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Scientific Papers and Articles
Esta colección recopilada aparece en el sitio web Shroud of Turin Website de Barrie M. Schwortz. Estos trabajos permiten ponernos al tanto de las investigaciones sobre la Sábana Santa de Turín. This page allows you to review previous and ongoing Shroud research. Here you will find, in their entirety whenever possible, links to papers and articles written about the Shroud of Turin.
Los trabajos aparecen en orden alfabético , por título.
The papers are listed below alphabetically by title.
Alice In Wonderland and the Shroud of Turin by Isabel Piczek This article clearly addresses many of the questionable theories raised by recent books and articles in the popular press. The article includes 58 illustrations and may take a few minutes to load. Isabel Piczek is a noted monumental artist and theoretical physicist and a highly respected Shroud researcher. This presentation was originally delivered at the 1996 Esopus Conference. Analyzing Radiocarbon Data Using Burr Statistics by Remi Van Haelst [18 July 2011] This article is so specialized and technical, no one on our editorial review committee felt qualified to review it! Thus, we are including it with the caveat that it has not really been vetted and invite any qualified viewers to send us their own reviews. Ancient Bleaching Citations by Bill Meacham Provides references to Pliny the Elder and ancient bleaching techniques. Originally posted to the Online Shroud Science Group [October 2010]
Answering the Savoy/Leonardo DaVinci Hypothesis by Richard B. Sorensen (.pdf format) [151k] [June 2005]
In this well researched article, Richard compiles and presents all the evidence regarding the infamous "Leonardo Theory" proposed by some researchers, and includes links to all of his references.
Antioch and the Shroud by Jack Markwardt (.pdf format) [78k] A new theory of the cloth's history prior to the 6th century, illustrated with color transparencies.(From the 1999 Richmond Conference)
Appraisal of the mistakes made regarding the Shroud samples takin in 1988, An and a suggested way of putting these behind us by Ian Wilson Ian Wilson's overview of the current state of Shroud research and his plea for cooperation within the Shroud research community. This paper was originally presented at the 1998 Turin Symposium.
Ariel Agemian Biography by Annig Agemian Raley [15 July 2011] Without doubt, the painting created by Armenian artist Ariel Agemian and based on the image of the Shroud, is world famous and has become one of the most beloved and iconic portrayals of Jesus of the 20th century. Although the image itself is well known, very few of us know much about the artist himself. I was fortunate to be contacted by his daughter, Annig Agemian Raley, who was kind enough to write a detailed biography of him that she has kindly allowed me to share here with you.
More On Ariel Agemian by Annig Agemian Raley [1 Nov 2011] Further insights into the fascinating life of her father.
Authentication of the Turin Shroud, The: An Issue in Archaeological Epistemology by William Meacham Reprinted from the June 1983 edition of CURRENT ANTHROPOLOGY, this article not only makes an interesting argument for the authenticity of the Shroud, circa 1983, but also provides us with excellent insight into the workings of Shroud science. Included after the article itself is a Comments section, with a variety of critiques from many noted Shroud researchers. This includes a rather heated debate by experts on both sides of the authenticity argument, followed by the author's direct and often pointed reply to their comments. However, it provides a great perspective on the nature of Shroud science itself and I am pleased to be able to make it available to you. It is illustrated and includes eleven images. A special word of thanks to the University of
Chicago Press for giving me permission to reprint it on this website and Maurizio Marinelli for digitizing the text and images.
Autopsy on the Man of the Shroud, An by Robert Bucklin, M.D., J.D. This paper was first presented at the May 1997 Nice Symposium in Nice, France, and can also be reached via the "Shroud Conferences & Symposia" page of this website. The author was a world renown forensic pathologist and medical examiner, and formerly Deputy Coronor of Los Angeles, California and Las Vegas, Nevada. He was an avid Shroud researcher for over 50 years and provided a clear and expert medical interpretation of the man depicted on the cloth. In 1978, Dr. Bucklin was a member of STURP, the team that performed the first ever in-depth examination of the Shroud. He died on September 19, 2001. I was very proud that he allowed me to include his important work on this website.
Bibliography of Major Sources Pertaining to the Events of the 1988 C-14 Dating of the Shroud of Turin by Joseph G. Marino [August 2012] Well known in the Shroud world, Joe Marino provides another carefully researched reference article for those interested in studying the C-14 dating and the events surrounding it.
Blood on the Shroud of Turin: An Immunological Review by Kelly P. Kearse [August 2012] Relatively new in the Shroud world, Kelly Kearse is a blood expert who has taken a very strong interest in the Shroud and has studied and evaluated the existing blood evidence very carefully. He has written articles on the subject on the online ShroudScience Group and the blogs. This excellent article is a comprehensive review of his recent blood studies.
Body Image Formation Hypothesis based on Corona Discharge by Giulio Fanti (.pdf format) [September 2005] (From the 3rd International Dallas Conference) This paper details Giulio's controversial theory that the Shroud's image was formed via coronal discharge. Additionally, here is a link to the presentation slides Giulio showed at the conference:http://www.dim.unipd.it/fanti/PDFpresCORONA.pdf
Can a Corona Discharge Explain the Body Image of the Turin Shroud? by G. Fanti This article is from the Journal of Imaging Science and Technology, March/April 2010, Volume 54, Issue 2, pp. 020508-(11) (Abstract Only)
Can a latent image explain the characteristics of the Shroud body image? by G. Fazio & G. Mandaglio (2011), Radiation Effects and Defects in Solids, DOI:10.1080/10420150.2011.595413 (Abstract Only without Subscription) [Jan 2012]
Cathar Crucifix, The: New Evidence of the Shroud's Missing History by Jack Markwardt (.pdf format) [50k] (From the "Sindone 2000" Orvieto Worldwide Congress) Jack continues in his ongoing efforts to fill in the missing years of the Shroud's early history. Regular website viewers will know Jack from his earlier papers on this site.
C-14 Debate from the Shroud Newsgroup: alt.turin-shroud - Roger Sparks and William Meacham This article is compiled from a series of postings that appeared on the Shroud Newsgroup, alt.turin-shroud. In it, Rodger Sparks, a carbon dating expert from New Zealand, and William Meacham, archaeologist and Shroud researcher from Hong Kong, debated some of the theories that have been proposed regarding possible inaccuracies in the 1988 test results. My thanks to them both for their kind permission in allowing me to reprint their comments here on the website.
Chemistry of Autocatalytic Processes in the Context of the Shroud of Turin, The by Ray N. Rogers (.pdf format) [37k] [October 2002] This article by Ray Rogers, retired pyrolysis chemist from Los Alamos National Laboratories and original member of the STURP team, is somewhat technical but very important and well worth reading. It discusses the damage to the cloth resulting from the fire of 1532 and concludes that it posed no immediate or ongoing threat to the Shroud. Reportedly, the fear of additional damage to the Shroud by autocatalysis in existing burn and scorch areas prompted the July 2002 restoration.
Chronological History of the Evidence for the Anomalous Nature of the C-14 Sample Area of the Shroud of Turin by Joseph G. Marino and Edwin J. Prior (.pdf format) [145k] [November 2008] This excellent summary article is co-authored by noted Shroud scholar Joseph Marino and retired NASA scientist Edwin Prior. It provides compelling, detailed evidence supporting the theory that the 1988 c-14 dating of the Turin Shroud used an anomalous sample not representative of the main Shroud cloth.
EDITOR’S NOTE: Since this article was first written, the authors found considerable additional information to further document the evidence supporting this theory and have compiled it into an Addendum to their original article. You can find the addendum at
this link: "ADDENDUM to Chronological History of the Evidence for the Anomalous Nature of the C-14 Sample Area of the Shroud of Turin." (.pdf format) [74k] [January 2009] < „A Clean Cloth‟ - What Greek Word Usage Tells Us About the Death and Burial of Jesus by Diana Fulbright (.pdf format) [584k] [September 2005] This paper was originally presented at the Third International Dallas Shroud Conference in September 2005. (Editor's Note: This link is to a reprint of the article from the BSTS Newsletter No. 62)
Colouring fabrics with Excimer lasers to simulate encoded images: the case of the Shroud of Turin by P. Di Lazzaro, G. Baldacchini, G. Fanti, D. Murra and A. Santoni This article is from the Proceedings of SPIE, the International Society for Optical Engineering, 2008 (No issue # available) (Abstract Only) and its availability online just came to my attention in 2010.
Comments About the Recent Experiment of Professor Luigi Garlaschelli by Thibault Heimburger, M.D. (.pdf format) [516k] (Includes 12 color photomicrographs and illustrations) [November 2009] On October 6, 2009, Italian Prof. Luigi Garlaschelli issued a press release to the Reuters News Service, announcing he had "reproduced" the Shroud image using medieval technologies, thus proving it a fake. For this article, Thibault consulted directly with Professor Garlaschelli and provides a detailed overview of his techniques, along with a point by point comparison between Garlaschelli's results and the image on the Shroud.
Comments On Shroud Research by Donald Lynn (.pdf format) [7k] (From The Dallas Meeting of American Sindonology) Don's presentation shared his thoughts on Shroud research and the future.
