ESSENTIALS OF REFINERY PROCESSES

S K KALRA INDIAN OIL CORPORATION LTD PANIPAT REFINERY

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REFINERY

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WHAT IS A REFINERY ??

PETROLEUM REFINERY
Crude Oil ‘Marketable’ Products

REFINERY OVER VIEW
Corporate Refinery Management Information Services

OM&S

Maintenance/In spection (Civil,
Mechanical. Electrical, Metallurgy)

PRODUCTION

Process Section/Qual ity Control Engineering Services

Administration & Finance

Stores & Materials

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COMPLETE REFINERY
Quality Control

Marketing
OM&S (Product Blending & Dispatch)

Power & Utilities

Finishing Units Separation Units Conversion Units

Crude Oil

Jetty / Pipeline

OM&S

OM&S
(Intermediates)

Waste Treatment

Welfare / Admn.

Around the clock operation

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): 4 .5-1.8984 0.Complexity of a Refinery The combination of refining processes and operations employed (complexity) varies from one refinery to another.0 Light Medium Heavy Extra Heavy Sweet Medium sour Sour >35 26-35 10-26 <10 By Sulphur (%wt. Factors deciding the complexity of a refinery Nature/source of crude oils to be processed Demand pattern in the markets to be covered Product quality – current / future Production of feed stocks for downstream units Inter-fuel substitution Environmental stipulations Crude Oil Characterization By Gravity: oAPI SG <0.8984-1.00 >1.00 <0.85-0.85 0.5 0.0 >1.

5mg KOH/gm Crude Oil PROFITABLE CRUDE TYPE OF CRUDE TO BE USED Crude Availability Crude Cost Desired Product Yield Refinery Complexity Environmental Constraints 5 .) <0.5 1.5-3 >3 Light Sweet Light Sour Heavy Sour Extra Heavy 30-40 30-40 15-30 <15 High Acid Crudes (HACs) TAN (Total Acid Number) > 0.5 0.5-1.Crude Oil Characterization 4 types of crude oils available to refiners around the world: oAPI Sulphur (% wt.

Depends on : - CRUDE OIL SELECTION & OPTIMISATION IN REFINERIES Configuration of Refinery – what are the units present Metallurgy of refinery – particularly columns. piping to take care of acidic / corrosive crude Product demand in the region Netback/ GRM of a particular crude Availability of a particular crude at economic cost.5 & subsequent process streams containing TAN<1. Crude Oil Selection Overall refinery economics depend on Crude cost + Processing Cost Lower the S. lower the SG • Higher is the crude price • Lower processing requirement HACs are normally cheaper Higher neutralization cost Refineries would like to handle crudes with TAN<0.5 6 .

Crude Oil Selection Crude availability shifting from • Light sweet → Heavy sour → Extra Heavy HACs are opportunity crudes New Refinery: design to process Extra Heavy Crudes design to process HACs in admixture MAJOR REFINERY PRODUCTS LPG (Propane/Butane)/Propylene MS/Naphtha/Solvents/Benzene/Toluene ATF/SKO/MTO/LABFS HSD/LDO FO/ LSHS /HPS/CBFS/PROCESS OILS Asphalts/Bitumen Lube Oil Base Stocks( GR-I & GR 2) RPC / CPC Slack Wax/ MCW/Paraffin Wax 7 .

Max Smoke point = 18 mm. SKO Critical Quality Parameters of Products Sl.Max Smoke Point =20 mm. Product LPG Key Quality parameters Evaporation Temperature at 95 % Volume =2 deg C.Min =45-55 deg C Cetane Number Recovery at 360 deg C 6. %. Min Sulphur = 0. Max (Winter) 7. Max =1 Vol. Max Density RON Sulphur Benzene =720-775 Kg/M3 =91 Min =150 ppm.no 5. Max 2.1 RVP =1050 KPa. Min 4.Critical Quality Parameters of Products Sl.25 wt %. ATF Density =775-840 Kg/M3 Flash Point = 38 deg c.1 wt %. Max = 0. Bitumen Penetration at 25 deg c Flash Point Softening Point 8 . Max =60 (1/10mm) . Min =175 deg C. Max Cu Corrosion =not worse than No. Product Diesel Density Sulphur Key Quality parameters =820-845 Kg/M3 = 350 ppm = 51 Min =95 Min =180 . Min Density =790-820 Kg/M3 Flash Point =35 deg c.no 1. Max (Summer) Sulphur Ash = 4 wt %. Motor Spirit 3. Min Sulphur =0. Fuel Oil Kinematic Viscosity@ 50 deg c =125 .25 wt %.

•ILP : Spot procurement for next 3 months. What and How to Feed ? • BE/MOU/St Tar •ILP What & Where To Make ? • BE/MOU/St Tar •ILP Demand Forecast ? • By Mktg. Distribution Planning ? • By Mktg. BASIC REFINERY OPERATIONS Hydrocarbon molecules in crude do NOT meet customer needs SEPARATION PROCESSES (Primary Processes) CONVERSION PROCESSES (Secondary Processes) FINISHING PROCESSES (Secondary Processes) Segregate the molecules Rearrange the molecules Remove Contaminants MARKETABLE PRODUCTS 9 . What to Store and where ? •By Mktg.BUSINESS PROCESS FLOW Crude evaluation & Procurement ? • BE/MOU/St Tar: Term contract crudes.

Sulphur Recovery • Fluidized-bed Catalytic Cracking • Hydrocracking • Delayed Coking • Visbreaking /Coking c. Cooling Water Treatment 20 10 .REFINERY SCHEME Crude Pretreatment • Desalting Fractionation • Atmospheric & Vacuum Distillation Conversion Treatment • Diesel Hydrodesulphurization • Diesel Hydrotreatment • Solvent Extraction ( e.g. FEU) • Catalytic Reforming Formulation & Blending Other Refinery Processes a. Sour Water Stripping b.

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HYDRO-FINISHING UNIT ( HFU) TREATING UNITS CATALYTIC REFORMING UNIT ( CRU) DIESEL HYRDO-TREATING UNIT ( DHDT ). ETC… 12 . MEROX UNIT.Refinery Operations PRIMARY PROCESSING UNITS SECONDARY PROCESSING UNITS CONFIGURATION OF REFINERIES / REFINING PROCESSES PRIMARY UNITS CRUDE DISTILLATION UNIT ( CDU )/ VACUUM DISTILLATION UNIT(VDU) SECONDARY UNITS FLUID CATALYTIC CRACKING UNIT ( FCCU ) . DELAYED COKER UNIT ( DCU ) . WAX HYDROTREATING UNIT ( WHU) . PRODUCING UNITS SOLVENT DEWAXING UNIT ( SDU) . VISBREAKER UNIT ( VBU) LUBE/WAX FURFURAL EXTRACTION UNIT ( FEU) / NMP EXTRACTION UNIT. CATALYTIC ISO-DEWAXING UNIT ( CIDW ) . DIESEL HYDRO-DESULFURISATION UNIT ( DHDS ). HYDRO-CRACKING UNIT ( HCU) .

SKO/ATF. naphtha. Separation 13 . HSD and RCO. Vacuum Distillation of RCO produces VGO (or LOBS cuts) & VR All products need further treatment/processing.PRIMARY PROCESSING UNIT The purpose of Primary unit is to separate the crude in to different fractions by distillation. light on the top The separation of crude oil by atmospheric and vacuum distillation into groups of hydrocarbon compounds of different boiling point ranges (called “fractions” or “cuts”) The first step in crude oil processing The process unit where the first separation takes place is called Crude Distillation Unit (CDU). Known as mother unit of the refinery. LPG. Atmospheric Unit (AU) or Atmospheric & Vacuum Unit (AVU) This step is performed in all refineries : These units are called “Mother Units” Typical products from CDU are : Gas. consist of CRUDE DISTILLATION UNIT (CDU) VACUUM DISTILLATION UNIT (VDU) Commonly referred as Atmospheric and Vacuum Distillation unit (AVU) Heavy at the bottom.

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SEPARATION PROCESSES Crude Oil • Fractions of crude boil at different temperatures • Components are separated by distillation and drawn off as they condense Atmospheric & Vacuum Distillation Unit Flow Diagram LPG Pr= 40-60 mm Hg a S T A B Pre-topping Stabilized Naphtha Light Naphtha To Steam Ejector T=200 Deg C Unstabilised Naphtha LVGO Heavy Naphtha Vacuum ATF LDO HVGO Atmospheric Heavy Kero LGO HGO Desalter T=130-140 Deg C FURNACE Furnace T= 370 Deg C Vac Slop Crude Oil RCO FURNACE Furnace SR T= 415 Deg C 15 .

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Separator Pr. Catalyst : Ni-Mo oxides Diesel Hydro Desulphurisation Unit Fuel gas H2 Recycle H2 Make Up A b s or b er Off.Diesel Hydro-Desulphurisation Unit (DHDS) Objective : To meet the EURO-II diesel quality requirement (<500 ppm S) Feed : Straight run diesel / FCC diesel component/ Coker and Visbreaker diesel components. gas Temp. 350 Deg C Lean Amine S COL OVHD RECEIVER High Pr. 35-40 kg/cm2g Feed Rich Amine T R I P P E R Wild naphtha Steam Furnace Reactor Desulphurized Diesel 17 .

3.DHDS Product Yields and Operating Conditions 1. Catalyst : Ni-Mo oxides Chemical reactions: Desulphurisation and Denitrification S N H2 H H2 H2S NH3 Aromatic compound + H2 --> Napthene Compound 18 .36 End Users Refinery Fuel gas system after Amine Wash To Naphtha Pool after stabilisation To Euro II Diesel Pool 2. Operating Conditions : Temperature range System Pressure : 320-380 DEG C : 30-40 kg/cm2(g) Diesel Hydrotreating Unit (DHDT) Objective : To meet the Euro –III/IV diesel quality requirement ( 350/50 ppm ‘S’ and Min. 51 Cetane No.04 97. Products Off Gas Wt% 1. 1. Wild Naphtha Diesel 1.) Feed : Straight run diesel / FCC diesel component/ Coker and Visbreaker diesel components.no.1 2. Typical Product Yields Sl.

100-105 kg/cm2g Feed Rich Amine T R I P P E R Wild naphtha Steam Furnace Reactor Desulphurized & Hydro treated Diesel DHDT Product Yields and Operating Conditions 1.8 96. 1.65 End Users Refinery Fuel gas system after Amine Wash To Naphtha Pool after stabilisation To Diesel Pool 2. Typical Product Yields Products Off Gas Wt% 2. gas Temp.no.Diesel Hydrotreator unit Flow Diagram Fuel gas H2 Recycle H2 Make Up A b s or b er Off. Separator Pr.1 2. Sl. 350 Deg C Lean Amine S COL OVHD RECEIVER High Pr. Wild Naphtha Diesel 2. 3. Operating Conditions : Temperature range System Pressure : 320-380 DEG C : 100-105 kg/cm2(g) 19 .

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Feed : 85-160 Deg C cut Naphtha / Visbreaker Naphtha Catalyst : Ni-Mo Oxides for NHTU Reactor Pt-Sn or Re for Reforming 21 .Catalytic Reforming Unit (CRU) Objective : To Upgrade the Naphtha to High Octane MS Component (Reformate) .

17. Cyclic Any reactor can be isolated for regeneration while the other reactors are in operation 3. Moving bed or CCR Catalyst is moved continuous through the reactors. Continuous Catalytic Reforming Unit Flow Diagram LSRN (85-160) VBN Off Gas to FG system NHDT H2 RICH GAS TO PSA Off Gas to FG system Pr. regenerated in regeneration section and returned to the first reactor as fresh catalyst.Catalytic Reforming Unit Main types of reformers are : 1. 17. 2.0 kg/cm2g T =-10 deg c Recontacting drum SEPARATOR S T A B I L I S E R LPG Regenerator T=520-540 Deg C Reformate to MS Pool via RSU 22 . withdrawn from the last reactor. Semi-regenerative (SR) The reformer processes feedstock for a time and then shuts down for regeneration.0 kg/cm2g COL OVHD RECEIVER RGC Pr.

