NIRWANA ACADEMY GROUP OF COLLEGES

FOUNDATION IN SCIENCE
CHEMISTRY A

CHAPTER 6 INTRODUCTION TO CHEMICAL SOCIETY

LEARNING OUTCOMES
 At the end of the lessons, student would

be able to
 understand the basic principle of spectroscopy  identify the emission spectrum a particular elements  write a correct electronic configuration of an element

CHAPTER 6: Introduction to Chemistry in Society

CHM 1001

CHEMSTRY A

INDUSTRIAL CHEMISTRY
 Industry

uses chemical reactions to produce chemicals for society  to replace naturally occurring chemicals that are no longer available or are not economically viable  Some common production: Haber, Ostwald and Contact process

CHAPTER 6: Introduction to Chemistry in Society

CHM 1001

CHEMSTRY A

over an iron substrate to produce ammonia  it is important because ammonia is difficult to produce in industrial scale  Ammonia was first manufactured using this process in Germany during WW I to meet high demand for ammonium nitrate which needed for explosives CHAPTER 6: Introduction to Chemistry in Society CHM 1001 CHEMSTRY A .HABER PROCESS  is the nitrogen fixation reaction of nitrogen and hydrogen.

HABER PROCESS  Firstly. about 45% of methane (CH4) is used to react with steam. the rest of the methane is reacted with air CH4(g) + H2O(g) 2CH4(g) + O2(g) + 4N2(g) CO(g) + 3H2(g) 2CO(g) + 4H2(g) + 4N2(g)  the CO in the mixture is oxidised to CO2 using steam and an iron oxide catalyst CO(g) + H2O(g) H2(g) + CO2(g)  CO2 is removed so that only N2 and H2 remain and are used in the production of ammonia CHM 1001 CHEMSTRY A CHAPTER 6: Introduction to Chemistry in Society .

HABER PROCESS  In ammonia production.4 kJ mol-1 CHAPTER 6: Introduction to Chemistry in Society CHM 1001 CHEMSTRY A .4kJ/mol of energy at 298K (25oC) N2(g) + 3H2(g) → 2NH3(g) ΔH = -92. the pure and dry H2 and N2 are mixed together in a ratio of 3:1 by volume and compressed to a pressure around 200-500 atm  The reaction is exothermic. releasing 92.

where it will produce more heat ⇨ However. Fritz Haber established the conditions for the reaction of N2 and H2 ⇨ ↓ T causes the equilibrium shift to right resulting higher yield ⇨ it means the system will adjust to minimize the effect of the change.HABER PROCESS  In 1909. the rate of reaction extremely slow. so a ↑ T must be used to speed up the reaction which results in a lower yield of ammonia  medium temperature (~400-500oC) CHAPTER 6: Introduction to Chemistry in Society CHM 1001 CHEMSTRY A .

that is. ⇨ ↑ pressure causes the equilibrium shift to right resulting in a higher yield ⇨ this would brings the molecules more closer and increases the chance of hitting and sticking to the surface of the catalyst ⇨ also means the system will adjusts to reduce the effect of the change. to respond by favoring the reaction which produces fewer gas molecules CHAPTER 6: Introduction to Chemistry in Society CHM 1001 CHEMSTRY A .HABER PROCESS  very high ~351kPa) pressure (~250 atmospheres.

HABER PROCESS  a catalyst (a porous iron catalyst prepared by reducing magnetite. Fe3O4) ⇨ used to speed up the reaction by lowering the activation energy so that the N2 bonds and H2 bonds can be more readily broken ⇨ Has no effect on the position of the equilibrium and do not produce any greater percentage of ammonia ⇨ Osmium is a much better catalyst for the reaction but is very expensive CHAPTER 6: Introduction to Chemistry in Society CHM 1001 CHEMSTRY A .

HABER PROCESS  Under these conditions. NH3 yields approximately 10-20%  During production. the reaction never reaches equilibrium as the gas mixture in the reactor is cooled to liquefy and remove the NH3  The remaining mixture of unreacted N2 and H2 are pumped back and recycled through the reactor  The heat released by the reaction is removed and used to heat the incoming gas mixture CHAPTER 6: Introduction to Chemistry in Society CHM 1001 CHEMSTRY A .