Comments on 'The Resurrection of the Shroud' by Mark Antonacci by Ray Rogers (.pdf format) [119k] (English) This article by Ray Rogers, one of the original members of the Shroud of Turin Research Project (STURP) and a retired chemist from Los Alamos National Laboratories, reviews the book titled, "The Resurrection of the Shroud" by St. Louis attorney, Mark Antonacci. Click here to read Mark Antonacci's Reply To Ray Rogers' Review of His Book
Comparitive Study of the Sudarium of Oviedo and the Shroud of Turin by G. Heras and D. Villalain (.pdf format) [69k] (English) Estudio comparativo entre al Sudario de Oviedo y la Sindone de Turin by G. Heras and D. Villalain (.pdf format) [78k] (Spanish) These papers were originally presented at the 1998 Turin Symposium and are available in both English and Spanish versions.
Computerized Anthropometric Analysis of the Man of the Turin Shroud by Prof. ssa Emanuela Marinelli- Co-authored with Alessandro Cagnazzo and Prof. Giulio Fanti (.pdf format) [222k](From the 1999 Richmond Conference) This is an important paper that includes anthropometric measurements of the body image on the Shroud and compares the results to known body types.
Concept of Negativity Through the Ages, The vs. The Negative Image on the Shroud by Isabel Piczek This paper was first presented at the May 1997 Nice Symposium in Nice, France and can also be reached via the "Shroud Conferences & Symposia" page of this website. It gives Isabel Piczek's unique perspective on this important aspect of Shroud research and is profusely illustrated, as all Isabel's presentations are. Isabel is a noted monumental artist and physicist and a well respected Shroud researcher. It may take a few minutes to fully download the article with its many illustrations, but it is well worth the wait.
Concerning the Side Strip on the Shroud of Turin by Alan D. Adler and Alan & Mary Whanger This paper concludes that the samples used to carbon date the Shroud in 1988 may have been taken from a part of the cloth that was rewoven in medieval times. This paper was first presented at the May 1997 Nice Symposium in Nice, France and can also be reached via the "Shroud Conferences & Symposia" page of this website. It includes three highly magnified x-rays made during the 1978 examination to illustrate its hypothesis. Dr. Adler is an internationally known and well respected Shroud researcher and worked with the late Dr. John Heller in 1979 to complete the chemical analysis that proved the bloodstains on the Shroud were actually blood. He is currently an advisor to the Archbishop of Turin regarding future conservation efforts of the cloth. Alan and Mary Whanger are noted Shroud researchers that have done extensive studies regarding secondary images on the Shroud and were participants in the recently announced discovery of flower images on the cloth.
Conservation of the Shroud of Turin by Alan D. Adler and Larry A. Schwalbe
A realistic evaluation of the conservation problems that must be confronted and resolved in order to preserve the Shroud of Turin and its unique image. Alan Adler, Professor of Chemistry at Western Connecticut State University, is a well known and respected Shroud researcher who worked with the late John Heller in evaluating the blood stains on the Shroud. Both he, and Larry Schwalbe of Los Alamos Laboratories, were original team members of STURP. You will find references to more of their published Shroud papers on the "1978 Scientific Examination" page of this website, in theBibliography of STURP's Published Papers. This article is reprinted courtesy of Dorothy Crispino, Publisher and Editor of Shroud Spectrum International, the first refereed scientific journal dedicated exclusively to Shroud of Turin research.
Conservation of the Shroud of Turin: Optical Studies, The by Paolo Di Lazzaro, Daniele Murra, Antonino Santoni, Enrico Nichelatti - ENEA Report 2012. [21 January 2013] Abstract: The ancient linen cloth of the Shroud of Turin is one of the archaeological objects most studied in history, mainly because of the unexplained nature of its image. We have recently irradiated linen fabrics by excimer laser pulses obtaining a Shroudlike coloration, and have recognized photo-chemical processes that may have played a role in the formation of the image embedded into the Shroud. Our results suggest some actions aimed at a long-term conservation of the Shroud and its image.
Cotton In Raes/Radiocarbon Threads: The Example of Raes #7 by Thibault Heimburger (.pdf format) [234k], [601k], [417k] [May 2009] This latest article from Thibault, dedicated to the memory of Sue Benford, is based on his careful analysis of the Raes #7 sample which was provided to him at 2008's Ohio Shroud Conference. His results add further confirmation to the observations and conclusions made by Benford & Marino, Ray Rogers, John Brown, Robert Villarreal and others. As it includes many color photomicrographs, it is broken into three parts to keep the individual files sizes (and consequently, download times) to a minimum. You will find a link at the end of each part of the article that allows you to continue to the next part.
Crucifixion of Jesus, The: review of hypothesized mechanisms of death and implications of shock and trauma-induced coagulopathy by Joseph W. Bergeron, M.D. [July 2011] This article was was accepted for publication in the Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine in July 2011. Joe has also created a website, Cause of Jesus' Death, to go with the article
Dating and Formation of the Shroud by Peter Carr (.pdf format) [73k] The author logically weighs and carefully evaluates the evidence for the Shroud's authenticity from his perspective as a scientist who spent many years in charge of
technical laboratories carrying out research and development. This is the first time it has appeared in print.
Debunking The Shroud: Made by Human Hands by Gary Vikan This article appeared in the November/December 1998 issue of Biblical Archaeology Review and includes a sidebar titled, The Shroud Painting Explained by Walter C. McCrone. The controversial article spawned a wide gamut of responses from the magazine's readers, which were printed in their Letters to the Editor column in a later issue. These are included following the article. A number of other responses were submitted to BAR that were not published, probably due to their length. These included an in-depth collaborative response titled, Deconstructing the "Debunking" of the Shroud, authored by Prof. Dan Scavone, Prof. Karlheinz Dietz, John Markwardt, Mario Latendresse, Rev. Albert Dreisbach, Mark Guscin, Joseph Marino, Emanuela Marinelli and Gino Zaninotto and a separate response titled, Comments on the Radiocarbon Dating of the Turin Shroud by Dr. Stephen Mattingly. These are published here for the first time. Just added is a previously unpublished personal letter from noted Shroud researcher, Dr. Alan Whanger to Mr. Hershel Shanks, Editor of BAR, responding to the Vikan article.
Deep Ultraviolet Radiation Simulates the Turin Shroud Image by Paolo Di Lazzaro, Daniele Murra, Antonino Santoni and Giulio Fanti This article appeared in the Journal of Imaging Science and Technology, [July/August 2010] Volume 54, Issue 4, pp. 040302-(6) (Abstract Only)
Detailed Critical Review of the Chemical Studies on the Turin Shroud, A: Facts and Interpretations by Thibault Heimburger, M.D. (.pdf format) [569k] [January 2008] This paper offers a detailed synthesis of all the data gathered and the scientific testing performed by John Heller and Alan Adler compared side by side with the analysis performed by Walter McCrone on tape samples taken from the Shroud of Turin in 1978 by the STURP team. It directly addresses the two major questions posed by the researchers: 1) Is the Shroud of Turin a painting? and 2) Is the blood really blood? Thibault's direct comparison includes an evaluation of the effectiveness of the techniques and procedures used for the analysis by all the researchers, their validity for the type of samples being tested, the quality (and credibility) of their respective conclusions and much more. Thibault gets technical, but does so in the simplest and most direct terms. This paper will help the reader fully understand the significance of Heller and Adler's work, recognize the flaws in McCrone's techniques and conclusions and gain a clear, credible, scientific answer to both questions.
Did Geoffroy I de Charny Obtain the Present Turin Shroud on the Smyrna Campaign of 1346 by Prof. Daniel Scavone (.pdf format) [72k] 
In this paper, Dan revisits the theories about the first documented owner of the Shroud, Geoffroy 1 de Charny, and where he might have acquired the relic. In several areas, he disagrees with other Shroud historians on certain aspects of the de Charny theories and makes a valid case for his conclusions.
Discrepancies in the radiocarbon dating area of the Turin shroud by M. Sue Benford and Joseph G. Marino This article originally appeared in the journal Chemistry Today, vol 26 n 4, July-August 2008 but just became available in its entirety on the internet in 2010. (Full Paper Available)
DNA on the Shroud of Turin: Distinguishing endogenous versus exogenous DNA by Kelly P. Kearse [21 January 2013] Here is the full Abstract for this paper: "In the late 1990s it was reported that human DNA existed on the Shroud of Turin, and although in a generally degraded state, certain regions were sufficiently intact to clone and sequence three genes from bloodstained fibers: human betaglobin, amelogenin X and amelogenin Y. An unknown variable in such studies is the extent of contamination by exogenous DNA, transferred to the Shroud by persons or objects that have come in contact with cloth. Indeed, the abovementioned genes are not exclusive to blood cells, but are also found within other cell types, including skin cells. Here, a simple experimental approach is described for distinguishing endogenous versus exogenous DNA, which may help establish that DNA in the blood areas of the Shroud of Turin originated from white blood cells (lymphocytes) present on the cloth."
Doubts Concerning the Coins Over the Eyes by Antonio Lombatti This article originally appeared in the "Letters To The Editor" section of the June/July 1997 issue (#45) of the British Society for the Turin Shroud (BSTS) Newsletter and is available via the "British Society for the Turin Shroud" page of this website. It sparked a lively e-mail debate amongst Shroud researchers, which, through the courtesy of all the participants, is reprinted following the article. Duplicità del volto Sindonico by Giovanni Imbalzano This paper was originally presented at the 1998 Turin Symposium. The link is to the author's website where you will find the Italian text of this and his other Shroud-related works.
