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Ancient History HSC Syllabus Option N: Rome: The Augustan Age 44 BC – AD 14
1.0 Establishment of the Principate 1.1 Impact of the death of Caesar, early career of Octavian, Second Triumvirate and Civil War 1.2 Consequences and significance of the Battle of Atrium 1.3 Development of the principate: settlements of 27 and 23 BC 1.4 Titles, honours and images of the princeps 2.0 The Augustan principate 2.1 Augustus and the Senate: role and responsibilities 2.2 Roles of magistrates and officials 2.3 Significance of equestrians and freedmen 2.4 Augustan reforms: political, social, legal, religious, administrative 2.5 Opposition to Augustus 2.6 Augustus’ building programs: the Forum Augustum, the Ara Pacis, Pantheon, Campus Martius 2.7 Literature and propaganda: Virgil, Horace and Livy; role of Maecenas 2.8 Imperial family and problems of the succession; role of imperial women: Livia, Julia 2.9 Role and contribution of Agrippa 2.10 Death of Augustus 3.0 Augustus and the empire 3.1 Augustus and the army 3.2 Provincial government: imperial and senatorial 3.3 Frontier policy

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Introduction
Timeline: Date 23rd September 63 BC 46 BC Events A born A participated in C’s Triumphs

15th March 44 BC, the ‘Ides of Caesar assassinated, Octavian adopted as son/heir March’ A returned to I to secure claim to throne Phillipics launched by Cicero – Senate allies with A and awards him consulship A defeats Antony’s army, feels betrayed by Senate who promote Brutus 43 BC Second Triumvirate established between L/A/Antony and Western E carved up 42 BC Battle of Philippi – C and B defeated, East regained Triumvirate provinces reshuffled 40 BC Pact of Brundisium Antony married to Octavia Sextus Pompey blockades I 39 BC Pact of Misenum – armistice with Sextus 36 BC 35 BC 33 BC Agrippa defeats Sextus P Lepidus sidelined Antony marries C Antony divorces Octavia A elected as consul – launches invective against A obtaining Antony’s will from the Vestral Virgins Senate declares war on C Battle of Actium – Antony and C commit suicide The First Settlement – consular and proconsular powers gained The Second Settlement – proconsular maius imperium and tribunicia potestas gained A’s imperium upgraded to consular (but without having to be consul) A made pontifex maximus A named pater patriae Varus disaster in which 17th/18th/19th legions massacred

31 BC 27 BC 23 BC 18 BC 12 BC 2 BC AD 9

Lepidus until his death when A superseded him Funerary inscription recording the achievements of A Augustus’ committee of advisors Imperial administrators Constitutional heads of state. diminished in powers under A Equestrian class.3 Terms and Concepts proconsular imperium maius Granted supreme power over entire Empire whilst allowing A to retain imperium upon entering Rome Bestowed upon A in 2nd Settlement Granted him civil authority in Rome with wide-ranging political powers 2nd Settlement Administer of the grain supply Gained by A in 22 BC Supreme control over Empire affairs Prestige that provided A’s source of power Chief priest. landed gentry Roman fire brigade Peace in Rome Ultimate military spoils which A monopolised Head of the household A’s personal bodyguard tribunicia potestas cura annonae pater patriae auctoritas pontifex maximus Res Gestae Divi Augusti Consilium principus Praetors Consuls Equites Vigiles Pax Romana spolia opima paterfamilias Praetorian Guard Main Historians/Evidence Ancient Tacitus Cicero Cassius Dio Suetonius Modern Jones Shotter Wallace-Hadrill Grant Symes Mommsen Scullard Salmon Eck Shuckberg .

o Antony and Lepidus form an alliance. o Civil war erupted in 49 BC between Pompey and Caesar. of Julian descent. early career of Octavian.1 Non-examinable Background Near the end of the 2nd c BC the Republican system began to disintegrate and had become a corrupt body—termed the ‘Roman Revolution’. o Cicero quotes Mark Antony: “You. Establishment of the Principate 0. and the elder Gaius Octavius. o Octavian wanted to avenge his adopted father and also prove himself as a worthy heir. o Caesar assumed the position of dictator for life. o Brutus and Cassius flee. Impact of Caesar’s death o Caesar assassinated on 15th March 44BC. o He also takes the opportunity to adopt the powerful name ‘Caesar’. o Antony had the Plebeian assembly grant him Cisalpine Gaul and left to there with his loyal troops. in 63BC. o Upon Caesar’s assassination (orchestrated by Brutus and Cassius). o Lepidus was another contender for power. who owe everything to a name”. . o Senate declares Antony an enemy of the state. while Octavian gained popularity. was named as his principle heir and intended to be his successor. however. o Cicero wanted to return power to the Senate and ‘save the republic’. By 45 BC Caesar had emerged victorious. o Antony’s position was unstable in Rome. giving Augustus a connection to an old family of patrician rank. Atia. o Octavian. to Atia. o Enjoyed a good relationship with great-uncle Julius Caesar. he promptly returned to Italy upon Caesar’s death.1 Impact of death of Caesar. Second Triumvirate and Civil War Early Career of Octavian o Born Gaius Octavius. and more importantly Caesar himself. o Caesar’s death throws Rome into a struggle for power. o Octavian manipulates the will of the senate: obtains senatorial troops to march on Antony. o 1. boy. o Rise of private armies and autocratic ambitions—disregard of tradition in the res publica. Caesar’s great-nephew. Mark Antony assumed leadership of Rome. They meet at Mutina in 43BC and Octavian emerges victorious as Antony flees back to Gaul. was Caesar’s niece.4 1. o Took part in Caesar’s triumphs of 46 BC and was later elected into the patrician order by Caesar—indication of Caesar’s favour. Early Politics o Octavian and Antony quarrelled immediately. o Mother.