HABER PROCESS CHAPTER 6: Introduction to Chemistry in Society CHM 1001 CHEMSTRY A .

HABER PROCESS CHAPTER 6: Introduction to Chemistry in Society CHM 1001 CHEMSTRY A .

USES OF AMMONIA  Is mainly used in the manufacture of nitric acid  Also used to fertilizers such as  Ammonium sulphate  Ammonium nitrate produce nitrogenous ⇨ Neutralization of ammonia with sulphuric acid ⇨ Neutralization of ammonia with nitric acid  Urea ⇨ Ammonia reacts with CO2 at 200oC and 200 atm CHAPTER 6: Introduction to Chemistry in Society CHM 1001 CHEMSTRY A .

ammonia was used in neutralizing the acid constituents of crude oil and for protection of equipment from corrosion  Also used in the mining industry for extraction of metals from their ores  widely used refrigerant in industrial refrigeration systems CHAPTER 6: Introduction to Chemistry in Society CHM 1001 CHEMSTRY A .USES OF AMMONIA  In petroleum industry.

USES OF AMMONIA  used in several areas of water and wastewater treatment  Weak ammonia solutions are also widely used as commercial and household cleaners and detergents  it reacts with HCl to produce ammonium chloride which use as electrolyte in dry cell CHAPTER 6: Introduction to Chemistry in Society CHM 1001 CHEMSTRY A .

OSTWALD PROCESS  Once ammonia has been produced by the Haber process. ammonia and oxygen gas catalytically react to form nitrogen monoxide 4NH3(g) + 5O2(g) → 4NO(g) + 6H2O(g) ΔH= -906 kJ mol-1 CHAPTER 6: Introduction to Chemistry in Society CHM 1001 CHEMSTRY A . it can be converted into nitric acid through a multi-step procedure known as the Ostwald process  In the first step in this reaction.

even a hot copper wire can catalyze the reaction in the laboratory  Once the reaction has started. However.OSTWALD PROCESS  In production. the energy produces is enough to keep the catalyst hot enough to sustain the reaction CHAPTER 6: Introduction to Chemistry in Society CHM 1001 CHEMSTRY A . a platinum-rhodium metal gauze is used as catalyst and heated to about 900oC.

in the presence of air  The nitric acid is separated by distillation. and the NO can be recycled 3NO2(g) + H2O(l) → 2HNO3(aq) + NO(g) CHAPTER 6: Introduction to Chemistry in Society CHM 1001 CHEMSTRY A . the NO reacts with oxygen to produce NO2  No catalyst is required as it occurs in air at RT 2NO(g) + O2(g) → 2NO2(g)  NO2 is then converted to HNO3 by absorbing NO2 in water.OSTWALD PROCESS  Next.

calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN).OSTWALD PROCESS  HNO3 can then be used in the manufacture of countless numbers of different nitrogen containing compounds  Ammonia and nitric acid produced are used for the production of many ammonium salts and nitrates. one of the most important forms of nitrogen fertilizers CHAPTER 6: Introduction to Chemistry in Society CHM 1001 CHEMSTRY A . which act as fertilizers. e.g..

OSTWALD PROCESS CHAPTER 6: Introduction to Chemistry in Society CHM 1001 CHEMSTRY A .

USES OF NITRIC ACID  principle use is the production of fertilizers. flares.  Fertilizers such as calcium nitrate. silver nitrate. and rocket propellants  In making explosives. other explosives include nitro glycerine. ammonium nitrate CHAPTER 6: Introduction to Chemistry in Society CHM 1001 CHEMSTRY A . explosives. ammonal (a mixture of ammonium nitrate and aluminium powder) etc. gun cotton. ammonium nitrate etc  Nitrate salts such as calcium nitrate. HNO3 react with toluene in the presence of sulphuric acid to form trinitrotoluene (TNT).

from coal tar products  a powerful oxidizing agents when mix with HCl acid which dissolves many metals except gold or platinum  purification of silver. platinum etc CHAPTER 6: Introduction to Chemistry in Society CHM 1001 CHEMSTRY A . gold. drugs etc.USES OF NITRIC ACID  Dyes. perfumes.

