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Pump Manual
Pump Manual

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Published by: Robert Nixon on Jan 26, 2013
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01/29/2013

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GRUNDFOS

SP ENGINEERING MANUAL


1  Introduction
  Water supply
2.1 Resources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2.2 Groundwater. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2.2.1 Groundwaterwells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2.2.2 Riverbankfltration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2.2.3 Groundwaterrequirement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
2.2.4 Requiredraw/wellwaterandwatertreatmentcapacity.......................................... 11
2.2.5 Wellyieldandoperationalefciency. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
2.3 Surfacewater. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
2.3.1 Fromfreshwatersources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
2.3.2 Fromtheseaandsaltwatersources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
  Applications
3.1 Freshwatersupply. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
3.2 Dewatering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
3.2.1 Mining. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
3.3 Horizontalapplication. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
3.4 Air/gasinwater. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
3.5 Corrosivewater(seawater) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
3.6 Hotwaterandgeothermalwater. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
3.7 Boostermodules. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
  Pumps
4.1 Pumpprinciple . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
4.2 Wearparts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
4.3 Pumpselection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
4.4 Pumpcurvesandtolerances. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
  Motors and controls
5.1 Motortypes,generaldescription. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
5.2 Motorcablesandjoints,referencetodropcables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
5.3 Motorprotectiondevices. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
5.4 Reducingthelocked-rotorcurrent. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
5.4.1 Direct-on-line–DOL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
5.4.2 Star-delta–SD. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
5.4.3 Autotransformer–AT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
5.4.4 Primaryresistor-typestarter,RR. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
5.4.5 Softstarter–SS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
5.4.6 Frequencyconverters(variablespeeddrive) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
5.5 Operationwithfrequencyconverter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
5.6 CUEvariblespeeddriveforSPpumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
6  Power supply
6.1 Powergeneration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
6.2 Voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
6.2.1 Voltageunbalance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
6.2.2 Overvoltageandundervoltage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
6.3 Frequency. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
6.4 Variablefrequencydrives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
6.5 Gridconnection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
6.6 Currentasymmetry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
7  Installation & operation
7.1 Wellsandwellconditions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
7.2 Pumpsetting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
7.3 Pumpandmotorselection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
7.3.1 Thedutypoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Contents
7.3.2 Welldiameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
7.3.3 Wellyield . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
7.3.4 Pumpefciency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
7.3.5 Watertemperature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
7.3.6 Deratingofsubmersiblemotor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
7.3.7 Protectionagainstboiling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
7.3.8 Sleevecooling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
7.4 Riserpipeselection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
7.5 Cableselectionandsizing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
7.6 Handling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
7.6.1 Pump/motorassembly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
7.6.2 Cablesplice/Connectionofmotorcableanddropcable. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
7.6.3 Riserpipeconnections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
7.7 Pumpsinparalleloperation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
7.8 Pumpsinseriesoperation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
7.9 No.ofstart/stops. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
7.10 Pumpstartup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
7.11 VFDoperation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
7.12 Generatoroperation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
8  Communication
8.1 Generalintroduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
8.2 CommunicationsandNetworkingTechnology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
8.3 SCADAsystems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
8.3.1 SCADAmainparts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
8.3.2 SCADAfunctions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
8.3.3 Web-hostedSCADA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
8.4 Networkingbasics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
8.4.1 Networkingtopology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
8.4.2 Communicationsprotocol. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
8.4.3 Functionalprofle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
8.4.4 Thefeldbus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
8.5 GENIbus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
8.5.1 Background. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
8.5.2 Technicaldescription. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
8.5.3 Cablingguidelines. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
8.6 GrundfosGENIbusproductsforSPApplications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
9  Troubleshooting
9 Troubleshooting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
10  Accessories
10.1 Coolingsleeves. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
10.2 Corrosionprotectioninseawater . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
10.2.1 Cathodicprotection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
10.2.2 Galvaniccathodicprotectionsystems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
10.2.3 Impressedcurrentcathodicprotectionsystems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
10.3 Dropcables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
10.4 Cablejoints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
10.5 Riserpipes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
11  Additional information
11 Additionalinformation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
1  Index
12 index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
6 7
I ntroducti on
1.
I ntroducti on
Serving our common interests
ThisengineeringmanualhasbeencreatedwithaspecifcfocusononeofGrundfos’mostrecognisableand
popularpumps:theSP.Whenitwascreatedinthelate1960’s,thisbreakthroughproductsetnewstandards
withindurability,efciency,andconstructioninthin-platestainlesssteel.Thenumerousproducttypes,sizes,
andconfgurationpossibilitiesavailabletodayserveasatestamenttotheinnovativenatureoftheoriginal
SPpumps.
WorkingwithSPpumpsonadailybasisoftengivesrisetolotsofdiferentquestions.Wehavecreatedthisen-
gineeringmanualtohelpyouquicklyandeasilyfndtheanswerstoanumberofthesequestions.Weserveour
commoninterestsofprovidingthebestpossibleSPsolutionsandserviceforallcustomers.
Pleasenotethatthisengineeringmanualisasupplementtoandnotareplacementforproductdatabooklets
and installation manuals. The newest editions of these publications are always the most valid and must be
adheredto.
Wehavetakenconsiderabletimeandcaretomakethepresentationasconvenientandeasytouseaspossible.
Werealise,however,thatthereisalwaysroomforimprovement,andinviteyoutocomment.Pleasecontactyour
localGrundfosrepresentativeiftherearesubjectsyouwouldliketoseecoveredinfutureeditions.
WesincerelyhopethatyoufndthismanualausefulreferencetoolinyourworkwithSPpumps.
KenthH.Nielsen
GlobalprogramDirector,
GrundfosManagementA/S
8 9
.
Water  Suppl y
Water  suppl y
.1  Resources
The amount of water in the world is constant. It is
changing position, quality, phase, etc., but it is con-
stant.Seawateraccountsforapprox.97.5%ofallwa-
ter.Freshwateraccountsfortheremaining2.5%.Two-
thirds of the fresh water is bound as glaciers, polar
ice,andsnowcover.Theremaining,lessthan1%ofall
waterintheworld,issomehowavailableindiferent
sourcesformankindtouse.
Thesesourcesare:
• groundwater, shallow or deep underground aqui-
fersofwater
• surfacewater,fromriversorlakes.
In case no fresh water is available, seawater or con-
taminatedwateristreatedandusedasfreshwater.
.  Groundwater
Groundwater is typically between 25 and 10,000
yearsold.Beforeitreachestheaquifer,ithasbeenfl-
teredandexposedtobiologicaltreatmentonitsway
throughthevariouslayersoftheground.Groundwa-
ter is therefore usually of high quality and requires
littleornotreatmentbeforeitisconsumed.
..1  Groundwater wells
Irrigation and water supply systems serving up to
500,000 consumers and the adjacent industries are
ideallysuppliedbygroundwater.Pollution-freeaqui-
ferslargerthan600km
2
arenormal.75to150well-in-
takesspreadonthediferentaquiferswillprovidethe
most environmentally-friendly, safest and reliable
water sources. For waterworks serving more than 1
million consumers, an additional source such as riv-
erbank fltration, river dams, or desalination should
beconsidered.
The individual wells are to be extended into older
groundwateratpollution-freedepthswhenextract-
ingfordrinkingwater.Irrigationwellscaneasilyuse
waterfromtheupperaquifer,thesecondaryaquifer,
with slightly polluted water quality. The groundwa-
ter level will vary over the seasons, but is to be re-
spectedontheyearlybasis,asthemaximumremov-
ablequantityissimilartowhatiscreatedeveryyear.
If groundwater levels are permanently lowered, a
watersupplydisasterwithanincreasingsalinityand
otherundesiredsubstancescanbeexpected.
Well head
Pump
Pump inlet
Gravel packing
Well screen
Submersible motor
Redox layer
Casing sealed
at layers of clay
Fig. 1 Groundwater well with submersible pump
..  Riverbank fltration
Inriverbankfltrationwells,thewellisplacednearby
a river. Using this method, the river water is fltered
through the ground. This process is a natural addi-
tiontoadirectintakeplantneedingcapacityenlarge-
ment. The easy-to-clean, pre-fltered water requires
lessfnaltreatmentandextractswaterfromtheaq-
uiferwhentheriverlevelrunslow.
After every wet period with high river water levels,
themud/dung/sedimentsoftheriverbedarewashed
downstreamandpartlyreplacedbynewsediments.
Thisnaturalprocessprovidesperfectconditionsfora
90% reduction of human-induced enzymes, viruses,
bacteria,pathogens,andsoon.Eachwetperiodwith
high river water levels also flls the aquifers around
theriverwithwater,whereitisstoredandreadyfor
10 11
Water  suppl y Water  suppl y
feedingtheriverbankwellswhentheriverwaterlev-
elrunslowindryseason.Thestorageofriverwaterin
aquiferscauseslesswaterstressontheriverduring
dryseasons.
Riverbankwellscanbeconstructedlikegroundwater
wells,orfrom7-8mverticalcasingsdugdownunder
the riverbed. They can be supplemented with 8-12
horizontal injected steel screens or flters for sedi-
ment-freewaterintake.
Fig. 2 Riverside well installations
Fig. 3 Riverbank fltration
Bacteria, pathogens, etc. are trapped by the
sediments.
..  Groundwater requirement
The basis for determining the groundwater require-
mentfromthewellfeldsistoevaluatetherelation-
shipbetweenthewaterstoragevolumeandthefn-
ished water production capacity compared to peak
anddailyconsumption.
To fnd the peak hourly consumption, please refer to
theMPC-BoostersectionofGrundfosWinCAPS/Web-
CAPSorfgures4and5.
Pump-out requirement
Waterisusedbymanydiferenttypesofconsumers,
eachwithaspecifcconsumptionpattern.Thereare
many methods of calculating the maximum water
requirement,bothmanualandcomputerisedones.
Thetablebelowcanbeusedforroughcalculationof
thewaterrequirementfor:
• ofcebuildings
• residentialbuildingsincl.blocksoffats
• departmentstores
• hospitals
• hotels.
Category Units
Averange
m

/h
Dwellings 2,000units 70
Ofcebuildings 2,000employees 30
Departmentstores 2,000employees 55
Hotels 1,000beds 110
Hospitals 1,000beds 80
Maximumpeak
load(warmseason)
345
Factorsforcalculatingdailyconsumption:
•Minimum100consumersconnected:Factor8
•Minimum30consumersconnected:Factor4
•Minimum10consumersconnected:Factor2.5
The maximum daily consumption in the example
abovewillbefactor8x345m
3
/h=2,760m
3
/day.
0 200 600 800 1000 400
0
20
40
60
80
100
Hotels
Number of beds
Consumption
m3/h
Hospitals
Fig. 4 Peak water consumption
0 400 1200 1600 2000 800
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
Department
stores
Number of
employees
Consumption
m3/h
Dwellings
Ofce buildings
Fig. 5 Peak water consumption
Peak hourly consumption is stated, this can be con-
vertedintoassumeddailyconsumptionbyusingthe
factors8/4/2.5.
..  Required raw/well water and 
water treatment capacity
The relationship between water storage and daily
consumption illustrates the percentage of the daily
consumption that is present in storage. With this
percentage,followithorizontallyinfg.6tofndthe
necessary percentage for raw-water requirement.
Thedailyconsumptionmultipliedbythepercentage
ofraw-waterrequirementprovidesthenecessaryca-
pacityfromthewellfelds.
Ifatreatmentplanthasnocleanwatertankorwater
tower, the raw-water and treatment capacity must
be equal to the maximum hourly consumption, i.e.
Qraw-water=345m
3
/hintheexample.
Ifthetreatmentplanthasaclean-watertankorawa-
ter tower capacity of 2,760 m
3
, peak load situations
can be covered from the reservoir. This means that
theraw-waterpumpscanrunconstantlyaroundthe
clockat2,760/24m
3
/h=115m
3
/h.
Theefectivevolumeoftheclean-watertankand/or
watertowerandthemaximumcapacityofthetreat-
ment plant are crucial for investment costs in con-
nectionwithgroundwaterwells.
Intheexample,thereisaclean-watertankof1,600
m
3
. This means that the water reservoir comprises
1,600/2,760x100=58%ofthedailyconsumption.
At a maximum peak consumption of 345 m
3
/h and
a maximum consumption of 2,760 m
3
/day and with
anefectiveclean-watertankvolumeof1,600m
3
,the
raw-watercapacitymustbeatleast2,760x7.6/100=
210m
3
/h.7.6istakenfromfg.2.Thiswillgiveamaxi-
mumdutytimeoftheraw-waterpumpsof2,760/210
=13hours/day.
The 210 m
3
/h are split up between at least three to
fourwells.Incaseoffewerwells,astandbyinstalla-
tionmustbemade.
1 1
Water  suppl y Water  suppl y
0 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 2
0
10
20
M
in
im
u
m
1
0
0
c
o
n
s
u
m
e
rs
c
o
n
n
e
c
t
e
d
M
in
im
u
m
10
0
con
su
m
ers con
n
ected
M
inim
um
100 consum
ers connected
58%
7,6%
30
60
50
40
80
100
90
70
Clean-water tank size as a percentage of daily consumption
34 %
%
Clean-water tank size as a percentage
of daily consumption:
Raw-water requirement:
Raw-water
requirement
Tank volume (m3)
Daily consumption (m3/24h)
x 100 = % tank capacity
x = % raw-water requirement
Daily consumption (m3/24h)
100
Fig. 6 Raw-water and treatment capacity (m
3
/h) as a
percentage af the daily consumption (m
3
/day)
..  Well yield and operational 
efciency
Each well has specifc capacity, consisting of m
3
/h
for each metre of drawdown of the pumping wa-
ter level. With your raw-water requirement, you are
able to load each well to obtain the lowest average
drawdown. The smaller the drawdown, the smaller
thetotalhead.Thesmallerthevoltagedropinpower
cables,thebettertheoperationalefciency.
• Overpumping will result in deep drawdown. This
givesroomforoxidation,resultingintheformation
of ochre which may clog well screen and pump.
Thismeansincreasedservicecostsforwellregen-
erationandpossiblyreducedwelllife.
• Overpumpingmeansloweringofthewaterlevelof
the aquifer which can result in chemical changes
andprecipitationofheavymetals.Infltrationofni-
trateandpesticidesinthewatermayoccur,result-
inginincreasedexpensesforwatertreatment.
Themostcommoncauseofoverpumpingofawellor
aquifer is increased water consumption.This is cov-
eredbyincreasedpumpcapacityorlongerdutytime
of the groundwater pumps without increasing the
catchmentareaorthenumberofwells.
Aquifer load 
When pumping at constant capacity for several
hours,thedynamicwaterlevelinthewellshouldre-
mainfairlyconstant.Ifthelevelisloweredconsider-
ably, this means that the amount of pumped water
exceedstheinfux.Iftheleveldropsfromyeartoyear,
thequantityofpumpedwatershouldbereducedand
waterfromotheraquifersshouldbeutilised.
Well load
Duringtestpumping,theamountofpumpedwater
is increased at fxed intervals which will result in a
lowering of the dynamic water level. If the draw-
downisplottedagainstincreasedpumping,arough
parabolawillresult.
Linear drawdown at moderate fows
At moderate fows, this means that typically an in-
creasedamountofwaterof1m
3
/hwillresultinanal-
mostlinearincreaseinthedrawdownof10cm/m
3
.
Anincreasefrom10to20m
3
/hwillconsequentlyre-
sultinaloweringofthewaterlevelofapprox.1m.
Anincreasefrom10to30m
3
/hwillgivealoweringof
thewaterlevelofapprox.2m.
Atmoderatefows,thedrawdowncurvewillbeclose
to linear as the increased drawdown is due to fow
resistanceinscreensetting.
Parabolic drawdown at large fows
Atincreasinglylargefows,aprogressivelyincreasing
frictionalresistanceinscreensettingandaquiferwill
give a parabolic drawdown curve of the second de-
gree.Thismeansaprogressivelyfallingwaterlevelin
thewellwithincreasedpumping.
An increase from 80 to 90 m
3
/h will give an addi-
tionaldrawdownofapprox.5m;from80to100m
3
/h
approx.11m,i.e.muchmorethanatmoderatefows.
Themosteconomicwellloadoccursatafowwhere
thedrawdowncurvegoesfromlineartoprogressive.
If the well yield is not sufcient to meet the water
requirement, even by prolonged operation, the fol-
lowingshouldbedone:
• Haveaspecialistlookattheproblem.
• Haveasupplementarywelldrilled.
Pleasenotethatrulesandregulationsmayvaryfrom
countrytocountry.