Electronic Archiving and Distribution: The Value of the Internet and CD-ROM Technology by Barrie M. Schwortz (.pdf format) [22k] (From The 1998 Dallas Meeting of American Sindonology)
This presentation started with an overview of the Shroud of Turin Website for those who had never seen it. Using a computer video projector (courtesy of Russell Breault), I was able to project the image directly from my laptop computer to a large screen. I demonstrated many of the website's features, including the use of the "Shroud Library" page to navigate the website. I was also very proud to demonstrate, for the first time ever in public, "The Virtual VP-8" Segment from the Shroud of Turin CD-ROM. This is the most dynamic and interactive portion of the disc, and allows each viewer the opportunity to manipulate the 3-D characteristics of the Shroud image. This moment was made even more exceptional for me when I discovered that Peter Schumacher, an expert on the VP-8 Image Analyzer, was in the room!
Empirical evidence that the blood on the Shroud of Turin is of human origin: Is the current data sufficient? by Kelly P. Kearse [21 January 2013] Here is an excerpt from the Abstract: "Previous studies have established that the blood areas on the Shroud of Turin consist of real blood and are not composed of artistic pigments. It is commonly reported that the blood is of human origin, but just how substantial is the evidence to support this conclusion? Here, the empirical evidence for the human origin of the Turin Shroud bloodstains is evaluated.... The potential usefulness of additional testing methods, many developed since the original studies were performed approximately thirty years ago, is also discussed."
Evidence for the Shroud in Constantinople prior to 1204 by Daniel C. Scavone (.pdf format) [32k] (From the 1999 Richmond Conference) This presentation included 22 slides which are not currently included with the article. However, since we plan to include these illustrations in the future, the references to them remain in the text.
Evidence for the Skewing of the C-14 Dating of the Shroud of Turin Due to Repairs by Joseph G. Marino and M. Sue Benford (.pdf format) [235k] (From the "Sindone 2000" Orvieto Worldwide Congress) (Includes 8 illustrations) This article presents carefully documented evidence that the section of the Shroud of Turin from which the 1988 C-14 samples were removed, was in fact, a portion of the cloth that was rewoven and repaired in medieval times. If proven true, this evidence would provide the simplest explanation for the medieval age of the cloth arrived at by the three C-14 laboratories that performed the tests.
Evidence Is Not Proof: A Response to Prof. Timothy Jull by Mark Oxley [21 January 2011] This article was written in response to a paper titled Investigating a Dated Piece of the Shroud of Turin by the University of Arizona's Rachel Freer-Waters and Prof. Timothy Jull that was published in the December 2010 issue of their peer reviewed journal, Radiocarbon. In part it concluded: "In contrast to other reports on less-
documented material, we find no evidence to contradict the idea that the sample studied was taken from the main part of the shroud, as reported by Damon et al. (1989). We also find no evidence for either coatings or dyes, and only minor contaminants." Mark Oxley's article is a carefully written, clear, concise and thoughtful response to the paper.
Evidence that the Shroud was not Completely Flat during the Image Formation by Mario Latendresse [September 2005] (From the 3rd International Dallas Conference) Above is a link to the article on Mario's website. The following is a link to Mario's Presentation Slides: http://www.sindonology.org/papers/latendresse2005aSlides.pdf
Evidences for Testing Hypotheses About the Body Image Formation of the Turin Shroud by Giulio Fanti et al (.pdf format) [113k] [September 2005] (From the 3rd International Dallas Conference) (24 Co-authors) This paper, representing the combined efforts of 24 researchers who participate regularly in an online Shroud Science forum, was originally scheduled to be presented at the Dallas Conference, but the authors were notified at the last moment that its acceptance had been revoked because it was deemed to be "too controversial.” Ultimately, it was presented on Saturday evening of the conference by Giulio Fanti to a large group in Dan Porter's Hospitality Suite. However, since the paper was accepted and listed in the Conference Program, I am including it here.
Fathers of American Sindonology, The by Dorothy Crispino In this fascinating article, Dorothy relates the story of the men who formed the Holy Shroud Guild, the first group to promote Shroud research in the United States. It introduces the men whose efforts ultimately helped STURP obtain permission to perform the 1978 scientific examination of the Shroud. Dorothy was the Publisher and Editor of Shroud Spectrum International, the first peer reviewed journal in the United States dedicated exclusively to the study of the Shroud (Sindonology). This presentation was originally delivered at the 1996 Esopus Conference.
Feasibility Analysis of Studies on Linen from the Shroud of Turin Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, A by Giulio Fanti & Ulf Winkler (.pdf format) [54k] (English) Analisi di fattibilità di indagini sul lino della Sindone di Torino mediante risonanza magnetica nucleare (.pdf format) [57k] (Italian) These papers were originally presented at the 1998 Turin Symposium and are available in both English and Italian versions.
Finding the Shroud in the 21st Century by M. Sue Benford and Joseph G. Marino
This is the earliest paper by Benford and Marino (December 2001) proposing their theory of a rewoven and anomalous sample site used for the radiocarbon dating of the Shroud
Fire and the Portrait, The by Jack Markwardt This paper proposes to resolve, and to reconcile, two of the Shroud's most tantalizing mysteries: When and how did it incur the fire damage now generally referred to as the "poker holes" and when and why was it converted into the portrait known as the Image of Edessa. This paper was originally delivered at the 1998 Turin Symposium. Editor's Note: See the article on this website titled The Red Stains on the Lier and Other Shroud Copies by Remi Van Haelst. It includes four detailed color photographic closeups of the burn holes discussed in this paper, as well as the transmitted light image of the Shroud mentioned in the footnotes.
First Shroud Photo, The by Remi Van Haelst The author has compiled a large number of press articles about Secondo Pia and his correspondence with Paul Vignon, Arthur Loth, Baron Manno and several others. In addition to some very interesting insights into Pia's work and the criticisms he endured, it also provides some of his technical photographic data and a chart of Shroud measurements made at various times between 1503 and 1898.
Floral Images and Pollen Grains on the Shroud of Turin: An Interview with Dr. Alan Whanger and Dr. Avinoam Danin by John C. Iannone (.pdf format) [15k] In this very recent article, John spent considerable time interviewing the researchers and then additional time allowing them to review his article for accuracy. This article provides excellent insight into some of the most important, current research being done on the Shroud.
Floristic Indicators for the Origin of the Shroud of Turin by Avinoam Danin and Uri Baruch (.pdf format) [25k] (Full Paper) From the 1998 Turin Symposioum.
Frequently Asked Question (FAQs) by Raymond N. Rogers (.pdf format) [464k] [July 2004] (Includes 9 color and b&w illustrations) Ray accumulated the questions he had been asked (and has answered) most often over the years and compiled them into this paper. In it, you will find that Ray provides clear, detailed answers to nineteen of the most important questions about the Shroud of Turin and supports each answer with empirical scientific data.
Further Studies on the Scorches and the Watermarks by Aldo Guerreschi (.pdf format) [437k] [September 2005] (From the 3rd International Dallas Conference) (40 photographs and illustrations) As always, Aldo Guerreschi's thoughtful, thorough and empirical approach to Shroud research is evidenced in this, his latest contribution to our knowledge of the Shroud. In this newest paper, perhaps the best presented at the 2005 Dallas conference, Aldo recreates the fire of 1532 and provides a highly credible explanation for the infamous burn holes and scorches on the Shroud. Long thought to be caused by molten silver dripping onto the cloth from the superheated silver-covered reliquary, this theory was not borne out by the data gathered in 1978 by STURP, as their spectral analysis found no silver residue in any of the burned or scorched areas. Aldo's most recent work provides what may be the best answer to this problem.
Geography of the Shroud, The by Emanuela Marinelli (.pdf format) [September 2005] (From the 3rd International Dallas Conference) In this paper, Emanuela provides the reader with a comprehensive overview of Shroud studies around the world and includes links to dozens of Shroud related websites.
Ghiberti's pronouncement on my analyses by Raymond N. Rogers [January 23, 2005] Rogers' response to criticism of his work by Msgr. Giuseppe Ghiberti.
Historical Support of a 16th Century Restoration in the Shroud C-14 Sample Area by M. Sue Benford and Joseph G. Marino (.pdf format) [92k] [August 2002] (Includes 4 illustrations) One of the main criticisms leveled at Marino and Benford's original proposal was the credibility of their claim that such an "invisible" reweaving method even existed, let alone was good enough to avoid detection by the experts who have studied the Shroud in the last century. Their second paper directly addresses this issue and documents the art of invisible reweaving in great detail.
History of Shroud.com, The by Barrie M. Schwortz [January 21, 2012] (En Español) The story of how it all began.
Image Formation and the Shroud of Turin by Dr. Emily A. Craig and Dr. Randall R. Bresee (.pdf format) [315k]
This article first appeared in the peer-reviewed Journal of Imaging Science and Technology, Volume 38, No. 1, p.59-67. (1994). It presents a method by which the carbon-dust drawing technique can be modified to produce an image that the authors claim has the same physical characteristics as the image on the Shroud of Turin. The authors are quick to point out that this method and theory do not prove that someone DID produce the image on the Shroud of Turin. They do claim however, that with this method someone actually COULD have created such an image. The original article stresses the concept that a medieval artist could have created the image, but perhaps the most compelling new "twist" to this theory is found in the previously unpublished preface added here by Dr. Craig. Dr. Craig (Kentucky State Medical Examiner's Office) is an internationally recognized expert in forensic anthropology, which includes threedimensional reconstruction of human faces on skulls as well as the analysis of skeletal trauma and decomposition. Dr. Craig also has over 25 years of experience as a professional medical illustrator with national and international awards for painting, sculpture, and photography. Dr. Bresee is a professor of textile science (University of Tennessee in Knoxville) and an internationally recognized expert in the field of forensic textile analysis. This article is posted with permission of IS&T: The Society for Imaging Science and Technology, sole copyright owners of IS&T's Journal of Photographic Science and Engineering for the term of January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2002, www.imaging.org
Image Formation Mechanism on the Shroud of Turin, The: A Solar Reflex Radiation Model (the Optical Aspect) by Serge N. Mouraviev (.pdf format) [66k] La Formation de l‟Image sur le Suaire de Turin: Projection optique (et Fixation photochimique) de l‟Image réflexe renvoyée par le Corps exposé au Soleil (.pdf
Reprinted from the December 1997 issue of Applied Optics, this paper is available in both English and French and presents a unique hypothesis for image formation.