and immediately declared Caesar’s assasins B & C enemies of the state. o In 40BC. but his relationship with Antony begins to break down. o Holland: “The defeat of Brutus and Cassius at Philippi is traditionally regarded as marking the end of the Roman empire”. o Sextus Pompeius. Cicero is amongst those murdered. o Octavian returned to Rome with his 8 legions and demanded consulship. o In two battles at Philippi. o 37BC: Triumvirate renewed with Lepidus excluded. Lepidus: Spain and Africa. o Divided the western provinces amongst themselves: Antony: North Italy. Octavian. realised best interests lay in allying himself with Antony. . Brutus and Cassius were defeated and eliminated. Brutus and Cassius had been raising an army in the East and promised the senate they would restore the republic. o Shotter: “Its real aim was the service of personal and factional ambitions. the triumvirate is renegotiated. o Marcus Agrippa. Antony and Lepidus formed an alliance. the Senate appoint Brutus supreme commander in the war against Brutus. Second Triumvirate o Octavian set off with 11 legions to seek reconciliation with Antony and at Bononia. o Sextus Pompey and his navy seize Sicily and cut off grain supply to Italy. the ‘Treaty of Brundisium’. remained the triumvirs last point of opposition. o Lepidus makes a desperate bid for power but is deserted by his troops. o Octavian takes the opportunity to deify Caesar. o He removed the decree outlawing Antony. Octavian’s lieutenant. the ‘Second Triumvirate’ (43BC). Macedonia in 42BC. he is stripped of his political powers and instead granted the position of pontifex maximus. another Roman general who had taken Sicily and Sardinia from Octavian.5 o While away at war.” Civil War o In the meantime. giving him the unique position of a son of a god. Sardinia and Africa. however he becomes subordinate o Octavia marries Antony in a statement of unity. o Octavian now has unchallenged control of the West. parts of Gaul Lepidus: Spain and parts of Gaul Octavian: Sicily. defeats Sextus Pompey at Naulochus in 36BC. o 39BC: ‘Pact of Misenum’ negotiated with Sextus Pompey and he is officially given control of Sicily. Antony: the East Octavian: the West. Octavian felt betrayed. o To consolidate their powers. o The three gained powers of imperium(absolute power) for 5 years. they created proscription lists to raise funds and eliminate influential men of Rome. o He was declared consul in 43BC at age of 20.

o David Shotter: “The Battle of Actium was both a physical battle and a propaganda battle for hearts and minds. o Both men realised the inevitable and were preparing their armies for battle. o Octavian had Agrippa settle army veterans. o 30BC: Antony then fled from his men and committed suicide. he began to lose the support of the xenophobic Roman populace. Thus. resulting in a huge influx of wealth and became the largest supplier of grain for Roman market. wearing Oriental dress and practicing Egyptian customs. o Antony divorced Octavia. Cleopatra committed suicide. Augustus publicly indicated that ‘peace was restored’ for the first time in 200 years of civil war and political upheaval. Augustus outnumbered and defeated Antony’s navy on the west coast of Greece at Actium largely thanks to the tactics of Agrippa.” Battle o Cleopatra. and betraying the interests of Rome. o Upon his return in 29BC. Antony met the Egyptian Queen Cleopatra. Consequences & Significance o Octavian emerged the sole victor and was now hailed as imperator.6 1. o During his sojourn in the East. . with Cleopatra at Antioch in 35 BC. handing out grain and providing employment through a new building program. o He ended all proscriptions and declared an amnesty. o Egypt annexed to Rome and made a Roman province. o Spent generously with this newfound wealth—increased his popularity with the people with games. o Octavian has ‘Caesarion’ hunted down and murdered leaving no apparent opposition to his rule. o The lead up to Actium was characterised by a war of propaganda in a bid to win the hearts of the Roman populace. o He returned financial stability to Rome. o Antony marries. o The two armies/navies now came together in Greece o On the 2nd September 31BC. was Antony’s most vulnerable point at which Roman sentiment most easily exploited and swayed. o Antony began to be ‘orientalised’. the ‘eastern sourceress’. They produce children. and hence aligned himself.2 The Battle of Actium Origins—Political Unrest o Antony and Octavian never intended for duel leadership and were on an inevitable collision course. o 30BC: Antony was later pursued and defeated at Alexandria in Egypt. Augustus continually vilified the Egyptian ruler in propaganda. o 30BC: Her cause lost. o In 33BC Octavian became consul again and in his first session of the Senated he launched an attack on Antony—Antony’s orientalism. Realising this. believing Cleopatra to have been captured. o He declared war on the ‘Foreign Queen’ in 32BC. grants of territory and titles in the East. o In 34 BC Antony’s ‘Donations of Alexandria’ declared Cleopatra ‘Queen of Kings’ and her son by Caesar ‘Caesarion’ as ‘King of Kings’ giving further evidence of where his sentiments now lay. further exacerbating tensions between Octavian and Antony.

