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spoken english for telugu1

spoken english for telugu1

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Published by: sspp on Feb 12, 2009
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05/11/2013

Kavita : How did you do in yesterday's

exam?
·¸ .. ,. .. ..‹.··
Suji : Well, I think. How did you do ?
. ..‹  .. . ¸ .¸.
..‹.··
Kavita: Not bad. I could have done better.
..¸ .. ... . .‡ ...
..Ÿ¸·
Suji: What group are going to study in
Inter?
..... . _œ. · .. . ¸.··
Kavita : MPC. What about you ?
...ˆˆ .¸·
Suji : Not sure yet, though dad wants me
to do MPC.
... .: . ... . ¸
...ˆˆ . ... ¸.·
Kavita : Which college? . ...··
Suji : No idea as yet. What's going to be
your college?
.: . ... .¸·
Kavita : Same here. Not decided yet.
... ... .. . ...·
Supriya : Hi, Suneetha, What a relief! The
final degree exams are over. But
What next for you?
..¸.Ÿ¸ .. , . . .Ÿ. ·.
.Ÿ.¸.Ÿ .. ..·
Suneetha : Not yet decided. What are your
plans?
... .. . ... · .œ
...··
Supriya : Well, You know I've taken the
CAT for joining in IIM. Waiting for
the results. If I make it, I'll join
one of the IIMs. Hope I shall be
fortunate.
.. ... ... .. . ·. .¸.
..‹ . . . t  .. . .
.Ÿ¸ .. . . .. .¸·
Suneetha : I wish I had appeared for CAT
too. It's too late now. I think I'll
do MCA. I am preparing for the
entrance tests of all MCA
courses. I may also take PG
entrance tests and do MSc
Computers or Electronics.
.‡ ... .œ. .. ....
..¸. . .•· .. ...·
..‡. . .‡. _...Œ .. ,.
.. ..Ÿ .· ... ..¸ˆ¸
...·¸ ..¸ .. .. . ·.¸ .·

÷ .... -..¸ œ. .... ..
Spoken English. Grammar . .. .
... .. .. .... Grammar .t‡ ..Ÿ
._. English . ..... .. .  .
... .. .. ..  .. .· grammar .. 
 ..t ....
VOCABULARY
Vocabulary ... ... ... ...·¸
Spoken English. ..  . . ... . 
¸. .. . .: .·. .· .. ... ..Ÿ
... .¸ ... ... ...  ... ... .
.. ... .. :. ..... .. .... ..
.. š.. š.. ... .... .· :¸:¸
:. .Ÿ .. ... ... .. ... .t .Ÿ.
..· Listening ..Ÿ .. ... English
... ..œ .œ.. :·. .. daily life. . 
. .. .. ... .. Pronunciation ..
..  ..t
· ..¸. .. . t. .Ÿ..…
1. Vijayawada is on the banks of the Krishna
:. .Ÿ .. .¸. .. ...·
2. They do not speak English
..Œ‰ ... .. ..·
3. Where is Ramesh?
... ..,.··
4. How beautiful the Taj is!
.. . .. ...Ÿ .... ...·
š. Sentences. _.::
.. .. :. .Ÿ·¸ œ..:
. .  ... . .. .
Sentence
'Vijayawada' ·....
'They' ....
'Ramesh' ..
'Taj' œ..: . .  .Ÿ 
¸.. .. Sentence
. ›.¸ :.   .Ÿ·¸ .·
'Subject' .... ... .... Sentence
Subject Vijayawada, ·... ..¸. Subject
They, ... ..¸. Subject Ramesh .
..¸. Subject The Taj.
..· _.: Sentence. 'Subject'
œ..: .›.¸ .œ. ... .... .· œ. ·..
.... š. 1st sentence.'.... is on the
banks of the Krishna' . Sentence subject
:..Ÿ .. œ..: .....
'She sings well'
· Sentence. 'She' Subject 'Sings well'
.. Subject She œ..: .›.¸ .œ. 'sings
well'. 'sings' .... sentence .. (She
well - ... ... .. Sentence ..· ...
'She sings well' - · sentence. Subject
'She' .Ÿ.¸.Ÿ 'Sings' . .. Sentence.
.. ...¸. .... .. 'VERB' ....
Subject, Verb .. .... .....¸.
... .... .:¸ .œ Sentences. Verbs
.Ÿ..
Sentence-1. verb is, Sentence-2 .
verb 'do speak', Sentence-3, 4 .. 'is'.
Spoken English. .. Sentence Subject,
Verb œ.. .Ÿœ.œ.. .. .. .. ..·
œ.› :œ ..·¸ .. ...
a) Andhra Pradesh is the biggest state in
South India
b) The Eenadu was published first from
Vizag.
· ·... Sentences .. :. .Ÿ·¸ .›.¸:
... Statements .¸..
c) Is AP the biggest state in South India?
d) Was the Eenadu first published from
Vizag?
(c), (d). Questions .. (a), (b) .. (c),
(d) .. .. .Ÿ..
English. (a), (b).... Statements.
(c), (d).... Questions. _.. . ..
..¸ ·.¸.. (sentence structure). .....
(sentence structure ... . .. .... .
.. .Ÿ.¸.Ÿ . ....·
Statement : AP is the
:· Structure ) Subject + Verb
biggest state in south India.
Question : Is AP the biggest
Verb + Subject
state in South India!
Statement. Subject .... Verb .Ÿ.¸.Ÿ
...Question. :·. .¸: ·. .. verb
.... subject .Ÿ.¸.Ÿ .¸.. .. English
. .. _..  . ..
Statement : The Eenadu was published first
structure : Subject + Verb
from Vizag.
Question : Was the Eenadu published first
structure : Verb + Subject ( Verb)
from Vizag?
· ... Statements quesitons ..¸
practice ..Ÿ..…
Statements Questions
a) (Yes), They are students -----?
b) (Yes), Rani is the leader -----?
c) (No), I am not happy -----?
d) (Yes), He was here last night -----?
e) (No), She is not hungry ? -----?
I
I
---œ.·.- ---œ.·.- ---œ.·.- ---œ.·.- ---œ.·.- ---œ.·.- ---œ.·.-
M. SURESAN
t·-· .- ·Ÿer.·
t·-· .-+Ÿ +t.‡.·
t·e· .-+Ÿe ...-¸- e.·¸
t· :·-. ...·
t· ¸.a.c· .c-· -œ·o-··e.·¸
t· c¸- -œ+Ÿ rc -· e.·
c·¯- r.-Ÿ· r-™ .- »-..·
t·-· t·-·-· ·..¸ -·.·t
»-¸š..‡.-· e-.·t
»-¸e .‡--· ·.·¸t
»-¸. ---œ.o e·c- »c .--
»-.·-· :-¸-. »-r.
.-c --Ÿ..-
. .,¸. . .. .. ..¸ ...·.
‘÷. .– _. :.’ .. ..…: ..
....˜.. .¸·.. ....
.¸... ..:..:
÷.. .:... iz .. z::s
#ìo #ìoN êµLóŸª¸Ú #ÚÛª\õª! #ìo #ìoN êµLóŸª¸Ú #ÚÛª\õª! #ìo #ìoN êµLóŸª¸Ú #ÚÛª\õª!
#ìo #ìoN êµLóŸª¸Ú #ÚÛª\õª!
II
Spoken English. Conversational English »e -».· »-e·-·
c·-e Career -·-· -·. r.·¸ -· e- . o- »c . - .·c
Communications Skillse· c.e¸ .·c .·-œ- Spoken English.
c·-e e.·¸-·e· -·-·¸e· ¸.. -‹e- e-¸ .‡·-· Interviews, group
discussions, presentations, self sketches e· re-Ÿ·- :·e- ·· 
e-e Spoken English t·. .e· »c .--
1
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÷..
I
...œ.Œ... i: .. z:::
PRONUNCIATION GUIDE
❐ English pronunciation confusion .
.... .·. .,.. ·... .·.¸. .Œ. ..
.·. .Ÿ. .....
.. Car . c-. centre . c-
❐ .·. .Œ. ·. ·... .·.¸. ., .. ....
.. centre - c ..,. sentry - s ..,.
·
.e· .e -·t·
English ... ..,. ... .. ...
:. . . .. ... .Œ.. ..,. Pen - š.
Book- .. Watch - .. Phone - . Take
- ... .... ... :.. .. ..
.t.. .œ.... š.¸ .., .: .
.. .. English. .. . ..¸. ..
:.. ... ... .. .t. . ....
»e c.e¸-
... ... :.. 'r' .... .. ...
Doctor ..· car .· for .· paper
š...·
. .. :.. 'r' .¸ .·¸ ... ... ..
. ... ,. 'r' silent . ... .. ¸.
... a, e, i, o, u.. .· .Ÿ.¸.Ÿ 'r' .:¸
.. silent. .·¸ .... .· .Ÿ.¸.Ÿ a, e, i, o,
u, .. .. .› .Ÿ.¸
.. form ..·; Card ..·; Fur .·; sir
·, her .· information . . . 
. .·
»t »c.-.·
:. ...
Conversation. .. 
. . .•·¸ ...
..  .... ....
parts of the human
body- .Œ.. ...
.. . ...
.Ÿ.. head, face,
eyes, ears, neck,
shoulder, hand,
legs, fingers ...
... ... .....
.. thumb ..
  . .·, forefinger
.Ÿ. . ..· middle
finger .. ¸. .·
ring finger (..œ . .
. .·, little finger
:. ·. ..· toe
.t  . .· big toe
.t .. ..· nail .· waist . .·
wrist .. ..· arm .. .. .: ...
...· forearm .. .. .: ....
(elbow) ...· back arm (elbow .: ...
...· buttocks .‡...· Knee ...·
Knee .: ... ... .t ..... .œ.
shin, .t. . .œ. calf ..· .t. .. ·.
..¸ joint ..·– ankle, ... ..œ–Sole,
.‡.… .t– fist, .. ...– Palm, ....– eye-
brows, .. – forehead. cheeks - ..,.Œ‰
pupil - ... .. eyelid- . ·..¸ nostril-
..., .._.. gums - ... :œ.Œ‰ skull-._·.
scalp- .. ... .Ÿ.š. .œ.
VERBS
Kranthi: Was anything special in the sun-
day Eenadu?
..... ‘·.’. .. _..¸ ..Ÿ ...··
Karuna: Yes. There was the first lesson in
Spoken English.
.. ¸·. ... .... ... ...·
Kranthi: Was anything important in it?
.... .. _..¸ ..Ÿ ...··
Karuna: Yes. Very important point was
there- the difference between the
statement structure and question
structure.
.. .. ...¸ . :..Ÿ.
›. ... .¸ .. .•.˜¸ .¸ .. ..
..¸.·
Kranthi: Is it so important?
.. ...Ÿ ...¸.··
Karuna: Very. The statement has the sub-
ject first, and the verb next. The
question has verb first and the
subject next.
.. ›. ... .... .. .Ÿ.¸.Ÿ
..¸ ..... .· .•.˜¸ . .... ..¸
.Ÿ.¸.Ÿ .. .....·
· .... .Ÿ.‹. .. .... _..: .·¸
_..Œ¸. .. ..·¸ ›. ...
· ..¸. œ. ·. .Ÿ..…
I am here- verb: 'am'
You are in class- verb: 'are'
My pen is in my pocket-
verb: 'is'
š. sentences. .¸ Verbs
'am', 'is', 'are. :. .. .
‘.....’ . .·. ... .. :
: · ... ..œ _..Œ¸.
Statements English. prac-
tice ..Ÿ..…
i .. ¸. · :. .. ,.
.¸.·
English: Where are you?
z .. ¸. · . .

––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––
s ..¸.· ..Œ‰ ....
.¸.
–––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––
: ..¸.· :. ... . .¸.·
–––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––
: ..¸.· :. ..,. ... . ¸.·
–––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––
s ..¸.· ..Œ‰ . .Ÿ..
–––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––
Answers:
2. I am in class
3. They are happy
4. Are you happy?
5. Why are you here?
6. They are our relatives
am, is, are ..¸. (now) ... _..Ÿ.
(present) ... .·¸ .t.Ÿ . .. ... ..–
am, is, are regular ... .·¸ .t.Ÿ . .Ÿ . 
·. .. . . ... .. ..,. _...
.Ÿ . ¸  . .. ...   .·¸ . . am, is, are
...... ... sentences practice
..Ÿ..…
: . . .¸.· _.: .. – .. regular)
When are your classes every day?
..,. 'are' .... .. .Ÿ¸.· .. _.:
.. _... .Ÿ.¸· :..Ÿ. ...
.. .Ÿ...…
1st show ..¸.·
1st show ..¸. .·. ... ..... ..·
... regular ..... ... is ....
.·..
When is the first show?
:·. .¸ .. .. College. _.: ..·
.. .. 'regular' ...
When are you at college (every day)?
..,. every day .. . .. .. ...
... ... 'are' ... regular ..... ...
..· ‘ .Ÿ. _.. ... ...’
... ..·
'I am at home in the evenings'.
Evenings ... _.: evening- regular.
... regular states of being _... .Ÿ.¸
... .....· ..¸. ·. am, is, are ....
.·.. · ... ... English ..¸..… prac-
tice ..Ÿ..…
i · ... ..¸. :·.. . .. .. .,.·
(Regular ..··
Answer: Why are you here at this time
every day?
z : ¸ . ..ˆ . ..¸ .. ..·
–––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––
s ..… š. ..¸. ..… ... .....
–––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––
: .. : .Ÿ. œ .Ÿ. ..¸.·
–––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––
: . .Ÿ. œ .Ÿ. .. | .: i ...
–––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––
s :. .. .. .. ..¸ .. ..·
–––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––
t .. .... | .: i ... ....·
––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––
Answers:
2. When is your father at office?
3. His pen is always in his pocket.
4. When are your classes (every day)?
5. Our classes are from 10 a.m. to 4 p.m.
6. When are you at college (every day)?
7. We are at college from 10 to 4 (every
day)?
6, 7..¸. every
day .. .. .. (are
... ·.œ¸  .  .
.....·
VOCABULARY
.  ¸  . .  . 
¸. ... ... .. :
... ..  ....–
| ...– Cold. 2. .œ Cough ..· .
.Ÿ..¸– Sneeze ˆ¸.– ‘.’ size. :..
.Œ... ...t· i :...– blow the nose.
.·. ..., – running nose. •.‡¸ – ache
...· .. – pain, suffering;
.. ... .•. ¸. .. .•.‡¸ .Ÿ.•.‡¸
..•.‡¸ :.. . .. ›.. .Ÿ.¸.Ÿ 'ache'
....pain ...
stomach ache- stomach pain ..
head ache, back ache etc.
.¸.. (fever) ..¸. .:¸ . 'feel' ....
'feeling feverish'.
... itch ..· ... scratch _,.·
•..Ÿ •.‡¸ – sore throat; ... .. ...
groan; ..t. .Ÿ.. yawn, .. – swelling,
... .. – inflammation. ..·¸ practice .‡
.. . ..¸. ....…
. .Ÿ.•.‡¸ ...
I have a head ache.
. ..¸. ...
My mother has a cold.
... .: ...•·¸ practice ..Ÿ..…
PRONUNCIATION GUIDE
... Consonant ending .Œ.. ..,.
.¸ .. ... ... :.. ... .Œ..
..,. :.. ... .. .  ...t
.. book, .. .., ..
š. š.¸ .. Tub - .. ..¸ ..
Hotel- ... ‘.’ •.,..…· mag-
azine- .. :.. 'ine', 'ile' ...
· ·.. ...t Magazine -
.œ . . ..,. easy. :.. .Œ.. 
.. ..· Automobile- .. .. :.
intestine ›.œ· ... ‡ etc.
---œ.·.- ---œ.·.- ---œ.·.- ---œ.·.- ---œ.·.- ---œ.·.-
M. SURESAN
Oªô¢« ô¦óŸªÙè…!
.¸·.. ..... . ....„..
þ¼p·ÚûÂ ÏÙTxùÃ, ¸.a...¸ o.·.·
:-c»e-œ». š.·.-·.·.–sa
:...-. ...‡..Ÿ..Ÿ¸
email: pratibha@ eenadu.net email: pratibha@ eenadu.net email: pratibha@ eenadu.net email: pratibha@ eenadu.net email: pratibha@ eenadu.net email: pratibha@ eenadu.net
c·c- -·¬ c»e·. ---œ- .-c. »e.‡-e.· -»e--.--· ·Ÿ»›.
+Ÿ..¸e· e-Ÿ·e..+·-. rc¸.· .-c.e .·r-·· .-.·.-e·
e.-»r:·- ---· -·.· »e -e·e-e c»e·.- -·t ce·-œ·-·
c»e·.e..¸.· :·.¸.·c-+Ÿ c·-e .·. »c.-- c·c-· +t.‡-.
--- »c·-·-e +e·.·-·c.·e- ..e:·. ..…ce
.... R .œ...Ÿ .... R .œ...Ÿ
.... R .œ...Ÿ
2
WAS, WERE
Ram: Were you there yesterday?
·¸ .¸ ..,. .¸.··
Raghav: I was there, of course.
.. ..,. .¸·
Ram: When were you there?
..¸ . ¸.··
Raghav: I was there exactly at 6 when the
function began.
. ... ... . œ....
..,. .¸·
Ram: Who else was there yesterday?
·¸ ... .. . ¸.··
Raghav: Anil, and Sunil were also there.
.·. ·. .. ..,. .¸.·
· .... œ. ·. .Ÿ..… Ram, Raghav ·¸
... œ.Ÿ.. ... .·¸ was, were. ..¸. 
¸. English . .... Verb forms
...Ÿ ..... ..¸. ..¸. .Ÿ. .Ÿ ...
.·¸ am, is, are. .... ..· œ.Ÿ.. .¸
..· ..¸. was, were.. ....
was- singular
were- plural
1. ..¸. ·.,. .¸
I am here
2. ·¸ ..,. .¸
I was here yesterday
3. :. ·¸ ..,. .¸.· .. Question.
... verb .... ..t
Were you here yesterday?
4. ·¸ .. ., . ¸.· (Question)
Where was he yesterday?
5. .. .Ÿ ..Œ. _:.. ... ....
India was under British rule.
6. 1947 ... . .... (rulers) ...·
Who were our rulers till 1947?
.. .. .. .t.Ÿ .› ... ... .: .. 
.Ÿ¸.. . .. ..¸. sentence :..
...t
7. ·¸ .¸ ..,. ....¸.·
Why were you here yesterday?
8. . ›¸.‡.Ÿ. œ.Ÿ ..... ..,. .¸.
My friend was here last Sunday.
... œ.Ÿ. (past). ... :. .Ÿ.
..¸. was, were.. ....
... sentences english. practice ..Ÿ..…
1. Praveen: :. ·¸ ... .¸.·
2. Pranav: .. ... .¸
3. Praveen: : .¸ .. ... .¸.·
4. Pranav: ..
5. Praveen: ·¸ :. ..,. ¸.·
6. Pranav: .. .. .¸
7. Praveen: _.: .. · ... .. ..
....· (Regular)
8. Pranav: ..
9. Praveen: :. .... ... ..¸.. 
..·
10. Pranav: .Ÿ._.. ... ... ·¸
.Ÿ._.Ÿ. ._.Ÿ. ... .
11. Praveen: .·. .,.¸.·
12. Pranav: :.. .
Answers:
1. Were you at home yesterday?
2. Yes, I was at home.
3. Was your brother too/also at home?
4. No, he was not at home.
... .. No, he wasn't. .· .›..·
(wasn't = was not)
5. Where were you?
6. I was at College.
7. Are you at college at this time every day?
8. Yes, I am (at college... every day - conver-
sation. · .œ. ... .Ÿ ..Ÿ¸·
9. When are you at home usually? ...
. ... 'are')
10. I am at home in the evenings (Regular,
therefore, am) but I was not (wasn't) at
home last evening.
·¸ .Ÿ._.Ÿ. ·¸ ._: – last evening,
last night).
11. Where else were you? ·¸ ...·
12. I was at a meeting.
➠ · .... :. : friend.· :
... .. . .· practice ..Ÿ..…
➠ .... :. practice .‡ .Ÿ.¸. answers
.Ÿ...…
➠ ..¸. .Ÿ.‹.· .., am, is, are, was,
were.. ...Ÿ English .. . ..¸·
PRONUNCIATION GUIDE
..   . . pure sounds . ..  .. ...
..,. 'a' .,..–
➠ bake, cake, case, date, face, game, hate,
lane ... ... .:¸  .¸. .·¸ ‘..’
...t
bake- ...
cake- ·...
case- ·..
face- š..
game- ·..
hate- š...
lane- ..
date- ...
(I hate you- ..
š... .Ÿ.·
..· :œ. .... ..–
tale, tail pronunciation ..,. – ...
➠ ..¸. 'a', ..¸. 'an' .. š.. _..™¸
'a, e, i o, u.. _..... ..¸ ... ....
'an' .· :œ. .. .... 'a' .· .... 
.. .· .. ..¸. .·.. .. a univer-
sity, a European ...... .. .·..
'the' . ‘:’ e. .. ¸. ‘.’ e. .. ¸.
....·
. . . · . · . . . . . :– · ..œ
.Œ. .. _..... ..¸ English ... ....
'an' ..t · .Œ.. .... ..¸ 'the'· ‘.’
...t :œ. .Œ. .. _......¸ ...
.... 'a' ..t
..· 'the'· ‘.’ ...t
a University ‘.Ÿ.’. _..... ... 'a')
an example ‘.’. _..... ... 'an')
the egg ..,. ‘.’ egg, 'a'. _.....
...·
the tree ‘.’ _. ..,. ‘.’ .: ‘:’ ...
... .Œ. .. _..... ... ...·
➠ Communications/information.
... .. : · ... .Ÿ...…
. ..Ÿ..– phone, ringup, give a ring,
call- :. ·¸ .. ..¸. . .. .. .¸ ..
'call', phone to a person, phone a person
.·. ..Ÿ ..… . .Ÿ.. ring up, give a ring
... .. .. .¸..
1) :. .. . ..Ÿ..…
Please call me.
Please give me a ring.
Please ring me up.
.Ÿ.¸... .
I will certainly call you.
Sure, I will call you.
.. :. . .
I will get back to you.
2) . :..Ÿ. .–. ... ..Ÿ..…
Please mail me the matter.
Please mail the matter to me at
yours@yahoo.com
3) .•..Ÿ. .¸. .....…
Send it by courier.
4) .... . .¸. .....…
Post it.
Send it by ordinary post.
Sent it by snail mail.
'snail mail' ... .Ÿ. .. ..¸.
..™ post .· ...
c·oe¸ c»ee·
chew .Ÿ¸· - ....
swallow ¸.·- :.œ..
swallow in a gulp - .. œ.,. :.œ..
trim _..·(mustache, beard)
- :. œ..· .:..: ...Ÿ..
clench ·..·- :. .Ÿ.. .‡.… .t – fist)
injure ...· - .Ÿ....
injury ...·- .Ÿ.
twist .¸·the arm - ... .t: .¸..
snap the fingers - :.. ..Ÿ..
shatter ›...·- ... .•...
swelling š¸t.·- ..
inflammation .....·- ... ..
fracture_..¸·- .... :. œ..
sprain_š¸.·- ...
itch..·- ... scratch_,.·- ...
abscess ..š·- ... :...·
boil ...·- œ.
pimple .‡...·- ....
scar ,·- .Ÿ. .. ..Ÿ¸
pus .·- :.. blister :·-...
c·e Verbs: _..Ÿ. ..¸. ... .·¸ .›.¸:–
am, is, are. œ.Ÿ.. ... .·¸ .›.¸:– was,
were. .: .¸ .Ÿ. ... .·¸ .›.¸:– shall be,
will be
·..  .,. ...
I shall be/will be there tomorrow.
.. ..... ... ....
We shall be/we will be in Vizag on Sunday.
..Ÿ.…· .Ÿ... . ....
I shall be happy to see him.
·.. ..Ÿ ..,. ....
He will be here tomorrow.
÷..
I
œ.... is .. z::s
the- ÓÚÛ\è[ ‘C’, Óí£±pè[ª ‘ë]’? the- ÓÚÛ\è[ ‘C’, Óí£±pè[ª ‘ë]’? the- ÓÚÛ\è[ ‘C’, Óí£±pè[ª ‘ë]’? the- ÓÚÛ\è[ ‘C’, Óí£±pè[ª ‘ë]’? the- ÓÚÛ\è[ ‘C’, Óí£±pè[ª ‘ë]’?
the- ÓÚÛ\è[ ‘C’, Óí£±pè[ª ‘ë]’?
M. SURESAN
Oªô¢« ô¦óŸªÙè…!
.¸·.. ..... . ....„..
þ¼p·ÚûÂ ÏÙTxùÃ, ¸.a...¸ o.·.·
:-c»e-œ». š.·.-·.·.–sa
:...-. ...‡..Ÿ..Ÿ¸
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---œ.·.- ---œ.·.- ---œ.·.- ---œ.·.- ---œ.·.- ---œ.·.-
3
... 'd :. ¸. had . .. ..
would . .. .. .... ..,. had ..,.
would .. .. .¸·¸ .. ._.Ÿ. ..¸ .
œ..
A) He'd gone before I saw him.
..,. He'd = He had
... ... 'gone' ... past participles
.... would ..¸. .. had ._.Ÿ.
...
B) I thought he'd do it.
..,. 'd .Ÿ. ..Ÿ past participle .. ...
would . ... . ..t .. :..Ÿ. œ.š.
. ..t Past participles .... 'been'
.Ÿ.¸.Ÿ ing form .:¸  .¸. :. .... 'd
..¸. had ...Ÿ.. Do, go, come ...
verb forms .... be + ing .... 'd ..¸.
would ...Ÿ..
Example: They'd done it.
(done past participle ... 'd = had)
They'd been doing it. ..,. been + ing
.... ... 'd = had).
She'd marry him. 'd .Ÿ.¸.Ÿ marry .· .:¸..
... 'd = would
She'd be going. ..,. be + ing form ....
... 'd = would.
Have been + ing .... .. 'd = would.
¸.-Œ¸ Had, would ·...….. short forms ... I had/would - I'd
.. We had/would -We'd :. .·.. .¸.. I'd ..
We'd .Ÿ‡ .. .Ÿ.¸.Ÿ had ... would ... ..
..  ..t·
– ... e..Ÿ .. . .•..
. ..- .-¸. ...¸.· .e· .e-·e· »e· .t-+. .·. :--œ.·-·
e-e·-e +t.ˆ +t-Ÿ·e ¸.-»-·e· ..·e .·oe »-»c·-Ÿ·-e·-
.e-Ÿ·c·Ÿ·¸ e.· r.·-œ· -tr-·Ÿc·Ÿ·¸ c»+Ÿ¡.·. e··¸--+·.
---·e¸ .e-.- -».· -•-+Ÿ -¡+Ÿ---· e-e·-e »-.·¯- c·c-
.-·¸-·. .·.e·e ..·e.·c ..+Ÿ·ec· »c·.o-·Ÿ.- »c.--
÷..
I
.Œ.... is .. z::s
+e·-œ· .·-¸ e-·¸-·e¸ -Ÿ·.·+Ÿ.--· »c¸-..» ---œ- c»e·..-
:·.¸- -·.· --.…-e .·¸---·e» .»o-· .-·.-· --.· .·.e-»
c·-t---· ec¸ +.·e· +e·.·-·-e +e·-œ·+· .c»c--· »-r.e
.-.·.‡-·Ÿ.- š.. -..·c .e -».· -·.· »-.·e· c.e¸--· -·e-
-œ·o-e ·Ÿ»›. ---œ-e· -·e·e- .-e-e-ec ..·e· ec-¸ c:·-.
SHALL BE, WILL BE
Kiran: Will you be here tomorrow?
·.. .¸ ..,. ... ¸.·
Kranthi: What for?
....·
Kiran: All our friends will be here tomor-
row. Will you not be (won't you be).
. ›¸.‡.Ÿ .. .. ·.. ..,.. . 
¸. .. .¸...·
Kranti: I shall be very happy to be with all of
you. What will be the programme?
: ... . . ..... . ..
.. _._. ...·
Kiran: Let's decide when we meet.
.. .t.‹. ·. ....
· .... œ. ·. .. .. ·.. ... :.
.Ÿ·¸ œ..: .. . .. . ¸. will be, shall
be ... ..
I shall be there tomorrow.
·..  .,. ...·
He will be a graduate soon.
.Ÿ¸.. ..Ÿ. _.¸ .. .. ..·
The train will be here in five min-
utes.
... .... ·:.. ·..
..,.…. ...·
How long will you be here?
.¸ .. ,. ...Ÿ   ›.
....··
shall be, will be ... .: 
.¸ .Ÿ. ..... (A future
state of being)
.. œ. .¸: ·. .. 'Time words'
... ..·¸ .t.Ÿ .› ... English.
sentence :.. .....
eg: He will be here tomorrow.
They were here yesterday.
The meeting will begin at 6 this
evening.
Order: time, day, date, month, year
eg: The meeting will be at 6 PM (Time)
on Monday (day), the 28th (date)
May (month) 2005 (year)
.. English. .. ...¸.
.. Question order œ. .  .Ÿ  ...… –
Vb+Sub/1st Word of the Verb+Sub+the other
words of the verb.)
· ... ..· English. practice ..Ÿ..…
| ..Ÿ ..,. ..¸ .. ..·
. :. š.. .... .·¸.. .. ..·
. . ... ·.. : .œ .. ...·
i ·.,. ..,. ›. ...
... ... ·.. š.. .... ....
· ..… ... ·... .. .. ...
. .. ·: . .. .. ... ...
· · .Ÿ.¸: .Ÿ.¸ .:.·(next step)
· ·.. ..,. ... ....
| .. ..,. ...Ÿ › .. ...·
Answers:
1. When will he be here?
2. How long will you be in Hyderabad?
3. Will the book be with you tomorrow?
4. I shall not be here for long?
5. We shall all be in Hyderabad tomorrow.
6. It will be hot for another two days.
7. I will be in the theatre in another 10 min-
utes.