USES OF NITRIC ACID CHAPTER 6: Introduction to Chemistry in Society CHM 1001 CHEMSTRY A .

CONTACT PROCESS  the current method of producing sulphuric acid in the ↑ [ ]. a far more economical process than the previous lead chamber process  can be divided into three stages  Preparation and purification of SO2  Catalytic oxidation of sulfur dioxide to SO3  Conversion of SO3 to sulphuric acid CHAPTER 6: Introduction to Chemistry in Society CHM 1001 CHEMSTRY A .

CONTACT PROCESS  The first step involving the combustion of sulfur (or metal sulfide ore e. PbS) to form sulphur dioxide S(s) + O2(g) → SO2(g) 2PbS(s) + 3O2(g) → PbO(s) + 2SO2(g)  an excess of air is used so that the SO2 produced is already mixed with oxygen for the next stage  Purification is necessary to avoid catalyst poisoning then cleaned by electrostatic precipitation to remove any particulate matter CHAPTER 6: Introduction to Chemistry in Society CHM 1001 CHEMSTRY A .g.

at 450°C and 10 atm to ensure a 98-99. the mixture is heated by exhaust gases from the catalytic converter by heat exchangers 2SO2(g) + O2(g) 2SO3(g) ∆H = -197. SO2 is passed over vanadium pentoxide or platinum catalyst.78 kJ  To increase rate of reaction.5% conversion to sulfur trioxide  platinum would be a more suitable catalyst. but it is very costly and easily poisoned CHAPTER 6: Introduction to Chemistry in Society CHM 1001 CHEMSTRY A .CONTACT PROCESS  In second step.

SO3 is dissolved in water forming sulphuric acid  This process takes place in absorption towers  However the reaction is slow and the hot gaseous SO3 cannot directly added to water as the reaction is very exothermic CHAPTER 6: Introduction to Chemistry in Society CHM 1001 CHEMSTRY A .CONTACT PROCESS  Any unreacted gases from the above reaction are recycled back into the above reaction  In final step.

18M) rather than to pure water  Produces disulphuric acid or pyrosulphuric acid which is known as fuming sulphuric acid or oleum H2SO4(l) + SO3(g) → H2S2O7(l) CHAPTER 6: Introduction to Chemistry in Society CHM 1001 CHEMSTRY A .CONTACT PROCESS  would cause the acid to vaporize and form a dangerous mist  To avoid this problem. the SO3 is added to a flowing solution of concentrated sulphuric acid (~98%.

H2SO4 H2S2O7(l) + H2O(l) → 2H2SO4(aq)  The average percentage yield of this reaction is around 30%  To increase the percent yield of the product.CONTACT PROCESS  Water was then added in small amounts. several conditions that need to be concern CHAPTER 6: Introduction to Chemistry in Society CHM 1001 CHEMSTRY A . to react with oleum to produce concentrated sulfuric acid. with stirring.

CONTACT PROCESS  In terms of proportions. the mixture of SO2 and O2 going into the reactor is in equal proportions by volume  But according to Le Chatelier's Principle. this is a very cheap way of increasing the conversion of SO2 into SO3 CHAPTER 6: Introduction to Chemistry in Society CHM 1001 CHEMSTRY A . increasing the concentration of oxygen in the mixture causes the position of equilibrium to shift towards the right  Since the oxygen comes from the air.

but at the same time decrease the total amount of SO3 made each day  The 1:1 mixture turns out to give you the best possible overall yield of SO3  In terms of temperature. the percentage of the SO2 converted can be increase.CONTACT PROCESS  By increasing the proportion of oxygen. it need be lower since the reaction involve exothermic CHAPTER 6: Introduction to Chemistry in Society CHM 1001 CHEMSTRY A .

a ↓T is needed so that it will not force the equilibrium position to shift to the left side of the equation that favoring the production of SO2  However the rate of reaction will decrease at low temperature and the yield of SO3 is lower if increase in temperature CHAPTER 6: Introduction to Chemistry in Society CHM 1001 CHEMSTRY A .CONTACT PROCESS  in order to produce the maximum possible amount of SO3.

