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The Greater Iranian Bundahishn

A Pahlavi Student's 2013 Guide
Zeke J.V. Kassock
B.A. in Linguistics & Middle Eastern Languages
Self-Student in Pahlavi Studies

Fredericksburg, VA

Copyright 2013 Zeke Kassock

All rights reserved.
Kassock Pahlavi Reproductions
Kassock Bros. Publishing Co.
ISBN: 1481013998
ISBN-13: 978-1481013994

First Edition

Other works by author:

Facsimile Of
The Complete Text Of The Pahlavi Dinkard
Volume I: Books III - V
The Boof Of Arda Viraf
A Pahlavi Student's 2012 Rendition, Transcription And Translation
The Book Of Arda Viraf
Literary Edition
Author contact information:

Author photograph courtesy of Ashleigh Buyers Photography And Design

Special Thanks To:

Jeffrey Murdoc Anderson, Nina Bensinger, Lawton Clites, Isaac Kassock,
Mohammad Mesbahi, Marcus Samuels, Emily Scheckles,
Mary & Thomas Wehman & Family & Friends

Dedicated To:
Those who have contributed to the restoration
and continuation of the Zoroastrian culture and heritage.

In Loving Memory Of:

Leocadia & Alvin Janis

Title Introduction
Chapter 1
Chapter 1A
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
Chapter 4
Chapter 5
Chapter 5A
Chapter 5B
Chapter 6A
Chapter 6B
Chapter 6C
Chapter 6D
Chapter 6E
Chapter 6F
Chapters 6G & 6H
Chapters 6I & 6J
Chapter 7
Chapter 8
Chapter 9
Chapter 10
Chapter 11
Chapter 11A
Chapter 11B
Chapter 11C
Chapter 12
Chapter 13
Chapter 14
Chapter 14A
Chapter 14B
Chapter 15
Chapter 15A
Chapter 16
Chapter 16A
Chapter 17

Table Of Contents
Chapter 17A
Chapter 18
Chapter 19
Chapter 19A
Chapter 20
Chapter 21A
Chapter 21B
Chapter 21C
Chapter 21D
Chapter 21E
Chapter 22
Chapter 23
102 Chapter 24
110 Chapter 25
113 Chapter 26
115 Chapter 27
117 Chapter 28
121 Chapter 29
123 Chapter 30
126 Chapter 31
132 Chapter 32
136 Chapter 33
150 Chapter 34
157 Chapter 35
161 Chapter 35A
170 Chapter 36
172 Colophon TD2
174 Appendix A



The Bundahishn is a collection of ideas, cosmogonies, cosmologies,
histories, genus species and geographies. Most information is from preSassanian Iran and Sassanian Iran, though some is from post-Islamic Iran. It
can be divided into two categories, the Greater (Iranian) Bundahishn, and the
Lesser (Indian) Bundahishn. This text deals with the Greater, which is about
twice as long. The Greater Bundahishn was discovered by scholars after the
Lesser, resulting in unique chapter numbers, as it had to accomodate the
Lesser. The result is having chapters: such as 19, 19A, 20, and so forth.
Neither Bundahishn is considered scripture. It draws heavily from the
Avesta and Zoroastrianism, often starting sentences with "Gwd pad Dn
k", "It is said in the Religion."
Books Used In Writing
The base manuscript that this book was read from is that of Ervad
Tahmuras Dinshaji Anklesaria, and his text The Bundahishn: Being A
Facsimile Of The TD Manuscript No. 2 (1908). I refer to this text as
Anklesaria 1908 in this book. I cross-referenced this book with that of
Behramgore Tahmuras Anklesaria and his text Zand-ksh: Iranian Or
Greater Bundahishn (1956). I refer to this text as Anklesaria 1956.
I wrote the entire text and transliteration by hand. For the proper
spelling for the raw Pahlavi and transcription (that could be found), I used
MacKenzie's A Concise Pahlavi Dictionary (1986). There were several
words that could not be found or verified, these are underlined in the Pahlavi
script section, and in italics in the transliteration and translation sections.
Words with alternate translations were put in brackets [ ]'s.
Words and phrases that were in Anklesaria 1956, and not in Anklesaria
1908, have been put in bold typeface in the transliteration section. Due to
the nature of Pahlavi, some things that are implied in the language, but are
not represented, are put in paranthesis ( )'s. This helps the English
understanding of the text.
The font used has its limitations, the Ham-Dibirih font. For example,


The Greater Iranian Bundahishn

is used for the name Sr. The / s / and the / r / do not connect very
well. If connected, it would look like either or , which
would be awkward in reading. I took the font into consideration when
typing this book, as well as how handwritten Pahlavi should look, and
blended the two together.
I have typed and edited the manuscript from Anklesaria 1908 to match
the transcription from Anklesaria 1956, and edited the transcription from
Anklesaria 1956 to a more modern understanding of spelling. For readers of
Anklesaria 1908, this should be a welcome aid, because the original text is
240 pages with very little punctuation or line breaks of any kind. I also
retranslated the text using MacKenzie's dictionary. This effort should not be
taken as a replacement for either book, but should be used as an aid to
understanding for them. As a Pahlavi student myself, this book was made
with students in mind for furthering their Pahlavi studies.
I can be reached at the following email for questions or comments:
I present a Pahlavi student's guide to the Greater Iranian Bundahishn.
May it help the Zoroastrian community, as well as the Pahlavi scholarly
community as an aid.
Zeke Kassock
January 21, 2013
Fredericksburg, VA

The Greater Iranian Bundahishn

A Pahlavi Student's 2013 Guide

The Greater Iranian Bundahishn


(0) Xyin Ddr Ohrmazd, rymand xwarrahmand harwisp-gh dng
tuwnag mahist; humat, hxt, huwart pad menin, gwin, kunin; hamg yazdn
mngn ud yazdn gtyn.
(0) Rejoicing of the Creator Ohrmazd, who is majestic, glorious, omniscient,
wise, able and the greatest; (with) good thoughts, good words, good deeds in meditation,
speech, actions; (and) unto all of the heavenly spirits and earthly spirits.

(1) Pad nk dahin ud xb-murwg, xwham nibit, pad did axtar nk, pad
dastwarh Yazdn-dst hamg-xrad ahlyh-warzdr kirbag-dst Yazdn-ns
mng-wn wehn-passandnd, dastwar Dn weh Mzdsnn, Anag Ruwn
Spend-dd Mh-Windd Rstm ahryr, nib Bun-dahinh.
(1) By good dispensation and good omens, I will write, in the second good
constellation, during the authority of the friend of God, with all wisdom, practicer of
righteousness, friend of good-deeds-doers, God-recognizer, spiritual-seer, loved by the
good, scribe of the good religion of the Mazdaeans, Spend-dad Mah-Windad Rustom
Shahryar of the Immortal Soul, author of the Bundahishn.
# 2



(2) Az madan Tzgn rnahr, rawgnd n du-dnh ud du-xwhh, az

Kayn hu-dnh, ud az dn-burdrn azarmgh, nft ud wirzn bd bawd; saxwanh
zofr ud bd, hu-imagh tis-n, meninh kunin, rst im saxwan, az aydh ud dnin
pyram zad.
(2) From the coming of the Arabs to the land of the Iranians, they [the Arabs]
propagated their heterodoxy and ill-wills, (and) the good religion disappeared and fled
from the Kayans, and respect from the faithful; deep and thriving words, good reasoning
of things, thoughts of actions, words of true reason, (all) have been killed from the
memory and knowledge of the people.
# 3

4 /

/ #
(3) Wad-zamnh ry, y-iz az ddag abarmndagn, ud Kayn dn-burdrn,
raham ud ristag awn du-dnn gumxt; ud pad abarag, n hu-dnn saxwan ud
brahm ud paristin ud kardag, pad hg, rang dt hnd. (4) y-iz k-h, pad n
frahang ud rz hammxtan kmag bd, az gyg gyg, pad harg ud ranj ud du-wrh,
xw kardan yist n tuwn bd.
(3) On the account of evil times, even from the families of the privileged, and the
Kay faithful, mixed into the faith and manner of those of the heterodoxy; and for the
(sake of) the prestigious, they have held the words, dress, worship and actions of the
religious in error with blemish. (4) He too, who had the desire for learning these
knowledges[sciences] and secrets, could not possibly make them his own, from varying
places, with effort, trouble and difficulty.

