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B.S. Tomar
M.Sc., Ph.D.
~ G l o b a l
Publications Pvt. Ltd.
(10 Periods)
Class - IX
Course Structure
First Term Marks: 90
Units Marks
I. Food 13
II. Matter - Its nature and behaviour 29
III. Organisation in the living world 18
IV. Motion, force and work 30
Total 90
Theme: Food
Unit: Food
Plant and animal breeding and selection for quality improvement and management; use of fertilizers,
manures;- protection from pests and diseases; organic farming.
Theme: Materials (22 Periods)
Unit: Matter - 'Nature and behaviour
Definition of matter; solid, liquid and gas; characteristics - shape, volume, density; change of state-melting
(absorption of heat), freezing, evaporation (Cooling by evaporation), condensation, sublimation.
Nature of matter: Elements, compounds and mixtures. Heterogeneous and homogenous mixtures, colloids
and suspensions.
Theme: The World of The Living (22 Periods)
Unit: Organization in the living world
Cell- Basic Unit of life: Cell as a basic unit of life; prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, multicellular organisms;
cell membrane and cell wall, cell organelles; chloroplast, mitochondria, vacuoles, endoplasmic reticulum,
golgi apparatus; nucleus, chromosomes - basic structure, number.
Tissues, Organs, Organ System, Organism.
Structure and functions of animal and plant tissues (four types in animals; meristematic and permanent
tissues in plants).
Theme: Moving Things, People and Ideas (36 Periods)
Unit: Motion, force and work
Motion: Distance and displacement, velocity; uniform and non-uniform motion along a straight line;
acceleration, distance-time and velocity-time graphs for uniform motion and uniformly accelerated motion,
equations of motion by graphical method; elementary idea of uniform circular motion.
Force and Newton's laws: Force and motion, Newton's laws of motion, inertia of a body, inertia and mass,
momentum, force and acceleration. Elementary idea of conservation of momentum, action and reaction
Gravitation: Gravitation; universal law of gravitation, force of gravitation of the earth (gravity), acceleration
due to gravity; mass and weight; free fall.
Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation
Formative Assessment
Formative assessment is atool used by the teacher to continuously monitor student progress in anon-threatening supportive
It involves regular descriptive feedback, achance for the student to reflect on the performance, take advice and improve upon
It involves students being an essential part of assessment from designing criteria to assessing self or peers.
If used effectively, it can improve performance tremendously while raising the self esteem of the child and reducing the
workload of the teacher.
Summative Assessment
Summative assessment is carried out at the end of acourse of learning.
It measures or 'sums-up' how much astudent has learned from the course.
It is usually agraded test, Le., it is marked according to ascale or set of grades.
Grading System
Scholastic A
Marks Range Grade Attributes Grade Point
91-100 A1 Exceptional 10.0
81-90 A2 Excellent 9.0
71-80 B1 Very Good 8.0
61-70 B2 Good 7.0
51-60 C1 Fair 6.0
41-50 C2 Average 5.0
33-40 0 Below Average 4.0
21-32 E1 Need to Improve
00-20 E2 Unsatisfactory
Scholastic B
Promo1j'on is based on the day-to-day work of the students throughout the year and also on the performance in the terminal
exami a on.
*Firs e -FA1 (10%) +FA2 (10%) +SA1 (30%)
~ S e G o f l d term -FA3 (10%) + FA4 (10910) + SA2 (30%)
Formative Assessment (FA) 1+2+3+4
Summative Assessment (SA) 1+2
The system being implemented will have the following advantages:
It will minimise misclassification of students on the basis of marks.
It will eliminate unhealthy cut-throat competition among high achievers.
It will reduce societal pressure and will provide the learner with more flexibility.
I will lead to afocus towards abetter learning environment.
Chapter: One

(UJ mJ
Fig. 1.2
Slice of cork showing cells
Robert Hooke's rricroscope
Q Q __O__Q
Take a small piece from an onion.
Use aforcep to separate a peel from its inner layers (concave side).
Put this inner layer immediately in a watch-glass containing water. This will prevent the
peel from getting folded or dry.
There are over 1.7 million kinds of organisms. They all show an enormous
degree of diversity of form and size. Yet they have an underlying unity in their basic
structure and process. All living structures we see around us are essentially made
up of numerous compartments (microscopic units) called cell. Robert Hooke (1665)
is credited with the discovery of cell. When Hooke made his chance observation
through a -self-designed microscope, he observed a honeycomb-like pattern in a
very thin slice of cork (Fig. 1.2).
This honeycomb-like structure consisted of a thick wall enclosing box-like
compartments. Hooke called these boxes, cells. Actually, cell is a Latin word for 'a
small room'. This may seem an insignificant incident, but it held a lot of importance
in the history of science. This was the very first time that someone had observed that
living things appear to consist of such separate units. The use of the word 'cell' to
describe the unit is prevalent till this day in biology.
Let us perform an activity to find out cells.
1='9 _3 Prep, ,,,rporaf'/ mou, I a onion lee,
Now, take a glass slide, put a drop of clean water on it and transfer the small piece of onion
peel from the watch-glass on to the slide. Make sure that the peel is perfectly flat on the slide.
For this, you may need a thin camel hair paintbrush.
Put a drop of iodine solution on the piece of onion peel.
Gently place the cover-slip onto the slide using a mounted needle to avoid air bubbles.
This is how you prepare a temporary mount of onion peel. For observation place the slide
onto the stage of the microscope.
Carefully observe the slide under microscope using the low power and high power of a
compound microscope.
The Fundamental Unit of Life 5
Eyepiece --.;#'f!/:""t
Fine ---"'I'
Stage height - - - - - . ; ~
:;:.---- Tube
Objective lens
___(high power)
7 . . . ~ - - - Objective lens
(low power)
Cells are very small in size and cannot be seen by
the naked eye. For observing a minute cell one
needs a microscope. Leeuwenhoek prepared. a
light microscope which is comparable to today's
compound microscope. The object (specimen) on
a glass slide is kept on a stage, bearing a central
hole under an objective lens. Light is reflected
through the specimen with the help of a mirror and
a condenser from below the stage. Through the eye
piece one can see the magnified image of an object.
Eye piece is located at the top. Focussing is usually
done by the adjustors (coarse and fine) fitted in the
microscope. Eye piece and objectives of high and
low powers are available.
Fig. 1.4 Compound microscope and its parts
Cell wall
I::!::=i!-- Cytopl asm
Fig. 1.5 Cellular structures of onion peel
What do you observe when you look through the lens? Can you draw
the structures that you are able to see through the microscope in your
observation sheet? Does it look like the Fig. 1.5.
When you try preparing temporary mounts of peel of onions of
different sizes, you will find that all contain similar small struc;tures.
These small structures which you see in an onion peel are the basic
building units. called cells. ot only onions, but all organisms which you see
around are made up of cells.
Cell is the structuml
and functional unit
of life.
A cell arises from a
pre-existing cell.
Discovery of Cell
The term 'cell' was used by Robert Hooke in 1665. He observed cells in a
piece of cork under a primitive microscope. In 1674, Anton von Leeuwenhoek
discovered free cells like bacteria, protozoa, red blood cells and sperm with the help
of improved microscope. Robert Brown in 1831 discovered the nucleus in the cells.
In 1839, Johannes Purkinje named the fluid content of the cell as protoplasm. In
1892, O. Hertwig proposed that cell is a mass of 'protoplasm' .
Cell Theory
. All plants and animals are composed of cells and that the cell is the basic unit of
life, ,vas presented by two biologists-Matthias Jacob Schleiden (German Botanist)
and T. Schwann (German Zoologist), in 1839.
In 1855, R. Virchow further expanded the cell theory as, "Omnis cellulae a
cellula", i.e., all cells arise from pre-existing cells. Soon thereafter in 1866, Haeckel,
established that nucleus stores and transmits hereditary traits. In 1880, Fleming
had shown that cells ensure continuity between one generation and another by
6 The Fundamental Unit of Life
the mechanism of mitosis. Waldeyer in 1890 described the precise division of the
Thus, the modern version ofthe cell theory is as follows:
(i) All living organisms are composed of cells and their products.
(ii) Cell is the structural and functional unit of life.
(iii) All cells arise from pre-existing cells.
(iv) The smallest unit of life is the cell, i.e., every organism starts its life as a
single cell.
With the discovery of electron microscope in 1940, it was possible to observe
and understand the complex structure of the cell and its various organelles. The
first electron microscope was designed by Knoll and Ruska in 1932.
Unicellular and Multicellular Organisms
We cannot imagine an organism that is not formed of a cell. Organisms may be
made up of one or more cells. If the organisms are made up ofa single cell, they are
called unicellular organisms (uni-single), e.g., Amoeba, Chlamydomonas, Paramecium
and bacteria. On the other hand, if organisms are made up of many cells, they are
called multicellular organisms (multi-many).
The multicellular organisms may be made up of few cells (e.g., some algal
and fungal forms) to several million cells (e.g., human being, tree, whale, etc.).
In a multicellular organism certain cells become specialised to perform a specific
function and thus division of labour is established among different groups of cells.
The group of cells having a common origin and performing a similar but specific
function constitute a tissue (e.g., muscles). Several different types of tissues may join
collectively to form an organ which carries out one or more specific functions (e.g.,
kidney, liver, brain). Several organs are inter-related to perform a specific function
and thus, constitute an organ system (e.g., digestive system, circulatory system,
nervous system, etc.).
The life of every multicellular organism begins as a single cell. However, the
unicellular organisms, complete their entire life cycle as a single cell. In others,
. an increase in the number of cells takes place in the course of life. All the cells of
our body come from a single cell, zygote, which divides continuously to form our
multicellular body. Thus, all cells come from pre-existing cells.
The cells are not only the building blocks of our body, they are functional
units of life too. Each living cell has the capacity to perform certain basic functions
that are performed by all living forms. If you study Fig. 1.10, you will observe that
human beings have different types of cells like sperm, blood cell, bone cell, muscles
cell, nerve cell, fat cell, etc. We know that there is division of labour in multicellular
organisms, e.g., human beings. It means that different parts of the human body
perform different functions. The human body has a heart to pump blood, a stomach
.. to digest food and so on. Likewise, in a human body, the division of labour is also
seen inside a single cell. In fact, each cell has got certain specific components inside
the cell, called cell organelles. Each type of cell organelle performs a special function,
e.g., protein synthesis, food synthesis, clearing up the waste material from the cell,
etc. Thus, all the activities of an organism are present in miniature forms in each and
every cell. So, a cell is able to live and perform its function due to these organelles.
These organelles together constitute the basic unit called the cell. Therefore, the cell
can be called a basic unit of life and the structural unit of an organism
Fig. 1.6 Electron microscope
The Fundamental Unit of Life 7
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - t . ~ ~ ~ ~ - - , . - .
Cell is made of a living substance called protoplasm. (proto = first, plasma
= liquid). The protoplasm is made up of four elements namely carbon, hydrogen,
nitrogen and oxygen. Other elements such as phosphorous, sulphur and calcium
are also present. These elements combine to form compounds like water, proteins,
fats, carbohydrates and nucleic acid (DNA and RNA), etc.

Try preparing temporary mounts of leaf peels, onion root zip. lOu can also take leaf of
maize, mustard or tmdescantia for this purpose.
Take a red-coloured tmdescantia leaf
Take out a small peel fTOm the lower surface of the leaf with a quick jerk.
Prepare temporary mount of this peel.
Place it under the microscope and observe it.
lOu will observe that each cell is filled with red-coloured cell sap.

Keep a drop of your blood on a glass slide
with the help of a sterile needle.
Smear the blood over- the centre of a slide
with the help of another slide.
Put a drop of methylene blue stain on top of
the smear and cover the slide with a cover-
When dry, observe the slide first under low
power and then under high power microscope.
Identify and draw its structure.
?"" .,...., .r- .
. .ft
Platelets Red blood corpuscles
g. Ce 5 blood
You will observe the blood cells in the slide as shown in Fig. 1.7.
After performing the above activity you will be able to give answer to the
following questions.
(i) Do all cells look alike in terms of their shape and size?
(ii) Could you find differences among cells from different parts of a plant body.
(iii) \'\That similarity could you find?
(i) All cells of a multicellular organism are of different shapes and sizes and cells
of different organisms are different.
(ii) The different parts of a plant body are different in shape, size and structure.
(iii) The similarities among all the cells of higher organisms are that they contain
plasma membrane, a cytoplasm which contains cell organelles and a nucleus.
Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells
I (a) Prokaryotic cell
Organisms with cells in which the nuclear material is not bounded by a definite
nuclear membrane are called prokaryotes, e.g., bacteria and blue-green algae.
The Fundamental Unit of Life
These are the most primitive cells. Nuclear material consists of a single chromosome
which is in direct contact with the cytoplasm. In a prokaryotic cell, other membrane-
bounded organelles, such as mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, lysosome,
chloroplast, golgi bodies, etc., are also absent. However, ribosomes are present in
such cells.

'J", \j
or \ '-/ I
I Cytoplasm
..-----. Plasma
'. Cytoplasm
.0') \ Nodoo'",
V / Nucleoplasm
Fig. 1.8 (a) Virus. (b) Prokaryotic ceil of bacteria. (el Eukaryotic cell of animal
I (b) Eukaryotic cell
These are advanced and complete cells in which the nucleus has a definite
nuclear membrane. In eukaryotic cells, other membrane-bounded organelles, such
as mitochondria, ribosome, lisosome, E.R., chloroplast, golgi body are present.
Viruses do not easily fit in the definition of a cell and they are often described
as 'living chemicals' or as cellular forms which are degenerated through parasitism.
Virus is an infectious, sub-cellular and ultramicroscopic particle which divides only
in the host cell and can be transmitted by injection and causes characteristic reactions
in the host cell. Viruses lack internal organisation which is the characteristic of a
cell. The viruses living within the bacteria are called bacteriophages. The cells of
bacteria are different from animal and plant cells. Bacterial cells are prokaryotic
cells, whereas plant and animal cells are eukaryotic. The important differences
between prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells have been given in Table 1.1.
Table 1.1 Differences between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells
S.No. Feature Prokaryotic cells
Eukaryotic cells
1. Size Generally small, 1- 10 !-Lm Generally large, 5-100 !-LID
2. Cell Non-cellulosic Cellulosic in plants only
3. Cell organelles Absent except ribosomes Present, e.g., mitochondria,
endoplasmic reticulum,
Golgi apparatus, lysosomes,
peroxisomes, plastids, etc.
4. Nuclear Absent. Nucleoid or nuclear Present. DNA is surrounded
membrane region is not surrounded by by a nuclear membrane
nuclear membrane, i.e., DNA
is n<rked
5. Chromosome Single More than one
6. Nucleolus Absent Present
7. Cytoskeleton Absent Present
8. Cell division By fission or budding (amitosis) Mitotic or meiotic
The Fundamental Unit of Life
I VI( 11
FA 1.1 Multiple Choice Questions
Select the right choice:
1. The basic structural and functional unit of all living organisms is alan
(a) organ (b) tissue
(c) cell (d) proteins
2. The cell was discovered by
(a) Robert Brown (b) Leeuwenhoek
(c) Robert Hooke (d) Flemming
3. An undefined nuclear region containing only nucleic acid in prokaryotes is
known as
(a) nucleus (b) nucleolus
(c) cellulose (d) none of these
4. The organism lacking nucleus and membrane-bound organelles are
(a) prokaryotes (b) dipleids
(c) eukaryotes (d) none of these
5. The only cell organelle present in prokaryotic cell is
(a) mitochondria (b) ribosome
(c) plastids (d) lysosome
FA 1.2 Match the Following
Match the terms given in column I to their meanings in column II.
Column I Column II
(a) First electron microscope (i) Only ribosomes present
(b) Nucleus (ii) Knoll and Ruska
(c) Prokaryotes (iii) Robert Brown
(d) Cell theory (iv) An undefined nuclear region in prokaryotes
containing only nucleic acid
(e) Nucleoid (v) Schleiden and Schwann
FA 1.3 Complete the Table
Complete the following table by writing appropriate answer.
Cell wall
Cell organelle
Cell division
Prokaryotic cell
Eukaryotic cell
Present, e.g., mitochondria, endoplasmic,
reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes,
plastids, etc.
Mitotic or meiotic
The Fundamental Unit of Life
FA 1.4 If I SA ?"' orksheet
Pretend yourself to be an eukaryotic cell and answer the following questions
1. Write your defining features with examples.
2. Differentiate between prokaryotic and your cell.
3. What is the difference between your nucleus and prokaryotic cell's nucleoid.
4. Write down the name of your cell organelles..
FA 1.5 Activity-based
Observe permanent slide of onion root tip or peels of onions of different sizes.
After carefully observing the permanent slides answer the following questions.
1. Do all cells look alike in terms of shape and size?
2. Do all cells look alike in structure?
3. Could we find differences among cells from different parts of a plant body?
4. What similarities could we find?
Definition of cell: According to Loewy and Siekevitz.(1963), cell is a unit of
biological activity surrounded by a selectively permeable membrane and capable of
self reproduction.
I Cell shape
The shape of the cells are related to their functions. It may be variable or
fixed. Cell shape is variable like Amoeba and leucocytes (white blood cells). Amoeba
(single-celled animal) during locomotion changes its shape; similarly leucocytes also
change their shape by producing pseudopodia and become irregular in shape.
Food vacuole
Water globules
" Plasmalemma

"\ ----- Endoplasm

:: Hyaline
Fig. 1.9 Amoeba
In most cases the shape of a cell is fixed, e.g., plants and animals (including
Paramecium, Euglena, etc). In case of unicellular organisms, the cell shape is maintained
The Fundamental Unit of Life 11
by a tough cell membrane (e.g., Paramecium) and exoskeleton (e.g., Elphidium, Polystomella).
In case ofmulticellular organisms, the shape ofthe cells depends on their functional
adaptations and partly on surface tension and viscosity of the protoplasm, mechanical
action exerted by adjacent cells and turgidity of the cell membrane. Therefore, cells
may have diverse shapes, such as spherical (eggs cells), elongated (nerve cells), branched
(pigment cells of skin), discoidal (RBC) and so on. (see Fig. 1.10).
Fat cell
Cells lining
intestinal tract
Neuron in
- ~ ~
Fig. 1.10 Examples of various types of cells
Fig. 1.11 Acetabularia
I Cell size
The size of the cells varies greatly in plants and animals. Some cells are visible
to the naked eye like egg of ostrich (18 em) and ovule of Cycas. Some nerve cells of
human beings have a metre long 'tail'- axon. A single-celled algae AcetabulaTia is
10 ,urn in height (see Fig. 1.11) and sclerenchyma cells (fibre cells) of Manila hemp
are more than 100 em in length. Most prokaryotic cells are in the range of 1 to
10,um (one micrometre is one thousandth ofa millimetre). Most eukaryotic cells are
microscopic measuring 10-100 mm. The size of a unicellular organism is larger than
a typical cell of multicellular organism, e.g., Amoeba pTOteus is the biggest among all
unicellular organisms. Its length is 60 ,urn (0.6 mm). In multicellular organism, the
size of cells ranges from 20-30 ,urn. The smallest cells are found in bacteria (0.2,um-
0.1 ,urn), e.g., Mycoplasma gallisepticum, that is an organism intermediate between the
virus or bacteria. Its size is about 0.1 ,urn.
I Cell volume
The cell volume, in general, is fairly constant for a particular cell type and is
independent of the size of the organism. For example, kidney and liver cells are
about the same size in the mouse, horse and bull. The difference in size of organisms
depends on number of cells only and not on the volume of the cells. Therefore, the
cells of an elephant are not larger than those of other tiny animals or plants. Due to
the large number of cells present in the body, the elephant becomes large.
12 The Fundamental Unit of Life
~ .._ - - - - - - - - ~ ~ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
I Cell number
The cell number in an organism varies with the size of organism. Unicellular
organisms have a single cell. In multicellular organisms, the cells are indefinite. In
Pandorina, number of cells are 8, 16,32 or 64 and in Eudorina 16,32 or 64. In man,
the number of cells is about 100 trillion (l0
Structure of a Cell
Ifyou observe a cell under the microscope, you will come across three features in
almost every cell- plasma membrane, nucleus and cytoplasm. Each cell has an outer
boundary called plasma membrane. Inside the plasma membrane lies the cytoplasm.
Various cell organelles are suspended in the cytoplasm. All activities inside the cell
and interaction of the cell with its environment are possible due to these features. In
addition to these organelles, nucleus is also seen under the microscope.
___ :/ Lysosome
'..... Microtubules
Pinocytic vesicle ;;o( " ',"{
Mitochondrion (:
Golgi body \: a
N::::p,rn f
NUCleus .. ,:'" 6
_ . :'1 Rough .
membrane '2'J'/. '.!' '" '-=--'. I endoplasmic
Pinocytic vesicle "< ...
Fig. 1.12 An'mal eel
C'9 1.i3 Plant ce
The Fundamental Unit of Life 13
I (A) Plasma membrane or cell membrane
Being a discrete 'unit of life' every cell is bounded by an extremely delicate
membrane which separates the cell from its non-living surrounding (extracellular
medium) and thus, provides a separate identity to the cell. This membrane is called
plasma membrane (cell membrane or plasmalemma).
Plasma membrane is a living, thin, delicate, elastic, selectively permeable
membrane. It is about 7 nm (70 A) thick. We can observe it only through an electron
microscope. Chemical analysis has shown that the membrane contains seventy five
per cent phospholipids. In addition, the membrane contains proteins, cholesterol
and polysaccharides.
In 1972, Jonathan Singer and Garth Nicholson suggested a model, called fluid
mosaic model for explaining the ultra structure of plasma membrane. According
to them, membrane is a lipid bilayer having integrated protein molecules. The
membrane is semifluid and dynamic in nature. The lipid and protein help in
performing transport movements. Two types of protein distinguished are:
(i) Intrinsic proteins or Integral proteins
(ii) Extrinsic proteins or Peripheral proteins
Intrinsic proteins: These are completely span on the lipid bilayers.
Extrinsic proteins: These are either on the outer surface or on the inner
surface of the lipid membrane.
This model of membrane has been described as 'a number of protein icebergs
floating in the sea oflipids'. This model was the most acceptable one.
Branching carbohydrate portion of
protein which acts as an antigen
Hydrophobic tails 0
phospholipid molecules
Intrinsic protein molecule
spanning the phospholipid layer
Pore Extrinsic protein molecule
lying on the surface
Fig. 1.14 Fluid mosaic model of plasma membrane
The plasma membrane permits the entry and exit of some materials in the cell.
It also prevents movement of some other materials. Therefore, the cell membrane
is called selectively permeable membrane. Now, let us find out how the movement
of substances takes place across the cell. How do substances move in and out of the
Some substances such as carbon dixoide (C0
) and Oxygen (02) can move
across the cell membrane by the process of diffusion. These substances are of
I I ~
14 The Fundamental Unit of Life
very small size, therefore, diffuse readily through the phospholipid layer of cell
membrane. To understand this process better, let us perform an activity.
activity 4
Take a glass halffilled with clean water.
Put a few drops of any coloured fluid in it. Observe it carefully.
What do you see? Does the water of the glass get uniformly coloured at once?
You will observe that the water takes the colour uniformly throughout the
beaker. This is due to a process called diffusion. This is spontaneous movement of
a substance from a region of high concentration to a region where its concentration
is low.
Diffusion is the movement of molecules of any substance from a region of-
higher concentration to lower concentration. This is because of the natural tendency
of a substance to spread uniformly in the dispersion medium by random movement
of its molecules and ions. Diffusion is faster in the gaseous phase than in liquids and
Something similar happens in the cells too, for example, when a gas like
carbon dioxide (that is the waste product of respiration) gets accumulated in high
concentration inside the cell. In the cell's external environment, the concentration
of CO
is low as compared to that inside the cell. As soon as there is a difference
of concentration of CO
between inside and outside of a cell, CO
moves out of
the cell, i.e., from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration
through the process of diffusion. In the same way, 02 enters the cell by the process
of diffusion when the concentration of 02 inside the cell decreases. Thus, diffusion
plays an important role in exchange of gases between the cells and its external
environment. Similarly, water molecules also diffuse through the plasma membrane
and this is called osmosis.
The movement of water molecules through the selectively permeable
membrane is called osmosis.
The movement of water across the plasma membrane is also affected by the
amount of substance dissolved in water. Thus, osmosis is the passage of water from a
region of high water concentration through a semipermeable membrane to a region
of low water concentration. Therefore, osmosis can be defined as the diffusion of
water or solvent through a semipermeable membrane from a region of low solute
concentration to a region of high solute concentration.
Let us see what will happen to an animal cell or a plant cell when placed in a
solution of sugar or salt. One of the following three things could happen:
1. When the medium surrounding the cell has a higher water concentration than
the cell, meaning that t h ~ outside solution is very dilute, the cell will gain water
by osmosis. Such a solution is known as a hypotonic solution
In such a solution, water molecules are free to pass across the plasma membrane
in both the directions, but more water molecules come into the cell than they
leave. The net (overall) result is that water enters the cell. The cell is likely to
swell up.
r : : : : : : ~ = ~ ' n
\ I(
Fig. 1.15 Cells
Diffusion into cell
(more 02 in water)
Amoeba _ J., /""-...,
cell,>< / ~ /
/ '
~ '-.-
\. (less O2in cell) 02 "',
\ used up in \
(' respiration r----/
,,\ore C02 in C:lIl"-,\
. \ "'----0
Diffusion out of cell
(less CO
in water
around the cell)
Fig. 1.16
Diffusion of oxygen and carbon
dioxide across the plasma
membrane of Amoeba
The Fundamental Unit of Life 15
Water molecules
I-t---+--entering into
Fig, 1.17 Asimple osmometer.
Water molecules (solvent) entering the
sugar solution (solute)
Semipermeability of the membrane prevents
sugar molecules moving into the solvent
2. When the relative concentration of water and solutes on either side
of the plasma membrane are the same then there will be no net
movement of water across the plasma membrane. Such a solution
is known as an isotonic solution.
In such a solution, water crosses the cell membrane in both
directions, but the amount going in is the same as the amount
going out, therefore, there is no overall movement of water. In this
solution, the cell will stay the same siz.
3. If the medium has a less concentration of water and higher
concentration of salt than the cell, it means that it is a very
concentrated solution. The cell will lose water by osmosis. Such a
solution is known as a hypertonic solution.
In such case, water crosses the cell membrane in both directions,
but this time more water leaves the cell than it enters. Therefore,
the cell will shrink. Thus, osmosis is a special case of diffusion
through a selectively permeable membrane.
Let us tryout the following activity:
activity 5
Take an hen's egg.
Remove the egg shell by dissolving it in dilute hydrochloric acid. The hard shell of the egg
that is made of mainly calcium carbonate gets dissolved. The egg is now enclosed by a thin
outer semipermeable shell membrane.
Put the egg in pure water for 5 minutes and then observe.
What do you observe?
10u will observe that the eggswells because waterenters the egg by osmosis through cell membrane.
Put a similar deshelled egg into concentrated salt solution for 5 minutes and observe it.
What do you observe?
You will observe that the egg shrinks after a few minutes.
Why does the egg shrink? This is because the water passes out of the egg into
the salt solution as the salt solution is more concentrated.
You can also try a similar activity with dried raisins or apricots.
particle Thin film
of water
Fig. 1.18 Absorption of
soil waters by root hair
Demonstration of Osmosis in Raisins
Put dried raisins and apricots in pure clean water.
Leave themfor some time and observe.
After some time you will observe that the raisins swell up due to endosmosis.
Now, place the swollen raisins into a concentrated salt solution and observe it.
You will observe that the raisins shrink as they lose water due to exosmosis.
Some Examples of Osmosis
Unicellular freshwater organisms and most plant cells tend to gain water
through osmosis. Absorption of water by plant roots is also an example of osmosis.
Hence, diffusion is important in exchange of gases and water in the life of a cell.
In addition to this, the cell also obtains nutrition from its environment. Different
molecules move in and out of the cell through a type of transport requiring use of
16 The Fundamental Unit of Life
: : Invaginated
o :::J:::=- Solutes
"1 ! Pinocytotic
Fig. 1.19 Diagrammatic representation of
(A) The process of Pinocytosis and
(B) Phagocytosis through plasma membrane
o 00 0

;:::::Y Particulate material
Plasma membrane
The flexibility of the plasma membrane also enables the cell to
engulf food and other materials from its external environment. Such
processes are known as endocytosis. It is the active cellular intake of
materials. It is of two types:
(i) Phagocytosis (cell eating)
(ii) Pinocytosis (cell drinking)
(i) Phagocytosis: The transport ofsolid matter like food, phathogens
and foreign matter across the membrane by forming detachable
vesicles is called phagocytosis or cell eating. It is a common method
of feeding among the protozoans such as Amoeba and lower
metazoa (e.g., sponges) for engulfing food particles.
In amoeba and other protozoans, the food particles get
surrounded by an area of plasma membrane (cell surface)
which forms an invagination along with the food organism. The
invagination pinches off into a vesicle. Such vesicles with food
particles are known as phagosomes.
(ii) Pinocytosis (cell drinking): The intake of droplets of
extracellular fluid along with sub-microscopic particles is called
pinocytosis or cell drinking.
Pinocytosis help in the intake of solutes such as insulin and
lipoproteins in concentrated form. In this process extracellular
fluid adheres to specific receptors of the membrane and
invagination is formed. This is drawn inwards and pinched off
as a membrane-bound vesicle, the pinosome, containing the
solute. The pinocytic vesicle moves into the cytoplasm and its
contents are assimilated. Pinocytosis is a common occurrence
in the cells lining the blood capillaries. Ions, sugar and amino
acids enter the cells by pinocytosis.
The process of exudating the secretory materials from the cell is called
exocytosis or cell vomitting. Exocytosis occurs in various cells to remove undigested
residues of substances brought in by endocytosis. In the gland cells, secretion
collects in a membrane-bound vacuole which now moves to the surface. Here it
fuses with the plasma membrane. In the fused membrane, a channel is formed and
the contents of the vacuole are discharged outside the cell.
Table 1.2 Living and Non-living Parts of Cell
S.No. Living parts Non-living parts
1. Plasma membrane Cell wall (in plants)
2. Cytoplasm Vacuoles
(i) ER (smooth and rough)
(ii) Mitochondria
(iii) Colgi bodies
(iv) Ribosomes
(v) Lysosomes
(vi) Plastids (only in plants)
(vii) Centrioles (only in animals)
The Fundamental Unit of Life 17
Cell Wall
Plant cells, in addition to plasma membrane, have another rigid outer covering
called the cell wall which lies outside the plasma membrane. The cell wall is non-
living and freely permeable and is secreted by the cell itself for the protection of
its plasma membrane. It is also present in bacteria, fungi and algae. It is absent in
animal cells. Cell wall determines the shape of a plant cell and prevents desiccation
of cells.
The cell wall in bacteriais composed ofprotein and non-cellulosic carbohydrates,
and in plants, of cellulose.
(i) It provides mechanical strength to the cell.
(ii) It controls the size and shape of the cells.
(iii) It counteracts, i.e., protects the cells against the osmotic pressure excreted by
the cell contents.
(iv) It helps in the translocation of water and other substances through xylem
vessels and tracheids.
(v) It plays an important role in cell expansion.
(vi) Cutin and suberin prevent loss of water by evaporation.
(vii) Protects the cell from pathogens.
If plant cells are immersed in a hypertonic solution, water will diffuse out of
the cell because concentration of water molecules in the cells is more than that in
the outer solution. Due to continuous exosmosis, protoplasm shrinks and separates
from the cell wall. This phenomenon is called plasmolysis.
To better understand this phenomenon let us perform the following activity:
activity 7
Mount the peel of a Rheo leaf and place it in a clean glass slide.
Put a drop of strong solution of sugar or' salt on the mounted leaf on the slide and cover
it with a coverslip.
After few minutes observe it under the microscope.
What do you see?
10u will observe that the cell membrane shrinks after a few minutes. (See Fig. 1.20). These
changes can be explained by the fact that outer medium is hypertonic. Therefore, water
moves out of the leaf cells to cause plasmolysis.
Normal cell Plasmolysis begins
Fig. 1.20 Structure of a pant cell
Space filled
with external
Permanent plasmolysis
The Fundamental Unit of Life
Now take another peel of a Rheo leaf which has been placed in boiling water for a few
Prepare the slide similarly and observe it under the microscope.
Put a drop of strong solution of sugar or salt on the slide.
Wait for a few minutes and observe it again.
What do you find? Did plasmolysis occur now?
You will observe that plasmolysis does not occur. This means that the process
of osmosis does not occur in boiled plant cells. Due to boiling, i.e., high temperature,
the cell membranes get damaged, hence, there will not be any osmotic activity.
This activity proves that the property of selective permeability exists only in
the living cell membrane and they are therefore, able to absorb water by osmosis.
activity 8
Observation of Nucleus in the Animal Cells.
Take a clean microscope slide and put a drop of water on it.
The teacher will provide you cotton bud from a freshly opened pack.
Gently wipe the lining of your cheek with one end of the cotton bud.
Smear the cotton bud over the centre of the slide.
Dispose offthe cotton bud immediately into a beaker ofdisinfectant provided by your teacher.
c;/ q
Fig. '.2'
Put a drop of methylene blue stain on top of the smear.
Place a cover-slip on top and look for cells under a high powered microscope.
Fig. 1.22 Cheek cell of humans
What do you observe under the microscope?
Can you draw the structure that you are able to see on your observation sheet?
You will see a spherical or oval, dot-like structure near the centre of each cheek
cell. These structures are called nucleus. You can draw diagrams of these cells and
label them. Similar structure (nucleus) has been observed in the onion peel cells.
I (B) Nucleus
It is the most essential part of the cell which directs and controls all the cellular
activities. It is compared to the control room of a factory. It was first discovered by
Robert Brown (1831).
The nucleus is usually dense, spherical or oval in shape. It occupies a
central position in the cell but it may be shifted to one side by vacuole as in
plant cells.
Nucleus is bounded by two membranes, both forming nuclear envelope.
Nuclear envelope encloses a space between two nuclear membranes and is
connected to a system of membranes called the Endoplasmic Reticulum
(ER). The presence of nuclear envelope, separates the nuclear material from
The Fundamental Unit of Life 19
A chromosome has
two chromatids
attached to a
Gene is formed of
Chromatids Chromatids
Fig. 1.24
Structure of chromosomes
the cytoplasm. Each nuclear membrane is about 90A thick and has a membrane
structure similar to that of plasma membrane.
The nuclear envelope is perforated at intervals by the nuclear pores. The
nuclear envelope encloses the nuclear sap or nucleoplasm. Nuclear pores allow
exchange of chemical substances between the cytoplasm and the nucleoplasm.
Within nucleoplasm are present nucleolus and chromatin material.
may be one or more in number and are generally spherical. They
are very large in cells that are active in protein synthesis. Their role is to synthesize
and to assemble RNA (ribonucleic acid) molecules and numerous proteins that make
up the ribosome. RNA is helpful in protein synthesis in the cytoplasm.
Chromatin material is a thin thread-like structure which is composed of DNA
(Deoxyribonucleic acid) and proteins (i.e., histones). During cell division, chromatin
threads condense to form rod-shaped chromosomes. Each chromosome has two
similar chromatids attached to a centromere. Chromatin material contains mostly
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). It plays an important role in heredity, i.e., transmits
hereditary information from one generation to the next. The quantity of DNA
varies greatly in cells of different kinds of organisms. DNA stores all the information
necessary for cell metabolism.
Chromosomes: Structure and Number
Chromosomes (Gr., chromo, coloured + soma, body) are thread-like dark
stained bodies in the nucleoplasm of nucleus and discovered by W. Waldeyer in
1888. Chromosomes are messengers of heredity. Chromosomes are thread-like, thin,
coiled, elastic contractile structures, known as chromatin threads. This condition of
chromosomes is found in the interphase or resting stage ofthe cell. In the chromosomal
matrix are found embedded two similar spirally coiled threads, called chromonemata
(singular, chromonema). Each chromosome contains two symmetrical chromatids.
Each chromatid contains a single D A molecule. The chromatids are attached to each
other only by the centromere. Chromonema bears genes.
These are the functional units of DNAand are arranged in a single linear order
along the DNA molecule. One gene controls one or more than one cell functions.
Sometimes a single function is carried out by a set of genes.
The chromosome number is constant for all species and is given in the
following table:
Table 1.3 Chromosome Number in Some Organisms
Organisms Chromosome number in each body cell
Sunflower 34
Garden pea 14
Onion 16
Maize 20
Rice 24
Round worm (megalocephala) 2
Round worm (A. lumbricoides) 24
20 The Fundamental Unit of Life
---------- -- -- -"'"
Fruitfly 4
Housefly I 12
Mosquito I 6
Butterfly I 446
Cockroach I 24
Golden fish
Frog 26 I
Rat 42
Rabbit 44
Monkey 42
Human beings
I 46
Functions of Nucleus:
(i) Nucleus controls all the metabolic activities of the cell. Ifthe nucleus is removed
from a cell, the protoplasm will ultimately dry up and die.
(ii) Nucleus regulates the cell cycle (division of cells).
(iii) It is related to the transmission of hereditary characters from parents to
I (C) Cytoplasm
When you observe the temporary mounts of onion peel and human cheek
cells, you can see a large region of each cell enclosed by the cell membrane. This
region takes up very little strain. It is called cytoplasm. The cytoplasm is the quasi-
fluid, jelly-like mass of protoplasm excluding the nucleus and surrounded by plasma
membrane. It is formed of proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, lipids and certain
inorganic substances.
Many small organelles are found inside the cytoplasm. These are known as
cytoplasmic organelles. Each of these organelles performs a specific function for the
FA 1.6 Multiple Choice Questions
Select the right choice:
1. Chromosomes are made up of
(a) DNA and protein (b) RNA and protein
(c) DNA and RNA (d) protein
2. Gaseous exchange in cells takes place by
(a) osmosis (b) exocytosis
(c) diffusion (d) endocytosis
The Fundamental Unit of Life 21
3. Amoeba acquires its food through a process known as
(a) plasmolysis (b) endocytosis
(c) exocytosis (d) both exocytosis and endocytosis
4. The process of plasmolysis in plant cell may be defined as
(a) breakdown/bursting of plasma membrane in a hypotonic medium.
(b) shrinkage of cytoplasm in hypertonic medium.
(c) shrinkage of cytoplasm in hypotonic medium.
(d) breakdown/bursting of plasma membrane in a hypertonic medium.
5. A cell may swell and even burst if
(a) the concentration of water molecules within the cell is higher than the
concentration of water molecules in the surrounding medium.
(b) the concentration of water molecules in the surrounding medium is higher
than the concentration of water molecules within the cell.
(c) the concentration of water molecules is same in the cell and in the
surrounding medium.
(d) it is a plant cell and surrounded by a hypotonic solution.
FA 1.7: True or False
State whether the following statements are True or False.
1. In plant cells, a cell wall composed mainly of cellulose is located outside the cell
2. There is shrinkage of the cell content away from the cell wall, when a living
plant cell loses water. This phenomenon is known as plasmolysis.
3. The cell will lose water by osmosis, if the surrounding medium has a higher
concentration of water than the cell.
4. A chromosome has two chromatids attached to a centromere.
5. Nucleus is responsible for transmission of heredi.tary characters from parents
to offsprings.
FA 1.8: Concept-based Worksheet
What will happen to an animal cell or a plant cell when placed in a sugar or salt
solution. One of the following three things could happen.
1. When the medium surrounding the cell has a higher water concentration than
the cell, the cell will---'-- _
2. When the relative concentration of water and solutes on either side of the
plasma membrane is the same then _
3. If the medium has a less concentration of water and higher concentration of
salt then the cell will
FA 1.9: If I
Pretend yourself to be an animal cell and answer the following questions
1. List out your characteristic features with an example.
2. Write down the name of your cell organelles.
3. Distinguish between a plant cell and your cell.
\\'Ie tunQamenta\ Unit G1 Li1e
FA 1.10: Activity-based Questions
Prepare an experimental set-up consisting of two beakers. One beaker has water
to which peeled pieces of carrot have been added. In the second beaker, saturated
sugar/salt solution has been put in which peeled pieces of carrot have been added.
Preaper this set-up and keep it for 6-8 hours or overnight before taking it to the
Show the experimental set-up to the students explaining the content of each
beaker and time duration for which carrots were immersed in the solution.
Ask the students to observe the carrots in the two beakers and compare the physical
state of the carrots carefully.
Answer the questions given in the worksheet.
1. What is the difference in the physical state of the carrots as observed in the two
beakers? .
2. Name the process involved that has caused a change in the carrot piece in one
3. Why has the above process occurred?
4. Name the type of solution in beaker A and B with respect to the carrot pieces?
5. Name one process in your daily life which works on the same principle.
Cell Organelles
The cytoplasm of a cell contains a variety of organelles having tJ;leir
permanent structures with definite functions. These are membrane-bound, such as
mitochondria, lysosomes and peroxisomes.
Cell organelles are the living parts of the cell found embedded in the cytoplasm.
These are smaller in size and bounded by unit membrane like plasma membrane
and thus, keeps its own contents separate from the external environment. Large and
complex cells, including cells from multicellular organism, need a lot of chemical
activities to support their complicated structure and function. To keep these activities
of different kinds separate from each other, cells have developed membrane bound
organelles within themselves. They form the living part of the cell and each of them
has a definite shape, structure and function. Some of these organelles are visible
only under an electron microscope. The important cell organelles are described
I 1. Plastids
Plastids are the largest cytoplasmic organelles bounded by a double
membrane. These are found in most of the plant cells and in some photosynthetic
protists. These are absent in prokaryotes and animal cells. Like the mitochondria
plastids also have their own genetic material and protein synthesising machinery,
(i.e., DNA, RNA) and ribosomes. They are self-replicating organelles like the
mitochondria, i.e., they have the power to divide. These are of following three
(a) Chromoplasts: Coloured plastids
(b) Chloroplast (Green coloured plastids): They contain chlorophyll pigment.
(c) Leucoplasts: Colourless plastids.
The Fundamental Unit of Life 23
Nature and Occurrence