450°C is a compromise temperature producing a fairly high proportion of SO3 in the equilibrium mixture  In terms of pressure. the yield of SO3 is higher at high pressure  There are 3 molecules on the left-hand side of the equation.CONTACT PROCESS  The temperature of 400 . but only 2 on the right CHAPTER 6: Introduction to Chemistry in Society CHM 1001 CHEMSTRY A .

CONTACT PROCESS  increase in pressure will favor to the fewer molecules (favors to the right side of the equation) resulting in a higher yield of SO3  At the same time it will also increase the rate of reaction  The use of catalyst is also important in order to increase the rate of reaction but no effect on the equilibrium position and do not produce any greater percentage of SO3 in the equilibrium mixture CHAPTER 6: Introduction to Chemistry in Society CHM 1001 CHEMSTRY A .

CONTACT PROCESS  absence of a catalyst the reaction is so slow that virtually no reaction happens in any sensible time  It ensures that the reaction is fast enough for a dynamic equilibrium to be set up within the very short time that the gases are actually in the reactor CHAPTER 6: Introduction to Chemistry in Society CHM 1001 CHEMSTRY A .

CONTACT PROCESS CHAPTER 6: Introduction to Chemistry in Society CHM 1001 CHEMSTRY A .

CONTACT PROCESS CHAPTER 6: Introduction to Chemistry in Society CHM 1001 CHEMSTRY A .

CONTACT PROCESS CHAPTER 6: Introduction to Chemistry in Society CHM 1001 CHEMSTRY A .

USES OF SULPHURIC ACID  Three main usage of sulphuric acid in inductry  Manufacture of ammonium sulphate. (NH4)2SO4 fertilizer and phosphate fertilizer 2NH3(g) + H2SO4(aq) → (NH4)2SO4(aq) ⇨ Sulphuric acid removes ammonia from the mixture of gases produced in a coke oven ⇨ Sulphuric acid treats phosphate rock forming insoluble calcium phosphate. Ca(H2PO4)2 fertilisers CHAPTER 6: Introduction to Chemistry in Society CHM 1001 CHEMSTRY A . in. to mixtures that are soluble in water and therefore available for plants ⇨ The mixtures are crushed and used as superphosphate.

since it has a tendency to form hydrates such as H2SO4. C12H22O11(s) + 11H2SO4 -----> 12C(s) + 11H2SO4. dyes and detergents and it brings about condensation reactions in the production of polymers. H2SO4.H2O CHAPTER 6: Introduction to Chemistry in Society CHM 1001 CHEMSTRY A .H2O. For example.2H2O. etc ⇨ Can “suck” water out of carbohydrates and some other organic compounds which contain oxygen and hydrogen.USES OF SULPHURIC ACID  dehydrating agent ⇨ Sulpuric acid is used to dry the chlorine gas produced by the electrolysis of sodium chloride solution ⇨ also used as a drying agent in the manufacture of explosives. and esters ⇨ Concentrated sulphuric acid (18M) is used to dehydrate water.

This is done by treating with acid such as sulphuric acid  manufacturing of soaps/detergents. any oxide that has formed on its surface and any grease or dirt must first be removed. plastics. fibres. CHEMSTRY A . fertilisers  As electrolyte used in lead-acid batteries (accumulators) CHAPTER 6: Introduction to Chemistry in Society CHM 1001 paints/pigments.USES OF SULPHURIC ACID  Cleaning iron and steel ⇨ To galvanise or electroplate iron or steel.

which is used as an explosive but can also be used as a vasodilator (a substance that dilates blood vessels and can be used in the treatment of certain types of heart disease) CHAPTER 6: Introduction to Chemistry in Society CHM 1001 CHEMSTRY A .USES OF SULPHURIC ACID  used in the production of nitroglycerine. an inorganic ester & organic nitrate.