The Greater Iranian Bundahishn

Title Introduction
^ 0
^ #
^ #

(0) n zand-ghh: nazdist, abar bunith Ohrmazd ud petyragh Ganng

Mng; pas, abar iynh ghn dm, az bundahin t frazm tan passn, iyn az
dn Mzdsnn paydg; pas, abar xr az Kayn drd; pad wizrinh, -h ud iynh.
(0) The explanation of knowledge: first, on the origin of Ohrmazd and the
adversary the Evil Spirit; then, on the nature of the earthly creations, from the primal
creation until the completion of the Final Body, as is revealed in the Mazdaean religion;
then, on the possessions which the Kayans hold, with an explanation, essence and nature.

Chapter 1

/ %
(1) Pad weh-dn, wn paydg k: Ohrmazd blistg, pad harwisp-ghh ud
wehh, zamn akanrag, andar rnh, ham bd.
(1) In the good religion, thus is revealed: Ohrmazd was exalted, through
omniscience and goodness, for limitless time, in radiance.

(2) n rnh gh ud gyg Ohrmazd; ast k 'Asar Rnh' gwd; ud n
harwisp-ghh ud wehh, ham Ohrmazd; ast k dn gwd; dn im har d
wizrin: k, n ham, Zamn A-kanrag; iyn Ohrmazd ud Gh ud Wehh ud Dn
ud Zamn Ohrmazd bd hnd; ........................
(2) The light is the throne and place of Ohrmazd; it is such that it is called
'Endless Light'; and the omniscience and goodness, are forever of Ohrmazd; there one is
who calls it revelation; revelation (that has) the explanation of both of these: one, that of
the eternal, that of Limitless Time; as were Ohrmazd, Space[place], Goodness,
Revelation, and Time of Ohrmazd; ..........................
# % $ 3
(3) Ahriman, andar trkh, pad pas-dninh ud zadr-kmh, zofr-pyag bd.

The Greater Iranian Bundahishn

(3) Ahriman was deep in darkness, due to after-knowledge and destructivedesires.

(4) U zadr-kmagh xm; ud n trkh gyg; ast k 'Asar Trkh' gwd.
(4) His destructive-desire is raw; and that darkness is his location; there is one
who calls it 'Endless Darkness'.
(5) Un mayn tuhgh bd, ast k Way gwnd, k gumzin padi.
(5) Between them was the void[emptiness], there are those who call it
Ether[Atmosphere], which is a mixing upon them.
7 / 6

8 /
/ #
(6) Har d hnd kanrmandh ud a-kanrmandh. (7) blisth n asar
rnh gwd, k n sarmand; ud zofr-pyag n Asar Trkh ud n ast a-kanrh. (8)
Ud pad wimand, har d kanrmand k-n, mayn tuhgh, k did n paywast hnd.
(6) Both have finiteness and infiniteness. (7) For the exaltedness is that which is
called the Endless Light, that it is not limited; and the depth is that which is Endless
Darkness and that is infinite. (8) And due to the boundary, both are limited, which

Chapter 1

between them is a void, one is not connected to the other.

/10 / /9
11 /
$ 12
(9) Ud did, dn mng pad xw tan kanragmand. (10) Ud did, harwispghh Ohrmazd ry, har tis[?] andar dhin Ohrmazd kanragmand; n har
dn mng paymn dnnd. (11) Ud did, bowandag pdixyh dm Ohrmazd, pad
Tan Passn, t ham ud ham rawinh; ud n ast akanragh. (12) Ud dm Ahriman,
pad n zamn, b abeshnd, ka Tan Passn bawd; n-iz ast kanragmandh.
(9) And again, both spirits are limited themselves. (10) And again, on the
account of Ohrmazd's omniscience, everything (that is) in Ohrmazd's creation is limited;
for they know the treaty of both spirits. (11) And again, (there will be) complete
authority of the creatures of Ohrmazd, at the Final Body, until eternity; and that is
limitless. (12) And the creatures of Ahriman, in that time, will be destroyed, as it
becomes the Final Body; that also is limited.
^ 13
^ ^
% ^ ^
(13) Ohrmazd, pad harwisp-ghh, dnist: k Ganng Mng ast, abar
hendzd ud grd, pad arek-kmagh-iz iyn gumzd, abar fragn, abar frazm, pad
abar fragn abar and abzrn; u, mngh, n dm, pad n abzr, andar abyd, frz

The Greater Iranian Bundahishn

(13) Ohrmazd knew, through omniscience that: The Evil Spirit exists, who will
plan and seize, through jealous-desire and even mix, the supporters, to the end, with the
supporters of several agents; He created, spiritually, those creatures who are required for
those agents.
(14) S hazr sl, pad dm mngg std, k: bd hnd a-mendr ud a-rawag ud
(14) (For) three thousand years, they stood[remained?] in a spiritual creation,
they were unthinking, unmoving and intangible.
# 15
16 / # #

# 17 / ^
/ #
(15) Ganng Mng, pas-dninh ry, az hasth Ohrmazd angh bd; pas az n
zofyg xzd, wimand str rn(n) mad. (16) Ka- dd Ohrmazd, n rnh, agriftr Patrw, zadr-kmagh ud arek-ghrh ry, pad murnjndan, tag abar kard. (17)
U, pas dd rh ud abarwzh, frx az n xw, abz tom dwrist, kirrnd was dw,
n dm murnjndr, niyz ardkkarh.
(15) The Evil Spirit, on account of after-knowledge, was unaware of the
existence of Ohrmazd; then from arising from that depth, came to the frontier of the
shining stars. (16) As he saw Ohrmazd, that luminance, that unseizable luster[?], on
account of destructive-desire and malicious-nature, he attacked forth for destruction. (17)
He then saw bravery and victory, that great(er) than his own, scattered back to the
darkness, (mis)created many demons, those which are destroyers of creatures, (with)

Chapter 1

want for battle.

^ 18
(18) Ohrmazd, ka- dm Ganng Mng dd, [n?] sahist dm sahmgn
pdag wadag ud duh; u n burzd hnd.
(18) Ohrmazd, as He saw the creatures of the Evil Spirit, it did [not?] seem to
Him creatures that are terrible, rotten, wicked and evil; He was not honored[pleased?] by
^ # 19
(19) Pas, Ganng Mng dm Ohrmazd dd; sahist was dm zofr ham
pursinh; u burzd n Ohrmazd dm dahinh.
(19) Then, the Evil Spirit saw the creations of Ohrmazd; they seemed very
deep[acute] creatures (to him); the creatures and creation of Ohrmazd honored[pleased]
# 20
# ^ ^

(20) g Ohrmazd, abg-iz wnag, dnist frazm kr, padrag Ganng
Mng th abar dt, ud guft k: Ganng Mng, abar dm man ayrh bar, ud
stayin dah, t pad n pdn, a-marg ud a-zarmn ud a-shin ud aphin baw.


The Greater Iranian Bundahishn

(20) Then Ohrmazd, with whatever means, knew the end of the affairs, and
offered peace to the adversary, the Evil Spirit, and said: Evil Spirit, bring aid[friendship]
upon my creatures, give praise, so in reward, you may become deathless, ageless,
hunger-less[unfeeling] and incorruptible1.
/ #
(21) U im n, k: Agar ardg n srn, xwad n agr, ud -mn har dn
(21) It's reason is this, that: If if you do not provoke battle, you will not render
yourself powerless, and advantage-providing (will be) upon us both.
# 22

/ #
(22) U dryd Ganng Mng k: N baram, dm t ayrh n daham
styin, b t ud dmiz t murjnam, t ham ud ham rawinh; b hzm harwisp dm
t, a-dsth t ud dsth man.
(22) The Evil Spirit chattered: I will not bring (peace), I will not give
aid[friendship] to your creatures, nor praise, I will destroy you and your creatures too,
until eternity; I will convert all of your creatures, to unfriendship to you and friendship to
% 23
/ ^
(23) U wizrin n, k-: pad d dt, k: Ohrmazd andar y arag, d ry
1 Possibly a corrupted form of a-tin for 'thirst-less'

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th p drd; n padrd, ud padist-iz abar bard.

