Foreword by the Minister


The gap between rich and poor has increased, with household food
insecurity affecting millions of families countrywide.
There are differing views on how to create the right environment for
business to thrive so that problems like unemployment and poverty
can be solved. Is it possible to restructure the economy in such a way
that the house does not collapse? Those who do not see themselves as
benefiting from the economy wonder how it is in their interests that
the house continues standing.
Matters are not helped, of course, by negative global economic
circumstances, but the country that does not have its own house in
order faces additional challenges when participating in the wider, global
In the midst of this picture agriculture remains a solid pillar in the
economy. On a national level we are food secure, our secondary
industries have the required fibre and raw materials, and there is
economic activity in large stretches of our rural areas.

Photo: The Minister of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Ms Tina JoematPettersson at Bronkhorstspruit for the World Food Day 2012 celebrations

An economy houses a nation. Under its roof people find vocations,
security and fulfillment. The nation that is bound in unity takes a collective
responsibility for promoting economic growth and development.
Since the advent of democracy in South Africa there have been many
achievements, some enjoying a high profile but many more not.
Without subtracting from our achievements, let us take note that so
many South Africans remain excluded – shut out – from the economy.

The more familiar we are with the sector, its components and its role
players, the better our chances will be of attaining the breakthroughs
we so desperately need to reduce the suffering caused by poverty and
Initiatives like this publication give us a map of the sector and link us
to resources, specialists and other sources of help. I invite you to join
me now in using The Agri Handbook for South Africa to help make South
Africa a better home for all.

Honourable Tina Joemat-Pettersson (MP)

From the editor
When the world we knew was entering its greatest conflict ever, one of its greatest poets penned “In Time of ‘The Breaking
of Nations’”. In this piece, the events of the time form a backdrop only, and the focus is a farmer working his fields.
In a time of uncertainty, agriculture is practical, immediate, the logical thing to do. Yet it is also far-seeing, a way of planning for
the future and indeed, of voting for that future.
Almost a century later, while there is no World War happening, no one would say the planet is yet at peace. In the midst of all
the issues that face our world, this publication is our vote for the future and humanity.
The book is made possible by the support of the people whose logos you will find on the cover and whose adverts appear on
the pages between those covers. Our sincere thanks to you all. We would also like to thank the provincial and national CASP
co-ordinators of the Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. With their assistance, an additional 4 800 copies of
this book will be put into the hands of extension officers, who will help turn the knowledge and information within these pages
into the living reality of agricultural produce and financially sustainable families.
And if you are looking at this book, you are probably involved in agriculture too. To you, our best wishes and an invitation
that if you cannot find the information that you are looking for in here, contact us and we will help. Please also visit our new
website: where you will find the official Blog for this publication, as well as the online version of
the book, later in 2013.

Craig Macaskill
Editor: The Agri Handbook
for South Africa


Africa and agriculture
South Africa and agriculture
Organised agriculture

The importance of rural development
Agriculture and the provinces
Labour and agriculture
The urban question


Marketing and finance
Agribusinesses 49
Agricultural shows and events
Commodity trading 58
Co-operatives 66
Development financial services
Exporting 76
Fibre trading 82
Fresh produce markets
Infrastructure and agricultural logistics – see “National issues” section
Intellectual property rights
Livestock auctions 89
Marketing 91
Providers of financial services
Risk management and insurance
Supply chain management 112

Resources and Good Agricultural
Biodiversity and ecosystems services
Biological farming 122
Birds and farming 124
Conservancies and farming 126
Environmental legislation 129
Fire 134
Invasive Alien Species (IAS)
LandCare 141
Natural building 142
Organic farming 142
Permaculture 149
Rangeland / veld 154
Soils 159
Water – see the National issues section
Waste management 163
Weather and climate
Wetlands 170
Wildlife on farms 175

Animal feeds 180
Animal health 184
Animal traction: the use of animal power

Boreholes and windmills
Compost and organic fertiliser
Conservation Agriculture
Crop protection
Earthworms and vermicompost
Fleet maintenance and spare parts
Fuel and lubricants
General farm equipment
Grain storage and handling
Pumps and generators
Rainwater harvesting
Renewable energy
Seeds and seedlings
Speciality fertilisers
Structures and building supplies
Tractors, combines, balers
Trucks and heavy machinery
Water storage
4x4s and other vehicles


National issues
Black Economic Empowerment
Climate change and global warming
Developing farmer support
Food security
Human settlements
Infrastucture and agricultural logistics
Job creation
Land reform
People with disabilities
Safety and security


Agricultural education, training and
Agricultural education and training
Careers and employment in agriculture


Disclaimer: We have tried to make this information as accurate as possible. For the latest information, please consult the websites and / or relevant associations and role players
mentioned in the relevant chapters. For this reason we will not accept responsibility for consequences of actions which may arise from errors contained in this book.


Agricultural services and technologies
Agricultural consultants 392
Biotechnology and plant breeding
Hydroponics and undercover growing
ICT and agricultural media
Laboratories and agriculture
Legal aid and legislation
Mapping 419
Precision farming 421
Precision livestock farming
Research and development

Agronomy and horticulture
Bamboo 429
Barley 430
Berries 432
Black tea 434
Canola 436
Cassava 437
Chicory 438
Citrus fruit 439
Coffee 443
Cotton 446
Cut-flowers 449
Deciduous fruit 451
Dry beans 452
Floriculture and nursery crops
Forage and pastures 457
Forestry 461
Fruit 465
Grain and oilseeds
Grapes 472
Groundnuts 475
Herbs and spices 477
Honeybush 481
Horticulture 483
Indigenous African crops

Indigenous medicinal plants
Maize 493
Mushrooms and truffles
Olives 501
Other crops 502
Other fibre crops 503
Potatoes 506
Rooibos 509
Sorghum 510
Soybeans 512
Subtropical fruit 515
Sugarcane 519
Sunflowers 520
Tobacco 524
Tree nuts 526

Vegetables 529
Wheat 536

Animal husbandry 539
Animal Improvement and Breeders
Aquaculture 549
Beekeeping 561
Dairy 564
Donkeys 568
Gamebirds, waterfowl and other poultry
Goats 574
Goats – mohair 578
Goat and sheep dairy
Horses – the equine industry
Indigenous breeds 583
Ostriches 585
Other livestock 588
Pork 589
Poultry 594
Rabbits 599
Sheep 601
Sheep – wool 604
Speciality fibre production 608
Wildlife ranching 610

Value add and agro-processing
Abattoirs 614
Agro-processing 619
Baking 628
Biofuels 629
Canning and preserving 633
Dairy processing 634
Dried fruit 638
Essential and vegetable oils
Food safety and traceability
Hunting 651
Leather 653
Milling 654
Small and micro milling
Tourism in agriculture 659
Wine 663

Beyond our borders
Southern Africa Development Community (SADC)


Roll of honour: our advertisers
Without you this public resource would not be possible

Copyright © 2013 by RainbowSA Publishing (Pty) Ltd.“The Agri Handbook” is made available under the terms of the Creative Commons
Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License. To understand more about the license visit





Africa and agriculture
1. Introduction
It is appropriate for this book to begin with a chapter on the continent
which is home – Africa. We are human beings first, true, but it is Africa
which gives us our context, our pain and glory, our opportunities to grow.
The websites listed in this chapter, particularly those of financial and
investment companies, create a fascinating picture of the continent. It is a
patchwork of 54 countries (or more, depending on your politics), ranging
from deserts to tropical forests.
Six of the ten fastest growing economies of the world are here. With
the exception of South Africa, sub-Saharan Africa countries measure an
average annual growth rate of over 5%, and many see the continent as
a new investment destination. There has been much excitement over
growth prospects for Africa, based largely on the extractive industries – oil,
mining and gas. The uncultivated, fertile land and presence of water makes
a further attractive resource.
Not everyone shares this optimism: Africa only attracted 5.5% of global
Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in 2011. Perhaps Africa needs to start
telling its story better. She can also concentrate on four things: stability of
government; strengthening the rule of law; strengthening education; rooting
out corruption. And this applies to South Africa too. Lagos, Nairobi, Abidjan
and others are becoming as important as gateways into Africa.
Africa is on its way to becoming a preferred investment destination, a
potential pole of global growth, and a place of immense innovation and
creativity. But there is also a long way to go, and Africa’s governments
must as a matter of urgency turn their attention to those who are being
left behind.
Former United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan, introducing the Africa
Progress Panel in 2012.

2. Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)
In 2000, 147 heads of State and Government endorsed the Millennium
Declaration at the UN Millennium Summit. The declaration defines a limited
number of achievable goals, Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), to be
reached by the year 2015. The overall objective is to halve the proportion
of the world’s population who live in absolute poverty.
MDGs are a framework of 8 goals, 18 targets and 48 indicators to measure
progress towards these goals:
Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger.
Goal 2: Achieve universal primary education.
Goal 3: Promote gender equality and empower women.
Goal 4: Reduce child mortality.
Goal 5: Improve maternal health.
Goal 6: Combat HIV/Aids, malaria, TB and other diseases.
Goal 7: Ensure environmental sustainability.
Goal 8: Develop a global partnership for development.

• Find the latest release of Africa Development Indicators which analyses
the progress that African countries have made towards meeting the
Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by 2015. The document is
available on the World Bank website,
• See also related websites like and www.

3. New Partnership for Africa’s
Development – NEPAD
The eNewsletter, NEPAD Dialogue, is available in English, French and
Portuguese. If you are would like to receive these, please contact NEPAD by
writing to
The New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD), an African Union
strategic framework for pan-African socio-economic development, is both
a vision and a policy framework for Africa in the twenty-first century.
NEPAD manages a number of programmes and projects in six theme areas.
• Agriculture and Food Security.
• Climate Change and National Resource Management.
• Regional Integration and Infrastructure.
• Human Development.
• Economic and Corporate Governance.
• Cross-cutting Issues, including Gender, Capacity Development and
A history of NEPAD and details of NEPAD’s governance structures can be
found on the website,
NEPAD Planning and Coordinating Agency (NPCA)
Tel: 011 256 3600
Comprehensive African Agriculture Development Programme
The heads of state and government in Africa have adopted the
Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP) as
a framework for the restoration of agriculture growth, rural development
and food security in Africa. Through CAADP, NEPAD draws the attention
of member governments to a wide range of actions to revitalise African
agriculture and provides a framework for harmonised and collaborative
responsive action.
CAADP’s work falls under 4 pillars, each dealing with key issues:
• Pillar 1: Land & water management
• Pillar 2: Market access
• Pillar 3: Food supply and hunger
• Pillar 4: Agricultural research

4. Africa and agriculture
The setting
• Agriculture is the economic backbone of most African countries. It
employs 70% of the labour force in sub-Saharan Africa and contributes
30% to the GDP.
• The sector is dominated by smallholders with land sizes usually not
exceeding 1 hectare, which also includes livestock holders, small-scale
agricultural processing enterprises and marketing actors.
• The continent has almost 60% of the world’s uncultivated land and a
large share of natural resources.
• The agricultural import bill now amounts to more than US$ 33 billion
• Africa is responsible for only 10% of the world’s agricultural production.
As agricultural progresses it generates growth in other sectors as the
demand rises for other goods and services. The high-performing economies
have shown that increased agricultural growth precedes any economic
take-off. So how do we get there?

Perspectives on agriculture
Dr John Purchase of the South Africa’s Agricultural Business Chamber


(Agbiz) has stated that the following are required interventions to take
agriculture in Africa to the next level:
a) The creation of partnerships throughout the entire value chain
– from raw material providers to marketplace distributors. These
partnerships, whether they be Private to Private or Public to Private,
are seen as tools to strengthen the agricultural industry in Africa as a
b) Governments in Africa must be committed to enacting considerably
more favourable agricultural policies that can create enabling
environments for agriculture and agribusinesses to be more globally
competitive. Trade agreements and regulatory legislation need to be
harmonised on regional basis.
c) Infrastructure development and energy access are fundamental
to the process of growth. Africa needs investments in infrastructure
to get markets working, and investment in energy, especially clean
renewable energy, to drive production, processing, storage and
d) Market exploitation and accessibility will be a key component in
the sustainable development of African agriculture. Understand local,
regional and global market demand dynamics. Add value, improve
quality, innovate and adapt quickly to market demand. Collectively
press for trade reform for EU and others to open markets and remove
trade barriers. Develop intra-Africa markets and trade.
e) Effective and innovative risk-sharing models to facilitate access to
credit are being developed and are already proving successful. These
need to be expanded considerably as access to credit remains one of
the major constraints facing the development of African agriculture.
Commercial financiers, such as the banks, as well as Development
Finance Institutions (DFI’s) and even the donor community, can play a
major role by partnering and co-ordinating their efforts. Need to also
look at role and reform of institutions, especially role of Central Banks.
f) Research and Development is a necessity for agricultural
development; not only to raise production and productivity to much
higher levels, but also to improve value added processes and product
quality. The need for scientific R&D will certainly require all parties
involved, both the private sector and the government, to take solid
measures in educating their stakeholders about the value of R&D and
how new approaches and techniques, including biotechnology, can
make a valuable contribution to agricultural growth.
g) Underpinning much of the above, is the fact that, despite Africa’s huge
reliance on agriculture for its GDP (~35%), only a handful (about
5) of countries invest 10% of their annual budgets in agricultural
development, despite the Maputo Declaration, signed by African
Heads of State, committing to this target. Investment by African
Governments in agriculture will send a profound signal to the private
sector, and private sector investment will be sure to follow.
Source: Agro-allied industry development across Africa, a presentation given to
the Africa Economic Forum given in 2011, and Opportunities through agricultural
restructuring and integration of smallholders in the agro-food chain, given at
Brussels in 2012.

