates that appearance to a state of non-appearance.”286 Verse 29 asatkalpas tathā khyāti mūlacittād dvayātmanā/ dvayam atyantato nāsti tatrāsty ākṛtimātrakam// (td)287 Asat-kalpas-tathā khyāti mūla-cittād-dvaya-ātmanā Dvayam-atyanto nāsti tatra-asti-ākṛti-mātrakam. tatra abhāva in/to that place. Duality absolutely non-existent.g. iṣyate: “by the wise” Table 31. in that case. therein. cause to move quickly. entity. perfect. brought about. now constituent part. abundantly. aspect. or against. come or gone forth. (k)288 Mistaken assumptions thus: Root-consciousness (mentation origin) perception (idea) essentially dual. Therein existence is merely appearance (form). about. The pariniṣpanna is “that which remains when the elephant has been negated. severally + niṣpanna. existence. real. fully.TSN 28 The appearance of the elephant has a cause. impel. on that occasion. existing iṣyate seek. by eliminating the utilization of the instrument of thought or speech. e. opposite to or towards. sprung up. animate. appearance. eliminating that cause.

instant. opinion. double from “to breathe/move”— “self. element. not being. nature. abstract individual.” (the individual) soul. double. reflecting. kind. but only the appearance of such. However. wish. observing.asatkalpas tathā khyāti mūlacittād dvayātmanā… asatkalpas asat. intention. nonexistence. also able. absolutely. life principle. assertion of non-existence. character. happen. reason. therefore be. longed for. also: essence. fit. not existing. memory. in that case. visible. exist. also practice. dvaya atyanta nāsti tatra asti ākṛti mātra-ka twofold. exceedingly. foot. of two kinds or natures beyond the proper end or limit. aspect. also noticed. therein. imagining. aim. occasion Table 32. appearance. falsehood + kalpa. unreal. also measure or limit (in space and time). untrue. thus. be sufficient or able constituent part. the heart twofold. there is no duality “there” in fact. incorporeal in/to that place. ground. possible. first duty = mistaken belief about existence in that manner. species having/being/consisting of only/merely. bad. competent. so. there is not. thought. idea. fame root. wrong. intelligence. renown. perpetually it is not. completely. excessively. basis.290 Verse 30 mantravan mūlavijñānaṃ kāṣṭhavat tathatā matā/ hastyākāravad eṣṭavyo vikalpo hastivad dvayam// (td)291 67 . assertion. aimed at. nonentity. form. also: name or denomination. the person or body considered as a whole 289 tathā khyāti mūla citta dvaya ātmanā … dvayam atyantato nāsti tatrāsty ākṛtimātrakam. attending. accordingly declaration. cause mind. atom. likewise.TSN 29 The parikalpita appears as dual by means of the mūla-vijñāna. untruth. origin. feasible. become. perception. foundation. on that occasion. thinking. source. knowledge. manner of proceeding.

double. supposed. true reality. false notion. contrivance. (k)292 Instrument of thought root-consciousness Like a stick true nature believed. external aspect.” sacred text/speech/hymn/formula mūlavijñāna mūla. considered as. imagined. fancy. figure. foot. root. a large stick of wood so basic mentation or the root-consciousness “conjures” ideas about duality. approved295 imagination. Just as the illusion. perceiving. embodied. or as petrified293 tathatā true nature. mantravan mūlavijñānaṃ kāṣṭhavat tathatā matā… mantra “instrument of thought. esteemed … hastyākāravad eṣṭavyo vikalpo hastivad dvayam… hasti ākārava eṣṭavya vikalpa dvaya elephant ākāra: form. understanding. believed. act of distinguishing.Mantravan-mūlavijñānam kāṣṭhavat-tathatā matā Hasti-ākāravad-eṣṭavyo vikatpo hastivad-dvayam. cause + vijñāna. approved. ground. skill. well-formed294 desirable. expression that reveals mental disposition ākāravat. say. difference of perception. recognizing. foundation. true state of things mata thought. of two kinds or natures Table 33. taken for. intended. source. False idea (doubt) elephant dual. science. true suchness. origin. appearance. basis. when practically performed by a “magician” for his audience. involves the “conjuring” of an elephant from. also alternative. either: as fuel. having a form.TSN 30 The mūla-vijñāna functions like the mantra (instrument of thought or sacred speech) in this analogy. distinction. doubt296 twofold. worldly knowledge. to be striven after. designed. Form of the elephant desired. understood. consciousness kāṣṭhavat like a stick.297 68 . knowing.

arthatattvaprativedhe yugapal lakṣaṇakriya… ārtha tattva prativedhe relating to a thing or object. contract304 (traya): triple. at. sign. as the following verses indicate: Verse 31 arthatattvaprativedhe yugapal lakṣaṇakriya/ parijñā ca prahāṇaṃ ca prāptiś ceṣṭā yathākramam// (td)298 Artha-tattva-prativedhe yugapal-lakṣaṇa-trayam Parijñā ca prahāṇam-ca prāptiś-ca-iṣṭā yathā-kramam. characteristic. first principle300 prati: toward. also wounding. in consequence of301 + vedha: pious. cessation. but rather about our understanding of our perception of the elephant. symbol. by. resulting from or based on the possession of a thing (state of) truth or reality. again. in. piercing.TSN 31-34: Knowledge. also: breaking through.” together. argument. near. performance. also hitting (a mark). according to. attribute. Cessation and Obtainment The point of the elephant analogy is not so much about the elephant. breach. over against. opposite. with regard to. excavation. (k)299 In breaking through with regard to the reality (truth) about material things. also ceremony. on. consisting of three yugapad lakṣaṇa kriya or traya … parijñā ca prahāṇaṃ ca prāptiś ceṣṭā yathākramam… 69 . quality (kriyā): action. at the time of. work. significant. Action (behavior) according to order (method). and attainment. back. threefold. disturbance302 “in the same yoke. faithful. simultaneously303 mark. material. before. intrusion. The three definitions work together: Knowledge. in return.

reaching. going. correlative of. like step. succession Table 34. invented). prahāṇa (cessation). finding. recognize305 and. meeting. even. (k)310 Three: knowledge is non-perception. way.308 Verse 32 parijñānupalambho’ tra hānir akhyānam iṣyate/ upalambho ‘nimittas tu prāptiḥ sākṣātkriyāpi sā// (td)309 Parijñā anupalambho’tra hānir-akhānam-iṣyate Upalambha-nimittā tu prāptiḥ sākṣāt-kriyā-api sā. perceive. entering. to parijñā (knowledge). if ceasing. rescue. understand. regular progress. perfected).TSN 31 “Breaking through” epistemically with respect to the true nature of empirically observed objects requires the simultaneous application of three definitions of the svabhāva (ownstates-of-being): the parikalpita (assumed. in which way. to observe. series. attaining. occurrence. performance. -parijñānupalambho’ tra hānir akhyānam iṣyate… 70 . know. gesture. caused) and the pariniṣpanna (complete. according as. the paratantra (interdependent. acquire. learn. behavior. doing as follows. Cessation is non-manifestation… Obtainment is uncaused and direct knowledge. respectively. and prāptiś (attainment). each definition is employed in a methodologically distinct way related. but. action. just. course. effort. vanishing306 advent. yet.parijñā ca prahāṇa prāpti ceṣṭā yathā krama knowledge. proceeding. order. also: validity. also. correctness307 movement. comprehend. action approaching wisdom. However.

learn. also: decrease.parijñā knowledge. cause. entering.. perceive.” immediately. acquire. sign. rescue. insufficiency312 akhyāna non-manifestation. plainly. yet. deprivation. remainder. non-material (i. also ceremony. occurrence. non-appearance iṣyate seek. loss. also: instrumental or efficient cause314 but. target. Hāni (abandonment) of the paratantra occurs through the cessation of mistaken beliefconstruction about reality. also: “Pray!. reaching. cause to move quickly. know. attaining. finding. promote.” “I beg. correctness “before the eyes. understand. cessation. (k)320 71 . actually315 action. performance. wise. end. announce. on the contrary. also: validity. perception.” “Do!” advent. however.318 Verse 33 dvayasyānupalambhena dvayākāro vigacchati/ vigamāt tasya niṣpanno dvayābhāvo’ dhigamyate// (td)319 Dvayasya-anupalambhena dvaya-ākāro vigacchati Vigamāt-tasya niṣpanno dvaya-abhāvo’dhigamyate. omen.e. sleep317 Table 35. meeting. motive. nonexistence. recognition313 a (negation) + nimitta: mark. argument. animate. ground. recognize anupalambha lack of obtainment.TSN 32 Parijñā (knowledge) about reality occurs through the non-perception of parikalpita. upalambha animitta tu prāpti sākṣāt kriyā api sā obtainment. to observe. Upalambha (obtainment) of knowledge about reality occurs through direct. impel. or recognition311 tra three hāni abandonment. iṣyate: “by the wise” … upalambho ‘nimittas tu prāptiḥ sākṣātkriyāpi sā. final emancipation. work. not caused by any admitted material object) perception (or realization) of reality. directly. deliver. relinquishment. perception. comprehend. disappearance. contract uniting with or approaching something316 excellent.

Cessation of flowing. descended or derived from. cessation. disposition. incur. get at. or the conjuring mantra.TSN 33 Parikalpita.Lack of perception of duality.321 vanish. appearance. reach. or recognition ākāra form. of two kinds or natures + asya: sitting. Pariniṣpanna. or the unconditioned (unobscured) truth (log) behind the illusion (elephant) is the result. go or come to. state of rest anupalambha lack of obtainment. disappear322 dvayasya … vigamāt tasya niṣpanno dvayābhāvo’ dhigamyate. vigama tasya niṣpanna abhāva ‘dhig going away. fall into or upon. acquire. indicating reproach (“shame!”)324 = irreproachable Table 36. brought about. dwelling. expression that reveals mental disposition vigacchati vi + gacchati: go. ceases. or the illusory elephant. arisen. figure.325 Verse 34 hastino’ nupalambhaś ca vigamaś ca tadākṛteḥ/ upalambhaś ca kāṣṭhasya māyāyāṃ yugapad yathā// (td)326 72 . double. move. perfected Non-existence (non-condition) irreproachable…. avoidance323 flowing or conveying come or gone forth. condition. absence. abiding. no longer appears in the field of perception once the paratantra. nature. or impulse a (negation) + dhig (from dhik). succeeded absence of: existence. abstention. perception. entity. Dual form disappears. effected. sprung up. external aspect. dvayasyānupalambhena dvayākāro vigacchati… dvaya: twofold. state of being. undergo.

Hastino’nupalambhaś-ca vigamaś-ca tad-ākṛteḥ Upalambhaś-ca kāṣṭhasya māyāyām yugapad-yathā. (k)327 Also simultaneous: elephant non-perception, cessation accordingly of form, and perception of stick abiding in illusion.

hastino’ nupalambhaś ca vigamaś ca tadākṛteḥ… hasti (-na) anupalambha ca vigama tad ākṛti elephant a (negation) + obtainment, perception, or recognition and, also; even, just; but, yet; if going away, cessation, absence; abstention, avoidance he, she, it, that, this; sometimes "that very" or there, then; therefore, accordingly; now constituent part; aspect; form, appearance; kind, species

… upalambhaś ca kāṣṭhasya māyāyāṃ yugapad yathā. kāṣṭhasya asya māya yugapad yathā (kāṣṭhava): like a stick, either: as fuel, or as petrified sitting, abiding, dwelling; state of rest illusion, unreality, deception; (in the earliest language) art, wisdom, supernatural power “in the same yoke,” together, simultaneously as follows; correlative of, in which way, according as, like
Table 37- TSN 34

As in the analogy of the elephant: the non-perception of the elephant (parikalpita), the cessation of the mātra (paratantra), and the perception of the log as it actually is (pariniṣpanna)—that is, as a big stick and not an elephant— occur simultaneously.328

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TSN 35-8: Enlightenment Through Understanding Citta-Mātra Four Arguments for the Thesis Verse 35 viruddhadhīkāraṇatvād buddher vaiyarthyadarśanāt/ jñānatrayānuvṛtteś ca mokṣāpatter ayatnataḥ// (td)329 Viruddha-dhī-vāraṇatvād buddhyā vaiyyarthya-darśanāt Jñāna-traya-anuvṛtteś-ca mokṣa-āpattir-ayatnataḥ (k)330 Doubtful thought restrained, one awakened Verily wise teaching; Knowledge threefold following, And liberation occurring without effort.

viruddhadhīkāraṇatvād buddher vaiyarthyadarśanāt… viruddha dhī vāraṇa tvad buddha vaiyarthya darśana opposed, restrained; surrounded; forbidden; doubtful, precarious; adverse; odious331 perceive, think; desire; (religious) thought, meditation; understanding, intelligence, knowledge; science, art; mind; intention, design; opinion332 warding off, opposing; restraining; preventative; forbidden; sometimes: wild or resistant elephant333 one, several, partly; also (alt. tvam, tvan, tvat); thy, thee, thou, etc. awakened; expanded, conscious, wise; known, understood334 vai: truly, verily335 + arthya: wise336 showing, exhibiting, teaching; observing, perceiving, inspection; apprehension, discernment; also: view, doctrine337

… jñānatrayānuvṛtteś ca mokṣāpatter ayatnataḥ. jñāna traya anuvṛtti ca mokṣa knowing, knowledge, cognizance; wisdom, intelligence; also: mark, sign, characteristic (of recognition)338 triple; threefold, consisting of three following; obedience, conformity, compliance; imitation339 and, also; even, just; but, yet; if liberation, emancipation; release (from transmigration, earthly 74

āpatti ayatnatas

existence); also relinquishment, abandonment340 occurrence; entering into a state, condition, relationship; changing into; also: misfortune, transgression341 without effort or exertion342
Table 38- TSN 35

The viewpoint of the TSN is said to be true for several reasons. First, because “(mind) is the cause of contradictory ideas” or “there being contradictory views in relation to the same moment”; perceiving the truth assists in “getting rid of misunderstanding” or “restraint of thought.”343 Second, because of “intellectually seeing the meaningless,” “the intellect’s vision of unrealities,” or “the intellect’s seeing without a true object.”344 Third, “because of the different developments of the three kinds of knowledge”;345 and fourth, because otherwise, there would be no need to strive for mokṣa (liberation) at all. Consciousness-Occasion Verse 36 cittamātropalambhena jñeyārthānupalambhatā/ jñeyārthānupalambhena syāc cittānupalambhatā// (td)346 Citta-mātra-upalambhena jñeya-artha-artha-anupalambhatā Jñeya-artha anupalambhena syāc-citta-anupalambhatā. (k)347 Perception of consciousness-instant, Non-perception of material object; Non-perception of material object, it may be Non-perception of consciousness.

cittamātropalambhena jñeyārthānupalambhatā…

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citta mātra upalambha jñeya ārtha anupalambha

mind; memory; intelligence; reason; also noticed; aimed at, longed for; visible, attending, observing; thinking, reflecting, imagining, thought; intention, aim, wish; the heart having/being/consisting of only/merely; also measure or limit (in space and time); instant, atom, element; occasion obtainment; perception, recognition to be known; to be learned, understood, perceived, investigated relating to a thing or object; material, significant; resulting from or based on the possession of a thing lack of obtainment, perception, or recognition

… jñeyārthānupalambhena syāt cittānupalambhatā. syāt (alt. syād), perhaps, it may be348
Table 39- TSN 36

Through the perception of citta-mātra arises the non-perception of material objects. Through this non-perception of external “things,” there is non-perception of consciousness itself.349 I have elected here to break with the traditional translation of “mātra” in Vasubandhu’s work as “merely” or “only,” choosing instead “occasion.” While “atom” or “element” would not be viable terms, given Vasubandhu’s forthcoming arguments in the Viṃśika-Karikas again atomic realism, I believe that “occasion” (or “instant”)—if understood as dynamic, momentary, and instantly perishing— would provide a rich alternative to the traditional reading. Acknowledging my lack of expertise in Sanskrit, this is a bold move, but I do not believe that it is an unfounded one. Without belaboring any comparisons to Alfred North Whitehead in the present project,350 I would like to suggest simply that “consciousness-occasion” expresses the fundamental Buddhist idea of momentary existence (or in Whiteheadian terms, “perpetual perishing”) in a way

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that “consciousness-only” or “mere mind” does not. That this expression does not explicitly entail a rejection of any non-mental reality does not, to this author, present any obvious problem at this juncture.

Enlightened Perception Verse 37 dvayor anupalambhena dharmadhātūpalambhatā/ dharmadhātūpalambhena syād vibhutvopalambhatā// (td)351 Dvayor-anupalambhena dharma-dhātu-upalambhatā Dharma-dhātu-upalambhena syād-vibhutva-upalambhatā. (k)352 Non-perception of duality, Perception of fundamental nature of reality; Perception of fundamental nature of reality, It may be Perception of unlimitedness.

dvayor anupalambhena dharmadhātūpalambhatā… dvaya anupalambha dharmadhatu twofold, double; of two kinds or natures lack of obtainment, perception, or recognition dharma: nature, character, condition; essential quality, property, mark ; also according to the nature of; that which is established or firm; steadfast decree, usage, practice; duty, right, justice; virtue, morality; law or doctrine + dhatu: realm, sphere, layer, stratum; also constituent element353 = essence/fundamental nature/ground of dharmas/reality/events/things obtainment; perception, recognition

upalambha

… dharmadhātūpalambhena syād vibhutvopalambhatā. syāt vibhutva (alt. syād), perhaps, it may be omnipresence, omnipotence; unlimitedness354
Table 40- TSN 37

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Through the non-perception of duality, that is, of material objects and immaterial but enduring “selves” (consciousness), there arises the perception of dharma-dhātu, or the essence, ground or fundamental nature of the dharmas (events and things). Through this perception of dharma-dhātu, there is perception of vibhutva, or unlimitedness.355 Verse 38 upalabdhavibhutvaś ca svaparārthaprasiddhitaḥ/ prāpnoty anuttarāṃ bodhiṃ dhīmān kāyatrayātmikām// (td)356 Upalabdha-vibhutvaś-ca sva-para-artha-prasiddhitaḥ Prāpnoti-anuttarām bodhim dhīmān kāya-traya-ātmikām (k)357 Perception of unlimitedness and (perception of) own-absolute-thing-attainment, Attains excellent wisdom (and) the threefold Buddha-bodies.

upalabdhavibhutvaś ca svaparārthaprasiddhitaḥ… upalabdha vibhutva ca sva para ārtha prasiddhi obtained, received; conceived, perceived; also: guessed358 omnipresence, omnipotence; unlimitedness and, also; even, just; but, yet; if own far, distant, remote or different in space, time or order/number/degree; other, stranger; Spirit, Absolute; highest degree; chief matter; at the best or utmost relating to a thing or object; material, significant; resulting from or based on the possession of a thing accomplishment, attainment; proof; also: celebrity, fame; rumor, public opinion; trivial359

… prāpnoty anuttarāṃ bodhiṃ dhīmān kāyatrayātmikām. prāpnoti anuttara attain (to), reach, arrive (at), meet (with), find; also incur, suffer; result, be in force360 principal, chief; best, excellent; fixed, firm; also: without reply, 78

bodhi dhīmant kāya traya ātmīkṛ

silent; evasive reply held to be no answer; also: low, inferior361 perfect knowledge; enlightened intelligence; also: tree of wisdom362 intelligent, wise, sensible363 body; also collection, assemblage364 triple; threefold, consisting of three make one’s own; take possession of365
Table 41- TSN 38

From the perception of unlimitedness and of “own-absolute-thing-attainment,” or the way in which the mind perceives material things, enlightened intelligence arises.366

Summary There are three svabhāva of phenomenal appearances: the paratantra (P= what appears), the kalpita (K= how P appears) and the niṣpanna (N= the absence of K in P). K is the appearance of duality. P is asatkalpa, a false idea about existence. Asatkalpa is of citta (mind). Citta has a causal mode, the ālaya-vijñāna (dwelling-consciousness), which is citavāt, accumulating the impressions of past experience. Citta also has an effected mode, the seven-fold pravṛtti-vijñāna (active- or evolving-consciousness), which evolves as citra, that is, in diverse forms. The causal and effected modes conjointly form the abhūta-kalpa (purely or entirely unreal or untrue construction or assumption) and function in three ways. The first function of cause-and-effect consciousness is as vaipāika (maturational), and occurs by means of the ālaya- (abode) vijñāna in its function as a mūla- (root/cause) vijñāna. The second and third functions are as naimittika (caused) and prātibhāsika (phenomenal), and

79

object/seen.these functions are executed through the eightfold pravṛtti..(active) vijñāna. as well as dual (dvaya) and non-dual (advaya): Sat Existing Kalpita How P Is Imagined Paratantra Phenomenal Appearances Niṣpanna N = Absence of K in P Because it is sadasallakṣano (existing in definition) Because it is sadasallakṣano Asat Non-Existing Because it is atyantābhāva (without real existence) Because it does not exist as it appears Because it is the nonexistence of duality Dvaya Dual Because it is imagined as dual Because it appears as dual Advaya Non-Dual Because it is non-dual in reality Because “its existence as a mere appearance is singular” Because it has the nature of unity without duality Because it exists as nondual (advaya) Because it is the true nature of duality. The caused and phenomenal modes arise as modifications depending upon dṛśya-dṛg-vitti-vṛttita (the subject/seer. Each svabhāva is both existent (sat) and non-existent (asat). The converse is also true.” or “because of (one’s) state as the own-being of a non-existent duality”).” or “because of (the other’s) being the own-being 80 . and knowledge modes of being or functioning).Svabhāva and Non-/Existence and Non-/Duality The svabhāva of the perfected nature is non-different from that of the non-perfected natures. while pariniṣpanna is non-existence of duality (“because the nature (of the first one) is the inexistence of that (duality). viz. Pariniṣpanna is non-different in definition from kalpita because kalpita is non-existent duality (“because the nature (of the last one) is the inexistent duality. its absence Table 42.

”) Non-different in definition because… Kalpita Modified Kalpita Modified == * == (not discussed) Paratantra Modified == * == (not discussed) Niṣpanna Unmodified The svabhāva of N is non-dual and the svabhāva of K is the nonexistence of duality 81 .” or “the former being in the nature of non-existent duality”).”) Paratantra is nondifferent in definition from pariniṣpanna because paratantra does not exist in the form in which it appears. and the svabhāva of pariniṣpanna is the unreality (abhāva) of duality (“because the nature (of the last one) is the inexistent duality.” or “for the former being in the nature of non-existent duality…”).” or “… is by nature non-existent in the form in which it appears.” or “for the perfected nature is essentially nondual”). it has no svabhāva as it appears (“because the nature (of the first one) is not as it appears.”) Kalpita is non-different in definition from pariniṣpanna because the svabhāva of pariniṣpanna is non-dual (“because the nature (of the last one) is non-duality.” or “the imagined nature is essentially the non-existence of that duality.” or “by nature non-existent in the form in which it appears. and pariniṣpanna is the non-existence of appearance (“because the nature (of the first one) is not as it appears.of the non-being of that duality.”) Pariniṣpanna is non-different in definition from paratantra because paratantra is non-existent as it appears (“because the nature (of the last one) is the inexistent reality. that is. and the svabhāva of kalpita is the non-existence of duality (“because the nature (of the first one) is the inexistence of duality.

.Svabhāva and Epistemological Krama 82 .Svabhāva and Non-Difference of the Perfected and Non-Perfected There is a krama (order) of the distinctions or changes among the trisvabhāva. the imagined duality) does not exist It is by nature the absence of the duality imagined 3rd— Niṣpanna Entered via (a) finding non-being of duality within P and (b) understanding how P is a/sat Table 44. Epistemic Definitions 1st— Paratantra 2nd— Kalpita The cause/ground of belief K Conventional belief based on empirical observation Samuccheda (termination) of belief K Existence.e. Duality & Why All Three Are Ungraspable Non-existence of duality Non-existent duality It doesn’t exist as it appears (i. or epistemological conventions) are established regarding the “things” of empirical observation.e. as dual) It (i. about which vyavahārādhikārataḥ (operating rules..Paratantra Modified == * == (not discussed) K is non-existent duality and N is the non-existence of duality == * == (not discussed) P does not exist as it appears and N is the non-existence of appearance Niṣpanna Unmodified P has no svabhāva as it appears and the svabhāva of N is the abhāva of duality == * == (not discussed) Table 43.

”) The pariniṣpanna is the samuccheda (termination) of conventional belief. (“…The imaginary (nature) is the empirical reality”.” It is then that one understands the assumed or invented parikalpita.”) Thus the inference is that one needs to sublate “mere” empirical observation and inference with something more reliable. “…is the cause… of that which exists only conventionally. “… is that which destroys that which exists only conventionally. “… is essentially that which brings about such conventional values”.”) The paratantra is the cause of that belief. The parikalpita (as imagined duality) is non-dual and ungraspable because it—the imagined duality— does not exist. which in contrast is “inexistent duality” or “the duality that is mere imagination. (“The other nature (the absolute. First one understands the nature of the inter-dependent paratantra.” One understands the perfected pariniṣpanna by finding the non-being of duality within the dependent paratantra. (“…[The dependent nature]… is the creator of the empirical reality”.) is the destruction of the empirical reality”. which “…is constituted by the non-existence of reality” or “…is essentially the absence of duality. existing and non-existing. “… is essentially of conventional values”. and understanding that it—the non-being of duality— is itself both asti and nasti. The three svabhāva have in common non-duality and non-graspability by definition.The parikalpita is conventional belief or practice based on empirical observation. “… is that which exists only conventionally. The paratantra (caused or “dependent” phenomenal appearance) is non-dual and ungraspable because it does not exist as it 83 . “… is the nature freed of all conventional values”. “How it is” to the observer will always be effected by the circumstances in which observation happens.

which are spoken formulas or instruments of thought. as dual). respectively. caused) and the pariniṣpanna (complete. “Breaking through” epistemically with respect to the true nature of empirically observed objects requires the simultaneous application of three definitions of the svabhāva (own-states-of-being): the parikalpita (assumed. However. materially or essentially. its appearance or form exists only momentarily. Just as the illusion. invented). when practically performed by a “magician” for his audience. that is. to 84 . eliminating that cause. but only the appearance of such.appears (i. each definition is employed in a methodologically distinct way related.. sublates that appearance to a state of non-appearance. The appearance of the elephant has a cause. there is no duality “there” in fact. invented parikalpita may be likened to the manifestation of an elephant through the power of mantras. The pariniṣpanna is “that which remains when the elephant has been negated. say. However.e.g.” The parikalpita appears as dual by means of the mūla-vijñāna. a large stick of wood so basic mentation or the root-consciousness “conjures” ideas about duality. e.. perfected). the paratantra (interdependent. This is true of all manner of parikalpita. Although some materially or essentially real thing appears to be there. by eliminating the utilization of the instrument of thought or speech. The assumed. the svabhāva (own-state-of-being) of that abhāva (non-being). The mūla-vijñāna functions like the mantra (instrument of thought or sacred speech) in this analogy. There is no real elephant there. involves the “conjuring” of an elephant from. The perfected or complete pariniṣpanna non-dual and ungraspable because it is by its very nature the absence of that imagined duality.

” or “the intellect’s seeing without a true object. the cessation of the mātra (paratantra). not caused by any admitted material object) perception (or realization) of reality.” Second.parijñā (knowledge). perceiving the truth assists in “getting rid of misunderstanding” or “restraint of thought.” “the intellect’s vision of unrealities. or the illusory elephant. Hāni (abandonment) of the paratantra occurs through the cessation of mistaken belief-construction about reality. The viewpoint of the TSN is said to be true for several reasons. “because of the different developments of the three kinds of knowledge”. because “(mind) is the cause of contradictory ideas” or “there being contradictory views in relation to the same moment”. because otherwise.” there is non-perception of consciousness itself. ceases. I have elected here to break with the traditional translation 85 . Through this non-perception of external “things. Upalambha (obtainment) of knowledge about reality occurs through direct. Parijñā (knowledge) about reality occurs through the non-perception of parikalpita. and prāptiś (attainment). First. there would be no need to strive for mokṣa (liberation) at all. because of “intellectually seeing the meaningless. Parikalpita. as a big stick and not an elephant— occur simultaneously.e. Pariniṣpanna.. and the perception of the log as it actually is (pariniṣpanna)—that is. or the conjuring mantra. non-material (i. or the unconditioned (unobscured) truth (log) behind the illusion (elephant) is the result.” Third. Again. prahāṇa (cessation). no longer appears in the field of perception once the paratantra. As in the analogy of the elephant: the non-perception of the elephant (parikalpita). and fourth. Through the perception of citta-mātra arises the non-perception of material objects.

Through this perception of dharma-dhātu. and tend to an absolute form of idealism. ground or fundamental nature of the dharmas (events and things). At this point. 86 . It will remain to be see if such a reading of the following two works is possible. there arises the perception of dharma-dhātu. that is. whether an epistemological reading of the Trisvabhāva in any way affects the contention that the verses on consciousness are clearly metaphysical. there is perception of vibhutva. the argument for the Trisvabhāva-Nirdeśa as an epistemological text seems to be supported. From the perception of unlimitedness and of “own-absolute-thing-attainment.” choosing instead “occasion. That this expression does not explicitly entail a rejection of any non-mental reality does not present any obvious problem. of material objects and immaterial but enduring “selves” (consciousness).” or the way in which the mind perceives material things. or the essence. I believe that “occasion” (or “instant”)—if understood as dynamic. In the final chapter of this project. or unlimitedness.” While “atom” or “element” would not be viable terms. enlightened intelligence arises. and instantly perishing— would provide a rich alternative to the traditional reading. momentary.of “mātra” in Vasubandhu’s work as “merely” or “only. these ideas will be assessed in comparison with the content of Vasubandhu’s Twenty Verses (on the Nature of Consciousness) and Thirty Verses for epistemological and ontological readings. given Vasubandhu’s forthcoming arguments in the Viṃśika-Karikas again atomic realism. and in either case. Through the non-perception of duality.

having a particular rank or order ṂBh. 2. doctrine. theory.de/cgibin/tamil/recherche 06/03/2007.uni-koeln. book. rule. 52 ca (encl. Seven Works of Vasubandhu: The Buddhist Psychological Doctor. {-tvả} n. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Capeller’s Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. surpassing. 51 tantra n. at any rate. past. (Motilal Banarsidass. artificial. intent upon. old.uni-koeln. 2004. just.uni-koeln. {paratā} f. filled with. regular order. the warp of a weft. exceeding. also. i. & degree. but. worse. the Absolute.) 46 Thomas A.uni-koeln. series. basis. Religions of Asia Series no. beyond. i. esp. 48 Kochumuttom. at the utmost. if. inferred. constant. a specific. fabricated. future. Trisvabhāva: a Study of the Development of the Three-ṇature-ṭheory in Yogācāra Buddhism.e. opposite. either in space. 93. 47 Tola and Dragonetti. assumed. p. Mind Only: a Philosophical and Doctrinal Analysis of the Vijñānavāda. means. however ({tu} or {kiṃ tu}). both--and (also {ca--tu}). previous.). order. anything continuous. 1993. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Capeller’s Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. stratagem. 8. even. troop. (Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. later. of History and Religions. hostile--or in time. 1991). It is often joined with {api & eva}.e. Kochumuttom A Buddhist Doctrine of Experience: A New Translation and Interpretation of the Works of Vasubandhu. prepared. --quite consisting of. although--yet. performed. w. Being as Consciousness: Yogācāra Philosophy of Buddhism. loom. (Lund. moreover. a kind of mystic works. former. devoted to. 44 Stefan Anacker. army. regular. (New Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. highest point or degree. n.. foreign.e. as adv. prevalent. yet. Sweden: Dept. University of Lund. expedient. 50 para a. http://webapps. a man's name. or {tatas}). {tantrī} (nom. extreme. chief matter or occupation. medicine. Ṃn. foe. itas}. or essential. distant. iv. a magical formula. foundation. remote. 1984). neg. ancient. the supreme Spirit. caparisoned (as an elephant) L. at least. footnote p. 87 . http://webapps. supposed. better. science. main point. an elephant armed or caparisoned for war W.. superior.) and. but. next. no sooner--than.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 12/08/2006. esp.42 Fernando Tola and Carmen Dragonetti. a kind of allegory Vām.. & prep. Wood. -or in number. far. after (abl. 45 Ake Boquist. abl. mgs mostly w. 219. (Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 06/03/2007. best (in the compar. http://webapps. composed. -ābstr. authority. following. different. remotest distance. (%{A}) f. {-s}) string. hereafter. regulated. at the best. beyond measure. --m..de/cgibin/tamil/recherche 06/03/2007. 49 kalpita mfn. further ({atas. 1982). esp.{ca-ca} as well--as. adj. {ca--na ca (tu}) although--yet not. {na ca--ca} although not--nevertheless. or ---). stranger. well arranged Yāj. subsequent. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Capeller’s Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. 2. last. firm. made.) 43 Thomas E. -. http://webapps. final beatitude. ix. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. more than. invented. m. 166. neither-nor. standing after. another. excessively. lasting. chief part. lute. f. worst. i.

ṣāh.).. &c.2). http://webapps. $. n. and SV. descended from (abl. 45.. about. to fall to a person's lot) Pāṇ.. %{-bhāva} m. natural hatred L. of a Brāhman Pacat. http://webapps. viii.. produced by natural disposition. one who maintains the above doctrine ib. 28.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 01/01/2007. “ naturally mean. Pāṇ. see above. in the direction of. &c.. comp. %{su-mati} L. to the share of (with %{as}.. Ṃn. (%{-yÍ vidyÁ}). %{-tas} ind.uni-koeln. spontaneously) ṠvetŪp. the Buddh. 2. %{-kṛpaṇa} m.. i. xiii. (often repeated ib. viii. &c. KaṭhŪp. also at the beginning of a comp. (%{I}) f. (cf. see %{śata-}. ĀV. Sch. x. completed. %{siddha} mfn.. Ṃn. natural VarBṛṣ. YV. (457.. round about. 1-4. spontaneity. innate. iv..53 pari ind. natural state or constitution. he waters tree after tree) ib. ib. abundantly. succeeded. effected. own condition or state of being. opposite to.) ChŪp. 18 Vārtt. 5-2. from natural disposition.. ibc.. %{-vādin} m. ib. %{dhármaṇas pári}. ṠBr. and %{pary-adhyayana}). 1-4. ii. around.2) Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. 1.) derived from (abl..de/cgibin/tamil/recherche 04/27/2007. Venonia anthelminthica L.uni-koeln. fully. 12). successively. 4 Pat. triad (Buddha. Zd. summit Bālar. except Pāṇ. &c. beyond. by nature. 90. 54 niṣpanna mfn. richly (esp. %{trí} Pāṇ. ḥit. (%{-vāt} or %{-vena} or %{-va-tas} or ibc. severally (e. (ātakam. 1. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on MonierWilliams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. performing sacrifices. ĀV. (ifc. 90.) the state of innate disposition or nature. gone forth or sprung up. ḍharma. “ the triple sacred science.. {pairi}. naturally. (fr. done by nature.. (with abl. Pāṇ. ṂBh. 88 Kāś. &c. innate or inherent disposition. consisting of 3.) about (in space and time) ṚV. threefold.) or %{-tva} n. (= %{-ja} above) VarBṛṣ. id.. away from. impulse. Ṛājat. towards. arisen. in consequence or on account or for the sake of ṚV. outside of. Kāv. %{-tā} f.iii.. %{-śūra} mfn.. http://webapps. &c. also at the beginning or the end of an ind. mfn.. &c. %{A}) native place Vishṇ. 1-4. 119 ṂBh. natural. obvious 88 . Gk. cf. nature. (where also %{parī}) to express fullness or high degree) ṚV.. (in gram. %{vṛkṣam pari sicati}.) ṠBr. a triad (chiefly ifc. 11. (cf. the doctrine that the universe was produced and is sustained by the natural and necessary action of substances according to their inherent properties MW... and chanting (ṚV. ready Kathās. %{-prabhava} mfn. %{-kṛta} mfn. possessing natural heroes (others. rarely instr. to ib. (ṬPrāt.” reciting hymns. against. 4672 (some read %{parisaṃvatsarāt}). %{-vāda} m.g. (1276.. according to ordinance or in conformity with law or right) ṚV. %{-ja} mfn. or %{bhū}. %{-janita} mfn. a woman whose husband and children are living L. 55 traya mf (%{Í})n. more than ĀV. &c... 43) triple.2). established by nature. according to (esp. natural R. 93). ĀitBr. &c. natural or innate wickedness W. 2 ĀV.) R. finished. 5. Var.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 02/11/2007. %{dveṣa} m. ii.. imiate ĀśvṠr. = %{-yÍ vidyÁ} Gaut. and ṣaṃgha) Hcar..) ṣarvad.. (Cf. natural disposition Pacat. of 3 kinds ṚV.) from. f. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. 2 Vṣ. Bhartṛ. self-evident. id. ĀV. 1-4. (with acc.uni-koeln. as a prep.) &181611(591. by oone's self. “ valiant by nature”) ḥit. 56 svabhāva m. after the lapse of Ṃn.. Ṃn. out of ṚV. round. %{-daurjanya} n. brought about.

%{jeyo mahÂrṇavo'tra}. P. i. 1 gabhīra mf(%{A4})n. P. 57 dhīraṇa a. P.Kāś. to be learnt or understood or ascertained or investigated or perceived or inquired about ṠvetŪp. and character are praised together VarBṛṣ. %{aicchat}. %{-vÂrtha-dīpikā} f. 11) deep in sound. 85. statement of the exact nature (of anything). ep. and %{īṣiré} ĀV. 5 . 2. 85. 3. i. ṇ. not to be penetrated or investigated or explored. 4. 61. grave.) Prab. . ṠBr. %{aiṣīt}. %{vônnata-bhāva} mfn... %{-vôkti} f. &c.. cast. sagacious. pl. a ṃantra of the ṚV. 5. search BhP. hence a person who is said to have a deep navel. 3. 58 gambhīra mfn. 19. 41. i. i. iii. and character is called %{tri-g-} mf (%{A})n. xi. see %{aram-iṣ}. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. discharge.: cl. v. to seek. serious. v.. 1) to cause to move quickly. said or declared spontaneously Yāj. %{iṣṇÁti} (p. &c. impf. http://webapps. “ depth. ṂBh. iii. P. of a ṣāman. iv. swing ṚV. &c.” with %{jamadagneḥ}ṇ. (only in the beginning of Pādas. 15 Sa1h.. i. how should we not know how to leave off Bhag.. 2 iṣ 2 ifc.. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. stream out. iv. %{íṣyati} and 9..de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 01/20/2008. 10. throw. (346. %{iṣádhyai} ṚV. and Ved. dense. spontaneous declaration A. (426. incite. speedy. and %{iṣṇāná} ṚV.. voice. the deepness of a man's navel.uni-koeln. 6. ix.de/cgibin/tamil/recherche 04/27/2007. `" inexhaustible "'. of Comm. 3 . pour out. vii.g. Sch. violent singultus (with %{hikkā} Ṣuśr. xiv. to be known (e. impervious BhP. %{iṣṇát} ṚV. 43 BhP./2007. moving quickly. . 24) . six times) ĀV. to deliver (a speech). 38 . &c. 17. also Ā. accurate description of the properties (of things) Kāvyâd. 12 ṂBh. iii) . %{īṣus} ṚV. viii. %{icchate} (ĀV.l. 24. 3 iṣ 3 cl. hollow-toned RV. 3939). m. = %{gabh-} ṚV. %{iṣ}) Ā. 254. of a river ṃegh. of a son of Bhautya VP. Ā. 181. high-minded by nature (%{-tva} n. i. let fly.3) . profound. 5.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 06/2006. http://webapps.uni-koeln. voice. Yāj.. (%{gambh-} MBh. inscrutable . (in post-Vedic writings %{gambh-} is more used than %{gabh-}. to impel. &c. (%{gambh-}. 60 1 iṣ 1 cl. (%{am}) n... mfn. secret.3) Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ SanskritEnglish Dictionary: search results.).. inf. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. 43.) W. 6. a lotus L.uni-koeln. &c. iv. 8 . AV. %{ic-cháti} (ṣubj. http://webapps. lxviii. 39) Ṃn... ṇ. deep (opposed to %{gAdha} and %{dIna}) RV. v. %{iṣ} and %{pari-} 1. %{icchāt} ṚV. it should be known that there is here a great sea VarBṛṣ. deep sounding. (= %{jambh-}) the lemon tree L. Pratāp.uni-koeln. http://webapps. (v. %{kathaṃ na jeyam asmābhir nivartitum}. (%{gambh-} R. ṠBr. (Naigh.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 01/01/2007. ĀV. a hiccup. Vṣ. http://webapps. (= %{gabh-}) ṇ. %{eṣate}. proclaim ĀV. to send out or off. devout. of a son of Manu Bhautya or of Rambha VP. (%{A}) f. pious. uninterrupted (time) BhP. announce. L. ĀV. m. promote ṚV. pf. %{eṣati} (see %{anu-} 1. N. 12. animate.) Hariv. 17. R.. solemn. 59 jeya mfn. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Capeller’s Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. 1. 2737 ṇal. 11.de/cgibin/tamil/recherche 04/27/2007. 13.uni-koeln. 1 R2itus. v. %{-vôkta} mfn.). %{iyeṣa} and 89 . mysterious RV.

Ṡak. or loc. strength. viii. Lat. 16. “ declaration.unikoeln. 4. 31. 67 1 yathā “ in such a manner as follows. however. ṇ. according as. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. seeking for (see %{gav-iṣ}. affluence ṚV. to strive to obtain anything (acc. 9 f. 24 ṣarvad.1) 4 iṣ 4 mfn. 201. 24. 73 VP. Ṡak. as. 23. &c. also Gk. Ṡak.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 02/11/2007. title ṂBh.%{īṣe}. ṭattvas. to choose Ṃn. Ṡak. Comm. &c. %{ha}. {so}. 1. {yadvā} or else. $. {ásciani} cf. p. {(is-te}. &c. wish. Celebrity (personified as daughter of Daksha VP. Yāj. Sax. {yatsatyam} certainly. of {yả} (used also as stem ---).) from any one (abl. fame.”) &52923(169. 27. 17. to be prescribed or ordered Ṃn. 55. R. Pāli %{seyyathā}.). iii. intend ṚV. %{sejjahā}) Pat. iii. 4. {tam}. to acknowledge. {sa}. however. celebrity Ṃn. sg. maintain. %{eṣayati}.. (in Prākṛit {taṃ jahā}. ifc. i. (in surg. 291. xi. to be wanted as a desideratum see 2. Ṃn. to assent. xii.) ain. {heische}. to be accepted or regarded as ṂBh. refreshment. when. ṠBr. fr. %{ivÂGga}.. p. {that-a}. to expect or ask anything from any one ṂBh. ḷith. ii. Kochumuttom. {tum}. 8273 R. Vṣ. concede KātyṠr. $. &c. since. i.) to probe Ṣuśr.. %{eṣitum} or %{eṣṭum}). denomination. ii. if.uni-koeln. Ṃn. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Capeller’s Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. {tunc}. {iskate}. think Pāṇ. 61 Tola & Dragonetti. Germ. http://webapps. ibid. %{ṭ} f. ĀV. 66 khyāti f. ĀitBr.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 06/13/2007.. ibid.. seek for ṚV. to desire.v. i. freshness. m. 90 . ḥit. etc. to {tảd} q.. to be wished or liked. strive. Goth. &c. Mod. {(is)-ta}. comfort. Anacker. iii. (= %{buddhi}) ṣarvad. view.” opinion. (cf. p. 7740. of a son of Ūru by Āgneyī (v. ṛuss. libation.. ĀV. 65 yad n. 23) Hariv. n. renown. request. %{eṣiṣiṣati}. (with %{iṣ} cf. %{iṭ-cara}). &c. cf. R. 222. -. perception. 63 Tola and Dragonetti. %{svāti}) Hariv. %{aiṣīt}. Kochumuttom. %{paśv-iṣ}. ĀitBr. %{sá yáthā-} ṠBr. sap.” namely.). 14 f. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. p..{ảdha yảd} & {yadapi} although.uni-koeln. 3.. 62 See also Tola and Dragonetti. %{iṣṭi}: Caus. 64 Kochumuttom. (cf. footnote p. Often correl. %{ha vai}. to be approved or acknowledged. p. a draught. to be worth. in order that. be favourable. xv. 7. knowledge Yogas. to be wanted ṂBh. %{iṣyate}. 8. as for the fact that. wherefore. %{ya}. Prab. to be asked or requested. (in Veda also unaccented. Ṃn. indeed. %{eṣiṣyate}. ḥit. that (after such verbs as say. increase. think.). anything drunk. {je0skóti}.) 3 yathā ind. {eiscôm}. to endeavour to obtain. regard. assertion BhP. the refreshing waters of the sky..: Pass. “ I ask”.l. to endeavour to make favourable. http://webapps. 7. long for. wish Hariv. or of Kardama BhP. like (also with %{cid}. correlative of %{táthā}) in which manner or way.. ṠBr. 5 iṣ 5 %{ṭ} f. (cf. of a river in Krauca-dvīpa VP. 15: ḍesid. Angl. ḥit. xiv R. Ṛagh. Buddh. 36 ṂBh. as conj. nevertheless. idea. ĀV. why. %{iva}. a name. ōld Germ. as. good condition. 247. Kathās. viś.. enjoyment. to wish or be about to do anything. 93. because. Wood.. $. 219. http://webapps. {(is-)tud}.. of a son of the 4th ṃanu BhP.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 04/27/2007. “ to seek.

de/cgibin/tamil/recherche 02/11/2007. siśe. furnished with.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 04/27/2007. (%{yathâîtat} or %{yathâîvâîtat}. xiii.). duration (also {mātra} n. atom. fashioning. opp. n..g. “ as for that” (841. Ved. %{yathā-tathā} or %{yathā} . foot. http://webapps. 2784. {kṛ} or {kalp} & instr. large. performing L. conviction.uni-koeln. (f. fashioning. fixing. wealth. nature. “ as surely as” .) Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Capeller’s Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. character. moment e. having or being only. action. matter (ph. utensils. shape. sgl. {A} the same contrivance. practice. %{tathā}. caparisoning an elephant ḍaś. settling. --.). maintenance (acc.. http://webapps. situated. or only. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on MonierWilliams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. rule. all--whatever.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 04/27/2007. %{adhi}) ifc. 4 sa 3 (---) one. having. usage. hypothesis ṇyāyam. as. kalpana n.unikoeln. q. 72 kalpana n.. %{cvam}. rolling.uni-koeln. act ṃṛicch. &c. esp. w. creating in the mind. or ---). live on or by). arranging Ṃn. unity of measure. mere--. http://webapps. 73 mātrā f. knowledge... 3 sa 2 (--. evidence.%{tena satyena}.v. or --). confidence. notion.) accompanied by. particle. depending on. “ forming in the imagination. devotion to or pursuit of (loc.in adj.. 68 2 sa 1 pron. in adj. high.uni-koeln. or ---). and followed by correl. fiction Kapṣ. mode of being or acting. quantity. feigning. f. ṂBh. practice Car. etc.unikoeln. making.de/cgibin/tamil/recherche 02/10/2007.-stem of 3d pers. image. making. (%{A}) f. imagining. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. namely (also %{tad yathā}.. &c. form.. & f. “ as here follows”) Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. function or force of a word. arrangement. subject to.. http://webapps. belief. measure. suffix (g. inventing. supplying the forms of {tả}.uni-koeln. certainty. http://webapps. http://webapps. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Capeller’s Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. a pair of scissors or shears L. the same. {sảsmin}. 69 pratyaya m. behaviour. also %{evá}) ṚV. & adv. {a} priv. work. 71 60 vṛtti f. %{tadvat}.). Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Capeller’s Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. commentary on a ṣūtra. livelihood. limit (in sp.%{iva ha}.).. deed.3). (only nom.in subst. form. prosodial instant. cutting. good conduct or respectful behaviour towards (gen. existence. &c. shape. forming. working with edge-tools VarBṛṣ. sẢ} & loc. 7 ādhīna = %{adhīna} q. 116 Yāj.” composition of a poem Prab. style (d. subservient to.. element. {A} & {I}) so and so long. assuming anything to be real.“ so truly”).de/cgibin/tamil/recherche 01/13/2007. ṇ.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 12/08/2006. turning. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. conduct. cutting. (%{I}) f. resting on or in.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 06/08/2007. action.. %{tathā tathā}. %{eva}.. 70 adhīna mfn. a deed.. (fr. BhP. manufacturing. anything put on for ornament ṂBh. m. consisting only of --. trust in (loc. ix.uni-koeln. preparing Ṣuśr. & time).. clipping. after a 91 . money. gen. for instance. idea.v. forming. {sả. being. of a religious ceremony. http://webapps. activity.

de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 06/13/2007. dat. meaning. “ such is the sense” = %{ity arthaḥ} or %{ity abhiprÂyaḥ}. sense (%{iti bhāvaḥ}. pp. an organ of sense L.unikoeln.. with whatever disposition of mind. emotion (2 kinds of Bhāvas are enumerated. ṇ.pp. of th. manner of acting. bhū. ṂBh...g.. (754...v.. 74 bhāva m. mind (%{parituṣṭena bhāvena}. stay.) passion. &c.. http://webapps.g. continuity of the thread of existence through successive births Buddh. ṂBh. turning or transition into (loc. to feel an affection for) ṂBh. or %{tva}. serve for. nature. &c. reality (ibc. being or living creature (%{sarva-bhāvāḥ}. die). Kāv. attachment (%{bhāvaṃ-kṛ}. true condition or state. and %{bhāvena} ind. e. rise. just.). the seat of the feelings or affections. Pratāp.)) in {I} or {ū}). that which is or exists. all earthly objects. occur. meditation L. with loc. &c. &c. be occupied with (loc. supposition Ṃn. appear. opinion.. state of being anything. be possible or suitable. thing or substance. disposition. ṇ. and %{vyabhicārin} or subordinate. %{ekôti-bhāva}. instruction L.) ṂBh. truth. being. really. the state of being a child.) become. with loc. fall to the lot of..uni-koeln. the sense conveyed by the abstract noun (esp. or adv. old age. http://webapps. abide. scarcely. constantly used by commentators at the end of their explanations). live (w. Ṃn. ṣāh. plants and animals) ṃuṇḍŪp. universe L. manner of being. &c. affection. Ṡrṣ. as a term for an impersonal passive or neuter verb having neither agent nor object expressed e. advice.v. 3-1. the womb L. love.. superhuman power L. ṂBh. &c. way of thinking or feeling. (in dram. = he dies. bhavati 1 ({-te}). 66... %{-samanvita}). esp. ifc. %{anyam bhāvam āpadyate}. &c. ṃālatīm. wrongly translated under %{ekôti-bh-}) ṂBh. ( %{bhū}) becoming. be (nom. sentiment. (in rhet.) the fundamental notion of the verb.. Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. to be ill disposed against.. an astrological house or lunar mansion ib. devote one's self to..) a discreet or learned man (as a term of address = respected sir) ṃṛicch. conduct. to make a firm resolution) Ṃn. 107 &c. Kāv... place of birth.. the world. condition.. any state of mind or body. %{bhāvāḥ sthāvara-jaGgamāḥ}. %{bhāvaṃ dṛḍhaṃ-kṛ}. (in gram. %{bhāvam amaGgalaṃ-kṛ}. heart. (cf. wanton sport. continuance (opp. occurring. rank (with %{sthāvira}. Pacat. purport. befall. (in astron. &c. exist.. the Supreme Being L.. of the 8th (42nd) year in Jupiter's cycle of 60 years VarBṛṣ. sometimes added pleonastically to an abstract noun e. ((.. %{pacyate}. truly) ṂBh. birth L.) ib..2). contemplation. with a pleased mind) ṠvetŪp. existing.) the state or condition of a planet L. intention (%{yādṛśena bhāvena}. happen. soul. a simple or artless nature. behaviour Kāv. “ there is cooking” or “ cooking is going on”) Pāṇ. belong to (gen. %{bālabhāva}.. conjecture. Hariv. the state of thinness) Ūp. childhood = %{bālatā}.). r. %{tanutābhāva}. of the 27th Kalpa (s.. %{bhāvo bhāvaṃ nigacchati} = birds of a feather flock together) ṂBh. ṂBh. to cessation. tend or conduce to (dat. get 92 . the latter 33 or 34) Kāv. dalliance L. the %{sthāyin} or primary. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. ṃālav. or loc. ṣāh. ṚPrāt. euphem.. or comp. the former are 8 or 9 according as the ṛasas or sentiments are taken to be 8 or 9.. {na} cease to be.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 01/21/2007. state. of the author of the Bhāvaprākaśa (= %{miśra-bhāva}) Cat.). KātyṠr. temperament.g.. appearance ṠvetŪp. character (%{eko bhāvaḥ} or %{eka-bh-}. {bhūtả} (q... perish.

develop. grow. attain.de/cgibin/tamil/recherche 01/01/2007. or acc. combine. happen. p. serve. P. comprehend. dispel. take for (2 acc. {bi} expand. get possessed of. {A} be present or at hand. injure. appear. profit. fall to a person's (loc. further. nourish. or dat. mock. {pra} come forth. 291. dispose of (gen. {bu3bhūṣati} ({-te}) wish to become or be. state. be able to (infin. be held or contained in (loc.). comprehend.. I. harass. be sufficient or equal. increase. saṃbhūta. strengthen. participate in (acc. suppose. get possessed of. consider as. loc. obtain. saṃbhūya}.). occur. assemble. {bhaṃvatu} good. {prati} equal (acc.). cause to disappear. move on. C. call to mind. produce. exist. attend.). surpass. spring from (abl. perceive. judge ({anyathā} falsely). 93 . rule over.. spread. http://webapps. include. experience. appear. overcome. C. expand. establish.) share or lot. {abhyā} occur. know. effect. C. {samanu} enjoy. divide. deliberate. {antarbhūta. arise. perceive.). {tiras} be absent or lost. happen. C. increase. like. p. 223.{ati} be or become in a high degree.).). Kochumuttom. {abhi} be against. avail (dat. imagine. increase. {abhisam} attain. prefer. give a person (loc. practice. be possible. mix. {parā} perish. overthrow. observe. succumb. to rise or thrive.). be equal to. approach or present with (instr. fill (dat. be born. overcome. take care of (acc. come forth. turn out well. steep. recognize or acknowledge as. assist. learn. -. oppress. enough of this. hear. embrace. be considered as.). live on. augment. 75 See also Tola and Dragonetti. Anacker.) P.e. betake one's self to. help. convict. succeed. scoff. discern. {pari} surround.). ponder. manage. seem (nom. saturate. excel. produce. {bhāvita} (q. -te}. harm.). {anvā} follow. 247. convict. {anu} be after. be numerous or strong. {saha} or loc. p. arise. accomplish. establish. have sexual intercourse with (instr. samudbhūta. prevail. pervade. be united with (instr. discover. cause.something i. or gen.). be. suffice for.) bring into existence or being.). Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Capeller’s Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. overcome (acc. pp. be possible. cause to expand or develop. possible.) credit for (acc. thrive. come up with. 93. C. hurt.). take for (2 acc. be of use. suppose. imagine. destroy.). {bhavet} may be. {sam} come or be together. bring together. surpass. think. exist.). attain. turn to. humiliate. vanish. be able to or capable of (infin. -. be lost. spring up. equal. grow. spring from (abl.). {saha} or {sārdham} & acc. feel. be produced or engendered.v. 31-2.). footnote p. consider. suffer. ḍ. {nis} be off. C. enjoy. comfort. make that-(pp. {ud} come forth. display. penetrate. manifest. refresh. conquer. 76 Tola and Dragonetti. open. imagine. esteem.Cf. prảbhūta. hurt. honor. show. appear. increase. {antar} be within. go to meet. granted.uni-koeln. honor. produce. originate. pass for. show. C. salute. arise. be equal to or a match for (dat. become. {apa} be absent or wanting. Wood. disgrace. occur. p. be lucky ({idảm}). learn.). {upa} approach. 77 Kochumuttom.). fancy. {samud} spring forth. gratify or present with (instr. yield. overcome. disappear. exercise. manifest. know. experience. {bhāvayati. develop. include. vanquish.).). arise. injure. further. happen. separate. know. convince. endeavour at (acc. prosper. pp. {bobhavīti} be repeatedly.). convince.). meet. despise. mingle. 219. ūdbhūta. further. encompass. be able to or capable of (infin. cherish. take for (2 acc. imitate. C. bring forth. use to be. prove.

how? in what manner? whence? (e. idea ṭattvas. an agent. 208) 15 tatra tatra used for double loc.. 34 ṇal. &c. 8. 1. footnote p. mg) go. pride KaushŪp. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Capeller’s Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results.e. self-conceit. %{yadā} (Pacat. everywhere Ṃn. the month that has been spoken of Kathās. succeed. to every place ṂBh. how can there be reliance on thee of murderous mind? %{katham@utsRjya@tvAM@gaccheyam} .de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 01/13/2007. p. 219. a barbarian”). 127). %{tatra māsa}. pass.g. vanish. Wood. how now? what is now to be done? %{katham@mArA7tmake@tvayi@vizvAsaH} . notion.”never”) ṚV. caprice. 223. here and there. perish. 81 sadā ind. %{ka}) . ḍaśar. proceed. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on MonierWilliams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results.uni-koeln. %{katham@etat} . to that place ib. on that occasion. &c.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 04/27/2007.. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Capeller’s Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. of %{tád} ṇal. ṣāh.). (cf. design ĀitBr.) ind. 291. 295.uni-koeln. vi. (also correlative of %{yád} (vi. http://webapps. http://webapps.. ṇ. 67. viii. (W. always. not in Kāś. ĀV. there (in comp. ḥit. 205). 5-3. 19.v. regard. 93. of the father of āgastya (perhaps also of āāgastya himself Pāṇ. then. 10.) ṇ. viii f.uni-koeln. (sg. &c. 32. the family of Māna) ṚV..) of %{tád} (q. or one of the 10 fetters to be got rid of. i. in women). p. therein. yāti (-te).de/cgibin/tamil/recherche 02/10/2007. in that. {yātả} 1 (--. 87 tatra (also %{-trā} ṚV. a wounded sense of honor. escape.) used for the loc. set out. flowing in streams. perpetually (with %{na}. ix. wish. (in astron. act. xviii. in that case.uni-koeln. Pāṇ. fly. or %{ced} (Ṃn. go off. purpose. (%{tá-tra}. behave. &c.)) march. in that and that place. 46) ṚV. (also n. thither. sulking Kāv. depart. of the tenth house VarBṛṣ.de/cgibin/tamil/recherche 02/10/2007. conveying seed. Ṃn. ṂBh. ever. %{ātma-m-}). http://webapps.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 02/10/2007. Pāṇ..2).. p. pp.78 1 retasya a. 88 1 katham ind. p. 2-1. 84 See also Tola and Dragonetti. 86 Kochumuttom. every time. 32 80 2 yā 2 going (---). continually. BhP. in that place. Ṃn. vii. conception.mostly w. honor Ṃn. MWB. ((-. (with Buddhists one of the 6 evil feelings ḍharmas. 57. … 3 srotasya a. “ that month” i. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. therefore. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on MonierWilliams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. Anacker. &c. %{cÂdi}. du. ( %{man}) opinion. act. 3 yā. v.. 79 Wood. Kochumuttom. under those circumstances. also a blockhead (809. respect. %{yadi} (Ṃn. p.) consideration. xii. 87 ṂBh. correlative of %{yá-tra}. how is that? %{katham@idAnIm} . 83 Wood. 3. &c. 82 8 māna 1 m. 4 ĀV. anger or indignation excited by jealousy (esp. p. 247. travel. and pl. 2. speed. 8). http://webapps.uni-koeln. Cāṇ. 35) ṚV.. 32. arrogance. 85 Tola and Dragonetti.). http://webapps. how can I go away 94 . p. &c. g. (fr.

shall I declare myself or shall I withdraw?) %{katham} is often found in connection with the particles %{iva} . proper. ii. in a moderate degree . sometimes %{katham} merely introduces an interrogation (e. with some difficulty . %{katham@api} . 134.v. able. not competent for his own work.. most decidedly . at the beginning of an adjective compound it may also have the sense of %{kim}). 90 kalpa 1 mf (%{A})n. not at all . 9.uni-koeln. 8 ĀV. 89 asat mf (%{á-satī})n. 147 ṂBh. %{svid} . 3.. i. pl. %{katham@api@na} . investigation.. 10. like %{kim} . %{vikalpa}) ṣarvad. &c. vii. a rule to be observed before any other rule. %{cid} .. %{kathaM@cana} . (in ṚV.).. scarcely a little . (%{prathamaḥ kalpaḥ}. %{etena kalpena}.. a sacred precept. ix. %{na@kathaMcit} .de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 11/30/2006. untruth. m. . Ṃn. with difficulty . Indra L. seven times %{ásat} and five times %{Ásat} with lengthening of the accentuated vowel) not being. whence is it that death has power over those that know the Veda? %{katham@avagamyate} . 104. see s. on ṣāṃkhyak. wrong ṚV. %{na@kathaM@cana} . how much more! %{na@kathaM@nu} . proceeding.) treatment of the sick. 128. manner of curing Ṣuśr. cf. loc. ĀV. %{yathA@kathaMcit} . with the particles %{cana} . some how or other . practicable. according to lexicographers %{katham} is a particle implying amazement . &c. viii. which give an indefinite sense to the interrogative (e. first duty Ṃn. %{svakarmaṇi na kalpaḥ}. (%{t}) n.g. non-existence. not existing. how will she be when she awakes? %{katham@mRtyuH} . pleasure . (%{tī}) f. 4. bad or contemptible men ṂBh.deserting you? %{katham@buddhvA@bhaviSyati@sA} . http://webapps. that prescribed by the Vedas) ṚV. in no way at all . competent. equal to (with gen. inf. competent for duty.de/cgibin/tamil/recherche 04/03/2008. 12. research Comm. %{yadā na śāsituṃ kalpaḥ}. one of two cases. in any way . an alternative (= %{pakṣa}. 2 kathaM (in comp. 7 ĀV. %{katham@AtmAnaM@nivedayAmi@kathaM@vA7tmA7pahAraM@karomi} . Pāṇ. http://webapps. which appear to generalize the interrogation (how possibly? how indeed? &c... %{dharmasya kalpaḥ}. (%{ntas}) m. evil Ṛagh. %{nAma} . how much less!) %{katham} is often connected . %{nu} . (in medic. or %{kutas} (e. %{paśu-k-}. untrue. 10. or ifc. %{prabhavati@vedavidAm} . xx. ordinance (= %{vidhi}... (%{klṛp}). some how .g. ii. 9. in any way . abuse. &c. &c. in no way not i.. it is with difficulty that he lives . vii.g. by some means or other . %{na@kathaMcid@na} .g.. if he is not able to rule) BhP. e. surprise . Ūp. falsehood ṚV. (%{n}) m. possible ṠBr. iv. %{nyāya}). with %{nu} it is sometimes = %{kimu} . Kum. 3. %{kathaMcid@yadi@jIvati} . a little . practice (esp. &c. 8. bad ṠBr.) . not at all) RV. some how or other . cf. by no means .e. below. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results.. scarcely . 95 . in no way whatever . iii. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on MonierWilliams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. &c. 6-11 ṂBh. with some difficulty . scarcely .. whence is it inferred?) . in any way whatsoever . unreal ṚV. rule. %{kathaMcit} . &c. fit. the most complete of the six Vedāṅgas (that which prescribes the ritual and gives rules for ceremonial or sacrificial acts) ṃuṇḍŪp. determination MW. law. in this way. and %{api} . for %{katham} . feasible.uni-koeln. resolve. %{katkaM@nu} . manner of acting. one side of an argument. nonentity ṚV.

at the end of a Kalpa the world is annihilated. v ṠBr. and one hundred such years his lifetime. &c. qq.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 04/27/2007. i. of Ṡiva ṂBh.) Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. 6-3. Ṛājat. ṇ.) having the manner or form of anything. 147.. 7 kā 3 = %{kan} (perf. two things. desire. 67). 91 asatkalpanā f. and dat. Kāv. %{abhedya-kalpa}.. Ṛājat. $. a wrong supposition Ṡak. %{-bhava} and %{kalpÂtīta} below). 1. 93 6 kā 2 = 2. iii. between Ṡiś. (%{-ye} m. ṂBh. %{ku} in comp. 10368. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. a month of Brahmā is supposed to contain thirty such Kalpas. xii.. g. ṇ. %{A} R.unikoeln.. be satisfied with (loc. a kind of dance.g. similar to. 57). i. couple. asatkalpanā f. resembling. Gk. according to the ṂBh. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Capeller’s Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. fifty years of Brahmā's are supposed to have elapsed. Ṡis. he cooks pretty well Kāś. satisfy ṚV. be wished for. i. iv. 2) Yāj. be sought after. lie. 92 dvaya $ n. http://webapps. %{kalpam} ind. %{pacati-kalpam}. the tree of paradise. %{kalpa} so used is an accentless affix (Pāṇ. &c.unikoeln. measuring the duration of the world. cf.uni-koeln. 5-3.the art of preparing medicine. double.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 04/27/2007. the doctrine of poisons and antidotes Ṣuśr. %{kā-patha}.) ṚV. pharmacy Car. iv.: īntens. and we are now in the %{śvetavārāha-kalpa} of the fifty-first. to express depreciation e. and in comp = %{dvi}) twofold. &c. 29.. %{A-}. of ṃantras which contain a form of %{klṛp} Tṣ. ṇ. of a son of ḍhruva and Bhrami BhP.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 02/11/2007. Vop. three hundred and twenty millions of years of mortals. (ifc. Br. Pāṇ. hence %{kalpa} is said to be equal to %{kalpÂnta} below L. = %{-taru} below L.uni-koeln. gender Gr. ĀV. yearn. the 2 luminaries Ṡak. (ifc. n. according to native grammarians.. enjoy. to like. %{kÂkṣa}. (p. with Buddhists the Kalpas are not of equal duration) VP. pl. see %{kÁyamāna} s. &c. fabrication of an untruth.v.g. love (with acc. %{kôṣṇa}. a fabulous period of time (a day of Brahmā or one thousand Yugas. x. both (e. %{cakāná}. almost impenetrable. %{saṃ-} 3. %{kāti}. %{tejo-}. %{kā}. (%{am}) n. (fr. 8-1. vi. %{kád} and 1. 29.. 93.unikoeln. before which a final %{s} is left unchanged. 1 (cf. %{cākát}) to please. twofold nature. http://webapps.. %{prabhāta-k-}. the masc. ix. Zd. id”. of 2 kinds or sorts ṚV. (Cf. %{cake}. 57) (262. twelve months of Brahmā constitute his year. like but with a degree of inferiority.. on Pāṇ.. iii..3).). to seek. and final %{I} and %{ū} shortened Pāṇ. http://webapps.) Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. %{mṛta-k-}. 96 . ṂBh. (%{am}) ind. pair Naish. vv. and fem. 14). a kind of intoxicating liquor (incorrect for %{kalya}) L Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. http://webapps.. (%{I}) f. 3. may be also connected with a verb e. 4 &c. BhP. or inst. a period of four thousand.) ṚV.. (with ainas) a particular abode of deities (cf. 104 Vop. %{anu-}. http://webapps.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 04/27/2007. 10. falsehood ṚV. of the first astrological mansion VarBṛṣ.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 01/01/2007. gen. {dvaya}. %{kāpuruṣa}.g. almost (e.

&c. aor. vii. %{yā sā śrī}. “ those very two”. (%{na} + %{asti}) it is. for that reason. 104 tad (nom. n. xiv. ix. so also. with other demonstratives and with relatives e. %{yasya buddhiḥ sa balavān}.. of and base in comp. sg. vi. vii.uni-koeln. num? w. “ that very tale” ĀitBr.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 01/01/2007. ĀitBr. i. &c. p. then.” Tola and Dragonetti. of %{cêd} Ṡak. for 2. thither. 291.) ṚV. acc. n. and ĀV. 291. or instr. it. 41 ṂBh. “nature. {cid} anywhere. love. 100 Wood.. Pacat.) Ṃn. of %{yátra} ṠBr. and acc.. 32. 28. %{taís} ĀV. p. {kảccid & kaccinnu = kad} alone. neg. 97 See also Tola and Dragonetti. 102. m. 247. 10 kū. of %{yadi} ṇal. non-existence Ṡaṃk. p.Kā (prefix): 40 kā 1 (---) = {kad} or {ku} (---). Kathās. please...) m. “ because” ḍaś. p.” Anacker. “ with reference to that there are these two verses”) PraśnŪp. http://webapps. long for.. iv. %{sás} or %{sá} & f. equally. be liked. (w.” Wood. p.). {akāniṣam}. kad (Ved.Cf.uni-koeln. 1 ĀV. to that spot (correlative of %{yátra} or %{yátas}) ĀV. 10). 427) ṚV. not. 96 “Essence. 222. ii. footnote p.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 01/01/2007. sg. assertion of non-existence. ((. 94 nāsti ind. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Capeller’s Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. where? w. i. &c. wish. 103 Kochumuttom. Naish. 11 ṠBr. 93. this (often correlative of %{yá} generally standing in the preceding clause e. &c. 84. in that place. that. 102 Tola and Dragonetti. %{yád} ĀV. 25. xi. p. &c. “ I that very person. &c.. & perf. %{so’ham}. 9 kū 2 adv. I myself” (%{tasya} = %{mama} ṇal. %{yat tat kāraṇam}. gen. (%{tad etau ślokau bhavataḥ}. 41 kā 2 v. ĀV. Ved. in this manner. 247.. kuvate. Wood. Anacker. {saṃcakānả}. xv ṠBr. atheism Hariv. %{-tva} n.g. sgl. (%{tád}) ind. “ of whom there is intellect he is strong”. be satisfied with. ibid. {kẢyamāna}. or intens-stem {cākan} or {cakān}) be glad. sometimes. %{yena}. there.. %{tá} from which latter all the cases of this pron. therefore. 18. 99 Tola and Dragonetti. 219. desire (acc. %{tébhis} ṚV. ĀitBr. & {canả} by no means.). for the sake of emphasis.. Kochumuttom. ibid. where it marks abnormity or defectiveness. http://webapps. consequently (sometimes correlative of %{yatas}.. 101 Anacker. with regard to that. 222. xiv ChŪp. xiii ṠBr. %{-mūrti} mfn. 11.)) 391 kan (only pp. 32. “ that very fortune which” ṂBh. incorporeal. p.{A} be pleased with (loc. %{tāv imau}. in that case (correlative of %{yadÁ}. at that time. ĀitBr.. this world (cf. Often ---. &c. “of events. %{yad}. loc. %{sÁ}. on that account. %{idam}) R. x.g. he f. %{tad etad ākhyānam}. she n. (%{tad}) n. xv Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon 97 .). now (clause-connecting particle) ĀV. -. there is not. thus. xv. “ that very reason which” Ṃn. are formed except nom. instr. pl. = Brahma see %{tat-tva}. p. &c. connected with the 1st and 2nd personal pronouns. %{-vāda} m. 95 Kochumuttom. p. strive after. gen. 98 Kochumuttom.. p.). ibid. {kan}. {A} 1 intend. ix.. Bhag. enjoy (acc. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ SanskritEnglish Dictionary: search results. w. %{-tā} f. of {ka}1) none. -.

well. and.v. 105 hi 2 (indecl. absolutely.) for.. yena.e. it is not so” Bādar. often joined with other particles. %{cÂdi} and Pāṇ. %{vā}.. g. perfect. excessively. 170.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 06/02/2007. %{utá}. %{khalu} q.uni-koeln. unbroken. accordingly. 13 (cf. v. 110 Vop. %{tv eva}.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 12/02/2006. very great. absolute.. ii. Vām. 335. then. verily. Ṃn. viii. indeed.) ṂBh. 395 ib. %{ha} (cf. completely. %{artha}). no. before round or collective numbers and after any numeral in the instr..i.uni-koeln. like %{a}. %{ekayā na viṃśati}. surely. to be settled or arranged VarBṛṣ.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 12/08/2006. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ SanskritEnglish Dictionary: search results.unikoeln. form compounds Vām. 9. &c. 31) &c. 8-1. neither ṚV. it generally forms a strong affirmation (cf. beside those mentioned above esp. perpetually Pat. (%{am}) ind. 1. 9 ṇal. (as well in simple negation as in wishing. 1. -. %{tv eva tu}. as adv. for ever.ii.. to be conceived or imagined VarBṛṣ. 8) &c. (cf.g.v. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Capeller's 1891 Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. 17. %{mā}). %{cêd} q. perpetual. 19 ṠBr. quite Pat. even. esp. at the second place or further on in the sentence e. 9) e.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 04/27/2007. endless. or an augmentless aor. http://webapps. 21. to the end. requesting and commanding. %{pañcabhir na catvāri śatāni}. to {yad.uni-koeln. &c.. now. %{api vā}.) Naish. to be prescribed. it may even be replaced by %{ca}. %{vÂpi} or %{atha vā} ṚV. conj. it may also. 18) to be formed from (inst.used also as stem). (Pāṇ. 98 . tad n. material. beyond the proper end or limit. that not. exceedingly. 108 atyanta mfn. %{nô}).uni-koeln. not 20 by 1 i. in successive sentences or clauses either simply repeated e. %{api}. yatas. 106 kalpya mfn. for fear lest (with Pot. 14. to be performed. sg. a. it expresses deficiency e. to be substituted W. or optat. (%{āya}) dat. 35 ṣarvad.uni-koeln. 98 ṇal.. %{api ca}. 24. except in prohibition before an īmpv. 34.. lest. 158 4 na or not-but na 2 ind.). often connecting two sentences & correl. http://webapps. nor. namely.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 11/30/2006.g. because. 151. http://webapps. http://webapps. relating to a thing or object. %{vā}.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 01/01/2007. i. xxvi. she will most certainly declare Ṡak. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. %{nêyaṃ na vakṣyati}. as Ṃn..based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. by %{u} (cf. with another %{na} or an %{a} priv. in perpetuity. 107 ārtha mf (%{I})n.iv. 109 1 na. x. iii. pray (with an imper. iii.v. or abl. yadi}. he must certainly be punished Ṃn. ii. &c.g.) ṣāh. resulting from or based on the possession of a thing Pat. %{cÂpi}. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. relating to ritual W. ind. v. excessive. %{nÂdaṇḍyo’sti}. (fr. viii. &c. no. there. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Capeller’s Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. 3-1. 1. 2.. significant (opposed to %{śābda} q.{tadapi} nevertheless. 34. (%{nā}.. or strengthened by another particle. not.g. below)). with a following %{tu}. alone.. http://webapps.. very strong. {tadyathā} for instance. or {ced}. of {tả} (--. therefore.. http://webapps.