8. What will be your next step?
9. Nobody will be here tomorrow.
10. How long will she be here?
VOCABULARY
._.Ÿ– dish .….·, bowl ..·
... ._.Ÿ. – Vessels (. . ¸·,
utensils .Ÿ.. ·¸.¸·
... – ewer (.Ÿ..·
– tumbler (...·
...Ÿ – lid t.·
š..– pan .·
œ..Œ. – cauldron (.. _.·
.. . .Ÿ..– boil ...·
...– fry (¸š.·
..¸.. :. ..· = bake (...·
..¸. ... .•·¸ 'be' forms ... ... .·¸
.t›. Verbs):
can be - ...œ.œ.. ..¸. .: .¸ .Ÿ.·
could be - ...œœ... œ.Ÿ..·
may be - ... ..Ÿ¸ ..¸. .: .¸ .Ÿ.·
might be - .....Ÿ¸ œ.Ÿ..·
should be, must be = ...t
1. He can be here in five minutes.
..Ÿ. ..,. .... ·: .. ... œ ..
2. She could be the Prime Minister.
.. _.. · ... œ t..
3. She may be there now.
.. ... ..,. .....Ÿ¸
....··
4. They might be happy.
..Œ‰ .... ...… ... ..Ÿ¸ œ.Ÿ..·
5. You should be here at 10 a.m.
.¸ ...Ÿ. ... ..
..,. ...t
6. Ravi must be in office
from 10 a.m. to 5 p.m.
.: ...Ÿ. | .:
.Ÿ._.Ÿ. ... ..ˆ
. ...t
...Ÿ . .. · 'be' forms
... .·¸ .t›. 'verb-
s' .Ÿ.‹.
· ... ..¸ . .... practice ..Ÿ..…
| :¸ .,. ...Ÿ ›. ... œ ..·
. ·¸ ..Œ‰ ..,. ..¸. .¸.·
. ·.. ..,. .•..Ÿ ..¸.. ... ..Ÿ¸
i . ..¸. ... ..·
..,. .. .·¸. .. ...t·
..Ÿ. ·¸ ..,. ... œ t.
. .. .. .. ...¸ .. _: ... œ t.
... ... ..Ÿ .. ...
· ..,. .. ... ...Ÿ›š. ... œ
.
· ·¸ .. .Ÿ. ...
| :. ..,. ...Ÿ ›. .....Ÿ¸·
Answers:
.. .. ...Ÿ ›.– How long?
...Ÿ ... – How far? .·¸. – How often?
1. How long can you be here?
2. When could they be here yesterday?
3. There may be some trouble there tomor-
row.
4. Can't you be patient? (Can you not = Can't
you)
5. When should we be there?
6. He could be here yesterday itself ·¸·
7. NT Ramarao could be the CM because he
was an actor.
8. If it is comfortable here, I can be here for
as long as possible.
9. It was very cool yesterday.
Yesterday was very cool.
10. How long can you be here?
'Be' forms ... am, is, are, was, were,
shall be, should be . 'be' :.. ... ...
'been' :.. ..¸: – have been, has been,
had been, should have been ...:· .....
. ... ..¸ Verbs. .: .... .·· .t›.
... .. Verbs. ... A . .:¸ ..· B
. .:¸ ... ..¸..…
A
I am a teacher .¸·
She is a player player ...·
They are singers.
B
I teach .·
She plays .. .Ÿ..·
They sing .. ..·
---œ.·.- ---œ.·.- ---œ.·.- ---œ.·.- ---œ.·.- ---œ.·.-
4
M. SURESAN
î¦ÚÛuÙ #÷¸ô Ú¥õÙ! î¦ÚÛuÙ #÷¸ô Ú¥õÙ! î¦ÚÛuÙ #÷¸ô Ú¥õÙ! î¦ÚÛuÙ #÷¸ô Ú¥õÙ!
î¦ÚÛuÙ #÷¸ô Ú¥õÙ!
Oªô¢« ô¦óŸªÙè…!
.¸·.. ..... . ....„..
þ¼p·ÚûÂ ÏÙTxùÃ, ¸.a...¸ o.·.·
:-c»e-œ». š.·.-·.·.–sa
:...-. ...‡..Ÿ..Ÿ¸
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¸.-Œ¸ The machine is out of service.
The machine has out of service.
š. ... ·.. ..· ..¸.. has
.› ... .. ...· has ....
.. ...·
India won the match.
India has won the match.
.. has ..› ... .. ...
·›› .... ... ...·
– ... š.....
e.·e·
The machine is out of service. . ..¸.
correct.
The machine has out of service ..
English ..
Has .Ÿ. ..Ÿ ..¸. out ... prepositions
..
India won the match. · .. .¸.. . 
.. ... ... ·t: ..· .:· .›.¸.
... won correct.
India won the match last week. .. .·..
... ... last week .· .. .. .Ÿ¸.
...
India ·t:..· ..¸. ·t:.. .. ..¸
... ...› India has won the match ..
correct. · ... ..¸. .Ÿ...…
A. He has gone out.
..¸. ...: .. ..¸.. .. ...
has + past participle correct.
B. He went out this morning.
..,. ..¸. ..Ÿ .. ...: this morn-
ing .· .. ...Ÿ¸. ... past
simple tense correct.
C. She has bought a car.
has + past participle .. ..¸.. ..
...·
D. She bought it yesterday.
(bought - past simple- yesterday .·
.. .. .Ÿ¸. ...·
She is a player.
She plays.
÷..
I
..... z: .. z::s
..·e .·.·-e· .·e¸+Ÿ.·c +.· +t-Ÿ·- .-:.- :e .-·¸:·o :·c
.-e·.= e-- :»¯- ¸.:».- o-e ee- :»+Ÿ¡e·. ¸.e·:- -».·
-·-=- -·:·Ÿ·¸ .¯- ..·e¸ .-·¸··e .-·¸ r.--· .·.·t¸ o-e·-e
.e .-¸. .e· ¸.-»r-··e· +e·.·-·-e :·c- :»e·. e·.
..·e.·oe --e·-·-e·-e
Ram: Where is your brother?
: . .. ..,. .¸.·
Raghav: He is watching the t.v. at home
..Ÿ ... .: .Ÿ ¸.
Ram: Where does he study?
..Ÿ ..,. .Ÿ...Ÿ¸.·
Raghav: He is a student of Learn well school
..Ÿ ..¸.. ,. :.¸.
Ram: Which class is he in?
..Ÿ _..Ÿ. .¸ .Ÿ. œ: .Ÿ. .
.Ÿ ¸.·
Raghav: He is doing the 8th class
.· :. .Ÿ. œ: .Ÿ. . .Ÿ ¸.
Ram: What games does he play?
..Ÿ .. ... .. ..·
Raghav: He plays cricket and hockey.
_.·.. .„. .. ..
š. ... . œ. ·. .Ÿ..…
is verb .·¸ .. ... .·¸ .. .Ÿ.. is
watching, does study ( = studies), is doing,
(does play = plays) plays ..·¸ .. ..Ÿ .
(actions) .t›. Verbs.
A
The teacher is in class.
..Ÿ. .. ...·
He was on the playground.
(Play ground. .¸. œ.Ÿ..·
B
The teacher is teaching (Verb)
.. ..·
He was playing
.. .Ÿ ¸. œ.Ÿ..·
B ... verbs .·¸ ..Ÿ. (Actions) .t›.
Verbs.
A ... verbs ... .·¸ .. .... · ..Ÿ
. .›.¸ verbs, action words.
eg: go, come, eat, talk, run, sleep, read,
dance.
1. The boys are playing
2. The girl is reading
3. These students talk in class
4. The cheetah runs fast
5. A dog barks
.. œ. English . .¸ .. .... œ. 
·. .Ÿ..…
. ... ... :. ...
The book is on the table.
.. ‘:.’ ... .Ÿ.¸.Ÿ .... .. ..
:. . .... on 'table' .... ....
.·¸ :. .Ÿ .. ...
from school - ,. .:
at home - ....
In the bag - .:.
to Guntur - œ.. ..
· :..Ÿ.. .. .... .. . . .¸.
._œ .Ÿ. .t ... verbs .. .Ÿ...…
A B
come comes
go goes
write writes
take takes
sing sings
teach teaches
speak speaks
A ... ... B ... ... ... ... .·
I, We, You, They . A ... ..· .. . .
He, she, it . B ... ..· ....
I/We/You/Andhras (they) speak Telugu
My father (he)
My Mother (she)
}
speaks Telugu
This class (it)
I/We/you/these trains (they) go there
My mother (she)
My friend (he/she)
}
goes there every day
This train
Fans (they) give air
A Fan (it) gives air
Dogs (they) bark
A dog (it) barks
.: :. .·.. practice ..Ÿ..…
(Brackets. .¸ verb. .·. ..Ÿ..…·
1) Wrist watches --- the time
A Wrist watch --- the time (show)
2) A doctor --- patients
Doctors --- patients (treat)
3) A lawyer --- cases
Lawyers --- cases (argue)
4) Pens ---
A pen --- (Write)
5) A cricketer --- cricket
Cricketers --- cricket
(Play)
Answers:
1) Wrist watches
(They) show the
time
A Wrist Watch (It)
shows the time
2) A doctor (He/She) treats patients
Doctors (They) treat patients
3) A lawyer (He/She) argues cases
Lawyers (They) argue cases
4) Pens (They) write
A pen (It) writes
5) A cricketer (He/She) plays cricket
Cricketers (They) play cricket
· .... ... verbs, _... .Ÿ.¸... ..·
. .. .... ... regular actions.
..¸. ..· . .. .. :.· .. . .
I go to college at 10 AM _.: ..·
My mother cooks for me ..¸.·
.. :. .. .•·¸ sentences ..Ÿ..…
.., ..,. .Ÿ...…
(I) am; (he, she, it) is; they (are).
..,. am, is, are ... ..¸. ..... ..¸.
..... ..· was, were- œ.Ÿ.. .....
shall be / will be future. .....
I. I am in class
..¸. .. .¸·
My friend (he/she) is in the next room
. friend, . . , œ .. .¸  . /  ...
–..¸.·
My parents (they- ..Œ‰· are at home
... .¸.– ..¸.·
... am, is, are ... ..¸. .....
II. I was/he was here yesterday.
..,. .¸– .¸. – ·¸·
My friends were in Hyderabad last week
›¸.‡   .Ÿ. š. .   .  .. . .¸.
œ.Ÿ...· -was, were, œ.Ÿ.. .....
III. Shall be/will be- future .: .¸ .. .....·
1. India will be a great country by 2010
.| .. .Ÿ¸ .·. ... •.¸ ..Œ.
.....·
2. Anil will be here next week
..¸ ... .·. ..,. ....·
---œe·.= ---œe·.= ---œe·.= ---œe·.= ---œe·.= ---œe·.=
5
M. SURESAN
e-- .-e -·t e-- .-e -·t e-- .-e -·t e-- .-e -·t
e-- .-e -·t
Oªô¢« ô¦óŸªÙè…!
.¸·.. ..... . ....„..
þ¼p·ÚûÂ ÏÙTxùÃ, ¸.ae..¸ o.·.·
:-:»e-œ». š.·.-·e·.–sa
:...-. ...‡..Ÿ..Ÿ¸
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¸.«Œ¸ have .., had .. ..¸.. .. . 
. .Ÿ ..¸· .. .› . ..¸. ...
.:.· .. . tense ...Ÿ..· ..·
..¸.. had .Ÿ.¸.Ÿ .., .. had
...· .· ... .:.·
– .Ÿ.Ÿ. ... ..¸ .•..
e.·e· 'have' .., 'had'___ have had_ ..
present perfect tense of have. present perfect
. verbform: have/has + past participle (pp);
eg: have seen, have gone etc.
Present perfect tense ...¸. .t›.. ..¸.
. .. ..  .· :·. for the past, for the last,
since ...
a) I have studied (have+ pp of study) here for
the past two years- ·.,. ..¸. . ..
·....Œ‰ .Ÿ..
b) He has worked (has + pp of work)
here since 2004 = 2004 .: ..¸. . ..
..Ÿ ..,. .·. .‹.
..¸. . .. ... .· ..¸...–
I have a car .... ·... .Œ‰ . · ..
... .· .... 'have' . present perfect
tense, ... have + past participle of have
(=had) ..t .. ..¸. ....·
I have had this car for the past two years
.... have + had (pp of 'have'_ .t
.¸· .· She has had (has + pp of 'have')
this job for the last one year.
.. .Ÿ¸ .. .: .. ..¸œ. ...·
They have had two cups of coffee so far.
..¸. . .. ·... ..¸. ..ˆ ..·
Present perfect tense œ.Ÿ.. ..  .·
..¸. . .. . .: . ..· .. .: ..¸.
.. ....
I have had my lunch. . .. ... . ....·
★ had had- .. past perfect tense of 'have'.
Past perfect . verb form: had + past par-
ticiple
Past perfect ...¸. .t›.. œ.Ÿ.. .. 
·... .. ... . . ··
He told me that he had passed
(had + pp of pass)
. .Ÿ¸ · . ..¸.
pass .... ..¸.. ·... œ.Ÿ.. ..
pass .... .... ..¸.. .Ÿ.¸.Ÿ ....
'pass' .... ... had passed .· past per-
fect ....
· .. .•. .... ..Ÿ ·. ,.. ....
..,. ·... past actions. ,.. .....
..... past action. ‘,.. .....’ ...
'have a scooter.' ... past perfect of have =
had + past partciple of have (=had) = had
had.
He had had a scooter before he bought the
car.
.. .• .... ..Ÿ ·. ,.. ....·
★ He had had his breakfast when his friend
came in.
..Œ _š... ..¸..¸.. ..Ÿ· breakfast
... . ....·
★ She had had the information before I told
her of it.
.›.¸ .... .. .œ. . . ... ...·
The girl is
reading
÷..
I
Pooja: Are you happy?
.... .¸.··
Durga: Certainly I am.
..·
Pooja: Why are you happy?
.... .... .¸.··
Durga: My cousin Saraswathi is here for
vacation. We shall be happy in each
other's company.
(. .. . ¸: š.... ..,.….
.:¸.. .. ..... .. .. ...
.... .....·
Pooja: What will be your plan?
· . .:.··
Druga: Come home tomorrow. You will know.
·.. .... . ··. .. ..·
· .... .Ÿ.‹. ..–
am, is, are; was, were; shall be, will be .Ÿ.¸.Ÿ
happy, plan ... . ... .. ..Ÿ¸ ·
. .. .. · .. . .Ÿ practice . .Ÿ..…
Blanks Brackets . .:¸ ..  ..
·....…
I am ________
: ›.. ..¸..… .. I am Pavan)
I am _____
He is _______
They are ________
My friends will be ______
š. .:¸: sample ._.Ÿ.
... ...¸ ..œ .. .. ¸.
.... / ... ..Ÿ œ. _.. . ..:
.. .. .Ÿ.. ... œ. ..¸ œ. .t .
.t: .· .œ. ..... œ. ·..Ÿ· œ.
·..Ÿ· .· .¸.œ .¸.·– · ....
... :. ..¸œ. .... ·. English ..
. ..Ÿ..… am, is, are; was, were; shall be,
will be .., ..· ..¸ .. ...…
š. .... ... ...–
tall, short, fat, slim, happy, sad/sorrowful,
kind, cruel, good, bad, lazy, active, patient,
clever/intelligent/wise, foolish, talkative,
reserved, honest, dishonest, reliable, unreli-
able
a--· »-«Œ-
. . ,  š.  .   .  . · English . countables
....
.. man, book, student, pen, town, village
etc.
:.. singular, plural ..... .... :.
singular .... ..¸. 'a' .· 'an' .·
.... œ.. .Ÿ ..t
I am a student.
He is an engineer.
She is a doctor.
She is an eye surgeon.
He is an uncle of mine.
It is an ox. etc.
· ... .... Questions .. prac-
tice ..Ÿ..…
eg: Is he happy?
Are they clever? etc.
š. ..‡¸ ...·¸... English ..
.. question practice ..Ÿ..…
Question structure œ... ..·
a) vb+Sub [Are (verb) you (sub) happy?]
b) first word of the verb + sub + other words
of the verb.
[Has (first word of the verb) he (sub) been helping
(other words of the verb) you?]
| ..Ÿ. . ..·
. .. .... .....·
. .. .... .....· (future.·
i ..Œ‰ ·..Ÿ· ... ..‹· (past)
5. ..˜.¸. ..,. ....··
·.. :·. .,. ....·
. .. ·. .Ÿ· œ.. .· :. .¸..
...·
· ..Ÿ . ._œ   .Ÿ ....·
(future.··
· :. .... ... ..‹·
| .. .¸. .. .. ....·
Answers:
1) Is he very tall?
2) Is she beautiful?
3) Will she be happy?
4) Were they honest?
5) Where are they now?
6) Where will you be tomorrow?
7) Are you sure that he is honest?
8) Will he be careful?
9) Were you happy?
10) Was she fat once?
.... œ.Ÿ.. ... was, were.
..¸. ... am, is, are œ.Ÿ. .:
..¸. ... .· ... .· ....·¸
..¸. ·. have been, has been ....
I, we, you, they .... have; he, she, it
.... has ....
| ..Ÿ. .·.Œ _..Ÿ. ..,. .¸.
He was here four years ago.
. ..Ÿ. ..¸ .… .,. .¸.
He is here.
. ..Ÿ. . ·.Œ‰ ..,. .¸.
He has been here for the past four years.
i ·... .. . . ... ...
It has been very hot for the past two days.
... |·i. .: ¸.Ÿ. _.Ÿ. ...
India has been independent since
1947 (for the past 57 years)
.. .. .Œ‰ š.. .... .¸.
We have been in Hyderabad for the
past ten years (since 1995)
. ...Ÿ ›.· .., . ¸.·
Where have you been all this time?
· :. ...Ÿ . .. ..,. ¸.·
How long have you been here?
· .·. ...Ÿ... .., ...·
Where has Pooja been all these days?
.. .. have been / has been . ..
_....¸. ... œ.Ÿ.. .. .¸. .: ..¸.
... · ...· .. ÑÙç¶ . ... .·¸ I,
We, you and they.
.... 'have been'. ·
he, she, it . .... 'has
been' .· :.
...: ..Ÿ.
œ.Ÿ .•·¸ .. ./ .•·¸
œ.../ .•·¸ ../
.•·¸ .. .Ÿ¸ .. ... for
the past (The last)... days/
... hours/ ... months / ...
years ... ...
œ... .. .. .Ÿ¸ .. ..¸·
eg: for the past (The last) 2 days / 2 hours/ 2
months / 2 years
.. for 2 days / hours / months / years
now ....
.. ../ œ../ ./ .. .Ÿ¸.. .:
. . ·. since ....
✫ I have been here for the past (last) two
years.
I have been here since 2003
✫ She has been here for the (last) past two
months.
She has been here since February end.
✫ India has been independent for the past
(last) 57 years.
India has been independent since 1947.
· for the past (last). since . .. ..
...¸. · ... ..¸. .Ÿ...…
.. ·¸ ..,. ...
Durga was here yesterday.
.. ..¸. ..,. ...
Durga is here.
.. ·¸. .: ..,. ...
Durga has been here since yesterday.
..Œ‰ ..¸ ..,.¸.·
Where were they the day before?
..Œ‰, ..¸ ..,.¸.·
Where are they?
..Œ‰ ..¸. .: .., . ¸.·
Where have they been since the day
before?
... ..¸ .. :.. English practice ..Ÿ..…
| :·...Ÿ ... .., . ¸.·
. ... .,. ...Ÿ ... _.·. .. .¸.·
. ..Ÿ .| .: .. . . .¸.
(since, for the past ·... ..   .   .:
..¸..…·
i ..Ÿ .| .: .. ... ..,. ..Ÿ .
.¸.
..... .…: ...….Ÿ. ...· ...
·... .. . ..Ÿ ·. . .¸.
·...– Weak)
. :. ... .. . :. .¸.·
· ..Ÿ ...Ÿ ... ..¸. .¸.· ..¸–
ill/sick)
· ...Ÿ ... .. ...¸ .._: .¸.·
| :. .. ... .., . ¸.·
Answers:
1. How long have you been here?
2. How long has Tendulkar been a cricketer?
3. He has been a collector since 2001/ for the
past (last) 4 Years.
4. He was a teacher here from 2001 to 2003.
5. Delhi has been the capital of India for a
long time.
6. He has been weak for two days now (for
the past/ for the last two days)
7. Have you been busy for the past (last) one
week?
8. How long has he been ill?
9. How long has YS been the Chief Minister?
10. Have you been here for long?
š. Sentences. have been/ has been
.... œ. ·..Ÿ..… .•..Ÿ ... _..Ÿ. .: ..¸.
... · ...· ÑÙè[ è¯Eo have been/ has
been .t.Ÿ . .. Question structure
..¸. verb + subject · verb . ·... 
... .. ... Ist word of the verb +
Subject + other words of the verb ·
.....
---œe·.- ---œe·.- ---œe·.- ---œe·.- ---œe·.- ---œe·.-
6
M. SURESAN
Oªô¢« ô¦óŸªÙè…!
.¸·.. ..... . ....„..
þ¼p·ÚûÂ ÏÙTxùÃ, ¸.ae..¸ o.·.·
:-:»e-œ». š.·.-·e·.–sa
:...-. ...‡..Ÿ..Ÿ¸
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..... zz .. z::s
¸.«Œ¸ . . . ‘..¸ . .’ – ‘..Ÿ . .’ –
‘.¸. .Ÿ ..’ . .. .¸. verb v3 ·
.... .. .  .· .. . . ..–
Milk 'sold' here; Job work 'done' here;
'Spoken' English Institute - .. verb
v1 .... v3 · .... .. . 
¸. :. .. .Ÿ œ ..
– ·..¸ .....
e.·e·
i verb v3 ... past participle: done, spo-
ken, seen etc.
passive form . verb ..¸. 'be' form +
past participle.
'Milk sold here' .. 'Milk is sold here'
. short form.
..,. verb 'is (be form) + sold (past par-
ticiple of sell)' . ...– ..¸ . . .Ÿ..
..· 'Job work done here' ... 'Job
work is done here' .· ... is done,
(passive) ... ..Ÿ . . .· (is - be
form + done - past participle).
2. past participle (p.p.) . ... ... ‘..…’
‘..’ .·
eg: The man seen here every day - ..,.
.Ÿ. .. .¸. torn paper - :.. ..…
..Ÿ. ..· spoken english ...
.. . .. ... .· ...
...¸. .. .. ... .. œ.
passive voice ...
‘..¸ .¸. ... ..…..·’ .. ..
..· ‘:.. .. ..Ÿ.’ .· .. ..
‘:· ..Ÿ.’ ....
I am a student
-.·e c·-a
o.·e .·-·
-.·e c·-a
o.·e .·-·
-.·e c·-a
o.·e .·-·
-.·e c·-a
o.·e .·-·
-.·e c·-a
o.·e .·-·
÷..
I
Sudha: I meet Padmaja here everyday. I
miss her today.
.. ..,. ..¸. ..  ·
.. .·.‡. .Ÿ ..·
Valli: Yes. She comes here everyday. I
too see that.
.. .. ..,.. ...
.. .Ÿ.‹ _.: ..··
Sudha: I remember now. Today is Sunday.
She does not come here on sun-
day.
. œ.•.. · .. .....
.. ..... ..,.. ..·
Valli: I do not know that.
. .t.Ÿ.·
Sudha: She goes to her aunt's place every
sunday. I too visit my cousin every
sunday evening.
.. ..... ..Œ ..Ÿ.Ÿ¸ ....
. .Œ‰  .Ÿ.. . . ..  .. .
.Ÿ._.Ÿ. . .. .... ..Œ .·
be forms . ... .·¸ ..... .... š.
..¸.· meet, comes, remember, does
come, goes, visit ... . . .t.Ÿ .
..
. . .t›. · ... ... .Ÿ...…
I Regular Doing II Regular Doing
Words Words
A B
eat eats (eat+s)
take takes (take+s)
give gives (give+s)
wash washes (Wash+es)
like likes (like+s)
sing sings (Sing+s)
dance dances (dance+s)
go goes (go+es)
'A' ... ... I Regular Doing Words, B
... ... II Regular Doing Words ....
I Regular Doing Words . (A ... ....·
's' .· 'es' .· ..› II Regular doing words
...
A ... ... [I Regular Doing Words
(I RDWs)], I, We, you and they . .... B
... .. . [II Regular Doing Words
(II RDWs)] He, She, it. ....
I
We
You
}
like milk
My parents
(They)
My father (he)
My mother (she)
}
likes milk
The Cat (it)
š. .Ÿ.‡ :.. A group . .. Verbs, B
group . .. verbs ..¸..…
eg: .œ..
I He
We
}
drink coffee She
}
drinks coffee
You It
They
..· · ... ... ..¸ :.. ...
..¸..…
..Ÿ.. .... .... .. ·.Ÿ.. .....
_›.:. .Ÿ.. ·_.. .Ÿ.. .¸. ..Ÿ.. .. . . 
.Ÿ.. œ...Ÿ.... ..:. ...– ... :.
.·¸ .. ... ..¸œ t. .·¸.. prac-
tice ..Ÿ..…
Answers :
I write sleep
We play waste
You walk use
The boys
}
run remember
(They) cook forget
love
Hemant (he) writes cooks uses
Sarala (she)
}
plays loves remembers
It ... walks sleeps forgets
. . . .· runs wastes
:.· .. . t. .Ÿ..…
a) Pens (They) write.
A pen (It) writes.
b) Wrist watches (They) show the time.
A wrist watch (It)
shows the time.
c) Doctors (They) treat
patients.
A doctor (He/She)
treats patients.
d) Fans (They) give air.
A fan gives air.
e) Teachers (They)
teach.
A Teacher (He/She) teaches. .. .·¸
verbs . practice ..Ÿ..…
COUNTABLES, UNCOUNTABLES
a) countables ... .., š..:
book, pen, teacher, boy, dog etc.
b) uncountables ... ..,š...·:
milk, sugar, rice, water etc.
c) countables . ._.Ÿ. singular ...·
plural ... ... ..,.· .....
book (singular) books (plural)
pen (singular) pens (plural)
teacher (singular) teachers (plural)
boy (singular) boys (plural)
d) uncountables . plural .... milks, sug-
ars, rices ..
e) Very Important: countable singulars
... ..,š..:– .. .·¸ ...· œ..:
.›.¸ . .¸.· .... ..¸. 'a' .·
'an' .· ..t¸..
eg:
1) A doctor treats patients (doctor -
countable, singular).
2) I have an idea (idea - countable, singular).
3) An umbrella is useful in rain (umbrella-
countable, singular).
4) A pen is for writing (pen- countable, singu-
lar)
'a' ..¸.· 'an' ..¸.·
. . . · . · . . . . :– · ..œ
.Œ... _... ...¸ .. .... 'an' ..t
:œ. ... .... 'a' .. . . .t
an umbrella .._.. – ... an)
an hour ... – an)
an honour .. – an)
an idea ..….Ÿ – an)
an owl :. –an)
an egg . – an)
· _.Ÿ. ..› a, an :. .Ÿ..con-
fusion ....
:œ. .Œ.. ...... a ....…
countable singular ..,. .:¸ .· .... a
.· an .· ... t¸..
Mother loves her child (wrong)
A Mother (countable singular) loves her child.
f) Uncountable .... a .· an .· ..¸.
..
.. .. . 1st RDW (1st Regular doing
word ... come, go, walk), 2nd RDW (2nd
Regular doing word ... comes, goes,
walks) . .. . t..
I, We, you, they .... 1st RDW;
he, she, it .... 2nd RDW ..t
· ·... Regular doing words _... .Ÿ.¸
... ·.Ÿ¸. ..· ... ....– ...
Regular actions . ..¸. ..· . ..
.. :. ....
i· .. ... .. ·_. .
.. regular action. ... I get up at 6 a.m.
..,. every day .· ..‡¸ ..¸. . ..
... get . 1st RDW . regular ..
.. . ..Ÿ..
z· .. .•:¸.. .. ..‹.‹.. ..Ÿ.. ...
We start for college at 9 a.m.
(Regular action - start - 1st RDW)
s· . ›¸.‡.Ÿ. . ....
.. regular action.
Our friends (They) play well.
:· :·. .¸. ..¸. ..
..¸. .. ·.··
You always come late.
s· . ¸. ...Ÿ. ·. ..ˆ. ..Ÿ . . .
.. (Regular- _.: ..·
My father (He) starts for office at 9 a.m.
(everyday .· ..¸t¸ .. .. ..
starts ... regular)
s· . ..¸ ... .Ÿ.. ..¸.·
My mother (She) cooks for us.
t· 1st show ... ... _..... ...Ÿ..
.. ..·
The 1st show (It) starts at 6.15 p.m.
... regular actions English . ..¸..…
i ... · _. .. ...(like ....…·
z .. ‘·.’ .Ÿ. ..
s . .Ÿ. œ .Ÿ. ...Ÿ. ..œ. ... _.....
.....
: . ..¸ .: ˆ. .Ÿ.¸ .Ÿ..
watch - ˆ. .Ÿ.¸ ‡·.. .Ÿ...·
s . ¸. .. ... .. .... :. . 
. (return, come back; ....– 'home')
s _.: .. ...Ÿ. œ..›. .Ÿ. ..
(study; for an hour, every morning)
t . ..¸ ..ˆ .œ .Ÿ..
_.: .. – .... – regular)
Answers:
1. She likes this dress.
2. I read the Eenadu (every day).
3. Our classes (They) begin / start at 10 a.m.
4. My mother (She) watches TV serials.
5. My father (He) returns / comes back home
at 6 a.m.
6. I study for an hour every morning.
7. My mother (She) takes coffee (every day).
M. SURESAN
Oªô¢« ô¦óŸªÙè…!
.¸·.. ..... . ....„..