The single most important focus should be upgrading rural infrastructure
networks and creating regional markets.
Across the region, agricultural production is increasing in per capita
terms. The reason is that there have been fairly positive rates of economic
growth and people have more money to spend on food. But the biggest
increase has been in the amount of food that is imported. That is because
farmers can’t get what they produce to the urban centres, so the food
comes in from outside instead.
Source: Prof Nick Vink of Stellenbosch University,

Aid alone will not end poverty in Africa. Market access, fair terms of
trade, and a non-discriminatory financial system are equally essential in
helping Africans to lift themselves out of poverty and deprivation.
The path to prosperity begins at the fields of our farmers ... Our farmers
need better seeds, soils and prices for what they sell. They need access
to water, markets and credit. They need national policies that accelerate
rural economic growth, investment and job creation.
Former UN secretary general Kofi Annan

African policy-makers must embrace technology and develop their own
technological solutions. African research institutions are pioneering
new forms of irrigation that could transform the way staple foods are
cultivated. Fertilisers are available that can feed nutrient deficient soils.
Modern crop varieties can dramatically increase yields and new farming
techniques can make processes significantly more efficient. Not only can
it be done, but it has been done. In less than six years, the production of
maize in Malawi has increased from under two million tons to well over
3.5 million tons, allowing the country to become an exporter of the crop
to neighbouring countries.
It is why, despite all the obstacles we face, I remain such an optimist when
it comes to Africa’s agricultural development. Our continent has twelve
times the land area of India, with only half the population to feed. With
few exceptions, the distribution of cultivable land in sub-Saharan Africa
is equitable compared to many other regions of the world. Moreover,
the technology already exists, demonstrated through the success of
improved varieties of cassava, rice and maize. I believe that with the
right commitment, policies and technologies, Africa will better the Asian
agricultural miracle of the 1970s and 80s – doing so in an environmentally
sustainable way.
Source: Joachim Chissano, former president of Mozambique

5. Regional Economic Communities (RECs)
Currently there are multiple regional blocs in Africa, also known as
Regional Economic Communities (RECs), many of which have overlapping
Most of these RECs form the ‘pillars’ of the African Economic Community
(AEC). The AEC has several goals – free trade areas, customs unions, a
single market, a central bank, and a common currency thus establishing an
economic and monetary union.
Customs unions, a free trade area with a common external tariff, exist
within these RECs e.g. the Southern African Customs Union (SACU),
the East African Community, the Economic and Monetary Community of
Central Africa (CEMAC) and the West African Economic and Monetary
Union (UEMOA). All REC members are not necessarily members of the
customs union operating within the REC.
CEN-SAD (Community of Sahel-Saharan States)
Burkina Faso
Central African Republic
Côte d’Ivoire
The Gambia


São Tomé and
Sierra Leonne

Arab Maghreb Union – UMA



Economic Community of West African States – ECOWAS
Burkina Faso
Cape Verde
Côte d’Ivoire
The Gambia


Sierra Leone


Economic Community of Central African States – ECCAS
Central African Republic

Congo-Kinshasa (DRC)
Equatorial Guinea

São Tomé and

Intergovernmental Authority on Development – IGAD
South Sudan



Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa – COMESA
Congo-Kinshasa (DRC)


South Sudan


South Sudan

Southern African Developmental Community – SADC
Congo-Kinshasa (DRC)


South Africa

There are plans to create a 26-nation free trade area by integrating three
existing African trade blocs by July 2014: the East African Community
(EAC), the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA),
and the Southern African Development Community (SADC).
The three RECs aim to create a free market of 525-million people with
an output of $1-trillion when they unite.
Although African economies are growing fast – second only to Asia – the
continent has attracted criticism over its slow pace of integration, a delay
that is seen as driving up the cost of doing business.
The World Bank said in a report in February 2012 that red tape and
trade barriers cost Africa billions of dollars and deprive the region of new
sources of economic growth.
Many of the countries in the three blocs are members of more than one
trade area. Zambia is a member of SADC and COMESA for example,
while Kenya has membership in EAC and COMESA. South Sudan, which
attained independence from Sudan in 2011, is expected to join the free
trade area, taking the total number of states to 27 or half of Africa.
Source: Reuters 21 May 2012 (adapted)

Two key initiatives were developed in an attempt to achieve the MDG
goals: the Doha Development Agenda (DDA) and Economic Partnership
Agreements (EPAs).
• The DDA aims to lower global trade barriers
• EPAs seek to liberalise trade specifically between the EU and African,
Caribbean and Pacific countries.
Read about the DDA at, website of the World Trade
Organisation (WTO).
EPAs are based on the Cotonou Partnership Agreement (CPA), the
objectives of which are to enhance the trading capacity of the small ACP
landlocked and island ACP countries. It has been difficult to craft the EPAs
within the RECs (see heading 5) and these negotiations have not reached
agreement yet.
A key lesson from both the DDA and EPAs is that increasing trade to EU and
US partners is not enough.
Africa needs to encourage both intra-Africa and intra-REC trade (intraAfrican trade accounts for only some 12% of the international trade done
by countries on the continent!)
The following should take place in conjunction with trade liberalisation:

Eastern African Community – EAC

6. Intra-Africa trade and Economic Partnership
Agreements (EPAs)

• Investment in infrastructure geared towards production and export:
roads, railways, port facilities, power generation, water supply,
telecommunications and information and communications technology.
• Increased public investment in research and development, rural
infrastructure, and health and education.
• The development of domestic policy regulatory frameworks to
regulate the movement of goods and services.
Source: Bonani Nyhodo (adapted), International TradeProbe January 2012

7. International role players
United Nations and overseas bodies
• Canadian Council on Africa –
• Diaspora African Forum (DAF) –
The DAF provides “the vital linkage for diaspora Africans to become
involved in Africa’s development as well as reap the fruits of African
• Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) –
• Forum on China-Africa Co-operation –
• The G8 countries: Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia,
United Kingdom and the USA.
• Global Forum for Food and Agriculture (GFFA)
• International Centre for Soil Fertility and Agricultural
Development (IFDC) –
• International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) –
• International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) – www.ifpri.
• International Institute for Sustainable Development – www.iisd.
• International Trade Centre – – “the development
partner for small business export success in developing countries”
• Integrated Regional Information Networks (IRIN) is part of the
UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. Find the
“Africa” menu option at
• The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
(OECD) puts out economic outlooks for countries of the world. Find
reports, statistics and summaries at
• Tokyo International Conference on African Development
• United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
• United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) has a South
African office. See
• United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA) –


• United Nations Industrial Development Organisation (UNIDO)
• US Agency for International Development (USAID) – www.
• Find the current world production, market and trade reports at www. the Foreign Agricultural Service arm of the
US Department of Agriculture
• World Economic Forum –
• World Food Programme (WFP) –
• World Growth which sets out the advantages of globalisation – www.
• World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) –

African Union bodies
• African Union (AU) –
• African Union Commission -
• The New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) is the
AU’s blueprint for socio-economic development on the continent.
• Pan-African Parliament –

Finance, investment and trade
• Africa Finance Corporation –
• Africa Investor – Look for the “Agriculture”
menu option.
• African Agricultural Capital –
• African Development Bank –
• African Rural and Agricultural Credit Association (AFRACA)
• Alden Global Capital –
• BMCE Bank International –
• Corporate Council on Africa –
• Deloitte Consulting –
• Development Bank of Southern Africa –
• Find the Doing Business in Africa (DBIA) blog at www.commerce.
• East African Development Bank –
• Ecobank –
• Emerging Capital Partners –
• Look for the Africa Attractiveness surveys on, website of
Ernst & Young
• Export-Import Bank of China –
• International Monetary Fund (IMF) –
• KPMG –
• Lex Africa –
• Market Access Map – “making import tariffs and market barriers
• Find the research undertaken by McKinsey Global Institute (MGI)
• PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC) –
• The Regional Economic Communities (RECs) (see heading 5)
• SilverStreet Capital –
• World Bank –
• The World Bank’s private sector lending arm is the International
Finance Corporation –
• World Trade Organisation (WTO) –

Farmer unions
• East Africa Farmers Federation (EAFF) –
• Pan African Farmers Organisation (PAFO) – contact SACAU (see
• PROPAC – The association representing farmers in Central Africa
• ROPPA (Network of Farmers’ and Agricultural Producers’
Organisations of West Africa) –
• Southern Africa Confederation of Agricultural Unions (SACAU)

Associations and industry bodies
• African Association of Public Transport –
• African Civil Aviation Commission (AFCAC) –
• African Shipowners Association –
• Agency for the Safety of Aerial Navigation in Africa (ASECNA)

• Business Action For Africa –
• Maritime Organisation of West and Central Africa (OMAOC) –
• Port Management Association of Eastern and Southern Africa
• Port Management Association of West and Central Africa
• Union of African Railways -

Research and development
See also the “Research and development” chapter

• African Capacity Building Foundation (ACBF) – www.acbf-pact.
• CTA (Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation)
– Agritrade (see, other newsletters
and publications are available from them.
• Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research
(CGIAR) – Thousands of agricultural and related
industries publications are available on the website.
• Developing Countries Farm Radio Network –
• Eldis is one of a family of knowledge services at the Institute of
Development Studies in the UK. Find the Eldis Agriculture and
Development Reporter at
• Food, Agricultural and Natural Resources Policy Analysis
Network (FANRPAN) –
• Forum for Agricultural Research in Africa (FARA) –

How are we doing?
• Africa Progress Panel –
• African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights (ACHPR) –
• LEAD Africa –
• The Mo Ibrahim Foundation publishes an annual index of good
governance. The list rates sub-Saharan African countries by a set of
indicators, including safety and security, rule of law, participation and
human rights, sustainable economics and human development. The
award, in excess of $5-million, dwarfs the Nobel Peace Prize. See
• Pax-Africa –, “African peace and security agenda”
• Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa (Agra) –

8. South African role players
• Africa Check –
• Africa Institute of South Africa (AISA) –
• African Economic Research Consortium –
• African Business Journal -
• African Investment Consulting -
• AFRICA The Good News – – looks at
stories that the reader may not have noticed.
• Africa Project Access –
• Agri Africa consultants –
• Find the “Trade intelligence” option at, website of
the Agricultural Business Chamber.
• AGRIFICA promotes and facilitates agricultural development in
Africa. Visit
• The Archie Mafeje Research Institute (AMRI) at the University of
South Africa (UNISA) –
• A number of reports related to trade and agriculture in Africa can be
found on the Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries
(DAFF) website –
• has launched an African edition of its email
newsletter for the marketing, media and advertising industries. View
• The Department of International Relations and Cooperation
• The Disaster Management Training and Education Centre for
Africa (DiMTEC) at the University of the Free State –
• Executive Research Associates puts out a newsletter covering
developments in Africa. Visit for more.



afriqueexpansion. • Find the “Agriculture” option at http://agritrade. • Bridging the infrastructure gap will be a key enabler of regional integration.theafricareport. • Find the reports and papers at www. • Science in Africa – www.tralac. not just in economic but also in sociopolitical e. Creating larger markets with greater critical mass will not only enhance the African investment has an electronic newsletter which often looks beyond Southern Africa to the wider issues on the continent. • Afrique Expansion magazine – www. • Illovo Sugar – • Institute for Global Dialogue – – aimed at anyone who may have an interest in doing business or investing in Nigeria and Kenya. • Find the different “Country briefs” at www. • Regional integration is critical to accelerated and sustainable growth. African country profiles • The website of the African Development Bank. • The World Bank website gives country profiles – www.nationmaster. and document Africa’s economic and social development”.za • Standard Bank has an extensive Africa Find the study at • The story of Africa’s progress. includes notes on all African countries. Write to Wilma. including Agriculture. The book is entitled Awakening Africa’s Sleeping Giant – Prospects for Commercial Agriculture in the Guinea Savannah Zone and Beyond. US’ African Growth and Opportunity Act: Influence upon poverty reduction with evidence from Kenya. • Despite this • The British Broadcasting Commission (BBC) website provides very useful country profiles. according to a study published by FAO and the World Bank in and • Woolworths – www. • Tiger Brands – www. isupportafrica. needs to be told more confidently and consistently. Visit • www.worldbank. and have grown at a compound rate of close to 20% since it is also the only way for Africa to compete effectively in the global economy. Lesotho and Mauritius and The vital business case for integration in Africa – and the chance of a complimentary invitation to all businesses active on the – take either the “Countries A-Z” or “Agriculture” menu options for statistics. org. Find the latest one at www. Visit www. www. soil fertility and related agricultural issues that impact Africa”. Websites and publication Visit the many websites listed in this • Find the “Country Profiles” at http://theafricareport. • Shoprite – growth and – is a joint venture between agribusiness and the Department of • TradeInvestNigeria – www. www. • Visit www.g. • African Monitor was established to monitor funding delivery and the impact on grassroots communities.africanmonitor. Visit www.cta. gives updates on all economic sectors in www. The 2012 Ernst & Young Africa Attractiveness study give the following as key findings: • The number of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) projects in Africa grew 27% from 2010 to 9. with increasing self-confidence and continued strong growth in intra-African FDI (which has expanded by 42% since 2007) .woolworths. Find out more at These allow role players and interested parties “to • The Institute of Security Studies (ISS) website contains a wealth of information relating to Africa. • The Mbendi website. • The Africa Report magazine – • The World Bank does the annual Africa Development Indicators reports. Forestry and Fisheries in South Africa.14 • The Foundation for the Development of Africa runs several websites: • South African Institute of International Affairs (SAIIA) www. • Joint Agribusiness Department of Agriculture Forum for Africa (JADAFA) – A vast stretch of African savannah land that spreads across 25 countries has the potential to turn several African nations into global players in bulk commodity • TRADE (Trade and Development) Research niche area – focusing research on export promotion and identifying South Africa’s export is “a global Internet forum created to disseminate and exchange information on various aspects of are two of It also remains a key challenge and opportunity for investors.fao. there remain lingering negative perceptions of the continent — but only among those who are not yet doing business in • Senwes – www. • Trade Law Centre for Southern Africa (TRALAC).polity. • This broad-based progress is underscored by a substantial shift in mindset and activities among Africans themselves.



