DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY

. I

ASSAULT

AK-47

RIFLE

PRODUCED BY 203d

MILITARY INTELLIGENCE BATTAL,ION

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SAFETY

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SECTION 11. . a ~ Romafl... . . . j - . :.K-47 . .' -. a."~ .- FIGUIRE 3.fired weapon deby the.s a mi Id recoi 1 which gi ves it the capabi 1ity of d.. compact.:o~:~:. a. ~o..":'. . :. ~ .. . :. LEFT VIEW~ AK-47 The AK-47 is produced i'n two: di fferent bas ie models .el i vering effective full automatic fire up to 300. . 'fer pray. with a cOT1ventiona1 fixed wooden stock (fig 5} and tne other with a folding metal stock (fig 6). '. de a ready mean s of i dent..s Dn the AK-.-'. TECHNICAL DATA Cartridge Feed Magazine capaci ty Gas operated Weight Length Length wjfo1ded 7. a have maTluf'ac:tured the AK-47~ The sel ect.5 in 40 rpm 100 rpm 600-800 rpm 400 meters stock Rate af fire semiautomatic Rate of fire automatic Rate of fire cyclic 1t1aximum effective raflge FIGURE 2~ RIGHT VIEW!t AK-47 . cartri dges.one. Bu1ga r.or marking. In addition to the Soviet Union. FIGURE: 1. East GennanY!l Po 1and.':I"~~~~. 2 A. Soviets in 1946 whi en fi res a -cartri dge intermediate in ri ght side of tlie rece.47 (fig 3) is a short.air'borne and armor units.. selective." ~ -. 62x39rrm Magazine (fig 7} 30 rds 9~5 1b 34~2 in 27.-=...~ .. It ha. fy'.nd YugosT av.-0-. ~ . the People1s Rep-ubtic Df China. .."'. The folding stock is us~d mostly by.SECT!ON I~ G'EMERAL The signed power between submachine gUTland ri fle.~. meters... Nort h Korea" Hunga ry. . ng the country of origin (fig 4).

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i-automati clower positi on) (fig 12).. the front in If above it shoul d be screwe. ght:l t ~ ~ Inserting the mag-azine into the re-cE!1 'er : Cant t. The froflt sight just for elevatiDn. post in or out Df its base' to adThe wrench in the combination tool kit is used c:a. Later'a 1 zeroing is done by movi ng the cy'lindrical front sight post mount from side tD side using the l-ater.red ro-und~ Load a of the ma fune.ing the stock down beneath the ~eapDn {fig 14). Pull the operating handle fully to the reart inspect the chamber and receiver.tiol'l.he magaz. If the strike of the sight should be screwed the strike of the bullet 51 ide. bullet is below the control pDint.n be scrE!wed 5 6 .pect it to' detE!rmine the caus~ tion for a m~sfi re is to.nd down range unt i ~ a 11 a. If it does no. Immediate ac1 ri fle pointed down range for at operating handle to the rear and new round and attempt to fi re i't. ps (fi 9 8). fl e poi n ted gun up a.t fire~ wait one minute and then IJnload the rifle. then swing the magazine forward and out of the receiver. Then pull the eject the n~isf. OPERATION load i ng the Magal i ne : P1 a.SECTIDN II I.moer NOTE: z (fig ll)t must be in a firing positionK CAUTION: Al ways keep' the sel ector in the safe (upper) the weapo'TI is ready to be fi red a a 10).150 be fired with the stock fo1ded~ This is done by pressing the stock latch located on the left rear of the receiver (fi 9 13) swi ng. nto the c ha.. 15) toward the magaz. Press it down unti 1 it 10cks i nsi de th~ m~gazine. If is to the left of the control point~ the should be mov~d to the left.. then pull the ma-gazi ne tD the rear unti 1 it snaps into place. Set the rear sight for the desired range by pressing in on the s1id-e catch and moving the s1ide bar along the 1eaf until the frolnt edge of the bar is al igned with the 1ine below the number that correspDnds with the range in meters (fig 17). Loading the AK~47: Pull the operating handle (fig the rear and release it so the lug on the bottom of the ~ rou nd from tl1e mag13 i neaT! d . Zeroing.poTl and Cl II ins. for thi-s purpose (fig 18). tion unt..d out. release the operating hand1e and pull the tri-gger (fig 16).. Repeat unti 1 magaZiT1-e is full (3D rds). fully to bolt can strip The se 1ector pas. changes tne stri ke of the bul1et 26cm at 100 meters One fu11 turn an the front sight post moves the stri ke of the bull et 2Dcm' when f. f' tD: hE: r. of the front si ght to the right.s been zeroed" tne Dld mark s"'ould be removed and a new one written in.. Inspect to determine the caus:e of tfle malfunction. After the weapon ha. Unloading: Remove the magazine by pressing the magazifle catch (fig.al zeroing tool (fig 19). ~ Firing the AK-47: Place the s~lector on the desired positfon (automati c mi dd1e positi Din and sem. . 1 Moving the front sight slide to th~ left~ right~ up or down lrffi1. keep th~ least one minute.mmuni t ion is e xpen ded ea r the: wea.ne.. This position is used mainly by airborfle and armor units. ri ng at 100 meters. If no cartridge is present. Aim usi ng a nonna 1 sight pi'cture and pull the tri gger ~ ~ the metal stock can a. ~ The AK-47' with Ill111ed ate i ac ti 0 n : For ij ru naway' ~ keep the ri.ce a rQU nd between the feed 1. Front si gnt post changes sho~ld be ver'i fied by a group of four indi vidua I 1y aimed shots..ine forv ward so the 1ug on the front of the magazi ne engag~s with its re'cess in the magazine we1l (fig 9).