30 kg/cm2(g) Isomerisation Unit (PENEX-DIH) Objective : To Upgrade the Naphtha by increasing its Octane Number to Higher Octane/Low Benzene/Low Olefins MS Component (Isomerate) to Meet Euro III / IV MS Specifications. 2.0 .98. low ‘S’ .no.5-8.CRU Product Yield and Operating Conditions 1. High Bz. Operating Conditions : Temperature range System Pressure : 490-540 DEG C : 2.5-12 Quality 94% H2 gas ‘S’ free LPG End Users PSA Unit to recover H2 To MS Pool After catalytic Reforming To MS POOL after Reformate Splitter 3. Products H2 Rich gas LPG Wt% 6. Feed : C5-85 Deg C cut Naphtha /FCC gasoline(70-90 deg C cut)/ Lt. Reformate Catalyst : Co-Mo Pt Ni Based for Hydrotreator Reactor for Penex Reactor for Methanation 23 . Typical Product Yields Sl. 2. Reformate 80-91 RON. 1.0 2.

1.4 11.5 kg/cm2(g) 24 .145 DEG C : 33. 1.Isomerisation Unit Flow Diagram LSRN (C5-85) FCC H/C (70-90) Hydrotreated Naphtha H2 Make up gas Off Gas to FG system NHDT Lt. 3.3 87. Typical Product Yields Sl. 20. Operating Conditions : Temperature range System Pressure : 126.no. = 125-185 Deg C Total Isomerate ISOM Product Yield and Operating Conditions 1.3 End Users Refinery fuel gas System To LPG POOL To MS POOL 2. reformate S T A B I L I S E R Off Gas to FG system Pr. Products Off gas LPG Isomerate Wt% 1.3 Kg/cm2g LPG to Stripper Pr. 2.3 Kg/cm2g COL OVHD RECEIVER DIH Recycle D I H C O L U M N Penex feed dryer Meth nator reactor Feed surge drum Make up gas dryer Penex Reactors Temp.

products.t.4 . Sulfur content. ( 500 – 510 oC ) and pressure ( 1. HCU / OHCU 25 . Strict operating conditions are maintained to get on-specs. Strict operating conditions are maintained to get on-specs.Cracking process Fluidized Catalytic Cracking Unit Hydro Cracker Unit Visbreaker Unit Coking unit TECHNOLOGICAL ASPECTS FCCU / RFCCU Heavier Hydro-Carbon molecules are cracked under severe operating conditions of Temp.r.2. All products are of Superior quality w. products.2 kg/cm2) to get Lighter Hydro-Carbons like LPG . MS & HSD components. MS & HSD components. Heavier Hydro-Carbon molecules are mixed with Hydrogen and the mixture is subjected to severe operating conditions of Temp.400 oC ) and pressure (165 – 185 kg/cm2 ) to get Lighter Hydro-Carbons like LPG . (380 .

Gasoline. Catalyst : Silica & Alumina Zeolite Structure 26 .Fluid Catalytic Cracking Unit (FCCU) Objective : To convert Heavy Vacuum Gas Oil to valuable distillates like LPG. Feed : VGO/RCO/VR/HydroCracker Bottom. Diesel by catalytic cracking in fluidized bed.

6 96 18 95 30 VGO RFCC VGO+VR INDMAX VGO+VR+EXTRACT PETROFCC VGO 0. WT% VR CONTENT.68 3.06 52. WT% S”.80 21.60 13.47 8.43 10.64 7.74 3.50 Fluid Catalytic Cracking Flow Diagram FLUE GAS M A I N C O L U M N COL OVHD RECEIVER HN FG LCO S T A C K ORIFICE CHAMBER Regen erator R E A C T O R HCO Recyc le LPG WGC GAS CON UNIT FCCG MAB CLO AIR CO BOILER FEED FURNACE Furnace SLURRY SETTLER Slurry Recycle 27 .00 5.80 8.00 3.4 NIL 4.59 20 MAX <10 <44 0. WT% PRODUCT.45 10.06 3.YIELD PATTERN OF VARIOUS FCC UNITS VGO FCC FEED FEED QUALITY CCR.04 20.4 NIL 1.82 7.00 9.00 8.00 28.50 5.79 3.20 28.9 29.10 8.00 10.80 11.44 16.00 22.60 46. WT % GAS LPG PROPYLENE GASOLINE DIESEL (TCO) FO COKE PRODUCT KEY PROPERTIES GASOLINE : RON DIESEL CETANE INDEX 89 30.9 92.74 3.98 5.71 18.

FCCU Product Qualities & End Users Sl. olefins like Propylene/Butylene End Users Refinery Fuel gas System after Amine Wash To LPG Pool/ Petrochemical feedstock High Octane No. Good Cutter Stock Diesel Pool After Hydrotreatment Fuel Oil Hydrocracker Unit Objective : To convert Heavy Vacuum gas oil to valuable distillates like LPG. Feed : VGO / Coker Products Ni/Mo oxides for Dematalisation & Hydrotreating Catalyst : Ni/Mo/W(Tungsten) for Hydrocracking 28 .Naphtha + LCO CLO Qualities H2S rich Off. Kerosene and Diesel. Mercaptons.No 1. Gas H2S. 2. 3. 5. 4. and high MS Pool Olefin contents Low Cetane no. ATF. Unsaturates High Aromatics. Naphtha. Product Gas LPG Gasoline Hy. High ‘S’ .

WT % GAS LPG NAPHTHA KEROSENE DIESEL BOTTOM VGO OHCU VGO 1 2. PPM.57 11.25 1 1 2. MAX Ni+V.58 41.65 25. WT% MAX S. PPM. WT%.5% 2. and Panipat refineries.5% 8% 25% 22% 40% Good process for increasing distillates and producing finished products.81 0.13 12. HCU FEED FEED QUALITY CCR.8 800 1.33 39.00 50. MAX N. PPM PRODUCTS.00 29 .Hydrocracking Process Feedstock : VGO Products & Yields: Gas LPG Naphtha SKO/ATF HSD Unconverted 2.25 1 2.8 800 1.00 3.27 1.52 4. MAX SODIUM.95 9. Existing at Gujarat. Mathura.

12 56 < 10 . Single stage Once through Hydrocraker unit (SSOT): a. MM FREEZINFG POINT. Single stage recycle (SSRec) : a. Unconverted oil is recycled back to feed for 100% conversion. Two stage Hydrocraker Unit: a. MAX KEROSENE : SMOKE POINT. PPM POUT POINT.HCU PRODUCT KEY PROPERTIES NAPHTHA: RON S’. 3.12 Various configurations of Hydrocraker Units 1. PPM. b. 2. Unconverted Oil of SSOT is sent to another reactor for 100% conversion 30 . OC DIESEL : CETANE INDEX S’. Feed and Hydrogen is passed through reactors only once for 60 –80 % of partial conversion. Unconverted Oil is sent to FCCU. OC OHCU 72 10 72 10 22-23 < 60 22-23 < 60 62 < 10 .

Single stage Vs Two stage Hydrocraker unit Makeup H2 Fresh Feed R E A C T O R Recycle Gas Gases Recycle Gas RGC Heavy Naphtha Kerosene Diesel RGC separator First stage Product Unconverted Oil separator Second stage Product 1) Single Stage in Blue 2) Two Stage is Blue and Green Combined HCU Product Yields and Operating Conditions 1.no.5-10 27-40 29-40 5.5-3 6. Products Off.35 2. Typical Product Yields Sl. Operating Conditions : Temperature range System Pressure : 370-420 DEG C : 160-170 kg/cm2(g) 31 . 6. 4. 3. 5. 2. Gas LPG Naphtha ATF/Kero Diesel Hydrocraker Bottom Wt% 2-4 1. 1.

4. 5.Hydro Cracker Unit Flow Diagram Ex MPU Makeup H2 RGC MUC R-1 PSA R-2 Wash Water HP Amine Amine Scrubber Gas & LN to Light End Recovery Section F-1 G-1 Feed Filter E-1 V-1 Heavy Naphtha ATF/Kero CR V-2 V-3 Hydrocracking Reactor PRT MPU To MUC V-8 Unconverted Oil Diesel AM HVGO Feed Preheat Ex BH HVGO V-9 F-2 HCU Product Qualities & End Users Sl. 2. 3. Gas H2S Contents low Octane No. Pool EURO – III Diesel FCCU FEED 32 . Product Gas LPG Naphtha ATF / Kero Diesel Unconverted Oil Qualities H2S rich Off. and low ‘S’ contents Low ‘S’ and Low Aromatics Low ‘S’ and High Cetane Low ‘S’. High Saturates End Users Refinery Fuel gas System after Amine Wash To LPG Pool after caustic wash To Gasoline Pool / Hydrogen unit Feed To ATF/ kero. 6.No 1.

Feed : RCO/Vacuum residue/Asphalts Typical Operating Conditions: Temperature Range Pressure : 450-470 Deg C : 9-14 kg/cm2(g) Viscosity of Feed : 500-3000 cst at 100 Deg C Viscosity of Product (VBtar) : 50 – 300 cst at 100 deg C 33 .Visbreaker Unit (VBU) Objective : To reduce viscosity of Heavy Ends i.e. RCO/Vacuum residue by Thermal Cracking.

Visbreaker Unit Flow Diagram T=135 0C P=4. Other products unstable and need further treatment Existing at Gujarat.6 Kg/cm2 FUEL GAS V B N S T A B COL OVHD RECEIVER P=10 Kg/cm2 g M A S I O N A C K O E L U R VB HN G O S T R S O A K E R SLOP VAP RET VBN steam GAS OIL GO steam VB TAR STR M N FEED Furnace Furnace T=450 0C LP GAS TO FURNACE VB FO Visbreaking Process Feedstock : Vacuum Residue Products & Yields: Gas+loss Gas oil FO 3% 2% 93% Naphtha 2% Good for FO production. Haldia. Mathura & Panipat refineries 34 .

VB Naphtha VB Gas Oil VB Tar 3. Gas Yield 1. 81. Feed : RCO/Vacuum Residue/other heavy ends or residues Typical Operating Conditions: Temperature Range : 495-505 Deg C Pressure : 2-3 kg/cm2(g) 35 . high olefins Low Cetane no.16 Fuel Oil Delayed Coker Objective : To produce valuable distillate from Heavy ends by thermal cracking.9 To DHDS or Fuel Oil 4. Highly unsaturated Lower Viscosity than feed 3. Gas End Users Refinery Fuel gas System after Amine Wash To FCCU or CRU 2. Mercaptons.12 H2S.VBU Product Yield/Qualities & End Users Sl. 13.No Product 1.82 Qualities H2S rich Off.

Existing at Barauni. Guwahati & Digboi refineries and under commissioning at Panipat Gas+loss LPG Naphtha Gas oil FO RPC 10% 4% 5% 53% 11% 17% Delayed Coker Unit Flow Diagram Gas/LPG FEED F R S A O C A T KI O E N A R T O R Naphtha Kero Gas Oil Fuel Oil S E P A R A T O R C O K E C H A M B E R C O K E C H A M B E R RFO Pre heat Exchanger Furnace Furnace T=505 0C 36 .Delayed Coking Process Feedstock : Vacuum Residue / VGO Products & Yields : Good process for increasing distillates and minimising black oil production.Gas oil & Naphtha need further treatment.