Imaging Spectroscopy: A New Non-Destructive Method for Materials Analysis by Warren S. Grundfest, M.D. (.pdf format) [235k] (From The 2001 Dallas Meeting of American Sindonology) Dr. Grundfest's presentation was one of the highlights of the meeting, detailing a new, non-destructive imaging technology that could provide complete spectral data and chemical analysis for every point on the Shroud and make a significant contribution to the conservation of the cloth.
Imprint, The by Peter Carr (.pdf format) [63k] This paper provides a fascinating account of the Jospice Mattress imprint. Although this is not directly about the Shroud of Turin, it is still significant in that it is the only scientifically documented case in modern times of a dead body leaving an unexplainable imprint on a piece of cloth. Although the image is different than that on the Shroud, it still provides solid evidence that these type of unexplainable phenomena can occur. You
should find it interesting, as the story of the image and the man that left it is well documented.
Inscriptions on the Shroud, The by Mark Guscin (.pdf format) [15k] (Reprinted from the BSTS Newsletter, No. 50, November 1999) Mark Guscin is a member of both the BSTS and the Centro Español de Sindonologia (CES) and is the noted linguist and historian that wrote the definitive book on the Sudarium of Oviedo. This article challenges the theories of Marion and Courage, two French researchers who claim they have discovered new "inscriptions" on the Shroud.
Investigating a Dated Piece of the Shroud of Turin by Rachel Freer-Waters and Prof. Timothy Jull, Radiocarbon Vol 52, No.4, p. 1521-1527, December 2010 Abstract: We present a photomicrographic investigation of a sample of the Shroud of Turin, split from one used in the radiocarbon dating study of 1988 at Arizona. In contrast to other reports on less-documented material, we find no evidence to contradict the idea that the sample studied was taken from the main part of the shroud, as reported by Damon et al. (1989). We also find no evidence for either coatings or dyes, and only minor contaminants. (Note: This link is to a Subscriber Only page and only the abstract is accessible to the public. Also read the article titled Evidence Is Not Proof: A Response to Prof. Timothy Jull by Mark Oxley for a detailed response to this paper).
Invisible Mending of the Shroud in Theory and Reality, The by Mechthild FluryLemberg (.pdf format) [26k] This paper was originally presented at the II International Congress on the Sudarium of Oviedo held in Oviedo, Spain, on April 13 - 15, 2007. (Editor's Note: The illustrations for this paper can now be viewed at: www.shroud.com/mechthild.htm.)
Is The Shroud of Turin a Medieval Photograph? A Critical Examination of the Theory by Barrie M. Schwortz (.pdf format) [308k] (From the "Sindone 2000" Orvieto Worldwide Congress) (illustrated with 7 photographs) In this paper the "proto-photography" theory of Nicholas Allen is examined in detail by a professional photographer. Allen proposes that the Shroud image is actually the product of a medieval photographer who used a camera obscura with a crystal lens to "photograph" a corpse onto linen cloth and Allen actually produced such an image using medieval raw materials. In this paper, Allen's results are evaluated in a side-by-side comparison with the image on the Shroud and some of the more sophisticated properties of the Shroud image are explained in detail. A preliminary version of this paper was presented at the May 2000 Imaging Conference in San Felice Circeo, Italy.
Is the Shroud of Turin a Painting? by Isabel Piczek An in depth study that examines the Shroud from an artist's perspective. Isabel Piczek is a world reknown monumental artist, theoretical physicist and active Shroud researcher since 1988. She has given numerous lectures around the globe, including three International Symposiums on the Shroud. This paper includes a summary of the material from her 1993 presentation at the Rome International Symposium. This paper includes 19 illustrations and will take a few minutes to load the first time you visit.
Joseph of Arimathea, the Holy Grail and the Turin Shroud (Abstract) by Professor Daniel Scavone A brief overview of the fascinating premise that the burial shroud of Jesus was the original object underlying the legends of the Holy Grail. Professor Scavone is a noted historian, Shroud researcher and author whose detailed paper on this subject is soon to be published in a professional journal. This abstract was originally presented at the 1996 Esopus Conference. The full version of the paper is now available to SMU subscribers at the following link: http://www.smu.edu/arthuriana/access/ESubscribe/9-4/scavone.pdf.
Jospice Mattress Cover Image, The by Frederick Zugibe, M.D., Ph.D. (.pdf format) [342k] [November 2007] (11 Illustrations) The Jospice mattress cover image is the detailed imprint of a dead man that was left on his mattress after he died. This previously unpublished paper documents the author's indepth scientific study of this fascinating object and the image it bears.
Language and Sensibility of Research Papers in Sindonology, The by Agnes Sam (.pdf format) [33k] This article discusses the language and semantics used by sindonologists. The author suggests there has been a lack of consistency in the language sindonologists use to describe the 'man' on the Shroud, and consequently, a resulting lack of respect for the spiritual and religious aspects of the image. She recommends the adoption of a style sheet to encourage this consistency and presents her own suggestions to sindonologists for just such a style sheet. Agnes is open to discuss her ideas with interested viewers and encourages scholars to write her directly with their comments. A link to her e-mail address is included at the end of the article.
Lectures in Spain, Italy and Poland - April 2011 - A Personal Report by Barrie Schwortz Schwortz spent much of April 2011 lecturing about the Shroud and representing STERA, Inc. at various schools and universities in Europe. This article describes the trip and shares his rather personal perspective on it.
Legal and Medical Aspects of the Trial and Death of Christ, The by Robert Bucklin, M.D., J.D. A noted Shroud researcher, forensic pathologist and attorney, Dr. Bucklin applies the rules of evidence to the Gospel accounts of the trial of Jesus in this fascinating article. He compares the image on the Shroud of Turin to the written descriptions of the crucifixion and reaches some interesting conclusions. The article first appeared in the January 1970 edition of Medicine, Science and the Law.
Life-size Reproduction of the Shroud of Turin and its Image by Luigi Garlaschelli This paper was published in the Journal of Imaging Science and Technology, July/August 2010, Volume 54, Issue 4, pp. 040301-(14) (Abstract Only). Editor's Note: In October 2009, in response to a major media release by Professor Garlachelli claiming he had "reproduced" the Shroud image, I wrote and published an editorial titled Science By Press Release? In it I was critical of the fact that scientific claims are rarely if ever released to a major media outlet BEFORE being published in the peer-reviewed scientific literature, as was the case with Professor Garlaschelli's work. His original press release stated that the article would be published in such a journal "next week" Now, almost a year later, his work has finally been published in the above journal. You might also wish to read Comments About the Recent Experiment of Professor Luigi Garlaschelli by Thibault Heimburger. For this article, Thibault consulted directly with Professor Garlaschelli and provides a detailed overview of his techniques, along with a point by point comparison between Garlaschelli's results and the image on the Shroud (November 2009) (Full Paper Available).
Man Of The Shroud Was Washed, The by Frederick T. Zugibe, M.D., Ph.D. This paper provides a scientific basis for the hypothesis that the Man of the Shroud had been washed prior to placement on the Shroud. Dr. Zugibe is a professor of anatomy and the Senior Medical Examiner of Rockland County, New York. His studies are based on the analysis of antemortem and postmortem blood flow patterns on cadavers and their comparison to those on the Shroud. A number of relevant facets of scripture and Jewish customs are also discussed. This article first appeared in Sindon N. S. in 1989. Three somewhat graphic photographs accompany the article. Parental Discretion Advised.
Mapping of Research Test Point Areas on the Shroud of Turin by Barrie M. Schwortz Includes eight Ventral and Dorsal Photographic Maps of the Shroud indicating areas where data was taken during four of the 1978 experiments. Barrie Schwortz was the Official Documenting Photographer for STURP and devised the system of magnetic marker photo-documentation used to create these experiment maps. This is a reprint of the entire text of the 1982 IEEE paper. The photographic Test-Point Maps were
rescanned from the original 4" x 5" negatives and the data points color enhanced specifically for this website.