MEDICAL CHEMISTRY  Medicine: the art and science of healing  It encompasses a range of health care practices evolved to maintain and restore health by the prevention and treatment of illness  Can be categorized into two  Traditional medicines  Modern medicines CHAPTER 6: Introduction to Chemistry in Society CHM 1001 CHEMSTRY A .

or societal imbalances  involves theory. and eliminating physical. simple surgical procedures. whether explicable or not. system. or psychosocial therapies. preventing. mental. whether verbally or in writing  using herbal medication.TRADITIONAL MEDICINES  Traditional medicines  as the sum total of all knowledge and practices. or practical experience and observation where the knowledge of handed down from generation to generation. used in diagnosing. and symbolism CHAPTER 6: Introduction to Chemistry in Society CHM 1001 CHEMSTRY A . cosmic and meta/para-psychic interactions. rituals.

MODERN MEDICINES  Modern medicines  is a medical practice information resource for time-starved medical professionals  It offers concise article summaries from over 300 peer-reviewed journals. and is also a continuing medical education(CME) resource. customizable patient education materials. coding and formulary tools. CHAPTER 6: Introduction to Chemistry in Society CHM 1001 CHEMSTRY A .

a larger group which also includes anti-viral. anti-fungal. slows or inhibit the growth of bacteria CHAPTER 6: Introduction to Chemistry in Society CHM 1001 CHEMSTRY A .ANTIBIOTICS  Is a kind of drugs that usually kill the bacteria (bactericidal)  A class of antimicrobials. and anti-parasitic drugs  It also prevent the bacteria from multiplying (bacteriostatic) so that the host's immune system can overcome them.

the common cold).ANTIBIOTICS  Can only be used to treat bacterial infections  Not effective against viral infections (for example. fungal infections (such as ringworm) and other nonbacterial infections  each antibiotic is effective only for certain types of infections  The most common examples of antibiotic is penicillin and streptomycin CHAPTER 6: Introduction to Chemistry in Society CHM 1001 CHEMSTRY A .

syphilis. anthrax.ANTIBIOTICS  Penicillin ⇨ isolated from the Penicillium chrysogenum (formerly Penicillium notatum) mold ⇨ used to treat bacterial infections caused by susceptible organisms ⇨ Also used to cure diseases that caused by bacteria infection such as gonorrhea. pneumonia and meningitis ⇨ is safe to be used and only very few peoples sensitive to penicillin and experience certain side effect after consumption CHAPTER 6: Introduction to Chemistry in Society CHM 1001 CHEMSTRY A .

Fluoroquinolones. Tetracyclines CHM 1001 CHEMSTRY A CHAPTER 6: Introduction to Chemistry in Society . Sulfonamides. but must be administered by regular intramuscular injection  Other example: Cephalosporins. Macrolides. urinary infection. pneumonia and dysentery ⇨ cannot be given orally.ANTIBIOTICS  Streptomycin ⇨ First class of drugs called aminoglycosides to be discovered ⇨ first antibiotic remedy for dry cough. tuberculosis.

ANTIBIOTICS  Complete the entire course even if you feel better before the course complete  It is important for healing because the bacteria may be partially treated and not completely killed if stopped in midcourse  Will also cause the bacteria to be resistant to the antibiotic which will lead reinfection CHAPTER 6: Introduction to Chemistry in Society CHM 1001 CHEMSTRY A .

hives. swelling of your lips.ANTIBIOTICS  There are several side consuming antibiotics: effect when  Vomiting  Severe watery diarrhea and abdominal cramps  Allergic reaction (shortness of breath. or tongue. face. fainting)  Vaginal itching or discharge  White patches on your tongue CHAPTER 6: Introduction to Chemistry in Society CHM 1001 CHEMSTRY A .

including additional agents that are chemically based on the morphine molecule but have minimal abuse potential CHAPTER 6: Introduction to Chemistry in Society CHM 1001 CHEMSTRY A .ANALGESICS  drug or medicine that consume to reduce or eliminate or relieve pain without causing decreased consciousness  referred as painkiller medications  work by blocking pain signals to the brain. or how the brain interprets those signals  primary classes are the narcotics.