(23) Its explanation is this: he considered[he held in this]: Ohrmazd is helpless
to him[me], on account of this He holds[offers] peace forth; he does not accept it, and
even leads an attack[promises].
(24) U guft Ohrmazd k: N harwisp-kardr h, Ganng Mng! Kt man n
tuwn murnjndan, ut dm man dn n tuwn kardan, k abz xwh man n
(24) And it was said by Ohrmazd: You are not omnific, Evil Spirit! That is, you
cannot destroy Me, and you cannot do (unto) My creatures thus, that they do not return to
# 25
# ^
(25) Pas Ohrmazd, pad harwisp-ghh, dnist k: Agar zamn krezr-iz n
gram, g tuwn kardan pad dm man, iyn padist abar bard kxin ud gumzin
ham-h; u, andar gumzin, dm wiybnndan, xw kardan, tuwn; iyn nniz,
mardm andar gumzin was, k abrnh w warzd k frrnh, k kmag Ganng
Mng w ham warznd.
(25) Then Ohrmazd, through omniscience, knew that: If I do not obtain a time
(for this) contest of his too, then he can do unto my creatures, as he promises battle,


The Greater Iranian Bundahishn

intermixing of everything; in this mixing[confusion] he can deceive, and make (them) to

himself; even now, many men are in this mixed state, which practice sin more than
righteousness, that they are practicing more of the will of the Evil Spirit.
# 26
(26) U guft Ohrmazd Ganng Mng, k: Zamn-grift krezr pad
gumzin, n-hazr sl, frz abganam; - dnist k, pad zamn-griftan, agrnd
Ganng Mng.
(26) Ohrmazd said to the Evil Spirit: I throw out (there) a fixed amount of time
for battle in the mixture, for 9,000 years for, He knew that, by that fixed amount of time,
He would render the Evil Spirit powerless.

(27) g Ganng Mng, a-wng-frazmh ry, pad n paymnag hamddestn
bd; dn iyn d mard hamkxin zamn frz grnd, (gwnd) k-mn: Whmn
rz, t shab, krezr kunm.
(27) Then the Evil Spirit, on account of not-seeing-the-end, was in agreement
with that treaty; just as two men who set a time for a duel, (saying): Such and such day,
until night, we shall battle.
% 28

Chapter 1


(28) Ohrmazd n-iz, pad harwisp-ghh, dnist k: andar n hazr sl, s hazr
sl hamg kmag Ohrmazd rawd; s hazr sl andar gumzin, kmag Ohrmazd ud
Ganng Mng har d awd; ud pad n abdom ardg, Ganng Mng agr yd
kardan, ud az dm petyragh abz drd.
(28) Ohrmazd knew this too, through omniscience: in these 9,000 years, 3,000
years will all go (according) to the will of Ohrmazd, 3,000 years go in a mixture, of both
Ohrmazd and the Evil Spirit's wills; and in the final battle, the Evil Spirit ought to be
rendered powerless, and He[Ohrmazd] shall hold back adversity from the (evil) creatures.
# 29

/ #
(29) Pas Ohrmazd Ahunawar frz srd, k 'Yat-huvry'- wst-ud-k-mrg b
guft; u frazm przh xw, ud agrh Ganng Mng, ud abeshin dwn, ud ristxz, ud Tan Passn, ud apetyragh dm, t ham ud ham rawinh, b Ganng
Mng nimd.
(29) Then Ohrmazd recited the Ahunawar [lit. the holiest prayer], which he spoke
a 'Yat-huvry' of 21 words; He showed to the Evil Spirit, his own final victory, the
powerlessness of the Evil Spirit, the destruction of the demons, the rising of the dead, the
Final Body and the in-adversity of the creatures, for eternity.
/ #
(30) Ganng Mng, ka- agrh xw ud abeshin dwn hammis dd, stard
ud a-by bd, abz tom bast.


The Greater Iranian Bundahishn

(30) The Evil Spirit, as he saw his own powerlessness and the destruction of all
of the demons, became stunned and senseless, (and) fell back to the darkness.
(31) wn iyn pad dn gwd, k: Ka- s-k-w guft bd, Ganng Mng
az bm tan andar zand; ka- d bahr guft bd, Ganng Mng pad zang andar bast;
ud ka- bowandag guft bd, stard ud agr bd Ganng Mng, az a-krh pad dmn
Ohrmazd kardan.
(31) Just as it is said in the religion: When one third was said, the Evil Spirit
died in his body out of fear; as the second part was said by Him, the Evil Spirit fell upon
his knees; as He completed saying it, the Evil Spirit became stunned and powerless, from
rendering the creatures of Ohrmazd unfit-for-work.
/ 32
(32) S hazr sl pad stardh nibast.
(32) He laid down stunned for 3,000 years.
/ # 33
(33) Dm dahinh mngh gwam, ud pas gtyh.
(33) I will mention the creation of the spiritual creatures, then the earthly.
# 34

Chapter 1


(34) Ohrmazd, p az dm, dahinh ry, bd Xwady, ud pas az dm dahinh,
Xwady ud Sd-xwstr ud Frazng ud Jud-b ud krag-ham-ryndr ud Abzng
ud Harwisp-nigerdr bd.
(34) Ohrmazd, before creatures, on account of creation, was Lord, and after the
creation of creatures, was Lord, Advantage-Wanter, Wise, Opposed-To-Pain, PublicDirector-Of-Everything, Bountiful and Observer-Of-All-Things.

(35) U, nazdist, yazdn xwadh dd, nk-rawinh, n mng tan xw padi
weh b kartan, ka- dm dahinh mend; - az dm dahinh xwady bd.
(35) He, first, created the being of the spirits, good-progression, that spirit which
produce its own good body forth, as He considers the creation of creatures; for He was
the lord of the creation of creatures.

(36) U dd, pad rn wngh, Ohrmazd k: Ganng Mng hagriz az
petyragh n wardd; n petyragh, jud pad dm dahinh, n agrhd; dm, jud pad
zamn, rawgh n bawd; ka Zamn brhnd, dm-iz Ahriman rawg b bawd.


The Greater Iranian Bundahishn

(36) He, Ohrmazd, saw with illuminated sight: The Evil Spirit will never turn
away from adversity; that adversity, will not be rendered powerless, except from the
creation of creatures; the creatures will not become progressive[moving], except through
time; as Time is created, even the creatures of Ahriman will become progressive.
/ 37
(37) U, a-ragh, Petyrag agr kardan ry, zamn frz brhnd.
(37) Helpless, He created forth time, on account of rendering the Adversity
(38) U im n k: Ganng Mng, jud pad krezr, n agrhd krezr
wizrin n k: Kr pad 'r' ud 'rmandh' kardan abyd.
(38) Its meaning is this: The Evil Spirit will not rendered powerless, except
through battle the explanation of karezar is this: One must perform action through
'means' and 'with strategy'.
# 39


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(39) Pas, az Zamn A-kanragh, Zamn Dagrand Xwady, frz brhnd

dd; ast k Zamn Kanragmand gwd; az Zamn Dagrand Xwady, A-sazinh frz
dd, k tis Ohrmazd n sazd; az A-sazinh, A-xwrh-rawinh paydg bd, k dwn
xwrag n rasd; az A-xwrh-garh rawinh, mng Ab-wardinh paydg bd, n
mng k tis Ohrmazd, az n , pad bun-dahin, dd, n wardd; az mng Ab-wardin,
bowandag kmag dm ghn paydg bd, frrn dm dahinh ud hamddestnmandh.
(39) Then, out of Infinite Time, He produced forth the Lord of Duration[lit. really
long time]; there is one who calls it Finite Time; from the Lord of Duration, Impassibility
was produced forth, that the substance[stuff] of Ohrmazd will not pass (away); from
Impassibility, Progress-Of-Prosperity became revealed, that is the unhappiness of the
demons will not arrive; from the Progress-Of-Prosperity, the spiritual In-changeability
became revealed, that the spirit which the substance of Ohrmazd will not change that was
produced, at the primal-creation; from the spirit In-changeability, the complete will of
earthly creatures became apparent, the righteous creation of the creatures and agreeability.
/ $ 40
(40) Ahriman, pad abrn dm dahinh ud adnh, addestn.
(40) Ahriman, with the creation of unrighteous creatures and ignorance, (is)
$ 41

# #
(41) U im wizrin n k: Ahriman abg Ohrmazd kxd xwady; frazngh
ud hamh ud phlomh ud a-sazinh Ohrmazd, agrh ud xwad-dagh ud a-phlomh
ud pas-dninh Ganng Mng, paydgh mad, ka- dm dd.