þ¼p·ÚûÂ ÏÙTxùÃ, ¸.ae..¸ o.·.·
:-:»e-œ». š.·.-·e·.–sa
:...-. ...‡..Ÿ..Ÿ¸
email: pratibha@ eenadu.net email: pratibha@ eenadu.net email: pratibha@ eenadu.net email: pratibha@ eenadu.net email: pratibha@ eenadu.net email: pratibha@ eenadu.net
.Œ‰_.... z: .. z::s
¸.«Œ¸ Oxford advanced dictionary . word
.., .¸ pronunciation. letters
.•·¸ ... .•·¸ .Ÿ... . . ...
.. ..· :.· .. ..Ÿ¸ .. .t·
...   ·.  . ·.Ÿ  .  ..  ..Ÿ·
Dictionary page bottom line ... ..
..· ..... :. œ..: .t.Ÿ .
.Ÿ..…
– ..- .. š.. . ..
e.·e· .. . .· ., .. (alphabet), ...
..¸ . .. ..¸ .Œ. .·¸. .. . .. ... 
.. pronunciation. ...Ÿ confusion. .¸
., .. .·¸ .Œ. . :. .Ÿ . ·. . ..
... .Ÿ... . . ... .¸ ., ..
.•·¸ .Œ.. .. .. .. .. ... ., ..
.•·¸ .Œ. .. œ..
'v'· very. ‘.’ .Œ. ·. .. .. .Ÿ... . .
.¸ v = ‘∧’ · but, shut, cut ... ...
..¸ ‘.’ .Œ. ·. .. .. but- :· pronunci-
ation, dictionary . .. ..... b

t; cut =
k

t etc. .…. _·. key to Pronunciation .
.Ÿ› . œ. . .Œ. ·. .. :. ..
..... ..   .  .. pronunciation
casettes, CDs .. . œ . . ...
¸.«Œ¸ ‘..¸. .› .. :. ... ...
.. .Ÿ..’ .· ..¸. ·. .. .. .  
. proverb ... .t.Ÿ . .Ÿ..…
– .. .-.. .. ..¸ .•..
e.·e· :. ¸. ·. .  . proverb .:
English. ..
---œe·.- ---œe·.- ---œe·.- ---œe·.- ---œe·.- ---œe·.-
7
A, AN...
.-.·-· -œ-.--·.Œ-·
A, AN...
.-.·-· -œ-.--·.Œ-·
A, AN...
.-.·-· -œ-.--·.Œ-·
A, AN...
.-.·-· -œ-.--·.Œ-·
A, AN...
.-.·-· -œ-.--·.Œ-·
÷..
I
Ramu: Do you know Mr. venu?
·. .. ..··
Vasu: Of course, I know him.
.. . ..·
Ramu: How do you know him?
..Ÿ ·. .. ..··
Vasu: We work in the same department.
But he works in another section.
.. .·. .…. . ... .., .¸.
.· ..Ÿ .·. š. .·. .·
Ramu: Which section does he work in?
..Ÿ . š. .· ..··
Vasu: Why do you want to know all this?
.¸ · :. .. .... ..  ..
. .. . ¸.··
š. .... œ. ·. .Ÿ..… Question .. do,
does .¸.. :. .... ..  ....
English. .. ...¸.
Regular doing words (1st RDW, 2nd RDW)
- come, comes; go, goes- ... .: not .
question . .. ..¸. .. ._œ .Ÿ ...t
.. ...š. .. ... .. . :..Ÿ.
.... ... .. ..
. ..‹.. _. : .. .. .Ÿ.
.•:¸.... ..Œ.
I go to college at 9 AM.
...Ÿ. .•:¸.... ..Œ– ....
I do not (don't) go to college at 9 AM.
_.: .. ..Œ‰ ¸ .. .. ..
They meet me every day.
..Œ‰ ..  ..
They do not meet
me every day.
'not' ..…  .¸. .¸: 
·.  . . . . ¸  .  ·. ·
question ..…·..¸.
1st RDW (come, go
... :·. 'do'
...
.•.¸ .... ..¸.–
1) I go there every Sunday.
a) I do not go there every Sunday.
b) Do I go there every Sunday?
2) They speak Telugu.
a) They do not speak Telugu.
b) Do they speak Telugu?
|· . go not . ..…  .¸. 1 (a) . do
go ...Ÿ.. Question 1 (b). .. do
go .....
..· .·. Speak not. ..…  .¸.
2(a). question 2(b). do speak ..
...
3) We like mangoes
a) We do not like mangoes
b) Do we like mangoes?
..,. .. like not. .· question.
.· ..…  .¸. do like .... œ. ·. 
.Ÿ..…
... 1 RDW + not/?= do + 1st RDW.
...1st Regular Doing Words (come,
go ... :·· not . question. ..…  
.¸. do + 1st RDW ...Ÿ..
· ...... not . .¸: ·... questions
practice ..Ÿ..… .•·¸ .. ....
1. ..Œ. ... ..
They know English.
..Œ. ... .t.Ÿ.
They do not know English.
..Œ. ... ..·
Do they know English?
(Question Structure œ... .. – 'verb'
..¸. ....·
2. .¸ .. ..¸. ..
You always come late.
.¸ .¸. ..¸. .. (not)
You do not come late.
.¸ .. ..¸. ..·
Do you always come late?
3. ..Ÿ.… ›¸.‡.Ÿ. ..Ÿ .…. .Ÿ. ..
His friends help him.
..Ÿ.… ›¸.‡.Ÿ. ..Ÿ .…. .Ÿ. ..Ÿ.
His friends do not help him.
..Ÿ.… ›¸.‡.Ÿ. ..Ÿ .…. .Ÿ. ..·
Do his friends help him?
know = do know
come = do come
help = do help
.... š. ..¸. œ. ·. .Ÿ..…
· ... ..œ ..¸. English. practice
..Ÿ..…
i .. .,.…. .. ..
...,.…. .. ..
.. .,.…. .. ..·
z .¸ ..…· .. .. .. ..
.¸ ..…· .. ..  ..
.¸ ..…· .. ..  .. ..·
s .. . ....
.. . ...
.. . .. ..·
: . ... ..
. ... .t.Ÿ.
:. ... ..·
s · ..Ÿ. . .. .
· ..Ÿ. . ... .Ÿ.
· ..Ÿ. . .. .·
s .. ... ‡·.. .Ÿ.
.. ... ‡·.. .Ÿ..
:. ... ‡·.. .Ÿ.·
t ..,. ... . ..¸. ..
..¸. ..Ÿ.. treat)
..,. ... . ..¸. ..Ÿ.
..,. ... . ..¸. ..·
s ..Œ‰ . . .
..Œ‰ . .. .Ÿ.
..Œ‰ . . .·
Answers:
1. They come here daily.
They do not come here daily.
Do they come here daily?
2. You meet him every day.
You do not meet him every day.
Do you meet him everyday?
3. We sing well.
We do not sing well.
Do we sing well?
4. I know English.
I do not know English.
Do you know English?
5. These teachers teach well.
These teachers do not teach well.
Do these teachers teach well?
6. We watch English movies.
We do not watch English movies.
Do you watch English movies?
7. The doctors here treat well.
The doctors here do not treat well.
Do the doctors here treat well?
8. They act well.
They do not act well.
Do they act well?
English. what, where, when, which,
whose, whom and why. .. questions
.. œ.. ..· :.· 'wh' words ....
:.. ..…· questions 'wh' questions. ·
'wh' .... ... 'wh' questions. .. 1
st RDW. do + 1 st RDW ...
1. :·.. ..·
What do you know?
2. :·. ., .. ..·
Where do you live?
3. ..˜. ....·
How do they sing? (How = ..··
Ans: . ....
They sing well
4. :·.. .. ..¸. ..¸. ..·
Why do you always come late?
Ans: I miss the bus.
5. :. ..‹.‹.. ..¸. ..Ÿ....·
..·
When do you start for college? (every
day)
Ans: I start at 9 AM.
6. .... .. . ..·
Why do you waste time?
Ans: . . ..Ÿ .. ..
I do not waste time.
· ... questions English . practice
..Ÿ..…
i ..Œ‰ .. ..,.…. .... ..·
z :. .·¸ ‡·. .. .. .Ÿ.·
s :. .... ... .,. .•...·
: ..Œ‰ . ._:. .Ÿ. ...·
s ..¸. .: : š...·
s :·...Ÿ .. ..·
t ..Œ‰ .. ..,.…. ..¸.•.·
s _.: ..... .¸ . .· .. .. ..·
- .... ‡·.. ·...·
i: :. ... . .. .... ..,.
.•...·
š. questions . _.: . ·. . . . ..
..Ÿ..…
Answers:
1. Why do they come here every day?
Ans: They come here to see me.
2. Why do you watch so many movies?
Ans: I watch them because I like them.
3. Where do you buy books usually?
Ans: I buy them at that stall.
4. What newspaper do they read?
Ans: They read the Eenadu.
5. When do your holidays begin?
Ans: They usually begin in April 3rd week.
6. How much do you earn?
Ans: Why do you want to know?
:·.. .. ..  ... .. . ¸.··
7. When do they come here every day?
Ans: They come here at 7 PM
8. Whom do you meet every sunday?
Ans: I meet my friend.
9. What kind of movies do you like?
Ans: I like suspense movies.
10. Where do you buy provisions usually?
Ans: I buy them at that shop.
---œ.·.- ---œ.·.- ---œ.·.- ---œ.·.- ---œ.·.- ---œ.·.-
8
M. SURESAN
.:... zs .. z::s
¸.-Œ¸ standard .… . _·· .. .. .
..Ÿt· .. .. Word .Ÿ¸.
.:.š.. .‹ˆ.Ÿ..: .t.Ÿ . .Ÿ..…
..· Key to dictionary entries
... .:.·
– .˜.. .:..œ.
e.·e· . Standard dictionary .
... .. Word .:. š.. ..: ...
.. Alphabetical order . refer ..Ÿ..
.t refer ..Ÿ ... · ... ...‹.
..  ..t
➻ English alphabet. .,. _... a-z
... .t.Ÿt
➻ .:·. ... Spelling .. .:¸ .Ÿ.
.t‡ ...t .. ..Œ . š¸t. .Ÿ.¸
... ... .•. .. ... . .¸. _..¸ 
.¸.Ÿ Spellings ·.‡..Ÿ.•· ..Ÿ
.t existence . ... spelling
.. .. . . existance ..·
.: .. · ... Dictionary . .•. ..
... . .¸. a ... e _..¸ .¸
.Ÿ.. ..Ÿ ... .Ÿ. .: ..Œ
➻Word .: . š.. .‹ˆ.Ÿ ..: ...
.. .,._... œ.. . .·¸ ..
.Ÿ ¸. . . . .•.   . . . ..   .   . .…
.....
➻ .... _.: ›..š. .¸ Lead Word
.Ÿ . .t
➻ ..Spelling .. ..Ÿ .t
Key to dictionary entries ... ...
.…._·. ..¸ ... ... .. : :. 
.. .:–
★ . .. Pronunciation
★ parts of speech
★ .. parts of speech . .. .. .
Print . ., .. Type . ...
★ .. ..Œ Parts of speech Noun, Verb .
.... ... . ..·¸ .. :..
★ .. ... ..¸ Idiom. ..¸ œ.
.. . Synonyms, antonyms ..
.t..
.Ÿ..Ÿ.. :.· Key to dictionary
entries :. . ..
· :.. .…._· :·. ·¸ ..Ÿ¸..Ÿ .
.Œ .Ÿ.. ...
Oªô¢« ô¦óŸªÙè…!
.¸·.. ..... . ....„..
þ¼p·ÚûÂ ÏÙTxùÃ, ¸.a...¸ o.·.·
:-c»e-œ». š.·.-·.·.–sa
:...-. ...‡..Ÿ..Ÿ¸
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í£åªd êµL›í í£ë¯õª!
÷..
I
Raghu: Does your friend meet you regular-
ly?
: _š... ·¸ ·.œ¸ .. .. .··
Ramu: Which friend? . _š...··
Raghu: Seshu .™.·
Ramu: Yes, he meets me regularly. But
he does not meet me on sundays.
.. ·.œ¸ .. .. . .·
..... ._.Ÿ. ....·
Raghu: Why does he not (doesn't he) meet
you on sundays?
..... .... ....··
Ramu: He does not move out of home on
sunday.
..Ÿ ..... .. .. ..·
š. .... .Ÿ.‹. .. 2nd RDW meets
question . not . does meet .....
..· does move ... moves (not . .:¸ 
 .¸.·
Come, go, Walk ... 1st RDWs
(Regular Doing Words) not.
questions. ..…     . ¸. do . .  . ·
...¸.
eg:
1) They come here everyday.
a) they do not come here every day.
b) Do they come here every day?
2) You come here often.
a) You do not come here often.
b) Do you come here often?
..· ..¸. 2nd Regular Doing Words-
comes, goes, walks, talks ... verbs not
..· question ..· ..….¸. 'does'
... 2nd RDWs- he, she, it . ....
... 'does' .. he, she, it. .. . . 
.t
1) Sunita (She) sings well.
2nd RDW
a) Sunita does not sing well.
2nd RDW
..,. verb 'does sing' - not .
b) Does Sunita sing well?
..,. .. verb 'does sing' - question .
... ..,. sings + not/?
= does sing
sings not . .·
question . .· ..…  
. ¸. 'does sing'
.....
2) Kumar (he) knows
English.
a) Kumar does not
know English.
b) Does Kumar know English?
œ. ·. .. .. knows + not/? = does know)
3) Hari likes music.
a) Hari does not like music.
b) Does Hari like music?
.. 'not' . questions. .. .•·¸ 2nd RDWs
... .Ÿ...…
1) works (+ not) = does not work;
Q: Does (he) work?
2) takes (+ not) = does not take;
Q: Does (she) take?
3) finds (+ not) = does not find;
Q: Does (Sunil) find?
4) goes (+ not) = does not go;
Q: Does (Sita) go?
.. œ.. .Ÿ ...…
takes = does take (with not/?)
comes = does come (with not/?)
writes = does write (with not/?)
..¸. · ... ..· practice ..Ÿ..…
.: 1st RDW, 2nd RDW ·...…... ... .. :
: ... .•·¸ ...¸. 'do', .. .•·¸
...¸. 'does' ..t¸ ..... ._œ .Ÿ
œ. ·.: practice ..Ÿ..…
eg:
1. a) || .‡.. . .. .. .
I go to bed at 11 PM.
b) || .‡.. . .. .
I do not go to bed at 11 PM.
c) :·. ·¸. .. .. .. ..·
When do you go to bed?
2. a) .. . .. .Ÿ..
Usha plays well.
b) .. . ...
Usha does not play well.
c) .. . .. .Ÿ..·
Does Usha play well?
· ... ..¸ . _.. ..Ÿ..…
1. a) .. . .. . .. .
b) .. . .. . ... .Ÿ.
c) .. . .. . .. .·
2. a) ..Œ‰ ..Ÿ . .. .„.Ÿ. ..
b) ..Œ‰ ..Ÿ . .. .„.Ÿ. ..Ÿ.
c) ..Œ‰ ..Ÿ . .. .„.Ÿ. ..·
3 a) ... ..,.…. .. ..
b) ... ..,.…. .. ..
c) ... ..,.…. .. ..·
4. a) .. ...Ÿ. .. œ.. .: .Ÿ.
b) .. ...Ÿ. .. œ.. .: .Ÿ..
c) :. .. .: ..¸. .Ÿ.·
5 a) .. ...Ÿ. œ.... ›... ...
b) .. ...Ÿ. œ.... ›... ..
c) .. .·¸. .. ›... ...·
6. a) ..Œ. ..Ÿ .. . .....Ÿ..
b) ..Œ. ..Ÿ .. . ... ..
c) ..Π. ..٠. . ...٠.
.....Ÿ..·
7. a) :. .. ›... .Ÿ. ...
b) :. .. ›... .Ÿ. ..
c) :. .. . ›... .Ÿ. ...·
8. a) .. ..  .  .. ..Œ _š. .. ¸ ... .
..Œ‰.Ÿ..
b) .. ..... ..Œ _š...¸ .... ..Œ.
c) .. ..Œ _š...¸ .... ...Ÿ .Ÿ. .Ÿ ..Œ‰ 
.Ÿ..·
9. a) ... ..Ÿ .. ...
b) ... ..Ÿ .. ... ..
c) ... ..Ÿ .. ... ...Ÿ ...·
10. a) ..Ÿ _.: ... .. ..Œ..
b) ..Ÿ _.: ... .. ..Œ.
c) ..Ÿ _.: ... .. .... ..Œ..·
11. a) .. ..ˆ · ....
b) .. ..ˆ ·..
c) :·.. ·.. .. ..ˆ.Ÿ ..Ÿ·
ANSWERS:
1. a) Mr Ananda Rao teaches well.
b) Mr Ananda Rao does not teach well.
c) How does Mr Ananda Rao teach?
2. a) They help others.
b) They do not help others.
c) Do they help others?
3. a) Mr Rao comes here every day.
b) Mr Rao does not come here every day.
c) Does Mr Rao come here every day?
4. a) We watch the TV for an hour every
morning.
b) We do not watch TV for an hour every
morning.
c) When do you watch the TV every day?
5. a) The paper comes every day at 6 AM.
b) The paper does not come here at 6
AM.
c) When does the paper come?
5. a) We get the paper at 6 AM
b) We do not get the paper at 6 AM
c) When do you get the paper?
6. a) They understand his teaching well.
b) They do not understand his teaching
well.
c) How well do they understand his teach-
ing?
7. a) You read the paper every day.
b) You do not read the paper everyday.
c) What paper do you read everyday?
8. a) She goes to her friends' on Sundays.
b) She does not go to her friends' on
Sundays.
c) How often does she go to her friends'?
9. a) She likes him.
b) She does not like him.
c) Why does she like him so much?
10. a) He goes to Vizag every week.
b) He does not go to Vizag every week.
c) Why does he go to Vizag every week?
11. a) We take coffee.
b) We do not take coffee.
c) What do you take, coffee or tea?
---œe·.= ---œe·.= ---œe·.= ---œe·.= ---œe·.= ---œe·.=
M. SURESAN
..œ.Œ... zs .. z::s
9
e.·e· I know you have stolen my book
:· ...– .¸ ... .•.œ t. ..·
. ..
.... .•.t. :.. œ.Ÿ.. ... .t‡..
..¸.
I knew you had stolen my book.
·. ... .•.t. ..· . ..
..,. .•.t. .Ÿ ... œ.Ÿ. .t.Ÿ ...
œ.Ÿ.
I Knew you stole my book.
.. .. .. .¸·¸ .. :·. ... .. .¸.
.· .... .... · ..¸. .Ÿ.¸ ·
..¸·¸ .. ..Ÿ ..Ÿ¸–
I knew you had stolen my book.
..,. ·... .. past . ... ....
.... .Ÿ.¸.Ÿ .. .. ... knew, had
stolen ..t
Simple Present, Present perfect combina-
tion ·. . :. .‡ .... ..¸. ..
I Know (simple present) you've stolen
(present perfect).
simple past, past perfect combination .¸
·... .... ..¸. .·..
. ..¸. .. ·. .
eg:
I have just noticed that he has not attend-
ed class for the past two days.
have noticed, have attended ·... pres-
ent perfect . .. .. ·... ..•.Ÿ¸
:.¸. .¸ ..t¸ .:¸  .¸. ....
._œ .Ÿ. · ..t
1. I know you've stolen my book.
.. ..¸·¸ .. ..Ÿ ..¸·
2. I knew you had stolen my book.
3. I Knew you stole my book
4. I have just Know (that) you've stolen
my book.
5. I know (that) you stolen my book
yesterday.
6. I knew that you had stolen my book
yesterday.
š. ..¸. . .. .¸.. ..t ·
..¸. ·. . ..·
simple present . present perfect
combination ·.  .· ..· simple
past . past perfect ·.  .·
simple past. simple past ·. .· just
... recent actions. present perfect +
present perfect ·. . :. .. .Ÿ œ ..
– .Ÿ. ..., .·.¸.. ..-¸.
¸.«Œ¸
Oªô¢« ô¦óŸªÙè…!
.¸·.. ..... . ....„..
þ¼p·ÚûÂ ÏÙTxùÃ, ¸.ae..¸ o.·.·
:-:»e-œ». š.·.-·e·.–sa
:...-. ...‡..Ÿ..Ÿ¸
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He does not
move out of home
on sunday.
Does ...¸.•.·-e· Does ...¸.•.·-e· Does ...¸.•.·-e· Does ...¸.•.·-e· Does ...¸.•.·-e·
Does ...¸.•.·-e·
÷..
I
.. .Ÿ.¸... ..· .› . .. 1st
RDW (Regular Doing Words- come, go)
... : 2nd RDW (Regular Doing
Words- comes, goes) ...: .... 1st
RDW 'not' . · question. · ..….
'do', 2nd RDW 'not' .· question .·
..…. 'does' ... .· .. .¸.
Ravi: Hello Ramana when did you return
from Vizag?
... .. .: ..¸. :. •
.¸.··
Ramana: I returned yesterday.
·¸ :. •.¸·
Ravi: Why did you go to Vizag?
.. .... ..‹.··
Ramana: I went there to attend a marriage
the day before.
.. š... .„.. .¸. .. ..¸
..,.…. ..‹·
Ravi: How did the marriage go off?
š.. .. .. ..··
Ramana: Oh, it went off very well.
š.. .. . .. ..·
š. .... œ. ·. .Ÿ..… return (yester-
day), went (day before), went (also day
before) ..·¸ .. œ.Ÿ.. ..  ..
..¸. (yesterday, day before) ... ..
.. ..
past actions . œ.Ÿ.. .. . .. . .. .
.. . . . .. .Ÿ¸.. .· .:¸.Ÿ. .t‡  
.¸.· .. verb - past doing word. · ...
..¸. .Ÿ...…
A
1) He comes here every day.
_.: ..· regular action
2) I go to movies every sunday.
.. regular ... 'go'
B
1) He came here yesterday.
..Ÿ ·¸ ..¸.·
(past action .. ·¸ ...· ·¸ .· ..
.. ...Ÿ¸. ... came)
2) He went to a movie last night.
.. ·¸ ._: ... œ.Ÿ.. . .. ...
.. . .· ...Ÿ¸. ... went.
· ... ... .Ÿ...…
Regular actions
_... .Ÿ.¸... .. ·:·
Regular Doing Words
I RDW II RDW
(I, We, You & they) (He, She & It)
go goes
see sees
come comes
know knows
tell tells
teach teaches
write writes
sing sings
keep keeps
learn learns
walk walks
Past actions, Time stated
œ.Ÿ.. . ... .. :·
Past Doing Words
went saw
came knew
told taught
wrote sang
kept learnt
walked
..· · ... ... ..¸ English verbs .
Regular Doing Words, Past Doing Words
practice ..Ÿ..…
eg: :.. – eat (I RDW), eats (II RDW), ate
(Past Doing Word- PDW).
..¸ ... ·..... ·_.. .Ÿ.. ..œ .. ...
. .  .. . .•. . . .. . ‡ .   .   . . .
..Ÿ¸.... .¸. ..Ÿ.. .. .Ÿ.. ....
:_.‹.: ·.... .·..Ÿ.. .¸. ..Ÿ..
.... .. ..Ÿ.. .... ·. ‡. .Ÿ..
..Ÿ...
.- +e· .· -·.·¸-·
Let's go over what we've learnt so far.
...Ÿ . .. .¸ . ¸. .. .Ÿ..
am, is, are; was, were; have/has been; shall
be/will be;1st Regular Doing Words (go,
come, walk ... verbs), 2nd Regular Doing
Words (goes, comes, walks ... verbs)
:.. 'not' . question . do, does ....
..  .¸.
..¸. :.· œ. ·. .Ÿ..…
.. ./ .. .. whose
.. . ·/ .. .. whom
a) Whose book is this?
.. ... ...·
b) Whose is this book?
· ... .. ..·
c) .¸ .. .· ..,. .. . . ..·A B ·
Whom do you like more, A or B?
d) .¸ .. .. .„.Ÿ .
. ..·
Whom do you help?
e) ... ... ..·
Whom does she know?
...– my- mine- .
a) .. ...
This is my pen.
b) · ... .
This pen is mine.
our - . ours - ..
your- ·/:
yours- ·./:.
This is my book; Where is yours?
.. ... ·. .,.··
his- ..Ÿ ·/ . .Ÿ ·.
her- .. ...,
hers- ...
her ... .. .· .. ... ...
This is Ramesh's shirt.
.. ... .•., ... .. .. .. .. ...
.· . t.Ÿ  .   .Ÿ  .  ·. 's (Apostrophe- s)
....
. ¸ . ..
My father's cloths.
. ..¸ œ.
My mother's jewels
... .· · .. .. ... .· · ..¸. ·.
English . 's (apostrophe- s) .... ....
_... .· .. .Ÿ  . ... ‘...’ . . ·. 's
... .· ... 'of' ....
. ... ›...
The pages of the book (book's- .. . ..·
... ..Œ‰
legs of the table (table's .Ÿ.¸·
... .Ÿ. ..– Doors of the house.
.. .Ÿ _..– Wheels of the car.
..¸. · .. .. .Ÿ...…
Ramu: I went to my uncle's place last
evening.
·¸ .Ÿ._.Ÿ. . ...Ÿ¸ ....
..‹·
Raghu: What was the matter?
....··
Ramu: My cousin returned from the states
the day before. He wanted to see
me.
..¸ ..Œ .¸.. .. .. .:
:. •.¸. ..Ÿ ¸ .... . 
¸.·
Raghu: I tried to get you over phone this
morning; but your people told me
you were out.
· .. .. .. : ..
. ..‹ .· : ..Œ‰ ..·
..¸.·
Ramu: Yes, I spent the whole of last night
at my uncle's.
.. ·¸ ._.Ÿ.. . ...Ÿ¸
..Œ . .¸·
· .... .. . t› œ.Ÿ.. ... .t‡
. .Ÿ.. ..  .. . . œ..: .. .…
. .. .. . verbs: went (last evening),
returned (the day before), wanted (after he
came), tried (this morning), told (this morn-
ing). went, returned, wanted, tried, told - :.·
.... past tense .... .... past
verbs- .. Past Doing Words ....
:.· ...¸. œ.Ÿ.. ..  .. . ..
. .. .Ÿ¸.. . ... .· .t‡  .¸.
....
I met him yesterday.
·¸ ..Ÿ.…· ..  . ¸·
They lost a lot of money last year.
... .. .Ÿ¸.. ..Œ‰ .. ..¸ .•.
.¸.·
... .. .t‡ past actions œ.Ÿ.. .. 
. .· past doing words . (past sim-
ple .) .t.Ÿ . .Ÿt past doing words (past
simple) .. .. ..–
go - went
see - saw
write - wrote
come - came
like - liked
talk - talked
smell - smelt
kill - killed
etc.
:.· .. .t‡ past actions . ....
..¸. .Ÿ...…
1) He comes on time everyday, but he came
late yesterday.
_.:.. ... .. ·¸ ..¸.
..¸. – yesterday - came)
2) My mother goes to bed early (regular-
goes). She went late to bed yesterday
(yesterday .· .. ...Ÿ¸. ... –
went).
3) India became independent in 1947.
... |·i.. ¸.Ÿ._.Ÿ ..Œ. ...¸..·
4) The movie flopped on the first day of its
release last week (flopped - last week).
5) She passed Intermediate 2 years ago.
· ... .:¸ I & II Regular Doing Words
. past forms ..¸..…
eg: buy/buys (regular) - bought (past- .•..
.. . ....·
sing/sings (regular) - sang (past- ....
... . ....·
:.· _.. ..Ÿ..…
:.. (Regular), .•.., . ... .¸ ....
..Ÿ.. ..... ..... ..... ....
.œ.. ..... ....
Answers:
eat/eats - ate;
buy/buys - bought;
walk/walks - walked;
learn/ learns - learnt;
write/writes - wrote;
talk/talks - talked;
shout/shouts - shouted;
weep/weeps - wept;
build/builds - built;
drink/drinks - drank;
move/moves - moved;
change/changes - changed.
---œ.·.- ---œ.·.- ---œ.·.- ---œ.·.- ---œ.·.- ---œ.·.-
M. SURESAN
10
œ.... s: .. z::s
Íà¶êŸû¦õÚÛª of
vÚÛ
¸.-Œ¸ present tense, past tense, future
tense . . :.. .. ... ..
. . .. :. .. .Ÿ œ ..
– .‡ .. ... .-.
e.·e· ... .. .. .. tenses ›.. .. 
 ..t¸ .. .. .. Time of action .·
..· ...· .. .. t¸ verb ... (verb
form) ..  ... .. ..¸.... · .. ..
.:¸ ...‹.·¸ tense . ... .. :. ..·
_.. ..Ÿ..…
.. ..œ .Œ.. . . .·· Q&A .
_. .Ÿ..: _. .Œ¸. · . .. ¸.
·.. .. . ..¸. .. ...t–
I have known (that) you've stolen my
book.
÷..
I
Sridhar: Where were you last Evening?
·¸ .Ÿ..Ÿ. .., . ¸.··
Srikanth: I was at Sankar's. We spent the
evening together.
.Œ.. . .. .. .¸
.Ÿ._.Ÿ. .... .t› .¸.·
Sridhar: Do you see him everyday?
.. .¸ ..Ÿ·¸ ..  .. ..··
Srikanth: No. He is out some evenings. He
attends music classes two or three
evenings a week.
.. .•·¸... ..Ÿ .Ÿ._.Ÿ.
... .... .. ·. ·... ...
.Ÿ. _.. ..Ÿ. .¸ .. ..·
Sridhar: When did he start learning?
.¸ . ... ..¸. .... š...··
Srikanth: I don't know. I think he has been
at, is for at least 6 to 7 months
now.
. .t.Ÿ. .· .·.. . .
.· :. .¸.  ...·
Sridhar: How about a movie tomorrow? Will
you be free?