No 1. 6. 5.Delayed Coker Product Yield/Qualities & End Users Sl. 3. Product Gas LPG Naphtha Kerosene Gas Oil Fuel Oil Coke Qualities H2S rich Off. Treating Process Caustic wash Merox Unit 37 . 2. unsaturates Low Octane. High Sulphur End Users Refinery FG after Amine Wash To LPG after Merox /Caustic wash To FCC or CRU To DHDT Feed To DHDT & HCU feed Fuel Oil Gasification/Electrode Preparation/ cement ind. 4. Gas Mercaptons. 7. High Olefins High unsatuartes Low Cetane No. and high unsaturates Good cutter stock Low ash.

Treating Process 1. Production of Lubricating Oil Base Stock 38 .Temp. Sweetening Merox: Suitable for boiling range upto 350 Deg C 2. Chemical Reaction: Amb. Caustic Washing for removing H2S and light Mercaptans and suitable for LPG and Naphtha Merox Process a. followed by sand Bed Coalescer or salt drier for removing entrained water. 2RSH + ½ O2 Iron group metal chelates RSSR + H2O After Treatment: The treated stream is given water wash. Extractive Merox : Suitable for Lighter fractions b.

Lube Base Oil Processing Crude Selection Multi-step manufacturing process Lube Base Oils – Key Properties: Viscosity Viscosity Index Pour point Colour Flash point Volatility Oxidative & Thermal Stability 39 .

CCR Waxy Raffinate Pour Point Colour & Stability Atmospheric distillation Vacuum distillation Hydrofinishing Naphtha VGO Vacuum Distillates Kero Diesel De-waxed H 2 oils Crude oil Solvent Extraction (Furfural & NMP) Solvent Dewaxing Unit Group I LOBS 150N 500N HN BN/150BS VI. Flash Point VI.API Base Oil Characterization Groups Viscosity Index GROUP I GROUP II GROUP III GROUP IV GROUP V 80-120 80-120 >120 Saturates % wt <90 >90 >90 Sulphur %wt >0. Colour&Stability VR RCO DAO Propane DeAsphalting H2 Catalytic Dewaxing Unit 100N 150N 500N Group II LOBS 150BS 40 .03 <0.03 <0.Pour Point.03 Poly Alpha Olefins(Synthetic Oils) All other base oils Lube Base Oil Processing Philosophy Properties controlled by Process Units Gas KV.

IO.WAX 150-BS ISO DEWAXING BITUMEN VBU CBFS FO IFO 41 . IO.Haldia Refinery VGO (SO.HO) DAO PROPANE DEASPHALTING HYDROCRACKER FUELS (65-75%) BOTTOMS (25-35%) VR V A C U U M D I S T 70N VISCOSITY BASED CUTS CATALYTIC DEWAXING 150N 500N API GROUP II BASE OILS RFCCU ASPHALT BLOCK FLOW DIAGRAM REFINERY CRU GAS SRU MSQ SULPHUR LPG MS NAPHTHA crude RCO CDU-I CDU-II HU KHDS MTO ATF/RTF SKO DHDS HSD JBO(P)/JBO(C) VGO SO VDU-I VDU-II FCCU OHCU MCW MCW 100N 150N 500N LO IO NMP HO PDA SR ASPHALT DAO FEU SDU HFU HLD-HN SL.LO.HO) LOBS Production – Future Outlook SOLVENT EXTRACTION (FURFURAL/ NMP) 150N SOLVENT DEWAXING + HYDRO FINISHING 500N HN BS API GROUP I BASE OILS V A C U U M D I S T HEAVY EXTRACT VGO (SO.LO.

API Gr I and Gr II Processing Schemes Solvent Extraction Solvent Dewaxing Hydrofinishing Solvent Extraction Hydro Treating Wax HydroIsomerisatio finishing n Group I Group II Pour point VI Other Process Units Hydrogen Generation Unit Bitumen Blowing Unit Sulphur Recovery Unit 42 .

Operating Conditions : Temperature range System Pressure : 860-870 Deg C : 23-26 kg/cm2(g) 43 .Hydrogen Generation Unit (HGU) Objective : To Meet the Hydrogen requirement for DHDS/DHDT/OHCU/ISOM/Reforming Units and Other Hydrotreaters. HGU Product is 99. Feed : Natural Gas / Naphtha Catalyst : Co-Mo ZnO/K2Co3 NiO Ni CuO Adsorbents for Hydrotreater for H2S and Chloride adsorber for Preformer for Reformer for HT/LT Shift reactors for PSA Adsorbers HGU Product Purity and Operating Conditions 1.99% Pure Hydrogen 2.

Bitumen is colloidal solution of asphaltenes and high molecular gums in the medium formed by oils and low molecular gums.aerator R-02A/B PSA PSV HP STEAM Export FLUE GAS AIR condensate OFF GAS as FUEL Bitumen Blowing Unit Objective : To Produce different grades of Bitumen by air blowing of vacuum residue at high temperature.Hydrogen Generation Unit Flow Diagram FEED R-01 Pre-Reformer R-03 HYDROGEN SAT. Feed : Vacuum Residue 44 . STEAM F-001 Reformer Steam Drum R-04 DM water De.

no. Typical Operating Conditions of Bitumen Blowing Unit: Temperature Range Pressure : 230-260 Deg C : 0. Products Off gas Recovered liquid cut (FLO) Finished Bitumen Wt% 0.5 kg/cm2(g) Bitumen Blowing Unit Flow Diagram Air Bitumen reactor S E P A R A T O R Off gasTo Incenerator Furnace FEED Furnace Bitumen to R/D after Cooling FLO 45 .88 2. 3. 2. Typical Product Quality Sl.86 0.26 98. 1.BBU yield /quality and Operating Conditions 1.

Feed : Amine Acid gases and Sour acid gases Sulphur Recovery Unit Flow Diagram H2S/CO2 gas Rich amine A R U AIR Claus Reactors 1/2/3 T=195-310 Deg C AIR Process gas (Superclaus reactor/TGTU) T= 220 deg C Offgas Off-gas incineration To stack Lean amine H2S / NH3 gas Sulphur T= 730 Deg C Sour water S W S U Stripped water Sulphur degasification Product sulphur handling 46 .Sulphur Recovery Unit Objective : To Reduce the SO2 emission from the Refinery by recovering Sulphur from Amine Acid and Sour Gases produced during various Hydrotreating Process.

1.nitrogen and air systems Flares and relief systems Sulfur recovery system Waste water treatment systems Safety & fire fighting systems Quality control. maintenance and administrative systems 47 .no. Products Off gas Sulphur Wt% 0.1 99.9 End Users To Stack after incineration Sulphur Yard for Dispatch Typical Operating Conditions: Temperature Range Pressure : 195-320 Deg C : 0. Typical Product Yields Sl.56 kg/cm2(g) Other refinery Processes/operations Steam & Power generation Process and DM water systems Hydrogen. 2.SRU Product Yield and Operating Conditions 1.

REFINERY.UTILITIES ENERGY REQUIREMENT ENERGY CONSUMPTION ELECTRICITY FUEL GAS FUEL FUEL OIL STEAM LP MP HP Energy consumption differs in different refineries due to: • Refinery configuration / complexity • Crude oil composition • Technology / Equipments efficiency 48 .

Toxic Gases OTHER WASTE MINIMIZING POLLUTION Operate Furnaces Efficiently Unrecovered Light Ends burnt in flare Stack Avoid Spills & Accidental Releases Special Treatment of Sewer Water 49 . H2S. NOx.ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS SULPHUR in PRODUCTS BENZENE in PRODUCTS EFFLUENT WATER QUALITY SOx.

REFINERY OPERATIONS – HAZARDS Low Flash Point Fouling and Corrosion Develop Static Charge PRODUCT RELATED HAZARDS Low Explosivity Limits Low self ignition temperatures Pyrophoric Toxic Carcinogenic 50 .MINIMIZING POLLUTION FACILITIES TO BE IMPROVISED AT DESIGN STAGE • Adequate Stack height for better dispersion of pollutants • Desulphurisation of fuel gas • Provision of a Sulphur recovery unit • Provision of continuous SO2 analyzers in all stacks • Providing Air monitoring stations • Efficiently running Effluent Treatment Plants •New Unit / Up-to-date technology for producing Ultra low Sulphur and benzene free fuels.

Olefin.Gasoline & Diesel. Demand for environment friendly. DHDT Conversion processes for bottom of the barrel upgradation . Adoption of Euro norms for environment friendly transport fuels production. Kero-HDS unit.demands for high performance products. Adoption of catalytic-dewaxing technology for Quality Lube. Aromatics & Sulfur reduction in Motor Spirit.TECHNOLOGY ADOPTION IN REFINIERIES Desulfurization of fuel products for reduction in Sulfur. Quality Improvement to meet environment norm.FCC. DCU etc. Benzene. high quality LOBS. CHALLENGES TO OIL INDUSTRY Environmental pressure. Cost Intensive Refining Technology.API class-II/ III.key factor in development & acquisition of new technology Sophistication in equipment design.DHDS unit.. viz. 51 . Hydrocracker.Cetane improvement in Diesel.

CONSTRAINTS TO MEET THE CHALLENGES Crude oil sourcing . Hence refineries are forced to process wide variety of crude oil including high sulfur crude. EMERGENCE OF COST INTENSIVE REFINING TECHNOLOGY Switch over to Automation & Advance Controls Upgradation of the bottom of the barrel Efficiency Improvement thru’ debottlenecking / low cost revamps etc. Environment friendly processes for pollution abatement Stringent quality products manufacture & QC. Selection of suitable technology having enough flexibility. 52 . Sharp fall in the availability of low Sulfur crude oil and even to the extent lighter crude oil.Indigenous production is only about 30% of the total requirement.

FUTURE CHALLENGES TOTAL DEREGULATION COMPETITION FROM PRIVATE REFINING COMPANIES PRODUCT QUALITY – STRINGENT MARKET DYNAMICS MARGIN PRESSURE CUSTOMER FOCUS STRATEGIES VALUE ADDITION CAPACITY SATURATION QUICK RESPONSE – QUALITY / QUANTITY COST REDUCTION EFFECTIVE MANNING INTEGRATION – FORWARD/BACKWARD/ LATERAL 53 .

Refining Vision Refinery Capacity Refinery Margins Product Quality ESSENTIALS OF REFINERY PROCESSESSES INDIAN OIL CORPORATION LIMITED Thank you 54 .

I.T.Phase Equilibria in Refinery Processes Ratan Mohan Department of Chemical Engineering I. New Delhi . Delhi.

entropy Reaction equilibria . constt.Thermodynamic data needs in process simulation Phase equilibria Stream properties . enthalpy. . Gibb’s free energy of rxn. Eq.

.Basic Phase Equilibrium equation : Hence.

Property Calculations : .

Activity Coefficient method : where For non-condensing gaseous components : .

Liquid property calculations : .

Equations of State : Cubic EOS : .

Activity Coefficient Models : Van Laar Scatchard-Hildebrand Margules Redlich Kister Wilson NRTL UNIQUAC UNIFAC .

k = 1.n j ln γ i ∑τ G x xG = +∑ ∑G x ∑G x ji ji i j j ij ki k j kj k k k ⎛ ∑ xk τ kj Gkj ⎜ ⎜ τ ij − k ⎜ ∑ Gkj xk ⎜ k ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ contd… where: i. τij = ( g ji − gii ) RT .2 …for liquid – liquid system . 2.T . j. G ji = exp ( −α ji τ ji ) .Non Random Two Liquid (NRTL) Model: applicable to partially miscible as well as completely miscible systems The NRTL equation for the excess Gibbs energy ∑ x j G jiτ ji E g = ∑ xi RT i j ∑x G k k ki Activity coefficient in its generalized form is given by ⎡ ∂ (nG E / RT ) ⎤ ln γ i = ⎢ ⎥ ∂ni ⎣ ⎦ P . τ ij ' s & α ij are NRTL model parameters where τ ij≠ τ ji α ij = α ji = 0.…c .