6 Cotton Chicken meat. as are finance/marketing issues and the wider socio-political and environmental contexts in which the country’s agricultural value chain finds itself. dextrin. cordials 5 Sugar (raw cane & sucrose) Soybean oil gin. please refer to the “websites and publications” heading of this chapter where some pointers are given. glucose. whatever its share of the GDP. peptones. Government and industry are investigating opportunities as to where to invest to ensure returns. etc. It is difficult to cover in each chapter what is covered in books (and libraries!) elsewhere. some sources prefer to view agriculture in a wider context. South Africa’s agricultural trade balance: our imports and exports Over the past decade. palm kernel. a focus on agriculture. Soybean oilcake mate 4 Dried peas and beans Whiskies. Upstream and downstream are covered. employment creation and growth. trees. which is what the consumer demands.g. It is crucial for a country to maintain its agricultural sector so that its need for basic foodstuff can be met. South Africa. 12 Plants. On a national level we are food secure because of agriculture. the overall Agricultural trade balance for South Africa has remained positive. Agriculture’s share of the country’s GDP is placed at somewhere between 2. which relates to factors such as resource availability and cost of production. Their farmers do more than just look after the countryside. nonetheless. confection 15 Bananas Animal and pet feed Table 2: Top 15 Primary and Secondary Agricultural products / group of products exported . The First World countries know this. gelatine. is false. egg albumin. sardines. If one includes all the forward and backward linkages. lactose. its primary activities (agriculture included) take a lower percentage in that country’s GDP. bulbs. Many of the products imported can indeed be produced. The fact that agriculture’s share of the South African GDP is shrinking is to be expected since we have economic growth. the GDP rises to 14% and higher. chewing gum. growth potential and employment opportunities which South Africa has lost. Most of the chapters in this publication contain a heading “International business environment”.17 introduction South Africa and agriculture 1. The economy: agriculture and the GDP (Gross Domestic Product) A standard model of economic growth shows that as a country develops. coconut oil 3 Coffee. 14 Fresh & chilled vegetables Sugar. Our farmers are affected by what happens beyond our harbours and border posts. horticulture and the livestock industry. etc. Secondary agriculture 1 Wheat Rice 2 Tobacco Palm. and numerous studies point to its “multiplier effect” on other sectors: a Rand spent in agriculture achieves more than a Rand spent anywhere else. secondary activities (e. then the contribution grows to between 20% and 30%. liqueurs. breads. referring to the “agro-food industry” instead. The rumour that “South Africa has become a net importer of food”. etc. processed and manufactured locally. It is not out of spite that they hold onto those (trade-distorting) agricultural subsidies. vodka. cuts and offal 7 Spices Food preparations 8 Seeds & plant sowing Cocoa products 9 Nuts Preserved tuna. South Africa has never been a net importer of primary agricultural products. reflected through net income generation. Table 1: Top 15 Primary and Secondary Agricultural products / group of products imported Primary agriculture 2. Other countries have gained the advantage of processing food products from their primary form to their final form. this publication is a modest attempt to do this. Agriculture is a spark. It is not feasible to argue that import substitution would regain all the lost opportunities. Its pages provide orientations to everything which happens in agronomy. roses Dairy products 13 Live chickens & poultry Pasta. pastries. Agriculture remains a cornerstone and the country’s lifeblood. which some doomsayers love to report. 3. and agriculture is central to the process which brings that food to our plates.6 and 3 percent. If the reader is looking for a summary of South African agriculture in five pages or so. and in this country. Overview The Agri Handbook for South Africa has. salmon. These countries have also picked up the income generation. agricultural products since 2005. 10 Seeds for oil & consumption Sunflower seed / safflower oil 11 Barley Casein. molasses. depending on which sources one uses. but for others the country simply does not have the comparative advantage to do so. as its name suggests. with the exception of 2007. Viewed this way. Agriculture grows – but not at the same speed as other sectors. We need food to survive. green & black tea. Because of the linkages with other sectors. The information is not limited to what happens within this country. and there are chapters on Africa and the South African Development Community (SADC). What is true is that South Africa has been a net importer of secondary. rum. or processed. manufacturing and processing) and the services sector taking an increasingly larger share.

Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) – see www. Tobacco products other citrus 5 Maize Food preparations 6 Sugar Sunflower seed and safflower oil 7 Wool Cocoa products and chocolate 8 Apricots.gcis. drawn up after a year of intensive work by the commission identified nine key problems facing the country namely. The Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) also features in other areas like exports. National Strategy and government contact The immediately apparent government department to look at is the Department of Agriculture. fruit and Waters & non-alcoholic beverages spores for sowing Source: adapted from the Agricultural Business Chamber 12 April 2012 Newsletter quoting World Trade Atlas. • Find the latest Global Competitiveness Report at www. at www. industry association as a first point of contact. General industry bodies like the Agricultural Business Chamber (Agbiz) or one of the farmer unions will also be able to help. an unsustainable resource-intensive rum.oecd. agriculture/ respectively.npconline.oxfordbusinessgroup. ethyl alcohol 2 Grapes Preserved nuts & fruits. The reader is pointed to daily and weekly sources of information in the “ICT and agriculture media” chapter. The document.statssa. website of the World Economic Forum. grapefruit. grape brandy.18 Primary agriculture Secondary agriculture 1 Oranges Wine. 6. The National Development Plan (NDP) . a publication by International publishing and research company Oxford Business Group (OBG). peaches and fruit mixtures 3 Apples & pears Fruit juices 4 Mandarins. These are listed in the different chapters of this publication. • The Department of Health Contact details and information on all government departments are available at www. liqueurs & plums cordials 9 Tobacco Visit www.daff. cherries. incl pears. uneven public service performance. fermented beverages. Role players The reader is referred to the relevant representative. Find it at www. is available in all eleven official languages. crumbling infrastructure and corruption. see heading 4. as well as the New Growth Path (NGP) and other strategies in the “Job creation” Also of interest will be the different economic analyses and statistical reports under “Publications” at numerous other government departments are Take a look at international reports on South Africa: • Find the latest World Bank and Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) reports on South Africa. • The United Nations Special Rapporteur on the Right to Food released a report on South Africa in 2012. For government contacts. visit www. Websites and publications For summaries of the country’s agricultural sector take a look at: • The most recent South African Investor Handbook which can be found at www. • Agriculture is seen as a sector in which jobs can be created (see the “Job creation” chapter). co-operatives and the registering of companies. Visit and consult the “Organised agriculture” chapter. Agriculture is viewed as one of the sectors in which jobs can be created. lemons. and relevant websites and publications are listed in almost every chapter of the book. poor education. The most obvious of these are: • The Department of Rural Development and Land Reform (DRDLR) • The Department of Labour • The Department of Water Affairs • The Department of Environmental Affairs • The Department of Energy • The latest Industrial Policy Action Plan (IPAP) includes various sectors of the agricultural value chain. which charts a 20-year path towards achieving a better life for all South Africans. For visually impaired persons. Find the document on the website of Statistics South Africa at www.daff. and go to “The Plan”. the Census of commercial agriculture.agbiz. soups & homogenised foods 10 Soybeans Raisins 11 Avocados Flour meal & pellet of fish 12 Maize seed Macadamia nuts 13 Peanuts/groundnuts Meat & edible meat offal 14 Nuts Sheep/lamb skins 15 Vegetable seeds.thedti. software can be downloaded from the same website at no cost which will read the text out loud. 2007 was and www. In Relevant departments here are Department of Economic Development and the National Planning Commission (NPC) in the Presidency. To access the popular version of the NDP in all official languages. existing spatial patterns. divided Read more about the NDP. NAMC. • The annual SA Yearbook at www. peaches & Whiskies. • Find The Report: South Africa 2012. Because of the way agriculture contributes to the economic and social framework of the country. and DAFF (2012) a high disease burden.



• To be transparent and accountable at all times • To maintain high levels of professionalism at all times • To respect the • La Via Campesina – http://viacampesina. through which they address local agricultural issues and liaise with officials and organisations on matters concerning their members. ROPPA and UMAGRI.21 Mission introduction To facilitate the development of African farmers in order to increase their meaningful participation in the agricultural sector Strategic Objectives Organised Agriculture 1. The purpose of the organisation is still largely to influence policy in the interest of commercial agricultural producers and to support our mission at operational level. • Farmers are represented in the rest of Africa through Plateforme Régionale des Organisations Paysannes d’Afrique Centrale (PROPAC) from Central also making use of external inputs. 3. Visit www. the Eastern African Farmers Federation (EAFF). maize. and www. • To strive for excellence including efficient and effective service provision at all levels. political and religious affiliation or belief. The organisation’s highest authority is its Congress. PAFFO is made up from representatives from Reason for existence The motivation behind the establishment of the organisation . Values At grassroots level. • Cairns Group Farm Leaders – www. International associations involved • World Farmers’ Organisation – It is therefore crucial that AFASA espouses what it stands for in order to attract those similar values. on behalf of its members. • To mobilise resources for the benefit of African farmers. Included in the category of Organised Agriculture are the commodity organisations which serve and represent farmers producing a specific commodity. the Réseau desOrganisations Paysannes et des Producteurs Agricoles d’Afrique de l’Ouest (ROPPA) in Western www. Overview • To create a sustainable united body of African farmers with capacity to influence policies through lobbying and advocacy in favour of African • Find out about the most recent events in the region on the website of the Southern African Confederation of Agricultural Unions (SACAU) at Vision To have competent and successful commercial African farmers of South Africa • To be led by people of high integrity in order to create http://eaffu. Structure Agri SA has a General Affairs Chamber – taking care of matters on which provincial affiliations focus as well as a Commodity Chamber – dealing with commodity issues through commodity affiliations. AFASA like any other organisation. • To be a farmer centred organisation. and the Union Maghrébine ds Agriculteurs (UMAGRI) in northern The provincial agricultural unions in turn delegate members to represent them on national bodies. PROPAC. cotton etc. Find contact details of these in the relevant chapters. class. • To ensure that the organisation remains true to its mission and objectives. culture and dignity of its members. • To facilitate development of competencies of African farmers in order for them to participate meaningfully in formal and informal for more information • A continental organisation for Africa called the Pan-African Farmers Forum (PAFFO) was launched at the end of 2010. Mission and Vision Agri SA promotes. beef. e. is a collection of individuals who come together for a common purpose. The provincial agricultural unions address matters affecting farmers in the province as a whole and liaise with higher organisations.agrisa. the development.roppa. employees and the public regardless of gender. Source: Agri SA (adapted) 2. . AGRI SA Tel: 012 643 3400 Fax: 012 663 3178 agrisa@agrisa.despite a change of name from Intercolonical Agricultural Union in 1904 to the South African Agricultural Union (1909) and Agri SA (1999) – has remained virtually unchanged over the past 100 years. commercial farmers are members of their local farmers’ associations. tribe. Farmers may voluntarily be part of organised agricultural structures through local farmers’ associations and/or through commodity organisations. National associations involved AFRICAN Farmers Association of South Africa (AFASA) Tel: 012 348 8566 Fax: 012 365 3086 www. loyalty and confidence amongst its members employees and the public.sacau. Policy work is done in specialised committees. EAFF.g. The organisation’s General Council is representative of all its affiliates and focuses on strategic challenges and proposals submitted by the organisation’s committee structure. AFASA commits itself to the following values.afasa. stability and sustainability of commercial agriculture in South Africa by means of its involvement and input on national and international policy level. The farmers’ associations delegate members to represent them in their respective provincial agricultural unions. Its Constitution also makes provision for associated membership.