(or matrix)
The plastids with green pigment, the
chlorophyll, are called chloroplasts. These are
present in green algae and higher plants. The
presence of chlorophyll makes them of utmost
biological importance. The chlorophyll
enables the chloroplasts to harness kinetic solar
energy and trap in the food substances in the
form of potential energy. All living organisms
directly or indirectly depend on them for
obtaining energy. Therefore, chloroplasts are
the 'kitchens of the cells'. Each chloroplast is
bounded by two membranes. It shows two
distinct regions.
(a) Stroma: It is the colourless proteinaceous ground substance that fills the
chloroplast. It contains a variety of photosynthetic enzymes, starch grains,
DNA and ribosomes. It is the site of dark reaction during photosynthesis.
(b) Grana: These are stacks of membrane-bounded, flattened, discoid sacs
containing chlorophyll molecules. These are the main functional units of
chloroplasts. It is the site of light reaction during photosynthesis.
. Photosynthesis is one of the most fundamental biological functions. By means
ofchlorophyll contained in chloroplasts, the green plants trap the energy of sunlight
and transform it into chemical energy. This energy is stored in the chemical bonds
produced during the synthesis of various food stuffs, like starch, etc.
Chromoplasts give colours to flowers and fruits which attract insects for
Leucoplasts are involved in the synthesis and storage of various kinds of food
in the form of starch, oils and proteins.
I 2. Mitochondria
Under electron microscope, a mitochondrion appears as
a double walled structure like an ice box of thermos bottle. It
consists of an outer and inner membrane and enclosed within
them are two compartments or chambers. The outer membrane
is very porous. Inner membrane is folded into the matrix as an
incomplete septa, called cristae (singular crista). These increase
the surface area of the inner membrane and divide the inner
chamber. The inner membrane (or M.face) is studded (dotted)
with numerous spherical or knob-like elementary particles or
The mitochondria (Gr. rnito = thread; chondrion = granule) are tiny structures
of variable shapes; cylindrical, spherical, or rod-shaped and
the average size of mitochondria is 0.2 ,urn to 2 ,urn, distributed
in the cytoplasm. These convert the potential energy of food
stuff into kinetic energy and hence are commonly known
as the 'power house' of cell. These are essential for aerobic
Ultra Structure
Outer membrane
---Outer chamber
...---- Inner membrane
F1 particle
=.,------- DNA molecule
Fig. 1.26 Internal structure of Mitochondria
24 The Fundamental Unit of Life
oxysomes. The inner cavity of mitochondria are filled with a homogeneous, gel-like
(proteinaceous) matrix which contain a few small sized ribosomes, a circular DNA
molecule and phosphate granules. Therefore, mitochondria are able to make sure
of their own proteins. Mitochondria are absent in bacteria and red blood cells of
Mitochondria are the respiratory organs of the cells. The carbohydrates and
fats present in the cells are completely oxidized into CO
and H
0 with the help of
enzymes present in the mitochondria. During oxidation, a large amount of energy
is released which is used by the mitochondria for the synthesis of the energy rich
compound, the adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Since they synthesize ATp, they are
also known as power houses of the cell. This energy is used by the cell for performing
various chemical activities.
I 3. Vacuoles
Vacuoles are sap-filled vesicles in the cytoplasm. These are found in all the
eukaryotic cells. They are the kinds of storage sacs. In animals, a number of small
size and temporary vacuoles are found which store water, glycogen and proteins. Its
membrane is typically a single unit membrane and is associated with the maintenance
ofwater balance (osmoregulatory organ in protozoans) or ingestion offood substance
(food vacuole). Thus, in unicellular organisms such as amoeba and paramecium, the
food vacuole contains the food items that the animal has consumed.
A plant cell has a single large vacuole which is permanent. In plant cells, the
vacuole increases in size as the cell enlarges. The central vacuole of some plant cells
may occupy 50-90 per cent of the cell volume. Due to the central position of the
vacuole, the nucleus and other cell organelles are pushed near the boundary wall.
In plants, the vacuoles are bounded by a single unit membrane called tonoplast.
These are filled with a fluid, the cell sap. The cell sap is rich in minerals, sugars,
amino acids, esters, water soluble proteins and waste products in solution or in the
form of crystalline deposits.
(i) Cell sap of vacuoles maintains the turgidity of plant cells.
(ii) This supports the green parts of the plant.
(iii) Vacuoles playa key role .in growth by elongation of cells.
(iv) Vacuoles store water, minerals, and reserve food in the form of sugar.
I 4. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
It is a network of fluid-filled interconnecting membranous tube like structures
covering the most part of the cytoplasmic matrix. It occurs in three forms, cisternae
(closed fluid-filled gas), vertical and tubules. The E.R. membrane is similar in
structure to the plasma membrane. It communicates with the plasma membrane
and also with the nuclear envelope.
Endoplasmic reticulum is of two types:
(a) Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER): With its outer surface are attached
ribosomes which synthesize proteins. It is well developed in protein synthesizing
cells, like pancreatic and liver cells.
(b) Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER): It is continuous with rough ER. Its
surface is smooth, devoid of ribosomes. It is found in glycogen rich regions.
These secrete lipids.
Fig. 1.27


Fig. 1.28
Endoplasmic reticulum (Rough)
The Fundamental Unit of Life
-------- ----
Fig. 1.29
Endoplasmic reticulum (Smooth)
Golgi bodies are
secretory organelles.
It secretes enzymes,
mucous, pigments,
Golgi [
network _
The main functions of ER are as follows:
(i) ER forms a network in cytoplasmic matrix, giving mechanical support to the
(ii) It functions as an intracellular transport system for various substances. ER
collects synthetic products of cell and then transports them outside the cell. It
also transports the RNA and nucleoproteins from the nucleus to the cytoplasm
where protein synthesis occurs.
(iii) Protein synthesis occurs on the surface of rough ER by ribosomes. These
proteins are either used within the cell or exported outside the cell.
(iv) Synthesis of lipids in collaboration with Golgi complex occurs on the surface
of smooth ER. Synthesis oflipoproteins and glycogen occurs on smooth ER in
liver cells.
(v) Smooth ER membrane contains enzymes for lipid synthesis and for lipid
soluble drugs and other harmful compounds. These enzymes detoxify the
above drugs and make them water soluble so that they may be excreted in
15. Goigi Apparatus (Golgi Complex)
Golgi apparatus was discovered by Camillo Goigi in 1898 in the cytoplasm of
nerve cells. Morphologically, it is very similar in plant and animal cells. It consists of
stacks offlattened disc-shaped bags or cisternae, and associated discharged secretory
vesicles. It is a single large structure located in between the nucleus and pole of the
cell in which secretion takes place, such as in thyroid cells, exocrine pancreatic cells
and mucous cells of intestinal epithelium. In plant cells they are called 'dictyosomes'.
Under electron microscope, Golgi
Discharge I b fl d
vesicle comp ex are mem ranous attene sacs
(cisternae), tubules and vesicles and large
vacuoles. Flattened sacs occur from 3 to 7
arranged in parallel rows, one above the
other. Each stack of cisternae has a proximal
forming a convex face closer to the nuclear
envelope or ER and a distal or maturing
concave face that encloses large secretory
vesicles. Small transition vesicles or tubules
are present upon Golgi cisternae. A large
number of small vesicles which are associated
Fig. 1.30 Goigi apparatus with each Golgi stack transport proteins and
lipids both to and from the Golgi apparatus.
Golgi complex is not found in bacteria, blue-green algae, sperms and red
blood cells of mammals and other animals.
The Golgi apparatus originates from smooth endoplasmic reticulum which in
turn has originated from rough ER and finally becomes the Golgi cisternae.
(i) Golgi complex is the secretory organelle of the cell and transports the
substances (pancreatic enzymes, mucous secretions, secretion of mammary
glands, thyroxin, pigments, etc., outside the cell) as well as intracellularly
(within the cell). For export, secretion is packaged into vesicles, which are
detached and form flattened sacs transported across the cell membrane.
26 The Fundamental Unit of Life
Camillo Golgi
(ii) During cell division, Golgi complex forms the cell plate.
(iii) Synthesis of cell wall, plasma membrane, and peroxisomes occur from Golgi
(iv) Acrosome of sperm is formed by the Golgi apparatus.
Camillo Golgi
Camillo Golgi was born in 1843 at Cartano near Brescia. He
studied medicine in the University of Pavia. He graduated in
medicine in 1865 and worked in the Hospital of St. Matleo
in Pavio. In 1872 he became the Chief Medical officer in a
hospital at Abbiate Grasso. He worked on nervous system
in a little kitchen of the hospital turned into a laboratory.
He developed a method of staining individually nerve and
cell structures, which was called as black reaction. He used
weak solution of silver nitrate to trace the ramifications
of nerve cells. Throughout his life he continued to work
on these lines, modifying and improving this technique. In recognition of his
work, he got some highest honours and awards. He, along with Santiago Ramony
Cajal, got the Nobel Prize in 1906 for their work on the structure of nervous system.
I 6. Ribosomes
In prokaryotic cells, ribosomes are always found free, but in
eukaryotic cells, these are found either free in or attached on the rough
ER. Ribosomes are also found in mitochondria and chloroplasts of
eukaryotic cells. These are dense and rounded granules visible only
under electron microscope. Ribosomes contain RNA and proteins.
Lipids are not found in ribosomes.
Ribosomes are the sites where proteins are synthesized.
I 7. Lysosomes
Fig. 1.31 Protein synthesis on the ribosome of RER
Lysosomes are tiny spherical sac-like structures of cyroplasm. Each lysosome
having a single limiting unit membrane contains powerful hydrolytic enzymes.
These enzymes are capable of digesting all organic materials. These enzymes are
synthesized in the RER which are brought to the golgi complex. Lysosomes are
formed by the Golgi complex.
(i) Lysosomes are involved in digestion of microorganisms like bacteria, etc.,
entering the cell by phagocytosis.
(ii) Lysosome can digest the organic substances of the same cell in which it belongs.
This process is called autolysis. Hence, lysosomes are called digestive bags.
(iii) The dead or damaged cells are also digested by the enzymes released from the
lysosomes of the same cells. Hence, these are called suicidal bags.
(iv) For digestion in the cell, the material to be digested is surrounded by a
membrane forming an endosome. It fuses with the lysosome, enzymes of
which digest the contents of endosome.
(v) Lysosomes initiate cell division.
Lysosome contains
digestive enzymes,
for the digestion of
foreign material and
their own damaged
The Fundamental Unit of Life 27
Oxidative reactions
occur in peroxisomes
with the help of
oxidative enzymes.
Fig. 1.32 Centriole
I 8. Peroxisomes
Peroxisomes are ovoid granules surrounded by a single membrane. They
are found in abundance in liver and kidney cells. They contain certain oxidative
enzymes and carry out some oxidation reactions.
(i) They help in the removal of toxic substances.
(ii) They help in lipid metabolism and convert fat into carbohydrates.
I 9. Centrosome
The term centrosome was given by T. Bo\'eri in 1888, meaning central body.
It is found only in animal cells and is generally absent in cells of plants. Each
centrosome contains two rod-shaped granular structures called centrioles: It is not
bounded by any membrane and are made up of microtubules. In plant cells, polar
caps are present which function as centrioles.
(i) From the centrosome spindle fibres r ~ d i a t e as an aster in animal cells and
lower plants. At the time of cell division, centrioles separate and migrate to
opposite poles of the cell and then spindle is formed in between them, which
help in cell division.
(ii) In plant cells, polar caps are involved in the formation of spindle.
Each cell, thus acquires its structure and ability to function because of the
organization of its membrane and organelles in specific ways. As a result, each type
of cell got a basic structural organization. This helps the cell to perform functions
like respiration, obtaining nutrition and cleaning of waste material, or forming
nerve proteins. Thus, the cell is the fundamental structural functional unit of life.
This conclusion forms the essence of the cell theory.
Table 1.4 Differences between Animal and Plant Cell
S.No. Features I Animal Cell Plant Cell
l. Size Generally small Larger thap animal cell
2. Cell wall Absent Present
3. Plastids Absent Present
4. Vacuoles Small, many and temporary Permanent and large, filled with
cell sap occupying the centre of
the cell.
5. Golgi apparatus Present near nucleus Present and called dictyosome.
6. Centrioles I Present within centrosome Absent. Polar caps are present.
FA 1.11: Multip e Choice Questions
Select the right choice
1. Which one of the following is called the 'digestive bag or suicidal bag'?
(a) Centromere (b) Lysosome
(c) Nucleus (d) Mitochondria
28 The Fundamental Unit of Life
2. Which one of the following is not a function of vacuole?
(a) Storage
(b) Providing turgidity and rigidity to the cell
(c) Locomotion
(d) Waste excretion
3. The cell organelle involved in forming complex sugars from simple sugars are
(a) endoplasmic reticulum (b) ribosomes
(c) plastids (d) golgi apparatus
4. The power house of a cell is
(a) chloroplast (b) nucleus
(c) mitochondria (d) golgi apparatus
5. Which of the following statement is not related to endoplasmic reticulum?
(a) It acts as a channel for the transport of materials between various regions
of the cytoplasm.
(b) It functions as a cytoplasmic framework providing a surface for some of
the biochemical activities of the cell.
(c) Ribosomes are the sites of protein manufacture.
(d) It can be the site of energy generation.
FA 1.12: Complete the Data
Complete the data given in the following table.
Animal cell Plant cell
Cell wall Present
Vacuoles Small, many and temporary Permanent, filled with
occupymg of the cell.
Goigi apparatus Present near Present and called
Centrioles Present within Absent and are present.
FA 1.13: Diagram-based Worksheet
Give below are the figures representing plant and animal cells. Label any five
organelles common in both plant and animal cells.
Tile Fundamental Unit of Life 29
FA 1.14: Mapping Type Worksheet
I Cell was first observed by Robert Hooke in apiece of cork in1665. Anton von Leeuwenhoek
discovered free bacteria and red blood cells and observed their inner organisation.
I Cell theory: Cell is a mass of protoplasm limited in space by a cell membrane and
possessing a nucleus. Cell is the unit of life. Cell theory was discovered by Schleiden
and Schwann. Cells originate from the pre-existing cell.
I Cell shape may be fixed like Paramecium or variable like Amoeba. A cell is bound by
selectively permeable membrane, the plasma membrane and contains a nucleus and
cytoplasm. Nucleus is also bounded by a nuclear membrane enclosing nucleoplasm.
Cell membrane is selectively permeable allowing ions to move in and out. It is
composed of double layers of lipids and proteins.
I In plants, cell wall lies outside the plasma membrane. It is composed of cellulose. Cell
wall is lacking in animal cells. Cytoplasm contains a number of cellular organelles,
such as nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes, Golgi complex, Iysosomes,
peroxisomes, mitochondria, plastids, and centrosome.
I Nucleus is found in all cells and is bound by nuclear envelope (perforated) and encloses
nuclear sap. Nucleus contains nucleolus and chromatin material (chromosomes).
I Endoplasmic reticulum is a branching tubular system found in cytoplasm and
connected with nuclear envelope and plasma membrane. It functions as an intra-
cellular transport system and synthesis of proteins on the RER.
I Ribosomes are the sites where protein synthesis occurs.
I Golgi apparatus originate from ER and contain various cellular secretions. Golgi
apparatus in plant cells is called dictyosome.
I Lysosomes develop from Golgi apparatus and contain digestive enzymes.
I Mitochondria arethe sitesfor cellular respiration. ATP is produced in themand hence is called
the powerhouse of cells. Mitochondria are not found in prokaryotic cells and redblood cells.
I Plastids are found in plant cells. Chloroplasts, a type of plastid, help in photosynthesis.
I Plastids are of three types-chloroplasts (green), chromoplasts (coloured-other
than green) and leucoplasts. Chloroplasts help in the photosynthesis. A chloroplast
is formed of a number of grana. A granum is formed of a number of flattened discs
arranged in a pile to form thylakoids. Thylakoids possess chlorophyll.
I Centrosomes are found only in animal cells. They initiate and regulate the chromosomal
I Vacuoles are fluid-filled membrane bound structures, found in plant cells. Only
protozoans (animals) possess temporary vacuoles. Vacuoles help in maintaining the
osmotic pressure of cells.
The Fundamental Unit of Life
FA 1. Wordplay
Write the wordplay using the word below.
Awordplay is one where you choose a word or name and use each letter in the name as the beginning
of a word or line that says something about that person or topic.
Example: Awordplay using the word "SUN".
Sometimes when we go to the beach, we get sunburnt.
Usually, if I put sunblock on my skin, I do not get burnt.
Noon is when I'm really prone to burn.
L _
A _
S _
T .,.--- _
1 _
D _
S _
FA 2. Young Scientist
To prepare a temporary mount of onion peel
You will need: Onion bulb, forceps, watch-glass with water, a glass slide, dropper, coverslip,
safranine solution, microscope, etc.
o Take a small piece of onion bulb.
o Peel off the skin from the concave side of the onion with the help of a pair offorceps.
o Put the skin immediately in a watch-glass containing water to prevent it from getting folded or dry.
o Transfer the peel from watch-glass onto the glass slide.
o Now, put a drop of safranine solution on this piece using a dropp,,/ollowed by coverslip.
o Place the slide on the microscope stage for obseroation.
o You will obsen}e that the peel consists of _
The Fundamental Unit of Life 31 _
FA 3. Flow-chart Based Worksheet
Instructions: Given below is an incomplete flow-chart on cell organelles.
Some boxes/spaces in the flow-chart have been left blank.
Complete the flow-chan adding terms/names/functions as and where required.
Cell Organelles
Mitochondria Plastids
attached to
attached to
of products
Suicide bags
of the cell
Known as Have their
Not present
for solid or
Produces Produces
FA 4. Word Box
Topic: Cell
Directions: Complete the paragraph given below choosing appropriate words from the word box
in the space provided.
plasma membrane
Robert Hooke
cork slice
selectively permeable
Cells were first discovered by In 1665. He
observed the cells in a with the help ofa primitive
microscope. Organisms with cells in which the nuclear material is not bounded by a definite
nuclear membrane are called . While the advanced and complete cell in
which the nucleus has a definite nuclear membrane is called _
In a prokaryotic cell, most of the other cytoplasmic organelles are however they
are in eukaryotic cells.
The outermost covering of the cell that separates the contents of the cell from its external
environment is called It prevents and allows
entry and exit of only limited materials In and out of the cell. Therefore, it is called
__________________ membrane.
32 The Fundamental Unit of Life
FA 5. Seminar
Topic: Nucleus
Directions: The students may divide themselves into a group of eight to ten for a collective
research/study on the given topic. The topic can be divided into following sub-topics
for presentation.
Discovery of nucleus
StruclUre of nucleus
Chromatin material
FA 6. True or False
State whether the following statements are True or False.
1. Most malUre plant cells have a large central vacuole that helps to maintain the lUrgidity of the
cell and stores important substances including wastes.
2. Plastids are present only in plant cells and also have their own Dl\A and ribosomes.
3. The smooth endoplasmic reticulum helps in the manufacture of fat molecules or lipids
important for cell function.
4. Lysosome contains digestive enzymes for the digestion of foreign material and their own
damaged cell.
5. Vacuoles are secretory organelles which secrete enzymes, mucous, pigments, etc.
6. Rough endoplasmic reticulum has smooth surface and is devoid of ribosomes.
7. Mitochondria are said to be the powerhouse of the cell as ATP is generated in them.
FA 7. Concept-based Worksheet
The cytoplasm of a cell contains a variety of organelles having their permanent structures with definite
function. These are membrane-bound, such as mitochondria, Iysosomes, peroxisomes, endoplasmic
reticulum and vacuoles.
Instructions: On the basis of above information provided in the book answer the following
1. Differentiate between rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum. How is endoplasmic
reticulum important for membrane biogenesis?
2. Describe the structure and function of Golgi apparalUs.
3. Why are lysosomes also known as 'scavengers of the cells'?
4. vVrite the site where ATP synthesis takes place in mitochondrion.
5. Define chromoplasts, chloroplasts and leucoplasts.
6. Write down the main functions of vacuoles.
FA 8. Multiple Choice Questions
Select the right choice.
1. Which of the following can be made into crystal?
(a) A Bacterium (b) An Amoeba
(c) A Virus (eI) A Sperm
The Fundamental Unit of Life 33
2. A cell will swell up if
(a) The concentration of water molecules in the cell is higher than the concentration of water
molecules in surrounding tnediurn
(b) The concentration of water molecules in surrounding medium is higher than water
molecules concentration in the cell
(e) The concentration of water molecules is same in the cell and in the surrounding medium
(d) Concentration of water molecules does not matter
3. Chromosomes are made up of
(a) DNA (b) protein
(e) D A and protein (d) R A
4. Which of these options are not a function of Ribosomes?
(i) It helps in manufacture of protein molecules
(ii) It helps in manufacture of enzymes
(iii) It helps in manufacture of hormones
(iv) It helps in manufacture of starch molecules
(a) (i) and (ii) (b) (ii) and (iii)
(e) (iii) and (iv) (d) (iv) and (i)
5. Which of these is not related to endoplasmic reticulum?
(a) It behaves as transport channel for proteins between nucleus and cytoplasm
(b) It transports materials between various regions in cytoplasm
(e) It can be the site of energy generation
(d) It can be the site for some biochemical activities of the cell
6. Following are a few definitions of osmosis
Read carefully and select the correct definition
(a) Movement of water molecules fi'om a region of higher concentration to a region of lower
concentration through a semipermeable membrane.
(b) Movement of solvent molecules from its higher concentration to lower concentration
(e) Movement of solvent molecules fi'om higher concentration to lower concentration of
solution through a permeable membrane.
(d) Movement of solute molecules from lower concentration to higher concentration of
solution through a semipermeable membrane.
7. Plasmolysis in a plant cell is defined as
(a) break down (lysis) of plasma membrane in hypotonic medium
(b) shrinkage of cytoplasm in hypertonic medium
(e) shrinkage of nucleoplasm
(d) none of them
8. Which of the following are covered by a single membrane?
(a) Mitochondira (b) Vacuole
(e) Lysosome (d) Plastid
9. Find out the false sentences
(a) Golgi apparatus is involved with the formation oflysosomes
(b) Nucleus, mitochondria and plastic have DNA; hence they are able to make their own
structural proteins.
(e) Mitochondria is said to be the power house of the cell as ATP is generated in them.
(d) Cytoplasm is called as protoplasm
34 The Fundamental Unit of life
(b) 10-
(d) 10-
(b) Purkinje
(d) Robert Brown
(b) golgi apparatus
(d) nucleus
,.. ~ .
10. The proteins and lipids, essential for building the cell membrane, are manufactured by
(a) rough endoplasmic reticulum (b) golgi apparatus
(e) plasma membrane (d) mitochondria
11. The undefined nuclear region ofprokaryotes are also known as
(a) nucleus (b) nucleolus
(e) nucleic acid (d) nucleoid
12. The cell organelle involved in fonning complex sugars from simple sugars are
(a) endoplasmic reticulum (b) ribosomes
(e) plastids (d) golgi apparatus
13. Which out of the following is not a function of vacuole?
(a) Storage (b) Providing turgidity and rigidity to the cell
(e) Waste excretion (d) Locomotion
14. Amoeba acquires its food through a process, termed
(a) exocytose (b) endocytosis
(e) plasmolysis (d) exocytosis and endocytosis both
15. Cell wall of which one of these is not made up of cellulose?
(a) Bacteria (b) H)'drilla
(e) Mango tree (d) Cactus
16. Silver nitrate solution is used to study
(a) endoplasmic reticulum (b) golgi apparatus
(e) nucleus (d) mitochondria
17. Organelle other than nucleus, containing DNA is
(a) endoplasmic reticulum (b) golgi apparatus
(e) mitochondria (d) lysosome
18. Kitchen of the cell is
(a) mitochondria (b) endoplasmic reticulum
(e) chloroplast (d) golgi apparatus
19. Cell arises from pre-existing cell was stated by
(a) Haeckel (b) Virchow
(e) Hooke (d) Schleiden
20. Cell theory was given by
(a) Schleiden and Schwann (b) Virchow
(e) Hooke (d) Haeckel
21. The only cell organelle seen in prokaryotic cell is
(a) mitochondria (b) ribosomes
(e) plastids (d) lysosomes
22. Organelle without a cell membrane is
(a) ribosome
(e) chloroplast
23. l!.tm is
(6,) 10-6 m
(e) 10-
24. Living cells were discovered by
(a) Robert Hooke
(01) Leeuwenhoek
The Fundamental Unit of Life 35
VK Biology IX
1. (e)
5. (e)
9. (a)
13. (d)
17. (e)
2. (b)
6. (a)
10. (a)
14. (b)
18. (e)
22. (a)
3. (e)
7. (b)
11. (d)
15. (a)
19. (b)
23. (a)
4. (e)
8. (b)
12. (d)
16. (b)
20. (a)
24. (e)
FA 9. Oral Assessment
Instructions: Give the answers carefully.
1. What is the function of the cell wallO
2. What will happen to a cell if its nucleus is removed?
3. Where are genes located?
4. What is plasmolysis?
5. Is the plant cell wall living or dead?
6. Do the plant cells contain centriole?
7. Which cell organelle is responsible for intracellular transport'
8. Which cell organelle is called the suicidal bag?
9. What are the main functions of vacuoles?
10. ""hat is the primary function of leucoplasts?
FA 10. Paper Pen Test
1.' Answer the following questions.
(b) Do you agree that "A cell is a building unit of an organism"?
(e) Why does the skin of your figures shrink when you wash clothes for a long time?
(d) How are chromatin, chromatid and chromosomes related to each other?
(e) How is bactirial cell different from an onion peel celIO
if) What are consequences ofthe following conditions?
(i) A cell containing higher water concentration than the surrounding medium.
(ii) A cell having low water concentration an compared to its surrounding medium.
(iii) A cell having equal water concentration to its surrounding medium.
if) Name two organelles in the plant cell that contain their own genetic material and
2. Fill in the Blanks.
(a) Cell theory was proposed by and _
(b) serves as channels for the transport of materials between vanous
regious of the cytoplasm or between the cytoplasm and the nucleus.
(e) are known as powerhouses of the cell.
(d) lack any membranes and hence do not show characteristics of eye until
they enter a living body and use its cell machinery to multiply.
(e) is the packaging and despatching unit of the cell.
~ - -
36 The Fundamental Unit of Life
... ..-
J1 . , ' ~ , , ~
3. Match the following.
Column I Column II
(a) Vacuoles (i) Suicidal bags of a cell
(b) Nucleoid (ii) Powerhouse of a cell
(c) Lysosomes (iii) Bacteria
(d) Mitochondria (iv) Storage sacs of a cell
(e) Food vacuole
(v) "ucleus
I If) Chromatin material and nucleolus (vi) Amoeba
golgi apparatus
4. True or False.
(a) Lysosomes keep the cells clean by digesting foreign materials and worn out cell organelle.
(b) Osmosis plays an important role in gaseous exchange between the cells as well as the cell
and its external environment.
(c) Prokaryotic cells have no membrane-bound organelles, their chromosomes are composed
of only nucleic acids and they have only very small ribosome as organelle.
(d) An undefined nuclear region containing only nucleic acids in eukaryotes is called a
(e) Smooth endoplasmic reticulum detoxifies many poisons and drugs.
5. Multiple Choice Questions.
(a) Lipid molecules in the cell are synthesised hy
(i) smooth endoplasmic reticulum
(ii) rough endoplasmic reticulum
(iii) golgi apparatus
(iv) plastids
(a) Lysosomes arises from
(i) endoplasmic reticulum
(iii) nucleus
(a) Select the odd one out.
(i) The movement of water across a semipermeable membrane is affected by the amount
of substances dissoh'ed in it.
(ii) Membrane are made of organic molecules like proteins and lipids.
(iii) Molecules soluble in organic solvents can easily pass through the membrane.
(iv) Plasma membranes contain chitin sugar in plants.
(a) Which cell organelle plays a crucial role in detoxifying many poisons and drugs in a
(i) Golgi apparatus
(iii) Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
(a) Find out the correct sentence.
(i) Enzymes packed in lysosomes are made through RER.
(ii) Rough endoplasmic reticulum and smooth endoplasmic reticulum produce lipid and
protein respectively.
(iii) Endoplasmic reticulum is related to the destruction of plasma membrane.
(iv) Nucleoid is present inside the nucleoplasm of eukaryotic nucleus.
The Fundamental Unit of Life
37 II'J!IiiiiIi I
A. Textbook Questions
1. Who discovered cells and how?
Ans. The cell was first discovered by Robert Hooke in 1665. He examined thin slices of cork under
a self made microscope and saw a multitude of tiny hollow spaces that he remarked looked
like the walled compartments of a honeycomb. He termed these spaces as 'cell' meaning
'small room' in Latin.
2. Why is the cell called the structural and functional unit of life?
Ans. All living organisms are made up of cells. This shows that the cell is the structural unit oflife.
Each living cell has the capacity to perform certain basic functions that are characteristics of
all living forms. For example, phagocytic cells eat or kill unwanted or foreign particles inside
the body (e.g., WBCs) some cells, e.g., pancreatic cells, small intestine cells, liver cells secrete
enzymes and hormones. That is why cell is called the structural and functional unit of life.
3. How do substance like CO
and water move in and out of the cell? Discuss
Ans. Carbon dioxide and water move across a cell by the process of diffusion and osmosis
respectively. When the concentration of CO
is low outside the cell as compared to inside, it
moves out, i.e., from a region of high concentration to a region oflow concentration.
Also, when concentration of water increases inside the cell as compared to its exterior, it moves
across the plasma region from a region of its high concentration to its low concentration.
4. Why is plasma membrane called a selectively permeable membrane?
Ans. Plasma membrane is called selectively permeable membrane because it allows the movement
of only selected molecules across it.
5. Fill in the gaps in the following table illustrating differences between prokaryotic and
eukaryotic cells.
Prokaryotic cell
I. Size: generally small (1-10 /Lm)
I/Lm = 10-6 III
2. Nuclearregion: _
and known as _
3. Chromosome: single
4. Membrane-bound cell organelles absent.
Prokaryotic cell
I. Size: generally small (1-10 /Lm)
I /Lm = lO-6m
2. l\uclear region: Undefined due to the
absence of nuclear membrane and known
as nucleoid.
3. Chromosome: single
4. Membrane-bound cell organelles absent.
Eukaryotic cell
1. Size: generally large (5-100 /Lm)
2. Nuclear region: Well-defined and surrounded
by a nuclear membrane.
3. More than one chromosome.
4. _
Eukaryotic cell
I. Size: generally large (5-100 /Lm)
2. "Juclear regIon: Well-defined and
surrounded by a nuclear membrane.
3. More than one ehromosome.
4. \lembrane-bound cell organelles (e.g.,
chloroplasts, Golgi bodies, etc.) present.
The Fundamental Unit of Lrte
-:h ..... ':.,'i>d
.... ~ . ~
6. Can you name the two organelles we have studied that contain their own genetic material?
Ans. Plastids and mitochondria.
7. If the organisation of a cell is destroyed due to some physical or chemical influence, what
will happen?
Ans. Cell organelles are responsible for the organisation and proper functioning of a cell, as each
of them perform some specific functions. 'Iaturally, if any of these organelles are destroyed,
the functions of the cell will be stopped and it may also result in the death of the celL
8. Why are lysosomes known as suicidal bags?
Ans. Lysosomes are known as 'suicidal bags' because when cell gets damaged during the disturbance
in cellular metabolism, lysosomes may burst and the digestive enzymes thus released digest
thei r own celL
9. Where are proteins synthesised inside the cell?
Ans. Ribosomes present in the cell synthesise proteins and are called protein factories of the celL
These may be attached on the surface of rough endoplasmic reticulum or lie freely in the celL
10. Make a comparison and write down ways in which plant cells are different from animal
Ans. The differences between plant cells and animal cells are as follows:
Plant cells Animal cells
I. Plant cells are larger in size. I. Animal cells are comparatively smaller in
2. They contain cell wall made of cellulose. 2. Cell wall is absent. Only plasma membrane
which IS present outside the plasma is present.
3. They contain plastids. t.e., chloroplasts. 3. Plastids are absent.
leucoplasts and chromoplasts.
4. Centrosome is absent. 4. Centrosome is present.
5. Larger vacuoles are present. 5. Vacuoles either absent or are very small in
6. Food is stored in the form of starch. 6. Food is stored in the form of glycogen.
7. Lysosomes are either absent or are very few 7. More number of prominent Iysosomes are
in number. present.
11. How is a prokaryotic cell different from a eukaryotic cell?
Ans. Differences between prokaryotic cell and eukaryotic cell are as under:
Prokaryotic cell Eukaryotic cell
L Prokaryotic cells are generally small in size. L Eukaryotic cells are comparatively larger in
(1-IO!-Lm). size (5-100 !-Lm).
2. The nuclear material is undefined having no 2. A true nucleus having a nuclear membrane
nuclear membrane and is called nucleoid. is present.
3. A single chromosome is present. 3. :\1ore than one chromosome is presenL
4. It does nm contain membrane-bound cell 4. It contains membrane-bound cell organelles
organelles. like mitochondria, plastids. etc.
5. Ribosome is of 70S type. 5. Ribosome is of 80S type.
6. Cell division takes place by fission or 6. Cell division lakes place by mitosis or
budding or fragmentation. meiosis.
The Fundamenlal Unit of Lde 39
'.._ T>k,


12. What would happen if the plasma membrane ruptures or breaks down?
Ans. Plasma membrane is the selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cell and allows
the entry and exit of selected materials of the cello If it ruptures, the contents of the cell will
come in direct contact with the surrounding medium and not only unwanted material will
be able to enter freely into the cell, but useful material will also find its way out of the cell
easily. This will seriously disrupt the various metabolic activities of the cell and will result in
its eminent death,
13. What would happen to the life of a cell if there were no Colgi apparatus?
Ans. If there were no Golgi apparatus, the material synthesised by endoplasmic reticulum would
not be carried to the various parts inside and outside of the cello Also as the Golgi apparatus
performs the function of storage and modification of the material synthesised in the cell,
these materials could not be stored and modified further
Moreover, there will be no production of lysosomes which will cause the accumulation of
waste material, viz., worn out and dead cell organelles within the cell which will ultimately
lead to cell death.
14. Which organelle is known as the powerhouse of the cell? Why?
Ans. Mitochondria are known as powerhouse ofthe cell because these are the sites ofcellular respiration.
They release energy in the form of ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) oxidation of carbohydrates
and fats. This energy is then utilised by the organelles to carry out their basic functions.
15. Where do the lipids and proteins constituting the cell membrane get synthesised?
Ans. Lipids are synthesised in smooth endoplasmic reticulum from where they are transported to
the cell membrane.
Proteins are synthesised by the ribosomes in the cytoplasm. These are then transferred to
Golgi complex and ER for further modifications from where they reach their destinations.
16. How does an Amoeba obtain its food?
Ans. In Amoeba, the food particles get surrounded by a cell membrane invagination called pseudopodia.
The pseudopodia d,en merge with each other forming a food vacuole which is engulfed into the
body ofAllweba. These vesicles are called phagosomes where the food is digested.
17. What is osmosis?
Ans. The diffusion of water or solvent through a semi-permeable membrane from a solution of
lower concentration of solutes to a solution of higher concentration ofsolutes is called osmosis.
18. Carry out the following osmosis experiment:
Take four peeled potato halves and scoop each one out to make potato cups. One of these
potato cups should be made from a boiled potato. Put each potato cup in a trough containing
(a) Keep cup A empty
(b) Put one teaspoon sugar in cup B.
(c) Put one teaspoon salt in cup C.
(d) Put one teaspoon sugar in the boiled potato cup D.

