" Thus snith the LORD. Stand ye in the ways and see, and ask for the old paths where ii the good way, and walk therein." JEREMIAH vi. 1(5.

"Forasmuch as many have taken which are moet surely believed amon<r


in hand to set forth a declaration of those thing* also to write that thou us, it seemed eood to the coi'ainly of those things wherein thou hast been instructed." LUKE i. 1-2,




Nos. 105-109 MADISON STREET.











interview with the zealous band of Freemasons, lovingly

at labor in their

foyer maponnique at Smyrna,

was reported



that the Governor-General of Syria


Palestine, the brave, wise, and





one who delights to wear the Marejoiced to speak of

sonic apron, having shared joyfully in the mystic confidences of their
fraternal group.


the brethren at


the intelligence, urbanity, and Masonic skill of their renowned brother

Damascus, and favored
Early upon

me with letters of credence and introduction.
Damascus, therefore,
I hastened to


arrival in



respects to your Excellency,


to present

you the greetings of a

American Masons, who are working (in more than six thousand lodges) the same principles of Divine truth, justice, and fraternity in which you, yourself, were inducted in your Masonic
initiation at


At the same time

I laid before

your Excel-

lency the peculiar mission upon which I had embarked, and solicited

your valued approval and patronage. I have now to acknowledge the very hearty manner in which your
Excellency responded to


request; you afforded


the wisest

and extended


such aid as none can give so effectually

as yourself.



tne plan of the present volume was matured, and




the honor of dedicating










indebted, your Excellency granted


the favor, with an

urbanity which

in keeping with all I

had previously known and

enjoyed of your character.




return home, I have spoken in

more than




and reported

them the

results of


Oriental study and

Brother, the Vali of Syria; of his bravery in war, his

have made grateful mention of our distinguished wisdom in coun-

the respect and love of his people,

and particularly

his kindness

to the

Masonic light

American brother who had journeyed so far in pursuit of Should you, at any period, honor our country with a
will find that this story of

your Excellency

your kindness to the

strange brother has come here before you

that the lineaments of

your countenance are well known to us, and that a welcome awaits you, such as but few visitors have ever received from the Masonic


that your Excellency


so favor us



that the mother-land of
live to this great

Freemasonry might send such a representa-*

asylum of freedom, where the principles of the

ancient <>rder have unrestricted sway,

and every^nun

feels that in his



the equal of every other!

May it please your Your name is spread
ernment of a



earthly lot differs

most widely.

afar as one to

has intrusted the govOur forms of faith are diverse. In language,

whom God

customs, and modes of thought,


are cast in different




Masonic UNITY we are one, and one in Masonic FAITH. hopes, and aims, and labors are one, we, in one

As our
God, and

doing, each of us, what
bly expect a

we believe to be His expressed will, do humcommon reward when we have passed that common lot which none can escape, To the Divine power, therefore, I tenderly commend your Excellency, both for this world and for that




H. E.


This book, FrHmatonry in the Holy Land,

by permission, most

and most







book to the Masonic public, in redemption of


pledges to the generous friends




the means both for


expedition of h86S, and

for publishing the



have been more than three years getting

up, speaks, I think, for the

thorough manner of



" Agreeably to original promise, the



adapted to the plainest



one that the owner will take home and read in his domestic

and afterwards lend to his neighbors to read equally a reference-

book to the student, and a hand-book to the traveller ; large enough

embrace so great a subject, yet no


has been spared to compress
remorselessly in

the information.

The Common Gavel has been used
Written in the
has not

striking off excrescences.

of the Holy Writings,

French and German



sufficient inroads into

American Masonry, that
additional light
light I

than nineteen-twentieths will welcome

upon the Divine authenticity of the
freely to diffuse

and such

have attempted

through this volume.

Let every subscriber, after reading the book, bear
that I have kept the faith with him.



have avoided the mysterious and romantic style so

and birds
trees in

amongst writers upon

and have cultivated the


One would think,
in the

to read standard accounts of the trees

Holy Land, that they

are different

from birds and

other countries.




Making allowance

for difference in climate,



the same everywhere, and so I have used every-day words

in describing



have embodied as


practical informa;

tion as possible

Occidental comparing things Oriental with things

and prophets with things in the things in the experience of patriarchs
experience of an American observer.


yet I have endeavored to

preserve the gravity and dignity due to a

theme around which cluster
world to come.

our hopes in


in death,


in the

In the abundance of



and the acreage of



ings-up for this book, I have not unfrequently mingled


thoughts with
special credit


own, and have entered them here often without

In defence of this I can only say that such


general usage of writers.
erty of other persons, he

If the reader, then, finds passages the propis

at liberty to say so


I will

not deny



but, with the historian Rollin, I confess

"that I do not scruple,



ashamed, to borrow that


may adorn and

my own


My own

credit, if

any, shall consist in the skill

with which

bind the beads of the chain together.

In the thousands of notes and
if I

have taken,


would be strange, indeed,


preserve the ear-marks of each.

In this book I have desired to popularize the study of the Scriptures, by removing some of the difficulties which the unlearned


fonnd in reading them ; by smoothing the way to obscure passages, so at to enable all to peruse the Sacred Book understandingly, and betr to sermons and commentaries. Had the enjoy hundreds of thouJ who

make up the

membership of our lodges

this practical



easy the teacher's task, in the

coming generation,

to diffuse

of useful

knowledge there




in this world


any object

to the allusions

and comparisons

American matconfess, old


so freely introduced through these pages, let



cosmopolitan as I am, that patriot fumus igne alieno luculentior
rery smoke of
fire of



my own

native land seems brighter to


than the



I trust, however, I have not exhibited this senti-

ment anywhere


As the

narrative of Arculfe Pilgrimage to Palestine, in the eighth

century, led to that passion for pilgrimage which has not yet died

but has made the nineteenth the most illustrious century of


so I earnestly
will inspire

hope the publication of this book, the



its class,

many a zealous

tourist to visit those countries

on Masonic

errands, and



many a penman in his closet to enlarge the now make the commencement. To show that

literature of

the web and

woof of Masonic tradition are

by an easy

transition, to prove

the figures of the pattern real and genuine.

In writing 'Arabic words I have endeavored, in general, to give such

English letters as will express them to the ear rather than the eye.

For instance


instead of


I write liareem, &c.


this rule


but imperfectly carried out, after Sultan would be Sooltarn
If the reader


were I to adopt


Koran, Korarn ; Hassan, Hassarn, &c.
(a thing

would learn the exact sound of Arabic words

never did), he must get an Arabic dictionary (and then he can't do



so large a proportion of

American Masons are professing Chris-

the demonstration at Baltimore, Maryland, September, 1871,

proving that our wisest and best members in very large numbers
joice to bear the symbolical

emblem of the


of Jesus

have not hesitated frequently " to



in this

volume, although no one has so often and publicly demonstrated thai

Freemasonry was ten centuries old when the Star of Bethlehem


Nor can our Jewish brethren, many of whom
into the

have received a welcome


lodges, complain that I neglected the interests

of their long-persecuted but

now emerging

I society while

was in the
for much

EMt At the nine time I have fully expressed my admiration
of the character and
in the

many of the precepts of Mohammed,


spirit of re-


and read in the Avoiding the doctrinal points,

of fraternal love, as Ulustrated in the lectures

Freemasonry, that

as a comment upon markable book, the Koran, might justly be taken



older, far wiser,

and most remarkable book ever written,


of the






to are accustomed, without the slightest examination,
I will (as well as its author),

denounce the

simply say, with Isaiah
if it



the law and to the testimony
it is

speak not according to this


because there



light in it"


unprejudiced mind

will admit,

not only that the Koran contains far more quotations

from and references to the Bible, but
the spirit of the inspired


imbued more with

word than a dozen of the best " Saints'

Books" found on the counter of any Catholic bookstore

New York.


the testimony!"

In affixing the names of


Masonic countrymen freely to places


in history, I acknowledge, ubique

patriam reminisci, that I

to join the

my native

country in

all places,

and have attempted thus


to the East

by a new and more affecting


Masons who

raised nine

thousand dollars and upwards to send



and enough, three years afterwards,

to publish this volume,

have earned the right to Matonic homes
Maaona, and the allotment
largely extended.

among the homes

of the


have made may be yet very

much more
the region

Even though the idea be one
if it

strictly in

of romance, I shall be greatly mistaken
explorations, freer offerings,

does not lead to larger
this direction

and greater exertions in


the part of generations yet to come.


Professor A.


Rawson, of


York, so well


as "


Oriental Artist,"



has given his pencil exclusively, for a


of years, to Biblical illustration, I


indebted, not only for the

and engravings in


volume, but for

many practical

and useful

gestions in the preparation of the


Himself a thorough

explorer in Eastern




giving his mature and experienced


to such


as Beecher*s, Deems's, Crosby's,

and othei

first-class writers

on Biblical themes



excellent "


of Bible of them.


meanwhile comparing favorably with the best

Finally, if

any one with dyspeptic tendencies

feels to object to


attempt at



possibly be detected in

some of these

pages, I bare

my back

to the lash.

did laugh while going, without

guard or guide, through the once inspiring but now depressing lands
of the tribes

laughed often and


and, even at the end of four


cachinations are renewed


think of certain expe-

riences connected with




my journey. The ghost of old laughs thua long and persistently, and giving its spirit to my ink,
without further dispensation,

the reader

is at liberty,



with milk and ... a land flowing land and a large good vl 3, xi. 9, etc.) honey." (Dent



The dew

of a

peat rock


land. upon a weary

days ; revives the falling yet, Bolder s lends her roses still, to win the poet lays , Sweet Sharon them wing the birds In every vale the lily bends, while o'er the Saviours words. Whose cheerful notes so marvellously recall



From Bethlehem awake the songs of Rachel and of J^h, trutn ; From Mizpah's mountain-fastness mournfulnotesol tiiial
Penitent Magdala gives narration of the

And Bethany
Would we

of sister-hosts

who loved the



retrace the pilgrimage of Jesus Christ our Lord, Behold his footsteps everywhere, on rocky knoll and sward ; From Bethlehem to Golgotha, his cradle and his tomb, He sanctified old Canaan and accepted it his home.

He praved upon thy mountain-side, he rested in thy grove, He walked upon thy Galilee, when winds with billows strove:
land was full of happy homes, that loving hearts did own, E'en foxes and the birds of air but Jesus Christ had none.



land of milk and honey, land of corn and oil and wine, my hungry spirit to enjoy thy food divine! 1 hunger and I thirst afar, the Jordan rolls between, I faintly see thy paradise all clothed in living green.


day of life declineth, and my sun is sinking low ; near the banks of Jordan, through whose waters I must go Oh, let me wake beyond the stream, in land celestial blest, To be forever with the Lord in Canaan's promised rest



Whatsoever thy hand findeth to do, do it with thy might; for there is ne work, nor device, nor knowledge, nor wisdom, in tlie grave, whither thou goest
Eccles. ix. 10.


the condition of the Masonic institution, in the land of its nativity.

Observe those unaltered customs of the Orientals, whose types are preserved in the rituals of our lodges.
salem, etc.
Collect relics of ancient days

the traditional sites of Tyre, Gebal, Lebanon, Joppa, Succoth, Jeru-

and specimens of the natural produetions of th








VT2BY one who has undertaken to must many times have yearned to
mother-land of ancient

instruct Freemasons, visit Palestine, the

Jesus and

Abraham and David, Mohammed,

the Orient, the home of Solomon and Zerubbabel, of

the School of the Sacred Writings.

So many references to that country are contained in the Masonic there rituals, it is a marvel that no one of us had made explorations
prior to 1868.

In common with my fellows in Masonic work, I had keenly ex" to precipitate myself upon the perienced the Crusader's impulse " and often cast about me for the means to gratify the Syrian shore ;
this wish, 'that,

of 1854, 1 came so near accomplishing the favor of a loan of $1,000 from the Grand by Lodge of Kentucky, joined to the liberality of other friends, I reached

In the


New York,




earnestly "set

towards Jerusalem."

But here an unlucky accident frustrated my hopes, and turned me back to the Occident Fire, which has so often proved my foe, consumed the Judson House, in which I was a lodger, and by destroying my papers and clothing, etc., so disarranged the scheme, that I could
not carry

out successfully at that time.

Yet, for all that, though advancing years, and the res angustcB in dorni, the hard realities of life, interposed with a purpose almost inexorable, I never once resigned my determination to to Palestine,

bnt always in

go Masonic descriptions spoke of " those traditional which some day I am resolved to visit." In the mean-


time, I continued the practice, established long before, of reading whatever publications promised to shed light upon the Lands of the

East; and in church, Sunday-school, and elsewhere, lectured on the )ject with a minuteness of detail that compelled me to study the theme in its various historical and scientific associations. This, in fact, served to educate me against the time when it might please the

and the marriage of the elder. to the Land of the Bible.. a reasonably vigorous constitution. against them. vosmet rebus servate secundis . rituals. therefore. chases of books for my Masonic collections. and given might justly claim exemption from further labors and losses in that direction. poetry. renhome less dered father's presence at a matter of necessity than here- One thing more : my labors in the various departments of Masonic history. In brief. are so much more than mere travel. by their assistance. and enter upon a new field. and the fields of Masonic literature affording little profit to authorship..CONCEPTION AND PBEPABATIONS. circumstances proved somewhat encouraging to the ful- may possibly be joyful some day to recall these trials fillment of my purpose. Thomson's. etc. In 1867. . The invaluable aids aiforded the Bible student by such publications as Eobinson's. Having no money-capital of my own for purposes of publication. I gave prominence to those upon Oriental matters. the growing up of the my family. never impaired by excessive living or intemperance. the work of exploration. 0. T. 13 In pur(j. and justifies me in beginning. the moment of arrival. The enlarged privileges granted by the Turkish government to foreigners sojourning in the Holy Land enabled a person in 1868 to explore twentyfold more than he could have done in 1858. as my old library. U. The publication of scores and hundreds of books of travel in Palestine obviates the necessity of a man's wasting time in merely playing the tourist. that the reader may in effect transport himself. spirit of old will show. being enabled to see with their eyes and hear with their ears whatever is needed to illuminate books of the sacred pages. I felt that in the issuance of seventy-four Masonic publications I had sufficient evidence of my devotion to the old institution. I sought to emulate the vidus is Thomas a Kempis et diligens prepared for all things : ad omnia paratur and in the meantime found comfort in the et hcec in his saying. etc. Barclay's. . seemed measurably terminated. and fortyfold more than in 1848. A. my domestic circle. now in the keeping of the Grand Lodge of New York. Finally. homo ferthe earnest and diligent man promise of Virgil Forsan Durate It et olim meminisse juvabit . bear up and be ready for better times when they come. In of younger members tofore. to grant me a furlough for the Oriental tour. The opening of various lines of steamships from Europe to the Syrian coast was a favorable incident.



in their original and translated .on* knowledge of the Scriptures in matters relating to Oriental coun-

of reading forms, a large course a circle of Masonic friends reaching tries,
to execute




round the globe, and a undertook-these formed the en-

me out, at the age of fifty, to begin the sercouragements that bore the Holy Land, conceived BO many rice of Masonic exploration of which the present volume is the record. years ago, of Masonic instituBut how a Masonic exploration ? What has the no questions for FreeLand ? These are to do with the



to ask


but as

my work

will fall into the



and per-

the query who "mystic haps be read by, those I respond, then, that the Holy answered here. may properly be books of the Lodge ; and that a perfect Scriptures are the instruction of the Holy Land is needful to a perfect knowledge of the knowledge
are not of the

Holy Scriptures.
In 1867, then, I set

upon the following plan to secure the necessary

I made up a list of Holy Land specimens, ; were most likely to value such as / should uch as the fraternity most value, in the way of Biblical and Masonic illustrations, a cata-

funds for




logue embracing specimens of the woods, waters, earths, coins, fossils, from Palestine, and proposed to supply them, at a specified rate,
to those

who would advance me money

lowing extracts from
of this enterprise:


The folfor the pilgrimage. published proposals belong to the history

Those contributors who advance ten dollars, each shall be supplied with one hundred and fifty obiects from the Holy Land, including specimens of the ancient building-stone of Jerusalem, Joppa, and Tyre; shells from the Sea of Galilee and Joppa; agates from the Arabian deserts ; ancient coins ; rock-salt from Usdum ; an herbarium of ten plants ; the traditional corn, wine, and oil of Masonry ; earth from the clay-grounds near Succoth, etc., etc."
Contributors of five dollars, three dollars, and two dollars, respecwere promised smaller cabinets composed of similar objects ; :hose of one dollar, the Journal of the Expedition. map of the [oly Land, arranged for Masonic purposes, was also a portion of the premiums promised. Having decided upon the plan of appeal, I visited one hundred irty lodges in Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Illinois, West Virginia,




araska, anl New York, and addressed the fraternity. copying an hour or two with recitations of Masonic

began by poems, such


as the Level

and the Square, the Letter G-., the Holy Bible, 0uF the Drunkard's Grave, the Five Points of Fellowship, the EmVows, blems of the Craft, etc., and then laid before them my propositions In general, the offer was for a Masonic mission to the Holy Land.
was one of extreme favorably responded to. The 'season, unfortunately, closeness in the money market, and portions of the country visited were suffering from scanty harvests. Some of my hearers probably



amount asked

proposals Quixotic ; many others contributed the lowest for, viz., one dollar ; yet nearly four hundred of them

ten dollars each, trusting, as they said, to my pluck to accomplish the end proposed, or willing to show their respect for an


and industrious laborer, who came before them with an appeal and practical. The whole number of contributors was 3,782 the aggregate of contributions was $9,631. Out of this, according to my proposals, provision was made for two years' support of my family; my own expenses, and those of my agent, Mr. G. W. Bartlett, while collecting the money ; the expenses of the Oriental tour, for myself and Mr.
so reasonable

of the

upon shipments of specimens printing six issues Land Journal for 3,782 contributors; printing cataHoly



and preparing, labelling, packing, and forwarding nearly ; 70,000 specimens. It can readily be seen that the amount advanced me was short of my needs ; the deficit, in fact, exceeded $1,200, and
logues, etc.
this I

was compelled


make up out

of the proceeds of lectures on


return home.

It is in evidence of the practicability of the plan upon which this money was collected, that a noted traveller is now (1872) before the

public with proposals, borrowed from my programme, to furnish objects of natural history on South America " to those who will advance

him the necessary

outfit for the journey to that country." By way of encouragement, I commend to him the adage of Periander of " " Corinth, one of the Seven Wise Men of antiquity ; industries nil


anything can be accomplished by an industrious





addresses to the Lodges I proposed

once the centre of intellecexplore that remarkable plain and the school of the seven liberal arts and sciences, also of commerce, religion, and letters the Plain of Phcsnicia. 2. To visit the secluded recesses, high among the Lebanons, where the remaining groves of cedar are found. 3. To search for those caves and bays at the base of Lebanon where " the " flotes of timber were made up for shipment to Joppa.
tual light






down the

coast to Joppa, in the track of

Hiram's mari-


and to seek for the highway journeying from Joppa to Jerusalem ; which they penetrated the precipitous cliffs and bore upward by tneir ponderous burdens. 7. To make thorough inspection of everything relating to Solomonic times, in and about Jerusalem. 8. To visit the plain of Jordan, especially the clay-ground between Succoth and Zarthan, where the brazen pillars and other holy vessels appertaining to the Temple were cast 9. To explore the places named in Masonic lectures, such as Jerusalem, Bethlehem, Sodom, Jericho, Bethel, Hattin, Damascus, Bethany, Joppa, Tyre, Gebal, Lebanon, and others. 10. To make full collections of objects illustrating Masonic traditions and Biblical customs, these to be distributed generously to contributors

To examine the ancient port of Joppa with systematic care. To follow diligently upon the tracks of the Syrian architects,




upon plans previously arranged.


following cuts of



flag are appropriate



idea of this was suggested by the flag used in Dr. Kane's Arcixplorahons of 1853. His banner, the square and compass, still the archives of Kane Lodge, No. 454, New York City, Iwplayedat his masthead while passing down New York Bay, the extreme northern termination of his journey, it was set up in the mow-drifts. ThiB little of mine



me through






whose name was adored equally in Phoenician and Jewish Lodges on the other, the architect-symbol of him whose noble end dignifies the purpose and the work of every Mason's Lodge. Fastened upon the boughs of one of Lebanon's grandest cedars, it suggested a mysterious meaning to the sturdy limbs and evergreen foliage of the Waved before the entrance of a rock-hewn tomb at Gebal, it tree. seemed to call around me the spirits of those who, three thousand
years ago, well understood its symbolical lessons. Fluttered in the gale that lifts the waters over the rocky ledge at Joppa, it recalled the " like doves to the windows," days when the great fleets of Tyre came, deep-laden, into this harbor, the square and compass on their foresails.

Fluttered over the walls of Jerusalem, and in the deep quarry that underlies the city, it spoke in prophetic tones of the good time coming,

when the Mason-craft shall yet build up Jerusalem, and the GOD we worship be worshipped there and everywhere. The course pursued by the various Masonic journals in regard to

Their this enterprise was almost uniformly generous in the extreme. columns were freely thrown open to my propositions ; their editorial pens shaped words of encouragement and good counsel. It will not be deemed invidious if I mention by name the Evergreen (Dubuque, Iowa) the Masonic Review (Cincinnati, 0.) the Voice of Masonry (Chicago, Illinois) the National Freemason (New York) ; the Masonic Monthly (Boston, Mass.) ; the Dispatch (New York), and the
; ; ;

in brotherly

Freemason's Monthly Magazine (London, England), as taking the lead encouragement and approval. Even Brother Findel, the

historian, whose theory of a modern origin of " does not Freemasonry recognize the importance of light from the East," still gave me "the brotherly word," and pledged me a cordial

German Masonic

greeting in his own country. How truly has Sallust said idem veils, et idem nolle ea demum firma amicitia est; to possess the same likes

dislikes is, in point of fact, the foundation of lasting friendship. words of mine can express my sense of all this kindness, and the friends of the Masonic Holy Land Mission of 1868 should bear in mind, what my own experience warned me of at the time, that an active opposition from either of those influential organs of Masonic sentiment might greatly have retarded the entire scheme. No official expression was asked for from Grand Lodges, or other Masonic organizations ; but it is proper to say that among the most generous supporters of my explorations were the Grand Masters of Iowa (.Reuben Mickle) ; Nebraska (0. H. Irish) ; Minnesota (C.







Canada (Wm. M. Wilson), and Naah) ; New York (S. H. Johnson) ; a Urge number of present and past Grand Lodge officers, of the first eminence, who forwarded me good words and material aid. An assistant being deemed desirable, D. W. Thomson, of Illinois,

and a singularly zealous adformerly Grand Lecturer of that State, In rocate of Ancient Craft Masonry, was accepted in that capacity. were of great utility; the matter of collecting specimens, his Cervices while hi* travelling experience, industry, and uniform good-nature and honesty rendered him an agreeable companion upon the journey.
Prior to my departure for New York, the following lines were composed and extensively disseminated, as a farewell, by correspondence and through the press

They took

stones and

made an

ness between

me and

heap. And Laban said Therefore was the name of


This heap


a wit-

The Lord watch between me and
Genetu xxxi.

Mizpeh : for when we are absent one from




MIZPEH well named the patriarchal stone, Once fondly reared in Gilead's mountain-pass Doubtless the EYE ALL-SEEING did look down Upon that token of fraternal grace




HE who

reconciled those men,
until they

Between them watched,



So, looking eastward o'er the angry sea,

The wintry


inhospitably stern,

Counting the scanty moments left to me Till I go hence, and haply not return, I would, oh Brethren, rear a MIZPEH





watch 'twixt

me and
us one,


was HIS providence


Who otherwise " perpetual strangers " HE joined our hands in amity
Befitting children of a



caused our hearts each other's woes to bear kindled in our souls fraternal fire,


common SIRE.

In mutual labors In mutual joy.

we have

h mutual strength warred against human soothed with mutual its woes

spent our life ; sported at labor's close;


Bo, sharing mutually


nmmon faith we


hath given

seek a kindred Heave*.

Bring stones, bring stones, and build the heap with Rear up a MIZPEH, though with many tears




Before I trust



yon stormy


Come round me,

years 1 mystic Laborers, once more, With loving gifts, upon this wintry shore.

Hither with memories of


Bring Prayer : the WATCHEK in the heavens will heed Bring Types significant of deathless hope: Bring Words in whispers only to be said


Bring Hand-grasps strong to lift the helpless up Bring all those Reminiscences of light That have inspired us many a wintry night


Lay them on MIZPEH and the names revered Of those who've vanished from our mystic Band


Are we not taught that, with the faithful dead, In Lodge Celestial, we shall surely stand ? Oh, crown the pile with names of good and blest, Whose memories linger, though they be at rest
Finished: and so I hope whate'er betide, Though wandering far toward Oriental sun, He who watched kindly on that mountain-side

Will watch between us




work whence





blessings are,

Behold our MTZPEH and regard our prayer




defender while in foreign lands off the shafts of calumny accurst


My labors vindicate, while MIZPEH stands, And hold my family in sacred trust

Should I no more behold them, fond and dear, I leave them, Brethren, to Masonic care.
Finally, if in haste, or careless Forgetting pledge sealed in




wounded any of the Brotherhood,


not, this parting hour, a sin


HE by whom


creatures live

Grants us forgiveness, e'en as we forgive

these lines

of the journals alluded to (the National Freemason) said of " The sentiments are : touching and appropriate, and strictly in accordance with the conciliatory character of their author. How-



of Work, none who Morris in regard to his plan for Uniformity to him a pure and disinterested purpose. know him but will accord

much acme

of the Brotherhood

may have


with Brother


confidential friend of such



William B. Hubbard, Philip

and other C. Tucker, Charles Scott, Salem Town, Henry Wingate, into the grave choice spirits of the generation that is fast dropping the man who has published seventy-four different volumes of a Ma' sonic character the admitted good fellow, genial, witty, and wise/ withal the man who, at the age of Masonic circles, everywhere, and of fifty, has yet to find anything in his pocket to compensate him for he cannot leave our labors given to the best interests of Freemasonry, shores for a long and laborious tour into Oriental countries without ' his return. bearing with him, the God bless the old enthusiast may be blest!'"




far as baggage, books, and introductions are concerned, I found unnecessary to encumber myself inconveniently. Two suits of As to reading^ clothes and half a dozen books were quite sufficient



man going
will get

to Palestine



must go carrying his reading in his head ; time to accumulate it there. Thomson's Land

and Book



Osborne's Past and Present of Palestine, sufficed me for reading on the journey.

and a few
So far as

concerned, the tailors in Beyrout will make you up suits quite as good and one half cheaper than New York tradesmen. I had written a few leading Brethren, B. B. French, J. W. B. McLeod

Moore, and others, soliciting letters of general introduction, and the request was cordially granted ; but I never found occasion to use them. Cosmopolitan Consistory, New York city, kindly presented me an elegant diploma of the thirty-second degree. My own diploma as a Master Maaon and member of Fortitude No. 47,

Lodge, LaGrange, Kentucky, was, however, the only document I ever found occasion to use. Even my passport, which I had taken the precaution to procure from Washington, with some trouble and expense, was of not the slightest service to me, although I would recommend
every traveller to take one. After these preliminaries,
it suffices

rom New York, Sunday morning, February
thing in

to say that I took passage


1868. having some-

with those of


the poet long ago sang


for holy Palestine,

Nimbly v

e brushed the level brine,



All in azure steel arrayed O'er the waves our banners played, And made the dancing billows glow


High upon


the trophied prow a warrior-minstrel swung

His sounding harp, and boldly sung.









this chapter for

class of readers to


the benefit of that large " the ocean wave " is a romance,.

and who peruse the smaller incidents of travel with a relish.




sneer at



Crossing the Atlantic,"

ready can be said upon the subject.

thousand voyagers have alill-naturedly affirming that a described the occurrences of ocean-life, and that nothing new

Very likely; yet to many of those who will peruse these Hand-marks," the pennings of other EastI have disern travellers are as though they were never written.

covered, since


return, that nothing in a traveller's recollection

too'trivial to interest those

who do

not travel, and that the

interesting facts in the tourist's journal are those

most which personally he

may deem
of daily


too trifling for publication. upon the sea.




this chapter

It was on the second day of February, 1868, and, of all the days in the year, a bright, cloudless " Lord's day," that I mounted the steps of the steamship " France," Captain Grace, to witness the castiug-

off of lines



and her departure from Pier No. 47, North River, New ferruginous mass moved reluctantly from her bed, seem-

ingly regretful of the necessity of leaving the cosy seat on which she had reposed for two weeks. If, as the feminine pronoun implies, our

ship has the tastes of a woman, she may well prefer her quiet berth,. and the praises of the admiring crowds who have been so loud in their approval of her fine bust, figure-head, and form, to the icy waves of ocean, and the cold criticisms of sea monsters who await her com-

ing yonder, during a winter-voyage of twelve days. The moment of departure is a solemn one to me ing the last tie that binds me to native land


the act of sev-

makes me sad. I join in the parting words exchanged between ship and shore,. but withdraw myself to a solitary place and consider, in a spirit of








prayerful inquiry the questions, Shall I again tread those streets ? I really justified in making this pilgrimage; or is it mere

is taking me, at my years, upon so long a journey? expect the blessing of the GRAND MASTER upon an enterprise so much out of the accustomed routine of my profession ? In that hour of self-examination, I solemnly declare it, I stood self vindicated and supported by the feeling that something more than

romance that

And may

mere curiosity had moved me to the work I had undertaken, and that I could rely upon the same HAND which had untiringly led me up and down through an itinerancy of fifty years. For myself, I can honestly aver that I look to nothing but hard labor, economical fare, and diligent study, during the months before me. In my travelling bags I have a judicious selection of works Oriental themes, with an ample supply of paper to fix my own upon Members of the Masonic fraternity and others have observations. forwarded me letters and credentials in generous supply. The moral and material encouragement of nearly four thousand friends is the basis of my mission, and I feel that the Godspeed of half a million more is wafted on the breezes behind me. And so in that mood, in a
busy ship, my thoughts review the situation. In going down the bay I occupied the hours in writing parting letters to the members of my family, the wife of twenty-seven years, and the seven children who call me father; also to a number of
solitary corner of the

devoted friends whose words and deeds clung to me in parting moments with a tenacity that nothing can loosen; and so I swung out upon that ocean which in Bible times no sailor dared even cross,

now is underlaid by telegraphic wires, connecting my home at La Grange with the City of Jerusalem itself. Out of three steamers announced to sail from New York across
but which
the Atlantic, February 1st, I chose this of the "National Line" of For one hundred dollars, American currency, a Liverpool boats.
first-class passage was given, while the same accommodations in the " Cunard" line would cost one hundred and Both sixty-five dollars.

are English lines, as all the American steamships were driven from the sea during the civil war. There is also a German line which





Havre, France, going, and at Southampton, England, was on this line that I returned in July, but I cannol

recommend it to the reader. The France is a fine new vessel, this being her fourth voyage. Her tonnage is 2,428 tons. In length she is 405 feet in breadth of



deck to the keel, 30 feet beam, 42 feet; in depth, from the upper that is, her all the vessels of this line, she is a scrao-propeller, Like is a screw set up at the stern, which, in instrument of
propulsion the most mysterious manner and "in solemn silence," moves theso the rate of five thousand tons of boat, and freight, and passengers, at
ten miles an hour.


I could

never see the screw, nor the ma-

the whole apparatus to chinery that moved it, I was fain to compare \he silent, mysterious power that keeps in motion a well-disciplined
it not that a Lodge of Masons. The analogy would be perfect were iteamship is of the feminine gender, while a Masonic Lodge is wually the reverse !*

steering apparatus of the France is, British-fashion, at the item, placed in a small, cramped-up crypt, which holds a half-dozen


who turn

the spokes of the wheel in the


inartistic style

that the Phoenicians practised in the days of Sesostris. order is sent from the foreship to the stern, it takes as many

When an

gers to pass


from one

to the other as for a general of division to

move Company C of the 53d Regiment into line of battle, or as the W. M. requires to get his will and pleasure known to the Lodge. But it would never do for an Englishman to adopt a Yankee invention, and so steering-lines to their steamers and check-ropes to their
nulroad trains are postponed until after the millennium. Oar fine steamer is built of rolled iron plates, thirty inches wide and one inch thick, riveted together in the manner of steam-boilers, tanch and tight There is not the least danger of these seams ripping; indeed, if the sewing-machine man who calls quarterly at my house to sell me a machine, will only invent such a lock-stitch as this, his fortune is made. We have three masts, and when the wind fair, as it was the greater part of my voyage, the sails afford coni



in propulsion.


uncertain, and it is best to of the vessel may be t>m the following table of distances run for the first eight



jolly-boats are

reasonable supply of longstowed along the sides of

suggesting that ocean-life

weather for


The speed


computed every day



communications n board the France * nt> eren the i d woman

we were never unmindful




Monday, February

260 miles.
" "

Wednesday, Thursday,
Friday, Saturday,



" " " " " "

4,260 5, 268 6, 259
265 272 9, 272 10, 271
7, 8,



the reader

of these daily footings-up will strike steamship travel, under a settled condition of weather, being almost as regular as life upon the rail. Our ship is officered by a captain and four mates, or ship's officers,

The remarkable uniformity

as they are termed
in training for

the latter being hearty, well-educated men, kept promotion in due time for as no man can be Master

who has not who has not

served in training as Warden, so no man can be captain served as mate. All the working charges of the ship are

among these four, according to fixed rules of naval service. Besides these, there is a purser, who acts as quartermaster of the The ship ; a surgeon, six engineers, and assistants in abundance. whole crew, from captain to chambermaid, numbers 104. Of course
everything is intensely British, officers, crew, slush-buckets, &c., even down to the acceptable sirloins of beef served daily to the passe Qgers. The only thing on board that I can name American
the coal, and if the captain's expressed (and profane) opinion may be relied upon, even that were better British too. Every passenger on board, except three, talks about " going home " whenever Great

named. Money is reckoned in " tuppences," and I had not been a week aboard before I could compute a considerable sum in ., s., and d., a thing which, it is said, none but a born Briton ever could do before me That mythic animal, the British unicorn, in fact, Commodore is marked on all the ship's linen and furniture Wilkes himself couldn't mistake the nationality of this steamer. Captain Grace is a rough-featured, rough-mannered sailor of thirty, taciturn and gruff, and most ridiculously misnamed; but, it is At all hours, by day and night, he is on claimed, a thorough sailor. the alert, and wet-nurses the ship, in nursery language, like a mother
! ;

600 per annum, a short $3,000. hovering over her babe. His pay is The only time I ever spoke to him was one Sunday morning, when I asked him if he would conduct the service of prayers, as is customary on ocean steamers. He declined in a single word, an extremely ahort one, and then the conversation flagged.

which lifteth They up the waves thereof. c. bringeth them to their desired haven. and bringing from all quarters the gold. Then they cry to the Lord in their trouble. He mnketh the storm a calm. construction. After this description of a first-class Atlantic steamer in the year of grace 1868. so that the waves thereof are still Then are they glad because they be quiet. read with in uch vividness. adornment. passing through the -:t of Gibraltar. the spices needed in the erection. turning to the Hultic Sea. They mount up to the heaven eonl is . 1000 will afford a forcible contrast. so he. tin. the copper. their at melted because of trouble. and are their wit's end. the tin. and he bringeth them out of their distresses. For he commandeth and raiseth the stormy wind. and worship of Solomon's Temple. that go down to the sea in ships. great TTiese see the works of the Lord and his wonders in the deep. they go like a down to the depths .M Nowhere will A PHOZNICIAN BARQUE. reel to They and fro. this portion of the grand Psalm cvii. and stagger drunken man. when they gathered up the treasures of the Roman world. such as those invincible mariners sailed in.marble. as when you your state-room at sea : are lying. the following picture of a Pho3nician vessel of B. the ivory. . and capacity of this barque. and to the Ifft as far as right as far as Scotland and the the African coast trended south- wards. that do business in the waters . of a quiet Sunday hour. In one of my chapters I will describe the old Tyrian size.

Besides these. bread. of which their cutting tools and war-like implements were made. fails to report himself at the regular hours. besides a luncheon. 5.. by which. and The ly The importance of tin in reached the place of their destination. To us An experienced surgeon is one of the cabin every possible convenience is. for any reason. written out in ablank-book. was made so full. toast. wholesome victuals.. not forensic) is stocked with wines. ales. This. I had more than one hundred distinct facts and suggestions city. hardening the copper. which in itself is a meal. M. for are sixty-four. afforded. a passenger who. But hearts of oak controlled them. The particular matter upon which my pen was engaged. when I visited that were very greatly expedited. cheese. bread. the latter being made up of coffee. can be accommodated through the steward stantial British meal.REFRESHMENTS ON BOARD. as to afford me all the assist- ance that a company of guides could have rendered.* the eating arrangements Breakfast is announced at 8 A. or first-class passengers. with room of steerage. presenting soups. course. Spain. prairie chickens appeared among the items of dinner. and the twelve months' journeys necessary to procure it. and coasting all the way round the northern shores of the Mediterranean they came out into the ocean between their own " Pillars of Hercules. and cheese. The latter pay only twenty-five dollars each. justified all these pains. my researches . and France. Of cabin. we have twenty-four. M. Three regular meals per diem are Let me recall spread. a sub- tlemen. struck finally into the mouth of the broad Channel. which they receive good." for instance. risks. and his skill is ever at our command. and pickles. there for nearly one hundred in alphabetical form. by the time I reached Palestine. : accompanied by the best of tea and tolerable High XH. Supper at 7 \. coffee. of a character rarely * On the Bill of Fare of Feb. cold meats in Dinner appears at 4 p. of of the regular officers of the ship. and spirits. or second-class passengers. Under the head of " Tyre. at any hour. and things to be done at each place. and the services of the ship's surgeon. through the four weeks' journey from New York to Beyrout. Chambermaids are in attendance upon the ladies. The bar (fluid. Luncheon is at with a special supply of provisions. . and state-room stewards upon the genall without extra charge. 27 size and tonnage of one of these Phoenician vessels would scarcecompare now with a Lake Erie sloop. large variety." and following the sinuous lines of Portugal. was that of making an alphabetical agenda of places to be visited.

I never Even a slight swell on Lake seasick. are who cannot vomit. matched on the American these are excursion which Peter go ashore. That class of persons who boast that they TP ntver *a*>ck (and there are always some bores of the sort). side of the "great drink. but will not prevent it. and begone. Does the reader inquire whether I was seasick ? / tvas. then gull. settle my accounts in the most dismen and the to laughter and in a sea voyage. remedies. to a mariner's status. in the course of time. and diges- those The worst sufferers from the mal de mer. on that little Cleveland fishing Thatcher provided for me in 1863. a man discover grounds of complaint who can please than I am.o$ SEASICKNESS. Brandy and other spirits make a good toddy to stay his stomach after nausea. the gay and rosy damsels of our company were so transfied by the ungallant sea-god. This reconciles me in some degree to the motion of the vessel. a flask of pure cordial gin . at moderate prices. and there. and I advise you to provide yourself with some bottles of it . want of appetite. also some Brandreth pills. follows an appetite. calculations to give up the first few days to the tergiversations of my my stomach. ill-temper. and. be regular in your habits . Pale. Nausea. ready made . such as go with my best reminiscences of childhood. all that a seasick person wants is something to assist him I through his unpleasant paroxysms. Titrate of magnesia may be recommended as a good thing to neutralize the acidity produced in the earlier stages of seasickness. day he went to sea he was afraid Ladies . accompanied with elasticity of spirits tion. thick overshoes . and a very hatred of existence." and who order them. Dress warm wear . indigestion. I always make graceful manner ? Yes . Such an one is reported to have said that the first staggering. and some good sour apples. a quart-bottle of strong coffee. diem. When seasickness passes off. with white sugar. go upon water without being Was I not obliged Erie has sent me to the dead-level. and costiveness. the third day he was afraid he should not! Her more from seasickness than gentlemen. suffer. by the assistance of four or five spells of vomiting per As to come. amidst the sneers of of women. as the French call it. walk a good deal in the fresh air . therefore. that their best friends could r recognize them. incontinently. With charged topassengers must be harder to tuch arrangements for table comforts. or who vomit with great difficulty and pain. a few lemons. produce low prits. should die. be sociable . rise with the seaand go to bed with the cook. Some of this class have scarcely a moment's ease the during voyage.

but can never forget. but. the Holy Writings and other tomes bearing upon the tedium of the way. : There is a piece of advice that I will offer you here Don't suppose that anybody else cares a straw who you are. the rest walk the deck. genteel powers of pleasing. The time of ocean travellers employed. Osborm ( Palestine. although I listened attentively for canine indications. the dullest of the company. enabling him both to receive and impart pleasure during is variously and generally uselessly Industrious persons play checkers and cards . when rendered sleepless by nausea and ennui. at 2 strikes four.") " Barclay (" City of the Great King") . While we journey here below. Oriental matters . like Freemasons. a second series begins at 4 and extends to 8. the spirit that inhabits my (No. at 1 six. Everything on board conduces to regularity. while a cheerful readiness of song and anecdote brings its possessor into social prominence. will testify to . 13) on board the ship France. How often they recalled to me the lines I have sung in so many a lodge-room and by so a dog on board. and sleep. and so many to refreshment and sleep. smoke. quite as SEA. dignity. many a grave : Solemn strikes the funeral chime. 2& much seasick. except as he possesses Fine manners. at 2 strikes five. strikes three. eat. and no one is valued a bawbee. I could never detect them. for the hour. at are six in the twenty-four. or where you are going. at 3 strikes 4 strikes eight. Past and Present") . breeding and the like will pine in the corner. so many to the composition of letters and memoranda. Travellers. Notes of our departing time . The ship's bell at 12g strikes one. One of these intervals I am told is termed the Dog watch. they are never seawett. For if they are never as the rest. meet upon the level and part upon the square. Each of these periods of four hours is termed a watch of which there at 3 g strikes seven. marks these solemn chimes of the ship's bell with feelings that he cannot analyze. which being the extent of its striking powers. but mope around during the voyage. so many to checkers (my favorite vanity) . I old state-room venture to say that the genus loci. How about myself? I give so many hours a day to the study of Tliomson (" Land and Book . Through a pilgrimage of wo. and don't believe there was The traveller. at 1 strikes two.AMUSEMENTS AT upon the whole.

own. horizontals now Soup-plate Try . forty^five degrees to larboard. or even a bit of a Masonic Monitor. Imagine everything fastened floor.. as condemned. to gather the fragments from the steward's These pantry. with us at at all but a following of sea-gulls that took up ing large Sandy Hook. that they are the ghosts of newspaper reporters. Now she to starboard to an angle of forty-five degrees. during a three-days' itorm that came down on us about the middle of The reader shall have his share of the fun. and for fifty pairs it . for keen-eyed and left us a moment until strong-winged as they are. chair. indeed. as I lay there and mused upon the lessons of the There was almost nothing visible to the eye during our voyage. I will venture my viz. in ail " of eyes detect it .. Bat this can scarcely be. which are being constantly thrown into the water.' The sailors flights of twelve days. an expiation for the innumerable lies they told career! during their earthly A cheerful mind will derive . the gulla settle down upon the water to ride and sleep. family of twenty-four passengers at their meals. for a season. the soup spurts up your sleeve. tion of circumstances and I gathered a fund of amusement from almost any combinait in watching our the trip. not an iceberg. to follow in the wake of outward-bound vessels. pill-box. a cracker. not a whale. but it is finally conceded that he only saw the Not a fragment of a wreck appeared in sight . nght hand. Cast anything overboard. and ten. in spite of all you can ang goes the ship again to starboard. the hot soup slops over upon your hand ie slup on the other side. in fact. a piece of soap. they could not see and overtake the ship again after twelve hours' sail. declares he saw a whale. is a mystery believe that when night comes on. One traveller. nor we sighted the Irish coast How or when they rest. K . a convulsive grip upon the table with the left Mndiculars. . Not a vessel. etc. tables. Their motive in pursuing us so closely is strictly mercenary.80 DINNER UNDER DIFFICULTIES. the sea-birds seize with great expertness. fifty pairs of iron-gray wings " go then one strong fowl rises from the sea with it in his bill with a velocity that makes you giddy to observe. nothtpout. if indeed they ever do rest upon these long more than Masonic. viz.. Among the various theories concerning the origin of sea-gulls. and the ladies and gentlemen fastened tly to their seats as human muscle can do it The ship is Baying from side to side like a five-second pendulum. baring heard me sing it three score times ship's bell.

" The names of our temporary dignitaries were these : 1. D. of Commonwealth Lodge No. and zeal rarely equalled and never surpassed. George Campbell. "for Special Purposes. ting the best elements of all societies. 5. George Catchpole. D. James Wilson. New York city (Purser of the Steamship France). Robert Morris. vency. 6. avoids the offensive peculiariThe poem entitled The Checkered Pavement was recited by Mr. of Amity Lodge No. in all respects.M. England (fourth officer of the Steamship France).. as Tyler. laughable to witness. 2. William Dempster. At 2 P. Senior Grand Lecturer of Illinois. 831. Wayne 4. Stratford. " we of the mystic level. 31 fer- soup. plate and. New York. England (ChiefEngineer of the Steamship France). Thomson. having previously tested each other. Brooklyn. William Carroll. W. 7.M. 10. W. 590. 194. on the 13th of February. (Chief Baker of the Steamship France). Rose. late Grand Master of Masons in Kentucky. of Piatt Lodge No. of Mariners' Lodge. upon first beholding Skellig Revolving Light on tho coast of Ireland : . a* W. My own share in the proceedings was made up of the following lines. 9. late Co. and there. John's Lodge. as /. 323. N. Warden of Rose Lodge No. of St. Barrett. And so for an hour the dinner is a running accompaniment of china. N. This symposium was. and proceedings of a particularly pleasant character were had. as Treasurer. as 1st Master of Cer. David W. as J. as Secretary. of New York city (Chief Steward of the Steamship France). 3. cutlery. 8.. stole quietly away from the crowd to the Purser's room. Thomson as the sequel to an address delivered by him in good style. composed the evening before. all are swashed into your bosom with a freedom. as S. Thomas Hughes. and spoons. unities of any. Jersey City. of Varick Lodge No. of British Oak Lodge No. Liverpool. a notable one. by ancient and approved methods." as poor Burns used to call the Masonic fraternity. Remarks were volunteered concerning the practical nature of a fraternity that.FREEMASONRY AT SEA. New Brunswick (first officer of the Steamship France). as 2d Master of Cer. we opened a moot lodge upon the First Degree. J. glasses. 1868. Y. 409. W. as S. 31. G. William Thomas.

The Skdtig Light beams out again 1 ! 80. Lo flashing far across the main. What though in momentary gloom sable plume. Should : It ia His gentle chastening too 1 Craftsmen. draw nigh and learn with me These lessons from Freemasonry Each implement in mystic hand ! Bids us this precept understand They who would serve the Master's state. j THE SKELLIG LIGHT. as I learned examined. and every one of them. in saddest mind. : "Tis but to try our faithfulness our pilgrimage enshroud. And threaten ocean's stormiest frown. Night may resume her What though the clouds may settle down. He stands behind the threatening cloud And though He smite us with a blow. was arrested. are 327 lodges. When hastening eastward o'er the chased. 1872. Irish Grand Lodge Registry. In gloomiest hour. We Joy to That our guides.M. Craftsmen. in Patience wait ! : We and while sighted the Irish coast at 3 P. wider the apprehension tl it they had come t invade the land. wandering on life's stormy sea. Mutt work in Faith. * were sailing up the Irish Channel all day middle of a Fenian scare.FREEMASONRY AT SEA. By ocean-breakers rudely waste. Oh. may we The tempest-tost and weary find. I am writing this paragraph I see that on the. Our eager eye seeks for the smile That marks the dangerous SkeUig catch the flashing ray Isle. smoothly on. February 12. igorously . way. by God's grace. in the * This was afterwards. Our SkeUig Light. and detained for twenty-four hours. Wednesday.. landed passengers at Queenstown the next morning . To draw us safely. from heavenly sun. Should He withdraw His He smiling face. unerringly.

days of peaceful enjoyment. grateful to God. the 14th.GRATEFUL MEMORIES. 33 Thursday. . who had brought me thus far not only in safety. and finally reached the docks of Liverpool by daylight of Friday. but with a degree of contentment and satisfaction that I had not anticipated. after a pleasant voyage of twelve days. I shall ever remember the period of my passage from New York to Liverpool as Jialcyonii dies.

with this non scquitur : " Then I suppose you can give " a shilling to drink your health ? " At this unexpected suggestion olstupui. and silently kept my feet Recovering. He may possibly have intended his remark as a joke. " only enough for my own use. but it did not turn out so." stands. but the Marseilles steamer for Beyrout was advertised for Tuesday. the officer continued. )t one of the five travelling-bags was opened. and naturally enough I saw that. not far designated as from th railway station. I passed the coin of the realm known that me by without thinking of the violaTemplar and so covered the cost of the proposed imbibition. : Have you any tobacco ? " * A little for my own use. of the same day. however. tacitus sustinuique pedem I stood astonished." The package being exhibited (two pounds of niggerhead). had led me to expect a severe examination of but I found John Bull much more combaggage in Liverpool than I had hoped for. however. I regret- ted the necessity of passing a city so noted for its attention to Masonic interests as Liverpool . M. and the failure to secure a passage in her would entail the loss of ten days' time. The six travelling bags containing the effects of myself and assistant lying in a corner by themselves. so as to arrive at 5 P. February 18. An edifice nothing of Liverpool during a morning's stay. Of course I could observe little or LANDED 1868. and proceeded to London. Every hour's delay would abridge Travellers' tales my stay in Palestine by so much. The modus operandi of Customplaisant House search was simple enough. "Masonic Hall." responded my friend.CHAPTER HL CB088ING ENGLAND AND THE CONTINENT. although capacious enough to contain cigars to supply even the Prince of Wales for a denomination into his itching palm aon of my vows as a Good . a burly-looking officer came up and asked . February 14. This was my only examination. at Liverpool Friday morning. in a moment.

the pick of the miner. medals. 210 miles. but you can do no writing here . and reading and talking are performed under difficulties. in an express train making fortyfive miles an hour. each containing room for six passengers. water-closets. how- The carriages into small closets. the hammer and compass of the architect. Even Tin before the Trojan war (B. affords but scanty opportunities for observation. the plowshare of the farmer. transversely cut off from awkwardly separated the main structure. New York to up Elmira. &c. " little as we were drawn across this " there was so little Swiftly right little. to barter The Oriental products for this metal. the burin of the engraver. The journey through England. helmets^ If tin is the Pythias. fountains unknown of drinking-water. foots about $9. No other questions were asked. tight island of England. the proper material for arms. and have no means of exit except through his key. and to the Baltic for amber. The weather seemed to me warm for the season . first-class. Sleeping-cars. copper found abundantly in Asia Minor and Cyprus was alloyed at Tyre with tin. the sailors of 1184). while the Erie has twelve. and so bronze was made. Into these little rooms you are locked by the conductor (styled the guard). copper is the Damon of this cuirasses. railway fare. is. and means of warming the vehicles. c. are proverbial. Accidents almost never occur. bronze . I gave thought to the subject alluded to in the last chapter the voyages of the Phoenicians to these islands in the most ancient days. lying between England and Ireland. lanceheads and javelins. three the rear. I much of my reading and writing while travelling in American oars. bucklers. and I confess to have departed ?rom Liverpool with most agreeable impressions. Liverpool to London. were alike to railway travellers in England and Europe in the year of grace 1868. swords. statues. The motion of cars on the Erie is smooth as Eeason oil . are facing the front. . turies before Solomon's day. 270 miles. The swiftness and safety of railway-travel in Great Britain. $8. three ever. All manner of tools were made of this alloy. The do they have but four wheels to a car. arrowheads. and of course two cenTyre came to the Isles of (Cassiterides). compound. appearance of snow and ice that the plowmen were busy in hundreds of fields near the roadside. the English cars run like tin pans on wheel-barrows. &c. Compare this with the Erie Railway. 35 twelvemonth.HASTY BIDE THEOUGH ENGLAND.

The upper story of this hotel has long been used for Masonic meetings. and found it went through intact Visited the tomb u~ the honored builder of the cathedral." &c. His entity is simply that of the number of his bedroom. . &c. and in numbers. It is an old estab- clean.. bnt farm-houses. I visited St. of the island covered by noblemen's Seeing so large a portion a man of his Horace jam pauca aratro jugera parks reminds suffer scanty moles relinquent-the palaces of the great regia. observer to set to the plowman . Disgusted with the fog. I have no idea that " the gentlemanly " clerk of Anderton's Hotel knows my name even to this day. Kentucky two hours in Westminster Abbey. so ridiculously applied on the seal of the State of ts " Thence by the Thames river to Westminster . and the eating department all that can be desired. Observing quite a pile of Wardens' stations lumbering up the stairs. but kept scrupulously " " The waiters are attentive. and the furniture removed for the purpose. Scotland. and it does really puzzle the acreage where the farms or the farmers are. Paul's Cathetop of which I climbed. I descended. few and far between. : I drove to Anderton's Hotel. as weU as in the three Grand and Ireland. M.. mak- would never go up there again. and read appropriate epitaph. In the Whispering Gallery I tried a Masonic communication with a friend. under a 162 Fleet-street. and give at least a sketch of it Free Masonry as exists in Lodges of England. inspected the Parliament buildings. but on return I hoped to take more time. No. which I find already crumbling to dust as rapidly as the Court-House in then spent a glc Louisville.j fi HOTEL IN LONDON. and the rooms are dark and misty. At this hotel. lishment. Saturday was spent in active pursuits. to the London. and his are made out accordingly. minded me for all the world of 's oration before the Grand Lodge of ing a vow that I . Michigan. I first remarked that on this side the Atlantic a traveller's name is not asked for. in a publication on board ship. Circumspice. bills I need not say that I felt it to be a real deprivation to pass through London without my calling upon the Masonic brethren there . dral. only to look out through a fog so dense that the It resecretary of my lodge might write with it. And I never have. Christopher Wren. .. Castles are distinct enough. Arriving in London 5 P. Masonic emblem. a house which I had seen advertised. it was explained that the lodge-rooms up-stairs are undergoing a course of cleansing and restoration.

the centre of Ancient York Masonry. &c. this anecdote is related of the Grand Lodge of England in 1868 Complaints had been made against the Grand Secretary for his want of communicativeness and courtesy to those : who upon him. styled the geographical centre of the earth. is the fact that or nearly all the officers of the Grand Lodge are appointed by the This is particularly the case with the Grand Secrewho. governed by a Mark Grand Lodge of England. I took the Southeastern Railway. that from here was taken In the same light I view Lonthe clay of which Adam was made don. Apropos of this absolute subordination of the Grand Secretary to the Grand Master. and the four original lodges of London increasing. &c. at street station. and as there was no way to reach the Grand Secretary &* call feeling in the . to 4. such as Grand Superintendent of Works. In a circle of pavement stands a short marble column to designate so remarkable a punctum ! Traditions of various kinds cluster around the spot.30 P. through England. for Dover.000.30 P. from this dust was our Masonic Adam moulded ! ! composed substantially of the same officers as our own. From hence. is the true Masonic Centre of the world . beneath the lantern in the Greek Chapel of the Holy Sepulchre. and assuming none of the despotic powers often so offensively assumed and wielded in the American Grand Lodges by that func- Grand Master.M.M. This was producing considerable ill Grand Lodge and as the Earl of Zetland.000. This. The rest of the 37 day was occupied in making preparations for de- at 8. parture. was sent the holy spark to our Western fields that has kindled into so goodly a blaze. Scotland. Grand Director of Ceremonies. and plainly grows out of the autocratic of The Grand Lodge England is all character of Freemasonry in monarchical countries. is simply clerk of the Grand Lodge. particularly. &c. and Cannon- A visitor to Jerusalem is shown a spot. Even the lodges of Mark Masters here (lodges whyse rituals are based upon a mere allusion in the degree of fellow-craft) number in 1872 about 100. one American lodge swelling (in 139 years) to nearly 9. the Grand Master. the European nations. But what is peculiar to this country. which was reached at 10. whose officers are the princes of the land. Grand Organist. . tionary. declined to interfere. Ireland. one. adding a few not usually nominated on our side of the water. in England.FKEEMASONRY IN ENGLAND. then. and the colonies in all quarters of the earth.. or perhaps was unable to apply a remedy. wielding tary. in 1733.

addresses to his Neither does the Grand Master of England ever deliver formal Grand Lodge. a sort of imperium in imperio.3g FREEMASONRY IN ENGLAND. and the festivals that constitute the No questions upon Masonic Law are submitted to the Grand Master. This Board. it was not even seconded . expressly stating act was that a Grand Secretary ought to be appointed ently immodest who would attend to the business of the office and pay a decent reOf course the nomination failed . or the Grand Secretary . By this. for all that. are pushed into his lordAll ship's pocket to disturb the smooth digestion of his dinner. the Duke of Leinster. sequela of those occasions. position he may occupy. of irregulari- Masonic proceedings. Deputy otherwise they will scarcely have attention. sounds queerly to those who are accustomed to Grand Master. E. "The election of Grand Master in this country is not due to any knowledge a man of the exalted institution. yet ! of the intended effect In addressing the Grand Master of England. Bro. and noblemen of those high grades. have some indeed. sometimes tyrannized over by own Grand Secretary. the Earl of Zetland. It is not likely. his brethren spect to the feelings of it may. may possess or any ability on his part to perform the duties of that exalted position. hapunknown in the United States. give other consideration to the details of the Masonic institution than to preside at the ordinary and extraordinary communications of Grand Lodges." It cannot bo denied. that it is never heard of again. D. Cooke. as it is styled. these matters have a common direction here. a distinguished London cept by displacing for Grand Masarose in open Grand Lodge. in point of fact. the Grand Registrar. that of the Board of ties in pily General Purposes. No vcxata questiones of usage. I am told. of lodge altercations. and nominated himself that the reason for this unprecedented and apparter. so its thoroughly digests the greater part of the business submitted to charge. that such men as the Duke of Sussex. compared with that of an American Grand Master. of right Quoting from an article from the pen of my old coadjutor. and the like. position alone that qualifies a gentleman here for the social nobleman who will accept it has it. who is his often crowded with correspondence. Masonic etiquette demands that all communications shall pass through the hands of the Grand Master. and scarcely ever allowed his little bill of It is "stationery and postage-money" for his trouble. it will be seen how easy is his berth. brother the Grand Master. but simply to the social All this. high office of The most .

Sunday. and reached the capital of France in six hours. if himself a non- restored to travellers' Mason. and the room for the greater part in the season. "where your is the lodge-hall ?" he confesses his ignorance. compared with which the one that connects Snooksborough with Pumpkin ville.30 A. they would reply that they strike me strangely." and the editor of one of the New York papers commenting upon the fact justly says. Of course. Assembly. your banker. or that nobody could tell them where the lodge-room was. but few of them have even a room of their own.. and. to go abroad in the fall or winter. view the Masonic fraternity as a band of level and who part upon the square. are brought out of chests and wardrobes and The meeting being over." 39 " meet men who upon the Americans visiting Europe are scarcely ever able to tell us anything of Freemasonry in that country. No wonder then that our countrymen come back to us as ignorant upon The peculiarities of the Order in foreign countries as they left remedies are twofold to provide one's self with a Masonic First. Kegister of the foreign Lodges Second. had the estuary of the Delaware been as broad as the English Channel at Dover. From about the middle of June to October there is no life in European Masonry whatever. sacred objects are again concealed from public sight. On being questioned. which are extremely scanty. M. I notice that the project of a steam-ferry across the Straits of Dover is approved by a commission of the French (February 1. Crossing the channel between Dover and Calais in a ferry-boat.AMERICAN MASON'S TBAVELLING. it would long ago have been oridged by magnificent ferry-boats such as ply between New York . They meet by the upper rooms of taverns rented Their Masonic furniture and paraphernalia. These replies are based upon ignorance of the peculiarities of the Order in England. most likely volunteers the opinion that there is no Freemason's Lodge in the place Again. nearly all travellers from our own counBut at that season the try to Europe go abroad in the summer. when you inquire of landlord. even though they may themselves be members of the craft This used to . active. when they come home. these arranged for the single occasion. is a gorgeous palace. February 16. Most Lodges here havt no halls . uses. or your general correspondent. could not find out the time of lodge-meetings . I left Calais at 1. Just as I hand this page to the printer " 1872). Masonic Lodges do not meet at all. on the Tennessee river. then. when Freemasonry in all the Masonic countries of Europe is ! : .

Anything " " like a baggage system of duplicate checks has not passed through through the wool of railway theorists in Europe. Tuesday. no heating apparatus. a century behind 1868. February 18. Arago. M. Called at the office of the great steamship line. On . but he assured me that this was unnecessary. and thirty-nine in Germany.: breakfast at 10 A. Thence to Notre-Dame Cath" The I knew so much in youthful days from reading Hunchback" of Victor Hugo. viz. M. and I survive. we are happy to see. the servants brought in a cylinder of hot water every hundred miles or so. and took second-class ticket to Beyrout At Marseilles visited The Sailors' Club. which make every one sick who sets foot on and Jersey them. these Parisians have literature enough. Only two meals a day are served on these boats. M. Abelard and Heloise. hitherto been able to devise any better means of crossing their narrow sea than cock-boats. and a I spent edral. left Paris for Marseilles reached it at noon on Monday. on the model of our Young Men's Christian Associations. and put it under my feet. unless I was going to Rome. giving me a vivid apprehension of a blow-up every minute. is exactly what ing baggage on the English and Continental railways it was in our country in 1830 . after a delightful journey through the heart of France. a philanthropic institution. M. of demand consideration. I sailed from Marseilles in the French steamer L'Ame'rique (Tlie America). The amount of shipping een in it is very great. Also visited the American Consul to have passport viseed. of an improve- ment Owing I to the detention of a piece of baggage by some blundering was detained in Paris till 8 P. But they give me a good cup of coffee and a crust of bread at rising. Sunday in Paris by visiting Pere la Chaise Cemetery. But as the host of others which . seventeen Masonic periodicals being published here. where the graves of Marshal Massena. as far as Freemasonry is concerned.). There is a prospect now.. the iron steamers alone being a host. The harbor is a marvel of natural and artificial strength. The system of forwardomcial. Yet the great cities of London and Paris have not City..40 PABIS AD MARSEILLES. at 5^ p. Thence to the garden of the Tuileries and places adjacent The Place de la Concorde is the most splendid collection of objects grand and sublime that I ever witnessed At 8 P. M. Messageries Imperial cars have Imperials (the Express Co. dinner at 5 P. though.

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He is a resident of Marseilles. Passing southeastwardly. stood. the twin. They must have struck the gaze erers navigating this silent of the astonished and awed discov- Mediterranean as the colossal pillars on which burned the double lights of Baal. pillar-portals. F. Currey. But I had a higher work before meMoneys had been entrusted to me. On L'Amtrique. prodigious monartificial oliths similar in purpose to the pyramids. of and one rique. Brother Le Maitre. only one Masonic passenger was at first visible. in the days when giants might be imagined. the Straits of Gibraltar. . named respectively Calpe and Abylo. Syra. Alexandrette. Messina. and of course invisible. and Marseilles. were far on my right hand. came on board. to be expended month to revive old friendships. bound Smyrna. Paris. Mersina. whose devices were the firewhite horns of the globed Ashtaroth. I left Marseilles February 18th. via Palermo. on the French steamship L'Amefor Beyrout. in the details of York. COASTING THE MEDITERRANEAN. These pillars. first officer of the steamer UAmeofficer. a sacred deposit. as I hare said. the in Syrian Explorations. Before we reached Smyrna another Mason. guarded by the Pillars of Hercules. It was a temptation hardly to be resisted to devote at least a and form new ones among Masons of those cities. but turning my face sternly to The Orient I passed on. of the brig 0. So to the Phoenician sailors who first descried and then stemmed boldly through these peaked and majestic straits. and due at Beyrout March 3d. and particularly well informed New French Masonry. spending but a day in each. so I listened not to the voice of the tempter. appeared these monster rocks. E. Nova Scotia. fire-topped as the last world-beacon closing in that Jennings' Rosicrucians. and Tripoli. Latakia. Eaton. London. Capt. classic sea.CHAPTER IV. so to those men of Tyre. passed too rapidly through Liverpool. a fellow -passenger. Rhodes. his membership being in Halifax. rique (America). H.

has for motto. On the reverse we have in French the words Silence. to that great isle. 1807. It is about a century since ooked forth from those snowy crags over the beautiful and memoWe need not indorse all his actions to acknowlrable sea before me. below a star with five radiating cusps. A Masonic fraternity was founded at Paris Its ritual com1816. imperial master at Bertrand. Commander. Helena. 3. Knight. COIN WITH PILLARS OF HERCULES. In memory of this wonderful man. (How perfect the parallel between this and the various Scotch and chapitral rites established to advance the restoration of the Pretender to the English crown. 1807. prised three degrees: 1. Friendship. our Masonic brother.) Among the medals struck during the brilliant career of Napoleon. 2. Macoy's Matonic Cyclopedia. dated December 31. man. and the words Lodge Ecossaise NapolSon (Scottish Napoleon Lodge). Secret Judge. I gave some hours of contemplation Passing the island of Corsica. an impetus in France and Europe which it never marked " A " on the map. I begin at Corsica. Knight of the Oaken Crown. Nova lux oculis effulsit et ingens new and great light bursts upon our vision. Beneficence. all having refer- ence to Napoleon. the single aim of the whole being the restoration of Napoleon.44 CORSICA AND NAPOLEON. was chosen Grand Master. AND MAP OF CORSICA. and the words (in French) Orient of Leghorn. Grand Elect. born on this mountainous his boyish eyes Napoleon Bonaparte. one. to locate the . third degree was divided into three classes: 1. . whose patronage of the Masonic titation there are several that commemorate his Masonic affiliation gave it hw lost. Perfect Initiate . The 2. with the square and compass grouped in an oak crown. by the adherents of the then exiled Napoleon. On the obverse is a cabinet of Masonic emblems. in edge him as a brother. 3. then a voluntary exile with his St.

to the pine. and unite the fruitful vigor of the former with the rugged grandeur of the latter. Cox shows that it is the connecting link between the two continents.] man reaches me is while.* the scene of Paul's martyrdom. PAUL. [The announcement of the : death of this excellent over this chapter. for many hundred years. Like the Holy Land. I shall have more to say in this work. A Search for Winter Sunbeams. orange.TRACK OF ST. the great Pythagoras. General WashHerron. as I sailed. the place of Paul's shipwreck. Its mountains are midway between the Atlas range and the Alps. Paul. General McClellan. Sailing near Crotona. To the left. the Pope having power. St. Scylla and Charybdis. in 1871. Italy Sicily I first struck the track. called. and date. yonder. the scene of chivalric Before me were the straits. who. General Hurlbut. Garibaldi. and oak. almost in sight. that of Hon. 1 am conning An excellent book upon Corsica lished in 1870. Cox. On the right. figuratively speakof the great Christian itinerant and martyr. lay in the distance Malta. I recalled the name and labors of Pythagoras. closed to Freemasonry. Here I began to realize that Between and was entering upon Scriptural scenes and events. 45 names of American Masons. the I place from which his most wonderful epistles were dated. on the right and left of which stood those ancient terrors. He might have been in his doorway looking out upon our steamer as we passed. and only remaining in ! Rome on suf ferance. Verily the whirligig of time makes wondrous changes . on which the Grand Master of Italian Masons. General Manson. in the centre of the basin of the Western Mediterranean. in his travels through Asia. General Butler. burn. General "Woodruff. of whom ing. was initiated into several orders of priesthood and raised to * Since this page was written the Grand Lodge of Italy has been transferred lost all political to Rome. ilex. and the vegetable growth of each. S. Africa. General military as well as Masonic fame. from the lemon. General Zollicoffer. General Anderson. pubBefore this. and Europe. was Eome. S. an unknown country. commemorated in the Freemason's Monitor in these words: "Our ancient friend and brother. exploits. viz. then and now. the island had been terra incognita. was then a political prisoner. and write here ten eminent in General Hancock. Nearer was the Island of Caprera. But Mr. this broken region produces everything. on the eastern coast of Ital).

he called Eureka. sublime Pythagoras. on this subject he drew out many problems and theorems. which. Steinbrenner. Mitchell. Lodge Masonic honors are paid to Pythagoras as the reputed discoverer in the of the problem of Euclid. 387. Taylor. S. and accented on the astronomy." is discovery attributed to In the degree of Eureka Hiatus. In memory of this wonderful the philosophy man. finest Parian marble. music. George Yates. Damon and Pythias. Ky. viz. his celethe sublime degree of a Master Mason. and so many. the traffic Jtween Joppa. Rockwell. J." If this calculation is Paros. From Pythagoras (often erroneously of our Masonic lodges are named. William S. C. Crotona cated. Giles F. upon this With the small employed in Phoenician commerce. Out of their story some ingenious Americans have recently modelled a " secret order. George Gray. arts Monitor : " This wise philosopher enriched his and sciences. about were inculthe sciences enumerated in the Fellow-Crafts Lecture geometry. were pupils of the Pythagorean school. who perhaps did more to shape and cultus of the ancient world than any other.46 PYTHAGOKAS. 539. W. rhetoric. G. the seaport of Jerusalem. and Sidney Hayden. in the joy of his heart. columns and pilasters over the seas. W. The island itself is about > . Passing the island of Paros." snrnamed Knights of Pythias. I reflected upon that famous fabric "which was supported by fourteen hundred and columns and two thousand nine hundred and six pilasters. this an aged brother. logic. . Wilkins Tannehill. T. who lived four hundred years earlier. marked the map. and lived about B. it was a stupendous labor convey such. James B. not " inspired author. Is fifty-three all hewn from the correct. B. as for instance penult) many No. 1 had no opportunity to see the quarries. Masonry . in the Grecian language signifying / have found it! and upon the discovery of which he is said to have It teaches Masons to be general lovers of the sacrificed a hecatomb. at Crotona. in which brated school of philosophy was established. Huramen. I have located here. and any number of Pythagoras lodges. vit. arithmetic. Pearson. thus acknowledged forty-seventh mind abundantly in a and more especially in Geometry or general knowledge of things. and among the most distinguished he erected this.C." Here. and the quarries must have been very extensive.. 339. A. whose friendship was modelled after that of David and Jonathan. the names of ten Masonic authors of modern times labors B" upon whose run parallel with those of the W. however. Chase.C. grammar. at Crotona.

C.C. I locate the names of ten Masonic characters as beautifully proportioned in their moral members as the statue of Jupiter was in the physical. laid it down. Enos. William Hacker. L N. as the first essential condition of happiness. MAP OF PAROS - D. and William S. John Sheville. thirty miles in length. In conversation with our Greek pilot. Stillman Blanchard. it. B. pointing my Solomon's Temple stood. Robert N. George W. I directed a longing gaze. 47 The following outline cut will give an idea of it. when I told him that Solon. viz. J. the glory and the religion of ancient Athens. I locate the names of ten such " shafts of Parian marble" as King Solomon would have approved. accessible from the northwest The Here stood the sixth of the seven ancient wonders of the world. J. B. J. 440.. he shrugged hia shoulders Greek fashion. erected by Phidias. and replied " Lucky for Solon he does not live here now !" that a man : At Syra we had taken in as a passenger Bro. finger toward He pilot guided me in like the hill on which says that. it is most Robinson says that on the oblong area of its levelled surface were collected the noblest monuments of Grecian taste. Stackhouse. viz. Jerome B.. It was a trial to my feelings to skirt thus rapidly the coasts of Greece . and James Crooks. 600. In memory of a place perpetuated in Masonic tradi"C" tion. It was the very sanctuary of the arts. R. traditionally associated with Ancient Operative Masonry. W. Frank Darrow. Brown. Cooke. James Cruikshank. John Robin McDaniel. George D. should live in a well-ordered country. a member . Borden. Westfield. Gould. Rubottom. Fleming. which measured thirty-nine feet in height. Daniel Sickels. marked " D " on the map. Toward the Acrop- at Athens. at Athens. studies have familiarized me from boyhood. J. the ivory and gold statue of Jupiter Olympus. Elisha L. George Babcock. debarred for want of time from visiting scenes with which James my olis. To commemorate this ancient wonder. L.PAROS AND ATHENS. Combs. Millard. Norris. marked upon the map.

S. St. A meeting was promptly called at 8. together The names of the various Masonic bodies. through Bro. 806. 1863. I could not secure reliable It had lately been set reports. and have good apartments Arch use. May. Smyrna. May 6th. The rituals are the English standards. D. under authority of the Italian Grand Orient brief stay.* 2. pleasant to add that. fifty members." . 1863. The It it eneral h briskly at work. are these 1. G. Master of Westfield. St. September 18. in its foreign elements. I entertainment as novel to me as it was delightful. 25th. eight hours in Smyrna. Authorized in 1866 by the Grand Lodge of England. the labors of the chapter temporarily ceased . to work. 806. outside the mother-country. This lodge has about sixty-five members.10 / of FREEMASONRY AT SMYRNA. and through him to a large number of Masons. of repIt has in 1872 at least seven resentatives of all civilized nations. I am sure I can never forget it To understand my description the reader is informed that Smyrna is a city made up. 1865) having been permitted. 3. so far as P. The elements incorporated in this chapter are of the very best They work the American rituals pure and simple. Consistory lodges and two Royal Arch Chapters. fitted up expressly for Royal A Chapter (name unknown to me). As we were to lie some fortywas fortunate in securing. Worshipful Homer Lodge No. my or t 806. but movements were making to secure a new dispensation at once. 1868. 1.30 P. TurSeptember. Franchia. inadvertently. and enjoyed an Homer Lodge No. is deservedly ranked as one of the best lodges on the English Homer Lodge No. R. owing to representations I made to the proper author renewed the dispensation of this chapter in 1868. as key. Warranted in 1860. John's. and the companions are is reported. in the proceedings of the " St. in sonry. High-Priest of the G.M. of February where I found about twoscore of the brethren. S.* : Royal Arch Chapter U. The dispensation for this chapter was granted by the G. an introduction to Bro. Working Rosicrucian Ma- Of this. 4. The chapter Grand Royal Arch Chapter. Register. 1871. and a warrant in September following. Royal Arch Chapter of the United States. at Smyrna. This has forty-five and is now the oldest working lodge in Smyrna. G. George Lodge No. The period for the return of the dispensation (September. 32. furniture and equipments of the lodge the same. John'. to elapse without the performance of that necessary duty. I with a can gather them.015.


Formerly resident at Smyrna. .HYDE CLARKE.

A. Gefter. This lodge has about sixty members. Perrin. Warranted by the Grand Lodge of This lodge has about seventy-five members. A. such as the Ashlars.. . Fyfe. Rees. 987. Joly. translated from the English. Stano. 952. Decran Lodge No. Fres. are presented here in the form of tangible objects grouped around and in front of the Master's station. The Greek population of Smyrna is very large and respectable. W. Th. J. Franghia. to receive The two American Masonic Brethren. Shotton. business of the evening will be Some of the names are: Thomas Janson. G. This was organized at the close of the year 1870. Globes. but a pedestal directly in front of the Worshipful Master serves the purpose of one.. etc. The emblems usually delineated on the Master's carpet. 1. Smyrna lodges hold their meetings in the same room . St. but the membership is Armenian a class here embracing many of the wealthiest people of the 6. Papps. Fraser. L. Georganspula. Parodis. rituals are Italian. etc. Ed. a commodious. more so. T. James nor. F. St. F. city. W. Papworth. Fontrier. Tokens of Service. I was unable to get much information concernthis lodge. which all members are : requested punctually to attend. All these John's Lodge No. Spiegelthal. J. Arthur Lawson. F. This was intended as a summer lodge at Ephesus. Sion's Lodge." minuted for the Tyler's use on this Summons Secretary. G. Dirutzuyan. T. with handsome cornices. well-ventilated apartment. the 25th of February. but its officers and members resided in Smyrna. Issigonis. The arrangements of an English lodge will doubtless be novel to many of my readers. R.FREEMASONRY AT SMYRNA. as I understand. ing Eleusinian Lodge No. Mollhausen. but. rituals are in the literally 51 Greek language. than merely painted emblems. The stations of the officers are substantially the same as ours. Nubarian. Hatton. 8. There is no Altar. Joly. George. St. S. 9. Raboly. Working under English authority. J. Hadgi. E. C. at 8 P. 5. Ganon. Jo. and the like. The Italy in 1864. J . G. P. The ritEngland uals are the same as those of St. Warranted by the Grand Lodge of in 1864. Franghia. indeed. 7. and form very attractive images to the eye. Stella Ionia Lodge No. Joly. Haco. E.014. Tuesday. The form of notification sent out by the Worshipful Master was this " An Emergency General Meeting of Masons will be held today. abundant ante-chambers. O'Con- N. Kossonis. Dr. of Jewish brethren. Louis Meyer.M.

I regretted to find. and having been taught in hand are eternal pleasures. 15. F of Entered This "Emergency Lodge" was opened on the degree P. pied G. in an eloquent manner by Brother Carrere. Jacob Berchten. scattered so abundantly and BO mournfully there. 8) with his apron. Barnard. some four thousand of them had united in making me in some sort a representative for the purpose of initiating a series of investigations into the sacred land. viz. and of what classes of citizens it is composed. by promise to my constituents at home. S. and its ruins. tuckydifference " to serve " each brother prepared himself that as pleasant to observe " girded hia Divine Master in the opening and work of the lodge. he himself" (as intimated in Luke xvii. who. Manusso Dani. speaker right began by solemnly saluting the assembly in the name of tne of the Craft Universal . and quietly entered the S. six hours thirty-six minutes..2 A JOYFUL OCCASION.30 P. Hyde Dlark . at La Grange. U." innocence. ness and ease of his rendering cannot be surpassed. A Salute " Private Honor was given and (the Grand Honors " as we call the was inducted into the Oriental chair. (Ps. C.. informed them that. xvi.. Batty.44 Apprentice at 8. LL. which occuabout thirty minutes.M. It was in time. Manoli Cattimati. Bottomly. and escorted me in. I assured them that we Amerijcans are in general an inquiring people. My reply.) A committee waited upon of of six. I recalled to their memory one greatly beloved my myrna. and I assured them that my mission had his valued approbation.M. the reaults of my researches and a full account of my travels would be pnMished for general perusal. In a later chapter of this book I will I give his portrait. Paul Clement. 0. T. The J. Charlton. Kenit being then 1. A. had returned to England after oing a good work for Freemasonry in the Levant. polished. at whose . G. I told them that I was then upon journey to the Holy Land.) numerous is the great Fraternity in the United told them how our Masonic traditions that Freemasonry originated in Palestine. xxxiii.D. R. Carre're. P. Bro. was translated into French by Brother C. James Albon. in this nomenclature will forcibly t ariety of languages represented strike the reader. I States. and welcomed Salute). me I in the reception-room two bearing large swords of state and wands. of Him who fashioneth our hearts alike. a barrister of high eminence here. and of T. (Ps. yet dignified I The gracefulis His manner and commanding.. and that copies should be placed in . the badge of " the sacred retreat of friendship. 11.

Our Vows . it may readily be imagined that I was in a condition demanding repose. Dirutzuyan. 16). Armenian. A call was then made upon me to close the lodge strictly upon Then we adjourned to refreshthe American system. an American . a Greek physician of eminence here. from which I managed to withdraw so as to be on board the steamer by midnight. Cassimarti. Fontrier. He encouraged me greatly in my Eastern researches. whose acquaintance I formed. and in whom the sacred fire was burning unimpaired. was Brother Landon. at ancient Ephesus. Jedeschi. Issigonis. Westfield. however.grand. Jimoni. ments. 1868. Staab. Bro. nally from Boston. The Oriental usage >of meeting and parting ivith a kiss of peace (Romans xvi. One Hour with You . in the receptionI . owing to my adopting a different route on my return home in June. As I had spent the day mostly in visiting bazaars. 53 I told them that in my literary labors 1 had composed number of poems. Laudon. and others in English. Karacoussis. Carrere. As one evidence of the national variety that made up this meeting. When I mentioned casually. This was interpreted to me by Bro. which I accepted. This plan. a few of which I would proceed to recite. An invitation was tendered to me to spend some time here next summer. The learned doctor takes the same view of the Oriental origin and antiquity of Freemasonry that we do. I mention the names of Bro. Franghia. Worshipful Master of the Lodge at Ephesus more than forty years a Mason.a Masonic Picnic to be held June 24th. while it seems strange in others. origi. and we arranged for . of the Greek. and The Gavel Song . Staab. and English. Karacoussis. S. failed. His death in 1870 left a wide hiatus in that -Masonic and social circle. their hands. Carrere. which I did. all of which seemed to give them a -pleasure. ithe truly cannot leave the subject of my visit to Smyrna without recalling Masonic earnestness manifested by all. French. The only American brother resident here. Dr. His theory of Masonic patriotism and benevolence is very lofty and . as indeed did they all. appears strangely appropriate among these Levant Masons. and one at considerable length in Greek by Bro. Kubariau. StephThukides.THE KISS OF PEACE. about twenty-five miles south of Smyrna. and perambulating it in all directions. and Venezeans. a German. Georganspula. Eespouses were made by Bro. climbing to the great castle in the rear of the city. ana. Raboly. Hadji. Then I gave them Tiie Level and Square .

by a woman of the same name. to Greek brethren I said farewell me with kisses. as to Smyrna lodges I may relate Whenever in my remarks to the all my auditors arose and stood which the sweet bard of Scottish Freemasonry " That hieroglyphic bright Which none but Craftsmen ever saw. about B. of the Cumaeans.M room. in 1826. 444. 2). present almost smothered me to the ship on the 26th. St. promising even to Herodotus. and here was that one of the seven churches of Asia to which " the beloved Disciple. probably. before that "shadowed image" refers. and of all things that he saw Jev. 2. Paul unquestionably had one of his preaching stations at Smyrna. thia thrilling epistle: is alive." (1 Chr. the gave. early life here. eclipse Constantinople. which I know thy works and tribulation and poverty . was celebrated noblest cities of Ionia. B. 962.C. iron. universality of Freemasonry its and never estimated so highly mighty powers for good. } the cause of suffering Greece. and is the largest commercial city of Asia Minor. 1015. i. for the house of his God. was perhaps born here. and whom all Masons claim as a wrote loving brother. wood. soil " it has the finest sky and climate in the world. an Amazon. 570 at Samos. xxix. and a Great names are associated with extremely productive. only a few miles south of Smyrna. I occupy but short space with a This city. gold. as a little boy. he who bare record of the word of God and the testimony of the Lord Jesus Christ. about B. onyx-stones and all manner of precious stones and marble stones in abundance." Smyrna." the good 8t John the Evangelist. the period when King David was "preparing with all his might. used the name of Deity. brass.) and still fiercer Although ten times destroyed by fierce throes of nature men. and must have spent much of his Homer. silver. by the ancients as one of the fairest and It was founded. the same to the party who accompanied before felt the salutations were exchanged. money which. that the first HISTORY OF SMYRNA. Pythagoras was bora about B. I confess that I never And when as now. One ceremony they perform Lodge I in these without a violation of confidence. was dead and "These things saith the first and last." AB every reader can learn what he wants to know by looking for "Smyrna" in the Cyclopedia.C. Asian). says. styled the ornament of Asia (agalma tees description.C. Smyrna has ten times risen from her ruins. I ever posses8ed.C.

he ordered all the heads of the slain to be built into the walls with mortar and stone. Trains run daily over these lines at the rate of twenty-five miles an hour. and ye shall have tribulation ten days. read thus: "I conquered this country by the might of my arms. ii.D." by A.) And here that grand old evangelist cast Polycarp (what an appropriate name. Operative Masons will be interested to know that when Timour the Tartar (Taimour-lang) captured Smyrna." (Eev. although described by Herodotus more than 2. eighty miles. 1869. is in the possession of Col. the devil shall some of you into prison that ye may be tried. but are the synagogue of Satan. Tristam. J. with an introduction by our good Mason brother Prof. one finished to Aidm (Tralles) by way of Ephesus. not long after those cut on the rocks near Beyrout. Amongst these ruins the most remarkable is the sculpture made by Sesostris at Kara-Bell. run out in that direction . Chicago. 8-10. looking to the east. His tomb. sunk in a panel cut into the perpendicular surface of a massive. H. he slew all A. In rebuilding a portion for military purposes. and I know the blasphemy of them which say they are Jews and are still shown. be thou faithful unto death and I will give thee a crown of life. after a the inhabitants and demolished the houses.ANTIQUITIES OF ASIA MINOR 55 (but thou art rich). the best description of which I have seen being that in "The Seven Churches of Asia." . sixty miles. would fill a volume. The inscription. blockade of fourteen days. the seed-abounding /) preached for seventy-four years. behold. 167. under the reign of Marcus Aurelius Antoninus. the other to Magnesia and Kassaba. which minutely describe in their place. H. copy of this. of England. B. as described by Herodotus.D. An account of the sieges this city has suffered. Svoboda. The image is represented in profile. although now obliterated by the tooth of time in thirty-four centuries. designated by and labored a fine old cypress-tree. History fails to say what sort of materials these proved to be. I shall It is sculptured in relief. and the terrible disasters consequent upon its numerous captures and destruction. Illinois. These were only discovered in 1839. in height about seven feet. 1402. calcareous hard rock. Goodrich. Fear none of those things which thou shalt suffer.300 years ago. making good testimony of his faith by suffering death at the stake A. Along the Two lines of railway east side of the city is a beautiful plain full of villages. Smyrna and the country around A with twenty photographs pasted on the corresponding leaves. it abound in antiquities.

and ad- judged the prize to Theopompus. Jr. D. with the unexpected visited. compete for the best elegiac panegyric upon the deceased. S. Grand Masters. serious of the desert.C. 357. not far from Smyrna. will serve to many colors and creeds. taken from these ruins. To commemorate William E. M. and strumpets.C. Parviu. as though to jrralp tern and secure a footing. gesticulate like St. is now in the British Museum at London. un- . Hiram Bassett.800 feet in circumference and very lofty. low. In passing through Smyrna. McCorkle. and the second of the Seven Wonders of the The ancient world. and weighted to accommodate feeble wrists >nces of labor. the remains In the vicinity of Smyrna. and rather oddly erected by tradesmen. Wheeler. I was struck. Camel. the first Oriental city I had ever travellers are. Doyle. six miles from Sardis. 350. always five camels in a i a little donkev who row. Wm. are the opuof the largest tomb in the world. M. Vitus. to whom the adage mense monument is 3. talk in strident tones as if quarreling. stately-stepnt. Pine. merchandise. erected by Artemisia. but never did." the names of ten eminent Masons. each wears a nose-bag like a huge koir . D. Wilson. mechanics. that of Algattes. they face the way they row . Tucker. J. John Scott. I locate at this marked on the map "I. C. a bigger one on his back: the following processioS of six is coupled by them neck to neck . H. Samuel M. The statue of Mausolus. piles adder on docks. B. oars fastened to rowlocks. the people of so customs. my note-book and will exhibit my method of jotting down information during my whole journey through the East: show how my mind Greek boatmen in pantalettes . this model of all funeral piles. the rest earth. Philip C. cotton bales hooped with five iron bands. father of " rich as Croesus " This im applies.56 LEAVES FROM A DIARY. Cregier. so novel to an American.: Theodore S. It was Artemisia invited all the literary men of the age to built B. and that presently come out into a broad street. and the A was few pages from affected. ship clipper-rigged. was at Halicarnassus. handkerchiefs around head. viz. King of Caria. solemn. lent Croesus. his queen. and Past Grand Masters. The Herodotus says it was of very large stones. number six wears a large "f fc'Mymginside of it ell. his spongy Feet sprawling all over fee wide paving-stones. adds that the latter did the most of it base is ! far-famed mausoleum of Mausolus. as all variety of scenes. Thomas A. place. h whole day's ramble felt as if in lanes and by-ways. eta only eight to twelve feet wide. a small bell with a having clapper. Todd.

etc. tobacco again. blacksmith. etc. each carryii g two large round bags of cotton of about 300 Ibs. matches.. nice. you just sit down on the shopfloor. no signboards. scholars all leave their shoes outside. every hundred yards or so an open court. numbered in Arabic andEngligh. with no counter or railing. crescent on top of the church . galleries. at high twelve people ( pray . and walks on with a long. only one butcher-shop an hour . other women not. snaky neck level as the Level of the Senior Warden . . the fifty pairs not worth a dime for the lot . Women . with drawings on gravestones. . confectionery. tools of carpenters. such a rheumatism as he will have when he gets to be sixty. in Armenian quarters. kept my hat on according to orders . built by Genoese. my servant Joseph. the markets called bazaars. and scouring . no arrangements for warming or lighting. first is a tobacco-store. not well compressed . but nobody there. hardware from Birmingham. sight of my fur cap delighted the boys . had to go in stocking feet (stockings had holes in them) . front doors open. arms. his long. no cakes nor pison things. in front of the merchant. fruits. set mosaically in cement . stoneTurkish Mosque . nobody sells more than one line of goods. musical sounds. Armenian women expose breasts indecorously.. Armenian Graveyard. and of good quality . worshipers barefooted . thread. brass vessels (very bright and tasty too) . tobacco. clock that hangs over the fireplace at home. grasps tightly a stick fastened by a string to his neck. etc. barbers' tools. as in American shops. fruits. no preaching. Turkish women wear cloth over face. with fountain in centre. each stock worth from $50 to . magnificent view from summit .'s business on earth. no singing. neck and head.LEAVES FROM A DIABY. paved elaborately with pebbles . bread in loaves and rings. Turkish Carrier with wooden frame on his back supports a great load . woolen caps with silk tassels. camels loaded with madder in bales. the door was a quilted leather aflair that hung tapestry-fashion. Turkish School. Old Fort on hill. England (such scissors! to cut your nails will take the edge oh !). caravan of 500 of them just in from Persia. hands. as regular as Mrs. 57 . debarred admission. nearly horizontal. tobacco. no girls . no furniture nor seats . jewelry. also with cotton . a barrel of flour being strapped on it. perfectly safe. stayed outside and watched my boots while I went in. Mt. calico. and trees of orange. four in a row . quick stride as silently and solemnly as the camel himself. confectioneries particularly well got up . no nothing. Cybele with its snowy cap and . display haD with settees. gesticulations marvellous. small stock of drugs. matted with ragged mats . every man's stock is open in front. he leans forward. ears.mouth. noise startling. first washing feet. etc. all boys. and so on with tobacco as a staple. each. . and whole city full of them scattered in folio wings of five. heard jio muezzin .masun. mostly paved. these loads do not shorten the three-feet 's steps or reduce the stately stepping. and trade. then drygoods. mostly of the cheap and nasty sort.$500 all told. to show dead M . regular barn of a place. those who spoke to one another whispered . being a Jew.

just reminded of the Eastern " ness of this beast (some from Persia. only two tipsy men. dates. . garlic. . rose. and they "but just a drappy in the ee'. and hurt the feet. Graveyard buds on women . more filthy than those of Cairo (Illinois). Streets cleaner than I e'xpected. I am legend commemorating the extreme homeli" The first man who beheld a camel fainted with in . imagine to preachof "the hill. Turkish manv . six enormous carved work upon them r exhumed by Exploration Society. to say.5g THE SHIP OF THE DESERT. delicious prunes. dates. group negroes percussion locks. handsomest race is the Armenian playing cards soldiers with French muskets. are the words (in ancient Greek). cauliflowers. looking southeast. in which Polycarp is said to have bed." as poor Burns used ing here. and very many others Costumes. pomegranates. but only because my Turkish hobby founding fountains. shelled almonds.. Fountains. and slope I am told. Over the old Greek church. very base . graveyard full of broken columns. - of labor and skill. the fort a grand piece St Paul coming to the entirely in ruins. m . . a and one that excited my gratitude . many epitaphs in gilt. once doubtones lately less forming parts of ancient temples. Scene 2) r " one of his characters gives these directions to a sorely-puzzled traveller: " Turn upon your right hand at the next turning. but traditions. fig-paste. loaded with cotton). turn of no hand. upwards. at the very next turning. . seedless raisins.. etc. carried at half-shoulder shift but little importunity among merchants to get my custom. but turn down indirectly to the Jew's marvel at the answer " 'Twill be a hard way to hit !" here the first caravan of camels I had ever beheld &*ing : hundred of them. guide was a Jew. the city is full of them all free . none handsome. hazelnuts. beggars. etc. curiously had stones thrown at me here by schoolboys. everybody's nationality and religion but few recognized by his dress. on your left Marry. to take a first view of Smyrna preparatory top turban on gravestones of men . The streets of Smyrna are ludicrous parodies on the word More crooked than those of Boston. Polycarp the Divine * * * And so on for a dozen pages for Shepherd* quantity. English walnuts. lemons. and well paved. but the boulders are rude. figs. street-brokers everywhere with a peck or two of money ready for exchange in changing a twentyfranc piece they only charged two cents premium gave me a pint of native money copper and alloyed silver. but at the next turning of all. Fruits. a modern innovation. they are so narrow that a loaded camel fills one up even* Shakespeare must have had a description of them before ! penning that laughable thing in the Merchant of Venice (Act ii. oranges. carob pods... . inscriptions written from right to left.

Murray Lyon. D. marked on the map " E. Charles Purton Cooper. I left remarked that was subject in At that time three thousand houses were burned Smyrna on Wednesday. and nearly opThe intervening strait was about posite the Trogilian promontory. It was not in my route to visit Constantinople but I was assured well-informed gentlemen at Smyrna that some of the highest by officials of the empire are acknowledged members of the Masonic ! . A . 570. Samos." nine honored names of British craftsmen. twenty convey fathoms deep and two stadia long.FUiiD PASHA. J. as compared with the other beasts. (A stadium was the eighth of anEnglish mile.. fraternity there. its narrowest part. principles of the institution was so favorable as Of this the great officers of the empire intimately associated in our minds with terrible conflagrations. who deceased the following that distinguished officer. tunnel was carried through the mountain seven stadia. Matthew Cooke. viz. says Anthon in his Classical Dictionary. referring to the sad fire of October 14. traveller Constantinople is A in 1610. reminding us. which was one of a series that have devastated this devoted city for many generations.C. I again recall the history and labors of the sublime Pythagoras. and the secretary's report year. is an island of the JEgean. is Amongst these I name Fuad Pasha. A few years since he directed one of his secretaries to become a Mason. still one week's journey from Holy Land. Hyde Clark. upon the aims and to secure the imperial favor. Passing the island of Samos. whose names will survive them. especially that of 1870. dismay. Bate. E. of the lodge-tyler compared with the other officers. Charles Warren. he did not know to what fate or misfortune this city suffering so much.) The first inhabitants were Carians and Leleges. to their foundations. To commemorate the Masonic spirit manifested in this ancient Masonic and ecclesiastical city of Smyrna. to water from a distant fountain to the city. The Sultan himself an avowed friend to this society. Kogers. lying off the lower part of the coast of Ionia. A mole. are well aware. Stephen Barton Wilson. born here B. W. he is a failure in animal architecture. defended the harbor. W. THE MASON. the 26th February. The temple and worship of Juno contributed much to its fame and afflu- seven stadia in ence. the second one drew tremblingly near. are located here. T. the third roped Mm" and put him to work " In good sooth. and V. 1607. Hughan.

A. This building was set on born. Taylor. A. artificial. like those of King Solomon's." the Temple of Diana. I names of Thomas J. The circuit of Samos was 600 ' stadia. and thick in proportion. viz. John the Bap- It would have Here at Ephesus were many of the most celebrated structures of antiquity. 552. B. a little ways west of Ephesus. I had them in June next and spend the 24th. The soil being marshy. deep beds of charcoal and fleeces of wool were laid in trenches. W. holds its Sessions here. so much so island. two hundred and twenty years were 225.. H. at the common charge of all the Asiatic States. Moore. not only The of its shape. H. and Mount Mycale. It was expended in the work. o a substantial base was formed. the anniversary of our patron-saint tist.C. Cornelius place the Daniel B. P. M. were although for a very different reason. countered in Pliny describes the difficulty en- moving and raising the enormous blocks of stone . fire ame night Alexander was finally destroyed 356. J.C. Ionian Sea but the JSgean also. 256 to 262. and The foundations of this Temple..D. Langridge. sailing very conspicuous It is the most that the ancients styled any very lofty place Samos. is conspicuous. This noted edifice was B. of which the venerable Brother Landon is W. Morris. been a rare experience indeed. except wine. in a Masonic pic-mc among the ruins of Ephesus. including that third " Wonder of the World. I note the fact that Eleusi- nian Lodge No. The port was secure and The town stood chiefly in a plain rising gradually from the sea. It yielded almost every kind of The city of Samos was exactly opposite the Trogilian promontory convenient for ships. J. in the object. Passing off the coast. John McCormick. its chief architect being Ctesiphon . following cut will give an idea At so appropriate a locality as Samos. marked "F" on the map. Each column was a present from a eparate king. each weighing 150 tons. MAP OF SAMOS Wheeler. Bruen. The Temple was 425 feet erected by supported by 127 marble columns 60 feet high. and John A.SAMOS. but by the Goths A. CopeLeach. although the city at present is promised the Smyrna Masons to return to but a poor place. 987. land. B. Corson. equal to 75 English miles. Levantine produce. by Eratostratus the It was rebuilt. The north from Patmos.

Tisdall. So the wood in the old church at Bethlehem seems now as good as- new. In the present instance he says " The architect contrived to raise the architraves by means of bags of sand piled upon an inclined plane to the height of the columns (60 feet) and by gradually wrought into traverse this who : emptying them the blocks fell The roof of this Temple was of to their assigned places. As the grapevines in the East are often twelve to fifteen inches in di- ameter. R there the people believe our good December-Saint John lies buried behind the high altar. S.EPHESUS. James Fenton. Upon the whole. and it shone there like a meteor.. only house of the gods." I locate the following Masonic names : Charles W. S. Fitch . So well was this seasoning executed that the wood of the Second Temple was found by Muci- anus. The difficulty was solved in the nick of time. Bayless. But the question of freight was the puzzle the transport of so much stone would demand whole fleets of vessels. B. G. saying. and to which I shall give attention further on. like Solomon's. marked on the " H. ouley. Three ancient quarries were open. a problem which exercises the wits of all Egypt and the East. But now the sea has receded three miles eastward and very site of the vast left Temple of Diana a reedy.C. Hough." cedar. to which reference has been made on preceding pages. those of Ctesiphon and Paros. brought At map to light by the butting off of a piece by the horns of a ram ! this ancient Queen City of the Levant Ephesus. was found to have lost its body . But his tomb. as I sail past. a compared with that traversed by the fleets of Hiram. G. F. Palmer. to be as good as new. by the discovery of a quarry of fine marble on Mount Prion. 75. The supply . G. the pure flesh of the apostle of peace had And . David Clark. All the wood before using was glued together and left four years to season. and E. H. Joseph B. Eeynolds. Henry D. The itself is a and almost indistinguishable ruin. was insignificant. and Proconessus.500 years old. this is credible. of marble for these works was of course immense. this Temple was so beautiful that Philon burst out in rapture concern" it is the ing it. 61 Temple.wood. you will think when see it that the gods have left heaven and come to live here!" you Its position was at the head of the port facing me. miasmatic marsh between is in dispute. although more than 1. although the distance. when opened. Moore. and the stairway of vine. the doors of cypress (Solomon's were of olive). although then 400 years the vicinity of Ephesus. and the city us. D.

probably from A. he led his adopted mother. followed Jesus to the celestial courts. 26. Mary (John xix. . 9). now called Patino. I locate at Patmos. Fitch. Masonic H. when was nearly a hundred years old. making the whole something in the shape of an hour-glass. it reads as though a woman were peeping into a lodge-room.." his raptured soul dwelling in the midst of opal and amethyst and chalcedony and sardonyx and gold. The aspect of the island is peculiarly rugged and bare. thrilling and inimi- which makes up the Apocalypse or Revelation of St. Entering into the spirit of this strange book. too. witnessing the ceremonies ! of Freemasonry. Here dwelt St John the Evangelist. eminent both in and religious relations.j THE GOLDEN SABBATH AT PATHOS. viz. leaving while alive. This island. 95 to 97. John. Much of these figures is embodied in various degrees of the Scotch Rite. ten clergymen. to heaven. in which the Apostle saw " the spiritual city and all her spires and gateways in a glory like one pearl. which explains why it was selected as a place of exile for St. a prisoner "for the Word of God and for the Testimony of Jesus Christ (Rev. island of Patmos.D. and in under his own instructions. he To commemorate a place so sacred ia Masonic and Biblical. at the age of seventy-two years. xxxiv.. grave had been made himself down his death-day he walked there voluntarily and laid in it Here. to record them How I should like to spend a week here and read it through. and trying.27). marked " G " on the map. or the body itself had been translated This that Celestial bread of the Royal Arch in its place.f. I read with Passing along. interest that collection of imagery. 3). during part of the reign of Domitian. has now one palm only remaining.000 years ago. John. as the practice " " anciently called the city of palm-trees (Deut. with raptured pen. i. is divided equally by a very narrow isthmus. that the name Palmosa was given to the island. So Jericho. in which God opened the pearly gates of paradise. Only one palm-tree remains upon it. The following engraving gives a correct idea of its appearance. the names of MAP OP PATMOS. turned to manna. was to choose rocky and desolate islands for such purposes." and where on that celebrated Lord's day he was "in the spirit. by the uncommon table. on the 26th. J. who. although so numerous were they 1.