·.. ‡·.. ..Œ..· ·.. .¸
...··
Srikanth: I will be away tomorrow. I will be
free the day after tomorrow.
·.. . . ....… ..
...·
š. .... œ. ·. .Ÿ..…
Time .. ..… verb forms .Ÿ.‹. œ.·
· ... .... : friends . .· :. .
. ... ..˜ . . . practice ..Ÿ..… ..¸. . 
.. · Spoken English Columns . .:¸
:... :. follow ... ... · ....
:. .. ... · ... ›... ... ::
friends ›... practice ..Ÿ..…·
Ramesh: .„. ·.. .. .¸.·
Naresh: . .¸ .¸..¸ .¸ ..
.¸.·
Ramesh: . .¸ .¸..¸ ...
..¸. .., . ¸.·
Naresh: · ... ... .. .•·¸ .
.. .•¸ ... ... .
.. .·¸ :. ..¸ .Ÿ .· . .. 

Ramesh: ... . .... ...·
Naresh: .•·¸ ›... ..
Ramesh: ...Ÿ. .•¸ .. œ. ·. .Ÿ ..·
Naresh: .•. .•.. .. .¸
Ramesh: ·. ... .Ÿ.. ......·
Naresh: .. ..,. .Ÿ. .. .Ÿ. ...
. .·.
Ramesh: ‡·.. .Ÿ..·
Naresh: .¸ . .Ÿ.·
Ramesh: . .·. ..·..
Naresh: ·.. .. š.. (tomorrow. begin
..Ÿ..…· . .. .œ :. .. ..,
.. .. ., ., .. ..·
Ramesh: .. . .:. .... ..¸ ..
. .. . ¸.·
Naresh: ·¸ . .... .‡...· (want to
....…·
Answer:
Ramesh: Hi Naresh? How are you?
· ... .. .. . practice
..Ÿ..…·
Naresh: Fine. Thank you. How are you?
Ramesh: Fine too. Thank you. Why are you
here?
(How is it you are here?/What brings you
here?/How do I see you here now?- :.·¸.
... ... · ..¸ . . practice
..Ÿ..…·
Naresh: I bought some books in this shop
here this morning. One of them is
not in a good condition / is in a bad
condition. I want to return it.
Ramesh: What's (=What is) wrong with the
book?
(What's wrong- .. .. .. .¸  . . ..
....– ... ... .. ..· .. ...·
.Ÿ›.¸. ¸··
Naresh: Some pages are missing.
Ramesh: Didn't you (did you not) notice it
this morning when you bought it?
. ¸. ..... .•.. . .. ·. pur-
chase(s) past doing word 'purchased' .. 
.Ÿ. ..– .. ...….Ÿ¸. .... ... ..
· ..Ÿ . buy, buys, bought etc. .·.. .• 
. .. .. purchase .. ..Ÿ¸
I have a few purchases to make.
.•·¸ ... .• . ..Ÿt
:...Ÿ... buy, buys, bought ....… .
.. .....
Naresh: I was in a little hurry
· .. .. . ....…
Ramesh: Do you read a lot?
(Have you/do you have the habit of reading?)
Naresh: Yes, I read a lot. Reading interests
me/ I am interested in reading.
Ramesh: Don't you (Do you not) watch
movies?
..,. œ. ·. .Ÿ..… .Ÿ.· Do you watch?
.Ÿ.. – Do you not watch / Don't you
watch?
Naresh: Do you?
..,. Do you watch movies .· .·.
.t¸ .. .. .. / Do you sea a lot?
Ramesh: Oh, yes. I
watch at least
one movie a
week. / I watch
movies at least
once a week.
..,. .. :. ....
..œ t.– Oh, yes, I
do. At least once a weak.
.· clipped sentences ... : ..¸.· ..
..Ÿ¸ ... I do= I watch.
Naresh: Tomorrow is/will be a holiday for
us. My cousin Jagadish also will
be here tomorrow. Where will you
be?
Ramesh: I don't (do not) know. Why do you
want to know?
Naresh: I wish to/want to invite you to my
place.
.Ÿ.‹. .. ...Ÿ . .. Spoken English .
.. .¸ .•. ...‹.. ...Ÿ ...‡. .Ÿ œ
.. ... . practice :. ...
VOCABULARY
Sentence structures ... . practice
..Ÿ ... vocabulary ... ... ...•·¸
...· ....t
climb up ..,..
climb down = .œ..
rush .Ÿ ¸. .Ÿ ¸. . .Œ . ./ . .  :  .…
..Œ../urgent .· .....
Hurry up, please .Ÿ¸. .·.
Why are you in a hurry?
... ...Ÿ .•... ·.·/ .•. .. .. .Ÿ ¸.·
hurry..· .•...
Crawl _..· ....
...¸. ..Œ‰ .· ...Ÿ .. .. ..,.
..Œ‰¸ ._.. ..ŒŠ ...: ... .. .· ..Œ‰
....… .... .‡.. .œ ..Œ ...Ÿ..
...·¸ creep _..– _..¸ _·..· .... ....
·... .... .t. .. ·. . .....
Creep-..¸. .•.œ .Ÿ . .. ... .
... .. ...
...Ÿ = worry ..·
..ˆ . ... amble ....·
(camp. am . ‘..’ ...t·
.•.. . .. haste š..·
PRONUNCIATION GUIDE
1) English. hitting, betting, selling, hum-
ming, cunning ... .... ..¸ ·... ,
.. .... .. ., .. ...t
hitting = .‡..
betting = ...
selling = št.
humming = .:.
cunning = .·.
.‡.. ... št. etc ....·
2) Looked, booked, talked, pressed, jumped
- .. ... ... :.. 'ed'· t ...t
Looked= Lookt; talked=talkt etc.
---œ.·.- ---œ.·.- ---œ.·.- ---œ.·.- ---œ.·.- ---œ.·.-
M. SURESAN
11
.Œ.... z .. z::s
Do you? êÁ
í£ë¯õª Îë¯!
Do you? êÁ
í£ë¯õª Îë¯!
Do you? êÁ
í£ë¯õª Îë¯!
Do you? êÁ
í£ë¯õª Îë¯!
Do you? êÁ
í£ë¯õª Îë¯!
Do you? êÁ
í£ë¯õª Îë¯!
¸.-Œ¸ 'She has had this job for the last
one year' 'She has been this job
for the last one year' · ·...
..¸.. .. .:.·
– ...Ÿ .,¸ ...Ÿ ..
e.·e· 'She has had this job for the last
one year' .¸ She has been in this job
for the last one year' .¸ ... ...
... · ..¸œ. .. .. .Ÿ¸ .. ...·
.... ..¸ ·. ... ·... ..¸ ·. ...–
.. · ..¸ œ.. .. .Ÿ¸.. .: ...
'She has been this job for the last one year
. ..¸. .·.. .. She has been in this
job .t in ...t·
¸.-Œ¸ Simple present tense. subject's
singular. .¸ .¸. verb. 's' ·
'es'· .. . Subject - 'I' .¸
.¸. verb. 's', 'es' ..¸ ·.. ..·
– .. .. .Ÿ... .: . . ...
e.·e· Simple present. Singular sub-
jects .·¸. .. Verb. 's' / 'es'..¸. III
Person singular subjects- He, She, It .
._.Ÿ.'s' / 'es' ...
¸.-Œ¸ ‘ . .· ... ’ :·· .. ..
.. ....·
– .·. _... ...
e.·e· I will make him / her / them / you
do it.
¸.-Œ¸ I got married, I was married ·
·... ..¸. ·.  .· . .. 
.¸.. .... ..¸·¸ .. . . 
.t·
– .. .·.Œ¸... œ.… ..
e.·e· I got married, I was married ·...
.·.·. .... ._.Ÿ. .•. .. .....
I got married = . š..Œ .... . .. .
.. .Ÿ¸.. .Ÿ..Ÿ. :. .. .. .¸·¸ ..
clear ...·
Ex: I got married (on Monday last/ last
year / in 2004 / 22nd June etc.)
I was married = :· ... ..¸.·. .
š..Œ .. . ... .·
Q: Were you married (at the time)?
A: yes, I was married.
Oªô¢« ô¦óŸªÙè…!
.¸·.. ..... . ....„..
þ¼p·ÚûÂ ÏÙTxùÃ, ¸.a...¸ o.·.·
:-c»e-œ». š.·.-·.·.–sa
:...-. ...‡..Ÿ..Ÿ¸
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÷..
I
Pranav: How is everybody, Praveen?
_. :. ... . .. .¸.
..Œ ..··
Praveen: Not bad, I suppose. How is it with
you?
. .¸....¸ .¸.
.¸.·
Pranav: Fine. Thank you.
. .¸·
š..·¸ .. ... ... ... : _š...¸
·¸.‡.Ÿ . ..  . ¸.¸. .. ... ...
... .. .Ÿ. ...…
Praveen: How about practising the following
exercise? (How about . ..
..   . . _.. .  .   ·. English.
.Ÿ..Ÿ .. .. ... · exercise
practice ...· .· ...·
Pranav: It suits me fine.
.. .. .Ÿ..Ÿ . .¸:· .t.Ÿ 
. .Ÿ . ·. ....
Let's (= let us) see what it is.
(... .Ÿ../.Ÿ.··
Exercise -1:
· ... ..¸ .· subject He/she/It
..¸ .... .Ÿ ..¸. :œ. sen-
tence. .‡ practice ..Ÿ..…
eg:
I know the subject well.
. . .. ..·
..,.… subject 'I'. I . ... He/She ..,.
it š..…. ·. ... .. ... ... .Ÿ..…·
.. .. . ›.·. Shravan . Anjali .
.. . ...… ..¸. I know the subject well
. ..¸. He/She/Shravan/Anjali knows the
subject well. .. .Ÿ..
eg2:
These books give a lot of information.
· ... .. . ..·¸ ...·
· sentence. subject 'These books'.
'These books' . .. . He/She/...
›.·.(Ramu/Sita) / this book/it, subject
..….
These books give a lot of information .
..¸.
He/She/Ram/Sita/This book/ It gives a lot of
information .. .Ÿ..
..¸. ..,. .:¸ .•·¸ sentence.· sub-
ject He/She/It/Any name . .¸. ›.. ..
. .. ›.. ..· š.. practice ..Ÿ..…
.-.Ÿ. 'pron' –... pronunciation .·
1. I think I am right.
·.. . .. . ¸·
2. They help their father quite often.
..Œ‰ ..Œ ¸. .Ÿ..Ÿ .„.Ÿ . . ..·
pron: often .. / . .
3. My dogs often trouble my neighbours.
..,. . ..œ ..Œ .Ÿ..Ÿ
..¸.. š.. .Ÿ. ...·
.. ,. subject 'My dogs' - :·¸ :.
His/Her/any name š.. ..¸..… 'My dog'.
.. ..¸..…
4. I go to temple on fridays.
5. Good children always obey their parents.
.. .. .Ÿ . .‡.. ..Œ parents . :.
.Ÿ. ....·
pron: obey ... ... . ..... ..
:. . :.   .Ÿ.Ÿ . t
.....
children (plural) - child (singular)
child . ... .... he/she .... It
....
6. Do snakes lay eggs?
.... œ. š.. ..Ÿ··
pron: lay : ..· œ. .. .: š....
7. These hotels do good business.
do good business = .¸... . .....
8. Why do students waste time?
:.¸ .. ..Ÿ. .... .¸. ..··
9. How well they swim!
..Œ‰ ...Ÿ . ·. ..·
.. ..Œ¸ .¸ ... (exclamation )!. question ..
10. Do I look ill?
..œ¸. .·.‡ ¸··
11. Where do they work?
..Œ‰ ..,. .·. .· / ..Œ ..¸œ.
..,.··
12. Do you go to movies often?
:. .Ÿ..Ÿ ‡·. .·. .‹.··
13. What do they think of this plan?
..Œ‰ · .... œ..: ..  .. . ¸.··
14. What do they do in the evenings?
..Œ‰ .Ÿ. _.. .. ..··
15. Do you like tea? What do they prefer, cof-
fee or tea?
·. . ...· ..Œ. .. ..,. ...
. ..ˆ··
Answers:
1. He/She/any name thinks he/she is right.
2. He/She/any name helps their/his/her
father quite often.
3. My dog/It/He/She often troubles my/ his/
her neighbours.
4. He/ She/any name goes to temple on fri-
days.
5. He/ She/ A good child/ It/ any name obeys
his/her/its/ any name's parent.
6. Does a snake/It lay eggs?
7. This hotel/It does good business.
8. Why does a student waste his/her/any
name's time?
9. How well he/she /any name/ It ...Ÿ.
....·swims?
10. Does he/she/any name look ill?
11. Where does he/she/any name work?
12. Does he/she/any name go to movies
often?
13. What does he/she/any name think of this
plan?
14. What does he/she/any name do in the
evenings?
15. Does he/she/any name like tea? What
does he/she prefer?
★ ★ ★
Pranav: Well, how was that exercise?
.. ... exercise?·
Praveen: Which exercise do you mean?
. ..¸ . š. œ..: .¸ .. . 
.Ÿ ¸.··
Pranav: The last exercise about rewriting
sentences after changing the sub-
ject?
...Ÿ. .... .. sentences .
subject ..¸ ..Ÿ..·
Praveen: It helps us to know when to use
the 1st RDW- Regular Doing
Words (come,
go ... :·
2nd RDW
(comes, goes
... :· do,
does.
.: 1st RDW, 2nd RDW,
do, does ...: ..  .
. ·. .. .œ....·
÷ ..: .-.. _... ..Ÿ..…
... .. ...Ÿ .....…
turn on the tap/turn the tap on= ... .. ...
turn off the tap/turn the tap off= . .. . .  
.Ÿ..
Ram: Turn on the tap please, I need some
water.
. ... :.¸..… . ·.Œ‰ ..t·
Shyam: As soon as you draw enough water,
please turn it off. Don't waste water.
:. ..t¸ ·¸ ·.Œ‰ ·.¸ .Ÿ. ..Ÿ
... .›..Ÿ..… ·.Œ‰ .¸. ..Ÿ ...…·
..,. draw . .. .Ÿ...…
draw:
1) ·.Œ‰ ...: .... ....
We draw water from the tap/ the well/ the
river etc.,
2) draw . ·... ... .. . .. ..
..¸. ..Ÿ..
Bapu draws beautiful pictures
.. ... . ..¸. .·
1st RDW= draw, 2nd RDW = draws, Past
Doing Word = drew.
· ... .... English. _.. ..Ÿ..…
... . ..¸ ‡. . ..·
... ..Ÿ
... .. ...Ÿ . ..·
... .. .. . .. œ.Ÿ ... ..‚ 
.: .. ..Ÿ¸ ... get ....…·
... .Ÿ.. ..,. .¸ ...·
... ..Ÿ.  .¸ ...
Answer:
Raghu: Who drew that picture?
Ramu: Lata
Raghu: Does she draw so well?
Ramu: She draws very well. She got even
a prize last week.
(even a prize ..‚ .: ..·
Raghu: Where did she learn it?
Ramu: She learnt it on her own.
(on her own = ..Ÿ. on my own =
...Ÿ . on their own = ..Œ..Ÿ. ..™
on his own = ..Ÿ . .Ÿ. ..Ÿ·
.. draw . .. · ....
:·. ·... ... ..  .¸. ..
3) draw = .. ..,. regular supply
.....
· .. . .. · .. .
I draw milk from this booth.
People of this area draw milk from this
booth.
4) draw= bank ..: ..¸ · ....
He drew Rs. 5000 from the bank.
withdraw .· .. . ..Ÿ¸
5) draw= .....
Freedom fighters drew inspiration from
Gandhi.
¸.Ÿ._.Ÿ¸ . . . .. .: .: ¸.
....
pron: Inspiration . ‡¸·. . . ¸.
6) . ... ..... = draw information
The police were unable to draw informa-
tion from the accused.
.:. ·...Ÿ.… .: . ... ... 
../ ... . . . .Ÿ.·
accused (..¸· ·...Ÿ. .Ÿ. .. ..·
---œe·.- ---œe·.- ---œe·.- ---œe·.- ---œe·.- ---œe·.-
M. SURESAN
12
..... : .. z::s
¸.«Œ¸ . .i ‘_.:.’ ¸·. ... Q&A ..
.. .. .. .. .¸.•.. .:
‘..¸. .› .. :. ... ...
.. .Ÿ..’ . ..¸ ·. .  . eng-
lish proverb ... ..¸.· ..… .
.·. ·. proverb ..· ..¸. .·
.. .... .. saying ... ..·
'All lay loads on a willing horse'
– . ... ... ..-¸.
e.·e· .. Thank you very much .·.
.:. One is never too old to learn ...Ÿ
..Ÿ .·. ..  ..t¸ : .....·
.. ..¸. .·..
Oªô¢« ô¦óŸªÙè…!
.¸·.. ..... . ....„..
þ¼p·ÚûÂ ÏÙTxùÃ, ¸.ae..¸ o.·.·
:-:»e-œ». š.·.-·e·.–sa
:...-. ...‡..Ÿ..Ÿ¸
email: pratibha@ eenadu.net email: pratibha@ eenadu.net email: pratibha@ eenadu.net email: pratibha@ eenadu.net email: pratibha@ eenadu.net email: pratibha@ eenadu.net
:»e .-e
»-·e· .-·.-·
:»e .-e
»-·e· .-·.-·
:»e .-e
»-·e· .-·.-·
:»e .-e
»-·e· .-·.-·
:»e .-e
»-·e· .-·.-·
WAS, WERE
Ram: Were you there yesterday?
·¸ .¸ ..,. .¸.··
Raghav: I was there, of course.
.. ..,. .¸·
Ram: When were you there?
..¸ . ¸.··
Raghav: I was there exactly at 6 when the
function began.
. ... ... . œ....
..,. .¸·
Ram: Who else was there yesterday?
·¸ ... .. . ¸.··
Raghav: Anil, and Sunil were also there.
.·. ·. .. ..,. .¸.·
· .... œ. ·. .Ÿ..… Ram, Raghav ·¸
... œ.Ÿ.. ... .·¸ was, were. ..¸. 
¸. English . .... Verb forms
...Ÿ ..... ..¸. ..¸. .Ÿ. .Ÿ ...
.·¸ am, is, are. .... ..· œ.Ÿ.. .¸
..· ..¸. was, were.. ....
was- singular
were- plural
1. ..¸. ·.,. .¸
I am here
2. ·¸ ..,. .¸
I was here yesterday
3. :. ·¸ ..,. .¸.· .. Question.
... verb .... ..t
Were you here yesterday?
4. ·¸ .. ., . ¸.· (Question)
Where was he yesterday?
5. .. .Ÿ ..Œ. _:.. ... ....
India was under British rule.
6. 1947 ... . .... (rulers) ...·
Who were our rulers till 1947?
.. .. .. .t.Ÿ .› ... ... .: .. 
.Ÿ¸.. . .. ..¸. sentence :..
...t
7. ·¸ .¸ ..,. ....¸.·
Why were you here yesterday?
8. . ›¸.‡.Ÿ. œ.Ÿ ..... ..,. .¸.
My friend was here last Sunday.
... œ.Ÿ. (past). ... :. .Ÿ.
..¸. was, were.. ....
... sentences english. practice ..Ÿ..…
1. Praveen: :. ·¸ ... .¸.·
2. Pranav: .. ... .¸
3. Praveen: : .¸ .. ... .¸.·
4. Pranav: ..
5. Praveen: ·¸ :. ..,. ¸.·
6. Pranav: .. .. .¸
7. Praveen: _.: .. · ... .. ..
....· (Regular)
8. Pranav: ..
9. Praveen: :. .... ... ..¸.. 
..·
10. Pranav: .Ÿ._.. ... ... ·¸
.Ÿ._.Ÿ. ._.Ÿ. ... .
11. Praveen: .·. .,.¸.·
12. Pranav: :.. .
Answers:
1. Were you at home yesterday?
2. Yes, I was at home.
3. Was your brother too/also at home?
4. No, he was not at home.
... .. No, he wasn't. .· .›..·
(wasn't = was not)
5. Where were you?
6. I was at College.
7. Are you at college at this time every day?
8. Yes, I am (at college... every day - conver-
sation. · .œ. ... .Ÿ ..Ÿ¸·
9. When are you at home usually? ...
. ... 'are')
10. I am at home in the evenings (Regular,
therefore, am) but I was not (wasn't) at
home last evening.
·¸ .Ÿ._.Ÿ. ·¸ ._: – last evening,
last night).
11. Where else were you? ·¸ ...·
12. I was at a meeting.
➠ · .... :. : friend.· :
... .. . .· practice ..Ÿ..…
➠ .... :. practice .‡ .Ÿ.¸. answers
.Ÿ...…
➠ ..¸. .Ÿ.‹.· .., am, is, are, was,
were.. ...Ÿ English .. . ..¸·
PRONUNCIATION GUIDE
..   . . pure sounds . ..  .. ...
..,. 'a' .,..–
➠ bake, cake, case, date, face, game, hate,
lane ... ... .:¸  .¸. .·¸ ‘..’
...t
bake- ...
cake- ·...
case- ·..
face- š..
game- ·..
hate- š...
lane- ..
date- ...
(I hate you- ..
š... .Ÿ.·
..· :œ. .... ..–
tale, tail pronunciation ..,. – ...
➠ ..¸. 'a', ..¸. 'an' .. š.. _..™¸
'a, e, i o, u.. _..... ..¸ ... ....
'an' .· :œ. .. .... 'a' .· .... 
.. .· .. ..¸. .·.. .. a univer-
sity, a European ...... .. .·..
'the' . ‘:’ e. .. ¸. ‘.’ e. .. ¸.
....·
. . . · . · . . . . . :– · ..œ
.Œ. .. _..... ..¸ English ... ....
'an' ..t · .Œ.. .... ..¸ 'the'· ‘.’
...t :œ. .Œ. .. _......¸ ...
.... 'a' ..t
..· 'the'· ‘.’ ...t
a University ‘.Ÿ.’. _..... ... 'a')
an example ‘.’. _..... ... 'an')
the egg ..,. ‘.’ egg, 'a'. _.....
...·
the tree ‘.’ _. ..,. ‘.’ .: ‘:’ ...
... .Œ. .. _..... ... ...·
➠ Communications/information.
... .. : · ... .Ÿ...…
. ..Ÿ..– phone, ringup, give a ring,
call- :. ·¸ .. ..¸. . .. .. .¸ ..
'call', phone to a person, phone a person
.·. ..Ÿ ..… . .Ÿ.. ring up, give a ring
... .. .. .¸..
1) :. .. . ..Ÿ..…
Please call me.
Please give me a ring.
Please ring me up.
.Ÿ.¸... .
I will certainly call you.
Sure, I will call you.
.. :. . .
I will get back to you.
2) . :..Ÿ. .–. ... ..Ÿ..…
Please mail me the matter.
Please mail the matter to me at
yours@yahoo.com
3) .•..Ÿ. .¸. .....…
Send it by courier.
4) .... . .¸. .....…
Post it.
Send it by ordinary post.
Sent it by snail mail.
'snail mail' ... .Ÿ. .. ..¸.
..™ post .· ...
c·oe¸ c»ee·
chew .Ÿ¸· - ....
swallow ¸.·- :.œ..
swallow in a gulp - .. œ.,. :.œ..
trim _..·(mustache, beard)
- :. œ..· .:..: ...Ÿ..
clench ·..·- :. .Ÿ.. .‡.… .t – fist)
injure ...· - .Ÿ....
injury ...·- .Ÿ.
twist .¸·the arm - ... .t: .¸..
snap the fingers - :.. ..Ÿ..
shatter ›...·- ... .•...
swelling š¸t.·- ..
inflammation .....·- ... ..
fracture_..¸·- .... :. œ..
sprain_š¸.·- ...
itch..·- ... scratch_,.·- ...
abscess ..š·- ... :...·
boil ...·- œ.
pimple .‡...·- ....
scar ,·- .Ÿ. .. ..Ÿ¸
pus .·- :.. blister :·-...
c·e Verbs: _..Ÿ. ..¸. ... .·¸ .›.¸:–
am, is, are. œ.Ÿ.. ... .·¸ .›.¸:– was,
were. .: .¸ .Ÿ. ... .·¸ .›.¸:– shall be,
will be
·..  .,. ...
I shall be/will be there tomorrow.
.. ..... ... ....
We shall be/we will be in Vizag on Sunday.
..Ÿ.…· .Ÿ... . ....
I shall be happy to see him.
·.. ..Ÿ ..,. ....
He will be here tomorrow.
÷..
I
œ.... is .. z::s
the- ÓÚÛ\è[ ‘C’, Óí£±pè[ª ‘ë]’? the- ÓÚÛ\è[ ‘C’, Óí£±pè[ª ‘ë]’? the- ÓÚÛ\è[ ‘C’, Óí£±pè[ª ‘ë]’? the- ÓÚÛ\è[ ‘C’, Óí£±pè[ª ‘ë]’? the- ÓÚÛ\è[ ‘C’, Óí£±pè[ª ‘ë]’?
the- ÓÚÛ\è[ ‘C’, Óí£±pè[ª ‘ë]’?
M. SURESAN
Oªô¢« ô¦óŸªÙè…!
.¸·.. ..... . ....„..
þ¼p·ÚûÂ ÏÙTxùÃ, ¸.a...¸ o.·.·
:-c»e-œ». š.·.-·.·.–sa
:...-. ...‡..Ÿ..Ÿ¸
email: pratibha@ eenadu.net email: pratibha@ eenadu.net email: pratibha@ eenadu.net email: pratibha@ eenadu.net email: pratibha@ eenadu.net email: pratibha@ eenadu.net
---œ.·.- ---œ.·.- ---œ.·.- ---œ.·.- ---œ.·.- ---œ.·.-
3
... 'd :. ¸. had . .. ..
would . .. .. .... ..,. had ..,.
would .. .. .¸·¸ .. ._.Ÿ. ..¸ .
œ..
A) He'd gone before I saw him.
..,. He'd = He had
... ... 'gone' ... past participles
.... would ..¸. .. had ._.Ÿ.
...
B) I thought he'd do it.
..,. 'd .Ÿ. ..Ÿ past participle .. ...
would . ... . ..t .. :..Ÿ. œ.š.
. ..t Past participles .... 'been'
.Ÿ.¸.Ÿ ing form .:¸  .¸. :. .... 'd
..¸. had ...Ÿ.. Do, go, come ...
verb forms .... be + ing .... 'd ..¸.
would ...Ÿ..
Example: They'd done it.
(done past participle ... 'd = had)
They'd been doing it. ..,. been + ing
.... ... 'd = had).
She'd marry him. 'd .Ÿ.¸.Ÿ marry .· .:¸..
... 'd = would
She'd be going. ..,. be + ing form ....
... 'd = would.
Have been + ing .... .. 'd = would.
¸.-Œ¸ Had, would ·...….. short forms ... I had/would - I'd
.. We had/would -We'd :. .·.. .¸.. I'd ..
We'd .Ÿ‡ .. .Ÿ.¸.Ÿ had ... would ... ..
..  ..t·
– ... e..Ÿ .. . .•..
. ..- .-¸. ...¸.· .e· .e-·e· »e· .t-+. .·. :--œ.·-·
e-e·-e +t.ˆ +t-Ÿ·e ¸.-»-·e· ..·e .·oe »-»c·-Ÿ·-e·-
.e-Ÿ·c·Ÿ·¸ e.· r.·-œ· -tr-·Ÿc·Ÿ·¸ c»+Ÿ¡.·. e··¸--+·.
---·e¸ .e-.- -».· -•-+Ÿ -¡+Ÿ---· e-e·-e »-.·¯- c·c-
.-·¸-·. .·.e·e ..·e.·c ..+Ÿ·ec· »c·.o-·Ÿ.- »c.--
÷..
Venkat: Someone wants to see you.
... :.¸t¸ .Ÿ. . .. . ¸.·
Venu: Let him come in. .. t. ..¸..…·
Venkat: He wants to talk you sir.
..Ÿ  :. .. . . .. . ¸.·
Venu: Ok, what does he want to talk to me?
·. ..Ÿ . .. .. . . .. 
. ¸.··
Venkat: I do not know.
. .t.Ÿ.·
Venu: Ok, let him talk. First of all let him
come in.
·. ..Ÿ .…· .. . ·.Ÿ..… ....
.. t. .·.Ÿ..…·
š. ... .. let ... œ. ·. .Ÿ..… :·¸ .
... .. .¸  . . .. .. .Ÿ...
English . I RDW (Regular Doing Words-
go, come ... verbs) not. questions .
..….¸. 'do'; II RDW (goes, comes ...
verbs) . questions. 'not' . ..….¸.
'does'; Past Doing Words (PDW- went, came
... verbs) . 'not' . questions .
..….¸. 'did' .. .· .. .¸. ....
.•·¸ .. .¸. what, who .Ÿ.¸.Ÿ do, does,
did .: ..· œ. ·. .t
eg:
1) What gives light and heat to the
world?
_....·. ..œ ..…· ..¸. ..··
2) What happened yesterday?
·¸ .. .. ..··
· ·... ..¸. what .Ÿ.¸.Ÿ does
give .· .· did happen .· .·
.. ..· 'who' .Ÿ.¸.Ÿ ..
eg:
1) Who knows the answer?
. .. .. .. ..· 'Who
does know?' ..·
2) Who gave you the book last night?
·¸ ._: ·. . ... .. . 
.¸.·– Who did give you? ..·
· .... practice ..Ÿ..…
Ram: ·¸ .. .. ..·
Rahim: .. ..... .. ....
(break down ....…·
(break down ... .. .. . ..
.Ÿ._.Ÿ. ..… ... .....·
Ram: .Ÿ..Ÿ ..… ... .. .Ÿ..·
Rahim: .. .. ·¸ ._.Ÿ. .. ..
Ram: .·¸ ... .›.. ..‹.·
Rahim: .œ . .¸ ..·.
(nearby= .œ .¸·
Ram: .¸ ¸.. ..·
Rahim: .
