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JOSEPH RICK CRUZ CATAAN
Submitted to the COLLEGE OF MASS COMMUNICATION University of the Philippines Diliman In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of
BACHELOR OF ARTS IN BROADCAST COMMUNICATION
A ‘WORLD’ WITHIN THE WORLD: THE JEJEMONS AS THE ‘OTHER’ CULTURE
by JOSEPH RICK CRUZ CATAAN
has been approved for the degree of Bachelor of Arts in Broadcast Communication and for the University of the Philippines College of Mass Communication by
Eulalio R. Guieb III, Ph. D.
Professor Rolando B. Tolentino, Ph. D. Dean, College of Mass Communication
PERSONAL DATA Name Permanent Address Joseph Rick Cruz Cataan P5 B10 L3 Sta. Barbara Villas 1, Brgy. Silangan, San Mateo, Rizal Mobile Number Date & Place of Birth (+63) 91687616567 16 August 1989, Quezon City
EDUCATION Secondary Level Graduated with distinction, National Christian Life College, Marikina City Primary Level ORGANIZATIONS Campaign and Strategies Head, Student Alliance for the Advancement of Democratic Rights in UP-CMC (STAND UP-CMC) Member, UP Mass Communicators Organization WORK EXPERIENCE Senior reporter, Kabataan News Network, 2005-2010 Radio & TV internship: DZUP 1602 KHz, UNTV 37 ACHIEVEMENTS University scholar: AY 2007-2008, 1st semester. College scholar: AY 2007-2008, 2nd semester, AY 20082009, 2nd semester, AY 2009-2010, 1st semester A1 student, Sto. Nino Elementary School, Marikina City
thank you. You are beautiful. and for believing in me. This research is dedicated to all the Loves that bring us to life (The Love of Siam. Salamat. Thank you for the confusions. Data Tolentino-Canlas. Prof. thank you for being my pseudo-adviser. Thank you Dad. for the unending care and love. You are the best research partner ever! To all my blockmates. Thank you UP Centennial Dormitory. without which there is no clarity. for the hot pandesals and coffee every day and night.ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to extend my deepest gratitude to Jejemaster Aris Bonifacio for his patience in many re-scheduling and late-night calls and text messages. for the hot pancit with litson and the words of wisdom all the time. No one else comes close to you. To Prof. To you. and the love. 2006). who see me in a very special way amidst the sea of faces. Thank you for the life. I love you. Thank you for the prayers. Eli Guieb III for the lessons about the research to learning of life. Thank you Mom. I am also grateful to myself. especially “Badets and Friends”. . Thank you so much. for my exemptions to the curfew.
DEDICATION From You. to You. .
C. This study explores beyond the empowerment-resistance model of many previous studies. This research is written in two languages. it directs the research to coin a new term that is more fitting with the emerging sub-cultures in the Philippines and in the world. English and Jejenese. I consistently use the latter throughout the research.ABSTRACT Cataan. media . the most interesting ‘subculture’ to date is the Jejemonsters or simply Jejemons. It also raises a relevant research problem on how Jejemons apply ‘Jejemony’ in their everyday life as a form of resistance and style. class. and the neglect and failure to always relate to class and ethnicity. its liberal application to any phenomenon. living with the Jejemons and as a Jejemon. University of the Philippines College of Mass Communication. I spent five weeks researching in the field. as it coins an original concept of ‘Jejemony’ or Jejemons’ alternative hegemony. To ground this research. As the years progress. the Jejemons’ language. Jejemom. subculture. In a short span of time. Keywords: culture. This research entitled A ‘World’ Within the World: The Jejemons as the ‘Other’ Culture gives a basic picture of the Jejemon phenomenon. they have proven the strength of a subordinate culture to fit into the nation’s state of affairs and the mainstream media as evident with GMA Network’s show. the review of related literature traces the roots of the concept ‘subculture’. (2011). J. At the end of the review. sub-culture. I use participant observation as the primary method in studying the phenomenon. ideology. the concept suffers some relevant critiques such as extreme empiricism. A ‘World’ Within the World: The Jejemons as the ‘Other’ Culture. In the Philippine popular culture scene. I start with criticizing the concept of ‘subculture’ and establish its difference with ‘sub-culture’. Unpublished Undergraduate Thesis. The former serves as the main text. Jejemons.
ideyolohiya. ang maluwag na paggamit ng teorya sa anumang isyu. Ang pananaliksik na ito ay isinulat sa wikang Ingles at Jejenese. sumama at naging isang Jejemon. at ipinaliwanag ang kaibahan nito sa ‘sub-kultura’.ABSTRAKT Cataan. Sa katapusan ng pananaliksik. kasabay nito ang pagbibigay ng bagong terminolohiya na tatawaging ‘Jejemony’ o alternatibong hegemonya o gahum ng mga Jejemon. Sa usapin ng kulturang popular sa Pilipinas. napatunayan nila ang lakas ng ‘subkultura’ upang maimpluwensiyahan ang mga pambansang usapin at media gaya ng makikita sa palabas ng GMA Network na pinamagatang Jejemom. at ang paglimot at kamalian sa paguugnay nito sa mga uri sa lipunan at kultura. Ang ‘Mundo’ sa Loob ng Mundo: Ang mga Jejemon bilang ‘Ibang’ Kultura. binalikan ng nag-aaral ang ugat ng konsepto ng subkultura na sa paglaon ay nagtamo ng ilang kritisismo tulad ng lubos na pagiging praktikal. subkutura. Itinatanong rin ng pananaliksik kung paano ginagamit ng mga Jejemon ang konsepto ng ‘Jejemony’ sa kanilang pang-araw-araw na buhay bilang porma ng pagtutol at estilo. media . Jejemon. C. nakipamuhay ako. Ang pananaliksik na ito ay mas malalim kumpara sa modelong ‘pag-igpaw-paglaban’ ng maraming mga nakaraang pag-aaral. J. Unibersidad ng Pilipinas Kolehiyo ng Pangmadlang Komunikasyon. Ang wikang Ingles ang siyang pangunahing teksto. Upang pagtibayin ang pananaliksik. Ang pananaliksik na ito na pinamagatang Ang ‘Mundo’ sa Loob ng Mundo: Ang mga Jejemon bilang ‘Ibang’ Kultura ay nagbibigay ng paunang larawan sa subkulturang Jejemon. Keywords: kultura. ginamit ko ang participant observation upang pagaralan ang ‘subkultura’. uri. sub-kultura. Sa loob ng limang linggo. Unpublished Undergraduate Thesis. ang wika ng mga Jejemon. Sa pagpapatuloy ng pananaliksik. (2011). nananawagan ito na humanap o lumikha ng bagong salitang maaaring ipalit sa salitang ‘subkultura’. Sa maikling panahon. ang pinakasikat na ‘subkultura’ sa kasalukuyan ay ang mga Jejemonster o mga Jejemon. Ang huli ay ang gagamiting konsepto sa buong pananaliksik. Inumpisahan ko ang pananaliksik sa pagkritik sa konsepto ng ‘subkultura’.
Webster do this?: defining the term ‘subculture’ Detour ahead: a critique of the concept of subculture Under construction: sorry for the inconvenience: The Birmingham School Tradition and ‘subculture’ study ‘Subcultures’ in the Philippines Not so far: the alternatives to ‘subculture’ ‘Subculture’ vis-à-vis sub-culture 8 9 11 11 14 15 17 18 . its status and critiques The Chicago made a bull’s eye: the origins of the ‘subculture’ theory Can Mr.TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Title Page Approval Sheet Biographical Data Acknowledgment Dedication Abstract Abstrakt Table of Contents Lists of Tables and Pictures CHAPTER 1: Here comes the tollgate: An introduction i ii iii iv v vi vii viii x 2 CHAPTER 2: Entering the subway: the ‘subculture’ theory.
CHAPTER 3: No swerving: the rise of Jejemons Defining a Jejemon Origin of the term Jejemon Jeje + webmaster = Jejemaster The Jejefriends 22 22 22 24 25 CHAPTER 4: Entering a ‘world’ within the world: The Jejeworld The new Jejemon in town Jejemons’ codes and ‘style’ The Jejetext The Jejelevels: the measure of a true Jejemon Eow pFhOwzH: textmates to remember The Jejefashion The Jejemons’ ideology and alternative hegemony 30 32 32 35 36 37 39 41 CHAPTER 5: The Jejebusters and other forms of jejebusting Institutions of jejebusting Other forms of jejebusting Jejemons and representation on TV 45 45 48 51 CHAPTER 6: From subway to the main road: The Jejemons’ ambivalent returns The Jejemons are here to stay The Jejemons’ ambivalent returns It’s a joyride!: a ‘journey’ to remember 55 55 57 59 References Appendices Photo credits Interview guide questions for Jejemaster Interview guide questions for Jejemons Consent forms 61 65 66 67 68 .
Version 1: The thesis in English .
Alphabet vis-à-vis Jejebet Table 2: Levels of Jejetext Photographs Photo 1: I am with Jejemaster Aris Bonifacio during my interview with him in The Old Spaghetti House. 2010 Photo 2: Sherwin and Ryan. 2010) 40 Photo 9: Screenshot of Jing Gaddi’s status on Facebook as he coins the term ‘Jejemony’ 42 Photo 10: A newspaper headline on DepEd’s campaign against Jejemons (Photo by Boy Banat.List of tables and photos Tables Table 1 . 2010) Photo 12: Jejesuicide letter (Photo courtesy of BoyBanat.tv. 2010) Photo 11: Jejeresume (Photo by BoyBanat. during our snacks in Greenwich SM Fairview Photo 3: Kath. December 28. Princess and Nina. Princess and Sherwin. Nina. in their Jejeposes 24 35 36 26 27 28 33 Photo 6: Screen shots of Jejetext (from left: A.com) 46 48 50 . during our snacks in Greenwich SM Fairview Photo 4: Jejefriends and me Photo 5: My Jejefriends. 2010) 39 Photo 8: Screen shot of Jejemon in Jejeform (from the show Saksi. D: Screen shot of my reply to C 38 Photo 7: The Jejecap (Photo by Boy Banat. GMANews.com. B and C). Walter Mart Pasong Tamo. Kath. Ryan.
Shopping Center. Ate: Binuksan ni Ate ang file. . Itinuro ko ang filename na JejeProposal-FINAL. Natawa. Jejenese po ‘yan. 2010 Location: Alva Photocopying and Printing Stall. UP Diliman Joseph: Ate. Inabot ko na ang USB ko. pa-print po. language ng mga Jejemon. Ate: Joseph: Anong filename? Ito po. Ganito ba talaga ‘to? Sabay turo sa Jejenese version ng aking title page Joseph: Ate: Opo. Tumawa ulit. Ah! Akala ko virus eh.docx.J. C Cataan 1 Field note entry dated October 5.
First. 1 2 Sources are withheld. Thus. this research breaks me into pieces.P. The focal point here is a group of people: a so-called ‘subculture’ or subculture2 that was able to counter the dominant culture in the society. but rather the receivers and reactors. This study deviates from many ‘template’ broadcast studies mentioned above. C Cataan 2 CHAPTER 1 Here comes the tollgate: An introduction Like imperfect clay in potter’s hands. the medium is critiqued from the outsider’s point of view. They have been able also to occupy small ‘spaces’ in the mainstream media. the medium is the central text of the research. Alongside is my dissent on the issue that this research is not a broadcast study. I leave behind and pick up some pieces of me that make a new. when this research is being proposed. Through this. But the initial question that I ask. College of Mass Communication library. what does it really mean to have a broadcast study? The theses and dissertations made by previous Broadcast majors in the College are similar in two things. These observations led me to the second inquiry: would it still be a broadcast study if the medium is not the central text anymore? In my research. theoretical and ideological dilemma. but to unearth the most possible truth and break the bonds of ignorance and falsity. The difference of subculture and sub-culture (with a hyphen) is discussed in the succeeding chapter. and eventually. Based on what I have observed in the archives of the U.J. rationale. scopes and limitations of this research. media is not the central text or the producers of the meaning of texts. it is very evident that theses and dissertations in the Broadcast Department tackled on analyses and critiques to either television or radio programs. Let me begin with setting the objectives. it suffered unfair reviews and criticisms1 which led to saying that this is not a broadcast study. We study and do research not to please others. with a little number on the internet as a communication tool. I walked through ‘places’ and ‘spaces’ I never knew before. Second. and perhaps better ‘Joseph Cataan’. I experience confusions. .
it answers how the Jejemon phenomenon provides representation and identity to many Filipino youth nowadays . I problematize the crisis that hounds the concept of ‘subculture’. when the other one is being read. This research aims to study the Jejemon sub-culture as a related-media and anthropological phenomenon. My research engages a key intersection in studies of media and culture. 2010) or Jejemons’ alternative hegemony. and I try to capture their message.J. this explores the so-called ‘Jejemony’ (J. to update the record of existing sub-cultures that evolve and vanish through time. the language of the ‘researched’. clothes and speech. This physical design necessitates the reader to choose between the two languages. He or she experiences a simultaneous accommodation and resistance to either language. I believe that the Jejemons must be the first to understand the studies about them. this study proves that the Jejemons are beyond a ‘subculture’ in its truest sense. Through ‘Jejemony’. a communication text. especially when Gordon (1947) provides the ‘indicators’ of such. I see and read Jejemons as a text. In an ethnographic lens. the Jejemons are undeniably a ‘subculture’. It shows the opposition between the mainstream and the sub-culture’s language. This further recommends a re-shaping of the term that would solve the terminology crisis and eventually calls to coin a better term in the future that will fit into the emerging ‘subcultures’. The lax usage of the term (see Chapter 2) led to confusions and many critique of social scientists along the way. Gaddi. personal communication. Third. namely. Jejemons’ distinct culture as a social process and their ideology as a ‘subculture’ outlook. the thesis is Jejenese. Using the ‘subculture’ theory distinctly formulated by the Schools of Chicago and Birmingham. It is also the first of its kind to critically study the Jejemon phenomenon and write the final research output in Jejenese. Based on the traditional definitions of ‘subculture’ that I discuss in the next chapter. The back-to-back design of this thesis is an assertion of the language as well. C Cataan 3 This research may be different from previous studies mentioned earlier but this surely contributes to the Department’s establishment of its distinct school of thought for others to follow. since the other language is in its inverted position. this research looks and studies the socially stratified struggle. However. and to study the interplay of classes involved in the phenomenon. I use the ‘Jejetranslator’ of Jejemaster Aries Bonifacio for the version 2 of this research.
There are a lot more facets of this ‘world’ that need to be explored but I opted to focus on power relations within and outside this ‘world’. when they do not cooperate are ‘othered’ by the state. this probes the Jejemons’ internal symbols. Fifth. this research answers the question. an alternative hegemony for that matter and at the same time a ‘revolutionary activity’ (Gramci. Fourth. all the same. dig beyond the surface and unearth sites of disorder where the state has been unable to impose its order (p. This research recognizes the factions within the sub-culture. how are the actual Jejemons different from media-represented ones? Lastly. the role of an anthropologist is to find these ‘margins’. 1992). As a ‘world’ within the world but is indeed a ‘world’ by and in itself (Gordon. In these margins. though a sub-culture is also a hegemony. this study works in an unexplored area of ethnographic studies called by Das and Poole (2004) as ‘anthropology of the state’. This study places its focus on one particular group of Jejemons and does not at large represent the entire Jejemon subculture members and perspectives in the Philippines. we can find a sub-culture. has social margins as well. Jejemons. This study particularizes on ‘state margins’ which says that the ethnographic study of the ‘primitives’ should include the ‘state’ in the study and its order-making function simply because the state has a lot of influence in the existence and reactions of sub-cultures. the . in Williams. as it continues the ethnographic approach through participant observation. there are geographic and cultural divisions within the Jejemon sub-culture. and cast to its margins. as defined by Dick Hebdige (1979). In the outskirts of social margin. This research. admits some limitations on its methods and analysis. through their use of style. are there really Jejemons? If there are. Also. culture and ideology. meanings and styles. I try to comprehend the basic picture of this ‘world’ while making a clear distinction between separate ‘subcultures’ and separate units of the same ‘subculture’. why does this sub-culture exist in this period of our time? This study is significant because it studies how Jejemons. counter and alter the current social order and perceive themselves and the world. The ‘primitives’. 1947). Due to subculture’s rapid development brought about by the demand to maintain their existence. 6).J. C Cataan 4 in the midst of a strong demand for conformity in society. The state. beyond geographic margins.
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‘reproduction’, ‘living’ and ‘fatality’ of its ‘citizens’, and the possible extinction of the ‘world’ itself (p. 41, 42). The use of English, on the other hand, as the primary language of this research, even in its Jejenese translation is my personal preference. Though it is odd because the Jejemons do not communicate in English-Jejenese, I believe that I am more comfortable in expressing myself, my viewpoints and arguments in English. Perhaps, in the future, I can provide a Filipino translation of this research. My status as an intellectual from a renowned university in the Philippines makes my access to the Jejemon ‘subculture’ difficult. During observations and interviews, there were resistance from the Jejemons such as withholding answers or not answering at all. However, this resistance was understandable because five weeks is insufficient to remove their perceived difference from me. There is also a question of sincerity on why I am studying their ‘subculture’. By contrast, I believe that this is the usual reaction of any group, whether ‘subculture’ or not, when others seek to represent their lifestyle or lives in general. I spent five weeks, from December 20, 2010 to January 21, 2011 researching in the field. The choice of date is due to the thesis phasing and at the same time the Christmas break. I carried out one informal and semi-structured interview with Jejemaster Aris Bonifacio, as well as five informal, unstructured interviews with the Jejemons who volunteered to be interviewed. The general themes discussed in interviews consisted of the general information about their ‘world’, and how joining the Jejemon ‘subculture’ changed their everyday lives. In the data analysis, I primarily utilize my ethnographic field notes during my several visits and participant observation with the Jejemon. My assumptions and arguments are mainly based on interactions, observations and questions that arise in my mind during the said immersion period. The research data, such as transcripts and field notes that I have gathered during the immersion period are stored in a vault that can be accessed by me and my adviser. Anyone who wishes to have access to it must ask permission from me and my adviser, or any authorized professor of the Department of Broadcast Communication of the University of the Philippines Diliman. Proper university procedures must also be followed to gain access to the data. This research is inspired by a classic book Learning to Labour by Paul Willis (1977). He worked ethnographically with the middle-class youth students of Hammertown School in West
J. C Cataan
Midlands. He discovers that the School is divided into two factions, the so-called ‘earoles’ or the conformists and the ‘lads’ or the non-conformists. The ‘earoles’ follow the School and undergo ‘counselling’ on careers that they would get in the future, while the ‘lads’ opt to disobey the School by not following the proper dress code and getting ‘menial’ (rather than mental) jobs, during their apprenticeship. He furthermore presents his paper in the ‘words’ of the ‘lads’. My critique, however, on Willis’s paper can be found in the next chapter. Finally, before the common theories that we study in the Department, we must realize that media, in the first place, is cultural (Sturken and Cartwright, 2001). We would fail to reach the crux of our studies if we do not acknowledge this fact. I contend that it is only through cultural studies can the Broadcast Department establish its own school of thought. If the Journalism Department has its investigative journalism, we, in the Broadcast Department, must have cultural studies—not only mere cultural studies following the ‘dead white males’ of western schools of thought, but a Philippine cultural and critical studies that will enrich our own literature and will be followed by the future intellectuals in the country. It is the changing times that call us out from those former types of studies into cultural and critical studies. To block the floodways of knowledge is the gravest transgression one can commit in a free academic community. For decades, we have been scratching the surface of media studies and we must now go deeper. This research, as it is bound today, expresses that a sub-cultural and cultural study has a rightful place in media studies, if not one of the most important but neglected facet. This research attempts to re-present the ‘mass’ in mass communication-- to immerse ourselves with the masses and to offer this small piece of knowledge for them to whom we owe its very existence. In the next chapter, I synthesize the broad literary tradition related to culture and ‘subculture’. I maximize archival works such as defining the terms, tracing the historical and ideological foundations of the concepts, and considering the literatures, their critiques, that have been done with regard to ‘subculture’ and the Jejemons. It is important to equip myself before entering a ‘world’ that is ‘miles’ away from my ‘world’.
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“Mula dito sa bus na sinasakyan ko papunta sa tambayan ng mga Jejemon sa Fairview, tanaw ko ang maraming tao. Marami silang ginagawa. Iba’t iba ang galaw ng mga katawan. Iba’t iba ang kumpas ng mga kamay. Hindi ko namamalayan, binabasa ko na pala sila bilang mga teksto.” –Field note, Jan. 7, 2011
While Chicago sees the ‘subculture’ phenomenon at a broader context. many of whom either taught or were trained in the Sociology department of the University of Chicago. for instance. p. But even before the two Schools have been able to establish their own schools of thought. Bourdieu. etc. 2005). C Cataan 8 CHAPTER 2 Entering the subway: the ‘subculture’ theory and its critiques The following review of related literature contains diverse definitions of the term ‘subculture’. or widely known as the Birmingham School. or those who depart from the Birmingham School. 81). If the Chicago School starts the pursuit on knowledge about ‘subculture’. The School’s contribution to the rich theory is its kind of ‘urban micro-sociology’ which pays “attention to the interaction of people’s perceptions of themselves with others’ view of them” (Gelder and Thornton. religion. the so-called ‘precursor of subculture’ has been laid down first by many social scientists (Gelder. politics. and the concept of ‘subculture’ cannot accommodate the diversity of social ‘groups’ anymore. 2005. the law. p. the Birmingham School decides to focus on ‘youth subcultures’ and relate them to the broader context of society. On the other hand. the Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies at Birmingham University (CCCS). 3 The latter School argues that times are changing.J. discusses the concept of ‘field’. mainly from Chicago and Birmingham Schools.. art. The Chicago School is a collective term which refers to several generations of sociologists who shared certain concerns and perspectives about society and culture. The two schools have distinct ways of looking at ‘subcultures’. as well as different studies and researches applying the concept. . was established in the mid1970s and closed in the year 2002 (Gelder. science. the economy. that tend to form distinct 3 Ken Gelder (2005) labels them as ‘post-structuralist’. It refers to “the various spheres of life. the Birmingham School ends it by paving the way for the era of so-called ‘post-subculture’. 11). These ‘precursors’ eventually play a big role for the stronger foundation of the ‘subculture’ theory.
These are historical constellations that arise. But Park. in Wacquant. Turner (1969) also influentially talks about ‘communitas’. p.J. . p. the term was considered hallow in the pillars of the so-called ‘American sociology’ (Smith in Thornton. a site of unmediated contact between people at the edges of society. In these meaningful discourses. and sometimes wane or perish. we create the world where we are now (p. 8). The ‘fields’ are shortlived. an expression of liminality4. 1997). a realm of full and ‘total’ experience” (in Gelder. et al. 16). 10). but even before the term was coined. grow. Robert Park (1915) calls it ‘social groups’. Park. 7). The Chicago made a bull’s eye: the origins of the ‘subculture’ theory The Chicago School of Sociology officially coins the term ‘subculture’ in the 1940s (Thornton. of social marginality. 2006). A ‘field’ is an arena of struggle through which agents and institutions seek to preserve or overturn the existing distribution of capital. and difference. 17). He explains that these groups compose our ‘city’. 8). It is also a ‘battlefield’ wherein the bases of identity and hierarchy are endlessly disputed over (Bourdieu. but it is a collection of institution… Every single community is always a part of some larger and more inclusive one… The ultimate community is the wide world (in Gelder. neglects to see the power relations and class struggle in society. p. We mold our own societal standards and norms (p. C Cataan 9 microcosms endowed with their own rules. and free from its orderly gaze. 4 The concept of ‘liminality’ is used again in the latter part of this research. unregulated by it. regularities. Long before the term ‘subculture’ was available for us to freely use. even so. Through interactions. (1915) dissent to the concept of ‘community’ because they believe that a community is not only a collection of people. 2006. 11). 2005. He defines it as “against ‘structure’. we create discourses. however. over time (p. which I discuss below. change shape. 2005. and forms of authority” (in Wacquant. p.
The girls were called ‘taxidancers’ because like the taxi driver and his cab. 1932. For the Chicago School. 28). After tracing the roots of the term ‘subculture’. Cohen (1955) convinces the Chicago School. 44). since ‘groupings’ in society do not just happen as a form of delinquency. on the other hand. 6 Parent culture. is the ‘original’ culture that one deviates from when he or she moves to a ‘subculture’. digging down their own world.”7 These problems ask for an ‘action’. 5 . this problem demands and “presses for novel solutions” (p. that ‘taxi-dancers’ live ‘dual lives’ without detection since they are in the ‘underground’ employment and in the ‘subway’ of economy. Taxi-dancers were girls who dance with any man who is willing to pay for her charges. 7 Cohen said that ‘problems’ are tensions. thought of ‘deviant groups’. He believes that these groups that transgress the norm do not necessarily experience a moral decline but rather go through a downward social and cultural mobility (p. His study on ‘deviance’ refers to the ‘taxi-dancers’5 in American cities in the early 1930s. morals and virtues imparted by the said culture. disequilibrium and challenges that people face in the society. When an ‘action’ becomes unsuccessful and generates another ‘problem’. Finally. 28). They always perceive them as ‘deviants’ who rejects the current order of society to which they belong. The School seems to have a problem with the term ‘deviant’ and ‘delinquent’. the School conceive the term ‘subculture’. they were for hire and paid in proportion to the time spent and the services rendered (Cressey. They incorporate Cressey’s (1932) concept of ‘downward mobility’. p. ‘subcultures’ are always in the underground. C Cataan 10 Paul Cressey (1932). The School turns to Cohen’s (1955) explanation that “all human actions…” including delinquency and deviance.J. let us dig deeper by probing the diverse definitions of the word. He contends that a departure to the socalled ‘parent culture’6 in search of one’s own identity and expression does not equate to losing the values. are “an on-going series of efforts to solve problems. according to Phil Cohen (1972). Such ‘delinquency’ instead is temporary and just a spur of social conditions of the times.
We can see from their analyses that ‘subcultures’ are in the most hidden. 55). C Cataan 11 Can Mr. in the term ‘subculture’ is its very prefix ‘sub’. 1997.e. What is distinct. dark. This positive outlook on the new concept led to diverse definitions that only the broadest and most basic of definitions would accommodate the rich range of theory and research (Thornton. the Chicago School has a huge role in the early days of ‘subculture’ studies. Becker (1963) ascribes his analysis on the ‘jazz musicians’. 1932). 56). It is stable and long-lasting. they develop a culture that solves their ‘problem’. the culture of the larger society. p. they have established a stronger ‘precursor’ for the concept of ‘subculture’. a practice) which distinguishes them in a significant way from the members of other social groups. When these ‘deviant people’ interact. and the problem-solving function of ‘subcultures’ (see Cohen. Indeed. His theory is an intersection of the culture of ‘deviance’ (see Cressey. let me first elaborate on the critique encountered by the Chicago School that dilutes the sternness of the concept of ‘subculture’. All would probably agree that subcultures are groups of people that have something in common with each other (i. they share the same problem. which I will discuss in succeeding subjects of this chapter. 1997). which . and in distinction to. This also helps us to make sense of the vast understanding about ‘subculture’.J. But this description holds true equally for many other kinds of group (Thornton. and unnoticed spaces of society. they are often called subcultures” (p. 1955). Together with Park (1915) and Cohen (1955). He culminates in telling us that since “these (developed) cultures operate within.. an interest. Before that. however. He argues that a ‘subculture’ is a way of life (p. The School’s strength in theorizing and studying ‘subcultures’ first hand through ethnography paves way for the eventual growth of the Birmingham School. Detour ahead: a critique of the concept of subculture The Chicago School is indeed rigorous in developing the ‘subculture’ theory. Webster do this?: defining the term ‘subculture’ Cressey’s (1932) concept of being ‘underground’ is just one of many definitions given by the Chicago School to the flourishing concept of ‘subculture’. 1).
at the end of the day. It is only the social scientists and researchers who give them this category. resistance and how these subcultures counter the dominant culture. His pessimistic view on ‘subcultures’ convinces many that the “subcultural empowerment is empowerment without a future” (in Gelder. in his words. 71). “does not exist in a vacuum. debates to “re-examine our notions of subcultures” because “there have been significant shifts in the phenomenon to which ‘subculture’ refers” (p. 1997. He affirms that not every ‘group’ in society is a ‘subculture’. only replicates the dominant social structure. 1997. Britain and Canada. the ‘subterranean world’. . They have “to be sought in the context of the group’s values and world view” (in Gelder and Thornton. He states that ‘subculture’ or. the ‘subculture’ theory in its empowerment-resistance model of studies are criticized in more considerable points. 2005. also from the Chicago School. p. The rapid development of cultures and ‘subcultures’ almost made the word ‘subculture’ obsolete. subaltern or subterranean (Thornton.J. Break (1985) studies and compares different youth culture and subcultures in America. As the time progresses. John Irwin (1970). p. The liberal use of the term ‘subculture’ is critiqued by Irwin (1970) whom I discuss further in the coming paragraphs. This gives us a clue to one of the main assumptions of this tradition of scholarship—namely. 4). 71). His works are one of the cornerstones of these studies in the West. and finds out that this ‘subculture’. however. that the social groups investigated in the name of subcultures are subordinate. p. revolve only in studying the prejudices. 87). 66). Young (1971) feels tired of the ‘empowerment-resistance’ models of the previous studies on ‘subcultures’. Willis (1977) studies the Hammertown School and the emerging ‘class culture’ in the capitalist setting. He asserts that ‘subcultures’ cannot be understood in isolation to its social milieu. C Cataan 12 …ascribes a lower or secondary rank to the entity it modifies. He starts with the definition of ‘subculture’. they are a product of or a reaction to social forces in the world outside” (p. Another problem is the theorists’ ‘empowerment-resistance’ template in the use of ‘subculture’ theory. His works.
Therefore. The elite culture. can also be a ‘subculture’. whether ‘low’ or ‘high’. among others. Second. His critique lies in the social scientists’ judgment and taste. in this matter. He concludes that although Brisbane’s music scene is not as intense or pervasive as in the case with the most researched street-based youth ‘subcultures’. 8 . ethnicity. These are not necessarily ‘subcultures’ except the social scientist applying these variables (Irwin. but he suggests that groups “should be viewed as reference worlds or social worlds which are not tied to any particular collectivity or territory”. Third. he goes on in saying that society “cannot be divided into cultural units because it is arbitrary and variables applied do not necessarily relate to other subsystems” (p. p. He shows that the theories and methodologies are also applicable even to high culture. 68). Burgess’s study is a crucial point in the ‘subculture’ theory since it proves that regardless of class. He asserts that to associate a person within only one group. it is. He also debunks the notion of prior studies that the ‘subculture’ theory is always for the subordinate and those who are in the ‘subway’ and ‘underground’. in this regard. In the masteral dissertation of Burgess (2004). ‘Subcultures’. seemingly creates ‘social’ layers of different ‘subcultures’ that simultaneously submerge and counter each other. one must not mistakenly point any random division in society as automatically a ‘subculture’. therefore. in Gelder and Thornton. I believe. He also points out that “persons could simultaneously or alternately identify with more than one social world” (Irwin. as a part of only one ‘subculture’. people can create and be part of a ‘subculture’. Tamatsu Shibutani (1955) do not use the term in his studies. Though not explicitly explained by Irwin. in Gelder and Thornton. It can be understood that through the creation of ‘subcultures’. He adds that our hasty generalization is dangerous. 1997. p. C Cataan 13 He contends that a ‘subculture’ is not just the group but also the patterns8 carried by the group. Examples are speech and clothing that is reaffirmed by Gordon (1947) as the main indicators of a ‘subculture’. are not just for the subordinates and the oppressed. Because of the vagueness of the term ‘subculture’. he argues that the extent of methodologies and conceptual frameworks used to understand popular culture can also be used to understand contemporary high culture. he questions the ‘cognitive’ status of the concept in the minds of its carriers that the School neglects to raise for years. ‘patterns’ here. 1997. refer to cultural patterns carried out by the ‘subculture’ that are unique and apart from its ‘parent culture’.J. nevertheless a ‘subculture’.66). would be problematic. 67). age.
it is important to look at other schools of thought on ‘subculture’. the researchers continued and contributed to the ‘subculture’ work of the Chicago School. Cohen (1972) studies the youth ‘subculture’ related to middle working-class in East End London. a ‘subculture’ resolves the crisis of class. p.J. culture-specific and narrowed-down analyses on ‘subcultures’. it is also confusing. This leads the call to eventually coin a new term. This hope lives on in the rise of another School. also in this chapter. 10 A study about ‘skinheads’ by Pangilinan (2001) will be discussed in the section about Philippine ‘subcultures’. are no longer identifiable as working class. they In their times. 1997. 83). since the youth. C Cataan 14 In the turnings of knowledge. and relate it to youth ‘subcultures’ and class. 9 . As a form of expression (such as the look of the skinhead10). He argues that youth ‘subcultures’ are a kind of symptom of a class in decline. the working-class youth responds by becoming ‘subcultural’”. These concepts are located in connection with the dominant culture and class subordination of the ‘working class’9 (Gelder and Thornton. Using some of Marx’s lens of analyses. the Birmingham School that promises a more in-depth. Under construction: sorry for the inconvenience: The Birmingham School Tradition and ‘subculture’ study After we tackle the critiques received by the Chicago School on the concept of ‘subculture’. in his obvious sceptic remark on middle working-class ‘subculture’. through their looks. Cohen. and the dominant culture are those who were economically and politically ‘above’ the working class. working class was called the ‘parent culture’ of many youth. and the ‘parent culture’ is no longer cohesive. Ideology refers to ‘subculture’s’ outlook while form pertains to the physical spectacle of the ‘subculture’ members. He adds that when this class undergoes changes. believes that although they ‘win space’ for themselves. they see the link between ‘ideology and form’. the ‘social world or collectivity’ of Shibutani (1955) and Young’s (1971) ‘subterranean world’. The School continues to use the term. a more neutral and fitting term that can cope with the fast development of the concept of ‘world’ according to Gordon (1947). it also shows that while the term ‘subculture’ is accommodating. but restores it conservative usage. In the early days of the School. namely. The researchers of the Birmingham School focus particularly on the category of ‘youth subcultures’.
The five works that I mention above are the most relevant and famous works of the Birmingham School. Setting his analysis apart from the others. I acknowledge that . the authors do not lead us to class analysis. However. et al. Just like any academic work..J. They observe that youth ‘subculture’ studies tend to lean with boys. 85). ‘Subcultures’ in the Philippines There are a lot of Western researches. reaffirming Cohen (1972). 89). His concept of ‘style’. he clearly distinguishes how a ‘group’ becomes a ‘subculture’ or not. but how ‘subcultures’ affect gender. It is a type of ‘intentional communication’ that sets the ‘subculture’ apart from the rest. Garber and McRobbie (1975) propose a very different perspective with regard to ‘subculture’. Willis (1977) enters and writes his famous classic Learning to Labour. 84. It directs attention to itself. Clarke. et al. He coins the term ‘style’ and uses it to refer to something that “stands apart—a visible construction. However. et al. (1975). p. 1997). a loaded choice. and neglects the role of girls. They have no ‘political’ solutions to the problems they are trying to solve (p. giving ‘subcultures’ a sense of agency. He looks at them through ethnicity more than class. and vice versa. It is good to point out here that the School has a consensus that ‘subcultures’ have their limitations. Here. 104). the light is seen again when the School culminates in saying that youth ‘subcultures’ are just representations of a larger aspect of society (Gelder. articles and journals that tackle and use the concept of ‘subculture’ in discussing social phenomena. it gives itself to be read” (p. moreover. (1975) emphasize ‘resistance’. is relevant because despite the crisis in the definition of ‘subculture’. C Cataan 15 still have no future because they identify their resistance in the leisure world more than the work place (in Gelder. Two years after Clarke. they point out that ‘subcultures’ are fated to fail. 134). p. because their struggle and resistance are only limited to the ‘symbolic’ level. 1997. Hebdige (1979) analyses the punks in Britain in the late 1970s. which I have mentioned a while ago. His ethnographic research echoes the analysis of Clarke. (1975) that ‘subcultures’ have no future (Gelder. I now turn to scholarship about ‘subcultures’ in the Philippines. that they can only do so much to change the course of their lives. Their work finds out the ‘subculture’ spaces for girls.
He calls the ‘subculture’ an ‘underclass’. he sees that these skinheads aim for changes in society. are only interested to their own well-being. He shows his cynicism in this method of resistance since “it is only through direct political struggle that the ‘marginalized’ would have an access to political citizenship” (par. 15. All agrees that Jejemons are a ‘subculture’. C Cataan 16 many Western literatures have been written relative to the social. Through traditional class analysis. p. In the undergraduate thesis of Pangilinan (2001).com. This research is a first of its kind. These skinheads. Also. tells us the existence of Jejemons in a Marxist’s perspective. it is helpful to carry on with the current literature about ‘subcultures’ and Jejemons in the Philippine setting. He emphasizes that Jejemons are in a ‘cultural battle’. He stresses that the Jejemons are uneducated and the JejeText is not an intentional and ‘stylish’ modification of the spelling but a manifestation of their ignorance in the correct spelling of those words. he narrates the selected stories of skinheads in the Philippines and how they curve their own everyday experiences within the skinhead ‘subculture’. Karl Marx calls them ‘lumpenproletariats’ (in Gelder. since they counter the dominant culture as seen with the following researchers below. except perhaps for Pangilinan (2001). but he neglects to see that this ‘subculture’ does not reflect on its own class consciousness. 3). There are no formal and in-depth researches about Jejemons to date. the empowerment that Pangilinan gives to the Filipino skinheads is overwhelming. However. 11 Pangilinan (2001) see the skinheads as the residual ‘subculture’ of punks in the West. economic and political set up of their respective societies when they were written. which Pangilinan similarly asserts. translation mine). The available literature about Jejemons is limited only to online news and opinion articles in the internet. . as evident in their daily narratives. There is a very limited literature that deals with Jejemons since it is a new ‘subculture’. Tolentino (2010). They are vulnerable to be easily swayed by other ideologies and movements of the middle class. Using ethnography. 2005. in his online article in Bulatlat. Therefore. he studies the skinheads11 in the Philippines in comparison to those in Britain. He proves that ‘subculture’ is a lifestyle.J. few have been known about the Philippine subcultures.
I have decided to find an alternative to ‘subculture’. the next thing that we must do is to look for alternatives. 15. 12). He also highlights the struggle of this ‘subculture’ and those who are in the position of power. 2005. but differs only in the ‘empowerment’ of such ‘subculture’. I will not place the ‘subculture’ theory in the ‘trash bin’ of history. C Cataan 17 Arao (2010). He argues. He calls the JejeText a ‘sociolect’ or ‘social dialect’. They are like many theorists who become ‘loyalists’ of the concept of ‘subculture’. it is suggested few years after ‘subculture’ was first coined. Both Arao (2010) and Tolentino (2010) consider the Jejemons as a ‘subculture’. meanwhile. It denies the earlier links between ‘subcultures’ and the working class (Gelder. but Arao contends that the “‘outsiders’ have no right to intervene with the internal form of communication of the ‘subculture’”. ‘Post-subculture’ theorists call ‘subculture’ the thing of the past. He is more positive on the Jejemon ‘subculture’. I want to make it clear that unlike the believers of ‘post-subcultures’. primarily the Department of Education in its policies in prioritizing English over Filipino and the degradation of the quality of education in the country. 2005. deviate from its traditional view and try to make sense through their distinct analyses. p. Like them. In fact. . and social organizations cannot be seen anymore in a linear perspective. The creation of this unique code unites the members of the ‘subculture’ to communicate internally. life is more complex now. 12. can now be rejected. This alternative that I use in this study is not far from its roots. Some decide to unpick the term. translation mine). He finishes by questioning the state. The state advocates against the practice of JejeText. I must choose. also on his online article. p. but I believe that “it is much too soon to relegate this term to the dustbins of cultural history” (Gelder. Indeed. moreover. yet. They also believe that the works of ‘subculture’ theorists from Birmingham and Chicago are ‘heroic’. Not so far: the alternatives to ‘subculture’ When all have been said and done. 3). seems to follow the stance of Tolentino (2010). Others. This approach started when the theorists depart from British cultural studies (Birmingham School).J. as a researcher. and I found one. that the existence of Jejemons is an outright manifestation of such problems (par.
Second.J. below. My inquiry on the Jejemon ‘sub-culture’ does not revolve only in their social class. There are two things why I am in search for a new term to label the Jejemons. but forming in their combination a functioning unity which has an integrated impact on the participating individual” (Gordon. p. Without a doubt. His passage is one of the early critiques of the term ‘subculture’. ‘Subculture’ vis-à-vis sub-culture Gordon (1947) warns us about the flourishing concept of ‘subculture’. This crisis would compromise my case study since the Jejemon ‘subculture’ does not have everything that a ‘subculture’ must have. regional and rural or urban residence. First. With all due respect to the theorists who use and will still be using the word ‘subculture’ in their works. Gordon comes from the Chicago School as well. and it is not everything a ‘subculture’ must be. without relating it to other categories. I accept Gordon’s definition of ‘sub-culture’. which is “a sub-division of a national culture composed of combination of factorable12 social situations such as class status. 41). the ‘subculture’ theory suffers a crisis in definition. This is where my first contention about ‘subculture’ lies. and religious affiliations. I contend that the Jejemon phenomenon in itself is beyond a ‘subculture’. but includes their age group and social relations among others. Gordon (1947) tells us that this kind of reference becomes ‘comfortable hiding places’ for American 12 Or independent variables. ethnic background. This is proven with the vast number of studies mentioned above. This is the very first problem that he sees when theorists apply the concept. While it is true that a ‘subculture’ is also a ‘division of a national culture’. C Cataan 18 My total placing of the term ‘subculture’ within semi-colons every time mentioned in this research is not a form of rejection. if applied in modern research . it is unimaginable for a researcher to analyse a phenomenon in just one category. saying that a researcher should transcend from a linear type of ‘subcultural’ inquiry to avoid generalizations and broad grouping in society. in connection with the first one. 1947. but to set my point and establish a clear delineation of the term that I use consistently throughout the manuscript. I examine the concept of ‘sub-culture’ (with a hyphen) by Gordon (1947).
41). He challenges all the ethnographers and theorists to go beyond a linear type of inquiry. other theorists succeeding him do not acknowledge or consider his position. Its existence does not happen because of ‘class’ or ‘ethnicity’ alone. 40). The Birmingham School does not depart from the term.J. I definitely agree with Gordon. Gordon believes that he or she “is a person whose environmental background is an interwoven and variegated combination of all these factors” (p. which necessitates the need to use a more fitting term. It offers diverse variables. but the term does not suffice the complexity of this sub-culture. As we see. 41). The ‘social conditions’ that affect and compose Jejemons are interrelated and diverse. It is clear that sub-culture occupies a larger scope of analysis. . I argue that the Jejemon phenomenon is initially a ‘subculture’. he feels these ‘social situations’ as one influential factor altogether. 41). This is when theorists apply and use the concept of ‘subculture’ to just any ‘group’. But for the Jejemon phenomenon. because when a person enters into a sub-culture. His concept does not flourish. rather than any systematic application of the term to well-defined social conditions” (p. This person does not experience these categories simultaneously. His fellows from the Chicago School continue to use ‘subculture’. I see a huge point of using the sub-culture concept instead of ‘subculture’. This further enables us to discern closely the “cohesive systems of social organizations which currently we tend to analyze separately with our more conventional tools of ‘class’ and ‘ethnic group’ (p. but separated from each other. yet connecting and establishing a unity among them. I believe that Jejemons as a contemporary sub-culture cannot be analyzed in a linear viewpoint. But a worse problem still happens nowadays in almost all academic communities. He calls this “‘sporadic resting places of semantic convenience’. Gordon adds that the concept of sub-culture “gives us a keen and incisive tool which… prevents us from making too broad groupings where such inclusiveness is not warranted” (p. C Cataan 19 sociologists. without tracing the root of the concept and its limitations. They make up a highly organized and cohesive sub-culture.
I define who the Jejemons are. I further break down the Jejemon phenomenon as a sub-culture. C Cataan 20 In the next chapter.J. . and their distinct marks and identity.
Wala namang basehan at malalim na pananaliksik na naganap.” -Field note.J. baka rin hindi. C Cataan 21 “Binanggit ang ‘subculture’ sa True Stories sa QTV 11. Tinawag nilang ‘subculture’ ang body modification enthusiasts. 2010 . December 26. Gamit lang kasi nang gamit eh. Siguro nga ‘subculture’ sila.
or the youth ‘group’13 distinguished as those who stay outside the concert grounds. 2010. This website is the first to define ‘Jejemons’ and is followed by many websites. The ‘Jejemonsters’ is the collective term for the members of the sub-culture. because of the way they laugh in the virtual world. the Jejemons have already existed. They state that the word Jejemon is the combination of ‘Jeje’.urbandictionary. The moderator and its source are contentious. Let me introduce him briefly at this point. a Jejemon is “basically anyone with a low tolerance in correct punctuation. syntax and grammar”. and the word ‘Jejemon’ is the shortened term associated with them. nevertheless. but I give ample space about him in the succeeding chapters. Defining a Jejemon The most contemporary group or phenomenon in the Philippine popular culture scene to date is the ‘Jejemonsters’ or ‘Jejemons’.J.com adapted the definition by www. It is also the most popular label for them. C Cataan 22 CHAPTER 3 No swerving: the rise of Jejemons As we look at the entire picture of Jejemon as a sub-culture. wear black shirt. without label and stereotypes. According to the website www. Aris Bonifacio. let me first define the point of this research. Mr. This website is owned by Mr. but long before that. or probably from ‘JJ’ which means ‘Jumping Jologs’. He is the so-called ‘Jejemaster’. black 13 I call them ‘group’ since there is no study that proves that the JJs or ‘Jumping Jologs’ are indeed a subculture. The website www. Origin of the term Jejemon An account of the supposed group of Jejemons named ‘Team Jejemon’ on Facebook posted a note entitled History ng mga Tunay na Jejemons (History of True Jejemons) dated April 27. Bonifacio a 29-year old computer programmer by a real-estate company based in Makati. a group of youth called collectively as ‘Jejemonsters’. . The country began focusing its attention to them in early 2010.com. I have to advance the introduction since he has a lot to say on the history and etymology of the word ‘Jejemon’. Many followers on Facebook and the website acknowledge him as the Jejemaster.com (2010). however.jejemon.urbandictionary.
he believes. He says that ‘Jeje-’ traces its origins in the Spanish written expression of laughter. in our several meetings. ‘Jeje’. Jejemaster continues to explain the latter portion of the word. affirms this definition. however. because of the vigorous growth of computer cafes and online games in the Philippines in this decade. ‘Jejemon’. Spanish youth often visit gaming rooms of Filipinos. 14 This happened during my one-on-one interview with Jejemaster. he has started to express his laughter in that way. he would go there and play online computer games. their family in Tondo had a computer café. 14). youth are more exposed to foreign words that they encounter over the internet. This was where he first saw the Spanish word. ‘-mon’. C Cataan 23 faded jeans. He said that it is the media who labels them as Jejemons. ‘Jeje’. Pokemon or Pocket Monsters. 13. He associates the Jejemons’ colorful outfits to the Pokemons’ colorful look and accessories. with bangs shown at the side of the face. Tolentino (2010) agrees with this. Since then. attributes the creation of the word to the Filipino youth who are very creative. and a cap covering one-sided hair. It comes from the famous cartoon show. who coined the term. It is only when the telecommunication networks start to offer unlimited text services that the practice is transferred to the cellular phones. since the “Jejemon phenomenon is packaged and produced by the ruling class for its own interests. Jejemaster. and not from cellular phones. He clears that the word ‘Jejemon’ originates from the internet. and let the inferior classes to consume” (par. In his opinion. These games had players from all over the world. Jejemaster. from the famous Japanese cartoon show Pokemon or Pocket Monsters. He cannot trace. nevertheless. while ‘mon’ means ‘monster’. . Jejemon. But the birth of the word did not happen yet. During his free time.14 He shares that way back in 2003.J. They are the ones. who combined the two concepts and formed the word. and according to him. He proves this by narrating his first encounter with the word.
which he does not name. . Since designing websites is his hobby and career.jejemon. labels the practice as ‘Jejemon’ in their news item sometime in April 2010. He picks up the word given by the said organization. the ased Jejemons.J. . Based on my observations.com. site places a chat box in it. The name is simply a combination of the words ‘Jeje’ and ‘webmaster’ that makes him the ’Jejemaster’. for three hundred uys Philippine pesos. he . C Cataan 24 Photo 1: I am with Jejemaster Aris Bonifacio. look up to and respect him as the ‘founder’ of the sub-culture. and . o. at ‘Jejemons’ On the same month. he formats the site. defying capitalizations and grammar. The term ‘Jejemaster’ does not mean that he is the supreme leader of the Jejemons. es Jejemons Jejemons need not follow his commandments. the term ‘Jejemon’ has not been coined. Walter Mart Pasong Tamo. Since e ‘webmaster the site is a ‘Jejesite’ (designed for the emerging youth sub culture called Jejemon). www. after sees an episode of Kapuso Mo. thus he is called a ‘webmaster’. until a certain news organization. due to Jejemaster’s historical ascendancy. Not long after. 2010 Jeje + webmaster = Jejemaster eje Bonifacio shares that although he has been chatting and texting using excessive letters. he tagged sub-culture himself as the ‘Jejemaster’. he buys the domain name. during my interview with him in The Old Ol Spaghetti House. He is the moderator of the new site. Jessica Soho that features these youth called ‘Jejemons’. December 28. however.
details of which I discuss below. He works as a part-time office assistant at ACCESS-Fairview. He is a shy-type Jejemon. He is actually the heartthrob of the group. Among the Jejefriends. except the hooks. I got to know almost thirty Jejemons in the course of this research. but I noticed that he hardly ever laughed with the girls’ jokes. but his course now relates to hotel service. It offers 2-year certificate courses. he rarely opened up when the group is discussing. He is a cousin of Jejemaster Aris Bonifacio. He dreams to be a ship captain or pilot soon. He may be the youngest but he leads the Jejemon chapter of Fairview branch. I introduce below five Jejefriends from Fairview who selflessly shared their stories that gave ‘faces’ to the theoretical assumptions of this research. that revealed his plain white shirt inside. he wore an unzipped brown jacket. 15 ACCESS is a vocational computer school with several branches in Luzon. He wears huge shoes. but there were also Jejefriends that I had met to share their daily narratives as Jejemons. He is fond of wearing black and gray shirts with colorful prints on them. This is where the participant observation took place. and in the succeeding chapters. He also took up a certificate program in computer programming at Systems Technology Institute (STI). He just listened or his eyes were locked to passing people whenever we were in public places. The first time I saw him. His hair covers the portion of his right eye. The Jejefriends Part of this participant observation was exchanging text messages with Jejemons. C Cataan 25 Jejemaster finished his undergraduate course in business administration at the Philippine School of Business Administration. 15 It is also his school. His never-ending stories and jokes helped me survive my adjustment period and made me feel at ease with other Jejemons. He is at times rhetorical and preachy to his fellows. The Jejeleader: Ryan Ryan Galang is 17 years old (Photo 2). He guided me very well in the entire course of field work. I never had the chance to meet the others. His clothes are always in earth tone. The heartthrob: Sherwin Sherwin Eleccion is 18 years old (Photo 2). Jejemaster also introduced me to the members of Jejemon chapter in Fairview. .J. He is a jolly but a formal Jejemon.