The Greater Iranian Bundahishn

(41) Its meaning is this: Ahriman will battle with Ohrmazd the Lord; the wisdom,
eternalness, bestness and impassibility of Ohrmazd, and the powerlessness, the self-love,
non-bestness and after-knowledge of the Evil Spirit, came to revelation, as he created the

# #
(42) , Zamn-iz Dagrand Xwady, nazdist dm frz brhnd; a-kanrag
bd, p az gumzinh, Hamh Ohrmazd kanragmand brhnd; az n a-kanrag, k,
az bun-dahin, k dm dd, t frazm, k Ganng Mng agr bawd, paymnag-w
dwzdah hazr sl, k kanragmand, pas a-kanragmandh gumzd ud wardd, k
dm-iz Ohrmazd, abzagh, abg Ohrmazd hamg bawnd.
(42) For, Time, which is the Lord of Duration, is the first creature that He created
forth; for it was infinite, before the mixing, Eternity, which Ohrmazd created limited;
from it (being) limitless, which from the primal-creation, which He created creatures, up
until the end, where the Evil Spirit becomes powerless, is a period of 12,000 years, which
is limited, after will mix into and change into infinity, which even the creatures of
Ohrmazd, along with Ohrmazd will be eternal, (owing to) purity.

/ %

Chapter 1


(43) iyn gwd, pad Dn k: Zamn zmandtar az har dn dmn, dm

Ohrmazd ud n-iz Ganng Mng; Zamn handzag kr ud ddestn; [Zamn az
pursingtar?]; Zamn (az) handzagn handzagtar; Zamn az aybgn aybgtar;
Zamn az pursingn pursingtar k wizr, pad Zamn, ayd kardan; pad Zamn
mn abganhd brn; pad Zamn, psdag frz kend, ud kas az y n bxtd, az
mand mardmn, n ka ul wzd, n ka nignh h kand ud andar nind, n ka
azr xn bn sard frd wardd.
(43) As it is said in the Religion: Time is stronger than both creations, the
creation of Ohrmazd and even that of the Evil Spirit; Time is a measure for work and
justice; [Time is of more responsibility?]; of measurable things, Time is the most
measurable; from the receptive things, Time is the most receptive; from the responsible
things, Time is the most responsible which the explanation[determination] can be made
by time; It is by Time that a limited house is thrown (forth); it is by Time that the
adorned is dilapidated; no one is saved from it, and of mortal men, none as they fly
above, none as they dig pits down and sit, none as they turn to under the cold spring

(44) Ohrmazd, az n xw Xwadh, az St-h-Rnh, kirb dmn xw frz
brhnd, [?] pad tax kirb ronh spd, ud gird frz paydg; ud az St-h n Mng,
k petyrag, andar har d dm, b bard, ast Tuwn, ast Zamn.
(44) Ohrmazd, out of His own Self, from the Essence-Of-Light, created forth the
form of His own creatures, in the luminous and white Fire, and circumference revealed
forth; and from the Essence-Of-The-Spirits, which carried off the Adversary that is in
both creatures, that which is Ability[Power], and that which is Time.


The Greater Iranian Bundahishn

(45) kirb Way Weh frz brhnd, iyn Way abyd; ast k Way Dagrand
Xwady frz gwd.
(45) He created for the form of Way Weh[the good wind], as Wind was
necessary, there is one who calls Wind, which is the Lord of Duration.
/ %
(46) U dm, pad ayrh Way Dagrand Xwady, frz brhnd; ka- dm-iz
dd, Way-iz abzr pad kr andar abyist.
(46) He created forth creatures, with the aid of the Wind, who is the Lord of
Duration; for as He created even the creatures, the Wind was also a necessary agent for
His work.

(47) Ganng Mng, az St-h-Trkh n xw-tan, dm frz kirrnd, pad n
kirb syhh durestar tom-arzng druwand, iyn bazak-htar xrafstar.
(47) The Evil Spirit, from his own Essence-Of-Darkness, miscreated forth
creatures, in the form of the blackness of ashes of the wicked who deserve darkness, like
noxious creatures of very sinful-blemish.

Chapter 1


(48) U, az St-h-Xwad-Dagh, Varn wad nst-kirb frz kirrnd, iyn

Varn abyist.
(48) He, out of the Essence-Of-Self-Love, miscreated the evil Varun-Of-NoForm, as Varun was necessary.

(49) U nazdist dwn xwadh dd, Du-Rawinh, n mng ganngh
dmn Ohrmazd azi bd; -, az St-h-Trkh, n Asar Trkh dd; az Asar Trkh
dr-gwinh frz bd, az angh y Ganng Mng paydg bd; -, n dm dd
xw-tan padi wattar b kard, k agr b bawd; , az Asar Trkh, n tan[kirb] frz
kirrnd, u xw-tan dm az[n?] kirb b dd ud az n xw dm dahinh agr bawd.
(49) He first created the demons' essence, Evil-Progress, that spirit which from it
the corruption of the creatures of Ohrmazd was created; for, out of the Essence-OfDarkness, he created Endless-Darkness, from the Endless-Darkness, he created forth
Deceitful-Sayings, which was revealed from the evilness of the Evil Spirit; for he created
those creatures which made themselves worse, which he may become powerless; for, out
of the Endless-Darkness, he created that form, he created his own creatures in that form
and he became powerless out of his own creatures' creation.



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(50) Ohrmazd, az St-h-Rnh, Rst-Gwinh, ud az Rst-Gwinh, Abzngh

Ddr paydg bd, dm dahinh; - sr-kirbag, az Asar Rnh, frz brhnd; dmiz hamg, andar sr-kirbag, b dd; sr-kirbag, Zamn sazin judg bd; az srkirbag, Ahunawar frz bd, Mng Yat-huvry, k- bun-dahinh ud frazm dm
azi paydgh, ast dn: iyn dn abg dm dahin ddhast; az Ahunawar, mng sl
frz bd, k, andar gumzin, nn nm-rn (ud) nm-trk, s sad ud ast ud panj rzabn, k brn Zamn Dagrand Xwady.
(50) Ohrmazd, out of the Essence-Of-Light, created Right-Saying, and out of
Right-Saying, Bountiful-Creator appeared, the creation of creatures; He created forth the
form of fire, out of the Endless-Light; He created all creatures too, in the form of fire; the
form of fire and the passing[temporal] Time became separated, out of the form of fire, the
Ahunawar became forth, the spirit of the Yat-huvry, which the primal-creation and the
end of creatures is revealed, (that is, the) den: As Den was produced with the creation of
creatures; the spiritual year became forth, from the Ahunawar, which in the mixing, is
now half-shining and half-dark, which is 365 days and nights, which is determined by
Time, the Lord of Duration.
/ 51
(51) U har d dm pad kxin, padi, rawg bd.
(51) Both of the creations progressed in battle, owing to it[Time].


Chapter 1


(52) iyn guft (k): Dm Ohrmazd, pad xwadyh ud dastwarh

]?ddestnmand ud blisth, pad xwahrh, std; dm Ganng Mng, pad rh[hh
ud stahmh ud winhkrh ud zofyh, pad duwrh std.
(52) As it is said (that): The creation of Ohrmazd stayed in happiness, by His
lordship, leadership, judiciousness, and highness; the creation of the Evil Spirit stayed in
misfortune, by his bravery[grief?], oppression, sinfulness, and abysmal-station[depth].