came into control of 70% of the Roman legions.” o Octavian needed to: Avoid the mistakes of Caesar in disrespecting tradition and appearing as an autocrat and dictator. 23BC o Several factors meant First Settlement needed to be revised: . o He was never elected for life but for fixed terms. o Tacitus: “The rule of a single man was the only possibly remedy for a country in turmoil. since Rome could be governed through consulships. The senate conferred upon him the title ‘Augustus’ (revered one) adding to his auctoritas and dignity. o Eck: “Nothing was left to chance or accident in preparing these exemplary manifestations.” o Shotter: “Not only did Augustus institute his own form of permanent supervision of government but he lived to develop it over a reign of 45 years”. o Augustus’ political genius allowed him to at every step claim that he was the passive participant.” o Octavian’s announcement was received by plebeian riots and public outcry demanding his leadership. giving the illusion of choice.3 Development of the principate: settlements of 27 and 23 BC o The old system had failed and was in need of reform. Establish a position simultaneously within and above established convention. o Shotter: “These powers gave Octavian most of the control that he needed.” The Second Settlement. o He developed the principate gradually between 28 BC and 19 BC. the heart of the Empire.7 o David Shotter: “The victory at Actium marked a turning point in the history of Rome – the end of the Republic and the beginning of a new monarchy. he had also secured his auctoritas. o Subsequently.” o Augustus had unprecedented individual power as he had eliminated all opponents. 27BC o Shotter: “The first settlement represented a fairly direct way of exercising control”. o Syme: “…it was a cleverly concealed autocracy. o To the shock of Rome. in 27BC Octavian announced that the Republic was ‘restored’ and renounced all his constitutional powers and provinces to the senate and Roman people. The First Settlement. 1. the Senate bestowed a series of legal honours upon Augustus: Proconsular imperium: Power over all the provinces that required military defence. this was merely a symbolic “calculated gesture” (Eck). it was the Senate and the people of Rome who pressured him to accept his posts. whilst the Empire would be protected by the armed forces which were stationed in his extended provinces. Held consulship each year giving him control over Rome and Italy. The ruler had taken counsel with his friends and allies – and perhaps with neutral politicians. o The control of an individual was needed to retain political stability. However.

o He further was bestowed with the titles of: o Pontifex Maxiumus (chief priest) in 12BC after the position was vacated by Lepidus’ death. These two powers allowed him to remain princeps without having to be elected consul annually.8 Augustus’ ill health. Senate was beginning to resent Augustus’ overbearing political influence due to his yearly consulship. Scullard: “Thus the authority of Augustus was re-established on two foundations: tribunicia potestas which gave him civil authority in Rome itself. the Senate gave him a set of new powers recorded by Cassius Dio: Proconsular maius imperium: To be renewed every 5 years.” o o o o Later Developments o 22 BC—Plebians demanded Augustus be made Dictator for Life. Tribunicia Potestas: The second half of his supreme power—legal power. power of tribune—convened the plebeian assembly(thus the symbolic leader of the people). titles and honours. civil affairs. although I possessed no more official power than others. Titles & Honours Details . treasury and foreign. o He was princeps (‘first man in Rome’). In 23BC he relinquished all his powers to satisfy the people and the senate. Extent of Augustus’ auctoritas allowed his powers to transcend any legal restrictions. o The power and prestige held in the title of ‘Augustus’—sacred word shared with the god Jupiter. Augustus refused and instead gained control over grain supply through cura annonae. Roman population demanded a tighter formula of government in order to guarantee security and stability for the empire. honours and images of the princeps Titles and Honours o Although Augustus had power. o Pater Patriciae (father of the country) in 2BC. he knew it was his auctoritas in the state that gave him his power. perhaps his proudest honour made him analogous to the position of paterfamilias over his subjects. Thus his rule was based on personal influence and legally granted powers. convened the senate. Conspiracy of Caepio and Murena. and proconsular maius imperium which gave him control of the armies and provinces. Included control over the military.” o 1. Conferred dignity greater than power and was useful in restoring state religion. superhuman connotations.4 Titles. o 18 BC—Augustus’ imperium was upgraded to consular (for life without having to be Consul). o Res Gestae: “I excelled all in auctoritas. Subsequently. more or less gave him supreme power anywhere in the Empire. power to veto legislation. presented legislation and through his ‘right of commendatio’ he designated whom he wanted elected to magistracies. Without consulship he had no power outside his provinces.

o He was given the corona civica (civic crown of oak leaves) presenting him as Rome’s saviour. As the Pontifex Maximus highlighting his religious role and respect for tradition. In military uniform as the protector of the state and people.9 Princeps Augustus Imperator Consul Proconsular Maius Imperium Tribunicia Potestas Pontifex Maximus Pater Patriciae (27BC) (hailed as imperator after Battle of Actium) (held 13 times) (23BC) Renewed every 5yrs. presented him as an exemplar of Roman tradition. justice and piety. . o He produced the ‘Res Gestae’ to proclaim and preserve his illustrious image and achievements. proclaimed his Roman virtues—associated with bravery. o Wanted to be seen as benefactor to all. o The golden shield (placed in the Senate house). (23BC) Held for 37years. clemency. (12BC) (2BC) Images o Depicted in three ways: In traditional dress (toga).