Mark Antonacci's Reply To Ray Rogers' Review of His Book (.pdf format) [85k] Mark Antonacci responds to Ray Rogers' review of his book, "The Resurrection of the Shroud." Click here to read the original review: Comments on 'The Resurrection of the Shroud' by Mark Antonacci by Ray Rogers
Microscopical Investigation of Selected Raes Threads from the Shroud of Turin by John L. Brown (.pdf format) [190k] [January 2005] John L. Brown was the Principal Research Scientist at the Georgia Tech Research Institute's Energy and Materials Sciences Laboratory at the Georgia Institute of Technology until his retirement in 1984. He is an expert microscopist specializing in the field of forensic analysis of material failures, and was enlisted by Ray Rogers to examine samples of selected Raes threads taken from the Shroud in 1973. These threads are important because they were taken from the area immediately adjoining the sample used for carbon 14 analysis of the Shroud in 1988. In this article, John provides an independent review of the samples he examined, along with seven previously unpublished photomicrographs and scanning electron microscope views that supplement and support the conclusions drawn by Ray in his recent peer reviewed paper, "Studies on the radiocarbon sample from the Shroud of Turin," Thermochimica Acta Vol. 425, Issues 1-2, 20 January 2005, Pages 189-194.
Microscopic and Macroscopic Characteristics of the Shroud of Turin Image Superficiality by G. Fanti, J. A. Botella, P. Di Lazzaro, T. Heimburger, R. Schneider & N. Svensson Journal of Imaging Science and Technology, July/August 2010, Volume 54, Issue 4, pp. 040201-(8) (Abstract Only)
Natural Factors Affecting the Apparent Radiocarbon Age of Textiles by Mario Moroni and Remi van Haelst The authors present a series of experiments and a statistical analysis of the Carbon dating that concludes "the C14 content may not be the same over the whole surface of the Shroud" and that "a single radiocarbon dating result... cannot be regarded as conclusive evidence for a mediaeval date for the Shroud of Turin." This article originally appeared in Shroud News No. 100 (February 1997). Remi van Haelst also presented another paper titled "The Lier Shroud" at the May 1997 Nice Symposium.
Natural Textile Fibres - Optical Activity, Racemization and Epimerization by Dr. Silvio Diana and Prof. Emanuela Marinelli Paolicchi This paper was first presented at the May 1997 Nice Symposium in Nice, France and can also be reached via the "Shroud Conferences & Symposia" page of this website. It establishes the validity of and suggests a protocol for further research into the chemical and optical properties of cellulose, the fundamental ingredient of linen.
Nature of the Body Images on the Shroud of Turin, The by Alan D. Adler (.pdf
(From the 1999 Richmond Conference)
Negativity and the Shroud by M. Sue Benford, R.N., M.A. This article presents the author's perspective on the negativity aspect of the Shroud. It was previously published in The Holy Shroud Guild Newsletter, December 1997, pp. 45.
New Detail Observed on the Shroud of Turin, A by Reginald Wehrkamp-Richter From News of the Association Jean Carmignac, N° 50, June 2011 page 5-9. Using a scientific approach and careful observation, the author presents evidence for the discovery of triangular shape within one of the Shroud bloodstains which he identifies as the head of a Roman nail. A version of the article is also available in French at Un nouveau détail observé sur le Saint Linceul de Turin. (Editor's Note: Although this article is primarily scientific in nature, it concludes on a strong religious note). [Jan 2012] New Historical Evidence Explaining the „Invisible Patch‟ in the 1988 C-14 Sample Area of the Turin Shroud by M. Sue Benford & Joseph G. Marino (.pdf format) [44k] [September 2005] (From the 3rd International Dallas Conference) In this important followup article to their previous work, Sue and Joe provide additional historical background and new evidence for their "invisible mending" theory.
New Radiocarbon Hypothesis by John Jackson, A by John Jackson (.pdf format) [11k] [May 2008] David Rolfe's 2008 BBC documentary features physicist John Jackson, co-founder of the 1978 STURP team and founder of the Turin Shroud Center of Colorado, and discusses his new hypothesis regarding the 1988 radiocarbon dating of the Shroud, based on possible c14 enrichment of linen due to the CO (carbon monoxide) in the atmosphere. According to Jackson, a 2% contamination could skew the resulting date
by as much as 1400 years. Rather than attempt to describe Jackson's theory myself, I asked John to write a short article to describe it in his own words.
Nuclear Medicine and Its Relevance to the Shroud of Turin by August D. Accetta, M.D. (.pdf format) [326k] Originally titled "Experiments with Radiation as an Image Formation Mechanism" when first presented at the 1999 Richmond Conference. This link is to the updated version of this paper that Dr. Accetta presented in August 2000 at the Sindone 2000 Shroud Conference in Orvieto, Italy. Fully illustrated with color and black & white photographs.
Objections to the Shroud's Authenticity: The Radiocarbon Date by Prof. Daniel Scavone (.pdf format) [13k] The author's perspective on the Radiocarbon dating of the Shroud. Originally delivered at the Texas Medieval Association in 1993.
Optically Terminated Image Pixels Observed on Frei 1978 Samples with 7 color photographs. By Kevin E. Moran (.pdf format) [228k] (From the 1999 Richmond Conference) This excellent article describes some of the unique properties of the Shroud image and includes a number of fascinating photographs
Origin of the Shroud of Turin From the Near East as Evidenced by Plant Images And By Pollen Grains, The by Dr. Avinoam Danin (Abstract) An Israeli botanical expert evaluates the plant and pollen evidence on the Shroud. This paper was originally delivered at the 1998 Turin Symposium. Also available is a Belorussian translation, courtesy ofMartha Ruszkowski, at Origin of the Shroud.
Pattern recognition after image processing of low-contrast images, the case of the Shroud of Turin by Paolo Di Lazzaro, Daniele Murra and Barrie Schwortz Journal: Pattern Recognition, available online December 31, 2012. Abstract: We discuss the potentially misleading effect of software techniques for elaborating low-contrast images. In particular, we present the example of the stains embedded into one of the most studied archaeological objects in history, the Shroud of Turin. We show for the first time that image processing of both old and recent photographs of the Shroud may lead some researchers to perceive inscriptions and patterns that do not actually exist, confirming that there is a narrow boundary between image enhancement and manipulation.
Petrus Soons Responds To Garlaschelli (.pdf format) [16k] On October 6, 2009, Italian Prof. Luigi Garlaschelli issued a press release to the Reuters News Service, announcing he had "reproduced" the Shroud image using medieval technologies, thus proving it a fake. This is a preliminary response by Petrus Soons that was published on this website on October 7, 2009.
Photographic & Computer Studies Concerning the Burn & Water Stains Visible on the Shroud by Aldo Guerreschi (.pdf format) [536k] This intriguing paper is another example of Aldo Guerreschi's thoughtful and thorough approach to Sindonology and one of his finest, strikingly visual presentations to date. It is profusely illustrated with 49 color photographs and illustrations.
Photometric Responses from the Shroud by Peter M. Schumacher (.pdf format) [24k] (From the 1999 Richmond Conference) This paper is written by the man who developed the VP-8 Image Analyzer (an instrument originally used by NASA for mapping planetary images) that was used by researchers in 1976 to scientifically visualize the dimensional (3-D) information encoded in the Shroud image for the first time.
Pierre Barbet Revisited by Frederick T. Zugibe, M.D., Ph.D. Dr. Zugibe is the Medical Examiner of Rockland County, New York, and has made an in-depth study of crucifixion. His book, "The Cross and the Shroud," where he challenged the conclusions of Pierre Barbet, was published in 1982. This article first appeared in Sindon N. S. in 1995. Dr. Zugibe began his research on the Shroud and crucifixion in 1948 and reaches some interesting conclusions about death on the cross. Illustrated with nine photographs. CAUTION: The subject of this paper is crucifixion and it contains graphic illustrations. PARENTAL DISCRETION IS ADVISED.
Point of Nuclear Physics About the Shroud of Turin, A by Gildas Rouvillois In this short article, the author disagrees with the tentative explanation of the controversial carbon dating of the Shroud by J.B.Rinaudo. Rinaudo surmised that simultaneous fluxes of protons and neutrons could explain both the image on the cloth (by the protons) and the 13-century slip of time of the carbon14 nuclei (by the neutrons).
Pressed Flowers: Where Did the Shroud of Turin Originate? A Botanical Quest by Avinoam Danin This article was originally published in the November/December 1997 issue of "Eretz," the Geographic Magazine of Israel and created quite a stir when it first
appeared. In it, the author claims that he analyzed impressions of flowers on the cloth and determined that the relic originated in Israel. Professor Danin is a botanist at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem and is considered an expert on the flowers of Israel. He was first introduced to Shroud research by Alan Whanger, whose photographs accompany the article. I am pleased to reprint this article on the website and want to thank "Eretz" for their generous permission to do so.
Probabilistic Model to Quantify the Results of the Research on the Turin Shroud, A by Giulio Fanti & Emanuela Marinelli (.pdf format) [68k] (English) Un modello probabilistico per quantificare i risultati delle ricerche sulla Sindone di Torino (.pdf format) [63k] (Italian) Results of a Probabilistic Model Applied to the Research carried out on the Turin Shroud (.pdf format) [165k] (English)
Risultati di un modello probabilistico applicato alle ricerche eseguite sulla Sindone di Torino (.pdf format) [172k] (Italian) These papers were originally presented at the 1998 Turin Symposium and are available in both English and Italian versions.
Professional Arts and the Principle and Practice of Conservation, The Restoration Versus the Turin Shroud by Isabel Piczek In this paper the author expresses her concerns as a professional artist over future conservation plans for the Shroud and demonstrates why regarding the image as a painting will have serious impact on its preservation. This paper was originally presented at the 1998 Turin Symposium.