farmer labour laws. co. the International Chamber of Commerce. held in Standerton. 1897.awk. Agri North West Tel: 018 632 2987 agrinw@lantic. environmental affairs. Western Cape. Water Affairs. Agri SA participates in the Presidential Commercial Agriculture Working Group dealing with policy matters specifically in terms of the Strategic Plan for South African Agriculture. Actions spoke louder than words and the Transvaal Agricultural Union was established on September 29. training. and Western Transvaal. .co. Property Rights. NATIONAL AFRICAN FARMERS’ UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA (NAFU SA) Contact the National African Federated Chamber of Commerce and Industry (NAFCOC).co. Disaffiliation gave rise to the decision taken by the General Council of TAU on 19 April 2000. so called “Proefboerderijen” (Onderstepoort test farming). infrastructure. It is a member of Business Unity South Africa (BUSA). organised such as the establishment of an agricultural the TAU asked for the establishment of a Landbank which opened its doors on November 4. technology development and transfer. Education & Culture Affairs and www. The initial service area of the TAU during the past century was the four northern provinces – North-. are affiliated to TAU SA. Energy. the named changed to TAU Agri Limpopo Tel: 014 763 1888 agrilephalale@vodamail. Eastern Kwanalu (KwaZulu-Natal) Tel: 033 342 9393 Focus areas Agri SA’s policy advocacy includes work on trade negotiations. With this decision. organised labour and regional and international bodies as spokesperson for South African agriculture. Regional Chairmen for seven of the nine statutory Provinces were elected by the members in each Province. The objectives of TAU SA may be summarised as: To organise members of TAU SA in a united front for the benefit of commercial agriculture as a profession and the preservation of that cultural way of life. As a direct result of this Mpumalanga Landbou/Agriculture Tel: 017 819 1295 mplandbou@mweb. Conservation. Northern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal where structures have been Change to TAU SA As a result of alterations to the constitution of SALU (the South African Agricultural Union). Safety and Security. to extend its service area to include the whole of South www. the publishing of an agricultural magazine and many Free State Agriculture Tel: 051 444 4609 sulene@vslandbou. land reform. Several agricultural businesses. Provincial Affiliations: Agri Eastern Cape Tel: 041 363 1890 www. Agri SA is well recognised by government. other input related Find details of all the affiliated commodity organisations at www. These committees are functioning in a co-ordinate way to discuss problems and matters arising. the affiliation of TAU (the Transvaal Agricultural Union) was cancelled. Thereafter the necessary research and/or negotiation is done with feedback through the structure to individual members. taxation. Media liaison activities and a strategic communication strategy are also maintained on various levels to promote understanding and support for the farmer and agriculture amongst the general public and the rest of the national economy.vslandbou.tlu. farm safety. Liaison and meetings in these provinces take place on a regular basis. an electronic newsletter and runs a regular radio programme in collaboration with the SABC. the World Farmers’ Organisation (WFO). It publishes a bi-monthly magazine (Agri). During the ninth congress the President emphasised some of the TAU’s success www. now known as TAU SA During a committee meeting of the Pretoria Landbouw Maatskappij in 1896. Economic Affairs.agrisa. Agri SA has policy committees for the following priority areas: • Labour and social welfare • Commercial policy • Safety and Security • Natural resources • Transformation • Communication and image-building Projects: Agri Securitas Trust Fund to promote a safer environment for farmers How does it benefit the individual farmer? The actions of Agri SA are constantly focused on creating a favourable policy environment within which it will be possible for farmers to be successful entrepreneurs and optimally develop the sector’s production potential. Middle-. In order to fulfil its role. Communication. TAU SA Tel: 012 804 8031 info@tlu. Call 011 807 5063 or visit www. East-. the agenda provided for the founding of a Transvaal Agricultural Agri Gauteng Tel: 012 643 3400 gauteng@agrisa. At the fifth congress held by the Union in 1904 there was a plea for the establishment of a “Central Zuid Afrikaanse Landbouw Vereniging” (Central South African Agricultural Union) During July of that year the “sister colonies” were invited to Pretoria to discuss the matter where after SALU (the South African Agricultural Union) was law and Agri Northern Cape Tel: 053 832 9595 ncagric@worldonline. statistical information and local government “An organised national agricultural organisation for the commercial farmers of South Africa” History The former Transvaal Agricultural Union. produce organisations unions specialising in agriculture. the Southern African Confederation of Agricultural Unions (SACAU) and the Cairns Group Farm Leaders. Functions of TAU SA Issues of importance to the agricultural community as a whole are in the hands of highly knowledgeable committees. industrial Agri Wes-Cape Tel: 021 860 3800 info@awk. namely: Labour Affairs. water rights. During the sixth congress in the TAU SA visited various provinces including the Free State.


the less will be the reason for the rapid urban migration which places such strain on available resources in the urban Breitenbach MC and Fenyés TI The economic rationale for agricultural regeneration and rural infrastructure investment in South Africa The chapter also serves as a corollary of the “Urban question” chapter. in addition to the CRDP. A bi-monthly bulletin in English with facts regarding the situation in SA with its effects on agriculture and the economy. include some aspect of rural development. Advertisements/articles are placed in the different agricultural publications when regarded necessary.ruraldevelopment. Every second week a “Pitkos” is sent to all members with e-mail in order to keep members updated regarding all activities of the organisation. the Comprehensive Agricultural Support Programme (CASP). Funding Funding of TAU SA is mainly through membership fees. Refer to the “Agro-processing” and “Agribusiness” chapters respectively for information on SAAPA and Agbiz. Compilation of structures TAU SA membership can be obtained by means of application where.sanews. leading to declining living conditions there. The greater the development in the rural and www. • Structure. thereafter the District level. affiliated to TAU SA. and are also joined by the South African Agricultural Processors’ Association (SAAPA) and Agricultural Business Chamber (Agbiz). Examples include the Expanded Public Works Programme (EPWP). the Provincial level and all national matters in a collective way on national level. Find updates at www. 40 Minutes of airtime every second Tuesday with information regarding warnings on legislation. NAFU and the TAU Overvaal Stereo (Monday) and Radio Laeveld (Thursday). rural infrastructure etc. depending on the degree thereof. Info regarding the services rendered by TAU SA as well as update press releases and international bulletins regarding relevant agricultural matters. Several other Government interventions. agriculture publications. they rely on nonfarm employment and income that depends in some way or another on a member joins TAU SA via the Farmers Association which is affiliated to the District Agricultural Union. Contact details for all government departments can be found at www. Members are represented from grass root level – Farmers Associations – through the structure. The Department of Agriculture. Agri SA. sponsorship by agricultural businesses as well as the successful managing of various funding projects to the advantage of members. Rendering of services Problems and matters identified by members are being handled collectively on several sectors of the TAU SA structure. The challenge for the agricultural sector is not only to produce more food. This is an alliance to speak with one voice on issues that face agriculture as a at the congress. introduction The importance of rural development 1. rural education. • Radio Pretoria – “Protection of property rights”. • TAU SA “Pitkos”.tlu. The route for handling matters will be firstly on Farmers Association level. . but also to create income-generating employment for poor people inside and outside agriculture. radio and TV. The NARYSEC is a two-year programme aimed at empowering rural youth from each of the 3 300 rural wards across the 2. The CRDP contains a three branched strategy of Agrarian Transformation. Rural Development and Land Reform. the Masibambisane Rural Development Initiative (MRDI) and the National Rural Youth Service Corps (NARYSEC) programme. Its vision is to enable rural people to play a meaningful role in the economy. Agri-Sector Unity Forum (ASUF) Ms Ntombi Msimang (Chairperson) – 011 314 2833 / 083 635 4860 Mr Japie Grobler (Deputy Chairperson) – 082 825 8018 The formation on the Agri-Sector Unity Forum (ASUF) was a development in the last quarter of 2012. on a sustainable Press releases and agricultural related articles are sent to newspapers. Source: A paper by Meyer NG. results and advice on agricultural matters. at least 11 million live in rural areas. National strategy and government contact Department of Rural Development and Land Reform Tel: 012 312 8911 www. • Weekly participation in programmes on community radio stations. • TAU SA International Bulletins. This bulletin is being sent via e-mail to several contacts abroad. The rural economy is inextricably linked to agricultural production. Think about it: there is rural health. Read about the Comprehensive Rural Development Programme (CRDP) and other programmes at www. The boundaries of District Agricultural Unions are in accordance to the former magisterial boundaries. Of the 17 million poor people in South on behalf of the individual farmer and agriculture as Communication mediums: • Web pages – www. ASUF is backed by AFASA. Jooste A. rural The Comprehensive Rural Development Programme (CRDP) is the main strategy for rural development. Communication Two-way communication through the structure to and from head office on a daily basis. after approval. Co-ordination of all Farmers Unions and District Agricultural Unions is the responsibility of the relevant Regional Chairman and Regional Manager. Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) leads the Agrarian Transformation Programme of the CRDP together with the provinces and local authorities.ruraldevelopment. addressing rural poverty and food insecurity through the productive use and management of natural resources at their disposal. Electronic communication is being promoted and is successfully in use. • Media. Rural development calls for the involvement of multiple government departments though.24 Structure of TAU SA The highest policy-making body of TAU SA is the congress where the president and regional chairmen are annually elected. Overview Poverty affects millions of people. • TAU SA news. with the majority of them being women and children living in rural Even if these people are not engaged in agriculture.



. • Sustainable Villages Africa www. Read about how the people of Cata and Mnyameni have harnessed trout as a means to develop their rural area. food. and be the responsibility of a project champion who is tasked with making this 3. An economically viable business plan must be submitted. The major constraints are the restrictive institutional arrangements and lack of skills that prevent the resources (both natural and other) from being mobilised and used • Mpumalanga Economic Growth Agency (MEGA) Tel: 013 752 2440 A number of ANDISA Agri’s offerings touch on rural development: • strategic planning • value chain analysis • business planning and feasibility studies • managing “change of control” transactions and land reform transaction advisory • land reform policy research • project management • micro-finance product design and Outgrower Schemes • finance • Womiwu Rural Development Tel: 015 297 2107 co-ordination and management must be at grass roots level ie per village or area. See the “Providers of financial services” and “Development financial services” chapters ANDISA Agri Tel: 082 807 5587 • South African Institute for Entrepreneurship (SAIE) Tel: 021 447 2023 www.devserve.aspire. The NEF established a fund dedicated to supporting rural and community “Information talks and presentations done in rural areas” • Development Services The government Industrial Development Corporation (IDC) Tel: 0860 693 888 www. creating enterprises and increasing local economic activity the taxation base for municipalities to increase revenue is also increased. Role players Financial Services Agricultural Colleges Find details of all Colleges in the “Agricultural education and training” chapter • Fort Cox Rural Development Centre Tel: 040 653 8033 www. Sustainability is synonymous with • Caryki Consulting Tel: 082 456 0396 / 083 445 2662 • CASIDRA Tel: 021 863 5000 • Invest North West Tel: 014 594 2570 Masisizane Fund • Agri Mega Empowerment Solutions (AgriMES) Tel: 028 424 2890 or contact Rusty at 015 297 2107. Find the complete list in the “Providers of financial services” • Ntinga OR Tambo Development Agency Tel: 047 531 0346 • Scientific Roets Tel: 039 727 1515 .denvet. These are generally sound but many fail to impact on the Many rural areas have In our opinion it is imperative that rural development is seen as a • Urban-Econ Tel: 031 202 9673 • SANBRI Tel: 021 674 1134 www.entrepreneurship. To have longer term impact the intitiative must be sustainable. womiwu.dbsa.isbaya. or better still with some regular perceived net • Is’Baya Development Trust Tel: 021 851 9698 www. in the sense that the available resources – natural. • Amathole Economic Development Agency Tel: 043 721 2070 www. • Northern Cape Economic Development Agency Tel: 053 833 1503 www. helping these institutions to become more equity and grants • EIA agricultural economic assessments • due diligence assessments • training and mentoring • rural development Development Bank of South Africa (DBSA) Tel: 011 313 3911 There are provincial and municipal economic bodies set up to attract growth and investment in the different provinces.mbb. Visit www. the Rural and Community Development • Ekhozi Rural Development Services Tel: 021 853 2691 • MBB Consulting Engineers Tel: 021 887 1026 • Ecosystems Tel: 035 772 4746 www. beverage and marine sectors wanting to expand and develop their businesses. and continues to develop strategies and policies to address rural development. The minimum financing is R1 • Den Vet Tel: 033 343 1093 www. community and financial – need to be Finance for entrepreneurs in the National Empowerment Fund (NEF) Tel: 011 305 8000 This mobilisation. co-ordinated and • Tsolo Agriculture and Rural Development Institute Tel: 047 542 0109 Companies See the “Agribusiness” chapter • Agri-Africa Consultants Tel: 076 817 9687 www.sva.umhlaba. Mineworkers Investment Company Tel: 011 088 1800 • Rural Integrated Engineering Tel: 012 804 5014 By mobilising resources. Visit www. Below are some examples. if not an abundance of natural and other • Umhlaba Tel: 011 655 7171 www. Source: notes written to the editor by Womiwu Rural Development.