:.. ~.~ . -r. .-. ~ i '= - ~ ...'~ '"=t r"" P""~ -. . .PI=.~~ ~. 2 1 -:~~ . 1 OPE RAT ING HAN DLE B . . ~ ~~. .)11 2 ".. ..l . 2.. .. ::._~-~ I . ~ ........z-r-r " "" .i 1 LOADING MAGAZIJtE .~ t. AK-47 MAGAZINE ~ If ..~" ~. \ ~~.... ..-II: i-.~~-.. FEED LIPS FIGURE 10. ~ & 2.n_./. -""'.. : .. r... .... - MAGAZIN E W'Ell _.. .:.&.- ~ ~ . /~/~ FIGURE 7. F I GIURE 8... INSERTING MAGAZINE MAGAZINE LUG FIGURE 9~ 1.: I.

~~ ~c. ... .tIl..'.. SELECTOR IN FIRING POSITION 1.~J... FOLD I~lG STOCK STOCK STOCK. - ... y..~ -"..'-'-~iii...~ .I:. . LATCH FIGURE 11. ">~.. . EW. 2..~~c -=-~-"'. . 1.J~ ~ ...~~~u '" FIGURE 14~ FIGURE 12.~.~ - . .~ 1 ---~-IIi.."... .~. .2. ilL.... " . C to ."..IATI 9 STOC K fOLDED FIRING POSITION 2. ..:.. . SELECTOR IN AUTO~ATIC SEMIAUTor.. FIGURE 13.!I . 1 A . --"""-:f" ._.. -~:~:' ... .

- 2 ~}- ' r."".'. . .... -.::i -~."'. -. ~ .: ... 3.~ .~=~ . .. 4~ BAR FRONT EDGE NUMBERS 5." LJi:J: :. 2 . . "-. 1 .... .....:'.... . . "- -"... FIGURE .~ "~ . ... .- 3 4 -:~ ~"..1:"' v" - .tI'. 6~ OPERATING HANDLE ...~~... ". MAG/lZ I r~E CATCH 1 ~ ... ~1 . REAR SI BHT 1. ~ -- y.. ~....~"r!:::.. -" - +--'.. "9'~ ~ ! or ..." ... --.. i p..- ~ IL ""-11....-" ~:~ :-.P -'-- ii:~ -=~.' - FIGIURE 1'5. "...- - ~ -v-c . =~ ~. ~ ~ ' i -~\ ~ .. 5 . 29 SLIDE SLIDE LEAF CATC~ BAR. .p ~~>:.~ ...~ i -t~- .: FIGU'RE 17. " ~ ~! -' ' ~ :tIE! ~ --"~ .. ~ ...