.... ,.
The Fundamental Unit of life
Keep these for two hours. Then observe the four potato cups and answer the following:
(i) Explain why water gathers in the hollowed portion of Band C.
(ii) Why is potato A necessary for this experiment?
(iii) Explain why water does not gather in the hollowed out portions of A and D.
Ans. (i) Water gathers in the hollowed portion of Band C because of the process of endosmosis
(moving in ofthe solvent). The potato wall acts as a semi-permeable membrane. As the cups
Band C are filled with sugar and salt respectively and their outer part is in contact with
the water, the concentration of water outside the cups is higher than inside the cups. So,
water l110ves fronl its higher concentration towards the lower concentration, i.e., inside
the cup.
~ j
CupS CupC
Fresh peeled I Sugar
-"" I~
Cup 0
(ii) Potato A acts as a control of the experiment. It is very necessary for comparing the results
of the experiment. It shows that if the concentration of water is same on both sides, there
will be no movement of water.
(iii) Water does not gather in the hollowed out portions of A as it does not contain hypertonic
solution so there is no concentration difference and hence no movement of solvent. Water
does not gather in the cup D as the cells of boiled potato are dead and the potato wall is
no longer semi-permeable. Hence, no osmosis occurs.
HOTS (Higher Order Thinking Skills)
1. Ifyou are provided with some vegetables to cook, you generally add salt into the vegetables.
After adding salt, vegetables release water. Why?
Ans. When salt is added, a hypotonic medium is created, i.e., the concentration of salt molecules
is more outside the vegetables than inside. Hence, due to osmosis water from the vegetables
come out.
2. If cells of onion peel and RBC are separately kept in hypotonic solution, what will happen
to each of them? Explain.
Ans. When kept in a hypotonic solution, the onion cells will become turgid because the water will
enter the cell due to osmosis. But the cell wall present outside the cell provides it rigidity and
does not let any harm to occur.
Whereas, in RBC the movement of water inside the cell due to osmosis will lead to bursting
of the cell because it does not have a rigid cell wall.
3. How will absence of anyone of the cell organelles affect the cell's working?
Ans. Functions of all the organelles are inter-linked to each other and ultimately to the working of
the example cell. So, if even a single link is missing, the cell ultimately suffers and dies. For
e.g., DNA from the nucleus passes the information for protein formation to the ribosomes
which send the proteins to Golgi complex and ER for modification and transport.
The Fundamental Unit of Life 41
4. Where will you find more number of ribosomes-in cancer cells or in fat cells?
Ans. Ribosomes are found in greater number in actively dividing cells which are the cancer cells as
they need more amount of proteins for the formation of new cells.
5. A solution of 3% glucose and a solution of 8% glucose are kept in a trough separated by a
semi-permeable memhrane. What will you observe after I hour?
Ans. After I hour, the solutions on both the sides of the semi-permeable membrane will become
isotonic because of the process of osmosis.
A. Very Short Answer Questions (1 m.ark)
I. Who first discovered the cell?
2. Who discovered the cytoplasm and nucleus'
3. Which type of cell is found in bacteria and blue-green algae?
4. Write down the names of cell organelles of eukaryotic cells.
5. What is the main characteristic of prokaryotic cell?
6. Write down the full form of ATP
7. Write the names of cell organelles.
8. What are the three major functional regions of the cell?
9. Is the cell wall living or dead in plants?
10. Write down one main function of the following cell organelles:
(a) Plasma membrane (b) Chloroplasts
(c) Nucleus (d) Mitochondria
(e) Nucleolus (j) Chromosomes
(g) Ribosomes (h) Lysosomes
(i) Goigi apparatus !j) Peroxisomes
11. Is chloroplast a non-living structure?
12. Name the nucleic acids present in the nucleus of an animal cell.
13. What is the function of mitochondria'
14. Which cell organelle releases the energy in the form of ATP?
15. j arne the chemical molecule which carries the hereditary characters from parent to offspring.
16. Do the plant cells contain a centriole?
B. Short Answer Questions (2,3 marks)
I. Who coined the word 'cell' and how'
2. What is the cell theory?
3. Write down the names of cell organelles and describe the functions of any two.
4. Differentiate between:
(a) Ribosome and centrosome,
(b) Chromatin and chromosome,
(c) Nucleus and nucleolus,
(d) Haploid and diploid cells.
Tenlal Unit of life
5. What is the difference between cell wall and cell membrane?
6. What is a cell? Describe its shape and size.
C. Long Answer Questions (5 marks)
1. Why are mitochondria called the power-house of a cell? Describe the structure and functions
of mitochondria with the help of suitable diagrams.
2. What are the major types ofplastids? Describe the green plastids involved in photosynthesis.
3. Describe the structure and functions of Golgi apparatus.
4. What is digestive bag? Describe its structure and functions.
5. Write down the names of two nucleic acids. What are their functions?
6. What is gene and where is it found? Give its functions.
7. What will happen if we put a plant or animal cell in a
(a) hypotonic solution (b) hypertonic solution (e) isotonic solution?
8. What is diffusion? How is it useful in living beings?
9. Draw diagrams of different kinds of cells present in human body.
10. Describe the main parts of a typical cell with various functions of the parts.
D. Practical-based Multiple Choice Questions
1. In order to observe a slide under high power, a particular sequence is to be followed after
adjustment of light with the help of mirror and condenser. Identify the correct sequence.
(i) Focus the slide with the help of coarse adjustment
(ii) Focus with the help of fine adjustment
(iii) Put the slide on stage
(iv) Rotate the nose piece, to place the objective with high power on the slide
(a) (ii), (iv), (iii), (i) (b) (iii), (i), (iv), (ii)
(e) (iii), (i), (ii), (iv) (d) (iii), (ii), (iv), (i)
2. Rima of Class IX was asked to prepare the slides of onion peel and cheek cells in the lab
but she was highly confused to see five different types of stains on the shelf of chemicals.
As a helpful classmate, what stains would you suggest her to use for different slides?
(a) Methylene blue for onion peel & safranin for cheek cells
(b) Acito carmine for onion peel & janus green for cheek cells
(e) Leishman stain for onion peel & eosin for cheek cells
(d) Safranin stain for onion peel & methylene blue for cheek cells
3. Four students . Sharukh, Amir, Salman and Sanjay were provided with microscopes
having different eye pieces and objective lenses. They were told to fit the eye piece and
objective lens to get the magnified view of the object. Who do you think got the maximum
(a) Amir selected objective of value 45X and eyepiece of value 5X
(b) Shahrukh selected objective of value lOX and eyepiece of value 20X
(e) Salman selected objective of value 40X and eyepiece of value lOX
(d) Sanjay selected objective of value 20X and eyepiece of value 15X
4. An over enthusiastic student scrapped the inner side of his cheek to get a few epithelial
cells with the help of a dissecting needle. Without feeling any pain, he could take out the
cells and also prepared an excellent slide which fetched him full marks in his exam. He
developed infection in his mouth after some time because
(a) he must be having the infection before
The Fundamental Unit of Life 43
(b) may be he pricked very hard
(c) the needle was not sterilised
(el) all of the above
5. Following diagrams show the temporary mount of onion peel prepared by different student
(A, B, C, D) of St. John's school. Who do you think was the most attentive student of this
class as he followed all the instructions given by his biology teacher?
(a) (b)
I Ln
- ~
(c) (d)
6. Many inquisitive students of Class VIII prepared a temporary mount of onion peel to look
for a centrally located nucleus in a cell. They were disappointed when they could not see
it. Their mistake was
(a) not adding safranin on the peel
(b) they took the outer peel instead of inner peel
(c) nucleus is visible only under high power and they observed it only under low power
(el) peel must have got overlapped reducing the contrast
7. Given below are the steps for the preparation of a temporary mount of onion peel. The
steps are however not arranged in an order. Arrange them in a correct sequence.
(i) Examine the slide under the microscope
(ii) Put a cover slip, press it gently and clean the slide.
(iii) Remove a thin transparent peel from a piece of onion.
(iv) Transfer the peel on a clean slide with the help of brush and needle.
(v) Put few drops of safranin stain in the watch glass to stain the peel.
The correct sequence would be
(a) (iii), (v), (iv), (ii), (i)
(b) (v), (iv), (ii), (iii), (i)
(c) (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v)
(el) (ii), (iv), (v), (i), (iii)
8. Given below are four operations for preparing a temporary mount of human cheek cells.
(i) Taking scraping from inner side of the cheek.
(ii) Putting a drop of glycerine on the material.
(iii) Adding two or three drops of methylene blue.
(iv) Rinsing the mouth with fresh water and disinfectant solution.
The correct sequence of these operations is
(a) (i), (ii), (iii), (iv)
(b) (iv), (i), (iii), (ii)
(c) (iv), (i), (ii), (iii)
(d) (i), (iii), (ii), (iv)
44 The Fundamental Unit of Life
9. Which of the following is a correctly labelled cell of an onion peel?
Nucleus --. ...... Nucleus

Cell wall
.'----. 6

, .
, '. membrane
Vacuole ' .,:
! :
'._. _.. ' '
(a) (b)
Cell wall

............ iceRwaJl
' .
membrane ' :
'. -" --- .-'
(c) (d)
10. Arrange the following steps in correct sequence.
(i) Putting a drop of glycerine on the cheek cells on a slide.
(ii) Scrapping the inner side of cheek
(iii) Adding methylene blue stain, and
(iv) Placing the cover slip over the material.
(a) (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) (b) (ii), (i), (iv), (iii)
(e) (iv), (ii), (iii), (i) (d) (ii), (iii), (i), (iv)
II. Nikita observed a slide of human cheek cells under a microscope in its (i) low magnifying
power, (ii) high magnifying power settings. In the first setting, she must observed
(a) fewer cells in a darker field of view (b) more cells in a brighter field of view
(e) more cells in a darker field of view (d) fewer cells in a brighter field of view.
12. To observe cells in an onion peel, we must prepare the slide by mounting on it
(a) crushed pulp of onion (b) dry scale leaf
(e) green leaf of onion (spring onion) (d) thin layer of Oeshy leaf of onion.
13. Human cheek cells stained in methylene blue and mounted in glycerine were observed
with the help of a compound microscope. The components of the cell which would be seen
(a) Cell wall, cytoplasm, nucleus
(b) Plasma membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus
(e) Plasma membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus, mitochondria
(d) Plasma membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus, mitochondria, golgi body, lysosomes.
14. Trupti was observing an onion peel stained with safranin under a microscope. The colour
of the cell wall appeared
(a) deep blue. (b) black
(r) pinkish red (d) "dim,'.
15. Nucleus in eukaryotic cells is centrally positioned because
vI) it is lhe regulatioll Cl'llIre orlhe cell
(II) it conlitins n'\--"
(r) it has to send the illii.JrIlI;tlioll ill all dinTlioll ...
(rI) it Illaxilllllill protcnioll duc 10 ih kL'\
The Fundamental Unit of Life 45
(b) Cytoplasm
(d) Mitochondria
(b) Large vacuoles
(d) Centrioles
(b) Glycerine
(d) Methyl alcohol
18. Maximum light passes through the microscope when
(a) aperture is closed and objective is 40X
(b) aperture is open and objective is 40X
(e) aperture is open and objective is lOX
(d) aperture is partially open objective is 40X
19. The scientist, who invented the first compound microscope was
(a) Zacchrais Janssen (b) Leeuwenhoek
(e) Knoll and Ruska (d) Robert Hook
20. If cheek cells are placed in 10% salt solution, they will
(a) absorb water and salt and become bigger in size
(b) no change will occur
(e) shrink as the cells will lose water due to exosmosis
(d) cells will die
21. Which of the following liquids is not used in the preparation of stained temporary mount
of onion peel?
(a) Water
(e) Safranin
22. Pick the odd one out.
(a) Plastids
(e) Cell wall
16. Excess ofstain from the slide can be removed by
(a) using a muslin cloth (b) using a blotting paper
(e) using a polythene (d) using a handkerchief
17. Which of the following organelles is not visible in the slide of onion peel even under high
(a) Cell membrane
(e) Cell wall
1. (b) 2. (d) 3. (e) 4. (d)
5. (a) 6. (b) 7. (a) 8. (b)
9. (b) 10. (d) 11. (b) 12. (d)
13.(b) 14. (e) 15. (d) 16. (b)
17.(b) 18. (b) 19. (b) 20. (e)
21. (d) 22. (d)
The Fundamental Unit of LITe
Chapter: Two
U D s ) s ) l l i J ~ s )
In the earlier chapter, it has been described that all living organisms are made
of cells. A unicellular organism, such as Amoeba, Pammeciurn, has a single cell in
its body. The single cell performs all the life activities, e.g., movement, intake of
food, digestion, respiration, reproduction and excretion, etc. But in multicellular
organisms there are millions of cells. Most of these cells are specialised to carry out
a few functions. Each specialised function is taken up by a different group of cells.
These cells function very efficiently. Thus, cells of multicellular organisms show
division of labour. For example, in human beings, muscle cells contract and relax
to cause movement. Nerve cells carry messages. Blood cells carry oxygen and CO
In plants, vascular tissues (xylem and phloem) conduct water and food. So, we see
that cells, that are specialised in one function, are grouped to form a tissue. Blood,
muscles, xylem and phloem are all examples of tissues.
Atissue is defined as a group ofcells of common origin having similar structure
and specialised for performing a common function.
In the beginning, all the cells are alike but as development proceeds, a change
occurs in their size, structure and functions; this differentiation of cells is followed
by the formation of different kinds of tissues. Thus, a tissue is a cluster of cells at
a definite place in the body performing a special function. A group of tissues of
different types work in harmony to form organs.
I Are Plants and Animals Made of Same Type of Tissues?
Plants and animals are two different organisms. Plants are autotrophic
organisms, i.e., they prepare their own food by the process of photosynthesis.
Moreover, plants are stationary or fixed, i.e., they do not move about except for a
few unicellular algae. Hence, they do not consume or need much energy, therefore,
most of the tissues of plants are supportive, that provide them with structural
strength. Most ofthese tissues like xylem, phloem, sclerenchyma and cork are dead,
i.e., they do not contain living protoplasm.
On the other hand, animals are heterotrophic organisms. They move from
place to place in search oHood, mate and shelter. Therefore, they need more energy
as compared to plants. Most animal tissues contain living cells.
There are some tissues in plants that divide throughout their life. Tissues
divide for the growth hand reproduction of plants. Such tissues are localised in
certain regions. Based on the dividing capacity of the tissue, the various plant tissues
can he classified as meristematic tissue and permanent tissue. On the other hand,
there is no such distinct region in animals. Cell growth in animals is more uniform.
So, there is no such demarcation of dividing and non-dividing regions in animals.
A tissue is a group
of cells having a
common ongm,
similar structure
and specialised to
perform a common
Tissues 47
Plant Tissues
Plant tissues have been classified into two main groups: growing or me.ristematic
tissues and permanent tissues. Growth in plants is restricted to certain regions.
" Classification of Plant Tissues ./
ulh an of rrins: 10 0.8 Ih
I'G'riOIl$ uU t'ftWs of body':! an -. oJ
1. Sieve lubes
2. Companion cells
1. Xylem vessels
2. Tracheids
tissue composed of
more than one
type of cells)
Permanent Tissues
(Mature cells incapable of
cell diVision)
(Protective and
tissues composed of
similar type of cells)
of stem)
(Below bark,
cambium. in
dicot roots
\ and stems) J
Meristematic Tissues
(Cells are capable of cell division
and have totipotency)
f l t
(Tips of
\ and stem) I
I A. Meristematic Tissues
These are found in the growing regions of the plant, e.g., shoot tip, root tip and
cambium. Their cells are immature and are capable of undergoing repeated division
throughout their life. These cells are spherical, oval, polygonal or rectangular in
shape. Their cytoplasm is dense, cell ,,all is thin, nucleus is single and large, and
vacuoles (single or few or no vacuoles) if present are smaller. I ntercellular spaces are
lacking. This tissue continuously forms a number of new cells.
Classification: According to their position on the plant body, they are of the
following types:
(a) Apical meristem,
(b) Lateral meristem,
(e) Intercalary meristem.
(a) Apical meristem: It is found at the growing tips of stems (shoot) and
roots. Its cells are roughly spherical, alike and divide continuously to
form new cells which later differentiate into epidermal tissue, ground
tissue (cortex) and vascular tissue (vascular bundles). Thus, the root and
stem of a plant grow in length (primary growth). Root tip is protected
by a root cap formed of a layer of cells. It protects the root tip from
(aJ (b)
Fig. 22 Seeuun through (a, stem ape) ar.d
b! root lip showing rnerislemallc JSSlM
Fig.2.1 Menstems based On poslbon
48 Tissues
--';---'----.!-(vascular bundles)
Fig. 2.3 L.S. of stem tip
FIg. 2.4 1.5. of the growing tip of root
(c) Intercalary meristem: It is a part of the apical meristem, which is separated
from the apex during the growth. It is found at the base of the leaves or
internodes (on either side of the node on twigs). In grass and bamboo, they
are found near the nodes. They increase the length of the organ.
activity 1
Take two glass jars, A and B, fill thern with water.
Take two onion bulbs and place one onion bulb on the rnouth ofeachjar (as shown in Fig. 2.5).
Obseroe the gTOwth of roots in both the onion bulbs for a few days.
Measure the length of roots on day 1, 2 and 3.
On day 4, cut the tips (about 1 crn part) of roots in one bulb ofjar A.
Again obseroe the growth of roots in both the jars and rneasuTe thei, lengths each day for
five lIlore days and record yOUT observation in the following table:
Length of root Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Day 4 Day 5
I. Jar A
2. Jar B
PrOlll the above observation, answer the following questions:
(i) Which of the jars has longer roots? Why?
(ii) Do the roots continue l5'owing even when you have Temoved theiT tips?
(iii) Why do the TOot tips stop growing injaT A after you have cut them?
Roots of onion bulbs in jaT B will continuously grow and will become 10ngeT because they
have dividing cells at the TOot tip. In jar A, theTe will be no growth in onion bulb roots,
since they lack the dividing cells. Cut TOots stop l5'owing in jar A since thel"/! is no dividing
tissue p,esent.
What happens to the cells formed by the meristematic tissue?
They take up a specific role and lose the ability to divide. Thus, they form a type
of permanent tissue. This process of taking up a permanent shape, size and function
is called differentiation. In this way, the cells of meristematic tissue differentiate to
form different types of permanent tissues.
To understand the structure and function of various types of permanent plant
tissues, YOil have to study the anatomy (Greek; ana = up; ternnein = to cut) of plant
organs like roots, stem, leaves, flowers, etc.
JarA Jar8
Fig. 2.5 Growth of roots in
onion bulbs
Tissues 49
activity 2

Take a small po,-tion of a sunfloweT stem.
Keep it in wate,- in a watch glass.
Cut its very thin sections with the help of mzo,- 0,- blade.
Now, stain the slices with safranin.
Tmnsfe,- one neatly cut section on a slide, and put a d,-op ofglycerine.
COVeT it with a cover-slip and obseroe under a micTOscope.
You will obseroe diffe,-ent kinds of cells and thei,' m-mngement. Compa,-e it with Fig. 2.6.
Mucilaginous canal
Cortex --'
I!!L---_ Endodermis

Fig. 2.6 Section of astem
On the basis ofyour observation, try to find out the answer to the following questions:
(i) Are all cells similar in structure?
(ii) How many types of cells can be seen?
(iii) Can you think of reasons why there would be so many types of cells?
You will find that the section ofsunflower stem contains seven different types of
cells and all these cells perform different functions such as, xylem (conducting water),
phloem (transport of food), epidermis (protection), collenchyma, sclerenchyma
(support), parenchyma (food storage), and cambium (growth). Thus, from the
above activity, you have learned that different groups of cells of tissues present in a
plant organ help to perform different functions. You can also try to cut sections of
stems and roots of different plants and study them.
I B. Permanent Tissues
These are derived from the meristematic tissues. Cells formed from the
division of meristematic tissues, after maturity form permanent tissue. Their cells do
not divide further. They gradually become specialised. They have a definite shape
and may be living or dead and thin or thick walled. Their cytoplasm is vacuolated.
Permanent tissues are of two types: simple tissue and complex tissue.
Phloem Sclerenchyma
Permanent Tissue
Simple Complex
.. ..
Xylem Collenchyma Parenchyma
IIL3 -'v
VK Biology IX
50 Tissues
FI9 2.7 I.a) 1S. of Parend1yma (b) L.S. of Parenchyma
f--- Nucleus
+--- Cytoplasm

-=+--- Vacuole

]f------- Primary cell wall
Intercellular spaces
1. Simple Tissues
These are ofthree types: (a) parenchyma, (b)collenchyma and (c) sclerenchyma.
(a) Parenchyma (Gr., pam, beside + enchyma, in-filling). Parenchyma is generally
found in all plants. Its cells are living. Each cell has a thin cell wall of cellulose
and encloses a dense cytoplasm
which contains a small nucleus
and surrounds a large central
Generally its cells are
rounded, oval, polygonal or
spherical in shape. The cells
have intercellular spaces filled
with air. These cells are found
in epidermis, cortex, pith,
pericycle, elc., of stems, roots,
leaves, flowers and fruits (in
pulp). It is also found in xylem
and phloem.
(i) They function as a packing tissue, filling the spaces between other tissues.
They maintain the shape and firmness of the plant due to turgidity (provide
mechanical strength to the plant).
(ii) Their cells store food materials such as starch stored in the parenchyma
cortex of potato tuber.
(iii) Parenchyma cells store excretory products such as gum, tannin, resins,
crystals of inorganic waste, etc.
(iv) Parenchyma in xylem and phloem conducts water and food material
(v) Some parenchyma cells have the power to divide and form secondary
Fig. 2.8 la) TS. of Collenchyma Ib) L.S of Collenchyma
Primary celt wall
(thickened at
I Nucleus
-----L- Vacuole
J Chloroplast

$;;'--- Cell wall
(vi) Parenchyma called aerencl1\'ma in aquatic plants helps in aeration of
tissues and in aquatic plant it also provides buoyancy to help them float.
(vii) They also contain chloroplasts called chlorenclnma which are responsible
for photosynthesis (formation of starch).
(b) Callenchyma (Gr., Kalla, glue). Cells are oval or polygonal in shape and
generally found below the epidermis of the dicotyledon stem and petiole
(leaf stalk). They are closely packed together and hence, no intercellular
spaces. Their cell walls are
much thickened at the corners
(due to cellulose and pectin)
where a number of cells join
together. The cells are living
and vacuolated. Cell wall is
irregularly thickened due to
which the plant becomes firm
and elastic. Sometimes these
cells contain chloroplasts. In
herbaceous plants, it acts as a
permanent mechanical tissue.
It is absent in monocot stems,
roots and leaves.
t:--iI-_T.:;:iS:::.SU::::8.::..S ..::51:..-';;;;;;;;;::=:":"mi'l
Fig. 2.9 :a'i IS. of ScIerenchyma (b) loS. of ScIerenchyma
thick wall
In'l---Narrow lumen
pit pair
(i) Being flexible in nature, it provides tensile strengtb to the plant body.
(ii) It provides mechanical support to the leaf where it occurs on both sides of
vascular bundles or as isolated patches.
(iii) It renders suppleness to the various parts of the plant (leaf, stem).
(iv) When chloroplasts are present it takes part in photosynthesis.
(c) Sclerenchyma: It is also a
simple permanent tissue
and provides mechanical
support to the plant.
These are considerably
thick-walled and lignified
with simple or bordered
pits in their walls and
are characterised by
the absence of living
protoplasts. On the basis of
variation in form. structure,
origin and development,
these may be either fibres or sclereids (see Fig. 2.9).
Fibres: They exist as long, narrow and pointed cells. They occur in groups, as
sheets or as cylinders in various parts of tbe plant body in and around the vascular
tissue, and may also develop below the epidermis a cylinder of supporting tissues in
some older stems.
Sclereids: Sclereids are very thick walled, hard and strongly lignified. They
are mostly isodiametric, polyhedral, short and cylindrical. These are dead cells with
very narrow cell cavities (lumen) due to excessive thickness of the cell wall. Sclereids
may occur singly or in groups in stems, leaves, fruits and seeds.
Fibres and sclereids are tbick-walled. The 'cells' consist of walls alone, for the
cell contents die when the walls become thickened and impermeable, cutting off
nutrients and water. The walls are composed oflayers of cellulose impregnated with
lignin (a chemical substance which acts as cement and hardens them). Lignin, when
combined with cellulose, resists stretching (has high tensile strength) and buckling
(has high compressional strength). Often these walls are so thick that there is no
internal space inside the cell.
(i) Protects the plant from stress and strain ofenvironmental forces like strong winds.
(ii) Provides mechanical strengtb and rigidity to the plant.
(iii) Sclereids provide grittiness to the pulp of fruits.
Table 2. I Comparison of Collenchyma and Sclerenchyma
Collenchyma Scelerenchyma
I. Living cells. \. Non-living cells.
2. Cytoplasm is present in the cells. 2. Cell's cytoplasm dries up on maturity.
3. Cell walls are formed of cellulose. 3. Cell's walls are lignified.
4. Cell wall thickening is not uniform, much 4. Cell wall thickening is uniform.
thickened at corners.
5. Cell lumen is wide. 5. Cell lumen is narrow due to thickening
of cell wall.
6. Gives mechanical support and elasticity to 6. Gives only mechanical support.
the plant.
52 Tissues
activity 3
Take afreshly plucked leaf of Rhoeo plant.
Stnitch its upper side and break it with applying pTeSsure.
When breaking it, stretch gently so that some peel or skin projects out.
Keep this peel in a pelridish filled with water.
Add a few drops of safranin stain to it.
After a few minutes transfer it onto a clean slide.
Cover it with a cover-slip and obse11Je it under the micTOscope.
Ruptured epidermis
Cork cambium
FIQ 2.10 Protective bssue
Cork cells
Fig.2.11 Cuticle and few cells of epidermis
Fig. 2,12 Astoma (open and closed} and guard ceDs
.:.0 _.":.-. -::. -:.-

-----l J"

i--<. k

You will observe that this outermost layer of cells in leaves is a single layer.
These form the peel of an organ, the epidermis.
Protective Tissues
These tissues are usually present in the outermost layer of
the plant body. This layer is one cell thick, covered with cutin.
These tissues protect the inner tissue of the plant body. Example is
epidermis and cork (or phellem).
(a) Epidermis: It is present on the external surface on all the
plant organs (e.g., leaves, flowers, stem and roots) in the form
of a layer. It is a protective layer. Its cells are like parenchyma
and lack intercellular spaces. The epidermis is usually one
cell thick but it is multilayered in some plants, like Ficus,
NeTium and orchids. Some plants possess hypodermis below
the epidermis. On the outer surface of epidermis, a waxy layer
of cutin is present. It is called cuticle. It minimizes or checks
the loss of water from the internal tissues and also protects the
mechanical injury and invasion by parasitic fungi. It is not found in aquatic plants.
Each cell possesses peripheral protoplasm, a nucleus and a large central
vacuole. Their shape is variable. They are living cells like parenchyma.
Stomata: In between the epidermal cells are present minute
apertures, called the stomata. Each stoma (singular) is guarded -l.
by two kidney-shaped cells called the guard cells. Guard Epidermal
cells are the only epidermal cells which contain chloroplast, cell
the rest being colourless. The expansion and contraction of
the guard cells regulate the opening and closing of stoma.
Stomata are necessary for exchange of gases (02 and CO
with the atmosphere. It allows gaseous exchange to occur
during photosynthesis and respiration. During transpiration
too, water vapour also escapes through stomata. During
the process of photosynthesis, CO
is taken by the stomata
from the atmosphere and O
is released as a byproduct. While during the
respiration of plant, 02 is taken and CO
released via stomata. Photosynthesis
occurs in day time (in the presence of light), but respiration occurs both in day
and night time. .
The process of transpiration helfls the xylem tissue conduct
water and dissolved mineral salts by mass flow mechanism.
(b) Cork (or Phellem): Due to gradual thickness in diameter
of dicot stem and root, the outer peripheral cells form the
cork cells or phellem. These cells are arranged in radial rows.
The cork cells have no intercellular spaces. These cells after
Fig. 213 Co", or Phellum (IS.)
Tissues 53
~ ~ - - ~ ~ - - - ~ ~ - - - - ~ " , , " .. , .
differentiation become dead. A fatty substance, suberin is deposited in the cell
walls, due to which their walls become thickened. These cells are impermeable
to water and gases. The cork cells also do not have protoplasm and nucleus
and are filled with resin or tannin. Their function is to prevent loss of water
from the internal tissues.
After the formation of cork tissues, the cortical region (i.e., cortex) is not able
to get water and nutrients, consequently its layers dry up and fall down. In
onion bulb, the skin ofonion becomes thick and water-proof due to deposition
of suberin.
1+-- Nucleus
(c) Xylem parenchyma
(b) Vessels
Fig. 2.15
2. Complex Permanent Tissues
They are permanent tissues which contain more than one type of cells. All these
cells coordinate to perform a common function. XYlem and Phloepl are examples
of such complex tissues. Xylem and phloem are both conducting tissues and are
known as vascular tissues: together both & of them constitute the vascular bundle.
Vascular or conductive tissue is a distinctive feature of the complex plants, one that
has made possible their survival in the terrestrial environment.
The function of vascular bundles is to conduct water, mineral salts and soluble
food materials to the different parts of the plant body.
(i) Xylem: It is a complex tissue that forms a part of vascular bundle. It is mainly
concerned with the conduction of water and minerals and also provides
mechanical support to the plant.
As a conducting strand, xylem forms a continuous channel through the roots,
stem, leaves, flowers and fruits. It consists of four different types of cells, both
living and non-living. The four component of xylem are:
(a) Tracheids (b) Vessels (tracheae)
(c) Xylem parenchyma (d) Xylem fibre (sclerenchyma)
(a) Tracheids: These cells are elongated with pointed chisel-like ends. Their
walls are thick and lignified.
They conduct water and
dissolved substances from
the roots to the leaves.
(b) Vessels (tracheae): These
cells are also elongated
tube-like, and placed end
to end. Their partition
walls are either perforated
or completely disappear
forming an elongated tube.
The main function of these
vessels is the conduction
(a) Tracheids
of water and minerals like
(c) Xylem parenchyma: Their cells are living and thin or tluck due to the
deposition oflignin. Their function is to store reserved food (starch) and help
in the sidewise conduction of water upward mrough tracheids and vessels.
(d) Xylem fibre (sclerenchyma): These are elongated and pointed at both me
ends. Their walls are also thickened due to deposition of lignin. Except
xylem parenchyma, the other three types of cells are dead and their walls
are pitted. Function of xylem fibre is to giYe mechanical support to the
xylem tissue.
Fog. 214 X y ~ m
Xylem cells conduct
water and salls from
roots to leaves.
Xylem tracheUls,
tracheae and xylem
fibre are elongated
and dead.
Table 2.2 Differences between Tracheids and Vessels
S.No. Tracheids Vessels
I. These arise from a single cell. These arise from a number of cells.
2. Their ends are tapering or oblique. The ends are rounded or transverse.
3. The lumen is narrow. The lumen is wide.
4. Their walls are more thickened. Their walls are less thickened.
Fig, 2.16 T.S. of aphloem tissue
Section of Phloem
Fig. 2.17 T.S. of aphloem tissue
II , Companion
11- ~ cell
Phloem conducts
food materials from
leaves to different
parts of the plant.
Companion cell
i Sieve tube
-'-'-' 0 .
00'--'001&tj Sieve plate
I - Sieve tube
t \1 I
, Phloem
k '" ~ Parenchyma cell
'.:n-.:;::.-, Nucleus of
parenchyma cell
Phloem: Phloem is another type of complex tissue. It
aids in the conduction of food such as amino acids and
carbohydrates from the leaves down the stem, trunk,
roots and other parts of the plant body. It is also called
bast. It is composed of four types of cells (see figure):
(a) Sieve tubes
(b) Companion cells
(e) Phloem parenchyma
(d) Phloem fibres or bast-fibres ,
(a) Sieve tubes: The sieve tubes are composed of living, .Sieve plate
. With sIeve pores
slender and elongated tube-hke cells placed end to
end. The cell walls are thin and made up of cellulose.
The transverse walls are obliquely placed and perforated by a number
of pores called sieve plates. Due to these perforations between adjacent
cells, dissolved food materials move from one cell to the other. The food
manufactured by leaves is transported to food storage organs (cortex) of
the plants. Their cells have a parietal layers of cytoplasm and are without
nucleus. In the centre of each cell a large vacuole is present.
(b) Companion cells: Long narrow, living, elongated cells are usually
attached with the lateral side of sieve tubes called companion
cell. Their lateral walls are thin and pitted and through these
pits the cytoplasmic connection between sieve tubes and
companion cells is established. The companion cells have
cytoplasm and a large nucleus. Companion cells are supposed
to help in the transport of food along with the sieve tubes.
(c) Phloem parenchyma: These cells are like ordinary parenchyma
the cells are living. They are intermingled with sieve tube. Their
function is to store food material and help in the transport of
(el) Phloem fibres: These are sclerenchymatous cells. These
cells are elongated, pointed, lignified and dead. They give
mechanical support to the plant. They are used for making
ropes and rough cloth.
Table 2.3 Comparison of Xylem and Phloem
S.No. Xylem Phloem
I. It is a complex tissue. It is a complex tissue.
2. Except xylem parenchyma, all other Except for phloem fibres, phloem
xylem elements (sci ereids, tracheae and cells are living.
xylem fibres) are dead.
3. Conducts water and minerals from Transports manufactured food from
fOOts to leaves, etc. leaves to storage organs and growing
parts of the plant body.
Tissues 55
Table 2.4 : Comparison of Meristematic and Permanent Tissues
S.No. Meristematic tissues Permanent tissues
I. Simple tissue. Simple or complex tissue.
2. Cells divide repeatedly. Cells are derived from meristematic
tissue and do not divide.
3. All cells are alike (undifferentiated). Cells are differentiated into vanous
4. Cells are isodiametric, i.e., all sides are Cells are of various shapes and sizes.
5. Intercellular spaces are lacking. Intercellular spaces are present.
6. Cell walls are thin. Cell walls may be thin or thick
7. Vacuoles are not found Vacuoles present in mature cells.
8. Metabolically very active Metabolically not active.
FA 2.1: Match the Following
Match the terms given in column I to their meaning in column II.
Column I Column II
(a) Collenchyma
(b) Chlorenchyma
(c) Aerenchyma
(d) Sclerenchyma
(e) Apical meristem
if) Lateral meristem
(g) Complex tissues
(i) Permanent tissue which makes the
plant hard and stiff
(ii) Large air spaces or cavities present in
parenchyma tissues to give buoyancy
to the plants
(iii) Permanent tissue that provides
flexibility to the plant
(iv) Chlorophyll-containing parenchyma
(v) Xylem and phloem
(vi) Increases length of the stems and the
(vii) Increases the girth of the stem or root
Classification of Plant Tissues
" /
Fill in the blanks given below to complete the classification table.
Permanent Tissues
Meristematic Tissues
FA 2.2: Flow Chart-based Worksheet
FA 2.3: True or False
State whether the following statements are True or False.
1. Meristematic tissue is the dividing tissue present in the growing regions of the
2. Permanent tissues are derived from meristematic tissue once they lose the
ability to divide.
3. Parenchyma tissue is a type of permanent tissue that consists of relatively
unspecialised cells with thin cell walls.
4. Xylem transports food from leaves to other parts of the plant.
5. Stomata present in the epidermis of the leaf are necessary for the exchange of
gases with the atmosphere.
6. Parenchyma are permanent live cells with thin cell walls.
7. Collenchymatous tissue consists of long and narrow dead cells with thick cell
wall due to lignin.
FA 2.4: Concept-based Worksheet
'N is a permanent (plant) tissue with following characteristics:
1. It consists of relatively unspecalised cells with thin cell walls.
2. It is live, usually loosely packed.
3. It provides support to the plant and also stores food.
Identify 'N and answer the following questions.
(a) Write different types of 'A: tissue.
(b) Name the following:
(i) Tissue that contains chlorophyll and performs photosynthesis
(ii) Tissue with large air cavities that provide buoyancy to the plant
(iii) Tissue that allows easy bending of various plant parts' without breaking
(iv) Husk ofa coconut is made of which tissue?
FA 2.5: Diagram-based Worksheet
Identify and name the following tissues.
(a) (b)

Tissues 57
FA 2.6 Group Discussion
Divide the class in small groups. Discuss various plant tissues among each group.
Now, on the basis of your discussion, discuss the following questions in your groups.
1. Where is meristematic tissue found in plants?
2. What are the various types of tissues in plants?
3. What is the difference between parenchyma and collenchyma tissues?
4. Write the difference between xylem and pWoem.
5. Name the different components of xylem and phloem.
Animal Tissues
Breathing is one of the most vital activities of humans. When we breathe we
can feel the movement of the chest. How do these body organs move? For this
you have specialised cells in your body called muscles cells. The contraction and
relaxation of these cells result in movement of your chest. During breathing you
inhale 02. Where does this O
go? It goes to our lungs and then is transported to all
the body cells through blood. Can you think why would cells need 02?
You studied about mitochondria in the earlier chapter which is present in
each and every cell of your body. They utilised O
and released energy in the form
of ATP molecule. These ATP molecules provide energy to all work performed by
our body cells. Blood is also a fluid connective tissue. It follows and carries various
substances from one part of the body to the other. For example, it carries 02 and
food to all cells. Blood also collects wastes from all parts of the body and carries them
to the liver or kidneys for removal. Thus, muscles and blood, both are examples
of tissues. There are four major types of tissues on the basis of their functions in
multicellular animals, including man.
(1) Epithelial tissue: Protective and covering tissue.
(2) Muscular tissue: Contracting and relaxing tissues carryIng movements of
vanous organs.
(3) Connective tissue: Connecting, packing and supporting tissues.
(4) Nervous tissue: Conducting impulses between central nervous system (brain
and spinal cord) and other organs.
These tissues are further differentiated as shown below:
b. Cuboidal
(ii) Lymph
d. Fluid
4. Nervous
(i) Blood
C. Skeletal
(i) Cartilage (il) Bone
3. Connective
c. Cardiac
(ii) Ugarnent
a. Areolar
b. Unstriated
(i) Tendon
Animal Tissues
2. Muscular
a. Striated e. Glandular
d. Ciliated
C. Columnar
a. Squamous
1. Epithelial
. ~ .-----
(b) Cuboidal epithelium
(d) Ciliated epithelium
Epithelial Tissue or Epithelium (Epi =upon, thelio =to grow)
It is the simplest tissue. This tissue covers the entire body externally as well as
'TTlally. It is the protective tissue of the animal body. The cells of the tissue are
~ _ t 1 y packed and form a continuous sheet. These are without intracellular spaces
intracellular matrix. These rest upon a non-cellular layer known as basement
mbrane which contains a special form of matrix protein, called collagen.
,ithelium covers most organs and cavities within the body. It also forms a barrier
keep different body systems separate. The skin, the lining of mouth, the lining
blood vessels, lungs, alveoli and kidney tubules are all made of epithelial tissue.
_pithelial tissue may be simple, i.e., composed of a single layer or stratified, i.e.,
de up of several layers of cells.
(i) The entire body is covered by epidermis (outermost layer of skin), which
protects the body from drying, injury and chemical effects and infections.
(ii) Some epithelial cells secrete enzymes and hormones (e.g., glandular
(iii) Certain epithelial cells filter waste products from the blood such as urine,
sweat and carbon dioxide.
(iv) Epithelial cells absorb water and nutrients in the intestine (e.g., columnar
(v) Certain epithelial cells receive various stimuli, e.g., olfactory epithelium,
epithelium of internal ear.
(vi) Certain epithelial cells secrete mucous which lubricate the surface ofthe epithelium.
Types of simple epithelial tissue: On the basis of shape and functions of cells,
epithelial tissue is classified as follows:
(a) Squamous epithelium
(c) Columnar epithelium
(e) Glandular epithelium
I (a) Squamous Epithelium
Nature: It is composed of a single layer of thin and flat, plate-like cells. They
are united with each other to form a sheet. These cells form a sheet-like structure
with mosaic appearance.
Occurrence: It is found on the surface of skin, e.g., (epidermis), lining of body
cavities like mouth, oesophagus, lining of blood and lymph vessels, ducts of glands, etc.
(i) It protects the underlying parts of the organ from injury, drying, entry of
germs, etc.
(ii) These epithelia serve for easy exchange of materials by diffusion across
them, for instance, in blood vessels and alveoli.
Free surface
. ~ ; ;
Basement membrane
FIg. 2.18 Squamous epithelium
/ spinosum
Keratinised Stratified Squamous Epithelium
It is found in the skin and covers the external dry surface
of the skin. It consists of several layers of cells. The cells of the
deepest layer are cuboidal but those of the outer or surface layer
vary in nature. In the outer few layers, the cells become hard and
deposit a waterproof keratin or corny substance. This is called
keratinisation or cornification. These layers consist of flat, dead
cells and are referred as stratum corneum or horny layer (see
Fig. 2.19).
It is shed at intervals due to friction as small pieces. It forms
the epidermis of the skin in terrestrial vertebrates. It prevents loss
of water and mechanical injury.