Her H supposedly long pants are folded up to the knees.J. she said. Her hairstyle is innovative. She is always comfortable in expressing her thoughts. C Cataan 26 Photo 2: (from left) Sherwin and Ryan. long hair. She sees small yet beautiful things. She was e touchy with me and the rest of the group. The fashionista: Kath Kath Hernandez is 20 years old (Photo 3). She usually gave the first smile whenever we saw each other. Her shiny. He wears a lot of fancy accessories that fill access her neck. She speaks very profound. with the pigtail only on one side. She is very opinionated. Her favorite cap is a checkered yellow and black that usually blends with her shirts and belts. but I understand that it was her way of endearment as our younger sister. . Her light aura makes the group easy. She calls herself a ‘fashionista’. I always saw her with her boyfriend who is also a w Jejemon. She is always appreciative. during our snacks at Greenwich SM Fairview : r The ‘daldalera’: Nina Nina Alcasaren feels like she is the ‘ate’ (older sister) in the group but she is actually the youngest (Photo 3). is her best asset. She said she feels forever young. ears and arms. She has the most creative and ‘experimental’ way of dressing in the group. Other Jejefriends call her ‘daldalera’ because she speaks all the time.
but she now attends a computer computer-related course. Among the twenty members in Fairview chapter. During my field work. The adviser: Princess Princess Inlia is 20 years old (Photo 3). The five are dancers in the school. When I ask why. They all s ey study in ACCESS-Fairview. They voluntarily participated in the research. She wore colorful but ore simple shirts and jeans. last scheduled hang out because she wa ‘grounded’ by her parents. they were the only ones who were willing to they we sign the consent forms. C Cataan 27 such as my haircut. she said that her boyfriend wants to keep in touch with her often through text. ten I did not choose these five JejeFriends.J. . I often saw her serious. She calls me ‘Baby James’ 16 She once apologized for not making it to our James’. but she has an approachable appearance. it had something to do with her late late-night meets with her boyfriend. Photo 3: (from left) Kath. She is the group’s adviser when it comes to love and life. during our snacks in Greenwich Fairview : 16 Baby James is the son of actress Kris Aquino and James Yap Yap. She dreams to be a but broadcaster. She always holds her cell phone. Princess and Nina. she was wa always the one who often offered a helping hand. relative to other Jejemons. and they commonly gather together their after their dance rehearsals. She did not tell the reason was tel but I guess. She once tried a part-time work as a store attendant but returned to schooling this year.
This was where ose the interactions happened. This is what I am referring to as the ‘other world’. wa journey as a new Jejemon happened This was where I learned the coded communication of happened.J. This was where my . C Cataan 28 These Jejefriends compose the Jejemons’ world called the ‘Jejeworld’. he Jejemons. Photo 4: Jejefriends and me . and the use of ‘style’ as a form of resistance.
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“Bumili ako ng Talk N’ Text na SIM, tsaka isang cell phone sa Cubao bago ako umuwi. Ang bago kong number ay 09487744954. Bakit ba kailangang magpalit ng number para lang makatext ang mga Jejemon? Wala bang Globe user na Jejemon?” -Field note, November 19, 2010
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CHAPTER 4 Entering a ‘world’ within the world’: The Jejeworld My journey in pursuit of knowledge about Jejemons is like a rebirth. My rebirths in this lifetime, time and time again, are cultural. Cultural study is a vast area of study, but we can trace its historical development when Hebdige (1979) provides a clear historicity in his book Subculture: The Meaning of Style. He points out that the roots of cultural study was when English intellectuals and literary figures at the end of the eighteenth century focused on a whole range of controversial issues relating to culture. They defined culture as the ‘quality of life’ (p. 6-7). This broad definition led to two trajectories. First, they perceive culture as a “standard of aesthetic excellence” derived from classical appreciations of opera, ballet, drama, and other literature and art. This paves way for the socalled ‘high art’. Second, some understand its anthropological root from Raymond Williams in 1965 (as cited in Hebdige, 1979, pages 6-8) who referred to ‘culture’ as “a particular way of life which expresses certain meanings and values…in institution and ordinary behaviour”. This ‘whole way of life’ pertained to the so-called ‘popular art’ or ‘popular culture’. The Chicago School enters the discourse and fuses the two sides through its belief that the tradition of ‘subculture’ studies effectively conflates society and culture. In other words, culture, as a pattern of beliefs and values or even ideologies, cannot be separated from action and social organization. Culture and society are both ways of life (Gelder & Thornton, 1997, p. 5). In this School’s stance lies the study of popular culture. In the 1970s, the Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies or commonly known as the Birmingham School re-examined the subcultures in terms of class, ethnicity, gender and their broad function in society. Since then, the theory has flourished and opened up diverse perspectives (Gelder & Thornton, 1997, p. i). Pierre Bourdieu calls those in the sub-culture ‘subordinates’ (2006, p. 5). Karl Marx (1867, 1972) labels them as the ‘proletarians’, and Guieb (1991) refers to the ordinary as ‘latak ng lipunan’ or ‘deposits of society’ (translation mine), but have a capability to counter the mainstream (p. 32). The School further believes that in a society with a dominating culture,
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internal boundaries are stratified and “is within these strata or as a consequence of them that we might discover a ‘subculture’” (Thornton, 1997, p. 3). The Jejemon sub-culture, beyond being a ‘subculture’, is a ‘caught-between’ sub-culture because the early ‘subcultures’ can be found on streets, in schools and in other geographic places to practice their ‘codes’, but the Jejemons occupy the virtual and telecommunication’s world. I call it a unique sub-culture because it does not depart from the theory’s conventional definitions and analyses, but at the same time, it also bids them ‘goodbye’ as it takes new platforms as a means of expression. It is conventional in concept, but contemporary in practice. The Jejemons’ unique form of expression, as a sub-culture, challenges the early notions on ‘subculture’. Theorists now raise relevant points with regard to sub-cultures in the emergence of ‘virtual’, ‘mediated’, and ‘globalized’ forms of communications (Gelder, 2005, p. 513). For instance, Bell (2000) perceives the use of the internet, in his study on the so-called ‘cyberpunks’ as an escape and freedom from constraints, as they inhabit the online worlds. However, they diffuse the traditional binds of a ‘subculture’ (p. 514). On the other hand, Rheingold (2004) contends that the Net is an alternative space where connection and a sense of community are being restored, instead of the other way around, in this very individualistic world (p. 519). There is indeed a huge shift from the conventional ways of seeing sub-culture. People join sub-cultures “more by choice now than by circumstances—of alternatives to the dominant modes of living offered by Western modernity” (p. 516). Unlike other sub-cultures in the past, the Jejemons’ struggle is not a class struggle, but a socially stratified struggle one (Matza and Sykes, 1961). It is not a resistance by a lower class against the upper class per se, although I concede that class struggle cannot be removed from societal resistance. It is not the primary struggle here, however. It is a battle between those who do the act of ‘other-ing’ and those who are ‘othered’. It is the state and the intellectuals versus the Jejemons. Because dispersed by some to the outskirts of cultural scene, the Jejeworld has its own ‘headquarters’, the website www.jejemon.com. This is where Jejemons can submit their application to be a ‘citizen’ of the ‘world’. This is where cultural migration happens. In these applications, Jejemaster sorts them according to cities and municipalities that make up a so-
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called ‘chapter’. Through ‘GM system’ or ‘group messaging’, the Jejemons in a chapter elect their president, and start to organize Jejemon activities in the chapter. The new Jejemon in town I am a duly-registered Jejemon through www.jejemon.com. I belong to the Fairview chapter. I never thought that this pursuit of knowledge led me to experiences that I never had before, which challenged my perspective about culture and life in general. My interest to study cultures first started when I met my professor and thesis adviser Eli Guieb III. He unconsciously led me to ‘google’ a lot of cultural concepts and theories and read many books that capture that cultural process in society. This curiosity was more stimulated when I took Anthropology 181 with Prof. Hector Guazon of the U.P. Department of Anthropology. He introduced various readings that never failed to make my nights sleepless because of ‘intellectual indigestion’. There, I encountered a lot of discussions about ‘subcultures’ in the west and I realized that we do not have a lot of literature in the emerging Philippine ‘subcultures’. This compelled me to look at the Jejemon phenomenon and explore the said ‘subculture’. That was the beginning of this journey. I am surprised that the entry into the Jejemon sub-culture was relatively easy, but to stay in it was difficult. I bought a new cell phone and a Talk N’ Text17 SIM card to start communicating with the Jejemons. I bought the said SIM brand because it is the ‘economy’ version of SMART. Almost all the Jejemons whom I know are subscribing to either Talk N’ Text or SMART. Jejemons said that the choice of network is based on its rates. Some Jejemons even call SMART Telecommunications as the ‘Jejenetwork’. I also bought a ‘Jejecap’ which I wore whenever I was with them. I also bought shirts with colorful prints on them. These are the tools and styles that I discuss below. Jejemons’ codes and ‘style’ Some sub-cultures are covert while some are open through their clothes, language, music and traits. Jejemons fall in the latter category. The primary use of the ‘code’ is for internal communication within the ‘world’. It also protects the ‘world’ from external influences that might ruin or alter their sub-culture.
Talk N’ Text is a subsidiary company of SMART Telecommunications.
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In one of our final meetings, right after they sign their consent forms, my Jejefriends signed orms, and I had time to take pictures. Curiously, I ask what their hand gestures meant during pictureasked takings. Their so-called ‘Jejeposes’, as seen in the pictures below may appear as ordinary oses’, below, gestures for laypersons, but within the sub culture, these contain internal meanings that portray sub-culture, their ideology, attitudes, norms, faiths and hopes for their lives.
Photo 5: (from left) My Jejefriends, Ryan, Kath, Nina, Princess and Sherwin, in their Jejeposes :
My Jejefriends explained to me the meanings of their Jejeposes. His striking Jejepose, ed ir Jejep Ryan (extreme left) said, means, “accept me for who I am”. Sherwin (extreme right), on the other hands, conveys, peace, with his gesture. While Kath (second from left), says, his Jejepose is rom Jejep simply ‘pa-cute’, since she wants to show her real personality that is cute and adorable. At the cute’, center, Nina mimics two people talking closely with each other, which, she said, depicts ‘true friendship’. Lastly, Princess (right of center), appears to show a letter ‘V’ formation, which, she . said, is a symbol of being a woman. It also exhibits ‘victory’ in their lives as Jejemons.
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Evidently from the Jejeposes, the Jejemons’ struggle and use of styles and symbols do not happen anymore under the ‘subway’, but in the ‘topsoil’ of Philippine landscape. Chicago School (as discussed in the first chapter) defines ‘subcultures’ through their mode of existence that is ‘subterranean’. They are always associated with the ‘dark side’, always the ‘unseen’ and the ‘subordinate’. This is applicable to the Jejemons, but only to a certain extent, because they are now seen and being read by those within and outside the sub-culture, but the meaning is provided to the former only. Jejeposes, according to my Jejefriends, change depending on their mood and feeling. They are distinguished, isolated and ‘othered’ because there are so-called ‘indicators’ that set the sub-culture apart from the others. Gordon (1947) discusses the most indicative indices of participation in a particular ‘subculture’. He said that if anyone had to be singled out, he would offer speech patterns (particularly pronunciation and inflection) as the easiest to observe and the most revealing. Clothes would probably rank next in indicativeness and ease of discernability (p. 42). Speech, including Jejemons’ pronunciation and inflection (the Jejenese), and their fashion are truly the most prominent and distinguishable traits of Jejemons. This is what Hebdige (1979) generally calls as ‘style’ that is ‘made up of mundane objects which have a double meaning’, and these “objects are made to mean and mean again” (p. 3). Their cellular phones for example are their literal tool for belongingness and resistance. It is their sign of triumph. Texting contributes to the “construction of style, in a gesture of defiance and contempt… it signals Refusal” (Hebdige, 1979, capitalization original). Through this, Jejemons are seen to more expressive than other sub-cultures since they explore communication as a form of expression. Aside from coded gestures, they also carry out coded communication through Jejetext. They use a very unique medium of expression, the virtual and telecommunication’s world. Within the sub-culture of the ‘others’, in order to be truly organized, there have to be coded communication and internal codes. In the case of Jejemons, it is called Jejetext.
kh4mU5t4H k4h nAhH pF0w5zH?” Jejemons call their alphabet ‘Jejebet’ with letters as seen below. They defy the rules of correct spelling and pronunciation. the existence of Jejetext and Jejebet. They make it by adding random and unwanted letters in between the other letters of a word. ( dD 3 fF 9 hH 1 jJ X. he assigned so-called ‘letter weights’. C Cataan 35 Jejetext The identity of Jejemons can be seen in their unique and liberal way of texting.J. defying punctuation marks and rules in capitalization. In ordinary cellular phone keypads. His argument rests on the fact that Jejemons want to conserve on letters and words. punctuation . Jejemons spell it as “eOw pFoWzH. kamusta ka na?” (Hello! How are you?). 8 c. Thus. He calls it ‘Jejenomics’. This quantitative study on Jejetext. and replacing letters with letter-looking numbers. nevertheless. kK 7 mM Jejebet Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz Alphabet nN 0 pP qQ rR 5 tT uU vV wW xX yY zZ Jejebet Canlas (2010) tries to make a quantitative approach in studying Jejetext. An example is the sentence. following the logic that the more times a person presses his or her keypad. is vague because there are no ‘standard’ spellings of Jejewords. spaces. “Hello po. Spellings. Table 1: Alphabet vis-à-vis the Jejebet Alphabet Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm 4 b. 6. the higher the ‘letter weights’.
moderate. is not what really is in the mind of Jejemons. The levels with a sample text are illustrated below. Table 2: Levels of Jejetext LEVELS Mild Moderate Severe Terminal SAMPLE TEXT: “Hello!” eLoW pOh! eOw fOwZ! 3oWh fPoWzH! h3oWhZ fPoWzHh! Jejemaster owes the Jejebet and Jejenese to the creativity expressed by the Filipino youth. 2010). Alamin mo muna tsong / kung anong klase kang Jejemon / Mild ka ba o moderate /well alin ka ba doon / Baka naman ay severe ka / o baka ay terminal / Jejemon pa rin ang tawag / kasi text mo'y di normal / pero unique maikli man o siniksik The song mentions four levels of Jejemon. will not flourish. Jejelevels: the measure of a true Jejemon In the course of participation observation. He said that without the Filipino youth. C Cataan 36 marks and capitalizations lie on the Jejemon’s creativity in expressing himself or herself. existed subconsciously in the minds of the Filipino youth. . The song goes. the youth know how to write and communicate using Jejebet (Bonifacio. It has four levels. I will prove below why Jejemons employ a form of communication hidden to many. I believe. according to Jejemaster. Jejemon. There is a portion in the song that classifies the levels of being a Jejemon. In addition. severe and terminal. a song is usually sung by my Jejefriends. It is entitled Jejemon by a band named Blank Tape. conservation on letters and words. The Jejebet.J. All of a sudden. as well as Jejenese. or in a more proper term. personal correspondence. and only easily understandable within the sub-culture. mild. and has no particular creator. namely. the levels of capacity in Jejetexting. He says that it is ‘subconscious’ in the minds of the Filipino youth.
and status and rank disappear or are homogenized (p. He says that when a person enters a particular group. I argue that Jejemons also experience the ‘liminal phase’. Eow pFhOwzH: Textmates to remember The choices of screen shots are in random order. . Unlike Turner’s definition that there is no return back after the process of ‘liminality’. After ‘liminality’ and the rites of passage. There is no turning back from the new ‘world’. the person is now associated and acknowledged with a society. Jejemons have a way of going back to their ‘parent culture’. The site and the process that allow Jejemons to go back to their ‘parent culture’ is a space which I call ‘transcultural circuit’18. however. To elaborate the nature of Jejetexting and justify its use for internal communication more than mere ‘conservation’. he or she experiences ambiguity. I provide a series of text messages that I received from Jejefriends. many were and are still unaware that they are Jejemons in practice. but only as a form of entry into the sub-culture. They do not know that they are actually practising the fashion and texting styles of Jejemons. 94). The person is stripped off of his or her prior attributes and properties. organization or culture. C Cataan 37 While some youth are aware that they are starting to use Jejenese and Jejetext. culture or practice. after his concept of ‘communitas’. Turner (1969). and I use my own judgement to fully exhibit this coded communication. This exhibits the fluidity and diversity of the Jejetext.J. discusses the phenomenon of ‘liminality’. which is one of the precursors of ‘subculture’. 18 The concept of ‘transcultural migrant circuit’ will be discussed in Chapter 6.
This text does not use excessive letters but alters the very spelling and pronunciation of the words. here is the translation of these Jeje Jejetexts in Filipino. Ah. . because I am new to the Jejemon sub culture. “Wait lang. cannot read it anymore. Haha! c. The Jejefriends. the stories of their relationships and their where abouts are open to other Jejefriends. Jejetext A is a ‘mild’ Jejet Jejetext. use this coded communication primarily to hide their conversations from their parents 19 They do not want their exchange of messages parents. The texter greets “Magandang gabi” followed by a ‘smiley’ icon. 2010 2010. Jejetext C. Photo D: Screen shot of my reply to C ot For clarity. nasa work kasi ako eh. r efriends. Mitzele. On one hand. Magpapaload muna ako. because of n Jejet the texter’s excessive use of the letter ‘H’ and letter replacements.J. a. not their circle of friends). with their boyfriends to be read by their parents and other friends who are not Jejemons (meaning. For example. December 28. I sub-culture. C Cataan 38 Photo 6: Screen shots of Jejetext ( s (from left: A. b. haha!” haha! I needed to ask to repeat her message in plain Filipino or in a ‘mild’ level which is my level as a Jejemon. Magandang gabi. the Jejetexter said. Jejetext B is classified as ‘severe’ Jejetext. There are also inevitable moments when I have to ask my Jejefriend the translation of their Jejetexts. occasions 19 Based on field notes. Jejefriends exts. and the Jejetext is ‘terminal’ level. based on what I have observed. Wait lang ha? Magpapaload muna ako. particularly Nina and Princess. On the contrary. In some occasions. B and C).
His hands are. which ext. primary of which is the Jejecap. . Aside from Jejetext. the more happy she is. during school says. It shows how happy she is. the one with vertical rainbow colors at the back portion as shown below. 2010) : Also. Kath said that it is her way of being creative. in her pockets. Jejefashion Part of the concept of Jejemon comes from the colorful Pokemons. or Jejemon uniform. C Cataan 39 they are very ‘showy’ to others.J. The more complicated the Jeje Jejetext is. Therefore. Jejemons art herefore. and carries a shoulder bag. another form of ‘style’ of the Jejemons is through Jejefashion. Photo 7: The Jejecap (Photo by Boy Banat. are also characterized by colorful clothes and accessories. ejemons Jejefashio I discuss below. most of the time. This is identified as either a tightly or loosely fit white polo. and school pants. portion. sometimes unbuttoned. Others utilize Jejetext because of its form. A Jejemon wears a Jejecap also. as a so-called uniform form of resistance to school authorities. Jejemons wear the so called Jejeform.
The Jejetext vary in its levels.21 She sees empowerment through it. as ‘smelly’20 or ‘baduy’. They have formed their own set of beliefs and shared identity. Princess sees Jejefashion as her way of escape from her real emotions. such as colorful . clothes and accessories. such Jejefashion. She likes wearing colorful clothes beca s because it makes her happy. she does not wear obscene and revealing clothes. and second. despite the negative remarks to Jejemons. C Cataan 40 Photo 8: Screen shot of Jejemon in Jejeform (Video by Saksi in GMANews. She is a ‘fashionista’. Nina likes to wear Jejefashion. I is her way for others to respect It her. and come ‘lads’ to school in dirty clothes. She found herself in the Jejeworld through Jejefashion. it is their form of resistance. Through Jejefashion. 2010) : In one of my visits in their rehearsal place in Fairview. she only follows those who are associated with Jejefashion. Like Kath. The Jejemons do these for he two reasons. to circumvent around the ircumvent ‘dominant culture’. we talk about Jejefashion. A Jejemon mentioned this in one oc ased occasion. 20 21 This is based on field notes. ‘Baduy’ refers to people who do not have ‘taste’ in choosing proper clothes design and color. for example. to resist the lessons being thought in the Hammertown School. Like the ‘lads in the time of Willis (1977) who alter their speech. Kath talked calls herself a ‘kikay’ or being meticulous in style and fashion.tv. Meanwhile.J. even if there are problems in her family. . Unlike She other fashion trends. First is to resist the ‘parent cultu culture’. and the Je ext Jejefashion in its usage.
101). does not just resist for mere survival. 1997. 1992). p. The values that the state imparts can be circumvented by the sub-culture. C Cataan 41 Jejemons have the advantage because of their ‘oneness’ in many ways. . The Jejemon sub-culture put forwards an ‘alternative hegemony’. While stereotyping. particularly an alternative one. This is the first time that the word ‘Jejemony’ is used in any academic paper. Gramsci is right when he said that these ‘countercultures’ are hegemonic and at the same time a ‘revolutionary activity’ (p. Gordon (1947) calls this the “refraction of the national culture”. is used to “serve the interests of power. in Williams. 110). Thus. they offer an alternative to what is the dominant and ‘hegemonic’ culture (Clarke. 1992). The usage. which I discuss below. or their outlook as a sub-culture. following Marx (in Williams. 1975. depicting their whole body of practices and expectations. through sub-culture. practice and direction of what has been imparted become different (p. p. as we now see it. 2010). their senses and perception of themselves and the world.J. precisely the point why this research calls them the ‘other’ culture. This sub-culture. form their own ideology. being exercised together. 182). and or enjoy a consciousness of other-ness or difference” (Thornton. such as speech and clothing. Jejemons are pictured as those “usually clad in multi-color outfits while fiddling with… cellphone and wearing a rainbowcolored cap” (Starmometer. 1992). 5). according to Herzfeld (2005. p. The Jejemons’ ideology and alternative hegemony Jejemon sub-culture is “condemned to. They want to unleash their struggle in the mainstream and it happens in small steps. There is an element of potential domination. These practices. and perceive themselves (Gramsci. they carry the possibility of subversion”. how they make sense of the world. The Jejemons are alienated through the use of ‘stereotypes’. This means the ‘hegemony of Jejemons’. 42).. et al. I call it ‘Jejemony’. as Gramsci (in Williams. define the term ‘hegemony’.
110). over the whole of living: our senses and assignments the of energy. courses related to ‘new media’ in the Department of Broadcast Communication of the College of Mass Communication. In this status.P. p. ‘Jejemony’ is a newly coined term posted as a part of Jing Gaddi’s status in Facebook after the word ‘Jejemon’ won as the Word of the Year in U Sentro ng Wikang U. 22 Professor Data Canlas is a full-time facul member of the University of the Philippines-Diliman. College of Music.P. he means that the recognit recognition on Jejemons will make way for their wider cultural acceptance. “Now that the U Sentro ng Wikang Pilipino has dubbed ‘Jejemon’ as U. He posted. He extends its definition by saying that “it is a whole body of practices and expectations. a 2010’s Word of the Year.J. especially to definitions of a ruling class over its subordinates. Pilipino. She teaches time faculty Diliman.” Photo 9: Screenshot of Jing Gaddi’s status on Facebook as he coins the term ‘Jejemony’. our shaping perceptions of ourselves and our world” (in Williams.P. He is a friend of Professor Data Canlas22 who shared the word with me. I owe the term to Mr. . a band bassist from the U. She is also my BC 198 (TV internship) adviser. prepare to usher in an era of literary Jejemony. C Cataan 42 The term ‘Jejemony’ is not my original idea. Gramci (1992) defines ‘hegemony’ as relations between social classes. Jing Gaddi.
critique. They identify themselves as ‘Jejebusters’. It counters the ruling hegemony. a potentially ‘revolutionary activity’. They are revolutionary because they are in a ‘cultural’ or ‘symbolic’ battle against the hegemonic culture. Revolutionary. It is. These are portions where I theorize on the raw data that I have gathered during the participant observation. in this sense. but there are negations are well. For Gramsci. on the contrary. p. furthermore. . The succeeding chapters challenge future social scientists who aspire to study themes that are related to this research to enrich these hypotheses. C Cataan 43 Jejemon sub-culture is an ‘alternative hegemony’. against the pressures and limits of an existing and powerful hegemony” (in Williams. This led me to study those who are against Jejemons. and have yet to be sufficiently supported by empirical data. The Jejemons now find small spaces in mainstream media to get into and advance their sub-culture. Some points that I raise are assumptions. chapters 5 and 6 sketch the implications of current study in terms of theory. and test these assumptions by empirically grounded research. p. They are “a potentially hegemonic class. they were working people becoming a class. which is the topic I discuss in the next chapter. does not necessarily mean engaging in armed struggle against the state. those in the ‘subculture’ are members of the working class. Gramsci reminds us that while a hegemony is “always dominant. For early theorists. such as the Chicago and Birmingham Schools. it is never either total or exclusive…but their presence is decisive” (in Williams. As partly an ethical and factual practice. 111). challenge.J. 113).
Pebrero 20.J. C Cataan 44 “Bakit mga Jejemon ang pinag-aaralan mo? Maraming mas okay.” Sabi ng mommy ko sa akin habang naghahapunan. 2011 .
13. Jejebusters are composed of intellectuals and professionals who conform to conventional social standards of learning and discipline. . I experienced to be ‘busted’ by Jejebusters. we can find resistance to the Jejemons from different institutions. typically Filipino. Althusser (1992) calls these institutions as ‘Ideological State Apparatus’.23 regardless of his or her social class. One of these institutions is the family. It is more street-based than domestic. Institutions of jejebusting Resistance is always two-way. But I argue that a Jejebuster is someone who is against the Jejemons’ ideology. most of them are stealth and enjoy national attention. He says that Jejebusters are “the middle class who suddenly works together with the elites to fight the growing underclass of Jejemon sub-culture” (par. But beyond these. they are also being resisted. 54). the Jejemon struggle is a socially stratified one. through Jejemony will be discussed in the next chapter. My parents questioned my interest in this study. in different forms. told my fellow youth not to follow Jejetexting. 14). and convinced me that there are many other topics which are more interesting. where I am attending. The leaders of a local church congregation. C Cataan 45 CHAPTER 5 The Jejebusters and other forms of jejebusting In the course of this research. Thornton (1997) says 23 The Jejemons’ ideology. They encounter oppositions from the so-called ‘Jejebusters’. The Jejemons’ parents. Matza and Sykes (1961) agree with this because “society was not only split horizontally into strata. When Jejemons resist as a sub-culture. My friends teased me that I am a ‘Jejemon defender’. find it difficult to understand why their child has turned into a Jejemon. but rather in the rugged embrace of the streets.J. As I point out in this chapter. Parents may find it problematic that their children are subscribing to a culture not within the comforts of their homes. for instance. Tolentino (2010) identifies the class position of Jejebusters. a Jejebuster is “a grammar vigilante. it was divided vertically within each group” (p. and never make friends with Jejemons. 72). Thus. According to Teodoro (2010). He believes that these institutions work to preserve the status quo (p. 4). there are other forms of jejebusting. dedicating his Internet life toward the eradication of jejetyping and Jejemon existence” (par. As I have said earlier.
moreover. C Cataan 46 that “the youth attempt to define their culture against the parental home. y The government is the second Jejebuster. art 24 Jueteng is an illegal small-town lottery. It blames them for the deterioration of the Philippine education’ education system (GMANews. because ve they do not find their identity inside the homes. Photo 10: A newspaper headline on DepEd’s campaign against Jejemons : Photo 10 shows a tabloid headline that highlights the call of the Department of Education to ‘kill’ the ‘Jejemon fever’.J.TV.TV. They said that ‘remon’ ‘re education’ is not the problem but the education system itself. town . 2). said in his article .ph. Jejemons. They even asked how DepEd can make Jejemons go back to school when they never experienced to study in the first place (par. epartment it calls for the ‘re-education’ of Jejemons. Hernan the Melencio (2010). 2010). They are called ‘street cultures’. Through the Department of Education (DepEd). 5).24 kidnapping and drugs that need to be stopped. It is noticeable that the headline is alongside serious crimes like jueteng.philippinehistory. the administration blogger of www. but outside. Subcultures deviate from the normative ideals of adult communities (p. found support from their very own place—the cyberspace. GMANews. The ‘Team Jejemon’ defends its side through a Facebook note. The state considers Jejemon as a contagious ‘disease’ acquired by many Filipino youth.
not necessarily a class struggle. The overuse of words like ‘like’. C Cataan 47 entitled Jeje Vonel. He is optimistic that the Jejenese. People have to know if they share the ideology with the state. .J. among others. Das and Poole (2004) believe that the state intentionally placed some people on the outskirts of the social margin. Teodoro (2010). 7). ‘uhm’. and they experience a stratified repression and ‘otherness’. it is between them and the state. according to Melencio (2010). There is no middle ground. Bourdieu (2006) refers to this struggle as the ‘heads’ vis-a-vis the ‘subordinates’. they have to act on more worthwhile things …like looking for permanent solutions to the perennial problems of classroom and textbook shortage. Though displaced. ‘you know’. perhaps those who seem to be not productive and beneficial for the interests of the state. just like ‘gay lingo’25 will eventually contribute to the nation’s rich language (par. 20) ‘Team Jejemon’ raises another strong argument in the same note. and ‘wait’. Jejemons have been capable of informing the mainstream media. not to mention the overall decline in the quality of public education. It is a struggle based on how one identifies himself or herself. challenges Jejebusters and ‘grammar Nazis’. He insists that instead of busting Jejemons in the cyberspace. They made it 25 26 ‘Gay lingo’ refers to the ‘gay language’ or the coded language used by gays to communicate with fellow gays. They ask “Why is it that the ‘konyo’26 phenomenon is also grammatically incorrect yet receives minimal attention and criticism from the state and the intellectuals? Is it because it is on their side?” (par. we can find a sub-culture (p. or a Jejebuster. alienated and disenfranchised. 9). Forget the jejemons n jhUSt dO ur jOb huweLL! (par. the nation’s state of affairs and society at large. 7. Jejemons are a subordinate culture in the Philippine society. that the DepEd should not hover with these youth’s preference and selfexpression because suppressing them may lead to more rebellion that might cause larger damage to society. Each person has to choose whether he or she is a Jejemon. On the outskirts of the social margin. is very evident in their sentences. In the Jejemon struggle. the absence of clean toilets. or they defend the Jejemon sub-culture. Jejemons play antagonistically with other interests in Philippine society. 6). ‘Konyo’ is a label for rich peoples’ (and those pretending to be rich) way of speaking.
which pose a negative impression to the sub-culture. which Guieb (1991) identifies as the ‘molders of ideas’. 2010) For clarity. have their own ‘styles’ and ‘tools’ to show anti-Jejemon sentiments. Photo 11: Jejeresume (Photo by BoyBanat. or death. which is a prerequisite for getting jobs. The state and its intellectuals. strengthening and preserving their existence and non-conformity. or a Jejemon’s resume. In www. Other forms of jejebusting This portion contains other forms of annihilation against the Jejemons over the internet.com. below is the Filipino translation of the Jejeresume. .J. They associate Jejemons in themes of hopelessness. someone posted a ‘Jejeresume’. In addition. C Cataan 48 through the use of styles. media’s representations of Jejemon sub-culture are also forms of stealth jejebusting. thus. tools and ideology.BoyBanat.com (2010). I show this below by analyzing a jejeresume and a jejesuicide letter.
Excel and Adobe Photoshop This Jejeresume. but the contents say otherwise. a social networking site. Emba. and should not be hired for a job. bilyaran. p. KTV. text. yosi. kupet Projects (HS) …Dotahan. Educational Background: …bidyohan. no matter how qualified the Jejemon is. This Jejeresume implies that being a Jejemon as an identity ‘says it all’.28 …Literates in MS Office… (MS Word. and bars like “Emba” or “Embassy Bar”.com. the Jejemons’ supposed special skills are texting. 87). C Cataan 49 Resume ng isang Jeje Position desired: …kahit ano Name: …Don Sutil Address: …Sa tabi-tabi lang po. The ‘education background’. such as addiction to computer games. . Jejemons cannot choose. smoking. staying in coffee shops like Starbucks. such as Friendster. In ‘name’. because they live ‘anywhere’. 27 28 FS means Friendster. at first. Emba is a shortened term for Embassy Bar. MS Powerpoint. instead of giving them an identity.J. The Jejeresume connotes that Jejemons should never be hired. instead of highlighting the abilities of Jejemons that qualify them to the job desired. dampa (elementary) …cutting classes. and hanging out in billiard places and malls. The ‘address’ all the more pushes them to the ‘outskirts of social margins’. drinking liquor on weekdays. mall (college) Special Skills: …Magtext.27 mag-inom kapag weekdays. This particular example of Jejebusting confirms Willis’s (1977) stance on sub-cultures as “empowerment without a future” (in Gelder. mag-FS. the Jejemons are characterized as ‘sutil’ or disobedient. moreover. describes the Jejemons’ vices. It is a known hang out place of rich youth. seems to empower the Jejemons because they are given the chance for employment. In the ‘position desired’. no matter how ‘mean’ it is. tambay sa Starbucks. but should accept whatever job is given to them. Lastly. surfing social networking sites.
They are bound to get ‘mean’ jobs. Bhie. Sorry kasi iiwan na kita sa mundo. Photo 12: Jejesuicide letter (Photo courtesy of BoyBanat. . ganito ako magmahal eh. and ‘almost dying’ in this world. Salamat sa time mo. magkikita pa rin naman tayong dalawa. the Jejesuicide letter says. C Cataan 50 The Jejemons are portrayed as a group of youth.com’s Jejesuicide letter to his boyfriend. without a future. Mahal kita kahit laging ako ang nagpaparaya. Jejemons are also indentified by Jejebusters as ‘emotional’. sa langit. kasi. nakikita kita sa lahat ng oras. kaso. ako ang nasasaktan. Hindi bale.J. They are doomed to their own damnation. At least. This is seen in BoyBanat. hindi ko kaya na laging pangalawa na lang ako sa puso mo. Mahal naman kita eh.com) For clarity.
As seen above. the show presents an exception through Eugene Domingo’s role as Gigi dela Cruz. Jejemons are also represented on television. the internet has been the ‘virtual battlefield’ of Jejemons and Jejebusters. I see this as the capability of Jejemons to fit into the mainstream and the ‘dominant culture’. rather than paying attention to her. Matza and Sykes (1961) provide a good explanation regarding my assertion above. They continue to flourish in mainstream media evidently with GMA Network’s situational comedy which first aired last August 15. even after they become Jejemons. of the Jejemon subculture. Masakit sa lahat.J. Contrary to the notion that the Jejemon sub-culture is strictly for the youth. (sabay inom ng panlinis ng silver) This Jejesuicide letter describes a girl being taken for granted by her boyfriend. They do not know how to handle and take care of relationships. Although there is no claim that this letter is accurate. her letter reveals the emotional affinity of Jejemons to people who still value them. 2010). 2010 entitled Jejemom. 2010. The sub-culture influences the content of television. only aired briefly. The Network attempts to gain financially in creating Jejemom. Mas masaya ka kapag kasama mo ang friends mo. or death perhaps. The boy prioritizes online games and his friends. Jejemons and representations on TV Media have a huge role to play in the growth. I love you. but she does not have the values and ideology of the Jejemons. . It is the chance of every ‘subculture’ 29 An online RPG or role-playing game. and colorful clothes and accessories. In some negotiations. C Cataan 51 Masakit noong mas pinili mo ang dota29 sa akin. The stereotypes are the same with my JejeFriends. dineny mo ko sa harap nila. So it’s better to say goodbye to you na lang. This Jejebusting ‘tool’ means that Jejemons are not meant to be accepted as a partner in life. Jejemons found victories such as the attention that the mainstream media gives them. however. The program. a Jejemon mother (Starmometer. or a family member because they do not live a ‘normal’ life. Its final episode was aired November 13. Gigi wears a Jejecap.
I contend that the ‘Jejemon priest’ is a contrary rendition of what my empirical data suggest. At first. The church is a Jejebuster. is a form of Jejebusting. ‘father Jejemon’ is loved by his fellow priests. church congregation and the rest of the community. That context is the market appropriation of the sub-culture itself. and to represent the Jejemon sub-culture in this regard.. Portrayals in mass media. I believe that the GMA Network fails to capture the being of a Jejemon. He is the adviser of everyone. I find the rendition of the image questionable. which was one of the entries in the annual Metro Manila Film Festival. and the rest of her barangay constituents. 72). She evolved from a Jejemon to a barangay secretary loved by her family. Aside from a ‘Jejemon mother’. which I illustrate below. One must remember the context in which the character was created. mainly because the characterization of the Jejemon persona is shallow and devoid of humanity. Gigi’s role as a Jejemon mother has no empirical basis. In reality. her love interest who is a policeman. was not sustained until its last episode. 30 Dolphy is a prominent artist. it is about a Jejemon priest played by Dolphy. C Cataan 52 to intervene since “society tends to provide institutionalized periods in which these subterranean values are allowed to emerge and take precedence” ( p. 1975. Personally. . it seems like a favorable venue for Jejemons to let people understand their own culture. This process of appropriation by capital.J. I realize that the sub-culture was ‘used’. for example the Jejemon is still fictitious. He is called the Comedy King of the Philippines. and does not represent the true Jejemon sub-culture. I argue. exploited and tainted by false representation. But in the end. This ‘breathing space’ however for subordinate culture is measured and is regulated. a movie was released in 2010 entitled Father Jejemon. based on my observation in its trailer. 104). there are no ‘Jejemon mothers’ because a sub-culture sprouts from the youth’s ability to establish their own identity apart from their households and other institutions (Clarke. p. as written on my field notes while watching Jejemom. Gigi’s Jejemon role.30 Though I was not able to watch the said movie. moreover. While I may agree on the attempt of the show to provide a new image of the Jejemon. is also flawed. As the title suggests. et al.
become the loved protagonists. 42). nasa TV [kami]”. C Cataan 53 In addition. I contend that this strategy by media to ‘aromatize’ the image of the Jejebusters is a way of ‘watering down’ the rage of the Jejemons against the Jejebusters. . such as the parents and the church. More than being flawed. it is interesting to point out that those who are Jejebusters in real life. by a sub-culture. One can surmise that the media attempt to use the Jejemon sub-culture for its business interest.J. these Jejebusters are the antagonists of the Jejemons. but to acts of Jejebusting. nevertheless. I argue that media representations on Jejemons are ‘intentionally’ misleading. yet an insult to the sub-culture. In other words. It is evident that media ‘ride’ not just on the fame of the sub-culture. clothed in the character of a Jejemon. The Jejemons. and is refracted in turn. consider the effort by media to represent them as a triumph. that the national culture time and again refracts. and as supported by my data. were represented on the visual medium as Jejemons. p. Although the representations are flawed and misleading. there is a reversal of roles in the way media represents the Jejemon sub-culture. These are witty and funny representations. the Jejebusters. however. even after the ‘glorious days’ of this sub-culture (Gordon. In real life. 1947. These acts by the media are a form of ‘cultural sarcasm’ to the Jejemon sub-culture. these prove one thing. As Jejemaster says in one interview: “At least. In media. albeit in limited and limiting ways.
28.” - Sabi ni Jejemaster sa akin sa isyu ng planong pagbili ng isang malaking telecommunication company sa website na www. 2010 . C Cataan 54 “Kapag binenta ko ang website sa kanila.com.jejemon.J. parang binenta ko na rin ang kultura ng Pilipinas. Disyembre.
one will use template solutions and conventional norms as remedy. what transpired in the Philippine political. and noise barrage among others. 2006) believes that sub-cultures are cultural constellations that appear and dissolve eventually. Teodoro (2010) agrees with this when he says that since Jejebusters are those who are intellectual and often have more access to politics and economy. which are commonly the strategies engaged by traditional activists.” Cohen adds (p. they do not join street protests. p. 46-47). which. If and when they realize that there is a need to change the system of education in the country. He argues that what lacks in many ‘subculture’ studies is the idea of ‘historical specificity’. enter a cultural and symbolic . In general. This paper therefore culminates in asking. “We seek. solutions which will settle old problems and not create new ones. however. signature campaign. racial. economic stratum and social class. 105) say that “subcultures appear only at particular historical moments then disappear or widely diffused afterwards”. (1975.J. if possible. economic and social landscape that brought about Jejemons? I believe that the Jejemon sub-culture does not exist in a vacuum but is caused by preexisting social dilemmas such as the deterioration of education and poverty.” In solving these problems. et al. Thus. age. Cohen (1955) believes that “problems exist in different variants and are dispersed in society through categories equipped by their society with frames of references such as sex. “This immediately imposes sharp limits on the range of creativity and innovation. C Cataan 55 CHAPTER 6 From subway to the main road: the Jejemons’ ambivalent returns If Bourdieu (in Wacquant. or an explanation why these particular forms occur at a particular time.” Therefore. Jejemons do otherwise. Jejemons. a creation of sub-culture is a matter of collective problem-solving (Cohen. 1955). I now ask: what is the purpose of the existence of sub-cultures? And under what conditions do they exist? The Jejemons are here to stay Hebdige (1979) asks this same question. he believes is the reason of Jejemons’ existence (par. they should think of more ‘permanent solutions’ to educational problems. and Clarke. or engage in other forms of protest such as lobbying. 15). one considers his or her surroundings and affiliations.
and their solution. is even more symbolic. there are specific inequalities and therefore in capacity to realize this process” (p. was fated to fail” (p. the Jejefriends and I beg to disagree. (1975). Their resistance is symbolic. (1975) believe that sub-cultures “command the stage of public attention for a time” because they have something to say. to buy the domain www. or remind (p. In any actual society.J. in my opinion. will die a natural death. 108). just like any other sub-cultures. First. as a proof that the sub-culture is growing. 114). they only contribute to their own damnation. et al. They do. . Jejemaster. 101). such as acceptance. recognition and respect. Clarke. told me31 about the offer by a telecommunication network that he refuses to name. Second. and they are in search for a brighter future. because “a resolution…pitched largely at the symbolic level. Their existence may be symbolic. the ruling social structure is not absolute and all powerful.com. a creation of sub-culture. for about three million Philippine pesos (He 31 During my sit-down interview with him on December 28. Willis (1977) suggests that sub-cultures get it wrong when they opt to deviate and resist from the dominant culture. like the ‘lads’. They call it an imaginary way of problem solving which lead nowhere. C Cataan 56 battle by forming their own sub-culture. I contend that the Jejemons are aware of the battle that they are waging. but only partly. It does not follow that the ‘dominant culture’ chooses them to be damned. the Jejemon sub-culture lives on as a constant reminder for three things. Clarke. Therefore. Gramsci (1992) supports Clarke. Many are sceptic that the Jejemon sub-culture. 100.jejemon. because. Third and the last. that the Filipino youth cultural and sub-culture movement is creative and active in shaping society.. et al. because their ‘cultural’ resistance does not equate to political and economic reforms in their society (p. 104). But Jejemaster. et al. There are pressures toward conformity and there are instant rewards for doing so. 2010. I argue that they are unaware of the complexity of such battle. the sub-culture is an outright reflection of the nation’s basic services. (1975) deny the power of this symbolic resistance. and is brave in saying that “‘men’ define and shape their whole lives is true only in abstraction. Jejemons sub-culture can also be an alternative ‘hegemony’. 46-47). inevitably alienates himself to some extent from the group and from satisfying social relations” (p. but the other way around when one transgresses. Cohen (1955) concludes that “he who dissents in matters the group considers important.
It is an unending ‘circuit’. I infer that this concept can be applied not just geographically. the notion of return albeit. a Filipino-owned cellular phone and appliance company. he consistently refuses the offer. 214). called ‘Harharmon’. points out the interesting concept of ‘transnational migrant circuit’ (p. the leader of Jejefriends. as it relates to the Jejemons’ migrant circuits. tentatively. “’Di ba. the native land. There will always be a point of return to the original culture where they first belonged prior to being Jejemons. Based on my personal experience. in addition. told me during our last meeting in January 2010. Jejemons are indeed ‘cultural migrants’. This marks another year of ‘Jejemony’. They are of the opinion that I have the impression that I will always carry with me my Jejemon identity. he says. and possibly deny its existence. As of this writing. but also socially and culturally. such as the place of migration. measuring the emotions of a Jejetexter. even in the event that I decide to undress myself 32 A Filipino-Jejenese translator created and operated by Jejemaster. I want to introduce and schematically outline. C Cataan 57 purchased the domain in year 2010 for three hundred Philippine pesos). and the sub-culture will definitely transform in ways that we do not know yet. I read this statement by Jejemaster as another attempt by capital to appropriate the sub-culture. She suggests that migrants try to link two or more places. Ryan. buster din naman ‘yan?”. The Jejemons’ ambivalent returns At this point.J. . that they are creating a new brand of Jejemon. I suggest to call that space or link as ‘transcultural migrant circuit’. which includes the overuse of ‘smiley’ icons such as “:))))))))” or “:’’’’’(“. He closes this topic by saying that selling the domain is like selling the culture of the Philippines. in her studies about Filipino migrants’ uncertain return to the Philippines. The company puts the Jejetranslator in every MyPhone cellular phone unit starting year 2011. People see me as ‘deviant’ also. Harharmon is a ‘level-up’ form of Jejemon. The Jejemons also attempt to link two cultures into ‘one life’. and other places of belongingness into one life. My friends and school mates continue to tease me and label me as Jejemon defender’ or ‘JejeJoseph’. I had a hard time going back to my ‘parent culture’. bought the ‘Jejetranslation’32 from him. Nicole Constable (1999). He adds that ‘MyPhone’.