290. It was erected by Chares of Lindus." The following engraving It is will give a clear idea of this island. but only stood about sixty years. remarkable piece of art.. Knickerbacker. specially worthy of Masonic study. they capitulated upon the most honorable conditions. John Trimble. Those finally gallant warriors fortified it so strongly and defended it so gallantly as to resist for a considerable period the utmost power of the Ottoplars. S. the earth. . the vast brazen image of the sun. 63 ier. and it may have suggested to his : mind the . man Empire at last. J. . Hiraru A. commanded all yonder port. being thrown down St.000. and his feet as pillars of fire and he had in his hand a little book open and he set his right foot upon Ihe sea and his left foot upon . they were compelled to surrender. largely Greeks and Jews. whose majestic ruins fill the vista as I gaze upon them from the deck of the ship. H. Robert Collier. Burney. Its population is about 25. and weak. Eobert McMurdy.RHODES. The modern city only covers one- fourth the area of the ancient city. about B. and a rainbow was upon his head. but few traces of the glory of ancient Rhodes are visible. overborne with numbers. styled the Colossus of Rhodes.C. Dennis. as being the site of the of the seven ancient wonders of the world.about B. C. Instead of the innumerable galleys that once swarmed out of MAP QP RHODES. 224. being allowed to withdraw from the island with all their possessions. John doubtless saw this by an earthquake. clothed with a cloud. like pigeons from their cotes. and onethird the same in breadth. Bowdish. Jr. This was seventy cubits Rhodes is fifth high (about sixty-five feet). Charles LoshG.C. I recalled some facts which icommend the island particularly to the attention of Knights TemIt was the refuge of the Christian Knights when they were driven from the Holy Land in the fifteenth century. I arrived at Rhodes Feb. but not long enough to go on shore. and when ened by famine and the unintermitting assaults of their enemies. and his face was as it were the sun. and remained a few hours off the city. D. Hunter. and to go to Malta. about forty miles long.allegory in the tenth chapter of his Revelation " And I saw another mighty angel come down from heaven. and . 27. William S.

E. that he should be for salvation unto the ends of the earth (Acts xiii. and a custom-house boat manned by ten red-capped sailors. the man who was set to be a light to the Gentiles. and com- promised all informalities concerning them by accepting two I pias- venture to say that that " " a whole cargo for a moderate fat gentleman yonder would pass The name of the island." and so on through his subsequent journey to Jerusalem. E. which rows round and round Probably us during our stay here to see that we do no smuggling. Ehodes.) I have been accustomed to consider the Apostle next to Moses. February 29 (this being leapam told that this town lies at the mouth of the river Cydnus. Carpenter. who lazily examined my box of figs and the roll of stationery which 1 had purchased in the bazaars. compensation without a blush. and Koine! To commemorate a place so intimately associated with the glory of Christian Knighthood. Porter. John A. where Paul.. has come forth bj their numbers and daring. Remaining twelve hours at Mersina. nothing hours I have lain off this harbor. a rose. has exercised the greatest influence upon the minds of his race. H. referring to the multitude probably tres (eight cents) for his own pocket! ami variety of that sweet blossom here. V. and the day following Rhodes. I 47. the birth place of the great Paul. " came with a straight course unto Coos. A. Q. Alfred E. I find time to read Acts xxi. I cannot but follow. A. Waiting upon the slow movements of the customs officers. freight. year). I locate here at Rhodes. and commanded by an indolent Turk. D. Malta. and George L. Uthrop. Fellows. B. . William Lefferts. the names of ten Masons. and is only six miles from ancient Tarsus. in imagination. to his trust" equals that of the custom-house officer on fidelity the wharf at Smyrna. Gardner. Fred Wiltsie.64 these seas TARSUS. thence miraculouslv confounded and From childhood Paul the man who. save a few skiffs during the four a flat-bottomed barge for our set-king to take passengers ashore. Ames.: J. thence on a fanatical errand to Damascus. viz. Orrin Welch. Otis. Being thus within six miles of his birthplace. G. William S. Caesarea. eminent in the Christian Ordersof Knighthood. having parted the day before with the Christian brethren of Miletus and Ephesus. marked " K" upon the map. to the theological school of Gamaliel at Jerusalem . his footsteps hence. derived from Ros.

iv. and so made a valuable book. the opening hours of spring. establishing churches. xi. and life. once stoned. of the Jews. thrice suffering shipwreck a night and a day in the deep. One of the Holy Land. in perils of robbers. describes his soul as growing great and expanding without ceasing a man of boundless His Life of St. and action. deaths oft. My first act was to fall upon my knees and praise T. no one can help respecting him for the fidelity he evinced in the performance of duty. I am permitted to stand upon a portion of earth so hallowed by Biblical and classical recollections as this. but I tion of St. converted to 65 the Christian faith . that purpose has been kindled into a longing desire. in journeyings often. whatever he- may know in science and literature. unlimited capacity. in fastings Whatever one may think of the particular cause to which this man gave his learning. labor. the day being but a few hours old. bearing painful testimonials in stripes above measure . U. A. 5 . At Alexandrette. "We sighted the Syrian shores on the first day of March. or Scandaroon.SAINT PAUL. I have kept the faith henceforth there is laid up for me a crown of righteousness. Paul vigor. shall give in that day. G. must say that his concep- He . And surely no Mason who has dropped the refuse the sympathetic drop to the to tear over the martyred Hiram can memory of Paul. is fulfilled. At last my desires are gratified. I have finished is at hand. thence on journeys hither and " in labors thither. in perils by his own countrymen. in perils of more abundant in waters. in perils in the sea. in prisons more frequent. might be expurgated. that now at length. and the time of my Timothy I have fought a good fight . in weariness and painfulness. or co share the triumphant glow which inspired him when he wrote in his old age "I am now ready to be offered.) Mighty soul hast thou not satisfied those immortal longings ere this! Gathered with the saints at the : . fixed purposes of my whole life. in perils in the city." (2 Cor. departure my course . ! River of Life.) and thirst. 0. in perils by the heathen." (2 Tim. T. receiving forty stripes save one> thrice beaten with rods. in perils in the wilderness. . will. in watchings often. in hunger often. Paul's character is fine and just. I was permitted to go on shore and remain for some hours. the righteous judge. in cold and nakedness. is not thy weariness refreshed and thy thirst satisfied ? I don't fancy Kenan's views upon religious subjects. which the Lord. to visit the Since I began to read with understanding the Sacred Writings. five times. in perils among false brethren . near the going down of my earthly sun.

" of the Mediterranean Sea. page of this volume. are the search and prize of nations . [. entrance into Freemasonry (March. I have placed the ten following names. The . H. In the spread and conquests of Grecian heroes. and only thirty miles from point. S." me. East of me. haa the Evangelists of Jesus. moves toward the Orient. a short two days' journey. Fravel. been trodden again and again by the conquerors of the earth. our good Noureddin Effendi. viz. bathed in bright Oriental sunshmc. diaries W. and John B. sa- is a good place at which to enter the Holy Land. 0. and about the same distance. On Monday. was the conquest of the world. the thoughts of the. time (1872) is stationed. Alexander achieved that victory which. is of Paul A little nearer where the disciples were first called Christians. East were wedded to the words of the West To commemorate this northeast corner of the Mediterranean. B famous now. I formed a re* ofution that.THE NORTHEAST CORNER. the birththe battle-field of Issus. now heavily banked in snow. Jno. in effect. as the march of empires to the Occident. Irish. the seaport of Antioch. is Antioch. marked "M" upon the map. There was once a pigeon-express maintained between this place and Bagdad. South of this. and Tripoli. John H. Baalbec. place B. Thomas Austin. point for The literary history of the world Masonic. destroyed lands. 333. only for its tobacco. Brown. 1846). if the Grand Architect of the Universe would spare mj in my and open a way for me. : R successively the ancient Laodicea. lewed through the clear ethereal atmosphere peculiar to this laical and Biblical are clime. Howry. we called at Latakia. Adams Allen.C. a few miles in the insrior. religious. Damascus. Hebrew conception found fresh expression . Johnson. all well-known in the Masonic records as Past Grand Masters. and conthe " northeast corner being Around yonder to several localities of thrilling memory. life. as Kamiakam. tiguous Alexandrette is Tarsus. and by It is in every respect a good beginning my survey of the Holy Land. " beyond which is The road over those mountains. is the purely Oriental city of Aleppo. Charles Scott. Nash. I would as eurely set foot upon the cred soil before my Masonic career should be closed. the 2d March. beautiful. scientific. Reuben Mickel. Unplowed hinds of scholars. and beyond that. to the northwest. James M. whose portrait adorns a subsequent terraced houses of Tripoli. at this Jther like Gebal. wherein.

above all. the vast little shelf of level lofty Lebanon behind. marked " from whence some of the most experienced Masons went. To trace up to their sources ancient habits. : night. in the land of the Bible. and even the knowledge of letters itself. We pass south I begin to wonder at the narrowness of the land. the whole Bible. gineered to the East Indies by available passage for a railroad eastward from this coast and from here the line has been en- point to be surmounted is only 1. had proposed. call of King Solomon. is obscured in the lapse of thirty to tread sprung all science upon the sites of ancient cities.000 years ago with the same symbolical rites that some day accompany my own interment . to travel through the length and breadth of this country with this Guide in I my hand . and the ascent is without very heavy grades. can never be forgotten. Going Going southward here the Lebanon mountains higher as we advance. in which I walked the steamer's deck till midplate. under the name of Phoenicia. The highest feet.REFLECTIONS AT APPROACHING SYKIA. rise higher and " on the ancient Gebal.C. The sky so pure and bright. and even at that early period was far advanced in the knowledge of the arts and sciences. 1921. all of it. and having and wanting no other Guide . 67 The only is said to lead out of Tripoli. emblems whose original meaning centuries . the illimitable Mediterranean before it. It is best described in the words of another " Above a vast hemicircle of clouds shone a little crescent moon fading into her last quarter. to build the Temple at Jerusalem. the moon and stars shining with such celestial beauty.500 an English company. modes of thought. exercised such influence upon the minds and fortunes of the human race. and My reflections on approaching the coast of Syria were colored by the expectations upon which my mission was founded. The night-scenes on the Mediterranean are delightful to contemOne of them. whose tenants 3. This narrow shelf was then crowded with towns and cities. to read the Bible. and invoked the blessing of the Most High that I might accomplish it. and like a luminous summit to an . to descend into were laid will in their everlasting rest rock-hewn sepulchres. at the map. such was the work for which as I girded up my loins on the 1st day of March. from whence and art. This nation was here when Abram came down from Mesopotamia. which. forms of speech. B. the morning air peculiarly bracing and tonic this whole journey from Marseilles has been a delicious recreation. and.

. Arrived at Liverpool M " " " " Left " Arrived at Palermo 20th. Cairo.. Ty re The Cedars J PPa Jerusalem April 14th. Nazareth Tibnin Alexandria. 26th. " " 14th..093 miles. May 1st 3d. 24th. and so this first division of iny volume ends. 17th.. Left " New York London Paris Marseilles. IT^h '. Reached Gebal March 17th. the chapters following order. 2. 26th. Messina Syra. Mersina. 28th.. 16th. February 2d. 2d. 25th. Smyrna Left " . Arrived at Rhodes. JulySd. Whole distance from Marseilles to Beyrout. Alexaiidrette March 1st.'. . " 21st 23d. the 3d of March. Beyrout 3d... not being arranged in chronological ITINEBABY. Latakia Tripoli 2d... Damascus 26th.' j une " 15th> 16th. Southampton .. we cast anchor in Bay of Beyrout (St George's Bay). 18th.08 rmrEBABY Over the waves she traced a path &f immense pyramid of shade. 14th. Brmdisi 28th. 21st. trembling light" Early on Tuesday morning. It only remains to add a sketch of the whole the route. 27th..

2d A $281 00 These makes fares being paid in gold. (Bead from right to Itft. Kentucky. may be interesting to close the chapter : Steamer.. I have added such a premium aa the amounts equal to Federal currency.. " 21st note of passage-money paid for one passenger. February. Reached 6 New York La Grange. 1st 47 00 " 125 00 Steamer. 1868.. 2d " " London to Marseilles. Liverpool to London. July 18th.EXPENSE ACCOUNT.) . Marseilles to Beyrout. New York to Liverpool. 1st class passage $100 00 " 9 00 Railway. New York to Beyrout. /* TUB ARABIC ALPHABET.

Almost divine this mighty planAlmost an impulse from above. diculai height. Original Measurements. side is 753 feet. to me.THE PYRAMID OF CHEOPS. Length on each 13J acres. And look and sneer. and so depart Not useless : were it but to prove aspirations are in man . What Not useless : were The Is it sense of it but to stir awe within the breast: What grandeur Not useless : does the pile attest! a mortal's sepulchre ? life abide. the soul. no while The measure of . Its utmost stretch of thought shall be My memories of the Pyramid ! . And fail to recognize the good. Not useless : cold must be the heart Can linger here in critic-mood. perpen 480 feet.



3-5.) Patriots were here in freedom's battle slain . and break down her towers also scrape her dust It shall ii. And Founders of arts that dignify mankind lovers of our race whose labors gave . and will cause many I will nations to come up against thee. worthy him who breathed the poet's mind . I Thus saith the Lord God. am against thee. : And they shall destroy the walls of Tyrus. LUCAN : Nothing is font while anything is left undone. . whose long lives were closed without a stain. 2fil actum credens.DIVISION SECOND-TYRE. Ezekie! be a place for the spreading of nets in the midst of the sea. Their names a memory that defies the grave. dum quid superesset agendum. Bards. from her and make her like the top of a rock. as the sea causeth his waves to come up. oh Tyrus. Priests.

has no place in ancient Masonic history. 9. said to have occurred at this In Spenser's Faerie place. in the extreme stand-point for a first view of Palestine is northwest of the Holy Land. accommodates me with a room. which constituted headquarters during my Oriental explorations. nearly east of the northeast corner of the Dead Sea. indeed scarcely mentioned. Between the two lies the whole land of Canaan. for which I with a few supply myself pieces of furniture. to the port of Tyre. one miles south. and the land of Ephraim and In a sea. Moses is of Canaan. fifty miles east of Jerusalem." is derived from its " " ancient use for making up the rafts or flotes of cedars provided My by King Hiram for Solomon's Temple. xxxiv. the long-drawn battle is graphically described. however. "The Bay of Freemasonry. in the Bible. or Bay of the Rafts. our respec- My being about one hundred and fifty miles apart. Philadelphia. as I shall They were sent out from this * hundred in subsequent pages. and all Naphtali. as lying on the south side of the beautiful though sheet of water which I shall style the Bay of the Rafts. from the fabulous encounter of that hero with the dragon. and as thorough and genuine a Mason as ever old Number Nine turned out He from its busy Atelier. from the southeast. Pa.. N described as taking hi Deuteronomy. place. panoramic view of the Land The sacred record affirms that he "went to the top of and the Lord showed him all the land of Gilead Pisgah. George's Bay.I CHAPTER V. if at all. PBOM BEYBOUT TO TYBB. headquarters at Beyrout were in the show My mansion of Brother Samuel Hallock." Manasseh. and all the land of Judah unto the utmost a subsequent chapter may be found this stand-point of map racing and about Moses. altive stand-points IB It it is now (1872) the site of the OD-ly lodges in this country. at Beyrout. a member of Lodge No. unto Dan. and so in all my sojourning through Holy hospitable . name of Queen. This city of Beyrout. It is interesting to Freemasons.. It is called here St. diagonally opposite that of Moses.

commence March 3d. Having the best harbor that exists along the coast (although at the best it is only third-rate). five For here the mighty Lebanons exhibit to their vast propor- thousand feet high. a specimen of the " productions of the land" in the form of an Olive Leaf. Spelled in the geography "Beirut. I have an abode to which I can turn as home. and by telegraph with points north. from the westward. the Magoras in dry seasons. I learned that it was gratifying to them. therefore. work. Beyrout has outgrown gates and walls. where I The place. as I did. I landed. and has risen rapidly from a population of 10. like Joppa. a mere creek. Lebanon. as remarked above." latitude is it is 33 54' north. yet its traditions imply that it is one of the oldest of Phoenician cities. Beyrout has been adopted as the seat of the general consulates of all the great powers. Its On the east runs the river Beyrout. longitude 35 29' east of Greenwich. these white-capped heights. This head-land. tions. was to forward by mail. to each of several hundreds of old correspondents. Upon my My first . south. 415). 1868. it enjoys the best business of the coast. and east. in the most impressive I doubt whether all Syria affords another such view as grandeur. and a contributor to the New York Journal of Land able Commerce. upon landing at Beyrout. and the No. called by Pliny. which projects about five miles into the sea from the (meaning head]. will be fully detailed in a subLodge sequent chapter.000. however. and is spreading abroad into the suburbs on all sides. has no par- ticular mention in Biblical or Masonic history. is that which would first strike the eye of Phoenician sailors coming. striking the clouds with their hoary tops ten and planting their roots deep at the earth's very centre. called in Arabic Ras. Being connected by a turnpike road eighty-four miles long with Damascus. Many a profithour did we two stranger Masons enjoy in mutual confidences and the interchange of useful thoughts. this second division. properly pronounced Bay-root. The town stands. eighteen hundred years ago.HEADQUARTERS. both as a veritable token from the Holy Land and an appropriate tessera of brotherly remembrance. This more resembles one of our "Western railroad towns than anygrowth thing in this old-fogy land.000 to 60. Brother Hallock is the electro typist of the printing-house connected with the American Protestant Mission. The condition elder lodge (Palestine of Freemasonry in Beyrout. at Beyrout. upon a head-land. with the mountains behind it. foot of Mt.

by Brother Morris. to you this Olive-spray Messenger of love sentiment above . Dear Friend. staff. and blessed. the It speaks a All other language to convey. and lo. In hours of rest. : The Olive.) and brought of the These and hundreds of other specimens I bore to my friends.76 return THE OLIVE-LEAF. of Beyrout. This was the ancient type of peace. upraised in hate. Hive speaks." even more than the twelve spies who cut down from thence a branch. The hands. pomegranates and the (Num. whose restless feet Could find no solid landing-place. And the Dove came in to him in the evening . 1868. I pluck this Olive-Leaf to grace A memory very pure and sweet. Gen. the floods abate. " came unto the of the land. the Bird And The Pluckt this green leaf with mystic care. in her mouth was the Olive-leaf pluckt off. I went heavily laden with " the searching*. deadliest . glory of this land Our Ancient Craft from this expressed The Oil of Joy. Before this gentle missive drop. to the Patriarch's fingers bare missive with its high accord. viii 11. and bare it between two upon a " figs. xiii. Then from the Olive-Bough. The wrathful flood was overpast: The gladsome sun beamed forth at last . that shone. Each of the olive leaves sent from Beyrout was accompanied by a copy of the following lines : * THE OLIVE-LEAF. March 6th. and of grapes. home in July. I he direst discord then must stop . with one cluster brook Eshcol. The Ark on storm-tossed ways did cease. in the Lines composed to accompany olive-leaves plucked from the groves Holy Land. 23. Like wandering Dove. I send. the laboring Band. so Noah knew that the waters were bated from the Earth.

lii. 1 K. At the conclusion of the last chapter I gave an itinerary of entire travels while in Syria.. riding a second horse and impedimenta of blankets. etc. The clay-grounds. my own board and lodg. 3. which I recommend to all travellers who do not fancy making themselves slaves to dragomans. Joppa. my had made four excursions. the royal seat of King Hiram. On the morning of April 13th. six) he to subsist himself and his horses and be his own quartermaster. now called Soor (or Tsoor). The Bay of the Rafts where the cedars floated. during which carrying I travel.00 per day. overcoats. space was left A in the printed copy to fasten the olive leaf upon. cxxviii. provisions. Palestine. The stipulated price with Hassan was twelve francs a day for the whole. and Egypt. to visit the city of Tyre.. DIVISION SECOND. at 7 o'clock. etc.. 71 All this and more I fain would teach From this bright ancient verdant text Take it with all the words ann'exed . In the making up of this volume. the home and school of Hiram the Architect. 8 . working tools. I follow the natural order of a Masonic my narrative thus : DIVISION FIRST. books. were quotations from Ps. equal at the then rates of gold to $3. Lebanon. Gebal. I go as an independent traveller. v. the port of trans-shipment. Having been nearly six weeks in the country. Jerusalem. DIVISION FOURTH. My plan. essential to it. with none to molest me or . viik 8 . and as long as I please. the source of the cedars. I felt posted upon the best method of and the quantity of baggage. DIVISION THIRD. however. wertj DIVISION FIFTH. the site of the Temple.00 per day. etc. * * * Tyre and its surroundings therefore come foremost.STARTING DOWN TO TYRE. The "words annexed. or thereabouts. DIVISION SIXTH. the site of Hiram's furnaces and foundries. I started on horseback with an Arab servant. Be yours the sermon that they preach ! . for $5. etc. 11 . So.25 per day." Deut. that so it might be framed and preserved. one Hassan Mardby. ing cost me about $2. stopping when I please and where I please. DIVISION SEVENTH. Besides this. is to hire two horses and their owner for a certain number of days (in this case. in the last stanza. Tyre.

This. brought by the prevailing seizes it when dry. threatening some day to submerge of this desert-sand. or coffee-house. Hassan stipulates to collect specimens for me. sipping the native coffee. closer than blood-relationship. and fortes fortuna adjuvat. Not far from it is a Moslem tomb.C. There is one such at the distance of five hours (about fifteen miles) from Beyrout. there is an ancient watchtower of squared stone. Here a great battle was fought. shaped much like a Trowel. just south of Roman road. Shall I record the memorandums made of " " what I resolved to do For four every day while in this country ? I acted months. the only link now I took considerable quantities so nearly related in religion. The road from Beyrout to Sidon runs for five miles over singular It is sug sort on the coast. the red deposits of the make me sand-hills. and the Egyptians under Ptolemy. as a that gested by some this sand is blown into the sea. and drifts it westward like ghore. This bay . The latter was defeated with fearful The Bay by travellers as you rise the hill on the old slaughter. snow. I dubbed The Bay of the Trowel. called Neby Younas. will be identified it. For miles the good. but probably Phoenician in its make. This road over the sand-hills was described six centuries ago. by the circumstance that. horses stepped I had already inaugurated the practice of naming the best-marked them to hays on this coast after Masonic emblems. once and all the details of ancient Freemasonry. and never was one better fetlock deep in the sand. B. and in every way worthy its dedication. the tomb of Jonah and here. Indianapolis. and dedicating American lodges. 218.fg HARD ROADS. who went southwest when ordered to Close by the tomb is a go northeast. in Egypt. upon the plan following. and writing up my notes. connecting Egypt and Phoenicia. therefore. where several of is the Trowel a charming little . between whom there runs a line of Masonic similarity. by some attributed to Queen Helena. Kentucky. Coins of these two kings will be found figured in thU book. afraid. times in passing I spent a quiet hour. Khan. and dedicated to the genial and generous brethren of Manchester. near the mouth named. is the bay traditional disgorging place of the disobedient prophet. where the wind the whole city of Beyrout. between the Syrians under Antiochus the Great. nook of water. Iowa. more strictly a caf6. . do and serve me in every way that he is ordered. only currents to this of the Nile. my interpreting. its shores abounding in shells and sponges. deep road. Indiana and La Grange. in a little close in front of the tomb. gymbology. or tavern.

rocks. and the one near described by Layard. where the brated traveller. and tell the story as it is. I have hundreds of them in my library. Liliputian indeed. just before he was gobbled up by suvius : 79 Mount Ve- "A person visiting any strange country should possess practised powers of observation. besides this one. and the tomb itself recalls the old Barnum story of Captain Cook's war-club. I forgot. I gave him half of the ginger-root I always carry in my pocket The hard. is coffee (literally Jonah House) It is a local liquoring place. sunken eye. that recalled a thousand sad memories of dying friends. and for my coming four months. viz. after all. I will simply look and see things as they are made. Alexandrette. These people have a perfect passion for medicine. study. For my part. for instance. hollow cheek. or his travels can present no useful results. He should be skilled in trees. Finding that every other museum had the club that killed Captain Cooke. Barnum procured it also ! For there are already five tombs where Jonah is buried. report a visit from this cele- At Neby Younas I saw the first truly sick person I had come in contact with in the Holy Land. Tyre. fetid breath. is vox it All and smoke. Mohammedans mention Jonah's tomb at Raphiah.JONAH'S TAVERN. I will consider this ancient country as a naturalist's museum." But has this Neby Younas Khan prceterea nihil. and but little more when they sailed away. near Babylon. the Dead Sea. His broken cough. . only a sound. and he insisted on having some of me. and see what scenes before me. Hebron. and despairing face. peoples but those who have written upon this country seem to have known nothing of such things when they What drivel landed. when congratulated upon his vast discoveries. smooth beach around Jonah's Bay by Neby Younas tempts me for the first time to-day into a gallop. makes up their books and it is enough to give one the dyspepsia to look through them. customs. ! they are made of. The ordinary grade of tourists' observations upon Holy Land is scarcely above an infant's. and travel to bear on the I will examine the earth and rocks. As a French savant Baid. I am resolved to-day. It : would pay. the smoke through the great water-pipe styled narghileh (nargeely). and get my money's worth out of it. How invigorating . I should build a Jonah's tomb too. costumes. to near Egypt. at Sephoris. as Pliny Senior said. the coffee coming to you in Turkish cups. plants. Were I opening a coffee-house. to bring forty years of reading. were so many indications of rapid approach to the grave.


A NATIVE itEPAETEE. " Howadji. surrounded on the land-side by groves of fruit-trees. and so the rest of the day's journey is done in a slow walk.. that thousands of trees are stripped of blossoms every season. in citrons. sometimes along the hard beach of thissea without tides. Sidon abounded. in regard- abundance of The neroli. and then pointing the dirtiest finger in the direction of a little bay a hundred the prophet lesson well. how do you know that is the place ? Here was a puzzler. In remounting I break ankle. is so far superior to that extracted from orange-peel. saffron. after looking pleasingly toward* it. He took his hands. 81 the Western breeze. if that is not the place. of old. into his pockets. Gothic chateau of St." yards in the southwest.. the solemn swash of the wave. he raised his head. answered. Dropping his head and returning his hands. my my imbibing the coffee of Jonah's Tavern in a steady draught. But no. The query had never before been propounded the stupid fellow. a suitable place.. nothing less than the Fellow-Craft's number will suffice a drinker from these cups in an Oriental cafe. Howadji. Continuing my journey. figuratively speaking. with a spirit of repartee that I had not supposed was in him. : figuratively speaking. fruit. I quietly asked the landlord " Khaujee. Lois^ and then of the city of Sidon itself. and other rare objects of desire. which never go to maturity of the wants of the perfume-makers. to the It was fish. coriander. So. where along this coast did the great fish discharge As I sat for : Jonah ?" The Khanjee had learned this part of hisHis fishy eyes brightened up. Khanjee. to supply The orange groves surrounding 6 this ancient city are so charming . the flight of my sinewy horse. I abandoned the examination in chief and began the cross-examination " But. or oil distilled from orange blossoms.. pomegranates. and answered "But. Then. and emptying a few more cups. out of his pockets. I came. my hat blows off. almonds. : sometimes across the rocky points of the in sight of the crenulated battlements of the hills. figs. the shriek of theI am twenty years younger gull. yonder is the spot. called of the Phoenicians Sidon. made so abundantly here. scratched himself. where is the place?" And so the subject dropped.. he sat for a moment a monument of inanity. about 4 P. oranges. sometimes in the deep sands a little ways back.M. sugar-cane. pocket-comb.. and showed a good taste of selection either It was in the whale or the Khanjee. In dismounting to get it I turn again.

peaches.. view jf this ancient art. with Rev. Wm. as I have or. which I transcribe as follows These at no time do their rare fruits forego. and spent the night. The present Mr. " Here. ing. I was conducted a smart little son of Mr. some to grow. figs. preparatory to embarking for the Holy Land as a missionary. lining the avenues of the city on the east I will describe this tree. ten twelve inches in diameter. the bud. and made by Jeremiah (xviii. limes. lemons. classes translates from the Odyssey : (ii.M." large trees. subsequent chapter Masonic uses. outside the gate. both going and returnhome-like and sweet. although possessing the general spirit of one. the blossom.) and other Bible writers a subject of imagery. the on the trees ripening. hang an the ripe fruit cluster. and delicious. The work- A . the bud. most luxuriant On by returning to Beyrout-some days afterwards. side by side. piled in huge heaps. and fourth the third generation . plums. I reached Sidon about 4 P. esteemed honorable in 1 Chron. They united with in our ancient Order under the hope that through its cosmopolitan character and influence their holy work might be expedited. company with Pliny Fisk. almonds. 1) an appropriate passage. THK FRUITS OF SIDOtf. famous in In a w The father of this hospitable gentleman was made a Mason. He made my stay at his house. M. by invitation. iv. Eddy. apricots. Been in an old and lively lodge of Masons. u to make the poor old place look by contrast worse than it should. Sandys. and the ripened fruit in the three Degree. to the establishment of a potter. breathing Zephyrus maketh Others to ripen growing fruits supply . 23. four months The fruit is For they abundant. Still. grapes. about the year 1824. Eddy. cleared up to my mind a number of Scriptural allusions. pomegranates. An old author. as I have seen green fruit and in old New-England family on Thanksgiving-day grouped together more graphically. olives. quinces. large. In the bazaar may be seen oranges by the cargo. the bananas. since sent to America to be sdncated. the acacia waves her golden hair. of Craftsmen there assembled. and other fruits in variety and abundance. Eddy is not a Mason. The gathered. one of the American missionaries stationed here. too. raisins. working on the First the flower. and the germ. and succeed so orderly.

(Ps. men. Oct. Main. A. I left Sidon for Tyre. P. In three hours I arrived at Sarepta. 8-11. At 8 o'clock. 32). Van Saun. G. musing on the work of God's hands. and believed to be the city alluded to in Matthew xv. to dust and ashes. however. Henry. In the hope of such a desirable consummation. and melting the most obdurate metals as wax. metals found in . It is 41 city well adapted for a lodge.. set . I Hath not the potter power over the clay. entomological and otherwise. were an unsightly them. worthy and eminent Masons: 0. I locate here the following names of Hitt. three Arabs with only four good I observed here that every man you meet is weareyes among " the dress in which " he lieth down at night a fact that explains ing various things. 1871. Elwoo( Evans. Spending a Sabbath-day here in the following June. One of these fearful conflagrations of Sidon may be compared in several points with that unparalleled fire which reduced Ohicago. plundered. remembering the days of old. Luke E. Alas. turned sandstone into sand and limestone into gas. of the same lump to make one vessel unto honor and another unto dishonor ?" zles you in the East. and dismantled. named in 'I viii. I little thought that the " the home of city which Miss Bremer had styled in her admiration Loki and Thor. April 14.THE HARD FORTUNES OF SIDON. Sidon has been four times taken. where Jesus cast out a demon from the widow's child. Jesse B. Whitney. read Romans ix. Tuesday morning.. Chaytor. whom I met the following June at Beyrout. Barber. that at first glance puz- As I sat there watching the chief potter. I hope to iearn that a lodge ere long will be established here. meditating ou all his works. and cinders." could become in any way a parallel in desolation. Anthony Washington Galland. but quite a number of the craft live here. the supernatural powers. 21 " : and my answer was in the affirmative. Kings and Mark vii. 5). high and ample chambers being found in abundance. I had some genial hours in that Christian family. This is the first ground sacred to Jesus upon which I had trodden. George W. and a resident population that would afford an abundance of good " timbers " (materials) for Masonic work. B. Simmons. cxliii. H. B. xxxiii.. when I made notes of Sidon. K. and heard a very lovely song of one that hath a pleasant voice and can play well on an instrument (Ez. There is no lodge of Masons at Sidon. On one occasion (most memorable) it was absolutely reduced to ashes and and the privilege of sifting out the debris for the precious them was sold to an enterprising pedlar for a considerable sum.

old Jebel-es-Sheikh. quarters well turned. wild men. Hmoadji. " his face the features of his ancestors. where was onoe a large city. pasterns long . again. marble and granite fragments. at Sarepta.. representing There is once famed city. I the ruins. body round and good. had an eye full of intelligence. so as to enable its holder to strike it into the ground at an easy blow.v. ? Why in the desert ? Bedouin. fine at the withers. and not the son of the city. His horse was a genuine specimen of the Arab stock. he was riding had been four hundred and that no money could buy this one. He was fire and head well set on. raw-boned. legs clean. I cut the Square and Compass with my chisel ancient temple. Where would you rather live Bedouin. tawny. etc. in the shadow upon a huge ashlar belonging to some and loaded my servant with a hundred weight of of a tamarisk -tree. bits of glass. He was broken to travel only at the walk and gallop. and exploring spent several hours In my chapter on the Itinerary of Jesus I will refer to it not a house now standing at Sarepta. shells. ornamented near the top with this I two large black tufts feathered." in the days of Moses. like one of our moccasin-shod Indians of the West. The following conversation gives a good idea of the rider : Howadji. a serviceable-looking animal. who stopped to drink water at Ain Kanterah. The Bedouin himself was of low stature. but its owner handled it as gracefully as a Charleston dandy handles his cane. collecting specimens.. A BEDOUIN AND HIS HOKSE. Because I am the son of the desert. In the desert. forehead rather straight. At Sarepta I oaught a view of Jebel. It was armed with a sharp iron ferule at the lower end. having a feminine voice. one of the Bedouin persuasion. took occasion while here to examine the spear of an Arab sheikh. twenty-one hundred and conducted their flocks to the same springs and pastures as their fathers of the earliest times. This is truly a formidable weapon. the unnatural and ungraceful movement of a trot being deemed unworthy of an Arab years in his family. courser. and a swift and noiseless pace. It was fourteen feet long. He said the race of horses The who life of this Arab He wears upon is one of danger and distress from his youth. larger than ordinary American horses. years later. dwelt in tents and of Mohammed. Mount .

where the carry full flasks with them. How often in Masonic lectures have I quoted the passage from David " Like the dew of Hermon and like the dew that descended upon the mountains of Zion . and springs. for there the Lord commanded the blessing. sending it back in grateful dews. rains. But a man hunting his morning dram in 1868 would be as badly off as at " drummers " are said to Grinnell. now without a winepress. even life forevermore. . or do worse. My noontide at Sarepta did not pass without an appeal to th . fifty miles in the southeast. and returns the moisture ascending from the parched earth. when we conacknowledged fact that a single inch of water spread level over one acre of ground weighs one hundred tons To this dewy thought the poet alludes cooler sider the ! : When ^ the West And Opens his golden bowers of rest. Macaulay. whom I knew so well in 1855-7 : " Like Hermon's dew. I am loth to lay aside the theme.HEKMOIf. And The festal lay which smiling virgins sung Where rapture echoed from the warbling lute. Along this dreary waste. Iowa. Hermon is the mountain that " the eterpasseth into the clouds and joins to the upper air . one of " nal hills raised to an elevation that cools. Sarepta. Yates. where once there rung the gay dance resounded all is mute." How often have I sung the paraphrase of the good Giles F. Freemasonry's grandest type of brotherly love. point like a pale blue snow-capped : The mountain seems from peak peering over the intervening ranges of Lebanon. a moist radiance from the skies Shoots trembling down. or a winedrinker. MOUNT OF DEWS. His snowy cap gives him this prominence in the clear blue sky. 85 Hermon. But here I remark that the amount of moisture the earth receives from this great water- and atmospheric regulator must be immense. a grapevine. was once celebrated for the quantity and quality of its wine. condenses. so richly shed On Zion's sacred hills!" In a future chapter I will give a full description of this mountain.

nor let me lose me Of One feature of the wondrous scene plea. muse. the utterance of the word. the affecting story of Jeaus on the open page on my knee. to drink the spirit in that great hour. it was easy to pen the. the gushing water of Ain Kanterah flowing at my feet. APRIL 14. impatient Faith's And Cease. go! made whole n ! The chain of evil power released. How looked the Saviour ! ? oh. and unbelief? Beneath Grant this tamarisk-tree I muse . the glassy bay. the shady tamarisks embowering me. And gave the tortured child release. The charming flowers all. Oh. promises fulfilled of God ! These mountains looked on Christ that day This fountain murmured in His ear. cease thy flow. follow. ing LINES AT SAREPTA. Lord ! And murmuring let is His utterance reach thy faith. happy hour.fetf THE MUSE AT SAKEPTA. and misery. oh. Led by a hand invisible. 1868. The sky serene. oh. all were here. to see His face divine Was it in grief At human pain. is "Great fountain. Amidst these undecipherable ruins. bliss complete. the romantic mountains behind and the sea before me withal. The demon's fetters broke at last. it Aud can be my wearied feet Press the same earth that Jesus trod ? Oh. I come at last to view the place Where Jesus broke the power of hell. trial and sure victory. the very debris of rumsy the sight obstructed by deep holes dug by the laborers to get materials for the buildings at Beyrout. And want. my soul Already the child woman. . and sin. The very crumbs of Jesus' feast Better than all the world's repast . : The mother clamorous with her The apostle's cold.

murmuring waters. the perous suburbs of these contiguous towns must have been very much village. the wall of one city almost meeting that of the next. on the shore. piled the tier upon tier to the that between Sidon and Tyre. inmost being this assures. foamy breakers. . Never to view these scenes again. Tliis noontide at Sarepta's fount ! Sing. My sands of life make haste to run. I know. I passed on southwards over Phoenicia. interested The me at greatly. lulling streams. . : Such gratitude these drops recount 'Tis surely worth my fifty years.BETWEEN SAEEPTA AND TYRE. I sung my favorite lines : God bless the laboring man. sight of fishermen standing naked in the hot sunshine. grant me favor ere I die.000 years ago. where there snow-covered crests of Lebanon remembering is now not only no city . Onward and onward moments fly. waiting to cast their hand-nets at the approach of schools of fish. I pray Make sure his wages every day . The vision will return no more. To leave no appointed task undone! Leaving the sight of that mountain. A shown me Khan Younas. a narrow strip of plain rarely extending more than a mile or two in width from the shore. and the sweet spring that to the latest hour of my life will be associated with romantic memories. and on my way depart. Broken Sarepta's fleeting dreams. 4. My And perfect blessedness allures. nor restricted. there were once sixteen prostowns! As the distance is a scant twenty-five miles. But / shall meet Him ! yes. along by whose base passed man. Far o'er the western sea my heart Wanders from lone Sarepta's shrine I rise. 87 No longer to restrain my tears. in whom the whole Church was contained. basket of the Mediterranean fish had beeo "When I saw what severe labor the poor fellows undergo. but not even a house. Roar. . "Where founts celestial smoothly flow. Lord. backed by ranges of mountains.

. fellow's The heavy walking Omaha. to see that I was furnished with suitable accommodations for myself and servants. Dorcas. Nebraska and Waterloo. hyssop. some eighteen miles' distance. Their airy and graceful forms are very attractive. The first defined against group of them that I saw stood motionless. the Bay of the Square. seeing a dead duck floating strong. together with guards in going from place to place. afield. no doubt. Iowa. document. at the shoulder. Altogether. the old Leontes. Afloat. Make I honest work its wages yield. pilgrims him by the fragrant savors of rosemary. "the miles trying to catch it from Hassan. closely resembling the Jordan. Mohammed Raschid. " few miles north of Tyre I crossed the willful headlong river. but the duck had got past me on its way to the sea. who were extremely attentive to my wants. Afield. Found accommodations in the house of a native family. Western Virginia. and found They are the Gazella Arabica. and all at reasonable This ment commanding them prices. marjorum. bay." It is. After a moment they threw the background of the sky and bounded away like the flight of birds. I price. I passed here three times. Tabitha. as I afterwards saw. gazelles." called now Nahr-el-Kasimiyeh (but you will not pronounce it as the their heads up.) Dividing River. about thirty feet wide. a docudirected to all governors of towns and villages throughout Syria. I named a charming little bay. . two feet high in the meadowalways a group of gazelles feeding so rich that one of the old lands a few miles north of Tyre meadows declared that those bad roads were fully recompensed to think there is always etc. The The current is load I had imposed upon Hassan necessitated the poor all the way from Sarepta to Tyre. etc. under the bridge. distant about six miles south of Sidon. from its peculiar form.ARRIVAL AT TTRB. I ran to the other side. . and other perfumed plants. sharply and hills. afloat. A Arabs do in fifty times trying! I got a sore throat and wasted two The words mean. and a beautiful stream it is. This bay may be known from an ancient watch-tower standing directly on the edge of the bay at its southwestern extremity. and dedicated it to the Freemasons of Wheeling. two weeks before. had procured from the Governor-General. The Scriptural names are Ariel. and bridge is a single arch. for a moderate In my visit to Damascus. Arrived at Tyre -about six o'clock. very neat and so swift that.

may the Most High prolong his grandeur! " When the present sublime Imperial Document reaches you. be treated with respect and regard. Mohammed Kaschid. Pasha and Vizier . he who strengthens the edifice of the Empire and secures its prosperity. for a reasonable considera- The following is a translation of the Firman referred* to. Eobert Morris. at the top of which is the name of the Sultan. Brown. Mohammed Easchid. . and asks that while on his way. It is written upon a thick and substantial sheet of paper. Governor-General of the Vilayet of Syria. called a 89 Buyuruldi. which was secured strictly through Masonic me in every place I visited. was of service to Firman from the Sultan . In ea-ih point of view. Yaffa (Joppa). addressed to H. therefore. via Beyrout. the model of the world the regulator of the regulations of the universe he who directs the public interests with rare wisdom. the Governor-General before mentioned. or residing in any place. etc. at Constantinople. who invigorates the columns of felicity and magnificence . Abdul Aziz. the Governor-General of the Vilayet of Syria. The two together never failed to influence. Abd-ul-Aziz. me all the attentions I needed. Written on the 7th of moon of Zil. 1284. according to the regulations. E. he be protected and aided. granted Eobert Morris. sent me through the kind influence of Brother John P. etc. in a peculiarly complicated anagram.. Secretary of the American Embassy there. wherever he may go or desire to stay on his journey. I have also a himself. I have therefore issued the present Noble Order. called a Toogra : Imperial Travelling Firman of Sultan Abdul Aziz Khan. " To my Minister and very glorious Councillor.. " .. in fine. Sham Shereef (Damascus). Khuds Shereef (Jerusalem). You.H. Pasha. secure for tion.A BTTYURULDI. present Sublime Command. about twentyfour by thirty inches in dimensions. and receive guards to enable him to pass through all Be careful to provide for the execution of my dangerous places. has reported that an American citizen. that he be provided with horses. will see that the aforesaid traveller. and settles all important affairs with singular judgment. who is the especial recipient of the power and favor of the Most High Sovereign of the universe ." in favor of . and their vicinity. A. is desirous of travelling from Constantinople to Syria. a traveller. wearer of the First Class of the Decoration of the Mejidiah. know that the American Legation at the Capital of my Empire.


Many of her houses are desolate. 26). and even joining her fleets to his to aid in the subjugation without inhabitants (v. Formerly . and these massive buttresses of Tyre and the hosts of gallant men behind them could not preserve her from her predict- ed doom. and upon every magnificent city proved under the hand of Alexander. Lord was upon every high tower. I entered through the opening where until recently a thick and strongly guarded gate stood. Alexander. to which you go up by stone steps on the out- the room over the blacksmith's sisters. even great and : fair. and somebody's convent of the house of a very clever man. and so this had written nearly four centuries before. It lies. 2). Gravis ira regum semper the wrath of kings is always dreadful .CHAPTER VL TLE CITY OF KING HIKAM. power I was lodged. and upon all the ships of Tarshish (ii. after vacillating between the military barracks. and she was devoured with fire (Zech. ix. She had been a stronghold. but for a very moderate price he took me in and provided well for my wants. in which his oldest son sells arrack and brandy to the soldiers. came down here. and ranges of strong forts of sister cities. flushed with his conquest over Darius. in male side. as the shop. a Christian. As Isaiah "The day of the " fenced wall. B. Tyre is practically a city under ground. with that army well styled "Invincible. 9). It was a private house." the rich and powerful city of Sidou surrendering to him without a struggle. 15). in which silver was heaped up as the dust and fine gold mire of streets. twenty to fifty feet beneath a debris of many centuries. Her fleets of richly burdened ships were but so many incentives to the Grecian conqueror. and I felt the force of the " " Her gates lament and mourn expression of Isaiah (iii. who. 332. who lived in his second story.C. but the Lord cast her out and smote her in the sea. REIVED at the city of Tyre about sundown. and divided the ground-floor between stables for his asses and a drinking saloon. like Jerusalem.

and so by became an isthmus. 332. by Josephus. B. 13-45. Jacob Akkad.000 of the gallant and patriThe location is now a peninsula joined by a Its latitude is the mainland.C. 22. collected very large quantities of relics. at Tyre and vicinity. like most of the ancient that is. xxvi. The city is said. and xxvii .. Jeremiah xxv. to constipulated. at expense. the Head of the Fountain. Joel iii. Having the friendship of the American Vice-Consul.TYRE IN ITS DECAY. and v. was about 130 English miles. 31 and 32 . that when Hiram had done all the work which e contracted Tyre. 33 18' N. 2 Chronicles xi. from Greenwich. many quotations into than for me to crowd my L 9. Solomon its people had became famous for their skill in manufactures and arts and Hiram. The local tradition at Tyre is. with a costly aqueduct. 7. this space was filled in eparated from the shore Alexander the Great when he captured the city. to prepare all the sacred emblems for King Solomon's Temple.C. There is also a fountain of this name at Baalbec. This is better book. single Freemason at both facts and About three miles southeast of the city there is a remarkable spring of water. The ancient word " Tzur " means a rock.. 29 Judges i.. I let no opportunity escape me to secure I could not hear of a things. . of Tyre. Hiram. to wine. 16. Amos i. Ras-el-Ain. Zechariah I ix. Kings vii. and fidelity . 10. The distance travelled by him from Tyre to Jerusalem. to have been founded 230 years before the corner-stone of Solomon's Temple was planted. by way of Joppa. this fountain-head. and received the wages of corn> King Solomon showed patience. and being well posted in the of which I waa objects in search. Ezekiel xxviii. Mr. As early as the time of cities. oil " " do at Jerusalem. his own his gratitude for of his Phoenician allies by building. and ill. and of the commanding officer of the garrison. B. coins. was called from Gebal by King commercial .. in Arabic. Joshua xix. 1242. and read critically the following passages giving the <K> best biblical history of Tyre. It was never a republic. Captain George Demetry. styled. about one half-mile. etc. funeral lamps. long sandy isthmus to longitude 35 12' E. 3. the widow's son. but always a monarchy.. I saw the place on the beach where that fearful otic defenders of Tyre. 11 . butcher of his fellow-men crucified 3. and specimens of various kinds.. I advise my readers to take the first Sunday afternoon they have at command. tear-bottles. etc. 2 Samuel xxiv.

five miles below here. Aurum lex sequitur . Quid non mortalia pectora Proto what crimes dost thou not impel a mortal's breast ? cogis ? pertius justly embodies the thought in the words. These three arches. Among the ruins is a block of stone bearing the unmistakable mark of the Phoenician architects (the level or relate). undertook to have it removed there. but all the skill and machinery his engineers could the apply to it failed to stir the monument. Don't let the visitor to Tyre fail to visit this pillar. in use. King Solomon. would have located his auri sacra fames. The present population of this renowned city is between 3. six feet in diameter and twenty-six feet long This is the largest single piece of stone. High-Priest of the G. The old wall is built more as a convenient across the isthmus. Protestants. there is a fragment comprising three perfect arches. Amongst the rest. erected according to tradition by the Masonic Pillar of Wisdom. the other half Christians of various Roman Catholic sects. The poet Virgil. had he known it. 93 Sufficient portions of the aqueduct vey the water into the city. I have ventured to dedicate as follows I. which measures seventeen feet in length. auro venalia jura. that I saw in ! Holy Land. the accursed greed of gold.of the former governors of Acre. and attract the eye of every traveller approaching Tyre. devised. admit Those who . Eoyal Arch Chapter of the United States. G. III. The Eastern Arch to De Witt Clinton. and its gate A double column of red granite lies among the ruins of the ancient cathedral at Tyre. King Hiram. HighJriest of the same body. Auro pulsa fides. Mackey. is still military post than anything else. surely. HighPriest of the same body. in these Oriental parts . remain to prove that it was a magnificent structure. native and foreign. in 1859-65 G. The Middle Arch to Albert G. for such is the condition of Syrian morals. and we may well propound Virgil's inquiry. which stand at the eastern point of the isthmus that connects Tyre with the mainland. G. for the Masonic Pillar of Strength.000 about one-half being Arabs of the Metawileh tribe. G. first G. G. twenty. The Western Arch to John L. Lewis. either from the north or south. as all writers. It is the true idol that Mohammed left after destroying the others. and a sprinkling of : .000 and 4. One.THE GREAT GRANITE COLUMN. in 1865-8 G. artificially wrought. beautifully and finely preserved. about seventy years ago. was a country where money is worshipped as here. Never. for the town is in no sense protected by it. II.

to which pile I myself have added some weak specimens. William of Tyre. We perceive. some three hundred miles. while sion in the consolation he gives to the generous is inspired both by the to have heard our good brother. once lived the historian. two thousand years before. north of the town. the moralist. mounds of buried fragments. of Many either natives of Tyre are afflicted with 'sore and inflamed eyes. too. funeral procession of Frederick. against this greedy which he holds up the miser to his auditors is terrible. must have awakened memories among the Freemasons of that grander funeral of Hiram of Tyre. Roman. and thr dating from the martyrdom have not been entirely removed. was brought to an ignominious close by a The trifling accident. or so much only edifice whose ruins disarranged that the plans are entirely lost. preach at Damascus. quietly riding in the scarcely perceptible These natural history facts and others I derive from Brother A .%. which loves calm and shallow water. in the Holy Scriptures of Masonry. affirm that his denunciations classes hifl precepts of his own Koran and Acts ix. as it came down from Tarsus. THE CATHEDRAL OF TYRE. and here mouldei whose splendid career Germany. reads like the hundreds of Masonic dedicatory effusions. proto-martyr . the bones of Frederick Barbarossa. Judging from up here. writer has accumulated in one sentence a strong sketch of Tyre : Prostrate and broken columns. by reflected heat upon this calcareous soil. and mediaeval city. Among all the great men whose names are associated with this Phoenician." saw in the bay. 19. preached Eusebius.D. the Adriatic gull tnis melanocephalus). mark the once proud and populous city. Here. and Sidon. also. and in its nee gives omen of fine settled weather. past Gebal. or by the sharp. Abd-el-Kader. I engraving on precious stones that are dug should think the old artists had better eyesight than I see here now. Beyrout. gull-billed tern i Anglica). theological The dericovetousness of the people are severe. Stephen. acrid nature of the soil itself. that a church was established here of St. the exquisite specimens of when raised in dust. Cathedral built about A. 310. and his Dedication Address. none are more worthy of remembrance than William. is the old Christian In this now ruined but once glorious church. the graceful. still preserved in his works. dilapidated temples. whose apsides are used by the natives for privies. Christian Father Origen is The also buried here.

and reptiles. arched within. B. low. at the same time they conceal the persons on the roof from neighboring eyes. and inclosing a quadrangle. who have known Mr. Esculapius was associated with the city of Tyre." About a century ago. He has also published a " Natural History of flowers. by an earthquake. Among my visit pleasant memories of the days spent in Tyre was a good Jacob Akkad." not republished in this ceuntry. Often the roofs are covered with mats and hurdles. Tyre was destroyed. his family reside in the to the second story. although I.. self-improvement. the lower being used for stables. barber's pole had listened to the rustling of leaves. The walls surmounting wrought through with pottery tubes to the refreshing winds. the songs of birds. for very many years United States Vice-Consul of Tyre. Davis ever since 1848. and so every barber's pole in the universe is in some sense a Masonic emblem The god of medicine and patron of the referring to this place. by reason of the often earthquakes whereunto the town is miserably subject. leader in the American rebellion. built of rough stones. the houses are built smaller and lower than " The formerly. etc. 21). and it was pleasant to see the fellow's awe as he pointed ii out to me. Palestine. streets unpaved. 95 H. It is full of allusions to birds. In a neighboring house a woman was having that sorrow in travail because her time had come (John xv. beasts." Somebody had presented an Arab here with a phrenological bust may-be he stole it). the sea visible horizon is and sky of such even and utter blueness that any out of the question. and the hum of insects. As in all these dwellings. in this I then beautiful land. indorsed on the back. which so moves the sensibility of everj . Davis. with its inhabitants. which I bought in Jerusalem. "Description of characwith advice as to best pursuit. Since the awful convulthe roof for battlements are catch and strike down sion of the last century. could enjoy it. In the rebuilding. both in style and composition ." etc.THE AMERICAN VICE-CONSUL. flat on the roof. recalling forcibly the passage relative to Zacynthus. until he learned to make music for himself. He signalized my call upon him by raising the flag of our country upon the staff that dominates the roof of his two-story house. (or ter. the tones of water-fall and wave. the buildings low. thought of him as I sat on the rocks one twilight evening. "The Land of Israel. Tristam's most readable work. But it was useless to explain the " sell " to him. the houses are mean. and had told him it was a likeness of Jeff.

They stir it up a trifle cup placed for use in a is larger than half an egg-shell. In the Vice-Consul's office I saw a sheikh (pronounced sliek) signing an agreement with another sheikh (pronounced sliek also). . intent as he was on hospitable cares. when he preached (for all Oriental discourses were and are preached sitting. black. it reminded me of Mephistopheles and the fellow who sold his soul's salvation. grinding them. gets his money's worth out of them. Somehow. so as not to burn the fingers. I met four men walking in a line behind each other. and compare it with the sheikhs' contract. as his frequent visits to his laborers in garden and orchard testified. thick. the of Olives Sam. Leaving his house. and cigarettes. by simplv dipping his finger in the ink and pressing it on the The seal thus formed paper. sent up a heartfelt petition that she might have a and supped a cup of the aromatic. was not unmindful of the adage. and his companions were mourning with him for company. He works quite a number of hands. and so the Worshipful Master should always remain seated while giving instructions to his lodge!). oculus domini saginat equum the eye of the master fattens the horse. metal receiver called a fingan. One was told six hundred years ago of a stone still lying in front of the gate on which jsus sat Mou^t (2 30).flg THE LEGENDS OF TYBE. highly-sweetened coflee. and sealed the parchment with a drop of blood. I should like to see the original papyrus agreement between Solomon and Hiram. sherbet. as the Scripture sayeth. and. coffee. I with as many In the centre of Akkad's room was a stool (souffra). doubtless signed and sealed in this very town. each one barefoot and with drooping head. But the good Yacob Akkad. cushions around Each of us took a mouthgweetmeate. xv. which was something concerning a sucking colt and a small patch of barley. ful of the jelly from the common spoon. drank feeling heart safe delivery. because they pound the grains instead The coffeeslab with a spoon. resembled a squashed bed-bug. and make. The servant brought in it as there were guests. it is said. as I did many a time in boyish days. a mouthful of sherbet. The leader had lost a friend by death. and as He sat there He forgave the Canaanitish as of is muddy as chocolate. in his sorrow. This was like David when he walked barefoot with his head covered. and. up There is no end to the legends related of Tyre. very These people never parch coflee until about to use it. being very hot.

The of the 27th chapter of Ezekiel illustrates this point thorperusal oughly. Tyre was the metropolis. to give him. Hosmer. F. whose name. Hatch. Hodges. a cabletow four times round his unwashed body. and 7 .A PRACTICAL JOKE. wound through the Straits of Gibraltar along by Portugal and France. searched out every place in the world where products could be for products. by asking him why it was that he was called Father when he had no D. He had orders from A the Vali (Pasha) at Damascus. and profits made. I have forgotten. a man with both feet bare. 97 In times of old. had I space here. Written about B. a ment of troops surrounded them. but could contrive no ordinary way to catch them. bound. penetrated Arabia in short. story more modern and better established than that I have just given. marked in red ink. skirted the Mediterranean coast. 590. M. I enroll the ten following: John J. who had but one leg each. Rev. and brought them he passed them Surgeon for inspection. I ought to be sorry to record that I gave utter and irreconcilable offence to a Eoman priest here. and just as they got fairly into the trenches digging. James Hartsock. roads of the traders. Everything to be shipped was shipped from this poit. RF. it is all except two. They came in a hundred detachstrong. it is as minute as a Philadelphia the British for some centuries claimed merchant's invoice of goods shipped. the New York of the Mediterranean coast. C. all . Bower. seized. lords of the seas. To his credit. Albert G. I am sorry to say. In this way the unsuspecting and hard-fisted farmers of the locality were deluded. to secure a certain number of conscripts for the army. Eobert exchanged As Holmes (deceased). a fitting group of American Craftsmen to associate with this illustrious locality. diverged. Deems. Kobert Macoy. and what they could not purchase they made. R The disgust with which he contemplated my question prevented him from waiting for the lacksheesh which I was about children. and in the oldest atlas they are They ran from Tyre into the heart of Africa. So he gave out that he was opening the old water-channels that connect the city with Ras-el-Ain. and. Commerce. and offered large wages to all who would come and dig. D. illustrates the biography of a former governor of this district. and his head shaved. to be. C. for ages. I would the It was from Tyre that the itinera mercatorum insert it entire.C. H: J: Goodrich. H. before the Regimental said. Crane. could only be done by these people they were truly what .

returning from fraternal graves. It is still exists a slab of stone on which is delineated this ancient city of Tyre. a etc. I always familiar wishes to the had to call family and visitors. fishes. The Egyptians seem always to have thought of The this Syenitic granite. T. and I can say in strictness that there wasn't a man in the place with whom I could exchange a But it made no particular difference. how language a man can get along with when he The first time 1 was Hassan to communicate my most at Tyre. was another page I have alluded to the great Syenite column. by the Freemasons of New York. in Mesopotamia. the latter was put in jail there army. gigantic constructions when they used measurements of those beams just named will be given hereafter. Hassan had been left behind at Tibnin with a foundered horse. as a joke.. man with really little artistic minuteness. to which many generations have stepped briskly. by twenty-six. six in the court-yard of the ancient Basilica.K one till POOR SUCCESS AS A FLUTIST. he got The rest were " grafted into the yet The whole thing. had admired the Will the reader bands of the and amused themselves with the way I puckered up my lips in making the embouchure. there carrying a banner. great men After entertaining them as well as I could. and flute-story Simons. The second time I came to Tyre. single thought I shall never forget the second night I spent in Tyre. had come American Howadji. near M"sul." an event that elicited the since celebrated from John W. word for itch) horribly . I played the Freemasons' h. of the garrison. that lies This glorious shaft.. Dodge while in the Holy Land. my flute being the same silver-lined instrument inscribed. with its palm-trees. after those heathens flute. they turned away without being in the least impressed with the music itself! This was my first and last attempt at emulating Ossian E.. It is a very singular fact that in the ruins of Konyunjih. a good other stories from the genial fellows round Thayer's table that night at 383 many who were gathered silver Broadway. May. 1855. that oldest of Masonic tunes. pleasant to see tries. " Presented to Rob Morris. . who had psoriasis (if that's the well. believe me. very friendly and courteous up to smoke their pipes and talk to the The officers they were. and equally Egypt." and are probably considered a success. proceeding from the same quarry beams of the King's Chamber in the Great Pyramid of Cheops. a worthy representative of the Broken Shaft buried with such mourning rites at Jerusalem. is own brother to those Oa feet in related to the granite of Syene. etc.

in coloring the cotton and woolen fabrics so A . The custom of keeping a lamp burning all night in the house is universal throughout the East. and attributed to a very ancient date. An hour's nooning. 15). some of which I group together here for upon the tradition-stone I have named. I experienced a touch of the KJiamseen. viz. too small to be visible by the naked eye." The man was no more than a voice in the white winter of The sight of the prostrate columns yonder covered with : man coming for water. that may-be this lamp is burned to deceive the insects as to the time. on the sea-side many rubies were found. Tennyson's An words old " : his age. The great use made of blue iye in this* country.. shortened my sleep. so says Prof. so very ancient that. If so. cone engraved with a table of cubes. I felt its effects more severely. so I blew mine out at Tyre every time. It excited nervous irritation. and gave me slow fever. in view of the buggy condition of the native houses. Stevens describes a man living in a tomb on the banks of the Nile. far more appropriate than that of High Log Lodge. Cornelian. wrote that here." (Song iv. And purer grows by being shone upon.. 1870. Indiana. notes.. seated in the shade of the fountain outside the town. A. in nets placed there to dry.A PAGE FROM A DIARY. Bear Wallow Lodge. jasper. etc. at Tyre. in which 600 tons of dust fell within a radius of twenty miles . chalcedony. cornelian. 9S During my stay here. that celebrated desert-wind known in its perfection as the Simoom and Afterwards. America are named after those Oriental gems. The extremely fine work I see upon the ancient gems exhumed here every day. Grasscopper Falls Lodge. is now in the British Museum. and to me quite disagreeable . An irreverent friend has suggested. was spent in making want of space. who keeps his night-lamp going as steadily as the one in the lighthouse on the Skellig rock. remind me that recent researches at Konyunjih show the use of the microscope in ancient times. 1322.D. recalls the lines Like the stained web that whitens in the sun. J. etc. is The amount of dust carried suggested by a storm December 24. made me dyspeptic.. 40. Maundeville. before the American Associait tion for Advancement of Science. and the like. "a fountain of gardens and a well of living waters. ' of time before it usually traverses the desert. Its name. and the well is here of which Solomon wrote. denoting fifty. Minn. at Beyrout. Twigley. implies the length Sirocco. Minute lens and specula of magnifying lens have been found. emerald. at its session in 1871. it was a failure. found in Some of the lodges in Persia. in Clinton County. was once a great and good city of the Christians.

C. 4. was martyred here A. and 449. D. the dress A fellow passed me. 10. very 330. 21 and 51. In the present instance. Bishop of Tyre. 14. Cal. 110. dates Mosaic code. It is that of a female figure. in the style of our Sam Patch. Maryland. 1311. 198. . No. 5.1(> COMPLIMENTS TO HIRAM. . Bokhara's maidens wear. 18 and 88. . in mindfulness Of friends or kindred. miserable race against the Christians is foreshadowed by David. as the poet The style of Arabs who people this place. 73. back to B. " " I instance a few. 70. Nos. Mass.. " They that sit in the gate speak against me . Nos. 103. . B. as derived from large. Nos. and he cursed me by all his gods for day belonging touching it. Tennessee. Mississippi. Georgia.800 years ago. 18. Illinois No. I . 42. moderately robed. he ought to carry weights in his pockets Philetas of Cos did. deep bine. 105. No. C.anuda. th<- Were it not for would not have begrudged the The number of lodges in America named from Tyre is very price. 51. 28. to a Metawely.. 12) . They tell a story of the "Ladder of Tyre "yonder. 7. where the lawgiver requires every Jew to wear a fnnge of blue. 187 and No. and in admirable preservation. 9. Mt-thodius. Nos.D. 144. and is suggested in the universally worn. my Old Prudence-Book of 1868: No. C. swearing that he would never use it again. and 89. 315 derives its title from the same source. Kentucky No. quote David against a Metawely. Ct. 6). In England* No. and had 'scribed. Maine. and I " was the song of the drunkards (Ps. No. No. I spent a quiet and solitary hour on the sea-shore reading Acts xxi. Texas. N. . Michigan . Indiana.. The poet has referred to this color in the lines The melancholy deep. Ixix. and become omewhat familiar with his movements. Iowa.. fcos." Louisiana . mnch resemble the Jew in features but they are more fanatical than I had picked up a plow one the descendant of Abraham ever was.kelb (dog). No. 5. and swam to Tyre! I was offered to-day an ancient marble statue dug up here a few years since. No. No. " a brutish man know" and scores of others. Wis. But it would do no good to c-th not (xcii. 78. He called The hatred of this mi. a matron. Michigan . Ohio. so to small. full size. Pa. Alabama. keep from being blown away. 81 and 261. 21. difficulty of transportation . Florida. and 95. 12. 1500. Nos. 42. No. Nos.C. Virginia. etc. that a bold fellow once jumped from the top of it. 98. in which the visit of Paul to Tyre. No. as witness No. . called Metawely. 7. No. No. No. Nos. 37. so I simply called the fellow kelb. dead or far away. he was on his way from Miletus and Rhodes to Jerusalem. 40 and Nos. some 1. 43. 30. New York. in the expressions. is I had been in Paul's tracks for several weeks. No. New Hampshire. and I called him kelb back again. The name of Hiram has been still more extensively adopted in lodge nomenclature.

like myself. twenty-five miles north. could unite in the plan in regard to Ephesus. for a permanent lodge. to open the lodge at Ephesus and do its regular work." He remained here seven days. these would become petitioners. while the lodge live at is nominally located at Ephesus.ST. Acre or Caifa. And while Tyre is scarcely adapted. might have a at Tyre without being residents here. STRUCK AT TYRX. civil and military." and were a lodge opened. PAUL'S VISIT. There. So the brethren at Sidon. In closing this chapter. for there the ship was to unlade her burden. . which resembles Tyre in the same particular. feel that the home of Hiram should not be entirely overlooked. while there are no members of the Masonic society resident here. or Acre (or Caifa). I would say that. quite a number of native " have gentlemen. (' " landed at Tyre. by the character of its population. lodge COIN OF ALEXANDER. those wh'o. the same distance south. twenty-five miles north. either in Sidon. and go together. by day. and as he departed all the Christian people followed kneeled him out of down on the it the city with their wives and children. the members all Smyrna. To peruse the account on the spot gives a reality. and shore and prayed. long entertained" the necessary "opinion. and some foreigners. on the regular occasions.


as the Italians have it. They are on a " if par with the publicans. as I have said. isthmus connecting the island. or my cheeriest of " how are ye. THE TOMB OF HIKAM.CHAPTER VII. and made a second visit to it a month later. meaning Hiram's Tomb. April 14th. the Metawelies. chatting and enjoytheir dolce far mente. degraded now to the uses of a horsetrough ! On its four corners are rams' heads beautifully carved. all day long a group of men sit smoking. to view the celebrated monument of antiquity. once of large cost and rare beauty. my bully boys ? " with which I greet with unwearying patience. ing Nobody reads newspapers in Tyre . on which Tyre was originally built. what do ye more than others ? (Matt. 47). I arrived at Tyr. for they pay no sort of attention to my most graceful of salaams. lies a hundred yards in front of the gate. April 15th. two days' hard horseback exercise from Bey rout. They discussed me for several days in all my bearings. called by the natives Kabr Hairan. It much since. This Isthmus seems to have been crowded as after day. drift upon drift. returning late in the afternoon to Tyre. with the mainland. went out five miles east. this group of observant idlers is so thoroughly posted in all Tyrian news. of whom the Great Teacher said. v. and I hope came to favorable conclusions. In the survey of this old relic I spent the day. ye " salute your brethren only. A splendidly carved marble sarcophagus. that what they don't know isn't worth There knowing. except those ill-conditioned brutes. and after early next morning. Tuesday. resembles a sarcophagus that I saw at Q-ebal a few weeks Everybody I meet here has a welcome word and sign for me. now only a dreary waste of white sand. The way thither is through the only gate of Tyre now in use. I crossed the them day .

Many of these camels.104 far into the CAMELS AXD CHARCOAL. are loaded with millstones. They are loaded chiefly with charcoal from the mountains. the highest. promising. its magnificent church reduced to fragments of walls whose inclosures are used for the vilest purposes. In about one hour's ride I begin to ascend the hills. The tiful plain of Tyre. its incalculable traffic comprised is now in a few small boats. and I learn that an attempt is to raise silk here." cast his eye over yonder poor crumbling ruins of this nature . I could not find out the vuling prices of i aillstones. I me let him stand have a lesson of the mutuability of earthly things. is extremely beau- day. that the unhealthiness of the neighborhood will always make against that They have the chills and fever " around Tyre as bad as in the Wabash swamps of Indiana. ken down. up and down the coast in considerable quantiby the small coasting-boats. But the theme day. As the daily " Prices. then called Tyre. is barley. These ties are also shipped in different directions. the snow . so I turn * my too painful to contemplate this charming April back upoii it and ride eastward. a good system of farming would develop immense crops here but the native plows only tickle the ground . made of the hard.Current" of Tyre are not published. its triple walls broseas. Thy borders are in the midst of the : and other paragraphs thy builders have perfected thy beauty." have nowhere seen such a number of camels as throng this road. the principal grain raised upon it at the present at this time about a foot and looks Doubt- The IB scantily sown. so much as can be. the eminence where the sand-billows have drifted npon of and read from the twenty-seventh and twenty-eighth chapters " Thou sealest the sum. however. less high. each of Over the I hills Fuel the huge beasts carrying two immense hampers filled with it. after I passed the sand-drifts. the seed . and form one of the leading articles of Tyrian traffic. indestructible basalt that lies heaped in petrified billows east of the Sea of Galilee. I upon inquiry making apprehend. black. and everything is done in a barbarous way. cheerily whistling and far away. however. water as it affect do not think that even the display of marble and granite ruins of Tyre Eshers' nets spread over the costly If a man would this cheerless waste of sand. full of up Ezekiel such passages as these wisdom and perfect beauty. no manure is used. It is shipped from here. is so scarce in this that no one thinks of making a fire for country any purpose save cooking. Many groves of mulberry-trees attract the eye. and for that charcoal is the cheapest.

and scramble up to it through a field of barley. side. author of Land and Book. and the press has been." May I never be less submissive to HIM than : MY these poor creatures are to their shepherd. he leadeth ME beside the still waters. I found large patches of a Mosaic pavement. No one shall point it out to me. and I soon collected enough of the tessercs from this checker-work to fill my carpet-bag. He restoreth my soul. as I afterwards learned from the well-posted missionary. I feel involun" The tarily to burst forth. W. well cemented on the sides and botlarge tom. There are no remains of Hebrew. I afterwards collected stores of similar objects from Mount Zion at Jerusalem. I make my two servants fall behind me in the road. Greek and Roman periods so numerous as patches of the Mosaic pavement. Thomson. Thomson informs me. I leave my horse with Hassan. This is one of the most charming days I have seen in Palestine. though I know very well that a day's hard riding will not more than reach them. Dr. out of the ruins of seats and summer residences of Tyre's merchant-prince* . this press But the very olive-trees that supplied the fruit for have disappeared . It is an immense block. my kingly birds watch me keenly. lie down in green pastures . having a chiselled groove down the and. Mount Olivet. The mountain-sides are black with goats. Lord is He maketh ME to shepherd. Near it is a cistern cut in the solid rock. 105 capped Lebanon s seeming to rise just before me. and chapiters. I see. I pass by groves of olives and figs. reach my ears. Seeing a large upright stone on the top of a high hill on the left. having two eagles a mile or so overhead. leaving on my right and left great fragments of pillars. the villeys are white with sheep .MOSAIC PAVEMENT. M. the country built. to my delight. the voices of their keepers. it is part of an olive-press. and sarcophagi. as the shepherd-poet at Bethlehem I shall not want. lambs tenderly cared for by their rude Arab keepers. mellowed in the distance and as I observe the little soul . A few steps lower down are the remains of a house in which. even their stumps are gone. Going on eastward I open my eyes widely to catch the first view of Hiram's Tomb. and other places. a thousand years out of use. upon a steep hill to the right. I press on. at Beyrout. This led me to call for my chisel and hammer. so interesting to a Freemason. as Dr. calling to each other. the town of ing Hanaweigh. and deep pits cut in the solid rock for the reception of water for Hiram's men in the older times. and my very and lungs expand as I draw in this invigorating breeze from Lebanon. perhaps.

God of Israel that made the Heaven and the David the king a wise son." my legionary birds drawing still nearer to me. and that the munificence of Solomon bore King the expense of its erection. crowning the structure with a massiveness proportioned At last I see the burial-place of the great Huram. 12). " this friend of Riding more slowly towards the resting-place of who hath Solomon. and an house for his kingdom" (2 Chronicles ii. fervency on which for these things . the Widow's Son . I love to think that the Phoenician monarch selected his burial-spot in his own lifetime. 1). and at a spot where the brightest Orient rays come down from the Lebanon of all others for the Tomb ranges. accordance with the customs of his country . whose tragic history seasons given to every instruction of the Freemason's lodge. Yonder world have of the hill it is! It is States to see it There my like it eyes beheld anything little A little to the right its I have been ascending. so suggestive of that Masonic camels. I meet caravan after caravan oi that once crowned these hills.106 FIRST VIEW OF THE KABR. It is impossible to disprove the local tradition which assigns this tomb to the great Tynan King. and a beyond it regal fowls looking down upon it so knowingly. in. and so say I. out for Kabr Hairan. Much more will \xfelt than uttered by a Masonic visitor. with their loads of charcoal. that might build an house for the prudence Here Lord. Tristam. lies the Master of the Widow's Son. : Blessed be the Lord earth. . it is the antiquity ! Kabr Hairan place . 11. apex. that the plan of the structure itself was drawn by the pencil of Hiram. H. Thomson. and who wrote generously in acknowledgment of the royal missive announcing Solomon's intention to " Because the build an house unto the name of the Lord his God Lord hath loved his people. Standing on the farthest point eastward. and who rejoiced greatly when he (1 heard the words of Solomon. Thus our first three Grand Masters were united in this as in other matters interesting to all Masons. the stands out clear and sharp against the mountains beyond its grand sepulchral stone to the whole. I I am watching But I have no eyea have so often expatiated. and so say I. B. from which a clear view of the sea-coast is obtained. endued with and understanding. who was ever a lover of David Kings v. bears about it unmistakable marks of extreme So says Dr. the sepulchre worth coming all the way from the United Nowhere in all the is no mistaking it of Hiram. So says Prof. he hath made thee king over them.

The fourth tier is monolithal. gave me hia V. breaking the joints. I. in digging which a part of the substructure was exposed. II. of 107 is Hiram. third tier consists of four stones. and verified them on my second visit here. The genus loci. There is a layer of stones. and durable. They are numbered in my plan E. This tier is IV. was hewn a huge cavity for the reception of the Elevated as this sarcophagus is more than ten feet from corpse. L. M. yonder eagles know it. and four feet long. about fifteen feet by ten. The first layer of the monument aboveground consists of four This tier is four feet stones. I climbed up to it by the help of an Arab. resting upon a bed of grout (that is. corner) There is only one stone (near the northwest belonging to this foundation exposed. It is numbered in my plan. in my plan. as will be seen in the plan. in an artistic manner. These extend in every dii'ection several inches outside the tier below. the spirit of the locality. firm.DESCRIPTION OF THE TOMB. high. of Hiram's Tomb in the books. As I know very well from having cut into it with chisel. III. These are numbered K. but I take it for granted that this layer extends equally under the whole monument. the outer surface blunting the of the chisel much like glass. D. B. No one would haye supposed that this underground layer existed but for the fact of there being a deep-arched well or cistern on the north side of the monument. forming a pleasing sort of ledge or cornice. solid. The two feet ten inches high. This remarkable structure consists of fifteen stones arranged in five layers of the ordinary hard cretaceous limestone. Out of the centre of Ihis. in the top. H. I took them myself. These exactly cover the lower tier. . worth a hun- dred cold arguments based upon tape-lines and parchment records. The second tier consists of five stones. C. it is very hard. small pebbles intermixed with mortar) six or eight inches deep. numbered in my plan A. This tier is two feet eleven inches high. the ground it presents a majestic appearance. N. together with the bed of grout on which that Not finding any accurate measurements first tier of stones rested. who mounted before me. G. F. and inclining a crystalline structure. This is the monument of Hiram. and 1 know it. consisting of one great block of stone. This one stone is thirty-four inches in height. edge to my I. without any marked lines of stratification.

and did so abundantly. near the northeast corner. my two eagles down upon the effort. empty. The_/?//A tier aboveground is also monolithal. SIZES OF THE FIFTEEN FROM [See Drawings. My Arab servant. The dead body was reached by those who rifled by going to the top of this lid. having seen me do this at other places. I cut the Square and Compass deeply on the monument. but was. which fitted into the cavity or coffin could not tell presume that it it whether cement was used in fastening down the lid. I also exposed ing tables all my my Masonic flag there. then breaking out the end of the sarcophagus immediately below it. so an entrance was effected. making the lid of the sarcophagus. and tells everybody BO. . Walking round to the upon the cornice already described. on the second tier. I side. I sum up in the followmeasurements of this curious relic of antiquity: ASHLARS IN KABR HAIRAN. no doubt. bursting down a large piece at the northeast corner. hand.] EAST TO WEST. I Afterwards crept into the coffin itself. more than two thousand years.108 DESCRIPTION OF THE TOMB. By this hole I looked immediately into the place where once lay the body of King Hiram. VI. Hassan. own grip assisted me to rise. I found that the burial-place had been burst open and was empty. and measured it. labors under the impression that it is my name. This lid was made with a tenon on the under of the sarcophagus. eastern end. I found it easy to procure pieces of them. probably by earthquakes. The great stones of this monument being considerably shattered. and by nature's looking curiously eastern end of it.


six by ." but here. so different from what we generally observe in this country. Go down eastward by four narrow steps to a platform. that of the Widow's Son (like that of Moses) " no man know^h . such as the Royal Grand Master would have hailed " their works do follow them. long first F G The Duke Grand Master of England. Guilbert. Brother E. a Masonic visit and pic-nic to this memorable fane. No. This cistern is six feet north of the monument. Otherwise leaving an alley on the three sides of it. long Grand Master of England. been fairly earned by their respective recipients. Pliny Fisk. John W. and and are many Masonic pilgrims to this sacred locality. Murray Lyon. Simons. The accumulations of earth and debris from field on the north have been walled up around the monument a few feet distant. and reached by stone steps from the northwest corner of the tomb. The object of this extraordinary care. of Sussex. Masonic Journalist. The honor of these dedications has. we have the burial-place of the Pillar ! of Strength Surely it was good for me that I came here. Hiram. Masonic Moralist. when there be grouped together around the great pile so many of the may richest associations in our history? bring 1 am confident of having the approving sentiment of every Mason of intelligence in adopting Kabr Hairan as the best remaining monument of the most ancient Masonic period. was to preserve the the water-cistern for use. I think. who projected. in earlier selves The workmen themlater times. of United States. Edward A. Here. Master (in 1868) of the Palestine Lodge. Masonic Journalist The Earl of Zetland. Benjamin Franklin. years ago. H I K L (Masonic) Protestant Missionary to Palestine. was laid the body of our Grand Master. of Scotland. of England. King of Tyre. of United States. I lump together a number of notes of measurements and descrip- tions made on the spot. 415. I think. abundantly proves. at Beyrout.11) MASONIC PICNIC. Masonic Jurist. The resting-place of Solomon is lost . as the history of Freemasonry. Wellins Calcott." Will it not worthy associates. M N D. P The Zealous Living "Workers of the Masonic Craft. in these fifteen huge stones. The Illustrious Dead of the Masonic Craft. T. Rogers. the tomb would be concealed (as the great wall of Mount Moriah is) one-half its height. and I cannot but approve the enthusiasm of that thoroughly good Mason.

In the hot hour.VIEW FROM THE SUMMIT. Lizards abound in the tomb. set in cement pottery. then turn northward and go down five narrow steps to the water. Ill four feet . 715. I conclude. fifteen feet from north to feet. " I " what for all told him asked. and quite a number of sail-vessels. A steamer was passing southward. While taking measurements and making notes. The sides of the coffin or cavity have three notches on the north side and one on the south. two feet Arched entrance to the cistern is four by ten feet.C.. and sherds of old villagers of Hanaweigh. No Water cool and good. From the top of the monument there is a fine view of Tyre. and that I return home I shall tell my friends all about the great and curious Kabr Hairan. through the break made by the No hierorobbers. cover. at the joinings of the tiers. much liked by the signs of tools can be seen where the break was made into the sepulchre. TyeeV (good). but by the aid of the compass furnished me by my old friend. Tyeeb. head of a party of camel-drivers. It is plastered with gravel-stones. contiuuo eastward by four broad steps. an old man. of Louisville. B. glyphics of any kind are on the monument. either that the variation here is fifteen or twenty degrees from the true meridian. B. through my servant. by ten nearly hemispherical in shape. which stretched out majestically at our feet. bound for Egypt. perhaps of Sennacherib. so far as I could dis- overhead. Kabr Hairan is usually described as standing due east and west. Cistern deep. Hyssop grows abundantly in the cracks. my writing ? I had come six thousand miles over yonder blue sea. and makes quite a green and tufted appearance for old Hiram. pointing to the Mediterranean. and Brother H. But I saw no snakes around here. and the Great Sea beyond. the plain of Phoenicia almost to Sidon. with the when " accompanying gesticulation. but none I readily crept in there. and went on his to tell his companions of the Melican Howadji who had come so way over the sea to look at Kabr Hairan. six feet long . with its head exposed. Ky. stopped and looking on for a few minutes. or thereabouts. itself is south. at high twelve. or that the monument is not oriented to face the four points of the compass. I sat in the shadow of the tomb and wrote these lines far : . Brother Edward Jewell. Tristam (in Land of Israel) killed a large adder that lay asleep. This pleased him. and he cried out.

(5) They bore thee. Tomb of Hiram. at the (Written April 15th. And thy loved ocean-isle behind. And laid thee here in royal pride rites They brought thee with the noblest The wisest of our Craft enjoined . when thy work was done. . but all shattered and empty. where the sun First gleams above gray Hermon's : side. (4) The title (5) For many centuries the City of Tyre was the commercial metropolis of the world. (1) Before thee soared the mountain heights. thou. The Cedars bowed their kingly tops As Hiram. (6) : (1) See note 10 for an explanation of this.U2 POEM AT HIGH XIL KABR HAIRAN. as prepared by the pen of King Solomon. and costly sepulchres. two of those noble birds are soaring in the clear sky above me. should no more come. Chief of Masons. read that of ier the Great. (2) Formerly all these offshoots and spurs of the Lebanon Mountains were probably covered with cedars. their King. King Hiram was traditionally buried with the Masonic Honors. befitting one so great. 1868.) Eastward from Tyre. passed: O'er Lebanon's all-snowy slopes The eagle screamed upon the blast : (2) (3) Westward the foaming sea was crowned With snow-white sails returning home Their Sea-Queen : Where Where (4) glorious they found. Monarch loved and And ^id thee in thy bed of state feared. It was the custom of the princes and rulers of Phoenicia to prepare for them. (3) As I write these lines. They brought thee. even while living are full of these. " " Sea-Queen is therefore highly appropriate. as detailed in Rollin's Ancient History. elTes great (6) the hills around KABR HAIRAS Alexan To comprehend the splendor of Hiram's burial procession. though now the nearest grove of which I have any knowledge is thirty or forty miles north of Hiram's Tomb. in thy lifetime thou hadst reared This Tomb.

POEM AT HIGH XII. and once marked the boundary of Hiram's possessions. It was the seat of the Architectural and Philosophical Schools of early ages. of Tyre. a pageant. to friendship true. these alone A : The grief of Tyre fitly shares His matchless pen such words indites : Of true report and sacred woe. (9) Nor on Zion too . and changed : The kingdom of each royal Sire Ephraim from Judah was estranged.hat of his royal friend was but a few years after Hiram's death that his own kingdom. 113 art They 'Twas closed thee in with left cunning And. Solomon. all thee to thy well-earned fame: the living can impart. Freemasons' rites Within his wise direction go. the city of Zidon. Brother joins his tears with theirs King Solomon. That to this hour. Her Sages mourned thee as their own Loud the lament on far Jebale Her wisest Son of Light was gone: (8) The ships of Tyre bore the word On every wind across the main. AS well a* . was rent in twain by internal convulsions. (10) Duried were According to Masonic tradition. was under his rule. the funeral rites under which King Hiram was composed by King Solomon they were substantially the same as those in : use at the present day. and a name. which lies about twenty-fire miles north. (10) i The centuries wore apace . : (7) And white-robed craftsmen wept their lord And strewed the mystic leaves again. (8) Jebale (styled in the Scriptures Gebal) is about seventy-five miles north of Tyre. And Zidon separate from Tyre: (11) (7) At the period of Hiram's reign. (9) The various cojonies of Tyre were established at all the prominent points on the Mediterranean Sea. (11) It . A tomb. Loud was the wail on Zidon's hill.

Then swept the deluge over all The Conqueror came with sword aiid And templed shriue and kingly hall Are but the shadow of a name. The frost and rain have gently seared The Orient-sun hath kindly blest: And earthquakes shattering have spared rest. Stand thou. MEMORIAL appears. about four hundred years after Hiram's death. who conquered the kingof Phoenicia. The olive its peace-lessons owns. kiss. Israel. Best moral where all else is mute. His latest gleam. in smile or frown. holiest of all ! (13) And To as the western sun goes down give the wearied Craft release. Square and Compass deeply on the tomb near the northerns (1*1 I chiselled the .114 POEM AT HIGH XII. These time-stained ashlars still doth The lizard darts within thy walls. Though shadows Along of old time have crept these stones three thousand years. . The daisy blossoms at the foot. (12) . Our Kabr Hairan. flame. The Arab stalks indifferent by. Vast relics once of lordly halls : Around in mute suggestion lie The hyssop springs between the stones. Let Craftsmen seek this ancient shrine \f2) Referring to the doms Chaldean monarch Nebuchadnezzar. Yet here thy burial-place Still this is kept. and Judah. The oldest. Great type of Masonry divine! From eastern height. till time shall be no more. from western shore. Hiram's Still warm thine eastern front the rays : That call the Craftsmen to the wall Here let me chisel this device.

of coolness. around me. like a bolt They poise I Habakkuk : . ye inspired prophets. ntss" and what is better just now. : As from one humble voice to-day Honor to Hiram. 8. exhibited theirs. saying.) the eagle descends upon its prey. and have been watching me with unwearying patience. Come. And now is my best time to embody Scriptural references to the Eagle in these pages. bitter and hasty nation. xxviii. and I feel it to be a good omen that King Hiof its has sent down two aquilce aurce." This prophet had doubtless seen the swoop by which (i. and let us study the Bird of Jove together. while I examined olive-presses. * Thomson themselves for a moment. a thousand years later.THE EAGLES OF LEBANON. 115 And from " each pilgrim this be heard. I declared that the nation whom God should send against Israel. should come " as swift as the eagle flieth.) and compared that took up the figure of Moses 885 years afterward. collected mosaic tessercB. then. extended sail-like six or eight feet horizontally ! Whatever their intentions in thus following me. Observing its swiftness of flight. in case they should refuse to hearken unto the voice of the LORD their God. Masons' lord. their patience is most praiseworthy ram's Lebanon ." (Deut. the Chaldeans. Eoman cohorts and Roman legions have often enough displayed their eagles along this rocky road. running eastward from Tyre. as they came down from Antioch. A. my eye is again attracted by that pair of mountain eagles who started across the isthmus of Tyre with me this morning. so graphically described by W. they shall fly (against Israel) as the eagle hasteth to eat. and the Germans. and browsed generally along the Grand old fellows how they hang up there in the sky on ! their broad wings. to yonder " bird. anemones and poppies. the double-headed one.D. 1099. 18) your emblem ? Moses : I used it in threatenings against my people. from the end of the earth. its gold- en eagles. M. " " Honor and gratitude we pay ! " the place of darkSitting on the north side of this old structure. to guard my way by old Hiram's sarcophagus. and prophesying of the grace that should come men? Who of you all have' made the "unclean bird" (Lev. 49. culled way. But what use did " you prophets make of the eagle when inquiring and searching dili" to fallen gently. to the capture of Jerusalem. xi.

from the clear sky. taketh them. declaring that he renews the youth of his saints as the moulting eagle renews his glorious pinions. condecends to introduce this bird into the lesson. Jertmiah : ites at I denounced the pride and self-confidence of the Edom- Mt Seir.116 IHE EAGLES OF LEBANON. 11. beareth them did lead him. in these grand words . showing his almighty power to Job. though they should make their nest on high. down they come. (Ps." (Deut xxxii. as the eagle that has established his eyrie in yonder inaccessible crag of Lebanon.) David: I sung of God's bounty. fluttereth over her young. ciii. so the Lord alone EAGLE AXD PREY. with wings the defenceless lamb from under the very collapsed. yet the Lord will bring him down. and declared that. (xlix.) on her wings. 16." and snatch eye of the shepherd.) Moses: In promising the tender mercies of God to an obedient race. head foremost. spreadeth abroad her : wings. I reminded them of the eagle's care for her young "As an eagle stirreth up her nest. 5. The voice of Jehovah.

on New Year's day. 5 feet high.) is exhausted. 20) breaches and the little house with clefts (Joel vi. no peculiar sanctity being eengers ascribed to it. Tiberias cracked and shattered and the death-cries of three thousand Could . 6 feet high. 8 feet 6 inches wide. 8) . and was removed when the great house was smitten with like a cottage (xxiv. upon the crag of the From thence she seeketh the prey. 11). A number of our American lodges are named Eagle Lodge. and the strong place. There is nothing to prevent pasfrom approaching the monument. 12 inch long. Ellet says 11 Imperial wanderer the storms that shake Earth's towers. 117 the eagle mount up at thy command.EARTHQUAKE OF "Doth high ? 1837. 3 feet 9 inches high. and make her nest on She dwelleth and abideth on the rock. far in the northwest And I must not forget what Mrs. on the Acropolis. and pangs and sorrows took hold of them. This is surmounted by an oblong stone of the same dimensions. 14 feet long. and copy what he says " Hiram's tomb stands on an oblong. and bid her rooted mountains quake. and they were amazed one at another (Isaiah xiii. " " I have left out mounting up on wings as eagles (Is. But my hour though my these heights upon the sceptre in the left hand of the : statue of Ju- piter Olympus. when the earth reeled to and fro as a drunkard. four-sided pedestal. and I must to my measurements. it would be an interesting inwith what sentiments he viewed the dreadful earthquake thai quiry racked all this country. 10 broad. when Safed was shaken together as a heap when El Jish was totally destroyed . and where the slain are. xl. and a I imagine the imperial bird descending from score of passages. of two lay. hewn out of a single rock. . Above this is a truncated pyramid. : ers of The huge stones. 1837 . there is she. 27." (Job xxxix. The entire ton\b is about 21 feet high. her eyes behold afar off. 8 feet 9 inches broad. alScriptural references to the eagle are not half exhausted. I have looked up Van der Velde's. souls went up to heaven from yonder eastern range when every hand was faint and every heart melted." feet 1 Van der Velde admits the tradition that claims this as the monu- . 6 feet high. . as in the numerous welies (tombs) of the Moslems. Her young ones also suck up blood. third layer is 15 feet long. Are never felt by thee " ! I I question the mighty bird. To compare my measurements and descriptions with those of other writers. 31). and rock.

and suffer. makes a note " We out of our way to visit Hiram's Tomb. except the leader. A bottle. The sheikh is a short man. Ixii. and nowhere else close relationship a monument in this country. eyes keen. roving. at the western end . but he evidently told him something else. which shall describe in another chapter. and (I judge by the sound) curses me Truth is. and the number and variety of I took down a score travellers was no doubt beyond the ordinary. with the darkest shade of bronze . an ague fit How well I know how he feels." As I saw nothing of thi? " Christian Cross. an old-fashioned X. Solomon's friend and ally." that honor me. one it a Christian Cross. something like the one at Bint Jebale. no matter which way you sit. except at Jerusalem. Explorations. and I remember it The sheikh of the little village has come over to ask Hassan what I am doing up there. a man whom wine ovefcometh And (Jer. all Moslems are Rechabites (Jer. But he loathes it 4). I should think. ri?iu-d I Some sort of a fair. my . thus visibly preserved in this monubrance of Tyre's great 1 Sam. and was going to ship it to America. eighteen As the wind blew in their faces they had all turned themselves to the rear. appears to be ancient. and so avoided the draft. I think. and thinks the popular No heathen king.Ug PAGES FROM MY DIARY. or one so appropriate to such monarch. very recently cut. xi. on which you can face either way. excruciating pain. 1868. Here passes a man in. "Them Brother Capt Charles Warren. in I will honor. He sees in this rememas this. These Arab saddles are just like a sawhorse. teeth . and here are specimens of them : party of Arab charcoal-dealers. ment. as I as follows passed was anxious to see if there were any masons' marks on the stone. sitting in my stocking-feet on the cornice at the east end of the monument. a confirmation of the Lord's words. I told Hassan (sarcastically) to say that I had bought this tomb from the Pasha. and unsettled . but I have sat for ten minutes at a time on a sharp-edged fence-rail. or just out of. 9). he says. The other consists oi is a square and compass. I am* like a drunken man.white . all mounted on camels. inwardly (Ps. the word wine reminds me to offer him some arrack from leatner in all. of the Byzantine type. or two of notes. He may say as the prophet of Anathoth did: All my bones shake. was ever in such belief well founded with Israel as the King of Tyre." I fancy it must have been put there since May. skin so dried and withered it seems cleavingfrom the bones. so long in charge of the Jerusalem of Hiram's Tomb. under date July. was going on at Tyre the day I first Kabr Hairan. I was never on a camel in my life. 30. 1 : could only see two. xxiii. is there so large a king. ment of Hiram. 1869.

was said to sheikh have been planted in a pleasant place (Hos. David and Solomon from Sion. not in the King's Chamber. and rugged. high. and when the time for great explorations in this ! locality arrives. 119 Some cows pass by from the pastures of Kanah. On his way to Sarepta. To bring to light the remains Abraham from Hebron. both by the unveiled faces and black. but underneath. as I will show in a coming chapter. who. even as travellers do now'.000 years sooner. the movements of invading armies would have been telegraphed. An ungainly. El Hadekhat. Jonah need never have gone personally to Nineveh . he remembered a great deal more and came back again. 0." are among the works reserved for explorers. Like the eccentric Wors. Hiram " forever from this hill. explaining that he had just then remembered something else. gorgeously apparelled. five miles yonder in the west. That old camel-sheikh. freshness of the air.. 10) as his progenThe purity of the atmosphere and gentle itor in the days of Peter. Jesus and his disciples passed this monument. broken. but in a vault far below the last. makes everything delightful up here. sparkling How eyes of the females. and so all through the sacred pages. it of may be found there. and the neater houses and cleaner streets. L The long line of telegraph poles between me and Tyre yonder. and was afraid he would forget it if not As the body of King Cheops is probably restpromptly disbursed ing. It is easy to recognize a Christian village. with his eye like a hawk's. nor Queen's Chamber. One is what Jeremiah calls (xl. 11). on a certain day blessed in all the history of this country. Warren that the body of the great Hiram was never laid in this sarcophagus. yet for our sakes became poor. as party of . He told me a great deal . as trie Scripture expresses it. nor Chamber of Projection (subterranean). can see ten miles off. suggests how differently certain passages of Scripture would read had Morse only appeared 3.PAGES FEOM xxxv. and Cheops from that subterranean chamber flowed about by water. 20) a very fair the hill yonder. having told the candidate all he knew" and closed the lodge. perhaps far underneath. is a sheet of white paper. summoned them together again " in called commu" nication a few minutes afterwards. the pencil-marks on my note-book are invisible to him . chap climbed up side of me for purposes is A of instruction. if the miserable people only knew it. But he cannot reverse the. Joseph need not have come to Palestine before finding that Archelaus did reign in place of his father Herod . The next is a Masonic hand. with a withered in the story of the miracle at Capernaum. doubtless looking up to it and passing comments upon it. though rich. and when I had paid him for his information and dismissed him with thanks. L. ix. and doubtless as " full of all subtlety " (Acts xiii. just over 2). telescope. B. there passed one who.) ! A passing by. 13. the copy of my Arabic newspaper. " Master. wabbling creature. heifer. as it comes down from the hills in the east. Some are fat as heifers at grass. and bellow as bulls ( Jer. and time given the natives to prepare for defence . MY DIARY. truly that city of Tyre. And here. so I suggested the theory to Capt.

whole party. powdering the face. Replying had received from the world would naturally sour them against their " Hakeem. of divers ages and sexes. seems plain enough this morning. irritating the eyes.120 PAGES FROM MY DIARY. I was sorry he dia Know did him good. do not even deign me a nod. judging from dress. larger beaks and feet are red. flowers (as I gather the class-names from other authors). prove that. for what little he engaging. almost level with my face. comely I (figuratively) gave him my hat. who is good enough is a grave. eyes. literally. with bracelets round girl. called here Maroof. they have no real appreAnd now a ciation of that which money only represents time. vulyaris. calmness and observe with pity the failings of others." 7). Draba verna. and leaving a taste of hyd. Their partridges. and of different color. vigorous. perhaps explains the peculiarly acrid and unpleasant flavor to which at sferred. cypress. graceful. palm. In this vicinity this morning. by a stare equally persistent." leads off in the hated dissyllable backsheesh. The old man. and much overgrown with thorn." "Whereupon Next there comes a fine. Anchusa italica. " according to the expression (Genesis " And the Lord God formed man of the dust of the ground. oleander. yellow hair portrait manners singularly flowing thick and plentiful. cum creta in the mouth. knew so little English. The caravans that go by kick up a dreadful dust The dust of these roads. Parietaria officinalis. however they may value money. and that all the generations of this country have. and take a long stare at me. that the oppression the Jews for Socrates. Zizyphus Senecio vernalis. whose philosophy to my remark. That we were made of " dust. in his own inquisitive style. lemon. patient-looking Kabbi. One of them recalls the Swedes. stares me from an olive-tree close by. looking up the almost illegible carvings on old stones. The little Scops owl. and hair. and plumes ashy gray. I stirred up a number of than ours at home.. but not half so wise. expression mild. etc. to t . may be that explains the dust-heaps I have seen at so many thresholds! In the fourteenth century the English government instituted a court styled The Court of Dusty Feet (pie-poudre). Reseda suffruticosa. recalls a host of Scripture passages. Klauber can't make a photograph of me half so accurate as they will. The next walking staff in hand. returned. " unto and other passages. Ranunculus myriophyllus. Jesus told his disciples to shake the dust off their at the doors of inhospitable men as a testimony against them. orange. of Gustavus Adolphus. gather on the bank in front. showing that Holy Land was always Dusty Land. and the lazy people. Now come two men with silver beards. He is followed in coarser tones by another and another of the crowd. her arms and ankles. The trees that I observed this morning are the the olive. until every gullet is croaking with that abhorrent password of beggary. in the beautiful costume of the Lebanons. like the color of the dust The country around is rocky and impracticable. but it is noble and god-like to bear with tyrants. tall. he said. with " childish treble. tamarisk. and the like.

the old The Turks themselves employ men with loud styled muezzins.. porous wood. 44. to settle difficulties between buyers and sellers on the spot. is the presenting that man with a Turkish dollar for the purpose of buying that church-bell at K.) At the top of this fountain." four miles from Tyre. wild-looking man. to dinner to bed. haggard face . to have been erected at the expense of King Solomon. This was inclosed by immense stone walls until the water rose about twenty feet. a grim fanatic. flowers of unchangeable (2 color." Esdras vi.. from which are emitted odors of wonderful smell. in all the uses of the word. long. 121 be held at markets. matted hair. struck with a setting-maul. having in fact no clothing save a sheepskin tied A A around his hips. that occur to me in survey of old Kabr Hairan ? Who my As if time had been to it all sunlight and As if upon its freshness the cold rime Of decay should never fall.M.anah. and said. or native beggarpriest. or " Head upon my way of the Spring. having heretofore answered the purIn all Asia Minor pose of a bell in calling God's people together. who station themselves in the minarets (steeples) of the force. there is city of Philadelphia. taking the celebrated fountains called Ras-el-Ain. I was accosted by one of the officers of the Protestant Church at Kanah. mosques and roar out the holy news with incredible connected in The last association. These fountains afe the finest I saw in Syria.THE CHUKCH BELL. my effects at 4 P. is it wrote these lines. ere this. from which it was carried off by aqueducts towards the city. This abundance of sweet water makes everything around a mass of vegetation. naked to the waist. and I hope the echoes of Lebanon have. as a present to his royal friend Hiram. I started to return to Tyre. with a subscription paper. It is but a late thing that the Turkish government has permitted the use of bells in churches a timber of heavy. therefore. . And so I quietly go back to Tyre. recalling the beautiful ex" pression. in the native traditions. viz. only one Christian church supplied with a bell. shading a wild. Originally there was a large spring broke out here. I was glad to give my mejeedia (ninety-four cents) to this desirable end. six miles east. he is. asking aid towards purchasing a church-bell. I should think Easchid Pasha might introduce it here with equal regularity and propriety. Whereupon there grow roses and lilies. voices. of the class that subsists on charity. fakir. been stirred by the suggestive sound. . Gathering up soft dew. in one great reservoir. my mind and with these abounding waters of Ras-el-Ain.

K .1ft 3d.


*.. .