pills. sprays or gels.ANALGESICS  come in different forms. patches  classified as either narcotic or non-narcotic  Example of non-narcotic drug  Tylenol (paracetamol or acetaminophen) ⇨ a popular analgesic and antipyretic (against fever) ⇨ used for the relief of fever. and other minor aches and pains ⇨ a major ingredient in numerous cold and flu medications and many analgesics prescription ⇨ Safe to be consume in proper dose ⇨ Example: Panadol CHAPTER 6: Introduction to Chemistry in Society CHM 1001 CHEMSTRY A . injected in muscles or veins. headaches.

antipyretic (against fever). the side effect would be gastrointestinal distress (including ulcers and stomach bleeding) and tinnitus CHAPTER 6: Introduction to Chemistry in Society CHM 1001 CHEMSTRY A .ANALGESICS  Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) ⇨ family of salicylates. anti-inflammatory (Such as arthritis) ⇨ has also an anticoagulant (blood thinning) effect but will increase bleeding in menstruating women ⇨ Can be used in long-term low-doses to prevent heart attacks ⇨ If stronger doses. a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) ⇨ often used as analgesic (against minor pains and aches).

though its efficacy has been disputed ⇨ Also relieve diarrhea and mild-to-moderate pain ⇨ small amount of codeine is converted to morphine in the body ⇨ stronger than aspirin and paracetamol in high dose ⇨ Continuous consumption of codeine will cause addiction CHAPTER 6: Introduction to Chemistry in Society CHM 1001 CHEMSTRY A .ANALGESICS  Example of narcotic drug  Codeine ⇨ a weak narcotic drug ⇨ A pain-reliever and cough.

ANALGESICS  Hydrocodone ⇨ Also a pain-reliever and an antitussive (cough suppressant) ⇨ Can combined with acetaminophen to achieve pain relief  depends on the type of pain and its severity  should be used in consultation with doctor CHAPTER 6: Introduction to Chemistry in Society CHM 1001 CHEMSTRY A .

VACCINE  Vaccines stimulate our immune system to produce antibodies without us having to become infected with the actual disease  A dose of vaccine may contain:  a suspending fluid to carry the vaccine into the body  preservatives and stabilizers so the vaccine can be stored safely  an adjuvant to improve the body's immune response CHAPTER 6: Introduction to Chemistry in Society CHM 1001 CHEMSTRY A .

VACCINE  There are two types of immunity:  Active immunity ⇨ generated by the body when the immune system is triggered to produce antibodies against the disease as though the body had been infected with it. either by the immunization or the disease ⇨ also teaches the body's immune system how to produce the appropriate antibodies quickly ⇨ If the immunized person then comes into contact with the disease itself. their immune system will recognize it and immediately produce the antibodies needed to fight it CHAPTER 6: Introduction to Chemistry in Society CHM 1001 CHEMSTRY A .

Immunoglobulins produce this type of immunity ⇨ A newborn baby has passive immunity to several diseases. mumps and rubella. mumps and rubella it may last up to one year in infants CHAPTER 6: Introduction to Chemistry in Society CHM 1001 CHEMSTRY A .VACCINE  Passive immunity ⇨ generated when the body is given proteins that act as antibodies. instead of producing them itself. or antibodies themselves. such as measles. from antibodies passed from its mother via the placenta ⇨ only lasts for a few weeks or months. In the case of measles.

the pathogen  Many bacteria. for example.VACCINE  manufacture starts by generating the very organism that produces the disease. can be grown on agar gel. Viruses are mass produced by infecting cells grown in tissue culture CHAPTER 6: Introduction to Chemistry in Society CHM 1001 CHEMSTRY A .

The Hib vaccine is made in this way  killing the pathogen by heating it or by using formalin. The whooping cough vaccine is made in this way CHAPTER 6: Introduction to Chemistry in Society CHM 1001 CHEMSTRY A . or attenuating the pathogen by growing it repeatedly to select a strain which doesn't cause complications of the natural disease.VACCINE  Then the pathogen must be altered to make sure it doesn't trigger the disease itself. This can be done by:  weakening. The polio and MMR vaccines are attenuated  extracting the part of the pathogen that causes the immune response and using this in the vaccine.

particularly using biotechnology and genetic engineering CHAPTER 6: Introduction to Chemistry in Society CHM 1001 CHEMSTRY A .VACCINE  The treated pathogen can then be combined with the other components (the adjuvant. stabilizers and preservatives) to produce a dose of vaccine  Scientists are trying to find new ways of producing vaccines.