Fig. 2.20 Cuboidal epithehum
I (b) Cuboidal Epithelium
Nature: Its cells are cube-shaped, isodiametric and closely fitted
together. They appear square-shaped in section and their free surface
appears to be hexagonal.
Occurrence: It is found in some parts of kidney tubules and
ducts of salivary glands, thyroid gland, sweat gland and exocrine
glands like pancreas. It also forms the ovaries and lines the
germ-producing tubules of the testis, here, it is known as germinal
(i) It helps in absorption, secretion and excretion.
(ii) It provides mechanical support.

Fig. 2.21 Columnar epithelium
Columnar cell
I (c) Columnar Epithelium
Nature: This epithelium consists of cells which are much longer than
broad (i.e., pillar like). Nuclei are placed near the base at the same
level. Often their free borders bear microvilli.
Occurrence: It forms the lining of the alimentary canal from stomach
to rectum, gall bladder, bronchioles of lungs, uterine tube and uterus.
Functions: It helps in absorption of nutrients in stomach and intestine,
and secretion of mucous from mucous secretory glands. called goblet
Columnar cell
F.g 222 C aec columnar epithelium
Basement ..
I (d) Ciliated Epithelium
Nature: It consists of columnar or cubical cells, has numerous, thin,
delicate, hair like projections called cilia arising from the outer free
surface of the cells.
Occurrence: This is found in the trachea (wind pipe), bronchi (in
lungs) and bronchioles (branches of wind pipe), kidney tubules, sperm
ducts and fallopian tubes (oviducts).
Functions: Cilia beat only in one direction and thus, expel mucus and
dust, etc., from the lungs to the exterior. Similarly sperms and ova
descend downward.
60 Issues
'goblet' cell
\. ........ J
a ~ M ~ '
Fig. 223 Glandular epithelium
showing goblet cells in intestine
, ,
I (e) Glandular Epithelium
Some ofthe columnar epithelial cells of the epithelium change into glandular
cells. Often a portion of the epithelial tissue folds inward and a multicellular
gland is formed. This is glandular epithelium. It is found in the skin, lining of
alimentary canal, pancreas, etc., secreting mucous, enzymes and hormones.
Their main function is secretion.
Epithelial tissue is found on the body surface and the covering of external
and internal surface of organs. Epithelial cells are closely placed with each other
and also placed on non-cellular basement membrane. Their function is protection,
absorption, secretion and excretion.
Ciliated epithelium is found in trachea, bronchi and bronchioles, kidney
tubules, sperm ducts and fallopian tube.
Glandular epithelium is found in glands.
2. Muscle Tissues (or Muscular Tissues)
The movement of internal organ such as heart and alimentary canal are
caused by these tissues. Muscle cells are typically arranged in parallel arrangement
allowing them to work together effectively. Muscles are responsible for all outward
manifestations of life. The muscular tissue is formed of greatly elongated and ltighly
contractile tissues and muscles cells which are called muscle fibres. These are placed
together in the connective tissue to form bundles.
(a) Striated Muscles
Fig. 2.25 Striated muscle fibre
Each striated muscle cell or fibre is long cylindrical, non-tapering,
nbranched and multinucleated (having many nuclei), It consists of
thin outer limiting membrane, called sarcolemma, which encloses
coenocytic plasma, known as sarcoplasm. The nuclei are many
d peripheral. In the sarcoplasm (cytoplasm) of the muscle cell are
bedded a large number of contractile elements, called mYofibrils or
rcostyles running parallel to one another lengthwise,
These muscles are also known as striped, skeletal or voluntary muscles.
Nature: These muscle fibres or cells show transverse dark and
'.ght striations or bands due to which these are called striated or striped
uscles. Since these muscles are attached to the bones in different parts
f the body and hence are responsible for body movement, they are
'Ca1Ied skeletal muscles. These muscles work according to our will; they
e also called \'oluntan muscles.
(i) Movement of organ
(ii) Locomotion
(iii) Opening and closing of apertures
(iv) Increasing and decreasing size of cavities or lumen of hollow organs
(v) Providing the proper shape of the body
(vi) Beating of heart
Muscles are classified into (a) striated muscles (skeletal muscles), (b) unstriated
muscles (smooth muscles) and (e) cardiac muscles.
(i) The unstriated muscles are never under the control of our will, hence, they
are also known as involuntary muscles. Movement of food in the alimentary
canal or opening and closing of cavity are involuntary movements.
(ii) These are independent of voluntary control except the ciliary muscle of the
(iii) They show slow and sustained contraction and relaxation (i.e., peristaltic
movements which push the food onward) movements in the intestine.
Occurrence: These are found in muscles of limbs (e.g., bicep and tricep'
muscle of arms) in the form of bundles. These are also present in the abdominal
wall in the form of sheets, diaphragm, tongue, pharynx and these are called yiscera
striated muscles since these are found in internal (visceral) organs.
(i) These muscles are strong and powerful and undergo rapid contraction and
expansion. These muscles become tired due to continuous use for a long time
and so they need rest.
(ii) These muscles provide force for locomotion and all other voluntary
movements of the body parts.
Occurrence: These are found in the wall of visceral organs except
that of heart, that is why they are called visceral muscles:
Thus, they occur in this wall of stomach, intestine and rectum, walls
of arteries and veins, urinary and genital ducts, bronchioles, muscles of
iris and ciliary body, etc.
Nature: These are also called smooth, yisceral or involuntary muscles. The
cell structure is relatively simple. The cells or fibres are elongated and spindle-
shaped (pointed at both ends). These are held together by loose connective tissues.
Each muscle cell is enclosed in a delicate and transparent plasma membrane. It
consists of a long cigar-shaped nucleus in the centre of cytoplasm or sarcoplasm.
The sarcoplasm contains fine longitudinal contractile thread called
myofibrils. The fibres have no striations or bands across muscles hence,
are called smooth or unstriated muscles.
I (b) Unstriated Muscles
Nucleus Spindle shaped
/\ ;;:Clec e ~ s
:a ;& ~ s - =
- ==-===-
Fig, 2.26 Smooth muscle cells (fibres)
- .... =-.
Fig. 2.27 Cardiac muscles
I (e) Cardiac Muscles
Nature: These muscles resemble striated muscles but, functioning independendy
of the conscious control of brain, these are involuntary like the smooth muscles.
Cardiac muscles are composed of branched fibres, the branches join to form a
network (see Fig. 2.27). Each fibre is surrounded by very thin sarcolemma and has
cytoplasm (sarcoplasm) with longitudinal myofibrils and centrally located nucleus
(i.e., each cell is uninucleated). The intracellular spaces of cardiac muscles are
filled with abundant loose connective tissues richly supplied with blood
The fibres are joined end-to-end and are interconnected by oblique
bridges. The ends of these fibres have zig-zagjunctions, called intercalated
disc. These act as boosters for the wave of muscle contractions. These are
regions of interdigitation of sarcolemmas of adjacent muscles or fibres
(i.e., each fibre of cardiac muscles is formed due to joining of individual
uninucleated muscle cells to one another in a linear arrangement).
Occurrence: These muscles are present in the walls of heart.
Space between fibres
filled with capillaries
and connectIVe tissue
VK Biology IX
(i) Cardiac muscles contract and relax rhythmically throughout life without
showing any fatigue.
(ii) Rhythmic contraction and relaxation of cardiac muscles maintain the flow of
blood in the heart and blood vessels.
Table 2.5 Comparison of Muscular Tissues
S.No. Striated Muscles Unstriated Muscles Cardiac Muscles
J. Voluntary or skeletal. lnvoluntary, smooth or Heart.
2. Sarcolemma present. Sarcolemma delicate and Sarcolemma present.
3. Myofibrils in sarcoplasm Myofibrils indistinct and Myofibrils distinct and
distinct and cross not cross striated. faintly striated.
4. Fibres or cells Unbranched. Fibres branched.
5. Nucleus, many in each Single nueleus. Single nueleus.
6. Intercalated discs absent. Intercalated discs absent. Intercalated discs
7. Contraction rapid Contraction slow and Contraction moderate
powerful. rhythmic. and rhythmic.
3. Connective Tissue
Collage'n fibre Mast cell Plasma
FIg_ 2.28 Areolar connective tissue
Reticular fibre
(b) Adipose tissue;
(d) Skeletal tissue;
Nature: It is also known as loose fibrous connective tissue or
spongy fibrous tissue. It consists of a transparent jelly-like sticky
matrix having different types of cells and fibres and lot of mucin.
Its matrix consists of two types of fibres.
(i) White collagen fibres that change into gelatin on boiling in
(ii) Yellow elastic fibres: Also scattered in matrix are several
kinds of irregular cells (e.g., fibroblast). Some of these can
engulf bacteria and prevent infection.
I (a) Areolar (or Loose) Connective Tissue
The name connective tissue is derived from its property to connect and bind
different tissues or organs. It also provides the structural framework and mechanical
support to the body. It also plays a role in body defence. tissue repair, fat storage,
etc. It is composed of two basic components, namely, cells and their surrounding
extracellular matrix. The cells are loosely arranged and lie embedded in the matrix,
which consist of protein fibres, amorphous ground substance and tissue fluid.
The matrix may be jelly like, fluid, dense Or rigid. The nature of matrix differs in
concordance with the function of particular connective tissue.
Types of connective tissue: In animals, connective tissue is of the following
(a) Areolar (or loose) connective tissue;
(e) Dense regular connective tissue;
(e) Fluid connective tissue.
Tissues 63
VK Biology IX
Occurrence: Areolar tissues are the most typical types of connective tissues,
having a very widespread distribution. These tissues are found between the skin
and muscles, around blood vessels and nerves and in the bone marrow.
(i) It gives support to various organs and acts as a packing material between
various structures of the body. utritional exchanges occur through matrix.
(ii) Injured tissues are repaired by the fibroblasts by producing collagen fibres.
(iii) It defends the body against bacteria, microorganisms and other foreign bodies.
I (b) Adipose Tissue (Fatty tissue)
Nature: It is a modified form of connective tissue. The fibres in adipose tissue
are scanty. The matrix of adipose tissue is packed with large, spherical or oval fat
cells or adipocqes. These store fat in the form of a large fat globule, which squeeze
the cytoplasm to the periphery and nucleus to one side.
Occurrence: The adipose tissues are present beneath the skin, around kidneys
and in mesentry and bone marrow.
Nucleus Functions
Fig. 2.29 Adipose tissue
(i) It forms soft elastic pads between organs and parts. It maintains the
kidney, its position and eye balls in the bony orbits and forms shock-
absorbing cushions around both.
(ii) It acts as a shock absorber, found beneath the skin, sole of foot and
in the palm.
(iii) It stores fat.
(iv) It also gives shape to the body and hmbs.
(v) It prevents the loss of body heat, thus, acts as an insulating blanket.
Thus, it regulates the body temperature.
I (c) Dense Regular Connective Tissue
--'-''-----'---- Ligament
Fig. 2.31 Attachment of tendons and ligaments
Nature: Dense regular connective tissue is a fibrous connective tissue. It is
characterised by ordered and densely packed collection of fibres and cells. It is the
principal component of tendons and hgaments.
(i) Tendons: It is a dense, strong fibrous connective tissue with thick parallel
bundles of collagen fibres (matrix). It has cord-like strong inelastic structure.
It connects muscles to bones. It has great strength but limited flexibility. The
collagen fibres are present in rows of fibroblast and are bounded by areolar
connecting tissues.
(ii) Ligaments: It is also a dense
fibrous connective tissue. Its
ground substance or matrix is
densely crowded with yellow
elastin fibres branched m
different directions. A few
elongated fIat cells (fibroblasts)
lie scattered between the fibres.
The ligament connects bones
at the joints arid hold them in
position-thus, enables us to
move and rotate our neck, limbs,
fingers, etc., comfortably.
Fig. 2.30 Dense regular
connective tissue
f Collagen
64 Tissues
Table 2.6 Comparison of Tendons and Ligaments
S.No. Tendons Ligaments
1. It is a thick, tough and non-elastic It is a strong but elastic bond of connective
connective tissue. tissue.
2. It connects muscles to a bone. It connects two bones.
3. It is formed of wrute fibrous tissues. It is formed of yellow elastic fibrous tissues.
4. Fibres are white and formed of Fibres are yellow and formed of protein
collagen protein. elastin.
5. It helps in movement ofbone. It restricts or limits the movement ofbones.
(d) Skeletal Tissue
The skeletal tissue forms a strong framework. It supports the body, protects
vital organs and provides hard surface for the insertion of muscles. It occurs in
two forms: Cartilage and bone.

Hyaline /'
malnx y
Fig. 232 Hyaline cartilage
Fig. 2.33 Section of cartilage

(1) Cartilage
Nature: It is solid but semi-rigid and flexible connective tissue.
The matrix of cartilage is called chondrion. It is tough, transparent
and homogeneous, formed of a special glycoprotein chindromucoid.
It is secreted by cartilage cells or condrocytes. These are enclosed in
fluid filled spaces, called lacunae. The cartilage is bounded externally
by white fibrous connective tissue perichondrium. The blood vessels
are present in the perichondrium but not the matrix. The food and
oxygen diffuse through matrix to reach the condrocytes. The cartilage
increase in size by the addition of new layers of matrix below the
perichondrium, by the division ofchondrocytes (intestitial growth) and
by the addition of chondroblasts from the perichondrial fibroblasts.
Occurrence: Cartilage is found in nose tips, ear pinna, ring of trachea (wind-
pipe), end of long bones, lower ends of ribs, and epiglottis.
Function: It provides support and flexibility to the vertebrate body parts.
-VK Biology IX '

Fig. 234 Compact bone
Transverse section of bone Single bone-secreting osteoblast
Fig. 235 SeclJon of bone (a part)
(2) Bone
Nature: Bone is a solid, rigid and strong connective tissue. Its matrix is hard
being formed of ossein. Matrix of bone is rich in phosphate, sulphate, carbonate and
fluoride salts of calcium and magnesium. The bone cells are called osteocytes. These
are stellate cells and each of them is enclosed in a small cavity, the lacuna. These are
connected together by several fine and branched canaliculi. Fine processes of osteocytes
extend through these conaliculi and are connected with the processes ofother osteocytes.
"" AlOOlL....<J/I lamellae
Tissues 65
(i) It forms the framework that supports the body.
(ii) It protects vital body organs like brain, lungs, etc.
(iii) It anchors the muscles.
(iv) It provides shape to the body.
Table 2.7 Difference between Cartilage and Bone
Matrix is composed ofa firm, but flexible
material, called chondrion.
Matrix is composed of tough inflexible
material, called ossein.
2. Cartilage is surrounded by a firm sheath Bone is surrounded by a tough sheath,
called perichondrium. called periosteum.
3. Blood vessels absent. Blood vessels present.
VK Biology IX
4. Cartilage cells (choridroucytes) lie singly Bone cells (osteocytes) lie in lacunae
or in groups of two or four. singly.
5. Chondrocytes are oval and devoid of Osteocytes are irregular and gIve off
processes. branching processes.
I (e) Fluid Connective Tissue
It is also called vascular tissue and is a special connective tissue that differs
from a typical connective tissue in the following respects:
(i) The matrix is in the form of a fluid and fibre free.
(ii) Matrix is not secreted by the cells.
(iii) The cells lack power of division.
Vascular tissue circulates in the body and helps in the transportation of
materials from one part of the body to other part. It also plays an important role in
the defence mechanism of the body.
Types of Vascular Tissue
Vascular tissues are of two types: (a) Blood and (b) Lymph.
(A) Blood
Blood is a fluid connective tissue. It is salty in taste and slightly alkaline in
nature. In human beings, it forms 7-8% ofthe body weight (about 5litres). Blood is
a complex transport medium. It performs vital pick up and delivery services for the
body. It contains two components:
(I) Plasma and
(2) Blood cells (corpuscles)
(I) Plasma: It is a straw-coloured fluid, and makes up about 60% of the total
blood volume or about 5.0% of the body weight. Plasma is a complex fluid
and includes in it inorganic salts and organic compounds. Organic substances
of plasma are soluble. Proteins like albumins (which maintain the pressure of
blood); Globulin (some act as antibodies); and fibrinogen (blood clotting); and
glucose, amino acids, lipids, vitamins, enzymes, hormones, etc. Supply blood
to all cells of the body and waste materials (urea, uric acid) are transported to
kidneys for excretion.
(2) Blood Cells: It is of three types:
(i) Red Blood Cells (RBCs) or erythrocytes
(ii) White Blood Cells (WBCs) or leucocytes
(iii) Platelets
(i) Red Blood Corpuscles (RBCs): The unique feature of RBCs is the
presence of a red, oxygen-carrying pigment, the haemoglobin, in their
cytoplasm. The shape and size of RBCs vary in different animals. The
cells may be uninucleated or non-nucleated. In almost all the vertebrates,
except mammals, these are nucleated, oval and biconvex. In mammals
these are non-nucleated, bioconcave and circular. Actually, the nucleus is
present in the RBCs of mammals initially but when these cells are finally
differentiated and mature, the nucleus, mitochondria and endoplasmic
reticululTI are degenerated. Such cells accommodate more haemoglobin
for transportation of 02'
(ii) White Blood Cells (WBCs): These are colourless, nucleated and motile
(amoeboid) cells of blood, much larger than RBCs, but less in number.
All leucocytes are capable of amoeboid movement. These are of two
main kinds; phagocytes and immunocytes. Phagocytes are capable of
phagocytosis and they carry out the function of body defence by engulfing
bacteria and other foreign substances. These are of two types:
(a) Granulocytes: They have irregular-shaped nuclei and cytoplasmic
granules with specific staining properties. They include eosinophils,
basophils and neutrophils.
(b) Agranulocytes: These are nongranular leucocytes, having a roughly
round or indented nucleus and clear cytoplasm. They include
monocytes. They ultimately migrate to body tissue and transform into
macrophages and histocytes,
(c) Immunocytes: They produce antibodies and are involved in immune
response. They include lymphocytes that contain central, spherical
nucleus and a little cytoplasm with no granules and produce antibodies.
(iii) Blood platelets or thrombocytes: These are minute, highly contractile,
round or oval, biconvex discs with granular cytoplasm, but without nucleus.
As is recently discovered, the platelets are fragments which form as buds
and pinch off from certain large cells (megakaryocytes) in bone marrow.
They help in the clotting of blood in the site of injury to a blood vessel, so
as to prevent further loss of blood.
Occurrence: It occurs in blood vessels called arteries, veins and capillaries
that are connected together to form the circulatory system. The highly branching
network of vessels enables blood to reach every part of the body.
Functions: Blood is an important tissue since it performs many important
functions in the body.
(i) It transports oxygen from respiratory organs to various body tissues.
(ii) It carries carbon dioxide from body tissues to respiratory surfaces like lungs,
skin, etc.
(iii) Digested food absorbed from the intestine is carried to different parts of the
(iv) It carries excretory wastes produced in the body to kidneys for elimination.
(v) It maintains the body temperature.
(B) Lymph
Nature: It is also a fluid connective tissue flowing in definite lymph vessels.
Lymph is colourless since it has no red blood cells, but it contains more WBCs than
the blood has. It also contains glucose, amino acids, vitamins, salts and urea.
(i) It transports the nutrients (02 and glucose) which may have filtered out of
the blood capillaries back into the heart to be recirculated in the body but has
failed to return into various capillaries.
(ii) The WBCs of the lymph are the same as those of blood and have the same
function of defence and of assistance in tissue repair and healing.
(iii) It brings carbon dioxide and nitrogenous wastes from tissue fluid to blood.
Table 2.8 Comparison of Blood and Lymph
S.No. Blood
1. Red cells present.
2. Amount of nutrients and 02
comparatively more.
3. Amount of CO
and metabolic wastes
4. White cells fewer.
5. Nutrophils most numerous.
6. Soluble proteins more than insoluble
4. Nervous Tissue
These are absent.
Amount of nutrients and O
comparatively less.
Amount of these wastes are much more.
White cells more.
Lymphocytes most numerous.
Insoluble proteins more than soluble
~ ' - ~
., Myelin sheath
Terminal branches
Fig. 2.36 ANeuron
Nature: A tissue which is specialised for receiving and transmitting messages
in our body is nervous tissue. The brain, spinal cord and nerves are all formed of
nervous tissues. The nervous tissue is composed of specialised cells or neurons, which
receive the stimuli from within and outside the body and send impulses (signals) to
various parts of the body. The signals or impulses travel from one neuron to the other.
I Structure of Neuron
A neuron or nerve cell consists of three parts (Fig. 2.36):
(a) Cell body or cyton is bounded bya thin cell membrane, enclosing the cytoplasm,
called neuroplasm. A large central nucleus is found in the neuroplasm.
(b) Dendrons or dendrites are short processes arising from the cyton. They
conduct impulses into the cyton from the receptor organs.
(e) Axon is single, thick and large. It arises from the cyton and terminally it is
branched. Axon is also known as nen'e fibre. Axons carry nerve impulses away
from the cyton, i.e., to effector organs (muscles).
Dendrons of the nerve cell receive impulses from receptor organs, carry to the
cyton and axon transmits them away from the cyton to another neuron or effector
FA 2.7 Diagram-based Worksheet
Study the diagram and answer the questions that follow.
I. Complete the diagram by drawing the missing parts.
2. Identify the parts numbered 1,2 and 3.
4. What is the term given to the gap between two nerve cells?
5. Name the part of the neuron from which the nerve impulse is transferred to
the second neurons.
B. Given below are the pictures of different types of epithelial tissues. Mention
the name of correct epithelial tissue under their respective pictures.
.. '
FA 2.8 Mapping-type Worksheet
Complete the following map.
FA 2.9: Match the following
Match the terms given in column I to their meanings in column II.
Column I Column I
(a) Blood (i) Smoothens bone surfaces at joints
(b) Involuntary movements (ii) Fluid connective tissue
(c) Cartilage (iii) Movement of food in alimentary
canal or contraction and relaxation
of blood vessels
(d) Cuboidal epithelium (iv) Forms oesophagus and the lining
of the mouth
(e) Columnar epithelium (v) Forms the lining of kidney tubules
and ducts of salivary glands
(j) Simple squamous epithelium (vi) Forms the Inner lining of the
FA 2.10 True or False
State whether the following statements are True or False.
l. A neuron consists of a cell body with a nucleus and cytoplasm from which long
thin hair-like parts arise.
2. The movements of food in the alimentary canal or the contraction and
relaxation of blood vessels are involuntary movements.
3. The areolar connective tissue is found in the nose, ear, trachea and larynx.
4. Bone is a connective tissue which forms the framework that supports the body.
5. In the respiratory tract, the cuboidal epithelium tissue also has cilia, which are
hair-like projections on the outer surfaces of epithelial cells.
6. The skin lining of the mouth, lining of blood vessels, lung alveoli and kidney
tubules are all made of connective tissue.
7. Muscular tissue consists of striated, unstriated and cardiac tissues.
8. The muscles of the heart showing rhythmic contraction and relaxation are
called cardiac muscles.
FA 2.11: If I was A ... ? Worksheet
Pretend that you are an animal tissue for the remaining questions.
l. Name the different types of tissues found in you.
2. Name the tissue which is found on the surface of yOUT skin and is composed of
a single layer of thin and flat, plate-like cells.
3. Where is cuboidal epithelium found in yOUT body?
4. Which ofyour connective tissues helps in forming the framework that supports
the body?
5. What are the functions of voluntary and involuntary muscles in yOUT body?
6. Which of your tissues transmits stimulus very rapidly within the body? Name
the parts composed of such tissues.
I Epithelial tissue covers the external and internal surfaces of the body and various
I Epidermis of skin is formed of stratified epithelium.
I Glands are formed of glandular epithelium secreting mucous and enzymes, etc.
I Goblet cells are glandular epithelial cells that secrete mucous.
I Areolar or loose connective tissue is formed of various types of cells, unbranched
collagen and branched elastin fibres scattered in a large intercellular space or matrix.
I Cells are fibroblasts secreting fibres, macrophages or histiocytes engulfing bacteria,
etc., mast cells secreting heparin, histamine and serotonin, adipose cells storing fat,
I Adipose cells store fat in their vacuoles and also have fibres in between cells. Dense
connective tissue forms ligaments and tendons.
I Tendons are formed of collagen fibres and in between them are fibroblasts. Tendons
connect muscles to bones.
I Ligaments have collagen and elastin fibres and squeezed fibroblasts. They connect
bone to bone. Striated muscle fibres have cross-striated myofilaments in sarcoplasm.
Each fibre is multinucleated. Non-striated muscle fibres have no cross banded
myofilaments. Each fibre has a single nucleus.
I Cardiac muscle fibre is uninucleated and branched. Myofilaments have faint cross
I Sarcoplasm is the cytoplasm of muscle fibres.
I Sarcolemma is the limiting membrane of muscle fibre.
I Intercalated disc is the thick transverse band between two adjacent cardiac cells.
I Myofilaments are present in the muscle fibres in sarcoplasm. In striated muscle fibres
thick and thin myofilaments are present.
I Cyton is the cell body of neuron or nerve cell.
I Dendrons or dendrites are short processes of cyton.
I Axon is a single long process of cyton.
I Synapse is the junction or union between the branches of two neurons.
I Tissue is a group of cells of common origin, having similar structure and function.
I Plant tissues are of two types: meristematic and permanent.
I 1. Meristematic tissues are present in growing regions of plants. Its cells continuously
multiply so that the region grows in length and breadth. This tissue is of three types:
(i) Apical meristem found at the apex of shoots and roots. Root tip is covered by root
(ii) Lateral meristem is found on lateral sides of stem and root, e.g., cork cambium and
cambium of vascular bundles.
(iii) Intercalary meristem is a part of apical meristem which separates off laterally from
the apical meristem.
I 2. Permanent tissues arise from meristematic tissues, cells of which after maturity
form permanent tissues. It is of two types: simple tissues and complex tissues.
Simple tissues are of three types:
(i) Parenchyma cells are living and cytoplasm is vacuolated and possess intercellular
spaces, cell wall is thin.
(ii) Collenchyma cells are living and contain chloroplasts. Hence, they are capable of
Tissues 71
synthesising starch and sugar. Being elastic, it gives tensile strengths to the stem.
No intercellular spaces.
(iii) Sclerenchyma fibres or cells are long, narrow and pointed. On maturity, protoplasm
dries off. Sclereids or stone cells or grit cells are of irregular shape. Cells lumen is
narrow and gives strong support to the stem.
I Protective tissues are epidermis of leaves possessing stomata for exchange of gases.
Cork is found on the outermost side of stem. Its cells are dead.
I Complex tissues are xylem and phloem. Xylem forms the woody part of stem. Xylem
and phloemforms the vascular bundle. Xylem is constituted by four types of cells (e.g.,
sclereids, tracheae and xylem fibre or sclerenchyma are dead and xylem parenchyma
is living) and it conducts water and nutrients from soil through roots to the leaves.
I Phloem is also formed of 4 types of cells: sieve tubes, companion cells, phloem fibres
and phloem parenchyma. Sieve tubes and companion cells transport manufactured
food from leaves to other parts of plants. Phloem fibres and sieve tubes are dead.
I Animal tissues include epithelial, connective, muscular and nervous tissues.
I Epithelial tissue is found on the surface of the body and various organs, lining the
cavities of tubular organs. Its cells are of various shapes and are held together with
a small amount of intercellular substance, matrix. Epithelium is of two types: simple
formed of a single layer of cells and stratified formed of a number of cell layers.
I Simple epithelial is squamous, cubOidal, columnar, glandular and ciliated.
I Stratified epithelium cells are arranged in layers, like epidermis of skin.
I Muscular tissue includes striped, unstriped and cardiac muscles. Their cells or fibres
are long and nucleated.
I Striped muscle fibres or cells are multinucleated and show alternate dark and light
bands, due to which they are called striped. Muscles of legs and hands are of striped
type. Each muscle fibre contains a number of thin and thick myofilaments within
I Non-striped or visceral muscle fibres are also long, cylindrical and uninucleated. Each
fibre also contains numerous lengthwise arranged myofilaments in sarcoplasm. These
muscles are found in the walls of internal organs of the body.
I Cardiac muscle fibres or cells are branched and uninucleated. The sarcoplasm of these
cells also contains myofilaments showing faint cross striations. Branch of a cell joins
the branch of adjoining cell. At the junction of adjacent cell is present a transverse
intercalated disc. In between adjacent cells are present intercellular spaces having
loose connective tissue. It is found in heart due to which it contracts rhythmically.
I Connective tissue connects and anchors various organs of the body and gives support
to the organs. It contains an abundant jelly-like intercellular medium (matrix), fibres
(white and yellow) and various types of cells, e.g., fibroblasts, macrophages, mast
cells, adipose cells and immunocytes.
I Connective tissues are areolar (loose), dense and adipose tissues.
I Tendons join muscles to bones and ligaments join bone to bone, and both are dense
connective tissues.
I Adipose tissue cells store fat globules. Cytoplasm with nucleus is peripheral.
I Blood and lymph are fluid connective tissues. Lymph is colourless and has plasma minus
red blood cells and certain proteins. Cartilages and bones are skeletal connective tissues.
I Nervous tissue is formed of neurons. A neuron has a cell body, the cyton, a few small
branches of cyton, the dendrons or dendrites and a single long branch is called axon.
I Axon carries away impulses from cyton and transmits them to another, whereas
dendrons receive impulses and transmit them to cyton.
FA 1. Wordplay
A wordplay is one where you choose a word or name and use each letter in the name as the
beginning of a word or line that says something about that person or topic.
Example: As given in Chapter 1.
Write the wordplay using the word below:
A _
R _
E _
c _
H _
M _
A _
FA 2. Young Scientist
Jar B
Jar A
To show how apical meristem increases length of the stem and the root
You will need: Two glass jars, water, two onion bulbs, scissors and
record book.
Take two glass jars, fill bOlh oflimn wilh waler.
Label one as ll' and another as 'B'. Now, take two onion bulbs and place them on
tlze mouth ofjar.
Observe the growtlz of the roots in both tlze jan, i.e., ll' and 'B', for few days.
Measu1"f tlze length of roots on day 1, day 2 and day 3 in both tlze jars.
Document your observation in your notebook.
On day 4, take out the onion bulb fmmjm' 'B' and cut tlze Toot tips.
Now, again observe the gmwtlz of TOOts in botlz tlze jars, i.e., ll' and 'B'.
Afterfew days observe tlze changes and document Jour observations.
From the above observation, fiU in the blanks:
Jar has longer roots because _
(ii) Smooth muscles
(iv) Skeletal muscles
(b) (ii) and (iii)
(d) (i) and (iv)
(b) ear
(d) larynx
(b) Caseous exchange
(d) Transpiration
FA 3. Multiple Choice Questions
Select the right choice
1. Which of the following tissues has dead cells?
(a) Parenchyma (b) Sclerenchyma
(c) Collenchyma (d) Epithelial tissue
2. Girth of stem increases due to
(a) apical meristem (b) lateral meristem
(c) intercalary meristem (d) vertical meristem
3. A person met with an accident in which two long bones of hand were dislocated. Which
among the following may be the possible reason?
(a) Tendon break (b) Break of skeletal muscle
(c) Ligament break (d) Areolar tissue break
4. While doing work and running, you move your organs like hands, legs, etc. Which among
the following is correct?
(a) Smooth muscles contract and pull the ligament to move the bones
(b) Smooth muscles contract and pull the tendons to move the bones
(c) Skeletal muscles contract and pull the ligament to move the bones
(d) Skeletal muscles contract and pull the tendon to move the bones
5. Which muscles act involuntarily?
(i) Striated muscles
(iii) Cardiac muscles
(a) (i) and (ii)
(c) (iii) and (iv)
6. Which is not a function of epidermis?
(a) Protection from adverse condition
(c) Conduction of water
7. Select the incorrect sentence
(a) Blood has matrix containing proteins, salts and hormones
(b) Two bones are connected with ligament
(c) Tendons are non-fibrous tissue and fragile
(d) Cartiage is a form of connective tissue
8. Cartilage is not found in
(a) nose
(c) kidney
9. Bone matrix is rich in
(a) fluoride and calcium
(c) calcium and potassium
10. Contractile proteins are found in
(a) bones
(c) muscles
11. Nervous tissue is not found in
(a) brain
(c) tendons
12. Nerve cell does not contain
(a) axon
- - ~ .. -
VK Biology~ IX
(b) calcium and phosphorus
(d) phosphorus and potassium
(b) blood
(d) cartilage
(b) spinal cord
(d) nerves
(b) nerve endings
(b) move upwards
(d) move sideways
(b) thick walled and specialized
(d) none of these
(e) tendons (d) dendrites
13. The muscular tissue which function throughout the life continuously without fatigue is
(a) skeletal muscle (b) cardiac muscle
(e) smooth muscle (d) voluntary muscle
14. Which of the following cells is found in the cartilaginous tissue of the body?
(a) Mast cells (b) Basophils
(e) Osteocytes (d) Chondrocytes
15. The dead element present in the phloem is
(a) companion cells (b) phloem fibres
(e) phloem parenchyma (d) sieve tubes
16. Which of the following does not lose their nucleus at maturity?
(a) Companion cells (b) Red blood cells
(e) Vessel (d) Sieve tube cells
17. In desert plants, rate of water loss gets reduced due to the presence of
(a) cuticle (b) stomata
(e) lignin (d) suberin
18. A long tree has several branches. The tissue that helps in the side ways conductions of
water in the branches is
(a) collenchyma (b) xylem parenchyma
(e) parenchyma (d) xylem vessels
19. If the tip of sugarcane plant is removed from the field, even then it keeps on growing in
length. It is due to the presence of
(a) cambium (b) apical meristem
(e) lateral meristem (d) intercalary meristem
20. A nail is inserted in the trunk of a tree at a height of 1 metre from the ground level. After 3
years, the nail will
(a) move downwards
(e) remain at the same position
21. Parenchyma cells are
(a) relatively unspecified and thin walled
(c) lignified
22. Flexibility in plants is due to
(a) collenchyma (b) sclerenchyma
(e) parenchyma (d) chlorenchyma
23. Cork cells are made impervious to water and gases by the presence of
(a) cellulose (b) lipids
(e) suberin (d) lignin
24. Survival of plants in terrestrial environment has been made possible by the presence of
(a) intercalary meristem (b) conducting tissue
(e) apical meristem (d) parenchymatous tissue
25. Choose the wrong statement
(a) The nature of matrix differs according to the function of the tissue.
(b) Fats are stored below the skin and in between the internal organs
(c) Epithelial tissues have intercellular spaces between them
(d) Cells of striated muscles are multinucleate and unbranched
Tissues 75
Apical, lateral and intercalary meristem
Permanent tissues: Simple and complex tissues
Parenchyma, collenchyma and sclerenchyma
Phloem and xylem
FA 8. Oral Assessment
Answer the following questions carefully.
1. What are the various types of tissues in plants?
2. State the functions of parenchyma.
3. What are the functions of xylem and phloem)
4. Where is meristematic tissue found in plants?
5. What is the difference between striated and non-striated muscles?
6. Where is columnar epithelium found?
7. Give the functions of sclerenchyma.
8. What is the function of neuron?
9. Write the names of cells found in the matrix of connective tissue.
10. What are tracheids and vessels?
II. What is connective tissue?
12. Name the tissue associated with the conduction ohvater in plants.
13. Name the elements found in phloem.
14. What is the specific function of the cardiac muscle?
15. Write two characteristics of a nerve cell.
FA 9. Paper Pen Test
1. Answer the following questions
(a) Why are xylem and phloem called complex tissues? How are they different from one another?
(b) Describe the structure and function of different types of epithelial tissues.
(c) Why is epidermis important for the plants?
(d) Give reasons for the following
(i) Meristematic cells have a prominent nucleus and dense cytoplasm but they lack vacuole.
(ii) Intercellular spaces are absent in sclerenchymatous tissue.
(iii) We get a crunchy and granular feeling when we chew pear fruit.
(iv) Branches of a tree move and bend freely in high wind velocity.
(v) It is different to pull out the husk of coconut.
(e) Differentiate between scelerenchyma and parenchyma tissues.
2. Fill in the blanks
(a) Cork cells possess on their walls that makes them impervious to gases and
(b) have tabular cells with perforated walls and living in nature.
(c) Bene possesses a hard matrix composed of and _
(d) and are forms of complex tissues.
(e) have guard cells.
(j) Husk of coconut is made of tissue.
(g) Xylem transports and from soil.
:----i-78 Tissues L..-J
(b) adipose tissue
(d) cartilage
(b) Columnar epithelium
(d) Cuboidal epithelium
(b) not limited to certain regions
(d) growing in volume
3. Multiple Choice Questions
(i) Find out incorrect sentence
(a) Parenchymatous tissues have intercellular spaces.
(b) Collenchymatous tissues are irregularly thickened at corners.
(e) Apical and intercalary meristems are permanent tissues.
(d) Meristematic tissues, in its early stage, lack vacuoles.
(ii) Which cell does not have perforated cell wall?
(a) Trachieds (b) Companion cell
(e) siseve cells (d) Vessels
(iii) Intestine absorbs the digested food materials. What type of epithelial cells are
responsible for that?
(a) Stratified squamous epithelium
(e) Spindle fibres
(iv) Meristematic tissues in plants are
(a) Localised and Permanent
(e) Localised and dividing cells
(v) Fats are stored in human body as
(a) cuboidal epithelium
(e) bones
(vi) Voluntary muscles are found in
(a) Alimentary canal (b) Limbs
(e) Iris of the eye (d) Bronchi of lungs
(vii) Which of the following helps in repair of tissue and fills up the space inside the organ?
(a) Tendon (b) Adipose tissue
(e) Arelor (d) Cartilage
4. Match the Following.
Column I Column II
(a) Filling of space inside the organs (i) Skin
(b) Striated muscle (ii) Cartilage
(c) Adipose tissue (iii) Alveolar tissue
(d) Surface ofjoints (iv) Subentaneous layer
(e) Stratified squamous epithelium (v) Skeletal muscle
if) Permanent tissue (vi) Cocalised thickening
if) Cellenchyma (vii) Sclerechyma
5. True or False.
(a) Epithelial tissue is protective tissue in animal body.
(b) The lining ofblood vessels, long alveoli and kidney tubules are all made up ofepithelial tissue.
(e) Epithelial cells have a lot of intercellular spaces.
(d) Cells of cork are dead, suberised and compactly arranged.
(e) Voluntary muscles control the movement of iris of eye.
Tissues 79
Textbook Questions
1. What is a tissue?
Ans. Tissue is a group of similar cells which perform the same function and have a common
2. What is the utility of tissues in multicellular organisms?
Ans. Tissues are made up of group of cells carrying a specialised function. Each specialised
function is taken up by a different tissue. Since these cells ofa tissue carry out only a particular
function, they do it very efficiently. For example, in human beings, muscle cells contract or
relax to cause movement, nerve cells carry messages, and blood flows to transport gases,
food, hormones and wastes materials and so on. Likewise, in plants, vascular tissues (xylem,
phloem) conduct water and food from one part of the plant to other parts. So, multicellular
organisms show division of labour through tissues.
3. Name the types of simple tissues.
Ans. There are 3 types of simple tissues:
(i) Parenchyma
(ii) Collenchyma
(iii) Sclerenchyma
4. Where is apical meristem found?
Ans. Apical meristem is found in shoot apex and root apex of plants.
5. Which tissue makes up the husk of coconut?
Ans. Sclerenchyma tissue.
6. What are the constituents of phloem?
Ans. Phloem is made up offour types of elements:
(i) Sieve tubes
(ii) Companion cells
(iii) Phloem fibres
(iv) PWoem parenchyma
7. Name the tissue responsible for movement in our body.
Ans. Muscular tissue.
8. What does a neuron look like?
Ans. A neuron consists of a cell body with a nucleus and cytoplasm, from which long thin hair-like
parts arise called dendrites. Each neuron has a single long part called the axon.
9. Give three features of the cardiac muscle.
Ans. (i) Cardiac muscles are involuntary.
(ii) Cardiac muscle cells are cylindrical, branched and uninucleate.
(iii) Cardiac muscles show rhythmic contraction and relaxation.
10. What are the functions of areolar tissue?
Ans. Areolar tissue is a connective tissue. It fills the space inside tile organs, supports internal
organs and helps in repair of tissues.
11. Define the term 'tissue'.
Ans. Agroup ofcells that are similar in structure and work together to achieve a particular function
is called tissue.
80 Tissues
12. How many types of elements together make up the xylem tissue? Name them.
Ans. Four types of elements make up the xylem tissue. They are:
(i) Tracheids
(ii) Vessels
(iii) Xylem parenchyma. and
(iv) Xylem fibres
13. How are simple tissues different from complex tissues in plants?
Ans. A simple tissue is made up of only one type of cell whereas a complex tissue is made up of
different types of cells.
14. Differentiate between parenchyma, collenchyma and sclerenchyma on the basis of their
cell wall.
Ans. The differences between cell walls of parenchyma, collenchyma and sclerenchyma are:
Parenchyma Collenchyma Sclerenchyma
Cell wall is primary. Cell wall is primary. Cell wall is secondary.
Cell wall is thin and made up of Cell wall has irregular thickening Cell wall is uniformly thick due
very less cellulose. of cellulose. to deposition of lignin.
15. What are the functions of the stomata?
Ans. The important functions of the stomata are:
(il Exchange of gases with atmosphere.
(ii) Transpiration, i.e., loss of water in the form of water vapour.
16. Diagrammatically, show the difference in three types of muscle fibres.