The The ground These bells all quaint. Loud wind. free the mountains. They need No statue nor inspiration to reveal Their greatness . strong wind. enamelled eyes That on the green turf suck the honeyed showers. A field of ruins. in Him who is working here melancholy penalty of the sorrow and degradation which surround aim. Here rest the great . A nobler history than Or the pillared piles eternal pyramids. Sacred land by blood and tears of God. purpled with the vernal flowers : and flowerets of a thousand hues. here they repose.DIVISION THIRD -GEBAL. wind. a scene of unutterable desolation. is There a tongue in every rock. . in Thorns coming up of. They take their sleep together. Theirs all no vulgar sepulchre green sods their monument and yet it tells . to all who the visit here. which witnesses. to Draughts of life me. a voice from every leaf. nettles and brambles in the fortresses theie- a habitation of dragons and a court of owls. of the eternal truth and majesty of sin. while the year Comes with its early flowers to deck their graves. After their generous a sacred band. her palaces. And Are gather them again as winter frowns is . and good toil . sea. sweeping o'er the Pour forth thy vials like torrents from air-fountains. blowing Irom Fresh wind. Instinct with thrills of consecrated life.

to inspect the ancient inscriptions nil be fully described in my (Dog River). because I don't remember the singular form of the word). a place all travellers on the rocks there. kitchen. overcoats. These three persons and animals bore with them ing Joseph. March 17. a cook. Yasoof (mean- am told). described in Chapter V. HE is Second of the Seven Grand Masonic Localities that the Holy my visit to Land enables me to identify and describe. and that to eat dinners of five courses. three himself and servants. I all chisel.. I had consulted a professional dragome to Gebal. and for the insignificant sum of $125 ! could afford for that trifling remuneration. as AT as the mouth of Nahr-el-Kelb sit. Tlnse account of the Masonic Bay. returning on My expeditionary force consisted of one man. one for my dinner asked him if he thought I had tents. to this day. needful supplies of blankets. and one for the should consist of five courses. or Bay of . and remained three days. and to making the most excruciating noises that organized nostrils ever projected. the latter (whom 1 had named Boanerges. such as and a good quantity of provisions for my personal five days' trip use.CHAPTER VIII. one boy. lodge. Gebal (pronounced Jebale. who knows con- siderable English of the hassanic quality (the joke here consists in the fact that the word hassan means a horse) . two horses and a donkey . mallet. twelve servants. a I good-natured Arab. and all When I asked him what sort of accommodation he and mules. In view of this find man. Hassan.. for five days. who generously offered to convey me for five days. the 21st stout. The This was the third visit I had made up the coast from Beyrout. GOING UP TO GEBAL. addicted to lying down without the slightest warning. a distance of about twenty-four miles. etc. accent on the last syllable)went there from Beyrout. feed. working-tools. he replied that he should take nine horses I come all the way from Kentucky conundrum remains unanswered one for me.

Capricornus did his utmost. daughter impressed with the unparalleled sublimity of this scene. and speaking. v. and my prospects of escaping a drenching and a pelting were solely based on his speed. in Division Fourth. a thousand through The sides of these feet in height. by an interval of about 300 feet. a mile or more further north. and my purpose waa pride and grandeur. by St. as they once addressed the world. the old khan proving to them. on me. or tavern (like and a gum-coat. The the one described at Neby Younas). 1868 (the twenty- second anniversary of my Masonic Initiation). It was on the 5th of March. and while making notes there a second cloud swept through the passes of old Lebanon and poured its contents. a place of refuge and covert from storm and from rain (Isa. true as the plumb-line. but spent the hours composing the folk wing verses. and as I was congratulating myself on to inspect those ancient proofs of human A escaping its Looking fury. In these terrific passages of sound I learned the propriety " the of the Hebrew name for of the voice." I was so and echo. not entered. The gorge which Dog Eiver runs separates two mountains. on my return that night to the shelter of Hallock's hospitable (flat) roof. I was startled by the roar of thunder in the rear. I went on to the inscriptions. and all wet. 6). The lightnings flashed across the defile with a I could conceive that the spirits vividness blasting to the eyeballs. together with music to them : . that.THUNDER-STORM IN LEBANON. conventional goat of the Masonic 'lodge. This convulsion of nature was inconceivably grand and awful. tremendous heights gave back the awful thunder-peals in countless I reverberations. this to describe a I 127 made to But I shall not find so good a place as thunder-storm in which I was caught. A etorm being over. I had scarcely got out of Beyrout on the sea-shore. and I reached a native khan. George. tremendous thunder-storm swept grandly a little way before. as I cowered under shelter of the overhanging rocks. as to me. the Rafts. when the bay became lashed into fury by a gale. thanks to my goat dozen people with their beasts were in there before me. back. I saw myself pursued by one of Mount Lebanon's blackest clouds. if report I was riding a donkey a trifle larger than the is true. of the mighty dead were revisiting these scenes of their earthly grandeur. I was unable to sleep. that bellowed a thousand times worse than Spenser makes the dragon bellow who was killed right at this spot. the first visit the place. in tempest fire. have nothing parallel to it in all my memory.

xcii. Thy echoing tongues of flame. Oh Lebanon ! oh darkened throne. Thy dizzy hills. until you look longingly up the mountain-slopes on your right. maketh Let> That goodly mountain. 34). strewed with boulders. His smell as Lebanon . The glory of Lebanon (Is. 6). a flowery home. And birds of sweetest sound Oh Lebanon oh roseate throne. rocky passes. The flower of Lebanon (Nahum i. The head of Lebanon (Jer. THE GLORY OF LEBANON. x. 11). He shall shake like anon to skip like a calf (Ps. ! In days to come. Oh charming Mount thy flowery sides. A solid mount like thee Oh mighty Mount thy stony gates. and painted wings. The fruit a cedar in Lebanon (Ps. xxn. Lebanon (Deut. forted mount like thee A ! You go a few miles painfearfully bad. of The church God shall be. Like the smell of Lebanon (Cant. 4). 25). Oh fearful Mount thy stormy Crown. The violence of Lebanon (Hab. a castled home. ! ! In days to come. so rough and difficult that the heaviest sandbanks appear as green meadows in the One of these comparison. Ixxii. The righteous shall grow like Lebanon (Ps. 10).128 THE ROAD TO QEBAL. iii. roseate mount like thee A ' ! . ! i. an anchored home. through deep sand. 6 and 7). The church of God shall be. and wish you were Then you come to a spur of ascending the steepest of them. Open thy doors. ii. Thy heights in walls secure. 17). iv. Thy heights with cedars crowned. Lebanon shall fall like a mighty one (Is. xxxv. 13). 2 and Ix. The church of God shall be. Thy gushing springs. 16). the wine of Lebanon (Hosea xiv. ! Whose awful word proclaims And bids adore His name ! its God. and sheltered dales. And guardians tried and sure Oh Lebanon oh guarded throne. ! ! ! In days to come. 12). 6j. occurred to me as a capito Gebal is The road fully tal place to work the Royal Arch degree ! It presents a regular sue- . the stony hills. xxix. about six miles from Beyrout. Lebanon (Zech.

Upon this I engraved with my chisel the memorial Square and Compass. as I hope some of them will. Iowa. and Saladin. The Chapter room at Akron. Iowa. Elizabethtown. increasing in roughness every step. N. R. or going to defeat. reminds me of it. and J. and ending in a frightful climax. Hellena. Richard Vaux. P. Fearn. the following names of Masons who have emulated the fortitude of him whose emblem was the Brofan Column : W. By this highway. Thanksgiving If evei night. Perley Poore. those members come along this way. missionary apostles traversing it again and again.THE BROKEN COLUMN. 320. one of the most noted highways in the world. going to conquest. and along this road. and Dubuque. Langford. so that ordinary and dedicated it to the lodges at Des royal reception. in the summer of A. yet standing erect. Furnas. 1500. and of Vespasian. W.). aside from this great milestone. I see something fluttering the rocks. 400 years later . its sweet love-notes changed to piteous 9 Walking .D. and close to the road. Ohio. at an extremely old age. B. Kentucky. George R. yet 200 miles in the distance. xxxi. 1867 . 129 cession ol difficult passages. it in the sea. let Homes. It was equally the turnpikethis is Yet passed great men along way of Alexander. preaching to a sinful world. cutting travelers may not observe it. yearning to behold the places that Christ had sanctified by His corporal presence. all the Sesostris. Charles Marsh. but Rameses came here from the south about B. there is a beautiful sheet of water styled Junia Bay (the word Junia meaning a plain). nor lizard nor among snake. Near the middle of the curve of this bay stands a large Stone Column. 1099.ward side. and up and down. the lower part about ten ' feet long. who gave me such a them stop and see how upon the face of the everlasting rock here I imprinted this mark of loving remembrance. Solon Thornton. about A. originally erected probably as a Roman milestone. P. came the venerable mother of Constantine the Great. Almond. delicious to the heart of a Principal Sojourner. at this fitting place. the armies of the Cross slowly worked their way southward towards Jerusalem. It has this way. and on strict examination discover. broken in the midst. as they went to and from Antioch. 700 years latter.C. and Sennacherib from the north. B.D. By this route had come the Assyrian with his shadowy shroud and high stature (Ez. About-halfway between Beyrout and Gebal. but a wounded dove. Alex. H. I cannot even sum up those great names . Goodwin. of It was the apostolical highway. 332. Newcomb.C. I also locate. W. north or south.

and a number of juvenile Cains. and on the right hand side of the road. and oleandergrowth of the country." which. commemoration of the death of Adonis. Travellers also describe the remains of an ancient aqueduct. in the in David's lite recalling . running from this river towards Gebal. according to tradition. existed. I observed a handsome piece of Mosaic Pavement. as the ancient Hebrew would moans. after I presume they always are tinged with red the day I crossed it. or River of Abraham. here it is. (They raised cain at the rate of seven every ten years !) To say that this atelier was more infested with fleas and lice . They asked me questions and questions. which occurred on the I will refer to the stream. amused at my efforts . sidered invidious coat-sleeve as I than other places in Holy Land. At the distance of about three miles south of Gebal. about one hundred and fifty feet wide. " " The best I can do have called it. varieties. studying On my way I stopped frequently to rest and human nature. famous in mythology as "the in Ki\vr of Adonis." caption of the 56th Psalm. my self-folding measuring tape (a startling piece of ingenuity to them . To say it was the house I had ever seen before. but imperfectly describes the loathsome squalor in which that Tubal-Cain. cane. annually ran blood. who sat with us. I answered through Hassan. deal existing in time. A Syrian gentleman. but I did not observe this. is to for this poor Noah's messenger. a dreadful piece of Arabic writing. this incident ? No . flutter of wings. I showed them my pistol. a dumb dove in distant places. At a blacksmith-shop I had a good dirtiest refresh myself. heights near the head-waters of this The waters of Nahr Ibrahim were unquestionably subject again. as such a severe rain-storm as we had had the night before. of which I gave a translation in a preceding chapter. This is the first I had seen. part of a splendid edifice once standing there. I crossed the Nahr Ibrahim. by which the old city was supplied with water. ten or twelve deep. and e^en pulled out my Firman. might be conbut I am sure I counted five species of lice on my my portrait my india-rubber bottle full of coffee. they never wearied of it). with Mrs. of which there is a great this country. and friuged with the usual willow.13u TUBAL CAIX. and of each species. came out. eighteen-bladed jack-knife. large as a table-cloth. with its great a broken side and a useless wing being very put it out of its misery I mistaken in thinking there is a far above my powers of surgery. Am passage "When the Philistines took him in Gath. a legular Jonath elem-verhobim. The river was quite full. Just beyond the bridge. Cain. the of wife.

and promised to call again. . Another of the company was a tall. olive. as the Masonic word Cowan is probably derived from it. alert. As we came out. and an expression of earnestness and simBut his ignorance was startling. In this blacksmith's shop. came dog that discovered the use of the celebrated Tyrian dye that beso world-renowned. have made the dog the image of scorn and contempt. The blacksmith had nine country notices the dogs. meaning devils. John in his Apocalypse. it was a . and palm. He has some fine fig-trees around his house . And Dr. and what is worse than a ! cowan At parting I gave the good fellow several paras (a para is onefourth of a cent). Paul in his Epistles. I had noticed this same peculiarity among the French officers of steamer. a tree which flourishes best in stony. uniformly agree in this. so often and of them. in Marseilles. with dark face. talked at once.BLACKSMITH-SHOP. recalls the description of am familiar manner. the exceedingly loquacious natives all Either they possess the faculty of talking and hear- ing at the same time (a thing I cannot do). or they are so disposed to garrulity as to talk without caring to be heard. places. depth not like the companionship of other trees. Hassan stigmatized the whole crowd to me in an undertone as Shaitan. if the tradition is true. graceful. and the Koran of Mohammed fully confirms the Oriental idea of the dog. smile. Strange that the Bible-writers. with which I insinuating . cordial. thin man. vine. nothing but the olive is congenial company to the fig on these stony hills. and but little more than the blacksmith's wife. Job in hia noble allegory David in his matchless psalms our Saviour in His parables. " barren It does where " there is not much of earth. to please the 131 such. The shade pro- duced by its succulent. from first to last. my L'Am'erique. He had really a fine beard. Everybody who so visits this much in the way. I mustn't say too much in favor of the dog. Barclay gives to his dog the credit of discovering the great quarry under Jerusalem. ready and sultry as the Syrian sunlight quite : . almost covered with a black beard. However. but life comes early under the sun which fondles the fig. seemed to know less than the blacksmith. Moses in the Pentateuch. And yet. blacksmith and his family. He actually plicity of character. easy. five-lobed leaves and spreading branches is . He went barefoot usually. a young man.

the cry of backsheesh drowns the given way old clamor of Allah il Allah. I felt the force of the expression in 1 this verse the fig-tree Kings 25 " : And Judah and his fig-tree. the mere tourist who only wants to see and pass along will find not the least. well as the least praiseworthy effort of wit. to pull down r to expose the ancient foundations. this volume. For this reason it is best. iv. and of . Israel man under is his vine as a and under " In named which i. I really wouldn't advise any American to learn it. In regard to the Arabic language. 10. iii. then. with as The fanaticism of the Mohammedan has security as at home. and encouragement The most careless traveller in the East is constantly reminded that he is in the land of the Bible. in general. that it will be politic to advice to give to Masonic travellers all scatter it along in A few chunks. 1 shall have so much through chunks. extortions. right here. and every admirer of facile making sport The their journey regret that "Pilgrims Abroad" did not terminate where they began it. in spite of my warnings. to the craving for gold . for So in Micah iv. in Europe. and it is in poor taste to make such tours as Browne and Clements did for the sole purpose of latter ( Mark Twain. mutual protection in digging. and under this large ground dwelt safely. every was cool and pleasant. Zech. and sometimes worse. for several to both in for go company. that when vou the lips" (Isaiah is Ivii. symbol of peace and plenty. unless he is qualifying himself for a Professor. where alone can anything valuable be looked for. travelers don't) to call the plural of was only for Arab lips that he created you might learn enough of it (some dragoman dragomaws. and rest himself under the offered shelters of Palestine. I am afraid you will say. etc.. Mark Twain must a Dragoman. He can ride over the sacred hills. ludere cum sacris. To excavate. etc. noticed to-day that while the earth under my feet was soles of my shoes uncomfortably warm.132 rery fine. I STUDYING ARABIC. it is elegantly adapted. undertake it. and exposes the seeker for light to delays." as he likes to call himself). 19) it particular fruit! And yet. not to It is the easiest as jest on holy themes. or a Missionary. humorist as he is. It is the explorer only who experi- much ences any difficulty in pursuing his aims. might have recalled the school-day adage. If. As to the difficulty or danger in traversing this country. a Consul. it is this that revives the ancient hatred. John 49. 4. the fig-tree made the really hot. as an irreverent friend iliil under the same " God created the fruit circumstances.

and persistently as they do their calloused bodies. who became one of the most famous of Egyptian explorers. . their granaries would enjoy the results of it. at daily wages. Dragomen is as near right as pen is the plural of pan. 133 Moslem Mosfems." Make a point of comparing daily objects with those Scriptural facts that enter into our prayers and sermons . see how bread is made " how the how the native salt " loses its savor . Miriam. because embracing all other faults. asks a pious lady over her Did Deborah. to the guidance of religious sects whose debates shake the world. to the rule of literary coteries." cattle " kick against the pricks . His Egyptian travels began in 1815 his death occurred in 1823. Is it possible. and roach) have never been introduced into The natives say there is is The flea. done. Belzoni. death to fleas. how- ever. had fortune been more propitious to them. too. and consider that in the minds of many a peasant here. in fact. to thrones. rat." goaded how the south wind blows heat and the west wind rain. when powdered. See what they have produced when temporarily released from the iron grip of despotism. reigns here. it is unpardonable. learn French. But I think they never powder it. brother. It is a merit in Our good Masonic . with his miserable little back-action hand-saw. whose every moment is bestowed in wringing from the soil a scanty subsistence. give an instance of native laziness which annoyed me greatly I hired a man in Beyrout. a plant grows here which. for wnich his great size and muscular developments well adapted him. If you wish 'to talk to respectable people. By the third day he had gathered round him all the idlers in the place. The very Syria earth teems with them. and I venture the assertion that the eight hours' work for which I paid him. The indolence of these people is like the offence of contumacy in the To Masonic code. but there is no end to these analogies. that it was so in ancient times ? ! gail but the theme becomes too aifecting! if I will say. unsubdued as yet. daily . that the plowmen here would only scratch the earth as deeply. Costar's grim Exterminators (cat. AbiBible. to saw up a lot of seasoned olive-wood which I had purchased. vigorously. About one hundred words in Arabic are enough for any one to travel on here. an Oriental traveller to have muscle bodily vigor. there slumber powers which might have elevated their possessors to the head of armies. began as a circus-rider.IRON GRIP OF DESPOTISM. Don't disparage too much the race who now inhabit this country. seated on the ground.

was. an ignorant They are. that the Americans are far ahead of them in this department of instruction. who is for you to teach them a better way. . He was here only a few weeks ! but his companion. could all have been done in one hour by an American competitor. mean and vulgarity. MEAN VICES. three large volumes. of course. history as this. Dr. an incurious tace. his country. petty theft. there was nothing in the field before by Catholic travellers. Smith. had spent very many years here. Anything BO practical and fruitful in good results as the American Sunday- School system is bound to succeed among such people it. That experienced Masonic traveller. where the largest Sunday-School in the world is maintained (300 teachers. sifted and crystallized by Robinson. they have yet " the degree of tors rendered it. to understand the first principles embodied in one. as these. in a country so unfortunate in its vices of lying. fittingly rebukes that class of tourists who hurry over the ground. 1. becomes an effective missionary of morality to these heathen. Livingstone. merely to show He styles such characters " combinations how fast they can of silliness and absurdity. and. who know That which gave the books their real value them except works written what "the Church" tells only them. extremely common. and the language. generally. to find the low. the country. and he admitted to me. I met a man appreciated Stockport. reflecting honor upon the craft. must suppose Kobinson had spent the years of an active life and all those dissuch thing. swearing. not addicted to these degrading habits. Dr. But the better opening remains An American Mason. in confidence." as the old transla- You must not be disappointed.500 scholars). look ferocious at their companions. with a fourth volume of maps. himself. was perfectly familiar with the people. and holding the wood with his toes. abuse and travel. Illinois. and his God. that made up coveries." This is a good field to disseminate Sunday-School ideas. No travelling making those valuable books.134 THE LOW. or small sketch-books not worth shelf-room in a library. and it was his knowledge. in England who He was from Those who have read Robinson's Biblical Researches. I had an agreeable hour describing to him my old 'Berean Bible-Class" in the First Presbyterian Church at Chicago. Grand Inquisitor Commander. England.

is at Gebal a little before night and was lodged in the Bachelors' Hall of some Maronite (Roman Catholic) of an ancient church here. the remnants of more costly structures.00) of Masonic money towards its conservation and walls. and Lebanon limestone. except for exhibiting the marks of old age. the slope extending about two miles along the coast. from Beyrout. standing now that has the least attractions. and from one to two miles back. which considered a curiosity by all lovers of ecclesiastical archi- who have charge tecture. chapter of Ecclesiastes. there is nothing wvoden about it. the remains of which. unless it be the old Maronite Church. about twenty-five miles up the coast (north) upon an easy and regular slope from the sea eastward. IX. In fact. floor. and. are visible in every stone-fence upon the depths varying from ten edifice to thirty feet. forlorn little village of five and appear in excavations at But now Gebal is a poor and hundred inhabitants. All this space and more was once of Gebal lies The town It stands thronged Avith temples.CHAPTER GEBAL. upon all the remains of Gebal. It was built about 800 years ago. is none the worse for its years. palaces. already alluded to. purchasing coins and antiquities. . I was so much interested in this ancient relic that I gave a Napoleon (14. and supports are all of stone. and . while the grand old castle next the sea is neglect are written suffered to fall into irreparable decay. and other splendid erections. ARRIVED priests. and that does not date beyond the Crusades. red-legged Turkish Zouaves. marble. There is a force of about one hundred and fifty soldiers. repair. Desolation and My the more prominent time during three days at this place was spent between visiting localities. in granite. who live in some new buildings. There is not one surface. given by King Solomon in the twelfth The roof.

in this case. or 3. was more than fourteen centuries b'-f. in Joshua xiii. 5.130 8TONE-SQUARERS OF GEBAL. is translated a most remarkastone-squarers. 18). sea-shells . that the word Qiblites. hence my occasions like these. brothers and fellows who will read these pages. purchased in the bazaars. such as coins in great numbers . city I visit to Gebal. funeral lamps . others. The Oriental cuslarge use of white paper upon the traveller's room by day and night with guests.300 years ago. the rebate or bevel.ire Christ." This. etc. In the days of Solomon. more active limbs and flexible spine than I can boast of at the age of fifty. tear-bottles and beads from the Phoenician tombs. It is one of writing up my notes for preservation. and so wrought out my plans in ink after all Gebal hud succumbed to the dominion of slumber. as it was the My. and v. of which I have so much read.. the people of Gebal were the most skillful sailors and artists under the dominion of King Hiram. as in many imposed by the conquerors fell into oblivion. has impressed itself any future visit ous ashlars of Phoenician ages (hewn stones eighteen feet long upwards) the distinguishing mark. that I cannot think freely unless I have pencil in my peculiar! tiet hand. So eminent were they in architecture. is 'termed "the land of the Giblites. etc. first of am explorations. hill its name originally from the The Greeks changed the name to Byblos. I longed to make good site collections of the early spring-flowers that paint this beautiful . wise men thereof were in thee thy calkers" (Ez. Gebal also gave its name to the country around it. This is Masonic mark of ancient-craft As I have told the thouMasonry. but now for the first time in my life I see. made it so well-nigh impossible for me to write by daylight that I soon took to the free use of candles. but Gebal derived on which it stood. it will be remembered. xxvii. tom of crowding bidden or unbidden. imported here at incalculable expense in the olden times . The objects collected here are numerous and varied. Here I find upon the . I found I was not able personally to make many botanical collections in the Holy Land. 9). all stones my more extended Masonic more deeply upon my mind than could be expected to do. the title In the tremendous denunciations by zekiel against all he says " the ancients of Gebal and the Phoenicia. which. specimens of the red and gray granites and porphyry. while the original name was retained. ble circumstance (1 Kings refers to the now describing.\n Hebrew. of Gebal but this is a matter requiring a longer stay. This was written about 400 years after the building of Solomon's Temple.

shipped thence on Phoenician vessels or rafts drawn up this steep hill by human hands. they are used with a profuseness that shows the inexhaustible quantities of now lie concealed among the ruins. with sands of granite columns are here.THE MIGHTY SHAFTS. and from ten to forty feet in length. the Thia principal seat of the worship of Adonis. and finally reared up. was the Freemasonry of the heathen. in short. Our fathers wrought and we. these Eites of Tammuz deserve the attention of Masonic writers. or Tammuz. they are worked into stone walls . must not forget our inheritance therein. both of the red and white varieties. are here. DC permitted to say that a system which had the favor and support of the wisest and best-cultivated of the human race for two thousand years. two. they are built into the military castle. doubtless with shoutings and rejoicings. their theiu7 lineal descendants in the mystical line. The stones themselves strike an American. stalls in the bazaars . landed here. they sustain the filthy roofs of stables . Gebal is full of the " Handmarks of Hiram. from twelve to thirty inches in diameter. having this mark upon them belong to us ! and set them up in useful places in great edifices. and the system upon worship which King Solomon engrafted the revealed precepts given his fathers upon Sinai. stood. Let the BlancUardites note it with dismay. all the enormous labor which the working of that primitive stone requires . and other public edifices in numbers . deep-plowed furrow upon their edges what a hopeful does this convey to a Freemason So long as that mark thought remains so long as the main surface of the wall stands out far this ! And enough to protect and shield that mystic devictfof the Phoenician. three. Thousands of them. brought a thousand miles down the Nile . that led to the cultivation of the fine arts as they have nevei . I say. unused to such architectural prodigies. so long the institution of Freemasonry will survive! This is the lesson they inculcate to me as I turn away silently from them and draw my breath with amazement. but of course do not compare with some at Baalbec and Jerusalem. It is them that but a brief seven miles east of this place that Aphaca. This is not the place to enlarge upon the theme but I must . They prop up the Egypt. as enormous. They are twice as heavy as any wrought ashlars I had ever before seen. As the wild stock into which the inspired Word was engrafted." Hundreds and thou- taken from the quarries of Egypt. their surfaces often as smooth and unaffected by the weather as on the day they left or four thousand years ago. to this coast.

and stronghold did. doubtless received its inspiration from the same men. Here. that this wide-spread system of worship gave to the poet his idea of the Age of Gold. It was then. SARCOPHAGI OF GEBAL. in the days of Hiram. By the age of Coning system of Christianity Adonis had probably accomplished whatever stantine the Rites of of it. A. whom risk of their in my being forever lost as to their esoteric meaning? I find note-book this acrostic: .38 been cultivated since . was a congregation of earth's wisest. to justify Freemasons in selecting Gebal as one of their seven prominent Masonic localities. that here was the great School of Architecture and of the seven liberal arts and sciences.D. scarabaei and other tokens of their faith. excavations I saw a painfully chiselled in the hard blue limestone of the hills. But a resurrection to what ? and immortality for what ? what secrets were so held within their emblems ? what made them so anxious to express them in outward marks. during successions of ages. and coming back to my housetop I walked and mused upon the hopes embodied in these emblems. row of their stone coffins (sarcophagi) opened. . Hopes of some kind (the resurrection and the soul's immortality) we know those old Masons had the rites handed il >wn through so many generations from them to us clearly prove that. yonder. is must have presented many good was embodied in them. and that was thought worthy. that crowns the plateau of Baalbec. by so far-reachSolomon's. but to conceal them even at the to tion. but they innocent and pure traits to attract the admiration of a Solomon. It is. however. a seeker of knowledge like himself could come for instrucand where such a genius as his could be fitly schooled. I stood within the tombs of some of these Giblites. doubtless. on the Island of Cyprus Moriah. From this centre of learning went the men who planned that unparalleled Temple across the hills eastward. cannot have been altogether that the age of Constantino. I purchased many of their funeral lamps. of adoption and incorporation into ing a mind as King vile. as many another temple. But the at the same period. I reserve to this place. palace. 306. in the west. let us believe earth's best spirits. by the inspired theology. which was thought unapproachable for beauty. just as from here fared the Masters of the Building Art who went e mthward down the coast to build a matchless Fane on Mount at Jerusalem. That. The Paphian Temple. the Widow's Son. it may have become so corrupt traces that zealous reformer thought it necessary to uproot the last same thing may be said of the prevailquite likely.

below . and each of them must have seen. were. Its aspect displays. who mark the tender To reason. Mount Moriah. beveled as this is. it is said. famous in history. the colossal grandeur of a people.wall near the seashore. as this ! and Where Nowhere " The same poetical writer records ! eyes to again shall comprehend and admire such an edifice we find such a people. who. Gone. and on reason build resolve. or such a period ? words his impressions of Gebal in these "I 1833) slept at Gebal. while "I pass delicious hours. and built on this the foundation of the Temple-wall in seen to this day. What superhuman civilization was that which supplied a great man to command. an architect to conceive. in a khan (tavern) outside the city. From ancient night. Life from the tombs and light in Heaven's perpetual glow 139 ! in Did he who prepared the rituals of the Select Master's Degree have mind that exquisite passage from an English poet Silence and darkness. twins thought. workmen to cut. The "twenty-two from Gebal. better than history. my eyes fixed on the falling pediment of that Parthenon. as is And here at Gebal I am insensibly reminded of the reflection visiting another made spot by a distinguished poet (Lamartine). ordered a number of stones cut upon this model. a sculptor to decorate. But from this dust a viewless spirit cries. this enormous ashlar that old castle. as I see to-day. Gebal is supposed to be the country of the ancient Giblites. Announcing to the ages as they go.TWENTY-TWO PROM GEBAL. It is nearly forms the base of the twenty feet long. The worship of the sun constituted the religion of all the neighboring . a people to pay. on a rising ground overlooking the sea. gone thy glories. That column of true majesty in man. Let me quote it: recumbent beneath the shade. : plied King Hiram with squares of stone for the building of the Temple of Solomon. of course. who sup- (he was here April 13. drafted from this city. solemn sisters. Extinguished all thy lamps above. it and broad and deep in proportion. The father of Adonis had a palace here. statuaries to execute." who constituted so large a portion of the mystic number twenty-seven in a Lodge of Select Masters. To whom can I dedicate with so great propriety as to King Solomon himself. city of the wise .

William M. James Gibson. On this cliff." and my heart answers: "Amen: So mote it be!" So tin. I hear the muezzin in the minaret of the with the ah ah. No. There. correct the mistake ou nines of Tyre. Emmet Blackshear. has fallen. etc. R. chisel the Square and Compass. I sought out the entrance of carved out of the face of the cliffs high above the Phoenician tombs. J." My readers will readily or his translator. many centuries before. Holmes (now. Thomas H. Abell. John Augustus Williams. but among the who have probably since united with the lodge at Bey rout In the nomenclature of American lodges I as. A. Logan. where the only thing that ever seems to smile is the camel. attracted by the pleasing manner in which he threw his lower jaw around his upper one. to publish in the New York Sunday f Dispatch fain disport me iii this exceedingly solemn and unhilarious country. I anticipate the general approval of the following: L. found no member of the Masonic fraternity here. as I verified to-day. sounds move freedom. named below. A. G. and there cut deeply with my renowned members it to a number of active working and dedicating of the Craft. E. In my preface I alluded to the provocations to laughter that meet the traveller here.D. Cotton. and this is only a pretence. procul" of the priests of Adonis rang through this clear air. on their way to the Holy City. Robert D. "No ease: II Allah ah mosque. a mile away. Maine. So the "procul. when. A. I 30Mt haven't had a good laugh since I landed on the Syrian . for some are named Hiram A biff Lodge. silent in the grave). Win slow Lewis. with perfect Ood but God.trumpets of the Crusaders sounded as they came down this coast from Antioch. Perry. 90. Such is "1 would life. I went. too. 1099. squares of stone one of the great Before leaving Gebal. greatest In selecting appropriate names of Masons worthy to be associated with this School of Hiram's builders. Will my readers accept a little nonsense that I alas! wrote from Gebal for that genial brother. instance. I waved aloft my Masonic banner in the strong breeze blowing from the sea. John S. Cunningham. up to pat him and he bit me. in the pure air of this mountain region. Hunt. for squarers of stone.|40 MARK OF THE CRAFT. officers in the garrison several. in writing into which our French brother. town.

THE ANTEEK-HUNTEK.' and these the American Howadji testify. 141 "I came from Beyrout to Gebal the other day. I secured in good supply. no doubt. and probably the murderer of Helen Jewett. viz. for I shall open a wholesale establishment (now. and the only relics. However. etc. one para 3f Syrian sherds. The next day. I Broken crockery. I think I should have gone on purchasing buckles to the last had I not found the trade-mark " Smith & Brown" on one. chiefly to collect I was also slightly in hopes of finding the remains of the Christian tribes of Israel. I. and if I can get it all shipped to America. you must advertise for me. ' children. you have the rest) .. A number of decanter stoppers. long lost. Buckles. several crates skeptical. and upon that I sat in state. cast off by the military. at least I couldn't find anybody that knew anything about it. therefore.' Poor. firmness mingled with suavity (suaviter in modo. would have been extremely shocked had they understood my question when I politely inquired as to the health of their wives and would deviate even was the signal for all Gebal to gather at my quarters My with what they call 'anteeks. If you undertake to turn to the right you go over Jebel Sunnin. I got here easy enough.. Intelligence of expression. I came in eight hours. because all you have to do is to follow the coast. the court knows ' herself) has displayed. was getting cheap. who. but proud. and this full. as all Gebal will ' " My first purchases 6f anteeks were curious. and if you slightly to the left. one para for ten pieces is one-fortieth part of ten cents) . made me This. the strictest honor in dealing out small change. these are the true principles (if for traffic in 'anteeks. I felt.' And such antics as the bare-legged fellows do cut when they call on you! Try to realize the condition of the American Howadji trading for anteeks. cost me quite a handful of ten-para pieces. " arrival as you know. I took an extensive walk . but rather ancient as a book of travels. avowedly from Phoenician tombs. guide-book that speaks of it is the Holy Writings good authority. some eight thousand feet high (one thousand of it solid snow-banks). without the intervention of Jonah's whale. however. Nobody seems to have been here before. and took lodgings in a house kept by three priests. secured the golden opportunity. rigged up a seat upon an upright stone by covering it with all my overcoats and blankets. I Dignity is not wasted even on Arabs. you experience Jonah's fate. yet the severest decision in requiring an honest compensation .

Query: Did the ancient Phoenicians slosh around and break things as they do in Alabama ? But this discovery stopped If not. and a great many objects out of nature. but . and brought them that I didn't in. portraits. and I wonder that even that fellow o goes out on the top of the Mohammedan mosque every little to scream out <Hu Mah !' didn't stop to laugh as he saw it t went the bare-legged old gray-beard. Had the mainspring of his zeal been the love of science. one to get me to the . and began to inquire for Coins? At this. " Of genuine relics and antiques (let me be serious for a moment) I procured a good supply. bare-legged barnacle. etc. around. they told Hassan the very earth was old coins. I bought. and several elegant carvings in marble. are stamped know there was so on them. if I bought them all. and under Gebal. glass which I was assured had curious inscriptions on them..142 across. Why. He had but two passions. and I should is testify. " In making my daily tour around and beneath the place (I mean the tombs so wonderfully excoriated beneath the surface). Agassiz himself might well defer to him. I saw that I Still. " brass Having bought up all the buckles. yet the old coins of Phoenicia and her conquerors were what I had come for. until nature and my small change were exhausted. and then I closed my purchases. that used to come down this road some 2. in his right hand a longitemmed pipe. BARE-LEGGED BARNACLE. inscriptions. the modern Giblites sneered. ancient coins. seals of various devices. I insisted that. in various stages musket-flints. if upon oath. often Howadji was amazed. under the elephants of Antiochus. who clung to me from first last with unwearying devotion. together tacks. Every object in nature. salable as the articles they had been furnishing me admittedly were. The began to ask himself what and emblems abound. could convey such burdens. anl bought. I was guided by an old.300 years ago. Then they went of dilapidation! out for a few hours. in the form of tear-bottles. funeral lamps. cornelian scarabaei. was making no headway. in the best state of preservation. It was the funniest sight in the rorld to look at my procession. and bought. and conveyance. tops of pewter buttons. why so many broken vessels ? that one-half the soil further purchases of sherds. Names. broken crockery. with a considerable quantity of beads.t was the love of backsheesh. but sadly mutilated. I must honestly aver much specie of the copper coinage in the whole world as there is here among the ruins of Gebal.

He excavation lined with loculi or places for the dead. the other to get could see anything. So from ruin to ruin we wandered now looking sadly at a group of sarcophagi wherein once lay the beloved dead. He ' Sojer man come to me say. not having the least idea but that the language is eminently chaste and proper. This dialect of our common tongue is formed chiefly out of nouns. now creeping into an says. to . still worse. That interesting localities. but as there is no Sunday gaper published at Gebal (nor for that matter any other). did not supervene. Next came Hassan. 141 me away from them before 1 This Howadji never did so much tall walking to so little purpose in his life. used only for water-troughs and baser purposes . Beyrout. or. as in following old Backsheesh the first day.BLUNBEKS OF HASSAN". who was all the time interpreting Arabic into hassanic English. with a few It has every element of sublimity near to profundity adjectives. of course. however. broken to pieces. who destroyed chapiters. he took matters more into his own hands. solid rock. and sarcophagi. say no. and as no strangers ever visit the place. I dare not tell you how many have followed me about Gebal. now plucking an extraordinary specimen of the anemone. which crimsons all these hills as with the blood of Adonis. But as there are only six hundred people here. it is of less importance. make no mention of it to the discredit of the American Howadji. You will. you can easily make the estimate. courteously excuses me from taking off my boots. people are so skeptical of persons travellers' tales. and seats me in the Lewan. he wore it five days in succession. my interpreter. big irons on my leg.' now twisting my lame ankle round a boulder until I seem to have more than the usual number of joints in it. " Next to Hassan come the rabble. the place of honor . is a subject of gratitude. because everybody buys one of them for his sins . Hassan is telling me how to smuggle a few okes of G-ebal tobacco into . sunstroke. who invites me to his house. I fear that some of my company were disreputable characters. all cut into the sipping coffee with some G-iblite gentleman. Next to the guide came the subscriber. or at the least ophthalmia. with ruthless hand. pillars. now standing DOW by some high wall anathematizing the barbarism of its builders. Me you tobakky got ? say to you. you You tell him go way dam fool go hell he go? tobakky got? And all this the fellow tells me with perfect gravity. Then he irons. and certainly no living man can beat it. Let me give you a specimen. which he bought at Smyrna. now chaffering for an 'anteek. Afterward. He was ornamented with a red cap.

The darlings. cry. now sitting. it is a good six feet wide until you meet the camel with his two bales of cotton. three granite columns. a little east of the narghileh establishment half-way up the the to hill. ing. as they did mine. Ask him While I was at Gebal. if you you will have no ' will only difficulty in tracing follow the directions/ in getting round greatly exaggerated by their neglect 'to follow " Well. avoiding as far as you can those eight donkeys that are always coming round that particular corner with their loads of stone from the quarry. smile and pass on. Let us suppose you starting out at some well-marked locality near the in the city say at the corner where the blind beggar sits. They are saying something in Arabic that is doubtless a blessing on the stranger's head. and I took advantage of the opportunity to increase my stock of He was evidently in knowledge. On now to throw stones at arms are not strong enough to hurt you much. a native musician of some note was favoring the people with his performances." right again to the second or third turning to the who sells bread. Avoid that camel he snapped at me one morn. . it. though they may break your spectacles. Now way The embarrassment experienced by some. and come round the new barracks. for the New York Dispatch and its million "As you or some friend may desire to call on me while I am domi- ciled here. and conning over the past and his the glories of Gebal till the sun goes down and the jackal begins room to write out the adventures of the and I return to . then.people our Oriental city directions.' is my residence. So far you have made a good start Uow enter that street don't call it a mere drain. who had a little dark cellar near the oastle for while the audience enjoyed the music they were naturally . If they you. partnership with a coffee-seller. . I will give you explicit directions for finding my boardinghouse.|44 build HUNTING THE HOWADJI. to relieve aching foot. take the blind beggar on your left shoulder. Look back. their little On usually you will find there a man (in Arabic) to direct you to my house. of labor was necessary to conundoing in a day what years over the blue sea and struct now from some high place looking that steamer whose prow points westafter heaving a homesick sigh ward now walking over the piles of granite columns in the harbor . my American Howadji readers. where the boys are playing marbles.

! . He would sing a minute or two (I shall ! ! . It-was a real treat to watch that fellow and his proceedings. My God And it . I always " treated the crowd" with cigarettes and tucky hospitality coffee. lay an Arabic book. it turned to sweetness as I drained it ! marvellous scholar has to me in November. and I sat facing him. . bid me not to quaff of it.FIDDLER AND HIS FIDDLE. I : once mixed a harsh cup. 145 stimulated to buy tobacco and coffee. and rasp that broad string. The rest of the company squatted on the ground. and sipped and smoked at my expense. and I had hopes he was going off into an epileptic fit. On his knees. " Thou who every draught alike dispensest. One of the songs. I stumbled on the establishment one morning. of which I made found afterwards in Brother W. for me to drink from it. This cup of anguish sore. until he turned purple in the face. 1871. A stool was always brought for me. One glance * at Him. He had a sort of fiddle with one string. But such a string It was an inch or two wide. Then I of all the bad things I had ever done. raised about four feet from the floor. ! . The news that comes 10 . earthen platform. thought Hassan translated for me. Then my hands went up to my ears. K. sometimes as high as fifteen or twenty cents for the lot. describe Arabic music in future chapters) at the top of his voice. smile. Alger's poetical version of Eastern poems. Just such men had sat and sung and listened here ages before Romulus with his copper plowshare drew the boundaries of Eome. front teeth missing. But I didn't begrudge it. it. He eat on an . that this amiable gentleman and gone deranged through excessive study. a shirt on only this and nothing more. And such a bow the wooden part of it like an ox-bow From a and such hairs with which it was strung mane and tail every one of them else whence the hideous donkey's bray that fiddle made ? The man had one eye. as he sat.* He gives it thus but I must say it didn't sound at all like it notes. on which his blind eye was steadily fixed the good one watching me. and was so entertained thereby as to return to it It was rather expensive to me for in the spirit of Kenfrequently. has excited th sympathies of a great circle of friends and brethren. Or pour away the dregs and the deadliest half of it " But still the cup He held and seeing He ordained it. folio. and this involved an outlay. and repented of them. when he would suddenly stop. was full of acrid bitterness intensest The black and nauseating draught did make me shrink from And cry.

1137). about sundown. on the Tigris. and. chief of the Saracens (born at Takreet. Mamoun was the son and (unworthy) successor of Aaron the Great (Haronn-al-Raschid). I spent a good I many hours in the old Church of St George. at certain hours of the day. from the leering and sensuous smiles of Hassan and the other man ought not to hear. A. and Gerard the Crusader. In this venerable fane have stood the feet of Godfrey. only stone *nd wood. In one sense the custom works well for . I was hurrying to dinner. who have a practice here of praying by the graves of husbands." entirely in their women. Glory gilds their sepulchres and embalms their memories. first King of Jerusalem. and found pathway through the cemetery blocked these . evening. 1187. Yet this is auditors. were such as a married characteristic of Eastern verse. they throw stones at graveyard. fastened together with lime and iron. I suspect. until it became almost dark." and Tancred. was thronged with women. Hattin fatal Friday of July. never to be obliterated on the page of history. The subjects selected were more usually amatory. And there they "sot and sot. who chose rather to die than inflict dishonor on the holy cause he professed. and Haroun-ulFor El Raschid and his Nights' Entertainment on the other. The ordinary dress of the women has much in mourning up by bad manners for a man to interrupt women in the In fact. to which have before alluded. they always wear clean white clothes in the graveyard. occupying all the eligible hollows and shady places. you if you do. Into this church has entered Salah-ed-deen (Saladin). The cemetery of Gebal was right under my windows. but the theory is divine. though the materials of which it is composed are of the coarsest. facts So the material making up the inspired narrative are but commonplace. he who "increased the glory of his people when like a giant he put on his arms for the fight .D. parents. and the dirty sans-culotte who thus afforded merriment connected us by a simple tie with El Mamoun and the Pyramid of Cheops on the one hand. When I explore one of these ancient churches. of whose death-dealing arm we shall read when we come to the field of slaughter. One enveloped concealing garments. It is considered my and really look handsome at a distance. I am affected by the thought that it presents a parallel to the Scriptures in this: the thought it embodies is divine. children and friends. In the middle of it was a small summer-house which.146 CEMETERY OF GEBAL.

common shirt) 147 with that of the men. "looked out of the window" (as Jezebel did at Jezreel. skinny. and eggs. and seeing who it was. that I boarded. it by the gallon. and so entered my room. tattered garment.. a few centuries back. and then. etc. somewhat in the style of our Patron-Saint John the Baptist. I looked in upon him one morning'. A heavy iron knocker adorned that door. a lamp. cotton and silk clothes. One of the priests. sitting on the ground. per haps marking the resting-place of some early disciple of the Crucified . 30). and so confined myself to a few pounds of the tobacco for which Gebal has been famous ever since tobacco was introduced here. My host had a visitor. I struck the knocker three times. I pushed the gate open. another having a small quantity of The variety sold in these miscellaneous collections of shanties called bazaars. fish. with a bushel of dirty wheat lying on a fine cloth before him. 2 Kings ix. mutton. with some muscular effort and fearful squeaking of hinges. the list is as long as my arm. fruit I . who used to show me through the bazaars and persuade me to buy things. reading his breviary and keeping time by the motion of his body and the droning of his voice. bought of a man here a simple. plain cross. and the mat on which Father Yusef sat. grapes. small and cbeap quinces. No house in the Holy Land has more than one door. of some Maronite priests. figs. is something remarkable. . a reverend old gentleman. This was in the second story of the house. first story. A large wooden door opened from the street. etc. rather. apricots. When I wanted to enter. rice. mounted the stone stairs to the top of the house. cut in marble. Close by him women were one with a few oranges. little commission on These Oriental bazaars shall have full description in future chapters. or his assistant Latoof. domestic utensils . But I discovered he was allowed his my purchases. selling seated. The private room of my landlord was furnished scantily enough. and saw three old presses. pulled a cord which lifted a heavy wooden latch. I saw in this one an old man wrapped in a coarse. with voluble tongue and winning behavior. I was glad when they left and I could proceed to I my dinner. the lower being the stables. generally Father Yusef. pomegranates.MY GEBAL LANDLORD. or. and other beef. hired a room. raisins. olives. poultry. remarked before. a small box. while in Gebal. a dirty white tunic (vulgarly called bound round with a leathern girdle.

It is a charming memory of Gebal. and breaking in the most beautiful and majestic manner. Both these rare objects were burned marble^ exquisitely wrought three years afterward in the great fire at Chicago. of the evenings. so that a bag that Then. foaming. aud gives It way to the solemnity of the seas constantly doing their work. the creamy mass of foam tossed by the sparkling waves. rapidly pushing each other. the hyena. noiselessly could be compressed in my hat covers a space of twenty-five feet in circumference. a faumis. but think I could . the evening star. throw. more than I can describe. was a constant source of interest to : who stood. but so abundantly supplied with teeth of a shark. I can never forget it. a little ways in Of one I made this note his net is cleared watch the fishermen the sea. and was so pleased with the experiment that he kept trying until he invented the tainly. The sea-line night breaking in around here presents a constant succession of novelties. the sun throwing a shadow behind him. as again and again they roll majestically in to the shore. and a glorious me. its empty glories. to walk alone around the old Ph<Eniaccustomed when I was cian harbor. The sea. On another occasion the waves were rolling. One. in Parian Also. The world retires with its noisy discords. it Now is but what business has here. I found the dead body of that enemy of flocks and herds. Now the jaws not very large. he makes hia The net opens aud spreads as it goes. out of its element. Taking advantage of the ripples made by the wind. naked. that I sawed my riding-stick through upon one of them in a jiffy . that gourmand of the flesh of asses. I have not time to learn the art. or on a jutting column. Now a jelly-fish. to me throw with one turn of his right hand. its poor shows.14g REFRESHING MEMORIES. a fragment of an elegant statuette. that eater of grain when meat cannot be had. the sun descending magnificently goon follow'ed by the whole host of the heavenly lights. even as Talus performed that exploit with the jaws of a serpent. and with much dexterity. and riding over each other in merry play like the sea-gods of old gambolling among the isles of the JEgean. up in Lebanon smooth as the clearest down a mouthful of Uanc-mange. Cer- On one occasion had no idea that the Baltimore oyster lives near Gebal. The sound of a convent-bell high sometimes affected into it. he runs the shore until he sees a school for a and prepared along of fish. an oyster-shell (the ostrea edulis). about sundown. crooked. mirror. gathered on his left arm. and soon to be swallowed by the gulls strangely as one would gulp me to tears. I first iron saw.

but how should they appreciate the difference ?) they often came to me with their wants. dovetailed with connected Of the jackals I write.PAGES FROM MY DIARY. I say. Of the effect of the sunlight upon this cretaceous stone and soil. M. getting up. the glare of the sun waxed hot " upon the calcareous rock seeming almost to blear my eyeballs. as old Izaak Walton so often acknowledged. lighting a candle. whose dismal howlings rent the air. and this may be seen. I made hundreds of notes under the excitement of the moment. and fumbling for my pencil expressly to do so. which none but a sailor could have taught him. Our missionary friends down there at Beyrout. anything smaller than four-line pica fails to serve them without glasses. subjects. some worthy of record. I soon had to " stop looking for specimens after 10 A. As the Giblites know I am a Doctor (not M. and divide my piece of ginger-root with them. by a shrewd discerner. the boys in the bazaars. and little Dropping upon an urn their marble tears.. John. that my slumbers on that stony couch were disturbed by the jackals. however.D. was to look serious.. in the character of Peter. in printing books for them. All I could do. feel the pulse. Some tourists delight to corrupt these unsophisticated youth. From a hilly knob just above the town I write it is a stirring scene the gazelles playing in the valleys. that I was glad to believe he himself didn't know what it meant. and those other " fishers of men. and subdued the wave. This labor promotes meditation. they prove themselves apt One of them has learned a compound English oath of four hundred horse-power. Of . I notice. 149 do it with practice. another one repeated to me an expression so obscene. and hard enough to raise the sheet-anchor without a windlass . Even for this they seemed thankful. : sarcophagus. The natives suppose every American to be a hakeem (doctor). always acknowledging my kindness by the tender scholars. partridges running up the hillsides. though not to be I append a page or two. I quote Faith. they scarcely distinguish the letters. No wonder these people have weak eyes. use a type extremely large . and a very little surgical and medical skill makes the traveller extremely useful to them. when I show these people my pocket Bible. seeming to threaten me with a penalty for intruding on their ancient dominion." born on the shores of Galilee. James. with her torch beside. late one night. elegantly carved. I say. along these territories of the old Phoenician : Whose A Of a " iron arm did make the mighty world reach of beauty." cupids Southey. perhaps.

a plowing with two little oxen. mules make about eighteen miles. The Crusaders. and the blooded Arabian who gallops one hundred a day. first ate and described Afterwards sugar-cane. word backsheesh. The fellow who did it hadn't much in the centre of his skull. by some stupid treasure-seeker. As other flowers. it is well to compare the standards used at different times in this country. near Jericho. etc. The people below here are cutting i planting joints of sugar-cane. A worn into it by Roman chariots in the days of the wheelbarrow couldn't now be trundled over it without & cost him twewty napoleons running north of Jimia Bay. * * * * * * cyclamen Whose Old. Rather it deepens as it lies. in 1098. under the belief that in te centre of the skull is a rich deposit. and kissed. as they came to ch. In giving my measurements of distances.. One man. Numbers of camels were winding down the itam-side laden with squared stones for buildings at Bevrout liusan says the camel here is worth from $100 to $125 for a goo'd one. cornices. pale white blossoms at the tips are pink. still . and this bloom Will never whiten for despair. and entablatures are thrown together with common stone to make walls for the fields. All travel here is ordinarily so slow that the dromedary who carries the mail at the rate of six miles an hour.710 of a geographical mile. I say: these elegant mouldings. Of the uncounted mass of art-treasures. to-day. own The Roman mile was : m . are prodigies in comparison. recalls Sveboda's description of a similar attempt to find gold and silver.150 PAGES FROM MY DIABT. by boring into the head the stone statue at Pergamos. The sight of a great cavity bored in the monstrous ashlar in the castle.689 " German mile 4. (All else as driven snow) And mind me of my true love's lips. JL^SS 8U ^ l ** The old Roman ?!? ridin iows the ruts road. " Arabic mile 1. Love is triumphant.055 " Turkish mile 0. Asia Minor.000 The average caravan journey with camels is reckoned at about sixteen miles per day . the hues they wear. it does not lose. mpire. Amongst the flowers the cyclamen. scarcely larger than a pair of yearKentucky. fragmentary and heaped np on every hand. became so fond of it as to cultivate the plant and erect large >r grinding and purifying it. with our 0. kept. and recall the lines *Tis most common here 1 note I choose to give. This flower that purples when it dies.

I not an artist ? To-day I first saw that the ancient custom of hauling the coasting vessels on the shore for repairs. which they went through well enough. for 150 cups. The town of Junia is beautifully located. smile in token of approbation. the thundering roar of the breakers making its walls quiver. As I saw the drill-master wanted an excuse to speak to me. the blue and grand sea. A cave. A mile north of it is a place of romantic interest. such a method is indispensable. I told him to invite the soldiers to coffee at my expense. is in the hillside.vessels in sight .PAGES FROM MY DIARY. On a coast like this. do not wonder the rich citizens of Beyrout like to reside here in warm weather. traces of an arch inclosing it with faint lines around the top. . or for wintering and storms. This made the lance-corporal so happy that he snickered. I watched the exercises of the soldiers here to-day. and good enough for him. which he did. partly artificial. Could they have kept their eyes off me. the interminable line of telegraphic wire connecting this retired nook with the outer world . is how much ?) SILVER PENNY OF TIBERIUS. is still kept up. A number of them were thus disposed of a few miles from Gebal. I offered him one of Hassan's cigarettes (I don't smoke myself). danger I 151 to the wheel. they would have done better but every time the drill-master rested for an instant. while one hundred and fifty mouths watered to do the like. where the workmen were calking and repairing them. an ancient ruin crowning a high point near by . with four sail. and it would have shocked old Baron Steuben to see how quick he (the drill-master) lighted it and commenced smoking. at an outlay to me of a tr-fle less . why was than a dollar (6 mills a cup. the magnificent Lebanon in the rear. and got a cut for it from the drill-master's ratan. a palm-tree on another eminence and . one hundred and As I saw they wanted me to fifty pairs of eyes made me their focus. about three hundred feet from the beach. in a sheltered cove. 1 smiled every time. particularly in the Manual of Arms. where no docks can be built.




(Isaiah xxxiii. keeping ward and watch over the world below.DIVISION FOURTH -LEBANON. children. Lebancn ashamed and hewn down . there seems to be a conscioui majesty about them stand. and And the trees. desolate. the broad sun Hangs o'er sainted Lebanon. Whose head in wintry grandeur towers. as represented in the robbed. Lifting their dreamy tops : far into the heavens. As Lebanon's Is small mountain-flood rendered holy by the ranks its Of sainted cedars on banks. 19). and spoiled. widow amidst well-known coin of Vespasian. how beautiful comes on stilly hour when storms are gone. a child is may count them. And whitens with eternal While summer in a vale of flowers Is sleeping rosy at his feet. a friends. once so numerous that everybody in the land had heard of them. 9). are now so few that. Like a glory. and almost every one had seen them. calm. How The Palestine sits. sleet. as Isaiah predicted (x. they Like earth's gigantic sentinels Discoursing in the skies. the graves of husband.

great and small. where the foundries were established. on the head-waters of the Kadisha (the Sacred River). First. in the grove at that place." Following the order already commenced. to whom the work of temple-building was familSecond. readers to Tyre. There are about five hundred trees. where everything was con- summated. iar. though not quite so large as the others. CLIMBING UP LEBANON". has been transmitted to us through journals. I led them to Gebal. of which such large quantities were used by King Solomon. the reader may expect to be conducted successively to the bay in which the cedars were gathered into rafts ment ("flotes") . the Localities. were at a point about three days' journey northeast of Beyrout. however. whence came the Pillar and his multitude of skilled of Strength. where they were drawn ashore for land-ship. it was thought that the only remains of the once abundant forests of cedars that crowned the caps of Lebanon.CHAPTER X. and lofty tops travellers' many a glowing account of their immense trunks. the seat of the Schools of Architecwhence came out that wisest of ancient Builders. King Hiram. HE third to of the S*ren is Urand Masonic my system. Mount Lebanon. particularly one within a The day's journey of Beyrout. but for his palace in Zion. in edifice which this material was so largely employed that the was called " the house of the forest of Lebanon. the source of the cedar-trees. Hiram Abif. I took my In the present division I shall discuss Lebanon. Until within a few years. employes. to the clay-grounds in the plain of Jordan. large groves of the same trees have been discovered. are of the same . not only for the construction of the Temple. that flows into the Mediterranean Sea near Tripoli Latterly. to Joppa. and finally to Jerusalem. both in operative and speculative Masonry. in its entire range. ture. and nearly due east of Tripoli. according site of the cedars. their and spreading foliage. It was there that travellers sought them. trees here.

. and give a delightful zest to the undertaking. as and amply repays the visit of the tourist. get followed by his faithful servant Asaph (pronounced Hasaf. so very useful a weapon in the dark !) and the dogs. the way. from Beyrout to see them. French miles in length (equal to about seventy-five American miles) and is passed over in fourteen hours .. month own waking up by the primitive process a good cup of coffee and a bite. The way out of Beyrout is by the French turnpike towards Damascus. lantern in hand. afford delightful sensations. or only avoids that penalty by a heavy backsheesh to the As we walk down the narrow lanes (which by being called streets) the only living objects met by us are the police (who are soldiers carrying muskets. Over this one stage-road I passed. diligence. lie out at and bark at all who approach them. perHallock. equal It is an excellent road. down to the stage-office. in which the The thick groves of olive traveller is never out of sight of the sea. The latter.M. There is only one stageand Palestine. nights officer who arrests him. in company with Brother Samuel Hallock. This I followed for twenty-five and a half French miles. Wheels are a superfluity here legs have the monopoly. to about eighteen of ours.M. and for this good reason. from Beyrout to Damascus. April 25th. accent on the last syllable). Some of these valleys around which the road winds. a earlier. species 157 of cedar.M. with the heavy snow-banks that crown the mountain-tops before you. pronounced dily-zhonce) starts for Beyrout at 4 A. and go. of course. on my journey from Beyrout to Damascus. and the increasing coolness of the breeze. as termed here. only one road on which a stage could travel. who has all insured his of sitting A son in any Oriental city caught out after dark without a lantern goes to prison. being extremely mountainous. are deep and impressive. take away from the monotony of ordinary travel. I arise at 3 A. are over-honored . a description of my stage-ride. Brother line in all Syria . another botanist styles I started it. The stage (or. To sert here. perfectly smooth. or Pinus Cedrus. and mulberry trees around Beyrout.. The road is 110 1868. as give an accurate account of travel upon these mountains. the cultivated terraces.BEGINNING A STAGE-RIDE. being called by my host. and the thousand novelties of which one never gets weary. viz. having no owners. while the variety of travellers. March 26th. up night. and propose now to make report of my journey. ascending the whole way in a romantic serpentine. and arrives at Damascus at 6 P. I inthe most fitting place. the Cedrus Libani.

and child . and screaming out in French " heep. YELLAH past the stonecutters' shops where yesterday I saw the descendants of the ancient "Giblites" at their devices. At this season the stage is so much in demand by must be engaged several days in advance. the pleasantest berth of all. and a place still further back among the baggage where a dozen or more can sit. YELLAH all I manner right through the public square. YELLAH past the office of the American Consul. is My driver. On top there is a seat for four immediately behind the driver. Johnson. as I peer over the driver's upon the morning ! head sky beyond. the assistant driver. each one squatted upon his hams in true Oriental style. . A. to me. yellah. near which all cword in hand. at the top of his voice. 101 piasters. The whole diligence nearly as large and quite as heavy as an ordinarily sized Masonic seat is on deck. uncomfortably. and as mine weighed eleven I pay a piaster and a half (nine cents) extra for that My stage-fare. YELLAH into a narrow lane and up a hill. his national coat-of-arms appearing faintly over the gate. cabin. By the way. J.00 in The stage-office our currency.j58 YELLAH! TELLAH! TELLAH! is a room twelve feet by eight. beside the lodge-room in the United States. Seven mules. shouts yellah. I and cheaper than in the lower room below is occupied by a Syrian. The front vant. whose business it is to manage the brakes. from where in the day-time trading horses to cheat- ing us Franks in the purchase of antiques. Seats are arranged in four compartments. the kind and ! gentlemanly Mr. is equal to about $4. it will Our seven quadrupeds go off like a shot . Pale. modern parlance it only means go ahead. with the tail-end of the ! constellation Scorpio right before me. serthe back room by a Turk with his hareem. The seven mules are started by the driver coming down in his seat with a concussion like a heavy rock. is weighed. of professions are followed. I am told. his wife. defender of so great a nation. was originally intended as blasphemy. got a sight at the women at breakfast-time. The lower story is ditravellers that seats vided into two rooms. I recommend my readers to try it. draw the diligence. like bundles of old pinks that is about the way they look. three abreast. sickly. but in stimulate into motion even the most obdurate. and tickets sold accordingly. but am not tempted to a second peep." If that word has the same effect upon horses accustomed to the English language. as becomes the armed day sits his military guard. and faded. in which the baggage I am allowed a weight of ten okes (whatever that means). This word.

faithful to ! their trust as any lodge-tyler. ! Its grade is road-level of a nowhere (except in one place) more than the ordinary good highway. to gain the short cuts.M. about 5 A. I discover. winds feet in altitude. By this time the toiling world has fully commenced its day's work. A A with two wires. we address ourselves. to the ascent of Lebanon. and milea mile of length to gain a quarter in height. ind along the lanes lined with the great cactus-leaves. past Let me read a Biblical passage it is good to go up the sides of Lebanon with the "Word of God in one's mouth " The glory of Lebanon shall come unto thee. often returning almost into itself. each drawn by three mules tan- . reminding me by of the Prodigal Son. and skirting the more palm-trees and more sycamores. though to get over the range. when a little boy at my mother's knee. and I will make the . telegraph-line. YELLAH past the three palm-trees on the left and the two on the ! forest of pine-trees planted here centuries ago the great Fakah-ad-din. variety. but often leaves it for a while. each strong enough for a dozen of Zaccheus. in like a serpent. and past those carob-trees. then a lot of camels piled up with rawhides. traversing stone (of French measure) is set for every mile. 159 YELLAH! past the dwellings of Beyrout's aristocracy.ENGINEERING OVER LEBANON. and we are meeting it in endless First an old man driving his loaded donkey.000 fact. which is one. In three hours we have attained to the twenty-fifth milestone. the pine-tree and the box together to sanctify the place of my sanctuary. then a long succession of covered wagons belonging to the telegraph company. YELLAH past the big sycamore trees holding their great limbs ! horizontally out. and through more lanes of the prickly-pear and right. some 8. all things come round at last " The French engineers did their work well in building this road. Lightning. and through the interminable mulberry groves with which the suburbs of Beyrout are planted. the task is a serious The road.. can go up hill by a steeper grade than the most diligent diligence. each with ita verandas with galleries. its orange-groves in the trickling grounds of water from the fountains in the court. : place of my feet glorious. "At last . accompanies it in the main. and now at the foot of the mountains." And shall I this day in good truth pass over Lebanon ? Forty-five years ago I read that passage in Isaiah. YELLAH past the last military station on the borders of the city. then a cavalcade of mules heavily laden . the fir-tree. and queer eyelet holes.

as the mulberry is always pollarded and trained to a few horizontal limbs near the ground. however. overcoats.. that the houses are built of stone. black. sometimes only five. all seems desolate and unculti. and the snow so hard as to bear advance. Tis curioug. my the place of the mulberry. dem. cheap boarding!." as the Scriptures figure especially The picture is the reverse of the locust image . that I reached it. etc. Grain is shooting greenly from every flat. etc. By nine o'clock I am nearly at the" top. see a jackal dirty deeds of darkness. The reason. however. At the stations all the Arabs of to the character of the grade. on which. About daylight we prairie-wolf. but. mulberry-trees. usually putting six ing with tongue and hands. to ask where these people livt-. the vicinity gather in. No meat. nothing few of the thin. is. and promising its owners an hundredfold. fig-trees. at this season. The to shout and fasten the rope-harness the mules horses are in general miserable. The two classes are easily distinguished from each other. after five hours of steady What a magnificent valley is this on left! grand climbing. fallen enormously deep up here. unleavened cakes. before you seems the desert. olivetrees. At the foot of the mountain I had observed the snowy top in in one instance eight. what a mistake ! every square rod of ground is cultivated.. as you ascend it. No thick. as in our country. which is the native bread. at Beyrout it was too warm for any of them.jgQ LOOKING BACK. for. . by millions striking their roots into this soil. Now the driver and his assistant eat their breakfast but a . and even now the banks are very the weight of a horse. We on change our own team every hour. apparently quite near . being raised only for the leaves. He sneaking into a ravine from his reminds me for all the world of a vated Looking up the mountain-flanks. and every one helps. and wrappers. look better. half-fed beasts . windows. to the eye for want of chimney -smoke. worn-out. accordhorses or mules. grass is thickly growing. looking backwards from this height. no cheese. They are not distinguishable etc. the mountain.. used in this country. but it was not until nearly nine had come thirty miles. the latter " sucking oil from the flinty rock. heavy. no drink of any kind. behind you the garden. with flat roofs covered with earth. Snow has o'clock. and I wonder it is although so cold here as to require gloves. for while surveying a vast area of cultivated land you don't see a single house. indeed and here the fig-tree takes .

horses. and coffee. at the stagebarn. the large walnuts (what we call English walnuts). small but excellent. the Here. soil. It they having basketsfull of their own. from ten to fifteen was worth it. We pass the crown of the mountain about half-past nine. Going down Lebanon. to which the sight of a stage-coach drawn by six horses is a novelty. In meeting the loaded animals their conductors have great difficulty in dragging. the surface of the road into compactness. Lebanon figs. which lies under the sun from my position. fried meat. One poor donkey. No other passengers partake." as the dew that descended upon the mountains of Zion to cast my eyes upon ! often have I read that passage and longed that memorable height. staggering under a load of sacks that almost concealed him. and cursing them out of the way. and so regulates we arrive safely in the valley of the Bukaa. Here in Coelosyria I hope to catch a glimpse of Mount Hermon. The assistant. of the richest Coelosyria. as if to find a retired spot for escape. with two assistants to run along and whip them. may be rolling down Mount Lebanon yet." or breakfast. donkeys. nor how in all the day's ride can I feast my vision upon it. and. Great crowds of travellers. YELLAH to 11 . here eight horses are scarcely able to drag us up. and about forty miles off. An officer with thirty foot-soldiers." a magnificent prairie-plain. I get my "dej'euner. ' As the dew of Hermon and . 161 this road are of splendid mason-work. and mules. and everybody bawling yellali at the forty minutes. Camels. They twist their long curly necks in every direction. A half-hour to eat it in. oranges from the Sidon gardens. miles wide. It quite takes my breath away to look out from my top of his voice. They are greatly disturbed at our appearance. was knocked endwise by our carriage over the parapet. five of them maKe a French franc). the motion that ancient " however. on torrents of these ! elevated seat in the parquette. pushing. meets me. holds the handle of our brakes. The courses were fish. for which I pay twelve piasters (they call them herrish . wine of the best. These Arabs do cuss amazingly. all in gay spirits. made to press to resist their erasive power. The heavy mountains demand the strongest kind of conduits An immense machine. and with difficulty are made obey their masters' voices and keep the road. But I look in vain. a caravan of camels. all in cultivation. stewed meat. what speed ten miles in Full gallop.DINNER IN The culverts C^ELO-SYRIA. for aught I know. No private conveyances are met on this road. Good gracious.

ru usi. either in unison or in octaves. mounted on splendid A Their saddles are gayly decorated with yellow tasselling . Both sexes have These women trudging over I dare not measure with the eye. such as would occupy a child at the very earliest age when melody attracts his mind. however." conies up and sits by my side. I don't understand the words. who has Mostly an entire song is limited to three full accompanying semitones. in which the smoke is drawn cold water. It is the very infancy of music. and rendering the habit less Were it not that I have been so loud in denouncing the of tobacco all even use a my life. melancholy monotone for half the night. It abounds in shakes. My Syrian evidently enjoys his own gifts. drawling. " his family in the coupee. The women whom their arms. the slightest idea. and carry theishoes in their hands . Accompanied. Everybody carries eigarette papers and a box of matches. tones. Arabian Lorsea company of gentlemen. and of which no language of mine can afford One of the Syrians.HJ2 SONGS OF THE PASSENGERS. Considered as music it is fearful. played upon by a bow. their large music . by an instrument of one string. who occasionally pitch in. with all the their legs bare to a height that dignity of slippers. with its People here smoke cigarettes. as it sometimes is. their riders are proud to put shovel-stirrups ring out a merry them to their paces. but all singing the same notes. Everybody here rides with short stiirup- which do not add to equestrian gracefulness. and I don't want to. I am when people puff can really scarcely tell now when this millet-flavored weed is consuming around me. all the time necessity to intermit the when not compelled by some urgent amusement In travelling they smoke are smoking another. in a sort of chorus. He sings for an hour in the monotonous style usual in this country. their lords shuffle along. and capable of only three notes. still as dried cabbage-leaves and much annoyed as tobacco-smoke into my face. the highways of Lebanon are about as good-looking as Indian squaws of the squaw-class. I through niv. I meet are generally barefoot. these Arabs will continue it in a long. At home they smoke the narghikh. and so do the driver and assistant. occupying their valuable time in making one while they The tobacco is about the average strength of . I reducing its might narghikh ("hubble- . strength of nicotine. Five out of six of them have children in leuthcrs. in which a particular syllable is made to do service for a whole bar or more of each.

53. and the other to get away. but with such want of agricultural skill it yields scanty returns. we begin to rise the mountains of anti-Lebanon. which indeed is very lower. The Oriental lives of these amiable and helpless beings is divided into two anxious parts. east end of the valley is another "tell. At the sixtieth milestone. This much magnificent plain is a very garden of the Lord's own spreading forth . such as often occurs in Scripture history. generally plowing on every The plow is a crooked stick. and wanting in all the beautiful terrace-cultivation. nothing like so high or steep as the other. day. forked. the cows along at the rate of a mile an hour. I forgot to mention several crowds of English and American tourists. The streams that run along this valley are all full to overflowing from the melting snows in the heights -above. . etc. It is black with browsing goats. full of passengers. one tc These folks got to Damasget to a place. bubble. upon a wooden bridge with iron railings. One hand of the plowman other prods the poor little ! with two heifers yoked together.. Oh colony of good American or European farmers.OLD-FASHIONED PLOWING. and implements of modern make! I observe that the skirts of the for a Lebanon mountains that slope towards terraced or cultivated at all. human life. the short end having an iron holds the end of the stick." away we go at a gallop through Coelosyria." green with springNear it is a Mohammedan wely or tomb. coulter. hurrying to Beyrout to or observe any signs of catch the steamer of Sunday next.M. with cattle. 16J is machine is called) myself. at noon. this beautiful valley are not Near the ing grain. pass a "tell. as I should guess from its appearance." as the consistency. of ^>he forepart of the For four hours we scarcely meet a person. But there nothing like Leaving my breakfast-place. save the numerous laborers on the and one little town on the left. Opposite milestone No. road. People side. What would the mighty conquerors of antiquity think of that ? Meet the western-bound stage from tural Damascus very numerous. We cross the memorable Eiver Litany {which I shall see again near the city of Tyre ere long). Foreign travellers this year This is at the forty-seventh milestone. at 11 A. where I had been studying the Scrip" image of the sparrow on the house-tops." or hill. and consequently warmer.. yet high enough. Such caricature of plowing The wheat and barley not advanced here as in the valley of the Mediterranean.

but all that they see except vanity and have. It is the "camel-thorn. cut out about four feet square. black. in the purest crow-English. They pay and when they get home all they can with truth tell. the fatigues.164 cuu. Travel enough life when I hear them talk of their travels. rest of my in all conscience. make quite durable material for are cheap. now upon a wide-constructed bridge of French masonry anon clear down to . it Filled to overflowing its Channel brim-full.." I think so too. dried in the sun and set upon their edges.. they vexation can be put into a pomegranate-seed. the swindles. At 105th milestone we begin to strike the River Barada. called by the French " Damas. the lies. and. followed by the curses. of the driver. wet-land tree in close clusters. and I am approaching Damascus. I first observed the basaltic rock of this range. The sycamore-trees Fig-trees in abun- A proud than the waters of Israel. No more prickly-pears. which a family had established for itself by setting up thorns round the mouth of a cave. Here. just such as I remember from a boy. If a certain distinguished Iowa gentleman were here. from the mountains in which it it all rises. and sonorous when struck. At the change of horses at milestone 85. and a terrible thorn indeed. building purposes certainly they Crows in great abundance are calling to each other. night before last All day yesterday they means to get away from there this morningfabulous sums of money to accomplish these two objects. " Es Shems. both loud and I don't deep. a ORCHARDS OF APRICOT AND PEACH. and by the natives. one of those lovely streams of which the Naaman declared " it is better : and be respected." told. Vast apricot and peach orchards in full bloom. and we follow crossing it pours through narrow Damascus. as the reward of their travels. I walked on ahead for a . know enough of the language to inquire why he is so down on the jackal probably his folks have been foully dealt with by them. it. too. Another jackal creeps up the hill. . he could sing his " crow song. am straight gigantic. and the epent in contriving the I shall grin with fiendish look for the great expenses of their tours. is the dust. metallic. begin to be made of clay-bricks. out-buildings. I . dance. The bright crimson anemone waves in charming contrast with Ten miles further. and finally the buildings themselves." without the ens. These are the adobes of the Mexican people." so called." Here the fence-walls. had conceived of in the lizard line. Saw an enormous lizard. hundred of them. out-lizarding everything I Saw an old-fashioned home.half-hour.

the change to a Lebanon bridle-way is at once . and others. Finding that there If no other way. I engraved. now pressing closely upon it. the city of Abraham and Elisha and Paul the beautiful gem where two of Mohammed's daughters lie interred the gateway to the road to Palmyra . the great inclosing wall of Mount Moriah. That day's journey gave me a new idea of the intelligence of a Syrian horse.INTELLIGENCE OF HORSES. 165 galloping along its beautiful banks under the shadows of these dense orchards . the device of the Square and Compass. now leaving it for a short distance to take advantage of some short cut. springing up a long step. there no other remedy but to remount and let the animal bear you down the hill at his own discretion. not led. placing his feet successively into crevices barely large enough for them. you get is down and attempt tomed to lead your horse. (made rough that nothing but the peculiar construction of the horse's shoea to cover the whole foot) prevented him from slipping. dropping down on two feet at a time when the descent is too great for one. smooth stone on the left-hand side of the way. the object of one of my life-long dreams Damascus. to be ridden or driven. and explains the perfect preservation of such monuments as Hiram's tomb. painfully evident. Sometimes we rounded the sides of precipices so high and steep that I was fain to shut my eyes in dismay. thus we go at head- long speed. the horse soon brings you to the foot of and prepares to mount the second. sight times observed in our own resembles those deep gullies some country. At the point where I left the turnpike. Leaving the turnpike. untarily stop You begin to At first and look around to see that the road before it descend a hill so steep that you involyou has no been abandoned. Here the peculiar training of the horse is seen in the perfect caution and safety with which he does his work. Sometimes we meandered among gigantic masses of rocks shaken from the mountains by some old earthSometimes we crossed stone bridges so narrow and quakes. on the surface of a large. made the task a painful one to wristmuscle. the oldest city in the world . Finally ' . and taking the worst places he comes to so cheerfully as to show he the accustomed to it. almost into its waters. washed out by wintry storms is from a forsaken road. the Fountains of Solomon at Etham. . Teetering from rock to rock. so narrow is the glen through which it flows . until the river Barada and our stage-coach burst forth together intc the plain of Damascus. The extreme hardness of this material. is first hill. so long exposed to the weather. But a Syrian horse accusis you are alone.

If the reader could only see of a precipice will how my hair experience of a ride up Lebanon is something never to be Roads tortuous and rocky." where the pine-tree thrusts its roots hardy deep into the rocky side of the mountain . recalling the one hundred thousand talents of iron " Chron. 26) when the Lord of hosts lopped bough with terror. of rugged ravines the crest of a steep hill in the midst of a wilderness and impracticable crags . up and down among the hills roads rocky and bad. it is a poem without words. past beds of iron-stone. over a country wild of forgotten. roads winding to all points of the compass. paths tortuous and fatiguing. a frightful rocks. And the villages crown the knobs below4 my "my face bare and stony. the other mountain-pass . " climb. Ain-Zehalteh and closed our first day's A few memorandums that I made on the point come in very well here.106 PATHS TORTUOUS AND FATIGUING. with many twisthardly prudent to ings up and down. low as the hill is high. but romantic and picturesque remain on horseback. suggested passages- was on " the highest part of the (Proverbs viii. Where the summits glitter with streaks of snow. lowly vale. ptfured from gushing some hollow vale." Here rises the Damoor. and Lebanon fell by a mighty one (Isaiah x. . this is the pinus allapenses of the botanist "As when the winter streams rush down the mountain A A and fill below. cut by hill that none but man can every rain. ways very narrow. the picture would be complete. xxix. referring to height dust of the earlh " It seemed if I . My view from this point a thousand sides springs. toiling far beyond did wax pale" (Isaiah xxix. and not far from here the Owely. the grass fails. The and wooded . 34). a fronte precipitum. sharp. . cold wind sweeping down from the snow-clad heights of Lebanon. mutum est pictura poema. stony . a bitter. which I crossed the other day going from Beyrout to Sidon. as the Latins used to say. and the high ones of stature were hewn down ^the "with iron. covered with a hundred wintry water-courses. perpendicular an inaccessible wall . village of we arrived at the stage. 7) which Israel gave (1 for the service of strength until the house of the Lord. one side dropping down upon high. and there is no green " " thing (Isaiah xv. 22) . with their swift waters. and the risk of rolling over with the horse is imminent . the cliff before and the wolf behind j aspect. going high " up where the hay withers away. as the precipices are frightful. a tergo lupus. stood on end with fright while writing them. 6) .

Kentucky. and their average weight was 240 Ibs. Doubtless it was so in Hiram's day. Old Sandys remarked. Scanning this man's dress I observe. enabled me to secure pleasant accommodations with the teachers. of whom I inquire what part of these mountains no man can pass over. of the finest thoughts in Isaiah's prophecies (xiv. naturally divert attention from close examination of the writers have ities of limb features. what other remarked before. 16? In the destruction of Assyria. a company of men came down from the mountain. at Jerusalem. supposed to be . even Mt. These regular Turks seem to me generally to wear a light and florid complexion. Another man passes us. in 1852. Not a man in the company was less than six feet. at Lexington. under the patronage uf the ! Protestant Missions of the country. that the Turkish dress hides all deformand person. When a boy. in the preacher's room. sufficient bedding. slovenly fellow. They gave us the best fare at their command. while the variety of color. joins in the cry of exultation that goes up to heaven at the downfall of the kingdom. arms. I read of an herb growing along this road that colors of a golden hue the teeth of animals that browse upon it. and left us to a repose needed after the day's ride. riding blood-horses. an ill-favored.THE PEOPLE 1 MEET. Stephen's Gate. which has a pair of carved leopards on it. The men living among these crags are considerably larger and far more muscular than the dwellers in the plains. Lebanon is said to rejoice. Master Henry Clay. but I can find nobody here who ever heard of it.. and the work of cutting and removing the cedars was intrusted to the mountaineers. spread for us on the floor. in 1610: "Perhaps the cause of their strength and big proportions is that they are bred in the mountains for such are observed to oversize " those who dwell in low levels. now disused. At the interment of Past Grand . and flowing beard. A man has just passed me with yellow slippers and red shoes over them. The mountaineer replies that he can go up or down any wady on horseback that water can run through A female school recently opened here. a thing from which military officers and soldiers are debarred. resembling the lions graven on the side of St. 8) is that in which the mountain that had been widowed of its noblest trees by One Sennacherib and other Assyrian tyrants. His sash holds his pistols and sword. He has a long vener100 ! able beard. At the village of Ain-Zehalteh there is an old fountain.

a Early the next morning we took guide which. and the line of singing-birds. 8). Looking above me. cold as desires.Iftg AT THE FOOT OF THE CEDARS. also. 16). We passed and fatigue. Upon all the cedars of Lebanon (Is. remains of the Crusaders' period. but that piece of work took mounted mile after the conceit out of me forever and a day. place. ii. through the concordance. sent to the cedars (2 a cedar (Pa. Beams of our house are cedars (Cant. The mountain-air revived me in my heat have no control over to mock my the line winter. across which the winds sobbed. civ. reached the lowest. edars of Lebanon rejoice at thee (Is. and muscular system so paralyzed by the unwonted strain that I seemed to the line of vegetable and insect life. spake of trees. We passed the line of scarlet popground pies and other gay flowers. and finally mile. mountains . We the highest barley-fields. of Lebanon (Ps. the Druses. The thistle Grow like i. 13). to whose particular form of FreeI will call attention in a subsequent chapter. Now 1 came to of the snow-drifts. Here we left our horses and made the ascent on foot This is thd first time I discovered that a man's knees at fifty are not the same machinery as at thirty. vii. and devoted the first He (2 2). Again I went on. Boards of cedar (viii. from the cedar (1 . I used to be noted as a good walker and climber. the cedars appeared and withdraw as I advanced. last I At myself hour reflecting upon the time. 17). masonry and started for the cedars. several tomba of that singular people. It took us two hours' the foot of the slopes below them. 18). Kings iv. 9 2 Chr. Here I threw exhausted. as I stopped occasionally to look back and enjoy the splendid panorama of the Mediterranean Sea seen from Mount Lebanon. xiv. which once beheld can never be forgotten. standing in the snow-drifts. Some forty other references may be 9). 33). The cedars of particular connections between the cedars and the )evour the cedars of Lebanon ix. and occasion: high 12 Lebanon visit to the cedars! While recovering iny breath I referred to some of the authorities concerning these memorable trees such as these: An house of cedar Sam. it. high hard riding even to up on the mountain-side. xcii. and divided grove. traced The The cedars (Jud. symmetrically into four noble trunks. There are here. with tottering knees. and as it proved. which occupied a slope of almost perpendicular. 12). were in plain view. the largest of tin a cedar-tree fifteen feet in circumference. however. xxv. 15). Kings xiv.

is made of it. in Lev. The second and It ed of cedar. probably.. fully asserts its title. to the trees of the pine family. The King's House on Mount Zion was made of it. etc. xiv. I asked my guide the name of the tree that bent so grandly over me and . as well as in his own palace. is presen ed still among the Arabs." one who has seen it amongst the snows of Lebanon will recognize the force of the glorious and majestic imagery of the prophets. and the Assyrian in his greatness were compared to cedars. eous man is described under this similitude. 8. in his corrupt vernacular. Of the quality of the wood I need not say much . to 169 make masts for thee (Ezekiel xxvii. generally. with its gnarled and contorted stems and its scaly bark. was probably the timber of a fragrant species of juniper growing among the rocks of Sinai . etc. 5). under which I am sitting. and will quote from the description . now so scarce. but especially The cedar-tree named to the cedar of Lebanon (Cedrus Libani). as well as dark in color. Lebanon others. This great monarch of twenty or thirty centuries. hundreds of my patrons are enabled to judge of that for themselves. and found only upon spots nearly inaccessible to visitors. Every the smell of Lebanon. Its fragrance is not overlooked in such expressions as "the smell of thy garment is like The cedar was the prince of trees. as I have served good specimens to them.THE TALL CEDARS OF LEBANON.262 feet Wyoming Territory. nacular Arabic. he replied. etc. and was used by the In the days of the Old TestaTyrian shipwrights for their masts. with its dark-green leaves. the whole of this great range of mountains. 4. lofty and grand The Amorite in his arrogance the high and lifted up. with massive branches spreading their foliage rather* in layers than in flakes. but in most of the Biblical references this tree which is now shading me is doubtless meant. It is certainly close in grain. the tree of the Lord. I am here just on the level of States. Monarch of : the Forests. ment writers. as it is in the verbic to arz. Everywhere the symbolic expressions of the cedar of Lebanon are it is the glory of Lebanon. and Solomon used it very largely in the Temple. equivalent in good Ara- The word is applied in Scripture. worked well third temples were equally constructin carvings. It is The constant growth of the rightalso the model of expansiveness. at Bethany. and Tarious The Hebrew name erez. in the United above the sea-level. arruz. The roof of the Church of the Nativity.. abounded in this noble tree.

and. him under this the eagle. I could see Sidon.170 SNOW-DRIFTS. with their improved steel axes. sees the lightnings leap The view and play. twenty miles nearly in the west. I should blowing i the foot of this grand old cedar. and mounted have enjoyed a longer tarry. AND GRAVEL. and the hurricane roar Doubtless the prophet Obadiah was regarding " aspect when he wrote. ebony. geously arrayed and size. and had not the wind been so excessively cold. and a few insects. were the sun setting so that I might have the full benefit of his light. though. I saw no signs of animated nature. Villages by scores and hundreds dot the hill-si ies in every direction. at so great a distance. and a few specimens of flowers exhausted the botanical exhibit. the lighter and more delicate the colors.000 feet high. in an untroubled atmosphere. nc . thence will " bring thee down. Though thou exalt thyself as set thy nest among the stars. with gold. in the year. form. The higher the peak. Serene as the sublime ing untrodden heights around him. The view from the top of the range. 01 of a traveller there: "For nine months everlasting hills are Athens. my companion and left our overcoats at From my myself to the top of the range. 4). in his was made of cedar-wood. which is here about 8. they present every color. the sides and bedecked with the greatest summits of these of flowers that ever grew. he sails alone where the eye of man cannot pierce. through the broad spreadbranches of the cedars. precious stones. ivory. crossing deep snow-drifts. eighty miles in the northwest. far below him. piles of rocks. an exquisite gem of floral beauty. present standpoint. saith the Lord (i." Gradual as the snow at Heaven's breath Melts off and shows the azure flowers beneath. With the exception of a few pheasants or partridges that whirred out of a pile of rocks before me. were it not for yonder projecting point. and colors. at the very loftiest summits grows the palmito nivalis. of course. and though thou I and hears the thunder burst. every blow struck must be equal to six of Hiram's choppers. The throne on which statue by Phidias. adorned. is extremely grand. I could see the island of Cyprus. the statue of Jupiter Olympus sat. Ten thousand axe-men are now (the winter of 1872) chopping pines in the forests of Michigan alone. EOCKS. far. loose gravel-beds. is inspiring. Gorvariety and the grandest display in countless numbers. and other ies of mountain surface. of the great mountain-eagle. After a good rest. and. using the clumsy copper axes.

shooting its branches so magnificently abroad. and the fowls of heaven dwelling in the boughs thereof (iv. on account of its four prominent divisions. and what he expects to raise in beneath me. the beasts of the field having shadow under it. I apply four names of earth's monarchs. long since felled. I say. My guide. the very one which Daniel might in I ate heartily of the victuals we had prudently provided before leaving Beyrout. I return to chosen to be spirit have seen and described as his " tree in the midst of the earth. great divisions of this tree. viz. which. save a single plowman far turning up the earth between two snow-drifts. and the height thereof great. mostly of good size. King of Sweden : . 1868." If these epistles were received and read with half the pleasure they afforded me in the composition.TEEE OF THE' CARDINAL signs of inhabitants can VIlvTUES. my great cedar. . From all of them the Arabs have lopped oif the superfluous branches. gathered the best for fuel. cut in two. so I much sought discover any cones. I secured a large trunk of a tree. dated " On Mount Lebanon. the sight thereof to the end of all the earth the leaves fair. and then. Frederick the Great.. the Tree of the Four Cardinal Vir. and call up in succession the names of seventues. reaching unto heaven. To each one of these I wrote a letter. How he has managed to climb so high with his poor little cattle. - still less good boards. present Emperor of Germany. preparatory to sowing his late barley. as valuable additions to their cabinets. William. of France . the present Charles XV. and sent them down to Beyrout. 171 be detected. those large and handsome seedafter by travellers the natives had doubtless . my frozen hands and feet and general discomforts were amply compensated. however. and brought to me on the back of a camel. and indeed so many others as to give the entire grove a stumpy appearance. snug myself in a nook on the leeward-side of the tree. of all the trees around me. had it rolled down the mountain-side the day following my departure. the wooi. after carving the* Square and Compass deftly upon its root. I cannot tell. who in their To the four day did not deem it derogatory to their greatness to patronize the Masonic assemblies. April 26. to this tree. is who this mountain-zone. Napoleon a"nd the Great. With these I Of supplied my patrons. I named it. Returning. but none of them tall enough to furnish a mast or beam. I had my Goliath of Gath. Upon only one did vessels. The number of trees in this grove is probably a thousand. teen persons whom I have reason to remember with gratitude or kindness. afterwards collected one thousand for me. 10). perhaps not natural to it. of Prussia .

than five hundred . will be engraved cold of the mountain-air warned me away. my own cognomen. trees. as this grove As soon Porter's it Hand-Book. and from seeds of ripe cones. they are no higher than the younger trees. I again spent the night at Ain-Zehalteh. and around it are gathered the very tallest and grayest heads of Lebanon. to people it with legends. highly gratified with my successful and invigorating visit to Lebanon. Monks will conie is thoroughly " is here and build their shanties. Willebald. a hundred names in fact. Some of these trees have been struck by lightning. How glad I was to have the relief of my saddle descent. and returned next day to Beyrout. which no time at all will take discovered.172 CEDAR-GROVE ON KADISHA. yes. Though the patriarchs are of enormous growth. will be over with names. or broken by enormous loads of snow. of I and even more tedious than My very knee-caps twinge now with the remembrance I write of that slipping. than the one on Cheops' pyramid. I alluded to the great cedar-grove at Those are much the largest specimens of the Cedrus Libani known to be in existence." and gets intc the Bible of all English-reading tourists." Dr. I started The extreme upon the as the ascent. scrambling. after a good stick. So. and waving my Masonic flag to the winds of Lebanon. Thompson " The says: platform where the cedars stand is many thousand feet above the Mediterranean. and collecting an abundance of sprigs and cutting leaves. Young trees are constantly springing up from the roots of old ones. tumbling journey to the base Mount Lebanon." at the head of the Kadisha a regular itinerant directory. Every carved tree will all and retail their shenanegan around it. many of which reach a circumference of eighteen feet. Pr&fessor Tristam says of them " The trees are not too close. The whole of the upper terrace of Lebanon might again be covered with groves of those noble trees. only less adventurous need not say. From. the same as seen in the "Sacred Grove. surrounded with the dwarf round-topped pine and umbrageous carob (the name means "The spring that has moved"). great and small. grouped irregularly on the sides of shallow ravines. : they entirely confined to the -grove. The forest is not not more large. and I forget the list. which mark the birthplace of the Kadisha or Holy River. back to that . worse here. and it is quite probable that some of them even antedate the time of the Hirams. have its name. of Lamartine. or torn to fragments by tempests. nor are the head of the River Kadisha. In the opening of this article.

Seeing how few and comparatively dwarfish these are. as hewers of wood." Down at Bethlehem. They shall inarch with an army. They have been propagated by the nut or seed in many parts of Europe. the rows of unpainted beams in the old church acknowledge this forest as their source. and then " took a great stone and set it up there under an oak. a branch that springs out at a height of fifty feet being six feet in diameter. who cut them down for . should swarm under Nebuchadnezzar to destroy Jerusalem. Vigorous young plants. miles of and it is said there are more of them now within fifty London than on all Lebanon. a few years ago. and recounted all that God had done for them since the call of Abraham (B.D. The so-called California pine. have just visited. as compared with the size and abundance of the cedar forests in olden time. he who noted the rush of the workmen that poured up these slopes at the command of Hiram to cut the Jeremiah " When I prophesied of the hosts who great trees. under summon up one : : all As Joshua. I can only say that the largest tree / found there was but five feet in diameter (fifteen in circumference). when he had waxed old and was stricken in age. what we commonly style cones." and made it a witness xxiii. a hundred miles southward. of course. I said. 12) day of the Lord is upon all the cedars of Lebanon that are high and lifted up. An old pilgrim who was here A. are springing up on every side . fully unto them." let me of that cloud of witnesses who found the cedar a worthy type of inspired truth. thirty feet in diameter. "lest they should deny their God" (Joshua so let me set this rude ashlar on its end. boast of their ten thousand but the sheikh sold them to a native.) . 1427). we see the " The force of Isaiah's expression (ii. nearly five centuries before. which I cedars pitch.SETTING UP A MEMORIAL. however." It is said also that these groves of cedar east of Ain-Zehalteh. 1322. is of course a much larger tree than any of these. They shall cut down her forest" (xlvi. 22). This was. and graterecount what God has done for me since I left my native land xxv. 1921).' but for all the houses along this coast. one stump has been measured which was thirteen feet in diameter.C.C. And now Sitting for a few desultory passages this from my diary : "Tree of the Four Cardinal Virtues. wrote that cedar-trees grow very high in these hills and produce apples as great as a man's head. called Israel together at Shechem (B. 173 and furnish timber enough. and come against her with axes. could. not only for Solomon's Temple and ' the house of the forest of Lebanon. and made a covenant with them.

As I do not know why they wore it. Tin The . and Jerusalem. are the women of the Koran. neither can I explain why they have discontinued flesh. Evidently they are accusstepping on a stone. Year by year from that time from 50. same Of these. 20 Beech. 35 50 " " 18 to 20 inches square. A Assumed at her marriage. the rest smaller.000 to 60. as late as 1837. and scanty generation back. when govern themselves accordingly. contrast so widely with the scanty yield of the present day. to calculate on its rolling. The incalculable quantities of cedar transported by the mariners of King Hiram.J74 FROM LEBANON TO MORI AH. or silver horn. steeps in lengthened files. their silly stare It is humiliating to be the object of and rude laughter. Their nimble- ness at a stumble tomed. that the reader is almost tempted to suggest an exaggeration in the figures. often two feet in length. At Ain-Zehalteh. 80 Green pine.000 trees of different sorts.000 trees were thence to From the of shipped Egypt vicinity Alexandrette they furnish yellow pine and other sticks. David years later.000 were required to be thirty-five feet long and eight inches square . 9 inches square." and he asked leave to build "an house of cedar" for Divine worship. from Lebanon to only inferior to a goat's. 500 In 2 Samuel vii. she never laid this aside until prepared for the grave. Zerubbabol constructions. feet long. 15 " 27 allusions to the use of the Lebanon cedar in the construction Solomon's various works are The same appear in the frequent. under burdens which their weak frames can ill sustain here bending two months ago. unseemly deportment. 2. and supporting a white veil which concealed the face. and compelled to witness their filthy. But this strange and characteristic ornament is now dispensed with. of the following dimensions : Yellow pine. says to the prophet Nathan: "I dwell in an house of cedar. Linden. Descending from the tion of the women of with heavy loads of wood upon their heads. fastened to the forehead by a strong cushion. The horses i meet are lean and poor in but sinewy and patient of labor. coarse. Yet. is it.052. the Druse women of Lebanon wore the tantura. clothed as they are in garb. the Pasha of Egypt sent to these mountains with an order for 1. I 'remarked that nothing is sc historic mountains as to see the degradapainful among these grand the Lebanon villages. 70.

which was reserved for his son Solomon.*' mon. to draw them. It stood " upon four rows of . both the floor and the walls. with boards of cedar .GREAT WORK OF TRANSPORTATION. " " The cedar of the house within was carved with knops and open flowers ." for this very reason. The cedars of Lebanon are ever a symbol of beauty. when arrived at Jerusalem." In Ezekiel xxvii. are seen these references to cedar material : "He covered the house with beams and boards of cedar." In two minute accounts of the temple-building. and. It was. King of Tyre. to bear them by land thirty or forty miles across the country. and they of Tyre brought much cedar wood to David. indeed. In Psalm civ. and defies calculaKings ix. But his own house. there was no stone seen . to make them up into rafts in the coves and inlets of the coast . 5: "They have taken cedars of Lebanon to make masts for thee. we say. up the acclivity at Joppa. is.000 to 8. on Mount Zion. water-sodden. to bring them down 6. all waa cedar . It indeed. had furnished Solomon with cedar. covered with pure gold. the walls of the house within with He built twenty cubits on the sides of the house. to float them seventy-five miles along the shore. 175 material for his palace had beeu secured through the friendship of the King of Phoenicia.trees according to all his builder tion. he collected " cedar trees in abundance for the Zidonians. " " cedar. ascending some 2. contained in 1 Kings and 2 Chronicles. 13 " The cedars of Lebanon birds make their nests. termed " the house of the forest of Lebanon. through frightful passes and down giddy chasms. this labor. that "Hiram. In the construction of the great temple upon Mount Moriah.600 feet by the way . 16. we read "The trees of the Lord are full : of sap . " " He built timber of cedar . 11. where the In Isaiah ii. the cedars of Lebanon which He hath planted. still more profusely abounded with this costly wood. such The labor quantities of cedar were used as surpass all computation." : and lifted up. necessary to fell these upon the high mountains . to the plain . to shape them into the various uses demanded by the great was truly immense. the same who was afterwards so munificent to Solo- To facilitate the work of constructing a temple. loftiness. " the altar in the holy place was of boards of cedar . and grandeur.000 feet of perpendicular height. " the cham" rested on the house with bers. five cubits high against the house." Many other references of this sort may be found in the Old Testament by the aid of a conare high cordance. well said in 1 desire.