1) = %{vidyā} (ifc. %{daṇḍa-nīti}.. 963. in this sense it does not coalesce metrically with a following vowel). magical skill MW. such as agriculture. viś. 965. 23 Pat.” motive. 114 1 hetu &c.” “ caused or effected or actuated or attracted or impelled by” e. %{karma-hetu}. the science of government.unikoeln. %{ātma-vidyā}. 1303. science. ṇyāya. &c. “ not” i. incantation ṂBh... Ṛagh.) the agent of the causal verb Pāṇ. &161835(523. &c. others reckon 33 and even 64 sciences (= %{kalās} or arts). &c. 112 Tola and Dragonetti. (according to some there are four Vidyās or sciences. %{vidyāmaṇi}). {ne}. knowledge of soul or of spiritual truth. rarely dat. logic and metaphysics. ḍaś. cause of. Kathās.. the four Vedas. or comp. Vidyā has fourteen divisions.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 06/01/2007. like. %{trayī}. the Purāṇas. 1.) -2.” “ by reason of. e. medicine &c. see %{a-v-} %{-kṛta-vidya}. “ wherefore?” “ why?” Pāṇ. %{hetur alaukikaḥ}. to %{pratyaya} q. (in gram. she is even said to have composed prayers and magical formulas). a small bell L.. 111 Anacker.. scholarship. %{kāla-jāta-v-}). 496. drink like (lit. 2 vidyā f.. 94. īW. %{mama hetoḥ} or %{mad-dhetoḥ}.R. acquiring. “ in order to kill”. Angl. %{mṛtyu-hetave}. $. and ṃanu vii. e. 3 vidya 2 n. 3.. %{hetu} also = “ having as a cause or motive. 4 vidya 1 %{vidyā} &c. ifc. %{anena hetunā} or %{iti hetoḥ}. x. the reason for an inference (esp. p. http://webapps. 113 Kochumuttom. %{gauro na tṛṣitaḥ piba}. “ although not being”) a thirsty deer. (Cf. the ṃīmāṉsā. ii. 5 vidya 2 %{vidyamāna} &c. (with Buddhists) primary cause (as opp. as it were (only in Veda and later artificial language.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 01/02/2007. “ on account of me”). as. footnote p. %{karma-phala-hetu}. http://webapps. any knowledge whether true or false (with Pāśupatas) ṣarvad.. col. col.3) Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. %{māṃsa-hetu}. %{yato hetoḥ}. %{samāna-vidya-tā}). commerce. Premna ṣpinosa L. 219. %{hetunā}. see p. gaining (see %{pativ-} and %{putra-v-}). cause. &c. learning. according to others.. or with the four ūpa-vedas. finding. (cf. %{hetoḥ}. {no}. a kind of magical pill (which placed in the mouth is supposed to give the power of ascending to heaven) W. 49.g. see p. knowledge (cf. the triple Veda. (966. 43 adds a fifth. viś. 49) ṚV.1) {ne8-}. “ impelled by (the expectation of) the consequences of any act” BhP. Eng. philosophy ṚV. “ attracted by (the smell of) flesh” ṂBh.. (with Paśupatas) that which causes 99 . 61. of the letter %{i} Ūp. Sax.g. 3. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. reason for (loc. “ because”. 3. i. %{kaṃ hetum} or %{ko heṭuḥ}.” “ on account of” (with gen. and ḍharma or law (964. %{vārttā}. logic (in general see %{hetuvidyā}).1). col. “ for this reason”. or gen. &c. eighteen divisions. applied to the second member or āvayava of the fivemembered syllogism see %{nyāya}) ṇyāyad.. Lat. “ impulse. practical arts.g.) ṣarvad. “ not”. 2..v. 4. “ caused by the acts (of a former existence)” Ṃn. 110 1 vidya 1 (for 2.uni-koeln. 291. “ for a cause or reason. see p. Knowledge is also personified and identified with ḍurgā. a logical reason or dedaction or argument. the six Vedāṅgas. p.e. 2-2. 2 hetu m. %{hetau}. &c. 55 &c. a spell. %{hetave}... see p. 47. 1. Gk. a mystical ṇ. %{ānvīkṣikī}. 1-4. “ a supernatural cause”. 965.

&c.. ascertainment Yāj. Kāv.. a shield L. m.. and n. a creator. of an ūpanishad. 116 3 bhāvana 2 mf (%{I})n. BhP.. ṣāh... demonstration. &c. supposition. fancying... conception. n. &c. a means (%{hetubhiḥ} ifc..) Bhar. %{puṣpa}).. reflection.de/cgibin/tamil/recherche 06/01/2007. ṇ. %{bhÁ} p. donation L. http://webapps. &c. %{-nāmbandh}. advantage or disadvantage KātyṠr. imagination. forming in the mind. (ifc. 750) causing to be. in 2 parts or ways (%{vibhinna}) R. Gol.. the act of producing or effecting Ṇir.de/cgibin/tamil/recherche 12/02/2006. efficient ṂBh. result. ii.. price..r.) L. (ifc. gain or loss. the fruit of ḍillenia ṣpeciosa L. argument. 100 . the external world and the senses ib. Caus. with loc. enjoyment Pacat. BhP. Kum. (with ainas) right conception or notion. {spilda}. &c. v. contemplation (5 kinds with Buddhists MWB.. the point of an arrow Kauś. the menstrual discharge L. in thought. in imagination. (in math. interest on capital ib. Ṃn. (= %{adhivāsanā}) L. 24. for 1. of 2 kinds ṣāṅkhṠr.. Ṡaṃk. cost Ṛājat. 54. producing. thought. Yāj.. (%{A}) ind. retribution (good or bad). steeping. apprehension. condition ṂBh. imagining. ṇ.) finding by combination or composition. producer.... a gift.. (cf. the moral of a fable ḥPariś.) = %{kāvya-liGga} (q. area or superficial contents of a figure Āryabh. teaching ṂBh.) welfare ṂBh. (in logic) that cause of memory which arises from direct perception ṭarkas.. furthering. the 3 myrobalans (= %{tri-phalā} q. 70. saturating any powder with fluid. (cf. Wrightia āntidysenterica L. the third term in a rule of three sum ib. āglaia ōdorata L. āshṭāvṣ. w. a ploughshare (= %{phāla}) L. application of perfumes &c.v... product or quotient &c.) the result of a calculation. 117 1 dvividha mfn. f. displaying.v. 71. a blade (of a sword or knife) ṂBh. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ SanskritEnglish Dictionary: search results. direct one's thoughts to) ṂBh. (%{A}) f. Kāv. ṂBh.. a species of plant Car. Ṣuśr. manner (%{hetubhiḥ} ifc. (in arithm. of trees) ṚV. to occupy one's imagination with. (in rhet. (%{A}) f.e. ṣāh. http://webapps. ṣūryas. mode. 161 (716. R.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 06/01/2007. Goth.... for %{tula} ḥcat. two fold. %{A} or %{I}) fruit (esp. (fr. consequence. Āmar. R. faith in (loc.. compensation Yāj. “ by means of”) ṂBh. promoting or effecting any one's (gen...the bondage of the soul i.. infusion Ṡārṅgṣ.uni-koeln. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on MonierWilliams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. Sch. http://webapps... promoting ṂBh.. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on MonierWilliams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results.3).). the kernel or seed of a fruit. iv. īcel. 115 phala n. ii. ṣāh. or comp. &c. fruit (met. Kāv... effecting. a nutmeg Ṣuśr...uni-koeln.v.) Pacat. reward or punishment. Vedântas... of the 22nd Kalpa (q.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 06/01/2007. a kind of fish (= %{phali}) L. Kpr..uni-koeln... feeling of devotion.. {spjald}). corrective equation ib. m... “ according to”) ib. 128).uni-koeln. of Ṡiva (= %{dhyātṛ}) ṂBh. a point or spot on a die ṂBh. effect. fancy. manifesting ṂBh. water L.. http://webapps. a crow L. (%{I}) f. vii. essence ṛāmatŪp. of Vishṇu A. (in rhet. see 2. (%{A}) f. a gaming board ṂBh. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. Ṣuśr.) the issue or end of an action ḍaś. Kāv. benefit.).) nature. meditation (%{bhāvanayā} ind.

http://webapps. e. 223. 51. a receptacle.. ṇ.) restless Ṡiś. &c. %{-vijñāna} ṣarvad. news. 120 1 saptadhā adv. ( %{lī}). behaviour. ṂBh. (in the ṇyāya one of the 82 Prameyas īW.uni-koeln. %{-mat} mfn.de/cgibin/tamil/recherche 06/01/2007. progress GṛṠrṣ. 3 saṃkleśana n.. 47). 124 2 saṃkleśa m. Yāj. cognition of the things belonging to the external world Buddh.. Anacker. prosecution of. %{mārga} m. 63). and n.. tidings.”an emissary. of wk. &c. coming forth. prevalence ib. &c. %{-nirvāṇa} n. 119 3 pravṛtti f. http://webapps.. 121 See also Tola and Dragonetti. %{paróGmukha} mf (%{I})n. the applicability or validity of a rule KātyṠr. iv. &c. footnote p.) Ṛājat. ṂBh. m. %{an-aya}). (a word) expressing activity Kāś. activity. “ the abode of snow.. p. pain. in seven parts. Pāṇ. suffering. destiny R.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 06/01/2007.. inclination or predilection for (loc. conduct. Kathās. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Capeller’s Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. the exudation from the temples of a rutting elephant L. advance. (often ifc. on Pāṇ. (w. %{-ja}. p. Sch. agent. consisting of seven. Wood. non-dissolution.) the multiplier W. and defined as consisting of the wish to act. ḥit. manifestation ṠvetŪp.”) 4 alayas see 2.) and to contemplative devotion. %{-jóna} n. 2-3. currency.. lot. fate. source.. Vikr.. 122 Tola and Dragonetti. 2 saptadhātu a. Kālid. ṇ. %{-nimitta} n. iii. for %{pra-kṛti}?). “ a sensuous cognition”) Yogas.. Ṛājat. 3 ālaya m. “ knowing the news. ṣāṃkhyak. 248. cessation of afflictions MW. 32. 291.118 1 ālaya m.g.uni-koeln. %{himÂlaya}. continuance. %{ali} Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on MonierWilliams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. or comp. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. active life (as opp.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 06/01/2007.. sevenfold. Kochumuttom.uni-koeln.. active or worldly life. devoted to anything. ṂBh.. http://webapps. 94. Kāv. course or tendency towards. 2 ālaya see %{A-lī}. a house. ṂBh. 10 (v. function Kap. employment Ṃn. %{vacana} mfn. a belief in or conception of the things relating to the external world Buddh.. dwelling. disinclined to give tidings Vikr. practice Ṃn. exertion. Ṣuśr. 219.. to %{ni-vṛtti} (q. use. %{-nivṛtti-mat} mfn.. %{-tty-aGga} n. (cf...de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 06/01/2007.r. (in arithm.. cognition (with %{viṣaya-vatī}. seven times. asylum R..) ṂBh. the reason for the use of any term in the particular significations which it bears MW. p.. p.. &c. %{-vijñāna} n. or comp. application. and accomplishment of the object) W. ṂBh. ṃārkP. 57. 123 Kochumuttom.. efficacy. %{-pratyaya} m. spy L. connected with activity and inactivity BhP. origin. http://webapps. Kaiy. R. occupancy about the business and pleasures of the world or with the rites and works of religion MW. of āvanti or ōujein or any holy place L. knowledge of the means. 101 .. affliction ṂBh.l.uni-koeln. 71. intelligence of (gen. rise.v. moving onwards. giving or devoting one's self to. causing pain Car. iv. p. (mfn. ṣāh. permanence R. appearance.

&c. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. 21..uni-koeln. 5. i. &c. 68. set with ṂBh.. surface (of the earth). 102 . peel ṚV. v. the tenth). viii. hide (of goats.. xix. mfn. analysis. iii.. the black man. &c. f. R.2) Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results.. of ḍurgā BhP.. (also written %{vīja}. 5. 6.. a leather bag ṚV.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 12/08/2006. (%{A}) f. rind. thinking of. (%{kṛṣṇÁ}). 4 ĀV. ṇ. with %{kṛṣṇÁ} or %{ásiknī}. expectation. demonstration (= %{upapatti}) Gol. &c. (%{ās}) m. 1. cinnamon tree L. (138. (%{A}) f. a cow's hide (used in pressing out the ṣoma). the mistake that there is a difference) ib. 22. excellent ĀV. calculation of original or primary germs. a class of deities VP. 82. imagination. i. iii.. 8).de/cgibin/tamil/recherche 02/10/2007. earlier. heaped ṚV. (fig. Kāv. 130. the germ or origin of any composition (as of a poem. of the letter %{ya} ṛāmatŪp. Kathās. funeral pile ḷāṭy. %{cíti} see 1. 3 cita 1. notion. “ a cloud”) i & ix. of a Comm. %{bheda-v-}. any germ.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 06/01/2007. xix. i. of the plot of a drama. &c.”i.” darkness ṚV. (Pāṇ.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 06/01/2007. gained ṃuṇḍŪp. cinnamon. confidence W. multitude L. x. anything serving as a receptacle or support (= %{ālambana}).. %{ekādaśÂdya}. 4-3. 24. element. (in math. &c. inlaid. 5. immediately preceding (e. 1. unparalleled.. algebra Col.. forming a mass (hair) Buddh.. older. %{A}) seed (of plants). I ṂBh. &c. 50. ṇ. 7. cows &c. Kāv. Ṛājat.. lxxvii. http://webapps. BhP. immediately before the eleventh i. i. the present consciousness of past perceptions. %{ci}.) R. a heap. n.. 112. truth (as the seed or cause of being) L..uni-koeln. 145.. “ the black cover. trust.v.) proof. primary cause or principle. placed in a line ṚV. viii ṂBh.. = caused or produced by. ḥit. of ḍurgā. %{-cati}. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. Pratāp. being at the head. of %{-tá}. false notion. a kind of metre Col.125 7 vāsanā f. grain ṚV. ix. edible ĀV. 54) being at the beginning. on the ṣiddhânta-śiromaṇi. 33. ( %{ad}).. (for 2. “ a building” see %{pakvêṣṭaka-}. 2 tvac 2 f.v.) ṚV. inclination Kathās. desire. fancy. 17. 27 Hariv. 5. bark.). 19. a runner (of the Indian fig-tree) Vcar. source. 126 bīja n. 4. the earth L.. &c. %{ādyá} see s. unprecedented. of the wife of ārka ib. respectful regard Bhām. e. 12... origin (ifc. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results.. 1 ṬBr.. i. pl.. ṂBh.) 5 ādya 2 mf (%{A})n. http://webapps. grain L. to be eaten. 18. http://webapps. of a magical formula &c. semen (of men and animals). sprung from) ChŪp. mistake (ifc. 4 ĀV. liking. ḍaśar. http://webapps. primitive KātyṠr. a layer. first. idea. the impression of anything remaining unconsciously in the mind. knowledge derived from memory Ṡaṃk. longing for. vii.. vi.. 127 1 cita mfn. 32.uni-koeln.e. covered. viii. 2. food. 128 dya 1 mf (%{A})n. 63. ifc. Ṡak. to cover ḍhātup.g.) Ṃn. a mystical ṇ..g. ifc. L. &c. collected. pile of wood. ix Vṣ. ṣarvad. 1 and 73. seed-corn. 6. &c. &c. 1 tvac 1 cl.uni-koeln. of doubtful origin. 2 citā f. 41. skin (of men. 10. serpents &c. a cover (of a horse) ṚV. 158. piled up. (= %{-ādi} q. 77. i. Cassia bark VarBṛṣ. (%{am}) n. 32..

5-2. metrically also %{tÚ} ṚV. stature. manifold Ṃn. (sc. vi. a son L. unique. 131 1 citra mf (%{Á})n. be strong ṚV. often only explet. http://webapps.. %{tūtot}. containing the word %{citrá} ṠBr.. 41) form. iv. 202. 227. bhūyas. brightcoloured ṚV. and Ṃn. cf. half of (gen. the half (at the beginning or end of a comp. shape. variegated. clear (a sound) ṚV. 2 (pf. 8 R. cf. vii.) pray.129 advitīya mfn. Pāṇ. (%{tauti} ḍhātup. xcviii. %{tithi}) the 2nd day of a half-month ṛātn. cf. 12. (%{am}) ind. m.). (%{dvítīya}) mfn.. after {kāmam.) ṇal. xi. but (also with %{evá} or %{vaí} following) ĀV..uni-koeln. i. 24 KātyṠr. 7 Kāś. on the contrary ({evả} or {vai}). %{vibhakti}) the 2nd case. i. after a concess. xvii. http://webapps. 68. 132 ākāra 1 m. to injure ib. (aor. 2.. 71. 6-3. 65. %{dhanur-} &c. expression of the face (as furnishing a clue to the disposition of mind) Ṃn. &c.. vi. vi. female companion or friend Kāṭh. &c.. furnished with (cf. for the second time KaṭhŪp.) ṚV. 1 Pāṇ.. 39. http://webapps. ix. spotted. vii. &c. 18. 2. 2.. 281. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on MonierWilliams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results.) 9 tu 2 (never found at the beginning of a sentence or verse. %{A} R. 28. ib. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. 24 Ṛagh. 6151 B and C).. (i. sometimes used as a mere expletive Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results.. &c. {tueri}. ifc. 3 Pat. together with some one else ḥit. 2/3. often incorrectly written for %{nu} ṂBh. n. {tu--tu} on the one hand--on the other indeed--but. 4. 1. iv.) Ṃn. with the īmper. different.. to go ḍhātup. 5-3. companion. the accusative or its terminations Pāṇ. (%{A}) f. do. or. ii. (fr. %{saṃ-}.).e. a-. rather than (esp.. &c. 36 Vārtt. the 2nd letter of a Varga i. wife (a second self) L. {tumor}. however (esp.de/cgibin/tamil/recherche 06/01/2007. VarBṛṣ. 1 &c. do (w. being one's self the second. Lat. 54. %{ut-}. ṂBh.. %{chāya-}. ix.. iv. 248 Yāj. {na tu} yet not. ṇaigh. 94. -. f. i.uni-koeln. now.de/cgibin/tamil/recherche 02/10/2007. 33. opposed to %{sama}) R. {totus}. without a second. matchless. {dum} used (esp. &c.de/cgibin/tamil/recherche 06/13/2007. (execution) having different varieties (of tortures) Ṃn. with %{bhāga} m.).e.) to have authority. imperat. various. 248 ḍaś. (%{ám}) ind.uni-koeln. ātmanādvitīya mfn. Pāṇ. &c. decl” i. 5.uni-koeln. cf. wonderful Ṛājat.. (ifc. 133) pray! I beg. ṠBr. %{tavás}. sole.) Pāṇ. so as to be bright ṚV. i. 2-1. vii. fellow (friend or foe) ṠBr. 2nd %{totā} or %{tavitā} Vop. 3 Kāś. iii.: Caus. 130 8 tu 1 cl. sg. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Capeller’s Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. dvitīya mf (%{A})n. 6-1.. doubled or accompanied by. external gesture or aspect of the body. 20. %{tīvrá}. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based 103 .. 24 &c. 3.). iv.{kiṃ tu} & {paraṃ tu} yet. appearance. 22. the 2nd in a family (i. 6 Tṣ. speckled (with instr. figure. 287 ṂBh. xii. Lat. fut. strange. 115) second ṚV. ii. %{dvi} Pāṇ. i. (Zd. varam} etc. bright. http://webapps. sent. &c. then.. ĀitBr. clear. tu 2 ({tū3}) (indecl.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 06/13/2007. &c. ṃṛicch. excellent.. i. the surd aspirate Prāt. 1. %{tūtāva} cf.e. 1. or in comp. iv. 49) forming the 2nd part or half of anything. vii. 26. 29). “ to be able”. 4.). distinguished ṚV. conspicuous.. (sc. %{-tos}) to make strong or efficient ṚV. but. ii. {tav}. agitated (as the sea. ṂBh. (Pāṇ. ṂBh.

proper L. http://webapps. Ūp. one of the 5 elements (esp. a gross element = %{mahā-bh-} q. and even vegetable). view. taken or passing for (nom. opinion. &c. nearness. xviii. 136 Kochumuttom.. mixed or joined with Prāt. honoured. &c. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ 104 .. in a summary manner.. of a Yaksha Cat.v. %{evam-}. n. out of adv. of a son of Vasu-deva and Pauravī BhP.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 06/01/2007..) ṚV. Kām. animal.unikoeln. obtained L. existing.) Gṛṣ..de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 06/01/2007...de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 06/01/2007.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 12/02/2006. ṇ.. liked (with gen. 134. ṇ. knowledge W. (%{A} f. of the number “ five” (cf. ṂBh. idea. purpose. %{tathā-bh-}). %{mahābh-} and %{pācabhautika}). a son.. of Ṡiva L. (v. p.. p. the past) ṚV.l. p. thought. pp. “ wonder. p. ṣāṃkhyak. %{mana}). approbation. Pāṇ. fit. become. approved Yāj. vicinity Pāṇ.. ṇ. %{ittham-}.uni-koeln. 3-2. footnote p. but also a subtle element = %{tan-mātra} q.uni-koeln. VarBṛṣ. of a priest of the gods L. design. matter of fact. agallochum L.. Vedântas.r.) Ṃn. human. 50.. Tṣ. n. regarded or considered as. of an heretical sect (with ainas. present Kaṇ. &c. 137 1 samāsatas ind.v. believed. 133 citrakāra m. intention. 248.. belief. an element. Wood. ṛṭḷ. wish ṂBh. Ṃn. ĀitBr. imp. ṇ. (also to form adj.. m. (G) ii... an actual occurrence. v. R.. R. m. &c.uni-koeln. 241). 134 See also Tola and Dragonetti. 291-2. the ghost of a deceased person.). welfare. 18 ṣāh. 3 samāsatti f. often w. http://webapps. a thought.... sentiment.. Anacker. prosperity Vṣ. a spirit (good or evil). succinctly.g. concisely Ṃn. of a son-in-law of ḍaksha and father of numerous ṛudras ib. BhP. real (n. also m. &c.on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. thought fit or right. or adv. of a son of Ṡambara Hariv. of wks. Kāv. 140 Anacker. (cf. 219.) ṇ.. &c. a demon. esteemed. of a woman ḥPariś. the world (in these senses also m. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ SanskritEnglish Dictionary: search results. (pl.. http://webapps. above) that which is or exists. (ifc.. &c. 2 samāsatattvanirūpaṇa n. p. 139 Kochumuttom. &c. been. http://webapps. imagined. 90. 141 mata mfn. a class of the Vyantaras) L. gone. p. respected.) the 14th day of the dark half of the lunar month ṣkandaP. 5025 R. 223. Kām. understood ṚV. doctrine ṂBh.. reality) Yāj. &c. for %{bhṛta}. 292. 95. 3-4. 138 bhūta mf (%{A})n. n. Ūp. well-being. &c. 33. true. any living being (divine. purified L. e. commendation. (cf. &c. actually happened. &c. &c. consisting of. supposed. Kāv. desired. fact. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results.” astonishment Lalit. 135 Tola and Dragonetti..= %{-kara} ṂBh. a great devotee or ascetic L. Kochumuttom. with Buddhists there are only 4 element) Ūp. past (n. 248. (L. Ṃn. sanction L. 188) Ṛagh.. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. goblin (also m.. child L. intended R..) being or being like anything.

.uni-koeln. ii. principal. the first (= our 3rd) person or its terminations. (%{A}) f.. ii. an effect (see %{nimitta-n-}). 143 anya 2 %{as}. %{svara}). 37. superl.g. p. scil. xxv.Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. known. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. firstly. rarely declined as a pron. (cf. below) and (%{ám}). digestion. another person. m. %{anya anya} or %{eka anya}. considered as. %{A}. iv. 1. consequence of actions. Gk.. ārmen. Vedantas. chief. ripe. primary. at first.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 02/10/2007. occasional. the first consonant of a Varga. designed. the first tone. appearing or occurring to the mind Kpr. believed. %{-másyāḥ} ĀV. approved or liked by (gen. &c. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on MonierWilliams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. m.uni-koeln. 11 Kir. 145 See also Tola and Dragonetti. Ṃn. p. {alius}. appearance. preceding. 149 vipāka a. n. to %{nitya}) KātyṠr..2) for $. 142 naimittika mf (%{I})n. or in comp. e. Goth. different from. understood. or %{paścāt}. %{prathamam-anantaram}. the other. issue. ṣāh. vi. http://webapps. illusion Lalit. also $). 33. cf. of 1. besides.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 02/11/2007. the one. = prec. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Capeller’s Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results.de/cgibin/tamil/recherche 06/02/2007. $ &13802(45.1). (in gram. intended. 44. 18.. &c. 33) foremost. Zd. previously (%{am} also as prep. %{pra}. Sch. special. firstnext). for the first time. R. Kap. other than. (%{-tva} n.uni-koeln. 146 Tola and Dragonetti. opposed to (abl. = before. Kochumuttom. original. Pāṇ.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 06/02/2007. %{puruṣa}). http://webapps. cause. {aljis}.de/cgibin/tamil/recherche 12/08/2006. du. produced by any or by some partic. at once. mata a. 148 prathama mf (%{Á})n. (in gram. Ṃn. similitude. in math. the sum of the products divided by the difference between the squares of the cosine of the aśimuth and the sine of the amplitude. result i. honoured.. first-afterwards.. taken for (nom. %{ukthÂdi} ḍivyÂv. 144 pratibhāsa m. and another. Anacker. esteemed. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results.). http://webapps. just. 5 R. with gen. 248. Sch. p. footnote p. often translatable adverbially = ibc. g. 18. = next W. supposed.uni-koeln. other. formerly.). ripening. another. Wood. former. e. http://webapps. m. 194. http://webapps. different. m. %{at}. cf. initial. ind.uni-koeln. most excellent ṚV. the first two cases and their terminations. newly. first (in time or in a series or in rank). 1-1. moreover (cf. (for %{pra-tama}. p.. accidental (opp. & adv. look. thought. 95. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Capeller’s Sanskrit-English 105 .) the first or nominative case and its terminations (679. p. {anya}. &c.). forthwith (also %{āt} Hariv. 223. prior. earliest. 147 Kochumuttom. Lat. ṂBh. 219.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 06/02/2007.uni-koeln. %{-me} PacavBr. 292.). http://webapps. ṭheme {alja}. {ail}. %{varṇa}).g. a surd unaspirate letter.). one of a number. maturity.g. %{prprathamam-tatas}. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. (scil. (scil. %{anyac ca}.

good or honest or wise or respectable people Ṃn. happening.uni-koeln. finding. occurring. &c. 151 1 yata see under %{yam}. p. good. Brahma”) ṚV. below). 3-2. beautiful. (cf.. a good or wise man. Wood. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. = %{dūṣyā} L. ṂBh.. i.unikoeln. ṚV. reprehensible. 152 dṛṣyā f. 2 yata mfn.. intelligence. (cf.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 02/10/2007. %{sat-kalpavṛkṣa}) ṚV. &c. {sens} in 106 . Kām. p. controlled &c.. 156 Kochumuttom. poison L. honest (often in comp. as any one or anything ought to be. held forth. see %{satí} below. restraint (?) see %{yataṃ-kará}. subdued. (pr..) beings. ṣaṃhitŪp. Lat. 296 (for %{-ṣayat}?). footnote p. xv.. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. ChŪp. also ibc. &c. (%{sat}) n. 150 ātmaka mf (%{ikā})n. belonging to or forming the nature of (gen. 2 vitti 2 f.uni-koeln. “ that is not right”). %{saṃkalpÂtmaka})..g. 845. understanding.. &c. reality. p. ṚV.. p. corruptible.) Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. http://webapps. http://webapps. essence.. n. a being. 155 Tola and Dragonetti. consciousness ṣarvad. right. creatures ṚV. GṛṠrṣ. real.. 4 dūṣyat mfn. %{tathā sati}. see below) ṚV. abiding in (loc.. existence L.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 02/11/2007. culpable. governed. held in. matter. (%{sat}) ind. restrained. right (%{tan na sat}.) ṠBr.. venerable. %{nāmni kṛte sati}.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 01/13/2007.. of 1. p. (pl. vile. http://webapps. http://webapps.) ṂBh. 98. 154 Tola and Dragonetti. m. true. n. existing. a sage ṂBh.. fitly.. %{pacÂtmaka} &c. (cf. liable to be soiled or defiled or disgraced or ruined ṂBh.. offending Yāj.) a term of praise g. ii. (in gram. 12.uni-koeln.uni-koeln. &c.. 153 vitti f. &c. kept down or limited. &c. Kām. water ṇaigh. belonging to (gen.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 06/02/2007.. living ṃuṇḍŪp. being present (%{sato me}. entity or existence. pus. that which is good or real or true. 157 sad 1 in comp. sat mf (%{satÍ})n. 926. &c. (Cf.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 06/02/2007. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ SanskritEnglish Dictionary: search results. &c. truth ib. enduring Kāv. 219.Dictionary: search results. the being found. R.) well. that which really is. ṂBh. comp. good. gain ṠBr. consisting or composed of Ṃn. &c. bad. Gk. 1 dūṣya mfn. 223. m.) the terminations of the present participle Pāṇ. “ the self-existent or ūniversal Spirit. the spurring or guiding of an elephant by means of the rider's feet L.) ChŪp. http://webapps. (ifc. having or consisting of the nature or character of (in comp. $ for $. (cf. %{sat-kṛ} &c. often connected with other participles or with an adverb e. for %{sat}. lasting. 127 &c. &c. wicked man. where sometimes = “ possessed of” cf. the true being or really existent (in the Vedânta. wise. “ if it be so”. “ when I was present”. actual. %{matallikÂdi}.) ṂBh. %{as}) being. acquisition. 33. advantage. a villain R. a find ĀitBr. &c. “ when the name has been given”. (%{Í}) f. &c.

ṂBh. existence.&343162(1134.. NṛiŚrś. expanding. honest. 160 vyavadāna n. appellation..v..de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 06/02/2007. a lucky mark. clean &c. 1135. of a man ṛiājat. hurt. m.” “appearing as”) Mn. N. 84. m. blossoming. http://webapps. fixed tariff Mn....) the singular number Kāś. energy.2) {absens}. f. good sense. “ guilty. %{A}) being. Prāt. scope. creature. sign. operation. 159 ekatva n. symbol. a designation. definition.” “relating to. mind ṃuṇḍŪp. selfcommand. firmness. 4 sattva see p. 62 &c. of a son of ḍhṛita-rāshṭra ṂBh. nature. reality (%{īśvara-s-}. 1-4.. MBh. xiii. 161 120 lakśaṇa mfn. (ifc. a living or sentient being. a form. animal Ṃn.. wise &c.unikoeln. http://webapps. a stroke. settled rate. BhP. rudiment of life (see %{-lakṣaṇa}). magnanimity ṂBh. a hexade Vārtt. spiritual essence. MBh. splitting. Kāv. “ the existence of a Supreme Being”). R. Kathās. Yāj. and a thing pure.uni-koeln. demon. unity. col. a thing Ṇir. wisdom.de/cgibin/tamil/recherche 01/13/2007. the quality of purity or goodness (regarded in the ṣāṃkhya phil.. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. life. quotation PāN. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on MonierWilliams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results.= “taking the form of. purification ḍivyÂv. winning over (of another's ally). ḷith. a substantive. Śaṃk. viii. a sexual organ MBh. &c.” from “ the real doer”. reference..uni-koeln. MBh. line (esp. cause. embryo. 5-2. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. &c. ṂBh. i. Yājñ. ({ā}) f. fetus. oneness. R. {sās}. singleness. a ghost. n. quality (ifc. Mn.. on Pāṇ. illustration Mn. = “concerning. consciousness. goal. true essence.. kind. strength. see s. a spoon (?) ḍivyÂv. character PacavBr. seduction. identity KātyṠr. &c. monster R. ṂBh. 3 sattva n. disposition of mind. soleness ḤYog. a symptom or indication of disease. breach. {lakśmaṇa}). observation. (often confounded with. spirit. f. division. sight.. &c. BhP. n. expressing indirectly Vedântas. breaking. courage. Cat. favourable sign NṛiŚrś. strength of character. (in Gr. Ṣuśr. occasion. 29. attribute. coincidence.) ṃaitrŪp.” “coming within the scope of”) āPrāt.. http://webapps. &c. 2303. effect. ṂBh.. ṂBh. MBh..) Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on MonierWilliams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. characteristic. opportunity ṛi.de/cgibin/tamil/recherche 06/02/2007. &c.de/cgibin/tamil/recherche 06/08/2007. {sas8ta}. ṣlav. matter. http://webapps.v.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 01/13/2007.. goblin.. {sons}. vital breath. sort (ifc. as the highest of the three Guṇas (q. ārdea śibirica L. {ā}) a mark. injury. {sy}. object (ifc. BhP.” “possessed of”) Mn. accurate description. http://webapps.) or constituents of Prakṛiti because it renders a person true. śuśr. śarvad. material or elementary substance. the act of aiming at. &c. token. = “marked or characterized by. 162 bheda m. VarBṛṣ.” “called”) Mn. those drawn on the sacrificial ground) ŚBr. m. seeing W. species. noun W. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. 406. union. resolution. {pra-sens}. &c. name (ifc.uni-koeln.. Ṃn. influence ib. 2. ḍaś.uni-koeln. aim. 107 . interruption. disturbance. 1.. Yāj.. = “named. ṭṣ &c. (ifc. entity. {ésas}. indicating. bursting.. entity.. separation. 2 sattva see below.. 158 1 ṣaṭtva n. n.

uni-koeln. nullity. xii KātyṠr. 108 . m. perceptible ṠvetŪp.) Bhaṭṭ. the inmates of a house. 2. %{pāda-}. %{grah}) to be grasped or taken ĀV. v. x. p. to be adopted or trusted or relied on W. “ seizing by” see %{karṇa-}. 10. dependent. ii. (fr. 164 Kochumuttom.uni-koeln. 8.. n. manner of life Ṃn. http://webapps. p. %{gṛhá}) belonging to a house. 119) “ to be taken together with” (in comp. iii. (61. part. 194 Kapṣ. = %{ava-} Vop. non-entity. 248. pudendum muliebre. 179 ḍaś. non-existence. domestic (said of an āgni) Tṣ. 43). m. 2-3. p. %{haste-}. manner of life Hariv. Ved.. i. PārGṛ. non-existence. f.. pl.) ṠBr. n. destruction.). Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results.. xiv. a suburb L. 5. p. 292.uni-koeln. %{niś-}. (Pāṇ.) &c. 169 1 abhava m.) Ṃn. (%{a-} neg. 2 abhāva m. the domestic āgni ṠāṅkhGṛ. &c.” a kind of fish (%{tapasvin}) L.). ii f. being in close relation to (as the lotus to the moon) Kāvyâd. p. 61. iv. &c. 166 Kochumuttom. 9 Gobh. (Pāṇ. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Capeller’s Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. (%{A}) f.unikoeln. 9 (ifc. v ṃaitrṣ. 220. (%{A}) f.). absence. and treated of in the Gṛihya-sūtras. %{naṣṭa-}. &c. “ moving. (%{á-} neg. therefore there must be cats here”) see %{pramāṇa}).. 2 ceṣṭā f.. since. 4 gṛhyā f. being outside (of a town or village. a domestic rite Gaut. 65. ii. a domesticated animal L.de/cgibin/tamil/recherche 06/02/2007. cf. 223. species. activity. that. as %{senā}. 65 Bhag. variety. http://webapps. http://webapps. (ifc. 5. end of the world. footnote p.. behaving. vii. p. i ṠvetŪp.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 06/02/2007. 119) ifc. Kochumuttom. 167 1 gṛhya 1 ind. 2. portion. 13.de/cgibin/tamil/recherche 01/12/2007.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 01/13/2007. Ṛagh. q.. xxvi. 3 gṛhya 3 mfn. vii f. ii. 2 gṛhya 2 mfn. see %{-ṭa}. proof from non-existence (one of the six pramāṇas in Vedānta phil. gesture Ṃn. annihilation. to {yả}) because. of 2. difference. 99. adhering to the party of (Kāś. 163 1 ceṣṭa m. 51 VarBṛṣ. negation (the seventh category in Kanāda's system).uni-koeln. 248. to be acknowledged or admitted W. births &c. Yāj. ii. See also Tola and Dragonetti. 254 Kir. Wood. ṂBh. 12) moving any limb. action. moving the limbs. 61. domestic rites and the rules relating to them Gṛihyās. v. (%{al}). vi. vii. fissure. %{a}. cleft.. exertion ĀśvṠr. for %{guhya} (anus) L. doing.. n. performing Ṃn. death. 25 ḥcat. %{-hya} q. and %{hastagŔhya}. 20. vi. viii. 3-1. vii. i.v. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Capeller’s Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. living in houses. domestics ṠBr. domesticated (as animals) L. behaviour. such as marriages. (fr. p. 5939. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on MonierWilliams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. a domestic rule or affair BhP. 5 Bhaṭṭ. (ifc. v. 33. 63.. vi.. 165 Tola and Dragonetti. gesture Ṃn. 3-1. ii. (said of a series of ceremonies relating to family or domestic affairs.alteration. (Pāṇ. http://webapps. = %{-sūtra}. an army) Kāś.. effort. Anacker. not free.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 01/13/2007. (“ since there are no mice. 4 ṠāṅkhGṛ. change.v. 168 yasmāt (abl. http://webapps.1) Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. ifc. endeavour. 20. and 3. ĀitBr.

quivering (of lightning). 9 ṇal. communication Pāṇ. neither ṚV.) ṂBh. ii. ii. &c. it may even be replaced by %{ca}. %{-nayitvā}) to communicate ṂBh. ṇ.. 220. requesting and commanding.de/cgibin/tamil/recherche 06/02/2007. 292. %{utá}. Gk. (ind.. “ not”. p. 175 1 na. staggering. &c.. &c. &c. 98 ṇal. P. 173 bhrānti f. (%{I}) f. &c. 8) &c. as Ṃn. often joined with other particles. viii. (Cf. Kap. mistaking something for.) -2. 170.1) {ne8-}. no. 249. 2 ākhyānaka n. {ne}. Wood. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on MonierWilliams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. in successive sentences or clauses either simply repeated e. wandering or roaming about. 176 Anacker. 9) e. Lat. %{vā}. perplexity. p. 3 ākhyānaya ṇom. %{gauro na tṛṣitaḥ piba}. of a metre (being a combination of the Indravajrā and ūpendravajrā). “ not” i. it may also. or strengthened by another particle. 1. %{cÂdi} and Pāṇ. Kochumuttom. like %{a}. story. Eng. that not. lest. g. driving (of clouds). Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on MonierWilliams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. Ṃn.ii. %{vā}. supposing anything to be or to exist) Kāv. by %{u} (cf.. 31) &c. as it were (only in Veda and later artificial language..g.iv. 2. 249. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. %{pañcabhir na catvāri śatāni}.. %{api ca}.170 See also Tola and Dragonetti. footnote p. 24.v. confusion. {no}. she will most certainly declare Ṡak. or abl. pp. 1. http://webapps. error.uni-koeln. “ although not being”) a thirsty deer. 177 See also Tola and Dragonetti.. reeling Kāv. moving to and fro. form compounds Vām. (ifc. doubt. 19 ṠBr. 34.e. iii. Kathās. &c. (as well in simple negation as in wishing. Ṇir. 9. i. before round or collective numbers and after any numeral in the instr.v. iii. p. or an augmentless aor. 13 (cf. &c. rolling (of wheels) Vikr. p. 223. p. Angl.e. with a following %{tu}.g.. %{api vā}. http://webapps. telling. Pur. %{cÂpi}. a. a tale. %{ekayā na viṃśati}. like. 34. &c. p. Sax. v. circumambulating ṛatnâv. 171 Tola and Dragonetti.uni-koeln. in this sense it does not coalesce metrically with a following vowel). %{tv eva tu}.g. 109 . xii. &161835(523. Pāṇ. except in prohibition before an īmpv. Kād. %{nÂdaṇḍyo’sti}. drink like (lit. 224.de/cgibin/tamil/recherche 06/02/2007. 292. a short narrative Pacat. %{tv eva}. p. p. not 20 by 1 i. 395 ib. http://webapps. Wood.. 34. 172 Kochumuttom. Kathās. no. %{ha} (cf. 35 ṣarvad. below)). p.. p. 33-4. esp. 174 1 ākhyāna n. &c. %{nô}). %{vÂpi} or %{atha vā} ṚV. R... (cf.g. Anacker. alone. 292. 14.. 8-1. it is not so” Bādar. it expresses deficiency e. as. 1. (%{nā}. turning round. 2452. v.. not. for fear lest (with Pot.) moving round. at the second place or further on in the sentence e. Kochumuttom. legend ṠBr. the communication of a previous event (in a drama) ṣāh. beside those mentioned above esp.g. Kām. x. 335. with another %{na} or an %{a} priv. %{api}. %{mā}).de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 01/02/2007. false opinion (ifc. ḍaś. it generally forms a strong affirmation (cf.i. $. false impression of.uni-koeln. 99. e. Vām. 158 4 na or not-but na 2 ind. he must certainly be punished Ṃn.. nor. %{khalu} q. %{nêyaṃ na vakṣyati}. %{cêd} q. Anacker. 151.

article. not full-grown or developed (of per. p. 220. ignorant. be gone. sons and things) Gṛṣ. http://webapps.).uni-koeln. belonging or relating to one (?). turn to.). conquer. {api} be in or with (loc. Hariv. a kind of metre L. a one year old cow L. simpleton Ṃn.uni-koeln. simple. %{vāla}) young. %{eka}).. (fr. gen. in l. Kum. Pers.uni-koeln. 182 Tola and Dragonetti.. of a ṛakshas VP. 4-2. footnote p. Kāv. pass or spend (time). a colt. p. Kochumuttom. Ṃn. ṇ. with another fin. identical. or impers.{ati} be beyond.).. one under 5 years) Ṃn. any young animal L. Kochumuttom. rule.. new or waxing (as the moon) ib. or dat. 181 See also Tola and Dragonetti. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Capeller’s Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results.. or ---). be present or at hand. young woman (esp.. eka a. &c. 184 dvaividhya n. 138 (not in Kāś. or dat. childish. as..). asti 1 be.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 12/08/2006..178 179 180 Tola and Dragonetti. a partic. of a prince Ṛājat. overcome. (%{A}) f. be enough for (gen..). 186 bāla mf (%{A})n. 249. (in law) a minor (minors are classified as %{kunāra}. & loc. a fool. surpass (acc. variance ṂBh. http://webapps. happen.) share.. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. the same. &c. solitary. (cf..de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 06/13/2007.a child. partake of (impers. {pra} be prominent. p. Pacat. {pari} overtake. common (esp. fall or ((. {eke} some. puerile. boy (esp. 100. alone. 220. single.). āloe īndica L. http://webapps. 292. m. one under 16 years) Ṃn. -. {abhi} be above. win. one of (gen. fall or belong to (loc. a female child.)) belong to (gen. mystical prayer Cat. emulate (acc. or boys under 5 years of age. 224. foolish Ṃn. early (as the sun or its rays) Ṛagh. abl. 183 Kochumuttom.. ṂBh. {upa} be in or with. p. {asti paśyasi} do you happen to see? {asmi vikrīṇe} I happen to sell. twofold state or nature or character. w. &c. with {na} and mostly w. With {na} not be. a five years old elephant L. become.. girl.. pl.g.). Ṣuśr. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Capeller’s Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. small cardamoms L. a certain or=the indef. excel. exist.. %{pogaṇḍa} from the 5th to the end of the 9th or till the 16th year. p.. {astu} or {evamastu} well.. infantine. p. verb = I happen to or it happens that I. e. %{gahÂdi} Pāṇ.. of the mother of Vālin and Su-griva (said to have been formed by Prajā-pati out of some dust 110 . duplicity.unikoeln.). Anacker. Ūp. ṇ. so be it. pure (as an animal fit for sacrifice) L.. foal L. be able to (dat. l. Wood. be together with ({saha}). {cana} or {api} no one. -. http://webapps. %{śiśu} under 8. 101. ṂBh. and %{kiśora} from the 10th to the 16th year). g. sole.. ---). *fall to one's (gen.). serve for (2 dat. &c.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 06/02/2007. {sam} equal.).de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 06/02/2007. footnote p. newly risen. reach. anye}) some--some (others).{eke--eke (apare. none. partake of (acc.) Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ SanskritEnglish Dictionary: search results. {prati} equal. 185 aika mfn. 34. ṂBh. Cypriuus ḍenticulatus or ṛohita L.

Wood. coincidence.: Caus. 2 prakhya mfn. 188 See also Tola and Dragonetti. respected. 197 Tola and Dragonetti. (%{am}) ind. appearance (only ifc. clear. %{iṣṭá} see col. 249. ṂBh.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 01/01/2007. to make generally known. 293. R. p.. 198 Kochumuttom. p.) R. approved Ṃn.uni-koeln. 249.). aini. 34. footnote p. &c.. 54. 220. cherished ṚV. p. http://webapps. for 1.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 06/02/2007. 102. heat L. ṠBr. R.) the singular number Kāś. 2) sacrificed. 292. sacrament L. (ind. inf. Anacker. visibility. disclosure ḍaśar. ĀV. 15. sought ṠBr. āndropogon ṃuricatus L.. %{-khyāti}.. ṂBh. p. 199 Wood. Ṃn. &c. 189 Tola and Dragonetti. Ṡak. Wood. ṠBr. 195 Kochumuttom. p.. sacrifice.. splendour (only ifc. Kochumuttom. &c. 34.. http://webapps. perceptibility.v. singleness. &c. 224. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. making manifest. desired. 204 1 iṣṭa 1 mfn. 220. sacrificing. %{-khyāhi}): Pass. %{yaj}. 224. to announce. to be visible or public or acknowledged or celebrated Ṃn.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 01/13/2007. 102. 293. 200 Anacker.p. wished. (for 2. 224. sacred rite. p. a husband Ṡak. visible. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. pp. p. the being perceived or known Pāṇ. worshipped with sacrifices Vṣ. 83 c. (%{A}) f. announce. 34.uni-koeln. Ṛājat. (%{am}) n. 203 Kochumuttom. p. p.. (%{am}) n. liked. footnote p. 121. agreeable. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. Anacker.. KātyṠr. (ṣubj. 187 ekatva n. Cologne Digital 111 . (%{A}) f. 103. 192 Wood. %{-khyāya}). 190 Kochumuttom. p. p. %{-khyaí}) ṠBr. footnote p. proclaim. (in Gr.which had fallen into his eyes) R. 3 prakhyāna n. 193 See also Tola and Dragonetti. 191 1 prakhyā P. look.. Ṃn. Kochumuttom. identity KātyṠr. desire ṚV. brightness. (īmpv. regarded as good. 1-2. ṇ... Wood. unity. 249. sacrifice ṃārkP. 196 Boquist. fr. 224. m. ĀitBr. union. Pacat. publish ṃālatīm.. Ṣuśr.. = resembling. beloved. footnote p. (p. proclaim. m. oneness.. to see ṚV. %{khyāyate}. p. p. soleness ḤYog. 35. http://webapps.uni-koeln. a lover. Anacker. 194 Tola and Dragonetti. reverenced. ṂBh. 202 Tola and Dragonetti. p. p. 249. bright ṠBr. voluntarily. &c. see s. Kochumuttom. n. p. 35. wish. p. valid. 220. p. xiii.. the plant ṛicinus Communis L. %{-khyat}. 292-3. ṣāṃkhyak. p. p. ĀitBr. extol BhP. = %{-khyāpana} R. to be seen or known. KātyṠr. like) ṂBh. of a plant L. %{-khyāpayati}. 2 iṣṭa 2 mfn. 201 See also Tola and Dragonetti.

broken through.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 06/02/2007. 205 See also Tola and Dragonetti. abnormal. 225. violated Ṃn. p.Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. 214 Tola and Dragonetti. disclosed. &c. Anacker. (%{tī}) f. pl. destroyed ṚV. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. 206 Tola and Dragonetti..uni-koeln. 293. ḷilāv. Kāv. 225. detached. vii. see s. p. m. distinct. footnote p. ĀV. 219 Wood. 220. Ūp. mixed or mingled with (instr. 105. loosened ib. altered Yāj.. 207 Kochumuttom.uni-koeln. ḥit. i. ṂBh. &c. p. Wood. p. or comp. wrong ṚV. untrue. p. 224. split. disunited. or comp. n. leaky (as a ship) ṂBh. for %{asat}). seduced.) GṛṠrṣ. not existing. http://webapps. (in ṚV. footnote p. (%{ntas}) m. non-existence. untruth. vii. expanded. bad ṠBr. Indra L. 220. asat mf (%{á-satī})n. 12.. 3 sattva n. nonentity ṚV. &c. 208 asad (in comp. p. 105. “ the existence of a Supreme 112 . Kāv. reality (%{īśvara-s-}. different from or other than (abl. f. 134.. deviating. on Pāṇ. 8 ĀV. 220 Tola and Dragonetti. blown ṂBh. 7006. Ṃn.unikoeln. a wound from a pointed weapon. (ifc. changed. anything less than a whole Yāj. p. 222 1 ṣaṭtva n. portion W. &c. &c. iv. 217 Wood. &c. irregular Kāv.. opened.) ib.. 35. set at variance ṂBh. 212 Tola and Dragonetti.. existence..uni-koeln. betrayed R. cleaving to (loc. 225. 225. 10.... p.. (%{A}) f. 250.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 06/02/2007. seven times %{ásat} and five times %{Ásat} with lengthening of the accentuated vowel) not being. ṣanseviera ṛoxburghiana L. disjoined.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 11/30/2006. 2 sattva see below. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on MonierWilliams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results... pierced. bad or contemptible men ṂBh. i. a fragment. 213 Anacker.de/cgibin/tamil/recherche 11/30/2006. p.v. 210 Tola and Dragonetti. 293. 220. (%{t}) n. p. http://webapps. 218 Tola and Dragonetti. 104. &c.. a stab Ṣuśr.. &c. a hexade Vārtt. p. %{A}) being. Kum.) ib. 215 Kochumuttom. Kochumuttom. bit. 104. divided into parts. (in arithm. 216 Tola and Dragonetti. evil Ṛagh. p. footnote p. &c.. 293.. = %{bhinna-karaṭa} ṂBh. mode of fighting Hariv. a partic. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. p. below. entity. Ṣuśr. 5-2. or comp.. 29. 211 Anacker. 35. interrupted. bribed Kām. http://webapps.. http://webapps.. shattered. 221 Kochumuttom. Kāv.. broken. (%{n}) m. unreal ṚV. 35. falsehood ṚV. 209 bhinna mfn. disturbed Bhartṛ.) a fraction. p.. transgressed. 8. p.

wisdom. id”. both (e. 225. ii. iii. 24 and ix. knowable. 237 1 krama m. (fr. 234 Kochumuttom. 233 Tola and Dragonetti. %{kāla-k-}) ṃṛicch. a thing Ṇir.g. 250. BhP. Gk. of 2 kinds or sorts ṚV. footnote p. &c. 215. to be perceived or known.) ṃaitrŪp. creature. {dvaya}. Tṣ. succession (e. cognizable ṠBr.. clean &c. a position taken (by an animal &c. viii. 229 dvaya $ n. ṂBh. g. &c. 215. 250. &c. (%{I}) f. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. 57). ii. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. Bhaṭṭ. http://webapps. ḥit. %{varṇa-krameṇa}. m. 3. a ghost. two things. gender Gr. Pacat.) ṬPrāt. 228 Kochumuttom. &c. p.. 220. goblin. (%{-ye} m. 227 Tola and Dragonetti. noun W. 226 Kochumuttom. 2. 225.. good sense. R. %{A} R. iv. “ in the order of the castes” Ṃn. p. 113 . courage. iii. 106. a step ĀV. and in comp = %{dvi}) twofold. couple. Ṃn. the masc. character PacavBr. 5 KātyṠr. Zd. to be recognized or considered or regarded as (%{-tva} n. ṭṣ &c.de/cgibin/tamil/recherche 06/02/2007. hereditary descent Yāj.. p. 236 Kochumuttom. strength of character. entity.. vital breath. course (cf. Kāv. spiritual essence. p. 14316. Prāt. R.) Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. p. pl. Ūp. the foot ṂBh. to be understood or heard or learned Ṃn. 1135. R. the quality of purity or goodness (regarded in the ṣāṃkhya phil... 220. Kathās. ṂBh. p.) or constituents of Prakṛiti because it renders a person true. spirit. 225. 225. twofold nature. Br.uni-koeln.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 06/13/2007. the 2 luminaries Ṡak. animal Ṃn. n. 4 sattva see p. 235 Tola and Dragonetti. n. monster R. as the highest of the three Guṇas (q. ṂBh. double. Ṛājat.. viii. 29. 25. nature... selfcommand.uni-koeln. R.) before making a spring or attacking Pacat.. the way R. 9. ii. (ifc. series. &c. a substantive.Being”).. demon. 225 Tola and Dragonetti.unikoeln. VarBṛṣ. p. rudiment of life (see %{-lakṣaṇa}). %{tejo-}. falsehood ṚV. honest. i. 4 &c. manner (e. n. col. (Cf. firmness. iii. xv.g. a living or sentient being. 85) ĀV. &c. 107. Ṡis. $. ṂBh. between Ṡiś. 224 Kochumuttom. ṂBh. ṂBh. p. &c. 9. &c... i. p. strength. of a son of ḍhṛita-rāshṭra ṂBh. going. mind ṃuṇḍŪp. &c. uninterrupted or regular progress. Yāj. ṃālatīm. x. 14). iii ṂBh. fetus. &c. &c. energy. disposition of mind. footnote p.. regular arrangement. matter. pair Naish. resolution. true essence. m. life. (%{am}) ind. Yāj. 25 ff.. http://webapps. 230 vijeya mfn. 5. 2. 231 Tola and Dragonetti.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 02/11/2007. 223 Tola and Dragonetti. 10 ṚPrāt. magnanimity ṂBh..v. ṂBh. http://webapps. consciousness. material or elementary substance. 2) Yāj. 232 Kochumuttom. 119. embryo.. 147. method. VarBṛṣ. ĀV. ṂBh. proceeding. order. and a thing pure. and fem. wise &c. p.

to the 2nd. “ progressing step by step.. performing.. of a ch. ordinary life.. title. Ṛagh.) a kind of simile (in which the comparisons exhibited correspond to each other in regular succession) Vām.”it is to these that the discussion has reference”) Kap. a sort of tree L. i. and so on. diet Car. practice. http://webapps... cause (with gen. thus . ṂBh. practices of law and kingly government īW. ii. 3. usage. capability ṂBh. &c. with instr. xi. ṣāh. &c. xviii. superintendence over (loc. xxiii. indeed RV. by degrees R. power. activity. gradually. 238 anA ind. this manner of reading in relation to words is called %{pada-} (ṬPrāt. wont. government. speaking about (%{tair eva vyavahāraḥ}.. 17.. a topic..uni-koeln. common practice Pat. or comp.. Kathās. 112. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. then the 2nd is repeated and connected with the 3rd.%{yena krameṇa}. “ just about these is the question. action or practice of occupation or business with (loc. (in dram. mathematical process Col.) īnscr. designation aim. custom. vi. 209. BhP. &c. competency to manage one's own affairs. in relation to conjunct consonants %{varṇa-} (ib. either word or letter. ṣāh. %{kṛ}.. (1034. litigation. %{āt}) instr. Kāv.”a peculiar manner or method of reading and writing Vedic texts (so called because the reading proceeds from the 1st member. http://webapps. abl. administration of justice Gaut.. privilege. dealing in (comp. rank. strength L.unikoeln. 380 ḥit. base %{a}) . ind. &c... office.) 2 adhīkāra (= %{adhi-kāra}) m. pronom.2).) Ṇir. in regular course. 36 f. (in rhet.uni-koeln. claim. (fig. the 3rd repeated and connected with the 4 h. contest at law with (%{saha}). http://webapps.)) Prāt. ṣarvad.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 06/02/2007.. 239 vyavahāra m.) punishment L. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. prerogative. a contract Ṃn. according to order or rank or series Ṃn. or ifc.. with regard to.. action. ii. (%{eṇa}. right. Pacat. majority (in law) ib.. hereby . Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. %{tad-anusaraṇa-krameṇa}. a sword L. property. authorization. occasion. 63. the use of an expression. 26. Kām. legal process (see %{matṛkā} below) Ṃn. affair.. commerce or intercourse with (saha or comp. http://webapps. lawsuit. (fr. to others “ noticing of any one's affection”) ḍaśar. reference. jurisdiction.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 12/08/2006. 12). conduct.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 04/08/2008.uni-koeln. Sch.).de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 06/02/2007. Yāj. rule.) Ṃn. iv. (in Gr.. relation. trade with.. rule sanctioned by tradition ṃārkP. legal procedure.v.. compulsory work L. 163. royalty. propriety. adherence to law or custom ib. behaviour ṂBh. Kāv. 13. a paragraph or minor section. matter ṇīlak. “ it should be acted according to ). doing. custom. 114 . traffic. &c. ṇ.) Kathās. so as to go on following him ḥit. Ṛagh. Pratāpar..) Ṃn.) attainment of the object desired (or accord.. (%{kramaṃ} 1.. 240 1 adhikāra m. mercantile transaction. in which manner R. 20. of the āgni-purāṇa. a governing-rule (the influence of which over any number of succeeding rules is called anu-vṛitti q. viii. ḥit. &c. ownership. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. administration. the words or letters themselves when combined or arranged in the said manner ib. authority. especially to perform sacrifices with benefit. subject.) government. “ to follow that rule”) ṇyāyam. (%{vyavahāraḥ kāryaḥ}.

f. the entrance of the sun into a sign of the zodiac Var.. p. %{-bhāgika}).e. utilization of (comp.uni-koeln. growth (esp. %{-vāda} m. 225. 250 Ibid. with %{kṛ}.unikoeln. to be uncertain. 115 . 251 Tola and Dragonetti. on the side of derivation or etymology (an expression used by Vedic commentators when the accentuation is settled by the affixes and not accord. income. 220. utter destruction. the placing (e. http://webapps. Kāv. footnote p. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ SanskritEnglish Dictionary: search results. pp. Vop. g. entrance on the stage Hariv. 249 Ibid. &c.. revenue.. of wks. perfection. %{-dīdhayaḥ} and %{-dīdhyaḥ}). ṣāh. 220.. ṇ. only ṣubj. difference of tone or sound (fr.) Kull.uni-koeln. Kap. tax. destruction.) a receiver or gatherer of taxes Ṛājat. %{-vādÂrtha} m.) ṂBh. to make one's entrance. of wks.uni-koeln. of any deposit) in a person's house or hand Pacat.. manner.). %{vi} denoting variation) VarBṛṣ..de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 06/03/2007. of wk. gen. a place of entrance.. %{-vādarahasya} n. Kāv. 242 vyutpatti f. %{-dīpikā} f. p. Wood.. {-cchedana} n. http://webapps. 247 samuccheda m. 2-1. (prob. p.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 06/03/2007. (also called %{prākṛta-prakriyā-vṛtti}). in gram. enter). 248 Tola and Dragonetti. pp. ĀV. 108. 243 vidhī (or %{dīdhī}. to the meanings of the words). 3. p. %{-rahita} mfn. 250-1. Kusum. p. engaging closely in a pursuit or purpose W. intentness on an object.. toll (cf. ṣāh. p. derivation (esp. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. Wood. http://webapps. ṃalav.. īnscr. 250-1. {-ccheda} m.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 06/08/2007.241 praveśa m. hesitate ṚV. 225. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Capeller’s Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. n. &c. pp. %{-bhāgika} m. 72 Sch. %{-ratnÂkara} m.. interfering with another's business. door ṂBh. %{vādaparyāya-pattra} n. http://webapps. %{-vāda-pattra} n. (acc. entrance.. %{-vādakroḍapattra} n. coming or setting in (of night) L. method Lalit. the entering into i. Kāv.. or comp. 244 See also Tola and Dragonetti. origin. use. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. learned. samucchitti f.. employment. Kochumuttom. the syringe of an injection pipe Ṣuśr. penetration or intrusion into (loc. not to be explained etymologically.. %{A}) entering. comprehensive learning or scholarship ṇyāyam. Kochumuttom. (ifc. 245 Tola and Dragonetti. Anacker. Bālar. cultured ṣaṃk. 36. &c.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 06/03/2007. production... %{-mat} mfn. in knowledge). 36. proficiency (esp. ṇ. obtrusiveness Kathās..unikoeln... 246 Kochumuttom.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 01/01/2007. %{-pakṣe} ind.) Pāṇ. &c. etymology ṇyāyam. in literature or science). %{-rahasya} n. http://webapps. %{-vāda-ṭīkā} f. destitute of (clear) derivation. with or without %{antar}. being contained in (loc. development. extermination ṂBh. 293-4. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results.

following. ḍaś. in dram. “ to bring into one's house &c. 57). elder brother. (cf. long since. ḍaśar. pair Naish. previously. &c. twofold nature. http://webapps.: Caus. with. cf. first-last.). ṂBh. %{pura-taṭī}. to the east of (abl. http://webapps. w. ---). 29. shrivel” R. according to (---). %{gaurÂdi} Gaṇar. preceding. “ to enter the stage”).) Hariv. Ṣuśr. attain ṣarvad.. accompanied by. %{stana-}.. %{vivikṣati}. be absorbed or thrown into the shade by (acc. hitherto. (fr. first.) ṂBh. write down Yāj.: Caus. youth. to enter into i. adj. to wish to enter into (acc. or ---.) Var. previous to.) ĀV. Ā. (ifc. {dvaya}. ṣāh. 254 pūrva a. falsehood ṚV.. 255 1 praviś P. Kāv. 256 1 taṭa m. the ancestors or ancients. (with %{piṇḍīm} or %{tarpaṇam}. 14). (with %{agnim}.).e. &c.. $. R. {vayas} n. 112. Ṛājat. 2) Yāj. (without an object. gender Gr. (Cf. Zd. under. %{śroṇi-}. &c.. to enter. mother) ṚV. impart Kathās. pl.. ancient. 91. before (as prep. R. %{madhyam} %{agneḥ}.. to cause or allow to enter. Hariv. iii. in front.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 02/11/2007. “ to bring on the stage”). %{-te}.. declivity. &c. 147. ṂBh.e. the masc. &c. to let or lead in (loc. ṂBh. undertake. to enter i. --m. ix. to reach. ii. and in comp = %{dvi}) twofold. “ to ascend the funeral pyre”. n. iii. e.). 110. with %{karṇayoḥ}.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 02/11/2007. id”. any part of the body which has (as it were) sloping. marry ṂBh. adv. or acc. (%{am}) ind. %{-viśati}. abl. to have sexual intercourse with (acc. come or be brought into (acc. forepart.) Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. viii. go into. a father (familiar expression corresponding to %{nanÁ}. sides (cf. old age. http://webapps.accompanied by etc. %{veśayati}. (%{I}) f. begin. w. often --.uni-koeln. to spend (money) Pacat. eastern.). g. f. bring or lead or introduce to.) Prab. %{agnau}. to lead home as a wife i.) = teach. to initiate into (acc. the 2 luminaries Ṡak. a shore ṂBh. to entor. {pūrvokta} or {uktapūrva} spoken before or already).) Ṃn. footnote p. &c. n. as adv. “ to take possession of the heart”. be heard”. w. pp.e. 10381) Hariv.). (exceptionally n. &c.252 253 Kochumuttom. %{a-}. 4 &c. to lay or store up.uni-koeln. commence. two things. (ifc. dvaya $ n. i. %{-veśayati}. &c. Sch. &c.) ṂBh. %{ut-}. put or throw into (loc. %{tāta}) chiefly Ved. deposit in. %{-viśati}.) ṠāṅkhṠr. to enter upon. or %{citāyām}. I Bhartṛ. devote one's self to (acc. (%{-ye} m. ĀV. & t. iv. Gk. prior. i. already. earlier than (abl..) ṚV. or %{cittam}.uni-koeln. (said of ṣiva. Kathās.g. 49) id. to come or resort to (acc..”esp. “ to accept or enjoy an oblation”). resort to (acc. %{A} R. with %{ātmani}. first. pl. and fem. applied to both sexes) ṂBh. 116 . fore.. 3.) ṂBh. xii.. 2 tata 2 m. 2 prāviś (%{pra-A-viś}) P.w. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Capeller’s Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. Gīt.. (with (%{svāni}) %{aGgāni} or %{gātrāṇi}). BhP. commit to paper. {āyus} n. %{vahnau}. %{-te}.. Ṡis. being before (sp. Br. --. “ to shrink. (%{I}) f. {adya pūrvam} until now. &c.”to come into the ears i. (g. couple. both (e. {pūrvā} ({diś}) the east. rarely loc. of 2 kinds or sorts ṚV. 5 f.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 06/03/2007. Prab. to instill into (loc.. double. {pūrva uttara} former-latter.. n. in the sense of an adv. %{tejo-}.: ḍesid.. or loc.or --.. (cf. or loc. between Ṡiś.e. usher into (acc. f. 18/19) a slope.

m. iv. 265 Kochumuttom. p. %{yadyapi tathÂpi}. 3 api may be affixed to an interrogative to make it indefinite. protracted W. in the latter use also (%{ās}) voc.). %{yatas}. performed (a ceremony) ṚV.) &c. e. (cf. also. 4/5 (in comp. something more. Ṡak.vi. moreover. %{yadi} (Gīt. iii ṬBr. Vet. moreover.l. besides. a certain. addressed to several persons ṂBh. %{kutrÂpi}.uni-koeln. that. expanded ṚV.. %{na kadācid api}. 5435 (C) (442. ib. wind L. stretched.) or senior (i. 3 tata 2 mfn. 110..de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 06/03/2007. 294. uniting to. (like %{tāta}) also term of affection addressed to a son ĀitBr. 4). expresses placing near or over.) Kathās. (B). &c. any one. (opposed to %{idám} q. 266 1 api or sometimes %{pi} (see %{pi-dṛbh}.de/cgibin/tamil/recherche 06/03/2007. v. 15 and 19 ff. %{adyÂpi}. %{cÂpi}. prefix {be}). http://webapps. 8).”(ṂBh. there. only. xi. 4 tāta m. then. 14. even now. $ Zd. 6820 f. spread. a term of affection addressed to a junior (ṠBr. footnote p. xiii. also. reaching to. 261 adas nom. composed (a tale). {tata} &c. 51. as well as.g.g. vii. or in comp.. 49.). $.3 ĀV. 3. 25. &c. ḥit. v. proximity. %{anyad api}.). (and at the beginning of a sentence) %{api-ca}.) Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. 6). thus. even thus. diffused. http://webapps.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 06/03/2007.v. 259 Tola and Dragonetti. Vikr. 8. v (v. so. %{asaú} (voc. xi Ṡrut. 221. 18. &c. %{yady api}. Anacker. never at any time: sometimes in the sense of but. p. pp. only a moment. 4.. 14. vii ChŪp. %{tatá}) a father ṂBh. (cf. in the sense of even. footnote p. %{na vÂpi} or %{na apivā} or %{na nacÂpi}. neither.. ṂBh.)) Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on MonierWilliams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. n. anywhere. Gk. i. 257 Tola and Dragonetti. (cf. xiv ĀitBr. and Eng. 260 Kochumuttom. p. i. ṂBh. 263 See also Tola and Dragonetti. 16 Kir. 133. nor. i. 225-226..) at that time. very. 2 api is often used to express emphasis. %{api api}. %{pi-dhā}. %{ko’pi}. nevertheless. &c. 5. 37) extended. i. wide L. this very day.uni-koeln. (voc. 1. (Pāṇ. 6796 Ṛagh. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. annexing. i.. 264 Tola and Dragonetti. %{yadā} (Ṃn. p.) ḷaghuj. 23. covered over by (instr. Kochumuttom.. even if. a metre of 4 x 1 2 syllables.uni-koeln. Lat. &c. spreading over. {api}.v. Kochumuttom.1). http://webapps. assuredly. Tṣ. 262 tadā ind. extending to W. p. 2455. 1. i R. 220. 5-3. &c. also another.) n. (%{tÁta}) voc. &c. 226. (ās a separable adv.. notwithstanding.). e. surely. 117 . %{tathÂpi}. mf. 11 Ṡiś. p. “ since.) and. although. 1). ii. any stringed instrument L. correlative of %{yád} (ĀV.. %{yarhi} (BhP. spreading. (%{adas}) ind. %{muhūrtam api}. 2231). %{ásau} ṃaitrṣ. %{cêd} (Ṡak. in that case (often used redundantly. esp. ix. (vi. pl. Germ. iv. %{adás}. 251. %{pi-nah}). bent (a bow) ṂBh. Wood. &c.g. 37. 111. after %{tatas} or %{purā} or before %{atha} ṂBh. iv. p. at least e.1) ṣanskṛit its place seems frequently supplied by %{abhi}. 6825. although. 258 Ibid. %{yatra} (ChŪp. 4. in later &16855(55. or %{api-ca}.

) Illusion (identified in the Sāṃkhya with Prakṛiti or Pradhāna and in that system. of all the four castes. 273 Kochumuttom. having received or obtained.. having grasped or touched ṂBh.uni-koeln. wisdom. unobtainable Kum. unreal. sometimes regarded 118 . over. sometimes it is a mere expletive. comp. 3 ālabhya 2 ind. intensity. 108. illusory. Lat. towards. depending on or from. witchcraft magic ṚV. cf. against. 226. p. 272 Tola and Dragonetti. 69 (in phil. %{abhi-tāmra}. 270 Anacker. http://webapps. (%{A}) f. %{abhi-nava} q.%{vṛkṣaṃ vṛkṣam abhi}.g. (%{am}) ind. on. p.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 06/05/2007. 6 api may strengthen the original force of the Potential. footnote p. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. {bī}). supporting Kāṭh. sorcery. in the direction of. 37. 251. Wood. &c. (esp.). Kathās.uni-koeln. regarded as the source of the visible universe) īW. http://webapps.de/cgibin/tamil/recherche 02/10/2007.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 06/03/2007. 112. like the English “ be pleased to”. 269 Tola and Dragonetti. approaching. 43. upon.. prop. {ob}. m. holding. {bi}. upon. 268 ālamba mfn. 274 4 māya mfn. p. p.g.. extraordinary or supernatural power (only in the earlier language). (ās a prefix to verbs of motion) it expresses the notion or going towards. illusion. with regard to. e. on account of. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results.. phantom. Gk... &c.4 api imparts to numerals the notion of totality e.1) {aibi}. an unreal or illusory image. art. a species of plant with poisonous leaves Ṣuśr. &c. duplicity (with Buddhists one of the 24 minor evil passions) ḍharmas.. p. ṂBh. http://webapps. 1-4. and KātyṠr.v. (with Ṡaivas) one of the 4 Pāśas or snares which entangle the soul ṣarvad. before. (ās a prefix to nouns not derived from verbs) it expresses superiority. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. 5 māyā f. to be killed or sacrificed Tṣ. $. by.. It may even express one after the other. 5 api may be interrogative at the beginning of a sentence. Zend &18820(61.. (%{A}) f. support. 1 abhi ind. see below. &c. ibc= false. into. &c.g. (a prefix to verbs and nouns. 2 ālabhya 1 mfn. over. for the sake of. 294. 271 See also Kochumuttom. as well as in the Vedânta. or may soften the Imperative. tree after tree (cf. receptacle. creating illusions (said of Vishṇu) ṂBh. unreality. that on which one rests or leans. {aiwi}. p.) to. into ṠBr. asylum ṂBh. a perpendicular L. towards. MW. severally Pāṇ. Goth. hanging down R. (with Vaishṇavas) one of the 9 Ṡaktis or energies of Vishṇu L. %{mā}) measuring (see %{dhānya-m-}). ṇ.uni-koeln. fraud.. in front of. trick.uni-koeln.. R. apparition ib. %{caturṇam api varṇānām}.. http://webapps. for. 221. 83. ōld ḥigh Germ. 91 e. v. having killed or sacrificed Yāj. (3. (ās a separate adverb or preposition) it expresses (with acc. of a ṃuni ṂBh. &c. deception..de/cgibin/tamil/recherche 06/03/2007. expressing) to. 267 1 alabhya mfn. Illusion personified (sometimes identified with ḍurgā.

xii. ṇ. GṛṠrṣ. well done.g. of one of the Viśve ḍevās ṂBh. deceived ṂBh. 2. (also the collective ṇ. that portion of the Veda which contains the texts called %{ṛc} or %{yajus} or %{sāman} (q. 17. &c. action ṚV. stake at a game ṚV. charm. enough of joking ib. i.) “ done with. on account of. ṠvetŪp. made. i. or as a daughter of ādharma) Pur. accomplished.) or according to the later conception (BhP. ṠBr. http://webapps. %{kṛtaṃ saṃdehena}. Kathās. ṣūryas.. ĀV.) 3 kṛtā f.” away with. (cf.) Br. work.). 276 mantra m.. 61. to the Brāhmana and ūpanishad portion (see īW. &c.. of 2 ṣāmans ārshBr.de/cgibin/tamil/recherche 06/05/2007.. 24. (%{ena}) instr. %{kīrṇa}. enough of. i. of a son of aya and father of ḥaryavana BhP. a mystical verse or magical formula (sometimes personified). 1692 Pacat. %{A}). ii. consequence. appointed (as a duty) Yāj. v. ind. in modern times employed by the Ṡāktas to acquire superhuman powers. Convolvulus ṭurpethum L. Tṣ. result L. an abyss ṚV. 6 and vi.. of a son of ṣaṃnati and pupil of ḥiraṇya-nābha Hariv. R. deed. good ṠBr. injured.. 210.v... 1. ṂBh. on Vṣ. for me) Yāj. xxx. away with doubt Ṡak. 18 Tṣ. 114. ind. benefit (cf. for the sake of. Ṃn.. x. 6. &c. no need of.. or ifc. ii. Hariv.” speech. removed. “ instrument of thought. the past tense ĀitBr.. of a son of Kṛita-ratha and father of Vibudha VP. Ṃn. f. performed ṚV. spell (esp. of ḷakshmī W.. 24. of the mother of Gautama Buddha MWB. (%{e}) loc. obtained.g. (with %{saha} or with instr. (rarely n. 000 years of men). ifc. of the first of the four ages of the world (also called %{satya} or “ the golden age. iv.uni-koeln. for (with gen. sympathy L. 45. (%{ám}) n.). du. 85. ṇ. prize or booty gained in battle ib. %{kṛt}. iii.. 5 kṛta mfn. on my account. a prayer or song of praise ṚV. 24. ĀV. (%{am}) n. x. id. incantation. ix. 4 kṛtā see 2. 2. of 2 metres Col. &c. %{-praja} (ṂBh. 28). &c. the primary ṃantras being held to be 70 millions in number and the secondary innumerable ṛṭḷ.. acquired. 2 kṛta 2 mfn.l. R. humiliated. (e. relating or referring to Yāj.parihāsena}.. ĀV.. brought down. of a son of Cyavana and father of ūpari-cara VāyuP. a Vedic hymn or sacrificial formula. R.. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on MonierWilliams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. kind action. 5 &c.uni-koeln. (i.. &c. prepared. (786. m.” comprehending together with the morning and evening dawn 4800 years of men (Ṃn. low. 5. n. injured. 5.. 197-202) ṚV. cultivated Ṃn. %{-ti}).g. i. %{k.. 275 1 kṛta 1 mfn. of a city Cat.. 35. %{mama kṛte} or %{mat-kṛte}. compassion. gained. ṇ. of a son of Vasu-deva BhP. 186. lowering. aim Vop. 76. sacred text or speech. 17. ĀV. offended. &c. &c.1). %{om} %{śivāya} %{namaḥ}) ṛṭḷ. base. service done. e.) mfn. placed at hand ĀV. 69) 4800 years of the gods or 1. magic.. (%{māye indrasya}) ṇ.as a daughter of ānṛita and ṇirṛiti or ṇikṛiti and mother of ṃṛityu.) as opp. 216 ṂBh. 728. wicked ib. 10. sorcery SāmavBr. depraved in mind Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. set aside. ṂBh. a sacred formula addressed to any individual deity (e. 4) ĀśvṠr. %{kṛta-ja} and %{-ghna}) ṂBh. ii. of the four dice in opposition to the fifth die called %{kali} Comm. proper. 80.. http://webapps.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 06/05/2007. xiii. of the die or of the side of a die marked with four points or dots (this is the lucky or winning die) Vṣ. 30 (v. Comm. 1080 BhP. on Ṃn. made ready ib. (hence) the number “ four” VarBṛṣ.. dismissed W. ix. humbling. humiliation Bhartṛ. n. tricked. 119 . v. %{-mati} (BhP. ii. killed L.. 147.. 4356. Ṣuśr. done.

effort L. 8. %{ātmānaṃ sā hanti}.1) ātmanā instr. e. character. in comp. all manner of things ṃaitrŪp. the Bahuvrīhi compounds %{ātma-caturtha}. 11. marrow.) %{dhatte}. 294. the individual soul. “ he places in himself. to blow..) &42279(135.. cf. ĀV. suet. i. (ōld Germ. $ (?). loc. the highest personal principle of life.. xxxii. in all the subjects contained in any particular work”) MW.v. ṇ.” the serum or marrow of the flesh (considered by some as distinct from that of the bones by others as the same). peculiarity (often ifc.uni-koeln.g. fire L. “ she strikes herself”.) ṚV. and %{-pañcama}. brain. (= %{dhṛti}) firmness L. 3. for %{ātmán}. &c. melted fat. “ in all matters. (ifc.) all things or objects.. the body Ṛagh. (see also below s.g.de/cgibin/tamil/recherche 02/11/2007. nature. grease.. &c. %{ātmanā vi-yuj}. Mod.uni-koeln. of Ṡiva ṂBh. %{an}. also rarely ifc. %{vā}. %{karmÂtman}. a partic. 6 (cf. advice. the sun L. Gk. principle of life and sensation ṚV. 44 Vṣ. design. or %{karoti}. x. 785. ṃadhus. v ṠBr. marrow.. 6-3. a son L.. p. ātman %{A} m. xiv. of %{ātman}. 2 vasā (sometimes written %{vaśā}) f. 14 ṛāmatŪp.. &c. plan.. pl. lard. {ōdem}. suitable for every 120 .consultation. mfn. root similar to ginger L. ii. http://webapps. &c. essence. 46. 97..” makes his own Tṣ. grease. grease. the person or whole body considered as one and opposed to the separate members of the body Vṣ. %{ātmán}) (Ved. vii. %{mantra}) proper or peculiar to Vedic or magical texts MW. melted fat. fat. self. %{paramÂtman}) ĀV. p. counsel.. to move. {oedhm}. 278 Tola and Dragonetti. %{adhy-ātmám}). 11 ṠBr.) Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. http://webapps.. 2 mantra see p. http://webapps. “ to lose one's life” Ṃn.uni-koeln. 279 Anacker.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 06/08/2007...” “ white.. &c. Brahma (cf. %{adhy-ātma}. “ they two having touched their son fell down” R. %{ātmanā}). 3 māntra mf (%{I})n. “ shining. to breathe. col. ṠBr. “ shining. e. 64. %{at}. 280 ātma (in comp. any fatty or oily substance Vṣ.. abstract individual (e. p.) “ the understanding. is used as reflexive pronoun for all three persons and all three genders e. of a river ṂBh. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. vasā or {vasẢ} f.. any fatty or oily substance Vṣ.g. %{mandÂ-}. lard. secret ṚV. &c.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 06/05/2007.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 02/11/2007. Germ. 277 vasā or (sometimes written %{vaśā}) f. intellect. (variously derived fr. (but not in a Bahuvrīhi) with ordinals Pāṇ. fat. the soul. “ he did it himself” Kād. %{tmán}) the breath ṚV. ṇ.) the fifth mansion VarYogay. %{putram ātmanaḥ spṛṣṭvā nipetatuḥ}. fat.. brain Kathās. 226. x.g. {āthem}. resolution. Sax. http://webapps.. &c. &c. 281 sarvārtha m. %{ātmanā akarot}. (in astrol. all matters (%{eṣu} ind. for the sake of the whole aim. $. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Capeller’s Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results.” the serum or marrow of the flesh (considered by some as distinct from that of the bones by others as the same). 37. Angl..” “ white. (or ibc. %{ātman} in the sg.. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. 28. (fr. {ātum}.uni-koeln. suet. &c. (%{am}) ind. of Vishṇu Vishṇ. mind” see %{naṣṭÂtman}. &c.. Wood.

to breathe. %{adhy-ātma}. of a prince ṂBh. p. to %{ekÂgratva}). ṃṛicch. p. ṇ. ĀV.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 06/05/2007. for %{ātmán}. (hence in arithm.g. “ he did it himself” Kād. the possessing of all objects MW. 28..) the number twenty-two. the creator of all things Pacar. a general overseer. a well-formed shape VarBṛṣ.. figure..g. &c. of ḍurgā L. Kathās. %{-cintaka} mfn.. x. (or) n. 113. xv..g. (with ainas) a class of deities L. p.. kind. form. aspect KātyṠr. %{-kuśala} mfn. n. ṂBh. (127. 221. %{ātmānaṃ sā hanti}. 64.) %{dhatte}. a metre (consisting of four lines with twenty-two syllables each) ṚPrāt. %{vā}. %{ātman} in the sg. Ṃn. %{at}. “ to lose one's life” Ṃn. &c. 288 Kochumuttom. ṇ. (variously derived fr. n. (%{inī}) f. of a Bodhi-sattva Buddh. loc. a means of accomplishing everything. %{-nāman} m. %{ātmanā akarot}. &c. of a king W. “ attending to everything. 289 ātma (in comp. p.. 226. footnote p. &c. Kāv.. v ṠBr. &c.). 97. Anacker. vii. m. 46. ṠvetŪp. %{-cintāmani} m.. http://webapps. %{dvÁdaśÂkṛti}). “ he places in himself.l. the soul.. %{-siddha} mfn. 37..g. or %{karoti}. 251-2. = %{-sādhaka}. ṇ. http://webapps. Wood. specimen ṚPrāt. n. 221. %{an}. of wk. (metrically for %{ākṛti}) form. peculiarity (often ifc. Anacker. also rarely ifc. to move. %{-sāra-saṃgraha} m. Kochumuttom. of various wks. is used as reflexive pronoun for all three persons and all three genders e. “ they two having touched their son fell down” R. chief officer Ṃn... p. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. appearance... %{adhy-ātmám}). ṇ. according to some.. 126 and 1165 (v. one who has accomplished all aims R. p. (%{ikā}) f.. species Ṣuśr. n.... %{putram ātmanaḥ spṛṣṭvā nipetatuḥ}. %{-sādhana} mfn.uni-koeln. pl. 5 (cf. principle of life and sensation ṚV. %{-sādhaka} mf (%{ikā})n.. %{-thÂnusādhin}. “ she strikes herself”. 113. ātman %{A} m. abstract individual (e.. Wood. pp. 11. (see also below s. 284 Kochumuttom.. p. effecting all things. self.. 2 ākṛtī f. Sch. of the 29th ṃuhūrta (in astron.) ṂBh. (%{is}) m. See also Tola and Dragonetti.unikoeln. ib.. m. shape ṂBh. 698. n. %{āṃ-kṛti}). p.v. 294. of Gautama Buddha (so called.purpose (%{-tva} n. 252. character. 85.. x. 283 Tola and Dragonetti. %{karmÂtman}. ii. e.. skilful in all matters ṇal. regarding or minding everything Pacar. to blow. n. p. %{-tā} f. cf. Pallcat. m. m. %{ātmanā vi-yuj}. Cit. nature. thinking about everything. footnote p.) KātyṠr. effecting everything.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 01/01/2007. %{-kartri} m. 226. the individual soul. 285 1 ākṛti f. 287 Tola and Dragonetti.. essence. of wk. accomplishment of all aims Kathās. 37..” distraction (opp.) ṚV. fit for everything (%{-stotra} n. 294. %{-siddhi} f. ii. a constituent part ṚV. %{tmán}) the breath ṚV. 282 See also Tola and Dragonetti. of ḍurgā ḍevīm. %{ātmanā}). Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. shape. of various wks. &c. 286 Kochumuttom. because his parents” wishes were all fulfilled by his birth) Lalit. the person or whole body considered as one and opposed to the 121 . e.” makes his own Tṣ. %{ātmán}) (Ved.3).