1 Augustus and the Senate: roles and responsibilities o The Senatorial order was the most prestigious rank in the Roman social hierarchy. intending to eliminate corruption and inefficiency whilst restoring exclusive nature and dignity of the Senate. Augustus needed to address the Senate’s respectability and dignity while also preventing clashes between it and himself. to elect magistrates. Controlled the public treasury and controlled the minting of all bronze and copper coinage.2 Roles of magistrates and officials o Mostly remained the same but Augustus more clearly defined and limited the powers of each position. debate it and pass it on to the Assembly. even to consolidate the outward appearance of its institution in order to empty them of their content. but retained most of its traditional roles. Banned them from attending public spectacles.10 2. o Le Glay: “His political genius lay in his grasp of the fact that. Senatorial court for cases of treason and cases involving senators. Introduced requirement for senators to possess property worth one million sesterces. Introduced fines for senators for not attending meetings. allowing for greater rotation and responsibility while also preventing any senator from rivalling Augustus in influence. o Senators continued to hold illustrious positions in the military and politics eg. purging members of dubious standing. the better to establish his personal power. army officers. o Essentially Senate was transformed from the chief organ of the State to a subordinate entity. . o Maintained control over ‘senatorial provinces’. o He introduced several reforms to its roles and responsibilities: Reduced the number of senators from 1. Speakers in debates now chosen at random to encourage participation and argument. Senate sessions lowered to meeting just twice a month. o Under Augustus the Senate was gradually turned into a legislative body. 2. conduct public business and legislate. proconsuls in senatorial provinces. a small committee of advisors to Augustus. Consulship was reduced to 6 months. Roles/Responsibilities o Traditionally the Senate was intended to act as a high court.” Augustus’ Reforms to the Senate o After the Battle of Actium the Senate was in disarray.000 to 600. o Thus it became less influential. he had to preserve the Republic. Disallowed them from marrying freedwomen. Established consilium principis. prohibiting senators from leaving Italy without permission. According to Jones it was reduced to no more than a “rubber stamp” for Augustan political agenda. o Thus eliminated the likeliness of an individual accumulating great power. The Augustan Principate 2. o Continued to present legislation.

jurisdiction over limited number of commercial cases. managed public/military treasury. o Benefited greatly under Augustus. o Ex-consuls became curators of the water supply. .3 Significance of equestrians and freedmen Equestrian Class (‘equites’) o Traditionally viewed as class of businessmen and financiers. o Augustus often allowed talented consuls to govern imperial provinces or direct boards of senators in specific areas of administration such as grain and water supply. organised games and festivals. the water supply in 11 BC and fire control in AD 6. some military posts. o Traditionally relations between senate and equestrian class were hostile. o One had to be a quaestor to enter the Senate. highways and public works and heard appeals from the provinces. o Ex-praetors were appointed governors of senatorial provinces and administered the military treasury. Tribunate o Lost all its powers and became a ‘dead-end’ office which no one of any talent wished to hold. o There were not enough magistrates and ex-magistrates to fill these positions. o Repaired streets. o Lost all traditional functions. assisted consuls and Augustus. but their position diminished as the princeps was now above them. officials of the public treasury.000. commanded the military. o Had civil duties in Rome. o Increased from 1.800 to 5. o Terms were reduced to six months to increase the number of consuls available for public service. o In creating the principate. 2.11 Consuls o Two elected members of the Senate. brought into greater prominence. which led to the equestrian class being promoted to higher posts as minor officials and clerks. o They lost many of their traditional functions and prestige—lost position as overseers of the corn supply and games in 22 BC. Augustus created something of an imperial bureaucracy requiring the aid of various lower posts in administering the Empire. Quaestors o 20 elected. traditionally the constitutional heads of state. o Acted as financial officers in senatorial provinces. Aediles o 6 elected. and assistants to consuls. o Increased importance/responsibility under Augustus. Praetors o 12 elected. o Presided over courts. o There were 4 after 5 BC.

o Roles: Military: Acted as prefects of fleets and of Egyptian legions.000 sesterces. festivals and spectacles he financed.12 o Auguestus attempted to eradicate tensions by finding positions for them where they would not compete with the Senatorial class. Allowed to enter the Praetorian Guard and Vigiles. Plebs o Augustus was extremely popular with the lower classes due to substantial cash and grain payments he made to them and the many games. Permitted to inter-marry with free-born but not senatorial class. o Could become extremely wealthy and successful. Administration: Appointed in judicial and financial posts in Egypt as well as prefectures of minor provinces. o His rigorous public building program lowered unemployment levels. Played influential role in religion – monopolised priesthoods of non-Roman deities and could be promoted as the Augustales – priests for the worship of the Imperial cult. o Introduced monetary requirements = 400. cohort commanders. Were often admitted into guilds as artisans and shopkeepers. but restricted from certain positions. Judicial – served on juries Freedmen o Former slaves manumitted by their masters. Could become officials of the fire brigade and grain supply and procurators (imperial officials). o Roles: Could serve in the Vigiles (fire brigade in Rome). o Better policing under the Vigiles and the urban cohorts Princeps --------------------Consuls --------------------------------Senatorial Class -------------------------------------------------Equestrian Class ------------------------------------------------------------------Plebeians—Freeborn ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Plebeians—Freedmen . Also prefecture over Egypt (most important position). Augustus possessed his own personal freedmen who managed his personal household affairs and finances.