VITAMIN  required for normal function. growth. and maintenance of body tissues  a deficiency will occur with a subsequent decline in health if insufficient quantity of any vitamin  into two classes  fat-soluble  water-soluble  determine how it is absorbed transported by the bloodstream CHM 1001 and CHAPTER 6: Introduction to Chemistry in Society CHEMSTRY A .

and cell differentiation ⇨ Deficiency: night blindness and a decreased immune system. vision.VITAMIN  Fat soluble vitamin include as follows:  Vitamin A ⇨ abundant in food supply. bone growth. low risk of a deficiency ⇨ needed for regulation of the immune system. chronic diarrhea. and an excess intake of alcohol CHAPTER 6: Introduction to Chemistry in Society CHM 1001 CHEMSTRY A . reproduction. resulting in a decrease in the ability to fight infections ⇨ occur from an inadequate diet. cell division.

the time of the day. limited exposure to sunlight. adults: osteomalacia (softening of the bones due to defective bone mineralization) ⇨ Deficiency occurs from inadequate diet. season.VITAMIN  Vitamin D ⇨ supplied by our diet and sunlight ⇨ Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) rays can trigger the production of vitamin D in our body ⇨ amount of sun needed depend on skin color. and geographic location ⇨ needed for healthy bones by maintaining normal blood levels of calcium and phosphorus and for maintenance of a healthy immune system ⇨ Deficiency in children: rickets. and malabsorption CHAPTER 6: Introduction to Chemistry in Society CHM 1001 CHEMSTRY A . age.

cancer. including prevention of stroke. diabetes.VITAMIN  Vitamin E ⇨ It shown to have a wide array of health benefits. heart disease. cataracts and improved immune function ⇨ Deficiency of this may cause numerous health problems however it is rare ⇨ Impairment in ability to absorb fat would put at risk for a deficiency CHAPTER 6: Introduction to Chemistry in Society CHM 1001 CHEMSTRY A . arthritis.

VITAMIN  Vitamin K ⇨ most well-known by those who take blood-thinning medications ⇨ plays a crucial role in blood clotting and needs to be monitored when taking these medications ⇨ also needed for bone proteins ⇨ Some can be made in the intestines ⇨ However when people take antibiotics that kill the beneficial and harmful bacteria in the intestines. it puts them at risk for a vitamin K deficiency CHAPTER 6: Introduction to Chemistry in Society CHM 1001 CHEMSTRY A .

and the production of hydrochloric acid  Chronic alcohol intake and an inadequate diet can lead to a thiamin deficiency  Deficiency: Beriberi CHAPTER 6: Introduction to Chemistry in Society CHM 1001 CHEMSTRY A . carbohydrate metabolism.VITAMIN  Water soluble vitamin include as follows:  Vitamin B ⇨ There are numerous of vitamin B where each one of them facilitates energy release in every cell. the flow of electrolytes in and out of nerve and muscle cells. so a deficiency affects the entire body ⇨ deficiencies are rare when a diet is well balanced ⇨ Well known vitamin B includes:  Thiamin  Also known as vitamin B1  involved in nervous-system and muscle functioning.

and brain (anencephaly) CHAPTER 6: Introduction to Chemistry in Society CHM 1001 CHEMSTRY A . folacin or folic acid produce and maintain new cells protection of developing fetuses Deficiency: neural tube defects that result in malformations of the spine (spina bifida). skull.VITAMIN  Riboflavin  Also known as vitamin B2  plays a role in energy metabolism  similar function and sources as thiamin  Niacin  Also known as vitamin B3 or nicotinic acid  plays a role in energy metabolism as well as the responsible for the synthesis and breakdown of fatty acids  Deficiency: Pellagra  Folate     Also known as vitamin B9.