- =====-
Intercalated disk Striations Nucleus Spindle-shaped
- s::
Cardiac muscle fibre Smooth muscle fibre Striated muscle fibre
17. What is the specific function of the cardiac muscle?
Ans. Cardiac muscles occur in the heart and bring about the rhythmic contraction and relaxation
of the heart throughout life.
18. Differentiate between striated, unstriated and cardiac muscles on the basis of their structure
and site/location in the body.
Ans. Differences between striated, unstriated and cardiac muscles are as follows:
Striated Muscle Unstriated Muscle Cardiac Muscle
Structure The cells of striated The cells of unstriated The cells of cardiac
muscles are long, muscles are long with muscles are cylindrical,
cylindrical, unbranched pointed ends and branched and uninucleate.
and multinucleated. uninucleate.
Location These muscles are attached These muscles are present Cardiac muscles are
to the bones. in the alimentary canal, present in the heart.
blood vessel iris of the
eye, ureter and bronchi.
Tissues 81
19. Draw a labelled diagram of a neuron.
I .
Myelin sheath
20. Name the following:
(a) Tissue that forms inner lining of our mouth.
(b) Tissue that connects muscle to bone in humans.
(c) Tissue that transports food in plants.
(tf) Tissue that stores fat in our body.
(e) Connective tissue with a fluid matrix.
if) Tissue present in the brain.
Ans. (a) Simple squamous epithelium
(b) Tendon
(c) Phloem
(d) Adipose tissue
(e) Blood
. if) Nervous tissue
21. Identify the type of tissue in the following: skin, bark of tree, bone, lining of kidney tubule,
vascular bundle.
Ans. Skin: Epithelial tissue (Squamous epithelium)
Bark of tree: Cork (protective tissue)
Bone: Skeletal tissue (connective tissue)
Lining of kidney tubules: Cuboidal epithelial tissue
Vascular bundle: Complex permanent tissue-xylem and phloem
22. Name the regions in which parenchyma tissue is present.
Ans. Parenchyma is a simple permanent tissue present in the cortex and pith of stem and roots. It
is also present in the mesophyll ofleaves.
23. What is the role of epidermis in plants?
Ans. Epidermis is a protective tissue of plants. It provides protection to underlying tissues.
Epidermis forms the outer covering of the entire plant surface. Epidermal cells on the aerial
parts of the plant often secrete a waxy, water-resistant layer on their outer surface, which
provides protection against loss of water, mechanical injury and invasion of parasitic fungi.
In the roots, they help in the absorption of water.
24. How does the cork act as a protective tissue?
Ans. The cork cells are dead and do not have any intercellular spaces. The cell walls of the cork
cells are coated with suberin (a waxy substance). Suberin makes these cells impermeable to
water and gases. Thus, it protects underlying tissues from desiccation (loss of water from
plant body), infection and mechanical injury.
HOTS (Higher Order Thinking Skills)
1. Animals of colder region and fishes of cold water have thicker layer of subcutaneous fat.
Describe why?
Ans. Fat-storing adipose tissue is found below the skin of animals of colder region and fishes of
cold water. Storage of fats acts as an'insulator and prevents the body of animals in colder
2. If a potted plant is covered with a glass jar, water vapours appear on the wall of glass jar?
Explain why?
:\ns. The potted plant release water in the form of water vapours from aerial parts of the plant.
However, when a potted plant is placed inside a glass jar, water vapours remained inside and
thus appears on the wall of the glass jar.
3. Water hyacinth floats on water surface. Explain.
Ans. Water hyacinth is an aquatic plant in which large air cavities are present in parenchyma to
give buoyancy to the plants to help them float. Such a parenchyma type is called aerenchyma.
4. Which structure protects the plant body against the invasion of parasites?
:\ns. Epidermis, the enter protective layer of the plant body do not allow parasites to enter the
body due to
(i) secretion of waxy, water-resistant layer on their outer surface, this aids in protection
against loss of water, mechanical injury and invasion of parasitic fungi.
(ii) absence of intercellular spaces.
(iii) thicker enter walls.
A. Very Short Answer Questions
1. What is a tissue?
2. What are the different types of plant tissues?
3. Define simple tissues.
4. What are tracheids and vessels?
5. What is the function of sieve tubes and companion cells?
6. Give the names of elements found in phloem.
7. Which tissue of leaves has chloroplasts?
8. Write the names of living tissues of plants.
9. Write the names of animal tissues.
10. Give the functions of epithelial tissues.
11. What is the function of ciliated epithelium?
12. Where is squamous epithelium found?
13. What is connective tissue?
14. What are the two main types of fibres of connective tissue;>
15. Write the names of cells found in the matrix of connective tissue.
16. How many types of muscles are found in animals?
17. What is the function of neuron?
18. Which of the muscle cells is uninucleated-smooth muscle or cardiac muscle?
19. Which cells are thick at the corners-parenchyma or collenchyma?
20. Name the tissue associated with the conduction of water in plants.
(1 mark)
Tissues 83
21. What is the position of meristematic tissue in plants?
22. What is the main difference between meristematic and permanent tissues?
B. Short Answer Questions (2,3 marks)
1. Give two points of differences between striated and non-striated muscular tissues.
2. Differentiate between the following structures:
(i) Trachied and vessel.
(ii) Sieve tube and companion cell.
(iii) Tendon and ligament.
(iv) Collenchyma and sclerenchyma.
(v) Areolar connective tissue and dense connective tissue.
(vi) Parenchyma and collenchyma.
3. Write short notes on any four of the following:
Collenchyma, sclerenchyma, glandular epithelium, connective tissue, cardiac muscle.
4. Write notes on: Sieve tubes and Trachieds.
5. Write two characteristics of nerve cell.
6. How many types of elements are present in the phloem? Write their functions.
7. How many types of elements are found in the xylem' Give their functions.
8. What is the specific function of cardiac muscle?
C. Long Answer Questions (5 marks)
1. What is the function of erythrocytes (RBCs) and leucocytes (WBCs) in the human blood?
2. What is tissue' Give a brief account of the chief types of tissues in plants.
3. Describe structure and various functions of connective tissues.
4. Give a brief account of chief types of the tissues in animals.
D. Practical-based Multiple Choice Questions
Tissues 84
1. Neha offered a plate of mixed salad consisting of boiled potatoes grated cucumber slices of
raw tomatoes, very small pieces of an apple and slice of guava to her 70 years old grand
mother who refused to eat the salad because one of the ingredients of the salad contained
lots of sclereids and made it hard for her to chew. Identify it.
(a) Guava (b) Tomato
(e) Cucumber (d) Apple
2. Cross section of a plant part shows the following cells. Identify
(a) Sclerenchyma (b) Parenchyma
(e) Collenchyma (d) T.S. of phloem tissue
3. Prerna of Class IX got a scolding from an external examiner, when she wrote the
following statements as identifying features of cardiac muscles after observing the
slide even under high magnification power in a compound microscope. Which of the
statement was wrong?
(a) Always present in heart
(b) Presence of intercalated discs
(e) Faint striations
(d) Fewer mitochondria as compared to smooth muscles
/ L < ~ < - - - A
4. The animal known as 'Ship of the desert' has hump made up of specific tissue which
provides water at the time of scarcity. Identify the tissue.
(a) Skeletal (b) Muscular
(e) Nervous (d) Adipose
5. A naughty student of class IX was pricking the live animals present in an aquarium in
Kerala. His prick led to the movement of animals away from him. Only one of the animals
did not feel the pain due to the absence of nerve cells. It was
(a) hydra (b) starfish
(e) crab (d) ponges
6. Identify the incorrect pair from the following set.
(a) Nervous tissue - Excitability and conductivity
(b) Muscular tissue - Contractility
(e) Cardiac muscles - Self excitatory
(d) Smooth muscles - Self excitatory
7. Deepika Padukone, the famous Indian model was selected by Hemant Trivedi for a fashion
show to display his summer collection. The show was held in Toronto, Canada in an open
ground. As soon as Deepika reached the ramp, her body started shivering. This happened
in order to
(a) check the dispersion of body heat due to low temperature
(b) increased flow of blood towards skin
(e) increased heat production by muscles function
(d) increased heat production by muscles contraction
8. Rohit was aspiring to become Mr. India, so he joined a gym to build his body muscles. On
day one, he exercised for about an hour continuously. Next day, he was in a bad state and
found it difficult to move his legs and arms due to cramps. The cause was
(a) cardiac muscles got tired due to constantly pumping 02 to the muskes
(b) pyruvic acid was accumulated in all three types of muscles which led to pain
(e) lactic acid was accumulated in striated muscles
(d) ethanol was accumulated in striated muscles due to anaerobic respiration by the cells
9. During an entrance exam for Agriculture Research Services, the name of the tissue that
gives rises to jute fibres was asked. Only one out of four candidates gave the correct answer.
Identify the person.
(a) Amit wrote that xylem fibres give rise to jute fibres
(b) Ajita write that phloem fibres
(e) Alpana sclereids
(d) Rachit sieve tubes
10. You are shown two slides of plant tissues: parenchyma and
sclerenchyma. You can identify the sclerenchyma by the
(a) location of nucleus (b) thickness of cell wall
(e) size of cells (d) position of vacuoles.
11. Label 'N and 'B' correctly in the following diagram.
(a) A - Nucleus, B - Dendrite
(b) A - Dendrite, B - Axon
(e) A - Axon, B - Dendrite
(d) A - Dendrite, B - Nucleus
12. Four slides were observed under the microscope for spot test as shown below. The correct
identification of the four spots is
[A] [B] [C] [D]
(a) A: onion peel B: cheek cells C: sclerenchyma D: parenchyma
(b) A: cheek cells B: parenchyma C: sclerenchyma D: onion peel
(c) A: parenchyma B: cheek cells C: onion peel D: sclerenchyma
(d) A: sclerenchyma B: onion peel C: parenchyma D: cheek cells
13. Raj observed nerve cells under the microscope, and made the following sketch. The mistake
in his drawing is the cyton with
(a) cilia (b) dendrites
(c) nudeus (d) cytoplasm.
14. Observe the location and shape of the nuclei in the four drawings of the striated muscle
fibres given below. The drawing that most resembles the slide of striated muscle fibre
under the microscope is
[A] [B]
[C] [D]
(a) A (b) B
(c) C (d) D
1. (a) 2. (c) 3. (d) 4. (b)
5. (d) 6. (d) 7. (d) 8. (c)
9. (b) 10. (b) 11. (b) 12. (d)
13.(a) 14. (c)
, , ~ . _ - - -
86 Tissues
Chapter: Three
Can you stay a single day without food? You may, but at the end of the day you
will feel weak, giddy and might as well fall ill.
Food is essential for all living beings. Food contains carbohydrates, fats, proteins,
vitamins and minerals. We require these for our body growth and development,
maintaining a good health and getting energy for work.
Plants make their own food from air, water, sunlight and a green pigment
present in them-chJorophyll, through a process called photosynthesis. That is why
they are called autotrophs. However, animals including man cannot make their
own food. They depend on plants and other animals for food. So they are called
The main source of man's food has been plants-cereals, pulses, vegetables,
fruits, etc. are provided to man by plants. Products like milk, honey, eggs and meat
are yielded from animals. Since time immemorial, man has been growing crops in
the fields and rearing animals to obtaiu food and satisfy his hunger. Man has been
continuously trying to produce more and more food of better and still better quality.
ow with the growth of population it has become all the more important to increase
its quantity and improve its quality. Our country is the most densely populated
country of the world with a population of 1.04 billion people. According to estimates,
India's population will stand at 1.34 billion by the year 2020. To support such a
huge population we will require at least 240 million tonnes of grain production
every year. Our scientists like Kurien and Swami nathan have put a lot of efforts to
increase the food production of our country and make it self-sufficient and have also
achieved some success in this regard.
We have had the green revolution in late 1960s which contributed to increased
food grain production, followed by the white revolution, which led to increased milk
production, the blue revolution, the yellow revolution and the golden revolution.
(see Table 3.1).
"10 matter how much success we have had in this regard, but in this process
we have exploited the environment so much that it has led to its degradation. ow
it has become important that we take care of the environment too, while we exploit
its resources to satisfy our needs. Efforts are afoot in this regard also. Chemical
fertilisers like urea have been replaced by organic manures. Use of pesticides like
DDT, etc. which are known to affect the health ofmen and animals drastically, have been
minimised and replaced by biological means. Organic farming is practised nowadays.
Also, by increasing the production oHood, we cannot do away with the problem
of hunger and malnutrition in our country, for, people should have money to have
Improvement in Food Resources
M.S. Swaminathan
The founder of the
green 1'evolution was
M.S. Swa11linallzan.
87 :'i::;,=,=::;1;m)1-__":j
Table 3.1: Programmes for increasing food production in our country
Green Revolution
White Revolution
Golden Revolution
Yellow Revolution
Blue Revolution
Food Resources
an access to it. Hence people should be given employment and made self-sullici
to earn their own living. Otherwise, grains would be simply stored in warehouse
the businessmen.

Crops m'e
agricultural plnnts
g;rown in community
in large areas.
Crop Production
Agriculture is a profession of a large number of human population. Our
economy is based on agriculture. Most of our people live in villages and are busy in
agriculture. In the recent decades, agricultural production has increased manifold
due to the development of new high yielding varieties of seeds and crop plants
(Green revolution). Food grain production has been four times from 1960 to
2004 with just 25% increase in cultivable level area. Prof. M.S. Swaminathan was
the architect of green revolution in India which occurred in late 1960s. He had
been Director ofIA.R.i., and Director General ofI.C.AR. New Delhi and Director
General of International Rice Research Institute, Manila. He also established M.S.
Swami nathan Research Foundation in Chennai. He recognised the value of Mexican
dwarf wheat variety and introduced that in India. Its yield was better than the early
varieties. But it needed more irrigation and fertilisers. In green revolution, use of
pesticides and weedicides were also increased. Swaminathan was called the fathe' of
economic ecology by L.'\. Em'ironment programme. He got world Food Prize for
the contribution he made against hunger in India.
Table 3.2 Food Production in India in 1999
Cultivation is
growing of crops
from seeds.
Food products Million tonnes Animal products Million tonnes
1. Cereals (wheat, rice) 203.0 L 4.7
2. Pulses 16.1 2. Poultry meat 0.55
3. Vegetables 59.4 3. Fish 3.2
4. Roots and tubers 29.7 4. Milk 77.2
5. Fruits 38.6 5. Aquaculture 2.0
6. Edible oil 9.1
Total 355.9 I I 87 .65
The production ofcereals is more in comparison to meat production. In India,
vegetarian population is greater than that of non-vegetarians. Non-vegetarians also
need cereals since they are not 100 per cent non-vegetarians. Cereal crops such
as wheat, rice, maize, sorghum, etc., are seasonal crops. These are harvested in a
season ofabout five months. Cereals were domesticated earlier than any other group
of useful plants of today. Beside cereals, pulses and oil seeds were also discovered.
The wheat, rice, maize, sorghum, pulses (umd, arizaI', moong, etc.), oil seeds
(mustard, soyabean, sunflower), vegetables and fruits are obtained from plant

88 Improvement in Food Resources
Food giving plants are thus, as follows:
(i) Cereals, e.g., wheat, rice, maize, jowar, bajra, etc. Wheat is mostly consumed
in Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh. Rice eating people
belong to the states of Bihar, West Bengal, Assam, Orissa and the southern
states of India. Jowar and bajra are mostly used in Rajasthan and Gujarat.
(ii) Pulses, e.g., arhar, gram, peanuts, 1IIoong.
(iii) Oil seeds, e.g., mustard, cotton seeds, groundnuts, sunflower, soyabean, coconuts.
(iv) Vegetables, e.g., potato, onion, brinjal, cabbage, carrot, cauliflower, lady's
finger, gourd, etc.
(v) Fruits, e.g., banana, mango, orange, apple, pineapple, lemon, peach, etc.
Table 3.3 Some Food Items
Carbohydrates Fats Proteins Minerals
\. Wheat \. Groundnuts \. Milk \. Green leafy
2. Rice 2. Vegetable oil from 2. Eggs 2. Beans
sunflower, soyabean,
mustard, groundnuts.
3. Jowar 3. Animal fat from meat 3. Meat 3. Ragi
and fish
4. Bajra 4. Fish 4. Dry fruit
(almonds, etc.)
sea weeds
5. Potato 5. Bean 5. Liver
6. Tubers and rhizomes 6. Pulses 6. Eggs
7. Beet root 7. Grounclnuts 7. Sea foods
8. Vegetables 8. Peas
Cereals (wheat, rice, maize, millets and sorghum) provide us carbohydrates,
which is the main source of body energy. Calorific value of carbohydrate is 4.1 kcal.
We get protein from pulses like gram, pea, black gram (urad), green gram (1Iloong) ,
pigeon pea (m'har) and lentil (nzassur). Calorific value of protein is 5.65 kcal. Proteins
are used up in the body for making muscles etc. Thus, proteins are 'building
materials' of the body. Oil seeds like soyabean, groundnut, sesame, castor, mustard,
linseed and sunflower provide us with necessary fats. One gram of fat produces
about 9.45 kcal of energy. Thus, fats provide more energy than carbohydrates and
proteins. Spices, vegetables and fruits provide vitamins and minerals besides small
amount of carbohydrate, protein and fat. Fodder crops are used as food for the
Crop Seasons
The various types of crops (cereals, pulses, etc.) need different climatic
conditions, temperature and photoperiods (duration of sunlight) for their growth
and fruiting. On the basis of season, crops are of two types: kharif and rabi crops.
Kharif Crops like rice, maize, jowar and bajra belong to cereals, and pulses
like urad, arhar, and 1Iloong are grown in June after the first rains of the rainy season.
Rainy season is from June to October.
Rabi Crops are wheat (cereal) and pulses like gram and pea and oil producing
plants like mustard and linseed are grown in November. Rabi season is from
November to April.
Improvement in Food Resources 89
VK Biology IX
.... _--
VK Biology IX
There are certain crops which are grown between March and June and a:
known as Zaid crops.
Improvement in Yields
Agricultural practices can happen in three stages:
1. Crop variety improvement: This stage includes selecting ofseeds, hybridisati
and genetic engineering to get an improved variety of crops.
2. Crop production management: The second stage is nurturing of the cro
plants through nutrients management, irrigation, cropping patterns, etc.
3. Crop protection management: The third and the final stage includ
protection of the growing and harvested crops from damage. This is donte
through proper storage, pest control and disease control.
activity 1
Visit the llem-by agriculture fann in both seasons (kharif and mbi season) and find OW
which CTOPS are sown. Ask the farmer which manure or fertiliser is being applied.
Crop Variety Improvement
Crop variety improvement is done for:
1. improving the productivity of crops.
2. improving the quality of yields.
3. developing crop varieties that are resistant to drought, water logging, heat
and cold.
4. develop crop varieties that are resistant to diseases.
This involves improvement in genetic makeup of a plant in relation to its
economic use. This involves
(i) selection of an improved variety of seed for planting.
(ii) hybridisation of genetically dissimilar plants to produce a new kind, better
in quality.
I Plant Breeding
Crop improvement mostly involves plant breeding. The knowledge of genetics
is essential for plant breeding. The aim of plant breeding is to produce a superior
quality of plant and it should be adaptable to that environment, where it will be
grown. The common methods of plant breeding are:
1. Selection 3. Induced mutations
2. Hybridisation. 4. Genetic engineering.
1. Selection
It is the process of choosing the plants with desirable characters. The plants
with useful and desirable characters are chosen and maintained. The plants which
are not useful and have undesirable characters are neglected and eliminated. The
present day crop plants are being thus evolved due to continued selection of natural
varieties of useful plants, over a long period of time_ The selection is continued
with each generation during which some characters are lost naturally while others
become stable. Such plants look totally different from their wild ancestors. This is
the process by which wheat and maize plants were selected. In the past, man had
Improvement in Food Resources
selected a wild wheat having an inflorescence axis with intact floral stalks. Similarly
maize variety having seeds embedded tightly were selected. These were continuously
bred, and undesirable plants amongst them were discarded. Thus, the present day
wheat and maize were produced.
There are two methods of selection:
(i) Mass selection, and (ii) Pure line selection.
(i) Mass selection: It is the oldest and commonest method of breeding crop
plants. In this method, large number of plants having similar characters are
selected and their seeds are mixed and grown together. Out of these plants
which have desirable characters like height, disease resistance, growth rate,
grain characters, etc., are selected and their seeds are again grown. From these
plants, again undesirable plants are eliminated. This procedure is repeated till
the desired plants and their seeds are obtained. This is the oldest and most
common method of breeding crop plants. It is also known as the "German
method of crop breeding".
By self-pollination or self-fertilisation process, plants are multiplied and seeds
are obtained. But it has a limited use for self pollinated plants. It is important
for cross pollinated plants.
(ii) Pure line selection: Pure line is a progeny of a single self-pollinated (self-
fertilised) individuals having same type of genetic characters. In this method
also desirable plants are collected from a large different genetic type of
population. These selected plants are self-pollinated for a few generations till
a true breed or pure line progeny is obtained. Nter obtaining a true breed,
these plants are multiplied on a commercial scale. Pure lines are specially
important in the improvement of self pollinated crops. Most of the improved
varieties of wheat, rice, pulses, oil seeds, etc., have been developed by this
process. Concept of pure line and pure line selection was given by Wilhelm L.
Johannsen (a Danish geneticist).
2_ Hybridisation
It is a process in which two genetically dissimilar plants (two different varieties
or between two different species ofsame genus or inter generic, i.e., between different
genera) having desired characters are crossed or mated and brought together into
one individual. This individual having known desired characters is called hybrid. It
involves following steps:
(i) Selection of parents: Plants selected for hybridisation should have desired
characters. One should be well adapted to that area and the other should have
desired characters which are not found in the first chosen type.
(ii) Emasculation: It is the removal of anthers or stamens or killing of pollen
grains of a flower without damaging the female reproductive organs. Thus,
self pollination and self-fertilisation is avoided. In bisexual plants, the male
flowers or inflorescences are removed to prevent self pollination. In unisexual
species, male plants are removed.
(iii) Bagging: Nter emasculation, the flowers on inflorescence are enclosed in
polythene bags or butter paper bags to prevent random cross pollination.
(iv) Cross pollination: In crossing, mature, fertile and viable pollens from a
desired male plant are collected and then placed or dusted on the stigma
of the other female plant. Nter dusting, the female plant is bagged. Thus,
natural fertilisation occurs which results in the formation of seeds. Mature
seeds of F1 generation are harvested, dried and stored. Later these seeds are
grown, which give FI hybrids.
Improvement in Food Resources 91
VK Biology IX
-VK Biology IX
Hybrid Vigour or Heterosis
This F1 hybrid is superior to the two genetically dissimilar parents. Ter
heterosis was proposed by George H. Shull. Heterosis is measured in terms of siz
growth rate, yield, etc. These cross pollinated species are heterozygous, i.e., differe
from both the parents. Heterosis produces useful characters, like increased siz
vigour, resistance to diseases and pests, and yield, etc. It is important in crops lik
maize, wheat, sorghum, bajra, rice, cotton, sugar-beets, sunflower, tomato, brinj
onion, etc. Hybrid vigour is lost by continuous inbreeding and hence parental line
are to be maintained, for producing seeds. Hybrid vigour is the best maintained in
vegetatively reproducing crops, like mango, guava, apple, chrysanthemum, dahlia.
activity 2
Students should visit nearby agricultuml fields and observe diffeTences of the same crop
grown in different fields. Students may ask the fanners why there is diffeTence ofsame crop.
Note down the factors for the difference.
Advantages of Hybridisation
(i) More vigorous and well adapted varieties can be produced.
(ii) Hybrid possesses new genotypes.
(iii) Variety produced has superior characters.
(iv) Hybrids mature early and need better fertilisers.
(v) Hybrid crop yield will also be more.
3. Induced Mutations
Sudden heritable changes are called mutations. Mutations could be natural
(spontaneous) or artificial (induced). Induced mutations can be done by chemical
and physical agents. These are of great importance in crop imp!ovement. For
induced mutations irradiations is commonly used. C0
or Cs' , are used for
producing gamma rays. This facility exists in Nuclear Research Laboratory, IARI,
New Delhi.
Sharbati sonara wheat variety was produced by irradiation of Sonara 64 with
gamma rays. Similarly Pusa lerma was produced from Lerma rojo 64. Wheat NP
836 is also produced by the same method. Improved varieties of rice, pea, cotton,
etc., are also produced by induced mutations.
4. Genetic Engineering
For crop improvement, manipulation of gene (Dl A) instead of complete
chromosome set is done. In it a specific segment of DNA from living organisms is
isolated and purified. DJ A sequence is broken off at two desired places to separate
specific part of DNA. This part is later inserted into the DNAof the bacterial plasmid
at a desired place. This DNA, thus obtained is called recombinant DNA. The method
used is called genetic engineering. By this method one can add, or remove or repair
part of genetic material and thus can change the qualities of an organism.
Objectives of Varietal Improvement
(1) Improvement of yield: The aim is to develop high yielding varieties (HYV) of
crops that will be economically beneficial.
(2) Development of disease resistant crop. Crop should be db resistant, i.e.,
drought, water-logging, salinity, heat, cold, frost, etc., and also biotic resistant,
i.e., disease resistant. Such a crop gives a good yield.
Improvemex' r
(3) Better quality of crop: As regards economic value, protein quality of pulses,
oil quality in oil seeds and preservity of vegetables and fruits, are taken into
consideration to estimate better quality of crops.
(4) Photo-insensitivity and thermo-insensitivity of the crops: This helps in
crossing the cultivation boundaries, e.g., high yielding wheat variety and
MACS 2469 are able to tolerate high temperature, and are insensitive to light.
(5) Early and uniform maturity: In some of the long duration crops, their ear"
maturing varieties will be beneficial for harvesting the double and multiple-
cropping systems. It also reduces the cost of crop production. Cniform
maturit) makes the harvesting easy and reduces the loss of produce during
(6) Wider adaptability: Varieties which have wider adaptabilities should be
developed. These varieties may be developed under different environmental
conditions. Example is ICPH 8 hybrid pigeon pea which matures in a short
time and is disease resistant against fusarium wilt and sterility mosaic. Its
yield is also 30% to 40% more than the popular breed. It may be produced in
drought conditions as well as high-moisture conditions.
(7) Desirable agronomic traits: Desired agronomic traits give higher produce,
such as high tillering, tall, profusely branching characters of fodder crops, and
dwarf character of cereals. High yielding variety of wheat are Sonara 64, Hira,
Moti, Kalyan sona and Sharbati sonara. HYV of Paddy are Pusa 205, IR 8,
Padma and Jaya.
High yielding varieties of cereals, fodder crops, oil seed crops, fruits, etc., can
thus be developed by breeding and hybridization processes.
Crop Production Management
Input and yield have a correlation. Better the input, better is the yield and for
improving the input a systematic approach of management is required.
This involves
(i) supplying proper nutrients to the crops for its nurturing,
(ii) ensuring that crops get water at the right stage during their growing
(iii) use of different ways of growing crops to give the maximum output.
I Nutrition Management
Plant Nutrition
Plants need many inorganic and organic substances (nutrients) for their
growth and reproduction. All these substances which plants take from outside
constitute their food or nutrition. On the basis of their nutritional need, plants
are classified into autotrophs and heterotrophs. Autotrophs are self-nourishing,
they manufacture their own organic food and require only inorganic substances
from outside. All green plants and photosynthetic bacteria are autotrophs. They
obtain their nutrition mainly from soil in the form of inorganic ions. Heterotrophs
need both organic and inorganic substances from outside. Saprophytes Putrefying
bacteria like Bacillus and fungi [all fungi lack chlorophyll, (e.g., Mucor] and parasitic
bacteria and fungi are heterotrophs. They do not manufacture their own food; they
obtain it from other organisms. Plant nutrients are the mineral elements needed
by the plants for their growth, development and maintenance. The nutrients taken
by the plants from the soil are many more in number (13) than those taken from
Improvement in Food Resources 93
VK Biology IX
water and air (3). Nutrients taken from air and water are more important, since
they constitute about 97 to 99.5% of total plant tissue. Though, plants absorb a large
number of elements from the environment but only the following sixteen elements
are found to be essential nutrients for the plant nutrition:
1. Carbon 2. Oxygen 3. Hydrogen 4. Nitrogen
5. Phosphorus 6. Potassium 7. Calcium 8. Magnesium
9. Sulphur 10. Iron 11. Manganese 12. Boron
13. Zinc 14. Copper 15. Molybdenum 16. Chlorine
Plants require ten elements in relatively large amounts, carbon, hydrogen,
oxygen, phosphorus, potassium, nitrogen, sulphur, calcium, magnesium and iron.
These are called macronutrients. Out of these, last seven, P, K, N, S, Ca, Fe and
Mg are present in the soil and are called mineral elements. Oxygen, hydrogen
and carbon are provided to the plant by oxygen gas, water and carbon dioxide
These are also essential for higher plants, but are required in very small
amounts. Hence, these are called micronutrients or trace elements. These are
copper, zinc, boron, molybdenum, chlorine, etc.
Table 3.4 Sources of Plant Nutrients
Air Water
Nutrients Oxygen and Hydrogen Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium,
sulphur, iron, magnesium, manganese, boron,
zinc, copper, molybdenum and chlorine.
Mojo>' SOU1"CeS of
plant nutrients
are manures and
Hydrogen, Oxygen
and CarbmfOTln
94% of the total
plant tissue.
Improvement in Food Resources
Found in plants in traces.
Concentration is less than 1 mg per g of
dry weight of plant.
Toxic if present in more than required
Examples: Zinc, Manganese, Copper,
Chlorine, Boron, Molybdenum, etc.
Found in plants in large quantities.
Concentration is more than 1 mg per g
dry weight of plant.
Not toxic even if present In excess
Examples: Carbon, Hydrogen,
Oxygen, Nitrogen, Calcium, Potassium,
Phosphorus, Magnesium, Sulphur, Iron.
I Use of Manures and Fertilisers
Manures and fertilisers increase the fertility of the soil of crop fields. They also
remove the deficiency of plant nutrients of the soil. They are used to increase the
crop production.
Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen are indispensible for plant growth. They
constitute about 94 per cent of the total dry weight ofthe plant. Carbon is essen'
for the synthesis of carbohydrates and fats. Oxygen and hydrogen are obtained fro
water absorbed from the soil. Some oxygen is also absorbed from the atmosphere.
Nitrogen is absorbed from the soil in the form of nitrate ions (nitrates ofcalcium,
potassium, ammonium and sodium). Its deficiency in plants causes chlorosis. Leaves
become pale or yellow. Formation of red and purple patches or streaks in stems, leaf
veins and petioles. Sulphur is absorbed by the plants as sulphate ions. Its deficiency
also causes chlorosis in young leaves.
Table 3,5 Differences between Macronutrients and Micronutrients
VK Biology IX
1. Manures
Manures are natural fertilisers which are being used since ancient days.
~ a n u r e s add small quantities of nutrients and large quantities of organic matter
m the soil and make the soil soft for the better growth of root system and in turn
plant growth. Capacity of holding water in the soil, etc., also increases. The micro-
organisms of the soil, beneficial to the soil and crop also get food. Manures are
required in bulk quantities in comparison to chemical fertilisers. Large quantities of
organic matter in clayey soils help in drainage of water and also avoid water logging.
Types of Manures
Manures are of three types:
(I) Farm Yard Manure (2) Compost (3) Green Manure
(1) Farm yard manure (FYM): It is the decomposed matter of cattle dung
(faecal matter), urine and litter, i.e., bedding material used in winter months
at night under cattles. It also includes the leftover fodder in their manures.
These materials are dumped daily in especially constructed pit away from the
cattle shed. Action of microbes (e.g., bacteria, fungi, etc.) developed in this
excreta, converts (decompose) it into manure, which is ready to spread in
the crop fields. Farmyard manure is used in field before the sowing of crop,
i.e., in October and in May/June in northern India. FYM is rich in potassium,
phosphorus and nitrogen. It contains about 0.5 per cent potassium oxide,
0.15 per cent phosphorus pentoxide and 0.5 per cent nitrogen.
(2) Compost: It includes farm and town refuge (e.g., vegetable matter, animal
refuge such as excreta of domestic animals and stray animals, human faecal
matter (sewage, etc.) stored in open fields beyond the limits of town (human
population). Like FYM, it is also a biological process in which aerobic and
anaerobic microorganisms decompose the town and city garbage and sewage
waste into compost. Decomposition occurs between 3 to 6 months. Compost
from town refuge contains about 1.4 per cent nitrogen, 1.0 percent phosphorus
pentoxide and 1.4 per cent potassium oxide. While farm compost contains
0.5% nitrogen, 0.15% P205 and 0.5% K
Method of preparing compost: For making compost, a trench or pit of 4 to
5 m long, 1.5 to 1.8 m broad and I to 1.8 m deep is dug. In it a layer of mixed
refuse is spread. It should be about 30 cm in thickness. This is moistened with
water and cattle dung or water and earth. Over it again mixed refuse is added
which rises to a height of 45 to 60 cm above the ground level. ow the top is
covered with a thin layer of earth. This is kept as such for 3 months, then it
is taken out of the trench and formed into a conical heap. Again moisten it if
necessary and cover it with earth. Leave it again for one or two months. Now
the compost is ready to use in the fields.
Town sewage is also recycled mechanically in activated sludge system in which
solid wastes settle down at the bottom of the plant. It is called sludge. The
upper clear water (sewage water) is being used in irrigation purposes and the
organic waste is dried and used as manure.
(3) Green manure: In green manure, generally leguminous as well as non-
leguminous herbaceous plant seeds are sown in summers before the rainy
season for about 6 to 8 weeks. These are sunhemp (Crotalaria juneea) , berseem
(Egyptian clover-Trifolium alexandrium) , sesbania or dhaincha (Sesbania
aeuleata) and guar or cluster bean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba), cowpea (lobia),
lentils (massur) , etc. These plants near the onset of monsoon are ploughed
and buried in the field at a tender stage, i.e., at flowering stage. In the rainy
Manw-es are used in
bulk before sowing
seeds (croP).
Composting is a
biological process
in which both
aeTobie and
decompose organic
"//Illtler in 3-6
rovement in Food Resources 95
VK Biology IX
season these plants get decomposed with the help of decomposers. Then the
new cereal crop is sown. Green manure adds nitrogen and organic matter in
the soil. This adds to the fertility of the soil. It forms a protective soil cover
and thus checks soil erosion and leaching. It increases the crop yield by
30 to 50 per cent. Green manure is used in this region by some large farmers.
l:.artll\mrms in the soil especially after rains turn down the soil. They feed
on soil containing organic matter and their casting is also rich in organic
matter. They make the soil porous and increase the soil fertility. This type of
composting is called \<,rmie 'llpostin;.,.
Ft1tilisers are
prepared and richer
in nutrients than
Fertilisers are used
in small quantities in
lhe field.
I 2. Fertilisers
These are chemical fertilisers, manufactured commercially. They are richer in
nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus and potassium. They are better than the manures
as regards nutrients and are thus used in small quantities. Fertiliser is a chemical
compound, either inorganic or organic, containing one or more essential plant
nutrients. Fertilisers, thus, increase the temporary fertility of soil and crop yield. In
every crop, every time the crop is sown, these fertilisers are added to the soil. The
various types offertilisers are: nitrogenous, phosphatic and complex. It is suggested
to the farmers that before the application of these fertilisers, one should get the
soil tested, if the soil needs nitrogen or phosphorus or potassium or all the three
Types of Fertilisers
(i) Nitrogenous fertilisers: These are rich in nitrogen element. These are
urea, sodium nitrate, ammonium sulphate, ammonium nitrate and calcium
ammonium nitrate. These are better for vegetative growth.
(ii) Phosphatic fertilisers: These are rich in phosphorus. These are phosphates and
superphosphates. Phosphatic fertilisers are good for better fruit production.
(iii) Potassic fertilisers: These are rich in potassium, a micronutrient of plants.
These are potassium chloride, potassium sulphate and potassium nitrate.
(iv) Complex fertilisers: These contain two or three elements-nitrogen,
phosphorous and potassium. These are urea, ammonium phosphate, nitro
phosphate, and diammonium phosphate.
Chemical fertilisers should be used judiciously and carefully. Heavy dose of
nitrogenous fertilisers destroy the crop. Testing of soil before the application
of fertilisers is essential. On the basis of the deficient element in the soil,
fertiliser should be used. Overuse offertiJisers decreases the fertility ofthe soil.
Heavy doses of chemical fertilisers get washed off through irrigation through
drainage and enter rivers, lakes, streams, etc. and pollute them. This disturbs
the natural ecosystem.
Table 3.6 Comparison of Manure and Fertiliser
VK Biology IX
It is a natural, organic decomposed
animal waste (dung) and vegetative
It contains small amounts ofnitrogen,
phosphorus and potassium.
It increases the humus in the soil
due to great amount of the organic
It IS a commercially prepared
inorganic or organic compound.
It is rich in nitrogen, phosphorus and
It does not add humus in the soil.
Improvement in food Resources
,'j Biofertilisers: These are biologically active products of bacteria, algae and
fungi. They enrich the soil nutrients especially nitrogen. These include
nitrogen-fixing microorganisms. Biofertilisers are used for specific crops such
as legumes (pulses), oil seeds and rice. They provide nitrogen to the crop
plants. They are not used as an alternative to the chemical fertilisers, but play
a supplementary role of providing nitrogen to the nitrogen deficient soil and
crop plants. Some of the biofertilisers used in India are legume Rhizobium
sJlllbiosis, Azolla algae (Anabaena sYlllbiosis), free-living bacteria (Awlobacler and
Bacillus PO(\"III)"XI.l) living in the soil and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Cyanobacteria
or blue-green algae are also nitrogen fixers and Mycorrhiza is in symbiotic
association of fungi with roots of certain seed-bearing plants. Fungus absorbs
nutrients from the soil and provides them to the host cells. Rhizobium has
symbiotic relationship with roots of leguminous plants. Root nodules are
formed due to fixation of atmospheric nitrogen by bacteria. They also leave
large amounts of nitrogen in the soil which is useful for the next crop.
Manure is cheap and is prepared by fertilisers are costly because they are
every farmer in villages. prepared in factories and also bear
Government tax.
Manure is applied to the crop fields It is applied to the crop fields after
in bulk before the sowing season. germination or at the time of sowing
in a very minute amount.
imporlant sources
of biofeTtilisers is
through Ihe use of
Fertilisers are nutrient specific.
i.e., contain nitrogen, phosphorus,
potassium. These are absorbed by the
plant roots, being soluble in \vater.
Manure is not nutrient specific. It
contains all the nutrients in small
amounts absorbed by the plants
slowly from organic matter.
F" the 'l.ks
1. The crops which are grown in the rainy season are called crops.
2. The crops which are grown in the winter season are called _
3. Hybridisation of crops refers to crossing between genetically _
4. Wheat, gram, peas, mustard and linseed are crops.
5. required by plants include nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium,
calcium, magnesium and sulphur.
6. The process in which farm waste materials like livestock excreta, vegetable
waste, sewage waste, straw eradicated weeds, etc. are decomposed in pits is
known as
7. Fertilisers are washed away due to excessive irrigation and are not fully
absorbed by the plants which leads to _
8. is a farming system with minimal use or no use of chemicals
as fertilisers, herbicides, pesticides, etc. and with a maximum input of organic
manures, recycled farm wastes and bio-agents with healthy cropping system.
9. On the basis of the kind of biological material used, manure can be classified
as _
10. Abiotic streeses in crop production include and
provement in Food Resources 97
4. "Vater also serves as a medium where enzymatic reactions occur.
5. Besides, the seed coat becomes soft after absorbing water and allows the
developing embryo to come out of seed.
6. Too much water in the field inhibits aeration of the soil.
7. Irrigation after germination of seeds and some growth is essential for the
proper growth of root systems and aerial branches (tillers). If the soil lacks
moisture, the crop plants become pale and finally dry up.
8. Water is essential for the solubility of nutrient elements. The soil nutrients
get dissolved in water and are absorbed by the plant's root systems. Chemical
manures are also applied to the crop fields before irrigation. Mter application
of fertilisers, crops are irrigated.
9. Except paddy crop, no crop needs standing water, which causes wilting of
10. Water logging in the field causes salinity ofthe soil. It reduces the fertility of
Water needs for different crops is different. Therefore, it should be used
I Irrigational Requirements of Various Crops
Each crop needs a specific quantity of water at various stages of growth and
fruiting. Some crops like paddy (rice) require more water. Plantation of paddy
seedlings is done in water-filled fields. For their growth and development continuous
irrigation is required. Paddy fields should be well watered. Therefore, this crop is
sown In raIny season.
Maize, jowar and bajra need very less water, though sown in rainy season
starting from June. Wheat, gram, pea also require less water. These are winter
season crops. Pulses also require less water.
Type of crop: Timing of irrigation for various crops is also essential for a good
yield. At the time of sowing, soil should contain enough moisture for germination.
Irrigation ofa wheat seedling is required after it attains about 6 inches size. Wheat
at the time of maturity needs no irrigation. If any how rainfall occurs at this time,
the plants bend or fall in the field affecting the yield of crop.
Nature of soil and their need of water: Various types of soils have different
requirements of water. Sand,' soil is porous. Its particle size is relatively larger. Water
easily percolates down and hence its water retention capability is very poor. Sandy
soil, thus, needs frequent irrigation, so that plants may get enough water for their
growth and fruiting. Example is Rajasthan where soil is sandy. There crops like
j O W a l ~ bajra and maize are sown, which need very less water. They mostly depend
on rains because facilities of irrigation are not proper.
Clayey soil particles are relatively small and have very less permeability. It
is capable of retaining water for a long time. Hence, frequency of irrigation is
comparatively less and the crop plants get water for a long time. Thus, proper
management of irrigation for various crops is essential for getting good crop yield.
I Irrigation System
The common method ofirrigation in India are wells, tube wells, pumps, canals,
tanks, river-valley system and river-lift systems. Irrigation is essential at various
levels of crop production, such is sowing, tilling, flowering and fruiting. Some well
known inigation systems are given as follows:
Improvement in Food Resources
1. Wells: Wells are bored at such places
where there is enough ground water is
enough. These are of two types:
(i) Dug wells, and
(ii) Tube wells.
(i) Dug wells have their bottom surface
below the ground water table.
Water accumulates here from
surroundings. Water is lifted for
irrigation by mechanical means,
Persian wheels operated by bullocks,
horses and camels.
(ii) Tube wells are dug very deep. Water
is lifted from these wells by diesel or
electricity run pun1ps. F ~ ~ M,,}"
2. Tanks: These are small storage reservoirs. They store run-off water from
the surrounding catchment areas. Small dams are constructed below the
catchment areas to regulate the flow of water for agriculture.
3. Canal sy'tem' Canals get water mostly from large rivers. Doors are fitted at
the mouth of canal joining the river to regulate the flow of water. A canal
is distributed into branch canals, distributaries or fleld channels. These field
channels irrigate the fields. For irrigation ofvat"ious fields, a rotation system is
followed so that each and every farmer may irrigate his field.
4. River valley system: In the western ghat mountains of South India are present
many steep and narrow riverine valleys. In this region, rainfall is very heavy
during June to September and again in November and December. On the
slopes and in the valleys, perennial crops [coconuts, supm"i (Areca nuts), coffee,
rubber, tapioca, etc.] are cultivated. Rice crop is also grown in the bottom lands
of tbe valleys.
5. River lift system: Water is lifted directly from the river for the irrigation of
nearby fields. It is done due to inadequate flow of water in canal or due to
insufficient release of water from the river reservoir.
FiQ 3.2 Mixed cropping
ropping Patterns
6. Sprinkler irrigation system: It is introduced in canal irrigated areas of
Haryana, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesb. Drip irrigation system is in use
in Maharasbtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Odisba and Tamil Nadu. It is
in practice with the help of Israel technical knowhow in Indian Agricultural
Research Institute, ]\ ew Delhi. They are also providing training to the people
of various states. Here they are cultivating different varieties of roses, tomatoes,
capsicum of yellow and red colour, gourd, etc.
Mixed Cropping
The practice of growing two or more crops
multaneously at tbe same time is called mixed cropping
ig. 3.2). Cropping activities go on all the year round in
:ndia, if water is available for crops. In nortbern India,
ere are two distinct seasons kharif Ouly to October) and
hi (October to March). Crops grown between March and
ne are called zaid. In some parts of the cou ntry, there
_.;;-..;,v..;,e..;,m..;,en..;,l..;,in..;,F,;.:oo..;,d..;,R,;.:es;;;,ou;;;,r,;.:ce;;;,s 1..;,0..;,.1_iiii;n;;;;;liil
are no such distinct seasons. Crops are grown sale or mixed (mixed-cropping), or
in a definite sequence (rotational cropping). The land may be occupied by one crop
during one season (mono-cropping) or by two crops (double cropping) which may
be grown in a year in sequence. More than two crops are also grown in a year
. (multiple cropping). These are intensive cropping.
Kharifcrops include rice, sorghum (kharif), bajra, maize, ragi, groundnut and
Rabi crops are wheat, sorghum (rabi) gram and pea.
Mixed cropping: Crop mixtures are widely grown, especially during kharif
season. For example, Maize + uradbean; soyabean + pigeon pea (arhar); sorghum +
pigeon pea, pigeon pea + mungbean, cotton + mungbean and groundnut + sunflower.
During rabi season, especially in unirrigated area, wheat and barley, and wheat
and gram, or wheat + barley + gram are the mixtures of grain crops. Brassica
(mustard) and safflower are grown mixed with gram or even with wheat. Mixed
cropping is an efficient way of using land. Breeders are developing plant types in
pulses and oil seeds, with good compatibility with row crops.
Choosing a mix crop: In mixed cropping, the following factors are to be kept
in mind:
1. Nutritional demand should be different for both the crops. In case of wheat +
gram, the latter provides nitrogen to the soil.
2. Water requirement of both the crops should be different. One needs more
water than the other.
3. Duration of both the crops should be different, one of long duration and the
other of short duration.
4. Root growth of both the crops should be different, one deep-rooted and the
other not, so that they may get water and nutrients from different levels.
5. Size of the plants should also be different. If one crop is tall, the other should
be dwarf. In this way, both the crops will get proper light, water and nutrients.
Advantages of Mixed Cropping
1. No crop failure: If one grows two crops at the same time in a field, having
different requirements of nutrients and water, then harvesting of both the
crops cannot be damaged or failed due to uncertain monsoon. One will
definitely give a good yield.
2. Improves soil fertility: Usually cereal crops and leguminous crops are grown
in mixed cropping. Leguminous crops provide nitrogen to the soil because
their roots possess nitrogen fixing bacteria, while cereal crop depletes more
nutrients. Thus, soil fertility is improved in mixed cropping.
3. Increase crop yield: Due to increased soil fertility, yield of both the crops is
also increased.
4. Variety of produce is also increased due to mixed cropping. One gets fodder,
pulses, vegetables and fruits in practising mixed cropping. It is beneficial to
the family economonically and also to the farm animals.
5. Optimum utilisation of the field also takes place.
6. Minimize pest damage to the crops: In mixed cropping, one crop may be prone
to a particular type of pest, weed or insect. But the other may not be susceptible
to that pest. Thus, in mixed cropping chances of infestations are reduced.
ow there is a need of increasing productivity per unit area and time. Thus,
traditional mixed cropping has been retailored and system of intercropping
has been introduced.
Improvement in Food Resources
103 1i'1:ffi11ti
'J 1 1 ' l " I ~
Fig. 3.4 InlercroDping of grOlmdnul-
Fig. 3.3 Inlercropping pattern
I. ... 7 ........ , ~
Fertiliser can be applied according to
the need of crops sown in rows.
There is a definite pattern of rows of
Use of pesticide to an individual crop
is possible.
Harvesting of both crops at different
times is possible.
Marketing and consumption of the
crops can be done independently.
Use of pesticides for pest control to
an individual crop is not possible.
Harvesting of both crops separately
is not possible.
Marketing and consumption of both
crops can be done at a time.
I. I It minimizes the risk of failure of Increases productivity per unit area of
both the crops. the field.
Seeds of both the crops are mixed Seeds of two crops are not mixed.
before sowing.
Fertiliser to individual crop cannot
be applied.
No definite pattern of crop rows.
S.No. ' Mixed cropping Intercropping
I Multiple Cropping
Multiple cropping is getting more than two crops in a year in the same field.
These intensive croppings (mixed cropping, intercropping and multiple cropping)
may be done either in sequence or even there may be relay cropping-one crop
undersown in a standing crop. Multiple cropping helps in the improvement of soil
fertility. In mixed cropping, better crops having fertility in short duration are to be
selected. This practice saves the time and labour of the farmers, cotton crop and
groundnut crop are grown at the same time. Proper irrigation is also required in
multiple cropping.
Future of cropping pattern: With the increase in population, the irrigated
area is incr!,asing and with advances in agricultural science, most of the extensive
cropping patterns are giving way to intensive cropping. The development in minor
irrigation works has especially provided the farmers with opportunities to crop their
land all the year round with high-yielding varieties. This intensive cropping will
require an easy and ready availability of balanced fertilisers and plant protection
chemicals. There should be an appropriate price policy for inputs and agricultural
In India the size of the land holdings will diminish further in future due to
population increase. Hence, the country has to produce enough for its people
without deteriorating the quality of the environment.
provemenl in Food Resources
Table 3.7 Comparison between Mixed Cropping and Intercropping
I Intercropping
It is different from the mixed cropping pattern, but
here also two or more crops are grown together. Two or
more crops are grown in the field in definite separate rows
(Fig. 3.3). The combination of crops is like that of mixed
cropping. Here row pattern of crops is definite, with one
row of main crop, one, two or three rows of intercrops are
grown (I : I; I : 2; I : 3 or I : 4). In intercropping, with
wide-rowed slow-growing crops, companion crops may be
grown in rows. In case of plantation crops, intercropping
with pulses and fodder crops is common. Chillies are
rotated withjowar, whereas onion, coriander, turmeric and
ginger are grown as mixed crops with other seasonal crops.
Crop Rotation
Crops are grown in a definite sequence in a year, such
as cereal (wheat, barley) crop, and legume (pulse) crop
alternately. Roots of the leguminous plants possess nodules
in which nitrogen-fixing bacteria Rhizobiulll lives. They
fix the atmospheric nitrogen and thus, maintain the soil
fertility. It increases the crop yield and also helps to control
diseases. Nitrogen is essential for the plant growth. Hence, the
leguminous crops are sown in the field every year. This practice
of growing two different crops in a field in a year in succession
is very common among Indian farmers. For example, pulses,
beans and groundnuts are alternately grown between wheat,
maize, bajra crops. Peas and grams are grown along with
wheat in the same season. Alier harvesting peas and grams,
maize or bajra are sown. Pea and gram crop enrich the soil
nitrogen. This agricultural practice helps in more yield of dle
crops. Nitrogenous fertilisers are thus, less used.
Types of crop rotation Crops in Rotation
l. One year rotation I. Maize (khari!) - Wheat (rabi).
2. Maize - mustard.
3. Rice - wheat.
2. Two years rotation 1. Maize - mustard - sugarcane - 11lelhi (Fenugreek).
2. Maize - potato - sugarcane - peas.
3. Rice - pea - rice - gram.
3. Three years rotation 1. Rice - wheat - mustard - muong - sugarcane - berseem.
2. Cotton - oat - sugarcane - pea - maize - wheat.
I 3. Maize - potato - sugarcane - green manure.
Selection of Crops for Rotation
For selecting the crops for rotation, the following points are to be considered:
1. Availability of soil moisture: It may be through rain, or through irrigation.
For example: Rice is an ideal crop for areas likely to be flooded heavily by rains
or by seasonally flowing river water. Wheat is grown in rabi season when the
amount of rainfall is low, and it is necessary to irrigate the crop for getting a
good yield. Dwarfvarieties of wheat need more water (irrigation) than the tall
varieties. Barley is similar to wheat but it can withstand more draught because
Improvement in Food Resources
I Rotation of Crops
1. Rabi wheat is followed by crops such as maize, jowar, bajra, cotton and arhar.
Sometimes, some of the green manure crops such as sanai, 1IZoong, guaT, lobia
are sown immediately after kharif to enrich the soil. Gram, linseed, barley and
mustard are also included in rotations.
2. Maize (kharif crop) is a short duration crop. It is rotated with wheat, potato,
barley, etc., in a one year rotation. In two years rotation, it is grown in rotation
with cotton and sugarcane.
3. Groundnut (kharifcrop) is grown year after year. In certain places, it is rotated
with wheat,jowar, bajra, gram, paddy and cotton. Groundnut in certain places
is grown mixed with jowar and bajra.
Table 3.8 Three Types of Crop Rot"tion on the b<.sis " uration
F19 35 Crop -
104 ....,'oJ.,
provement in Food Resources
Cost-benefit ratio: Return per rupee invested = fl..
Test cost 0 cu tlvauon