Source: “Growing the Rural Economy through supporting Agriculture”. redistribution of economic job • DOCKDA Rural Development Agency Tel: 053 832 1189 This entails creating an enabling environment. The Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) has Rural infrastructure and services as one area of “Sharing including agricultural development. lima. za • Rural Education.firechildren.matsilatrust. stimulating economic growth. • Rural Finance Learning Centre – International role players Many of these are listed in the Africa and SADC chapters of this • The Zululand Centre for Sustainable Development Tel/fax: 083 308 4818 • Social Change Assistance Trust Tel: 021 418 2575 National Government Departments See heading 2 Non-governmental Organisations (NGOs) • ACAT Tel: 033 234 4223 www.reach. improving rural livelihoods” • Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) – www. visit • Mvula Trust Tel: 011 403 3425 • Afesis-corplan Tel: 043 743 3830 www.agsa. a paper by Dr Nico Meyer The Auditor-General South Africa (AGSA) is responsible for the auditing of provincial state departments and all municipalities – • Find out about the SARD initiative (Sustainable Agriculture and Rural Development) at www. • Promotion of Rural Livelihoods (RULIV) Tel: 043 704 8800 www.brc21. • Hippo Water Roller Project Makhado and Nylstroom) are available on the website. • Nkuzi Development Association Tel: 012 323 6417 www. Find the “Rural development” Here we will mention only dockda. Awareness and Community Health (REACH) Tel: 079 889 0289 • Biowatch South Africa has rural offices in Limpopo and KwaZuluNatal. Under the Constitution. To aid government in its quest to improve the quality of drinking water served in rural communities. the Human Sciences Research Council (HSRC) has its Centre for Poverty. website of the South African Local Government Association (SALGA).org. A jam-making co-operative business is being set up in a region suffering from 95% unemployment. the Water Research Commission (WRC) has published a new set of guidelines for small water treatment plant operators. • Built Environment Support Group Tel: 033 394 4980 www. Modimolle.csir. org. black economic empowerment. co. ruliv.mvula. Kwazulu-Natal). Contact details for their branches ( Science Councils of South Africa and research groups In addition to the Agricultural Research Council (ARC).org • Indigo Development and Change Tel: 027 218 1148 www. The resource base of rural municipalities is mostly agriculture driven and in the long-term the capacity and affordability of these municipalities to improve service delivery is tied to the fortunes of the rural • Sam Motsuenyane Rural Development Foundation Tel: 012 382 5352 deruyterw@tut.ancra. • Association for Rural Advancement (AFRA) Tel: 033 345 7607 www. • Border Rural Committee Tel: 043 742 0173 or call 011 021 2768 The South African Local Economic Development (LED) Network – www. See Read about their rural work on • Resource Africa Tel: 012 342 9242 • Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Co-operation (CTA) – www.technoserve. • Global Donor Platform for Rural Development – www. Contact details of all the science councils can be found in the “Research and .emg. and • Rural Doctors Association of Southern Africa – www. local government is tasked with facilitating local economic Contact details for all municipalities can be found at • Insika Rural Development Trust Tel: 035 772 5061 Fax: 035 792 2341 • Khanya-aicdd (African Institute for Community Driven Development) Tel: 011403 9844 www. The idea behind the Thusong Service Centre is to have a “One-Stop Centre of Services and Information” • Centani Community District Development Institution (CCDDI) Tel: 047 492 0561 • Centre for Rural Legal Studies Tel: 021 883 8032 • Matsila Trust Tel: 082 602 5515 www. Take a look at www. • Association for Community Rural Advancement (AnCRA) Tel: 053 712 0791 www.the “International journal for rural development” • The International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) – www.biowatch. Find contact details of the many offices in every province countrywide at Services include facilities (fax. phone) • TechnoServe Tel: 011 482 6005 www. Contact 012 841 2927 or view its pages at • Alliance for Rural Democracy Tel: 083 451 9321 / 084 581 6306 • Amangwane King Tel: 011 726 6529 www. Rural Municipalities and Provincial Government Local Economic Development (LED) is a constitutional mandate of Local Municipalities. The plan includes selling produce to tourists and stores in the region.crls. donorplatform. To find out more about On-site Mobile Training of Operators in Rural Water Supplies: An Illustrative the financial reality of “non-affordability” of municipal services to meet basic needs – owing to weak local economic bases – emphasises the need for Local Municipalities to actively pursue their LED mandates. and so generate revenue and work training.hsrc. other Science Councils of South Africa have programmes which target rural areas • Rural Development Network (RUDNET) Tel: 021 850 0790 www. call 012 330 0340 or email orders@wrc. Find details of the South African Social Security Agency (SASSA) at • Rural Women’s Movement (RWM) Tel: 031 579 4559 / 073 840 5151 • Surplus Peoples Project Tel: 021 448 5605 The rural municipalities and provincial government are challenged by the National Spatial Development Framework to facilitate development in line with the economic potential of its area of jurisdiction. It emphasises why each step in water treatment is important for sustainable production and delivery of safe drinking • Environmental Monitoring Group Tel: 021 448 2881 For an extensive list of Children of Fire is involved in a rural development initiative near Emmaus (Central Drakensberg • LIMA Rural Development Foundation Tel: 033 342 9043 small business advice and development and “Enabling poor rural people to overcome poverty”. • Community Development Resource Association (CDRA) Tel: 021 462 3902 www. The umbrella body for NGOs is the South African NGO Coalition (SANGOCO). Local Government Business Network – visit • www. Employment and Growth.

• The agricultural SETA intends to be “at the forefront of rural development”. or to have access to basic services. the Eastern Cape hosts the largest percentage of the country’s livestock – 39% of its 041 402 6201(agriculture) Chris Hani – Tel: 051 401 3765 Department of Urban and Regional Planning Tel: 051 401 2486 www. After Limpopo and the Northern Cape. 30% of its sheep and 23% of its cattle. Tel: 015 962 8681 Rural Development and Extension www. olives. spinach and carrots pumpkins. A list of provincial extension officer contacts can be found in the “Developing farmer support” Free State are central to rural development e. especially in the rural areas.ecprov.up. juice/milk People hoped for the prospect of a better life after the apartheid New frontiers in University of Pretoria poverty reduction and sutainable Agricultural Economics. v Find The State of the Rural Nation. The national government retains the overall regulatory and policy functions and agricultural trade and Private Bag x0040. maize a growing economy and a relatively high average annual per capita income of more than $4 000. Eastern Cape The Eastern Cape is the second largest province (after the Northern Cape). hemp. a paper written by Randall Adams and published by the Southern African Catholic Bishops’ Conference in University of Fort Hare Department of Agricultural Economics & Extension Tel: 040 602 2333 041 506 5555 (general contact) OR Tambo – www. oranges. Universities Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University Community Development Unit Tel: 041 504 4005 / 28 http://cdu. Municipality and website Contact telephone number Alfred Nzo – www.agr. bananas and avocado The shoreline lends itself to fishing. agricultural support to farmers is vested in the provincial governments.univen. to access quality education and affordable The broken surface of the land precludes large scale agronomy. introduction Sector Education and Training Authorities (SETAs) A number of the Sector Education and Training Authorities (SETAs) are involved in rural development. This is typical of an uppermiddle income Land and Agrarian Studies (PLAAS) Lengau Agricultural Centre Tel: 021 959 3733 Tel: 051 443 8859 039 727 4453 (agriculture) Amathole – www. Provincial contact details are available at University of Venda Centre for Rural Development and Poverty alleviation Centre for Sustainable which provide farmers with a range of services.joegqabi.nelsonmandelabay. and inequality are the reality for many. Visit www. These include: • The local government SETA. Overview In terms of the Constitution of South 012 420 3248 arid regions. peaches.buffalocity. tanneries and meat processing. Squid forms the basis of the province’s fishing Centre for Development Support Tel: 051 401 2978 Agriculture in the provinces 1. onion. 1996 (Act 108 of 1996). There is some recreational and commercial fishing for line fish.g. lucerne. the collection of marine watermelons and potatoes • 043 706 8713 (agriculture) Buffalo City – www. 5605 .ortambodm. These include: • Maize.crh. 051 611 0071 (agriculture) Nelson Mandela Bay www. Extension development and Technologies for and Rural Development sustainable crop industries in Find the details of provincial farmer unions in the “Organised agriculture” chicory. The district municipalities The State of the Rural Nation You could make a general statement about the country: South Africa has rich natural Department of Agricultural Economics Walter Sisulu University Tel: 051 401 2250 Centre for Rural Development Tel: 047 537 0179 / 083 446 0077 www. With plentiful grassland and (usually) good 045 839 4700 (agriculture) Joe Gqabi – University of the Western Cape Institute for Poverty. University of KwaZulu-Natal Agricultural Extension and Rural Resource Management Tel: 033 260 6247 / 5121 047 531 0258 (agriculture) Provincial Department of Agriculture Department of Rural Development and Agrarian Reform Tel: 040 609 3474 Fax: 040 636 3555 Website: www. but South Africa is still a place where social and economic exclusion. or call 012 301 5600. poverty. and access to line-catches of hake. and yet for many South Africans this classification has little or no significant meaning. this province hosts the most number of game farms. at www. The national office may be contacted at 011 456 8579. dry beans. Many people are struggling to find 043 705 3150 (general contact) Cacadu – Centre for Rural Health Several of the Strategic Academic Tel: 031 260 1569 Clusters at the University of the lemons. yet a wide variety of crops are cultivated. tea and sugar cane • development” chapter. Potential agribusiness opportunities are fruit processing. sugar beet.



fs. Top Management. dairy products and flowers. fruit. grain sorghum (53%) – a website of the Province’s Provincial Spatial Information Management Unit. Provincial Department of Agriculture Department of Agriculture and Rural Development (GDARD) Tel: 011 355 1900 Fax: 011 355 1000 Postal: PO Box • Gauteng Economic Development Agency – – the Eastern Cape Provincial Government • http://gis.ecdc.ecsecc. is home to the country’s cherry and asparagus sectors. Some 40% of the country’s potato production happens in this province. sunflower (50%). The eastern part. Major grain and oilseed crops are given here followed by the percentage that the Free State contributes to national production: maize (39%). An extensive list of support staff. Senior Resource Management Staff. Johannesburg. Dry beans (5%) and maize (5%) are the major crops.geda. Provincial Department of Agriculture Free State Department of Agriculture and Rural Development Website: http://www. cattle (17%) and other livestock are farmed. The Free State is also a major producer of eggs (17%).za Website: – Free State Development Corporation) • Head of Department: Ms Smangele Sekgobela Tel: 011 355 1920 / 73 Fax: 011 333 0667 3.33 Head of Department: Mr Glen Thomas Tel: 040 609 3471 Fax: 040 635 0604 Find the “Critical Contacts” menu option on the Postal Address: Private Bag X01 Glen 9360 Head of Department: Mr Peter Thabethe – 051 861 8509 • District Implementation Tel: 051 861 8423 • Agricultural Support Services Tel: 051 861 8442/77 District Directors Xhariep District – 051 713 0480 Fezile Dabe – 016 976 2009 Motheo – 051 875 1161 4. Grain sorghum. Free State A quarter of the country’s arable land is in the Free State.agriec.freestateonline. 2000 Email: gdard@gauteng. • www. Production. Some 29% of the country’s wheat comes from this province too. Waste website of the Free State Provincial Government • www. Gauteng has about 3% of the country’s arable land. A quarter of the country’s egg production happens in The south consists of karoo/semi-desert vegetation.ecprov. Tourism and Environmental Affairs) • www.fs. which is Environmental Planning and Impact . District Senior Resource Management Staff and Communications and Customer Care Services is available. Corporate Communications etc Regional offices • Pretoria – 012 328 5140 • Randfontein – 011 411 4300 • Germiston – 011 821 7700 For more information on the province: Lejweleputsa – 057 398 1664 Thabo Mofutsanyane – 058 714 1430/0 For more information on the province: • www. meat. Gauteng • Agriculture Branch – 011 355 1968 / 71 • Agricultural Economics and Marketing – 011 355 1906 • Animal Health Advisory and Support Services – 011 355 1388 • Animal Health.fdc. Find maps and geographical information – Free State Agriculture • • Gauteng Provincial Government – Laboratory and Quality Management – 011 355 1878 • Farmer Support Services – 011 355 1447 -0Farmer Settlement – 011 355 1449 -0Household Food Security – 011 355 1453 -0Integrated Food Security – 011 355 1265 • Natural Resource Management – 011 355 1317 • Nature Conservation – 011 355 1895 • Rural Development – 011 355 1249 • Social Development – 011 355 1937 • Sustainable Resource Management – 011 355 1367 • Technology Development and Support – 011 355 1374 • Transformation – 011 355 1366 • Veterinary Public Health and Export Facilitation – 011 355 1987 • There are also Directorates of Air Quality. dry beans (25%) and soy beans (23%).za – Agri Eastern Cape The province’s agricultural sector is mostly geared to providing the cities and towns with daily fresh produce including – the Eastern Cape Socio Economic Consultative Council • – website of the Eastern Cape Development Corporation • www.vslandbou. eggs. groundnuts (32%).za – Department of Economic Development.gautengonline. For more information on the province: • www. Advisory and Support Services – 011 355 1388 • Sheep (20%). It is a principal producer of summer and winter soy beans and wheat are produced in smaller quantities. – Department of Economic Provincial Department of Agriculture KZN Department of Agriculture and Environmental Affairs Tel: 033 355 9100 Fax: 033 355 9122 Website: www. Livestock does well in this plains in the central District and district website Contact: agriculture Capricorn – provides notes on the economy. groundnuts.34 5. with 10% of South Africa’s arable land. the “Place of the rising sun”. The province is known for its fruit industry and is the major producer of the country’s avocados. Mpumalanga is a major poultry producer and nearly 20% of the country’s broilers come from here.sekhukhune. guavas and pineapples are also grown. Cotton. dry beans (11%) and wheat being other field crops. it hosts 17% of the country’s goats and 8% of its Physical Address: 67 Biccard Street Polokwane 0700 Postal Address: Private Bag X9487 Polokwane 0700 Head of Department: Mr KCM Mannya Tel: 015 294 3147 Fax: 015 294 4512 Restitution – 015 294 3301 Veterinary – 015 294 3608 Soil Resource Management – 015 294 3157 Agribusiness – 015 294 3104 Transformation – 015 294 3283 Land – 015 294 3068 Economic/agribusiness – 015 294 3449 Contact details of other Directorates (Human • www.ledet.kwanalu. The contacts for the districts are listed below.kzndae.tikzn. co.lda.kznonline.kzntopbusiness. municipalities etc.til. 30% of its grain sorghum and 21% of its maize. The midlands area is known for its dairy farms. avocados. Subtropical fruit and vegetables are grown. The province’s trademark agricultural commodity is sugar cane. • Trade and Investment KwaZulu-Natal . mangoes).limpopobusiness. Other major crops include cotton. grain sorghum (9%) and sunflower (11%). Half of the country’s game farms are in the Limpopo province.kznded. together with the general district’s website • Durban Investment promotion Agency – www. parastatals. potatoes and 015 632 6652 Mopani – – Limpopo Provincial Government • www. Eshowe. Richmond and Harding are used for forestry. Potatoes. • www. Other fruit includes bananas. The Lowveld region is renowned for its sugar. Government. Communication etc) are available on the mangoes. Mpumalamga Environment and Tourism • The province has three different geographic areas: the lowland region along the Indian Ocean. Provincial Department of Agriculture Limpopo Province Department of Agriculture Tel: 015 294 3000 Fax: 015 294 4504 Website: www. oranges and table • Limpopo Economic Development Enterprise (LimDev) – Litchis. and two mountainous areas—the Drakensberg and the Lebombo • Ithala – – Kwanalu • The KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) Department of Economic Development (DED) is continuously developing strategies to support the growth of the agri-business and agri-processing maize (4%). this province has one of the highest concentrations of pig farms in the country. as are contact details for agricultural offices at all the municipalities within the 015 812 3212/3/4 Sekhukhune District – www. KwaZulu-Natal has 20% of the country’s cattle and 14% of its goats. pineapples. dry beans. produces 41% of the country’s soy with soybeans (13%) • Trade and Investment Limpopo – www. Cattle (10%) and sheep (7%) are included amongst the livestock kept. Limpopo 015 632 4145/6/7/8 Vhembi – www. macadamias and a variety of nuts are produced.mopani. Amongst the other livestock.vhembe.libsa. Pietermaritzburg 3200 Head of Department: Mr HB Strauss (acting) Tel: 033 355 9690 / 93 Fax: 033 355 9293 Southern Region – Tel: 033 343 8300 Northern Region – Tel: 035 780 6700 A full list of contact details for all districts can be found on the website. not limited to It has 15% of the country’s while the areas around Vryheid. your “Guide to business and investment in Limpopo Province” • Limpopo Business Support Agency (LIBSA) – www. Processing options in Mpumalanga: . For more information on the province: • KwaZulu-Natal Provincial Government – – Limpopo Tourism and Parks • www. Together with the North West and the Western Cape. Visit 014 717 3298 For more information on the province: • www.limdev. 20% of its dry Private Bag X9050. and the area is also known for tea and coffee plantations. Chief among the field crops are dry beans (22%). KwaZulu-Natal KwaZulu-Natal has about 7% of the country’s arable land. citrus and subtropical fruit ( 015 963 1653 Waterberg – www. wheat and maize are also produced. papayas and tomatoes. produces a wide range of agricultural produce. litchis. soy beans (8%).dipa.