UNIFAC (Universal Functional Activity Coefficient) method
estimates activity coefficients based on the group contribution concept Excess Gibbs energy (and logarithm of the activity coefficient) as a combination of 2 effects1. 2.

combinatorial term residual term
⎛ϕ ln γ iC = ln⎜ i ⎜x ⎝ i ⎞ z ⎛θ ⎟ + qi ln⎜ i ⎟ 2 ⎜ϕ ⎠ ⎝ i

ln γ i = ln γ i + ln γ i
C

R

where
ϕi =
c

⎞ ϕ ⎟ + li − i ⎟ xi ⎠

NOG j =1

∑x l

j j

xi ri

∑x r
j =1

; θi =

xi qi

j j

∑x q
j =1 j

c

; li =
j

z (ri − qi ) − (ri − 1) 2

ri =

NOG k =1

∑v

i k

R k ; qi =

NOG k =1

∑v Q
i k

k

contd…
ln γ iR =
where
NOG k

∑v

k i

(ln Γk − ln Γki )

Γk = residual activity coefficient of group k in the mixture Γki = residual activity coefficient of group k in a reference solution containing only molecules of type i.

The parameters Γk and Γki are defined by:
⎛ ⎜ NOG NOG θ τ ln Γk = Qk ⎜1 − ln ∑θ mτ mk − ∑ NOGm km ⎜ m m ⎜ ∑θ nτ nm n ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠
c

θk =

X k Qk
NOG m

∑X

;

τ mn = e

− bmn / T

m

Qm

Xk is the group ∑ vkj x j j X k = c NOG mole fraction of group k in the liquid: ∑ ∑ vmj x j
j m

Property methods for Petroleum mixtures :

Eqn of State property methods for hydrocarbons at high pressure:

• Peng-Robinson (PR) – Most enhanced model in Aspen HYSYS – Largest applicability range in terms of T and P – Special treatments for some key components – Largest binary interaction parameter database • PRSV – Modified PR model – Better representation of vapor pressure of pure components and mixtures – Extends applicability of the original PR model to moderately non-ideal systems • SRK – Modified RK model – Can provide comparable results to PR in many cases, but with a lot less enhancement in Aspen HYSYS • PR-Twu • SRK-Twu • Twu-Sim-Tassone (TST) – Modified equations of state models for hydrocarbon systems-non ideal systems (used for glycol package) • Generalized Cubic Equation of State (GCEOS) – Provides a framework which allows users to define and implement their own generalized cubic equation of state including mixing rules and volume translation • MBWR – Modified BWR model – Having 32 parameters, this model works extremely well with a number of pure components within specified T and P ranges • Lee-Kesler-Plöcker – Also a modified BWR model for non-polar substances and mixtures • BWRS – Modified BWR to handle multi components – Requires experimental data

• Zudkevitch Joffee – Modified RK model with better prediction of VLE for hydrocarbon systems. and NH3 at low to moderate pressures Semi-empirical Models : • Chao-Seader model – Applicable to hydrocarbon systems in the range of T=0-500C. particularly in dilute regions • Sour PR/Sour SRK – Used for sour water systems containing H2S. CO2.000 kPa • Grayson-Streed model – An extension to the Chao-Seader model with special emphasis on H2 – Recommended for heavy hydrocarbon systems with high H2 content. and P<10. such as hydrotreating units . and systems containing hydrogen • Kabadi-Danner – Modified SRK model with the enhancement to improve the VLE calculations for H2O-hydrocarbon systems.

PR • Utility systems using H2O – Steam Table Aspen . PR or BK10 • Sour gas sweetening with Amines • Sour water treatment process – Sour PR/SRK • Clean fuels for sulfur components and hydrocarbons • High H2 content systems – GS. SRK or any other EOS* • Vacuum columns – GS.• Hydrocarbon systems up to distillate range hypo components – PR.

Refinery Processes : .

.

Scope of Optimization in Refining Operation 0 The Presentation Structure Basics of Optimization Optimization within Refinery Optimization among Refineries Petroleum Supply Chain Optimization 1 .

Basics of Optimization A process to achieve best solution / performance within defined constraints Profit Maximization Throughput maximization within hardware constraints Maximize equipment life through optimum usage Optimization Within Refinery Among Refineries Logistics Rail Pipelines On-line Off-line Ref-1 Ref-2 Tankers Road APC Optimizers LP Models Ref-3 2 Basics of Optimization M N A .00 60.00 140.00 JUNE ''08 OCT08 DEC08 A UG'08 M AR'08 NOV 08 A PR'08 FE '09 B JUL'08 S 08 EP 20.00 80.00 160.00 40.00 120.00 M Y A '08 M AR'09 A PR'09 JAN'09 G 0. C U EPR E& C A K O TH VE R D IC R C S 180.5% O M S DB U AI B ET RN 3 M Y A '09 .00 $/BBL 100.

Sum(Ci*pi) – Sum (Fi*Ui) – Losses = f ( Type of crude.00 40.5% O M S Basics of Optimization Optimization Profit Maximization Throughput maximization within hardware constrainits Maximize equipment life through optimum usage Ref. Price) pi (Crude Cost) Ci (Crude Type) M AY'09 . Location of Ref. Global demand.Basics of Optimization M N A . Profit =Prod.00 0.00 20.00 30. Political scenario) => Under control Qi (Prod. Process Configuration. & Crude source) => No control = f ( Production rate.00 -20. Realization – Input Cost – Operating cost = Sum(Qi*Pi) . PR D C C A K O TH VE O U TS R C S 50. International) => Little control = f ( Global demand (Premium/Disc).00 -10. Demand Pattern) => Under Control = f ( Demand -> domestic.00 M AR'08 APR'08 M AY'08 NOV08 M AR'09 APR'09 4 5 N HH AP T A JE KE O T R G 0.00 JUNE''08 OCT08 DEC08 A UG'08 JAN'09 FE B'09 JUL'08 S EP08 -30. qty) Pi (Prod.00 $/BBL 10.

Basics of Optimization Optimization within Refinery 6 Optimization within Refinery GAS LPG NAPHTHA CRU CRUDE BH / ASSAM / GUJARAT LS HS MS Product Mix Optimization • Naphtha/ MS / Pet-chem • ATF / SKO • ATF / SKO / HSD • FO / Bitumen CDU ATF SKO DHDS HSD FCCU VDU HCU Coker BBU VBU MS HSD MS / HSD / Coke BITUMEN FO / LSHS 7 .

Optimization within Refinery Functional Objective Maximize Gross Refinery Margin Input cost reduction Maximize capacity utilization to reduce operating cost Maximize value added products Swing Operation in FCCU Optimum utilization of VBU / BBU Minimize low value products irrespective of demand Operational Efficiency improvement . Quality give-away etc.Fuel & Loss.Operating Cost 8 Optimization within Refinery Margins Function of Demand pattern Products Prices Product pattern of refinery & Its flexibility / Optimization Refinery configuration Logistic Infrastructure availability Optimization LPG Vs Propylene (PRU) Naphtha Vs MS (CCRU. Crude type) SKO Vs ATF SK Vs HSD FO / LSHS Vs HSD FO Vs Bitumen 9 . Net Margin = Products sold * Transfer Price . FCCU. R&M cost. Isom.Crude process * Crude cost at Refinery .

Price difference ( FO / HSD.Optimization within Refinery On-line Optimization Advanced Process Control CDU Pressure minimization subject to constraints CDU COT maximization subject to constraints FCC Severity maximization / optimization Value added product maximization subject to property constraints Inferential properties prediction Constraint controller Multi-variable predictive control On-line Optimizer Offsite blend optimization 10 Optimization within Refinery. Naphtha vs Nat. ATF.Offline Product pattern Optimization Secondary units availability FCC / RFCC HCU / OHCU Coker / VBU / BBU Naphtha cracker Type of crude processing LS / HS / Hy. Gas) RTPs of products 11 . crude Refinery operating cost Flexibility of swinging product pattern Demand pattern Seasonal demand (Naphtha. Bitumen) Prod. LDO/ HSD.

Optimization within Refinery
Product Pattern Optimization Secondary Units- FCC / RFCC MS / LPG maximization Suitable for higher UOP K VGO feed Medium investment Medium Op. cost
CCR limitation Metal limitation Lower Cetane of TCO

Secondary Units- HCU / OHCU SK / ATF / HSD maximization without any treatment Lower UOP K VGO feed can be processed High investment High Op. cost
Nitrogen limitation
12

Optimization within Refinery
Product pattern Optimization Secondary Units- Coker Residue up-gradation Facilitates Hy. Crude processing Relatively low investment Relatively low Op. cost
Around 30% coke generation HPS vs Coke price deciding factor Cracked products needs treatment HCGO needs reprocessing in HCU / FCCU

13

Optimization within Refinery
Product Pattern Optimization Secondary Units- VBU Viscosity breaking to produce FO Lower cutter stock requirement Low investment Low Op. cost Dubai vs Brent, FO vs HSD deciding factor Secondary Units- BBU Suitable for VR having high Asphaltenes Releases cutter stock for value added products Seasonal and reagion specific demand No import facility Dubai vs Brent, FO vs HSD deciding factor
14

Optimization within Refinery
Input cost Optimization Input Cost = f ( Type of crude. Logistic cost, other inputs) Crude Type LS Crude ( Low S, High API, High Dist.)
Lower Operating cost Higher FOB and logistic cost

HS Crude ( High S, Medium API, Medium Dist.)
High Operating cost Medium FOB and Lower Logistic cost

Hy. Crude ( High / Low S, Low API, Low Dist.)
High Operating cost High viscosity affecting PL capacity High Acid no., Metal content Cheaper crude

The capability of type of crude processing will depend on Refinery configuration
15

Refinery LP Model
Model • Crude Assays
Input Available Crude Basket Crude and Product Prices at refinery gate Product demand Shutdown Slate Change in product specs.
• Refinery Production Planning • Crude evaluation • Blend Optimization • Investment Analysis • Inventory Management • Back casting
16

• Process unit configuration • Feed Blends • Product Blends • Product Specs Objective : Profit Maximization

Output Crude Mix and Qty. Product pattern Sec Unit capacity utilisation. Sec Units feed and Product Blends

Provision for 24 Multi-periods

Basics of Optimization Optimization within Refinery Optimization among Refineries

17

00 Optimization Between Refineries Synergy among multi-refinery operation to maximize over all profit Intermediate stream sharing Refinery configuration Planned shutdown schedule Capacity constraint in One refinery and availability in other Refinery SRGO Reformat PXN IFO (J-> P/M.> P ) (J.00 H 6.. :G WA A D IG O H TI.35 9.B A A N :H LD . H A IA G U TH R .M :MA U A :B R U I.> P) 19 .00 8. K Y LI.MM A TPA 13.00 6. Optimization : Optimization between Naphtha & MS : HS crude maximization : HS crude maximization : Naphtha export minimization PNCP Feed (J/M .00 G 1.50 1. .00 D 0.65 A SSO IA S R FIN R S C TE E E IE B PL R C L PC C R B 2.> P ) : HS crude & prod. P:PA IPA O A N T. BGR->G/B) (J/B/D -> G) ( M.Refineries configuration U nits J C P.D B I 18 IO L R FIN R S C E E IE P M B 12.70 C U D VD U R C C FC /FC H U H U C /O C VBU BBU C KER O LO BS P/C E H MIC L A J.

HS Imp. LS Imp. Imports / Exports Domestic Domestic Demand Demand Prod. Imports / Imports / Exports Exports OMCs OMCs exchange exchange Support Up-Stream (High Lead time) Pipe Lines / Pipe Lines / Support Support Down-Stream 21 . Transfer Refining Refining Mktg. Mktg.Basics of Optimization Optimization within Refinery Optimization among Refineries Petroleum Supply Chain Optimization 20 Corporate Supply Chain Crude Imports Domestic Domestic Crude Crude Imp. HS Crude Crude International Trade International Trade •Crude •Crude •Products •Products Prod. LS Crude Crude Imp.