Proposal for High Resolution Colorimetric Mapping of the Turin Shroud, A: Analysis of Metrological Problems by Giulio Fanti The author is a professor in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Padua in Italy. Included here is the paper he presented at the Nice (France) Symposium in May of 1997. It proposes the use of high resolution digital colorimetric mapping of the Shroud to create a database that could be used for further scientific analyses and possibly lead to a better understanding of the image formation mechanism . In the article, which includes six illustrations, he describes the experiment and apparatus, discusses some of the problem areas that might be encountered and suggests possible solutions.
Prospects of Research of the Turin Shroud in Russia by Alexander Belyakov
The author is an orthodox physicist and graduate of Moscow University who is currently director of the Moscow Center of the Turin Shroud. Included here is the text of his presentation made at the Shroud conference in San Felice, Italy, on August 24-25, 1996. In it he discusses how changing ideologies have opened the door to Shroud research in Russia. He then presents his theories on the image formation mechanism of the Shroud. Also included at the end of the article is the text of another short presentation he made that discusses the reversed perspective rule in Orthodox iconography and its "genealogical" linkage of the Shroud of Turin to the Orthodox Mandylion.
Pyrolysis/Mass Spectrometry Applied to the Shroud of Turin by Ray Rogers A technical paper from Ray Rogers that explains how Pyrolysis/Mass Spectrometry was used to detect impurities (like painting mediums) on samples of the Shroud of Turin. Interestingly, a gum coating was found on the fibers of the Raes Sample, a section cut from the Shroud in 1973 from an area directly adjoining the 1988 c14 sample. However, this gum coating was not found on any fibers from anywhere else on the Shroud. The tests provided quantitative evidence that the Raes sample and consequently, the adjoining 1988 c14 sample, were both anomalous and different from the rest of the Shroud. With this, and a significant amount of other corroborative scientific evidence, the validity of the 1988 c14 dating of the Shroud is even further in doubt.
Radiocarbon Dating of the Shroud of Turin, by P. E. Damon, D. J. Donahue, B. H. Gore, A. L. Hatheway, A. J. T. Jull, T. W. Linick, P. J. Sercel, L. J. Toolin, C.R. Bronk, E. T. Hall, R. E. M. Hedges, R. Housley, I. A. Law, C. Perry, G. Bonani, S. Trumbore, W. Woelfli, J. C. Ambers, S. G. E. Bowman, M. N. Leese & M. S. Tite. This is the paper, reprinted from "Nature," the weekly journal in which it first appeared in February 1989, that concluded the Shroud is of medieval origin and dated the cloth to around 1325 A.D. It has had more impact on Shroud research than any other paper ever written on the subject. When first released, it was given considerable publicity and much of the world accepted its conclusions, virtually bringing all other Shroud research to a halt. In the last few years however, new evidence has suggested the possibility that a contaminant, in the form of a bioplastic coating, might have caused a skewing of the resultant date. Others have criticized the protocol followed by the laboratories, which was changed at the last minute from the one recommended by a panel of experts. Critically absent, according to several researchers, was any chemical analysis of the samples prior to testing. This has led a number of scientists to challenge the conclusions of the paper, which claims a "95% certainty" for the results. They point out that in biochemistry, total chemical analysis of a biological product is the first thing done to assure the reader that you have what you think you have. Anything less than that must be regarded as a preliminary characterization and should be so stated. They also point out that "Nature" is not a peer-reviewed journal. This is the first time the paper has ever appeared on the Internet. Considering the number of articles critical of the paper found on this website, I am pleased to give everyone an opportunity to finally read the actual paper for themselves. I am grateful to "Nature" for allowing me to reprint it and to Mr. Timothy Jull, of the University of Arizona, for providing me
with an excellent copy and helping me get permission to include it here. I consider it an important addition to this website. Editor's Note: I recently received a note from Mr. Jull in which he made the following comments: "I looked at the Shroud website recently and noted the addition of the Nature article. I noted some of the editorial remarks - I have a comment on one at this time. It is TOTALLY INCORRECT to state that Nature is not a peer-reviewed journal (I realize your comments attribute this remark to others...). This is not true. All papers for Nature are reviewed in the normal way for scientific publications. You can confirm from the editors of Nature this is correct. I think you should note this assertion is wrong on your web page. Otherwise, I find your site very interesting." Radiocarbon Dating The Shroud of Turin - A Critical Statistical Analysis by Remi Van Haelst First published after the release of the radiocarbon dating of the Shroud in 1988, this was one of the first papers to scientifically refute the claimed 95% confidence for the mediaeval age of the cloth. I should point out that this is a very technical paper and may be somewhat difficult for some viewers to understand. This is an updated version done in 1997.
Radiocarbon Dating The Shroud of Turin - The Nature Report by Remi Van Haelst (.pdf format) [94k] The author's newly updated response that scientifically refutes the 1989 carbon dating article that appeared in the weekly journal "Nature." Remi's articles are usually quite technical, and this one is no exception. For experts.
Radiocarbon Measurement and the Age of the Turin Shroud: Possibilities and Uncertainties by William Meacham This is one of the first published scientific papers that dealt with carbon dating the Shroud of Turin. It was presented by William Meacham, a noted archaeologist, at the 1986 Shroud Symposium in Hong Kong. In it, the author expresses his concerns that "contamination is a very serious problem in interpreting the results of radiocarbon measurement," and examines the issue of the reliability of C-14 testing to produce an 'absolute date' on the Shroud. Meacham took part in the Turin Workshop in late September 1986 at which the carbon dating protocol was determined, but was ultimately excluded from any further involvement in the dating of the Turin Shroud.
Radiological Aspects of the Shroud of Turin (Excerpt) by Alan D. Whanger and Mary Whanger (.pdf format) [431k] [September 2005] (From the 3rd International Dallas Conference) (20 color photos and illustrations)
For this part of his paper, Alan examined the 1978 STURP x-rays and detected apparent anomalies in the area from which the 1988 radiocarbon sample was taken, confirming some of Ray Rogers' observations. Raymond N. Rogers‟ observations and conclusions concerning the body image that is visible on the Shroud of Turin by Yannick Clément [21 January 2013] This extensively researched paper (published on Pete Schumacher's Shroudnm.com website) provides a list of the most important quotes concerning the Shroud body image taken from Raymond N. Rogers’ official publications written during the period 2002-2005. Includes complete references.
Recent Historical Investigations on the Sudarium of Oviedo by Mark Guscin (.pdf format) [50k] (From the 1999 Richmond Conference) Member of the Investigation Team of the Centro Espanol de Sindonlogia and the British Society for the Turin Shroud. Mr. Guscin's book on the Sudarium of Oviedo, The Oviedo Cloth, was published in 1998 by the Lutterworth Press.
Red Stains on the Lier and Other Shroud Copies, The by Remi Van Haelst Remi Van Haelst is a researcher from Belgium and is also a member of CIELT, the group that sponsored the May 1997 Nice Symposium where this paper was first presented. His paper discusses many of the known Shroud replicas and copies and compares them to the original. He also discusses the four sets of "L shaped" burn holes in the Shroud that probably predate the 1532 fire. The article includes four detailed color photographic closeups of the burn holes as well as a transmitted light image of the Shroud. Since Remi used several of my photographs for his research, I have taken the liberty of annotating certain portions of the text and adding a graphic to the article for further clarity.
Report on the Czechia Shroud Copy by Dr. Leo Bazant-Hegemark Dr. Leo Bazant-Hegemark, a Shroud researcher in Austria, recently made a field trip to Czechia to examine the previously unknown Shroud copy discovered there in January 1999. Dr. Bazant was kind enough to send me a letter with details from his trip journal, along with a number of photographs of the hand painted cloth. A letter of authenticity signed by the Archbishop of Turin was also found with the copy, which was originally made in 1651. I have included excerpts from Dr. Bazant's letter (along with five color photographs), in this informal article. My sincere thanks to Dr. Bazant for his kindness in sharing this information with us. “Restoration” of the Turin Shroud, The: A Conservation And Scientific Disaster by William Meacham
This is the full article that appeared in e-conservation magazine, No. 13 (February 2010) pp. 28-42. I think its title speaks for itself.
Review of Botany of the Shroud: The Story of Floral Images on the Shroud of Turin By Avinoam Danin by Diana Fulbright This is a review of Avinoam Danin's 2010 book in which the author details his botanical studies of the Shroud and discusses the floral images he has observed. (Written exclusively for shroud.com)
Review of the Picknett/Prince book: "The Turin Shroud: In Whose Image" by Prof. Daniel C. Scavone This is a review of the 1994 book by Lynn Picknett and Clive Prince that concludes Leonardo Da Vinci created the Shroud of Turin. The review, written by noted Shroud author and historian Daniel C. Scavone, Professor of History at the University of Southern Indiana, is the first available by a qualified Shroud researcher. This review discusses their theories in detail and challenges their conclusions, point by point. Professor Scavone's well researched book on the history of the Shroud, "THE SHROUD OF TURIN: OPPOSING VIEWPOINTS," was published in 1989.
Role of Capillarity in the Image Formation Process by Marcel Alonso (.pdf format) [293k] [September 2005] (From the 3rd International Dallas Conference) (13 color photos) In this interesting paper, Marcel examines the properties of the bloodstains and images on the Shroud in light of recent research by Ray Rogers and others.