4.e of i't'S cam p'a. Rem-ove i! - ~' ward (fig tube.ight forward and out of the carrier (fig 31). 23) di sengaging it from its seat in the rear of the receiver (fig 24). DISASSEMBLY Unloading and clearing the AK-47: Remove the magazine and pull the operating handl e fully to the rear Inspect. COMB:J NATION TOOL CYl.~ FIGURE 19~. the chamber and rE!cei ver to insure no cartridges ar-e present" Relea.th iTl the carr. FRONT SIGHT FRONT SIGHT BASE 1. ~ :i' --. 2.ng guide (fig 21) into in~ lift Press the serrated end of the driving the bolt cover~ and while holding the guide off the bolt cover! rear end first {fig 22).se the operating handle and pull the trigger (fig 20}. ~ 2 Remove the bolt cover: spr'.nd1 e fully' to the carrier' sl ightly upward (fig 27) and then remove the bolt and carrier by pulling it to the rear (fig 28)k Remove bolt and carrier: r~ar (fig 25}~ lift the bolt RemDve the bolt 3. er (fig 30)~. Pull the bol t stra. 1.3 SECTION TV. r ) "~ . the'n pull the ccmpl ete driving spring assembly out of the bolt carrier (fig 25). Pull up on the hand guard -gas cyl inder rea r of the and r'emove tne tube (fi g 34) II 1 . SPECIAL TDOl ~3 14 . a . ~ Remove the driving spring assemb ly: Push forwa.g.rd on the end of the driving spri ng guide (f'. fIGURE 18.~ 2 J.INDRI CAl POST MOUrn from the carrier: Press the bol t into the carrier (fig 29) until the bolt operating lug can be twisted fre. 2~ FRONT SIGHT fRONT BASE SiGHT POST Pull the operati ng ha.. Rotate the gas cy11Tlder tube 1DCk up32 and 33) to free the gas cylinder tube.

.: Fl G. BASE 2. TOOL 13 14 .. 4. a. 1.y upwar'd (fig 27) and tl1en remove thE: bolt and carrier by pulling it to the rear (fig 28). Remove t~e bolt cover: Press the serrated end of the driving spring guide (fig 21) into the bolt cover. Remove F1 [iURE 18.. FRONT SIGHT FRONT'S I GHT POST erati ng handle fullr to the Pull the OP rear (fig 2-5)~ lift the bolt carrier slightl..th in the carr... 2. rear end first {fig 22) ~ the driving spring assembly: Push forward on the end of the driving spring guide (fig 23).learing the AK-47: Remove the magazi ne and pull the ope-rati ng handle fully to the re'ar.OOlplete driving spring assembly out of the bolt carrier (fig 25). ~ -.. RemDve b-olt and carrier: . DISASSEMBLY c. handle and pull the trigger (fig 20)..~ ". FRONT SIGHT SPE CI Al. the. ~ I . no cartr idQeS are present. er (fig 30) Pull the bol t straigl1t forward.URE 19~ FRONT SIGHT 1. Pull up on the rear' of the hand guard and r'emove the tube (fi g 34).ng it from i:ts seat in the rear of the receiver (f'.nd ~ R~mnve the bolt out of the carrier ::: ~ (fig 31).g 24).se the op-erating . -~ ~: f ~ . tube. and while holding the guide in!8 1ift off the bol t cover. -. .OMBINATIONTOOL CYLINDRICAL POST MOUNT from the carrier: Press the bolt into the carrier' (fig 29) until the bolt operating 1ug carl be twisted fre'e of i't-s eam pa. BASE C. Remove gas cyllnder 1 2.n pull' the c. Inspect the chamber and r-ecei \I'er to insure. Rotate the gas cylinder tube lock upward (fig 32 and 33} to free the gas cylinder tube.3 SECTION Un1oadi ng and IV. Relea. 3. disengagi. j -\. 1 " .. . III -- ~.: .

REMOVING BOtT COVER ..:~..-'" . FIGURE 21. 2. 1. ClfARING PoECH YEP. j FIGURE 20. CHPJ. ::I FIGURE 23. II ~ 1: .1BER THE AK-47 FIGURE 22. DRIVING SPRING GUIOf DRIVING SPRING 1~ 1i:> .". .' 1'.~ .

... E 17 LI t{G BOLT OiRRI ER FTl 18 ./-- I SPRING FIGURE 2A.~: ~'~ .1 i ~ /- -~- '---~a/~ ~ . i.L." ~' c ")2:' J .~. l I" . 27... . OPEAATING HANDLE / FIGURE 25. {HSENGAGINGf}PJ\fING FIGURE 26. REMOVING ORI VING SPRING ASSEfilJL Y Fi GUP.