0 10 60 100 90 80 70 50 40 30 20
40
10
20
30
50
m⁳/h
Static water level
Gradient: 10 cm/m3/h
Overpumping Acceptable well load
55
Increasing gradient
Fig. 7 Dynamic water-level variations by test pumping
1 1
Water  suppl y Water  suppl y
.  Surface water
..1  From freshwater sources
Surface water is usually taken from lakes or rivers.
Unlike groundwater, it is not protected from nature
or human activities, and treatment is therefore al-
ways necessary. Surface water level and quality will
varyovertheseasons.Forexample,afterheavyrain-
fall,orsnowmelt,lotsofsolidsandsandarewashed
downstream.
Thesesharpandabrassivemineralsaswellasbiode-
gradable materials are to be settled or screened of
beforepumpintaketoavoidnegativeefectsonthe
fnal water treatment process. Submersible pumps
areidealfortheseapplicationswithperiodicuncon-
trollably high water levels. Note that power cables
and electric equipment must be elevated to perma-
nentlydrylocations.
Fig. 8 Settling tank principle
For more permanent installations, indirect riverside
infltration via sand or gravel bank fllings to intake
casings or riverbank wells are recommended. This
natural fltering improves the water quality and
saves up to 20% on power consumption, chemicals
andtestingatfnaltreatment.
Usingdirectwaterintakeandstandardconventional
watertreatmentwillonlyresultinamicroscopicdi-
verse biodynamic-balanced fauna entering the ac-
companying pipework and tank system. The fauna
can range from single-celled organisms to millime-
tre-sizedpredators.Thisfaunamustbeeliminatedby
dosinghighlevelsofchlorine.Directwaterintakeat
atemperateclimatewillrequirechemicaloverdosing
duringthecoldestseasonoftheyear,whenchemical
reactionshaveslowedtonearlyinactivity.
..  From sea and saltwater sources
Coastalseawaterintakeshouldbeplacedwherethe
lowestsaltcontentisexpected.Inthecoastalsplash-
ing zone, a lot of water evaporates making the salt
concentrationofremainingwatersgreaterthanout-
sidethesplashingzone.Infact,itcanbeuptotwice
asgreat.
This makes it necessary to extend the seawater in-
take up to hundreds of meters from the splashing
zone to obtain the lowest salt content. This type of
intake structure is generally benefcial when intake
capacityexceeds1,000m
3
/h.
For intake capacities lower than 1,000 m
3
/h, cor-
rosion-safe beach wells and coastal bank fltration
wellsarerecommended.Theseinstallationscanpro-
videsavingsofupto20%peryearoncostsrelatedto
maintenance,repair,powerconsumptionandchemi-
calsatthedesalinationplant.
Coastalbankfltrationwellsareconstructedlikeriv-
erbankfltrationwells,butinhighercorrosionclasses
toresisttheimpactfromthepresentsalts.
16 17
.
Appl i cati ons
Appl i cati ons
.1 Freshwater supply
The supply of fresh water for drinking water, irriga-
tion and various industrial applications is the most
commonapplicationforsubmersiblepumps.Pumps
ofmanydiferentdesigns,andmadefrommanydif-
ferentmaterialscanbeusedwithareasonablygood
resulthere.
GrundfosSPpumpsmadeofstainlesssteelEN1.4301/
AISI304aretheobviouschoiceforthisapplication.If
thewellismadecorrectlyandproducesclean,sand-
freewater,thepumpcanlastformanyyears.
However, in some livestock watering and irrigation
applications,thewaterqualityissopoorthatpumps
madeofstandardstainlesssteelmaterialdonotsur-
vive very long. In these cases a pump in EN 1.4401/
AISI316orEN1.4539/AISI904Lstainlesssteelcanbe
used.
Estimates for a timeframe for carrying out several
activities are found in the diagrams below. They in-
clude:
• therecommendedserviceperiodscausedbywear
andtear
• theexpectedservicerepaircost
• thelossofefciencyintheserviceperiods.
Pleasenotethatthediagramsdonotrefectlossofef-
fciencycausedbycloggingfromsedimentorscale.
Service intervals for submersible pumps
Submersible pumps are subject to wear just like all
otherpumps.Unfortunately,theirplacementunder-
ground makes viewing this wear difcult. The dia-
gramhereenablesyoutocalculatethefollowing:
· WhenshouldIservicemysubmersiblepump?
· How much efciency has been lost since the last
service?
· Howmuchwillarenovationcost(approximately)?
Anumberofthingsmustbedeterminedbeforehand.
Theyinclude:
· Watervelocityatthecomponentyouwishtotest
· The conditions related to pump material and the
pumpingenvironment
· The presence or absence of solids and aggressive
carbondioxide.
18 19
Appl i cati ons Appl i cati ons
. Dewatering
Dewatering in connection with mining applications
or construction sites is often done with submersible
pumps. The water quality determines whether the
pumpcanbeastandardEN1.4301(AISI304)pump,or
ifithastobestainlesssteelofahighergrade.
When reducing groundwater levels, the aquifer is
exposed to oxygen, creating rust and other adhesive
solids. They are washed out and penetrates the well
screen,thenpassingontothepumpinlet.
To maintain pump performance, the duty point is to
beselectedtotherightofthebestefciencypoint.
Thehigherthevelocityinsidethepump,thelongerin-
tervalsbetweenservicecanbe.Ahighvelocityprevents
thepumpfromcloggingupandlosingperformance.In
very adhesive mixtures, it can be benefcial to remove
thenon-returnvalvefromthepumptoenhanceback-
washofthepumpandpipesafterpumpstoppage.
..1  Mining  
Miningisatypicaldewateringapplication.However,
thewaterqualityisveryoftenaggressiveinrelation
to the submersible pump, and high-grade stainless
steelisrecommendable.
A special mining application is leach mining, where
an aggressive liquid is used to dissolve the minerals
tobemined.Thesearethenpumpedwiththeliquid
tothesurfaceandreclaimed.
Onewayofdoingthisisdescribedinthefollowing:
1. Find the chloride corrosion potential (chloride
equivalent=ppmchloride–(0.5xppmacid)).
2. Withthischlorideequivalent,usefg.10tofndthe
minimum pH value acceptable for EN 1.4539 (AISI
904L) stainless steel. If the illustration indicates
thatthereisahighcorrosionrisk,epoxy-coatingof
themotorisrequired.
3. Most power cable materials and junction kits are
unstableinacidicwaters.Ifpossible,usetheblue
Grundfos TML motor cable in full length to the
junctionboxonthesurface.
4. Installthepumpcenteringdeviceonyourpumpor
motor to ensure perfect cooling of the entire sur-
face.
5. If corrosion occurs, install ion-exchange units to
bringdownthechloridecontent,orinstallzincan-
odesascathodicprotection.
200 mg salt/litre
Recommended service intervals for submersible pumps
Velocity at components
Motor cooling Water pipes Valve strainers Chamber bowls Impellers
5 10 15 20 25
80%
100%
70%
60%
50%
40%
2
8
4
12
16
20
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 m/s
Average efciency loss during service period
E
x
p
e
c
te
d
re
n
o
v
a
tio
n
in
%
o
f th
e
p
ric
e
o
f a
n
e
w
p
u
m
p
Freshwater Brackish water
0
.2
4
0
.3
2
0
.2
0
0
.1
2
0
.4
4
0
.4
8
0
.4
0
0
.3
6
0
.0
4
0.16
0.14
0.18
0.12
0.10
0.08
0.06
0.04
0.02
Curve A
Curve B
Curve C
Curve D
Curve E
Curve F
W
a
te
r c
o
n
ta
in
in
g
1
0
m
g
/
l s
o
lid
s
S
a
n
d
fre
e
w
a
te
r
0 mg/l (all materials)
Diferentiation line for water
qualities without aggressive
carbon dioxide
Diferentiation line for salinity
10 mg/l (cast iron only)
20 mg/l (cast iron only)
40 mg/l (cast iron only)
800 mg salt/litre
2,000 mg salt/litre
Material loss per 1,000
hours of operation in [mm]
0
.2
8
0
.1
6
0
.0
8
1 2 3
4 5 6 7
S
e
rv
ic
e
in
te
rv
a
ls in
1
,0
0
0
h
o
u
rs
Curve A:
Material: Cast iron
pH: 5
Oxygen content: 7 ml/l
Temperature: 30o C
Solids content: 10 mg/l
Curve B:
Material: Cast iron
pH: 7
Oxygen content: 2 ml/l
Temperature: 10o C
Solids content: 10 mg/l
Curve C:
Material: stainless steel impeller
coated with hard chromium
or bronze impeller with
hard chromiumshaft
pH: 5-8
Oxygen content: 0-10 ml/l
Temperature: 0-30o C
Solids content 10 mg/l
Curve D:
Material: Cast iron
pH: 5
Oxygen content: 7 ml/l
Temperature: 30o C
Curve E:
Material: Cast iron
pH: 7
Oxygen content: 2 ml/l
Temperature: 10o C
Curve F:
Material: Bronze or
stainless steel impeller
pH: 5-8
Oxygen content: 0-10 ml/l
Temperature: 0-30oC
%
Fig. 9 Recommended service intervals for submersible pumps
Thechartbelowisusefulasaguidelinetodetermine
theserviceintervalsforsubmersiblepumps.
Followthestepsbelow:
1. Notepoint1onCurveA.Pumpmaterialandmedia
conditionsareasindicatedinthelegend.
2. Drawaparallellinetotheright.Impellermaterial
loss is approx. 0.18mm per 1,000 hours of opera-
tion(point2).
3. Follow the parallel line until you reach the difer-
entiation line that corresponds to aggressive CO2
and component material. Note the conditions in
theexample(point3).
4. Drop directly down (90°).The aggressive CO2 con-
tent has increased the material loss to 0.25mm.
Notethesalinitylevelofthewater(point4).Draw
ahorizontallinethroughthispoint;followittothe
leftandreadtheresults.
5. Recommendedserviceintervalsforyourpump:Af-
terevery6,000hoursofoperation(point5).
6. Lossofefciency:Approx.18%(point6).
7. Estimatedcostofrenovatingthepump:75%ofthe
priceofanewpump(point7).
0 500
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
pH
Corrosion due to chlorides on R-version pumps at 35°C
5,000 50,000 300,000
ppm Cl
-
Brine
100,000 10,000 20,000
H
ig
h
c
o
r
r
o
s
io
n
r
is
k
L
it
t
le
o
r
n
o
c
o
r
r
o
s
io
n
r
is
k
B
a
l
t
i
c
/
M
e
d
i
t
e
r
r
a
n
e
a
n
s
e
a
w
a
t
e
r
P
a
c
i

c
/
A
t
l
a
n
t
i
c
s
e
a
w
a
t
e
r
3
0
,
0
0
0
-
H
i
g
h
e
s
t
c
o
r
r
o
s
i
v
e
p
o
t
e
n
t
i
a
l
(
s
e
a
w
a
t
e
r
)
Seawater Brackish water Freshwater
River mouth
or coastal
water
lowering
Seawater,
marine
environment
Mining
waters
Fig. 10 Corrosion due to chlorides
0 1
Appl i cati ons Appl i cati ons
. Horizontal application
Pumping water from a tank or reservoir is very often
done with a standard submersible pump. Asubmersible
pumphas many advantages comparedtoadry-installed
pumpsuchas:
• Low noise level:The submersible pump is very si-
lentanddoesnotdisturbanyneighbours.
• Theftproof:Thepumpisinstalledatthebottomof
thetank/reservoir.
• No shaft seal: This eliminates the risk of leakage
aboveground.
In horizontal installations, Grundfos always recom-
mendsthatyouincludeafowsleeveandbafeplate
atlowwaterlevels.
WaIer level
Min. 0.S m
Fig. 11 Flow sleeve on horizontally installed pump
5een from above
vorIex
8aIIle plaIe

Fig. 12 Vortex bafe plate on horizontally-installed
pump (seen from above)
WaIer level
vorIex
8aIIle plaIe
Min. 0.S m
Cross section
Fig. 13 Vortex bafe plate on horizontally installed
pump (cross-section)
Ifmorethanonesubmersiblepumpisinstalledina
tank or reservoir the distance between the pumps
must equal the overall diameter of the pump and
motorincludingcoolingsleeve.
Submersible pumps used for fountain applications
areofteninstalledhorizontally.Becauseofitslowin-
ertia, a submersible pump is able to start and stop
very fast. This makes it ideal for fountain applica-
tions. Because of the high start/stop frequency, it is
recommended to use canned motors only. Rewind-
ablemotorsshouldneverbeusedinconnectionwith
anextremenumberofstartsandstops.
Thelargenumberofstarts/stopsisalsohardonthe
contactors, which have a limited lifetime. In order
to protect the motor from failure in the contactors,
Grundfos recommends that you install the phase-
failurerelaybetweentheoverloadrelayandthemo-
tor.
Finally, it is important to size the pump and nozzle
together,sothepumpneveroperatesatmaximum
fow,butalwaysasclosetothebestefciencypoint
aspossible.
. Air/gas in water
If air/gas is mixed in the pumped water, the pump
willunderperform,andsometimesevenstoppump-
ing.Air/gasgreatlydisturbsthehydraulicfunctions
of centrifugal pumps. To improve performance, the
pumpmustbesubmergeddeeperintothewell,thus
increasingthepressure.
Ifthatisnotpossible,theproblemmaybeovercome
by installing a sleeve around the pump, below the
pump inlet. The sleeve should extend upwards as
far as possible, but never above the dynamic water
level.
Pump inIet
Cas sIeeve
Cas
Fig. 14 Gas evacuation
Gas vacuum
Gas
Groundwater level
5-7 m
Water level in casing
Vacuum switch Vacuum pump
Non-return
valve
Vacuum gauge
Fig. 15 Vacuum wells
Vacuum wells
Ifthewellwatercontainssomuchgasinsuspension
thatasleeveisinsufcienttomeetthewaterquality
requirements,avacuummustbecreatedinthewell
casing.Thiscanbedonebyconnectingavacuum
pumptotheventpipewhenthecasingishermetical-
lysealed.Thisrequiresthatthewellcasingisstrong
enoughtowithstandthevacuumandthattheNPSH
requirementismet.

Appl i cati ons Appl i cati ons
. Corrosive water (seawater)
Submersiblepumpsareusedformanyseawaterap-
plicationslikefshfarming,ofshoreindustrialappli-
cationsandwatersupplyforreverseosmosis-treated
water.
SPpumpsareavailableindiferentmaterialsandcor-
rosion classes depending on the application of the
pumps.Thecombinationofsalinityandtemperature
isnotfavourabletostainlesssteel,andmustalways
betakenintoconsideration.
A good way to compare the corrosion resistance of
stainless steel, is to compare its resistance against
pitting. The fgure used as a comparison is called:
‘PittingResistanceEquivalent’(PRE).
Fig.16showsthemostcommonstainlesssteeltypes
usedbyGrundfos.
PRE=(%Cr)+(3.3x%Mo)
Forcomparisontootherstainlesssteeltypes,which
containNitrogen(N)theformulalookslikebelow:
PREN=(%Cr)+(3.3x%Mo)+(16x%N)
In addition to temperature and salinity, the corro-
siontemperatureisafectedbythepresenceofother
metals,acidsandbiologocalactivity.Thisisalsoindi-
catedinfg.16.
Thechartbelowcanbeusedfortheselectionofthe
propergradeofsteel.
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1400 1600 1800 2000 1200
Corrosion diagram
EN 1.4301, 1.4401 and 1.4539
Chloride [ppm]
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

C
]
0
20
40
60
80
100
10
30
50
70
90
SPR 1.4539
SPN 1.4401
CRN 1.4401
SP 1.4301
Fig. 17 Corrosion diagram
0 2000 4000 6000 8000 16000 20000 12000
Corrosion diagram
EN 1.4301, 1.4401 and 1.4539
Chloride [ppm]
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
(
°
C
)
0
20
40
60
80
100
10
30
50
70
90
SPR 1.4539
SPN 1.4401
CRN 1.4401
SP 1.4301
Fig. 18 Corrosion diagram
Theelastomercomponentsinthepumpmayalsobe
damaged by poor water quality, for example if the
waterhasahighcontentofhydrocarbonsandmany
chemicals.Insuchcasesthestandardelastomercan
bereplacedbyFKMrubber.TheGrundfosSPEpumps
areparticularlydesignedtomeettheserequirements.
Forallothermodels,thepumpscanbespecifedand
deliveredonrequest.
.6 Hot water and geothermal water
Groundwaterclosetothesurfacewillbeclosetothe
averageannualairtemperatureintheregion.Going
deeper, the temperature will increase 2 to 3 °C for
each100mofwelldepth,intheabsenceofgeother-
malinfuence.
In geothermal areas, this increase might be as high
as5to15°Cforeach100mofwelldepth.Goingdeep
forwaterrequirestemperature-resistantelastomers,
electricalcables,connectionsandmotors.
Hotgroundwaterisusedforgeneralheatingapplica-
tions,andforleisureinmanyareas,especiallythose
withvolcanicactivity.
The motor liquid of your submersible motor has a
higherboilingpointtemperaturethanthewellwater
prevents the motor bearing lubrication from being
reducedduetothelowerviscosityoftheliquid.The
motor must be submerged deeper to raise the boil-
ingtemperatureasthetablebelow.
Temperature
Vapour
pressure
Kinematic
viscosity
°C mWC mm
2
/s
0 0.00611 1.792
4 0.00813 1.568
10 0.01227 1.307
20 0.02337 1.004
30 0.04241 0.801
40 0.07375 0.658
50 0.12335 0.554
60 0.19920 0.475
70 0.31162 0.413
80 0.47360 0.365
90 0.70109 0.326
100 1.01325 0.294
110 1.43266 0.268
120 1.98543 0.246
130 2.70132 0.228
140 3.61379 0.212
150 4.75997 0.199
160 6.18065 0.188
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
o
f
s
t
a
n
d
a
r
d
s
e
a
w
a
t
e
r
(
2
1
,0
0
0
p
p
m
C

)
-
°
C
Full-developed pitting
resistance equivalent in 60 days
Critical crevice temperature in
stagnant water
EN 1.4301/AISI 304
Critical temperature for
permanent still-standing water
Corrosion resistance of seawater-submerged pumps
Pitting resistance
PRE = %Cr + 3.3 x %Mo
= 7.5
PRE = %Cr + 3.3 x %Mo
= 24.3
PRE = %Cr + 3.3 x %Mo
= 33.5
PRE = %Cr + 3.3 x %Mo
= 34.9
EN 1.4401/AISI 316 EN 1.4462/AISI 904L EN 4539/AISI 904L
Z
in
k
a
n
o
d
e
s
in
c
r
e
a
s
e
t
e
m
p
.
a
c
c
e
p
t
a
n
c
e
b
y
1
5
°
C
C
a
s
t
ir
o
n
a
n
d
m
ild
s
t
e
e
l a
n
o
d
e
s

in
c
r
e
a
s
e
t
e
m
p
. a
c
c
e
p
t
a
n
c
e
b
y
5
°
C
B
io
lo
g
ic
a
l a
c
t
iv
it
y
d
e
c
r
e
a
s
e
s

t
e
m
p
. a
c
c
e
p
t
a
n
c
e
b
y
5
°
C
C
h
lo
r
in
e
, s
u
lp
h
u
r
ic
a
c
id
s
a
n
d
c
h
e
m
ic
a
ls

d
e
c
r
e
a
s
e
t
e
m
p
. a
c
c
e
p
t
a
n
c
e
b
y
8
°
C
Environmental impact
Fig. 16 Corrosion resistance

Gasinthewateristobeexpectedwherethereisgeo-
thermalactivity.Toavoidreducedpumpcapacityina
geothermal water installation where air is mixed in,
Grundfos recommends to install the pump a mini-
mumof50mbelowthedynamicwaterlevel.
.7 Booster modules
Grundfos pump types BM and BME are SP pumps
builtintoasleeve.Byconnectingeachunitinseries,
averyhighpressurecanbeobtained.
Thepumpsareprimarilyusedforreverseosmosisap-
plications, producing clean water from polluted wa-
terorseawater.
Grundfos booster modules are also used for water
supplyindistributionnetworkstoboostwaterpres-
sureoverlongdistributionlines.Themainadvantag-
escomparedtoconventionalboosterpumpsarethe
quiet operation, and there is no shaft seal that may
leak.
Fig. 19 Grundfos BM
Appl i cati ons Appl i cati ons
6 7
.
Pumps
Pumps
.1 Pump principle
TheSPpumpisacentrifugalpump,wherethepump
principleistotransformmechanicalenergyfromthe
motortovelocityenergyinthepumpedmedium,and
thereby creating a pressure diference in the media
betweenthepumpinletandoutlet.
(3) Outlet
(4) Impeller
(7) Guide vane
(6) Seal ring
(1) Inlet
(5) Shaft
(2) Stage (Chamber)
Fig. 20 Submersible pump principle
The pump consists in principle of an inlet (1), a
number of pump stages (2) and a pump outlet (3).
Each pump stage creates a pressure diference, and
the more pressure needed, the more stages need to
beincluded.
Apumpstageincludesanimpeller(4)wheretheim-
peller blades transfer energy to the water in terms
of a velocity and pressure increase. Each impeller is
fxedtothepumpshaft(5)bymeansofasplinecon-
nectionorsplit-coneconnection.
Forsubmersiblepumps,therearetwogeneraldesign
types:
• radial
• semi-axial.
The radial design is characterised by a large difer-
encebetweentheimpellerinletandtheoutletdiam-
eteroftheimpeller.Itissuitablewhereahighhead
isrequired.
Thesemi-axialdesignismoresuitableforlargerfow
pumps.
A seal ring (6) between the impeller inlet and the
chamber ensures that any back fow is limited. The
chamber includes a guide vane (7), which leads the
watertothenextstage.Italsoconvertsthedynamic
pressureintostaticpressure.
Inadditiontoguidingthewaterintothefrstimpel-
lers,thepumpinletisalsotheinterconnectorforthe
motor.Formostpumpsthedimensionsconformsto
theNEMAstandardfor4”,6”and8”.Forlargerpumps
and motors there are various standards depending
onthesupplier.Thepumpinletmustbedesignedin
ordertodeliverthewatertothefrstimpellerinthe
bestpossiblewayandtherebyminimisethelossesas
muchaspossible.Forsomeradialdesignedimpellers,
theinletalsoincludesaprimingscrew(fastenedon
the pump shaft) in order to secure the water intake
andavoiddryrunningofthepump.
The pump outlet normally includes a non-return
valve, which prevents back fow in the riser pipe,
8 9
Pumps Pumps
when the pump is stopped. Several benefts are ob-
tainedsuchas:
• Energylossduetobackfushisavoided.
• Acounterpressureisalwaysensured,whenstart-
ingupthepumpagain.Thisisessentialinorderto
makecertainthatpumpperformanceremainson
thepumpcurve.
• Damageinthepumpduetowaterhammeringis
limited.
• Contamination of the groundwater due to back
fushislimited.
. Wear parts
Dependingonthepumpedmediaandthenumberof
yearsapumphasbeeninoperation,aserviceinspec-
tion of the pump is recommended.This includes re-
placingallwearpartsinthepump.Therecommend-
edservicepartsare:
• bearings,radial
• valveseat
• neckrings
• sealring
• upthrustring.
If extensive wear from sand has occurred in the
pump, replacing the pump shaft and impellers may
alsobenecessary.
Renewingthewearpartsincaseofserviceisessen-
tialformaintainingahighpumpefciencyandalow
operatingcost.
For further service information, see the Grundfos
serviceinstructions.
. Pump selection
Selectionofapumpstartswithestimatingthefow
andpressure.Thetotalheadisthesumofthefollow-
ing
• dynamicwatertable(1)
• liftaboveground(2)
• dischargepressure(3)
• lossesinpipes,valveandbends(4)
Friction losses: 0 m
Flow (Q): 60 m3h
Head: 90 m
: 80 m
: 50 m Pipe length of riser pipe: 0 m
: 10 m
Pipe length of discharge pipe: 0 m
4
4
3
2
1
Fig. 21 Total head calculation
When estimating the fow demand, the well yield
must also be taken into consideration. Information
regarding the well yield is available from the well
drillers test report, which is made during well de-
velopment. If possible, the necessary fow must be
reducedasmuchaspossible.Thiswillminimisethe
watertabledrawdown,andreducetotalpowercon-
sumptionintermsofkwh/m
3
.
. Pump curves and tolerances
Afterestimatingthenecessaryfowandhead,pump
selection can be performed by using GrundfosWin-
CAPS/WebCAPS or the corresponding pump data
booklet.Bothsourcescontainperformancecurves.
In addition to the pump head, the required power
consumption is also available in the data booklet,
wherethepumpsupplierdistinguishesbetweenthe
motor shaft power output P1