# #
# #

(53) Ohrmazd pad Amahrspandn brnmand mad, ka- dd bd hnd, y[],


The Greater Iranian Bundahishn

dar-e abz gty abyist dd; U, ngtar, pad Tan Passn, angh azi b abyd
burdan; U dm mng, mngh, drd; U dm gty mngh dd, U did b
gtyh dd, U nazdist Amahrspandn dd haft bun, pad abrg; n haftom xwad
Ohrmazd; az dm gty, pad mng dd, nazdist a; n haftom xwad bd; Ohrmazd
har d ast: mng nazdist, gty (pas), az Amahrspandn, pas az Way Dagrand Xwady,
nazdist, Wahman frz brhnd, k- rawgh dm Ohrmazd azi bd; Ganng Mng,
nazdist, mihxth Akman; ud az dm gty nazdist asmn; U Wahman, az nkrawinh, St-h-Rnh, nazdist frz brhnd, k- dn weh Mzdsnn abg bd; n
k, n dm rasd, t Fraagird, dnist; ud pas, Urdwahit, ud pas ahrewar, ud pas
Spandarmad, ud pas Hordd Amurdd brhnd; haftom, xwad Ohrmazd; hatom RstGwinh; n(h)om Srs Ahlw; dahom Mnsra-spend; yzdahom Nrysang;
dwzdahom rad buland Radpk Brzt; szdahom Ran Rst; ahrdahom Mihr frggav-yt; pnzdahom Ahrisvang weh; zdahom Prand; haftdahom Xwb; hatdahom
Wd; nzdahom Ddestnmandh; wstom Pahikr pml ud pasmlh th
(53) Ohrmazd came to the limited[temporal] Amahrspand, as they were created
by Him, note, He had to recreate them here to the material world; He must, again, remove
harm from it, in the Final Body; He spiritually preserves the spiritual creation; He
produced the material creation spiritually, He created it again in the material world; first,
He created the Amahrspand, then the others; that of the seventh (is) Ohrmazd Himself; of
the material creations, He created in the spirit, first the six, He Himself was the seventh;
for Ohrmazd is both spirit first, (and) then material; of the Amahrspand, after from the
Wind, Lord of Duration, Wahman was created forth first, which the progression of
Ohrmazd's creatures about about from it; the Evil Spirit, first falsely (miscreated)
Akoman; and first from the earthly creations, the sky; He created forth first Wahman,
from Good-Progression, the Essence-Of-Light, with of which was the good religion of
the Mazdaeans; He knew this, which will arrive to the creatures, up until the Restoration;
and then Ardwahisht was created, then Shahrewar, then Spandarmad, then Hordad (and?)
Amurdad; the seventh, Ohrmazd Himself; eighth Right-Saying; ninth the Righteous Sros;
tenth Maraspand; eleventh Neryosang; twelfth the eminent Rat Rathwo Berezato;
thirteenth the Just Rashn; fourteenth Mihr of wide-pasture-lands; fifteenth Ahrishwang
the Good; sixteenth Parand; seventeenth Sleep; eighteenth Wad; nineteenth Lawfulness;
twentieth Peaceful-Bountifulness in battle, prosecution and defense.


Chapter 1


(54) Az dm gty: nazdist Asmn, ud dudgar b, ud sidgar Zamg, ud

ahrom Urwar, ud panjom Gspand, ud aom Mardm, ud haftom, xwad Ohrmazd, U
dm, pad ayrh Way Dagrand Xwady, frz brhnd; ka Way Dagrand Xwady
frz brhnd, y-iz abzr-w bd pad dm dahinh, andar abyist.
(54) From the earthly creations: first the Sky, second the Water, third the Earth,
fourth the Plants, fifth the Livestock[Beneficent-Animals], sixth the Men, and seventh
Ohrmazd Himself, His creations were created forth, with the help of the Wind, who is the
Lord of Duration; for as the Wind, which is the Lord of Creation, was created by Him, it
too, was necessary for the creation of creatures.
# # # #
/ # #
(55) Ganng Mng, pad n petyragmandh, az kamlgn-dwn, nazdist
Akman frz kirrnd, pas Yndar, ud pas Sawl, ud pas Nhgh, pas Tarmad, pas Tarz
ud Zrz, ud pas abrgn dwn; haftom, Ganng Mng.
(55) The Evil Spirit, through adversity miscreated, of the head-demons, first
Akoman, then Yindar, then Sawul, then Nahigih, then Taromad, then Tarez and Zerez,
and the other demons; seventh, the Evil Spirit.

/ $
(56) Ganng Mng hagriz tis-h frrn n mend n gwd n kund; u nkh
dm Ohrmazd n abyist; dm Ohrmazd nkh dm Ahriman n abyist.


The Greater Iranian Bundahishn

(56) The Evil Spirit never thinks, never says, never does righteous things; the
righteousness of Ohrmazd's creatures was not necessary for him; (and) the creatures of
Ohrmazd did not need the goodness of the creatures of Ahriman.
/ ^
(57) Ohrmazd n tis n mend kardan n tuwn; ud Ganng Mng n n
tuwn kardan mend, pad stzag-iz abar bard.
(57) Ohrmazd does not think about things that He cannot do; and the Evil Spirit
thinks about that which he cannot do, and also leads to quarrel.
# #
(58) Dm Ohrmazd, pad mngh, dn parward k, tarrh(-h?) std, amendr ud a-griftr ud a-rawg, iyn usar homng; pas az tarrh gumzagh, usar (ud)
xn homng; pas az gumzagh xwurdagh bd, gatag-w[grih-w?] homng; pas az
xwurdagh wikdagh; gyn ud dast ud py; pas az wikdagh gabrh bd; am ud g
ud dahn; pas az gabrh jandin[andiag?] bd, ka b y p rawin std; nn-iz, pad
gty pad n hangdag, andar akomb mdar, hambnd, ud zynd ud parwarnd.
(58) Such were the creatures of Ohrmazd nourished, in the spiritual state, that
stood the moisture, unthinking, unseizable and unmoving, like such as sperm; then, out of
moisture (there was) mixing, like sperm (and) blood; then, out of mixing, there was a
collision, like a knot; then, out of the collision, there was breaking[division]: life, hands

Chapter 1


and feet; then from the breaking, a cavity came about; the eyes, ears and mouth; then
from the cavity, a propulsion came about: when it was in motion[progression]; even now,
in the material world in that manner, in the womb of the mother, they are conceived,
born, and nourished.
(59) Ohrmazd, pad dm dahinh, mdarh ud pidarh dahin ast; ka- dm,
pad mng, parward, n bd mdarh; ka b gty dd, n bd pidarh.
(59) Ohrmazd, in the creation of the creatures, has the motherhood and
fatherhood of creation; for as He nourished the creatures, in the spiritual realm, that was
the motherhood; as He created it/them in the earthly realm, that was the fatherhood.


The Greater Iranian Bundahishn

Chapter 1 A
/ ^ 0
(0) Abar dm dahinh gtyh.
(0) On the creation of earthly creatures.
^ 1

(1) Ka Ganng Mng stardh agr bd, iynam abar nibit, s hazr sl pad
stardh nibast.
(1) As the Evil Spirit was powerless (because of) stupefaction, as I have written
above, he laid down in stupefaction for 3,000 years.
# % 2

(2) Andar n agrh y Ganng Mng, Ohrmazd dm gty brhnd; az
Asar Rnh, tax; az tax, Wd; az Wd, b; az b, Zamg ud harwisp astmandh
Gty frz brhnd.
(2) That the state of powerlessness of the Evil Spirit, Ohrmazd created the
creatures in the material world; for out of the Endless-Light, He created forth Fire; from
Fire, 'Wad'[Wind/Ether]; from Wad, Water; from Water, the Earth and all corporeality of

Chapter 1A


(3) iyn gwd pad Dn, k: Fradom, dm hamg b-w srek-w bd; k
hamg az b bd, jud thm mardmn ud gspandn; n thm tax thmag.
(3) As it is said in the Religion: First, all of creation was a single drop of water;
that, all was from water, except the seed of men and animals; for that seed is Fire

# #


(4) U, nazdist, Asmn dd, pad abz drinh (Ganng Mng), ast k fradom
gwd; dudgar, b dd, pad zadan Tin druz; sidgar Zamg dd, harwisp astmandh;
ahrom Urwar dd, ayrh Gspand hu-dd; panjom Gspand, ayrh Mard
Ahlw; aom Mard Ahlw dd, zadrh ud agrh Ganng Mng ud hammis
dwn; u pas taxs dd, Xwarag; u brh az Asar Rnh awi paywast, dn kirb weh
iyn tax kmag; u pas Wd brhnd, pad mard kirb gun pnzdah slag, k n b
ud Urwar ud Gspand ud Mard Ahlw, har tis-w, bard ud drd.
(4) He first created the Sky, for holding back (the Evil Spirit), there is one who
says it is the first; second, He created Water, for smiting the demon 'Thirst'; third, He
created the Earth, all of corporeality; forth, He created Plants, for the aid the good-created
Beneficent-Animal; fifth, He created the Beneficent-Animal, for the aid of the Righteous
Man; sixth, He created the Righteous Man, for the smiting and rendering powerless the
Evil Spirit and all of the demons; then He created the Fire, Xwarag; He attached the


The Greater Iranian Bundahishn

brightness of the Endless-Light to it, such the form is good as it is the Fire's desire; He
then created Wad[Wind/Ether], in the form of a male of 15 years, which this Water, Plant,
Beneficent-Animal and Righteous Man, He bears and protects[preserves] everything.
/ 5
(5) Un iynh gwam.
(5) I will discuss their nature(s).


