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PRACTICAL OF MANUAL APPROPRIATE ORNAMENTATION /yj^cc\\ ."J\ Church Decoration.

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PLATE XV n° 12 FLORAL DEVICES. mm .

fT7 *" r* i HURCH DECORATION. E. 1 NEW YORK. . DUTTON AND COMPANY. PRACTICAL OF . P. 1875 . 713. BROADWAY. MANUAL APPROPRIATE ORNAMENTATION EDITED BY A PRACTICAL ILLUMINATOR. WITH SIXTEEN FULL PAGE COLOURED ILLUSTRATIONS.

LONS a 1032 L « » « • • • • « • « • i • • . A .« • - 'J PUBLIC LIBf kRY 593283 ASTOR. . J. TILL - N .

effort has been made to render the little will be Work comby The Floral Decorations more fully understood : the plates. we think. by him quite original." we are indebted for some valuable hints. a contributor —as Mrs. by any verbal description will while the formation of &c. HIS of little Manual has been compiled with the practical is assistance a very experienced Illuminator. To Mrs. The practical part supplied believe. be found to be greatly simplified by the diagrams illustrating them. M ^ . than letters. English — to the " Home Book.fvt\ntt. Every plete. CD P^Bedford Steeet. Covenx Gakden. and will. Brewster. We trust this humble of aid may give a new impetus to the Art Church Decoration. which we here gratefully acknowledge. we be found very useful.

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..... 1 MONOGRAMS OF OUR SAVIOUR'S NAME SYMBOLS OF THE EVANGELISTS AND APOSTLES 9 11 FLOWERS AS EMBLEMS ON FEAST DAYS 13 14 15 16 MOVEABLE FEASTS. 17 SYMBOLISM OF PRECIOUS STONES 18 JPrattupdi |u$iijttt{ixm$* 20 WREATHS LETTERING TEXTS BORDERS 36 . SYMBOLS AND FLOWERS FLORAL EMBLEMS .oitisttis. EMBLEMS OF FRUIT AND GRAIN EMBLEMATICAL COLOURS .. PAGE SYMBOLS AND EMBLEMS .

. 62 (14 FLORAL DECORATIONS 68 72 75 HARVEST DECORATIONS SELECTED TEXTS ... PAGE 38 39 BANNERS TRELLIS AND DIAPER 43 WORK 49 DEVICES AND GEOMETRICAL FIGURES SETTING OUT LINES GILDING OIL COLOURS 50 53 54 57 WATER COLOURS DISTEMPER COLOURS 59 59 61 61 BRUSHES STENCILLING SUNDRY RECEIPTS MATERIALS . ..vm SHIELDS SCROLLS CONTENTS.

42 14. 5. ... 6. To Construct 40 42 11.Jfbi of fhin.... 8. WITH FLORAL LETTERS . 40 10. PAGE 1. SCROLLS AND TEXTS. 15.Face 68 Title.. 24 24 24 4. ILLUMINATED BORDERS ILLUMINATED BORDERS SCROLLS. ALPHABET IN OLD ENGLISH ILLUMINATED CAPITALS TEXTS. RIBBON TEXTS. WREATHS AND DEVICES S2 . ALPHABET IN OUTLINE 24 21 2. ALPHABET OF CHURCH CAPITALS. To Construct . FLORAL DEVICES FLORAL DEVICES. SCROLLS AND TEXTS 12. 9. ALPHABET OF CHURCH CAPITALS 3.. 16. 30 36 ?6 7.

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. I dwell in His Temple blest. A truly Catholic less of that Church element in will therefore exhibit its services more or and rites. the lovely offerings of flower and bud. it has been well observed by an American as Nature. long as my life may be. and save a few great boughs of holly and box stuck into the pews by the parish clerk. and when Churchwardens whitewashed and stuccoed over the delicate floral tracery of medieval architecture. And the beauty fair of the Lord of Hosts. and the glowing illuminations disappeared. The Puritan Commonwealth and the ages it of bad taste which followed led to the discontinuance of the old English custom.CCtx ion. In the home of His glory see Oh. Church Decorations were not known. in perfect harmony with and shares its poetical element." Festival decorations are part of this poetical element in the Church. HE Christian Religion. is poet. " having the same original it. may As ! Coxe.

and screens. The rule of decoration should be to work in harmony with If this rule the architectural features of lost sight of. The tracery of the windows. would be sadly out of place against a wall where long severe lines. berry. should be disposed in agreement with the principal lines and leading ornamentation of the church. Wherever archi- tectural leaf -work has been. as we have seen them in many a demand continental street. then.xii INTRODUCTION. readingdesks. the general effect will be incongruous and unsymmetrical. revival of taste in England. Decorations. nothing beyond a border of orderly cluster of berries or a tasteful arrangement of dark shining leaves. Festoons and wreaths which would please the eye when hung from window to window. mouldings may be filled with wreaths proportioned to their . it is essential that it should be fitted for the situation ultimately to be occupied. Hollow size. here may natural foliage appear with grace and propriety. No design should be . — all should be preserved in the integrity of their and helped by regular and appropriate adornment. into and blossom and pointed arches may break bloom at harvest rejoicings or Christmas thanksgivings. pulpits. the decoration of all But with the Churches was resumed. the niches style. and has now become an art in which who love the first Church naturally wish to excel. and fonts. rich in leaf. alike be enriched with due regard to suitability of character. be however good each separate design may be. displayed. With respect to the design. the bosses. either horizontal or perpendicular. the building. or might have been.

most known and used symbols with The method of drawing them for cutting out in wood or cardboard will be found further on. symbolism of sacred art We have the pleasure of offering a short summary of the illustrations. illuminating texts. in carving stone Let the tracery preserve its lace-like . Let the panels break out into patterns of such design as you would have instructed a sculptor to execute or wood. and not a hindrance to the beauty of the church. the symbol of its for in the first in order and dignity the Cross our redemption. Symbols and emblems of various kinds. in the and fineness of your wreaths let your corbels be let and your capitals. each feature be not only preserved but improved. varieties and with a description of first many forms and the part is commenced. character. and as they have to be formed of flowers or represented by illuminations in the is church. some knowledge of the imperative. and drawing letters for alphabets. as well as practical directions for making floral decorations. and your decoration will be a help. . elaborated very minutely xiii when destined to be fixed many yards from the eye. monograms. &c. take a foremost place in sacred art. delicacy corbels. Of the Symbols centuries is and Emblems which have been used Christian Church. More particular instructions will be given as to the special decorations required at the different festivals. capitals —in a word.— INTRODUCTION.

Some few also inserted from the "Art of Illuminating" are by permission. and arranged for easy reference. is This portion of the work given as a condensed summary.XIV INTRODUCTION. repetition has been avoided as possible much as by connecting the various headings by numbered . paragraphs and in this part the Editor has availed herself ex- of the assistance of tracts a practical Illuminator. . In the second part.

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used by the Western Church. Hope. When raised on three steps. A THE PASSION CROSS. . because that virtue is the foundation of all others Hope rests on Charity Faith supports the Cross itself. Like the light of Jksu's face. and should be appropriately used. consists : The Latin of . and the Greet Cross. So divine For love of what thou art.— — ! ! mtfc JtmMsm** THE ! CROSS. being the especial symbol of Christianity. which rests on the earth. conies first in the order of those used in decoration. Crosses are of two principal types. illustrated are those most in use for Church De- THE LATIN CROSS. The emblems corations. and familiar to us as the form of that on which our Lord suffered. Cross four limbs the lowest called the foot ought to be longer than the two arms joined together. used chiefly by the Eastern The Church. and is appropriate to Easter. it is called 1 a Calvary Cross. but different Crosses belong to the several seasons. My best and chosen part I hail thee in my heart Blessed sign Cross. the summit should be the length of one arm the arms must be of equal length to each other. . These types are the Latin Cross. the Passion Cross. Charity is represented by the largest step. This Cross is called B . All the limbs must be of exactly the same thickness or breadth. ! Cross of Christ star of Grace O'er the high and holy place. The 3 steps typify Faith. from which a great variety proceed. and Charity.

Andrew. and at the accession of James I. and may also be used at Christmas. I consists Andrew's cross. s. George on the national flag. S. make Saltire. besought his executioners to his Cross of another shape. it was added to the Cross of S. this Cross is called a Eastern Bishop). CROSS. and (in Heraldry) a Cross Potent or Crutched Potent being the Old English word for a Crutch. On account of its being an anticipatory Cross. Andrew's Day. It is the national Cross of Scotland. the patron Saint of the metropolis. It is the symbol of eternal life. THE TATJ CROSS. It therefore forms the Greek Letter T (Tan). OR CROSS POTENT. The Cross of martyrdom and emblem of — arms. It may "Jacques" or be used on S. It is a Greek Cross. foot. THE CROSS OF JERUSALEM. meeting in the centre. It should be used in Lent. It is the Cross of S. . This Cross is also called an Egyptian Cross . It also belongs to the arms of the City of London. from which it is named. whose patron Saint is S. . foot to forming a square. and is borne on the national Elag in Gules (red) on a white ground. is formed of four Tau — Crosses joined by the foot of each.— S. the patron Saint of England (he is supposed to have been an . save Easter. In Heraldry.2 SYMBOLS AND EMBLEMS. it may be THE CROSS-CROSSLET. and deeming himself unworthy of dying on a Cross of the same form as that on which his Master had suffered. Anthony's Cross. and capable of being inclosed in a circle. thus forming the original Union Jack— so It is suitable for any season. George. where it bears on it the " Sword" of S.. Paul. used at Advent and Christmas. Testament on which Moses is represented as lifting up the brazen serpent in the wilderness. The Greek Cross of four of equal and thickness. length all humility. THE GREEK • . The Cross-Crosslet is formed of four Latin Crosses. It is the Cross in the Old James. and perished on the one now known by his name. -j The Tan Cross named from is a Latin Cross without the summit. The Cross of Jerusalem. condemned to be crucified. or Cross Potent. Andrew.

Patrick having explained the doctrine of the Trinity to the Irish by the Trefoil or Shamrock. peculiarly beautiful form. It is coins. Andrew on the Union Jack. it is called a Pattee Concave. as Patrick's also be the Cross Treffl. The Maltese Cross is the Cross worn by Knights the Hospitallers or and was much used as such by the early Christians. also on banner and found on his shield. . and the White Saltire of S." After gaining the battle. is This Cross be the said to earliest THE CROSS PATTEE. John's Cross Botonny is of the same shape. OR IRISH CROSS. " In hoc signo vinces. Knights of S. S. and in fl judging from our ancient wayside Crosses this is It is of a probably the case._ inwardly curved. A The should be used on Day. \*\ If the lines are / \. CROSS TREFFLEE. Patrick's cross.ee or Trefoil. professed adopted this Cross as his device is mentation. . Sis W/~7 Patrick's Cross a to the Eed Cross of S. ^i Eed Saltire or Andrew's Cross. CROSS OF IONA. John of Jerusalem. surrounded by the motto. s. the Emperor and Christianity. It is adapted to Corpus Christi. Cross. if outwardly 7 " Pattee Convex. The Cross of Constantine formed of the first two letters of the Greek word Christos or Christ—the X (Chi) and P It resembles (Eho) united. form that symbol known Great of much Britain and Ireland. may It should be used Festival. and well adapted for floral orna- THE CROSS OF CONSTANTINE. George. a Monogram rather than a THE MALTESE CROSS. is a form of the Greek Cross it Greek Cross with the ends of the corners triple leaved. SYMBOLS AND EMBLEMS. The Cross Pattee resembles the Cross of S. and Ascension Day.. thus completing our national flag. This Cross was the sign which the Emperor Constantine saw gleaming in the sky on the eve preceding his great victory over It was Maxentius. S. on S. In 1801 it was united S. John. Its eight points repreIt sent the eight beatitudes.

4- Ill III 111 & & 1. 2. 8. The Cross Potent rebated off is a Cross Potent. The Pope's Cross Pommee. The Archbishop's. Cross Fleurie or Flory. with an arm cut each small cross. 4=> Cross. 4. . 2. When a Cross mentioned. 3.SYMBOLS AND EMBLEMS. understood to he plain. 6. Cross Fitche. 7. Voided Cross. 5. Cross Moline. 6. To is these we may add it is the Heraldic Crosses. 8. so The Cross Moline was named from its fancied resem- blance to the arms of a windmill. Cross Potent Rebated.

it symbolises eternal life.in . It is the symbol. 5 THE TREFOIL. eternal and coequal.one the Trinity. when Our Lord entered into His glory. also and water. The Crown Radiated is a With a cross. The Triangle is emblem of the Holy Trinity. of the Three Divine Persons is indicated by the equal sides of the triangle. the Creator of the elements. angles being interlaced.— SYMBOLS AND EMBLEMS. of peace and conquest. good emblem for Ascension Day. By the old al- chemists they were thought to represent or symbolise fire the three circles. and of also Christ Himself. . The Circle the ancient emblem of Eternity. Enclosing a triangle it means symbol of victory and sovereignty. — sometimes only a wreath of Palm. In Christian Art the Crown is usually of the Eastern form. THE EASTERN CROWN. Their perfect unity by the tri- The equality a form symbol of the Holy Trinity. the . THE DOUBLE OR INTERSECTING TRIANGLE. Patrick. as a symbol of the unity of the Him who Godhead. being without beginning or end. when united to a palm. This emblem is specially fit for Holy Trinity Sunday. Three Circles intertwined. The Trefoil is an emblem of the Holy Trinity it was used to teach that doctrine by also S. THE TRIANGLE. or of Passion Flowers. The Crown is the is THE CIRCLE. The Crown is Three . It is sionally occa- placed The Double Intersecting Triangles symor bolise is under a triangle.