(printed on the motor
nameplate)andthemotorinputpower,P1.P1isused
forsizingtheelectricalinstallations.
Please note that P4 is the hydraulic efect produced
bythepump.
P2 : Motor shaft power (=P3)
P1 : Motor input power
P4 : Hydraulic efect
Fig. 22 Power defnitions
Normallythepowerconsumptionisalsoshownasa
functionofthefow.
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
0
Q [m
3
/h]
H [m]
0
10
20 20
30
40 40
50
60 60
70
80 80
100
120
Eta
[%]
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
0
Q [m
3
/h]
P [kW]
0
16 8
12 6
8 4
4 2
NPSH
[m]
SP 60-8
ISO9906 Annex A
Pumped medium= any viscous fluid
Eta, pump
NPSH
QH
Eta, total
Shaded
areas show
acceptable
tolerances
P1
P2
Figures 23 and 24 Pump performance parameters
including tolerances
Inthedatabooklet,informationregardingpumpef-
fciencyisalsoavailable,anditcanbeshownasthe
pump-endefciency(basedonP2)orasacomplete
pump efciency including the motor (based on P1).
In some cases, loses in non-return valves are not in-
cludedintheefciencyshown.Theefciencycurves
are used for the selection of pump size, where the
bestefciencyareamatchestherequiredfow.Ifthe
completepumpefciencyisnotshown,itcanbecal-
culated by using the fow (Q), head (H) and power
inputP1:
eta
total
 = (Q x H x 9.81)/( P1

x 600)
The NPSH value stands for “Net Positive Suction
Head”andisameasureforrequiredinletpressure=
minimumwaterlevelabovepumpinlet.
In general, the NPSH value will increase for bigger
Fig. 23
Fig. 24
0 1
Pumps Pumps
fowsandiftherequiredinletpressureisnotmet,it
will result in evaporation of the water and a risk of
cavitationdamageinthepump.
In general, there are many diferent local standards
for tolerances on performance curves. Pump per-
formance for Grundfos SP pumps is shown accord-
ing to ISO 9906, Annex A. QH curves printed in the
documentation show the nominal curve. According
toISO9906,AnnexA,powercurvesonlyhaveanup-
pertolerance.Forefciencycurves,onlylowertoler-
ances are shown. Please see the example shown in
fg. 23 and 24 above.The general conditions accord-
ing to ISO 9906 for the performance curves in this
illustrationare:
• Themeasurementsaremadewithairlesswaterat
atemperatureof20°C.
• Curvesapplytoakinematicviscosityof
1mm
2
/s.Whenpumpingliquidswithahigher
density,ahighermotoroutputisrequired.
In addition to QH, Q-P, Q-eta curves, an axial load
curveisnormallyalsoavailableonrequest.Thedown
thrust load is created by the hydraulics and trans-
ferred to the motor thrust bearing. The total axial
loadiscalculatedbymultiplyingthesingle-stageval-
uesbythenumberofstages.Itcanbeusedtocheck
whetherthecapacityofthemotorthrustbearingis
sufcient.
0 10 20 30 40 S0 60 70
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24
0
100
200
300
400
S00
600
700
80
N |NewIonj
O |m
3
]hj
O |l]sj
60 Rz
S0 Rz
SP 60-1
S0]60 Rz
Fig. 25 Single-stage axial-load curve, SP 60

.
Motors  and  control s
Motors  and  control s
.1 Motor types, general description
Thischapterdealsexclusivelywithsubmersiblemo-
tors,andcontrolsforsubmersiblemotors.Submers-
iblemotorsarespecialbecausetheyaredesignedto
rununderwater.Otherwise,theiroperatingprinciple
isthesameasallotherelectricmotors.
Please note that all Grundfos 4”, 6”, and 8” motors
conformtoNEMAstandards.
Asubmersiblemotorconsistsofamotorbodyanda
motorcable.Thecableisdetachableinaplugsystem.
Thecableisdimensionedforsubmergeduseinorder
tominimisethespatialrequirementalongthepump.
Themotorcableisconnectedtothedropcableabove
thepumpbyuseofacableterminationkit.Thedrop
cableusedtoraiseandlowerthepump.
Canned
Inacannedmotor,thewindingsareenamelwire(like
instandardsurfacemotors)hermeticallysealedfrom
the surroundings and flled with embedding ma-
terial in order to withhold the windings and at the
sametimeincreaseheattransfer.Thesemotorshave
a journal bearing system, consisting of upper and
lowerradialbearingsaswellasupthrustanddown-
thrustbearings.Thrustandjournalbearingsrunhy-
drodynamicallyinthewater-basedmotorliquid.
Wetwound (rewindable)
Wetwound motors have a special water resistance
wire, and a watertight joint between the windings
and the motor cable. The joint is always inside the
motor,andnoplugsystemisavailable.
Themotorliquidmainlyconsistsofcleanwater.The
liquid circulates around the entire motor, transfer-
ringheatawayfromwindingsandrotorandlubricat-
ingthebearingsystems.
Oil-flled
Anoil-flledmotorisequippedwithanimpregnated
standard surface motor winding. Transformer oil is
flledintothemotorandusedaslubricantandcool-
ing.Theoilcanbemineralorvegetableoilwithhigh
insulation resistance.The motor cable splice is typi-
cally made inside the motor as in a wetwound mo-
tors, few have plug systems. Oil-flled motors incor-
porateaball-bearingsystem.
Single-phase motors
There are several versions of single phase motors.
Theyallhavetheirdistinctiveadvantagesanddisad-
vantages.Mosttypesneedacapacitorandsomeoth-
er accessories, which is built into a starter box. The
starterboxisdedicatedforstartingagivenmotorat
specifcvoltageandfrequency.
Permanent-split capacitor (PSC) motors 
Simple and reliable, PSC motors have a run-type ca-
pacitorincludedinthecircuit.Thecapacitorsizeisa
compromisebetweenaddingstartingtorqueanden-
suringahighefciencyduringoperation.
Pros:Simple,low-cost,reliableandsilent.
Cons:Lowlocked-rotortorqueandlowefciency.
L
PSC
Switch
Overload
Capacitor
Lightning
arrestor
(optional)
Main
Start
N
PE
CSCR RSIR
Switch
Lightning
arrestor
Overload
L
Main
Start
N
PE
L
Main
Tmac
Start
Bimetal
N
PE
Start
cap.
Relais
Run
cap.
Capacitor start
Capacitor run
1,1 - 3,7 kW
CSIR
L
Main
Start
N
PE
Start
cap.
Relais
Capacitor start
Induction run
0,37 ... 0,75 kW
Fig. 26 PSC

Motors  and  control s Motors  and  control s
Capacitor-start/induction-run (CSIR) motor 
Thestart-upcapacitorbooststhetorqueduringstart
up.Thenitisdisconnectedbyaswitch.TheCSIRmo-
tortypeistypicallyusedforsmallerkWratings.
Pros:Locked-rotortorque.
Cons:Noisyoperation(truesingle-phase),relay
neededtocutoutthestart-upcapacitor.
L
PSC
Switch
Overload
Capacitor
Lightning
arrestor
(optional)
Main
Start
N
PE
CSCR RSIR
Switch
Lightning
arrestor
Overload
L
Main
Start
N
PE
L
Main
Tmac
Start
Bimetal
N
PE
Start
cap.
Relais
Run
cap.
Capacitor start
Capacitor run
1,1 - 3,7 kW
CSIR
L
Main
Start
N
PE
Start
cap.
Relais
Capacitor start
Induction run
0,37 ... 0,75 kW
Capacitor-start/capacitor-run (CSCR) motors 
This motor type has both a starting capacitor to
booststartingtorque,andaruncapacitor(PSC).This
ensures a smooth operation and a good efciency.
Themotortypecombinestheadvantagesofbothof
theabovetypes.
Pros:Goodstartingtorque,highefciency.
Cons:Priceofcontrolbox.
L
PSC
Switch
Overload
Capacitor
Lightning
arrestor
(optional)
Main
Start
N
PE
CSCR RSIR
Switch
Lightning
arrestor
Overload
L
Main
Start
N
PE
L
Main
Tmac
Start
Bimetal
N
PE
Start
cap.
Relais
Run
cap.
Capacitor start
Capacitor run
1,1 - 3,7 kW
CSIR
L
Main
Start
N
PE
Start
cap.
Relais
Capacitor start
Induction run
0,37 ... 0,75 kW
Resistance-start/induction-run (RSIR) motor
This motor has a relay built directly into the motor
winding. The relay disconnects the starting phase
whenthemotorisrunning.
Pros:Noneedforcapacitors(nocontrolbox),easeof
installation.
Cons: Limited starting torque, limited kW ratings
(onlythrough1.1kW).
L
PSC
Switch
Overload
Capacitor
Lightning
arrestor
(optional)
Main
Start
N
PE
CSCR RSIR
Switch
Lightning
arrestor
Overload
L
Main
Start
N
PE
L
Main
Tmac
Start
Bimetal
N
PE
Start
cap.
Relais
Run
cap.
Capacitor start
Capacitor run
1,1 - 3,7 kW
CSIR
L
Main
Start
N
PE
Start
cap.
Relais
Capacitor start
Induction run
0,37 ... 0,75 kW
Fig. 29 RSIR motor
Terminology; -wire and -wire motors
The terminology is related to the number of wires
needed in the installation excluding earth cable. 2-
wiremotorsmustbesuppliedbythreeleads:phase,
neutralendearth.3-wiremotorsmustbesuppliedby
four leads: phase, neutral, point between start- and
run-windinginmotor+earthcable.
-wire motors: 
• PSCmotorsacapacitorisbuiltintothemotor.
• RSIR.
-wire motors:
• PSCmotorsifthereisacapacitorinthestarterbox
ontheground.
• CSIRmotors
• CSCRmotors
Motor derating
Motor derating is where there are special require-
ments to the motor, such as high water tempera-
ture, voltage tolerances outside of acceptable in-
terval, or voltage unbalance. All of these situations
stress the motor winding more than what it has
beendesignedfor.
The simplest solution is to use an oversized motor,
typically not more two output sizes above the re-
quiredoutput.Theresultisanextendedlifetime,but
the efciency is not optimal, since the motor never
operatesatitsoptimaldutypoint.Thepowerfactor
isnormallybelowduetothepartialloadonthecon-
struction.
Abettersolutionistohaveamotorspeciallywound
in a larger stack length. Due to the increased sur-
face, the electrical data and cooling capability are
improved.Thesemotorsaredesignedforhighertem-
peratures,widervoltagetolerances,etc.Also,theef-
fciency of a standard motor is maintained or even
increased.
. Motor cables and joints, reference 
to drop cables
Submersible pump installation are designed to be
used with the submersible motor, the motor cable
and the joint between motor cable and drop cable
underwater.Ifforanyreasonthemotorcableisnot
fullysubmerged,thecurrent-carryingcapacitymust
alwaysbechecked.Seechapter7.5aswell.
Therefore,themotorcable,jointandsubmergedpart
of the drop cable have a relative large surface area
that is in contact with the pumped media. It is im-
portant to choose the correct material for the given
installation. You must also be aware of your local
drinkingwaterapprovalrequirements.

Fig. 27 Schematic diagram of a CSIR motor Fig. 28 Schematic diagram of a CSCR motor
6 7
Motors  and  control s Motors  and  control s
. Motor protection devices 
The same type of motor-protective devices used for
standard surface motors can be used for submers-
iblemotors.Itisimportanttosecureandlimitshort-
circuitingcurrentsandprotectagainstphase-failures
aswellasoverload.
Most single-phase motors have a built-in thermal
protector.Iftheprotectorisnotbuiltintothewind-
ing, it must be incorporated in the starter box. The
protectors feature automatic or manual reset.Ther-
mal protectors are designed to match the motor
windingcharacteristics.
Pt100andPt1000arelinearresistors.Combinedwith
astandardsensordevice,theycanindicatethetem-
perature development over time. On canned-type
motors, the sensor device is placed in the staybolt
hole; on wet-wound versions, the sensor device is
placedinthemotorliquid.
PTCandNTCresistorsarerarelyusedinsubmersible
installations because they are not sufciently fast
andreliabletoprotectthesubmersiblemotor.
Grundfosofersaspecialtemperaturesensingdevice
calledTempcon. It is a NTC-resistor built in near the
winding,andsensesthetemperature.Thetempera-
tureisconvertedintoahigh-frequencysignal,trans-
mitted to the control panel by means of power-line
communication. From the control panel, the signal
can be picked up by a signal converter, transmitted
totheMP204controlpanelandindicatedasatem-
peratureontheMP204controlpaneldisplay.MP204
isaadvancedmotorprotectordesignedforthepro-
tectionofthesubmersiblemotoragainstnetdistur-
bances.
. Reducing the locked-rotor current
The purpose of reducing the locked-rotor current is
toprotectotherequipmentagainstpowersurgesin
connectionwithhighpowerloads.Thisalsoprotects
the piping against excessive pressure surges. There
areseveralwaysofreducingtheimpactonthemains,
howevernotallofthemarerelevanttopumps.This
sectioncoversseveraldiferentwaysofreducingthe
locked-rotorcurrent,andinformationaboutrunning
submersiblepumpswithfrequencyconverters.
Thefollowingappliestoradialandsemi-radial
pumps,includingGrundfosSPpumps.Axialpumps
arehowevernotdealtwithhere.
Asthelocked-rotorcurrentofapumpmotorisoften
4-7timesashighastheratedcurrent,therewill
beaconsiderablepeakloadofgridandmotorfor
ashortperiod.Inordertoprotectthegrid,many
countrieshaveregulationsforreducingthelocked-
rotorcurrent.Normallyitisgivenasamaximum
loadinkWorinAmpsallowedtostartDirectonLine
(DOL);Themaximumloadallowedvariesquitealot
throughouttheworld,soyoumustbecertainthat
youadheretoyourlocalregulations.Insomecases,
onlyspecifcmethodsforreducingthelocked-rotor
currentareallowed.
Thefollowingtypesaredescribedinthefollowing:
DOL-Direct-on-line
SD-Star-delta
AF-Autotransformer
RR–Resistorstarter
SS-Softstarter
FC-Frequencyconverter
Beforeachoiceismade,application,requirements
andlocalstandardsmustbeconsidered.
..1 Direct-on-line – DOL
In DOL starting, the motor is coupled directly to the
grid by means of a contactor or similar. Assuming all
otheraspectstobethesame,DOLstartingwillalways
givethelowestgenerationofheatinthemotor,con-
sequentlyprovidingthelongestlifespanofmotorsup
to 45 kW. Above this size, the mechanical impact on
the motor will be so considerable that Grundfos rec-
ommends current reduction. Furthermore, although
the DOL motor starter gives the highest locked-rotor
current,itwillcauseminimalgriddisturbance.
Lotsofsubmersiblepumpsuselongcables,however.
Theselongcablesautomaticallytriggerareductionof
thelocked-rotorcurrentduetothesimplephysicsin-
volved,astheresistanceinthecablereducesthecur-
rent.If,forexample,thecableislonganddesignedfor
a voltage drop of 5 % full load (amps), a reduction of
the locked-rotor current will occur automatically.The
examplebelowillustratesthispoint.
Example: 
0 1/10 second
x operating current
Power consumption
at startup
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
Time
Operating
current
Sine
periods
Typically 3 to 5 periods
Fig. 30 Current fow by DOL starting
Type Reduced
locked-rotor 
current
Price Features in 
relation to 
price
Space
requirement
Customer 
friendly
Reliable Reduced pressure surge Energy sav-
ings during 
operation
Mechanical Hydraulic
DOL No Low OK Low Yes Yes No No No
SD
Below kW 
above kW
No
Yes
Low
Low
Low
OK
Low
Low
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No No
No
No
No
AF Yes Medium OK Medium Yes/No Yes Yes/No No No
RR
SS Yes Medium OK Medium Yes/No Yes/No Yes No Yes/No
FC Yes High OK Medium/
high
Yes/No Yes/No Yes Yes/No Yes/No
8 9
Motors  and  control s Motors  and  control s
.. Star-delta – SD
Themostcommonmethodforreducingthelocked-
rotor current for motors in general is star-delta
starting. During start-up, the motor is connected
for star operation. When the motor is running, it
is switched over to delta connection.This happens
automatically after a fxed period of time. During
start-up in star position, the voltage on motor ter-
minals is reduced to 58 % of the nominal starting
voltage.Thisstartingmethodisverywellknownin
themarketandrelativelycheap,simpleandreliable,
whichmakesitverypopular.
0
x operating current
Power consumption
at startup
Operating
current
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
Time
Fig. 31 Current fow by SD starting
For SP pumps, and in general for pumps with a low
momentofinertia,SDstartingisnotrecommended
due to the fact that speed is lost during switching
fromY/D.Asubmersiblepumpgoesfrom0to2.900
rpmwithinthreecycles(0.06s)!Thisalsomeansthat
thepumpstopsimmediatelywhenthecurrentisdis-
connectedfromthemains.
When comparing the DOL and star-delta locked-ro-
tor current, star-delta starting reduces the current
at the beginning.When switching over from star to
delta,thepumpslowsconsiderably,almoststopping
completely.Afterwards,ithastostartdirectlyindelta
(DOL).Thediagramshowsthatthereisnorealreduc-
tionofthelocked-rotorcurrent.
Thingsaresomewhatdiferentforcentrifugalpumps
with a greater diameter and mass, as they conse-
quentlyhaveahighermomentofinertia.Remember
thatstaroperationfortoolongmayresultinconsider-
ablemotorheatingandareducedlifetimeasaresult.
SubmersibleinstallationswithSDstarterswilloften
be more expensive than other similar installations.
Twosupplycables(6leads)arerequiredforthemo-
tor instead of one (3 leads) in the normal situation.
The motor must also feature two sockets, making it
typically 5% more expensive than a traditional, sin-
gle-socketmotor.
.î.ï.ð



Fig. 32. Wye eonfguration at start-up
After a pre-determined time, the starter electrically
switches the windings over to the Delta Confgura-
tion,showninfg.33.
.ë.ï
.í.î .ì.ð
Fig. 33. Delta Confguration motor
.. Autotransformer – AT
In this starting method, the voltage is reduced by
means of autotransformers. This principle is also
calledtheKorndorfmethod.
0 1]10 second
x operating current
0
1
2
3
4
S
6
1ime
Dperating
current
Power consumption
at startup
Fig. 34 Current fow by autotransformer starting
Whenthemotoristobestarted,itisfrstconnected
toareducedvoltage,withfullvoltagefollowingafter-
wards.Duringthisswitchover,partoftheautotrans-
formerisconnectedasachokecoil.Thismeansthat
the motor will be connected to the grid the entire
time.Motorspeedwillnotbereduced.
The power consumption when starting can be seen
fromfg.34.
Autotransformer starters are relatively expensive,
but very reliable. The locked-rotor current naturally
depends on the characteristics of motor and pump,
andvariesconsiderablyfromtypetotype.
Never have the autotransformer in the circuit for
morethan3seconds.

S0° 80°
6S°

S0° 80°
6S°

S0° 80°
6S°



3 PRASL
MO1Ok
Fig. 35 Typical electrical diagram for an autotrans-
former reduced voltage starter
.. Primary resistor-type starter, RR
In this starting method, the voltage is reduced by
meansofresistorsputinseriesoneachmotorphase.
Thefunctionistoincreasetheresistanceduringthe
start thus limiting the locked-rotor current fowing.
Acorrectlydimensionedstarterwillreducethestart-
ing voltage (on the terminals of the motor) to ap-
proximately70%ofthelinevoltage.
Thestarteriscutoutbymeansofatimercontrolling
a contactor which means that the reduced voltage
willonlybepresentforthepredefnedtimeandthat
themotorisenergizedtheentiretime.
Neverhaveresistorsconnectedformorethan3sec-
onds,asitwillreducethestartingtorquewithconse-
quentlyincreasedwinding.