Role of the Internet in the Future of Shroud Research, The by Barrie M. Schwortz This paper was originally delivered at the 1998 Turin Symposium on June 7, 1998. It presents in detail the many ways that the Internet will be used to further Shroud research in the future. It features direct links to references and sites examples that are already in use on this and other websites. The author is the host and webmaster of The Shroud of Turin Website, the largest and most extensive Shroud resource on the Internet. Link to Il Ruolo Di Internet Nel Futuro Della Ricerca Sulla Sindone (Italian Language version of this paper on the Collegamento pro Sindone Website).
Role of the Internet in Current Shroud Research, The by Barrie M. Schwortz (.pdf
Demonstrating new developments on his fascinating, invaluable and award-winning website on the Shroud of Turin. (From the 1999 Richmond Conference)
Science and the Shroud by Jim Barrett This Spring 1996 article from the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio's magazine, "The Mission", deals with carbon dating research done by Dr. Leoncio Garza-Valdes and his team. Their work throws into question the accuracy of the 1260-1390 carbon date assigned to the Shroud by 1988 test results. It includes a number of good quality color photographs and provides an overview of the research and its possible impact on many areas of science. (NOTE: This is a link to a different website. You will need to use your browser's "back" button to return to this page.)
"Science by Press Release?" An Editorial Response by Barrie Schwortz (.pdf
On October 6, 2009, Italian Prof. Luigi Garlaschelli issued a press release to the Reuters News Service, announcing he had "reproduced" the Shroud image using medieval technologies, thus proving it a fake. This is an editorial response by Barrie Schwortz published on this website on October 7, 2009.
"Science by Press Release (Again)" Another Editorial Response by Barrie Schwortz (.pdf format) [12k] On November 20, 2009, Italian researcher Barbara Frale issued a press release to the Associated Press, announcing she had discovered inscriptions on the Shroud image that proves it is authentic. This is an editorial response by Barrie Schwortz published on this website on November 21, 2009.
Scientific Analysis of the Shroud of Turin (Abstract) by Leoncio A. Garza-Valdes, M.D. This link is to an article found on the Holy Shroud Guild Website and presents the Abstract of Dr. Garza-Valdes' recent research. This was first presented at the Texas Medieval Association on September 11, 1993 in San Antonio, Texas, U.S.A. (NOTE: This is a link to a different website. You will need to use your browser's "back" button to return to this page.)
Scientific Issues and Shroud Research in the 1990's by Larry A. Schwalbe Written in 1990, this article provides the author's perspective on the future of Shroud research. Larry Schwalbe was an original member of STURP, the team that performed the first in-depth scientific examination of the Shroud in 1978 and has published many papers on the subject. This paper also originally appeared in "Shroud Spectrum International" and again I thank Dorothy Crispino, publisher and editor, for permission to reprint it here. The article can also be accessed via the "Shroud Conservation" page.
Scientific Method Applied to the Shroud of Turin: A Review by Raymond N. Rogers and Anna Arnoldi (.pdf format) [564k] [August 2002] (Includes 27 color illustrations) Provides an excellent overview of known Shroud data, documents his chemical analysis of Shroud samples relevant to the Marino/Benford hypothesis, reviews other Shroud theories relative to the C-14 analysis and even points out corroboration for the Marino/Benford theory in the ultraviolet-fluorescence photographs made in 1978.
Sermon of Gregory Referendarius, The by Mark Guscin (.pdf format) [110k] [January 2004] (Includes photograph of original manuscript) In this extremely important paper, Mark, an expert linguist, translates the sermon given by Gregory Referendarius in 944. The sermon was pronounced on the occasion of the arrival of the Image of Edessa in Constantinople. It was translated into English from the only known surviving manuscript of the sermon, recently rediscovered in the Vatican Archives by Italian classics scholar Gino Zaninotto. Addendum to Translation of Sermon by Gregory Referendarius by Mark Guscin (.pdf format) [18k] [January 2008] (Update to his earlier paper) In his introduction to this 2008 update of the above paper, Mark Guscin states: "Further consideration and consultation about the Greek text of the sermon attributed to Gregory Referendarius has led to me reconsider my original position about the supposed reference to the side wound."
Shroud in the News for Christmas 2011, The - An Editorial Response by Barrie Schwortz [January 21, 2012] Editorial response addressing the many Shroud stories that permeated the news just before Christmas 2011.
Shroud-like Coloration of Linen by Nanosecond Laser Pulses in the Vacuum Ultraviolet by P. Di Lazzaro, D. Murra, E. Nichelatti, A. Santoni, G. Baldacchini ENEA Report. A similar paper by the same authors also appeared in the peer reviewed journal Applied Optics, Vol. 51, Issue 36, pp. 8567-8578 (2012), titled Superficial and Shroud-like coloration of linen by short laser pulses in the vacuum ultraviolet. [21 January 2013] Abstract: We present a survey on five-years experiments of excimer laser irradiation of linen fabrics, seeking for a coloration mechanism able to reproduce the microscopic complexity of the body image embedded onto the Shroud of Turin. We achieved a superficial Shroud-like coloration in a narrow range of irradiation parameters. We also obtained latent coloration that appears after artificial or natural aging of linen following laser irradiations that at first did not generate any visible effect. Most importantly, we have recognized distinct photo-chemical processes that account for both coloration and
latent coloration. These processes may have played a role in the generation of the body image on the Shroud of Turin.
Shroud "Make Over", The: Science or Marketing? by Bruno Barberis On October 6, 2009, Italian Prof. Luigi Garlaschelli issued a press release to the Reuters News Service, announcing he had "reproduced" the Shroud image using medieval technologies, thus proving it a fake. This is a link to the response by Bruno Barberis published on the Archdiocese of Turin website on October 9, 2009.
Shroud of Turin's 'Blood' Images, The: Blood, or Paint? History of Science Inquiry by David Ford (.pdf format) [118k] David brings a fresh point-of-view to this often-debated topic with his thoroughly researched conclusions. He is a frequent contributor to alt.turin-shroud, the Shroud Newsgroup hosted by Bill Meacham.
Shroud of Turin, The: An Amino-Carbonyl Reaction (Maillard Reaction) May Explain The Image Formation by Raymond N. Rogers and Anna Arnoldi (.pdf format) [196k] [July 2004] (Includes 4 color illustrations). This paper originally appeared in Melanoidins vol. 4, Ames J.M. ed., Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg, 2003, pp.106-113. The paper demonstrates that a complex but well documented, naturally occurring chemical reaction may explain all of the known image chemistry of the Shroud of Turin and provide us with an important clue in determining the actual image formation mechanism. Ray's work is detailed and scientific and necessarily, quite technical in nature. Even if you don't have a degree in chemistry, the points he makes are quite understandable, the papers are well researched and well written and the conclusions are very clear.
Shroud of Turin, The: Genuine Artifact or Manufactured Relic? by Jack Kilmon This is a link to an article that appeared in "The Glyph," the Journal of the Archaeological Institute of America (San Diego). Mr. Kilmon argues in favor of authenticity and offers a comprehensive review of the scientific facts about the Shroud, siting references for many of them. The article includes closeup photographs of the Shroud and an illustration of the entombed and enshrouded Jesus of Nazareth found in a prayer book from Budapest known as the Pray Manuscript. Kilmon states, "The illustration not only depicts the unique "L" pattern of burn holes but also the unique weave pattern of the shroud. There can be no mistake that the Pray Manuscript of 1192 was modeled from the Shroud of Turin."
Shroud of Turin, The: Radiation Effects, Aging & Image Formation by Raymond N. Rogers (.pdf format) [198k] [June 2005]
In the last months of his life, Ray was able to obtain a new source for irradiating linen with various types of radiation. Using this source, he performed a series of experiments and observations and wrote this final article detailing his conclusions regarding radiation as an image formation mechanism on the Shroud. It includes 12 color and b&w photomicrographs.
Sight and brain: an introduction to the visually misleading images by Daniele Murra [May 2010] (From the Proceedings of the 2010 Frascati Conference) This paper clearly explains how the limits of human visual perception come into play when studying the image(s) on the Shroud of Turin. I consider it a must read for any serious Shroud scholar.
Stochastic distribution of the fibrils that yielded the Shroud of Turin body image by Fazio, G. and Mandaglio, G. (2011), Radiation Effects and Defects in Solids, 166: 7, 476 — 479, First published on: 13 April 2011 (iFirst) (Abstract Only without Subscription) [Jan 2012]
Studies on the Radiocarbon Sample from the Shroud of Turin by Raymond N. Rogers [January 2005] (Full Paper) [Sept 2010] Studies on the Radiocarbon Sample from the Shroud of Turin by Raymond N. Rogers [January 2005] (Abstract Only) This is a link to Ray's final peer reviewed paper on the Shroud in Thermochimica Acta . It was published on January 20, 2005, only five weeks before his death. In it, Ray proved that the sample used for the radiocarbon dating of the Shroud in 1988 was anomalous. This is probably the most important research paper Ray ever published on the Shroud and is arguably, the most important scientific paper published on the Shroud in last 18 years period. It is the first peer reviewed science to openly challenge the radiocarbon dating of 1988.
Study of a Vision System for the Colorimetric Mapping of the Turin Shroud by M. De Cecco & G. Fanti (.pdf format) [197k] (English) Studio di un sistema di visione per la mappatura colorimetrica della Sindone di Torino (.pdf format) [192k] (Italian) This paper was originally presented at the 1998 Turin Symposium and is available in both English and Italian versions. It includes many color and black & white illustrations.