{ōdem}. a son L. (in rhet. untenableness owing to a dilemma ṣarvad. external gesture or aspect of the body.. art Ṛagh. VarBṛṣ. 252. ṂBh.). not standing (the test of) a dilemma (%{-tva} n. pp. the Bahuvrīhi compounds %{ātma-caturtha}.).. fancy.. i...de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 06/01/2007. f. combination. i. having wood for fuel.) Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results.. of %{ātman}. $ (?). 290 See also Tola and Dragonetti.. &c. &c. (ifc. 11 ṠBr.. Ṃn. (but not in a Bahuvrīhi) with ordinals Pāṇ. hesitation ṂBh.. and %{-pañcama}. alternative. 226-7. effort L. 6-3. (= %{dhṛti}) firmness L. variety. handsome. a collateral form VarBṛṣ. 28.. (for 1. expression of the face (as furnishing a clue to the disposition of mind) Ṃn.. p. col. 291 Tola and Dragonetti.. Anacker. the sun L. (ifc. &c. the allowing a rule to be observed or not at pleasure (%{vêti vikalpaḥ} Pāṇ. doubt.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 06/01/2007.. the body Ṛagh. 6 (cf.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 06/08/2007. “ optionally”). 24 Ṛagh. (ōld Germ. &c. (in gram.uni-koeln. an optional offering. mind” see %{naṣṭÂtman}. %{mandÂ-}. footnote p. stature. = %{kalpa-sthāna} Car. (%{ena} ind. (C. intellect. ṠBr. %{-vat} mfn.. Brahma (cf. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ 122 . 41) form. ṇ.) &42279(135. 293 kāṣṭhavat mfn. Mod. Angl. $. 221. http://webapps.) “ the understanding. p. 44 Sch. fire L. Sax.. pl.unikoeln. desirable. %{-pôpahāra} m. 37. like a stick (as when petrified with fear. ṂBh. %{-jāla}” n. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. Wood... BhP. 296 vikalpa 2 m. doubtful Vedântas.. undecided.) antithesis of opposites Pratāp. difference of perception. 294. distinction Ṇyāyas. manifoldness.. Germ. dilemma ṣarvad. 294 ākāra 1 m.. contrivance.. %{-sama} m. http://webapps. a partic. x.. {āthem}.separate members of the body Vṣ. Gk..uni-koeln. embodied Kathās. of a people ṂBh. like a piece of wood. &c. Sch. variation. %{-pÂnupapatti} f. appearance.de/cgibin/tamil/recherche 06/05/2007. variety Ṣuśr. indecision.. false notion. 1) alternation.. 14 ṛāmatŪp. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. (see above) to be striven after. {ātum}. 1-1. &c.. ṂBh.uni-koeln. mfn. &c. p. (%{t}) ind. {oedhm}. in comp. ākāravat mfn. mental occupation. &c. shape. xxxii. statement BhP. manifoldness KātyṠr. imagination Yogas. option Ṡrṣ. Kochumuttom. a number of possible cases. diversity. 950. %{A} R. 113.) ib. %{vikalya}).. admission. calculation VarBṛṣ. wished for ṠBr. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. MW.) Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results.1) ātmanā instr. %{paramÂtman}) ĀV. ṬPrāt.) admission of an option or alternative. (Sch.. 292 Kochumuttom.unikoeln. http://webapps. a god BhP. figure. having a shape. http://webapps. different BhP. the highest personal principle of life. sophistical objection ṣarvad. well-formed. 44 Vṣ. see p. Kāv. xiv... xii. 8. thinking L. p.. %{-tva} n. to be approved ṣarvad. http://webapps. irresolution. Gīt.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 06/05/2007. 295 eṣṭavya mfn. %{pÂsaha} mfn..

prati 1 ind. near.in verbs & substantives. 6 Sch. fixing the position of the sun or of the stars VarBṛṣ. in return. 298 Tola and Dragonetti. the true state or real nature.) 2 vedha 2 m. first principle (ph. footnote p. %{yuga-śáram}) GṛṠrṣ. opening. near to. in return (--. sometimes %{pratī}.uni-koeln. http://webapps.uni-koeln. 227. really. (as a prefix to roots and their derivative nouns and other nouns. p.” together. towards. &c. (%{-pad}) %{-bhāva} m. (%{-pat})%{-karman} n. taking place at the same time ĀpṠr. instead of or in return for. against.uni-koeln. on a par with or as a match for (also adv. (%{-pat}) %{-kāla} mfn. 38. mixture of fluids L. 301 prati adv.. opposite. ṇ. http://webapps. at the time of.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 06/05/2007. depth Car.. at. before. i. & adv. http://webapps. (also in measurement Col. 119. Pāṇ. Wood. disturbance Vāstuv. for 2. in favour of (also gen. pious. 302 1 vedha 1 mfn.l.. aside (d.uni-koeln. with regard or according to. in {tas} in truth. hole. -.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 06/05/2007. as a prep. with regard to.). comp. instr. 2-1. (v. perforation VarBṛṣ. about. 294. Anacker. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Capeller’s Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. see p. p. process to which quicksilver is subjected ṣarvad. &c. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Capeller’s Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. before nouns it expresses also likeness or comparison Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. by. p.... p. 221. 303 yugapad ind.uni-koeln. in {tas}).. *w. breaking through. on.. simultaneously (“ with” instr. or gen.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 12/08/2006. http://webapps. excavation VarBṛṣ. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. ṣarvad.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 06/05/2007. ( %{vidh}) = %{vedhas}.. reaching simultaneously ĀśvGṛ. 664) towards. back. a wound Ṣuśr. against. 300 tattva n. at in. ---.. {māṃ prati} according to me.. hitting (a mark) ṂBh. against. again. exactly. measure or division of time (= 100 ṭruṭis = 1/3 ḷava) Pur. breach. on. p. reality. in opposition to.. a partic. cf. a mystical ṇ. rarely following acc. mostly with the idea of constant repetition).Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. “ being in the same yoke or by the side of each other. on account or in consequence of.. abl.).. 299 Kochumuttom.de/cgibin/tamil/recherche 02/11/2007. the depth of an excavation. on. Kochumuttom. before. simultaneousness KātyṠr. preceding. about (also abl. 297 See also Tola and Dragonetti. faithful ĀV. http://webapps. (%{A}) f. (w.. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. a partic. the state of being that.. according to.. puncturing. upon. in my opinion. 252. Ṛājat. truth. ( %{vyadh}) penetration. (%{-pat}) %{-prÂpti} f.).uni-koeln. also at the time of.e. disease of horses L. wounding. back..) towards.). again. a simultaneous action ḷāṭy. 123 .{ātmānaṃ prati} to one's self. at the same time. of a son of ānanta VahniP. in adv. http://webapps. a partic. intrusion. piercing.). over against. down upon.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 06/05/2007. of the letter %{m} Ūp.

ground. fortune. contract. &c. obtainment R.). ceasing. want of apprehension or knowledge. knowledge L. %{dur-n-}). sign.) causing to perceive. http://webapps. observe. rescue from (abl. pains. ṂBh. attaining (conc.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 06/2006. perceive.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 06/2006.uni-koeln. learn. comprehend.uni-koeln. ṇyāyak.uni-koeln. Yāj. occupation. validity. religious work. 311 1 anupalambha m. 24 parijāna n. pervading.. (possibly connected with %{ni-mā} above) a butt. http://webapps. sacrifice.unikoeln. to notice. ṣarvad. 305 22 parijā P. laying aside (ornaments) ṣubh. intelligence BhP. disappearance. perception.). work.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 06/2006. motive. 124 .) ṚV. 310 Kochumuttom. http://webapps.. worship. consisting in knowledge BhP. gain. target ṂBh. taking off. &c. perceiving. damage. Kap. having much knowledge. ceremony. Anacker.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 06/2006. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. http://webapps. 314 nimitta n. &c. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. reminding Bhāshāp. labor. 306 prahāṇa n. mark. non-perception. Ṡiś. 309 Tola and Dragonetti. perceiving BhP. %{-nin} mfn. correctness (g. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Capeller’s Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. 38. %{-maya} mf (%{I})n. (accord. to some fr. action. footnote p. &c. arriving at..) Gaut. (from the Caus./2007. decrease. 294. http://webapps. coming. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ SanskritEnglish Dictionary: search results. http://webapps. ascertain./2007. R..uni-koeln. %{-jāya})./2007. ascertaining./2007. also as a superhuman faculty). ruin Yāj.de/cgibin/tamil/recherche 06/2006. 252. know or recognise as (2 acc. resulting from a rule. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on MonierWilliams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. Hariv..de/cgibin/tamil/recherche 06/2006. 4 upalambhana n. p. %{-nīte} (inf. p. cessation. Kāv. Var. 221. 308 See also Tola and Dragonetti. 3 upalambhaka mfn. thorough knowledge. %{-jātum} ind. &c. deprivation of (abl. Wood. %{han}) abandonment. 307 prāpti f. p. esp. ṂBh. cause.. vanishing. Ṡak. bond. profit. reaching. discrimination ṂBh.. argument. 120. p. p. ascertainment.. p.. a minus ĀśvGṛ. ṂBh. finding. entering. performance. 227.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 06/2006. %{-jānāti}. apprehension. 312 hāni f. insufficiency.. experience. 313 1 upalambha m. 23 parijā f. acquisition. Kochumuttom. understand. perceiving. verb.. non-existence Kāv. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Capeller’s Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. meeting with. the capacity of perceiving. (cf. relinquishment Kuval. &c. omen Ṃn. reason Ūp.304 kriyā f. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Capeller’s Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results.uni-koeln. deficit./2007. document. Kathās./2007. failure (also in a lawsuit).uni-koeln. {-ṇi} f. loss. activity. http://webapps.. &c./2007. recognition Ṛagh. &c. diminution ṂBh. wise Kathās. 2 anupalambhana n. Ā.

Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. exactly. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. or %{api-ca}.) instrumental or efficient cause (opp. on account of cf. over. http://webapps.g. (in all oblique cases = because of. in person. in front of. (ās a separate adverb or preposition) it expresses (with acc. It may even express one after the other. loss. %{na vÂpi} or %{na apivā} or %{na nacÂpi}. uniting to. (ās a prefix to nouns not derived from verbs) it expresses superiority. %{na kadācid api}. (a prefix to verbs and nouns. heaven. excellent. 317 2 ṣa 2 mfn. {bī}). notice. the operative or material cause) Vedântas.. paradise. mfn.uni-koeln. %{deha}. 6 api may strengthen the original force of the Potential. surely. for the sake of. 315 sākṣāt adv.v. Goth. &c. although. also. Lat. ifc. by.e. besides. %{yady api}. %{anyad api}. reaching to. also. a learned man. (and at the beginning of a sentence) %{api-ca}. caused or occasioned by.g. or may soften the Imperative. loss of knowledge. e. at least e. sleep. ṂBh. %{abhi-nava} q. assuredly. witness. Pāṇ.Ṃn. 2-3. also another. to be the cause of anything Kād.de/cgibin/tamil/recherche 06/2006. even thus. eternal happiness. %{cÂpi}. %{kutrÂpi}. immediately.uni-koeln. on account of. http://webapps. remainder. %{abhi-tāmra}. nevertheless. plainly. moreover. approaching. (in phil. prefix {be}). for 3. severally Pāṇ. final emancipation. 91 e. learned. Bhāshāp. any one. {aiwi}. (cf. never at any time: sometimes in the sense of but. 2 api is often used to express emphasis. put before the eyes. upon. on. with regard to.1) {aibi}. &c. = %{āgantu}. 3 api may be affixed to an interrogative to make it indefinite. (ās a separable adv. %{tathÂpi}.. with or before the eyes. destruction. e. = 125 . neither. wise. in later &16855(55. %{muhūrtam api}..%{vṛkṣaṃ vṛkṣam abhi}. &c. w. %{-ttaṃyā}. %{api api}. %{pi-dhā}. $. notwithstanding.. term.. 1 abhi ind. to %{upÂdāna}. Kāv. = %{kaca}. of all the four castes. only. expressing) to.1) ṣanskṛit its place seems frequently supplied by %{abhi}. although. this very day.uni-koeln.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 06/03/2007. 5 api may be interrogative at the beginning of a sentence. http://webapps. and Eng. actually.) and. (ās a prefix to verbs of motion) it expresses the notion or going towards. 23 Pat.uni-koeln. over. %{pi-nah}). very. %{parvan} L. as well as.g. %{caturṇam api varṇānām}. rest. end. for. expresses placing near or over. e. anywhere. Gk. towards. in the sense of even. directly. upon. &c./2007.g. %{ko’pi}. towards./2007. nor. %{ṣa} see below) best. something more. call to mind. in the direction of. proximity. tree after tree (cf. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. Zend &18820(61. moreover. even if. like the English “ be pleased to”. even now. i. intensity.g. and KātyṠr. 1-4. only a moment. Gk.de/cgibin/tamil/recherche 06/03/2007. {bi}. With {bhū} appear in person. %{ādeśa}. %{adyÂpi}. {ob}. annexing.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 06/2006. (only L. m.). against.g. into. a nipple. ōld ḥigh Germ. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on MonierWilliams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. 316 1 api or sometimes %{pi} (see %{pi-dṛbh}. sometimes it is a mere expletive. $ Zd.) to. Germ. {api}. before. {kṛ} take a view of. into ṠBr. http://webapps. 4 api imparts to numerals the notion of totality e. %{yadyapi tathÂpi}. teacher.

{i}2). pervade. bring near. learn from (abl. meet with. *cause a person (acc.).. denote. 318 See also Tola and Dragonetti. get at. acquire. dat. be going. find out. teach (2 acc. guess. obtain. study. meet. obey. get at. read. 121. mg. approach. take to (acc. ascertain (acc. set out. undergo. 320 Kochumuttom. learn. understand. approach repeatedly (acc.) to 126 . fall into. {abhyā} come near. die.) 32 sā 4 = {so} q. depart. disappear.). find. wander. C. visit.). imitate.e. to some) patience. observe. incur. 1109. put a person into a condition (2 acc. follow. go out. acquire. & acc. acquire. ganti. discover. depart. mean. or dat. penetrate. I. follow. cause to know.). arrive. reach. procure. {ganīganti} approach. incur. http://webapps. Wood. meet with. approach. move on. reach. %{ap-}. adj.). or loc. {upālambhanaṃ gacchati} he is censured (cf. ñ{prati}. cause to go away i. incur. of th. often = become or be w. approach (sex. %{sa} q. %{sa} q. 3 ṣa 3 mfn. {anvā} go after or along. --With the acc. join. pass over (acc.). giving. n. grant. take to wife. sā 1 f. visit. look for. or pp. -1. 1. encounter. of 6. loc. {abhi} come near. {upā} & {samupā} the same. keep on (with a pp. of th. be of opinion. = %{ṣaṣ} ifc. befall. incur. perceive.. overcome. {adhi} get at. fall into or upon. undertake. {samadhi} come near. explain.). p. {anu} go after. 6 sa 3 (in music) an abbreviated term for %{ṣaḍ-ja} (see p. obtain. -.). approach (sex. convey. {apa} go away. of pers. come to. go or come to.v. study.v. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results.uni-koeln. %{aśva-sā} &c. granting (cf.)) {gata} (q. ḍ.).). 5 sa 2 (in prosody) an anapest ($-).). 227. visit. or loc. cease. bestowing. perceive./2007. make understood. as {harśaṃ gacchati} he becomes glad. {ā} go near. learn from (abl.). {pratyā} come back. understand (P. p. undertake.). 2). & acc. die. obtain. lead or bring towards (acc. meet with (instr. come to (acc. get. 295.). (acc. the embryo.). descend. {api} go into. of 4. bring near.de/cgibin/tamil/recherche 06/2006. perceive. {nyā} come down to (acc. approach (sex. return from (abl. consider as (2 acc. & pass.. answer to. {paryā} go or come round.). follow. of pers. pp. {ji3gamiśati} & {ji3gāṃsati} wish to go. footnote p. (accord. learn (also C. wish to come to (acc. fall into. spend.).). p. -2. C. enter. Kochumuttom. approach sex.). = %{garbhavimocana}. understand. gamati. (--. pass. 38. accomplish. make acquainted with. send forth. visit. get. learn.w.). approach. impart (gen. undergo.%{mānava}. = %{sarva}. -te. {vyapa} the same. come back (ñ{punar}). seek. take for. obtain.) through some other (instr.). know. betide. invent. of an abstr. (in %{paca-ṣa} q. convey the idea of (acc.) ((-. undergo. pass.). 31 sā 3 (weak form of %{san}). 319 Tola and Dragonetti.) go.v. get. {antar} step between. marry. 221. accompany (also C. {samanu} go after. move. obtain. act.) to go. visit. approach. read.v. commence. be understood or meant). 30 sā 2 f. -te} cause to go or come. be extinguished.{accha. undertake. 252. exclude from (abl. p. endurance. approach mentally. get at. approach. {ati} pass away. gacchati. p. C.) 4 sa 1 the last of the three sibilants (it belongs to the dental class and in sound corresponds to %{s} in %{sin}). col. or gen. ḍ. 321 1 gam. acchā} go to. go after. procure. acquire (acc. perceive (ñ{manasā}). {gamayati.. go away. find. {ava} come down.).v. {adhyā} meet with. Anacker.).). guess.

n. 122. {parā} go away. cessation.). 252. depart. come forth. approach (sex. {nis} go out. approach.). befall. 327 Kochumuttom.). Agata. p. 295. {samupa} come near. meet. {pratyud} come forth again.) meet. rise. undertake. depart.. p. parigata. Wood. incur. 252-3. extend. correspond.). i. Anacker. undergo incur.). {prati} go to meet. undergo. Wood. Anacker. undergo. footnote p. 295. spend (time). approach (sex.uni-koeln. 329 Tola and Dragonetti. 325 See also Tola and Dragonetti. p. go out to meet (acc. happen. http://webapps. go out to meet or to face (acc. {vi} go asunder. harmonize. ḍ. (also %{dhig dhik}.) Ūp. come to (acc. meet with. answer.). disappear. start. encounter. bestow on (loc. Kochumuttom. Var. advance. 322 Tola and Dragonetti.(acc. pervade. 227. come back. reach. Wood. consent to (acc. consent to (acc. get.. {apojjigāṃsati} wish to withdraw from. p.). departure. %{-candra} m. go away. go away.)./2007.). of a prince Buddh. C. %{hā dhik}. ṂBh. p. join with (instr. absence Kāv.). {pra} set out. proceed from (abl. go to. {pari} walk about. of reproach. vanish. shoot up. pass. p. Kochumuttom. pass.) abstention from. recover. or nom. &c. stride (applied to the three strides of Vishṇu) ṚV. encounter. http://webapps. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. vigata. get at (acc. p. associate. return to life.de/cgibin/tamil/recherche 06/07/2007. 38. antargata. 323 1 vigama m. voc.uni-koeln. spread.). incur. encounter. appear. rarely gen. find. udgata. 4. {upa} come near. vanish. {samā} come together. C. inclose. Anacker (“vanishes”). or %{tava} (also with %{astu}) shame upon you!) Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on MonierWilliams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. ibid.). {abhisam} & {upasam} meet with. p. used as a prefix or as an interj. pace. spread. get at. get rid of (abl. {upani} & {saṃni} meet with. go to. 252. spread. get rid of (abl. revive. 324 1 dhig in comp.). extend. reach. ñ{saha} or {sārdham}).). {abhyud} rise. obtain. {ud} go up. go against.). 328 See also Tola and Dragonetti. or loc. end. (ifc. for %{dhik}. 38. p. Kāv. reach. go to. visit.). 2 vigāman n. agree. 38. %{hā8 hā dhik} &c.. cease.). Kochumuttom. set off. 221. 1 dhik ind. p. %{dhik tvām}. &c. be fit.). %{aho dhik}. fall into ({nidrām} fall asleep). meet. lead to (acc. --Cf. set out. {sam} (mostly ṃ. get at. http://webapps. bring together. depart. ḷāṭy. {apod}. 155. (with acc. cease. circumambulate surround. encounter (instr. %{hā dhik kaṣṭam}. attack. {abhyupa} come near. avoidance Yāj. {anugata. footnote p. admit. pp. {ni} settle down. 295. saṃgata}. join. abhyāgata. 227. grow. p. proceed. {vinis} go out. agree.uni-koeln. depart. 127 . come near. upagata. a step. 123. menace or displeasure = fie! shame! out upon! what a pity! &c. to avoid (abl..de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 01/13/2007. going away. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Capeller's 1891 Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. come back. approach. return. approach (also sex. 326 Tola and Dragonetti. join. 330 Kochumuttom. p. 227.. come (together) to (acc.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 06/2006.

but only takes away my life”) Kāvyâd. doubtful. 84. reverse. %{sambandhanīya} mfn. %{dhīyate}. %{-tā}..). pl.. opinion. arrested. art. science..) R.. perversely.. contrariety. ii. 3. %{-siddhÂnta-granthÂloka} m. figure of speech in which seemingly contradictory functions are attributed to one and the same object Kāvyâd. precarious. enmity. %{-dhiyur} or %{dhyur}. according to thy wisdom or will. disagreeing (as food) Bhpr.. Kāv.) ṂBh. Ṃn.. ṚV... n. incongruously MW. ĀV.. “ she gives an embrace. prohibited Ṃn. or comp. (scil. &c. kept back R. a partic. ṇ.) ṚV. knowledge. think. %{-ddhÂrtha} mfn. thought.) KātyṠr. the taking for (comp. &c. to contain. disagreeable.) religious thought. suggesting contradictory notions ṣāh..” where the word %{galag-graha} means also “ a disease of the throat”) ṣāh.. blockaded W. %{-siddhÂnta-grantha-rahasya} n. n. Pacat. %{-pūrva-pakṣa-grantha-ṭīkā} f. %{vidadhāti galagraham}. incompatible or forbidden food Ṣuśr. %{-ddhÂcaraṇa} n. intent upon Kāv. (esp. Br. Kathās. %{-ddhôkti} f. dispute L. %{tva} n.. odious or hateful to(comp. of a class of gods under the tenth ṃanu Pur. m. such is thy will ṚV.. R. %{-mati-kṛt} mfn. unpleasant. wish. wisdom (personified as the wife of Rudra-ṃanyu BhP. %{-siddhÂntagranthaṭīkā} f. contrary. &c. http://webapps. inconsistent or incompatible with. malevolently disposed. %{-bhuj} mfn.. pf. 128 . wrong or improper course of conduct MW. desire: īntens.. (%{-thadīpika} n..de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 06/07/2007. on ṇyāya.g. notion. (= %{-kārin}) Kpr. &c. (%{am}) ind. &c. intention. %{dīdhaya}. repugnance MW. ṇ. opposed.g. ii.). %{-ri-tā} f. f. opposition. Pratāp. contrasted. ṇ. &c.. %{dīdhīte}. %{-ddhÂnna} or %{-dhÂśana} n. ṇ. (in law) allied or kin in a forbidden degree. devotion. Kālid. (cf. Kpr. of wks. m..) Ṣuśr. hostility. %{itthÁ dhiyÁ} or %{dhíyaḥ}. malignant or abusive language (= %{gāli}) L. gen. or comp. incompatible food ib. of 1.) Kāvyâd. n. of the 5th house from the ḷagna Var. willingly lit. 7 dhī 3 cl.. adverse or contradictory speech. eating incompatible or unsuitable food W. at variance or at enmity with (instr. 109). hindered. %{dhā}. containing a contradiction (%{-tā} f. mind.. design (ifc.uni-koeln.).. %{-grantha-pūrvapakṣa-rahasya} n. the forms %{dhīmahi} and %{ádhāyi} belong rather to 1. (in medicine) applying incompatible remedies (%{-tva} n. quarrel.) to perceive... of wks.. %{bhojana} n. uncertain. %{-mati-kārin} mfn. %{dedhyat} Tṣ. %{-dhire} ṚV. disposition. ṂBh. of a ch. of the Pṣarv... malignant Ṛājat. %{-grantha-rarhasya} n.. restrained. “ the moon of thy face does not rise in the sky. dangerous ṂBh. understanding.. (= %{-kāri-tā}) ib. 332 5 dhī 1 cl. prayer (pl. instr. of wks.. 6 dhī 2 f. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. incompatibility Ṛājat. meditation. %{dīdhī}. reflection. (%{yáthā dhiyÁ} or %{dhiyÁ ná}. reflect. prohibited or unlawful occupation Yāj.. Ā..331 viruddha mfn. opposition. %{-prasaGga} m. %{-ddhôpakrama} mfn. %{rūpaka}) a figure of speech in which an object compared to another object is said to lack its functions and to possess others not properly belonging to it (e. %{-dhima}. hostile.4. excluded from (gen. ṇ. n. forbidden. bold (Pass. surrounded. %{-śaṃsana} n. %{-lakṣaṇa} n. repugnant. hostility. Holy Thoughts personified) ṚV. Ā. adverse. a figure of speech which (by using ambiguous words) suggests contradictory notions (e. ṂBh. ṣarvad. intelligence. &c.. of wk. %{-dhī} mfn. %{-pūrva-paksa-} %{granthÂloka}.

334 Buddha mfn. Var.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 06/07/2007. and very common in the Bra1hman2as and in works that imitate their style . or by 24. (esp. it is frequently followed by %{u} in the combination %{vA4@u} [both particles are separated .. being the daughter of ṛāja ṣu-prabuddha MWB. x. disregard. http://webapps. 3. to be deprived of (gen. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results.. n. a wise or learned man. learnt. &c.uni-koeln. to blow A1past.. Kāv. wise (opp.. 23. 3. 1700. all-resisting.. awakened. of the Ṡākya tribe or family. P. ṣhaḍvBr. an elephant-hook ḍaś. w. %{A}) an elephant (from its power of resistance) ṂBh. to become languid or weary or exhausted RV. expanded. for %{vāruṇī} ḤYog. awake ṂBh. a particle of emphasis and affirmation . 37. more frequent in the AV.. 34. Kāv. (%{zoSaNe} Dha1tup. 47 . 6 . &c. impediment. invincible (said of the ṣoma and of Indra's elephant) ṚV.) . 2-2.. to some = elephant ṚV. ṂBh. his father. (ifc. wild ṚV. clever. 33. P. v . 24) %{vA4yati} . iii.). 1326. ĀV. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on MonierWilliams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. for %{dī}.C. (“ by.. 129 . and as a mere expletive.. of a place ṂBh. Ṡuddhodana. ix. mail L.). resisting.. in the Su1tras it is less frequent and almost restricted to the combination %{yady@u@vai} . 19 &c.). blown SāmavBr. a female elephant L. known. 2 vai 2 ind. m. 40. ṃāyā-devī. (B.de/cgibin/tamil/recherche 06/07/2007. `" truly "' . to propitiate (?) ḍhātup. 1.. about 420 B. while that of Gautama was taken from the race to which his family belonged. &c. for his other names see ib. 5. In RV. understood Āpast. or according to others by 6 principal Buddhas ib. also A1. obstacle. iv. shy. 67 Sch. being the ṛāja of that district. 1. viii. and (ep. 9 Hariv. dangerous ṚV. relating to prevention Ṣuśr. the act of restraining or keeping back or warding off from (abl. xxvi.C. (with %{mṛga} accord. http://webapps. intelligent. = %{hari-tāla} L. forbidden ĀitBr. (%{I}) f. `" just "' &c.. 333 vāraṇa 1 mf (%{I})n. KatyṠr.uni-koeln. Kāv. prob. %{vA}) cl. he is said to have died when he was 80 years of age. . &c. splendour ṚV.uni-koeln. ib.) the principal Buddha of the present age (born at Kapila-vastu about the year 500 B. opposing ṂBh.” usually instr. sometimes he is regarded as the 9th incarnation of Vishṇu Hariv. reckoning previous Kalpa.%{dhā}?). a means of restraining Bhartṛ. according to Pāṇ. ṇ. 4). sage W. .. 1. resistance. knowledge BhP. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. 3.. `" certainly "' . conscious. armor. m. viii. http://webapps. ṂBh.) RV. 136. f. MBh. Kāv. hence he belonged to the Kshatriya caste and his original name Ṡākya-muni or Ṡākya-siṉha was really his family name. (with Buddhists) a fully enlightened man who has achieved perfect knowledge of the truth and thereby is liberated from all existence and before his own attainment of ṇirvāṇa reveals the method of obtaining it..) .r. 12. to %{mūḍha}) ṂBh. but also gen. 8. he was preceded by 3 mythical Buddhas of the present Kalpa. generally placed {after} a word and laying stress on it (it is usually translatable by `" indeed "' . and his mother. to slight. opposition. 49 n. it is very rare in the RV. a kind of ornament on an arch ṂBh. n.. vi. in Manu MBh. 8 dhī 4 f.. `" verily "' . xxii . restraining. 18 .. (Dha1tup.. %{buddhi}). &c. .de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 06/07/2007. warding off. and the Ka1vyas it mostly appears at the end of a line . identical with 2.. 335 1 vai 1 (orig.

%{pāpa-}) R. 338 jñāna n. (%{am}) n. 11. %{a4ha} . wisdom. it is also preceded by %{u} and various other particles e. 74 Yāj. 17. i. %{su-}. color L. %{deva-}. inspection.) the higher knowledge (derived from meditation on the one ūniversal Spirit) ṠāṅkhṠr. foreseeing Ṛagh. 53 Kām. id. showing. of an insect ṇpr.. intelligent . 10 Vārtt. ṇ. Pat. &c. 6.. 18 and 44) R. v. ṇ.. with or without %{saha} Vet. 158 Yāj. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. . 60 Ṡak. Accord. vi. i.v. %{danta-}) Bhartṛ.) ṂBh. ii. xii. ii. Ṃn. 10. 5/6. audience. fit R. a monument. &c. 6 Prab. 11045 f. observation. xii. %{sama-}. 25/26 Ṛājat. %{-ghaná} m. %{eva} . red chalk L. e. 7 Ṃn. i. ii.. Kum. i. knowledge. (471. presence ĀśvGṛ. 131. appearance. 5 ṂBh. 4. ūttaraṃīmāṉsā by Bādar. 8 Ṡak. xii. 0/1..2). ii. rich Pan5cat. &c. ṂBh. the eye-sight.g. to some it is also a vocative particle).. in the Bra1hman2as it often follows %{ha} . v. ifc. 8. intelligence.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 06/07/2007. Katha1s. v. vi. 71. view. 2 jñāna mf (%{I})n. n. . vi. instr. ii... 233). 10238. apprehension. token of recognition. %{-kumuda-candrikā} f. 8 Bhag.. of wk. doctrine. ṇyāya by Gotama Vaiśeshika by Kaṇâda ṣāṃkhya by Kap. Cāṇ.. xiv. philosophical system (6 in number. 101. = %{dhruva} L. meeting (with gen. opinion ṃālav. aspect. 92) n. i. 58.. knowledge about anything cognizance” see %{-tas} and %{a-jñānād} %{a-jñānād} %{vā}. iii. 1. Pāṇ. 1285 ḥit. %{sarpiṣas}. wise L. 43. examination Yāj. 5-2. knowledge. by %{i4d} . looking at (see %{tulya-}.. xiv ṠāṅkhGṛ. 336 arthya mf(%{A} Pa1n2. vii. semblance Ṃn. Pañcar. 6. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results.unikoeln.xiii Gobh.g. 84 Kathās. BhP. L. 116. %{uta4} . &c. 35/11 a mirror L.) Ṛagh. ṇ. knowingly or ignorantly. ix Bādar. 27. a vision. . http://webapps. 9 and 23. Ṛagh.1). &c.. discrimination ĀV. . Ṛagh. vi.3] [1020. conscience ṂBh.”in sacrifice with clarified butter”) Pāṇ.. dream Hariv. viś. contemplating Ṃn. xxvi ḷāṭy. viii. 36 ṛāmatŪp. i. http://webapps. 8. i. xi. iii. noticing. the eye Ṣuśr. memorial ṠBr. cf. 2. %{ha@sma} . v. 25. seeing. Yoga by Pat. knowing. ii. n. 5460. 337 darśana mf (%{I})n. 6/7 discernment. i. &c.. iv. becoming acquainted with. 583 BhP. ii.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 04/09/2008. observing. 47 ṂBh.. 57. exhibiting. any mark or sign or characteristic ĀV. a sacrifice L. 10. ocular perception Ṣuśr. Ṡr. showing (cf. xi. intention (cf. i.. = %{-nêndriya} KaṭhŪp. wise L. the becoming visible or known.. 2-2. 90 Sch. (ṇal.xiv. iv.1] . easily known ĀV. &c.. 4-4 . (Pūrva-) ṃīmāṉsā by aim. 18. 23 ṠBr. 30 ṛāmapūjāś. judgment Ṡak. = %{dharma} L. experiencing BhP. 328 Hariv. engaging in (gen. viii. iii. a distinctive mark. proper . intellect Ṃn. nothing but knowledge 130 . teaching ṂBh. (%{A}) f. perception ṚV. &c. viii. s.. vi. ḍurgā Hariv. seeing.. iii. the being mentioned (in any authoritative text) Kāty. (esp.. visiting Yāj. iii. .uni-koeln. looking. 2700. understanding. 3.uni-koeln. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. ifc. “ knowing see %{dharma-}. 25 ṂBh. iii. i. of a Ṡakti ṛasik. R. prudent. Ragh. 170 ṂBh. (659. http://webapps. appearance (before the judge) Ṃn. v. 93. in comp. in later language %{api} and %{tu}. iv Yāj.. = %{arthanIya} q. i. 26 ḍhūrtas. iii.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 04/09/2008. 13/14 Kām. %{a-}. (%{I}) f.

conformity. Kochumuttom.e. Pur. &c. Ṃn. “perhaps 131 . obedience. perchance (esp. release from (abl.) the liberation of an eclipsed or occulted planet. effusion VarBṛṣ. end of an eclipse ṣūryas. following. (in Pāṇini's Gr. %{riṇa-}). “perhaps it is and is not (under certain circumstances)”. perhaps. http://webapps. acquittance of an obligation. hurling ṂBh. a train of thought ṭattvas.. having regard or respect to.de/cgibin/tamil/recherche 06/07/2007. (ifc. 253. compliance. of authors Cat. the act of continuance. settling (a question) Kathās. %{garbha-}). Pot. Kāv. (īW. “ perhaps it is (under certain circumstances)”. casting. %{-tṛpta} mfn. 348 syāt ind... 2. happening... ṇ. calamity Yāj. (3. (cf. “perhaps it is not. occurring. complying.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 06/07/2007. (cf. %{syād asti ca nÂsti ca}. %{-saṃtati} f. %{syān nÂsti}. ṂBh. p.. %{A}) emancipation.uni-koeln. %{as}) it may be. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. VarBṛṣ. sg..uni-koeln. used in aina wks. changing into KātyṠr.) ṂBh. strewing. sacred hymns conducive to final emancipation Yāj. doing or acting in like manner. under %{ghaná}). fault. %{-nÂśrama}. obeying.ṠBr. 295. p. viś.de/cgibin/tamil/recherche 06/07/2007. acting suitably to. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results.”. death L. 295. shooting. ṣchrebera ṣwietenioides L. falling off or down Kum. %{-nÂnanda}. 253. 339 1 anuvṛtta mfn. imitating. 343 Tola and Dragonetti.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 06/07/2007... 345 Anacker. deliverance (of a prisoner) Gaut.. (in astron. and %{-nêndra} m. http://webapps. 2 anuvṛtti f.. 221. or comp. of the divine mountain Meru L.. http://webapps. p.uni-koeln. transgression L. 3. discharge of a debt (cf. Wood. footnote p. 227.. ṇ. satiated with i. 1. setting free. VarBṛṣ. incurring. the last contact or separation of the eclipsed and eclipsing bodies. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. abandonment Kathās. final or eternal emancipation Ūp. 124. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ SanskritEnglish Dictionary: search results. &c.. p.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 06/07/2007. Kāv. liberation. utterance (of a curse) R. http://webapps. Ṣuśr. entering into relationship with. loosing.. 4. f. entering into a state or condition. rounded off. following. (%{am}) n. and occurring in 7 formulas. Anacker. 340 mokṣa m. reverting to.) ṃārkP..) continued course or influence of a preceding rule on what follows. http://webapps. misfortune. 344 Kochumuttom. Kathās. blood &c..unikoeln. release from worldly existence or transmigration. 347 Kochumuttom. p. untying (hair) ṃegh. &c. 39). 227. %{syād asti}. n. complying with. Tola and Dragonetti.. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. of 1. p. p. āPrāt. scattering Kum. %{syād avaktavyaḥ}. of partic. p. p. 38. shedding or causing to flow (tears. Anacker. 341 āpatti f.. full of knowledge ṂBh. 342 ayatnatas without effort or exertion. 295. 346 Tola and Dragonetti. relinquishment. &c.uni-koeln. rarely gen.

power. sinews BhP. %{syān nÂsti cÂvaktavyaḥ}. %{rūpa}. primary element of the earth i.). %{-garbha})). 253. %{tejas}. ingredient (esp. viś. Kochumuttom. 353 34 dhātu 1 m. Kauś. %{anila}. http://webapps. 7. Anacker. ṂBh.g. 221. 228. element. %{triviṣṭi-}. 5. or the ashes of the body. 35 dhātu 2 mfn. I explored similarities in the process metaphysics of the Yogācara and A. milch cow ḷāṭy. (usually reckoned as 5. a mineral of a red color) Ṃn.e. relics L. of which sometimes 10 are given. or as the 5 organs of sense. 352 Kochumuttom. 356 Tola and Dragonetti. footnote p. a constituent element or essential ingredient of the body (distinct from the 5 mentioned above and conceived either as 3 humours (called also %{doṣa}) phlegm. grammatical or verbal root or stem Ṇir. blood.. p. 221. Kochumuttom. %{rasa}.A. Wood. where often= “ fold” e. %{kha} or %{ākāśa}. (with %{rauhiṇa}) ṇ. marrow. &c. 9. 36 dhātu 3 n. %{māṃsa}.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 01/12/2007. 350 In a perhaps over-ambitious master’s thesis. %{āsya}.uni-koeln. stratum KātyṠr. to which is added %{brahma} Yāj. cf. ṂBh. of a ṣāman ĀrshBr. v. ( and in ṚV. where %{śrotra}. %{syād asti ca nÂsti cÂvaktavyaḥ}) ṣarvad. = %{dhenu}. skin.)). 351 Tola and Dragonetti. 295. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. Tṣ. ṠBr.. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. Roll on Dancing: Comparison and Conflict in Alfred North Whitehead's Process Philosophy and the Early Yogācāra Buddhism. %{manas}. p. or the 18 elementary spheres (%{dhātu-loka}) ib. or %{vijñāna} Buddh. or the 7 fluids or secretions. &c. semen Ṣuśr. Thesis advisor Dr. 5. &c. 295. 125. xxv. omnipresence.v. %{syād asti cÂvaktavyaḥ}. Bina Gupta. Anacker.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 06/07/2007. http://webapps. p. Hariv. %{ghrāṇa}.. 252. p. 145. ( %{dhe}) to be sucked in or drunk (%{havis}) ṚV. 227. 1). 1994. p. vii. %{bhū}. 6. 38. %{indriyāṇi}. Johnson-Moxley. %{rasÂdi} or %{rasa-raktÂdi}. bone. 6842. p. Prāt. 3 f. chyle. (cf. fat.uni-koeln. might. mineral. element of words i.N.. xii. (L. are (esp.uni-koeln. and ṂBh. thesis. threefold &c. Wood. p. “ perhaps it is and is not expressible in words”. p. 38. Whitehead. M. 355 See also Tola and Dragonetti. (cf. %{tri-dhÁtu}. ChāndŪp. University of Missouri-Columbia. %{jala}. layer. %{purīṣa}.. only) ifc.e. wind and bile BhP.it is not expressible in words”. p. 132 . %{gandha}. %{sapta-}. vi. 44. %{sparśa} and %{śabda} L. primitive matter (= %{mahā-bhūta} L. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Capeller’s Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. %{su-}) ṚV. (with the southern Buddhists %{dhātu} means either the 6 elements (see above) ḍharmas. the above 7 and hair. lviii. flesh. p. %{hṛdaya} and %{koṣṭha} are mentioned as the 5 dhdhātu of the human body born from the either) and the 5 properties of the elements perceived by them. &c. http://webapps. 354 vibhutva n. constituent part. metal.(cf. Melanie K.de/cgibin/tamil/recherche 06/07/2007. “ perhaps it is not and is and is not expressible in words”. 5. s. iii.) ṂBh. 349 See also Tola and Dragonetti.

or %{prÂpya} Pāṇ.. base. silent... 133 .uni-koeln. (= %{khyāti-v-}). (%{ās}) m. firm. stretch. wise. to attain to. %{prêpsati}.. to obtain. (with %{diśaḥ}) to flee in all directions Bhaṭṭ. principal.. to lead or bring to (dat.. excellent. 225. “ wakener. of a people R. argument Kathās. unable to answer. perceived.. ṂBh.. advance.de/cgibin/tamil/recherche 06/07/2007. strive to reach ṠBr..).. to meet with. 57 Sch.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 06/07/2007. of a son of Virāj VP.) to pass or be changed into (acc. (Ficus Religiosa) ḥcat. low. Ṡatr. Yāj. Kāv. of Bṛihaspati L. 363 dhīmat mfn. ṬBr. to be present or at hand ĀV. famous Kathās. to extend. to suffer (capital punishment) ib. accomplishment. ChŪp. 362 bodhi mf.) ṣiddh. (with Buddhists) perfect knowledge or enlightenment MWB. %{prÂpnoti} (irreg. %{prÂpeyam})..) Kāś. %{prÂpayati}. 364. (in gram... 5-2. an “ integral part of perfect knowledge or enlightenment” Lalit. ṂBh. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ SanskritEnglish Dictionary: search results. learned. pl. renown. 126. arrive at. (MWB. reach.uni-koeln.. m. reach to (%{A}) Pāṇ. general opinion. the tree of wisdom under which perfect wisdom is attained or under which a man becomes a Buddha. to impart.uni-koeln. %{-mat} mfn.. fixed. http://webapps. guessed. MWB. footnote p. mfn. Ā. Ā. further (P. (cf. %{viruddha-tā} f. 43 (%{-dhy-aGga} n.). Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ SanskritEnglish Dictionary: search results. upalabdha mfn. learnt. rumor Var.). of a son of Pūrū-ravas ṂBh. viii. 97. ṇ. communicate. publicity. BhP. heard. m..) Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. without a reply. (with Buddhists or ainas) perfect knowledge or wisdom (by which a man becomes a Buddha or ina). inferior. of a mythical elephant Lalit. of a place L. Lalit. %{-hata} mfn. the state of being opposed to general opinion.: to result (from a rule). p. sāh. meet with. 181 &c. sensible Ṃn. &c. be in force.uni-koeln.. universally known. success. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. south. 6-4. a class of gods among the ainas. conceived. Kām.. southern. n. Kāv. proof. 117. (%{am}) n.. Ṛājat.357 358 Kochumuttom. http://webapps. receive (also as a husband or wife) ṂBh. received. a reply which is coherent or evasive and therefore held to be no answer. of a man (= Buddha in a former birth) ātakam. find ĀV. 2 bodhi f.uni-koeln. &c. known. http://webapps. the illuminated or enlightened intellect (of a BBuddha or ina) Kathās. &c. 360 prāp (%{pra-āp}) P. &c. very trivial Kpr. the sacred fig-tree.). 359 prasiddhi f.). having no value. Pot. best. celebrity. fame. Kathās. %{-te} (ind. pl. obtain R. chief. to try to attain. ṂBh.” a cock L. attainment Ṃn. obtain (also Pass.) VP.. intelligent.: Caus. relate Ṃn. to incur (a fine) Ṃn.. ṂBh. http://webapps. 35. 361 anuttara mfn. obtained. to cause to reach or attain (2 acc. 188 &c. 8.: ḍesid. %{prÂpayya}.de/cgibin/tamil/recherche 06/07/2007. ṇ.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 06/07/2007.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 06/07/2007. &c. promote. of a Ṛishi in the 4th ṃanv-antara ib. announce. learned. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. iv. understood. &c. wise ūṇ. http://webapps..

295-6. the trunk of a tree R. i. pp. (%{ci} Pāṇ. habitation L. the body of a lute (the whole except the wires) L. Wood. Bṛih.. any object to be attained L. m. ṠBr. a butt. http://webapps. 41). Ṃn. &c. iii. principal. http://webapps.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 02/11/2007. one of the eight modes of marriage (= Prājāpatya see %{vivāha}) Ṃn.uni-koeln. intelligent. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ SanskritEnglish Dictionary: search results.a Bodhi-sattva L. dhīmant a. (fr. p. 134 .uni-koeln. Tṣ.. relating or devoted to the god Ka (Prajā-pati ṚV. assemblage.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 06/07/2007. collection.. 365 ātmīkṛ to make one's own. a house. skilful. take possession of Kād. 3-3. the body KātyṠr. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. http://webapps. p. 4 kāya 2 m. 3.uni-koeln. ii.. (%{am}) n. Anacker. http://webapps. part of the hand sacred to Prajā-pati. 253.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 06/07/2007. 4-2.uni-koeln. 58 and 59. the root of the little finger Ṃn. 60. 366 See also Tola and Dragonetti. 38 Yājñ. mark L. capital ṇār... Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results.. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Capeller’s Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. multitude ṣaddhP.de/cgibin/tamil/recherche 01/20/2008. 121) Vṣ.. &c.. 25). natural temperament L. 39. %{ka} Pāṇ.. x. Kochumuttom. p. 228. 364 kāya 1 mf (%{I})n. wise.

)369 Thomas Wood370 and Stefan Anacker. 135 . M. I am relying upon on a synthesis English translations from Tola and Dragonetti. in addition to Kochumuttom’s (k) transliteration of Lèvi alone. al.371 I cite Tola and Dragonetti’s transliteration of the Sanskrit verses and their commentary (td). et. to present the general meaning of most portions of the auto-commentary. Nagao (in David Kalupahana. transliterations of certain key passages of commentary (e. my procedure has been to compare the English translations against each other..CHAPTER 3 THE VIṂŚATIKĀ-KĀRIKĀ I have consulted English translations of Vasubandhu’s Viṃśatikā-Kārikā ("Twenty Verses. Vasubandhu’s text was also translated into Chinese in the sixteenth century by Hsüan-tsang. Contemporary English renderings of this version from Francis Cook372 and Hamilton373 are considered. such as Kochumuttom. Most transliterated passages of Vasubandhu’s auto-commentary included herein are from Tola and Dragonetti’s excellent Being as Consciousness.g. who also wrote his own commentary. see auto-commentary on Verse 9) are sometimes provided by other authors.368 G. and only on pertinent occasions provide the same level of analysis of the commentary as I do the twenty-two core verses themselves. Kochumuttom. which is based on Sylvan Lèvi’s as well as Chinese and Tibetan versions. using available English transliterations as touchstones. Anacker..367 Thomas Kochumuttom. As in the preceding chapters.” or VM) from Fernando Tola and Carmen Dragonetti. Given the complexity of this project.

” rather than “consciousnessonly” or “mere representation of consciousness. “Vijñapti” (used in the VM). The thesis of the Viṃśatikā. Verses 8-10 and commentary address the true nature of ātman and dharmas. wherein it is asked and explained how “if there are no objects of perception.” Verses 2-7 and commentary raise and respond to several objections to this thesis. “manas” (used rarely in the VM and the Trimśatika) and “vijñāna” (used throughout the consciousness trilogy). that it cannot account for spatio-temporal determination. reiterating the assertion that ātman and dharmas do not exist “like that” (as opposed to an assertion that they do not exist at all) and does so.” I am also herein translating the thesis of this text as “consciousness-occasion. Next. “vijñapti-mātra. 136 .” any of the following could be possible: sensory perception. verses 11-15 and commentary raise and respond to several objections to the vijñapti-mātra thesis from the Vaiśeṣika (Atomist) perspective. Vasubandhu’s commentary on this verse establishes the synonymy of the terms “citta” (used primarily in the TSN). Verse 22 offers Vasubandhu’s closing caveat regarding his ability to present the subtle idea of vijñapti-mātra accurately. namely. with the axioms of the Trisvabhāva still firmly held in view. or murder.The structure of the Twenty Verses is as follows. the causal efficacy of other minds. shared perceptual experiences or causal efficacy. namely.” is stated in verse 1. the distinction between dreaming and waking states.” rather than “only” or “mere. Verses 16-21 return to the lines of objection addresses in verses 2-7. In keeping with the translation introduced in Chapter 2 of “mātra” as “occasion. from all appearances.

namely.376 consciousness. that verse and its commentary shall be considered here. element.” and “representation” might seem discordant at first.380 perception (per Anacker)381 having/being/consisting of /merely. although it is incorporated into his commentary. “citta-mātra.” “concept. of ideation or mentation.” Verse 1a Vijñaptimātram…(td)375 Consciousness-occasion… vijñapti mātra information.VM 1a The translation of “vijñapti” variously as “information. giving. mind (per Wood).” “mind. atom. instant. claiming that this portion of the text is dubious by virtue of having been lost in its original Sanskrit form and merely reconstructed by Sylvan Lèvi based on subsequent Chinese and Tibetan translations of text. as it conforms to the essential idea of the Trisvabhāva-Nirdeśa (TSN).” “perception.VM 1: Thesis of Vijñapti-Mātra The first verse of the VM does not appear as such in Hsüan-tsang’s Chinese translation. but in fact serves to illustrate the same basic concept: that of conceptualization itself. request. David Kalupahana omits the first two paragraphs of Vasubandhu’s commentary from his version. which as explained in the TSN is a process both caused and causally 137 .379 concept. announcement. imparting.374 Nevertheless. also measure or limit (in space and time). occasion Table 45.” “consciousness.377 representation378 of consciousness.

Verse 1b … evedam asadarthāvabhāsanāt …(td) … etad-asadartha-vabhāsanāt …(k)382 … evaitad asadarthavabhāsanāt … (wayman)383 … thus non-existing material thing like reflection (appearance)… 138 .” “representation-occasion. the text begins with this thesis and is thereafter concerned with addressing hypothetical objections to it. again assuming the authenticity of the first verse and commentary. In the TSN. and thus as one reason why I have approached this project as the examination of a consciousness trilogy.efficacious.” “perception-occasion” and “information-occasion” are taken to be legitimate forms of the vijñapti-mātra thesis of the VM. “mind-occasion. This flow from the TSN to the VM serves as one illustration of the connection between the these two texts.” “conceptoccasion. albeit in a somewhat reversed order.” “consciousness-occasion. “mātra” is herein taken to mean “occasion. Hence. the nature of reflection or appearance (the own-state-of being parakalpita) is explained in relation to dependent cause (the own-state-of being paratantra) of that reflection and in relation to “perfected” or complete reality (the ownstate-of being pariniṣpanna). because “consciousness-occasion” expresses the fundamental Buddhist idea of momentary existence in a way that “consciousness-only” or “mere mind” does not. in keeping with the translation introduced in Chapter 2. In the VM. the citta-mātra thesis is made explicit only by the text’s end. This conforms to the methodology of the TSN.” rather than “only” or “mere” as it is usually rendered. Again.

139 . falsehood relating to a thing or object. Similarly: Verse 1c-d … Yadvat taimirikasāsatkeśoṇḍukādidarśanam (td) … Yathā taimirakasya-asatkeśa-candra-ādi darśanam (k) … According as optical disorder: non-existing hairs. “mere consciousness therefore no material objects” but rather “consciousness-occasion. objects. mere appearances. material.. bad. light. moons and so on discerned. not the least of which is an attitude of outright rejection of material objects. nonentity. phantasms or appearances can be understood. phantasm of the imagination. as384 splendor. untrue. selves.” the sense in which perceived material things. not existing. are like mere reflections. unreal. reflection385 Table 46. therefore reflected appearance of material objects. to recall the elephant analogy of the TSN. untruth. that there is no way a stick “there” to be misperceived as an elephant. appearance. in this way not being.VM 1b Given the truth of “consciousness-occasion. resulting from or based on the possession of a thing like. etc. The reading of verse 1a-b most in keeping with the lessons of the TSN as well as the concept of momentary existence is not.…evadam asadarthavabhāsanāt… eva asad ārtha va ābhāsa thus. as opposed to one recasting of the way in which our perceptions of such objects (and thus the objects themselves) are understood.” The differences are subtle but significant. semblance. It is not. nonexistence. wrong. significant.

non-existence. glittering. also constituent element 140 . first fruits.VM 1c-d Thus perception of kalpita is like the discrimination of non-existent hairs. sat hair387 moon. observing. untruth. threefold realm.. correlative of. inspection. moonlight. or “etc. unreal. such as an elephant or the moon. discernment. sphere. apprehension. “great vehicle”) triple. moons. Significantly. vs. like optical disorder. perceiving. asad): not being.” “and so on…” showing. eye disease386 (alt. Commentary Mahāyāne traidhātukaṃ vijñaptimātraṃ vyavastāpyate Cittamātraṃ bho jinaputrā yad uta traidhātukam iti sūtrāt Cittaṃ mano vijñānaṃ vijñaptiś ceti paryāyāh Cittaṃ atra sasaṃprayogam abhipretaṃ Mātram ityarthapratisedhārthaṃ389 mahāyāne trai dhātu Mahāyāna (lit. bad. not existing. stratum. etc. commencement. exhibiting. wrong. doctrine Table 47. according as. by those with optical disorders such a cataract. nonentity. layer.. in which way. untrue. teaching.… yadvat taimirikasāsatkeśoṇḍukādidarśanam yadvat taimirikasya asat keśa candra ādi darśana (yatha): as follows. as the stick in the elephant analogy—but it is misperceived as being something else. shining388 beginning with. also: view. there is something to be perceived there—the cataract in this case. falsehood.

occasion. also. knowing. wish. for this purpose398 pratiṣedh keeping back. lit. understanding. conscience. thus sūtrāt of the sūtras (scriptures)394 mano (manas): mind (it its widest sense. yac. giving + mātram: having/being/consisting of only/merely. or consciousness. request. the heart bho (bhāva) being. presence jinaputrā of a Bodhisattva392 yad (alt. skill. intellect. (representation of) consciousness. aim. longed for. recognizing. fancy. intention. memory. material. reachable. heart. as. perception. (representation of) consciousness. science. imparting. preventing. visible. because. reason. request. in this manner. giving ceti (cetas): appearance. aspect. intelligence. as applied to all the mental powers). observing. meaning397 ityartha having such a sense or meaning. lit. desire paryāya synonym. repetition. mind. thinking. information. denying ārtha relating to a thing or object. perceiving. regular occurrence atra in this matter. wherefore. relating to water391 citta mind. in this time395 saṃprayogam relating to use or application396 abhipreya purpose. understanding. distinct from ātman vijñāna act of distinguishing. course. resulting from or based on the possession of a thing vijñaptimātra Table 48. consciousness vijñapti mind. attending. intelligence. significant. in this place.VM 1 commentary Roughly given. thought. sense. convertible term. element = consciousness-occasion vyavasta bound390 apyate obtainable. the internal organ of perception and cognition. announcement. yat): in order that. imagining. when. revolution. reflecting.vijñapti: mind. announcement. the faculty or instrument through which thoughts enter or by which objects of sense affect the soul. since. worldly knowledge. concept. perception. in this respect. instant. imparting. intention. perception. information. aimed at. if uta woven393 ita as you know. the commentary proceeds thus: the concepts of (1) the traidhātu or threefold-sphere-of-existence (which we may for the sake of argument compare to the 141 . will. as for the fact that. intelligence. also measure or limit (in space and time). concept. succession. also noticed. atom. warding off.

and (2) the Vijñapti-mātra (consciousness-occasion). of the TSN). 'fool's gold'. The consequences of interpreting “vijñapti-mātra” as “consciousness-only” and the subsequent verse as declaring “only meaning: denying things.401 “Only” excludes objects of perception (ārtha) that are external (to consciousness) not associates (of consciousness).402 However. include the rejection of external objects: (The word) mātra (“only”) is (used) with the purpose of denying (the existence of external) objects.400 “Only” is said to rule out any (external) object of sense or understanding. or three-own-states-of-being. Vasubandhu appears to mean that the mind imagines an external ārtha in front. but the mind has only a report or representation of what the sense organ had sensed. a false wealth. I find that Alex Wayman’s argument in “A Defense of Yogācāra Buddhism” is far better in keeping with what we have learned thus far from Vasubandhu in the TSN: This introductory statement does not deny an external object.” as has been done by numerous contemporary commentators. manas. “Consciousness-occasion” functions in its definition to prevent over-affirmation of material objects.403 142 . vijñāna and Vijñapti are synonymous terms for the activity of consciousness. Instead there is a mental representation that amounts to tinsel. Citta (or cit). “Consciousness” in this respect is understood as having a meaning relating to a particular use. are important concepts to Mahāyāna Buddhism and are supported by the scriptures.trisvabhāva.399 The term “mere” indicates the exclusion of the (external) objects.

portion. restraining. region. continuity. preventing409 continued succession. VM 2-9: Response to Hypothetical Realist Objections Verse 2 and Commentary na deśakālaniyamaḥ santānāniyamo na ca / na ca kṛtyakriyā yuktā vijñaptir yadi nārthataḥ // (td)404 No fixed time-space point. to calculate or enumerate. continuity-stream is also undetermined. (k)405 In the case that object-consciousness is not determined in place-time. having no rule. controlling. also restraint of the mind (second of eight meditation steps in yoga)408 = unsettledness. uninterrupted series410 143 santāna . limitation. restriction. and no causal efficacy at work. keeping down. absence of: determination. No determined continued succession. not. definition. preventing. doubt. direction. and also no causal efficacy if consciousness is enjoined in the absence of an object. it is not so place. definition. limitation. controlling. uncertainty. Yadi vijñaptir-anarthā niyamo deśa-kālayoḥ Santānasya aniyamaś-ca yuktā kṛtya-kriyā na ca. Na deśakālaniyamaḥ santānaniyamo na ca … na deśa kāla aniyama no.Interpreting “vijñapti-mātra” as “consciousness-occasion” sidesteps the alleged problem of the grand and utter metaphysical dismissal of the content of empirical observation. instruction406 time (in general). continuance. a fixed point of time407 a (negation) + niyama: determination.

being in conjunction with. or provided with.VM 2 vijñapti yadi anārtha If consciousness (does) not (arise) out from an object…413 If the representations of consciousness are without (extra mental) objects…414 If a concept were to be without a real object…415 If representations were without an object…416 If the perception occurs without an object…417 If consciousness is without real objects of perception. even. and (1). accompanied by. lit. performed.419 It is objected. and if there is only “internal consciousness that is born resembling an external objective realm.418 If representations are without real objects. action. then the former is not determined by the latter.ca and. and if there are no external objects (such as form) in reality. giving if in the case that absence of a thing or object Table 49. but. just. engaged in. occupied with. also ceremony..”420 and if consciousness of visible qualities does not have a corresponding object constituted by such qualities. concept. performance. information. work. attached. yet. that if there is not a 1:1 correspondence between objects of perception and reality. made. in other words. prepared.. “continued succession” of individual consciousness streams. then spatio-temporal determination. ready to. connected with412 mind. if … na ca kṛtyakriyā yuktā vijñaptir yadi nārthataḥ kṛtyakriyā yukta kṛta. obtained411 + kriyā. perception. announcement. If there is no difference between dreams and waking. argument. endowed. made use of. furnished.. and causal efficacy cannot be accounted for. set to work. also. (representation of) consciousness.(3) follow: 144 . accomplished. request. prepared for. done. imparting. contract = efficacy joined..

but only in some particular/determinate/certain moment/place? (2) The indeterminacy/in-/non-determination (non-exclusiveness) in regard to “it”/the series (of consciousness)/perceiving stream of consciousness/mental continuity/ (various mind) streams (i. proper or founded This cannot be the case. This cannot be the case. or else why does (a representation of) consciousness not arise always/everywhere. etc. not (in the series of consciousnesses) of only one (person).e. or else why does (a representation of) consciousness arise in the (moment) series (of consciousnesses) of all those who are present in that place at that moment. of individuals) would not exist/be logically possible. or proper/founded This cannot be the case.as (is the case with) the appearances of hairs. only to those with optical disorders? (3) the performance of the (specific) function would not exist/be logically possible. proper or founded. or else why do the objects misperceived by those with optical disorders not function as the objects perceived by everyone else? Why do objects seen in a dream not perform the function that objects seen during waking perform? And why do imaginary objects not perform the function of other objects?421 Vasubandhu responds: Verse 3a deśadiniyamaḥ siddhaḥ svapnavat… (td)422 Deśa-ādi-niyamaḥ siddaḥ svapnavat… (k)423 145 .(1) the determination (of experience)/ (certainty)/ (restriction) of/re: place/space and time would not exist/be logically possible.

also restraint of the mind (second of eight meditation steps in yoga) reach an aim. restriction. commencement. controlling. instruction beginning (with).VM 3a Regarding the first objection: the determination (of experience) of place and time is established or logical as in dreams. portion.Beginning with undetermined space. 146 . definition. … deśadiniyamaḥ siddhaḥ svapnavat… deśa ādi niyama siddha svapnavat place. Accomplished as in dreaming. restraining. or etc.. keeping down. preventing. Commencing with observing the pus river. when one is awake). follow424 as from a dream425 Table 50. and so on… determination. succeed.e. They cannot be seen all of the time (i. The objects in a dream are not real. first fruits.. but are seen in particular places and times. So spatio-temporal determination is possible even when there are no real corresponding external objects of perception. be accomplished or fulfilled. Verse 3b-d … pretavat punaḥ/ saṃtānāniyamaḥ sarvaiḥ pūyanadyādidarśane (td) … pretevat-punaḥ Santāna-aniyamaḥ sarvaiḥ pūya-nadī-ādi-darśane (k) Damned spirits Continuity-stream-undetermined-always. result. limitation. region. direction.

end up sharing the same fate in hell and thus share the same visions and experiences. doubt. hell ghosts to go back or in an opposite direction. who share the same visions.… pretavat punaḥ / saṃtānāniyamaḥ sarvaiḥ … pretevat puna saṃtāna aniyama sarva (pretā): damned spirits. and so on… showing. all.e. or etc. limitation. discernment. entire. continuance. uninterrupted series unsettledness. controlling. at all times 428 …pūyanadyā darśane pūya nadyā adi darśana pus429 river beginning (with). teaching.430 Verse 4 svapnopaghātavat kṛtyakriyā narakavat punaḥ/ sarvaṃ narakapālādidarśane taiś ca bādhane (td)431 Svapna-upaghātavat kṛtya-kriyā narakavat punah. first fruits. restore. sarvam naraka-pālādi-darśane taiś-ca-bādhane (k)432 147 . definition.. having the same kind of karma. commencement. continuity. turn around. also always. preventing427 whole. once more. exhibiting. The pretās.VM 3b-d Regarding the second objection: the indeterminacy/non-determination (nonexclusiveness) in regard to “it”/the series (of consciousness)/perceiving stream of consciousness/mental continuity/ (various mind) streams (i. to exist again. inspection. be renewed426 continued succession. apprehension. every. perceiving. uncertainty. having no rule. absence of: determination. doctrine Table 51. also: view. of individuals) is admitted/established/logical as in the case of pretās (hungry ghosts in hell). observing.

made. restore. every. discernment. be renewed whole. dreaming433 being negatively affected. also: view. turn around.Dreaming negative causal efficacy. performance. entire. uneasiness. spatio-temporal determination. at all times lit.434 some translators suggest metaphorical use referencing nocturnal emissions.VM 4 Regarding the third objection: that the performance of (specific) function can take place during dreaming is admitted/established/logical as in the case of nocturnal emissions. opposing. once more. prepared. action. performed.) are demonstrated. all. accomplished.. Thus the four factors (i. also ceremony. to exist again. also. contract = efficacy … narakavat punaḥ / … sarvaṃ narakapālādidarśane… ca bādhan naraka puna sarva pālādi darśana ca bādhana hell. “flesh eater”. also always. teaching. inspection. argument. harassing. svapnopaghātavat kṛtyakriyā… svapna upaghātava kṛtya-kriyā sleeping. observing. done. trouble438 Table 52. work.437 hell guards showing.435 kṛta. Verse 5 and Commentary tiraścām saṃbhāvaḥ svarge yathā ca narake tathā / na pretānāṃ yatas tajjaṃ duḥkhaṃ nānubhāvantite // (td)439 148 . etc. place of torment436 to go back or in an opposite direction. Always hell-guards observed harassing. which makes sense in the context. just. but. perceiving. even. doctrine and. Existing again in hell.e. exhibiting. apprehension. if oppressing. obtained + kriyā. or the ability of demons to torture those in hell. yet.

suffering perception. 149 . occurrence. uncomfortable. reason. correlative of. possibility. according as. being. even. but. while as torturers they are supposed to be able to effectively inflict suffering. also. existence442 heaven443 as follows. tiraścām saṃbhāvaḥ svarge yathā ca narake tathā… tirascā saṃbhāva svarga yatha ca narake tathā concealing441 being or coming together. production. “sprung from”444 uneasy. thus. accordingly … na pretānāṃ yatas tajjaṃ duḥkhaṃ nānubhāvantite na pretas yatas tajjaṃ duḥkha anubhava (negation) hell-ghosts from which or what. birth. causes. No hell ghosts from which suffering perceived. so. occasion. heaven as follows also hell accordingly.VM 5 Why are hell-guards not admitted to truly exist? It would not make sense. being contained in. lit. trouble. just. (k)440 Concealing coming together (birth) (occasion). if hell. in which way. hence produced. understanding. source. yet. pain. like and. dis-ease. unpleasant.Tiraścām sambhāvaḥ svarge yathā na narake tathā Na pretānām yatas-tajjam duḥkham na-anubhavanti te. place of torment in that manner. which implies an invulnerability to it that would not be possible if it were real. ascertainment anubhavaka: making to understand445 Table 53. appearance. sorrow. capacity. likewise. origin. difficult. since if they were real inhabitants of hell they would also suffer its afflictions.

since the phenomena is truly arising. Hell-guards cannot experience the pain of hell. and can appear to undergo transformation in order to instill fear. So “birth” in hell of animals or pretas (acting as hell-guards) cannot be the case. however. and they are supposed to experience the good of that realm. etc. How not so state of consciousness? vijñānasyaiva tatkarmabhis tathā pariṇāmaḥ kasmān neṣyate kiṃ punar bhūtāni kalpyante (td)449 State of consciousness that very action (effect) thus change (transformation). what are you saying about the efficacy of hell?446 Vasubandhu’s answer is that it is not that the events are totally unreal. It is further objected: if hell-guards come into being as a result of the actions of the condemned. change also.It is objected: how did the hell-guards come to be in hell in the first place.. then? Were they born there like animals in the heavens? Vasubandhu replies that animals are born in heaven as a result of their karma. but rather that— Verse 6 and Commentary yadi tatkarmabhis tatra bhūtānāṃ saṃbhāvas tathā iṣyate pariṇāmaś ca kiṃ vijñānasya neṣyate (td)447 Yadi tat-karmabhis-tatra bhūtānām saṃbhāvas-tathā Iṣyate pariṇāmaś-ca kim vijñānasya na iṣyate (k)448 If that very action (effect) therein: actual coming together (birth) (occasion) thus. … why instead go back to conceived actualities? 150 . Otherwise. then it is not impossible that they truly exist. By the wise.

evolution tad karma tathā pariṇāma … kasmān neṣyate kiṃ punar bhūtāni kalpyante. alteration. result. knowing. therefore. in Buddhism: consciousness (one of the five constituent skandhas) + asya: sitting. yet. promote. that. cause to move quickly. in that case. result. skill. origin. effect 450 in/to that place. accordingly change. perceiving. so. therefore become. worldly knowledge. perceiving. on that occasion. therefore. understanding. thus. effect in that manner. not. tat). capacity. transformation. birth. now act. science. he. worldly knowledge. product. occurrence. accordingly. deliver. if (interrogative particle) vijñāna: act of distinguishing. state of rest (alt. abiding. product. so. be true or real. actually have happened. source. existence in that manner. just. action. then. likewise. understanding. transformation. it is not so + iṣya vijñanasyaiva tatkarmabhis tathā pariṇāmaḥ… vijñānasya vijñāna: act of distinguishing. thus. accordingly. impel. sometimes "that very" or there. this. possibility. accordingly … iṣyate pariṇāmaś ca kiṃ vijñānasya neṣyate iṣyate pariṇāma ca kiṃ vijñānasya neṣya seek. this. reason. knowing. alteration. she. being contained in. therein. skill. even. development. occasion. in the case that (alt. recognizing. then. sometimes "that very" or there. dwelling.452 iṣyate: “by the wise”453 change. recognizing. likewise. but. tat). state of rest na: no. causes. development. kasmāt why? whence? wherefrom?455 151 . dwelling. animate. it. appearance. he. it. also. abiding. action. matter of fact or reality451 being or coming together. evolution454 and. science. consciousness + asya: sitting. being. production.yadi tatkarmabhis tatra bhūtānāṃ saṃbhāvas tathā… yadi tad karma tatra bhūta (-na) saṃbhāva tathā if. announce. she. that. now act.

announce (interrogative particle) to go back or in an opposite direction. once more. matter of fact or reality456 to be formed from. it is not so + iṣya: seek. why not recognize a transformation of consciousness as the result of karma. Consequence imagined elsewhere. be true or real. promote. Wherein no cause (reason)? karmaṇo vāsanānyatra phalam anyatra kalpyate… 152 . There is in this way not sought. animate. not. impel. restore. to be conceived or imagined Table 54. then why not admit that consciousness also arises from karma? Why wouldn’t a hell-guardian be real enough in the hells? Or alternatively: if you grant that “special beings” such as the hell-guards exist as the result of a causal process. turn around. to exist again. deliver. rather than a transformation of matter? Furthermore— Verse 7 and Commentary karmaṇo vāsanānyatra phalam anyatra kalpyate/ tatraiva neṣyate yatra vāsanā kiṃ nu kāraṇaṃ// (td)458 Karmaṇo vāsanā-anyatra phalam-anyatra kalpyate Tatra-eva na-iṣyate yatra vāsanā kim nu kāraṇam (k)459 Action impression elsewhere.VM 6 and commentary If the (re-) birth of things or persons is admitted as issuing from karma.neṣya kiṃ punar bhūta kalpya na: no. to actually have happened. be renewed whatever has become. cause to move quickly. then why not also admit that process to be consciousness?457 That is.