í*"-
').),

,-#-.),

,-#-.),

,-#-.),
Fig. 36. Typical electrical diagram for a primary resis-
tor reduced voltage starter
.. Soft starter – SS 
Asoftstarterisanelectronicunitwhichreducesthe
voltage and consequently the locked-rotor current
by means of phase-angle control. The electronics
unitconsistsofacontrolsection,wherethediferent
operating and protective parameters are set, and a
powerpartwithtriacs.
The locked-rotor current is typically reduced to 2-3
timestheoperatingcurrent.
0 1
Motors  and  control s Motors  and  control s
0
Max. 3 sec. Max. 3 sec.
0
55%
100%
Time
Operating
Stop Start-up
Torque
Fig. 37 Recommended start-up and stop time, max. 3 sec.
0 Max. 3 second
0
1
2
3
4
S
6
1ime
Dperating
current
x operating current
Power consumption
at startup
Fig. 38 Current fow by soft starting
Otherthingsbeingthesame,thisalsogivesareduced
starting torque. The slow start may result in an in-
creasedheatgenerationinthemotor,leadingtoare-
ducedlifetime.Withshortacceleration/deceleration
times (such as three seconds), this is of no practical
importance.ThesamegoesforSDandATstarting.
Grundfosthereforerecommendsfollowingtheaccel-
eration/decelerationtimesstatedinthefgurewhen
usingasoftstarter.Itshouldnotbenecessaryincon-
nection with Grundfos pumps to raise the starting
voltage above 55%. However if a particularly high
startingtorqueisrequired,thestartingvoltagemay
beincreasedtoachievetherequiredtorque.
A soft starter will absorb a non-sinusoidal current
and give rise to some grid noise. In connection with
very short acceleration/deceleration times, this is of
no practical importance and does not confict with
regulationsconcerninggridnoise.
Anewseries/generationofsoftstartershasbeenin-
troduced. They are equipped with a programmable
start ramp function for reducing the locked-rotor
current further, or for ramping high inertia loads. If
such soft starters are used, please use ramp times
of max. three seconds. In general, Grundfos recom-
mends that you always install the soft starter with
a bypass contactor, enabling the motor to run DOL
duringoperation.Inthisway,wearandpowerlossis
avoidedinthesoftstarterduringoperation.
Pleasenotethatiframpingdownisrequired,itmight
notbepossibletousethebypasscontactorsolution
for reducing the power consumption during normal
operation.
We recommend the use of frequency converters if
otherramptimesarerequired.
TemperaturereadoutofGrundfosmotorswithtem-
perature transmitters is possible if the soft starter
hasabypasscontactor.
Softstartersmayonlybeusedon3phasesubmers-
iblemotors.
Max.timeforreducedvoltageshallbelimitednotto
exceed3seconds.
..6 Frequency converters (variable 
speed drive)
Frequency converters are the ideal device to control
theperformanceofthepump,byadjustingthespeed
ofthemotor.Itisthereforealsoanidealstartertype,
bothforreductionofthelocked-rotorcurrentandfor
reductionofpressuresurges.
Note: a low frequency produces slow impeller rota-
tion,reducingpumpperformance.
Fig. 39 Pump performance with diferent frequencies
0 3 seconds
min. 30 Hz
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
0.9
1,5
1,0
Typical start-up 30 seconds
Operating
current
x operating current
Fig. 40 Current fow by frequency converter starting
Frequency converters are the most expensive of the
above-mentionedstartingdevices,andwillprimarily
beusedinconnectionwithoperationatvariableper-
formance.
There are several types of frequency converters on
the market, each having its own characteristics. A
briefoverviewispresentedhere:
• The simplest frequency converter is based on a
voltage frequency curve. This converter is some-
times called an U/f or V/f converter. They calcu-
latetheactualoutputvoltagefromthefrequency,
without taking the actual load into considera-
tion. Diferent U/f orV/f curves can be chosen to
optimise for the actual application. Pumps will
typicallyusetheVariableTorquecurve.Thesefre-
quency converters are the cheapest on the mar-
ket,andareoftenemployed.
• The next step is the Vector-Controlled frequency
converter.This frequency converter uses a model of
the motor, and calculates the output voltage based
onseveralparametersincludingtheactualload.This
gives higher performance in controlling the shaft of
themotor,suchasahigheraccuracyofmin-1,torque,
etc. These drives are more expensive than the U/f
baseddrives,andaretypicallyusedforindustrialap-
plications. However, they are also used in systems
whereinstabilitiesoftenoccur.Themorepreciseway
ofcontrollingtheshaftnormallyeliminatestheprob-
lemscausedbyaninstablepump,Thevector-control-
leddrivesusuallyhaveahigherefciency,oranauto-
maticenergyoptimizerfunction.
The output section of a frequency converter can be
made in two diferent ways: either with six or with
12transistors.
Thiscanalsobereferredtoas6-pulseand12-pulse
inverters. Six transistors are the most commonly
found solution, as it is the cheapest and the sim-
plestwayofcreatinganoutputstage.Toreducethe
stressonmotorinsulationandincreasethecontrol
performance, the 12-transistor output stage was
introduced.12-transistoroperationistypicallycom-
binedwithadvancedcontrolsthatarebasedonfux
modelsofthemotor.Theadvantageofa12-transis-
tor solution usually includes improved control at
lowspeedsandlessstressonthemotor.A12-pulse
frequency converter lies in the expensive range of
frequencyconverters.
The main selection factor for combining frequency
converterandpumpisthefullloadampsincluding
theoverloadfactor.Thefrequencyconvertershould
bechosensoitcandelivertherequiredcurrentall
the time. For example, if the motor requires 9.7 A,
chose a frequency converter with and output cur-
rentat9.7Aorhigher.

. Operation with frequency 
converter 
There are several things that should be considered
whenusingfrequencyconverterstogetherwithsub-
mersiblemotors.Someoftheconditionsforrunning
submersible motors on frequency converters are
foundbelow.
1a.Thefrequencyconvertermusthavesomekindof
output flter to limit voltage peaks (Upeak) and
to reduce dU/dt (or dV/dt) which courses stress
on the insolation of the submersible motor. The
maximum voltage (U
peak
) should be reduced to a
level of less than 850 V (except for the MS 402);
dU/dt should also be limited in accordance with
thefollowingtable.
Max peak voltage and max dU / dt for Grundfos submersibles
Motor series Max.U
peak
voltage Max.dU /dt
MS402 650V Phase - Phase 2000V /micro s.
MS4000 850V Phase - Phase 2000V /micro s.
MS6/MS6000 850V Phase - Phase 2000V /micro s.
MMS6/MMS6000 850V Phase - Ground 500V /micro s.
MMS8000 850V Phase - Ground 500V /micro s.
MMS10000 850V Phase - Ground 500V /micro s.
MMS12000 850V Phase - Ground 500V /micro s.
The typical output flters for frequency convert-
ers are LC (also called sinus flters) or RC flters.
Frequency converter suppliers can supply data
regarding U
peak
and dU/dt for their diferent fre-
quencyconverterseries.Pleaseseechapter5.6.
Normally,fltersarealsorequirediflongmotorca-
bles are to be used together with the frequency
converter.
TheUpeakanddU/dtvaluesshouldbemeasured
onthemotorterminals.
SeetableaboveforacceptablevaluesofdV/dt.
1b.Frequency converters are normally designed for
use in an industrial environment. If a frequency
converter is used in residential areas, it might be
necessarytoaddsomekindofinputfltertopre-
vent electrical disturbances from the frequency
converterfromafectingotherequipmentonthe
same mains. Normally there are three diferent
levelsofflterstoselectamong:
• Noflter(Onlyforindustrialusewherefltering
isdoneelsewhere)
• Filtersforindustrialapplications
• Filtersfordomesticapplications.
The version for domestic applications can be an
add-onfortheindustrialapplication,oritcanbea
separateversion.
It is mandatory to fulfl the requirements in the
manuals for the frequency converter for keeping
the CE mark on the product. If this is not done
properlytheCEmarkingisnotallowed.
2. The fow rate past the motor must be at least
0.15m/s.Themotormustbefttedwithacooling
sleeve if the pumping does not create sufcient
fowpastthemotor.
3. With control of submersible motors in open sys-
temswithhighstaticlift,thepowerconsumption
will change only moderately. This means that a
reduction of the pump performance will give in-
creasedgenerationofheatinthemotor.Areduc-
tion of the motor lifetime must therefore be ex-
pected.Foroperationwithafrequencyconverter,
Grundfos therefore always recommends using a
motorwithsparecapacity,i.e.anindustrialmotor
oraderatedstandardmotor.
4. Themotorfrequency:
min.:30Hz
max.:60Hz
5. TemperatureprotectionofGrundfossubmersible
motors with frequency converter is possible for
motorswithabuilt-inthermocontacts.Themotor
temperaturecannotberead,buttheprotectionis
the same. An additional cable is required for the
motor, but as operation of submersible motors
bymeansoffrequencyconvertersisusuallyused
in connection with tank application, this will not
causedisturbancesoradditionalcosts.
If the points discussed above are met, the motor will 
have an acceptable lifetime.
Pleasenotethatexternalfrequencyconvertersresult
inpowerlossandtransmitstransients,theywill:
• generatemoreheatinthemotorcomparedtodi-
rectonlineoperation
• reducethemotorefciency
• increasethepowerconsumptionofthemotor.
Because of this, an industrial motor should always
beused,asithasbeenbuilttocompensateforthese
disadvantages.
Asfarastheoperatingeconomyisconcerned,thefol-
lowingshouldbetakenintoconsideration:
• Frequencycontrolofdeepwellsubmersiblepumps
will normally not result in improved operating
economywheninstalledinawell.
• It does, however, reduce the need for large tanks
andspaceforthese.
• Frequency control of raw-water pumps reduces
pressuresurgesinthepipesystemandvariations
of the water level in the well at pump start and
stop.
Howeverwheresomekindofcontrolisneededsuchas
constant pressure, constant well water level, or simi-
lar,theremightbediferentlevelsofimprovementin
usingfrequencyconverters.Afrequencyconverterin-
cludessomelogicinputandoutput.Italsotypicallyin-
cludesaPIDcontrolsection,forestablishingcontrolof
the application. In many cases additional equipment
canbeomitted,andtheuseofthefrequencyconvert-
erasastarterandasapartofthecontrolsystemwill
improvetheoveralleconomicperspective.
The PID controller is widely used in control applica-
tions,andfrequencyconvertermanufacturesnormal-
lygivessomehintsabouthowtooptimizetheuseof
thisfeature.
Please be aware of that an incorrectly programmed
PID controller could lead to an instable performance
andexcessivepressureonthesystem.
Pleasenotethattheramp-uptimetoaminimumfre-
quencyof30Hzmaynottakelongerthan3seconds.
.6 CUE variable speed drive for SP 
pumps
CUE is a Grundfos frequency drive with a logical in-
terfaceforeasysetupandoperation.
With a CUE, it is possible to control pump perform-
ance by changing the frequency. This allows you to
program a smooth start up and stop of the pump.
This minimises the risk of damages on the pressure
pipeandtheentirepressurepipingsystem. Italsore-
ducesthestressfromwaterhammerwhileminimis-
ingthecostsforvalvesandotherregulatingdevices.
Operation below 30 Hz is acceptable for no more
than three seconds. Above 30 Hz, there is no limita-
tion regarding operation time. This must always be
observed however, both during ramp-up and ramp-
downsequences.
Themax.frequencyis60Hz.
Motors  and  control s Motors  and  control s
Fig. 41 CUE family

Motors  and  control s Motors  and  control s
The set-up data for the CUE is always current, and
notkW,sincesubmersiblemotorsareoftendiferent
fromnormmotors.
Functions
The CUE allows you to maintain the following pa-
rameters:
• Constantpressure
• Constantlevel
• Constantfowrate
• Constanttemperature
• Constantcurve.
Power cable
A submersible pump power cable in a screened ver-
sion is not available. Normally, it is not required ac-
cordingtotheEMCregulationsduetothesubmerged
installation.
Mains cable
This cable runs from the mains supply to the CUE
unscreened. The cable between CUE and flter is
screened. The cable running from the flter to the
pumpmotorisnormallyunscreened.Thetwoexam-
plesillustratethesesetups.
Ifthecableisusedoutsidethewellinadryenviron-
ment,ascreenedcablemaybeusedwithacablecon-
nection to the submersible pump cable at the well
head.fg.42belowshowshowacableselectioncan
beusedtogetherwithCUEandaflter.Inthesecond
example, the connection box is located at the well
head.
Further information may be found in webCAPS on
www.grundfos.com.
Filter selection
Fig. 44 below shows how to select the correct flter
fortheinstallation.
The main diference between dU/dt flters and sine
wavefltersis:
Both flters consist of coils and capacitors. The coils
andthecapacitorsaresmallinvalueinthedU/dtfl-
terscomparedtothevaluesusedinsinewaveflters.
Grundfosofersafullrangeofflterstobeusedwith
CUE.
Setting guidelines
• Ramp(upanddown):maximum3seconds.This
istoensurethelubricationofjournalbearingsto
limitwear,andpreventthewindingfrombecom-
ingburntout.
• UsetemperaturemonitoringbyPT100(useof
screenedcablecanbeneeded).
• Heatkillsthemotor=>lowisolationresistance
=>sensitivetovoltagepeaks.
• Motorrecommendations:
–ForMS:usemotorswith10%extraingiven
dutypoint.
–ForMMS:alwaysusemotorsthatarePE2–PA
wound.
• RemembertouseaLCflter.
• Reducepeakstomax.800V.
• GrundfosrecommendDanfossfrequencyinvert-
er,incombinationwithaLCflter.
• Cablesactasamplifers=>measurepeaksatthe
motor.
• Dimensionitwithrespectforthecurrentandnot
thepoweroutput.
• Dimensionthecoolingprovisionforthestator
tubeatdutypointwithlowestfowrate.The
minimumfowm/salongthestatorhousing
mustbeconsidered.
• Assurethatthepumpisusedwithintheintend-
edrangeofthepumpcurve.
• Focusonthedischargepressureandsufcient
NPSH,asvibrationswillkillthemotor.
CUE Filter Mains
Unscreened cable screened cable Unscreened drop cable
CUE and Filter mounted close to well
M
CUE Filter Mains
Unscreened cable
screened
cable
Unscreened
drop cable
M
screened
cable
Connection 
box*
* Both ends of the screened cable from the flter to the connection box must connected to earth
NO  YES
How to chose a
flter
Is the pump an
SP/BM or BMB
Cable length
<150m and
p> 11 kW
Use sine wave
flter
Use dU/dt flter
Fig. 42 Submersible pump without connection box
Fig. 43 Submersible pump with connection box and screened cable
Fig. 44 Setting guidelines
6 7
6.
Power  Suppl y
Power  Suppl y
6.1 Power generation
The following will only focus on alternating current
(AC)asthisistheprimarysourceofpowerforasyn-
chronousmotors.
Distribution
Inorderforgeneratedpowertobeuseful,itmustbe
transmitted from the generating plant to the area
where consumption takes place.The challenge is to
have sufcient amount of energy available at the
timeandplacewhereworkisdemanded.
Themostefcientwaytotransferenergyfromgen-
erating plant to consumption places is to increase
voltage while reducing current. This is necessary in
order to minimize the energy loss as consequence
oftransmission.TheselossesarereferredtoasI
2
xR
losses,sincetheyareequaltothesquareofthecur-
renttimestheresistanceofthepowerlines.Oncethe
electricalenergygetsneartheenduser,theutilitywill
needtostepdownthevoltagetothelevelneededby
theconsumingmachine.Eachtime,thevoltagelevel
ischanged,energyislost,eveninthemostefcient
transformers.
6. Voltage 
6..1  Voltage unbalance
Submersiblemotorsaredesignedtooperateonpow-
erlineswithgivenvoltageandfrequency.
Voltageunbalancecanberegulatedattheregulating
board of the transformer and/or the generator. The
voltageunbalanceshallbekeptassmallaspossible,
asitistheprimarysourceofcurrentunbalance.This
leadstothecreationofadditionalheatinthemotor.
One possible cause of voltage unbalance is the un-
equaldistributionofsinglephaseloads.Theseloads
vary over time. Voltage unbalance is subsequently
very difcult to avoid if the net contains high per-
centageofsinglephaseconsumption.
Use of two single phase transformers in so called
“open delta” connection is not recommended for
threephasesupply.
6..  Overvoltage and undervoltage
Powerlinesareexpectedtodeliveraspecifcvoltage.
Near the low voltage transformer, there will often
beanovervoltageof3-5%.Whenthepowerlinesare
loaded,avoltagedropwilloccurduetoohmicresist-
anceinperiodsofpeakpowerconsumption.
Mostpowerlinesaredimensionedsothatundervolt-
age of more than -10% will occur less than once a
yearattheweakestpoint.Butmanyconsumersstill
experienceperiodsofconsiderablevoltagedrop.
Anymotorwillsuferifitdoesnotreceivethevoltage
stampedonthenameplate.Ifthevoltagedrops,the
motor torque will be reduced and the speed of the
loadedmotorwillconsequentlybereduced,too.
Asaresultofthis,theefciencyandinductionresist-
anceofthemotorwilldrop.Thiswillmakethepower
consumptionincrease,resultinginincreasedgenera-
tionofheatinthemotor.
Whenafully-loadedcentrifugalpumpmotorreceives
10% undervoltage, the power consumption will in-
creasebyapprox.5%,andthemotortemperatureby
about20%.Ifthistemperatureincreaseexceedsthe
maximum temperature of the insulation material
around the windings, these will be short-circuited
and the stator will be destroyed. In the submersible
motor, the temperature of the motor liquid is very
importantforthelubricationofthejournalbearings.
Theloadcapacityasfunctionofthetemperaturecan
beseenonthediagrambelow.
Load (° Load capaciIy oI waIer lubricaIed bearing vs. IemperaIure
1emperaIure °C
0
0 20 40 60 80 100
10
20
30
40
S0
60
70
80
90
100
Fig. 45 Diagram: Journal bearings load capacity as
function of motor liquid temperature.
8 9
Power  Suppl y
Thisiscriticalifthemotorisplacedinahotenviron-
mentandisbadlycooled,orincaseofvoltageasym-
metry, current asymmetry or voltage transients at
thesametime.
Usually,anincreasedwindingtemperaturecausedby
undervoltage will lead to faster aging of the insula-
tion,resultinginareducedlife.
Incaseofovervoltagefromthegrid,thepowercon-
sumptionandheatgenerationinthemotorwindings
willincreaseaswell.
160 180 200 220 240 260 280 volI
Amps
10°
0
20°
30°
40°
Fig. 46 Current variation as a function of over- and
undervoltage on a 230 V motor.
Conclusion
1. Forvoltagevariationsof+6/-10%oftheratedvalue,
measured at the motor terminals, normal life can
beexpectedwhenthepowerconsumptionisequal
to or less than the rated current stamped on the
nameplateandifthemotorcoolingissufcientand
notransientsorasymmetryoccur.
2. For short/periodic voltage variations exceeding
+6/-10%oftheratedvalue,thereductioninlifewill
bemoderateuntilundervoltage/overvoltagevaria-
tions are so considerable that the stator windings
areshort-circuited.
3. With permanent or long lasting voltage variations
exceeding+6/-10%,themotorshouldbederatedor
a Grundfos oversize motor chosen in order to ob-
tainacceptablelifeandefciency.Controlofmotor
temperatureisbyuseofGrundfosMP204electron-
icallymotorprotectorisalwaysrecommended.
Itiscustomarytoderateastandardmotortoensure
longlifeifovervoltageorundervoltageofmorethan
+6/-10%canbeexpectedatthemotorcableentry.
Single-phase motors will often require capacitor
adaptionwhenexposedtolowvoltagesupply.
6. Frequency
Thefrequencyshouldalwaysbekeptatthenominal
value.Ifthefrequencyishigher,thepumpmayover-
load the motor. If the frequency is lower, pump per-
formancewilldrop.
6. Variable frequency drives
Inordertomakerationalelectricpowerdistribution
utilitieshaveagreedtousesamefrequency.Thisen-
abledirectconnectionofdiferentnetsundercondi-
tionthatthefrequencyandsequenceofthisisthe
same.
The dominant frequencies used in the world today
are60Hzand50Hz.
Thefrequencydeterminesthespeedofanasynchro-
nous motor. Unfortunately it is very difcult to cal-
culate exactly the speed of an asynchronous motor.
This is determined by the speed of a synchronous
motorminustheslip.
Slip is defned as the diference in speed between
rotor and stator feld. The slip is the product of the
resulting torque – this means the greater the load,
(torque)thegreatertheslip.Inotherwords,theslip
ofanasynchronousmotorisloaddependent.
The synchronous speed can be calculated by use of
followingformula:
Ns =
10 x f 
P
Ns=thespeedoftherotatingmagneticfeld.
120=constant.
f=frequency.
P=numberofpoles.
Power  Suppl y
Variable frequency drives (VFDs) are used to create
a “new” local net with a frequency diferent from
what the supply company is providing. This allows
the frequency and the motor (and pump) speed to
beregulated.
Modern frequency drives can regulate in an interval
between0and400Hz(orevenmore).Pleaseremem-
ber,asthespeedgoesuptheloadisalsoincreasing
eventuallyleadingtoriskofoverloadingthemotorif
notdimensionedcorrectly.
Another important issue to remember is that the
frequency drive must not be used to boost voltage.
When you regulate the voltage, the frequency must
remainconstant.
Practical example:
Givennet=400V,50Hz
In order to have bigger regulation area, you choose
to dimension the pump set for 60 Hz operation.This
givesrecommendedregulationareafrom30–60Hz.
Hence you are not to boost voltage you have to
choose a motor suited for running at 400 V, 60 Hz
(practicallythiswillleadintochoosinga380V,60Hz
motorhencethisisastandard).
Filters:
Variable frequency drives is based on a technology
that switches (chops) in and out the voltage. This
meansthattheresultingoutputfromavariablefre-
quency drive is only partly a sinusoidal curve. The
result is generation of noise on primary as well as
secondary side of the variable frequency drive. The
primarysideisregulatedbyauthoritiesand/orutili-
tiesanddemandsRFIfltersolutions.Ontheoutput
side,thechallengeisthelength,thetype,thesizeand
howthecablesareplacedintheinstallation.Longca-
bles increase the risk of creating high voltage peaks
leading to deterioration of the insulation system of
thesubmersiblemotor.
Grundfos recommends the use of LC flters on the
secondarysideofallvariablefrequencydrives.Ifthe
supplier of a VFD with a given cable confguration
will issue assurance that Upeak for given motor is
notexceededatmotorterminalsthiscanbeaccept-
ed.Seethetableonpage42.
Current:
Pleasenotethatdimensioningofvariablefrequency
drives is done from the current value of the motor
– and that a submersible motor has higher current
valuesthansimilaroutputsurfacemotor.
6. Grid connection
Before connecting to grid, the characteristics of the
grid shall be known: How is the quality of the net,
whatkindofearthisusedandhowgoodisthesurge
andlightningprotection?
• Whatvoltagewillbesuppliedandwithwhattoler-
ances?
• What frequency will be supplied and with what
tolerances?
• Whatpowerisatdisposition?
• Howoftencangriddisturbancesbeexpected?
• Is an own transformer foreseen or will a common
transformer be used? If a common transformer is
used,askhowevenloadofthenetisassured(only
applicablefor3-phasemotors).
Thesupplyfromthegridtothemotorisnormallyre-
ferred to as the net supply. Net supply is the power
linehavingthevoltageformachineuses.Netquality
wedivideintosocalled“stif”or“soft”net.
Agivengridvoltageistransformedintoappropriate
netvoltagebyuseofatransformer.
The cheapest way of transforming a given grid volt-
age into appropriate net voltage is done through a
socalledautotransformer.Pleasenotethatthisisnot
possibleinallcountries.
Inordertoprotectthesubmersiblemotor,youneed
adevicethatcanisolatethemotorfromthenet/grid
supply in case of problems. Grundfos recommends
theuseofelectronicmotorprotectordeviceMP204.
0 1
Power  Suppl y
6.6 Current asymmetry
Lowcurrentasymmetrygivesthebestmotorefcien-
cy and longest life. It is therefore important to have
all phases loaded equally. Before measuring takes
place,itshouldbecheckedthatthedirectionofrota-
tion of the pump is correct, i.e. the one which gives
the highest performance. The direction of rotation
can be changed by interchanging two phases. The
current asymmetry should not exceed 5%. If there
is a MP 204 connected, 10% will be acceptable. It is
calculated by means of the following two formulas:
I (%) =
I
phase max.
 – I
average

I
average
(                 )
 x 100 [%]
(                 )
I (%) =
I
phase
 – I
average min.