and inscribed. Paul. symbolises the Creator. ff Y It is a Star with Mne Points alludes to fruits the of the A Holy Spirit. to Easter. THE SIX-POINTED STAR OR DOUBLE TRIANGLE. See Rev. that taketh away The the sins of the world. THE LAMB. goodness. longsuffering. priate. — thought a charm against witchcraft."' suited Whit Sunday . Is the it is THE SWORD emblem of S. signify Fire and Water. rays are marks of Divinity and belong only to Our Lord. Lamb was the heraldic device of the Knights Templars. Ecce Agnus Dei (Behold the Lamb of God !). The Lamb is the chief emblem of Our Blessed Lord. Cross. each ray is crossed. John THE PENTALPHA OR FIVEPOINTED STAR. . The Agnus Dei often occupies the centre of a six. v. If one concealed by the head. Arrows also are symbolical of martyrdom. temperance. and some traces of it linger still amongst our rural population." and is an emblem of It is approthe Besurrection. Cross. faith. It is called the Pentalpha because it contains five Alphas. THE RESURRECTION BANNER Is a narrow flag borne on a THE NINE-POINTED STAR. symbol of martyrdom. from his using those words to the Disciples after the Baptism of Jesus. also a meekness. The Lamb bearing a banner signifies "Victory. and to gentleness. The superstition was widely spread over the east and west. The Pentalpha Or FlVE-PoiNTEDSTARwas anciently "the Baptist Lamb of God.6 SYMBOLS AND EMBLEMS. or Double THE STANDARD Is a small flag on a reed or cross often borne by a Lamb. the number of perfection. it is called The a cruciferous nimbus. It has generally five points.pointed star. of course. decorations. Who was called by S. Triangle. but sometimes seven. 7. It John Baptist's is called S. as we have said before. In- tersecting triangles. The surrounded by a circle. The Six-Pointed Star." Lamb is represented with a nimbus or glory of four rays. commemorating the Star of Bethlehem. The Star is a Christmas emblem.

three arms of a Cross in rays of light. has centre an Agnus a IHS. being the emblem of earthly existence. Banners are used in processions as symbols of the spiritual warfare of Three Fishes are sometimes united in the form of a triangle they are the emblem of Baptism. represented at Harvest Festivals by ears of wheat. or they are used by schools. The Fish is sometimes united with the Dove. The Square. the "Lion of the Tribe of Judah. THE FISH." IX© Y2 is sometimes entwined with an anchor with Christo. Is the THE SHIP Symbol of the Church. resembles a crown or diadem. as general symbols of the bounty of the Creator. The Glory surrounds the head of Our Lord. the Father. THE WINGED LION well-known emblem of Mark. The letters which form the Greek word for it are the initials Christ. . When placed on the Fish. THE COCK Is a Symbol of watchfulness and vigilance. Nimbus God — — THE LION Is the symbol of Our Lord. as Noah was saved in the Ark. is in Greek of Jesus Son of God Saviour. as well as from more holy associations. the motto Spes in The Fish — Is the S. The Star presented by is . Christ's Soldiers and Servants.— SYMBOLS AND EMBLEMS. The Fish was a very early Symbol of Our Blessed Lord. It is waters of Baptism. They bear ap- propriate devices for every Festival or Saint's Day. A often in its Dei. or the Monogram sometimes reCross-shaped large Star. of the Virgin and the Saints. The Greek word for Fish. is often in the form of a triangle of the Trinity. The the the symbol of Eucharistic wine. and is generally The Virgin's of an oval form. in which we are saved by the Is a BREAD emblem of life. called in Eevelations v. The GRAPES AND EARS OF WHEAT Are appropriate decorations for Harvest Festivals. it signifies that the Church rests on Christ for support. BANNERS. and with the Ship. " Hope in Christ. 5. nimbus." . WATER Signifies purification. when the devices are varied at will. is Grape THE GLORY OR NIMBUS Is formed of rays of of light. is used for the Nimbus of living Saints. The conventional Fish is nearly always drawn in an oval form.

The Lamp is an emblem in St Matt. A Closed Roll signifies prop]*. THE PELICAN symbol of the Saviour. it denotes peace in Christ. in order to feed her young Is a Grace. life. THE FLAMINO HEART. still preserves a spiritual symbolism. placed on an Altar. and has the pace jet in Christo. The Flaming Heart Blood shed on Calvary gave life to the Church of God. on earth. It cannot. THE PH03NIX. " Let your light so shine before men " _ THE LAMP. v. It is also the emblem of the Resurrection. that of our being pilgrims and strangers AqEscalop Shell. A Cross the Emblem of Faith. If the Heart be pierced. a who is the " Light of the World. olive mouth. with her blood.be THE SERPENT emblem of sin or evil —sometimes it is used to end motto—In Below it. Even thus the expresses fervent piety or divine love. This symbol was common on — old Crosses. Is the The Phcenix expiring amidst a signification derived probably from the return of the Dove to the Ark with the olive leaf after the subsidence of the Flood. The bird was fabled in olden times to have pierced her own breast. is Hope. — signifies peace. The Dove ' of active piety. . . an its With leaf in it typifies Christ. formerly the badge of a Pilgrim to the Holy Land. In conjunction with the fish. is often seen the Cross of Constantine. it signifies contrition or devotion in trial. THE DOVE. however. AN OPEN BOOK Signifies the word of God or perfect intelligence. a Heart of Charity. 16. admitted as a decoration of the Church. names— consumed that a new bn*d may rise from its ashes— is emblem a symbol of immortality and an of the Resurrection.8 SY3IB0LS THE ANCHOR." Sometimes also it is a type of human When a Nimbus or Glory is the emblem of the Holy lamp Ghost.. a sentence in an illumination. The Anchor is the emblem of the Christian AND EMBLEMS.

is placed on the one of the arms of P theX. for the Latin Monogram and P N Noster added to it. — See W aX This (Chi) with of (Rho). Andrew's Cross. "p^\ Sometimes this Jj I . Monograms of the Name of used by the Church throughout of use. X. 13. monogram I is drawn In this Monogram. they become the emblem of Our Lord's Eternity. n X placed perpen- Bar for the Cross. gram Christians . When the P combined are surrounded by a circle. as it contains the initial letters of the full name Jesus Christ in Greek. instead of a Saltire or S. thus forming the initials of Jesus Christ united with the 1 /^KV Cross. A 12 placed underneath it signify Alpha dicularly. and I—— (as in cut) with the so as to form a plain Eastern Cross. all ages. —the beginning and Revelations end. It expresses the gram is in which the X is combined with the letter is I (Iota).mtmjraras of ©jtq ^aotnujj's %m Monothis . I Another variety than the X— — of this is Monofur- Monogram is frequently found in the Catacombs on the tombs of the early are many and varieties of it. means Our Christ. This former ones. there X nished by placing </ \^ a horizontal bar through the I (Iota) at the junction of the X. Our Blessed Lord have been and equal. consisting of the I (Iota). and Omega the xxii. the Cross itself. in frequency The is earliest Another Monogram used the same as the Cross of Constantine. it more complete name of Our Lord by its two first Greek LetIters X and P (Chi and Rho) combined. . or CHEISTOS NOSTEK.

-_ J This a also is \v Monogram of Our Lord's name. main always — re- (Iota). 13.— 10 MONOGRAMS OF OUR SAVIOUR'S NAME." See Revelations xxii. . which are those of the Greek ^ma. ^Jg^ IHSorlHC synonymous. in Greek. Form a Monogram fortheName of ^Y V^n p^? When ened entwined as in cut. ^ jP — sus Hominum vator Jesus. the Iota is usually length- Christ. and E. Our Lord's name Jesus — which . is the sign of contraction. They are the two first Greek letters are of A O Omega — —are the is of Greek These letters. S. and are used as emblems of the eternity of Our Lord " The beginning and the ending. Alpha and first and last of the Greek alphabet. I formed by a bar someJeSal- horizontal mark over the P (Eho). — Men This Monogram origin. the first and the last. H S times signifies yf . and last letin Greek.±±£=4 It is formed from the two first and last letters of the word Jesus. C. ^-*. and being the ter of first two. Christ The Al II T) \ into a cross at the top. — I the same the last and H (Eta) letter assuming three forms. Saviour of in Latin.^.

S. of S. v. S. S. in memory of the pretty legend of his being sent to the King of the Indies. MARK—a Winged Lion. Mark by the Luke by the Euphrates S. with a serpent rising from his having in remembrance of drunk poison from the holy chalice with impunity. S. . chap. Sometimes these emblems are placed in the four limbs of an Eastern Cross with the monogram of Our Lord in the centre. of the Evangelists. John. Tigris . Peter has the keys. in allusion to his being a tax-gatherer or publican. MATTHEW has a Winged Man. 10.— jStfmfols d) tijp J&mtttpRtkt I S. Matthew. Thomas has a builder's rule. emblems Paradise. an Apostle. and to the Revelation. The symbols of the Apostles are generally the instruments but to this there are exceptions their martyrdom : . a palace. as his emblem. chap. has for a symbol a purse of money. four open books. and four rivers are also The four rivers represent those of . John by Pison. to build him S. 7. living creatures allude of course to the vision of i. JOHN—an Eagle. James the (treat. Four scrolls. has a cup. . S. LUKE—a Winged Ox. S. iv. the emblems of pilgrimage. S. or Half Man. as as an Apostle. S. v. Matthew stands by Grihon S. All the other Apostles have for symbols the instruments of their martyrdom. The winged Ezekiel. it.

Simon suffered. The Cross of S. Philip suffered with wards. with three small Cross. The Club of S. The Cross on which S. a Pilgrim's Staff. S. his head down- The The The The The The Knife with which S. Saw by which symbols of Baptism are three fish is entwined in a triangle. The Sword by which S. Halter on which S. Bartholomew was flayed. Barnabas. Jude was hanged. symbol of the Holy Eucharist loaves or rolls at its mouth. S. Paul died. marked with a .12 SYMBOLS AND EMBLEMS. Matthias. James the Less. Andrew. a Cup. Axe which ended the days of S.

Peter. Michael vanquishing the Dragon. let Lychens. John's Wort. Crown with Nimbus. S. Curved Knife. James's Wort. Two Keys S. . Thomas. Cross Saltire. James's Cap. Escalop Shell. Sword. Luke. Tau S. Sweet Bay. Club or Bat. Bachelor's But- tons. Latin Cross tied to Marigold. Winter Helebore. S. Scar- Cross. Clarimond Tulip. S. Passion Flower. Yellow Cockscomb. Laurestinus. James the Less. Saw and Halter. S. Matthew. Simon and Jude. Snowdrop. Philip. Scattered Star Wort SS. Winged Lion. Saints. Paul. Bunch of Palms. All S. Crown and Nimbus. Builder's Rule or Square. Michaelmas Day. Pilgrim's Staff. a long Reed. S. Eastern Cross on >a r ^Ellotocr.$mm a$ Symbol. like a Bag. John Baptist. S. Floccose Agaric. S. S. S. S. Common Ascyrum. Circumcision. Matthias. Purification of Star of Bethlehem. Annunciation. S. James the Great. Red Red Tulip. Bark Red Sunflower Andrew. Michaelmas Daisy. crossed. Epiphany. or Red Cockscomb. the Virgin. or Eleur-de-Lis. Sunflower. Axe. Winged Ox. (Pomme) Star (Pentangle). or Lady Day. Sparrow Wort. An Mezereon. S. Conversion of S. A Purse S. Bartholomew. Mark.

Cup with Serpent from it. S. Triangle in Circle. Easter Sunday. Winged Eagle. . Lily. Palm Sunday. Snowdrops. A Stone. Violet. Lilies. Heartsease. Purple Heath. John. Pansy. Christmas Day. Dove. Blood Heath. Holy Innocents. Flame Heath. A Star. Common Palma Christi.14 SYMBOLS AND EMBLEMS. or Pansy. Lion. Ascension Day. Trinity Sunday. Stephen. S. Holy Thttesday. Palnis and Snowrising Holly. drops. jg>fimbol. Passion Flower. Winged Ox. Whit Sunday. Easter Eve.

Pansy (heart-shaped) of Charity. Joseph. also of Ivy denotes immortality. used on Holy Thursday. sacred wounds. the stamens. the Cross. and of Purity and Truth. omitting the one who denied Him . (S. the circle around It is the crown of thorns the radiance. and of S. the cords which bound betrayed Him the ten petals. and the one who is Him (Judas) the pillar in the centre the styles. The Rose is an emblem of Our Saviour. adopted in the Middle Ages. an emblem of purity. the nails . the five . The Laurestinus has the same meaning. The Fleur-de-Lis. or conventional form also of the Lily. as the leaf changes only in death. Peter). is the It is symbol of the Virgin Mary. It is always placed by the Mediaeval in the painters in the hand of the Angel Gabriel.%hml JMfatt*. and sometimes hand of the Infant Saviour. of the Virgin The Violet is an emblem of Modesty. . the glory. . The Star of Bethlehem is the emblem Epiphany. the the pillar. the tendrils. Grlory. Lilies of the Valley are the floral emblem of Our Lord. hammers . Of these the most remarkable is the Passion Flower the common blue one. "The Eose emblems of Sharon" and "the Lily of the Valley" are of Humility. the ten faithful Apostles. Its leaves are thought to represent the head of the spear by which Our Blessed Lord's side was pierced the . of the Advent and The Snowdrop and Marigold are emblems Mary. The Laurel is an emblem of Victory and Constancy. — five points.

each person in the company usually bears in his hand a sprig of Rosemary practice —a custom which seems to have taken the heathens. Holly. It is also an emblem of Also Wheat is of abundance an emblem of Christ as the " Bread of Life." of It is also the is Grapes is the emblem of " Christ's Blood shed emblem of abundance and prosperity. The Pomegranate is the emblem of the future immortality." A Cluster for us. held in the hand of the emblem of the Fall : Jesus Christ. a symbol of Our Lord." On the contrary. The Palm is the symbol of Martyrdom. the custom of using in his it at funerals is thus explained by Wheatley work on the Common " Prayer : To express their hopes that their friend is not lost for ever. EMBLEMS—FRUIT AND An Apple is GRAIN.— 16 FLORAL EMBLEMS. and Violets are flowers for Easter. life and of . Passion-flowers. which cropped it : is always green. flourishes more being . Wheat. The Vine abundance. Barley. Lilies. Pansies. Ivy. it signifies " Redemption." its rise from a among He alludes to their use of Cypress at funerals. is Rosemary dedicated to the grave . " a tree that being once cut never revives. Laurel and Box are Christmas festival plants. has astonishing and is. consequently. a meet emblem of the life which springs anew from the grave. &c. but dies away. a sprig put into the ground grows well and rapidly vitality. for Rosemary. Grapes." and rejoicing. for Harvest Festivals. The Olive is the emblem of Peace and Concord.

and Yellow. when united. silver.— JUmWattraltt: ftalmtns. of the Holy Trinity. the emblem conquest. or Gold. Holy Innocents (unless that feast falls on Sunday). Holy Innocents. Blue. signifying Divine Love Blue. purity. Conversion of represented by Paul. White. are emblematic . and in the Middle Ages were always artists used by the illuminators and church with regard to their Red. . the symbol of Divine Love and illumination (as flame). the primary colours Red. It is not an ecclesiastical colour. perfect righteousness. It is also the colour for may be Maundy Thurs: day. Heaven. immortality. when sprinkled with gold stars. therefore martyrs are someIt times clothed in it. suffering. White. divine glory. and all Sundays. Trinity Sunday. Confirmation. Blue signifies truth it signifies and constancy. Green. and Marriage. it signifies Violet is the ecclesiastical colour for mourning passion. truth and constancy. : belongs to Pentecost and as the emblem of blood shed for the Eeast of the Martyrs on Whitsuntide. Stephen's Day. belongs to Advent. Baptism. hope. Rogation days. is to be used by the Church from Christmas Eve to the Octave of the Epiphany. and Ember weeks. Colours significance. Septuagesima to Easter Eve. symbolising the purity of the Infant Saviour but it : is not to be used on S. signifying light. or in an illuminated text. but (as symbolical of Heaven or truth) forms a beautiful and significant ground for a used on text. and humility. Red . are supposed to be good emblems : . Gold. S. is of eternal spring.

