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Portland State University Solar Engineering Spring 2008 Carolyn Roos, Ph.D.
Washington State University Extension Energy
• A review of six concentrating solar technologies and current projects. • Basics of ray tracing. • Sketch of a thermal analysis example
• Concentrate solar energy through use of mirrors or lenses. • Concentration factor (“number of suns”) may be greater than 10,000. • Systems may be small:
e.g. solar cooker
Solar Concentrating Systems
.... or large:
- Utility scale electricity generation (up to 900
- Furnace temperatures up to 3800oC (6800oF)
Concentrating Solar Power:
A Revived Industry
• Utility Action on ~3,000 MW in 2005-06 • CSP for Commercial & Industrial Facilities
Industrial Solar Tech’s Roof Specs
More planned since 2006
5% Solar • NM: 10% by 2011 • TX: 4.2% by 2015 5 .States Creating a Market for CSP • AZ: 15% RE by 2025. 30% Distributed Generation • CA: 20% by 2010 & 33% by 2020 planned • CO: 10% by 2015 • NV: 20% by 2015.
(e. the CSP market in the SW US can grow to 1 to 2 GW per year. • In the very near future.pdf 6 .gov/csp/troughnet/pdfs/2007/morse_look_us_csp_market. • CSP can scale up fast without critical bottleneck materials.nrel. From: http://www.g.In a Carbon Limited Future… • Carbon limits will close the cost gap. silicon) • Costs will come down with increase in capacity • expected to fall below natural gas in the next few years.
g.Examples of CSP Applications Power Generation: Utility Scale: 64 MW Nevada Solar One (2007) Buildings: 200 kW “Power Roof” Thermal Needs: Hot Water and Steam (Industrial & Commercial Uses) Air Conditioning – Absorption Chillers Desalination of seawater by evaporation Waste incineration “Solar Chemistry” Manufacture of metals and semiconductors Hydrogen production (e. Design of materials for shuttle reentry 7 . water splitting) Materials Testing Under Extreme Conditions e.g.
Lens Concentrators Can be used in conjunction with PV: (http://seattle. Parabolic Trough 2.html) new Use lenses or mirrors in conjunction with PV panels to increase their efficiency. Parabolic Dish & Engine 5.bizjournals. Solar Central Receiver (Solar Power Tower) 6. Compact Linear Fresnel Reflector 3.com/seattle/stories/2006/04/24/focus2. Solar Furnace 4. 8 .Primary Types of Solar Collectors 1.
FRESNEL REFLECTOR LENS CONCENTRATORS PARABOLIC TROUGH PARABOLIC DISH PARABOLIC DISH & ENGINE SOLAR FURNACE SOLAR FURNACE 9 CENTRAL RECEIVER .
Major Components of Solar Collector Systems • Concentrating mirror(s) May use primary & secondary concentrators. evacuated tube. etc. e. Used with solar furnaces • . Heliostats Flat or slightly curved mirrors that track 10 the sun and focus on receiver or concentrator. Absorber absorbs energy from concentrator and transfers to process being driven (engine.). e. chemical reactor.g. • Absorber within a Receiver Receiver contains the absorber. the pipe within an evacuated tube.g. It is the apparatus that “receives” the solar energy.
Parabolic Troughs • Most proven solar concentrating technology • The nine Southern California Edison plants (354 MW total) constructed in the 1980’s are still in operation 11 .
g.Operation • Parabolic mirror reflects solar energy onto a receiver (e. 12 . • Heat transfer fluid such as oil or water is circulated through pipe loop. (250oF to 550oF) • • Collectors track sun from east to west during day.Parabolic Troughs . a evacuated tube). Thermal energy transferred from pipe loop to process.
Parabolic Trough System .New systems include thermal storage. 13 .Can be hybrid solar / natural gas .
pdf 14 .Thermal Storage • Uses high heat capacity fluids as heat transfer storage mediums • 12 to 17 hours of storage will allow plants to have up to 60% to 70% capacity factors.gov/solar/pdfs/csp_prospectus_112807. From: http://www1.energy.eere.