I
average
  x 100 [%]
Themaximumvalueisusedasanexpressionofthe
current asymmetry. The current must be measured
onallthreephasesasillustratedbelow.Thebestcon-
nection is the one which gives the lowest current
asymmetry.Inordernottohavetochangethedirec-
tionofrotationwhentheconnectionischanged,the
phasesmustalwaysbemovedasillustrated.MP204
makesitpossiblenotonlytoprotectagainsttoohigh
acurrentasymmetry,butalsotohavereadoutsofthe
actualvaluesifusedwithanR100.Thismakesiteasy
tofndtheoptimalconnection.
'
í =
4
/
2
0
3
1
*



*
'
í =
4
/
2
0
3
1
*



*
'
í =
4
/
2
0
3
1
*



*
Fig. 47 Optimal connection
Example
Seethediagraminfg.45andthetablebelow.
Step1 Connection1
UZ31 A
VX 26 A
WY28A
Totally85A
Connection2
Z30A
X 26 A
Y29 A
Totally85A
Connection3
Z29 A
X 27 A
Y29 A
Totally85A
Step2
=
Total current
3x3
= 28.3A
85+ 85+ 85
3x3
Average current:
Step3 Max.amps.diference fromaverage:
Connection1 = 31 - 28.3= 2.7 A
Connection2= 28.3- 26 = 2.3A
Connection3= 28.3- 27 = 1.3A
Step4 %unbalance:
Connection1 = 9.5%- no good
Connection2= 8.1 %- no good
Connection3= 4.6 %- ok
Step5 If the currentunbalance isgreater than5%,the power
companyshould be contacted.Asanalternative,a
derated or industrial motor protected byanMP204
should be used.
Onthe remote control,youwill be able to read the
actual currentasymmetry.Acurrentunbalance of 5%
correspondsto a voltage unbalance of 1-2%.
Evenasmallvoltageunbalancegivesalargecurrent
unbalance. This unbalance, in turn, causes uneven
distributionofheatinthestatorwindingsleadingto
hot spots and local overheating.The key results are
illustratedgraphicallybelow.
Power  Suppl y
0 2 4 6 8
0
10
20
30
50
40
60
%
Current unbalance
Voltage unbalance
%
Fig. 48 Relationship between voltage and current
unbalance
0 2 4 8 6
Increases in winding temp.
in hottest phase
Voltage unbalance
20
40
60
100
80
%
%
120
Fig. 49 Relationship between voltage unbalance and
temperature
Current unbalance can be created by the position-
ingofthedropcables.Ifjacketedcablesareused,no
problemsshouldbeexpected.Ifsingleleadisusedit
is always recommend to place the three phase con-
ductors on one side of the riser pipe and then have
theearthleaddiagonallyopposite.
Voltage transients / lightning
Powerlinesaresupposedtodeliversinusoidalshaped
waves on all three phases. The sinusoidal shaped
waves produced at the power station are added to
thetransientsinthedistributionsystem.
Sourcesoftransients:
1. Frequencyconverterswithoutflters
2. Softstarters
3. Contactorsforbigmachines
4. Capacitorsforprocessmachines
5. Lightning
1. Frequency converters  without  flters  Modern fre-
quency converters with an LC or RC flter can be
protected so that they do not produce voltage
peaksabove850Vinconnectionwithcablesofup
to100mbetweenfrequencyconverterandmotor.
This is fully acceptable and any Grundfos motor
withcorrectratingandcoolingwillhaveanaccept-
able life. Frequency converters of the PWM type
(Pulse Width Modulation) without LC or RC flter
yield an output voltage which difers much from
theidealsinusoidalcurvewithtransientsof600V
at400VmainsanddU/dt:2000-2400V/us,meas-
ured at a cable length of 1m, depending on the
make.Thesetransientswillincreasewithincreas-
ingcablelengthbetweenfrequencyconverterand
motor. At 200m, for instance, the transients will
bedoubleatthemotorcableplug,i.e.U
peak
equals
1200VanddU/dt:1200V/us(400Vmains).There-
sultwillbereducedlifetimeofthemotor.Because
ofthis,frequencyconvertersmustatleastcontain
anRCfltertoensureoptimummotorlife.
2. Aconnectedsoftstarterwillabsorbanon-sinusoi-
dalcurrentandgiverisetoacertaingridnoise.In
connectionwithveryshortacceleration/decelera-
tion times, this is of no practical importance and
doesnotconfictwithregulationsconcerninggrid
noise.Ifthestart-uptimeislongerthanthreesec-
onds, the non-sinusoidal transients will overheat
the motor windings and consequently afect the
lifttimeofthemotor.

Power  Suppl y
3. Big machines starting DOL or in star-delta con-
nection may create sparks and send considerable
transients back to the grid when the contactors
are opened.These surges can harm the submers-
iblemotor.
4. Phase compensation of process plants may con-
tain complicated controls with many and big ca-
pacitorswhichsendsurgesbacktothegrid.Surges
canbeharmfullforsubmersiblemotors.
5. A severe stroke of lightning directly on a well in-
stallation, starter or power supply will generally
destroyalllivingorganismsandallelectricalinstal-
lations.Thetransientsfromsuchastrokeoflight-
ningwillbeatleast20-100kVandthegeneration
of heat enough to melt the insulation materials.
Lightningstrikingthegridwillgeneratetransients
whichwillpartlybeabsorbedbythelightningar-
restersintgridsystem.Thefunctionofalightning
arrester is to leak the overvoltage to earth. If a
low-voltage grid is hit directly by lightning there
is a risk of transients of more than 10-20 kV at
the pump motor starter. If starter and motor are
not correctly protected by lightning arresters and
earthing,theinstallationmaybedamaged,asitis
installed in electrically conducting groundwater,
whichisthebestkindofearthingthereis.
Damage to submersible motors from lightning may
arise both in connection with power supply through
overheadcablesandundergroundcables.Inareaswith
frequentlightning,thebestprotectionofbothstarter
andsubmersiblemotoristoinstalllightningarresters
on the discharge side of the starter main switch and
connect them to grounding rods or if possible to the
risermainofthewellifthisismadeofsteel.
At the borehole, lightning arresters should be ftted
onthedischargesideoftheisolationswitchground-
ed to the riser main and the well casing if made of
steel. For deep installations, lightning arresters can
be ftted in the motor cable, too, as transients dou-
blethevoltageina200mdropcable.Butingeneral,
lightningarrestersshouldbepositionedsothattheir
functioncanbecheckedbyperiodicmeggingasthey
wear out when exposed to much heavy lightning.
If the power supply sufers from heavy lightning
transients,callthepowercompanytohavethemtest
theirlightningarrestersatthetransformerstation.
Ifasystemhasbeenexposedtolightning,allcom-
ponents in the starter box should be thoroughly
tested.Thecontactormaybeburnedononephase
which may give rise to voltage and current unbal-
ance in the motor. The contactor or the thermal
relay can be burned on several phases which may
cause both undervoltage and unbalance. The ther-
mal relay may be burned which means that it can-
nottripandconsequentlycannotprotectthemotor
windings.Onlysomeofthemotorswhicharedam-
agedbylightningaredestroyedbythestrokeitself;
the rest are damaged by consequential efects.
Grundfos submersible motors type MS 402 have
an insulation level of up to 15 kV.This is the maxi-
mumvoltagepeaks,whichthemotorisexposedto
in practice, e.g. in connection with lightning close
to the installation. Lightning directly on the pump
installation is excluded here. Additional lightning
protectionisthereforenotnecessary.
Power  Suppl y

7.
I nstal l ati on  &  operati on
I nstal l ati on  &  operati on
7.1 Wells and well conditions
A well is a hole, stretching from the surface of the
earthtotheundergroundaquifer,wheretheground-
waterisfound.Thedepthofthewellmayvaryfroma
fewmeterstoseveralhundredmeters.
Wellsaretypicallydrilledwithspecialdrillingequip-
ment,whichisabletopentratethevariouslayersof
theground,suchassand,clay,bedrock,etc.Insidethe
drilledholeacasing(pipe)istypicallyinstalled,which
preventsthewellfromcollapsingaroundthepump.
Belowthecasing,andinlinewiththeaquifer,isan-
other ‘casing’ with fne slots.This is the well screen,
wheretheslotsallowsthewatertoenterthewell.It
holds back sand and larger particles trying to enter
thewell.Seefg.50.
To improve the fltering function, the borehole typi-
callyfeaturesadiameterthatis2-3”largerthanthe
casing. A fne sand gravel pack flter is placed be-
tween the casing and the aquifer, as shown fg. 45.
Some casings come with a pre-made gravel pack
flter. Made correctly, this fltering method prevents
sandandsiltfromenteringthewell.
WeII casing
8orehoIe
Aquifer
5creen fiIter
CraveI packJ
5and fiIter
5eaIing
InstaIIation pit
Fig. 50 Typical groundwater well components
Recommendations on sand content varies from one
countrytoanother.
The National Ground Water Association (NGWA) in
USA recommends the following sand limits in well
water:
• 1.10 mg/l in water used for food and beverage
processing.
• 2.50 mg/l in water for private homes, institutions
andindustries.
• 3.10mg/linwaterforsprinklerirrigation,industrial
evaporative cooling and other applications where
a moderate content of solids is not particularly
harmful.
• 4.15mg/linwaterforfoodirrigation.
6 7
I nstal l ati on  &  operati on
Iftheconcentrationofsandexceeds15mg/l,somuch
material will be removed from the well that the aq-
uifer and the strata above it may collapse and thus
shortenthelifeofthewell.
Grundfospermitsasandcontentofnomorethan50
ppminthewellwater.Withasandcontentof50mg/
l,thepumpefciencyandthelifttimewillremainac-
ceptableforupto25,000-35,000dutyhours,equalto
approx.fouryearsofoperationforeighthoursaday.
If the well water has a sand content higher than
50mg/l,aspecialpumpandmotorisavailableon
request.
Beforethewellcanbeputintooperation,itmustbede-
veloped.Anewwellwillalwaysproducesomesandand
siltinthebeginning,andwelldevelopmentistheproc-
essofpumpinganewwellfreefromsandandsilt.Itis
done by pumping with a very high fow, which draws
the fne particles in the aquifer into the flter of the
well.This slowly makes the flter more efective. After
approximatelyonedayofpumping,thewellisnormally
pumpedclean,andisreadyfornormaloperation.
Thepumpusedforwelldevelopmentwearsoutrela-
tivelyquicklybecauseofthehighsandcontent,and
it should therefore always be replaced with a new
pumpassoonasthewelldoesnotproduceanymore
sand.
Thepumpmustalwaysbeinstalledabovethescreen
area of the casing. In this way, you ensure that the
water is forced past the motor, providing adequate
motorcooling.Ifthepumpcannotbeinstalledabove
the screen flter, a cooling sleeve is always recom-
mended to create the necessary fow along the mo-
torforpropercooling.Seechapter10.
7. Pump setting
Pump setting is the depth at which the pump has
been installed beneath the ground.The pump must
beabletoliftthewaterfromtheaquifertothesur-
faceanddeliveracertainminimumpressure.
Whenthepumpisinstalled,thedrawdownandthe
dynamicwaterlevelmustalwaysbeknown.During
operation,thewatermustneverfallbelowtheinlet
ofthepump.Theriskofcavitationisnormallyvery
small with submersible pumps. However, NPSH of
the specifc pump in its duty point, should always
bechecked.
Minimumpumpinletsubmergenceinmeters:NPSH
(m)–10(m).
Cone of depression
5tatic
water
IeveI
InstaIIation pit
Drawdown
Dynamic
water
IeveI
Aquifer
Fig. 51 Static and dynamic water level
7. Pump and motor selection
Please see chapter 4 for sizing and selection of sub-
mersiblepumps.
7..1 The duty point
Thedutypointofthepumpisthefowwherepump
efciencyisbest.Thepumpmustbeselectedsothe
requiredfowisascloseaspossibletothedutypoint,
orslightlytotherightofthedutypoint.
I nstal l ati on  &  operati on
7.. Well diameter
Ingeneral,thelargerthediameterofthepump,the
highertheefciency.
However,thepumpmustbeabletoftintothewell,
and a certain minimum clearance between motor
surface and internal well diameter is therefore al-
waysrequired.
Inacorrectlydesignedwell,withthewellscreenbe-
lowthepumpandmotor,thewaterhastopassthe
clearance between the casing and the motor. This
willcauseafrictionloss.
Ifatthesametimethemotoriseccentricpositioned
inthewellwithonesideagainstthecasing,thesin-
glesidedinletofwaterintothepumpwillcreatetur-
bulencesandafecttheperformanceofthepump.
Fig.52showsthefrictionlossforclearancefrom4to
16mmina6“well,andfg.53isshowingthesame
fora8”well.
Boththeturbulenceandthefrictionlosswillresultin
pump underperformance, which in some situations
canbeextreme.
In wells with well screen area positioned above
thepump,thewaterhastopasstheclearancebe-
tween the pump and the casing, which will cause
africtionloss.
Ifatthesametimethepumpispositionedeccentric
againstthecasing,itwillrestricttheinfowathalfof
thesuctioninterconnecter.ThissinglesidedU-turn
of inlet water will create inlet turbulence afecting
thefunctionofthepump.
Fig.54showstheworstcaseturbulence/frictionloss
at6”pumpsin6”wellsofdiferentdiameters.
Fig. 55 shows the worst case turbulence/friction loss
at8”pumpsin8”wellsofdiferentdiameters.
Theturbulenceandfrictionwillbeseenasunderper-
formanceofthepump.
7.. Well yield
Many pumps are able to overpump the well, which
means it will run dry in a short period of time. The
pump must be selected with due respect to the ca-
pacity of the well, so overpumping is avoided. We
thereforerecommendmonitoringthewatertable.
Severalproblemsmayarisefromoverpumping:
• Dryrunningandpumpdamage
• Infltrationofnon-potablewater,i.e.seawater
• Chemical reactions in the well when oxygen con-
tactsthedryaquifer.
Excessive drawdown also triggers increased power
consumption,sinceitmustbecompensatedwithad-
ditionalpumplift.
7.. Pump efciency
Allpumpshavetheirpeakefciencyoverarelatively
narrow fow range. This range is normally used to
select the pump. A Grundfos SP46 has its peak ef-
ciencyatandaround46m
3
/hfow,justasSP60lies
around60m
3
/h,andsoonforallotherSPpumps.
Ifthefowrequirementfallsbetweentwomodels,i.e.
66m
3
/h,bothanSP60andanSP77maybeusedwith
thesameefciency.Someoftheothercriteriacome
intoplayasaresult:
• Welldiameter(seechapter7.3.2)
• Wellyield(seechapter7.3.3)
• Sparecapacity.
8 9
0 10 60 80 70 50 40 30 20
20
10
0
30
40
50
60
m³/h
Friction loss
m
Friction loss in metres at each metre of motor length, when
water is passing ∆D mm between motor and 6" casing
Wall side positioning
m
6" casing
∆D
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
∆D = 1 m of
motor length
Flow
Capacity
(delta) D1 = 4 mm
(delta) D2 = 7 mm
(delta) D3 = 10 mm
(delta) D4 = 13 mm
(delta) D5 = 16 mm
40 60 160 200 180 140 120 100 80
20
10
0
30
40
50
60
m³/h
Friction loss
m
Capacity
Friction loss in m at each m. of motor length, when
water is passing ∆D mm between motor and 8" casing
Wall side positioning
m
8" casing
∆D
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
∆D = 1 m of
motor length
Flow
(delta) D1 = 7 mm
(delta) D2 = 10 mm
(delta) D3 = 13 mm
(delta) D4 = 16 mm
(delta) D5 = 22 mm
(delta) D6 = 64 mm
Fig. 52 Friction loss, 6”
Fig. 53 Friction loss, 8”
I nstal l ati on  &  operati on
0 10 60 80 70 50 40 30 20
10
5
0
15
20
25
30
m³/h
Turbulence loss/
Friction loss
m
U-turn inlet turbulence and friction loss in metres at each metre of
pump length for 6" SP-pumps in 6" wells, wall-side positioning
Wall side positioning
Filter of well
P
6" casing
C1 C2 C3
C4
Friction loss
for each m of
pump length
Flow
Flow
Cable guard
C1 PVC 160 casing
Internal diameter: 145 mm
C2 PVC 160 casing
Internal diameter: 148 mm
C3 PVC 160 casing
Internal diameter: 151 mm
C4 Steel casing
Internal diameter: 153 mm
40 60 160 200 180 140 120 100 80
10
5
0
15
20
25
30
m³/h
Turbulence loss/
Friction loss
m
U-turn inlet turbulence and friction loss in metres at each metre of
pump length for 8" SE-pumps in 8" wells, wall-side positioning
Wall side positioning
Well screen
P
8" casing
C1 C2 C3
Friction loss
for each m of
pump length
Flow
Flow
Cable guard
C1 PVC casing
Internal diameter: 185 mm
C2 PVC casing
Internal diameter: 188 mm
C3 Steel casing
Internal diameter: 203 mm
Fig. 54 U-turn, 6”
Fig. 55 U-turn, 8”
I nstal l ati on  &  operati on
60 61
I nstal l ati on  &  operati on
7.. Water temperature
The limiting factor is the submersible motor and
coolingofthemotor.Coolingisthekeytoalonglife-
timeofthemotor.
Submersiblemotorsinstalledatmaximumacceptable
watertemperaturemustbecooledatafowrateofat
least0.15m/s,whichensuresturbularfow.Thisveloc-
ityisensuredbynotlettingthepumpfowdropbelow
acertainminimumvalue.Seefg.56.
Inlargediameterwellsortanksitmaybeneccessary
to use a fow sleeve to increase the fow along the
motortominimun0.15m/s.Seechapter10aswell.
Inthediagrambelow,themotorisassumedtobepo-
sitionedabovethescreensetting.
Maximum water temperature:
Themaximumtemperaturesshownbelowarebased
onfowalongthemotorof0.15m/s
MS402 30°C
MS4000 40°C
MS4000I 60°C
MS6000 40°C
MS6000I 60°C
MS6T30 30°C
MS6T60 60°C
MMSwithPVCwire: 25°C
MMSwithPE2/PAwire: 40°C
Water temperatures above the temperature limit
GrundfosMS402motorsmustnotbeusedatliquid
temperatures above 30°C. Operation with MS 4000
and MS6 is possible at a liquid temperature above
the given temperature limit, if the motor is derated
(Seefg.57inchapter7.3.6).
In general, however, this will shorten the life of the
motor. It is impossible to say by how much, as this
depends on a number of other parameters, e.g. the
voltagesupply,motorload,motorcoolingconditions,
etc. Following the recommendations in this manual
however,shouldprovideanacceptablelifetime.
Inthesecases,werecommendthatthepumpisserv-
iced and all rubber parts replaced every three years
inordertokeepconstantefciencyandensureanor-
mallifetime.
At operation above the temperature limit, warranty
issuesmustalwaysbeagreedupon.Nowarrantycan
begivenwithoutderatingandMP204protection.
7..6 Derating of submersible motors
Multiplythemotorsize(P2)withthederatingfactor.
This gives the derated motor output P2. That is the
maximum load that may be applied on the motor.
Inmanycasesthisresultsinamotorthatisonesize
biggerthanoriginallycalculated.
Fig. 26 rettet.
Fig. 28 godkendt.
0 10 20 30 40 S0 60 70 80
4"
6"
8"
8" moIor
12" moIor
10" moIor
6" moIor
4" moIor
10"
14"
12"
16"
18"
m3]h
Maximum fuII-Ioad cooIing water remperature
WeII diameter
£xampIe:
A MS 6000 in a 12" well, waIer IemperaIure 40°C,
requires a Ilow oI 32 m3]h iI deraIing or a cooling
sleeve is Io be avoided.
0
1
2
3
4
S
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
0.S
D
|mj
InstaIIation depth
0 40 4S S0 SS 60 70 °C
WaIer level
Min. 0.S m
Fig. 29 godkendt.
5een from above
vorIex
8aIIle plaIe
Fig. 30a godkendt.
WaIer level
vorIex
8aIIle plaIe
Min. 0.S m
Cross section
Fig. 30b godkendt. Fig. 31 godkendt.
Fig. 56 Maximum full-load cooling water temperature
I nstal l ati on  &  operati on
Fig. 24b rettet.
0
Max. 3 sec. Max. 3 sec.
0
SS°
100°
1ime
Dperating
5top 5tartup
NominaI voItage
Fig. 24a rettet.
0 Max. 3 second
0
1
2
3
4
S
6
1ime
Dperating
current
Power consumption at startup
x operating current
0 3 second
min. 2S Rz
0
0.S
1
2
3
4
S
6
Iypical sIarIup 30 sec.
Dperating
current Power consumption at startup
x operating current
Fig. 25 rettet.
Max.
raIed
Iemp.
+10´ 0 +20´ +30´ WaIer
Iemp ´C
0
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
Derating factors
Fig. 27 rettet.
0 1]10 second
x operating current
Power consumption
at startup
0
1
2
3
4
S
6
1ime
Dperating
current
Sine
periods
Minimum 8 periods
Fig. 23 godkendt.
CabIe
connection
8ooster moduIe
with 5P pump
1hreaded or fIanged
connection
5ubmersibIe
pump
Fig. 20 godkendt.
Fig. 57 Derating of submersible motors
Example: 
AMS6T30withstandardrating,P2=30kW,isableto
produce30x0.9=27kWin40°Cwateratacooling
fowrateof0.15m/s.Thesubmersiblemotorshould
beinstalledattherecommendeddepth.
PleasenotethatderatingofMS4000IandMS6T60is
notrecommended.
7..7 Protection against boiling
Inordertoprotectthemotoragainstboilingatpump
stopandconsequentlyacoolingwaterstop,itshould
be installed5m below the dynamicwater level.This
willraisetheboilingpoint.
0
1
2
3
4
S
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
0.S
D
|mj
InstaIIation depth
0 40 4S S0 SS 60 70 °C
Fig. 58 Required water temperature/installation
depth of MS 4000 and MS 6000
ForMS4000andMS6,thebestandsimplestprotec-
tion against overload and excessive temperatures
is to measure the motor temperature by means of
an MP 204. For other submersible motors, a Pt100/
Pt1000maybeusedtomonitorthetemperature.
7..8 Sleeve cooling
Flowpastthemotormustbeaminimumof0.15m/s
inordertosecurepropercoolingofthemotor.
If the minimum fow past the motor cannot be ob-
tained the natural way, Grundfos ofers a range of
coolingsleevesthatensurecorrectfowandcooling,
andareeasytoworkwith.Flowsleevesaretypically
usedwhenthepumpisinstalledinareservoirortank,
orinawell,wherethewaterfowstothepumpfrom
above,andthereforedoesnotcoolthemotor.There
mustbereasonablespacingbetweenthecasingand
theouterdiametertolimitthepressuredrop.
6 6
I nstal l ati on  &  operati on
Therecommendedmin.spacingbetweencasingand
fow sleeve may be calculated from the formula be-
low:
v =
Q x  
(D