Dingy It is yellow signifies deceit. . Ruby : Carbuncle signify the five Blood and suffering. and innocence unjustly SYMBOLISM OF PEECIOUS STONES. and humility. signifying Purple is the mourning of the Church. constancy. Emerald Topaz : : and victory. : Sardius The blood of martyrs. humility. and in the centre. the goodness of God. is used only on Good Friday in our Church. signifies mourning. innocence. Black funerals. love. are the Violet and Blue sorrow and constancy. Diamond Sapphire Light. Faith: it should he used on texts only for the Divine Name. purity. deep love. joy. Hope. The goodness of God. colours of penitence. : charity. symbolical of death and extreme grief. Gold or Yellow signifies Glory. in accordance with its colour. truth. as the symbol His kingly power. and suffering. the emblem of purity. Five carbuncles on a cross wounds of Christ they are placed in each limb . It is the colour often worn by martyrs as well as by kings. Grey accused. Our Lord is sometimes of represented in a purple mantle. After His resurrection. : : Hope. and suffering. and joy. It is used also at Purple signifies royalty. passion. Divine love.18 EMBLEMATIC COLOURS. The Amethyst The Pearl is signifies sorrow. faith. innocence.

Illumination should be left to those who are able to illuminate. we must observe that all Church work of this kind well as any other) should be undertaken only with the sanction and under the authority of the clergyman. children can string holly leaves for festoons. has been drawn out. to all whom designs and plans should be submitted. ivy.^ -SL- $ AVING. geometrical symbols. moss. his sanction has When a leader. and laurel from outdoors and make the wooden frames required. or berries to whid round frames. To everyone should be given a certain task. or they can hold the twigs for the wreaths. And (as first.now give briefly explained the it is Symbolism in the of the Christian Church. with berries and flovvers. time that we proceeded to some Practical Instructions Art of that Sacred Decoration in which alone they are used. and the whole system it is of decoration fixed on. . this division Time will be saved and better progress made by of labour. To the most intelligent skilled workers should be given the task of decorating the crosses. &c. The least skilful can make and the wreaths under direction. Boys and young men can get the holly. well to select direct who shall apportion and overlook the tasks and the workers. been obtained.

manner of danger of spoiling fall. is it sold is on reels. and gentle so flexible that one or and firm bends will secure the bunches of evergreens in the thickest wreath. in the line ivy. It is sometimes a good plan to "wire on" the coarser first. The wire .nm 1. say six described above. The cord should be secured either to a stout nail in the wall or to neither too high nor too low for the worker. Unless this is done. one to feed the worker with small "bunches of evergreens. rope-making. or by an untimely It is usual to twist fine cord round the rope. the sharp out- way and light and shade of the leaves producing a delightful . and the others to supply wire. assist in holding and to and arranging the cord or twine to which the evergreens are to be attached. such as bunches of berries or flowers. free as possible Care must be observed to select twigs as stiff from hard stems : these too often stick out ungracefully. and not unfrequently cause the wreath to fall to pieces. so as to preserve a coloured portions the regular repetition of design. and two about the fineness of carpet thread is easily cut into lengths with ordinary scissors. ¥ it To make a thick Wreath on cord is necessary to employ two or three pairs of hands. There is nothing better for a rich wreath than large leaves of or eight at a time. knotting the string at intervals to give is it firmness. fastened round the cord. after the some firm support. pieces of evergreen and then proceed of to arrange the delicate sprays and alternate decorations. there is the wreath by loose workmanship.

per yard. which cling closely to a paling. The long runners of delicate ivy fastened together niake elegant wreathing along a wall course. them on in bunches. . but these are chiefly valuable because they can be strung together by little children. in a short time from the long runners.WREATHS. and or also too stiff and uncompromising to fall grace- but it is excellent for ornamental moulding when sewn on brown paper. and the brightness and Moss wreaths softness of are delicate and pliant. an excellent basis for wreaths for cost being about 2d. strung together are used in large churches where length of wreaths are needed. Should flowers be used in these wreaths. in with a little damp moss sewn . these ivy wreaths are invaluable. the lightness and elegance of the The tracery of windows may also be marked out by the close " creeping ivy green" with much advantage. and to allow the thread to cross the middle vein. the ready covered. the green makes them Holly leaves time and favourite wreaths for fonts or minute stonework. Laurel is seldom answers for wreaths . foliage. fully. resting on the capital of the pillar. and berries may be glued to sprigs of yew or Everlastings may also be used in the same way when their stalks are too short to fasten 3. effect . or hang their pendent shoots from an old wall and if here and there the sprays be allowed to fall. and fades afford even the youngest the privilege of taking part in the decorations. which can be bought pillars. The material known is as crinoline steel. and the woodwork of a screen may be enriched by the same adornment. forming a sort of fringe of natural leaf is admirable. 21 and in towns. and not unfrequently falls off. otherwise the leaf shrinks. them will keep them fresh for a long time holly. will spring together and fit them- buckram selves without nailing. it quickly. Wreaths for arches may be made on laths. Many yards may be made . which. Care must be taken not to wound the leaf. 2. where evergreens are rare and costly.

and the division placed nearer the top than the Capitals in the base of the square. This rule may be varied. one third larger than the square. I. left. letters. are formed in Top and bottom of the letters I and J are formed squares. k. M. F. cannot expect to acquire the facility and that is it is important that the Lettering should be correctly drawn. that the whole of the letters. B. X. a few plain instructions for drawing letters will be found of great assistance.itm. With a handbook of printed alphabets and fancy a very little practice will enable the illuminator to form any ordinary alphabet with a considerable degree of accuracy. With regard to the proportion of Roman Capitals and Small. In the construction of any text or illumination. A. q. . j. p. . H. and N". at the be- ginning of a word. or have projections from the middle. and and 1. the M and N in a horizontal The letters parallelogram. it may be taken as a general rule. descending in like pro- In Italic letters it is usual to make the capitals three times the height of the smaller letters. . J. with the exception of S. and between the divisions of a sentence two squares should be letters are half the f. F. half the letters width of the square . are the same height as the tails of y. 4. and the long strokes of the small letters nearly equal to the capitals. and as the amateur skill in forming letters observable in a practised writer . and as printed Alpha- bets cannot always be purchased to suit the requirements of every work. The small the capitals portion. are either divided. h. E. and T. a whole square. same word should have a space equal to half a square between them . size of the capitals the long lines of the letters b. d. in a vertical parallelogram.

23 In illuminating. but in calculating a number of letters for a given space all may be all roughly taken as one the letter size. any false lines may be dusted off) . To draw Egyptian or is block letters.LETTERING. the top and bottom for the beginning of same as the letter continue the lines in the lines. as . one inch each and two spaces two inches each these may be . quired by designing and assistance The knowledge of the formation of Lettering acmaking large letters is of the greatest when small ones are required. illustration for a guide. 5. less space any others. When S slopes at the terminal. when tall and narrow. G. . proceed to design them roughly a few touches of the pencil will show how easily a letter may be formed (see illustration). parts the Draw . then taking the lines for the . and the letter I. and rule with a straight edge of six lines. varied as the shape of the letter may require then roughly space the width (two inches) and sketch with pencil or charcoal (this latter is very useful. the only letter that observation is calls for special the letter S. should also slope in the same manner. take some white paper. some texts and banners require a letter technically called "expanded" (E) and others a letter "con- densed" ([). curve as indicated by the dotted and the basis letter. and the top and bottom height of the letter. as it is too often badly formed. In drawing the plain alphabet. C. and draw others in proportion. which the simplest form and basis for many varieties of fancy letters. The letter M will than occupy more. take B as the standard for width. When designing a letter or alphabet. is at once obtained . may also be made to slope this is indicated bv a dotted line. the ends of the . giving three spaces of . of the letter S.

and any Mediaeval Alphabet adapt itself to this a practice will. drawn over the alphabets same as when enlarged copies are required. Nos. gold letters may be edged with any colour. Illuminated Capitals. Two alphabets of capitals much used Church Decoration Pencil lines are illustrated. of white or gold white letters may be edged with blue or red . the amount of ornament may be increased at for the discretion of the illuminator.shaped may be attempted. with a few extra ruled lines. 7. a very effective dition of the points. mode of construction. plain gold or silver also look well. the little more fancy. readily 6. —the word " Leicester. Colouring for Capitals. it is and bold letter can be made by the adwhen designing a more finished letter that the advantage of the ruled lines will be apparent.24 LETTERING." is given as an By first designing a plain block-letter of the size required. 8. (§ 6) will be of assistance . In Plate V. in drawing the plain Block after Having acquired some experience Letters. For an expanded letter the parallel lines are ruled the same as for a condensed letter illustration. 1 and 4 . also an alphabet of Church Texts. the eight designs of capitals illuminated in colours will show the effect of various backgrounds. Dark coloured letters are improved by an edging . is When the general formation of a plain letter by practice well understood.

.

.

PLATE II .

.'".

BUTOXY .

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Ejllelnia fc 0£i5SSiCS«^^£^ .

.

CAPITALS. Srrrrrr^ .ILLUMINATED.

.

LETTERING.
ore examples of Illuminated Capitals with foliage.

25

When

space

admits, a crown placed over the

first

and prominent

capitals in a

Text affords an opportunity for a change of colour.

TO MAKE BOLD LETTEES
FOR USING ON A BACKGROUND OP EVERGREENS.
9.

Supposing a text to be required 16 feet long and 18 inches

wide, and the words to be "

Emmanuel God with

us,"

—in

all

17

letters

;

taking the distance between each word as
letter

the

width of a

M, we must
To form

select a letter that will average

about 9 inches in width, and for height, a

good proportion two

would be 14

inches.

the pattern letters for this text,

rule six lines with a straight edge, giving three spaces of

inches each, and two spaces of three inches each

;

then roughly

space the width of the letter (9 inches), and sketch with pencil
as previously described (§5),
line the exact size for cutting.

mark

in firmly with a thick black

When

the letters are 8 or 10 inches high, a piece of stout
letter, as

card should be cut the width of the thick part of the

a

guide for ruling

all to

the same scale.

F,

I,

E, L, T, are only so

many
letter

variations of the letter E, so that for large texts a pattern

may be used

for E, then cut

down

for F, again cut for

L

and T, and

finally for I.

B

will serve for

P and R.
letter, it is

As

a long text will contain a repetition of the same

advisable to cut sample letters in card or stout paper in prefer-

ence to sketching the whole

;

and to use the sample
text.

letters for

forming those required for the

This will make the work

more uniform.
10.

Now

taking the pattern letters as a guide for
letters to

size,

cut

from stout card the
ground of leaves

be used for the

text.

A back-

will require a letter

on very

stout card, the

mounted

leaves

which form the background of the text preD

venting the letters from being fixed close to the board.

2(3

LETTERING.
11.

In covering the

letter cut

from stout card, cut the paper
side of the paper

larger than the letter,
face

and place the coloured

downwards on the table, then cover the card letter with paste, and place it on the white side of the paper, pressing the card letter down evenly, and keeping it in its place until
dry by placing a weight or book over the whole.
projecting edges of the paper,
letter.

Next paste the and turn them under the card-

Be

careful in covering letters not to paste the

side,

a letter S placed (g) the reversed

way

looks very bad.

wrong The

letters are

now ready

for fixing, unless required to be further

ornamented.

As the coloured cards mend for economy the
card,*

for cutting letters are costly,
letters

we recomflock-cloth,

being cut from a cheap stout

and afterwards covered with coloured paper or

or the coloured paper

may

be pasted to the common card before

cutting out the letters.

LETTEES IN FLOWEES OE EVEEGEEEN.
12.

For mounting on a background of cloth or paper these

should not be too small.
on,

The

size of the letters

being decided

and the paper patterns ready, the
from

letters to

be used for the

texts
If

rial

must be cut from very stout card or perforated zinc (§9). zinc, first cover with green glazed calico or some mateto prevent the sharp edge injuring the hands, then sew on

the leaves, taking care that all range one way.

A letter with
at the top

some leaves commenced
will

at the bottom

and some

have a bad uneven appearance.

Where

natural holly

berries cannot be obtained, the artificial will be
substitute.
wire,

The

artificial berries

are sold each

an excellent mounted on a

and are very easy

to

fix.

Small bunches used in the

centre of a letter
* It can be

made

of holly leaves are very effective.

had

in sheets of 12 inches

by 14 inches,

at id.

per sheet.