Thermal Output of Hybrid Plant with Thermal Storage 15 .
What Have Been the Technical Challenges? Development of Materials Heat transfer tubes that are less prone to sagging & breaking.g. Generate steam directly instead of running 16 heat transfer fluid through heat exchanger - . Low cost mirrors that have reflectivity and washability of glass. Improved Components Flex hoses used to join sections of pipe loop were prone to failure Replaced with ball joint design. High absorptivity. low emissivity and long-term stability in air. Improved surface material of heat transfer tubes. Ability to track on tilted axis Improved Processes e.
Compared to 395MW in natural gas fired generating capacity at same site Broke ground March 24.“First Solar Thermal Parabolic Trough Power Plant Built in The U. $6 Million Project 17 . In Nearly Two Decades to Be Dedicated On Earth Day” (2005) Saguaro Solar Generating Station (north of Tucson) 1MW . 2004 and started generating power December 2005 Built by Solargenix.S. subsidiary of ACCIONA Energy of Spain Arizona has goal of 15% renewable energy by 2025.
2005 18 .Saguaro Solar Generating Station 1MW .
2007 • Now producing 64 MW on 140 hectares • Located in Eldorado Valley (south of Las Vegas) • One of the world's largest CSP plants. SHOTT North America provided receivers.Nevada Solar One 64 MW . • Cost: $262 million • Developed by Solargenix Energy. • Groundbreaking in February 2006 19 .
Nevada Solar One 64 MW .2007 20 .
Spain.Around the World Granada. • Two 50 MW plants • Developed by Solar Millenium AG Negev desert of Israel • 150 MW facility to be expanded to 500 MW • Developed by Solel (successor company to Luz) 21 • Cost $1 billion .
Smaller Scale: SolarGenix “Power Roof” •(2002)Lincoln Building Parker (demonstration) • Design point of 176 kW • Provides 50 tons of absorption cooling 22 .
org/index.pdf http://www.org/solar_trough.pdf 23 .pdf Heat Transfer Analysis: http://www.iea-ship.energy.nrel.html http://www.Parabolic Troughs Links for More Info http://www.gov/docs/fy04osti/34169.solarpaces.pdf Ball Joint Design: http://www.gov/docs/fy04osti/34440.nrel.gov/troughnet/pdfs/moreno_sf_i nterconnections_with_salt_htf.eere.
energy.pdf 24 .Links to Parabolic Trough Projects and Technology Examples http://www.com/power_plant_tech.schott.cfm http://www.solargenix.inderscience.html http://www.gov/troughnet/pdfs/lewan dowski_vshot.html http://www.gr/files/Ebook/2006/Hospitality_D ay_Lokurlu.capitalsungroup.com/files/rmt.com/solarthermal/english/pr oducts/receiver/details.cfm http://www.us.schott.php?m ainAction=search&action=record&rec_id=674 5 http://www.sete.pdf http://www.com/building_products.com/search/index.us.com/solarthermal/english/in dex.pdf http://www.eere.solargenix.
• Sketch of thermal analysis and design for parabolic trough system at the end of this presentation.
Compact Linear Fresnel Reflectors
Ausra, Inc. http://www.ausra.com/
Makes moot some of the design challenges and weaknesses of
Compact Linear Fresnel Reflectors
• A series of long, shallowcurvature mirrors • Focus light on to linear receivers located above the mirrors.
Lower costs compared to parabolic troughs
Compact Linear Fresnel Reflectors
• Several mirrors share the same receiver
• Reduced tracking mechanism complexity
• Stationary absorber
• No fluid couplings required • Mirrors do not support the receiver
• Denser packing of mirrors possible
• Half the land area
5-megawatt demonstration power plant under construction in Portugal (as of September 2007) • Ausra and PG&E announce purchasing agreement for 117 MW facility located in central California (November 2007) 29 .Compact Linear Fresnel Reflectors • Projects 6.
Dish with receiver for Stirling Engine 30 .Plataforma Solar de Almeria – DISTAL I and II .Parabolic Dishes .