/ % %
(6) Nazdist, Asmn dd, rn, paydgh abr dr, ud xyagds, xwn-han, ast
ghr almst nar; u sar pad Asar Rnh paywast; u dm hamg, andarn Asmn, b
dd, wahan homng drubut, k-, har abzr , pad kxin, andar abyist, andarn
nihd std, ayb mn homng, har tis andar mnd; fragn bun Asmn, and-e
pahny drany, and-e drany bly, and-e bly zahg, hamg wiybn ud
fasr ud razr homng; meninmand ud gwinmand ud kuninmand; ud gh ud
abzng ud wazdr, Mng Asmn; u padrift drang drubuth az Ganng Mng, k

Chapter 1A


abz dwristan n hit, iyn gurd arttr, k zrh paymxt std, k abbmh az
krezr bxtd, Mng Asmn asmn dn drd; u dd, ayrh Asmn,
Urwhmanh; - urwhmanh padi, frz brhnd, az nn-iz, andar gumzagh, dm
pad urwhamnh andar std.
(6) First, He created the Sky, (which is) shining, visible, very far away, and eggshaped, and (of) shining metal, of whose essence is of a male diamond; its head[top] is
connected to the Endless-Light; He created all creations, in the Sky, a stronghold like a
fortification, in which remain all of the means that were required for the battle, or like a
house, in which all things remain; the base foundation of the Sky, as its width is as much
as its length, as its length is as much as its height, and its height as much as its
[depth/capacity], all like the desert, the chasm and the forest; the Spirit of the Sky is
contemplative, speaking, active, aware, bountiful, and discriminating; he accepted the
long lasting fortification against the Evil Spirit, that is he did not let him scatter back, like
the hero-warrior, who put on armor, so he may be saved fearlessly from battle, the Spirit
of the Sky preserves the sky as such; He[Ohrmazd?] created Delight, for the aid of the
Sky; for He created Delight forth in it, which even now, the creation remains, in the
mixing, in Delight.
(7) Dudgar, az ghr Asmn, b brhnd; and ka mard-w, d dast zamg
hild, pad dast ud py rawd, u t akomb b b std; pad n bly b b tazd; u dd,
ayrh, Wd ud Wrn, k mizn ud snxr ud szg[?].
(7) Second, He created the Water, from the essence of the Sky; such as a man,
who places two hands to the ground (and) walks with his hands and feet, and the water
stands up until his belly; the water flowed (up) until that height; He created, for its aid,
Wind and Rain, which (are) the mist[cloud], the snow and the lightning[burning].
,,,, 8


The Greater Iranian Bundahishn


(8) Sidgar, az b, Zamg dd, gird ud dr-widarag ***** ud a-nib ud anabrz; ud ham drany abg pahny, ud pahny abg zah rst; mayn n Asmn b
(8) Third, out of Water, He created the Earth, round, far-reaching[path] *****,
non-declining, non-rising; the same length equal with width, and width with depth; the
middle of the Sky was arranged.

(9) iyn gwd k: Nazdist s k-w n zamg frz brhnd, saxt iyn
[sang-dr? dlman-dr?]; dudgar s k-w n zamg frz brhnd, gard-gannd; sidgar,
s k-w zamg frz brhnd, [nmat-sarag?].
(9) As it is said: He first created one third of this Earth; as hard as [rock?/eagle's
crescent?]; second, He created one third of the Earth, dirt-filled; third, He created one
third of the Earth, felt topped[?].
# % 10

(10) U ghr , andar Zamg b dd, kfh k pas az n waxd ud rust hnd az
zamg azi dd; ayrh Zamg, han ud ry ud ggird ud ga ud harwisp-iz, n saxt

Chapter 1A


Zamg thmag, jud az Istaxr, jud thmag hnd; wn saxt brhnd; Zamg, pad
homng mard-w ka- jmag jmag hamg kust, pad tan saxt andar kard std, azr n
Zamg hamg gyg b b std.
(10) He created essence of the mountains, in the Earth, which then from which
increased and grew up out of the Earth; for the aid of the Earth, iron, copper, sulfur,
chalk, and other (things) as well, that which (is) a strong Earth's seed, different from
Istaxr, for they are separate seed; such it was created hard; the Earth, resembling a man
who is has layers of clothes on all sides, created strong in the body, Water stands under
the Earth in all places.
^ # 11

# %

(11) ahrom, Urwar dd, nazdist maynag n Zamg abar rust, and py
bly, ab-azg ud ab-pst ud ab-xr ud tarr ud rn; u wisp sardag zr urwarn andar
ihr dt, azi dd; ayrh urwar, b ud tax, har hwand urwarn b-w srek, pad
sar, ud tax ahr angust p, pad n zr ham rust.
(11) Fourth, He created the Plant, first it grew in the middle of the Earth, several
feet high, without branches, without bark, without thorns, wet, and sweet; it preserves all
the strength of the plant in its seed, of which it was created; for every bark of the trees
have one drop of water, in the top, and fire is four fingers ahead, it grew forever with that
% 12

/ %


The Greater Iranian Bundahishn

(12) Panjom, Gw k-dd brhnd, andar rn-wz, pad maynag ghn, pad
blyh rd weh Dit; k maynag ghn spd rn bd, iyn mh; k- bly s nay
paymnag; u dd, ayrh, b ud Urwar, - andar gumzin, zr ud waxin az n
(12) Fifth, He created the Sole-Created Cow, in the land of Eran, in the middle of
the world, on the shore of the River Weh Daiti; which she was in the middle of the world,
shining white like the moon; her height (was) three reed's measurement; He created, for
(her) aid, Water and Plant, for in the mixing, she had strength and increasing from these.



(13) aom Gaymard brhnd, ron iyn xward; u ahr nay paymng
bly bd, pahny iyn bly rst, pad bly rd Dit, k maynag ghn std;
Gaymard pad hy lag, Gw pad dan lag; un drh, k az did, drh-iz az b Dit,
and bly xw bd; ammand ud ***** gmand ud uzwnmand ud daxagmand
bd; Gaymard duxagmandh d k, mardm az y thmag, pad n hangdag, zd
hnd; u dd, ayrh, Xwb-snh Ddr; Ohrmazd n d frz brhnd, pad
mard kirb buland pnzdah slag, rn; u Gaymard abg Gw az Zamg brhnd; u
az Rnh ud zargnh Asmn, usar mardmn ud gwn frz brhnd; iyn n d
usar tax thmag, n b thmag; pad tan Gw ud Gaymard b dd, t- purrrawinh mardmn ud gspandn azi bd.

Chapter 1A


(13) Sixth, He created Gayomard, shining like the sun; he was measured at four
reeds height, width as equal to height, he stood at the shore of the River Daiti, which is in
the middle of the world; Gayomard on the left side, the Cow on the right side; their
distance, one from another, distance from the water of Daiti, was as of their own height;
he contained eyes, ***** ears, tongue, a mark; Gayomard's marking is this, men were
born of his seed, in (his) likeness; He created, for his aid, Peace-Giving-Sleep; for
Ohrmazd created this forth, in the form of a tall man of fifteen years, shining; He created
Gayomard along with the Cow from the Earth; He created forth the sperm of men and
animals, from the Light and verdure[green-ness] of the Sky; as these two sperms are Fire
seed, not Water seed; He produced them in the bodies of the Cow and Gayomard, so the
complete progression of men and animals come from them.

(14) U, n a dahin, pad a gh Ghnbr, b dd, pad sl hangrd, s sad
ud ast ud panj rz, dwzdah mhgn, har mh sh rz, ud mh-w sh ud panj rz; har
rz-w nm-w Amahrspand-w padi nihd.
(14) He created these six creations, in the six periods in the six divisions of the
year, which was considered a year, 365 days, 12 months, which each month has 30 days,
and one month has 35 days; a name of an Amahrspand was placed for each one of the
/ 15
(15) U iynh gwam.
(15) I shall discuss their nature.


The Greater Iranian Bundahishn


/ #
(16) Nazdist, Asmn brhnd, pad ehel rz: iyn, az rz Ohrmazd mh
Frawardn, t [n?] rz bn mh Urdwahit; panj rz abar pd: t rz Day-padMihr; n panj rz Ghnbr: u nm Mdyzarm; u wizrin n k: mnist Mard ud
b, [mnist Mihr ud Mh, ud zargnh] paydgh mad.
(16) First, He created the Sky, in 40 days: for, from the day of Ohrmazd in the
month Fravardin, until [this?] day of Aban of the month Ardwahisht; 5 days He
rested[waited]: until the day of Day-in-Mihr; those five days are the days of Gahanbar: its
name is Medyozarm; its explanation is this: the house of Man and Water, [the house of
the Sun and the Moon, and verdure] came to revelation.