Ark. . Maki-any. or Mount Lebanon. 104.. W. 117. with cedar beams upon the pillars. H." In the re-construction of the temple. Xo. Zerubbabel. according to the grant they had of Cyrus.176 cedar ZERUBBABEL AND HIS CEDARS. and drink. and oil unto them of Zidon.: Fred Webber. No. No 7. Bailey. 191. No. 535. stretching their wide branches over English earth. Libanus. No.. we' read that commenced about B. etc. Mass. " Down the the following passage occurs long vistas of the park of Warwick Castle. No. Ohio . by "they gave money.. 26. and it was cove-red pillars. C. Rev. to bring cedar trees from Lebanon to the sea of Joppa. Royal G. N. and procured. . fifThe porch of judgment " was covered with cedar teen in a row. Nos. undertook to restore the house of the Lord. and to them of Tyre. lately pub" A Woman's First title of Impressions of Europe. King of Persia. Millard. Pa. As names appropriate Clayton. D. . Jacob H. 46. Forbes. M. Md. J. No.. Ala. that renowned builder. 32 and 49. and meat. England. 59.D. A. . W. Oliver George. N. .C. C. 86. viz. Ky. etc. Medairy. 226. Tenn. No. perhaps brought from Palestine abundance. the sacred historian says (1 Kings x. through the Phoenicians. C. 229. to lay upon this great Masonic locality. No." from one side of the floor to the other. stand cedars of Lebanon. 97." ' To sum up this profusion in a few words. the needed wood for the reparation. the are selected. following Stephen Merrill. No. No.. . J." under the : by the great Earl Guy himself. Among them I instance No. N.. A very large number of American Lodges are named after this mountain. and William Mead. L. 104. H. . 35. with cedar above upon the beams that lay on forty-five pillars. 27): "The King made cedars to be as the sycamore trees that are in the vale for In an excellent volume by Mrs. W. either Lebanon. No. Y. Foote. Vt.. La. who then possessed the defiles of the Lebanons." The same thing occurred about 500 years later. which was by that time greatly decayed. as we learn from the writings of the Jewish historian Josephus." lished. . when Herod.



thus avoiding three times crossing the hills between that and Damascus a sensible procedure. L. or Heliopolis. is situated about thirty miles to the left of the route between Beyrout and Damascus. and be paid for it. It is usual for travellers to go first to Damascus by stage (" diligence. to torment you. Not that there is the least need of this fellow. though the mountain-ride across from Damascus is very rough and disagreeable. I noticed. a party setting out from there to Baalbec. just as it is to tie a piece of (dirty) white cotton cloth around your hat. at the opening of a little nook leading into the main etc. the remains of Baalbec and Palmyra are covered with the "Handmarks of Hiram's " Builders ! Baalbec. with that inevitable and dreadful bore. or by whom. the history. for my notes upon those wonderful (wonder full /) localities. because doubtless built by the same hands whose chisel- marks are found to-day indented upon the walls and ashlars in the great quarry at Jerusalem. but it is fashionable here to have a dragoman. near some charming rivulets of water. . etc. Baalbec lies well up the valley. and there hire horses and servants. the City of the Sun. at my dining station in the Bukaa valley. and buy a " yaller " silk scarf in the bazaars to carry home. I refer the reader to the larger works of At what period. the dragoman. because an exceedingly "slow coach"). the Oriental artist and scribe. the Porter. T was not in my power to visit Baalbec and Palmyra without neglecting more important interests. The site of Baalbec is a pleasant one. In other words. Rawson." so called in French. of the place. Thomson.CHAPTER XL BAALBEC AND PALMYRA. I am therefore chiefly indebted to Brother A. There is not a horse in Damascus that couldn't keep the track between that place and Baalbec with his eyes shut . Robinson. interesting especially to the Masonic antiquary. For all particulars of valley.. described in my last chapter.

now absent. and Syrians have all. Only the bases of the columns of the remain. in turn. in the great American libraries. 98. was founded is unknown . into the Great Temple. the colossal platform of the Temple and the beveled masonry under the great peristyle point to the Phoenician architects.. are Saracenic. the wall below being built of platform.C. two miles in circumference). when many more of the great columns. and porphyry. who has never seen any erections larger or finer than tion to the Capitol at Washington. The platform itself is elevated twenty feet. while ciates it with King Solomon. etc. A. the Greeks. let him be supposed to be standing on the eastern edge of a First comes the portico.C. granite. figured. made it a Roman colony. looking west. and wrote up the place in the last century. Lebanon limestone.D. consulted prior to an expedition against the Parthians. local tradition asso* A slight examination shows that. were standing than now. The whole ruin may be best divided. under the name of Heliopolis. one hundred and eighty feet from north to south. and now form portions of the Mosque of St. we find the " Col. there are extant. just as we know that many of the inscriptions Julius Caesar. B. 31. but it is probably coeval with th most prosperous period of Phoenician history . the and showing that formeily a grand and massive portico . covering an area of about a mile in diameter (more accurately. of Romans. and this whole space is piled up with debris of costly and exquisite architecture in marble.IgQ city HISTORY OF BAALBEC. will set his imagina- work as to the designs originally drawn on the trestleboard by the Grand Architect of Baalbec (perhaps Hiram Abif himself). as Professor Rawson has done. led up to it from the direction of the rising son. On the coins of Augustus Caesar. Sophia. large undressed stones. and therefore comparatively recent about B.500 years since. which the Emperor Trajan. had a hand in the erection the later structures. for examination. copies of the accurate works of Wood and Dawkins. the Peristyle Temple. Some extremely large and elegant columns of porphyry were taken from here 1. Weeks and months are profitably spent by architectural students in the study of these three monuments. Julia corroboration of this fact in the inscription. who explored. Fortunately. aboub A The city of Baalbec was irregular in form. Augusta sacred oracle was established here a century Felix Heliopolis. at Constantinople. and thirty-seven feet deep. stairway." later. 47. If an American reader. and the Temple of the Sun.

the two courts. eighty-nine feet Each of these tremendous works. . we find a portal fifty passing feet wide opening into the second court. and their height. On each side of it were nineteen columns. massive iron cramps). 181 columns themselves having been removed or destroyed. a portion of them being of that hardest and heaviest of stone. their bases being seven feet three inches in diameter. is nearly three hundred yards. the egg and dice ornaments. the dimensions. edifices. we enter a hexagon (six-sided) court. It was entirely encompassed by recesses and niches which. which surpasses all of human grandeur that the world contains. Into each wing you may enter from the portico into chambers thirty-one by thirty-eight feet. measurall these costly approaches were made. remain almost intact. stairways lead down from them into the body of the massive platform below. The frieze has garlands hung between projections.GREAT TEMPLE AT BAALBEC. of these columns have just been given. which have been used by the present government as forts . through the portico. each columns in front of it. and filled up with exquisitely done. The entablature : is " the mouldings being deep. capital. three ! the base is one. continuing westward. each of bust. and hundred and seventy from north to south. etc. and the temple itself. north. and entablature. so that a person mounted on the highest projection of the wall is one hundred and Thus the whole disthirty-nine feet above the surrounding plain. and broad and high in proportion. and the entablature crossing from pillar to pillar. ing two hundred and ninety feet from east to west. except some Egyptian Still It is four hundred and forty feet from east to west. Passing westward from the portico through a triple gateway. the capital one." which is adorned with an acanthus leaf and a are yet only in the outer court of Baalbec's vast temple.. Syenite. at each end Still But we ten. by one hundred and sixty. we come now to the real edifice for which It is a vast peristyle. Great rows of columns surrounded this enormous court. This temple stood on massive walls fifty feet high. including base. The style is Corinthian. On the east. built of stones from twenty to twenty-four feet long. the shaft three (fastened together inwardly by viz. in their very ruin. But the wings of the portico. is composed of six pieces. two hundred feet deep by three hundred wide (from north to south). having four westward. tance from the eastern edge of the platform. one. are overpoweringly magnificent. and south sides of this vast court are right-angled recesses.

feet. but never used. or Apollo. feet eight inches. up gigantic architraves. attract the eye and gratify the taste. and building I have just described. out of all proportion with the airy columns that rise beside them. and ceilings. and many choice touches figures of scroll-work. one And length. vine-leaves. one being sixty-four stones. to the south. Here is a stone. The third of these ancient structures to which the traveller will give attention is the Circular Temple. and two hundred and twenty-seven feet by one hundred and seventeen. In 1751. From the centre of all these ruins the great from which the material for the underlying walls was procured. The style is also Corinthian. It is sixty-eight feet in length. Wood and Dawkins found nine columns standis ing on the south side of this edifice. but on a platform considerably lower. in the heavy masonry of From these great ashlars the building was named by the wall Greeks "the Three-stoned" (trilithon). and they inches. Here feet in so long and justly celebrated. was probably the most beautiful gateway in the world. in the most florid says Rawson. Near the southwest angle of this temple is a heap of ruins that form a most striking image of the desolation of architecture . nine feet seven inches wide. In the northern part of this making their each about thirty-one by thirteen platform are nine stones. finished in the quarry. of genii or elves hid among them. and depth eleven. lie under the base of the hill. the are twenty feet above the ground. but the earthquake of 1759 threw down three of these. fourteen feet two inches . the three great are western part of the platform is composed. the most and most magnificent monument of ancient art in Syria. it faces the east. sixty-three combined length one hundred and ninety feet eight Their height is thirteen feet. with little style. the Near this wonderful perfect Temple of the Sun. quarries. striking and Corinthian Ears of grain. something larger than the Parthenon at Athens. one-half mile west. the third sixty-three feet. situated about three hundred yards from the others. Like the other. in one confused mass. of which the astonishment is the collection of enormous ashlars. It was ornamented.jfl2 TEMPLE Of THE 8U1T wondei even this does not express the greatest architectural That which my readers will view with the greatest of Baalbec. and nine from the temple first described. huge capitals that look. there stands. when entire. friezes. with every device that could be used. and the largest of them all. and grapes. The portal to this temple. when on the ground. colossal columns of shafts.

thirty feet by eight. at Monson. eleven wide. The corner-stone at the southwestern angle Mount Moriah.. and seven high. by means of which he was initiated into the mysteries of Egypt. and estimated to weigh four hundred tons. which is seventy-two feet high. The column of Alex- ander. the man who was visited by Pythagoras. at Sais. thus could build ! And yet the ancients had no mechanical powers other than those . How well it may be said of all these grand buildings: at They dreamed not of a Who perishable home. It was brought for thousand men were employed for three mass down the Nile. It was finished about B. ! instance. One of the ashlars in the ancient work Stonehenge. to muse upon this ashlar interesting study to compare it with a few of the great stones wrought in different parts of the world by ancient builders . another in the same wall is reckoned at two hundred and thirty tons. and fourteen in diameter.'FOUR VAST ASHLARS. three hundred and one fifty feet long. and whatever was abstruse and important in their religion. from Elephantine. A block of granite was quarried a few years since. 183 It contains. England. feet). weighs fourteen tons a few years. is estimated to weigh one hundred and twenty tons. four thick.C. in Egypt. 569. is eighty-four feet high. Two years in carrying the In the the papers as something ponderous. thirteen thousand cubic feet of stone. weighs about one hundred and fifteen tons . and weighs about one thousand two hundred tons. To a student of the human intellect. at St. calculated to weigh about thousand three hundred tons. and six high. thirteen broad. described in a previous chapter. within about two as being Gibbon describes an obelisk of the same material. and twelve feet diameter at the base. spoken of in edge. with letters of introduction from the governor of Samos. another seventy. therefore. of weighs about fifty tons. To detach it from the matrix. removed from Egypt to Rome. there is a chapel. cut from a single block. eleven thousand and four holes were drilled in a line parallel with its front The corner-stone of the State House of Illinois. under King Amadis. weighs forty tons . now in Paris. that is one hundred and twenty-five feet in length. a granite monolith. more than high. and thirteen feet broad. Petersburg. it were It would be an worth a visit to Baalbec. Ms. that ia eighteen feet long. The sarcophagus of King Hiram. The Luxor Obelisk. a block of Syenite granite has been found that measures one hundred cubic metres (a metreMs ! Emporium Romanum.

allowing one hundred and seventy-six : A poet-author in these lines suggests good thoughts These lonely columns stand sublime. the Phoenician masons who were employed to construct that wonderful vision of the Desert. at Constantinople. inhabiting this valley. these perfect gems of human art The A. now in ruins.D. Charles Buckle calculates that if only muscular power was applied to it. to King Solomon extraordinary things They are themselves but a stupid race. Flinging their shadows from on high . It surely was not of any member ui' the races now Ashlar is. Of their flight the with the sound of their chains. leaving his enigmas to perplex us. B. and they incontinently refused to work any longer. that time carries his secrets away. Thomson very forcibly suggests that. in When that osque of Syria. were taken by the Roman Emperor Aurelian. Sophia. we possess . the death of the Great was announced to King them. in the time of Septimius Severus (crowned have on the reverse this temple. The story they tell of the Great that the devils (genii. or evil spirits) being subjugated by King Solomon. 975. with the inscription tana. just as the largest stone was about to be cracked from its native matrix. Dr.184 HOW THE STONES WERE MOVED. as indeed all other in this country.1 man could put his head in it." Arabic poets say. I have already remarked that popular tradition attributes these stupendous works. but. . and lay them in order in the platform at Baalbec .C. could refresh their memory in the grandest architectural details. travellers reported them as exhibiting a skull so large that . Of the largest ashlar I have mentioned. 20. " they filled the air remarked before that the eight porphyry columns seen in the St. by an examination of these unexcelled productions. though. from the temple at Baalbec. they have done nothing in the architectural way I since. W. 222) coins struck here. force. three hundred years ago. M. So fur as I can ascertain. Mr. Colonia Heliopolitana lovi Optimo Maximo Heliopoli- Some writer has elegantly said here. The dial which the wizard time Has raised to count his ages by.000 men would not be too large a pounds to each. being on the road from Tyre to Tadmor (Palmyra). were compelled by that remarkable executive to excavate these majestic stones. nor theirs half so perfectly at command as our builders have.

Charles Spaeth. Gillette. and are best delineated in the splendid work to which I have already referred. was not in a condition to silence the bragAfter all. Lamartine. A. Mahan. J. William C. Impreslanguage can read with so much profit as his Pensees et Paysages pendant un Voyage en Orient. 71. We enlarge the circle of association. Solomon W. 70. Massachusetts Robali Lodge (from a Biblical locality between Baalbec and Damascus) is No. 91. M. and Enoch P. Iowa. for instance. McLeod Moore. for elegance of language. when we come to charge our thoughts full of gadocio. is named. are only second in extent and grandeur to those just described. Boyd Foster. Pennsylvania. E. set out for this place from Beyrout. W. " Souvenirs. Maynard. 276. . Lodge No. Massachusetts also. in purchasing protection from the . Quite a place. that of Wood and Dawkins. 1832-1833. haying been in his royal sepulchre for ! number of American lodges have names suggested by this by particular objects found in its ruins. T. Ashlar Lodge No. to be described in a later chapter. viz. par M. or Tadmor. B. J. Michigan. Our good brother Mason. Cochrane. William Storer. Breed. great he is was some thirteen centuries. 111. " " said to hare cried out. Church of St. which is the Bible-name of the place. From Naphtali. Sophia was dedicated by Justinian. Baalbec Lodge No. ou Notes d'un Voyageur. I have surpassed you hard on Solomon. De Lamartine. Ohio. 203. by plant262. or . wifif twenTy-'six horses and a whole company of natives for servants and escort The French poet made a noise in these mountains. these stupendous proportions. honored on the register of American and Canadian Masons. Georgia. R. This Solomon. as. 1833." In the life-long sorrows of this remarkable man was exemplified the truth of the adage Cuivis dolori remedium est patientia the remedy for every sorrow is patience. published in England about one To visit the place at present hundred and twenty years since. the Hebrew tribe that possessed this end of the country as far as David's kingdom extended. involves so heavy an expense. and his name is even now a household word for His descriptions are unparalleled liberality and largeness of idea. long afterwards.. ing amongst these grand old Masonic ruins the names of ten brethren. and I regret that I have not more space tc I have never seen a work that the student of the French give them. sions. Whittaker. we may bear in mind that they do not at all equal those of the Pyramid of Cheops. who. X.HISTORY OF PALMYRA. March 28th. The ruins of Palmyra.

five feet six their faces is the expression of a wild. he and faithful. and the rest of the time among civilized people in Damascus. the most numerous of the in his belt is Anazeh tribes. and boasting of 10. kind. The chiefs wear a short scarlet pelisse. Digby. etc. Mrs. She lives part of the year in the deserts with her husband.Igg SHEIKH OF PALMYRA. that I am constrained to record this testimony in her favor. a nation of itself. an undergarment of calico. having usually broad. Damascus one morning. gray or blue. a few years since. by the way. viz. passed twice round. The Anazeh. the piercing. Digby. on the staff of the Pasha. as a writer says. and the manner in which their they turned on me and snapped jaws gate . but failed at the last moment.000 camelThe sheikh Miguel married an Englishwoman. 90. free naflash of the eye is startling. lined with fur. and bears a good reputation among the Protestant missionaries with whom I made acquaintance there. and fastened round the waist by a leathern girdle. I was within the turn of a hand in securing a free and safe passage. fitful. The tribe to that of El Besher. extending to the mid-leg. while daring tlu-ir abrupt speech.. and large red boots . 1868. So much was said in the papers against Mrs. Over this thrown the cloak (abah) of goats' hair. riders. Arabs. covering the desert from the Eiver Euphrates to Syria. The is sleeves are wide. a fine specimen of the Bedouin . it is said. where she is attentive to religious duties. The sheikh who furnishes the required escort is named Miguel. is like the sudden bark of a dog. attached is and your life in his power. vertical stripes of white and brown. the most powerful of the Arab clans. h .000 horsemen. I saw members of her tribe (the Anazeh) in Damascus. John the Baptist. all wearing the conventional dress of the clan. and are as graceful in inches). of five days by the ordinary mode of travel. It is a journey. tied round the temples by a cord of black camels' hair. although his charges are exorbitant when he has your money which he is will be found. On the head is the handkerchief (Kafeeyah) of yellow silk or cotton. in the fashion of our June-saint. by making use of some friendly expression. and have very long pendant points. but the common of " tangle-foot" These people are small and low of stature (about but walk erect. movements as our Western Indians before they learn the mysteries people go barefoot. in April. step light. generous. that but few travellers care to attempt it.u led a squad of them on the mounds outside the east of On ture. from Damascus.. $100 to $150 a head yet for. etc. whom I met twice in the Protestant Church at Damascus. for reasons I will detail in my chapter on Damascus.

This is quite a town.500 years. established these as essential points on the journey. so bare. half-way from the Euphrates to the Jordan. With this city the history of Zenobia is associated Zenobia. after a moment's exchange of glances with each other. 'Jacob went to Padanaram by lated and returned again twenty years later. the poets derived white stones. Euinsso exten- Syria. Queen of the East.APPEARANCE OF PALMYRA. containing a large Christian church. so desolate. and the fountains of Kuryetein and Palmyra. and impose on my customers! The situation was the best in the world. Israel could carry all The appearance the goods that pass along here now. Here you are forty miles from Palmyra. and twiddled my fingers gracefully from the end of my nose. The exiles of and of Judah well knew this weary road. such is the general view of the great "Peddlers' city" of " " Solomon. Palmyra vindicated the forethought of Solomon in wealth. exist nowhere else. and looked cent. power. An abundance of good water was here. this route. The way to Palmyra (I had almost forgotten my subject) is by Kuryetein. leading her . horse-pistols like blunderbuses. in irregular clumps and single pillars.Points loafers. and arches. and walls.C.profit. 1921. fragments of gateways. they laughed too. together 187 would have been alarming. dedisse juvet : me have a. When Palmyra was in its glory. Which they didn't get. Whereat. of Palmyra is said to be startling and romantic. and asked me for backsheesh. All roads in this country must be regu- by the water-supply. where a supply of water must be taken to cross the desert. Here that established many of their keenest jests. Out of the enormous developments of the trading spirit in those days. it is claimed. for 1. the wealth of the east and the commerce of the west were But Jim Fisk's old peddler-wagon conveyed along this highway. let me enjoy the delight of making a bar- gain. only that I don't scare worth a laughed at them. and porticoes. up out of huge piles of King far-seeing Merchant-King a vast depot for the exchange of commodities.. Each of those ruffians of Anazeh had a gun. has nothing to compare with it. and a dagger. The reader will particularly recall that of Ovid: Da modo only let Et face ut emptori verba Incra milii da facto gaudia lucro . and on what was once the highway from Mesopotamia to Syria. rising Long lines of columns. who. Abraham must have come this way B. I only about as dangerous as a corner-group of Five. and political importance. sive. and so.

Virginia. ornamented by columns. 248. Each column. all the way from the quarries of Syene. North Carolina. as Dr. . Kentucky 55. with bronze encompassed the Sanctum Sanctorum. supporting an unbroken entablature. richly sculptured with of garlands of fruits and flowers.D. a little way east of Tadmor. Lodge No. howMesopotamia. 274. itself. is fifty-seven feet. 108. prisoner of Palmyra began. A. was the temple A single row of fluted Corinthian columns. England. There are remaining about 150 of these columns out of the original number. tutes the chief But. The entrance to this was on the western a portico of ten side. so fine and firm in texture as to receive a polish nearly equal to marble. which extended through the city about 4. held much by winged figures. Their Two or three height. is of the Sun. In this court. 157. had a bracket for a statue. flowers. we have the name of Euphrates Lodge No. (red brought. with the however. ornamented by festoons of fruits and are tion. viz. New York. of course. It is of a yellowish white and was doubtless quarried near by. She was overcome. . Porter observes. The names Tadmor and Palmyra have been used in the distinctive titles of American Lodges. on the inner side. which is one of the great attractions of contained within a square court. 1. The Temple Palmyra. high up the Nile.188 THE GREAT COLONNADE. Its sides and lintel were monoliths. and Roman himself. it is the Great Colonnade that constiwonder of Palmyra. It was originally composed of rows of columns. 68. with walls seventy feet high. and taken a ever.000 feet. 147. including base and capital. together buildings and walls.500. All the other columns. and others. columns are still seen here of the Syenite Egyptian) granite. Asia Mmoi. From the river. and defied the From that perio'd the decline to Home. ing wall. conquered Syria. Nearly 100 of the grand columns this court are yet standing. Wisconsin. The sculptures and not inferior in design or execuThe signs of the Zodiac are seen on a portion of the remain- up at intervals like those at Baalbec. The central door was thirty-two feet high and sixteen wide.. thus forming one central and two side avenues. high. who reside in and now its population is scarcely three hundred some fifty wretched hovels built within the court of the temple. armies from these deserts. sixty-four feet capitals. souls. color. through a triple gateway. are of compact limestone. 740 feet on a side. and near the southeastern corner.

Minor. George W. Messina . Noble D. that they do not visit Palmyra. A.. beginning at the top and reading the lines toward the right The : hand fcsta . coins so forcibly delineated on page 362. so Honored in history. B. . Alfred Burnett. : R It is a strange neglect of those rich and powerful associations. Larnerj Alfred W. Harris. . . andbring modern learning and skill to bear upon this ancient and renowned city of the East. Macrinus Egypt. Severus. Rice. . A. COIN OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT. H. John Hoole. S. . are thus named. Egypt. Tracey. . . . . 189 To make a still closer union of Masonic names with this. Wadhams. D. . Trapane Catania Syracuse Syracuse Seg Unnamed Agrigentum Megara Panormus Lentini Al. West. etc. Morris. . 0.LACK OF EXPLORERS. the London Palestine Fund. COIN-NOTES EXPLANATORY OP PAGE 862. the following list of American Masons is associated with Palmyra Martin H.

MAP OF PALESTINE in the time- of CHRIST. .



and Emmanuel. tree. are in ruins. how far these raise its records above the unreal and unconnected rhapsodies religions. and martyrs. mountain. plain. of fragments. but more of arduous labor. in actual places.' As the bodies of . the remains of ancient mysteries.DIVISION FIFTH. and the vain repetitions of the sacred books of other The Holy Land ferred to in the it is is a country of ruins. and realize how far its plain. 13 . before any labors of the past ages can be established. By its constant reference to localities.-THE BAY OF THE FLOTES. the Bible seems to invite examination tion that and indeed only by such examina- we can appreciate its minute accuracy. so of their works " dust and ashes " symbolize them. the ancient craft lie in dust in their stone coffins. to actual persons. as well as the All those objects re- Holy Masonic lectures. of patriarchs and prophets the land of . and burial cen monies. matter-of-fact statements of actual occurrences. it is river. the land of apostles. fragmentary remains are preserved here in the customs of the especially in their religious common people. rock. Writings. They remind us greatly more of the people than the artist. signs Of the and ceremonies of Freemasonry. The land confessors . and " mother-earth" has "heled" necessaiy to go under ground and see what there. . the HOLY LAND ! The far antiquities of this country display less beauty than those of Greece.

this title referring to the fabled encounter of that hero with cedar and the dragon. is the MASONIC BAY. strangers and extort from them their loose piastres. and for a suitable consideration. on the shores of which the materials of fir were made up into rafts (" flotes "). THE MASONIC BAY. his very scales and bones. that earth him underneath Did groan. and shipped to Joppa (1 Kings v. as "feeble do great load to lift. which they felled from the sides "f the hills. George's Bay. So down he fell. the Arab guides even now will show the cave from whence the dragon issued on that memorable occasion. hard and heavy the beast died : to give a verse showing how So dmon he felly and forth his life did breathe. 2 *'hron. and embarked for Joppa. that rise above it. I have modernized Spenser's language. which fire cannot burn out of me. George. as a huge rocky clift Whose false foundation waves have washed away. With dreadful poise is from the mainland rift. ii). To amuse described in Spenser's Faerie Queeue. And rolling down. That vanished into smoke and clouds all swift . and like an heaped mountain lay. great Neptune doth dismay So down he fell. says " My : . I came to the settled conclusion. or more commonly St. in his celebrated letter to Solomon. so graphically (Book 1. . Hiram. So down he fell. and comparing it all the other bays upon the coast near by.CHAPTER XII. that here wa the chief of those natural coves or harbors used by our ancient brethren in " " making up flotes of the cedars. . HE fourth of the Seven Grand Masonic Localities visited and identified during my researches in Bible lands. with After repeatedly exploring the Bay of St. This is the sheet of water in modern times known as the Bay of Beyrout. Canto XI).

he found his progress impeded by this spur of Mt. its deep blue waters. passed up this coast. and the unparalleled grandeur of the overhanging hills upon the east. though thirtythree centuries have passed since the edge of the chisel indented them ! As I sat and made drawings of them. Through the hard limestone of Lebanon. chiseled in the sides of the native stone for that purpose. in the Assyrian cuneiform to the conquest of Egypt.300 years ago. where some ten or twelve other persons. Near the northern extremity of the bay is the celebrated military pass of Xahr-el-Kelb (Dog Kiver). as I have described in a preceding chapter. 1400. On his return to Egypt. the mighty Egyptian conqueror. after achieving great he engraved upon large smooth panels. And I saw that.C. its clean white sands. Lebanon running into the sea. On the day I first rode around it (March 5) the bay was lashed into fury by a gale. he ordered panels of the same character cut by the side of the last. his engineers cut a military road. of which four. had collected before me. on his way to the conquest of Assyria. when Sennacherib.IXSCRIPTIOXS OX THE ROCKS. say 2. right in front of Again. it is at the best but an insecure anchorage. the Assyrian conqueror. victories in the East. of immense labor. That the reader may understand the subject perfectly. about B. a work. and thou shalt receive them. I will explain that through this maritime country (Phoenicia) lies the only great military road formerly connecting Asia with Africa. this way 700." A charming place indeed is this Masonic Bay. say 3. The Masonic Bay is famous at the present day for its wrecks. one of them quite recently stranded. by the side of which may be seen the most remarkable collection of ancient emblems and inscriptions in the world. considering they only had copper or bronze tools. and will cause them to be discharged there. with its beautifu curves and coves. came down about B. however. 195 sc-a servants shall bring them (the timbers) down from Lebanon to the in flotes. I succeeded. on which my chisel has rung so often.C. in reaching the foot of the mountain. When Rameses. . while it is the best of the Syria harbors. and entering the little khan. George. just north of the Bay of St.600 years ago. hieroglyphical records of his victories. or Sesostris. the sea-breeze whistled mournfully through the insulator of the telegraph-pole that it. with their beasts of burden. is fixed in a crevice of the rock. met my eyes as I rode along the beach. unto the place that thou shalt appoint me. weather-bound. Those inscriptions are still here. on which his name and his victories were. As such it was used for more than three thousand years.

Brit. finally did the French soldiers who were here in 1860 and 1861. still remain ! I read in Isaiah xxxvii. the terrible destruction of his armies simoon. or upper end of the road. waa twenty-second anniversary of my own initiation into Freemasonry).D. and his murder at the hands of his own sons. visit to or upper road (that of Sesostris). viz. : . Aurelian commemorated the act by an inscription that still remains. . giving his name and his exploits. by a Again. When ght strikes the ancient carvings properly. Beginning at the south. which to reach now requires considerable climbing. however. 1868 (which. Again. in square. he caused a new one to be excavated from the solid rock. arch. on the same plan as that adopted by his And predecessors. Caes. when the Roman Emperor Aurelian had completed his conquests in this country. I found it necessary. Montibvs Imminentibvs Lyco Flvmini Caesis Viam Delatavit. that this work was constructed about A. so Now. finding the old Sesostris-Sennacherib military road in disrepair. about A. dnly recorded. and six Assyrian. After I had characters.700 years ago. Germ Maximvs Pontifex Maximvs.D. say 1. was made for the particular purpose of inspecting these ancient emblems and I found nine of them on the old the inscriptions. on my fifth visit there : Imp. of the haughtiness of this moncopied them.D. about twenty feet lower down the mountain-spur than the other it is this which is now used. and these. beautiful Roman letters. The It is portion after Per was carefully erased by somebody long since. Here it is. about A. says Porter. Max. one of the Saracenic conquerors. they stand out plainly ragh to the eye. 173. cut elegantly in a stone panel. my Nahr-el-Kelb. Avrelivs Antoninvs Pivs Felix Avgvstvs Part. the carvings are thus arranged. left an inscription here. probable. 1400.196 8E80STRIS TO NAPOLEON. Max. 173. just as I copied it. March 5. to stand off fifteen nty feet from them. and this also remains. by the way. No doubt there were originally more of these carved panels lost by the breaking away of the cliffs on the south Three are considered to be Egyptian. * * * * Per Antoninianam Svam. to gather the original idea satisfactorily. M. his great victories. too.

Egyptian. The whole tablet or panel is covered with an inscription in the Assyrian cunei characters. A fine figure of a bearded man. suitable After cutting this emblem. A figure like that in No.' interest A few weeks after this was done. and inscriptions below at the top. . Near the tablet marked No. were constructed to protect the carvings from the weather. Egyptian. in good preservation. Assyrian. 7th. no inscriptions. Much like No. and Rome combined. E. 8th. and over the Masonic Bay beyond Beyrout southward. 1 . 1 4th. Figures like No. Assyria. with a border encircling it. . the Square and Compass. Nearly on the apex of that spur of Lebanon through which the engineers of Sesostris made their arduous way. A 2. Egyptian. Admiral Lord Paget visited Beyrout with a squadron of ships. may recall those names which our institution " does not willingly let die. The place of romantic one. showing that doors. and that the future tourist. difficulty. Assyrian. Rogers. whose right hand is raised in such a suggestive attitude towards heaven. the right arm raised. the whole rather indistinct. and bent across the breast . giving an outlook towards Gebal northward. 5. line Figure indistinct. Rounded . I solemnly consecrated the place to a number of those Masonic brethren whose patronage enabled to set me about this mission. 6th. 1 . probably of bronze. (the Worshipful Master of Palestine Lodge. T. and in company with the British Consul. This was to the intent that a Masonic might attach to the place. figure like No. 9th. Assyrian. In Layard's Nineveh yon see this figure again and again repeated. Assyrian. Square-topped. Two small figures at the top. 197 1st. Esq. Square-topped. ornamented with a cornice. it overlooks the Mediterranean Sea for twenty miles out. Figure like that in No. Assyrian. expressive and cut in the all solid rock an emblem more and glorious than viz. Square at top design called cavetto.. King Sennacherib at full length.THE GEEAT HUMAN IM 1GE. Square-topped. apparently to insert staples for hinges. his left arm grasping a club. Assyrian. looking upon the Square and Compass conspicuously engraven here. 5th. 1 selected a spot a few feet south of made the Human Image. 3d. with the In the corners of the three Egyptian tablets are holes. with a cornice. 1. which Rawlinson and Lepsius hare read without much 2d. . this inscription is a the symbolisms of Egypt. Round-topped. the out- only discernible.

R. Chesnutwood. King of Tyre Hiram Abif. it is said. and the best natural coves in which etc. to examine these three ancient Egyptian tablets. they could be made up into flotes and embarked. halted and stood where I Passing where I passed this morning. when King Solomon had forwarded to King Hiram of Tyre his royal request. Benton. afforded the most desirable inclines down which the cedar-trunks could be mov^d from the mountains. then.. and associated thus intimately with Hiram. and Beyrout River at the south end. following: Thomas H. ii. Dewey. doubtless. " In consecrating this spot. put on a knowing look. first of all to the memory of the Widow's " I do not forget that he must many a time have gone this Son. No. number of bays met his view. ii. but none that presented such a combination of favorable circumstances as at the this. as Moses was. B. The natural avenues 'to the sea which were presented by the it of Nahr-el-Kelb. William Leas. skillful u to find out every " device (2 Chron. 7) . at Beyrout). at the north end of the bay. and skillful to grave with his own cunning men" (2 and when that monarch had chosen his own namesake. and probably learned in all the knowledge of the Egyptians. Charles E. J. M. ties. 415. which I call Masonic A mouth Bay. Jr. he must have now stand. Luke Lockwood. the Widow's Son . William Potts. then scarcely five centuries old. twenty miles up the coast. made an examination of these ancient localichiseled upon that hillside. H. Rev.198 THE WIDOW'S SON. 14). and Zabud. " to send him a man cunning to work in gold. to designate the most accessible groves of cedar. Blumenthal. and set off* for a tour through the Lebanons. Seeing the Square and Compass the old mariner. Robinson. Gebal. . James Walsh. Griffith. an eye like his. M. the overhanging mountains. the renowned Hiram Abif. the latter promptly accepted the trust. are the J. M. This place . now so bleak and unclothed. It was easy for Hiram." way.. which only by taking the utmost advanperfectly distinct to tage of the sunlight I can now barely trace out One of the most elegant myths connected with the history of Freemasonry in the Holy Land is associated with this spot It is to the effect that. abounded in the finest groves of cedar and fir. the King's Friend.D. and made a remark readers would have perfectly understood had they only which my heard it The names of Masons located here. Adoniram." journeying to that school of architecture. and. to read all these hieroglyphics. Just above ravine of Nahr-el-Kelb. W. Chron. Prince of Judah .

that various time to time at their conferences in Jerusalem.querors. stop ! . by those vast depots of pine-timber in which the supplies of Maine and Wisconsin are hoarded up. partial to blue. as suggestive of that expansion and universality all hoped. Wrote on earth's history their hope To have eternity of fame Traveller upon these mountains. and so the " cerulean the vast sea before hue " was adopted as the The following lines unchangeable type of Masonry. or scarlet. from the traditions questions in regard to the construction of or "speculative masonry. at the present time. they society. By Egypt carved for Egypt's glory. and gazing over him a sea famed in all ages for its depths of blue. ever since the purple-shell had been utilized as emblematic of the noblest precepts. and settled from f the craft. I strive to call before me all The sum of this symbolic story: It is.THE MUSE AT DOG RIVER. These cor. that in the human heart There ever is a deathless longing For life eternal from death's rest The immortal soul expects returning. Hiram Abif vency and zeal so strikingly illustrated in his was which. the boundary of his vision only limited by a clearness of blue. . were written at this locality : Thoughtfully gazing on this wall. Tyre. It seems. King Hiram expressed his choice of the royal color. of the most Upon this point the minds of the three philosophers were strangely diverse. were made Freemasonry. 199 was therefore selected and during the seven years in which the best science and skill of Phoenicia were expended in the erection of King Solomon's Temple at Jerusalem. . the shores of this bay presented an appearance only paralleled. And now to recall the myth alluded to. would become characteristics of the new Standing here on this lofty point of rocks. that when the three Grand Masters held their next conference at Jerusalem his logic proved irresistible. emblematic of that fer- own character. a hue associated with his own metropolis. interesting of these was that of an appropriate One color. King Solomon preferred red. purple. Hiram stored his mind with so many arguments in favor of the adoption of that color. in blood and flame. subjects of discussion by the three Grand Masters." as we call it.

And pay obeisance 'twas a good And worthy hope. that they may ride all next day. found a wild and strange retreat Scott. Their beastly-looking place.C. oh. if they keep diaries while in Pal- estine. . by the way. That is the his- tory and the pith of their diaries. the same that And animates your generous blood. where a few handfuls of dirt scattered vines. and sleep soundly all next night. from B.. fields. you know. but without the bird's powers of perception. too. or report lies. I accustomed myself to avoiding them as the genuine bores of 'the " " became more disland.) of shells. fig-trees. is an old Kentucky joke. in these terraces industry has been expended better than anything else. They agreeable skim the country like a bird. as I see mulberries. among the rocks can produce such olives. (This. that I first learned to view with infinite scorn and contempt the practices of ordinary tourists who throng this After meeting and greeting the first dozen or two of them. if he had worn a broad-brimmed hat instead of a tarboush. how a dense and industrious population turnlike that of the Jews. and orchards. 70. to my ears than a whole volley of Arabic gutturals. It gave me the fidgets to see one of them hoeing in his garden. is Ignavis semper ferm sunl motto it is always holiday to the idle. country. a neighbor of mine did kill his tobacco-plants in that way.0. And to all noble deeds inspires! ! fires Bay of the Kafts was the subboth along the beach and at the foot ject of numerous explorations. is seen in perfection.0 TERRACE-CULTIVATION. as Porter says. the shade might affect the growth of the plants. They ride all day to sleep soundly all night. 1450 to A. Here.. What richness must be in this disintegrated limestone-soil. in my description of a stage-ride from Beyrout to which I alluded The examination of this beautiful Damascus.D. near the mouth of Nahr-el-Kelb I Biding one day in search As e'er was trod by outlaw feet The dell beneath the mountain's crest Yawned like a gash on warrior's breast .the terrace-cultivatiou. succeeded in into gardens. He stood so long in one ! But. and here ! And it was here. the laziness of the natives their place that. to of the mountains. and fruitful ing the hillsides of Palestine These terraces typify the golden future of this country. What an amount ! of time and But they show.

sittingby the fireside. " of the " Masonic will expense after Exploration what impression did all this make on his And. and. heaven on earth. and a Bible in head. but whose faith in " Morris is of that sort which " removes mountains. To lie which is the back in cushions. and is equally truth in Occidental as thing. about whom I had a long talk about farming." I really did expatiate and spread myself before the eyes of that Arab sheikh. From my note-book I propose to will be illuminated. keen as a fox. and said in three or four jaw-cracking words The (in Arabic) "No keef. or Bible in heart. of the Old or N ew Testament. used for fencing in Florida. where the spider sparkles and rubies. (much) "better half" in butter-aud-milk raising. illustrate this subject by a few . under the aqueduct. small of stature. word keef expresses comfort. 201 the Biding. who all the time was drinking my coffee. the dolcefar niente. whose success of my powers of interpretation are sorely tried when I tell these people " General things they never heard of before. and smoke tombac. AND HEART. imbibing the last drop of coffee in my rubber-bottle. and hogs described the like a rich setting of pearls of geometric preciseness. and chicken-raising. by Holy however graphic. with its long pointed leaves interlocking. it is a good Truth is cosmopolitan. and in Oriental lands. I forty. while many passages that the language of nature. I told him all that Horace Greeley "knows about farming. and a who has seen what floods Writ upon holy scenes. along the mouth of that grand gorge through which Dog Biver flows." all my own experience in raising corn. is Tceef celestial idea of these Orientals. arose. and form- The fencing to the fields ing a most formidable barrier against stock. makes an impenetrable shevaux-de-frise. which reminds me that our agave americanus. How much the traveller will miss who journeys through these Oriental lands without a Bible in Itand. and makes his web a marvel met an Arab sheikh. will appear doubly clear . is one thing. and gardens around this bay is usually the large cactus or prickly-pear.BIBLE IN" HEAD. sip coffee. By means of Hassan. is quite another and a better thing. he ask. I say. HAND. and smoking cigarettes at the Fund. which may have seemed clear before. and cattle. smiled a smile of contempt. as far as it goes. Then the casual allusions. quiet. To read a passage."and so left me without a thank-you. must clear up. and cabbage-raising. you mind? Why. which it lot human language. can only be estimated by one of light are shed in the class at school. with . But to read it amidst the same surroundings in was written.

and because it had no root. let me read the narrative in Mark iv. or native farmer. some thirty. nor keep his little pair of plow-heifers outside of stone walls. several miles away. generation back it was hard. as I ride slowly through this petty inclosure of an acre or " landmark. like the it.202 scenes in THE FOWLS OF THE AIB. Holy Land. some fell by the wayside. where it had not much earth . has also come out from yonder village. some sixty. " And some fell on stony ground. rendered fruitless." Look at this fat soil. is scarcely high enough to two. the season is the sowing-time of grain. salicicola came and devoured it up. The withered old woman whom we met a ever gathered them from supposed by some to be even the same spiny growth of which our Saviour's plaited crown was woven." a stone wall. Doubtless this grain will spring up most quickly of all that he is sowing . it was scorched. it withered away. examined Bible in hand. Unstony cliffs come A overhanging . or Dog Kiver. George. whose confine a skipping lamb. And how warm the soil is to the feel." Look how busy they are There are the sparrows (called by naturalists the passer and the passer montanus and the passer cisalpina) and other grain-eating birds. The earth is but a half inch deep on those rocks. " And others fell on good ground. Here. this thicket of the " camel's thorn. in that recess of the hills. " And some fell among thorns. in the nook of the mountains. " And it came to pass. and it how dense Look yonder. but there is no depth of earth. Think you that the grain which our sower is scattering there can few minutes since. yielded no fruit. and : " There watch the husbandman's operations while he sows his grain went out a sower to sow. bearing her bundle of sticks. but when the sun was up." the thorns. it must wither away.. I begin with an inme as I went from Beyrout to Gebal. next the fence. just as you cident that struck begin to mount the pass before arriving at Nalir-el-Eelb." Look in the skirts of the inclosure yonder. and some an hundred." This poor fellah. and immediately it sprung up. it can have no root. because it had no depth of earth ." to maturity? Surely no. choked by them . The location of the fact was at the northern end of the Bay of St. and the thorns grew up and choked it. it will be outgrown by the thorns . and the fowls of the air yonder. blue limestone. that sprung up and increased and brought forth . for he dare not sleep. and did yield fruit. as he sowed. lest the robber come upon him unawares and impoverish him.

* hear He that hath ears to May listen now. smiling swains did tell An hundredfold 1 . snatched with hasty appetite the grain. But ere the grain could raise its timid head. fell the wayside . which try my memory upon a-paraphrase composed many yearo ago. Where sun. in mystic to words indeed. Till all On was gone." | All the fertilizing phosphates and carbonates. upon a rock soon . all. let me I of this divine narative. will increase . And choked them But some on the good ground. here in this " good ground. Of a good husbandman who took And went Some by sow. has kindly yielded as we now see it.SOWING THE SEED. Rocks fall to dust. 203 it der the bright showers of heaven. and other chemical elements that mother-earth so covets in her transforming processes. "While I shall tell. a greedy train. breeze. the thorns. where the birds dare not alight. . Some fell And greenly They sprouted as for harvest. strong and fair. For. fowls of heaven flew down. Has not the quarter-hour been well spent? As I mount and ride forward upon my way. are here . as Pope says. Some fell A fertile soil The accursed weeds among . But when the summer sun shone hotly there. will bring forth. where the thorns cannot encroach. They wilted down. and upon these level flats. the skies in smoke decay. * The text of my paraphrase is that in the eighth chapter of Lake. dew. Here the beautiful language of our Masonic Monitor concerning mother-earth will be realized. and mountains melt away. his seed." the poor man's grain will spring up . and showers apportioned well And in the harvest. God's precious mould. luxuriantly o'erspread. where there is ample depth of earth . " The seas shall fail. and the quickening sunshine. The And breezes borne.

and and yet Holy Scriptures. Mamerco. Antiochus III. such opportunities as a visit to Palestine his love for. Seleucui Demetrius Nicator Antiochus YI. Seleucus III. . . II. . ANTIOCHUS VII. I say that all this Need throu-h these Bible lauds? comes naturally to mind. while journeying the traveller who has enjoyed I pity at the present day affords. . . .. beginning at the top and reading the lines toward the right hand : The Dentella . . . the has not increased his knowledge in. coins so forcibly delineated on page 498.804 STUPIDITY OF TOURISTS. .. Hcraclea . are thus named. Alexander Callinicus Palermo Seleucus Antiochus II. KING OF COIN-NOTES EXPLANATOY OF PAGE 498.

died Oct. Among the dead who calmly repose under the thick shade of these mourning cypresses. to the graveside of not be able to understand the fascination. and plucked a sprig from the funeral cypress-tree that grows straight and tall at the head of the grave. BEGIN this chapter by describing my visit to the Protestant Cemetery. He came here full of hopes and holy impulses in the " M. built of the Lebanon limestone. Pliny Fisk. first visited this hallowed spot on the 23d of March. His emotions are expressed in the lines following. the form of our first Protestant missionary. In the Protestant graveyard at Beyrout.that draws us such men and holds us solemnly there . inscribed at the Rev. of all places on earth. than to insert an article. is a modest structure. and the dust those that dwell in silence. lies.CHAPTER XIIL BEYKOUT. 1868. top. 32). 1825. anft the secret places shall deliver those souls that were committed unto them (2 Esdras vii." The writer. and deep piety. 33 years. 23. written in pencil. and afterwards published in an American journal. Rev. in company with Brother Samuel Hallock. but it and often men of the greatest intelligence are most free to acknowledge the influence. . The Rev. who gave his young life here to his work. Pliny Fisk. sitting upon this tomb. will lead all the rest. our brother. THE MASON-MISSIONARY. in this connection. We may exists. Pliny Fisk was the first American missionary to the Holy Land. earth shall restore those that are asleep in her. When this this man is most worthy of honor in Masonic memories. I cannot do better. where the black cypresses shoot up their pyramidal cones into the sky. and where. in the Holy Land. earnestness. the man of eloquence.

to see him When . Lies the young disciple sleeping. A add friend. this Masonic 'Neath our weeping. overflowing with kindly sentiments. I have thought recently that perhaps my own mission to the Holy Land was partly suggested history of Pliny Fisk : by reading. won him hosts of friends. doubtless the mission here had been in advance of what it now is. Brother Fisk was a Freemason. oh. several years ago." and he passed beyond. to seek the lost. Quenched the sorrows he had Angels to his home convey him. How he did that fire inherit! How. At the period of his entrance upon this work. I the stroke of death did free him Burst the chains that long impeded. his zeal. 'neath our weeping. Rent his home-ties all asunder. as he passes. had he lived. the fraternity assisted him with money and moral encouragement. Leaves of cypress sigh above him. favor And. blessed resting. copious extracts from own diary. as the records of the Grand Lodge of Vermont show. heeded. Earnest spirit. his lovely spirit. did wander. " Bnt it was not so to be. His youth. The Master called him up higher. Promised him the heavenly glory. of earth molesting . turn bid fair peace be to my destined urn.206 Master's work. composing these notes concerning the man of God. And his martyr's crown did merit. my sable shroud! covered. Oh. from which 1 m old . attesting. and. I disfiles of the Missionary Herald. THE MUSE UNDER THE CTPBES8. together with biographical details. Jesus moved him with his story. Not a jar Blessed resting. earnest spirit. While his vows of service keeping. after reading this article. to see him . gave me to the rest a quotation. With lucky words. which 4 : And After So may some gentle muse. Breathe the faith that once did move life Green and fragrant him.

from Olivet. Fisk. He diligently improved his scanty literary advantages. From 1815 to 1818 he pursued a regular course of divinity in the Theological Seminary at Andover. was initiated by a Freemason. in Persia. graduating August. to the Palestine mission. he sailed for that country. in . assisted by Masonic funds and other encouragements from the "great fraternity. Persevering application was a prominent trait in his disposition. few possessed so happy a combination of qualities for the work as Mr. June 24. and pursued his labors there during the first year. He engaged in Oriental studies at Smyrna. where.spread desolations and variegated scenes presenting themselves on every side to Christian sensibility. 1792. The instructions given him by the society under whose he was operating. in 1811. The two grand inquiries ever present to your mind will be. Massachusetts. he expired. Fisk entered Jerusalem. you will take an extended view of the wide. Franklin county. The pointed and inveterate hostility of the enemies of the Gospel. Mr. Parsons made a preliminary survey of the Holy Land. and by what means? What can be done for the Jews? what for the Pagans ? what for the Mohammedans ? what for the Christians ? what for the people in Palestine ? what for those in Egypt. Parsons. with earnest attention. the fourth son of Ebenezer and Sarah Fisk. in Syria. and entered Middlebury College. In April. he was licensed to preach the gospel. Among all who have given their lives to missionary labors in foreign lands. the various tribes and classes of fellow-beings who dwell in that land and in the surrounding country. on the 23d of October. Every Freemason feels interested to that the American Mission to Syria. and will survey. were met with that union of firmness and gentleness best calculated to subdue them to the obedience of the faith. In January. Connecticut. from Calvary. while Mr. in connection with Mr. Then he established his mission at Beyrout. What good can be done. dutiful. now the most prosperous and successful of all the missionary operations upon the face of the earth. 1815. and affectionate.DUTIFUL: FAITHFUL: AFFECTIONATE. a victim to one of the fevers of the country. 1823. and from Zion. strike the keynote of all his labors charge . 1819. 1814. and was then appointed. 1825.was born at Shelburne. he was faithful." Will not the time come when Freemasons will unite in erecting a monument to this Masonic apostle ? Pliny Fisk. On the third of November. From early youth he was distinguished for an engaging disposition and unusual sobriety. As a son.. " From the heights of the Holy Land. cull 20'i know some additional thoughts.

is formed of u range of irregular. the apex projecting three miles into the MediIt terranean. The promontory upon which triangular. Fisk dictated the following letter to his My beloved. which I frequently traversed in search of shells eral* information. in the presence of a numerous and orderly concourse for of people. my nephews and nieces. and support. our number have been enabled to give themselves to Christ. or nearly all. Oct. 20." BEYROUT. 1S25. that I love you all most dearly. and the base running along the foot of Lebanon. probably a dying bed. compose a few Hues for you upon a When you gave me up for this mission.M. The same God who has comforted you so many years. will comfort you under this. one-third ings. under so many troubles. aged father sick. though so long separated from you. to the height of 200 feet In the middle of the shore-line stands the city . and here and there groups of palms and cypresses. all the flags of the different Consulates His funeral was attended at 4 P. foliage. rocks and then a broad margin of picturesque villas. and that we shall meet with our departed mother in heaven. It ia growing fast in size and importance. The population of the city is about 75. covering the acclivities. As my headquarters were at Beyrout. and for nearly four months of . I " me up consolation He died on Sabbath morning at 3 o'clock. The southwestern side of this which I promontory. them being Mohammedans. the rest Christians and Jews. Mr. in " extended ? which your inquiries may be Upon father : his death-bed. other countries to Armenia. then the mulberry groves. and my brothers and sisters. As soon as the news of his death was announced. you gave " : You know to whom to look for for life and death.208 EARLY SUMMONED. You know His consolations are neither few nor small. And now stands is some account of the city of Beyrout. first. A writer deit scribes it as exceedingly beautiful. I hope all. and gen- deeply-indented Between these rocks the ground rises gradually. shore-line. with the The aspect of a desert . for a mile or two. a dense nucleus of substantial buildcliffs. I leave these lines as a pledge to you. is composed of loose drifting sand. peram- bulated one day on foot. occupies the southern horn of the crescent of the Masonic Bay. the same day. embowered in running up to the summit of the heights. as the rocky pass at the mouth of Dog Eiver occupies the northern horn. were suspended at half-mast. but the northwestern side is very different.000.

this club entitled. offered with a hospitality that is truly refreshing. through the cooler seasons. as genial and cheerful as those at home." with whom they can associate. The truth is'that. J. During the winter of 1867-8. Turkey in Europe. not enough to form life. at the house of Brother Samuel Hallock. " The nobility and gentry. Modeled partly upon the old-fashioned system of debating societies." by Rev. There tures is upon given. and various honorary members. is Beyrout. But these superficial demonstrations of social life are only slight indications of the great under-current. that would bear honorable comparison with those in any country. no other members of the "upper classes. I am competent to affirm that " the only city in Palestine or Syria where there is any social life.SOCIAL LIFE IN BEYEOUT. Dodge . followed by a distribution of tea and cakes. thrown open to all rerepute. 14 . society of young gentlemen was formed at Beyrout. come gradually down from the upper and mysterious atmosphere in which they were born. and are spectable visitors. among the topics handled were " Petra. A "The Once-a-Week Club. and scientific subjects." by Bishop Gobat Mr." as " they are so magniloquently designated in the English papers. Very gracefully do they develop No persons can make themselves more agreeable. but the accident of birth." by Rev. Mr. But at Beyrout are found all the materials for society. of whom I was one." still less of the "nobility and gentry. embraced other features that made its assemblies pleasant to all conThere were about twenty members." in the sense that Americans attach to the term. form an almost impassable barrier between them and their neighbors. "Washburn. I was passing in and out of the city. a weekly series of lechistorical. and cultivate the social spirit with people who are their equals finding in all themselves. Aug. or the upper classes. and other gentlemen of These were given at private houses. to a great extent. in a foreign country like Syria. Mr. I attended several of these stances with ever-increasing pleasure. and well are they manipulated." which met every Wednesday evening. cerned. in 1867. " " Johnson (the American Consul-General). The lectures occupy about an hour each." as the American press somewhat vaguely styles them. and other subjects by Col. At a circle for social Jerusalem there are but a few foreign families. while in no other Syrian city is there even so much as at Jerusalem. Abyssinia. at home. Churchill. . people lay aside. those social distinctions which. educational.

some of social. exerts his best many upon best English and American periodicals. a Scotch minister. to officiate. all attend and blend regular Sunday morning service. of so many denominations. that the variety of pulpit gifts is uncomwho is thus called monly great. can find. an open hand and heart. have nothing further to look for to realize the perfection of hospitality. are found among tourists to this country. funeral.210 PERFECTION OF HOSPIlALITTf. etc. and there is a kind of Reading Club Subscription. under the superintendence of Rev. a yielding of social position. included some of the bestminds that I ever met in such a circle. 15th to October overhanging Beyrout on the is east. who has charge of the Beyrout church. in the range of the Lebanons. A attached to the American Mission. doubtless. therefore. Below are the roofs. each one efforts. their voices in the psalmody. the So ministers. From the highest point of Bassoul's Hotel the view by starlight is a charming one. among the most refined classes of people. the dark . each bringing At Beyrout. During the hot season. regardless At church. the waters of the harbor. family parties. Robinson. considerable library is until there is no lack of good reading for all. their hearts in the prayers. at the principal charm of society. the outlines of a battlemented a castle the wall. distinctions. has a summer residence in some one of the innumerable villages that dot the cool and breezy mountain-sides 1st. The are equally free religious circles and A Bible-class. a blending of luxury with plainness. . in a manner bers. religious and secular. At the instructed spiritual in English. and generosity with all. that goes right to the heart of the stranger. Here an unbounded hospitality Here he maintained. The partaking of the free-and-easy spirit that animates the whole circle. Mr. Every family. it is to be presumed. this of otlu-r blending of respectable people. say from June existence in Beyrout is intolerable to foreigners. that would be hard to find else. taken by the English-speaking population here in great numare These are exchanged and loaned or distributed. by wo. anywhere Those who have spent a summer among these people. some of music. the dark shadows of gleaming winding streets. silvery with the starlight. forms and in they mingle. a faint view of prostrate pillars of Egyptian granite at the landing-place. share to the enjoyment of the whole his conversation. as. while. for the purchase of periodicals and cheaper literature. But one of the most agreeable features of " social life in Beyrout " remains to be described. at lecture.

M. Lucky there are few cats here to worry them. Thomson : a bluff. 1539. were of iron. xii. Blindness : iv. The tools used by these mechanics would give an American artisan the horrors. 9). After turning half a dozen corners in these narrow lanes. I was under the effects of that southern wind called KJiamsin. Sparroiu blind " beggars by the wayside" in sufficient abundance to deplete my spare change . carried by pilgrims to England. by As life in Beyrout is analogous to extracts all Oriental experience. were taken out with saws. yet not so here quite a number of much so as to prevent accurate details. A. and coffee.NOTE-TAKING IN THE BAZAARS. W. and these. my Solomon's time. copper and The stones for the Temple of Solomon were cut with saws tin^alloy). 3). Thomson has so well described in his Land and Book.D. in. whiih I brought home with me. Dr. I find the eighth-piastre pieces capital coin for this purpose being worth only half a cent a piece. and 1 Chron. notes. scratched amidst the bustle and yells of an Arab Saffron : piles of it sold here . Battlements: every roof more than six or eight feet above the ground has a battlement. Hyssop: it "springeth out of the wall" abundantly here. xx. M. and that in the apocryphal book of Baruch. and stuffing materials of nests into every crevice. prove that the Assyrians used the cross-cut or doublehandled saw. The saws of the Egyptians were single-handed and straight. already lost way on three several days going from Hallock's to Behold my market-place ! American Consulate. just as the blocks of stone from the old Temple quarry under Jerusalem. The ancients used saws for wood-cutting. I can give to a score of applicants without impoverishing myself. nothing but bread. mostly made in a stroll through the bazaars. nearly as old as the . : this bird is on every house-top. Saws were used in punishing criminals (2 Sam. and amidst the din and turmoil of day's the streets. which Dr. it will defy I have anything but an intelligent dog to tell where you are. and all closed the sombre. fruit. I notice strangers seem wolfish about 10 A. 211 on the east. to eat at 8 o'clock. and then wait until noon for breakfast . weather- . name from the Arabic saphor. and viewed things in a cynical mood. I give from my diary. for want of their steak. . signifying hot. (1 Kings vii. and awaits such a botanist as Solomon to describe it (1 Kings 33). jam. as the text shows. building nests on every jutting. Meal-times: awkward hours to Americans. Bazaars : these and the mechanics' shops are unending sources of curiosity . according to the requirements of the old Jewish law. probably. and this is the only pattern that I noticed in Palestine but in Nineveh the sculptures. genial. 31. solemn ramparts of Lebanon. sweep of the pines beyond the city. so soft is the rock in its native condition. for I notice that no two writers agree as to its identity. made. of iron though the saws -from the Egyptian tombs of the same period are of bronze (that is. cats are only once mentioned in the Bible. and instruction.

" as the ningly. the veteran Jerusalem explorer and missionary. while in this country. Their firm. I brought him letters from his wife. which will never wear out again. than he had ever known them before. for $28 the entire suit.Mission de Phmicie. ready to communicate all that he knows. Himes. of Atlas Lodge. Lamartine's Pilgrimage. upon the United States Consul-General. out in parts. in the most affable and unpretending manner. the first died at Jerusalem). the residence of her father. Dr. hooked. crescentshaped jaws. attached to the Protestant mission here. to be fat . Barclay. all nearly through with their Syrian travels. and I shall read." Snails: a wonderful place for them. New York. lately W. and of them I can repeat another observation of the same ancient. were deeper in 1868. and can heartily recommend it to all who read brench. cordial and (second wife. and many of them are . kind. Massachusetts.NOTE-TAKING IN THE BAZAARS. wellelected and well-filled. Fortunately. rasping denticles to the number of 10. Mr.* just . under the white. thinking " old traveller Sandys remarked. always an obstacle to travel in the month of March. I have purchased the numbers of this splendid production far as issued . coming w Since returning home. Clothing: had full suit made of French cloth. enveloping sheet they spread out their arms cun" an it especial honor. on a bit of membrane not a quarter of an inch long nor half so wide. desiring to visit Damascus. I can say nothing. Kenrick's Phosnicia. b/i: / found here comes to eating them. Augustus Johnson. then visiting Bethany. Gen. there is a library. Palestine Lodge is want of harmony among the brethren. But among the lower classes of the Arabs less care is taken to conceal the countenance from strangers. to appear corpulent. a member of the lodge at Newburyport. Women. He eturned to New York in 1870. scarcely in a low condition had a meeting for a year . T. as a noble contribution to Oriental literature . Starring. and tendered me all the aid in his power to further the purposes of my visit He ought to be a Mason.000 or more. I made early and frequent calls it when A as all the English Consuls are. So far as their faces are concerned. and Kenan's new work on Phoenicia. Freemasons: Brother Todd. favorably known in American journals as a vigorous writer. West Virginia. Hasselquist's Oriental Botany. very large and edible for those who hanker after them. J. Dr. worth in New York $8 per yard. J. His wife an Italian lady. with sharp. Brigstock. made by pricking the skin with needles and rubbing it over with the juice* of an herb (henna). Anderson's Geological Survey byria. a most intelligent physician One of the Past Masters is an Israelite. a Chicago Mason. but unable to cross the mountains. and tongues. were detained at Beyrout on this account. Thomson (who has been in this country thirty-six number of travellers years). for I fat!" did not see the face of a Turkish woman all the time of my pilgrimage in the Holy Land. accurate traveller: "I saw divers of the women with their chins stained with blue knots and flowers. I prefer sardines. and Brother J. Johnson met me cordially. M. The snows on Mount Lebanon. as I was informed by Dr. beaten old Buckeye (Ohio) American. M. all this ie very well in natural history.

275. The presbyter. and martyred A. iii. Dr. sitting through such damp days as these on the cold ground upon the The hired mourners. described the Dead Sea to me with accuracy. I spend considerable time every day. representing three of the angles of a perfect square. and I might possibly catch a glimpse of the faces of some of his wives. when I walk on the flat roof of his my house. Josephus. They only go out professionally. A. 300. stitching away for dear life. in Egypt). in a primeval age. and thick in proportion. to attend the famous law-school. but thus far in vain. the architect when inaugurating that* work. white as the "White Lady of Avenel. by contract. A fountain with an Arabic inscription. just as the plan of the city of Alexander was first drawn by. Beyrout is said to be the cleanest place in Syria. were divinely distributed to every leading people. when he met Origen. who weep. 12. outside the shop. howl. 1870. and especially in the East. The weather here has had close observers. Hope. One hundred of these drygoods stores would not make one such establish ment as in the Bowery. and Charity. and remain but a few minutes. " Bark from Boston. the fourth being absent these noble pillars are some thirty feet long. are wiser. says that while Java has from 159 to 110. looking. of which three or four cargoes are lauded here annually from Boston. freighted with kerosene in barrels and cases. has his hareem there. blindness ." Adv. Pamphylus." No wonder they catch catarrhs. The return freight is wool. beat the breast. not to look down into the adjacent courtyard. In looking at the antique weights and measures used by these people. 3.D. spreading meal upon his hat and delineating the topography with his finger.200 bbls. all destroyed long since. and styled them Faith. Beyrout has 4. I took often and copious draughts. rheumatisms. 'Twas a . was born here A. squatting in the street. from which those material things called weights and measures. VIL. Sept. after such a warning. This advertisement reminds me that the only merchantable commodity sent by the United States to this country is kerosene. wrapped in shrouds.D. He had collected a very complete library of Christian literature. a chaste Mohammedan. in this spirit. 2 13 An educated Syrian. . etc. Hallock particularly requests me. and was converted to Christianity. Of course. sweet water everywhere. how far they can be traced to that one necessarily material centre (the Great Pyramid of Cheops. It was here at Beyrout that Gregory was coming. droll sight to see French tailor's row of Arab journeymen. Groups of women returning from the cemetery. and Sitka 1 per annum. 1). Klein. graves. 231. His neighbor. said to be an invocation to God for a blessing to him who drinks. constitutes a fair retail store. in his Wars of the Jews (Wars.D. But there is a blessing in cool. New York. I have dedicated them to Freemasonry. Three fine columns of gray granite are standing behind the donkey-stables of Beyrout. in the provision -store here. it is a good time to commence the inquiry.. comparing the mean annual frequency of thunder-storms throughout the world.XOTE-TAKING IN THE BAZAARS. fevers. the three theological virtues of our order. capacity.

washed away by palm-fibre and olive-oil soap. I recognize its general accuracy. . spiced with some exaggeration. the " Living " Skeleton of Barnum's time. for forty years. Only 1 forgot to say that one of those bathservants has been in the profession. In reading it. 1 made an article.SJH TURKISH BATHS. a dried-up old man. He looks it He is a Calvin Edson. three years afterwards. expects to see something upon the subject of Turkish baths. it is said. gives interesting details concerning Beyrout. that was published in the Masonic department of the !N ew York Sunday Dispatch. as I remember Calvin. Everybody who reads travels in the Holv Land. ' COIN OF SAEDIS.

visiting a company of white-aproned brothers. The consequence was. disappointed by finding that none of the American missionaries in the Holy Lund are Masons. piety. after a short and for by them with regrets that no there can expect to inspire among that missionary operating class. Fisk had brilliant career. Extract from the records . I enlarged my circle of fraternal acquaintance. Mr. an ardent devotee of the order. 415. he was mourned now the Masonic claim. they enjoyed an intimacy with the natives such as no missionary has done since . simply because. Fisk died. in 1818. Murray Lyon.CHAPTER XIV. rightly judging that nothing would bring so near to the hearts of the Mohammedans. Pliny Fisk and Mr. of Ayr. The first two WAS members them to that country. already alluded to more than once. and when Mr. Eddy. Brother John C. with whom I was associated in the Grand Breckinridge. lambs feed after their manner" (Isaiah v. Lodge of that State as far back as 1853. not natives. And this. and learning all of which our missionaries have abundantly Mr. who was passing hastily few weeks before my arrival. 17). in addition to zeal. No. became of the Masonic Order before leaving the United States. were Ma- sons. to whom I wrote for information on the subject. where I stopped. spent a few days here. and afterwards fell in for a moment with Brother General through the Starring. guests at Bassoul's Hotel. The first two men. in 1825. of Kentucky. and at " where the last. Scotland. Beyrout. is given me by Brother D. which they have not. From time to time. city. FREEMASONRY IN BEYROTJT. I am enabled to A examine and describe their lodge-room. whom I met in Beyrout. An account of tho orgin of Palestine Lodge. I have given their names in a preceding chapter. The following day I made the acquaintance of Brother Hallock.

is may. the M. ais son. The M. Grand Lodge of Scotland Master stated that he had received an 1861." I cannot discover whether this idea was made practical or not. Lodge of Palestine. 1868. or creditable to the great cause in which the fraternity are engaged. J. scattered as far as Gaza on the south and Bagdad on the east. the Grand Lodge (Orient) of France has established a second lodge here. the lodgej < had a membership of about seventy-five. at its next session. the Grand Committee should authorize the issue of the charter in question. to be called The application for a charter for a That the application had come to at Beyrout. March 4th. and included brethren at Sidon. the Grand Master thereupon moved that. W. in the special circumstances of the case. Aleppo." This action was confirmed by the Grand Lodge . This lodge was installed January 4th. My informant says: destined to throw out deep roots into the Syrian soil . satisfactory to the members there. if possible. or Board of Relief) for Masonic travellers you to sanction the . Acre. On the occasion of my visit. : of the " In Grand Committee. W. by the hands of Lieutenant Colonel Burnaby. W. Nablous. Commissioner of the British Government to the French Army of Occupation at present in Syria. M. library 1 " It S. described in the Grand " Your Committee on Administration proposes Lodge records thus : to remarkable by-law of the Lodge Liban. This lodge set out with a feature peculiar to itself. Damascus. and to spread the protecting shadow of peace and I hope it fraternity over all. which comprises the creation of an establishment of relief also a (Relief Lodge.." Brother Haggy. to spread abroad bright rays amidst ignorance and superstition. W. W. to settle differences oetweenthe brethren. etc. June. in a condition order of Freemasonry at Beyrout is not. It was therefore unanimously resolved to issue the charter.. in 1868. 1869. the Grand new lodge in Syria. Brother Mossip. The reasons for this need not be enlarged upon . and a Masonic Tribunal of Conciliation. at Beyrout. they are such as do not in the least The . Hums. and in their relation with the outside world. the Marquis of Tullibardine. . Since my departure. and he felt confident that the Grand Lodge would confirm their resolution. That Colonel intended to return to Syria immediately. and the parties Burnaby were most anxious that the charter should. entitled Le Liban.feJlB MASONIC LODGES IN BETROUT. etc. under the peculiarly pressing circumstances of the case but this should form no precedent for the future. Brother Lambert. be taken out by him. I regret to say.

B. Gebal. W. and one was called for Saturday. This is a well-furnished apartment.. the present Master. T. Master-elect of this lodge . very tastily arranged. M. an old and highly-respected merchant here. late Master of the lodge here (Palestine Lodge No. Pa. being much engaged in the engrossing duties of his profession. just named Brother E.*' I said. we used the parlor of the lodge for our meeting. and elsewhere. and Jerusalem. had postponed my rout called together. The extreme heat rendering the lodge-room insupportable. Amongst them were Brother Eldridge. it *ra& this country. That functionary had been away his native country for nearly a year. my remarks being excellently interpreted by Brother Rogers. I had visited all places particularly memorable in the history of our society. Brother R. nor will it require any extraordinary effort to rerm ve them. The ers. the Bay f Rafts (St. similar to those I saw in Smyrna. during understood. in brief. 415) and who had been endowed. a to act in his absence. Brigstock . Consul-General of Syria. Alexandria. M. and others. after an introduction to the brethren.D. . in pursuance of mission. with special powers for the extension of Freemasonry in on leave of absence tc which period little or nothing had been accomplished in the affairs of the lodge. Eldridge. most of. general wish was expressed by the fraternity of Beyrout that we should have a meeting. George's Bay). representing a large number of the enterprising members of the fraternity in the United States . H. The night. Here. Brigstock. visitors included Brother Samuel Hallock. and I'feel confident that the opening of a new era for Masonic progress I upon the Syrian coast is not distant. Paris.^vhom spoke Arabic only? I opened the purposes of my mission to Palestine. Personally there is the best of feeling amongst the brethren concerning future operations. especially Tyre. 415. and had col- my lected relics G our friends at from every part of the land. one of the best Oriental scholars upon this coast. Joppa. Brother Ridley. of course. the actual Master.MY MEETING WITH compromise the honor of the individual NO. that would serve as tokens home that the most profound interest is felt in . was oppressively sultry. Mount Lebanon.. craft at Beyrout. and the other officers declining But upon the return of Brother Eldridge. of Philadelphia. Dr. J. Rog. / that I had come to the land of historical and Masonic associations. intention to have the good fellows of Beyowing to the protracted absence of Brother G. the 6th of June. that. etc. yet the attendance embraced nearly all the resident members of Beyrout. about thirty.

are essential to the sucworkings of the institution anywhere. I assured them that Freemasonry stands very high in the opinion of the better classes in in the admission of cessful Syria and Palestine that is to say. I . showing oers of this fraternity upon the steamer that brought me to Liverthe Mediterranean steamer . sketched the principles and aims of the Masonic Institushowed them that a prudent reticence. on my return. that no questions will be propounded me. that all these.218 the United States in MASONIC ADDRESS. representing seven or more lodges. and Jerusalem. and that it only needed for the Masons of Beyrout to strengthen themselves to establish a few more lodges in the city. . Jafia. so rare in this country. that the prosof lodges at Damascus pects were now bright for the establishment and Jerusalem. and principles. \ members to the lodge. a company sixteen Masons in Damascus. for the reading of their own members and the outer world. amongst the governing classes and those who would do more credit to its affiliation . to publish their laws. and the benefits of the royal order would be increased an hundredfold. charity in relieving ence the wants of the distressed . pool and extent of our ancient pointed to the world-wide reach them that I had found a group of the memAssociations. number when a stranger the surrounding community know who they are and what they are endeavoring to do . . a large body of another Then I . with more earnestness than those relating to the condition of Freemasonry here. I told them of our methods of operation in the United States . that our lodges held regular meetings in places well-known to every one. and a goodly number at Sidon. is one of the fundamental principles of the order. aims. that they of journals devoted to the interests of Freemasonry. is calls at one of their assemblies there an . and glowed with the desire to extend the honorable and useful reputation of the fraternity. the most scrupulous honor in our dealings with each other. and profoundest caution Then I tion. at Smyrna . where men talk more freely of each other than anywhere That obedielse. promptness in recognizing Masonic summouses . without exception. to establish regular meetings. that they and where they publish a that let are. all matters relative to Syria and Palestine. fidelity in regard to exchanged confidences. seemed earnest and zealous in the cause. to the laws and regulations of the society . secrecy in preserving the fundamental esotery of the order . upon y of /Masons.

will. and this compels the Worshipful A Master to extemporize the lectures. and all foreigners in Syria speak French. a task immensely difficult. now Deputy Grand Master for the District. it. will few of the craft there had ever received a "side degree" of any kind. specially charged with the duty of wel- coming and accommodating him. ty is the necessity of working the rituals both in French and I and Arabic. I was overwhelmed with kind wishes. as be to duplicate the agreeable sensations the Masons of Beyrout. if its uses are at all commensurate with the enjoyment it gave that good set of fellows. and certainly. My general statements were substantiated by Brother G. On behalf of the great American fraternity. as he goes along. as in all other inculcations of the evening. and " to come " to come solicitations often. In this." Both seemed to following after. officer. cannot close the chapter without pointing out the chief difficulties with which the Masonic devotee in this country must necessarily contend. and by the other English-speaking Masons present. I invited them to come and see us and verify the statements I had made. representing more than one-half of all the Freemasons in the world. But the natives generally only speak Arabic. the Senior Deacon. Eldridge. give satisfaction. among Before dissolving the meeting." " Our Vows." and if anything again." and can tempt me once more to undertake the long journey from La . This assembly was one of unmingled enjoyment. There is a fervor about these Syrian Masons that is extremely pleasant to a stranger. J. portion speak French only. All expressed their wish to receive it.. etc. whoever got it up. one of the lodge-officers suggested to Beyrout. and perhaps benefited by the communication of the Secret Monitor. of Syria. Grange of that evening that. no macter what may be their nationality. Anxious to gratify them. the work is done alternately in Egypt (the Loge . and introducing him to the officers and members of the lodge and that his stay in the place is made pleasant in consequence of the Masonic associations thus formed. An hour was then spent in the interchange of friendly sentiments. the Secret Monitor. des Pyramidcs). is not to be sneered at. they would be pleased. do good. and the object of this one. No one in Syria has the rituals in the Arabic language.THE SECRET MONITOR. my words were interpreted into Arabic to them by Brother Rogers. invitations. " By special request. I then recited The Level and the Square. covenants. I explained what a "side degree" is. I think. In a lodge that I visited at Alexandria.

. as long as they live. The Masons of Beyrout. are as impracticable as they are adapted trifling. as they choose .220 RITUALS IN ARABIC. sisterless. could never be which. Fatherless. and this reproofficers' use) duces the difficulty above alluded to. yet it has been worked under some of those new-fangled whimseys. and the record-books. This embarrassment. those bizarre ceremonies. is of Scotch parentage. too. who is Master of a lodge. or become members of as many other lodges. but has more of the social and benevolent features. and running no risk of suspension. 415. brotherless. the wanderer here. is increased when that foreign tongue is the Arabic. the labor of being compelled to translate into a fojeign tongue. but. as te a they cosmopolitan system. which examined. sympathy credit for i. the language of the rituals. will realize them with less difficulty than with us. so that the candidate may understand it. like the Masons of Connecticut. conceive. But even there the rituals (in all French out on the pedestals for the 'odges the rituals are printed and laid are printed in French. motherless. I think I have said enough to show that. this expresses the whole theory of Although LeB^n^liboTge. They may transfer their membership to other lodges. and lend them warm wishes and in their future operations. having any claims upon Masonic charity. Let one of my readers. Houseless and homeless. are kept correspondingly. I French and Arabic. One of them quoted to me "The ^ drying up of a single tear has more Of honest fame than shedding seas of gore. while the discipline due for unmasonic conduct will not fall so promptly as in American lodges. at the same time. as Southey calls them. if he can. instead of blaming our Syrian brethren for their want of progress. I think that in foreign countries the society is not so mucli a moral institution as with us. not in Arabic. they are charged no dues. their mother-lodge. and generally of Eastern lodges. I learned much of the high claims that charity makes upon them. In conversation with them during my various visits to Beyrout. the product of the French mind. we should give them what they have done." and evidently considered that Freemasonry. clause by clause. No. an Oriental tongue whose* phrases and trains of thought are essentially different from the French and English. know nothing of demitting. retain affiliation with their alma mater.

! Unchanged through time's all -devastating flight. saying with Southey: These " It don't look well. ONE. And I like what I've been used to. Thou only GOD. and stern opponents of innovation. and the following English translation of a Russian poem by Derzhaven embodies their views as well as ours In relation to the : Oh thou eternal All space doth occupy. I GOD. upon the old garment. I found no variety of opinion disputed by in the East. wife or daughter." tattered as it may be. is carried here to excess. 221 With the Oriental dislike to change. that the conventional non-Mason of this lop as well as all jurisdictions. Whom none can comprehend and none explore. Embracing Being all. or to inquire after her health. Who fill'st existence with Thyself alone. growing out of that respect for the sex which colors all our communications with each Even to ask a Moslem if he has a other. sir love the good old fashions. readily distinguished by (Ivi. widow. This is too clear to an observer in one of But they never " their lodges to bear contradiction. and so fail to exhibit the great principles in as heavy relief (basso-relievo) we do in America. ruling o'er call . there is no GOD beside Being above all beings. The only innovation possible They may (and do) drop out. 3). it is that Masonic injunction to Never mention the name of God. strangely some American reformers. daughter. these craftsmen will be strongadvocates of uniformity. therefore a violation of one of the landmarks of Oriental society! NAME of DEITY as a Masonic emblem. put new cloth The holy nature sister." dry-tree of Freemasonry. ! man.THE GREAT NAME OF GOD. whose presence bright all motion guide . whom we supporting. and mother. is a violation of social etiquette . and know no more And violated '* yet if there is any one precept in Masonry more persistently by these people than another. of the Master Mason. as to Oriental off. as Isaiah terms him made. Mighty ONE. is common here. I'm an old alterations. Masons is that of omission more or less of the work. artificially the imbecility of his countenance and moroseness of manner. but with that reverential awe . or to make any allusion to her existence. of our obligations to the wife. He is The eunuch.

" taking heavy blasphemies on his tongue when he cut loose his The friendship for the MAN who had fallen into evil hands. Long may these ancient landmarks of the Every Freemason. 10). and the Emblem of Deity. in his shameful fall and denial. No. in spite of Gallic influences. had I the space. Crusaders swore like Trim's "army in Flanders. The ing in your ears while travelling among to your horse or ass. a Divine Name is made contemptible among them. or will be. This is a subject to which the Masonic moralist here should turn suppose. 415. have not transgressed the fundamental laws of Masonry. I same point in the days of Jesus . revere the mysteries. " For swearing the land mourneth.222 THE OPEN WORD is ON" THE ALTAR. admire the beauty. or may be. with all their lack of skill in rituals. oh God! and in a hundred. and practise the principles. so far as he has the power. author of the Bible. had got his first attention." and the Oriental Catholics and Greek Christians are as bad as the Mohammedans. which due from a creature to his Creator." may well be said of the Orient. of this sacred volume . yet spread out on the altar in Palestine Lodge. But as it used to be said so often. in Mohammedan countries. and these genial craftsmen. by old and young. still greets the is Open Word his first upward glance craft be to the Orient. this is a good time to consider the subject. substituted for the Hebrew Scriptures. in lodge-use. yea. foi Koran has . whether Christian. or changed ita maintained ! S ordinances. go ahead. and even ridiculously used here. for Peter. we will build with hope that though hewn stones . to the The Jews. though the sycamores are cut down. "Get up. or Mohammedan. that the by been. irreverently. or broken its everlasting covenants (Isaiah xxiv. 5). would not be too much to dissect that singular work." is Yelldh (Ya expression thousand other forms the Allah). It is peculiarly gratifying to know that. It is always ring/ Mohammedans. which some Masonic writers have suggested as a fitting substitute on Masonic altars. Occidental reformers may encourage their Oriental brethren with the " the bricks are fallen down. "made imprecations and swore. to gladden the first sight of the Masonic Candidate " brought " to light. we will change them into cedars " (Isaiah ix. yet the name of God is persistently. is willing to abide by the precepts. An entire chapter. Jewish. our Masonic authors." The Mosaic prohibition against profanity was as positive as human language could make forms a part of the Mohammedan's Koran as of the it. and equally Book of Exodus.

How easy. ! : . is very similar to that of the other. is quoted from the Hebrew Scriptures. religious precept. the be admitted in one sense. and a frequent celebrator of the divine praises. to it *ake Is the for granted that as Freemasons Koran a book to support the it we may so recognize it. covetous. misconceived in the process of translation from a language highly idiomatic and poetical to one extremely practical. %. and is then sound and good. and awaited for years the pen of the historian. About twenty years since I made a critical commentary " Koran. The Bible is to be judged by its general scope and intention. and illustrate the numeious topics introduced That it is the Bible of Mohammedan Masons may into this volume. Let us only have like charity for the Koran. That it is principally derived from the Holy Scriptures. not by a few isolated passages. mercy. false witnesses. gratitude honoring of parents and superiors . a great preacher of patience. . slanderers. May this 'to on Sale's book (or : the original) be used on the Masonic altar as a substitute for the Hebrew Scriptures ? " From that essay the following is extracted 1. and it will not stand so much condemned. that the so-styled "True Believers" are qualified^. chanty. as to religious belief. That nearly every maxim. and are therefore reliable. to mistake their meaning As believers in its authenticity. after a thoughtful examination of the quotations that follow. The history of the one. strictly so called. Many of its traditions and teachings were delivered orally. the student is referred to the body of the work. 3. It follows. a high reverence for the name of God . ." 2. then. etc. and doctrine. possibly. and of him Spanhemius says furnished with natural endowments . severe against the perjured. and notably from the Ten Commandments. murderers. and Preston seems. in his Illustrations. and these. receive the mysteries of Masonry. That the larger portion of its legends (traditions. we are unwilling that it shall be treated harshly. beneficence. agreeable behavior showing liberality to the poor courtesy to every one fortitude against his enemies and. can Duly be proved by a more extended comparison than can be madt here. and. prodigals. historical passages) are borrowed from the same source. with special reference to the question. beautiful in his person richly of a subtle wit . hands of a Freemason ? The perusal of will show 1. above all.THE KORAN. adulterers. That all the doctrines (as distinguished from the legends) are sound and good. It inculcates the' mode of life " He was exemplified by its giver . in these respects. Hebrew Scriptures. then.

God is surely gracious and merciful. If it be asked of those who fear God. follows as a corollary upoE the establishment of the second proposition . . That its traditions are mainly true. reference is the Old and New Testaments. " God is God is almighty . or covenant. he can know nothsidered binding upon him. only made here to the Scriptures of and 4. ! . If ye attempt to reckon up the favors of God. Unto God belongeth the kingdom of heaven and of earth He giveth life. It is the Bible of the Moslems. . is easy to be reconciled and merciful . gardens of eternal abode. from which the following extracts are taken. fear God and be sincere. and of Thee do we beg assistance. the living. unto whom He pleaseth. to Him belongeth whatsoever is in heaven or on earth. He knoweth that which is past and that which is to come. to Masonic tradition. and that horror of The proof that falsehood so eloquently illustrated in Masonic rites. Thee do we worship. " omnipresent and omniscient . ye shall not be able to complete their number. . Thev who believe. God is easy to be reconciled and merciful. . namely. But the iildren of the next life shall be better. and He causeth to die and ye have no patron or helper beside God. may be considered from the first of these propositions. into which they shall enter rivers shall flow beneath the same therein shall . With both. 5. . Good do right shall be given an excellent reward in this world. and happy shall be the dwelling of the pious. no pledge. Faith in God. true believers. he possesses that veneraing. 0. therefore. any other law it is as fully the standard of Mohammedan brethren as are the Holy Writings to the Hebrew and the Christian. ' God is unto men God is mighty and wise. The fitness of the Koran for Masonic uses. in the way of those to whom Thou hast been gracious not of those against whom Thou hast been incensed. neither sleep nor slumber seizeth Him . Without the latter. the Koran is such a Kevelation to those who believe it. are the first requi Unless he sites of a candidate for Masonic honors and privileges. they neither have. can be conpossess the former. spiritually. nor of those who go astray. without measure. God . tion for truth which the Institution requires. the self-subsisting . 3. and they are many millions nations are governed by its precepts. a belief in a revealed "Word. religious and civil . nor desire to have. of the former. obligation. GOD. is found in its pages. they shall " hope for the mercy of God . for God is gracious and merciful. As for him who voluntarily performeth a God is bountiful good work. " gracious and merciful Who forgiveth sins except God ? God loveth the beneficent Truth is from the Lord. there is no God but He. What hath vonr Lord sent down ? they shall unto those who answer. and who fly for the sake of religion. verily God is grateful and giving. Direct us in the right way. and fight in God's cause.224 SYNOPSIS OF THE KORAN".

" fear God. " They who purchase this life at the price of that which is to come. "The pious distribute alms out of what God has bestowed on them. out for that which your hearts have assented to. and Christians. and who behave themselves patiently in adversity and hardship. help with perseverance and prayer. Whosoever deviseth excellence. he shall have his reward with his Lord. own the guilt of disobedience. " Beg assistance. the Creator of heaven and earth. and be constant at prayer. and the Scriptures. they enjoy whatsoever they wish. these are they who are true. remember the favor of God towards you any Creator besides God. ye shall find them with God. whoever believeth in God and the last day. and for redemption of captives who is constant at prayer. and give alms. cleanseth himself to the advantage of his soul. when they have covenanted. their punishment shall be complete. pious. they shall have their reward with the Lord. perform their covenant. and doth thai which is right. and those who Jndaize. and what treasures ye have laid up in heaven. for all shall be assembled before God at the last day. "God will not punish you for an inconsiderate word in your oaths. Oh men. and deal justly. neither shall they be grieved. and to orphans. unto his kindred and unto orphans. therefore. He who resigneth himself to God. there shall no fear come on them. Whosoever cleanseth himself from . for God's sake. and speak that which is good unto men. for God is with the Eighteousness is of him who believeth in God and the last day. the present life deceive you. there is none who can withhold and what He shall withhold there is none who can bestow. who provideth food for you from heaven and earth ? The promise of God is true. and giveth alms and of those who. this shall be better for him. who giveth money. ye have need of God. and the stranger. and make peace among men. "Ask "Be constant in prayer. but God is self-sufficient. and they shall be without " help. unto God doth all excellence belong unto Him ascendeth the good speech and the righteous work He will exhort. . with patience and prayer. and the prophets. and in time of violence. . and these are they who . and those who ask. patient. 225 Thus will God recompense the " Praise be unto God. and to the poor. " He who with the poor man than he is "Make not God lightly the object of your oaths. and Sabines. The mercy which God shall freely bestow on mankind. voluntarily dealeth better obliged. and doth that which is right. is there men. Let not. 15 . and be devout. and the angels. ! . and give alms. Surely those who believe. and the needy.SYNOPSIS OF THE KORAN". " Ye shall show kindness to your parents and kindred.

. a direction unto men. Satan caused them to forfeit Paradise. . but approach not this But . " Solomon was a believer. " Since ye were dead. and also the distinction between good and evil. by the per- . and eat of the fruit plentifully wherever ye will . and from them two hath multiplied many. and out of him created his wife. he will hereafter cause you 'to die. and when He divided the sea for you and delivered you. " Let there be no violence in religion. and strengthened Him with the Holy Spirit The Scriptures descend upon the heart. and reject other Whoso among you doth this. at the day of resurrection. shall lead the believer out of darkness into light. shall suffer a grievous punishment. ye gain done. concerning that about which we now disagree. is already directed in till it . his creditor wait debtor under a difficulty of paying his debt. the Son of Mary. and turned them out of the state of happiness wherein they had been. " God raiseth the dead to life. ' The dead have what they have . dwell thou and thy wife in the garden. way. What is with God shall be better for the righteous than short- "Observe 'justice when ye appear as witnesses before God. created you out of one man. and appointed out of them twelve leaders. who grievously oppressed you. ye be. " Fear " God that ye may prosper. " God formerly accepted the covenant of the children of Israel. 'Whatever alms ye shall give. "God said. " God shall judge between us.226 SYNOPSIS OF THE KORAN". "God sent down the Law and the Gospel. and will again restore you to life . shall have no other reparts thereof? ward than shame in this life. Adam. let be easy for him to do it. their oaths. u and ye shall not be questioned gained. tree. when God delivered you from the people of Pharaoh. and let not hatred towards any induce you to do wrong. lived worldly prosperity. " He who cleaveth the right firmly unto God. and feareth God. lest ye become of the number of transgressors. and God gave you life. " Do you believe in part of the Book of the Law. and slew your male children . and gave evident miracles to Jesus. and on the day of resurrection shall be ent to a most grievous punishment "He delivered the Book of the Law unto Moses. then shall ye return unto him. " Remember. or whatever verily " If there be vow ye shall vow God knoweth any it. God will surely keepeth . and ye shall have what concerning what others have Wherever " God God God will bring you all back at the resurrection. But they who make merchandise of God's covenant and love. " Whoso his covenant.

and be merciful unto us. 22t mission of God.SYNOPSIS OF THE KORAN. and they shall suffer a grievous punishment. God will cast him to be broiled in hell-fire. of the historical facts and narratives that make up so large a portion of the latter. and those of chief importance are repeated several times . neither make us. and ask pardon for their sins. God shall not speak to them on the day of resurrection. Paradise is prepared for the godly. they shall be companions of hell-fire. The ments : . God will surely introduce into Paradise among the upright. with their respective leaders . confirming that which was before revealed." is startling enough for the firmest believer in eternal punishment. they shall surely eat of good things. They who have committed a crime. Nearly every incident is transferred. to bear what we have not strength to bear. it shall be an excellent abode and a delightful station. who shall remember God. though often in a distorted state. Oh God. For instance " If they who have received the Scriptures believe and fear God. whoever hath been blind in this life shall also be blind in the next the righteous shall be rewarded with the highest appointments in Paradise. their reward shall be pardon from the Lord. punish us not if we Oh God. who give alms in prosperity and adversity. and He will lead them into gardens of pleasure ." : Those who But of all the matters of Masonic interest in this parallelism between the Koran and the Bible. and if they observe the Law and the Gospel. they shall taste the punishment for that which they have gained. and over them shall be coverings of fire. and that which hath been sent down unto you from your Lord. and the other Scriptures which have been sent down unto them from their Lord. and they shall meet therein with greeting and salutation they shall remain in the same forever . On a certain day God will call all men to judgment. shall believe. "Their couch shall be in hell. and forgive men." Scriptural doctrine of a future state of rewards and punish" Whosoever doeth mais everywhere taught in the Koran liciously and wickedly. " Whosoever believeth not the Scriptures shall perish. ye are not grounded on anything until ye observe the Law and the Gospel. They who conceal any part of the Scriptures. both from above them and from under their feet. 0. oh Lord. a direction and good tidings to the faithful. which Thou hast laid on those who have been before us. . and shall work righteousness. or dealt unjustly with their own souls. with more or less accuracy. ye who have received the Scriptures. lay not on us a burden like that forget or act sinfully. perhaps none is so striking as the introduction into the former. who bridle their anger. and spare us. but be favorable unto us. He will surely expiate their sins from them." Injunctions to believe and obey the Scriptures abound everywhere in the Koran. and persevere not in what they have done. because they have persevered with constancy.

etc. his They refer to his creation. Joshua. and Abel. he is called the friend of God. And God directed the mother of Moses. We have the facts of his idolatrous youth. and to show Pharaoh and Haman. and fear not. the Queen of Sheba. God is our God there is no God but He. . Ishmael. Cain. their stature. for instance. Elijah. Concerning Abraham. the angels. we have many facts some. his destruction of the idols of his father's family. ful. his conversion. by revelation. Sennacherib. and their forces. of the Koran for a minute his: " tory of these transactions. The Old Testament relations concerning Moses.. Elisha.. Solomon. Lot. and the most excellent patron. is fed with a miracle. he weakened one party of them by slaying their male children and preserving their females alive. specimens : Solomon was David's heir. therelthersoever way ye turn yourselves to pray. his meeting with Eve. of the angels. Mount Ararat. and to make them models of religion. David and Goliath. and have had all things bestowed on us . the most merciAll power belongeth unto God. the Angel Gabriel. and appoint him one of our apostles. etc. his penitence Concerning Adam. prayer for his father. sacrifice. Ye shall not worship any other except God. serve your God who hath created you. saying. if thou fearest for him. support. Jacob. etc.228 SYNOPSIS OF THE KORAN. we have been taught the speech of birds. entertainment plea to God for evidence of the resurrection. etc. it must be confessed. Oh men. cast him into the* river. And God was minded to be gracious unto those who were weakened in the land.. Pharaoh. there is the face fT ^?. escape from destruction. Enoch. Ezra. and he said. the Koran is even more diffuse. neither be afflicted. And when she had put the child in the ark. his offering up of Isaac. Balaam. etc. disputations with Nimrod." etc. Aaron. and He is severe in punishing. and to establish a place for them in the earth . his preaching to the people. Give him suck . the Golden Calf. his being worshipped by with prayer. which they sought to avoid. Dost thou not know that God is almighty ? that unto Him belongeth the kingdom of heaven and earth ? that ye have no helper or protector except God ? To God belongeth the east and the west . " Your . God knoweth the innermost part of the breasts of men. regrievous fall. Ezekiel. and to make them the heirs of the wealth of Pharaoh and his people.. for he was an oppressor. that destruction of their kingdom and nation by them. Jonah. NimI give rod.. God contracteth and extendeth his hand as he God is our pleaseth. Caleb. the Deluge." and of Moses "Now Pharaoh lifted himself up in the land of Egypt and he caused his subjects to be divided into parties. this is manifest excellence. the tower of Babel. are detailed with minuteness. etc. Oh men. and. and several of his sons. See chapter xxviii. God's promise of Isaac. tirement with her. fanciful enough yet generally agreeable to the Bible. for we will restore him unto thee.

Veil (88). of some of the chapters of the Koran afford a hint of and show how florid is Oriental imagery The Helping : Hand (107). Abu Laheb. they say by God : (Allah) that we if are brothers . a specimen of the style in which this singular work is composed. Most Merciful tiu . The Gloomy The Breath of the Winds just Measure (83). and will fight with one and the same weapon name . was Omm (mother) Jemeel. and he himself shall perish. and there be burned. etc. and putting their hands " We swear upon their sacred book (the Koran). and the seed of Masonry has proved so congenial to the soil of Mohammedan lands.TITLES OF KORANIC CHAPTERS. Neither his riches nor his gains shall be of service to him. to whom he threatened such diabolical penalties. for refusing to accept his prophetic missou. entitled Abu Laheb. (80). and 1 we perish. that I trust the space I have given this subject will be considered fitly occupied." commence with " : passage. Luheb The titles their contents. In EGYPTIAN WILLOW BASKETS. except one. (51). us take the third chapter. on her neck a rope twisted of the fibres of the palm-tree. . Mohammed had become incensed against his uncle. He shall go down into the flaming fire of hell. The Frowning Brow The Un- In the presence of the priests. and launched the following missile against " In the name of the Most Merciful him God. His wife also shall go And she shall have there. 229 So many Mohammedans are Masons." The name of Mohammed's aunt. The Swift War-Horses (100). it shall be with the same sword.* the hands of Abu let : As shall perish." th * All the 16 of the 14 chapters of the Koran. carrying fuel to feed the infernal flames. the chiefs of Arab tribes meet together on the eve of a military expedition.

. in conversation. E. devout in the offices of religion . innocent an cheerful . gloomy. looking back over this thriving with a present population of 75. noisy. we may proudly point to the Syrian University. THE AMERICAN MISSIONARIES. a sincere and cheerful friendship among the as a class are admirably ex" They are pious. valley at the base of city. sober. F. through the pines which cast their thin shadows over the surrounding flats of sand through the vast grove of olives which silver the shallow . who says lent . built by American money. Wm. as the chief benefactor of the Syrian University. VERY American Mason must feel a national as well as whatever proposes to elevate the Oriental races. throtigh winding ways of the magnificent amphitheatre of gardens . B. noisome streets. and paves the way for the lifting up of this long down-trodden land. 1871.CHAPTER XV. Dodge. M. operating in this country for about half a century. Lebanon . Nothing has conduced so much to this as the labors of the Protestant missions of the A.000 souls. delivered here December. and conducted by American learning and intelligence. I could not help inquiring with the poet: An erit gui vellit recuset ospopuli meruisse. benev . Going out through the narrow. And As I read the corner-stone speech of Mr. and my personal views of them : pressed by another writer. this is but one of the many fruits of missionary labors here. and to leave words worthy to be preserved in cedar? For I felt that I would rather have filled his place that day. as the only institution of the class in the East. then. exhibiting in all their actions those best and truest ^ of Christian spirit. than that of any other living man ! I associated with \he different families of the missionaries a goo deal. religious interest in C. and the promise of thrice the number. et cedro digna locutus linquere f Is there any one who does not wish to deserve popular applause.

as Presbyterians. first called themselves Christians. such Congregation alists. I have grace and ease. as the disciples just above here. who oppose schools. whose of Ophthalmy.000 per annum for five years to establish a Christian press at Malta. Among them I enjoyed the excellence and amiableness of the Lord's house. as the pompous and imposing ceremonies in which the remains of Orien-tal Christianlie : u " ity are enveloped. They recognize no denominational names. nearly two generations have participated in the mystic repast At the same shrines of idolatrous superstition. the timid Abyssinian . His language is always simple and unaffected. and increase the harmony of the Christian body at home. and wordly-mindedness of the Latin and Greek priests. here and elsewhere. hinting at possibilities. Of Dr. printing. intolerance. and certain persons in Boston. and everything not under their own control. at Beyrout. their worship in all essential features similar . form without power. especially in the Department have been something unprecedented in extent. selves. At first Smyrna and Malta were made their centres of labor. has been to kindle the religious fire in the churches. Whenever I returned to Beyrout. and anally here. in Jerusalem. at Antioch. the body without the soul" Since Father Jonas King (who deceased 1870) brought his own bread and wine here from Paris. he has much was the Well. have you discovered Jachin and Boaz yet ? first that greeted my ear. loaded down with specimens and note-books. heat without light. I noted he has an air of engaging frankness. Another has given my idea in " What almost the same words they chiefly have to contend with is not so much the heathenism that surrounds them. that one great result of the awakening in missionary effort. more than half a century since. agreed to give $3. Massa- chusetts. Then it was moved to Smyrna. professional labors. . 231 is and a generous charity to all. It is the part of these men to contend with the bigotry. Of Dr. the poor Copt. written . bow the subtle and exclusive Jesuit. his salutation. Bliss. and an industrious man. Greek. and the with these missionaries. the pompous austere and zealous Armenian. sound without sense.PBOTESTAOT MISSIONARIES. They are of opinion. and so are many of us. unreasonableness. Doctor. books. but call themselves missionaries. is a hard student." This witness true. and the like. with a sub-flavor of gentle and sportive humor. Van Dyke. to celebrate the sacrament.

and heroic resistance have thus far overcome all obstacles. Van Dyke makes a specialty. and sold to them by the natives Several steam-presses aro now kept busy by this printing-house at Beyrout In the way of establishing schools. Hallock. from as the degraded and vicious level. as told in But fidelity the Missionary Herald of Feb. is one of these. Dei plena sunt omnia all things are full of Deity. printing books. The story of Assad-esh-Shidiak. Both these errors. and they lean heavily and faithfully on the Divine arm. are They a making gradual but sure progress towards raising. in addition to hymn-books and theological works. The number of their is large. of whose name I am making such frequent use in the The printed publications present volume. Mr. until quite recently. with Cicero. and the electrotype plates made by his son. sometimes in inconvenient numbers. and depreciated the effect of their labors upon the uninstructed masses around them. including. and add greatly to their domestic expenses. their when a man's heel could have stamped out the little spark they had kindled. the only deviation being the necessary care of strangers who claim their hospitality. who have buried themselves beyond the reach of congenial society. these people of the East. He told me that the lead of which the first typemetal here was made was sheet-lead torn from the old Roman coffins. principal work of the mission has been.. 1833. Some tourists have foolishly exaggerated the comforts they enjoy. their episodes of terrible interest. it is charity to believe. For this. delicate ladies. They have history of times their romances. or that of earnest Christian gentlemen. like those whom I saw gracing the Protestant missions at Beyrout and Sidon. but giving their whole lives to a most arduous. Samuel Hallock. their labors have been abundant Their hospital and infirmary at Beyrout have a reputation that extends even to Bagdad and Egypt For diseases of the eye. just nations of Europe were raised from a similar plane by missionariea from the East They find.232 THE EYE-IXFIRMAKY. The sight of educated. spring from thoughtlessness alone. a complete copy of the Holy Scriptures in Arabic. and healing institutions for the sick. which Dr. the first matrices were cut by the elder Mr. establishing schools for teaching Christianity to the young. these things suggest nothing to my mind but self-sacrifice. thankless charge. thoroughly instructed to adorn any profession in life. there is perhaps no institution in ! . Their manner of living is simple and economical.

all at the same time. and Greco-Turkish. 1823. courteous expression. the Jews. "W M. Sitting in their house of worship at Beyrout. 1822 in Malta. or the success of operations and treatment. it was startling. Taylor. I throw a few notes together here. printed the of 287. note of Dr. to their profit. 1834. amount first established A. on my first Sabbath here. recalling the unpleasant fact that the Moslems. My portly but vigorous. in the Arabic language. 17) blown by the Turkish troops in the garrison. the world that excels his in the 233 number of cases treated. many natives following them to the house. 1854. Temple being the printers.TRANSLATIONS OF BOOKS. florid face. Armeno-Turkish. Van Dyke treated largely over one thousand ophthalmic cases again. as I did twoscore years ago. Reminds me Hallock and Daniel has been the very fulcrum of Archi- Heman Land. they have published The Pilgrim's Progress. they were objects of curiosity. ! I shall refer to this subject When the first of them landed here. was removed to Smyrna. It medes to move the world of Oriental ignorance. the mild and mellow light of these Mediterranean shores flowing through the cypresses. Thomson is this Something over seventy. : of old Zach. to hearken to the sound of the trumpet (Jeremiah vi. and equally. this press December 23. to stand by the grave of Pliny Fisk.150 copies of religious matter. preferring to insert them in this ohaotic state than to omit them altogether: to the At the mission-press they are completing a thorough concordance Holy Scriptures.D. in the midst. Paces his parlor in his red-painted Damascus slippers. It arrived here May 8. in Italian. For this veteran missionary. and was informed that during the spring I was there (1868) Dr. now they are as much a landmark of Beyrout and its history as the very pine-groves in the suburbs. I used to see a regular string of applicants waiting their turn at his door. and the Christians each have a diiferent day called Sabbath. A society was established in . at which time there were eight presses in the Holy all given to the promulgation of sectarian error. I hope. smokes and talksi. The American Protestant press. and Oriental readers are now enjoying acquaintance with Worldly Wiseman and other characters of good old John Bunyan. and the boys running before to secure a good view . must bring a gush of devotion which memory will retain forever and forever. with whom I once travelled on the Mississippi river. modern Greek. November 17. Amongst other works.

This site is a noble. entitled SYRIAN UNIVERSITY. English. that the managers of this mission had sought in vain for a pious and competent physician. At the laying of the corner-stone of their new building. A missionary. 7. The warm Syrian sun beamed throngs of the American. It valuable chemical. a medical department first class has a literary course of four years. They reckon every Jew converted in Palestine as worth. to Christianity. an herbarium of 6. Brown. Its It acres. Righter. and fair collections in geology and mineralogy. and it is not uncommon etc^ applied to a to hear such names as Peter Jones. N. returning to his field in Turkey. a thousand converted anywhere In 1835 the editor of the Missionary Herald wrote pathetically else. of $200 for one year. designed to extend Christian blessings to heathen women. and a portion of the city. just above the old The site is the finest in the whole length of that fortress of Europe. 1871. and promise great usefulness on their return home. whence we received them 1. when it goes forth it will accomplish that whereunto it is sent. a mile west of the city. commanding an unobstructed view of the sea. philosophical.000 Oriental In February. they received four Copt students. the Lebanon range. 1870. and Syrian population assembled on the site of the new College building. graduated July. German. C. the weather was charming. elevated promontory on the north side of Cape Beirut. from a town 500 miles up the Nile. teach that the Word of God is fire and the hammer. But even now it proves insufficient for the pupils who apply. the teachers often give them the names of their benefactors in America who assume the payment for proteges. John. for tuition and board. 1871. died in the Oriental field December 16. 1856. with Mansard roof. Women's Union Missionary Society of America fof Heathen Lands.800 years ago. His theory of labor was to bring back to the East the same Bible and Gospels. writes to one of our papers of the joy and pride with which he looked upon It stands perched the new American College at Constantinople. Dec. In educating orphan children. The building is a very handsome one. The wonder is that the Turks should ever have surclassic strait rendered so choice a spot for such a use. high on the northern bluff of the Bosphorus. The Syrian University was incorporated a few years the laws of under New York. since. a respectable library. in their The missionaries purity. . even at the rate. and the language of instruction is Arabic. .234 1861. The exercises were opened down with cloudless brightness. and by an introductory address by the Rev. These are well supplied with funds. of stone. a good telescope. plants. has a fine campus of twenty and medical apparatus. devoted to Bible distribution. " " boy who carries Ishmael on his every feature.