I cracked a joke that if that happens. although he wants to wear a Jejeform. Though a silent listener. He still wants to be a pilot or a ship captain in the future. tsaka sa kabataan (Field notes. January 22. he continues to struggle to let go of his timidity. ‘yon ang ‘in’. Ryan: the uncommitted leader Ryan has impressed on me that he loves and values this Jejemon sub-culture because he is always active in meetings. Although the ambivalence is less because his parents have no reactions to his Jejemon style. he is hindered by the thought that he might lose his parttime job. Sabay sa agos ng buhay. he is a determined Jejemon. This. She said that her mother was once a Jejemon before. Kath: I see a colorful future Kath states something randomly when we informally assessed my ‘performance’ and participation into their sub-culture. and fully embrace the sub-culture’s expressive identity. Through this sub-culture. She said that if the present is as colorful as her mother’s past.J. but I sense something happy on his face. We argued and eventually. It is her parents who taught her to be colorful in clothes. we will have our first Jejepilot and Jejeplane. likewise. I asked how it happened. Her parents continue to reject him because he is a Jejemon. is still a silent Jejemon. he finds his identity. which was also associated with colorful clothes and accessories. until the end of my immersion in their sub-culture. Hangga’t may nageexist na isa. however. it turned out that her mother was part of the ‘retro’ era. is the longest statement that I had ever heard from him. . ‘di na mawawala ang Jejemon. Proud ako maging Jejemon kasi iyon ang uso. hinders him to fully commit to the sub-culture. ‘di ba? Iyon na rin ang nakasanayan kaya di na rin mawawala. 2011). where he also studies. But one striking statement that surprised me is his optimism about their sub-culture. which I narrate below. I believe. His part-time work as a school staff. C Cataan 58 of the identity. Sherwin: still a silent listener Sherwin. She said that she will continue to be a Jejemon even when she gets older. Most of the time. He said: Sa tingin ko. may mahahawa at mahahawa. He texts often as well. experience ambivalence in their own ‘circuits’. she is confident about a colorful future. My Jejefriends. or Jejeship and Jejecaptain.
. but we stay in touch. They breathe. C Cataan 59 Nina and Princess Nina and Princess were not around during my last visit. their ‘world’ is not somewhere ‘out there’. will be challenged time and again by scholars. not in its margins. The Jejemons and my ‘journey’ to their ‘world’ proved one thing: their ‘world’ is not far from us. differently. They feel insulted. sub-cultures will continue to exist. but ‘somewhere in here’. yet sometimes dark concept. They cry. They want to impart indelibly these experiences into their lifetime. but inside the dominant culture’s cores. not elsewhere or somewhere. It’s a joyride: a ‘journey’ worth remembering My literature review sketched the turbulent itinerary of the concept of ‘subculture’. I am confident that the Jejemon sub-culture. no matter how ‘othered’. The Chicago and Birmingham Schools played a big role in shaping this colorful. As long as there are problems in the ‘mantle’ of Philippine society. Jejetext and Jejeclothes are their significations of belongingness. while others continue to occupy crevices in the cracks of the dominant culture. The Jejemons are ordinary youth who yearn to curve something meaningful into their experiences. They become sad. still continue to grow. It is comforting to know that relationships inside the sub-culture. the Jejemons are here to stay.J. and live. ‘Tools’ such as Jejeposes. ‘within’ us. Theorists after theorists challenged the concept and phenomenon. somewhere ‘in’ us. They are the meaningful signifiers of the sub-culture’s shared identity that is constantly barraged by society’s restrictions. This research is one of those that opted to drive the ‘steer’ of ‘subculture’ studies to another direction. Some Jejemons leave. The provision of a seemingly stable theoretical space of ‘subculture’ became the ‘resting place’ of social scientists who wanted to make their researches comfortable. and no matter how ambivalent their returns are. They love. Jejemons are real. Some sub-cultures did not flourish. They tell me that they are still in their own respective relationships. with the growth of the internet. steering debates into opposing directions. Our separate geographic spaces are linked by text messages. They resist.
C Cataan 60 The ‘transcultural circuit’ remains. Some urgent and important themes related to this research can be the ‘production of space’ by Jejemons. . for any sub-culture to do so as a tool for their continuous existence. This research recognizes its limitations and constraints. I contend that no one completely departs from its ‘mother’ culture. Is transformation a part of its expansion. These are mentioned in this research but are given little attention. I thus challenge and recommend that this ‘Jejethesis’ be critiqued and updated to make this small piece of knowledge flourish. 223). It is essential. ‘Transcultural circuit’ enables them to connect. when the time comes that they have to return to their former culture. Henri Lefevre (2001) says that no space disappears completely. do they have a sense of difficulty conforming again to the local norm? Especially when they are seen as polluted and polluting the former culture (p. Do these two concepts happen at the same time? Are all sub-cultures transcultural? Are all transcultural sub-cultural? Last point before the curtain call. in the fast dynamics of sub-cultures. This idea is inspired by the book Anthropology of Removal by Nathalie Peutz (2006). but only another arrival in their created ‘transcultural circuit’. I tend to believe that their return is not a homecoming. 403). There is and will still be a point of departure from and return to the ‘world’. I believe that my departure from the Jejemon sub-culture and my return to my ‘parent culture’ is a journey in a ‘trancultural circuit’ of moments and identities. and Jejemons continue to be ‘cultural migrants’ of their ‘world’. Something always survives or endures (p. Therefore. I believe. it is important to figure out how they shift and exchange spaces in society. Although they depart from the norms and culture to which they are accustomed. they have ways to return. It should be asked. both in theory and in practice.J. it is vital to look at Jejemons’ ambivalent returns. or a defence mechanism should death appear imminent? Another unexplored idea with regard to the study of sub-culture is the issue of ‘the transcultural vis-a-vis the sub-cultural’. and re-connect to their former culture whenever it is necessary.
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com. R. (2010). Retrieved August 8.unbandictionary. Jejemon. Jock. L. (1971). Hegemony.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10. (1992. (1997). New York: Columbia University Press.com/main/2010/05/03/jejemon/ Turner.1. What is the meaning of Jejemon. Willis.citeseerx.com/notes/team-jejemon/history-ng-mga-tunay-najejemons/114769245221912 Teodoro.com Wacquant. Retrieved June 10. Retrieved June 10. (2010). (2010). (Eds.ist.J. The ritual process (94-130). & Thornton S. 2010 from http://www. 77-149). 71-80).). (1969).. The subcultures reader (1st ed) (pp. The social logic of sparring. 2010 from http://www. Pierre Bourdieu. In Gelder K. (Eds. 2010 from http://www. Liminality and communitas. J. In marxism and literature (pp. UnbanDictionary. London: Routledge. Learning to labor. London: Routledge.120.psu. R. C Cataan 64 Team Jejemon. P. In Body and Soul (pp.bulatlat. (1977). (2006).tv Tolentino. 1977). Young. L. (2006). Williams. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2010 from www. .1..pdf Wacquant.gmanews. 108-114). Retrieved November 22. History ng mga tunay na jejemon’s. 2010 from www. V.facebook. (2010). Retrieved August 3. We are all Jejemons. The subterranean world of play.). Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.
Photo by Joseph Cataan. (2010). p. p. Kath.boybanat. p. 39. Photo by Joseph Cataan. in www.J. ‘Screen shot of Jing Gaddi’s status on Facebook as he coins the term ‘Jejemony’. p. Photo 7. (2011).com. (2010). (2011). p. 24. 43. 33.com. Photo 2. during our snacks in Greenwich SM Fairview. Photo by Boy Banat. Photo 4. and my reply to C. 26. in www. Photo by Boy Banat. p. 46. p. Photo by Joseph Cataan. ‘Jejesuicide letter’. ‘Sherwin and Ryan. Photo 10.tv. in their Jejeposes’. ‘A newspaper headline on DepEd’s campaign against Jejemons’. p. Ryan. GMANews. p. Jejefriends and me. Photo by Boy Banat. p . Photo 9. p. 2010. . (2011). in www.com. (2010). Photo 8. in www. (2010).boybanat. 49. Photo 12. Princess and Princess. ‘Jejeresume’. during our snacks at Greenwich SM Fairview’. Princess and Sherwin. Photo by Boy Banat. p. 2010). (2011) . 40.com. 26.boybanat. (2010). Photo 11. ‘The Jejecap’. Photo 5. Nina. Photo by Joseph Cataan. ‘Screen shots of Jejetexts. Photo 6.48. ‘Screen shot of Jejemon in Jejeform’. ‘My Jejefriends. 38. Photos by Joseph Cataan. ‘I am with Jejemaster Aris Bonifacio during my interview with him in The Old Spaghetti House. Photo by Boy Banat.com. Photo by Data Tolentino-Canlas. (2010). in www. 28.boybanat. C Cataan 65 Photo credits Photo 1. (2010). (2010). Walter Mart Pasong Tamo’ taken December 28. Photo 3. Photo by Aries Bonifacio. Kath. taken from the show Saksi.boybanat.
Who is the real jejemon? How do you show it? (to be observed also) 13. C Cataan 66 APPENDIX 1 Interview guide questions for Jejemaster Aris Bonifacio. What is your dream for your community? 22. What can you say to the Jejebusters? 21. What is the feeling to be the Jejemaster? 7. What do you gain from being the Jejemaster? 9. relative and friends upon knowing that you are the Jejemaster? 10. How does being a Jejemaster affect you as a youth? As a son? As a student/worker? As a Filipino? As a person in general? 11. How long will you be the Jejemonster? 16. What is the impression of your family. How do you invite members to join you? 12. How will you be replaced? 17. Do you believe that Jejemons will die a natural death? 20. What are the traits and characteristics of a Jejemaster? 5. when and where do you convene your Jejemons? 14.J. What is your contribution so far to the Jejemon “community”? 18. Did you go through membership before you become the Jejemaster? 3. Are you proud to be a jejemaster? . Why did you decide to be the Jejemaster? 8. What is its role? 4. Who gave you an authority to be the Jejemaster? 6. What is your goal as a Jejemaster? 19. 29 years old 1. What is a Jejemaster? 2. Do you love them? 15. How.
What is the feeling of being a Jejemon? 8. How long will you be a Jejemon? 14. What are the unique characteristics of a Jejemon? 3. What is the role of a Jejemon? 6. How does being a Jejemon affect you as a youth? As a son/daughter? As a student/worker? As a Filipino? As a person in general? 10. How do you invite members to join you? 11. What is your dream for your community? 19. How do you show that you are a Jejemon? Fashion? Identities? Styles? (to be observed also) 12. What is the monster in the Jejemon? 7. Where and how do you get your load for texting? 13. relative and friends upon knowing that you are the Jejemon? 9. Do you believe that Jejemons will die a natural death? 17. Do you really want to be a Jejemon? Why? 4. What is a Jejemon? 2. What is your contribution so far to the Jejemon “community”? 15. Are you proud to be a jejemon? 20. What is the impression of your family. What is a Jejemon ten years from now? . What can you say to the Jejebusters? 18. C Cataan 67 APPENDIX 2 Interview guide questions for Jejemons 1. What do you get from being a Jejemon? 5. What is your goal as a Jejemon? 16.J.
pL1z f1L fR33 2 cOnT4cT m3 4t 4nY tYm @ (+63) 9168761567. oR 3v3n w1tHdR4w 4t 4Ny p1oNt fR0m d’ r3z34rCh w/0 4nY p3n4lTy. cOLL393 oF m455 cOmMuN1c4t1oN pHoN3: (+63) 9168761567.guiebiii@mail. uNd3rGr4dU4t3 j3j3sTuD3nT. pL1z dO nT h3z1t8 2 cOnT4cT m3 F u n1d mOr3 1nfOrM4t1oN oR 1f U w15h 2 4dd sOm3th1n9.ph 5uP3rV15oR: 3m4iL: jejePrOf.J. 4nYt1n9 U s3y w1LL oNLi b3 4ttR1bUt3d 2 u w/ uR p3rM1zz1oN. oL 4m5 3n 1nt3rV13w tR4nZcR1pT1oNz 4r3 s4v3d 1n 4 p455wOrDprOt3ct3d d191t4L-v4uLt. u w1LL V 45k3d kW35t1oNz r394rD1n9 uR xP3r13nC3s 4z 4 j3j3mOn. cOLL393 oF m455 cOmMuN1c4t1oN oF uN1v3rs1tY oF tH3 pH1L1Pp1n35 d1L1m4n. pH0toz 3n/0r v1d3os w1LL 4lzO b3 t4K3n w1d uR p3Rm1zz1oN 2 zUpPl3m3nT ‘d r3534rCh. jccataan@up. uR p4rt1c1p4t1oN 1z 3nT1r3Ly vOLuNt4rY 3n U c4n cHuZ 2 d3cL1n3 2 4nZw3r 4nY qU3zT1oN.com. h0w U cOnTr1BuT3 ‘n D cUlTuR3 3n hOw d1s cH4n93d uR LyF. c0n53nT: p4rT1c1p4nT’z s19n4tUr3 oV3r pR1nT3d n4M3: __________________ r3534rCh3r’5 s19n4tUr3 oV3r pR1nT3d n4M3: __________________ d8: _______________ .edu. uR s19n4tUr3 b3LoW s3rV35 2 s19n1fY d4t U a9r33 2 p4rT1c1p8 ‘n d1z zTuDy.mcgill.ca D1s 1sH 2 1nV1t3 U 2 p4rt1c1p4t3 1n 4 r3534rCh 3nt1tL3d j3j3mOn5: tH3 “oTh3r wOrLd” w1tH1n tH3 wOrLd 4 mY uNd3rGr4dU4t3 j3j3tH351s r3534rCh N d’ d3p4rTm3nT of bRo4dc45t cOmMuN1c4t1oN. d33 eulalio. (+63) 9322479434 3m4iL: jcataan@yahoo. 1f U h4v3 qU3zT1oNz oR cOnz3rNz. tH3 1nt3rV1eW w1LL l4zT 4 4n hOuR. mY pL3d93 2 cOnF1d3nT14L1tY 3n 3tH1cZ s 4L5o m34n5 d4T nO p3r5oN oR oR94n1z4t1oN oTh3r d4n mY 4dV153r w1LL h4v3 aCc355 2 4nY 1n4m4t1oN uNL3zz r3qU3zt3d bY dULy-r3cO9n1z3d 4uThOr1t1z 3n oFF1z3z oF d’ uN1v3rZty. 3n U cN w1tHdr4a fRoM d1z r3s34rCh 1fU dO nOt f1L cOm4t4bL3 w/0 n394t1v3 cOns3qU3ncEz oN u.com. 3uL4L1o gU13b III pH. uR p4rt1c1p4t1oN 1n D 5tudY w1LL 3nT4iL 4 5hOrt f4c3-tO-f4c3 iNt3rv13w w/ m3 4s D r3534rCh3r. D gO4L oF d’ 5TuD33 i5 2 d33pLy uNd3r5T4nD d’ j3j3mOn pH3nOm3nOn 4s 4 “sUb-cUlTur3” 3n“cOuNt3r cUlTur3”. (+63) 9322479434 or at jcataan@yahoo. 4LtHou9H w3 c4n zToP d1z 1nT3rV13w 4nYtyM u w4nT. C Cataan 68 uN1v3rs1tY oF tH3 pH1L1Pp1n35 d1L1m4n w0rK1n6 t1tL3: j3j3mOn5: tH3 “oTh3r wOrLd” w1tH1n tH3 wOrLd r3534rCh3r: j3j3jo53pH r1cK cRuZ c4t44n.
pH0toz 3n/0r v1d3os w1LL 4lzO b3 t4K3n w1d uR p3Rm1zz1oN 2 zUpPl3m3nT ‘d r3534rCh.com. 4LtHou9H w3 c4n zToP d1z 1nT3rV13w 4nYtyM u w4nT. uR p4rt1c1p4t1oN 1z 3nT1r3Ly vOLuNt4rY 3n U c4n cHuZ 2 d3cL1n3 2 4nZw3r 4nY qU3zT1oN.ph jejePrOf. mY pL3d93 2 cOnF1d3nT14L1tY 3n 3tH1cZ s 4L5o m34n5 d4T nO p3r5oN oR oR94n1z4t1oN oTh3r d4n mY 4dV153r w1LL h4v3 aCc355 2 4nY 1n4m4t1oN uNL3zz r3qU3zt3d bY dULy-r3cO9n1z3d 4uThOr1t1z 3n oFF1z3z oF d’ uN1v3rZty.guiebiii@mail. cOLL393 oF m455 cOmMuN1c4t1oN (+63) 9168761567.mcgill. uNd3rGr4dU4t3 j3j3sTuD3nT.J. c0n53nT: p4rT1c1p4nT’z s19n4tUr3 oV3r pR1nT3d n4M3: __________________ r3534rCh3r’5 s19n4tUr3 oV3r pR1nT3d n4M3: __________________ d8: _______________ . tH3 1nt3rV1eW w1LL l4zT 4 4n hOuR. C Cataan 69 C0n53nT fOrM FoR 1nT3rV13w (1nT3rV13w33’5 cOpEe) uN1v3rs1tY oF tH3 pH1L1Pp1n35 d1L1m4n w0rK1n6 t1tL3: j3j3mOn5: tH3 “oTh3r wOrLd” w1tH1n tH3 wOrLd r3534rCh3r: pHoN3: 3m4iL: 5uP3rV15oR: 3m4iL: j3j3jo53pH r1cK cRuZ c4t44n. pL1z f1L fR33 2 cOnT4cT m3 4t 4nY tYm @ (+63) 9168761567. 3uL4L1o gU13b III pH. (+63) 9322479434 or at jcataan@yahoo. uR p4rt1c1p4t1oN 1n D 5tudY w1LL 3nT4iL 4 5hOrt f4c3-tO-f4c3 iNt3rv13w w/ m3 4s D r3534rCh3r. 3n U cN w1tHdr4w fRoM d1z r3s34rCh 1fU dO nOt f1L cOm4t4bL3 w/0 n394t1v3 cOns3qU3ncEz oN u. D gO4L oF d’ 5TuD33 i5 2 d33pLy uNd3r5T4nD d’ j3j3mOn pH3nOm3nOn 4s 4 “sUb-cUlTur3” 3n“cOuNt3r cUlTur3”.edu. oR 3v3n w1tHdR4w 4t 4Ny p1oNt fR0m d’ r3z34rCh w/0 4nY p3n4lTy. jccataan@up. h0w U cOnTr1BuT3 ‘n D cUlTuR3 3n hOw d1s cH4n93d uR LyF. u w1LL V 45k3d kW35t1oNz r394rD1n9 uR xP3r13nC3s 4z 4 j3j3mOn.ca D1s 1sH 2 1nV1t3 U 2 p4rt1c1p4t3 1n 4 r3534rCh 3nt1tL3d j3j3mOn5: tH3 “oTh3r wOrLd” w1tH1n tH3 wOrLd 4 mY uNd3rGr4dU4t3 j3j3tH351s r3534rCh N d’ d3p4rTm3nT of bRo4dc45t cOmMuN1c4t1oN. 1f U h4v3 qU3zT1oNz oR cOnz3rNz. d33 eulalio. cOLL393 oF m455 cOmMuN1c4t1oN oF uN1v3rs1tY oF tH3 pH1L1Pp1n35 d1L1m4n. 4nYt1n9 U s3y w1LL oNLi b3 4ttR1bUt3d 2 u w/ uR p3rM1zz1oN.com. (+63) 9322479434 jcataan@yahoo. oL 4m5 3n 1nt3rV13w tR4nZcR1pT1oNz 4r3 s4v3d 1n 4 p455wOrDprOt3ct3d d191t4L-v4uLt. uR s19n4tUr3 b3LoW s3rV35 2 s19n1fY d4t U a9r33 2 p4rT1c1p8 ‘n d1z zTuDy. pL1z dO nT h3z1t8 2 cOnT4cT m3 F u n1d mOr3 1nfOrM4t1oN oR 1f U w15h 2 4dd sOm3th1n9.
(+63) 9322479434 3m4iL: jcataan@yahoo. 3n U cN w1tHdr4w fRoM d1z r3s34rCh 1fU dO nOt f1L cOm4t4bL3 w/0 n394t1v3 cOns3qU3ncEz oN u. oL 4m5 3n 1nt3rV13w tR4nZcR1pT1oNz 4r3 s4v3d 1n 4 p455wOrDprOt3ct3d d191t4L-v4uLt. u w1LL V gU1d1n9 eN t34cH2n9 d r3z34rCh3r w/ uR xP3r13nZ3z 4z 4 j3j3mOn 41m1n9 d4t d r3z34rCh3r w1LL h4v 4 f1rZt-h4nD xP3r13nZ3 oF d r34L j3j3mOn wOrLd. u w1LL 4lzO xCh4n93 t3xT m3zz493z 3n oD3r m34nZ oF coMmuN1c4t1oN w/ d r3z34rCh3r 4LtHou9H w3 c4n zToP uR p4t1c1p4t1oN 4nYtyM u w4nT. 3uL4L1o gU13b III pH. 4nYt1n9 U s3y w1LL oNLi b3 4ttR1bUt3d 2 u w/ uR p3rM1zz1oN. c0n53nT: p4rT1c1p4nT’z s19n4tUr3 oV3r pR1nT3d n4M3: __________________ r3534rCh3r’5 s19n4tUr3 oV3r pR1nT3d n4M3: __________________ d8: _______________ . 1f U h4v3 qU3zT1oNz oR cOnz3rNz. (+63) 9322479434 or at jcataan@yahoo. cOLL393 oF m455 cOmMuN1c4t1oN pHoN3: (+63) 9168761567.mcgill.com. d33 eulalio. jccataan@up. oR 3v3n w1tHdR4w 4t 4Ny p1oNt fR0m d’ r3z34rCh w/0 4nY p3n4lTy. pH0toz 3n/0r v1d3os w1LL 4lzO b3 t4K3n w1d uR p3Rm1zz1oN 2 zUpPl3m3nT ‘d r3534rCh.ca D1s 1sH 2 1nV1t3 U 2 p4rt1c1p4t3 1n 4 r3534rCh 3nt1tL3d j3j3mOn5: tH3 “oTh3r wOrLd” w1tH1n tH3 wOrLd 4 mY uNd3rGr4dU4t3 j3j3tH351s r3534rCh N d’ d3p4rTm3nT of bRo4dc45t cOmMuN1c4t1oN. D gO4L oF d’ 5TuD33 i5 2 d33pLy uNd3r5T4nD d’ j3j3mOn pH3nOm3nOn 4s 4 “sUb-cUlTur3” 3n“cOuNt3r cUlTur3”. C Cataan 70 C0n53nT fOrM FoR p4rT1c1p4nT oBs3rV4t1oN (r3534rCh3r’5 cOpEe) uN1v3rs1tY oF tH3 pH1L1Pp1n35 d1L1m4n w0rK1n6 t1tL3: j3j3mOn5: tH3 “oTh3r wOrLd” w1tH1n tH3 wOrLd r3534rCh3r: j3j3jo53pH r1cK cRuZ c4t44n. mY pL3d93 2 cOnF1d3nT14L1tY 3n 3tH1cZ s 4L5o m34n5 d4T nO p3r5oN oR oR94n1z4t1oN oTh3r d4n mY 4dV153r w1LL h4v3 aCc355 2 4nY 1n4m4t1oN uNL3zz r3qU3zt3d bY dULy-r3cO9n1z3d 4uThOr1t1z 3n oFF1z3z oF d’ uN1v3rZty.edu. uNd3rGr4dU4t3 j3j3sTuD3nT.ph 5uP3rV15oR: 3m4iL: jejePrOf. cOLL393 oF m455 cOmMuN1c4t1oN oF uN1v3rs1tY oF tH3 pH1L1Pp1n35 d1L1m4n. uR p4rt1c1p4t1oN 1z 3nT1r3Ly vOLuNt4rY 3n U c4n cHuZ 2 d3cL1n3 2 4nZw3r 4nY qU3zT1oN. uR p4rt1c1p4t1oN 1n D 5tudY w1LL 3nT4iL 4 m0ntH-loN9 oF j3j3mOn pR4t1c3z w/ d r3z34rCh3r.guiebiii@mail. uR s19n4tUr3 b3LoW s3rV35 2 s19n1fY d4t U a9r33 2 p4rT1c1p8 ‘n d1z zTuDy.com. pL1z f1L fR33 2 cOnT4cT m3 4t 4nY tYm @ (+63) 9168761567.J. pL1z dO nT h3z1t8 2 cOnT4cT m3 F u n1d mOr3 1nfOrM4t1oN oR 1f U w15h 2 4dd sOm3th1n9.
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$4 k~+4pU$4n n6 p'nn71k$1k. J.4b$+r4K+ C4+44n. Up'n6 p'6+1by1n 4n6 p'nn71k$1k. InUmp1$4h4n qU0h 4n6 p'nn71k$1k $4 p'6kr1+1k $4 qU0hn$3p+0 n6 ‘$UbkU7+Ur4’. S4 p'6p'p'+U70y n6 p'nn71k$1k. 4n6 w1k~ n6 m64 J3j3m0n. An6 p'nn71k$1k n 1+0 n p1nm464+4n6 An6 ‘MUnD0’ $4 L00b n6 MUnD0: An6 m64 J3j3m0n b174n6 ‘Ibn6’ KU7+Ur4 4y n6b1b164y n6 p'Unn6 74r4w4n $4 $UbkU7+Ur4n6 J3j3m0n. (2011). An6 p'nn71k$1k n 1+0 4y m4$ m47471m kUmp'r4 $4 mUhD370n6 ‘p'6-16p'w-p'674bn’ n6 m4r4m1n6 m64 nk~r44n6 p'6-44r47. UnpUb71$h3D UnD3r6r4DU4+3 Th3$1$. K3yw0rD$: kU7+Ur4. Un1b3r$1D4D n6 P171p1n$ K073h1y0 n6 P4n6m4D74n6 K0mUn1k~$y0n. An6 jU71 4y 4n6 6464m1+1n6 qU0hn$3p+0 $4 bU0n6 p'nn71k$1k. C. np'+Uny4n n174 4n6 74k~$ n6 ‘$UbkU7+Ur4’ Up'n6 m41mp7Uw3n$1y4h4n 4n6 m64 p'mbn$4n6 U$4p1n 4+ m3D14 64y4 n6 m4k1kT4 $4 p'74b$ n6 GMA N3+w0rk n p1nm464+4n6 J3j3m0m. nk1p'mUh4y 4q. k~$4by n1+0 4n6 p'6b1b164y n6 b60n6 +3rm1n070h1y4 n +4+4w461n6 ‘J3j3m0ny’ 0 47+3rn+1b0n6 h363m0ny4 0 64jUm n6 m64 J3j3m0n. Ur1. $Ub-kU7+Ur4. An6 w1k~n6 In673$ 4n6 $1y4n6 p'n6Unh1n6 +3k$+0. An6 p'nn71k$1k n 1+0 4y 1$1nU74+ $4 w1k~n6 In673$ 4+ J3j3n3$3. J3j3m0n. S4 700b n6 71m4n6 71n660. m3D14 . 61nm1+ qU0h 4n6 p'r+1c1p'n+ 0b$3rv4+10n Up'n6 p'64r474n 4n6 ‘$UbkU7+Ur4’. 4+ 1p1n71w4n6 4n6 k~1bh4n n1+0 $4 ‘$Ub-kU7+Ur4’. 4n6 m47Uw46 n p'664m1+ n6 +30ry4 $4 4nUm4n6 1$yU. 4n6 p1nx3'k~+ n ‘$UbkU7+Ur4’ $4 k~$47UkUy4n 4y 4n6 m64 J3j3m0n$+3r 0 m64 J3j3m0n. 1D3y070h1y4. nnnw464n 1+0 n jUm4np 0 7Um1kh4 n6 b60n6 $471+4n6 m444r1n6 1p'71+ $4 $471+4n6 ‘$UbkU7+Ur4’. S4 U$4p1n n6 kU7+Ur4n6 ph0w$zzZZpU74r $4 P171p1n$. 4+ 4n6 p'671m0+ 4+ k~m4714n $4 p'6-UU6ny n1+0 $4 m64 Ur1 $4 71pUnn 4+ kU7+Ur4. I+1n+nU'n6 r1n n6 p'nn71k$1k kUn6 p'nU' 61n64m1+ n6 m64 J3j3m0n 4n6 qU0hn$3p+0 n6 ‘J3j3m0ny’ $4 k~n174n6 p'n6-4r4w-4r4w n bUh4y b174n6 ph0w$zzZZrm4 n6 p'6+U+07 4+ 3$+170. S4 m41k71n6 p'nh0n. $Um4m4 4+ n61n6 1$4n6 J3j3m0n. An6 ‘MUnD0’ $4 L00b n6 MUnD0: An6 m64 J3j3m0n b174n6 ‘Ibn6’ KU7+Ur4. b1n71k~n n6 n6-44r47 4n6 U64+ n6 qU0hn$3p+0 n6 $UbkU7+Ur4 n $4 p'6740n 4y n6+4m0 n6 174n6 kr1+1$1$m0 +U74D n6 7Ub0$ n p'6161n6 pr4k+1k~7. $UbkU+Ur4.
1+$ $+4+U$ 4nD cr1+1qU3$ Th3 Ch1c460 m4D3 4 bU77’$ 3y3: D4 0r161n$ 0f D4 ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’ D40ry C4n Mr.+4b73 0f c0n+3n+$ P463 T1+73 P463 4ppr0v47 $h33+ B106r4ph1c47 D4+4 Ackn0w73D6m3n+ D3D1c4+10n 4b$+r4c+ Ab$+r4k+ +4b73 0f c0n+3n+$ L1$+$ 0f T4b73$ 4nD P1c+Ur3$ ch4p+3r 1: H3r3 c0m3$ D4 +07764+3: An 1n+r0DUc+10n i ii iii iv v vi vii viii x 2 ch4p+3r 2: En+3r1n6 D4 $Ubw4y: D4 ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’ D40ry. W3b$+3r D0 +h1$?'': D3f1n1n6 D4 +3rm ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’ D3+0Ur 4h34D: 4 cr1+1qU3 0f D4 c0nc3p+ 0f $UbcU7+Ur3 UnD3r c0n$+rUc+10n: chUR1-cHUr1'x 4 D4 1nc0nv3n13nc3: Th3 B1rm1n6h4m Sch007 Tr4D1+10n 4nD ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’ $+UDy ‘SUbcU7+Ur3$’ 1n D4 Ph171pp1n3$ N0+ $0 f4r: D4 47+3rn+1v3$ +0 ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’ ‘SUbcU7+Ur3’ v1$-à-v1$ $Ub-cU7+Ur3 9 10 12 12 15 17 19 20 ch4p+3r 3: n0 $w3rv1n6: D4 r1$3 0f j3j3m0n$ 24 .
D3f1n1n6 4 J3j3m0n 0r161n 0f D4 +3rm j3j3m0n J3j3 + w3bm4$+3r = J3j3m4$+3r +h3 j3j3fr13nD$ 24 24 26 27 ch4p+3r 4: 3n+3r1n6 4 ‘w0r7D’ w1+h1n D4 w0r7D: D4 j3j3w0r7D Th3 n3w J3j3m0n 1n +0wn J3j3m0n$’ c0D3$ 4nD ‘$+y73’ Th3 J3j3+3x+ Th3 J3j373v37$: D4 m34xUr! 0f 4 +rU3 J3j3m0n E0w pFhOwzH: +3x+m4+3$ +0 r3m3mb3r Th3 J3j3f4$h10n Th3 J3j3m0n$’ 1D30706y 4nD 47+3rn+1v3 h363m0ny 32 34 35 38 39 41 42 44 ch4p+3r 5: +h3 j3j3bU$+3r$ 4nD 0D4r 4m$ 0f j3j3bU$+1n6 iN5t1tuTi0nZ oF J3j3bU$+1n6 OD4r 4m$ 0f j3j3bU$+1n6 J3j3m0n$ 4nD r3pr3$3n+4+10n 0n TV 49 49 52 56 ch4p+3r 6: fr0m $Ubw4y +0 D4 m41n r04D: +h3 j3j3m0n$’ 4mb1v473n+ r3+Urn$ 60 Th3 J3j3m0n$ r h3r3 +0 $+4y 60 Th3 J3j3m0n$’ 4mb1v473n+ r3+Urn$ I+’$ 4 j0yr1D3!: 4 ‘j0Urn3y’ +0 r3m3mb3r R3f3r3nc3$ App3nD1c3$ Ph0+0 cr3D1+$ In+3rv13w 6U1D3 qU3$+10n$ 4 J3j3m4$+3r In+3rv13w 6U1D3 qU3$+10n$ 4 J3j3m0n$ C0n$3n+ 4m$ 71 72 73 74 62 64 67 .
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2010) ph0+0 11: j3j3r3$Um3 (ph0+0 by b0ybn+. DUr1n6 0Ur $nck$ 1n Gr33nw1ch SM F41rv13w 26 Ph0+0 3: K4+h. D: Scr33n $h0+ 0f my r3p7y +0 C Ph0+0 7: Th3 J3j3c4p (Ph0+0 by B0y B4n+.A7ph4b3+ v1$-à-v1$ J3j3b3+ T4b73 2: L3v37$ 0f J3j3+3x+ 35 36 Ph0+06r4ph$ Ph0+0 1: I 4m w1+h J3j3m4$+3r Ar1$ B0n1f4c10 DUr1n6 my 1n+3rv13w w1+h h1m 24 1n Th3 O7D Sp'6h3++1 H0U$3. N1n. Ry4n.c0m.L1$+ 0f +4b73$ 4nD ph0+0$ +4b73$ T4b73 1 .+v. Pr1nc3$$ 4nD Sh3rw1n. 2010) Ph0+0 9: Scr33n$h0+ 0f J1n6 G4DD1’$ $+4+U$ 0n F4c3b00k 4$ h3 c01n$ D4 +3rm ‘J3j3m0ny’ Ph0+0 10: A n3w$p'p3r h34D71n3 0n D3pED’$ c4mp'16n 4641n$+ J3j3m0n$ (Ph0+0 by B0y B4n+. Pr1nc3$$ 4nD N1n. DUr1n6 0Ur $nck$ 1n Gr33nw1ch SM F41rv13w 27 Ph0+0 4: J3j3fr13nD$ 4nD m3 Ph0+0 5: My J3j3fr13nD$. 2010 Ph0+0 2: Sh3rw1n 4nD Ry4n. 1n D41r J3j3p0$3$ Ph0+0 6: Scr33n $h0+$ 0f J3j3+3x+ (fr0m 73f+: A. GMAN3w$. K4+h. D3c3mb3r 28. 2010) Ph0+0 12: J3j3$U1c1D3 73++3r (Ph0+0 c0Ur+3$y 0f B0yB4n+. W47+3r M4r+ P4$0n6 T4m0. 2010) Ph0+0 8: Scr33n $h0+ 0f J3j3m0n 1n J3j34m (fr0m D4 $h0w S4k$1. B 4nD C).c0m) 28 33 38 39 40 43 46 48 49 .
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I w47k3D +hr0U6h ‘p74c3$’ 4nD ‘$p'c3$’ I n3v3r kn3w b343. bU+ r4D4r D4 r3c31v3r$ 4nD r34c+0r$. C C4+44n 2 CHAPTER 1 H3r3 c0m3$ D4 +07764+3: An 1n+r0DUc+10n L1k3 1mp3rf3c+ c74y 1n ph0w$zzZZ++3r’$ h4nD$. F1r$+. +h1$ r3$34rch br34k$ m3 1n+0 p13c3$. w1+h 4 71++73 nUmb3r 0n D4 1n+3rn3+ 4$ 4 c0mmUn1c4+10n +007. 4nD p3rh4p$ b3++3r ‘J0$3ph C4+44n’. I 3xp3r13nc3 c0nfU$10n$. . C077363 0f M4$$ C0mmUn1c4+10n 71br4ry. TjU$. S3c0nD.P. w4+ D03$ 1+ r3477y m34n +0 h4v3 4 br04Dc4$+ $+UDy?'' Th3 D4$3$ 4nD D1$$3r+4+10n$ m4D3 by pr3v10U$ Br04Dc4$+ m4j0r$ 1n D4 C077363 r $1m174r 1n +w0 +h1n6$. $c0p3$ 4nD 71m1+4+10n$ 0f +h1$ r3$34rch. D4 f0c47 ph0w$zzZZ1n+ h3r3 1$ 4 1 $0Urc3$ r w1+hh37D. +h1$ $+UDy D3v14+3$ fr0m m4ny ‘+3mp74+3’ br04Dc4$+ $+UD13$ m3n+10n3D 4b0v3. r4+10n73. bU+ +0 Un34r+h D4 mUh$+ ph0w$zzZZ$$1b73 +rU+h 4nD br34k D4 b0nD$ 0f 16n0r4nc3 4nD f47$1+y. m3D14 1$ n0+ D4 c3n+r47 +3x+ 0r D4 pr0DUc3r$ 0f D4 m34n1n6 0f +3x+$. D4 m3D1Um 1$ D4 c3n+r47 +3x+ 0f D4 r3$34rch. Th3$3 0b$3rv4+10n$ 73D m3 +0 D4 $3c0nD 1nqU1ry: wUD 1+ $+177 b3 4 br04Dc4$+ $+UDy 1f D4 m3D1Um 1$ n0+ D4 c3n+r47 +3x+ 4nym0r3?'' 1n my r3$34rch. Thr0U6h +h1$. wh3n +h1$ r3$34rch 1$ b31n6 pr0p0$3D. B4$3D 0n w4+ I h4v3 0b$3rv3D 1n D4 4rch1v3$ 0f D4 U. W3 $+UDy 4nD D0 r3$34rch n0+ +0 p734$3 0D4r$.J. L3+ m3 b361n w1+h $3++1n6 D4 0bj3c+1v3$. A70n6$1D3 1$ my D1$$3n+ 0n D4 1$$U3 +h4+ +h1$ r3$34rch 1$ n0+ 4 br04Dc4$+ $+UDy. 1+ 1$ v3ry 3v1D3n+ +h4+ D4$3$ 4nD D1$$3r+4+10n$ 1n D4 Br04Dc4$+ D3p'r+m3n+ +4ck73D 0n 4n7y$3$ 4nD cr1+1qU3$ +0 31D4r +373v1$10n 0r r4D10 pr06r4m$. D40r3+1c47 4nD 1D307061c47 D173mm4. BU+ D4 1n1+147 qU3$+10n +h4+ I 4$k. 4nD 3v3n+U477y. I 734v3 b3h1nD 4nD p1ck Up $0m3 p13c3$ 0f m3 +h4+ m4k3 4 n3w. 1+ $Uff3r3D Unf41r r3v13w$ 4nD cr1+1c1$m$1 wh1ch 73D +0 $4y1n6 +h4+ +h1$ 1$ n0+ 4 br04Dc4$+ $+UDy. D4 m3D1Um 1$ cr1+1qU3D fr0m D4 0U+$1D3r’$ ph0w$zzZZ1n+ 0f v13w.
b$3D 0n D4 +r4D1+10n7 D3f1n1+10n$ 0f ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’ +h4+ 1 D1$cU$$ 1n D4 n3x+ ch4p+3r. D4 D4$1$ 1$ J3j3n3$3. 4nD I +ry +0 c4p+Ur3 D41r m3$$463. I $33 4nD r34D J3j3m0n$ 4$ 4 +3x+. D4 74n6U463 0f D4 ‘r3$34rch3D’. nm37y. C C4+44n 3 6r0Up 0f p30p73: 4 $0-c4773D ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’ 0r $Ub-cU7+Ur32 +h4+ w4$ 4b73 +0 c0Un+3r D4 D0m1nn+ cU7+Ur3 1n D4 $0c13+y. D4 j3j3m0n$ r UnD3n14b7y 4 ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’. wh3n D4 0D4r 0n3 1$ b31n6 r34D. H3 0r $h3 3xp3r13nc3$ 4 $1mU7+4n30U$ 4cc0mm0D4+10n 4nD r3$1$+4nc3 +0 31D4r 74n6U463. D4y h4v3 b33n 4b73 47$0 +0 0ccUpy $m477 ‘$p'c3$’ 1n D4 m41n$+r34m m3D14. U$1n6 D4 ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’ D40ry D1$+1nc+7y 4mU74+3D by D4 $ch007$ 0f ch1c460 4nD b1rm1n6h4m.J. I+ 1$ 47$0 D4 f1r$+ 0f 1+$ k1nD +0 cr1+1c477y $+UDy D4 J3j3m0n ph3n0m3n0n 4nD wr1+3 D4 f1n7 r3$34rch 0U+pU+ 1n J3j3n3$3. D4 74x U$463 0f D4 +3rm ($33 ch4p+3r 2) 73D +0 c0nfU$10n$ 4nD m4ny cr1+1qU3 0f $0c147 $c13n+1$+$ 470n6 D4 w4y. Th1$ r3$34rch 41m$ +0 $+UDy D4 J3j3m0n $Ub-cU7+Ur3 4$ 4 r374+3Dm3D14 4nD 4n+hr0p07061c47 ph3n0m3n0n. I U$3 D4 ‘J3j3+R4nzL4+0r’ 0f J3j3m4$+3r Ar13$ B0n1f4c10 4 D4 v3r$10n 2 0f +h1$ r3$34rch. 3$p3c1477y wh3n 60rD0n (1947) pr0v1D3$ D4 ‘1nD1c4+0r$’ 0f $Uch. my r3$34rch 3n6463$ 4 k3y 1n+3r$3c+10n 1n $+UD13$ 0f m3D14 4nD cU7+Ur3. I+ $h0w$ D4 0pp0$1+10n b3+w33n D4 m41n$+r34m 4nD D4 $Ub-cU7+Ur3’$ 74n6U463. c70D4$ 4nD $p33ch. 4 c0mmUn1c4+10n +3x+. I b3713v3 +h4+ D4 J3j3m0n$ mU$+ b3 D4 f1r$+ +0 UnD3r$+4nD D4 $+UD13$ 4b0U+ D4m. 1 pr0b73m4+1z3 D4 cr1$1$ +h4+ h0UnD$ D4 c0nc3p+ 0f ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’. Th1$ phy$1c47 D3$16n n3c3$$1+4+3$ D4 r34D3r +0 ch00$3 b3+w33n D4 +w0 74n6U463$. Th1$ r3$34rch m4y b3 D1ff3r3n+ fr0m pr3v10U$ $+UD13$ m3n+10n3D 34r713r bU+ +h1$ xUr!7y c0n+r1bU+3$ +0 D4 D3p'r+m3n+’$ 3$+4b71$hm3n+ 0f 1+$ D1$+1nc+ $ch007 0f +h0U6h+ 4 0D4r$ +0 f0770w. 4nD +0 $+UDy D4 1n+3rp74y 0f c74$$3$ 1nv07v3D 1n D4 ph3n0m3n0n. D4 D1ff3r3nc3 0f $UbcU7+Ur3 4nD $Ub-cU7+Ur3 (w1+h 4 hyph3n) 1$ D1$cU$$3D 1n D4 $Ucc33D1n6 ch4p+3r. $1nc3 D4 0D4r 74n6U463 1$ 1n 1+$ 1nv3r+3D ph0w$zzZZ$1+10n. 2 . +0 UpD4+3 D4 r3c0rD 0f 3x1$+1n6 $UbcU7+Ur3$ +h4+ 3v07v3 4nD v4n1$h +hr0U6h +1m3. Th3 bck-+0-bck D3$16n 0f +h1$ D4$1$ 1$ 4n 4$$3r+10n 0f D4 74n6U463 4$ w377.
4$ D3f1n3D by D1ck h3bD163 (1979). 1+ 4n$w3r$ h0w D4 j3j3m0n ph3n0m3n0n pr0v1D3$ r3pr3$3n+4+10n 4nD 1D3n+1+y +0 m4ny f171p1n0 U'+h n0w4D4y$ 1n D4 m1D$+ 0f 4 $+r0n6 D3m4nD 4 c0n4m1+y 1n $0c13+y. A7$0. In D4 0U+$k1r+$ 0f $0c147 m4r61n. +h1$ $+UDy w0rk$ 1n 4n Un3xp70r3D r4 0f 3+hn06r4ph1c $+UD13$ c4773D by D4$ 4nD P0073 (2004) 4$ ‘4n+hr0p0706y 0f D4 $+4+3’. wh3n D4y D0 n0+ c00p3r4+3 r ‘0DrD’ by D4 $+4+3. b3y0nD 6306r4ph1c m4r61n$. +h1$ $+UDy pr0v3$ +h4+ D4 j3j3m0n$ r b3y0nD 4 ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’ 1n 1+$ +rU3$+ $3n$3. D16 b3y0nD D4 $Urf4c3 4nD Un34r+h $1+3$ 0f D1$0rD3r w3r D4 $+4+3 h4$ b33n Unb73 +0 1mp0$3 1+$ 0rD3r (p.J. In D4$3 m4r61n$. 4$ 1+ c0n+1nU3$ D4 3+hn06r4ph1c 4ppr04ch +hr0U6h p'r+1c1p'n+ 0b$3rv4+10n. h0w r D4 4c+U47 j3j3m0n$ D1ff3r3n+ fr0m m3D14-r3pr3$3n+3D 0n3$?'' 74$+7y. +h0U6h 4 $Ub-cU7+Ur3 1$ 47$0 4 h363m0ny. 64DD1. y?'' >. C C4+44n 4 h0w3v3r. D4 r073 0f 4n 4n+hr0p07061$+ 1$ +0 f1nD D4$3 ‘m4r61n$’. +h1$ r3$34rch 700k$ 4nD $+UD13$ D4 $0c1477y $+r4+1f13D $+rU6673. +h1$ fUrD4r r3c0mm3nD$ 4 r3-$h4p1n6 0f D4 +3rm +h4+ wUD $07v3 D4 +3rm1n0706y cr1$1$ 4nD 3v3n+U477y c477$ +0 c01n 4 b3++3r +3rm 1n D4 fU+Ur3 +h4+ w177 f1+ 1n+0 D4 3m3r61n6 ‘$UbcU7+Ur3$’. c0Un+3r 4nD 47+3r D4 cUrr3n+ $0c147 0rD3r 4nD p3rc31v3 D4m$37v3$ 4nD D4 w0r7D. f1f+h. +h1rD. Th3 $+4+3. +hr0U6h D41r U$3 0f $+y73. 4nD c4$+ +0 1+$ m4r61n$. p3r$0n7 c0mmUn1c4+10n. 1n w17714m$. 1n 4n 3+hn06r4ph1c 73n$. 4n 47+3rn+1v3 h363m0ny 4 +h4+ m4++3r 4nD 4+ D4 $4m3 +1m3 4 ‘r3v07U+10nry 4c+1v1+y’ (6r4mc1. +h1$ pr0b3$ D4 j3j3m0n$’ 1n+3rn7 $ymb07$. .< D03$ +h1$ $Ub-cU7+Ur3 3x1$+ 1n +h1$ p3r10D 0f 0Ur +1m3?'' Th1$ $+UDy 1$ $16n1f1c4n+ b3c4U$3 1+ $+UD13$ h0w J3j3m0n$. +hr0U6h ‘j3j3m0ny’. 6). cU7+Ur3 4nD 1D30706y. r Dr r3477y j3j3m0n$?'' 1f Dr r. f0Ur+h. +h1$ 3xp70r3$ D4 $0-c4773D ‘j3j3m0ny’ (j. m34n1n6$ 4nD $+y73$. w3 c4n f1nD 4 $Ub-cU7+Ur3. h4$ $0c147 m4r61n$ 4$ w377. Th1$ $+UDy p'r+1cU74r1z3$ 0n ‘$+4+3 m4r61n$’ wh1ch $4y$ +h4+ D4 3+hn06r4ph1c $+UDy 0f D4 ‘pr1m1+1v3$’ $h0U7D 1nc7UD3 D4 ‘$+4+3’ 1n D4 $+UDy 4nD 1+$ 0rD3r-m4k1n6 fUnc+10n $1mp7y b3c4U$3 D4 $+4+3 h4$ 4 70+ 0f 1nf7U3nc3 1n D4 3x1$+3nc3 4nD r34c+10n$ 0f $Ub-cU7+Ur3$. 2010) 0r j3j3m0n$’ 47+3rn+1v3 h363m0ny. +h1$ r3$34rch 4n$w3r$ D4 qU3$+10n. 1992). j3j3m0n$’ D1$+1nc+ cU7+Ur3 4$ 4 $0c147 pr0c3$$ 4nD D41r 1D30706y 4$ 4 ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’ 0U+700k. j3j3m0n$. Th3 ‘pr1m1+1v3$’.