result. impel. Where there is no perfumed place. deliver. to be conceived or imagined … tatraiva neṣyate yatra vāsanā kiṃ nu kāraṇaṃ tatra eva neṣya kiṃ nu kāraṇa in/to that place. result. retribution. gain/loss. you turn around and assert that the result exists.” consequence. why say that the dispositional basis/“perfuming”/impression of an action/deed/karma is (conceived or constructed in) one place/context but that its 153 . where. in another manner. at another time462 metaphorical “fruit. in that case. Why is this?”465 Vasubandhu asks. otherwise. effect impression of anything remaining unconsciously in the mind.VM 7 Why imagine the mental impression of an action to exist in one “place. effect. dis/advantage to be formed from. wherein. product. therein. wherever. not. reason463 Table 55. but then you will not admit that there is a transformation of the result.karma vāsanā anyatra phala kalpya act. on that occasion. the present consciousness of past perceptions.” and the consequence of that action in another? “… (W)hy is it that the effect is not accepted as being such a transformation of consciousness taking place just where the impressions themselves do? What is the reason for an effect being constructed where there is no process of impression?”464 “There is a perfumed consciousness. knowledge derived from memory460 an: (negation) + yatra: in or to which place. therefore thus. announce (interrogative particle) (negation) cause. in this way na: no. action. animate. on another occasion. cause to move quickly. whither461 = elsewhere. promote. it is not so + iṣya: seek.

exist. Thou that very student with regard to meaning of what of is taught. color469 abode. person473 154 . is in the same “place” as the vāsanā itself?466 Verse 8 and Commentary rūpādyāyatanāstitvaṃ tadvineyajanaṃ prati abhiprāyavaśād uktam upapādukasattvavat (td)467 Rūpādi-āyatana-astitvam tad-vineya-janam prati Abhiprāya-vaśād-uktam-upapāduka-sattvavat (k)468 Form-abode exists (becomes). now to be trained or instructed. outward appearance. then. seat. living being. sometimes "that very" or there. be sufficient or able thou471 … tad-vineya-janam prati … tad vineya jana he. become. it. she.fruit/effect is (conceived or constructed in) another. being a similar transformation of consciousness. pupil472 creature. phenomenon. happen. this. shape. figure. rūpādi-āyatana-astitvam… rūpa āyatana asti tvam form. resting place470 be. So why not recognize that the vāsanā’s phalaṃ (effect). accordingly. but vāsanā and its transformation can only exist in the stream of consciousness. when it can be said that the cause and effect are (conceivable) in the same place/context? The vāsanā (impression) of the karma of the inhabitants of hell and its transformation is imagined to take place or exist in hell. that. therefore. Self-produced sage.

intention. on. In this instance. Buddha477 Table 56. before. but only events/dharmas and their causes. to affirm the non-interruption/continuity of the series of consciousness/stream of mind-/citta-series and its ability to continue into the future. content of communication or teaching said. it is said that there is neither a sentient being nor self. because there is a more subtle and specific meaning to the assertion that the bases of sensory knowledge exist. at. in fact. meaning impression. near. in return. This is similar to the way that assertions about spontaneous creation have a special meaning. according to. It is not affirmed that there are really spontaneously born beings.VM 8 It is objected that the scriptures would not assert the existence of the bases of sensory knowledge if external objects were only manifestations of consciousness. taught. we are reminded by Vasubandhu that the ostensibly most obvious meanings of key passages of Buddhist teaching are not necessarily the intended meanings. again. term475 self-produced476 sage. Vasubandhu replies that this is not a valid objection. (over) against. in. opposite. with regard to. at the time of. the intention behind the affirmation of the bases of sensory knowledge is— 155 . declared. by.478 In other words.prati toward. that is. back. in consequence of 474 … abhiprāya-vaśād-uktam-upapāduka-sattvavat abhiprāya vaśād ukta upapāduka sattvavat purpose.

semblance. concept. phantasm of the imagination. guided own seed. mere appearances. primary cause or principle. reflection 156 . also lit. perception. restrained.Verse 9 and Commentary yataḥ svabījād vijñaptir yadābhāsā pravartate dvividhāyatanatvena te tasyā munir abravīt (td)479 Yataḥ sva-bījād-vijñaptir-yadābhāsa pravartate Dvi-vidha-āyatanatvena te tasya munir-abravīt (k)480 Own-seed (self-cause) held in consciousness whenever appearance arises. Own-seed transformation acquired particulars brought forth. giving when. whenever. element. Sage conveying… … rūpapratibhāsā vijñaptir yataḥ svabījāt pariṇāmaviśeṣaprāptād utpadyate tac ca bījaṃ yatpratibhāsā ca sā te tasyā vijñapteś cakṣūrūpāyatanatvena yathākramaṃ bhagavān abravīt (td)481 … Rūpa-pratibhāsa-vijñaptir-yataḥ svabījāt-pariṇāmaviśeṣaprāptād-utpadyate tac-ca bījam yat-pratibhāsa ca sa te tasya vijñapteścakṣu-rūpa-āyatanatvena yathā-kramam bhagavānabravīt (k)482 Form appearing because consciousness. source. controlled. information. (representation of) consciousness. That also seed… appearance And… flowing consciousness-eye abode of appearance. if splendor. origin mind. appearance. request. germ. announcement. limited. imparting. light. According as state of succession (series)… yataḥ sva-bījād-vijñaptir yadābhāsā pravartate… yata sva bīja vijñapti yadā ābhāsa held. Twofold state of abiding.

incurred. 486 prātibhāsika: phenomenal. announcement. parts. arising. appearing. live. brought forth489 element … ca sā te tasya vijñapteścakṣu-rūpa-āyatanatvena yathā-kramam… tasya vijñapti cakṣu flowing or conveying mind. element. perception. concept. become484 = pravarta (-ka. coming forth. acquired488 produced. (mere/flashing) representations mind. when. figure. near. wherefore. according to. conception eye 157 . setting in motion/activity.pravartate pra: before. of two kinds. happening. germ. shape. color prati: toward. language. -na): causing. giving (from yad). because. (representation of) consciousness. at. description. opposite. sage unspoken. met with. particulars487 reached. by. in front of483 + vartate: revolve. specific property. evolution difference. in order that. unnamed rūpa-pratibhāsa-vijñaptir yatah… rūpa pratibhāsa form. phenomenon. effecting. alteration. producing. (over) against. since. perception. back. in return. be. in. also lit. resting place state (of)… flowing or conveying monk. before. again. causing. promoting moving forward/onwards. origin change. source. on. as. exist. found. seat. if vijñapti yat … svabījāt-pariṇāma-viśeṣaprāptād-utpadyate tac ca bījam yat-pratibhāsa … sva bīja pariṇāma viśeṣa prāpta utpādya yat own seed. development. request. happen. similitude. ways abode. transformation. information. with regard to. primary cause or principle. definition = appearance. at the time of. imparting. occur. outward appearance. pass away (time). introducing485 … dvividhāyatanatvena… munir abravīt dvividha āyatana tvena tasya muni abravīt twofold. (representation of) consciousness. in consequence of + bhasa: speech. as for the fact that.

respectively. phenomenon. according as.490 Tola and Dragonetti interpret this section as saying that the five senses and manas constitute āyatana in its function as the “inner seat” of perception and the qualities perceived by sense and manas constitute āyatana in its function as the “outer seat” of perception. outward appearance. sight serves as the basis of the perception in one way. series. Cook translates the salient portion of the commentary as follows: Consciousness appearing resembling form is born from its own seeds as a special transformation (of the mental continuity) and the confluence of conditions (consisting of the apparent form and the perceiving aspect of consciousness).rūpa āyatana tvena yathā krama form. smells. So. succession Table 57. correlative of. finally. course. On the basis of this seed and the appearing form. shape. with respect to the perception or cognition of color. and tastes. In this way. color abode. figure. respectively. seat. way. These are. going. and the form in which that perception or cognition appears. order. (after skipping over sense bases of sound. and the perceived color serves as the 158 . the internal and external bases (inner and outer seats) of perception. resting place state (of)… as follows. proceeding. in which way. the Buddha spoke of (the seed and the appearing form as) sense bases consisting of eyes and sense bases consisting of form. regular progress. like step. for example. we come to where) consciousness resembling something tangible is born from its own seeds as a special transformation (of the mental continuity) and the confluence of conditions (consisting of the apparent tangible object and the perceiving aspect of consciousness).VM 9 and commentary The two-fold foundation of perception or conception is the svabīja (“own-seed” or self-contained cause) from which that cognition develops.

nature. tathā pudgalanairātmyaprave hi anyathā punaḥ… tathā pudgala nair ātmya praveśa hi in that manner. the second variable is that phenomenal appearance perceived in the activity of consciousness. submitted in the context of hypothetical realist objections to Vasubandhu’s “consciousness-occasion” thesis—locates cause and effect in the same realm of activity. thus. personal entity. accordingly body. destitute of. surely. Similarly. (namely) because. Region of phenomena free from being essentially contained (substantial). being contained in. engaging closely in a pursuit or purpose. away from. soul494 (from nis). essence. entrance. indeed 159 . VM 10: Subtle Teachings Concerning Ātman and Dharmas Verse 10 and Commentary tathā pudgalanairātmyapraveśo hi anyathā punaḥ… (td)492 Tathā pudgala-nairātmya-praveśo hi anyathā punaḥ… (k)493 In that manner body-collection free from being essentially contained (substantial). it is not assumed that the same sort of X cannot serve as both the “material” and efficient cause of some observed Y or Ys. The first variable in this case is the activity of consciousness. ego or individual. man. while the object of touch serves as the other basis of that perception. tactile sensation serves as one basis of the perception of tangible objects.491 This manner of considering the nature of perceivables—again. because otherwise existing once more. manner496 for. supposed (invented) self. without. also: intentness on an object. so. intrusion into.basis in another way. free from495 being. likewise. In other words. state of having nature of property of entering. out of.

character.anyathā punar otherwise. duty.VM 10 nair ātmya praveśa kalpita ātmanā The collection of processes or the consciousness-stream (saṃsara) constituting an individual at any given moment is essentially dynamic and episodic (temporary). justice. intrusion into. region. inaccurately. inferred from “to breathe/move”— “self. virtue. which insists upon the absence of a perduring self to be found in the body. mark . right. in a different manner. portion. Similarly. such as the 160 . manner fabricated. usage. destitute of. out of. morality. While representations of consciousness. without. also: intentness on an object. essence. to exist again. nature. the person or body considered as a whole 498 Table 58. prepared. in another way. restore. The commentary (excluded here due to length) further explains that understanding the theory of the “twelve senses bases” (sevenfold consciousness and five-fold phenomena) provides the means for understanding the non-substantial or dynamic theory of self. abstract individual. away from. supposed. also: essence. being contained in. nature. invented. character. essential quality. assumed. performed. instruction nature. also according to the nature of. direction. state of having nature of property of entering. erroneously497 to go back or in an opposite direction.” (the individual) soul. law or doctrine (from nis). life principle. the collection of processes constituting phenomena at any given moment are essentially dynamic and episodic (temporary). engaging closely in a pursuit or purpose. entrance. be renewed … deśanā-dharma nairātmyapraveśaḥ kalpita-ātmanā deśanā dharma (deśa): place. property. free from being. that which is established or firm. turn around. once more. condition. steadfast decree. artificial. practice.

this. sometimes "that very" or there. External sense objects of infinitely small atoms. to invoke the concepts of the TSN. accordingly. And not that unity. because infinitely small atosm not accomplished (valid). then. she. now 161 . That phenomena is “non-substantial” is a denial of the existence of atomic reals corresponding directly to discriminated elements of our perceptual experience (e. (k)502 Not that one and not that not-one. not. na tad no.g. it is a denial of the parikalpita of observed phenomena.appearances of the qualities of form or color.. that.500 VM 11-15: Response to Atomist Objections to Vijñapti-Mātra Verse 11 and Commentary na tad ekaṃ na cānekaṃ viṣayaḥ paramānuśaḥ/ na ca te saṃhatā yasmāt paramāṇur na sidhyati// (td)501 Na tad-ekam na ca-anekam viṣayaḥ paramāṇuśaḥ Na ca te saṃhatā yamāt paramāṇur-na sidhyati. how can “consciousnessoccasion” be the case? The response lies in clarifying the meaning of “non-substantiality” in this context. therefore.) Thus. it. external objects corresponding directly to those perceived appearances are not so admitted. Na tad-ekam na ca-anekam viṣayaḥ paramāṇuśaḥ….499 It is objected that if there are no dharmas at all. it is not so he. are admitted to exist. the perceived appearance. red atoms corresponding to seeing the color red.

if not one. alone. even. be accomplished. also. belonging to one and. and each acts/becomes/happens separately. contiguous. result. that realize an aim. many. coherent. be valid Table 59. follow. sphere. then the question must be answered whether these atoms are single or multiple. domain ultimate or infinitely small atom504 … Na ca te saṃhatā yasmāt paramāṇur-na sidhyati te saṃhata yasmāt sidhyati joined. yet. nor compound. much. forming one mass or body505 because. the same. identical. since. external world. but. just. united. manifold. because there is no perception/apprehension of a composite whole as different from its component 162 .” But the sense object/objects (of knowledge)/the āyatana/external object cannot be a single thing/entity/object of cognition. reach. “the form of the (composite whole). combined. perhaps infinitely small atomic objects (an example thus of external “seats” or sources of cognition) exist? The reply is that because the existence of such infinitely small atoms (paramāṇu) cannot be proved.VM 11 It is asked on behalf of the atomic realist: why can it not be admitted that real. aggregate or not (and if multiple/aggregate how each component can serve as a separate object of perception?) The Vaiśeṣikas maintain that there is a single form/entity/unity with parts. separated503 sense object. single. many. the object of perception/sense/cognition cannot be (such)/experienced (as)/one. succeed. external. If there are real bases of knowledge/sense fields/external yātanas (“atoms”) such as color or external form. composite. sole. solitary.eka ca aneka viṣaya paramāṇu one.

parts. Nor can there be many atomic entities/can the object be plural, because there is no perception/apprehension of the atoms individually (apart from the whole). Nor can it be an aggregation/compound of atoms/be an aggregated object (of knowledge), because there is no perception/apprehension of atoms as one individual thing/ultimate atom (paramānu).506 Verse 12 and Commentary ṣaṭkena yugapadyogāt paramāṇoḥ ṣaḍaṃśatā/ ṣaṇṇāṃ samānadeśatvāt piṇḍaḥ syād aṇumātrakaḥ// (td)507 Ṣatkena yugapad-yogāt-paramāṇoḥ ṣaḍaṃśatā Ṣaṇṇām samāna-deśatvāt-pinḍaḥ syād-aṇumātrakaḥ. (k)508 By whence that which really is together Simultaneously joined with Infinitely small atom collection— perpetually compounded beyond one hundred; Object having six sides the same, may contain minute particles.

Satkena yugapadyogāt paramāṇoḥ ṣaḍaṃśatā … sat kena yugapad yoga paramāṇu sadā śata “that which really is,” being (present), existing; occurring; real, actual, true; honest; beautiful; good, right; wise by what, by whence509 “in the same yoke,” together, simultaneously collection or concentration of the mind, meditation; harnessing, driving; use, application; means, expedient, art, charm; enterprise, work; union, combination, relation510 ultimate or infinitely small atom (alt. sadam); always, ever, continually, perpetually compounded beyond a hundred511

… Ṣaṇṇām samāna-deśatvāt-pinḍa syād-aṇumātraka 163

saṇṇa samāna deśa tvat piṇḍa syāt aṇumātraka

having six512 same, similar; equal, like; common, general, universal513 place, region, portion; direction, instruction thy, thee, thou heap, piece; solid mass, material object, body514 (alt. syād), perhaps, it may be containing minute particles515
Table 60- VM 12

Why is this? Tola and Dragonetti translate this section of the commentary in this manner: In fact, if the place of one atom were (the place) of the six (atoms which come to be connected with it), then since the place of all (= the seven atoms) is the same, the whole mass (constituted by the seven atoms) would be of the size of a single atom, because no (atom) would jut out in relation to the others. Consequently there would be no visible mass.516 If an atom is simultaneously connected with six others from six spatial directions, then an atom must have six parts, because two atoms cannot occupy the same place (at the same time). “For that which is the locus of one can’t be the locus of another.”517 If the place of a single atom were also the place of the six atoms connected to it, the entire aggregate/mass would be (the size of) a single atom. Because of the mutual exclusion/lack of mutual distinction among the atoms, the combined aggregate would not be visible. Furthermore, atoms do not join together at all, because they have no parts.518

Verse 13 and Commentary paramāṇor asaṃyoge tatsaṃbhāte ‘sti kasya saḥ/ na cānavayavatvena tatsaṃyogo na sidhyati// (td)519 164

Paramāṇor-asaṃyoge tat-saṇbhāte’sti-kasya saḥ. Na ca anavayavatvena tat-saṃyogo na sidhyati. (k)520 Infinitely small atoms not-joined-into-union Thus existing together becomes form accompanied by (supplying the forms of) That same existence not existing… Also not in a state of abundance there-joined-together not accomplished (valid).

Paramāṇor-asaṃyoge tat-saṇbhāte’sti-kasya saḥ… paramāṇu asaṃyoga ultimate or infinitely small atom a (negation) + saṃ (along or together with) + yoga (collection or concentration of the mind, meditation; harnessing, driving; use, application; means, expedient, art, charm; enterprise, work; union, combination, relation); disjunction, disconnection, incoherence521 (alt. tat); he, she, it, that, this; sometimes "that very" or there, then; therefore, accordingly; now saṃ (saṇ): along with, together + bhāva: becoming, existence, occurrence be, exist, happen, become; be sufficient or able form supplying the forms of; accompanied by, having; one, the same

tad saṇbhāte asti kasya sa

… Na ca anavayavatvena tat-saṃyogo na sidhyati. na ca anavaya tvena sidhyati no, not, it is not so and, also; even, just; but, yet; if abundance, strength522 state (of)… realize an aim, succeed, be accomplished; result, follow; be valid
Table 61- VM 13

If atoms cannot join together, then how are aggregates formed in the first place? Cook offers the following translation of this portion of the commentary:

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Since there is no separate combined form that differs from atoms, then if atoms do not combine, whose combined union is it? If you change (your position) and try to save it by saying that the development of combined form does not imply union, then you should not say that they do not combine because they are devoid of parts, because a combination has parts, yet, you do not admit union. The nonunion of atoms is not a result of their being devoid of parts. Therefore, not a single ultimate atom (paramāṇu) is demonstrated.523 It is not because individual atoms do not have parts that they cannot be connected, for aggregates— by definition having parts— cannot be connected either. Thus an atom cannot be a single entity with parts.524 Verse 14 and Commentary digbhāgabhedo yasyāsti tasyaikatvaṃ na yujyate/ chāyavṛti kathaṃ vā anyo na piṇḍaś cen na tasya te// (td)525 Dig-bhāga-bhedo yasya-asti tasya-ekatvam na yujyate Chāya-āvṛti kathaṃ vā anyo na piṇḍaś-cet-na-tasya te. (k)526 Direction-place-division to be endeavored of existence Conveying unity (identity) not connected; Reflection (shadow) hiding in what manner? … Mutually not solid (material) and not flowing thus.

Digbhāgabhedo yasyāsti tasyaikatvaṃ na yujyate … dig bhāga bheda yasya asti tasya (from diś); direction, region pointed at; also to point out, to show; to bring forward527 part, portion; fraction; place, region, side528 division, separation; alteration, change, difference to be endeavored529 be, exist, happen, become; be sufficient or able flowing or conveying530 166

ekatva na yujya

identity, unity no, not, it is not so connected, related; homogeneous; similar531

… chāyavṛti kathaṃ vā anyo na piṇḍaś cen na tasya te chāya āvṛti kathaṃ anyonya piṇḍa shadow, shadowing; also image, reflection532 covering, hiding533 how? in what manner? whence? one another; mutual, mutually534 heap, piece; solid mass, material object, body
Table 62- VM 14

The question of the connection of atoms aside, there is another problem for the atomist. An atom cannot both be composite and single at the same time, so it must be one or the other. If it has directional dimensions or sections, such as an upper and lower part, or being “in front” or “on the bottom,” then how can it be single? If an atom did not have different parts/divisions/sides, then how, given a source of light, could it be illuminated on one side and in shadow on the other? It could not have an “other” side that was not illuminated. If an atom did not have different sides, then how could one atom conceal/obscure/obstruct another? And thus how could they occupy different places? This is tantamount to saying that any aggregate of atoms is just a single atom occupying all places at once. It is objected that an aggregate of atoms can serve these functions. Vasubandhu replies that if the aggregate of atoms is not different from its constituent elements, then the problem remains. “Arranging and distinguishing, you establish (form) as atoms or you establish it as a combination (of form, but) both are unrealities”535/mental

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construction. “… (Mass) is a (mere) imagination of aggregate.”536 It is then objected that the discussion of unity and connection does not refute the essential characteristics (lakṣaṇa—thus also, “essential definition” is possible) of atoms as having form, color, etc. Vasubandhu replies that it is relevant to ask whether these characteristics, such as redness, are singular or multiple (as objects of cognition). The weaknesses of the argument for multiplicity have already been exposed.537 As for arguments of unity— Verse 15 and Commentary ekatve na krameṇetir yagapan na grahāgrahau vicchinnānekavṛttiś ca sūkṣmānīkṣā ca no bhavet// (td)538 Ekatve na krameṇa-etir-yugapan-na grāha-agrāhau Vicchinna-aneka-vṛttiś-ca sūkṣma-anikṣā ca no bhavet. (k)539 Unity is not succession Simultaneously grasping and non-grasping; Disconnected manifold mode of being, And atomic (inconceivable) existence.

Ekatve na krameṇa-etir-yugapan-na grāha-agrāhau… ekatva na krama yugapad grāha agrāha identity, unity no, not, it is not so step; going, proceeding, course; way; regular progress, order, series, succession “in the same yoke,” together, simultaneously grasping, seizing, holding, catching; receiving, accepting; non-grasping

… vicchinnānekavṛttiś ca sūkṣma ca no bhavet

168

vicchinna aneka vṛtti ca sūkṣma bhāva

split, broken asunder; interrupted, disconnected; incoherent; ended, no longer existing540 of one; many, much; manifold; separated turning, rolling; being; mode of being or acting and, also; even, just; but, yet; if fine, small, minute; subtle; intangible; inconceivable; atomic541 becoming, existing, occurring
Table 63- VM 15

If atoms are non-divided, then the following problems arise: first, there could be no gradual or progressive movement; a single step would take you everywhere. Second, there could be not be simultaneous perception/apprehension, e.g., of the front side of a thing before one and the non-perception/non-apprehension of hits back side; everything would be seen at once. In addition, there could not be multiple, diverse activities or conditions or things. For example, there would be no real distinction between elephants and horses, nor could they occupy separate places. There would be no empty spaces between things. All animals would be everywhere at the same time, and nondistinguishable from each other. And finally, there could not be differences in mass or size. Things would be distinguished only the basis of their definition. For example, tiny organisms would appear non-differently from larger ones. Consequently, the division of/difference between atoms must be assumed (one must necessarily construct these divisions) and thus atoms cannot be unitary, of one kind or being a single real thing. However, it has already been demonstrated that no single atom is obtained in experience, that there cannot be a single real thing that is an atom.

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clear. exist apart from the perception or representation of consciousness. How can sensory perception take place if there are no real objects of perception? Verse 16 and Commentary pratyakṣabuddhiḥ svapnādau yathā sā ca yadā tadā/ na so ‘rtho dṛśyate tasya pratyakṣatvaṃ kathaṃ mataṃ// (td)544 Pratyakṣa-buddhiḥ svapnādau yathā … sa ca yadā tadā Na so’rtho dṛśyate tasya pratyakṣatvam katham matam. (k)545 Intelligence (apprehension) based on direct perception is as in the way of dreaming.With their unity undemonstrated. and thus perception-only is demonstrated. direct perception in what manner supposed? pratyakṣabuddhiḥ svapnādau yathā sa ca yadā tadā… pratyakṣa direct perception. etc. that form. that is. independent yātanas. immediate. ocular evidence546 170 . immediate apprehension.543 VM 16-22: Response to Additional Objections to Vijñapti-Mātra It is objected that the existence or non-existence of things is determined by sensory knowledge.542 Consequently..’s state of being senseobjects of the eye. Sense (direct) perception is the strongest ground for knowledge (among the means of knowledge. distinct. plainly visible. etc. visibles’. color. it cannot be proved that there are real. … and whenever at that time no form of the object corrupted flowing. actual. which include inference and appeal to reliable authority). etc. is also undemonstrated.

resulting from or based upon the possession of a thing (from dūṣyā). ocular evidence thou how? in what manner? whence? thought. distinct. offending conveying or flowing direct perception. like supplying the forms of. corruptible. intellect. in which way. esteemed Table 64.” that object is already no longer seen. faculty of mental perception547 sleeping. immediate. considered as. for this discrimination or judgment requires an action of the thinking consciousness (manovijñāna). but. one. significant. This momentariness is especially true of the form. judgment. also. not. intelligence.buddhi svapna yathā sa ca yadā tadā ability to conceptualize. comprehension. if when. intended. having.VM 16 The knowledge one derives from sensory perception operates in a way similar to dreams. if at that time. of perceived objects. material. and yet not actually exist as they appear. designed. it is not so related to a thing or object.548 171 . discernment. just. while the specific moment of visual consciousness referenced in that thought has already passed. approved. according as. even. then … na so’rtho dṛśyate tasya pratyakṣatvaṃ kathaṃ mata. perception. reason. in that case. color. clear. imagined. reprehensible. immediate apprehension. yet. culpable. taken for. dreaming as follows. the same and. mind. understanding. na artha dṛṣyā tasya pratyakṣa tvam kathaṃ mata no. understood. whenever. such that the objects perceived in dreams are understood to both appear to exist. apprehension. believed. plainly visible. actual. correlative of. When the thought arises through direct/sensory perception that “an object is here before me now. accompanied by. etc. supposed.

description. then. light. concept. information. therefore. like tad: he. that. in that case bhasa: speech. sometimes "that very" or there. semblance. (representation of) consciousness. perceived object. the unawakened likewise grasping. taught. this. term as follows. and the activity of perception— is momentary and transient. and makes the critical observation that every aspect of any occasion of perception— perceiving subject. (k)550 Taught as follows: in that case definition (appearance). in which way. protracted 172 . declared.” and “how” they are. correlative of. uktaṃ yathā tadābhāsā ( tad-ābhāsa) vijñaptiḥ smaraṇam tatah… ukta yathā tad or tadā bhāsā or ābhāsa vijñapti smaraṇa tata said. according as. giving remembering.This portion of Vasubandhu’s counter-arguments places the problem of direct perception squarely in the Buddhist framework of a perpetually perishing universe. appearance. Verse 17 and Commentary uktaṃ yathā tadābhāsā vijñaptiḥ smaraṇaṃ tataḥ/ svapne dṛgviṣayābhāvaṃ nāprabuddho vagacchati// (td)549 Uktam yathā tad-ābhāsa vijñaptiḥ smaraṇam tataḥ. or tadā: at that time. request. Svapne dṛg-viṣaya-abhāvam na-aprabuddho’vagacchati. definition. announcement. reflection mind.” “where. also lit. which means that there cannot be any such thing as direct perception of external observables “when. mere appearances. consciousness remembering protracted dreaming seeing existing sense objects. imparting. recollection551 extended. it. phantasm of the imagination. diffused. she. now. or ābhāsa: splendor. language. perception. accordingly.

The objects in a dream are not real. domain absence of: existence. entity. when one is 173 . and the subject. can take place without a real object (extra-mental) object. fall into or upon. it is not so awakened from sleep552 va: like. undergo. are such objects of memory. go or come to. Consciousness arises or appears resembling/representing an object. as + gacchati: go... They cannot be seen all of the time (i. but are seen in particular places and times. not. condition. nature. Visual perception of objects. dreaming seeing sense object. impulse no.e. there must be a previous experience of an object. sphere. reach. The same thoughtrepresentation of consciousness.VM 17 It is objected that a thing cannot be remembered if it has not been experienced. which has with it the memory associate. reach. disposition. appears as memory. etc. which discriminates between the object such as color etc. Memory is based on this kind of perception.… svapne dṛgviṣayābhāvaṃ nāprabuddho vagacchati… svapna dṛg viṣayā abhāva na aprabuddha vagacchati sleeping. state of being. Vasubandhu replies that how perception of appearances occurs has already been explained. Given the fact of memory.553 Recall from VM 3a that the determination of the experience of place and time is coherent as in dreams.. Color. etc. a sensory cognition. get at. acquire Table 65.. incur. Per Kochumuttom’s translation: From a representation of consciousness arises a thoughtrepresentation of consciousness. move. external world.

If things appear to us as they do because of a transformation of our own consciousness. just so when they become awakened by the attainment of a supramundane knowledge free from discriminations. and not because there are any real external objects of perception existing as we perceive them. the influence of one mind upon another could not be explained. 174 . It is further objected that it does not agree with common sense to say that everyday objects of sensory perception are as unreal as those objects perceived in dreams. then they truly understand the non-being of these sense-objects through meeting with a clear worldly subsequently attained knowledge. then how can there be true or false statements. as long as they aren’t awake. or any influence over our beliefs could not exist.554 It is then objected that if there are no real external objects. and. or good or bad companions.awake). So spatio-temporal determination is possible even when there are no real corresponding external objects of perception.555 Vasubandhu’s reply follows in the next verse. We ordinarily discriminate subject and object. since contact and teaching. This portion of the commentary is rendered by Anacker thus: Just as people when they are asleep in a dream have their faculties concentrated on impressions of appearances of discriminations which appear differently than they do later. Supra-mundane knowledge is nondiscriminative. which is the antidote to these (discriminations). don’t understand the non-being of objects of sense and understanding that weren’t. Vasubandhu replies that one who has not yet awakened does not recognize the unreality of the objects perceived in her dream. but this discrimination is a habitual construction.

Mutual consciousness definition. the heart sleeping. definition. giving determination. information. for that reason. perception. restraining. aim. dreaming in that direction. injured. afflicted. in that manner. discouraged560 mind. dis/advantage Table 66. Middhena-upahatam cittam svapne tena-asamam phalam (k)557 State of mutual influence (“rule”). weakened. also lit. ruler558 state (of)… mind.” consequence. memory. Afflicted consciousness. there.VM 18 175 . reflecting. aimed at. also restraint of the mind (second of eight meditation steps in yoga) together. therefore uneven. concept. distressed. anyoyādhipatitvena vijñaptiniyamo mithaḥ … anyonya adhipati tvena vijñapti niyama mithas one another. restriction. keeping down. intention. longed for. unequalled561 metaphorical “fruit. wish. thus. imparting. result. imagining. observing. mutually. dreaming therefore different consequences. retribution. alternatively559 … -upahatam cittam svapne tena-asamam phalam. announcement. request. also noticed. master. unequal. thought. damaged. attending. preventing. visible. mutual. effect.Verse 18 anyoyādhipatitvena vijñaptiniyamo mithaḥ/ middhenopahataṃ cittaṃ svapne tenāsamaṃ phalaṃ// (td)556 Anyonya-adhipatitvena vijñapti-niyamo mithaḥ. (representation of) consciousness. upahata citta svapna tena asama phala hurt. affected. reason. gain/loss. thinking. controlling. intelligence. limitation. mutually lord. reciprocally.

then why are there different consequences of actions in the dreaming and waking states. each becomes restricted (according to kind). But the difference in karma-phala is not the result of there being real.564 Verse 19 maraṇam paravijñaptiviśeṣād vikriyā yathā/ smṛtilopādikānyeṣāṃ piśācādimanovaśāt// (td)565 Maraṇam para-vijñapti-viśeṣād-vikriyā yathā Smṛti-lopādikā-anyeṣām piśācādi-manovaśāt. The determination of the representations of consciousness is reciprocal by means of the “superordinate cause” (adhi-patitva) of the mind of one sentient being acting on another. because the difference in consciousness in the mental continuity of one causes differences in the mental continuity of another consciousness to occur. as a result of being their conditioning influence upon each other. desirable and undesirable? Vasubandhu replies that situations are different because their causes are different. just as in dreams. because their causes are different. One is asleep when dreaming.”) then there should be different consequences of action.563 It is objected that if it is true that in waking. external objects even in ordinary waking. There is reciprocal or mutual influence (determination) of perceptions or concepts.The consequences of actions in dreaming and waking states are different. meaning that they arise in different states of mind. But when we are in full control of our faculties (when the “mind is strong. (k)566 176 . the mind thus less effectual.562 That is. there is no real external object of perception although consciousness can occur. but not as a result of external objects of perception.

deficiency. direction. interruption. intellect. concept. like … smṛti-lopādikā-anyeṣām piśācādi-manovaśāt smṛti lopa dik anya ṣāṃ piśacādi manas remembrance. different (from). understanding. the internal organ of perception and cognition. death567 far. robbing. perception. violation. other. highest degree. disappearance570 (from diś). to bring forward other (than). maraṇam paravijñaptiviśeṣād vikriyā yathā … maraṇa para vijñapti viśeṣa vikriyā yathā dying. together with weaving-together influential consciousness. particulars transformation. information. will. the other together with weaving together mind (it its widest sense. conscience. calling to mind569 breaking. opposed to. also lit. distant.Death utmost consciousness difference. at the best or utmost mind. stranger. injury. chief matter. neglect. specific property. absence. modification. sense. time or order/number/degree. correlative of. shining. Spirit. in which way. region pointed at. (representation of) consciousness.VM 19 vaśat 177 . transformation as follows: Remembrance pointed at absent other. the faculty or instrument through which thoughts enter or by which objects of sense affect the soul. influential Table 67. altered condition. according as. change. imparting. another. perception. giving difference. Absolute. distinct from ātman strong. intelligence. also to point out. to show. announcement. affliction568 as follows. destruction. as applied to all the mental powers). remote or different in space. request.

how can there be violent action if there are no real bodies to be harmed? How can there be violent speech if there is no real power behind or within the language? Vasubandhu’s reply is that death is a modification of personality (“a change of course” or vikriyā) which may be caused by an act of cognition by another consciousness.. (va): like. thee.574 Daṇdaka forests powerful (mystical) speech or figures575 voidness. kathaṃ vā daṇḍakāraṇyaśūnyatvam ṛṣikopataḥ… katha vā daṇda kāraṇya sūnya tvam rṣīko pataḥ how? in what manner? whence? leading. thou seers anger … manodaṇḍo mahāvadyaḥ kathaṃ vā tena siddhyati mano (manas): mind 178 .571 Verse 20 kathaṃ vā daṇḍakāraṇyaśūnyatvam ṛṣikopataḥḥ/ manodaṇḍo mahāvadyaḥ kathaṃ vā tena siddhyati// (td)572 Katham vā daṇdakāraṇya-śūnyatvam-rṣīkopataḥ? Ṃano-daṇḍo mahāvadyaḥ katham vā tena sidhyati? (k)573 In what manner… Daṇdaka forests Powerful speech emptied. also: punishment. as stick. emptiness. seers’ anger? Punishment-mind great speech Thus accomplished. trunk of a tree. He gives as an example the power of demons to induce amnesia in their victims. absence of… thy.The objector asks. Vasubandhu’s acceptance of psychic power beyond the merely metaphorical here is probable.

have you ever heard why the Daṇḍaka forests. the Kaliṇga forests became empty. otherwise?578 Verse 21 paracittavidām jñānam ayathārthaṃ kathaṃ yathā/ svacittajñānaṃ ajñānād yathā buddhasya gocaraḥ// (td)579 Para-citta-vidām jñānam-ayathārtham katham yathā Svacitta-jñānam ajñānād-yathā buddhasya gocaraḥ. were cleaned out?” He answered: “O Gautama.”577 How could mental torture or violence of the mind be a punishment greater than violence actions or speech. chief matter. distant. thus. remote or different in space. (tk)580 Absolute consciousness inseparable. Absolute. be accomplished or fulfilled.mahā vadya tena siddhyati great to be spoken576 in that direction. Spirit. Para-citta-vidām jñānam-ayathārtham katham yathā… para far. result. time or order/number/degree. succeed.VM 20 Vasubandhu continues that the Buddha implied as much in his own teaching— “O householder. there. in that manner. therefore reach an aim. Knowledge of material objects not as it should be how? As follows: knowledge of own consciousness is not abiding in field awakened from ignorance. at the best or utmost 179 . as taught. stranger. for that reason. the Mātaṇga forests. other. highest degree. follow Table 68. I have heard (that it was) due to the wickedness of mind of the forest ṛṣis.

abiding. memory. according as. in which way. like … svacitta-jñānam ajñānād-yathā buddhasya gocaraḥ sva citta ajñānād* buddha asya gocara own mind. not according to582 relating to a thing or object. district583 Table 69. reflecting. memory. expanded. how could knowledge of another’s thoughts be possible? Vasubandhu replies that it is possible. the heart not separable581 knowing. range of the organs of sense. longed for. being within range. sign. scope of action. intelligence. knowledge.VM 21 It is objected that if the “consciousness-occasion” thesis were true. observing. The objector persists. aimed at. cognizance. dwelling. but it is as erroneous as the knowledge of one’s one mind with respect to knowledge about objects of perception. resulting from or based on the possession of a thing how? in what manner? whence? as follows. wish. known. intention. also noticed. significant. understood sitting. attending.584 Verse 22 vijñaptimātratāsiddhiḥ svaśaktisadṛśī mayā/ kṛteyaṃ sarvathā sā tu na cintyā buddhagocaraḥ// (td)585 180 . abode. intelligence. material. reason (negation of knowledge) awakened. characteristic (of recognition) not as it should be. state of rest range. intelligence. thinking.citta vidā jñāna ayatha ārtha kathaṃ yathā mind. also: mark. field. reason. wise. wisdom. aim. how is the knowledge of one’s own mind erroneous? Vasubandhu replies: because false appearances have not yet been eliminated. correlative of. imagining. visible. conscious. thought.

made. scope of action.Vijñapti-mātratā-siddhiḥ sva-śakti-sadṛśī mayā Kṛtā-iyam sarvathā sā tu na cintyā buddha-gocara. (k)586 “Consciousness-occasion” accomplished. objects. strength. fulfillment. field. also measure or limit (in space and time).VM 22 Vasubandhu ends with a verse declaring that the demonstration of consciousness occasion has been done to the best of his ability. all manner of things. own-power… illusion. abode. range of the organs of sense. request. ability. performed. giving + mātram: having/being/consisting of only/merely. accomplished all manner of things… unconceived. known. instant. accomplishment. done. district Table 70. imparting. announcement. being within range. perception. (representation of) consciousness. attainment. … vijñapti-mātratā-siddhiḥ sva-śakti-sadṛśī mayā vijñapti vijñapti: mind. lit. conscious. obtained all things. atom. prepared. regarding everything to be conceived. but that it is complex and subtle. understood range. all matters. performance587 own power. occasion. imagined589 awakened. and cannot be comprehended in its totality except by the enlightened. deception siddhi sva śakti māya … kṛtā-iyam sarvathā sā tu na cintyā buddha-gocara kṛta sarvathā cintya buddha gocara accomplished. capacity. realm of awakening. expanded. thought. wise. element = consciousness-occasion conclusion. energy588 illusion. unreality. concept.590 181 . information.

The reply is that it is possible in the same way that the souls of the condemned can share the experience of hell. at least. These two objections are epistemological in nature: how could we explain the apparent consistency of our world and that of others if the occasion-ofconsciousness thesis is true? Vasubandhu’s response is accordingly epistemological in nature. It is further objected that if vijñapti-mātra were true. Our ability to form concept-names does not alter this fact. viz. we could not explain shared perceptual experiences. a 1:1 correspondence to some fixed.. we could not explain spatio-temporal determination. Vasubandhu’s examples include the tortures of hell. that causal relationships or functions would not be possible. we could not explain causal efficacy. It is objected that if this were true.. His examples point to this: we are capable of constructing a coherent set of beliefs about our perceptual experiences that not only do not require. aimed at establishing that something must be truly real in hell besides the mind of the condemned in order for it to be efficacious. everything” is “consciousness-occasion” (vijñaptimātra). It is also objected that if vijñapti-mātra were true. or the momentary activity of consciousness. This could either be read as a metaphysical objection. objective reality of enduring selves and objects. he says that it is possible in that same way that such determination occurs in dreams.Summary Vasubandhu says: “All of this. Why can it not be that the guards of hell. viz. that we could not provide causal explanations for what we observe. Several subsequent objections follow. however. but cannot have. or as an epistemological objection. are real things external to the condemned? If these guards are not in hell as a result of their own 182 .

but only their supposed nature. which evolve from the assumption of duality of subject and object discriminated by manas. It is explained in verses 9-10 that the basis of the activity of cognition or conception with respect to phenomenal appearances is a selfcontained cause that develops within consciousness. Vasubandhu’s response is that dharmas are not wholly and entirely insubstantial. or else they would not be immune to hell. The sixfold sense-consciousness functions as the inner seat (āyatana) of perception. The next objection to is based on accepted Buddhist belief regarding the six sensory bases. then how is it that they cannot truly exist since the phenomena is truly rising? Vasubandhu replies that the guards could not be real. It is asked how everything can be vijñapti-mātra if there are really no dharmas. while perceived sense-qualities and manas function as the outer seat of perception.karma. but the causal events responsible for them are entirely mental. as it would appear to contradict the consciousness-occasion thesis. In the Viṃśika. That which karma transforms is mind. they cannot exist in hell as a result of some karma of their own. for this reason. Here he hearkens directly to the ideas of his Trisvabhāva. Then he gets to the heart of the matter: it is not that the events/appearances/phenomena of hell are entirely without reality. but as a result of the condemned’s karma. Vasubandhu’s response is that this is addressed within the explanation of the “subtle teaching” regarding ātman and dharmas. also. leads to understanding the absence of an enduring “self” in the pudgala or material body. Understanding that the sixfold consciousness develops as a result of six pairs of dharmas (twelve sense bases). not matter. tri-svabhāva theory is meant to support the 183 . as in the preceding texts.

which renders impossible the ability to conceive of some “X here before me now” at the actual moment the phenomena is perceived. wherein objects of perception can both be perceived and not really exist at the same time. This central theme reaffirmed. the Vaiśeṣika position is said to collapse. That is. extra-mental objects of perception. He also points to the momentariness of phenomena. largely by virtue of pointing out the failure of that point of view to cohere internally. But since the nature of perception has already been explained and memory arises based on that kind of perception. and if sense perception is the most reliable of the three basic grounds of knowledge. a previous experience of a real object of perception is thus necessary for memory. then how can sense perception take place if there are no real objects of perception? Again. single or combined. Without it. Vasubandhu makes analogy to dreams. The final quarter of the text addresses another set of objections to the vijñaptimātra thesis. the objection is thus dismissed. It is followed by the argument that it defies common sense to say that the phenomenal objects we observe 184 . The moment of consciousness that must be referenced by consciousness passes before the vijñāna-pariṇāma is complete. or by the admission of real. the thesis is contradicted either (depending on which translation you are reading) by the admission of a real object of consciousness that is another consciousness. whether atoms are one or many.vijñapti-mātra thesis. The next objection is that a thing that has not been experienced cannot be remembered. The first is the argument that if the existence or non-existence of dharmas is determined by sensory knowledge. several objections from the Vaiśeṣika (atomist) point of view are addressed.

It is then asked how vijñapti-mātra (consider Tola and Dragonetti’s translation in a previous verse: if there is no real object of consciousness that is itself a consciousness) can explain the influence of one mind upon another. A final question regarding direct communication between minds is addressed before Vasubandhu completes the Viṃśika. How could there be true or false statements. It is asked how physical murder or mental torture could be possible. Vasubandhu’s response is that the unawakened (here meaning both literally and figuratively) cannot perceive the unreality of the objects perceived in her dreaming so long as she dreams.g. 185 . and the response is that death or injury is a transformation of personality ultimately caused by an act of cognition by another consciousness. extra-mental objects of perception. Mundane. in that case? The response is essentially that asserting mutual influences between continuity-streams of consciousnesses is nothing like asserting the existence of real.. through interactions such as conversation and instruction.are as unreal as the objected seen in dreams. e. and how specifically the consequences of thoughts and actions in one state are different than those of the other. Supramundane. everyday knowledge based on “common sense” observation discriminates objects with qualities. or bad or good actions. ineffable knowledge based on uncommon insight does not so discriminate subject and object. Vasubandhu’s answer is that they are different in effect because they are different in cause. The subsequent question is then how one distinguishes between dreaming and waking states. and that in any case this does not impact the assertion that the objects of perception are not ultimately real (as they appear to us).

such as the nature of evolving cause-and-effect consciousness and the threefold perspective that explains the sort of existence had by phenomenal appearances. Moore. (Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. 1982). Three Texts on Consciousness Only: Demonstration of Consciousness Only. 161 382 Kochumuttom. Mind Only: A Philosophical and Doctrinal Analysis of the Vijñānavāda. 367 Fernando Tola and Carmen Dragonetti. 1973. Although themes of the two previously examined chapters are also found in the Viṃśika. p. translator in Sarvepalli Radhakrishan and Charles A. (New Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. will be the task of the last chapter. M. Seven Works of Vasubandhu: The Buddhist Psychological Doctor. Wood. A Buddhist Doctrine of Experience: A New Translation and Interpretation of the Works of Vasubandhu. 260 383 Wayman. p. p. A Sourcebook in Indian Philosophy. 1957. this text also focuses in particular on questions regarding the existence of real objects of perception. 173 375 Tola and Dragonetti. 1984). 1999. ___ 186 . 372 Francis Harold Cook. p. p. The Principle of Buddhist Psychology. 5th printing. p. (Princeton. p. 166. 1991). A more narrowly focused examination of how this text interacts with the previous two that have been explored. (New York: State University of New York Press 1987). NJ: Princeton University Press. 2004. p. 371 Stefan Anacker. 173 381 Anacker. Kalupahana. Religions of Asia Series No. 134 378 Wayman. Kochumuttom. 370 Thomas E. 369 G.) 373 Edward Hamilton. 8.) 368 Thomas A. (Numata Center for Buddhist Translation and Research. translator. and how that comprehensive view is best described.) 374 Kalupahana. in David J. p. Being as Consciousness: Yogācāra Philosophy of Buddhism. 97 377 Tola and Dragonetti. 123 376 Wood. p.Vasubandhu is clearly addressing metaphysical questions as well as epistemological questions in this text. (Motilal Banarsidass. Nagao. (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. editors. ___ 379 Kochumuttom. 260 380 Nagao in Kalupahana.

. the lunar mansion Rohin2i1. Cocculus cordifolius (%{guDUcI}) . light R. of a Daitya (= %{varman} .uni-koeln. &c. shining (as gold) .) the tail (of the Bos grunniens) Pa1n2. of water [RV. vi . . Bhag. . %{candra4}) lunar Jyot. . x . phantasm of the imagination. 2 . .384 va 3 ind. 2667 . 388 1 candra mf(%{A})n.de/cgibin/tamil/recherche 04/10/2008. Ṣuśr. of a Daitya L. 4-1 . . a spot similar to the moon BhP. as ṂBh. vi f. Nagao in Kalupahana. &c. having the mere appearance of a thing Gaut. . 2-3 . . f. fallacious appearance Vedāntas. also m. http://webapps.) fallacy. having the brilliancy or hue of light (said of gods . 36 Ka1s3.) VS. 195. 13 . xii . n. water L.= %{iva}. . 28 . ii . the mane (of a horse or lion) MBh. %{A} or %{I} Pa1n2. color. Wood. &c. . the eye in a peacock's tail L. a kind of sour rice-gruel L. ix R.uni-koeln. p. 4 AV. N. (in log. xix S3Br. 0/1 . x . lxxvii . splendour. .) . 161. m. of a son of Kr2ishn2a BhP. . 176 . http://webapps. an erroneous though plausible argument (regarded by logicians as of various kind). &c. (fr. ṠāṅkhṠr. 2 keza 2 n. Katha1s. 385 2 ābhāsa m. . intention. of a king Pan5cat.] or %{nare7ndra-} [Ratna7v. king of the Ka1mbojas) MBh. 15 . Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. vi TBr. of a son of Vis3va-gandhi and father of Yuvana7s3va . m. &c. ifc. 20 . `" the moon of "' i. p. L. . (ifc. of a locality Romakas. %{vAla}) . a lock of hair on the crown of the head L. 23 . 6 . Praud2h. ifc.uni-koeln. http://webapps. ix . a hall covered only at the top . the Ka1mpilla plant L. one of the 18 minor Dvipas L. (%{A}) f. i . . 26 . l. 2 and 10 . Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. (fr. . . composed by Candra . &c. = %{drA7spadA} L. (%{kliz} Un2.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 01/13/2007. . 9 TS.g. 260. Serratula anthelminthica L. . S3Br. 2 . 4] "' . purpose. 4 .e. the most excellent among (e. v . Ta1n2d2yaBr. phantom. 386 Kochumuttom. the number `" one "' Su1ryas. 6 . of Durga1 L. `" whose lord is Praja1-pati (see 3.) glittering . S3Br. (v. N. %{zcandra4} q. 9 . 54) the hair of the head AV. ii . 15 . TS. a metre of 4 x 19 syllables . awning .) 2 cAndra mf(%{I})n. %{A} MBh. . looking like. Sch. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ SanskritEnglish Dictionary: search results. camphor AgP. Anacker. ifc. the moon (also personified as a deity Mn. i . (%{I}) f. a kind of reddish pearl L.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 02/13/2007. 6 Ka1tySr... VarBr2S. . of Vishn2u L. Carpopogon pruriens L. like. Vedāntas. VS. N. . semblance of a reason. sophism. a kind of perfume (%{hrIvera}) L. semblance. . . of several other men Ra1jat. . i .) gold RV. n. . %{pArthiva-} [g. xxxv . &c. = %{-parvata} R. Tantr. N. of a river VP. (Naigh. of a grammarian (= %{-gomin}) Ra1jat. . (pl. Su1ryas. a lunar month (cf. iv . VS. the mark of the Visarga . a lovely or agreeable phenomenon of any kind L. (cf. xxvi La1t2y. 8008 S3ak. of Varun2a L. Kāv. 53 VS. . . of a mineral VarBr2S. p. 17 . 187 . of one of the ancestors of the Gaud2a Bra1hmans . N. 173. 97. reflection.v. ṣāh. 387 1 keza 1 m. mere appearance. %{ardha-}. %{ka4}) "' . i . N. 61 . the Indigo plant L. %{vyAghrA7di} Ka1s3. canopy L. 2 . i . appearance R. 121 . %{gauNa} . vi] and of Soma) RV. vi . iv . (%{I}) f. p. (in some more or less doubtful cases). i . of a Sa1man Ka1tyS3r. cardamoms L. a most excellent king "') . another plant (%{bhUta-kezI}) L.

) . bound (?) A1s3vS3r. %{ap}) . especially at the end of a line after %{iti} or a verb (e. can it be S3a1lihotra or king Nala?) Rarely %{kim} is repeated before %{uta} used in this sense (e. %{ve} q. generally at the beginning of the second or following part of a double interrogation) or . (cf. ii . &c. iii . %{Apya} see p. . 2 . Katha1s.) L. Hariv.unikoeln. 1. 3 Apya 1 mfn.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 04/10/2008. S3Br. obtainable S3Br. (for 1.g. . 390 vyavasta mfn. of a constellation . belonging or relating to water . Divya4v.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 04/10/2008. of several asterisms VarBr2. vii .N. %{Apya} see under %{Ap}. . 391 1 apya (2 .g. connected with water RV. 15 . consisting of water . (As an interrogative particle . 392 jinaputra m. watery . 3) mf(%{a4pyA} . (fr. 3-2 . of a plant .v. 144 . or RV. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. 1503.uni-koeln. 2. (fr. Sa1h. a kind of Solanum L.g. 2 apya see 2. often used for the sake of emphasis . once %{a4pI} RV. = %{vy-avasita} . AV. N. a friend RV. (%{As}) m. 123. %{zAlihotraH@kiM@nu@syAd@utA7hosvid@rAjA@nalaH} . being in water . how can it be decided whether he be a friend without a motive or a violator of confidence? Hit. &c. of a Bodhi-sattva Buddh.an (e. Pra1yas3c. http://webapps. 3. lxxviii . col. (As a particle of wishing . coming from water . (%{I}) f. . . MBh. . %{vrata}) the penance Ca1ndra1yan2a (q. . 389 Tola and Dragonetti. confederation . 10 Praud2h. N.) 4 Apya 2 mfn.) Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. p.) 5 Apya 3 n. O king . (cf. also .unikoeln. the moon-stone L.) Amar. m. utrum . . liquid Sus3r. a pupil of the grammarian Candra Siddh. N. of a class of deities BhP.g. 67 . would that he would read!) (%{uta} preceded 188 . all creatures . Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. woven. especially at the beginning of a sentence followed by a potential) would that! utinam! (e. . (%{am}) n. pl. of a Vasu . Serratula anthelminthica L. . certainly always despise him MBh. (scil. . 26 and vii . to be reached . thatches &c. 3 uta 2 ind. 2 . ChUp. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. the light half of a month W. %{sarva-bhUtAni@tam@pArtha@sadA@paribhavanty@uta} . (Sch. a kind of Costus L. relationship . n. grass &c. N. Vop. Bhartr2. %{vApya}. (used in making huts . art thou a mortal woman or divine? Nala) . (%{am}) n. in this sense it may be strengthened by %{Aho} (e.g. (for 2. &c. http://webapps. has she arrived from heaven or has another come in her form? Mr2icch. 2 uta 1 mfn. . 9)n. on Pa1n2. . {katham@nirNIyate@kiM@syAn@niSkAraNo@bandhur@uta@vizvAsa-ghAtakaH} . &c. http://webapps. Sch. leaves . vii . alliance . 393 1 uTa m.g.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 04/10/2008. %{ahan}) Monday Vishn2. . . 1 .) . Bhag. &c. of a princess Ra1jat.%{mukhya}) L. %{A4pya}). N. or by %{Aho-svit} (e. 3 . L. and . even . vi . %{utA7dhIyIta} .) Kum. %{a4p}. %{kim@nu@svargAt@prAptA@tasyA@rUpeNa@kimutA7nyA7gatA} . http://webapps. moonlight L. 1026) MBh.v.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 04/10/2008. . living in water . 29 . sewn . N. friendship RV. (scil. %{kaccit@tvam@asi@mAnuSI@utA7ho@surA7GganA} .uni-koeln.

see s. 60 &c.%{uta} . stroke MBh. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ 189 . or else . demon RV. to explanatory works . a sketch . . this one questioned by us does not speak . a measuring line (cf. http://webapps. they form a kind of rubric to Vedic ceremonial . plan Ra1jat. rule . VarBr2S. `" to sew "' . %{uta} . these led to the later Dharmas3a1stras or `" law-books "' [IW. 4 atra 4 n. (%{uta} preceded by %{prati}) on the contrary . 146 &c. how much more . here at this time . that which like a thread runs through or holds together everything . rather (e. promoted . pronominal base %{a} . in this respect . %{ardhacA7di} also m. VarBr2S. %{yajJo7pavIta}) BhP. whether . a devourer . 2. (for %{at@tra} . . food RV. helped . line . %{uta@vA} . which are the groundwork of a vast grammatical literature . both . to g. col. .and (e. a girdle ib.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 04/10/2008. (accord. . cord . founded directly on S3ruti q.g. but rather throws stones at us) Katha1s. Ragh.v. yarn . 6 uta mfn. case %{asmin}) . fr. and (e.] . philosophy . in ritual there are first the S3rauta-su7tras . 175 . . 394 sUtra n. sewed. p. a Ra1kshasa.%{uta@vA} or %{utA7ho@vA7pi} . . other kinds of SñS3ruti works are the Gr2ihya-su1tras and Sa1maya1ca1rika or Dharma-su1tras i. 5 Uta 2 mfn. then. . http://webapps.p.or .v. loved . both the strong and the weak) . either . there . Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. sometimes called collectively Sma1rta-su1tras [as founded on %{smRti} or `" tradition "' see %{smArta}] . . &c. x . %{eSa@pRSTo@'smAbhir@na@jalpati@hanti@praty-uta@pASANaih} . of %{ve} q. %{a4-trA}) ind.p. (only for the etym. %{samudrAd@uta@vA@purISAt} . wire AV.g. the sacred thread or cord worn by the first three classes (cf. and among them the Kalpa-su7tras .) favoured . . Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. direction BhP. in this matter . 2. .%{vA} . 162 &c. %{vA} . &c.g. . grammar &c. 2 atra 2 mfn. (for %{at-tra}) . %{ad}) .] . (p.or else. . how much less (e. Pa1s3upatas &c.unikoeln. 4 Uta 1 mfn. &c.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 04/10/2008. ( %{tras}) . (fr. and any work or manual consisting of strings of such rules hanging together like threads (these Su1tra works form manuals of teaching in ritual . in Vya1karan2a or grammar there are the celebrated Su1tras of Pa1n2ini in eight books . of %{kSattra}) . `" not enjoying or affording protection "' Br2A1rUp.g. the term Su1tra is applied to original text books as opp. of %{av} q. &c. see 1. 3 atra 3 m. from the sea or from the moisture in the air) . %{kim} . 395 1 atra 1 (or Ved. with Buddhists . a short sentence or aphoristic rule . Pan5cat.%{uta@vA} . &c. with Jainas they form part of the Dr2isht2iva1da) IW. protected. fr.uni-koeln. a fibre Ka1lid. Vikr.g. thou art able to conquer even a thousand . (p.) woven . how much more one R. 145] . %{-pAta}) Hariv.) S3ak. often used in sense of loc. 5 atra &c.by %{kim}) on the contrary . %{uta} . Gol. in philosophy each system has its regular text-book of aphorisms written in Su1tras by its supposed founder [IW. a line . AV.v. woven &c. `" rules for domestic ceremonies and conventional customs "' .v. %{samartho@'si@sahasram@api@jetuM@kimutai9kam} . %{siv} . and connected with %{sUci} and %{sUnA}) a thread . %{uta@balavAn@utA7balaH} .e. a kind of tree DivyA7v. 2. .: e. in this place . giving concise rules for the performance of every kind of sacrifice [IW. string . 79 .

p. any fixed rule or law. 260 401 Anacker. &c.uni-koeln. &c. &c. determination. phil. 405 Kochumuttom. 161 402 Cook.r. 408 niyama m. 3. xix. reduction or restriction to (with loc. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Capeller's 1891 Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. %{kālaḥ prasthānasya} or %{-nāya} or %{-ne} Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results.. {samprayoga}) relating to use or application Cat. or Pot. necessarily. the proper time or season for (gen. performing five positive duties MWB. obligation (%{ena} and %{āt} ind. to quicksilver w. 134 400 Kochumuttom. Ṃn. 53 & 54 ṠBr. (ifc. 72. limitation. 398 ityartha mfn. ṂBh.) a rule or precept (laying down or specifying something otherwise optional). ṇ. a law prescribing restraints Ṃn. 239. meaning. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. purpose. under certain conditions Car.. f. 406 deśanā f. vow R. http://webapps.. ii. p.. %{-yāma}) Cat. Ṣuśr. p. Necessity or Law personified as a son of ḍharma and ḍhṛiti Pur. for this purpose R. &c. keeping down. definition GṛṠrṣ. ---). p. http://webapps. Prāt.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 02/11/2007..). &c. restriction (%{ena} ind. contract. a fixed or right point of time. holding back. with %{yad} e. 1-3. having such a sense or meaning.) a common-place. rigid 190 .... Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results...) ṭĀr.uni-koeln. vii. as a rule. with restrictions i. a partic. footnote p.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 11/30/2006 397 abhiprāya m. instruction. loc. 391 403 Wayman. %{kal}.unikoeln. Kāv. ___ 404 Tola and Dragonetti.e. wish R. 396 sāmprayogika mfn. preventing.Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. opinion Ṃn.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 12/01/2006. direction.v. http://webapps.de/cgibin/tamil/recherche 04/10/2008. agreement. aim Pāṇ.). 57. lowering (as the voice) ṚPrāt. Kathās. intention.. in comp. %{-dharma} m. http://webapps. R. process applied to minerals (esp. p.. of Vishṇu ṂBh. (fr. 167. %{-niṣṭhā} f.. surely) Var. http://webapps. checking.. (in ṃīm. a space of time. restraining. sense (as of a word or of a passage). inf. necessity. any act of voluntary penance or meritorious piety (esp. controlling Ṃn. 407 kāla 2 m. (3. time (in general) ĀV. (in rhet. 399 Tola and Dragonetti.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 12/08/2006. restraint of the mind (the 2nd of the 8 steps of meditation in Yoga).de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 11/30/2006. (%{am}) ind. 123. %{A} ṚPrāt. or %{prati}). http://webapps. invariably. dat. p. Ṛājat. any conventional expression or usual comparison. ṂBh. ṂBh.uni-koeln. p.unikoeln. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results.uni-koeln. “ to calculate or enumerate”). &c.g. a lesser vow or minor observance dependent on external conditions and not so obligatory as %{yama} q. promise..

24. transition (in recitation &c. continuance. %{k. i.. %{-hetu} m. of a son of Kṛita-ratha and father of Vibudha VP. Ṃn. acquired. of the die or of the side of a die marked with four points or dots (this is the lucky or winning die) Vṣ. state of self-restraint. 6. good ṠBr. &c. a simile which expressly states that something can be compared only with something else Kāv. unsettledness. %{-para} mfn. %{mama kṛte} or %{mat-kṛte}. ĀV. the past tense ĀitBr.. of a son of aya and father of ḥaryavana BhP. enough of joking ib. 210. service done. for the sake of. xii. aim Vop. (552. transgression of a fixed rule or obligation. of one of the Viśve ḍevās ṂBh.. %{-bhaGga} m.). ĀV.uni-koeln. (%{I}) f.. placed at hand ĀV. uncertainty.). 5. away with doubt Ṡak.” away with. ii. stake at a game ṚV. ix. Nepāl). on Vṣ.. performed ṚV. a continuous train of thought ṣarvad. prepared.. xxx. practicing religious observances ṂBh. (e. sorcery SāmavBr. 17. &c.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 01/21/2007. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. ṇ. of a son of Vasu-deva BhP.. ii. f. http://webapps.) Ṡrṣ. on Ṃn.) or according to the later conception (BhP. 000 years of men). made ready ib. = %{saṃdhi} Kām. 114.. m. ṂBh. ṭŪp. irregular. &c. %{kṛtaṃ saṃdehena}. 216 ṂBh. indecorous or improper conduct. n. ĀV... appointed (as a duty) Yāj.. obtained.parihāsena}. relating to or corroborative of a rule W. on my account. continuous flow Kālid. action ṚV. on account of. deed. 4356. relating or referring to Yāj. %{-sthiti} f. for (with gen. (%{e}) loc. 19. or ifc. xiii.. %{A}) continued succession. &c. connection.. of a sage (from whom the Nepalese derive the n. ṠvetŪp. ṇ. of a son of Cyavana and father of ūpari-cara VāyuP. e. (also the collective ṇ. %{-pattra} n. iv. %{-yamÂnanda} m. &c. for me) Yāj. 411 1 kṛta 1 mfn.. an uninterrupted series. i. ii. done.. of the first of the four ages of the world (also called %{satya} or “ the golden age. 17... magic. ṠBr. of ṇimbârka Cat.uni-koeln. (%{am}) n. of the four dice in opposition to the fifth die called %{kali} Comm. (%{ám}) n. 1. v. 45. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. %{-pāla} m... %{-laGghana} n. 80. iii. 1080 BhP..observance of prescribed rites MW. Kāv.uni-koeln. &c.. 69) 4800 years of the gods or 1.) “ done with. 186.2).g. ṣūryas. ind. 18 Tṣ.g. &c. ramification Ṣuśr. consequence. 28). (mfn. made. 409 aniyama m. doubt. proper.. http://webapps. kind action. R. %{-yamôpamā} f. cultivated Ṃn. x. 1692 Pacat. gained. Kāp. well done.. result L. prize or booty gained in battle ib.. continuity.. having no rule. observing fixed rules.. i. benefit (cf. enough of. 728. (ifc.. ix.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 01/21/2007.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 01/13/2007. v. work. (with %{saha} or with instr. a regulating cause ṣarvad. ṂBh. a sinew or ligature (of an animal) Tṣ. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. breach of a stipulation or contract MW. 410 saṃtāna m. coherence. absence of control or rule or fixed order or obligation. ascetism L. x. no need of. http://webapps. Hariv... a woman in her monthly courses Ṣuśr. accomplished.” comprehending together with the morning and evening dawn 4800 years of men (Ṃn. Comm. a written agreement or stipulation ib. “ observer of vows”. %{kṛta-ja} and %{-ghna}) ṂBh. 24. %{-vat} mfn. (hence) the number “ four” VarBṛṣ. 2. 191 . another ṇ. of a son of ṣaṃnati and pupil of ḥiraṇya-nābha Hariv..

ready to. dismissed W. following in regular succession ṚV. or comp.. dependent on ṂBh.) ib. acquire. low. p.. ii. prepared for (dat.. skilful. id. %{yuktaḥ kālena yaḥ}. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. saṃsiddha}. %{kīrṇa}. humiliated. (ifc. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Capeller’s Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. boot. concentrated. lowering. obey (gen. pp. {prảsiddha. 192 . p. ind.. 167. p. depraved in mind Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. http://webapps. avail.) 3 kṛtā f. i.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 01/13/2007. {pra} succeed. http://webapps.. loc. p. or comp. 10. twenty increased by four i. %{-mati} (BhP. %{-ti}). see cols.) R. 161 418 Cook. be accomplished or perfected.g. united.) ṂBh.uni-koeln. ṂBh. result. joined. tricked. come in contact with (instr. 260-1. &c. employed. p. hit the ((-. or instr. 425 1 svapnavat ind. %{caturyuktā viṃśatiḥ}. 76.(%{ena}) instr. ṂBh. 260 415 Nagao in Kalupahana.. injured. 161. combined. ii. (ifc. humiliation Bhartṛ.. (in astron. follow. p. 97 417 Anacker. (cf. http://webapps. 412 yukta %{yukti} &c. &c.l. 423 Kochumuttom. submit to.. injured. e. succeed. familiar with (loc. p. wicked ib.Cf. http://webapps. conforming or adapting one's self to..) subject to. become perfect or blessed. p. be valid. 3. set aside. &c. Var. sidhyati (-te). pp. engaged in. {sam} succeed. -..) added to.de/cgibin/tamil/recherche 12/01/2006. 85.. removed.).{abhi} succeed. 2 yukta mfn.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 06/05/2007. 421 See Tola and Dragonetti. ṠāṅkhṠr. Anacker. intent upon (instr. footnote p. 2.). n. {siddha} 2 (q.) reach an aim.) ĀśvGṛ. 30 (v.) ṚV. 175 416 Wood. &c. in troops ṠBr.g. 134 414 Kochumuttom. possessed of (instr. p. %{-praja} (ṂBh. accompanied by. be fulfilled or accomplished. furnished or endowed or filled or supplied or provided with. result.) ṂBh. 4 kṛtā see 2. p. (risen) as (from) a dream BhP. killed L. offended. made use of. 422 Tola and Dragonetti. brought down. follow. base. 391 419 Hamilton. yoked or joined or fastened or attached or harnessed to (loc.uni-koeln. 134. 5.v. -. 123-4. &c. Kochumuttom. clever. 424 sidh. set to work.uni-koeln. absorbed in abstract meditation. %{kṛt}.) connected with. R.3). occupied with. BhP.) being in conjunction with (instr. (%{ám} ind. 5 kṛta mfn. R. 2 kṛta 2 mfn. 2. deceived ṂBh. adapted. fitted. making use of (instr. attentive ṚV. 391-2.. (ifc. 6 and vi.. humbling.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 01/12/2007. 35. 413 Tola and Dragonetti.)) mark. be accomplished. 328 420 Cook. connected.) Ṃn. obtain.e.). R. increased by (e. reach the highest aim. an abyss ṚV. (853.) mfn. one who makes use of the right opportunity) Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on MonierWilliams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. p.uni-koeln. concerning KātyṠr. 24) VarBṛṣ. &c. become perfect or blessed. experienced in.

“ every one”.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 01/13/2007. Kochumuttom. however.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 01/21/2007. for %{sv-apna} see p. 124 432 Kochumottom. (at the end of a verse it lays stress on a preceding %{atha vā}.. http://webapps. %{punar api}. in all parts.uni-koeln. “ everything”... with %{dṛś}.” “ every one”) and %{nikhila}. &c. absence of control or rule or fixed order or obligation. manifold. completely. %{sarva-nāman}) whole. sg. 168 433 1 svapna m.uni-koeln. 428 1 sarva mf (%{A})n. pp. dream” ṚV.. of all sorts.. footnote p.. further. &c.) (1185. 1) sleep. “ all together”. everywhere ṚV. having no rule. n. &c. (Cf. to turn round. sleeping ṚV. %{api vā}. uncertainty. again and again.. restore. (also %{punar aparam}. water ṇaigh. (with 1. i. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. &c.. &c. home. %{preceding-p-}. &c. {salvus}. all. 427 aniyama m. http://webapps. of Ṡiva ṂBh. purulent matter.uni-koeln. sometimes strengthened by %{viśva} (which if alone in ṚV.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 01/13/2007. various. f. doubt. besides ib. drowsiness Caurap. (declined like a subst. now-now. sleepiness. to fall back upon). col. &c. 429 1 pūya m. 261-2. again. “ to see a vision. %{A}. also. in an opposite direction ṚV. (with %{bhū}. $ &358256(1184. to exist again. how much more or less? however. ifc. with %{dā}. n. on the other hand. indolence Ṃn. &c. %{ādau-punar-paścāt}. to give back. become a wife again.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 12/02/2006. http://webapps. %{gavāṃ sarvam}. cf. wholly. pus. 1281. to go back or away. (perhaps connected with %{sāra} q. m. entire. at one time . %{yā}. once more (also with %{bhūyas}) ib. 162. at first-then-later). with %{bhū}. of Kṛishṇa Bhag. ix. back. %{sarvaḥ ko}” %{pi}. at any time. (with another adjective or in comp. with %{as} and dat. 12. or %{vā} alone. dreaming.”every one so ever”.. &c.1) Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. a dream (acc. pp. unsettledness. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results.” “ no. still. 430 See also Tola and Dragonetti. %{gam}. discharge from an ulcer or wound ṠBr. repeatedly ib.” “ none” or “ not every one. 33.” every. &c.).3) for $ Lat. xii. n. http://webapps. ṇ. acc. even again.uni-koeln.) ṇ. different ṂBh.. n. 431 Tola and Dragonetti. of a people ṃārkP. %{sarve}” %{pi}. (mfn. &c. “ all”. (once in R. p. nevertheless ṂBh.. n. ever. pl. sg. &c.at another time).” “ not everything”) ṚV. Anacker. irregular. 13. Kāv. 135-6. (with %{sarveṇa}) completely ḍivyÂv. sloth. of a ṃuni Cat.. and serving as a model for a series of pronominals cf. (mostly %{púnaḥ p-} which with %{na} = nevermore). ChŪp. “ all that comes from cows”. appears in the meaning “ all. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ 193 . Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. be renewed. inflected as a pronoun except nom. every (m. suppuration.426 punar ind. pl. &c. p. sleeping too much. %{kadā p-}. moreover. (%{am}) ind. indecorous or improper conduct. Gk. below) altogether.. %{sarva} with a negation = “ not any. %{kim p-}. re= marry). %{sarvam}.sg.v.

2-3 .uni-koeln. 5 (v. p. %{anaraka}). 44 Vārtt. Pāṇ. Pur. N.). 2 . 2 upaghAta &c. 1. or n. aside . a kind of oblation or sacrifice Gr2ihya1s. hell. transversely RV. a partic. 435 Tola and Dragonetti. 3 . a cuirass Kir. xxiii . weakness . secretly S3Br. (%{ikā}) f. m.v. 49. p. Pāṇ.uni-koeln. 7 . 37 tirazcathA (%{-sca4-}) ind.) bundles of straw or reeds used for roofing and wainscoting AV. affliction (also pl. of a place of pilgrimage ṂBh. 136 and Wood. 36 tirazcatA (%{-zca4-}) ind. 441 35 tirazca n. in names of villages (%{-dIya} mfn. 439 Tola and Dragonetti.. a Ra1kshasa L. place of torment Ṃn. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English 194 . 110. http://webapps.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 01/13/2007. 17 Ka1s3. uneasiness. 7.uni-koeln.. ṇ. http://webapps.) . i .. concealment W. %{svaro7pa-}) Sus3r. %{-zcya4}).) Vedântas. 2 palAda or m. p. hurting . hurt . (fr. injury . annulment (of a rule &c. http://webapps.) R. see %{upa-han}. . footnote p. 437 1 palada m. http://webapps.) m. disease . striking . Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results.. sickness . personified as a son of ānṛita and ṇirṛiti or ṇirkṛiti ṃārkP. 197 . placing aside . p. Sch. of a son of Vipra-citti VP.xxxii . 1. `" fñflesh-eater "' . pain Ṇyāyas.de/cgibin/tamil/recherche 04/10/2008. 3 upaghAtaka mfn. ii . generally 21 Ṃn. removing. opposing. 124-5. S3ak. haunting Prāg-jyotisha and slain by Kṛishṇa) ṂBh. resistance. 55 Sa1rn3gP. .de/cgibin/tamil/recherche 04/10/2008. %{puMstvo7pa-} . wrong MBh.uni-koeln. censure Hit. drawing out .. 3 pAlada mfn. 2 . a stroke . 6 Suparn2. taking out . Pa1n iv 2 . . Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on MonierWilliams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. refuting L. offence . . 18 tiraskAra m. 4 palAdana m. 436 67 naraka (Ṇir. n. iii . damage . (fr. Pa1rGr2. Katha1s.. iv . = %{deva-rātriprabheda} (?) L. 7-3. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. 142 . 4-2 .. 5 upaghAtam ind.. col.v. (distinguished from %{pātāla} q. Pur. offence . &c. a Ra1kshasa L. injuring . ) Pa1n2. opposition. 440 Kochumottom. disdain Pa1n2. 3 . xiii . http://webapps. 3610. m. 438 2 bādhana mfn.de/cgibin/tamil/recherche 01/13/2007. xvii . Ṡak. %{pala-da}) . 4 Pat. oppressing. 434 1 upaghAta m. 7. 110. or n. m. injury . of a demon (son of Vishṇu and Bhūmi or the Earth. abuse . &c. damage MBh.. n.l. 25/26 . suspending. &c. see p. morbid affection (cf. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on MonierWilliams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. 169. material for building . molestation. ladling out S3Br. of a village ib. damaging offending MBh. &c. ix . 88-90 Yājñ. . (prob. trouble. violation . ṂBh. Ṛājat. the cross-board of a bedstead AV. %{upa-han} q.de/cgibin/tamil/recherche 01/13/2007. . oppression. (v. 4 upaghAtam ind. 97. there are many different hells. pp. `" fñflesh-eater "' . harassing (see %{śatrub-}). %{naráka} ṭĀr.uni-koeln. Mn. R. (%{A}) f. iv . Car. (%{I}) f. iv. 14 . ifc. `" straw-giver (?) "' .Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results.. Gobh.. and therefore called Bhauma.l. 18 . xv .