'' For several years the institution has been in partial operation. Dodge. fitting them to fill with honor the highest positions. as well as the various civil and political positions under the government. This fact has led the friends of the American and English missions to feel that the time had arrived for establishing a classical institution of a high grade. and throughout the greater part of Syria. and the Scriptures Eobertson of the Kirk of Scotland. above Tarsus). and one Saviour The Eev. we cannot doubt. Dr. Moslem and Jew. most important results. trying by their schools and seminaries to awaken a desire for education . physicians. where young men from the various preparatory schools of the country could have an opportunity of obtaining a thorough classical education. are destined to great enlargement within a few years. schools. Inspired Volume of Divine Eevelation. and especially the He urged that alreligious element in its course of instruction. but there is connected with its future. lawyers. and. in fact. Presi- dent of the Board of Trustees in New York. The following are extracts : " We are assembled this afternoon to lay the corner-stone of the Syrian Protestant College. For more than forty years the American and other missionaries have been patiently laboring to promote the best interests of the people of Syria. Jas. equal in all respects to such as is furnished in Europe and America. in Arabic. ministers. . Bliss. Dr. which. to be presided over by men of superior education and experience. offering young men of all classes the opportunity of securing a thorough classical and medical education.PLANTING THE CORNER-STONE. These halls will be open to Christian and Pagan. English. as instructors. but he cannot leave without seeing and knowing what it is to be a Christian. and ruined man. a brief statement of the design of the Syrian Protestant College its scope. and by the Eev. 235 who made . and they have been encouraged by a growth from year to year. which had been laid across the stone heaps near the foundation wall. but all will learn that there is one. and one only. though direct proselytizing is not aimed at in the institution. who stood on a platform of six narrow joists of Cilician pine (from the Taurus range. Wm. yet it the intention of its Faculty that no young man shall enter its halls and complete his studies without a thorough knowledge of the is Christian system and of the way of salvation in Jesus Christ. Druse and Nusairy . President of the College. He may enter as a heathen. we doubt not. in for lost offered prayer. An address was then delivered by the Hon. for training boys and girls. It may seem to some a very small matter of itself . Professor Wortabel. E. which has now assumed such importance that we find in this city. Thomson then were read by the Eev. more or less extensive.

and. and mingle my congratulations with yours. so full of Bible and historic interest. It has been conceived sacrifices. " To those connected with the education of youth in Syria. But more than that. and the friends of the College have been so much encouraged by the euccess of the beginning. it will be one of the first objects which will meet the eye of the stranger entering vour port. May the blessing of God attend the effort. and give them every encouragement And now.238 MB. which. crying. as from year to year there shall go forth the young men grad- uated with honor. friends to secure to this people the inestimable blessings of a thorough classical education. for the erection of this building will increase the desire for higher attainments. me This in the spirit of Christian philanthropy.' and as years shall go by. and filled with a desire to communicate to others the knowledge they have acquired. and we are here to-day formally to lay the corner-stone of the first Here it will rise in commanding proportions. and like a city set on a hill. and be able to convey to the friends in America the good news that the College building is fairly under way. ance with plans designed by an eminent American architect . through the liberality of friends gratified in America and England. unto it. grace. in accordance with the custom in America and England. I proleft made great have home and and those engaged in it have ulations . that they resolved to secure a site. shall give moral life and beauty to the hills and valleys of Syria. DODGE'S ADDRESS. and those of us who have been permitted to aid in its erection shall have passed away. this must be an occasion of interest. we trust it will be a centre of light and influence. if I am funds to erect suitable buildings. giving wisdom to carry out successfully the plans till the top-stone shall be laid with rejoicing. the necessary in being able to say that. " Let half. in accordbuilding. this University shall still go on increasing in usefulness. and thousands of young men go forth from its halls to aid in redeeming and blessing this land. invoke the prayers and influence of all present in its beis not a money-making enterprise. like streams in the desert. I am very happy to be with you at this interesting time. Appreciate their motives. And now may the blessing of God ever rest on the building whose foundation has no* ueen laid ! And to His name be all the praise. the Board of Trustees have decided at once to commence the erection of the buildings for the classical and medical departments. also copies of the local papers of the latest dates. sufficient funds have been obtained to warrant a commencement. Grace. and having secured this beautiful situation." . or as the lighthouse at the entrance of your harbor. and act as a stimulus to other schools. and prosper all engaged in the work of erection. possible.

Dodge. sirs. asked permission to say a few words. chemistry and natural philosophy. and after the laying of the stone. and medical science ? To what shall I liken thee. "Who. God.DK. One to establish and jealously guard our beloved Alma Mater. and making them worthy to be numbered in the ranks of civilized nations. H. let us drink deep draughts from her milk . . before the foundation of this College. May the plots of her envious opponents be baffled by her immovable founGod. our God. in giving utterance to these few words. taught us algebra and arithmetic. to gardens in which resound the songs of science. 23? This address was then translated into Arabic by Dr. and the other mathematical sciences ? Who. natural history. "This stone. Dr. a Greek Catholic. It is not only an earnest for the upbuilding of this noble College which has diffused. FEAY'S ADDEESS. then. will most clearly discover that the laying of this stone is the positive assurance for the beginning of a return of science and knowledge to this our native land. when a young native physician. which teem with the flowers and fruits of knowledge. which the emotions of my heart impel me to offer. ! . who has . but also it should be held in veneration as an earnest of the return of science and civilization from the West to our land. environ her by Thy angels. in whose courts the raven of ignorance and folly is ever croaking. Thou our God cast Thine eye in favor upon the upbuilding of this noble College. Yes. nourishing them by thy life-sustaining milk. prayer was offered in Arabic by Rev. He spoke in Arabic as follows : "I must ask your pardon. bestow upon this high-minded and excellent man. that they may shield her from all evil. for it will . mineralogy. an abundance of blessing upon those benefactors who are giving their aid in the erection of this College. 0. polishing their minds and understandings. Dr. Jessup. astronomy and geometry. regretting the impotence of my tongue to do justice to such an occasion. To a tender mother? because thou dost bear in thy bosom youth from whatsoever sect or faith. science and virtue throughout all our borders. To the lifegiving fountains ? for thou hast changed the wild desert wastes of mind. Wm. and every one who does not darken his vision by the veil of envy or partiality. Van Dyke. bestow dations. and a member of the first graduated medical class. Come. our Alma Mater. the Hon. expresses a type of two things that ought not to escape the notice of the sons of our native land. laid before us as the corner-stone of this structure that is destined to rise in noble proportions. E. Let us entreat the high and holy give life to our barren minds. ye sons of fatherland! hasten wifch rapid steps to the arms of this tender mother. before her. and from every evil eye. noble College ? To the Star of the East ? in that thou art scattering by thy rays the mists of the gross darkness of ignorance which has enveloped our native land. in the sons of our land. Come. Selim Fray. taught botany. as a sweet fragrance. and return upon them in disappointment. H.

Calhoun and "Win. a few miles southeast of Beyrout.~Thirty-bne outlying stations. miles up the coast. and two At Abeih. and Henry H. I which tains of old November 14th. with their wives. . Everett. a glorious portion in Thy heavenly kingdom. Mrs. and to richly impart Thy blessing her distinguished instructors. THE TWO SIDES OF THE BINO OF PHARAOH THOTHME3. so honored our country. Rev^W. and five native assistants. our God. with his family. that their benevothey may perfect this good and glorious work. At Sidon. and prepare for each one of the Board of Trustees and Managers. land in peace and safety. have not space here. to the President of this College. Van Dyke. are Dr. and happy days. with three single ladies. and their wives. and Sophia B. Thomson. are also at work throughout these mounKing Hiram. W.238 CATALOGUE OF MISSIONARIES. had succeeded in organizing nearly one hundred of this class when. Jessup. Lord. which Other missions. At Tripoli. by one native teacher and two native helpers. all within sixty miles of Beyrout. Rev. James S. Grant them long life. are Rev. assisted fifty Misses Eliza D. A. Bowen Thompson. Thou. are Rev. and three assistants." At Beyrout. Eddy and wife. Grant them Thy helping hand. Loring. H. native assistants. she was summoned to her reward. Rev. overflowing with blessings and good fortune. are connected with this great mission.. a supporting hand . and of her benefactors. One pious lady. to his native benefactors. . V. Multiply lent aims. in 1872.. Ellen Jackson. 1869. C. M. for many years devoted to establishing Christian schools for girls. Samuel Jessup and wife. and each of the teachers of this College. Bird. for he is chief among her Restore him. S. W. Dennis. Bliss. for may God in power and mercy greatly bless.

1868. so every person of the least note or consequence possessed of the American Indian. jasper. from the shores where they made up their "notes" in the Masonic Bay to the place of debarkation in the port of Joppa. The day of my passage was fair. were busy it is. . I Voila I here Moving out of the Bay of forget the name. The timbers were all felled and prepared in the forests of Lebanon. the signet was used to ratify such social and religious transactions as called for a sacred one pledge. of all colors and compositions. composed of opal. therefore. conveyed by sea in "notes" (sic) to Joppa. the last day of April. like the spear and pipe posited with its owner in his tomb. of the town of Gebal. about twelve miles in the north. From its stony caskets (sarcophagi) I had procured hundreds of seals. speaking in his day of the Assyrians. says the old writer. all down if this historical coast. table poorly supplied. even as every Arab sheikh does now. Eye. agate. Herodotus. a miserable St. mind. As in olden times. cornelian. I undertook this part of On my pilgrimage. FOLLOWING THE RAFTSMEN. and beads. Ledvard. George on the Austrian steamer affair. and from thence by land to Jerusalem. through old Bishop Gobat's field-glass. who found numbers of them among the . chalcedony. that I should follow the ancient raftsmen of Hiram. signets. T was strictly in accordance with my me original pledge to the generous Masons who furnished the "sinews of war" for these explorations. and. and my readers can enjoy a dish of hash.CHAPTER XVI. declares that every man possessed one. it was de. officers as incommunicable as the Royal Arch Word I had a good view. My notes here are of course sketchy and desultory. and nothing on earth can be grander to the voyager than the passage pencil. and other hard and precious stones.

Past the mouth of the Damour River. " signet in the hilt of his sword. to appreciate how narrow a shelf of land that kingdom was. was rapidly and pleasantly accomplished. The old man was long a missionary to Abyssinia. which I their house from the May God last Past Sidon. He inserted his old Charlemagne sounds well in tliis connection. PASSING SIDON. 150 miles. on Masonry is come fragments of pottery. One must withdraw from the Phoanician coast about ten miles. on broken statuary. but that. has five human figures upon it. and the way he denounced the British government for this unprovoked and incalled-for invasion of an innocent people. bless that house! Bishop Gobat talks with me about Freemasonry. If summer. inch high. the distance. cannot be answered until we are " told at what seasons of the year the work of " logging was done. the gales are always auspicious between Beyrout and Joppa. as I saw Mohammed Kaschid Pasha pressure of the hand to the wax. each perfectly drawn.. By steamer it takes only fourin the teen hours. they disentegrated sufficiently to compose the scanty soil we see. and swore. to be remembered for the hospitality of the had enjoyed so recently. in process of ages. missionaries. What I sign with the hilt I will The maintain with the point!" question as to whether the raftsmen of Hiram encountered dangerous winds along this coast. The story of stout with accessory matters. with its great grove of mul- berry trees. I reply that much yet to illus- trating the doctrine and history of ancient to light On coins. and Xoureddin Effendi apply theirs. So exquisitely are some of these objects engraved. and applied by one firm stone. them in a metal axis. and with a moderate spread of sail. that we must conclude their artists understood the use of the microscope. was hard on the group of British officials in the congregation. A cylinder one halfalthough history is silent upon the subject. in He preached is Sunday against the Abyssinian war engaged. He asks me now what is there in Syria which "England now and Palestine for Freemasons to do.240 ruins of Nineveh. I could imagine that once the sea ran close under the mountain's massive rocks. etc. used by inserting says they were anciently and applying them like the garden rollingBut at present they are made flat. in . and the same in diameter. 1 can almost select mass of flat-roofed buildings facing the sea. such as the artist has displayed on the rafts in my Masonic map.

in his is remarkable for its clearness is exported to Europe. quity may spring forth to view. in Job xxviii. Past Tyre. according to different chronologies. shaped it by blowing. In the Museum Victorium. 2). one a chrysolite. that when we get about opposite Klian Younas (where Jonah was vomited on shore) I give up the unsavory mess to the sea. anywhere. . at Rome.. ruins. refers to the glass of Tyre. and now in my office at There is nothing directly said in the Scriptures no doubt allusions to it may be found. there are two ancient gems. The skill of the ancients in the manufacture of glass was such that they not only made it of a crystalline purity. to confound the skeptic. ground it by lathes. xlv. the world of Bible-believers and Christian-believers have brought more genuine evidence to light during the past ten years than in all previous ages. perfectly 16 . reminded that all along this coast large pieces . Am slag of glass furnaces. gladden the faithful.C. and gag the mouths of those within our own affiliation who are trying to break down our traditional claims. signifying "to be pure. and resume my pencil. is a glass bottle. What. but by its use imitated every known marble and every sort of precious stone. in the latter half of the nineteenth century. I and the dross and carry and East Cambridge. Mass. Among my most curious specimens gathered at Tyre.PASSING TYKE. walls. without a moment's the greatest and most important evidences of Masonic antiwarning. as crystal. and much of it phus. Either the cooking or the motion of the sea so disagrees with my stomach." and refers to a species of of glass. At the present time. then. but perfectly well executed. and floor. and carved it like silver. high esteem. Jose- Wars (IX. glass formerly held in La Grange. the recesses of caves. After eight centuries of researches. lie among the home a very considerable quantity of these for What Pliny says of the origin of glass manuftfctures. This and lack of color. applies strictly to this section of the country. but just begun? The great Barclay quarry under Jerusalem should be explored. The word though " It comes from a only occurs once." Hebrew word. confirm the wavering. evidently of the very earliest period of the manufacture. may we not hope from Masonic researches now. Ky. 7. ceiling. 2000 to 3500. every inch of it. In the Beni Hassan tombs of Egypt. specimens. some of the most beautiful glassware in use -is made at Sandwich of glass. the other an emerald. . glass is found of the period B. at 241 any hour. But here we are interrupted by a call to as poor a steamship dinner as I ever sat down to. both counterfeits.

and there is a town in ruins near by. presents a noble appearance. have come to us from these shores. was three parts nitrum to one ancient glass-makers. just for its purity and cleanliness. The Egyptians had learned to permeate the materials with designs of ancient colors. etc. and the Belus-sand. the Persian. some of its peculiar claims. and the Roman. which So glass windows were found. according below Tyre. much on the vitreous theme. son says. almost all our arts. As old Samuel JohnPast Scala Tyrorum. and some forty miles distant Its isolated cone. At the top of this pass is a tower called Candle-tower. that great quanheld in such repute tities were exported to Europe and elsewhere for this manufacture. Among the tessera of mosaic pavements which I brought home to While in the minaret of the great America. many are of glass. the Arabs call it). The pass is styled Ras-en-Nakoorah. are above. Promontorium Album. old Accho of the Bible. At Pompeii purchased quite a handful of these. is named the Ladder of Tyre. tipped with snow. I have just looked through a copy of the . Passing the Plain of Acre. this White Cape (Ras-el-Abyad. and both externally and intransparent and colored throughout. I are beautiful. drinking-vessels. is A small hill near it. and how useful to them in dark nights the Candle-tower on the top In full sight of Mount Hermon. almost all our law. to which the great name of Alexander (Scantier oon. the Father of Dew. the mountains close into the sea much as they do at the mouth of Dog River. . in mosque Damascus. near Acre.242 PASSING THK LADDER OF TYRE. Here. almost all that sets at us*above the savage. or Light-house (Kulaat-esh-Shema). ! What bearing now not far from due borrowing east. figures of deities. A military road was opened across this point. also for coffins. All our religion. because the clouds seem to cling with peculiar fondness round its wooded top.. ascending in zigzags.. which. on these shores were the four great empires of the world the Assyrian. reflecting the genial influences of the grand mountainstyled Abu Nedy. personal ornaments. a landmark this white cape must have been to the raftsmen whose course I am pursuing. ternally free from to Pliny. as pronounced here) is applied. the Greek. The mixture used by the smallest blemish. Glass was formerly used for wainscotting churches and dwellings. was part sand. where the inscriptions are. mosaic work jn walls and pavements. the Ladder of Tyre. the St Jean d'Acre of the Crusaders.

which lies on the cabin-table. always a pleasant one to me. "fear round about" (Jeremiah xx. Every movement of these billows recalls the throb of flag. The Turkish system of government opens the broadest way for injustice. 1801. denoting the British vessels Before here. and have tried. certainly the motive- only repeat now what : " It is power is not inside of it. professes to have found a crocodile! The map shows that if you set a compass. in 1799. at the gate of Acre. But the Governor of Acre. and at present only note the current thoughts that arise. who. and there a genial English writer. that it was a union of the old banner of St. in such hands. in 1859. white. The sight of the British But Acre. all responsibility to mortal power being taken away. with whom our good brother Sidney Smith so genially hobnobbed while warding off the assaults of the French army. with a white diagonal cross. would have been justly named Magor-missabib. 2) as decreeing unrighteous decrees. friendship's heart . and sweep a semicircle from north." flows. under that other gallant Masonic brother. Napoleon Bonaparte. through which the Kishon.PASSING ACB1 243 London Times. so dear to every Englishman's breast. after paying an exorbitant bill of the dullest newspaper I ever came across. making whom widows their prey. with the banner of Scotland. 1606. and probably got enough vis inertia at that time to keep it running these eighty years . 1." Djezzar Pasha. you include the whole plain. This historical Plain of Acre is connected yonder with the big prairie-laud of Esdraelon by a narrow pass. was adopted in their naval service January. and can interest myself in it I said then. with a red cross. every voice of these waters. taking away the right of the poor of the -people. recalls the wonderful defence of Acre made by our gallant brother Mason. the whispers of love which made the bond of the Christian crusades. This was joined. turning aside the needy from judgment. Hue. eastward to south. It was no other than " the Butcher-Kuler. against the French army. George. and robbing the fatherless. The union jack. we cannot but rejoice that there is such a thing as death to break the staff of the . Sidney Smith.''" It subscription was started in 1788. one of those the prophet Isaiah describes (x. swampy and full of rushes and alder. as I have a hundred times before. 3). in the old Hebrew allegory. in 1869. April 12. ! I will devote some pages city of glorious associations to its history in my chapter on Knights Templars. writing grievousness. "that ancient river. to I took it for six months.

D. no loud a hook If he I Off " the nose " of Carmel laughter. on " Domestic Life in the Land. called The Castle of the Pilgrims. floods of human misery. too. if ever I saw pensiveness. Miss Rogers. E.Djezzar wicked. in a pensive attitude. 5). or he breaks his fishpole. Past Caifa. seems to have taken for his model the Governor Felix of Paul's time. dog-like rage and arrogant folly how many mutilations. Just below are those mountains of masonry that even now afford an inexhaustible supply of material for the masons of Beyrout. built during the crusades. The name. and he well illustrates the of idiots advanced to be governors. wrote her best of books. That best of Ori1836. I fall to reckoning how many pounds of fish are necessary for the daily rations of these voracious fowl. as I have before hinted. a very appropriate one yonder. and tries again. G-." bought in 1871. is a group of pelicans solemnly fishing. what untold How many cases of poisoning. I which am ental Masons. gets in his fingers. all its when the Grand Lodge is voting away funds in spite of his protests. form. Here Mr. like the shields of Homer. he takes the thing as a necessary incident of the sport. in refer to it again. like a sugar-loaf. No cnatting. Rogers. sitting on a floating piece of wreck. in the happy possessor of a "lot. always admire the piscatorial gravity which a pelican puts on when he goes a-fishing. for that forlorn Pelicanus onocrotalus. if my natural Counting three history is fishist not all afloat. and the sceptre of the rulers (Isaiah xiv." Holy And its here is Mount Carmel. and here his intelligent sister. the tyrant capable of every crime . is title. He reminds me for all the world of the Grand Treasurer of the Grand Lodge of in his pensive attitude. that I shall ever respect the pelican as a model hundred and sixty-one of them in the gang. I have had so much trouble with noisy companions while out fishing on Saturdays. Lynch referred to this view when he was here in 1848. This fact has its bearing. has yonder city witnessed. T. I will A traveller describes the gates of Caifa covered. the man who ruled Judea with the power of a king but the soul of a slave. greatly admired for the regularity of having rather the appearance of Stewart says in summer this promontory is undis- turbed by storms. was British Consul here for many years. . Hardegg has his German colony. upon the amount of skill and daring necessary to float the cedar-rafts from Beyrout to Joppa. shaped art than nature. with bulls' hides. or a sculpin steals his bait.

PYTHAGORAS AT CARMEL. and some of his pupils taught that numbers were the basis and essence of all things. and a period of proba tion. He formed a religious brotherhood. Various degrees were established among them. Anaximander. and some of his contemporaries . He left no written instructions. in which the mind and morals were severely tested. and other Greek philosophers. He was emphatically a born student.C. ' 245 Mount Carmel is intimately connected with. and Xenophanes of Colophon. ter. Everything done and taught was kept profoundly secret from the world without. of whom I spoke in the fourth chapThis wonderful man founded the third school of philosophy. The Pythagoreans had Masonic signs by which they recognized each . He was emphatically a religious teacher. receiving knowledge successively from Thales. the life of the great Masonic Eitualist. following that of Thales of Miletus. the members being bound together by peculiar rites and observances. 540) he opened his school at Crotona. MOUNT CARMEL. He was born at Samos. believed him to be a god. Pythagoras. 580. but but it is strictly followed the Masonic idea of oral communications certain he believed in the transmigration of souls. At the age of forty (B.C. B. His knowledge of geometry and arithmetic was pre-eminent. and met with wonderful success.

W. to one of his dgctrines of metempsychosis. 339 . Brennan. Edward Jewell. John Ransom. Thomas Byrde Harris. that departed souls centre of beans. In the American Journal of Science. and comes from that spot to this.246 other. were enshrined in the His peculiar views on that subject are well ex- pressed in the following lines: Errat et illinc Hue yiuit hinc illuc et quoslibet occupat arttts. and the other three car at Crotona were usually upon. January. 1870. I write here the names of ten genial and enlightened craftsmen. 150. C. The adage of Pythagoras. John D. Dr. J. viz. 48. no doubt. PASSING CROCODILE RIVER. Temperance was strictly observed. Passed the mouth of Crocodile River. This need not astonish us too much. describes a crocodile killed recently in Florida. F. the human soul wanders about. etc. M. and in 1869 (the year after my visit to the country) an English tourist avers that he saw one in the Kishon. Wyman where nobody would think of looking for them. New York. Kentucky. That is to say. Spiritus: equeferis humana in corpora transit. Among those to whom cite Georgia.. of the noble and wealthy class. Brown (of Constantinople). which has puzzled commentators so long. Prof. Numerous American tain. 144. Thomson suggested twenty years ago that crocodiles might still be found there. Charles Roome. and J. Georgia. John M. and takes possession of any limbs it may . lodges are named from memorable moun- No. These were bound to Pythagoras and each other by a special vow. To connect the place still more intimately with our American brotherhood. . a considerable resemblance being found between this and the Jesuit Society founded by Loyola. close by. did seven centuries later. etc. In his clinal virtues insisted The members eastern travels he in is known to have visited the oracle then established Mount Carmel. the name of Pythagoras and his school at Cro- tona are given. three hundred of whom formed the Grand Council of the Society. Henry Clark. and from us into beasts. just as Vespasian. Ohio.. 86 . John P. I Mississippi. viz. Caldwell. and from this to that. Don't eat beans. 303. it both passes from the beast into human bodies. Massachusetts. No. Batchelor. Ingueferas noster. Bramwell. refers. 41 . Abstineto afabis. the Roman this general.

and blue. gold. see that crimson. and a missionary. a blessing upon persecuwith the rejoicing. the town." . At midnight our anchor south drops. hope. fraternity. And on her wrists still hang the galling chains. these seventeen Christian principles: Charity. rejoicing ing evil with good." His seventeen links taught. over a round yonder two miles " a moderate hill. all colors." the stars shining so brightly that I can almost count the houses in it. eagerness for the are through that Eoman chain Sandys now level with the floor. In these sunsets. in his figurative imagination. It is I shall never look at that starry with the tree. What lessons have these fifty generations learned bors. patience. Arabs. Its principal star. pardon of enemies. an embassador in bonds. with its forty-four stars. group again without associating glorious midnight hour. always exhibiting a remarkably blood-red appearance. the eye of insulted Deity Yonder too is Andromeda. without hypocrisy . soldiers. seems exactly in the range of the expanded tuft of a palm-tree that crowns hill. The view is sublime. Antares. amiability. for two years chained. the tribe to which yonder town of Joppa belonged. Armenians. Did Jonah. 2-i? Passed Caesarea as the sun was setting quietly under its canopy of crimson. overcomtors. hadjis. both white and black. hangs directly over the city. The great constellation Scorpio. all I come on deck . the hill in the centre of the town. weeping with the weeper. of which I never weary. as a small vessel loaded caravan that landed at Joppa a few with seventy-two passengers. A passenger describes a pilgrim weeks since. sparkling with a brilliancy that is surprising. the lost. officers. and this a strange coincidence that the Jewish it astrologers. joy. Joppa. sprawling rounded off at the summit. bond and is free.IN SIGHT OF JOPPA. else history is at fault . when he fled from this port towards Tarshish. love of neigh- wants of the saints. Here at Csesarea " preached the great missionary apostle Paul. the haven is ! says. mapping out the heavens among the twelve tribes of Israel. Antares? It must have appeared to him an avenging meteor. a Greek woman. houses in Caesarea and the situation aban- doned. in the constellation of Taurus. and "Still in the heavens her captive form remains. there is a splendor peculiar to these Oriental climes. Her ! ad ventures with Perseus and the sea-monster occurred here at Joppa. concord and humility. politeness and civility. apportioned the constellation of Scorpio to Dan. baptized Jews. Turks. fervor.

and bursting into songs of praise to the powers that had brought them safely to the close of their journey. bless his holy : name. WITH THE AMMCH HORN. raftsmen of Hiram must hare revelled at the end of one I How the of their arduous tasks. who has thus far led me on then retiring to rest. imagine them gazing from this bay upon that concave of celestial imagery. my soul and forget not all his benefits Who forgiveth all thine iniquities who healeth all thy diseases Who redeemeth thy life from destruction who crowneth thee with Bless the Lord. COIN OF LVSIMACHU8: HEAD OF ALEXANDER. loving. gain needed strength for to-morrow's work.248 - LAU8 DEO.kindness Who satisfieth and tender mercies . . . oh . and praise the Lord. thy mouth with good things . so that thy youth is renewed like the eagle's (Ps. my Bless the Lord. . Let me in like manner appointed way. and : all that is within me. oh my soul . such as American skies never present. ciii).



DIVISION SIXTH -JOPPA. relief. and salt of the Masonic rituals. the valley has atoms of nations long destroyed. the names eminent in the theory or practice of FreemaThus I have given to the genus loci of each site one or more worthy sonry. forty or fifty centuries since. As the first three Masons. truth such as forms the light. where each hill and of horror and mortal woe land of Judaism. as an old Scotch writer calls them. Gebal. companions. the nomenclature. I trust. All emblems of diwherein they teach threatenings or praises. and Mohammedanism I vine origin are Masonic property penalties or rewards. faith. so I have felt at liberty. temperance. prudence. . or justice. land whose very dust on which travellers' tread was once sentient. and so. they " the surprising eloquence of heaven " are. fortitude. have considered Bible emblems as Masonic property. in the very be- ginning of human its tale history. to is object in nature Things apparently carnal and trifling are made. at marked and important points. 1 Christianity. Jerufirst salem. Freemasonry. hope. the salutations. or charity. Hiram the King. to the Freemason's the Holy "Writings. and dctted the Masonic Map of Palestine here and there with il- many persons known to me as lustrious moderns . brotherly love. Tyre. encouragement or discouragement. to locate. or truth. Solomon. soul. . Almost every an illustrator of inspired truth. are associated with and have made illustrious their respective cities. the highways. and Hiram the Architect. the food. warmth. land where customs are landmarks where the dress. the marriage and the burial rites all that make one people different from another are continued as they originated. being the Masonic traveller and author in of this field. Land of antiquity and rites tradition. given a new direction to Masonic study. in foreshadow the wisest purposes of God. In this sense I have incorporated them into my book.

ia during my which ancient and far-famed port I arrived May a few minutes after midnight. now termed Jaffa. but when Herod constructed the third Temple. nearly one-half of was. this city bore the same relationship to the work of the architect as in the first . in modJoppa. about 7. the most important city in the possession of the Jews. HE and 1st. To secure a bountiful supand specimens from Joppa. In the Masonic system the port of Joppa holds a conspicuous place.000 souls. Kentucky. Joppa was. Joppa is reckoned one of the oldest cities in the world. I had sent my assistant and he had given uninterrupted attention to the locality for several weeks. is a port of little importance save as being the landing-place of pilgrims to Jerusalem* ern times. under Zerubbabel. In the building of the Second Temple. at P. B. The population Formerly is it them Christians. occurring in the lectures of the Entered Apprentice. Tradition . of course.CHAPTER XVII THE PORT OF JOPPA. fifth of the Seven Grand Masonic Localities visited Joppa. the place of transit for the immense accumulations of wood and metal collected in various parts of the world for the construction of King Solomon's Temple. and most of all in those of the Mark the Master. It was to Joppa that Jonah fled from the presence of Lord and embarked for Tarshish. and this rendered Joppa a place of only second-rate importance.M. at Holy Land.30 identified researches in the ply of relics there. There being no other harbor on all this coast. miles Steamships and war-vessels cannot approach within two of it It lies in latitude 32 3' north. still more prominently in those of the Master Mason. it being then about 4. next to Jerusalem. a few miles further north.C. longitude 34 44' east of Greenwich. 533515. La Grange. he made some use of the port of Csesarea.

A. rather steep. that in stormy weather the regular steamers of this . The city is surrounded by a wall and ditch. seedless. so that I cannot collect their seeds for my departing from Joppa went out upon the 1187. from Brother E. I found him anxious for the extension of the Masonic craft in Syria and Palestine . initiated. patrons.THE POET OF JOPPA. in which this beach largely abounds . I made haste to call upon that official. This gentleman fifteen or is a Mason of some twenty French lodge on the Island of Corfu. In the best days of the crusades. T. At present it is ascribes its chiefly celebrated for its duce. They are of the family and species Ostrcea pecten and others. equally famous for size and flavor. is very poor. and even dangerous so. He favored me with an invitation to dine with him. Noureddin Effendi. pious pilgrims sea-shore and selected shells. as I desired. to establish years' standing. he is but poorly posted as to the ways and means of Masonic dissemination. I find that Joppa is upon a dome-shaped hill. He is about forty-five years of age. but. among my patrons at home. In fact. and these they ever afterwards wore as symbols of pilgrimage and testimonials of their having performed it. to secure specimens of the pilgrims' shell. as his diploma shows.D. who are carried on to Beyrout or Alexandria. Paris. An instance of this sort occurred during my first week in Beyrout. establishment as antediluvian. France. and presenting a fine appearance from the by built sea. Master of Lebanon Lodge. at Beyrout. and as they are. fortified. The so much present harbor. much to the disappointment of passengers. but never used. I put up and secured a supply of their leaves for my cabinets . but now Amitie Clemente. however. like all other Masons I have encountered here. Rogers. that I brought away several thousands of them for distribution. in a a member of Lodge . and the same with regard to the lemons of Joppa. 1099 orange groves and gardens of Oriental proworld. I found so general a desire. coast are compelled to pass by. scientifically constructed and well Having a letter to the Governor (Kaimakam) of Joppa. and a bachelor. Agreeably to the lectures of the Mark Master. which I readily accepted. and was at once honored with his fraternal confidence. in the form of a commission some ten or twelve years old. its western base washed the Mediterranean Sea. he has in his possession the amplest authority from the Grand Orient of France. The oranges are the finest in the unfortunately. and associates it with mythological narratives of the very earliest periods.

North Carolina. New York. stands. 204. as in Missouri.. New York. I dedicated it to the following group of good Masons. etc. lodges. Wisconsin. likely . The made the more agreeable the more the future visitor to this ancient port will find spirit of our fraternity pervades it Traces of an ancient harbor are detected on the north and east sides of Joppa. I selected an appropriate and Compass spot at the southwestern angle of the city.. C. Texas. The American colony near Joppa. etc. W. Numerous lodges are named from Kentucky. 95. 31. Toombs. 167. Arkansas. Rolla Floyd. Canada. W. Texas. Storey. Palestine. 136. In accordance with my custom elsewhere. 65.MASONIC USE OF JOPPA. 116. 97. world. twenty years ago. Georgia. This rendered my members of acquaintance with them highly agreeable. is entirely broken up. 143. is etc. in Solomonic times. I found to be the colonists who were there on my the Masonic order. This is much to be desired. this locality. Ellis. arrival in May. 120. I trust. etc. Edward Brewer. Ohio. H. Andres Cassard. who is the Bishop and projector of the colony. 201. will some day be visible in the establishment of lodges either of here or elsewhere. J. Traces of the ancient Roman road from Joppa to Jerusalem are plainly identified and. and Brothers George W. J. Wisconsin. Shafner. was sanguine as to the feasibility of reopening this roadstead. and Tal. on the verge of which the city also perpetuated in lodge nomenclature by Lodge No. The name of the country itself. 114. 152. Carr. Augustus Rowe. . 158. Iowa. and chiseled the Square In as a token of the Masonic identification of Joppa. Beside these five gentlemen I found no Freemasons in Joppa. which so much has been Four of said in the papers the past two years. and giving a splendid revival to the old city. doing so. H. P. his stay has been still more frequently used Lodge No. The results. viz. G. of Sharon. Iowa. the best protected harbor on the coast. and Joshua Walker. viz. E. E. on which I am now entering for thus far my explorations have been in Syria. Lieutenant who was here about Lynch. as the Romans were the best road-builders in the it is most that . confer degrees. W. William Manby. such as No. instruct the good brother how to proceed in its and it was one of my privileges tc use. England. which gave the city. 250. Adams. 109. Melody. Pennsylvania. William B. 223. now choked with sand. The Plain Texas. Brother G. of which Palestine is the southern extremity in this way. 208. Hubbard.



the original causeway made by Hiram's men, for the transportation of the almost incalculable supply of materials required for the Temple,

ran over the same ground. While this cannot yet be proven, I am satisfied, as the result of all my observations, that such was the fact. The distance between the two cities, on a straight line, is about
twenty-five miles, but as the road runs,



running about twelve miles, it mounts to a hilly region, as will be seen by recalling the fact that Jerusalem stands 2,600 feet above Joppa. The Pasha of Jerusalem, ISTazif Pasha, has opened a turn pike- way recently, connecting the two cities. It is perhaps only an accidental circumstance, yet it struck me with some force, that in no town in Palestine have I seen so many and such ingenious combinations of arches as in Joppa. I copied in


note-book quite a number of them that particularly attracted my The builders in our country, who seem to be restricted to a

few simple forms of arches, might take lessons from these Arab builders. few palm-trees grow here and there among the build-


ings, and in the suburbs of Joppa. I remarked before that the hill at Joppa is quite steep. A friend, with myself, "tried our hands" at assisting each other to climb it; this, however, was more for speculative purposes than practical ones. A sketch of my first day in Joppa is given from my note-book. I

landed at the ancient port of Joppa,


called Jaffa (sometimes

It is truly a charming day Yaffa), early on the morning of May 1. The sea is only slightly agitated, not more so, indeed, than I am at the thought of at last treading the shores so renowned. It was hard,

now in its marine accommodations, having only a few fishing vessels or small craft engaged in the orange-trade, was once the great port of the Jewish kingdom their only harbor. It was difficult to recall the former glories of Joppa under the reigns of David and Solomon, when the commercial alliance with Tyre filled this bay with vessels, and brought the products of the whole earth to the foot of this hill. Yet the place is a sightly one for all that, and gratified my curiosity quite as
indeed, to conceive that this harbor, so restricted


as I

had reason

to anticipate.

The town

covers the sea-end

of a promontory that juts out for half a mile into the water, leaving a small bay upon each side. The hill being steep, the houses are built

one above the other, and the narrow streets rise from the shore by broad stone steps, adapted only to camels, donkeys, and the native


I believe,

could climb a ladder





Approaching the shore,

called to



the Masonic and

being prominent. reef of rocks that runs parallel to the shore, I observed a granite pillar used now for fastening the small upright upon a rude, stony ledge, craft of the port, but once, doubtless, a part of the architectural of ancient Joppa. At this point of my entrance a difference

those of Solomon's time, of Jonah, etc., Scriptnral references to Joppa, As the boatmen forced their way through the

boatman and myself as to the rate of comone person from the ship. Had I been suffipensation for bringing to understand their loud and boisterciently acquainted with Arabic ous arguments, it is possible that I should have paid their price, viz., a seventy cents. As it was, I handed them twelve cents, turning
arose between the chief
I fear that my indifference left a bad im" " upon those sea-faring men," but I couldn't help that. Where pression ignorance is bliss 'tis folly to be wise." I have long since learned that your only way, in this country, is to give what you think is One right, and turn contemptuously away from all protestations. be sure of, an Arab will never refuse to take youi thing you may money, or be a bit the less civil when he meets you again. But oh, how the Joppanese bleed the general traveller Some tourists are so flush of money that they don't seem to care what they Some become excited by the loud clamor of the demand, and give. Some are perpetually give a dollar when they mean a shilling.

deaf ear to their clamor.


ignorant of the denomination of current coins. Many fail to provide themselves with small change, and not until they have spent a good


dollars in backsheesh

piastre pieces (two cents) will received in this way as francs
five cents).

do they discover that plenty of halfgo just as far and be as thankfully



(twenty cents) or shillings (twentya class of tourists here whose extravagant and
be universally reprobated.

reckless profusion in

money matters should

Never having earned their own support, and being totally indifferent as to expenditures, they corrupt the whole body of the people with " their lavishness, and so become a plague to all who come this way
after them."


I reached the shote a host of

arms were extended

or catch


to steady


in case I should


One broad-backed

fellow turned

me, and loudly invited me to ride ashore on But, not recognizing any Freemasons among them, taking my overcoat on one arm, and slinging my little wallet around my neck, I took a position on the bow of the boat,



Governor of Joppa,


watching my opportunity, as the and so landed at the port of Joppa, by an attendant


wave receded, sprang ashore, heavier baggage being brought

No ships here bound for Ethiopia. Those five Those ten little smacks are British war-ships. yonder are only used to skim the coast There are no Mark Masters ready to assist me up the hill. So through the crowd of screaming, yelling,
at Joppa.

large vessels

blaspheming boatmen, and hotel-runners, and beggars, and soldiers, thieves, and idlers of Joppa, I force my way up, and follow my guide to the English hotel ; past a row of kneeling camels past a row of water-carriers, filling their goat-skins from the fountains



near the shore


under the bewildering succession of arches which

make Joppa, more than any town I have visited, the proper establishment for the Royal Arch; past a miserably deformed beggar, sitting

by the roadside, and asking and getting alms, as his predecessors in ages have done here, and so on to the Locanda, or hotel already

named, kept by Messrs. Blatner. As soon as I had taken refreshments, consisting of coffee and bread, which is all you get here till noon, I procured a guide, and went out to the American colony, about half a mile from the wall of the town, on the north side. Bro. Geo. W. Toombs, formerly of Illinois, had been lying quite low with Syrian fever, but was able to
converse with me.

was much impressed with the honesty and


cerity of Bro. Floyd, who offered me, both in his own person and through his excellent wife, the hospitalities of his house, as he had done, several weeks before, to associate. The Bishop, Bro. Adams,


was likewise extremely kind to me, and labored to make



The manner

my stay at of Bro. Toombs, though lying in his
found his Excellency to be a

bed extremely


I called

was most gentlemanly, friendly, and accommodating. on the Governor, at his Serai, or court of justice,

agreeable person, small, active, with keen eye And sharp features, voice loud and quick, and full of Masonic fire. In the Scotch Rite (Ancient and Accepted), he has advanced to the twenty-ninth degree, Chevalier de Soleil, or Knight of the Sun. His
ble, deene,

surrounded by a crowd of most gentlemanly and


name, Noureddin, and his


pronounced with

full stress

upon the

last sylla-

official title is

that of Kaimakam, or Governor. In

parlance, he is addressed as his Excellency the Effendi. Noureddin being a bachelor, lives in military style, his family insisting of his staff and male servants only. Besides the official



language, which is Turkish, he speaks French fluently, and the I was able to communicate with him only through an Arabic.

M. Serapion Murad, Chancellor of the Prussian ConsuJoppa, kindly doing the duties of interpreter for me, and a little French, which I mustered up for the occasion. I have had so much experience in this country, talking to the people of all nationaliinterpreter,
late at
ties, through interpreters, that the awkwardness of such intercourse has been mainly overcome, and I enjoyed this meeting with the Governor exceedingly. It was gratifying, too, to see that the object 1


in view, in this conference,

was one that had already occupied

his Excellency's attention, viz., the establishment of a lodge at this The four American brethren of the colony are also warmly place.

favor of this project. I took my leave, having been invited to dine with his Excellency at seven o'clock, and promising to have the petition for the establishment of a lodge ready at that hour.


In drafting the petition to the Grand Orient of France, I labored under the difficulty of not possessing sufficient familiarity with the Constitution and Kules of Order of that body. I knew there was some difference between the forms of procedure in the Grand Orient of France and the various Grand Lodges with which I am acquainted. So I ventured on an original plan of my own. I wrote a lettei as coming only from myself, setting forth the following facts, that there is only one lodge in this country (the one at Beyrout working under the Grand Lodge of Scotland), although the number of Freemasons resident in various towns is large; that at this place (Joppa) there are five resident Masons I specified their names and testified
chat these brethren are ardently desirous of establishing a lodge here, believing that many initiates would promptly be secured, and those of

the best quality, thus advancing the general interest of Freemasonry and the cause of universal benevolence and morality. Finally I suggested, on behalf of the seven brethren whose names I had given, that his Excellency Noureddin Effendi be nominated Deputy, or Provincial Grand Master of Syria, under the Constitution of the Grand Orient

of France, with the amplest powers that such a patent embraces, with special authority to establish the Lodge Jerusalem and Jaffa,




at either place at its




paper being carefully copied, was forwarded to the Grand Secretary at Paris, an answer being expected within a month. I may say here, however, that the proposal was declined, on the ground that the
petitioners (except his Excellency) were not

French Masons 1



In this country you don't get breakfast till high 12. How I have continued thus far to avoid a horrible death by starvation, 1 can can eat oranges, for which this scarcely tell ; but here at Joppa, you are admittedly the largest and the best is so famous. They
in the world,

some of the picked specimens more resembling pump-

Usually they are seedless, particularly the giants. are of course very cheap ; for half a piastre (two cents) you They can get as many as you can eat ; for a whole piastre, as many as you can carry away. They constitute a very large part of the trade of v sent as far as Constantinople, and in every direction this
kins than

port, being

through the country. No one who has observed the peculiar baskets used for transporting the Joppa orange will forget them, the knew quantity carried by a donkey being simply, if the donkey only At this season the orange-gardens or orchards are it, preposterous.
at their prettiest, ripe fruit, green fruit,




growing good-naturedly together upon the same The flowers exhale the most delicious pertree and same bough. fume the tree itself is a model of beauty while the sight of the large yellow fruit sets off with equal grace the bright green of the leaves and the pure white of the blossoms. Strange that the orange is not once named in the Bible. Is it not most probable that by the term "apple" in Scripture the orange is meant? I like to believe it, and to imagine that, just as the boys and other orange-venders here hand you the tempting fruit all day, and urge you to purchase and eat, so they did to the swarthy Phoanicians who were drawing the heavy cedar-trees up this hill, and across yonder sandy plain, and to the top of those heights that loom up so grandly in the eastward ; and that those faithful craftsmen had their thirst assuaged by oranges, and rested their limbs at night under the dense, foliage of the orangebuds, and leaves,
; ;




Joppa ;

If so, they were well accustomed to the fruit before they for I believe the oranges that I saw near Sidon, two

and value to these at Joppa. is an attempt upon the life of a human being, and I attribute my escape from starvation only to the sustenance afforded by the Joppa "When at last the breakoranges. fast has come but let me describe it. First, two of the fish from this harbor, sweet and delicious specimens of the finny tribe whose forefathers did so much to strengthen our Masonic forefathers, as they came floating down this way on rafts from the Masonic Bay, a hundred and fifty miles above here. I ate them both. Next, a stewed

weeks ago, are only second in



said, breakfast at

high 12

thicken, stewed to rags, as is the custom of the country; but by judicious use of sweet olive-oil in place of butter, well flavored and toothsome, I ate it all. Then a plate of cold mutton, cut in slices.


eyes being indifferent, I mount my glasses now to give it a name, Next some fried mutton, rather easily recognizing it, I ate it all.

and hard however, I ate it also. Now comes a plate of and a cup of coffee a woman's thimble is gigantic in size compared with it. This is my breakfast. Picking my teeth, I looked



out at that fine palm-tree yonder,
in the world.


favorite tree of all the trees

the palm bears its fruit (the date) They in the southern section of Palestine, which is more than abundantly it does about Beyrout. There is a considerable number of palm-trees
in this vicinity, while the pomegranate, so


bology, is even more both these trees.


I secured

famous in Masonic symample specimens of the wood of

Having spent the afternoon
I sallied forth at the

in a


suitable to



appointment with his Brother Noureddin Effendi, between whom and myself Excellency Freemasonry has already established an equality which no other Brother Adams joined us in the party, and society can accomplish. there were present Monsieur Serapion Murad, already named, together with half a dozen clerks and secretaries of the Governor. I showed his Excellency my diploma of the thirty-second grade, Scottish Rite. I had also my diploma from my lodge, Fortitude No. 47, La Grange, Ky., prepared expressly for this journey, and my firman from the Sultan. Upon his own part, the Kaimakam showed me written evidence of his membership in various lodges, and we passed esoterical evidences satisfactory to both. Two hours passed by before dinner was announced, which time was spent in conversation of a varied and pleasing character. His Excellency is one of the best of companions, and Brother Adams has the art agreable, in perfection. Monsieur Serapion Murad is one of a thousand in making his friends happy, while I found myself both in the mood conversational and musical. Cigarettes and narghilehs were offered abundantly. The latter is the celebrated water-pipe, through which, when the fumes of this mild Turkish tobacco have passed, you can't tell that you
proper hour to


are smoking anything.

It is this which, according to


King Solomon used while inducting the Queen of Sheba into the art of using tobacco. The only drawback connected with its use is the vast expenditure of muscular energy requisite in drawing smoke



time you attempt to use one you become black and present an alarming in the face from the tremendous effort, dislike the roar of water which it makes, for I always appearance. I outside when I hear it But I digress, imagine it is raining torrents in observing the queer points of mind is exercised at






contrast between the people of the East

and the West


these I

note eleven, viz. from right to left 1. We write and read from left to right; they at worship, and keep our feet covered ; they 2. We uncover the head

cover the head and bare the feet

We shave

the face but not the head


they shave the head but

not the

We draw We push

the razor towards us; they push the razor from them. the saw from us in sawing ; they draw the saw towards
snuff tobacco as well as


We chew and We stand



they use



in fumigation.

at reaping,

preaching, etc.







distinguish carefully the clothing of the



and the

law (and the Bible) forbid similarity




or no dis-


We sleep in the house-rooms they on the house-tops. We drink alcoholic liquors they religiously abstain from
; ;



rejoice in active life


they are strictly sedentary.

A maxim

found among them like this " Never walk when you can ride ; " never stand when you can sit never sit when you can lie A seashore ramble of several hours was a charming episode in my visit to Joppa. The beach is lined with shells, especially the

Ever since I was made a Knight Templar, escalop, already named. in 1850, I have desired to see the real escalop (scalop, eschalop) thell of the Crusaders. Here they are in millions. To wear them
around the

Templar in Ivanhoe, implied had made a long voyage by sea, particularly in attendance on holy wars. This shell, for some reason, was the emblem of St James, the brother of Jesus, who is always drawn in the guise of a pilgrim and it is largely seen in the churches dedicated to him.
that the wearer

hat, as Scott described the

This shell


of the family Ostraadce, another name for Pectinidce. " hand is Pectin Jacobceus regular pilgrim's shell" now in


or that of St. James.





grows four or

inches broad,

but they are rarely


over one inch.

The steady movement of the tides upon this beach, along which I have wandered already so often, never ceases to attract my attention. Homer describes it just as I should to-day, only so much

As when the ocean-billows, wave on wave, Are pushed along to the resounding shore Before the westward wind, and first the surge Uplifts itself, and then against the land Dashes and roars, and round the headland peak Tosses on high and spouts its foam afar. Iliad.
The telegraph poles, extending in a receding line southward as far Of teleas the eye can reach, give me a homesick throb or two. graph lines in 1871, there were 684,000 miles in use throughout the

The lines are world, 30,000 of which are of submarine cable. But for the extending at the rate of 100,000 miles per annum. dreadful expense (nearly $100), I would send a message of twenty
words to the dear one


keeps the household lamp trimmed and

burning, awaiting my I visited the site of Bonaparte's daring and successful assault upon the city. Of the thousands who fell here, it may be said there is

Not a time-wasted cross, not a mouldering stone To mark the lone scene of their shame or their pride Not a grass-covered mound tells the traveller lone Where thousands lay down in their anguish and died.


In the groves and orchards surrounding the city I noted the broad flagging leaf of the plantain, the first I had ever seen. Afterwards I

found them in Egypt much larger. The fruit is shaped like cucumAccording to Mohammed's theory, this was the forbidden fruit of Adam and Eve, and the large, peculiarly shaped leaves were those of which our first parents constructed their aprons. Who knows ? They are big enough to cover the whole body.
bers in clusters.

But what are these objects slowly approaching me, dressed in the habiliments of the grave, enveloped in the white sheet, and recalling ghostly images of youthful terror ? The women of Joppa, returning from their daily visit to the cemetery.
Observing an exchange of salutes between two war-ships, I am reminded of the piece of naval etiquette, that the ship answering returns fewer guns than the one that gives the hailing sign. " In the bazaars of Joppa the women do most of the " truck busi-



ness, selling charcoal, parsley, snails, eggs, fruits, vegetables, milk,

These are women of the Fellahin Arabs the village Arabs, as or wandering Arabs. They go unveiled, distinguished from Bedouin which the Turkish women never do. In the morning the women on heads and shoulders, while the bring their truck in baskets borne man rides his donkey pleasantly, and smokes. Poor as Job's turkey though such a woman may be, she has glass rings, bracelets, and to Mother Rebecca strings of beads in killing abundance, equal So, too, with her child. Living in herself, only of cheaper material.

a mud-hut, on bread and water, in a chronic state of starvation, the child's head is decorated with gold and silver coins which the

law of debt

may not impound

or the law of usage


The mother's

a blue cotton gown, open at the breast, but the sleeves hang to the ground, and she has the Oriental girdle round her waist

When she moves you know it by the tinkling of that trumpery which hangs around her.

lot of glass

as I see it here, is perpetuyoke, with two leather water-pouches depending upon ii, is particularly the device of the family De Ros. of England, "gules, three water-budgets argent" as it is technically termed, referring to the method adopted by the Crusaders for carrying water

method of carrying water,

ated in heraldry.


through the



English Baron somebody or other has also

troi& bouts d'eau in his heraldic device.

In the manufacture of soap, of which, to their credit, the people of Joppa make a great deal and make it good (no auction-soap here), they use ashes, lime, gall-nuts, olive-oil, and salt. It is always made hard, cast in blocks, and, when prepared for shipment, sewed in

The vast olive product of this country affords considerable commerce in soap. The enormous heaps of bleached ashes near Joppa and Jerusalem have attracted the eyes of travellers for censacks.

Laughing, through the open door of a barber's shop, at the sight man bending over a basin in an attitude of sea-sickness, and having his head shaved. A Moslem only nourishes a lock of hair on the crown of his head, like a Sioux Indian's It is strictly scalp-lock.
of a
for religious (traditional) purposes. I saw an old man, in a church here, kneeling and devoutly praying before the altar. His beard was long, flowing, and white as that of old

Brother Stillman Blanchard, of happy memory. His countenance was pale and meagre, his skin was withered, his eyes sunk deep in his head



I studied a party of desert Bedouins here, just up from beyond Gaza on some business with the government. They were evidently unaccustomed to civilized scenes. Their eyes rolled over me like those of wild beasts in a cage. They were indeed wild and ferocious in appearance as so many beasts. Their visages were dark red almost copper-colored. The one who answered my questions had a voice like that of a bird of evil omen. Talking to one another, sent out volleys of Arabic gutturals rattling like hailstones. they The large yellow snails sold in the bazaars form a favorite article of diet through a considerable part of France as well as Palestine, They are said to be very palatable. I did not try them. Of the lepers, whom I saw for the first time in Joppa, I will speak under another head. They are numerous here, and appeal to youi charity both by the eye and ear yes, and by a third sense equally


The sycamore- tree,
object around Joppa.

so called in Scripture, is quite a conspicuous But it is not at all the tree Cowper describes

when he




sycamore, capricious in attire, green, now tawdry, and, ere autumn yet Have changed the woods, in scarlet honor brought."



of the vine-traditions of the hills of Judah, I took, at

dinner to-day, a glass of the wine of Hebron, and ate heartily of

In Christ's day wine abounded in Palestine, and was the drink of the people, as it is now in Europe. Hebron wine is a bright wine, resembling the amber Muscat. It has a slightly astringent taste, and is said to be a remedy in bilious complaints. The raisins are not so large and thin-skinned as the Malaga boxraisins, and the seeds are larger ; yet the flavor is good. The dibs, or syrup made from the raisins, often from the carob-pods, is equal to the finest sugar-house syrups of our country. Some writers think
this the

syrup referred to in many passages of Holy Scripture, in is employed. It will be expected that I say something more in detail of the American Colony, whose setting-out in 1866 and misfortunes in 1867 filled the papers of this country, and drove many of us to our pockets deeper than we could well afford. About the time 1 started

which the term honey


the Holy

Land (February,

1868), the dailies were publishing this

morceau of news:



" The Maine from. They Colony in Joppa has again been heard now number twenty-five, and are in a state of bliss, in consequence of the departure of their leader, Adams."

At Beyrout and vicinity, during March and April, the stories told about Adams and his people were incredibly harsh and this naturally created a reaction in my own mind, so far, at least, that I wrote to Adams, assuring him that when I came to Joppa, he should have a


Rev. G. J.

brother. showing as a fellow-countryman and a Masonic Adams visited Palestine on a prospecting expedition 1865. His letter of August 10 of that year was written from

" Land of Ephraim," that Joppa, that of August 14 from the 20 from Jerusalem, that of August 23 from Bethel. of August

" One hour these characteristic explanations before sunset I began the ascent of the Hill of Hope (!) at Bethel, on which I had built an altar of twelve stones for the whole house

In the latter he



of Israel.

There, with the Lord's host above me, I prayed Oh Lord of Israel, thou great Jehovah ; God of Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob ; God of the Prophets ; thou great I AM. Have mercy upon


who have come this long journey to prepare this our sins and purify our hearts. In thy presence, forgive in the presence of angels, in the presence of the hosts who surround us, we pour this oil upon this altar of twelve stones, to be a witness
these thy servants

work, and

forever that

we have done

bottle of water

I then filled a as thou directed us. from a well from which the prophets and patriarchs

had refreshed themselves."

On my
tions in




summed up

all I



him and

his opera-



of which the following

the substance

visits to Joppa (in May and June, 1868), I went out Colony near that ancient city, about ten minutes' walk, and made myself inquisitive in regard to the history of the singular economico-religious movement which led to its establishment. As four of the colonists to whom I was introduced are members of the Masonic fraternity, viz., Mr. G. J. Adams, founder and Bishop), (the Mr. Holla Floyd, Mr. Toombs, and Mr. Walker, there is a propriety in ventilating the subject with considerable detail in a Masonic journal, and 1 doubt not your readers will think so. The Joppa Colony was founded under the sole auspices of the eccentric Rev. G. J. Adams, long publisher and editor of religious papers in New England a preacher of the Primitive Gospel ; a singularly erratic man, social to a degree, versatile in gifts, fond of pleasure, and possessing quite a histrionic genius. Indeed, it is averred



to the

A dams



that he was formerly a play-actor, but I did not ask him about that. [ remember, however, that the day I left Joppa for Jerusalem he was announced to play Hamlet and some other part upon the stage which he had erected in the church edifice connected with his colony, and he told me that day that he had $800 worth of theatrical costumes in
his wardrobe, at Joppa.

Mr. Adams must have possessed a good deal of eloquence as a preacher, for he went amongst the educated, moral, hard-fisted people of Maine, and secured their pledges (and their money too) to unite in the establishment of a colony in Palestine under his presidency. Fortified with these he made a preliminary visit to that country about the year 1865 ; went to Jerusalem ; went to Bethel (where he set up an altar of stone, and performed various mystical evolutions in connection with it), and returned to New England full of confidence in the feasibility of the scheme. The Turkish government was favorable to it (the Governor of Joppa, Noureddin Effendi, parbe made ; the climate was salubrious; fortunes could be made in a few years, It was the California fever of 1850 over again. etc., etc., etc. Nearly two hundred persons, men and women, embarked for Palestine upon the basis of his statements alone ; what a man to establish such confidence As I talked with him in May, 1 868, 1 endeavored

ticularly so) ; the land was productive, and could be had longest leases at a nominal price ; three crops a year could

upon the

outfit for domestic life and for agricultural operations. Lumber from the hills of Maine was brought in abundance, for Adams had correctly told them there was no timber in Palestine. Furniture had been provided, for he had informed them that the Moslems used neither chair nor table. Food for several mouths and clothing for an indefinite period were not forgotten. By the favor of Noureddin Effendi, the custom-duties were all remitted by a device of his own, peculiarly Turkish.* The government afforded the colonists every favor they desired. The enterprise began under the most favorable auspices. Why then did it

in vain to detect the secret of his strength. They brought with them to Joppa all the

For several reasons. First. The climate. These people from the rocks, cold climate, and resin-trees of Maine all got the chills and fever in Palestine, just as they would have got it had they removed to Newark, New Jersey ; or to the banks of Skunk River, Iowa. I should have had an attack myself, had I stayed on that coast two weeks longer. No one can be acclimated in Syria without it any .more than he can in Mississippi or Louisiana. Second. The colonists persisted in working through the heat of the day, wearing black
hats, eating big


dinners, and doing things generally exactly
not under Noureddin's control, theretJie beacJi, but a mile from the city







Custom-House of Joppa


he gave them a permit to land their


hf told


this himself.



anything for his money. His sermons were vulgar and abusive. His theology was contradictory, execrable, and absurd. Without charging him with any positive crime, I must say that I never saw a man less fitted to rule than G. J. Adams. So the colony crumbled and went to pieces. A few died the rest returned as they could to the United States. "When I went there, in May, there were seven or eight left when I was there in June there were only two, viz., Brother and Mrs. Rolla Floyd, a most estimable

the opposite of the customs of the natives, who have found out ic four thousand years how to live healthfully and happily on the Plain Tfiird. The government, of the ecclesiastical form, with of Sharon. a man for Pope (Adams) who could not "rule his own spirit," He was vain, conceited, intemperate, a very poor business man, ignorant of every principle of political economy, and an inveterate warrior with everybody ; quarreled with those whose (socially). He quarreled bread he was eating; quarreled with the American Consuls, by whose favor alone he was kept from Oriental jails; quarreled with the Turkish authorities, who were willing to stretch every principle of law to favor him ; quarreled with his own appointed Elders of his own apnot seem to have got pointed church. He was extravagant, yet does



Adams wrote, October 22, 1867, that "the natives are anxious to hire us. Our teams are all engaged. Our carpenters have employment at wages that allow each to save $5 per week, in gold. All our mechanics and laborers have steady work and good pay. Our wagons and carriages are engaged by the Pasha in building a fine
macadamized road from Joppa to Jerusalem, one hundred feet wide three thousand men are employed upon it. We are at peace with all the natives, the local officers, and the foreign Consuls yet as a colony we stand free from every government on earth, and, like Abraham, are strangers upou earth. We number now forty-five, and never since we landed have we been so happy and contented as we are now." The
; ;

colony experienced the fate of similar undertakings. Some who went out were not fitted for the toils and privations of a pioneer effort, and all had mistaken views as to a speedy realization of their
hopes. Poverty and disappointment, joined to mismanagement, disheartened many, and they sought relief from citizens of the United States that they might return home. More money was spent in getting them back than would have saved the success of the colony. Adams is in England (18G8), but what he is doing there, or how he expects to be supported, I do not know. He intimated to me that he expected to secure a new body of colonists in the west of England This, however, is impossible, because he has alienated his title to the lands in the colonv, and could not get further favors from any one. Securing a guide from the proprietor of The English Hotel, where I was stopping, I went out by the east gate of the city, through the orange bazaars, then heaped to overflowing with the ripe and lus!


cious fruit,


ir all

the world so large and good as at






through the Mohammedan graveyards (nowhere in all the world are graveyards such dismal places as in Turkish countries), through groves of prickly-pear trees, many of whose stems were ten and twelve inches in diameter ; through caravans of kneeling camels, patiently waiting for their loads of oranges, to convey them to unknown distances eastward and southward over the deserts ; through groves of

pomegranates and orange-trees and lemon-trees, bending under loads of fruit, or fragrant and beautiful with flowers red and white and so on for a ten minutes' walk, whose variety of Oriental types would of itself repay a person for coming all the way to Joppa from America. I said ten minutes ; but in good truth it took me an hour. The sandy path was loaded with shells, over which I walked at first gingerly, as disliking to crush these beautiful forms, once the emblem of pilgrimage (see Byron's " sandal-shoon and scalop-shell "). The banks under the broad cactus were red with the flowers of the anemone, and blue with another floral type, and yellow with a third. Strange birds wooed me to pause and observe them but at this rate I should never reach the colony, and so thought my staid dragoman, who looked back upon me occasionally with a smile of pity, not nntinged with contempt at my simpleness in observing objects so common-place. The colony consisted of a dozen or twenty wooden houses, built of the lumber brought from Maine. The first I approached was Brother Floyd's. I found that good man preparing, with his wagon and team (the only wagon and team, be it observed, in all the realms of King Solomon), to load a British vessel with the bones that for unnumbered centuries had whitened and resisted the tooth of dog, jackal, and hyena, on the plains of Joppa. Waiting at the house,
; ;


Adams joined me here


a heavy, shambling, good-natured, loqua-

cious, self-conceited

man, about fifty-five years of age. While I was sitting there the American Consul-General of Egypt (Mr. Charles Hale), who had come up on the same steamer with me the night before, Mr. Adams called, and we all walked to Mr. Adams' house together. raised the American flag in our honor, and this afforded me the opportunity of observing from his house-tops that he had one of the finest views of sea and country that the place afforded. Mr. Toombs was lying ill with Syrian fever, and had been dangerously low. Mrs. Adams and her little son made up the family. I conclude my article by saying that at the dinner given in my honor that evening by the Kaimakam or Governor, Noureddin Effendi and Mr. Adams were present; and during several hours that we sat
together at that hospitable board he fully confirmed the impression I had previously formed of him, that of all men living he was one of the last to undertake to manage a colony upon the Syrian coast.











examinations of the city of Joppa,


May 1868, to follow "the Burden-Bearers," who bore the heavy beams of cedar and other ponderous materials up the precipitous cliffs to Jerusalem. I left Joppa at

3 P.M. to

go by way of Ramleh and Kolonieh, on the new

side, I

Passing through the Jerusalem Gate, the only gate on the landnote a few of the noises that struck my ear they are the


and yelps of crowds of dogs the wild, sweet notes of birds " the cry of the muezzin high in the minaret the " poll-parrotings
; ; ;

of the natives inveterate gabblers they are; the shrieks of the camels protesting against their loads, and the jingle of their bells ; the snort, tramp, and squeal of horses ; the swearing of a party of
British sailors,

"on leave"

alcoholic vender or dram-seller of arrack

for Jerusalem, but unable to pass the a detestable compound


of dates,

likely to use


all their

" leave "

right here at

Joppa; the awful Plutonian bray of the nine donkeys, all in the same key ; and, finally, the laugh and frolic of mobs of boys idling away the hours of youth under the orange-trees. Judge (Kadi) was holding court in the gateway, and had just ordered a fellow


Quick and condign the trial Kadi began to question him to the moment he was kicked out of the gate, lacerated and bleeding, was less than five minutes, and this included indictment, answer, summing-up, and flogging, thirteen strokes, well laid on his bare soles. The felloe bawled manfully, but we all laughed. It was rich.
flogged for stealing a sailor's knife. and judgment; from the moment the
I really


good over


Fiat justitia,

even now with satisfaction.


I think of the incident etc. nine donkeys fairly roared with



minors) at the transaction.

with that muleteer's ing it open and injuring it. He is assisted by a muleteer There was a of the lowest and most sinister class conceivable. . Altogether. wherever used. the oh. The only drawbacks to the scene are the lepers and other beggars. 1872). or pricklypear.he ride in this weather and at this season is delightful. It only needs good companionship to make it perfectly delicious but my is styled in companion. Once he threw my carpet-bag on the ground. the largest and sweetest in the world. who pierce my ears with wailings. In them happy songsters made melody for the American howadjee as he rode along. T. That they are miserable is plain to see. whose trunks are often twelve inches in diameter. yellow with heavy fruit. some kind that possessed that muleteer's mind from the grievance of His"allahs" start He swore (in Arabic) all the way to Ramleh. defacement stamped upon it. and leavea eighteen inches in length large as elephants' ears and thorns keen as cambric needles make good barriers. but few this season the owners are candidates would get Interspersed with the orange-trees are the lemon. burstI have it yet. A disgusting from physical mutilations. and others. he was an infamous specimen of a muleteer and. he had no mule either. nor would he keep up with me on the road. alas is a negro cavalier (as the gentleman the grandiloquent dragoman-language). of whose very names I am innocent large tree with thick blue blossoms is called by the English-speaking residents here the lilac-tree." and he wouldn't be comforted. " " and "howadjee. fig. but rode a wretched horse. pome granate." Two elegant fountains stand by the roadside. and I do not try to resist the impulse to "give them an alms. despite all that my cavalier and myself could do ! to instigate him. The fences were of the immense cactus. carob. They intermingle memory But ! How with the thoughts of that dead boy of whose decease I have just heard (February 2. Built into them are fragments of large and splen- ." and were curiously intermingled with mejeedy " backsheesh. for death alone can ter- minate their anguish. I think if fences of these were set up among the " amazing trials " to be en' countered in a through! leaves.272 ACROSS THE PLAIN OF SHAROX. pear. by the way. that delightful ride over the plain of Sharon thereof stirs me to grateful tears as I write. fuel. trimming off the dead the women and children bearing them away in baskets for At Masonic lodge. cherry. The first hour was chiefly under orangegroves. showing by their inscriptions that they were placed here under promptings of philanthropy alone.

. A left yoked together para. Such a plow weighs is about eight pounds. e. money It is pleasant to watch the numerous picnic parties coming out of Joppa to spend the afternoon on this flowery carpet of Sharon. but I had purchased a lot to carry home with me. /. of a single family only. is about the value of the quadrin or mite of olden time. The coin is but little used at present. points. They never oome nearer than a hundred and paces of me.FLOWS AND PICNICS. pipes are lit. and there in it at $1 apiece. a black cloth tied over the face just below the eyes. like that which I saw three weeks ago outside of the old gate of Tyre. the slaves and pipe-bearers spread rugs mats on the ground. The variety of characters met upon this road is endless. which Fellah (a very low feller indeed) plowing with a cow and an ass He a palpable violation of the law of Moses. in such a manner that the nose. boon. I gave him a his strangely assorted team to ask a backsheesh. who gave me the most graceful of salaams. I imagine Madame Demorest enforcing it. and my daughters wearing it Laughing at the conceit. different from anything that had previously met my eye. mouth. This cloth is ornamented with embroidery and jewels. 27H did columns of marble and granite. goad. that speak loudly of Egypt . Amongst an Arab mounted on a beautiful horse. and the water-trough of one of them. worn by the females. etc. magnificently accoutred. they outvie Monsieur Le is them himself. I must say. and chin are hidden. viz. coffee is made and handed round in a minute. Each party consists aiplow 6iyoke . from which the original tenant had long since been expelled with ignominy and contempt. I pass on. when these fellows are polite. worth one-tenth of a cent. is a splendidly carved marble sarcopha- gus or stone-coffin. and rather unwilI fear he was not sufficiently thankful for the lingly spared him one. the party seat themselves. and is altogether the most ridiculous ornament ever imposed by fashion upon the fair sex. The patent plow with which he was turning up the soil (loose with seashells) is the one lettered a in my cut. and the enioyment begins 18 . then stop. I observed here an object.

from Florida to Min: have been in the days when My eye is familiar with a very great variety of wild-flowers. yet their greatest curse. and it would be convenient to sit here by this cool water-pool if I turn when he heavy prayer of Dr. at one view. borne along upon the backs of these different animals. themselves picnic party enjoyed upon the soft grass. balanced with some skill. On every side the plowmen were at their labors with their miserable plows. sage. the lavender. The whole landscape antique. in con- trivances resembling large boxes. Others rode astride. and hawks nearer at . and wild thyme abundantly. As a fair specimen of the class of travellers this road Upon Women met here.874 Sloth idea t>f WILD FLOWERS OF SHABOff. poor little heifers to A drag Great birds (storks) stood upright around the marshy places. the Grand Lodge of opened At twenty minutes to four the Plain of Sharon opens before me in had to listen again to the long. The winding valley rolls in waves of wheat and barley. then it into a real war-whoop by clapping the hand upon the mouth. the hillsides are mantled with groves of It is a vast mosaic of green and brown. the variety of and the pastoral and farming scenes identified with this ancient country from its earliest history. An eagle was skimming the plain in the distance. all its travellers flowery luxuriance. The little hills laugh with plenty. donkeys. quiet (or. How it beautiful the Plain of Sharon must was cultivated by Hebrew skill and assiduity. patiently uniting for frogs. keef] is theii I would not violate their laws of I could plainly enough hear their notes of joy. broom. The myrtle is certainly here . as they call it. mules." nesota. and there are few portions of its flowery soil I have not trodden. horses. etiquette Although by approaching them. hyssop. I cannot name a tithe of the wild-flowers that delight me as I ride along. I append a cut were footmen. These ains or fountains were formerly much used for oratories or praying-houses. is enjoyment. They suddenly raise phantageia. Passed the Fountain of Abraham (Ain Ibraheem). their sharp. like the " sterner " sex. in my hearing. rue. irrigated and made gentle by rotation of crops. presenting. but on the Plain of Sharon I entered upon a new experience of botanical wealth and glory. and their them. and camels. which they love with a Frenchman's admiration. bears marks of gladness. quavering their voices from the lowest monotone to the highest pitch. An experienced writer says " No country in the world is blessed with a more beautiful and varied flora than the United States. jasper and verdolives.

and with good bridges where needful. ously before me. like the dandelion. a small. interminable sand crowned with telegraph poles. a highway to connect Joppa with Jerusalem.MOUNTAINS OF DAN. are led (not driven) by their shepherds. a hill far ahead is an Arab tance. Joppa is hidden behind me by the intervening groves. Soon I overtake a line of camels laden with dragomans' goods. exhibited at their prettiest. rise glori- The mountains of Dan BEDOUIN. . more numeThe largest of the poppies. where the coast-line tends This southward towards Egypt. yellow flower. usually without fence or protection. and many others. Such are my first impressions of the Plain of Sharon. Western prairies. appearing quite pretty in the dis- and opposite to tomb. near a fountain. May I be as ready to follow my Divine Leader to "green pastures" as these poor creatures are to follow theirs. show making ed. 275 hand. grows about two miles from Tyre. Here are the ordinary " white weed " of our country. a as our varieties are conspicuous object here. road is the one upon which at least one thousand workmen are engaged ridges. it Mohammedan The a wely or natural features of Sharon resemble in al- most every particular the prairies of the West. while the mellow evening sun and the delightful sea-breeze upon my back give the last grace to my journey that nature is capable of. Far on the right. Upon village. trains of sheep and goats feeding over the prairie. Great fields of wheat and barley nearly ripe encroached upon the road. ac- The long cording to the Scriptural allusion. presenting the vivid contrast of black with white. It has not such a matting of flowers though the rous. It is well engineer- ditched at the sides. who call them at intervals.

. in Palestine. by holding out the end of a cane. sheep. large water-shed. tents. A little further. there opens out upon my eyes a large olive orchard. green prairie-grass. howadjee. always take these words to imply the warmest sentiments of respect.276 beds. and bowing courteously in response. working materials. proves to be a mere collection of mud-huts. I pass on. RAMLEH. backsheesh." which I had heard before. etc. the tall tower of Eamleh comes in sight. TOWER AT RAMLEH. bedsteads. Under the trees is a blind man following his conductor. intended for some will party of travellers coming on behind me. and the village. points to the manner in which the precious fluid is brought to the surface from the wells of this plain. and enjoy their pitch first night of "Tent-Life in the Holy Land. Another hour bringa to the town itself. In two hours from Joppa." as Prime jauntily terms it. and touching his back.. much larger and better built than I had ex- pected to see it. Before night they those tents upon the soft. human beings. grove of palm-trees next A A appears. and vermin of the liveliest quality herd And now indiscriminately together. ARIMATHEA. I believe. the many me " I only object of the sort. which seemed so romantic in the distance. etc. in a grove of trees. . and there I was welcomed by a universal cry of backsheesh. by degrees the most beautiful tree in the world. where cattle. always an attractive object to me.

in excess. it was striking to mark the quick transition from the gabble of the town to the stillness of the country. G. . with the skipping of of everything. Whereupon we looked to the east. on arrival. and butchering everybody in it.). assaulting an un- armed town. being in a town or village. drunken guests. My muleteer demandAs I had paid his employer everything in ed. from the English ships at Joppa. I refused. The streams were substantially bridged. of thirteen sailors. as merry as a ten days' leave and a bottle of arrack apiece could make them. He out-screamed the hyenas and jackals who made the noise in the graveyards out of town. took my carpetbag upon his own saddle. and broke a chandelier over my My fancies I on this lively mattress kept pace the fleas. deserve the term. where " I trust he lives to repent of his sins.A HAKD XIGHT OF IT. The steeper hills were ascended by serpentine ways. A neat fragment of arches remains to show what was formerly a grand structure. There is no such thing as country life here in Palestine. 277 What particular sin I had been guilty of." and pursued our journey in peace and harmony. and drove the scamp back to Joppa. for which the penalty was to be sent to the Locanda or hotel of Ramleh. were ahead of me. Eiding out of Ramleh. from the way Brother 0. head one night. gave his horse nothing. and the fellow actually hoivled around the entrance He ate nothing. and arrived at 1 P. I shall never know penance was ample. if miserable fare. on a certain occasion (Judges xviii. without exception.M. every dwelling. plundering and insulting the people as they went. to the circumstance of 600 men leaving here. thought canted his Senior Deacon's rod. I feel that the sonvent. In the morning my cavalier gave him a thrashing. S. and noisy. Early on Sunday morning. A road was being rapidly completed by the Pasha of Jerusalem. instead of the but whatever it was. and at the rate of progress thus going on. Around the town of RamThe land is rich and black leh the olive-trees grow by thousands. All the rocky passes had been opened. there would be a carriage-way from Joppa to Jerusalem within a few weeks. and a hard bed. and going a hundred miles north. to that Locanda all night. . five francs. with the ripening grain rank and luxuriant upon it. advance. only soft with fleas and only musical with mosquitoes. An immense wheat-field was on my A party right. but simply swore and yelled until daybreak. I started for a ramble to Jerusalem. May 3d (as early as five o'clock).

town of Kahob. thus : Et Latronum ex audisti. the plains look like immense ostriches. same class a little further on. The fig-trees are un- A commonly Three little backsheesh-seekers are large and luxuriant. These native cavaliers are constallion curvetting sidered arrant cowards at best. begins to feet. but of a fine type. tobacco. on the costly marble column lies on the ground.278 THE PLUTONIAN BRAY. I reach Latroon. recalls many water. the traditional home of the penitent thief. expressive eyes. just as it does along our wires at home. keen. to catch the insects as left. At 7. sits erect upon his saddle. strong as they look to the unsophisticated howadjee. 1 reach the we start them up. cavalier looms My ded up grandly this morniiig. except that the common American "-dog fennel " which I learned to hate so bitterly in Mississippi abound.M. " going up to Jerusalem. his carbine lying under him. The solemn roar of the donkey is heard from the villages on the hillsides.M.600 feet. Directly before me is a clift in the heigh ts. and that a dilapidated one. only a cluster of dirty mud-huts. referred to in Dies " Irce. small head. resting upon a foundation of gravel. An elegant chapiter from some At 6.45 A. even that Plutonian bray The camels browsing on (in the minorest of keys) sounds tuneful. The wind makes mournful refrain through the insulators on the telegraph-poles. as their long necks reach hither and thither in search of food. Mihi quoque spem dedisti. I have now an ascent to make Tlie soil is about of nearly 2. Advancing eastward. with a heavy stone Scriptural allusions. I would rather depend on myself in a difficulty. he looks the very picture of an armed guard." eighteen inches deep. The plants and flowers are as yesterday. through which the turnpike passes. the mountains of Dan present their graceful outlines quite distinctly. Thus far I have never seen a dwelling-place in all Palestine. the plants being six or eight inches high. He is a negro. with the totality of one shirt to the three. and looking dwarfish to the eye of a Kentuckian. wherever found. His splenbefore him and short-sword at his side. and a miserable interloper it is. outside of a town or Here now is a patch of village. Yet for all that. The swallows dart swiftly under my horse's (1841 -'50).30 A. standing by the roadside." . Mellowed by the distance. well of and another one of the resting on it. than half a dozen of him.

and behold Khan Caroob complete as comHere all day he retails coffee. so also give me however. Here. this Vale of Avoca would make under American cultivation At its ! a large and welcome spring of water. built of the At right. stopped for refreshments this country an ain. and an assortment " of " sundries for self and cavalier.KHAN As thou nope." Here I overtake nine British sailors. What a paradise excelling anything I have seen in the country. His terms are more liberal than at the first-class American hotels. at the present on a lee-shore. and then end the long they shriek with a low sob. and pass on. instruct them graciously in the secrets of Turkish currency. and arrack. is pale (white) when you pour water I into called arrack. well-watered and. The vile drink which turns it. These brave mariners are stranded here. I saw a native asleep. Nicholas itself. His eggs. boiled eggs. too. Kising the hill east of Latroon. and they paid me back my loan with thanks and British honor. in its way.M. " to sweat. They keep the breath at the top of the voice as as can stand it without suffocation. to passers-by. who started yesterday to walk from Joppa to Jerusalem. From the boughs of an ancient carob-tree he laid poles across to his wall. This Arabic style of " eating-house " is simple but at a native khan.. and the whole muster half an Arabic word. hardplete as the St. It makes to recall the miserable sensations produced by arrack. for I only paid him three piastres (twelve cents) for several cups of coffee. 279 didst listen to the thief on the cross. or eye. As I sat on the cushions of Khan Caroob. a romantic valley opens before me. at the distance perhaps of several miles. the sorrowful cry of the females in some funeral ceremony. his head on . high and dry. effective. nine of lot of them can't Their only money is half-sovereigns. I fear. called in At 9 A. The chap who keeps this hotel (I call it Khan Caroob} eastern extremity is found a natural cave to begin with. So I lend them a small change to buy coffee with. CAROOB. I would remark. from the word arraga.angles with that he abundant native stone a room twelve feet square. I could hear." well It is the whis- key of the Holy Land to perspiration named sweat-whiskey ! can testify me sweat now following the drinking of the glass-full. Two days afterwards I met them in the streets of Jerusalem. that the thieves who live hereabouts so numerously " day are anything but penitent. covered them with bushes. are boiled harder than I thought hens'-eggs capable of.

with their whitewashed walls and white. and shortly afterwards sight " the Holy City. formerly a celebrated robber upon these hills.280 a pillow MEETING A BROTHER.M. attached now at Joppa. and a member of Phre- nix Lodge. until the crest is reached.35 a large vineyard. At 1. as were about to visit a restingthough you place of the dead. At 12. Portsmouth. like Jacob at Bethel. foreigner. in the hear" How does a person feel upon the first vie* ing of a congregation. flat low swells here and there over the roofs.10 P. an intelligent lady asked me." of preciation of his character. In these than a gold-mine in still and sterile mountains. and enter the gate of tne city with a sensation of awe.05 A. I observe here a structure of massive Hebraicostones. For four hours I ride along the really good way which the Pasha is macadamizing. of He was whose Masonic qualities I shall speak in another chapter. I am opposite the romantic and well-known town country. " a sort of king in Syria. I reach the crest of the hill. he struck more " I have always had a high apsitting at the receipt of custom. sympathy without the exchange of a syllable. near Jerusalem. they hold up their own boughs and foliage. with Captain Edward Gladstone.M. look like a parcel of ivory dice scattered And now the road begins in good earnest to ascend the Dan. made by heaping up small stones and laying his aria ovei them. old Kirjath-Jearim. weary hills of Dan and Benjamin His companionship over these made the way agreeable. (it being about 5 A.M. so attractive to a Freemason's eye. Every other sentiment merges into as the traveller pity and approaches the Holy City. who made levies upon all persons passing by his He was the Great Sheikh of the Grape-town. At 11. where the trunks of vines are so large that. It is impossible for a person of feeling to look over the desolate hills that surround Jerusalem without sorrowful emotions. like trees.30. At 11. After- wards we frequently consorted together under the mystical level. presenting the far-famed Pho?nician bevel. the numerous of ground. the only one I have seen. You meet and native and pass the wayfarer. children of Beni Hassan. hills of Abou Ghosh. and they owned no other lord. little villages on the Passing into the hill-country. England. a charming valley. at my Kentucky home). A stillness like that of the grave pervades the land. a custom-house extortioner of the general order" system. After . my return home." I fell in At Khan Caroob to the British ship Lord Clyde.

a gratitude to God that. gathering in the records of those travellers who have more feelingly described their sentiments as they stood where. When he had left his camp at Ajalon and reached Mizpeh. I was so near the goal of my search . Excessive fatigue is a sad destroyer of romance. Others. the iron-road). Enough will be found to show the character of the impressions made upon suscepti- on approaching a place above all others famed in the records of history human and divine. Afterwards I spent an hour among my books. timents. an extremely ride from Eamleh. perspective-glass!" So " they led them to a to look. Then they essayed to look. My first view was more prosaic. and so hasten the fulfillment of their joy. " I may as well remark here Jerusalem unless I am also to enter it that he never did enter it. and I copy some for my readers. and strong men. gives the keynote to these senble minds. Crossing the broad Atlantic. gallop up that eminence. dashing over the iron-way {chemin de fer. I was privileged to stand. I had been already more than two months in Palestine and Syria. his guide informed him the city was in sight. Ah. after forty years of earnest desire. At this. yes. God. this.FIRST of Jerusalem ? VIEW OF JERUSALEM. but it was mingled with a strange sentiment of doubt and mistrust as to whether I should really set foot within the courts of the city. the king covered his face with his mailed " hands and cried out in Lord let me never see solemn impression. but the and gave them their glass remembrance of that . The French. hill called Clear. 281 " ment almost of feverish Others may propound the same inquiry. on that auspicious day. While his pilgrims were yet upon the Delectable Mounthe shepherds said to one another. in his inimitable parable. and I have known women. the excitement increases. and the keen edge of novelty was blunted. I was extremely weary with my It was past noon of May 3. sentiis aroused in the minds of some in anticipation A this. Bunyan. as the French style the railroad. tains. all the time drawing nearer. if they have skill to look through our The pilgrims lovingly accepted the invitation. six miles northwest of Zion. to calm themselves ere they surmount the last tumulus that hides from them the long-desired view. 1868. " Let us now show them the gates of the Celestial City. Certainly I felt a ! reader will not fail to recall the story of the much-overrated Eichard of England. Besides sultry day. climbing the hills of Benjamin. to pause. plowing the blue waters of the Mediterranean. as if anxious to have it over.

because it was on the borders of Heaven And : ! But " to quote from some of our more literal travellers : Jerusalem. by Yet they thought they could not look steadily through the glass. silent. the " few moments brought us to the west of the hill In Scopus. linked with every feeling of faith and hope. While we gaze upon Jerusalem." A sudden view of swelling domes and towering minarets rising dimly in the distance. were within sight Ground. get her cunning! first " A " Our muleteer called out with a loud voice. there met them here some of " for in this land the Shining Ones commonly inhabitants thereof. and a and paused. some of the party fall in the dust silently breathing their fullness of joy. nature itself stood still. the By-way to thing the shepherds means of which impediment they Hell) made their hands shake. apparently but a few rods off.282 last DIVERSITY OF VIEWS. for the moment. and. low line of wall. The first view is sublime. imbued with the pilgrim spirit. As I near the gate the birthplace quickens the reverential awe with which I gaze upon Train. The country around was arid. if I forget thee. surmounted by a dome which stood Behold Jerusalem! the sky. and we can only pity the man who is not. and also Is had really not this exceedingly good reading ? Suppose Bunyan the Jordan. Instinctively every one drew his bridle-rein tary. Mournful. aw something like the Gate. in the depths of a Christian's affections. " some of the glory of the place. entering the of the city they were aspiring to. had showed them (that is. ' Jerusalem. " walked. at least. It is an era in our lives never to be forgotten. causes us to check our horses and raise our hearts and voices gratefully to God. contemplation peopling it again. the central palatial city. bursts out from But the rods tains that encircle it. Jerusa- . Jerusalem. of our Saviour and of his religion. as she sits aloft begirt with battlements. sight of Jerusalem there is a thrill of interest that is scarce weakened by repetition. and your memory is taxed with are miles. the moun- of Solomon. The guides pointed out a succession of bluish-gray hills. yet Herbert." " out against long. soliIn face of Calvary. beautiful to the Christian heart must Jerusalem ever be. what descriptions he could have visited Jerusalem and given us! were got over the Enchanted again When the pilgrims into the country of Beulah. Miss Barclay. let my right hand for" Tristam. and does not feel the sight to be one of the Enshrined privileges of his life.

" Phelps. said Mahmoud. again went forward. and then the massive walls and ing. I am strangely disappointed." John ' Wilson. Rogers. spurring his horse forward. again stood still and gazed. tenderly. yet there is something in the sight strangely affecting. sacred hour oh. and was soon on the Pausing to look round me. and seating myself on an old wall. " So excited were sufficiently we with to composed the gaze that it was long before we were Ward. read portions of the Psalms and the New Testament that refer so beautifully. ten oh. I dismounted. dim in the shades of the coming night. We halted some time and gazed upon the memorable city. A moment after. resume our journey. "I forgot -my fatigue. "El Khuds. whose summit is crowned with a cluster of buildings. builded as a city. quickened my pace.' said my companion. advancwe saw domes and minarets. These lines oc- curred to memory : lifted high her towers. and the mountains round about her. " From the mountain-pass above the plain beyond Bireh we rode out on a wide waste of whitish rocks." "A glimpse of a hill whose slopes are dotted with olive-trees. the first sight had its particular charm. Gerusa- . with the sacred objects before me. and gloriously to the city of Mount Zion and ! ! ! ! ! ! of God." Browne. " Jerusalem was before our view. and beheld in the distance a walled city. ' The Mount ' of Olives I we exclaimed.' And The Holy City . Our feelings were so overpowering that we could neither understand them nor give them expression. with a few domes and minarets rising above it.DIVERSITY OF VIEWS. higher yet the glorious Temple reared The pile far off appearing like a mount Of alabaster. Oh. and so it was. crowning the table-land. I knew I was looking upon Jerusalem. blessed memorial day that our eyes actually rested upon What wonderful associations are awakened what Jerusalem Such a moment powerful and tearful emotions thrilled my heart such soul-thoughts and feelings cannot be described. topped with golden spires. We stood still in solemn silence . low line of battlemented wall. Though I have seen Jerusalem under more beautiful aspects and from more favorable Miss points of view. moment never to be forgotgates of the city." hill-top. a hill which stood in the midst of hills. I required no guide to point out the long. lem !' for 283 This was repeated by each of us with great joy.

The sweetest memories hovered. Our overflowing hearts sent forth their swollen streams of El Mukattem. joy. read a dozen Jerusalem chapters. upon the mounds to mark the hour when first my eyes gazed on the Men in every tongue babbled some favorite scrap. This to us here. not among the huge works of Egyptian art. Olivet. looking back from Mount Scopus. Wonder. had any scene so riveted our gaze. as one in a dream. "That heart! smitten nor ever expect to know again. N. might be made. the pale. We felt drawn toward it. as a beloved song that dying men request to hear at their bedsides in the last supreme moments of life. two What a thrill went through the place! it is Jerusalem. treasured up for years to be sung or spoken. solemnity. all were mingled together." ." " The point gained.284 DIVERSITY OF VIEWS. murmured an old Italian. beneath the brilliant and unct eokered sunshine. I took my farewell view of its battlements and towers. As for me. and all are bathed in the radiance of the Cross. dumb by a feeling of which I had never experienced the like. in sight of Olivet and Zion. lemma. or at least with these. and it was the sudden uprising of these in one glorious -cloud that so fixed the eye and absorbed the mind. eager to stand within its Bonar. it was connected with the solemn moment when. and heartily praised God. there was any romance in my own associations with Jerusalem. feeling in vocal rejoicing. ! . Nationality seemed for a moment lost in something greater than itself. And have we seen Jerusalem at last We ceased to speak. rise as beacons to the wearied soul. over the towers of Salem past." Scores of such extracts. The scene was unspeakably grand. that sprung Tike magic from the bosom of the I placed a stone hills. gates. rose np affection : affection as tender and profound as that with which one regards the city of his birth. folding his hands in prayer. The city seemed to possess magnetic power. sadness. Zion. present. as the sun began to descend down the passes of Bethhorou. N. the Holy City lay fair and peaceful before our snraptured eyes. his children's nome. Not in the wild forests of the western world. said a lusty upon the bright city. as prayer. and clothed the hill of Zion with a robe of glory. and before I followed on. For my own part I simply sung three or four Jerusalem songs. his father's resting-place. distorted rocky wastes beneath. the bald and desothis was as natural late plain in front. not on the snow-clad peaks of romantic Switzerland. and future all concentrated in the oracle of God. like fairest angels. Leech. swelling into a volume. Greek beggar by my side. Jerusalem has a thousand objects of interest. Moriah. city of our Lord. Heaven threw its shekinah upon the scene. let above these. I gazed ffegiopolis.

That the fierce fire of vengeance long withheld Kindled at last . thou Mount beloved The gracious KING in wrath abandoned thee ? There was no remedy such clouds of sin Polluted all thy courts.THE MUSE ON MOUNT SCOPUS. without. thy historic rills. But never thee." . Farewell ! The Holy City. Inscribed in images that cannot fade Memory may forfeit many a precious gem. can it be Farewell. thy sun' bends low.word and a name. weeks afterwards. There gates and walls with precious jewels dressed And streets of gold allure the happy guest . And (rod hath given to the place thy name. Jerusalem . blest city all thy sacred hills. : side. With me I bear. me no more! Farewell. These thoughts. within. His loving heart was steeled Then up those bills there sm'ged such floods of flame. ran out into Farewell. NEW JEKUSALEM 1 . with his parting beams to go One more fond look . lighten up my shore. Thy sepulchres that pierce the mountain's Thy fragrant gardens 'neath Siloam's side. : : above the skies eternal wait Glories transcending far thy best estate . as follows : 285 Terse. " They left thee but a by. Thy winding valleys. Zion. Never on flowery Sharon's westward plain And warns me : His sitnset-visa>ge greet Though other suns my may eyes again . never again to me On Moab's summit shall his rising be . by loving fancy's aid. There flows the river and there grows the tree Water of life and endless fruits for me . thy sun shall gladden . in due time. thou best Jerusalem.