of crop rotation IS
Gross return
Efficiency =
Monetary input and output relationship: Efficiency
described as an output per unit of input.
Output in terms of money
Input in terms of money
of its deeper and well-proliferated root system. Maize is very sensitive to excess
water. Submergence of soil for 3 to 4 days during vegetative or flowering
period can reduce the yield up to 50 per cent. Millets (sorghum, etc.) are the
hardest among cereals. They are grown in rainfed conditions. Crop should be
irrigated at least at the critical stages to maintain optimum moisture in the root
zone during dry spells. Pulses are also grown under rainfed conditions and
rarely receive irrigation. Oil seeds like groundnut, sesamum and niger (kharif
crop), and mustard, castor and linseed (rabi crop) are generally
grown in rainfed conditions. Kharif seeds need one or two irrigations but rabi
seeds require more irrigations during the growth period, cotton also needs
less irrigation.
_ Nutrient status oflhe soil: Crops of the same family should not be repeatedly
grown in the same field year after year. It reduces some particular soil
nutrients, thus depleting the soil fertility. This will also encourage the build up
of diseases and insect pests.
v..i1abi.. nputs: Inputs are fertiliser and manures pesticides, implements
and manpower, etc. More than twO crops should be grown in a year in a
particular field. It will not deplete the soil nutrient, instead will add some
nutrients to the soil. High input crops like sugarcane, potato, maize, wheat
and rice may be grown before low input crop. This will maintain the fertility
of the land.
4. Crops of short and long duration should be selected.
5. Marketing of produce: Farmer of the nearby town should grow seasonal flower
and early vegetable for getting a good price of their product. Old traditional
farming is less productive.
Processinv 0 lrod"ce is more beneficial than the traditional marketing of
Assessment of Crop Rotation
Selection of crops for rotation can be determined by comparing the
productivity of crops, which use similar resources (fertilisers, manures and water)
and give similar produce. For example, if we grow only cereals like wheat and rice
or only pulses like umd, bean, aT/wI", lIloong and gram (chick pea), and use same
inputs like fertilisers, water, pesticides, etc., the assessment can be done on the basis
of the total produce and the amount of used inputs. But, if crop rotation system is
followed, different crops are grown in the same field in a year, then the assessment
will be different. It will be as follows:
Cropping index: It is represented in percentage.
Number of crops
Cropping index = x 100
Number of years
Net returns: The monetary difference of input and output value is expressed as:
Net returns = Monetary gross return - Total cost of cultivation.
..... /.--......,
. "
Animals, especinlly
i'nsects, that cause
damage to crops are
called pests.
The chemicals which
au used to kill
insects are called
Advantages of Crop Rotation
1. It improve the fertility of the soil. In crop rotation, cereals like wheat, maize,
bajra, jowar are alternately grown with legume crops (pulses, peas, grams,
beans, groundnuts, etc.), non-leguminous crops alternate with leguminous
crops in the same field. Cereal crops utilise soil nitrogen for their growth,
making the soil nitrogen deficient. When leguminous crops are sown in the
same field they enrich the soil with nitrogen by fixing atmospheric nitrogen.
Thus, the deficient soil from nitrogen again becomes enriched with nitrogen.
This cycle goes on. This increase the productivity of the crop.
2. Productivity of foodgrains thus increases.
3. Saving of nitrogenous fertilisers, because nitrogen is provided by the
leguminous crops.
4. It also helps in controlling weeds and pests.
Crop Protection
Fields are infested with a variety of organisms that destroy the crops and cause
great economic loss. These are called pests. They include weeds, microbes, fungi,
insects, rodents, etc. Crops have to be protected from pests by using pesticides
and herbicides. Crops also need to be saved from diseases by treating them with
medicines. Even after harvesting, the seeds need to be stored properly and protected
from damage. Crop protection deals with all this.
Crop protection is a technique of protecting and growing crops and preserving
agricultural products from natural enemies like insects and weeds, etc. A number
of animals are attracted towards crop plants for food, shelter and breeding and
cause harm to them. These animals are called pests. Pests are destructive organisms
causing great harm to the standing crop in the field and also in storage. These
pests are insects, mites, nematodes, rodents, birds, bacteria, viruses and fungi. The
association of pests to the crops, plants, etc., is very intimate. It is not possible to
eliminate these enemies completely, but we can minimise their effect to a greater
extent by using pesticides (biocides). Crop protection is also called pest control.
Pests cause direct damage to the plants.
Loss offoodgrains due to pests is about 30 per cent throughout the world. In
India, the damage to the crop yield due to pests and diseases is about 20 per cent.
Insects destroy annually about 15 per cent ofthe food produced in India.
Pesticides used to control or eliminate the pests include insecticide for killing
insects, weedicides for eliminating the weeds and fungicides for killing the fungi.
Pesticides are either sprayed on crop plants or used for treating seeds and soil.
These pesticides on the other hand cause pollution of air and water if used in excess.
It is easier and more effective to prevent a pest invasion by suitable preventive
measures than to cure it, when it has attacked on the crop. The preventive measures
against the pests are:
(i) Use of resistant varieties of crop plants.
(ii) Treatment of plants with a chemical, capable of protecting them from attacks.
(iii) Control of parasites on seed and in soil before planting.
(iv) Treatment of vectors of infection.
(v) Control by altering agricultural practices, viz., crop rotation, deep ploughing,
changing cultivation seasons, etc. These are curative methods.
(vi) Biological control of the pests by organisms is dangerous to the concerned
pest. Such organisms are called parasites.
Improvemenl in Food Resources
Warm and humid climate is supposed to be more favourable for infestation
of insect pests. For example, maize, jowar, bajra, cotton, etc. are grown before the
rainy season in June and hence are more prone to insect pests and diseases than the
wheat, gram, pea, etc.
1. Insect Pest Control
A number of insects are serious pests of crop plants. They do harm the plants
at all stages, all parts and products of plants. They cut roots, stems and leaves; suck
cell sap from various parts of plants and bore into stem and fruits. They cause heavy
economic loss to the farmers. Insects causing direct loss to plant are:
(sugarcane leaf hopper)
Painted bug
~ ~ Q
Fig, 3.6 Afew common Insect pests of crop plants
Mustard aphid
Gundhi bug
rovement in Food Resources
(1) Leaf eaters (defoliators): These insects possess biting and chewing type
of mouth parts. They sometimes cause serious damage to the crop, e.g.,
grasshoppers, locusts, beetles, weevils and larval stages (caterpillars) or
butterflies and moths.
(2) Leaf miners: They live in between the upper and lower epidermis of leaves
and eat the green parts of leaves, e.g., citrus leaf miner.
(3) Leaf rollers: Caterpillars feed upon the leaves and roll up the leaves. These
leaves later shrivel and fall off, e.g., cotton leaf roller.
(4) Stem and root borers: Caterpillars of some insect pests bore the stems and
roots of various crop plants and cause serious damages. They cause stunted
growth and infested plants also dry up, e.g., rice stem borers and sugarcane
(5) Sap suckers: Some insect pests have piercing and sucking type of mouth parts.
They suck the juice of plants. The extraction of sap or juice of plants cause
severe damage to plants. Leaves become brown and fall. off, e.g., rice gundhi
bug, mustard aphids, etc.
(6) Bark and wood feeders: Beetles and weevils make tunnels in the bark and
wood of trees and shrubs, e.g., bark eating caterpillar and termites.
(7) Fruitdestroyers: They attack fruits, making them unfit for human consumption
and seed purposes, e.g., fruit flies attack fruits of cucumbers, mango, guava,
(8) Seed feeders (storage insects): Certain insects like rice weevil, rice and flour
moth, potato tuber moth, etc., damage the stored grains, etc.
Insects causing indirect losses to plants: Most aphids and leaf-hoppers secrete
honey dew on their host leaves, It causes the development of sooty moulds which
checks the growth and development of plants, Blight, mould and wilt diseases are
caused by fungus, bacteria and virus, These diseases are transmitted by sap sucking
insects, Viral diseases of potato, tobacco, peach, etc., are transmitted by leafhoppers,
aphids, etc.
Control of Various Insect Pests
(i) Control of root cutting types of insects is done by mixing insecticides in soil,
e.g" chlorop\Tiphos,
(ii) Control of leaf and stem cutting and boring type of insects is done by spraying
or dusting the contact insecticides. These penetrate the exoskeleton of insects
and kill them, e,g" lindane, thiodon and malathion.
(iii) Control of sap-SUCking insects (e,g., aphids) is done by spraying of dimethoate,
metasystox, etc. These are systemic insecticides, absorbed into the' tissues
of plants, and when an insect sucks the sap, it enters its digestive system,
killing the insect pests, Such insecticides are required in less amounts for
Pathogens are always present in the environment and when they get favourable
conditions for their growth, they infect the plants, These pathogens are
transmitted through the soil and seed, water and air. Soil, water and seed
borne diseases mostly infect roots and stems, whereas air borne diseases attack
the aerial parts of plants, Soil and seed borne diseases can be controlled by
treating soil and seed, Air borne diseases are controlled by spraying fungicide
solution on infested parts of plants.
All pesticides should be used according to the
recommended dose, At the time of use, instructions written
on the packet should strictly be followed. It may cause harm
to the human beings and livestock,
Pesticides should be kept well packed and away
from the reach of children, Person spraying pesticides
on crops should keep his mouth and nose covered, Avoid
direct contact with pesticides; it may be harmful to human
I 2. Biological Methods of Pest Control
It includes deliberate introduction of living material
(parasite, predator or pathogen or an animal pest) into the
environment of the pest so that its population density may
be reduced or damaged. The living material is a natural
enemy of the pest.
For example, ladybird beetles and praying mantis
devour the scale insects and aphids, feeding on plant sap,
Insect pests are also controlled by bacteria called Bacillus
lhuringiensis, These bacteria enter the body of insect pest,
multiply and kill them,
~ " " . / ' , , - ---
Fig. 3.8 Rust disease of wheat
Improvement in food Resources
Table 3.9 Control Measures of Insect Pests of Major Crops
S. I
Name of insect pests
of the
Common Scientific
No. measures
name name
I. Rice (Oryza I. 1. Gundhi Leplocorisa INymphs and adults suck II. Plough the land immediately
sativa) bug vancorrus the sap of tender grains. after hanest and destroy
Affected earheads stand stubble.
erect like normal ones, 2. Spray with Manacrataphas at
but without any grain the rate of 0.5 kg/hectare or
formation. Attack is during 0.04%
post-flowering time. Diazinon or Phosphamidon or
2. Leaf TeUigella Both nymphs and adults Spray at the rate
hopper spectra suck sap from young leaves. of 0.5 kg/hectare or Spray 0.4%
Infested leaves turn yellow. Phosphamidon or Diazinon.
2. Wheat I. Gujhia Tanynecus Grubs feed on roots and Mix 5%, Aldrin dust in the soil
(Triticum weevil indicus adults cut the growing before sowing at the rate of 20 kg/
aesitivu:m) points. hectare. For adults, dust 5% BHC.
2. Shoot fly Atherigona Maggots attack seedlings Application of 10% Phoratc or
naqvn and kill the central shoots, Disulfoton (5%) to the soil at the
causing dead hearts. time of sowing.
3. Sugarcane I. Top TfJporhyza Larvae bore into the midrib Apply I kg of Phorate granules at
(Saccharum borer nivella of leaves, make tunnels the rate of 20 kg/ hectare at the
officinarum) enter into the growing base of shoot in June. Also spray
point and damage it. 0.05% \lonocrotophos.
2. Shoot Chilo Larvae bore into the central Apply Lindane 51 kg/hectare in
borer infuscatellus shoot and make tunnel 800-1000 litre water in furrows
downward. Larvae feed before planting.
inside on the soft tissues.
3. Leaf Pyrilla Both nymphs and adults Spray Endosulphan 35G at the rate
hoppers perpusilla suck sap from underside of of 1.251 kg/hectare. Dust 5% BHC
(pyrilla) leaf. or spray 0.03% \lonocrotophos.
4. Chickpea Pod borer Heliothis Sps. Larvae first feed on tender Spray Carbanl at the rate of 1.5
(gram) leaves. Later on, they make kg/hectare.
holes in pods and feed the
developing grain.
5. Groundnut White grub Laclmosterna Grubs feed on roots and Apply 10% Phorate granules.
(Amchis consangumea kill plants.
Adult beetles feed on Application of Thimet 10 G
leaves. granules at the rate of 20 kg per
hectare before sowing.
6. \1ustard Lipaphis Nymphs and adults suck Spray 0.5% Lindane, or 0.02%
(Brassica aphid
sap from the leaves and Phosphamidon or Spray
campestris) other tender parts of metas\Stox 25 EC at the rate of 11
plants. kglhectare in 1000 litre water.
Affected leaves get curled Dusting with 5% Malathion at the
and plants wither and die. rate of 20 kg! hectare, or Dust
5-10% BHC or 4% Carbaryl.
Painted Bagmda Both nymphs and adults
bug cnlciferarum suck the sap of leaves at the
seedling stage and devitalize
I plants.
.' _'ovement in Food Resources 109 / .
Fog 3.9
Tikka disease of groundnut
Crop Diseases
Diseases produce disorders in the body due to harmful physiological changes.
The causative agents like bacteria, virus and fungus change the normal physiological
process. Thus, certain distinct symptoms appear. Diseases cause the loss of amount
of plant products in the field and also in store. Plant diseases have been classified
into the following three categories:
(1) Soil borne diseases: Their pathogens are found in the soil and under
favourable conditions the pathogens infect the roots either at a seedling or
an adult stage of the plant. Examples are smut of bajra, tikka of groundnut.
(Fig. 3.9).
(2) Air-borne diseases: Their pathogens (fungi) are found in the air. They infect
the aerial parts ofthe plants, e.g., shooLS, leaf, flower and fruits. Examples are
rust of wheat, rust of gram, blast of rice, mildews, etc.
(3) Seed-borne diseases: Some pathogens (fungi) live dormant in the seeds and
other propagative organs of the host plants. These dormant pathogens become
active when infected seeds germinate and cause infection, e.g., ergot of bajra
(pearl millet), leaf spot of rice, loose smut of wheal, covered smut of barley.
(4) Water-borne diseases are transmitted through water, e.g., blight of rice
I Control of Plant Diseases
Control of plant diseases is necessary to prevent the quality and quantity of
yield. Import only disease free seeds and propagative parts. Many pathogenic fungi
complete their life cycles in two hosts. Alternate host provides shelter to the pathogen
under unfavourable conditions, destroy this alternate host so that the pathogen's
life cycle does not complete. By crop rotation pathogens can also be minimised or
destroyed because then they will not get an alternate host for completing their life
cycle. Compounds of sulphur, mercury, arsenic, zinc and copper are also used to
control plant diseases.
Table 3.10 Important Diseases of Major Crops and their Control Measures
Name of the
Symptoms Control measures
Common Causative
organism name
Rice (Oryw Blast Piricu/o,ri orywe Brown boat-shaped lesions on Treat seed with thiram solution
sativa) leaves, stem and grains. in water (2.5 g/kg seed ). Spray
Bavistin (l gil water) at 10 days
interval. Treat seeds with Agrosan
G'\ (2.5 g/kg) before sowing.
Bacterial Xanthomonas Watery yellow lesions with Grow tolerant varieties of rice
blast orywe brown margins on leaves. like IR-20 and Pusa 2-21. Treat
Later the whole plant may seed with mixed solution of
appear blighted. Streplocycline (0.015%) and
wettable ceresan (0.05 %).
Wheat Rust Puccinia Brown rust-colour elongated Spray Dithane M45 at 2g/1 water at
(Triticum grmmmntS SpOLS on leaves and stem. 10 days intervals.
aestivum) Grains develop black powdery
smut in them.
Sugarcane Red rot Colletotrichwn Small red spots on leaf mid Grow resistant varieties. Treat
(Saccharum falcatU1n rib appear. Leaves wither. Pith seeds with Areton or Agallo
of sugarcane turns reddish. (0.25%) for 5 min before sowing.
. / . ~ - -
Improvement in Food Resources
L"-- _
Gra"y Mycoplasma 1'roduction of many thin Treat seeds with hot air at 54'C for
shoot tillers from the base. S hours. Use healthy seeds.
Sprouting of lateral buds.
Chickpea Wilt Fusarium Leaves become yellow and Deep sowing at 8-10 em depth in
(gram) oxysponL1n dry up. Roots turn black and the light soil.
Pigeon pea Stem rot Diplodia cajani Development of dark brown Mixed cropping of sorghum and
lesions on stem near the soil chickpea. Avoid water logging.
surface. Girdling of stem
leading to death of the plant.
Groundnut Tikka or Light brown oval-shaped Spray Bavistin (0.05 %) at 15 days
, (Arachis
leaf spot berkeleyii and lesions on leaflets, petiole and intervals. Grow resistant varieties.
hypogaea) Mycosphae-rella stem.
'Vhite rust Albugo candida Cream yellow or white pustule Spray Dithane Z-7S or Dithane
(Brassica on the lower surface ofleaves. M45 at 2g/1 in water. Remove
campestris) and burn affected plant
Downy Peronospom Yellow irregular spots on Remove and burn affected plant
mildew brassicae. leaves. Inflorescense is debris. Spray the crop with 0.2%
malformed, twisted and bent Ziram or l\laneb.
with 'white powder in severe
Weed Control in the Fields
Along with the crop plants, certain unwanted plants also grow in the fields.
These unwanted plants are called weeds. These weeds adversely affect the growth
of the crop plants, since they also absorb soil nutrients, water, fertiliser and manure,
and take sunlight for photosynthesis. This causes decrease in growth of crop plants
and their yield. Hence, their removal is essential. Weeds may act as an alternate host
for certain microorganisms and insects and pests, which develop on them. These
later attack on crop plants affecting their growth and yield. Some weeds produce
ubstances which may be toxic to crop plants, inhibiting their growth. Seeds of weeds
may also be harmful to human beings when mixed with seeds ofcrop plants. Say, for
example khesari dal produced along with arhaT dal in Madhya Pradesh is poisonous
or human beings.
1. Common Weeds
Weeds share the same habitat. In some cases weeds may be a crop plant another
with crop, such as mustard plants in wheat crop. But they are sown along
,;th wheat in a separate line on an elevation. Wheat plants of C-306 (tall variety)
e weeds in the field of wheat HD-2687 of dwarf variety. Growth of weeds is more
kharif crop in comparison to rabi crops. Bathua (Chenopodium) which we eat in
-inters grows abundantly in wheat fields as a weed. Weeds in different seasons and
different crops vary. Amaranlhus (chaulai) is a common weed that grows with all
ops. Arge11lone with yellow flowers is also a weed.
Weeds are of two types:
(i) Broad leaved weeds, like chaulai, (Amaranthus), bathua (Chenopodium). These
are dicotyledonous. They grow in a monocotyledonous crop such as cereals.
Ivernen! in Food Resources III
VK Biology IX
(ii) Karrow leafed weeds. such as wild oat, grass, etc., are monocotyledonous.
Narrow-leaved weeds
Wild Oat
Broad-leafed weeds
Table 3.11 Weeds of Different Crops
Amaranlhus viridis (Chaulai) Cyperus mtundus (nut grass, motha),
TTiamhema (saathi) wild sorghum Gangli jowar)
Fg.3.10 Certain common weeds
Kharif (maize, Jowar,
bajra, pulses, rice)
Rabi (wheat, barley, Chenopodium album (bathua) PhalQ17s (mandoosi), wild oat Gangli
pea, gram, etc.) Convolvulus (hirankhuri) jari)
I 2. Weed Control Methods
Removal of weed plants from a crop field is called weeding. Weeds can be
controlled mechanically, chemicaJly and biologically.
(i) Mechanical methods: Weeds are removed by picking them manually or by
harrow, ploughing, and tilling, mowing or cutting with machines.
(ii) Chemical methods: Weeds are also destroyed with the help of weedicides
or herbicides. Herbicides are applied to the foliage of weed or to the soil
three times: pre-planting of crop; after planting, but before emergence; after
emergence. They may damage the weed either by contact with the roots or
with foliage or after translocation through the roots or through the foliage.
Herbicides (inorganic) are sulphuric acid, obtained as Bov-brown oil of vitriol,
sodium chlorate, borax, and crude sodium borate. Organic herbicides are
auxin-type growth regulator. MCPA, 2 methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid
and 2, 4-dichloro-phenoxyacetic acid kill many annual and perennial weeds
in cereals without damaging the crop.
(iii) Biological methods: Control of weeds is done by using insects which feed
selectively on a particular weed. Certain microorganisms are also used to kill
the weeds by producing disease. Cochineal insect control the growth of prickly
pear weed (Opuntia). Control of aquatic weeds is done by growing fish, like
grass carp. Millet, barley, soyabean, etc., crop plants do not allow the growth
of weeds. These crops are called smoother crops.
(iI') Cultural methods: Prepare proper seed bed, crops should be sown at proper
time, crop rotation and intercropping are beneficial to control weeds.
... / ..,----
. "
VK Biology IX
112 Improvement in Food Resources
VK Biology IX
Rust red flour beetle
Khapra beetle
S O'M gra nt
Rice weevil
Lesser grain borer Grain and flour moth
Pulse beetle
Rice moth
(2) Abiotic factors
Moisture or humidity and temperature are the abiotic factors.
provement in Food Resources
Food grains are stored in silos (FCI, Food Corporation of India) and also in
gunny bags in large store houses by FCI and also by traders. Farmers also store
wheat in gunny bags in large rooms along with wheat plants husk (bhoosa). During
the storage of food grains damage occurs mainly by two factors:
These include insects, rodents (e.g., house rat and mouse, and squirrel, etc.),
birds, mites, bacteria and fungi. Birds like parrot, parakeet, pigeon, bulbul, etc.
damage the standing mature crop. A few insect pests of stored grains are:
(i) Grubs of Pulse beetle or gram dhora (Callosobruchus maculatus) damage stored
(ii) Grubs and adult beetle of rice weevil (Sitophilus oryza) damage rice. Larvae of
rice moth (Corcyra cephalonica) damage rice and maize.
(iii) Wheat weevil or Khapra (7iogodenlla granariwm) damage wheat grains.
(iv) Caterpillars of grain and flour moth (Sitotmga ccrealela) bore into grains of
wheat, rice, barley, maize and jowar.
(v) Adult and larvae of rust red flour beetle (7iibolium castanewn) damage wheat
(vi) Grub and adult beetle of lesser grain borer (Rhiwpcrtlza dominica) damage
grains, feeding on inner material.
I (1) Biotic Factors
Scientific Storage of Food Grains
It is very important to preserve the stored food grains from losses due to
insect pests, other pests, fungi, etc. Food grains are stored either for future human
consumption or for seed purposes. Improper storage conditions cause insect
infestation. Deterioration in quality and quantity of food grains also occur due to
improper storage of food grains. About 100 crores loss occurs annually in stored
agricultural produce, i.e., about 9.3% annual loss. Beetles and moths are important
pests of stored grains. In case of beetles, grubs and adults, both attack the stored
grains, while in case of moths, only caterpillars damage the food grains.
Fig, 3.12 Penicillium
Fig. 313 Yeast
Maximum growth ofinsects occur at 30Cto 32Ctemperature. Microorganisms
become active at 30C to 40C. The food grains, thus, should be stored below 30C,
at which microorganisms and insects remain less active, causing less damage.
Vegetables and fruits require 1C to 7C for preservation. Meat and fish are stored
at 3C to 8C and 7C to 10C respectively.
Food grains should be dried before storage. Moisture content of grains should
not be above 14 per cent by weight. Moisture above this level causes decay to grains
by helping in the growth of microorganisms and insects. Microorganisms and insects
release heat during respiration, which cause a rise in temperature ofthe space. This
heat is called dry heat.
Humidity in air promotes growth of moulds like MUCOT or Penicillium over
the grains. These cause decay of grains. Therefore the storage houses should also
be dried before storage. Humidity more than 14 per cent also cause germination
of grains leading to rise of temperature. This rise of temperature of food grains
due to growth of fungus and germination of seeds due to more humidity is called
wet heating or damp-grain heating. Both dry heating and wet heating reduce the
quality of stored grains. They also affect the germination of seeds.
Thus, biotic and abiotic factors cause infestation of insects, degradation of
grains in quality, weight and germination, etc. Such crop produce fetch low market
price causing economic loss.
I Preventive Measures before Food Grain Storage
The following preventive measures should be taken before storage of food
grains in storage houses:
(I) Drying: The moisture content of crops at the harvest time ranges from 15
to 35 per cent. Grains also absorb moisture from the atmosphere, if humid
conditions of the environment prevails. The moisture content in grains should
be below 9 per cent. If it is above this prescribed limit, it will cause decay of
food grains by microorganisms (e.g., bacteria, fungi) and insects. Therefore,
the food grain crop should be dried first in the sun and then in shade. For
drying, it should be spread thinly on the cement floor. Mechanical driers are
also used for drying on a commercial scale. They blow hot air. Removal of
foreign particles from food grains, such as weed seeds, earth particles, stone
pieces, straw, etc., is also essential before storage. Thus, crop of food grains
should be well sieved.
(2) Maintenance of hygiene of store houses: Storage places like warehouses, bins
and godowns should be clean. They should be devoid of dust, dirt, rubbish,
webbing or refuse of previous grains. The cracks and holes in the walls, floor
and ceiling should be sealed by cement. Gunny bags used for storage of food
grains should be new. If old gunny bags are to be used, they should be turned
inside out and then dried in the sun and fumigated or sprayed by insecticides
and fungicides. If any moisture persists in the bags or any' fungal infection is
present, it will damage the grains. Earthen pots (matka, etc.) used in villages
should also be dried and cleaned. Food grains should also be dry, cool and
clean. Mouths ofgunny bags after filling the grains should be stitched properly.
The grainfilled gunny bags should be stored in store houses in tiers, one
above the other and there should be space in between tiers for inspection and
:.----- . \
VK Biology IX
114 Improvement in Food Resources
Malathion (50 EC):
Pyrethrum (2.5 EC):
VK Biology IX
0 m
area in I : 300 dilution.
0 m
area in I : 300 dilution.
(2) Fumigation: In fumigation, the solution of pesticides is converted into fumes
(vapours). Fumigants should be toKic to insects and mites. It should penetrate
the material to be protected easily and it should not damage the material or
leave harmful residues. It should not be phytotoxic. Fumigants enter the pests'
body through spiracle. Fumigants are most-effective in closed spaces. They are
widely used for the control of stored-product pests.
provement in Food Resources
fumigation if needed. Gunny bags should not touch the side walls, otherwise
they may get moisture. Storage places should also be dried before storage.
(3) Prophylactic treatment: Storage places should be sprayed with insecticides,
fungicides, etc. or fumigated for making them free from microorganisms and
pests. If the grains are used for sowing, they should be mixed with proper
insecticides and fungicides. Gunny bags, especially the old ones, may also be
fumigated or treated with pesticides before fIlling grains.
(4) Improved structures for storage: For safe storage of grains improved storage
structures should be used, such as pusa bin, pusa cubicle, pusa kothar and pant
kuthala. These structures are air tight, moisture proof, thermally insulated
and rodent proof.
(5) Silos: These are used for large scale
storage of grains. These are large
and tall cylindrical steel structures,
having outlets (chutes) at different
levels to withdraw the stock of grains
when required. They are built-in
arrangements for temperature control,
aeration and fumigation, etc. They
are all proof, i.e., insects, birds and
mammals cannot damage the grains.
In silos large quantity of grains can be
stored. Gunny bags are not required in
silos. Silos are located in Hapm (Uttar
BHC WP (50 per cent): 1
0 m
area in 1 : 25 dilution.
Control Measures against Pests Fig 314 Agrainsilo
Grains stored for human or animal consumption should not be mixed with
any type of pesticides, but they may be fumigated. Seeds for sowing purpose can
be mixed with pesticides for keeping them free from every type of infestation. Pest
infestation of stored grains can be avoided by the following techniques:
(I) Chemical control by insecticides: Insecticides are sprayed or dusted on stored
Spraying of insecticide solution is done by manual sprayer or mechanical
sprayer. In this method, only surface layer ofgrains get sprayed. Gammaxene or
benzene hexachloride wettable powder (BHC WP), pyrethrum and malathion
are used for spraying the storage places at 3 weeks' intervals. Preparation of
spray solutions are as follows:
,.,t'.... ~ - - - -VK Biology IX
The following are the chieffumigants:
(i) Carbon disulphide used on grains.
(ii) Ethylene oxide used on grains, cereals and some plant products. It is also
toxic to some bacteria, viruses and fungi.
(iii) Aluminium phosphide (AlP) tablets (black poison), each is of 3 grams.
These are used at the rate of 2 tablets per tonne grain or 160 tablets per
cubic metre volume of grain.
(iv) 3 : I mixture of Ethylene dichloride plus carbon tetrachloride (EDCT) in
liquid form is used at the rate of 30 mUI 00 kg grain.
(v) Ethyle dibromide (EDB) in liquid form is used at the rate of 3 mL for one
quintal (100 kg) wheat. It is available in glass ampoules ofdifferent capacities.
These are found wrapped in clothes. It is inserted deep in the storage
grains and is broken. It is gradually converted into fumes into the grains.
Storage place should be sealed for good results.
(vi) Methyl bromide at 16 g per cubic metre is also used.
(3) Plant products: Grains of legumes are protected from insects by smearing
the grains with a small quantity of vegetable oil or mineral oil. This practice is
very old and used in villages. Cowdung burnt hot ash is also mixed with grains
of legumes to protect them from pest attacks. Such treatment prevents egg
laying, reduction in egg hatching, interferes in larval development, i.e., very
few hatch as adults. Control of insects is also done by mixing of neem kernel
powder and crushed dried fruit of black pepper.
I Precautions for Handling Pesticides
Pesticides are poisonous to some extent to human beings, domestic animals
like dogs, cats, cows, etc. Therefore, they should be stored carefully beyond the
reach of children. Their application also need precaution-nose and mouth should
be covered with a cloth, gloves should be used, etc. Also dispose off the leftovers
Since ancient days, man has been
dependent on animals for food and clothing.
The primitive men obtained animal food mainly
by hunting them. Later he domesticated animals
for milk, meat, eggs and fur. These animals were
cow, buffalo, sheep, goat, pig, horse, donkey,
camel, mule and hen, etc. These animals were
called domestic animals and when he started
doing agriculture, he took the help of bullocks
for ploughing the fields, pulling carts and
carrying loads. Cows provided milk. Cows were
worshipped since time immemorial only because
both their progenies-males and females were of
immense use to man. Nowadays in machine age,
bullocks are replaced by tractors. ow male and
female buffaloes are in use, females for milk and
males for carrying loads and pulling carts.
Improvement in Food Resources
Now a special branch of agriculture has been developed for feeding, rearing,
improving animal breeds. This is called Animal
The term livestock is used for cow, buffalo, sheep, goat and pig, etc., which are
raised on a farm. Animal food is rich in proteins. Y1i1k is a nutritious food rich in
proteins, carbohydrates (lactose sugar), fats, vitamin Aand 0, minerals (phosphorus,
calcium) and water (90%). Fish meat is also rich in protein, fat, vitamin A and D.
Animals, insects providing food can be divided into following categories:
(l) Milk-yielding animals like cow, buffalo, sheep and goat. These animals are
called milch animals.
(2) Meat and egg-yielding animals, like hen (poultry), duck, goat and fish provide
eggs and meat.
(3) Honey yielding insects like bees (apiculture), for providing honey, wax, etc.
Table 3.12 l\;utritional T alue of Various Animal Products
(Amount of . 'utrients in Percentage)
Animal husbandry
includes rearing,
feeding and
improving their
IS. No. Animal Fat Protein Carbohydrate Minerals Water
products (Sugar)
I. 'Cow milk I 3.60 4.00 4.5 0.70 87.20
2. 3.60 21.10 ' Little amount 1.10 74.20
3. Fish meat 2.50 19.0 Little amount 1.30 77.20
4. Egg 12.0 13.0 Little amount 1.00 74.00
Dr. V. Kunen
Year Egg Fish
(crore tonnes) (in lakh tonnes) (Iakh tonnes)
1970 60 17.56 170
1980 1300 24.42 302
1960 32.00 5[5
2000 3355 5656 780
Department of animal husbandry is doing an immense work in improving the
breeds of cattles (cow, sheep, goat and buffalo), pigs and poultry. It resulted in a
remarkable increase of milk yield from improved breeds of cows and buffaloes, and
poultry products from poultry.
Table 3.13 Comparison in the Production of Animal Food since 1970.
The increase of egg production brought about a silver revolution in the field
of animal husbandry. It is especially done in the states of Punjab, Haryana and Uttar
Pradesh. Egg consumption especially in winters has also been increased in northern
states of India. Similarly, production of milk has also increased remarkably because
of Operation Flood Programme. All this has happened due to the development of
high milk yielding cattles (cows and buffaloes) by the efforts of government and
private organisations. In Maharashtra, milk yield has increased many times. Mother
Dairy is largely purchasing the milk from the dairy cooperative societies, which
directly purchase from the individual farmers.
Dr. V. Kurien, born on 26th Nov. 1921, is the founder chairman of National
Dairy, Development Board C\fDDB). He designed and implemented the 'Operation
Flood', World's largest dairy development programme. Dr. Kurien is the architect
of modern dairy industry and father of white revolution.
Improvement in Food Resources
Milk Producing (Milch) Animals
Milk-producing animals are cows, buffaloes, sheep and
goats, but mainly cows and buffaloes provide almost the entire
milk to the dairy industry. Artificial feeds and nutrient food
are manufactured to improve the milk yield of cows. The
male animals (ox) are used in agriculture for labour (carrying
loads) and are also for providing meat and hide. Buffalo meat
is exported to Gulf countries (Saudi Arabia, etc.) in sealed tin
packs. The products produced from the milk are ghee, butter
and cheese, etc. Their excreta (dung) is used as manure and
also in producing gas (gobar gas) for cooking and lighting
Dairying is the production and marketing of milk,
usually of cow and buffalo and its products (butter, paneer
and ghee). Dairying includes care of cows, their breeding,
feeding, management and milking. Breeding techniques and
application of genetics in stock improvement programmes of
cattle (cows and buffaloes) has increased the production of new
breeds with high milking capacities.
I Important Breeds of Cows and Buffaloes
There are many breeds of cows and buffaloes ll1 our
country. Buffaloes are mainly restricted in northern states
of India. Various breeds of cows are classified into three
categories: draught, dairy and dual-purpose breeds.
I. Draught breeds: These are strong and sturdy animals used mainly as beasts
of burden. These are used for drawing bullock carts, ploughing land and
transportation. Cows ofthese breeds give less milk.
2. Dairy breeds: These cows are high milk yielders but bullocks are poor for
draught purposes.
3. Dual purpose breeds: These animals serve two purposes well. The cows are
good milk yielders and bullocks are good for draught purposes.
In India (rural), cows are of various breeds-indigenous (Indian), exotic
(foreign) and cross breeds for dairying. Cross breeds are developed by mating bulls
of exotic breeds and cows of Indian breeds.
Fig. 3.16 Ayshire
Fig 317 Murrah buffalo
I Indigenous Dairy Breeds of Cows
These are Deoni (found in Andhra Pradesh), Gir (Native of Gujarat, medium
in size and good milk yielders), are found in Rajasthan, Maharashtra and Baroda.
Red Sindhi (medium sized and red in colour with dark and light red shades) found
in Punjab, Haryana, Odisha, Karnataka, etc., Sahiwal (large and of heavy build and
are superior to other breeds) found in Punjab, Tharparkar (grey Sindhi) found in
Rajasthan, Maharashtra and Haryana. Deoni, Tharparkar and Haryana are dual
purpose cows and are fairly good milk yielders.
Indigenous breeds of buffaloes are Nagpuri, Jaffrabadi, Mili-ravi, Mahsana,
Surti and Murrah. ~ l u r r a h is the breed of Punjab and Haryana. Its average yield of
milk is 1800 to 2500 litres with fat contents about 7 per cent. Mahsana is the breed
of Gujarat (Vadodara and Mahsana districts). Their milk yield is about 1200 to 2500
litres. They start giving milk at a comparatively early age.
~ ~ ' ' ' ;
118 Improvement in Food Resources
Fig,3.18 Improved high milk-yielding cow (Holsteln-Frieslon)
Improved Breeds of Cows
Indigenous breeds of cows have been crossed
with the exotic breeds of bulls to produce high milk
yielding cows. Exotic breeds like jersey, Brown swiss
have long lactation periods, while local breeds like
Red Sindhi and Sahiwal show excellent resistance
to diseases. The tlVO are crossed to obtain offsprings
with both the desired qualities. The improved
high-yielding breeds of cows produced in India
are Frieswal (crossbreed of Sahiwal and Holstein-
_riesian), Karan swiss (crossbreed of swiss and
ahiwal), Karan-Frieswal (crossbreed ofTharparkar
nd Holstein-Friesian), jersey, Holstein-Friesian
and Murrah. Lactation (milk production) period is
the period between the birth of a young one and the
next pregnancy. It usually lasts for about 300 days.
Lactation period of various breeds and milk yield is given below:
Surti is also the breed from Gujarat (Districts of Vadodara and Kaira). Their
average milk yield is 1600 to 1800 litres with a fat content of about 8 to 12 per cent.
Exotic Breeds of Cows
Exotic breeds are those which are imported and reared in India. Exotic
breeds are crossed with indigenous breeds to obtain cross-breeds. These have good,
desirable characteristics than pure indigenous forms. Imported breeds of cows are
Holstein-Friesian of U.SA, jersey (U.SA), and dual purpose cow Swiss (European
Brown) and Gurnsey (English).
Ftg. 3.19 Improved htgh m ,-y:eld ng cows
Table 3.14 Improved Indian Breeds and their Milk Yield
Name of Breed ' Milk Yield in litres in one Lactation Period
Lactation Period
Gir 1200-2200 320 days
Red Sindhi 700-2200 298 days
Sahiwal 1100-3100 310 days
Holstein 3200 365 days
Kanarei 1400 -
Tharparkar 700-2200 -
Karan-Frieswal 3500 -
~ urrah (buffalo) 2000 -
ovement in Food Resources 119
Breeds of Sheep and Goat
Sheep is largely reared by poor people. It provides milk, meat and hide. Their
excreta is used as manure. Likewise goats are reared for milk, meat, wool and hide.
These are also reared by poor people. They both need less space as shelter. Goat
wool is used in making rough blankets and pullovers in rural India and in hills.
Important breeds of sheeps are Gurej, Lohi, Bikaneri, Gaddi, Rampuri,
Mandya, Bhakrawali, Nellore, Marwari and Deccani.
Important breeds of goats are Jamunapari, Barbari, Bengal, Kashmiri,
Marwari, Gaddi, Pashmina, Surti and Malabar.
Breeds of Poultry Birds
~ "
Red Jungle Fowl
Poultry includes fowls, ducks, geese, turkeys and guinea fowls. Poultry mainly
deals with fowls (hens). Poultry breeds are reared for eggs and meat. Poultry forms a
substantial source of food protein for human beings. Poultry farming is easy to start
and maintain in a small space and with a little finance. It gives quick return.
Indian poultry breeds provide good
quality meat but they lay less number and
small sized eggs. A desi hen lays about 60 eggs
per year, whereas exotic breeds lay larger and
more number of eggs per year. Desi hens are
comparatively strong and immune against
diseases in comparison to exotic hens which
require more protection and immunization
against diseases. The breeds are crossed to
obtain offsprings with both the desired qualities.
With the introduction of exotic breeds of
fowls, poultry farming has gained considerable
importance in India. It has now become popular
and thousands of farms have developed in
India, where a large number of fowls are bred
and reared for egg and meat production.
White Leghorn
F ~ . 3.20 Poultry breeds
Grey Jungle Fowl
Barred Plymouth
Green Jungle Fowl
I Poultry breeds
1. Indigenous (desi) breeds of poultry birds: These are Aseel or Indian game
(high yield of meat but not good egg layer), Basara, Chittagong, Ghagus,
Brahma and Kochi. Peela (golden red), yakub (black and red), nurie (white)
and kajal (black) are other Indian breeds.
2. Exotic breeds of poultry birds (hen): These are white leghorn (small body
size, egg long and white, needs less food for maintenance), Rhode Island Red
(yields good meat and fairly good egg layer), Black Minorcha, Plymouth and
Light Sussex. These birds are bred and acclimatised to the local conditions.
These birds were brought here by European residents. These birds lay more
eggs than the indigenous birds but give less meat.
3. Improved breeds of poultry birds: These are White leghorn, Minorcha and
Rhode Island Red. Other improved breeds are B-n, H 260 and IBL-80.
These take less food but lay more eggs, i.e., about 200 to 300 in a year, and
provide more meat. Indigenous (desi) breeds of hens resemble the leghorn
breeds in size and shape. Desi breeds are not good egg layers. The desi hen
is the best mother and an ideal sitter. The desi breeds are Aseel, Chittagong,
Brahma and Ghagus, etc.
t ....
120 Improvement in Food Resources
Aseel birds are good for meat, which is plentiful, delicious and have a pleasant
flavour. They are not good egg layers.
Chittagong are comparatively good egg layers. Their meat is delicious.
Ghagus are fairly good egg layers and good sitters. Its meat is delicious and
used for table purposes.
The most popular exotic breeds in India are White leghorn and Rhode Island
Red. White leghorns are not good for meat purposes but are good in egg production.
Rhode Island Red is good for meat and eggs. This is kept in Government poultry
farms. Its chicks grow quickly and so are reared easily.
The present day fowls reared for eggs or meat are cross breeds of Leghorns
and Rhode Islands with indigenous breeds.
I Poultry feed
Feeding of poultry birds is important for rearing. The quality of food is
responsible for the growth of birds, egg-laying efficiency and quality of eggs
produced. Their diet includes adequate amount of water, carbohydrates, proteins,
fats, vitamins, minerals etc. Maize, sorghum and wheat are a good source of
carbohydrate. Groundnut cake is widely used as a protein food. Tissues of animals
like fishes, slaughter wastes and blood from slaughter houses, etc., are an ideal
protein source.
I Poultry care
They should be provided good food and clean hygienic shelter. Poultry farming
needs care for food, shelter and disease contro!' First phase oflife of poultry is the
growing period upto sexual maturity. In this period chickens are called growers and
they require enough space for proper growth. They need restricted and calculated
feed for normal growth.
Period from sexual maturity upto the end of egg laying is called laving period
and chickens are called layers. They also require enough space and lighting. Light
intensity and duration oflight effect the laying output of hen.
Broilers (meat yielders) are used for getting meat. They require protein rich
food with adequate fat. Poultry feeds are rich in vitamin Aand K. These birds should
get good housing and environmental conditions for their fast growth and low death
I Poultry disease
Poultry birds also suffer from diseases, which may be caused by bacteria,
viruses, fungi and other parasites. Over-feeding also causes sickness like crop
bound, diarrhoea, dysentery, etc. Ticks also cause tick fever, feed on blood oHow!.
To protect them from diseases, it is necessary to provide good food, and shelter
should be disinfected from time to time. Vaccination is also a control measure for
certain diseases.
Fish is a rich protein diet for human. Fish industry in India is about 1,500
years old. Fishes provide valuable source of food supply to the inhabitants of the
countries located in tropical regions. Fish meat contains 60 to 80 per cent w a t e l ~ 13
to 20 per cent protein and fat. It also contains vitamins and phosphorus. Fishes are
of two types: Marine and freshwater. Both are used as food, but not all marine fishes
Improvement in Food Resources 121
VK Biology IX
are used as food. For fishing, our inland water area is about 1.6 million hectares and
coastal line is about 6,500 kilometres. Thus, our country has a great potential for
fishing industry. Besides food, fish also provides a number of other products:
1. Fish oil: Fish liver oil is extracted from liver which is of great medicinal value.
It contains vitamin A. In some fish, liver oil contains vitamin C, D and E also.
Fish liver oil is extracted from cod fish, tuna, sharks, etc.
2. Industrial use: Fish protein is extracted from fish wastes by removing fats. It
is dried and obtained as white powder. It contains 80 to 90% soluble protein.
It is used in the preparation of ice cream, paints, varnishes, cosmetics, etc. Fish
flour is used in biscuits, bread, cakes and soups, etc. It is easily digestible.
3. Agriculture use: Fish wastes are used as manure for coffee, tea and tobacco
crops. Fish manure (dry powder form) contains nitrogen, phosphorus and
calcium. Dried fish are provided to farm animals, which are good protein
4. Adhesive: Fish glue is obtained from skin and bones of cod, haddock, pollak
and hake. The residue obtained after extraction of glue is used as a poultry
feed and fertiliser after drying.
I Common Edible Fish of India
Fish on the basis of habitat are of three types: Marine or sea fish, brackish
water fish and freshwater fish.
1. Marine fish: These are mackerel, sardines, salmon, bombay duck, etc.
2. Brackish water fish: These are mullet, pearl spot, etc.
3. Fresh water fish: These are catla, labeo (rohu), mrigal and reba. Cat fish are
Wallago, Mystus, singhi and magur. All are used as food. Catla is a fast growing
Calla (carp)
Labeo (rohu)
Channel (catfish)
Fig. 3.21 Various Indian freshwater fish
Rearing of fish on commercial scale is called fisheries.
Fish are reared in ponds, lakes, rivers, etc. The culture of
fish is termed as Pisciculture. Fish culture involves collection
of eggs from natural water systems (rivers, lakes), hatching
and nursing in nursery ponds and harvesting.
Han'esting is done when the fish attains the
marketable size. During nursing and rearing, fish are
protected from water beetles, bugs and frogs (they can
cause harm in fish nurseries), birds and snakes. Fish are
also protected from Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis (lPN)
and Viral Haemorrhagic Septicemia (VHS). River and
pond water pollution from industrial and urban wastes
(sewage) is harmful to fish. The Central Institute of
Freshwater Aquaculture (CIFA), Bhubaneswar, has been
doing enough work on breeding and rearing the catfish
(magur). It is an air-breathing fish. Central Inland
Fisheries Research Institute, Kolkata is also doing work on
-----II'fiWilliIDli'l' I
."..-J: ----
122 Improvement in Food Resources
FA 3. :
I -_