drying • value adding to nuts • production of honey • processing fruits for input in pharmaceutical industry • essential oils from tropical. canning and drying . Municipal districts: Municipal district and website Telephone contact Ehlanzeni – Tel: 013 759 4000 (South) Tel: 082 805 1076 (North) Gert Sibande – www. indigenous medicinal plants and aquaculture. wetter part of the province sees a mixture of livestock and crop farming. 1200 Head of Department: Ms Nelisiwe Lindiwe Sithole Tel: 013 766 6020 Fax: 013 766 8429 A detailed contact list for the different Chief Directorates and Directorates is on the website. Find the links to these at the Mpumalanga Provincial Government Tel: 017 819 2076 Nkangala – Tel: 013 947 2551 For more information on the province: • Mpumalanga Provincial Government – www. Other opportunities include fruit and vegetable canning and leather production. the province’s trade and investment promotion agency has identified seven agricultural clusters as key areas to drive the province’s economy and develop existing capacity. Invest North West. North West The North West province has the highest percentage of the country’s poultry – 24% of the country’s broilers come from here.maize .za Provincial Department of Agriculture North West Department of Agriculture and Rural Development (DARD) Tel: 018 389 5111 www. concentrate. Districts: . offering potential investors viable business opportunities include: Renewable Postal Address: Private Bag X 11219. freezing. sunflower (36%) and dry beans (13%). essential oil production. It also has the highest number of pig farms in the country (17%). cotton and jams and canned fruits In the lowveld region: • sugar refining • processing of: . subtropical and citrus fruits • processing of tropical fruit with exotic recipes Source: Mpumalanga Economic Growth Agency Provincial Department of Agriculture Mpumalanga Department of Agriculture.vegetables into canning. groundnuts (33%).deciduous fruit into juices. and hosts 13% of the country’s cattle and 12% of its goats.37 In the highveld region: • milling and processing of summer and winter cereals • extraction of edible oils • processing of: .org. producing a high percentage of the country’s maize (23%). The areas around Rustenburg and Brits are fertile mixed-crop farming land. Other crops include soy beans. while the semi-arid central and western part is home mainly to livestock and wildlife farming. The province has around 20% of the country’s arable land and is a highly productive agricultural area. Nelspruit. Corner Dr James Moroka Drive and Stadium Road (Opposite Convention Centre).gov. Rural Development and Land Administration (DARDLA) Tel: 013 766 6067/8 Fax: 013 766 8295 Website: The eastern.mega. peppers.mpumalanga.nkangaladm.beans .inw. tobacco. beef jams. For additional information on any of these agricultural initiatives contact Invest North West: call 014 594 2570 or visit www. goat meat processing. The province is also a significant vegetable and citrus fruit producer. Vaal and Harts Rivers. Refer to the advert on page 104.fruits into fruit juices and concentrates. Mafikeng Postal Address Private Bag X2039 Mmabatho 2735 Head Of The Department: Dr Kgabi Mogajane Tel: 018 389 5147 Fax: 018 384 2679 Agricultural Support Services – 018 389 5724 Veterinary Services – 018 389 5102 / 5057 Agricultural Economics – 018 389 5300 Rural Development – 018 389 5432 District Services – 018 389 5698 A list of contact details can be found under “Contact Us” on the grain sorghum. paprika. These • Each of the local municipalities has its own websites. Three major irrigation schemes are located on the Crocodile. • Mpumalanga Economic Growth Agency (MEGA) – Physical Address Agricentre Building. edible oils.

gov. za) Provincial Department of Agriculture Department of Agriculture and Land Reform (DALA) Tel: 053 838 9100 (General Switchboard) Fax: 053 832 4328 Email: Pixley-Ka-Seme (www.. Sixteen of the initial 28 preferred projects identified by the Department of Energy (DoE) under the renewable energy independent power producer programme (REIPPP) in February 2012 are based here. Western Cape Chief Director Farmer Support and Development Mr Dudley Adolph Tel: 021 808 5013 dudleya@elsenburg.agrinc. The other main livestock are goats (9%) and cattle (4%). Most of the country’s canola. Ostriches provide meat. The Orange River runs through the province.ncape. olives. The Cape Peninsula and the Boland further inland is a winter rainfall region with Director Food Security Mr Mogale Sebopetsa Tel: 021 808 5103 MogaleS@elsenburg.nwpg. Towards George. and the province has a quarter (25%) of the country’s sheep. 16% of its barley and 14% of its The Western Cape is also one of the top pork producers. Namakwa ( Director Sustainable Resource Management Mr André Roux Tel: 021 808 5010 .38 • Bojanala – 014 592 8272 • Northern Cape Economic Development Agency – www. eggs. Northern Cape The Northern Cape is the country’s largest and most sparsely populated province. Wines from this province are known all over the For more information on the province: • North West Provincial Government – Chief Director Veterinary Services Dr Gininda Msiza Tel: 021 808 5002 GinindaM@elsenburg. The Vallharts Irrigation Scheme covers 369. The Western Cape has three climatic Website: Director Higher Education and Training Ms Carol Levendal Tel: 021 808 7709 CarolL@elsenburg. arid plains with outcrops of haphazard rock Tel: 053 838 9102 Fax: 053 831 3635 The municipal districts offices are Frances Baard (www. dry summers. along the south 9. the Atlantic Ocean forming the western boundary of the province. It is second to Limpopo in game farming (19. For more information on the province: • Northern Cape Provincial Government – Chief Director Structured Agricultural Training Mr Marius Paulse Tel: 021 808 5018 Fax: 021 808 7703 MariusP@elsenburg. and a healthy agricultural industry follows it to the Director Extension and Advisory Services Mr Jerry Aries Tel: 021 808 5199 JerryA@elsenburg. Provincial Department of Agriculture Department of Agriculture: Western Cape Tel: 021 808 5111 Website: www. peaches and oranges exist in the sheltered valleys amongst the mountains.northern-cape. earning valuable foreign exchange. dairy products and Director Farmer Settlement and Development Ms Toni Xaba Tel: 021 808 5100 Ideal conditions for the cultivation of top-grade fruit.. We wonder if farmers in this sun-drenched province will be allowed to farm energy as well in the future za). Siyanda. the climate gradually changes to year-round rainfall. The Western Cape has 15% of the country’s arable land. the climate changes to summer rainfall.bojanala. and the commercialisation of goats is seen as holding much promise for emerging farmers. as are raisins.5%).com Chief Financial officer Mr Floris Huysamer Tel: 021 808 5007 Director Further Education and Training Mr Douglas Chitepo Tel: 021 808 5497 DouglasC@elsenburg. Physical Address Department of Agriculture Muldersvlei Road ELSENBURG 7607 Postal Address Department of Agriculture Private Bag X1 ELSENBURG 7607 The Northern Cape holds the most promise for renewable energy The economy of a large part of the Northern Cape depends on sheep Director Operational Support Systems Ms Rashidah Wentzel Tel: 021 808 5119 • Dr Kenneth Kaunda – 018 299 6504 • Dr Ruth Segomotsi Mompati – 053 927 0435 • Ngaka Modiri Molema – 018 389 5943 www. The table grape industry is an important product here. A large number of its farms meet export and John Taolo Gaetsewe ( Director Agricultural Economics Ms Bongiswa Matoti Tel: 21 808 5213 The province is the outlet for the exporting of horses from the Director Technology. The inland Karoo region (around Beaufort West) and the Overberg district (around Bredasdorp) produce wool and With its share (3%) of South Africa’s arable land it produces 29% of the country’s groundnuts. such as apples.50 square kilometres in this province. Head of department Ms Joyene Isaacs Tel: 021 808 5004/5 JoyeneI@elsenburg. a great variety of vegetables is cultivated. towards the more arid Great Karoo. averaging two people in every square kilometre. In the eastern part of the Western Head office 162 George Street Kimberley Private Bag X5018 Kimberley 8300 Head of the Department: Mr MVD Mothibi vmothibi@agri. table grapes. while inland. leather and feathers.francesbaard. Other animal products include broiler • Invest North West – www. Apart from the high-lying parts in the south and south-east.inw. barley (81%) and wheat (35%) are grown here. Research and Development Services Dr Ilse Trautmann Tel: 021 808 5012 the landscape of the province is characterised by vast.


The services are divided into 7 programmes.40 Chief Director Rural Development Mr Stefan Conradie Tel: 021 808 5294 Director Farm Worker Development Mr Danie Niemand Tel: 021 808 7602 DanieN@elsenburg. Socially responsible and in balance with The services rendered by this Department are aimed towards realising the vision of Global success. resource utilisation • Infrastructure Support Services Contact details for all 36 regional offices are on www. animal production. Free publications: Casidra HP .com Head of Communications Ms Petro van Rhyn Tel: 021 808 5008 PetroVR@elsenburg. supported by Administration (Corporate and Financial services). Specialist Advisor: Agricultural Economics Dr Dirk Troskie Tel: 021 808 5191 DirkT@elsenburg. The Programme Sustainable Resource Management with its sub programmes: • Agricultural Engineering Services • LandCare The Programme Structured Agricultural Education and Training with its sub programmes: • Higher Education and Training • Further Education and Training The Programme Agricultural Economics with its sub programmes: • Marketing and Agribusiness • Production Economics • Macro and Resource Economics • Statistical The Programme Vet Services with its sub programmes: The Programme Rural Development Co-ordination with its sub programme: • Veterinary Laboratory Services • Veterinary Public Health • Export Control • Veterinary Animal Health • Farm Worker Development District Managers: The Programme Farmer Support and Development (FSD) with its sub programmes: • Central Karoo: Tel: 023 551 1034 • Eden: Tel: 044 803 3710 • Overberg: Tel: 028 424 1439 • West Coast: Tel: 022 433 2330 • Boland: Tel: 021 883 2560 • Cape Metropole: Tel: 021 948 6966 • Farmer Settlement and Development • Extension and Advisory Services • Food Security The Programme Research and Technology Development Services with its sub programmes: • Research: plant production.