provided relief in form of free grain to the poor.1). which provided ample jobs. . he made a ‘sumptuary law’ (limited expenditure on personal items) to deal with the issue of ‘extravagance’ in Roman society. o As an example he failed. o Hence. o Maintained the newly acquired pax romana. Encouraged marriage within these classes.13 2. o Suetonius: Augustus “thought it important to keep the people pure and uncontaminated by all corruption of foreign and servile blood. o Reduced jury service age from 35 to 30 years. o In 18 B. o Addressed unemployment problem through his building program. legal. Legal o Established the rule of law within the Roman Empire. o He passed the lex Iulia de maritandis ordinibus.D 9. o Made a series of reforms to the various magistracies (see 2. Political o Extended administration of Rome and the provinces. religious and administrative o Consolidated his reign through a range of reforms. o Improved water supply.2). hypocritically engaging in adultery himself. o He passed the lex Iulia adulteries coercendis—prosecuted adultery. to encourage marriage and the procreation of children. social. o Created several new courts: Senatorial high court for treason and cases involving senators. o Nor did the Roman public appreciate the State attempting to intervene in public life. o Shifted focus onto cults favoured by Augustus while some such as Jupiter lost popularity. dealt with a broader range of crimes. o Limited slave manumissions to a gradual flow into the citizen body. o Revived the priestly colleges. New court for cases of adultery. Social o Controlled grain supply. Religious o Deified Caesar. which was also extensively modified by the lex Papia Poppea of A. o Restored over 80 temples (Res Gestae). o However. o He made sure senatorial and equestrian blood was kept untainted by the ban of marriage with freedwomen and the like. o Increased the distinctions between social classes of the Roman social hierarchy. Imperial court of criminal justice.4 Augustan reforms: political. o Made a series of reforms to the senate (see 2.” Moral Reforms o Augustus made a number of moral reforms aimed at restoring dignity and tradition to a Rome in moral decline.C. o Increase in public games and festivals. Tacitus wrote that his strict social policies were largely unsuccessful. protected marriage. population increased considerably under Augustus.

o Established Vigiles (fire brigade) in AD 6. o The fact there is so little evidence of opposition is most probably due to censorship and repression of such literature (eg. o Augustus did command widespread popularity. Cassius Severus’ books burnt). o Suetonius: “He suppressed a series of sporadic riots and revolts. Outcome Maecenas detected plot. o Divided issuing of coinage between himself (gold and silver) and the Senate (copper and bronze). Administrative o Divided Italy into 11 districts and Rome itself into 265 wards with 4 magistrates policing the city. o Established police force under city prefect. 2. o Discouraged development of foreign cults due to their potentially alienating effect.. all of them detected before they become dangerous. and there is evidence in both Cassius Dio and Suetonius of discontent in the Senate at times as well as hatred of his ruthless acts in establishing power.” Ideological Plots & Conspiracies Name Aemilius Lepidus Plan Plotted assassination of Augustus to avenge his father Lepidus. o Implemented a fairer tax system through having taxes collected by officials independent of the governor of each province and accountable to Augustus. o Took over control of grain from the aediles. which worshipped his ‘genius’. consul to Augustus) Jones: The only serious conspiracy. o Accordingly Tacitus argues “Opposition did not exist. Executed Augustus denied Crassus his spoils and political ambitions. served propaganda purposes. Crassus. Proconsul of Declared war against a tribe and claimed Macedonia spoils of battle. Financial o Established ‘aerarium militaire’ (military treasury—controlled by A) and public treasury (controlled by Senate). which covered it up. coupled with Augustan propaganda. dropped out of .5 Opposition to Augustus o Augustus promoted his ‘pax romana’ through propaganda. o Augustus also dealt swiftly and ruthlessly in suppressing all hints of opposition.Conspired against Augustus. have existed. Caepio and Murena (co. o Introduced new indirect taxes to tap new sources of revenue apart from tributes from the provinces. hence forming the traditional view his reign was stable with minimal opposition.” o Opposition must. however. o Took periodic censuses of the people and property throughout the Empire. o Established permanent water board made up of water curators taken from the senatorial class. besides certain conspiracies. o Built and repaired roads improving transport and movement throughout the Empire.14 o Allowed development of the Imperial Cult. o Set up an imperial mint in Gaul.