Ram: ·. ¸. .. ¸.· . ¸ ¸. .
..·
Rahim: ¸... .. ¸.. .
Ram: .¸ . ¸.. ..· (Good at
driving/well ·... ....…·
Rahim: .¸ .Ÿ. .. .· .
. ... ..‹.
.. . ... ... ..Œ.. – ride)
Answer:
Ram: What happened yesterday?
Rahim: My car broke down.
Ram: Does it breakdown often?
Rahim: No. It doesn't usually. Only yester-
day.
Ram: Who repaired it?
Rahim: A nearby mechanic.
Ram: Do you drive?
Rahim: Oh, Yes, I do.
Ram: Have you/ Do you have a driver, or
do you drive it yourself?
Rahim: I don't have a driver. I drive it
myself.
Ram: Do you drive well? / Are you good
at driving?
Rahim: (Do you) Want to see how I drive?
Come, let's have a ride.
..,. 'let' .. . .: .Ÿ...…
.... .. .¸. 'let' ... .. .· ...
.· :. .Ÿ..
eg:
1) ‡·.·..Œ.. ..
Let's (= Let us) go to a movie
2) . ..ˆ .œ..
Let's have Coffee
3) .... ..Œ.. ..
Let's go home
4) .... .. . ....
Let us (Let's) converse in English
5) ... .¸....
Let's (Let us) learn English.
II.
'Let' ... ... ... ..Ÿ·.¸ :·.¸
.Ÿ.·.¸ ... ... .¸:. .Ÿ..·
1) ..…· ..,.…. .·.Ÿ..…
Let him come here
2) ..Œ ..Œ·.Ÿ..…
Let them go
3) ¸ .. .·.Ÿ..…
Let me talk
4) .: . ..·.Ÿ..…
Let her sing
5) ¸ :·.Ÿ..…
Let me hear
III.
Let ... ... ... .¸:. .Ÿ.. (allow)
1) .. ..…· ..,.…. .·.Ÿ
I don't let him come here again.
2) ..…· .. . ..Ÿ·.¸.
Don't let him waste time/ Let him not waste
time.
3) :·¸ ..…. .t.Ÿ ·.¸.
Don't let him know it / Let him not know it.
4) .: .. ..…· ...·.¸.
Don't let him talk to her.
5) ..…· ..,. ...·.¸.
Don't let him stay here/ Let him not stay
here.
6) .. .‡. . .. . ·.¸.
We don't let children talk.
· ..¸ . ·¸. .. let ... allow .·
.... ..
M. SURESAN
.Œ‰_.... s .. z::s
ví£øŒo: Being .   .   .. passive
voice. .... .· He is being
difficult ..¸.. being .: ..
... . t  .Ÿ  .   .Ÿ  œ   .. Actually
being .Ÿ.¸.Ÿ verb past participle .
...t .. being . .. .¸..
.. .. .t.Ÿ . .Ÿ œ ..
– .Ÿ. ..¸ .. ... ..-¸.
áî¦ñª: He is being difficult- ... ..Ÿ
..¸. .¸ .¸. .· ... ..,.
'is being' ... ..¸. ..... (continu-
ous), is being .Ÿ.¸.Ÿ past participle ...
.. passive voice ...Ÿ..
The letter is being written ..Ÿ.. .Ÿ
... I am/We are writing the letter . pas-
sive). is being .., difficult ... œ.
. .t›. ..... .: ... ..Œ‰
.¸.· ...
I am being good to you.
· .. ..: ... ¸ ..¸.·
He is being harsh.
..Ÿ. .. .. . .¸. .· ...
ví£øŒo: .¸. .. _.. .  ..:
What will you be?
Where will you be?
What will your plan be?
How will your plan be?
.· _..Œ¸ ..¸. ...t _..Œ¸.
.. .... will be/ shall be/ can
be/ may be .. .. .. .· ..
.. :. ¸·. ... .. .œ..
.‡ ... .. What will be your
plan? .· ..‹. .. .Ÿ.¸ ..
..¸ .... _.. _.Ÿ. .t.Ÿ .
.Ÿ œ ..
– e.... .¸. .. .. .. . ..
áî¦ñª: What will be your plan? .·.·.
.... : .... .. ·. . what .
_... :.. _..Œ¸.. .•·¸ ...¸. will be,
shall be . .t› ... .: 'what ques-
tions' . ._.Ÿ. .... What will your
plan be? ... .. .·.·. ..,. What
will be your plan? ....
ví£øŒo: having .. .. .¸. ..
..· · ... .:¸  .¸. verb
.. past participle . ...·
.. .. ... :. .. .Ÿ..…
– .·. .. . .-. . ...
áî¦ñª: I, We, You, They .... have
.... He, She, It .... has ÍÙæ°Ù.
a) I/We/You/My friends (they) have the
book.
b) My friend (He/She) has the book.
c) The fan (It) has three blades.
have/has ·... ...
i .. .. .. ..... .t .....·
š. ..¸. have ... ..
z :.. .œ.. ..„..·
a) I have coffee in the mornings.
...Ÿ. ..ˆ · .. .·
b) My mother has breakfast at 8 AM.
..¸ ...Ÿ. .·: .. .. _.. .
...·
am having, is having, are having .:
:.. ·.... . ..··. .. ..
.t ..... . .... ...
I am having a car ... .. :.. 
¸ :. . ... ...
. ....– . . ·. I have a car.
›¸.‡.Ÿ .…. .. .•.. .. ..Ÿ.
.¸.
My friend has a son and a daughter.
My friend is having a son and a daughter.
... ..¸ :. . ...– ..Ÿ ..Œ :.. 
¸.· ..
... .. ..... am having / is having /
are having ...
I am having tea, because coffee is not
available. ..,. am having correct.
..ˆ .. ... . .œ .Ÿ ¸·
She is having a beautiful necklace.
.. ·.. .. .Ÿ...… .. .. .. ·.
:. ... she has a beautiful
necklace .thaving . .....: ..·¸
:..Ÿ. ... .¸. .Ÿ.¸..
ÎÙÞœxòÅ°ù£é ÎÙÞœxòÅ°ù£é ÎÙÞœxòÅ°ù£é ÎÙÞœxòÅ°ù£é ÎÙÞœxòÅ°ù£é ÎÙÞœxòÅ°ù£é
14
I
Let's go to a movie
ô¦F...ô¦F... ÷›úh ô¦F!! ô¦F...ô¦F... ÷›úh ô¦F!! ô¦F...ô¦F... ÷›úh ô¦F!! ô¦F...ô¦F... ÷›úh ô¦F!! ô¦F...ô¦F... ÷›úh ô¦F!!
ô¦F...ô¦F... ÷›úh ô¦F!! ô¦F...ô¦F... ÷›úh ô¦F!! ô¦F...ô¦F... ÷›úh ô¦F!! ô¦F...ô¦F... ÷›úh ô¦F!!
ô¦F...ô¦F... ÷›úh ô¦F!!
÷..
Murali: Hi Sravanthi, keeping well?
_..· .œ¸.··
.. .. ... ..›. : conversation .
....…
Sravanthi: I am, of course. How about you?
 . . · .œ:··
(How about you?= · .œ:·
Murali: I am OK. I saw you at the park
last evening.
. .¸ ·¸ .Ÿ._.Ÿ.
·¸ ..,. .Ÿ.‹·
Sravanthi: But I didn't (= did not) see you.
Why didn't you (= did you not)
talk to me.
·¸ .Ÿ. .. .·.. ..
. .. . ..··
Murali: I had a call from home. My
mother wanted me immediate-
ly. So I rushed home.
. ... .: . .:¸..
..¸ ¸ ... ..¸..
.. ..… ... ·. .‹·
Sravanthi: I stayed at with my friend
Sudha till 7 PM.
›¸.‡.Ÿ .. .. ._: .
œ... ... ..,. .¸·
· conversation . verbs- saw, had, want-
ed, rushed and stayed. .. Questions . .:¸ 
 .¸. did see, did talk .... œ. ·. .Ÿ..… ·
verbs Past Doing Words .... .:
œ.Ÿ.. .. .t‡ . .Ÿ.. . .. .
.. .Ÿ¸.. . ..Ÿ. . . .Ÿ..Ÿ. :. ..·
..  .. .. œ..: .. ... ..·
.. ... œ.. .Ÿ¸ ....
Past doing Words . .. .•·¸ .. .. ..
.Ÿ...…
Regular Doing Past Doing
Words Words
Come, Comes Came
Sing, Sings Sang
Like, Likes Liked
Talk, Talks Talked
Smell, Smells Smelt
Regular Doing Words . not . questions .
do, does ...
come - not ./ question . do come
comes - not ./ question . does come
Walk - not ./ question . do walk
Walks - not ./ question . does walk
(For Regular actions)
..· Past Doing Words (came, walked,
talked, sang, stood ... verbs) . not .
question. 'did' ... .. œ.. .Ÿ ...…
.. .t‡ past action . Past Doing Word
....·
He sang well yesterday.
·¸ . ...·
·¸ . .. .. ... not .·
He did not sing well yesterday.
'did' not . .... œ. ·. .Ÿ..…
·¸ . ...· .. question)
Did he sing well yesterday?
..,. question . .. 'did' .... œ. ·. 
.Ÿ..…
·¸ .. ...·
How did he sing?
..¸. ...·
When did he sing?
... œ.. .Ÿ ..t¸ :..Ÿ.–
Past Doing Word (past simple form) not .
· question . · ..…. did + 1st Regular
Doing Word ...Ÿ..
He sang well yesterday.
a) He did not sing well yesterday.
b) Did he sing well yesterday?
sang + not/? = did sing
· ... ..¸. .. .. practice ..Ÿ..…
eg: ..Ÿ ·¸ ..,.…. ..¸.
He came here yesterday.
..Ÿ ·¸ ..,.…. ...
He did not come here yesterday.
..Ÿ ·¸ ..,.…. ..¸.·
Did he come here yesterday?
1. a) .. œ.Ÿ ... .. .. ....
b) .. œ.Ÿ ... .. .. ..Œ ..
c) .. .... ....·
2. a) ..Ÿ œ.Ÿ .. .Ÿ¸.. .…_ .·.. .‹.
b) ..Ÿ œ.Ÿ .. .Ÿ¸.. .…_ .·. ..Ÿ 
..
c) ..Ÿ .…_ ..¸. .·. . .‹.·
3. a) .Ÿ .   œ   .Ÿ. .. .Ÿ. . ..  . .
_......Ÿ¸..
b) .Ÿ. œ .Ÿ. ...Ÿ. ... .. _.....
...
c) .Ÿ. œ .Ÿ. ...Ÿ. ... .. _... . . 
.Ÿ¸.Ÿ·
4. a) ·¸ .¸ ..Ÿ.…· ..  . ¸.
b) ·¸ .¸ ..Ÿ .…· ..  ...
c) ·¸ .¸ ..Ÿ .…· .... .. . 
¸.·
5. a) œ.Ÿ ... ..Œ‰ ..,.…. ..¸.
b) œ.Ÿ ... ..Œ‰ ..,.…. ...
c) œ.Ÿ ... ..Œ‰ ..,.…. ..¸. ..¸.·
d) œ.Ÿ ... ..Œ‰ ..,.…. .... ..¸.·
e) œ.Ÿ ... ..Œ‰ ..,.…. .... ...·
6. a) . .... .·.Œ _..Ÿ. (ago)
.. . ¸
b) . .... . ·.Œ _..Ÿ. ..  .
..
c) .¸ .. ..¸. .. . ¸.·
d) ..¸. .. ·. .. ..‡¸..·
e) ..¸. .. ·. ..¸ ..‡¸..·
7. a) .. ·¸.·. ..·¸ ‡.. ..‹.
b) .. ·¸.·. ..·¸ ‡.. ..Ÿ ..
c) :. ·¸.·. ..·¸ ‡.. ..‹.·
d) :. ·¸.·. ..·¸ .... ‡.. ..Ÿ 
..·
e) :. ·¸.·. ..·¸ .... ‡..
..‹.·
8. a) œ.Ÿ .. .Ÿ¸.. . .. .Ÿ..
b) œ.Ÿ .. .Ÿ¸.. . .. .Ÿ. . 
..
c) .¸ ..,. .Ÿ...·
d) .¸ . .. .Ÿ...·
9. a) ·¸ ‡·.. ..‹
b) ·¸ ‡·.. ..Œ ..
c) .¸ ·¸ ‡·.. ..‹.·
d) ·¸ ‡·. ·..‹·
e) ·¸ .¸ ‡·.. ...  ·. .‹.·
f) ·¸ . ‡·.. ..‹·
10. a) ›.... œ.Ÿ ... .. .•¸.
b) ›.... œ.Ÿ ... .. .• ..
c) ›.... œ.Ÿ ... .. .•¸.·
d) ›.... œ.Ÿ ... . .. .•¸.·
Answers:
1. a) She went to / left for the US last Week.
b) She did not go to / leave for the US last
Week.
c) Did she go to / leave for the US?
2. a) He completed (his) degree last year.
b) He did not complete (his) degree last
year.
c) When did he complete (his) degree?
..,. 'Complete' ... 'take', 'pass' ..…
practice ..Ÿ..…
3. a) The classes began at 10 AM.
b) The classes did not begin at 10 AM.
c) Did the classes begin at 10 AM.?
4. a) You met him yesterday.
b) You did not meet him yesterday.
c) Why did you meet him yesterday?
5. a) They came here last week.
b) They did not come here last week.
c) When did they come here last week?
d) Why did they come here last week?
e) Why didn't they come here last week?
(didn't they = did they not / did not they)
6. a) I met her first (for the first time) four
years ago (back ..·
b) I did not meet her four years ago.
c) When did you meet her?
d) What did she tell you / say to you then?
e) Did she tell you / say anything to you?
7. a) We made all these ready yesterday.
b) We did not make all these ready yes-
terday.
c) Did you make all
these ready yes-
terday?
d) Why didn't you
(did you not / did
not you) make all
these ready yes-
terday?
e) Why did you
make all these ready yesterday?
8. a) I studied in Nellore last year.
b) I did not study in Nellore last year.
c) Where did you study?
d) Did you study in Nellore?
9. a) I went to a movie yesterday.
b) I did not go to a movie yesterday.
c) Did you go to a movie yesterday?
d) Did I go to a movie yesterday?
e) Why did you go to a movie yesterday?
f) Which movie did I go to, yesterday?
10. a) Hemant bought a car last week.
b) Hemant did not buy a car last week.
c) Did Hemant buy a car last week?
d) Which car did Hemant buy (last week)?
... past actions, time stated .. .t‡
œ.Ÿ.. .. · ... Past Doing Word (came,
sang, wrote ...:· .... .. œ· ...
questions . did + 1st Regular Doing Word
....
M. SURESAN
.:... i: .. z::s
ÎÙÞœxòÅ°ù£é ÎÙÞœxòÅ°ù£é ÎÙÞœxòÅ°ù£é ÎÙÞœxòÅ°ù£é ÎÙÞœxòÅ°ù£é ÎÙÞœxòÅ°ù£é
15
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How about you?
ví£øŒo: Standard English _.... ..Ÿ .. .
... . ._. .› ..· .‡.
.t
– ¸.. :. .:
áî¦ñª: pp number ... . .. ..Ÿ .
.. . .. .. . ...… STD ....
Trunk booking .¸.¸. . ... .:¸
.. .¸.. (Particular Person -PP) call .·
.:. . .¸·. .:¸ ... ... .·.. ..Ÿ
.. . . .. .· .‡.. . ·. ..…. ..
CONTACT NUMBER- ... . ... :.
.•. . . .· ...
áJTìO... áô¢ÞœEO! áJTìO... áô¢ÞœEO! áJTìO... áô¢ÞœEO!
áJTìO... áô¢ÞœEO!
÷..
Prasanthi: Hi Preethi, where were you yes-
terday?
_.ˆ: ·¸ .¸ ..,. ¸.··
Preethi: I went to Ameerpet to see my
cousin Prema.
. cousin Prema .Ÿ.. ·.
Ameerpet ..‹·
Prasanthi: I called you yesterday to ask you
for some books. Why is Prema in
Hyderabad now?
.•·¸ ... ..œ . ·. ·¸ ·.
. ..‹ _›.. š.. ....
... ...··
Preethi: To join a software institute here.
..,. software institute . .. . 
·.·
Prasanthi: Which institute does she want to
study in?
. .‡ .¸ .. .Ÿ. . .  .. 
...··
Preethi: I don't know. To learn software in
some good place is all that she
wants.
.:. ... ..t¸. .. ..
.. ..: institute . software
.¸....·
š. ... .. to see, to ask, to join, to learn
.¸ ... œ. ·. .Ÿ..…
..·¸ . .... .¸..·
To .Ÿ.¸.Ÿ 1st Regular Doing Words (see, ask,
join, learn) .¸.. .. :.· infinitives
....
English. infinitive . .. _....¸. ...
Infinitive . .. .•·¸ .. .. ..–
✦ to eat
✦ to smoke
✦ to buy
✦ to sell etc.
Infinitive ... .. .. .... š. ..
. .. :. œ.·.. ....
✒ ...Œ. (purpose) .t.Ÿ . .Ÿ..
a) Students go to college to study.
.Ÿ. . . ·.·
b) Suseela came here to join a college.
(college . .. . ·.·
c) He went out an hour ago to buy vegeta-
bles. .• . ·.·
✒Want, wish, hope, expect, desire ... .. 
.. .t›. verbs .., infinitive .› ‘..Ÿ 
.·’ . ... ...
a) She wants to sing.
.. .· . .. ...·
b) He wishes to go home.
.... ..‹ .· . .. . ¸.·
c) They hope to pass.
(pass ..¸.·/ . ...· .. ¸.·
d) Kamala expects to get a prize.
¸š.. ... .· . .. ...·
✒ ..Ÿ.. (to write), :.. (to eat) etc .
.. infinitive .t.Ÿ . ..
a) To sit in the class for five hours a day is
not a joke
.... œ ... . . . .¸.. .
.Ÿ.. ..·
b) To drive a car in such traffic is difficult.
.... traffic . car drive ..Ÿ.. ..
...·
c) To smoke is bad for health.
.œ .ˆ.¸.. ..¸ ·. .„·...·
· ... ... ..Ÿ.. :.. .· .:¸ 
 .¸. infinitive ... 'ing' from (eating,
smoking, etc) .. ..Ÿ¸ ... ...
a) To sit in the class for five hours is not a
joke.
Sitting in the class for five hours is not a
joke (to sit - sitting).
b) To drive a car is difficult.
Driving a car is difficult
c) To smoke is bad for health.
Smoking is bad for health.
· ... ..¸ . English. practice ..Ÿ..…
|· ..‹. .. . ¸
.· .. ...· . .. ...
.· _.: :.¸. best college . ... 
.. ..
i· .. .· .Ÿ. . ·. ·¸ .._:.
..‹
· .. .Ÿ. ..œ. .. . ·. .. .¸ 
.. .... ..Œ..
· · _œ. .Ÿ. ...
_›... ... ..
.· ...Ÿ   . . . .  
... ... ..
·· .. ·¸ . .‡
·.. . .Ÿ¸  .  .  ·.
college . ..Π..
·· .. . :. .•.·
. .. ...·
|· ·. .Ÿ. ... ...
. .· (like
....…·
||· . ..¸œ . . .. · _. :.
....·hope, get) ....…
|.· ... .• . ·. ·¸ ..,.…. ..‹.·
|.· .. .. .Ÿ. ..· ..
Answers:
1) I want to go.
2) She wishes to sing.
3) Every student wants to join the best col-
lege.
4) I went to the hospital yesterday to see a
patient.
5) Venu goes to Subbarao's everyday to play
chess.
6) Prem does not like to study this group.
7) To walk/walking such a distance is not
easy.
8) He did not go to college yesterday to get
the certificates.
9) Does she want/wish to buy the sari?
10) Don't you like (Do you not like) to study?
11) Does Pramila hope to get that job?
12) Where did you go yesterday to buy the
book?
13) Raghava does not want to study.
÷ .-.. œ. ...Ÿ..…
Scold, chide, reprimand = ..¸... ... t. 
.Ÿ.. ·.. . .Ÿ..
crush = .... .‡.... t. ...
Squeeze = .. ..· .‡....
Squeeze tooth paste/shaving cream on the
brush.
_.. :. paste ..Ÿ..·
Squeeze dry = .. ..… ..¸..Ÿ ...
.‡....
.. .... ... .. wring.
twist = ...Ÿ.. .tš....
twist the arm = ... .tš....
fold = ...Ÿ ...Ÿ š....
· ... ›.. ..  ...…
lizard - .t
(Dinosaurs ... ..· giant lizards ....·
giant - .. .Œ. .. œ ...
(WWE . wrestlers .· giant, gigantic
..Ÿ.. .. ..· .¸ ..š.. size .·
His is a gigantic figure.
.. ....· Giant wheel ..  ..
... – tortoise ..·
· . .t – chameleon .: t.Ÿ·
.... – dove/pigeon
:.. – parrot
..Œ. š...Ÿ .• ..Œ‰ ...: – domestic fowl.
M. SURESAN
..œ.Œ... iz .. z::s
ÎÙÞœxòÅ°ù£é ÎÙÞœxòÅ°ù£é ÎÙÞœxòÅ°ù£é ÎÙÞœxòÅ°ù£é ÎÙÞœxòÅ°ù£é ÎÙÞœxòÅ°ù£é
16
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Students go to college to study
ví£øŒo: ¸·. ... .. .•.. .œ.. ...
·. .. .... . .. .. .
...Ÿ. .·... . .. ... .. :
.... present perfect tense .
...t .. :. past tense . ..¸
·. :.· ·¸ .. œ.Ÿ.. ..¸. .. 
:. .Ÿ .. past tense ..t ..
...¸. bought, didn't you .. .. 
. have bought, haven't you ...
present perfect .. . ..Ÿ ..Ÿ¸ ..
:. .. .Ÿ œ ..
– .‡š.. .. .Ÿ._. .-. .. ..
áî¦ñª: Past actions, time known œ.Ÿ.. .. 
: . ... . .. . .. .· .:¸.Ÿ.
..¸ œ t . ..¸. .. past simple ._.Ÿ.
.... œ.Ÿ.. ..  .· ..¸. . . .
.. . ... .· ..¸ .¸. ...Ÿ.
.... .. .. .¸   .. .t‡  .¸.
.Ÿ.¸· present perfect ....
a) He has brought a car.
.. .t.Ÿ ..Ÿ.. ..·
b) He bought the car this morning.
.. ...Ÿ¸.·
· ... Vocabulary items : ... ..
....…
1) ·.¸ . ...– envy
she envies her sister.
.. :. .. ·.¸ . . ...·
2) jealousy- ..Ÿ
jealous - . .Ÿ. .....
..Ÿ . .. ¸: .. . .¸. .. .t·
..– ·.¸ (envy).
. . ¸. ..Ÿ... .. ...… . _....¸.
.Ÿ.. ... .. ..Ÿ (jealousy).
A poor man may envy a rich man.
... .Ÿ .…· .Ÿ› ›.. ..…. ·.¸ ..œ ..Ÿ¸·
She is jealous of her neighbour because
she bought the same necklace as hers.
.Ÿ .¸ ·. .... ..,..:. .•¸. ..
... ..Ÿ·
3) gratitude - _. .¸.· .¸.Ÿ ..Ÿ
He has gratitude.
He has no gratitude.
4) grateful - _·. . ..· .¸.Ÿ ..Ÿ .t
I am grateful to you for your help.
: .„.Ÿ ·. .¸.Ÿ . .…··
5) ...… .. .¸.Ÿ . .Ÿ œ. – thankful
I am thankful that I have such parents.
.... .Ÿt.._. . ¸. .. ...…. .¸.Ÿ . .…··
(grateful - .·.‡ .. .¸.Ÿ . .Ÿ œ.
thankful - ...… .. .¸.Ÿ ..Ÿ œ.·
V
O
C
A
B
U
L
A
R
Y
÷´è[ª Íô¦nõêÁ infinitive
÷..
Bhaskar: Hi, Bhanu. What are you doing?
. .. .¸.·
Bhanu: Don't you see? I am preparing for
an exam.
.Ÿ... ..· .. ,. _.‡›.. ..Ÿ ¸·
Bhaskar: Oh, are you? Where is your
brother?
.. : _... ..,.··
Bhanu: He is getting ready to go to college
..‹.‹.. ..Œ . ·. ‡. . . .Ÿ ¸.·
Bhaskar: And What about your parents?
.. : .Ÿt .. _.. .œ...··
Bhanu: They are watching the T.V.
..Œ‰ .: .Ÿ¸.·
'What about', 'How about' . ‘.œ ...·’
.. .. .. .Ÿ... practice ..Ÿ..…
a) How about my money?
..¸ .œ ...·
b) What about that book?
. ... .œ ...·
c) How about a movie this evening?
· .Ÿ._.Ÿ. ‡·.·..Œ..·
d) What about the dinner you promised me?
. ¸ .…¸. :..Ÿ. .. ..‹.·
š. ..... are doing, am preparing, is
getting, are watching - · verbs œ. ·. .Ÿ..…
:. ... am + ... ing, is + ... ing, are + ...ing.
· form. .. .•·¸ verbs.
am studying / is studying / are studying
am walking / is walking / are walking
am singing / is singing / are singing
am working / is working / are working
· am + ing, is + ing, are + ing verb forms
(present continuous / present progressive
tense ....· ..¸. · ,... .. œ .Ÿ¸
. . .t.Ÿ . ..
★ 'I' . am + ing,
★ he, she . ›.·. sin-
gular .· it . ..
...Ÿ  . – singular .·
.... is + ing,
★ plural subjects .·¸ 
.. you . .... are +
ing ...
a) I am watching the T.V.
.: .Ÿ ¸ ..¸.·
b) My mother is cooking.
. ..¸ ... ... ..¸.·
c) Kumar is not studying.
... .Ÿ. ... .. ..¸.·
d) What is your father doing?
: ¸·.. .¸. ..¸.·
e) Where is he going?
.. ., .…. ..Œ‰.Ÿ ¸. ..¸.·
f) Are you threatening me?
¸ ... ¸.· ..¸.·
g) She is not dancing well.
.. .¸. . ..Ÿ.. .. ..¸.·
h) Am I troubling you?
:.¸t¸ ..¸.. š.. .Ÿ  ¸·
..¸.·
i) Why aren't they (are they not) coming?
..˜. .. ...... ..¸.·
j) You are wasting time.
.¸ .. .¸. .¸. ..¸.·
am + ing, is + ing, are + ing verbs ..¸.
.. œ .Ÿ¸ . .. .... · ... ..·
English . :œ . practice ..Ÿ..…
Aruna: .„. ... .. .¸.·
Amala: · _..Œ¸.. .... .¸
Aruna: ·¸ disturb .¸·
Amala: ... .. TV ¸ disturb ...
Aruna: ... .Ÿ¸.·
Amala: ..¸ .Ÿ.. ...
Aruna: : brother .. .Ÿ ¸.
Amala: .. .Ÿ¸.·
Aruna: .. : ..¸ ..¸. ...œ.. ..Œ‰ 
...
Amala: .. . š.. . ·. ..Œ‰.. .  ...
(I think . begin ..Ÿ..…· . broth-
er english movie .Ÿ¸. ...
Aruna: .. english movie .Ÿ... ..
..œ serial .Ÿ ¸.
Answers:
Aruna: Hi, Amala, what are you doing?
Amala: I am writing answers to these ques-
tions.
Aruna: Am I disturbing you?
Amala: Not at all. (· expression practice .‡
: ... .. ....… ‘... .. .
.. . .. .· ...· The TV is dis-
turbing me.
Aruna: Who is watching the TV?
Amala: I think my mother is watching the TV
Aruna: Your brother is also watching.
Amala: Is he also watching?
Aruna: Yes, but your mother is going into
the kitchen.
Amala: I think she is going to make tea for
us. I think my brother is watching an
English movie.
Aruna: No. He is watching a Telugu serial.
.. ...¸.. ...Ÿ.
1. am + ing, is + ing, are + ing - · verbs
..¸. .. œ .Ÿ¸ . .. ._.Ÿ. ....
_... .Ÿ.¸· ..¸. ..· . .. :.
..  .. Regular Doing Words (go, goes,
come, comes, sing, sings ... verbs)
._.Ÿ. .... Every day, very often, fre-
quent, rarely, never, once, twice, three
times etc., a day, a week, a month etc.
... regularity · :.. .... ....
.¸..·
2. am + ing, is + ing, are + ing, .. .t›
... . .. . .. . . . .. .Ÿ¸..
.·¸ ... ...Ÿ ›. . :. .. .t›
.. œ .. . .. .. ..Ÿ¸
a) ·.. š.. ... ..Œ‰.Ÿ ¸
I am leaving for Hyderabad tomorrow
..,. tomorrow .· ..¸.. .. future
action . .. .Ÿ¸. tomorrow .. .. ' I
am leaving for Hyderabad' ... ..¸.
..Œ‰.Ÿ¸ .· ...·
b) . .., ..¸ ... ..,.…. ...
My sister is coming here next week.
c) ..Œ‰ ·... ... ... .. .•...
They are buying a car in two or three days.
d) ... ..¸ . .. .. ..Œ‰.Ÿ ¸.
Sumanth is leaving for the US next month.
(future. will, shall .. ..Ÿ¸ .... ..
.:¸.Ÿ. .t‡  .¸. .. ·.· .:¸.Ÿ .  .¸.
am + ing/ is + ing/ are + ing ..,. .. .Ÿ. 
..·
· ... ..· English . practice ..Ÿ..…
a) ..Ÿ. ·.. ..,.. . ¸.
b) ... .. œ. .. ..Ÿ . . .Ÿ¸.
c) ..¸ ... .. .. ..,. ·... .¸..
.. .Ÿ..
d) ..¸ ... ... .¸.·
e) ...· ..¸. .¸. .¸.·
f) ..¸ ...  .,.…. ..Œ.. .. .š. ...