 – d

)
v=m/s.Mustbemax.3m/stolimitheadloss
Q=m
3
/h
D=Casinginnerdiameterinmm
d=Flowsleeveouterdiameterinmm.
1. If the well water contains large amounts of iron
(and iron bacteria), manganese and lime, these
substances will be oxidised and deposited on
the motor surface.This is approx. 5-15°C warmer
than the infux water. In case of slow fow past
the motor, this build-up of a heat insulating lay-
er of oxidized minerals and metals may result
in hot spots in the motor winding insulation.
Thistemperatureincreasemayreachvalueswhich
willreducetheinsulatingabilityandconsequently
themotorlife.Acoolingsleevealwaysgivesatur-
bular fow past the motor. Turbulent fow gives
optimum cooling irrespective of the character of
thedeposits.
2. Ifthegroundwaterisaggressiveorcontainschlo-
ride, the corrosion rate will double for every 15°C
increase in water temperature. A cooling sleeve
willthereforereducetheriskofmotorcorrosion.
3. Atthetopofthewell,oxidisedrawwaterisfound.
Eachtimethepumpstarts,thewaterlevelinthe
well is lowered. This draws new oxygen into the
well.Thisoxidationofthetopfewmetersisharm-
less unless the oxygen reaches the screen. If the
infuxofrawwaterthroughthescreenwithalow
contentofoxygenismixedwithwatercontaining
fresh oxygen, iron, manganese and lime will oxi-
dizeandbedepositedinthescreenslots.Thiswill
reducetheefciencyandconsequentlythecapac-
ityofthewell.Awarmsubmersiblemotorwithout
coolingsleevewillheatupthesurroundingwater
whenswitchedof.
The thermal efect will make the heated water
movetowardsthetopofthewell.Atthesametime,
oxidizedwaterwillmovetowardsthescreensetting.
When using a cooling sleeve, the motor will run at
alowertemperatureandwhenthemotorstops,the
coolingsleevewillabsorbtheresidualheatfromthe
motorandconsequentlypreventwaterfrommoving
upward because of the thermal efect and oxidated
water from moving downward. This will contribute
tolongerperiodsbetweenwellscalings.
For these applications, the risk of local heating
shouldbeconsidered,particularlyinconnectionwith
horizontalinstallationsandwhereseveralpumpsare
installed next to each other. In such cases, cooling
sleevesshouldalwaysbeused.
7. Riser pipe selection
Thechoiceofrisermaindependsonseveraldiferent
factors:
• Dischargepressureandinstallationdepth
• Theaggressivityofthegroundwater
• Frictionloss/operatingcost
• Accessibilityandcostofalternative
• Priorityofinitialcostsinrelationtoserviceandre-
paircostsatalaterstage.
0 50 100 150 200 250 300
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
Installation
depth [m]
Pressure at ground level [bar]
P
N
6
P
N
10
P
N
16
P
N
2
4
P
N
3
6
Fig. 59 Required pipe pressure class at diferent instal-
lation depths and actual pressure at ground level
The aggressivity of most groundwater is so moder-
atethatcoatedorgalvanizedsteelpipeswillbefully
acceptable.
I nstal l ati on  &  operati on
PELorPEMrisermainsareprimarilyusedfordomes-
ticapplications.Incaseofwaterwhichissoaggres-
sive that it will attack even the best stainless steel,
replaceable zinc anodes should be ftted in order to
protectmotorandpump.Insuchinstallations,itwill
betooexpensivetoprotectstainlesssteelrisermains
againstcorrosion.
InsuchcasestheWellmasterisrecommended.
Seechapter10.
Friction loss in riser mains
Frictionlossinpipesorhosescontributessignifcant-
lytothepowerconsumptionofasubmersiblepump.
A small diameter steel pipe is cost-wise attractive,
butitcreatesalotofinternalfriction,andovertime
this is going to increase. The result is higher power
consumptionandcosts.
A larger diameter stainless steel pipe represents a
largerinvestment,butthelowerfrictionlossrequires
less energy for pumping. The smooth internal sur-
faceisretainedeasier,requiringlessmaintenancefor
cleaning.
Example:
Flowis54m
3
/h,or15l/s.
Friction loss in 100m of 3” pipe and 100m of 4”
pipeiscalculatedfromafrictionlosstable.
3”pipe:14m
4”pipe:3.8m
Choosinga4”pipeinsteadofa3”pipesavesmore
than10mheadper100mofpipe.
Theenergysavingsarecalculatedasfollows:
kWh  =
Q x H 
67xη
=
 x 10. 
67x0.6
=  . kWh
Flexiblehosesspeciallydesignedforpressurisedwa-
ter, like Wellmaster, are an alternative to stainless
steel pipes. Some types are even approved for use
withpotablewater.
This solution is generally recommended as a riser
pipeforsubmersiblepumps.Becauseofthehosede-
sign, the diameter will swell slightly when the hose
ispressurised,andthusdecreasefrictionloss.Atthe
sametime,italsopreventsthebuiltupofscalingon
thesurface,wheretheconstantchangeofthediam-
eterforcesthescalingtobreakof.
The hose solution also makes pump pulling faster
compaired with the traditional piping solution, and
is therefore also recommended when frequent pull-
ingforservicehastobedone.
Never use fre hoses, nylon hoses or the like which
age quickly, and do not have the required pressure
rating.There is a risk that pump and motor will fall
downintothewellwhichmayrequirethedrillingof
a new well. Remember to attach a wire to all hose
installations to prevent the pump from falling into
thewell.
The disadvantage of fexible hose solutions is that
sometimes it is difcult to prevent the hoses from
getting into contact with the ground.This can cause
contamination from bacteria and germs, which can-
notberemovedunlessyouemployexpensivespecial
equipment.Whendimensioningrisermainsandraw-
waterpipesbymeansofdiagramsorPCprogrammes,
remembertouseapipesurfaceroughnessof1mm.
7. Cable selection and sizing
The drop cable is the cable running from the well
headtothemotorcablethatisattachedtothesub-
mersiblemotor.
Normally,thedropcablehasfourwires,whereoneis
a ground/PE wire. In some local areas, a ground/PE
is not required. Always check local regulation about
groundingbeforecabletypeisselected.
Othercriteriafordropcableselectionare:
1. Currentcarryingcapacity
2. Voltagedrop
3. Waterqualityandtemperature
4. Drinkingwaterapprovalrequirements
5. Regulations
6 6
I nstal l ati on  &  operati on
Current-carrying capacity
Submersible pump drop cable is never dimensioned
for the locked-rotor current, as the motor starts up
in less than 1/10 of a second. Always use the full
load current from the nameplate as the dimension-
ingcurrent.Theentirelengthofthedropcableisnot
submerged in water, so additional cooling from the
watermaybeencountered.
Typicalguidelinesformax.ampsinsubmersibledrop
cables:
Dimension(mm
2
) Max.current(A)
1.5 18.5
2.5 25
4 34
6 43
10 60
16 80
25 101
35 126
50 153
70 196
95 238
120 276
150 319
185 364
240 430
300 497
Pleasealwayscheckthelocalguidelines,whichover-
rulethetableabove.
Voltage drop
Thecablemustbesizedsothevoltagedropdoesnot
exceed3%.Undernocircumstancesmustthevoltage
atthemotorterminalsbelowerthantheminimum
voltageforthemotor,whichistheratedvoltagemi-
nus10%.
The maximum length is calculated according to the
formulasshownbelow:
Max. cable length of a single-phase submersible
pump:
L =
U x ∆U 
l x  x 100 x (cosφ x   + sinφ x Xl)
[m]
Max. cable length of a three-phase submersible
pump:
L =
U x ∆U 
l x 1,7 x 100 x (cosφ x   + sinφ x Xl)
[m]
U = Ratedvoltage[V]
U = Voltagedrop[%]
I = Ratedcurrentofthemotor[A]
ρ = Specifcresistance:0.02[mm²/m]
q = Cross-sectionofsubmersibledropcable[mm²]
XI= Inductiveresistance:0.078x10
-3
[Ω/m]
Water quality and temperature
ThebestcablematerialforcleanwaterisEPR(EPM
orEPDM).Thismaterialhasgoodelectricproperties
combinedwithagoodresistancetowater.Thistype
ofcableisalwaysrecommendedwhenthepumped
water is not contaminated with hydrocarbons. EPR
ofersonlylimitedresistancetohydrocarbons,how-
ever.
Inlighterhydrocarbonsolutions,aChloroprenecable
maybeused.
Inheavierconcentrationsofhydrocarbonsitmaybe
necessary to use PTFE (Tefon) jacketed cable. The
SPE version of the SP pumps comes standard with
PTFE motor cable, and makes it suitable for pump-
ingwaterwithahighcontentofhydrocarbons.
A lower cost solution is a standard Chloroprene
type of cable. Specifcations may be obtained from
Grundfos.
When the water temperature increases, the cable
mustbederated.Thecurrentcarryingcapacityofthe
drop cables is usually valid at 30°C. At higher tem-
peratures, this must always be compensated in ac-
cordancewiththetablebelow.
I nstal l ati on  &  operati on
Cable type TML-A-B H07RN
Insulation
material
EPR NR/SR
Ambienttemp. °C Correctionfactor Correctionfactor
10 1.18 1.29
15 1.14 1.22
20 1.10 1.15
25 1.05 1.05
30 1.00 1.00
35 0.95 0.91
40 0.89 0.82
45 0.84 0.71
50 0.77 0.58
55 0.71 0.41
60 0.63 -
65 0.55 -
70 0.45 -
Drinking water approval
All Grundfos motors outside North America and Ja-
pan are delivered from factory with drinking water-
approvedmotorcables.Ifthepumpisusedforpump-
ing potable water, Grundfos always recommends
alsousingadropcablethathasadrinkingwaterap-
proval.
Regulations
Local regulations must always be checked and fol-
lowed.
7.6 Handling
7.6.1 Pump / motor assembly
Grundfos submersible pumps and motors are all
madeinaccordancewithNEMAstandards.Theyare
fully compatible with pumps and motors that con-
form to these standards as well. Grundfos recom-
mendsalwaysusingonlyaGrundfospumptogether
withaGrundfosmotorandviceversa.
Fordetailedassemblyinstructionspleaseseethein-
dividual installation and operating instructions for
SPpumps.
7.6. Cable splice/connection of 
motor cable and drop cable
Faultyorunapprovedcablejointsarefrequentcauses
ofburned-outmotors.Grundfos-recommendedprod-
ucts or products of similar quality should be chosen
andthemanufacturer’sguidelinesfollowed.Anycable
jointmustbewatertightandhaveaninsulationresist-
anceofminimum10megaohms,measuredinasub-
mergedstateafter24hoursinwater.Inordertoobtain
this,allcablepartsmustbe100%cleanandallother
requirements indicated in the service manual and in
service video programmes observed. There are four
waysofmakingacablejoint.
1. Heat shrink
Heatshrinkisaplastictubewiththeinsidecovered
with glue.When exposed to heat, it will shrink, and
thegluemelts,andmakesawatertightcablesplice.
Ittakesalotofpracticetoperformthiskindofjoint.
Furthermore, high temerature are required for large
cabletypes.Lightersandhobbyheatersarenotsuf-
cient.Theadvantageofthisprincipleisthatthecon-
nectiondoesnotrequiretimefordryingbutisready
immediatelyafterftting.
. Resin
Sealingwithresinistheoldestandbestknowntype
ofjoint.Itisalsothejointwhichissimplesttocarry
outcorrectly.Itcanbeperformedinthefeldwithout
specialtools.Thedisadvantageisthatitmustharden
foratleast24hours.Asfarasthepriceisconcerned,
thereisnodiferencebetweenthisandshrinkfex.
. Tape
It is important to use special tape for connecting
submersible cables.Tape joints should only be used
atwaterpressuresbelow5m.
. Plug connection
Itisimportantnottousecablejointkitsortapewhich
are more than three years old.This age limit should
be reduced to one year if stored above 15°C. Always
testthecablejointduringmaintenance.
Motor cable plug
The motor cable plug must always be ftted at the
torque stated in the documentation. In case of lu-
66 67
I nstal l ati on  &  operati on
brication of the cable plug, a non-conductive mate-
rial should be used (e.g. silicone paste). Motor cable
plugsthataremorethanthreeyearsoldshouldnot
bereused,astheymayhavelosttheabilitytomakea
safe,watertightconnection.
7.6. Riser pipe connections 
Submersible pumps are available both with RP and
NPTthreads,aswellasfangesinvariousstandards.

In general, however, Grundfos recommends ftting
a 50 cm length of pipe frst to the pump.This gives
good handling of the pump during the installation,
asthepumpdoesnotbecometoolong.Italsoleaves
roomfortheclampwhichholdsthepumpuntilthe
nextpipehasbeenftted.
As an alternative to a threaded connection, various
fange types can be ofered: Grundfos fanges, JIS
fangesandDINfanges.
Pipe connections and installation
Grundfosstandardfangesaremadeparticularlyfor
fttingintoawell.Thismeansthattheydonotcom-
ply with any national nor international standards;
theyhavebeendimensionedtowithstandGrundfos
pumppressures.
There are several advantages in using Grundfos
standard fanges instead of other fanges. They are
not only cheaper, and because of their dimension
theyareeasiertoftintothewell.
Grundfos can supply counter fanges for Grundfos
fanges,whichcanbeweldedontothefrstpipe.
7.7 Pumps in parallel operation
Parallelpumpingoperationisoftenusedwithavari-
able consumption pattern. A single pump operation
wouldrequireahighcapacitypump,wherethespare
capacity is only used in a very short period. The in-
vestment would be very high, and the operational
efciency too low. The peaks may also result in ad-
ditionaldrawdownofthedynamicwaterlevelwitha
numberofwater-andwellqualityissuesasaresult.
Theseproblemsaretypicallyavoidedbyusingoneof
thefollowing:

1. Severalsmallercascadeoperatedpumps(addition-
alpumpsstartsandstopsasdemandchanges)
2. Frequency control of the pump via a pressure
transducer
3. Acombinationof1and2.
Forcorrectpumpselection,thewell’scharacteristics
must be known, either from the well log or a test
pumping.
7.8 Pumps in series operation
With pump setting deeper than the max. head ca-
pacity of a standard SP pump, it may be coupled in
serieswithaBMpump(SPinsleeve).Seefg.60.
I nstal l ati on  &  operati on
CabIe
connection
8ooster moduIe
with 5P pump
1hreaded or fIanged
connection
5ubmersibIe
pump
Fig. 60 Series coupled submersible pump
7.9 Number of start/stops
Inordertogetamaximumlifeoutofthesubmersi-
blepumps,thenumberofstartsmustbelimited.Itis
usuallythemotorthatisthelimitingfactor.Itisalso
necessarytostartthemotoratleastonceperyearto
avoiditfromseizingup.
The table below shows the recommended max.
numberofstartsfordiferentmotortypes:
Incl.N,R and RE
versions
Min.starts
per year
Max.starts
per hour
Max.starts
per day
MS402 1 100 300
MS4000 1 100 300
MS6/MS6000 1 30 300
MMS 6000 1 15 360
MMS8000 1 10 240
MMS10000 1 8 190
MMS12000 1 5 120
7.10 Pump start-up 
Detailed information about methods for reducing
locked-rotorcurrent,seechapter5.
You should always follow the instructions found in
the installation and operating instructions for each
pumpregardingstartup.