and numbness and tingling in the hands and feet CHAPTER 6: Introduction to Chemistry in Society CHM 1001 CHEMSTRY A . weight loss. loss of appetite. weakness. constipation.VITAMIN  Vitamin B12  Also needed for producing and maintaining new cells  needed to maintain the sheaths that surround and protect nerve fibers  Deficiency: pernicious anemia where symptoms include fatigue.

swelling over long bones of the body. and blood vessels. and aids in the absorption of iron ⇨ Deficiency: scurvy may include loss of appetite. shortness of breath. weakness. muscle. paleness. pseudoparalysis. poor wound healing. followed by irritability. skin bruising. dry eyes. skin thickening (hyperkeratosis). bleeding at the joints of the ribs and sternum causing discoloration under the skin of the chest. diarrhea. anemia. cartilage. depression. corkscrew hair. leg pain. and fever. or blood in the urine or stool) CHAPTER 6: Introduction to Chemistry in Society CHM 1001 CHEMSTRY A .VITAMIN  Vitamin C ⇨ needed to form collagen in bones. and bleeding (particularly gum bleeding. bleeding behind the eyes causing prominence.

as well as things that people put into their bodies. unhealthy foods." are also introduced through external sources such as exposure to the sun or pollution  Other mediums include stress. such as alcoholic beverages. and cigarette smoke CHAPTER 6: Introduction to Chemistry in Society CHM 1001 CHEMSTRY A .VITAMIN  Some vitamins can act as antioxidant  Antioxidant: a molecule capable of slowing or preventing the oxidation of other molecules  Oxidants or "free radicals.

VITAMIN
 Free radicals produced breakdown of cells

through chain reaction which will attack healthy cells, usually DNA as well as proteins and fats  weakens immunological functions as well as speeding up the aging process, and is also linked to several diseases such as cataracts, various forms of cancer, and heart disease  Some studies indicate possible links to arthritis and several other chronic conditions.
CHAPTER 6: Introduction to Chemistry in Society CHM 1001 CHEMSTRY A

VITAMIN
 Antioxidant agent helps to reduce the effect

of dangerous oxidants by binding together with these harmful molecules, decreasing their destructive power  also help repair damage already sustained by cells  Vitamin A, vitamin C and vitamin E are the most well known antioxidant; reducing agent  Vitamin A: have a beta-ionone ring which converted from beta-carotene; main source: carrot, liver, broccoli, spinach
CHAPTER 6: Introduction to Chemistry in Society CHM 1001 CHEMSTRY A

VITAMIN
 Vitamin

C: L-ascorbic acid; a highly effective antioxidant; where the ascorbate ion acts as an electron donor for important enzymes; main source: citrus fruits, rose hips  Vitamin E: a generic term for tocopherols and tocotrienols; stops the production of reactive oxygen species formed when fat undergoes oxidation; main source: asparagus; avocado, nuts, vegetable oils
CHAPTER 6: Introduction to Chemistry in Society CHM 1001 CHEMSTRY A

ANTISEPTICS  are antimicrobial substances that are applied to living tissue/skin  to reduce the possibility of infection. or putrefaction  Some are true germicides: capable of destroying microbes (bacteriocidal). others are bacteriostatic: only prevent or inhibit their growth CHAPTER 6: Introduction to Chemistry in Society CHM 1001 CHEMSTRY A . sepsis.

slowing down the microorganism from the inside out CHAPTER 6: Introduction to Chemistry in Society CHM 1001 CHEMSTRY A .ANTISEPTICS  Antibacterial that have the proven ability to act against bacteria especially if they target systems which kill only bacteria  Some common antiseptic:  Ethyl alcohol ⇨ functioning well to inhibit the growth and reproduction of many microorganisms. fungi. and viruses ⇨ 70% alcohol is a more effective antiseptic than 100% alcohol where 70% alcohol causes coagulation to occur more gradually. protozoa. including bacteria.

sodium chloride CHAPTER 6: Introduction to Chemistry in Society CHM 1001 CHEMSTRY A . hydrogen peroxide. killing all principal pathogenes  Other example: boric acid.ANTISEPTICS  Iodine ⇨ Usually used in an alcoholic solution ⇨ the widest scope of antimicrobial activity.

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