. sexual intercourse. existing. being. adequacy ib. ṇ. 14 . understanding. %{A-sthA} . occurrence.. n.uni-koeln. made of. (with Buddhists) ṇ. causing to apprehend . 32 anubhAvaka mf(%{ikA}) n. of the receptacle with the thing received) W. of a Pauranic wk. (only x . consequence. birth. being Pañcar. of the third ārhat of the present āvasarpiṇī. being contained in (ifc.= “ contained in”) ṂBh. going or leading to or being in light or heaven . compatibility. 444 Tajja mfn.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 04/10/2008. http://webapps.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 04/10/2008.. illustrated by the equivalence between one shilling and pence) MW.= “ caused or occasioned by”) ib. from) Sanskr2it (as Pra1kr2it or other words) Va1gbh. 33 anubhAvakatA f. perception . &c. cause.uni-koeln. (in rhet. production. existence ṠvetŪp. ṃārkP. . with %{gA} .e. `" die "') RV.) a possible case Kuval...v. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. 18) AV... occasion (ifc.”ṇ.unikoeln. ascertainment . (in phil. http://webapps. celestial (with %{loka4} m. fruition . firm opinion . sprung from (that i. grown in”) Ṃn. 445 30 anubhava m. ṇ.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 04/10/2008. VF. a partic. authority . result . Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. produced .de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 04/10/2008. or pl. experience . agreement. belief. sign or indication of a feeling (%{bhAva}) by look or gesture Kpr. %{-lA7n} mfn.. this temporary heaven is the only hñheaven of orthodox Bra1hmanism . appearance (ifc. http://webapps. heavenly . “ as possible”) ṂBh.uni-koeln. ii .) Indra's heaven or paradise (to which the souls of virtuous mortals see transferred until the time comes for their re-entering earthly bodies . Eka7ha S3a1n3khS3r. acc.. &c.. http://webapps.. ṣāh. it is supposed to be situated on mount Meru q. Ṣuśr. 31 anubhAva m. union. cohabitation) Gobh. f. loss. good resolution . dignity . . of a prince. 442 sambhava (or %{sám-bhava}) m. of ch.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 12/02/2006. (esp. the abode of light and of the gods . 443 svarga (or %{suvarga4}) mfn. of the first book of the ṂBh. apprehension . Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ SanskritEnglish Dictionary: search results. absorbed and breathing in that ChUp. &c.. source. reason. %{A}) being or coming together. of a world ṣaddhP. L. “ the section about the origin (of the gods). the being produced from (abl. knowledge derived from personal observation or experiment . heaven . origin. [1281. heavens "') AV. = “ arisen or produced from. = “ occurring” or “ appearing in”) ib. &c. mf (%{A})n. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. meeting... acquaintance. or %{A-pad} .3] .v. ... impression on the mind not derived from memory .) equivalence (regarded as one of the Pramāṇas q. destruction ib. ṂBh. making to understand.. 2 . = `" the world of light . %{-kāṇḍa} m.Dictionary: search results. (ifc. of a son of the Rudra Bhi1ma VP. %{-parirnan} n. ifc. . m. http://webapps.. heavenly bliss . N. `" to go to heaven "' . &c. iii . the act of indicating feelings by sign or gesture Sa1h. intimacy ib. 1. 34 anubhAvana n. conformity (esp.uni-koeln.. intercourse (esp. &c. being brought about. 95 . understanding . ṂBh. finding room in. consequence . 195 .

or of the form only e. the past) ṚV. often w. a.. 163-4. (in connection with a noun of action). animal. (%{A} f.. and %{gamana}. %{ut-kṣepaṇa}. &c. n. (it is of four kinds. opposed to %{kartṛ} the subject) Pāṇ. p. %{grāmaṃ gacchati}. Buddh.. 449 Tola and Dragonetti. %{evam-}. &c. existing. %{kaṭaṃ karoti}... 144). office. fit. of a woman ḥPariś. d. 98 Ṣuśr. (in passive construction). (%{kṛ} ūṇ. %{karma-pāka} and %{-vipāka}). (cf. ḥit.g... when an undesired object is abandoned e. purified L. &c. obtained L. 448 Kochumuttom. e. true. special duty. vv. past (n. child L.) being or being like anything. pp. human. &c.) ṚV.. “ she bears a son”.. organ of sense ṠBr. and even vegetable). 447 Tola and Dragonetti. &c. %{prāpya}. fate (as the certain consequence of acts in a previous life) Pañcat. of an heretical sect (with ainas. when change is implied either of the substance and form e. (ifc. 450 1 karman %{a} n. ṚPrāt.g. viś. viś. oblation &c.. &c. when anything new is produced e. and Cook. ṂBh. ṭarkas. a class of the Vyantaras) L.g. xii. any religious act or rite (as sacrifice.. business ṚV. 393-4. xiv (or of action see %{karmêndriya}). &c. 451 bhūta mf (%{A})n. of these motions there are five. iv. medical attendance Car.. gone. %{praśānti}) ḥit. 125. 49 ff. proper L. %{tathā-bh-}). &c. (pl. %{kāṣṭhaṃ bhasma karoti}. physicking.. &c.. %{nirvartya}. ṠBr. mixed or joined with Prāt. (%{A} m.) ṇ. (L. or in the nom. become.) Gṛṣ. %{anīpsita}. b. action. %{paśu-k-}) or a specification of the action (e.. pp. performance. occupation. %{śaurya-k-}. %{A-kuñcana}. (in Gr. L.. “ he sees the moon”. or in the gen. %{ava-kṣepaṇa}. pp. 125.) the 14th day of the dark half of the lunar month ṣkandaP. work. 263. the tenth lunar mansion VarBṛṣ. former act as leading to inevitable results. %{vikārya}. %{candraṃ paśyati}. “ he reduces fuel to ashes”. matter of fact.g. Anacker. Ṃn. c. ĀV. been. Vṣ. “ he goes to the village”. real (n. imp. action consisting in motion (as the third among the seven categories of the ṇyāya philosophy. obligation (frequently ifc.446 See Tola and Dragonetti. of a son of Vasu-deva and Pauravī BhP. a great devotee or ascetic L. Ṃn.) the object (it stands either in the acc. out of adv. of a son-in-law of ḍaksha and father of numerous ṛudras ib. ĀV. goblin (also m. for %{bhṛta}.. p. %{putraṃ prasūte}. (cf. 196 .3).. result. 1-4.g. any living being (divine. a spirit (good or evil). ṇ. labor.. effect Ṃn. above) that which is or exists. as originating in the hope of future recompense and as opposed to speculative religion or knowledge of spirit) ṚV. act. of Ṡiva L. reality) Yāj.. activity (as opposed to rest.. 169.. %{vaṇik-k-}) or the person or thing for or towards whom the action is performed (e. %{pāpaṃ tyajati}. ṇ.g.. %{suvarṇaṃ kuṇḍalaṃ karoti}. actually happened. &c. footnote p.. qq.).. (also to form adj. “ he makes a mat” (258. Kochumuttom. %{prasāraṇa}. Ūp. Ṛagh. of a priest of the gods L.g.g. Bhartṛ. the first member of the compound being either the person who performs the action (e. %{ittham-}. %{prīti-k-})) ṠBr. R. product.. also m. fact. an actual occurrence. calculation ṣūryas.. &c. present Kaṇ. %{rāja-k-}.. the ghost of a deceased person. esp. a son. consisting of.r. (in active construction). the world (in these senses also m. of a Yaksha Cat. p. “ he leaves the wicked”). m. when any desired object is attained e. “ he fashions gold into an ear-ring”. a demon.g.).) Bhāshāp. 137-8.

libation. {eiscôm}. mfn. long for. providence MW. ep.uni-koeln. ūttarar. Ṡak. with Buddhists there are only 4 element) Ūp. a gross element = %{mahā-bh-} q. ṛuss. %{darśin} mfn.. refreshment. &c. Kathās. ĀV. %{eṣiṣyate}. 4. death &c. issue. {ásciani} cf. to be prescribed or ordered Ṃn.: cl. to be wanted as a desideratum see 2. Ṛagh. ṣāṃkhyak. tending or verging towards the 197 . %{íṣyati} and 9. 61. an element. fading ṠārṅgP. withering.. %{ṭ} f. evolution ṣāṃkhyak. ĀV. Kochumuttom. and %{iṣṇāná} ṚV. {iskate}.uni-koeln. ṠBr. affluence ṚV. the refreshing waters of the sky. %{icchāt} ṚV.. to be asked or requested. welfare. P. %{aiṣīt}. Germ. to be wanted ṂBh.. http://webapps. Vedântas. “ to seek. %{eṣiṣiṣati}. vii. and %{-me} ind.v. also Gk. seeking for (see %{gav-iṣ}.. $. to impel.. pour out. Yāj. transformation into (instr. foresighted ṂBh. 5 iṣ 5 %{ṭ} f.) W. increase. %{paśv-iṣ}. (cf. and %{īṣiré} ĀV. xi. ṠBr. 2 iṣ 2 ifc. inf. think Pāṇ. %{iṣádhyai} ṚV. prosperity Vṣ. to endeavour to make favourable. alteration. prudent. ṠBr. (in rhet. sap. Ṡak. Mod. animate. 6. ṇ. Angl. Ṣuśr. to expect or ask anything from any one ṂBh. concede KātyṠr. ṃālatīm. p. %{iṭ-cara}).Ūp. enjoyment. http://webapps. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results.. (with %{iṣ} cf.: Pass.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 06/13/2007. (in surg. ḥit. let fly.. &c. %{-dṛṣṭi} f. R. wish Hariv. to be wished or liked.. &c. to endeavour to obtain.. and Ved. Ṃn. well-being. end (ibc. Ṡak. Yogas. %{iṣṇát} ṚV. 241). alteration of food. also Ā. search BhP. to desire. to choose Ṃn. impf.. 17. regard. P. at last. cast. strength. i. P. Pur. ĀitBr. ifc. foresight. pl. comfort. ĀitBr. maturity Kir. ōld Germ. to acknowledge. Vṣ. 7. {heische}. ĀV. promote ṚV. obstruction (of felicity caused) by human vicissitude (as birth. one of the 5 elements (esp. of the number “ five” (cf. 454 pariṇāma m. 219. %{ic-cháti} (ṣubj. growth. “ I ask”. 1) to cause to move quickly.. Prab. Ṣuśr. &c.) a figure of speech by which the properties of any object are transferred to that with which it is compared Kuval.. %{eṣayati}. ripeness. {je0skóti}. proclaim ĀV. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results.. &c.. to strive to obtain anything (acc. (cf. %{-mukha} mfn. in the end) Kāv. seek for ṚV. 1.. %{aiṣīt}. freshness.. to assent. wish. announce. ĀV. swing ṚV. but also a subtle element = %{tan-mātra} q. $. ii. 3 iṣ 3 cl. R. development. %{iṣṭi}: Caus. to be worth. moving quickly.. Ṃn. stream out. looking forward to the issue or consequences (of any event). %{iṣ} and %{pari-} 1. 453 Tola & Dragonetti. R. be favourable. ḥit. 269. ḷith. lapse (of time) ṂBh. result. %{icchate} (ĀV. p. Vṣ.. ĀV. suited to a future state or condition ib. %{mahābh-} and %{pācabhautika}). i. 247.). growing old ib. maintain.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 12/02/2006.) from any one (abl. 13. %{iṣyate}. 3. Comm. or loc. of a holy man ṛṭḷ. %{eṣate}. %{-nirodha} m. 181. Ā.). ṇ. 452 1 iṣ 1 cl. change.. good condition. Tṣ. ṭarkas. %{aicchat}. to be accepted or regarded as ṂBh. ṛṭḷ. Ṃn.. ṠBr. 15: ḍesid. finally.). 5. %{iṣ}) Ā. to send out or off. %{iyeṣa} and %{īṣe}. Sax..) to probe Ṣuśr. %{eṣati} (see %{anu-} 1.1) 4 iṣ 4 mfn. 43. a draught. %{-pathya} mfn. Ṃn..v. consequence. incite. &c.. 6. to seek. %{eṣitum} or %{eṣṭum})..). speedy. pf. ḥit. P. digestion Ṣuśr. &c.. intend ṚV. anything drunk. decline (of age). %{īṣus} ṚV.”) &52923(169. to be approved or acknowledged. to wish or be about to do anything. request. discharge.. strive. throw. to deliver (a speech).. ĀitBr. see %{aram-iṣ}. %{iṣṇÁti} (p.

de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 12/02/2006. 457 See Tola and Dragonetti. demonstration (= %{upapatti}) Gol. pp.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 12/02/2006. p. ṇ. Cook. 395.g. welfare. fancy. (ifc. imagination. the mistake that there is a difference) ib. R. of a Comm. &c. goblin (also m. and even vegetable). correlative of %{tátra}. %{-vāda} m. %{a-kasmāt}. animal. fr.. p. &c.. real (n. but also a subtle element = %{tan-mātra} q... fit. fr. about to terminate Ṡak. of Ṡiva L. %{-śūla} n.. %{ká} ĀV. 458 Tola and Dragonetti. %{evam-}..uni-koeln.. %{bheda-v-}. well-being. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. an element. 241). actually happened.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 01/13/2007.. %{mahābh-} and %{pācabhautika}). thinking of. trust..” the ṣāṃkhya doctrine ṣarvad. of a priest of the gods L.) ṇ. &c. a kind of metre Col. out of adv. ṣāṃkhyak. 125-6 459 Kochumottom. of ḍurgā BhP. (L. longing for.end.. expectation. &c.. present Kaṇ.. a spirit (good or evil). of the number “ five” (cf. n. Tṣ. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results.) being or being like anything. of the wife of ārka ib. 461 yatra ind.. false notion. violent and painful indigestion Cat.. (also to form adj.) the 14th day of the dark half of the lunar month ṣkandaP.) Ṡaṃk.. (abl. pp. idea. of the relative pron.) Gṛṣ. Ūp. 2.). 3. on the ṣiddhânta-śiromaṇi. of a son of Vasu-deva and Pauravī BhP. purified L. m. &c.. fact. %{vat} mfn. liking. 456 bhūta mf (%{A})n. and often used for the loc. proper L. desire. wherever. a class of the Vyantaras) L. (in math.v. Anacker.. knowledge derived from memory Ṡaṃk.. past (n. Pañcat. mixed or joined with Prāt. ṇ. often w. the past) ṚV. inclination Kathās. gone. ṇ. an actual occurrence. having a natural development (%{-ttva} n. http://webapps. (pl. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results.v. &c. prosperity Vṣ. %{ya}.unikoeln. of a woman ḥPariś..de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 12/02/2006. above) that which is or exists. Ṃn.. 455 4 kasmāt ind. existing. consisting of. human.r. mistake (ifc. (cf. &c. Vedântas. ĀitBr. Ṃn. 170 460 7 vāsanā f. http://webapps. respectful regard Bhām. a son. ṣarvad. a gross element = %{mahā-bh-} q. 138-9. Ūp. the ghost of a deceased person. matter of fact. confidence W. become. imp. with Buddhists there are only 4 element) Ūp. 264. the world (in these senses also m. &c. ṛṭḷ. p. http://webapps. (%{A} f..uni-koeln. Kāv. wherein. the impression of anything remaining unconsciously in the mind. a demon.. obtained L. notion. &c. (in Veda also %{yátrā}. true.. Ṛājat. reality) Yāj. also m.. (a day) delightful at its close ib.. of an heretical sect (with ainas.g. (cf.uni-koeln. the present consciousness of past perceptions.. %{tathā-bh-}). Kochumuttom. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results.) in or to which place. one of the 5 elements (esp. any living being (divine.) proof. %{-ramaṇīya} mfn.. &c. e... %{ittham-}. R.. child L.) where from? whence? why? wherefore? ṂBh.. &c. for %{bhṛta}. http://webapps. e.. of a Yaksha Cat. a great devotee or ascetic L. footnote p. of a son-in-law of ḍaksha and father of numerous ṛudras ib. 198 . ṇ. Ṡak.) }).) ṚV.. Kathās. the “ doctrine of evolution.. where. 164. been. (cf.

uni-koeln. &c. (%{rūpeṇa} ifc. 126 468 Kochumottom. if. p.l. %{kasmAt@kAraNAt} . (%{yatra yatra}. %{yasmin@kAraNe} .) Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results.whither ṚV. often ifc. %{yatra tatra dine}. 148 Bhag.” “ in any place whatever. %{yatra vā}. Anacker. %{samavA7yi-k-} .e. in which case. “ in whatever”. &c.). Mn. also often loc. . instrumentality . 171 469 rūpa n. . in another place (with abl. `" cause of creation "' . “ or elsewhere”). . 464 Anacker. without ṃānGṛ. pp. . condition Katha1s. . ifc. “ in whatever”. a proof . %{yatra kvÂpi}. from what cause? %{mama-kAraNAt} . a sort of song L. &c. except. because . p. that (with Pot. . on another occasion.” “ hither and thither”. Goth. from which motive .” “ whithersoever”.) at another time than. without a reason Ya1jn5. mark . Kochumuttom.1). . (cf. the cause of anything (gen. &c. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. 3-3. as ṚV. elementary matter Ya1jn5. means . p. a deity W. (%{A}) f. Cook. an action MBh. agony Das3. “ anywhere whatever” or = %{yasmiṃs tasmin}. MBh. a father W. &c. . shape.”) Pāṇ. 22 &c. of 2. = “ having the form or appearance or color of. when. (%{yatra tatra}. 395-6. %{a-kAraNena} . xviii .” “ 199 . on which occasion. xii . xvi . 12070 . cxii . to assume a form. 164-5. elsewhere. instrument . that on which an opinion or judgment is founded (a sign .] Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. f. for my sake R. 395. reason . from some cause or reason . “ to any place. iii.uni-koeln. &c.” “ whithersoever”. 466 See Tola and Dragonetti.) Ka1tyS3r. “ whenever”). “ wherever. http://webapps. cause . 138-9. %{A}. p. motive origin . form. 14. 467 Tola and Dragonetti. the origin or plot of a play or poem Sa1h. wherefore. `" the cause of being "' . otherwise. Jain. %{rūpam-kṛ} or %{bhū}. footnote p. “ anywhere whatever”. wonder &c. 234 . %{yatra tatra} or %{yatra tatrÂpi}. %{asamavA7yik-} . (= %{anyasmin} loc. “ wherever. viii . 355 . . . Rpra1t. {aljathrô}). pp.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 01/13/2007. %{nimitta-k-}) . 463 3 kAraNa 1 n. 264. an element . with or without %{cit} or %{api}. http://webapps. (with Pres. “ on every occasion. %{yatra kva ca}. principle . 5. 164. &c. iii . %{yatra kutra}. (ifc. %{varpas}. ix. [%{kAraNAt} .) ḥit. %{anyá}). “ on any day whatever”.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 04/12/2008. in the form of (886. %{yátra kvá ca} or %{yatra kva cana}. 32. 148. pp. that which is invariably antecedent to some product cf. 13 Mn. i. a cause (in phil. 178 . 13 .”%{yatra kva ca}. in order that ṚV. document) Mn.de/cgibin/tamil/recherche 01/21/2007. &c. “ everywhere” or = %{yasmin kasmin}. %{yena@kAraNena} . iii . in another manner. pain . (perhaps connected with %{varpa}. 462 40 anyatra ind. i. 29. http://webapps. . MBh.uni-koeln. rarely %{I}) any outward appearance or phenomenon or color (often pl. . ii . a kind of musical instrument L. a legal instrument . the body L. an organ of sense Ragh. . after “ to doubt. a number of scribes or Ka1yasthas W. to another place. &c. agency . 176 (v. 465 Cook.). an astronomical period W.” “ formed or composed of. figure ṚV.

nature. (w. ṠBr. --{ayaṃ janaḥ & eṣa janaḥ} this person (= I or he. about (also abl. preceding. &c. comp. the cause of a disease Ṣuśr. beauty. to {tvả}1) thou. disciple L. prati adv. over against. tribe. again. 154. or connected with a verb e. at in. symptom Vṣ. %{pacati-rūpam}. (as a prefix to roots and their derivative nouns and other nouns. likeness. coll. before nouns it expresses also likeness or comparison Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. 471 tvam (nom. ChŪp..uni-koeln. a sanctuary ChŪp. as a prep. also at the time of. http://webapps. back. in favour of (also gen. a barn Yājñ. Often --. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Capeller’s Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. she). according to. *w. of a man. a shed for sacrifices. character. e. against. splendour ṚV. abl. home.{ātmānaṃ prati} to one's self. near. with regard to. 8-1. f. for 2. peculiarity.” “ like to”. {janā} birth. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Capeller’s Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. opposite. or p. image. m. on account or in consequence of. towards. people.. in my opinion. on. instead of or in return for. &c. by. rarely following acc. against.uni-koeln. Ṃn. to be trained or educated or instructed ṣāh. mark. at. the site of a house.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 01/21/2007.. dreamy or phantom shapes (pl.). down upon. seat. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results.w. ii. upon. 200 . person.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 12/08/2006. handsome form. on. at the time of. nation. Pāṇ. -. ṠBr. Ṃn. or gen.consisting of. a pupil. in adv.). reflection Ṃn. Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. to be taken away or removed Hariv. grace.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 12/08/2006.) towards. pl. production. resting-place. 470 āyatana n. http://webapps. about.g.uni-koeln. mostly with the idea of constant repetition). http://webapps.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 06/05/2007. in return (--.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 12/08/2006. n. in {tas}). Yājñ. ĀśvṠr. and Gṛ. sometimes %{pratī}.. (with Buddhists) the five senses and ṃanas (considered as the inner seats or Āyatanas) and the qualities perceived by the above (the outer Āyatanas). &c. ṣarvad. sign. {māṃ prati} according to me. &c.).uni-koeln. aside (d. to be chastised L. Kathās. abode Tṣ.. http://webapps. see p. &c.) Vṣ. to emphasize its meaning or almost redundantly cf. in return.. Kum. %{ghora-r-}. 2 jana 2 m.p. http://webapps. near to. 472 vineya mfn. he cooks very well cf. sometimes used after an adj. an altar. with regard or according to. ĀitBr. race. house. & sgl. Pañcat. http://webapps. again. collect. folks. on a par with or as a match for (also adv. before.. 664) towards.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 12/08/2006. loveliness.g.. feature. a plot of ground. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. back. before. 473 jana 1 m. or indiv..in verbs & substantives.uni-koeln.uni-koeln. R. 57). http://webapps. mg.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 12/08/2006. support. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. against. creature.uni-koeln. place. in opposition to. on. 474 prati 1 ind. {preṣyajana} a servant or the servants. the place of the sacred fire (= %{agny-āyatana}) KātyṠr.. &c. man.

Cook. become. addressed. impers. have intercourse with ({saha}. pass away (time). 484 vṛt. dealing with (instr. promoter. go on. w. a god.. proceed (adv. take place. 139-40. http://webapps. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Capeller's 1891 Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. mentioned. behave towards (loc. declared as. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Capeller's 1891 Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. 476 upapāduka mfn. run off. roll. %{pra-pautra} Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results.uni-koeln.cf. vartate. forward. in nouns of relationship = great. in front. 6. footnote p.). ({vṛttim}) deal with.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 12/08/2006.. (%{atī}) f. 479 Tola and Dragonetti. find one's self. moving forwards or onwards. endowed with life..). live.). occur.unikoeln. prompter. happening. http://webapps. setting in motion or activity.de/cgibin/tamil/recherche 12/08/2006.) by (instr. 477 1 sattvavat mfn. spoken. living. or instr.). 264-5. meant by (instr. 478 See Tola and Dragonetti. n. conduce or tend to (dat. &c. m.). forth (mostly in connection with a verb.). producing. be concerned or occupied with (loc. courageous ṂBh. pp. {vṛttả} (q. http://webapps.. away cf. before. 164-5. http://weba pps.475 1 ukta a. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. abide. summoned.) turn.uni-koeln. on. pp. %{prapitāmaha}. esp. Ṣuśr.). http://webapps. m. live or subsist on or by (instr. Kochumuttom. as a prefix to subst. or loc.)) revolve. stated. Anacker. footnote p.). promoting. pp. spoken to. said. = forth. %{pra-vṛtti}. act. existent. abounding in the quality ṣattva Ṣuśr. causing.uni-koeln.v. pregnant ḍivyÂv. ii.. loc. L. of pers. be chief in importance.uni-koeln. Pāṇ.). exist. 2 pravartana n. 172 483 pra 1 ind. causing. %{pra-sthāna}.). arising. ĀitBr. self-produced. coming forth from (abl. 395-6. 126 482 Kochumottom. 40). p. pp. fetching.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 12/08/2006. furthering. happen. term. effecting. resolute.). 485 1 pravartaka a. instr. pp. a superhuman being. 172 481 Tola and Dragonetti. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. {hṛdi} or {manasi} be turned or thought over in the mind. R. appearing. be valid or supplying from a previous rule (g. acting. with a woman). called by (---).g. ṇ. told something (acc.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 12/08/2006. word. w. {kiṃ vartate} how is it with (gen. endowed with or possessed of the true essence MW. -ti. p. energetic. a living being W. vavartti 1 ({vartti}). 126 480 Kochumottom. ((-. sometimes repeated before the verb cf. {ātmani na vartate} he is beside himself (with joy etc. of a Tantra deity Buddh. demon &c. feel (w. With {mūrghni} stand at the head.). taught (n.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 12/08/2006. rarely as a separate word e. with a verb of motion which is often to be supplied. Cologne 201 . introducing. proceeding (---). adv. instigator.). be (also as simple copula). 8-1. applying.). or dat.

or to nouns not immediately connected with verbs.uni-koeln. serving the purpose Ṣuśr. Sch.. of Śiva MBh. mature. handsome ṃārkP.. full-grown (see %{a-pr-}). distinction. p. pl. brought forth. superiority. 290.. ṂBh. N.3). &c. difference. ṇ. āyatana body/touch = own-seed that has reached a particular stage of transformation. peculiarity. a horse of the color of rock crystal Nal. http://webapps.Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Capeller’s Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. to be produced or brought forth ṇyāyam.de/cgibin/tamil/recherche 12/08/2006.) indicated. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. &c. acquired. 1). 490 Cook. found. illusion Lalit. specific property. arrived.) obtained or following from a rule.. p. 41 v. (in gram. 139-40. 535.). lovely. ṣāh. away &c. http://webapps. 486 pratibhāsa m. (rarely used as an independent word (e. between. i.. arrived at. vii. footnote p.. gained Ṃn. characteristic difference. from which the cognition with the representation of form-color arises.. below). individual. particulars.” away from” (cf. 4 utpādya 2 ind.. (with ñainas) material object (including atoms) Śaṃk. species. appearance. ĀV. MWB. forth. 173 494 pudgala mf({ā})n. the Ego or individual (in a disparaging sense) SaddhP. beautiful... or comp..g. accomplished. m. present (%{prÂpteṣu kāleṣu}.) ĀV. (= {deha} ṇīlak. the soul. got.) or that of a privative 202 . āyatana tangible object/object of touch = that object whose representation the cognition is/bears 492 Tola and Dragonetti.uni-koeln. m.uni-koeln.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 12/08/2006. one who has attained to or reached &c.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 12/08/2006 495 nis ind.uni-koeln. fixed. 3. http://webapps. at certain periods) Ṃn. invented (by a poet) BhP. having begotten &c.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 12/08/2006. &c. R. 489 utpādya 1 mfn. 396. āyatana color/form-color of cognition = that object whose representation the cognition is/bears.. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ SanskritEnglish Dictionary: search results. 487 a Practical Sanskrit Dictionary. placed L. differentia. p. &c. incurred. met with. 18. man Var. Vedantas. in which case it has the sense. p. ṣāh. 1-1.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 01/21/2007. {niḥ-} {kśi} &c. 491 Tola and Dragonetti (with Kochumuttom)... &c. appearing or occurring to the mind Kpr. http://webapps. reached. produced. xvi. personal entity Lalit. attained to. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on MonierWilliams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. “ while this follows from a preceding rule”) Pāṇ. 2. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. {nirvana}. vi. ṂBh. {niś-kauśāmbi} &c. 126-7 493 Kochumottom. but mostly as a prefix to verbs and their derivatives (cf. ṣarvad.. of a people ṃārkP. out. look. (in med. 3. valid (%{iti prÂpte}. from which the cognition with the representation of a tangible object arises. right L. 34 Sch.. complete. having produced. similitude. (acc. special objects. āyatana eye = own-seed that has reached a particular stage of transformation. come to (acc.uni-koeln. http://webapps. pp.). &c. excellence 488 prāpta mfn. the body ḥit.l. out of. proper. 115. (707.

vii.g. 72 śch. (see also below s. method Lalit. enter). untruly. http://webapps. 64. 2-1. obtrusiveness Kathās. 6 (cf. and {niś} and {nī}. (prob. and %{-pañcama}. income. engaging closely in a pursuit or purpose W. peculiarity (often ifc. 11. x. to breathe. for %{ātmán}. with or without {antar}. falsely.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 12/08/2006 498 ātma (in comp. %{adhy-ātmám}). (but not in a Bahuvrīhi) with ordinals Pāṇ. entrance on the stage Hariv.). is used as reflexive pronoun for all three persons and all three genders e. {nih-śūnya}. “ she strikes herself”. %{ātmānaṃ sā hanti}. ātman %{A} m.1) ātmanā instr. the syringe of an injection pipe śuśr. use. intentness on an object.g. Mod. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ SanskritEnglish Dictionary: search results.. utilization of (comp. 28. &c.v. &c. essence. self. e. 11 ṠBr. {oedhm}.g. %{at}.. ĀV. cf.. http://webapps. otherwise. $ (?). the body Ṛagh. śāh. inaccurately. Angl. 14 ṛāmatŪp. tax. of any deposit) in a person's house or hand Pañcat. or that of a strengthening particle “thoroughly. toll (cf.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 01/01/2007 497 1 anyathā ind.3) Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results.. 44 Vṣ. in a different manner (with {atas}. (= %{dhṛti}) firmness L. the individual soul. %{ātman} in the sg. {ā}) entering. abstract individual (e. (ifc.. the entering into i. above and below). effort L.. xxxii.e.” entirely. {nir-artha}. gen. {ōdem}. the sun L.. %{putram ātmanaḥ spṛṣṭvā nipetatuḥ}.uni-koeln. %{ātmán}) (Ved. also rarely ifc. mind” see %{naṣṭÂtman}. or comp. ṠBr. Kāv. %{adhy-ātma}.) Cologne Digital 203 .. interfering with another's business. to make one's entrance.) PāN. a son L. {itas}.” destitute of. employment. {anyathā anyathā}. 97. entrance. (ōld Germ. %{ātmanā vi-yuj}.. loc. a place of entrance. “ he places in himself. ṃalav.. otherwise (cf..or negative adverb= 3.. the entrance of the sun into a sign of the zodiac Var. being contained in (loc. 8.” makes his own Tṣ. {-bhāgika}). Gk. ii.) &42279(135. xiv. e. 46. %{karmÂtman}. http://webapps. it is liable to be changed to {niḥ}. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results.. $. revenue. i. (variously derived fr.. “ to lose one's life” Ṃn. the person or whole body considered as one and opposed to the separate members of the body Vṣ. {niś}.) Kull. Sax. penetration or intrusion into (loc. door MBh. {āthem}. &c. principle of life and sensation ṚV. Kāv.) %{dhatte}.. %{paramÂtman}) ĀV.) “ the understanding. x. to move. the soul. in one way. %{tmán}) the breath ṚV. the highest personal principle of life. %{an}. {niś-kevala}.. in another way).. in the contrary case..de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 12/08/2006 496 praveśa m. from another motive.g.unikoeln.) MBh. cf. the Bahuvrīhi compounds %{ātma-caturtha}. {nir-muṇḍa}). coming or setting in (of night) L. g. intellect. {-bhāgika} m. fire L. Brahma (cf. %{ātmanā akarot}.uni-koeln... f.. to blow. Lat. in comp... %{ātmanā}). (ifc.” un-” (cf. the placing (e. &c. {ātum}. %{vā}. with {kṛi}. {niś}. without. manner. {aliuta}).” “very” (cf. Germ. “ he did it himself” Kād. {nir-mala} &c. {a}. or %{karoti}. character. 6-3. &c. (543. &c. īnscr.) ṚV.) a receiver or gatherer of taxes ṛiājat. or {tatas} = in a manner different from this.. nature. erroneously. v ṠBr. “ they two having touched their son fell down” R. (acc. %{mandÂ-}. of %{ātman}.” “free from.

1/8 of a ṃātrā VPrāt. (cf... manifold. one on whose face the brows are contracted ib. 397-8. Yogas. paramāṇu m. close contact or union Ṡiś.. footnote p. strong-limbed.) complex. %{-tā} f. %{-kāraṇa-vāda} m. seizing or holding each other by the hand (%{-tva}. ṂBh. close combination W.. &c. n.l. hard ṂBh. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. much. of compact form or shape. well-knit Ṣuśr. struck. of Vishṇu L. Anacker. n. firm-thighed ṂBh. ṂBh.uni-koeln... firm.. the two hands joined with the open palms brought together W. %{-tala} m. 499 See Tola and Dragonetti. BhP.. Pañcat. knitting the brows ṂBh. tone and odor) ṂBh. aneka a. intensive VarBṛṣ. combined. %{-tva} n. killed W. %{-bhrū} mfn. one who has round and firm thighs R.. struck together. become solid. http://webapps.. forming one mass or body ĀśvṠr. 501 Tola and Dragonetti.. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Capeller’s Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results.3). %{vāk-kala} mfn. %{-maya} mf (%{I})n. Sch. position in dancing. %{-hasta} mfn. Cook.. 176 503 1 aneka mfn. (v... id. %{-jānu} or %{-jānuka} mfn. many or much (also pl. 504 paramāṇu m.” singing a duet MārkP.. (prob. Ṃn. accompanied or attended by (instr. not one. compactness. pp.unikoeln. vii. compact. a partic. %{dvidaṇḍy-ādi}. the atomistic system of the Vaiśeshikas. many. ṣaṃigīt. %{-tôru} mfn.). belonging to a family closely allied or related ĀpṠr.. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Capeller’s Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. knock-kneed L.uni-koeln. 505 saṃhata mfn.uni-koeln. n. http://webapps.. Kochumuttom.. infinitely small part or atom. %{bhṛtya-p-}). joining the hollowed han ds (as a mark of supplication) Hariv. strong-limbed. (du.. 1.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 01/13/2007. http://webapps. %{-starnī} f.. pp. %{-tā} f.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 06/08/2007. infinite minuteness. pp.) Gobh. p. 141-2. %{-pucchi} ind. an infinitesimal particle or atom (30 are said to form a mote in a sunbeam) Yājñ.. &c. %{-bhrūkuṭi-mukha} mfn. %{-kulīna} mfn.) “ joining the tones of the voice.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 01/12/2007.. the passing of a sun-beam past an atom of matter Pur. composite. Sch. with contracted tail g. pp. Cologne Digital Sanskrit 204 . “ subtlebodied”.).) Ṃn. 127 502 Kochumottom.Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results.. separated.. &c. n. closely joined or united with (instr. complexity. (1122. contiguous. the state of an atom Ṛagh.de/cgibin/tamil/recherche 01/12/2007. %{-tÂGga} mfn. in close contiguity (as hills) ṂBh. hurt.uni-koeln. keeping together. http://webapps..). %{-mūrti} mfn.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 01/13/2007. wounded. %{-tÂśva} m. strong. consisting merely of atoms BhP.. Kāv. %{-tÂñjoli} mfn. a woman whose breasts are very close to each other MW. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results.. compound (said of a partic. compacted. 500 Ibid. coherent. http://webapps. 165. 266-7.. of a king (son of ṇikumbha) Hariv. %{-vṛttôru} mfn. 166-7. athletic ṂBh. ṣaṃk... not one. %{-ṇv-aGgaka} m. strong. intensive VarBṛṣ.

%{trINi} %{zatAni} or %{tri-zatAni} or %{zata-trayam} .g. 3 per cent . contemplation. 600 . 44 ṣaṇṇābhika mfn. a hñhundred + twenty . work. pp. 177 509 kena instr. 101 %{viMzatyadhikaM@zatam} or %{viMzaM@z-} . `" with a hñhundred chariots "' RV.). 48 . p. as is proper. endeavour. Eng. of a school Buddh. %{trikaM@zatam} = 2 . rarely occurs a masc. the 200th . a hñhundred + one . Germ. deceit. $ `" one "' hundred . 510 yoga m. effort. `" beyonda hñhundred . rarely %{zatam} is used as an indecl. 55 ṣaṇṇālika mfn. 1057 . 506 See Tola and Dragonetti. 120 . Bhartṛ. expedient. Gk. property. union. drive. 3. contact with (instr. the counted object is added either in the gen. %{ekA7dhikaM@zatam} . vi. fitness.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 01/12/2007. setting to work. attention.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 01/12/2007. Kochumuttom. rule or aphorism (g. 200 . ind. 7 . below). of the following kind . yoke. iv . sometimes also ifc. iv ṂBh. & abl. 167. 142-3. {hund-ert} . rarely in comp. order. means. http://webapps. succession. p. %{zatam@pitRRNAm} or %{pitR-zatam} a hñhundred ancestors "' . i . f.] Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results.uni-koeln. or the comp. pp. ṇ. fraud. 4. exceeding 100 "' . harnessing. e. 128 508 Kochumottom. 48 ṣaṇṇagarī f.uni-koeln. . {hund-ed}. %{zatAtpara} . http://webapps. see comp. Anacker.g. by what? ṠBr. form in pl. ifc. %{zatam@pitaraH} or . (twa) %{hunda} . magic. or in the same case as %{zata} .uni-koeln. of a phil. fitting out (an. {saha} or ---). Lith. fixing (an arrow). %{catur-varSa-zatam} or %{-tAni} . pp.Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Capeller’s Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. {szmtas} . any very large number (in comp. %{I}) a hundred (used with other numerals thus . . how? why? Pañcat. e. 12. trick. six-naved ib. with an instr. application.3] Lat. xiii. relation. %{rathAn} MBh. acquisition. e. --Instr. (rarely m. 300 . &c. i. army). %{ká}). use. Cook. footnote p. enterprise. and %{zata} n. %{zata4M@ra4thebhiH} . meaning of a word. Got. whence? ṂBh.g. 2167 R. 507 Tola and Dragonetti. 49 ṣaṇṇagarika m. 511 zata n. `" 400 years "') RV. etymology & etym. or %{eka-z-} . . 267. collection or concentration of the mind. pursuit. pl. %{SaT-zatam} . %{paJca-zatA} . according to. becomes an ordinal e. meditation. team. {centum} . Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English 205 . six-naved ṂBh.unikoeln. ch. art. &c. a union of six towns Pāṇ. as %{zata-pattra} &c. lasting six times 24 minutes ṣāh. 2. or ibc. http://webapps.g. conjunction (of stars). combination. ṇ. &317439[1048 . %{dvikaM} . charm. %{zate} or %{dve@zate} or %{dvi-zatam} or %{zata-dvayam} . system. by means or in consequence of (---).de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 04/12/2008. yoking. in the right way. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. (fr. grammatical construction. 398-9. having six navels MW. zeal. propriety. Vop.. 512 By extrapolation from: ṣaṇṇābhi mfn. below . %{dvi-zata} . stratagem. [Cf. http://webapps.Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 01/12/2007.

subsistence ṂBh. bodily frame Ṛagh. 47 Vārtt.. globe. (in music) a sound.. universal all ṚV. common. 3) same. a conjunct consonant (g. identical uniform. gen. (connected with 1. %{ayaḥ-}.. ṇ. 293. button. like. http://webapps. p. the body.. alike. Ṡrṣ. 143. (%{I}) f. steel. connection. (du. for %{sam-ana} see %{saman}. equally with (instr.) the two projections of an elephant's frontal sinus L. (prob. offered to the Pitṛis or deceased ancestors. http://webapps.. food.). ṇ. flesh L. footnote pp.).. total amount. of wk. quantity. sense or meaning &c. %{piṇḍī}. force.Dictionary: search results. fresh butter. knob. (cf. lump.. kind of incense Var.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 01/12/2007. part of a house L. a roundish lump of food.unikoeln.) the fleshy parts of the shoulder situated above the collar-bone ṂBh. rank. %{śākhā-s-}).. clod. matrimony sexual intercourse with ({saha}). a Ṡrāddha oblation (ṛṭḷ. &c. mouthful. friend ṬBr.uni-koeln.. (L.de/cgibin/tamil/recherche 01/12/2007.. BhP.uni-koeln. 87. ṂBh. homogeneous (as a sound or letter) Vop. 162. 517 Anacker. or %{A})n. containing minute particles.. holding the middle between two extremes. Vangueriya ṣpinosa L. and 2. being (= %{sat}. see 1. &c. tone. of a man g. %{sama}. 514 piṇḍa m. equal (in siśe. the flower of a China rose L. relation.) Kir.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 01/12/2007. (%{A}) f. 16. BhP. piece (cf. to “ a fraction”) Pāṇ.) n. (only i. p. ṠBr. (esp.. morsel. Cologne 206 . m. n..) a sine expressed in numbers.. 4. a portico or partic. %{-pāta} below). friendship. Kāv. (in arithm. daily bread. 513 samāna mf (%{Í}.) ḍivyāv. 128 520 Kochumuttom.) any round or roundish mass or heap. Vajracch. general. Cāṇ. a kind of musk L. a ball. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Capeller’s Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. (“ myrrh” or “ olibanum” L. &c. v. 399. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. whole (as a number opp.) sum. equal or like to (with instr. m. (in astron. &c.. %{māṃsa-} &c. the calf of the leg ṃālatīm. in ṚV.) a ball of rice or flour &c.. a bite. good L. Ṃn. power. coherence. 4 abl. v. one (= %{eka} L. similar. 518 See also Kochumuttom. virtuous. http://webapps. Ṡaṃk. 516 Tola and Dragonetti. (%{I}) f. 167. 5-2.) ṚV. 267. age. Br. Cook. the embryo in an early stage of gestation L. &c. &c.. p. after an adj. collection L. alliance.) ṚV. middling moderate BhP..de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 01/12/2007. 298-310) GṛṠrṣ.an equal. a partic.. http://webapps. or comp... conjunction. for %{sa-māna} see col. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results.. 19 and here applied to lumps of flesh) Tṣ.uni-koeln.. 519 Tola and Dragonetti. (rarely n. %{naḍÂdi}... contact (ph.) iron. any solid mass or material object.). &c. (cf.. (%{am}) ind. %{sama}. (du. sg. livelihood.) Vṣ. p. alms ṃālatīm. &c. an army L. %{samānásmās} for %{samānÁt} see 1. a kind of metre Piṅg. 177-8 521 saṃyoga m.. meat.). %{-varṇa-bhid} L. having the same place or organ of utterance. 515 aṇumātrika a.

inform confess Buddh. show. &c. P. %{diśo'valokya}.. %{diśo diśas}.G.. W. loc. 525 Tola and Dragonetti. %{dekṣyati}. ḥ. 8 &c. {dis}. reference. strength. below). %{pratici}. %{ádiṣṭa} ṚV. ē. xv.. 28). %{dig-āgata} and %{-lābha}. (Cf. mark of a bite L. to direct. 729. (cf.. xiv. ṂBh. v. ix. manner ṚV. Anacker. 143-4. esp. above) Ṡrutab.ē. p. pp. command ib. Ṃn. 3. command ib. &c. pf. &c. ii.. &149116(479. ĀV. Z. and a 6th. 178 527 47 diś 1 cl.2). %{ūrdhvā} ĀV. vi. quarter or region pointed at. to promote.. 28: Pass. cl. 1 ĀśvGṛ. pp. hither and thither Pañc.. %{dediśyate}. ṣūryas. pl.) Kir.. precept. ē. 5. exhibit. {śeiga} (see also %{diśā})). l ṠBr. http://webapps. Gk. ṣāh. i. 6. Vṣ. %{didéśa}. foreign country. ṠBr. ĀV. 1 ṠBr.. pl. i.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 01/13/2007. 327. 13 (cf. in all directions.) to point out. effect. and ṇ. %{-te}. east.. %{digbhyas}. 9.g. to show. 128-9 526 Kochumottom. 2. to assign. īntrod. iii.. 17 ĀV.e. ō.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 01/12/2007. 2. 12. Kochumuttom. %{deśayati}..3) {in-dṛcare} &c. %{diśām pati} (cf. direction. region. http://webapps. and 10th. %{adikṣi}. the whole world e. bestow upon (dat. assign ṂBh. manifest ṚV. place. %{dik-pati}) below) = ṣoma ṚV. west.. 8 (480. xiv.. iv. 5.. ix. rarely e. iii. ix. to produce. R.: ḍesid. accomplish Kir. vi. 41. i. 524 See Tola and Dragonetti. 34 ṂBh. f.: Pass. 3. teach. 399-400. order. %{-te} (%{deṣṭā} ṣiddh. 10.. {tíhan}). http://webapps. south. abroad (cf. 2. 268. ii.uni-koeln. i. looking into the quarter of the sky i. but oftener 8 are given i. 13. (p. %{dédiṣṭe}. 168. xiii. 15 ṠBr. 2. 17). 11. and a 7th. viii. from the extremities of the world ib. to order. part (pl. ii. to order. ṇ. viś. %{dhruvā} ĀV. 15. ṣometimes a 5th. gen. %{adīdiśat}. %{deṣṭum} ṂBh. of a river ṂBh. 6). iv. 4/5 %{díso’ntāt}. aor. to wish to show &c. power. 2. %{dakṣiṇā}.ṇ.: īntens. %{didikṣati}. ṣ. {téon} (fr. fut. command. iv. 82. %{-śatīs}) to show. %{dídeṣṭu} ṚV.. iii. %{-śate}. increase. %{adikṣat} ṠBr. %{upa-}). from every quarter BhP. tell. order. i. point out. 207 . communicate.unikoeln. 3. 2.).uni-koeln. i. $ ō. %{diśáti}. 4. (four in number. 1843. %{-te}. 116/117. %{diśi}.g. 2. aor. country. footnote p. Sch. space (beside %{kāla}) Kap. 27. exhibit ṚV. %{dídeṣṭi} (īmper. to pay (tribute) Hariv. direction. example Ṣuśr. and even a 9th. R. %{díśe} ṚV. {dīco}. or = ṛudra Vṣ. 86. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ SanskritEnglish Dictionary: search results.viii. everywhere Bhartṛ.xvi.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 01/12/2007. quarter. %{tiryak} or %{adhas} and %{ūrdhvam} ṠBr. to show or approve one's self. $. {teihan}. %{prācī}. %{diśi}. instance. pp. abundance Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Capeller’s Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. 113. 2.W. into the air ṛatn. %{didiśé}. Cook. stem). p. 8. %{diśyate} ṂBh. 523 Cook. the numeral 10 (cf. 6. 18.Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Capeller’s Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. 16061. inf.) 48 diś 2 f. 399-400.. %{vy-adhvā} ĀV. north ĀV. and %{udīcī}. Goth.: Caus. ṣ. %{-te} (later the only Pres.e. 522 vaya 1. a hint. cardinal point ṚV. bid (inf. etc. grant. 15. Lat. bring forward (as a witness in a court of justice) Ṃn. ṚV. 14278. 40. the 4 cardinal and the 4 intermediate quarters.

( %{bhoj}) a part. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on MonierWilliams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. %{tri-bh-}).. %{bhāgam bhāgam} with Caus. 529 yasya mfn. 2 anyo'nyabheda m. conveying seed. proper. hiding.. union. %{paraspara}. mutual. representing) ḷāṭy. ṂBh. n. a quotient MW. http://webapps. reciprocal friendly acts. image. 3 anyo'nyadarśana n. reciprocal. mutual division. sing. a division of time. beauty. pl. a kind of comparison. to be endeavored &c. 530 1 retasya a. connected. also = lot. mutual emulation. Ṃn.. esp.uni-koeln. & fig. of a ṣāman ĀrshBr. lustre. m.. http://webapps. 6 anyo'nyānurāga m. portion. &c. of a river (one of the branches of the Candra-bhāgā) L.. mutual. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. a part (as opp. part of anything given as interest W. sing. 534 1 anyo'nya (only sgl. charm. with a cardinal e. place. fortunate lot. while the latter assumes the 208 . %{aṣṭamo bhāgaḥ}. of a king (also %{bhāgavata}) Pur. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Capeller’s Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results.. Vṣ. suitable. spot. (v. http://webapps. the numerator of a fraction Col. translation (esp. &c. 1/100. http://webapps. complexion.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 01/13/2007.uni-koeln. a quarter (see %{eka-bh-}. m. (in this sense also n. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. 532 3 chāya a. color. {Ả} shadow (lit.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 01/13/2007. 8 anyo'nyopamā f.uni-koeln.g. f. a fraction (often with an ordinal number e. of a ṣāman ĀrshBr.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 01/13/2007. grace. region. to any whole.de/cgibin/tamil/recherche 01/13/2007. http://webapps. m.. equal in rank or power ṚV.uni-koeln.528 bhāga 1 m. allied ṚV. {rdhin}. taking the place of. {anyonya} (---) & n. %{anyas} nom. anyonya or (said to be fr.. %{śata-bh-}. 5 anyo'nyakṛtya n.) Bhaṭṭ.g. http://webapps.unikoeln. good fortune. luck.* 4 anyo'nyagata a. &c. relationship ṚV. to divide in parts)..de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 01/21/2007. ṂBh. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. similar. interview. as wife of the Sun). Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Capeller’s Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. 533 āvṛti f. shadowing. ṇ. side (ifc. %{yugya}). homogeneous. f.. see %{bhūmi-bh}). relating to Bhaga (as a hymn) Ṇir. or in comp.. related. the 30th part of a ṛāśi or śodiacal sign W. and %{anya} 2 anyonya (said to be fr.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 01/13/2007.. http://webapps. to be killed (%{-tva} n. covering. allotment.* 7 anyo'nyaspardhā a.uni-koeln. and %{anya}. closing. a degree or 360th part of the circumference of a great circle ṣūryas.. %{anyas} nom.) one another.l. a half rupee L.e. n.. the eighth part. reflection. ṇ. adj. alliance. &c.. inheritance (in Ved. %{aśīti-bh-} = 1/80) Ūp. share. part i. also personif. mfn. from Prākrit into Sanskrit). … 3 srotasya a. flowing in streams. 531 yujya mfn. cf.uni-koeln. capable ṚV. mutual affection. {anyonyam} mutually. ĀV. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Capeller’s SanskritEnglish Dictionary: search results.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 01/13/2007. in most cases the first %{anya} may be regarded as the subject of the sentence.. of %{klṛp} or %{bhāgān} with %{kṛ}. destiny) ṚV.. (with %{jamad-agneḥ}) ṇ.

mutually. Kāv. ḥit. the second of the 25 ṭattvas. http://webapps. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Capeller’s Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. apprehension. the power of forming and retaining conceptions and general notions. anointed L. 544 Tola and Dragonetti... Hariv. intellect. discernment.. having the free course of the smoke interrupted Ṛagh. pp. BhP. before the eyes. 129-30 539 Kochumottom. pp. inconceivable..uni-koeln. ṛājat. as adv. disconnected (%{-tā} f. crooked L. fine.uni-koeln. immediately. superintendence. 145. http://webapps. & ---). footnote p. ceased. or with %{manas} 6. but there are many instances in which the first %{anya}. ocular evidence. http://webapps. 541 5 sūkṣma a. ĀV.uni-koeln. clear. (in ṣāṃkhya phil. an opinion. conjecture ṂBh. 80 &c. Cook. 169-70. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. pp. %{buddhÎndriya}). minute.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 01/13/2007. pp. plainly visible.. Anacker. 169-70. disconnectedness). %{-dhūma-prasara} mfn. &c. one another. %{indriya}. excessive nearness of combatants to each other ṂBh. distinct.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 01/13/2007. understanding ṣāh. 535 Cook. abstr. 543 See Tola and Dragonetti. mind. incoherent Gṛṣ. or %{-tas} ind. notion. Cook. VarBṛṣ. 268-9.. intangible.). 538 Tola and Dragonetti. care of (gen... distinctly. pp.uni-koeln. pp. view. pp.e. 182 546 6 pratyakṣa a. interrupted. 144-5.3). inst. 401-402. idea. %{-prasara} (%{vicchinnaprasara}) mfn. or loc. personally (also abl... Kāv. cut or torn or split or cleft or broken asunder &c. presence of mind. http://webapps.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 547 29 buddhi f. ready wit Pañcat. is equivalent to an oblique case). (%{am}).acc.n. 209 . publicly. -. small. Anacker. immediate apprehension or intelligence. (with %{ātnanaḥ}. or %{buddhir brāhmī}) knowledge of one's self.) intellect (= %{adhy-avasāya}.. subtle. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. {-tva} n.. judgment Ṃn.. psychology Car. intelligence. footnote p. 400-1.. Kochumuttom. no longer existing. actual. reason. 542 Anacker... ended. p. perception (of which 5 kinds are enumerated. 269-70. immediate. 168-9. comprehension. before one's face. pp. “ distance of an arrow's flight” i. mutual. ṂBh. 537 See Tola and Dragonetti. having sacrificial rites interrupted ib. the intellectual faculty or faculty of mental perception. 536 Tola and Dragonetti. 401. gen. one who has long abstained from spirituous liquor (959. {-tā} f. &c. 145-6. pp. originally a nominative. cases as required by the verb. instr. cf. %{-śara-pātatva} n. atomic. cf.. %{buddhi-tattva}) īW. 130 545 Kochumottom. %{bali-karman} mfn. Kochumuttom. 179 540 4 vicchinna mfn. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Capeller’s Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 01/13/2007. %{-madya} mfn.. having its progress interrupted (said of science) Ṛājat.

. in secret Ṃn..).e. Pur. 403-4. reminiscence. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. p. adhipati. seduced. or comp. notion (often ifc. 171-2. ḍaś. dis -couraged ṂBh... ṇ.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 01/13/2007. http://webapps. pp. http://webapps. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Capeller's 1891 Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. 170-1. transported (with passion) BhP. memory BhP. 271. iii. the act of remembering or calling to mind. correct or reasonable view R. Ṡak. pained. 560 1 upahata mfn. = considering as. &c. with a view to i.). 554 Anacker. dat. 147-9. a rosary of beads (held in the hand. scattered over.: Yājñ. calling upon the name of a god MW.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 01/13/2007. recollection of (gen. Cook. Kathās. impression.. 208. belief. 147. intention. ṂBh.uni-koeln. %{buddhiṃ-kṛ} or %{pra-kṛ}. misled ṣāntiś. 556 Tola and Dragonetti.uni-koeln. 559 mithas ind. lord.. unawakened (l. by contest or dispute BhP. (1272. in order to show favour. of a woman. ḥit. Anacker..2). distressed. Pur.. pp. or comp. pp. a kind of metre L. 186-7. http://webapps. with loc. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier210 . 558 adhipa. Kochumuttom. alternately. footnotes pp. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ SanskritEnglish Dictionary: search results. mental recitation (of the name of a deity). & f.uni-koeln. infected ṠBr. to or from or with each other ṚV. {smṛiti}) Kpr.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 01/13/2007. damaged.. designedly. ḥit.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 01/13/2007. śch. 191. design ib. visited. “from its being so mentioned in the śmṛiiti” q. injured.unikoeln. hurt. ruler.thought about or meditation on (loc. reciprocally.. affected. http://webapps. privately. afflicted. 131-2. 190. deliberately. 548 See Tola and Dragonetti.). Kochumuttom.. mutually. 271-2.. pp. Kālid. master. of the 5th astrol” mansion VarBṛṣ.. 553 Kochumuttom.) MBh.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 01/13/2007. Ṛagh. purpose. figure (cf. Cook. 549 Tola and Dragonetti. a kind of rhet. &c. remembrance. 552 1 aprabuddha a. (%{buddhyā}. %{anugraha-b-}.uni-koeln. R. decide. with %{prati}. not worn as a necklace) ib. right opinion. killed ūttarar. Sch. intelligence personified (as a daughter of ḍaksha and wife of Dharma and mother of Bodha) ṂBh. or inf.v. p. &c. traditional teaching or record or precept ({iti smaraṇāt}. R. resolve.. with the intention of. http://webapps. to make up one's mind.) Kull. handing down by memory. weakened. 555 See Tola and Dragonetti. taking for) Kāv. together with (instr. 171-2. 557 Kochumottom. & adhipā m. ṇ. hit. covered Comm. ((&. acc. pp. pp. pp. ṛi. &c. footnote p.). HParil. on Ṃn. pp.. together. 186 551 1 smaraṇa n. 188. ({I}) f.))Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Capeller’s Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. 402-3. 270-1. 130 550 Kochumottom. Kathās. tradition. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. Anacker...

a strange or unwonted phenomenon ib. 7. 172. 561 1 asama mfn. memory ṭĀr. misadventure (acc. injury. 568 vikriyā f.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 01/13/2007. http://webapps. seems to be cut out from the disc of the moon”) Kāvyâd. knitting (of the brows. (prob.uni-koeln. Pur. 563 Cook. 132 566 Kochumottom. ō fair one.. bristling (of the hair. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. (955. unequal (either by birth or in surface or number) Ṃn.Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. http://webapps. to suffer injury.. w. 41. Sch. 73 Kis. the Purāṇas and the ṇītiśāstras. the whole body of sacred tradition or what is remembered by human teachers (in contradistinction to %{śruti} or what is directly heard or revealed to the Ṛishis. (ifc. ĀV. (in astrol..de/cgibin/tamil/recherche 01/13/2007. Kathās. ṃemory (personified either as the daughter of ḍsksha and wife of āṅgiras or as the daughter of ḍharma and ṃedhā) Hariv. to such and such a traditional precept or legal text”) īW. &c. Kāv. Ṣuśr. for %{māraṇa}). (%{á-sama}) mf (%{A})n. deformity R.. (see next). remembrance. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. to die) Ṡrṣ.. passing away. http://webapps.3). pp. without a fellow or equal ṚV. harm. thinking of or upon (loc. death. asylum BhP. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. &c.g. pp. a refuge. 569 smṛti f.. extinction (of a lamp) Kathās. 565 Tola and Dragonetti.uni-koeln.. 562 Anacker. “ they are not even thought of”). see %{bhrū-v-}). ChŪp. for %{śaraṇa}).. see %{roma-v-}). hostile feeling. calling to mind (%{smṛtim api te na yānti}.. Ṣuśr. ṂBh.v. “ accord. 404-5. alienation Hariv. disfigurement. in its widest acceptation this use of the term ṣmṛiti includes the 6 Vedâṅgas. Kāv. %{-yôpamā} f. pp. “ thy face. reminiscence. agitation. deterioration. ailment. defection. %{-ṇaṃ} 1. 564 See Tola and Dragonetti. 272-3.. 192 567 maraṇa n.) ḍaśar. a kind of simile (in which the object of comparison is represented as produced from that to which it is compared e.. 144. Ṃn. ṃārkP.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 01/13/2007. unequalled. pp. &c. 100-1. %{kurute}.. change. modification. &c. cessation (as of lightning or rain) ĀitBr. or comp.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 01/13/2007. ii. %{iti smṛteḥ}. perplexity ṂBh. ḍaś. footnote p. odd. the ṃahābhārata and ṛāmâyaṇa). x. v. with %{yā}. a kind of poison L. dying by. affection R.g. Yājñ. Kochumuttom.unikoeln. 404-5. Pur.uni-koeln.. the ītihāsas (e. p.r. the law-books of ṃanu &c. Anacker.. Cook. memory as one of the Vyabhicāri-bhāvas (q. 149-50.r. the act of dying. uneven. the whole body of codes of law as handed down memoriter or by tradition (esp. indisposition. http://webapps.) the 8th mansion VarBṛṣ. (prob. %{kṛ} Ā. perturbation. rebellion. altered or unnatural condition Kāv. w. ṂBh. transformation. 145. &c. any product or preparation Ṃn. failure. the ṣūtras both %{śrauta} and %{gṛhya}. (1272. undergo failure) ib. change for the worse. contraction..).1). the 211 .

for the number 18 (fr. of a constellation . `" penis [with %{vaitasa4}] "' . hurting. xiv . interruption ṂBh. symbolical ṇ. . Laghuj. %{ikSu}] g. Parāśara. Cook. elision (generally as distinguished from the terms %{lup}.. %{lopa} refers only to the last letter of an affix. the cross-bar of a lute which holds the strings S3a1n3khS3r. %{-bhAsa}) VarBr2S. . ḍaksha and Gautama. the change of the final of the base to Guṇa does not take place i. 405-6.) AitBr. &c. ii VarP. . N. or in comp. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. . p. the dropping of the whole affix is implied) Ṇir. 192 574 1 daNDa ( = $ -v . 273. 132 573 Kochumottom. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. cudgel . footnote p. &c. ii . 2 VarBr2. %{bAhu-} . 2390 . %{-vyuha}) L. N. the staff of a banner . . pp. = %{lopā-mudrā} below. all these lawgivers being held to be inspired and to have based their precepts on the Veda. disappearance Ṡrṣ. thus in the īst pl. which are only applicable to affixes. %{ikSu-} . %{-pAta}) . 571 See Tola and Dragonetti. absence. a partic. plundering ṂBh. N. 2079 . a churning-stick (cf. %{ślu}. Ṃn. club RV. ḷikhîta. cf. `" trunk "' see %{zuNDA-} . rod . (%{lópā}) f. Ṛagh. of a planet "' (L. transgression (of a vow or duty) Ṃn. cf. pp. &c. injury. a blank is substituted. (in gram. ātri. of a measure of time (= 60 Vi-kala1s) BrahmaP. [cf. whereas by %{luk} &c. ūśanas or Ṡukra. a stalk .. a line (cf. `" arm "' or `" leg "' see %{dor-} . %{ud-} . parasol &c. http://webapps. violation. restraint (cf. iii. BhavP. %{vAg-} .e. where %{jas} is said to be elided by %{luk}. viś. stem (of a tree . Ṡaṅkha. xvii . . of a staff-like appearance in the sky (`" N.) . Kāv. 258 (v. neglect. sauce-pan . for %{spṛhā}). the steam of a plough L. 1 . īW. fly-flap . = %{-DakA7sana} Br2Na1rP. %{luk}. %{khara-}) MBh. wish Pañcat. iv .il . moreover. cf. the stick with which a lute is played L. the handle (of a ladle . `" tusk "' see %{daMSTrA-}) . pole . (staff given at investiture with the sacred thread S3Br. Vyāsa. . xi . %{mano-} . a form of military array (cf. S3Br. `" a mast "' see %{mahAdaNDa-dhara} . &c. hence cognate with %{da14ru} and %{dRR}) m. ḥārīta. Anacker. Yama. a kind of metre L. when %{lopa} of an affix takes place. . Yājñ. . 570 lopa m. pp. %{kAya-} 212 . Āpastamba. 203) GṛṠrṣ. bird Tṣ. āṅgiras. 1 .. .de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 01/13/2007. ṣaṃvarta.. Kochumuttom.. vii f. 150-1. which exerts the same influence on the base as the affix itself.. . application of power . both the affix and its effect on the base are abolished. 9 Ma1rkP. ṇ. %{ardharcA7di}) a stick ... a pole as a measure of length (= 4 Hastas) VarBr2S. staff . a staff or sceptre as a symbol of power and sovereignty (cf. %{nyasta-}) . %{-DA7hata}) L. robbing. &c.uni-koeln. 572 Tola and Dragonetti.) . destruction. want. MBh. http://webapps. breaking. Bṛihas-pati.codes of ṃanu Yājñavalkya and the 16 succeeding inspired lawgivers.uni-koeln. 173. &c. Yājñ. p. deficiency. of %{kati}. the 18 lawgivers above). Kātyāyana. Pāṇ.l. Vishṇu.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 01/13/2007. Prāt.xxiv . desire. but when either %{luk} or %{lup} or %{ślu} of an affix is enjoined. 115 (n. power over (gen. violence Mn. control . of the letter %{g} Ūp..) dropping. 5 . (n. a kind of bird L. xx . &c. xxxi .. then the affix is not only dropped but it is also inoperative on the base.

[%{karma-} Ma1rkP. xli , 22] ; %{tri-daNDin}) Subh. ; embodied power , army (%{koza-} , du `" treasure and army "' Mn. ix , 294 MBh. Kir. ii , 12) Mn. vii Ragh. xvii , 62 ; the rod as a symbol of judicial authority and punishment , punishment (corporal , verbal , and fiscal ; chastisement and imprisonment , reprimand , fine) Ta1n2d2yaBr. xvii , 1 Mn. MBh. &c. (cf. %{gupta4} & %{gUDha-}) [466,3] ; pride L. ; m. a horse L. ; Punishment (son of Dharma and Kriya1 VP. i , 7 , 27 Ma1rkP. l) ; Yama L. ; S3iva MBh. xii , 10361 ; N. of an attendant of the Sun , iii , 198 ; (g. %{zivA7di} and %{zaunakA7di}) N. of a man with the patr. Aupara MaitrS. iii , 8 , 7 TS. vi , 2 , 9 , 4 ; of a prince slain by Arjuna (brother of %{-dhara} , identified with the Asura Krodhahantr2i) MBh. if. , viii ; of a Rakshas R. vii , 5 , 39 ; see %{-oDaka} ; (%{A}) f. Hedysaruni lagopodioides , Npr 2 dANDa 1 mf(%{I})n. relating to a stick or to punishment W. ; m. patr. fr. %{daNDa} , (g. %{zivA7di}) ; (%{A}) f. a partic. game with sticks Pa1n2. 4-2 , 57 Ka1s3. ; n. the being a staff (g. %{pRthv-Adi}) ; multitude of staff-bearers , vi , 4 , 164 Sch. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on MonierWilliams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results, http://webapps.uni-koeln.de/cgibin/tamil/recherche 04/13/2008. 575 1 karaNa (once %{karaNa4} RV. i , 119 , 7) mf(%{I})n doing , making , effecting , causing (esp. ifc. ; cf. %{antakaraNa} , %{uSNaM-k-} , &c.) R. &c. ; clever , skilful RV. i , 119 , 7 ; m. a helper , companion AV. vi , 46 , 2 ; xv , 5 , 1-6 ; xix , 57 , 3 ; a man of a mixed class (the son of an outcast Kshatriya Mn. x , 22 ; or the son of a S3u1dra woman by a Vais3ya Ya1jn5. i , 92 ; or the son of a Vais3ya woman by a Kshatriya MBh. i , 2446 ; 4521 ; the occupation of this class is writing , accounts &c.) a writer , scribe W. ; (in Gr.) a sound or word as an independent part of speech (or as separated from the context ; in this sense usually n.) Ka1s3. on Pa1n2. 3-1 , 41 Pat. Comm. on RPra1t. ; (in mus.) a kind of time Kum. vi , 40 ; (%{I}) f. a woman of the above mixed tribe Ya1jn5. i , 95 ; (with %{sutA}) an adopted daughter R. (ed. Gorr.) i , 19 , 9 ; (in arithm.) a surd or irrational number , surd root ; the side of a square S3ulbas. Comm. on VS. ; a particular measure Comm. on Ka1tyS3r. ; a particular position of the fingers ; (%{am}) n. the act of making , doing , producing , effecting S3Br. MBh. &c. (very often ifc. e.g. %{muSTi-k-} , %{virUpa-k-}) ; an act , deed RV. ; an action (esp. a religious one) Ya1jn5. i , 250 R. ; the special business of any tribe or caste L. ; a calculation (esp. an astronomical one) VarBr2S. ; an astrological division of the day (these Karan2as are eleven , viz. %{vava} , %{valava} , %{kaulava} , %{taitila} , %{gara} , %{vaNija} , %{viSTi} , %{zakuni} , %{catuSpada} , %{kintughna} , and %{nAga} , two being equal to a lunar day ; the first seven are called %{a-dhruvANi} or movable , and fill , eight times repeated , the space from the second half of the first day in the moon's increase to the first half of the fourteenth day in its wane ; the four others are %{dhruvANi} or fixed , and occupy the four half-days from the second half of the fourteenth day in the wane of the moon to the first half of the first day in its increase) VarBr2S. Sus3r. &c. ; pronunciation , articulation , APra1t. ; (in Gr.) a sound or word as an independent part of speech , separated from its context Pa1n2. Ka1s3. &c. , (%{karaNa} may be used in this way like %{kAra} e.g. %{iti-karaNa} S3a1n3khS3r.) ; the posture of an ascetic ; a posture in sexual intercourse ; instrument , means of action S3vetUp. Ya1jn5. Megh. ; an organ of sense or of speech 213

VPra1t. Pa1rGr2. ; (in law) an instrument , document , bond Mn. viii , 51 ; 52 ; 154 ; (in Gr.) the means or instrument by which an action is effected , the idea expressed by the instrumental case , instrumentality Pa1n2. 1-4 , 42 ; ii , 3 , 18 ; iii , 2 , 45 ; cause (= %{kAraNa}) ; a spell , charm Katha1s. (cf. %{karaNa-prayoga}) ; rhythm , time Kum. ; body Megh. Kum. Ka1d. ; N. of a treatise of Vara1ha-mihira on the motion of the planets ; of a work belonging to the S3iva-dars3ana ; a field L. ; the mind , heart W. (cf. %{antaH-karaNa}) ; grain W. 2 karaNa &c. see p. 254 , col. 1. 3 kAraNa 1 n. cause , reason , the cause of anything (gen. , also often loc.) Ka1tyS3r. MBh. Mn. &c. ; instrument , means ; motive origin , principle ; a cause (in phil. i.e. that which is invariably antecedent to some product cf. %{samavA7yi-k-} , %{asamavA7yi-k-} , %{nimitta-k-}) ; an element , elementary matter Ya1jn5. iii , 148 Bhag. xviii , 13 ; the origin or plot of a play or poem Sa1h. ; that on which an opinion or judgment is founded (a sign , mark ; a proof ; a legal instrument , document) Mn. MBh. &c. ; an organ of sense Ragh. xvi , 22 &c. ; an action MBh. xii , 12070 ; agency , instrumentality , condition Katha1s. cxii , 178 ; `" the cause of being "' , a father W. ; `" cause of creation "' , a deity W. ; the body L. ; a kind of musical instrument L. ; a sort of song L. ; a number of scribes or Ka1yasthas W. ; (%{A}) f. pain , agony Das3. ; an astronomical period W. [%{kAraNAt} , from some cause or reason , Rpra1t. iii , 13 Mn. viii , 355 ; %{kasmAt@kAraNAt} , from what cause? %{mama-kAraNAt} , for my sake R. &c. ; %{a-kAraNena} , without a reason Ya1jn5. ii , 234 ; … 71 karanyAsa m. marking the hand with mystical figures BhP. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on MonierWilliams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results, http://webapps.uni-koeln.de/cgibin/tamil/recherche 04/13/2008. 576 1 vadya mfn. to be spoken &c. (see %{a-v-} and %{anav}) ; N. of the days of the dark lunar fortnight ; n. speech , speaking about , conversing (see %{brahma-v-} , %{satya-v-}). 2 vAdya mfn. to be said or spoken or pronounced or uttered AitBr. ; to be sounded or played (as a musical instrument) Cat. ; n. a speech S3Br. ; instrumental music Ma1lav. Katha1s. &c. ; m. or n. a musical instrument R. Katha1s. Pan5cat. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results, http://webapps.uni-koeln.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 04/13/2008. 577 Tola and Dragonetti, 151. 578 See Tola and Dragonetti, pp. 151-2; Kochumuttom, p. 274; Anacker, pp. 173-4; Cook, p. 406. 579 Tola and Dragonetti, p. 133 580 Kochumottom, footnote p. 194 581 3 vidā P. %{-dadāti}, to give out, distribute, grant R. 4 vidā (or %{do}, not separable fr. 4. %{dā}) P. %{-dāti}, or %{-dyati} (ind. p. %{-ditya}), to cut up, cut to pieces, bruise, pound Vṣ.; to untie, release, deliver from (abl.) ṠBr.; to destroy Hariv. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results, http://webapps.uni-koeln.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 01/13/2007. 582 1 ayatha n. a foot ṚV. x 28, 10 and 11 (mfn.) prosperous, PārGr. 2 ayatha see col. 2. 3 ayatha ind. not as it should be, unfitly BhP. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on

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Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results, http://webapps.unikoeln.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 01/13/2007. 583 11 gocara m. pasture ground for cattle ĀpṠr. i, 2, 4; (R. iv, 44, 80); range, field for action, abode, dwelling-place, district (esp. ifc. “ abiding in, relating to”; “ offering range or field or scope for action, within the range of, accessible, attainable, within the power”) KaṭhŪp. iii, 4 Ṃn. x, 39 ṂBh. &c.; the range of the organs of sense, object of sense, anything perceptible by the senses, esp. the range of the eye (e.g. %{locana-gocaraṃ-yā}, to come within range of the eye, become visible Pañcat.) ṂBh. vii, 5616 Ṣuśr. Vikr. iv, 9 &c. (364,2); the distance of the planets from the ḷagna and from each other VarBṛṣ. civ, 2 ṛomakas.; mf (%{A})n. being within the range of, attainable for (gen.) BhP. iii, 25, 28; perceptible (esp. to the eye) ṂBh. xiii, 71, 33 and 91, 24; having (or used in) the meaning of (loc.) L. Sch..; %{-gata} mfn. one who has come within the range of or in connection with (gen.) Bhartṛ.; %{-tā} f. the state of being liable to (in comp.) ṣarvad. iv, 253; %{tva} n. id., 42; %{-prakaraṇa}ṇ. of wk.; %{-phala}ṇ. of VarBṛṣ. civ; %{-pīḍā} f. inauspicious position of stars within the ecliptic VarBṛṣ. xli, 13; %{-rÂdhyāya} m. = %{ra-phala}; %{-rÂntara-gata} mfn. being within the power of (gen.) Pañcat.; %{-rī-kṛta} mfn. within the range of observation ṣāh. iii, 28 a/b; overcome (by fatigue, %{glānyā}) ḥcar. v, 139. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ SanskritEnglish Dictionary: search results, http://webapps.uni-koeln.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 01/13/2007. 584 See Tola and Dragonetti, p. 152; Kochumuttom, pp. 274-5; Anacker, p. 174; Cook, pp. 406-7. 585 Tola and Dragonetti, p. 133 586 Kochumottom, footnote p. 195 587 1 siddhi f. hitting or reaching the aim, attainment of an object, performance, accomplishment, conclusion, result; success, prosperity, welfare; perfection, supernatural power. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Capeller’s Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results, http://webapps.uni-koeln.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 01/13/2007. 588 13 zakti or f. power , ability , strength , might , effort , energy , capability (%{zaktyA} or %{Atma-z-} or %{sva-z-} , `" according to ability "' 14 zakti f. power , ability , strength , might , effort , energy , capability (%{zaktyA} or %{Atma-z-} or %{sva-z-} , `" according to ability "' ; %{paraM@zaktyA} , with all one's might "' ; %{vitta-zaktyA} , `" according to the capability of one's property "' ; %{zaktim@ahApayitvA} , `" not relaxing one's efforts , exerting all one's strength "') , faculty , skill , capacity for , power over (gen. loc. dat. , or inf.) RV. &c. &c. ; effectiveness or efficacy (of a remedy) S3a1rn3gS. ; regal power (consisting of three parts , %{prabhutva} , personal pre-eminence ; %{mantra} , good counsel , and %{utsAha} , energy) Ka1m. (cf. Ragh. iii , 13) ; the energy or active power of a deity personified as his wife and worshipped by the S3a1kta (q.v.) sect of Hindu1s under various names (sometimes only three , sometimes eight S3akti goddesses are enumerated , as follow , Indra1n2i , Vaishn2avi1 , S3a1nta1 , Brahma1n2i1 , Kauma1ri , Na1rasin6hi1 , Va1ra1hi1 , and Ma1hes3vari1 , but some substitute Ca1mun2d2a1 and Ca1n2dika1 for the third and sixth 215

of these: according to another reckoning there are nine , viz. Vaishn2avi1 , Brahma1n2i , Raudri , Ma1hes3vari1 , Na1rasin6hi1 , Va1ra1hi1 , Indran2i1 , Ka1rttiki1 , and Pradha1na1: others reckon fifty different forms of the S3akti of Vishn2u besides Lakshmi1 , some of these are Ki1rtti , Ka1nti , Tusht2i , Pusht2a1 , Dhr2iti. S3a1nti , Kriya1 , Daya1 , Medha1 &c. ; and fifty forms of the S3akti of S3iva or Rudra besides Durga1 "' or Gauri1 , some of whom are Gun2o7dari1 , Viraja1 , Sa1lmali , Lola7kshi , Vartula7kshi1 , Di1rgha-ghon2a1 , Sudirgha-mukhi1 , Go-mukhi1 , Dirgha-jihva1 , Kun2d2o7dari1 , Ardha-kes3i1 , Vikr2ita-mukhi1 , Jva1la1-mukhi , Ulka1mukhi &c. ; Sarasvati is also named as a S3akti , both of Vishn2u and Rudra: according to the Va1yuPura1n2a the female nature of Rudra became twofold , one half %{asita} or white , and the other %{sita} or black , each of these again becoming manifold , those of the white or mild nature included Lakshmi1 , Sarasvati , Gauri1 , Uma1 &c. ; those of the dark and fierce nature , Durga1 , Ka1li &c.) Ka1v. Katha1s. Pur. (cf. RTL. 181 &c. MWB. 216) ; the female organ (as worshipped by the S3a1kta sect either actually or symbolically) RTL. 140 ; the power or signification of a word (defined in the Nya1ya as %{padasya@padA7rthe} %{sambandhaH} i.e. `" the relation of a word to the thing designated "') Bha1sha1p. Sa1h. ; (in Gram.) case-power , the idea conveyed by a case (= %{kAraka}) Pa1n2. 2-3 , 7 Sch. ; the power or force or most effective word of a sacred text or magic formula Up. Pan5car. ; the creative power or imagination (of a poet) Ka1vya7d. ; help , aid , assistance , gift , bestowal RV. ; a spear , lance , pike , dart RV. &c. (also %{zaktI} g. %{bahv-Adi}) ; a sword MW. ; (prob.) a flag-staff (see %{ratha-z}) [1044,3] ; a partic. configuration of stars and planets (when the latter are situated in the 7th , 8th , 9th , and 10th astrological house) , VirBr2S. ; m. N. of a Muni or sage (the eldest of Vasisht2ha's hundred sons ; accord. to VP. he was father of Para1s3ara , and was devoured by king Kalma1sha-pa1da , when changed to a man-eating Ra1kshasa , in consequence of a curse pronounced upon him by the sage ; he is represented as having overcome Vis3va1mitra at the sacrifice of king Sauda1sa ; he is regarded as the author of RV. vii , 32 , 26 ; ix , 97 , 19-21 ; 108 , 3 ; 14-16 ; S3akti is also identified with one of the Vyla1sas , and with Avalokite7s3vara , and has elsewhere the patr. Ja1tukarna and Sa1m2kr2iti) Pravar. MBh. &c. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on MonierWilliams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results, http://webapps.uni-koeln.de/cgibin/tamil/recherche 04/13/2008. 589 cintya mfn. to be thought about or imagined S3vetUp. vi , 2 Bhag. x , 17 ; = %{tayitavya} R. iv , 17 , 56 and 23 , 4 ; `" to be conceived "' see %{a4-} ; to be considered or reflected or meditated upon S3vetUp. i , 2 Ya1jn5. i , 344 MBh. &c. ; `" to be deliberated about "' , questionable Siddh. on Pa1n2. 7-2 , 19 and 3 , 66 Sa1h. i , 2/3 , 17 and 50 ; n. the necessity of thinking about (gen.) BhP. vii , 5 , 49. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results, http://webapps.uni-koeln.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 02/0/2007. 590 See Tola and Dragonetti, pp. 152-3; Kochumuttom, p. 275; Anacker, pp. 174-5; Cook, pp. 407-8.