The deep confession which to heaven He The vow of restitution. peradventure the LORD will come to meet me and whateoevei He sheweth me I will tell thee. sent. Descending gently and ascending. . alien and from comforts shorn. humbly given. And he went. In vision bright before His inner eye A glorious vista opens in the sky Troops of angelic forms They bend from heaven now fill the air.' Ixumoers xxiii. they Bear messages of peace until the break of day. Brought to His soul a rich reward from heaven the. Not But to approve fraud His hand did trace. " I will go. to exalt the gift of goodness and of grace. And from the farthest point of that long line Jehovah's face in rays benignant shine . to earth in grace divinely fkh Between two distant worlds a medium stands. Abandoned. . The space is crowded by angelic bands Rank above rank the glorious forms are seen. of hope and God. 3 : That hour of deep abasement and of shame To Him The the brightest of His life became tears of penitence His heart had spent. as he feared.DIVISION SEVENTH -THE CLAY-GROUND. From home an Howe'er unworthy and how much forlorn. Each face now lit by heaven's resplendent sheen . Oppressed with grief and chastened by the rod.

withouu a party to clear the way. the want even of a horse-track to that unfrequented quarter of Palestine. and it is found only in . the brazen pillars and sacred vessels of the Temdescribing the text " In the plain of Jordan did the king ple. which made it almost as impassable to a horseman. etc. Where was the clay-ground of Hiram's foundries ? It is the best singular fact to light A came ant at Jerusalem. is. the following is cast them. about forty-five miles northeast of Jerusalem. He matrix-clay existing within reach of Hiram Abif. use a particular species of brown.CHAPTER XIX. It was not in my power to visit the locality now under description. though brief. Seikoot. Inquiring whence " From this clay comes. The site of Succoth. BETWEEN SUCCOTH AND ZARTHAN. above all. "In the in the clay-ground of Jordan. the fearful thickets of thorns that covered the whole valley. and plain (1 Kings vii. about two days' journey northeast of Jerusalem." as described. now termed Seikoot. they reply. is the Clay-Ground between Succoth and Zarthan (or Zeredathah). 46). arenaceous clay in making moulds for casting small pieces in brass. in the clay-ground between Succoth and Zarthan" the seven in the present : HE sixth of plain of Jordan did the king cast them. under the investigations of my assistdiscovered that the jewellers of that city. The allusions to these In in the Masonic lectures are positive. and the present chapter shall give an account of what lies along the path. Grand Masonic Localities recognized volume. as a Mississippi canebrake these formed a body of reasons for my failure in this direction. 17). at the present day. The extreme heat of the Jordan valley in the middle of May." Here then is a satisfactory reply to the ques" " tion. in a direct " in the line. " between Succoth and Zeredathah (2 Chronicles iv. and. But I iourneyed that way as far afi any passable road was found opened.

to walk with Titus and JosepJms 14. Johnson. and Mr. to identify myself Men and women in Jerusalem as much as possible with the past. went out into the open country. after ' around the Koman lines of circuinvallation . but rode with a light heart down the Via Dolorosa (so called. as the Biblical record established his furnaces there. " to say " good-bye to. few.M. to greet Solomon face to face . and Brother Charles Warren. and considerand extremely inconvenient as was the important did. to exchange grips with Zerubbabel and Nehemiah . to secure a sharp and perfect mould informs us. " the clay-ground between able as was the distance. made a Mason in 1828). I left for his castings. viz. was incontinently seized by the Turkish soldiers who guard the gate. These were but a. and after shaking hands with the good old Brother Peterman (Prussian Consul. the American Vice-Consul (a most estimable young gentleman). in short. locality. B. and by the time I got back to his rescue. I had few othen . that master-workman deem it. May exchanging valedictories with my acquaintances there. to share in the last great assault of Godfrey and Tancred . he dred weight of this clay of Seikoot for my patrons.LAST IMPRESSIONS. My last impressions of Jeru- salem were like for my first. for I had come to Jerusalem with a far different purpose from that of forming the acquaintance of men and women. Hassan. what thousands of the pious and zealous of his countrymen would give largely to enjoy. while a third and another was unstrapping my pack of was abusing the terrified Arab in the foulest 19 . at 2 P. lightly.. to bow reverently under the words of Jesus. is casting away. So I had made but few acquaintances in Jerusalem. and my landlord of the Prussian Hotel. are eller no better than men and women in Pumpkinville and the travwhoconsumes his precious morning hours or evenings in social conference. one red-legged Zouave was holding my servant his horse by the bridle. and in addition caused 500 cigarette-holders to be made of it for further distribution. lingering twenty steps behind me.E.. 1868. in whose quaint " winding stairs I hac t a few days before cut the Square and Compass so deeply that the city So I may be captured another seventeen times before it fades out. so 289 " Succoth and Zeredathah .. that. that the city is horribly misgoverned. but no more the Via Dolorosa of Christ's day thar the top of a tree is its root]. and up the Tyropoean or Damascus street " to the old Damascus gate. My desire was to shake hands with David. blankets. I secured two hun- the city of Jerusalem by the Damascus gate.

of Nebuchadnezzar. the enormous quarries which have turned one-half the great olives that tell hill their Bezetha into building materials . wherein is excavated the wonderful " Tomb of the Kings. and I had no call to give the rascals anything at all. who. not the last. On Jerusalem. and at my orderg he rode on. past the old building with an architectural ornament in the south wall (which ornament I intend some day to procure for my own museum) . Standing among them. of any devastator of Jerusalem. Titus. while stamps. had come from distant lands to view " the of the Great and from City King. but. I rode briskly after my party. past the hill on the right. under the Masonic story of "the oil of joy" there. that I presume the whole party united in cursing me by Allah for my meanness . eleven. The only drawback to the pleasure afforded in my parting glance. Shishak. as I did in all pilgrimage through the Holy Land. David. I had ridden around this hill. I could not help wishing. At my approach they released him. or more built up by the hands of pilgrims. seven. of Titus. A ! lem from Joppa . and scanned the modern city from the best points. the hill of Scopus I pause to catch the last and best view of It is by all odds the best view. One more long. or two cents). like me. for one hour of Omar. Pompey. is the vile congeries of buildings stuck up on the rising ground northwest of the city. vernacular. They are like the altar which Jacob built at Bethel. to earn immortal praise by blowing that miserable structure to the winds " This was my first thought as I approached Jerusacity. and called " the Russian Convent. on every protuberance of rock. comprehensive gaze from the heights of Scopus. all around me. From this. those little piles of pebbles three. impatient to pursue his way. had gazed on the devoted day or two before. while I handed one of the soldiers a backsheesh or fee." the hill-top caught their first or last view of Jerusalem. It was such a small sum (about half a piastre. nine.290 VIEW FROM SCOjtT8. from generation to generation. it was also my last as I left Jerusalem for Bethel. as my knowledge of the Arabic tongue does not ex- tend to its profanity. memorials of gratitude to God in view of the accomplish- ment of a pious horse design. and so shook the dust of Jeru- salem from my feet Taking the lead. See. Oh. I look down upon that Jerusa- my ." and so through the suburbs of Jerusalem. No. five. These are mnemonics of Jerusalem. the Crusaders. I passed through the piles of rubbish that barricade the northern side of Jerusalem.

half a mile south of this. that meet my aged eyes. of Mizpeh. and which is but a continuation of Scopus). the mountains of Modb in the extreme southeast. Moriah. let right hand forget her cunning. an exile upon the Island of Patmos. or possibly Olivet. nestling at their feet. also the Armenian Convent and the Tomb of David of the Dome Eock and other the . and showed me that great city. God reader. prepared as a bride adorned for her husband. the Holy Jerusalem. " And he (one of the seven angels which had the seven vials full of the seven last plagues) carried me away in the spirit to a great and high mountain (it might have been this hill of Scopus. pleasant or painful. noblest of sacred hills is there in all the world such a historical tout ensemble as this ? " If I forget thee. descending out of heaven from God. more to the left. St. beyond . will this vision of Jerusalem ever fade away ? Eighteen centuries ago there was a man of nearly fivescore years. with the sea of Sodom gleaming at their base . and her light was like unto a stone most precious. I know (although I cannot see it from here). En-rogel. John. of Corruption. which. with its ' Damascus Gate. if I do not remember thee. let " tongue cleave to the roof of my mouth In after-years. the long range of Gilead and Bashan terminated. of Evil Counsel. Jerusalem." and recalled his memories of Jerusalem. the plain of Rephaim in the south. etc. and Jerusalem figurative. the Tower of Hippicus 011 Mount Sion. " Having the glory of God . Oethsemane. Our ancient Grand Master. clear as crystal. could not have mad a greater distinction in his Masonic lectures between operative and speculative Masonry. the encircling hills of Olivet. . even like a jasper stone. for the Lord God Almighty and the Lamb are the temple of it. by Hermon.THE NEW JERUSALEM. * one of the few architectural remains of the time of Solomon the hypothetical Church of the Holy Sepulchre. than he has done in his apocalyptic book be- tween Jerusalem real. amid the views. relatively to the city below. lem which I may never classical 291 see again." Revelation xxi. banished forever from his loved Galilee and Jerusalem. but they were enshrined with a my my ! halo of glory " I. Oh. saw the Holy City. and the noted places. is both great and high. the privilege of perusing this sublime and inspired description of Jerusalem while I pause upon the hill of Envy me. " And I saw no temple therein . ! I shall read them : John. who sat " in the spirit on the Lord's day. It is all there edifices . New Jerusalem coming down from out of heaven. . Siloam.. dear Scopus.

laid down with squared ! stones so firmly that. or David and 19. may this month be renewed for good! and may it please God. afld seek with me * But who is this sad specimen of fresh fields and pastures new. Samuel xx. dwell in thine house. and Lebanon. and elsewhere. our old brethren were not so rich in " regular degrees . Here are memorials of the world's "road-builders." tlie Romans. build up thine holy ! oracle . He woundeth and He healeth. near Gebal between Beyrout and Sidon . and the various other congeries of "ancient and adopted.* It is easy to more highly valued then than they are now." (the 33 of the Scotch Rite." acquaintance feeling of old-time friendship prompts rith that true man and Mason. was made through this degree.BUILDERS. the North Star for my guide for twelve days. a Sephardiue Jew. . and Shechem." so named in and embodied in the degree of Secret Monitor. Elisha D. and Nazareth. Roman I . cence of thought that caused all the highways of earth to concen- trate in the seven-hilled city of Romulus. in this long stretch of ground. For ward to Bethel. * A me to record that my first Cook. and Tiberias. both men and women. Forward again. Oh Thou. prove that side degrees of that nature were Perhaps the reason is." humanity that. He bringeth down and raiseth up. his orphans and gather his dispersed to the pure land ! passionate For He is high and exalted . although the drift of sixteen centuries has worn their surfaces into ridges.292 THE WORLD'S ROAD. primitive. Among the good brothers and fellows of the last generation. the 96 of the Memphis Rite. an exile in the land of his fathers. return to thy city . Is it fancy. and home. . the 155 of the Sidonian Rite. Around the Bay of Junia. much attention was given to the degree of Secret Monitor. or do I hear him murmuring in the " Oh may our Father in his infinite mercy comliturgy of his sect. and gather thy scattered flock collect the saints. Forward now. who is mighty in works. Oh Lord. killeth and restoreth to life. thus to command!" It would be indeed a hard heart that could refuse to whisper Amen : So mote it be. my bounding steed. who renewest the months. they lie as firmly in their beds as laid them here under the edge of the have learned to distinguish these Roman roads. their solid masonry has spoken of " the eternity of Rome." "ancient and Jonathan. at the Nahr-el-Kelb between Sidon and Tyre. to the erected city Oh. like myself. is taking his last view of Jerusalem on Mount Scopfus? It is a Hebrew. Push on. the 299 of the Children of Hatipha. And here I must be -very near "the 1 Stone Ezel." and the magnifi- when the subjugated peoples steel.

cone-shaped. Like his father. the place of Jonathan's greatest exploit (1 Samuel xiv. " Gibeah of It is a short distance south of its surroundings ? Saul. but I can only refer the reader to the proper portions of Scripture for a full explication. marking one of the oldest watch-towers in Palestine. Our Rock Ezel stands at the foot of the hill between Gibeah and Jerusa- we will turn our attention chiefly to that.THE STONE EZEL. It is a beautiful rise. or Hill of Beans. 4.). although I turned too much to the right to see them. age. It must not be confused with the Mizpah in Mount Gilead. Few places fill so large a space in Bible history as this Gibeah." arid antique and desirable systems) I say they were not so rich in these as we of this blessed generation. to declare war and peace. and . may still be traced out in this pass. and not more than five convey")) and when miles north of Jerusalem. where the tribes met to worship. the locality of the which is connected with the history of the Secret MoniStone Ezel. it is thought. Jonathan first appears on the scene of action some time after his father's accession to the throne. And the Secret Monitor is really worthy the praise formerly awarded it. I have listened to its lectures as they fell from the venerable patriarchs of the craft. and good. the birthplace of lugubrious Jeremiah. and commands a most interesting view. and Masonic zeal. lem." as the writer of 1 Samuel xi. The rocks Bozez and Seneh. " Passing northward from Jerusalem to Bethel. Gribeah is now called in the native parlance "the Hill of Beans" ( Tell-el-Ful). Mizpeh. on which I stand while contemplating the Masonic and Biblical account of the Secret Monitor. sound. At the same distance northwest the tower representing " Geba of Benjamin" is visible. eloquence." Shall I describe the locality and tor. For a long period Mizpeh was the national rendezvous. Three miles to the southeast is Anathoth (Anata). It calls up memories of two of the heroes of the first kingdom of Israel. and to choose their king. east of the Jordan. now called Neby Samael. '* 293 " " ancient and honorable. so memorable in the hisbory of Jephthah. terms it. Jonathan and David. and should find it difficult to suggest anything better in the rituals of the Masonic institution. near which is the pass of Michmash. comes under my observation. Before the Odd-Fellows borrowed it it (" the wise call it was conferred with dignity. He was then about thirty years of and was regarded as the heir to the kingdom. the impressions made by its communication were novel. towers in the west some six hundred feet above the surrounding plain.

and his constant companion and warm friendship. was twice in great peril through the insane hatred of Saul. and David loved him as his own soul . justified. This is seen in the fight at Mich- when his armor-bearer says to him in fraternal (1 Samuel xiv. whom God had rejected. short of stature. David again mash : : Saul now appears. It is the first Biblical instance of a romantic friendship such as was afterwards common in Greece and has been since in Christendom. In swiftness and activity he was like a wild gazelle. his bow. his girdle. In the battle of the valley of Elah. so famous. the Benjamites. goodly. two youths to the end of their lives. comely.)." These sentiments have never been surpassed in pathos by the best works of fiction. 4). life. Jonathan." On the first occasioi . was never laid aside. by the Jewish kingdom. the heir to time. susceptible of his tribe. in their adoption of this friendship between David and Jonathan as the finest Biblical type of Masonic attachment ? " The soul of Jonathan was knit with the soul of David. and his famous bow (1 Samuel xviii. his sword. who had spoken to Jonathan and to all his servants " that they should kill David. often repeated. words " Behold I am with thee as thy heart is my heart.294 t DAVID AND JONATHAN. fair of sight. such as the ties of Freemasonry inculcate. particularly. and the attachment between father and son was But the character of Jonathan was peculiarly amiable and close. As his father's heir he was at the royal meals.. after the manner of the a solemn compact. to anoint one of the sons of He. and his arms were strong enough to break a bow of steel In his genius for music and poetry he was never excelled by Jew or Gentile. David's life. and the acquaintance between him and Jonathan began a romantic friendship which bound the . was Jesse as king in the place of Saul. well made. gave David as a pledge his royal mantle." " Jonathan delighted much in David. and the first time with Were not our Masonic brethren of the last generation then. archery and slinging. this time as the destroyer of the giant Goliath. viz. He twice interceded with the king for David's success. This friendship was confirmed. as remarked above." David first appears upon the scene of action when Samuel visited Bethlehem under the divine impulse. he was a swift as man an eagle" of great strength and activity" strong as a lion and and excelled in those war-like arts which made always present confidant During the king's frenzy he was usually pacified by Jonathan's voice. and of immense strength and agility. commanded his attendance at court.

exile with his family and Saul strove against the flood of evila that came over him in his latter days. whereupon he fled to Samuel at Naioth. " sore wounded of the archers. where passed the night of May 16. thou wast slain in thine high places. The next day the battle was joined on the slopes of Israel. and as thy soul At this point the liveth. emfriends. and pitched in Mount Gilboa. Jonathan proffered to go witli his father to the field south of Gibeah. Saul gathered all Israel together. the loss of the divine favor. and from thence. in which "the stone " Ezel lay. The Saul. With passionate embraces and tears they parted." whereupon David returned to court. came and pitched in the plains around Shunem. and all Israel was smitten. the death of Samuel. "As the Lord liveth. " I am distressed for thee. 295 David was advised by his friend "to take heed to himself until the morning. unsurpassed in herein he says: "How are the mighty fallen in the midst of the battle! Oh Jonathan. The Philistines I At last a national crisis occurred. chen at Ziklag. about six miles eastward. very pleasant . my brother Jonathan . This conference terminated favorably. when Saul was hunting David in the fark distant forest of Ziph. Upon the second occasion Saul endeavored to kill David with a javelin. and the growing power of the Philistines." of which the Masonic lectures speak." committed suicide. "Truly as the Lord liveth. Thia was some time afterwards. he again sought the protection of Jonathan. and the king swore.THE DEATH OF JONATHAN. and commune with him there as to his intentions concerning David. saying. David shall not be slain. Samuel xx. being third day afterwards." Thia was " the whispering good counsel in the ear of a brother. tidings of this severe reverse were brought to i)avi<J. boldened by the exile of David. They met no more. David went into among the Philistines. The two friends met again. and to hide himself. there is but a step between me and death. Jonathan's plea of David's innocence and military services was effectual. and for the third time renewed their covenant." circumstances forming the degree of Secret Monitor more particuLet the reader look up the inspired narrative in 1 larly come in. Furthermore. and all was well again. to abide in a secret place. Jonathan and two of his brothers were slain. who uttered the Threnody. being personally pursued by the king.

and the sentiments of gratitude and honor firmly established. the left hand going by Gibeon through the passes of Beth-boron. and i the mighty men of valor. was their encampment. . about twenty miles. where he feet. Forward again and here is the fork of the way. to manhood. I conferred this degree upon two occasions on the craft at Jerusalem. and afterwards is marked to it are effect The degree so highly valued in in Beyrout. only son of Jonathan. made him a daily guest at the royal table. King Saul. '' So Joshua ascended from all Gilgal.296 THE MEN OF GIBEON. By special request. hast thou been unto me . 175. that hour when deep sleep is deepest. and had threatened : their total destruction. He came up suddenly. he was an death In the hurry of flight he was dropped by hia infant of five years. passing the love of woman. and save us and help us. as the road runs. and other allusions found in our lodge nomenclature. down toward Joppa Lodge. and this was about the' season of the year. sent for him in pursuance of his early covenant with Jonathan. Around these green slopes. thy love to me was wonderful. The message was "Slack not thy hands from thy servants." lem had joined forces with four other kings." and here the degree of Secret Monitor belongs.' : That was down yonder on my right. each time with America that Ezel is seen on the Alabama register. No. then." tfore sunrise. " How are the mighty fallen and the weapons of war perished !" if story of the Secret Monitor will not be complete The we omit At the time of the ihut of Mephibosheth. He was carried into the mountains of King David. nurse and lamed in his Gilead. and had besieged Gibeon. the right going northward. and settled upon him all the property of his grandfather. and a panic is . of his father and grandfather on Mount Gilboa. is "the Stone Ezel. Come up to UP For the king of Jerusaquickly. being by thia grew up time firmly settled upon the throne. This. he and all the people of war with him. Thus the brotherly covenant was maintained. . whose people were the allies of Joshua. Yonder is the site of ancient Gibeon Let me at this point read the inspired story from the tenth chaptei of Joshua " And the men of Gibeon sent unto Joshua to the camp at Gilgal. where the ripening barley shows so yellow this afternoon. and went up from Gilgal all It was probably at the hour night.

yet Beeroth. the wanderer The way is paved with sacred memories. the valleys descending from it toward the Jordan on the east. an attempt to engraft the Byzantine on . they went a day's journey . according to a rational tradition." I reached the village of Beeroth in three hours. with the rest of their comrades. And as they ran "the Lord cast down great stones from heaven upon them. or Bireh. with houses built of the fragments of former massive edifices. him in the them and Though merely an Arab village. The history of who sought a night's shelter at Gibeah (Judges xix." At Beeroth I took a cool draught out of my gum-elastic cup.) embodies much of the geography of this region. upon the allied The soldiers of Adonikings and their hosts. and fell.THE DIVINE CHILD. whose property the whole village was. and the Plains of Sharon on the west. has the ruins of a once noble church of St. The eastern apsis. " came suddenly up this hollow to the that the " sons of the Lion Wady Suweinat. that after three days they found temple. The road runs along the flat water-shed of the country. have stamped their names upon these great stones as with an " iron pen and lead. as the natives term it. they turned back again to Jeru- salem. " And it came to pass. and driven. and there were more which died with hailstones than they whom the children of Israel slew with the sword. perhaps. What a discomfiture right (this ! zedec were cut off from returning to Jerusalem. have been in the company. and so into the plains of Philistia. at which. northward and westward by the upper pass of Beth-horon. their Followed by the shouting and invincible Israelites. sitting in the midst of the doctors. is quite perfect. or rather. seeking him. the parents of Jesus first boy. Samuel and Saul. with the north and south walls of enormous thickness. David and Jonathan. which opens out near Jericho at Gilgal). John. both hearing asking them questions" (Luke ii. Let me read from a record to more reliable missed their than tradition : little "Supposing him ance. as the natives term it. with its cupola roof. and the architecture exhibits a curious transition from the Norman to the Early Pointed. and they sought " him among their kinsfolk and acquaint- And when they found him not. 44-46). with a great shout. from the time-honored fountain. and the sword hangs heavily in man's hand. in the rock forever. headlong flight was precipitated down the terrible steeps of Lower Beth-horon. 291 the most contagious.

The walls. But any backsheesh for them such as they. white teeth. To cut short debate. no two being alike. I point to the latter is certain I The northeast and declare that here) is Bay teen (as the word Bethel is pronounced the place of my destination that night. now filthy with all manner of abominations pleasantly mingle with the incidents . And native. bare who have descended the ! hill-paths to see if the and big Howadjee has legs. I did PUSHING NORTHWARD. where the Latins have a convent in which strangers are comfortably provided for. and advises. doubtless. to which Jesus returned after raising Lazarus (John xi. like the great wall around Moriah. from particularly this relic. and herds pleasant hour of sheep and goats being led to their evening repose. I start for Bayteen by the only path I can discover trending in that direction. and crypts in the. poorly these Fellahin or Arab villagers compare with the Bible picture these miserable descendants of a noble race. and so he turns to the rising its this to the Howadjee has no backsheesh for left and leads his party again ground. slippers. and inclose an area one hundred feet by The material is native limestone. the capitals well preserved. The side walls are divided into sections by pilasters. or Ephraim. and exquisite. and my party follow me. and the apsis are yet standing. 54). with all the gesticulation of a pantomimist. once. but derive and that the capitals of each pilaster are facts. and decorated with a rich cornice. and rich fountains furnished with sculptured drinking troughs. and as I couple the two places together. is well-dressed. Tristam these distinct in their scribes sixty-three. with their dirty shirts. in which crowds of Jews. I recognize between. Mr. I endeavor to unite in one train of thought all the incidents of that adorable life that came summit. The finish of the architecture is roofs. mt explore Mr. On a peaked hill to the right.298 the latter. Newman demouldings. it more elaborately as a beautiful ruin. This being interpreted to me. A is now spent. costly and elaborate tombs. Beeroth and Ephraim. How brown faces. reminding him of the rained abbeys of Southern Scotland. about a quarter of an hour to the west. . that I go to Ram Allah. keen eyes. here an altercation arises between my servant Hassan and a can find no place for the night's lodging at Bethel. a village upon the Orphah. and to Bayteen I shall go. the sacristy. returning from their annual visit to Safed and Tiberias to Jerusalem. hillsides. the The apses are crowned with beautiful domed of which are partition walls ornamented with pilasters.

the land whereon thou liest. and said. unbroken range of Moab and Gilead on the east. and to the east. An active Arab can make the distance to-day. and beans.JACOB AND THE LADDER. and now to Bethel. " And behold. and as I ride into this miserable village which represents ancient ! Bethel. he lighted upon a certain place and tarried there all night. past Jerusalem. I walk out to a rugged hill on the north side of the town. . and the reached to heaven . past Bethlehem. If the chronologers are not at fault. 10. came flying down this same pathway for here pathways are never changed in their locality. where the sight of some extremely large. the Lord stood above it. and therefore irremovable flying A long day's flight that erring man had From as for his life. a ladder set up on the earth. Yet the " heir of the divine promise " accomplished it. and to thy seed. and behold. sleep to-night. the other one at present being at Jerusalem). to thee will I give it." huge limestone blocks. and there endeavor to recall the dream of weary Jacob. if " the man of blood " be after him thirsting for his life. " And thy seed shall be as the dust of the earth. as miserable as the place is. bleached white by the suns and rains of centuries. gathering some of the smaller stones for my pillow. barley. they are landmarks. the angels of God ascending and descending on it. I am the Lord God of Abraham thy father. nevertheless. and to the north. Beersheba. 299 of great fields of wheat. rounded stones has " attracted my attention. let me read the inspired record: Jacob went out from Beersheba. so as soon as arrangements have been made accommodation. and the vast. and the God of Isaac . and lay down in that place to sleep. that I can see. 11. and thou shalt spread abroad to the west. and went toward Haran.629 years since the and Kebekah. and the pleasing uncertainty of where I And so I approach Bethel. Let me read it All this for my : he dreamed. and leaving no traces. the petted son of Isaac is am to now 3. it fugitive Jacob. They were truly stones of confusion and emptiness. Between two of these I lie down. past Hebron. an occasional glimpse of Neby Samuel on the left. " " And And is in my mind . was a summer-day's journey of fifty-three miles. of human handiwork. with one of the village sheikhs (Bayteen haa two. it is a long way over hills like these. and behold. and to top of it " And ." Genesis xx viii. because the sun was set and he took of the stones of that place and put them for his pillows.

three years later. and not more than a mile or two distant. he stood with his nephew. after all the abuse that has been heaped upon him. but. " . I walked to the eastward of Bethel. in the person of the Son of Man and the Son of God! It is a great contrast with the subject . for their substance was great. " And there was a strife between the herdsmen of Abraham's cattle *nd the herdsmen of Lot's cattle. lie stood on the site of Jacob's Bethel. rather than the heart. and I am now looking upon the place of that memorable vision afforded to Jacob which has been realized How by the union of earth and heaven. J. when. afforded to sacred history that evidence of magnanimity and brotherly kindness which make him the model of Masonic nobility to the pres- ent day. is citizenized. is the mountain where Abraham pitched his tent and built an altar to the Lord and there. all the south . I review the record here : The land was not able to bear them (Abraham and Lot). a watch-night. too. I pray thee. had been removed from the track of the plowshare. 12-15. that they might dwell together . G.300 ALTAR OF ADAMS. Adams (a brother of the Masonic tie). the families of th whither will thee of" Genesis xxviii. It needs not that I should excuse all the subsequent follies of the President of the American Colony at Jaffa. it was the head in Brother Adams that erred around the high grounds and inspected many a heap of stones that Having one hour of daylight. a number equal to one of the distant West. and in the morning raised an altar devoutly passed of unhewn stone (I tried to find it). found not a chisel-mark upon any. Perhaps. Beyond me. and in thee and in thy seed shall earth be blessed. Let there be no strife. has covered the earth. came. " And Abraham said unto Lot. to pay this tribute of admiration to his self-consecration at Bethel. to my disappointment. so that they could not dwell together. In the strange! the seed of Jacob from whence I come. many of whom are directly original tribes of Israel interested in my errand here . upon which he poured his elements of consecration as a Freemason should. however. man and angels. and . Lot. but I cannot forget that here. that strange and eccentric mortal. on his first visit of exploration in Here he the Holy Land. to the east.

The condition of the village that evening was at its worst. none of them more than six feet broad. festered in and garbage. apparently in council. It is 317 feet by 214 in area. They climbed and threw down tops. then I will go to the right. sis xiii. and the low cabins reeked with humanity and insects. My portion of the room was. at the foot of Mount Sion.surly and repulsive as their very dogs. stops. placed. At place where four paths met. I pray thee. " Is not the whole land before thee ? Separate thyself. from me if thou wilt take the left hand. ." Gene. and stepping as easily under their burdens as a Broad- way and belle does ble hag. & the stone-heaps. 6-9. a cellar being excavated under the floor at one end. This was no easy matter. and its south wall is entire. filth in which beasts were stalled. between for 301 me and thee. not one of them rising to his feet or expressing the least sign of welcome or interest. out of the fragments of some more classical edifice. are the remains of an enormous cistern that remind me of the Lower Pool of Gihon. One of these. The my narrow lanes. And now it was getting dark. All the dogs in Bethel clamored to confuse me in my quest. we my herdsmen and thy herdsmen. only keeping beyond the sweep Palestine in of my stick. But. and visit the remains of a church built. and I turned to find my quarters. bearing them upon their heads. I re-enter the dirty Arab village that represents ancient Bethel. or if thou depart to the right hand. Below and around a plenteous spring. a veritaand ragged and poor.DOGS OF BETHEL. The night was very warm. and between be brethren. a shelf directly over the stable. then I will go to the left. old under her microscopic bonnet. about twenty by twelve feet. I am sorry I did not give her some money. the walls. The women of Bethel are bringing from that founsculptured capitals these ruins. the only instance I can recall in which a woman addressed a word to me. of which the and cornices occasionally peep out. tain their evening supplies of water in great jars. holds out her disengaged hand This is solicits backsheesh. Crossing the valley. The house which had been apportioned to my party consisted of a single apartment. were I and while Hassan attended to feeding his three horses. apparently. the very housetheir maledictions upon me as I passed.. in There my blankets and traps fact. these curs of low degree flocked around me. a group of villagers were sitting. the Bethelites scarcely answered greetings. Eepulsive in their gauntness and sores.

which never goes out at night in an Arab hut. with a good quantity of the stone from the old church. the donkeys of the proprie. etc. that. the truth of history compels me to say. and prepared my frugal supper. suggestive of fleas came vessels for wheat and barley at my feet.302 lighted NIGHT AT BETHEL. three Arab servants. and in half an hour When he my party. and these. except a few bronze coins of the Roman period. sarThe only thing in the way of edibles dines. their grain vigorously in their stalls below oil lamp. Stretching myself on these.. through the open door. when 2 o'clock came. indisputable tokens. some candles. furnished by my host was milk to accompany the coffee. engraved gems. whatever they were. and by the time I was fairly out of the village. I had paid let me know. I was L impressed wi h the apprehension that my little party might be made . burning in mother in the furthest corner stench. viz. consisting of coffee. over all these three pairs of blankets. Nothing was produced. a crying child and its and. host the customary five-franc piece at parting. over that was spread a : and other insects. and so passing into the open country. and one of the villagers to show me the way. and one hand- some petrified star-fish. I resolved to leave Bethel forthwith. tor munching the olive- my head. While eatthe whole population of ing I could see. consisting of two Americans. Supper being over. I had discovered before bed-time. funeral lamps. finally. are all the specimens of old Bethel that I brought away. and parched with the heat. choked with the a little niche above . he did not get. tortured by the insects. my bed was made up in the following manner. and English crackers. through my servant Hassan. is it strange that my dreams. meaning coins. pieces of carving. which. were tramping through the narrow lanes northward. carpet-bags doing service as pilmy lows. Bethel watching my proceedings. that indigestible supper pressing upon my conscience like a mountain. I told Hassan to inquire if any of the people had antiques for sale. bore no analogy to the one Jacob had ? So far from it. with a row of curiously-constructed dirty mattress. Expressing the wish to retire. which in the Orient pass under that generic term. by The underpaid. First a cloth of camels' hair was made to cover the entire shelf on which I was to sleep . that he considered himself fellow who accompanied me out of town claimed my also a backsheesJi. which I had been provident enough to bring with me. Never was proposition more heartilymet . that the character of these villagers of Bayteen was particularly bad. however.

This showed me the way between the great white rocks where Jacob dreamed of the In" " How dreadful is this He visible. cheered me likewise by the remembrance of many a gracious promise. setts. Seeing at Bethel a man . To establish the holy identity still more closely. Reed. where Abram "pitched his tent. As I remarked above. place who had calmed the troubled spirit of the sleeper by the promise of protection. are proud to be called Bethel Lodge." and were deep in the glens of Ephraim. and the Name of God high advanced in its East. Wheeler. I write here the names of the ten following " servants of God. Thomas M. Wm. And nothing could be more appropriate. 311. B. the words of Job came forcibly to mind " His bone cleaveth to my : . New Hampshire ." but the place now is barren and dry strewn with minute fragments of rubbish. Tracy Gould. Luckily the and was about one hour high. My cut of Bethel conveys an excellent idea of its general appearance. Ira Berry. So. A." and locate them at Bethel. as if literally ground to powder. Texas. Wm. G2. and J. arranging my little cavalcade in the best man- moon had risen ! ner for defence in case of attack. Rev. etc. Yet here occurred the incident in the life of Abraham. exclaiming. S. Tennessee. viz. Oregon . already referred to. one hour later.. Massachu. 134. " the fountain of robbers. M.D. This name of Bethel. signifying the House of God (Beth-El!) is embodied in the nomenclature of American lodges to a very large extent. Rush Campbell. 24. which is held memoria in ceterna in perpetual memory. J. Wood. 194. fearfully emaciated with a disease hopelessly fastened in his vitals. Reeves. viewed from the southwest. nor ever slackened rein until the dawn. Hyatt Smith.. H. thirteen miles north of Jerusalem. 8). John Dove. and awoke. for a Masonic is so far the House of God as to have the Word of God wide lodge open upon its altar. showed me that we had passed Ain-el-Hamareeyeh. 20. A. J. and it cannot be opened until the Favor of God has been supplicated nor can a man take the first step in it until he has openly declared his faith in God! So the following lodges. and builded an altar unto the LOED. Stevenson. I pushed my horse forward. and called upon the name of the LORD. having Bethel on the west and Hai on the east" (Genesis xii. among others. No. viz. K. I visited the site of the old town formerly " lying on the east of Bethel.THE SYMBOLICAL DKEAM. the subject of an attack by 303 some of those scamps. Pennsylvania .

saw at ascending from earth to heaven. A few mud-huts shelter the people of Bethel. The clear sky of Palestine still gives an insight into the starry system that wheels over the hills surrounding Bethel. a population at the most of an hundred woe-beter in the all hut the works of gone. this place. The ladder which Jacob in his is made use BETHEL. 20). The finest tracts of pasturage I have seen in this country lie east of. The vine.304 his bone vision FAT VALLEYS. poverty-stricken creatures. FROM THE NORTH. to watch me and count the morsels t ate. and fig-tree give their welcome shel- noonday. and begged. the lectures of the Entered Apprentice. olive. The cool waters gush from many fountains in the vicinity. Sitting at my meal. man lie in ruins. As an emblem. and admits of only one interpretation. in of Bethel. such as can be had in no other country I have ever visited. The little children pursued me with clamor. the whole village seemed gathered before the door. and to his flesh" (xix. it has a prominent place on all our tracing-boards. famous even in the days of Abraham. to inculcate one of the most hopeful lessons that the Masonic system affords. My night's stay at Bethel will ever be associated with memo- . and supply the simple wants of the inhabitants .

whose well-remembered light pointed my way northward. sword. yellow ranunculus. of May 15th. Meeting recalls a vivid description I have seen in some writer. veronlight revealed the most highly-cultivated and abounding had yet seen in Palestine. 1868. Dayvalleys I flowers were yet abundant. regardless of expense. afford old tin a rich field for the collector. of one of these men. insects. blue pimpernel. long red boots and sash. every muscle and joint screwed tightly down." an armed courier galloping over the hills to Jerusalem. made bj Milton to Jacob's ladder at Bethel. undimmed by the approach of Phoebus. "With firm grasp he held his cocked musket at arm's length horizontally. moral and physical degradation. squalor. instead of being here on horseback. and a holiday to fill it. and other gems of God's own setting. a red silk gown. 27). it. The stairs were such as whereon Jacob saw Angels ascending and descending. scarlet cloak. spear with handle which seemed more than twenty pointed at both ends with steel. at the head of a party bent upon reaching Nablous before my night. I had conducted my little company through the great white rocks north of the village. I had left ! Benjamin my abode at Bethel. My readers will doubtless recall the beautiful references " Far distant. he discerns. Ascending by degrees. ries 305 of filthiness. magnificent. The scarlet anemone. prey. The ica. dashing his heavy stirrup-irons into the bleeding sides of his swift Arabian. He wore red tarboush with silk shawl tied round pistols. and ." really. a structure high. who was got up. and made me wish that I had box this morning. Up to the wall of heaven. pink lychnis. and so on in the direction of Cynosure. and while the stars yet hung their matchless lamps from the azure of the Syrian sky. They recall the lines of Keble 20 . appeared The work as of a king by palace gate. although these lengthening days are almost too much for their delicate organs. Ixviii. but far more rich. At top whereof. cyclamen. and wretchedness. I should say he is the best red first man I ever saw in Canaan enter the territories of "little And now comes filthy the morning It is here near Bethel that I " (Ps. who was riding express from Es-Salt to Jerusalem: "He sat erect and firm as a statue on its pedestal his countenance was fixed and steady. feet long. he flew over the ground like an eagle hastening to the I also met here a sheikh on horseback.ABOUNDING PASTURAGE.

C. ni^re at length. with a few broken Corinthian columns. the deep valley begins to open into a plain. have each their village perched on the highest peak. just beyond that rude security against invaders. Here in ruins hard by. close to a cool and cheerful spring. It cliff of limestone. I know. for.''' Here the Ark with its furniture was deposited. that for now generations has sheltered wearied travellers. from " beyond the Jordan. 1450 until they were all Israel. the ancient Sanctuary of Shiloh. I find a congenial place to gratify A crying appetite. What more than magic in you lies To fill the heart's fond view ? Relics ye are of Eden's bowers . captured by the Philistines. as a better On the right hand. lies. near Gebal. probably a mediaeval fortresschurch. once marked with highways from every quarter. the older the olive the more jiUnndant and delicious the fruit. many once stood the ancient Lebonah. never restored to Shiloh. In the next chapter I will refer to Shiloh . In the facts of their long holiness and present utter abandonment. is but a mass of ruins. He uses a primitive weapon. which I had examined a few weeks before. and thought of the many generations who celebrated their feasts and fasts here in the spirit of the Sinaitic Code. with large hewn stones occasionally marking the site of ancient walls. As I looked up these barren hillsides. As pure. This place for hundreds of years was the central rallying point of and Ix -1\ accessible equidistant from north to south to the tribes. Passing a mile or two further. there is great analogy. About is sunrise. as fragrant. an old and useless olive. Bathed in soft airs and fed with dew. although regained. I compared the history of Shiloh with that of the Sanctuary of Adonis. The thorns for firewood are abundant Good water is not far off. as I can plainly see. An old Khan. as a general thing. as au English brother (Tristam) informs me. A melancholy owl Arab is cutting down must V if it is useless. the relics of previous grandeur. comcries An old lamentably upon a rock hard by. The hill-tops. and dismount my company to prepare coffee and breakfast It is on the edge of a luxuriant field of barley. There is one square ruin. from about B.306 SANCTUARY OF SHILOH. and. Sweet nurslings of the vernal skies. scarcely distinguishable from the shapeless rugged rocks around them. and as fair As when ye crowned the sunshine hours Of happy wanderers there. Very old indeed it .

Here a native has taken advantage of the abundance of water to irrigate his onionbeds. My breakfast is not a gluttonous repast . near Nablous. However. and to the holy places. returning my salutations politely. Yesterday afternoon I met quite a number of Jews. Although the plowing is but child's-play compared t< ours. I am told that they do this every year. they look jaded. single and in companies. They valley . more like lia* a lovely valley this of ! What settled here . It was to avoid this that 1 sent my horses down to Jerusalem. men-servants and maid-servants. my from Beyrout Luminary. and the extremely andante movement of his arms. Although the ground has been cultivated for nearly forty centuries without manure. compared with ours. They are and very civil to me. he will have enough to supply at least one Arab village with an edible of which above all others these people are fond. 30? pounded of hoe and axe. I am too much of a traveller to let him stare me in the face. The sun is threatening already one of his fiercest days. beans.. I enter the broad and fertile of Mokhna. Certainly I never saw finer si cimens of the Allium than that gardener is raising and if the soldk 's and robbers of the country will give him three months to work and wait. with his broad. crackers and strong coffee up the bill of fare. that I might turn back upon the Great as I go thus meandering through the heart of the land. etc. Mokhna is No wonder Abraham on his first coming to Canaan. wheat. but to-day their numbers are greatly increased. he will be operating at the root of that aged olive more than this day. and seeming pleased with my respectful manner of greeting. and they are going south. by draining a number of small trenches and passing the lifegiving fluid from one row of onions to another. being a mere scratci three or four inches deep. especially the women and children. No wonder. of which Joseph's "Well. No wonder Jacob settled here when he came down with his wives and children. from Padan-aram. have just been making their annual rias visits to the sacred cities of Tibe- Safed. / make Remounting and passing northward. where another ruined khan and village attract the eye. it yields all the products for which this country was ever famous. vegetables in variety etc. sardines. and wholesome and delicious. is one. Indian corn. The Syrian onion is mild-flavored. passing down a hill terrifically steep. hot face to stare them in their faces until his going down.PBOCESSIONS OF JEWS. From the moderation of his strokes. flocks and herds. barley.

I must not forget to note that Mount Gerizim is adopted in Masonic nomenclature by Gerizim Lodge.. Mount of Beatitudes. But now my want of sleep and rest the preceding night tell too hard upon me. was he thinking of the greatsceue where all the beatitudes and cursings of the Mosaic dispensation were read aloud in the I read the appropriate hearing of the people ? What a locality ! passages as I walked slowly along. fig. every sentence could have been distinctly heard from one summit to the other. of Joseph. romng than would not discredit the plowing. satisfied myself that in this clear atmosphere. and bold cliff it therefore bears is more olive and fig-trees than the of Gerizim. ren mountain. having had a few hours' sleep aud a good dinner. and I can only escape a threatened attack of fever by hurrying to cover. I could not detect it. In the hospitable mansion of Rev. the olive. and toward night. and estimating the distance between these parallel ranges. 54. The popular notion is fruitful. No. which pierced with caves and moist with springs. Mount Gerizim. the place of benedictions. The earth is red or reddish brown. scorching his vegetation with the intolerable summer heat. Still more readily if the respective spokesmen took their positions lower down. as it may be supposed they most naturally would. is that Ebal is a barnot sustained by anything in it. as said before. pomegranate. although.308 JACOB'S WELL. is Nablous. noon I turn from this broad and beautiful valley. needed repose. Mr. and looking up a narrower vale. As we pass Ebal. der town. is on my left. Falshire. but a little friable. who is here in charge of a school of native children. This. a German missionI find the ary. are abundant. way up the hillsides. and visit the Well of Jacob and the Tomb down the valley for that purpose. in process of ages. a mile or two in advance. square to By the left hand. on my When Jesus chose a hill near the Sea of Galilee for a mount right. Louisiana. the slope of Ebal is more gradual. with the trained voices of men accustomed to the vocation of shepherds. and very prairies Not a tree nor hedge appears in the valley . etc. Certainly. while Gerizim that I could detect. Jacob's "Well and Joseph's Tomb. and . while the latter has his northern slopes lying in the shade during the most heated period of the day. Yet there may be something in the fact that the southern sun has a full face at the former. I know that I am while yonpassing ancient Sychar. yet that barley yonder of Ihe West. I am able to accept the kind offer of that gentleman. might make a distinction. the place of cursings.

Clinton F. with a and because the Divine Law was promulgated solemnity scarcely inferior to its first delivery on Sinai. In view of here. a hundred yards or so northwest of the Well. is is interesting in nine feet in diameter. George W. I was conducted to a low mound. to law. It itself. on the spot to which they allude. Eobert A. It would be a rich experience for two of these men to visit here together. Having that good moralist. down siderable agility in have given to this Well such a reputation in history. Bartlett. No. W. And here only can the full force of those touching lines be appreciated : Querens me sedisti lassus Kedemisti crucem passus . surmounted by a broken wall inclosing granite columns. and was originally cut one hundred feet or more in depth through the limestone. The Well of Jacob. It is said the such sacrifice may not be in vain!" Oh." To seventy-five feet. Thou didst redeem me. half a mile apart. The sun was going down as I visited the Tomb of Joseph. Joseph D. To find this well. . Its present depth. as I do now. standing upon opposite " read all the words of the slopes. Georgia. I read from the fourth chapter of John the memorable incidents which this. 309 169. At the eastern end of this. 34). J. D. Lamber- ton. Thomson. according to all that is written in the book of ings the law" (Joshua viii. Evans. is Arabs having thrown in much stone and earth. How would they have impressed him to have read them here. the remains of a square. and join to it the good names of John H. Bates. I adopt it among the Masonic localities. formed of ruins. vaulted chamber point to the old "Well-house. Samuel Johnson. Gilbert. erect and prostrate. this. time of my visit. as Tristam estimates it. M. W. irrespective of historical associations. as no other water-source can ever have. Cobb. the blessand cursings. as a piece of human labor.MOUNTS EBAL AND GEKIZIM.J. : Tantus labor non *' sit casus sit Wearied in search of me. the The upper portion of the casing climb through to the opening of the Well. and at the southeastern suffered the pangs of the Cross. and. Sitting by the opening. Anthon. Amos E. is composed of stones squared and I do not recollect that there was water in it at the neatly dressed. Mount Ebal by Mount Ebal Lodge.Thomas Hay wood. never could read those affecting words without tears. Paige. Thou didst down (by this well-side). demands conthe explorer.

Pasha of Nablous. a few years since. Returned back my kind missionary. containing a tomb a roof. I had anticipated a pleasant hour with this distinguished gentleman. The Catholic priests. It is easy. and I secured one of its leaves for into the open window. Nablous. or doctors. In the conversation of Mr. It was from Mr. Falshire that I learned of the recent publication. of Mount Ebal. but they are glad to have their children educated. looking west. three feet high. is north- . have fulminated in this distant land the same tremendous threats against the institution. a much milder spirit and this is largely due to the efforts of the and Mrs. and so. so to speak. It is a room about twelve feet rner. said to hold the bones of square." that we are accustomed to hear and despise in our free lands of the "West I endeavored to procure a copy of this tract. near Jacob's Well. luxuriant grapevine covers one of the walls.A MISSIONARY'S WELCOME. both boys and girls. Falshire. is well preserved beneath forming one of the sacred shrines of the Jews. of the visitors. who had been vouched for to me as a brother Mason . but was disappointed to find he was absent from the city. Falshire. In the evening I called on Mohammed Said. and Joseph. " thrice-cursed of the Pope. in Hebrew. them preach or exhort. and Mrs. Christians were openly stoned and maltreated. forces its its white-washed walls are covered with pencil-marks. many of the larger towns. In this place. where. as seen from the entrance of the . of a tract against Freemasonry. or chapel. every generation removes more and more the barriers separating Christians and Mohammedans. there are good physicians connected with the missions. way to A my collection. however. prevails. Ebal (on the My right) and Gerizim (on the left). to conjecture the contents. Mr. whose skill and philanthropy give them deserved eminence among the mercenary quacks who arrogate the title of Hakeems. cut gives an excellent view of the two mountains. doubtless the names. The route from Nablous to Zarthan. now missionaries. here. as the map will show.. in Arabic. but in vain. Their success in the Master's service runs This is the experience of all chiefly in the direction of education. The natives do not care much to hear the missionaries that I meet. finding that the spread of the order was enlarging the spirit of freedom and inquiry among this people in Syria.alley. and hearing of my visit. The room. everywhere the opponents of our system. I enjoyed several hours of whose pious self-devotion alone keeps them here.

east. Shiloh.THE PLACE OF THE FUKXACF8. ble a distance it stands in an almost inacheavy descent of nearly 3. from the surface of Mount Moriah. for Hiram Abif . it and B. to do the hard sea. and demanding the construction of a road through terrific defiles and along giddy acclivities seeing. It was always a prob- EBAL AXD GERIZIM. so minutely described in 1 Kings vii. as every one will testify who has traveled the road from Jerusalem to Jericho. why was this place from Jerusalem. 311 The leave the The best point to places are about twenty miles apart. in a direct line.500 feet. Seeing that Succoth is not only at so considerathe Temple. perpendicular height. and the difference in levels between Succoth and Jerusalem. pots. Jerusalem road is.500 feet. must be lifted by manual efforts alone. I say. is equivalent to sixty in a broken country like this . up which the Temple furniture and the enorselected ? mous shafts I. some may say. shovels. why the astute Solomon should have sent the practical-minded Hiram a distance of forty-five miles from the site of lem in and heavy work of casting the molten the oxen. and basins. 3. being would have been easier. probably. that such is the case. a Forty-five miles. my mind. but that cessible district. the lavers.

A friend gives me. in lifting beams of cedar and fir. Here. is an abounding water-course (the Jordan). then. This place was accessible by a level country to the city of Achor (Acre). But this was only of a piece with the labor going on at the same time on the other side of those precipitous ranges. These he often visited in person. and at so great a distance from Jerusalem. viz. On the other hand. furnishing the most exquisite and correcting their work as it drawings for his own stylus^ progressed. and the want of the needed clay. at his own city of Tyre. the scarcity of wood. past Shiloh and Bethel. The smooth road made it practicable to transport the ores of copper and tin and the machinery of the furnaces. both to the workmen to drink and as & power to drive the great blasts necessary for smelting such enormous amounts of metal as were required here. Hiram naturally chose the former On " the clay-ground in the plain of Jordan" he erected his furnaces (of which. moulders. the Jordan valley. abounded the fuel (wood). owing to the scarcity of water. Before I concluded them. Such were my queries and imaginings when I began the investigation of this question. heights between Joppa and Jerusalem. granite and porand marble columns and other ponderous masses. or to cast them at Jerusalem itself. near Succoth. was engineered under his practised eye. to cast the pillars. one already named. at the foot of precipitous spurs of the beasts of mountains of Judea. by way of Joppa. " The rily : thistles actually overtop tl e head of a person riding on horseback . of which great quantities were needed. For here. from hi 3 private journal. than to open foundries in this desolate plain between Succoth and Zarthan. and foundrymen. Between the various plans. too. which must necessa- have been made through the gorges of these stupendous hills. Even the paved way. He supplied the mechanical skill for forwarding the mighty shafts up the ranges. The only drawback was the .312 CLAY-GROUND IN PLAIN OF JORDAN. etc. traces of foundations and the refuse slag will yet be discovered by diligent explorers). this passage. doubtless.. up the phyry. which was only twenty-five miles by sea from Tyre therefore easily reached by the laborers. the abode of the wild grown up as it is with thistles and thorns. to Jerusalem. the necessity of lifting the finished carvings up those precipitous ranges to Jerusalem. and the arenaceous clay necessary for the architectural moulds. to have established the foundries immediately at Jerusalem was practically an impossibility. the explanation was clear. furnishing its life-giving fluid. and transport thtui to Jerusalem. and established a colony of skilled draughtsmen.

under Jephthah." There never were quarries at Zereda- and if there had been. in which only some four or five men had been killed. The name. three thousand years Adwars. in the allusion to " the quarries of Zeredathah. describes a visit to Sukkoot. in charge at that time of the researches of the London Palestine Fund. Another blunder of some manual-maker is to represent sleeping Jacob at Bethel. was not in sight. and well watered. No such place as Zarthan or Zeredathah can now be recognized . it The district is rich When two hundred tents of the Sulclir The River Jordan being unfordable at the time. such as would answer to the expres- sion. One of the worst blunders in the Blue Lodge rituals of Massachu- setts is connected with this vicinity (Succoth). visible from Seikoot." may be located not far above Succoth. but we afterwards Mount Hermoii is saw it from a point a little further north. he visited Succoth. in a letter of March 17. apparently nearly a hundred and fifty or two hundred feet high. Near the foot of a low bluff. The clay-ground was. but from the different passages in the Bible where the word occurs. a few : unhewn stones. is applied to the district as well as to a small tell (hill). the fightwas confined to an exchange of Arab abuse. Dr. 312 through the valley by Seikoot. he thinks. He observed no very marked features. describes the village of Seikoot thus " Here is seen merely the ruin of a common village. whereas Bethel thah . and thistles.VILLAGE OF SUCCOTH. it was the last place in Palestine to open them. Kobinson. there breaks out a beautiful fountain of pure and sparkling water. on which are some inconsiderable ruins. in Biblical Researches. and a few long ing shots across the stream. with bushes of the Spina Cliristi" Captain Wilson. and so are Little Hermon and Mount Tabor. east of the village. . under the shade of a thicket of fig-trees. reposing by a water-course. This incident illustrates the story of the tremendous slaughter which occurred here. because of the bushes and trees. was occupied by over then at war with the Bedouins. ago. 1866. in the Book of Psalms. The eastern bank of the lower Jordan valley opposite to us was precipitous. considering the difficulty of removing heavy ashlars thence to Jerusalem. about a mile distant from us. From this the founders of Hiram must often foundations of have refreshed themselves. wild oats. of course. The region below is full of grass. valley of Succoth. situated between the two. The river was running The water of the river close under it. it near the old city of Bethshean.

and Jordan again be made to drive the blasts of fur" naces. thirty miles in a direct course and twenty from the River Jordan. commentary upon these para: MARKS. ites. 1848). diately west. 5. and marked thus : was probably not far from " the clay-ground" that the celebrated "passages" (or fords) of Jordan were situated. had conceived a bitter jealousy against him for his great success over the common enemy. them. and instead of the brier shall come up the myrtleall. Dr. tree" (Isaiah 13). said. as in the days of Hiram . on who can pronounce the word shibboleth in any other manner than as the Ephraimites did. instead of the thorn shall come up the fir-tree. that there either side of the Jordan. . Anderson found the Iv. and one large stone. and master-builders shall lay the foundations for furnaces. destroy Ishmaelitigh population. that when those Ephraimites. exploration (1848). for after From Lynch's remains of walls at the summit. and drove them back in disgrace. traffic is king. he would be tempted to the entire is graphs. therefore. and there fell at that time of the Ephraimites forty and two thousand" It is a curious (Judges xii. Let us examine the Biblical account of Jephthah in this connecIt tion. If. then said unto him: Say now Shibboleth ! and they he said Sibboklh. and it was so. them. which were escaped. Let me go over . on yonder who occupied the The Ephraimterritory imme- hill. Then they took him and slew him at the passages of Jordan . he says the surface of the hill behind him was thickly covered with boulders of quartz and conglomerate. Jephthah defeated as he did the Ammonites before not an Arab now living upon those hills. east of the Jordan. " the children of Ammon.314 is MARK MASTER'S MARK. that the men of Gilead said unto him Art thou an Ephraimite ? Jf he said Nay. the nearest water-course. dressed to a face." and had crossed the river to put him to death. then. At the close of the fifth day after leaving the Sea of Galilee (April 14. And the Gileadites took the passages of Jordan before the Ephraimites . When Palestine founders shall come hither again to look for the best earth for mouldings. I derive the following fact. from the sea. for he could not frame to pronounce it right. He resided at Mizpah. 6). the ghost of old Jephthah were to take his stand by this ford to-day.

drama of Jephthah's life. gatheraround him a company of lawless men. both on the east and west sides. because all military movements to and from the Jordan. Jephthah was called upon by the popular voice to be their captain. then. were necessarily made along those valleys. Among the Judges of In his youth. story of the destruction of the Ephraimites. let us see who and what was Jephthah. he advanced against the Ammonites with irresistible resolution. the land of his Nod. and mind for great undertakings. a place on the frontiers. had been driven by his half-brothers from Gilead. and deep which took the only direction that a . the fords of the Jprdan nearest to that place. that it might be transferred here with a little compression. as highways from the hills where the towns were. a little more in detail. where the principal valleys (wadys) are . the traditional enemies of his people. east of Gilead. in the interior of the country. THE FOKDS OF THE JORDAN". Shechem. and familiarize himself especially with the situation of Mizpah. He brought his own tried band . and still are situated. and summoning all the people of Gilead and Manasseh. To do the amplest justice to the subject. 1183-1187. to At a serious invasion of the country by the Ammonites. he became known as a ing mighty man of valor. the Ear of Corn. because they resided east of the Jordan.JEPHTHAH'S HISTORY. He accumulation of retook twenty cities from their hands. and the tribe of Ephraim in relation to its central city. so intimately associated with this fearful slaughter of "forty thousand Ephraimites. and the word Shibboleth. He should observe. he Israel. and acquiring fame and wealth thereby." The account given in the Dictionfirst ary of Freemasonry is so succinct and yet clear. with some repetition. birth. 315 From an essay upon this subject that I wrote for one of our Masonic journals. as associated with those important emblems. bodily strength. I give this incident.C. gathered a great spoils. To this he consented. maintaining a constant strife with the Ammonites. the Water-ford. There. The whole In the the name and two place. and lead them against the threatening foe. and inflicted upon them such a defeat that several generations passed away before the Ammonites could again make head against Israel. Jephthah flourished about B. first act in the Biblical This was the prove! him a man possessing force of piety. also. those tribes that particularly acknowledged his authority. and overthrew them with immense loss. is rich in historical and topographical details. the reader should have a map of Palestine before him.

its cane. Each party was embittered to desperation each fought bravely." and advancing up the " to burn his house defiles towards Mizpah. from the one near day. by returning in from the children of Ammon. at stages of low water. though it left him childless and broken-hearted. threatened upon him man labors for Israel with fire. the water is not more than three or four feet deep. as General Sherman practised it. west of the river. and placing it as a defence in their rear. by ways well known to him. around the flanks of the Ephraimites. at a number of fords. to the tactics of flanking. The powerful tribe of Ephraim. Then occurred one of the most horrible scenes of slaughter recorded in the annals of civil warfare. Short time had he to mourn. The defeated Ephraimites hurried down the valleys to the river in a^total rout. he sent his reserves. challenge." The bold mountaineer accepted the flict . and with them was the victory. Accustomed.000 years afterwards. the fords thirty miles higher up are those referred to. crossed the Jordan at its "passages. casting away sword and buckler in their panic. in his mountain style of warfare.316 THE UNFBATEENAL in his age STRIFE. and a terrible con- ensued between those alienated sons of Jacob. But the Gileadites were in a country with which they were familiar. he submitted like a brave man peace to the penalty. the bottom being composed of a hard limestone rock. Forty-two thousand men were deliberately put to death by the Gileadites. ' and with his training could conceive . not a man. willows. feet wide. which make it difficult even to approach the The Arabs cross the river at the present margin of the stream. for he began his " by a solemn dedication. in summer-time. At either place. in a similar country. the Jordan is about eighty banks encumbered by a dense growth of tamarisks. and possessed himself of all the crossing-places ("passages") before his enemy could reach them. but most likely they were those nearly due east of Seikoot. challenging his right to go to war without their co-operation." as the Bible designated. vowing a vow unto the Lord. so spared ! far as we can understand the record. as some locality of these fords (or The exact terms them) cannot now be think." Having accomplished his earnest desire. If. 3. having been "passages. At these fords. and opposite Mizpah. and other low vegetation of the shrubby and thorny sorts. the same description will apply. . thorn-bushes. only intent upon enjoying a draught from the cool stream. But this was far from Jephthah's intention.

so intimately associated with A This word. enemy. and Seiloon instead of Shiloh. 311 down co the Pilgrims' Ford. the reason for adopting this being that it meant food. those three things for which the panting fugitives were striving at the close of that awful battle-day. Any other word commencing with sh. that the Jews now speak as many languages as there are countries in which they are spread abroad.SHIBBOLETH: SIBBOLETH. led to the tribal detection. sh. and that the test of the Ephraimite was to point to that and ask him what it was. drink. In its rituals. and (symbolically) plenty . Jephthah certainly would not have selected it. The reply. and strongly illustrates the variety of dialects which had already risen in Israel. and one tradition has it that an object of that sort was suspended from a branch near the river. word here in relation to Shibboleth. hence. gave the unaspirated sound s. primarily implies a or stream. It was. however. commencing at Sodom. they sought to distinguish the foe through their known The fugitives. by a pleasing coincidence. not far from these fords. having established themselves in the rear of the the fords of the Jordan. It was a curious subject of reflection that occurred to me. that among all the tribes of the natives who inhabit the country now. viz. instead of inability to utter the aspirated sound sh. it illustrates what the traveller will see every day in that country. the point where the Jordan leaves the Sea of Galileo. If what is here mentioned as the characteristic would not have been sufficiently discriminating as a test. we accompany the Father of the Faithful in his chival- . the Jordan. in Hebrew. on the southern verge of the Jor- dan valley. In the Order of High-Priests. would have served the same purpose. just as they say Bay teen instead of Bethel. when. and security all in one. The word Sibboleth also means an ear of corn. as I passed along towards Shechem (Nablous). If the different tribes had in reality acquired such differences in dialect in only three hundred years from the days of Moses and Joshua. of course. naturally suggested to the followers flood of Jephthah. wherefore they were slain without mercy. Almost every portion of this celebrated river of antiquity. six miles above the Dead Sea. there is not on either side of the Jordan a person who pronounces the word as Jephthah did! All would say Sibboleth> or rather Sibboleen. The certainty which the Gileadites felt that the Ephraimites could not give that sound correctly is very remarkable. we have a narration which connects the head of the stream with its mouth.. is associated with some one or more of the Masonic legends.

The baptism of Jesus occurred there. At the sight. the pilgrims were much stunned. Subsequent degrees refer to other portions of the streams. They then addressed themselves to the water. He replied Esh-Shereeyah. You must or you go through cannot come at the gate. Not Jordan's stream. therefore. would be impossible. The river was very deep. As I rode down from Jerusalem to the Jordan. And view the landscape o'er. Should fright us from the shore!" cannot resist and then " I will conclude. old Canaan stood. Oliver. and thua the whole river is comprised within Masonic geography. that separates our barren and desolate Modb from the fruitful and cheerful Canaan which we seek. Stand. " "While Jordan rolled between ! Or this one more verse.318 THE BITER JORDAN. one of the earliest emblems in the Entered Apprentice's degree suggests the crossing of the Jordan by Joshua and his host. I asked my servant by what name the stream is known to the natives. but the men that went with them said." The whole passage is equally affecting. How gloriously good old Isaac Watts of our youth has done this. In fact. the temptation to give place here to John Buuyan. at which the slaugh- and presumptuous Ephrairaites was accomplished. The degree of Fellow-Craft leads us to "the clay-ground between Succoth and Zarthan . rous essay to the town of Dan. meaning the Place of Watering. near the mouth of the river. therefore. according to the theory of Dr. from another author: " Could we but stand where Moses stood. but there was no bridge to go over. to the Jews. Was ever symbol so clothed with verity ? Now I further saw that betwixt them and the gate was a river. that in all Christian systems the Jordan plays ter of the cruel a prominent part. of his most striking miracles were performed near by its banks. So. hard by the fountain-head of the etream. In his mission of mercy and divine favor he frequently crossed this river. even though the hymnologists of the Christian system had not so often used it as their most fitting emblem of the Stream of Death. It is useless to add. to separate this remarkable stream from our ideas of Christ. it needs but It Some a stanza to prove " Sweet : fields. one hot morning in May." also to the fords. of this river. dressed in living green . 1868. beyond the swelling flood. Some . nor I death's dark flood.

Georgia . To . Bradford Prince. Cannon. Jr.MASONIC NOMENCLATIVE. George H. to denote relative importance in the scale of streams. England. J. viz. Tucker. Raymond. of the Arabs add the word Great (El-KeUr) to that. J. 319 its place of the clay-ground is marked in Masonic nomenclature ZeredatJiah Lodge. New York. John Thompson. 83. Goodall. No. No. Charles Griswold. North Carolina . Selmes. viz. I give the ten following. the identity even more closely. Preble. L. No. 237.D. Greene. Alfred Creigh. Massachusetts. 47. The by name of the river is given in Jordan Lodge. William R. The No. E.. S. M. No. H. A. Robert Morris. 386. 184." or fords of the Ephraimites. Sylvester Stevens. B. etc. Charles Eginton. G.. And for the locality of the passages. 483. Cooley. B.. PTOLEMY PHILADELPHUS : ARSINOE-BEBEtflCB . P. Olney. No. " Sanford. Hamilton.. New York. William C. I write upon the place of the foundries ten Masonic names. Philip C. etc. G. Henry R. Reeves E. Charles D. B.establish Clapp. Bradwell.

they call Bethel. JTTBISDICTION J OR. was so curious thaf I devote a chapter to the subject. was the Tabernacle set up. of a place in a strange country. 1550. which is no greater than may be noticed when a foreigner startled endeavors to pronounce the name . my guide would answer in the same word that Paul might have used. I was often when. Tsur. It was at Shiloh that Eli died and Samuel prophe. for several centuries. BO important a part in the American system of jurisprudence. for instance. its laws laid manner of doing this. etc. and not at Jerusalem. No. Joppa. Jaffa Nazareth. In that 202.CHAPTER XX. Louisiana . was established the Colony of Priests. and the Sacred Garments preserved. . which plays history. Succoth. Thus. Tennessee . the centre of the Jewish worship. THE DIVISION OF THE TBIBE8. was established. Tiberceyah . 131. 'The and dividing out the land of Canaan among the tribes. Reha . for here. Bethlehem. Saida. Alabama. about B. or David. and all the details organized." Shiloh assumes a prominent place. down. 105. . The names of places in the Holy Land have been wonderfully preserved. Seiloon Shunem. with the High-Priest at their head and here. pointing to a place and asking its name. Here. Tyre. and not at Jerusalem. in fact. Usdom. is portion of Masonic history which relates to the Ark of " Moses. its construction and various resting-places. or Jacob. sied through his whole is life. was. Bayteen . Batelame Jericho. Nazaret Shiloh. No lodges. Sidon. Sodom. But that which most practically unites Shiloh with the Masonic the fact that here the subject of jurisdiction. and the Ark of the Covenant placed. SeikootTiberias. as witness. Solan.C. Shiloh Lodge. and others. The principal change in the words is that of pronunciation only. HILOH a place memorable on the rolls of American No. . some of them for four thousand years.

Nain. and the like. befell the people of Jehovah on that day when they put to t/ie lot the important question of a division of the land among the twelve tribes. where. such as Carmel. Viewing this transaction by modern 21 light. there are many names pronounced exactly as we have them in our English Bible. Gaza. let us together visit Shiloh. My cut gives a positive idea of present And now.THE DRAWING OF THE 32: On the other hand. and none to its make them appearance. To look for Shiloh. afraid. and afterwards conquered it at the edge of the sword. Hebron. While camping upon those bleak hills. they divided it. and witness the great the grand and famous lottery of the lan^-distribution. THE RUINS OF ANCIENT GERASA. then. if but in fancy. let us recall what early ages. when God had presented the land to his people. inquire for Seiloon. barely supporting a few flocks that lie down. But this once great and armed city is now but a dry pasture. it seems almost blasphfv .' you must Kana.

which was shaken. as it. the duelists. position..MANNER mous. now among The appointment of magistrates and jurymen was settled in the same way. SHILOH. and the lots drawn out The affecting account of . Among the Jews. The use of lots among the Hebrews was general. Also the division of conquered land. In the combat. the method of casting lots is not given in the Scriptures but the Rabbinical writings profess to describe it thus: Two inscribed tablets of boxwood. lot decided priority in attack. OF THE DRAWING.. But not so did the chosen of the the happy apostles on their Almighty view it. So. etc. as here. Not so return from Olivet and the Ascension. free from passion and selfishness. or gold. very word used for lot (sors) implies an oracular response. IN THE TIME OF SAMUEL. . were put into an urn. when they cast lots to fill the vacancy made by the terebinth-tree and the cord. the wisest of the heathen considered etc. It was The used by them as an appeal to God. too.

close A noble is oak overshadows a ruined Mohammedan church. consequently. Reuben had received his share already. Sitting under this fine this carved ital. either a church that has served as a fort. Upon the surrounding eminences. let us examine and sketch the place itself. It stands just where the writer in Judges xxi. Eude and ruinous as it now is. And now for our'JFamous Lottery at Shiloh. First. once a portion of a Corinthian upon cap- and contemplate the strange event. and took possession of it in the strength of God. to-day. no country in the world Lebonah. and here it was set up. on the east side of the highway that goeth up from Bethel to Shechem. doubtless. watering flocks and herds. about six miles northeast of Bethel. let us spread out our map of Palestine fragment of marble. and by here a edifice. surrounded. The Tabernacle once occupied the crown of this modest eminence and there. and awaited the decision of Jehovah as to their future allotments. its elaborate furniture in place. " on the north side of Bethel. hanging the fountain are pierced with sepulchres. . oak. is the modern village. 19 locates it. here to this little hill the Tabernacle was brought from Gil- gal. 323 the discovery of Achan will occur to the reader. is a copious fountain. eastward. too. if indeed. Shiloh. When the land was subjugated. it probably looks much as it did when the hosts of Israel first clambered these steep wadys (valleys)." would have presented fewer obscurities in topographical detailsHere it is. the Deer.THE GEA1STD SCENE. when the great contest at the waters of Merom had placed all Canaan in the possession of the conqueror. so small a collection of huts deserves the name of village. exactly as we should expect after reading the book of Judges. by other small hills. except on the south. About a mile from this. had been set up in the moun- . much like Jerusalem itself. whose waters are collected into a large reservoir. the various tribes pitched their tents. or a fort that has served as a church it is difficult to say which. The hills over- which tradition has attributed to Eli and his priestly sons. and on the south of up All three of those places are now perfectly identified. If the sacred geographer had located all Hebrew towns with the same precision. where there is a narrow valley. His tribal standard. In the long pilgrimage through the desert his place had been on the south side of the Tabernacle. its curtains drawn around. and. A small hill rises from an uneven plain. near Jericho. seventh chapter. as given in Joshua.

the aged Caleb made himself useful in counselling these " " in their forty days' work. and described it by cities into seven parts. as the immediate representato seven. even in those mountains. this tribe and when the had asked that possession should be given to it. when he. " the whole Shiloh. too.324 tains of SURVEYING THE TERRITORY. and Dan." Doubtless. . by his sons. Asher. in a book. Marching with Ephraim and Benjamin in the west of the great procession. were placed Then Joshua himself. where congregation of the children of Israel had assembled together. to the hosts at Shiloh. had been awarded a possession west of the Dead Sea. with Manasseh." Joshua first sent out a practical committee of : " three for each " Go and walk tribe. as the Lord comopened at Shiloh manded by the hand of Moses." So. " The border of the and where they had sojourned. . to the hosts at Shiloh." These parts were for Benjamin. as one of the committee of twelve. Zebulun. Probably the names of these seven tribes were inscribed upon tesserae and in an urn . in a book. spiral range of mountains. Issachar. while placed the in numbers one another urn. also. and come again to me that I may here cast lots for you before the Lord in Shiloh. through the land and describe it. Aroer that is on the bank of the River Arnon." went and passed through the land. and came again to Joshua. captured cities sixty great " he to retain the Judah." Gad had likewise chosen his own possession east of the river. too. extending from Dan to Beersheba. Moab. So. Simeon. From this place. This was done Their coast was from children of Eeuben was Jordan. same manner." with the charge. surveyors." In the fifteenth to the seventeenth chapters of Joshua the momentous work is recorded. and came again to Joshua. the general imparted to these surveyors his own recollections of forty-five years previous. as the great caravan passed moment for entering the through Promised Land arrived. and "because he was a man of war " " east of the Sea of Galilee. . and together they had settled in the rich pasturage of the Mishor. inscribed in the . In the great wilderness-march he had gone side by side with Reuben. . was sent by Moses " to spy out the land of Canaan. and Ephraim in the central parts of Canaan. narrow. we see the prizes for which the Great Lottery was " By lot was their inheritance. prospectors And " the men went and passed through the land. and described And "the men it by cities into seven parts. and here in this long. . Xaphtali. Seven of the tribes were yet to receive an inheritance . he had become fascinated with con- concluded quest.

having already secured were less interested. cities. a few of the stronger fortresses. as Joseexcel- phus affirmed." who was over the host of "Ephraim. witnessed the scene that day. amidst the blast of trumpets. for he was the chosen one of Benjamin. still we know. incense." favorable.500 years afterwards. the son of Reuben." in the name And "The wilderness of Beth-horon. however. Possibly from yonder eminence of Rimmon. Bethel. "The and other noted tion was highly places. a parallelogram of twelve by twenty six miles. as guardians of the personal interests of their respective divisions. fields. 261 years before. " The well En-Rogel. and again. Baal. and called the namea high religious solemnities accompanied the act prayers. twelve miles in the southeast. was compensated by the lence of the land. and "Elishama the son of Ammihud. is this lot ? Silently the majestic warrior who had lifted his spear over Ai. tive of the nation. comes forth the first lot. one of these bands may have been gazing with despairing hearts upon their great enemy. Small detachments of their armies. Its situa- The smallness of the territory. still wandered in deserts and inaccessible places." Bohan. and cursed the hosts of Jehovah of their God. Ft is that small but beautiful tract. and embracing Jerusa" Jordan was the border of it on the east lem. sacrifices. stood near.DRAWING THE LOT OF BENJAMIN". were marks along well of waters of Nephtoah. engaged in the very act of confiscating houses. and Beth-horon. detachments. in the sight of all Israel. up turned to the second urn and drew forth the name of Benjamin ! To whom To Elidad. the whole business seems plain. 325 It is easy to conceive that drew them out one by one." who was over the host of Judah. named to Moses by the Lord Jehovah himself as one of those who should " divide the land." Thus Benja . eastward. were held by them. the matter was intrusted. the son of Chislon. " The stone of side. 1. all but " Nahshon the son of Aminadab. their portions. hidden in caves and among the thick oak forests. now. plains. As we sit here earnestly poring over the map (Rawson's is the best for our purpose)." its boundaries. with their thirty-one kings. The chiefs of the nine tribes. that lies immediately north of Judah. thirty miles yards. lay with bleaching bones upon the hillsides and plains of the land which they had seized when Jacob and his family followed Joseph into Egypt. The six heathen nations." was one of the landmarks on the line of it next to Judah. and graveIt is very probable that upon the mountain -sides. These two tribes. at Gibeon.

this lot ? Simeon. and there wage a steady warfare with Philistines. Jewish history. and contained some of the richest soil in Palestine. on the Mediterranean shore. Tiberias. This is what was afterwards known as the far-famed Land of Galilee. his . son of Ammihud. he was to set up his tribal banner. before going down tp Egypt. It inhabited by Israel. It was the ancestral seat. as Josephus wrote. with a soil. whose place in the wilderness had been on the west and Manasseh. the time about twenty cities. the blast of trumpets announces the bringing forth of iht It is a district on the southwest of Judah. rich and The sixth lot productive. at the very apex of the country. It fell to Zebulun. which fell to Benjamin. lot ceeded with the great drawing. the second was given. And lo. Shemuel. Endor. all that line of summits to the south formed a portion of the first lot. During the journey from Egypt to Canaan. including the splendid valley of Ccelesyria. In the desert-pilgrimage he had encamped with Reuben and Gad on the south of the sacred tent. It lay northwest of Zebulun and Issachar. was set up. Megiddo. was to be fixed in the far north. last place is was the To whom Here Isaac was born. Now his tribaf Joshua gave the standard. and all the uneasy sons of the- To his representative. and Jacob. in the extreme southwest of Canaan. yonder conic hill. . to the Sea of Galilee on the east. the home of Jesus. and the mountainous country inclosing it. far separated from them. stretching from Mount Carmel on the west. and prodesert. nacle with of the Tabermin.." together with Beth-shean. and Nazareth within its limits. It fell to Issachar. next Ephraim south of Ephraim. Next to Jerusalem. containing at lot. There his sit tribal standard. Rimmon r As we here. was established in Canaan. he had camped with Judah and Issachar on the east of the Tabernacle. the Wolf. the son of Parnach. ETC. Here Abra- second ham lived nearly a century. Now. matter into the hands of Elizaphan. a Ship. spread arounjl the venerable well of Beersheba. th& Sword. called " the seed-plot of God. and many others. with their villages. this region was to become the most famous in. and then Joshua prepared for the next. It embraced Tabor. Amalekites. It is the extreme north of ancient Canaan.32G SIMEON: ZEBULUN: ISSACHAB. Yonder eminence of Mizpah was was his. The fifth lot fell to Asher. The third lot. The fourth lot comprised the territory immediately south of the last It embraced the fertile plain of Esdraelon. fell to Naphtali. Cana.

suggested the jurisdiction of the several tribes. here upon the very spot. But the tribal laws were far more rigid than the Masonic. just as the lines of circumvallation established by the Grand Lodge. or acquire any legal rights except those of a stranger. but feeling that " more are they will recall lines written by one " who are for us than against us. It was the smallest of the twelve. Those heavens are fairer than they seem . in the establishment of a subordinate lodge. and these people have none of the best reputation. and Benjamin on the east. wounds. The boundaries. as Women were restricted forcibly shown in the . the Great Lottery at Shiloh. 32? The seventh lot fell to Dan. each with a right hand extended. But the shades of evening are falling. and limit the work of each subordinate. in marriage to men of their own tribe. we will hasten down the incline eastward. in token of unity. All the villagers of modern Shiloh are gathered around us. allot the territory. my soul pant toward the eternal hills. And as we lie down to rest. where the tribal banners served for rallying points to the children of Jacob. the city of Joppa as a seaport. So we will fold up our map . suggest the jurisdiction. There pleasures all sincere glide on in crystal rills. cursed roses no tainted spring . nor honey wears a sting. and murder. With Ephraim on the north. surrounded by this wild population. or marry a wife except of his own is tribe. and the rich plain of Sharon for his corn-land. There not a dreg of guilt defiles . . happy at the privilege we have enjoyed of contemplating. No member of a tribe could hold land outside of his own jurisdiction. TJiat Canaan knows no noxious thing. not so much backsheesh. as in urgent demand for Our tents and company are a mile or more east. then. and the lines upon our map have become indistinct." Advance Herald. even are attributed to them. grow on thorns. Theft. still less of hospitality. but possessed eminent natural advantages.TKIBAL JURISDICTION. it was one of the most fertile *********** allotments found in the urn. stood taking a last look at the little eminence on which the Tabernacle and the surrounding hills." we who many a year since attained to : the heavenly Canaan. Look grief disturbs the stream. soil. for many centuries. and walked the eternal hills No No No up.

these In answer to the query concerning the marriage of Moses had ordained " Let them marry to whom they women. "the daughters of Zelophehad. therefore. ouo of Manasseli) shall they marry. His five daughters. had died in the wilderness before the great caravan reached Canaan. : think best. 1-6) Joshua "gave them an inheritance among the brethren of their father. and the record so made up. record (Numbers xxvii. approached Moses. a most faithful man." in the tribe of Manasseh.328 case of DAUGHTERS OF ZELOPHEHAD. So shall not the inheritance of . of the Jordan. only to the family of the tribe of their father (Zelouhe- BANNERS OF THE TRIBES.) that Zelophehad. Aftei the conquest (Joshua xvii. east share." described in the lectures oi It appears from the sacred the adoptive degree of that name. and asked that in the distribution of conquered territory they might have their father's The request was granted.

in the years' wanderings.) It is a fitting close to this chapter to present at one view the tribal badges worn upon the standards of Israel through the deserts. that the children of Israel may enjoy every man the inheritance of his fathers." (Numbers xxxvi. or until the division. so did the daughters of Zelophfor Mahlah. in the campaigns that resulted in the conquest of Canaan. and they were married into the families of the sons of Ma- ehad nasseh the son of Joseph. and Milcah. and Noah.. forty PTOTEMY III. 329 the children of Israel remove from tribe to tribe . Tirzah. and their inheritance remained in the tribe of the family of their father. tance in any tribe of the children of Israel. . B. EVERGETE3. 975. Neither shall the inheritance remove from one tribe to another tribe . shall be wife unto one of the family of the tribe of her father. and in the national career for nearly five centuries. daughters of Zelophehad. for every one of the children of Israel shall keep himself to the inheritance of the And every daughter that possesseth an inheritribe of his fathers. were married unto their father's brothers' sons.BANNERS OF THE TRIBES.C. Even as the Lord commanded Moses. and Hoglah. the . but every one of the tribes of the children of Israel shall keep himself to his own inheritance.


the Prussian Friday. I have never seen any two men. at 8 A. . out valley of Jordan and the Dead Sea. Soon the arch of the Ecce Homo is before me. and with two servants and their horses. No . or do the same thing generally. and every " thing gives way to his whims. May 8. on the side of which our hotel is situated. the expense would have been about But I cheerfully admit that my social qualities are five francs each. furnished me for the consideration of twenty francs by the at Jerusalem. Sheikh of Bethphage.. not expansive enough to endure a travelling party in the Holy Land. I will sooner travel on foot and " " alone than " to make one in a party to the Dead Sea. who wanted to go the same way. I left my House of St.00). or stop at the same hours of the day." so called. along the way.M. suggestive. took my way to the Dead Sea. our horses' iron shoes making an unholy rattling upon the stones of the sacred street. observing the various Sacred Stations. travellers. of the most solemn incident that this world affords. At each of these. There is always a dyspeptic preacher with each half dozen travellers here. in such a combination. but in name On the only. or eat at the same time. of the thousands who annually make this pilgrimage. His prices vary with the purse and in experience of I paid him a Napoleon ($4. Had there been a party of us. Going down the Via Dolorosa. through which Damascus street runs. and accumulates much wealth. Ste" phen's Gate. I passed the valley of Tyropoeon. together with a guard. boarding-house John.CHAPTER XXL JOKDAN AND S" ITS SEA. Mustapha by name. 1868. This Sheikh of Bethphage. farms from the Pasha of Jerusalem the privilege of conducting and guarding travellers to the He has a good thing of it. Catholic devotees pause and worship. because I went alone. and began to ascend towards St.

whose grave-stones show. STEPHEN'S GATE. prominent now chiefly for its grove of eight aged olive-trees that peer over the high stone wall surrounding it. But.500 feet long. that a different race awaiti . out at St. but suggesting to mine So. and making a man pay a dollar to go in. Now its I pass Stephen's Gate. this building comes every afternoon. in the But the blasphemy of inclosing that sacred degree of Royal Arch. meet a large company of negroes. 1. Here is another cemetery. suggestive of that humility so forcibly taught me. filled with whitewashed monuments. who only the Plutonian bray of a cavoyard of donkeys. a good deal less drum and a good deal more time would be acceptable to me. as much as my life were worta to enter without an orthat 'twere der from Nazif Pasha. vocal with shouts. On the right from St. I pass close by the low entrance. for a great part of the way. in front. on the right the of Mount Moriah. at the nearest. of the arch I see a cluster of the scarlet poppy. I rise the slope of the Mount of Olives. gray and The immense stones of which the lower Under significantly in this morning sunthe wall. passing forward. the steps lined with red-legged Zouaves. in language and form. a quarter of a century since. but at short quarters. whitewashed wall. which supports the Temple area on the east. the Governor. which seems green and inviting great platform Little children are playing there in great in this morning light. fifty. or house-top.332 left OUT AT ST. or Sacred Inclosure (as the Mohammedans term it). so far in the West that it is only Next is the opening to the 1 o'clock in the morning there now. men. At the further corner. temptI know very well ing as the place appears through these open gates. of Olives rising in left hand. it sounds well enough . numbers. I women. look shiny. and children. closely wrapped in ghostly-white vestments. light. Gethsemane. the Mount solemn majesty before me. this wall is eighty feet high . is a cemetery for show most Moslems. Women. over a first bridge. Stephen's Gate is the vast wall. In the distance. and making the Haram. On my is the little inclosure of a half acre. the wild Saracenic music so dear to Oriental ears. just before sunset. and crowded this little Friday morning with Moslem company. growing upon a various entrances to the Temple area. walk leisurely to and fro. and contented enough in this sunshine. destroys its best associations. Their cheerful laugh and chatter remind me of bright many a scene in my own country. Out of Governor's palace. Passing across the brook Kedron. about strata are composed. spot in a high.

at home. Home Guards. He Eegiment. the resurrection 333 under them. and with naked feet and covered head." and carries before him a double-barreled shot-gun.A FANATIC. They are Jews. stockingless nearly as I . . tied on with a rope. Many of the stones are of great antiquity. and would reach the road five feet He measuring-worm. The next person I encounter a woman. loaded with stone . always inimical to each other. with a hood . I gave him an by midnight seemed to do him good. but it is always unpleasant. The two races. so befuddled but this . that she is the only really industrious woman of her race I have met for a week. weeping. I hope not loaded. is the path up which King David walked. xv. I with drink as to use both sides of a road at the same time have seen men. I have heard a great deal of this Arab music. but were I to speak to her the fellahs around would mob me. antly productive in olives and figs. and the Equitable Life Assurance I may as well get ready to pay my widow that $4. his feet enshrouded in large red gaiters. as has the usual Arab cloak. however. travelHis mode of locomoling to Bethany in the fulfilment of a vow. his legs bare to the knees. she herself at the same time carrying a heavy load on her back. of a wet night.000. unfriendly to the last. he was about present orange. or howl. worse than the Fellow-Crafts Song as I used to hear Brother Y sing it. I shall never return to Jerusalem again . which guard the Arabs ignorantly conceive to be music. monotonous song. If I knew her name I would embalm it here . tion was really peculiar. Mj bursts forth here in a long. wearing a sheep-skin dress. passed successively a fanatic. looks for tracks by lying down and measuring all the world like a huge poor chap kis is literally making ! length . turned up at the toes. driving a donkey before her. when submitting his sorrows to God This path runs up a series of little terraces abund(2 Sam. Sixth can speak it. His name. is girded with a sword like that which " the corporal " of the guard used to wear. and knitting a stocking as she walks. suggesting better thoughts. I find his head covered with a cotton handkerchief. at Great luck to him. lie face to face in death. If my life is to rest upon his pluck. in " Company B. is rate. and a little way on my left hand. Music It is worse than a ! the Kedron stands hand-organ . while the valley of placidly between. I should say eight inches. and it Judging from the marks he made. 30). Beyond the Garden of Gethsemane. I will say for her. Scanning the appearance of the guard. is Hhhmdbh.

the Dead Sea. I now round the last point.). and regal buildings. tattooed hideously with blue upon the lower lip and chin. Pushing fifteen miles distant. those old Jews did believe in "the virtue of stones. 1 wind through the miserable huts of . and where. must over the buildings have appeared. Its bulwarks. There is but one better locality Jerusalem than this . the eye ranges and around the walls of Jerusalem. And now the noble expanse of water. however. Jesus received the costly offering which a generous woman made him in anointing his of native body for burial. I take a survey. It looks from here like a silver sea. Lucky. in his Salathiel. and here. Bethany. which I am to-day to visit. past the long files on. as leisurely and accurately as though studying a model of the city upon a table. and the overwhelming rebuke of the Master. this hillside. though I never heard of it I give here an accurate view of Bethany in its present degraded state. panorama of the City of the Great King. which then to the very root withered away. the beggar as naked as the law allows . and see the village before me. that is Mount Scopas. on his way to the home of Martha and Mary. from this summit. often ludicrous stories told here of Jesus. rattling under horse's feet. in the days of its prosperity. man in the fable was not so hasty in their Amongst the ab- surd. transcendently glorious. on the Wednesday of the Passion Week. recall the many instances of stoning to death practised in this vicinity. Perhaps Croly had this point in view when. breaks before my eyes. too. past women.334 BETHANY AND ITS GUEST. of the splendid seeing north of Mount Olivet From Mount Olivet. fifty by nine miles in extent. towers. Here the brightness of his divinity shone forth." the old (Vide Noah Webster's old The loose stones on my How Spelling Book). two days before his crucifixion. eliciting the hypocrisy of Judas. memorable as the locality where Lazarus was raised to a second mortality by an enlivening v&ice (John xi. on which I never weary with gazing. over my left shoul Rising to the crest of Olivet. as they bowed over to pick up stones for their hateful employment ! Perhaps there may be some such story. his condemning word fell upon the fruitless tree. with their breasts indecently exposed. and each having pendent upon the neck one or more heavy silver coins. his covetous defence of the poor. Going over the path that Jesus so often trod. use. it is a wonder that no one describes him as fastening his cruel tormentors on the stoop. he describes the Temple of Herod in words of great power. about a mile for der.

On a hill. half a mile on the right. BETHANY. and affection without weakness. "'tis distance lends enchantment to the view. Lazarus and his sisters lived. aa intimated above.he water foi travellers' use. tradition says. as in many other instances. howadji. rather than encounter the filth and vermin of Bethany. is the town of Bethphage. It is close by the roadside. It looks much prettier and larger than its sister town of Bethany. looking wistfully upon the house and garden in which." We are now half an hour's ride from Bethany." in this. out at the oy the roadside crying farther end. Upon like this the traveller will prefer to pass around a sultry day this village. But probably. --i ='-". " one who elegantly described as displayed courage without rashness humility without meanness dignity without arrogance . inclosed in a stone framework designed to collect j. and very convenient foj . . . perseverance without obstinacy. where my sheikh lives." and so on .BETH PH AGE. Down this valley must often have walked the MAN. 335 Bethany. . LOOKING WESTWAED. Here the road from the northern side of Mount Olivet joins my own the way David is said to have come when he fled from before his rebellious son. who stand " backsheesli. at a gushing fountain. running the gauntlet of its entire population.

no very abundant leavings. probably a In the distance. secure in a quart-bottle full of good coffee stowed away wallet In Holy Land travel a man should lean on his coffee-bottle. and Joshua led the people across the Jordan am to visit before night Half an hour further. for it was this time of year.336 LAZY REAPING. and looked over this way with such a longing gaze. so fre- and I feel relieved me upon open quent in Egyptian hieroglyphics. it A flock of goats all and glean sure. Men sit on their haunches. Here are considerable ruins of what was once a large place. . dull sickle. fortunately. blows up be oppres- but. only four or five weeks. Here the natives are gathering their crop of beans (lentils. As fast as cut. Upon one of the squared stones I trace an emblem similar to the crux ansata. Bleached land-shells abound. feet. me that we shall find no more water wayfarers. in spite of that. which I am approaching. my Arab servants drink their fill here. for whose death they are anxiously waiting. and cutting down their harvest of barley. It is quite likely . I wonder if Bohr Loot (the Sea of Lot. As nearly as I can draw them. at the place I that Moses died. the heat already begins to The deep blue haze from the mountains of Moab. As my guard informs for several hours. the pottage-bean of Jacob and Esau). connected with various incidents in Holy Writ. two hours further. that and sheep follow immediately behind the reapers. what there is of it. the barley is tied up and taken away by tho women and children. the figures will be found on the next page. from rapidly descends. that rise up before me. and squats again. and near it I see a curious . The air. hitches a step forward. and I begin to realize that I have a descent to make of nearly four Jerusalem to the Dead Sea The road now thousand the valley sive. about as big as a case-knife. sented earlier. is left for them . The flies bred in this hot valley begin to distress our poor brutes . when. They cut in the right hand. as the natives call it) pre- this appearance to Moses when he stood on that tall peak yonder. Somewhere on my left here must have stood Bahurim. and reach out with the left hand to grasp the barley. the road brings ground. I am object. and the season is two weeks advanced from what it was on the hills about Jerusalem. while I ride in my on. held After the reaper has cut all within reach. and so does the dark leaden mist that hangs over the Dead Sea yonder. with a poor. a flight of vultures are hovering over some wounded goat. suggests a fearfully hot day. upon another a handsome moulding made upon its three sides. he rises up.

which ran somewhere here between the tribes of Judah and " Benjamin. Now there passes me a sheikh. I know he looks just as Abraham did when he was here. high-minded teacher. and my eyes. which. with stately figure. The great precipices in the mountains beyond the sea actually seem to frown above me. this consummation of felt feel ings at forty years' desire. The scanty vegetation seems as stiff and dead as coral. perhaps. grave and patriarchal in appearance. but warm and sulphurous. throws some light. A livid color hangs upon the rocks and clays. upon the difficulty experienced in following the account in Joshua of the boundary lines. I am conscious of a gloomy superstition oppressing my and already can almost behold phantoms in the air. The guide says this is Neby Mousa. The confused character of these hills. is awful beyond description. as if warning me to proceed no further. scenes as these dwelt the stern. and that at certain seasons of the year it is much visited by the 22 ." In four hours' ride from Jerusalem I catch a glimpse of the northwestern bay of (Bahr Loot] the Dead Sea. I would examine more minutely. It is useless to endeavor to portray my Its. calm. Not a bird. It is literally a terrible.AWFUL BABKENXESS. and long white beard. Now I approach a Mohammedan mosque connected with a large but deserted khan. 337 epecimen of curved stratification. composed countenance. soul. the contorted strata and general want of geological and topographical order that pervades the twelve miles of country I was passing over. In such John the long descent to a valley gives some variety to the scene. A well of water. had I the time to spare. Up to this moment I had always that to gaze upon the Dead Sea must be the highest me now the sea is But everything around privilege of a traveller. the tomb of Moses. The barrenness of the hills approaching as desolation. Baptist. not an insect is visible near the surface of the earth. and here was the place of the temptation of Jesus. invites me to alight from my horse shuts the horrible vision from A and enter. un- -o STON'E MA II inhabited wilderness.

among the bushes (Joo xxx. in the curves of the earth. The structure over the grave (whose grave cannot now be ascertained) is covered with elegant carpeting writer informs us: all One native and painted calico. The door is covered. silk. Inside of the inclosing wall of the whole. extending on all sides to the ground. I saw in Gebal a by a chain ingeniously hung in front. two . and contains many stables for brutes. The well or cistern is about ten feet deep. which was led into these hills by an appointed servant of the Temple. large stone rings for fastening horses. upon by and woolen. on Mount Hor. in the cliffs of the valleys. 6). once richly embroidered with Arabic inscriptions worked in silver. in Jerusalem. . An elegant silver dish. as an author " remarks. having a live goat in company. The dome of the mosque is surmounted by the usual crescent. An old traveller says "the name of its founder is unknown. which they were about to sacrifice. iron bars. not barricaded. The surroundings of Neby Mousa are extremely desolate not a shrub or blade of grass being visible on the naked sides of the hills scarred with fissures and gaps. and here turned loose to the jackal and wolf of the wilderness. to worship." nor. This canopy is adorned with many long strings of wooden beads hung around it" The Greek Christians affirm that this building was simply erected by a Christian saint named Moses . in the fulfilment of some vow . I am told. and a canopy hung over that. of course. If I could only look south from this scene of barrenness that covers Neby Haroun (the and desolation to the little white dome tomb of Aaron)." Another one describes a procession he met on the way to this place. natives for purposes of worship. inclosing a star. all the way from Damascus and other places. shaped somewhat like a bell. chased in Saracenic ornamentation. is he much wronged by being forgotten. that some years men and women in great numbers come to Neby Mousa. where the old hermits used to dwell . at intervals of ten feet. reminding us of the scape-goat of the Levitical worship. like one that windows of the mosque are strongly protected few weeks since. Within I can see a tomb covered with a ragged cloth. tavern is very large. stands on The khan or the window ledge.338 NEBY MOUSA. are seen. The which are tied innumerable rags of cotton. the Moslems disavow. and in the rocks. and apartments for men. "This tomb is held in great veneration by Mohammedans. placed about two feet from the ground. the tokens of Moslem devotion. but this. since so mean a building can give no fame to the founder.

Tristam. my vest pocket. Before descending lower. B. The A traveller fancies that the taste of smoke. I look across the valley to detect. " Thia (Chateaubriand) elegantly Scripture images thus all the poeburning sun. the water abounds in a small black shell- of which I preserved a few specimens in proper name is. the Abel-shittim. if it may be. I believe. It is About a mile below now high pushing last year's stubble over the plain. when set on fire. only a short interval separates me now . at times.DOWN hundred miles distant 3f Israel is ! IX THE VALLEY. If true. Neby Mousa. Bcenery its is waves ">ver a fitting accompaniment of the mysterious sea which rolls the guilty cities. dan. I should bark of these shrubs has the scent and attribute this. Saba to Jericho. but one mouthful suffices me. Moving forward. the most sultry hour of a fearfully hot Sand clouds are flying along the distant reaches of the valley. all the imagery of Scripture are here. (Isaiah ix. not so much to the visitor. climbing the last range of hills that separate me from the object of my visit then descending by a long and unpleasant way to the " plains of Jor. Flights of pigeons relieve." Passing the cane-brake. desolate try. It was hard and harder to gaze. and read the appropriate passages. put a brand to such a thicket. These cane-brakes. this impetuous eagle. 18). from the mouth of every testifies to The same : writer. At one place I caught sight of the road leading from Mar to read. melania. kindled in the thickets of the forest. This wild. It is mawkish and sulphur- ous fish. another hour brings me to the cane-brakes that skirt the sea. in a slight degree. twenty-five miles south of here. the last encampment of Israel ere entering the Promised Land." the sea. this barren fig-tree . at Aiu Jidy. the terrible monotony of the scene. barren. Strange to say. 339 But the resting-place of the first High-Priest too distant for my eye. Even the sight of the printed paper was lost. is the best spot for viewing noon. in the hot and tremulous haze of the Oriental noon. I again go forward. allusion in Genesis as to the incessant puffing of cigarettes that goes on here. from which he and the Arab servants greedily drink. Resting at the khan of Neby Mousa. and it devoured the briers and thorns. Brother H. stuff. day. passing through an apparently impassable gorge in whose depths the company of camels looked no larger than the head of the Senior Warden's gavel. in the "West. and mounted up like the lifting up of smoke In one of these small cane-brakes. burn like pine-shingles. my guide points out a small pool of water.

my It took. me a vertigo which was own cousin to a sunstroke. for I had only to draw my feet under me from the bottom. came near ending my mortal career then and there. and it got into his head. the fact of my I conspired to give sat having fasted since early breakfast. although I seized the shot-gun from my guide and ran towards them. under the dreadful sun. I could have floated in this way to the other end of the sea. a flock of large and elegant ducks were floating calmly near the water's edge. down upon the drifts of petrified wood that line the shore. and scattered off to the further side of the sea. 1 waded into the sea until the water was up to my chin. almost in a moment. pain eyes to their normal state. it makes the less difference. The getting diluted vitriol under your eye- my A clothes instantly evaporated. at day was. But. taking care to keep them perpendicular. I was covered. only difficulty in the case is to prevent your feet from rising to the surface. suggesting thoughts of a duck-supper. I could not resist the temptation. and the fatigue of the ride. however. Coming out. . which kept me lickfew drops of the Dead Sea water ing my chops for an hour. I got some water in half an hour afterwards. is like that produced by a favorite experiment with boys. Carefully holding my umbrella over me. what has been so often affirmed of this singular sea. drank my strong heartily of THE my feet. like a graceful merman. by the way. by an inflorescence of salt and sulphur. then as the tested. leaving the salt. from the seashore. However. that a man cannot sink in its waters. in fact. to take a bath in it. which remained there until I washed it out a week afterwards. clean sand and pebbles. as I discovered afterwards that the gun was not loaded. To my astonishment. The torrid heat reflected from the sand. My head and ears were stiff with the bitter mixture. and I The floated upright under my umbrella. This brief run. or capable of it. my from which I suffered severely for head. ate my lunch. falling upon my It would take pages to collect all the absurd accounts on record One old fellow heard a dismal concerning sound proceed from its waters. Inadvertently wetting eyes. several days to bring lids. and dangerous as the experiment was. they were too fast for me. It served me that ! this basin of chemicals. along its smooth. hot 1 hastened to disencumber myself of clothing. and in half an hour felt revived.340 THE DEAD SEA. like the stifled clamors of the wretched Sodomites engulfed in its waters He had probably taken a dose of arrack in this hot place. DEAD SEA How sweetly and placidly it rippled that day coffee. how cool its waters to my hands and feet.

put together and launched. Poets have written " The Dead Sea fruits that tempt the eye. for exploration. this test was not tried on him Lucky A story is told down here about a Frenchman who brought a ship to the Dead Sea. and now from the ruins of Sodom and Gomorrah. not far ! perhaps. . a few years since. But turn to ashes on the lips. nothing lives that enters there. so heavy it broke down the camels that toted the pieces from Joppa. But I have not told the hundredth part of the stories I heard about the Dead Sea. way. 341 The minded some fervid dise Lost. its of salt. . Nobody could navigate .BOOTLESS BOATING. Josephus. Finally it was got to the Dead Sea. its barrenness. with his usual gross in" accuracy of detail. 7) all these : come have been described time and again in books. avers that no one was ever drowned in the Dead " Sea for the great historian. and starts occasionally into view to suggest the horrors in its bed plants bearing fruits that never . Arabs naturally stole the bolts and loose rigging. Nothing but a dog ever had so many hard names as the Dead Sea. But the fellow who wrote that metal would not sink here. antimony. for day a Yankee chemist making the celebrated bengal lights. Then the heat in this awful hollow collapsed the sides and made it leak." and many other words to that effect. but feathers would sink Some have called it the Lake of Asafoetida. In 1322 a traveller declared that iron would float in this water. so inhospitable to botanist and bee . wherever they may be. and finally it I suppose. this genius " " brought an iron one. desolate but magnificent features of the locality have refancies of the celestial dream embodied in Para. to get rid of it. Lynch did in 1848. Its rugged and pathless rocks the native dignity of its scenery . it. and how rapidly I snatched it out again. a monument to ripeness . The queer composition reminds me that it has every ingredient. So the Frenchman gave to the French Consul of Jerusalem devil lies. and bolted The away it with 'em. would have changed his mind had he seen how quickly my thirteen-bladed knife went under. the waste land that smoketh . a standing pillar of unbelievers' souls (Wisdom ix. Some may become a millionaire out of this water 1 . except. But instead of get! ! And ting bright copper-boats. some the Stream of Hell." " The Dead Sea air. as Lieut. with immense labor and expense. the French Consul gave it to the Turkish Pasha and the Pasha of Jerusalem gave it (profanely) to the was sunk at the bottom. the black fetid limestone which underlies it.

March 31. any grass grow thereon .342 ACCOUNTS OF THE DEAD SEA. Recallmany ing somebody's account of the groans of demons issuing from the Dead acknowledge that in my own dizziness I seemed deep sighs come from the water. the Senior Deacon. land of brimstone and salt. and other passages.) Seeing a flock of wild ducks swimming in these waters. Raining a burning " tempest. in his ad- my mitted duty of "welcoming and accommodating visiting brethren/'* is the medium of lodge hospitality. Stevens. 6). makes In Its specific gravity is 2. that a man who spends a noontime at Bahr Loot will Sea. page 326. (Q. I looked over the sea and shuddered. fervent heat. 1836. xi. chiefly in scrofulosis. saw a flock of gulls (probably Some mallard-ducks.. I must throw in a my page or two solid : and houses are people have traditions of cities whose walls " a nice shelter for a rainy season . both internally and externally .) . ingredient bromide. This scene renness and desolation. much heavier than water. It blackens vegetable somebody would republish guilty in Genesis xix. I recall the fact that the American traveller. as bromide of potassium and bromate of potash. Kentucky. yet here is the chain of thought: Lot was a model of hospitality (see Genesis xix. L. nor doth " this is from the Apocrypha. writers have averred with innocence that no bird ever alights in this " water! Recalling David's image of hell. This bromide of potassium is used medicinally. is finely described in'Bonar's work. Standing on the shore. that is not sown. The built of slabs of native salt ! A " Where now the And mournful The solitude Dead Sea rolls its sluggish and death reside. of horrid drearinesss and marshy despair. when he was here. colors. a strange connection runs through mind between the office of Senior Deacon in Fortitude Lodge. exhausts my chemical of indescribable barknowledge. I will to hear ." tide.97. in this seething. like mine) floating quietly on the surface. 10). floats from the bottom. dose. 11) that the punishment of inhospitality to his apostles should be greater than that inflicted on the Sodomites. and the history of Sodom. the I wish Valley of Salt. it in this country. E. They have a saying down here. the This tribe around Jericho evidently do not use it for their disease. it is associated with chlorine and iodine . so pleasant and so good to its recipient Jesus declared (in Mark vi. nor beareth. and reading with solemn awe the narrative of the destruction of the cities of the plain. as it is here. dissolved in potash. four to eight grains daily . fire. D. by "literature of the Dead Sea" is so exuberant. It takes a hundred times longer to write it than to think it out. No. also in some brine springs belonging to rock-salt deposits. Josephus says of the bituminous rock that " " God set this stone on fire But a thunderbolt (Ant. 47. and a horrible storm (Psalm xi. and brimstone. ordinary sea-water and sea-weeds.

however. have all been described by hundreds of travellers and why should I repeat facts published in a hundred volumes ? A light boat was conveyed across here from Joppa. and in thirty minutes they will be roasted. and not more than one mile from the railroad. the burning sun and the heated air. done. by Moore and Beck. it is not quite equal to Eastern salt. which would have to be removed by re-evaporation. Within fifty miles of Eeno. and the sediment will weigh one ounce . thought suggested to me when iveight of that mineral. Nevada. and the tremendous heat of the sun. saltcrusted terrene. Costigan. stunted Fahrenheit. which had been broken from the great salt-mountain (Jebel . drop a fresh egg in the sea and it will float one-third out. the barren. in 1837. he will make one of himself. In this relation we have an abundance of analogies in the United States. and it will smell like a box of Richardson's Detroit matches. to render it marketable for domestic use. and taking a piece of salt in hand. if people would only come here at the right season. had performed the exploit of navigating the Dead Sea. as he that swimmeth spreadeth forth his hands to swim (Isaiah xxy. put a drop of the water in your right eye and you will weep . and great plains. is capable of supplying the world with salt. This may not be the case with all deposits of this character within the State. of impurity. salt marshes. build a fire of the dry brambles your servant can gather at the base of the hills. salt mountains. the numerous aspects of desolation . All the phenomena that excite so much amazement in the traveller result from the superabundance of salt in the water. the salt of these deposits requires only to be shoveled into sacks and transported to the place of use. person can swim easily is 44 shrubs. The deep parts of the great Swedish fresh-water lakes are still salt. There would be no difficulty in this matter. pounds of the best quality of salt. The coldest water in which a The stinted. It contains a slight per cent. but applies to such of them as have been worked. 11). Previously to that. For table and dairy purposes. . For instance. I found it profitable. Visshould come earlier in the day than I did. ghosts! itors 343 If he doesn't look out. It owing to the I A abounds in salt springs. and spend eereral hours in experiments. a drop in your left and you will howl. and Lynch in 1848. while sitting here under my white umbrella. boil three ounces of the water dry in a tin cup. cover eggs in the hot sand at your feet. the terrible convulsions of nature. and burst at that. are some of the finest salt One gallon of water will evaporate three springs in the world. For mining purposes. spread forth my hands in the midst of the Dead Sea. or some refining process. to read every Biblical passage I could find in which the sea or its surroundings are my named . who lies buried at Jerusalem. and lay bits of bitumen on it. say December or January. for instance.THE WHITE UMBKELLA. hurried as I was. Molyneaux came in 1847. where the evaporation of ages has left deposits of salt almost illimitable in extent.

and made them a feast' (Genesis. The water was cool and pleasant to the palate. At the first point of striking the river-banks. born in his own house. I was present when Chedorlaomer invaded these regions east.) and when they warned him. and read . . Now. for the Lord will destroy this city." " Shall we Gather at the River ?" and otters. to write thia Usdttm). for I rode fast. Finally. I started for the Jordan. When. 'Up. Much good may it do them Two hours in this tormented place sufficed me ! and eaten -a though somewhat muddy. and overthrew the kings of these cities. in a great batand captured Lot and his household. and all the inhabitants of the cities. was * well watered everywhere. and that which grew upon the from the tle. under the brotherly kindness of his uncle. " I saw the coming of righteous Lot into this circle (ciccar) of the Jordan. I spent three hours taking a bath to wash the Dead Sea impurities from me. from the southwest corner STORY OF THE LUMP OP SALT. I witnessed his return I recall with fidelity the days when all this region. three hundred and eighteen.' and productive of all things fit for the use of man. and the ground was level. the patriarch Abraham. even as the garden of the Lord. " On Jordan's Stormy Banks." President Blanchard. and are caving in rapidly. broken from my native mountains.' Lot was rescued. xix. 25). of the sea yonder. saying. they stand about twelve feet above the stream. At the Pilgrim's Ford. nearly forty centuries afterwards. I saw when there came two angels to Sodom at even and Lot sat in the gate of Sodom. This took me only forty-five minutes. as it is called. hasten from Sodom and enter into Zoar. I saw when the Lord rained upon Sodom and upon Gomorrah brimstone and fire from the Lord out of heaven. ' ' . empowering him to select nine other genial spirits like himself. I am made to relate my Story of n the Lump of Salt ! As I could not find it in my heart to locate here the names of Freemasons.344 PRESIDENT BLANCHARD. a howling wilderness. and the plain. having dressed few oranges. I concluded to dedicate it to that hearty opponent of " all secret societies. by the activity and prowess of Abraham and his trained servants. ' ground' (Genesis xix. with his two daughters. and overthrew those cities. now to Sodom. his wife tarrying to be transformed into a pillar of salt. Here I sung the hymns. get you out of this place. desiring to visit the traditional place of our Saviour's baptism. and. and occupy the whole territory ." I saw the aged patriarch.