.~... - ..'. - .' "c- J~'-' .:.( '."'j:.T .-.~ --- ~ Ir.. '. :. . ' ~~ ~ ~ ' .\ 1 I ~ i.~---.Il"n m.. ~ ..- - --" .L .~--- 0 t !.. - ~. ~. ''. F1GURE 28. ' f ~ '. -~ J~'~ -. I..-. Ir..JO . .G --' ----- T'}" FIGURE 2~.. ~ EM0'1 i NG BOLT i9 .. - ~ ~ . ' " '.' . ~~ " ' -l~'" ~..Jj~:~:JII.#"..... ' '- . .FIGURE 30. REr10VING BOLT fIGURE 11. I" - .- - . "." _.' . . - ..{ ~ -.:. ..'"' . .~l '.. ... -:1..' i\ ~/( ." -- "'-...-~:. ~ . '" I" - . -" " ~.~m~ .. R910VING CARRIE~ OF'r R..t.....J~ . -=~. ' .

. ~.. . .. .- ~ FIGURE 33. TUBE LOCK ~ . . ..' t. i1..~ .. ~ --- .:-~ i... . .-. TUBE LOCK UPWARD I 21 2:2 . ..~~ 0Iloo: '=" . ~ '------. .. _.. Ii ~ ... ~ ~ j ~-.Lr ~ -'I L- ....:. -."" t-..I :...---- fIGURE ~ ~ 1.. 32..:.. . REMOViNG HAND GUARD \. ~'~ - .. .. r~ I . -. .....'" -:. I I -11 .:.. . .. .. r81 ~ . ~~~~~:'... .~'. . fIGURE 14.~ ...~-~~~~. .

cl. and thefl S1i de the cCiri e r iu 11y forward (f1 9 42).- ~-.. Rep1a I:e the bOo cover ~ 1n5ert 1t the front en d 0 f t h-e:bolt spring cove r snaps ENGJi. Apply t oomh pre~ su re ove-r the. the e. e r press down and forward until through the ha'e (fig 47). t ~ ~ t ". Slide t~e Diston into the hole under the rear sight (fi g: 40) Lmtil the carrier fi ts into its ClJts at the rea.J ~~ I fIGURE 36. FIGuRE 35. r Replace drh1 rtg spri ng.!'" of th. R~p'ace thee bolt: Slide the spindTe of the bolt lflto the carrier First.€orea r of the cove {fi 9 46).ln)with the bo1t ful1y ro'r"Word.lot in the recf!iver ~fi9 44).~!r JI I .Pull the bolt as far forward as possible in carrier (flg 39). .-.r ~~'~ SECi 10M If.GI ~JGruBE i~to the circ~lar grooves in the rear sight base (fig 4S}. TUBE SEATED 23 2~ . Replace bolt carrier.n9 of the gas cyl h14:ler tube with the Then swt the rear of the tube into the rear Rotate the gas cylinder tube loci< doW"t1 its to lock positiDn \f1g 37).squ a re 0(11 in t h. REASSEMBLY --~ g~s cylinder' (fig 35). {fig 38} an<! rotate the bQlt to m~te the operating lug with its ellrn path. sight base (fig 36).Irr1er (fig 43) and reseat the guide into it$.e receher (fi9 4l}~ Press the carrier dO\t. En~age the front open. :. Insert the dr1 vfn9 sprin9 into its ho1e in the rei..i~ of tt\e.nd of tile: driving guide ~ ~ ~ .

REPV. :.."_£ --- t ~- I: =-_c: .:.- or _.~ 81111J.". REPl... ~. 2.....o."" .l f FI GU~E 37.L~r---Jf " I .'5 .. . GAS CYLINGER ~ J ~ ..!J ~ .iLg ~- FIGURE 38. ..c.- ~ TUBE IN LOCK POSITlor~ . " fI(. ..--~ "1 ~ ..~-.."-1/ -. ."".. BOLT In CARRiER . : .r(-~" ~~ ~ r.-.... .HRE 39. ~. -~ ..CING SOLT CARRIER 26 1.cmG SPWDLE CARRIER THE BOLT FIGURE &0..