5) NARIMANAM (1.4) BARAUNI GUWAHATI (1.0) HALDIA (6.4) Total capacity in the country: 148.Indian Refineries Capacity in MMTPA IOC BHATINDA (9.1) CHENNAI (9. 5.2 MMTPA (1.0) Operates 10 of India’s 18 refineries refining Capacity: 60.2 mbpd) – largest in the country 41% refining share in the country DIGBO BONGAIGAON (0.0) (12. 12) MUMBAI BARODA (13.0) (2.8) TATIPAKA (0.Haldia crude pipeline Product Demand growth in North West Sector Euro-III products & ATF demand in Metro cities Product movement from East to North-West Limited export facility at Haldia port Dahej / Kandla for Naphtha Export No Import / Export facility for ATF and Bitumen 23 .0) PANIPAT (6.7) NUMALIGARH (3.0+3.7) BINA (6.0) PARADIP VISAKH (7.7) Subsidiaries of IOC COCHIN (7.0) Existing IOC New / + Additions 22 Others Infrastructure Crude Vadinar / Mundra port (VLCC) for North-West Refineries SMPL for Gujarat.5) (15.0) (6.0) MATHURA (8. Panipat & Mathura Mundra for Panipat Haldia Port for East coast Refineries Lower Draft and port congestion HBCPL for Barauni Refinery Commissioning of Paradeep.9 MMTPA (as of 1 Apr’09) MANGLORE (9.0) - JAMNAGAR (33+30.5+2.0+6.5+0.

BPCL.Complexity in Indian Oil Supply Chain 40 Crudes in basket from S. IOCL. America to S.Asia 10 Refineries Large distribution network 10 major products 200 Depots (excluding LPG network) 40 Terminals 17 Pipelines 4 Transportation modes One crude pipeline catering to 3 refineries Crude procurement 3 months in advance 24 Down stream Oil Industry: Overview Integrated Supply Chain Management Plan Source Make Deliver Source Make Deliver Source Make Deliver Supplier Up-stream time Mgmt M+4 Months Your Organization SCOR model Source: The Supply Chain Council Customer Down-stream time Mgmt.E.HPCL 25 .

= Profit Corporate? Optimize the following Raw material Operating cost of refinery Products Logistics Cost ensuring minimal under recovery Inventory cost synchronized & optimized business process operation Supply chain Visibility with their interdependency Quick response / Corrective actions to address internal / external contingencies 27 .Crude evaluation / purchase Line up crude term contract for 50-60 % of requirement Spot / short term purchase for balance quantity Buy crude giving maximum Supply chain margin Based on landed crude price & domestic products pricing Crude purchase at Vadinar & Paradeep port Synergy between already purchased crude Crude matching with demand Domestic market discounts Products sale at domestic demand location price Excess product for export based on economics Variable operating cost ( Fuel & Loss) Emission norms consideration 26 Supply Chain Objectives Maximize Corporate Profits Profit Refinery + Profit Mktg.

SCM: Integrated Approach Crude evaluation & Procurement ? What crude to Feed ? What & Where To Make ? Corporate Corporate IP IP Demand Forecast ? Distribution Planning ? 28 Integrated Planning Model Supply PORTS Distribution R1 R2 R3 Basic Transportatio n Striucture Depots Rn 29 .

Detailed Distribution Plan Product wise.Purchases.5500 2500 .Desired Inventory build up / depletion .Refinery wise Product Pattern .Exchangeswith OMCs .Product Prices Output .Changes in product specs.Integrated Planning (IP) Model Input .Refinery wise T'put & Crude Alocation .14500 8500 .19000 63000 31 . SAND Integrated Planning Constraints (No of Rows) 2500 .Crude requirement for future period .Crude Prices / Purchase Cost . . Exchanges .Crude Availability at Ports .5500 23000 Variables (No of Columns) 6000 .Location level Demand . mode wise . Imports .Gross Margin Objective : Profit Maximisation Provision of Multi-period planning 30 Model Sizes Models Refinery Planning.Committed Exports. RPMS Distribution Planning.Planned Shutdown schedule .

taxes and duties and transportation constraints 32 THANK YOU 33 . product specs and demand pattern Optimal distribution planning considering transportation costs.Benefits Optimizes the whole supply chain giving higher margins and increased profitability Crude selection and allocation which takes into account product demands. unit capacities. refinery capabilities and effect of crudes already procured Optimal refinery production planning considering crude assay.

com Agenda • Supply Chain Management & Structure of Advanced Planning Systems (APS) • Planning – Demand Planning & Forecasting – Advanced Planning and Optimisation – Distribution Planning • Scheduling – Production Scheduling – Distribution Scheduling (Rail/ Road/ Ship and Pipeline Scheduling) • Implementation of APS – A case study • Conclusions & Outlook 2 Document control number Honeywell Proprietary 1 . 12 Jun 2009 Honeywell.Overview of Industrial Practices in Planning & Scheduling -Dayanand Deshpande.

000 sku’s Production efficiencies generated additional revenues of $4M / year • Estimated shift in cycle lengths of 2-8 days / line Improved Forecasting • Statistics can reduce error 10% • Collaboration can reduce error 30% Lower Supply Chain Costs • Reduction in premium freight costs Improved Customer Satisfaction Improved Efficiency / Capacity • Reduce process variability • Improved quality • Increased throughput Non Linear Control implementation for polymers manufacturer saved millions of dollars per year • Capacity increase of 8% • Transition time reduction of 30% • Quality variability reduction of 50% Loop scout contributed to refrigeration production increase valued at $1.com SCM. information and financial flows in order to fulfil (ultimate) customer demands with the aim of improving competitiveness of a supply chain as a whole” Benefit Area Reduction in Inventories • Adjust safety stock Sample Value Specialty manufacturer reduced inventory $15M in first year • Reduction in working inventory • Reduction in premium freight • Customer service increase from 85% to 95% across 5000+ railcar fleet • 40% reduction in forecast error by manufacturer with over 15. grades and prices • End-customer demand impacts RM selection and vice-versa Refinery •Substitutions/ variety •Logistics may account for •Large SKUs 50% of the product cost •Variability of product demand and prices •Correlation with other product demand •Naphtha import/ export decisions Naphtha Ethylene Plant • Difficulty in matching production runs/ sequencing to PP Plant Propylene varying demand •Real time Ethylene production/ yield data important •Difficult to analyse end-toend impact PE Plant Rail Cars Refinery Crude Contracts & Spot market Feedstock 4 Document control number •Huge complexity. cyclic business and vulnerable to uncertainties Primary Secondary Honeywell Proprietary 2 . LA Asset Utilization / Reliability • 3-8% Improvement 3 Document control number Honeywell Proprietary Honeywell.Another Short-lived Management philosophy??? • “The task of integrating organisational units along a supply chain and coordinating material.Honeywell.Issues •Variability in Feedstock availability.7M / year at Honeywell Multi Products plant in Geismar.com Supply Chain Management .

Honeywell. LRP. strategies and policies Mid term Planning (Exchange Arrangement/ Marketing Campaigns/ Positioning Analysis ) Mon/yrs Short term Planning (Annual Plan/ Monthly Plan) Weeks/ Mon Scheduling (Rail-Road schedule/ pipeline Days/weeks Details Near Term Constraints and conditions require course corrections schedule/production Schedule) 5 Document control number Honeywell Proprietary Honeywell. strategic alliances) 5.com Decisions –Supply Chain Planning & Scheduling Time Horizon Long term Planning (Plant/ warehouse locn.10 years Long Term Plans set objectives. modes of trnsprt.com Structure of Advanced Planning Systems Procure Long-Term Produce Distribute Sell Strategic Planning Master Planning Purch asing and MRP Production Planning Production Scheduling Mid -Term Demand Planning Distribution Planning Tx Planning & Scheduling Demand Fulfillme nt & ATP Short-Term (source: Supply chain Management and Advanced Planning Hartmut Stadtler & Kilger) 6 Document control number Honeywell Proprietary 3 .

Clean data • Fix product/name changes • Fix non-optimal shipment history 3.com Demand Forecasting Process 1.com Demand Planning • Starting point of supply chain planning • Three stages of Demand Planning – Statistical Forecasting – Judgemental (user) inputs – Collaboration • Enablers – Advanced Forecasting Techniques – – – – – – – – – Moving Average →SMP(3) Exponential Smoothing →9 methods including Holt and Winters Box-Jenkins →(ARIMA) Dynamic Regression Discrete Distributions →Poison & Negative Binomial Procure Produce Distribute Sell Long-Term Strategic Planning Mid -Term Master Planning Purc hasin g and MRP Production Planning Production Scheduling Distribution Planning Tx Planning & Scheduling Demand Planning Short-Term Demand Fulfillmen t & ATP 7 Document control number Honeywell Proprietary Honeywell. Prioritize customers • Identify ABC criteria • Consolidate Tier C customers 8 Document control number Honeywell Proprietary 4 . Gather sales history 4.Honeywell. Pass onto Statistical Forecasting 2.

forecast. sales reps. 9 Document control number Honeywell Proprietary Honeywell.Honeywell. financial.com Collaborative Forecasting Statistics as a start Entered by Sales Rep Sales Mgr auto accepted HQ revised Consensus determined 10 Document control number Honeywell Proprietary 5 .com Forecasting Views View all data from all sources – plan. Scroll through any number of years. actual.

automated collaboration Long-Term • Enablers: – Better data (ERP.com Supply Chain Optimiser • Determines most profitable customer and product mix • Considers customer demands and margins. production capacity. SCP) – Improved supply chain models – Improved LP solvers – ILOG/ xpress – Faster CPU’s 11 Document control number Procure Produce Distribute Sell Strategic Planning Mid -Term Master Planning Purc hasin g and MRP Production Planning Production Scheduling Distribution Planning Tx Planning & Scheduling Demand Planning Short-Term Demand Fulfillmen t & ATP Honeywell Proprietary Honeywell. and products • eBusiness requires accurate. and production/distribution costs INPUTS OUTPUTS Customer Demand Production Capability Prices and Costs Production & Distribution Costs 12 Document control number Honeywell Proprietary Optimized Sales Plan Optimized Production Plan 6 .com Master Planning and Optimisation – Why Now? • Shareholders demand higher profits • Customers/Competitors force service improvements • M&A’s yield more complex supply chains – More plants. distribution locations.Honeywell.

com Typical Uses of SCO • Optimize & balance the supply-demands • Evaluate customer trade-offs • Examine equipment capacity changes • Identify profit opportunities 13 Document control number Honeywell Proprietary Honeywell.com Distribution Planning . Cost) • Multiplant.Highlights • Use of LP and MIP for optimising the profitability (Max sales – dist.Honeywell. multiwarehouse problem • construct a distribution network directly on a map • Manipulating the Map Interface Procure Produce Distribute Sell Long-Term Strategic Planning Mid -Term Master Planning Purc hasin g and MRP Production Planning Production Scheduling Distribution Planning Tx Planning & Scheduling Demand Planning 14 Document control number Short-Term Demand Fulfillmen t & ATP Honeywell Proprietary 7 .

com Distribution Planning • Multi-Period Capabilities • “what if” analysis • Solution Reporting • Capabilities • Customized Reports 15 Document control number Honeywell Proprietary Honeywell.com Distribution Replenishment Planning • Predicts material needs at plants. policies & constraints Demo 16 Document control number Honeywell Proprietary 8 .Honeywell. supply points and vendor managed inventory locations • Generates replenishment schedules to meet unsatisfied material demands • Adjusts replenishment plans as supplies and demands vary • Considers lead times. production schedules. lot sizes.