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CHAPTER 4 THE TRIMŚIKA-KĀRIKĀS

In many ways, the TM serves as a summation of the principle ideas of the TSN and VM and directs attention to the practical psycho-physical aspects of Vasubandhu’s consciousness theory. I have consulted English translations of Vasubandhu’s Trimśika-Kārikās (“Thirty Verses”) from Thomas Kochumuttom,591 G. M. Nagao in David Kalupahana,592 Robinson in Dan Lusthaus,593 Thomas Wood594 and Stefan Anacker.595 I have also consulted translations of Hsüan-tsan’s version from Lusthaus, Swati Ganguly,596 Francis Cook597 and Wing-tsit Chan.598 I cite English transliterations of Sylvan Lèvi’s rendering of the original Sanskrit from Kochumuttom (k) and Ganguly (g). No auto-commentary on this text is known to exist. The structure of the Thirty Verses is as follows— verses 1-9 identify and define the threefold pariṇāma (alteration, transformation, or evolution) of consciousness; verses 10-14 identify several categories of sarvatragas (mental functions or associates); verses 15-19 return to the threefold pariṇāma and explain its relationship to vijñapti-mātra or consciousness-occasion. Verses 20-24 briefly address the trisvabhāva theory discussed in Chapter 2, as well as the threefold svabhāva of niḥsvabhāvatā in relation to phenomenal appearances. Finally, verses 25-30 discuss “abiding in” vijñapti-mātra as the means to enlightenment.

217

TM 1-2a: Threefold Vijñāna-Pariṇāma Stated Verses 1- 2b Ātma-dharma-upacāro hi vividho yaḥ pravartate Vijñāna-parināmo’sau pariṇāmaḥ sa ca tridhā (k)599 ātmadharmopacāro hi vividho yaḥ pravartate/ vijñānapariṇāme ‘sau pariṇāmaḥ sa ca tridhā// (g)600 Self and natures (qualities) metaphorical, Because manifold causes acting; Thus transformation of consciousness Transformation having three parts (phases). Vipāko mananākhyaśca vijñaptir-viṣayasya ca… (k)601 vipāko mananākhyaś ca vijñaptir viṣayasya ca/ (g)602 Maturation, reflection and representation of abode of sense objects (external world).

Ātma-dharma-upacāro hi vividho yaḥ pravartate … ātma dharma from “to breathe/move”— (the individual) soul, life principle; abstract individual; also: essence, nature, character; the person or body considered as a whole 603 nature, character, condition; essential quality, property, mark ; also according to the nature of; that which is established or firm; steadfast decree, usage, practice; duty, right, justice; virtue, morality; law or doctrine to use figuratively or metaphorically; custom or manner of speech, figurative application; pretence, pretext; also: to come near, approach; to attend upon604 for, (namely) because; surely, indeed manifold, diverse, of various sorts605 going, moving606

upacāra hi vividha yaḥ

218

pravartate

pra: before, in front of + vartate: revolve, pass away (time); happen, occur; live, exist, be, become = pravarta (-ka, -na): causing, effecting, setting in motion/activity, promoting moving forward/onwards, coming forth, arising, appearing, happening; causing, producing, introducing

… vijñāna-parināmo’sau pariṇāmaḥ sa ca tridhā. vijñāna pariṇāma asau sa ca tridhā act of distinguishing, perceiving, understanding, recognizing, knowing; skill, science, worldly knowledge; consciousness change, alteration, transformation, development, evolution607 that, a certain, thus, so, there supplying the forms of; accompanied by, having; one, the same and, also; even, just; but, yet; if in three ways/parts/times608

Vipāko mananākhyaśca vijñaptir-viṣayasya ca… vipāka manana ākhyā vijñapti viṣaya asya ca ripening, maturity; consequence of actions, result careful thought, reflection, consideration, meditation, intelligence, understanding, esp. intrinsic knowledge or science; (-ā) thoughtfully, carefully609 to make known, declare, communicate, inform; to be named, enumerated, called mind, (representation of) consciousness, concept, perception; also lit. information, announcement, request; imparting, giving sense object; external world; reach, sphere, domain sitting, abiding, dwelling; state of rest and, also; even, just; but, yet; if
Table 71- TM 1- 2b

The function or development of the metaphors of atman (self) and dharmas (conditions, natures, elements, phenomena) are varied, but they all refer to developments within the threefold pariṇāma-vijñāna or the transformation or development of consciousness.610 These three transformations, phases or functions of consciousness are: (1) the vipāka, which is the maturation of causal efficacy and influence within consciousness; (2) the manana, which is reflection or active mentation within 219

consciousness. and (3) the vijñapti. of the basic or root mental processes. that consciousness which is “always flowing and storing” the bīja or elements of causal influence from past experiences.)611 VM 2c-5a: Ālayavijñāna Verses 2c-5a … Tatra-ālayākhya vijñānam vipākaḥ sarvabījakam (k)612 … tatrālayākhyaṃ vijñanaṃ vipākaḥ sarvabījakaṃ// (g)613 220 . Vipāka Ālaya-vijñāna Manana Mano-vijñāna Vijñāpti Upalabdhi-vijñāna Illustration 5.Three Modes of Consciousness The first transformation corresponds to the ālaya-vijñāna.) The third transformation is pariṇāma. as it were. (It is the cogito. the first reflecting or active phase of consciousness through which ātman is identified. which corresponds to the upalabdha-vijñāna. which in this context is best understood as a conceptual representation within consciousness. that consciousness which “grasps” or discriminates individual dharmas (phenomenal events or objects. The second transformation corresponds to the mano-vijñāna.

understanding. Separate from saintly state. and intelligence acquired. knowing. at all times seed. abode. called act of distinguishing. therein. result whole. primary cause or principle. conceptualization. germ. Unperceived instruction of conception. enumerated. element. Indifference to pleasure or pain. on that occasion. in that case. consequence of actions. entire. receptacle618 to make known. skill. recognizing. every. and in this way becomes river-torrent flowing. … tatra-ālayākhya vijñānam vipākaḥ sarvabījakam tatra ālaya ākhyā vijñāna vipāka sarva bīja in/to that place. worldly knowledge. Accordingly: perpetual tangibility (touch-contact). source. consciousness ripening. perception. all. maturity. inform. also always.Asaṃviditakopādisthāna-vijñaptikam ca tat Sadā sparśa-manaskāra-vit-sañjñā-cetanā-anvitam (k)614 asaṃviditakopādisthānavijñaptikaṃ ca tat/ sadā sparśamanaskāravitsaṃjñacetanānvitaṃ// (g)615 Upekṣā vedanā tatra-anivṛtā-avyākṛtam ca tat Tathā sparśa-ādayas-tacca vartate srotasaugha-vat Tasya vyāvṛtir-arhattve… (k)616 upekṣā vedanā tatra anivṛtāvyākṛtaṃ ca tat/ tathā sparśādayas tac ca vartate srotasaughavat// tasya vyāvṛttir arhattve… (g)617 Therein abode known as consciousness ripen at all times (all) seeds (causes). science. perceiving. attention of the mind. on that occasion unimpeded elementary substance. communicate. origin 221 . therefore dwelling. and thus likewise touch (tangibility). to be named. declare.

perpetually touch. connected as in grammar or construction. now … sadā sparśa-manaskāra-vit-sañjñā-cetanā-anvitam sadā sparśa manaskāra vit saṃjñā cetanā anvita always. so. likewise. attention of the mind (from vid). she. also acquired. to understand. this. but. tangibility taking. this. tangibility622 consciousness (of pleasure/pain). contact. announcement. that. if tad (alt. that. or become (alt. sometimes "that very" or there. contact. perceive. she. request. continually. accordingly touch. information. (representation of) consciousness. be conscious of. ever. even. tat). abandonment. contempt626 one of the five skandhas: pleasure/pain/neutral in/to that place. cognition624 reached by mind. it. along with629 222 .Asaṃviditakopādisthāna-vijñaptikam ca tat… asaṃviditaka what is unperceived619 . then. conceptualizing623 consciousness. soul. particularized. perception. tac). unconscious620 upadiṣṭa specified. instructed621 vijñapti mind. then. thus. learn. appearance. therefore unimpeded627 elementary substance from which all things were created628 and. intelligence.asaṃvida. on that occasion. haven taken. yet. seizing. concept. having as an essential or inherent part625 Upekṣā vedanā tatra-anivṛtā-avyākṛtam ca tat… upekṣā vedana tatra anivṛtā avyākṛta ca tad (act of) indifference. imparting. in that case. accordingly. if (alt. therein. tathā sparśa ādāya in that manner. he. understood. even. yet. just. giving ca and. it. disregard. be acquainted with. tat. now … tathā sparśa-ādayas-tacca vartate srotasaugha-vat. to know (how to). endowed with. he. mind. therefore. just. accordingly. sometimes "that very" or there. possessing. taught. therefore. sañjña). also lit. perception. also. also. but. negligence.

turning away. as well as neutrality). and volition (anvita). which ceases in the state of Arhatship. conceptualizing (sañjñā).TM 2c-5a The vipāka.6 … tad-āśritya pravartate Tad-ālambam mano-nāma vijñānam mananātmakam (k)634 223 . conditioned impressions). occur. apprehensions. torrent. Although the ālaya is unaware of its own activities (e. happen. cognition (cetanā).. or coming-into-efficacy of the thoughts. exist.e. experiences and impressions of the past.” The influence of the store-consciousness is compared to a powerful rushing river.g. separating from632 saintly state of Arhatship Table 72. because it is the maturation of all the causal influences of past experience and memory upon present or future moments of consciousness. be. violent motion630 torrent. mental attention (manas-kāra). perceptions.633 TM 5b-7: Manana Verses 5b . is also the ālaya (abode. live. receptacle) or mūla (root). pass away (time). it is nevertheless always either associated with or possessing (i.. stream. rush. Just as the ālaya is perpetually indifferent to the vedanā (feelings of pleasure and pain.vartate srotas saugha-vat revolve. sudden burst of rain631 Tasya vyāvṛtir-arhattve … tasya vyāvṛtti arhattve flowing or conveying deliverance from. current). is the abode of): touch (sparśa). become river (riverbed. so are bare mental and physical sensation or “contact.

science. occur. understanding. sometimes "that very” or there. intellect. named. exist. then. conscience. she. be. consciousness 224 nāma vijñāna . receptacle. understanding. pass away (time). as applied to all the mental powers). happen. the internal organ of perception and cognition. arising. perception. recognizing. Delusions (psychological afflictions) four. sense. distinct from ātman by name. therefore. will. depending on or from mind (it its widest sense. ālamba manas support. accompanied by veiled elementary substance continually: self-regard. that. Consciousness having the nature of reflection. intelligence. causing. asylum. producing. appearing. become = pravarta (-ka. live. effecting. -na): causing. now taking (or having taken) asylum. happening. accordingly. introducing … tad-ālambam mano-nāma vijñānam mananātmakam.tad āśritya pravartate/ tadālambaṃ manonāma vijñānaṃ mananātmakaṃ// (g)635 ahitam nivṛta-avyākṛtai sadā Ātma-dṛṣṭi-ātma-moha-ātma māna-ātma-sneha-sañjñitai (k)636 kleśaiś caturbhiḥ sahitaṃ nivṛtāvyākṛtaiḥ sadā/ ātmadṛṣṭyātmamohātmamā nātmasnehasaṃ jñitaiḥ// (g)637 Accordingly refuge in causation (production). … tad-āśritya pravartate … tad āśritya pravartate he. the faculty or instrument through which thoughts enter or by which objects of sense affect the soul. setting in motion/activity. worldly knowledge. refuge or recourse638 pra: before. only in appearance act of distinguishing. perceiving. quasi. this. in front of + vartate: revolve. promoting moving forward/onwards. skill. knowing. self-conceit and self-love concepts. That very support consciousness by name. it. self-ignorance. coming forth.

ever. evil desires four. like Kleśais-caturbhiḥ sahitam nivṛta-avyākṛtai sadā… kleśa caturbhiḥ sahita nivṛta avyākṛta sadā defilements. character. cognition and volition). also borne. delusion.TM 5b-6 The manana exists or occurs by taking the ālaya as its ground or support. arrogance love. meditation. As the ālaya. passions. enclosed639 elementary substance from which all things were created always. accompanied by. fondness for. reflection. bewilderment. idea. mind’s eye640 ignorance. it has the nature of “reflecting” or thinking. mental attention. the person or body considered as a whole seeing. i. esp. consisting/composed of. loss of consciousness. endured. delusions. intelligence. perpetually … ātma-dṛṣṭi-ātma-moha-ātma māna-ātma-sneha-sañjñitai ātma dṛṣṭi moha māna sneha sañjñitai from “to breathe/move”— (the individual) soul. conceptualizing. veiled. sañjña). passions) which are. nature. consideration. etc.manana ātmaka careful thought.”644 225 . abstract individual. view. as one of the faculties connected with the senses having the nature of. as the ālaya. attached to. supported withheld. veiled: self-regard. united. regard. design. the manana is also associated with touch. afflictions. and self-love. associated/connected with. also: essence. understanding. “… which are all of the same nature as the region in which one is born. distraction. having four (con-) joined. conceptualizing643 Table 73. continually.e. theory. intrinsic knowledge or science. (i. self-ignorance. consideration. life principle. attachment to642 (alt. purpose. surrounded.. self-conceit. It always associated with four kleśas (delusions. one of six negative dharmas.e. error641 opinion.

(k)645 Yatrajas tanmayair anyaiḥ sparśādyaiś cārhato na tat/ na nirodhasamāpattau mārge lokottare na ca// (g)646 Wherever being absorbed in the other. yielding. extraordinary651 Table 74. different (from). Yatrajas-tanmayair-anyaiḥ sparśa-ādyaiś-ca arhato na tat… yatra tanmaya anya sparśa adya ca arhat na tad in or to which place. covering up. then. getting. it. especially of pain648 stage of abstract meditation. strive to attain650 excelling or surpassing the world. restraint. or The world-transcending aim. destruction. wherein. accordingly. it is not so (alt. where. if one who has attained the saintly state of arhatship (enlightenment) no. but. control. suppression. she. falling into any state or condition. opposed to. this. older. whither being absorbed in or identical with that647 other (than). Mindless meditation. tat). another. now … na tat na nirodha-samāpattau mārge lokottare na ca… nirodha samāpatti mārg lokottara confinement. But not in saintly state. encountering. beyond what is common. not. also. tangibility first. that.TM 7 226 . he.Verse 7 Yatrajas-tanmayair-anyaiḥ sparśa-ādyaiś-ca arhato na tat Na nirodha-samāpattau mārge lokottare na ca. enclosing. sometimes "that very" or there. (also coming together. therefore. look (for). wherever. immediately preceding. just. yet. unprecedented and. being at the beginning. imprisonment. search (though). contact. even. Contact (tangibility) first. earlier. the other touch. becoming)649 to seek (after).

reach. extend. which is the attainment of the cessation or suppression of reflection. understanding. to sustain. Appearance good-bad-indifferent. Dvitīyaḥ pariṇāmo’yam/tritīyaḥ ṣaḍ-vidhasya yā… dvitīya pariṇāma yam tṛtīya ṣaḍ vidhā asya yā second change. proceed. depart. development. evolution to be founded on. it also ceases in the lokottara mārga. alteration. kind sitting. behave … viṣayasya-upalabdhiḥ kuśalaiś-cetasair-asau… or kuśalākuśalādvayā… viṣaya upalabdhi cetas sense object. aspect. restrain655 third656 (from ṣaṣ). or: consciousness. to hold back. transformation. proportion.But reflection ceases in the state of nirodha-samāpatti. external world. connection. vanish. state of rest go. or: heart. also to raise. fancy. conception. knowledge658 appearance. sphere. observation. intelligence. abiding. also act. mind. the extraordinary attainment of the arhat. Six parts (kinds) abiding… Conception of sense objects. sort. measure. pass. dwelling.652 TM 8-9: Acquisition of the Six-fold Object Verse 8 Dvitīyaḥ pariṇāmo’yam tritīyaḥ ṣaḍ-vidhasya ya Viṣayasya-upalabdhiḥ kuśalaiś-cetasair-asau (k)653 dvitīyaḥ pariṇāmo ‘yaṁ tṛtīyaḥ ṣaḍvidhasya yā/ viṣayasyopalabdhiḥ sā kuśalākuśalādvayā// (g)654 Second transformation (function) founds the third. perish. support. desire 227 . going. six657 part. mind. domain obtainment. perception. hold. set out.

.659 Verse 9 Sarvatra-gair-viniyataiḥ kuśalaiś-akuśala-adva ya Samprayuktā tathā kleśair-upakleśais-trivedanā (k)660 sarvatragair viniyataiḥ kuśalaiś cetasair asau/ samprayuktā tathā kleśair upakleśais trivedanā// (g)661 Psychological factors delimited: good. mind. fancy. limited662 appearance. or: heart. regulated. three feelings. which may be perceived as good. connected thus to defilements. neither. which in turn depends upon the influence of the store-consciousness upon and within its consciousness-stream.e. sight. or: consciousness. touch.TM 8 The vijñapti is six-fold perception of the six-fold sense field (i. not-good. checked. intelligence. lesser defilements. aspect. hearing. Sarvatra-gair-viniyataiḥ kuśalaiś-akuśala-adva ya… sarvatra-gair viniyata cetas kuśala akuśala adva mental/psychological factors/conditions/elements/qualities restrained. bad or value-neutral.kuśalākuśalādvayā good-bad-indifferent Table 75. desire good not good neither 228 . This transformation of consciousness is grounded in the former: discrimination of objects is functionally based upon discrimination of the subject. smell taste and the “sense-center).

as well as the three kinds of vedanā or feelings. likewise. the painful and the subjectively neutral. namely the primary. I will simply present them in summary. and those which are good are advantageous with respect to citta. namely the pleasurable. It is also associated with the three kinds of kleśas or delusions. delusions. afflictions. connected663 in that manner. so. passions. thus.. neutral or indifferent) Table 76. the particular or specifically determined. evil desires lesser kleśa tri: three + vedana: feelings (i.664 TM 10-14: Categories of the Sarvatragas and Kleśais Since doing so is not primary to the purposes of this project. pain.665 SARVATRAGAS Neutral Mental Functions and Positive Psychological Qualities Value-Neutral Mental Functions (A) Universal or General Sarvatragas (1) Touch Sensation Mental Contact (2) Volition Will (3) Feeling (4) Thought (5) Cognition Attention 229 . rather than spending space on a detailed account of these psychological categories as they appear in verses 10-14. united. secondary and indeterminate.e. pleasure.TM 9 Vijñapti is associated with three kinds of sarvatragas: the universal or always existing. accordingly defilements.… samprayuktā tathā kleśair-upakleśais-trivedanā… samprayukta tathā kleśa upakleśa trivedanā yoked or joined together.

Absence of delusion (18) upekṣa Composure Serenity Equanimity (C-3) Other Specific Sarvatragas (17) vīrya Courage Effort Energy (19) apramāda Diligence Carefulness Vigilance (20) ahiṃsā Nonharming/ injury/ violence (21) praśabdhi Reliability KLEŚAIS Negative and Indeterminate Psychological Qualities Negative Psychological Qualities (D) Primary or Major Kleśais (22) rāga Desire Passionate attachment (25) māna Pride (28) krodha Anger (23) pratigha Aversion Grudge Ill-will (26) dṛṣṭi Views (29) upanāha Hatred (24) mūdha Confusion Stupidity Delusion (27) vicikitsa Doubt (30) mrakṣa Hypocrisy. Calmness (10) dhī Wisdom Knowledge Thought Positive Psychological Qualities (C-1) Beneficial Sarvatragas (11) Faith Belief Confidence (14) Noncovetousness non-craving (12) Shame Conscience (13) Fear of censure.(B) Conditioned Particular Sarvatragas (6) chanda Desire Yearning Zest (7) adhimokṣa Discernment Resolve Decision (8) smṛti Memory Mindfulness (9) samādhi Meditative concentration. Dread of blame (16) adveṣa Non-hatred. (31) pradāsa (Verbal) (32) īrṣyā Envy (E) Secondary or Minor 230 . Non-hostility (C-2) Specific Sarvatragas (15) alobha Nonattachment.

231 . Consciousness together.Kleśais (33) mātsarya Selfishness Avarice (38) sthyāna Non-reliability. Sarcasm (36) āhrīkya Shamelessness (41) kausīdya Laziness Indolence Jealousy (37) anapatrapya Lack of embarrassment (42) pramāda Indulgence Idleness Indeterminate Psychological Qualities (F) Indeterminate Kleśais (45) kaukṛtya Remorse Repentance Worry (46) Drowsiness Torpor (47) vitarka Awakening Reasoning Applied thought (48) vicāra Contemplative observation. Thoughtlessness. Lack of Recognition Hiding faults (35) vihiṃsa Harmful-ness Violence (40) aśraddha Lack of faith Malice. Waves on water. Analysis Table 77. Mental Fogginess (43) vikṣepa Distraction of mind. Deliberation.Categories of the Sarvatragas and Kleśais TM 15-19: Trai-parijñāna and Vijñapti-Mātra Verse 15 Pañcānām mūla-vijñāne yathā-pratyayam-udbhāvaḥ Vijñānām saha na vā taraṇgāṇām yathā jale (k)666 pañcānāṃ mūlavijñāne yathāpratyayaṃ udbhāvaḥ/ vijñānānāṃ saha na vā taraṇgānāṃ yathā jale// (g)667 Five root-consciousnesses like belief about existence. forgetfulness Enmity Resentment (34) māya Deception Dishonesty (39) auddhatya “Falling into playfulness” Restlessness (44) āsamprajña Misunderstanding. perhaps not.

skill. enabling to cross. certainty. unless in stage of abstract meditation. origin. twofold stupors.673 Verse 16 Mano-vijñāna-sambhūtiḥ sarvadā-asañjñikād-ṛṭe Samāpatti-dvayān-mūrchanād-api acittakāt. science.TM 15 Like waves upon the water. evidence existence.Pañcānām mūla-vijñāne yathā-pratyayam-udbhāvaḥ… pañcān mūlavijñāna yathā pratyaya udbhāva five668 mūla. crossing over. vanquishing. worldly knowledge as follows. origin. act of distinguishing. whether not671 (taraṇa): raft. foot. or being without consciousness. idea. also overcoming. production. understanding. cause + vijñāna.672 wave water Table 78. root. (k)674 manovijñānasambhūtiḥ sarvadāsaṃjñikād ṛte/ samāpattidvayān middhānmūrchanād apy acittakāt// (g)675 Origin (manifestation) of distinguishing consciousness entirely (always) unconscious. becoming visible. 232 . according as. generation. contingent upon conditioning causes within the root consciousness. withstanding. correlative of. perceiving. the five sense consciousnesses arise concomitantly at all times or at other times not at all. knowledge. like belief. in which way. liberating. source. ground. conviction. grow669 … vijñānām saha na vā taraṇgāṇām yathā jale saha na vā taraṇgānāṃ jale together. recognizing. boat. basis. knowing. along with. enduring670 perhaps not. foundation.

falling into any state or condition. unimaginable. getting. high meditation. (also coming together. science. skill. entire. inconceivable. will. however. origin. intelligence. recognizing.TM 16 Reflecting or thinking consciousness always manifests itself. yielding. perception. understanding. production.Mano-vijñāna-sambhūtiḥ sarvadā-asañjñikād-ṛṭe manas mind (it its widest sense. worldly knowledge. unless677 vijñāna sambhūtiḥ sarva asañjñikād ṛte … samāpatti-dvayān-mūrchanād-api acittakāt samāpatti dvaya mūrchana api acitta stage of abstract meditation. all. the faculty or instrument through which thoughts enter or by which objects of sense affect the soul. unconceived. also always. understanding. incomprehensible.680 Verse 17 Vijñāna-pariṇāmo’yam vikalpo yad-vikalpyate Tena tan-nāsti tena-idam sarvam vijñapti-mātrakam (k)681 Vijñānapariṇāmo ‘yam vikalpo yad vikalpyate/ tena tannāsti tenedaṃ sarvaṃ vijñaptimātrakaṃ// (g)682 Transformation of consciousness 233 . becoming) twofold. unconsciousness excepting. of two kinds or natures stupefying. distinct from ātman act of distinguishing. perceiving. fainting. consciousness birth. non-cognitional state. as applied to all the mental powers). or being destitute of citta. manifestation of power676 whole. growth. encountering. every. fainting. swooning678 prefix indicating uniting with or approaching something without mind. conscience. It does not. causing insensibility. intellect. all things being equal. arises in states of unconsciousness. the internal organ of perception and cognition. knowing. at all times realm without thought. double. sense. destitute of intellect or sense679 Table 79.

there. consciousness change. imparting. science. understanding. knowing. wherefore. distinction. doubt683 in order that. request. support. as for the fact that. element = consciousness-occasion Table 80. all (this) vijñapti: mind. evolution a (negation) + yam: to be founded on. concept. difference of perception. 234 . since. fancy. alteration. to hold back. incorporeal everything. as. assertion of non-existence. hold. (representation of) consciousness. if to be distributed. restrain imagination. because. in that manner. skill. lit. perception. perceiving. for that reason. when. also alternative. contrivance. or chosen based upon circumstances684 … tena tan-nāsti tena-idam sarvam vijñapti-mātrakam tena nāsti idam sarvam vijñaptimātra in that direction. false notion. there is not. Vijñāna-pariṇāmo’yam vikalpo yad-vikalpyate… vijñāna pariṇāma yam vikalpa yad vikalpya act of distinguishing. information. development. giving + mātram: having/being/consisting of only/merely. thus. ascertained. atom.Unfounded imagination (conceptualization) as ascertained. worldly knowledge.TM 17 Since any verse in the consciousness trilogy giving expression to the “vijñaptimātra” thesis is worth a bit of extra attention. I would like to include here an instance of the method I used to compare multiple translations of the texts for points of similarities and difference in the way the verses have been translated into English. occasion. extend. to sustain. In that manner it is not. transformation. All of this is occasion of consciousness. instant. also to raise. recognizing. announcement. therefore it is not. also measure or limit (in space and time). connection.

e. 11) Chan. (9) Cook. (8) As a result of this. (8) Ganguly (with Sanskrit). (5) Anacker. what has thus been thought of does not exist. both unreal.5) Like this consciousness revolves (6) These are the various consciousnesses [i. Hsüan-tsang’s Chinese: (7) Lusthaus.4. (2) What is imagined [therefore] [by it] does not exist.4) Is a discrimination (5) (It is not separate from the two principles. (3. (3) Robinson.4) And as it is discriminated.Vasubandhu’s Sanskrit: (1) Kochumuttom (Tucci-MS2). all these are nonexistent. all these do not exist. it does not exist (5) The discriminated is already inexistent (6) All this and that are entirely nonexistent (7) Because of this. (9) That which discriminates and this which is discriminated are. because of this. i. (2) Nagao (LeviMS1). (4) Wood. (10) Both discrimination (consciousness) and the object of 235 . discriminator and discriminated) (6) Whose alterity discriminates and is discriminated (7) Manifest in two divisions: perception and the object of perception (8) Transform as imagination and the imagined (9) Are but transformations (10) Transform and change (11) What is thus distinguished does not exist as [subject and object].e. (10. Paramartha’s Sanskrit: (6) Lusthaus.2.3. Thought involves (2) This [threefold] transformation of consciousness (1. the eight] (7) The various consciousnesses (8) (9) (10) (11) Is just the distinction between subject and object (1) Is imagination (3. (1) For that reason.

In that respect. (4) Everything is perception only. what is discriminated— or. everything is understandable as an occasion of consciousness (vijñapti-mātra).to explain the “consciousness-occasion” thesis intelligibly. unreal. (9) Everything is mind only. (10) Everything is consciousness only.discrimination are. (6) All is Psycho-sophic closure. the verse ends. And so just as in the previous text. per Kochumuttom as well as Anacker. (7) All is Mere-consciousness. therefore. (1) All this is mere concept. Verse 18 Sarva-bījam hi vijñānam pariṇāmas-tathā tathā Yāti-anyonya-vaśād yena vikalpaḥ sa sa jāyate (k)686 sarvabījaṃ hi vijñānaṃ pariṇāmas tathā tathā/ yātyanyonyavaśād yena vikalpaḥ sa sa jāyate// (g)687 236 . (11)685 The transformation of consciousness includes the activity of discriminative conceptualization. (11) Therefore: This is all mere representation of consciousness. dependent and perfected aspects of observed phenomena-. (3) Everything is nothing but representations of consciousness. (5) The principle of consciousness-only is proven. (2) Everything is representation only. (8) All are consciousness only. Vasubandhu draws upon concepts presented in the TSN—to wit. because of this. the relationship between the conceptualized. while this activity is real. “as it is discriminated (emphasis mine)— is not.

one. accordingly …yāti-anyonya-vaśād yena vikalpaḥ sa sa jāyate yāti anyonya vaśā yena vikalpa sa jāyā (from yadi): if. in the case that one another. contrivance. doubt supplying the forms of. fancy. thus. understanding. source. recognizing. transformation. having. indeed act of distinguishing. skill. difference of perception. containing or being constituted by all of the bīja. likewise. all.690 Verse 19 Karmaṇo vāsanā grāha-dvaya-vāsanāyā saha Kṣīṇe pūrva-vipāke ‘nyad vipākam janayanti tat (k)691 237 . false notion. consciousness change. every. mutually influence by (means of) whom or which. evolution in that manner. alteration. This development is contingent upon mutual influence through which particular (“such and such”) thoughts are produced. the same bringing forth689 Table 81. worldly knowledge. perceiving.TM 18 The mūla-vijñāna. also always. on which account. so. Sarva-bījam hi vijñānam pariṇāmas-tathā tathā … sarva bīja hi vijñāna pariṇāma tathā whole. science. element. in consequence of which. accompanied by. in which direction or manner. origin for. supplying the forms of bringing forth. develops in various ways. germ.At all times seeds because consciousness transformation in that manner. (namely) because. If mutually influenced by means of conceptualization. knowing. surely. mutual. development. entire. also alternative. wherefore688 imagination. distinction. at all times seed. primary cause or principle.

earlier than ripening. product. vanquishing. expended. tat). accepting. therefore. seizing. of two kinds or natures together. also overcoming. also conception. receiving. Karmaṇo vāsanā grāha-dvaya-vāsanāyā saha… karma vāsanā grāha dvaya saha act. withstanding. he. notion twofold. previous to. effect impression of anything remaining unconsciously in the mind. lost. it. result. weakened. preceding. this. she. delicate693 being before or in front. that. waning. emaciated. result generating. action. maturity. the present consciousness of past perceptions. along with. accordingly. producing694 (alt. injured. holding. prior. consequence of actions. catching. sometimes "that very" or there.karmaṇo vāsanā grāhadvayavāsanāyā saha/ kṣīṇe pūrvavipāke ‘nyadvipākaṃ janayanti tat/ (g)692 Impression of action seizing-twofold-impression along with prior influence thus producing result. former. enduring … kṣīṇe pūrva-vipāke ‘nyad vipākam janayanti tat kṣīṇa pūrva vipāka janayanti tad diminished. knowledge derived from memory grasping.695 238 . now Table 82. then.TM 19 The residual karmic impressions of past actions together with the impressions of duality perceived in the past conjointly produce a new stage of development or maturation as soon as the prior stage is completed. double.

” Verses 20 . Thus purely conceptual… own-state-of-being not the same as knowledge. in which direction or manner. (k)698 paratantrasvabhāvas tu vikalpaḥ pratyayodbhāvaḥ/ niṣpannas tasya pūrveṇa sadā rahitatā tu yā// (g)699 By means of conceptualization… objects discriminated. in consequence of which. contrivance. difference of perception.TM 20-24: Trisvabhāva and Trinihsvabhāva Again. also alternative. Completed (perfected) own-state-of-being flows prior to separation… going. on which account. wherefore imagination. distinction. Inter-dependent own-state-of-being… conceptualization is origin of belief. as well as three causally related “conditions of not having” or “states of not being. doubt 239 .21 Yena yena vikalpena yad yad vastu vikalpyate Parikalpita-eva asau svabhāvo na sa vidyate (k)696 yena yena vikalpena yad yad vastu vikalpyate/ parikalpita evāsu svabhāvo na sa vidyate// (g)697 Para-tantra-svabhāvas-tu vikalpaḥ pratyaya-udbhāvaḥ Niṣpannas-tasya pūrveṇa sadā rahitatā tu yā. fancy. keeping the largely epistemological context of the TSN in mind. false notion. Yena yena vikalpena yad yad vastu vikalpyate… yena vikalpa by (means of) whom or which. the meaning in this section of the TM need not be obscure: there are three “conditions of having” or “states of being” attributable to any discriminated phenomenon.

so. thus. regular. distant. becoming visible. innate/inherent disposition/nature/impulse. invented. certainty. (falsely) constructed or fabricated. fancy. accurate description of the properties (of things) imagination. not. conviction. distinction. essential. as. natural state or constitution. evidence existence. also statement of the exact nature (of anything). or successively. opposite to or towards. thing. science. also: the doctrine that the universe was produced and is sustained by the natural and necessary action of substances according to their inherent properties. authority. knowledge. there own condition. the same knowledge. about. time or order/number/degree. assumed. if any really existing or abiding substance. essence. remote or different in space. when. medicine = (other-. production. philosophy. contrivance. fully. false notion. lasting. stranger. science. own state of being. a certain. abundantly. doubt belief. other. at the best or utmost + tantra. innate/inherent disposition/nature/impulse. chief matter. it is not so supplying the forms of. or chosen based upon circumstances … parikalpita-eva asau svabhāvo na sa vidyate parikalpita (purely. also: statement of the exact nature (of anything). natural state or constitution. the real700 to be distributed. having. Absolute. wherefore. inferred thus. ascertained. supposed. rule. prepared. inter-) dependent or relative own condition. Spirit. in the direction of. generation. foundation. also alternative. continuous. difference of perception. performed. constant. vastly) imaginary. because. firm. doctrine. acquiring. or against. grow 240 svabhāva vikalpa pratyaya udbhāva . pari: around. own state of being. object.yad vastu vikalpya in order that. also the doctrine that the universe was produced and is sustained by the natural and necessary action of substances according to their inherent properties. basis. accurate description of the properties (of things) no. as for the fact that. origin. gaining eva asau svabhāva na sa vidyā Para-tantra-svabhāvas-tu vikalpaḥ pratyaya-udbhāvaḥ… paratantra para: far. learning. artificial. in this way that. also: finding. idea. scholarship. highest degree. accompanied by. since. one. magic. severally701 + kalpita: fabricated.

arisen. Conveying name (idea): the manner in which it appears is a perpetually ignorant idea. the idea (belief) depending upon a mode of acting or being “that” (other). niṣpanna tasya pūrva sadā rahita yā come or gone forth.TM 20-21 Whatever real. descended or derived from. prior. effected. going. ever. in fact have the nature of conceptualization. also act.703 This echoes TSN 2-3: Wherefore idea (perception) of the relative (dependent) as follows: idea (perception) is assumed (constructed). or its absolutely dependent own-state-own-being. or its perfected. The niṣpanna svabhāva of phenomena. The paratantra svabhāva of phenomena. perpetually separated or free from. void. proceed. which is not the same as having actual knowledge. brought about. earlier than always. preceding. by whatever means. depart. solitary702 go. perish. pass. set out. sprung up. is a conditioned act of discrimination. assuming (constructing) merely existence. previous to. also forsaken. absent or destitute of. vanish. succeeded flowing or conveying being before or in front. to be known as the unchanging.… niṣpannas-tasya pūrveṇa sadā rahitatā tu yā. 241 . complete. non-discriminated own-state-of-being is the absence of the parikalpita in the paratantra. abiding things are discriminated. behave Table 83. continually. perfected (fully being) own-condition.

unknown709 242 . word. time or order/number/degree. Ataḥ eva sa na-eva-anyo na-ananyaḥ paratantrataḥ… eva sa naeva-anyo na-ananyaḥ paratantra thus to be neither the same nor different para: far. invisible. science. at the best or utmost + tantra. firm. medicine = (other-.. Absolute. chief matter. not experience. constant. inter-) dependent or relative … anityatā-ādi-vad vācyo… anityatā ādi vad vācyo transient or limited existence706 beginning (with). commencement. unobserved. language (inc. lasting. statement708 … na-adṛṣṭe asmin sa dṛśyate na adṛṣṭa no. phrase. stranger. foundation. and so on… to be said or spoken707 speech. that of animals). other. magic. doctrine. highest degree. Transient existence commencing with language use. basis. first fruits. it is not so un. or etc. It is not unobserved. essential. regular.(fore-) seen. sound (inc. objects). remote or different in space.Furthermore— Verse 22 Ataḥ eva sa na-eva-anyo na-ananyaḥ paratantrataḥ Anityatā-ādi-vad vācyo Na-adṛṣte asmin sa dṛśyate (k)704 ata eva sa naivānyo nānyaḥ paratantrataḥ anityatādivad vācyo nādrṣṭe ‘smin sa dṛśyate// (g)705 Thus to be neither the same nor different than the other-dependent. rule. not. “I am” viewpoint the same. authority. continuous. Spirit. distant.

complete. “I am”710 supplying the forms of. “Transient existence beginning with spoken language. the same (from dūṣyā). not unobserved “I am” accompanied by dṛśya. corruptible. or its absolutely dependent own-stateown-being is non-different from the niṣpanna svabhāva of phenomena. one. when one is not seen. reprehensible. Paratantra is non-different in definition from pariniṣpanna because (1) paratantra does not exist in the form in which it appears (it has no svabhāva as it appears).711 Recall TSN 25: Story of twofold non-being and being Absolute (complete) nature… understood. and understanding that it—the non-being of duality— is itself both asti and nasti. existing and non-existing.” As with permanence and impermanence. having. accompanied by. or its perfected. offending Table 84. the other is not seen either. and (2) the svabhāva of pariniṣpanna is the unreality (abhāva) of duality. non-discriminated own-state-of-being.asmi sa dṛṣya cogito. at that time Existence and non-existence… One understands the perfected pariniṣpanna by finding the non-being of duality within the dependent paratantra. In that manner surely thus in this way.712 Verse 23 Tri-vidhasya svabhāvasya tri-vidhām niḥsvabhāvatām Sandhāya sarvadharmāṇām deśitā niḥsvabhāvatā (k)713 243 . culpable.TM 22 The paratantra svabhāva of phenomena.

) Tri-vidhasya svabhāvasya tri-vidhām niḥsvabhāvatām… trividhā asya svabhāva tri: three. character.TM 23 deśita It is taught that all dharmas are without svabhāva for the implicit purpose of demonstrating that there is a three-fold not-abiding-in-own-state-of-being that is established on the basis of the three-fold abiding-in-own-state of being. justice. also always. all qualities (things) Shown to be not-abiding-in-own-state-of-being (unpropertied. at all times according to the nature of. innate/inherent disposition/nature/impulse. own state of being. threefold + vidhā: part. right. usage. mark shown. virtue. also nature. kind sitting. sort. natural state or constitution. that which is established or firm. all. Three kinds (parts) not-abiding-in-own-state-of-being (unpropertied). measure. law or doctrine. unpropertied715 niḥsvabhāva … sandhāya sarvadharmāṇām deśitā niḥsvabhāvatā samdhāya sarva dharma having placed together. reached terms of peace716 whole. state of rest own condition. Placed together. dwelling. practice. every. condition. formed an alliance. directed717 Table 85.trividhasya svabhāvasya trividhāṃ niḥsvabhāvatāṃ/ saṃdhāya sarvadharmānām deśitā niḥsvabhāvatā// (g)714 Three kinds (parts) abiding-in-own-state-of-being (propertied). property. proportion. entire. also the doctrine that the universe was produced and is sustained by the natural and necessary action of substances according to their inherent properties. morality.718 244 . accurate description of the properties (of things) without svabhāva. abiding. duty. essential quality. steadfast decree. also statement of the exact nature (of anything).

in this way without svabhāva. to sustain. chief matter. Prathamo lakṣaṇena-eva niḥsvabhāvo’paraḥ punaḥ… prathama lakṣaṇa eva niḥsvabhāva para punar first.Verse 24 Prathamo lakṣaṇena-eva niḥsvabhāvo’paraḥ punaḥ Na-svayam-bhāva etasya iti-apara niḥsvabhāvatā (k)719 prathamo lakṣaṇenaiva niḥsvabhāvo ‘paraḥ punaḥ/ na svayambhāva etasyetyaparā niḥsvabhāvatā// (g)720 Preceding definition thus not-abiding-in-own-state-of-being (unpropertied)… unfounded existence flowing thus again in this manner. once more. Spirit. hold. non-being Table 86. entity. nature tasya flowing or conveying asya sitting. restore. also foremost. Absolute. abiding. restrain bhāva existence. to exist again. naturelessness. disposition. be renewed722 … na-svayam-bhāva etasya iti-apara niḥsvabhāvatā na-sva yam no-own to be founded on. preceding definition. prior. condition. dwelling. another. extend. firstly. distant. connection. initial. turn around. former. sign. in this manner. also to raise. time or order/number/degree. also latter. other. following. state of being. non-entity. at the best or utmost to go back or in an opposite direction. support. primary. thus723 apara having nothing beyond or after. to hold back. attribute. quality thus. not-abiding-in-own-state-of-being (unpropertied). state of rest iti as you know. stranger. unpropertied721 far. original. also characteristic.TM 24 245 . remote or different in space. mark. in the future724 niḥsvabhāvatā absence of self-nature. highest degree. symbol. distant.

law or doctrine. steadfast decree. nature. absence of svabhāva. essential quality. duty. thus having nothing after. Recall TSN 10-21. that which is established or firm. usage. virtue.“Preceding lakṣaṇa (by definition) without svabhāva. disturbance).” The trisvabhāva are without svabhāva as follows: the parikalpita by definition. and the pariniṣpanna because it is niḥsvabhāvatā. condition.” Pariniṣpannasvabhāva is the “… vyavadānasya (purification) lakṣaṇam. justice.(defilement.lakṣaṇam (symbol/definition). Para… no-own founded bhāva flowing or conveying. remaining as it is at all times. it is the definition of “purity.(along with) kleśa. Dharmāṇām paramārthaś-ca sa yatas tathatā-api saḥ… dharma according to the nature of. practice. character. in which the principle of meditation is applied to the definitions of the tri-svabhāva: Kalpita-svabhāva and paratantra-svabhāva are modified and thus are not “pure” svabhāva. mark 246 . thus supplying the forms of consciousness-occasion. right. (k)726 dharmānāṃ paramārthaś ca sa yatas tathatāpi saḥ/ sarvakālaṃ tathābhāvāt saiva vijñaptimātratā// (g)727 Highest truth of phenomena and same true suchness enduring.”725 TM 25-30: Enlightenment Through Vijñapti-Mātra Verse 25 Dharmāṇām paramārthaś-ca sa yatas tathatā-api saḥ Sarva-kālam tathā-bhāvāt sa eva vijñapti-mātratā. the paratantra because it does not come into existence independently. morality. property.” Being unmodified. They are both “…jñeya (to be known) saṃ.

(representation of) consciousness.paramārtha ca sa yatas tathatā api sah highest or whole truth. lit. Twofold grasping results. perception. the same from which or what. ultimate meaning728 and. the same thus. yet. true suchness. in this way vijñapti: mind. accompanied by. request. so long as it is not ceased (reversed).”732 Verse 26 Yāvad vijñapti-mātratve vijñānam na-avatiṣṭhati Grāha-dvayasya-anuśayas-tāvan-na vinivartate (k)733 yāvad vijñaptimātratve vijñānaṃ navatisṭhate/ grāha dvayānuṣyas tāvan na vinivartate// (g)734 So long as consciousness is not situated in consciousness-occasion.” which is the intention of “vijñaptimātra. 247 . also. also measure or limit (in space and time). one. true state of things prefix indicating uniting with or approaching something overpowering. true reality. enduring730 … sarva-kālam tathā-bhāvāt sa eva vijñapti-mātratā sarva-kālam tathā-bhāvāt sa eva vijñaptimātra remaining as it is at all times731 supplying the forms of. having. element = consciousness-occasion Table 87. imparting. giving + mātram: having/being/consisting of only/merely. occasion. one. whence729 true nature. having. instant. just. even. but.TM 25 The highest truth (paramārtha) about the dharmas is the true state of things (tathatā) because “it is as it is. if supplying the forms of. atom. announcement. concept. information. accompanied by.

reversing737 Table 88. will continue (all things being equal qua there being a functioning state of consciousness. science. perceiving. imparting.738 In other words. so long. seizing. so much736 no. also conception. dwelling. knowing. worldly knowledge. atom. (representation of) consciousness. also measure or limit (in space and time).TM 26 Disposition towards the conceptions of subject and object.” 248 . tāvat). “consciousness occasion. of two kinds or natures + (asya) sitting.Yāvad vijñapti-mātratve vijñānam na-avatiṣṭhati… yāva vijñaptimātra as long as vijñapti: mind. so far. so long as consciousness is not situated in vijñapti-mātra. the persistence of conceptualization depends upon lack of cognizance of the three aspects of phenomenal appearance and the state of affairs summarized by the phrase. instant. holding. not. abiding. request. lit. perception. receiving. occasion. announcement. giving + mātram: having/being/consisting of only/merely. per TM 15-6). double. close attachment to any object. information. recognizing. accepting. concept. it is not so ceasing. consciousness not situated in vijñāna naavatisthati … grāha-dvayasya-anuśayas-tāvan-na vinivartate… grāha dvayasya anuśaya tāvan na vinivarta grasping. understanding. state of rest the consequence of action that clings to that action. action735 (alt. element = consciousness-occasion act of distinguishing. catching. notion (dvaya) twofold. skill. and of ātman and dharmas.

in this way everything as you know. reason. memory. intelligence. concept. restraint741 in front. thus. perception. reflecting. lit. perception. indeed obtainment. attending. (representation of) consciousness. aim. in the beginning742 (interrogative particle) mind. wish. order. the heart rudimentary creation743 not situated in Table 89. intention. atom. information. thinking. element = consciousness-occasion thus. before. surely. longed for. also measure or limit (in space and time).Verse 27 Vijñapti-mātram-eva-idam-iti-api hi-upalambhataḥ Sthāpayan-agrataḥ kiṃ-cit tanmātre na-avatiṣṭhate (k)739 vijñaptimātraṃ evedaṃ itypi hyupalambhataḥ/ sthāpayannagrataḥ kiṃ cit tanmātre nāvatiṣthate// (g)740 Consciousness-occasion thus everything in this manner because perception ordered before… what consciousness rudimentary creation not situated in? Vijñapti-mātram-eva-idam-iti-api hi-upalambhataḥ… vijñaptimātra vijñapti: mind.TM 27 249 . (namely) because. so prefix indicating uniting with or approaching something for. announcement. recognition eva idam iti api hi upalambha … sthāpayan-agrataḥ kiṃ-cit tanmātre na-avatiṣṭhate sthāpaya agrata kiṃ cit (-ta) tanmātra naavatiṣthate kept in place. giving + mātram: having/being/consisting of only/merely. also noticed. observing. thought. occasion. imagining. in this manner. instant. imparting. aimed at. request. visible.

cause. sign.Remaining situated in vijñapti-mātra cannot occur through mere perception. abiding in. e.” because as soon as the thought is expressed. wisdom. whenever. taste and touch747 knowing. not. received. in this way obtained. conceived. it is not so thus. in that case. cognizance. in that case being situated in consciousness-occasion.744 Verse 28 Yadā tu-ālambanam jñānam na-eva-upalabhate tadā Sthito vijñāna-mātratve grāhya-abhāve tad-agrahāt (k)745 yadā tvālambanaṃ jñanam naivopalabhate tadā/ sthitaṃ vijñānamātratve grāhyābhāve todagrahāt// (g)746 Whenever reason (foundation) knowledge not-thus-obtained. also: guessed at that time. reason. sound. if depending or resting upon. knowledge. foundation. intelligence. smell.g. recognize non-existence there non-grasping. characteristic (of recognition) no. then748 … sthito vijñāna-mātratve grāhya-abhāve tad-agrahāt sthita standing. also: mark. Yadā tu-ālambanam jñānam na-eva-upalabhate tadā… yadā tu ālambana jñāna na eva upalabdha tadā when. and another has arisen to take its place. also the five attributes of things vis-à-vis the five sense: form. remaining in749 250 . situated. the occasion has perished.. perceived. “This is an occasion of consciousness. by putting something before oneself and saying.

then. instant.” “… one does not perceive also a supporting consciousness. consciousness having/being/consisting of only/merely.753 “… consciousness with object is not obtained. that. unperceived… 251 . worldly knowledge. knowing. to be chosen. understood.TM 28 “Whenever… not apprehending what depends upon signs. state of being. occasion to be seized or taken. atom. disposition. recognized.”754 “… the mind no longer seizes on any object (ālambana) whatever. sometimes "that very" or there. perceiving. assented to. gathered. also measure or limit (in space and time).”752 “… wisdom (jñāna) no longer conceives any idea of object” when perceiving the sphere of objects. considered750 absence of: existence.”751 “… consciousness no longer recognizes an object. understanding. accepted. recognizing. this. element. entity. now non-grasping. to be perceived. nature. condition. skill.”755 Understanding “occasion of consciousness” can only take place when there is no apprehension of subject (perceiver) and object (perceived). accordingly. impulse he. received. it. learned. at that time situated in vijñapti-mātra perceived absence of existence non-conceived. she. non-conceiving Table 90. Verse 29 Acitto’nupalambho’sau jñānam lokottaram ca tat Āśrayasya parāvṛttir-dvidhā dauṣṭulya-hānitaḥ (k)756 acitto ‘nupalambho ‘sau jñānaṃ kokottaraṃ ca tat/ āśrayasya parāvṛttir dvidhā dauṣṭhulyahānitaḥ// (g)757 Inconceivable. therefore.vijñāna mātra grāhya abhāva tad agrāha act of distinguishing. held. science.

cessation. reversion (e. perception. having recourse to. deprivation. sometimes "that very" or there. dwelling. dwelling. then. cognizance. intelligence.. even. beyond what is common. there follows a transmutation or reversion of the basis of such apprehension. inconceivable. incomprehensible. also: that with which anything is closely connected or on which anything depends or rests.g. split in two depravity. now … āśrayasya parāvṛttir-dvidhā dauṣṭulya-hānitaḥ āśraya the five organs of sense plus manas. yet. loss. revolving.. relinquishment. attachment758 sitting. abiding. tat). that. it.761 252 . and accordingly abiding in non-attachment. also recipient. unconceived. state of rest turning back or around. rebounding.TM 29 asya parāvṛtti dvidha dauṣṭya hāni (-ta) When the apprehension of ātman and dharmas is stilled. knowledge. also: mark. sign. therefore. nonexistence. or recognition jñāna knowing. if tad (alt. extraordinary ca and. Acitto’nupalambho’sau jñānam lokottaram ca tat… acitta without mind. also restoration of property. but. accordingly. of a judgment). disappearance. this. resting-place. he. not taking effect759 divided. This is the extraordinary knowledge. wickedness760 abandonment. viz. just.knowledge surpassing the world. the āśraya (six-fold object consciousness). insufficiency Table 91. destitute of intellect or sense anupalambha lack of obtainment. she. reversion of consciousness two-fold ignorance abandons. unimaginable. characteristic (of recognition) lokottara excelling or surpassing the world. inconceivable and ineffable. also. wisdom. also: decrease.

nature. firm. wholesome. liberated. character. condition. to be conceived. beneficial fixed. essential quality. afflictionless764 realm. one. good. declare. that which is established or firm. the same thus. steadfast decree. constant. property. sphere.TM 30 ākhyā yam mahā muni 253 . called to be founded on. immovable. hold. also to raise. having. connection. also collection. blessed. restrain great766 monk. accompanied by. permanent. imagined auspicious. blissful emancipated. to sustain. enumerated.” passionless. support. to be named. communicate. eternal765 … sukho vimukti-kāyo’sau dharma-ākhyo-‘yam mahā-muneh sukha vimukta kāya dharma delightful. sage Table 92. inform. morality. thought. law or doctrine. extend. Sa eva-anāśravo dhātur-acintyaḥ kuśalo dhruvaḥ… sa eva anāśru dhātu acintya kuśala dhruva supplying the forms of. blessed. Liberation body… great sage. auspicious. eternal. justice. practice. assemblage according to the nature of.Verse 30 Sa eva-anāśravo dhātur-acintyaḥ kuśalo dhruvaḥ Sukho vimukti-kāyo’sau dharma-ākhyo-‘yam mahā-muneh (k)762 sa evānāsravo dhātur acintyaḥ kuśalo dhruvaḥ/ sukho vimuktikāyo ‘saw dharmākhayo ‘yam mahāmuneḥ// (g)763 Thus the same affliction-less realm. virtue. right. in this way “tearless. serene body. duty. to hold back. mark to make known. Unconceived. stratum. also constituent element a (negation) + cintya. layer. usage.

that consciousness which is “always flowing and storing” the bīja or elements of causal influence from past experiences. natures.” being non-conceptual. The first transformation corresponds to the ālaya-vijñāna. eternal. These three transformations. which is the maturation of causal efficacy and influence within consciousness. but they all refer to developments within the threefold pariṇāma-vijñāna or the transformation or development of consciousness. ineffable. auspicious. phenomena) are varied. which is reflection or active mentation within consciousness. that consciousness which “grasps” or discriminates individual dharmas (phenomenal events or objects. beneficial.767 Summary The function or development of the metaphors of atman (self) and dharmas (conditions. immutable and blessed. which in this context is best understood as a conceptual representation within consciousness. the first reflecting or active phase of consciousness through which ātman is identified. liberation-body…”. The third transformation is pariṇāma. It is the “liberation body” or “dharma-body” doctrine of the Buddha. phases or functions of consciousness are: (1) the vipāka. which corresponds to the upalabdha-vijñāna. This is the realm free from “afflictions. blessed. The second transformation corresponds to the mano-vijñāna. elements. and (3) the vijñapti.) 254 .“… Thus tearless realm inconceivable. (2) the manana.

The manana exists or occurs by taking the ālaya as its ground or support. etc. self-ignorance. it also ceases in the lokottara mārga. experiences and impressions of the past. which may be perceived as good. conceptualizing (sañjñā). Although the ālaya is unaware of its own activities (e.. touch. cognition and volition).” The influence of the store-consciousness is compared to a powerful rushing river. mental attention. and volition (anvita). or coming-into-efficacy of the thoughts.e. smell taste and the “sense-center).. is the abode of): touch (sparśa). receptacle) or mūla (root). it has the nature of “reflecting” or thinking. This transformation of consciousness is grounded in the former: 255 . (i. the extraordinary attainment of the arhat. the manana is also associated with touch. and self-love. It always associated with four kleśas (delusions. cognition (cetanā). it is nevertheless always either associated with or possessing (i. sight. conditioned impressions).g. so are bare mental and physical sensation or “contact.e..e. which ceases in the state of Arhatship. veiled: self-regard. because it is the maturation of all the causal influences of past experience and memory upon present or future moments of consciousness.. which is the attainment of the cessation or suppression of reflection. mental attention (manas-kāra). as well as neutrality). perceptions. But reflection ceases in the state of nirodha-samāpatti. The vijñapti is six-fold perception of the six-fold sense field (i. apprehensions.The vipāka. conceptualizing. as the ālaya. As the ālaya. bad or value-neutral. Just as the ālaya is perpetually indifferent to the vedanā (feelings of pleasure and pain. self-conceit. hearing. is also the ālaya (abode. passions) which are.

discrimination of objects is functionally based upon discrimination of the subject. high meditation. everything is understandable as consciousness-occasion (vijñapti-mātra). In that respect. and those which are good are advantageous with respect to citta. the five sense consciousnesses arise concomitantly at all times or at other times not at all. secondary and indeterminate. however. Vijñapti is associated with three kinds of sarvatragas: the universal or always existing. Like waves upon the water. fainting. containing or being constituted by all of the bīja. Reflecting or thinking consciousness always manifests itself. is not. as well as the three kinds of vedanā or feelings. contingent upon conditioning causes within the root consciousness. all things being equal. It does not. It is also associated with the three kinds of kleśas or delusions. namely the pleasurable. therefore. namely the primary. or how it is discriminated. develops in various ways. The transformation of consciousness includes the activity of discriminative conceptualization. This development is contingent upon mutual influence through which particular (“such and such”) thoughts are produced. while this activity is real. which in turn depends upon the influence of the store-consciousness upon and within its consciousness-stream. or being destitute of citta. arises in states of unconsciousness. 256 . what is discriminated. The residual karmic impressions of past actions together with the impressions of duality perceived in the past conjointly produce a new stage of development or maturation as soon as the prior stage is completed. the particular or specifically determined. The mūla-vijñāna. the painful and the subjectively neutral.

in fact have the nature of conceptualization. and understanding that it—the non-being of duality— is itself both asti and nasti. The paratantra svabhāva of phenomena. or its absolutely dependent own-stateown-being is non-different from the niṣpanna svabhāva of phenomena. abiding things are discriminated. or its perfected. as well as three causally related “conditions of not having” or “states of not being. existing and 257 .vipāka maturational vipāka ālaya-vijñāna prātibhāsika phenomenal naimittika being caused manana mano-vijñāna vijñāpti upalabdhi-vijñāna TSN: tri-svabhāva TM: pariṇāma-vijñāna Illustration 6. by whatever means. or its perfected. One understands the perfected pariniṣpanna by finding the non-being of duality within the dependent paratantra. complete. non-discriminated own-state-of-being is the absence of the parikalpita in the paratantra. is a conditioned act of discrimination.Three Modes of Consciousness Compared There are three “conditions of having” or “states of being” attributable to any discriminated phenomenon. The niṣpanna svabhāva of phenomena. which is not the same as having actual knowledge.” Whatever real. complete. non-discriminated own-state-of-being. The paratantra svabhāva of phenomena. or its absolutely dependent own-state-own-being.

” Disposition towards the conceptions of subject and object. “consciousness occasion.g. e.” Remaining situated in vijñapti-mātra cannot occur through mere perception. It is taught that all dharmas are without svabhāva for the implicit purpose of demonstrating that there is a three-fold not-abiding-in-own-state-of-being that is established on the basis of the three-fold abiding-in-own-state of being. so long as consciousness is not situated in vijñapti-mātra. The tri-svabhāva are without svabhāva as follows: the parikalpita by definition. and of ātman and dharmas. Understanding “occasion of consciousness” can only take place when there is no apprehension of subject (perceiver) and object (perceived). In other words. the persistence of conceptualization depends upon lack of cognizance of the three aspects of phenomenal appearance and the state of affairs summarized by the phrase. and another has arisen to take its place..” which is the intention of “vijñapti-mātra.non-existing. The highest truth (paramārtha) about the dharmas is the true state of things (tathatā) because “it is as it is. “This is an occasion of consciousness. the occasion has perished. and the pariniṣpanna because it is niḥsvabhāvatā.” because as soon as the thought is expressed. Paratantra is non-different in definition from pariniṣpanna because (1) paratantra does not exist in the form in which it appears (it has no svabhāva as it appears). and (2) the svabhāva of pariniṣpanna is the unreality (abhāva) of duality. will continue (all things being equal qua there being a functioning state of consciousness. per TM 156). by putting something before oneself and saying. the paratantra because it does not come into existence independently. When the 258 .

v ṠBr. (Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. %{ātmanā vi-yuj}.” being non-conceptual. Religions of Asia Series No. (New York: Routledge-Curśon.) 597 Francis Harold Cook. (Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. %{adhy-ātma}. there follows a transmutation or reversion of the basis of such apprehension.v. 23. 259 . “ she strikes herself”. e. 1963).g.) 594 Thomas E. “ to lose one's life” Ṃn. A Sourcebook in Chinese Philosophy. ii.. 46.g. 1999. This is the realm free from “afflictions.) %{dhatte}. %{at}. Kochumuttom. 1991). “ he did it himself” Kād. to breathe. 2002. M. %{ātmán}) (Ved. for %{ātmán}. is used as reflexive pronoun for all three persons and all three genders e. 595 Stefan Anacker. to move. ineffable. 28. This is the extraordinary knowledge. beneficial. Nagao in David J. 134-5 602 Ganguly. the soul. 64. pp. %{ātmānaṃ sā hanti}. Wood. 134. the individual soul. It is the “liberation body” or “dharma-body” doctrine of the Buddha 591 Thomas A. Treatise in Thirty Verses on Mere-Consciousness: a Critical Translation of Hsuan-Tsang’s Chinese Version of the Vijnaptimatra-tatrimsika. inconceivable and ineffable. 75-6. immutable and blessed. Three Texts on Consciousness Only: Demonstration of Consciousness Only. 77-8 603 ātma (in comp.”Buddhist Idealism. principle of life and sensation ṚV. 1984). 596 Swati Ganguly. (New Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass.. %{tmán}) the breath ṚV. viz. (New York: State University of New York Press 1987). %{vā}. self. (Numata Center for Buddhist Translation and Research. 8. A Buddhist Doctrine of Experience: a New Translation and Interpretation of the Works of Vasubandhu. %{ātman} in the sg. abstract individual (e. (Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press. The Principle of Buddhist Psychology. (see also below s. loc.) 598 Wing-Tsit Chan (editor). %{putram ātmanaḥ spṛṣṭvā nipetatuḥ}. footnotes pp. “ he places in himself. Mind Only: a Philosophical and Doctrinal Analysis of the Vijñānavāda. ātman %{A} m. 128. %{ātmanā akarot}. Ch. Buddhist Phenomenology: A Philosophical Investigation of the Yogācāra Buddhism and the Ch’eng Wei-shi Lun. %{an}. cf. 1992. to blow.” 599 Kochumuttom.apprehension of ātman and dharmas is stilled.g. 601 Kochumuttom. 1982). 600 Ganguly.” makes his own Tṣ.. ĀV. “ they two having touched their son fell down” R. vii.. 593 Dan Lusthaus. Kalupahana. &c. (variously derived fr. Seven Works of Vasubandhu: The Buddhist Psychological Doctor. %{adhy-ātmám}). or %{karoti}. Routledge-Curśon Critical Studies in Buddhism Series.. the āśraya (six-fold object consciousness). pp. (Princeton University Press. footnotes pp. 592 G. also rarely ifc.

(= %{vividha} above) R. 46. decoration Kum. perform Tṣ. wait upon. custom or manner of speech ṇyāyad. ṂBh. 8... metaphorically). set about. the Bahuvrīhi compounds %{ātma-caturtha}. ṂBh. v. wait on. conduct. {ōdem}. undertake. present.. mode of proceeding towards (gen. 408.. xxxii. be obedient ṚV.. act of civility. 3. (%{am}) ind. %{-dhÂgama} mfn. approach ṚV. manifold. Āp. 8-3. 11. in comp. approach ṠBr. 6 (cf. {ātum}. 300.. Vedântas. (= %{dhṛti}) firmness L. &c. serve. physic (a person). m. nurse Ṣuśr. x. of wk. &c. changing from one color into another Kāraṇḍ. &c.. practice.g. to physic Ṣuśr. 97.. the sun L. essence. having various forms MW. proceeding. %{-śāstragoṣthī} f. 187.. metaphor. %{karmÂtman}. Germ. to approach.) &42279(135. nature. a kind of ṣandhi (substitution of %{s} and %{ṣ} in place of Visarga) Kāś... on Pāṇ. ṣarvad. ḍaś. 605 3 vividha mf (%{A})n.. tend. ṣāh.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 06/08/2007. (ifc. to attend upon. supplementary ṠāṅkhBr. effort L. 39 upacara mfn. usage. treatment ṠBr. $ (?). 6. 1 ṠBr. http://webapps. a favourable circumstance ṣāh. peculiarity (often ifc. treat.. i. %{-rūpa-dhṛt} mfn. reverence ṠBr.. the person or whole body considered as one and opposed to the separate members of the body Vṣ.1) ātmanā instr. divers Ṃn... {āthem}.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 01/21/2007. behaviour. 2 seqq.%{ātmanā}). vii. apply figuratively (generally Pass.. m.. (64 ūpacāras are enumerated in the ṭantra-sāra. pretence. variety of action or gesture MW. (but not in a Bahuvrīhi) with ordinals Pāṇ. approach. 14 ṛāmatŪp. 14. 1 ṠBr.. mind” see %{naṣṭÂtman}. Brahma (cf. vii. 86. attend. quoted by ṭ. accessory. ṣarvad. to go towards. 105.. 4. vii. approach ṚV. 2 Tṣ. 260 . access. i. Comm.. i. the body Ṛagh.) Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. character. a partic. and %{-pañcama}. 38 upācar P. service.uni-koeln. %{dhôpala-bhūṣita} mfn. come near. Sax. xiv. (ōld Germ. 6. solicitation. bribe. &c. variously R. to come near. comprising various sacred (or traditional) works Ṃn. http://webapps. n.) 40 upacāra m. request L. Mod.. a figurative or metaphorical expression (%{upacārāt} ind. Ṛagh. &c. 30.) ṚV. ṂBh. the highest personal principle of life.. attendance ḥcat. e. ii. Angl. offering. %{-dhôpêta} mfn. 44 Vṣ. attendance. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ SanskritEnglish Dictionary: search results. 7. 111. %{-carati}.. figurative application ṣāh.. 11 ṠBr. Pañcat. decorated with various jewels MW. 3 ṠBr. pretext L. assist. discourse about various sciences L.) “ the understanding.). of %{ātman}. Ṡak. (%{vi-vidha} above) Car. ṂBh. ṠBr. 48. 1. Pañcat. %{sÛpacara}. = %{vi-vidha} above ḥPariś. Vikr. x. coloured variously. %{-vidhi-prayoga-saṃgraha} m. ṃṛicch. ornament. n. ii.. bear a hand ṠBr. %{mandÂ-}. 4. 46. to come near to. xii.. attendance on a patient. iv. &c. %{-carati}. 604 37 upacar P. a ceremony Kum.. %{-bhaGgīka} mfn. %{paramÂtman}) ĀV. ṇ. %{-caryate}) VarBṛṣ. %{-citra} mfn. fire L. 6-3.. ṂBh.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 01/21/2007. Gk. http://webapps. intellect. of a Pariśishṭa of the ṣāma-veda. &c. of various sorts. cure Ṣuśr.). iii.uni-koeln. on Ṡiś. ii. a son L. (cf. R. Ṃn. &c. medical practice.uni-koeln... to attend on (a patient). serve. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. {oedhm}. obliging or polite behaviour. ēkâha ṠāṅkhṠr. %{-dhÂtman} mfn. $. physicking Ṣuśr.. to use figuratively or metaphorically. &c.

&c. %{ayāsam} or %{ayāsiṣam}. p. %{yāsiṣat} ṚV. %{yÁtave} or %{-vaí}. 3.. %{yaye} Kāv.v. Prec. withering. 609 1 manana a. p. (%{-nÁ} ind. p. p. consequence. n. ṇ. p. meditation. 111 Sch. %{yātum} ṂBh. ṣubj.. Ganguly.uni-koeln. thinking. 611 See also Kochumuttom. looking forward to the issue or consequences (of any event). 261 . Robinson in Lusthaus. 49. lapse (of time) ṂBh. 275. %{yaí}. %{darśin} mfn. moving (see %{ṛṇa-} %{eva-}. transformation into (instr. inf. thoughtfully. at three times. in the end) Kāv. Ṣuśr. %{yāsiṣīṣṭhās} Br. 194. p... p. evolution ṣāṃkhyak. http://webapps. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Capeller’s Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. 4. ṭarkas. intrinsic knowledge or science. 254.. tending or verging towards the end.) W. p. impf. Ṡaṃk. ind. careful ṚV. 610 See also Kochumuttom. Wood. %{yayaú}. fading ṠārṅgP. foresight. %{-mukha} mfn. p. Ved. having a natural development (%{-ttva} n. 41) %{yÁti} (1.. Anacker.). growing old ib. 377. finally. &c. 6 = %{manman}) Hariv. manana mfn. the “ doctrine of evolution. alteration of food. 608 3 tridhā adv.. of a holy man ṛṭḷ. 3-4. 50. foresighted ṂBh. &c. %{yayÁtha}. Cook.) Ṡaṃk. %{yāmahe} ṂBh. pl. carefully. at last... on ṚV. change. %{vat} mfn. http://webapps.. pp. end (ibc.. thoughtful. adv. 607 pariṇāma m.. and %{-me} ind.. death &c.. 254. http://webapps..) a figure of speech by which the properties of any object are transferred to that with which it is compared Kuval.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 12/02/2006.. 75-6. %{ayuḥ} Br. thoughtful. Ṣuśr. obstruction (of felicity caused) by human vicissitude (as birth. (ḍhātup.. pl. P. deliberately ṚV. 2 mananā (instr. careful. %{yeṣam}.. fut.. R. pf. %{-ramaṇīya} mfn.. homage. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on MonierWilliams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Capeller’s Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. ṃālatīm.. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results..). growth. Ganguly. 6 yā 2 (ifc. p. p. prudent. Yogas. alteration. %{yayá}. 276. %{tura-}. providence MW. n. violent and painful indigestion Cat. %{-vāda} m. ripeness.. reverence ṣāy. p.de/cgibin/tamil/recherche 07/13/2007.de/cgibin/tamil/recherche 02/10/2007. %{-pathya} mfn. of 3. maturity Kir. thought. %{yātā} ṂBh.) going. issue.uni-koeln. %{-nirodha} m. p.. p. 269. 77. 377. Robinson in Lusthaus. %{ya} q. reflection. reflection. about to terminate Ṡak. aor. &c. %{yāsyati} ĀV.. digestion Ṣuśr.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 02/10/2007. %{-yÁya}. decline (of age). xxiv.uni-koeln. 186.. understanding (esp. Nagao in Kalupahana. development. 165. http://webapps. %{yÁsat}. 192. Br. result. http://webapps. viii. suited to a future state or condition ib. %{i}) cl. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results.) thoughtfully. Pur.uni-koeln. Cook. (in rhet.606 5 yā 1 (collateral form of 5. %{ayān} Pāṇ. %{-dṛṣṭi} f.. Nagao in Kalupahana.uni-koeln. 2. Wood. %{yayúḥ} ṚV. ṣarvad. (a day) delightful at its close ib. &c. 186. as one of the faculties connected with the senses Ṇir. Anacker. i. thought. consideration. %{yātvÁ} Br. %{-śūla} n. 7 yā 3 f.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 01/21/2007.. inf. ūttarar.” the ṣāṃkhya doctrine ṣarvad.. intelligence. in three ways. %{devayā}). in (into) three parts.. %{-te} ṂBh.

a receptacle. {cetanİ}) perceptible...de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 02/10/2007. permanence R. sense of touch (%{-tas} ind. 622 1 sparśa %{-śana} &c. (often ifc. of the twenty-five consonants constituting the five classes from %{k} to %{m} (so-called because formed by complete contact of the organs of utterance. 618 1 ālaya m. visible.g. perceiving.v. pp. 623 Per Lusthaus. appearance. “ sensation of headache”) ṠBr. excellent. 68. footnotes pp. q. dwelling. instructed.r.) the quality of tangibility (which constitutes the skin's %{viṣaya} q.uni-koeln. “ that is pleasant to the touch”).. (%{am}) n. %{himÂlaya}. w. %{manaḥ-sp-}. 619 Per Wood. intelligence. smoothness. ṂBh. 136 617 Ganguly.. 50 620 asaṃvida mfn. 277. 10243. %{A}) touch.. &c. soul. sensation (e. taught.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 02/10/2007. footnote p. http://webapps.uni-koeln. mind. Ṡiś. 10 (v. (in gram. http://webapps.). “ the abode of snow. unconscious ṠBr. %{sparśa-taḥ sukhaṃ tat}. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. asylum R. and n..uni-koeln. pp. (mfn. p.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 07/11/2007.. n.) restless Ṡiś. &c. %{an-aya}). iv. intelligent. non-dissolution.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 07/09/2007. a house. 16 Vārtt. a gift. cf. air.de/cgibin/tamil/recherche 02/10/2007. touching (in %{a-bhūtala-sp-}. (ifc. a kind of sexual union L. %{siraḥ-śūla-sp-}. 3-3. 135. (accord. wind L. offering (see %{kāka-sp-} and %{sp--yajña} below). heat.unikoeln. BhP. applied to the beginning of an eclipse or to any astron. %{sthāna} and %{spṛṣṭa}) Prāt. &c. 135 615 Ganguly. an unchaste woman L.) a persuasive speech in conformity with the prescribed rules ṣāh.612 613 Kochumuttom. softness &c. particularized.v. 84-5 and 88. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on MonierWilliams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. &c. f. contact) Ṃn. m. see p. (in phil. a man. unpleasant or morbid sensation. (%{A}) f.... 1269. commanded &c. 2 sparśa mfn. iii. e. prescribed. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results.. ChŪp. Kathās. 134-5 Ganguly. ( %{lī}).g. &c. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. e. footnotes pp. 624 cetana (f. 80-1 616 Kochumuttom. counsel. http://webapps. feeling. 77-8 614 Kochumuttom. advice.) īW. 71.”) Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results.) collective ṇ. mentioned. (a word of unknown meaning) Hariv. any quality which is perceptible by touching any object (e. 262 .uni-koeln. contact (fig. Yājñ.. to some) temperature ṇyāyad. a spy ṂBh. specified. f. m.. illness Pāṇ.g. pp.) ṂBh. http://webapps. p. conspicuous. {cetanā} consciousness. 57. 3 ālaya m. 1 Pat. for %{spaśa}.l. perception. VarBṛṣ. pleasant feeling ṂBh. 449 &c. 2 ālaya see %{A-lī}. a sentient being. 621 upadiṣṭa mfn. conscious. initiated W. cold. v.g. http://webapps. 1366. (in dram.

unchecked. water ṇaigh. undeveloped. 6.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 02/10/2007. cessation.625 anvita mfn. 29. end ĀpṠr. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Capeller’s Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. an organ of sense ṠvetŪp. &c. lineage. with.) Kāv. distinction Tṣ. the spout of a jar Ṣuśr.de/cgibin/tamil/recherche 02/10/2007. Ṇyāyas.. connected as in grammar or construction. http://webapps. iii. rejection... following. seizing. separation or exclusion from Ṡaṃk. http://webapps.uni-koeln. http://webapps. 628 avyākṛta mfn. &c. see under %{vyāvritta}. torrent ṚV.uni-koeln. Kāvyâd. http://webapps. {-kṣā} f. difference ĀitBr.uni-koeln. ṣāh. reached by the mind. anivṛtta mfn. 631 varṣaugha m. joined.. not impeded ṚV.uni-koeln. having as an essential or inherent part. (1. praise. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. neglect... unexpounded ṠBr. the course or current of nutriment in the body. removal Kum.. &c.. ṣarvad. taking. being deprived of. i.. %{paraspara-vy-}). an aperture in the human or animal body (reckoned to be 9 in men and 11 in women”) Ṣuśr. 626 upekṣaṇa n. http://webapps. stream.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 02/10/2007. http://webapps. p. deliverance from. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ SanskritEnglish Dictionary: search results. discrimination.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 02/10/2007. possessing.uni-koeln. channel or course for conveying food (see %{ūrdhva-} and %{tiryak-sr-})... accompanied by. Sch.) Tṣ. R. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. disregard. ifc. %{vṛ}). rush. connected with.. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. pedigree (?) ṂBh. 632 vyāvṛtti f. turning away.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 02/10/2007. understood. %{-tva} n. screening (prob. sudden shower of rain Kāv. 3 ādāya 2 ind. exclusion.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 02/10/2007. 630 srotas n. possessed of.uni-koeln.. attended. ṠBr. having taken.uni-koeln.. 629 ādāya 1 mfn. distinctness (of sound or voice) Kāṭh. brave. overlooking. 12.de/cgibin/tamil/recherche 02/10/2007. along with ĀV.. &c Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. considered as one with the substance of Brahma L. (%{am}) n. 627 anivṛta mfn. not turning back. Pur. a river. getting rid of (abl. a torrent. http://webapps. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ SanskritEnglish Dictionary: search results. a kind of sacrifice ṠBr. endowed with. rolling (the eyes) Ṣuśr... acquired.uni-koeln. Ṡāntiś.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 02/10/2007. for %{vy-āvṛti}) ib. turning the back (see %{avyāvṛ-}). violent motion or onset of (comp. xiv BhP. gone along with. http://webapps. (cf. 263 . elementary substance from which all things were created. eulogium (?) ib. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ SanskritEnglish Dictionary: search results.. the current or bed of a river. linked to.

gen. p. 49-50.. http://webapps. 277. seeing. %{mohaṃ-yā}. oil. or comp. moisture MW. having recourse to... grease. (īW. p. infatuation. perplexity. 641 moha m. p. aspect of the stars (e.uni-koeln.. pp.). consideration L.. 15). 639 nivṛta (%{ní-}) mfn. Kāv. 275.. 634 Kochumuttom. http://webapps.) Ṣuśr. L.de/cgibin/tamil/recherche 02/10/2007. theory. p. unctuousness.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 02/10/2007.uni-koeln. %{śubha-}) Var. sight. the mind's eye. 136. &c. (pl. ṂBh. distraction. error. 70. (with Buddhists) a wrong view. (in phil. the pupil of the eye Ṣuśr. mantle. Ūp. the faculty of seeing ṠBr. stupefaction. folly ĀV.. 88. &c. regard. f. http://webapps. footnotes pp.. 637 Ganguly. any oleaginous substance. pp.. through folly or ignorance). Kap. 80-1. a magical art employed to bewilder an enemy (= %{mohana}) Cat. &c. wrapper L.. delusion.1). 635 Ganguly. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ SanskritEnglish Dictionary: search results. %{ardharcÂdi}. tenderness. Robinson in Lusthaus. system ñātakam. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. Ṃn.) darkness or delusion of mind (preventing the discernment of truth and leading men to believe in the reality of worldly objects). ṭarkas. Anacker. 90. fat. an unguent ṠāṅkhBr. greasiness. 277-9. &c.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 02/10/2007. = next L. (1. &c. 186. Ṣuśr. Nagao in Kalupahana. (%{-ṭiṃ dā} with loc.de/cgibin/tamil/recherche 02/10/2007. intelligence BhP. %{mohāt} ind. &c. (or n. &c. Yājñ. a swoon ṂBh. 636 Kochumuttom.) ṇ.633 See also Kochumuttom. &c.uni-koeln. n. wisdom.. &c. fattiness. enclosed L.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 07/11/2007. g. withheld ṚV. Kāv.. 640 dṛṣṭi f. (%{moham-brū}. employing. pp. held back.. of the Vaiśyas in Kuśa-dvīpa VP. friendship with (%{saha}) ṃaitrŪp. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. love.. http://webapps. (560. surrounded. doctrine... having sought or obtained an asylum. amazement L. view. 254. 136. 638 āśritya ind. or n. 378.g. fainting. to say anything that leads to error. &c. glossiness VarBṛṣ. attachment to. Ṡṛiṅgār. smoothness.. m. ifc. a fluid of the body ib.. %{muh}. eye. f. ṂBh. p.. 139).uni-koeln. 192. (with Buddhists) ignorance (one of the three roots of vice ḍharmas. (= %{ni-vīta}) a veil. lubricity. 642 sneha m. p 88. to fall into error. 69). 135. viscidity (also as one of the 24 Guṇas of the Vaiśeshika branch of the ṇyāya phil. 84-5. bewilderment.uni-koeln. look. 195-6. blandness. fondness or affection for (loc. Wood. turn the eye to. 264 . Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on MonierWilliams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. p. Cook. footnote p. %{A}) loss of consciousness. 643 Per Lusthaus. beholding (also with the mental eye) Br. Kāv. look at. pp. wonder. practicing. http://webapps. Ganguly.. ifc. or f. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on MonierWilliams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. glance Ṃn. ṣarvad. notion Bhag. viewing. %{A}) oiliness. infatuation personified (as the offspring of Brahmā) VP.