(17) Dudgar, b dd, pad panjh ud panj rz: iyn, az rz Mihr mh
Urdwahit, t rz bn mh Tir; panj rz abar pd: t rz Day-pad-Mihr; n panj
rz Ghnbr: u nm Mdyam, k- wizrin n k-: b rn b kard, , nazdist
trag bd.
(17) Second, He created Water, in 55 days: for, from the day Mihr of the month
Ardwahisht, until the day of Aban month Tir; 5 days He rested[waited]: until the day of
Day-in-Mihr; those 5 days are the days of Gahanbar: its name is Medyosham, its
explanation is this: He made Water shining, for first, it was dark.

Chapter 1A



(18) Sidgar, Zamg dd, pad haftd rz: iyn, az rz Mihr mh Tir, t rz
rt mh ahrewar; n panj rz abar pd: t rz Anagrn; n panj rz Ghnbr: u
nm Pth; u wizrin n k: pyag ud rawinh dmn, pad Zamg, paydg b kard.
(18) Third, He created the Earth, in 70 days: for, from the day of Mihr the month
Tir, until the day of Erd the month Shahrewar; 5 days He rested[waited]: until the day of
Anagran; those 5 days are the days of Gahanbar: its name is Petesh-ha; its explanation is
this: He manifested a basis and movement of the creatures on Earth.

(19) ahrom, Urwar dd, pad wst ud panj rz: iyn, az rz Ohrmazd mh
Mihr, t rz rd; panj rz abar pd: t [hatd rz?] rz Anagrn; n panj rz
Ghnbr: u nm Aysrm, k- wizrin n k[?]: warg ud by ud gnag ud zargnh
paydg bd.
(19) Fourth, He created the Tree, in 25 days: for, from the day of Ohrmazd the
month Mihr, until the day of Erd; 5 days He rested[waited]: until [80 days?] the day of
Anagran; those 5 days are the days of Gahanbar: its name is Ayasrem; its explanation is
this: leaves, smell, color and green-ness appeared [from it].


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(20) Panjom, Gspand dd, pad haftd ud panj rz: iyn, az rz Ohrmazd
mh bn, t rz Day-pad-Mihr mh Day; panj rz abar pd: t rz Wahrm; n
panj rz Ghnbr: u nm Mdyirm, k- wizrin n k: hambr zamestn, dmn
xw ry, paydg b kard.
(20) Fifth, He created the Beneficent-Animal, in 75 days: for, from the day of
Ohrmazd the month Aban, until the day of Day-in-Mihr the month Day; 5 days He
rested[waited]: until the day of Wahram; those 5 days are the days of Gahanbar: its name
is Medyairem, its explanation is this: He manifested winter storage (of provisions), on the
account of His own creatures.

(21) aom, Mardm dd, k Gaymard, pad haftd rz: iyn, az rz Rm
mh Dy, t rz Anagrn mh Spandarmad; panj rz abar pd: t n panj gh
Ghng; n panj rz Ghnbr; ast k panj rz truftag, ast k duzdag gwd: u nm
Hamaspasmadm, k- wizrin n k: ham-sph-rawinh pad gty paydg bd; ,
frawahr mardmn, pad ham-sphh, raft hnd.
(21) Sixth, He created Man, who is Gayomard, in 70 days: for, from the day of
Ram the month Day, until the day of Anagran the month Spandarmad; 5 days He
rested[waited]: until the 5 Gathic periods; those 5 days are the days of Gahanbar; it is
(said) that they are the 5 stolen[intercalary] days, it is said that they are stolen: its name is
Hamaspasmadm, its explanation is this: the military-congress was revealed on Earth;
for, the Fravahars of men went, in the battle-array[same-formation].

Chapter 1A



(22) Nm n panj rz truftag, ast k panj gh Ghng, ast k panjag weh
gwd, pad Dng, n ast: Ahunavat Gh, Autavat Gh, Spntamat Gh, Vohatr Gh
ud Vahett Gh.
(22) The names of these 5 stolen days, there is one who (calls them) the 5 Gathic
periods, there is one who calls them the good pentad, from the Scripture, are these: the
Ahunavat Gh, the Autavat Gh, the Spntamat Gh, the Vohatr Gh and the
Vahett Gh.

(23) n sh rz, pad mhgn nihd std, u nm: rz Ohrmazd, Wahman,
Ardwahit, ahrewar, Spandarmad, Hordd, Amurdd, Day-pad-dur, dur, bn,
Xwar, Mh, Tr, G, Day-pad-Mihr, Mihr, Sr, Ran, Frawardn, Wahrm, Rm, Wd,
Dy-pad-Dn, Dn, Ard[Ahriwang], Atd, Asmn, Zmyd, Mraspand, (ud) Anagrn.
(23) Those 30 days, which are placed in a month, their names: the day of
Ohrmazd, Wahman, Ardwahisht, Shahrewar, Spandarmad, Hordad, Amurdad, Day-padAdur, Adur, Aban, Xwar, Mah, Tir, Gosh, Day-pad-Mihr, Mihr, Sros, Rashn, Fravardin,
Wahram, Ram, Wad, Day-pad-Den, Den, Ard[Ahrishwang], Ashtad, Asman, Zamyad,
Maraspand, (and) Anagran.


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(24) n dwzdah mhgn nm, az ham Amahrspandn: mh Frawardn, mh

Ardwahit, mh Hordd, mh Tr, mh Amurdd, mh ahrewar, mh Mihr, mh
bn, mh dur, mh Day, mh Wahman, (ud) mh Spandarmad.
(24) Those 12 months' names, are from those same Amahrspand: the month of
Fravardin, the month of Ardwahisht, the month of Hordad, the month of Tir, the month of
Amurdad, the month of Shahrewar, the month of Mihr, the month of Aban, the month of
Adur, the month of Day, the month of Wahman, (and) the month of Spandarmad.
/ 25
(25) Un iynh, k k, frz-tar gwam.
(25) I will talk (about) their natures further, one by one.


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^ 0 /
(0) Abar frz brhninh Rnn.
(0) On the procreation[forth creation] of the Luminaries[Lights].
# #/
(1) Ohrmazd, andarag Asmn ud Zamg, Rnn frz brhnd; astnd hnd
starn axtarg, ud n-iz n axtarg, pas Mh, ud pas Xward.
(1) Ohrmazd created for the Luminaries, between the Sky and the Earth; the stars
which are constellations, and also those which are not constellations, were stationed, then
the Moon, and then the Sun.



a HaV
naraV b UrUM IiT WT



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(2) iyn nazdist spihr brhnd; u starn axtarg padi gumrd hnd,
mdagwar n dwzdah, k-n nm: Warrag, ud Gw, ud D-Pahikar, ud Karzang, ud
agr, ud Hag, ud Tarzug, ud Gazdum, ud Nm-Asp, ud Wahg, ud Dl, ud Mhg,
kn ham-baxinh pad wst ud haft xwurdag mrinh, kn nm n ast: Padvar,
Pparvz, Parvz, Pah, Azsar, Ben, Raxat, Taraha, Azara, Nahn, Main, Avdem,
Mha, Spor, Husru, Sri, Nur, Gl, Grafa, Varant, Go, Gi, Muru, Bunda, Kahtsar,
Vaht, Mayn, (ud) Kaht; u harwisp bun-dahinn gty mnin awi kard hnd, k, ka
bgat rasd, padrag hamml xw kxnd ud dmn az awn petyrag bznd;
handzag sph ud gund, k krezr baxt std, har axtar-w az awn; a hazr ud
ahr sad ud hatd hazr xwurdag str, pad ayrh, frz brhnd hnd, n nn axtarmrn mrnd, jud az n a-mring iyn pad ham-ayrh awn stnd.
(2) As He first created the firmament[sphere]; the constellation-stars were
appointed to it, especially these twelve, which names' are: the Ram, the Cow, the Twins,
the Crab, the Lion, the Husk-of-Corn, the Balance, the Scorpion, the Centaur, the Goat,
the pot, and the Fish, which are sub-portioned[divided] into 28 asterisms of reckoning,
their names are these: Padevar, Peshparviz, Parviz, Paha, Azesar, Beshn, Raxat, Taraha,
Azara, Nahn, Maian, Avdem, Mashaha, Spor, Husru, Sroi, Nur, Gelu, Grafsha, Varant,
Gao, Goi, Muru, Bunda, Kahtsar, Vaht, Mayn, (and) Kaht; all of the earthly primalcreations made their homes in it[the firmament], that, when the Adversary comes, they
may battle against their own enemy and the creatures may be saved for their counter-part;
like a soldier and a troop, which is portioned for battle, each of these constellation; 6,400
80,000[6,400+80,000=86,400?] small stars were created, for aid, those which
astronomers now number, except those which are uncounted, for they stand by for their
mutual aid.
(3) Pad awn Axtarn, ahr sphbed, pad ahr kust, gumrd; sphbed-w,
abar awn sphbedn, gumrd; was, a-mar, strag nmitg, pad kust kust ud gyg

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gyg, gumrd, pad hamzrh, nrg-ddr awn Axtarn.