345 accounts of our Saviour's baptism. This voice from Jordan's wave I heard " The stream is holy to our baptized Lord!" I Of Jordan's . Then. cool and good How cheering was its noontide draught! Never such healthful cup I'd quaffed So Christ. every variety of costume. and children. and threw themselves into the stream. itself into The Jordan weaves A : that I wonder no poet has yet kindled. with the thought." kingfisher perched on the opposite side of the stream A enlinked the historical Jordan with the streams and swims of youth. shouting in almost every known language under the sun. My Arab servants sat just above me. yet six miles to ride before we reach Jericho. wondering why the howadji abode there so long." I thought of Jesus in the rush waters. rushed down the bank." I can appreciate the faith with which these . This is probably the very spot. Greeks." thus Lieutenant Lynch describes the baptizing scene at the Jordan " In all the wild haste of a disorderly route. and in siaus. disrobed with precipitation. "nothing stuck up about them. A party of British naval officers was just leaving the place. of swift death. cheered. " all orthodox Christians walk theological writer says until they come to the bank of the Jordan . on they came. and from far-distant America. the heavenly inheritance. at the fondly together water's edge they draw the line. standing here. is so interwoven in all our hymns and sacred poetry as the border of the promised land. I find men always gentlemanly. given in the four Evangelists.BAPTIZING SCENE. where this event occurred. as a friend suggests. : "This writer says happy memories. as well-pleased. Poles. . social. whose presence blest its wave. They dismounted eagerly. talking. Men. women. watching my movements. and hinting occasion" There is ally. glittering type away in its current. Copts and Kus: Armenians. of every age and hue. Health and refreshing coolness gave . screaming. and." A my cannot record a tithe of the solemn reflections that moved me during my memorable hours under the shady banks of the Jordan. I stood. ready to respond to a friendly salutation. from Africa. and Syrians. from all parts of Asia. or at least very near it. in haste. sweeping humanity flowing. with this class of whom I exchanged a few words of greeting. from Europe.

only of this bird near the baptizing place.D. I can hardly conceive that the bird selected it for educational purposes." As I read the affecting passage "the Holy Ghost descended in a I found it pleasant to listen bodily shape upon him" (Luke iii. singularly out of place among these willow trees " Therefore : CD PQ is is equal to PQ. I examined a nest It was shallow and mean. for .346 LITERARY BIRD'S-NEST. strangely rolling out. Perhaps he I borrowed the idea from the passage have cited. 1110. which contained the following information. the point and. all his sins. as if leaving every was the same that inspired Sigurd the Crusader. whose visit to the Jordan is told in these lines : " To Jerusalem he came. out of place. he pardon wins. The Arabian prophet Mohamto have a tame dove sit at his ear. sin behind them. claiming that the bird communicated divine precepts to him. the point C is given." (But I couldn't (7 this!) But now appropriate have it must to sounded to the doves and nightingales BE DOVF. Which all must praise. But given: therefore. D and the perpendicular DC are given. A. And with this fragment of the leaden Times. 22) to the cooings of the numerous birds of that class that inhabit the med was accustomed shrubbery on each side of the river. hear me sini: -Shall MX Gather at the . a few sticks and straws thrown together to prevent the eggs from I found a scrap of an English newspaper in it. I found a scrap of some work on the Elements of Geometry. It ignorant people wash here. consequently. Probably some party of tourists dropped it. He who loves war's noble game All sin and evil from him flings In Jordan's wave .

of the bulbul. No hornet." The Arab poets. the captains of the host one of reading my : was over an hundred. these . vanquished by some minstrel's purer She dies upon the lute whose sweetness broke her heart" Up While 'east to this time." poet has said. referring to this locality. was once stung by a hornet on my But neck.MY FIRST NIGHTINGALE. and cause the king-birds yonder to fly and scream at the unusual sound ? But that terrific insect the hornet is here before ! me. wonder Moses was afraid of the and used it (in Deuteronomy vii. and with hei song rends the thin vests of the rosebuds and the rose. 20) as an object of I divine threatenings against sin. 4). therefore. The bulbul utters ere her soul depart. OB NIGHTINGALE. had sung. or BULBUL. A modern "'Twas like the notes. called by Hassan sassaf (the Hebrew was tsaphtsapha. in their fan: tastic way. art. said was > fully prepared to find nightingales Old Sandys (A. and Isaiah's by the watercourses" (xliv. and the greatest over a thousand. ''here. for his paper-manufactory. " Why have my Loved Ones Gone?" On the preceding page is an excellent cut of the Syrian dove. " These were the sons of Gad. in the same spirit. When. as we boys used to call it. the agnus castus willow. The familiar leaf of the willow caught my eye at once as an old " willows friend. How many a whistle I have made of willow-twigs in boyhood Can I do less here than to carve a whistle from a willow-bush. nearly to death. 347 River ?" and that favorite song of my dear Lottie. however. half ecstacy. much the same). 1610) had " Here the nightingales sing more than elsewhere. half pain. I must relate my experiI ence with a nightingale. I had never seen or heard a nightingale feet laving in the swift current sitting here.D. busily engaged in collecting the fuzz. nightingale: "She warbles her enchanting notes.

Sarah. to their innocent songs and gayety than did the bulbul on the Jordan. bird . is Here." my ears were attracted by a bird-song of a note and quality altogether novel and startling. from the Sea of Galilee. the cut giving a most life-like idea of it. When I stirred the Not to say a handsome Voila! here he is bush. with wood as hard as poplar. when it had overflown all his banks" (1 Chronicles xii. As to the Kiver Jordan ACACIA. which I shall give a larger space in a subsequent abounds here. not now to be identified. also. What an array of emblems and traditions could be this affecting object the castor-oil plant. and Ella. as in Florida. a persistent shrub. the Balsam of Jericho. I wonder we have had none entitled The Knight of the Sacred Thorn. but itself. Incisions in the bark were made. do not touch my ! ears more delightfully with acacia. goes). Here ! made Here to surround is also once grew. etc. with elaborate care. The chapter. and singing one of my own old verses commencing. esteemed tears precious beyond all other wept by balmy trees. not a strange thing in this country. "From Moab's hills the stranger comes. although.348 THE CROWN OF THORNS. is made long and troublesome by the steep descents and labyrinthine windings. in his and thinking of those valiant Gaddites. called old writer " spring grass. every Bible Dictionary gives dimensions. Following it up. where. 14). the very blackberry has a woody stock." Among the numerous orders more or less directly connected with Holy Land. sixty miles above. the Christ's Thorn by an (Ramnus Spina Christi). but my own loved girls. were they that went over the Jordan in the first month (about this time of year). Kuth. I think. I found it to emanate from a large bunch of the pink blossoms of the oleander. not with steel. falling more than 700 feet in sixty miles of latitude (200 miles as the channel with a stone instrument. Its way. out flew the bird. The Ohio river at Louisville falls twenty-two feet in two . the comrades of David time of trouble..

populous city of Jericho has now but one house. rickety table. and there I lay with the stars of Palestine looking down upon me all night. 34C eleven feet per mile quite a difference.GALLOP TO JERICHO. Look at Eawson's drawing of it VILLAGE OF JERICHO. The once extravagant gallant Marc Antony presented Cleopatra. my blankets. See the large two-story stone tower. He made coffee upon which to spread . whose owner. The Sheikh Mustapha is a man of courtesy and considerable dignity. the enterprising contractor who supplies guards to travellers visiting this valley. but it does not equal the Jordan. On the house-top of that tower I was accommodated with a high. unworthy the name of human habitations. This swiftness of current was reckoned one of the greatest obstacles in building the noble railway bridge erected there in 1870. on account of its swiftness. is brother to the sheikh at Bethphage. The Tigris is called by a name denoting the Arrow. sheikh of the village. Mustapha.a cluster of mud-hovels. the relics This is the cicca or circle of rich country which that of old Jericho. miles. It was a gallop across the plain of the Jordan to Rika. independent of.

connects the source of the Jordan with its mouth. while my blood. and I think none the worse of him for it.300 " sea-level. whose history I had so often recounted in Above me. said I. really displaying a wish In the tremendous row beto make stay at Jericho agreeable. 100 miles in that the Ephraimites. When I expressed a wish of the Spina Christi the next morning. So I meditate. and at last. a crowd of thoughts occupied my mind. and all Jericho gather round me. I sink to sleep. on the the degree of Heroine of Jericho (Joshua ii. officers are all Jericho. tents pitched below the castle walls. winking my eyes. was the house of Rahab.350 for VISIONS ON THE HOUSETOP. far above the fleas and lice of the Just here. that is only what ment custom requires him to do. and was buried. Joshua met the captain of the Lord's host The monster Herod died here. are the fords of Jordan that witnessed the extermination of The site of Mount Hermon. he went to collect a sackful out and cut it for me with his own sword. dwelling. north. who fill the half-dozen The next morning (May 9) I take a seat by the fountain. I am feet below the day's journey. and other personal peculiarities. The naval gone to Jerusalem. So does my way of peeling oranges. two things I would never do. my style drinking." which now has not a palm-tree in it. me and served me my tween him and his neighbors. and make my stay profitable. his foul light going out in great horror and agony. holding the paper in the left hand. Mustapha preserved his self-respect . as the morning is breaking in the east. the choruses of the Jericho women sounding in my ears as they sing and dance in their lascivious sports for the entertainment of the naval officers. My writing puzzles them . 1. a cleft in the earth's surface. But when I sing a verse or two of the " Level and the Square. Lying awake upon my blankets. heated by the Sea. A little direction. for their scribes write from right to left." the . and I am the only howadji left ir The people watch with breathless interest my motions. At the gates of Jericho.). west is the Mount of Temptation. in that round hill to the southwest which I saw this morning from the top of Mount Olivet. manner of pecking open eggs at the large end meets their hearty My of coffeeapprobation. cools slowly down . in the City of Palm-trees. Jesus re- Near by. teeth-picking. and if he grumbled a little at the five-franc piece I paid him. I read and write. with his own hands. They smoke and make themselves comfortable. which is a part of the Arab entertain- at every place I visit. A few miles below me is the Dead stored the blind to sight lying here in a chasm. with undeserved ceremonials.

under his . The people are Dodge was here to do it The women come to the fountain a dozen at a time. and lingeringly depart. last In approaching the village boys and girls were coming evening I had been struck with the every direction the shepherd leading their flocks of sheep and goats. Dodge's music to the same. The scanty fires.MORNING IN JERICHO. It has no " flax under the roof. One of the wives of my landlord brought upon her head a " bundle of sticks " for fuel. were glaring up fiercely. take a bold stare at the howadji (these Eiha females are said to be shamefully immodest. On the way. 8-24). inscribed The ruins of that ancient landmark. a yellowish berry about as large as a hazeland gives them to me. like that mentioned in Elijah's visit to Sarepta (1 Kings xvii. They taste dry and insipid. and claiming backtheesh. or stay here until to-morrow. The ground underneath sparkles with salt." as in Scriptural days. if with water-skins . which forms the principal shrubin. like the hawberry. strong battlements raised around the edge. Bethhoglah. My guide picks some fruit nut. and securely housing them in the folds fenced by impenetrable piles of Spina Christi (Christ's Thorn). the south. But the noon-time has come. according to the requirements of the Mosaic code. from the Spina Christi. formed by trailing grape-vines " over poles. protected from all directions were calling to the cattle and to one another. anbery here. It is high 12. and I must be off. as " the thorns under a " pot are said to do in the Bible. From were gleaning among the fields of barley just in large masses by the same kind of fences. and the women of the house were sitting. a pair of them " grinding at the mill. I take another look at the stone-tower. Yet there was a good pile of barley-sheaves upon it . rise in Even now (March. I mount my Arab steed and move to the great fountain (Ain Sultan). and I could discover no " scarlet cord " tied in the window. easily pleased. pastoral character of the scene. needful for cooking. Oh. about a mile out of my way. and I more than half believe it) . fill their vessels with water. or Moslem good-bye. Receiving a mah sallaharm. These remind me of the Scriptural expression. Women swered by the plaintive cries of kids and lambs. Jerichoites 351 Ossian ! express universal admiration of E." as in the days of Rahab. I observe a thick umbrageous arbor. from the Sheikh Mustapha. 1872) the whole scene is indelibly upon my memory as I recall it. Voices reaped. where I watched the glittering processions of stars all last night. The sun is hot over the sea of Sodom. naming them doom.

and I know he will curse me (in Arabic) the balance of thi like was very scanty. About ten yards beAin Sultan might supply low it is a grand old fig-tree worthy the spot. and abundant remains and having stables all around exist to prove that once a fine edifice covered the spring. every cocking down its eye at him " ! turning over every five minutes to star in the heavens (metaphori.) his head (that needed washing.M. I should dislike to use that in conHis legs were bare (and barely ferring the Eastern Star Degree). on the house-top of Mustapha.552 SULTAN. You need not pay him anything. whose surface is covered The it. instead of depending for their into which the water-supply upon a filthy pool fourteen by six feet. and haunt you in the Holy City until you do. " as if to say. with a grace that a king on his throne could not excel. decent at that). his beard own. a striped handkerchief around throne. I shall pay him five francs in the morning. and. I am struck with admiration at the beauty of the situation occupied by this ancient aty. emitting nauseating flavors. is another. to write up some notes made last night by the light of my If they seem desultory. Capital ! go it. . copious and beautiful if not so large. It was a good time. what candles. waste waters drip. perambulate Broadway The largest fountain in the Holy Land is the one at the head of this River Jordan and here. loose frock. unless you want to. he never charge* anything for his accommodations. and I am sure I don't)." and truly delicious. but " it was sparkling and bright in its liquid light. waters for a city. ox you Mustapha will follow you all the way back to Jerusalem. He had sandals on his feet (if I know what sandals are. else could you expect of a pencil man make a cally) memorandum. sisters to the groups that and drove me away in disgust. and that its waters were conducted off in various directions by regular aqueducts and human use. there. It was not what we would call cool. my . vine and fig-tree. But had better want to. and I could have lingered there contentedly It is strange that the villagers of Kiha do not move their all the day. for irrigation A hard lot of women approached me at 10 P. under this magnificent fig-tree. miserable shanties up to this place. with sticks and straws. (I have never seen a king on his He wore a large. own The Great Fountain (Ain Sultan) is truly a magnificent outburst of the life-giving fluid. elegantly twisted up in short knots." Looking back. Water never is cool in this country as in the springs of America. Finally. What I mean is. old fellow I was welcomed at Jericho bv the sheikh.. given up now to a few families of the vilest refuse of the earth. near its mouth.

hot atmosphere. suggested many of the finest figures of the prophets. face upwards (as some day I shall be laid under acacia-sprigs for a long.PAGES FROM MY DIARY. 355 Saturday because I don't give him ten. the Jupiter. fastened by ." Herod and Frederick were akin at more than one point. in common respect for bravery. as another conqueror wrote. (If I gave him ten.) The value of sweet-. might Sodom. nave written. The elder wife of my landlord. in his brilliancy. Herod. long slumber). is shining just above the summit of the Mount of Temptation the sky is clear and cloudless. one foot to a basket. charm. the eager glances he casts at the mountains above! I ought. great suffering from thirst. but pulls and Yonder are the telegraphic stations. haggard. prethe figures of the women more resemble the horrid phantoms of a nightmare than the pleasant romance of Eahab. pronouncing g Poor creature t soft. The purity of the atmosphere brings every star out in its turn. Here. bulls. and view these Oriental heavens. scorpions. or hospitality. it is said. and rams. August 21. is a term for holy.) : How she jumps when the ungallant Mustapha talks to her. if twenty. let me lie. Oh. The town is notorious for being the most immoral place in all Palestine. I will tomorrow morning. to his friend Dr. who. The quick survey of his fellows as they screamed over him at sundown. (That word hag. etc. suggests new comments upon On that page overhead are the figures of the arithmetic in which Abram was to compute the number of hi? astral images of Holy Writ. if thirty. cool water in this dry. Amongs'i the females of this mud-made village I have endeavored to recognize a descendant of the good and heroic Eahab. the word hag is the only name that suits her. brazen. being perpetrated here. in Arabic. in my own land. recalling the figure-head of the ship St. Argens " The torments of Tantalus. the doom of Sisyphus. and the locks of young ladies' hair. is simply the household drudge. is my disconsolate companion on this house-top. 23 . crabs and fishes. And how he does scold. crowded with fantastic signs. the lady of the castle. the pains of Prometheus. were nothing to the torments I suffer. by the way. and the despair that followed as he tugged in vain at his shackles! He doesn't sleep a wink to-night. I never address a dog so roughly. 01 any other virtue that I know anything about. etc. That's the way they do. Jupiter. Ragged. haggard. the first observer of the new moon on Moab communicated the news by torches to the priests on Moriah. and even of the Divine Teacher himself. A fine star is just now coming up over them. he would curse me for twenty .. maturely old. and vile. every sin of ancieni ! Blear-eyed. and ornament of domestic life. to buy him and release him. would be the pride. here. But. young ladies. in his extreme death-pang. and so set the grand ceremonials of the Passover in motion. 1759. faded. A hawk. that exhausts the powers of perspiration and causes. Paul sailed in from Malta (Acts xviii. 11). Here come Castor and Pollux in their turn. by which pulls at his fetters. for thirty . not so in English. bright and beautiful. on my house-top. alas the women of Jericho have nothing in common with heroism.

The Arab song goes on below n. full fifty degrees high . and their bones burned with heat xxx. barbarous. now around my path." How affecting to me the thought as stay a of the of the light my grave. Had he overcome Jesus on the Mount of Temptation yonder. a wild. the force it all. amidst the dear group of wife. " brothers to dragons. 13). tuned their voices. hearing me sing. " In the bright even-time." Mohammed. even the stars of God. The noble display of the castor-oil tree that I saw (Job to-day is in itself a moving spectacle. plowing their patient way round the north pole. week here. . Here are the Triones of Ursa Major. they might be " Their skin is black upon them. only fifteen or twenty miles in the southeast I hum to myself the lines I have so often sung at home. I am canopied by all the gorgeous splendor of shall thy seed be. if thou be able to number them Abram. m a few brief years. My host is a respectable fellow enough. climbed up on the roof to ask me if [ was sick So poor an appreciation have these Arabs of genuine music. the heavens will be a over accompanied by regular . make Jericho a place of I could contentedly pilgrimage. And view the landscape o'er. in America. that : " Look now toward heaven. Should fright us from that shore. Looking upon Mount Nebo." this Oriental sky I am honored by being the reporter to this brilliant panorama moving over my head. How the twinkling host rejoices . nor Made a melodv Ere the biro's sublime. cliff's Vile as this place and its people and their history of historical associations is sufficient to may be." said God to " and tell the so stars. in search of the opo-balsamum of Jericho." The frowning such s above me. and pass on in Persia it is used for lamp-oil in Africa the virgins dress their hair with it . . naughty boys take it from a spoon. death's dark flood. There goes a brilliant meteor sailto the southward. as oxen make their circuit in treading out corn. " Could we but climb where Moses stood. its luminous tail ing across being visible for several seconds. sons and daughters. Satan knew he had conquered the world when he deluded Eve. I hasten to remember all I know about the bean. en lightenmg mv sepulchre (Isaiah xiv.354 PAGES FROM MY DIARY. which in the evening sun had worn savage and forbidding aspect. in the reign triumph over and Antomnes. that. He was of the watery wine of opinion that Palestine is good to cure fevers. 29). and Dead Sea bitumen. . Even Galen travelled through Syria. 5). look cheerful and habitable now. he would have kept the possession forever. Every star in that chime ! Not Jordan's stream. and endeavors to make my stay comfortable but his friends and companions are so filthy and black posterity (Genesis xv. the stars. and companions to owls. unearthly monotone. .

THE SNAKE-BITTEN. 257. Mount Nebo Lodge. His arm was swollen to enormous dimensions. and No. 176. sending the lions of that ruined site to their repose . I write the names of ten worthy Masons. Indiana. Other names of lodges are suggested by this locality. as soon as I got him into the cooler atmdsphere of Jerusalem he began to mend. 200. who justified the tremendous words of Isaiah (Ivii. for all the world like an Indian dance. Iowa. Cleopatra. the village a few miles west. " The withered moon's the fresh beam of the reddening east. Turning away from the Fountain of Elisha. As our distinguished Brother Kichard Owen. has illuminated this wild region with a genial touch of geology. and so we all pushed forward to Jerusalem. of this defenced city a ruin . so rich and abounding. the locality just east of Jericho. That vile woman. and in a few days was quite recovered. Illinois. and took in exchange the little donkey the poor fellow had ridden. of this palace of strangers no city (Isaiah xxv. the Fellah in ladies having got their backsheesh and gone to rest. beyond the Jordan . He vomited and hiccoughed. 355 clapping of hands. and No. nothing interrupts the lonely solitude but the chirping of crickets and the cry of frogs. bad as such a wound must be in the Jordan Valley. The God of day is rising on Babylon. No. New York. the northern end of the Dead Sea. One of my servants mounted him upon his own horse. No. No. In that hot atmosphere it was an alarming sight. The wound was in the junction of the fore and middle fingers of the right hand. and motions of the body. I was accosted by a poor fellow who had been bitten the night before by a snake. In fact. becoming dim. 155. 32. including the Pilgrim's Ford. so At In the nomenclature of our lodges I find Bezer Lodge. and off into dreamland I embark. and if I expect to get any of the strength that cometh from sleep. Bethany Lodge. of Indiana. greatly coveted this little plain of Jericho. Pisgah Lodge. Here the great Joshua was made a witness to the people. out go my candles. I place hia name . Those naval officers must have vast powers of endurance. Jericho. I will remark here that. 9). debasing herself even into hell. He was pale. But now the seven clear stars of Arthur's Round Table are 2). God has made of this city an heap . 76. the summit twenty miles in the southeast. noted a historical place as the Circle of the Jordan. The reddening of the rosy light betokens . So with a puff. and the Fountain of Elisha. No. and a commander of the people (Isaiah Iv. North Carolina. Virginia. it is time I began. 4). there was but one step between him and <leath." Smote by Now. The grateful creature then haunted me for backsheesh all the week.a clear morning of pure air.

worthless race ol monks. and a heavier child mounted on her shoulder. The " dying father declared (Genesis xlix. in the sin. became sweet" Just below it was styled the Garden of Air a- . sight of a wolf here brings to mind the tribal badge of Benjamin. Talisman." It was well said of these fellows that they " Left human wrongs it And If ever I to right themselves. Yet she stepped off jauntily. and her little boy shook his fist pleasantly towards me. 27). 600 years ago. Coloveloni. Walter Scott. then by Robert Ramsay. Joseph Trimble. cared but to pass into the silent life. Nutt." Far down in that valley. I see the trees I have just left. Masonic nutriment. and of the Beauseant.356 first WORTHLESS RACE OF HGJsRS at this locality. P. They had a sweet tooth. even now. in the tenth century. the water as " bitter to drink and productive of until Elisha sterility salted it and blessed it. whereupon it was a garden which. R we get at Willard's on the half-shell. A. and Fellows. Simons. a sugar-cane. Benjamin shall raven as The a wolf. C. Browns. and Fred. E. in the morning he shall devour the prey. a in his old age repented man of who and " past into the silent life of prayer. and at night he shall divide the spoil. the consolation of the traveller. As soon as I passed out of the valley I began to see the caves in the cliffs of Wady Kelt. Bcv." wanted power was to drive all the idle. to which this territory for so many centuries belonged. What nowadays Webbers. Ewer. where the anchorites of the early centuries of our era scooped out prison homes in the rocky ramparts of these awful ravines. with which. cane stalk served those old pilgrims both for a staff and as a store of provision in emergencies. and Hatches. Met a woman with a heavy water-skin on her head. whose feet plunge into delightful An old pilgrim described water. Wartield. Holy Land is afflicted. to some usefu. George Rev. following it with that of his coadjutor. I observe the ruins of the old The sugarsugar-mills built here 800 years ago by the crusaders. Robert Rushing. B. making her three miles an hour . employment Looking back from the acclivity. suggesting the cruel blow he would inflict upon my face were his muscles as strong as his will. they sucked from the end of viz. Henry L. has given a good idea of one of these men. Edwards. where Elijah hid. C. Palmer.. those old K.

" If any Royal Arch Chapter will perform " its work here. He knows what we want. He means that He will think of these things for us. but no signs of that exist at present. In one of the Psalms. or what we shall drink. . and preserved him from starving. and now I am old . As I got about half way up the hill I heard some loud screams far down in the ravine below me. As the water of St. I will tell you the whole story. so with this. The next few pages are only to be read by those who have children and love children's stories. or wherewithal we shall be clothed. 357 ham. and how much we want. They had had. Helena Island is famed for its purity. moun- and find the heat caused by the sun's rays to be very oppressive. Those that I heard were making the cry of hunger. David says I have been young. In these crags our June-Saint. tells us not to think of what we shall eat. and if so. John the Baptist. nor his seed begging bread. yet have I never seen the righteous forsaken. it is the place where Elijah was concealed when King Ahab sought his life. " When Jesus Christ will abundantly supply us. and even if they had they did not know what to eat.NEST OF YOUNG RAVENS. the same I believe that is called in the Bible The Brook Cherith. and I knew that it was a nest of young ravens. and when we want it. and He knows. It was noon. and fed on such wild nourishment as these uninhabited places afforded him." I can say the same : thing. their cry is the same. and you know how loud and harsh a noise a nest of young crows will make. filtering through several hundred feet of rocks and gravel. I was very forcibly reminded of the fact that God feeds all his creatures with what they need. was sequestered from the abodes of men. the old birds having gone away. " the rough and broken ground. He made us. always with " immense applause. " the rough and rugged way is already laid out for their use. I have told the incident. The poor fledgelings were lying in thoir nest. no breakfast. The place was lonely. nor where to find food suitable for them. and where the ravens fed him from day to day." in various Sunday-schools. THE NEST OF YOUNG RAVENS. The little creatures could not get out to feed themselves . what food and clothing and other So long as we trust in Him we may be sure He things we need. and insert it here as my contribution to the Sunday-school literature of the day. Now I pass through valleys shut in by rocks and desolate tains. This country indeed is what the Hebrews styled Shebarim. Ravens are nearly the same as crows . The day waa hot. I suppose. even better than we do. I was climbing the steep hill by the side of Wady Kelt. In coming up one day from Jericho to Jerusalem.

and wings. dising birds? Could it be that God of hunger from a nest of young agreeable place as to hear cries birds? It was even so. and loving hearts. and they would starve to death. harsh cries were kept up. God's stewards for clamorous crows. God had sent their father and mother clear across the valley of the Jordan. surrounded by fifty lazy Arabs . a shadow passed before my eyes. They were God's that nest of hungry. but that somebody might have shot them down by the river. and over the thickets of thorn-bushes. He feeds the air.358 WILL GOU FEED THEM ? As I stopped and looked down into their nest. The black." down into that screaming nest of crows. and the weather was But straight to the nest they flew. Would father and Still those loud. A party of English sailors were there this morning. or until those little creatures had had . And there I read verse after verse. where John baptized ChrisL " And as I looked It is a journey of eight miles. wise creatures where to go to find it. heard God had . God's providers. to supply their necessities. I got off my horse went down the hillside about a hundred steps . as the crow flies. their little I then still. popping their guns at everything they could see. writing my notes by a cistern of water. noise of their filled. Even the sneakwolf that I had seen an hour before was only hurrying to some ing old." Did God really was so near to that lonely. and so on down to the Jordan. messengers. God had taught them. hot. to procure food for them. tor I knew that nobody else would care for the little birds. and down by the knew river-side. their breakfast. not that the parent ravens had forgotten their duty. and were crying louder than ever. and I knew ." every- mouths were hungry children few minutes passed in silence the old one give a hoot of satisfied work. and willows. and determined to wait if need be an hour longer. where he might lie and pant until dark. flying over Elisha's fountain and over ruined Jericho. five hundred feet " below me. I began to be afraid. pieces of some kind of food in their mouths. The old ones flew for they were carrying large slowly . mother never come ? It was time. where I was sitting at that very time. very hot. I thought of the Bible passage. and canebrakes . straight as an arrow. The little birds had discovered them before I did. I looked. As I thought of this I felt sad . and strong bills. found the shadow of a great rock lay down in it . The sun was so hot that all other birds had concealed themselves in shadowy places. . Never a mouth but what there is food to " and shall He not much more feed you '?" Just as I got toput in it that passage. took out my pocket-Bible." the young lions. Five hours before. The thing that He has made. They went in haste. proving that God is the great " fowls of the " provider. and here were the old ravens coming with food for their little birds.. and oleanders. I knew what the little creatures did not know that their Heavenly Parent was giving to their earthly parents wisdom. God heareth the young hear those poor little screamravens when they cry. vacant tomb on the hillside. and all was A ceased.

and he is even good enough to go away out of my seeing. Dodge. waiting a bit of money and the balance of my oranges . who left their work and came across the Secondly.KHAN '' OF THE G. who has so long "wandered in darkness. the khan or inn of the good Samaritan. by a blind valley. the ancient Inn" of the good Samaritan. John C. A raven lives. roll . Kentucky. Near the ruins of this khan there is a yhudeer. J. Alabama . 6. and the symbolical application of the same. the Apostles. my guard rode on ahead to a place I had resolved to visit. my First. I wonder whether the great grandmothers of those noisy crows brought pieces of the tongue of the haughty Nicanor to feed their young ones. is found in the names of many American and English lodges. Climbing up the hill again. years ago. I drew rein not again until I reached the water-fount below Bethany. Percival. I occupied the time in investigating the uses made in Scripture history of clefts and caves. as for 174. Good Samaritan Lodge. 6) . was given by pieces unto the fowls. David Vinton. 33. come out. while his "vile head and his hand. I believe. " Kesting for an hour in this little cave hard by. 8. suggested by this poor blind fellow. No. who has been sitting here. Henry Tucker. Morris. His appeals I soon stopped by morning. to recognize and extend the sacred association by locating ten Masonic names here. Shall I ever have a better time to summon tasting. His tongue. 104. I suppose. thinking to make backsheesh out of me. Burns. or at least the man who immortalized it. viz." were hung up While before Jerusalem. Passing on to Jerusalem. Thomas L. as in Joshua vi. etc. in 2 Maccabees xv. it is said. Kob. touching. ever since yesterday for me to come back. No. beggar. invaded. Here a party was attacked and plundered. privacy was. warm. 359 heard the young ravens as they cry. stood th& stone Bohan ben-Reuben. D. George P. and smelling. by a lot of harvesters. Morris. in 1820. It accords with the plan of the present volume. 479. Seated for an hour at this Fountain of instance. hearing. This was his tabernacle of a shadow in the day-time of the heat (Isaiah iv. and Nicanor was killed only about two thousand five nundred years." and had sent them plenty of food. up inspired memories. and so impregnated with the salts that abound in this soil as to be almost Not far from the old khan of the good Samaritan unpalatable. as they called it. therefore. Power associated with the poetry and music of Masonic literature. Baker. of course. and lay down to sleep. Ossian E. as in Luke x. or pool of rain water. England. as every book on Holy Land since written has said. The name of this place. In a future chapter the subject shall be renewed. "Webnames ster." as certain incorrect rituals have it? Here they are. I waited upon my young crows. which with proud brags he had stretched out against the temple. pursy note-book. then.. No. It was on the boundary of the tribes of Judah and Benjamin.

And heaped with products of Sabaean springs. Idume's spicy forests grow.3GU IMPERIAL SALEM. B. 27) the English sailors just up from Joppa. from the lofty summit of Olivet.) in obscurity and darkness" (Isaiah xxix. and more. Pope's splendid couplets occurred to memory. And seeds of gold in Ophir's mountains glow. and in thy temple bend See thy bright altars thronged with prostrate kings. See future sons and daughters yet unborn. They need all this space. impatient for the skies See barbarous nations at thy gates attend. In thronging ranks. But lost. Hassan throws up his hands in anguish. dust and mountains melt away . thankful that my trip to the Dead Sea and the Jordan has terminated so well. one unclouded blaze. and then retire early to rest. . Exalt thy towering head. See a new race thy spacious courts adorn. But fixed His word. Eefusing to drink with them on the (false) plea that " I had some of iny own. : The fail. forth. Nor evening Cynthia fill her silver horn . seas shall fall to Rocks . imperial Salem. For thee. (N. Have a difficulty with my guard upon the question of backsheesh. and lift thine eyes . 18). No more the rising sun shall gild the morn. Borne on an ass. I miss a conjecture. crowned with light. thine own MESSIAH reigns. His promise still remains. He follows the traveller. Thy realm forever lasts. Walk in thy light. the sky in smoke decay. as once they followed Jesus at the base of this But here I am interrupted by (Matthew ix. and God's eternal day be thine . Demanding life. the cork of that receptacle has been out ever since yesterday morning. If they don't need the ship's surgeon for a week or two. and the poor fellows look it. hill Rise. arise. to swig the last quart in their demijohn. . See heaven its sparkling portals wide display. groping. And break upon thee in a flood of day. deprived of the pleasurable thrill and excitement which are the lot of others. and with them I close the chapter. and goes incontinently with me are to sleep. Note-taking and checker-playing And here we are: "The blind man of Palestine wuika vanities. dissolved in thy superior rays. on every side. One tide of glory. rise . Pervades thy courts the LIGHT himself shall shine Revealed. facile pencil! knowing that he is stuck for an hour here." I hasten away and arrive at my hotel at about 4 o'clock. Coming in sight of the city.



at last Jerusalem is removed from the region offancy to that of fact. The city. way before us lies Distinct with signs. That shining bitter water that engulfs the guilty cities of the plain. Why Thy left a ! widow ! oh. Attract us hope and fear and passionate exercise the Of lofty thought. B C.DIVISION EIGHTH. and seated in the midst of the nations. JERUSALEM. like a diadem crowning the head of the mountains the place of mysteries and miracles. elected by God for his seat. what scars disgrace f looks who thus hath hacked thy sacred face MITE OF HEROD ARCHELAU8. to take in walls. 6. 4 TO A. D. churches. The mind. if the intensities of still. . bewildered with the mighty revolutions and desolations which the history of Jerusalem has revealed. once sacred and glorious. delights. at last. Yes . houses. and surrounding hills as tangible objects.

ALBERT L BAW9ON.CHAPTER XXII. of a good work on the which Jerusalem was sub- from its capture by Joshua. A.D. several captures to the present time. 5). 70. to that last and awful night of the assault. which recalls the prophetic words written eight centuries before: "Confused noise. B. and garments " rolled in blood Such a work should include tne (Isaiah ix. this volume would a better idea of the sur- give . HE literature of Palestine is in want various sieges and assaults to jected. so graphically described by Josephus. ORIENTAL ARTIST. Written in the light of milltary experience. 1455. THE SURROUNDINGS OF JERUSALEM.C.

after my arrival. In 1840. designed for the cabinets of the zealous craft at home. is the City of Jerusalem. the weather being a happy medium between cold and heat. This enabled last of the The seventh and articles are designed to identify me. attention to sightThe season of the year was highly favorable. no American should forget how much we are all indebted to Dr. although Sion is a plowed field. May 3. and had busied himself in collecting a large quantity of relics and specimens. the American misthe holiest of holy simple language if . whose portrait heads this chapter. from the faithful hand of Professor A. Barclay. roundings of Jerusalem.THE SEVENTH MASONIC LOCALITY. The throngs of pilgrims. upon which sacred place my longing eyes were first directed. has been only prefatory. when the English and French were having their own will in Palestine. yet the writer must use he would make the proper impression on the reader's mind. 18). But. Altogether. there is enough to awaken all latent enthusiasm in the Masonic traveller. as I have already written. who block up the narrow streets during the months of April and May. as I said in my preface. nights cool. both pleasant. and made an accurate and most valuable plan of this city. while acknowledging this. and by the aid of engravings. all people brought their treasures on the bunches of camels. so that I was not embarrassed for the means of locomotion. 1 must now give large space and ample illustrations of the sacred metropolis itself. Even now. in the days of its gold and glory. grand Masonic localities that these and describe. on Sunday. than the "memorandums" of tourists. and the Lord of Hosts came down to fight for Mount Sion. the English engineers came up from to Joppa. 1868. and the foxes (jackals) walk upon it (Lamentations v. though ground is Jerusalem. so to speak. days warm.taking in the city and vicinity. As my whole volume. L. But. Temple once erected at Jerusalem. which I am indebted for many of my facts. because chiefly describing the materials of the (and the localities whence derived and through which transferred). I hope to leave nothing that is important in darkness. to which all 365 I devote the present chapter. and for the hill thereof (Isaiah xxx. My assistant had been detailed to this point of labor several weeks earlier. T. Rawson. to give almost undivided seeing and note. had departed. and xxxi). thus far. my stay in Jerusalem and its surroundings was one of unmingled enjoyment and profit. towards which. J. I had ordered my horses through to this place by land. to the present division.

I have regard to the in" " Jerusalem. being circumscribed on three sides by itself a fact to which David makes a fine Psalm cxxv.. and conscien tious adherence to truth. conceals the view on the right. just referred to. that I may junction of the Psalmist. 2: "As the mountains are round about Jerusalem. THE DAMASCUS GATE. In giving the surroundings of this city." I commence this survey. with good judgment. Few places are so well situated for a reconnoissance as this. a pity the work has been allowed to go out of print. Robinson's It is Biblical Researches. in his long and patient labors in exploring the city. viz. massive structures. Directly before us is the knob. conceiving it to be the spot where " The Lord of all things made himself Naked of glory. and the work of Barclay. to which a number of writers. or swelling ground. the Russian hills higher than the place allusion in THE DAMASCUS GATE OF JERUSALEM. to walk around " tell it " to those who come after me. give us. on the north side. Thomson's Land and Book.366 iionary at Jerusalem. are American. Captain Warren told me that the three best works in his possession. The City of the Great King. have applied the name of Calvary. Here that vile collection of homely." . or Golgotha. convent. His close observations of facts. for convenience sake. relative to Jerusalem and the Holy Land. all that can be desired on the subject. from Mount Scopus. in his volume. so the Lord is round about his people.

where. the northeast corner of the city appears like a rambling agricultural village. he wrote his Lamentations. This point of view is probably the one taken by Titus for his first observation of Jerusalem. morial stones (three. " Man was made to mourn. Immediately below Golgotha is 367 the traditional cave of Jeremiah. and for the establishment of his military camp. On the left (east of this gate) there is is an opening under the wall. of which I give a drawing. which conducts us to the great quarry. and a little nearer the set the city. chapter. nine. the modem representative of Solomon's Temple. so graphically described by Josephus five. setup mnemonics to recall their first or last ." little A to the left of this. as by pilgrims view of the Holy City. camp a quarter of a mile further All around are small piles of me- J)OOU OF A TO -MB. from whence Burns derived his lamentable screed. The gate next to us is the Damascus Gate (Bab-es-Shems). the vacant places grown up with immense hedges of the prickly pear. it is fabled. eleven or more). Still to be described in a future further east rises Herod's Gate. and endeavor to imagine the reconnoissance made by Titus. Beyond the wall the lofty dome of the now permanently closed. though some writers west. Mosque of Omar (im- properly so called). We will erect our monument likewise.TOMB OF THE KINGS. seven.

II. flourishing. that celebrated The Kings.368 ( TOMBS AND THEIR TENANTS. had an of Tombs the appearance as in the cut. 4. a wealthy. xix. although now exceedingly mutiIt represents is very beautiful. in the suburbs of Jerusalem. lies INTERIOR OF A TOMB. ocean. indeed. before De Saulcy cleared away the debris. and there is no better proof than the number and character of these antiquities. whose residences extended great distances around the central city. and discover to our long ing eyes the port of endless rest. 3)." So expatiates one of the most eloquent. interspersed with Corinthian capitals and other decorations. along the sides. foreigners to reside outside the city through the summer months. of the former existence of It must. this In vicinity relic. a few years since. The sculpture over the entrance of this tomb. All around us here are the ruins of the country-houses and happy Even now the malaria compels homes of the ancient people. a tracery of flowers and fruits extending quite across the portal. All the expressions of enthusiastic writers in the olden time confirm this Zion. we will do it with bated presence breath." for every Jew considers Josephus the Benedict Arnold of Wars. the Roman war. in the pathless. 2. bright belief. whose entrance. in speaking of Josephus in the " of yonder group of Israelites. and hanging down It is considered to be the finest specimen of sculp . below which is PLAN OF ANCIENT TOMB. and powerful people here. of flowers. until the sun of righteousness shall arise. have enjoyed an overflowing population. large clusters of grapes between garlands lated. But. ornament of a ruined world . stormy night. and v. " star in the midst of a troubled gloomy.

found about twenty years since. store and re- them is to former uses? The following an engraving. ture around Jerusalem. Paris. viii. will be seen cut of ancient stone-hinges. SARCOPHAGUS.THE SIDONIAN SARCOPHAGUS. now also among the antiquities of the Louvre. The manner in which the heavy stone-doors of these tombs were in thig made to turn. from a now photograph. and to pray may we not expect that the Jews When many will clear out and reconstruct these sacred houses of the dead. taken by De it Saulcy from the tomb. append a drawing of the interior of an ancient tomb. but will postpone the description to a future chapter. 22) Lord of Hosts in Jerusalem. of a sarcophagus in the Louvre. . SARCOPHAGUS AT SIDON. near Sidon. I place in contact with a celebrated sarcophagus. come to seek the people and strong nations shall before the Lord (Zeph. 369 In the walls recesses are laboriously cut I out for the reception of sarcophagi.

Those of the Jews were marked with the same simplicity that characterized all their etc. modest and and Our view from this point comprehends a very large range of vision westward and northward and we imagine the soldiers of the Roman Tenth Legion (a kind of crack New York Seventh Regiment). in visiting what are considered as the Jewish tombs which "Tyre. all the objects that Below us is an old square tower. This severe simplicity was carried into the preparation of their . That inclosure of about one and a half acres. ten feet high. where it was laid without any ceremonial or form of prayer. with its ! whitewashed ryphal) Tomb of the Holy Virgin. whose enormous roots stand high above the ground. met watched diligent painter at Beyrout. I at Jerusalem. flowers. the works of his life-giving pencil. I saw in such numbers the cliffs at Gebal. and borne without any funeral pomp to the jgrave. is the Garden of Gethemane It contains eight vast olive-trees. whose paintings of Califoruian and Alpine views. This is admittedly the best point of view from which to study Jerusalem. The point of Absalom's Tomb peers slightly over the last ridge next the the eye from this observatory. The body was washed and anointed. recounting to hearers. We pass pus with now along the neck of the ridge connecting Mt unt ScoMount Olivet. took his sketch of Jerusalem.THE TENTH LEGION". with admiration STONE HINGES. walls. in summer-life. a I few weeks before since I was here..000 this developed picture. along opposite have been careful to bear in mind the radical differences between the funeral rites of the two peoples. would remark that. the ordinary furniture of a Latin chapel. I believe. Near it is the opening of the (apocvalley of Jehoshaphat. etc. which has into a $32. were encamped here for a number of months during the memorable met siege. adorned with lamps. Here Mr. Church. And here I pictures. wrapped religious observances. as distinguished from the Phoenician sepulchres. Sidon. and take our stand near the (improperly called) Church of Ascension. who . used now. had placed him among the very first of living artists. in their old age. in a clean linen cloth. by a family of foreigners.. and the Falls of Niagara.

and capable of being closed and sealed at the mouth. a heavy lid must have been removed reach his body. or even elevated. But lying in the condition in which he died. or a little below the level. " take away the stone. . Among the most pleasing accounts I have read of the city. There are. In the cypress-trees is the goldfinch (Carduelis elegans). could be laid in a shallow cavity (called loculus). forgetting that such things as birds exist in the Holy City at But his notes under this head are full and charming. I Studying here the history of the siege and assault by Titus. which. exposed the entire body to the eye of the observer. the stone tomb. not to say that the ceremony of embalming. ruins. and elegant " played here upon this historical summit. the rest of us. which occupied many days. And much more to the same effect. he says. To this is referred the passage in John xi. which were always deep. would have changed the entire nature of the miracle. It was invented 450 years before. where he describes the birds of Jerusalem. field all to himself. and the little owl (Athene meridionalis).BIRDS OF JERUSALEM. and was certainly capable of throwing . B. tender. upon the very top of a sepulchral monument. the white wagtail and and the dome of Kubbet es-Sakhrah. from this national difference of the deep loculus (or grave). the beautiful little palm turtle-dove dwells (Turtur Senegalensis]. music of Beethoven's oratorio of " Mount Olivet should like to hear the agreeable. 371 sepulchres. it is thought. perhaps. cannot help wondering why for this he did not use the catapult. In the olive-trees.000 of these rock-cut tombs around Jerusalem. like the tomb of King Hiram. from this point of view. also the great titmouse (Parus major}. 1. and remains here all winter. Tristam's Land of Here he had the Israel. being in itself hermetically sealed and containing an embalmed body. in the contemplation of stones and all. 39. All purely Jewish rock-cut tombs may be recognized." Had Lazarus been laid in a Phoenician tomb. without danger of giving out offensive odors. far above the surface of the ground. the kestrel (Tinnunculus alaudarius). In the corner of a wall I marked the blue thrush (Petrocinin the side da and running along the pavement. to at the entrance of the loculus being removed. The Phoenicians seemed invariably to use the sarcophagus or stone coffin. instead of yonder jingle of instruments I How on the steps of the Governor's serai (palace). in a on the level. and occasioned the removal of most of the internal parts of the body. I reckon that in Bro. H. Cyanea} . of the earth.

These waters issue out toward the east and go down into the desert. I never could pass this brook Kidron without recalling the words which fifty feet Ezekiel wrote concerning it. which country.the most remarkable pieces of picture-writing in the world Jerusalem by the King of is that given in the cut of the siege of and is now in Nineveh. and everything shall live. Extending our viswestward. King Solomon conducted him to a point near the junction of the mountains now termed Olivet and Offence. He between Jerusalem the Holy and the ter xlvii. and go into the sea . whithersoever the river shall come. which moveth. ing. because these waters shall come thither. introduced (improperly) into Blue Lodge rituals. the waters shall be healed. narrow to the effect that. .372 MASONIC MYTH. The two existing bridges here serve at least to keep us in of the prophecy. Moriah was a long. and other characters. And it shall come to pass. makes it the connecting link Dead Sea the Impure. shall Uve . In chap- we read said : he unto me. Mount Olivet with a castle on the summit. upon the arrival of Hiram Abif at Jerusalem. which he had selected as the site of his projected tempi*. 710. It was discovered by Layard. and endeavored to paint the scene in its natural colors. the olive-trees. the brook In it we see the British Museum. Through this valley ran the brook SIEGE OF JERUSALEM. There . for they shall be healed . than the distance from where we are standhuge stones much further the heart of yonder city. although there is no water here now to suggest is an elegant myth connected with the literature of Masonry. UOW SUllk under loose earth. that every thing that liveth. about B. we have the deep go^jge ion of the valley of Jehoshaphat. and there shall be a very great multitude offish. whither the river " Then cometh. Kidron the fortified city. and showed him the range entitled Moriah. On one occasion I sought that spot. into One of . KidrOll." mind them.C. being brought forth into the sea. that chokes the ancient channel.

nearly 200 feet high. a' few years afterwards. In point of fact. in all the vicinity of Jerusalem is associated with matters of deeper Masonic interest than this. before reaching this city. deeply furrowed by ravines. or Lady Mary Gate (Bab I give Miriam). Our story goes on to say that it was in that conference that Hiram initiated King Solomon into the mysteries of Adonis. to place the Masonic mark of the Square and Compass upon conspicuously some one of the huge ashlars that make up the its ST. by the fate'of Hiram himself. nor altogether safe. at all hazards. only severed by death. I had resolved. as practised for so many centuries in Phoenicia. which forms the esotery of that system. the king had ordained the construction of his temple sides to be raised . The task was by no means a pleasant one. was strangely paralAdonis. divided primarily into three peaks by cross valleys. and thus the two great men were interstices filled in with stone. all this must be done before a stone of the building itself could be laid down. . STEPHEN S GATE.THE ST. And es-Sitti in the centre of next we will take notice of the eastern wall of Jerusalem. 373 ridge. to us marked out with distinctness by the great dome that we saw from Mount Long Scopus. and that of Tyropoeon on the west. STEPHEN'S GATE. site to drawn together by The fate of fraternal ties. wall of the old Temple area on eastern side. the top to be cut off. Stephen's Gate. which is St. of which to a drawing X early all the wall the is left the (south) of this grand substruc- ture of the Noble Inclosure. the by immense walls. the top of the range rising nearly 400 feet above the bed of the valley of Jehoshaphat on the east. and the Such were the preliminary steps requiform even a platform for the temple. or Mount Moriah. Upon that most illy-fitted hill. No spot leled.

The block is a large one. and when the patriarch brought his son Isaac here. ten years later. with his dying Rachel and when Joseph passed here. two hundred and seventy-eight years later. and when he returned. into the Temple-wall with a chisel. STOEY OF THE STONE. four hundred and four years later. with instructions to keep . I heard the shock of the onset when Joshua took Jerusalem. and burnt it with fire. lay in the military lookouts upon the works one hundred feet above my head. Perhaps the real danger of this attempt. forty-two years later.374 STORY OF THE STONE. it was like them to pitch a donick or two over the wall. and this. one of the principal roads around the city runs within operations. and the shock of the onset when King David. I To a fragment of this vast wall which have attached this I brought home to America. the ancient Jebusites. at the point of the sword. But made my mark deep and bold. and began. at Bethel. twenty years later. so that I thirty steps of the ashlar I had selected for was liable to interruption at any moment and the reader will appre- my ciate the difficulties of the task. "I lay darkly and first when the I slumbered there at the lime of the pious meeting between Abraham and Melchizedek. much less commit the profanity of cutting Add to this. at the head of all Israel. out my figure. though not the largest in that part of the strucsee. whose inhabitants are among the most fanatical peois a large Moslem graveple in the vicinity. Had they witnessed operations. I marked. ture. I was not easily deterred assistant in the road below. and erected their walls of defence upon Mount Zion.. . to an interrupted sacrifice upon the crown of the hill of Moriah . . Close by. after all. Across the valley of Jehoshaphat. or even to fire their pieces down upon me . as future travellers will not fail to It is cut in the fifth stone of the second tier of blocks. builders of Jerusalem. and when Jacob fled north ward on his way to a divine vision. gathered their materials. a vigilant lookout. took it by assault. is the village of Silwan (Siloam). who would scarcely yard. on the north. permit a Christian to walk so near their cherished tombs. and placing an However. silently in the quarries under Mount Moriah. and made it the seat of his kiug- in the search of his brethren. would have been justifiable in them. according to the my I usages of that sanctuary. in plain view. ofteii crowded with Mohammedan women. counting from the southeast corner of the old Temple-wall to the north.

fresh . great bridge connecting Mount Olivet with Mount Moriah. it 29. until now. saw the irresistible assault of his armies . heard his battle great Chaldean. such as Jerusalem rarely experiences. and sounds were often renewed afterwards. seven and one-half years after its corner-stone was laid. I I was an eye-witness of such scenes. fickle and untrustworthy. the city ruined. I witnessed the armies of Titui same people.' A days afterwards." and give a I have a specimen of I and green. 1872).' The gleam shadow of the miraculous smoke my polished face. In A. a great stone. until the blood flowed over our wall like the drenchings of a great rain-storm. thirty-seven years afterwards. For He is of the fire from heaven and the alike passed over good . resistance. the ' felt Crucify Him' a trembling of the solid earth. who put 7. one hundred feet from its base.000 men to the sword upon the platform just above me. doin. and fortifying the hill east of me. wall. Thirty-seven years later. Then I saw the heavens darkened at mid-day. as he passed over the task of rebuilding. I witnessed the coming of the four hundred and sixteen years later . I beheld the triumphant procession of the Sou of Man. which to-day (February plucked nearly four years ago from Hiram's Tomb. and drawing their lines around the final doomed city." As an appropriate botanical emblem here. by this time. from the quarries. I heard the shout of the assembled millions who bowed their faces to the pavement and * cried. with which. and laid up here in the east wall. Fifty-two years afterwards.D. I saw the little company under Zerubbabel return from Babylon and begin the pious Three hundred and seventy-one years later. Fifty-one years later. for His mercy endureth forever. when the ' few people of Jerusalem shouted Hosanna to the Son of David. I have witnessed great events. hewed and squared. cry . " the hyssop that springeth out of the cut of it. I give to an inquiring Freemason from distant lands my strange story of the stone. 375 I was taken. 1099 savage sights was shaken in my place by the onset of the crusaders. I saw the greater Maccabasus perform the same pious undertaking. facing the rising sun. One hundred and forty-seven years later. Here I have remained for two thousand eight hundred and eighty years. I had become so familiar. and These despair.THE HYSSOP. and the Temple burned. I saw a second re-edification of the Temple by the monster Herod. shouted. two thousand eight hundred and eighty years from my first establishment in this wall. I saw the dedication of the Temple. then heard those sounds of assault. I note the plant of Solo- Again and again monic fame.

tions of light calls and shade. ix. and came back seeing (John ix. perhaps. vowed proudly that he would come to Jerusalem and make it a common burying-place of " the Jews (2 Mace.876 THOUGHTS ON OLIVET. all the imagery of the Levitical worship was best seen tain of and here the capNebuchadnezzar studied it day by day . 7) and when the impotent man took up his bed and walked from the margin of Bethesda . breathing out " threatenings and slaughter against the disciples of the Lord (Acts when . while contemplating with a soldier's eye the strong fortress of Jebus on the cliffs. and Titus. From here. with soft variaOlivet. standing out singly from the surrounding mountains. choice warriors dred opposite of Israel. One elegant writer the view " a solace of holy reminiscences Raised two hundred and pure and native. . on yonder platform . and Nebuchadnezzar. 4) and when the early American missionary. to storm it. with his Tenth Legion. to go about " " his Master's business at Jerusalem . yonder (John ii. made this his principal point of observation during the long months of the siege. HYSSOP. on Neginoth. (1 Chron." feet above Mount Moriah. for from this point the defences could best be viewed. All intelligent visitors to Jerusalem have united in praising the scenery from Mount It is mild and gentle.) Shishak stood here. which ia ninety-five the nearest part of Jerusalem. Josephus pointed out the various localities to Titus. " the great Antiochus. and arrangements made for the attack. and when Saul. 2) and when the chief musician. Here David stood.). ' Pliny Fisk. and . with stringed instruments and high-sounding cymbals. and all the conquerors of Jerusalem . From this commanding spot. in 1823. who. the sketcher sees the city as a continuous hill. swelling with anger. xii. and preparing with his two hunand eighty thousand men. entered the Damascus Gate yonder. when the man born blind was led down to Siloam yonder. during the eighteen months that he strove to Observers also stood here capture Jerusalem. praised God according to His excellent greatness (Psalm cl.

and came back several years afterwards the humblest of the followers of the meek and lowly Jesus." probably at this very spot. while they that went before and they that followed said. finally. and went across the stupendous bridge. All those scenes.VALLEY OF JEHOSHAPHAT. and " through the portals of the Golden Gate. family at Bethany but a few days before (John xi. had given up the ghost. embracing incidents in the life of every Scriptural character from Abraham to Paul. ). receive " . ix. and over branches of trees. now destroyed. . We pass >n our left the old now down the valley of Jehoshaphat.) and when Jesus " be" held the city. that doleful afternoon.the Tombs of Absalom." because Christ. Jesus. on yonder ridge. occurred within sight of but spectators upon this memorable slope of Olivet where I sit. blessed is he that " cometh in the name of the Lord (Mark xi. just as he had wept over the sorrows of the disconsolate Stephen on yonder hillside. first enduring the pangs of the cross.) . Hosanna. on that " the earth did dark. 41). and a multitude of others. and " wept over it (Luke xix. my sentence can never be completed. leaving successively Hebrew buryiug-ground. ." and hour. 377 went out of i/hat same gate to the persecution. Observers stood here when the Jews " stoned upon God and saying. yonder. " " calling vii. Lord and when the great promy spirit (Acts 59) cession passed westward along this very pathway by whose side I am sitting passed over garments spread in the way. when quake and the " darkness was over the whole land until the iiinth rocks rent. scarcely a mile from this spot.

the extraordinary fertility of the soil. as he went to the palace of the High-Priest to receive the wages of his treason On the left of us is the village of Siloam (Silwan). below the pool of Siloam.d78 Zechariah. and then the pool cut shows these monuments with distinctness. where every Mason. spring. BRINGING TO LIGHT. and reach first the Virgin's Fount. etc. fail to observe. damp tombs. as displayed in the productions of the We cannot . less eyeballs. My cut is of the upper VIRGIN'S FOUNT.. ! ! the people live in the dark. A vivid fancy has drawn a parallel between this " bringing to light " of the blind man here and the symbolic representation familiar to My What a glorious sunlight kindled up his long sightand brought the beautiful and cheering scenes of nature to his knowledge How the heart of Judas must have clashed with his covetous nature every step of the way along this gloomy dale. or Virgin's Fount. of Siloam.

always apparent in this country when there is water enough for irrigation also the village of Siloam.VALLEY OP SHAVEH. These are the King's Gardens of Solomon's time. . 379 gardens here. the church on the Bummit of Olivet on the right. and gave him bread and wine in the name of the Most High God (Genesis xiv. at Aceldama (the Potter's Field of Judas). and the dome of Omar on the left . taken from a point further south. This is the valley of Shaveh. 18). where the prince Melchizedek met the patriarch Abraham reclining as these lazy natives are reclining to-day. This engraving exhibits the valley of Jehoshaphat in tures. My cut. shows us this extraordinary development. its best fea- VIEW NORTH FROM ACELDAMA.

is the Tomb of David. in which is the apartment traditionally styled C&naculum (supper-room). so called. Here is a cut of the edifice so famed. The city. we place the bodies of David and Solomon. in a southwesterly direction. American. the Hill of Evil Counsel. decimated by cholera. square edifice directly before us. he left his wife in the city. and some fifteen of their royal successors. MOUNT siox. Between us and the tomb are the various Protestant cemeteries. near the southwestern corner of the city. and beneath which. M. Included in the ten thousand tragedies surrounding this city. DAVID'S TOMB. and went back to Joppa for his furniture and clothing deposited there. in this time. with far more reason. and for several months he was unable to return. Climbing again tombs. and others. was cannonaded. .380 TOMB OF DAVID. Thomson came here in 1834. we find ourselves on honeycombed beneath with ancient The heavy. there is one that particularly touches an American heart. to open a missionary station. outside. When W. English. in which the Lord's Supper was instituted. In the meantime a rebellion broke out.

and. 235) records it with much feeling. of New York. THE DAVID TOWER. H.D. cemetery should also look up the grave of poor down to the Dead Sea. not an uncommon emblem on the Roman up that built Jerusalem. at the Joppa Gate.the apprehension caused by seeing his house knocked to pieces by artillery. comprising a ride of about . before going choly history. Passing around the southwest angle of the city. dust. so that. the Emperor Hadrian. about A.' The visitor to this Costigan.- abled to return. " The Lord hath put out the light in my dwelling. a zealous American missionary. His wife died a few weeks afterward of the fright and exposure. the image of a hog. 1835. Asa Dodge. coins. II. but a most horrible insult to the nation This completes our circuit of the city. set Here. I place two cuts in juxtaposition. Near the honored grave of Mrs. who died here January 28. and the afflicted man wrote. land. W. read his melanStevens (Travels. in . our ficiently attention is first attracted to the massive Tower of David (so called) by the Joppa Gate. Thomson lies Dr. leaving the vast " Lower Pool of Gihon " on the left. and terribly 381 shaken by earthquakes . 120. and striking out westward suffar to secure a good view of the city from this quarter. Thomson. laid my earthly hopes in the and rendered my dear little babe motherless in a strange That child is now Prof. when at last he was er. his first view of Jerusalem caused horror and faintness to seize him.TOWER OF DAVID.

The view of the stupendous ruins of Jerusalem one calm Sabbath " morning called to my mind the beautiful Masonic allegory of working in silence. in like manner. It is a curious subject of confrom some fartemplation. the once magnificent metropolis extended Like Mount Sion. stopping inquiringly at the corner of Fulton- and Broadway. 4. where the signs of old buildings have quite disappeared.326 yards. giving special attention to the period 1099 to 1187.382. from the ruined street stone piers at Castle Garden. was built of stone made . ancient coins. in some far-distant day. H. I am glad to add that a history of Jerusalem from Herod to the present time will be published this year (1872) from the pens of Walter Besant and E. assaults and defences of Jerusalem. and wondering how far in this direction. THE JOPPA GATE. OB GATE ON THE WEST SIDE OF JERUSALEM. or two though the actual circuit of the walls themselves is but and a half miles. six miles. that. Palmer. domestic objects. so interesting to Knights Templars. As I set out in this chapter regretting that we have no proper account of the sieges and captures. distant land may." founded as it is upon the following passages : "And the house. a tourist THE JOPPA GATE. circumambulate the then desolate city of New York. when it was in building. Manhattan then may yield to the exca! vator its wealth of carved marbles. and human bones.

which is given unto me. here is the sound of the hammer and the chisel. preached along these hills. to the same effect: "Thy work. in one of his inimitable prayers.LABORERS WITH GOD. Mr. STRUCK AT TTRB. 383 was brought thither so that there was neither hamany tool of iron heard in the house. eighteen centuries ago. viz. 10. as a wise master-builder. for thy building. we are God's husbandry are God's building. has said. was proud to make the claim "According to the grace of God. nor ! . that " we are laborers together with God .) : 'rrOLEMY I. Lord! in the structure of the human and thy government that is established beyond and out of our soul. Here thou art bringing forth the stones sight. while it was in This suggests one of the grandest purbuilding. good words." (1 Kings vi.. and there they that stand around thee behold the perfectness of all thy work. but here is but the ground where thou art shaping. SOTER. and be saved.) poses of the Masonic institution. the promotion of peace and harmony. which thou hast had in hand since the " These are grand. Beecher. here is all confusion." (1 Cor." That great man who. and will beginning of the world touch a chord in every Masonic heart for it is a Masonic precept. mer nor axe. iii. I have laid the foundation. Yonder is where thou art building. and here are all waste and noisome things . . we repent. are wrought out here. 7. teaching men everywhere to believe. ready before it .


1868.. and swarmwho held it in the eleventh cen- tury yearned for months and years to receive news from their distant homes. fitly illustrates the changes that haw come over this ancient city since the days when.. by its ing enemies.D.CHAPTER V XXIII. 1868. at Jerusalem a Mason of 40 is years' standing. . from Bey rout to a friend in Jerusalem. The recent setting-up of a steam- REV. the crusaders vast precipices. PETERMANN. eng'ne in Jerusalem for grinding grain another illustration in the .D. wretched roads. H. JERUSALEM IK HE incident isolated of my sending a telegram. D. but yearned in vain. LL. in 1868. Resident.

referred to in Bible passages. and lift in place the mighty ashlars now visible in the inremove. round which the rooms are huddled. flat. and many noted points besides. towns. Mr. a glimpse of Scopus. In the furniture of my boardingit was. My bill was only five francs ($1) per day.. Beardsley. The American Vice-Consul at Jerusalem. like those of Oriental cities. and enter a court about forty feet square. in one of which. how had King Solomon's 183. Sion. The present incumbent of the office is Hon. up to the limits of the house. scrupulously clean as I on the next page. Olivet. The general idea of my house-top. two hotels. Some of their establishments. cut. and which is very destructive in this climate. Indiana. high wall or foundation looks on the street. The i streets of Jerusalem. the village of Siloam. is a gentleman of fine qualifications. R. while the fare is abundant and good..000. The place is snug and comfortable . At the Prussian House. will be gathered from the cut house. of whom nearly one half (10. There are two reasons for population may be crowded. same direction . could his architects have emto saw. with its battlements. ployed the power of steam instead of human labor. Johnson (in 1872 a citizen of New Haven. another stairway takes you to another batch of chambers. etc. Connecticut). You climb from the street A by a narrow wooden stairway. I made my abode. and treated me with much courtesy and attention. which leads to a row of rooms . Mosque of Omar. a very ardent Mason." This affords. is at present about closing walls of Mount Moriah. for defensive pur . From this court rises a second stairway. The population The city has 25. all are welcome. are imposing in magnitude. well described by a gentleman who was here some years since as " a singularly constructed concern. Missionaries of almost every Christian nation except America. the Roman Catholic. and the Greek churches. like all houses in this country.000) are Jews. at a coup tfc&il. and so you reach the housetop.300 workmen been diminished to the number of 10. John. evidences could be seen of what had observed more plainly in the English Hotel at Joppa. formerly of Elkhart. L. the Armenian. the ravages of the moth (Tinea tapetzella). are engaged here in the* education and conversion of the natives. under the patronage of the Prussian Knights of St. and on that the house is built.000. and only those who are able are expected to pay. M. viz.THE PRUSSIAN HOTEL. anc villages generally. such as tnc English Episcopal. that the : extremely narrow. are his first. and various boarding-houses. the good Prussian House. where I boarded.

comOne could wish that the It is not so now. very few : . In regard to this nastiness. The reader will hardly conceive that so much carrion. the whole view priscn-like houses. to drain imita(B. second. immense processions used to traverse Jerusalem. into as little space as possible lops. c. passage from somebody's note-book describes it latticed windows. but they had no sooner left the city than heavy rains would fall. annually. 387 hill- most towns being upon restricted. I am reminded that in the eighth century. Is the view builder of the Cloaca Maxima oflf from these contracted streets an agreeable one? Not much. pletely purifying it. Across from roof to roof. In the hot season. tor in Jerusalem. so much old vegetables. they spread mattings is where space VIEW OF A HOUSETOP.HASTINESS OF THE STREET?. and do it neatly. and render them extremely offensive with dung. poses. can be packed into one alley six to ten feet wide. This " Bare stone walls . which throw the streets into a dense shade that certainly is cooler than our broad streets exposed to the full blaze of the sun. But they do it. because the people believe they can keep cooler in this way. The streets of Jerusalem likewise are filthy. so much manure. 588) at Rome had an the foul matters which have no outlet but the streets and a few shallow and restricted sewers. and the debris of humanity. on the 15th September.

xxi. A stuthe visitor may waste his days seeking unattainable objects. The tradition is that heal sore and inflamed eyes. from which the branches were taken to honor Christ.) And. In reading accounts of such a monument of antiquity as Jerusalem. I need not say We would behold its dazzle and its dirt its numerous classes of inhabitants grouped and herded together within the walls. dent once showed me a list of the things he intended to look up. that the traveller seeking for such things only wastes his time. were nothing. you gather in. Verbum sat sap. get rid of a subject which is in everybody's mind. and monks the remains of ancient civilization.) Sir John Maundeville said they were here when he came. and the prospect and possibilities of improvement. He assured me he would to it do too. the character of the priest . To come simply " to see what is to be seen. from the same. the water of it will gather some of the leaves. which are of very hard stone.) if the Long afterwards. the stone col umn to which. our Lord was bound when he was scourged. He had been told that everybody throws stones at it. On the other hand. and he was determined should he ever visit Jerusalem. (Matt. we want to see it just as it is. and confined myself mainly to them. research. the manners and customs of its motley populace . wretchedly unsatisfactory to a civilized eye. In coming to Jerusalem I had certain well-defined objects of This is prudent. Also a palm-tree standing on the side of Mount Olivet. and if you open your nostrils. visible at three places on the steps of the Golden Gate." as a traveller told me he did. and into the Temple (Matthew xxi. and I'm sure they don't." The proud and stately Moslem. threads the bazaai with step as proud and stately as a Pharisee: and yet.388 SILLY EXPECTATIONS. He had resolved to carry a bottleful of it home and experiment upon it. Also the pillar that Absalom in his lifetime had reared up in the king's dale. To my commence .D. is to see nothing coolly and deliberately. fingering his beads in abstracted mood. Among them were the mark of the Bethany over Mount Olivet. in its every-day. as a mark of scorn at that cruel son. Ass's feet that bore Jesus from Likewise the pool of Siloatn. xxvii. (Matt. Such was aim. a variety of " effluvias to which the celebrated three-and-forty stinks of Cologne" at his feet. . as in y Samuel xviii. monks tell the truth. A. I with a sketch of the so-called Holy Sepulchre. 1322. 26. if you look you see a combination of every sort of excrement. working dress. the marks of blood were to be seen on it. finally.

which Papal and Greek writers endeavor to palm this place upon the Christian world as the veritable Calvary and Cemetery of Christ. In 389 my Protestants of observations on this subject. tyranny. I find no passage that so well expresses my views of these false traditions and unholy mummeries as one written by Brother who visited here in 1823. he wrote : Jerusalem were a place accursed of God.THE HOLY SEPULCHRE. and given over to iniquity and sin." . the Lord. . The Jews hate the name of Christ. I but express the feeling of all my acquaintance who have weighed the arguments by CHURCH OF THE HOLY SEPULCHRE. Pliny Fisk. " I felt as though made up hereof the crucifixion scene. the same Rev. After seeing the poor theatricals referred to in Chapter Thirteenth. and deception the Greeks and Armenians profane the Temple of . having little of the essential nature of Christianity. and gnash their teeth when it is spoken the Turks exalt their false prophet above Christ's most glorious name. For my part. the missionary. and are distinguished for their hypocrisy.

and lamp. and depot-building. because a single edifice. the more I distrust them. arch. covering twoscore offices. an ecclesiastical hoax. and ten thousand more. is & falsehood. being more like a large is Worthier than this. by a monstrous stretch of faith. The Holy Sepulchre is the Mecca of the corrupt Christianity of the East From two minarets close by r the cry of " God is God . really a larger church. The whole structure. image. altar. They coin legends and frame an ecclesiastical topography without history or research. to which my boyhood's belief in Gulliver's Travels was mathematical accuracy. In this building. is Solomon himself compared with this. this would not countenance in the slightest degree the abominable idolatries practised here. Mohammed is the prophet of God. There is no idolatry on earth more offensive." floats over this broad roof. and these must explode the legends.390 OFFENSIVE SUPERSTITIONS. picture. than here. never to be awakened until it is too late. where tens and hundreds of thousands come up to obtain pardon for their sins. pillar. The workmen had the timbers. 1 looked in for a few minutes to witness some of its processions. Sir Isaac Newton personified compared with these. I believe it is all a. fiction. statue. Passing along by the so-called Holy Sepulchre. And after all. The Wisconsin man who indorses the Rite of Memphis. no more unseemly and indecent behavior practised in any heathen temple. Old writers tell us nothing else . modern writers must be fanatics if they venture to say anything about them except to deride them. and provided seventeen semi and demisemi sects of Christians to swear The New Jersey brother who is said to believe in the "legends" of the Scotch Rite. a gorgeous imposture. I just completed the new dome. and were taking down had read all that can be said for and against accept- ing this place as the locality of our Saviour's death and burial. and lull at the cross or the tomb their guilty consciences to sleep. and announces to the four winds of heaven that the Moslem dominates the cradle of the Christian faith. The business of travellers now is to collect facts one by one that will illustrate God's history. But even though this building should contain all the relics it claims. to their identity. they have crowded seventy distinct " sacred localities" undergone roof. where the hopes and affections of the Eastern Church tend. got up by tradition-forgers for gain. and would not allow the gorgeousness of the scene to influence my mind. is the Armenian Church . the building can scarcely be called a church. every stone. one morning. The more the local traditions of Jerusalem are examined.

Nehemiah xi. who can behold with- out sorrow. I forgot to ask for this. and dying." I thought of this when I found a large acacia-tree growing in an Englishman's garden. that they may pave the way for the future return of their nation to f?( SPIT ALTS JERUSALEM. however. a short distance south of this I give four cuts of the spot. was found " Buried beneath the green sprigs. . was. I go on to record such thoughts as are naturally suggested by a walk through Jerusalem. not far from this same spot." the Holy Sepulchre. is unequalled in sacred vestments and rich decorations.BENEATH TH GREEN SPRIGS. Amongst its curiosities is the chair that St. they may he buried in that ancient cemetery across Jehoshaphat. Kiiiirhtsof St. emulate the blessing pronounced in " 2. and the others are so rapidly following. The number of ostrich -eggs hanging from the roof of this church. 1162-1137. James used to sit on. One story seems already sunk. Sion. religious purposes. although living in ab- and poverty. the enemies of Christ acting as the " lords of his sepulchre 1 How analogous is this fine character to our memories of him who. 391 of St. and cannot describe the pattern to my chair-making correspondents. that in another generation the observer can lean from the street IAL OF THK KINO OT JERUSALEM. these holy hills. ancient seals of Jerusalem. The Jews idleness here. two things norrent to their nature. The cry of an old " pilgrim visiting the Holy Sepulchre. suggests the prolific lays of that stately bird. where the slope ." For they came to Jerusalem strictly for living. on to the flat roof. This. too. that willingly upon offered themselves to dwell at Jerusaall the men lem. Having now said all that I have " space for concerning this thesaurus of lies. James.Tohn. Oh. without indignation. on Mt. into The tenements seem to be sinking the earth. Anorlnm 1. Sleeping under the sod.

and righteousness. 1150. tombstones. and was perfect in beauty. the pious. already paved with their How affectingly those memorial stones speak of the sleepers is seen in the two following epitaphs (translated from the Hebrew) from that place. he was brightness. There is a beneath. glory. He was a bringer to he was glory. and his branch. Rabbi Moses. of blessed memory. purity of morals and sweetness of family life. good when he enlightened him from his glory. safely in her . a mild acceptation of death." EPITAPH OF A MAN. a certain hope of TURRIB DAVID. pious blessed memory ? "Here it is A precious stone for a head of gold. which have not had the attention of travelThese two are the lers they deserve.HEBREW of Olivet is EPITAPHS. Baldwin IV. all glorious within. seeking in the Upper Geshibah (place of study) on the fifteenth day of the month of Thathe seven lamps . teacher. and in her tongue was the law of kindness a stem of high descent and elevation. and glorious . the holy Rabbi. " Great in degree. 1174-1185 A. Chaim. our honored teacher. Was he light of all that is kind not the wonderful and honored Rabbi. Rabbi). as they lighten his shaft. it kindled his people. the holy. the perfect theologian (cabalist) of the Almighty. the heart of her husband trusted that feareth the Lord. . our honored teacher and Lord Rabbi. the pleasant roe. a sense of the happiness of reposing with the just . Was she not the Rabbiness (Mrs. in peculiar accent of touching grace them .D universal kindness. son of Ater? He grew old. the son of Ater. She opened her mouth with wisdom. of She was daughter of the mighty and wise. who rose above all elevation. the son of Ater. . the high prince. And he called him by the name Hephzibah. a humility . praised as a woman She was the king's daughter. and the widow of our master and . EPITAPH OP A WOMAN". considered as repose. Chaim. is easy. Was he not beloved of the Almighty? to discourse of him. epitaphs of a lady and her husband : HOLT 8EPULCHBZ. the holy. The Almighty meant . .

as old Dr. enormous edifice) in the cool and quiet street that runs southward on Mount Sion. quite well posted in American history and manners." great is the change in favor of the modern Jews. and in one of the churches in driven into the ground with a hammer. Jerusalem. (First to Zion). black hair and eyes. and looked. My guide. (or is it XX. ' ' $93 (i. and still it does him good. accord- 1. He is the author of the book The Lord < ' ' the year A.CAT-AND-DOG NEIGHBORS. And still the Patriarch eats his allowance.?) had been with me the morning I in spoonful of those preserves and a cup of that coffee. and I can't help thinking. and shared that genial chat.e. and the book Taar (Form). a calm. if Pius X. The spirit that moves these Latins. Serapion Murad. One side is perpetually dropping " the tail of me coat on the ground. and the book Rishon le Zion (Is. large convent (an The Armenians here They have an immensely " Fair type. and I greatly enjoyed my visit to their library and printing-press. intelligent and affable. dressed in fur-robes. Once a year the Pope of Rome officially excommunicates the Greek Patriarch of Jerusalem for some of his shindies . and one Rome a nail is of the best-tempered . and taken a . and of the Donnybrook are very strong in numbers. gaining the splendor * the King ' (Hammelech Hashene). He is the handsomest man that I know of. offering to sell them even inducing the Mosque of Omar (but this is incredible). Mr. a face solid as marble. that. and wealthy. is a fine young Syrian of striking appearance. and the book Or Ha-haiiom (Light of the Living). as a mark of malediction. and Greeks in their dealings with each other is quite Celtic. So 27). set off by an elegant native I had considerable intercourse with him both in Joppa and dress. The Armenian Patriarch is a gentleman of polished manners and sensible speech. xli. in the year 5550 of the Shecinah. the Sultan is Jews to immigrate into Palestine. muz. he would put his tenpennies hereafter to a better But what's the use of talking in that way ? purpose.. called on him. Caswell used to. I found the manager of the press a noble specimen of an Armenian gentleman. Armenians. intelligent eye. D. 1790). and the other side delights te tread on it. The same authority ing to the New York Independent of June states that some of the hills around Jerusalem are already Jewish property. 1871. The librarian had an olive complexion. as if he knew what was inside of his books.

made by the brass band on his is I cannot say so much. although he has been removed from the government since I was there that is. . and gave us such entertaining books as Salathiel. an educated believer in Confucius and this is the general impression made on a Protestant's mind in visiting these Oriental churches. thick one. is to . I believe him. They show the skull of one of their old monks. Nazeef Pasha. he has the reputation of being an anti-Mason. one who goes through his five series of prayers daily. handsomely dressed. however. 18' east of to other places thus tabu- Longitude. 31 46' north. the beggar Lazarus took his stinted rations. INTERIOR JERUSALEM HOUSE.D. and received the sentence that drove him forth upon a ceaseless pilgrimage. It is close by the traditional spot at which the Wandering Jew mocked Jesus. Le Close by this is a stone trough. found the Governor of Jerusalem. although he lived here twenty years. every evening is about sunset. and readily believe it. stout not over-courteous to me. he never visited the Dead I am told the skull is a very Sea. to the delectation of all modern . In fact. and hates Christians worse than anything else except Jews. and boast that. out of which. and keeps all the feasts and fasts of the Mohammedan Church punctually. if doorsteps. man. etc. One good thing stands to his credit. he constructed the turnpike from Joppa to Jerusalem. 37 ? Jiiif Errant. 35 Greenwich. a square-built. The location of Jerusalem relatively Latitude. They call him a religious fanatic. they say. He was tourists. replied that he I had never heard of Josephus before. Ecce Homo Arch (as it is most improperly is full of gaudy and ridiculous paintings and ornaments. to be a short.NAZEEP PASHA. not being a Freemason. Kentucky. sailor-looking fellow. I asked one He of the monks if he knew that Josephus was born here A. lated : done by his order. styled) as suggestive of devotion to an The chapel near " " educated Christian's mind as the Hindoo idol that adorns my parlor at La Grange. the noises As to his ear for music.

13 miles. Bridge over Kedron . Hebron. TABLE OF RELATIVE HEIGHTS. ' . . the Jordan. ' . rt southeast corner " . 75 miles. 157 miles." . . I give two classes of heights.281 Pool of Siloam . . . Gaza. ' . 2..' ' .-'. Acre. Sidon. 48 miles. . V CIRCUIT OP THE CITY. " " " " Samaria. . 2. Bethlehem.. . . St Stephen's Gate . Jericho. 13 miles. " * " SionGate bend in south wall Mograbbin Gate . " " " " " Capernaum. . Nazareth. Damascus. . 45 miles. 18 miles. Baalbec. commencing at the northwest To the Joppa Gate " " southwest corner . 5 miles. . Bethel. . . .610 614 728 433 441 118 285 Mount David's Olivet. 36 miles. 160 miles. .114 2. 394 From " " " " Joppa. 165 miles. V . . . 353 230 .537 2. . Palmyra... Tyre.... the first from the sea-level. . . 35 miles.HEIGHTS AND DISTANCES. 132 miles. corner. at the outlet of the vat ley of Jehoshaphat. 110 miles. '". Tomb .724 2. the second from the well En-rogel (Beer Eyub).295 . 155 miles. . Russian Convent 'V fi ... . " " " Beyrout. " 244 415 " Golden Gate . '. . 82 miles..429 Mosque of Omar . . 300 468 195 steps. 19 miles. 2.

and on this the modern. the encircling ravines formed an impregnable obstacle to an assailant .279 steps. joins the valBoth ley of Kedron. So many works have been issued on this subject within ten yeara that almost every reader has the information at hand. .. The Bible teems with allusions to this local peculiarity of its site as a repeat at . and the ruins of buildings thrown down by successive invaders or domestic factions. Jericho. broken here generally and there by deep narrow gullies. . with the exception of Samaria and Hebron. and In ancient times the bare rock must Ikeep and difficult of access. To the northeast corner Herod's Gate . those of Egypt and Mesopotamia. were emphatically cities of the plain. the valley of Hinnom. . Gaza. the other great cities within his ken. . not far from the Beer Eyub. Jerusalem is a mountain-city. The easternmost of these ravines. Tyre. the landscape showing a succession of plateaux and flat-topped hills. . ravines commence as a mere depression of the ground. Jezreel. and. a tongue of land is inclosed between two of these ravines. like the ancient. It was pre-eminently so to the Jew for. the valley of Jehoshcity. before the invention of gunpowder. plateau on which the city stands is of tertiary nearly horizontal. we find Jerusalem to have been at all times. limestone. has a course nearly north and south . and the natural difficulties of the ground were of the rock-surface. .. 360 359 250 150 660 steps. . " " " the bend Damascus Gate northwest corner Total . have shown itself in many places. . On three sides. . but their their sides. looked upon as a fortress artificially of great strength. the east. about 2| miles. and I will not much length merely second-hand knowledge. and the west. after running a short distance to the southward. mountain-city. . the The strata At the point where the city stands. encumbered as they are now with the accumulated debris of centuries. or Well of Joab. increased in ancient times by the scarping Hence. TOPOGRAPHY OF JERUSALEM. aphat or of the Kedron. . .39tf TOPOGRAPHY OF JERUSALEM.. Damascus. forming the southern limit to the tongue of land above mentioned. are still floors sink rapidly. makes a bold sweep to the east. the westernmost. is built. the south. 4. " " " . .

forming in its course the boundary between the Mohammedan. as we are informed by Josephus. therefore. or. that the western ridge is the most elevated and most important. S9't the attack. could only be directed against the northern face of the city. and of the castle of Antonia. some- what north of junction with the valley of Hinnom. where. and Herod. of Bezetha. from the Damascus gate to a point in the Kedron its valley. The city being thus split in the midst into two ridges by this valley. But here all agreement may be said to stop. it may be observed. Phasaelus. even eighty-five feet in depth. and the Acra of the book of Maccabees . and the Christian and Jewish quarters of the modern city. at the time of the famous siege by Titus. In ancient times this valley was much deeper tfian at present. All again are agreed in fixing Ophel on the end of the tongue of land called Moriah. fifty feet. with the Tyropoeon. and in making the site of the Temples of Solomon. one of the most difficult problems before us. and all are agreed in identifying the lower portion. There are differences of opinion whether we should fix the Mount Zion of the Bible and the Mount Zion of the writers of Christian times on the same or on opposite hills . The exact position of the Temple is matter of controversy . the position of the Towers Hippicus. Zerubbabel. captured by King David. the absence of natural defences was. Mosv authorities are agreed in placing on some portion of this ridge th< original city of Jebus. the valley of cheesemakers. of these walls is. the site of the Acra of Josephus. and its ancient course was to the eastward of its It is filled up with debris thirty feet. a third ravine of less importThis is splits the tongue of land into two unequal portions. notwithstanding the detailed description of them in Josephus. the fourth quarter and last added euburb of the city. and the Upper City of Josephus. either coincide with or occupy some portion of the Haram itself. ance Besides these two principal ravines. by a reference to the map of Jerusalem. the Tyrian merchants. which runs under the west wall of the Haram. At one part of its course it forms the western boundary of Mount Moriah.ZION AND MORIAH. sup- To determine the actual course plied by three distinct lines of wall. the Tyropoeon valley. This depression has generally been identified in its whole course with the Tyropoeon valley of Josephus. and thence to the Kedron. and present course. as some would have it. . marked depression of the ground runs from north to south through the midst of the modern A city. whether the name is to be identified with the eastern or the western ridge.

But the united efforts of these bands and their had done but little to restore Israel to its posterity former glory. the philanthropic Peabody of his day. about B.C. a near kinsman of his. would go far to settle the disputed question of the course of the second and third walls of Josephus the exact extent of the city in the time of our Saviour. which can only be settled by patient and systematic burrowing into the debris produced by many successive demolitions of the city at those points where the absence of inhabited houses renders it possible to excavate . to a Freemason." to follow Nehemiah under" gtandingly in his remarkable nocturnal survey of Jerusalem. In the twentieth year of that king's reign. had largely abandoned the religion of their fathers. brought intelligence from Jerusalem that affected him deeply. viz. jealous of his honor. "the Conservators. one Hanani. are the principal data from which we must set out. . B.C. and Mariamme. that The : he was born during the Babylonish captivity. and especially in the days of that vilified order. Marauders made property and life insecure murder and robbery were rife even within the streets of Jerusalem the people . the Tirshatha of the Jews. Such a comparison is just in all its parts. in the month of Chisleu. It is quite a proper thing to compare Nehemiah.. and the whole nation was in a state of This was the abject affliction and reproach. at the opening of his biography. intelligence which had reached the ears of Nehemiah through his kinsman Hanani. These had rebuilt the It will be him Babylonia temple and portions of the city. zealous in his work. 536 (ninety-one years prior to the period of which we are writing) Zerubbabel had led a caravan of his people back from to Jerusalem. whose large wealth was profusely expended in the strengthening of Jerusalem and the care of its poor. history of this perfect model of a just and generous man is contained in the interesting book which bears his name that he was "the son of Hachaliah" and apparently of the tribe of Judah. and that. if determined. residing during the winter season at Shush an. remembered that in the year B. and of the Tower Pheshinus. 500. or December. 445. which.C. he was "the cup-bearer" of King Artaxerxes Longimanus. feeling his responsibility to the Grand Architect of the Universe for the manner in which he spends his days.398 NEHEMIAH THE WALL-BUILDER. the renowned wall-builder of the Jewish restoration. Seventy-nine years after that Ezra led a second caravan back to Jerusalem. are matters of keen dispute. at It was always a matter of interest to me. .

Barclay." the little company this patriotic governor. His worst anticipations as to the condition of Jerusalem and the Jewish nation were realized upon his arrival. special orders were issued that he should be supplied with timber from the king's forests. and so he amply furnished and indorsed. a mounted guard was furnished him letters to the governors of the intervening . even before the dragon well (the pool me around its area. and a most diligent explorer of the " " ancient city." he and "some few men " with him. with the power of life and death . and then began." and asking that God would prosper his purposes in behalf of Jerusalem. for foot made the circumambulation of the ruins of Jerusalem." coneider A "had not kept his commandments. he was bound by promise to return to the king at a set time . T. the most important work (that of building the city walls). he gave himself until the following April to conhow best he could heal the wounds of his people. . statutes. and "give him mercy in the sight of the king. and (turning to the left) to the dung port west (500 yards south)." This being done. he laid before the king the doleful case of Israel . telling no man " what his God had put in his heart all save himself being on to do at Jerusalem. upon the monarch's asking him. nor judgments. and viewed the walls of Jerusalem on the the point of Mount Zion to the side. Arising "in the night. This nocturnal reconnoissance has been until recently a blind track to Bible-readers. but at first secretly. " " he be sent to Judah to rebuild it. districts were given him by the king. for many years a missionary at Jerusalem. styling God " the great and terrible God that keepeth covenant and mercy. Nehemiah was made the governor of Judah. : impossible to overestimate the importance to the future political and ecclesiastical prosperity of the Jewish nation " of the coming of is He spent but three days in preparations. he offered the prayer which his own pen had recorded. The labors of Dr. : in the valley on the west). 399 prudent man. at length set up so many of the fallen metes and bounds as to enable to nearly follow the steps of the great Tirshatha Dr. Barclay's solution of this zigzag problem is con" I went out tained in the parentheses. Nehemiah says by the gate of the valley (the Joppa Gate). with a view to the speedy rebuilding of the walls. Then (having gone round south) I went on to the gate of the fountain (by the pool of Siloam). J." ? that request plead might fessing that his people The favor was granted in the largest measure.NOCTURNAL RECONNAISSANCE. " For what dost thou make and. A pious man. A late writer says " It set forth.

This festival occasion is described in fifty-two days the work was accomplished. quarters of the city nearest which they dwelt respectively. that we be no more a reproach. journey to the Joppa Gate. estimated the amount of labor neces" the priests." reader has only to take a map of Jerusalem. and said. paid one of which he performed the splendid and triumphant ceremonial of dedicating the walls. and (turning round the point of Mount Ophel to the south and east) to the King's Pool (the Fount of the Virgin) but there was no place for the beast that was under me to pass (owing to the accumulation of water and rubbish there). we indorse the views of a late writer. that in a wonderfully short time the walls emerged from the heaps of rubbish and encircled the city as in days of old. the princes and leaders vied with each other in self-sacrifice and industry. the nobles.400 ENTHUSIASTIC RESPONSE. and retraced his Having. Jerusalem waste. at Babylon. and rescued the p<x>r Jews from spoliation and He . tho so returned. In summing up the character of this man. a second visit to Jerusalem. let us build up the wall of Jerusalem. and To sum up this reconnoissance. " let us rise up and build" and set themselves with decision to the work. like a skillful engineer. turned to the left. and viewed the wall (on the east side of the city). Only one exception is noted in the popular response . and so then returned to king. Dividing the wall into ten parts. He then turned back. He reminded them of the prevalent distress. nobles and firmly repressed the exactions of the the rich. and so wrought upon them by his appeals that they cried out. and of the kindness and liberality of the king . For pure and disinterested patriot- ism he stands unrivalled. then round the point of Ophel to the valley east of the Temple. Nehemiah Agreeably to his promise to the He minutely in the Book of Nehemiah. and her gates burned with fire. the Tekoite nobles " put not their necks to the work of the Lord all the rest had a mind to the work. " Come. corresponding with the ." With such energy did the people labor." He told them of God's answer to his prayer in the distant land of exile. that we are unable to find a single fault to counterbalance his many and great virtues. he now called together the rulers. brook (Kedron)." and in nervous language exhorted them to duty. perhaps a third. Then I went up in the night by the . observe that the zealous governor went out at the Joppa Gate. and sary to be done. and turned back and entered (again) by the gate of the valley (the Joppa Gate). circumambulated Mount Zion to Siloam.

so mote it be ! It has been said of the inimitable Godfrey. virtue. by which I stood. the amiableness of virtue commanding gravity. His deportment was moral. was watered not alone by the tears of friends. Amen. those of caring for the sick and warring against Mohammedanism. five days preceding the first anniversary of ernment.D. but kept at his own charge a table for 150 Jews. accepting only the title of to its Defender of the Tomb of Christ. His lofty mind was capable of the grandest enterprises. on the bridge of Antioch.he people. and obedience. he nevertheless refused to wear a diadem in the city where his SaHis tomb. viour had worn a crown of thorns. This. And his martial zeal in the cause of heaven was always directed by prudence and tempered by philanthropy. Godfrey was elected by the army. chastity. but honored by the commendations of many of the Moslems. Let all who : can admire dignity. whose affections his natural virtues had conciliated. also that formidable sword with which. and humanity combined one noble soul. John's Hospital. adding to the usual vows of poverty. he clove in twain a gigantic Saracen. A. He granted a donation to the St. Godfrey de Boulion. He regretted the stern necessity that drew him from the immediate service of God . at which any who returned from captivity were welcome. with which many of the Crusader knights became affiliated. His piety was fervent. that in him the gentlest m manners were united to the firmest spirit . in fact. 1099. but when in arms he was a hero. generosity. which expresses a volume Hie jacet inclytus Dux de Bulion. 401 He refused to receive his lawful allowance as governor from . 26 .D. His spurs are preserved here . Amen. A. Godfrey died the his govfollowing year. He was alike distinguished for political courage and for personal bravery. during the whole twelve years that he was in office. but declined.GODFREY THE GOOD. originated the order of St John of Jerusalem. which had been established at Jerusalem in 1048 (fiftyone years before). 1098. Here I read his inscription. qui totam istam terram acquisivit cultui Godefridus Christiana : cujus anima regnet cum Christo. slavery. in which act he was followed by the other princes. I know of nothing to excite the interest of a Freemason in this building so much as the thought that here repose the ashes of knighthood's noblest exponent. Faithful to his first simple wish of becoming the defender and advocate of the Holy Sepulchre. first king of the Latin monarchy of Jerusalem. answer. and pressed as he was by the voice of all the chiefs of the Crusade. in consideration of their poverty.

Therefore I will be somewhat diffuse upon this subject. Oh. must be looked for in this direction. am not mistaken. armed as he was and in his sanguine vest. " Mine Christ's Sepulchre ! at its portal In armor to lie ! Mine in death's ministry When I shall die. such things constitute a class of facts perused with avidity by all.402 THE CHOICE OF GODFREY. his bannered spoils displayed. and whatever real originality a man can throw around so worn trite a theme as Jerusalem. Christ's Chevalier. and copy tin notes from my diary as made and . Warder of Tomb Divine. And at the Sacred Tomb his vowed devotion paid lines " ! My own upon the immortal Godfrey are here given : THE CHOICE OF GODFREY. Mine be the humbler name. Sorrowed and groaned. So transcendent were the virtues of Godfrey. Good Sword of Jesus. that Tasso closes his immortal poem of Jerusalem Delivered by describing his passage. where he " Hung up his arms. live grandly here Ashes of Godfrey. in Christ's glory And reigning in bliss ! It would be easy to fill this book with the notes and memoranIf I dums made relative to the street-scenes of Jerusalem. Knight of Christ's Sepulchre. Godfrey shall ever be Homaged and crowned. Not where the Saviour bore Thorns on his brow . to the Temple. Not where my king upon Cross-tree did bow Not where the Prince of Life . " Fitter by far. there's ! No Crowned place like this.

They went off without ever saw eggs boiled so hard as they boil even asking Probably they forgot it. what a merry game of camel they do playing camel. laughing just as such a merry pair of sisters ought to. while I am writing up her family. . Their clothes are made of blue cotton of the thinnest. Their only victuals are libbarn. after all. and raised it up to his lips and kissed it. or curdled milk. suckles her four pups. young dog. A rooster's head is sticking out is covered with hens. All the dress the two girls have on wouldn't cover a candle-stand decently. but after I bought her a string of Jcabobs and some bread. spits and shrieks. grinds her teeth. under the window. STREET-SCENES IN JERUSALEM. cheapest. she changed her mind. 403 A little girl about six years old. A she snarled at me. girl is another little girl about twelve. They boil them over night. as a camel does. and the big the camel. She saw that. turns her head back. This is the way they do here. Three laboring men sitting on the sidewalk near me. Then the Each one put his right hand grateful fellows came up to thank me. play! The man chicken-peddler with strings of poultry swung all over him. oh. for she doesn't like the style of my clothes . They must keep them on hand ready boiled. she her tail. An enormous pair of wings flaps over his shoulders. and turns her one eye upon me with a gratefirst At wags motherly ful expression. and raggedest character. me for baclcslieesh.STREET SCENES IN JERUSALEM. where his head ought to be. And now. under my right hand so as just to touch it. Then the little one climbs her back. I gave them some boiled eggs. The sidewalk is only twenty inches wide. then away they both go. in a small wooden dish. eating their breakfast. these outlandish clothes may cover a human heart. She kneels down as camels do. Thousands of people pass along this sidewalk every hour. But. lying things whose eyes are not yet opened. Never was a lot of boiled eggs swallowed so fast before. Nobody them in Jerusalem. kicks her in the side and makes a noise as cameliers da The big girl screams and gets up awkwardly. for nobody will disturb her on that narrow sidewalk. clasps hands over her forehead. A reminding me of the ridiculous old angel that I saw painted in a Greek church yesterday. Yet the creature gave birth to them there. and she will bring them up there . and bread that looks like such black sawdust as mahogany-wood makes.

All the time this dog-fight was going on. all day long. Piles of cauliflowTurks laugh. Get out of the way. As he came along. The quantity of sugar-cane that is sold in the bazaars of Jerusa- lem surprises me. suckling her little dogs. who was carrying a bread-tray on her head. loaded with vegetables. on his hump. The musses made sometimes in these narrow streets make the very The Turks hardly ever laugh. in tracks like a mammoth's. The heroes of the two factions had agreed that she. So he tried it in a dozen places. chewing sugar-cane. came up my with his koorbash. honeyed reeds. thit is. hands. They used to sew up their prisonto cut their feet and ers in asses' skins. He told me of a family of four brothers. nearly carries* me off who was smoking outside a cafe near me. most as large as a bushel-basket. hands off. weiv heaped mountain high.s wide. in Louisiana. as he came stalking along. And everybody did get out of the way. The custom is almost as common among the children here. at last a donkey tipped a load of oak roots on him. . you wouldn't think there was so much gallantry in them. ers that grew around here. his rider roared Ruak. i):n- \vomun. and I believe him. Hassan says he would love to treat his enemies that by way. I used to notice the little negroes. at least. I enjoyed the joke of an English sailor measuring the width of the streets by lying down across them. was coming down the narrow street. the mother lay perfectly unconcerned. dove down .404 STREET SCENES IX JERUSALEM. and then burn them alive A feet. for his head touched one side and his feet the other. burn out their eyes with hot irons tear out their tongues the roots. spongy feet flattening out on the stone pavement. and went in for them. ruak. Anything like humanity seems foolishness to these people. tongues. living on Mount Lebanon. He loomed up like Vesuvius. and eyes were destroyed by a cruel tyrant more than thirty years ago. . I watched a muss. and had made a bet with another sailor that he was as long as the street is wide. hi. and won the bet every time. his head level. . t am afraid he was drunk . shouldn't be meddled with though. which they sucked. It reminds me how surprised the Crusaders were when they found at Tripoli. whose feet. called zookra. On each side of him great sacks-full bulged out. to look at them. and liked so much that they could not be satisfied. A camel. He had been to Jerusalem before. sweet. Hassan. furious dog-fight surging down the street. his monstrous under-jaw swinging round the upper one like a barn-door on its hinges.

fashioned dresses. here. cowardly wretches. in the business parts of the city. when here. for the donkeys could not turn round for their lives. yet they and the Egyptian sieved the dog enough to make an idol of him. But just as the camel had passed rne. all loaded down with oak -roots. some eggs a piastre a dozen. The merchant was fumbling over But he stopped praying and tried to sell me his rosary and praying. seeming to hate new- suppose if I would wear the native dress they would not bark at me. the drivers on top. Mar arrif. A soldier poked the camel's legs with his bayonet to make him bite. Such scenes must be common cially at this time. and carried them backwards into the side streets. The cane flew into slivers like glass. Ruak. as their roots just filled up the width of the streets. The donkeys raised their tails and brayed. Instead of driving a mangy cur out of the way. lest their clothes should touch him. below the camel's stomach. that I had just bought. and the . The peoThey won't answer questions ple here won't even talk about dogs. by striking it over the back of a monstrous brute that would not get out of the way when I hallooed to him. and so got out. espethere are more than five thousand strangers Right behind this camel walked a ferocious bull. Maybe that is the reason the people wear the same fashions that Abraham did . his ! I used up a beautiful olive-wood cane to-day. How the people of this country do detest and despise dogs They seem afraid to touch them. roots and all. little 405 of the I jumped into one shops where they sell cakes. he met a procession of six donkeys. The donkey-drivers swore. the men shouldered the donkeys. So tbey lived for many centuries under the Roman rule. who had each of horns tied up with a wisp of hay.STEEET SCENES IN JEBUSALEM. They bark I at me incessantly. They suffer the poor. Get out of the way. / don't know. and so let the camel pass. about dogs. that look more like wolf than dog. I wondered how the thing would be settled. At last. they actually walk around him. recalling the Latin maxim. that Mohammedans years. fcenum in cornu habet he has hay on his horns. to lie right across the sidewalk and block it up. ruaTc. lived in Egypt more than two hundred . The camel screamed. The camel-driver yelled. If they say anything in reply to such questions it is The Jews hate dogs as bad as the is. The camel could not turn round without pulling down the buildings on both sides of him. The rest of the crowd jumped into the stores right and left as I had done. Never was such an uproar. it pleases the dogs. Here ivas a muss.

406 DOG LAWS. burn first-rate and the people cf Jerusalem buy them for fuel. but according to the number of houses! So the governor has had them all numbered. such a breed! You never see here the bluff. but none the less enforced. Miyah thalata sittah. nor the slight-built greyhound sharp. When the dog-sheikh barks. for. But this makes no difference Jews never learn anything from other nations. What Jerusalem dogs are all of one they don't know isn't worth knowing. courageous bulldog. the dogs in all the other districts shall bark too. intelligent mastiff. not written out or printed. Alf I watched a poor fellah that is what they call a farmer coming in through the Joppa Gate with a load of oak-roots from near Hebron. was surprised to see all the houses of Jerusalem numbered on the doors. street-cleaners. The ground in that direction is full of oak-roots. Rule in that district until stronger dog shall take his place. half-starved curs. shall the dogs in his district all bark 5. Romans honored and with them. the all born. shrewd terrier . I jotted down what I suppose to be sitting their regulations : Rule Rule is 1. breed. the soldiers of Joppa Gate . stead of that. Rule When the dogs in one district bark. respected the dog. How they will tax that poor farmer before he gets home to-night His load of roots is worth in Jerusalem about a dollar. Then. nor the tawny. . one day in a cool cavern. No The City of Jerusalem is divided into ten dog-districts. aasher. Rule 4. who need cleaning themselves worse than the streets. but not much good of that lollar will he get. surly. these are all gaunt. Hassan says they tax people here not according to the number of persons in the family. death. Of coursf I they use the Arabic figures. deep-voiced bloodhound nor the noble Newfoundland. The 2. These oak-roots. dog shall ever go outside of the district in which he strongest dog in his district shall be the dog-sheikh some stronger dog whips him. nor the sturdy. first. when dried. ! . Penalty. mere scavengers of garbage. is 1006. Rule 6. 3. nor the silent. No dog shall move out of a man's way. In- And . although only a stray oak here and there has been seen up that way for hun- dreds of years. means 113 Thamarneen arbaah. is 84. The dogs here seem to have a regular constitution and set of by- While laws. too.

Where do you come from ? I told x him the United America and State of Kentucky. He said to me. of which there are many here at Jerusalem. him and permisgoes back through the gate ten cents more for duties on the tobacco and for market-duties more Then when he cloth he has bought.THE VILLAGE TYRANTS. from five to ten miles around. Most all of them want I think I have met a hundred this week. It looks very pretty when well cut. Every has at least one sheikh. Then he said. a lot of priests peeped out through the grated windows at me. So there is fifty per cent. vrith a they will charge they will charge him ten cents sion to sell his fuel. They seem unhappy and unhealthy. tower and stairway are perfectly preserved there. That means. is stamped on every piece of money It is little they read what is stamped on money. that will be paid to-day to this extortionate. the sheikh of his village will make him pay at least ten cents more for his share of stealage. and of course they are. and loaf here. (Nehemiah iii. And finally. And yet his name. I copied from As I passed a convent. They This is the one that Dr. 6." I this gate some ornaments of the modern style. will 40? charge him eight cents for permission to pass the custom-house load of fuel. them any questions. the first one is. when he gets home to-night. or one-half the value of his property. hanging round Jerusalem They come in every day. This reminds me of the passage. Do you of the Sultan of Turkey ? Only about one in five can tell me. with only thirty houses. Min aineja yee. States of that is.) Very conand interesting remains of the ancient structure are yet An old Jewish to be seen in the towers on each side of this gate. What a lot of village sheikhs there are. on all other articles eight per cent. has village " For the two. ! backsheesh. transgressions of a If I ask know the name ! . Charteerah. Bethel. Abd-el-Asiz. He thinks that " this is the same kind of stairway named in 1 Kings vi. in the Bible The Old Gate. The gate-duties on tobacco and silk are forty cents a pound . One of them was a jolly red-nosed fellow. I spend a good deal of time to-day at the Damascus Gate. of figuring on the houses at Joppa and see a great deal of this sort Jerusalem. Barclay thinks call it here Bab-es-Sham. These priests looked like rows of convicts squinting through grated windows. iniqui- tous government. Good-bye. At the bazaars. 8 They went up with winding stairs into the middle chamber and out of the was called siderable : middle into the third.