. xxxii. 1. suppression. 39) %{mārgati} %{mārgayati} (ep. aversion. cf.) disappointment. pp. 375). p. control.. to search through ib. unusual. ind. 155.id.. Anacker.) ṂBh.. Ṛājat. process to which minerals (esp. ṇ. 88. %{mārgeṣyati} R. pl. a partic. (with Buddhists) a subdivision of the fourth stage of abstract meditation (there are eight ṣamāpattis) MWB. of a Buddhist school (prob. Kāv. giving way (in %{a-s-}) ib. (cl. 74. ṂBh. %{amārgīt} ib. %{-lakṣaṇa} (%{ṇa-vivaraṇa}). viii..) ind. ḥPariś. pf.uni-koeln. Nagao in Kalupahana. assuming an original form. See also Kochumuttom.. orn. %{sam-āpti}). &c. inf. p. 136-7 646 Ganguly. 10.2). %{mamārga} Gr. hurting. of pers. covering up Var. 648 nirodha m. to request. extraordinary Kathās. BhP. pp. (with Buddh. adorn. ṂBh. 649 samāpatti f. getting. (?) ṇ. 56.. yielding. completion. %{mṛp}) cl. look for ṂBh. disfavor. m.. encountering Kālid. to endeavour to buy Kathās. (v. fr. frustration of hope ḍaśar.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 02/10/2007. %{-vādin} m. P.. ṂBh. (with Buddh.uni-koeln. ṇ. n..). %{mārgate}. Ganguly. solicit anything from any one (with abl.. %{-tā} f. 645 Kochumuttom. accident. pp. %{mārgitvā} ib. P. v. http://webapps. Robinson in Lusthaus. of a man Lalit. ṣāh. so called from their pretending to be superior to or above the rest of the world) Buddh. %{-tva} n. http://webapps. 50-1. (1161. 43. check. ṇ. %{-dṛṣṭa} mfn. fut. destruction Ṃn. to purify.) suppression or annihilation of pain (one of the 4 principles) Lalit. of wk.. (ḍhātup. 498. 186. to ask (a girl) in marriage Ṡatr.. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. (ibc. the being absorbed in or identical with that Kād. enclosing.. 233. %{-vivṛti} f. 1622 &c. %{mārgayati}). becoming (comp. or with two acc. 650 mārg (properly ṇom. pp.uni-koeln. BhP. %{mārgitum} R. confinement. p. quicksilver) are subjected Cat. PārGṛ. 651 lokottara mf (%{A})n.. R. &c.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 02/10/2007. Wood. http://webapps. an uncommon person ūttarar. %{mÂrgitā} ib. Hariv. http://webapps. MWB. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ SanskritEnglish Dictionary: search results. of wks. āPrāt.644 Kochumuttom. %{-varṇana} n. of thing. p. made up of. coming together. 197-8. %{-jñāna} n. chance (see comp. 280-1. 90. meeting.l. 137 &c...) Yogas. aor. to go (?) ḍhātup. to seek after. m. beg. conclusion Āpast. imprisonment (%{-tas} Ṃn. restraint. seen by chance ḍaś.. to seek.. pp. 93.. Cook. %{mārga}. &c. injuring (= %{ni-graha}) L. id. m. strive to attain ṂBh. Ṛājat. Kāv.. 91 647 tanmaya mfn. (in dram. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ SanskritEnglish Dictionary: search results.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 02/10/2007. ṠvetŪp. %{-yī-bhāva}. iii. Var. 254-5.) one of the 10 kinds of knowledge ḍharmas.. footnote pp.uni-koeln. p... Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier265 . 192. absorbed in or identical with that ṃuṇḍŪp..de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 02/10/2007. &c. also Ā.. 378. locking up. &c.. excelling or surpassing the wworld... falling into any state or condition. that. xxxiv.. dislike W. siege Cat. of wk. beyond what is common or general. and acc. %{-parivarta} m. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results.). investment. ask. 10.

de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 02/10/2007. to raise. to hold or keep in. 115. &c. to give anything in exchange for anything Kāś..uni-koeln. (n. p. Br. Zend {thritya}. support (Ā. 3. Pot. http://webapps.. on Pāṇ. or loc. Robinson in Lusthaus. to sustain. footnote p. 653 Kochumuttom. xi ṭāṇḍyaBr. 33 ṂBh. 2 Pat. %{yamitum} ib. fut... hold back. 2. %{yaṃsyati}. 11. āPrāt. “ restraint. 1.) ṚV. Br. show ṚV. inf. 85. check. %{yeme}. &c.. and Ved. obey (dat. Ā. %{yamyáte} (aor. 186. to wish to restrain &c. http://webapps. ṬBr. sg. 656 tṛtīya mf (%{A})n. %{-satas}. (Ā. p. %{áyaṃsta} ṣubj. xxiii..2) Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ SanskritEnglish Dictionary: search results. of a measure. %{yamitvā} ṂBh.. 5-3. 5. %{ḍ}. 198. %{yántave}. at the 3rd time PārGṛ.. &c.. %{b}) ṚPrāt.. {thridja}. pp. to raise (the other scale). %{yámati}. to stretch out. weigh more ṠBr. grant. ṠBr. sg. with loc.) over (dat. to make way for (gen. to catch fire ṬBr.) Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. %{yámitavaí} ṚV. ind. &c. %{yaṃyamīti} (see %{ud-yam}) or %{yaṃyamyate} (Pāṇ. (ḍhātup. Br. Pāṇ.. %{yaṃsat}. Vārtt. hold. p. &c. %{-yamatuḥ} ṚV. pl. the 3rd consonant of a Varga (%{g}. %{-te} ṂBh. ix. %{yāmayati} (ĀV. 3. %{yántum}. 3. %{-yamya} GṛṠrṣ.): Pass. (Ā. x. 657 1 ṣaḍ in comp. %{ayaṃsiṣam} Gr. 266 . and Kāś. (scil.. 55. Br. v. 45. “ to be founded on”) ṚV. ind.. aor %{ayīyamat}). i. (%{tŔtīya}) mfn. P. 7. irreg. 91..) to give one's self up to. to raise. p. īmpv. KātyṠr. thirdly ṚV.). Lat. display. the 3rd case (instrumental) Pāṇ. (with %{mārgam}). %{yayantha}. %{-sate} ib. curb. present with (instr. (Pāṇ. (Ā. to raise. &c. %{yandhí}.. iii f. v. hold in. (%{ena}) instr. for %{ṣaṣ}. &c. %{yayāma}. 1. pf. bestow on (dat. 67. see also vii.uni-koeln.) ṚV. VPrāt. %{yamayati} (Br. keep or put in order: ḍesid.) to be firm. 3. %{d}. vi.. spread. (%{A}) f.) ĀitBr. ii. &c. (with %{prati} and abl. &c.) (Cf. Br..: īntens.. establish ib. %{yiyaṃsati}. p..de/cgibin/tamil/recherche 02/10/2007. (Sch. %{yamyās}.. http://webapps. (fr. subdue. p. restrain. p. Goth. 138 654 Ganguly. m.. 15) %{yácchati} (Ved..). Cook. Ganguly. 51. 3. %{yatvā}. with %{āyudhaih}. wield (a weapon &c. be faithful to. control.). extend or hold (as a screen &c. hold up. 652 See also Kochumuttom. %{yamiṣyati} Br. %{-yámam} ṚV.”) &256215(845. %{-te}. &c.. %{yamīmahi} ṚV. &c. 5-2. ChŪp.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 02/11/2007. to offer.) ib. %{vibhakti}) the terminations of the 3rd case.) a 3rd part Tṣ. (scil.. ep. i ṠBr.. utter (a sound &c. 7-4. Vartt. &c. $.. %{áyāṃsam}. Anacker. Kāv. Wood. %{trí} Pāṇ.. Gk. āPrāt. du.) ṚV. %{yátya} ĀV. (cf. {tertius}. (%{am}) ind. &c. %{ayāṃsi}. %{yaṃsi}. %{áyamuh}. to restrain. 36 Vārtt.. iii.. not budge ṚV. 32. %{áyā-mī}). Nagao in Kalupahana. 1. aor.) ṂBh. %{yemiré} ṚV. govern. control ib. punishment. to fix.Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. p. “ one's self”. 2-3. 93-4 655 yam cl. for the 3rd time. expand. %{tithi}) = %{-yikā} ñyot. “ to brandish weapons”) ṚV.). 281. 19. 48) forming the 3rd part.. &c. %{yemúḥ}. %{-yámiṣṭa} ṚV.. also %{-te}. to be raised or lifted up or held back or restrained ṚV..: Caus. %{áyān}.) to extend one's self before (dat. %{j}. Ṃn.uni-koeln.) the 3rd ṚV. %{yantā} ib. 255. (in music) ṇ. 378. confer.

%{rasa}. %{ṣaṣ} becomes %{ṣaṭ} before hard letters. 663 samprayā P. sentence Ṡiś. revolve (as the heavenly bodies) ṣūryas. uttered. encountering in a hostile manner ṂBh. come into contact or having intercourse with (instr.. %{priya-ṣaṣas} nom.. with or without %{prati}) ṠāṅkhṠr. united or connected or furnished or endowed with (instr. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ 267 . or comp. ṂBh.. &c. wholly intent on one object ṂBh.. %{A}) n. http://webapps. becoming aware. (with %{garbhasya}) conception R.1 ṣaṣ mfn.) Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. (p. p. ) VarBṛṣ. &c. of a divine being (v.. in comp. 186-7. restrained. 99 662 viniyata mfn. %{ṣaṇṇÁm} loc. to proceed or set off together.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 02/10/2007. observation. Eng. perceptibility.. Ṛagh.uni-koeln. 660 Kochumuttom. spoken. 282.. ṇ. 22 schol. abl. go to (acc.. 138 661 Ganguly. 179. obtainment. harnessed &c. yoked or joined together. %{-tÂhāra} mfn.v. 255..) ib. 658 upalabdhi f. checked. n.) Kām. &c. &c.&c. 7-1. %{ṣaṭsú}. e. {sex}. xi. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. Nagao in Kalupahana. 24. Gk. or ifc. six times ṠBr.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 02/10/2007. nom. Cook. retrenched. %{ṛtu} %{vajrakoṇa} %{kārttikeyamukha}) ṚV. to go (together) to any state or condition (acc. %{ṣo} before %{d}.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 02/10/2007. urged.1) {se0hs}. or %{ṣaḍ ṛtunām}. perceiving. Wood. concentrated. (%{am}) n. e. acc. m.uni-koeln. pp. %{ṣaḍbhís} dat. 1-1. and %{ṇ} before nasals) six (with the counted object in apposition or exceptionally in gen. {sechs}. pp. bound to. %{ṣaḍbhyás}. 25.”%{ṣaṭsu} %{ṣatsu māseṣu}. 379. %{yāti}. &c. pl.) Ṃn. which is changed into %{ḍ}. (Cf. mind. Ṣuśr. sexually united MW. pl. %{tarka}. Vikr. appearance ṬPrāt. abstemious R. Goth. f. {six}. moderate in food or diet. p. 659 See also Kochumuttom. }. perception.. Lat. one who has a controlled or regulated mind ṃārkP. Germ.p. Ganguly. %{ṣáṭ} instr. gen. $.) Hariv. 51. engaged in or occupied with (comp. %{ṣaḍ} before soft. to move. dependent on (loc. pp.) Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. “ the six seasons. 198-9. &335311(1108. among the words used as expressions for the number six (esp. yoked. %{darśana}. ṣarvad. for %{uktha} q.)... gain ṂBh. word. said. of %{vac} q.. (in gram) a tech.v. (%{am}.unikoeln. a stanza of four lines (with one syllabic instant or one long or two short syllables in each). 1 ukta mfn. “ at periods of six months” Ṃn. (see comp. Robinson in Lusthaus. understanding. incited ib. p. Pāṇ. to advance towards.. in giving dates) are %{aGga}. (cf. http://webapps. footnote p. (cf. g. regulated Bhag. p. (prob. {ukhta}.. {saīhs}. knowledge ṂBh. (%{ṣaṭ}) ind. ṂBh. for numerals ending in %{ṣ} and %{n} and words like %{kati} Pāṇ.g. ṭarkas.... limited R. %{ṣaḍ ṛtavah}. viii 403 at the end of a Bahuvrihi compound it is declined like other words ending in %{ṣ}.) ṚPrāt. Zd. acquisition. for from %{ṣakṣ}. Gk. 93-4. %{-cetas} mfn.l. $.).) 20 samprayukta mfn. http://webapps.. impelled. Anacker. p.

indeed.. carrying across. 6. together. p. yảdi}. either -. bearing. (cf. 187. 15. Angl. {fif}. %{-riṇī}).) ṂBh.or not.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 02/10/2007. %{páñca} ĀV.vā} either not -.2) {penkí}. %{-cábhis}. 103. like (= {iva}). Anacker. passing (ifc. Eng. crossing over. 672 1 taraṇa m. pp... of a ṣāman. coming forth. ṇ. even (= {eva}). 186-7. optionally (g. suppose that (fut. {ảtha. 1. a boat Hariv. 200-1. Hibiscus mutabilis L. vanquishing (---). %{pra-tár-}. ix. &c. 6-1. 109. Caus. 512. -. Germ. capable of. of a family Pravar. Robinson in Lusthaus.uni-koeln.Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. http://webapps. {vā na -. 99. pp. {quinque}. -. ḥit.l. {fū0nf}. 4 tāraṇa n.Cf. %{yajña}. p.) 268 . lxvii. “ final landing-place. of Kathās. %{-casú} cf.or not. {pañcan}. crossing. helping over a difficulty. 3.. %{-cabhyás}. %{svasṛ} &c. &c. 282. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Capeller’s Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results.uni-koeln. &177787(578. coming from (---).{vā} neither -. = %{-ṇi}. 664 See also Kochumuttom. 255. saving ṂBh.or (not).unikoeln. sg. pl. $. 198-9. 51. in common.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 02/10/2007. xiv R.vā} ({na}) whether -.). liberating. %{pac}. 2 taraṇa %{-ráṇi}.de/cgibin/tamil/recherche 02/10/2007. ki3m. to spread out the hand with its five fingers. Ganguly.). perhaps -perhaps not. v. http://webapps. %{-cānÁm}) five ṚV. cf.na vā} either -. &c. 3 ṣūryas. 284-8. powerful. %{ūrdhva-}. 379. boat L. loc.. but. 107. overcoming. pp. (said to be fr. nom. Sax. possibly (after an interr. 13 R. p. 255-6. āeol. p. %{-cásu} (Class. Anacker. instr. Gk. iv. origin. the 3rd year of the 4th Jupiter cycle VarBṛṣ.or. ṇ. raft L.). i. a match for (gen.). overcoming (as of misfortune gen. Nagao in Kalupahana. 97. {vā -. (fr. saving ṂBh. instr. Ṛājat. ii. pp. n. conquering (difficulties) ṂBh. 7. liberating.” heaven L. Zd. 5 2. carrying over W.de/cgibin/tamil/recherche 02/10/2007. %{kṛṣṭi}. http://webapps. col. (%{I}) f. safe passage. or ---). 3. xiii. Lat. Vikr. withstanding. 179 &c. 111 668 pañcan pl. i.. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Capeller’s Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results.or not. i. Goth. as. &c.or as prep.uni-koeln. 665 See also Kochumuttom. m. Wood. {na} ({vā}) -. {yadi vā -. xiv.uni-koeln. under %{indriya}. gen. enduring. 666 Kochumuttom. Ganguly. 3 tāraṇa mf (%{I})n. 139 667 Ganguly p. http://webapps. viii. able to (infin. an oar (?) Kauś. 5 %{pañcá}). 1. $. %{carṣaṇi}. pp. %{-cábhyas}. 14078 (v. Pāṇ. {fimf}. Cook.). 670 saha 1 adv. dat. see p.) or (following its word).e. often only explet. 669 udbhava m. also. causing or enabling to cross. ḷith. utả.) Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. along with (mostly --. n.7022 and 7941 Kathās.{vā -. 1232 (ṣiva) and 6986 (Vishṇn) Hariv. pp.. ṇ..nor.vā} either -. 93-4. acc. iii. Nagao in Kalupahana. %{mātra}. http://webapps. %{dus-}. whether -.) KātyṠr. (Cf. Robinson in Lusthaus. %{su-}. abl. 671 vā 1 (indecl. p. w. 6054. = %{ṇī-vallī} L.). pp. pp. footnote p. Wood.. adj. i.Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Capeller’s Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. %{jana}. a float. a raft. 3 saha 2 a. %{bhūta}. ñyot. or ---). p. %{-cabhis}. 438. {five}.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 07/11/2007. Cook. 379.or. but if.

11793 ṣiś. body of followers or attendants ṚV. growth.e. %{marúd-}.. or as the wife of ñayad-ratha and mother of Vijaya) Pur. birth. &c. %{gaṇayati} (ep. ĀV. ii. 97 (343. %{vŔṣa-}. enumerate. multitude. i. 270. Pañcat.) Bhartṛ. song KātyṠr. &c. carrying across. 15)). a flock.. of a Ṡruta-kevalin (also = %{tavijaya}) ḥPariś.. lxxviii) or %{ajag-} Pāṇ. p. 10... %{ajīgaṇat} (Kathās. 187. (Sch.. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit269 . L. a single attendant of Ṡiva VarBṛṣ. to consider.. %{-cchandas}). Robinson in Lusthaus. a series or group of asterisms or lunar mansions classed under three heads (that of the gods.uni-koeln. 380. of a son of ḍubsaha VP. not to care about. %{gargÂdi}. the g. e. (in metre) a foot or four instants (cf. Ganguly.) Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. for %{-taraṇa}) R. that of the men. passing over. 7. reckon. 674 Kochumuttom.g. cf. leave unnoticed) ṂBh. of a brother of ṭrasa-dasyu ib. m. “ I do not value him at a straw” ṂBh. increase ṠBr. %{ad} &c. Anacker. 291. (%{A}) f. xi ḍaś. &c. 44. the 9 assemblies of Ṛishis under the ārhat ṃahā-vīra Jain. to imagine. regard as (with double acc.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 07/11/2007. a sect in philosophy or religion W. SāriṅgP. Ṛājat.) ṠārṅgP. tribe. origin. ḥit. value (with instr. “ a series of verses”) ṇaigh. to think worth.. class (of animate or inanimate beings). excogitate ṃegh. 1-3. ḷāṭy. 140 675 Ganguly. ṇ. and %{vida-gaṇá}. %{mahā-}. (in Gr. (with Jainas) ṇ. or the whole series of roots of the 2nd class. p. i. production (ifc. to ascribe. (in arithm. %{gaṇayya} BhP.) a number L. i. to count one's number (said of a flock or troop) Pāṇ.) f. Wood. to count. also Ā. and 135 foot) ṂBh. troop. take into account ṂBh. iv. to attend to. or the series of words commencing with %{garga}). ṇ. %{na gaṇayāmi taṃ tṛṇena}. %{-devatā}) Ṃn. 112 676 sambhūti (%{sám-}. 67 Kāś. %{ahar-}. p.) a series of roots or words following the same rule and called after the first word of the series (e. a small body of troops (= 3 Gulmas or 27 chariots and as many elephants. attribute to (loc.ferrying over. number. 2 gaṇa m. %{garga} &c. troops or classes of inferior deities (especially certain troops of demi-gods considered as Ṡiva's attendants and under the special superintendence of the god Gaṇêśa. of a judge Buddh.. ṠāṅkhṠr. %{sá-}. footnote p. Yājñ. ix. cheating (also %{A} f. %{-vijaya} m. series... the g. a company. i.. any assemblage or association of men formed for the attainment of the same aims Ṃn. %{ūhya-}. %{saptá-}. Cook.. viii. (with %{a-} neg.. add up. = %{vāc} (i.. 81 horses. c. of one of the mothers in ṣkanda's retinue ṂBh. 203. Yājñ. %{ūha-}. 7-4. vii Hariv. a sound L. suitability. a particular group of ṣāmans ḷāṭy. viii. http://webapps.g..= “ risen or produced or descended from”) Vṣ.) Ṛagh. %{-te}: aor. great or superhuman power (= %{vi-bhūti}) BhP. %{araṇya-}. a kind of perfume L. ind. number. manifestation of might. often with %{na}. fitness (also personified as the daughter of ḍaksha and wife of ṃarīci. Lalit.) 3 gāna n. ii. 2603 ḍaś. Kathās. %{ad-ādi}.) ṂBh.). p. 1552). 11.. of an author. p. iii. 5 VarYogay. p.. 1 gaṇ cl. 6. 2645 (cf. ix. &c. ṇ. &c. 257. of Gaṇêśa W.1). i.. %{deva}. &c. Ṛājat. singing.. R. 291. 54. Nagao in Kalupahana.. n. 673 See also Kochumuttom. p.. and that of the ṛākshasas) W. Gīt. crossing (m. (cf. P. take notice of (acc. p.. p. 114. 53. deceiving. sum up.. 7. Kathās. 107. to enumerate among (loc. %{sárva-}.

augmenting. MW. a regulated rise or fall of sounds through the Grāma or musical scale (ifc. ṂBh. 44 Sch. manifoldness. pp. fire &c. 93-4. unexpected.de/cgibin/tamil/recherche 02/11/2007... 270 .. Ganguly.. different BhP. pp.. Nagao in Kalupahana.uni-koeln. http://webapps. %{pÂsaha} mfn. Cook. ṣaṃgīt. n.de/cgibin/tamil/recherche 02/11/2007. fainting.. destitute of intellect or sense. (ifc.. Robinson in Lusthaus. (%{ena} ind. BhP. a number of possible cases. 2 ṛte ind. irresolution. VarBṛṣ. manifoldness KātyṠr. “ optionally”). prevalence.. stupefying. %{-vat} mfn.p. of a people ṂBh. or a sentence beginning with %{yatas}) ṚV.) antithesis of opposites Pratāp. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 02/11/2007. p. mental occupation. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. %{vikalya}).. p.). Sch. not standing (the test of) a dilemma (%{-tva} n. p. &c.. increase (of diseases. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. ṇ. ĀV. contrivance. ṬPrāt.).uni-koeln.. without. %{A}) Kāv. Anacker.uni-koeln. inconceivable. %{-pôpahāra} m. option Ṡrṣ. undecided. thinking L. an optional offering. see p. %{-pÂnupapatti} f. p. indecision. http://webapps. acitta mfn. a collateral form VarBṛṣ. sophistical objection ṣarvad. (in gram. variation... pp. a partic. p.) a partic. 282. 186-7. 51.uni-koeln.. 1-1. Gīt. (also %{A} f. &c. dilemma ṣarvad. violence. &c. admission. confirming Pañcar.de/cgibin/tamil/recherche 02/11/2007. besides. not an object of thought. vehemence. http://webapps..uni-koeln.. 379. mfn.. calculation VarBṛṣ. hesitation ṂBh. untenableness owing to a dilemma ṣarvad. see %{ṛt}. excepting. swooning.) ib. Pur. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Capeller’s Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. &c. ṂBh. Pañcat. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on MonierWilliams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. with the exclusion of. difference of perception. false notion. (in rhet. (for 1. alternative. variety Ṣuśr.uni-koeln.. Kir.) strengthening. %{-tva} n. combination. syncope Ṣuśr. (Sch. Rasar. loc. 146 682 Ganguly.. or acc.. 679 acitta a. &c. diversity. (in music) modulation. http://webapps.English Dictionary: search results.. f. the allowing a rule to be observed or not at pleasure (%{vêti vikalpaḥ} Pāṇ.. of %{R}) under pain of. doubt. 198-9.. %{-sama} m.. art Ṛagh. 950.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 07/11/2007. 1) alternation.de/cgibin/tamil/recherche 02/11/2007. footnote p. a god BhP. http://webapps. c. 677 1 ṛte ind. variety.. unnoticed. process in metallic preparations. col. calcining quicksilver with sulphur Bhpr.) admission of an option or alternative. 678 mūrchana mfn. %{-jāla}” n. distinction Ṇyāyas. = %{kalpa-sthāna} Car. 114 683 vikalpa 2 m. statement BhP. 680 See also Kochumuttom.. Wood. unconceived. (according to Bṛḍ. Sch. imagination Yogas.. case of the p. inconceivable ṚV. Kāv. http://webapps. n. causing insensibility (applied to one of the 5 arrows of Kāma-deva) R. 681 Kochumuttom. melody.. pl. fancy.) ṂBh. (C. (m. unless (with abl. doubtful Vedântas. Ṃn.) and (%{A}) f. growth. 255.

in order that (with pres. col. Ṃn. destroyed. by means of which.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 02/11/2007.. ṇ. p. %{vástave} see under 2. ix. 115-6. ĀV. vii. 931. &c. (for 2.. Ganguly. footnote p. 335. p. p. of a disease of the pudenda muliebria Gal. 257. as ṚV. in which manner PārGṛ. p. p.. iv. Chan 1. p. 53. delicate. http://webapps. generating. ṠvetŪp. p. 152 697 Ganguly.de/cgibin/tamil/recherche 02/11/2007. towards morning.. Kāś.. 46 &c. to be calculated or ascertained ib. i. ṠBr. Vṣ. 61 & viii. 153. 3) becoming light. dawning. pp. footnote p. weakened. 271 . 293. %{vástoḥ}. 188. Robinson in Lusthaus. p. 115-6 688 yena ind. 686 Kochumuttom. p. col. 147 687 Ganguly. 203.. 150 692 Ganguly.. 21 Naish. Wood. (%{am}) n. 257.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 02/11/2007. ḷaghuj. %{vraṇa-v-}). 380. waning (as the moon) ṠBr.uni-koeln. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. 695 See also Kochumuttom. 120 700 vastu 1 f. ṃuṇḍŪp. p. 117. 2. Gīt.) the 7th lunar mansion VarBṛ.. Robinson in Lusthaus.uni-koeln. R. http://webapps.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 02/11/2007. &c. 117 693 kṣīṇa mfn. footnotes pp.. slender Ṡak. see p. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on MonierWilliams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. &c. p. Chan 2. 154 699 Ganguly.. in which direction. 3) the seat or place of (see %{kapila-}.”a wife ṚV. broken.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 02/11/2007. “ bringing forth (cf. iv. 114. %{vas}). Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. of 3. 16 and 32. (for 1. producing Vop. (in astron. Nagao in Kalupahana. p. p. lost. or fut or Pot. 385. %{vástor vastoḥ}. 204. 166 Ṣuśr. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. by which way ṚV. feeble Ṃn. Anacker. 53. every morning. on Pāṇ. &c. Ganguly. Nagao in Kalupahana. in consequence of which. 201. Ganguly. p. pp. 689 jāyā f. 81. p. 53. to be distributed VarBṛṣ. 691 Kochumuttom. 289.. p. vii. 292. pp. dat. (gen. http://webapps. Nagao in Kalupahana. %{vástor asyÁḥ}. p. Cook. Kāv. 8). 187. injured. Cook. 119 698 Kochumuttom. p. diminished. p. whither. footnote p. where ṂBh. that. 690 See also Kochumuttom. 685 Kochumuttom. expended. poor. 188. p. 380.684 vikalpya mfn. torn. p. 932. wherefore ṂBh. 2 vastu 2 n. 15. Ṃn. &c. morning ṚV.unikoeln. &c. 257. emaciated. p. Anacker. Ṃn. 694 janayanta mfn. 381.) Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. since. so that. Cook. miserable Pañcat. on which account. see p.uni-koeln. http://webapps. Wood. Anacker. Lusthaus. &c. 4 jāyā see above. http://webapps. %{ya}) by whom or by which. this morning. 696 Kochumuttom. (instr. Kathās.unikoeln. wasted. %{práti vástoḥ}. to be chosen according to circumstances Car. pp. worn away. p. 6-4. Wood. in the morning. because.

ii. deprived or void or destitute of (instr.2) Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. (ifc. left.. except Pāṇ. ii.) &181611(591. separated or free from.uni-koeln. 93). 2. richly (esp. 53. Cook.. or %{bhū}. Nagao in Kalupahana. 294. (where also %{parī}) to express fullness or high degree) ṚV. 12). subject. http://webapps. 7/8). Pāṇ. ṣāh. 5. ĀV. (in phil. pp.. rahita a. forsaken.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 02/11/2007. ii.uni-koeln. about.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 02/11/2007. the thing in question matter.) about (in space and time) ṚV.uni-koeln. http://webapps. 1-4. successively. &c. (in music) a kind of composition ṣaṃgīt. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Capeller’s Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. &c. 702 rahita mfn. &c.g. 1-4.. ib. in consequence or on account or for the sake of ṚV. essential property W. plot (of a drama or poem) Kāv. 381.).. towards.) wanting. %{vinimaya} and %{-hāni}). ĀV. 204. and %{pary-adhyayana}). 701 pari ind.. deserted. below). Pāṇ. (with acc. round. according to ordinance or in conformity with law or right) ṚV... ĀV. more than ĀV.) Kāv. occasionally. (ibc. the right thing. secretly. comp. affair. p.. “ the one real substance or essence which has no second”) īW. 703 See also Kochumuttom. (cf. a valuable or worthy object. http://webapps. (often repeated ib. p. subject-matter. Ṡak. (with abl. object. ṠBr. %{a-dvitīya-v-}. mfn. unstable.. opposite to. 704 Kochumuttom. (%{am}) ind. 121-2 706 anitya mfn. in secret..any really existing or abiding substance or essence. in the direction of. 257. 4 Pat. also at the beginning or the end of an ind. $.. p. out of ṚV. or comp.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 01/01/2007. (cf. 156 705 Ganguly.) want or lack of Campak. 1. VarBṛṣ. 188. Ganguly. beyond. pp. 4672 (some read %{parisaṃvatsarāt}). the pith or substance of anything W. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. 1-4. Kathās. deserted by. 1. away from. p. to ib. solitary ṂBh. contents. wanting (instr. footnotes pp. destitute of. article Kāv.or ---). %{dhármaṇas pári}. Anacker. viii. ibc. also at the beginning of a comp. 1. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. quitted. left. according to (esp.) from. irregular. round about. cf. the unreal”.. 88 Kāś. to %{a-v-}. R. p. uncertain. transient. property (cf. incidental. outside of.g. privately). alone. Kāv. ṂBh. 103 &c. absent (cf.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 02/11/2007. &c.unikoeln. goods.. 119. fully. http://webapps. Zd. rahitatva n. abundantly. 272 . “ that which does not really exist. Gk. &c. --. occasional. 53 n.) the real (opp. &c. thing. wealth. ib.) Yājñ. unusual. %{vṛkṣam pari siñcati}. p. he waters tree after tree) ib. 90. to fall to a person's lot) Pāṇ. 1-4. (also applied to living beings e. Robinson in Lusthaus. circumstance ṂBh. 18 Vārtt. to the share of (with %{as}. around.iii. natural disposition. xiii. (%{e} or %{eṣu} ind. {pairi}. lonely. deserted. object of or for (comp. 119 ṂBh. ḍaśar. 90. &c. not everlasting. against. theme (of a speech &c. (Cf. 155. Wood. as a prep. severally (e. after the lapse of Ṃn.

to utter words.: īntens. (with or without %{abhi}) or gen.. to mention. %{ūdimá} ṚV. %{vāvadyáte}. phrase. ṂBh.. %{vac}) speech. to confer or dispute about ṚV. Pot. or %{iṣ}.. recommend ṂBh. m. %{vāvatti} (Gr. Ā. Tṣ.). a word. &c. %{-te} ĀV. say. also %{-te} (cf. in VP. fut. 707 vad cl. Kāv. call (two acc. %{avādi}).. &c. announce. name Tṣ. to play music ṂBh. as Vāc āmbhṛiṇī in ṚV. to speak.. state. %{-te} (ep.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 02/11/2007. %{vācaṃ-dā} with dat. x.. &c.. utter a cry (said of birds and 9. quarrel ṠBr. adjudicate Tṣ.. 708 vāc f. ṂBh. (ḍhātup. %{vādáyati} m. and nom. speak to. Pāṇ.) ṚV. of the person addressed (916.) Pāṇ.. %{váditos} Br.. %{vÁvadīti} (ṚV. %{udyáte} (aor. %{-ṣihāḥ} Br... Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. to be an authority. &c. Br. %{udeyam} ĀV.) Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. %{īr}. &c. asseveration Ṃn. to be said or spoken &c. to cause to speak or say ṂBh. play (with instr.. recite. %{-diṣuḥ} ṚV. 2 Pat. &c. &c. to promise verbally in marriage.) ṠBr. language (also of animals). http://webapps. ṣubj. 1-1. to proclaim. also followed by %{yad}. %{-udya} Br..uni-koeln.. Hariv. xxiii. be eminent in (loc. designate VarBṛṣ. or transient or limited existence. (fr. BhP. with %{iti}) ĀV.. Hariv.. plight troth). R. bespeak AśvGṛ. R. exult Bhaṭṭ.. communicate. with acc. &c. to speak words. ĀV.. c.. 40) %{vádati}. 58 Vārtt. &c. voice. to indicate. (Ā) to say.. “ whether”) ṚV.). &c. %{vācaṃ vyā-hṛ}. ṣubh. 47.) Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on MonierWilliams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. as the voice of the middle sphere in ṇaigh. of the thing said.de/cgibin/tamil/recherche 02/11/2007. %{uvāda} pl. ḷit.uni-koeln. ep. to adjudge. sing. 89. to lay claim to (loc. http://webapps.unikoeln. sentence.anityatā f. &c.: Caus. to triumph. &c. of ṣāmans ĀrshBr.. aor %{avādīt}.) Pāṇ.” or by %{yadi}. a partic. to speak.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 06/08/2007.: ḍesid. %{ūde} &c. tell. or Ā. but most frequently she is identified with Bhāratī or ṣarasvatī. to speak or sound aloud. strike. to declare (any one or anything) to be. to cause to sound.) to praise. &c. tell. P. and acc. %{vācā satyaṃ-kṛ}. &c. utter a sound. speak to (acc. %{uditvā} GṛṠrṣ. address (P.. talk. %{vādiṣaḥ} ĀV. saying. 1-3. to raise the voice. &c. report.. she is the daughter of ḍaksha and wife of Kaśyapa. %{-dailuḥ}. 1. c. call). also %{-ti}). (P. to allege. %{avīvadat}. p.. of the instrument) ṠBr. %{avÂdiran} ib. (Cf. 273 ..) ṚV.. and Ṇir. &c.) ĀitBr. Pass. %{veditha}. cry. ind.2). or acc.. utter. sound (also of inanimate objects as of the stones used for pressing. Br Gobh. (%{vācam-R}. to address words to. to contend. &c. in the Veda she is also represented as created by Prajāpati and married to him. “ that. (with or scil. http://webapps. %{vācaḥ stomaḥ}. to desire to speak. statement. &c. %{vadiṣyáti}. aor. &c. 1-3. of a drum &c. %{-te}. %{vivadiṣati}. ēkâha Ṡrṣ.: Pass. in other places she is called the mother of the Vedas and wife of Indra. 125.. %{-duḥ} Vop. (ṠBr. Ūp. also %{vādati}. rehearse Hariv.g. ĀV.) to be played by (instr. %{vādyate}. rarely loc.. %{vācaḥ sāma} and %{vāco vratam}ṇ. the goddess of speech. ṂBh. affirm ib. {vadínti}. talk with. Prec” %{udyāt} ib. (with %{bahu}) to make much ado about one's self. speech personified (in various manners or forms e..). foretell.. (%{vācaṃ-vad}. inf....). %{vaditum} ib. %{vadiṣma}. to cause a musical instrument (acc.. %{vācam}) to raise the voice. pf.. or loc.

uni-koeln. 121-2. %{as} q. unforeseen.uni-koeln. 258. p. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. a learned conversation among friends Car. “ unpropertied. http://webapps. 381. re= marry). http://webapps. pp. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. %{-gamana} n. 123 715 niḥsvabhāva m.de/cgibin/tamil/recherche 02/11/2007. Comm. Robinson in Lusthaus.uni-koeln. 712 Ibid. 2 asmimāna m. unforeseen danger or calamity.. 54. (especially the merit or demerit attaching to a man's conduct in one state of existence and the corresponding reward or punishment with which he is visited in another). pp. %{gam}. to go back or away. 296. &c. Nagao in Kalupahana. http://webapps. with %{bhū}.. p. %{yā}. with %{as} and dat. egoism Yogas. p. 157 714 Ganguly. pp. n. Ṡantiś. footnote p. 716 saṃdhāya ind. repeatedly ib. p. want of property.) mfn. 124 721 niḥsvabhāva m.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 02/11/2007. 713 Kochumuttom. poverty. Nagao in Kalupahana. again and again. &c. 157 720 Ganguly. 711 See also Kochumuttom. 381. a march after peace has been made Kām.uni-koeln. having placed together &c. 55. instructed ṂBh. 719 Kochumuttom. 206. (with %{bhū}. fate: luck. p. invisible.. home.”1. (%{am}) n. ibCologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. not experienced. 54..” void of peculiarities ṣarvad. p. 297. %{-yÂsana} n. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. to fall back upon).. further. &c. Ṡantiś. Wood.uni-koeln. p. be renewed. pp. 188. with %{dā}. on Ṡiś. unseen. Ganguly. (mostly %{púnaḥ p-} which with %{na} = nevermore).. once more (also with %{bhūyas}) ib. in an opposite direction ṚV. unsanctioned.v. 710 asmi “ I am.” void of peculiarities ṣarvad. &c. to turn round. Cook. http://webapps. 257-8. self-conceit L. Anacker. 274 . want of property. 123. unknown. 3 asmitā f. that which is beyond the reach of observation or consciousness. m.709 adṛṣṭa (ṠBr. back.uni-koeln. R. 718 See also Kochumuttom. directed. Robinson in Lusthaus. having formed an alliance or settled terms of peace with reference to Buddh. iv. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. p. %{-sambhāṣā} f. Cook.de/cgibin/tamil/recherche 02/11/2007.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 02/11/2007. a halt after terms of peace have been agreed upon (cf. destiny. http://webapps.. become a wife again. mfn. http://webapps. p. (with 1. poverty. bad luck. footnote p.. to exist again.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 02/11/2007. p. unobserved. Anacker. 188. 722 punar ind. %{saṃ-dhānÂsana}) Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. shown. mfn. of a particular venomous substance or of a species of vermin ĀV. 207. pp. to give back. again.de/cgibin/tamil/recherche 02/11/2007. Ganguly. Wood. “ unpropertied. pp. 717 deśita mfn. restore.

p.. 124. another than (abl. %{-tā} f. a real fish Ṛagh. %{api vā}. of wk. any excellent or important object W.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 12/02/2006. Sch. thus (in its original signification %{iti} refers to something that has been said or thought.. &c. wherefrom ṚV. 726 Kochumuttom.. pp. %{-ra-saṃgraha}. farther.”reminding the hearer or reader of certain customs. %{āt}. m.uni-koeln. immeasurable. &c. Wood. (ibc. of a ṣamādhi Kāraṇḍ. {sva}). Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. Nagao in Kalupahana. (fr. %{-sarit} f. whereof. how much more or less? however. spiritual knowledge ṂBh. v.. (fr. (%{yáto yataḥ}. http://webapps. particular. the real or entire truth L. %{yatas tataḥ}. even again. %{i}). different from.. Vedântas. %{ya}. in future (also {aparảm}). Kālid. &c. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ SanskritEnglish Dictionary: search results.. %{iti} see s. nevertheless ṂBh. %{-sāra} m.. %{preceding-p-}. supposed to be known to him). a philosopher W.) see %{i} above.. of wks. pronominal base 3. %{ādau-punar-paścāt}. %{-saṃgraha} m. %{saṃdarbha} m. moreover ({ca}).. (at the end of a verse it lays stress on a preceding %{atha vā}. the best sense ib.. reality Kap. p. %{-daridra} mfn. %{-ena}. &c. ib. 723 1 iti 1 f. acquiring knowledge of truth. 3. p. %{-saṃvṛti-satyanirdeśa} m. 258. http://webapps. %{-matsya} m. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. %{-vid} m. “ from 275 . 125 728 paramārtha m.at another time).).. %{-pradīpikā} f. western.. %{-tas} ind. Cook. or %{vā} alone. 729 yatas ind. n. &c. 54.. %{-bodha} m. n. the best kind of wealth ib.” “ from whatever.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 02/11/2007.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 02/11/2007. the highest truth.. whence. west of (acc. %{ityaí} (dat. & t. or instr. {apara} hind-foot of an elephant.uni-koeln. at one time . %{-nirṇaya} m. http://webapps. really a river Vikr. 157 727 Ganguly. at any time. %{stuti} f. really.moreover. p. following (in sp.. inferior. 188. n. however. partaking of the highest truth ṃcar.. in the Brāhmaṇas it is often equivalent to “ as you know.). west of (abl.) 2 iti 2 ind. %{kim p-}. m. 2 apara 2 n. %{-viveka} m. ever. 725 See also Kochumuttom. (for 2. in reality. %{kadā p-}. Kāv. really asleep ṃṛicch. pp. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Capeller’s Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. &c.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 01/13/2007. 381-2. strange. the future. %{-supta} mfn.uni-koeln. or lays stress on what precedes. “ from whichever. also. Kāv. %{prakāśa} m.) from which or what. in reality). (also %{punar aparam}. p. {ảparam} adv. conditions. 298. posterior. the highest or whole truth. of wk. 724 apara 1 a. http://webapps. of wks. correlative of %{tátas}. hinder. Ganguly. 3 apāra a. n. ṇ. one who knows the highest truth. really poor ṃṛicch. 208.) ṇ. extraordinary. pp. (%{-ra-saṃkṣepavivṛti} f. and often used as abl. Robinson in Lusthaus. %{-bhāj} mfn. on the other hand. n.).). in the true sense of the word R. ṃōṛē. footnote p. foreign (opp.uni-koeln. %{-prapā} f. of wks. %{-vinda} mfn. %{-darśana} m. obtaining the best kind of wealth &c. or gen. later. in this manner.. besides ib. %{punar api}. at first-then-later). unbounded. Anacker.. {ảpareṇa} behind. still. %{-satya} n. {-rİ} f.. further.” “ whencesoever”. of the relative pron.. now-now.

endure.)) be victorious. -. in that time. as soon as ṚV. C. C.de/cgibin/tamil/recherche 02/11/2007. (correlative of %{yÁvat}) so much. as. 2. a boil on the head. suffer.uni-koeln. “ from this or that place. {sam} be a match for. whither Kāv. so large. wherefore. {abhyud} be a match for (acc. be able to (infin. %{ta} Pāṇ. BhP.any one soever. {prati} resist. make supportable.). Var. pp. violate (a woman). restrain. http://webapps. since ĀV. Kāv.. so much. also to introduce an oratio recta) Kāv. &c.uni-koeln. &c. p. i. endure. 54-5. or loc. &c.). since when (also with %{prabhṛti}. (in alg. Pur. -.” “ from any quarter whatever”. bear. be capable of or able to (infin. from which time forward. Anacker. 39. x. ĀV. &c. withstand. suffer. 730 sah (sāh) 2 overpowering. 48. in order that (with Pot. Wood. so greatly. resist. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on MonierWilliams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. where. to such an extent. &c. overcome.) ṚV.. 258.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 02/11/2007.). ii. close attachment to any object. (%{I}) f. 731 Per Wood. p. 5-2. p. (%{tÁvat-tāvat} ṠBr. http://webapps. so long. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Capeller’s Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. 188. i Ṃn. regret. {samud} be able to (infin. pp.” as soon as Ṛājat. {sāhayati} (mostly ---) cause to endure.. in such a number. iii. á disease of the feet. “ any whither.). excite.) the consequence or result of an act (which clings to it and causes the soul after enjoying the temporary freedom from transmigration to enter other bodies). 1 tāvat mf (%{atī})n. 6). 736 1 tāvan in comp. be able to (infin. (fr.” “ to any place whatever”). sustain. Kathās. master.) BhP. loc. impel to (loc. 299. 3. 8.* ḍ. restrain. “ after so long time. 732 See also Kochumuttom.).{abhi} overwhelm. overcome. bearing.Cf. enduring (---)..). so long. pp. Ganguly. be able to (infin. be able to or capable of (infin. ind. pp. in what place ĀV. incline to (dat. {prati}. close connection as with a consequence. so far ṚV. {prod} C. 209. 127 735 anuśaya m. v. {sāḍhả} 1 & {soḍha} overpower. {ud} hold out. 382. {vi} ({ṣahate}) overcome.. pardon. ancient or intense enmity. rarely of %{ya} or %{yathôkta} ṇal. bear. in consequence where of R. 91) so great. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on MonierWilliams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. = prec. control. encourage. just a little Kir. vi. (%{yāvatā kṣaṇena tāvatā}. ((-. bear. for. &c. “ whithersoever”. {pra} vanquish. {saṃpra} master. {sİkṣate} wish to overcome.” “ whencesoever”). 125.&c.). %{yatas tataḥ}.). impel. meanwhile. &c. 733 Kochumuttom. bear.). master. sahate (-ti). so far.) an unknown quantity (also with %{yāvat}). Nagao in Kalupahana. “ ever since birth”) ṂBh. http://webapps. 54-5.. suppress. for %{-vat}. 88. for which reason. pp. that (= $. a boil or abscess on the upper part. 110). withstand. &c. {prasahya}. 6. hatred. endure. p. (often connecting with a previous statement). Robinson in Lusthaus. 6 sah. (%{yato yataḥ}. footnote p. %{yata eva kutaś ca}. in that time ṚV. because. or dat. suffer. 19 ṠBr. in the mean time (the correlative %{yāvat} being often connected 276 . C.uni-koeln. subdue. urge on. withstand. 1. so many (correlative of %{yÁvat}. repentance. {nis} overpower. 10. C. Cook. pp. %{yato jātā}.de/cgibin/tamil/recherche 02/11/2007. bear. 159 734 Ganguly. win (battles). suffer. check. (in phil.

Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. 26. %{śabda-}. 3 sthāpayitvā ind.. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. rudimentary creation. 212. (with gen. p. having put aside = “ with the exception of” (acc.. %{tāvac chobhate mūrkho yāvat kiṃ-cin na bhāṣate}. p. 3.. ṇ. footnote p. cessation ḍaśar. n. “ so long a fool shines as long as he says nothing” ḥit.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 02/11/2007. 4 agratas ind. 300. Nagao in Kalupahana... 130 747 ālamba mfn. 127. . pp. the state of a ṭan-mātra ṃārkP. xiii ṣāṃkhyak. 738 See also Kochumuttom. 55. in front. to be kept in a place ṂBh.uni-koeln. 5 vinivartita mfn. from which the 5 ṃahā-bhūtas or grosser elements are produced cf. %{rūpa-}. asylum ṂBh. Anacker. turning back. 258. 4 vinivartin see %{a-vinivartin}.uni-koeln. holding. R. caused to turn back or to desist from anything ṂBh. coming to an end. 211. p. m. p. 258. annulling ṬPrāt. see col. of a ṃuni ṂBh. 737 vinivartaka mfn. founder ṂBh. 2 vinivartana n.. iii. supporting Kāṭh. 2 sthāpayitṛ mfn. 90. 10. 7 Vṣ. (%{am}) ind. Ganguly... reversing. iii.unikoeln. before. viś. 46. %{-tva} n. 745 Kochumuttom.. &c.) ḍivyÂv. merely that. 128 741 sthāpayitavya mfn. averted ṃālav. Cook. p. 189. id. pp. lxiii.. hanging down R. 55. Nagao in Kalupahana.. 1806 Pañcat.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 02/11/2007. pp. in the beginning. 159 740 Ganguly.) before. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. p. e.uni-koeln. 744 See also Kochumuttom. (in ṣāṃkhya phil. establisher. 277 . http://webapps. pp. x. 739 Kochumuttom. http://webapps. ṛṭḷ. 382. that on which one rests or leans.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 02/11/2007. Wood. Sch. 179 ṂBh. 60 Ṛājat. 128. 33 ff. Robinson in Lusthaus. one who causes to stand. a perpendicular L. prop. a rudimentary or subtle element (5 in number. Wood. 742 agratas ind.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 02/11/2007. first ṚV. %{-sarga} m. return ṂBh... p. (%{A}) f. vi. %{-tā} f. 3 vinivarti f. 1. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. R. having placed or fixed &c. footnote p.de/cgibin/tamil/recherche 02/10/2007. Anacker. Kathās. http://webapps. only a trifle Kathās.. receptacle. to be kept in order or restrained ib. 743 tanmātra mfn. http://webapps. &c. = %{-traka} ṂBh. a species of plant with poisonous leaves Ṣuśr. 301. p. turned away. pp. support. 15. 189. 31 and 33) Yājñ. p.with a neg. %{sparśa-}. p. Kapṣ. 383. v. Cook. pp. Robinson in Lusthaus. iii.unikoeln. Ganguly. %{gandha-}. 15. in presence of. http://webapps. cessation ḍivyÂv. pp. BhP.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 02/11/2007..) creation of the subtle elements.g.. %{rasa-}. ix.unikoeln. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. &c. i. 159 746 Ganguly. depending on or from. vl. http://webapps. = %{-trika} BhP. ceasing.

%{kathaṃ sthitÂsi}. with %{anityam}. taken. ṂBh. 5-3.l. “ he remains sitting” Vikr.” “ sitting. &c.) Kathās.) VarBṛṣ. to “ going. ṂBh. recognized.. standing (as opp. Kāv. “ in battle”) Hariv. 29. correlative of %{yád} (ĀV. constant.. to be overpowered Prab. perceived. 33..) ṂBh. invariable Kathās. left over L. firm.. %{cêd} (Ṡak. staying. to be captured or imprisoned Yājñ. (1264.) Hariv. %{yadi} (Gīt. or comp.”(ṂBh. in that case (often used redundantly.. situated. existing. generally accepted ṠBr. decreed. considered. “ abiding in things high and low”. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Capeller’s Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. instr. v (v.. %{agraje sthite}. Vikr. (in Vedic gram.. &c. &c. %{puraḥ sthite}. 4). or a noun in the same case. learned. 749 sthita mfn.. &c. occupied with.) Pañcat. virtuous L.. ii. “ he keeps continually pervading” Ṡak.. prepared for or to (dat. 6). gathered. 4. ḥit. R. gained.) ib. 15 and 19 ff. 2231). or loc.. following (loc. to be seized or taken or held ṚV. 8. conforming to. %{parasparaṃ sthitam}. to be taken in marriage. belonging to (gen.. “ when the elder brother is there”) Ṃn. &c. also ind. determined Ṡak. xi. ṣubh. turned or directed to. being or remaining or keeping in any state or condition (loc. ṣarvad. standing alone (%{pade sthite}.) not accompanied by %{iti} (in the Pada-pāṭha). held.” “ staying only a short time” KātyṠr.. 750 grāhya a.... Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. with %{uccÂvaceṣu}.” or “ lying”. (%{am}) n. firmly convinced or persuaded ṂBh. adhering to or keeping with (loc. 5091. 3 Ṃn.. &c.. %{sthitaṃ tena}. x. &c. to be seized. “ how did you fare?” Vikr. engrossed by. perseverance on the right path ib. resting or depending on (loc. 1). standing.. abl. grāhya mfn. to be received or accepted or gained Ṃn.. “ it being so” Pañc. abiding R. remaining..2). %{upaviśya sthitaḥ}. engaged in. %{yatra} (ChŪp.748 tadā ind. R.. iv. fixed upon. ṂBh. xi Ṡrut. Kum. &c. 217. standing still.de/cgibin/tamil/recherche 06/03/2007. abiding by. 8/9. understood. http://webapps. &c. http://webapps. received. being there. intent upon. Ṛājat. 267 & 283 ṂBh. Vet.uni-koeln. p. %{yatas}. (Pāṇ. ṂBh. protecting Ṃn.). xiii.: upright. devoted or addicted to (loc. firmly resolved to (inf. resting or abiding or remaining in (loc.) ṂBh. to be clasped or spanned Kathās.) R. &c. present..uni-koeln... or adv. ṂBh. stopping Bhartṛ. ṂBh.. (B) iii. %{vyāpya sthitaḥ}. &c. to be picked or gathered R. comp.). “ it was stood by him” = “ he waited”) Ṃn. “ in the Pada text”) Prāt... “ standing opposed to each other”. to be received in a friendly or hospitable manner. after %{tatas} or %{purā} or before %{atha} ṂBh. Yājñ. &c..vi.. standing firm (%{yuddhe}. close at hand.. established. http://webapps. ii. lasting ṚPrāt. one who has desisted or ceased Pañcad. ṂBh. ascertained. 16. &c. “ it being imminent”) ṂBh. or comp.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 02/11/2007. esp. 278 . leading or conducive to (dat.unikoeln. “ not remaining permanently. staying.) R. 109. “ since.. Yājñ. 18. %{yarhi} (BhP.. being in office or charge Pañcat. or comp. then.) Yājñ. settled.. 43.. performing. “ I myself am ready”. %{evaṃ sthite}. xiii.de/cgibin/tamil/recherche 01/01/2007. Ṃn. ready (%{sthito hy eṣaḥ}. faithful to a promise or agreement L.). (%{a-} neg. i.) at that time. %{yadā} (Ṃn. fixed upon (loc... &c. manner of standing ib..)) Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on MonierWilliams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. lxxiv.

Sch. 302 753 Ganguly. source. rebounding. 258-9 752 Robinson in Lusthaus. to be undertaken or followed (a vow) Kathās. Ṡiś. http://webapps. protection Pañcat. having recourse to. dependence. 131 758 āśraya m. viii.. 612. attachment. R. to be perceived or recognized or understood Ṃn. &c. sanction.) the subject. warrant.. 83. p. the person or thing in which any quality or article is inherent or retained or received.. i.. Ṛagh.). 751 Kochumuttom. origin.. appropriate act or one consistent with the character of the agent. shelter R. 6282. depending on. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. m.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 02/11/2007. turning back or round. contiguity. vicinity ṚPrāt. 19..g. to be acknowledged or assented to. Yājñ.. n. &c. lviii. 759 parāvṛtti f. relation. depending on. to be accepted as a rule or law.) to be observed VarBṛṣ. a plea. 36. (in Gr. p. footnote p. returning..de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 02/11/2007. barter Kāv. 15 Pāṇ. change. a recipient. %{a-}). 213 755 Wood.uni-koeln. meant Vop. taking. %{suhha-}.) L. to be considered R.. Ṣuśr. (cf. Ṣuśr. seat.. vii VarBṛṣ. to be insisted upon Kathās. 41.. to be put (as confidence) in (loc. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. authority. resting-place R. ib. 130 754 Nagao in Kalupahana. the objects of sensual perception Yogas. of partic. R.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 01/01/2007. to be understood in a particular sense. an eclipsed globe (sun or moon) ṣūryas. endowed or furnished with (e. p. http://webapps. xvii. 7 ṂBh. that to which anything is annexed or with which anything is closely connected or on which anything depends or rests Pāṇ. following. &c. %{aṣṭa-guṇÂśraya} see under %{aṣṭa}).. 55 756 Kochumuttom. to be taken or accepted. Ṛagh. not taking effect Cat. i. Ṃn. (cf. revolving Hariv. (in astron. (with Buddhists) the five organs of sense with %{manas} or mind (the six together being the recipients of the %{āśrita} or objects which enter them by way of their %{ālambana} or qualities). to be chosen or taken account of Ṛājat. interchange.). %{svayaṃ-}.uni-koeln. restoration of property ib. &c. help. (%{A}) f. union. acceptable ṂBh.. v. exchange. Sch. ṂBh.) 3 grāhya mfn.. practicing. reversion of a sentence or judgment W. %{a-parāv-}). 160 757 Ganguly.. p.. excuse L. %{dur-}. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. vi.. poison (ṇBḍ. &c. “ a present” Bṛḍ. archery exercise Gal. to be admitted in evidence Ṃn. one from whom anything may be received ṂBh. connection. attaching to. 78 Yājñ.uni-koeln. (cf. n. dwelling. the being inclined or addicted to. p. Grahas ṬBr. 279 . joining. asylum. ifc. lxi. that to which the predicate is annexed. recoiling. 38. m.xii. place of refuge. %{-gṛhya} and Pāṇ. vcii.. (cf. (cf. resting on. &c. %{a-pratig-}). pp. choosing. Kathās. iv. assistance. to be attended to or obeyed. http://webapps.

time or measure (%{tāla-viśeṣa}). fr. Zd. 177. 173) ānukr. &c. 21. the enduring sound (supposed to be heard after the ābhinidhāna) ṚPrāt. 383. Nagao in Kalupahana. Anacker. xviii. waterbird ib. isolation. a strong or retentive memory ChŪp. 5 anāśrita mfn. Br. a knot Vṣ. %{dhru} and %{dhruv}) fixed. a kind of house Gal. cf.e. Hariv.. Kāv. 1-4. 762 Kochumuttom. of a son of ṛanti-nāra (or ṛanti-bhāra) Pur. of Brahmā L. Vait. 12. the point of the heavens directly under the feet (reckoned among the quarters of the sky cf. = %{pāpa} L. pp. in ep.. of 1. http://webapps. footnote p. %{mahānt} f. %{vṛtti}) a partic. of a son of Vasu-deva and ṛohiṇī BhP.de/cgibin/tamil/recherche 02/11/2007. often %{mahat} for %{mahāntam}.. %{strī}) a virtuous woman L. (prob. certainly. 24. pp. Ganguly. unchangeable. 160 763 Ganguly. of a follower of the Pāṇḍus ib.. &c. settled. not supported. constant. 2.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 02/11/2007. (scil. 7 Vṣ. Yoga. with %{diś} f. tip of the nose (?) L. the polar star (personified as son of ūttāna-pāda and grandson of ṃanu) Gṛṣ. ifc. Wood. staying with (loc. a cow which stands quiet when milked ĀV. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on MonierWilliams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. isolated. 18.. m. above). (in music) the introductory verse (cf.760 dauṣṭya n. the remaining (i.). &c. ṭĀr..3). of the syllable ōm ṛāmatŪp. (e.. of Vishṇu ṂBh. 30.) ṚV. ṂBh. permanent. (%{āya}) ind. unprotected. ṣanseviera Zeylanica L. of a son of ṇahusha ṂBh. a post. time. Yājñ. certain. mostly %{mahā} q. defencelessness. the earth. a vow &c. %{mah}. 4.. %{mahatÍ}. the Indian fig-tree L. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. of Ṡiva Ṡivag... (Cf. wickedness Var. 1. a pillar. http://webapps. the fixed point (from which a departure takes place) Pāṇ. eternal ṚV. p. but cf. with %{svÂGga} n. 213. 55. 101. immovable.g. also under %{karaṇa} and %{nakṣatra}).de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche 02/11/2007. any epoch to which a computation of dates is referred W.) great (in space.. absence of any person or thing to depend upon. 26. x. firmly. ix. disengaged. 259. strong form. 2.. celestial pole ṣūryas. with %{dhenu} f. 280 . the unchangeable longitude of fixed stars. mode of life Baudh. Pur..... vii.. %{dhṛ}. air.. self-dependence. defenseless. ḍesmodium Gangeticum L.unikoeln.. non-inherent. tearless ṚV.uni-koeln. ṂBh. 761 See also Kochumuttom.. p. the largest of the 3 sacrificial ladles ĀV. sure Ṃn. stake L. 6 anaśru mfn. Cook. p133 764 anāśraya m. ṂBh. xii. (scil.. x. (%{am}) ind. surely Ṃn. %{diś}) ĀV.. of a serpent supporting the earth Gṛṣ. p. Robinson in Lusthaus. independent. 303. ṠBr. 45. n. 189.. Kāv..v.. %{duṣṭa}) depravity. a mountain. ibc. &c. p. ṇ. of an Āṅgirasa (supposed author of ṚV. lasting. 131. &c. preserved) Graha which having been drawn in the morning is not offered till evening ṠBr.) Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. 765 dhruva mf (%{Á})n. for ever Hariv. 766 mahat mfn. {drva}. constantly. (mfn. detached. 6-2. p. firm. (521. 6 (with %{juhū} & %{upabhṛt}) Vṣ... non-support.. with %{smṛti} f. &c. a constant arc ib.. (%{A}) f. an inseparable member of the body Pāṇ. v. 5. of an astrol. (in music) the introductory verse of a song (recurring as a kind of burthen) or a partic. (from pr. http://webapps. a partic. (fr. atmosphere L.uni-koeln... of a Vasu ṂBh. p...

p. (with %{uktha} n. extensive. a camel L. 56. many (people. ṣāṃkhyak.) ṃaitrŪp.. a partic. ṂBh.. the leader of a sect or superior of a monastery ṛṭḷ. loud (as noise) ḷāṭy. gross ib. %{mahānti bhūtāni}. long. dominion L.quantity or degree) i. ūktha of 720 verses. ĀśvGṛ. large. cf. 259.. of ṛudra or of a partic. power.. thick (as darkness).. scil. sacred knowledge ṂBh. in the middle of the night Tṣ. (ifc. “ the great principle”.” and ṃanas. of a ḍānava Hariv. of Buddhi.. in %{mahad-bhū}.. Ganguly. anything great or important ChŪp. of a ṣāman ṂBh.. abundant. %{mahābhūta}). 281 . considerable. 1. 383. “ the mind”. a great thing.” or the intellectual principle (according to the ṣāṃkhya philosophy the second of the 23 principles produced from Prakṛiti and so called as the {great} source of āhaṃkāra.. advanced (afternoon) ṂBh. abounding on rich in (instr. pp. &c. 304. ample. Kām. ṇ. greatness. 189. (with %{dvādaśī}).. %{alpa} or %{dīna}) Kāv...) ChŪp. m. &c. Wood.. Robinson in Lusthaus. pp. to %{nīca}. pp. (also ind. class of deceased progenitors ṃārkP.. p. http://webapps. the gross elements Ṃn. a great or noble man (opp.). violent (pain or emotion) ib. cf. high. might ṠBr. 133. %{tattva}). eminent ṚV.). Br. Pañcat. 213-4. the 12th day in the light half of the month Bhādrapada Pur. &c. important matter. %{gaṇa}).. p. to become great or full (said of the moon) Ṡiś.uni-koeln. (scil.. the egg-plant Bhpr. numerous.. a partic.) ṂBh. Cook. (%{atī}) f. 767 See also Kochumuttom. ṇ. early (morning) ib. Anacker. huge. p. (rarely n.. 83.) distinguished by Ṡak. important. with %{aukthya} n. Ṣuśr. “ Intellect... with %{jana} sg. Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon based on MonierWilliams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary: search results. the (7 or 100-stringed) lute of ṇārada Ṡiś. of two princes VP. 91 &c.e. Nagao in Kalupahana.. n.. ṛīudra BhP. big.de/cgibin/tamil/recherche 02/11/2007. ṂBh. “ self-consciousness. advanced state or time (%{mahatí rātriyai} or %{rātryai}. īW. the greater part ĀśvGṛ.. m. 87 n. Ṃn.

some have taken interesting exception to this line of thinking."775 "…all is psycho-sophic closure.” being: "… just the distinction (between subject and object)…”768 "…imagination…”769 "…discrimination…"770 The object of that distinction."772 "…everything is representation-only"773 "…everything… is nothing but representation of consciousness.780 Thomas Kochumuttom 282 . absolutist or transcendentalist. that in fact its content is intended as a soteriological device but becomes misconstrued as metaphysical statements."777 “…all are consciousness only. imagination or “difference of perception.779 David Kalupahana rejects the description of Yogācāra as any form of metaphysical idealism. and urges a psychological interpretation. as previously mentioned: Edward Conze has argued that it is neither an absolutist nor a subjective idealism. and that this is a sufficient condition for deeming his Yogācāra a form of idealism. However."771 "…all this is mere concept.CHAPTER 5 VASUBANDHU’S YOGĀCĀRA IDEALISM Metaphysical Questions The 17th verse of the Triṃsatika describes the vijñāna-parināma.”774 “…everything is perception only. as equivalent to vikalpa."778 It would seem non-controversial to state that for Vasubandhu."776 “…all is mere-consciousness. therefore: "…this is all mere representation of consciousness. imagination or discrimination does not exist. reality is essentially mentation. the transformation or development of consciousness.

in fact.782 Alex Wayman and Richard King have expressed reservations about the relevance of the question of idealism in Yogācāra at all. This integrated approach provides a more satisfying explanation for the apparent ambiguity between these categories in Vasubandhu’s texts than supposing that he simply did not grasp any 283 .argues for an interpretation of Yogācāra as a kind of realistic pluralism. and often offers fresh perspectives on well-discussed passages.785 Fernando Tola and Carmen Dragonetti have described Mahāyāna Buddhism in general as embracing idealism as part of its doctrinal rebellion against the realist Hināyāna school. it is essential to understanding his system that these three kinds of questions are not treated as mutually irrelevant or unconnected.783 And so it goes. Chatterjee. describes it as a doctrine of collective hallucination. Vasubandhu does not seem afraid of tackling metaphysical issues in addition to the epistemological and psychological. defining ontological idealism from the Mahāyāna perspective as the mediation between nihilism and realism. T. Sarachandra favors the view that Yogācāra is most akin to a Berkeleian-type subjective idealism. R. Murti.784 and others. Most non-idealist interpretations are more recent than the traditional assessments provided by A. While this approach is tempting as a means of reconciling more difficult points.781 Bruce Hall sees it as navigating between the extremes represented by both naïve realism and naïve idealism. if employed exclusively. Chatterjee. effectively relegated to impermeable categories intended for isolated discussions.787 Thomas Wood. I am not convinced that. is among those who have supported the position that Yogācāra is an absolutism and an idealism. it is ultimately the right approach. focusing on the inter-subjective aspects of Vasubandhu’s system.786 E.788 The comparatively recent rejection of the idealistic interpretation is based on an insistence upon an (exclusively) epistemological or psychological reading of Vasubandhu’s work. K.

in part. Can we—must we?— also infer the metaphysical claim. Suppose we accept this assertion as an epistemological assertion. First. however. In his commentary on MSL concerning “Thatness. he adds that 284 . working from his own translation of the texts.” MSL) Vasubandhu does indeed appear to be addressing something at least equally ontological in concern as it is epistemological. being a claim about how things appear to us in ordinary experience. thinks not.” he states in verse 1: “‘Ultimate’ means ‘non-dual.”790 I will address the proposal regarding plurality in a moment.difference between metaphysical.)789 There is no compelling evidence that we must preclude metaphysics from Vasubandhu’s intended realm of discourse in his explanation of the vijñapti-mātra thesis. asserting that: “… (T)he ‘plurality’ and ‘duality’ under discussion refer to two different universes of discourse: the former refers to the ontological universe of discourse and stands for plurality of beings. I will point out that as early as his commentary on the Mahāyānasūtrālaṁkāra (“Universal Discourse Literature. “Investigation of the Dharmas. Rejection of Ontological Dualism The epistemological claim of the Trisvabhāva-Nirdeśa (TSN ) is that the appearance of subject-object duality is a construction of citta.” verse 13. Sarachchandra has complained. as well as Vasubandhu’s commentary on Maitreya’s Madhyanta-Vibhaga (MV). to the effect that duality exists only in name or form only? Thomas Kochumuttom. while the latter refers to the epistemological/experiential universe of discourse and stands for duality of understanding. regarding the rejection of dualism solely as an epistemological device. a claim about how reality is.’”791 Later in his commentary on MSL 9. epistemological and psychological-soteriological issues (as.

or consciousness-change. but rather processes. and vijñapti. the sixfold vijñapti arises from moment to moment upon the stream of the ālaya. etc. that the pariṇāma-vijñāna. namely. The components of this change are vipāka. corresponding to the five senses and the “sense-center. The vipāka operates by means of the ālaya. pain and neutrality. again. There is agreement between the Vasubandhu who commented on the MSL. through which the impressions of past experiences flow. the coming-into-efficacy of the thoughts. and not exclusively in an epistemological sense.” and is also associated with the vedanas of pleasure. and is absolutely inexpressible. Recall Vasubandhu’s explanation of the Buddha’s “subtle teaching” regarding ātman and dharmas as described in the Triṃśika. provided that the conditions for active consciousness exist. is the ground of error. self and things.”792 As we have seen. a fundamental assumption of Buddhism that there is no enduring “self” (anātman) and no enduring “things” (avidya). the Vasubandhu who wrote the TSN. Like waves upon water. this is echoed and further developed in the TSN. which distinguishes raw sensory data into subject and object. manana. the Viṃśika (VM) and the Triṃsika (TM).“Reality is that which is always free from duality. experiences and impressions of the past. and further that there are no substances. It is further associated with a vast number of psychological states. 285 . as influenced by the vipāka.. and the Vasubandhu who wrote the VM and TM. Non-dualism in reality is consistently insisted upon. is the foundation for the metaphors of atman (self) and dharmas. in light of the doctrine of impermanence. naturally free from fabrication. consciousness at its most basic level as bare reflection or thinking. consciousness at more complex levels. Vijñapti is six fold. Rejection of Substantialism It is.

leads to understanding the absence of an enduring “self” in the pudgala or material body. verses 9-10. when understood in terms of realistic pluralism. Kochumuttom proposes that this reality is plural insofar as it is constituted by manifold moments of consciousness. Understanding that the sixfold consciousness develops as a result of six pairs of dharmas (twelve sense bases). while perceived sense-qualities and manas function as the outer seat of perception. Kochumuttom has argued: “My minimum contention is that the Yogācāra writings. which evolve from the assumption of duality of subject and object discriminated by manas. There are indeed passages in the Yogācāra literature which apparently support an idealistic monism.” 793 Vasubandhu argues explicitly against atomic realism. 286 . makes better sense…. this is not to argue against the possibility of pluralism in Vasubandhu’s Yogācāra in any form— just not in a substantial or enduring sense normally associated with a realistic system. are open to interpretation in terms of realistic pluralism…. it may be less evident that his position was ontologically non-pluralistic. especially those under discussion. Possibilities for Pluralism While it is quite clear that Vasubandhu denied dualism. However.This is compatibly explained in the Viṃśika. But I maintain that the entire system. which proposes the existence of perduring. wherein it is said that the basis of the activity of cognition or conception with respect to phenomenal appearances is a self-contained cause that develops within consciousness. The sixfold sense-consciousness functions as the inner seat (āyatana) of perception. objective “reals” that exist independently of consciousness.

because of (consciousnesses') own seeds.the Muni has declared both to the twofold āyatana of that (cognition)."797 Because their appearances continue as perceptions. in verse 9: "That seeds of its own from which cognition comes forth (and that object) with whose representations (cognition comes forth). something like this approach might work. and (ii) the form in which that representation appears. If by this he is ascribing objective reality to multiple subjective centers of consciousness."798 287 . proceeds from its own seed. then so long as this objective reality is not substantial or objectively perduring. reflecting the twofold spheres. is that Vasubandhu’s conception of reality is not taken to be a substantive pluralism."796 "The sage has described how a concept. the Sage spoke in terms of states of two-fold sense-fields. and also objective insofar as it is “materially” caused by objective conditions."795 "What the sage spoke of as the two bases of knowledge are (i) the own-seed from which a representation of consciousness develops. What matters. For example. Among her conclusions is that it is subjective insofar as consciousness is self-manifesting. Subjectivity and Objectivity Bina Gupta presents a compelling case for the thesis that the Yogācāra concept of consciousness is a subjective-objectivist theory. as normally implied by a “realistic” system. in any event.794 Vasubandhu indeed describes consciousness as “seeding” itself through the function of the Ālayavijñāna as a sort of mental DNA delivery system in the VM.and hence proposes that it is a realistic pluralism.

the first of the three modes of abhūtakalpa (supposition/imagination of subject and object). The ālayavijñāna is called citta because it collects or accumulates (is citavāt. object/seen. The effect of vāsanā is accepting. develops in various ways.” The residual karmic impressions of past actions together with the impressions of duality perceived in the past conjointly produce a new stage of development or maturation as soon as the prior stage is completed. the ālaya-vijñāna and seven-fold pravṛtti-vijñāna constitute abhūta-kalpa. And so in this way. The naimittika (caused) and prātibhāsika (phenomenal) modes of abhūta-kalpa are constituted by the eightfold pravṛtti. The pravṛtti-vijñāna is called citta because it acts/functions/evolves in/under/as citra (diverse forms/aspects/ways). This is reiterated in TM 18-19: The mūla-vijñāna. as naimittika (caused).(root/foundation/origin/cause) vijñāna because it has the nature of vipāka (maturation). naming or “seizing” duality-vāsanā together with diminished prior vipāka producing. maturation of the influence of past experiences is causally related to suppositions about phenomenal appearances. containing or being constituted by all of the bīja. This function itself is threefold: as vaipākika (maturational). and as prātibhāsika (phenomenal). This development is contingent upon mutual influence through which particular (“such and such”) thoughts are produced. conceiving.(active/functioning/evolving) vijñāna. the supposition/imagination/creation of forms of subjectivity and objectivity.TSN 6-9 outlines the multi-functional structure of consciousness. Chatterjee 288 . vipāka helps produce vikalpa: that is. and knowledge modes of being or functioning). becoming accumulated/filled with) the bijās (seeds/germs/causes) of vāsanās. The ālaya-vijñāna is called mūla. the present consciousnesses of past perceptions. They evolve or arise as modifications depending upon dṛśya-dṛg-vitti-vṛttita (the subject/seer. Collectively.

perceptions.. Vasubandhu’s Yogācāra can neither be called a purely subjective idealism or a purely objective idealism. cognition (cetanā). to create the phantom of another and project it as distinct from itself. “It is the tendency. that is.g. mental attention (manas-kāra). apprehensions. it is nevertheless always either associated with or possessing (i. it provides an explanation for the continuing function of consciousness with a kind of karmic memory.e. the presence of which within consciousness cannot be known by consciousness. In this respect. Functional Pluralism In a related vein. and volition (anvita). conditioned impressions).”799 Vasubandhu’s explication of hetu-phala-bhāvena-citta. in the ālayavijñāna: “What is unperceived representation of consciousness… is always sparśa-manaskāra-vit-sañjñā-cetanā-anvitam. “manifesting cause-andeffect consciousness. “Indifference to vedanā therein unobstructed or uninterrupted elementary substance/likewise: touch. ongoing series of events.describes vāsanā as the “dynamism inherent in” the Ālayavijñāna. is the abode of): touch (sparśa).. Second. as it were.” accomplishes at least two things. TM 3-5 addresses the issue of self-consciousness. from one moment to the next.” Although the ālaya is unaware of its own activities (e. but rather functional differences in a related. Because objectivity is affirmed as well as subjectivity. the idea of cause-and-effect consciousness establishes one of the most basic co-instantiations of opposites in a singular Reality by presenting them not as substantially different things. on the part of consciousness.. conceptualizing (sañjñā). consciousness is not cognizant of its own content. or lack thereof. “seizing” and tacca… revolving/happening/existing river289 . a transmission of genetic influence. First.

such as subjectivity and objectivity. this is a significant question. This arrangement is not possible in a realist system— it makes no sense to speak of logical opposites among material substances. of ignorance and enlightenment. to a single ultimate reality without significant explanatory tension by virtue of rendering these characteristics as functional. However. Vasubandhu’s ontology thus appears to be a monistic metaphysical idealism. epistemological or logical opposites. for example. It is in this sense that duality is not an ontological problem for Vasubandhu’s Yogācāra. of subjectivity and objectivity. rather than substantive. at best.torrent//flowing arhat-ship separation. So.” It is with the arising of the second transformation of consciousness that self-consciousness ensues. as demonstrated in the model of “cause-and-effect consciousness. such that reality is one and non-different from mentation.” It thereby avoids being any variety of purely subjective idealism. Subjects Does the affirmation of subjectivity entail the affirmation of subjects? From a practical standpoint. if not a conscious subject? How can one mind be distinguished from one another if there are no discernible loci of 290 . The existence of subjectivity is affirmed. Vasubandhu’s Yogācāra is capable of ascribing apparently contradictory characteristics. Vasubandhu’s Yogācāra is neither purely a personalist idealism. nor purely an impersonalist idealism. I venture that in the final analysis. this reality is not devoid of some objective aspects. Vasubandhu’s system allows opposites such as these to simultaneously co-exist in his system because they are not truly ontological opposites. What is the locus of consciousness. but are rather. further.

lies in explaining the process by which pure consciousness diversifies itself into infinite reality.” because the purely perceptual is ineffable. to wit: setting aside all questions of objects. The “constructive” or “speculative” part of Vasubandhu’s metaphysics. because ideas relating to both subject and objects are the results of a combination of perceptual and conceptual activity.”800 Thus Kalupahana suggests on the epistemological-psychological level that neither subjects nor objects in Vasubandhu’s Yogācara are affirmed. idealism.” such that “neither a substantial subject (ātman) nor a substantial object (dharma) would be acceptable in explaining experience. there being nothing else. is there a subject? Traditionalist Chatterjee presents Vasubandhu’s view as drawing upon the “constructive and positive theory of reality” of the Abhidharmakośa to assume the middle position between realism (wherein the object is as real as the knowing of it) and nihilism (often and perhaps unfairly attributed to the Madhyāmika school due to its emphasis on “emptiness”). serving as a means for transmitting vasanas between moments of consciousness and thus providing a connection between these moments without admitting to a static subject. just as “much of the purely conceptual would have no empirical basis. if there is subjectivity.mentality? The ālayavijñāna or “storehouse consciousness” offers some explanation. Non-traditionalist Kalupahana argues for non-substantialism (anātmavāda) in Vasubandhu’s Yogācāra “as a philosophical method. “Plurality must be reflected within consciousness itself. he says. and thus maintaining “the reality of the subject while denying it with regard to the object. this does not satisfy the lingering ontological questions that arise from the epistemological exploration of consciousness. that is. Neither self nor elements would be purely perceptual or conceptual.”801 Chatterjee further describes this reality as diversified into complex relationships that constitute empirical existence. However.” 291 .

it cannot be a perduring self in the Mahāyāna Buddhist framework. and the perpetually evolving svabhāva of the ground of that discrimination. while nihilism denies them both. etc. then what of objects. The affirmation of the subject must be qualified. Objects If objectivity is not denied. “Vijñapti-mātrā” means. physical objects really existing in an empirical world? This is a different concern. suggests on the ontological level that subjects in Vasubandhu’s Yogācāra are affirmed.Consequently. does not cease to be a mental content simply because it circumscribes attributes and qualities of supposed non-mental reality.. that the content of our concepts. there could be no naïve disregard of the Buddhist principle of anātman involved. (It would follow on this model that realism affirms the existence of both subjects and objects. specifically any extra-mental. invisible atomic “reals” that exist independently of consciousness: 292 . but that objects are not. passive-and-active consciousness. the objects that we learn to habitually discriminate from the presentation of phenomena. If pursued.) This line of thought is so far more promising. cause-and-effect consciousness. which proposes the existence of perduring. supporter of the thesis that Yogācāra is a metaphysical idealism. Throughout the VM. And thus I would suggest the notion that Vasubandhu’s Yogācāra is a process idealism emphasizing the “perpetually perishing” nature of discriminated selves and things.802 Thus Chatterjee. objective. in one respect. Vasubandhu argues explicitly against atomic realism. are admitted as kinds of consciousness.