Honeywell.com Distribution Planning and Scheduling Distribution Planning Road/Rai.Scheduling Pipeline Scheduling Ship Scheduling 18 Document control number Honeywell Proprietary 9 . batch… – MTO – MTS – mixed mode • Supports decision support & what-if analysis – Tied to and financial model • Includes embedded optimization algorithms • Open architecture for unique optimization plug-ins Procure Produce Distribute Sell Long-Term Strategic Planning Mid -Term Master Planning Purc hasi ng and MR P Production Planning Production Scheduling Distribution Planning Tx Planning & Scheduling Demand Planning Short-Term Demand Fulfillme nt & ATP 17 Document control number Honeywell Proprietary Honeywell. semi-continuous.com Production Scheduling • Wide range of processes – Continuous.

com Rail Road Scheduling Provides a single screen for Inventory Visibility 19 Document control number Honeywell Proprietary Honeywell.Honeywell.com Highlights Complex Technical Integration (Includes interfaces from diverse sources) ERP for Shipped Sales and Open Orders Inventory In-transit and Stock Transfers Inputs from Demand Planning Solution Inputs from Monthly Distribution Plan (integration with SAND) Inputs from customized GUIs 20 Document control number Honeywell Proprietary 10 .

000.Honeywell.com Fleet Scheduling and Management System Pipeline Processing POL Sea transport POD Pipeline Grid “ System for Fleet Scheduling & Optimization • • • • • • Fleet management LNG and other refined products Contract management Update Schedule and Annual Delivery Program (ADP) Replenishment Operational Decision Support and Re-planning of Operations 21 Document control number Honeywell Proprietary Honeywell. • Rescheduling often needed 1 2 3 4 5 22 Document control number Honeywell Proprietary 11 .000.com The Fleet Scheduling Problem • Assign cargoes to ships • Decide optimal visiting sequences for each ship • A complex combinatorial problem – 3 vessels and 5 cargoes ⇒ 243 alternatives – 10 vessels and 20 cargoes ⇒ 100.000.000 • Constraints: – – – – Capacity Time windows (multiple) Compatibility Etc..000.000..

Graphical user interface .Optimization tool for fleet scheduling .Information of ships.Calculation for manual planning .Honeywell.Automatic calculation of distances .com Main Components (1) . ports etc .Automatic update of ETA 23 Document control number Honeywell Proprietary Honeywell.com Main Components (2) Optimise Maintain Data Visualise 24 Document control number Honeywell Proprietary 12 . cargoes.Ship positions reports by satellite .Electronic charts .

com Conclusions & Outlook • APS Solutions deliver tangible/ intangible benefits • Challenges remain in terms of – Integration among different modules – Change Management • Technologies such as RFID.Honeywell.com APS Solutions – Case Study Supplier SOURCE (Procurement) MAKE (Production) DELIVER (Shipment & Sales) Secondary Distribution Primary Distribution Customer Sales Integrated Planning Crude Assay Management Crude Scheduling Refinery Planning Primary Distribution Planning Rail/Road Scheduling Sec Distr Plan(LPG) Sec Distr Plan(POL) d an em D ng ni an Pl Refinery Scheduling Pipeline Scheduling Vehicle Scheduling KPI Management Pr Ma ic rk e A et & na ly si s Auto Order Generation Implemented Refinery MES Plant Automation Terminal/Depot MES Terminal Automation Back Office System Retail Automation In progress Yet to be implemented 25 Document control number Honeywell Proprietary Honeywell. SOA would be helpful in APS going forward 26 Document control number Honeywell Proprietary 13 .

2000 Ph. Where? How much? ♣ Chemical Engineering: ♣ Batch plants: Food. Munawar Abdul Shaik B.) Chemical.D. Vehicles etc. Pharmaceuticals. Chemical Engg.. (Hons.Mathematical Programming for Scheduling of Process Operations Dr. Paper products & Specialty Chemicals ♣ Continuous/Semi-continuous: Petrochemical & Refinery operations 2 . (Chemical Engg. 1997 M.E.) IIT Bombay. 2005-2007 Assistant Professor Department of Chemical Engineering Basic Definitions & Applications Scheduling: Efficient management of resources over a set of units to perform a group of activities in an optimal fashion Planning: What? Scheduling: How? Applications: ♣ Operations Research Community: ♣ Flowshops & Jobshops ♣ Scheduling of Personnel. 2005 Post-Doctoral Fellow. Princeton University. (Chemical). BITS Pilani. BITS Pilani.E.

People & Places
Chemical engineers have made significant contributions in Operations Scheduling in the past two decades ♣ Shah, Pantelides et al ♣ Grossmann et al ♣ Floudas et al ♣ Karimi et al ♣ Reklaitis, Pekny et al ♣ Pinto et al ♣ Ierapetritou et al Imperial College, London CMU Princeton Univ. NUS Purdue RPI Rutgers Univ.
3

Supply Chain of an Enterprise
Other Resources
Integration Challenges:
Different time scales Consistent Decisions Infrequent Revision Large-size Problems

Planning Forecasting Market Scheduling Operations Management Plant
RTO MPC

Demand/Supply

Control & Instrumentation

Vertical Integration in an Enterprise is Desirable
4

Planning and Scheduling
Multi-site Production Planning:
period 1 period 2 period T Time Horizon is longer

site 1

site 2

site N

Medium-term & Short-term Scheduling:
period t Relatively Short Time Horizons Typical Time Horizons:
Planning Medium-term Short-term 3 months to 1 year week or month hour or day

site n
5

Problem Statement
Given:
Set of products along with their demands and due dates Set of manufacturing locations Process flow sheet at each plant Equipment and storage capacities Batch processing time for each product in all stages Transition times (sequence dependent) Production, transportation, inventory or earliness, and tardiness costs

For Planning determine:
Order allocation across plants Amounts of products to be produced Length of short-term horizon

For Scheduling determine:
Optimal sequencing at each plant Start and finish times of different tasks on each unit Optimal inventory levels Optimal dispatch schedule
6

Classification of Scheduling Problems
Batch Plants Continuous/Semi-continuous Mixed production lines Serial units Parallel lines Hybrid flowshops Medium-term Scheduling Short-term scheduling Cyclic scheduling Robust scheduling Reactive scheduling

Discrete time Continuous-time formulation

Slot-based Global-event based Unit-specific-event based Precedence based
7

Classification of Scheduling Problems
Multi-product plants (job shops) Multi-purpose plants (flow shops) Without Resources With Resources (Utilities) Dedicated Storage Flexible Storage
8

Max Profit Min Make Span Min Tardiness/Earliness

Unlimited Storage No Storage / Zero-wait Finite-Intermediate Storage

6 S5 i=4.4 Reaction 2 0.Classification of Scheduling Problems fA fB fC 1 2 3 4 A B C Multi-product plants (flow shop) fA fB C A B fC 1 2 3 4 Multi-purpose plants (job shop) 9 Process Representation State-Task Network (STN) Resource-Task Network (RTN) Recipe diagrams S1 Feed A Heating i=1 S4 Hot A STN Representation: S8 Product 1 0. 3 0.4 IntAB 0.9 S9 Product 2 2 products. 2 reactors. 1 still 9 states.1 Separation i=8 0. 5 0. 3 feeds. 4 intermediates 1 heater.6 S6 IntBC Impure E S7 0.5 S3 Feed C Reaction 3 i=6. 8 tasks S2 Feed B Reaction 1 i=2.2 Gantt Chart Schedule: 10 . 7 0.

Different Time Representations Discrete Time Representation U1 U2 U1 U2 Continuous Time Representation I Slot based Both start and end times of tasks have to be at an event UN 0 UN 5 slots or 6 events 1 2 H-1 H 0 1 2 3 4 5 H-1 H Time intervals of equal length common to all units Time intervals of unequal and unknown length common to all units Continuous Time Representation II U1 U2 Global event based Only the start times of tasks have to be at an event U1 U2 Continuous Time Representation III Unit Specific n event based n n+1 n UN 4 events 0 12 3 4 H-1 H UN 0 12 Only 2 events 4 H-1 H 3 Events common to all units Events different for each unit 11 Scheduling Characteristics Profit maximization Make-span minimization Mean-flow time minimization Average tardiness minimization UIS (Unlimited Intermediate Storage) Performance criteria Transfer policies NIS (No Intermediate Storage) FIS (Finite Intermediate Storage) ZW (Zero-Wait Policy) MIS (Mixed Intermediate Storage) 12 .

CONOPT MINOPT 14 . BARON SNOPT.Mathematical Model Max Profit or Min Makespan s. MINOS. LINGO etc. Solvers ♣ LP/MILP ♣ MINLP ♣ NLP ♣ DAEs CPLEX SBB. Allocation constraints Material balance constraints Capacity constraints Storage constraints Duration constraints Sequence constraints Demand constraints Due date constraint Time horizon constraints Mixed-Integer Linear/Nonlinear Optimization Problem 13 Solution of the Scheduling Model Broadly Two approaches for solution: Deterministic Methods Stochastic Methods Commercial Software: Modeling Languages ♣ GAMS ♣ ILOG OPL Studio ♣ MOSEL from XPRESSMP ♣AMPL.t. DICOPT.

consumed in task i. μri p c ρ ri . μ ri ≥0. ρ ri ≥0. consumed in task i. ρ ri τr τ ii ' Ermin . μri ≤ 0 p c proportion of material resource produced. ρ ri ≤ 0 Parameters Ermax p c μ ri .Short-Term Scheduling: Batch Plants Shaik & Floudas (2008) RTN representation has not been explored in literature for unit-specific event-based models – Unit-Specific Event-based Continuous-time formulation for Short-Term Scheduling of Batch Plants without Resources (such as utilities) –The work is extension of STN model of Ierapetritou & Floudas (1998) – Improved Sequencing Constraints (for handling sequence-dependent changeovers) – Alternate approach for handling dedicated finite-intermediate storage without the need for considering storage as a separate task – Additional tightening constraint – Limitation: Does not allow tasks to take place over multiple events Short-Term Scheduling Model Nomenclature Sets I Ir R RJ RS RFIS N H Pr Dr tasks tasks related to resource r resources equipment resources material resources material resources with finite dedicated storage event points within the time horizon scheduling horizon price of resource r demand for resource r sequence independent clean up time sequence-dependent clean up time required between tasks i and i′ lower bound on the availability of resource r upper bound on the availability of resource r c p proportion of equipment resource produced.

n) p p c c E ( r . n − 1) + ρ ri b(i. n ∈ N . n > 1 c E (r . n − 1) ) + ∑ ( μ ri w(i. n ∈ N . n) ∀r ∈ R . n − 1) + ∑ ( μ ri w(i. n) = E0 (r ) + ∑ μri w(i. n) + ρ b(i.n) b(i. n ∈ N Short-Term Scheduling Model Excess Resource Balances The amount of a resource r produced or consumed by task i is represented as: μri w(i. n) = E (r . n ∈ N (1) (2) ∀r ∈ R . n = 1 The excess resource balances are more generic compared to their counterpart (material balances) in STN based models Analysis for Equipment Resources: (keeps track of the status of a unit) J p c E (r . n) = E0 (r ) + ∑ ( μ w(i.n) E0(r) E(r. n) ≤ w(i. n ∈ N . n) Bimin ≤ b(i. n) ) i∈I r ∀r ∈ R . n) + ρ ri b(i. n) Bimax Ermin ≤ E ( r . n = 1 A separate task is assumed for each task suitable in multiple equipment resources Implicitly represents the allocation constraint (No need to write separately) Analysis for Material Resources: (Reduces to the material balances in STN) . n) + ρ ri b(i.n) Ts(i. n) i∈I r i∈I r i∈I r ∀r ∈ R J . n − 1) + ∑ μri w(i. n − 1) + ∑ μri w(i. n ) = E ( r . n ∈ N . n) ) i∈I r ∀r ∈ R . n) ≤ Ermax ∀i ∈ I .n) Assign the beginning of task i at event n Amount of material processed by task i in event n initial amount of resource r available or required from external sources excess amount of resource r available at event n time at which task i starts at event n Positive variables Capacity Constraints w(i.Short-Term Scheduling Model Nomenclature Binary variables w(i. n > 1 c ri c ri i∈I r (3a) (3b) E (r .