1. Growing of wheat and gram on the same field is called _

2. Planting of finger millet (bajra) + cowpea (labia) in alternate rows in the same
field is called _
3. Growing different crops on a piece ofJand in pre-planned succession is known
as _
4. The unwanted plant that grows along with the desired plant is called
5. Diseases in plants are caused by such as bacteria, fungi and
6. Fresh initiatives for mcreaSll1g the water available for agriculture include
______and _
FA 3.8: Mapping.tvpe Worksheet
(i) They cuts the root, stem and leaf.
(ii) _
(iii) _
Pests attack
the plants in
3 ways

L,... u
use of
Plant diseases are
caused by pathogens
Improvement in Food Resources 123
FA 3.9: Match the Following
Match the terms in column I to their meanings in column II.
Column I Column II
(a) River Lift Systems (i) Wheat + gram or wheat +
mustard or groundnut +
(b) Weeds
(c) Inter-cropping
(d) Mixed cropping
FA 3.10: Group Discussion
(ii) Water is directly drawn from
the rivers for supplementing
irrigation in areas close to
(iii) Xanthium, Parthenium and
Cyperinus rotundus
(iv) Soyabean + maize or finger
millet + cowpea
VK Biology IX
Divide the class into small groups. Discuss cropping patterns, irrigation and crop
protection management and discuss the following questions in your group.
I. What is inter-cropping? Give examples.
2. Why should crop rotation be adopted?
3. What is mixed cropping? Give the advantages of mixed cropping system.
4. If there is low rainfall in a village throughout the year, what measures will you
suggest to the farmers for better cropping?
FA 3.11: Model Making Worksheet
Discuss with your parents or grandparents about various common agricultural
crops that used to grow in their nearby farm lands years ago. Carefully note down
all the factors that have changed in terms of
availability of nutrients-manure and fertilisers
Collect all the information and try to present your information in the form of a
Animal Husbandry
The breeding and rearing of live stock is called animal husbandry. Animal
husbandry is a department under Agriculture which deals with the improvement of
breeds of canles.
I Breeding of Animals
Animal husbandry department is busy in developing good quality breeds of
cow, buffalo, sheep, goat and fowl, etc., so that farmers get high milk yielding cows,
buffaloes, sheep and goats. It improves the economic conditions of farmers.
Breeding is done to produce breeds of cattle with desirable characters.
Breeding for increased meat production and breeding for raising good milk yielding
varieties or dairy breeds. In case of cows and buffaloes, increased milk and butter
fat production has been the chief objective of breeding. Many breeds of cattle are
available for cattle stock improvements. Pure form of a specific breed is cross-bred
with local breeds to obtain cross-breeds to produce increased amount of milk like
the pure breed.
Improvement in Food Resources
Lactation (milk production) period is an important character among dairy
breed cattles. Extended lactation with steady yield per day is a desirable trait. For a
good breed, the daily yield will be about 20 to 40 kg of milk with 10 to 11 months of
lactation. Dry days, period between lactation and calving during which cows do not
milk, is short. Lactation capacity of a cow depends on the care and nursing during
the conception period and the after delivery stage.
Cross-breeding is defined as the crossing or mating of animals, belonging to
two different breeds. The offspring thus produced will be of a better quality. The
government has already established more than 150 government cattle breeding
farms for dairy improvement.
Artificial insemination is also a method to inseminate a cow during its heat
period with stored semen. The semen of the desired bull (of exotic breed) is collected
in a receptacle and then introduced into the female reproductive tract by man
using instruments. The breeding of dairy cattle by this method has given the dairy
industry the opportunity to make widespread use of superior breeds for improving
the performance of dairy cattle. Artificial insemination was done for the first time
on dogs by Italian Lazanno Spallarizani in 1780. In India, this was done in 1939 by
Sampath Kumar in Mysore.
I Advantages of Artificial Insemination
1. It makes selective breeding easier. Semen from any desired bull can be used
to inseminate any cow, selected for breeding. It gives the required type of
offspring, with a better quality.
2. Attificial insemination is economical. The semen of a bull can fertilise a large
number of cows.
3. Semen collected from a bull of desired trait can be stored (freezed) for a long
time and can be transported to a long distance wherever needed.
4. Animal breeders can take semen from semen storage banks and thus, there is
no need for them to keep a bull for this purpose.
5. Artificial insemination procedure is more reliable. Its success rate is higher
than that of natural breeding.
6. Since semen is easily available whenever needed, a heated female can be
impregnated easily.
Milk is a very important supplementary diet of man. In India, milk is the
only source of animal protein food for the vegetarians. In the infant stages of man,
milk is the sale dietary food. Cows and buffaloes are the primary producers of milk,
although goat and sheep also yield milk.
Embryo transfer
This technique is used for improving the animal breed. The developing
embryo at a definite stage is taken out from the uterus of a superior breed and
transferred into the uterus of a female of inferior breed. Here, it develops till birth.
Thus, the quality and production in livestock can be improved.
Feeding and Shelter of Milk Animals
For getting good, clean and proper yield of milk, the animals need daily
regular brushing and bathing. Their shelters should be roofed to protect them from
un's heat, rain and cold. The floor of the shed should be on a slope so that it is easily
cleaned and it should also be dry. They should be spacious enough. A cow generally
needs about six square metre space and a buffalo needs a little more space. The
mprovement in Food Resources 125
--'.' ,
cattle shelters should also be well ventilated. For their feeding there should be long
feeding troughs and feeding passages.
I Food
Cattles (cows and buffaloes) suffer from various diseases. which cause reduction
or stoppage of milk production. Certain diseases even cause death of the cattle. A
healthy animal shows regular normal feeding. normal body posture. normal body
temperature (38C in cow) and pulse rate from 40 to 60 per minute. The normal
respiratory rate is 15 to 30 per minute in cows. In buffalo, the body temperature
is 37.2 to 38.2C. pulse rate is 40 to 45 per minute. and respiration rate is 16 to 18
per minute.
Diseases of cattles are of three types:
(I) Parasitic (2) Infectious and (3) Non-infectious.
1. Parasitic diseases: Fleas. blood sucking lice. ticks and mites are external
parasites. They live on the skin of cattles and cause skin diseases. Cattle leech
(Hirudinaria granulosa) sucks blood of cattles (cows and buffaloes) and cause
anaemia. Internal parasites of cattles are Ascaris sps. (worms) living in intestine,
causing anaemia and intestinal disorders. and Fasciola sps. (flukes) damage the
2. Infectious diseases: They are caused by bacteria and viruses. They are
contagious and spread by contact from animal to animal. Bacterial diseases
Improvement in Food Resources
Diseases of Cattles
The animal food includes roughage and concentrates.
1. Roughage largely contains fibres like green fodder. silage. hay of cereals and
legumes such as barseem, lucerne, cowpea and agath.
Green grasses are the most common nutritious food of cattles. These are
Sudan grass. Rhodes grass, Napier grass. Guinea grass and Elephant grass,
etc. Barseem, lucerne. cowpea and agathi are the leguminous fodder relished
by cattles very much. Barseem and lucerne are available in winters as well as in
summers. Jowar is also a green fodder of summers. Maize and bajra are used
as dry fodder in summers. In winters, green upper part of sugarcane is also
given to the cattles. which is also a nutritious food for animals.
2. Concentrates are low in fibres and contain relatively high proteins and other
nutrients. Concentrates are rich in carbohydrates. fats, proteins, vitamins and
minerals. Concentrate foods are cotton seeds, oil seeds. grains of maize, barley,
oats.jowar. bajra. gram and their byproducts. e.g. rice and wheat barns, gram
husk. oil seed cakes. etc. Oil seed cakes (khal) in water is mixed with the hay of
cereals to produce the nutritious nature of food. Cotton seeds are given to the
cattles to increase fat content of the milk.
The daily (24 hours) balanced ration (feed) of a cow is as follows:
I. Green fodder (roughage) = 15 to 20 kg.
2. Concentrate (grain mixture) = 4 to 5 kg.
3. Water = 30 to 35 litres.
Thus. milk-yielding cattles need a good nutritious feed daily for the production
of fairly good milk. Additional vitamins, hormones and minerals may also be given
to cattles for their good health, and good yield of milk. Antibiotics may also be given
to them to protect them from diseases.
. : . ~ ;
are anthrax, black quarter, (from Clostridium chanroei) and haemorrhagic
septicemia caused by Pasteurella multocida.
Viral diseases are cow pox (Vaccinea), rinder pest and foot and mouth disease.
In foot and mouth disease, blisters appear in mouth and on feet. Saliva oozes out of
mouth in excess, there is soreness of mouth, appetite diminishes and there is high
fever. It even causes death to cattles.
There are certain bacterial, viral and fungal diseases of animals that are
transmitted to human beings. So one should be careful to prevent and control such
diseases. These are rabies, cow pox, encephalitis (viral), anthrax, tuberculosis and
brucellosis (bacterial) and actinomycosis, aspergilosis and ring worm (fungal). Certain
protozoan parasites (e.g., Entamoeba and Trypanos01l!a) also cause infection in man.
For bacterial and viral diseases, vaccines have been developed and are available in
the market. For controlling various types of diseases in cattles and domestic animals,
veterinary hospitals are present in every district and town of the country.
I Prevention of Animal Diseases
I. Animal shelters should be well-cleaned and aerated.
2. Animals should get good food and clean drinking water.
3. Their regular bathing is also essential for preventing external parasites. If
external parasites infest the animal, apply solution of insecticides.
4. Diseased animals should be kept separate.
5. Vaccination may be done against bacterial and viral diseases.
6. Prevent rats from entering animal shelters.
I Meat Providing Livestocks
Goat, sheep and pig together supply about seventy per cent meat in India.
Goat meat demand is more than sheep and pig meat. Sheep and goat also provide
milk and wool. Their maintenance is also easy. Sheep do not need a good shelter.
They can live in flocks under natural shades of trees and hills. Sheep eat a variety of
plants including weeds. Indigenous breeds of sheep are Nellore and Mandya, and
Dorset and Suffolk are exotic breeds. Indigenous breeds are famous for production
of wool and exotic breeds for mutton. Their cross breeds gain 30 to 50 per cent
more body weight. Hence, they are better for the production of mutton.
Indigenous breeds of goat in our country are about twenty. These are
Jamunapari, Himalayan, Bengal and Assam hill breed, Decanny and Osmanabadi,
Kathiyabari, etc. Popular exotic breeds are Alpine, Toggenberg and Sannen. Goats'
shelter should be dry, safe and secure from predators (e.g., wolves) and protected
from too much heat and cold. Goats need fresh and clean fodder, hay ofleguminous
crops and leaves of trees. A goat requires about 5 kg roughages (green and dry) and
250 g concentrates.
Common diseases ofsheep and goat are caused by bacteria and virus. Bacterial
diseases are Black quarter, Brucellosis and Vibriosis. Sore mouth, goat pox and
rinderpest are viral diseases. Nutritional deficiency disease also occur in goats. They
also suffer from parasitic attack. Regular vaccination, cleaning and consultation with
veterinary doctors are essential to prevent diseases.
Improvement in Food Resources 127
VK Biology IX
Table 3.15 Diseases of animals
Improvement in Food Resources
Bee Keeping
Nector, a sweet viscous liquid secreted by flowers is suck by bees and converted
to honey by the action of an enzyme-invertase. It is then stored in special cells of
hives. This honey is ofenormous use to man. It is a sweet viscous fluid, rich in sugars,
minerals, vitamins, amino acids and enzymes. Honey has great nutritive value and
medicinal value. It is an essential requirement for children as it is rich in iron and
calcium and helps the body to grow. Honey is a source of sugar in confectionery
items like pastries and cakes. Its medicinal uses are wide. It is a blood purifier and
cures cough and cold. It also cures ulcers of throat, tongue, stomach and intestine.
In addition, beehives are also a source of wax, propolis and bee venom. Wax is
secreted by wax glands of worker bees and is utilised in the construction of hives.
This wax is of great use to us. It is used in the manufacture ofcosmetics, cold creams,
shaving creams, lipsticks, nail polishes, candles, ointments, lubricants, etc.
Propolis are another collection of bees from the plants used in repairing and
fastening combs. Bee venom is used in the manufacture of certain Ayurvedic and
Homeopathic medicines. Keeping all this in mind, bee keeping for obtaining honey
and other useful materials has become an agricultural enterprise. The practice of
bee keeping is called apiculture.
I Honey Bee Varieties Used for Bee Keeping
Both indigenous and exotic varieties of honey bees are used for commercial
production of honey in India.
1. Indegenous Varieties of Honey Bees include, Apis cerana indica F. (Indian
bee). Apis dorsata F. (Rock bee), Apis florae F. (Little bee).
2. Exotic Varieties of Honey Bees are Apis mellifera (European or Italian bee),
Apis adamsoni (South African bee).
The South African bee yields 100 kg per hive per year which is twelve times
the Indian average of 4.5 kg per hive per year. The Italian bee yields an average
of 50 to 200 kg of honey per hive per year. Italian bee (APis melli/era) is commonly
domesticated in India to increase the yield of honey.
I Colony of Bees
Honey bee is a social insect that lives in colonies and provides a very good
example of division of labour and caste system. Different tasks are done by different
groups of bees in the same colony. Acolony may have 40,000 to 1,00,000 individuals.
Individuals show polymorphism, i.e., individuals show a distinct form of variation in
morphology. There are three castes-queen, drones and workers-individuals of each
caste are morphologically distinct from those of others.
It is generally one in a colony and is the largest. The queen remains inside the
hive and lays eggs. It lays up to 2,000 eggs everyday, both fertilised and unfertilised.
It is fed on proteinaceous food like royal jelly.
Animal diseases
, .-
Bacterial Viral Fungal
Cattles (cow. buffalo, sheep) ITuberculosis IFoot and mouth
Cattles (cow, buffalo, sheep) Rinderpest Pox -
Cattles (cow, buffu.lo, sheep) ISalmonellosis
IR a n i k h e ~
Poultry birds Fowl pox I
Fig. 3.22 Honey bee
VK Biology IX
They emerge from the unfertilised eggs and are fertile males. They are
stingless and medium sized. Their role is to mate with the queen, eat honey and
remain inside the hives. They are driven away from the hives to save the honey.
They emerge from the fertilised eggs and are sterile females. They are the
smallest in size but are the most active of all. They have pollen sacs, sting and wax
glands and perform all domestic and field works. During the initial period of their
life, they perform indoor duties like cleaning up the cells before the queen bee lays
eggs in them. Then they build new combs and seal them with wax. In the later stage
of life they do the outdoor activities like collection of nectars from flowers and store
them in storage cells and convert them into honey by their enzyme actions. They
also defend their colony from enemy by stinging it. They immediately die off after
Apiculture and management of honey production is a fast growing cottage
industry in India with about 5.75 lakh bee colonies working to produce honey at
present. According to rough estimates, the total output of honey in India at present
is about 5 million tonnes per annum. Tamil Nadu is the top honey producer
{o"",""d b ~ K,,-,a\a a"d Kan,atal,;.a. fm I:0mm,,-,c,a\ pYDduct\Dn Df 'uDnq, ap\a,\e:.
are established. An apiary is a place where bee hives are kept to obtain honey and
other bee products.
A beehive is a special box of wooden chambers for
laying eggs and honey collection. There are three types of
artificial beehives used in India:
Langstroth Newton Jeolikote
While the Langstroth beehive is used in hilly regions
the latter two are formed in plains.
The quality and taste of honey depends upon the
flora or orchards available in the near vicinity of the
apiary. Apiaries are situated near mango groves, coconut
trees, almond trees, apple trees, orchards of cashew nuts,
guava trees and honey obtained from these apiaries taste Fig. 323 BeehIVe
accordingly. Almond honey of Kashmir tastes very good.
A suitable site of apiary should have abundance of flowers with a longer honey
flow time (the total time during which bees collect nectar and pollens).
It should receive sunlight during morning and evening and some shade
during mid-day.
Water should be available nearby.
I Selection of Honey Bee Variety
The Italian bee, Apis melliferia, is most widely used for honey production in
India. This bee yields an average of 50 to 20 kg of honey per hive per year.
I Diseases and Enemies of Honey Bee
Honey bees are commonly infected by viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa. For
example, the bacterium Bacillus apisceptio!ls infects blood of bee causing septicemia.
Brood foul disease is caused by Schizomycetes (fungi). Nosema disease and
Improvement in Food Resources 129
amoeba diseases are caused by protozoan pathogens Nosema apis and Vahlkampfla
mellifira, respectively. Common pests/enemies of bees are wasps, wax moths and
mites. Various birds such as king crows, blue tits, fly-catchers, chaffinch, green blue
eater, sparrows, etc., use bee as their meal. Wasps are controlled manually (i.e., by
destroying the wasp nests from the locality of apiary). Wax moth is controlled by
exposing bees in bee hive to sun, by increasing temperature. Bee-eating birds are
scared away by some device.
FA 3.12: Word Box
Topic: Fish production
Directions: Complete the paragraph given below choosing the appropriate words
from the word box in the space provided.
catlas pomphret, mackerel and Bombay duck
mullets bhetki and pearl spots rice crop
Mrigals and Common Carps composite fish culture system
Grass Carps five or six
The water source of the fish can be either sea water or fresh water, such as in
rivers and ponds. Popular marine fish varieties include _
_________and , . Marine
fish are caught using many kinds of fishing nets [Tom fishing boats. Some
marine fish of high economic value are also farmed which include finned fish
like , and
_________are also cultivated for the pearls they make. Fresh
water resources include canals, ponds, reservoirs and rivers. Fish culture is
sometimes done in combination with a ,
so that fish are grown in the water in the paddy field. More intensive fish
farming is done in . In such a system, a combination of
_________ or fish species is used in a single
fishpond. As a result, the food available in all the parts of the pond is used.
As are surface feeders, feed in
the middle-zone, and are bottom
feeders, and feed on the weeds.
FA 3.13: True or False
State whether the following statements are True or False.
r. Jersey is an Indian breed of cow.
2. To enhance poultry production, cross breeding is done between Indian and
exotic breeds for variety improvement.
3. To increase the production of fish, they can be cultured in marine and inland
4. Poultry farming is done to raise domestic fowls for egg production and chicken
5. Most fish production in inland waterbody is capture fishing.
130 Improvement in Food Resources
6. One major problem with composite fish culture is that many of these fish breed
only during monsoon.
7. The value or quality of honey depends upon the pasturage, or the flowers
available to the bees for nectar and pollen collection.
A dorsata,
(vi) Aseel
(vii) Pearls
(viii) Draught animals
(ix) Middle-zone feeders
(x) Culture fishery
(xi) Apis cerana indica,
A florae
FA 3.14: Match the Following:
Match the terms in column I to their meanings in column II.
Column I Column II
(a) Catlas (i) Broiler
(b) Rohus (ii) Surface feeders
(c) MrigaJ (iii) Bottom feeders
(d) Fish farming (iv) Milk-producing females
(e) Bees used for commercial (v) Local breed of cattle
honey production
if) Oysters
(g) Cattle used for tilling and carting
(h) Indian breed of chicken
(i) Sahiwal and Red Sindhi
(J) Milch
(k) Chicken better food for obtaining meat
FA 3.15: Bead Necklaces
Given beloware outline structures ofsome 'Bead Necklaces' and a list ofcharacters
placed in different categories. Each necklace is given a name that is actually the
'term' important for Food Production. You have to pick one character from each
category to list the features of a group. In this way, you will 'string the beads' and
the necklace will be complete when all the beads have been allotted characters
from each category.
Categories A B C D E