CUT IN RECEI VER FIGURE 43. FIGUHE 41. REPLACING DRIVING SPRi~G r-- -\ ~. fI GURE 42. CAP.RIER SEATED [)RIVWG SPRWG GUIDE SLOT "}7 21:1 .~f. ~ r.o. ~ FiGURE 44.

1::-....JI . .T. .._-... .. BatT C. . HOLETft REAR OF covrR ao ~9 ... FIGURE 46. ---=I"'~ ~*". ".. ... i1"". c' ..J FIGURE 45. . /~~ . nGURE 47 .. 't'-'''' ~ ~~..DVERSEATED .."- '. - .Y~... 2... REPLACING BOLT COVER 1. FRDrH OF COVER CIRCULAR GROOVE t.

accessories will be issued w~en available with the .l type cartridge is used for firing SIGHT1NG Pl asti c magazi ne: The So:viet AK-47 metal magazine is gradua 1ly being repl aced by the pl astic magazine (f'..wing the muzz1e nut by turning it clockwise and replacing it with the device (fig 52).he muzzle nut 'ocking plunger (f'ig 51). 9 57) which is 1i:ghter than the metal. AK-47 ACCESSORIES i ti on may be fi re:cj when the blank f1 r.le and 51idi ng the bayorTlet forward and Dff.ng 4.. 51 i.ner.nd screwing the launcher nnto the weapoTl (fi 9 54):. 5. . ce . DEVICE DEVICE. . The bayonet (fig' 55) is af'fixed by positioning its loops In front of the mUlZ1 e nut and gas cy1i nlde r body! an d s 1i ding the bayonet to the rea.SECTION VI.CAUTION: the grenade Place the blJtt Q. Do not use the cap of the combination teol kit as a blank firing device~ On 1y CAUTION: b1afl k dlm1un 1. 2~ COMBINATION BAYONET SLING BLANK NIGHT FIRING TOOL K. the lalJnc.. Night Sighting Device Night Sighting Device: The night sighting device (f'i9 49) is tached by snaJJPing it oVler the sight~ It carl be moved out of the in order to use conventional sights in the daytime. 5~ Bl ank Fi ri ng Dev.... To fire ~ 3.f the weapon on the ground a. loc:ated lJeh nd the hi 1t i away from the hand.. ~ . 31 32 . . 1. I' ~ -- Cnmbinat ion Tool Kit Bayonet )8 .. atway detar- W . . unscr'e..nes~ airbDrne an-d armor -units.. the grenade~.In-sert a.'ght and: waterP'roof!t is used mainly by mar. ~. ACCESSORIES The following AK-47: (fig 48). be-cause' it is 1ight we. To use this vice~ align the luminous dots (fig 50) over each other and on the gets aim and fire. The 'Plastic magazine. ~ "'~ 2~ 3.fld fire from thi s posi'ti Dn~ The maximum effect. grenade with the pili Plulled into A specia.r unti 1 the bayonet catch engages the muzzle. It is removed the same way as the muzzle nut4 FIGURE 48.. 4. The bayonet i:5 removed by pu11i ng the catch. ve range th-e grenade can be fired is 150 meters. nut (fi'9 56). B1ank flring device: The blank firing device is installed by pressing in t. ing device is in place.IT' Hand gr~nad~ latJncher: The hand grenade la.uncher is insta 11 ed by removi ng the muzzle nut (fig 53) a. ..

2./1 ~2 FIGURE 51. FRONT REAR 1 FIGURE 52~ BlAHK FIRING DEVICE FIGURE SO~ 1. LOCKING PLUNGER FIGURE 49.. NIGHT SIGHTING DEVICE 1. 2~ LU~'INOUS FRONT REAR DOTS 33 34 .

f FIGURE 55~ BAYONET - ~ FI GURE 5:3 + r~UZZl [ NUT 2 .. 1~ BAYONET MUZZLE NUT 2. ~ a I FIGURE 56.. 3. LAUNCHER 35 36 . GAS TUBE LOOP fIGURE 54.