'

13. Texts

are particularly appropriate

for

covering church

walls at Christmas, and,
will

when

decoration

is

properly carried out,

form a prominent portion of the work. In small churches they should rest under the wall plate or on scrolls, and in larger churches they should be well kept up, and
regard should always be had to the proportion as to
size,

and

Inscriptions which from their to the distance from the eye. remind one forcibly of sign boards or bareness and flatness

advertisements are certainly neither ornamental nor pleasing. In making letters in leaves for these texts, care should be taken
to keep the outline clear, as at a distance a letter
is

often dis-

torted by a

stray leaf.

Nothing therefore should be
an

done

without rule and measure.

Few things are more unsightly than

an S which has

lost its balance or

M unsteady on

its legs.

As

the

making

sorts will

form an agreeable occupation, the various be treated at some length. Texts admit of being
will

treated simply and very cheaply, or

by hand work.

A

great variety of materials

therefore propose giving a

may be made very elaborate may be used. We few simple instructions how these

may be

best worked for effect and correct treatment, and as all

decorations, especially those at Christmas, are intended to bring

together the Glory of Lebanon, the Fir-tree, the Pine-tree, and the Box to beautify the sanctuary, anything like upholstery
Berries, or artificial decoration should carefully be avoided. Everlasting Flowers are all useful for small Scotch Fir, Box, and
letters.

An increased

attention

is

given by some manufacturers to the
sizes,

production of seasonal or other Texts, in large

and beau-

In this portion of the work a better result . Another method of production is the Outlining of designs for the amateur to finish in illumination. material (common green glazed The sprays and proceed to fix and to turn a wide margin of the cloth over the back of the board. —what is better —a flat it is board made best to seek for this part of the work the assistance of a carpenter (§ 15). &c. . colour. 17. framework used for devices Less difficulty will is also best made by fixing. First decide on the space to be occupied by the text or . coloured paper. has the advantage it a great thing in votive work has also size. printed borders. much below . 16. size. prepared cloth. and fix with tacks. All wooden a carpenter. but the most effective temporary texts are those in which evergreens and flowers are used. of personality. flock cloth. viz. Framework and Boards for Texts 15. then have a wooden frame to the required size . Cover the whole of the board or frame with some cheap lining will answer well). May be made in natural or artificial flowers (the latter we do not recommend). Judgment is required in giving the proper thickness in accordance with the weight the board or frame will be required to carry. Are best made by a practical carpenter. gold cloth. by working from is left to right. be experienced in the and many sug- gestions given that will be valuable to the workers. For a Text on a Background of Evergreens. gold and silver papers. &c.28 TEXTS. or by using the usual materials supplied for the purpose. however. leaves being ready and cut a uniform to the board. the opportunity of choice or variation in subject. TEMPORARY TEXTS 14. tifully printed in colours at a cost naturally that of individual manufacture. which is The latter.

obtainable. them. being constructed from a centre the proper height . " border. If each row sprays should overlap the preceding one. . as raised appearance of the bordering greatly letters improves the work. E tape F. The line. Place the sprays under the (AtoB) and drive fix sufficient tacks to secure the tape firmly to the board then place another row of sprays under the tape C D. if 29 one worker selects the sprays and leaves. I K. a very even result will be obtained. by stretching a string tightly from end to end." the slightly best added after the board is covered. first The being ready. successful amateur. L M. . strong tapes are then fixed by tacks in the direction indicated by the letters A B. first C D. constructed in The board being entirely covered. of and these also by tacks driven at distances of 2 to 3 inches apart.TEXTS. as the fullness of the sprays may require. proceed to fix ascertaining the centre of the space to be occupied i by the letters text. next add the manner described under the heading of This is Wreaths. We give the method adopted by a very The board is first covered as previously directed the first sprays are fixed to the top left hand corner (A B) . and hands them as required to the worker using the hammer and tacks : this will insure greater uniformity and save much time. &c. a H.

— 30 for fixing is TEXTS. and the board should be made in the same manner as described for the Text. or gold printed diaper paper can be procured. leaving the white margin for be background of the border. No. 18. crimson. Scarlet. No. having broad heads. relying for effect on letters. Slip of gold paper 'placed over the ground. leaving the white space for border. with back- ground of leaves (§ 15). illustration Plate VI. Board covered white . borders and letters in evergreens. No. 3. In the No. The same as No. 5. 1. and avoid driving the nail too far prevent the foliage of the background being too this will much pressed down. If a text is placed at a height of 8 or 10 feet. the other with border of evergreens. These require a firm background. 4. and white are the best back- grounds for evergreens. the quality of the material used cannot well be judged. a great variety of may be used for a background. Bed ground placed the over centre. The red paper. with addition of gold diaper . accuracy in the work and finish of the The colour the material for the background will be in accordance with the festival or season. . a few combinations are given : Board covered white. or with border of blue and white. Texts in Letters of Evergreens or Everlasting Flowers. or cotton may crimson velvet. 2. or red and white (part of each shown). For the gold and black border use the printed borders. crimson cloth. Fix the letters with stout nails . hence we recomof mend those materials which are not costly. at once obtained. One end shows text finished with printed border. When materials the letters are to be in evergreens. flock cloth. the diaper may be added by hand. No. or illuminate (see design) on plain gold paper. red edge may be of cloth or coloured paper. 1.

.PLATE VI TEXTS.

^ .

proceed to ascertain the proper position for each letter. 19." first set out the work by placing the prepared cloth cut to the required length and width (say 18 feet long inches wide) on a long bench. carry the material well over the edges. and the spaces under (§ 25).TEXTS. flock paper. securely. 31 red. 20. are most geneWhite or coloured paper may be used for cheapness. When using flock cloth or gold cloth. This first portion work should be done very in the fixing. or school desk by 18 floor. are very good. as Texts in frames with Floral Letters are not easily handled. and turning the margin well over the back is . for the borders (§ 22). with diaper ground of gold. when practicable. as shown in illustration ~No. Then fix the letters described Texts with Illuminated Lettering. Turkey and flock cloth. the paper being quite dry. and the con- . but not so convenient —a carpeted We recommend the prepared cloth. if paper. a great saving of material will be effected by placing a slip only of the required width. and cheapness an paper. object. the ground-work of the text then added. of the 3. use strong paste. and when finished may suffer The board being covered. first cover with If the board is large. Taking as a selected text. as it possesses many important advantages. using strong paste. and (if fix by tacks . " G-lory to God in the Shields. 21. or —which is preferable. &c. Highest. used. In Coloured papers. Paper letters pasted on a paper ground have many dis- advantages j the letter expands by being pasted. The practical instructions under this heading are given at some length. and the unseemly joints too often observable in paper are avoided.white glazed calico. cotton velvets. rally For the first covering of the board. can be had in any length or width. does not tear in handling. a fabric) at the back covering the board. and will be referred to when treating of Banners.

three distinct spaces are required one at the top and one at the bottom for the border. —sav 3 inches for the border. Space the width for the border and centre accurately at each end AB and A B for the border. 22. the centre.3& TEXTS. The cloth being stretched quite flat . and 6 for the . rough appearance to have the material on traction caused in the drying gives a very the work. and a centre space for the lettering. If paper letters are used. which they are mounted very Setting out the Work. C G and D D for lettering. on the floor or "bench. then stout.

E .TEXTS. cloth should next be roughly marked each is in spaces of 6 inches or. the edges quite clean. We have must be already given the colours used for the various Festi- vals of the Church. finger . 33 inches). 25. and arranging them previous to fixing. The . put a star between each word. between each word and when the distance : this may be increased with good is twice the width of a letter. By having all the letters cut ready. Do not paste each letter at the gum on a piece of card or any as required on the pasted card. then lay each letter the cut letter will and press down gently with the then be evenly coated with paste and . used. but spread the paste or flat surface. Affixing Cut Letters. what is better. must be done not by rubbing but by rubbing on a piece of clean smooth paper gently : this the letter first laid over the pasted letter. This improves the appearance. arrange the cut letters on the cloth. but as the letters venient width. Place each letter on its proper space rub down very itself. cleanliness in fixing paste. even an inexperienced deco- rator will detect at a glance any error of distance between the several letters or spaces between the words. Use strong or paste and thick gum mixed. For permanent decorations. The letters being ready. and admits of a change of colour. a combination from any gaudiness. should not be placed close together. and deducting the end spaces occupied by the borders (6 the text will require a letter 7 inches wide . 6 inches will be found a conWe have in this calculation allowed the width of letter a effect. back. but free A text with any one ill colour too prominently displayed would be adapted for a permanent decoration. is of great importance. and mark lightly with pencil the space to occupy.

and finally black (§60)." red or blue next. little uneven and rough on being applied to the zinc or the cloth this is easily corrected by "sharpening" the work with the black outline added after the gold is dry.34 PERMANENT TEXTS. possess many advantages over the texts made by j>asting the cut letters. Under heading "Borders" instructions are given which should be referred to when executing this part of the design. the operator to use the brush with firmness and decision. The edges of the gold-leaf may be a . If the material on which you intend to illuminate is zinc. design being clearly indicated. advice is This given as the result of much practice. PERMANENT TEXTS. manner work is a scroll or ribbon text. commence with the "Gilding. Care and exactness in laying out the whole work is of great importance. Set out the spaces for the borders and lettering in already described. and before gilding or painting. tint. every part of the design should be distinctly indicated by pencil lines. refer to § 34 before indicating the spaces for the lettering. Prepared-cloth oil which has a surface of enamel colours (§ 74) being used . and using the cut card sample letters trace the outline of each in pencil (§ 22). from damp If the walls. then the remainder of the work must be in oil also. A clear outline will enable The see gold. . 26. a coating of white hard is varnish should be applied to the cloth after the work as a protection finished. will admit of either water or if the latter. These being generally made in oil colour. and on a material that will bear exposure. have the surface painted in flatted colour to the required If cloth prepared with a surface of oil colour is used. Ascertain with accuracy the space for each letter.

10 the black is line added. The hand being from the raised three inches table. . The Text can be with example of each is or without a coloured ground. should be used.— PERMANENT Plate Y. and Fig. bench. as shown in the cut. The brushes for to be used drawn in the actual size. The board can be used table. which consists of a piece of deal board hol- lowed out in the centre and placed over books or blocks of wood. on any ordinary or school desk. 27. given. For outlining the letters and for painting generally a hand-rest. five and the brush held about inches from the end. The an border in this illustration in one colour. 35 shows the commencement of a text with the gold painted in. the long of hairs the brush will permit curves being followed with accuracy. Any little difficulty should be overcome by practice and are will amply repay the illuminator. Water colours — § 62. Fig. by working from the wrist. TEXTS. see § For prepared Oil colours 60 . 9.

. . 2 or No. For filling up letters and all large spaces use a No. added after the work is finished and quite dry. paste or gum. and the hairs being short. Correct all false lines by spirits of turpentine laid on a small piece of cotton rag. 3 brush is . 4 brush. very many excellent designs can be had in various widths and colours. The printed borders are easily affixed by For works in oil colours on zinc or cloth. When the decoration temporary. . will protect the gold and make the whole washable. it is best to purchase the borders ready printed . The design stencilled for a border (§ 66). as this size will admit of being charged more fully with colour. Borders afford much scope for is artistic treatment. Commence by outlining the letters. the colour can be spread evenly over the surface of the work A coating of varnish. torfcajs. For lettering five inches high use No. and one colour and gold. avoid overcharging the brush. and replenish before is all the colour exhausted. 28. contains examples of borders in may one colour only the same designs are repeated in Plate VII. taking care to keep the exterior of the work accurate . be either traced down (§ 70) or Plate VI. for small letters No. 1 recommended. the border should be illuminated in the same way as for permanent texts (§ 26). showing two colours.36 BORDERS.

PLATE VII BORDERS. i 1 2^^255SS533 SSSSSSSSS- JIIC »J W»« UK Hit UK UK .

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»«. *\£/*V£/4V*/4 iiiniiniJfiiJiTurmriiJrmiTiifn piiniiriuiiijriurnif^ .« :»« w *« »» . BORDERS. ».PLATE VIII.

r \r~* .

outlining the Dark Blue ivith Gold or Black. divided by by in trefoils lines. Gold. . is To design a . when used together. The trefoils can also be excellent purchased in gold paper with a black edge. or the : distance between the border and the lettering . tint the space for the border with light colour . the : following suggestions may be of assistance A Gold on any colour outlined with Black. Conventional foliage is very effective in a broad border. Bed and Blue. For colouring.— BORDERS. adhere to a surface of is quite dry. The annexed woodcut shows two patterns . but Green made pale by the addition of White) on a Chocolate ground. should be separated by a line of Black. and a border not some 30. Pale Green (not Emerald. and trace from them. can be latter A very made by affixing these with strong gum. the first is made by pasting the trefoils and Jmfa crosses . about three inches wide. or White. The Vine Leaf or Holly on a G-old ground. alter- nately the second. No general rule can be given for the width of a border. oil the effect The cut paper trefoils will also readily and if varnished after the gum is the same as very exact stencil work. If a text or scroll is white. Dark Blue design worked on Pale Blue ground. border. Papers colours various and gold can be purchased ready cut. floral border capable of repetition somewhat difficult it is therefore better to purchase a few lengths ready printed. assisted by Gold and Black. but these should be confined to the simplest designs. 37 Very good borders can be made from cut materials. a six-inch letter should have a space of at least three inches top and bottom. a pale grey or warm buff is very valuable. colour . less than three inches wide.

the instructions under heading of " Banners " will be of assistance. Azure. or Black. When a general scheme to use Shields of decoration includes banners. termed Or. Gules. or and one monogram or device use very stout milled-board. it is recommended without borders or lettering. . or Thin any material that has a tendency to curl. Sable. Ve7-l. or Purple. For covering (see § 25). is best. Shield Argent. In Heraldic Drawing. Purpure. or by a pure white . The metals — Gold. by a plain Shield Or. or Blue. A Shield with a simple plain ground Shields card. or and Silver. zinc.31. shield. or Green. In cutting a shield accurately to size. should be avoided. In cutting wood. the colours are expressed by lines. or Argent. Red. Tlie usual shapes are illustrated. and metals by are dots. expressed by dots shield.

taking care not to obliterate the . when . 36 by 12 by increasing the size of the zinc. treated.). one example 36 inches long and 12 inches wide. To a practised draughtsman scrolls afford an opportunity display. pencil mark firmly the lines already roughly indicated. Then draw two other lines also parallel G. will now be For practical instructions in drawing. . oil it should first be prepared with two coats of colour. Take a piece of zinc. Cover the tracing with a coloured ground.jltjrnlk 32. Plate IX. — — reversed. . illustrated designs suggest a great variety of combinafirst At sight scrolls appear somewhat difficult. The simplest form no pleasing the ordinary ribbon scroll will but even in correct result be obtained without drawing. keeping them parallel. Zinc will be found the best material to work on. white powdered red chalk the zinc is answer as well). not only in the It is for much arrangement of the design. the most this intricate shapes may be is successfully attempted. give an exact repetition of (as the scroll for the re- maining half chalk will shown (if in Fig.H and E F The lines thus drawn will give half the largest scroll obtainable from the zinc. and of the required tint. and indicate the curved lines A B C D (Fig. and by tion. 2). proposed to give a few hints but also in the illumination. and make a tracing of the whole on thin paper this paper should. to assist in the formation of the simplest ribbon arrangement. With a black-lead larger scrolls can be formed at pleasure. but with a knowledge of the principles on which they are formed. 1.