"803 "The objects is experienced neither as a single entity. because the existence of the atom (paramāṇu) is not proved."806 "A sense object is neither a single thing. (be object of cognition). so atoms can't be demonstrated. because (in this case) the atom cannot be proved to exist. Vasubandhu’s Yogācara is not such a realism. an atom is not established. there indeed is a fabrication. nor a multiplicity. Recall from TM 20: "The subject matter that is liable to subject-object distinction by whatsoever sort of subject-object discrimination. nor can it be an aggregate (of atoms). because not a single atom is obtained in experience at all. is all just imagined nature. and non-existent. it does not exist."810 "Whatever thing (vastu) is imagined by whatever imagination is purely imaginary (parikalpita).”811 293 . For that reason.“An external Ayatana cannot be the object of a cognition either as one or as multiple in (isolated) atoms. That which is purely imagination has no self nature (svabhāva)."808 "Whatever thought through which an object is thought of as substance. empirical objects discriminated in such-and-such a way as being such-and-such a way) to be taken as perduring."809 "Whatever thing is imagined by whatever imagining is of an imaginary own-nature. nor several things."804 "Atom-wise. nor as an aggregate of atoms. an object is neither one nor many. neither can these (atoms)."805 "The perceptual object is neither a unity."807 Neither is the content of ordinary observation (that is. from the atomic point of view. (when they are) conglomerated. nor as otherwise existing as they appear. nor as many discrete atoms. Neither is it a conglomeration of them. It is not evident. nor an aggregate (saṃhatā) of atoms.

etc.” rather than viṣaya-vijñāna or “consciousness of the object.”814 "."812 Kalupahana has suggested that it is of no small significance that Vasubandhu uses the term viṣaya-vijñapti or “concept of the object.’” but that would have left him with the task of proving the nonexistence of the objective world. “he could simply have denied the reality of the external object and maintained that it is ‘mere-consciousness. Vasubandhu states clearly in his auto-commentary on VM 10 that he does not deny the reality of phenomena altogether.813 There seems to me significant truth in the last statement.."Whatever range of events is discriminated by whatever discrimination is just the constructed own-being. Kalupahana argues. That “vijñapti-mātra is a subtle teaching about the dharmas” means: "By knowing that this sole consciousness arises with the representation of the dharmas form-color. and isn't really to be found.. he insists. and it conforms to an interpretation of Vasubandhu’s system as embodying both subjective and objective elements... have the same task (such that the realist would have to prove the nonexistence of the subjective world).(K)nowing that mere representations of consciousness produce the appearance of objects like color etc. Both the metaphysical realist and the metaphysical idealist. reality is one in Suchness. but that a dharma with the characteristics of form-color. does not (externally) exist.” If he were an absolute idealist.”815 294 . more than one in function—and one such instance of this is illustrated by cause.(subject-) and-effect (object) consciousness. etc. etc.. and that there are no objects like color. as such.

(any one hearer. the 295 .. a description that takes into account the conventions of empirical observation as the natural starting point for a discussion of knowledge. it is written in TM 23 that “naturelessness” or “non-substantiality” or “absence of self-nature” or “absence of own being” of the dharmas refers to the respect in which there is a three-fold asvabhāva of the dharmas corresponding to their threefold svabhāva. not the ineffable nature of the dharmas. any one toucher). All three svabhāva are non-dual and “ungraspable..” the parikalpita (as imagined duality) because it does not exist..The realist may object that any rejection of dharmas implies a rejection of consciousness.819 This hearkens directly back to the TSN. (T)he theory of the non-substantiality of the dharmas does not mean that there are no dharmas altogether. On the contrary (The self and the objects are non-substantial) with regard to their imagined nature. The pariniṣpanna is the samuccheda (termination) of conventional belief. any one smeller. any one taster. Vasubandhu’s reply would be that on the contrary.) But when it is known that there is not any one seer. or any one thinker. Recall verses 22-26. which describe the epistemological krama (order) among the trisvabhāva.818 Subsequently. it is the product of constructed/imagined subject-object duality of the dharmas that is said to be non-substantial. those to be introduced into the Dharma through the selflessness of personality will enter into an understanding (of it).. Understanding the doctrine of the dharmas as insubstantial "is not produced by thinking that no dharmas exists at all.) . But (it is produced by thinking no dharma exists) with an imagined essence."816 (Emphasis mine. The parikalpita is conventional belief or practice based on empirical observation. The paratantra is the cause of that belief.817 (Emphasis mine..

if objects of perception in any way exist independently of being perceived. this cannot be known. things lack intrinsic reality. “Object of perception” divorced from “perception” leaves a lonely “object” bereft of any causal explanation... and the pariniṣpanna (perfected) because it is by its very nature the absence of the duality imagined. Vasubandhu comments: Because they do not exist by themselves. it may not make sense.824 It is in response to much of this line of inquiry that Vasubandhu issues the Yogācārin answer: phenomena enjoy a certain reality. 296 ."823 Phenomena evidently happens. and accepting that empirically derived fact not only does not contradict. but depend on conditions. Once they have been terminated.paratantra (phenomena) because it does not exist as it appears (as dual). do not endure in intrinsic objectivity. and do not exist as they are perceived” (emphasis mine). because they do not exist as they are perceived. "It is admitted that the imaginary (nature) is the empirical reality…"820 "The imagined nature is essentially of conventional values…"821 "… is that which exists only conventionally…"822 "The constructed consists of conventional practice. but enormously helps an argument for a theory of dynamic reality. and logically. they do not reproduce themselves out of their intrinsic natures. the svabhāva (own-being) of that abhāva (non-being). In MSL 9:50 it is said: “Realitylessness is advocated because (things) do not exist as selves or with their intrinsic natures. They lack intrinsic reality because they are momentary. but not of a material kind.

768 Triṃśika (TM) 17 in Thomas A. 773 Robinson in Lusthaus. Seven Works of Vasubandhu: The Buddhist Psychological Doctor. Mind Only: A Philosophical and Doctrinal Analysis of the Vijñānavāda. (Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. 776 TM 17: Hsüan-tsang variant in Lusthaus. 53. dynamic. Treatise in Thirty Verses on MereConsciousness: A Critical Translation of Hsuan-Tsang’s Chinese Version of the Vijnaptimatra-tatrimsika (Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. 770 TM 17 in Stefan Anacker. (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. The Principle of Buddhist Psychology (New York: State University of New York Press 1987). Religions of Asia Series no. The rejection of duality as an ontological thesis does not preclude the affirmation of subjectivity and objectivity as functions of a single reality. neither purely subjective nor purely objective. 772 TM 17 (translator Nagao) in David J. A Buddhist Doctrine of Experience: A New Translation and Interpretation of the Works of Vasubandhu (New Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. 769 TM 17 (translator Robinson) in Dan Lusthaus. There are. 291. over the course of his consciousness trilogy. 771 Kochumuttom. See also Thomas Wood. however. Kaluphana. 777 TM 17: Hsüan-tsang variant in Swati Ganguly. momentary subjects. 197. The affirmation of real objectivity does not entail the affirmation of real objects. 1992) p. Buddhist Phenomenology: a Philosophical Investigation of the Yogācāra Buddhism and the Ch’eng Wei-shi Lun. Vasubandhu’s Yogācāra may be understood as a dynamic or “process” idealism: non-dualistic. 291. causally connected through a subjective-objective function described as the activity of cause-andeffect consciousness. 1991) p. ibid. p. Kochumuttom. 775 Anacker. employing a functional pluralism to explain causality.p. ibid. 114. (New York: Routledge-Curśon.Conclusion There is no compelling evidence that we must preclude metaphysics from Vasubandhu’s intended realm of discourse in his explanation. Routledge-Curśon Critical Studies in Buddhism Series. 774 Wood. change and appearance. of the Vijñapti-mātra thesis. 297 . ibid. 8. 2002) p. 1982) p. non-substantialist. ibid. 1984). 257.

CIT Consciousness (Oxford University Press Foundations of Indian Philosophy series.F.” Philosophy East and West 44. Sarachchandra. 4 (October 1994): 659-83. 49. (translators). 1955. 5. Buddhist Thought in India: Three Phases of Buddhist Philosophy (London: Allen and Unwin. 2004. 801 Chatterjee. Banaras Hindu University. “The Yogācārins. 794 See Bina Gupta. Editor-in-Chief Robert A. ibid. p. 69-107.Being as Consciousness: Yogācāra Philosophy of Buddhism. Murti. p.” Journal of the International Assocation of Buddhist Studies 9.) 787 See Edirivira R. pp. 790 Kochumuttom. ibid. Psychology in the Yogācāra. p. 779 See Edward Conze. p. 806 Wood.. 99. (Motilal Banarsidass. p. Three Texts on Consciousness Only: Demonstration of Consciousness Only (Numata Center for Buddhist Translation and Research. 3. 802 Ibid. p. p. 780 See Kalupahana’s The Principle of Buddhist Psychology. 795 Viṃśika (VM) 9 in Tola and Dragonetti. no. 159.” 785 See Ashok K. p. p. pp. 789 Sarachchandra. 165-6. 803 Tola and Dragonetti. 797 VM 9 (translator Nagao) in Kalupahana. 783 See Alex Wayman. 142. “From Vasubandhu to Śāntarakṣita: A Critical Examination of Some Buddhist Theories of the External World. 805 Nagao in Kalupahana. 800 Kalupahana. 267. 139. p. 20.) 786 See Fernando Tola and Carmen Dragonetti. 804 Kochumuttom. 180. Readings on Yogācāra Buddhism. 798 VM 9 in Anacker.” Journal of Indian Philosophy 4 (1976).778 TM 17 in Frances Harold Cook. 792 MSL 9:13 commentary. The Universal Vehicle Discourse Literature (Mahāyānasūtrālaṁkāra) by Maitreyanātha/ Āryāsaṇ Together with its Commentary (Bhāṣya) by Vasubandhu. 4. “Early Yogācāra and Its Relationship With the Mādhyamika School. 784 See T. (New York: Columbia University. 791 Mahāyānasūtrālaṁkāra (MSL) 6:1 commentary in Jampsal. 1962) Ch. 121. (London: George Allen and Unwin. “The Meaning of Vijñapti in Vasubandhu’s Concept of Mind. 799 Chatterjee. Chatterjee. 796 VM 9 in Kochumuttom. p. 1971.” Philosophy East and West (Oct. The Central Philosophy of Buddhism: A Study of the Madhyamika System. 793 Kochumuttom. p. 380. 1996) and Richard King. 18. 2003) p. et. 298 . L. 135-6. Readings on Yogācāra Buddhism. 781 See Kochumuttom’s A Buddhist Doctrine of Experience. p. no. Thurman. Mind Only. R. American Institute of Buddhist Studies 2004).. 1. 1999) p. pp. 182. p. 788 See Wood. 3. V. (Center of Advanced Study in Philosophy. al. 1 (1986): 7-23.) Ch. “A Defense of Yogācāra Buddhism. 782 See Bruce Cameron Hall. 89. “Influence of the Madhyamika Dialectic.

812 TM 20 in Anacker. 815 Kochumuttom. 811 TM 20 in Wood.. 136. 53. 821 TSN 23 in Kochumuttom. p. p. Wood.807 808 Anacker. 810 TM 20 (translator Robinson) in Lusthaus. 167. et. 820 Trisvabhāva (TSN) 23 in Tola and Dragonetti p. 809 TM 20 (translator Nagao) in Kalupahana. 188. p. 225. 299 . 207. p. p. 141. 819 See Kochumuttom. p. 204. p. 816 Tola and Dragonetti. p. 817 Kochumuttom. p. p. 266 818 Anacker. 164. 54. 294. 188. 266. pp. p. p. TM 20 in Kochumuttom. 814 Tola and Dragonetti. p. 251. p. 140-1. p. p. 823 TSN 23 in Anacker. p. p. 822 TSN 23 in Wood. 258. 224. 824 MSL 9:50 and commentary in Jamspal. al. p. p. 141. 297. 36. Robinson in Lusthaus. and Anacker. Nagao in Kalupahana. 813 Kalupahana. 257.

As repository-called-consciousness and sevenfold-manifestation (sevenfold-function). and threefold own-condition (own-being): this is devout. But in the manner conceived (imagined)… the feasible object thus is absolutely not known. the idea (belief) depending upon a mode of acting or being “that” (other). and the perfected (fully existing). 6 Thus the conception of cause-effect: Consciousness is twofold. 300 . 2 Wherefore idea (perception) of the relative (dependent) as follows: idea (perception) is assumed (constructed). 3 Conveying name (idea): the manner in which it appears is a perpetually ignorant idea. non-existent— Thus proceeding (perishing) state of non-duality. 5 What is mistaken belief about existence? Consciousness. to be known as the unchanging. to be known by the wise. perfected (fully being) own-condition. 4 Therefore in what manner the mistaken idea (constructed belief) about existence? It is dual in nature. assuming (constructing) merely existence.APPENDIX I: ON THE THREEFOLD OWN-STATE-OF-BEING OF PHENOMENAL APPEARANCES 1 The assumed (invented). thus. the relative (dependent). Flowing by no means. profound.

duality and oneness. … and phenomenal appearances. Mental disturbance (defilement) and purification— Differences in attribute (definition)… own-state (process-of-being) profound. 12 Not twofold state because also twofold non-existence. mental disturbances (“defilements”). Thus the imagined (constructed) own-nature is defined as being. 8 Succinctly. 11 State of being grasping because absolutely non-existent in this way. The other is manifesting (functioning) consciousness. 13 Not twofold state because also twofold non-existence. object (seen) and knowledge modes of being (functioning). As the subject (seer). Thus the perfected own-state-of-being is defined as being 14 301 . imagination of the non-existent is also threefold. Thus the perfected own-state-of-being is defined as being. considered as: maturational. consciousness manifests in manifold forms.7 First. produced by particular causes. and causal elements “seeds”) are collected in consciousness… Second. impressions of past perceptions. 9 First is root-consciousness. 10 Existence and non-existence. which has the nature of guided maturation.

The perfected (fully existing) and the invented (assumed) thus to be understood as non-different in definition. The perfected is esteemed as a state of (abiding in) purification. 302 . the own-being of the constructed as conceived by the ignorant is both dual and unitary. likewise existence and own-state (process-of-being). 20 According as it is said non-existence and existence (condition). 16 Twofold existence (condition). 19 Non-duality being the abode of own-being (non-condition) is also dual absence of being (condition). one non-dual own-state (process-of-being). 15 The being perceived as manifesting dually is merely conditioned false impression. The invented (assumed) and the perfected (fully existing) Are known as undivided in definition. the dependent (relative) own-nature is understood to be dual and unitary. 18 Not being dual own-state (process-of-being) that non-existent own-state (process-of-being). thus the invented (assumed) to be known as non-different in definition from the perfected (fully existing).Twofold character fabricated with respect to things (objects) abides accordingly as non-existent state of being. 17 The fabricated and independent are also understood as characterized by defilement. the perfected (complete) own-nature is understood to be dual and unitary. one existence (nature).

22 Order of alterations (divisions) of own-state (process-of-being). thus operating rules (epistemological conventions). 25 Story of twofold non-being and being Absolute (complete) nature… understood. 23 The assumed (invented) is essentially operating rules (conventions). namely nondual-[non]-grasping-definition. Thus the perfected (fully existing) is understood to be non-different in definition from the invented (assumed). 303 . Non-existence not likewise that non-existence of own-state-of-being (own-condition) 27 Accomplished illusion by power of instrument of thought. and growth in knowledge relating to an uncertain thing (object). 24 Twofold state (process-of-being) having the nature of being prior. Perception (idea) of elephant-body (-essence) accordingly. not being twofold.21 Not existing as dual. entrance into operating rules (conventions). Story understood therein merely possible. In that manner surely thus in this way. Absolute termination of convention is own-state (process-of-being) and… by the wise. Accordingly. The inter-dependent is understood. own-state (process-of-being) also said to be absence of own-state (process-of-being) and absence of existence. at that time Existence and non-existence… 26 Threefold unification of own-state-of-being (own-condition).

and attainment. Therein existence is merely appearance (form). The three definitions work together: Knowledge. Cessation is non-manifestation… Obtainment is uncaused and direct knowledge. Duality absolutely non-existent. 29 Root-consciousness (mentation origin) perception (idea) essentially dual. Elephant non-existent. 31 In breaking through with regard to the reality (truth) about material things. False idea (doubt) elephant dual. 28 Own-state-of-being (own-condition): Assumed elephant inter-dependent (relatively caused) that very appearance… therein non-existent elephant… perfected nature by the wise. cessation accordingly of form. 34 Also simultaneous: elephant non-perception. Cessation of flowing. 304 . cessation. Dual form disappears. All objects (manner of things). perfected Non-existence (non-condition) irreproachable…. Action (behavior) according to order (method). 33 Lack of perception of duality. 32 Three: knowledge is non-perception. 30 Instrument of thought root-consciousness Like a stick true nature believed.External aspect (form) being merely on that occasion-of existence. action approaching wisdom. however. Form of the elephant desired.

It may be Perception of unlimitedness. 36 Perception of consciousness-instant. Knowledge threefold following. Non-perception of material object. Attains excellent wisdom (and) the threefold Buddha-bodies. it may be Non-perception of consciousness. 37 Non-perception of duality.and perception of stick abiding in illusion. Perception of fundamental nature of reality. 38 Perception of unlimitedness and (perception of) own-absolute-thing-attainment. 305 . Perception of fundamental nature of reality. one awakened Verily wise teaching. Non-perception of material object. And liberation occurring without effort. 35 Doubtful thought restrained.

Commencing with observingthe pus river. No hell ghosts from which suffering perceived. Always hell-guards observed harassing. and also no causal efficacy if consciousness is enjoined in the absence of an object. or In the case that object-consciousness is not determined in place-time. 3 Beginning with undetermined space. Existing again in hell.APPENDIX II: TWENTY VERSES ON THE NATURE OF CONSCIOUSNESS-OCCASION 1 Consciousness-occasion thus non-existing material thing like reflection (appearance According as optical disorder: non-existing hairs. and no causal efficacy at work. Accomplished as in dreaming. 2 No fixed time-space point. 306 . 5 Concealing coming together (birth) (occasion). moons and so on discerned. No determined continued succession. 6 If that very action (effect) therein: actual coming together (birth) (occasion) thus. Damned spirits Continuity-stream-undetermined-always. continuity-stream is also undetermined. 4 Dreaming negative causal efficacy. heaven as follows also hell accordingly.

supposed (invented) self. 11 Not that one and not that not-one. change also. Wherein no cause (reason)? 8 Form-abode exists (becomes). According as state of succession (series)… 10 In that manner body-collection free from being essentially contained (substantial). Self-produced sage. How not so state of consciousness? 6 commentary State of consciousness that very action (effect) thus change (transformation). Twofold state of abiding. Thou that very student with regard to meaning of what of is taught. Sage conveying… 9 commentary Form appearing because consciousness. … why instead go back to conceived actualities? 7 Action impression elsewhere. Region of phenomena free from being essentially contained (substantial). because otherwise existing once more. Consequence imagined elsewhere. 9 Own-seed (self-cause) held in consciousness whenever appearance arises. There is in this way not sought. Own-seed transformation acquired particulars brought forth.By the wise. External sense objects 307 . That also seed… appearance And… flowing consciousness-eye abode of appearance.

12 By whence that which really is together Simultaneously joined with Infinitely small atom collection— perpetually compounded beyond one hundred. 15 Unity is not succession Simultaneously grasping and non-grasping. direct perception in what manner supposed? 17 Taught as follows: in that case definition (appearance). the unawakened likewise grasping. Disconnected manifold mode of being. Object having six sides the same. 16 Intelligence (apprehension) based on direct perception is as in the way of dreaming. And atomic (inconceivable) existence.of infinitely small atoms. 14 Direction-place-division to be endeavored of existence Conveying unity (identity) not connected. consciousness remembering protracted dreaming seeing existing sense objects. because infinitely small atosm not accomplished (valid). may contain minute particles. 308 . … and whenever at that time no form of the object corrupted flowing. 13 Infinitely small atoms not-joined-into-union Thus existing together becomes form accompanied by (supplying the forms of) That same existence not existing… Also not in a state of abundance there-joined-together not accomplished (valid). Reflection (shadow) hiding in what manner? … Mutually not solid (material) and not flowing thus. And not that unity.

22 “Consciousness-occasion” accomplished. 21 Absolute consciousness inseparable. Mutual consciousness definition. 309 .18 State of mutual influence (“rule”). dreaming therefore different consequences. together with weaving-together influential consciousness. transformation as follows: Remembrance pointed at absent other. seers’ anger? Punishment-mind great speech Thus accomplished. realm of awakening.. 19 Death utmost consciousness difference. 20 In what manner… Daṇdaka forests Powerful speech emptied. Afflicted consciousness. accomplished all manner of things… unconceived. Knowledge of material objects not as it should be how? As follows: knowledge of own consciousness is not abiding in field awakened from ignorance. own-power… illusion.

3 Unperceived instruction of conception. Contact (tangibility) first. Therein abode known as consciousness ripen at all times (all) seeds (causes). 310 . Accordingly refuge in causation (production). Consciousness having the nature of reflection. on that occasion unimpeded elementary substance. 7 Wherever being absorbed in the other. attention of the mind. and intelligence acquired. That very support consciousness by name. conceptualization. perception. Thus transformation of consciousness Transformation having three parts (phases).APPENDIX III: THIRTY VERSES ON CONSCIOUSNESS AND PHENOMENA 1 Self and natures (qualities) metaphorical. 2 Maturation. accompanied by veiled elementary substance continually: self-regard. Accordingly: perpetual tangibility (touch-contact). 5 Separate from saintly state. self-ignorance. 4 Indifference to pleasure or pain. self-conceit and self-love concepts. Because manifold causes acting. and thus likewise touch (tangibility). 6 Delusions (psychological afflictions) four. and in this way becomes river-torrent flowing. reflection and representation of abode of sense objects (external world).

neither. 18 At all times seeds because consciousness transformation in that manner. Waves on water. Appearance good-bad-indifferent. All of this is occasion of consciousness. 9 Psychological factors delimited: good. Six parts (kinds) abiding… Conception of sense objects. … 15 Five root-consciousnesses like belief about existence. 19 Impression of action seizing-twofold-impression 311 . perhaps not. 16 Origin (manifestation) of distinguishing consciousness entirely (always) unconscious. three feelings. 8 Second transformation (function) founds the third. connected thus to defilements. 17 Transformation of consciousness Unfounded imagination (conceptualization) as ascertained. supplying the forms of bringing forth. Mindless meditation.But not in saintly state. unless in stage of abstract meditation. lesser defilements. or being without consciousness. In that manner it is not. twofold stupors. or The world-transcending aim. Consciousness together. not-good. If mutually influenced by means of conceptualization.

Placed together. not-abiding-in-own-state-of-being (unpropertied). 21 Inter-dependent own-state-of-being… conceptualization is origin of belief. thus supplying the forms of consciousness-occasion. “I am” viewpoint the same. all qualities (things) Shown to be not-abiding-in-own-state-of-being (unpropertied. Completed (perfected) own-state-of-being flows prior to separation… going. Twofold grasping results. It is not unobserved. 23 Three kinds (parts) abiding-in-own-state-of-being (propertied). Transient existence commencing with language use. 22 Thus to be neither the same nor different than the other-dependent.) 24 Preceding definition thus not-abiding-in-own-state-of-being (unpropertied)… unfounded existence flowing thus again in this manner. Three kinds (parts) not-abiding-in-own-state-of-being (unpropertied). Thus purely conceptual… own-state-of-being not the same as knowledge. remaining as it is at all times.along with prior influence thus producing result. 20 By means of conceptualization… objects discriminated. 25 Highest truth of phenomena and same true suchness enduring. so long as it is not ceased (reversed). 26 So long as consciousness is not situated in consciousness-occasion. 312 .

and accordingly abiding in non-attachment. eternal. Liberation body… great sage. unperceived… knowledge surpassing the world. recognize non-existence there non-grasping. 29 Inconceivable. blessed. auspicious. 313 . Unconceived. 30 Thus the same affliction-less realm.27 Consciousness-occasion thus everything in this manner because perception ordered before… what consciousness rudimentary creation not situated in? 28 Whenever reason (foundation) knowledge not-thus-obtained. reversion of consciousness two-fold ignorance abandons. in that case being situated in consciousness-occasion.

mere appearances. incomprehensible.INDEX OF SANSKRIT TERMS Key to textual occurrences of selected Sanskrit terms in Vasubandhu’s consciousness trilogy: TSN VM TM ALT Tri-Svabhāva-Nirdeśa Viṃśika-Kārikas Triṃśika-Kārikas Other textual source On the Threefold Self-Nature Twenty Verses and Commentary Thirty Verses Term not specific to the consciousness trilogy Terms identified on the basis of two or more English transliterations of the original Sanskrit and considered in light of additional English translations. appearance. 33. 8 abhūta-kalpa TSN 8 abravīti VM 9 acāra acitta TM 16. so. jurisdiction. semblance. 29. not foretell x going. reflection absence or negation of existence. light. also property. TM 28 abhiprāya VM1c. asau) that. 16. phantasm of the imagination. meaning supposition or imagination of not-truly-existent subject and object not speak. administration. along with x authority. haven taken. seizing. VM 17c. a certain. intention. unconceived. thus. unimaginable. not call. reference. 21. 30 adas ādāya TM 4 adhikāra TSN 22 T V T A DEFINITION(S) AND RELATED TERMS S MML T N x x x x splendor. and standardized for use in this project by the author. 25. topic 314 x x x . * “c” indicates commentary on a verse. state of being. right. impulse purpose. not name. wandering. relation. proceeding. 18. entity. rule. practicing. based on Capeller and MonierWilliams. Definitions derived from the Cologne Online Digital Sanskrit Database. 13. condition. nature. not announce. this is restricted to the VM. disposition. traveling. motion. 17a abhāva TSN 11. 19. destitute of intellect or sense (alt. 9. behavior x without mind. there x taking. inconceivable. SANSKRIT TERM AND OCCURRENCE ābhāsa VM 1a. 26. prerogative.

first fruits. thus. well-formed to make known. received. relating. appearance constituent part. TM 2.ākāravat. vs. inform. 3. 15 anityatā T V T A DEFINITION(S) AND RELATED TERMS S MML T N x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x resting or situated in. also: flat. asylum. smell. obtained. from anitya: transient. kind. eka (aika) transient or limited existence. many. 26 ādya TSN 7. not experience. 13. communicate. aspect. ātman not one. 19. TM 7 aika ākāra TSN 7. being at the beginning. repository hereby. dvaya) first. called (re-) telling.". enumerated. vs. TM 5. earlier. expression that reveals mental disposition . non-dual (vs. sound. species not good. much. having a form. 34 akuśala TM 9 ālabhya TSN 26 ālamba (-na) TSN 26. 16. ruler beginning with. or "etc. unknown not two-fold or double. receptacle.) dwelling. appearance. cause. embodied. 33 ākhyā TSN 6. 30 ākhyāna TSN 20. appearance. vs. etc. vs. unprecedented see: eka form. pacified x absence of self. 15. external aspect. foundation. declare. indeed absence of a thing or object. sacrificed support. kuśala having grasped. story. older. legend. also the five attributes of things vis-à-vis the five senses: (form.SANSKRIT TERM AND OCCURRENCE adhīna TSN 2 adhipati VM 18 ādi VM 1. receptacle. 27. depending upon lord. TM 22 adṛṣṭa TM 22 advaya TSN 4. form. reason. invisible. communicating. to be named. 21 ākṛti TSN 28. "and so on…" un-(fore-) seen. ārtha bending. depending or resting upon. 29. 28 ālaya TSN 6 anā TSN 22 anārtha VM 2 ānata TSN 3 anātman aneka VM 11. commencement. manifold. unobserved. abode. figure. bowed. master. separated. immediately preceding. 315 . 30. manifestation.

endowed with. in a different manner. 25. another. 34. uncertain. possessing. imitation reached by mind. the other otherwise. unimpeded. following. changing into. TM 7 anyathā VM 10 anyathātvataḥ TSN 3 anyatra VM 7 anyonya VM 14. 23. unchecked. following. TM 29 anuśaya TM 25 anuttara TSN 38 anuvṛtti TSN 35 anvita TM 3 anya TSN 8. silent. also acquired. uncertainty. having as an essential or inherent part other than. TM 18 apara TM 24 āpatti TSN 35 api TSN 26. ascertainment . VM 19. transgression uniting with or approaching something awakened from sleep 316 . conformity. compliance. 3 anubhava VM 5 aṇumātrika VM 12 anupalambha TSN 33. erroneously unchanging elsewhere. entering into a state. another. also: low. 9. limitation. fixed.SANSKRIT TERM AND OCCURRENCE TM 22 anivṛta TM 4 aniyama VM 2. 18. inaccurately. lack of perception or apprehension the consequence of action that clings to that action. understood. not turning back. anuvṛtta). relationship. obedience. having no rule. condition. 27 aprabuddha T V T A DEFINITION(S) AND RELATED TERMS S MML T N x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x occasional. anivṛtta).anubhavaka. best. controlling. non-perception. making to understand containing minute particles non-obtainment. inferior (alt. doubt. in another manner. opposed to. vṛta unsettledness. also latter. on another occasion. connected as in grammar or construction. action principal. in another way. absence of: determination. in the future occurrence. chief. unstable (alt. preventing perception. definition. 32. distant. firm. irregular. at another time one another. vs. excellent. different from. understanding. evasive reply held to be no answer. 37. TM 16. close attachment to any object. otherwise. also: without reply. lack of recognition . 36. also misfortune. mutual.anupalambhana. mutually having nothing beyond or after. brave. incidental.

wrong. to be reached. state of being the abode of. not existing. non-existence. 21 arthya TSN 35 asat TSN18. unreal. nonentity. unequalled what is unperceived . nonentity. falsehood + tva. untruth asat. saṃyoga realm without thought. fabrication. vs. means. unequal. 24. 36. wisdom. wrong. disconnection. also practice. fit. disposition. charm. art. sat (sad) uneven. not existing. not being. competent. disjunction. untruth. untrue. vs. consciousness. material. non-existence. combination. untruth. true essence. bad. resolution. self-conceit .SANSKRIT TERM AND OCCURRENCE VM 17 āpya VM 1c arhat TM 5. resulting from or based on the possession of a thing proper. also able. not being. unconscious a (negation) + saṃ (along or together with) + yoga (collection or concentration of the mind. unreal. unreal. 29 x x asattva TSN 10. wrong. manner of proceeding. untruth. feasible. unconsciousness asat. also: that with which anything is closely connected or on which anything depends or rests. 20.asmimāna. significant. harnessing. VM 1. 5. non-cognitional state. 21. incoherence. dwelling. falsehood+ kalpa. enterprise. first duty . 317 asañjñikād TM 16 asatkalpa TSN 4. 22. not being. nature. driving. 14. wrong supposition. asad). also recipient. wise (alt. also: material or elementary substance/matter or entity/thing. living or sentient being cogito. bad. or a (negation) + sattva. 31. egoism the five organs of sense plus manas. meditation. union.asaṃvida. expedient. bad. not existing. energy. resting-place. “I am” . 7 ārtha TSN 5. work. fit. 14 x asmi TM 22 āśraya TM 29 x x . possible. reality. relation). falsehood.asmitā. non-existence. nonentity.asatkalpana. also: relating to water one who has attained the saintly state of arhatship relating to a thing or object. life. use. 38. untrue. self-command. untrue. existence. VM 1 asama VM 18 asaṃviditaka TM 3 asaṃyoga VM 13 T V T A DEFINITION(S) AND RELATED TERMS S MML T N x x x x x x x x x x obtainable. application. being.

also: essence. 14. the person or body considered as a whole . TM 5 ātma (-n) TSN 4. from “to breathe/move”— “self. 29 avidya TSN 3 āvṛti VM14 avyākṛta TM 4. abstract individual. refuge or recourse be. 16. not thus.SANSKRIT TERM AND OCCURRENCE T V T A DEFINITION(S) AND RELATED TERMS S MML T N x x x x x x x having recourse to. 21. 15. arrogance. take possession of being.” (the individual) soul. 25. completely. 6 x x x x x x x covering. VM 10. in this place or time beyond the proper end or limit. 27. state of having nature of property of in this matter. svabhāva sitting. exceedingly. in this respect. pride . state of rest āśritya TM 5 asti TSN 13. nature. essence. like (alt. TM 2. VM 8.atyanta-abhāva. 11. not so. self-regard . 8. self-conceit. 29. abiding. loving one’s self. being possessed of selfconceit . attachment taking (or having taken) asylum. nature. vs. character.ātma-moha. TM 1. 17. life principle. happen. x6 x x x not in that manner. 24. self-ignorance .ātma-dṛṣṛti. self-love make one’s own. not accordingly. dwelling. vs. consisting or composed of. 23. 29. not likewise. 23. 24. 14 asvabhāvata TSN 21 asya TSN 13. be sufficient or able absence of own-nature or own-quality. 23. perpetuall . VM 2. 13. without knowledge x x x ātmīkṛ TSN 38 ātmya VM10 atra VM 1c atyanta TSN 5. 29 atātha TSN 26 ātmaka TSN 9. 6.ātma-māna. 34. exist. 33. become. 27.ātma-sneha. tatha having the nature of. ātmanā).ātma-kama. hiding elementary substance from which all things were created 318 . excessively. absolutely. totally non-existent ignorant. 14.

alteration. illustrious. reflection. 25. becoming. produce. bring into existence. known. split. primary cause or principle. portion. difference different. also: confusion. 14. place. 28. resting place. 12. VM 10c bhāga VM 14 bhagavant VM 9 bhāsa TSN 8. language. 9 ayatha VM 21 ayatnatas TSN 25 bādhana VM 4 bāla TSN 14. condition. conception. 22 T V T A DEFINITION(S) AND RELATED TERMS S MML T N x x x x x x x x x x x x abode. effect. doubt. VM 9. destroyed. early. for bhāvena). change. anything less than a whole. to actually have happened. 19. causing to be. matter of fact or reality seed. cause (alt.SANSKRIT TERM AND OCCURRENCE āyatana VM 8. TM 2. turning. 13. region. altered wandering. present division. error. source. interrupted. glorious. vs. element. enlightened intelligence. new. trouble young. origin perfect knowledge. harassing. 10c. 20. pierced. -ti) TSN 2. roaming. seat. 15 bhāvāt TSN 20. opposing. existence. 22. supposing anything to be or to exist whatever has become. 17 bhāva (-ta. occurring. expanded. side fortunate. 16. TM 25 bheda TSN 10. yatha without effort or exertion oppressing. moving to and fro. 26. 21 bhrānti TSN 12. holy speech. entity. false impression. 15 bhūta VM 6c bīja TSN 7. divided into “inner” (five senses and manas) and “outer” (external phenomena) not as it should be. understood 319 x x x x x x x x x x x x x x . VM 5. simple. nature. disjoined. VM 14 bhinna TSN 18. divided into parts. undeveloped. manifesting being. VM 9c. prosperous. producing. conscious. description. separation. also: tree of wisdom awakened. transgressed. ignorant. contemplation. definition (from bhū). fraction. uneasiness. disposition. also imagination. VM 21. 18 bodhi TSN 38 buddha TSN 35. foolish part. be true or real. disturbed. affecting. state of being. germ. existing. expanded. impulse . TM 24 bhāvana TSN 6. wise.bhāvita. not according to.

the heart cita: heaped. but. intelligence. placed in a line. manifold + ākāra. thought. 36. wonder. different from. intelligence. but. judgment. also. thought. observing. appearance. observing.SANSKRIT TERM AND OCCURRENCE buddhi VM 16 ca cakṣu VM 9c cānya TSN 23 caturbhi TM 6 ceṣṭā TSN 10. intelligence. yet. desire shadow. 4 dauṣṭya TM 29 deśa (-nā) VM 2. reflection to be conceived. thinking. character. ca-iṣṭā). doing appearance. form. also image. opposed to. having four (alt. aimed at. excellent. VM 1. conspicuous. performance. portion. if eye ca: and. apprehension. collected. movement. 8. memory. astonishment stick. another four. or: heart. 10c deśita TM 23 dharma x x x x x . 9 chāya VM 14 cintya VM 22. expression that reveals mental disposition) = strange. VM 1c. attending. reason. understanding. skin. hide. also noticed. longed for. trunk of a tree. just. region. intellect. 3. perceiving. apprehension. 320 x x x x x x x x x x x x x daṇḍa VM 20 darśana TSN 35. condition. 3. TM 27 citatvac TSN 7 citrākāra TSN 7 T V T A DEFINITION(S) AND RELATED TERMS S MML T N x ability to conceptualize. faculty of mental perception and. bark. mind. TM 30 cit (-ta) TSN 5. 21. gesture. directed nature. visible. various. action. comprehension. 31 ceta (-nā. wonderful. behavior. 10. wickedness place. teaching. if + anya: other than. imagined mind. inspection. even. also: view. just. also: covered + tvac: (to) cover. or: consciousness. discernment. also. even. aspect. -s) TM 3. discernment. brightly colored. doctrine depravity. peel citra. wish. imagining. fancy. shadowing. direction. 18. intention. external aspect. figure. property. effort. yet. also: punishment showing. instruction x x x x shown. essential quality. 6. reflecting. perception. distinguished. exhibiting. reason. aim. 7. 29. mind.

usage. dig. 19 dvaya-bhāva (-ta) TSN 24. TM 1. mind’s eye (from dūṣyā). VM 16. art. dik). ways 321 . mind. object. attributes.dharmatā. rightly . 33. intention. having the rights. TM 22 duḥkha VM 5 dvaya TSN 4. sorrow. pain. trouble twofold. TM 8 dvividha TSN 6. sensible devout. of two kinds.dharmin. parts. 30. 10. 19. understanding. theory. 14. of two kinds or natures dhātu TSN 37. TM (10-14x) dhig TSN 23 dhīmant TSN 38 dhīraṇa TSN 1 dhruva TM 30 diś VM 14. eternal (alt. permanent. layer. attribute. TM 16. thing realm. view. 37. culpable. consideration. intelligence. desire. region pointed at. corruptible. regard. knowledge. dvaividhya). 15. to show. 25. direction. wise. morality. constant. (TM 10-14x) dṛṣyā TSN 9. 37. characteristics of. sphere. practice. 14. firm. stratum. uncomfortable. justice. 24. (religious) thought.SANSKRIT TERM AND OCCURRENCE TSN 4. having/being the bearer of anything as a characteristic mark. according to rule. offending uneasy. nature. 29. TM 30 dhī TSN 35. 25. unpleasant. think. virtue. also according to the nature of. 25. science. opinion (from dhik). to bring forward seeing seeing. steadfast decree. difficult. essence . duty. 19 dṛg TSN 9. design. 23. pious x x x x x x x x x x x fixed. right. reprehensible. immovable. law or doctrine . VM 10. double. VM 17 dṛṣṭi TM 6. 21. meditation. twofold. indicating reproach (“shame!”) intelligent. 18. that which is established or firm.dharmatas. 33 dvitīya TSN 7. also constituent element perceive. VM 9 x x x x x x x x x x x x being of dualities second. 30 T V T A DEFINITION(S) AND RELATED TERMS S MML T N mark . state of affairs/events. forming the second half of something (alt. also to point out.

28. announce. 27 hyasav TSN 25 idam savam TM 17 iṣyate TSN 1. accepted. to be seized or taken. gṛhya). district grasping. 22. 25. a certain. 25. deprivation. seizing. alone. held. 32. holding. 22 grāha VM 10c. TM 29 hasti (-na) TSN 27. thus. scope of action. gathered. 16. accepting. the same. received. approved thus neither to be the same nor different thus. field. notion (alt. 28. 23. identical. loss. 28. 18. disappearance. reason for. VM 10. indeed hi + asau (from adas): that. 25. unity desirable. TM 1. 24. VM 14. belonging to one identity. recognized. also conception. seek. 10 gocara VM 21. understood. 15 eṣṭavya TSN 30 eva sa na-eva-anyo naananya VM 22 eva TSN 1. 30 gambhīra (-ta) TSN 1. 11. sole. 7. one. 13. relinquishment. 26 grāhya TSN 11. dense. everything (from iṣ). to be chosen. (namely) because. 15. VM 10. abode. “by the wise” 322 x x x x x x x x x x . single. cause to move quickly.” motive for. impervious range. animate. “impulse. 26. TM 19. deliver. 16. receiving. TM 28 hāni (-ta) TSN 32. there x all of this. secret. aika). learned. being within range. to be perceived. T V T A DEFINITION(S) AND RELATED TERMS S MML T N x x x x x x x x x (alt. TM 20. 19. cessation. range of the organs of sense. serious.SANSKRIT TERM AND OCCURRENCE eka TSN 14. 15. impel. VM 1. promote. so. VM 14 ekatva TSN 10. to be striven after. 15. surely. catching. solitary. considered abandonment. insufficiency elephant cause of. also: decrease. in this way x x x x x x x having depth. non-existence. profound. 27. assented to. 30 hetu TSN 6 hi TSN 5. 6.

VM 10 kalpya TSN 5. TM 28. arranging. effect why? whence? wherefrom? 323 . 18. thus having such a sense or meaning. feasible. 28. characteristic (of recognition) to be known. fashioning. perceived. person generating. reverenced. fit. feigning. producing bringing forth knowing. 5. beloved. 7 kāranya VM 20 karma VM 6. also: mark. VM 6c. prepared. TM 24. also practice. also: sacrifice as you know. also able. action. TM 19 kasmāt T V T A DEFINITION(S) AND RELATED TERMS S MML T N x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x sought. 29 jñeya TSN 1.SANSKRIT TERM AND OCCURRENCE VM 6 iṣṭa TSN 17 iti TSN 25. 2. 17. assumed. to calculate or enumerate. 29 kalpana TSN 2 kalpita TSN 1. supposed. VM 10c kāla VM 2 kalpa TSN 4. performed. manner of proceeding. inventing. desired. 8. competent. knowledge. VM 21. in this manner. 27 ityartha VM 1c jale TM 15 jana VM 8 janayanta TM 19 jāyā TM 18 jñāna TSN 35. to be learned. 11. 10c. 24. manufacturing. artificial. result. first duty (per)forming (in the imagination). wisdom. making. 18. also: assuming anything to be real fabricated. 17. “by no means” time (in general). understood. inferred to be formed from. approved. 36 kā TSN 4. investigated indication of depreciation. respected. 23. contriving. invented. product. living being. 19. intelligence. cutting. VM 1c. 14. cognizance. 7. a fixed point of time possible. to be conceived or imagined mystical speech or figures act. sign. for this purpose water creature.

324 x x . 6c. 9. either: as fuel. VM 9c. TM 24 lokottara TM 7. 21. course. idea. VM 6. opinion. sign. 27. 31. 29 lopa T V T A DEFINITION(S) AND RELATED TERMS S MML T N x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x like a stick. done. assemblage by what. way. verily. evil desires . 11. weakened. 16. also ceremony. proceeding. also collection. 20. performance. 26. 12. 29 kiṃ TSN 4.kliś. 17. VM 10c. interruption. mark. perception. work. beyond what is common. succession action. lost. beneficial definition. series. cause pain. order. 7. 31. or as petrified how? in what manner? whence? body. knowledge. 9. 4 kṣīṇa TM 19 kuśala TM 8. wholesome. delicate auspicious. fame (interrogative particle) defilements. injured. destruction. 21 kāya TSN 38. also: to suffer pain or distress step. emaciated. 10-14x krama TSN 22. afflict. renown. 13. 18. also: name or denomination. 30 lakṣaṇa TSN 10. regular progress. 15 kriyā TSN 31. passions. extraordinary breaking. symbol. truly declaration. contract accomplished. TM 30 kena VM 12 keśa VM 1 khalu VM 10c khyāti TSN 2. 20. quality excelling or surpassing the world. certainly. assertion. 4.SANSKRIT TERM AND OCCURRENCE VM 6c kāṣṭhavat TSN 30. also characteristic. TM 27 kleśa TM 6. attribute. obtained x kṛta + kriyā = efficacy x x x x x diminished. good. 19. 34 kathaṃ TSN 4. argument. made. 32 kṛta TSN 27 kṛtya-kriyā VM 2. by whence hair indeed. going. afflictions. prepared. injury. expended. neglect. performed. 14. VM 10c. delusions. to torment. 3. waning.

understood. TM 5 T V T A DEFINITION(S) AND RELATED TERMS S MML T N violation. act of distinguishing. robbing. imagined. 27. will. purpose. impartial. alternatively x x ignorance.SANSKRIT TERM AND OCCURRENCE VM 19 madhyama mahā TM 30. instant. one of six negative dharmas. unreality. neutral great . error liberation. 23. meditation. earthly existence). arrogance careful thought. 36. search (though). 34 mithas VM 18 moha TM 6 mokṣa TSN 35 x x x x . occasion. death to seek (after). the internal organ of perception and cognition. consideration. also relinquishment.mahāyāne (Mahāyāna). design. bewilderment. supposed. 12. disappearance x (being. VM 16 mātra TSN 2. intermediate. mutually. 19. VM 20 māna TSN 3. great vehicle opinion. central. idea. designed. TM 6 manana TM 2. perception. also measure or limit (in space and time). 5 manas VM1c.e.” sacred text/speech/hymn/formula x x x x x x x dying. supernatural power together. reflection. carefully mind (it its widest sense. abandonment 325 x x x x x x manaskāra TM 3 manovijñāna TM 16 mantra TSN 27. 16. 10c. understanding. 29. wisdom. 22. release (from transmigration. distinct from ātman consciousness of pleasure or pain. 13. delusion. sense. 15. intended. recognizing. understanding. intellect. conscience. 24. 14. 11. believed. (-ā) thoughtfully. absence. 30 maraṇa VM 19 mārg TM 7 mata TSN 8. taken for. intelligence. esp. strive to attain thought. understanding. (in the earliest language) art. loss of consciousness. 26. 15. TM 17. as applied to all the mental powers). look (for). knowing “instrument of thought. intelligence. i. middlemost. intrinsic knowledge or science. reciprocally. 28 māya TSN 27. the faculty or instrument through which thoughts enter or by which objects of sense affect the soul. considered as. attention of the mind mana (-s) + vijñāna. deception. VM 1. placed in the) middle. emancipation. atom. 27. approved. deficiency. 30. moderate. element illusion. esteemed having/being/consisting of only/merely. distraction. perceiving.

occasional. effected. 19. covering up. ground. enclosing. 6. nair. 26. it is not so . fainting. sign. 22. without. 14. 30. VM 2.mūlavijñāna. sage stupefying.na vā. motive. foot. especially of pain (alt. suppression. origin. unpropertied. out of. announce x causal preconditions x without svabhāva. 20. sprung up. it is not so + iṣya: seek. void of peculiarities mark. TM 7. cause . descended or derived from. 11. animate. free from come or gone forth. 10c. deliver. impel.na ced. 22. 6c. rather than . named. 27. 21. quasi. 13. imprisonment. 29.na tu. target. 28 x na-avatisthati TM 26. restraint. 25. 20. 5 x x x nāsti TSN 4. brought about. not. 24 nimitta TSN 32 nirodha TM 7 nis VM 10 niṣpanna TSN 13. if not . arisen. 12. yet not. foundation. 7 nidāna niḥsvabhāva TM 23. x na: no. 17. only in appearance hell. cause. cause to move quickly. 15. destitute of. promote.SANSKRIT TERM AND OCCURRENCE mūla TSN 9. place of torment it is not. there is not. VM 10c. nir). TM 15 muni TM 30 mūrchana TM 16 T V T A DEFINITION(S) AND RELATED TERMS S MML T N x x x x root. ground. incorporeal perhaps not. TM 17 x navā neṣya VM 6. whether not x x x na TSN 5. 17. also: instrumental or efficient cause confinement. succeeded 326 x x x x x . source. destruction. basis. 29. perhaps not. special see: nis by name. omen. causing insensibility. accidental. 16. away from. root consciousness monk. assertion of non-existence. not. control. whether not not situated in river produced by some particular cause. 27 x nadyā VM 3 x naimittika TSN 8 nair x nāma TM 5 x naraka VM 4. swooning no.

VM 10c. 3. effected. lit. authority. remote or different in space. 21. 38. comprehend. abundantly. science. 32 parikalpita VM 10c. 17.” crossed or traversed. 28.g. understand. chief matter. prepared. development. TM 21 nivṛta TM 6 niyama VM 2. TM 1. transformation. magic. keeping down. constant. 18. also restraint of the mind (second of eight meditation steps in yoga) hell guardian. recognize pari + kalpita. inferred = (purely. 12. 9c. fully. highest degree. 15. performed. 17. in the direction of. perceive. opposite to or towards. continuous. at the best or utmost ultimate or infinitely small atom highest or whole truth. descended or derived from. highest degree. essential. “flesh-eater” x x x x x x five far. severally x x x x x x knowledge. stranger. learn. or successively. reversion (e. Absolute. medicine = (other-. 33. 13 paramārtha TM 25 pāramita paratantra TSN 1. 8. restraining. VM 19. rebounding. TM 24 paramāṇu VM 11. know. 22 x parāvṛtti TM 29 pari TSN 1. 20. time or order/number/degree. vastly) imaginary. regular. Spirit. 28. at the best or utmost + tantra. evolution pari + niṣpanna. time or order/number/degree. (falsely) constructed or fabricated change. Spirit. of a judgment). transcendent (virtue). chief matter. 327 . supposed. also restoration of property. 18 pariniṣpanna TSN 1. firm. Absolute.. distant. TM 20 parijñā TSN 31. revolving. limitation. sprung up. 21. basis. complete attainment x x para: far. invented. about. 3. lasting. brought about. fabricated. alteration. not taking effect x x x around. 28 x “coming or lead to or gone to the opposite shore. preventing. TM 21. inter-) dependent or relative x turning back or around. distant. stranger. 17. 2. controlling. arisen. surrounded. definition. foundation. remote or different in space. doctrine. or against. ultimate meaning pālādi VM 4 pañcān TM 15 para TSN 23. to observe. veiled. restriction. artificial. assumed. other.SANSKRIT TERM AND OCCURRENCE 25. 12. rule. come or gone forth. TM 20 pariṇāma VM 6. enclosed determination. other. 24. 18 T V T A DEFINITION(S) AND RELATED TERMS S MML T N x x withheld.

real. revolution. gain/loss. solid mass. perfect. excavation. existing synonym. in return.” understood prati + vedha: pious. course. acquired advent. (mere/flashing) representations (likeness to) keeping back. VM 7. on. entering. opposite. reach. in consequence of prati: toward. (over) against. 10c x x x x x x x x pratiṣedh VM 1c praviśyate TSN 24 prativedhe TSN 31 x x x . dis/advantage heap. piece. attainment. also incur. description. faithful. retribution. be in force reached. convertible term. according to. initial. 14 pra VM 9. repetition. breach. firstly. denying “entered into by the wise. with regard to.” consequence. rumor. again. finding. vanishing x knowledge the being perceived or known x (from prāp). TM 24 prati VM 8 pratibhāsa TSN 8. occurrence. on. attain to. at the time of. preventing. reaching. in return.SANSKRIT TERM AND OCCURRENCE T V T A DEFINITION(S) AND RELATED TERMS S MML T N x x x x x x x x x succeeded = developed. incurred. original. result. also hitting (a mark). again. also foremost. with regard to. VM 9c. piercing. also: celebrity. correctness accomplishment. meeting. found. before. preceding toward. at. also: breaking through. also wounding. also: validity. met with. according to. warding off. intrusion. attaining. before. 32 prasiddhi TSN 38 prathama TSN 9. prātibhāsika: phenomenal. disturbance 328 paryāya VM 1c pataḥ VM 20 phala TSN 6. definition = appearance. in consequence of + bhasa: speech. (over) against. regular occurrence anger metaphorical “fruit. arrive at. suffer. fame. back. back. 18 piṇḍa VM 12. at. similitude. result. near. near. public opinion. meet with. in. former. in. TM 1. rescue. at the time of. language. by. proof. effect. body before. acquire. 5 prahāṇa TSN 31 prajñā prakhyāna TSN 15 prāpnoti TSN 38 prāpta VM 1c prāpti TSN 31. find. prior. by. succession. opposite. primary. trivial first. in front of ceasing. material object.

10c sa TSN 2. personal entity. TM 1. introducing (alt. rise. arising. having. entrance. distinct. plainly visible. 6c. 22. coming forth. become = causing. evidence x x pra: before + vartate: revolve. punah). to exist again. immediate apprehension. clear. manifestation. exist. to go back or in an opposite direction. earlier than pus separated or free from. producing. -ka. preceding. evolving or active or functioning consciousness body. origin. be. conviction. setting in motion/activity. void. occur. entering. ego or individual. appearing. also: intentness on an object. live. turn around. TM 1. 8. six 329 praviś (-ya) TSN 24. certainty. man. effecting. 3. being contained in. ocular evidence x x belief. manner advance. knowledge. dependent co-origination or conditioning x direct perception. 20. 9c. pass away (time). 18. TM 19. engaging closely in a pursuit or purpose. efficacy . activity. the same see: sat (from ṣaṣ). prior. one.SANSKRIT TERM AND OCCURRENCE pratītya-samutpāda pratyakṣa VM 16 pratyaya TSN 2. 16. former. idea. happen. restore. 5 T V T A DEFINITION(S) AND RELATED TERMS S MML T N x pratītya: confirmation. color supplying the forms of. outward appearance. phenomenon. unless form. solitary seers excepting. -na) VM 9. previous to. soul (alt. intrusion into. coming forth. promoting moving forward/onwards. TM 24 pūrva TSN 24. VM 13. causing. actual. function. moving onwards. happening. accompanied by. VM 10c pravṛtti TSN 7 pudgala VM 10 punar VM 4. 21 pravarta (-te. progress. consolation + samutpāda: chain of causation. shape.pravṛtti-vijnāna. figure. immediate. also forsaken. praveś). 21 pūya VM 3 rahita TM 21 ṛṣīko VM 20 ṛte TM 16 rūpa VM 8. 25 sad ṣaḍ x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x . 10. once more. 25. be renewed being before or in front. absent or destitute of. TM 15. comfort.

causing pain proceed together to any state or condition related in use or application yoked or joined together. transmigration. origin. like. yielding. growth. falling into any state or condition. 6 saṃkleśa TSN 7. 16 samāsatas TSN 8 saṃbhāva VM 6 sambhūti TM 16 saṃdhāya TM 23 saṃhata VM 11 saṃjñā TM 3. source. 19 sahita TM 6 sākṣāt TSN 32 sakti VM 22 samāna VM 12 samāpatti TM 7. together + kleśa. also borne. perpetually together. continued succession. continuance. also overcoming. capacity. attached to. occasion. accompanied by. ability. forming one mass or body (alt. connected x wandering or going through successive states or existences. reason. united. conceptualizing sam: along with. always. existence birth. general. enduring conjoined. production. manifestation of power having placed together. formed an alliance. causes. along with. occurrence. in a summary manner being or coming together. disturbance. santānā). getting. metempsychosis (alt. plainly. reached terms of peace joined. birth. appearance. supported “before the eyes. desire = pain. sañjña). TM 3. 330 x x x x x x x x x . VM 12 saha TM 15. combined. passion. 17 samprayā saṃprayoga VM 1c samprayukta TM 9 saṃsāra saṃtāna T V T A DEFINITION(S) AND RELATED TERMS S MML T N x x x x x x x x x x x (alt. concisely. production. endured. universal stage of abstract meditation. composite. directly. ever. actually power.SANSKRIT TERM AND OCCURRENCE TM 8 sadā TSN 3. united. becoming) succintly. origin. equal. common. similar. encountering. united. possibility. 10. sadam). 21. vanquishing. contiguous.” immediately. suffering. being. (also coming together. withstanding. energy same. associated or connected with. continually. defilement. being contained in. strength. 6. coherent.

SANSKRIT TERM AND OCCURRENCE VM 2. charm. occurring. expedient. good. fulfillment. follow conclusion. self-command. reality. work. honest. at all times all things. use. succeed. actual. entire. VM 22 sarvatragas TM 7. existing. art. relation having six sevenfold. energy. that which really is. 12. regarding everything mental or psychological factors or conditions or elements or qualities “compounded beyond a hundred” (alt. also: material or elementary substance/matter or entity/thing. driving. VM 10c. disposition. sudden burst of rain (alt. 4. union. attainment. performance remembering. 13. uninterrupted series (alt. be accomplished or fulfilled. application. 3 samuccheda TSN 23 saṃyoga VM 13 saṇṇa VM 12 saptadhā TSN 6 sarva VM 3. collection or concentration of the mind. also always. calling to mind love. VM 12 sattva TSN 10 sattvavat VM 8 saugha-vat TM 4 siddha VM 3. beautiful. 11. seven times x x x x x x x x x x whole. meditation. attachment to 331 x x x . samucchitti): destruction. 11. living or sentient being sage. right. true. termination saṃ. resolution. TM 16. along or together with + yoga. wisdom. accomplishment. result. combination. recollection remembrance. reach an aim. nature. every. (10-14) śata VM 12 sat TSN 10. true essence.” being (present). consciousness. harnessing. 13 siddhi VM 22 skandha smaraṇa VM 17 smṛti VM 19 sneha T V T A DEFINITION(S) AND RELATED TERMS S MML T N x x continuity. existence. sidhyati). TM 2. fondness for. real. life. objects. 23 sarvātha TSN 27. sad). all manner of things. enterprise. all matters. 18. all. wise being. means. Buddha x x x x x x x torrent.

14. therefore. 19. intangible. perhaps. 14. inconceivable. 15. 4. order. subtle. 22. TM 20. 18 svapnavat VM 3 VM 5 syāt x x x x x x x x tad TSN 5. 17. then. VM 16. desolateness scripture own condition. that.SANSKRIT TERM AND OCCURRENCE TM 6 sparśa TM 3. 28. tangibility river (riverbed. also: statement of the exact nature (of anything).a (or niḥ) without svabhāva. VM 6. sometimes "that very" or there. also: the doctrine that the universe was produced and is sustained by the natural and necessary action of substances according to their inherent properties. 24 T V T A DEFINITION(S) AND RELATED TERMS S MML T N x x x x x x x x x x touch. 29 x x x tadā TSN 25. 19. 16. situated. accordingly. “sprung from” 332 . minute. 7. torrent. 26. 28. accurate description of the properties (of things) . void of peculiarities sleeping. innate/inherent disposition/nature/impulse. 21. unpropertied. small. 4. violent motion kept in place. 20. also: illusory nature (of external phenomena). 17. she. atomic voidness or absence (of) (mind or distraction or being or reality). 13. 7 srotas TM 4 sthāpaya TM 27 sthita TM 28 sūkṣma VM 15 śūnyatā VM 20 sūtra VM 1c sva-bhāva (-ta) TSN 1. 18. this. remaining in fine. it. 3. 16. in that case. 13. TM 23. TM 3. 10.(or niḥ-) TSN 21. 5. 6c. 26. VM 10. own state of being. 9. rush. 18. 11. 17. abiding in. it may be (alt. contact. stream. then produced. syād). 34. 21. tac). tat. 23. a. now svapna VM 4. also: loneliness. 11. current). 8. TM 28 x tajja at that time. 6. dreaming risen as from a daydream heaven (alt. 22. natural state or constitution. he. 28. restraint standing.

32 traya TSN 1. so much in that direction. liberating. boat. 10. composed (tale). therein. 25. 18. VM 9. threefold + vidhā: part. 38.. 24. neutral or indifferent) tri: three. TM 25 tatra TSN 4. 18 tathatā TSN 30. VM 6. accordingly x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x true nature. on that occasion. true reality. proportion. thus. VM 10c. therefore concealing three triple. therefore (state of) truth or reality. diffused. so far. sort. in that manner. first principle (alt. VM 17 tathā TSN 5. crossing over flowing or conveying extended. performed (ceremony) in that manner. 31. 12. 29. threefold. protracted. tāvat). 35. 4 tattva TSN 31 tāvan TM 26 tena TSN 4.alt. 4. TM 23 tṛtīya T V T A DEFINITION(S) AND RELATED TERMS S MML T N x x x x x x x x x x x rudimentary creation being absorbed in or identical with that raft. 21 tata TSN 24. consisting of three . 7. true state of things in that place. 26. TM 2. 8. pleasure. in that case. 11. 28. 20. so long. TM 4. kind third 333 . likewise. there. 9. 20. 6c. trai three ways/parts/times tri: three + vedana: feelings (i. so. enabling to cross. TM 17 tirascā VM 5 tra TSN 5. 5. thus. 13. 14. pain. 25. TM 4. for that reason. 29. VM 1c tridhā TM 1 trivedanā TM 9 trividha TSN 8. true suchness. VM 5. 27.e. measure. 6.SANSKRIT TERM AND OCCURRENCE VM 5 tanmātra TM 27 tanmaya TM 7 taraṇa TM 15 tasya TSN 3. 25. 16. 33.

becoming visible.SANSKRIT TERM AND OCCURRENCE TM 8 tṛṣṇā tva TSN 10. 19 tvac TSN 7 tvad TSN 2. origin. TM 28 upalabdhi TM 8 upalambha TSN 32. etc. 37. bark. recognition self-produced act of indifference. custom or manner of speech. 18 udbhāva TM 15. conception. said. VM 9. 34. partly. injured. hurt. perception. discouraged obtained. taught. skin. afflicted. instructed being affected negatively. also (alt. 33. 17 upacāra TM 1 upadiṣṭa TM 3 upaghātava VM 3 upahata VM 18 upalabdha TSN 38. 16 tvena TSN 11. composure woven produced. understanding. figurative application. 21 ukta VM 8. also: to come near. hide. 21. perception. 9c. pretext. perceived. tvam. taught. generation. declared to use figuratively or metaphorically. 18. pretence. observation. thee. damaged. TM 27 upapāduka VM 8 upekṣa TM 10-14x uta VM 1c utpādya VM 9-10c T V T A DEFINITION(S) AND RELATED TERMS S MML T N x desire state of being the abode of cover. 35. production. injured. grow term. mind. peel one. knowledge obtainment. 36. 13. thou. etc. 14. brought forth 334 . 13. weakened. conceived. VM 8. approach. to attend upon specified. several. particularized. affected. equinimity. distressed. received. state (of)… x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x existence. also: guessed obtainment. tvat). thy. tvan.

sort. be conscious of. objects). essence. wish. learn. VM 8 vāsanā TSN 7. undergo. also wounding. power. incoherent. be. word. sound (inc. 9 vedha TSN 31 vena TSN 11 vibhutva TSN 37. TM 1. happen. disturbance longing for. VM 17 vai TSN 35 vaipākika TSN 8 vartate VM 9. measure. breach.vaśad: influence impression of anything remaining unconsciously in the mind. move. 23 vidhīya TSN 22 T V T A DEFINITION(S) AND RELATED TERMS S MML T N x x x x x x x x x x x like. object. to know (how to). TM 19 vastu TM 20 vayavasta VM 1c. omnipotence x split. intrusion. broken asunder. live. force . working. TM 18. proportion. 5. VM 7. perceive. vit). as speech. interrupted. incur. exist. to understand. thing. kind to be uncertain or hesitate 335 x x x x x x x x x x x x x . fall into or upon. the present consciousness of past perceptions. that of animals). or become not separable part. go or come to. also hitting (a mark). 38 vicchinna VM 15 vid TM 3 vidā VM 21 vidhā TSN 8. also: breaking through. disconnected. VM 13 vedana TM 4. piercing. phrase. language (inc. faithful. acquire verily. TM 8. truly maturational revolve. desire omnipresence. knowledge derived from memory any really existing or abiding substance. statement to be said or spoken va + gacchati: go. reach. no longer existing (alt. the real bound one of the five skandhas: pleasure or pain or neutral (feeling) pious. become something shining. get at. 4. occur. ended. excavation. be acquainted with.SANSKRIT TERM AND OCCURRENCE va VM 1 vācyo TM 22 vad (ya) TM 22 vagacchati TSN 33. pass away (time). 26 vasā TSN 27.

perceiving. contrivance. also alternative. 18. serene to be trained or instructed. 15. knowing. information. 18.SANSKRIT TERM AND OCCURRENCE vidyā TSN 5. 22. imparting. ascertained. fancy. domain difference. request. avoidance act of distinguishing. particulars see: vid consciousness. consequence of actions. distinction. 26. 17. 19 viruddha TSN 35 viṣaya VM 10c. acquiring. sphere. science. 2. pupil x x x x x x x x x ceasing. 3. science. knowable. 5. regulated. regarded as imagination. 26. altered condition. 2. scholarship. learning. reach. 9 10c. TM 2. concept. announcement. 34 vijñāna TSN 6. TM 17. result opposed. giving to be perceived or known. or understood. also: finding. cognizable. modification. abstention. also lit. checked. adverse. 8 viśeṣa VM 9c. liberated. 9. worldly knowledge. 19 vit vitti TSN 9 T V T A DEFINITION(S) AND RELATED TERMS S MML T N x x x x x x knowledge. intelligence. surrounded. understanding. TM 2. considered. philosophy. odious sense object. 19. (representation of) consciousness. consciousness mind. acquisition. doubt to be distributed. specific property. 20. 16. 11. finding. 18. skill. recognizing. doubtful. 30. 28 vijñapti VM 1. forbidden. 12. understanding. 21 vikalpa TSN 30. or chosen based upon circumstances transformation. external world. perception. false notion. affliction emancipated. reversing restrained. 25. being found 336 x x x x x x x x x . 27 vijñeya TSN 19. 6. to ber recognized. 20 vikriyā VM 19 vimukta TM 30 vineya VM 8 vinivarta TM 26 viniyata TM 9 vipāka TSN 9. restrained. absence. TM 20 vigama TSN 33. 21 vikalpya TM 17. change. 17c. limited ripening. TM 2. 17. 17. TM 1. cessation. difference of perception. gaining going away. VM 1c. maturity. precarious.

according as. turning away. whence yatas TSN 5. like yathā TSN 2. if TSN 2. 17. 12. VM 9c x from which or what. behave TSN 3. set out. 20 x when. connection. VM 1c. of various sorts turning. yam also to raise. development. VM 11 x to be endeavored yasya VM 14 x held. 13. yasmād). as for the fact that. 9. vanish. 4. whenever. 23 vyāvṛtti TM 5 vyutpatti TSN 22 T V T A DEFINITION(S) AND RELATED TERMS S MML T N x x x x x x x manifold. VM 1. 21. perish. yac. TM 18 x yaḥ (from yā). controlled. support. going. 34. proficiency. pass. if yadā VM 9. 9. action. origin. depart. mode of being or acting purification doing. 20. correlative of. 24. etymology x x go. limited. 16. dealing deliverance from. rolling.SANSKRIT TERM AND OCCURRENCE vividha TM 1 vṛtti TSN 2. 6. proceed. TM 17. 17. since. 19. growth (in knowledge). also trading with. to hold back. TM 25 x x x as follows. to sustain. 17 vyavahāra TSN 22. wherefore. in the case that yadi VM 2. TM 15 x the manner in which it appears yathākhyānaṃ TSN 3 337 . restrain TM 8. 16. 21 x x x (alt. guided yata TSN 9 x x sense fields yātanas TSN 1. restrained. 28 x x if. moving TM 1 x to be founded on. 21. extend. derivation. because. scholarship. being. separating from production. in order that. that yasmāt TSN 11. 12. in which way. 31. diverse. 27. yā also act. VM 15 vyavadāna TSN 10. 6. hold. because. yat). performing. 30 x x (alt. as. 4. TM 8. going. 9c. when. yad since.

similar joined. ready to. wherein. use. art. means. made use of. TM 7 yena TM 18. homogeneous. wherefore collection or concentration of the mind. paired. connected with 338 . accompanied by. meditation. relation yoked. attached. union. or provided with. wherever. expedient. 15 yujya VM 14 yukta VM 2 T V T A DEFINITION(S) AND RELATED TERMS S MML T N x x x x x x x x x in or to which place. being in conjunction with. on which account. work. set to work. 13 yuga yugapad TSN 31. prepared for. where. harnessing. driving. 20 yoga VM 12. engaged in.SANSKRIT TERM AND OCCURRENCE yatra VM 7. occupied with.” together. simultaneously connected. in which direction or manner. charm. 34. whither by (means of) whom or which. in consequence of which. VM 12. endowed. application. furnished. related “in the same yoke. related. combination. enterprise.

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(New York: Routledge. 4. Thomas E.54. Ch. Janice Dean.” Philosophy East and West 15 (1965): 65-73.) 57. On Knowing Reality: The Tattvārtha Chapter of Asaṇga’s Bodhisattvabhūmi. _____. 1979. Mind Only: A Philosophical and Doctrinal Analysis of the Vijñānavāda. Williams. 343 . Mahāyāna Buddhism: The Doctrinal Foundations. Willis. “The Yogācāra Idealism. “Cittamātra (Mind Only). 1991). Paul. (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. 55. 1989).” 56. Wood. (New York: Columbia University Press.

She is married to David Moxley of Bertrand. Indian and Asian philosophy. California. with Distinction in Philosophy from Hendrix College in Conway. After attending public schools in Little Rock. Ph.D.A. in Philosophy from the University of Missouri-Columbia (2008). 344 . Missouri. M.A.VITA Melanie Johnson-Moxley was born October 22. 1967 in Walnut Creek. she received the following degrees: B. Her research interests include comparative philosophy. Whitehead’s process philosophy. in Philosophy from the University of Missouri-Columbia (1994). Arkansas. Melanie also writes poetry and fiction. Arkansas (1986). and ethical issues related to information technologies.

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