< 1 4m $+UDy1n6 D41r ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’. Dr r 6306r4ph1c 4nD cU7+Ur47 D1v1$10n$ w1+h1n D4 j3j3m0n $Ub-cU7+Ur3. P3rh4p$. 42). D4 ‘r3pr0DUc+10n’. Th3 ch01c3 0f D4+3 1$ DU3 +0 D4 D4$1$ ph4$1n6 4nD 4+ D4 $4m3 +1m3 D4 Chr1$+m4$ br34k. wh3n 0D4r$ $33k +0 r3pr3$3n+ D41r 71f3$+y73 0r 71v3$ 1n 63n3r47. Th3 U$3 0f En671$h.J. C C4+44n 5 +h1$ r3$34rch. ‘71v1n6’ 4nD ‘f4+471+y’ 0f 1+$ ‘c1+1z3n$’. fr0m D3c3mb3r 20. h0w3v3r. 4Dm1+$ $0m3 71m1+4+10n$ 0n 1+$ m3+h0D$ 4nD 4n7y$1$. +h1$ $+UDy p74c3$ 1+$ f0cU$ 0n 0n3 p'r+1cU74r 6r0Up 0f j3j3m0n$ 4nD D03$ n0+ 4+ 74r63 r3pr3$3n+ D4 3n+1r3 j3j3m0n $Ub-cU7+Ur3 m3mb3r$ 4nD p3r$p3c+1v3$ 1n D4 ph171pp1n3$. 41. Dr w3r3 r3$1$+4nc3 fr0m D4 j3j3m0n$ $Uch 4$ w1+hh07D1n6 4n$w3r$ 0r n0+ 4n$w3r1n6 4+ 477. Dr r 4 70+ mUhr3 f4c3+$ 0f +h1$ ‘w0r7D’ +h4+ n33D +0 b3 3xp70r3D bU+ 1 0p+3D +0 f0cU$ 0n ph0w$zzZZw3r r374+10n$ w1+h1n 4nD 0U+$1D3 +h1$ ‘w0r7D’. DUr1n6 0b$3rv4+10n$ 4nD 1n+3rv13w$. 4$ D4 pr1m4ry 74n6U463 0f +h1$ r3$34rch. Th0U6h 1+ 1$ 0DD b3c4U$3 D4 J3j3m0n$ D0 n0+ c0mmUn1c4+3 1n En671$h-J3j3n3$3. my $+4+U$ 4$ 4n 1n+3773c+U47 fr0m 4 r3n0wn3D Un1v3r$1+y 1n D4 ph171pp1n3$ m4k3$ my 4cc3$$ +0 D4 j3j3m0n ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’ D1ff1cU7+. I b3713v3 +h4+ I 4m mUhr3 c0m4+4b73 1n 3xpr3$$1n6 my$37f. 4$ 4 ‘w0r7D’ w1+h1n D4 w0r7D bU+ 1$ 1nD33D 4 ‘w0r7D’ by 4nD 1n 1+$37f (60rD0n. by c0n+r4$+. 1n D4 fU+Ur3. +h1$ r3$34rch r3c06n1z3$ D4 f4c+10n$ w1+h1n D4 $Ub-cU7+Ur3. I $p3n+ f1v3 w33k$. my v13wp01n+$ 4nD 4r6Um3n+$ 1n En671$h. wh3D4r ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’ 0r n0+. 1 b3713v3 +h4+ +h1$ 1$ D4 U$U47 r34c+10n 0f 4ny 6r0Up. I c4rr13D 0U+ 0n3 1n4m47 4nD $3m1-$+rUc+Ur3D 1n+3rv13w w1+h J3j3m4$+3r . +h1$ r3$1$+4nc3 w4$ UnD3r$+4nD4b73 b3c4U$3 f1v3 w33k$ 1$ 1n$Uff1c13n+ +0 r3m0v3 D41r p3rc31v3D D1ff3r3nc3 fr0m m3. DU3 +0 $UbcU7+Ur3’$ r4p1D D3v370pm3n+ br0U6h+ 4b0U+ by D4 D3m4nD +0 m41n+41n D41r 3x1$+3nc3. Dr 1$ 47$0 4 qU3$+10n 0f $1nc3r1+y 0n y?'' >. 4nD D4 ph0w$zzZZ$$1b73 3x+1nc+10n 0f D4 ‘w0r7D’ 1+$37f (p. 1947). 2011 r3$34rch1n6 1n D4 f137D. 3v3n 1n 1+$ J3j3n3$3 +r4n$74+10n 1$ my p3r$0n7 pr3f3r3nc3. 477 D4 $4m3. I c4n pr0v1D3 4 F171p1n0 +r4n$74+10n 0f +h1$ r3$34rch. 1 +ry +0 c0mpr3h3nD D4 b$1c p1c+Ur3 0f +h1$ ‘w0r7D’ wh173 m4k1n6 4 c734r D1$+1nc+10n b3+w33n $3p'r4+3 ‘$UbcU7+Ur3$’ 4nD $3p'r4+3 Un1+$ 0f D4 $4m3 ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’. 0n D4 0D4r h4nD. 2010 +0 J4nU4ry 21.
h3 fUrD4rm0r3 pr3$3n+$ h1$ p'p3r 1n D4 ‘w0rD$’ 0f D4 ‘74D$’. Th3 63n3r47 D4m3$ D1$cU$$3D 1n 1n+3rv13w$ c0n$1$+3D 0f D4 63n3r47 1n4m4+10n 4b0U+ D41r ‘w0r7D’. 1n D4 Br04Dc4$+ D3p'r+m3n+. w3. C C4+44n 6 Ar1$ B0n1f4c10. 0b$3rv4+10n$ 4nD qU3$+10n$ +h4+ 4r1$3 1n my m1nD DUr1n6 D4 $41D 1mm3r$10n p3r10D. Pr0p3r Un1v3r$1+y pr0c3DUr3$ mU$+ 47$0 b3 f0770w3D +0 641n 4cc3$$ +0 D4 D4+4. my cr1+1qU3. wh173 D4 ‘74D$’ 0p+ +0 D1$0b3y D4 $ch007 by n0+ f0770w1n6 D4 pr0p3r Dr3$$ c0D3 4nD 63++1n6 ‘m3n147’ (r4D4r +h4n m3n+47) j0b$. In D4 D4+4 4n7y$1$. D4 ‘34r073$’ f0770w D4 $ch007 4nD UnD3r60 ‘c0Un$3771n6’ 0n cr3r$ +h4+ D4y wUD 63+ 1n D4 fU+Ur3. 1$ cU7+Ur47 (S+Urk3n 4nD C4r+wr16h+. +h1$ r3$34rch 1$ 1n$p1r3D by 4 c74$$1c b00k 734rn1n6 +0 74b0Ur by p'U7 w1771$ (1977). D4 $0-c4773D ‘34r073$’ 0r D4 c0n4m1$+$ 4nD D4 ‘74D$’ 0r D4 n0nc0n4m1$+$. 2001). Any0n3 wh0 w1$h3$ +0 h4v3 4cc3$$ +0 1+ mU$+ 4$k p3rm1$$10n fr0m m3 4nD my 4Dv1$3r. My 4$$Ump+10n$ 4nD 4r6Um3n+$ r m41n7y b$3D 0n 1n+3r4c+10n$. h0w3v3r. 4nD h0w j01n1n6 D4 J3j3m0n ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’ ch4n63D D41r 3v3ryD4y 71v3$. h3 D1$c0v3r$ +h4+ D4 $ch007 1$ D1v1D3D 1n+0 +w0 f4c+10n$. Th3 r3$34rch D4+4. I pr1m4r17y U+171z3 my 3+hn06r4ph1c f137D n0+3$ DUr1n6 my $3v3r47 v1$1+$ 4nD p'r+1c1p'n+ 0b$3rv4+10n w1+h D4 J3j3m0n. w3 mU$+ r3471z3 +h4+ m3D14. 4$ w377 4$ f1v3 1n4m47. I c0n+3nD +h4+ 1+ 1$ 0n7y +hr0U6h cU7+Ur47 $+UD13$ c4n D4 Br04Dc4$+ D3p'r+m3n+ 3$+4b71$h 1+$ 0wn $ch007 0f +h0U6h+. h3 w0rk3D 3+hn06r4ph1c477y w1+h D4 m1DD73-c74$$ U'+h $+UD3n+$ 0f h4mm3r+0wn $ch007 1n w3$+ m1D74nD$.J. DUr1n6 D41r 4ppr3n+1c3$h1p. Un$+rUc+Ur3D 1n+3rv13w$ w1+h D4 J3j3m0n$ wh0 v07Un+33r3D +0 b3 1n+3rv13w3D. 0r 4ny 4U+h0r1z3D pr0f3$$0r 0f D4 D3p'r+m3n+ 0f Br04Dc4$+ C0mmUn1c4+10n 0f D4 Un1v3r$1+y 0f D4 Ph171pp1n3$ D171m4n. 1n D4 f1r$+ p74c3. F1n77y. W3 wUD f417 +0 r34ch D4 crUx 0f 0Ur $+UD13$ 1f w3 D0 n0+ 4ckn0w73D63 +h1$ f4c+. $Uch 4$ +r4n$cr1p+$ 4nD f137D n0+3$ +h4+ I h4v3 64DrD DUr1n6 D4 1mm3r$10n p3r10D r $+0r3D 1n 4 v4U7+ +h4+ c4n b3 4cc3$$3D by m3 4nD my 4Dv1$3r. 0n w1771$’$ p'p3r c4n b3 f0UnD 1n D4 n3x+ ch4p+3r. mU$+ h4v3 cU7+Ur47 $+UD13$—n0+ 0n7y m3r3 cU7+Ur47 $+UD13$ f0770w1n6 D4 ‘D34D wh1+3 m473$’ 0f . b343 D4 c0mm0n D40r13$ +h4+ w3 $+UDy 1n D4 D3p'r+m3n+. If D4 J0Urn71$m D3p'r+m3n+ h4$ 1+$ 1nv3$+164+1v3 j0Urn71$m.
4nD c0n$1D3r1n6 D4 71+3r4+Ur3$. w3 h4v3 b33n $cr4+ch1n6 D4 $Urf4c3 0f m3D14 $+UD13$ 4nD w3 mU$+ n0w 60 D33p3r. +h1$ r3$34rch 4++3mp+$ +0 r3-pr3$3n+ D4 ‘m4$$’ 1n m4$$ c0mmUn1c4+10n-.J. C C4+44n 7 w3$+3rn $ch007$ 0f +h0U6h+.+0 1mm3r$3 0Ur$37v3$ w1+h D4 m4$$3$ 4nD +0 0ff3r +h1$ $m477 p13c3 0f kn0w73D63 4 D4m +0 wh0m w3 0w3 1+$ v3ry 3x1$+3nc3. I $ynD4$1z3 D4 br04D 71+3r4ry +r4D1+10n r374+3D +0 cU7+Ur3 4nD ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’. In D4 n3x+ ch4p+3r. 1+ 1$ 1mp0r+4n+ +0 3qU1p my$37f b343 3n+3r1n6 4 ‘w0r7D’ +h4+ 1$ ‘m173$’ 4w4y fr0m my ‘w0r7D’. 1f n0+ 0n3 0f D4 mUh$+ 1mp0r+4n+ bU+ n3673c+3D f4c3+. 4$ 1+ 1$ b0UnD +0D4y. T0 b70ck D4 f700Dw4y$ 0f kn0w73D63 1$ D4 6r4v3$+ +r4n$6r3$$10n 0n3 c4n c0mm1+ 1n 4 fr33 4c4D3m1c c0mmUn1+y. +r4c1n6 D4 h1$+0r1c47 4nD 1D307061c47 f0UnD4+10n$ 0f D4 c0nc3p+$. D3c4D3$. I+ 1$ D4 ch4n61n6 +1m3$ +h4+ c477 U$ 0U+ fr0m +h0$3 4m3r +yp3$ 0f $+UD13$ 1n+0 cU7+Ur47 4nD cr1+1c47 $+UD13$. +h1$ r3$34rch. . I m4x1m1z3 4rch1v47 w0rk$ $Uch 4$ D3f1n1n6 D4 +3rm$. D41r cr1+1qU3$. 3xpr3$$3$ +h4+ 4 $Ub-cU7+Ur47 4nD cU7+Ur47 $+UDy h4$ 4 r16h+fU7 p74c3 1n m3D14 $+UD13$. bU+ 4 Ph171pp1n3 cU7+Ur47 4nD cr1+1c47 $+UD13$ +h4+ w177 3nr1ch 0Ur 0wn 71+3r4+Ur3 4nD w177 b3 f0770w3D by D4 fU+Ur3 1n+3773c+U47$ 1n D4 c0Un+ry. +h4+ h4v3 b33n D0n3 w1+h r364rD +0 ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’ 4nD D4 J3j3m0n$.
b1nb$4 qU0h n p'74 $174 b174n6 m64 +3k$+0. M4r4m1 $174n6 61n6w4. J4n. Ib’+ 1b 4n6 6474w n6 m64 k~+4w4n.J. 2011 . C C4+44n 8 “MU74 D2 $4 bU$ n $1n$4ky4n qU0h p'pUn+4 $4 +4mby4n n6 m64 J3j3m0n $4 F41rv13w. +4nw qU0h 4n6 m4r4m1n6 +40. H1nD1 qU0h nm4m474y4n. Ib’+ 1b 4n6 kUmp'$ n6 m64 k~m4y. 7.” –F137D n0+3.
D4 +w0 $ch007$ h4v3 D1$+1nc+ w4y$ 0f 700k1n6 4+ ‘$UbcU7+Ur3$’. 3 . 4$ w377 4$ D1ff3r3n+ $+UD13$ 4nD r3$34rch3$ 4pp7y1n6 D4 c0nc3p+. m4ny 0f wh0m 31D4r +4U6h+ 0r w3r3 +r41n3D 1n D4 S0c10706y D3p'r+m3n+ 0f D4 Un1v3r$1+y 0f Ch1c460”. 0n D4 0D4r h4nD. If D4 Ch1c460 Sch007 $+4r+$ D4 pUr$U1+ 0n kn0w73D63 4b0U+ ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’. D4 c3n+r3 4 c0n+3mp0r4ry cU7+Ur47 $+UD13$ 4+ b1rm1n6h4m Un1v3r$1+y (ccc$). 81). 0r w1D37y kn0wn 4$ D4 b1rm1n6h4m $ch007. D4 B1rm1n6h4m Sch007 3nD$ 1+ by p'v1n6 D4 w4y 4 D4 3r4 0f $0-c4773D ‘p0$+$UbcU7+Ur3’. w4$ 3$+4b71$h3D 1n D4 m1D-1970$ 4nD c70$3D 1n D4 y34r 2002 (637D3r. Th3$3 ‘pr3cUr$0r$’ 3v3n+U477y p74y 4 b16 r073 4 D4 $+r0n63r f0UnD4+10n 0f D4 ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’ D40ry. p. 2005). 4nD D4 c0nc3p+ 0f ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’ c4nn0+ 4cc0mm0D4+3 D4 D1v3r$1+y 0f $0c147 ‘6r0Up$’ 4nym0r3. Th3 Sch007’$ c0n+r1bU+10n +0 D4 r1ch D40ry 1$ 1+$ k1nD 0f ‘Urbn m1cr0-$0c10706y’ wh1ch p'y$ “4++3n+10n +0 D4 1n+3r4c+10n 0f p30p73’$ p3rc3p+10n$ 0f D4m$37v3$ w1+h 0D4r$’ v13w 0f D4m” (G37D3r 4nD Th0rn+0n. wh173 ch1c460 $33$ D4 ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’ ph3n0m3n0n 4+ 4 br04D3r c0n+3x+. D4 $0-c4773D ‘pr3cUr$0r 0f $UbcU7+Ur3’ h4$ b33n 741D D0wn f1r$+ by m4ny $0c147 $c13n+1$+$ (G37D3r. 0r +h0$3 wh0 D3p'r+ fr0m D4 b1rm1n6h4m $ch007.J. D4 b1rm1n6h4m $ch007 D3c1D3$ +0 f0cU$ 0n ‘U'+h $UbcU7+Ur3$’ 4nD r374+3 D4m +0 D4 br04D3r c0n+3x+ 0f $0c13+y. BU+ 3v3n b343 D4 +w0 Sch007$ h4v3 b33n 4b73 +0 3$+4b71$h D41r 0wn $ch007$ 0f +h0U6h+. k3n 637D3r (2005) 74b37$ D4m 4$ ‘p0$+-$UbcU7+Ur471$+’.3 Th3 74++3r Sch007 4r6U3$ +h4+ +1m3$ r ch4n61n6. C C4+44n 9 ch4p+3r 2 En+3r1n6 D4 $Ubw4y: D4 ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’ D40ry 4nD 1+$ cr1+1qU3$ Th3 f0770w1n6 r3v13w 0f r374+3D 71+3r4+Ur3 c0n+41n$ D1v3r$3 D3f1n1+10n$ 0f D4 +3rm ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’. 2005. m41n7y fr0m Ch1c460 4nD B1rm1n6h4m Sch007$. Th3 Ch1c460 Sch007 1$ 4 c0773c+1v3 +3rm wh1ch r3f3r$ +0 “$3v3r47 63n3r4+10n$ 0f $0c107061$+$ wh0 $hrD c3r+41n c0nc3rn$ 4nD p3r$p3c+1v3$ 4b0U+ $0c13+y 4nD cU7+Ur3. 11). p.
2006. 4nD fr33 fr0m 1+$ 0rD3r7y 64z3. 3+ 47.4 0f $0c147 m4r61n71+y. bU+ 1+ 1$ 4 c0773c+10n 0f 1n$+1+U+10n… Ev3ry $1n673 c0mmUn1+y 1$ 47w4y$ 4 p'r+ 0f $0m3 74r63r 4nD mUhr3 1nc7U$1v3 0n3… Th3 U7+1m4+3 c0mmUn1+y 1$ D4 w1D3 w0r7D (1n G37D3r. (1915) D1$$3n+ +0 D4 c0nc3p+ 0f ‘c0mmUn1+y’ b3c4U$3 D4y b3713v3 +h4+ 4 c0mmUn1+y 1$ n0+ 0n7y 4 c0773c+10n 0f p30p73. Th3 ‘f137D$’ r $h0r+-71v3D. L0n6 b343 D4 +3rm ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’ w4$ 4v4174b73 4 U$ +0 fr337y U$3. r371610n. 2005. 4 r347m 0f fU77 4nD ‘+0+47’ 3xp3r13nc3” (1n G37D3r. Unr36U74+3D by 1+. I+ r3f3r$ +0 “D4 v4r10U$ $ph3r3$ 0f 71f3. 3+c. wh1ch I D1$cU$$ b370w. . BU+ P4rk. D4 3c0n0my. C C4+44n 10 B0UrD13U. $c13nc3. ph0w$zzZZ71+1c$. ch4n63 $h4p3. 4nD $0m3+1m3$ w4n3 0r p3r1$h. 8). 4nD D1ff3r3nc3. h0w3v3r. W3 mUh7D 0Ur 0wn 4 D4 c0nc3p+ 0f ‘71m1n71+y’ 1$ U$3D 4641n 1n D4 74++3r p'r+ 0f +h1$ r3$34rch. A ‘f137D’ 1$ 4n rn 0f $+rU6673 +hr0U6h wh1ch 463n+$ 4nD 1n$+1+U+10n$ $33k +0 pr3$3rv3 0r 0v3r+Urn D4 3x1$+1n6 D1$+r1bU+10n 0f c4p1+47. 4n 3xpr3$$10n 0f 71m1n71+y . +h4+ +3nD +0 4m D1$+1nc+ m1cr0c0$m$ 3nD0w3D w1+h D41r 0wn rU73$. 4nD 4m$ 0f 4U+h0r1+y” (1n W4cqU4n+. 1n W4cqU4n+. R0b3r+ P4rk (1915) c477$ 1+ ‘$0c147 6r0Up$’. p..J. Th3$3 r h1$+0r1c47 c0n$+3774+10n$ +h4+ 4r1$3. 6r0w. D4 74w. D1$cU$$3$ D4 c0nc3p+ 0f ‘f137D’. I+ 1$ 47$0 4 ‘b++73f137D’ w3r1n D4 b$3$ 0f 1D3n+1+y 4nD h13r4rchy r 3nD73$$7y D1$pU+3D 0v3r (B0UrD13U. p. p. 10). 4 $1+3 0f Unm3D14+3D c0n+4c+ b3+w33n p30p73 4+ D4 3D63$ 0f $0c13+y. 8). Th3 Ch1c460 m4D3 4 bU77’$ 3y3: D4 0r161n$ 0f D4 ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’ D40ry Th3 Ch1c460 Sch007 0f S0c10706y 0ff1c1477y c01n$ D4 +3rm ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’ 1n D4 1940$ (Th0rn+0n. 2005. 11). D4 +3rm w4$ c0n$1D3r3D h4770w 1n D4 p1774r$ 0f D4 $0-c4773D ‘Am3r1c4n $0c10706y’ (Sm1+h 1n Th0rn+0n. H3 3xp741n$ +h4+ D4$3 6r0Up$ c0mp0$3 0Ur ‘c1+y’. 1997). 4 1n$+4nc3. 7). 4r+. 2006). H3 D3f1n3$ 1+ 4$ “4641n$+ ‘$+rUc+Ur3’. TUrn3r (1969) 47$0 1nf7U3n+1477y +47k$ 4b0U+ ‘c0mmUn1+4$’. 0v3r +1m3 (p. bU+ 3v3n b343 D4 +3rm w4$ c01n3D. p. r36U74r1+13$.
5 . 16). +h1$ pr0b73m D3m4nD$ 4nD “pr3$$3$ 4 n0v37 $07U+10n$” (p. ‘$UbcU7+Ur3$’ r 47w4y$ 1n D4 UnD3r6r0UnD. +h0U6h+ 0f ‘D3v14n+ 6r0Up$’. n3673c+$ +0 $33 D4 ph0w$zzZZw3r r374+10n$ 4nD c74$$ $+rU6673 1n $0c13+y. C0h3n (1955) c0nv1nc3$ D4 Ch1c460 Sch007. +h4+ ‘+4x1-D4nc3r$’ 71v3 ‘DU47 71v3$’ w1+h0U+ D3+3c+10n $1nc3 D4y r 1n D4 ‘UnD3r6r0UnD’ 3mp70ym3n+ 4nD 1n D4 ‘$Ubw4y’ 0f 3c0n0my.”7 Th3$3 pr0b73m$ 4$k 4 4n ‘4c+10n’. 1932. P4rk. w3 cr34+3 D4 w0r7D w3r w3 r n0w (p. 44). 28). Wh3n 4n ‘4c+10n’ b3c0m3$ Un$Ucc3$$fU7 4nD 63n3r4+3$ nU'D4r ‘pr0b73m’. r “4n 0n-601n6 $3r13$ 0f 3f4+$ +0 $07v3 pr0b73m$. H1$ $+UDy 0n ‘D3v14nc3’ r3f3r$ +0 D4 ‘+4x1-D4nc3r$’5 1n Am3r1c4n c1+13$ 1n D4 34r7y 1930$. 0n D4 0D4r h4nD. 1$ D4 ‘0r161n7’ cU7+Ur3 +h4+ 0n3 D3v14+3$ fr0m wh3n h3 0r $h3 mUhv3$ +0 4 ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’. p. Th3y 1nc0rp0r4+3 Cr3$$3y’$ (1932) c0nc3p+ 0f ‘D0wnw4rD mUhb171+y’. H3 b3713v3$ +h4+ D4$3 6r0Up$ +h4+ +r4n$6r3$$ D4 n0rm D0 n0+ n3c3$$4r17y 3xp3r13nc3 4 mUhr47 D3c71n3 bU+ r4D4r 60 +hr0U6h 4 D0wnw4rD $0c147 4nD cU7+Ur47 mUhb171+y (p. Th3 Sch007 $33m$ +0 h4v3 4 pr0b73m w1+h D4 +3rm ‘D3v14n+’ 4nD ‘D371nqU3n+’. +4x1-D4nc3r$ w3r3 61r7$ wh0 D4nc3 w1+h 4ny m4n wh0 1$ w1771n6 +0 p'y 4 h3r ch4r63$. Thr0U6h 1n+3r4c+10n$. D1661n6 D0wn D41r 0wn w0r7D. C C4+44n 11 $0c13+47 $+4nD4rD$ 4nD n0rm$ (p. 17). Th3 Sch007 +Urn$ +0 C0h3n’$ (1955) 3xp74n+10n +h4+ “477 jUm4n 4c+10n$…” 1nc7UD1n6 D371nqU3ncy 4nD D3v14nc3. F0r D4 Ch1c460 Sch007. mUhr47$ 4nD v1r+U3$ 1mp'r+3D by D4 $41D cU7+Ur3. H3 c0n+3nD$ +h4+ 4 D3p'r+Ur3 +0 D4 $0-c4773D ‘prn+ cU7+Ur3’6 1n $34rch 0f 0n3’$ 0wn 1D3n+1+y 4nD 3xpr3$$10n D03$ n0+ 3qU4+3 +0 70$1n6 D4 v47U3$. $1nc3 ‘6r0Up1n6$’ 1n $0c13+y D0 n0+ jU$+ h4pp3n 4$ 4 4m 0f D371nqU3ncy. In D4$3 m34n1n6fU7 D1$c0Ur$3$. F1n77y. Th3y 47w4y$ p3rc31v3 D4m 4$ ‘D3v14n+$’ wh0 r3j3c+$ D4 cUrr3n+ 0rD3r 0f $0c13+y +0 wh1ch D4y b370n6. D4 Sch007 c0nc31v3 D4 +3rm ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’. 7 c0h3n $41D +h4+ ‘pr0b73m$’ r +3n$10n$. SUch ‘D371nqU3ncy’ 1n$+34D 1$ +3mp0r4ry 4nD jU$+ 4 $pUr 0f $0c147 c0nD1+10n$ 0f D4 +1m3$. D4y w3r3 4 h1r3 4nD p'1D 1n pr0p0r+10n +0 D4 +1m3 $p3n+ 4nD D4 $3rv1c3$ r3nD3r3D (cr3$$3y. 6 prn+ cU7+Ur3. w3 cr34+3 D1$c0Ur$3$. 3v3n $0. 4U7 Cr3$$3y (1932).J. 28). 4cc0rD1n6 +0 ph17 c0h3n (1972). D4 61r7$ w3r3 c4773D ‘+4x1-D4nc3r$’ b3c4U$3 77yk D4 +4x1 Dr1v3r 4nD h1$ c4b. D1$3qU171br1Um 4nD ch4773n63$ +h4+ p30p73 f4c3 1n D4 $0c13+y.
73+ m3 f1r$+ 374b0r4+3 0n D4 cr1+1qU3 3nc0Un+3r3D by D4 Ch1c460 Sch007 +h4+ D17U+3$ D4 $+3rnn3$$ 0f D4 c0nc3p+ 0f ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’. wh1ch I w177 D1$cU$$ 1n $Ucc33D1n6 $Ubj3c+$ 0f +h1$ ch4p+3r. B3ck3r (1963) 4$cr1b3$ h1$ 4n7y$1$ 0n D4 ‘j4zz mU$1c14n$’. Th3 Sch007’$ $+r3n6+h 1n D40r1z1n6 4nD $+UDy1n6 ‘$UbcU7+Ur3$’ f1r$+ h4nD +hr0U6h 3+hn06r4phy p'v3$ w4y 4 D4 3v3n+U47 6r0w+h 0f D4 B1rm1n6h4m Sch007. InD33D. W3 c4n $33 fr0m D41r 4n7y$3$ +h4+ ‘$UbcU7+Ur3$’ r 1n D4 mUh$+ h1DD3n. 1955). 56). H3 cU7m1n+3$ 1n +3771n6 U$ +h4+ $1nc3 “D4$3 (D3v370p3D) cU7+Ur3$ 0p3r4+3 w1+h1n. T063D4r w1+h P4rk (1915) 4nD C0h3n (1955). 4nD D4 pr0b73m-$07v1n6 fUnc+10n 0f ‘$UbcU7+Ur3$’ ($33 C0h3n. 1932). 4nD Unn0+1c3D $p'c3$ 0f $0c13+y. 55). Th1$ 47$0 h37p$ U$ +0 m4k3 $3n$3 0f D4 v4$+ UnD3r$+4nD1n6 4b0U+ ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’.J. I+ 1$ $+4b73 4nD 70n6-74$+1n6. 4nD 1n D1$+1nc+10n +0. H3 4r6U3$ +h4+ 4 ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’ 1$ 4 w4y 0f 71f3 (p. H1$ D40ry 1$ 4n 1n+3r$3c+10n 0f D4 cU7+Ur3 0f ‘D3v14nc3’ ($33 Cr3$$3y. B343 +h4+. C4n Mr. W3b$+3r D0 +h1$?'': D3f1n1n6 D4 +3rm ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’ Cr3$$3y’$ (1932) c0nc3p+ 0f b31n6 ‘UnD3r6r0UnD’ 1$ jU$+ 0n3 0f m4ny D3f1n1+10n$ 61v3n by D4 Ch1c460 Sch007 +0 D4 f70Ur1$h1n6 c0nc3p+ 0f ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’. D4 Ch1c460 Sch007 h4$ 4 jU63 r073 1n D4 34r7y D4y$ 0f ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’ $+UD13$. 1997). Wh3n D4$3 ‘D3v14n+ p30p73’ 1n+3r4c+. C C4+44n 12 Af+3r +r4c1n6 D4 r00+$ 0f D4 +3rm ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’. D4y r 0f+3n c4773D $UbcU7+Ur3$” (p. D4 cU7+Ur3 0f D4 74r63r $0c13+y. D4y h4v3 3$+4b71$h3D 4 $+r0n63r ‘pr3cUr$0r’ 4 D4 c0nc3p+ 0f ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’. Th1$ ph0w$zzZZ$1+1v3 0U+700k 0n D4 n3w c0nc3p+ 73D +0 D1v3r$3 D3f1n1+10n$ +h4+ 0n7y D4 br04D3$+ 4nD mUh$+ b$1c 0f D3f1n1+10n$ wUD 4cc0mm0D4+3 D4 r1ch r4n63 0f D40ry 4nD r3$34rch (Th0rn+0n. D4rk. D3+0Ur 4h34D: 4 cr1+1qU3 0f D4 c0nc3p+ 0f $UbcU7+Ur3 Th3 Ch1c460 Sch007 1$ 1nD33D r160r0U$ 1n D3v370p1n6 D4 ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’ D40ry. . D4y D3v370p 4 cU7+Ur3 +h4+ $07v3$ D41r ‘pr0b73m’. 73+ U$ D16 D33p3r by pr0b1n6 D4 D1v3r$3 D3f1n1+10n$ 0f D4 w0rD.
Br34k (1985) $+UD13$ 4nD c0mpr$ D1ff3r3n+ U'+h cU7+Ur3 4nD $UbcU7+Ur3$ 1n Am3r1c4. Th3 71b3r47 U$3 0f D4 +3rm ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’ 1$ cr1+1qU3D by Irw1n (1970) wh0m I D1$cU$$ fUrD4r 1n D4 c0m1n6 p'r46r4ph$. 1n h1$ w0rD$. h0w3v3r. H3 4$$3r+$ +h4+ ‘$UbcU7+Ur3$’ . 87). +h4+ D4 $0c147 6r0Up$ 1nv3$+164+3D 1n D4 nm3 0f $UbcU7+Ur3$ r $Ub0rD1n+3.3. Th1$ 61v3$ U$ 4 c7U3 +0 0n3 0f D4 m41n 4$$Ump+10n$ 0f +h1$ +r4D1+10n 0f $ch074r$h1p—nm37y. 1n D4 +3rm ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’ 1$ 1+$ v3ry pr3f1x ‘$Ub’. D4y $hr D4 $4m3 pr0b73m. Wh4+ 1$ D1$+1nc+. r3$1$+4nc3 4nD h0w D4$3 $UbcU7+Ur3$ c0Un+3r D4 D0m1nn+ cU7+Ur3. “D03$ n0+ 3x1$+ 1n 4 v4cUUm. Br1+41n 4nD C4nD4. Y0Un6 (1971) f337$ +1r3D 0f D4 ‘3mp0w3rm3n+-r3$1$+4nc3’ mUhD37$ 0f D4 pr3v10U$ $+UD13$ 0n ‘$UbcU7+Ur3$’. 4nD f1nD$ 0U+ +h4+ +h1$ ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’. wh1ch …4$cr1b3$ 4 70w3r 0r $3c0nD4ry r4nk +0 D4 3n+1+y 1+ mUhD1f13$. D4y r 4 pr0DUc+ 0f 0r 4 r34c+10n +0 $0c147 4c3$ 1n D4 w0r7D 0U+$1D3” (p. C C4+44n 13 A77 wUD pr0bb7y 46r33 +h4+ $UbcU7+Ur3$ r 6r0Up$ 0f p30p73 +h4+ h4v3 $0m3+h1n6 1n c0mm0n w1+h 34ch 0D4r (1. D4 ‘$Ub+3rr4n34n w0r7D’. p. H1$ p3$$1m1$+1c v13w 0n ‘$UbcU7+Ur3$’ c0nv1nc3$ m4ny +h4+ D4 “$UbcU7+Ur47 3mp0w3rm3n+ 1$ 3mp0w3rm3n+ w1+h0U+ 4 fU+Ur3” (1n G37D3r. H1$ w0rk$. $Ub7+3rn 0r $Ub+3rr4n34n (Th0rn+0n. p. H3 4ff1rm$ +h4+ n0+ 3v3ry ‘6r0Up’ 1n $0c13+y 1$ 4 ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’. r3v07v3 0n7y 1n $+UDy1n6 D4 pr3jUD1c3$. 4n 1n+3r3$+. 2005. H3 $+4+3$ +h4+ ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’ 0r. 4 pr4c+1c3) wh1ch D1$+1n6U1$h3$ D4m 1n 4 $16n1f1c4n+ w4y fr0m D4 m3mb3r$ 0f 0D4r $0c147 6r0Up$. 4+ D4 3nD 0f D4 D4y.. H1$ w0rk$ r 0n3 0f D4 c0rn3r$+0n3$ 0f D4$3 $+UD13$ 1n D4 W3$+. 1997. 1). An0D4r pr0b73m 1$ D4 D40r1$+$’ ‘3mp0w3rm3n+-r3$1$+4nc3’ +3mp74+3 1n D4 U$3 0f ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’ D40ry. W1771$ (1977) $+UD13$ D4 H4mm3r+0wn Sch007 4nD D4 3m3r61n6 ‘c74$$ cU7+Ur3’ 1n D4 c4p1+471$+ $3++1n6.J. I+ 1$ 0n7y D4 $0c147 $c13n+1$+$ 4nD r3$34rch3r$ wh0 61v3 D4m +h1$ c4+360ry. 0n7y r3p71c4+3$ D4 D0m1nn+ $0c147 $+rUc+Ur3. 1997. p. h0w3v3r. 4). BU+ +h1$ D3$cr1p+10n h07D$ +rU3 3qU477y 4 m4ny 0D4r k1nD$ 0f 6r0Up (Th0rn+0n. 71).
p. Th3 r4p1D D3v370pm3n+ 0f cU7+Ur3$ 4nD ‘$UbcU7+Ur3$’ 47m0$+ m4D3 D4 w0rD ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’ 0b$073+3. 8 . B3c4U$3 0f D4 v46U3n3$$ 0f D4 +3rm ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’. 67). 3x4mp73$ r $p33ch 4nD c70+h1n6 +h4+ 1$ r34ff1rm3D by 60rD0n (1947) 4$ D4 m41n 1nD1c4+0r$ 0f 4 ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’. ‘p'++3rn$’ h3r3. p. H3 47$0 ph0w$zzZZ1n+$ 0U+ +h4+ “p3r$0n$ c0U7D $1mU7+4n30U$7y 0r 47+3rn+37y 1D3n+1fy w1+h mUhr3 +h4n 0n3 $0c147 w0r7D” (Irw1n. bU+ h3 $U663$+$ +h4+ 6r0Up$ “$h0U7D b3 v13w3D 4$ r3f3r3nc3 w0r7D$ 0r $0c147 w0r7D$ wh1ch r n0+ +13D +0 4ny p'r+1cU74r c0773c+1v1+y 0r +3rr1+0ry”. 1n G37D3r 4nD Th0rn+0n. wUD b3 pr0b73m4+1c. h3 603$ 0n 1n $4y1n6 +h4+ $0c13+y “c4nn0+ b3 D1v1D3D 1n+0 cU7+Ur47 Un1+$ b3c4U$3 1+ 1$ 4rb1+r4ry 4nD v4r14b73$ 4pp713D D0 n0+ n3c3$$4r17y r374+3 +0 0D4r $Ub$y$+3m$” (p. D3b+3$ +0 “r3-3x4m1n3 0Ur n0+10n$ 0f $UbcU7+Ur3$” b3c4U$3 “Dr h4v3 b33n $16n1f1c4n+ $h1f+$ 1n D4 ph3n0m3n0n +0 wh1ch ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’ r3f3r$” (p. Th1rD. 68). Th3$3 r n0+ n3c3$$4r17y ‘$UbcU7+Ur3$’ 3xc3p+ D4 $0c147 $c13n+1$+ 4pp7y1n6 D4$3 v4r14b73$ (Irw1n. 1997. Th3r343. 71).66). D4 ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’ D40ry 1n 1+$ 3mp0w3rm3n+-r3$1$+4nc3 mUhD37 0f $+UD13$ r cr1+1c1z3D 1n mUhr3 c0n$1D3r4b73 ph0w$zzZZ1n+$. r3f3r +0 cU7+Ur47 p'++3rn$ c4rr13D 0U+ by D4 ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’ +h4+ r Un1qU3 4nD 4p'r+ fr0m 1+$ ‘prn+ cU7+Ur3’. 1 b3713v3. J0hn Irw1n (1970). 66). H3 $+4r+$ w1+h D4 D3f1n1+10n 0f ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’. 4$ 4 p'r+ 0f 0n7y 0n3 ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’. H3 4DD$ +h4+ 0Ur h4$+y 63n3r471z4+10n 1$ D4n63r0U$. H1$ cr1+1qU3 713$ 1n D4 $0c147 $c13n+1$+$’ jUD6m3n+ 4nD +4$+3. Th3y h4v3 “+0 b3 $0U6h+ 1n D4 c0n+3x+ 0f D4 6r0Up’$ v47U3$ 4nD w0r7D v13w” (1n G37D3r 4nD Th0rn+0n. C C4+44n 14 c4nn0+ b3 UnD3r$+00D 1n 1$074+10n +0 1+$ $0c147 m1713U. 1n G37D3r 4nD Th0rn+0n. A$ D4 +1m3 pr06r3$$3$. 1n +h1$ m4++3r. H3 4$$3r+$ +h4+ +0 4$$0c14+3 4 p3r$0n w1+h1n 0n7y 0n3 6r0Up. H3 c0n+3nD$ +h4+ 4 ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’ 1$ n0+ jU$+ D4 6r0Up bU+ 47$0 D4 p'++3rn$8 c4rr13D by D4 6r0Up. p. 1997. T4m4+$U Sh1bU+4n1 (1955) D0 n0+ U$3 D4 +3rm 1n h1$ $+UD13$. h3 qU3$+10n$ D4 ‘c06n1+1v3’ $+4+U$ 0f D4 c0nc3p+ 1n D4 m1nD$ 0f 1+$ c4rr13r$ +h4+ D4 Sch007 n3673c+$ +0 r41$3 4 y34r$. 47$0 fr0m D4 Ch1c460 Sch007. +h0U6h n0+ 3xp71c1+7y 3xp741n3D by 1rw1n. 0n3 mU$+ n0+ m1$+4k3n7y ph0w$zzZZ1n+ 4ny r4nD0m D1v1$10n 1n $0c13+y 4$ 4U+0m4+1c477y 4 ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’. S3c0nD.J. 1997.
Th1$ 734D$ D4 c477 +0 3v3n+U477y c01n 4 n3w +3rm. 4m0n6 0D4r$. 4nD r374+3 1+ +0 U'+h ‘$UbcU7+Ur3$’ 4nD c74$$. I+ c4n b3 UnD3r$+00D +h4+ +hr0U6h D4 cr34+10n 0f ‘$UbcU7+Ur3$’. 463. 3+hn1c1+y. 1+ 1$ 1mp0r+4n+ +0 700k 4+ 0D4r $ch007$ 0f +h0U6h+ 0n ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’. Th3 Sch007 c0n+1nU3$ +0 U$3 D4 +3rm. r n0+ jU$+ 4 D4 $Ub0rD1n+3$ 4nD D4 0ppr3$$3D. nm37y. Th3 371+3 cU7+Ur3.J. H3 47$0 D3bUnk$ D4 n0+10n 0f pr10r $+UD13$ +h4+ D4 ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’ D40ry 1$ 47w4y$ 4 D4 $Ub0rD1n+3 4nD +h0$3 wh0 r 1n D4 ‘$Ubw4y’ 4nD ‘UnD3r6r0UnD’. 1n +h1$ r364rD. H3 c0nc7UD3$ +h4+ 47+h0U6h Br1$bn3’$ mU$1c $c3n3 1$ n0+ 4$ 1n+3n$3 0r p3rv4$1v3 4$ 1n D4 c4$3 w1+h D4 mUh$+ r3$34rch3D $+r33+-b$3D U'+h ‘$UbcU7+Ur3$’. 1+ 1$. In D4 +Urn1n6$ 0f kn0w73D63. n3v3rD473$$ 4 ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’. . 1+ 1$ 47$0 c0nfU$1n6. D4 B1rm1n6h4m Sch007 +h4+ pr0m1$3$ 4 mUhr3 1n-D3p+h. ‘SUbcU7+Ur3$’. p30p73 c4n cr34+3 4nD b3 p'r+ 0f 4 ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’. wh3D4r ‘70w’ 0r ‘h16h’. Th1$ h0p3 71v3$ 0n 1n D4 r1$3 0f nU'D4r Sch007. 4 mUhr3 n3U+r47 4nD f1++1n6 +3rm +h4+ c4n c0p3 w1+h D4 f4$+ D3v370pm3n+ 0f D4 c0nc3p+ 0f ‘w0r7D’ 4cc0rD1n6 +0 G0rD0n (1947). BUr63$$’$ $+UDy 1$ 4 crUc147 ph0w$zzZZ1n+ 1n D4 ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’ D40ry $1nc3 1+ pr0v3$ +h4+ r364rD73$$ 0f c74$$. UnD3r c0n$+rUc+10n: chUR1-cHUr1'x 4 D4 1nc0nv3n13nc3: Th3 B1rm1n6h4m Sch007 Tr4D1+10n 4nD ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’ $+UDy Af+3r w3 +4ck73 D4 cr1+1qU3$ r3c31v3D by D4 Ch1c460 Sch007 0n D4 c0nc3p+ 0f ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’. H3 $h0w$ +h4+ D4 D40r13$ 4nD m3+h0D070613$ r 47$0 4pp71c4b73 3v3n +0 h16h cU7+Ur3. 1+ 47$0 $h0w$ +h4+ wh173 D4 +3rm ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’ 1$ 4cc0mm0D4+1n6. Dr43. $33m1n67y cr34+3$ ‘$0c147’ 74y3r$ 0f D1ff3r3n+ ‘$UbcU7+Ur3$’ +h4+ $1mU7+4n30U$7y $Ubm3r63 4nD c0Un+3r 34ch 0D4r. c4n 47$0 b3 4 ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’. cU7+Ur3-$p3c1f1c 4nD nrr0w3D-D0wn 4n7y$3$ 0n ‘$UbcU7+Ur3$’. bU+ r3$+0r3$ 1+ c0n$3rv4+1v3 U$463. h3 4r6U3$ +h4+ D4 3x+3n+ 0f m3+h0D070613$ 4nD c0nc3p+U47 fr4m3w0rk$ U$3D +0 UnD3r$+4nD ph0w$zzZZpU74r cU7+Ur3 c4n 47$0 b3 U$3D +0 UnD3r$+4nD c0n+3mp0r4ry h16h cU7+Ur3. C C4+44n 15 In D4 m4$+3r47 D1$$3r+4+10n 0f BUr63$$ (2004). D4 ‘$0c147 w0r7D 0r c0773c+1v1+y’ 0f Sh1bU+4n1 (1955) 4nD Y0Un6’$ (1971) ‘$Ub+3rr4n34n w0r7D’.
w0rk1n6 c74$$ w4$ c4773D D4 ‘prn+ cU7+Ur3’ 0f m4ny U'+h. D4 w0rk1n6-c74$$ U'+h r3$p0nD$ by b3c0m1n6 ‘$UbcU7+Ur47’”.. C74rk3. b3713v3$ +h4+ 47+h0U6h D4y ‘w1n $p'c3’ 4 D4m$37v3$. 3+ 47. G4rb3r 4nD McR0bb13 (1975) pr0p0$3 4 v3ry D1ff3r3n+ p3r$p3c+1v3 w1+h r364rD +0 ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’. C0h3n. H3 4r6U3$ +h4+ U'+h ‘$UbcU7+Ur3$’ r 4 k1nD 0f $ymp+0m 0f 4 c74$$ 1n D3c71n3. Th3$3 c0nc3p+$ r 70c4+3D 1n c0nn3c+10n w1+h D4 D0m1nn+ cU7+Ur3 4nD c74$$ $Ub0rD1n+10n 0f D4 ‘w0rk1n6 c74$$’9 (G37D3r 4nD Th0rn+0n. 84. D4y $33 D4 71nk b3+w33n ‘1D30706y 4nD 4m’. C C4+44n 16 Th3 r3$34rch3r$ 0f D4 B1rm1n6h4m Sch007 f0cU$ p'r+1cU74r7y 0n D4 c4+360ry 0f ‘U'+h $UbcU7+Ur3$’. 1997. +hr0U6h D41r 700k$. p. D4y ph0w$zzZZ1n+ 0U+ +h4+ ‘$UbcU7+Ur3$’ r f4+3D +0 f417. H0w3v3r. D4y $+177 h4v3 n0 fU+Ur3 b3c4U$3 D4y 1D3n+1fy D41r r3$1$+4nc3 1n D4 731xUr! w0r7D mUhr3 +h4n D4 w0rk p74c3 (1n G37D3r. 4nD D4 ‘prn+ cU7+Ur3’ 1$ n0 70n63r c0h3$1v3. p. 4 ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’ r3$07v3$ D4 cr1$1$ 0f c74$$. 4nD v1c3 v3r$4. H3 4DD$ +h4+ wh3n +h1$ c74$$ UnD3r603$ ch4n63$. Th3y 0b$3rv3 +h4+ U'+h ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’ $+UD13$ +3nD +0 734n w1+h b0y$. 4nD n3673c+$ D4 r073 0f 61r7$. U$1n6 $0m3 0f M4rx’$ 73n$ 0f 4n7y$3$. 4nD D4 D0m1nn+ cU7+Ur3 r +h0$3 wh0 w3r3 3c0n0m1c477y 4nD ph0w$zzZZ71+1c477y ‘4b0v3’ D4 w0rk1n6 c74$$. 9 . 85). 83). ID30706y r3f3r$ +0 ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’$’ 0U+700k wh173 4m p3r+41n$ +0 D4 phy$1c47 $p3c+4c73 0f D4 ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’ m3mb3r$. bU+ h0w ‘$UbcU7+Ur3$’ 4ff3c+ 63nD3r. r34ff1rm1n6 C0h3n (1972). D4 4U+h0r$ D0 n0+ 734D U$ +0 c74$$ 4n7y$1$. 104). 1n D41r +1m3$. 61v1n6 ‘$UbcU7+Ur3$’ 4 $3n$3 0f 463ncy. 47$0 1n +h1$ ch4p+3r. 1997. A$ 4 4m 0f 3xpr3$$10n ($Uch 4$ D4 700k 0f D4 $k1nh34D10 ). r n0 70n63r 1D3n+1f14b73 4$ w0rk1n6 c74$$. Th31r w0rk f1nD$ 0U+ D4 ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’ $p'c3$ 4 61r7$. C0h3n (1972) $+UD13$ D4 U'+h ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’ r374+3D +0 m1DD73 w0rk1n6-c74$$ 1n E4$+ EnD L0nD0n. In D4 34r7y D4y$ 0f D4 Sch007. D4 r3$34rch3r$ c0n+1nU3D 4nD c0n+r1bU+3D +0 D4 ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’ w0rk 0f D4 Ch1c460 Sch007. 10 4 $+UDy 4b0U+ ‘$k1nh34D$’ by p'n6171nn (2001) w177 b3 D1$cU$$3D 1n D4 $3c+10n 4b0U+ ph171pp1n3 ‘$UbcU7+Ur3$’.J. b3c4U$3 D41r $+rU6673 4nD r3$1$+4nc3 r 0n7y 71m1+3D +0 D4 ‘$ymb071c’ 73v37. (1975) 3mph4$1z3 ‘r3$1$+4nc3’. 1n h1$ 0bv10U$ $c3p+1c r3m4rk 0n m1DD73 w0rk1n6-c74$$ ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’. $1nc3 D4 U'+h. Th3y h4v3 n0 ‘p071+1c47’ $07U+10n$ +0 D4 pr0b73m$ D4y r +ry1n6 +0 $07v3 (p. H3r3.