..Œ. .š. ... week after the next).
g) .._: _:.· ·.. _... : . (inaugura-
tion).
h) .Ÿ.· . .¸. .. ... .t.. :. ..
... :. .. release).
i) ..Œ‰ .... :. ..
j) ·.. ‡.. ..  ...
Answers:
a) He is coming here tomorrow.
b) We are starting/leaving in half an hour.
c) The Pak team is playing two matches here
next week.
d) Who is coming next week?
e) When are you consulting the doctor?
f) I am not going there next week. I am going
there the week after next.
g) The minister is inaugurating the bridge
tomorrow.
h) The University is releasing the results in
ten days.
i) They are returning within a week.
j) I am meeting the CM tomorrow.
M. SURESAN
œ.... i: .. z::s
I
áî¦ñª: :. .‡ sentences . ... ..
'...complained that... is not consulting'
.·.. .. :. .:¸ .... ·. .
..,. 'is' ... 'was' ...t ....
complain .‡  .¸. .... . .Ÿ.¸.Ÿ ..
consult . .Ÿ  .   .  .. . ..   œ.Ÿ ...
..¸. .. . .... ...Ÿ¸ ... 
.Ÿ.. 'complained' ... 'has com-
plained' .· .› 'is not consulting' . .·. 
. .. ... ... · .... .. :.
.‡ Sentence No (2) . ·.. .. ,.
reporting verb, 'has said' present perfect
tense ... will .·.·. .. '...Naidu said'
.· _... :› ..¸. 'would' correct.
Sentence No. 3: '... contradicted... dis-
obeying' .·.. .. 'was obeying' .·
...t .... Uma Bharathi has con-
tradicted .· present perfect tense .
... 'is disobeying' correct.
Sentence 4: '... only NDA could' .·
...t ..,. '... only NDA can' .Ÿ.¸
Sentence 5: '... Naidu said that only sec-
ular parties will play' .Ÿ.¸ 'Would play'
correct.
Sentence 6: '... Reddy said, ... are being
taken up' . .. 'were being taken up'
correct. ..,. .. '...Reddy has said'
.· ..› (said . ...· ..¸. 'are
being taken up' .·..
.. :..Ÿ.– Direct speech . inverted
commas .. .. ... verbs- say, tell,
ask, question ... ..· Reporting
verbs .... Inverted commas ...
... verbs Reported verbs ....
Reporting verbs present tense . ...
Indirect speech . ..¸  .¸. Reported
verbs tense ..¸ . ..
a) "They play well," says Ram to Rahim.
..,. Quotations ..Ÿ. .¸ reporting
verb 'says' present tense. ...
Quotations ... .¸ reported verb
'play' tense ..¸ . .. :·. Indirect
speech-
Ram says to (tells) Rahim that they play
well.
...... "They play well," said Ram to
Rahim .¸ sentence . Reporting verb
'said' past tense. ..¸. quotations .
.¸ play . reported verb past tense
.. .Ÿ.¸· . ..¸t :·. Indirect
speech-
Ram told Rahim that they played well.
All India Radio News :.. ¸.¸. .•·¸ .. .„. .t..
· ... ..¸ .š. .. .„. ·.¸ œ ..
1. The Nationalist Congress party headed by Mr. Sarad
Pawar complained that the congress is not consulting its
constituent parties on important issues.
2. The BJP president Mr. Venkaiah Naidu has said that BJP
will not support Congress at the centre.
3. However, Miss Umabharati contradicted the rumour that
she is disobeying the party rules.
4. The PM Vajpayee said only NDA can provide stability to
the country.
5. The TDP supremo Chandrababu Naidu said that only
secular parties will play a major role in the elections.
6. The Municipal Commissioner Mr. Raghu Rami reddy said
immediate measures are being taken up to provide drink-
ing water to the residents of Kurnool.
.. .. : ... News reader .Ÿ. ..Ÿ¸ . ...
... .. . .. . ... .. Indirect Speech.
.... ..¸.. is not consulting ... was not consult-
ing .· ·... ..¸.. will not support ... would not
support .· .. ..¸.. measures are being taken up
... measure were being taken up .· ...t .. ..
News reader .... .Ÿ. . ..· . _.. ... Indirect
Speech ·.Ÿ .. _.... present continuous past
continuous will + present verb would + present verb
..¸t .. .· News . .. .... ..¸ .Ÿ. . .. ...
... ..Ÿ .‡ .. .„. ·.¸ œ ..
– .. ...Ÿ _.‡.Ÿ-.. ,. :.¸·
ví£øŒo:
ÎÙÞœxòÅ°ù£é ÎÙÞœxòÅ°ù£é ÎÙÞœxòÅ°ù£é ÎÙÞœxòÅ°ù£é ÎÙÞœxòÅ°ù£é ÎÙÞœxòÅ°ù£é
17
Ïí£±pè[ª... Ð ¤ÛéÙ!!
÷..
Mohan: Hi, Manoj, How are you getting
along?
(.„. .. .. .¸.··
.. .. ... ..›. practice .‡ ....…
: ... ..
Manoj: Fine. Thank you. How are you?
. .¸ .¸ .. .¸.··
Mohan: Ok too. I am going to a movie. Why
don't you come along?
‡·.·..Œ‰.Ÿ¸ .¸ ..
...Ÿ¸ ..·
Manoj: Like to. But I am going for a walk now.
This is the time when I go for walk
every day.
... ... .· ..¸. ... .
..Œ‰ .Ÿ¸ .. · ... ... 
. ..Œ.·
Mohan: Do you walk everyday along this
road?
.. · .. . ... ..··
Manoj: No. Usually I walk along the college
road, but now I am walking along
this road because that road is under
repair.
.. .   .   .. . .‹  .‹.
... ..Œ . . ... .. .¸.Ÿ.
.¸.·
Mohan: So long ... bye . :.,.
..· see you. .. ..  ....·
Manoj: Bye .·
· ... .. am going, go; walk, am
walking ... œ. ·. .Ÿ..… .. .. – 1st
Regular Doing words (1st RDWs- go, walk
... verbs), 2nd Regular Doing Words (2nd
RDWs- goes, walks ... verbs) _... .Ÿ.¸
... ..· ... .... am+ing/ is+ing/
are+ing ..¸. .. œ .Ÿ¸ . .. ....
a) I take coffee (take 1st RDW).
..ˆ · .. .– Regular- _.: ..
.. ....·
b) I am taking coffee.
(am + ing - ..¸. coffee ·.. . 
¸·
c) She goes to college at 10 AM.
(goes- 2nd RDW- .. ...Ÿ. | œ....
..‹.‹.. ..Œ‰.Ÿ..– ..·
d) She is going to college.
(is going - ising - ..¸. .. ..‹.‹..
..Œ‰ ...·
e) They come here on sundays.
(come - 1st RDW .. _.: ..... –
Regular .. ·.– ..... ..Œ‰ ..,.….
..·
f) They are coming.
(are + ing - ..Œ‰ ..¸. . ¸.·
· .. English . .. ...¸. Regular
actions . am + ing, is + ing, are + ing verbs
(present continuous tense) ..¸. .. .›
.. .Ÿ.¸
... œ.. .Ÿ ..t
Regular actions . Regular Doing Words
(come, comes, take, takes ...:· ...
·.¸. . · .. . ¸ ..,. coffee
.œ. .. ...
a) Mr. Sen teaches English.
..Ÿ    . ¸. English . .   . ...
..Ÿ English lecturer/teacher ... 
.. . t/ . .¸.Ÿ¸·
b) Mr. Sen is teaching English
..Ÿ ..¸. English .. .Ÿ ¸.·
· .. English . .. ...¸.
c) Dogs bark.
..,. ..¸. ... œ ...– .. ..
..·
d) Dogs are barking.
..,. ..¸. ... œ .Ÿ ¸..– .•.Ÿ..
.•.œ. .:¸ ...t·
· ... ..¸ . English . :œ . prac-
tice ..Ÿ..…
a) ..Ÿ ..¸. punctual .. · ..
._.Ÿ. . ..¸. .¸.
b) .... ..Œ‰ ...… .Ÿ .. .Ÿ. ...
· .. ._.Ÿ. ... .¸œ . (some other
magazine ....…· .Ÿ. ..Ÿ ¸.
c) .¸. .. .. waste ..· ..¸.. ..
.¸.·
d) _.: .. · ... .¸ ..,.… ·. .Œ ..·
..,.…. ..Œ‰ .Ÿ ¸.·
e) . ¸ ›... .Ÿ. ...· ..¸. . ¸
›... .Ÿ. ..Ÿ ¸.·
f) .... ._: .Ÿ.· :... ..· ·..
.¸. (rice) :.. ¸..·
g) ..Ÿ. ..... _š...¸· ..  .. ·..
..  .. . ¸.
h) .. ..¸. ..œ ... .. .Ÿ.. ..¸.
._.Ÿ. .‡.: .. .. ...
i) ..Ÿ ..ˆ .œ. ..¸. .œ .Ÿ ¸.
('take' ....…·
j) ... . ..Ÿ ... .. .. ..¸.
.. . .Ÿ ¸.
Answers:
a) He comes punctually (always/usually). He
is coming late only today.
b) They usually read India Today, but now
they are reading some
other magazine.
c) Why do you waste
time? Why are you
wasting time?
d) Where do you go at
this time every day?
Where are you going?
e) What news paper do
you read? What news paper are you read-
ing?
f) You usually take chapathis at night. Why
are you taking rice (now)?
g) He does not meet his friends on sundays,
but he is meeting them today.
h) She always sings Telugu songs, but she is
now singing a Hindi song.
i) He doesn't take (does not take) coffee. He
is taking it now.
j) He doesn't (does not) usually talk to her,
but he is talking to her.
...¸ .-.Ÿ.
.•·¸ verbs am + ing/ is + ing/ are + ing
.... ... am + ing/ are + ing/ is + ing -
verb · .... .¸.¸. ..¸. .. œ .Ÿ¸
. .. .... .... .•·¸ verbs :. .Ÿ..
. verbs .›.¸ .· ..¸. .. œ .Ÿ¸ ..·
am + ing/ is + ing/ are + ing forms . ...
.... ... Regular Doing Words (love,
loves, etc.) form . ....
am + ing/ is + ing/ are + ing from . ..·
verbs . . . ... .. : :. .Ÿ .
.t›. verbs-
1) like .. . ...· -am liking, is liking, are lik-
ing ... .: .. t¸  .. like, likes
....
Kumar likes that shirt very much ....
..Ÿ .. . ... ..¸. Kumar is liking that
shirt ..
2) dislike ... . . . ...·
They dislike his class.
..Œ. ..Ÿ . ..¸. ... .. ...
..· .... are disliking, is disliking, am
disliking .¸ forms .. .: .Ÿ.¸ .. ...
dislike, dislikes .· ....
....: ...•·¸ verbs, (am + ing, is + ing,
are + ing) . ..·:
3) love - love, loves, (am/ is/ are loving
...·
4) hate - hate, hates (am/ is/ are hating
...·
5) hope - hope, hopes (am/ is/ are hoping
...·
6) want - want, wants (am/ is/ are wanting
...·
7) wish - wish, wishes (am/ is/ are wishing
...·
8) desire - desire, desires (am/ is/ are desir-
ing ...·
9) envy - envy, envies(am/ is/ are envying
...·
10) feel .•·¸ .. .¸.· feel, feels, (am/ is/
are feeling ...·
M. SURESAN
.Œ.... is .. z::s
I
ÎÙÞœxòÅ°ù£é ÎÙÞœxòÅ°ù£é ÎÙÞœxòÅ°ù£é ÎÙÞœxòÅ°ù£é ÎÙÞœxòÅ°ù£é ÎÙÞœxòÅ°ù£é
18
I am taking Coffee
Ïí£±pè¶ áô¢ªÞœªêŸªû¦o... Ïí£±pè¶ áô¢ªÞœªêŸªû¦o... Ïí£±pè¶ áô¢ªÞœªêŸªû¦o... Ïí£±pè¶ áô¢ªÞœªêŸªû¦o...
Ïí£±pè¶ áô¢ªÞœªêŸªû¦o...
áî¦ñª: He was not come yesterday .·. .
.. .... ..¸. 'be' forms (am, is ,
are , was, were, etc.) .Ÿ.¸.Ÿ come,
go,... 1st Regular Doing Words ..
... He was not come .Ÿ.¸He did not
come .t
.. :· ... .. .. .:¸ .....
.Ÿ‡  .¸.·
..,. .Ÿ‡  .¸. When I looked
for him/her . ... She had not eaten;
She had not come . ..Ÿ¸ .... had
eaten, had come . had + pp forms
....¸. .. .¸·¸ ._œ.Ÿ œ. ·. .t
When I went for him, he was not at
home- .·.. .... He was not complet-
ed the work .¸ sentence .·.. ..
.·. ... .. He had not completed
.t ..· She had not completed
.t .Ÿ.¸.Ÿ .¸. :· œ..: ....Ÿ
:. .. .....
ví£øŒo: Leave letter .› . .¸. As I am
suffering from fever ..¸.. as .
... since .. ..¸·
– ..... ..… .•.. ...œ.
áî¦ñª: 'since' 'as' ... .. ..Ÿ¸ ·
·.... .…. .. because .. .. ..Ÿ¸
...…. .. · .. .¸.. ‘.... ./  .. . 
...’ .· ...
ví£øŒo: How long- ... ...Ÿ ›. How far-
... ...Ÿ ... . .. .¸.
.¸ .. . ... ..¸ . ..
..Ÿt·
.. .. .Ÿ ..Œ _.. .._.Ÿ.
.¸. ‡. .¸..·
– .… ..- . .¸. .. •..
áî¦ñª: · _..Œ¸. ·. ..¸. ...–
.¸ .¸ _..Œ¸. ·. .. English .
..
..Ÿ ·¸ .:¸ ... ..– . . ·. He
was not come yesterday . ..¸·
..  .¸. ..Ÿ ... .. ... 
.– . . ·. .. .. He was not at
home, when I went for him .·
.... ..· ..…  .¸. ..Ÿ.
.·· .·. .‡ ... ..– .· ..¸. ·.
He was not completed the work yet
when I ask him .· ..¸..¸·.. :·
... .. .. .:¸ ... ..
.Ÿ‡  .¸.·
..Ÿ . .· .·. .‡ ... ..
..  .¸.·
.... . .  . ..   . . ..
..¸t
– .. ... .. ..-¸.
ví£øŒo:
÷..
Durga: Look at Leela's dress. Isn't it (= Is it
not) really wonderful?
:. _. .Ÿ. .. .œ.. ..·
Valli: Ok I like it really. In fact, I wish now to
buy one such dress for myself.
. .. :¸.. ..¸. ....
_. .•.Ÿ.· ...·
Durga: Renuka too likes it. I desire one like
that too. I feel like buying it, but I
haven't (= do not have) the money.
·... .. . _. ... .. . . 
... . .•.· ... ..¸. .•
.Ÿ .·.‡.. .· ..¸ ..· feel
like +...ing = .. ..Ÿ .·.‡. .Ÿ..
feel like going to bed = ·_. ...·.‡
..·
Valli: I really envy Leela for the dress.
. :. _. ... ·.¸ ...
Envy = ·.¸/ ·.¸ ....·
· ... .. like, wish, desire, have,
envy, feel - · verbs .·¸ ..¸. .. œ .Ÿ¸
:..Ÿ. ...Ÿ ¸.. ..¸. ..· :. .Ÿ 
. .t›. verbs ..¸. am + ing, is + ing,
are + ing form (present continuous) . ... 
.· ..  .¸. ... .¸.. š. .....·
verbs- like, wish ...: . . ....
... .. : verbs . .•·¸ ... ....
verbs am + ing/ is + ing/ are + ing ....
... .... .. .¸. Regular Doing
Words (like, likes, wish, wishes, desire,
desires, envy, envies) .... ....
verbs .. .•·¸–
dislike, love, hate, hope, want, appreciate
... .Ÿ..· admire ..Ÿ¸....· .•·¸ .. 
.¸. feel, (feel ... . . . :· ¸.
.t.Ÿ . ‡  .¸.· prefer -
:..¸. .. am + ing, is + ing, are + ing
. ... . :..Ÿ. .:¸.Ÿ. œ.š.. ..t
a) .. ..Ÿ.…· _›.: ..
She loves him.
(She is loving him .. _›.:. .Ÿ.. ..¸.
..œ.Ÿ¸ ·.·
b) ..Œ‰ . ...· .. ¸.
They hope to pass.
(They are hoping to pass .. ..Œ‰
....Ÿ.. ..¸. ...·
š. list . :œ. verbs . .. .. rule.
Actions of the mind ...Ÿ  .. ... ... 
.. : .Ÿ.¸.· .t›. verbs . .. am +
ing, is + ing, are + ing form .. .:–
1) know = .t.Ÿ..
2) understand ... . ....
3) remember .... .....
4) forget = .. :. ...
5) decide = ·. ... .Ÿ..
6) doubt = .. .‡. .Ÿ..
7) think = ..:. .Ÿ..
8) suppose = . ....
9) believe = .¸..
10) imagine = ·.‡. .Ÿ.. ... ..
am/ is/ are ..·
... · verbs . .·¸ am + ing, is + ing, are
+ ing form . ...
..Œ‰ ... ... . .. . ¸.
They understand my words. (They are under-
standing my words ..·
am/ is/ are understanding ..
..Ÿ .…. ... ›.. œ...
He still remembers my name. (He is still
remembering my name
.. ..·
..· š. list . .¸
:œ. verbs .. am
+ ing, is + ing, are + ing
form . ...
a) ..¸ .. .‡
¸.·
:·¸ English . ..
. ...· .. ,.
'doubt' ..t .. am doubting/ is
doubting/ are doubting .. 'doubt'
question . ..t ... do ..t ...
sentence-
Do you doubt my character ?
(Are you doubting my character ..·
b) :. .‡.: ..·
Do you know Hindi? (Are you knowing
..·
c) .. ¸.. .. ... ..
He is not understanding me .. ..
... ... am/ is/ are + understanding
English .. ... .·. ....· He does
not understand (= understand + not) me.
d) .¸ .  .. . ¸.·
What do you think?
(What are you thinking ..·
÷³Üu Nù£óŸªÙ
š. ..‡¸ verbs :. .Ÿ.. liking, loving,
thinking, understanding etc. 'ing' forms
.. .¸·¸ .. .. ..Ÿ¸
.. .- . .: · 'ing' forms .... am, is,
are ..¸.. knowing - .. .¸·¸ .. ..
..Ÿ¸ Am/ is/ are + knowing ... ..·
am/ is/ are understanding ..¸. ..
..· :œ ... :. .Ÿ..
am + ing, is + ing, are + ing forms . ..·
.. .•·¸ verbs .¸.. .: ..  .• ....
· ... ..¸ . English . :œ . practice
..Ÿ..…
i ..Ÿ ..·¸ .Ÿ., ... ... . ¸.
z ..… œ..: .. .. .. . ¸.· think
....…·
s .¸ · ·. ·.... ..ˆ .....Ÿ ¸.·
: ..Ÿ.… ›.. . œ. .... .. (remem-
ber) ....…
s .... .·¸ :..Ÿ. ..¸..Ÿ¸.·
(why . _... :. .Ÿ..…·
s ..Ÿ .…· .¸ .... . . ·¸.·
t . ..,. .Ÿ. ..·.‡..Ÿ.. .. (feel like
= .·.‡. .Ÿ..·
s .. ¸ . ... .. ... ..
- .. ..¸. .... ..‹.· . .. ...·
(think ....…·
i: ..Ÿ . . . ... •.¸..…· . .. . ¸.·
(suppose .. . . .Ÿ..…·
ii · _.. . ..Ÿ .…. .Ÿ¸.. .. dislike
....…·
iz ... .¸ .¸.. ..· (believe/
doubt) ....…·
is .¸ . .¸ ..ˆ ...... . .Ÿ ¸.·
(prefer ....…·
i: ·. · ..‡: .t.Ÿ.. .. (know .. . 
. .Ÿ..…·
is .... .. . . .¸.‡ ¸.·
Answers:
1. He understands the lesson well.
2. What does he think of himself? ( is think-
ing .. ..·
3. Do you like (are you liking ..· the coffee
in this restaurant?
4. I don't (= do not) remember (am not +
remembering .Ÿ.¸· his name.
5. Why do you forget (are you forgetting ..·
things like this?
6. Why do you doubt him?
7. I do not feel like studying here.
8. He does not understand me properly.
9. Does she think of going home now?
10. Does he suppose that he is the greatest
of all?
11. He doesn't (= does not) like your behav-
iour.
12. Don't you (Do you not/ Do not you)
believe my words/ Do you doubt my
words?
13. Why do you prefer coffee to tea? (prefer
.Ÿ.¸.Ÿ 'to' ...·
14. You do not know your position.
15. Do Iraquis hate Americans?
VOCABULARY
Shopping . ....:.:. .-..
buy, sell .t‡ ...
sale ..¸..
bargain ... ... ..Ÿ..
(A good bargain, a bad bargain best bargain
etc.)
good/ bad at bargaining = . . . .
..Ÿœ.œ../ . ... ..Ÿ.. . ...
bargain- pronunciation – .œ·
purchase = .•..
· .... purchase ... .¸ 'buy' ...
... .....·
purchase = .•¸ ..
My important purchase this week is the TV.
· ... .•¸ ...¸ . .. TV)
return = .•¸ .. :. ..¸..
exchange = .•¸ .. ... ..¸ ....
replace = .•¸ ... ... ... .·.
... .. ..Œ‰ ...•.. ..
..¸..
refund = .. ..Œ‰ ..¸ .. ..¸..
durable = ...· .·¸. .¸ .·¸. œ.
allow a discount = .Ÿ.: ..¸..
expensive = ...
cheap = .. ...
moderate (price) = . . ..·
cost = ... .. . ...
M. SURESAN
..... is .. z::s
I
ÎÙÞœxòÅ°ù£é ÎÙÞœxòÅ°ù£é ÎÙÞœxòÅ°ù£é ÎÙÞœxòÅ°ù£é ÎÙÞœxòÅ°ù£é ÎÙÞœxòÅ°ù£é
19
Look at Leela's dress.
Isn't it really wonderful?
ví£øŒo: Simple present tense . noun ..,
verb . s ...t ..
.. Rama sells mangoes.
God bless you .... God blesses
you .t ..
– ..- ... . ..
e.¸ ·.. ...Ÿ ..
áî¦ñª: simple present . verb . 's' ..¸t
.·.. .... "God bless you" . sentence
statement .. .. 'May God bless you' .
:. .. ::. . ..¸. 'May God bless you'
. 'May' ...‡ 'God bless you' ......
... .. ..,. 'blesses' ..
ví£øŒo: Not bad ... very good .· .Ÿ...
:. not bad ... .. ... .·
..‹. · ·...…. .. .. .·..
– .….. ...¸.
áî¦ñª: 'Not bad' ... ..... .· ...
.. Very good .
ví£øŒo: The · .. ..Ÿ¸ .. .t .. ... ‘.’
.· .. . .. ‘.’ . . ..·
– ·.. ..- ..Ÿ ... ...¸
áî¦ñª: ...Ÿ..... :· œ..: . |
_..Ÿ .. : ... .œ.. :..... . . .
· . · . . . . . :– · ..œ
.Œ... _..... ..¸ English ...
.... 'the' · ‘.’ .. ... :œ. ...
.... ‘.’ ....
The .· apple, ant, egg, air, owl, umbrel-
la etc.
The .· tree, book, shop, college etc.
ing ÍEoàÁæ°x ô¦ë]ª!!
÷..
Ravi: Hi Pavan, what do I see in that glass
there? It appears to be some juice.
.. . . .·.‡ ¸. :.· ..
.¸. ...·
Pavan: Yea. The glass contains fresh lemon
juice.
.. .... .. ·.¸.. ...·
contain = .. . .. .....
the jug contains milk = . .. .. .¸..
Ravi: A new bike is parked outside. Whose
is it?
..Ÿ. . .•.Ÿ .. .., .‡ ...
.. . ..··
Pavan: It belongs to Mahesh. He bought it
the day before.
.. .›. .. ·¸ .• ¸.·
Belong = .....
The house belongs to my uncle.
. .. . .. .Ÿ¸. ..Ÿ . .....·
Ravi: What's that fat book on the table?
. ... :. .¸ . š.. ...
.:.··
Pavan: It contains a lot of information about
the latest versions in computers. It
comprises ten chapters.
...·¸ ..¸. ... .. : .. ..
..¸ . ·. . ... .... ...
.... .. ..¸ .Ÿ. .¸..·
comprises = include = .. .....
Ravi: Coming to the bike, does Mahesh
really need a bike now? He does not
go about much.
(.. :. .Ÿ ·.•.. .›.. . .¸. ..
·.. ..  ..· ..,. :. œ . 
œ.··
Pavan: Yes, he needs it very much now. He
has a new job. Marketing. He has to
move about a lot.
..¸. ..Ÿ .…. .. .. .. ..
.·.,.. . .•.Ÿ ..¸œ. .:¸..
.. :. t¸ .....·
Ravi: The bike seems very stylish, doesn't
it?
( .. .. .. . . .Ÿ. ... ..·
Pavan: It comes with a package. The pack-
age consists of a CD Player and a
set of CDs.
. .. .•.. .. .¸·.. ...
.... .. ‡.… ›..Ÿ. .•·¸ ˆ.†.
.....·
consists of = .t.. ...
The fan consists of three blades and a motor.
.¸. ... ... .. ... .....·
Ravi: By the way, where does Ganesh live?
.. œ.. ..,. ....··
(By the way - · .. topic ..¸ . ·.
... .. .... .. œ. .. .. .·
... .. topic .·.¸.... .. :..·
Pavan: He lives quite nearby.
..,.…. .œ . ....·
· ... .. verbs- see, appears, contains,
belongs, comprises, needs, seems, consists
of, live - :.· .. ...Ÿ. .... ..
.Ÿ‡ verbs . am + ing/ is + ing/ are + ing
form . ... .: .t.Ÿ .› .. .. œ .Ÿ 
¸. ..¸.· š. .... ... _.Œ.
practice ..Ÿ..…
.- +e· .· -·.·¸-·
★ . . ... .. : :. .Ÿ . .t.Ÿ .›
verbs (verbs expressing feelings and
emotions).
★. ... ...Ÿ  .. .. .. : :. .Ÿ.
.t›. verbs (verbs expressing actions of
the mind) ..¸. am + ing, is + ing, are +
ing forms . .. ..· .. .. t¸  
.¸. Regular Doing Words (like, likes,
think, thinks) form . ....
★·... ... verbs . .. š. ..‡¸ verbs
(appear, belong, comprise, consist of,
contain, live, need, seem) .. am + ing/
is + ing/ are + ing form . .. ..
..t¸ .:¸  .¸. Regular Doing Words
.... · ... sentences . ..
...·¸ œ. ·. .Ÿ..… 'not' .· question
.· .... do, does ..Ÿ· .. ..·
1) .. ..:..…. .·.‡  ¸.
He appears (is appearing ..· to be a
good fellow.
2) · :t.¸ ..Œ :  .. ..Œ. ...:
..·
These buildings do not belong to them
(are not belonging to them ..·
3) . . .....·
What does the glass contain? (What is
the glass containing .. ..··
4) .. š.. .... ...·
What does a ball pen consist of? (What is
a ball pen consisting of .. ..·
5) . .: .. .œ. .¸ . ¸.
The committee comprises four mem-
bers/Four members comprise the commit-
tee. (The committee is comprising...; Four
members are comprising... .. ..  
..··
6) ..Ÿ ..,. ....· ·. ‡ . .
....·
Where does he live? (Where is he living
..·
7) ...¸. ..,. ... ¸. ·. ‡  ¸.·
They live here (They are living here ..·
8) .. .¸. ..,. ... .. ..
They do not live here any more (They are
not living ..·
9) . ..¸. · .„.Ÿ. .. ..
I need your help now (am needing ..·
10) ..Œ ..¸. .. .. .. ..
They do not need it now (They are not
needing ..·
11) .. ... ..¸. .... .. ..·
Why does she need it now? (Why is she
needing it ..·
12) .. ..¸ . .…. .·.‡  ¸.
He seems (is seeming ..· to be a bad
fellow.
13) ..Ÿ. ... . . ..
He does not seem to be interested in it (is
not seeming ..·
...Ÿ... ... . .. verbs, am + ing/ is +
ing/ are + ing . .. ·: .Ÿ.‹. .. .•·¸
verbs .. .¸.. .:  . .  .• .... ·
... sentences english . :œ . practice
..Ÿ..…
i· _.: ..ŒŠ . ‡· . .. . . .Ÿ ¸.
z· ..…. · .... ... ... .. .. dis-
like ....…·
s· ..Ÿ.…· .. _›.: ..·
.. . .t.Ÿ.. .. ..Ÿ. ._.Ÿ.
.. _›.: ¸.
... . :..Ÿ. ..·
.. .. ..·
:· .. ...Ÿ¸. .¸·
.¸ ¸. .. ... ..... ..·
·¸ . ... ... .¸
·. .·. . .·.‡
¸· (appear
....…·
.¸ ..... ...
... . ¸. .·.‡. 
.Ÿ . . . . (seem
....…·
..œ ... .  .. . 
¸.· (think...so
....… so= ..œ·
.. .·.‡ .. (feel ....…·
.¸ ¸ .... ... . ¸. ·
... _.Œ. :.. ¸ ....
misunderstand). · :. . .·¸ .Œ..
¸.· doubt....my respect for you
....…·
s· ..Œ‰ ..,.. . ¸.· (live ....…·
..Œ‰ ..„. .œ. .... (live ....…·
..Œ‰ : ... .œ. ... .. ..·
..˜ .¸. ..,.…. .. . .Ÿ. ..¸.
long ago, .. .... move).
..¸.¸ .. ..Œ .· ... ..Ÿ.·
. ....–own/ belong ....…·
s· . .•..Ÿ ..¸ ..t (need/want ....…·
...Ÿ ..t· (How much . _... :. 