Parabolic Dish/Engine Operation • Solar energy drives a Stirling engine or Brayton cycle engine (gas turbine. • Systems are easily hybridized since Stirling engines can run on any 31 .) • Receiver absorbs solar energy and transfers it to the engine’s working fluid.
Technical Challenges Have Been: Development of solar materials and components Commercial availability of a solar-izable engine.) Potential to become one of least expensive sources of renewable energy. 32 .State of Dish Technology Mature and Cost Effective Technology: Large utility projects using parabolic dishes are now under development. (still true with development of Fresnel reflectors?) Advantage: Flexibility Modular .May be deployed individually for remote applications or grouped together for small-grid (village power) systems. Advantage: High Efficiency Demonstrated highest solar-to-electric conversion efficiency (still true with advances in CPV? No.
Inc. 33 .Stirling Energy Systems.
Stirling Engines • Stirling engines are simple. are larger for same torque. operate quietly. have low O&M costs (~$0. have longer start up time (needs to warm up) 34 .006/kWh) • Waste heat can easily be recovered by the engine. as well as from the engine • According to one manufacturer: $1000-2000/kW installed But • They have higher costs for materials and assembly. have high efficiency (25% for industrial heat).
e.g.stirling. Stirling Danmark http://www.available.asp?ID=1 21 35 … though these are designed for biopower .dk/default.
Infinia Corp http://www.infiniacorp.com/applicatio s/Prod_Spec.pdf 36 .
stirlingenergy.htm • QRMC • Infinia: http://www.energysolutionscenter. • Currently manufacturers large utility-scale Stirling engines for use with solar concentrating systems.com/ • Stirling Energy Systems: http://www.• Stirling Engine Manufacturers Stirling Denmark: http://www. Has plans to produce engines for use with combustible fuels in the future.com/.stirlingbiopower. • Stirling Biopower: http://www.com/.rgpsystems.stirling. • ReGen Power Systems: http://www.dk/ • STM Power: http://www. • In the start up phase (as of July 2007) 37 .com • Stirling Cycles has been acquired by Infinia.infiniacorp.org/distgen/AppGuide/M anf/STMPower.
Receiver Tubes for Stirling Engine Located at focus of dish to absorb heat. 38 .
energy.eere.gov/solar/pdfs/csp_prospectus_112807.pdf 39 .From: www1.
Southern CA • San Diego Gas & Electric entered 20-year contract with SES Solar Two. 40 . an affiliate of Stirling Energy Systems in 2005.000 Stirling solar dishes providing 300 MW on three square miles • Two future phases possible that could add 600 MW • At 900 MW would be one of the largest solar facilities in the world.000 Stirling Solar Dishes in Imperial Valley.300 MW From 12. • 12.
41 .000-Dish Array in Mojave Desert • First phase: 20.• Southern California Edison will construct 500 MW solar generating station on 4500 acres: • Approved by CPUC in Dec 2005 • Using SES dishes 500 MW from 20.000-dish array to be constructed over four years • Option to expand to 850 MW.
42 The first phase will consist of a 20.500 acre solar generating station in southern California. an affiliate of Stirling Energy Systems of Arizona.000 Stirling solar dishes on three square miles of land in the Imperial Valley of southern California. if the plant grows to 900 MW within ten years. SDG&E has options on two future phases that could add another 600 MW of renewables capacity and.000-dish array to be . The 300 MW solar facility will consists of 12. California. The utility also announced the purchase of 4 MW of energy from a local biogas landfill project. 2005 (Refocus Weekly) An electric utility in California will buy 300 MW of solar power from a new facility that uses Stirling solar dishes. which also must be approved by the CPUC. following a contract with Southern California Edison for construction of a 4. calls for development of 500 MW of solar capacity in the Mojave Desert. northeast of Los Angeles. SES says the contract is the second record-breaking solar project it has signed in the past month.A news story on these two projects… • • SAN DIEGO. it would be one of the largest solar facilities in the world. San Diego Gas & Electric will buy the green power under a 20year contract with SES Solar Two. That 20-year power purchase agreement. September 14. US.