portrayed as a semi-divine. o Cassius Dio quotes the famous words of Augustus: “I found Rome in bricks and left it clothed in marble. o Hadrill notes it lacked triumphal imagery. Plot uncovered. Notable Constructions Construction Forum Augustum (AD 2) Purposes and Features o Served propaganda purposes. bringer of peace and reviver of ancient traditions. 2. depicting Augustus as the victorious conqueror. o Showed renewed interests in the family and morality. reflecting era of peace. o He gained the support of the plebs through: Rebuilding domestic houses and public buildings. Repairing dilapidated areas of Rome. Proconsul Macedonia Rufus of Attacked Thracians without approval Praetor who wanted consulship in 19 BC.” o Shotter describes it as the “Golden Age” of Roman architecture. Primus. Campus Martius o Augustus launched an impressive building program in Rome. libraries. o Over 80 temples were reconstructed or built. Ara Pacis (9 BC) . o Functioned as propaganda. he was responsible for a large portion of works. executed Immensely popular.6 Augustus’ building programs: the Forum Augustum. o Included a statue of Augustus. o Luxurious and ostentatious. theatres and warehouses were constructed. the Ara Pacis. highlighted values of piety and productivity. o A number of public buildings including basilicas. intending to reflect his new age of peace and prosperity while also leaving a legacy to the ancient world. o In the Campus Martius. Providing employment for lower classes. o Included the Temple of Mars the Avenger—built to commemorate battle won at Philippi. providing direct challenge to Augustus. amphitheatres. Pantheon. granaries. the prime building intended to be left as a legacy. o Peace had allowed funds to be pumped into public works rather than the military. promoted view of Augustus as the saviour of Rome as well as a traditionalist. with the etching ‘Father of his country. o Buildings were generally lavish. o He delegated the building program to Marcus Agrippa while he was ‘aedile’ in 33 BC. including the temple to Apollo on the Palatine o Aqueducts and sewer system refurbished. o Depicted Augustus as a continuer of Roman tradition. o Roads and highways built and repaired to improve transport and trade throughout the Empire.15 limelight.

o Augustus took an active interest in several poets and historians realising their potential for propaganda. eg. Lyrical poet and satirist. the ‘Georgics’ and the ‘Aeneid’. Horace and Livy. the Ara Pacis. buildings.16 Pantheon (27 BC) o o o o o In the Campus Martius. thus kept in line with tradition. o Suetonius: He “fostered the talent of his age in every way”. o Constituted collection of public buildings—Porticoes. “While Augustus stands guard. o ‘Golden Age’ of Roman literature.7 Literature and propaganda: Virgil. Theatre of Marcellus. luxury and prosperity. Dedicated to traditional pantheon of gods. Draws parallels in ‘Histories’ between the great aspects of ancient Rome and the Augustan Age. also covering the Augustan Age. o Grant believes it was the basis of his power acting as “an iron fist inside a velvet glove”. the Pantheon and several temples. the peace no power can break…” Poet His ‘Metamorphoses’ predicts a divine future for Augustus. o Promoted image. best known for three major works—the ‘Eclogues’ (or Bucolics). His ‘Odes’ expressed support for Augustan reform. Constructed by Agrippa. an open space outside the city boundary to the North of Rome. The Aeneid particular alludes to Augustus in depicting an ideal Roman exhibiting virtues of duty. Campus Martius o The ‘field of Mars’. He praised and glorified the Empire and Augustus throughout his works. a library. statues. Agrippa’s thermae (public baths). 2. Writer Virgil Works Poet. Proclaims Augustus as Caesar and God. Commemorated Actium. role of Maecenas Propaganda o Augustus utilised a wide range of propaganda means in order to promote and justify his regime. All praised Augustus and promoted the ‘Golden Age’ focusing primarily on themes of peace. Imperial cult. Horace Ovid Livy . o Included: literature. coinage. public games and the Res Gestae. mausoleum for Augustus and his family. Historian who shared a great relationship with Augustus. at Mausoleum there was a colossal bronze statue of Augustus. o Censorship of critical works. Banished to Tomis in AD 8 for political reasons. loyalty and piety. Luxurious reliefs and works of art. peace is assured.

o Dealt with this through marriage.Gradually he accumulated a great number of powers.Initiated into military life in 26 BC accompanying Augustus to Spain.When Augustus fell ill he was surprisingly not marked out for succession upon his death – most likely due to his lack of experience. Close adviser. 21 BC . posing a Son-in-law from potential threat. He outlived most of his potential heirs. Livia gave him two sons.Participated in Augustus’ triple triumph of 29 BC. o Political advisor to Augustus and possessed a highly influential diplomatic role. o There was no protocol in place to determine how succession would take place. o Shuckberg: “Maecenas was in effect the emperor’s minister for propaganda. Name Marcellus Relationship Nephew (son of Octavia) and sonin law Agrippa Result . .Solved this by marrying off to Julia in 21 BC. role of imperial women: Livia.Married to Julia.17 Role of Maecenas o A wealthy equestrian and close friend of Augustus. .Died in 23 BC. o He also acted as patron of literature and the arts. power and auctoritas in order to take over from him as princeps.Admitted into Senate in 24 BC. Scandals and individual ambition. oThus he had to instead aid a potential successor in accumulating the necessary experience.Granted proconsular imperium over Eastern provinces.Proconsular imperium renewed and granted tribunicia potestas for five years in 18 BC.8 Imperial family and problems of the succession. . o Due to Roman law he could not simply choose a successor to his titles. . and adoption. general.Intended successor when Augustus fell ill. personally introducing both Horace and Virgil to the princeps. o He did this through granting constitutional powers and establishing family links with his potential successors. Lack of sons. . accomplished . .” o Problems of succession stemmed from a wide range of factors: Unprecedented nature of position. through marrying his daughter Julia to potential successors. 2. Deaths. Julia Problems of Succession o Rogerson: His “attempts to foster a successor had been hampered throughout by death. . particularly negotiating early treaties with Antony such as the Treaty of Brundisium. . . recalcitrance and individual members of his family…Tiberius was by no means his first choice heir. o He personally sponsored both.” o Created an inner circled of talented writers for Augustus. supplying Horace with a property and allowing Virgil to write the Georgics.