PLATE IX SCRO LLS . .

. c 2. SCR OLLS / A B c H D E K F .PLATE >X f/G. ARISE SHINE FOR <hHY LI<£H<& . ^fl r.

39
tracing lines

SCROLLS.
;

turn the tracing with the chalked side downwards
(also 36 inches
2,

on to the second piece of zinc

by

12),

and go

over the black lines with a soft pencil (Fig.

Plate IX).

first

The tracing thus obtained should correspond exactly with the The ends now require a line from E to A half of the scroll.
The two
plates of zinc, on being placed together (Fig. 3),

to complete the ribbon.
33.

will give a complete scroll.

Before commencing the borders and
should be cut away,

lettering, the zinc not required for the text

using strong

scissors.

A scroll designed on the small size chosen
many
shapes,

for our illustration will readily adapt itself to

by

cutting the ends
Figs. 4, 5,

B D,

Fig.

3,

in the direction of the dotted lines.

and 6 are in

this

Next add border and
a small device.
ribbon texts.
34. Fig. 1, Plate X.,

lettering,

manner produced from Fig. 1. and complete the design with

In Plate IX. designs are shown for ends of

shows the commencement of a
;

Scroll,

which

is

completed in Fig. 3 of the same plate
is first

the part to con-

tain the lettering

described,

C D, and E
;

F, equally distant, and the parts

by keeping the lines A B, Gr, H, and K of the

same size the back of the ribbon is next shown, Fig. 2, L M. The ends should be of equal size, and traced for accuracy in the same way as described for a plain Scroll (§ 32). Colour the parts L and darker than Gr, H, and K; add the borders and lettering, as shown in Fig. 3, and the Scroll is complete. The cross can either be made separately and affixed to the ribbon, or the whole can be one work the latter is best when the material

M

;

is

prepared cloth.

If the scroll is

on

zinc,

and used without by making

a background,

much work

will be saved in fixing,

the cross separately; this method also possesses the advantage
of giving two distinct works, which

may

be used together or

SCROLLS.
separately.

40
to a wall, begin

When
N,

fixing the cross

and ribbon

bv

nailing:

and P, and cut

slits

in the ribbon to allow

parts

R and

S to show through.

By

cutting a cross and ribbon
will at once see

on paper as an experiment, the amateur
easily this

how
The

may be

done.

The return

portions of the scroll

afford

much

opportunity for the display of bright colours.
(§ 30).

remarks for border colouring should be referred to
elaborate designs Figs. 4

The reader should now be able to proceed with the more and 5. In these commence by placing the parts A, B, and C in position, and complete the scrolls by lines continued in the same manner as for Fig. 1.
Plates XI. and XII. contain a variety of ribbon combinations.

For

scrolls, the colours best
:

adapted for special seasons are

Advent violet, red, white. Lent warm grey, white, black
:

edges.
:

For Pentecost and Septuagesima
Creation and of the Holy Spirit.

red as the symbol of

For Lent, Advent, Ember Weeks, Innocents, Sexagesima, and Qutnquagesiha Sundays violet, white letters, edged with
:

black or dull gold.

Green, gold, and white for festivals.
Ecclesiastical blue is deep

and

intense, it is also sapphire or

bright clear ultramarine.

PLATE

.XI

SCROLLS AND TEXTS.

THOUGHT* THE KING
*

&

& & & &

&>

&

•XT

0F-GL0^Y*O* CHRIST

1 f~--~-^_^ .PLATE XII SCROLLS AND TEXTS.1 I i itesirg ii i iii . i i i i i i i * fcx^ S -»nnmciiU .i i ii h'" " "" * all ! 'Hat inns ' l -«lJl]llW|l|IIinl'lli!l!ll!l li" l.

.

province to discuss. ANNERS have been used in all ages for processions of rejoicing. Those on paper or paper-cloth are only fit for school decorations. for Christmas the richness of colour in the we recommend a white ground.amt^rs. special allegorical and being a for means of the teaching symbolism. they are in great favour with some people. would not be complete without some notice of them. not our The wishes and welcome the opinions of the clergyman should in these matters always be consulted. keeping monogram and border. which give a richness and glow of colour hitherto unobtainable. These Banners are also free so the objectionable gaudiness often complained of in those manufactured by amateurs. . But all will introduction of Banners at their School Festivals. Banners should be adapted to the special season for which they are used . and our Book cloth. A few manufacturers from now supply very good Banners on using the finest French flocks. Whatever difference of opinion bility may exist as to the advisa- of introducing Banners it is into Church Decoration.

Borders. but experience. The spaces must be drawn with accuracy. fringe is In the design given no . In giving practical instructions clearness. Cheap fringes made for the centre the purpose can be obtained of any width.44 BANNERS. lines A and B. «0E . The design according may or consist of any selected cross or mono- gram. . and Lettering. Devices. 36. shown but it may be added for at pleasure. and again subdivide the lowest space into eight squares of six inches each. Instructions for drawing the Monograms. From the points thus obtained very many varieties of shape can be described. are all given under their separate headings. is Deep an im- fringe in place of ornament provement. from the points 100. rule to C. is given as the result of To construct design No. add border at top of design and at each side of the spaces A and B. and the perpendicular line in the centre of the sketch at right angles to the bottom line (§ 47). it The amateur is not confined to this exact scale.for drawing Banners. and in this a proportion of depth and width is used best adaj)ted for Church Decoration. for one size only will be taken. Divide the sketch (36 inches long by 24 inches wide) into three spaces. 35. festival for to the season which the banner is intended.

may be coloured pale blue. or pale red. of a pale warm tint or Cut the corners from the bottom of the design. p . would make a rich banner. is This arrangement best finished by the addition of a border at each side. and the same device is shown in the centre of the next diagram. with a dark red pattern. or fill the spaces with holly or evergreens. 45 The centre device is constructed on ruled squares (§ 48). In No. is a good shape for any textile Plain white silk with a border in colours. keep the groundwork of the Banner white. but placed in a different position. cross. 101 a change is also made in the shape by describing a semicircle at the bottom. and finished with six-inch fringe. 102 has the bottom formed by a semicircle described from the centre A with a radius A to B. and centre Should much colour be used gold. 38. When no motto is required. 37. No. with a pattern worked in dark blue. 100 and 101. in the section of this manual.BANNERS. and finish- ing with points. or symbol. and in the centre of the design a crown or star. are drawn to occupy a space about the size of the diagrams in Nos. in the cross. first The illustrations of symbols and emblems. This fabric. The cross Place in the centre of the circle a device. add a scroll or ornament D E.

taking A and B as centres. diagrams are intended to assist in setting out the work with some degree of accuracv. The quatrefoil can stand as a bold device or with a small monogram in its centre. 103 shows another . shape "by two curved lines are struck m 5S^OS32S£^ B compasses.46 BANNERS. . Banner No. / N°l03 \ 39. A tracing of this banner placed over any of the various crosses and emblems illustrated in the this first part of manual will suggest many comThe binations which our limited space does not permit of illustrating.

see that is suitable to the Festival. with an "Agnus Dei" in the centre. . or the outline may be transferred to silk or any fabric by pouncing (§ 70). red. works. Oil painting on silk and only used for very large is costly. or one bearing the Tau Cross. the contraction in drying will spoil the effect* The Cross of Constantine on a blue ground is a striking Christmas Banner. of the thick black lines. 18). In selecting a Cross. with a bunch of white lilies in the centre. use a device in gold or any one colour. will be appropriate. and border white. round. Letters or emblems cut textile from thin paper are bad for mounting on fabrics . The Banner shonld be shaped at the bottom in the and a fringe or border added. Gold device on Wliite ground may it Bed or Blue. At Easter. to 4. Very beautiful Banners may be made by introducing the of the Evangelists (p. silk adapted for the purpose a For a Border select design that will be distinct at a distance. Emblems These designs can be purchased printed in outline on cloth. Use as few colours as possible. and the word " Alleluia " in gold. .BANNERS. ready for illuminating. stars or tivo Two small crosses are preferable to one star and one cross used in the same work. Outline with Black any device or monogram placed on a be outlined with coloured ground. and the 41. is difficult. For Lady-Day a peculiarly beautiful one may be made ground a rich blue (the Virgin's colour). If small spaces require filling. Banners without any monogram or device require a border all These are well adapted for texts. and avoid violent contrasts.7 make any design of a less depth in proportion to the direction width.

Fig. 4. 5- Fig. 103 and 104. of position will is make a Device appear of a difis ferent shape. and No. 3 This the same shape as No. . Nos. No. Here let it be remarked that we are not strictly bound by any rule of colour. 6.48 BANNERS. 42. except when the work is to be done for those whose taste inclines to strict symbolism. 4. 5 also the same is shown in illustrations of Banners. A change as No. 6. Fig.

and can be obtained dealers in Ecclesiastical Decorations. By using four of these corners. or "be the whole can one entire work. An open diaper or latcan be made in sepa- tice work rate pieces fitted to a and afterwards square frame. and the being space. 3 inches wide. of The most about 6d. and a few lengths of wood. Our centre illustration shows a framework of wood. 43. For light wood frames. is required.— TRELLIS AND DIAPER WORK. all that is The comers are also very useful wherever light corners cost wood framework each. 44. filled by six lozenze-shaped pieces. very useful corners of zinc have ^been lately introduced. a frame can be made very rapidly and inexpensively a few nails driven into the zinc being required to secure the whole together. sufficient for the This method has the advantage of enabling the work to be subdivided a desideratum with decoration in natural flowers or evergreens. .

composed of masses of berries. with Scotch foliage. and light sprays of so as to make a regular geometrical pattern. the exterior framework first should be made. or even rice. buck- ram or velvet. jewelled berries. . TRELLIS WORK. which may be worked out at a very small cost and with little labour. For a diaper with a background. a second card cut to be used as a square latter a pair of large wooden compasses are not absolutely requisite . or with flowers executed with formal accuracy. with holes at distances of an inch apart is a very ready substitute. 46. everlastings. DEVICES AND GEOMETRICAL FIGURES. and then covered with calico. a straight-edge of wood about two these feet long . and the intersections fir. worked with ears of corn crossed. crossed by wreaths made on cord or tape. will make a very successful wall- covering at the back of an altar. and cut accurately . Tew or box for the diaper. The background may be After this manner a most elaborate reredos may be made.— 50 45. alternating and arranging the colour and pattern with precision. will all is required: —Black lead a few strips of very stout cardboard about three inches wide and three feet long. and medallions of velvet filled with symbols. Place a nail through . of Devices and Geometrical Figures on a large too small. the usual mathematical instruments are much A few readily made from card or wood are not be that only better adapted for the work. The squares may be filled up with rosettes of leaves. a piece of wood eighteen inches long and one inch wide. The following pencils . canvas. holly for the arches. For the construction scale. but are very inexpensive.

which will cut through C D in the points Gr and H. geometrical figures constructed on ruled By enlarging the ruled squares no difficulty should . of paper the size of the proposed device. and to line. Draw a line from G to H. and with the pencil point draw a part of a circle C D. DEVICES AND GEOMETRICAL FIGURES. and it will cut the line A B into two equal parts. In order to we recommend a few very ready methods Take a sheet and reduce the surface for constructing the devices used in decoration. Place the steel point in B. the whole surface of the paper is made To construct two of into squares. for walls when working. devices of equal size it may be necessary to draw two distinct sets of outlines. draw — a line A B to divide this line into two equal parts. Of necessity the lines be certain that you commence with a perpendicular as in the following example must be drawn with accuracy. and at right angles. surface . 47. make holes sufficiently large admit a lead pencil at the distance This plan is required from the centre A. and should be obtained from a technical manual. To illustrate this we give some examples paper. lines obtained. A knowledge of drawing geometrical figures very valuable. Place the point of the compasses in A open the compasses until the distance between is much more than half the line say Keep the steel point in A. and use to it 51 as a centre . and with the same length in the compass draw E F. assist the amateur. — These two easily 48. the points to a.on a flat the ordinary wooden compasses with twelve very easy is inch legs are best.— . the hole A. to squares by intersecting lines. The size of the squares will regulate the size of the design.

Cf . FIG 8 TIC. be experienced in obtaining an accurate drawing of any required centres size. and Geo- metrical Figures can be bought serviceable these are only when I the size suits the required work.52 DEVICES AND GEOMETRICAL FIGURES. The parts marked compasses. X indicate the points used as for the Most in of the Crosses outline . FIG 3.