“ • WESGRO – http://wesgro. 12. Quarterly news and research magazine. Sources used for the chapter: 11. The latest Investor’s Handbook by the Department of Trade and Industry also gives useful notes on the • Other statistics are as given in the Landbouweekblad article “SA se voorste kosprodusente” in August • Cape Metropole District – Find the links to the Provincial Departments of Agriculture websites at www. . tradeinvestsa. Training & Extension services pages at • Overberg District – www.daff. Dr Danie Visser helped us with pig farming agricultural activities in the province and much The NCOP also oversees the programmes and activities of national government relating to provincial and local government matters.41 • they provide their findings within the provincial daff. Detail is given on types of vegetation.Tel: 011 355 1920 Khoza Fax: 011 333 0620 / 2632 KwaZulu-Natal – Dr Meshack Tel: 031 343 8240 Radebe Fax: 033 343 8255 Limpopo – Mr Jacob Marule Mpumalanga – Mashego-Dlamini Ms Tel: 015 294 3107 Fax: 015 294 4545/6 Candith Tel: 013 766 6074 Fax: 013 766 8437 North West – Ms Desbo Mohono Tel: 018 389 5056 Fax: 018 384 2679 Northern Cape – Mr Norman Tel: 053 838 9106 Shushu Fax: 053 832 4328 Western Cape – Mr Gerrit van Tel: 021 483 4700 Rensburg Fax: 021 483 3890 MinMEC is a forum made up from the MECs of agriculture in the nine provinces. • The crop statistics are from the 2012 Abstract of agricultural statistics (DAFF) • Game farming statistics are from Wildlife Ranching South Africa. English & Xhosa – 100 subjects Read about Radio Elsenburg in the Agricultural Media chapter. For more information on the province: • Western Cape Provincial Government – Find this publication at • Information sheets. Find more at www. Technical information sheets in • Eden District – www. quoting DAFF as their • West Coast District – http://westcoastdm. Websites and publications • The provincial department of agriculture websites • The documents covering extension in the provinces which can be found on the Directorate www. A website that provides useful overviews of the provinces together with information on projects and investment opportunities – is or http://capegateway. Updated poultry statistics can be found in the NAI Monitor Surveillance Report on www.parliament. Training & Extension Services”.za • Central Karoo District – Subscriptions: Magriet de Lange Tel: 021 808 – take the “Strategic Partnerships” menu Members of the Executive Council (MECs) Province and MEC Contact details Eastern Cape – Ms Zoleka Capa Tel: 040 609 3602 Fax: 040 636 3462 Free State – Mr Mosebenzi Zwane Tel: 051 861 8400 Fax: 051 861 8451 Gauteng – Ms Nandi “Agricultural Education & Training (AET)” and “National Agricultural Education Training Forum” options at • www. The National Council of Provinces (NCOP) provides provinces with a forum in which to engage with the national government on matters concerning areas of shared national and provincial legislative Find also the enormously useful provincial overviews under the “Divisions” website of Agri Wes-Cape District municipality websites • Cape Winelands District – www. Although these are reports for the AET Strategy (see “Agricultural education and training” chapter).


Deducting housing from a farm worker’s salary Legally this can be done when the following requirements are met (and not before): • the worker must be at least 18 years old • water. It has been in Agri SA’s proposals regarding permanent off-farm housing and economic opportunities for farm workers. Housing subsidies The institutional subsidy under the Department of Housing can help to raise the standard of farm worker housing. The number of seasonal workers has increased at the expense of permanent positions. Although this is an increase from 1993. • safe water is available inside the house or in close proximity. • the house has glass windows that can be from the house. Find out more from your bookkeeper or from Mr Johan Pienaar at Agri SA. and equipment as an investment. and these units are becoming more and more capital intensive. Sixty people were employed during the construction at a cost of R4 million to the department. The publication Finance and Farmers speaks of labour as being one of the issues which separates “Old agriculture” from “New agriculture”. Find the story “Farm workers get roofs over their heads” on www. ranging from mud huts to conventional brick houses. farmers usually providing on-farm housing for their workers. social worker and even mentor – all roles originating from a close relationship and involvement in the lives of labourers and their families. or making a new supply point to supply electricity to worker house. Finance and Farmers ISBN 0-620-11949-7 Find details of the AgriSETA accredited training providers in the “Agricultural education and training” chapter. . • a flush toilet or pit latrine is available in. or in close proximity.eskom. yet it was the second finding which ought to have received more attention than it The increased use of technology has led to reduced employment opportunities. Sources: Mr Lourie Bosman. Agricultural Villages (Agri Villages) The development of agri-villages is a partnership between the farmer. for example. Local business environment Difficult farming conditions and the absence of subsidies have led the farmer to weigh every worker’s productivity carefully. Find details of Eskom branches in the Energy chapter. the employer. electricity and other services are not also deducted • the amount deducted is not more than the cost to the employer In addition: • the house has a roof that is durable and waterproof. Following the agricultural worker strikes in the Western Cape. Not enough questions are asked about a food economy in Farmers and their workers on the same side. The Old saw labour as a in which 118 houses had been transferred to farm workers. and • the house is not less than 30 square meters in size. BFAP found that on a R150-a-day wage. according to the last Census of Commercial Agriculture (2007). These changes were necessary for farmers to remain competitive and profitable in the global environment. 2nd and 3rd quarters 2008 (find these at – look for the “Subsidy Info” menu option. • South Africa follows the global trend of commercial agriculture where economies of scale are essential to be sustainable. An agri-village is considered a private settlement of restricted size.standardbank. • Producer prices in the agricultural sector have not kept pace with farming requisites. security of tenure does not include right of ownership. There are tax deductions for farmworker housing.43 introduction Labour and agriculture See also the “Job creation” and “Legal aid and legislation” chapters 1. and farmworkers cannot afford to eat properly on those wages. Sources: Adapted from AgriReview 1st quarter 2011.sanews. certain tax breaks – and a labour force which is more skilled. the Bureau for Food and Agricultural Policy (BFAP) investigated the feasibility of the R150-a-day demand. Farmers cannot afford to pay a decent wage within the current food Programmes like the People’s Housing Project (PHP) also offer financial support. is part of the terms of the employment contract. Farm worker housing Housing for farm workers is an integral part of many farming operations in South Africa. the New sees labour as an investment and equipment as a cost. 2nd quarter 2009. Also find the notes on Adult Basic Education and Training (ABET) in that chapter. Overview Farming calls for a number of skills. Farming units have grown in size and mechanisation has increased. established and managed by a legal institution situated within and/or near an agricultural area and where residence is restricted to bona fide farm workers and their dependants on the farms involved in the development. • electricity is available inside the house if the infrastructure exists on the to the house. The economic. or visit Farmer Carl Henning helped the Limpopo Department of Local Government and Housing to build the houses. communal property association or sectional title. Under these arrangements. 4. namely that workers would still be unable to afford a nutritious basket of food on this improved salary. a farmers earns R3 for the litre of milk the consumers buys for R9! Find the excellent article “Narrowing the Farmer-worker gap” on www. • The average number of farm labourers per farming unit is 20. Details of housing subsidies can be found on the Department of Housing’s website www. Eskom will assist financially by paying an incentive towards the costs of electrification for each worker house electrified. previous Agri SA but can include trust. The farmer is often employer. financial and political context of the agricultural sector will determine what government and farmers are able to invest in the development of 3. AgriSETA will fund certain staff training. This housing. Apprenticeships and learnerships offer you. human resource manager. there are fewer farming units. Application for financial assistance for electrification of worker houses This is for Eskom customers extending an existing supply point.housing. the farm worker and the state. which is not more than 100m. amongst which is the need to manage the labour force professionally and with the necessary sensitivity. many farms would become 2. (If farmers don’t do this they will go out of business and won’t produce food or employ anybody!) • Legislation regarding minimum wages and security of tenure has been introduced to protect poor and illiterate individuals from being exploited. Unfortunately these measures are also unintended disincentives for hiring permanent workers and accommodating them on farms in terms of housing. Staff training In accordance with laid-down rules. This is why we have fewer farmers on larger farms.

life on the farm. Training for businesses in CIODA (Compensation for Occupational Injuries and Diseases Act No. and (ii) Employment in agriculture. Risk-Assessment on Social Practices (GRASP) AgriFarm Tel: 0861 247 427 SARPONET Tel: 0861 22 8463 Essential First Aid Kits Labour services See the legal aid chapter Agri Mega Empowerment Solutions (AgriMES) Tel: 028 424 2890 www.planahead. NOSA has offices countrywide. agrimega.agbiz. 130 of 1993) Many documents. Labour-related training Find the “Labour Law training” option at www.agriskills.donkerhoekdata. Find these at brought out by the National Wool Growers Association (NWGA) includes notes on “Basic conditions of employment”.za Donkerhoek Data Tel: 021 874 1047 www. Agri SA ALCO-Safe Tel: 012 343 8114 Equal amounts must be deducted from each worker.agrimega. forestry and fishing Going for broke: The fate of farm workers in arid South Africa is published by the Human Sciences Research Council (HSRC). Call 021 948 1275 / 082 670 1636 or write to protea@ • Finance and Farmers ISBN 0-620-11949-7. • If you produce for published by Agri Promo. service delivery in the rural areas and concludes with the question “A journey to somewhere?” The book is a most useful source of information and offers wellconsidered opinions on a number of issues and deserves a place on all farmers’ bookshelves. • For updates on the Census of Commercial Agriculture. Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) • The Best practice reference manual for wool sheep farming in South 6.alcoholtesting. Forestry and Fisheries A global supplier of occupational Accredited training and labour risk management services and services products. The book offers a comprehensive overview on the fate of farm workers. is a magazine for the farm worker community.clock.banbric. website of the Department of or contact 041 365 5030. National strategy and government contact Training in labour legislation Agriculture is one of the sectors which government is looking to in its quest to create jobs (find the Agriculture heading in the “Job creation” chapter.daff. labour.softwarefarm. visit which has gained momentum over some The Donish Group Tel: 032 945 3368 www. not minimum wages” at www. “Occupational health and safety”. It goes back to the early Cape history of the master-servant relationship to a discussion of the professionalisation of farm The courses presented by companies like Protea Training Centre (on your premises) include training in labour relations for your Where 2 or more workers share These involve the conditions of labour on the farm. Find the document on www.sapronet. 8. • Statistics can be found at Find it at www. Chapters are devoted to important issues like the extension of labour laws to farm workers and the introduction of a minimum wage.agrifarm. Labour-related equipment and software Afriklok Tel: 012 654 5804 www. you will need to be familiar with the GLOBAL www. available from Standard Maxi Control Tel: 021 762 7576 www.dfmsoftware. necessary forms and useful guides are available on DFM Software Solutions Tel: 021 904 1154 Thinking of training your staff? Find training providers of agricultural. around 630 000 people were employed in agriculture.attraining5. Contact 028 424 2890 or visit 5. • The Farmworker • Find the Human Rights Watch report Ripe with Abuse: Human Rights Conditions in South Africa’s Fruit and Wine Industries at website of the Department of Agriculture. In Look under “Publications”.za Software Farm Tel: 012 365 2683 Training in health and safety See the separate “Legal aid and legislation” chapter AstroTech Tel: 011 582 3200 Safety Sam Tel: 012 653 0200 Plan-A-Head Software Tel: 033 342 7888 BANBRIC BUILDING Cell: 072 242 9129 Department of Labour-related legal legislation Agriskills Transfer Tel: 012 460 9585 employers may only deduct a total of 25% of the relevant minimum wage from all workers combined. Role players Details of employer organisations and labour unions can be found in the “Organised agriculture” and “Legal aid and legislation” Websites and publications 7. Trade unions and NGO’s will certainly also benefit from reading the book. financial and life skills in the “Agricultural education and training” Included are (i) the number of farm employees and domestic servants on farms.nwga. “Skills development” under the “Social Responsibility” section. Source: Kobus Kleynhans. • Dairy farmer Steve Roberts’ article “Corporate greed inflates food In NOSA Tel: 0861 11 6672 and www. read about the Fruit SA Ethical Trade Programme at www. globalgap. COIDAtrain Tel: 012 333 7880