For Milk Layers and Fowl Dwarf parent Mullets and

and broilers preferred for Bhetki
Draught commercial chick
labour production
For egg Marine and Peneaus Lactation period Aseeland
production fresh water monodon is important while Leghorn
and chicken varieties selecting the right
meat breed
Cheap Dairy and Apis Large schools are Jersey, Red
source of draught located in open Sindhi
animal animals Apis sea using satellites
protein melliJera and eeo-sounders;
obtained Capture and
from water culture methods
are also used
For Local and Bas indicus Value or quality of Rock bee
production Italian and Bos product depends and little bee
honey variety bubalis upan pasturage
Improvement in Food Resources 13l
VK Biology IX
Improvement in Food Resources
. ~
VK Biology IX
FA 3.16: Group Discussion
Divide the class in small groups. Discuss animal husbandry and discuss following
questions in your group.
I. Name the method commonly used for improving cattle breeds and also state
why it is used.
2. Name any two Indian breeds of (i) cows and (ii) buffaloes.
3. Define animal husbandry.
4. How is cross breeding useful in cattle?
I Human beings use plants and animals as food.
I Plants are autotrophs, i.e., they manufacture their food as starch (carbohydrate).
I Animals and human beings are heterotrophs, i.e., feed on plants and animals.
I Plants get carbon and oxygen from air, hydrogen from water and rest from the soil to
manufacture food through a process called photosynthesis.
I Man is constantly trying to improve the quality and increase the quantity of food to
support a growing population.
I Improvement in yield of crops should be done in three stages:
-crop variety improved
-crop production management
-crop protection management
I While the first stage includes selection of an improved variety of seeds through
hybridisation and genetic engineer, the second stage deals with nurturing of crops
through nutrient management, cropping pattern, irrigation, etc. The third stage is
protection of the harvest.
I Manures are natural bulky organic matter, e.g., farmyard manure (FYM), compost,
green manure and vermicompost.
I Manures restore the soil texture for water retention and soil aeration.
I Manures provide food for soil organisms, like bacteria and fungi. They decompose
organic matter and provide nutrients to plants.
Improvement in Food Resources
I FYM is a decomposed mixture of cattle's excreta, roughage or unused fodder. It
provides nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium to the crop.
I Compost is vegetable and animal refuse of town area, like animal excreta, faecal
matter of humans and sewage waste. It is decomposed by microorganisms. It contains
the same nutrients as that of FYM.
I Green manuring is growing of leguminous and non-leguminous crops in the field,
ploughing (before flowering) and mixing with the soil.
I These are decomposed in the soil by microorganisms. This is done before rains.
Leguminous plants provide nitrogen to the soil.
I Fertilisers are chemicals produced by the factories. These are inorganic, e.g.,
ammonium sulphate and organic like urea. Fertilisers are nitrogenous (urea,
ammonium sulphate, sodium and ammonium nitrate), phosphatic (superphosphates
and dicalcium phosphate), potassic (potassium chloride, sulphate and nitrate) and
complex like nitrophosphate, ammonium phosphate, urea ammonium phosphate
providing two or more nutrients.
I Biofertilisers add nitrogen to the soil. These are cyanobacteria, phosphate solubilising
microorganisms, Rhizobium, blue-green algae, and mycorrhiza (fungi lives in roots of
higher plants).
I Water is very essential for crop production. Its judicious use increases the crop yield.
Where water is not available for irrigation, crop yield is low. Crop production entirely
depends on rain water.
I Insufficient rain or no rain creates drought condition. Crops dry off.
I Crop protection is to protect the crop from pests, i.e., insects, fungi, bacteria,
viruses, worms, rodents, etc. Insects are killed by insecticides, fungi are destroyed by
fungicides. Chemicals used to kill pests (e.g., weeds, fungi, insects, mites and rodents)
are called pesticides. Pesticides are either sprayed or dusted over crops, or mixed
with seeds and soil.
I For preventive measures for the crops- resistant varieties of crop plants, crop rotation
and multiple cropping and summer ploughing are used.
I Contact insecticides are malathion, lindane and thiodon. They are sprayed on stem
and leaf cutting and boring insects.
I Systemic insecticides are dimethoate and metasystox. These are also sprayed. These
are absorbed by the plants. When sap sucking insects feed on plants they are killed.
I Sucking insecticides are aphids (Aphis), Pyrilla (leaf hoppers), plant bugs like red
cotton bug (Dysdercus ).
I Plant borers are sugarcane borers, chick pea pod borers, cotton boll weevil and grain
I Weeds are small sized unwanted plants growing along with cultivated crops in the
field. They suppress the growth of the crop plants and use nutrients from the soil.
Examples of weeds are motha (nut grass), jangJi jowar (wild sorghum), chau/ai,
sathi, jangJi jar, bathua and hirankhuri. Chemicals used for destroying weeds are 2,
4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid, atrazine, f1uchoralin, etc. Biological control is done by
cochineal insects for Opuntia; grass carp (fish) is used to control aquatic weeds.
I Pests of stored grains are pulse beetle damage grams; rice weevil damage rice; wheat
weevil, grain and flour moth of rice, wheat, maize, etc., rust red flour beetle, rice moth and
lesser grain borer. Their adults or larva (grub) or both damage the grains and their flour.
I Grains (rice, wheat, etc.) are stored in gunny bags and FCI silos.
I For storage of grains, temperature of storage houses should not be more than
30C and moisture content should be 14% or less by weight. More humidity causes
development of fungus.
134 Improvement in Food Resources
Storage places should be cleaned, free from cracks or holes in the walls, etc., gunny
bags should be stitched properly after filling grains and if needed the place should be
Spray insecticides over grain-filled gunny bags. Gammaxene or benzene hexachloride
wettable powder (BHC WP), pyrethrum and malathion are some insecticides to name.
Fumigants are ethylene dibromide (EDB), ethylene dichloride plus carbon tetrachloride
(EDCT) in liquid form; aluminium phosphide (AlP) in solid state and methyl bromide in
gaseous state.
Animal husbandry deals with the breeding, feeding, rearing, shelter and caring of
domestic animals and meat and egg giving animals, etc.
Objective of animal husbandry is to improve cattle and live stock breeds to get higher
yields of milk, meat, eggs, wool, etc.
Improved Indian breeds of cows are Red Sindhi and Tharparkar of Andhra Pradesh, Gir
of Gujarat, Sahiwal of Punjab and Haryana.
Exotic breeds of cows are imported breeds brought from European countries. These
are high milk yielding cows, e.g., Holstein, Swiss, Jersey and Friesian.
Improved cow-breeds developed by NDRI, Kamal are Karan Swiss (Swiss X Sahiwal),
Karan Friesian (Tharparkar X Holstein Friesian) and Frieswall (Sahiwal X Holstein
Buffalo breeds are Murrah of Punjab and Haryana, Mehsana and Surti of Gujarat.
Sheep are reared for milk, meat, wool and hide. Their important breeds are Gaddi and
Rampuri of Himalayan region, Bikaneri, Marwari and Deccani.
Important breeds of goats are Kashmiri, Gaddi and Surti
Poultry breeds are White Leghorn, Minorcha and Rhode Island Red. They lay about
200 to 300 eggs per year.
Desi or indigenous breeds are Brahma, Chittagong, Aseel and Basara, etc., which lay
only 60 to 75 eggs per year. Their eggs are smaller in size. But these are good sitters.
Improved poultry cross breeds are B-n, HH266 and ILS-80.
Fish farming is called pisciculture. Fish is a good source of meat. Fish liver oil is rich in
vitamin A and Dand is an unsaturated oil.
Marine fishes are salmon, sharks, etc.
Fresh water fishes are rohu, catla, mrigal. These are called major carps. Other fish are
Wallago (malli), Mystus (singhara), C1arias (mangur) and singhi.
Artificial fish breeding is done in Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar,
Fresh water fish are cultured in hatcheries, bunds, rivers and ponds, etc.
Breeding of animals (cows and buffaloes) is also done by artificial means, i.e., by
artificial insemination. It is the introduction of semen of good variety bull into the
female reproductive tract by the means of a special instrument.
Artificial Insemination is better than Natural Mating.
Operation flood (white revolution) is to increase milk yield of milch animals. Dr. Kurien
is the father of white revolution. He is an architect of India's modern dairy industry.
NDDB is National Dairy Development Board.
VHS is viral haemorrhagic septicemia, a disease of fish.
IPN is infectious pancreatic necrosis, a disease of fish.
NDRI is National Dairy Research Institute, Kamal.
Pasteurisation is a process to kill microorganisms of milk which cause spoilage. Milk is
heated at a high temperature and then brought down to room temperature.
Improvement in Food Resources
FA 5. Multiple Choice Questions
Select the right choice.
1. Find out the wrong statement from the following
(a) White revolution is meant for increase in milk production.
(b) Blue revolution is meant for increase in fish production
(c) Increasing food production without compromising with environmental quality is called
as sustainable agriculture.
(d) None of the above
2. To solve the food problem of the country which among the following is necessary?
(a) Increased production and storage offood grains
(b) Easy access of people to the food grain
(c) People should have money to purchase the grains
(d) All of the above
3. Find out the correct sentences
(i) Hybridisation means crossing between genetically dissimilar plants
(ii) Cross between two varieties is called as inter specific hybridization
(iii) Introducing genes of desired character into a plant gives genetically modified crop
(iv) Cross between plants of two species is called as inter varietal hybridization
(a) (i) and (ii) (b) (ii) and (iv)
(c) (ii) and (iii) (d) (iii) and (iv)
4. Find out the correct sentence about manure
(i) Manure contains large quantities of organic matter and small quantities of nutrients.
(ii) It increases the water holding capacity of sandy soil.
(iii) It helps in draining out of excess of water from clayey soil.
(iv) It excessive use pollutes environment because it is made of animal excretory waste.
(a) (i) and (iii) (b) (i) and (ii)
(c) (ii) and (iii) (d) (iii) and (iv)
5. Cattle husbandry is done for the following purposes
(i) Milk production (ii) Agricultural work
(iii) Meat production (iv) Egg production
(a) (i), (ii) and (iii) (b) (ii), (iii) and (iv)
(c) (iii) and (iv) (d) (i) and (iv)
6. Which of the following are Indian cattle?
(i) Bos indicus (ii) Bos domestica
(iii) Bos bubalis (iv) Bos vulgaris
(a) (i) and (iii) (b) (i) and (ii)
(c) (ii) and (iii) (d) (iii) and (iv)
7. Which of the following are exotic breeds?
(i) Brawn (ii) Jersey
(iii) Brown Swiss (iv) Jersey Swiss
(a) (i) and (iii) (b) (ii) and (iii)
(c) (i) and (iv) (d) (ii) and (iv)
8. Poultry farming is undertaken to raise following
(i) Egg production (ii) Feather production
(iii) Chicken meat (iv) Milk production
(a) (i) and (iii) (b) (i) and (ii)
(c) (ii) and (iii) (d) (iii) and (iv)
miii'iJiiil138 Improvement in Food Resources
9. Poultry fowl are susceptible to the following pathogens
(a) Viruses (b) Bacteria
(c) Fungi (d) All of the above
10. Which one of the following fishes is a surface feeder?
(a) Rohus (b) Mrigals
(c) Common carps (d) Cadas
11. Animal husbandry is the scientific management of
(i) animal breeding (ii) culture of animals
(iii) animal livestock (iv) rearing of animals
(a) (i), (ii) and (iii) (b) (ii), (iii) and (iv)
(c) (i), (ii) and (iv) (d) (i), (iii) and (iv)
12. Which one of the following nutrients is not available in fertilizers?
(a) Nitrogen (b) Phosphorus
(c) Iron (d) Potassium
13. Preventive and control measures adopted for the storage of grains include
(a) strict cleaning (b) proper disjoining
(c) fumigation (d) all ofthe above
FA 6. Flow-chart Worksheet
1. (d)
9. (d)
2. (d)
10. (d)
3. (a)
11. (d)
4. (b)
12. (c)
5. (a)
13. (d)
6. (a) 7. (b) 8. (a)
Instructions: Identify the missing steps/processes/examples in the flowchart given below and
complete it using the appropriate words.

Crop Variety
Improvement in
Crop __---,-
Crop Protection
and Abiotic
Change in
Manures and
River lift
Protection in
the field against
Insects and
Storage against
Biotic and
Abiotic Factors
Methods of Crop
Variety Improvement
1. Hybridisation
2. Genetic manipulation (GMO)
Improvement in Food Resources
FA 7. Worksheet
Given below are five pictures related to Food Production.
Provide a title for these pictures from the terms given here, in the space provided.
Mariculture Multiple Cropping Composite Fish Culture Poultry Livestock Farming
State one desirable characteristic or advantage of each of these.
These may be written on a separate sheet.
(Rearing varieties of Hen)
4. _


'II "
ttttt '
5. _

(Growing Catla, Rohu, Grasscarp and
mrigal together)

(Growing Peneous monodon-

The prawn found in sea)
3. _ 1. _
(Growing crops on the
same land)
FA 8. Paper Pen Test
1. Answer the following question.
(a) What is GM crop? Name anyone crop which is grown in India.
(b) Why is organic matter important for crop production?
(e) Define the terms hybridisation and photoperiod.
(d) Cultivation practices and crop yield are related to environmental conditions. Explain.
(e) Discuss the role of hybridisation in crop improvement.
If) Why bee keeping should be done in good pasturage)
2. Fill in the blanks.
(a) Kharif crops are cultivated from to _
(b) Rabi crops are cultivated from to _
(e) Most of the food comes from and animal husbandry.

140 Improvement in Food Resources
(d) Milk production can be increased by increasing period.
(e) Pigeon pea is a good source of _
3. True or False.
(a) Mullets are marine fish farmed in sea water.
(b) Poultry production involved egg production and broiler production for poultry meat.
(c) The growing of different crops on a piece of land in pre-planned succession is called
(d) Organic farming is a fanning system with maximum or excessive use of chemicals as
fertilisers, herbicides, pesticides, etc. and with minimum input of organic manures and
recycled farm wastes.
4. Match the following.
Column I Column II
(a) The value or quality of honey depends (i) Many of the fishes breed only during
upon monsoon.
(b) Problem with composite fish culture (ii) Pasturage or the flowers available to the
bees for nectar and pollen collection.
(c) Broiler chicken are fed vitamin like (iii) Milk and draught labour.
(d) Cattle husbandry is done for two purposes (iv) Vitamins A and K.
(e) Food stuff provide proteins (v) Soyabean, ground nut, seasame, castor,
mustard, linsead and sunflower.
if) Food stuff provide fats (vi) Gram, pea, black gram, green gram,
pigeon pea, and lentil.
5. Multiple Choice Questions
(a) Which one is an oil yielding plant among the following?
(i) Lentil (ii) Sunflower
(iii) Cauliflower (iv) Hibiscus
(b) Weeds affect the crop plants by
(i) killing of plants in field before they grow.
(ii) dominating the plants to grow.
(iii) competing for various resources ofcrops (plants) causing low availability of nutrients.
(iv) all of these.
(c) Which of the following is an Italian bee variety?
(i) Apis Cerana indica (ii) Apis mellifera
(iii) Apis dorsata (iv) Apis florae
(d) Which of the following combinations are most suitable for composite fish culture?
(i) Surface feeders and bottom feeders
(ii) Surface feeders, middle zone feeders and bottom feeders
(iii) Middle zone feeders and bottom feeders
(iv) Surface feeders only
(e) Which of the following is not a source of carbohydrate?
(i) Rice (ii) Millets
(iii) Sorghum (iv) Gram
Improvement in Food Resources 141
A. Textbook Questions with their Answers
1. What do we get from cereals, pulses, fruits and vegetables?
Ans. Cereals like wheat and rice provide us carbohydrates for fulfilling the body's energy
requirement. Pulses like gram and peas provide us with proteins. Fruits and vegetables
provide us with a range of vitamins and minerals in addition to some proteins, carbohydrates
and fats.
2. How do biotic and abiotic factors affect crop production?
Ans. Biotic factors like diseases, insects and nematodes, and abiotic factors like drought, salinity,
waterlogging, heat, cold and frost have a negative impact on crop production, i.e., the crop
yield decreases due to these factors.
3. What are the desirable agronomic characteristics for crop improvements?
Ans. For fodder crops, height and profuse branching are desirable characteristics. For cereal crops,
dwarfness is desired, so that less nutrients are consumed by the crops. In this way, developing
varieties of desired agronomic characters give higher productivity, i.e., higher yield.
4. What are macronutrients and why are they so called?
Ans. Sixteen nutrients are essential for plants, out of which thirteen are supplied by the soil. Among
these, six are required in large quantities. As these are required in large quantities, they are called
macronutrients. They are: (1) niu'ogen (2) phosphorus (3) potassium (4) calcium (5) magnesium
and (6) sulphur.
5. Where do plants get nutrients from?
Ans. Plants get nutrients from air, water and soil. There are basically sixteen nutrients that are
essential for plants. Of these, carbon dioxide and oxygen are obtained from air, hydrogen
from water and the rest of the thirteen nutrients are supplied by the soil.
6. Compare the use of manures and fertilisers in maintaining soil fertility.
Ans. Manures are rich in organic matter but are poor in nutrients. For this reason, the cultivated
field supplied with only manures may suffer from deficiency of nutrients which will
automatically result in poor yield; whereas fertilisers are inorganic compounds and fulfil
nutrient requirement of soil. So, the field which is supplied with fertilisers only may face
drainage problem and waterlogging due to lack of organic matter in the soil which will bring
harm to the crop and the yield. Moreover, the use offertilisers over long periods of time can
destroy the soil structure by killing the soil microorganisms that recycle nutrients in the soil.
7. Which of the following conditions will give the most benefits? Why?
(a) Farmers use high-quality seeds, do not adopt irrigation or use fertilisers.
(b) Farmers use ordinary seeds, adopt irrigation and use fertilisers.
(e) Farmers use quality seeds, adopt irrigation and use fertilisers and crop protection measures.
Ans. Conditions given in (e) will give the most benefits because:
(a) Farmer will benefit by using quality seeds.
(b) Proper irrigation will overcome drought or flood situations.
(e) Fertilisers will provide nutrients and there will be higher yield.
For most benefits, every aspect of agriculture should be taken care of.
8. Why should preventive measures and biological control methods be preferred for protecting
Ans. Preventive measures and biological control methods are preferred because:
(a) They are simple.
(b) They are more economic.
(e) They minimise pollution without affecting the soil quality.
142 Improvement in Food Resources
9. What factors may be responsible for losses of grains during storage?
Ans. The following factors are responsible:
(a) Abiotic factors like inappropriate moisture and temperature.
(b) Biotic factors like insects, rodents, birds, mites and microorganisms.
10. Which method is commonly used for improving cattle breed and why?
Ans. The commonly used method for improving cattle breed is cross-breeding two cattles having
the desired qualilties.
For e.g., by crossing Brown Swiss having long lactation periods is crossed with Red Sindhi
having disease resistance to get a breed having both qualities.
11. Discuss the implications of the following statement: "It is interesting to note that poultry
is India's most efficient converter of low fibre food stuff (which is unfit for human
consumption) into highly nutritious animal protein food."
Ans. The feed consumed by poultry birds is fibrous and cheap. Moreover, it is formulated using
agricultural by-product. In this way, the product not used by human population are converted
into chicken meat and the eggs produced by poultry birds, which are highly nutritious and
are used by humans.
12. What management practices are common in dairy and poultry farming?
Ans. (a) Shelter: In both dairy and poultry farming, should be, well-designed, airy and hygienic
(b) Feeding: Healthy feed is provided to both dairy animals and poultry birds to get good yield.
(c) Caring for animal health: Both animals and birds must be protected from various diseases.
13. What are the differences between broilers and layers and in their management?
Ans. The broiler is a poultry bird specially groomed for obtaining meat and layer is the egg-
laying poultry bird. As per the purpose for which they are raised the housing, nutritional and
environmental requirements of broilers are somewhat different from those of the layers. The
daily food requirement ration for broilers is protein-rich with adequate fat and high amount
of vitamin A and K; whereas the layers require enough space and proper lighting.
14. How are fish obtained?
Ans. Fish are obtained by either from the natural resources which is called capture fishing or by
fish farming which is called culture fishery.
15. What are the advantages of composite fish culture?
Ans. The advantages of composite fish culture are:
(a) The species are selected in such a way that they do not compete for food among themselves,
and have different types of food habits. Due to this, the food available in all parts of the
pond is used. For example, Catlas are surface feeders, Rohu feed in the middle-zone of
the pond, while Mrigals and common carps are bottom feeders. Also, Grass Carps feed on
the weeds.
(b) All these species together use all the food in the pond without competing with each other.
(c) This increases the fish yield from the pond.
16. What are the desirable characteristics of a bee for honey production?
Ans. Desirable characteristics of a bee for bee-keeping are:
(a) Good honey collection capacity.
(b) Ability to protect itself from enemies.
(c) Prolific queen production with less swarming.
17. What is pasturage and how is it related to honey production?
Ans. The flora/crops found around an apiary to collect honey and pollen grains is called pasturage.
Pasturage flora of honey bee includes Mango, Coconut, Almond, Apple, Tamarind, Sisam,
Mahua, etc.
Improvement in Food Resources 143
The quality and taste of honey depends upon the flora/pasturage around the apiary from
which bees collect the nectar and pollens. For instance, the Kashmir region having almond
plant pasturage around apiary produces almond honey which is good in quality, taste as well
as aroma.
18. Explain anyone method of crop production which ensures high yield.
Ans. Use of manures and fertilisers ensure high yield. Manures are important source of nutrients
whereas fertilisers provide nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium to the crops. For the proper
growth of crops and for high yield, all the nutrients, both macronutrients and micronutrients
must be provided to the crops. Manures add humus to the soil which makes the soil very
19. Why are manures and fertilisers used in the fields?
Ans. Manures and fertilisers are used in the fields to make the soil fertile by improving the soil
texture and nutrient content of the soil.
20. What are the advantages of intercropping and crop rotation?
Ans. Advantages of intercropping:
(a) In intercropping, two or more crops are simultaneously grown on the same field in a
definite row pattern-a few rows of one crop and adjoining to that a few rows of another
crop. This practice reduces intraspecific competition.
(b) This ensures that both crops can give better yield.
(e) There is maximum utilisation of nutrients and minimum spread of pests.
Advantages of crop rotation:
(a) It makes the soil fertile and helps in the increase of crop yield.
(b) It also decreases the demand of nitrogenous fertilisers as leguminous plants grown during
crop rotation fix the atmospheric nitrogen.
(e) The selected rotation of crops also helps in pest control, as pests do not find their favourite
crop in the next season and it becomes difficult for them to survive there.
21. What is genetic manipUlation? How is it useful in agricultural practices?
Ans. Incorporating desirable characters by hybridisation, mutation, DNA recombination, etc., is
called genetic manipulation. By genetic manipulation, we get improved varieties of seeds
having desired characters like pest and disease resistance and high yield. Their seeds not only
give higher yield but also reduce the input cost.
22. How do stored grain losses occur?
Ans. There are two types of factors responsible for losses during storage of grains. These are:
(a) Biotic factors such as insects, rodents, mites and bacteria.
(b) Abiotic factors such as temperature, moisture content and humidity.
23. How do good animal husbandry practices benefit farmers?
Ans. By animal husbandry, we mean scientific management of farm animals. Good animal
husbandry practices benefit the farmers in the following ways:
(a) Improvement of breeds of the domesticated animals.
(b) Reduction of the input cost.
24. What are the benefits of cattle farming?
Ans. The main benefits of cattle farming are:
(a) Wet milk from cattle and other milk products like butter, cheese, etc.
(b) Bullock labour is used for agricultural practices such as tilling, irrigation and carting.
25. For increasing production, what is common in poultry, fisheries and bee-keeping?
Ans. Selection of improved varieties, housing, rearing, sanitation, disease control and management
144 Improvement in Food Resources
HOTS (Higher Order Thinking Skills)
Capture fishing Mariculture Aquaculture
(a) It is the process of obtaining I t is a practice of culture of It is the production of fish from
fish from the natural marine fish varieties in the open freshwater resources like canals,
resources like ponds, canals, sea. ponds, reservoirs, rIvers and
rivers, etc. brackish water resources like
estuaries and lagoons.
(b) In capture fishing, fish can In mariculture. satellites and Like capture fishing, in
be located easily and then echo-sounders are used for aquaculture also the fish can be
caught using fishing nets. locating fish. Then they are located easily and are caught
caught USLng man}' kinds of using simple fishing nets.
fishing nets from the fishing
1. Why is use of excess fertiliser determental for environment?
Ans. Fertilisers observing pre and post-application precautions for their compelte utilisation.
Fertilisers get washed away due to excessive irrigation and are not fully absorbed by the
plams. This excess fertiliser then leads to water pollution. Conditions use of fertilisers in
an are can destroy soil fertility because the organic matter in the soil is not replenished and
micro-organisms in the soil are harmed by the fertilisers used.
2. List out some useful traits in improved crop?
Ans. Some useful traits in improved crops are:
(i) Higher yield of crop
(ii) Improved quality of crop
(iii) Biotic and abiotic resistance
(iv) Change in maturity duration
(v) Wider adaptability and
(vi) Desiratble agronomic characteristics.
3. Arrange these statements in correct sequence of preparation of green manure.
(a) Green plants are decomposed in soil
(b) Green plants are cultivated for preparating manure or crop plant parts are used.
(c) Plants are ploughed and mixed in soil.
(d) After decomposition, it becomes green manure.
Ans. b ) C ) a ) d.
4. Discuss why pesticides are used in very accuracy concentration and in very appropriate
Ans. Pesticides include herbicides, insecticides and fungicides which are sprayed on crop plants or
used for treating seeds and soil. However, excessive use of these chemicals creates problems,
since they can be poisonous to many plam and animal species and cause environmental
26. How do you differentiate between capture fishing, mariculture and aquaculture?
Improvement in Food Resources 145
VK Biology IX
Very Short Answer Questions
1. Name any common weed found in a field.
2. Define a weed.
3. Name two fertilisers.
4. Name one animal storage pests.
5. Name the nitrogenous fertilisers.
6. Name one insecticide.
7. Write the full form ofEDCT
8. Name a green manure.
9. Define venni-composting.
10. Name two varieties ofIndian fish.
11. Mention one each of high milk-yielding varieties of cow and buffalo.
12. Write the full form of NDRI.
13. What is the role of roughage in cattle feed'
14. Name four animals which provide us food.
15. Name any two Indian breeds of (i) cows, and (ii) buffaloes.
16. Mention the percentage of protein content in milk, egg and fish.
17. Write two high yielding varieties of poultry.
18. Name any two animal diseases carried by bacteria and viruses.
19. How are goats and sheep useful to us?
Short Answer Questions
1. Write three sorts of precautions for handling pesticides.
2. Name two common weeds found in agricultural fields. Mention their control.
3. Name the factors responsible for grain loss during the storage of grains.
4. What are pesticides? Name one pesticide.
5. Mention the improved cross-breeds of cow.
6. What do you mean by 'Operation Flood" Write any two responsible factors.
7. Define animal husbandry.
8. Mention the salient features of a good shelter.
9. What is Silver Revolution?
10. What are the major sources of our food'
11. Write two infectious diseases, each of cow, poultry and fish.
12. Define artificial insemination.
13. Give three uses of animal husbandry.
14. Mention the names of animal products which are used as food.
15. How is cross-breeding useful in cattle?
16. Mention three characteristics of a good animal shelter.
(1 mark)
(2,3 marks)
Long Answer Questions (5 marks)
1. Name some improved storage structures for grain. Explain how grain is protected in these
2. Discuss various measures for safe storage of grains.
VK Biology IX
146 Improvement in Food Resources
(b) liver only
(d) adi pocytes
3. Name one disease each of rice, wheat, mustard and sugarcane and suggest their control
4. Name two insect pests each of rice, mustard and sugarcane and suggest their control measures.
5. Define manures. What are the different manures and how do they affect the soil?
6. What are fertilisers? Classify fertilisers with suitable examples.
7. Define weeding. What tools are used for weeding?
8. What is green manuring? Give suitable examples for green manures.
9. ''\That is a fertiliser? How is it different from manure?
10. What are weeds? How are weeds controlled?
11. How are agricultural pests harmful?
12. What are crop pests? Suggest preventive measures to control pests.
13. Describe various measures for controlling insect pests in crops.
14. What are egg laying animals? Write the exotic breeds of poultry hen.
15. How would you protect the animals from various diseases?
16. How can we increase milk production in buffaloes and cows? Give names of improved breeds
of cow and buffalo.
17. What measures have been taken to improve the production of food from animal sources in
our country?
18. Milk production is meagre in India though there is a large population of cattle here. Why?
19. Mention few measures for prevention of diseases in the animals.
20. Briefly mention the advantages of artificial insemination. How is it done?
21. Name the different breeds of poultry bird. What is poultry farming?
Practical-based Multiple Choice Questions
1. Some food samples and their adulterants are given as follows
I. Ghee (i) Orange dye
II. Milk (ii) Tamarind seeds
III. Coffee (iii) Starch
IV. Red Chilly (iv) Vanaspati
Four sequences of food samples and their correct adulterants are proposed from the above
columns. Which one of the following sequence is correct?
(a) I - (i), II, (ii), III - (iii), IV - (iv)
(b) I-(iv), II - (iii), III-(ii), IV - (i)
(c) 1- (iv), II- (iii), III-(i), IV - (ii)
(d) I - (iii), II - (iv), III- (i), IV - (ii)
2. A Biology lab assistant was asked to prepare Iodine solution for starch test. He tried making
the solution by mixing different chemicals in various ratios. Can you pick up the right
combination from the following sets?
(a) 2 g of Potassium Iodate in 100 mL distilled water
(b) I g ofIodine in 100 mL distilled water
(c) 1 g of Potassium Iodate + I g ofIodine ih lOa mL distilled water
(d) 2 g of Potassium Iodide + I g oflodine in lOa mL distilled water
3. Excess of glucose present in blood is converted into glycogen in the presence of insulin
hormone. Glycogen is stored in
(a) muscles only
(c) both a and b
Improvement in Food Resources
VK Biology IX
(i) Cane sugar
(ii) Apple
(iii) Milk
(iv) Blood sugar
4. Four students, studying biochemistry for the first time, decided to perform the confirmatory
test for the presence of starch on potato slices. Since they were not sure of the chemical
which could give the blue black colour with starch, they tried their hands with different
types. Only one of them gave the correct result which can be identified as
(a) fluorine (h) chlorine
(c) iodine (d) bromine
5. Match the pair correctly.
I. Glucose
II. Sucrose
III. Fructose
Iv. Lactose
(a) I - (iv), II - (i), III - (ii), IV-(iii)
(h) I - (i), II - (ii), III - (iv), IV - (iii)
(c) I - (iv), II - (iii), III - (ii), IV -(i)
(d) I - (ii), II-(i), III - (iii), IV - (iv)
6. An experiment was performed in Class IX to demonstrate the effect of denature agents on
enzymes by taking different chemicals in 5mL starch solution. 15 minutes later, the tubes
were tasted for the presence of starch with the help oflodine. One ofthe tubes did not give
the blue black colour in the test tube because
5 mL starch solution
+ 1 mL Hel
+ 1 mL ptylin
5 mL starch solution 5 mL starch solution 5 mL starch solution
+ 1 mL alcohol + 1 mL ptylin + 1 mL water
+ 1 mL ptylin
(B) (C) (D)
(a) tube A as ptyalin was denatured
(h) tube B as starch was destroyed with alcohol
(c) tube C as ptyalin changed starch into maltose
(d) tube D as starch solution was diluted by adding water
7. Which of the following chemical is used to observe the presence of starch in the food
(a) 12 solution (Iodine) (h) Cone. HCl
(c) Benedict's reagent (d) None of these
8. Substance 'X' was added to a test tube containing water and grounded arhar dal to test the
presence of metanil yellow. The colour of solution changed to pink. Identify 'X'.
(a) Hp (h) l\aOH
(c) H
(d) HCl
9. A student added only two drops of iodine to a rice extract in test tube A. Another student
added a little rice extract to iodine solution in test tube B. They would then observe
(a) a change of colour to blue black in test tube A but not in test tube B
(b) a change of colour to blue black in test tube B but not in test tube A
VK Biology IX
148 Improvement in Food Resources
(e) a change of colour to blue black in Doth test tubes A and B
(d) no change of colour in any test tube
10. Paul was rushing with a bottle of tincture iodine. Some iodine solution splashed on his
yellow coloured cotton shirt and also on the white table cloth. The stain on the table cloth .
was yellowish brown while that on his shirt was blue black. The most plausible scientific
reason for this is that the
(a) Shirt was dyed with metanil yellow
(b) Shirt was starched after washing
(e) Table cloth was starched but not the shirt
(d) Shirt had absorbed sweat
II. Four samples of arhar dal (tuvar dal) were taken in four test tubes with some water in each
and labelled P, Q, Rand S. A few drops of the following were added to these test tubes:
water to test tube P, HCI to test tube Q, NaOH to test tube R and alcohol to test tube S. We
would be able to confirm adulteration of the dal with metanil yellow in test tubes
(a) P and Q (b) Qand R
(e) Rand S (d) Sand P
12. The teacher asked the student to correctly record results of the experiment done to detect
presence of metanil yellow in the adulterated arhardal (tuvar dal) sample that was provided
to them.
S.No. Procedure Observation Inference
A 5g da! + 5 g metani! yellow Dal turns yellow Metani! yellow present
B 5 g dal + 5 mL'water Solution turns pink Metani! yellow present 111
+ 2 drops ofHCI the sample
C 5 g dal + 5 mL water ,.vater turns yellow Metanil yellow present
+ pinch of metanil yellow
D 5 g dal + 5 mL water Metanil yellow present Water turns yellow and then
+ 2 drops of HC[ pink
The correct recording of the experiment is done in table
(a) A (b) B
(e) C (d) D
13. On the laboratory table were placed four watch glasses with labels A, B, C and D. Watch
glass "A" had chalk powder, "B" had sago powder, "C" had common salt and "D" had
powdered sugar. On adding two drops of iodine to the content of each watch glass, the one
turning blue black will be
(a) A (b) B
(e) C (d) D
14. Seema bought arhar dal (tuar dal) from the market. On adding water to the dal the water
became yellow in colour. She took a sample of this yellow water to the laboratory and added
a few drops ofHCI. The sample became pink. This confirmed that the adulterant added to
the dal was
(a) turmeric (b) metani! yellow
(e) potassium dichromate (d) yellow dye
15. To observe starch granules in potato under a microscope, freshly cut surface of potato was
pressed on a slide. The stain that will show starch granules clearly is
(a) methylene blue (b) iodine
(e) safranin (d) eosin
1-_t-...,;;lm;;:p;;v.:.;em;:.e;:.n.:.;li;:.n;:.Fo:.;O.:.;d;:.Re;;;so.:.;u;;,;rc;;;es=-- ;:.[;:.4.:....9
(b) Shreya
(d) Chitra
16. A very fast driver of a motorcycle met with an accident that resulted in heavy bleeding. As
soon as he was rushed to the hospital they put him on intravenous 5% dextrose sugar. What
is the other name of this sugar that is the instant source of energy?
(a) Fructose (b) Glucose
(e) Sucrose (d) Lactose
17. Identify the plant from the following that is not a pulse.
(a) Mustard (b) Pea
(e) Groundnut (d) Blackgram
18. An infant suffering from PEM disorder, Kwashiorkor was advised to have protein rich milk
prepared from one ofthe legumes. Identify the source.
(a) Groundnut (b) Arhar dal
(e) Moong dal (d) Soyabeen
19. Which one does not correctly provide us starch grains found in the specific food stuff?
(a) Potato (b) Banana
(e) Wheat (d) Rice
20. Which is the most abundant carbohydrate found on earth?
(a) Starch (b) Glycogen
(e) Chitin (d) Cellulose
21. From the following carbohydrates, find out the one, that is insoluble in water.
(a) Starch (b) Glucose
(e) Fructose (d) Insulin
22. In slimming centres like VLCC, obese patients are advised not to have excess of certain
nutrients but the restriction is not imposed on patients for one type of carbohydrates.
Identify it.
(a) Fats (b) Starch
(e) Sucrose (d) Cellulose
23. A class IV student was having veg biryani during the break. A senior scolded him.
Scared of his senior, he immediately ran to his elder brother who was a class XI student and
was performing an experiment in chemistry lab with Iodine solution and collided with his
elder bother, The solution spilled on biryani and changed its colour to blue black because
(a) biryani is made from wheat which has starch in it
(b) biryani is made from rice which has starch in it
(e) biryani is made from pulses which has starch in it
(d) iodine is already having blue black
24. Which of the following statements is incorrect?
(a) A 40 years old gardener should be given lots of carbohydrate
(b) A 5 year old child should be given lot of proteins and carbohydrates
(e) A pregnant mother should be given lot of fats to get energy
(d) A sick person should be given soft diet having proteins vitamins & minerals
25. Four students of Central School, Noida were provided with adulterated pulses to test the
presence of metanil yellow. They all added 5mL of water to 5g of pulses but forgot the
name of the acid that gives magenta colour with the adulterant. Sanjeevani, Shreya, Alka
and Chitra added few drops of cone. , cone. , cone. HCI and respectively. Who according
to you had added the right acid?
(a) Sanjeevani
(e) Alka
VK Biology IX
150 Improvement in Food Resources
26. Observe the following tubes carefully.
5 mL sugarcane
juice + 2 mL fehllng (A)
and fehling (8)
5 mL apple juice
+ 2 mL fehling (A)
and fehling (8)
5 mL grape juice
+ 2 mL fehling (A)
and fehling (B)
5 mL orange juice
+ 2 mL fehling (A)
and fehling (8)
(b) (ii)
(d) (iv)
On heating all these test tubes one of them would not give a red precipitate with Fehling's
solution though all of them contain sugar. Which of the following tube will not give red
(a) (i)
(e) (iii)
1. (b) 2. (d) 3. (e) 4. (e)
5. (d) 6. (e) 7. (a) 8. (d)
9. (e) 10. (b) 11. (a) 12. (b)
13.(b) 14. (b) 15. (b) 16. (b)
17.(a) 18. (d) 19. (b) 20. (d)
21. (a) 22. (d) 23. (b) 24. (e)
25.(e) 26. (a)
Improvement in Food Resources 151
VK Biology IX
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