For pumps in series connections, remember to start
them in the correct sequence: the pump with the
lowestambientpressuremustbestartedfrst.
For pumps in parallel operation, remember that air
ventingpossibilitiesarealreadybuiltintothesystem.
Thiswillpreventairlocking.
7.11 VFD operation
Seechapter5.
7.1 Generator operation
Enginedrivengeneratorsforsubmersiblemotorsare
oftenoferedaccordingtostandardconditions,e.g.
• Max.altitudeabovesealevel:150m
• Max.airinlettemperature:30°C
• Max.humidity:60%.
68 69
I nstal l ati on  &  operati on
If these limits are exceeded, the standard diesel en-
gineandpossiblythegeneratorhavetobederatedin
ordertogivethemotorsufcientpowersupply.
When ordering a generator set, altitude, air inlet
temperatureandmaximumhumidityshouldbegiv-
entothemanufacturertohavethegeneratorfactory
derated.Generatorsetsforthree-phasesubmersible
motorsmustbeabletowithstand35%voltagereduc-
tionduringstart-up.
For the selection of internally regulated generators
available, stick to the tables below for continuous
break kW for single-phase and three-phase motors
withDOLstart.
Examplesof
derating factorsfor
standard diesel engines
Examplesof
derating factorsfor
standard generators
Altitude:
3.5%for every300mabove
150mabove sea level (2.5%for
turbo-charged engines).
Altitude:
2.5%for every300mabove
1000mabove sea level.
Air inlet temperature:
2%for every5.5°Cabove
30°C(3%for turbo-charged
engines).
Air inlet temperature:
5%for every5°Cabove 40°C.
Humidity:
6%at100%humidity.
Submersible
motor rating
for single-
phase and
three-phase
versions[kW]
Generator
rating
Elevationof
max.150m
and a humi-
dityof 100%
Elevationof
max.750m
and a humi-
dityof 100%
Diesel engine rating atan
ambienttemperature of
[kW] [kW] 30°C 40°C
[kW] [kW]
30°C 40°C
[kW] [kW]
0.25
0.37
0.55
0.75
1.1
1.5
2.2
3.7
5.5
7.5
11.0
15.0
18.5
22.0
30.0
37.0
45.0
55.0
75.0
90.0
110.0
132.0
150.0
185.0
1.5 1.0
2.0 1.5
2.5 2.0
3.0 2.5
4.0 3.0
5.0 4.0
7.0 6.0
11.0 9.0
16.0 12.5
19.0 15.0
28.0 22.0
38.0 30.0
50.0 40.0
55.0 45.0
75.0 60.0
95.0 75.0
110.0 90.0
135.0 110.0
185.0 150.0
220.0 175.0
250.0 200.0
313.0 250.0
344.0 275.0
396.0 330.0
1.25 1.3
2.0 2.1
2.5 3.1
3.0 3.1
4.0 4.2
5.0 5.2
7.0 7.3
10.0 10.4
14.0 14.6
17.0 17.7
25.0 26.0
35.0 36.0
45.0 47.0
50.0 52.0
65.0 68.0
83.0 86.0
100.0 104.0
120.0 125.0
165.0 172.0
192.5 200.0
220.0 230.0
275.0 290.0
305.0 315.0
365.0 405.0
1.4 1.43
2.3 2.3
2.8 2.86
3.4 3.44
4.5 4.58
5.6 5.73
7.8 8.0
11.1 11.5
15.6 16.0
19.0 20.0
28.0 29.0
39.0 40.0
50.0 52.0
56.0 57.0
72.0 75.0
92.0 95.0
111.0 115.0
133.0 137.0
183.0 189.0
215.0 220.0
244.0 250.0
305.0 315.0
335.0 345.0
405.0 415.0
Ifthegeneratoranddieselenginearederatedaccord-
ingtothetable,thefollowingcriteriaapply:
1. Thevoltagedropatthegeneratorwillnotexceed
10% during start-up.This means that it is possi-
bletouseeventhefastestundervoltageprotec-
tiononthemarketinthestarterboxofthepump
motor.
2. Generator and diesel engine will have a normal
life as the new fully run-in engine is only loaded
approx. 70% with continuous pump motor rated
current. A diesel engine will typically have maxi-
mumefciency(lowestfuelconsumptionperkW
output)at70-80%ofmaximumload.
I nstal l ati on  &  operati on
3. By autotransformer start or installation of a
Grundfos MP 204 for undervoltage protection, it
ispossibletochoosebothageneratoranddiesel
enginethanare20%smallerthanstatedintheta-
ble. This, however, means frequent maintenance
of air flter and injection nozzles, cleaning of the
cooler and change of oil. Furthermore, it will re-
sultinavoltagedropduringstart-upofupto20%.
If the loss in the drop cable and motor cable of
up to 15% is added, the total voltage loss will be
more than 35% at the motor. This is no problem
forthree-phasemotors,butsometimesforsingle-
phasemotors,whichwilloftenrequireanoversize
startingcapacitorforlowstart-upvoltages.
Therearetwotypesofgenerators:internallyandex-
ternally-regulated.
Internally-regulated generators have an additional
winding in the generator stator and are also called
self-excited. The extra winding senses the output
current and increases the output voltage automati-
cally.
Internally-regulated generators normally show the
bestrunningefciency.
Externally-regulated generators use an externally
mounted voltage regulator that senses the output
voltage.Asthevoltagedipsatmotorstart-up,thereg-
ulatorincreasestheoutputvoltageofthegenerator.
An externally-regulated generator is to be dimen-
sioned approximately 50% higher in kW/kVA rating
to deliver the same starting torque as an internally
regulatedgenerator.
Generator frequency is all important as the motor
speed varies with the frequency [Hz]. Due to pump
afnitylaws,apumprunningat1to2Hzbelowmo-
tor nameplate frequency will not meet its perform-
ance curve. Conversely, a pump running 1 or 2 Hz
highermaytriptheoverloadrelay.
Generator operation 
Alwaysstartthegeneratorbeforethemotorisstart-
edandalwaysstopthemotorbeforethegeneratoris
stopped.Themotorthrustbearingmaybedamaged
ifgeneratorsareallowedtocoastdownwiththemo-
torconnected.Thesameconditionoccurswhengen-
eratorsareallowedtorunoutoffuel.
70 71
8.
Communi cati on
Communi cati on
8.1 Purpose of communication and 
networking 
Therearetwomainpurposesofusingdatacommu-
nicationandnetworkinginrelationtoequipment
andmachineryinallindustrialinstallationsorin
processinginstallationslikewatersupplyplants:
To centralise supervision and control
Itiswelldocumentedthatmostautomationsystems
canbeneftsubstantiallyfromcentralisationofcon-
trol and supervision.The issues that are most often
mentionedare:
• Optimise performance (e.g. energy and material
savings)
• Optimiseprocessquality(correctiveactions)
• Bettermaintenance(serviceondemand)
• Reductionofrunningcosts(e.g.stafcutting)
• Organised/quick reaction to faults (minimise
downtime)
• Easy access to current data and the possibility to
storedataindatabases(reportgeneration)
Systems for this kind of central management are
called SCADA systems (Supervisory Control and Data
Acquisition)
To realise distributed systems 
Manyoftoday’sautomationsystemswouldneverbe
realisable without data communication. In an auto-
mationsystem,discreetdevices,whicharephysically
separated,havetoexchangedata.Thesearetypically
intheformofmeasuredphysicalvalues,commands
andsetpoints.
Thediscreetdevicesworktogethertofulflasuperior
purpose (e.g. supplying water) and by doing so they
constitute what is called a distributed system. Each
deviceislikeacomponentinalargerentity,contrib-
utingtotheoverallperformance,efciencyandreli-
abilityofthesystem.
The number of discreet devices can often be very
hugeandsocanthedistancebetweenthem.Inthese
cases the communication and networking in itself
becomesthemostimportantandvulnerablepartof
thesystemanditsabilitytofulflitspurpose.
It is important that the selection of network and
communicationsprotocolisnotalimitingfactorfor
thesystemperformanceandespeciallythatitisnot
alimitingfactorforthefuturegrowthandfexibility.
8. Communications and networking 
technology
Theuseofcommunicationandnetworkingis
inevitableinmodernautomationsystems,butthe
kindofsystemandtheusedtechnologyisvery
diversifed.Systemsmadebefore1995wherealmost
alwaysbasedonelectricalcables,whereasthetech-
nologytodayoferfberopticsorradiocommunica-
tionasanalternative(orcombined)solution.
Opticalfbersarefexibleandcanbebundledasca-
bles.Itisespeciallyadvantageousforlong-distance
communications,becauselightpropagatesthrough
thefberwithlittleattenuationcomparedtoelectri-
cal cables. Additionally, the light signals propagat-
inginthefbercanbemodulatedatratesashighas
40Gb/s,andeachfbercancarrymanyindependent
channels, each by a diferent wavelength of light.
Fiberisalsoimmunetoelectricalinterference,which
also means immunity to damaging voltage surges
inducedbylightning–abigadvantagewhenusing
long-distancecablinginoutdoorinstallations.
Communication using radio signals falls in two
categories:Shortdistanceandlongdistanceradio
communication.Weknowthetechnologyofshort
distanceradiocommunicationfromwirelessLANs.
Mostfieldbussesofferwirelessrepeaterstoextend
the fieldbus communication distance over rela-
tively short ranges or to avoid using cables where
cablingwouldbecostlyorimpractical(e.g.moving
devices).
Long distance radio communication can be based
on private radio telemetry. The UHF band between
400MHz to 500MHz has become internationally
adopted for low power license-free use for digital
dataandtelemetrysystems.Ithastheadvantageof
propagatingindirectlineofsightandwillpenetrate
conventionalbuildingmaterials.Fordistancesabove
1000m,radioswithhigherpowerrequiringalicensed
channelistypicallyneeded.
7 7
Communi cati on Communi cati on
SCADAsystemsoftwareoftenhasnetworkserverca-
pability,meaningthatifthehostPCisconnectedto
aLANortotheinternet,itwillbepossibletologon
to the system remotely from another network con-
nectedPC.TheSCADAsystemsoftwareisastandard
package(availablefrommanydiferentsoftwareven-
dors),butwithahighdegreeofcustomizedadapta-
tion(data,functions,graphics,etc).
1. Establishthehealthofthesystem
– IssystemOK(operatingasintendedandfulfll-
ingitspurpose)?
– Doesthesystemneedservice(causeandkind)?
– Isthesystembrokendown(cause)?
2. Displaysystemvariables/conditions
– Conditions(likeon/of)illustratedwithgraphics
andcolors
– Importantsystemvariablesdisplayedonsystem
drawing(pressure,fow,etc.)
– Importantsystemvariablesshowngraphically
3. Alarmloggingandalarmrouting
– Managingdutyrosters
– Routingofmessages(e.g.SMS)
4. Datalogging/Retrievalofloggeddata
– Interfacetodatabase(e.g.MicrosoftSQL)
– Dataprocessing/Datastoring/Graphicalvisu-
alization
5. Control
– Manuallyoperation
– Automaticoperation
– Closedloopcontrol(rare)
6. Setup
– Displaymainsetupparameters
– Changingofmainsetupparameters
7. Maintenanceinformation
– Maintenanceplanandhistory
– Sparepartslist
– Manuals,photos,instructivevideos
8. Expertsystem
– Artifcialintelligence
– Faultdiagnostics
– Decisionsupport
9. InterfacingtoEnterpriseResourcePlanning(ERP).
8.. Web-hosted SCADA 
ASCADAsystemsoftwarewhichrunsonawebserver
insteadofonanormalWindowsPCiscalledaweb-
hosted SCADA system. All data is accessible via the
internet by the use of a web-browser (e.g. Internet
Explorer).
Thesubsystemscanbemonitoredandoperatedfrom
any PC in any location with internet access all over
the world. There is no need to install an expensive
softwaresystemononeormorePC.
TheSCADAsystemsoftwareandallthedataresides
onthewebserver,whichcouldbeoperatedbyacon-
tractor(systemintegrator)orbythecustomer(e.g.a
centralwebserverforacompletemunicipality).
The customer/user doesn’t have to worry about in-
formation, communication and software/hardware
technologybutcanconcentrateonthepracticaluse
ofthedataandthepracticalmaintenanceofthesub-
system.
Passwordsensurethatonlyauthorisedpersonnelre-
cievesaccesstooperatespecifcsubsystems.
Server/computer
Client Client Client
Subsystems
WWW
Fig. 62 Illustration of the princible in web-hosted
SCADA
Forradiocommunicationinareasthatarecoveredby
existingoperator networkslikeGSMtheeasiest(but
notalwaysthecheapest)wayofestablishingremote
communication is by subscription to this service. It
is up to the customer (or the system integrator he
is using) to examine and assess if the demands for
communication speed, response time and reliability
arefulflled.
InrecentyearsEthernetnetworkingtechnology,with
the communications protocolTCP/IP, which has tra-
ditionallybeenusedforLANsandwhichhasbecome
totally dominating within that feld, has started to
migrate to feldbus applications. Here it now enters
into competition with the traditional feldbusses
likeDeviceNet,Profbus,Modbus,etc.,butinsteadof
representing one coherent protocol, EthernetTCP/IP
shows up in many incompatible standards like Eth-
ernet IP (a DeviceNet variant), Profnet (a Profbus
variant),ModbusTCP(aModbusvariant)andsimilar
standards that are based on (and compatible with)
corresponding old feldbusses. The fact that some
new Ethernet standards like EtherCat that are spe-
cially designed to utilize the high speed advantages
of Ethernet have also emerged has not made the
choice and compatibility situation within network-
ingofautomationsystemseasier.
8. SCADA systems
8..1 SCADA main parts
ThethreemainpartsofatypicalSCADAsystemare:
1. A master computer
The computer (e.g. a PC running Windows or Unix)
has HMI (Human Machine Interface) software and
a database. Numerous specialized third party HMI/
SCADAsoftwarepackagesareavailable.Someexam-
plesareiFixfromGEFanuc,CitectSCADAfromCitect,
SIMATICfromSiemensandWonderwarefromInven-
sys.
. A number of outstations
Anoutstationoftenrepresentsanautonomoussub-
system.Autonomousmeansthatiftheconnectionto
theSCADAsystemisbroken,thesubsystemisableto
keeponoperatingaloneandstillfulfllingitspurpose
(e.g. supplying water to a tank). The overall system
design(choiceoftechnologyandequipment)should
aimatsubsystemautonomywheneverpossibleand
always without exception ensure that subsystems
are failsafe and will return to a predictable well-de-
fnedandsecurestateifcommunicationwithSCADA
isbroken.Theoutstationwilltypicallybe:
• APLC(ProgrammableLogicController)
• ADDC(DedicatedDigitalController)
• Agatewaytoanother(underlying)network
. A communications infrastructure
Thisiswhattiesitalltogether.Amixoftechnologies
will often be used as no single technology (network
orprotocol)spansalldemandsinmorecomplexap-
plications.
Media Converter
Link PWR Link
RX
TX
LAN/WAN
Computer
(SCADA software)
HMI
Human Machine
Interface
Storage
(database)
Communication
infrastructure
Outstation (DDC)
MPC
Subsystem
Outstation (PLC)
Subsystem
Fig. 61 Illustration of the main parts of a SCADA
system
8.. SCADA functions
Belowisalistofthefunctionsthatistypicallyfound
inSCADAsystemsoftwarepackages.Thelistispriori-
tized with the most important functions at the top.
7 7
Communi cati on Communi cati on
8. Networking basics
8..1 Network topology
Referstothewayinwhichthenetworkofcommuni-
cating devices is connected. Each topology is suited
tospecifctasksandhasitsownadvantagesanddis-
advantages.
In a star network, all wiring is done from a central
point (e.g. a hub or a central controller). It has the
greatestcablelengthsofanytopologyandthususes
the most amount of cable. Ethernet networks are
usuallybasedonthestartopology.
Fig. 63 Star topology
Advantages Disadvantages
• Easyto add newdevices
• Centralized control,net-
work/hubmonitoring
• Hubfailure cripplesall de-
vicesconnected to thathub
Aring network,isanetworktopologyinwhicheach
networkdeviceconnectstoexactlytwootherdevic-
es,formingacircularpathwayforsignals.Datatrav-
elsfromdevicetodevice,witheachdevicehandling
every packet. The old IBM LAN standard Token Ring
and the industrial feldbus Interbus are both using
theringtopology.
Fig. 64 Ring topology
Advantages Disadvantages
• Equal access for all devices
• Each device has full access
speed to the ring
• Only slight performance drop
with increased no. of devices.
• Costlywiring
• Difcultand expensive con-
nections
Inabus network,alldevicesconnecttothesameca-
blesegment.Wiringisnormallydonepointtopoint
in a chain fashion or via drop cables. The cable is
terminated at each end. Messages are transmitted
alongthecablearevisibletoalldevicesconnectedto
thatcable.Mostfeldbusses(e.g.Profbus,DeviceNet,
GENIbus)usethebustopology,butdespitethename,
feldbussescanalsobebasedonothertopologies.
Fig. 65 Bus topology
Advantages Disadvantages
• Easyto implement
• Lowcost
• Limitsoncable lengthand
device numbers
• Difcultto isolate network
faults
• Acable faultafectsall
devices
• Networkslowsdownwith
increased no.of devices
Veryoftenacombinationofthesethreebasictopolo-
gies is used – then we talk about mixed topology. If
the networking technology used allows connection
inanytopology–thenwetalkaboutfree topology.
8.. Communications protocol
The communications protocol covers the rules that
specify how a functional device connected to a net-
work can interchange data with other devices that
are part of the network. It specifes details in the
physicalhardwarelikeimpedanceandelectricalsig-
nals.Itspecifesdetailsinthedatatransferlikebaud
rate, timing and data packet format and it specifes
how addressing of devices, requesting of data and
replyingtorequestsshouldwork.
Thecommunicationsprotocolisthemanagerofthe
communication line.The protocol rules control who
isallowedtotransmit,howmuchandforhowlong.
In master/slave protocols (like GENIbus, Modbus,
Profbus)thearbitrationrulesoftheprotocolcontrol
whoismasterandwhoisslave.
Itistheresponsibilityoftheprotocolthateverything
works reliably and that data gets communicated
without errors. But in cases where something goes
wrong, in protocol terms called exceptions, it is also
theresponsibilityoftheprotocoltodetecttheseex-
ceptions, to react upon them (e.g. error reporting,
retransmission, etc.) and fnally to recover from any
error condition including from a complete network
breakdown.
8.. Functional profle
The functional profle of a network device means
the specifcation of its functional interface to the
network.This is primarily a description of the input
and the output data of the device. These data are
mostoftenreferredtoasthedatapointsorthedata
items of the device.The functional profle describes
thedataitems–whatformattheyhave(8bit,16bit,
etc.),theirscaling(resolutionandrange),limitations
andmutualrelation.
Apartfromthedataitemdescription,thefunctional
profle also describes how to operate the device via
thenetwork,whenthedeviceisusedinapplications.
It documents the relation between the device func-
tions,thedataitemsandthebehaviouroftheappli-
cation/systeminwhichthedeviceisoperating.
Devicesthatusethesamecommunicationsprotocol
andexchangedataaccordingtoadefnedandshared
functionalproflearesaidtobeinteroperable.
8.. The feldbus
The kind of networks that are used in industrial au-
tomation systems to connect sensors, actuator and
controllers are called feldbusses as opposed to net-
worksusedforadministrativepurposesinofceen-
vironments, which are generally referred to as Local
Area Networks (LANs).
Fieldbusses are designed to work in harsh environ-
ments–outinthefeldsotospeak-anduseindustri-
algradeequipmentandcabling.Moreoverafeldbus
protocol generally promotes other characteristics
thanaLANdoes,becausethedemandsarequietdif-
ferent.
The feldbus typically transfers small amounts of
data, but the data is transferred frequently (high
sample rates can often be a requirement). Also the
feldbus must be able to handle time critical data
transfer,meaningithastofulflhardtimingrequire-
ments (low delays in bus access and data reply and
fastdataprocessing).
TheLAN,ontheotherhand,transfershugeamounts
of data (fles, etc.) between computers and servers,
but these data are transferred seldom. Also the reac-
tion need not be very fast, because it interacts with
humansandnotwithtime-criticalphysicalprocesses.
Daisy chain fashion
Drop cable fashion
76 77
Communi cati on Communi cati on
8.. GENIbus
GENIbus,theGrundfosElectronicsNetworkIntercom-
municationsbusisaproprietaryfeldbusdevelopedby
Grundfostomeettheneedfordatatransferandnet-
working in typical water pump applications in build-
ings,watersupply,waterpurifcationandindustry.
8..1 Background
GENIbuswasfrstintroducedtothemarketin1991as
afeldbusinterfacefortheGrundfoscirculatorpump
typeUPE.Thispumpbecamethefrstwaterpumpin
the world with integrated frequency converter and
alsothefrstwithintegratedfeldbusinterface.
TheoriginalpurposeoftheGENIbusinterfacewasto
enable networking of the speed controlled circula-
tor pumps into subsystems, where a central master
could handle several control loops with pumps con-
nected hydraulically parallel and at the same time
make important pump data like pressure, fow and
alarmsavailableonadisplay.
SincethenGENIbushasdevelopedintoanadvanced
and yet cost efective de-facto Grundfos standard
andisavailableforalmostallGrundfosproductswith
electronics.Itsmainareaofapplicationis:
• Networking between pumps, auxiliary devices
and controllers in Grundfos subsystems (e.g. Hy-
droMPC)
• Integration in automation systems (e.g. SCADA)
viagateways
• Connection to PC tools via adapter for confgu-
ration, faultfnding, value monitoring, data log-
ging,etc.
8.. Technical description
Like most other feldbusses, GENIbus supports the
mechanisms for single-casting (single-addressing),
multicasting (group addressing) and broadcasting
(global addressing). A unique feature of GENIbus is
the Connection Request, which makes it possible for
amasterdevicetorecognizeallconnectedunitsona
network without having to poll through all possible
addresses.
Having been developed and now being maintained
by a single company instead of by an independent
user organization makes GENIbus a so-called pro-
prietary feldbus. However the standard is open for
anyonetouse,whichhasresultedintheemergence
ofseveralthirdpartygatewaysenablingtheconnec-
tion of GENIbus devices (e.g. pumps) to controllers
ofotherbrandsandofgateways,whichcanconnect
GENIbustoafewrecognizedfeldbusstandards.
Below is a GENIbus technical summary. The com-
plete GENIbus protocol specifcation is available on
request.
Physical layer (hardware)
Topology Bus
Transmitter EIARS485,half duplex
Data format Startbit(=0),8data bitswithleast
signifcantbitfrst,stopbit(=1)
Baud rate 9600bits/s
Some devicessupportprogrammable
baud rate from1200-38400bits/s
Distance Daisychain:1200m
Multidrop:500m
Twisted pair cable withshield isrecom-
mended.No termination.
No.of busunits Max.32
Data linklayer (timing,verifcation)
Inter Byte Delay <=1.2ms
Inter TelegramDelay >=3ms
ReplyDelay [3ms;50ms]
Some devicessupportprogrammable
minimumreplydelay[3ms;2.5s]
Cyclic redundancy
checking
16 bitCCITT
Mediumaccess Master/Slave
Physical address
range
Master addressrange:[0;231]
Slave addressrange:[32;231]
Connectionrequestaddress:254
Broadcastaddress:255
max. 1200 m
M
S S S
max. 500 m
M
S S S
max. 1200 m
M
S S S
A
Y
B
A
Y
B
A
Y
B
Bus unit #1 Bus unit #2 Bus unit #3
Daisy chaining, the ideal way of cabling GENIbus
8.. Cabling guidelines
Ingeneral
• Usetwistedpaircableswithshield
• Connecttheshieldinbothends
• Daisy chaining is the preferred way to connect
multipleunits
• Avoidlongstubs
• Keepwiresasshortaspossible
• Separatebuswiresfrompowercablesifpossible.
GENIbus
• Donotuseterminatingresistors
• Acommunicationdistanceupto1200misnormal-
lynotaproblem
• Thedistancecanbeextendedwithrepeaters
• Ifyouexperienceproblemswithnoise,trydiscon-
nectingtheshieldthatisfoundatoneendperbus
unit.
78 79
Communi cati on Communi cati on
8.6 Grundfos GENIbus products for 
SP applications
By the usage of the electronic motor protector MP
204(describedinchapter10,“Accessories”)itispos-
sibletomonitortheSPpumpremotely:
• 3-phasecurrentandvoltages
• 3-phasevoltageanglesandcos(θ)
• Startcurrent
• Currentasymmetry
• Insulationresistance
• Powerandenergyconsumption
• Supplyfrequency
• Motortemperature
• Presentalarmsandwarnings
• Loggedalarms
• Powerontimeandrunningtimecounter
• Startcounter(totalandperhour)
• Re-startcounter(totalandperday)
• OperatingmodeofMP204motorprotector.
By operating the electronic motor protector MP 204
asanon/ofactuator,itispossibletostart/stopcon-
troltheSPpumpremotely.Itisalsopossibletoreset
alarms,loggedalarmsandvariouscounterslikerun-
ninghoursandstartcounters.
By the usage of the input/output IO 111 device (de-
scribedinchapter10,“Accessories”)aloneortogeth-
erwithMP204itispossibletomonitorthefollowing
values:
• ValueofPT100temperaturesensor
• Valueofpulsecounterinput
• Valueofanalogue4-20mAinput
• Alarmlimitexceeded(fortheaboveinputs)
• Powerontime
• Loggedalarms.
MP204andIO112bothhaveGENIbusinterface.MP
204 is supported by the Grundfos gateway G100
(datasheetavailableviaWEBcaps),whichcanhandle
simultaneousconnectionofupto32MP204devices
andsupportscommunicationviaModbus(RS232,ra-
dioorGSM)orviaProfbus.Italsohasabuildindata
logger with a capacity of approximately 300,000
timestampedloggings.
3~
Gateway G100
GENIbus
Contactor
Main network connection (to PLC or SCADA)
MP 204 Motor protector
power power MNC power GENI GENI TxD GENI RxD Fault
DCD RTS TxD1 RxD1 TxD2 RxD2
G100 Gateway
MP 204 MP 204 MP 204 MP 204
Fig. 66 Illustration of the remote monitoring and
control of SP pump installations
80 81
9.
Troubl eshooti ng
Troubl eshooti ng
Fault Cause Solution
Loudnoisesinpipeworkinhomeor
building.
Pressuregaugesstopworkingafter
shorttime.
Blow-outinpipingandfttings
Waterhammeratpumpstartand
stop.
Fita50-litrediaphragmtankwhere
therisermainandthehorizontal
dischargepipemeet.
Waterfromthisdiaphragmtank
willbedischargedwhenthepump
isswitchedofandthusprevent
theformationofthevacuum.
Airpenetratingsuctionpipingas
wellaspressurisedpiping.
Waterhammercreatingvacuum Introducesoft-start/stop,-VFDor
pressuretankshockabsorption.
Arapiddeclineinpumpperform-
ance.
Wearandtearduetosand/silt
penetratingintowell
Detecttheproblematicwells,seal
oftheproblematicsectionofthe
wellorreducepumpperformance
tolessthanhalfoftheproblematic
capacity.
Contactorsfailtoooften,
andmotorsconsumeexcessive
kWhperm
3
pumped.
Highstartingfrequency Reducepumpcapacity,installa
VFDorlargertankcapacity.
Powerconsumptionbythemotor
isexcessive,andshaft/coupling
splinesweardown.
Upthrust Throttlepumpperformanceto
aroundthebestefciencypointor
reducethenumberofimpellerson
thepump.
Wornupthrustbearings UpthrustbyON/OFFoperation Establishthenecessaryfowcon-
trolatstart-up.
Thrustbearingsoncannedtype
motorsfail
Insulationresistanceonrewind-
ablemotorsfails.
Cavitation Removefowrestrictionstopump
andcheckforperformancearound
thebestefciencypoint.
Motortemperatureincreasesover
time;pumpperformancefalls.
Deposits(Calcium,Iron,etc)onmo-
torsurfaceandinhydraulicparts
ofpump.
Pullthepumpandmotorforclean-
ing;cleanthepiping,wellflterand
installacoolingsleeveonmotor.
Pumpperformancefallsof Aggressivewater(Corrosionof
pumpandpipes)
Pressuretestpipingfromground
level.Ifleakagesoccur,pulland
replacethepumpandpipeswitha
highercorrosionclass.
Waterdisappearsdownthepiping
whenthepumpisstopped
Risermainspipecorrosion Pullthepumpandreplacethepip-
ingmaterialwithahighercorro-
sionclass.
Pumpperformanceistoolow.The
motorconsumesinsufcientkWh.
Gasevacuation Lowerthepumpwhenequipped
withgasevacuationsleeve.
Thewaterlevelinthewelliscon-
stantlybecominglower.
Welloverpumping Reducepumpcapacityuntilthe
waterlevelremainsconstantover
thecourseofayear.
Drillmorewellsatotheraquifers.
8 8
10.
Accessori es
Accessori es
10.1 Cooling sleeves
Ingeneral,coolingsleevesarerecommendedwhen
the motor cooling is insufcient. This is normal in
tank applications. It can also be necessary in deep
wellapplications,wherethereisariskthatthewa-
ter will fow to the pump inlet from above and not
automaticallypassalongthemotor.