Salt River Landfill Demonstration Project Four 22 kW SunDishes • Each 'SunDish' is 50' high. • Electricity is used by the landfill facilities. 43 . • • Stirling engines and generators manufactured by STM Corporation. • Reflective surface is made of sheets of 1. • Stretched-membrane faceted dishes deflected to convex form by vacuum.0 mm low-iron glass. • Efficiency is “20% higher than other solar systems of a similar size.” • Hybrid system: Stirling engines can run on solar energy.
energysolutionscenter.org/distgen/AppGuide/DataFiles/STMBrochure.pdf .STM’s Sun Dish System 44 From: http://www.
.Small Scale & Low Tech Parabolic Dish with Solar Cookers Using parabolic dish concentrators on a smaller scale.. 45 .
France 46 • Largest solar furnace in the world (1 MWt) .Solar Furnaces • Centre National de Recherche Scientifique .Odeillo.
Materials testing A field of heliostats tracks the sun and focuses energy on to a stationary parabolic concentrator which refocuses energy to the receiver.High temperature processes “Solar Chemistry” .) 47 .Solar Furnaces .Operation Solar furnaces are used for: . solid. etc. Receivers vary in design depending on process: Batch or continuous process Controlled temperature and pressure Collection of product (gas.
48 .Why Run Processes in a Solar Furnace? Higher Temperatures (up to 3800oC) Higher temperatures are possible in solar furnace than in conventional combustion furnace or electric arc furnace. Cleaner Processes e.g. Electric arc furnaces use carbon electrodes which often contaminate product. Energy Sustainability Use of renewable energy for industrial processes.
Electricity through Solar Chemistry Example: Water splitting: 2H2O → 2H2 + O2 49 .
Solar Furnaces Technical Challenges From test bench to commercial scale processes Development of continuous processes from batch experiments Material Development Materials suitable for very high temperatures. Process Control e.g. Accurate measurement of high temperatures 50 .
• Mirror is 10 stories high and forms one side of the laboratory • Maximum temperature is 3800oC CNRS Solar Furnace at Odeillo. France 51 .
52 .The Furnace Inside the focal zone of the 1 MW mirror at Odeillo.
53 .Receiver Example Vaporization experiment with 2kW furnace at Odeillo.
Attenuator – Louvers control sunlight entering furnace 54 .Receiver and Attenuator Plataforma Solar de Almeria: .
Israel.. Paul Scherer Institute . Switzerland. Germany..Other Solar Furnaces Solar furnaces in Spain.Switzerland (45 kW) 55 . France.
Paul Scherer Institute. Switzerland Stretched film concentrator 56 .
Solar Central Receivers “Power Towers” Plataforma Solar de Almeria. Spain 57 .
Solar One Located near Barstow. California Operated from 1982 to1986 58 .
menzelphoto.com/gallery/big/altenergy3.Solar One Moonrise over the Solar One Heliostat Field Photo from http://www.htm 59 .
edu/solar2/ 60 .Solar Two Solar Two improved the thermal storage of Solar One Photo from http://ucdcms.ucdavis.
61 .Plataforma Solar de Almeria • 1.8 MW steam generator • Produces steam at 340oC and to drive steam turbine • Thermal storage: 18-tons of Al2O3 Notice the heliostat field and the central tower reflected in this heliostat.
•Most efficient in world for silicon until… (see next slides) • With multi-junction cells.Concentrating Solar Photovoltaics • 500 kW now installed in Arizona (APS) • Concentrating sunlight 250x to 500x reduces cell cost • Amonix CPV cells are 26% efficient. efficiency can be increased to 62 40% .
az.cc.http://www.pdf 63 .state.us/utility/electric/EPS-USPAPS.
64 .Lens Concentrators • In this example.) • 40% efficiency for CPV achieved. energy is concentrated on to PV cells with lenses (but lens systems don’t necessarily have PV cells.
wordpress.Comparison of Technologie s (2006) 65 http://tomkonrad.com/2006/12/07/they-do-it-with-mirrors-concentrating-solar-power/ .
Environmental Impacts Deserts have sensitive ecosystems and low water availability. shading areas where the ecosystem is accustomed to full sun. 66 . Land Use The heliostat field occupies a large area of land. - Water Use Wet cooling towers used in power generation have high water consumption.