several buildings such as the .Died in AD 4. . Involved in the repairing of temples and public buildings. -Tiberius’ control was now co-extensive with that of Augustus. o Provided Marcellus. 12 BC. .Died in 12 BC.Retired to Rhodes in 6 BC (either in outrage according to Dio Cassius at the public preference shown for the young boys Gaius and Lucius or in an attempt to prove he was indispensable). intelligent and had strong influence on Augustus.Elected consul in 6 BC.Received tribunician powers for five years. .Remained in a subordinate position to Marcellus.Not A’s first choice. . o In 40 BC she is married to Antony in a statement of political unity. Well educated. .Initiated into military life in 26 BC accompanying Augustus to Spain. o Promoted as the embodiment of the ideal Roman woman. of .Finally succeeded Augustus in AD 14 as emperor.Died in AD 2.18 . .Held second consulship in 7 BC and celebrated his first triumph for victories in Germany.Disowned by Augustus and exiled for unknown reasons. .Adopted as Augustus’ son in AD 4. Role of imperial women o Imperial women played an extremely important role in strengthening political connections with Augustus’ allies. .Married off to Julia after Agrippa’s death. . o Literature of the period reflects increasing recognition of women’s potential. Gaius Caesar Grandson (son of Julia and Agrippa) and adopted son Lucius CaesarGrandson (son of Julia and Agrippa) and adopted son Agrippa Grandson Postumus (youngest son of Agrippa and Julia) Tiberius Stepson (son of Livia) and son-inlaw Drusus Stepson Livia) (son . . . . produced sons Drusus and Tiberius.Accompanied him in his triple triumph of 29 BC.Denied advancement whilst Tiberius was accumulating powers. .Returned to Rome in AD 2.Died on campaign in Germany in 9 BC. . and would have preferred Julian heir rather than Claudian.Received proconsular maius imperium and tribunicia potestas for ten years in AD 13 as well as extensive administration of volatile Germany. . . Livia o o o o Was married to Tiberius Claudius Nero. Divorced him and re-married Augustus in 38 BC. Octavia o Augustus’ sister. original intended successor.

o According to Jones Augustus used her as a political pawn in showing preference for future successors. o Two statues of her in Rome. o Pivotal role in defeating Sextus Pompey. good looks. o Given maius imperium over senatorial provinces and tribunicia potesta in 18 BC for five years – thus. ultimately successful.9 Role and contribution of Agrippa Marcus Agrippa o Agrippa was a member of the equestrian class and a close friend and advisor of Augustus. 2. attested to her respectability. intelligence. died at age 87 in AD 29. accompanied him for religious celebration and on public occasions. then in 31 and 28 BC with Augustus. o Pivotal role at the Battle of Actium. . o Aedile in 33 BC—able to implement Augustan building regime. o Constructed new aqueduct and first public baths. o Schemed for her son Tiberius’ succession. o Played public role in society – toured provinces with Augustus. combined with status of husband made her role possible”. Marcellus in 23 BC. Military and Naval Achievements o He was an accomplished naval and military tactician. o Completed many buildings commenced under Caesar. first in 37 BC. o Successful against trans-Rhine and Aquitanian tribes. o Was successively married off to potential successors to Augstus. o Suetonius: Wealth.19 portico of Livia even beared her name. o Died in 12 BC. o Married off to Julia in 21 BC with whom he had five children. virtually co-regent with Augustus (and depicted as such on coins from this period). o Built Pantheon. o Outlived Augustus. Agrippa in 21 BC (with whom she produced five children). o Granted proconsular imperium over all imperial provinces. Battle of Naulochus. Titles o Successively held consulship. Administrative Achievements o Responsible for supervising the extensive building program in Rome. Tiberius in 11 BC. o Appointed inspector-general of the Eastern provinces. Julia o Born to Augustus’ first wife Scribonia. o When Augustus fell ill in 23 BC he showed clear signs that Agrippa was intended to be his successor. o Exiled for adultery in 2 BC.

possibly thinking of making him his successor. o Upon Augustus’ death Tiberius was declared master of the state. and substantial sums for members of the military.000 for the people.20 2. o His will left 2/3rds of his estate to Tiberius and the remaining third to Livia. . o Ancient sources give varying accounts – Tacitus and Dio record that Livia was suspected of being involved in his death after Augustus had visited his grandson Agrippa Postumus.10 Death of Augustus Death & Will o After ruling for almost 45 years he died of old age at Nola on 19 August AD 14.000. aged 77. o He gave generously to the Roman people—40.