B. as shown by dotted For Trefoils very simple method: — hue —Fig. from which are extracted the following simple and concise directions for — drawing a perfect of a piece of ellipse by means string method which is of great service when the work and pins. and the exterior will be a perfect Trefoil Fig. &c. together. cut from each an equal portion. 13. Cassell. 9. the following will be found a Cut circles from common paper. as alone can . next place pins or tacks at C. and place the point at B Open the compasses equal to to obtain the points C and F . pencil Eemove the pin B. 12. 10. 49. F. and stretch a string as indicated by the dotted line. 53 and Quatref oils.DEVICES AND GEOMETRICAL FIGURES. 51. a is I large. Four cut circles placed together will give a square and the exterior a Quatrefoil Fig. First ascertain the e length and width to be occupied. centre. the indispensable preliminary before ornait mental or illuminated work can be executed. The operation It is of setting out lines upon walls or other surfaces involves care and judgment. and with a string tight describe the figure 'by keeping the from C to F by the pencil. and a very steady hand. Setting out Lines. then divide the length AE into two equal parts' (§ 47). A D. 50. A very excellent hand-book is published by Messrs. a quick eye. and Keeping the circles close let them be exact in size— Fig. A knowledge of geometrical drawing is of great assistance. circles Three cut placed together will give an equilateral triangle for a centre.

Occasionally gold and silver powders and and silver leaf. or else struck by means of a chalked string. out these lines. white. GILDING52. gold paint. one carrying a pencil." and costs about Is. &c. German metal leaf are employed. a perfectly straight and vertical line. gold paper. The principal Metallic Preparations used in illumination : may be enumerated as follows — Gold leaf. 6d. The horizontal lines ruler. scrolls. The string being chalked black or —according as the to ground— he holds it line has to show upon a light or dark fall is one of the points. borders. or lines by leg a large square. below and " snaps is " (23) the string. and the other below. the person who strains tight. The German metal is fit for large temporary decorations. The result. when quite steady. 53. Two one working above. niay be either drawn with pencil or prepared charcoal or chalk. by far the best and most useful metallic preparation for .54 SETTING OUT LINES. are vertical a weight called a For lines which plum-bob must be attached to persons are required in setting one end of the string. The first-mentioned preparation of gold —gold leaf— is the pure metal beaten into very thin leaves. and is sold in " books. if carefully executed. require to be drawn with a straight-edge or to the vertical and may be cut out of a true right angle lines geometrically by the intersection of arcs of circles. Lines correctly give the forms of panels. generally three inches and a quarter It is in width. and lets the weighted end. The is re- one at the top marks the points at the distance each line quired to be from the others. which." each of which contains twenty-five gold "leaves. their proper Circles and curved large may be struck from centres with wooden compasses.

it be 54. to Should the gold not adhere any part. sides of the tip will be leaf. brought down upon the side edges of the re- which then can be securely taken up and placed where quired. the of the tip be close to the edge of the leaf. the work clear and sharp. it Let the gold size stand. cautiously ' : take up a leaf from the book by passing a " gilder's knife underneath. is used with a camel hair brush water colours. the fingers. as if you were pasting down." and quietly so place on the leaf that the top In so doing. of gold it and. an experienced : As an 55. the usual mode : Carefully open the book leaf. but not so moist as to smear. easy method of using gold leaf. until. it is found to be sticky. Be care- ful not to touch the gold with spoilt. " wrinkly. using no pressure.— GILDING. If. with which then cut the piece of the size required. flat if in so doing. remove a little with blotting paper. 55 and the difficulty of handling it and laying it. G-old size. brush away the superfluous gold. with a dry brush. Press the gold-leaf gently and smoothly with a it ." blow when you have laid gold it down flat. If a you disturb the gently blow down again. illu- minator suggests the following Eub a sheet of thin letter paper very gently with white wax. whole leaf be required. and place it on a "gilder's cushion". If a small piece of gold leaf only be wanted. let the gold remain undisturbed about half an hour then. lay leaf it flat with the knife. like ordinary down with the tip.wool. on touching with the finger. . retouch with the If too size. for real gold leaf. ball of cotton. and gild as before. or it will is be quite much gold size applied by the brush. It taking care to preserve the outline of must be applied evenly. take a rounded it " gilder's tip. it on should not deter amateurs from employing is The following . ordinary and general purposes .

but it is far better to have glue. and each leaf can be handled at pleasure. This is too costly for large works. which two ingredients are mixed together. If the gold size is or metal will change colour. Gold paper consists of leaves of gold placed upon thin paper. . size of the leaf-metal. that the work may be more 57. distinctly seen. ground.K 6 GILDING. coat with White-hard-varnish. Letters and Devices cut from gold paper order to press all inequalities. add a little used on a pale red yellow. it is In laying down gold paper. which can Paper thus very strong. 58. press the leaf -metal against the gold size and rub gently is at the back of the paper : only that portion which required for the work will be found 56. flat camel-hair brush passed over can then be laid down. to have adhered. a sheet of which measures about 19 inches by 12J inches. is it prepared on the back with a mixture of clear be laid on evenly and thinly. in imitation of gold. and very slightly coated so that the paper becomes very evenly with the wax. and place the waxed side next the metal the gold will adhere to the wax. same maimer as or the gold When dry. sugar." § 28). and is usually plain at the back. down are readily affixed to a surface of oil colour (see " Borders. Gold paint is a preparation of bronze. and yet prepared requires only a wet the back. well to place a piece of white it then firmly to pass over the edge of a and render the surface perfectly smooth. and the other of liquid. one of powder. Practice will indicate the amount required. in the The German metal may be applied leaf. Cut the paper into squares the one on each leaf. The letters or ornament being indicated in gold size. glazed paper on flat rule. in its face. and is usually sold in two bottles. . When used it requires to be gummed on to the work . and will adhere very firmly. it &c.

may be added Vermilion. seldom a pleasing occupation. then a small quantity of Crimson Lake to this list. Colours prepared and ground these not of an expensive nature. 59. If at- ready tempted by the amateur.— These. 57 face will then be ready to receive the gold-size and as leaf metal. with the If a Purple is Vermilion. therefore. . is the most important and indispensable. required. as a red. Oil Colours. Paint dissolved in that portion intended to be gold with isinglass and the surwater when dry go over the work a second time. and Yellow. or consult a Our remarks be confined to those colours and purposes only. for use. it Do not attempt to use German metal on silk. and. It is sufficient to rub it with oil. Gilding on Silk Should not be attempted on silk of a poor quality. is of too coarse and brittle a nature. Blue. by means . Covering large surfaces siderable practice to obtain successful results. in metal tubes. Orange. should be pur- Black. get this part of the work done by a house painter. When practical. requires conand 60. materials required for ornamental and decorative will. and Unless for very elaborate works. colours for oil painting. in oil for illuminating purposes can be obtained tubes usually sold by These are larger and cheaper than the artists' colourmen. moreover. per oz. the best will cost about 8d. few colours are necessary. The following chased: &c. —Buy this in the dry impalpable powder.— OIL COLOURS. with oil colour is never a healthful. purchase the colours prepared handbook specially devoted to the subject. in tube or powder. will be sufficient.

pom. free from lead. —This mixture of oil. can be obtained ready oil in ground in large pots at Is. will give the proper proportion. Take a small quantity of colour from the metal tube. A com- mon plate is a good substitute. — —Of each keej> well corked when not in use. consistency for using with the brush in same manner as Blue. and place it on the saucer or palette. &c. The colour preparation free from the offensive smell usual with common paint. a tube will not be Prepared white. ground in oil will mix readily with the gold . Oil Colour Preparation. —These are small answer equally as tins. as to use of the oil the least possible quantity. but not so thin as to run beyond the spot touched by the brush five minutes' practice . each. mix with a palette then add a small quantity of spirits of turpentine. Spirits of Turpentine and Japan Gold Size. as shown in the wood-cut. in the same manner as for Distemper Colours (63). size. — Size required according to the work. finely The tube colour being very size. Black. you have occasion. Experience alone will dictate the exact proportion of colours and gold size to be mixed. spirits of turpentine. a small bottle 61. colour should be sufficiently thin to flow easily is The when the brush applied to the cloth or zinc. freely. White. size. small vessel well. drying oils and varnish. Tin Dippers. added to the colours ground in will make them is work and dry rapidly.58 OIL COLOURS. They will cost about 6d. largely used for mixture. being sufficient.over about half the bulk of gold knife. each —one to hold the gold Any and one the Palette. Tints can be compounded by mixture. being careful Reduce to proper of the palette-knife simply.

white. prepared in cake or tube for ordinary water-colour painting are not well adapted for Decoration work. use the same as for colour large surfaces will require a brush known as a " sash tool. the same as for oil- a tint made pale by water only will not work well. Orange. 63. The cost would be too great. A gentle required to melt the size one lump of whitening to a pint of size will be found the best proportion. and renders it easy to work a great — advantage when a large surface tint. Yellow and Black in thick oil For brushes. as by the addition of thin gum water they are ready for immediate use. finely ground . itself. The paste colours are recommended. Colours 59 Colours. trials make the desired many shades lighter than it should be made on paper and dried much colour as will by the heat is until the colour required be attained. by colour fix ground up colour. Blue. The white added to the colour also gives it body. and presents a very poor appearance. and as tint . Ver- milion in powder paste or powder. which for convenience in use can be purchased in the form of a thick paste or dry powder. Provide a good supply of White. which. of Light tints must be produced by the addition colours . It and mixed with sufficient size to much less expensive than oil painting. the The foundation the top water size is is for all distemper colours is whitening. but as this when dry will be appears when fire wet. Common double then added." Distemper Colour. WATER COLOURS. Water 62. Distempering in water is is a method of colouring walls. What is required is a finely ground colour. &c. is to be covered with a uniform . is having been set to soak in cold water and break up (when poured off) in a fit state for use.. but at the same time inexpensive. The colour must . .

the to yellow. when ready for use.60 be first . " Flatting. blue. and become very permanent by varnishing in the same way as requisite. blue to the ivhite. should be of the consistency of thick cream. ochre. — Yellow — Crimson and added Blue Grey. is For Church work Distemper Colour as a it is seldom now used except background for a large decoration. are the common Tint. and two coats are a practical house painter. red. the assistance of work done with Colours mixed with spirit can be easily worked on the flatted ground. blue first. DISTEMPER AND FLATTED COLOUR. size if added dry. lake white. more whitening. ground in water before it is added to the whitening and Colour. . lake. — French vermilion and Buff. — Chinese Warm blue. pots. more size and water if too thin. 64. lake black. white. will dry a few shades darker than when is Considerable practice it is required to apply flatted colour successfully very quick drying and unpleasant to use. flat add The pots used is best. and should run from the brush on being raised from the pot in one thread . the whole will be spoilt. — Royal and Pink. white. — Small quantity of crimson —Royal which add a small portion white then of crimson vermilion and Orange. — Royal and Pale Green. it is advisable to get this part of the ordinary graining. white. is produced by mixing pure it white lead and turpentine with sufficient colours to bring the required tint. For School Decoration Flatted Colour." or drying colour. several. and for large works a ochre. . if it run in . brush —Light red and yellow and Pale Grey. it is too thin. If too thick. yellow. very cheap and effective. Chocolate. As flatted colour forms the best groundwork for works on zinc or metal. to Flatted colour first —unlike distemper— mixed. Lilac. white.

(§ 26) the brushes required for an ordinary scroll or text have been described. 61 Under heading of "Permanent Texts" oil colour. must be drawn along just touching the work. Stencilling is a process by which colour is applied through interstices cut in a prepared paper. it slightly raised. place the straight-edge next the line and keep even. by the brush. procure a few lengths of printed borders. well filled with colour. after being used with should be carefully it cleaned in sweet oil. Avoid using turpentine. always let the darkest colour be the To Draw Lines with a Straight-Edge. Brushes. Stencilling. When stencilling a design. Keep the pressure G and re-fill the brush . by dabbing with a brush. The pattern is then cut out with a sharp knife upon a sheet of glass. use a brush with short hairs and the colour not too thin. 65. The design to be stencilled oil is been steeped in linseed and well drawn upon paper which has dried. as leaves the hairs in a harsh state. of the stencil plates is readily corrected by When the work is to be finished last. Metal stencil plates about 12 inches in length may be bought at a reasonable rate. Very effective and accurate work may be produced by stencilling the first colour and outlining this with black. The line should be clearly indicated by pencil or chalk. 66. 67. and cut the design as previously described.BRUSHES. it. All brushes. Any inaccuracy caused by unsuccessful use this means. paste a portion on card or vellum paper. care being taken to leave sufficient connexions to keep the stencil together. When executing a border design by means of stencil plates. STENCILLING. The brush.

62

TRANSFERRING ORNAMENT.
it is

when
case

near failing.

Avoid having the brush too

full,

in this

it

will blotch the line.

Mounting Parchment on Wood, Paper,
68. Paste,

&c.
side of

gum, or glue,
is

is

not practicable.

Brush the

the parchment which
press on
paste.

to be fixed with alcohol or spirit,

and

a mounting-board

previously coated with

common

If two parchments are to be fixed together, both are moistened with alcohol and a thin sheet of paper pasted over on both sides
is

placed between.

To Imitate Ground Glass.
69.

to the consistency of thick cream
dryers.

Reduce ordinary white paint by the addition of turpentine then add a small quantity of
;

The

colour should be sufficiently thin to be applied
it will

by

a brush, but not so thin that
as evenly as possible

run down the

glass.

Spread

and

finish

by dabbing with a duster folded

in the shape of a ball, or with the bristles of a dry brush.

Transferring Patterns of Ornament.
70.

Patterns of ornament
full- sized
flat

may be

transferred by " pounces,"
all

which are
bag,

drawings pricked along

the lines with a

needle upon a
is

cushion; powdered charcoal, tied up in a cotton

then dabbed upon the paper.

The

result

is

that the dust

passes through the pricked holes and forms an indication of colour sufficiently distinct to be followed by a brush of colour
or pencil.

Crystal Frost.
71.

This consists of white glass, very finely powdered

— so

fine

that any attempt to

make

it

by an amateur would be a

failure.

The

frost is not expensive,

and a

shilling packet will be sufficient

TRACING PAPER AND METAL.
for any ordinary decoration.
first

63
is

Strong

gum

with sugar added

applied to the material on which you are working, using

just sufficient to cover the surface.

Too much gum
particles

will require

an excess of frost-powder.

Sprinkle the frost-powder over the
off

gummed
adhere.

surface,

and dust

those

that

do not

Tracing Paper.
72.