n ∈ N ∀i ∈ I (7a) (7b) T s ( i . n) + α i ' w(i '. n) − H (1 − w(i '. n > n ' (5c) Short-Term Scheduling Model Sequencing Constraints (iii) Different tasks in different units: T s (i. n + 1) ≥ T s (i '. i ∈ I r . n) + α i ' w(i '. n < N (5b) s (c) Sequence-dependent changeovers: T s (i. n) ≥ T s (i '. i ∈ I r . n + 1) ≥ T s (i '. n ∈ N . n + 1) ≥ T s (i '. n ) ≤ H ∀i ∈ I . i ≠ i '. n ∈ N . i ' ∈ I r . ρ ri ' > 0. n) + βi 'b(i '. n ')) − H ∑ i "∈I r n '< n "< n ∑ w(i ". n) + β i 'b(i '. n ∈ N . N ) + α i w( i . i ' ∈ I r . i ' ∈ I r . n ∈ N . n ") ∀r ∈ R J . n) + τ r w(i '. n) ∀i ∈ I . n ') + β i 'b(i '. n) + β b(i. n < N (5a) T (i. n)) p c ∀r ∈ R S . n)) ≤ H i i ∀r ∈ R J (8) The tightening constraint provides a better LP relaxation . i ≠ i '. n ') + α i ' w(i '. ρ ri < 0. n ') + τ i'i w(i. i ∈ I r . n ∈ N . n < N (6) Time Bounding Constraints T s (i . n + 1) ≥ T s (i. n < N (4) (ii) Different tasks in the same unit: (a) No changeovers or cleanup times: T s (i. n) + α i w(i. n) (b) Sequence-independent cleanup times: ∀r ∈ R J . N ) ≤ H Tightening Constraint n∈N i∈I r ∑ ∑ (α w(i. i ∈ I r . n) + α i ' w(i '. n) ∀r ∈ R J . n) + β i 'b(i '. n) + β i b(i. n) − H (1 − w(i '. N ) + β i b ( i . i ≠ i '. n ' ∈ N . i ' ∈ I r .Short-Term Scheduling Model Sequencing Constraints (i) Same task in the same unit T s (i.

n)) ≤ MS i i ∀r ∈ R J (12) This is the model for Unlimited Intermediate storage (UIS) Benchmark Examples Example 1 Sundaramoorthy & Karimi (2005). N ) + ρ ri b(i. N ) + α i w(i. N ) ) ≥ Dr i∈I r ∀r ∈ R S (10) Time Bounding Constraints T (i. Floudas (2006) J1 J3 Task 1 i=1 Task 1 i=2 J2 Task 3 i=4 Task 3 i=5 J5 J4 S1 S2 Task 2 S3 S4 i=3 Problem involves 5 units. and Shaik. N ) ) ⎟ ⎠ (9) Minimization of MakeSpan (MS) Demand Constraints p p E (r . N ) ≤ MS s ∀i ∈ I (11) Modified Tightening Constraint n∈N i∈I r ∑ ∑ (α w(i. 2 int. 3 processing tasks. N ) + β i b(i. and 4 states (1 feed. N ) + ∑ ( μ r ⎛ ⎝ i∈I r p ri ⎞ p w(i. 1 product) Variable batch sizes and processing times Finite intermediate storage (FIS) for intermediates S2 and S3 Consider two objective functions: Maximization of Profit for 3 cases of different time horizons: Case 1a: H=8 hr Case 1b: H=12 hr Case 1c: H=16 hr Minimization of Makespan for 2 cases of different demands: Case 1a: D4 =2000 mu Case 1b: D4 =4000 mu . Janak.Objective Function Maximization of Profit Max Profit = r∈R S ∑ P ⎜ E (r . N ) + ρ ri b(i. n) + β b(i. N ) + ∑ ( μ ri w(i.

4 Mixer1 J5 Mixing i=10 Mixing i=11 Mixer2 J6 0.4 0.4 Int 5 Separation 0.6 S5 Int 3 0.2 Feed C S3 Problem involves 4 units.25 S9 Int 6 Product 2 S13 0. S9 and S10 Consider two objective functions: Maximization of Profit for 2 cases of different time horizons: Case 3a: H=8 hr Case 3b: H=12 hr Minimization of Makespan for 2 cases of different demands: Case 3a: D12 =100 mu.5 Reaction 1 i=2 Reaction 1 i=3 IntBC S6 Reactor2 J3 Reaction 2 i=4 Reaction 2 i=5 S8 Product 1 Product 2 0. 11 processing tasks.1 Separation i=8 Separator J4 i=1 0.6 IntAB S5 S9 0. 13 states (4 feed. 2 product) Variable batch sizes and processing times Finite intermediate storage (FIS) for intermediates S4. 7 int. 4 int.1 Separator 0.Benchmark Examples Example 2 Heater J1 Feed A Heating S1 Hot A S4 0. 8 processing tasks. 9 states (3 feed.S5.4 0.4 0.S6 and S7 Consider two objective functions: Maximization of Profit for 3 cases of different time horizons: Case 2a: H=8 hr Case 2b: H=12 hr Minimization of Makespan for the following demands: D8 =200 mu D9 =200 mu Benchmark Examples Example 3 Feed 3 Heater J1 Int 1 S1 Feed 1 Reaction 1 i=3 Reaction 1 i=4 Heating 1 i=1 S3 0.75 Heating 2 i=2 0.6 Reactor1 J2 Feed B S2 0.4 0.8 Reaction 3 i=6 Reaction 3 i=7 S7 Impure E 0.9 0.2 J4 Feed 4 S11 S12 Product 1 Problem involves 6 units.5 i=9 S7 0.5 0. 2 product) Variable batch sizes and processing times Finite intermediate storage (FIS) for all intermediates S3 –S7.5 0.5 S2 Feed 2 S4 Int 2 Reactor2 J3 Reaction 2 i=5 Reaction 2 i=6 Reactor1 J2 S8 Reaction 3 i=7 Reaction 3 i=8 S10 S6 Int 4 Int 7 0. D13 =200 mu Case 3b: D12 = D13 =250 mu .

334 1.334 0. limits on batch sizes of units Task i Unit j Unit1 Unit2 Unit3 Unit4 Unit5 Heater Reactor1 Reactor2 Reactor1 Reactor2 Reactor1 Reactor2 Separator Heater Heater Reactor1 Reactor2 Reactor1 Reactor2 Reactor1 Reactor2 Separator Mixer1 Mixer2 αij 1.334 1.333 βij 0.667 0.667 1.333 1.02664 0.00667 0. Janak.01333 0.Benchmark Examples Data of coefficients of processing times of tasks.008325 0.01665 0. and Shaik. and Shaik.00667 0.333 1. Floudas (2006) Benchmark Examples Data of storage capacities.00445 0.01332 0.00667 0.00445 0.000 0.333 1.333 1.00500 0.334 1.00445 0.333 2. initial stock levels and prices of various resources Example 1 Storage Initial capacity stock (mu) (mu) Price ($/mu) Example 2 Storage capacity (mu) Initial stock (mu) Price ($/mu) Example 3 Storage capacity (mu) Initial stock (mu) Price ($/mu) Resource S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8 S9 S10 S11 S12 S13 UL 200 250 UL ---------- AA 0 0 0 ---------- 0 0 0 5 ---------- UL UL UL 100 200 150 200 UL UL ----- AA AA AA 0 0 0 0 0 0 ----- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 10 ----- UL UL 100 100 300 150 150 UL 150 150 UL UL UL AA AA 0 0 0 50 50 AA 0 0 AA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 5 UL – Unlimited storage capacity AA – Available as and when required Sundaramoorthy & Karimi (2005).000 1.00667 min Bij max Bij (mu) --------------------------------------------20 20 (mu) 100 150 200 150 150 100 50 80 50 80 50 80 200 100 100 100 150 100 150 100 150 300 200 200 Example 1 Example 2 (i=1) (i=2) Task2 (i=3) Task3 (i=4) (i=5) Heating (i=1) Reaction1 (i=2) (i=3) Reaction2 (i=4) (i=5) Reaction3 (i=6) (i=7) Separation (i=8) Heating1 (i=1) Heating2 (i=2) Reaction1 (i=3) (i=4) Reaction2 (i=5) (i=6) Reaction3 (i=7) (i=8) Separation (i=9) Mixing (i=10) (i=11) Task1 Example 3 Sundaramoorthy & Karimi (2005). Floudas (2006) .667 1.01000 0.667 1.667 0.00667 0.667 0.01665 0.3342 0. Janak.00889 0.333 0.000 1.02664 0.01333 0.01333 0.00667 0.333 1.00889 0.667 0.667 1.01330 0.00666 0.

0 a 5038.83 1. 2005.8 6312.46 21. P.76 27176 606 21874 24 589 28 720 3408476 36297619 1642027 4087336 44252075 6596 89748 5487 91080 4481. Effective continuous-time formulation for short-term scheduling: 1. A. Chem.02 0.24 %b . 260.22 >67000b 1086. Chem.Other models used in Comparative Study Comparison based on our own implementation & same software and hardware STN: Ierapetritou. M.0 2000. Eng. A. H.6 3301. FIS RTN: Castro.1 5038.. X. Eng. Relative Gap: 1.5 6600. 25. Barbosa-Povoa.6a 3463. A. Res..9 5237. 4341.6 5038.6 8237.7 3463.6 6381.0 2000.03 0. Floudas.6 4000.60 1. Eng. Design. P. A. M.5 6601.1 5038. A simpler better slot-based continuous-time formulation for short-term scheduling in multipurpose batch plants.6 3463.83 0.1 5038. C. Novais. Floudas. M.08 3911. 32..1 80 40 75 20 25 20 25 110 120 105 150 165 35 40 35 40 415 130 165 76 90 106 125 565 615 225 270 295 118 132 163 182 408 162 232 115 138 130 153 570 624 319 409 448 184 207 199 199 222 1358 546 886 314 383 427 521 1895 2074 1240 1680 1848 521 590 709 803 Suboptimal solution.. A.19 0. Unit-specific event-based continuous-time approach for short-term scheduling of batch plants using RTN framework.2 1840. 2001.0 MILP Binary Continuous Constraints Nonzeros ($) variables variables 1840.6 6601. 37.. 105.01 0. Floudas. Ind.0 2000. 665.01 0.9 6601. C.76 20. 2679. Comput.0 4419.02 0. A. Karimi. Ind. Res. Matos. 2008. synthesis and scheduling of multipurpose batch plants via an effective continuous-time formulation. Chem..2 1840. C.6 3463. Eng.6 7737. 60. Chem.1 5038. Eng. A. 1998.2 1840. I.1 5038. Shaik.6 3463.14 40466. Q.2 1840. Simple continuous-time formulation for short-term scheduling of batch and continuous processes.. Comput.2 40 20 35 10 10 215 70 85 48 68 192 86 116 69 84 84 642 274 414 176 239 Example 1a (H=8) S&K CBMN(Δt=1) (Δt=2) I&F S&F 5 5 5 4 4 13 0 7 1 1 Example 1b (H=12) S&K 9 CBMN(Δt=1) 9 (Δt=2) 9 I&F 6 7 S&F 6 7 Example 1c (H=16) S&K 12 13 CBMN(Δt=2) 12 (Δt=3) 12 (Δt=3) 13 I&F 9 10 S&F 9 10 a 26.0 2000.1 5038.23 5328. UIS Lin. Chem.0 4701.9 7737. A. Multipurpose batch processes. G.6 3463.0 4857. A. Recipe Diagrams: Sundaramoorthy.23 10. Abbreviation used I&F L&F CBMN S&F S&K Computational Results (UIS) Example 1 Model Events CPU time (s) 0. 2004.1 5000.05 0. Sci. 43.01 Maximization of Profit Nodes RMILP ($) 2000.32 0.6 4000.