.Ÿ..…·
.·. ...¸ .. .Ÿ. ..t .·. ..¸.
..¸..…·
.... .. ..t ·.·
·. .¸ .· ... ..· want ....…·
...Ÿ š.. ...Ÿ. . .¸ .· .. ...Ÿ š..
...Ÿ.– such a big amount/ sum/ that kind
of money).
t· . ... ..¸. .•¸.·
.• .. ·¸ .›.. .œ. .: ..Ÿ¸ 
.¸ ... ..¸ ...•.. .œ. ..Ÿ¸ 
...– borrow from).
:¸ .¸. .·¸ .Ÿ. . .Ÿ ¸.·
.... ..œ.Ÿ¸. . _..Œ¸·
.Ÿ. .. .. . ¸
.· ·. ..¸. .... .. ..·¸
..¸.. lend).
.... .. . .. . ¸.·
.¸ ... . .¸. ...
Answers:
1) Every one likes that movie (is liking ..·
2) He does not like these classes (is not lik-
ing ..·
3) Does she love him?
I don't (do not) know that. But he loves
her.
Does she know that?
Who knows?
4) What do you say?/ What are you saying?
Why don't you (do you not) understand
me?
I understand you well. Do I appear (to be)
a fool to you?'
You don't (do not) seem to understand my
point.
Why do you think so?
I feel so.
You misunderstand me. I am listening to
you carefully. Do you doubt my respect for
you?
5) Where do they live?
They live near the townhall.
Don't they (do they not) live near your
place?
They moved long ago.
Do they own the house?/ Does the house
belong to them?
(am/ is/ are owning ..·
6) I want/ need some money.
How much do you need?
I need at at least a thousand rupees.
Why do you need such a big amount/ so
much/ such a big sum/ that kind of
money?
Do you want to give or not?
I don't want to give/ feel like giving such a
big amount.
7) When did you buy the book?
No, I didn't (did not) buy it. I borrowed it
from Mahesh yesterday.
Are you reading it (now)?
Why are you asking that question?
I want to read it.
But I don't want to give/ lend it to you.
Why do you feel so/ think so?
Because you don't give books to me.
M. SURESAN
..... z: .. z::s
I
---œ.·.- ---œ.·.- ---œ.·.- ---œ.·.- ---œ.·.- ---œ.·.-
20
¸.-Œ¸ .. ... .. He wants to talk you,
Sir. .· .Ÿ.. .· He wants to
talk to you, Sir .· ...t ..
– ·..¸ .. ..‹ . ..¸.
e.·e· 'talk' .Ÿ.¸.Ÿ 'to' .· 'with' .· .Ÿ.¸.
...t 'talk you, Sir' .Ÿ.¸ talk to you, Sir
.·..
By the way, where does Ganesh live?
... Íö° ÍìÙ ÚÛë¯ ! ... Íö° ÍìÙ ÚÛë¯ ! ... Íö° ÍìÙ ÚÛë¯ ! ... Íö° ÍìÙ ÚÛë¯ !
... Íö° ÍìÙ ÚÛë¯ !
÷..
Sudha: What are you looking at so
steadily?
.:. .Ÿ. .. .. .Ÿ¸.··
Madhuri: I see an interesting sight over
there.
..,. . .. . . .¸.Œ¸. .·.‡ ..·
Sudha: What is it you see there? I do not
see any thing. Saritha, do you see
any thing?
.. .·.‡ . . .,.· ·.. .·.‡. 
.Ÿ.. .. .. ··. . .·.‡
..··
Saritha: No. Nothing unusual.
.. ... .... ...·
unusual = .... .·. .•.Ÿ :..Ÿ.
Sudha: Do you hear Madhuri? Saritha
sees nothing unusual. Come on,
What attracts you there?
... :·.‡. :..· . .Ÿ. ..
.•.Ÿ.: .·.‡. .Ÿ.. .. ..,. ..
.. .. :.. ·¸·
Madhuri: Don't you observe that man there?
All made up like Gandhi, and
standing still like a statue?
..,. . .·.‡· œ. ·. .Ÿ.. ..
.¸· .:. ... . .•· :_œ
.. . ·...… .¸.·
Made up = ... ... . ....
still = .Ÿ.. .·
Sudha and Saritha: Yes, We see now
Saritha. I really don't see how he is able to
stand still for so long?
...Ÿ   ›. . .   t. . . .. .. ·.  ..…
...œ.œ .Ÿ¸. ... .... ...·
See = understand.
..¸. .¸. .. .¸ ..¸ .:. "I see"
.... ... ‘.. . ....’ .·
Sudha: But don't you hear some thing too?
:. .: :·.‡. .Ÿ.. ..··
Madhuri & Saritha: What is it?
.:. ..··
Sudha: The gibber of the monkey there It's
performing to the boy's commands.
. ..¸.. ..… ¸ . .: ..Ÿ . .Ÿ.
:·.‡. .Ÿ.. ..··
gibber - pronunciation : ..
performing = ..Ÿ.. _.. .. .Ÿ..
Madhuri and Saritha: What's new about it?
....¸ .... :..Ÿ··
· ... .. see, hear, observe .... œ. 
·. .Ÿ..… ..,. see, hear, observe · verb
..¸. .·.‡. .Ÿ.. ..¸. :·.‡. .Ÿ.. ..¸.
œ. ·. .Ÿ.. . .. .. ..…  .¸.. am/ is/
are seeing; am/ is/ are hearing, am/ is/ are
observing ... .. am/ is/ are seeing,
am/ is/ are hearing, am/ is/ are observing .
... see, hear, observe . ... ¸. ..
... . ..Ÿ ..· ..¸. .·.‡. .Ÿ..
../ ..¸. :·.‡. .Ÿ.. ../ ..¸. œ. ·. 
.Ÿ.. .. .. .. am not/ is not/ are not
seeing/ hearing/ observing .· ... ..
.Ÿ.‹.·
Do not see/ does not see; do not hear/ does
not hear, do not observe/ does not observe
... ¸. ... .. ... ...t¸..–
..¸.... .. .Ÿ‡ am/ is/ are + ing
forms . ..· verbs ... see, hear,
observe ... verbs .. am/ is/ are +
ing forms . .. . ..Ÿ. .. .. t¸  .¸.
see, sees, hear, hears, observe, observes
.· not .question . .... do/ does see,
do/ does hear, do/ does observe .· ....
a) I see a picture on the wall.
. . :. ..¸ . .·.‡ ..
b) She sees what he is doing.
.. . ¸. ... .·.‡ ..
c) They are standing on the balcony. They
see the Sunrise.
..Œ‰ ..,·. ·.... .¸ ..Ÿ. ..Œ.
.·.‡ ..
am seeing/ is seeing/ are seeing . ...
am looking at/ is looking at/ are looking at
.. ..Ÿ¸ .· see . look at . .... ..
...
see = .. .·.‡. .Ÿ..
look at = .. _..Ÿ.Ÿ¸. .‡· .Ÿ...
I see the picture on the wall.
. :. ..¸ .·.‡ ..
I am looking at the picture on the wall.
. :. ..¸ .Ÿ¸
Look at the sky, you see the stars.
...Œ. .. .Ÿ...… (look). , _.. .·.‡ ..
(see).
When you look up, you see the blue sky.
š.. .Ÿ› ·...Œ. .·.‡ ..
..Ÿ. .. .Ÿ ¸.
He is looking at her.
(He is seeing her .. ..··
..Ÿ. ·¸ œ. ·..
The teacher is watching you.
(am/ is/ are observing .. ...·
.... ‘.Ÿ.’ . . ·. 'see' .. .. 'See if
any one is there?' ... see . look . ..
...
ÏC ÷³ÜuÙ!
see ... .. .... (meet) . ... ..
... . .... am seeing/ is seeing/ are
seeing .... .·.·.
.. .... ..¸. .. œ .Ÿ ¸. ...–
She is seeing the CM today.
.. ‡..· ..  .. ...
I am not seeing the Governor today.
· .. œ. .¸. .. .... ..·
Am hearing/ is hearing/ are hearing .. ..
.... 'see' . ... 'look' am + ing/ is + ing/
are + ing form . ..… .
am hearing/ is hearing/
are hearing . ... am
listening to/ is listening to/
are listening to .. ..Ÿ¸
see . look at . ..
.¸. hear . listen to .
... .. ...
'hear' ... .. : .
..
'listen to' ... .. _..Ÿ.Ÿ¸.· .‡ :..
Listen carefully. You hear footsteps.
._œ .Ÿ : .. œ. .Ÿ.¸. :·.‡ ..
·.·
.. .. .. ..·
Do we hear the teacher or Do we listen to the
teacher? :. .. .. ..: students
..¸. listen to the teacher. ... ..Ÿ.
.›.¸. ..Œ‰ _.Œ. š..:...·
..: ..¸. .Ÿ-...…
a) As we walk along the road, we hear the
noise of the traffic.
.. :. .  ¸ .¸. _..‡. ..Ÿ :·.‡
..
b) We switch on the CD player/ the two-in-
one to listen to music.
.. ..Ÿ. :. ·. ‡.… ›..Ÿ./ ..
. . ..·
c) .›.¸. ·. :·.‡ ..·
Do you hear me?
.›.¸. .¸ :..¸.·
Are you listening?
· ... ..· English . :œ . practice
..Ÿ..…
i· . ·... ..¸. .Ÿ...… .. .. .·.‡
..·
z· ..,. .Ÿ...… .. ... .·.‡. .Ÿ.. ..·
(deer - ...·
s· ..,. ·. .. .·.‡ ..· . .. .›.
.Ÿ ¸.
:· ..¸. .Ÿ.. · .. ... .... .·.‡
.. . .Ÿ¸·
s· ... .,. . .·.‡ ..· (whom...see
....…· .·....¸ .. ..·
s· ..,.….. .. . . ..Ÿ. :·.‡ ..
(we . _... :.: some where ....…·
t· .. .¸. ..: ..„. :. ..…. ...
..
s· .. . .. .Œ.. :·.‡ ¸..
.›.¸. ·. :·.‡ ..· .¸ .›.¸. ·..
:·.‡. .Ÿ.. ..
-· . ·.. .•·¸ :..Ÿ (strange) .¸.‹¸. .·.‡
¸.. .•·¸ :..Ÿ .Œ.. :·.‡ ¸..
i:· . ·.. .•·¸ :..Ÿ .¸.‹¸. .·.‡. .Ÿ..
.. .•·¸ :..Ÿ .Œ.. :·.‡. .Ÿ.. ..·
Answers:
1) Look at those two pictures. Do you see
any difference (between the two) (Are you
seeing .. ..··
2) Look there! Don't (= do not) you see a
deer?
... .·.‡ ..·
Do you see a deer?
... .. ... ..·
Don't (Do not) you see a deer?
Are you not seeing? ... Don't you
see?
3) What do you see there?
(What are you seeing ..·
You are looking so much at the tree.
4) Don't look now. I see someone coming for
you.
5) Whom do I see there?
(Whom am I seeing? ..·
Isn't (is it not) Michael Jackson?
(Michael Jackson .. It is Michael
Jackson)
6) We hear some sweet music from some
where.
7) He never listens to good advice. He does-
n't (does not) like advice.
never= .¸.. ../ ..
Advice . plural .. ..¸. singular.
Advice .... a/an ...
8) Hello! I hear some noises over the phone.
Do you hear me What I say ? I don't (do
not)/am not able to hear what you say.
9) We see some strange sights and we hear
some strange sounds.
10) Don't (do not) we see some strange
sights and hear some strange sounds?
M. SURESAN
.Œ‰_.... zz .. z::s
I
ÎÙÞœxòÅ°ù£é ÎÙÞœxòÅ°ù£é ÎÙÞœxòÅ°ù£é ÎÙÞœxòÅ°ù£é ÎÙÞœxòÅ°ù£é ÎÙÞœxòÅ°ù£é
21
I really don't see how he is able to stand still for so long?
ví£øŒo: Housewife ... Homemaker .·
.. ..¸· My mother is housewife
... ... My mother is homemaker
... .œ. ... ..·
– .. .¸. .. ..…. ¸. . .Œ.:.
áî¦ñª: 'Housewife' . .. ..Ÿ ..… . 
.... Homemaker .. . .. . ..
... · ·...…..... ..¸.… .¸. .. . ..
.   ¸  .. ...¸. ..   .  .. ·
Houseworker. .. .. ...Ÿ .Ÿ¸ . . ..Ÿ¸
· ..Œ‰ · ..¸ ..,. .. . ¸.
ÚÛEí‡Ùà¶N... ví£óŸªAoÙ# àŸ«›úN... ÚÛEí‡Ùà¶N... ví£óŸªAoÙ# àŸ«›úN... ÚÛEí‡Ùà¶N... ví£óŸªAoÙ# àŸ«›úN...
ÚÛEí‡Ùà¶N... ví£óŸªAoÙ# àŸ«›úN...
÷..
Lakshmi: Hi, Ajitha, how are you?
.„. ...Ÿ .. .¸.··
Ajitha: Fine, thank you. How are you?
.œ¸ .¸. .¸.··
Lakshmi: OK. thank you. Do I smell some-
thing sweet?
. .¸ .. . .
¸... ..··
Ajitha: That's right. You smell the jasmine
spray I use.
·.. ..… .‡¸ _›¸ .
..·
Lakshmi: Well, why have you brought me
here?
..,.…. ¸. .. · .•.¸.··
Ajitha: The coffee here tastes fine and
fresh.
..,. ..ˆ .. .œ. ...·
Lakshmi: O, thank you (After a sip) I am
tasting real good coffee for the first
time in weeks. .•... ..ˆ .·
.•·¸ ... .Ÿ.¸.Ÿ .....
..: ..ˆ .: .Ÿ¸·
Ajitha: Wait a minute. I feel some thing
creeping up my arm. ... ..
.: :. .. .Ÿ¸. .·.‡ ..·
Lakshmi: Don't worry. It is only an ant.
..Ÿ . .. .. :..·
· ... .. smell, taste, feel- verbs ....
œ. ·. .Ÿ..… see, hear, smell, taste, feel -
..·¸ .›.¸. _..Ÿ .. ... .. :: Hear
and see- · ·... verbs am + ing/ is + ing/
are + ing forms . ... ..· .•·¸ .. 
.¸. smell, taste, feel .. am + ing/ are +
ing form . ...
a) smell ... .. .. .¸ . .
.. .. ..…     . ¸. am smelling/ is
smelling/ are smelling form . ...
The rose smells sweet.
œ.: . ...·
The rose is smelling sweet ..
.. .. .¸ ..¸. . .Ÿ¸
:..Ÿ. ..¸... am smelling/ is smelling/
are smelling ....
She is smelling the flower in her hand.
.. .: .· ..¸ . .Ÿ..·
.. ..,. .·.·. ... .. .. .. .
... . .... .... is smelling/ are
smelling ..
The spray smells fine.
. spray ..: . ... . ....
.... The spray is smelling fine ..
They are smelling the spray.
..Œ‰ . _›¸ . .Ÿ¸.
.. .·.·. – ... ... .. . .Ÿ...
...
b) 'taste' :..Ÿ. .. ... .. .. ·
:. . .:· ... . .... ....
taste, tastes . .... am tasting/ is
tasting/are tasting .· ..
Biriyani serves here
tastes fine.
..,. :.¸· ..: .:
·.. – The biriyani is
tasting fine ..·
.. ..  . ¸ .:
.Ÿ  ¸ .¸.– am tast-
ing, is tasting, are tast-
ing .·.·.
I am tasting the biriyani.
:.¸·· .: .Ÿ¸·
..,. am tasting .·.·.
She is tasting the dish to see how good it is.
. ..... ...Ÿ .œ.. ..  .. ·. .·¸
.. .: .Ÿ..·
c) 'feel' :..Ÿ. .. ... .. . .:
... .. .t .¸. feel/ feels ._.Ÿ.
am feeling/ is feeling/ are feeling ..
i) I feel the cold wind blowing on my face.
...:¸.. :¸ .Ÿ.· t· . . : 
¸·
ii) She feels (is feeling ..· strange in this
new place.
· .•.Ÿ _.. .Œ.. ... .. :..Ÿ .·.‡
..·
iii) They feel quite at home in the new place.
(They are feeling ..·
· .•.Ÿ _...Œ. ..Œ. .: .•.Ÿ .·.‡. 
.Ÿ.. ..·
.... How are you feeling? .. .. ..
...– .. .¸.· . ....
.›.¸._:.Ÿ-. .. .Ÿ.. œ. . .. .¸.
...¸..‹.
i) am seeing/ is seeing/ are seeing ... .·
.‡. .Ÿ.. . ....·
am hearing/ is hearing/ are hearing ..·
·...….. :. .Ÿ.. am/ is/ are looking/ lis-
tening ....
ii) .. .. .¸ . .... is smelling/
are smeling .. smell/ smells ._.Ÿ.
.. . .Ÿ¸.¸.. am smelling/ is
smelling/ are smelling correct.
iii) .. .. ..¸ .: .... taste/ tastes
.... is/ are tasting ..
iv) 'feel' :. .Ÿ..– . ... . .: ....
.... feel/ feels .·.. am/ is/ are feeling
..
.Ÿ.…: .Ÿ...– .... .... am/ is/ are
feeling .. ..Ÿ¸
M. SURESAN
.:... z: .. z::s
I
ÎÙÞœxòÅ°ù£é ÎÙÞœxòÅ°ù£é ÎÙÞœxòÅ°ù£é ÎÙÞœxòÅ°ù£é ÎÙÞœxòÅ°ù£é ÎÙÞœxòÅ°ù£é
22
Well, why have you brought me here?
ví£øŒo: Give ... ..¸.. Given ... ..¸ .
... I have given ... ‘. ..¸.’ .·
... .. ..¸ .. .·· .· ..
.. ..Ÿ .. œ..: .›.¸..¸. 'He has
given' .· ‘..Ÿ ..¸.’ . ....
.. .Ÿ ¸. .. .Ÿ.¸ ..· ‘..Ÿ ..¸ 
...’ .· .. ...·
–...¸. š.. . ..
áî¦ñª: English . ..œ. .¸ ... ..
`given' ... past participles .. .•... con-
fusing ..... `Given' .. past partici-
ple. ... ... ‘..¸ ..…’ .· ‘..¸ ....’
..·
a) The book given to him.
..Ÿ .…. ..¸ ..… ...
b) The man seen near the school.
..,. seen past participle ... school .œ.
.Ÿ. ..… .¸. .· Past participle. ... ‘
..…’ .· .. .· . .....·
c) The book torn by the child.
. :. ..Ÿ :.. ..… ...·
d) The movie released yesterday.
·¸ :. .. ..Ÿ ..… ‡·.·
.... .. œ. .. ..
a) ..Ÿ·. .:¸ ...
b) school .œ. .Ÿ‡/ .·.‡. : .¸.
c) :. :..‡ ...
d) ·¸ :. .. .‡ ‡·. ....
Past participles .... had given, have/
has/ had .› ::. .. .¸.– ..¸ ..¸..
..¸. ..¸. ..¸. . .. .
...have/has+ participle- œ.Ÿ.. ..  .·
. ... .. .. .t.Ÿ . .Ÿ . .. ...
I have given the book.
... ..¸
(past- ..¸. . .. .... .:¸.. ..¸..
..– ..¸.. ._.Ÿ. .. ..·
I, we you, they - have given.
he, she, it - has given.
He has given.
..Ÿ ..¸. ..¸.. ... . .... – past, ..
.t.Ÿ . .Ÿ.. ..·
'given' ... past participles .... 'be' forms-
(am, is, are, was, were, shall be, will be, have
been, has been – :.. be, been ..¸ verbs
.·¸ be- forms.) .› ..¸. ._.Ÿ. ..Ÿ ..…..
..¸ . .. etc. passive voice forms ...
..œ ... .. passive voice .. ...
He is seen here every day.
_.: .. ..,. .Ÿ. . . ..
He is given salary on the first of every month.
..Ÿ _.: . .... .: ..Ÿ. ..¸ .. ..
He has given a lecture.
..Ÿ .. ¸. ..¸.
He is given Rs. 10000 every month. ..Ÿ _.:
. . | ..¸ .. .. ..Ÿ .…. ..·
They are given. ..Œ‰ ..¸ .. ..
Children are given milk everyday. .. .‡..
.t.¸ .. ..
ví£øŒo: I give more prefer coffee than tea .t
.· I give more prefer coffee to tea .·
.... ....·
I am suffering from fever ....
....· I am suffering with fever . 
. ..·
– ·. .-.. .¸. œ.¸...
áî¦ñª: I give more prefer coffee... · sen-
tence . ..
I prefer coffee to tea .t .. I give prefer-
ence to coffee over tea .t
i· prefer .Ÿ.¸.Ÿ ..¸. 'to' ... 'than' ..
z· 'more preference' . ... .. ... ...
preference . 'more' . ... ...
'Suffering from' correct . .œ English
.. .. ..¸ . .. .·. ... .. .. œ.
... :. ... ... English. angry with
(a person) .... .. ... :. .Ÿ. .. .
.. ..t .. ...Ÿ ..,. English .Ÿ. :.
...Ÿ . ...
ví£øŒo: I am going to go . I am going . ..
.:.·
– .. .... ...Ÿ ..
áî¦ñª: 'I am going to go' ... ..Œ ..Ÿ ¸
.· 'I am going' ... ..Œ‰.Ÿ ¸ .·
.. .·. .Ÿ ..Ÿ ¸.¸. going to do/ sing/
teach etc. ....
ví£øŒo: i .. ·... .Ÿ ..t/ ·... .Ÿ . 
¸
z .. .._. .¸ ....
.... .t .. .... .... .t/
.....·
· ..¸ . .. .. .. ..¸t
– ·. .·...Ÿ.. .. ·..…œ-..
áî¦ñª:
1. I should/ have to get/ have myself pho-
tographed./ I got/ had myself photographed.
2. I have to get the entry made/ recorded in my
service register (I got the entry made/
recorded in my service register).
Ú•EoàÁåx Ú•Eo ׸Ú! Ú•EoàÁåx Ú•Eo ׸Ú! Ú•EoàÁåx Ú•Eo ׸Ú! Ú•EoàÁåx Ú•Eo ׸Ú!
Ú•EoàÁåx Ú•Eo ׸Ú!
÷..
Raghu: Hi Pavan, you look dull. What's the
matter?
.„. .. ... .. .¸.··
Pavan: I have a headache. I don't have (do
not have) at home the tablets I usual-
ly take.
.Ÿ.•.‡¸ ... ....
. . ._.Ÿ. ... ..·
Raghu: Sorry to know that. Do you have that
novel with you? I mean the novel you
bought last week.
(. ... . ... .¸ .•¸ .. ·
.œ ...··
Pavan: Sorry. I don't have it. Prakash took it
from me yesterday. He has it now.
(. .. .œ. .. _... ·¸
· . ¸. .. ..Ÿ.… .œ·. ...·
Raghu: I have no work today. So I want to
spend time reading the book.
. · ... .·.. ... .Ÿ. 
..Ÿ œ.… ›... . .. . ¸·
Pavan: Go ahead. My brother has another
book with him. Take it.
.... .·. . _... .œ. ...
... ... .. ·.·
Raghu: Where is he?
..Ÿ ..,.··
Pavan: He is having breakfast. Wait for a few
minutes.
.. _.. . .¸. .›. .œ·
Raghu: Aren't (Are you not) having any?
.¸ .: :.··
Pavan: I don't feel like, with this head ache.
· .Ÿ.•.‡¸ .. :.· ..·
· ... .. .. œ. ·. . . :.· .•·¸
.. ..¸. ..· .··. have/ has ....
.•·¸.. am having/ is having/ are having
.... 'am + ing/ is + ing/ are + ing' form .
..· verbs . have .. ... .... am
having/ is having/ are having form .•·¸ .. 
.¸. .. ·¸.. ....
1. have/ has . .¸ ...¸ . ...– .t
.....
I, we, you, they .... have.
He, she, it .... 'has'.
I have a scooter.
. ,.. ...
She has a lot of jewellry.
... .. œ. .¸..
My friends (they) have bikes.
. _š...¸. ..¸ .¸..
.t ..... . .... am having/ is hav-
ing/ are having ..
a) ..Œ. .... ....
They have a beautiful house.
(They are having a beautiful house ..·
b) This coffee has a fine taste.
· ..ˆ. ..: .: ... (is having ..·
c) · œ ... .. .¸.. .. ¸..
This city has wide roads.
(This city is having... ..·
2. . ... ...Ÿ ... .¸ œ.. .›.¸.
.¸. am/ is/ are having .. Have/ has
._.Ÿ. ...
a) She has patience.
(... ..¸ ...· is having ..
b) The wife and husband have (are hav-
ing ..· a good understanding for
each other.
. ..¸ . .. ..¸ ..: .. .
...·
3. . .¸ .· œ..: .›.¸. .. am/ is/ are
having ...
a) . .. ...
I have (am having ..· a lot of work.
b) .. .. ..,. ...Ÿ. · .: .Ÿ._.Ÿ.
... .¸. ...
Kumar has (is having ..· duty here from
8 AM - 6 PM.
4. ... . . .Ÿ. .›.¸ ..¸. am/ is/
are having ..
a) ... ..Ÿ .. .. _›..
She has (is having ..· deep love for
him.
b) š.. ... ..Œ . ...
I have (am having ..· the hope I will
be selected.
5. .. .¸ .œ¸.Ÿ... ..· .t.Ÿ . › .
.¸. am/ is/ are having .. have/ has
._.Ÿ. ...
a) . .Ÿ.•.‡¸ ...
I have a headache (am having ..·
b) ... ...
She has jaundice (is having ..·
c) ..Ÿ ·. . ... .‡..
He has (is having ..· a bad cold.
.... am having/ is having/ are having
...  .. .¸. ...¸.–
★ :.. .œ.. ...:–
i· · .¸. ..ˆ ·.. . ¸ .œ .Ÿ 
¸·
I am having coffee.
z· .. .¸. . .. .¸.
They are having meals now.
s· ..Ÿ ‡ ·.. .œ .Ÿ ¸.
He is having a smoke.
(He is smoking ...·
★ am having/ is having/ are having- `bath'.
.. ..Ÿ¸
a) . ¸. ¸. .¸. .
.œ..…
My father is having a bath. Please wait.
b) .. ... .. ...
She is having a shower.
œ. ·. .Ÿ..…– am/ is/ are having from ...¸.
:.. .œ.. . .. .·. .. :.Ÿ. ... .·
am having/ is having/ are having :œ. .. 
.¸. ..…. :. . ... ... eg:
a) I am having a scooter.
· sentence _.... ..¸ ... ‘
,..· :.. ¸’ .· .. ...Ÿ .Œ.
. ..… ... ... ... ..,. ..¸
t¸..– I have a scooter.)
b) My friend is having a son and a daughter.
...– . _š... .Ÿ .•.. ..Ÿ.·
:.. ¸.· .. .. ..·– My friend
has a son and a daughter.)
c) Saritha is having a wonderful pair of ear
rings.
... – ..Ÿ .. ... . .: .. . ..
:... .· .. ... She has a won-
derful pair of ear rings.)
· ... ..¸ . practice ..Ÿ..… .·¸. 
.. have- correct form ....…·
i· .œ. .. . ... ... · .œ ...·
z· ·. ..¸.. . ...·
s· .... ..ˆ ·.. . ¸. ....
.¸ . .œ .. ..·
:· .· ‘. .¸· ... · .. .¸
. ... . ..’
‘. .›.. . ... ..t · .œ.
...·’
‘ .œ. .. ... .œ. ...’
‘ .œ. ... . ... .. ..’
s· ‘. :. .. .œ.. ..·’
‘.... ·,’
‘ .œ. ..¸. ..¸ ..’
‘ .œ. ..¸ ... .· . . :. .Ÿ¸ 
..
s· ...  . .. _. .   . ..
·.. ..·’
‘..,. ..† ·...’
‘.. ..¸.. .. ..Œ :.. ¸.·’
‘· ·. ·.... ..†. .œ. .. ..Œ.
.œ....’
‘. ..,.… ·. ·...¸ œ..: ...Ÿ .t
.Ÿ.’
‘..¸. .¸ .. ..Œ :.. ¸. ..
.. ...·’
t· ... ..,.¸ ..,.‡. .. ...·
..,.‡.= Pup)
... . ... ..,.‡. ... .. :·
.¸ š...
... .·. ›....·
... .·. ... . ›.... .: .¸
... . ...Ÿ. š...Ÿ .Ÿ ¸.·
... ..
s· ... · . .    ·. .. ...   .
appearance ... ..·
.. .-. . :..Ÿ.. ·.. ....
..
... .·. .. ... . ... ..,·
š.. .. .. .. š.. .„. .¸..
.. .-. .œ. ..¸ ... · .. .•.·
... (have, wish ....…·
-· ... ·.Ÿ ..,.·
.‹.: ¸. ...
... ·.Ÿ. ·..¸ ... . _š...¸ .. 
·. .¸.·
.‹.: .¸. ....·
... . ....… ..œ .ŒŠ.. ....¸¸
... .. ·.¸ . .../. ¸
...
Answers:
1. I also have that book. Have you?/Do you
have it.
2. Have you/Do you have any class now.
3. Why are you having coffee now? You usu-
ally have tea.
4. (Over phone) Is it you? I am having lunch.
Please wait.
I want Mahesh's phone no. Do you have it?
I don't (do not) have it. Ramesh has it.
I don't (do not) have Ramesh's phone
number either.
(not .¸ sentence. 'also' .. ... .·
'either.')
5. Isn't that sari nice/beautiful?
Then have it.
I do not (don't) have/I
haven't (have not)
the money now.
I have the money but
I don't (do not) like
that sari.
6. What do you have for
breakfast usually.
I have mostly idles.
Why are you having
dosa now?
This restaurant doesn't (does not) have a
good name for idles. It has a good name
for dosas.