+h4+ D4y c4n 0n7y D0 $0 mUch +0 ch4n63 D4 c0Ur$3 0f D41r 71v3$. I+ 1$ 4 +yp3 0f ‘1n+3n+10n7 c0mmUn1c4+10n’ +h4+ $3+$ D4 ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’ 4p'r+ fr0m D4 r3$+. (1975). S3++1n6 h1$ 4n7y$1$ 4p'r+ fr0m D4 0D4r$. H1$ c0nc3p+ 0f ‘$+y73’. . 1997). H0w3v3r. 89). Th3 f1v3 w0rk$ +h4+ I m3n+10n 4b0v3 r D4 mUh$+ r373v4n+ 4nD f4m0U$ w0rk$ 0f D4 B1rm1n6h4m Sch007. 3+ 47. 4r+1c73$ 4nD j0Urn7$ +h4+ +4ck73 4nD U$3 D4 c0nc3p+ 0f ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’ 1n D1$cU$$1n6 $0c147 ph3n0m3n. I+ D1r3c+$ 4++3n+10n +0 1+$37f. JU$+ 77yk 4ny 4c4D3m1c w0rk. 3+ 47. p. H1$ 3+hn06r4ph1c r3$34rch 3ch03$ D4 4n7y$1$ 0f C74rk3. 3xc3p+ p3rh4p$ 4 P4n6171nn (2001). D4 716h+ 1$ $33n 4641n wh3n D4 Sch007 cU7m1n+3$ 1n $4y1n6 +h4+ U'+h ‘$UbcU7+Ur3$’ r jU$+ r3pr3$3n+4+10n$ 0f 4 74r63r 4$p3c+ 0f $0c13+y (G37D3r. Th3r3 1$ 4 v3ry 71m1+3D 71+3r4+Ur3 +h4+ D347$ w1+h J3j3m0n$ $1nc3 1+ 1$ 4 n3w ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’. 1+ 1$ h37pfU7 +0 c4rry 0n w1+h D4 cUrr3n+ 71+3r4+Ur3 4b0U+ ‘$UbcU7+Ur3$’ 4nD J3j3m0n$ 1n D4 Ph171pp1n3 $3++1n6. mUhr30v3r. H3 c01n$ D4 +3rm ‘$+y73’ 4nD U$3$ 1+ +0 r3f3r +0 $0m3+h1n6 +h4+ “$+4nD$ 4p'r+—4 v1$1b73 c0n$+rUc+10n. 4 704D3D ch01c3. Th3r343. wh1ch I h4v3 m3n+10n3D 4 wh173 460. W1771$ (1977) 3n+3r$ 4nD wr1+3$ h1$ f4m0U$ c74$$1c L34rn1n6 +0 L4b0Ur. 3c0n0m1c 4nD ph0w$zzZZ71+1c47 $3+ Up 0f D41r r3$p3c+1v3 $0c13+13$ wh3n D4y w3r3 wr1++3n.J. H3 700k$ 4+ D4m +hr0U6h 3+hn1c1+y mUhr3 +h4n c74$$. ‘SUbcU7+Ur3$’ 1n D4 Ph171pp1n3$ Th3r3 r 4 70+ 0f W3$+3rn r3$34rch3$. f3w h4v3 b33n kn0wn 4b0U+ D4 Ph171pp1n3 $UbcU7+Ur3$. A7$0. (1975) +h4+ ‘$UbcU7+Ur3$’ h4v3 n0 fU+Ur3 (G37D3r. 1$ r373v4n+ b3c4U$3 D3$p1+3 D4 cr1$1$ 1n D4 D3f1n1+10n 0f ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’. 134). C C4+44n 17 Tw0 y34r$ 4f+3r C74rk3. I n0w +Urn +0 $ch074r$h1p 4b0U+ ‘$UbcU7+Ur3$’ 1n D4 Ph171pp1n3$. H3bD163 (1979) 4n7y$3$ D4 pUnk$ 1n Br1+41n 1n D4 74+3 1970$. 1+ 61v3$ 1+$37f +0 b3 r34D” (p. I 4ckn0w73D63 +h4+ m4ny W3$+3rn 71+3r4+Ur3$ h4v3 b33n wr1++3n r374+1v3 +0 D4 $0c147. I+ 1$ 600D +0 ph0w$zzZZ1n+ 0U+ h3r3 +h4+ D4 Sch007 h4$ 4 c0n$3n$U$ +h4+ ‘$UbcU7+Ur3$’ h4v3 D41r 71m1+4+10n$. h3 c734r7y D1$+1n6U1$h3$ h0w 4 ‘6r0Up’ b3c0m3$ 4 ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’ 0r n0+.
Th1$ r3$34rch 1$ 4 f1r$+ 0f 1+$ k1nD. 3). . H3 1$ mUhr3 ph0w$zzZZ$1+1v3 0n D4 J3j3m0n ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’. bU+ D1ff3r$ 0n7y 1n D4 ‘3mp0w3rm3n+’ 0f $Uch ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’. 2005. Th3 4v4174b73 71+3r4+Ur3 4b0U+ J3j3m0n$ 1$ 71m1+3D 0n7y +0 0n71n3 n3w$ 4nD 0p1n10n 4r+1c73$ 1n D4 1n+3rn3+. Th3$3 $k1nh34D$. +r4n$74+10n m1n3). h3 $+UD13$ D4 $k1nh34D$11 1n D4 Ph171pp1n3$ 1n c0mp'r1$0n +0 +h0$3 1n Br1+41n. 4$ 3v1D3n+ 1n D41r D417y nrr4+1v3$.J. Th3y r vU7n3r4b73 +0 b3 34$17y $w4y3D by 0D4r 1D3070613$ 4nD mUhv3m3n+$ 0f D4 m1DD73 c74$$. C C4+44n 18 In D4 UnD3r6r4DU4+3 D4$1$ 0f P4n6171nn (2001). $33m$ +0 f0770w D4 $+4nc3 0f T073n+1n0 (2010). 1n h1$ 0n71n3 4r+1c73 1n BU74+74+. p. wh1ch P4n6171nn $1m174r7y 4$$3r+$. K4r7 M4rx c477$ D4m ‘7Ump3npr073+4r14+$’ (1n G37D3r. H3 3mph4$1z3$ +h4+ J3j3m0n$ r 1n 4 ‘cU7+Ur47 b++73’. A77 46r33$ +h4+ J3j3m0n$ r 4 ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’. H3 $h0w$ h1$ cyn1c1$m 1n +h1$ m3+h0D 0f r3$1$+4nc3 $1nc3 “1+ 1$ 0n7y +hr0U6h D1r3c+ ph0w$zzZZ71+1c47 $+rU6673 +h4+ D4 ‘m4r61n71z3D’ wUD h4v3 4n 4cc3$$ +0 ph0w$zzZZ71+1c47 c1+1z3n$h1p” (p'r. 15. H3 c477$ D4 ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’ 4n ‘UnD3rc74$$’. T073n+1n0 (2010). Thr0U6h +r4D1+10n7 c74$$ 4n7y$1$. H3 c477$ D4 J3j3T3x+ 4 ‘$0c1073c+’ 0r 11 p'n6171nn (2001) $33 D4 $k1nh34D$ 4$ D4 r3$1DU47 ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’ 0f pUnk$ 1n D4 w3$+. h3 $33$ +h4+ D4$3 $k1nh34D$ 41m 4 ch4n63$ 1n $0c13+y. D4 3mp0w3rm3n+ +h4+ P4n6171nn 61v3$ +0 D4 F171p1n0 $k1nh34D$ 1$ 0v3rwh37m1n6. Ar40 (2010). r 0n7y 1n+3r3$+3D +0 D41r 0wn w377-b31n6.c0m. H3 pr0v3$ +h4+ ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’ 1$ 4 71f3$+y73. 47$0 0n h1$ 0n71n3 4r+1c73. h3 nrr4+3$ D4 $373c+3D $+0r13$ 0f $k1nh34D$ 1n D4 Ph171pp1n3$ 4nD h0w D4y cUrv3 D41r 0wn 3v3ryD4y 3xp3r13nc3$ w1+h1n D4 $k1nh34D ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’. $1nc3 D4y c0Un+3r D4 D0m1nn+ cU7+Ur3 4$ $33n w1+h D4 f0770w1n6 r3$34rch3r$ b370w. H0w3v3r. Th3r3 r n0 4m47 4nD 1n-D3p+h r3$34rch3$ 4b0U+ J3j3m0n$ +0 D4+3. +377$ U$ D4 3x1$+3nc3 0f J3j3m0n$ 1n 4 M4rx1$+’$ p3r$p3c+1v3. H3 $+r3$$3$ +h4+ D4 J3j3m0n$ r Un3DUc4+3D 4nD D4 J3j3T3x+ 1$ n0+ 4n 1n+3n+10n7 4nD ‘$+y71$h’ mUhD1f1c4+10n 0f D4 $p3771n6 bU+ 4 m4n1f3$+4+10n 0f D41r 16n0r4nc3 1n D4 c0rr3c+ $p3771n6 0f +h0$3 w0rD$. U$1n6 3+hn06r4phy. bU+ h3 n3673c+$ +0 $33 +h4+ +h1$ ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’ D03$ n0+ r3f73c+ 0n 1+$ 0wn c74$$ c0n$c10U$n3$$.
H3 47$0 h16h716h+$ D4 $+rU6673 0f +h1$ ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’ 4nD +h0$3 wh0 r 1n D4 ph0w$zzZZ$1+10n 0f ph0w$zzZZw3r. ‘P0$+-$UbcU7+Ur3’ D40r1$+$ c477 ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’ D4 +h1n6 0f D4 p'$+. 4$ 4 r3$34rch3r. I mU$+ ch00$3. I h4v3 D3c1D3D +0 f1nD 4n 47+3rn+1v3 +0 ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’. H3 f1n1$h3$ by qU3$+10n1n6 D4 $+4+3. +h4+ D4 3x1$+3nc3 0f J3j3m0n$ 1$ 4n 0U+r16h+ m4n1f3$+4+10n 0f $Uch pr0b73m$ (p'r. OD4r$. B0+h Ar40 (2010) 4nD T073n+1n0 (2010) c0n$1D3r D4 J3j3m0n$ 4$ 4 ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’. 4nD I f0UnD 0n3. 3). 12. 15. bU+ Ar40 c0n+3nD$ +h4+ D4 “‘0U+$1D3r$’ h4v3 n0 r16h+ +0 1n+3rv3n3 w1+h D4 1n+3rn7 4m 0f c0mmUn1c4+10n 0f D4 ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’”.J. Th3 $+4+3 4Dv0c4+3$ 4641n$+ D4 pr4c+1c3 0f J3j3T3x+. In f4c+. 2005. mUhr30v3r. bU+ I b3713v3 +h4+ “1+ . L1k3 D4m. m34nwh173. pr1m4r17y D4 D3p'r+m3n+ 0f EDUc4+10n 1n 1+$ ph0w$zzZZ71c13$ 1n pr10r1+1z1n6 En671$h 0v3r F171p1n0 4nD D4 D36r4D4+10n 0f D4 qU471+y 0f 3DUc4+10n 1n D4 c0Un+ry. 4nD $0c147 0r64n1z4+10n$ c4nn0+ b3 $33n 4nym0r3 1n 4 71n34r p3r$p3c+1v3. N0+ $0 f4r: D4 47+3rn+1v3$ +0 ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’ Wh3n 477 h4v3 b33n $41D 4nD D0n3. I w177 n0+ p74c3 D4 ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’ D40ry 1n D4 ‘+r4$h b1n’ 0f h1$+0ry. C C4+44n 19 ‘$0c147 D1473c+’. H3 4r6U3$. Th3y 47$0 b3713v3 +h4+ D4 w0rk$ 0f ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’ D40r1$+$ fr0m B1rm1n6h4m 4nD Ch1c460 r ‘h3r01c’. Th1$ 4ppr04ch $+4r+3D wh3n D4 D40r1$+$ D3p'r+ fr0m Br1+1$h cU7+Ur47 $+UD13$ (B1rm1n6h4m Sch007). +r4n$74+10n m1n3). InD33D. p. S0m3 D3c1D3 +0 Unp1ck D4 +3rm. I+ D3n13$ D4 34r713r 71nk$ b3+w33n ‘$UbcU7+Ur3$’ 4nD D4 w0rk1n6 c74$$ (G37D3r. D3v14+3 fr0m 1+$ +r4D1+10n7 v13w 4nD +ry +0 m4k3 $3n$3 +hr0U6h D41r D1$+1nc+ 4n7y$3$. 71f3 1$ mUhr3 c0mp73x n0w. y3+. Th3 cr34+10n 0f +h1$ Un1qU3 c0D3 Un1+3$ D4 m3mb3r$ 0f D4 ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’ +0 c0mmUn1c4+3 1n+3rn77y. D4 n3x+ +h1n6 +h4+ w3 mU$+ D0 1$ +0 700k 4 47+3rn+1v3$. 1+ 1$ $U663$+3D f3w y34r$ 4f+3r ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’ w4$ f1r$+ c01n3D. c4n n0w b3 r3j3c+3D. Th3y r 77yk m4ny D40r1$+$ wh0 b3c0m3 ‘70y471$+$’ 0f D4 c0nc3p+ 0f ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’. I w4n+ +0 m4k3 1+ c734r +h4+ Un77yk D4 b3713v3r$ 0f ‘p0$+-$UbcU7+Ur3$’. Th1$ 47+3rn+1v3 +h4+ I U$3 1n +h1$ $+UDy 1$ n0+ f4r fr0m 1+$ r00+$.
$4y1n6 +h4+ 4 r3$34rch3r $h0U7D +r4n$c3nD fr0m 4 71n34r +yp3 0f ‘$UbcU7+Ur47’ 1nqU1ry +0 4v01D 63n3r471z4+10n$ 4nD br04D 6r0Up1n6 1n $0c13+y. b370w.< I 4m 1n $34rch 4 4 n3w +3rm +0 74b37 D4 J3j3m0n$. ‘SUbcU7+Ur3’ v1$-à-v1$ $Ub-cU7+Ur3 G0rD0n (1947) w4rn$ U$ 4b0U+ D4 f70Ur1$h1n6 c0nc3p+ 0f ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’. 4nD 1+ 1$ n0+ 3v3ry+h1n6 4 ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’ mU$+ b3. 1f 4pp713D 1n mUhD3rn r3$34rch . bU+ 1nc7UD3$ D41r 463 6r0Up 4nD $0c147 r374+10n$ 4m0n6 0D4r$. Th1$ cr1$1$ wUD c0mpr0m1$3 my c4$3 $+UDy $1nc3 D4 J3j3m0n ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’ D03$ n0+ h4v3 3v3ry+h1n6 +h4+ 4 ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’ mU$+ h4v3. 2005. wh1ch 1$ “4 $Ub-D1v1$10n 0f 4 n+10n7 cU7+Ur3 c0mp0$3D 0f c0mb1n+10n 0f f4c+0r4b7312 $0c147 $1+U4+10n$ $Uch 4$ 12 0r 1nD3p3nD3n+ v4r14b73$. bU+ +0 $3+ my ph0w$zzZZ1n+ 4nD 3$+4b71$h 4 c734r D371n34+10n 0f D4 +3rm +h4+ I U$3 c0n$1$+3n+7y +hr0U6h0U+ D4 m4nU$cr1p+. w1+h0U+ r374+1n6 1+ +0 0D4r c4+360r13$. I 3x4m1n3 D4 c0nc3p+ 0f ‘$Ub-cU7+Ur3’ (w1+h 4 hyph3n) by G0rD0n (1947). My 1nqU1ry 0n D4 J3j3m0n ‘$Ub-cU7+Ur3’ D03$ n0+ r3v07v3 0n7y 1n D41r $0c147 c74$$. S3c0nD. C C4+44n 20 1$ mUch +00 $00n +0 r37364+3 +h1$ +3rm +0 D4 DU$+b1n$ 0f cU7+Ur47 h1$+0ry” (G37D3r. D4 ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’ D40ry $Uff3r$ 4 cr1$1$ 1n D3f1n1+10n. Th1$ 1$ D4 v3ry f1r$+ pr0b73m +h4+ h3 $33$ wh3n D40r1$+$ 4pp7y D4 c0nc3p+. 12). I 4cc3p+ G0rD0n’$ D3f1n1+10n 0f ‘$Ub-cU7+Ur3’. W1+h 477 DU3 r3$p3c+ +0 D4 D40r1$+$ wh0 U$3 4nD w177 $+177 b3 U$1n6 D4 w0rD ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’ 1n D41r w0rk$. H1$ p'$$463 1$ 0n3 0f D4 34r7y cr1+1qU3$ 0f D4 +3rm ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’. W1+h0U+ 4 D0Ub+. F1r$+. Th1$ 1$ w3r my f1r$+ c0n+3n+10n 4b0U+ ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’ 713$. Th1$ 1$ pr0v3n w1+h D4 v4$+ nUmb3r 0f $+UD13$ m3n+10n3D 4b0v3. I c0n+3nD +h4+ D4 J3j3m0n ph3n0m3n0n 1n 1+$37f 1$ b3y0nD 4 ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’. Th3r3 r +w0 +h1n6$ y?'' >. p. My +0+47 p74c1n6 0f D4 +3rm ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’ w1+h1n $3m1-c070n$ 3v3ry +1m3 m3n+10n3D 1n +h1$ r3$34rch 1$ n0+ 4 4m 0f r3j3c+10n. G0rD0n c0m3$ fr0m D4 Ch1c460 Sch007 4$ w377. 1+ 1$ Un1m461nb73 4 4 r3$34rch3r +0 4n7y$3 4 ph3n0m3n0n 1n jU$+ 0n3 c4+360ry.J. 1n c0nn3c+10n w1+h D4 f1r$+ 0n3.
w1+h0U+ +r4c1n6 D4 r00+ 0f D4 c0nc3p+ 4nD 1+$ 71m1+4+10n$. G0rD0n b3713v3$ +h4+ h3 0r $h3 “1$ 4 p3r$0n wh0$3 3nv1r0nm3n+47 bck6r0UnD 1$ 4n 1n+3rw0v3n 4nD v4r1364+3D c0mb1n+10n 0f 477 D4$3 f4c+0r$” (p. 41). b3c4U$3 wh3n 4 p3r$0n 3n+3r$ 1n+0 4 $UbcU7+Ur3. 41). 4nD r371610U$ 4ff1714+10n$. 40). Th3 B1rm1n6h4m Sch007 D03$ n0+ D3p'r+ fr0m . 1947. r4D4r +h4n 4ny $y$+3m4+1c 4pp71c4+10n 0f D4 +3rm +0 w377D3f1n3D $0c147 c0nD1+10n$” (p. Wh173 1+ 1$ +rU3 +h4+ 4 ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’ 1$ 47$0 4 ‘D1v1$10n 0f 4 n+10n7 cU7+Ur3’. BU+ 4 w0r$3 pr0b73m $+177 h4pp3n$ n0w4D4y$ 1n 47m0$+ 477 4c4D3m1c c0mmUn1+13$. r3610n7 4nD rUr47 0r Urbn r3$1D3nc3. 41). I D3f1n1+37y 46r33 w1+h G0rD0n. bU+ 4m1n6 1n D41r c0mb1n+10n 4 fUnc+10n1n6 Un1+y wh1ch h4$ 4n 1n+36r4+3D 1mp'c+ 0n D4 p'r+1c1p'+1n6 1nD1v1DU47” (G0rD0n. 0D4r D40r1$+$ $Ucc33D1n6 h1m D0 n0+ 4ckn0w73D63 0r c0n$1D3r h1$ ph0w$zzZZ$1+10n. H1$ f3770w$ fr0m D4 Ch1c460 Sch007 c0n+1nU3 +0 U$3 ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’. C C4+44n 21 c74$$ $+4+U$. p. G0rD0n (1947) +377$ U$ +h4+ +h1$ k1nD 0f r3f3r3nc3 b3c0m3$ ‘c0m4+4b73 h1D1n6 p74c3$’ 4 Am3r1c4n $0c107061$+$. A$ w3 $33. h3 f337$ D4$3 ‘$0c147 $1+U4+10n$’ 4$ 0n3 1nf7U3n+147 f4c+0r 47+063D4r. Th1$ p3r$0n D03$ n0+ 3xp3r13nc3 D4$3 c4+360r13$ $1mU7+4n30U$7y.J. I+ 1$ c734r +h4+ $Ub-cU7+Ur3 0ccUp13$ 4 74r63r $c0p3 0f 4n7y$1$. Th1$ fUrD4r 3nb73$ U$ +0 D1$c3rn c70$37y D4 “c0h3$1v3 $y$+3m$ 0f $0c147 0r64n1z4+10n$ wh1ch cUrr3n+7y w3 +3nD +0 4n7yz3 $3p'r4+37y w1+h 0Ur mUhr3 c0nv3n+10n7 +007$ 0f ‘c74$$’ 4nD ‘3+hn1c 6r0Up’ (p. H1$ c0nc3p+ D03$ n0+ f70Ur1$h. G0rD0n 4DD$ +h4+ D4 c0nc3p+ 0f $Ub-cU7+Ur3 “61v3$ U$ 4 k33n 4nD 1nc1$1v3 +007 wh1ch… pr3v3n+$ U$ fr0m m4k1n6 +00 br04D 6r0Up1n6$ w3r $Uch 1nc7U$1v3n3$$ 1$ n0+ w4rr4n+3D” (p. H3 ch4773n63$ 477 D4 3+hn06r4ph3r$ 4nD D40r1$+$ +0 60 b3y0nD 4 71n34r +yp3 0f 1nqU1ry. H3 c477$ +h1$ “‘$p0r4D1c r3$+1n6 p74c3$ 0f $3m4n+1c c0nv3n13nc3’. y3+ c0nn3c+1n6 4nD 3$+4b71$h1n6 4 Un1+y 4m0n6 D4m. 3+hn1c bck6r0UnD. I+ 0ff3r$ D1v3r$3 v4r14b73$. bU+ $3p'r4+3D fr0m 34ch 0D4r. Th1$ 1$ wh3n D40r1$+$ 4pp7y 4nD U$3 D4 c0nc3p+ 0f ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’ +0 jU$+ 4ny ‘6r0Up’. 41).
I b3713v3 +h4+ J3j3m0n$ 4$ 4 c0n+3mp0r4ry $Ub-cU7+Ur3 c4nn0+ b3 4n7yz3D 1n 4 71n34r v13wp01n+. Th3y m4k3 Up 4 h16h7y 0r64n1z3D 4nD c0h3$1v3 $Ub-cU7+Ur3. I 4r6U3 +h4+ D4 J3j3m0n ph3n0m3n0n 1$ 1n1+1477y 4 ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’. BU+ 4 D4 J3j3m0n ph3n0m3n0n. I+$ 3x1$+3nc3 D03$ n0+ h4pp3n b3c4U$3 0f ‘c74$$’ 0r ‘3+hn1c1+y’ 470n3. I fUrD4r br34k D0wn D4 J3j3m0n ph3n0m3n0n 4$ 4 $Ub-cU7+Ur3. I D3f1n3 wh0 D4 J3j3m0n$ r. In D4 n3x+ ch4p+3r. Th3 ‘$0c147 c0nD1+10n$’ +h4+ 4ff3c+ 4nD c0mp0$3 J3j3m0n$ r 1n+3rr374+3D 4nD D1v3r$3. I $33 4 jU63 ph0w$zzZZ1n+ 0f U$1n6 D4 $UbcU7+Ur3 c0nc3p+ 1n$+34D 0f ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’. . 4nD D41r D1$+1nc+ m4rk$ 4nD 1D3n+1+y. wh1ch n3c3$$1+4+3$ D4 n33D +0 U$3 4 mUhr3 f1++1n6 +3rm. bU+ D4 +3rm D03$ n0+ $Uff1c3 D4 c0mp73x1+y 0f +h1$ $Ub-cU7+Ur3.J. C C4+44n 22 D4 +3rm.
S16Ur0 n64 ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’ $174. bk~ r1n nD1. G4m1+ 74n6 x3' nn6 64m1+ 3h. T1nw46 n174n6 ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’ 4n6 b0Dy mUhD1f1c4+10n 3n+jU$14$+$. C C4+44n 23 “B1nn661+ 4n6 ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’ $4 TrU3 S+0r13$ $4 QTV 11. W474 nm4n6 b$3h4n 4+ m47471m n p'nn71k$1k n n64np.” -F137D n0+3.J. 2010 . D3c3mb3r 26.
I h4v3 +0 4Dv4nc3 D4 1n+r0DUc+10n $1nc3 h3 h4$ 4 70+ +0 $4y 0n D4 h1$+0ry 4nD 3+ym0706y 0f D4 w0rD ‘J3j3m0n’. Th3y $+4+3 +h4+ D4 w0rD J3j3m0n 1$ D4 c0mb1n+10n 0f . h0w3v3r. 4 J3j3m0n 1$ “b$1c477y 4ny0n3 w1+h 4 70w +073r4nc3 1n c0rr3c+ pUnc+U4+10n. Th1$ w3b$1+3 1$ 0wn3D by Mr. Or161n 0f D4 +3rm J3j3m0n An 4cc0Un+ 0f D4 $Upp0$3D 6r0Up 0f J3j3m0n$ nm3D ‘T34m J3j3m0n’ 0n F4c3b00k ph0w$zzZZ$+3D 4 n0+3 3n+1+73D H1$+0ry n6 m64 TUny n J3j3m0n$ (H1$+0ry 0f TrU3 J3j3m0n$) D4+3D Apr17 27. $yn+4x 4nD 6r4mm4r”.c0m. 4nD D4 w0rD ‘J3j3m0n’ 1$ D4 $h0r+3n3D +3rm 4$$0c14+3D w1+h D4m. Th3 c0Un+ry b364n f0cU$1n6 1+$ 4++3n+10n +0 D4m 1n 34r7y 2010. Th3 w3b$1+3 www. C C4+44n 24 CHAPTER 3 N0 $w3rv1n6: D4 r1$3 0f J3j3m0n$ A$ w3 700k 4+ D4 3n+1r3 p1c+Ur3 0f J3j3m0n 4$ 4 $Ub-cU7+Ur3. B0n1f4c10 4 29-y34r 07D c0mpU+3r pr06r4mm3r by 4 r3473$+4+3 c0mp'ny b$3D 1n M4k~+1. M4ny f0770w3r$ 0n F4c3b00k 4nD D4 w3b$1+3 4ckn0w73D63 h1m 4$ D4 J3j3m4$+3r. Th3 ‘J3j3m0n$+3r$’ 1$ D4 c0773c+1v3 +3rm 4 D4 m3mb3r$ 0f D4 $Ub-cU7+Ur3.c0m (2010). Ar1$ B0n1f4c10. I+ 1$ 47$0 D4 mUh$+ ph0w$zzZZpU74r 74b37 4 D4m.UrbnD1c+10nry. n3v3rD473$$.j3j3m0n. Acc0rD1n6 +0 D4 w3b$1+3 www. H3 1$ D4 $0-c4773D ‘J3j3m4$+3r’.c0m 4D4p+3D D4 D3f1n1+10n by www. w1+h0U+ 74b37 4nD $+3r30+yp3$. bU+ I 61v3 4mp73 $p'c3 4b0U+ h1m 1n D4 $Ucc33D1n6 ch4p+3r$. Th1$ w3b$1+3 1$ D4 f1r$+ +0 D3f1n3 ‘J3j3m0n$’ 4nD 1$ f0770w3D by m4ny w3b$1+3$.UrbnD1c+10nry. 73+ m3 f1r$+ D3f1n3 D4 ph0w$zzZZ1n+ 0f +h1$ r3$34rch. Mr. L3+ m3 1n+r0DUc3 h1m br13f7y 4+ +h1$ ph0w$zzZZ1n+. Th3 mUhD3r4+0r 4nD 1+$ $0Urc3 r c0n+3n+10U$. 4 6r0Up 0f U'+h c4773D c0773c+1v37y 4$ ‘J3j3m0n$+3r$’. D4 J3j3m0n$ h4v3 47r34Dy 3x1$+3D. 2010. D3f1n1n6 4 J3j3m0n Th3 mUh$+ c0n+3mp0r4ry 6r0Up 0r ph3n0m3n0n 1n D4 Ph171pp1n3 ph0w$zzZZpU74r cU7+Ur3 $c3n3 +0 D4+3 1$ D4 ‘J3j3m0n$+3r$’ 0r ‘J3j3m0n$’.J. bU+ 70n6 b343 +h4+.
$1nc3 D4 “J3j3m0n ph3n0m3n0n 1$ p'ck~63D 4nD pr0DUc3D by D4 rU71n6 c74$$ 4 1+$ 0wn 1n+3r3$+$. h3 h4$ $+4r+3D +0 3xpr3$$ h1$ 74U6h+3r 1n +h4+ w4y. ‘J3j3’. ‘J3j3m0n’.14 H3 $hr$ +h4+ w4y bck 1n 2003. 1+ c0m3$ fr0m D4 f4m0U$ c4r+00n $h0w. T073n+1n0 (2010) 46r33$ w1+h +h1$. 4ff1rm$ +h1$ D3f1n1+10n. H3 c734r$ +h4+ D4 w0rD ‘J3j3m0n’ 0r161n+3$ fr0m D4 1n+3rn3+. D41r f4m17y 1n T0nD0 h4D 4 c0mpU+3r c4fé. . Th1$ w4$ w3r h3 f1r$+ $4w D4 Sp'n1$h w0rD. b3c4U$3 0f D4 w4y D4y 74U6h 1n D4 v1r+U47 w0r7D. 1n 0Ur $3v3r47 m33+1n6$. H3 c4nn0+ +r4c3. 4nD n0+ fr0m c377U74r ph0n3$. 4nD 4cc0rD1n6 +0 h1m. S1nc3 D4n. ‘J3j3’. h3 4$$0c14+3$ D4 j3j3m0n$’ c070rfU7 0U+f1+$ +0 D4 p0k3m0n$’ c070rfU7 700k 4nD 4cc3$$0r13$. 14). w34r b74ck $h1r+. H3 pr0v3$ +h1$ by nrr4+1n6 h1$ f1r$+ 3nc0Un+3r w1+h D4 w0rD. C C4+44n 25 ‘J3j3’. Th3$3 64m3$ h4D p74y3r$ fr0m 477 0v3r D4 w0r7D. 4nD 73+ D4 1nf3r10r c74$$3$ +0 c0n$Um3” (p'r. DUr1n6 h1$ fr33 +1m3. h0w3v3r. Sp'n1$h U'+h 0f+3n v1$1+ 64m1n6 r00m$ 0f F171p1n0$. 4++r1bU+3$ D4 cr34+10n 0f D4 w0rD +0 D4 13 1 c477 D4m ‘6r0Up’ $1nc3 Dr 1$ n0 $+UDy +h4+ pr0v3$ +h4+ D4 jj$ 0r ‘jUmp1n6 j0706$’ r 1nD33D 4 $UbcU7+Ur3. U'+h r mUhr3 3xp0$3D +0 4316n w0rD$ +h4+ D4y 3nc0Un+3r 0v3r D4 1n+3rn3+. BU+ D4 b1r+h 0f D4 w0rD D1D n0+ h4pp3n y3+. n3v3rD473$$. j3j3m4$+3r c0n+1nU3$ +0 3xp741n D4 74++3r ph0w$zzzzr+10n 0f D4 w0rD. J3j3m4$+3r. H3 $4y$ +h4+ ‘J3j3-’ +r4c3$ 1+$ 0r161n$ 1n D4 Sp'n1$h wr1++3n 3xpr3$$10n 0f 74U6h+3r. H3 $41D +h4+ 1+ 1$ D4 m3D14 wh0 74b37$ D4m 4$ J3j3m0n$. 13. ‘-m0n’. 0r pr0bb7y fr0m ‘JJ’ wh1ch m34n$ ‘JUmp1n6 J0706$’. I+ 1$ 0n7y wh3n D4 +373c0mmUn1c4+10n n3+w0rk$ $+4r+ +0 0ff3r Un71m1+3D +3x+ $3rv1c3$ +h4+ D4 pr4c+1c3 1$ +r4n$f3rr3D +0 D4 c377U74r ph0n3$. J3j3m4$+3r. p0k3m0n 0r p0ck3+ m0n$+3r$. 14 +h1$ h4pp3n3D DUr1n6 my 0n3-0n-0n3 1n+3rv13w w1+h j3j3m4$+3r. 4nD 4 c4p c0v3r1n6 0n3-$1D3D h41r. b74ck f4D3D j34n$. h3 wUD 60 Dr 4nD p74y 0n71n3 c0mpU+3r 64m3$. fr0m D4 f4m0U$ J4p'n3$3 c4r+00n $h0w P0k3m0n 0r P0ck3+ M0n$+3r$. b3c4U$3 0f D4 v160r0U$ 6r0w+h 0f c0mpU+3r c4f3$ 4nD 0n71n3 64m3$ 1n D4 Ph171pp1n3$ 1n +h1$ D3c4D3. 0r D4 U'+h ‘6r0Up’13 d1$+1n6U1$h3D 4$ +h0$3 wh0 $+4y 0U+$1D3 D4 c0nc3r+ 6r0UnD$. w1+h bn6$ $h0wn 4+ D4 $1D3 0f D4 f4c3. wh0 c0mb1n3D D4 +w0 c0nc3p+$ 4nD 4m3D D4 w0rD. In h1$ 0p1n10n.J. wh173 ‘m0n’ m34n$ ‘m0n$+3r’.
www. cU7+Ur3 . D3c3mb3r 28.J. J3j3m0n. wh1ch h3 D03$ n0+ nm3. 74b37$ D4 pr4c+1c3 4$ ‘J3j3m0n’ 1n D41r n3w$ 1+3m $0m3+1m3 1n Apr17 2010. S1nc3 D4 $1+3 1$ 4 ‘J3j3$1+3’ (D3$16n3D 4 D4 3m3r61n6 U'+h $Ub-cU7+Ur3 c4773D J3j3m0n). h3 bUy$ D4 D0m41n nm3. h3 b3713v3$. Ph0+0 1: I 4m w1+h J3j3m4$+3r Ar1$ B0n1f4c10. h3 4m4+$ D4 $1+3. D3fy1n6 c4p1+471z4+10n$ 4nD 6r4mm4r. +jU$ h3 1$ c4773D 4 ‘w3bm4$+3r’. 4nD p74c3$ 4 ch4+ b0x 1n 1+. DUr1n6 my 1n+3rv13w w1+h h1m 1n Th3 O7D Sp'6h3++1 H0U$3. J3$$1c4 S0h0 +h4+ f34+Ur3$ D4$3 U'+h c4773D ‘J3j3m0n$’. 4 +hr33 jUnDr3D Ph171pp1n3 p3$0$. wh0 c01n3D D4 +3rm. h3 +4663D h1m$37f 4$ D4 ‘J3j3m4$+3r’. 2010 +3r J3j3 + w3bm4$+3r = J3j3m4$+3r B0n1f4c10 $hr$ +h4+ 47+h0U6h h3 h4$ b33n ch4++1n6 4nD +3x+1n6 U$1n6 3xc3$$1v3 73++3r$. H3 1$ D4 mUhD3r4+0r 0f D4 n3w $1+3.j3j3m0n. h3 $33$ 4n 3p1$0D3 0f K4pU$0 M0. Un+17 4 c3r+41n n3w$ 0r64n1z4+10n. H3 p1ck$ Up D4 w0rD 61v3n by D4 $41D 0r64n1z4+10n. W47+3r M4r+ P4$0n6 T4m0. $$1c4 On D4 $4m3 mUhn+h. N0+ 70n6 4f+3r. D4 +3rm ‘J3j3m0n h4$ n0+ ‘J3j3m0n’ b33n c01n3D.c0m. C C4+44n 26 F171p1n0 U'+h wh0 r v3ry cr34+1v3. Th3y r D4 0n3$. S1nc3 D3$16n1n6 w3b$1+3$ 1$ h1$ h0bby 4nD cr3r.
4nD 1n D4 $Ucc33D1n6 ch4p+3r$. 15 4cc3$$ 1$ 4 v0c4+10n7 c0mpU+3r $ch007 w1+h $3v3r47 br4nch3$ 1n 7Uz0n. J3j3m4$+3r f1n1$h3D h1$ UnD3r6r4DU4+3 c0Ur$3 1n bU$1n3$$ 4Dm1n1$+r4+10n 4+ D4 Ph171pp1n3 Sch007 0f BU$1n3$$ ADm1n1$+r4+10n. Th3 J3j3fr13nD$ P4r+ 0f +h1$ p'r+1c1p'n+ 0b$3rv4+10n w4$ 3xch4n61n6 +3x+ m3$$463$ w1+h J3j3m0n$. H3 6U1D3D m3 v3ry w377 1n D4 3n+1r3 c0Ur$3 0f f137D w0rk. . H3 47$0 +00k Up 4 c3r+1f1c4+3 pr06r4m 1n c0mpU+3r pr06r4mm1n6 4+ Sy$+3m$ T3chn0706y In$+1+U+3 (STI). J3j3m0n$ n33D n0+ f0770w h1$ c0mm4nDm3n+$. bU+ Dr w3r3 47$0 J3j3fr13nD$ +h4+ I h4D m3+ +0 $hr D41r D417y nrr4+1v3$ 4$ J3j3m0n$. H3 1$ f0nD 0f w34r1n6 b74ck 4nD 6r4y $h1r+$ w1+h c070rfU7 pr1n+$ 0n D4m. I n3v3r h4D D4 ch4nc3 +0 m33+ D4 0D4r$. 700k Up +0 4nD r3$p3c+ h1m 4$ D4 ‘f0UnD3r’ 0f D4 $Ub-cU7+Ur3. Th1$ 1$ w3r D4 p'r+1c1p'n+ 0b$3rv4+10n +00k p74c3. H3 w0rk$ 4$ 4 p'r+-+1m3 0ff1c3 4$$1$+4n+ 4+ ACCESS-F41rv13w.J. H3 1$ 4+ +1m3$ rh3+0r1c47 4nD pr34chy +0 h1$ f3770w$. 1+ 0ff3r$ 2-y34r c3r+1f1c4+3 c0Ur$3$. D4 J3j3m0n$. H3 m4y b3 D4 U'n63$+ bU+ h3 734D$ D4 J3j3m0n ch4p+3r 0f F41rv13w br4nch. h0w3v3r. Th3 nm3 1$ $1mp7y 4 c0mb1n+10n 0f D4 w0rD$ ‘J3j3’ 4nD ‘w3bm4$+3r’ +h4+ m4k3$ h1m D4 ’J3j3m4$+3r’. I 1n+r0DUc3 b370w f1v3 J3j3fr13nD$ fr0m F41rv13w wh0 $37f73$$7y $hrD D41r $+0r13$ +h4+ 64v3 ‘f4c3$’ +0 D4 D40r3+1c47 4$$Ump+10n$ 0f +h1$ r3$34rch.15 I+ 1$ 47$0 h1$ $ch007. Th3 J3j3734D3r: Ry4n Ry4n G474n6 1$ 17 y34r$ 07D (Ph0+0 2). H1$ n3v3r-3nD1n6 $+0r13$ 4nD j0k3$ h37p3D m3 $Urv1v3 my 4DjU$+m3n+ p3r10D 4nD m4D3 m3 f337 4+ 34$3 w1+h 0D4r J3j3m0n$. I 60+ +0 kn0w 47m0$+ +h1r+y J3j3m0n$ 1n D4 c0Ur$3 0f +h1$ r3$34rch. D3+417$ 0f wh1ch I D1$cU$$ b370w. DU3 +0 J3j3m4$+3r’$ h1$+0r1c47 4$c3nD4ncy. J3j3m4$+3r 47$0 1n+r0DUc3D m3 +0 D4 m3mb3r$ 0f J3j3m0n ch4p+3r 1n F41rv13w. H3 1$ 4 j077y bU+ 4 4m47 J3j3m0n. H3 1$ 4 c0U$1n 0f J3j3m4$+3r Ar1$ B0n1f4c10. C C4+44n 27 `Th3 +3rm ‘J3j3m4$+3r’ D03$ n0+ m34n +h4+ h3 1$ D4 $Upr3m3 734D3r 0f D4 J3j3m0n$. B4$3D 0n my 0b$3rv4+10n$. H3 w34r$ jU63 $h03$.
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Pr1nc3$$ 4nD N1n. Th1$ w4$ w3r D4 1n+3r4c+10n$ h4pp3n3D. Ph0+0 4: J3j3fr13nD$ 4nD m3 . Th3y 477 $+UDy 1n ACCESS ACCESSF41rv13w. Th1$ w4$ w3r my j0Urn3y 4$ 4 n3w J3j3m0n h4pp3n3D. Th1$ w4$ w3r I 734rn3D D4 c0D3D c0mmUn1c4+10n 0f J3j3m0n$. Th1$ 1$ w4+ I 4m r3f3rr1n6 +0 4$ D4 ‘0D4r w0r7D’. Ph0+0 3: (fr0m 73f+) K4+h. DUr1n6 0Ur $nck$ 1n Gr33nw1ch F4 F41rv13w Th3$3 J3j3fr13nD$ c0mp0$3 D4 J3j3m0n$’ w0r7D c4773D D4 ‘J3j3w0r7D’.J. 4nD D4 U$3 0f ‘$+y73’ 4$ 4 4m 0f r3$1$+4nc3. C C4+44n 30 c0mm0n7y 64D4r +063D4r 4f+3r D41r D4nc3 r3h34r$47$.
+$4k~ 1$4n6 c377 ph0n3 $4 CUb0 b60 4q UmUw1.J. N0v3mb3r 19. An6 b60 qU0hn6 nUmb3r 4y 09487744954. 2010 . C C4+44n 31 “BUm171 4q n6 T47k N’ T3x+ n SIM. B4k1+ b k~174n64n6 m46p'71+ n6 nUmb3r p'r4 74n6 m4k~+3x+ 4n6 m64 J3j3m0n?'' W474 bn6 G70b3 U$3r n J3j3m0n?''” -F137D n0+3.
63nD3r 4nD D41r br04D fUnc+10n 1n $0c13+y. Th3 Ch1c460 Sch007 3n+3r$ D4 D1$c0Ur$3 4nD fU$3$ D4 +w0 $1D3$ +hr0U6h 1+$ b3713f +h4+ D4 +r4D1+10n 0f ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’ $+UD13$ 3ff3c+1v37y c0nf74+3$ $0c13+y 4nD cU7+Ur3. D4 C3n+r3 4 C0n+3mp0r4ry CU7+Ur47 S+UD13$ 0r c0mm0n7y kn0wn 4$ D4 B1rm1n6h4m Sch007 r3-3x4m1n3D D4 $UbcU7+Ur3$ 1n +3rm$ 0f c74$$. 4nD 0D4r 71+3r4+Ur3 4nD 4r+. r cU7+Ur47. CU7+Ur3 4nD $0c13+y r b0+h w4y$ 0f 71f3 (G37D3r & Th0rn+0n. D4y p3rc31v3 cU7+Ur3 4$ 4 “$+4nD4rD 0f 43$D4+1c 3xc3773nc3” D3r1v3D fr0m c74$$1c47 4ppr3c14+10n$ 0f 0p3r4. p'63$ 6-8) wh0 r3f3rr3D +0 ‘cU7+Ur3’ 4$ “4 p'r+1cU74r w4y 0f 71f3 wh1ch 3xpr3$$3$ c3r+41n m34n1n6$ 4nD v47U3$…1n 1n$+1+U+10n 4nD 0rD1nry b3h4v10Ur”. Th3y D3f1n3D cU7+Ur3 4$ D4 ‘qU471+y 0f 71f3’ (p. p. CU7+Ur47 $+UDy 1$ 4 v4$+ r4 0f $+UDy. S3c0nD. Th1$ p'v3$ w4y 4 D4 $0-c4773D ‘h16h 4r+’. 5). 1). bU+ w3 c4n +r4c3 1+$ h1$+0r1c47 D3v370pm3n+ wh3n H3bD163 (1979) pr0v1D3$ 4 c734r h1$+0r1c1+y 1n h1$ b00k SUbcU7+Ur3: Th3 M34n1n6 0f S+y73. $0m3 UnD3r$+4nD 1+$ 4n+hr0p07061c47 r00+ fr0m R4ym0nD W17714m$ 1n 1965 (4$ c1+3D 1n H3bD163. Th1$ ‘wh073 w4y 0f 71f3’ p3r+41n3D +0 D4 $0-c4773D ‘p0pU74r 4r+’ 0r ‘p0pU74r cU7+Ur3’. 1979. . Th1$ br04D D3f1n1+10n 73D +0 +w0 +r4j3c+0r13$. b773+.J. D4 D40ry h4$ f70Ur1$h3D 4nD 0p3n3D Up D1v3r$3 p3r$p3c+1v3$ (G37D3r & Th0rn+0n. 6-7). cU7+Ur3. 1997. Dr4m4. +1m3 4nD +1m3 4641n. H3 ph0w$zzZZ1n+$ 0U+ +h4+ D4 r00+$ 0f cU7+Ur47 $+UDy w4$ wh3n En671$h 1n+3773c+U47$ 4nD 71+3r4ry f16Ur3$ 4+ D4 3nD 0f D4 316h+33n+h c3n+Ury f0cU$3D 0n 4 wh073 r4n63 0f c0n+r0v3r$147 1$$U3$ r374+1n6 +0 cU7+Ur3. p. My r3b1r+h$ 1n +h1$ 71f3+1m3. 1997. F1r$+. 3+hn1c1+y. C C4+44n 32 ch4p+3r 4 En+3r1n6 4 ‘w0r7D’ w1+h1n D4 w0r7D’: Th3 J3j3w0r7D My j0Urn3y 1n pUr$U1+ 0f kn0w73D63 4b0U+ J3j3m0n$ 1$ 77yk 4 r3b1r+h. In +h1$ Sch007’$ $+4nc3 713$ D4 $+UDy 0f ph0w$zzZZpU74r cU7+Ur3. In 0D4r w0rD$. In D4 1970$. 4$ 4 p'++3rn 0f b3713f$ 4nD v47U3$ 0r 3v3n 1D3070613$. S1nc3 D4n. c4nn0+ b3 $3p'r4+3D fr0m 4c+10n 4nD $0c147 0r64n1z4+10n.