ng order a nd be ready for act i on. FIGURE 57.No less than once a week if the rifle is not used. MAINTENANCE Car~ and cleaning: The AK-47 rifle must be kept in proper work.ndin ing noncombat action periods.. ..ambe r.:veT~ bores ch.fTlJlediately after cleaning so that moisture is not allowed to form on the metal.nly on we'l cl eaned and dry metal surfaces . The rece. 1 J\fter firing with ball . Oil should be pl aced o. gas p.. da i 1y du'r- --.Duri ng comba t s i tuati on a. --- and blank cartridges. de and: bo tare e 1 eaned an dIu bri' cated i lm1ediately after firin9~ Final cleaning takes place daily over the next th re-e or four days...a ny extended exerc i se. s ton!t s 1.SECTION VI I. PlASTI (: MAGAZINE 37 38 . Th. s is achi eved by time ly an d capable cleaning and lubricatin9~ The AK-47 assault During rifle should be cleaned: preparation for fi ring.

The AK-47 assault rifle must be kept in proper WorkThis.d an d I1Jbr. Final cleaning takes place daily over the next three or four daY5 ~ --- Durin9 any combat situation ing noncombat action periods. MAINTENANCE rifle Care and clean1~g: The AK-47 ing -order and be ready for action~ capable cleaning and lubricating. 1I111ediately after firing. cated . with ball and blank cartridges~ The receiver.. bor'e. daily dur- --.No less than once a week. and in extended exerci5~. Oi 1 should be pl aced QnTy on well cleaned and dry metal surface'S irrrnediately after' cleaning 50 that moisture 15 not allowed to form on the metal.. FIGURE 57~ PLASTIC MAGAZINE 31' 38 . chambe r" gas pis ton s 1 . if the rifle is no. de and bo1 ~ tare e 1 eane.After firing for firing.SECTION VII.t used.s achieved by timely and should be cleaned: --~ During preparation --.

ne} and fOT' des t royi ng targets pr'otected by thi n armor' p' ati n9 at fuel in iroln tanks up to canta..o en gage. g.erced~ There is no pr:opel 1ant in the ca. n a tracer ee1 ra.nd: spec: ia 1 purpose cartridges~ Ba11 armun. The pat. nite straw roofs dry gra._6ZI1Trt rounds. Tra. and fi ring.:ning in loading case there arE! longitudinal Bl:ank ca.. The mouth . Service Service armluni'tion is.s sea. Special amnunition. th the same s iQht . rifle fires the 7.rtridges are designed for simulating fi re and are used in tacti ca 1 e. SERVICE AND TRAINING AMMUNITION The AK--47 au..nQ settings. and Dr....o ball cartridges a.rtridge case..cer bu 11et scan.SECTION VIII. f'or tra.h of the bullet is indicated by a red flame which can be seen day or night~. grooves. The fl ame can De seen for a di stance of 100 meters ~ ~ 4 Tracer cartridge-s are designed for target AP-incendiary cartridge5 are used to destroy fuel {kero$ene. Training !wrm. The have varying construction depending upon thei'r purpose.62x39nrn rDund~ M1943.ng personne 1. 1. The primer is p... .. 11-ed rounds -are designed On the body or the cartridge on the cartridge caSE!mouth there are marks from the c1amping device.rtridge5 thi ex. I t can be seen for a di sta nee up to 700 meters.M1943.rtri dge5 . divided i s used int. 39 ...Ammunition is divided intQ servic.ss![ etc. 2.nges up to 300 meters. t i on t. enemy pe rscnn e 1 upon its constructiont . ar~ u5ed to destroy Incendi ary cartrl dge s also ment. Incendiary 3 mi 11imeter5 ca. armlunition and its use . ~.rgets~ i ndi cati on fi re adjustment t s i' gna 1 purposes and engag . ..Inition:t Training: antnunition purpose_~n:ld Aconstruction ine1udes drilled and blank 7. d~pending .. gaso- 1.led by a star (rosette) crimp.. It is dangercus to stand closer than 10 meters away from the rllJzzle f'ace when b1ank cartridges are being fired.xerc i ses There i"S TlObull et in the bl an k ca. Th~ Df the bull ets and their muzz1e velocity are select.s designed for target indication and correction of fire~ i g'niting f'uel and high1y inflarrmab1-e objects I and for destroY1ing 1ightly armored ta.~d 50 that with the different bullets can be co"duct~d w.e and auxiliary type-s.tomatic round$ weight fi r.. T'he path of the bu1l et is i:ndi cate:d DY a red f1aIDe:..

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