Tracing paper offers great
It,

facilities to

those

little

gifted

with talent for drawing.

moreover, possesses an additional

practical convenience in being ready for taking colour, either

with

oil,

water, or varnish, as vehicles, without the previous
of

application

any

special

preparation.
either

fastened up

when completed,
if

Hence by pasting
even
if

it

may be
ordinary

as

paper, or by glueing,

for attachment to wood.

Being very
applied to the

thin, its edges will scarcely

show

at

all,

middle of a
or distemper,

flat

panel

;

but, to

make

sure, it is always well
oil
its

to run a line with a full brush of thick colour, either in

over

the edge, extending for

one-half of

width upon the tracing paper, and the other half upon the
surface to which
also be affixed
it

may have been

applied.

Tracing paper

may

by white-hard-varnish.

Metal.
73.

Metal in thin sheets

is

liable to the objection that it is diffi-

cult to keep its surface

from undulation

in change of temperature.

In other respects zinc
to any kind of material

offers the great convenience that it
scissors, or

may
is
it

be cut out to any desired shape, with strong

attached

by

nails or screws

;

it

cuts readily,

and

cheap.

Care, should, however, be
as shall allow
it

always

taken to hang

from such points
It
is

to freely contract

and expand.

a material particularly well adapted for cutting out into

64
labels

MATERIALS.
to

surmount door and window arches, or

to

fill

the

arcading of churches.

Prepared or Enamelled Cloth.
74.

This

is

a material of very stout linen cloth, prepared with a

double enamel surface,

—very durable when varnished, and
It does not contract

easily

worked on with
length,

oil

or water colour.

when

used as a basis for pasting cut letters. The cloth can be had in any

and

in widths of 12, 18, 24,

and 36 inches.
is

The

special

convenience of illuminating upon prepared cloth
of the operator having to

that instead

do

all

that is necessary on a table or bench (§ 26).

work on a perpendicular surface, he may For long
recommended.

texts no better material can be

American Cloth
75.

Or Leather Cloth
is

is

sometimes used, but the bright

surface

objectionable.

Plaster.
76. Illuminations

on plaster may be executed either in disoil colour.

temper colour or in
but
less

durable process.

The former Hence decoration

is
is

the more rapid
usually applied

in oil to walls which are liable to be rubbed
against,

and brushed

and in distemper to those works which are comYery pretty decoraparatively speaking out of harm's way.
tions on
plaster

may be
for

executed by combining hand-work

illumination with diapered or other paper hangings, but these
are not

recommended

Church work.

Illumination on Stone.
77.

In reference to this material, Sir D. Wyatt, in his " Art of
:

Bluminathig," remarks
enforce

— " There

is

one

point to specially

namely, the advisability of not covering the whole of

is Do not remove the superfluous rice before the work dry. sufficiently to carry the colour and gild salient members it about the monument.work of is an almost an imperative necessity. glass is inserted in stonework. In illuminating stonework.ILLUMINATING ON STONE. used very hot is . it is always well to preserve as far as possible. ." Groundwork: of Eice. a screen. . by means. which nate. or a doorway. all Illumi. over. Wherever stained analogous nature. it destroys the surface and appearance of the stone. 78. friezes. panels. granulation. whether may be a font. cover the portion of the design that is intended for the Rice Work with thin glue. It is not necessary to produce a good effect . to attempt to apply decoration executed on paper or canvas it should in all cases when it is at a great distance from. 65 There is about all stone a peculiar and in many varieties a slight siliceous sparkle. &c. in order to balance the appearance of chill and poverty given to the stone- work by its contrast with the brilliant translucent tints of the painted glass. a staircase. or at any rate of coloured diaper. looking spotty and unsupported all and prevent the highly-illuminated portion from but by no means apply paint . the application of illumination. thoroughly or for Eice makes exceedingly pretty letters for texts backgrounds. a reredos. making it of no more worth than if it were plaster and it clogs up all the fine arrises and angles of the moulded work or carving. the surface with paint. the eye) be done upon the stone itself. To imitate ivory. a tomb. a pulpit. (excepting it seldom answers . drop the rice over the glued parts so that each well covered. inscriptions. colour occasionally the hollows of mouldings.

in every variety of colour. For the opaque colours and gilding use the varnish without any colour. For a small work these are very beautiful. White Cotton Wool 81. Letters and devices can also be made by Turn the covering very stout paper with the wool in sheets. such as crimson. on Prepared. . and indicate the letters on the back . and is easy to work. face downwards. Is very useful for large works that are placed at a height. and remove the excess of wool when the glue is quite dry.cloth should be protected from damp walls by a coating of varnish. press the wool gently to the shape required. that known as "White-hardvarnish" answers best. berries without wire can be used in place of natural 79. so as to allow the grain of the wood to show through. 82. Bed Berries foe Groundwork be treated the same way as rice (§ 78). then cut with scissors or a sharp knife. May Artificial berries. In illuminating on wood pretty effects may be obtained by varnishing partially with transparent colours. 80. The flowers are design worked now imported entirely artistic A with immortelles affords work. about 3 inches wide. Apply glue to the surface of the card or cloth (to that portion of the work which is to be made in wool). Illumination varnishing use a flat camel hair brush. on a table. Prussian blue. For 83. dries quickly. Damp Walls. an opportunity for much same Affix with glue or very thick gum in the way as "Bice Groundwork " (§78). Varnishing Wood. wool. Immortelles for Groundwork. or burnt sienna.66 RECEIPTS.

Is very useful for Floral Decorations. The straw is mounted on a groundwork fix.RECEIPTS. Waterproof Paper 84. 67 and prevents stains on stonework or plaster. of linen. Tissue. an excellent material for cutting letters for Texts. letters. Straw Plait and Straw 85. and is very easy to cut and . Very coarse straw is plait is used for making large Straw Tissue This is sold in sheets about 16 inches by 5 inches.

. and that now We search To give abroad For the flowers of God Him their sweet perfume.— We think 'tis meet The Lord to greet. And hearts like And so we shake The snowy flake From cedar and the hoarded gold . are charming illustrations of the faculty with which the Church invests every good holy associations. On the hills of God. where the are accustomed to come forth By rustic music led. As wise men did of old. We raise to His glory there. And the boughs that nod. That carried sceptre-like. o'ertops the head Of the proud bearer. describes a day village children amongst the rustics of Westmorland. With the spiceries Of incense trees. The decoration of churches and graveyards with evergreens and flowers is a very ancient cnstom of the Church of England. myrtle fair . . each with garland gay. " Bushranging" and "Posy Sunday." still extant in distant parts of the country. in his Ecclesiastical Sonnets. gift of God with Wordsworth. Through the still churchyard. CoXE. We are happy that in our day this beautiful custom has been restored.

FLORAL DEVICES .PLATE XIV.

* .

for larger works flock paper or flock cloth would be best. re- but as occasionally a very dark church may at Christmas quire some relief of light amongst its greenery. by small black spots (§ 61). wool if a floral background. which some might like to employ (§ 60). the flowers used they will be suitable for most festivals. For Christmas. Decorations. Privet and Holly. nothing so 1. always employ foliage or moss effective as Everlastings . Plate X. for backgrounds. — fix it after the floral part finished. XV. we give our readers directions for crystallization. and XVI. The cross should be a Tau. are given as illustrations for Floral The designs may be increased in size according With a change of colour and in to the space to be occupied. XV. is to be added to the device is — as shewn In . Holy associations are thus attached to flowers : 69 every festival and every saint in the Calendar has a blossom dedicated to the day of solemnization. the designs will require in Plates XIV. dislike any imitations in Church Decoration. the evergreen portions of the designs use Yew. individually. good and No. for Green.. Plates XIV. use white Lilies . shews a Yellow straw with a background of Holly Berries or Dahlias. few changes of colours. indicated in the design (§ 62) . White. for Yellow. Box. We. 8. Fir. The For colours used for the backgrounds may also be changed. or white cotton . and XVI. Plate XIV. the illustration the backgrounds are given in plain colours only for small works (the decoration of a font or a pulpit) silk or velvet should be used.— FLORAL DECORATIONS.. If a backgromid in Fig. of T H or from the arms which ivy trails T cross or monogram cross. may gracefully depend . can be made of ricework.

. Everlasting flowers (Gnapludiums) are variety of colour. representing the faith. the encircling S of in golden flowers. —On —the flower-emblems of almond blossom— possible— if the bottom step. or the flattened flower the scarlet geranium. 9. the third step. either for a large or small decoration. On On the if not.70 FLORAL DECORATIONS. on. blue flowers in moss. white floss. The whole may be mounted with a border. —blue and green being the colours or of Hope. . first When made of leaves and flowers the cross-frame be quite covered with moss. with here and there a bunch of berries or everlasting buds to resemble jewels. on the top may be placed a floral radiated crown. Plate XIV. in which : should be placed the following flowers heartsease or pansies second step. blood shed by martyrs as the proof of their Plate X. in This design is also suitable for Easter. into which white and Twisted round the cross and red flowers may be inserted. or placed on a plain white ground. laburnum will easily make The crown may be made of leaves of various kinds. now imported in every and in many decorations form an agreeable . which greatly improves the form of the Tau cross or a star of berries and sprays of ivy. The monogram scarlet is made wood and covered with berries or very small blossoms. Calvary one the steps — if the cross is a — should be covered with beds of moss. furze or it. shewn in No. pendent from the arms should hang the passion-flower the — symbol of our Lord's death. Cape Everlastings 6. The cross appropriate to Easter is the Cross of Calvary or the Agony should Cross. Charity. which is very ornamental and significant this is . crimson red flowers. The Leaves centre I (iota) should be done in the two sides of the H in white blossoms gnmmed . may be used with great advantage in a cross same as No.

and at the same time to preserve the fine outline of a monogram or symbolic device. The decoration of Pillars and Altar Rails will depend on the Too intricate a scheme should be avoided. projecting in rich masses of light and shade. for if not building:. and the flowers set in from the front. or berries. As the flowers are put on. relief 71 holly when used in conjunction with evergreens. in the same way as gardeners fruit trees to a wall or cover the green calico in manner described for texts. beginning at the bottom of the device. or it is any perish- them by putting a gum into each flower and if to be formed drop of very thin into any device. azaleas. to work upwards. When the frames are of wood work. better to have the zinc pattern made with sliding back and perforated front. cover with small sprigs of yew. . much . wooden device with common It is easy to work out an orderly pattern of berry and leaf. If you use flowers. cover the wooded foundation with moss or able blossom. box. holly. better always to secure . either bit of black tape round the by securing a and then nailing them on nail the wooden device. such as geraniums.FLORAL DECORATIONS. a camel-hair brush must be drawn gently behind each row of flowers. wetted with camphor water. followed with accuracy the result will be far from pleasing. or everlasting flowers. so that their stems are kept moist. it is places. and then. wadding. stalks. to gum the stalks at the back and ensure their not moving from their If the flowers are required to last some days. The inside of the frame should be filled with moss.

ivy. and bent into the right form. with dependent grapes Fruit of the season should be piled beneath the sheaf of wheat. the zinc tubes are easily sight by a judicious arrangement of bunches of Before decorating from the patterns offered in the illustrations. the stalks are crossed of graj>e vine. Tubes of zinc to hold water are greatly assist the decorator made in various sizes. spreads a common feast for all that live. effective decoration for a Three sheaves form this figure . —and of course strongly tied its — is and tendrils. When kept out of wheat. employed with Harvest Decorations. trails of honesty. How # Think. . which (by crossing the ends on the centre sheaf) may be made to bend sideways in the shape of a Fleur-de-lis. oh good the God S{S grateful think of Harvest 5fc is Sfc * to you. letting them hang down at intervals. bounty shines in Autumn unconfined. & Thy And 89. Twine in and out of the open plait grape-vine. and when using Natural flowers. Where bough twined. or any other creeper. and barley is a very Harvest festival. the ears of wheat being placed in the centre above the others. A large Fleur-de-lis made of wheat. oats. the following general instructions will not be out of place: For the pulpit or reading-desk harvest wreaths should be made of straw lightly plaited in a three-plait.— a •artHjsi jbtorjatiotts.

issuing from beds of moss ivy . A star of dahlias looks very beautiful radiated with ears of barley. . and Nos. 13. branches from the Window sills afford great filled scope for display. and should be copied on a large scale. the ears form the are enough for each arm. outline with black. 22. A beautiful Eastern Cross bunches of floriated ends. The Monograms—No. and 24 in Plate XII. 21. a very tasteful arrangement and can be used for other festivals. or all red. Plate XII. 17 in the same plate can be used with the three colours for background. with occasional bunches of autumnal flowers of all kinds.HARVEST DECORATIONS. with moss. When using gold with a colour. —poppies. can be made. barley. The zinc boxes are not expensive. oats. three stalks may be made by tying together four wheat. 22. small and radiated with wheatscarlet dahlias. all blue. In Plate XL. No. same as No. When zinc boxes are used. and filberts on their sides. gemmed with marigolds. are given as illustrations of one colour and it gold. gold can be substituted for yellow. 73 Larger and longer Wreaths may be made on rope of all the greenery to be had. . Plate XL. or all gold. 16 and 18 are given as designs for Harvest Decoration. and rye. or chrysanthemums. and ivy twined in and out form the body In the Church Windows arches of wire may be put. In all the designs except No. The sacred monograms may be made in flowers cornflowers and wheat. and white dahlias. . up them should be trained vine boughs and grapes should hang from the centre. 23. barberries of the cross. Plate XII. 20. Nos. A crown ears may be made of green leaves.

and corn-flowers on a gold ground form an They may be arranged on a Cross Pommee. at each rounded end. four corn-flowers flat —in plait. of grapes in the centre . in circles and all the geometrical symbols may be . scarlet flowers. poppies. The three Emblematic colours and poppies are found in wheat (gold). sewed on —or three in a triangle. bestows on man the boon Purple —a colour formed of blue and red — is also symbolical. a star. Double triangles used. The latter. — or corn-flowers (blue). poppies twined round the arms or interlaced in the Easter Crosses should be used at harvest. tall. Grapes. the S in poppies and straw.74 HARVEST TEXTS. which is sold in sheets about 18 by 5 inches. The colours for harvest are. HARVEST TEXTS. mounted on linen (§ 80)— blue for the ground. stiff The ears of wheat make a good Iota (I) H . or of widely plaited straw. the should be made in corn flowers. the border or edge of hips. (red). A bunch The Cross should be gold. barberries. exquisite symbol. and all emblems of abundance. though esteemed a weed in the harvest of sleep. gold for the letters they may be worked in straw or cut from straw tissue. field.