C C4+44n 33 P13rr3 B0UrD13U c477$ +h0$3 1n D4 $Ub-cU7+Ur3 ‘$Ub0rD1n+3$’ (2006. F0r 1n$+4nc3. 1n $ch007$ 4nD 1n 0D4r 6306r4ph1c p74c3$ +0 pr4c+1c3 D41r ‘c0D3$’. 4nD ‘670b71z3D’ 4m$ 0f c0mmUn1c4+10n$ (G37D3r. 3). b3y0nD b31n6 4 ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’. I+ 1$ n0+ . Un77yk 0D4r $Ub-cU7+Ur3$ 1n D4 p'$+. 1997. p. I c477 1+ 4 Un1qU3 $Ub-cU7+Ur3 b3c4U$3 1+ D03$ n0+ D3p'r+ fr0m D4 D40ry’$ c0nv3n+10n7 D3f1n1+10n$ 4nD 4n7y$3$. 5). bU+ 4+ D4 $4m3 +1m3. 1+ 47$0 b1D$ D4m ‘600Dby3’ 4$ 1+ +4k3$ n3w p74+4m$ 4$ 4 m34n$ 0f 3xpr3$$10n. I+ 1$ c0nv3n+10n7 1n c0nc3p+. K4r7 M4rx (1867. 519). bU+ D4 J3j3m0n$ 0ccUpy D4 v1r+U47 4nD +373c0mmUn1c4+10n’$ w0r7D. D4y D1ffU$3 D4 +r4D1+10n7 b1nD$ 0f 4 ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’ (p. ch4773n63$ D4 34r7y n0+10n$ 0n ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’. p. 514). Th3 J3j3m0n $Ub-cU7+Ur3. H0w3v3r. bU+ 4 $0c1477y $+r4+1f13D $+rU6673 0n3 (M4+z4 4nD Syk3$. 1n +h1$ v3ry 1nD1v1DU471$+1c w0r7D (p. Th3r3 1$ 1nD33D 4 jU63 $h1f+ fr0m D4 c0nv3n+10n7 w4y$ 0f $331n6 $Ub-cU7+Ur3. 4$ D4y 1nh4b1+ D4 0n71n3 w0r7D$. p. 513). 4$ 4 $Ub-cU7+Ur3. Rh31n607D (2004) c0n+3nD$ +h4+ D4 N3+ 1$ 4n 47+3rn+1v3 $p'c3 w3r c0nn3c+10n 4nD 4 $3n$3 0f c0mmUn1+y r b31n6 r3$+0r3D. P30p73 j01n $Ub-cU7+Ur3$ “m0r3 by ch01c3 n0w +h4n by c1rcUm$+4nc3$—0f 47+3rn+1v3$ +0 D4 D0m1nn+ mUhD3$ 0f 71v1n6 0ff3r3D by W3$+3rn mUhD3rn1+y” (p. On D4 0D4r h4nD. 1$ 4 ‘c4U6h+-b3+w33n’ $Ub-cU7+Ur3 b3c4U$3 D4 34r7y ‘$UbcU7+Ur3$’ c4n b3 f0UnD 0n $+r33+$. D4 J3j3m0n$’ $+rU6673 1$ n0+ 4 c74$$ $+rU6673. 1n h1$ $+UDy 0n D4 $0-c4773D ‘cyb3rpUnk$’ 4$ 4n 3$c4p3 4nD fr33D0m fr0m c0n$+r41n+$. B377 (2000) p3rc31v3$ D4 U$3 0f D4 1n+3rn3+. bU+ c0n+3mp0r4ry 1n pr4c+1c3. 4nD GU13b (1991) r3f3r$ +0 D4 0rD1nry 4$ ‘74+4k n6 71pUnn’ 0r ‘D3p0$1+$ 0f $0c13+y’ (+r4n$74+10n m1n3). 516). Th3 J3j3m0n$’ Un1qU3 4m 0f 3xpr3$$10n. 1972) 74b37$ D4m 4$ D4 ‘pr073+4r14n$’. 2005.J. 1n+3rn7 b0UnD4r13$ r $+r4+1f13D 4nD “1$ w1+h1n D4$3 $+r4+4 0r 4$ 4 c0n$3qU3nc3 0f D4m +h4+ w3 m16h+ D1$c0v3r 4 ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’” (Th0rn+0n. Th30r1$+$ n0w r41$3 r373v4n+ ph0w$zzZZ1n+$ w1+h r364rD +0 $Ub-cU7+Ur3$ 1n D4 3m3r63nc3 0f ‘v1r+U47’. 1n$+34D 0f D4 0D4r w4y 4r0UnD. 1961). Th3 Sch007 fUrD4r b3713v3$ +h4+ 1n 4 $0c13+y w1+h 4 D0m1n+1n6 cU7+Ur3. 32). bU+ h4v3 4 c4p'b171+y +0 c0Un+3r D4 m41n$+r34m (p. ‘m3D14+3D’.
D3p'r+m3n+ 0f An+hr0p0706y. I b370n6 +0 D4 F41rv13w ch4p+3r. H3c+0r GU4z0n 0f D4 U. H3 Unc0n$c10U$7y 73D m3 +0 ‘600673’ 4 70+ 0f cU7+Ur47 c0nc3p+$ 4nD D40r13$ 4nD r34D m4ny b00k$ +h4+ c4p+Ur3 +h4+ cU7+Ur47 pr0c3$$ 1n $0c13+y. Thr0U6h ‘GM $y$+3m’ 0r ‘6r0Up m3$$461n6’. Th1$ 1$ w3r J3j3m0n$ c4n $Ubm1+ D41r 4pp71c4+10n +0 b3 4 ‘c1+1z3n’ 0f D4 ‘w0r7D’.P. D4 J3j3m0n$ 1n 4 ch4p+3r 373c+ D41r pr3$1D3n+.j3j3m0n. C C4+44n 34 4 r3$1$+4nc3 by 4 70w3r c74$$ 4641n$+ D4 Upp3r c74$$ p3r $3. H3 1n+r0DUc3D v4r10U$ r34D1n6$ +h4+ n3v3r f4173D +0 m4k3 my n16h+$ $733p73$$ b3c4U$3 0f ‘1n+3773c+U47 1nD163$+10n’. My 1n+3r3$+ +0 $+UDy cU7+Ur3$ f1r$+ $+4r+3D wh3n I m3+ my pr0f3$$0r 4nD D4$1$ 4Dv1$3r E71 GU13b III. 4nD $+4r+ +0 0r64n1z3 J3j3m0n 4c+1v1+13$ 1n D4 ch4p+3r. In D4$3 4pp71c4+10n$. Th3r3.c0m. Th3 n3w J3j3m0n 1n +0wn I 4m 4 DU7y-r361$+3r3D J3j3m0n +hr0U6h www. B3c4U$3 D1$p3r$3D by $0m3 +0 D4 0U+$k1r+$ 0f cU7+Ur47 $c3n3. I+ 1$ 4 b++73 b3+w33n +h0$3 wh0 D0 D4 4c+ 0f ‘0D4r-1n6’ 4nD +h0$3 wh0 r ‘0DrD’. I 3nc0Un+3r3D 4 70+ 0f D1$cU$$10n$ 4b0U+ ‘$UbcU7+Ur3$’ 1n D4 w3$+ 4nD I r3471z3D +h4+ w3 D0 n0+ h4v3 4 70+ 0f 71+3r4+Ur3 1n D4 3m3r61n6 Ph171pp1n3 ‘$UbcU7+Ur3$’.j3j3m0n.c0m. 47+h0U6h I c0nc3D3 +h4+ c74$$ $+rU6673 c4nn0+ b3 r3m0v3D fr0m $0c13+47 r3$1$+4nc3. I n3v3r +h0U6h+ +h4+ +h1$ pUr$U1+ 0f kn0w73D63 73D m3 +0 3xp3r13nc3$ +h4+ I n3v3r h4D b343. h0w3v3r.J. I b0U6h+ 4 n3w c377 ph0n3 4nD 4 T47k N’ T3x+17 SIM c4rD +0 $+4r+ c0mmUn1c4+1n6 w1+h D4 J3j3m0n$. J3j3m4$+3r $0r+$ D4m 4cc0rD1n6 +0 c1+13$ 4nD mUn1c1p'71+13$ +h4+ m4k3 Up 4 $0-c4773D ‘ch4p+3r’. Th4+ w4$ D4 b361nn1n6 0f +h1$ j0Urn3y. D4 J3j3w0r7D h4$ 1+$ 0wn ‘h34DqU4r+3r$’. bU+ +0 $+4y 1n 1+ w4$ D1ff1cU7+. Th1$ 1$ w3r cU7+Ur47 m16r4+10n h4pp3n$. Th1$ c0mp3773D m3 +0 700k 4+ D4 J3j3m0n ph3n0m3n0n 4nD 3xp70r3 D4 $41D ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’. I+ 1$ n0+ D4 pr1m4ry $+rU6673 h3r3. D4 w3b$1+3 www. I 4m $Urpr1$3D +h4+ D4 3n+ry 1n+0 D4 J3j3m0n $Ub-cU7+Ur3 w4$ r374+1v37y 34$y. wh1ch ch4773n63D my p3r$p3c+1v3 4b0U+ cU7+Ur3 4nD 71f3 1n 63n3r47. Th1$ cUr10$1+y w4$ mUhr3 $+1mU74+3D wh3n I +00k An+hr0p0706y 181 w1+h Pr0f. I+ 1$ D4 $+4+3 4nD D4 1n+3773c+U47$ v3r$U$ D4 J3j3m0n$. . I b0U6h+ D4 $41D SIM br4nD 17 +47k n’ +3x+ 1$ 4 $Ub$1D14ry c0mp'ny 0f $m4r+ +373c0mmUn1c4+10n$.
J3j3m0n$ $41D +h4+ D4 ch01c3 0f n3+w0rk 1$ b$3D 0n 1+$ r4+3$. CUr10U$7y.J. my J3j3fr13nD$ 4nD I h4D +1m3 +0 +4k3 p1c+Ur3$. Th3$3 r D4 +007$ 4nD $+y73$ +h4+ I D1$cU$$ b370w. In 0n3 0f 0Ur f1n7 m33+1n6$. 4++1+UD3$. J3j3m0n$ f477 1n D4 74++3r c4+360ry. J3j3m0n$’ c0D3$ 4nD ‘$+y73’ S0m3 $Ub-cU7+Ur3$ r c0v3r+ wh173 $0m3 r 0p3n +hr0U6h D41r c70D4$. S0m3 J3j3m0n$ 3v3n c477 SMART T373c0mmUn1c4+10n$ 4$ D4 ‘J3j3n3+w0rk’. 74n6U463. I+ 47$0 pr0+3c+$ D4 ‘w0r7D’ fr0m 3x+3rn7 1nf7U3nc3$ +h4+ m16h+ rU1n 0r 47+3r D41r $Ub-cU7+Ur3. r16h+ 4f+3r D4y $16n3D D41r c0n$3n+ 4m$. I 4$k3D w4+ D41r h4nD 63$+Ur3$ m34n+ DUr1n6 p1c+Ur3-+4k1n6$. D4$3 c0n+41n 1n+3rn7 m34n1n6$ +h4+ ph0w$zzZZr+r4y D41r 1D30706y. I 47$0 b0U6h+ 4 ‘J3j3c4p’ wh1ch I w0r3 wh3n3v3r I w4$ w1+h D4m. 4$ $33n 1n D4 p1c+Ur3$ b370w. Th31r $0-c4773D ‘J3j3p0$3$’. . I 47$0 b0U6h+ $h1r+$ w1+h c070rfU7 pr1n+$ 0n D4m. f41+h$ 4nD h0p3$ 4 D41r 71v3$. A7m0$+ 477 D4 J3j3m0n$ wh0m I kn0w r $Ub$cr1b1n6 +0 31D4r T47k N’ T3x+ 0r SMART. bU+ w1+h1n D4 $UbcU7+Ur3. Th3 pr1m4ry U$3 0f D4 ‘c0D3’ 1$ 4 1n+3rn7 c0mmUn1c4+10n w1+h1n D4 ‘w0r7D’. mU$1c 4nD +r41+$. m4y 4pp34r 4$ 0rD1nry 63$+Ur3$ 4 74yp3r$0n$. n0rm$. C C4+44n 35 b3c4U$3 1+ 1$ D4 ‘3c0n0my’ v3r$10n 0f SMART.
Wh173 K4+h ($3c0nD fr0m 73f+). Sh3rw1n (3x+r3m3 r16h+). m34n$. Pr1nc3$$ 4nD Sh3rw1n. wh1ch. w1+h h1$ 63$+Ur3. $h3 $41D. Ev1D3n+7y fr0m D4 J3j3p0$3$. H1$ $+r1k1n6 J3j3p0$3. K4+h. Ch1c460 Sch007 (4$ D1$cU$$3D 1n D4 f1r$+ ch4p+3r) D3f1n3$ ‘$UbcU7+Ur3$’ +hr0U6h D41r mUhD3 0f 3x1$+3nc3 +h4+ 1$ ‘$Ub+3rr4n34n’. N1n. 0n D4 0D4r h4nD$. 1$ 4 4pp34r$ $ymb07 0f b31n6 4 w0m4n. 74nD$c4p3. C C4+44n 36 Ph0+0 5: (fr0m 73f+) My J3j3fr13nD$. A+ D4 c3n+3r. Th3y r 47w4y$ 4$$0c14+3D . bU+ 1n D4 ‘+0p$017’ 0f Ph171pp1n3 ‘$Ubw4y’. p3r$0n71+y +h4+ 1$ kYUT 4nD 4D0r4b73.J. p34c3. Ry4n. Pr1nc3$$ (r16h+ 0f c3n+3r). $h3 $41D. $4y$. D4 J3j3m0n$’ $+rU6673 4nD U$3 0f $+y73$ 4nD $ymb07$ D0 n0+ h4pp3n 4nym0r3 UnD3r D4 ‘$Ubw4y’. $1nc3 $h3 w4n+$ +0 $h0w h3r r347 ‘p'-cU+3’. 4pp34r$ +0 $h0w 4 73++3r ‘V’ 4m4+10n. D3p1c+$ ‘+rU3 fr13nD$h1p’. L4$+7y. N1n m1m1c$ +w0 p30p73 +47k1n6 c70$37y w1+h 34ch 0D4r. “4cc3p+ m3 4 wh0 I 4m”. h1$ J3j3p0$3 1$ $1mp7y ‘p' cU+3’. wh1ch. I+ 47$0 3xh1b1+$ ‘v1c+0ry’ 1n D41r 71v3$ 4$ J3j3m0n$. Ry4n (3x+r3m3 73f+) $41D. 1n D41r J3j3p0$3$ My J3j3fr13nD$ 3xp741n3D +0 m3 D4 m34n1n6$ 0f D41r J3j3p0$3$. c0nv3y$.
Th1$ 1$ 4pp71c4b73 +0 D4 J3j3m0n$. 3). 47w4y$ D4 ‘Un$33n’ 4nD D4 ‘$Ub0rD1n+3’. Th3y r D1$+1n6U1$h3D. C C4+44n 37 w1+h D4 ‘D4rk $1D3’. 1+ 1$ c4773D J3j3+3x+. D4y 47$0 c4rry 0U+ c0D3D c0mmUn1c4+10n +hr0U6h J3j3+3x+. C70D4$ wUD pr0bb7y r4nk n3x+ 1n 1nD1c4+1v3n3$$ 4nD 34$3 0f D1$c3rnb171+y (p. In D4 c4$3 0f J3j3m0n$. Th3y U$3 4 v3ry Un1qU3 m3D1Um 0f 3xpr3$$10n. G0rD0n (1947) D1$cU$$3$ D4 mUh$+ 1nD1c4+1v3 1nD1c3$ 0f p'r+1c1p'+10n 1n 4 p'r+1cU74r ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’. J3j3m0n$ r $33n +0 mUhr3 3xpr3$$1v3 +h4n 0D4r $Ub-cU7+Ur3$ $1nc3 D4y 3xp70r3 c0mmUn1c4+10n 4$ 4 4m 0f 3xpr3$$10n.J. bU+ D4 m34n1n6 1$ pr0v1D3D +0 D4 4m3r 0n7y. Dr h4v3 +0 b3 c0D3D c0mmUn1c4+10n 4nD 1n+3rn7 c0D3$. H3 $41D +h4+ 1f 4ny0n3 h4D +0 b3 $1n673D 0U+. bU+ 0n7y +0 4 c3r+41n 3x+3n+. W1+h1n D4 $Ub-cU7+Ur3 0f D4 ‘0D4r$’. 4nD D4$3 “0bj3c+$ r m4D3 +0 m34n 4nD m34n 4641n” (p. I+ 1$ D41r $16n 0f +r1Umph. 4nD D41r f4$h10n r +rU7y D4 mUh$+ pr0m1n3n+ 4nD D1$+1n6U1$h4b73 +r41+$ 0f J3j3m0n$. h3 wUD 0ff3r $p33ch p'++3rn$ (p'r+1cU74r7y pr0nUnc14+10n 4nD 1nf73c+10n) 4$ D4 34$13$+ +0 0b$3rv3 4nD D4 mUh$+ r3v3471n6. D4 v1r+U47 4nD +373c0mmUn1c4+10n’$ w0r7D. b3c4U$3 D4y r n0w $33n 4nD b31n6 r34D by +h0$3 w1+h1n 4nD 0U+$1D3 D4 $Ub-cU7+Ur3. 1979. 4cc0rD1n6 +0 my J3j3fr13nD$. T3x+1n6 c0n+r1bU+3$ +0 D4 “c0n$+rUc+10n 0f $+y73. c4p1+471z4+10n 0r161n7). 1n 0rD3r +0 b3 +rU7y 0r64n1z3D. Th31r c377U74r ph0n3$ 4 3x4mp73 r D41r 71+3r47 +007 4 b370n61n6n3$$ 4nD r3$1$+4nc3. ch4n63 D3p3nD1n6 0n D41r mUh0D 4nD f3371n6. 42). Th1$ 1$ w4+ H3bD163 (1979) 63n3r477y c477$ 4$ ‘$+y73’ +h4+ 1$ ‘m4D3 Up 0f mUnD4n3 0bj3c+$ wh1ch h4v3 4 D0Ub73 m34n1n6’. 1nc7UD1n6 J3j3m0n$’ pr0nUnc14+10n 4nD 1nf73c+10n (D4 J3j3n3$3). J3j3p0$3$. 1$074+3D 4nD ‘0DrD’ b3c4U$3 Dr r $0-c4773D ‘1nD1c4+0r$’ +h4+ $3+ D4 $Ub-cU7+Ur3 4p'r+ fr0m D4 0D4r$. A$1D3 fr0m c0D3D 63$+Ur3$. Sp33ch. 1n 4 63$+Ur3 0f D3f14nc3 4nD c0n+3mp+… 1+ $16n7$ R3fU$47” (H3bD163. . Thr0U6h +h1$.
kK 7 mM Jejebet Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz Alphabet nN 0 pP qQ rR 5 tT uU vV wW xX yY zZ Jejebet . Th3y m4k3 1+ by 4DD1n6 r4nD0m 4nD Unw4n+3D 73++3r$ 1n b3+w33n D4 0D4r 73++3r$ 0f 4 w0rD. 4nD r3p74c1n6 73++3r$ w1+h 73++3r-700k1n6 nUmb3r$. T4b73 1: A7ph4b3+ v1$-à-v1$ D4 J3j3b3+ Alphabet Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm 4 b. 6. D3fy1n6 pUnc+U4+10n m4rk$ 4nD rU73$ 1n c4p1+471z4+10n. 8 c. kh4mU5+4H k4h nAhH pF0w5zH?''” J3j3m0n$ c477 D41r 47ph4b3+ ‘J3j3b3+’ w1+h 73++3r$ 4$ $33n b370w. ( dD 3 fF 9 hH 1 jJ X.J. J3j3m0n$ $p377 1+ 4$ “3Ow pF0WzH. mUzT4H k~ n?''” (H3770! H0w r U'?''). Th3y D3fy D4 rU73$ 0f c0rr3c+ $p3771n6 4nD pr0nUnc14+10n. C C4+44n 38 J3j3+3x+ Th3 1D3n+1+y 0f J3j3m0n$ c4n b3 $33n 1n D41r Un1qU3 4nD 71b3r47 w4y 0f +3x+1n6. “H3770 ph0w$zzZZ. An 3x4mp73 1$ D4 $3n+3nc3.
I+ 1$ 3n+1+73D J3j3m0n by 4 bnD nm3D B74nk T4p3. 3x1$+3D $Ubc0n$c10U$7y 1n D4 m1nD$ 0f D4 F171p1n0 U'+h. D4 73v37$ 0f c4p'c1+y 1n J3j3+3x+1n6. A74m1n mUh mUn +$0n6 / kUn6 nU'n6 k74$3 k~n6 J3j3m0n / M17D k~ b 0 mUhD3r4+3 /w377 471n k~ b D00n / B4k~ nm4n 4y $3v3r3 k~ / 0 bk~ 4y +3rm1n7 / J3j3m0n p' r1n 4n6 +4w46 / x3' +3x+ mUh\'y D1 n0rm47 / p3r0 Un1qU3 m41k71 m4n 0 $1n1k$1k Th3 $0n6 m3n+10n$ f0Ur 73v37$ 0f J3j3m0n. J3j373v37$: D4 m34xUr! 0f 4 +rU3 J3j3m0n In D4 c0Ur$3 0f p'r+1c1p'+10n 0b$3rv4+10n. H3 c477$ 1+ ‘J3j3n0m1c$’. $3v3r3 4nD +3rm1n7. mUhD3r4+3. 4nD h4$ n0 p'r+1cU74r cr34+0r. nm37y. Sp3771n6$. D4 3x1$+3nc3 0f J3j3+3x+ 4nD J3j3b3+. m17D. $p'c3$. D4 h16h3r D4 ‘73++3r w316h+$’. pUnc+U4+10n m4rk$ 4nD c4p1+471z4+10n$ 713 0n D4 J3j3m0n’$ cr34+1v1+y 1n 3xpr3$$1n6 h1m$37f 0r h3r$37f. 1$ v46U3 b3c4U$3 Dr r n0 ‘$+4nD4rD’ $p3771n6$ 0f J3j3w0rD$. h3 4$$16n3D $0-c4773D ‘73++3r w316h+$’. TjU$. H3 $4y$ +h4+ 1+ 1$ ‘$Ubc0n$c10U$’ 1n D4 m1nD$ 0f D4 F171p1n0 U'+h. I b3713v3. 4 $0n6 1$ U$U477y $Un6 by my J3j3fr13nD$. Th1$ qU4n+1+4+1v3 $+UDy 0n J3j3+3x+. p3r$0n7 c0rr3$p0nD3nc3. c0n$3rv4+10n 0n 73++3r$ 4nD w0rD$. A77 0f 4 $UDD3n. I+ h4$ f0Ur 73v37$. f0770w1n6 D4 7061c +h4+ D4 mUhr3 +1m3$ 4 p3r$0n pr3$$3$ h1$ 0r h3r k3yp'D.< J3j3m0n$ 3mp70y 4 4m 0f c0mmUn1c4+10n h1DD3n +0 m4ny. D4 U'+h kn0w h0w +0 wr1+3 4nD c0mmUn1c4+3 U$1n6 J3j3b3+ (B0n1f4c10. 0r 1n 4 mUhr3 pr0p3r +3rm. Th3 $0n6 603$. 4cc0rD1n6 +0 J3j3m4$+3r. n3v3rD473$$. Th3 J3j3b3+. C C4+44n 39 C4n74$ (2010) +r13$ +0 m4k3 4 qU4n+1+4+1v3 4ppr04ch 1n $+UDy1n6 J3j3+3x+. H1$ 4r6Um3n+ r3$+$ 0n D4 f4c+ +h4+ J3j3m0n$ w4n+ +0 c0n$3rv3 0n 73++3r$ 4nD w0rD$. 4nD 0n7y 34$17y UnD3r$+4nD4b73 w1+h1n D4 $Ub-cU7+Ur3. Th3r3 1$ 4 ph0w$zzZZr+10n 1n D4 $0n6 +h4+ c74$$1f13$ D4 73v37$ 0f b31n6 4 J3j3m0n. In 0rD1nry c377U74r ph0n3 k3yp'D$. Th3 73v37$ w1+h 4 $4mp73 +3x+ r 177U$+r4+3D b370w.J. I w177 pr0v3 b370w y?'' >. 1$ n0+ w4+ r3477y 1$ 1n D4 m1nD 0f J3j3m0n$. In 4DD1+10n. . 2010).
94). D4 p3r$0n 1$ n0w 4$$0c14+3D 4nD 4ckn0w73D63D w1+h 4 $0c13+y. Th3r3 1$ n0 +Urn1n6 bck fr0m D4 n3w ‘w0r7D’. . 4nD $+4+U$ 4nD r4nk D1$4pp34r 0r r h0m063n1z3D (p. J3j3m0n. 0r64n1z4+10n 0r cU7+Ur3. Th3 p3r$0n 1$ $+r1pp3D 0ff 0f h1$ 0r h3r pr10r 4++r1bU+3$ 4nD pr0p3r+13$. cU7+Ur3 0r pr4c+1c3. H3 $4y$ +h4+ wh3n 4 p3r$0n 3n+3r$ 4 p'r+1cU74r 6r0Up. 4f+3r h1$ c0nc3p+ 0f ‘c0mmUn1+4$’. Wh173 $0m3 U'+h r 4wr +h4+ D4y r $+4r+1n6 +0 U$3 J3j3n3$3 4nD J3j3+3x+. wh1ch 1$ 0n3 0f D4 pr3cUr$0r$ 0f ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’. H3 $41D +h4+ w1+h0U+ D4 F171p1n0 U'+h. I 4r6U3 +h4+ J3j3m0n$ 47$0 3xp3r13nc3 D4 ‘71m1n7 ph4$3’. 4$ w377 4$ J3j3n3$3. w177 n0+ f70Ur1$h. J3j3m0n$ h4v3 4 w4y 0f 601n6 bck +0 D41r ‘prn+ cU7+Ur3’.18 18 D4 c0nc3p+ 0f ‘+r4n$cU7+Ur47 m16r4n+ c1rcU1+’ w177 b3 D1$cU$$3D 1n ch4p+3r 6. m4ny w3r3 4nD r $+177 Unwr +h4+ D4y r J3j3m0n$ 1n pr4c+1c3. h0w3v3r. h3 0r $h3 3xp3r13nc3$ 4mb16U1+y. D1$cU$$3$ D4 ph3n0m3n0n 0f ‘71m1n71+y’. Th3y D0 n0+ kn0w +h4+ D4y r 4c+U477y pr4c+1$1n6 D4 f4$h10n 4nD +3x+1n6 $+y73$ 0f J3j3m0n$ TUrn3r (1969). Un77yk TUrn3r’$ D3f1n1+10n +h4+ Dr 1$ n0 r3+Urn bck 4f+3r D4 pr0c3$$ 0f ‘71m1n71+y’.J. Af+3r ‘71m1n71+y’ 4nD D4 r1+3$ 0f p'$$463. Th3 $1+3 4nD D4 pr0c3$$ +h4+ 4770w J3j3m0n$ +0 60 bck +0 D41r ‘prn+ cU7+Ur3’ 1$ 4 $p'c3 wh1ch I c477 ‘+r4n$cU7+Ur47 c1rcU1+’ . C C4+44n 40 T4b73 2: L3v37$ 0f J3j3+3x+ LEVELS Mild Moderate Severe Terminal SAMPLE TEXT: “Hello!” eLoW pOh! eOw fOwZ! 3oWh fPoWzH! h3oWhZ fPoWzHh! J3j3m4$+3r 0w3$ D4 J3j3b3+ 4nD J3j3n3$3 +0 D4 cr34+1v1+y 3xpr3$$3D by D4 F171p1n0 U'+h. bU+ 0n7y 4$ 4 4m 0f 3n+ry 1n+0 D4 $Ub-cU7+Ur3.
Magandang gabi. I pr0v1D3 4 $3r13$ 0f +3x+ m3$$463$ +h4+ I r3c31v3D fr0m J3j3fr13nD$. Haha! c. I c4nn0+ r34D 1+ 4nym0r3. b3c4U$3 I 4m n3w +0 D4 J3j3m0n $Ub-cU7+Ur3. Th1$ 3xh1b1+$ D4 f7U1D1+y 4nD D1v3r$1+y 0f D4 J3j3+3x+. F0r 3x4mp73. Ph0+0 D: Scr33n $h0+ 0f my r3p7y +0 C F0r c74r1+y. C C4+44n 41 T0 374b0r4+3 D4 n+Ur3 0f J3j3+3x+1n6 4nD jU$+1fy 1+$ U$3 4 1n+3rn7 c0mmUn1c4+10n mUhr3 +h4n m3r3 ‘c0n$3rv4+10n’. Th1$ +3x+ D03$ n0+ U$3 3xc3$$1v3 73++3r$ bU+ 47+3r$ D4 v3ry $p3771n6 4nD pr0nUnc14+10n 0f D4 w0rD$. Ph0+0 6: Scr33n $h0+$ 0f J3j3+3x+ (fr0m 73f+: A. On 0n3 h4nD.J. nasa work kasi ako eh. j4j4!” I n33D3D +0 4$k . Th3 +3x+3r 6r33+$ “M46nD4n6 64b1” f0770w3D by 4 ‘$m173y’ 1c0n. “W41+ 74n6. Ah. b3c4U$3 0f D4 +3x+3r’$ 3xc3$$1v3 U$3 0f D4 73++3r ‘H’ 4nD 73++3r r3p74c3m3n+$. b. M46p'p'704D mUn 4q. B 4nD C). h3r3 1$ D4 +r4n$74+10n 0f D4$3 J3j3+3x+$ 1n F171p1n0. 4nD I U$3 my 0wn jUD63m3n+ +0 fU77y 3xh1b1+ +h1$ c0D3D c0mmUn1c4+10n. Eow pFhOwzH: T3x+m4+3$ +0 r3m3mb3r Th3 ch01c3$ 0f $cr33n $h0+$ r 1n r4nD0m 0rD3r. J3j3+3x+ A 1$ 4 ‘m17D’ J3j3+3x+. Wait lang ha? Magpapaload muna ako. cU7+Ur3. M1+z373. a. Th3r3 r 47$0 1n3v1+4b73 mUhm3n+$ wh3n I h4v3 +0 4$k my J3j3fr13nD$ D4 +r4n$74+10n 0f D41r J3j3+3x+$. D4 J3j3+3x+3r $41D. J3j3+3x+ B 1$ c74$$1f13D 4$ ‘$3v3r3’ J3j3+3x+. J3j3+3x+ C. 4nD D4 J3j3+3x+ 1$ ‘+3rm1n7’ 73v37.
D4 $+0r13$ 0f D41r r374+10n$h1p$ 4nD D41r w3r 4b0U+$ r 0p3n +0 0D4r J3j3fr13nD$.. J3j3m0n$ r 47$0 ch4r4c+3r1z3D by c070rfU7 c70D4$ 4nD 4cc3$$0r13$. h3r I+ $h0w$ h0w h4ppy $h3 1$. n0+ D41r c1rc73 0f fr13nD$). A$1D3 fr0m J3j3+3x+. OD4r$ U+171z3 J3j3+3x+ b3c4U$3 0f 1+$ 4m. In $0m3 0cc4$10n$. U$3 +h1$ c0D3D U74r7y c0mmUn1c4+10n pr1m4r17y +0 h1D3 D41r c0nv3r$4+10n$ fr0m D41r prn+$. pr1m4ry 0f wh1ch 1$ D4 J3j3c4p. Th3r343. C C4+44n 42 +0 r3p34+ h3r m3$$463 1n p741n F171p1n0 0r 1n 4 ‘m17D’ 73v37 wh1ch 1$ my 73v37 4$ 4 J3j3m0n. D3c3mb3r 28. nU'D4r 4m 0f ‘$+y73’ 0f D4 J3j3m0n$ 1$ +hr0U6h J3j3f4$h10n. 4$ $h0wn b370w. 2010. D4 mUhr3 h4ppy $h3 1$. Th3 J3j3fr13nD$. 2010. wh1ch I D1$cU$$ b370w. D4y r v3ry ‘$h0wy’ +0 0D4r$. J3j3f4$h10n P4r+ 0f D4 c0nc3p+ 0f J3j3m0n c0m3$ fr0m D4 c070rfU7 P0k3m0n$. p'r+1cU74r7y N1n 4nD Pr1nc3$$. Ph0+0 7: Th3 J3j3c4p (Ph0+0 by B0y B4n+. c1rc73 b$3D 0n w4+ I h4v3 0b$3rv3D. Th3 mUhr3 c0mp71c4+3D D4 J3j3+3x+ 1$. On D4 c0n+r4ry.19 Th3y D0 n0+ w4n+ D41r 3xch4n63 0f m3$$463$ w1+h D41r b0yfr13nD$ +0 b3 r34D by D41r prn+$ 4nD 0D4r fr13nD$ wh0 r n0+ J3j3m0n$ (m34n1n6.J. D4 0n3 w1+h v3r+1c47 r41nb0w c070r$ 4+ D4 bck ph0w$zzZZr+10n. . K4+h $41D +h4+ 1+ 1$ h3r w4y 0f b31n6 cr34+1v3. 2010) 19 b$3D 0n f137D n0+3$.
Sh3 1$ 4 ‘f4$h10n1$+4’. 2010. h3r$37f 1n D4 J3j3w0r7D +hr0U6h J3j3f4$h10n.J. $0m3+1m3$ UnbU++0n3D. N1n 77yk$ +0 w34r J3j3f4$h10n.21 Sh3 $33$ 3mp0w3rm3n+ +hr0U6h 1+. $Uch 4$ c070rfU7 c70D4$ 4nD 4cc3$$0r13$. mUh$+ 0f D4 +1m3. Pr1nc3$$ $33$ J3j3f4$h10n 4$ h3r w4y 0f 3$c4p3 fr0m h3r r347 3m0+10n$. $h3 0n7y f0770w$ +h0$3 wh0 r f4$h10n1$+4’. 4nD $ch007 p'n+$. Sh3 77yk$ w34r1n6 c070rfU7 c70D4$ b3c4U$3 1+ m4k3$ h3r h4ppy. 3v3n 1f Dr r pr0b73m$ 1n h3r f4m17y. J3j3m0n$ w34r D4 $0 c4773D J3j34m. Un77yk 0D4r f4$h10n +r3nD$. 4$$0c14+3D w1+h J3j3f4$h10n. 4nD c4rr13$ 4 $h0U7D3r b6. K4+h c477$ h3r$37f 4 ‘k1k~y’ 0r b31n6 m3+1cU70U$ 1n $+y73 4nD f4$h10n. $Uch 4$ ‘$m377y’20 0r ‘bDUy’. 2010) In 0n3 0f my v1$1+$ 1n D41r r3h34r$47 p74c3 1n F41rv13w. 4$ 4 4m 0f r3$1$+4nc3 +0 $ch007 4U+h0r1+13$. Th1$ 1$ 1D3n+1f13D 4$ 31D4r 4 +16h+7y 0r 700$37y f1+ wh1+3 ph0w$zzZZ70. L1k3 K4+h. H1$ h4nD$ r. 0r J3j3m0n $0-c4773D Un14m. M34nwh173. I+ 1$ h3r 20 21 b$3D 0n f137D n0+3$.+v. D3c3mb3r 28. w3 +47k3D 4b0U+ J3j3f4$h10n. 1n h3r ph0w$zzZZck3+$. A J3j3m0n w34r$ 4 J3j3c4p 47$0. D3$p1+3 D4 n364+1v3 r3m4rk$ +0 J3j3m0n$. ‘bDUy’ r3f3r$ +0 p30p73 wh0 D0 n0+ h4v3 ‘+4$+3’ 1n ch00$1n6 pr0p3r c70D4$ D3$16n 4nD c070r. Sh3 f0UnD j3f4$h10n. DUr1n6 $ch007 $4y$. Ph0+0 8: Scr33n $h0+ 0f J3j3m0n 1n J3j34m (V1D30 by S4k$1 1n GMAN3w$. bDUy’ . 4 3x4mp73. C C4+44n 43 A7$0.
+hr0U6h $Ub-cU7+Ur3. 4m D41r 0wn 1D30706y. D4 j3j3m0n$ r 4713n+3D +hr0U6h D4 U$3 0f ‘$+3r30+yp3$’. pr4c+1c3 4nD D1r3c+10n 0f w4+ h4$ b33n 1mp'r+3D b3c0m3 D1ff3r3n+ (p. L1k3 D4 ‘74D$’ 1n D4 +1m3 0f W1771$ (1977) wh0 47+3r D41r $p33ch. Th3 J3j3m0n $Ub-cU7+Ur3 pU+ 4w4rD$ 4n ‘47+3rn+1v3 h363m0ny’. 1997. Thr0U6h J3j3f4$h10n. 4nD 0r 3nj0y 4 c0n$c10U$n3$$ 0f 0D4rn3$$ 0r D1ff3r3nc3” (Th0rn+0n. 0r D41r 0U+700k 4$ 4 $Ub-cU7+Ur3. 3+ 47. TjU$. 5). D4 v47U3$ +h4+ D4 $+4+3 1mp'r+$ c4n b3 c1rcUmv3n+3D by D4 $Ub-cU7+Ur3. F1r$+ 1$ +0 r3$1$+ D4 ‘prn+ cU7+Ur3’. p. 42). Th1$ m34n$ D4 ‘h363m0ny 0f J3j3m0n$’.J. 4cc0rD1n6 +0 h3rzf37D (2005. 1992). 1+ 1$ D41r 4m 0f r3$1$+4nc3. 101). C C4+44n 44 w4y 4 0D4r$ +0 r3$p3c+ h3r. Th3y h4v3 4m3D D41r 0wn $3+ 0f b3713f$ 4nD $hrD 1D3n+1+y. Th3 J3j3m0n$’ 1D30706y 4nD 47+3rn+1v3 h363m0ny J3j3m0n $Ub-cU7+Ur3 1$ “c0nD3mn3D +0. Th3 J3j3+3x+ v4ry 1n 1+$ 73v37$. J3j3m0n$ h4v3 D4 4Dv4n+463 b3c4U$3 0f D41r ‘0n3n3$$’ 1n m4ny w4y$. Th3$3 pr4c+1c3$. 4nD p3rc31v3 D4m$37v3$ (Gr4m$c1. h0w D4y m4k3 $3n$3 0f D4 w0r7D. D4 U$463. p. pr3c1$37y D4 ph0w$zzZZ1n+ y?'' >. I c477 1+ ‘J3j3m0ny’. $h3 D03$ n0+ w34r 0b$c3n3 4nD r3v3471n6 c70D4$. 60rD0n (1947) c477$ +h1$ D4 “r3fr4c+10n 0f D4 n+10n7 cU7+Ur3”. wh1ch I D1$cU$$ b370w. D4y c4rry D4 ph0w$zzZZ$$1b171+y 0f $Ubv3r$10n”. 1975. b31n6 3x3rc1$3D +063D4r. Th1$ 1$ D4 f1r$+ +1m3 +h4+ D4 w0rD ‘J3j3m0ny’ 1$ U$3D 1n 4ny 4c4D3m1c p'p3r. +0 r3$1$+ D4 73$$0n$ b31n6 +h0U6h+ 1n D4 H4mm3r+0wn Sch007. 182).< +h1$ r3$34rch c477$ D4m D4 ‘0D4r’ cU7+Ur3. 4nD D4 J3j3f4$h10n 1n 1+$ U$463. $Uch 4$ $p33ch 4nD c70+h1n6. p'r+1cU74r7y 4n 47+3rn+1v3 0n3. 2010). D3p1c+1n6 D41r . wh173 $+3r30+yp1n6. +0 c1rcUmv3n+ 4r0UnD D4 ‘D0m1nn+ cU7+Ur3’. 1$ U$3D +0 “$3rv3 D4 1n+3r3$+$ 0f ph0w$zzZZw3r.. 1n W17714m$. Th3 J3j3m0n$ D0 D4$3 4 +w0 r34$0n$. D4y 0ff3r 4n 47+3rn+1v3 +0 w4+ 1$ D4 D0m1nn+ 4nD ‘h363m0n1c’ cU7+Ur3 (C74rk3. 4nD c0m3 +0 $ch007 1n D1r+y c70D4$. j3j3m0n$ r p1c+Ur3D 4$ +h0$3 “U$U477y c74D 1n mU7+1-c070r 0U+f1+$ wh173 f1DD71n6 w1+h… c377ph0n3 4nD w34r1n6 4 r41nb0w-c070r3D c4p” ($+4rm0m3+3r. p. 4nD $3c0nD.
“N0w +h4+ D4 U. 1992). f0770w1n6 M4rx (1n W17714m$. J1n6 G4DD1. S3n+r0 n6 W1k~n6 P171p1n0. Th3 +3rm ‘J3j3m0ny’ 1$ n0+ my 0r161n7 1D34. $h3 1$ 47$0 my bc 198 (+v 1n+3rn$h1p) 4Dv1$3r. C C4+44n 45 wh073 b0Dy 0f pr4c+1c3$ 4nD 3xp3c+4+10n$. ‘J3j3m0ny’ 1$ 4 n3w7y c01n3D +3rm ph0w$zzZZ$+3D 4$ 4 p'r+ 0f J1n6 G4DD1’$ $+4+U$ 1n F4c3b00k 4f+3r D4 w0rD ‘J3j3m0n’ w0n 4$ D4 W0rD 0f D4 Y34r 1n U. Th1$ $Ub-cU7+Ur3. 110).P.P.P. $h3 +34ch3$ c0Ur$3$ r374+3D +0 ‘n3w m3D14’ 1n D4 D3p'r+m3n+ 0f br04Dc4$+ c0mmUn1c4+10n 0f D4 c077363 0f m4$$ c0mmUn1c4+10n. Th3r3 1$ 4n 373m3n+ 0f ph0w$zzZZ+3n+147 D0m1n+10n. pr3pr +0 U$h3r 1n 4n 3r4 0f 71+3r4ry J3j3m0ny. D03$ n0+ jU$+ r3$1$+ 4 m3r3 $Urv1v47. Th3y w4n+ +0 Un734$h D41r $+rU6673 1n D4 m41n$+r34m 4nD 1+ h4pp3n$ 1n $m477 $+3p$. D41r $3n$3$ 4nD p3rc3p+10n 0f D4m$37v3$ 4nD D4 w0r7D. 4 bnD b$$1$+ fr0m D4 U. H3 ph0w$zzZZ$+3D. C077363 0f MU$1c. Gr4m$c1 1$ r16h+ wh3n h3 $41D +h4+ D4$3 ‘c0Un+3rcU7+Ur3$’ r h363m0n1c 4nD 4+ D4 $4m3 +1m3 4 ‘r3v07U+10nry 4c+1v1+y’ (p. 4$ Gr4m$c1 (1n W17714m$. 4$ w3 n0w $33 1+. S3n+r0 n6 W1k~n6 P171p1n0 h4$ DUbb3D ‘J3j3m0n’ 4$ 2010’$ W0rD 0f D4 Y34r. I 0w3 D4 +3rm +0 Mr. H3 1$ 4 fr13nD 0f Pr0f3$$0r D4+4 C4n74$22 wh0 $hrD D4 w0rD w1+h m3.” 22 pr0f3$$0r D4+4 c4n74$ 1$ 4 fU77-+1m3 f4cU7+y m3mb3r 0f D4 Un1v3r$1+y 0f D4 ph171pp1n3$-D171m4n.J. 1992). . D3f1n3 D4 +3rm ‘h363m0ny’.
1n +h1$ $3n$3. F0r 34r7y D40r1$+$. I+ c0Un+3r$ D4 rU71n6 cU7+Ur3 h363m0ny’. F0r Gr4m$c1. 0Ur $h4p1n6 p3rc3p+10n$ 0f 0Ur$37v3$ 4nD 0Ur w0r7D” (1n W17714m$. D4y w3r3 w0rk1n6 p30p73 b3c0m1n6 4 c74$$. h363m0ny. 0v3r D4 wh073 0f 71v1n6: 0Ur $3n$3$ 4nD 4$$16nm3n+$ 0f 3n3r6y. +h0$3 1n D4 ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’ r m3mb3r$ 0f D4 w0rk1n6 c74$$. 3$p3c1477y +0 D3f1n1+10n$ 0f 4 rU71n6 c74$$ 0v3r 1+$ $Ub0rD1n+3$. 0n D4 c0n+r4ry. R3v07U+10nry. I+ 1$. ph0w$zzZZ+3n+1477y .J. h3 m34n$ +h4+ D4 r3c06n1+10n 0n J3j3m0n$ w177 m4k3 w4y 4 D41r w1D3r cU7+Ur47 4cc3p+4nc3. C C4+44n 46 Ph0+0 9: Scr33n$h0+ 0f J1n6 G4DD1’$ $+4+U$ 0n F4c3b00k 4$ h3 c01n$ D4 +3rm ‘J3j3m0ny’. J3j3m0n $Ub-cU7+Ur3 1$ 4n ‘47+3rn+1v3 h363m0ny’. In +h1$ $+4+U$. p. $Uch 4$ D4 Ch1c460 4nD B1rm1n6h4m Sch007$. 110). Th3y r “4 ph0w$zzZZ+3n+1477y h363m0n1c c74$$. Gr4mc1 (1992) D3f1n3$ ‘h363m0ny’ 4$ r374+10n$ b3+w33n $0c147 c74$$3$. Th3y r r3v07U+10nry b3c4U$3 D4y r 1n 4 ‘cU7+Ur47’ 0r ‘$ymb071c’ b++73 4641n$+ D4 h363m0n1c cU7+Ur3. D03$ n0+ n3c3$$4r17y m34n 3n6461n6 1n 4rm3D $+rU6673 4641n$+ D4 $+4+3. H3 3x+3nD$ 1+$ D3f1n1+10n by $4y1n6 +h4+ “1+ 1$ 4 wh073 b0Dy 0f pr4c+1c3$ 4nD 3xp3c+4+10n$. fUrD4rm0r3. 4 ph0w$zzZZ+3n+1477y ‘r3v07U+10nry 4c+1v1+y’.
p. Th3 $Ucc33D1n6 ch4p+3r$ ch4773n63 fU+Ur3 $0c147 $c13n+1$+$ wh0 4$p1r3 +0 $+UDy D4m3$ +h4+ r r374+3D +0 +h1$ r3$34rch +0 3nr1ch D4$3 hyp0D4$3$. 113). Th3y 1D3n+1fy D4m$37v3$ 4$ ‘J3j3bU$+3r$’. cr1+1qU3. Th1$ 73D m3 +0 $+UDy +h0$3 wh0 r 4641n$+ J3j3m0n$.J. 111). wh1ch 1$ D4 +0p1c I D1$cU$$ 1n D4 n3x+ ch4p+3r. 1+ 1$ n3v3r 31D4r +0+47 0r 3xc7U$1v3…bU+ D41r pr3$3nc3 1$ D3c1$1v3” (1n W17714m$. ch4p+3r$ 5 4nD 6 $k3+ch D4 1mp71c4+10n$ 0f cUrr3n+ $+UDy 1n +3rm$ 0f D40ry. bU+ Dr r n364+10n$ r w377. Th3 J3j3m0n$ n0w f1nD $m477 $p'c3$ 1n m41n$+r34m m3D14 +0 63+ 1n+0 4nD 4Dv4nc3 D41r $Ub-cU7+Ur3. Gr4m$c1 r3m1nD$ U$ +h4+ wh173 4 h363m0ny 1$ “47w4y$ D0m1nn+. p. A$ p'r+7y 4n 3+h1c47 4nD f4c+U47 pr4c+1c3. C C4+44n 47 4641n$+ D4 pr3$xUr!$ 4nD 71m1+$ 0f 4n 3x1$+1n6 4nD ph0w$zzZZw3rfU7 h363m0ny” (1n W17714m$. ch4773n63. Th3$3 r ph0w$zzZZr+10n$ w3r I D40r1z3 0n D4 r4w D4+4 +h4+ I h4v3 64DrD DUr1n6 D4 p'r+1c1p'n+ 0b$3rv4+10n. S0m3 ph0w$zzZZ1n+$ +h4+ I r41$3 r 4$$Ump+10n$. . 4nD h4v3 y3+ +0 b3 $Uff1c13n+7y $Upp0r+3D by 3mp1r1c47 D4+4. 4nD +3$+ D4$3 4$$Ump+10n$ by 3mp1r1c477y 6r0UnD3D r3$34rch.