He hesitated. all within one hundred teps. and thus he need not stoop to his work.408 STREET SCENES IN JERUSALEM. The blacksmith has a hole dug in the middle of his floor. they fasten a hook-em-snivey in the upper lip. let your dragoman buy it and give two. and choked myself with the rest. on this side of the street well. another coppersmith another donkey-stand and a confectioner's." presseth I met a couple of musicians. mean way. many are the princes thereof. fiddle. . I was quite satisfied with that specimen. and said it was a love-song. I don't think I could have stood it at all. in their small. mouth and poured the water down his throat it six inches over his I tried it It didn't strangle him a bit. . . ! ." They are great cheats. so he can have the anvil on the level of his arm.) land. Such law-abiding dogs as they are There is a donkey-stand here a blacksmith-shop two coppersmiths. At a corner is a place where three dog-districts meet you can see delegates from all three of them. 3. one playing a sort of one-stringed and singing like a good-fellow the other collecting backsheesh. A silver stick. . But they know the penalty too to shoe the horse The blacksmith-shop out in the and are cautious. consular dragoman or cawass went by with solemn mien and a long curved sword. I tried them with a piece of bread. water. and meant that the sun beams from a lady's eyes the seven stars shine from her mouth the and a good deal more that he full moon rises from her breast wouldn't tell me. something like a clothespin. so they street. He reminds me of the saying here " Buy a pipe and give a napoleon for it . and doesn't waste a great deal of arms. is like a sweeping rain that leaveth no food. and a strut equal to the drum-major of the Forty-third Xew York. The singing was bad enough. These sheikhs xxviii. splendid : uniform. are said to be very tyrannical. making a terrific din three bakers' shops . They will not cross the line. poured most of the water down my bosom. ." (Prov. and the pas" The fits them : poor man that opsage in Proverbs xxviii. He held I saw a man drinking water out of a little earthen cruse. . To keep him from biting. The string was an inch wide. I asked Hassan what the song was about. . just the poor. . . They are shoeing a horse close by. long silver-headed staflf. 2. A man was watering the streets from large skin bags under his He has the nack of it. If it had been wider. but the one-stringed fiddle was fearful. have measures seven by nine feet.

right in the road. and a tin-shop all in a row. Then a stately old man with cloak trimmed wi. only listened for the voice of their own shepherd. Nobody interrupted him. in front to keep the rider from flying over the donkey stumbles. If there is any passage of Scripture to they remind me of it is that one in which the Israelites are said have "piped with pipes. crowded In all that variety of sounds. pipe-holders. the poor things streets of Jerusalem. Then some Desert Arabs with large yellow handkerchiefs on their heads in place of the tarboush. and they are nothing but cornmeal cakes. and ornamenting pipes. Then a group of soldiers. and very He went around among the shops taking bread and dirty. all of them on foot they walk as awkwardly as sailors. A man Then some pilgrims from Eussia." (1 Kings i. a in New York the star-police fruit. Then a camel loaded with green they are muldoon. I saw a crazy man.) Going back to camp. Then a party of men and women astride donkeys without stirrups the saddles havofficer. Among the Mohammedans crazy men are worshiped. A man with Joppa oranges. . 409 with a board on his head.STREET SCENES IN JERUSALEM. all wearing tarboushes. a cook-shop. except me. very crazy. me wouldn't let his He had three medals hanging to his coat-lapel. and where he led they followed. and counted a cookshop. a tin-shop. mending. Yet he sold them fast. wearing sheepskin dresses. Then came a flock of sheep that a man was leading through the noisy. . minutes. I took another stand about two squares off. whatever he wanted to eat. and then frosted over with sugar. and pipe-handles. Went is into a number of carpenters' shops. Muldoon is a humbug. This one was nearly naked. 45. soldiers ask me . without baking. graph. The if he shopkeepers rather seemed to like it. their principal business making. tied on with a black rope made of camel's hair. covered with cakes. In this country a common man's rank and position may be known by his dress just as much as an officer's. which he is very fond of doing. and a fine-looking negro for an .vh fur. grass. He saya I bought some. with the wool inside full of life were those dresses. ing an immense cushion his head when and of lying down. But I might write all day and not finish this para. a blacksmith-shop. He stopped politely and talked with for backsheesh. dried. Every donkey has a boy to run behind and poke him up with a sharp stick. and everybody seemed to like them. I couldn't help thinking would have him locked up in ten w. too.

Yes. and they don't know I British. As they know we States." said he. The lizards were gliding in and out of the walls there as if they cared nothing for the mortar of Suleyman. " tell it. Bergh. A sea-captain rolling along. The drivers shout at the poor. patient. per cent. J saw Arabic words on the wall. I notice that nobody I have talked to in this country knows the . ever. As I knew that the oranges A at Jerusalem. willing mules. mother has checked me in fault-finding by saying that " the way that Jerusalem is kept clean is. D. I can. 1542. big Arab was sitting by a pile of oranges.410 STREET SCENES IN JERUSALEM. the fruit or the fellow. profit He answerHis oranges. I Mr. When though it ever They are not swept at all. in our way of counting. overload them. Backsheesh. like to be called a Humanity wish our months. German. but a cost in him much inferior stock. however. howed. so cruelly! The streets of Jerusalem to-day are full of pilgrims dressed in all sorts of costumes. French. The city had been swept." " never refuse backsheesh! He let me go with a laugh that could be heard to the top of Mount Olivet. The United call come from America they any other name for us. were not the fine large ones that I admired so at Joppa. To-day I have found musquitoes in Jerusalem quite troublesome. that never ask for backsheesh. It is said they mean that the present walls of Jerusalem were built by order of the Sultan Suleyman in 948 that is. The asked an Italian gentleman how he would European ? He didn't understand me. Americans. 1 priced some of them here They were five for a piastre. call us Yankees." Said I. unknown in the Holy Land. English. A. me anything about the people of this country ? " Well then. strike them over the head and face. Nobody sweeps these streets. and that is the Jews. and travellers who are not pilgrims. and said I was right. " They Says I. and said. and throw stones at them. There is one class of sin. A strange mistake doesn't look aa for mother to . that is about a cent I told him that was a thousand apiece. everybody sweeps the pavement in front of his own house. us Americans. and that ended the argument. curse them in that dreadful Arab slang. however. could be pasha here for twelve Yorker. Can you tell people here. oh. At the Joppa Gate of this great stone patchwork. I don't know which was the dirtiest. to brutes is a virtue New They twist their tails. full of arrack and " caught hold of my arm and stopped me. etc. real name of our country. Joppa about ten for a cent. a boy." She is mistaken.

every evening. Goorundel. and the other half have Hassan. got a friend to give me the names of such persons as he should get acquainted with to-day. Awad. and twelve feet broad. Meslem. Kratismayoshajewsky. that built it. until yonder proud and doomed In form. Mustarfer. quaestor those of the tribunes. Guzzaway. The one in the rear was the porta decumana. sinistra. In this rampart. and rampart are as : And plainly sketched there as in the pages of a classical dictionary. The camp had four gates." Here in this camp of Titus. Jussoof. at the southwest corner of the Dead Sea. took my note-book and politely wrote his name in it. one on each side. Abdellatti. was theporta prcetoria. p. for the standards were never to be raised from their sockets. Mosedden. or Hosine. on Mount Scopus. pointing outward from every side. Abdallah. Narmer. the natives have : . Howarrer. about fifty miles southeast of heie.. A rampart (vallum] was composed of the earth which had been dug from the ditch. Sayid. Ibraheem. the arms spirits that defended it. It was a Standing Camp (campa stafiva). Sajeeb. Solyman. A Russian gentleman who saw what I was doing. and the war-like yet the hea I that planned it. prsefects of the allies. As far as I can write the names he gave me. when . and the Mr. It was surrounded by a ditch (fossa) some nine feet deep. Nisamee. Dayood. Ferhard. Majnoon. Noureddeen. Kosroo. porta principalis dextra and p. Haymoor. or words to that effect. sharp stakes bristled. etc. or Hosseen. That which was so long presented to the frowning eyes that watched it morning and evening. Nasser. Soofy. Hulakoo. angles.THE CAMP OF TITUS. Near him were his lieutenant-generals. ditch. so that I could write them down in my diary. from the walls of Jerusalem. Marlek. etc. Nomarn. contained the tents of Titus and his retinue. also the praetorium cohort. Its lines. Karder. it was city should come once more under the Roman yoke. The camp was divided into two parts. Mnedh-dhin. H. those on the east and west. next the enemy. I undertook to reconstruct in imagination the Camp of Titus built on that summit. About half Mohammed to their names. Yebrood. Tristam says " There is one of the Roman camps still standing near Masada. Yezid. The upper portion. square (quadrata). After visiting Mount Scopus. 4|J make I ! I never saw a town that has so many disgusting sights and smells as this. Akeel. they are Yahyah. Essedeen. Haroun. are but the dust of 1800 years. They are a queer lot of words to call people by. B.

and then the hills around Jerusalem echoed with Those martial the sonorous wind-instruments used at that period. Letters from Europe and Beyrout are only still . and 24th. The manner in which I arranged my money matters for our journey. reached to an amazing distance on all sides. that is. you must mark it post-restante. on the 2d. and great was the joy they inspired. through the clear evening air. is a queer affair. This scornful challenge to the enemy was promptly taken up by soldiers. Flowing over the range of Olivet. 12th. about The package conthirty-five miles. Rate of postage. They have been very useful in missionary operations in Jerusalem and vicinity. The is post-rest ante. bankers and miscellaneous business. sixty cents per ounce. weighed ten ounces. The custom in this country is to deliver all postal matter. and friends. as our carriers do in New York." to have all correspondence directed to the care of the American Consulate. fifteen cents per one-quarter of an ounce. It is a hard place to find. drawn off upon thin French The prepaid postage paper. at Bethel. sounds. I visited on it was six dollars. . 20th. Letters are dispatched by the French post from Jerusalem for England. These gentlemen are highly respected both by natives and foreigners. Therefore. if you want your letter to lie in the " But the best way is post-office. and 30th from Beyrout and Constantinople on the 4th. here.412 THE ROMAN TRUMPET. and 28th. the bold and thrilling peals were heard by the Jewish refugees along the Plain of Sharon. .. 14th. after giving watchword of the night the trumpets of the legion were sounded : them upon the general had dismissed his chief officers his commands and distributing the tessffi CB. they were heard by Jewish east the Christian refugees at Pella. At Hebron. Letters arrive from England on the 10th. at Masada. Brothers & Co. these war-signals were recognized as tokens that the enemy was not yet in possession of Jerusalem. or post-office at Jerusalem. It and harder to get the postmaster to understand your wishes. 18th. far across the Jordan in the northFlowing over the range of Mizpah. prepaid as far as Joppa. Brown. taining our diaries for the past week. was to deposit with Messrs. and 22d of each month for Beyrout and Constantinople on the 8th. all Tuba mirum spargens sonum. who also do a general dry-goods the counting-room of Messrs. only open once or twice a week. Eight cents extra is charged for each letter from Joppa to Jerusalem. Bergheim & Co.

it sparkles. its the remains of Solomon's work extant. and itself. Its circyclamen. And they blew the trumpet. be desired. the amount necessary for the journey. now so bald and covered as to their shoulders in sackcloth. stronghold. nor minstrel's nor shepherd's pipe nor plowman's song moves these echoes. upon which I can raise money in any part of the world where there is a banking-house. so oil King . the priest. And that all the peop.e piped with pipes. was a miniature lake in Perhaps a miniature fleet may once have been moored here. were then crowded with the ten thousands of Jerusalem. B. For they gave me letters of credit. God save King Solomon. its leaf delicate and soft.LOWER POOL OF Wall-street." But now. upon its throne of rock. and No place more fitting could his brilliant reign of forty years began. presenting many large cle was brilliant. Stillness and sluggishness reign in joint dominion over Jerusalem. shooting forth among its prickly neighbors. to find a first-class photographic gallery here. This reservoir. Sadness inexpressible broods here. I was struck with the immense preof that wonderful monarch. ana all the people said. all around. took a horn now in disjointed tesserce thronged with women and children. King Solomon. was spectator of that memorable " I read the sacred story upon the very spot They caused Solomon to ride on David's mule. between the Upper and Lower Pools. Massive magnificence is the grand characI was surprised the At Lower Pool teristic in all now empty. for the waterparations supply of his royal city. inclosed in deep valleys and marked out as the site of a coronation. this GIHON". that is with a blooming patch of and handsome specimens. overlooking the scene palaces whose tesselated pavements through these heaps of rubbish were an event that promised The city itself. in this dry bed of King Solomon's Croton Lake. bed green with barley. These hills. " broken cistern that holds no water. My pleasantest association with that immense reservoir. that the coronation of Solomon was performed. of Gihon. elate with : of out of the tabernacle and anointed Solomon. Here. tiny vessels for the recreation of the young princes of Doubtless the Wise King himself often promenaded along margin at the base of his own Mount Zion. 413 New York. while the royal minstrels made the echoes of the hills resound with their music. The royal palaces upon Mount lie Zion. and rejoiced with great joy. walled so much for Israel. a company of its David's house.C. It was in the mighty amphitheatre formed by this valley of Gihon. And Zadok. 1015.

the merry family ness. Mr." said He who knew all the intensity of the Father's love (Luke x. intent upon cares of busi- within. by the well En-Rogel. " Jesus said unto him. No wondei the band of conspirators thai had assembled on the other side of the had hill. Seated its rude steps. north of the Tower of Antonio. were posted up on the walls. to which Josephus attached that name. in the southwest corner. therefore. adjacent to six. If it does. Prime. I read from John ix. and came seeing. stood aghast at the danger they incurred. it will increase the world's cheertraction of humanity. bathing. From there I went through the Jews' quarter. with an intensity of and absorption of thought deeply affecting to me. 29). to the Pool of Siloam. drinking." and one of them shall not fall on the ground without your Father.' writes that he "laved his in. the earth rent with the sound of them" (1 Kings i. composed of streets closed in by hovels abounding in disgusting sights and pestilential smells. and I lessen the number of the world's insects. eyes . that while upon the house- top.). and twittering to each other in their happiest strains. this Pool better deserves the name of Strnthion (sparrow) Pool than the one now dry. sight-seeing of birds congregated at their gathering-place. These sparrows are the same species that were introduced a few years since from England into New York. and washed. Mr. In view of this daily assemblage of birds here. for the people had unanimously accepted the choice of Solomon. Hezekiah's Pool. wash in the Pool of Siloam. their long ringlets hanging down over their ears. Nor do of five or interest think it trifling to write here. At Hezekiah's Pool I was delighted to see many hundreds of the Jerusalem sparrows. Beecher thinks their pleasant chirp is destined to go with the English language around the world. by the Mograbbins Gate. who came here to receive his sight." Even to the present day there is belief here that the water of Siloam will heal sore and inflamed eyes. the cool water flowing just under my feet.414 HEZEKIAH'S POOL. I observed a little Jerusalem girl rocking and singing to her doll. the story of the man born blind. in bis "Tent-life. all heedless of the dis" " Truly the sparrow hath found a place. Without. This was a little world within a world. the bustling city of many nations. fulness. The Jews were idly sauntering about. Go. and for the rejected prince there was but one escape. where they have increased so fast as to be familiar to every one who visits Union Park. Large handbills printed in Hebrew upon one of Next. He went his way. ceremonials of religion.

in the olden time. too. From the Virgin's Fountain I went through the King's Gardens. sometimes stooping. the air alike with clamorous demands for backsheesh and an ing . 33). on the last and great day of the But Feast of Tabernacles. or Melchizedek. or royal Paradise. in association with events so pathetic. The hyssop." and Abraham." From yonder rocky eminence of Zion on the west came the venerable Shem. High God. to fill it with Siloam's water. to be poured over the sacrifice in commemoration of the miraculous water-supply Eephidim. about one thousand seven hundred entrance. ana Barclay.). through Our a crooked and narrow rock-hewn passage.THE POOL OF SILOAM.) enthusiastic countrymen. when He cried in the Temple. standing in the Temple on yonder eminence. grows " " Gardens. and followed it under the lofty hill." It is at Siloam that tradition locates the death of Zacharias at (Matthew xxiii. communicated to it the miraculous energy of imparting light to one born blind. in which occurred the affecting scene wherein participated Melchizedek. although the women and children from the fillneighboring village of Sylwan (Siloam) had crowded around me. or Well Eu-Rogel. Eobinson. the Pool of Siloam I observed the beautiful maiden's-hair . Smith. sometimes kneeling. To this golden pitcher the Lord pointed. I." waters are sweet and abundant. possessor of heaven and earth" (Genesis xiv. came the Levite. Around fern that feet to the Virgin's Fountain. " King of Salem and Priest of the Most High. 35). too. let him come unto me and drink. sometimes walking. The King's and that springeth out also the hyssop others. and I could scarcely tear myself away from the contemplation of it. It is the greenest and loveliest nook around the whole city. of the wall (1 Kings in green tufts in every ancient wall in this country." as a writer terms them. at the upper Eecently. bathed my eyes here. whose waters go softly. the soft and gentle stream perfectly justified my conception of Siloam. and. with bread and wine. Lieutenant Warren performed the same feat. sometimes creeping. as I did so. (Riibra saxa. and even so late as the fifth century after Christ the stones here were fabled to be red with his blood. to the Beer Eyub. And here. Here he " Blessed be Abram of the Most saluted the victorious hero. Siloam. with his golden pitcher. "If any man thirst. grows profusely here " iv. anciently so called. to the 415 Josephus often remarks that these of course all this is as nothing stupendous gift by which the MASTEK. " the Father of the Faithful. I find. entered the channel of the pool. were probably the ancient Walley of Shaveh or the King's Dale.

that the honey of Canaan possesses a finer flavor than any we have at home. are watered by "cool Siloam's shady rill. is of special interest in an hisbelow the Akeldama. cypresses. nea) Bethlehem. with those of Etham. Rough in their trunks. upon the roof a small out-house. and several honey peddlers already have visited our tents. long earthenware jars. I must not neglect to write. and flowers. or Beer Eyub. at all derived aroma not Dale. as well as our own. supply Jerusalem with its vegetables. flow here. is termed Jesmoniya by the natives. reclaimed from sterility into an oasis of fig-trees. pomegranates.416 OETHSEMANE. It lies just gloomy investment of a traitor's ill-gotten gain. I am forgetting a pleasant fact connected with the Pool of Siloam that is. too. or five stems springing from a single . a half-mile of garden-ground. from the sweet gardens covering the King's These gardens. the same style of beehives observed all the way from Joppa . As the janitor justly said. It is the garden stood. memory was faithful to recall the " " that covers the slope of the story of that dreadful Field of Blood Field." This hollow in the hills. piled horizontally one upon another to the depth of six or eight courses. surrounded by a high stone wall." " The waters of Shiloah that go softly. are the kitchen-gardens which. that traitor! rocky hill just above. Such a Such a treason! As I sat for an hour in the shade of the buildings surrounding Beer Eyub. Such noble and venerable trees ! It is quite likely that this is the very spot. The neatly kept. all must bow who enter here. Each has three. I had noticed on the west side of the city a collection of beehives. each boarded and protected from up the pilfering propensities of visitors. or Potter's The Well En-Rogel. torical point of view. and somewhere in it. and make the valley the greenest spot in the vicinity. and olive-trees are eight in number. and vines by means of this tiny rill. is The semane. and that " through a low gate. four. . having but one entrance. but fruitful as only such patriarchal trees can be. so aged that their cavities are built up with stone for strength. olives. the great number of bees I observed watering there. It is the experience of all travellers. stocked with olives. no doubt. termed by the Roman Catholics the Garden of Getha plot of ground a little more than half an acre in area. inclosure. which fertilizes and beautifies all the region through which it passes Here." as the prophet Isaiah describes them. offering to supply us with the delectable food so often named in the sacred narrative.

is A before. She was making the circuit of Gethsemane upon her knees. each patiently waiting his turn to enter. though whether this was religion or fanaticism must be left to the Great Searcher of Hearts to say.A DEVOTEE. and the sweat. 41? root. FOUNTAIN. young lady the tears. . and tnese roots the same. outside one of It recalled their churches. while here. doubtless. her costly garments already soiled and ragged by her morning's work. the poet's words: " With knees of adoration wore the stone " A holy maid . I had never seen such a sight resurrection of Christ kind. My mind. knelt. and agonized his soul even unto death. DAMASCUS. sobs and tears shaking her whole frame. that supported the trees under whose shade Jesus walked. turned aside. prayed. her hands wildly thrown above her head. was chiefly occupied in the thought that the the guarantee of the resurrection of all manwent past me as I sat and read of the agony. It recalled the long trains of Irish Catholics that I have observed on snowy winter mornings on their knees. The thought is overwhelming.

CHAPTER XXIV. much notice has been taken through the press. There were thouMasons who shared in the satisfaction felt by English R. six years since. Consul at Jerusalem. of a society for the accu- and systematic investigation of the Archaeology. Topography. that results accomplished by the London Palestine Fund. U. BEARDSLEY. S. THE EXPLORATIONS OF JERUSALEM. Natural History and Manners and rate . 1872. and lecture-stand of the work of exhuming the Sacred readers will expect to see a summary of the City. Geology and Physical Geography. pulpit. scholars at the formation. which my sands of has had the lead in the investigation.

Cyril C. the Deans of Westminster. and a host of minor functionaries. Therefore it was deemed " a good and happy thing to secure the Queen of England as " Patron that John of the Palestine Exploration Fund. Plumptre. Graham. T. ical.THE LONDON PALESTINE FUND. Paul's. and such names as the Dukes of Argyle and Devonshire. Norman McLeod. Oxford. I think no such combination of great lights. plebeian. Rev. Bull. George Grove. but I for the accuracy of the statements. Ely and Ripon . expositor. H. the Bishops of London. J. of our own country. and many others of St. pressive so is 419 for biblical illustration. commend this great work to the general sympathy of all." This was work in a proper manner. said " We believe this work to be one of reporting the greatest pith and moment. many first-class articles in Smith's Dictionary of the Bible. Sir Henry Rawlinson. B. A. H. H. the Earls of Carnarvon. can do nothing except under the shadow of the throne and in the path of the nobility. Layard. to look into the management of this society. Rev. Rev. Derby. : the keynote of every public expression referring to this subject. the sound and scientific basis upon which the explorations are conducted the vast importance of the results obtained. I wrote it just before leaving Jerusalem. writer of etc. will may be observed in the preparation of this article. and Captain Charles Warren. Russell. and the voice of this modest but thoroughly educated and indefatigable man ringing in my ears. I need only instance Dr. . and will combine my notes into one Secretary. William Smith. and the still greater value of the discoveries which are on the eve of being made. E.. Barclay. therefore. Christ's Church and Canterbury. It is superfluous to say to a newspaper reader in the vouch United States. historical and scienwas ever formed before in behalf of an enterprise purely histortific. and Shaftesbury . the very first class of explorers in the field of Oriental investigation. I article. is The rather inex- name of this association of which the well-known biblical The Palestine Exploration Fund. had some opportunities. Customs of the Holy Land. seventy-eight in all. through the eminent Dr. while the dust of my last visit to the excavations made by Captain Warren was still clinging to me. Some degree of haste. John Murray. Tristam. It is reasonable to expect that such men set forth upon a good One of the stanchest English societies on the subject. to constitute the committee. and worthy of the warmest and most liberal support. The undying interest of the land explored. Zetland (the latter the then Grand Master of Masons). last in charge of the surveys and explorations at Jerusalem.

it hardens upon exposure. thus converting its splendid edifices into piles of dust and ruins. This explanation will enable the reader to understand what is meant by exploring Jerusalem. produces pulverized earth. the Jerusalem of our Saviour's period. and walks of Jerusalem are . True. and laying out a programme for a thorough topographical survey of Palestine. One peculiarity concerning the present city of Jerusalem. of course. it first comes from the quarry. but if any one is surprised to find the city of Jerusalem standing upon a pile of disinte- grated limestone. exploring. It is rather the fact that the stone of which the houses friable. This. is so soft that it may almost be crushed between the fingers. I have upon the table before me as I write a piece of the so-called " Jerusalem marble. and more than once leveled to the ground. This. Palestine all was expectation. It is simply to go to the bottom of that enormous mound of dust and ashes. built. and photographing Capernaum. Latterly. Damascus. Nablous. settling disputed questions of latitude and longitude. and let in the light upon streets and foundations upon which it shone two thousand years age In this respect there is a most exact analogy between the exploratioi o ('Jerusalem and of Pompeii.420 DUST AND ASHES. exfoliates rapidly and and even a hundred feet deep. Over the latter city. and hopeful o_ great This society gave its exertions for the first two years to surveying. (the Cotton Megara) which underlies so much of the northeastern quarter of the city. and in time becomes a fair material for building purposes . This stone. Outside of results. is the fact that it stands. a quarter of a mile deep. And this singular position is not attributable merely to the fact that ancient Jerusalem was seventeen times captured." taken from the immense quarry seventy-five. the superincum- . they restricted their operations to Jerusalem. the earth which has buried fifty. is not account for it. he has only to explore that enormous quarry. upon a heap of dust and rubbish. fifty feet thick. It is but little firmer than a well-crystallized loaf of sugar. and which has been excavated during the last as three thousand years expressly for building materials. under which is the Jerusalem of the Bible. and other places . although it sufficient altogether to goes very far to explain the phenomena. of levels and distances. as it were. as it surely does. is very so rapidly that a few centuries are sufficient to reduce a square block to a shapeless mass. to discover where the rubbish originally came from. however.

the former. shreds of pottery. etc. is exposed to view. added of course to the garbage of the city. Gebal. And yet these discoveries are but just begun. and renewed by Herod. He found the great Causeway. the native rock. bones. the accumulaIt is no romance to say that the prestions of that extended period. The historians of the Temple of Herod (the only temple with which the Christian or Jew is particularly interested) With these explanatory remarks we can ' go much into detail relative to " the Courts of the Temple. surely no one can place any bounds to them. or Stone Bridge. and their labors were productive of much that corroborates the testimony of Josephus. at the destruction of Jerusalem by Titus. that once connected the Mount Moriah with Zion.. undertook. and volcanic ashes ." "the vast Causeway connecting Mount Moriah with Mount Zion. Each of the stone blocks that composed it bears a proper relation to adjacent rocks. ent Jerusalem overlies many Jerusalems that have gone to dust. lava. . and of Scriptural writers. He found evidences of immense area representing earth. probably. in charge of the see what Captain Warren. at one corner. for the supply of ancient Jerusalem with water. and that the explorer's spade must pass these graves of cities one by one. lying where it was cast. but lying under built fifty feet of earth. works built far beneath the present surface. While no one will venture to name the result that may be achieved by explorers. of one hundred feet the great wall extending to that enormous depth before its foundation. in the centuries since the Jebusites established their citadel upon Mount Zion. Sidon." " the " Beautiful Gate. and many other things. bent mass is 421 in scoriae. etc. and the blocks that entered into their construction as enormously great.. before the time of Abraham . He found near the southeast corner of this great Temple area (Mount Moriah) a series of arches and abutments supporting the solid structures on which the pavement of the area at that corner rests. He found the whole Mount Moriah to be banked in with mounds of enormous depth. the accumulations are of pulverized limestone. etc. These remarks are likewise applicable to the old sites of Tyre. to show that they once formed a whole that was the admiration of all beholders. Now to verify such details as these was the aim of Captain Warren's party. Josephus speaks of their height as bewildering. to enlarge the area upon which the Temple was built.THE GREAT CAUSEWAY. to the . works undertaken by the Palestine Exploration Fund. In describing the walls up by Solomon. to find the remnants which he seeks.

I continue the subject. that all those so-called traditional places connected with the Via Dolorosa must necessarily be fabulous. makes even a clear head swim. No sensible person can for a moment suppose that the few rock tombs already opened (amongst which "the tomb of Kings. Dolorosa. endearing reminiscences. the road or street along which he passed. that to go to the bottom of the excavation to show the former pathway. Its very name is music and magic. Too much cannot be projected concerning this "city of hallowed memories and entrancing recollections. made The person walking along "Water-street. is one thought that grows out of this subject. if not so brilliant. aided by much subsequent correspondence with Oriental friends. New York. May. the joy of the whole earth had become one of the most unhealthy places in the world . The following is a succinct history of the society that has pursued these explorations. because the Via Dolorosa of our Saviour's time that is. and the chief reasons assigned for this melancholy change were the inferior quality of the water. and glorious contemplations. the sanitary state of Jerusalem attracted considerable attention .422 SANITARY CONDITION. The ground upon which Christ trod far beneath the present ground. he is walking fifty or one hun- dred feet above their former haunts. and the publication of works by other writers upon the subject. cannot say that he if? walking where the fish once swam . 1868. and the presence of an enormous mass of rubbish which had been accumulating for centuries. And so it is with the Via Among the subjects that will. as those which Egyptian soil has yielded. It is. salem. that may be who are just beginning to study the topography of Jerusalem. is the search for ancient tombs among the surrounding hills. discov- more important perhaps in a historical point of view. the theatre of the most memorable and stupendous events a place of hallowed associations. Great discoveries in that direction await the zealous excavator ." and "the tomb of the Virgin Mary" are the chief)." So much under this head was written just as I was leaving Jerueries . in his sad journey from Pilate's house to Golgotha lies There of use to those many score feet (part of it fifty or seventy-five feet) below the present lies so surface. represent more than a small part of the tombs with which those hills were formerly honeycombed. Early in the year 1864. that city which the Psalmist had described as beautiful for situation. demand the attention of explorers in the vicinity of Jerusalem. in due time. With the rubbish it was hardly ." "the tomb of Prophets.

Manners. : How ! to a greater degree than has been supposed. and several schemes were proposed for improving it. but the water-supply seemed an easier matter. and aqueducts. and no little danger. and performed with thoroughness and skill the particular task assigned to him. or by making new pools. and Customs of the Holy Land. which remained in Palestine for three years. awakened new zeal for the exploration of the old city. and running galleries made . under the direction of Sir Henry James. be gathered from the following accounts may " Master. to allow a survey to be made by a party of Koyal Engineers from the Ordnance Survey. placed a of 500 in the hands of a committee of gentlemen interested in Jerusalem. E. chiefly occupied in and around Jerusalem. which are of great interest and value and the general results of the three years have been embodied in an illustrated volume. Natural History. The committee requested Lord de Grey.THE " MANNER OF STONES. cisterns. and other matters relating to the expedition. Jerusalem." far progress has been made. it was necessary to obtain an accurate plan of the city . a party was sent out. under command of Captain Warren. and obtained a favorable answer." 423 possible to deal. and what is yet contemplated. Topography. The opposition of the Turkish authorities frustrated his plan for improving the water-supply of Jerusalem .. was in command of this party.. Geology and Physical Geography. with a view to the settlement of disputed points of topography. Miss sum Burdett Coutts. R. E. The reports and journals of Captain Warren. any scheme could be carried out. Before. called " The Recovery of Fund. under the name of " The Palestine Exploration and systematic investigation of the Archaeology. either by repairing the ancient system. Accordingly a society was formed in England. a lady ever ready to promote good works. if it be still We are able to do it possible. as the discoveries of the " " Palestine Exploration Fund show. and with this view. by at right sinking shafts a hundred feet deep. see what manner of stones and what buildings are here !" Surely it is not unworthy of Christian study to find out. R. then Secretary of State for War. were published in a series of Quarterly Statements. however. for the accurate ." In 1867. for Biblical Illustration. what those stones and buildings were. Captain Wilson. but the discoveries of ancient ruins which he incidentally made while tracing out the aqueducts and cisterns of the times of Solomon and Hezekiah. These discoveries have been at great cost of money and labor.

burning magnesian wire. and so throwing light upon stones and pavements which have been buried 2. It has been captured. First were the porticoes. was more than 100 feet high. and the two aisles 30 feet.424 MORIAH AS IT WAS. steeply. still exists. . aisles was 45 feet broad. Xames and memories have perished. more than twenty times. the explorers feeling temple of small dimensions. originally built by Solomon running on the south along the valley of Hinnom 1. Of these results we will men. overlooking the Kedron and Hinnom. again. This area.000 years from human The results have been invaluable. On all sides it fell off rapidly and very from northwest to southeast. way under ground. But these were only the outer buildings of the Temple area. We thought we had certain knowledge of Mount Zion also. or covered walks. through beautiful gateways. Mount Moriah has been found to be origiiially a sharp crag or ridge. therefore. built along the outer walls. Steps led up 'to a second court. no city has been so often and so thoroughly destroyed. The reason is. resembling the nave and aisles of Gothic cathedrals. so that scarcely a feature of the natural landscape has been recognized beyond dispute. but the most recent and successful explorers have cast doubt even on this.500. The and the nave.walls to the height of the porticoes.000 feet. overthrown. Beyond this.tion upon such subjects is precious. burned. and defiles around. dle walk. tion some of the more prominent. or nave. were 50 feet high. Let it be borne in mind at the outset that no city in the world has presented so difficult a problem as Jerusalem. rising like a clear-story be- tween the two. One hundred feet again below this lay the original bed of the brook Kedron. The foundations of the Temple.000 and 3. and deny that the modern " Zion " corresponds with the ancient. were 250 feet above the deep and enlarged by Herod. Mount Moriah within the walls. and we have a solid and continuous wall of masonry 250 feet high. This inclosure was originally covered with splendid edifices. Add now terrace. with so little space on the top as scarcely to afford room for a their angles to these shafts. and open to the sky. we are sure of. the outside wall deep down the valleys. They were magnificent strucThe midtures. except the ridge ran. and the Mount of Olives outside. the direction in which The area on the summit was enlarged by walls built the declivities. The porticoes opened inwardly upon a court paved with marble. from along 100 to 150 feet below the area on which the Temple buildings stood. and along the Kedron 1. because the least informasight.

and said to have been 100 or even 150 feet high. and rising above them all was a fourth. the lower court standing on its magnificent terraces. the inner court raised on its platform in the centre. and have been almost obliterated. the distinguished architect. writes " The triple Temple of Jerusalem. culminating in the Temple within and above all. column. however. too. as our Lord did when beholding the city. and extending below to the King's Gardens. columns.. while his sight could not reach to such an immense depth. when combined with the beauty of the situation. was on the southeast corner of the area. as structures. joining on the House of the Lord above." " If any one looked down from the top of the Josephus wrote battlements he would be giddy. pinnacles. it must have been a sight which. that the original defiles been toppled down the slopes of the Moriah. first. and the massive substructures that for 3. and probably measuring between 500 and 600 feet. wall. one of the most splendid architectural combinations of the ancient : world. must have formed. With pickaxe and shovel British explorers have been down to the . 425 was a third. What has been regarded The valleys as the original surface has been found to be debris from 70 to 90 feet deep. altar. added to the impressiveness of the established the If one looked It is settled by recent discoveries that this pile of buildings sight." we have James Fergusson. porticoes. coming round the brow of Olivet on the way from Bethany. All these buildings. passed. Esq.THE TKIPLE TEMPLE. and the temple itself rising out of the group and crowning the whole. and Temple have perished. We have the less reason. Buildings so vast have preservation has been due to the ruin. we cannot vouch for the correctness of the reputed height of these imthe mense last. " Not one stone remains upon another which has not been thrown down. in which stood Temple proper. perhaps." This passed for foolish exaggeration till : recent explorations vindicated the statement. ascending story above story. roof. pinnacle.000 years have been sleeping in their courses. The palace of Solomon." The area alone remains. certainly not surIt was an artificial mountain from the deep ravines below. Of course. where the two valleys met and " the waters of Siloah go softly. These horizontal measurements have been verified. has never been equalled. to doubt the- upon Mount Moriah from the Mount of Olives opposite. for architectural beauty and grandeur.

probably reached Robinson's Arch is the remains of the bridge that was standing at the siege of Jerusalem. debris has accumulated to a depth of not less than 125 feet the accumulation of ages. It is the skewback. Three courses remain.4-_'i. original Fallen columns have been avoided. and 20 or 25 feet long. spirit left in her. lying on the living rock. or abutment that slopes to receive the end of the arch. they found a still more ancient roadway. have been copied known to be quarry- marks by the trickling drops of paint. UEBKI6. connecting the Temple with the Royal Palace on the other side. by the disof the pier upon which the first span rested. was picked up out of the sift. and through 24 feet of debris beneath. put on in vermilion. Quarrymarks. belonging to the arch. may have been standing at the time of the Queen of Sheba's visit. at the eastern end of it. and turned up to the light rich moulds deposited by the treasures of Jewish pride. which when the queen saw. or a way blasted through them. worn by feet that passed over it in our Lord's time. the keystones of a still more ancient bridge." The whole of Mount Moriah has been found to be fairly honey- . and possibly was part of the "ascent" by which Solomon went up into the House of the Lord. holding a parley with the Jews. still visible only they are above the letters. and this must have been the length of the bridge. belonged to the palmy days of Solomon . The seal of Haggai. stood the Roman General Titus. ACCUMULATED foundations. The stones are 5 or 6 feet thick. or wedge-like stones. made up of the ruins of successive Jerusalems . Breaking through this pavement. The valley here is 350 feet wide. The first courses of stones deposited by Phoenician builders have been reached. and connected Mount Moriah with the mountain opposite the modern Zion. the remains of which were found beneath the pavement.ings of this deposit. there was " no more bridge. as and here some of the most Here is the famous Arch he conjectured. It is the remains covery of a bridge which crossed the valley on arches. is and resting upon The explanation : The older bridge. of Kobinson. occupying the other end of the this. and cinders of burnt Jeru- salem have been cut through. showing that when they were written the stones lay with the underside uppermost In the southwest corner of the area. At a depth of 30 feet a worn pavement was found. shown now to be an arch. The met with. upon which. Lying on this pavement were the voussoirs. in ancient Hebrew characters. interesting discoveries have been made.

The first impulse toward the exploration of Palestine. in all probability. One of the cisterns. Robinson gave importance to the preservation of the ancient names of places among the common people. one man a discriminating judgment. and all together The wall of Ophel has been exposed high though buried in d$bris . 427 combed with the Great Sea. had mastered the whole and had mapped out distinctly the points of inquiry which previous travellers had left undetermined. and an acute and careful observer. except so far as it is supported by circumstances known to us from the Scriptures. was given by Dr. with the scientific motive of preparing a work on Biblical Geography. In this branch of inquiry he had the invaluable aid of Dr. or from other contemporary history. Robinson's researches in a geographical point of view but controversy was awakened by his opinion touching the Church of the Holy Sepulchre and other places of reputed sanctity. . in recent times. belonging to the age of the kings of Judah. But he had also qualifications for his task such as are seldom combined in any ney by the special studies of literature of his subject. and no trained for a proper survey. ration of the a But Dr. with few instruments. cisterns and passages.DE. of Josephus. but as a student of Biblical History and Antiquities making researches upon a well-defined method. Eli Smith. a master of the language and the character of the Arabs. The most eminent geographers of Europe at once recognized the great value of Dr. He went at his own charges. Dr. Robinson was not equipped for a thoroughly scientific exploHoly Land. and the remains of towers and houses have been lighted upon. at the present time 70 feet the popular legend of the troubling of the water by an angel. accurate powers of observation. having but assistant single companion." Next to the testimony of the Scriptures and of . which explains not less than ten millions. the habit of patient and cautious investigation. comprehensive and well-digested knowledge. who went through not as a mere traveller making notes of passing observations. an intermitting fountain. He opened the way to a scientific exploration. and a rare faculty common sense in sifting facts and weighing evidence. a retentive memory. He had fitted himself for the jourfifteen years. The Pool of Bethesda has been. identified . and by his broad canon of historical research "that all ecclesiastical tradition respecting the sacred places in and around Jerusalem and throughout Palestine is of no value. Edward Eobinson in 1838. KOBINSOtf. known as would contain two millions of gallons.

all with a triple wall. etc. but he him" there self reported that yet remained much land to be possessed. Past and Present. travellers and missionaries. reports. so careful. and stones of eight cubits. Osborn's "Palestine. Hum many of them being They include views of the ruins of and the cities east of Jordan. Kedes (Kedesh). the various reports made to the Home Office. while it added much to our knowledge of biblical localities in Palestine. Jerash (Gerasa). The " publication of The Land and the Book. Professor Hackett's " Illustrations of Scripture." by Dr. I make extracts at the risk of some repetition. even of great stones. (Capernaum). and addresses delivered at the London meetings in encouragement of the move- From ment. popularized the illustration of the Bible from the and customs of natural scenery and history of the its inhabitants. " And the foundations were of costly stones. The sustain- . provided sound instructions and positive data for others ." On the southwest and southeast the foundations of colossal walls were laid nearly at the bottom of the Tyropoean and Kedron." In 1848. Thom- son. Hebron. and Sebastiyeh (Samaria) . that it is doubtless to these substructions the sacred writer refers. the society has published 349. in 1859. and from the manners Dr. and monographs. . Gennesareth. upon the same fruitful theme." and other works. from the accomplished a work which surpassed base. thorough." published in 1858. They surrounded Moriah. said of the enormous substructure of the Temple.428 THE WORK ALBEADY DONE. have enriched our literature with journals. Kerazeh (Chorazin). Lieutenant Lynch and his party made a scientific examination of the Dead Sea." published in 1860. made some substantial additions to our knowledge of the topography of Jerusalem. was a contribution to the natural history and the cartography of the Holy Land ." 1859. Holy Land. Josephus' account of it is almost startling. gave a life-like tone to many passages of the word of God from the natural phenomena and the social customs of Palestine . that the official report of the United States Expedition under his command has become the standard authority upon that anomalous feature of Palestine. . Porter. and conception. Tel of places never before taken. when he says. stones of ten cubits. etc. Barclay's " City of the Great King. Dr. author of "Giant Cities of Bashan. M. Mr. and other Americans. and complete. W. many points in and around Jerusalem. Damascus. Of photographs. the district of Nablus.

by about six feet in height. in the world. sank a shaft. One stone. and which is placed 110 feet above the foundation. 200 feet to the bottom And. the wall above the present surface is seventy-three feet. ranging from ten feet tc thirty feet in length. which opened from the low suburb of Ophel. The following measurements will give some idea of its stupendous size and grandeur The spring-stones of one of its arches are twenty: engineers. Captain Warren. Consequently the summit of the porch was 240 feet above the foundation of the wall. And this is not all. besides. Perhaps some may be inclined on hearing such measurements as these if so. which they discovered at the depth of sixty feet. building which measured forty cubits. have been 140 feet high. The Royal Engineers sank a shaft to the foundation. and 440 feet above the " which was the Kedron This was that " Pinnacle of the of the Kedron. to smile incredulously just wait a little till recent excavations. southwest angle The grandeur of this angle almost surpasses conception. 429 (450 ing wall of the lower court was built up from a depth of 300 cubits There were stones used in thia feet). go first to the southeast angle. with the great labor and at no little risk. the angle rises ninety feet above the ground. and discovered foundation laid upon the rock. . by five feet in height all noble "corner- We The elevation of stones. ! Temple scene of one part of our Lord's Temptation. and in some places more. 100 feet in height. at the enormous depth of 100 feet.THE SOUTHEAST COKNER. remains have been discovered. I describe the wonderful discoveries made by : of the Temple. It stands on the rocky side of Moriah. when perfect. and weighs about 100 tons stone of such dimensions to such a position would try the skill of It was near this angle the bridge stood which modern ! The spanned the Tyropoeon." polished after the similitude of a palace. The corner- stones are colossal. is thirty-four feet I believe that I may say to raise a long. which I myself measured. two long subter- The masonry of the ranean avenues leading up to the Temple. We pass on our way two ancient gates. We now go over to inspect the still more extraordinary discoveries at the southwest angle. This angle must. on the top of the wall stood the royal porch. where the priests dwelt. which sinks. almost perpendicularly. At present is even finer than that of the southeast. measuring from twenty to forty feet in length. connecting the Temple with the palace. Here is a magnificent fragment' and one of the finest specimens of mural architecture The stones are colossal.

which has for its purpose the accurate and systematic investigation of the archaeology. The limits of the hill and position of the wall of Ophel have been in a great measure ascertained. difficulties which had been increased by the treacherous character of the soil and the imperfect nature of the apparatus which had to be employed. which not only tended to throw original features of the Temple Hill. The height above the bottom of the Tyropoeon was 225 feet. by six feet thick. The span of each arch was forty-six feet. is not. but led to light the hope that before long sufficient data would be obtained for formcoveries of the new upon the ing a tolerably accurate opinion upon the various sites in the Holy City which had been so long matters of dispute. of the giddy height of the battlements of the ancient city at this point. with regard to the original course and character of those valleys. Warren had succeeded in carrying on extensive excavations. after all. many of them sunk to enormous depths. by a succession of shafts. underground passages which have been hidden for centuries by the mass of super- incumbent ruins have been brought to light. geology. the Secretary stated that the committee had confined their attention mainly to explorations in or near the city of Jerusalem. In spite of many difficulties. the gross exaggeration that up to this time it has always been believed to have been. with little interruption. For the first time. of the roadwav was avenue of the Royal Porch. Lieut and Bro. which. to the central fifty feet. The report went on to speak of the difficulties to be met with in carrying out such an exploration as this among a population like that of Jerusalem. discoveries of intense interest have been made. " there was no more spirit left in her ? At a meeting held under the presidency of the Archbishop of York in support of the Palestine Exploration Fund. The zeal and perseverance- . will no doubt aid very considerably in settling many difficult points connected with the level of different portions of Jerusalem. and shafts sunk on the south of the wall of the Haram area have shown that the account given by Josephus. and physical geography of the Holy Land. and by degrees a complicated network of drains and reservoirs is being laid bare. Can we wonder that.430 four feet long HIDDEN FOR CENTURIES. the actual streets of the ancient city have been reached. when fully explored. corresponding exactly The breadth topography. and had made dis- utmost importance. In the valleys of the Kedron and Tyropoeon. This stupendous bridge would bear favorable comparison with some of the noblest works of the present century. when the Queen of Sheba " saw it.

Warren able to dig in the Haram area itself. yet. and the overseers Jews. but several surveying expeditions had been made. what with the jealousies of race and religion. while. and Lieut. However. together with a large tract of country to the south- west of Jerusalem. of Lieut. He had also surveyed portions of the Jordan and report. The researches of Jerusalem had caused other operations to be hoped. He proceeded to read a very interesting report of considerable length. Warren was then called upon to speak. in overcoming these difficulties. bronze nails. and the glass of the third and fourth centuries of the Christian era) but a few Hebrew coins had been turned up. the discoveries of last year gave the surest promise of future excavations being attended with still more interesting results . so. and. at the same time. by the large and influential body of Freemasons." and it was supposed in Jerusalem to be of the time of Ezra. the more difficult it became- . went on to say that the work The had been supported by subscriptions from many classes. and though the latter required great supervision. and it was desired particularly where the Temple stood. as Lieut. its valleys. the main object of the work was with regard to nether Jerusa- characters showing it lem in its topography. among others. Among the findings was a seal with visitor . In studying the Holy Land to find ont it was most and disappointing to find a dearth of evidence as to sites of places. two corporals of engineers. the more the matter was looked into. Warren. and he explained the works being carried out by means of a small map of Jerusalem. were warmly comhis ability the field for excavation at Jerusalem through had never appeared so open. anything going wrong soon "cropped out. it was impossible to overrate the interest of the discoveries that were in store. and what had been found consisted mostly of pottery. of which every Lieut. the dragoman being Greek. and on rising to do he was cordially cheered. after stating other general facts as to the operations carried on by Lieut. and glass (the former of many different dates. 431 Warren mended . to be that of " Haggai. and if." Very few articles found in the works had come to hand. Warren had thoroughly surveyed the Philistine Plain as far north as Gaza.BROTHER WARREN'S REPORT. the son of Shebaniah. had a copy. who had encouraged the attempts being made to search out the sites of the works erected by the famous operative craftsmen of that ancient order. and about seventy Mussulmans of different races. He said there were at present engaged on the works. we should be suspended.

All parties agree that the Temple stood somewhere in a rectangular spot. such as Jerusalem. Mr.. There were points which were known beyond contradiction.432 THE INEXHAUSTIBLE TANK. and that the Mount of Olives was on the whole or part of a hill indicated on the Jaffa. opened it. they had not yet a single fixed point from which to commence. as well as streams of water which led to the opinion that the source of King Hezekiah's hidden spring of water would be discovered. and if use of Biblical names in speaking of places. Mount Sion was put to the north of . map. Near here was a place called the "Well of the Leaf. but from the fact that (the Moriah area). Layard. He concluded. On telling his tale he was greeted as of little sense for leaving a garden which his listeners believed to be Paradise. He found himself in a beautiful garden. in which he said there was no doubt a mine of information. and others. of which the legend was told that a man wandered down it. he did so because they were generally received names. startling as it might appear. yet there .P. and plucking a leaf he returned. another was found capable of holding seven hundred thousand and altogether about five million gallons could be stowed away. though the Temple was known to be on a particular space was space there for three such sites and Moriah by some. said that few persons could understand how arduous werj the labors Lieutenant Warren had carried out. and to the west by others of authority. for. and explained that the stables of Solomon had been discovered. that the valley of the Kedron could be but about he made other points there were controversies . but when details were sought. to be baffled and perplexed for a long time to come before they could bring out Jerusalem as it was . from both Britain and America. not only as respected the heat and the other influences. traced . M. and not because they were established as such. The explorers must be content. For instance. by expressing the interest taken in the works by those who are called the Anglo-Saxon race. It was probable. The gallant officer continued at some length. It was only by patient investigation that hopes could be entertained of a satisfactory conclusion. and coming to a door. and one would hold one million gallons of water . all too. called by the names of Haram and Moriah. The Moriah area was scooped out into large tanks. amid warm cheers. which he would never have another chance of seeing again. there was the most conflicting evidence. who saw . he feared. the exploration party were working amid a hostile people. He then proceeded to describe the Haram area.

and taken to England.THE MOABITE STONE. the Chancellor of the North German Confederate Consulate since Dr. Among the specimens recently brought to Jerusalem. with priests on both sides. is a stone bearing the figure of a god sitting on a throne. The inscription is said to contain the name of Athtar (Astarte}. who is residing for a time at Berlin.000 stone balls made for such a purpose in the quarries at Maid stone. 28 . and a Hunyaritish inscription two lines in length." he reminded those present that he warned them they were not to expect any monuments like those found at Nineveh. Among the loose objects found here by the English explorers. and my description that of the (American) " Palestine Exploration Society. Dr. He spoke about monuments in the Louvre at Paris. missiles of war. for the Jews did not make such other they had no things. and for anmaterial. the land of Moab. 433 As to places given over to strangers which they regarded as sacred. In 1418. lying on the banks of the river near Constantinople. In connection with these explorations of Jerusalem. because the search and the finding of this relic grew out of the excitement awakened by the London Palestine Fund in its varied labors. Jerusalem will become a great center now for the distribution of Oriental antiquities. I call attention here to the discovery of the Moabite Stone. Dr. which had been brought from Yeman. and was offered for sale. the English had 7. and there are many cannon-balls of stone. Every member of the Executive Committee of this has visited the Holy Land. succeeded in obtaining an impression. Peterman resigned. The territory selected by this young and vigorous society is that in which this stone was found. THE MOABITE STONE. Oscar Meyer. Doubtless. enormously large. and the wishes of all true Masons must go with them in their labors. Blau. viz. the " findings. which is now in the hands of the Confederate Consul." to whose courtesy I am greatly indebted for the use of this and several other engravings used in the present volume. These may have been used by the Crusaders possibly earlier. at one time stated to be Jewish. a personal (American) enthusiasm in the work . found in the vicinity. and threw grave doubts upon the character of those monuments. for religious reasons. and has therefore. My engraving is the large one prepared for Scribner's Monthly.. are a number of stone balls.

so far as to separate by marks both words and sentences. Num. 1868. reign 2. K. at the en trance of the ruined Moabitish town of Dibon. 2 feet 3 rounded at both ends. Ganneau and the Palestine Exploration Society. and that the pious horror of the Tetragrammaton did not exist nine centuries before Christ. of a stone in a perfect state of preservation. The Moabite Stone was a neatly-cut block of black basalt.C. H. N. and that 3. 5. D. 4). containing an ina little after scription of thirty-four lines by Mesha. That Pliny's and Aristotle's views that only sixteen or eighteen letters were brought by Cadmus from the East into Greece. That the Semitic alphabet was the Phoenician. It was found by Rev. U. and 1 foot 1^^. . Klein. Although broken to pieces through Arabic jealousy. est alphabetic inscription extant. That Moab was called by the Moabites. 890. The letters A. That the name of Jehovah was openly spoken and known by nations around as the name of Israel's God. and inscribed with thirty-four straight of alphabetic writing. In a quarrel of the Arabs over the and the inscrippossession of the stone.inch thick. once a capital city of R Moab (although built by the children of Gad. K. L. This inscription is the oldabout the year B. 8. king of Israel. 7. it was broken into fragments. which is our alphabet in its earlier forms. and two-thirds of the stone itself is now in the possession of M. the time of Omri. dating It shows us 1. with the exception of about one-seventh . iii. M. lines A. against the Israelitish yoke (see 2 Kings. LL. The most exciting incident of recent explorations in Palestine was the discovery among the ruins of the ancient Dibon. 6. T. That the plural in N is not a late form. and records the successful rebellion of Mesha. a king of Moab. D.. king of Moab.34 THE MOABITE STONE. east of the Dead Sea. Mab or Meab. according to his text. Ginsburg. 34). The translation given is that of Christian tion seriously impaired. after a forty years' oppression by the house of Omri. its inscription has been preserved. 4. 3 feet inches wide.4. August 19th. Under David and Solomon we know it was subject to Israel. chap.D. 8 inches high. 0. That Dibon was its capital. That punctuation was carefully observed in old writings. xxxii. That Moab must have been independent between Solomon's and that of Oinri. are almost identical with the Roman and Greek characters.

I shall destroy it for ever. for the well-pleasing of Chemosh and Moab . are not to be deemed modern. for Chemosh was angry with his 6 [lajnd. am 1 took from it . and . 1 I Mesha am son of Chemoshgad King of Moab. and Israel said. In my days he said. and at I reigned 3 after father. TRANSLATION" OF THE INSCRIPTION ON THE MOABITE STONE. and the Book of Lamentations (having an alphabetic division). and made therein the the land [Ataro]th ditch I [built] 10 Kirjathaim. the whole twenty-two heing Hence the 119th Psalm.] I for [I] devoted [them] to Ashtar-Chemosh . who oppressed Moab many days. for he saved desire all Karcha me from all despoilers and me see upon my my enemies. For the from of old. and I fought against it from the break of dawn till noon. and all of I]srael fortified I assaulted the wall and captured K[ing it. the 2 Dibonite. His son succeeded him. and [ofin before Chemosh Kirjath said to and I placed therein the take men of Siran and the me[n of Zereth] 14 Shachar. Now Omri took the land 8 Medeba and occupied it [he and his son and his son's] son. and the other alphabetic Psalms. killed the wa[rriors of] 12 the wall. and I removed from 13 fered] it it all the spoil. and I built Baal Meon. as some would have them to be for this reason. are false. but I did not kill the women 17 and maidens. King of Israel. I will oppress Moab. Israel. My father reigned over Moab thirty years. And Chemosh [And I] me Go Nebo against 15 went in the night. the Greeks invented the rest. forty 5 9 on years. and the men of Gad dwelled in 11 A[t]aroth. and Om[r]i. my And I erected this Stone to Chemosh let [a Stone of] 4 [Sa]lvation. and I took 16 it and slew in all seven thousand [men. and he also said.THE MOABITE STONE. 431 here found. it in And Chemosh [had mercy] my and days . [Let us go] 7 and I will see my desire on him and his house.


And I dug the ditch for Karcha with the [chosen] men of 26 [I]srael.. United States Consul-General in Syria (now a resident of New York). Make for yourselves man a cistern in his house. for all Dibon was now loyal.. and fought against Jahaz and took it. Johnson. 21 in addition to Dibon. 25 every And I said to all there was no cistern within the wall in Karcha.UNEXPLAINED STONE-MARKS. and I built the towers 23 built the palace.. 18 [the vesjsels of 43? before Jehovah and cast them down Chemosh And the King of Israel fortif[ied] 19 Jahaz. it] Horonaim. And Horonaim . make war against 34 my days year and I . dwelt therein 32 33 . all chiefs. and 27 I built .. I built Karcha.' was : . and Beth-Diblathaim.. and. for it was destroyed I built Bezer. Johnson's account of this discovery is as follows ' " Hamath. and thereof... the people. which I added to my land. And Chemosh Chemosh said to me. In immediate connection with this great discovery. and I placed there the Mofabites] 31 [to take possession of] the land. I sav[ed] 29 [from my enemies] Bikran. showing what a great field awaits exploration in the valleys and plains of Northern Syria. Aug. and I made the prisons for the with [in the] men of . and occupied it. and 20 I took from Moab two hundred men. Go down. 22 of the and the wall city.. I built Aroer and I made the road across the Arnon. the wall of the forest. and ta[ke in .. and Beth-Baal-Meon. 24 wall. when he made war against Chemosh drove him out before [me and] me . Beth-Bamoth... on the northern border of the Promised Land. For Mr. this engraving I am indebted to the society already named.. and I I built the gates thereof. and I bui[lt] 30 [Beth-Gamul]. I give an engraving and description of some interesting and important inscriptions found by Mr. J. for it was cu[t down] 28 by the fifty m[en] of Dibon.

preserved in the British Museum.. . Sidon. . 34).. in 1870. as it is now called. F. yielded David (2 Sam. Salmanazar V. of the Syria Mission. kingdom at the Exodus. and is frequently originally allegiance to mentioned as the extreme limit of the Holy Land towards the north- Hamath..' B. "While looking through the bazaar of this old town. the Palmyrene on these stones. Toi. Bambino. I received the tributes of Tyre. . viii. Jessup. we came upon a stone in the corner of a house which contained an inscription in unknown characters. Deformed persons were willing to pay for the privilege of lying upon it in the hope of a speedy cure. viii.000 inhabitants. The arrow-headed characters ai suggestive of Assournasirpal. We did not succeed in getting squeeze-impressions. he says went towards the great sea of Phoenicia. and of their struggles with the Hittites on this ancient and of Solomon. : And Tyre. has at present a population of about 30. and was spoken of by an Assyrian monarch as among It was the most celebrated of his conquests (2 Kings xviii. Mr. of which Palmyra was one.C. as it was believed to be efficacious in spinal diseases. of Damascus. of the French Consuical stone. 870-8 . Sidon. " Until the interpretation of these mysterious characters shall be . 18). with S. a little later.C. as could be obtained by the aid of a native painter. Jessup endeavlate.' . etc. 2). Chron. with. Rev. In the inscription on the monolith of Nimroud. and Gebal. and by Mr. but failed to obtain it because of the tradition connected and the income derived from it. 9) . . x. In this we were greatly aided by Mr. 915 I In this time I took the environs of Mount Lebanoi B. its king..438 the capital of a UNEXPLAINED STONE-MARKS. for fanat- Moslems crowded upon us when we began to work upon the and we were obliged to be content with such copies of this and other inscriptions subsequently found on stones over and near the city gate. . "We should naturally expect to find in this vicinity some trace of the Assyrian and Egyptian conquerors who have ravaged the vallej of the Orontes. Jessup. who built stone cities in Hamath (S But we find nothing of 4). They humbled themselves befoi . it was called "great" by King Amos (vi. the residence of Canaanites (Gen. in relating his exploit battle-field. ored to purchase a blue stone containing two lines of these strange characters. and in the ancient bridge which spans the Orontes. I received tribut ' : from me. who pronounced the copies to be accurate. says ' In my twenty-first campaign I crossed the Euphrates for the twenty-firs time I marched towards the cities of Hazael.

A. monlag. that the occurrence of these characters only proves the intercourse between the two people. was derived from cording to Gesenius. " In framing their alphabet the Phoenicians adopted the same process previously employed in the Egyptian phonetic system. G. it comes near to the Phoenician. M.C. " Now have may it not be that in these Hamath inscriptions we . Alphabetic writing was but the germs of the alphabetic system were found m in and hieratic writing of the Egyptians. and not that the cuniform was the parent of the Phoenician. a cursive character was also employed identical with the Phoenician. for there not enough of either to furnish a clue to the '* rest. This and the Palmy- The ' ' rene writing form the links between the coin characters and the in a state square characters. scholars have designated Babylonia as the true mother of the characters employed in very ancient times in Syria and Mesopotamia. by an owl. for aleph (a bull) in the . and therefore possibly borrowed by the latter. and has been thought to present the most ancient specimen of the Aramean series. (a camel) an eagle. akhem same manner B. for beth (a house) . of the British Museum." of figures to express letters or syllables..11 tenid. We have in these inscriptions of Hemath a melange and perhaps a connecting link between the earliest systhree. That the Hebrews borrowed the use of writing from acMesopotamia or Phoenicia has been universally admitted . however. and are supposed to represent a language of transition. by . and a vast number of the hieroglyphic B.C. and. by taking the first letter of the name of the object chosen to represent each sound . of f. To suppose them to be bi-lingual or tri-lingual only increases is tb. a wide field 439 use 1500 B. difficulty of interpretation in this case. . upwards of of the attempts at picture-writing on these Hamath stones suggest the Egyptian system. 2000 Some ideographic or symbolic forms to represent words. as. is open to conjecture. for ghimel as the Egyptians represented A. Deutsch. remarks on this theory. and retained by the Samaritans after the Jews had adopted another character of Aramaic origin. Kenrick. Carpentras Stone contains an analogous inscription . And it appears that besides the cuniform writing found on " Some Assyrian and Babylonian monuments. etc. Other characters represent Phoenician letters and numerals not unlike the Phoenician witing on the foundation-stones of the Temple at Jerusalem. recently deciphered by Dr. given.UNEXPLAINED STONE-MARKS. which consists of a certain numb'. the old form of their writing the Phoenician.


near the source of the Orontes. to obtain squeeze-impressions and photographs of all these and any other similar inscriptions. when the Phoenicians. or that any theory of interpretation has been advanced. H. and the bas-reliefs on the in Coelo Syria. E. it is stated that Mr. possibly of the Orientalists. other copies of these Hamath inscriptions. to Syria." . and that Northern Syria be no longer overlooked by the explorer. and before the regular and simple Phoenician alphabet had ' been perfected? ' Carpeutras Stone has been considered by Geseniusto have been executed by a Syrian of the Seleucidian period. because am they they are a specimen of the first manner of writing of the people of that country. The 'Kosetta "The Stone' dates back to 193 much B. 441 fallen upon a transition period. said to be imperfect. that the clue may be will meaning.' "These Kamua Hurmul. We has been translated. The characters on these stones have ' with those of Hamath. says 'Though I believe we are at present not able : still persuaded to give a translation of these inscriptions. while on his way from an exploring tour in the Desert of Tih. monument called inscriptions. His report will be looked for with great interest. Dr. however. Drake. Mr. as yet. however. of the British Syrian Exploration Fund. saw our copies at Beyrout. I will be of the highest interest for the scientific world.UNEXPLAINED STONE-MARKS. Palmer has already found in a Syrian MS. or their predecessors in the land.C. that the Syrian MS. in a letter asking permission to publish these inscriptions in Germany. Professor of Egyptology at the University of Heidelberg. and same period. that he induced the British Society to send a learned Orientalist. are an enigma. perhaps. lying in the University of Cambridge. now that attention is again found that shall unlock subject. Palmer. in common ' of " Mr. Eisenlohr. to the most learned called to the their It is to be hoped. were using the elements of writing then in ex- istence. In the last number of {he Journal of the American Oriental Society. in solving the present mysBut we shall be surprised if the inscriptions of Hamath do not tery. They are do not learn. Champollion's Key to the Hieroglyphics will be of aid. prove to be older and of greater interest than any recent discovery Egypto-Aramean or hieroglyphic characters. He was so persuaded of their archseological importance.



where stood in cedar and gold and walls marble that grandest expression of national power and magnificence the world has ever seen." only mis- lead the reader. as he conceives nothing but the PLAN OF MOUNT MORIAH. work partly . 1 have found no subject connected with the Holy Land so difficult to elucidate as the platform or foundation on which the Temple of Solomon was built. N my tures lec- since 1868.CHAPTER XXV. leaving nothing but the heavy in and partly out of the ground. The ordinary newspaper notices concerning " the foundation of the Temple. MOUNT MORIAH. ordinary appearance presented when a building has been fire de- Btroyed by or violence.

was. and even forty feet long. In the present chapter I commence by clearing up this matter.. KNOBBY RIDGE. 445 THE FOUNDATION OF THE TEMPLE. a narrow. I have sometimes used the following figure as conveying a partial idea of the task that devolved upon Hiram and his builders Go out upon : a level plain. viz. eight. and more recently Mount Moriah. With radical reconstruction to transform this unsightly and circumscribed ridge into a solid. than would have been that of making a platform entirely artificial. honeycombed with caves. perhaps even greater. for the superficial reader to comprehend that the Temple of Solomon is absolutely goneeffaced. the mound artificially erected to serve as a basis for the sublime structure. equal to thirty-six and a half acres . but the platform. By this term is not meant the It is difficult upon which the Temple was built (comparing it with an ordinary edifice). from although the earth. and in the same ten them into the native rock that lies below . so essential to a proper understanding of Solomon's Temple. bind the foundation-stones of this wall firmly manner fastogether with clamps of iron and lead. knobby.000. by nature. . broad. The figure is not absolutely correct . and in no proper to be used as the basis of a great temple. raise that wall to an mason work . build a wall around it of great stones. styled in the Old Testament Moriah. measure off an oblong square 1. crooked ridge (of the class familiarly known as " hog's back "). for there was a central core to ! the platform. upon which to build the Temple. high. the original Mount Moriah . . In my illustration of this subject in my public lectures.600 feet by 1.THE NARROW. so that not a crumb or fragment can be recognized yet its foundation remains. and durable platform. The bill. the hill. ten. deeply channeled by ravines and sense fit gulleys. you such a platform as was erected by Solomon's craftsmen. and show what was the foundation that has so well withstood the changes of twenty-nine walls centuries. and in the masonwork many large vaults and subterranean chambers were left But the figure is sufficiently exact for an ordinary lecture. and of proportionate breadth and thickness . fill average height of one hundred and fifty feet of solid up solid the whole area of thirty-six and a half acres to that great will have height of one hundred and fifty feet This being done. twenty. was a problem of stupendous magnitude as great a one.

and at their points of junction with the native rock. the platple as still remaining. wady is 600 feet deep. unsightly succession of knobs. the Wady el Kurn. has had power to break force. constructed in so substantial a manner that neither time nor the devastations of barbarian nor the mighty bruit of earthquakes. there is a platform or artificial basis analogous to this foundation of Solomon's Temple near a place called Alma. that skilled artist pointed to Scopus. down a ravine called Ain Hor. Fortunately for my subject. Even now it is only a this wady (or valley) a little way. and a half. Such an idea will occur to the observer even at the present day. nor will any volcanic force affect them. The elevation on the north of the city had everything of beauty and magnitude to recommend it. and covered with bushes and briers. It is mythically related that when the architect Hiram was brought to Jerusalem. . the sides being almost perpendicular. To reach it you go ing Angel from Alma in a southerly direction. about fifteen miles southeast of Tyre. less than that which would elevate the bed of the sea and sink the mountains into the depths. to the southeast. Now. through a woody and almost trackless Here the region. and the Destroyin thirty-six acres who stood there in the days of David. inclosed artificial construction.446 AN INTERESTING RUIN. and suggested that as a much more appropriate basis for the Temple. which lies under mighty cliffs full of caverns. that it is safe to say that no power that human hands can apply will ever remove them. and containing so many buildings. from which he was shown the general contour of the hill of Moriah. and enter Wady Benna near the village of the same name. Now. and conducted by King Solomon to the summit of Mount Olivet. so artisticin relation to each other. still more when he considers that all this elevation before him. directly opposite the castle. the broad and beautiful elevation less than a mile to the north of the city. when we describe the foundations of King Solomon's Tem- we allude to this stupendous base. it up So large are the stones of which the outer walls are built. originally extremely narrow. is of and originally presented nothing but a rugged. the ridge upon which the castle of Kurein stands was. form of thirty-six and a half acres. like Mount Moriah. while all that could be alleged in favor of Moriah was the historical facts connected with the offering of Isaac by Abraham. and so firmly ally are they laid together morticed at their interior edges. for about three miles. Passing down you turn up a branch wady and reach.

C. each lower than the one above. to enlarge the platform of the Temple. with the gray old tower peering out here and there. as was done by Solomon on Mount Moriah. about 165 B. and yet so separated that each would have to be taken by itself. relics of domestic vessels. but not beveled. and the disintegrated stone used in the buildings above and around it for 1800 years. The ridge falls down rapidly toward the river. This basement-work is very solid. will still convey an at imperfect idea. On this platform stood a noble tower of extremely well-cut and very large stones. etc. whose ranks ascend shade above shade. The second from the top has in it a beautiful octagonal pedestal of finely polished stone about eight feet high. like those in the building at the river. The sketch I have given of the great platform. 447 few feet wide (from south to north) at the point beyond the castle. terebinth bay. cloisters. Above all spread a lofty canopy of clustered arches. it probably supported an image or statue. unless the reader recalls the fact that around it from fifty to one hundred the base. and the . and of various lengths up must have been quite impregnable before the invencannon. These various departments were so connected as to form one castle. stately and imposing. having the sides almost perpendicular. and exhibits very fine specimens of the old Jewish or Phoenician bevel.HANDMARK OP HIRAM'S BUILDERS. and underneath is a tangled network of briers and bushes. relics of architecture. There are three other towers or departments.. The hill of Castle Kurein is inexpressibly beautiful and imposing. This must present much the appearance that Mount Moriah did The Temple. to ten feet. and the lowest of all incloses a considerable area. is an embankment of loose earth feet deep. had ceased several years before. and the hill had grown up in foresttrees. The top of this ridge was widened by walls built up from below. a swelling pyramid of green hung up in mid-heaven. and also wider. and over it stood eight demi-columns. tion of They are all three feet thick. and other trees. Solomon's Temple itself (reserving the woody portions that were burnt. a column for each face of the pedestal . with a cornice. and has ragged cliffs descending on each side to a great depth. This earth represents all the debris of rubbish. which make it difficult to explore the ruins. united inwardly. for the hill bulges out as it descends. amid which the great Temple and its surrounding courts.worship in the days of the Maccabees. rose up as a series of ruins. The entire castle and its hill are now clothed with magnificent forests of oak. in a It direction nearly west.

we see quarry so amount Plymouth (England) Breakwater. and it is still three-tenths in excess of the pyramid. with its one hundred and fifty thousand builders. as to afford an inclined plane of just the convenient descent for their purpose. is directed.666. was less than eight years in course of erection True. that in the The to 1. to hearken unto the cry and the prayer which thy servant prayeth before thee.000 tons. Verd-antique. the of granite blocks used was 3. This fact is the more noteworthy because we have persistently been assured that the Pyramid of Cheops is the largest artificial structure in the world. when Solomon prayed " Have respect to the prayer of thy servant. .000. that thine eyes may be open upon this house day and night. to hearken unto the prayer which thy servant prayeth toward this place. to The cubic contents of the great platform exceed ten The magnitude of the structure (supposing it yards ! million cubic all artificial) is three times that of the great Pyramid of Cheops. Admitting that one-half of the Temple-platform is comprised in the native hill (Mount Moriah). Porphyry* and other valuable building materials.) "Were that great dust-heap around Mount Moriah sifted. the latter had the immense advantage of procuring their stone within half a mile of the spot on which it was to be laid. which a Mason's attention seven successive objects that have occupied this sacred ridge. in a few minutes' search. it is not extravagant to say that a mass of remnants would be collected of Parian marble. earth metallic portions that were carried away) lies in that huge bank of I found there. Syenite. although no less than one hundred thousand workmen were engaged upon it . it took one hundred years to complete it. upon the place whereof thou hast said that thou wouldst put thy name there. Lord. my God. begun in 1812. and from a much higher.000. which is about three and a half million cubic yards. are The Altar of Abraham. reaching to more than half the material used here. According to historians. while the Temple-platform. specimens of various ! kinds of building materials that may once have shone in the raye which were reflected back on the day of the great dedication. and its contents observed and preserved. which would come near representing the bulk of the Temple and its subsidiary buildings. Egyptian black marble.448 CONTENTS OF THE GREAT PLATFORM. 19. in relation to the platform. at a cost of about $7." (2 Chronicles : vi. Estimating other great accumulations of materials by this. and to his supplications. and Gray Granites.

very fair house. work of the Knights living on barley-bread and and humility. impure men as Christians and Jews were allowed in such holy places. and paved with marble.000 in breadth. 6. Why it was left here when all the rest of the combing of the ridge was cut away. The Altar of David. 4. dates. At that time it was said no such foul. The Mosque of Omar. The Threshing-floor of Oman. 2.500 feet in length from north to south. for the desolations visible nowhere more than here. well paved with white marble. Mosque of Omar is built. mostly of modern structure. covered with lead. about 1. 29 . a rude stone nearly sixty feet long. lofty and circular. I visited the place on which the Temple of King Solomon stood . 5. 3. that beyond doubt represents the original surface of the mountain. in common with all Masonic visitors. preaching in a ragged In the fourteenth century his building was described as a cloak. making a vaunt of poverty explored the subterranean passages so far as allowable. believed This to be the Templars. which antiquarians have long been at war.THE RUDE STONE. inspected the present buildings. is a question upon INTERIOR OF THE DOME OF THE ROCK. Omar was an ascetic. 44 7. and mourned. The Temple of Herod. It is a broad court. The Temple of Solomon. only sparsely covered with trees and buildings. presenting the immense block (or rough ashlar) over which the. and 1. The Temple of Zerubbabel.

ured. and situation for the Temple was north and In contrast with its present ruined and desolate condition. and above them. with that wonder of Egypt. the convenience of fastening the grappling-hooks.450 CROLY'S ELEGANT DESCRIPTION. were. who.D. compare the magnificent word-painting of Croley (in Salathiel}^ describing the mountain and its glorious occupant. : The of the One Arab poets has the name of this celebrated rock of the love-songs as a figure of comparison " Great is my love : if my love were in the Sakhrah. in raising the heavy ashlars to their respective places. under the name of Melchizedek. Had Solomon's builders been able to procure syenite. its innumerable and stately buildings for the priests and officers of the Temple. That great and wonderful rock the Sakhrah. It would be broken into a thousand pieces. those alabaster porticoe and colonnades in which the chiefs and sages of Jerusalem sat teaching . A. left for seen on the largest ashlars. great stone stands inside the railing. made undoubtedly for the same purpose. In the great Pyramid The round protuberances Cheops holes are found in the sides of the larger stones. occupied yonder hill of Sion. we should have seen these walls made of granite slabs finished off with tlie skill and polish of a jeweller." In stepping around and over this " Noble Enclosure. 70 u I see the Court of the Gentiles circling the whole. his The importance that King Solomon gave to this idea of having Temple due east and west may be seen in this. the great Pyramid of Cheops. glittering like a succession of diadems. and twenty-five of these units formed the sacred cubit by which all this ground and the splendid erections thereon were meas- The progress of antiquarian research may yet connect the Patriarch Shem. 1 think. worthy of the fame of Solomon . my thoughts take their flight to the mighty structure near Cairo. stands is more natural almost exactly with the meridian. a fortress of the purest marble. as those of Cheops did." and reckoning up the measurements. its kingly entrance. from which the primeval standard of measurement was deduced. The unit of the Pyramid was the one five-hundred-millionth part of the earth's axis of rotation. the year of it : destruction. that the range of it the hill on which therefore the south. with its wall rising six hundred feet from the valley .

and highest. or walked. and of the Holy of Holies. its roof planted with lofty spear-heads of gold. lying in fragments in this stupendous the mountain a hundred feet thick . This specimen I still . five miles south of this place . of which these authors speak ? Who can tell ? Many of them. I feed a soldier to lift it with his bayoalong by net. some of them. the court of the Jewits porphyry pillars and richly-sculptured the separated court of the men . 451 the people. chanted the inspired songs of our Warrior-King. Four thousand more performed the lower offices. separated by . those porphyry pilasters. Nebuchadnezzar compelled his captives to carry away with them them. the trumpet. till Mount Moriah stood forth to the eye of the stran- ger approaching Jerusalem." " The grandeur of the worship was worthy of this glory of architecture. and constructed by so many celebrated artists. the most precious marbles and metals everywhere flashing back the day. so spacious and magnificent. wall above this. and filled up the pauses of prayer with harmonies that transported the spirit troubled world. It proved to be a fragment sawed from the side of a pillar. at Bethlehem. the crowning splendor of all the ish women. escaped not the unsparing ravages of barbarous force. Four-and-twenty thousand Levites ministered by turns.. rising above this stupendous boundary.A FRAGMENT OF MARBLE. still higher. doubtmass of debris of earth less. trophies of the pavement as I walked Seeing a piece of fine marble loose in the old Temple site. a thousand at a time. Four thousand singers and minstrels." But where are those alabaster columns. and all the richest instruments of a land whose native genius was music. covered with plates of gold. with the harp. as they carried the Temple of Solomon. the place" of the Sanctuary. away so many other things. perhaps. the convexity on that side remaining perfect. and gazing on the grandeur of a landscape which swept the whole amphitheatre of the mountains. surrounding tradition speaks truly. breathing the air. a mountain of snow studded with jewels. I see." beyond the cares and passions of a What a fine comment upon Croley's beautiful thought is this passage from the Fellow-Craft's lecture: "Even the Temple of Solomon. what it had been so often described by its bards and people. central Temple. in the ancient Church of the Nativity. some of andstones. and whose climate and landscape led men instinctively to delight in the charm of sound. the court of the priests . if into Babylon.

Looking over the battlement of the wall. ever weather-stained templating the local peculiarities of the sacred work. there is nothing that particularly attracts the obthe southeast corner. in his Seven Churches of Asia.452 THE SUBSTRUCTURES. but is a feature in the grand old physiognomy upon which we love to dwell. To have at my lege of personal inspection of that thrice-sacred area in which the Temple of Solomon once stood. These are truly cyclopeau. in magnitude and the architectural skill necessary for their construction. pavements. tablets. howand weather-worn. and immediately iu the corner of the inclosure. is felt by all Freemasons when conis full of interest. quarried in the great excavation on the northern side of the city. Let me de- server's attention in Above-ground." describes similar instances of beautiful columns being sawed up into slabs for one who enjoys the privigravestones. scribe the southeast corner. It illustrates the shocking destruction of the finest works of art that has been going on here for many cen" turies. But it is below-ground that the chief interest of the Masonic explorer of this immense Platform will extend. though in less degree. the Sir Christoof his day. As he stood upon yonder spur of Mount a quarter-mile east. Olivet. sharp-backed ridge. etc. I*sa ("of our Lord Jesus"). then a narrow. called by the Moslems Sid no. of the genius of Hiram himself. Here are substructures worthy. nearly a quarter of a mile to the northwest. in the lower room of which is an irregularly shaped trough. and looked across the valley to Moriah. The splendid Mosque Omar. and stand. made of Jerusalem marble. of probably range upon range. and . sixteen courses high of the original ashlars. The same class of interest. to which we shall call attention in a future chapter. every portion of the Great Platform Not a block of the original foundation-wall. would most fill his eye and occupy his thoughts for the brief period that he is permitted to remain in this part of the sacred inclosure. he will observe a small building covered with a dome. Near nim. house in 1872. he might well ask himself from whence should come pher Wren the supply of earth and stone? The country around presents. each stone beveled clear around the exposed surface. he would see that he is seventy-seven feet from its base. Sueborda. and computed the amount of material necessary to bring up the Platform seventy-seven feet to its present level. and if his head does not become giddy as Josephus says it will he may note the great size of the blocks of which i is constructed.

than that these cells The cost and labor must have been great. you think you into these cells. or arch. being made up of arches. lofty columns than by filling up either with solid masonry The length of these rock galas in the case of the narrow ravines. or these would pillar. has been consulted here. the different measuraa . whose summit. 453 save earth and stones where earth was so scarce. Dr. as it stood originally. but as you move down the long slope. a rocky surface hard to loosen and break up were a design worthy of the prince of architects to devise a to . The level platform which they produced above forms a large addition to the ancient hill. All this southeast corner inside of the foundation walls is hollow. notbeautj or grace. Bonar (Land of Promise) says it forms the foundation for the platform of the Temple area. T. and it method This was done by the substitution of arches for solid filling. for the supporting pillars cannot be more than nine or ten feet high . We : measured some of the stones. measuring northward. There it is its solidity is slowly the arches increasing in height and massiveness as we advanced. east corner being greater The declination of the hill at the south- than at any other part. have been inadmissible in such a structure. strength alone. Barclay writes less those alluded to Josephus in his description of the construc- by tion of the Temple-wall. from leries. Concern" They are doubting these great works. and the engineering skill which they indicate is much beyond what modern ideas are inclined to allow to ancient science. As we moved down the slope of the nowhere anyhill. might touch the roof with your hand. this great under-ground work. and found them to average fifteen by eight feet. Not that there is anything out Of of taste in that interminable vista of arches. The arches are singularly massive and strong. J. Wherever we looked we saw the same massiveness in wall. it was found more to bring it to a general level by erecting vaults upon advantageous or by earth.ROCK-CUT CRYPTS. we seemed to be wandering through the rock-cut crypt of some vast Egyptian temple. you seem to be receding from the roof till at the extremity you find that it must be about thirty feet above you. It looked more as if the hill had been excavated felt thing like it. but that impresses the mind from first to last. There appeared to be no small stones in any part . ever did present. the easA is 319 feet. and had been built upon the hill. As you first enter by a kind of trap-door from the platform above and go southward. measured westward from the wall on the wall on the south. must have been narrow and quite unsuited for any building beyond that of a tomb.

454 vary considerably . E. then. the third row from the eastern wall and the seven next rows to the west of it are each 188 feet in To sum up. CORNER OF THE TEMPLE-PLATFORM. Its water-supply was derived from Solomon's Pools. are yet cyclopean in magnitude. The stones in the wall near the southeast corner. who The dimensions are given on another page. is represen ted by a mass 319 X 247 X 30 feet length. reservoir as I was looking for the place where lie the assassins of that tempestuous firebrand of Rome. the line of aqueduct being distinctly marked all the way. Sea. Thomas a Becket. this great. as has been shown before. The importance of a full supply of water for the ceremonial observances always going on in and about the Temple. WATER-SUPPLY. and for the beverage of the armies of priests and multitudes of visitors. were buried here. I rolled u good-sized stone from near the valley To show . and which otherwise must have been filled up by solid masonry or less the space occuearth. an is immense tern that fo. I found the opening to PIERS UNDER S. eight miles southwest. is seen in the illustration of the cis- Royal feet site. the steepness of this slope from Mount Moriah to the of Jehoshaphat.und about 500 south of the old Temple The cut conveys a good impression of it. the one from the Triple Gate (277 feet from the east wall) being 247 feet in length . the space occupied by these substructures. Considerable resemblance can be traced in the style of work done on these crypts of Mount Moriah and the ancient Roman aqueduct made to supply the city of Smyrna with water. No description can do justice to these subterranean vaults without an engraving. though not quite so large as those in the northeast and southwest respectively. pied by the rough spurs or projections of the ancient hill.

sand and broken stones at the base of the Great Pyramid. removing and bringing the foundation-stones of the Eternal Monument to the clear light of day! May not the great Mason-fraternity yet be induced to undertake it? it all. than silver-paper. Oh that a nation would do for these masses of debris what the ench Army did in 1799 to the greater accumulationg of mJBgypt it and ROMAN AQUEDUCT AT SMYRNA. The j casing-stones discovered by Vyse were twelve feet long. it will be the seen how far Hiram's build- ers excelled those of Cheops in this respect. 455 continued its flight without a pause until it reached the original bed of the brook Kedron. four feet three inches These were worked with such exquisite high. Earthquakes have affected this great eastern wall. skill that the edges were not thicker. but the internal iron bands of which strong Josephus . base of the wall. breaking manj of the large blocks. he said.EARTHQUAKES. In comparing the size of tremendous blocks in these walls with those of the Great Pyramids. In a future chapter I will give measuro ments j I of many pyramidtwo marble stones'. CISTERN ON MOUNT MORIAH. and in places destroying notably the alignment of the wall . eight feet three inches broad.

who knew him well. I think. was a great earthquake "the earth did quake and the rocks rent. tion thus far has defied the utmost efforts of internal fires to over- throw it It was quite a pleasant coincidence." and was stabbed to death and his throat cut by the Jews. All these phenomena affected this great wail to a considerable extent. if necessary. the year of the " Am. Those in the Pyramid as well as in this wall are some- times upside down. and. The construction-marks of the Phoenician masons who built the Temple are unquestionably of great antiquity. or man who does the call from the top of the mina- Pursued by . in recalling one of David's expressions in the Psalms." at the Crucifixion (Matt. that came from Bithynia. " the place was shaken where they were assembled. and the whole to the stony core on which it rests. " at the Kesurrection (Matt. ( Wars. were sufficient to check the workmen to place responsibility in its to make the correct tally of wages. standing here at the base of the wall.) fate." says the historian. he fell backwards on this smooth pave" ment. was observing the remains of this gabbatlia (pavement) and I nearly got a fall on a glassy bit of Parian marble remaining in situ. The muezzin. about the size of my hand. which it was not possible he should escape. who thronged around him with spears and swords. describes him. a nest of the sparrow (passer cisalpina) in a nook of one of the grand ashlars far below me. L. They are quite as distinct as those to be seen on the marble stones proper quarter of which the public buildings at Washington are now being constructed. and fits in to my little tumble very neatly. 1-8. as I stood on the wall south of the Golden Gate. It was a pleasant coincidence that near the same spot slipped and fell in Titus' time "one Julian. xxviii. " the hills did tremble " (Isaiah v. wrote have held block to block as the ligaments hold the bones." as Josephus. 21) . they Temple. to see. and earthquake xxvii. 2) . having his shoes all filled with thick and sharp nails." while " the disciples were praying together (Acts iv. The whole incident is vividly described by Josephus. a man of great I While my foot slipped. It is worth one'a " there while. to read the words. " vi. a centurion. reputation. 1 . the actual memorandums of the stone-squarers of Gebal who took Solomon's contract to build the However rude these were. and. etc. but the construc. of penalties. breaking the huge stones. 51) . 25) . similar expressions. and secure the placing of each stone in its proper place.456 A REMINISCENCE.

: H . mon Lodge No. work. As at other places.. etc. itself... and many others : ..N. 68. Eev. Iowa. Ky. Mount Calvary Lodge No. . Samuel Catherwood. J.. ret 457 so. who would otherwise pass under his observation." I felt locality all the store of that the true poet of Masonry might derive from this hallowed images and inspiration that it has given for thirty centuries to Jewish.. Temple Lodge No. with a long list of others . necessarily seeing the faces of the women. Ky. Maine. etc. . Temple here. Charles Craig. 335. to near by the Mosque of Omar. Smith. 147. the city Jerusalem Lodge No. Y. Ky.. and Lodge (referring others Siloam Lodge No. Blakesley. recalling the Mohammedan traditions of the builders of the first . David 75.MASONIC IDENTIFICATIONS. Geo. and Mohammedan poets. 62. and numerous others SoloOlivet Mount Lodge No. 5. 9. 15.Y.. At the southeast corner of the Great Wall: Christopher G. Beach. 329. I make the Masonic identifications complete. Widow's Son Lodge is No. John Jolley. Built those high-pillared halls.. Foster. 106. Ky. The poor fellow cannot even " go a single eye on them." as the story says. Del. At the site of the ancient Temple Capt. Ala. 175. the extensive Kambliiig vent him from pre- through and beautiful grounds inspecting the green and red satin canopy over the sacred rock (Es-salchard). and very many others Bethesda to the Pool here of that name) No. 66. 29. .C. 9. 99. So frequently does Jerusalem and its particular mountains and fountains appear in the nomenclature of American lodges.. Ky. 72. Kalph Applewhite. etc. Christian.. by Masons whose labors writing here the names of zealous and worthy in their sphere "keep light and warm" the lodges in which they Thomas J. 95.. honored in No. Md. Zerutoabel is recognized Other places connected in No. Va. A. which is the gift of the Sultan . N. W. . N. 201. King Zabud is is used for No. and " Of him. Geo. Ct. 199. Lemaitre. etc. naming. with this locality areused in like manner in our rather jejune lodge. who The magic powers in the twinkling of a star. Tenn. Ky. .. Barlow. 60 and 150. that I have room some for only a small part fifty more . Lyndon A. Mount Moriah Lodge No. and a host of like names. Geo. .. and Mount Sion Lodge No. is a Uind man. Colley A. 139. finally. Georgia.

. Munger. Sr. Drummond. At the Joppa Gate James A. T. K. Wm. Richardson. Tyng. Tucker. S. Joseph Robbins. M. English.. 0. Allen.4:58 OBSERVATIONS ON COLUMNS. Wm. Austin. Luckey. W. Stephen H. Jr. Moriarty.W. Lewis S. : W. Waggoner. Pickett. Hubbard.. to make up my judgment as to the spot where those ponderous shafts were set up." Speaking generally of this greatest of all architectural features. and B. HurlHowsley. Christian Fetta. Lewis I. connected with a celebrated temple b . In my account of the Clay-ground in a preceding chapter. C. some fifty or sixty feet high. Temple. Vincent L. M. T. D. and that in fact they were not disengaged columns at all. Peck. I am very much of that opinion. M.." Making no special reference to the brazen columns of Solomon. His description of a wrought-iron column of great antiquity. A. Rev. E. Berry. did in fact support entabIt is the opinion of some of the best writers on Solomon's latures. the Damascus Gate Coombs.D. W. E. Whitehead. E. Stephen's Gate James M.. Hiram W." entitled " Observa- on Columns. 1872). Thomas J. Ferd.. : Michel Pinner. Williams. of casting the brazen (bronze ?) columns for the use of the Temple on Mount Moriah. Walter.D.D. but. Herbert to the traveller Bright. E. H. J. : At F. Samuel Wilson. Turning the southwestern point of Mount Olivet. and suggests that some of those monuments which we have been in the habit of supposing merely solitary pieces. etc. Wm. Israel Baldwin. John Christie. while walking over this area. Ross. Hawley. Black. and particularly from the east. Peter Thatcher. Austin. that such was the case with J. C. in "The Industrial Monthly. S. where the view is the finest. M. P. he yet reprehends the erection of isolated columns like that of Pompey's Pillar. M. and to kindle the imagination with the splendid view they must have presented from any direction. C. I did not fail. I fell in by good luck with some articles from the skilled and elegant pen of Prof. A. While writing up this paragraph (Feb. M. W. of tiqns New York. W. I referred to the immense work performed there. too. At St. the sight of those mighty and mysterious pillars musl have absorbed the attention of the traveller beyond anything else that the Temple of Solomon presented. W. Easier. H. H. Robert Dott. Stockton. M. Woodruff. Coulter..H. J.Fogg. James P. "the incomparable excellence of their designs and proportions has defied the scrutiny of generations to detect a fault or add an embellishment. he says of certain ancient columns. Albert P.

sullah koom wa kheddin es salat. remove my shoes.. To avoid giving offence.MOSQUE CEBEMOBTIALS. times a day. except the ones at Mecca. noon. but every day in the week will answer. middle In the daybreak call these at bedtime. India. they are always open I entered one about ten minutes before noon. churches in our large cities. Allah hoo achbar Allah hoo achbar Oo ishod la illah il Allah . Oo This in plain English is: God is God is And This cry is bear testimony to one God bear testimony to one God . And And . and slipped them unperceived into my coat-pocket. they took their places side by side. according to the native custom. oi afternoon. all facing toward the south. denoted by the kiblaJi in the southern wall of the mosque. The muezzin or crier was all the time calling out. Oo ishod la illah il Allah . . in the be steeple (minaret) high above us. at daybreak. testify that Mohammed greater . greater . was much interested in their manner of worship. . The best time to observe the ceremonies is on Friday. words are added made : five and Es Es salat ophdel min en-noom." The Mohammedan Mosques on Mount Moriah being considered by those religionists the most holy of their churches. to leave a convenient space for Perfect silence and decorum were prostration during the prayers. at sunset. Adam Clarke describes as being "beyond the ability of any workmen of the present day to equal. in straight lines. observed. viz. for. which old Dr. inne Mohammed el Eesool Allah. which is the Mohammedan like the Catholic Sabbath. These lines were about five feet apart. harsh tones that could the following Arabic sentences: heard to a very great distance. . and took my seat I had been careful to cross-legged. which I wore for the purpose. I occupied an obscure corner near the door. As the company came in. is the Prophet of God. is a 459 commentary upon Hiram's work. and to worshippers. in long. which is the direction of Mecca. I introduce here a brief account of their mosque-worship.

the great stone buildwas jarred with the shock. the muezzin stopped. rupt Christian churches here. about six As gallery. contrasted unfavorably even with the worst forms of corrupt crosses. and auxiliaries of worship that fill the corBut. aged man near me. No one seemed to pay my presence. the fact that would have been allowed to be present. with the absence of pictures. all rising. bowing. kept up with the rest. on the other hand. The voices of the Imaums were ing affected and unnatural. When the exercises were finished. The services occupied about an hour. or priests. and idols. walking around his little balcony near the top of the minaret for that purpose. made a pleasing contrast with the scenes of noise. When they all fell on their knees in unison. then to bow and kneel. kneeling. and he left the place smiling. but their command over the worshippers in producing uniformity of ceremony was equal to that of a general over the most thoroughly disciplined troops. images. the same words being repeated and the same evolutions performed without the least change. and absorbed devotion of these people. Rise up and offer prayers. flat on the floor. evidently stiff and agonized with rheumatism. Prayer is better than sleep . though the sweat stood in great beads on his forehead.460 . . confusion. which were spread open and lying inches apart. decorum. But the veteran had accomplished his task. every one began to move his lips . and an occasional groan of anguish escaped from him. and while the muezzin was still mak- ing his circuit and invitations. In making these calls he goes to the four cardinal points. relics. apparently his sons. any attention to emblems. MOSQUE CEREMONIALS. The evolutions were performed with military precision and promptness. and the performance com- menced. or Christianity. As the worshippers came in. not a female was present. the Imaums. he had to be lifted to still An his feet and led off by two men. and prostrating with the system of the far-famed New York Forty-third Regiment on a fieldday. who were in the gave the word of command. The silence. and place his forehead on the floor between his hands.

M. R. 1868. I held two Masonic meetings in a at the Mediterranean Hotel.E. W. EOGEES. who is in charge of the explorations.CHAPTER XXVL FEEEMASONEY IN JEEUSALEM. in which assemblies several officers of the British war-ships lying at Joppa were present . as named before. Prussian Consul.. . also the venerable Brother Petermann. E. T. HILE room in Jerusalem. of Palestine Lodge 415. near the Damascus Gate. at Beyrout. and Captain Charles Warren.

and under the northeast quarter of the city. Eastern Archipelago. of course. Prussia. The entrance is under the city walls on the This opening north. Every. Past braltar. All the above were connected with H. Singapore. J. by Dr. Barclay. Phoenix Lodge. Member of the Fourth Degree (Ober Meister). Add to this the fact that the native stone around Jerusalem is friable. Lindesay John Oxland. Royal York of Berlin. the entrance was extremely difficult of access. and we exchanged which I think genial sentiments and formed and cemented friendships will be permanent.DISCOVERT OF THE QUARRY. Master of Lodge of Friendship 278. Charles "Warren. and dissolves rapidly in the open air. A and often partially (and several times totally) destroyed. Gi- Henry Petermann. In fact. : of these brethren are here given Goodrich. Zetland Lodge 515. initiated in 1826. etc. parts of a traveller's business in Jerusalem. Malta. author of the celebrated work The City of the Great King. P. but when the Prince of Wales was here. Nothing can exceed the zeal of our English brethren upon such occasions . to which I have more than once At that time. it was made easier. Rev. England.N. now lying in the port of Joppa. drawn immensely upon the building material of the vicinity. May 13. England. J. St. A was first discovered about ten years ago. description of these enormous caverns seems necessary as a preface to the subject. as I said. England also Zetland Lodge 515. Lord Clyde. M. Portsmouth. city that has been seventeen times captured. and the opening of a Moot Lodge there : this event occurred on the afternoon of Wednesday. Fidelity Lodge 1042. has.. T. Auburn Lodge 954. a short distance east of the Damascus Gate. Grand Chaplain. and the deader will understand that somewhere in the vicinity great quarries must exist. These conferences were delightful to me. One of the most agreeable episodes in my visit here was an assemblage of Freemasons in the vast quarries that underlie the northeastern quarter of the city of Jerusalem. are on the north side. S. a few years since. Davenport. P. These. the matter of entering and traversing the entire quarries is now one of the lighest and pleasantest referred. The names . R. Outside of the walls a space of several hundred feet in width and a . Edward Gladstone.

to Freemasons' lodge been effect that never. the veneravery feeling and appropriate. and the trowel. and to break the long stillness of these ancient now assembled. Entering with a good supply of candles. desired to seal our friendship by the associations peculiar to a Masonic lodge . It was a pit in the ancient On the east and west.. we felt. aught I know. Royal York Lodge at Berlin. echoing strangely that had heard no such sounds for centuries. a member of many years' experience. there is a cavern. for We none but the All-seeing Eye can penetrate. which answered An upright stone in the centre. under the title to do. convecuttings. prayer was offered. a few opening remarks were made by myself. and in the awful depths of that quarry. and found a chamber happily adapted to a Masonic purpose. and the other ceremo- A nies proceeded. in a systematic . This is termed by the natives the Cotton Mefjara. and it is here that we opened our Moot Lodge. while adjoining those excavations on the south. as already intimated. three burning candles throwing their lustre upon it.OPENING THE MOOT LODGE. About ten feet above the master's station there was an immense opening in the wall. about eighteen feet square. providentially thrown together. we pushed southward as far into the quarry as we could penetrate. gentleman . to the original site of the Temple of Solomon. brethren. served us for an Altar. as we never had before. the resting near by. Prussian Consul at Jerusalem. square. we had of Reclamation Lodge proceed to open a Moot Lodge. by of ble Henry Petermann. and immediately under the city. by us the great Jerusalem Quarry. and would quarries by Masonic utterances. of equal extent. long used by guides to set their candles upon. secrecy. had a formed in Jerusalem since the departure of the Crusading hosts more than seven hundred years ago. nearly a quarter of a mile from its opening. and darkness. a Freemason Brother Peterman is the deputy of his Grand Lodge to the lodges of great learning and tbe highest o' Palestine. that for this purpose. This we now proceeded from that stony rock ner. nient shelves had been left by the original workmen. how impressive is a place which led. that a few of us. so far as I knew. that an effort was now making to introduce Freemasonry into this. were perfectly tyled by silence. the mother-country of its birth. quarter of a mile in horizontal depth has been quarried to the depth of twenty-five to fifty feet. which for seats. Laying my pocket Bible open on the central stone. etc. He is a Remarks were offered.manof Jerusalem.

to whom I allude on page 599.. the learned and zealous officer who has charge of the excavations going JOHN District P. the afflicting intelligence reached me. Freemasonry in the Turkish Empire has no Elisha worthy to wear the mantle of this Elisha. 278. M. 1872." He died of heart-disease.E. E. at Gibraltar. by telegraph. and . without warning. Sunday. a member of Friendship Lodge No. the chariot of Israel and the horsemen thereof 1" K.464 social standing. Grand Master at Constantinople. speaking eight languages with fluency. cation from him the day before. " Alas. Brother Petermann was followed by Brother Captain Charles "Warren. at ConI had received a communiwas preparing a reply when. April 28. the spirit of their genial and wise Brother Brown. stantinople. BROWN. OPENING THE MOOT LODGE. was summoned " by the God who gave it. reinstating the Masonic institutions in the Holy Land. He expressed in the plainest terms. that the times were propitious foi his opinion. 1872. Suddeuly.

as cut by our hand. Many emblems Hebrew characters. G.. its had Freemasonry existed here during the different crises of history. Noureddiu Effendi. Nazif Mesharka. Rev. Ho professed a willingness to do any part in the introduction and reestablishment of the society here. John Oxland. having been mislaid at the proper time. Further notes relative to researches in this great quarry will be interesting to the general reader. as if we had no Masonic forms. 10). this evil was spared us. J. However. on here under patronage of the Palestine Exploration Fund. in a land of jarring nationalities and religions such as this is. just now. we groped for the wall like the blind we groped eyes. into the Holy Land. the next day.SAYINGS UNDER GROUND. this truly Masonic Associating the names of worthy Masons with I unite Henry Petermann. of crosses. who excelled himself in clear and forcible expressions of the importance of Freemasonry. The following drawing of the Great Stone at Baalbec. We separated . lost our way. called together under such singular circumstances. Abdel Kader. etc. whose dimensions I gave in a preceding chapter. The vast quarry thus consecrated by in the . Every. Storer. oU . Then. and endeavoring to return to the entrance through the devious and interminable passages of that enormous cavern. and showed how much of the misery to which this country has been subjected might have been spared. locality. we stumbled (Isaiah lix. shows at every point the marks of the chisel as well defined