9 1730.5 MILP Binary Continuous Constraints Nonzeros ($) variables variables 1498.38 25.2 3315.8a 2646.4 1583.92 0.72 4366.8 3343.2 3265.Computational Results (UIS) Example 2 Model Events CPU time (s) 0.3 3041.5 2658.73 Maximization of Profit Binary Continuous Constraints Nonzeros variables variables 102 121 30 41 30 41 136 165 52 52 597 264 155 190 185 226 783 348 225 267 584 343 303 377 317 391 792 457 451 465 2061 1495 875 1139 1015 1324 2789 2031 1403 1633 Nodes RMILP ($) 2513.7 1943.73 1.82 81.6 1962.3 3041. Relative Gap: 1.28 561.6 3465.3 4297.3 1730.8a 2658.6 2690.0 4409.5 3788.4 1583.5 2100.59 %b.0 2847.6 1498.3 3465.4 3730.58 10889.3 3041.9 2123.03 0.3 2690.43 2.16 43.79 36.0 2751 3867.0 3350.58%c Limitation: Does not allow tasks to occur over multiple events (motivation for the Unified Model) Computational Results (UIS) Example 3 Model Events CPU time (s) 184.03 0.2a 2646.8 2646.9 1812. 2.5 2658.5 1.28 0.2a 1943.7 1860.19 105.46 6.3 3078.67 Maximization of Profit Nodes RMILP ($) 1730.5 48 32 18 26 18 26 84 56 104 144 34 42 34 42 96 108 120 120 136 152 42 50 42 50 235 104 90 115 106 135 433 170 218 258 140 165 164 193 499 565 631 248 278 308 165 190 193 222 249 114 165 216 173 224 456 189 261 321 267 318 275 326 525 594 663 298 335 372 318 369 326 377 859 439 485 672 564 783 1615 760 1238 1635 859 1046 1002 1221 1867 2119 2371 1426 1614 1802 1046 1233 1221 1440 Example 2a (H=8) S&K 5 CBMN(Δt=1) 5 I&F 4 5 S&F 4 5 Example 2b (H=10) S&K 8 CBMN(Δt=1) 8 (Δt=2) 8 (Δt=3) 8 I&F 6 7 S&F 6 7 Example 2c (H=12) S&K 9 10 11 CBMN(Δt=2) 9 10 11 I&F 7 8 S&F 7 8 a 4 4 13 883 10 681 88679 6449 194968 366226 6713 101415 5180 89069 288574 3438353 17270000 593182 6018234 80602289 14962 211617 12006 167306 Suboptimal solution.01 0.9 3301.8 2646.2a 1943.4 3551.61 >67000b 331.6 MILP ($) 1583.6 1498.3 Example 3a (H=8) S&K 7 CBMN(Δt=2) 7 I&F 5 6 S&F 5 6 Example 3b (H=12) S&K 9 CBMN(Δt=2) 9 I&F 7 S&F 7 a 145888 10361 1176 57346 1074 50566 94640 47798 15871 579 Suboptimal solution .4 3041.7a 1959a 1962.6 1498.2a 1943.40 23.6 3136.07 0.3 3864.4 1583.1 2305.7 2780.90 0.4 1583.23 105.5 2658.4 1583.33 0.8 2606.29 85.6 1498.8 2730.92 107.3 3136.8 2646.95 207.6 1498.8 2646.25 372.5 4070.09 >67000c 6.64 5.8 2100.97 18.

heating oil.Scheduling of Refinery Operations Dr. … • 3 parts: – Crude-oil unloading and blending – Fractionation and reaction processes – Product blending and shipping (Mendez et al. gasoline.. 2006) 2 . diesel fuel. kerosene. Munawar Abdul Shaik Assistant Professor Department of Chemical Engineering A Typical Oil Refinery • Crude-oil refining into useful petroleum products: – LPG.

Crude-oil scheduling problem (Lee et al... 1996) • Scheduling horizon [0. 2006) 3 Crude-oil Scheduling problem • Given – Refinery configuration – Logistics constraints – Initial tanks inventory and composition – Vessels arrival time. inventory level and composition – Distillation specifications and demands (planning decisions) • Determine – Required operations – Timing decisions – Transfer volumes • Minimize – Cost of distilled crude-oil mixtures (Mendez et al.. 2006) 4 .H] • 4 types of resources: – Crude-oil marine vessels – Storage tanks – Charging tanks – Crude Distillation Units (CDUs) • 3 types of operations: – Unloading: Vessel unloading to storage tanks – Transfer: Transfer from storage tanks to charging tanks – Distillation: Distillation of charging tanks (Mendez et al.

Crude-oil Scheduling problem: Example • Common logistics constraints: – Only one docking station available for vessel unloadings – No simultaneous inlet and outlet operations on tanks – Crude distillation units can only be charged by one tank – Continuous distillation (Mendez et al... 2006) 6 . 2006) 5 Crude-oil Scheduling problem: Example (Mendez et al.

2003.. Che..Hybrid Flowshop Facility* Consider Integration of Planning and Scheduling for an M-stage Hybrid Flowshop Plant tanks tanks tanks line 1 line 2 stage 1 stage 2 stage 3 stage M-2 stage M-1 stage M Multi-level Decomposition of the Overall Problem of Integration of Planning and Scheduling * Munawar et al. 2005 7 Proposed Multi-level Structure for Lube-oil scheduling Level-1 Planning over a multi-period horizon: Order Redistribution Detailed scheduling in each period: Meeting Production Targets Operator level inventory scheduling : ISTR (Individual Tank Assignments) Level-2 Level-3 Embedding proactive/contingency measures 8 . Ind. Eng. Res.

of equations CPU time (sec) Non linear N-Z 4P3S 48 476 606 13.Multi-level Structure for Lube-oil scheduling Abstractions Level-1 Traditional timeslot usage Assumed slopping losses abstracted inventory Modified timeslot definition for slopping (Abstraction of total available compatible tank volumes) ISTR (tank assignments) Level-2 Level-3 Increasing model granularity 9 Level-2: Extensions to Large problems Performance indices Discrete variables Continuous variables No.3 3667 10P3S 252 3436 2609 648.3 2388 8P3S 154 1848 1621 372.2 1135 5P3S 66 717 855 19.4 1609 6P3S 98 1112 1231 68.1 6251 10 .

Level-3: Tank assignments Suppose: Tanks each 50 m3 capacity 11 Level-3: ISTR algorithm Inventory level (m3) 150 100 T2 50 T1 T4 time (hr) 12 Sub-profile generation Non-overlapping zones Reuse of tanks D T3 C T2 T3 B A T3 T3 .

52 899.795 12.8 222.. . 1994) 14 .4 hr Ts Tr Nominal schedule for first period x Receding horizon for intrusion Ts (hr) 0 1 10 25 50 75 90 99 99. stage 1 . Multistage Multiproduct Continuous Plant (Pinto & Grossmann. .66 900 900 ε (m3) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0. . .59 673. stage 2 .88 891.Reactive scheduling between first two levels t=1 t=2 900 hr t=3 800 hr Level-1 1000 hr Level-2 Tbr=724.678 87. .98 Local disturbances are attenuated locally 13 Cyclic Scheduling Problem tanks products 1 2 N .. . .13 447.9 100 101 x (hr) 0 8. stage M .89 809.

. k=2 k = NK Transition processing .. . .. k = NK stage M k=1 k=2 ... . k = NK time Time slot representation 15 MINLP model for Cyclic Scheduling Maximize Profit = ∑p i i Im im WpMi Zijkm − ∑∑ Cinvim − ∑∑∑∑ Ctrij Tc Tc Tc i m i j k m (1) − 1 ⎛ TppikM ⎞ ∑∑ Cinvfi α iM RpiM ⎜1 − Tc ⎟TppikM 2 i k ⎝ ⎠ subject to ∑y ∑y ∑z j ikm =1 =1 ∀i ∀m ∀k ∀m ∀m ∀m (2a) (2b) (3a) (3b) 16 k ikm i ijkm = yikm ∀j ∀i ∀k ∀k ∑z i ijkm = y jk −−1m .Mathematical Formulation Time slot stage 1 stage 2 k=1 k=2 k=1 ..

MINLP model for Cyclic Scheduling Tspikm − U im yikm ≤ 0 T ∀i ∀i ∀i ∀ k ∀m ∀ k ∀m ∀ k ∀m ∀ k ∀m ∀m (4a) (4b) (4c) (4d) (5a) Tepikm − U im yikm ≤ 0 T Tppikm − U im yikm ≤ 0 T Tppikm = Tepikm − Tspikm ∀ i ∑ Tsp i i1 m = ∑ ∑τ i j ijm z ij 1 m ikm ∑ Tsp i i ( k + 1) m = ∑ Tep i + ∑ ∑ τ ijm z ij ( k i j + 1) m ∀ k < NK ∀m (5c) (5b) ⎛ ⎞ Tc ≥ ∑ ⎜ ∑ Tpp ikm + ∑ ∑ τijm zijkm ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ k ⎝ i i j ⎠ 17 Inventory Breakpoints Tppikm Tspikm Tepikm Tppik(m+1) Tspik(m+1) Tepik(m+1) Inventory level I1im I2im stage m stage m+1 Tppikm Tspikm Tepikm Tppik(m+1) Tspik(m+1) Tepik(m+1) Inventory level I1im I2im I0im I3im I0im I3im time time 18 .

∑ Tpp ikm ⎬ k k ⎭ ⎩ k ⎧ ⎫ I 2 im = I 1im + (α im Rp im − Rp i ( m +1) )max ⎨0.1} 0 ≤ z ijkm ≤ 1 Tsp ikm . Im im . ∑ Tep ik ( m + 1) − ∑ Tep ikm ⎬ k k ⎩ k ⎭ 0 ≤ I 2 im ≤ Im im 0 ≤ I 3im ≤ Im im Im im ≤ U im I I 3im = I 0 im k ∀i ∀m ∀i ∀i (6) (7a) (7b) 19 Wp Mi = α iM Rp iM ∑ Tpp ikM Wp Mi ≥ DiTc Mathematical model Variables: y ikm ∈ {0 . T c . I 3 im ≥ 0 Most of the Scheduling problems in Chemical Engineering result in MILP/MINLP models with large number of binary and continuous variables. Wp Mi .Inventory Breakpoints ⎧ ⎫ I 1im = I 0 im + α im Rp im min ⎨ ∑ Tsp ik ( m + 1) − ∑ Tsp ikm . Tpp ikm . I 2 im . I 0 im . 20 . ∑ Tep ikm − ∑ Tsp ik ( m + 1) ⎬ k ⎭ ⎩ k 0 ≤ I 1im ≤ Im im ⎧ ⎫ I 3im = I 2 im − Rp i ( m +1) min ⎨ ∑ Tpp ik ( m + 1). I 1im . Tep ikm .

h) 4.6 140.06 4.06 product A B C Transition times (sequence dependent) stage 1 product A B C A 3 8 B 10 3 C 3 6 A 3 4 stage 2 B 7 0 C 3 10 - 22 .06 4.6 stage 2 processing rate (kg/h) 900 600 1100 final inventory ($/ton.3P2S Scheduling Problem fA fB fC A B C stage 1 stage 2 Product A B C sale price ($/ton) 150 400 650 demand (kg/h) 50 100 250 21 3P2S Problem data stage 1 processing rate (kg/h) 800 1200 1000 intermediate storage ($/ton) 140.6 140.

72 A 3 C 91.75 3 C 94.43 sec Product A B C demand (kg/hr) 50 100 250 production (kg/h) 50 100 758 24 .3P2S Solution stage 1 3 0 B 10.68 3 3 A 19.84 B 0 15.53 / hr Cycle time = 94.9 Inv (ton) Time (hr) 23 3P2S Solution Profit = $ 442.05 hr Variables = 146 (18 bin) Constraints = 162 CPU time = 12.05 stage 2 23.

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