I don't have (do not have)/ haven't (have
not) much knowledge of the restaurants
here.
You are having a dosa now. How is it?
7. Ramu: How is that pup there?
Raghu: I have a pup at home. That's big-
ger than this.
Ramu: Has it/Does it have a name?
Raghu: Yes. It has a beautiful name.
Ruby. Have you/Do you have any
pets at home?
Ramu: No.
8. Suneel: Hasn't (has not) this building/
Doesn't (does not) this building
have a beautiful/ grand appear-
ance.
Sukumar: I don't have/I haven't any doubt
about it.
Suneel: It has a beautiful portico, a bal-
cony, big windows and a
large/spacious hall.
Sukumar: If I have the money, I wish to buy
this house.
9) Shalini: Where is Suneeta?
Santhi: She is having a bath.
Shalini: Has Suneeta/ Does Suneeta
have any friends in railway book-
ing?
Santhi: She has, but why?
Shalini: I have an interview in Bangalore
the day after tomorrow. I am hav-
ing a problem/difficulty about
reservation.
problem, difficulty ... ... am
having/is having/ are having
....Ÿ¸
M. SURESAN
..œ.Œ... zs .. z::s
I
ÎÙÞœxòÅ°ù£é ÎÙÞœxòÅ°ù£é ÎÙÞœxòÅ°ù£é ÎÙÞœxòÅ°ù£é ÎÙÞœxòÅ°ù£é ÎÙÞœxòÅ°ù£é
23
‘û¶ìª ú£«\åôÂE AÙåªû¦o쪒 ‘û¶ìª ú£«\åôÂE AÙåªû¦o쪒 ‘û¶ìª ú£«\åôÂE AÙåªû¦o쪒 ‘û¶ìª ú£«\åôÂE AÙåªû¦o쪒
‘û¶ìª ú£«\åôÂE AÙåªû¦o쪒
She has a lot of jewellry
÷..
Krishna: Hi Nikhila, How are you?
.„. ·.. .. .¸.··
Nikhila: Fine, thank you, How go your stud-
ies?
.œ ¸ .¸ .. .Ÿ. ..Ÿ ¸.··
Krishna: Studying well. My brother was
come yesterday.
Nikhila: Was come? Look here, Krishna, we
never use verb forms like was
come. That isn't English.
(was come _..Ÿ ..·¸ .. ..
. ..Ÿ. .. ... ..·
Krishna: . .Ÿ›.¸....·
Nikhila: : _... ·¸ ..¸ .· ..– .¸. . 
¸. ..,. was come .· verb
... .. .Ÿ.¸ English . verb .
.. ... .¸.. .. ...
.. .. .... verb .. .. ..
English ..
,.. ..: .. .. was come, has going,
... verbs .·.. .. e. e. e. œ .Ÿ.¸ _..Œ¸
..¸.. ÷ lesson .. .- œ . . .Ÿ.: ._œ .Ÿ
.Ÿ. ...… œ...Ÿ ...… practice ..Ÿ..… .
.... -. ....…·
.. Spoken English ... ·.‡. .. .Ÿ.¸.
.›: verb :. .Ÿ. .
verb ... .. ..· subject ... ‡:·
(state of being ... .....· .· subject .›
.·· action) .· .t.Ÿ . ..
Eg: He is here.
..Ÿ ·.,. .¸.
..,. verb 'is' ... .·¸ ....Ÿ..
Sunitha works hard.
·.Ÿ ....… .·. ..
..,. verb 'works' .·· (action) ......
..
English . verb . .. .:¸.Ÿ . ...
.¸.. œ.. .Ÿ ...… :. : sentence .
.. verb .. .Ÿ. .. .. ... (six
forms) . .. .. .... ... . .. : sen-
tence correct .. .. .Ÿ...…
I form of the verb (verb .... .-..·
'be' forms
am, is, are, was, were, shall be, should be,
will be, would be, can be, could be, may be,
might be, must be, ought be, dare be, need
be
· be forms .·¸... :.. 'be' .... œ. ·. 
.Ÿ..…
have been, has been, had been, shall have
been, should have been, will have been,
would have been, may have been, might
have been, can have been, could have been,
must have been, need have been, ought have
been, dare have been
· be forms :. . .·¸. .. been .... œ. ·. 
.Ÿ..…
š..·¸ 'be' forms. :.·¸.. ... ‘.....’ .
.·. ... ..: ..... :.. .•·¸. ....
.. .Ÿ.‹. š. ..  ·¸..· .. ..¸. 
. ..·¸ .. independent .. ..Ÿ¸
He is here.
They could be here yesterday itself.
She might be dangerous, etc.
II form (verb ·... .-..·
'be' form+ ...ing form ... verb, .. 'be'
form .Ÿ.¸.Ÿ .. '...ing' form (going, coming,
singing, dancing etc., ... :·. ...
Kumar is writing.
verb: is (be form) + writing (ing form)]
She has been singing for the past one hour.
..,. verb- has been singing
has been ('be' form) + singing (ing)form
verb š.sentences . 'be' form + ing form
.... ... .. ..·–
They could be going there.
could be (be form) + going (ing form).
III form (verb .-. .-..·
Doing Words :.· .. ..  .•· .¸.
..
1st Regular 2nd Regular Past
Doing word Doing word Doing Word
come comes came
sing sings sang
do does did
talk talks talked
like likes liked
smell smells smelt
-œ·-· ·.·-·-.·-
Regular actions- _... .Ÿ.¸... ..· . 
.. I, we, you, they .... 1st Regular Doing
word (1st RDW); He, She, It .... 2nd RDW
.... :.. not .· Questions . ·
.... 1st RDW . 'do', 2nd RDW . 'does'
.... .: .. .. .. ..· Past
Doing Word œ.Ÿ.. . ... .. .. .t
‡ ... .. ... actions . .... Past
Doing Word · not. .· Questions. .·
..…. did ... .. .. :. ..
IV form (verb .. .-..·
shall, will, should, would,
can, could, may, might, + 1st RDW
must, need, ought, dare
}
I shall go there tomorrow.
..,. verb- shall go. :· ...–
shall + go (1st Regular Doing Word)
Srinu will help me.
verb: will help- will + help (1st RDW)
They can sing.
can sing- verb - can + sing (1st RDW)
.. :.. .· .., 1st RDW ..…. verb
...Ÿ..
œ. .. 'shall, will, should, would, etc 'be'
forms .. shall, should, will, would, etc.,
.., 'be' .¸.¸. .: 'be' forms .¸
:..Ÿ. œ.. .Ÿ ..t
V form verb e... .-..·
have, has, had, shall have,
should have, will have,
would have, can have, + past
could have, may have, participle
might have, must have,
ought have, dare have
need have
}
.: .. be forms .. :.. .· ..,
'been' .¸.¸. .. 'be' form ...Ÿ..
shall have been - .. 'be' form.
shall have - .. 'be' form ..
Past Participle (PP) ... .. ..·
(PP)
go went gone
see saw seen
do did done
like liked liked
talk talked talked
verb, V form . š. .Ÿ.‡. : have, has, had,
shall have, should have, etc., ... ..
.., past participle ..› . combination-
verb ...Ÿ..
eg: He has seen me.
verb: has seen - has + past participle (PP)
She will have gone by then.
verb: will have gone- will have + gone (PP)
They should have done it.
should have done - should have + done (PP)
.. :œ. ... ..
VI form (verb .. .-..·
'be' form + past participle
.. .. 'be' form .., ..past participle
(PP) .› .. verb ...Ÿ..
a) He was seen there yesterday.
verb: was seen- was (be form) + seen
(PP).
b) The snake has been killed.
verb: has been killed, has been (be form) +
killed (PP).
c) It can be done.
verb: can be done- can be (be form) + done
(PP)
d) He had been killed before he was thrown
on the railway track.
verbs: had been killed - had been (be form)
+ killed (PP);
was thrown- was (be form) + thrown (PP).
· VI form of verb . .. _..¸ ..Ÿ ... ·
verb form- 'be form + past participle'. ·
.... .¸ verb ..¸. PASSIVE VOICE
. ..... verb- English . passive voice
. .¸.¸. .. œ. ‘..’ .· ... ...
a) He was seen here yesterday.
..Ÿ ..,. ·¸ .Ÿ....·
b) All kinds of books are sold here.
(verb - passive ..,. .·¸ ... ... ..¸
.. ...·
c) The film will be released next week.
(verb- passive ‡·. ..¸ ... :. ..
..Ÿ . . .Ÿ..·
.., VI form of the verb ._.Ÿ. passive.
:œ. forms .·¸ active voice. .. œ.
.. passive voice ... ... .. ...
.. ... ‘..¸’ .¸. .....….. ..
.•.. .. · ... ..,. ..¸.. .Ÿ..
.. spoken telugu . passive voice ...
English . .. ...Ÿ .Ÿ.,. ..…. .
.. ...Ÿ simple ... .....
conversational ease .....
.Ÿ.‹. .. English verb ..¸. š. singu-
lar forms . .. .. .... ...t .. ..
:. .. .. sentence .. .. .. .….
.Ÿ.¸ ..¸. .Ÿ...…–
He was come.
..,. verb .. .¸t·
was come - (was (be form) + come (1st
RDW)
be form + 1st RDW-
six forms of verb . · form .. ...
He was come- sentence ..
was come = was (be
form) + come (past par-
ticiple)
be form + past participle
.. passive voice verb
...Ÿ¸ .. . ....
:. ...Ÿ¸ .. ,.
...¸ . :..Ÿ. come,
go, walk, sit ... verbs
. passive voice ....
verb . .. .· .·· .· _..Œ¸. .Ÿ..… Answer
.› passive ..... Answer .. .. pas-
sive ....
They came yesterday.
verb ..,. came. :· ...– ‘..¸.’ .· .. 
.· ..¸.· .·· ..¸.· . _..Œ¸..
'Answer' .. ... :.. passive ....
.. He writes books . 'writes' verb. ...
... ‘..’ .· .·· ..· ... ‘.
..’ . answer ... :·. passive .Ÿ.¸.
..... Books are written by him .· pas-
sive ..¸..Ÿ¸
M. SURESAN
œ.... zs .. z::s
I
---œe·.- ---œe·.- ---œe·.- ---œe·.- ---œe·.- ---œe·.-
24
Fine, thank you, How go your studies?
¸.«Œ¸ Were you there then yesterday?
·¸ :. ..¸. ..,. .¸.·
.. ..Ÿ ..¸·
– . .. .Ÿ -·..… .. .-.
e.·e· ..Ÿ ..Ÿ¸
¸.«Œ¸ .. ... _: .. ..‡.‹·.Ÿ ..Ÿ...Ÿ·
poet .· .... .. poetess .t
..
– ·. .œ . .Ÿ.¸ ..Ÿ . ..›..
e.·e· English . . . gender dif-
ference (t.œ ...· ... .Ÿ.. .Ÿ . ...
poet ...._.Ÿ.. .... . . .. ....
.Ÿ.¸ .. ... ¸.
».e· .--œa - -o-ee·.
 ÷ .√ .’
Srilekha: Did you meet them yesterday?
·†¸ †’.¸ .√∞†’ .π.’’.π◊√¸.√··
Surekha: Whom do you mean?
†’.¸ : ... ∫’..:··
Srilekha: Savithri and her husband
≤ƒ:¸: ..’ ..Ω ∫’..:·
Surekha: I met her, but not him
..’†’ .π.’’.π◊√¸†’ .· ...·
.π.’’.™‰.’·
Srilekha: Did you show her the letter?
..’.π◊ letter ..œ. .√.√··
Surekha: Yes, I Showed it to her. She will
show it to him today.
√.’.π◊ ..œ. .√†’ ..’ ..√∞
.... ..œ’.:·
Srilekha: Did she enquire about me?
..’ √ ∫’..: ....∆··
Surekha: She wishes to see you. She
asked me to give you her best
wishes. She wants us to visit her
soon. She likes to give us a din-
ner.
..’ ·†’¸ ..≈ .†’.π◊. ..: ·†¸.
†.’ ..¸ .’.: .’†t¸ .√.. ..≤ƒ.
.Ω.’¸.: .’†.π◊ dinner ..√¸ .†’.π◊. 
..:·
Srilekha: That's fine. Let's go to them
tomorrow in my car. I will show
them my new car.
.∫’.: .’†. ·.. √ ..Ω’™ .√∞
.∫.Ω.π◊ .∞.∆. √ .. ..Ω’†’ .√∞.π◊
..œ≤ƒ†’·
· ..≠.™ them, whom, her, him,
you, us, me ...’ ∫.’·. ...
.’† English conversation natural
simple ≤ƒ.†’.π◊..‰ :. ..Ω. :.· .·¸
.Ω..’ . .. .√¸™ .√.: ..’’.... ...
...¸. :†¸:†¸ .. ..π◊ .†¸ .√.’.π ™· ..√
.·¸ ... ..’’.π◊..‰ ... simple con-
versation ... ...√ †....’¸ · lesson
™ .’†. .√. ... ∫’..: ..’’.π◊..∆.
I = †’
me = ††’¸ √.π◊
we = .’..
us = .’..¸.†’ ..π◊/ .’† .†’ .’†.π◊
you = †’.¸ / :’.Ω’
you = ·†’¸ :’..¸.†’ / ·.π◊ :’.π◊
he = ...’
him = ...· ....
she = ..’
her = ..’†’ ..’.π◊ ..’ ...π¸·
it = .:
it = .∆·· .∆·.
they = .ð٠.:
them = .√∞†’ .√.·/ .√∞.π◊ .√..
who = ...Ω’
whom = .. .·/ .. ..
· ..√.†’ .’† ’™ ..’.π◊· .... .:¸†
Surekha, Srilekha dialogue :∫.Ω .’.≤ƒ.
.. ...
Practice the following aloud in English.
Suchithra: . brother √.π◊ . ≤ƒ.’.
.≤ƒ.’ ††’¸ .√™ .≠ ...√.’
(like .√...·
Supriya: †’.¸ .π.≈ .... ≤ƒ.’..’.’. 
..√· ...· †’.¸ .≠ ...√.√·
Suchithra: :’.π ¸•..˝ .√¸.’.π.∆ ...· .≠
...√·
.....‰ ·.≠ . .... .π.∆ ..‚.’·
Supriya: Brother, sister ..π  .  .π .Ω ’ .≠ . 
...™ :... ™‰.’
Suchithra: .. . ¸•..˝.π◊ ..’.:’. ¸..
™‰.’ .. ††’¸ worry .≤.:
neglect .√...·
Supriya: . ¸•..˝ √.π◊ ..’... trouble
..¸.’ . ..’¸.π √†¸.π◊ ≤ƒ.’..’
.’. ..’ .√∞†’ .√™ .¸∫.
 .’.π◊. ..’ ..π◊ .: ..√.√¸
·’.≤ƒ.’ ..˙,. .’.’¸t¸ .
†:¸ ≤ƒ.’
Suchithra: . brother .π.≈ ..π◊ .
≤ƒ.’...√.’ ·†¸ . ..’¸.π◊
.¸.Ω. ...‰ ..’†’ doctor .∫.Ω.π◊
·’·.∞¸.’ . √†¸.π◊ . ¸•..˝
...‰ .√™ .≠ . .√.·.: ..√.√¸
.≤ƒ.Ω ’ . ..  .√ .· .¸..
...’. ..Ω’
Supriya: .:·. ·†¸ ...˝ .’†. assign-
ment ..√¸.Ω’ .π.∆ ...’ .‹...’.’
√¸.Ω’ .’†t¸·
Suchithra: ..¸ .·.√.Ω. .†’.π◊.. ....
.’† ... .. .π.∆·
Supriya: ...Ω’ ..ƒ¸.Ω’ .™ .·· .. .Ω¸..
†’.¸·
Answers:
Suchithra: My brother helps me a lot √.π◊·
He likes me very much
Supriya: Do you help him too? Do you like
him too?
.... ...· Do you also help him?
.π√¸ Do you help him too- ..π◊¸. .√..√.Ω’
Spoken English™·
Suchithra: You have a brother too.
....π◊....’ ..œ¸ †.’ also .π√¸ too better.)
Don't you (=Do you not) like him? ...¸·
Supriya: Nothing surprising a brother and a
sister liking each other.
Suchithra: But my brother neglects stud-
ies. That worries me. ††’¸·
Supriya: My brother doesn't (does not) give
me that kind of trouble/ such trou-
ble. (such=that kind=.™..·
He helps my parents too a lot. He
takes good care of them.
(Them=.√∞†’·
He gets us what we want ..π◊·
He makes us laugh with his jokes
.’.’¸t¸·
Suchithra: My brother helps us too. My
mother had a fever yesterday
and he took her to doctor.
(English™ fever, countable,
.•. 'a fever', her=..’†’·
My father likes my brother very
much. He gives him .√..·
whatever he wants. only, he asks
him to study well (him=.√.··
Supriya: By the by, our teacher gave us an
assignment yesterday.
....π◊....’ ..’’.π◊√¸. .π.∆– conver-
sation ™ topic .·.¸. 
.¸.’ 'by the by'- ..’∫’™
.:·.— ...’... us =
.’†.π◊· When did he ask
us .’†t¸· to complete
it.?
Suchithra: The coming
Saturday, I
think. But
isn't it (= is it not) a holiday for
us? (us = .’†.π◊·
Supriya: Who told you so?/ Who told you
that? Whom did you ask?

a) †’.¸ ·†¸ .. .· .π.’’.π◊√¸.· Whom
did you meet yesterday? . .√t ...’
.π..‰ ...¸ whom. .... .√†’.√†’ spo-
ken English ™ whom •.’.’ who .√.’
√¸.Ω’ .: .√... .π·..˙ spoken English.
Who did you meet yesterday?
.: .ƒ...¸.– formal written English
.√.™ ... ..¸ ..’·
Who did you meet yesterday?
.: spoken form, conversational.
b) †’.¸ ·†¸ .. .. ...’.’√¸.˛·
(Spoken) Who (Whom ..’·
Were you talking to yesterday?
.Ω.†™ .√™ formal .... To whom
were you talking yesterday? .· .√.’..·
..π¸. ∫.’·. .√t,† :≠.’. Preposition
'to'- sentence .π◊ .....Ω .√... .’†. sen-
tence †’ 'to' . begin . whom .√.≈t
(to whom were you talking?)
.... .: writing™ .: formal writ-
ing™ .™ .√≤ƒ.
Spoken form ™ .¸.. 'to' - sentence
:..Ω .’.: sentence †’ 'whom'. •.’.’
who . ¸.ƒ.Ω.:≤ƒ. 'who' . (whom .√.≈ t,†
..™· questions ¸.ƒ.Ω . :. . ..’ spoken
English ™ .π·..˙
...¸ ..≈ .†’.π◊. .’√¸.Ω’·
Who (whom ..’· do you want to see?
.. .. ...√.’ .√’√¸.·
Who are you writing (letters) to ?
c) .. .· ∫’..: ...’.’√¸.·
Who are you talking about? (whom ..’·
d) .. .. .√.’ ....:·
Who did he quarrel with?
e) .. .· ... ·†¸·
Who (Whom ..’· did you see yesterday.
f) ..’ ...¸ .. .’.π◊.. √.π◊ .:.’
I do not know who she married
.™.. sentences ™ .π.≈ whom .√...
™‰.’ Who .√... .√™ common, spoken
English™·
..¸.’ · ..≠. ....
Hari: (over phone) Hello, who is it please?
...Ω··
Hemanth: It's (it is) me, Hemanth
..’. .˝†’·
Hari: That's nice, hearing your voice... after
a long time.
.√™ ..≠. .√™ ... ..√¸. ·
..’ :†..·
Hemanth: Was that your brother who
appeared in the TV serial yester-
day?
·†¸ TV serial ™ .π·.œ. :.: :’
brother .π.∆··
Hari: Yes, it's (= it is) him ..†’ .√.· and
the little girl he was walking with... do
you know who she is? .√.. †.’’†¸
:†¸.ƒ. ... ·.π◊ ..’≤ƒ··
Hemanth: Wasn't it (was it not) your
youngest sister?
Hari: Yes, it's her.
. ..≠.™ ∫.’·.... It's me, it's him,
It's her. ..‚.’ .... It is I, It is he, It is
she .√ .· .†’ .π ◊... .· spoken
English™ It's me, It's her, It's him .† ..’
.π·..˙
M. SURESAN
 .’.∫∞.√.Ω. s:  .∫.’ z::s I
 Ççí∫x¶µ« ≠æù 40
Ççí∫x¶µ« ≠æù
  Å®√n ©’   ûÁ LÊ Æh ...
 v°æ¨¡o: 1. Shop closed  · .√.π¸. Negative.
2. Shop n't closed . . .. †.∆·
3. Not shop closed ...‰ ..Ω.·
4 School going children. :·· Negative . :.∆ †.™ ..t·
5. World's largest selling Newspaper. :·· Negative  .™ ..™
..’.∫..Ω’
– .œ ..’ ...√..˛
 ï ¢√ •’: 1, 2, 3 Shop closed - :·. shop not closed. Shopn't closed - n't
form ..’... .. .√.. an, is, are... .√.. .¸..’ .√.’.√. Not
shop closed ·.† English ..’ ..π¸. shop not closed . •.’.’
'shop open' ...‰ better .π.∆ 4. Non school going children .:
school going children.π◊ negative. 5. The world's largest selling
News paper .π◊ negative - not the world's largest selling newspaper
.† ..’¸
÷..
Sasank: Where is your brother, Radha?
.. : _... ..,.··
Radha: He coming slowly. I seen him a few
minutes ago.
..Ÿ ·. . .¸. .•. ·: 
.. .... ..Ÿ.…· .Ÿ.‹·
Sasank: Look here, Radha. Your words, 'He
coming slowly', and 'I seen him a
few minutes ago' are not sentences
because there are no verbs in them,
they don't have complete meaning.
· ... 'he coming slowly', 'I
seen him a few minutes ago'
..¸. .. ... verbs ..
... ... .·. ... ..·
Radha: But 'coming' and 'seen' are verbs.
Why to doubt that?
(coming, seen verbs ..· . 
.. .·.··
Sasank: 'coming' is only an 'ing' form, and
'seen' is just a past participle. In our
last article, we have seen the six
forms of verbs.
a) 'be' form + ing form is a verb
b) 'be' form/ have/ has/ will have/
shall have etc + past participle is
a verb.
(coming .. ·.... 'ing' form, +
seen . . past participle- ing
form.... 'be' form ... verb..
.Ÿ.. + past participle .... 'be'
form .· have/ has/ had/ shall have
...: ... verb ...Ÿ.. ..·¸
.. .... .¸.. .Ÿ.‹.·
Radha: So, you say a sentence in English
must have a verb- one of the six
forms we saw in last article.
... English sentence correct
... ... œ.Ÿ .¸.. :. .. :.
verb ..... ... ...t·
Sasank: That's right
..·
...... correct verbs œ.. .Ÿ..…
verb correct .... brackets . (c) ..Ÿ..…
.Ÿ.¸... (w) š....… verb form correct ..
.. correct verb form..Ÿ..… verb correct
.... .. . form verb ...Ÿ.. ..Ÿ..…
eg:
1) He was do it (W)
He was doing it (C)
He did it.
2) She looking at it (W)
She is/was/any be form looking at it. (C)
3) They have seen me (C)
(have + past participle)
Exercise:
1. They know me.
2. She seen him.
3. They are take coffee.
4. She will help him.
5. The snake been killed.
6. The book stolen.
7. The class going on.
8. We known him.
9. They saw him yesterday.
10. The snake has been killed.
Answers:
1. (C) I Regular Doing Word.
2. (W) Correct form: She has/ will have/
would have + seen him
3. (W) Correct form: They are taking cof-
fee.
4. (C)
5. (W) Correct form: The snake has
been/had been/will have been (any
such 'be' form) + killed.
6. (W) Correct form: The book is/ was/
has/ been (any be form) + stolen
7. (W) Correct form: The class is/ was/ will
be going on.
8. (W) Correct form: We have/ had/ will
have etc. + known him
9. (C) - Past Doing Word
10. (C) - has been + killed (PP) - Passive
voice
verbs .·. . form .‡  .¸. . sen-
tences .·. . .... .. ...Ÿ... ..
.¸.¸...·
a) subject - sentence .·· œ..: .. ...
..
b) Verb - sentence . subject .Ÿ.¸.Ÿ .
. ./ . .. .. .. sentence ....
../.: verb.
c) English verb six forms . .. .. form
. ...t
d) English . statement . .. ..
:..Ÿ. .›.¸ sentence) question .
order of words . .. .. .....
i) Statement structure: subject + verb
ii) Question structure:
1) verb + subject
2) 1st word of the verb + subject +
other words of the verb. (verb.
·... ... .. ...·
Questions ·... ...
1) 'Wh' questions- what, when, etc.,.
_... ...¸:
2) Non 'wh' questions- what, when etc
. ·: . . .   . subject ....
verb.· verb ... . .. .· ...…
.Ÿ.¸.Ÿ subject, . .Ÿ.¸.Ÿ verb :œ.
... ...
e) verbs . ... .·¸ .›.¸ verbs 'be'
forms ....
I) am, is, are - _..Ÿ. ... .·¸ .·
_... .Ÿ .¸... ... .·¸ .· .....
am- I . he, she, it- is . you, we,
they- are . ...
II) was, were œ.Ÿ.. ... .·¸ .....
III) shall be, will be .: .¸ .Ÿ. ....·¸
.....
IV) have been (I, We, You, They.· has
been (he, she, it.· œ.Ÿ.. ..¸.
.. ..¸....· ...· ...
.·¸ .....
š..·¸ ... .·¸ .›.¸ 'be' forms.
f) subject .› . . .t.Ÿ .› ..· action
words .... :.. 1st Regular Doing
Words (come, go, take, sit ... verbs - I,
we, you, they . ....· 2nd Regular
Doing Words (comes, goes, takes, sits
... verbs - :.· He,
She, It . .. ..·
_... .Ÿ.¸... ..·
Regular Actions . ..
. .
i) 1st Regular Doing
Word Question .
· not .· ..….
do ...
ii) 2nd Regular Doing
Word Question .· not .·
..…. does ...
g) Past Doing Words (came, went, took, sat
... verbs) œ.Ÿ.. .. .. .. .: .t›
.. ... . .. ....
Past Doing Word not .· Question
.· ..…. did ...
h) am + ing/ is + ing/ are + ing form (be form
+ ing form) verbs ..¸. .. œ .Ÿ¸ . ..
....
.... ..¸. .. œ .Ÿ¸ . . ..¸ 
.··. .•·¸ ... verbs am + ing/ is +
ing/ are + ing form . ... .:–
I) verbs expressing feelings and emotions.
... . . ... .. : :. .Ÿ 
. .t›. verbs - like, love etc.)
II) verbs expressing actions of the mind.
. .. . ..  .Ÿ   .. ...  . .  :
verbs - know, understand etc.)
III) certain other verbs like appear, belong
etc.
IV) verbs of sense perception.
.›.¸._..Ÿ. . .. ... ..: am/
is/ are ing .... am/ is/ are looking,
listening .. ..Ÿ¸·
V) have . :../ .œ.. ... .... am
having/ is having/ are having ....Ÿ¸
:œ. .. .. am/ is/ are having ...
Bath . am/ is/ are having ....
i) English verbs six forms . ..... .
six forms . .· ..· verbs ..
š. ..‡¸. .... .•·¸ vocabulary items
.. .. .¸. .. .. . .: .Ÿ..
.. .... . .... . .Ÿ .¸.. ..
.... ..¸ ..¸ .. ..Ÿ. .. .. . 
. . t... English ... ..  .¸.
:·... .•·¸ principles of pronunciation
(English ..¸ .. _..· .. .. .¸.
M. SURESAN
.Œ.... s: .. z::s
I
---œe·.= ---œe·.= ---œe·.= ---œe·.= ---œe·.= ---œe·.=
25
There are no verbs in your sentences
¸.«Œ¸ 1) The match is to start.
2) The match is going to start.
3) The match is about to start.
:. ..¸ .. .:.· :.· .. 
œ. .. ..¸t
– .•.¸. .. . .-. ...œ.
e.·e·
1) The match is to start- :· ...
match _.. .. ...t/ ..  .Ÿ..
.›¸.. .· ...Ÿ . .. .. .. .·
2) The match is about to start- .•.
,.. match _... . . .... .·
3) The match is going to start- match
_..... ...
·.....¸. about to start . .¸.. ..
.Ÿ.,.
.....¸.. _..... ..... ·...
..¸.. ... ..¸.. ... _... 
...¸ .¸.. .Ÿ.,.
¸.«Œ¸ One word substitutions ...
.:.· :.· .. .. . .
.t.Ÿ . .Ÿ œ .. might · .·¸
.. .¸. .. . .·
– .… ..... ·..… ...
e.·e· .•·¸ ... ..¸ ..¸ ..·¸
.t.Ÿ.› .. .. one word substi-
tute (one word substitution .. ·
....
eg: one who does not believe that god
exists. .. . ¸ .· .¸· .. – ‡ 
..· · ... ...Ÿ. ..·¸ .t›. .·.
.. – atheist .. . ..· ...
..,. 'atheist' .. one word substi-
tute.
a) _..Ÿ.. ._.Ÿ. ... .: .¸ ..
.· .. .„·¸ .¸... .. .. 'might'
....
eg: Hari might help you.
.. ·. .„.Ÿ. ..Ÿ ..Ÿ¸/ .
..– ....·
They might leave tomorrow.
..Œ‰ ·.. ..‹·../ ..Œ ..Ÿ¸ –
....·
Past . .. .„·¸ .¸.. . .Ÿ . ·. 'might'
.... · ... ..· ..¸..…–
a) I think he may help me.
.. . .„.Ÿ. . . . ·/
..Ÿ¸ . .Ÿ¸·   .. .¸·
b) I thought he might help me.
.. . .„ .Ÿ.  .  . . ·/
..Ÿ¸ . .Ÿ¸· . .¸ past).
»-- »-+· »-.·e·.

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