" "Therefore be ye also ready. Matt. 41. " Hosanna to the Son of David. 31. 16. 5." Zech. iv." Ps. i. xxvi." Rom. come. Ye know not what hour your Lord doth come." Rev."— 1 Thess. the quick and the dead. 6. The Lord Himself shall descend from Heaven. the day is at hand." Tim. 44." Who 2." The ungodly shall not stand in the Judgment. " " " S. The Day of the Lord so cometh as a thief in the night."— S. 33. Matt. 2. 13. 20. Mark xiii. 12. " He cometh to judge the Earth. "Behold. xxv. xxi. xi. " The Lord is at hand. Rev. ix. xxi. " He shall come again in His glorious majesty. Day of Christ is at hand. . 9. Collect for Advent. . Matt. i." Phil. xxiv. iv. "Hosanna to the Son of David! " 8. 12. 1 Thess. 9. iv. The Son of Man shall come in His Glory. 7. shall judge the quick and the dead at His appearing.. Matt." 8. xl. 6. " Behold. 42. " The night is far spent. to judge both . thy King cometh !. Matt. The Son of man cometh. ix. v." Is. Matt." Ps." Rev. " There shall come forth a Rod out of the stem of Jesse." Isa. 2. " Prepare ye the way of the Lord."— 2 These. 1." 8. ix. v. Lord Jesus. " Unto us a son is given." Isa.—— — — — — —— — ——— — — — — 11 M The Watch and Pray. 1." S." — Isa. and a Branch shall grow out of his roots. ix. " Behold He cometh with clouds and every eye shall see Him. " Unto us a child is born. ii. xxiv." 8. xiii. xxii. " Surely I come quickly even so. 9." Is. labium** " The people that walked in darkness have seen a great Light. I come quickly. " " " " Ye know not when the time is. xcvi." xxii. 3. 2. 5.

23. " There shall conie a star out of Jacob. I bring you glad tidings of great joy. Luke ii. " God sent forth His Son. and dwelt among us. 21." 5. xxiii. — " Thou shalt call His name Jesus. 10. 16. " Thou art the King of Glory. 4. 29. x. and be no more stiffnecked. i." Isa. 14. God was Manifest in the Flesh. " His name shall be called Wonderful." S. xii. Luke ii. Athanasius. Luke ii." Te Deum." S. the Mighty . cxviii. 15. i. The Word was made flesh. Christ." Ps. Behold." of the child. 6. 7. — Deut. ii. God and Man is one Christ. Luke ii. 6." 8." Haggai ii." JRev. " The Lord. for our salvation came down from Heaven. John vi. Who Nicean "And when eight days were accomplished for the circumcision His name was called Jesus." Gal. which is Christ the Lord. God. 38."— Te Deum. 78." Rev. " Circumcise your heart. xxii."— 1 Tim." S." Num. 21. and the bright and Morning Star. Luke i. He came not to do His own will. " Circumcision is that of the heart. good will ! " Unto you " " " " " " " toward men. " Now is come Salvation and Strength. i. Counsellor. " Emmanuel God with us. The root and offspring of David." S. " The Desire of all nations shall come." Creed. Our Righteousness. 17. iv. Matt. " Thou art the everlasting Son of the Father. 16. " Thou shalt call His name Jesus. iii. 21." Bom. " Glory to God in the Highest and on earth peace. " The right hand of the Lord bringeth mighty things to pass. the Everlasting Father." Isa. 16." S. " Unto us a Child is born unto us a Son is given. 6. 11. Matt." Creed of S." S. is born this day in the city of Dayid a Saviour. 14.— —— 76 — — ——— — —— —— — — — — — SELECTED TEXTS." Jer. . ix. xxiv. the Prince of Peace. John i. but the will of Him that sent Him.*' S. 10."—S^Matt.ix. "Alleluia! Alleluia! Alleluia!" " The day-spring from on high hath visited us.

"— Ps. " Have mercy upon us. Matt. lx. xlii. " I will also give Thee for a Light to the Gentiles." Isa. 10. 1. lx. Joel ii." " I humbled my soul with fasting. John viii." " Name shall be great among the Gentiles saith the Lord. Ii. 11. His mercy is on them that fear Him. earth. by the circumcision of Christ. A "The "The Gentiles shall see Thy Righteousness. and are come to worship Him. "The sacrifices of God are a broken spirit. " i. J 9." Is. vii. " Let the wicked forsake his way. " Light to lighten the Gentiles. xxii." Isa. cxxiii 3." Ps. and kings to the brightness of Thy rising. 2." 8. lxvii. O Lord.— — — —— —— —— — — — — SELECTED TEXTS." 19. lx. atitj. " I am the bright and morning Star. xxvi. shine for thy light is come. 20. "The Gentiles shall come unto Thee from the ends of the Jer. that ye enter not into temptation. and not your garments. 2." Col. 2. 50. lv. Matt. 3." " — ' 8." Ps." Isa. xlix. — — 77 "Ye are circumcised is "Circumcision 1 Cor. . Gentiles shall come to Thy Light. Luke ii. ii. Watch and pray. " We have seen His star in the east. The people that walked in darkness have seen a Great Light.Luke i. . ix." S. " He shall bring forth judgment to the Gentiles. 32. 16." My Mai. Matt." " When they saw the star."— Isa." 8. " Arise."— S."— Ps." 8."— Isa. 11. " I am the Light of the World. xxxv. 12. ii. 13. Isa. 1. they rejoiced. 1. 13. " Rend your hearts. 7." Isa. ye Gentiles. DMGod be merciful unto us. 6. 41. the keeping of the commandments of God. " The Lord shall be thine everlasting Light." Rev. " Rejoice. xvi. ii. 17. with His people. lxii.

" I know that my Eedeemer liveth."— 1 Cor."— 1 Cor. xv. where is thy sting ? O grave. 25. Cross and Passion. 6." Job xix. " Not to do mine own will but the will of Him that sent 8. " He humbled Himself Litany." Isa. 8. we shall 11. Good Lord let deliver us. bare our sins in His 24. 38. Acts ii. 7. tree. I . is sacrificed for us."— Col. first fruits " Your life is hid with Christ in God. behold. where is thy victory? " — 1 Cor. Good Lord deliver us. He was despised and rejected of men. Lord of Lords." Isa. "By Thy "By Thy to the death of the Cross. iii. 5." —2 Tim. God raised up. 54 " I am he that liveth and was dead and." Litany. 3. 22." Cor. ii. — — — By Thy Litany. iv. 55. Cor. liii. own body on the liii 5. 3. also live with Him. fasting and temptation. xv. "He was wounded for our transgressions. Precious Death and Burial. am alive for evermore. them that slept. " The King of Kings." By prayer and supplication unto God." " Rev."—Phil. v." John vi. His own 1." we be dead with Him. Good Lord deliver us. therefore let us the feast. liii. xv." Isa. i. 18. all As in Adam all —1 of even so in Christ shall be made alive. Pet " " With His stripes we are healed."— " This Jesus hath " If ii. 32." Phil." self ii. " Now is Christ risen from the dead and become the u Christ our Passover. " O death. me. your requests be made known " It " is finished."— 1 keep .— — 78 " " —— —— — SELECTED TEXTS." S. 8. S. 20. die. 30. John xix." "Death is swallowed up in victory. xv.

4." S. 5. "The Lord is risen indeed." " The Spirit beareth witness. John xiv. " " He was received up God. x. because the Spirit is Truth. forter. " The Holy Ghost. 37. xix 6. 9. "Alleluia! Alleluia! Alleluia!" Rev. xvi." S. " He is risen." " I leave the world and go to the Father. the King of Glory shall come Ps. saw no corruption. 10. John xvi. John xiv. " He whomG-od raised again. iv." ye gates. glory and honour." S. 25. and sat on the right hand of Thou hast crowned Him with " Lift Ps. viii. in. " Ye shall be baptized with the Holy Ghost. shall give and he you another Com- John xiv. 3. which is the Holy Ghost. 28." Bom. xiv. i.—— — — — — —— — — —— — — 79 SELECTED TEXTS. xvi. John v. 26. " Alleluia for the Lord God omnipotent reigneth. Mark up your heads. " The Lord is King for ever and ever. 2." Ps. " I will not leave you comfortless." Ps." S. Acts i. " He ascended into Heaven. John xx. xxiv. . 19." Te Deum."— Heb. 34. 9*$. into Heaven." Acts i."—-Acts xiii. " Was raised again for our justification. 7. " He was taken up. the Lord and Giver of Life. " They were all filled with the Holy Gftost." Apostles'' Creed. 19. " Peace be unto you. Luke. 6." S."— S. 16." " Thou shalt not leave my soul in hell. 16. " He ever liveth to make intercession for them."— Nicene Creed. vii." S. 5. 25. " The Comforter. John."— Acts ii. xxiv. 18."— S. " He sat down on the right hand of the Majesty on High."— S. Matt." 1 S. ! " Thou sitteth at the right hand of G-od. xi."— Heb. Iftiiauit " I will pray the Father. 25. and a cloud received Him out of their sight. " I am the Resurrection and the Life.

18. 2. lxv. " Bless the Lord."— & Matt. 28. Holy. " From everlasting. and to the Son. blessed. and glorious Trinity. " Thou crownest the year with Thy goodness. and I. 4. xc. Cor. xxix. 14. . 11. 22." Gal. ii Holy. 2. 22. "Thou."— Be v. and these Three are One. iv. " The Father. my soul. " I am the Bread of Life. " In due season we shall reap if we faint not." Ps." Ps." Ephes. iv. Sanctus. and the Holy Ghost. one Father." " The Father is God. 8. the Son is God. 35. 9. one Faith. Holy. x. " The Lord sitteth King for ever." Ps. "Holy. the Word. and herb for the service of man. art Most High for evermore." Litany. " While the Earth remaineth. xiii." Gen. John vi. Three Persons and One God." S." Ps." 1." S." Ps. Lord." Sanctus. Sanctus." Creed of S. xxiv. to everlasting. " One Lord."— & John xx." Ps. xcii. 1. Lord God Almighty. Glorv be to the Father. vi. Athanasius. iv. and forget not all His benefits. 39. civ. 8. " The Harvest is the end of the world and the reapers are the Angels. seed-time and harvest shall not — cease.— — 80 — ——— —— —— — — — SELECTED TEXTS."—Ephes. viii. Thou art God. — . ciii. 5. "He causeth the grass to grow for the cattle. 9. "Not three Gods but One God. and the fulness thereof. ye filled with the Spirit." Atha'nasian Creed tt — nmttl 1 "Man " shall not live by bread alone. v. Matt. " Thou visitest the earth and waterest it. "Be "Eeceive ye the Holy Ghost." Ps. John v." Ps. lxv. 10. 7. and to the Holy ' Ghost. The Earth is the Lord's. S. and the Holy Ghost is God.

" — 1 Pet." Ps. lxxxvii. " This is none other than the House of God. 21." Benedicite.— — — — — —— — — — — — — — 81 SELECTED TEXTS. " Math xvi. and this is the Gen. one Baptism. cxxxii." Ps." Ps." " Enter into His gates with thanksgiving. 17." Acts ii. cxlvii. 38 " Suffer the little children to come unto me. 16." Eph. 5. " I was glad when they said unto me. 1. l^ttf* " One Lord."— Ps. "He that believeth and is baptized shall be saved. one Faith. " I will satisfy her poor with bread. 10. " day in Thy courts is better than a thousand. lxxxiv. " Repent. 8. 4. 7. lxxxiv. "I have loved the place where Thine Honour dwolleth. iii."— Ps. 6." . ifmrdj. and into His courts with praise. and forbid them not for of such is the Kingdom of God. let us go into the House Ps." " The place whereon thou standest is holy ground. xxviii. iv." Ex. of the Lord. gate of Heaven. and be baptized." " Blessed are they that dwell in Thy House. " Her foundations are upon the holy hills. " This is the House of the Lord God. " He filletli thee with the flower of wheat. bless ye the Lord. "I will offer in His Tabernacle sacrifices of joy. cxxii. 14. cxxii." Ps. xxvii. S. " O all ye green things upon the earth." Ps. 15. " Peace be within thy walls. Baptism doth also now save us. iii." Ps. Mark x." A Ps. 4. . 5. 14. xxvi. c." S. 1.

. Children. Feedniy Lambs. obey your parents in the Lord. xii." Of such is the Kingdom of Heaven. 5." Ps." Prov." S. cxi. 15."- " Every word of G-od is pure. jl^xrcl a Train Ifeaste : up a child in the way he should go and when he is old. shalt say. our strength.— 82 —— —— — SELECTED TEXTS.' . 10." Suffer the little children to come unto me. John xxi. 5. titpn tr the Lord." Eph. Sljair* a Sing unto God. while the evil days come not." Prov xxx. I have no pleasure in them.Yi. 1. nor the years draw nigh when thou Eccl. and forbid them S. not for of such is the kingdom of Gi-od. Eemember now thy Creator in the days of thy youth. The fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom. x. Mark x. 1. 14. 14. 6. he will not depart from it. xxii. Mark."— £. iv. " We preach not ourselves but Christ Jesus 2 Cor. .

PLATE XVI FLORAL DEVICES .

.y Y** t*. "c"rf _ . .

Sec.PRACTICAL INSTRUCTIONS. AR CHE S . Wreaths for .

PARCHMENT. . SNAPPING STENCILLING with STRAIGHT-EDGE. Colour for SHIELDS SILK.. . 68 . Sec. Temporary Framework With ground for Evergreen out the Back- „ To set Work . Groundwork of RED BERRIES SCROLLS . To Mount PATTERNS OF ORNAMENT..84 INDEX. to Draw Lines STRAW TISSUE TEXTS . to Gild (See on SIZE Distemper Colour) . To Transfer PERMANENT TEXTS RICE.....

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