Other applications where a fow sleeve should be
used:
• The motor is exposed to a high thermal load,
suchasduetoahighambienttemperature,cur-
rentunbalanceoroverload.
• Aggressiveliquidsarepumped,sincecorrosionis
doubledforevery10°Cincreaseintemperature.
• Sedimentation or deposits occur around and/or
onthemotor.
Byusingthecoolingsleeves,thefowalongthemo-
torwillminimizethemotortemperatureandthere-
byextendthemotorlife.
10. Corrosion protection in seawa-
ter
Stainlesssteelcanbedamagedbycreviceorpitting
corrosionwhenimmergedintochlorinatedwater.
Thelikelihoodofcorrosiondependson:
• Thegradeofmaterialused(GG–AISI304–AISI
316–AISI904L)
• Chlorideconcentrationinthewater
• Electrochemicalpotentialofthemetalexposed
tomedia
• Temperature
• Oxygenconcentration
• Velocityofthemediaincontactwiththemetal-
licsurface
• ThepHvalue.
When metal is submerged into water, it forms an
electrochemical cell, with an anode and a cathode
immerged into an electrolyte (ex. chlorinated wa-
ter).Thisisalsoreferredtoasbeingagalvaniccell.
Theanodecanbereferredtoastheactivepartand
thecathodeasthenoblepart.
Metals can be listed in order to their relative activ-
ity in seawater environment. If the metal surface
becomes the anode in the electrochemical cell, cor-
rosiontakesplace.
10..1 Cathodic protection
Cathodicprotectionisatechniquetocontrolthecor-
rosionofagivenmetalsurfacebypurposelymaking
this surface into the cathode of the electrochemical
cell.
Thiscanbedoneintwoways:
• Galvanic:byuseofsacrifcialmetal
• Impressed Current: by use of DC power supply
andaninertanode.
10.. Galvanic cathodic protection 
systems

Fig. 67 Submersible pump set with sacrifcial zinc
anodes.
8 8
Accessori es
Grundfos ofers a series of sacrifcial zinc anodes for
the submersible pump and motor. For metallic riser
pipes,standardsolutionsforpipesarerecommended.
The use of sacrifcial anodes has an environmental
impactthatshouldalwaysbetakenintoaccount.The
efectsofthesaltsbeingformedinthegalvanicproc-
essmustalwaysbetakenintoaccount.
The system needs to be monitored in order to fnd
thecorrecttimeforreplacingthesacrifcialanodes.
The advantage is that the system is self regulating
– the deterioration of the sacrifcial anode refects
theneedsforprotectionofthesystem.
Forbiggerandmorecomplexsystems,engineeringis
neededinordertomakethecorrectchoiceconcern-
ingcorrosionprotection.Aspectstoconsiderinclude
• Materialofsacrifcialanode
• Shape
• Extension
• Connection.
10.. Impressed current cathodic 
protection systems 
ThisrequiresuseofaDCpowersupplyandknowl-
edgeofactualpotentialbetweenthemetalthat
needsprotectionandareferenceelectrode.Itis
necessarytotakeintoaccounttheriskoforganic
growthonthemetalpartthatovertimecanchange
thepotentialdiference.
ThesesystemsrequireindividualdesignandGrund-
fos refers to external suppliers of these kinds of
equipment where design and advices can be ob-
tained. The normal range of the DC supply will be
50Vwith10-100A.
Theadvantageofthismethodisthatitisinert,mean-
ing that it does not release any chemical agents to
theenvironment.Theprocessrequiresenergyinthe
formofapowersupply.
4Cl�
4e�
4CH�
O₂ + 2H₂O
2Cl₂
DC power supply
Seawater
Negative return cable
(Structure Connection)
Impressed
Current Anode
Protected
structure
Insulated
Anode Cable
Fig. 68 Principle of impressed current cathodic system
10. Drop cables
Grundfos can deliver diferent drop cable types de-
pendingontheapplicationthepumpisgoingtoop-
erate in. General guidelines have been described in
chapter7.5.
There are cables specially developed to be used in
connectionwithsubmersiblepumps.Severalofthem
areapprovedfortransportingdrinkingwater.Numer-
ousmanufacturersproducethesecableswhichmay
beusedwithsubmersiblepumps.
A commonly used type is the H07RN-F, which is a
generalpurposecable.Inmostcasesthiscableisad-
equateforusewithsubmersiblepumps.Pleasenote
that water resistance of the conductor insulation is
notalwaysgoodenough.
Grundfos always recommends having the cable
manufacturer guarantee that the cable can fulfil
Grundfos standard GS418A0010, which is an ad-
ditional insulation resistance test with the cable
submergedinwater.
The functionality of the cable is dependant on the
watertight seal. The sealing compound must be
able to adhere to the surface of the cable and the
individualwires.Cleaningofthesurfacebeforethe
sealingisdoneisthereforevital.Somecablemanu-
facturers use fuid lubricants such as silicon oil in
theirinternalprocesses.Thesefuidsarealmostim-
Accessori es
possibletoremovefromthesurface,makingawa-
tertightsealalmostimpossibletocreate.
10. Cable joints
Nomatterthetypeofseal,theadhesionbetweenthe
sealantandthecableisthekeytoawatertightseal.
Asstatedunder10.3Dropcables,acleanandoil-free
surfaceonthecableisnecessary.
Solventsmustneverbeapplied,asitmaydamagethe
cablepermanently.Onlymechanicalcleaningmaybe
used,suchasdryingwithacleancloth,orsandpaper
grindingtocreateavirginmaterialsurface.
Grundfos ofers an approved range of cable joints:
both resin type and heat shrink joints. When using
a non-Grundfos joint, we always recommended to
make a ‘soft’ joint, i.e. when using a resin to make
thejoint,itmustbeasoftresin.Polyurethaneusually
fulfls all requirements for a watertight and fexible
joint.InSection7.6.2describestheprosandconsfor
thevarioustypesofjoints.
10. Riser pipes
GrundfosoferstheWellmaster,afexibleriserpipe,
asanalternativetostandardsteelandplasticpipes.
This is woven hose has a polyurethane lining, is ap-
provedforuseindrinkingwaterinseveralareas,and
comesinsizesfrom1-8”.Itisavailableinlengthsup
to200metres.
Fig. 69 Cross-section of wellmaster hose
Wellmaster is easy to handle, and does not take up
muchspace.Itswellswhenpressurised,whichmini-
mises the eventual growth of deposits on the inner
diameter. A high pumping efciency is therefore
maintained.
Wellmaster is primarily used in combination with
aggressive water as an alternative to stainless steel
pipes.Someend-usersprefertouseWellmasterinall
theirinstallationsduetotheeaseofinstallationand
pulling,andthehighqualityhose.
86 87
11.
Addi ti onal   i nformati on
Addi ti onal   i nformati on
For further information about Grundfos,  
please visit:
www.grundfos.com
Here you can learn much more about the company,
ourvaluesandfndtheGrundfosservicecentrenear-
est to you. Furthermore you can visit our extensive
productselectiontoolWebCAPS,whereyoucanfnd
exactlythepumpyourequire.
WebCAPS
WebCAPSisGrundfos’onlineproductselectiontool
that gives you easy access to a wealth of informa-
tion.ShortforWeb-basedComputer-AidedProduct
Selection,theWebCAPSinterfaceiseasytouseand
lets you choose between 24 languages for maxi-
mum user-friendliness. It includes a full catalogue
oftheproductsavailableinyourcountryaswellas
accesstoliterature,CADdrawings–andevenserv-
icevideos.
Sizing function that asks all the relevant questions
ThesizingfunctionisakeyfeatureofWebCAPS,de-
signedtohelpyouselecttherightpumpforthejob.
Theprogrammeguidesyoustepbystep,askingforall
therelevantinformation.Ifyouareunsureofspecifc
fguresorhowtocalculatethem,simplyclickonthe
“calculator” icon. WebCAPS will then help you carry
outallthecalculationsnecessarytoensurethatyou
getexactlywhatyouneed.Everyfactorwillbetaken
intoaccount,andyouwon’thavetoworkhardtocol-
lectinformationfrst.
Replacingapump?Seewhatwewouldrecommend!
The “Replacement” function is a clever little fea-
ture for anyone about to replace an existing pump
– whether it comes from Grundfos or another sup-
plier.Here,youcansearchforyourexistingpumpin
the drop-down menus, apply various additional cri-
teriaifyouwish,andclick“submit”.Youthenhavea
complete list of the Grundfos pumps we would rec-
ommendasreplacements.
CAD drawings
The“CADDrawings”sectionisself-explanatory.This
is where you go to fnd CAD drawings of the prod-
uctsyouareinterestedin–justnavigatethesimple
menus to download the information you need to
yourcomputer.
88 89
I ndex
Accessories. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 83
Additionalinformation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 87
Air/gasinwater . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4 20
Applications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 17
Autotransformer–AT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4.3 39
Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.5.1 76
Boostermodules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.7 24
Cablejoints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.4 85
Cableselectionandsizing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.5 63
Cablesplice/Connectionofmotorcableanddropcable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.6.2 65
Cablingguidelines. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.5.3 77
Cathodicprotection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.2.1 83
Communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 71
CommunicationsandNetworkingTechnology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2 71
CommunicationsProtocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.4.2 75
Coolingsleeves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.1 83
Corrosionprotectioninseawater. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.2 83
Corrosivewater(seawater). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.5 22
CUEvariblespeeddriveforSPpumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.6 43
Currentasymmetry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.6 50
Deratingofsubmersiblemotor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3.6 60
Dewatering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2 19
Direct-on-line–DOL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4.1 36
Dropcables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.3 84
Frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3 48
Frequencyconverters(variable-speeddrive). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4.6 40
Freshwatersupply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1 17
Fromfreshwatersources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.1 14
Fromtheseaandsaltwatersources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.2 14
Functionalprofle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.4.3 75
Galvaniccathodicprotectionsystems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.2.2 83
Generalintroduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.1 71
Generatoroperation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.12 67
GENIbus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.5 76
Gridconnection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.5 49
Groundwater. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 9
Groundwaterrequirement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.3 10
Groundwaterwells. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.1 9
GrundfosGENIbusproductsforSPapplications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.6 78
Handling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.6 65
Horizontalapplication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3 20
Hotwaterandgeothermalwater...................................................... 3.6 23
Impressedcurrentcathodicprotectionsystems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.2.3 84
Installation&operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 53
Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 7
Mining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.1 19
Motorcablesandjoints,referencetodropcables. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2 35
Motorprotectiondevices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3 36
Motortypes,generaldescription. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1 33
Motorsandcontrols. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 33
Alphabetic index  chapter  page
I ndex
Networkingbasics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.4 74
Networkingtopology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.4.1 74
No.ofstart/stops. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.9 67
Operationwithfrequencyconverter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5 42
Overvoltageandundervoltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2.2 47
Powergeneration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1 47
Powersupply. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 47
PrimaryResistor-typeStarter,RR. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4.4 39
Protectionagainstboiling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3.7 61
Pump/motorassembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.6.1 65
Pumpandmotorselection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3 56
Pumpcurvesandtolerances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4 29
Pumpefciency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3.4 57
Pumpprinciple. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1 27
Pumpselection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3 28
Pumpsetting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2 56
Pumpstartup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.10 67
Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 27
Pumpsinparalleloperation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.7 66
Pumpsinseriesoperation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.8 66
Reducingthelocked-rotorcurrent. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4 36
Requiredraw/wellwaterandwatertreatmentcapacity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.4 11
Resources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1 9
Riserpipeconnections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.6.3 66
Riserpipeselection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4 62
Riserpipes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.5 85
Riverbankfltration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.2 9
SCADAfunctions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.3.2 72
SCADAmainparts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.3.1 72
SCADAsystems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.3 72
Sleevecooling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3.8 61
Softstarter–SS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4.5 39
Star-delta–SD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4.2 38
Surfacewater . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3 14
Technicaldescription . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.5.2 76
Thedutypoint. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3.1 56
Thefeldbus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.4.4 75
Troubleshooting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 73
Variablefrequencydrives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4 48
VFDoperation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.11 67
Voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2 47
Voltageunbalance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2.1 47
Watersupply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 9
Watertemperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3.5 60
Wearparts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2 28
Web-hostedSCADA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.3.3 73
Welldiameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3.2 57
Wellyield . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3.3 57
Wellyieldandoperationalefciency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.5 12
Wellsandwellconditions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.1 55
Alphabetic index  chapter  page
90 91
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