” .J.S4b1 n6 mUhmmy qU0h $4 4k1n h4bn6 n6j4j4pUnn. C C4+44n 48 “B4k1+ m64 J3j3m0n 4n6 p1n6-44r474n mUh?'' M4r4m1n6 m4$ 0k~y. 2011 . P3br3r0 20.
A7+jU$$3r (1992) c477$ D4$3 1n$+1+U+10n$ 4$ ‘ID307061c47 S+4+3 App'r4+U$’. A$ I ph0w$zzZZ1n+ 0U+ 1n +h1$ ch4p+3r. T073n+1n0 (2010) 1D3n+1f13$ D4 c74$$ ph0w$zzZZ$1+10n 0f J3j3bU$+3r$. 23 D4 j3j3m0n$’ 1D30706y. 14). J3j3bU$+3r$ r c0mp0$3D 0f 1n+3773c+U47$ 4nD pr0f3$$10n7$ wh0 c0n4m +0 c0nv3n+10n7 $0c147 $+4nD4rD$ 0f 734rn1n6 4nD D1$c1p71n3. My fr13nD$ +34$3D m3 +h4+ I 4m 4 ‘J3j3m0n D3f3nD3r’. TjU$. H3 b3713v3$ +h4+ D4$3 1n$+1+U+10n$ w0rk +0 pr3$3rv3 D4 $+4+U$ qU0 (p. 1+ w4$ D1v1D3D v3r+1c477y w1+h1n 34ch 6r0Up” (p. +07D my f3770w U'+h n0+ +0 f0770w J3j3+3x+1n6. 72).23 r364rD73$$ 0f h1$ 0r h3r $0c147 c74$$. mUh$+ 0f D4m r $+347+h 4nD 3nj0y n+10n7 4++3n+10n. A$ I h4v3 $41D 34r713r. . +h0U6h j3j3m0ny w177 b3 D1$cU$$3D 1n D4 n3x+ ch4p+3r. 13. +yp1c477y F171p1n0. Th3 734D3r$ 0f 4 70c47 cjUrch c0n6r364+10n. D4y r 47$0 b31n6 r3$1$+3D. D4 J3j3m0n $+rU6673 1$ 4 $0c1477y $+r4+1f13D 0n3. BU+ I 4r6U3 +h4+ 4 J3j3bU$+3r 1$ $0m30n3 wh0 1$ 4641n$+ D4 J3j3m0n$’ 1D30706y. 4nD c0nv1nc3D m3 +h4+ Dr r m4ny 0D4r +0p1c$ wh1ch r mUhr3 1n+3r3$+1n6. 1n D1ff3r3n+ 4m$. Acc0rD1n6 +0 T30D0r0 (2010). w3 c4n f1nD r3$1$+4nc3 +0 D4 J3j3m0n$ fr0m D1ff3r3n+ 1n$+1+U+10n$. iN5t1tuTi0nZ oF J3j3bU$+1n6 R3$1$+4nc3 1$ 47w4y$ +w0-w4y. Th3y 3nc0Un+3r 0pp0$1+10n$ fr0m D4 $0-c4773D ‘J3j3bU$+3r$’. My prn+$ qU3$+10n3D my 1n+3r3$+ 1n +h1$ $+UDy. Dr r 0D4r 4m$ 0f j3j3bU$+1n6. M4+z4 4nD Syk3$ (1961) 46r33 w1+h +h1$ b3c4U$3 “$0c13+y w4$ n0+ 0n7y $p71+ h0r1z0n+477y 1n+0 $+r4+4. 54). D3D1c4+1n6 h1$ In+3rn3+ 71f3 +0w4rD D4 3r4D1c4+10n 0f j3j3+yp1n6 4nD J3j3m0n 3x1$+3nc3” (p'r. 4). 4 J3j3bU$+3r 1$ “4 6r4mm4r v16174n+3. Wh3n J3j3m0n$ r3$1$+ 4$ 4 $Ub-cU7+Ur3. C C4+44n 49 ch4p+3r 5 D4 j3j3bU$+3r$ 4nD 0D4r 4m$ 0f j3j3bU$+1n6 In D4 c0Ur$3 0f +h1$ r3$34rch. w3r I 4m 4++3nD1n6. H3 $4y$ +h4+ J3j3bU$+3r$ r “D4 m1DD73 c74$$ wh0 $UDD3n7y w0rk$ +063D4r w1+h D4 371+3$ +0 f16h+ D4 6r0w1n6 UnD3rc74$$ 0f J3j3m0n $Ub-cU7+Ur3” (p'r. BU+ b3y0nD D4$3. 4nD n3v3r m4k3 fr13nD$ w1+h J3j3m0n$. I 3xp3r13nc3D +0 b3 ‘bU$+3D’ by J3j3bU$+3r$.J.
Th3 J3j3m0n$’ prn+$. I+ 1$ mUhr3 $+r33+-b$3D +h4n D0m3$+1c. Thr0U6h D4 D3p'r+m3n+ 0f EDUc4+10n (D3pED). Th3 60v3rnm3n+ 1$ D4 $3c0nD J3j3bU$+3r. 1+ c477$ 4 D4 ‘r3-3DUc4+10n’ 0f J3j3m0n$. 2010). bU+ 0U+$1D3.J. bU+ r4D4r 1n D4 rU663D 3mbr4c3 0f D4 $+r33+$.< D41r ch17D h4$ +Urn3D 1n+0 4 J3j3m0n. f1nD 1+ D1ff1cU7+ +0 UnD3r$+4nD y?'' >. Prn+$ m4y f1nD 1+ pr0b73m4+1c +h4+ D41r ch17Dr3n r $Ub$cr1b1n6 +0 4 cU7+Ur3 n0+ w1+h1n D4 c0m4+$ 0f D41r h0m3$. Ph0+0 10: A n3w$p'p3r h34D71n3 0n D3pED’$ c4mp'16n 4641n$+ J3j3m0n$ Ph0+0 10 $h0w$ 4 +4b701D h34D71n3 +h4+ h16h716h+$ D4 c477 0f D4 D3p'r+m3n+ 0f EDUc4+10n c477$ +0 ‘k177’ D4 ‘J3j3m0n f3v3r’. C C4+44n 50 On3 0f D4$3 1n$+1+U+10n$ 1$ D4 f4m17y. Th3y r c4773D ‘$+r33+ cU7+Ur3$’. 4 1n$+4nc3. I+ 1$ n0+1c34b73 +h4+ D4 h34D71n3 1$ . b3c4U$3 D4y D0 n0+ f1nD D41r 1D3n+1+y 1n$1D3 D4 h0m3$. SUbcU7+Ur3$ D3v14+3 fr0m D4 n0rm4+1v3 1D347$ 0f 4DU7+ c0mmUn1+13$ (p. Th0rn+0n (1997) $4y$ +h4+ “D4 U'+h 4++3mp+ +0 D3f1n3 b$3D D41r cU7+Ur3 4641n$+ D4 prn+47 h0m3. I+ b74m3$ D4m 4 D4 D3+3r10r4+10n 3DUc4+10n’ 0f D4 Ph171pp1n3 3DUc4+10n $y$+3m (GMAN3w$.TV. 2).
9). +h4+ D4 D3pED $h0U7D n0+ h0v3r w1+h D4$3 U'+h’$ pr3f3r3nc3 4nD $37f-3xpr3$$10n b3c4U$3 $Uppr3$$1n6 D4m m4y 734D +0 mUhr3 r3b37710n +h4+ m16h+ c4U$3 74r63r D4m463 +0 $0c13+y. J3j3m0n$ p74y 4n+460n1$+1c477y w1+h 0D4r 1n+3r3$+$ 1n Ph171pp1n3 $0c13+y. T30D0r0 (2010). D4 4Dm1n1$+r4+10n b70663r 0f www. 4nD ‘w41+’. $41D 1n h1$ 4r+1c73 3n+1+73D J3j3 V0n37.ph171pp1n3h1$+0ry. Th3 $+4+3 c0n$1D3r$ J3j3m0n 4$ 4 c0n+4610U$ ‘D1$34$3’ 4cqU1r3D by m4ny F171p1n0 U'+h. F0r63+ D4 j3j3m0n$ n jhUS+ DO Ur jOb jUw3LL! (p'r. n0+ n3c3$$4r17y 4 c74$$ $+rU6673. D4 4b$3nc3 0f c734n +0173+$. mUhr30v3r. Th3y 3v3n 4$k3D h0w D3pED c4n m4k3 J3j3m0n$ 60 bck +0 $ch007 wh3n D4y n3v3r 3xp3r13nc3D +0 $+UDy 1n D4 f1r$+ p74c3 (p'r. n0+ +0 m3n+10n D4 0v3r477 D3c71n3 1n D4 qU471+y 0f pUb71c 3DUc4+10n. ‘U' kn0w’. ‘Uhm’. 26 ‘qny0’ 1$ 4 74b37 4 r1ch p30p73$’ (4nD +h0$3 pr3+3nD1n6 +0 b3 r1ch) w4y 0f $p34k1n6.J. 5). D4 0v3rU$3 0f w0rD$ 77yk ‘77yk’. J3j3m0n$. Th3 ‘T34m J3j3m0n’ D3f3nD$ 1+$ $1D3 +hr0U6h 4 F4c3b00k n0+3. 4m0n6 0D4r$. D4y h4v3 +0 4c+ 0n mUhr3 w0r+hwh173 +h1n6$ …77yk 700k1n6 4 p3rm4n3n+ $07U+10n$ +0 D4 p3r3nn147 pr0b73m$ 0f c74$$r00m 4nD +3x+b00k $h0r+463. . H3rnn M373nc10 (2010). 4cc0rD1n6 +0 M373nc10 (2010). Th3y $41D +h4+ ‘r3-3DUc4+10n’ 1$ n0+ D4 pr0b73m bU+ D4 3DUc4+10n $y$+3m 1+$37f. 7). f0UnD $Upp0r+ fr0m D41r v3ry 0wn p74c3—D4 cyb3r$p'c3. C C4+44n 51 470n6$1D3 $3r10U$ cr1m3$ 77yk jU3+3n6.ph. H3 1n$1$+$ +h4+ 1n$+34D 0f bU$+1n6 J3j3m0n$ 1n D4 cyb3r$p'c3. ch4773n63$ J3j3bU$+3r$ 4nD ‘6r4mm4r N4z1$’. B0UrD13U (2006) r3f3r$ +0 +h1$ $+rU6673 4$ D4 24 25 jU3+3n6 1$ 4n 1773647 $m477-+0wn 70++3ry ‘64y 71n60’ r3f3r$ +0 D4 ‘64y 74n6U463’ 0r D4 c0D3D 74n6U463 U$3D by 64y$ +0 c0mmUn1c4+3 w1+h f3770w 64y$. 7. H3 1$ 0p+1m1$+1c +h4+ D4 J3j3n3$3. 20) ‘T34m J3j3m0n’ r41$3$ nU'D4r $+r0n6 4r6Um3n+ 1n D4 $4m3 n0+3. 1$ v3ry 3v1D3n+ 1n D41r $3n+3nc3$.24 k1Dnpp1n6 4nD DrU6$ +h4+ n33D +0 b3 $+0pp3D. Th3y 4$k “Why 1$ 1+ +h4+ D4 ‘qny0’26 ph3n0m3n0n 1$ 47$0 6r4mm4+1c477y 1nc0rr3c+ y3+ r3c31v3$ m1n1m47 4++3n+10n 4nD cr1+1c1$m fr0m D4 $+4+3 4nD D4 1n+3773c+U47$?'' I$ 1+ b3c4U$3 1+ 1$ 0n D41r $1D3?''” (p'r. jU$+ 77yk ‘64y 71n60’25 w177 3v3n+U477y c0n+r1bU+3 +0 D4 n+10n’$ r1ch 74n6U463 (p'r.
$+r3n6D4n1n6 4nD pr3$3rv1n6 D41r 3x1$+3nc3 4nD n0n-c0n4m1+y. P30p73 h4v3 +0 kn0w 1f D4y $hr D4 1D30706y w1+h D4 $+4+3. $0m30n3 ph0w$zzZZ$+3D 4 ‘J3j3r3$Um3’. On D4 0U+$k1r+$ 0f D4 $0c147 m4r61n. In www. 4713n+3D 4nD D1$3nfr4nch1$3D. In 4DD1+10n. 6). I $h0w +h1$ b370w by 4n7yz1n6 4 j3j3r3$Um3 4nD 4 j3j3$U1c1D3 73++3r. wh1ch GU13b (1991) 1D3n+1f13$ 4$ D4 ‘m07D3r$ 0f 1D34$’. I+ 1$ 4 $+rU6673 b$3D 0n h0w 0n3 1D3n+1f13$ h1m$37f 0r h3r$37f. p3rh4p$ +h0$3 wh0 $33m +0 b3 n0+ pr0DUc+1v3 4nD b3n3f1c147 4 D4 1n+3r3$+$ 0f D4 $+4+3. wh1ch 1$ 4 pr3r3qU1$1+3 4 63++1n6 j0b$. 0r 4 J3j3m0n’$ r3$Um3. J3j3m0n$ h4v3 b33n c4p'b73 0f 1n4m1n6 D4 m41n$+r34m m3D14.B0yB4n+. D4$ 4nD P0073 (2004) b3713v3 +h4+ D4 $+4+3 1n+3n+10n77y p74c3D $0m3 p30p73 0n D4 0U+$k1r+$ 0f D4 $0c147 m4r61n. 1+ 1$ b3+w33n D4m 4nD D4 $+4+3. J3j3m0n$ r 4 $Ub0rD1n+3 cU7+Ur3 1n D4 Ph171pp1n3 $0c13+y. wh1ch ph0w$zzZZ$3 4 n364+1v3 1mpr3$$10n +0 D4 $Ub-cU7+Ur3. Th0U6h D1$p74c3D.J. Th3r3 1$ n0 m1DD73 6r0UnD. Th3y m4D3 1+ +hr0U6h D4 U$3 0f $+y73$. m3D14’$ r3pr3$3n+4+10n$ 0f J3j3m0n $Ub-cU7+Ur3 r 47$0 4m$ 0f $+347+h j3j3bU$+1n6. . C C4+44n 52 ‘h34D$’ v1$-4-v1$ D4 ‘$Ub0rD1n+3$’. Th3 $+4+3 4nD 1+$ 1n+3773c+U47$. Th3y 4$$0c14+3 J3j3m0n$ 1n D4m3$ 0f h0p373$$n3$$. 0r D4y D3f3nD D4 J3j3m0n $Ub-cU7+Ur3. E4ch p3r$0n h4$ +0 ch00$3 wh3D4r h3 0r $h3 1$ 4 J3j3m0n. In D4 J3j3m0n $+rU6673. OD4r 4m$ 0f j3j3bU$+1n6 Th1$ ph0w$zzZZr+10n c0n+41n$ 0D4r 4m$ 0f 4nn1h174+10n 4641n$+ D4 J3j3m0n$ 0v3r D4 1n+3rn3+. D4 n+10n’$ $+4+3 0f 4ff41r$ 4nD $0c13+y 4+ 74r63. w3 c4n f1nD 4 $Ub-cU7+Ur3 (p. 4nD D4y 3xp3r13nc3 4 $+r4+1f13D r3pr3$$10n 4nD ‘0D4rn3$$’.c0m (2010). 0r 4 J3j3bU$+3r. +jU$. h4v3 D41r 0wn ‘$+y73$’ 4nD ‘+007$’ +0 $h0w 4n+1-J3j3m0n $3n+1m3n+$. +007$ 4nD 1D30706y. 0r D34+h.
kupet Projects (HS) …Dotahan.J. C C4+44n 53 Ph0+0 11: J3j3r3$Um3 (Ph0+0 by B0yB4n+.c0m. tambay sa Starbucks. yosi.28 27 f$ m34n$ fr13nD$+3r.c0m. dampa (elementary) …cutting classes. Educational Background: …bidyohan. bilyaran. b370w 1$ D4 f171p1n0 +r4n$74+10n 0f D4 j3j3r3$Um3. 2010) 4 c74r1+y. 4 $0c147 n3+w0rk1n6 $1+3. . Resume ng isang Jeje Position desired: …kahit ano Name: …Don Sutil Address: …Sa tabi-tabi lang po. text. Emba.27 mag-inom kapag weekdays. mag-FS. mall (college) Special Skills: …Magtext. KTV.
4nD br$ 77yk “Emb” 0r “Emb$$y B4r”. Th1$ 1$ $33n 1n B0yB4n+. 4nD ‘47m0$+ Dy1n6’ 1n +h1$ w0r7D. Excel and Adobe Photoshop Th1$ J3j3r3$Um3. $m0k1n6. 28 3mb 1$ 4 $h0r+3n3D +3rm 4 3mb$$y br. p. Th3 ‘4DDr3$$’ 477 D4 mUhr3 pU$h3$ D4m +0 D4 ‘0U+$k1r+$ 0f $0c147 m4r61n$’. J3j3m0n$ r 47$0 1nD3n+1f13D by J3j3bU$+3r$ 4$ ‘3m0+10n7’. C C4+44n 54 …Literates in MS Office… (MS Word. w1+h0U+ 4 fU+Ur3. J3j3m0n$ c4nn0+ ch00$3. 1n$+34D 0f h16h716h+1n6 D4 4b171+13$ 0f J3j3m0n$ +h4+ qU471fy D4m +0 D4 j0b D'z1r3D. $+4y1n6 1n c0ff33 $h0p$ 77yk S+4rbUck$. mUhr30v3r. L4$+7y. Th1$ J3j3r3$Um3 1mp713$ +h4+ b31n6 4 J3j3m0n 4$ 4n 1D3n+1+y ‘$4y$ 1+ 477’. 4nD h4n61n6 0U+ 1n b17714rD p74c3$ 4nD m477$. D4 J3j3m0n$ r ch4r4c+3r1z3D 4$ ‘$U+17’ 0r D1$0b3D13n+. bU+ D4 c0n+3n+$ $4y 0D4rw1$3. n0 m4++3r h0w qU471f13D D4 J3j3m0n 1$. 1+ 1$ 4 kn0wn h4n6 0U+ p74c3 0f r1ch U'+h. In D4 ‘p0$1+10n D'z1r3D’. b3c4U$3 D4y 71v3 ‘4nyw3r’. bU+ $h0U7D 4cc3p+ w4+3v3r j0b 1$ 61v3n +0 D4m. 87). 4nD $h0U7D n0+ b3 h1r3D 4 4 j0b. D4 J3j3m0n$’ $Upp0$3D $p3c147 $k177$ r +3x+1n6. $Uch 4$ 4DD1c+10n +0 c0mpU+3r 64m3$. MS Powerpoint. Dr1nk1n6 71qU0r 0n w33kD4y$. Th3y r b0UnD +0 63+ ‘m34n’ j0b$. D3$cr1b3$ D4 J3j3m0n$’ v1c3$. In ‘nm3’. . 4+ f1r$+. $33m$ +0 3mp0w3r D4 J3j3m0n$ b3c4U$3 D4y r 61v3n D4 ch4nc3 4 3mp70ym3n+. Th3 J3j3r3$Um3 c0nn0+3$ +h4+ J3j3m0n$ $h0U7D n3v3r b3 h1r3D. $Urf1n6 $0c147 n3+w0rk1n6 $1+3$. Th3y r D00m3D +0 D41r 0wn D4mn+10n.c0m’$ J3j3$U1c1D3 73++3r +0 h1$ b0yfr13nD. Th1$ p'r+1cU74r 3x4mp73 0f J3j3bU$+1n6 c0nf1rm$ W1771$’$ (1977) $+4nc3 0n $Ub-cU7+Ur3$ 4$ “3mp0w3rm3n+ w1+h0U+ 4 fU+Ur3” (1n G37D3r. 1n$+34D 0f 61v1n6 D4m 4n 1D3n+1+y. Th3 J3j3m0n$ r ph0w$zzZZr+r4y3D 4$ 4 6r0Up 0f U'+h.J. Th3 ‘3DUc4+10n bck6r0UnD’. $Uch 4$ Fr13nD$+3r. n0 m4++3r h0w ‘m34n’ 1+ 1$.
Hindi bale. magkikita pa rin naman tayong dalawa. sa langit. Mas masaya ka kapag kasama mo ang friends mo. r4D4r +h4n p'y1n6 29 4n 0n71n3 rp6 0r r073-p74y1n6 64m3. (sabay inom ng panlinis ng silver) Th1$ J3j3$U1c1D3 73++3r D3$cr1b3$ 4 61r7 b31n6 +4k3n 4 6r4n+3D by h3r b0yfr13nD. Masakit sa lahat. ganito ako magmahal eh. C C4+44n 55 Ph0+0 12: J3j3$U1c1D3 73++3r (Ph0+0 c0Ur+3$y 0f B0yB4n+. Mahal kita kahit laging ako ang nagpaparaya. hindi ko kaya na laging pangalawa na lang ako sa puso mo. Th3 b0y pr10r1+1z3$ 0n71n3 64m3$ 4nD h1$ fr13nD$.c0m) 4 c74r1+y. kasi. So it’s better to say goodbye to you na lang. Bhie. . Sorry kasi iiwan na kita sa mundo. Masakit noong mas pinili mo ang dota29 sa akin. kaso. Mahal naman kita eh. ako ang nasasaktan. D4 j3j3$U1c1D3 73++3r $4y$. Salamat sa time mo. nakikita kita sa lahat ng oras. dineny mo ko sa harap nila.J. At least. I love you.
In $0m3 n360+14+10n$. A7+h0U6h Dr 1$ n0 c741m +h4+ +h1$ 73++3r 1$ 4ccUr4+3. 0n7y 41r3D br13f7y. Th3 N3+w0rk 4++3mp+$ +0 641n f1nnc1477y 1n cr34+1n6 J3j3m0m. 2010. Th3 $+3r30+yp3$ r D4 $4m3 w1+h my J3j3Fr13nD$. Th3 pr06r4m. 4 J3j3m0n mUhD4r (S+4rm0m3+3r. D4 1n+3rn3+ h4$ b33n D4 ‘v1r+U47 b++73f137D’ 0f J3j3m0n$ 4nD J3j3bU$+3r$. C C4+44n 56 4++3n+10n +0 h3r. h0w3v3r. C0n+r4ry +0 D4 n0+10n +h4+ D4 J3j3m0n $Ub-cU7+Ur3 1$ $+r1c+7y 4 D4 U'+h. Th3y D0 n0+ kn0w h0w +0 h4nD73 4nD +4k3 cr 0f r374+10n$h1p$. D4 $h0w pr3$3n+$ 4n 3xc3p+10n +hr0U6h EU63n3 D0m1n60’$ r073 4$ G161 D374 CrUz. 4nD c070rfU7 c70D4$ 4nD 4cc3$$0r13$. 0r 4 f4m17y m3mb3r b3c4U$3 D4y D0 n0+ 71v3 4 ‘n0rm47’ 71f3. I $33 +h1$ 4$ D4 c4p'b171+y 0f J3j3m0n$ +0 f1+ 1n+0 D4 m41n$+r34m 4nD D4 ‘D0m1nn+ cU7+Ur3’. 0r D34+h p3rh4p$.J. J3j3m0n$ 4nD r3pr3$3n+4+10n$ 0n TV M3D14 h4v3 4 jU63 r073 +0 p74y 1n D4 6r0w+h. h3r 73++3r r3v347$ D4 3m0+10n7 4ff1n1+y 0f J3j3m0n$ +0 p30p73 wh0 $+177 v47U3 D4m. 2010 3n+1+73D J3j3m0m. bU+ $h3 D03$ n0+ h4v3 D4 v47U3$ 4nD 1D30706y 0f D4 J3j3m0n$. I+ 1$ D4 ch4nc3 0f 3v3ry ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’ +0 1n+3rv3n3 $1nc3 “$0c13+y +3nD$ +0 pr0v1D3 1n$+1+U+10n71z3D p3r10D$ 1n wh1ch D4$3 $Ub+3rr4n34n v47U3$ r 4770w3D +0 3m3r63 4nD +4k3 pr3c3D3nc3” ( p. J3j3m0n$ f0UnD v1c+0r13$ $Uch 4$ D4 4++3n+10n +h4+ D4 m41n$+r34m m3D14 61v3$ D4m. A$ $33n 4b0v3. J3j3m0n$ r 47$0 r3pr3$3n+3D 0n +373v1$10n. Th3y c0n+1nU3 +0 f70Ur1$h 1n m41n$+r34m m3D14 3v1D3n+7y w1+h GMA N3+w0rk’$ $1+U4+10n7 c0m3Dy wh1ch f1r$+ 41r3D 74$+ AU6U$+ 14. M4+z4 4nD Syk3$ (1961) pr0v1D3 4 600D 3xp74n+10n r364rD1n6 my 4$$3r+10n 4b0v3. . 2010). I+$ f1n7 3p1$0D3 41r3D 74$+ N0v3mb3r 13. G161 w34r$ 4 J3j3c4p. 0f D4 J3j3m0n $Ub-cU7+Ur3. 72). 3v3n 4f+3r D4y b3c0m3 J3j3m0n$. Th1$ J3j3bU$+1n6 ‘+007’ m34n$ +h4+ J3j3m0n$ r n0+ m34n+ +0 b3 4cc3p+3D 4$ 4 p'r+n3r 1n 71f3. Th3 $Ub-cU7+Ur3 1nf7U3nc3$ D4 c0n+3n+ 0f +373v1$10n.
30 D07phy 1$ 4 pr0m1n3n+ 4r+1$+. h3 1$ c4773D D4 c0m3Dy k1n6 0f D4 ph171pp1n3$. 1+ 1$ 4b0U+ 4 J3j3m0n pr13$+ p74y3D by D07phy. I 4r6U3. w4$ n0+ $U$+41n3D Un+17 1+$ 74$+ 3p1$0D3. I r3471z3 +h4+ D4 $Ub-cU7+Ur3 w4$ ‘U$3D’. C C4+44n 57 Th1$ ‘br34+h1n6 $p'c3’ h0w3v3r 4 $Ub0rD1n+3 cU7+Ur3 1$ m34xUr!D 4nD 1$ r36U74+3D. Th3 cjUrch 1$ 4 J3j3bU$+3r. 4nD D03$ n0+ r3pr3$3n+ D4 +rU3 J3j3m0n $Ub-cU7+Ur3. 1+ $33m$ 77yk 4 f4v0r4b73 v3nU3 4 J3j3m0n$ +0 73+ p30p73 UnD3r$+4nD D41r 0wn cU7+Ur3. 1$ 4 4m 0f J3j3bU$+1n6. I b3713v3 +h4+ D4 GMA N3+w0rk f417$ +0 c4p+Ur3 D4 b31n6 0f 4 J3j3m0n. Wh173 I m4y 46r33 0n D4 4++3mp+ 0f D4 $h0w +0 pr0v1D3 4 n3w 1m463 0f D4 J3j3m0n. I c0n+3nD +h4+ D4 ‘J3j3m0n pr13$+’ 1$ 4 c0n+r4ry r3nD1+10n 0f w4+ my 3mp1r1c47 D4+4 $U663$+. b$3D 0n my 0b$3rv4+10n 1n 1+$ +r4173r. A$ D4 +1+73 $U663$+$. 4$ wr1++3n 0n my f137D n0+3$ wh173 w4+ch1n6 J3j3m0m. G161’$ r073 4$ 4 J3j3m0n mUhD4r h4$ n0 3mp1r1c47 b$1$. cjUrch c0n6r364+10n 4nD D4 r3$+ 0f D4 c0mmUn1+y. .30 Th0U6h I w4$ n0+ 4b73 +0 w4+ch D4 $41D mUhv13. I f1nD D4 r3nD1+10n 0f D4 1m463 qU3$+10nb73.. Sh3 3v07v3D fr0m 4 J3j3m0n +0 4 br4n64y $3cr3+4ry y4b'$D by h3r f4m17y. In r3471+y. 3+ 47. 1975. p. P0r+r4y47$ 1n m4$$ m3D14. BU+ 1n D4 3nD. Th4+ c0n+3x+ 1$ D4 m4rk3+ 4ppr0pr14+10n 0f D4 $UbcU7+Ur3 1+$37f. A+ f1r$+. 104). 4 mUhv13 w4$ r3734$3D 1n 2010 3n+1+73D F4D4r J3j3m0n. 4 3x4mp73 D4 J3j3m0n 1$ $+177 f1c+1+10U$. G161’$ J3j3m0n r073. ‘f4D4r J3j3m0n’ 1$ y4b'$D by h1$ f3770w pr13$+$. wh1ch w4$ 0n3 0f D4 3n+r13$ 1n D4 4nnU47 M3+r0 M4n174 F17m F3$+1v47. wh1ch I 177U$+r4+3 b370w. 4nD D4 r3$+ 0f h3r br4n64y c0n$+1+U3n+$.J. mUhr30v3r. P3r$0n77y. Th1$ pr0c3$$ 0f 4ppr0pr14+10n by c4p1+47. A$1D3 fr0m 4 ‘J3j3m0n mUhD4r’. 3xp701+3D 4nD +41n+3D by f47$3 r3pr3$3n+4+10n. H3 1$ D4 4Dv1$3r 0f 3v3ry0n3. h3r y4b'$ 1n+3r3$+ wh0 1$ 4 ph0w$zzZZ71c3m4n. m41n7y b3c4U$3 D4 ch4r4c+3r1z4+10n 0f D4 J3j3m0n p3r$0n 1$ $h4770w 4nD D3v01D 0f jUm4n1+y. 1$ 47$0 f74w3D. 4nD +0 r3pr3$3n+ D4 J3j3m0n $Ub-cU7+Ur3 1n +h1$ r364rD. Dr r n0 ‘J3j3m0n mUhD4r$’ b3c4U$3 4 $Ub-cU7+Ur3 $pr0U+$ fr0m D4 U'+h’$ 4b171+y +0 3$+4b71$h D41r 0wn 1D3n+1+y 4p'r+ fr0m D41r h0U$3h07D$ 4nD 0D4r 1n$+1+U+10n$ (C74rk3. On mU$+ r3m3mb3r D4 c0n+3x+ 1n wh1ch D4 ch4r4c+3r w4$ cr34+3D.
w3r3 r3pr3$3n+3D 0n D4 v1$U47 m3D1Um 4$ J3j3m0n$. 47b31+ 1n 71m1+3D 4nD 71m1+1n6 w4y$. 1+ 1$ 1n+3r3$+ +0 ph0w$zzZZ1n+ 0U+ +h4+ +h0$3 wh0 r J3j3bU$+3r$ 1n r347 71f3. p. D4$3 J3j3bU$+3r$ r D4 4n+460n1$+$ 0f D4 J3j3m0n$. In r347 71f3. Dr 1$ 4 r3v3r$47 0f r073$ 1n D4 w4y m3D14 r3pr3$3n+$ D4 J3j3m0n $Ub-cU7+Ur3. 1947. h0w3v3r. A7+h0U6h D4 r3pr3$3n+4+10n$ r f74w3D 4nD m1$734D1n6. D4$3 pr0v3 0n3 +h1n6. b3c0m3 D4 y4b'$D pr0+460n1$+$. +h4+ D4 n+10n7 cU7+Ur3 +1m3 4nD 4641n r3fr4c+$. I 4r6U3 +h4+ m3D14 r3pr3$3n+4+10n$ 0n J3j3m0n$ r ‘1n+3n+10n77y’ m1$734D1n6. $Uch 4$ D4 prn+$ 4nD D4 cjUrch. 42). 4nD 4$ $Upp0r+3D by my D4+4. D4 J3j3bU$+3r$. Th3$3 4c+$ by D4 m3D14 r 4 4m 0f ‘cU7+Ur47 $4rc4$m’ +0 D4 J3j3m0n $Ub-cU7+Ur3. n3v3rD473$$.J. c0n$1D3r D4 3f4+ by m3D14 +0 r3pr3$3n+ D4m 4$ 4 +r1Umph. . y3+ 4n 1n$U7+ +0 D4 $Ub-cU7+Ur3. bU+ +0 4c+$ 0f J3j3bU$+1n6. In 0D4r w0rD$. 3v3n 4f+3r D4 ‘670r10U$ D4y$’ 0f +h1$ $Ub-cU7+Ur3 (G0rD0n. 4nD 1$ r3fr4c+3D 1n +Urn. A$ J3j3m4$+3r $4y$ 1n 0n3 1n+3rv13w: “A+ 734$+. Th3 J3j3m0n$. C C4+44n 58 In 4DD1+10n. by 4 $Ub-cU7+Ur3. Th3$3 r w1++y 4nD fUnny r3pr3$3n+4+10n$. n$4 TV [k~m1]”. c70D4D 1n D4 ch4r4c+3r 0f 4 J3j3m0n. I c0n+3nD +h4+ +h1$ $+r4+36y by m3D14 +0 ‘4r0m4+1z3’ D4 1m463 0f D4 J3j3bU$+3r$ 1$ 4 w4y 0f ‘w4+3r1n6 D0wn’ D4 r463 0f D4 J3j3m0n$ 4641n$+ D4 J3j3bU$+3r$. M0r3 +h4n b31n6 f74w3D. I+ 1$ 3v1D3n+ +h4+ m3D14 ‘r1D3’ n0+ jU$+ 0n D4 f4m3 0f D4 $Ub-cU7+Ur3. On3 c4n $Urm1$3 +h4+ D4 m3D14 4++3mp+ +0 U$3 D4 J3j3m0n $Ub-cU7+Ur3 4 1+$ bU$1n3$$ 1n+3r3$+. In m3D14.
2010 .” .S4b1 n1 J3j3m4$+3r $4 4k1n $4 1$yU n6 p7nU'n6 p'6b171 n6 1$4n6 m474k1n6 +373c0mmUn1c4+10n c0mp'ny $4 w3b$1+3 n www. p'r4n6 b1n3n+4 qU0h n r1n 4n6 kU7+Ur4 n6 P171p1n$.j3j3m0n. C C4+44n 59 “K4p'6 b1n3n+4 qU0h 4n6 w3b$1+3 $4 k~n174. 28.c0m. D1$y3mbr3.J.
2006) b3713v3$ +h4+ $Ub-cU7+Ur3$ r cU7+Ur47 c0n$+3774+10n$ +h4+ 4pp34r 4nD D1$$07v3$ 3v3n+U477y. p. 105) $4y +h4+ “$UbcU7+Ur3$ 4pp34r 0n7y 4+ p'r+1cU74r h1$+0r1c47 mUhm3n+$ D4n D1$4pp34r 0r w1D37y D1ffU$3D 4f+3rw4rD$”.< D4$3 p'r+1cU74r 4m$ 0ccUr 4+ 4 p'r+1cU74r +1m3. $07U+10n$ wh1ch w177 $3++73 07D pr0b73m$ 4nD n0+ cr34+3 n3w 0n3$. 463. 1955). 0r 3xp74n+10n y?'' >. 0n3 c0n$1D3r$ h1$ 0r h3r $Urr0UnD1n6$ 4nD 4ff1714+10n$. w4+ +r4n$p1r3D 1n D4 Ph171pp1n3 ph0w$zzZZ71+1c47. 4 cr34+10n 0f $Ub-cU7+Ur3 1$ 4 m4++3r 0f c0773c+1v3 pr0b73m-$07v1n6 (C0h3n. C C4+44n 60 ch4p+3r 6 fr0m $Ubw4y +0 D4 m41n r04D: D4 j3j3m0n$’ 4mb1v473n+ r3+Urn$ If B0UrD13U (1n W4cqU4n+. 46-47). h3 b3713v3$ 1$ D4 r34$0n 0f J3j3m0n$’ 3x1$+3nc3 (p'r. 3c0n0m1c 4nD $0c147 74nD$c4p3 +h4+ br0U6h+ 4b0U+ J3j3m0n$?'' I b3713v3 +h4+ D4 J3j3m0n $Ub-cU7+Ur3 D03$ n0+ 3x1$+ 1n 4 v4cUUm bU+ 1$ c4U$3D by pr3-3x1$+1n6 $0c147 D173mm4$ $Uch 4$ D4 D3+3r10r4+10n 0f 3DUc4+10n 4nD ph0w$zzZZv3r+y. H3 4r6U3$ +h4+ w4+ 74ck$ 1n m4ny ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’ $+UD13$ 1$ D4 1D34 0f ‘h1$+0r1c47 $p3c1f1c1+y’. 0n3 w177 U$3 +3mp74+3 $07U+10n$ 4nD c0nv3n+10n7 n0rm$ 4$ r3m3Dy.” C0h3n 4DD$ (p. 4nD C74rk3 3+ 47. C0h3n (1955) b3713v3$ +h4+ “pr0b73m$ 3x1$+ 1n D1ff3r3n+ v4r14n+$ 4nD r D1$p3r$3D 1n $0c13+y +hr0U6h c4+360r13$ 3qU1pp3D by D41r $0c13+y w1+h fr4m3$ 0f r3f3r3nc3$ $Uch 4$ $3x. In 63n3r47. 15).” Th3r343.J. (1975. I n0w 4$k: w4+ 1$ D4 pUrp0$3 0f D4 3x1$+3nc3 0f $Ub-cU7+Ur3$?'' AnD UnD3r w4+ c0nD1+10n$ D0 D4y 3x1$+?'' Th3 J3j3m0n$ r h3r3 +0 $+4y H3bD163 (1979) 4$k$ +h1$ $4m3 qU3$+10n. “W3 $33k. wh1ch. D4y $h0U7D +h1nk 0f mUhr3 ‘p3rm4n3n+ $07U+10n$’ +0 3DUc4+10n7 pr0b73m$. T30D0r0 (2010) 46r33$ w1+h +h1$ wh3n h3 $4y$ +h4+ $1nc3 J3j3bU$+3r$ r +h0$3 wh0 r 1n+3773c+U47 4nD 0f+3n h4v3 mUhr3 4cc3$$ +0 ph0w$zzZZ71+1c$ 4nD 3c0n0my.” In $07v1n6 D4$3 pr0b73m$. 3c0n0m1c $+r4+Um 4nD $0c147 c74$$. . “Th1$ 1mm3D14+37y 1mp0$3$ $h4rp 71m1+$ 0n D4 r4n63 0f cr34+1v1+y 4nD 1nn0v4+10n. TjU$. r4c147. 1f ph0w$zzZZ$$1b73. Th1$ p'p3r Dr43 cU7m1n+3$ 1n 4$k1n6.
$Uch 4$ 4cc3p+4nc3. (1975) D3ny D4 ph0w$zzZZw3r 0f +h1$ $ymb071c r3$1$+4nc3. 77yk D4 ‘74D$’. J3j3m0n$ $Ub-cU7+Ur3 c4n 47$0 b3 4n 47+3rn+1v3 ‘h363m0ny’. b3c4U$3 “4 r3$07U+10n…p1+ch3D 74r637y 4+ D4 $ymb071c 73v37. 3+ 47. b3c4U$3 D41r ‘cU7+Ur47’ r3$1$+4nc3 D03$ n0+ 3qU4+3 +0 ph0w$zzZZ71+1c47 4nD 3c0n0m1c r34m$ 1n D41r $0c13+y (p. F1r$+.. b3c4U$3. W1771$ (1977) $U663$+$ +h4+ $Ub-cU7+Ur3$ 63+ 1+ wr0n6 wh3n D4y 0p+ +0 D3v14+3 4nD r3$1$+ fr0m D4 D0m1nn+ cU7+Ur3. I c0n+3nD +h4+ D4 J3j3m0n$ r 4wr 0f D4 b++73 +h4+ D4y r w461n6. S3c0nD. Th3y c477 1+ 4n 1m461nry w4y 0f pr0b73m $07v1n6 wh1ch 734D n0w3r. 4nD n01$3 brr463 4m0n6 0D4r$. (1975). 3+ 47. bU+ 0n7y p'r+7y.J. 46-47). (1975) b3713v3 . In 4ny 4c+U47 $0c13+y. w4$ f4+3D +0 f417” (p. C74rk3. C0h3n (1955) c0nc7UD3$ +h4+ “h3 wh0 D1$$3n+$ 1n m4++3r$ D4 6r0Up c0n$1D3r$ 1mp0r+4n+. $16n+Ur3 c4mp'16n. 104). Th3y D0. D4 rU71n6 $0c147 $+rUc+Ur3 1$ n0+ 4b$07U+3 4nD 477 ph0w$zzZZw3rfU7. I+ D03$ n0+ f0770w +h4+ D4 ‘D0m1nn+ cU7+Ur3’ ch00$3$ D4m +0 b3 D4mn3D. D4 $Ub-cU7+Ur3 1$ 4n 0U+r16h+ r3f73c+10n 0f D4 n+10n’$ b$1c $3rv1c3$. C C4+44n 61 J3j3m0n$ D0 0D4rw1$3. D4y 0n7y c0n+r1bU+3 +0 D41r 0wn D4mn+10n. 3n+3r 4 cU7+Ur47 4nD $ymb071c b++73 by 4m1n6 D41r 0wn $Ub-cU7+Ur3. 4 cr34+10n 0f $Ub-cU7+Ur3. Th3r343. wh1ch r c0mm0n7y D4 $+r4+3613$ 3n6463D by +r4D1+10n7 4c+1v1$+$. 108). 3+ 47. I 4r6U3 +h4+ D4y r Unwr 0f D4 c0mp73x1+y 0f $Uch b++73. bU+ D4 0D4r w4y 4r0UnD wh3n 0n3 +r4n$6r3$$3$. 1n3v1+4b7y 4713n+3$ h1m$37f +0 $0m3 3x+3n+ fr0m D4 6r0Up 4nD fr0m $4+1$fy1n6 $0c147 r374+10n$” (p. J3j3m0n$. D4 J3j3m0n $Ub-cU7+Ur3 71v3$ 0n 4$ 4 c0n$+4n+ r3m1nD3r 4 +hr33 +h1n6$. Th31r r3$1$+4nc3 1$ $ymb071c. 0r 3n6463 1n 0D4r 4m$ 0f pr0+3$+ $Uch 4$ 70bby1n6. h0w3v3r. Gr4m$c1 (1992) $Upp0r+$ C74rk3. 114). Th3r3 r pr3$xUr!$ +0w4rD c0n4m1+y 4nD Dr r 1n$+4n+ r3w4rD$ 4 D01n6 $0. 4nD D41r $07U+10n. 1$ 3v3n mUhr3 $ymb071c. If 4nD wh3n D4y r3471z3 +h4+ Dr 1$ 4 n33D +0 ch4n63 D4 $y$+3m 0f 3DUc4+10n 1n D4 c0Un+ry. Th31r 3x1$+3nc3 m4y b3 $ymb071c. Dr r $p3c1f1c 1n3qU471+13$ 4nD Dr43 1n c4p'c1+y +0 r3471z3 +h1$ pr0c3$$” (p. r3c06n1+10n 4nD r3$p3c+. 4nD 1$ br4v3 1n $4y1n6 +h4+ “‘m3n’ D3f1n3 4nD $h4p3 D41r wh073 71v3$ 1$ +rU3 0n7y 1n 4b$+r4c+10n. C74rk3. D4y D0 n0+ j01n $+r33+ pr0+3$+$.
4 4b0U+ +hr33 m17710n Ph171pp1n3 p3$0$ (H3 pUrch4$3D D4 D0m41n 1n y34r 2010 4 +hr33 jUnDr3D Ph171pp1n3 p3$0$). 1n my 0p1n10n. D4 734D3r 0f J3j3fr13nD$. N1c073 C0n$+4b73 (1999). 4$ 1+ r374+3$ +0 D4 J3j3m0n$’ m16r4n+ c1rcU1+$. 1n 4DD1+10n. +07D m3 DUr1n6 0Ur 74$+ m33+1n6 1n J4nU4ry 2010. I w4n+ +0 1n+r0DUc3 4nD $ch3m4+1c477y 0U+71n3. +h4+ D4 F171p1n0 U'+h cU7+Ur47 4nD $Ub-cU7+Ur3 mUhv3m3n+ 1$ cr34+1v3 4nD 4c+1v3 1n $h4p1n6 $0c13+y. 101). J3j3m4$+3r.J. “’D1 b. Th1$ m4rk$ nU'D4r y34r 0f ‘J3j3m0ny’. +h4+ D4y r cr34+1n6 4 n3w br4nD 0f J3j3m0n. wh1ch 1nc7UD3$ D4 0v3rU$3 0f ‘$m173y’ 1c0n$ $Uch 4$ “^_^)))))))” 0r “:’’’’’(“. . C C4+44n 62 +h4+ $Ub-cU7+Ur3$ “c0mm4nD D4 $+463 0f pUb71c 4++3n+10n 4 4 +1m3” b3c4U$3 D4y h4v3 $0m3+h1n6 +0 $4y.j3j3m0n. 4 f171p1n0-j3j3n3$3 +R4nzL4+0r cr34+3D 4nD 0p3r4+3D by j3j3m4$+3r. Ry4n. Th3 c0mp'ny pU+$ D4 J3j3+R4nzL4+0r 1n 3v3ry MyPh0n3 c377U74r ph0n3 Un1+ $+4r+1n6 y34r 2011. 4$ 4 pr00f +h4+ D4 $Ub-cU7+Ur3 1$ 6r0w1n6. Th1rD 4nD D4 74$+. ph0w$zzZZ1n+$ 0U+ D4 1n+3r3$+1n6 c0nc3p+ 0f ‘+r4n$n+10n7 m16r4n+ c1rcU1+’ (p. 2010. BU+ J3j3m4$+3r. D4 n0+10n 0f r3+Urn. +0 bUy D4 D0m41n www. b0U6h+ D4 “J3j3+r4n$74+10n”32 fr0m h1m. 4 F171p1n0-0wn3D c377U74r ph0n3 4nD 4pp714nc3 c0mp'ny. A$ 0f +h1$ wr1+1n6. 4nD D4y r 1n $34rch 4 4 br16h+3r fU+Ur3. w177 D13 4 n+Ur47 D34+h. 0r r3m1nD (p. Th3 J3j3m0n$’ 4mb1v473n+ r3+Urn$ A+ +h1$ ph0w$zzZZ1n+. 214). I r34D +h1$ $+4+3m3n+ by J3j3m4$+3r 4$ nU'D4r 4++3mp+ by c4p1+47 +0 4ppr0pr14+3 D4 $Ub-cU7+Ur3. h3 c0n$1$+3n+7y r3fU$3$ D4 0ff3r. H3 c70$3$ +h1$ +0p1c by $4y1n6 +h4+ $3771n6 D4 D0m41n 1$ 77yk $3771n6 D4 cU7+Ur3 0f D4 Ph171pp1n3$. 100. 4nD D4 $Ub-cU7+Ur3 w177 D3f1n1+37y +r4n$4m 1n w4y$ +h4+ w3 D0 n0+ kn0w y3+.c0m. +3n+4+1v37y. 1n h3r $+UD13$ 4b0U+ F171p1n0 m16r4n+$’ Unc3r+41n r3+Urn +0 D4 Ph171pp1n3$. jU$+ 77yk 4ny 0D4r $UbcU7+Ur3$. D4 J3j3fr13nD$ 4nD I b36 +0 D1$46r33. h3 $4y$. H4rh4rm0n 1$ 4 ‘73v37-Up’ 4m 0f J3j3m0n. bU$+3r D1n nm4n ‘y4n?''”. m34$Ur1n6 D4 3m0+10n$ 0f 4 J3j3+3x+3r. H3 4DD$ +h4+ ‘MyPh0n3’. Sh3 $U663$+$ +h4+ m16r4n+$ +ry +0 71nk +w0 0r 31 32 DUr1n6 my $1+-D0wn 1n+3rv13w w1+h h1m 0n D3c3mb3r 28. 47b31+. c4773D ‘H4rh4rm0n’. 4nD ph0w$zzZZ$$1b7y D3ny 1+$ 3x1$+3nc3. M4ny r $c3p+1c +h4+ D4 J3j3m0n $Ub-cU7+Ur3. +07D m331 4b0U+ D4 0ff3r by 4 +373c0mmUn1c4+10n n3+w0rk +h4+ h3 r3fU$3$ +0 nm3.