(3) For the Constellations, He appointed four generals, in four directions; He
appointed a general over the generals; He appointed many, un-numbered, well-known
stars, to varying directions and varying places, with cooperation, (as) givers-of-power (to)
these Constellations.

(4) iyn gwd ku: Titar Xwarsn sphbed, Sadws Nm-Rz sphbed,
Wanand Xwarfrn sphbed, Haftring Abxtar sphbed, Meh Gh, k (Meh ) MaynAsmn gwd, sphbedn sphbed; Prand ud Mzdad ud abrg n mar kustag-izn
(4) As is it is said: Sirius is the East general, Sadwes is the South general,
Vega[Antares] is the West general, the Seven Bears[Great Bear] is the North general, the
Lord of Thrones, [Capricorn], which they call the (Lord of) Mid-Heaven, the general of
generals; is Parand and Mazdad and the others of this number are also the leaders of the
(5) Ud axtar-mrn n stragn kust ud lagn hzing xwnnd; ud meh ud
keh ud maynag ry gwnd ku: wuzurgh naxustn, wuzurgh sidgar......
(5) And astronomers call these stars of the directions and sides,
leaders[persuaders]; and they say, regarding the great, little and medium stars, the first
greatness[magnitude], the third magnitude.........


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(6) n spihr pad homngh sl-w nihd: dwzdah axtar iyn dwzdah
mhgn; har axtar-w sh su, iyn har mh-w sh rz-abn.
(6) He placed this firmament[sphere] in the likeness of a year: twelve
constellations like twelve months; each constellation (has) 30 degrees, like each month
(has) 30 days and nights.
% 7

(7) U Haftring, pad kust abxtarn, nh k, ka bgat andar dwrist, Duox
bd, gumrd; az haft kiwar, az har kiwar-w, band-w awi paywast std, winnrdrh
kiwarn, andar gumzin, ry: pad n im, Haftring xwnhd.
(7) He appointed the Seven Bears[Great Bear] in the north direction, there where
Hell was, for when the Adversary entered; of the seven countries, a band of every country
is attached to it, for the establishment of the countries, in the mixing, it is called the Great
Bear[the Seven Thrones], for that reason.
# % 8
(8) U spihr awn, ihrag ud wnag nihd, k[k?], andar gumzin,
rawin stnd.
(8) He placed the sphere, the nature and form of these (constellations),

Chapter 2


that[which?], in the mixing, remain in motion[progression].



(9) Any, azabar awn, starn a-gumzinh winnrd, k ka bgat rasd, pad
kxin spznd, abardar gumxtan n hild; u Xwarrah weh Dn Mzdsnn, pad
awn sphbedh, gumrd; nh xwnhd mdayn razm, paydgh abzagh andar
gumzagh; d ry, star a-gumzagh xwnhd, , ka Petyrag mad, awn n gumxt
hnd; axtar-mrn xwnnd spihr azabar sphir, u gr ud nib padi nst, -n n
tuwn mrdan gumzingn tis abzagn.
(9) Again, He arranged above them, the unmixable stars, (so) that, when the
Adversary arrives, they[stars] may reject him in combat, and he[Adversary] may not
release mixing unto the higher (sphere), and He appointed the Glory of the good Religion
of the Mazdaeans, as their general; that place is called the core of battle, the
manifestation of purity in the mixing; for this reason, they are called unmixable stars; for,
when the Adversary came, they did not become mixed; astronomers call it a firmament
which is above the firmament, which there is no ebb nor declivity upon it, for they cannot
judge[reckon] the mixable (stars) , the thing[substance] of the pure.
11 / 10
12 /


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(10) Azabar az n, brhnd Mh Gspand-thmag. (11) Azabar n, brhnd

Xward arwand-asp. (12) U Mh ud Xward, pad slrh awn axtarn
gumzinh ud a-gumzinh, gumrd; k-n hamg band Xward ud Mh.
(10) Above that, He created the Moon containing the seed of the BeneficentAnimal. (11) Above that, He created the swift-horsed Sun. (12) He appointed the Moon
and the Sun, as the leaders of the mixable stars[constellations] and the unmixable stars;
that they are all bound to the Sun and the Moon.
# 13
14 /
(13) Azabar Xward, brhnd Gh Amahrspandn, k Asar Rnh, Gh
Ohrmazd, paywast std. (14) n-iz, ast a pyag a dahin, iyn a dahinh
(13) Above the Sun, He created the Throne of the Amahrspand, which is
connected to the Endless-Light, the Throne of Ohrmazd. (14) These too, are the 6
stations of the 6 creations, as there are six creations of the material world.


(15) Ud mayn nm spihr, gumrd Wd ud Abr ud tax Vzt, k, ka bgat
rasd, pad n b Mng, n Titar b stnnd ud wrn wrnd; u band-iz awn,
ham Xward ud Mh ud stragn kard; u [r?] Titar, Xwarsn Sphbed, hamkr
ud ham-ayrh tax Vzt ud Wd ud Abr.

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(15) And among the middle of the firmament, He appointed the Wind, the Cloud
and the Fire of Vazisht, that when the Adversary arrives, with the Water Spirit, they might
take the water of Sirius and make rain; He created their connection too, also to the Sun,
Moon and stars; His [brave?] Sirius, who is the General of the East, is the coworker and
associate[same-aider] of the Fire Vazisht, the Water and Cloud.

(16) Az awn starn, n meh and dlman-w kadag-masy, n maynag
and ahr-kanr padx[?], n kas and sar gw kadagg; Mh and asprs-w d
hsar; iyn har hsar-w pad zamg frasang-w paymng homng; Xward and-and
(16) Of these stars, those which are big are as big as [an eagle], which is housesized, those which are medium (in size) are as big as a four-sided-granary[prosperity?],
those which are small are as big as the head of a domestic cow; the Moon is as big as a
race-course of two hasars; as each each hasar on the ground is like a measured frasang;
the Sun is as big as the home of the Aryans.
/ #
(17) T madan bgat, Mh ud Xward ud awn starn std, n raft hnd, ud
abzagh zamn ham widrd, ud hmwr nm-rz bd; pas az madan bgat, rawin
std hnd, ud t frazm, az n rawin, n stnd.
(17) Until the coming of the Adversary, the Moon and the Sun and the stars were
standing (still), they did not move, and they were passing time purely, it was always
noon[mid-day]; after the coming of the Adversary, they stood in motion, and until the
end, they did desist[stand] from that motion.


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(18) Rawinh Xward iyn meh-tar tigr s parrag, ka n meh-tar mard, az
n meh-tar kamn, wihd; Mh rawin wn iyn s parrag tigr maynag, ka n
maynag mard, az n maynag kamn, wihd; starn rawin iyn s parrag tigr keh,
ka n keh mard, az n keh kamn, wihd.
(18) The movement of the Sun is like a very large arrow of three feathers, as a
very large man shoots[throws] it, from a very large bow; the movement of the Moon is
like a three feathered medium arrow, as a medium man shoots it, from a medium bow; the
movement of the stars is like a small three feathered arrow, as a small man shoots it, from
a small bow.
(19) Az awn axtarn, tz rawintar hnd: Titar ud Ben ud Tarhab ud Arazag
ud Padybar ud P-Parvz.
(19) From these constellations, they are of very swift moving: Sirius, Beshn,
Tarahag, Azara, Padeybar and Pesh-Parviz.
/ ^

Chapter 2


(20) Xward, az n ka axtar-w be hild, t n did b abyd, maynag drang,

and-and mard-w sang-w abar stnd ud b wihd.
(20) The Sun, from that when it abandons a constellation, until it is necessary (to
get to) another, is of medium duration, as much as a man taking a rock and throwing it.