1 Augustus and the army o Ultimately allowed him to initially establish power and later maintain control. o Established the ‘aerarium militaire’ (military treasury). from 60 to 28. o Standardised legions granting them titles and numbers.” o Soldier’s loyalty was ensured through propaganda. bribes and war booty as well as through making them swear an oath to him. o Augustus personally appointed commanders of legions. which funded soldier’s wages (fixed as 225 denarii/year) and offered a pension. initially 16 years but increased to 20 years in AD 6. and professionalised the army aiming to emphasise upon quality rather than quantity. o He ensured army was busy regularly sending legions out on campaigns rather than stationing them along the frontier as a defensive garrison force. and which enabled Rome and the Empire to withstand the waywardness of many emperors who came after Augustus. the military treasury as well as Rome’s foreign policy. peace and prosperity to Western Europe. o His proconsular maius imperium gave him supreme power over the Empire including control of the military. o Made the soldiers swear personal oaths of allegiance. o Also enacted important political role in suppressing his opposition. Composition of the Army o The military was recruited from Roman citizens and freeborn inhabitants of the provinces. the Middle East and North Africa. personal guard of most talented troops to accompany himself on campaigns. o A rigorous training regime ensured the army was of a high calibre.” o Cicero: “the young man should be praised. often they were members of his own family to ensure allegiance. o Established political stability and was so successful in centralising power that the system of the Principate endured for almost 200 years. o Created veteran’s colonies. o Shuckberg: “Augustus was the most successful ruler known to us. honoured.” o Shotter: “Augustus provided the firm and stable basis from which sprang the expansion and prosperity of the next two centuries.” 3. o Fixed terms of service were introduced. which increased stability within Empire. spreading the Latin language and Roman culture. Military Reforms o Disbanded half his legions. o Salmon: “The real basis of the Principate was the Emperor’s military power.0 Assessment of Career o Brought a period of unity. and immortalised. Augustus and the Empire 3. o Established Praetorian Guard. o Key role in uniting and Romanising the Empire. .21 3.

generally raised when needed and subsequently disbanded. o Administered by legates and financial administrators (procurators) chosen by Augustus himself. Senatorial Provinces o Under the control of the Senate. -Received citizenship upon retiremen Legions 28 Legions (25 by AD 9 after the ‘Varus Disaster’) Auxiliary Units Organised into cohorts of 500 3. . -Paid generous salary in order to ensure support = 375 denarii according to Cassius Dio. Force Praetorian Guard Divisions 9 cohorts of 1000 men each Roles & Responsibilities -Service: 16 years -Consisted of talented and upstanding citizen soldiers selected exclusively from Italy. -Served as Augustus’ personal bodyguard. unstable areas or those recently annexed. These were ex-consuls or ex-praetors or in Egypt a member of the equestrian class. -Service: 20 years -Swore oath of allegiance. o Legati were granted long terms of service (three years) in order to implement farreaching reforms and stabilise administration within each province. o Augustus regularly went on tours of inspection to ensure provinces were being properly managed. o Mostly volatile. -Paid 225 denarii and assured of pension and future settlement in a colony. o They were also paid a substantial salary by the State rather than relying on plundering the provinces’ coffers which had systemised corruption. o However. o Contained the majority of the legions. -Took part in public works when not fighting. Imperial Provinces o Under the control of Augustus.2 Provincial government: imperial and senatorial o Empire was divided into a number of senatorial and imperial provinces. -When not fighting they were involved in public works such as roadwork. -Service: 25 years -Non-citizen wing of the army recruited from the areas in which they served. -Maintained provincial order and defended frontiers. stationed in Rome and accompanied the princeps when he left Rome. which were supplemented by auxiliary units.22 o He established a force of the Praetorian Guard and 28 legions. o 2/3 of the Empire. proconsular imperium allowed Augustus to interfere in these provinces when necessary.

3. o Road networks throughout the Empire allowed for the rapid movement of troops. o Large fortified camps were built at strategic points along the border. o Natural boundaries were utilised. Frontier Spain Gaul Egypt and the East History Agrippa eventually pacified Spain by 19 BC and divided it into three provinces. selected by lot. 18th and 19th legions massacred in the ‘Battle of Teutoberg Forest’ and Varus committed suicide.23 o Mostly provinces that had been under Roman control for a prolonged period of time. o Rhine Frontier was relatively peaceful until AD 9 when Varus was appointed commander of the Rhine. o Salmon: “The Pannonic revolt and the Varian Disaster revealed that the Empire had reached the limits of its military resources and therefore of its territorial expansion. o Germanic tribes made raids into the province of Gaul during years 29. o The Varus Disaster is often seen as Augustus’ biggest failure. . after the Varus disaster of AD 9 Augustus mostly concentrated on fortifying Empire’s borders. o Tiberius continued consolidating territory in Western Germanica.” o Jones views guarding of borders as ultimately successful under Augustus and establishing set borders which would remain unchanged for centuries to come.” o Tiberius successfully re-established the Rhine Frontier. Rome relied on its natural resources and it was strategically important in acting as gateway to Eastern regions. o Did not contain legions except in Africa. 1717 and 12 BC. o Varus Disaster (AD 9): 17th. Mostly followed a policy of non-aggression and non-expansion. Roman control re-affirmed in 20 BC by Tiberius Annexed in AD 6 by Augustus Parthia Judaea Rhine o Most problematic area of the frontier. o Under control of a proconsular senator. Frontier was. o However. extended to First Cataract by Augustus in 22 BC. however. from 12-9 BC Drusus conquered this area but died in 9 BC.3 Frontier policy o Role of army in later years turned to protecting Empire’s frontier and pacifying annexed lands and provinces to maintain peace. o Expansionist policy was adopted marking the largest expansion of the provinces of the Roman Empire—territory expanded in Germany as well as to a limited extent in the East. In Augustus’ judgement it was time to call a halt. 17 in total. o Throughout Augustus’ reign the situation in several provinces remained volatile. o Salmon: “The Pannonic revolt and the Varian Disaster revealed that the Empire had reached the limits of its military resources and therefore of its territorial expansion. Divided into four provinces in 26 BC. o Augustus moved boundary back to the Elbe River.

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