• The rest is geometry How rays of light are reflected off surfaces or refracted through materials.Ray Tracing • Geometrical Optics: • Law of Reflection and Refraction are the only physical laws required for geometrical optics. 67 .
” Reference: “Modern Geometrical Optics” by Max Herzberger. and this normal bisects the angle between the two rays. 1958 68 .Reflection • Law of Reflection • “The incident ray and reflected ray lie in a plane containing the incident normal.
Refraction through a Lens • Snell’s Law n1 sin 1 n2 sin 2 n is index of refraction of the material 69 .
…with a front that reflects reemitted radiation back to the cylinder. Normal is center of distribution of reemitted rays.Ray Tracing Example Secondary concentrator to spread energy evenly across a cylinder. 70 . Reemission is not really a single normal ray as shown.
1958 . Max Herzberger.Miscellaneous Reflection Examples 71 “Modern Geometrical Optics”.
Miscellaneous Refraction Examples 72 “Modern Geometrical Optics”. Max Herzberger. 1958 .
73 .Edge Ray Analysis • Edge ray analysis is used to do ray tracing by hand. • Select rays to establish bounds: • Extreme angles • With maximum error.
74 .Analysis Rays Enter CPC at Extreme • Perfect CPC: Angle A Compound Parabolic Concentrator focuses rays onto an absorber without tracking. • Select cone so rejection of rays is acceptable. • Conical approximation: • Some rays are reflected back out without striking the absorber.
• Design secondary mirror so many of the rays that miss the front will reflect back to the pipe. Ray 2 misses the front. Ray 3 misses the front 75 and misses the back. . • Select rays that represent the error of the primary concentrator. Example of Secondary Concentrator Ray 1 strikes front. but is reflected back.• Rays from primary concentrator focus on a pipe imperfectly.
Ray Tracing by Computer • Ray tracing by hand. you are limited to selecting a small number of rays. • Can look at distribution of rays across a surface. you can send in many rays. 76 . • Ray tracing by computer.
Example: Focal Point of an Imperfect Primary Concentrator 77 .
• Follow path of incoming rays to absorber and reemission of rays from absorber back out of system • Determine surface temperatures and available process heat from distribution of rays using energy balance. • Define surfaces of windows.Ray Tracing by Computer Computer modeling: • Incoming rays created according to the profile of primary concentrator. reflectors and absorbers mathematically. Example design goals: • Minimize reflection out of receiver • Obtain even distribution across absorber surfaces 78 .
http://www.nrel. Forristall.nrel. October 2003.pdf 79 . http://www.pdf From: “Heat Transfer Analysis and Modeling of a Parabolic Trough Solar Receiver Implemented in Engineering Equation Solver”.gov/docs/fy04osti/34169. NREL. • Receiver .gov/docs/fy04osti/34169.Pipe with and without evacuated tube. R.NREL Thermal Analysis Example • Consider a parabolic trough.
Thermal Analysis Example • Evacuated tube 80 .
Heat Balance on Receiver with and without evacuated tube 81 .
Heat Balance Equations on Receiver 82 .
Wind Temperatures of surfaces and heat transfer fluid. 83 . you may be interested in considering: • • • • • • Length and cross-section of trough Diameters of pipe and evacuated tube Velocity of heat transfer fluid Optical properties of the pipe. • Energy absorbed by heat transfer fluid Vary geometry. glass and trough Weather data: Temperature. velocity and materials to meet your design criteria cost effectively. Insolation.Design In your thermal analysis.
Thermal Analysis You may also want to include other losses such as heat loss through support brackets. 84 .
Solar News Links The Energy Blog’s Solar Thermal page: http://thefraserdomain.typepad.com/energy/solartherma l_/index.html 85 .
FRESNEL REFLECTOR LENS CONCENTRATORS The End PARABOLIC TROUGH PARABOLIC DISH PARABOLIC DISH & ENGINE SOLAR FURNACE SOLAR FURNACE 86 CENTRAL RECEIVER .
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