H4n664’+ m4y n6-33x1$+ n 1$4. I h4D 4 h4rD +1m3 601n6 bck +0 my ‘prn+ cU7+Ur3’. H3 $+177 w4n+$ +0 b3 4 p170+ 0r 4 $h1p c4p+41n 1n D4 fU+Ur3. Sh3rw1n: $+177 4 $173n+ 71$+3n3r Sh3rw1n. I+ 1$ 4n Un3nD1n6 ‘c1rcU1+’. h1$ p'r+-+1m3 w0rk 4$ 4 $ch007 $+4ff. 3v3n 1n D4 3v3n+ +h4+ I D3c1D3 +0 UnDr3$$ my$37f 0f D4 1D3n+1+y. My J3j3fr13nD$. I 1nf3r +h4+ +h1$ c0nc3p+ c4n b3 4pp713D n0+ jU$+ 6306r4ph1c477y. 4nD 0D4r p74c3$ 0f b370n61n6n3$$. h3r prn+$ c0n+1nU3 +0 r3j3c+ h1m b3c4U$3 h3 1$ 4 j3j3m0n. w3r h3 47$0 $+UD13$.J. I $U663$+ +0 c477 +h4+ $p'c3 0r 71nk 4$ ‘+r4n$cU7+Ur47 m16r4n+ c1rcU1+’. m4y m4j4j4w4 4+ m4j4j4w4. ‘D1 b?'' Iy0n n r1n 4n6 nk~$4ny4n k~y4 D1 n r1n m4w4w474. P30p73 $33 m3 4$ ‘D3v14n+’ 47$0. 77ykw1$3. wh1ch I nrr4+3 b370w. Th3 J3j3m0n$ 47$0 4++3mp+ +0 71nk +w0 cU7+Ur3$ 1n+0 ‘0n3 71f3’. 47+h0U6h h3 w4n+$ +0 w34r 4 j3j34m. w3 w177 h4v3 0Ur f1r$+ J3j3p170+ 4nD J3j3p74n3. h3 +3x+$ 0f+3n 4$ w377. C C4+44n 63 mUhr3 p74c3$. ry4n: D4 Unc0mm1++3D 734D3r ry4n h4$ 1mpr3$$3D 0n m3 +h4+ h3 y4b'$$ 4nD v47U3$ +h1$ j3j3m0n $Ub-cU7+Ur3 b3c4U$3 h3 1$ 47w4y$ 4c+1v3 1n m33+1n6$. +hr0U6h +h1$ $UbcU7+Ur3. h3 1$ h1nD3r3D by D4 +h0U6h+ +h4+ h3 m16h+ 70$3 h1$ p'r+-+1m3 j0b. H3 $41D: S4 +1n61n qU0h. B4$3D 0n my p3r$0n7 3xp3r13nc3. 0r J3j3$h1p 4nD J3j3c4p+41n. Th3y r 0f D4 0p1n10n +h4+ I h4v3 D4 1mpr3$$10n +h4+ I w177 47w4y$ c4rry w1+h m3 my J3j3m0n 1D3n+1+y. I cr4ck3D 4 j0k3 +h4+ 1f +h4+ h4pp3n$. ‘D1 n m4w4w474 4n6 J3j3m0n. D4 n+1v3 74nD. bU+ 47$0 $0c1477y 4nD cU7+Ur477y. Th3r3 w177 47w4y$ b3 4 ph0w$zzZZ1n+ 0f r3+Urn +0 D4 0r161n7 cU7+Ur3 w3r D4y f1r$+ b370n63D pr10r +0 b31n6 J3j3m0n$. mUh$+ 0f D4 +1m3. Pr0UD 4q . My fr13nD$ 4nD $ch007 m4+3$ c0n+1nU3 +0 +34$3 m3 4nD 74b37 m3 4$ J3j3m0n D3f3nD3r’ 0r ‘J3j3J0$3ph’. Un+17 D4 3nD 0f my 1mm3r$10n 1n D41r $Ub-cU7+Ur3. J3j3m0n$ r 1nD33D ‘cU7+Ur47 m16r4n+$’. 1n+0 0n3 71f3. 1$ $+177 4 $173n+ J3j3m0n. bU+ 1 $3n$3 $0m3+h1n6 h4ppy 0n h1$ f4c3. h1nD3r$ h1m +0 fU77y c0mm1+ +0 D4 $Ub-cU7+Ur3. h0w3v3r. 3xp3r13nc3 4mb1v473nc3 1n D41r 0wn ‘c1rcU1+$’. $Uch 4$ D4 p74c3 0f m16r4+10n. h3 f1nD$ h1$ 1D3n+1+y. BU+ 0n3 $+r1k1n6 $+4+3m3n+ +h4+ $Urpr1$3D m3 1$ h1$ 0p+1m1$m 4b0U+ D41r $Ub-cU7+Ur3.
J. Sh3 $41D +h4+ $h3 w177 c0n+1nU3 +0 b3 4 J3j3m0n 3v3n wh3n $h3 63+$ 07D3r. ‘y0n 4n6 ‘1n’. h3 1$ 4 D3+3rm1n3D J3j3m0n. $+33r1n6 D3b+3$ 1n+0 0pp0$1n6 D1r3c+10n$. +$4k~ $4 k~b+44n (F137D n0+3$. Th1$ r3$34rch 1$ 0n3 0f +h0$3 +h4+ 0p+3D +0 Dr1v3 D4 ‘$+33r’ 0f ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’ $+UD13$ +0 nU'D4r . K4+h: I $33 4 c070rfU7 fU+Ur3 K4+h $+4+3$ $0m3+h1n6 r4nD0m7y wh3n w3 1n4m477y 4$$3$$3D my ‘p3r4m4nc3’ 4nD p'r+1c1p'+10n 1n+0 D41r $Ub-cU7+Ur3. Sh3 $41D +h4+ 1f D4 p'$+ w4$ 4$ c070rfU7 4$ h3r mUhD4r’$ p'$+. Th30r1$+$ 4f+3r D40r1$+$ ch4773n63D D4 c0nc3p+ 4nD ph3n0m3n0n. W3 4r6U3D 4nD 3v3n+U477y. Th0U6h 4 $173n+ 71$+3n3r. C C4+44n 64 m461n6 J3j3m0n x3' 1y0n 4n6 U$0. Sh3 $41D +h4+ h3r mUhD4r w4$ 0nc3 4 J3j3m0n b343. Th3 Ch1c460 4nD B1rm1n6h4m Sch007$ p74y3D 4 b16 r073 1n $h4p1n6 +h1$ c070rfU7. y3+ $0m3+1m3$ D4rk c0nc3p+. I+ 1$ c0m4+1n6 4 +0 kn0w +h4+ r374+10n$h1p$ 1n$1D3 D4 $Ub-cU7+Ur3. 1$ D4 70n63$+ $+4+3m3n+ +h4+ I h4D 3v3r h34rD fr0m h1m. Th3y +377 m3 +h4+ D4y r $+177 1n D41r 0wn r3$p3c+1v3 r374+10n$h1p$. Th3 pr0v1$10n 0f 4 $33m1n67y $+4b73 D40r3+1c47 $p'c3 0f ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’ b3c4m3 D4 ‘r3$+1n6 p74c3’ 0f $0c147 $c13n+1$+$ wh0 w4n+3D +0 m4k3 D41r r3$34rch3$ c0m4+4b73. OUr $3p'r4+3 6306r4ph1c $p'c3$ r 71nk3D by +3x+ m3$$463$. Th1$. I+ 1$ h3r prn+$ wh0 +4U6h+ h3r +0 b3 c070rfU7 1n c70D4$. I b3713v3. 4nD fU77y 3mbr4c3 D4 $Ub-cU7+Ur3’$ 3xpr3$$1v3 1D3n+1+y. 2011). h3 c0n+1nU3$ +0 $+rU6673 +0 73+ 60 0f h1$ +1m1D1+y. n1n4 4nD pR1nC355 N1n 4nD Pr1nc3$$ w3r3 n0+ 4r0UnD DUr1n6 my 74$+ v1$1+. J4nU4ry 22. $+177 c0n+1nU3 +0 6r0w. 1+ +Urn3D 0U+ +h4+ h3r mUhD4r w4$ p'r+ 0f D4 ‘r3+r0’ 3r4. A7+h0U6h D4 4mb1v473nc3 1$ 73$$ b3c4U$3 h1$ prn+$ h4v3 n0 r34c+10n$ +0 h1$ J3j3m0n $+y73. bU+ w3 $+4y 1n +0Uch. n0 m4++3r h0w ‘0DrD’. S4by $4 460$ n6 bUh4y. $h3 1$ c0nf1D3n+ 4b0U+ 4 c070rfU7 fU+Ur3. wh1ch w4$ 47$0 4$$0c14+3D w1+h c070rfU7 c70D4$ 4nD 4cc3$$0r13$. I 4$k3D h0w 1+ h4pp3n3D. I+’$ 4 j0yr1D3: 4 ‘j0Urn3y’ w0r+h r3m3mb3r1n6 My 71+3r4+Ur3 r3v13w $k3+ch3D D4 +UrbU73n+ 1+1n3r4ry 0f D4 c0nc3p+ 0f ‘$UbcU7+Ur3’.
J. C C4+44n
D1r3c+10n. S0m3 $Ub-cU7+Ur3 D1D n0+ f70Ur1$h, wh173 0D4r$ c0n+1nU3 +0 0ccUpy cr3v1c3$ 1n D4 cr4ck$ 0f D4 D0m1nn+ cU7+Ur3. I 4m c0nf1D3n+ +h4+ D4 J3j3m0n $UbcU7+Ur3, w1+h D4 6r0w+h 0f 1n+3rn3+, w177 b3 ch4773n63D +1m3 4nD 4641n by $ch074r$. Th3 J3j3m0n$, 4nD my ‘j0Urn3y’ +0 D41r ‘w0r7D’ pr0v3D 0n3 +h1n6: D41r ‘w0r7D’ 1$ n0+ f4r fr0m U$, D41r ‘w0r7D’ 1$ n0+ $0m3w3r ‘0U+ Dr’, bU+ ‘$0m3w3r 1n h3r3’, $0m3w3r ‘1n’ U$, ‘w1+h1n’ U$. Th3 J3j3m0n$ r 0rD1nry U'+h wh0 y34rn +0 cUrv3 $0m3+h1n6 m34n1n6fU7 1n+0 D41r 3xp3r13nc3$. Th3y w4n+ +0 1mp'r+ 1nD371b7y D4$3 3xp3r13nc3$ 1n+0 D41r 71f3+1m3, D1ff3r3n+7y. ‘T007$’ $Uch 4$ J3j3p0$3$, J3j3+3x+ 4nD J3j3c70D4$ r D41r $16n1f1c4+10n$ 0f b370n61n6n3$$. Th3y r D4 m34n1n6fU7 $16n1f13r$ 0f D4 $Ub-cU7+Ur3’$ $hrD 1D3n+1+y +h4+ 1$ c0n$+4n+7y brr463D by $0c13+y’$ r3$+r1c+10n$. J3j3m0n$ r r347. Th3y y4b'$. Th3y r3$1$+. Th3y b3c0m3 $4D ><. Th3y f337 1n$U7+3D. Th3y cry. Th3y br34D4, 4nD 71v3. S0m3 J3j3m0n$ 734v3, 4nD n0 m4++3r h0w 4mb1v473n+ D41r r3+Urn$ r, D4 J3j3m0n$ r h3r3 +0 $+4y. A$ 70n6 4$ Dr r pr0b73m$ 1n D4 ‘m4n+73’ 0f Ph171pp1n3 $0c13+y, $Ub-cU7+Ur3$ w177 c0n+1nU3 +0 3x1$+, n0+ 1n 1+$ m4r61n$, n0+ 37$3w3r 0r $0m3w3r, bU+ 1n$1D3 D4 D0m1nn+ cU7+Ur3’$ c0r3$. Th3 ‘+r4n$cU7+Ur47 c1rcU1+’ r3m41n$, 4nD J3j3m0n$ c0n+1nU3 +0 b3 ‘cU7+Ur47 m16r4n+$’ 0f D41r ‘w0r7D’. A7+h0U6h D4y D3p'r+ fr0m D4 n0rm$ 4nD cU7+Ur3 +0 wh1ch D4y r 4ccU$+0m3D, D4y h4v3 w4y$ +0 r3+Urn. ‘Tr4n$cU7+Ur47 c1rcU1+’ 3nb73$ D4m +0 c0nn3c+, 4nD r3-c0nn3c+ +0 D41r 4m3r cU7+Ur3 wh3n3v3r 1+ 1$ n3c3$$4ry. I+ 1$ 3$$3n+147, I b3713v3, 4 4ny $Ub-cU7+Ur3 +0 D0 $0 4$ 4 +007 4 D41r c0n+1nU0U$ 3x1$+3nc3. I c0n+3nD +h4+ n0 0n3 c0mp73+37y D3p'r+$ fr0m 1+$ ‘m0D4r’ cU7+Ur3. Th3r3 1$ 4nD w177 $+177 b3 4 ph0w$zzZZ1n+ 0f D3p'r+Ur3 fr0m 4nD r3+Urn +0 D4 ‘w0r7D’. Th1$ r3$34rch r3c06n1z3$ 1+$ 71m1+4+10n$ 4nD c0n$+r41n+$, b0+h 1n D40ry 4nD 1n pr4c+1c3. I +jU$ ch4773n63 4nD r3c0mm3nD +h4+ +h1$ ‘J3j3D4$1$’, b3 cr1+1qU3D 4nD UpD4+3D +0 m4k3 +h1$ $m477 p13c3 0f kn0w73D63 f70Ur1$h. S0m3 Ur63n+ 4nD 1mp0r+4n+ D4m3$ r374+3D +0 +h1$ r3$34rch c4n b3 D4 ‘pr0DUc+10n 0f $p'c3’ by J3j3m0n$. H3nr1 L3f3vr3 (2001) $4y$ +h4+ n0 $p'c3 D1$4pp34r$ c0mp73+37y. S0m3+h1n6 47w4y$ $Urv1v3$ 0r 3nDUr3$ (p. 403). Th3r343, 1n D4 f4$+
J. C C4+44n
Dynm1c$ 0f $Ub-cU7+Ur3$, 1+ 1$ 1mp0r+4n+ +0 f16Ur3 0U+ h0w D4y $h1f+ 4nD 3xch4n63 $p'c3$ 1n $0c13+y. I$ +r4n$4m4+10n 4 p'r+ 0f 1+$ 3xp'n$10n, 0r 4 D3f3nc3 m3ch4n1$m $h0U7D D34+h 4pp34r 3m1n3n+?'' An0D4r Un3xp70r3D 1D34 w1+h r364rD +0 D4 $+UDy 0f $Ub-cU7+Ur3 1$ D4 1$$U3 0f ‘D4 +r4n$-cU7+Ur47 v1$-4-v1$ D4 $Ub-cU7+Ur47’. Th3$3 r m3n+10n3D 1n +h1$ r3$34rch bU+ r 61v3n 71++73 4++3n+10n. D0 D4$3 +w0 c0nc3p+$ h4pp3n 4+ D4 $4m3 +1m3?'' Ar3 477 $Ub-cU7+Ur3$ +r4n$cU7+Ur47?'' Ar3 477 +r4n$cU7+Ur47 $Ub-cU7+Ur47?'' L4$+ ph0w$zzZZ1n+ b343 D4 cUr+41n c477, 1+ 1$ v1+47 +0 700k 4+ J3j3m0n$’ 4mb1v473n+ r3+Urn$. Th1$ 1D34 1$ 1n$p1r3D by D4 b00k An+hr0p0706y 0f R3m0v47 by N4+h4713 P3U+z (2006). I+ $h0U7D b3 4$k3D, wh3n D4 +1m3 c0m3$ +h4+ D4y h4v3 +0 r3+Urn +0 D41r 4m3r cU7+Ur3, D0 D4y h4v3 4 $3n$3 0f D1ff1cU7+y c0n4m1n6 4641n +0 D4 70c47 n0rm?'' E$p3c1477y wh3n D4y r $33n 4$ ph0w$zzZZ77U+3D 4nD ph0w$zzZZ77U+1n6 D4 4m3r cU7+Ur3 (p. 223). I +3nD +0 b3713v3 +h4+ D41r r3+Urn 1$ n0+ 4 h0m3c0m1n6, bU+ 0n7y nU'D4r 4rr1v47 1n D41r cr34+3D ‘+r4n$cU7+Ur47 c1rcU1+’. I b3713v3 +h4+ my D3p'r+Ur3 fr0m D4 J3j3m0n $Ub-cU7+Ur3 4nD my r3+Urn +0 my ‘prn+ cU7+Ur3’ 1$ 4 j0Urn3y 1n 4 ‘+r4ncU7+Ur47 c1rcU1+’ 0f mUhm3n+$ 4nD 1D3n+1+13$.
J. C C4+44n
A7+jU$$3r, L. (1992, 1971). ID307061c47 $+4+3 4pp'r4+U$3$, 3xc3rp+ fr0m 1D30706y 4nD D4 $+4+3. In R. Ph1771p & W4U6h P. (ED$.). M0D3rn L1+3r4ry Th30ry: A R34D3r (pp. 54-62). L0nD0n 4nD N3w Y0rk: EDw4rD Arn07D. 4r40, D4n170. (2010). nU' n64y0n kUn6 j3j3m0n?'' r3+r1v3D jUn3 20, 2010 fr0m www.bU74+74+.c0m b3ck3r, h0w4rD $. (1963). D4 cU7+Ur3 0f 4 D3v14n+ 6r0Up: D4 ‘j4zz’ mU$1c14n. 637D3r k. & +h0rn+0n $. (3D$.). (1997). D4 $UbcU7+Ur3$ r34D3r (1$+ 3D) (pp. 55-65). 70nD0n: r0U+73D63. b377, D4v1D. (2000). cyb3rcU7+Ur3$ r34D3r: 4 U$3r’$ 6U1D3. 1n 637D3r, k3n (3D). (2005). D4 $UbcU7+Ur3$ r34D3r (2nD 3D). 70nD0n: r0U+73D63. b74nk +4p3. (2010). j3j3m0n 7yr1c$. r3+r13v3D jU7y 29, 2010 fr0m h++p://www.7yr1c$r36.c0m/7yr1c$/b74nk+4p3/j3j3m0n/ b0n1f4c10, 4. (2010). j3j3m0n. r3+r13v3D 4U6U$+ 3, 2010fr0m h++p://www.j3j3m0n.c0m b0y bn+. (2010). r3+r13v3D D3c3mb3r 27, 2010 fr0m www.b0ybn+.c0m bUr63$$, j34n. (2004). h16h cU7+Ur3 4$ $UbcU7+Ur3: br1$bn3’$ c0n+3mp0r4ry ch4mb3r mU$1c $c3n3. (m4$+3r47 D1$$3r+4+10n, Un1v3r$1+y 0f qU33n$74nD, 2004) c4n74$, rUb3n. (2010). j3j3n0m1c$ (4 qU4n+1+4+1v3 4++3mp+ +0 3xp741n c377ph0n3 $p3771n6). r3+r13v3D n0v3mb3r 15, 2010 +hr0U6h f4c3b00k n0+3 ph0w$zzZZ$+3D n0v3mb3r 13, 2010 1n h++p://www.f4c3b00k.c0m/n0+3.php?''n0+3_1D=462998602479&c0mm3n+$&r3f=n0+1f&n0+ 1f_+=n0+3_r3p7y c4r+wr16h+, 7. & $+Urk3n, m. (2001). pr4c+1c3$ 0f 700k1n6: 4n 1n+r0DUc+10n +0 v1$U47 cU7+Ur3. U$4: 0x4D Un1v3r$1+y pr3$$. c74rk3, j0hn., h477, $+U4r+., j3ff3r$0n, +0ny., & r0b3r+$, br14n. (1975). $UbcU7+Ur3$, cU7+Ur3$ 4nD c74$$. 1n 637D3r k. & +h0rn+0n $. (3D$.). (1997). D4 $UbcU7+Ur3$ r34D3r (1$+ 3D). 70nD0n: r0U+73D63.
28-39). 70nD0n: r0U+73D63. 66-70). D4 $UbcU7+Ur3$ r34D3r (1$+ 3D). 70nD0n: r0U+73D63. 70nD0n: r0U+73D63. 4 63n3r47 D40ry 0f $UbcU7+Ur3$. (1997). h3rzf37D. (3D$. k3n. (1947). (1955). 70nD0n: r0U+73D63. (1997). $+rUc+Ur47 n0$+47614. 4+ h0m3 bU+ n0+ 4+ h0m3: f171p1n nrr4+1v3$ 0f 4mb1v473n+ r3+Urn.). 1n 637D3r k. (3D$. 1n 637D3r k.). (1999). m. D4 $UbcU7+Ur3$ r34D3r (1$+ 3D) (pp. 147-182). 70nD0n: r0U+73D63. (1972). 174n6 qU0hn$3p+w47 n b74n6k~$ $4 p'6$U$Ur1 n6 kU7+Ur4n6 ph0w$zzZZpU74r.c0m 64rb3r. D4 71f3-cyc73 0f D4 +4x1-D4nc3r. 40-43).J. (1979). (3D$. 637D3r k. ph17. 1-19). C C4+44n 68 c0h3n. D4 $UbcU7+Ur3$ r34D3r (2nD 3D. (3D$. 2(3). 4n6374. & +h0rn+0n $. (1991). c0n$+4b73. 61r7$ 4nD $UbcU7+Ur3$. j. (2005). 70nD0n: r0U+73D63. (1997). & +h0rn+0n $. 2010 fr0m www. 637D3r k. n1c073. cr3$$3y. D4 $UbcU7+Ur3$ r34D3r (1$+ 3D (pp. 60rD0n.). m17+0n. 37D3r. (1997).). (1997). (1975). 70nD0n: r0U+73D63. c0h3n. $UbcU7+Ur47 c0nf71c+ 4nD w0rk1n6-c74$$ c0mmUn1+y. & +h0rn+0n $. & +h0rn+0n $. D4 $UbcU7+Ur3$ r34D3r (1$+ 3D) (pp. D4 $UbcU7+Ur3$ r34D3r (1$+ 3D). 70nD0n: r0U+73D63. 1n 637D3r k. p'U7 6.r3+r13v3D D3c3mb3r 16. 70nD0n: r0U+73D63. 1rw1n.). 4DD1.). & +h0rn+0n $. (2010). 1n cU7+Ur47 cn+rh0p0706y. (2005). 637D3r k. D4 m34n1n6 0f $+y73 (pp. (3D$. 70nD0n: r0U+73D63. Uk: b74ckw377 pUb71$h1n6.). 32-37 h3bD163. j3nny & mcr0bb13. & +h0rn+0n $. 3U74710 r. 44-54).f4c3b00k. & +h0rn+0n $. 6U13b 111. j0hn. (1970).). (1997). $UbcU7+Ur3. (1997). 1n cU7+Ur47 1n+1m4cy (2nD 3D) (pp. (1932). (3D$. D4 $UbcU7+Ur3$ r34D3r (1$+ 3D) (pp. 7UnD4y4n. D. 47b3r+. 1n 637D3r k. j3j3m0ny. . (3D$. D4 c0nc3p+ 0f D4 $Ub-cU7+Ur3 4nD 1+$ 4pp71c4+10n. D4 $UbcU7+Ur3$ r34D3r (1$+ 3D). n0+3$ 0n D4 $+4+U$ 0f D4 c0nc3p+ $UbcU7+Ur3.
j3j3m0n$: D4 n3w ‘j0706’. h0w4rD. r3+r13v3D jU7y 10. j. & $4nD3r$ +. 1n cUrr3n+ 4n+hr0p0706y.).1nqU1r3r. c74UD3 73v1-$+r4U$$: $0c147 $+rUc+Ur3. Uk: b74ckw377 pUb71$h1n6. D4 c74$$ $+rU6673. h.n3w1n+. r0b3r+ 3. Un1v3r$1+y 0f D4 ph171pp1n3$ D171m4n) p'rk. 3mbrk1n6 0n 4n 4n+hr0p0706y 0f r3m0v47. h. 136-145. 16-27). j3j3 v0n37. 637D3r k. (2001). (2010). (1994). $+4rm0m3+3r. C C4+44n 69 m4rc073+4. n+h4713. (2010). D4 c1+y: $U663$+10n$ 4 D4 1nv3$+164+10n 0f jUm4n b3h4v10Ur70nD0n: Un1v3r$1+y 0f ch1c460 pr3$$. 2010 fr0m www. h. n3w y0rk: n3w 4m3r1c4n. 4 n+10n’$ c0n$+rUc+0r$ 4nD c0n$+rUc+3D. D4 $UbcU7+Ur3$ r34D3r (1$+ 3D) (pp. h31n607D. k3n.n3+ m4rx. r3+r13v3D 4U6U$+ 30. r3+r13v3D jU7y 29. (1997).0r6/1$$U3254/m0D4r/h+m 4cc3$$3D . D34+h w1+h0U+ w33p1n6. (3D$. (3D$. (1915). 2010 fr0m h++p://www. k. (2006).). 70nD0n: r0U+73D63. r3+r13v3D jU7y 10. p17k1n6+0n. 0n D4 c0mmUn1$+ m4n1f3$+0: 4n 1n+r0DUc+10n +063D4r w1+h D4 0r161n7 +3x+ 4nD pr3f4c3$ by k~r7 m4rx 4nD fr13Dr1ch 3n637$. & 3n637$ f. (1967. 70nD0n: r0U+73D63. (1994). (1994). p'67Ub70b 4+ p'67U$0n6: 1$4n6 p'6+4nw $4 m64 $k1nh34D $4 f171p1n$. (UnD3r6r4DU4+3 D4$1$. & +h0rn+0n $. (3D$.). j0hn c4r70.). 2010 fr0m 1n h++p://www. m373nc10.J. 3xc3rp+ fr0m D4 c0mmUn1$+ m4n1f3$+0. (2010).$+4rm0m3+3r.c0m/2010/08/09/D4-j3j3m0m-1nv4$10n-k1ck$-0ff-0n6m4-n3+w0rk/ $ch3p3r-jU6h3$. D4 j3j3m0n k1ck$ 0ff 0n 6m4 n3+w0rk. D4 $UbcU7+Ur3$ r34D3r (2nD 3D. p3U+z. (2005). rU$$14’$ U'+h 4nD 1+$ cU7+Ur3. (2006). 1n 74$k1 h. 4n+hr0p0706y 1n D40ry. 70nD0n: r0U+73D63. 1872). 1n 637D3r.ph/+46/j3j3m0n/ mUh0r3. nncy. 2010fr0m h++p://ph171pp1n3h1$+0ry. p'n6171nn. h4rv3y.
+4m0+$U.. 7. 1n b0Dy 4nD $0U7 (pp.UnbnD1c+10nry. (2010).c1+3$33rx. D4 $UbcU7+Ur3$ r34D3r (1$+ 3D) (pp.1$+. 1977). p. 70nD0n: r0U+73D63.3DU/v13wD0c/D0wn704D?''D01=10. (2010). (2010). (1992.J. 7. n3w y0rk: c07Umb14 Un1v3r$1+y pr3$$. 734rn1n6 +0 74b0r. 1977). (3D$. 0x4D 4nD n3w y0rk: 0x4D Un1v3r$1+y pr3$$.c0m/m41n/2010/05/03/j3j3m0n/ +Urn3r. 77-149). & +h0rn+0n $.c0m/n0+3$/+34m-j3j3m0n/h1$+0ry-n6-m64-+Uny-nj3j3m0n$/114769245221912 +30D0r0.). 0x4D: 0x4D Un1v3r$1+y pr3$$. r3+r13v3D jUn3 10. 2010 fr0m www. w17714m$. U'n6. 1n m4rx1$m 4nD 71+3r4+Ur3 (pp. D4 $UbcU7+Ur3$ r34D3r (1$+ 3D) (pp. (1997). (1969). v.. j3j3m0n.bU74+74+. w4+ 1$ D4 m34n1n6 0f j3j3m0n.c0m w4cqU4n+. r. 1n 637D3r k. (2006). & +h0rn+0n $. 2010 fr0m h++p://www. h1$+0ry n6 m64 +Uny n j3j3m0n’$. 70nD0n: r0U+73D63. D4 $0c147 7061c 0f $p'rr1n6. . (1992. 71m1n71+y 4nD c0mmUn1+4$. 2010 fr0m h++p://www. 2010 fr0m www. r3+r13v3D n0v3mb3r 22.1. j0ck.). j.).). 108114). (2006).120. 71-80). D4 r1+U47 pr0c3$$ (94-130). +34m j3j3m0n.pDf w4cqU4n+. nbnD1c+10nry. w17714m$. (2010). r3+r13v3D 4U6U$+ 8. 1n 637D3r k. (1977). (3D$. p13rr3 b0UrD13U. 66-70). r.6m4n3w$ +v +073n+1n0. (1971). r3+r13v3D 4U6U$+ 3. w3 r 477 j3j3m0n$. w1771$. 2010 fr0m h++p://www. C C4+44n 70 $h1bU+4n1.p$U. r3+r13v3D jUn3 10. (1955). r3f3r3nc3 6r0Up$ 4$ p3r$p3c+1v3$. (3D$. (1997).1. h363m0ny. D4 $Ub+3rr4n34n w0r7D 0f p74y.f4c3b00k. (3D$.c0m. r. 70nD0n: r0U+73D63.
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3n U cN w1tHdr4a fRoM d1z r3s34rCh 1fU dO nOt f1L cOm4t4bL3 w/0 n394t1v3 cOns3qU3ncEz oN u. h0w U cOnTr1BuT3 ‘n D cUlTuR3 3n hOw d1s cH4n93d uR LyF.ph 5uP3rV15oR: 3m4iL: jejePrOf. (+63) 9322479434 3m4iL: jcataan@yahoo. cOLL393 oF m455 cOmMuN1c4t1oN oF uN1v3rs1tY oF tH3 pH1L1Pp1n35 d1L1m4n. tH3 1nt3rV1eW w1LL l4zT 4 4n hOuR. u w1LL V 45k3d kW35t1oNz r394rD1n9 uR xP3r13nC3s 4z 4 j3j3mOn. mY pL3d93 2 cOnF1d3nT14L1tY 3n 3tH1cZ s 4L5o m34n5 d4T nO p3r5oN oR oR94n1z4t1oN oTh3r d4n mY 4dV153r w1LL h4v3 aCc355 2 4nY 1n4m4t1oN uNL3zz r3qU3zt3d bY dULy-r3cO9n1z3d 4uThOr1t1z 3n oFF1z3z oF d’ uN1v3rZty.email@example.com D1s 1sH 2 1nV1t3 U 2 p4rt1c1p4t3 1n 4 r3534rCh 3nt1tL3d j3j3mOn5: tH3 “oTh3r wOrLd” w1tH1n tH3 wOrLd 4 mY uNd3rGr4dU4t3 j3j3tH351s r3534rCh N d’ d3p4rTm3nT of bRo4dc45t cOmMuN1c4t1oN.J. oL 4m5 3n 1nt3rV13w tR4nZcR1pT1oNz 4r3 s4v3d 1n 4 p455wOrDprOt3ct3d d191t4L-v4uLt. uR s19n4tUr3 b3LoW s3rV35 2 s19n1fY d4t U a9r33 2 p4rT1c1p8 ‘n d1z zTuDy. oR 3v3n w1tHdR4w 4t 4Ny p1oNt fR0m d’ r3z34rCh w/0 4nY p3n4lTy. C C4+44n 74 uN1v3rs1tY oF tH3 pH1L1Pp1n35 d1L1m4n w0rK1n6 t1tL3: j3j3mOn5: tH3 “oTh3r wOrLd” w1tH1n tH3 wOrLd r3534rCh3r: j3j3jo53pH r1cK cRuZ c4t44n. uR p4rt1c1p4t1oN 1z 3nT1r3Ly vOLuNt4rY 3n U c4n cHuZ 2 d3cL1n3 2 4nZw3r 4nY qU3zT1oN. cOLL393 oF m455 cOmMuN1c4t1oN pHoN3: (+63) 9168761567. 1f U h4v3 qU3zT1oNz oR cOnz3rNz.com. 4LtHou9H w3 c4n zToP d1z 1nT3rV13w 4nYtyM u w4nT. (+63) 9322479434 or at jcataan@yahoo. pL1z f1L fR33 2 cOnT4cT m3 4t 4nY tYm @ (+63) 9168761567. d33 eulalio. pL1z dO nT h3z1t8 2 cOnT4cT m3 F u n1d mOr3 1nfOrM4t1oN oR 1f U w15h 2 4dd sOm3th1n9. uNd3rGr4dU4t3 j3j3sTuD3nT. pH0toz 3n/0r v1d3os w1LL 4lzO b3 t4K3n w1d uR p3Rm1zz1oN 2 zUpPl3m3nT ‘d r3534rCh. D gO4L oF d’ 5TuD33 i5 2 d33pLy uNd3r5T4nD d’ j3j3mOn pH3nOm3nOn 4s 4 “sUb-cUlTur3” 3n“cOuNt3r cUlTur3”. jccataan@up. c0n53nT: p4rT1c1p4nT’z s19n4tUr3 oV3r pR1nT3d n4M3: __________________ r3534rCh3r’5 s19n4tUr3 oV3r pR1nT3d n4M3: __________________ d8: _______________ .com. 4nYt1n9 U s3y w1LL oNLi b3 4ttR1bUt3d 2 u w/ uR p3rM1zz1oN. uR p4rt1c1p4t1oN 1n D 5tudY w1LL 3nT4iL 4 5hOrt f4c3-tO-f4c3 iNt3rv13w w/ m3 4s D r3534rCh3r. 3uL4L1o gU13b III pH.mcgill.edu.
tH3 1nt3rV1eW w1LL l4zT 4 4n hOuR. 3n U cN w1tHdr4w fRoM d1z r3s34rCh 1fU dO nOt f1L cOm4t4bL3 w/0 n394t1v3 cOns3qU3ncEz oN u.com.J. 1f U h4v3 qU3zT1oNz oR cOnz3rNz. jccataan@up. c0n53nT: p4rT1c1p4nT’z s19n4tUr3 oV3r pR1nT3d n4M3: __________________ r3534rCh3r’5 s19n4tUr3 oV3r pR1nT3d n4M3: __________________ d8: _______________ . d33 eulalio. 4LtHou9H w3 c4n zToP d1z 1nT3rV13w 4nYtyM u w4nT. oL 4m5 3n 1nt3rV13w tR4nZcR1pT1oNz 4r3 s4v3d 1n 4 p455wOrDprOt3ct3d d191t4L-v4uLt. pL1z f1L fR33 2 cOnT4cT m3 4t 4nY tYm @ (+63) 9168761567.edu. (+63) 9322479434 jcataan@yahoo. cOLL393 oF m455 cOmMuN1c4t1oN oF uN1v3rs1tY oF tH3 pH1L1Pp1n35 d1L1m4n. pH0toz 3n/0r v1d3os w1LL 4lzO b3 t4K3n w1d uR p3Rm1zz1oN 2 zUpPl3m3nT ‘d r3534rCh. 3uL4L1o gU13b III pH. uR p4rt1c1p4t1oN 1n D 5tudY w1LL 3nT4iL 4 5hOrt f4c3-tO-f4c3 iNt3rv13w w/ m3 4s D r3534rCh3r. uNd3rGr4dU4t3 j3j3sTuD3nT.guiebiii@mail. cOLL393 oF m455 cOmMuN1c4t1oN (+63) 9168761567. (+63) 9322479434 or at jcataan@yahoo. uR p4rt1c1p4t1oN 1z 3nT1r3Ly vOLuNt4rY 3n U c4n cHuZ 2 d3cL1n3 2 4nZw3r 4nY qU3zT1oN.ca D1s 1sH 2 1nV1t3 U 2 p4rt1c1p4t3 1n 4 r3534rCh 3nt1tL3d j3j3mOn5: tH3 “oTh3r wOrLd” w1tH1n tH3 wOrLd 4 mY uNd3rGr4dU4t3 j3j3tH351s r3534rCh N d’ d3p4rTm3nT of bRo4dc45t cOmMuN1c4t1oN. C C4+44n 75 C0n53nT fOrM FoR 1nT3rV13w (1nT3rV13w33’5 cOpEe) uN1v3rs1tY oF tH3 pH1L1Pp1n35 d1L1m4n w0rK1n6 t1tL3: j3j3mOn5: tH3 “oTh3r wOrLd” w1tH1n tH3 wOrLd r3534rCh3r: pHoN3: 3m4iL: 5uP3rV15oR: 3m4iL: j3j3jo53pH r1cK cRuZ c4t44n. u w1LL V 45k3d kW35t1oNz r394rD1n9 uR xP3r13nC3s 4z 4 j3j3mOn. mY pL3d93 2 cOnF1d3nT14L1tY 3n 3tH1cZ s 4L5o m34n5 d4T nO p3r5oN oR oR94n1z4t1oN oTh3r d4n mY 4dV153r w1LL h4v3 aCc355 2 4nY 1n4m4t1oN uNL3zz r3qU3zt3d bY dULy-r3cO9n1z3d 4uThOr1t1z 3n oFF1z3z oF d’ uN1v3rZty.ph jejePrOf. D gO4L oF d’ 5TuD33 i5 2 d33pLy uNd3r5T4nD d’ j3j3mOn pH3nOm3nOn 4s 4 “sUb-cUlTur3” 3n“cOuNt3r cUlTur3”. h0w U cOnTr1BuT3 ‘n D cUlTuR3 3n hOw d1s cH4n93d uR LyF.mcgill. pL1z dO nT h3z1t8 2 cOnT4cT m3 F u n1d mOr3 1nfOrM4t1oN oR 1f U w15h 2 4dd sOm3th1n9. 4nYt1n9 U s3y w1LL oNLi b3 4ttR1bUt3d 2 u w/ uR p3rM1zz1oN. oR 3v3n w1tHdR4w 4t 4Ny p1oNt fR0m d’ r3z34rCh w/0 4nY p3n4lTy. uR s19n4tUr3 b3LoW s3rV35 2 s19n1fY d4t U a9r33 2 p4rT1c1p8 ‘n d1z zTuDy.com.
uR s19n4tUr3 b3LoW s3rV35 2 s19n1fY d4t U a9r33 2 p4rT1c1p8 ‘n d1z zTuDy. u w1LL 4lzO xCh4n93 t3xT m3zz493z 3n oD3r m34nZ oF coMmuN1c4t1oN w/ d r3z34rCh3r 4LtHou9H w3 c4n zToP uR p4t1c1p4t1oN 4nYtyM u w4nT.com. C C4+44n 76 C0n53nT fOrM FoR p4rT1c1p4nT oBs3rV4t1oN (r3534rCh3r’5 cOpEe) uN1v3rs1tY oF tH3 pH1L1Pp1n35 d1L1m4n w0rK1n6 t1tL3: j3j3mOn5: tH3 “oTh3r wOrLd” w1tH1n tH3 wOrLd r3534rCh3r: j3j3jo53pH r1cK cRuZ c4t44n. pH0toz 3n/0r v1d3os w1LL 4lzO b3 t4K3n w1d uR p3Rm1zz1oN 2 zUpPl3m3nT ‘d r3534rCh. firstname.lastname@example.org@mail. cOLL393 oF m455 cOmMuN1c4t1oN pHoN3: (+63) 9168761567. pL1z dO nT h3z1t8 2 cOnT4cT m3 F u n1d mOr3 1nfOrM4t1oN oR 1f U w15h 2 4dd sOm3th1n9. 1f U h4v3 qU3zT1oNz oR cOnz3rNz. uNd3rGr4dU4t3 j3j3sTuD3nT. (+63) 9322479434 or at email@example.com. uR p4rt1c1p4t1oN 1n D 5tudY w1LL 3nT4iL 4 m0ntH-loN9 oF j3j3mOn pR4t1c3z w/ d r3z34rCh3r. 3uL4L1o gU13b III pH. d33 eulalio. (+63) 9322479434 3m4iL: jcataan@yahoo. pL1z f1L fR33 2 cOnT4cT m3 4t 4nY tYm @ (+63) 9168761567. oR 3v3n w1tHdR4w 4t 4Ny p1oNt fR0m d’ r3z34rCh w/0 4nY p3n4lTy. 4nYt1n9 U s3y w1LL oNLi b3 4ttR1bUt3d 2 u w/ uR p3rM1zz1oN.ph 5uP3rV15oR: 3m4iL: jejePrOf.mcgill. oL 4m5 3n 1nt3rV13w tR4nZcR1pT1oNz 4r3 s4v3d 1n 4 p455wOrDprOt3ct3d d191t4L-v4uLt. 3n U cN w1tHdr4w fRoM d1z r3s34rCh 1fU dO nOt f1L cOm4t4bL3 w/0 n394t1v3 cOns3qU3ncEz oN u.ca D1s 1sH 2 1nV1t3 U 2 p4rt1c1p4t3 1n 4 r3534rCh 3nt1tL3d j3j3mOn5: tH3 “oTh3r wOrLd” w1tH1n tH3 wOrLd 4 mY uNd3rGr4dU4t3 j3j3tH351s r3534rCh N d’ d3p4rTm3nT of bRo4dc45t cOmMuN1c4t1oN. u w1LL V gU1d1n9 eN t34cH2n9 d r3z34rCh3r w/ uR xP3r13nZ3z 4z 4 j3j3mOn 41m1n9 d4t d r3z34rCh3r w1LL h4v 4 f1rZt-h4nD xP3r13nZ3 oF d r34L j3j3mOn wOrLd. c0n53nT: p4rT1c1p4nT’z s19n4tUr3 oV3r pR1nT3d n4M3: __________________ r3534rCh3r’5 s19n4tUr3 oV3r pR1nT3d n4M3: __________________ d8: _______________ . mY pL3d93 2 cOnF1d3nT14L1tY 3n 3tH1cZ s 4L5o m34n5 d4T nO p3r5oN oR oR94n1z4t1oN oTh3r d4n mY 4dV153r w1LL h4v3 aCc355 2 4nY 1n4m4t1oN uNL3zz r3qU3zt3d bY dULy-r3cO9n1z3d 4uThOr1t1z 3n oFF1z3z oF d’ uN1v3rZty. cOLL393 oF m455 cOmMuN1c4t1oN oF uN1v3rs1tY oF tH3 pH1L1Pp1n35 d1L1m4n. uR p4rt1c1p4t1oN 1z 3nT1r3Ly vOLuNt4rY 3n U c4n cHuZ 2 d3cL1n3 2 4nZw3r 4nY qU3zT1oN.com. D gO4L oF d’ 5TuD33 i5 2 d33pLy uNd3r5T4nD d’ j3j3mOn pH3nOm3nOn 4s 4 “sUb-cUlTur3” 3n“cOuNt3r cUlTur3”.J.
uR p4rt1c1p4t1oN 1z 3nT1r3Ly vOLuNt4rY 3n U c4n cHuZ 2 d3cL1n3 2 4nZw3r 4nY qU3zT1oN. mY pL3d93 2 cOnF1d3nT14L1tY 3n 3tH1cZ s 4L5o m34n5 d4T nO p3r5oN oR oR94n1z4t1oN oTh3r d4n mY 4dV153r w1LL h4v3 aCc355 2 4nY 1n4m4t1oN uNL3zz r3qU3zt3d bY dULy-r3cO9n1z3d 4uThOr1t1z 3n oFF1z3z oF d’ uN1v3rZty.com.J. u w1LL V gU1d1n9 eN t34cH2n9 d r3z34rCh3r w/ uR xP3r13nZ3z 4z 4 j3j3mOn 41m1n9 d4t d r3z34rCh3r w1LL h4v 4 f1rZt-h4nD xP3r13nZ3 oF d r34L j3j3mOn wOrLd. (+63) 9322479434 or at jcataan@yahoo. cOLL393 oF m455 cOmMuN1c4t1oN oF uN1v3rs1tY oF tH3 pH1L1Pp1n35 d1L1m4n. pL1z dO nT h3z1t8 2 cOnT4cT m3 F u n1d mOr3 1nfOrM4t1oN oR 1f U w15h 2 4dd sOm3th1n9. oR 3v3n w1tHdR4w 4t 4Ny p1oNt fR0m d’ r3z34rCh w/0 4nY p3n4lTy. (+63) 9322479434 3m4iL: firstname.lastname@example.org 5uP3rV15oR: 3m4iL: jejePrOf.ca D1s 1sH 2 1nV1t3 U 2 p4rt1c1p4t3 1n 4 r3534rCh 3nt1tL3d j3j3mOn5: tH3 “oTh3r wOrLd” w1tH1n tH3 wOrLd 4 mY uNd3rGr4dU4t3 j3j3tH351s r3534rCh N d’ d3p4rTm3nT of bRo4dc45t cOmMuN1c4t1oN. D gO4L oF d’ 5TuD33 i5 2 d33pLy uNd3r5T4nD d’ j3j3mOn pH3nOm3nOn 4s 4 “sUb-cUlTur3” 3n“cOuNt3r cUlTur3”. pL1z f1L fR33 2 cOnT4cT m3 4t 4nY tYm @ (+63) 9168761567. 1f U h4v3 qU3zT1oNz oR cOnz3rNz. 3uL4L1o gU13b III pH. cOLL393 oF m455 cOmMuN1c4t1oN pHoN3: (+63) 9168761567. c0n53nT: p4rT1c1p4nT’z s19n4tUr3 oV3r pR1nT3d n4M3: __________________ r3534rCh3r’5 s19n4tUr3 oV3r pR1nT3d n4M3: __________________ d8: _______________ . 3n U cN w1tHdr4w fRoM d1z r3s34rCh 1fU dO nOt f1L cOm4t4bL3 w/0 n394t1v3 cOns3qU3ncEz oN u.mcgill.guiebiii@mail. u w1LL 4lzO xCh4n93 t3xT m3zz493z 3n oD3r m34nZ oF coMmuN1c4t1oN w/ d r3z34rCh3r 4LtHou9H w3 c4n zToP uR p4t1c1p4t1oN 4nYtyM u w4nT. uR s19n4tUr3 b3LoW s3rV35 2 s19n1fY d4t U a9r33 2 p4rT1c1p8 ‘n d1z zTuDy. d33 eulalio.edu. oL 4m5 3n 1nt3rV13w tR4nZcR1pT1oNz 4r3 s4v3d 1n 4 p455wOrDprOt3ct3d d191t4L-v4uLt. C C4+44n 77 C0n53nT fOrM FoR p4rT1c1p4nT oBs3rV4t1oN (p4rT1c1p4nT’5 cOpEe) uN1v3rs1tY oF tH3 pH1L1Pp1n35 d1L1m4n w0rK1n6 t1tL3: j3j3mOn5: tH3 “oTh3r wOrLd” w1tH1n tH3 wOrLd r3534rCh3r: j3j3jo53pH r1cK cRuZ c4t44n. uNd3rGr4dU4t3 j3j3sTuD3nT. uR p4rt1c1p4t1oN 1n D 5tudY w1LL 3nT4iL 4 m0ntH-loN9 oF j3j3mOn pR4t1c3z w/ d r3z34rCh3r. jccataan@up. pH0toz 3n/0r v1d3os w1LL 4lzO b3 t4K3n w1d uR p3Rm1zz1oN 2 zUpPl3m3nT ‘d r3534rCh. 4nYt1n9 U s3y w1LL oNLi b3 4ttR1bUt3d 2 u w/ uR p3rM1zz1oN.
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