Studying Radiocarbon Papers May Solve the Enigma of the Radiocarbon Dating of the Shroud of Turin by Remi Van Haelst (.pdf format) [72k] [Sept 2010]
This is a new paper from well known Shroud scholar Remi Van Haelst, who has authored several previous ones that can all be found on this website. Much of Remi's work is in evaluating the 1988 radiocarbon dating using statistical analysis and data from the original c14 dating and other papers. Remi's articles are usually quite technical, and this one is no exception. For experts.
Sudarium of Oviedo, The by Mark Guscin This paper discusses in detail the Sudarium, a bloodstained cloth from Oviedo, Spain that some believe is the "face cloth" that wrapped the head of Jesus in the tomb. It was first presented at the Nice Symposium in May 1997 and can also be accessed via the "Shroud Conferences & Symposia" page of this site. Mark is a member of CIELT, the French organization that sponsored the symposium, as well as a member of the Centro España de Sindonología, the organization directly responsible for research on the sudarium. This fascinating paper describes the sudarium in detail and explains its relationship to the Shroud of Turin. It includes five color photographs.
Sudarium of Oviedo, The: A Study of Fiber Structures by Raymond N. Rogers (.pdf format) [219k] [Written 2004, Published 2008] (Includes 7 color photomicrographs) This paper was originally written in 2004, when Ray Rogers examined linen fiber samples from the Sudarium of Oviedo at the request of the Oviedo authorities. He submitted this paper to them for their approval, which they gave, and Ray planned to ultimately have it published on this website. Sadly, he set it aside for other Shroud research and it almost was lost after his death, but thanks to Joanna Emery, noted Shroud author who discovered its existence during her correspondence with the Oviedo authorities, it was "found" again and read (by Joanna) at the August 2008 Ohio Shroud Conference. I am pleased to finally be able to include it here.
Summarizing a Set of Radiocarbon Determinations: A Robust Approach by Dr J.A. Christen This paper was published in Applied Statistics, Vol. 43, No. 3. (1994), pp. 489-503, in 1994 and corroborates the findings of the 1988 radiocarbon dating of the Shroud. The above link takes you to a page where one can only read the Abstract and Introduction. The Shroud-related section of the article (Example 2 page 498), is only available by purchasing the entire article. In my May 2008 correspondence with Dr. Christen, he made the following statement regarding the article: You could include my paper in your list as an early analysis before the origin of the samples themselves were questioned. Yes, my analysis corroborates the results of the 1988 dating, but this is only conditional of the fact that the dated material was indeed part of the Shroud. This latter fact is now
disputed, as I understand. I don't think there is any substantial error in the c14 dating and its subsequent analysis, but apparently the samples did not belong to the Shroud itself. The C14 labs had no chance whatsoever. Summary of Challenges to the Authenticity of the Shroud of Turin by Richard B. Sorensen (.pdf format) [117k] [July 2007] In this paper Richard addresses every major challenge to the Shroud's authenticity and provides nearly 70 linked references to support the evidence he presents.
Systematic Approach for Understanding the Image Formation on the Shroud of Turin, A by Dr. Jose Luis Fernandez (.pdf format) [45k] [September 2005] This paper was originally presented at the Third International Dallas Shroud Conference in September 2005.
Tantalizing Photograph Of Some Oxford Samples, A by Remi Van Haelst (.pdf format) [283k] [November 2007] Remi states: In my archives I found a paper which I forgot to publish. Is it possible to include it on your website? The "off the record" dates provided by Bottema are very important. (EDITOR'S NOTE: Thanks to the kind input of highly observant website viewer Gian Marco Rinaldi, I discovered that this article originally appeared in 2001 on the Collegamento pro Sindone website,www.shroud.it. Thank you Gian for your valuable input).
Ten Years of Important Events in the History of the Holy Shroud by Prof. Bruno Barberis and Prof. Piero Savarino (.pdf format) [26k] [September 2005] This paper was originally presented at the Third International Dallas Shroud Conference in September 2005. (Editor's Note: This link is to a text-only reprint of the article from the BSTS Newsletter No. 62 and does not include illustrations)
Testing the Jackson Theory of Image Formation by Raymond N. Rogers (.pdf format) [127k] [July 2004] (Includes 8 color and b&w illustrations) In this article Ray reviews the controversial image formation mechanism proposed in recent years by Dr. John Jackson, co-founder of the STURP team. It presents Ray's frank, empirical and detailed point of view of Dr. Jackson's theory. Comments on Rogers' "Testing the Jackson 'Theory' of Image Formation" by John Jackson and Keith Propp (.pdf format) [21k] [July 2004] In this article, John and Keith respond specifically to a number of the points made by Ray in his article. As occurs so often in the world of the Shroud, there is disagreement,
even amongst the experts. Once again, you will have to evaluate the materials yourself and make up your own mind.
Textile Evidence Supports Skewed Radiocarbon Date of Shroud of Turin by M. Sue Benford and Joseph G. Marino (.pdf format) [73k] [August 2002] (Includes 2 color photos) Provides additional evidence for their conclusions about the reweaving, but goes a step further. The researchers submitted their original paper to a number of internationally recognized experts for review. This paper includes the criticisms they received, along with their specific responses.
3-D Processing to Evidence Characteristics Represented in Manoppello Veil by Jan S. Jaworski and Giulio Fanti (.pdf format) [273k] [January 2008] This paper documents the researchers' use of 3-D processing techniques comparing the face of the Shroud of Turin with that of the Manoppello Veil.
The Turin Shroud Body Image: The Scorch Hypothesis Revisited by Thibault Heimburger [21 January 2013] In recent months, the rather dated Scorch Hypothesis of image formation has found some new and rather vocal supporters on the Shroud blogs. This excellent article by noted Shroud researcher Thibault Heimburger reviews the known data, details his latest experiments and presents his newest evidence (including many color photographs) that challenges this hypothesis in great detail. It was originally posted on Dan Porter's blog in October 2012. Here is an excerpt from Thibault's conclusions: "The TS image is not a scorch, even a light scorch. In fact, this old hypothesis is very easy to rule out definitively as the body image formation mechanism with some basic experiments and a microscope."
Turin Shroud: Compatibility Between a Digitized Body Image and a Computerized Anthropomorphous Manikin by G. Fanti, R. Basso & G. Bianchini Journal of Imaging Science and Technology, [Sep/Oct 2010] Volume 54, Issue 5, pp 050503-1-(8) (Abstract Only)
Turin Shroud, The: from the photo to the three-dimensional by Aldo Guerreschi (.pdf format) [277k] (illustrated with 9 photographs) In this paper from the May 2000 Shroud Imaging Conference in San Felice Circeo, Italy, Aldo has perfected an established photographic enhancement technique to clearly visualize the dimensional characteristics encoded in the Shroud image. See the next paper for a detailed description of his technique
Turin Shroud and Photo-Relief Technique, The by Aldo Guerreschi (.pdf format) [261k] (illustrated with 8 photographs) In this paper Aldo explains the technique in detail. This and the previous paper overlap in some areas, but the combined information is so critical to the understanding of this important Shroud image property that I am including both on the site. Two must-read papers for anyone seriously interested in understanding the science of the image.
Turin 2010 - A Personal Report by Barrie Schwortz (.pdf format) [550k] [July 6, 2010] (illustrated with 8 photographs) Personal Report on the 2010 Exposition of the Shroud.
Two unpublished letters of Secondo Pia about the 1898 Shroud photography by Roberto Falcinelli [May 2010] (From the Proceedings of the 2010 Frascati Conference) This paper provides interesting insights into the Shroud's first photographer.
Urfa, Turkey: the urgent need for an archaeological survey of the town that (arguably) was the Shroud's home for nearly a thousand years. by Ian Wilson (.pdf
From the 1999 Richmond Conference.
Veil of Manoppello: Work of Art or Authentic Relic?, The by Roberto Falcinelli (.pdf format) [349k] [September 2005] (From the 3rd International Dallas Conference) (Includes 30 photographs and illustrations) In this interesting article, Roberto Falcinelli, a professional photographer and member of the Centro Diocesano di Sindonologia "Giulio Ricci" in Rome, investigates the Veil of Manoppello, believed by some to be a miraculous image and by others, simply a painting. Although not specifically about the Shroud, it has certain parallels that make it worthy of interest.
Veil of Veronica, The: Fact or Fiction? by John Iannone (.pdf format) [61k] [December 2009] In this interesting article, John Iannone, noted Shroud scholar and author, explores the legend of the Veil from an historical and traditional basis. He then examines the opposing claims that the actual veil is in Rome or in Manoppello and reaches some interesting conclusions.
Verification of the Nature and Causes of the Photo-negative Images on the Shroud of Lirey-Chambery-Turin by Nicholas P.L. Allen This is an in-depth article with complete text and illustrations. Dr. Allen, who concludes that the Shroud is an actual photograph produced using 13th century technology, is the author of a soon to be released book on the subject. He appeared recently in a BBC television program where he demonstrated his theories and results. This is one of a number of Shroud-related articles on Dr. Allen's website. (NOTE: This link is no longer available.)
Was The Shroud In Languedoc During The Missing Years? by Jack Markwardt This paper presents an interesting historical hypothesis. It was first presented at the May 1997 Nice Symposium in Nice, France and can also be reached via the "Shroud Conferences & Symposia" page of this website. It focuses upon the "Missing Years" in the history of the Shroud of Turin, presents a hypothetical reconstruction of several of the more mysterious chapters in the cloth's biography, and suggests that the sindonic path between Constantinople and Lirey runs directly through Languedoc.
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