as not doing so could lead to possible political and economic instability. How will cities feed themselves as Climate Change and Peak Oil begin to impact on our lives?” Prof Michael Rudolph The rapid urbanisation currently taking place across the globe goes together with a rapid increase in urban poverty and urban food insecurity. Most cities in developing countries have great difficulties in coping with this development and are unable to create sufficient formal employment opportunities for the poor. Msunduzi. the same will not occur in Africa until nearly 2050. Cape Town. with surpluses being traded. the number of people living in urban areas outstripped the rural population. which distinguishes it from rural agriculture. www. Find it at www. which came out in March 2012. Cape grounds of schools and hospitals). but part of it is processed for own use. from different types of crops (grains. Source: Eye on urbanisation: Nigeria which can be found on www. sheep. . If adequately supported by public authorities. as well as to the greening of the city and the productive reuse of urban wastes. conservation – Buffalo City. goats. Urban agriculture is an integral part of the urban system. The City of Durban surveyed 800 gardens and their Johannesburg. leased) or on public land (parks. or combinations of these. root crops. the importance of the market-oriented urban agriculture. is that it is integrated into the urban economic and ecological 4. urban agriculture contributes to local economic development. fruits) and animals (poultry. Urban agriculture provides a complementary strategy. a packing and marketing hub. cooked and sold on the streets. Source: adapted from notes on the RUAF Foundation website. being influenced by urban policies and plans. for the first time in human history. Nelson Mandela Metropole and Tshwane. then mapped approximately 3. • Urban agriculture includes food products. The importance of urban agriculture is increasingly being recognised by international organisations like UNCED (Agenda 21).org 3.) as well as non-food products (like aromatic and medicinal herbs. etc. vegetables. The activities may take place on the homestead (on-plot) or on land away from the residence (off-plot). 2. Role players Find the links to the cities at www. or semi-public land (schoolyards. competing for land with other urban functions. direct links with urban consumers. and in fact have begun taking place. fish. The most striking feature of urban agriculture. Africa’s cities are urbanising at a profound rate. Often the more perishable and relatively high-valued vegetables and animal products and by-products are favoured. Such linkages include the use of urban residents as In the Report on South Africa. Overview “At present we rely on a food delivery chain that is unsustainable at all points but is so remote from our awareness that we take it for granted and seldom question its ethics or environmental impact. use of typical urban resources (like organic waste as compost and urban wastewater for irrigation). these gardens could progressively create 60. by cart in the same or other neighbourhoods.agbiz. The changes that will occur. or processed and packaged for sale to one of the outlets mentioned above. up from 19% in 1960. both in volume and economic value. Source: adapted from notes on the RUAF Foundation website. mushrooms. pigs. the UN’s Special Rapporteur recorded that he had been particularly impressed by the strategy and programmes put in place by the City of Durban/ eThekwini Municipality. Ethekwini. guinea pigs. which is home to 3.sacities. along roads. The area.). ornamental plants. tree products. rabbits. an important part of urban agricultural production is for self-consumption. However. taking into account road access and farmer-association areas.45 introduction The urban question See also the “Human Settlements” and “Food Security” chapters it is imperative that African state leaders and policymakers plan for these transitions adequately. however. etc. • Urban agriculture may take place in locations inside the cities (intraurban) or in the peri-urban areas. has been divided into four agricultural zones. should not be underestimated (as will be shown later). cattle. on local (farmers) markets or to intermediaries and supermarkets. a research and development centre on agroecology. in terms of urbanisation. which launched a peri-urban agroecology strategy in 2009. • In most cities in developing countries. They also have increasing problems with the disposal of urban wastes and waste water and maintaining air and river water quality. FAO (World Food and Agriculture Organisation). streams and railways).000 gardens through reviews of aerial photos. Source: from the Report on South Africa from UN Special Rapporteur on the Right to Food March 2012.5 million people.ruaf. being part of the urban food system. Next to food security. Mangaung.ohchr.polity. Due to the implications of urban population growth on the economy and other social factors. on private land (owned. training sites. in local shops. Mainly fresh products are sold.000 job opportunities. reaching 40% in 2012. Products are sold at the farm gate. and CGIAR (international agricultural research centres). Ekurhuleni. including demonstration sites showcasing agroecology techniques. Even so. Six agricultural support hubs have been established or are under development. etc. Urban agriculture Urban agriculture can be defined shortly as the growing of plants and the raising of animals within and around cities. and a future seed and on www. poverty alleviation and social inclusion of the urban poor and women in particular. UNCHS (Habitat). need to be factored into long term planning.ruaf. African business environment In 2008. www. direct impacts on urban ecology (positive and negative).


sacities.npconline. • By 2013.entrepreneurship. • Find the publications at http://africancentreforcities. website of the African Food Security Urban Network (AFSUN) • Find a number of papers relevant to this chapter on www. Dutch firm Van Bergen Kolpa Architects hope to have a working prototype of a supermarket farm that could produce most of the food items found in any grocery Department of Urban and Regional www.urbanfarming. in municipalities and how these Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) can be addressed in the overall Directorate: Food Security objectives of the government. • Visit www. the “first city in Africa to have an approved Urban Agriculture policy as of 2007”. Call 012 319 7511 • Visual AgriLiving Tel: 021 919 8954 Urban Harvest Edible Gardens www. operations with residential units … com Lengau Agricultural centre Tel: 051 443 8859 5. The “recent projects” lists work done in Turkey. website of the Global Development Research Center. Where these people would Tel: 051 401 2824 / 3864 be housed? Where they would Food Gardens Foundation Tel: 011 342 4440 / 6967 Ukuvuna – Urban Farming Tel: 012 319 6736 DFS@daff. Read it online at http://web. website of the African Centre for Cities at the University of Cape Town. and up to 3000 micro-farmers and gardeners every they would use (among other Rural Development and Extension things)? The NPC is responsible Tel: 051 401 3765 for developing a long term vision Report looks at issues that hinder the progress of development Department of an additional 11-million would University of the Free State move to cities – with the urban Department of Agricultural rate increasing to 70% of all South Economics Africans. The chapter also serves as a corollary of the “Importance of rural development” chapter. Mougeot International Development Research Centre (ISBN 1-55250-186-8). website of the South African Cities Network (SACN).ruaf. Afesis-corplan Tel: 043 743 3830 • Find out about the publications available from the Resources Centre on Urban Agriculture and Food Security (RUAF) Foundation at A Permaculture NGO Creating sustainable solutions for urban Soil for Life Tel: 021 794 4982 development Find the “Urbanisation” option on the website Sustainable Energy Africa Tel: 021 702 3622 Food & Trees for Africa (FTFA) AgriPlanner – see “South African Institute for Entrepreneurship” South African Cities Network (SACN) later in this list Tel: 011 407 6471 branches across the country on the website University of KwaZulu-Natal Mike Underwood URBAN FARMER Tel: 033 260 6088 Tel/fax: 022 448 1106 Lisa Perold – 082 842 1579 metalpetal@kingsley.ufs. British Columbia. the less will be the reason for the rapid urban migration which places such strain on available resources in the urban centres. (Anyone care to estimate a South African figure?) • Watch the video clips on http://theurbanfarmingguys. Political and Environmental Dimensions of Urban Agriculture Edited by Luc – a potential for growing the food required in decades to come will be “vertical farming” za The success of our cities is crucial in determining the strengthening of our rural Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University Tel: 044 801 5111 / 059 which include the Urban Agriculture Magazine. live in urban University of Cape Town African Centre for Cities About 30-million South Africans Planning Tel: 051 401 2486 Find contact details of their South East Asia and Sub Saharan Programme Tel: 012 312 0071 The SAIE develops materials that Afristar Foundation Tel: 011 706 5614 www.47 ABALIMI BEZEKHAYA (“Planters of the Home”) Tel: 021 371 1653 Lawn is the most irrigated “crop” in the US – three times more water is used on turf grass than on irrigating Environmental Sciences Tel: 031 260 1027 ensure sustainable economic development and wealth Siyakhana operates one of Johannesburg’s most prominent and important urban permaculture demonstration sites and enjoys strong links with local.afesis. trainers and Department of Social community-based organisations Development to convey business skills. Canada. but by 2030. uncover Tel: 012 312 7953 entrepreneurship qualities and Tel: 011 656 9802 National Planning Commission Calabash Trust Tel: 041 585 9255 The SACN State of the Cities Sustainable Villages Africa South African Institute for Entrepreneurship (SAIE) Department of Health (DoH) Tel: 021 447 2023 Community Based Nutrition www.sva. • – a North American website • Find the article “The Environmental Cost of US Lawns” on http:// trains Rocklands Urban Abundance Centre Tel: 021 391 5316 www.doh. • Find the “Urban” option at – ETC Urban Agriculture is an advisory group and resource centre in urban agriculture and food – City Farmer is a non-profit society promoting urban food production and environmental conservation from a small office in downtown Vancouver.etc-urbanagriculture. • www. ABALIMI directly interfaces with between 50-200 community projects every Tel: 072 475 2977 (Cape Town) Tel: 079 934 0689 (Port Elizabeth) Combining food growing Websites and publications • AGROPOLIS – The • idrc. compiled by the Directorate Animal and Aquaculture Production.calabashtrust.php Siyakhana Initiative for Ecological Health and Food Security Tel: 072 501 0756 http://siyakhana. Find the article “Farm in the City could be supermarket of the future” on www.abalimi. Centre za John Nzira – 073 717 5232 johnnzira@gmail. Find the publications and reports at www. Challenges to urban food supply in South Africa (August 2011) and Reverse Rural-urban Migrations: An Indication of Emerging Patterns in Africa? • Guidelines for Urban and peri-urban animal Organic micro-farming and gardening in the townships of Cape work? What water they would use and what kind of transport Centre for Sustainable Agriculture. leading to declining living conditions there. A. The greater the development in the rural provincial and national government and strategic plan for South Africa Urban-Econ Tel: 051 444 6324 fs@urban-econ.


with advisory services sustaining the farmer throughout the season. The environment which had become increasingly competitive saw consolidation. Some co-operatives that planned to become companies changed their minds: capital structures were satisfactory or they were secure in a market The Agricultural Business Chamber (Agbiz) represents agricultural companies. passion. Farmers are helped to manage risk. A look at some agribusinesses AFGRI Operations Limited Tel: 011 063 2347 afgri@afgri. Some of these conversions resulted in farmers selling their shares and surrendering management of their former co-operatives. Co-operatives were now permitted to have non-farmers as members and directors. with international food safety and quality . They could also bring business and management expertise with them. wheat. Agbiz strives to support its member organisations by creating an environment within which they are enabled to operate as competitive and innovative business enterprises. In keeping international standards the mills are certified for compliance. the second in the value chain. developers and sources of added value. these inputs can be easily sourced. Equipment and Grain Management. resources and potential to effectively assist and advise farmers. and the opening up of South African agriculture to the forces of globalisation culminated in the scrapping of the Agricultural Marketing Act. Some co-operatives that decided to convert found themselves in hefty disputes with individual farmers. Milling and Poultry. AFGRI Equipment is the largest John Deere franchise in Africa. and some infringement on each other’s territory – not a characteristic of their operations up until then. World-class technology in silo inventory management also furthers AFGRI’s status as an industry frontrunner. Agribusinesses. From seed. There were arguments for: non-agricultural shareholders would inject more capital into the entity than farmers could have injected into a co-operative. for example. sunflower. as well as to move from the area in which their members farmed – provided they converted into companies. the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) and the International Food and Agribusiness Management Association (IAMA). positive change and AFGRI. while maintaining close links with international organisations such as the World Farmers’ Organisation (WFO).agbiz. The socio-political changes made world headlines. Over 1 million tons of feed is produced per annum with a clear dedication in manufacture to excellence. The aim of these societies was to increase the profits of farmers. soya beans and sorghum grains. home. Equipment and Oils AFGRI Animal Feeds is one of South Africa’s leading manufacturers and is committed to the provision of superior manufacturing technologies. companies which arose out of the conversion of agricultural www. Associations involved Agricultural Business Chamber (Agbiz) Tel: 012 807 6686 Fax: 012 807 5600 www. This legislation was received with mixed emotions. Grain Management offers secure storage of agricultural products throughout South Africa and Zambia up to 4. In addition. processors and marketers of agricultural products. producers and consumers of agricultural product. to fertiliser to tractors. comprising Retail. Agbiz is affiliated to Business Unity South Africa (BUSA) in partnership with Agri services now go further. removal of quantitative import controls in terms of GATT (General Agreement of Tariffs & Trade)/WTO (World Trade Organisation) agreements. South Africa faced a decade of change in the 1990’s. outdoor and DIY products for consumer use. Financial services also continue to be an important aspect although commercial banks are increasingly encroaching on this traditional role. A regional supplier of mechanised equipment tailored to the needs of the commercial farmer. Largely products consist of commodities since the original role lay mainly in the first stage of processing of farm products. including co-operatives. encompassing Animal Feeds. The Perfect Farm takes dedication. and as suppliers of production inputs and services. with AFGRI being a world leader in the handling and storage of the maize. and have their grain stored.afgri. Both ‘Farm City’ and ‘Town and Country’ offer a full range of agricultural inputs. AFGRI Foods. and the NEPAD Business Foundation (NBF). 3. finding new markets and buying equipment in bulk. AFGRI simply and effectively offers business solutions across three sectors in the chain. There were other changes too: domestic economic deregulation. As a JSE listed agricultural services and food’s business. AFGRI Services is one of South Africa’s largest agricultural commodity trading companies. The Retail division offers a comprehensive range of products and services enabling farmers the tools for a successful crop outcome. agricultural co-operatives in the developing agricultural In many rural areas. Apart from the supplying of agricultural inputs. they are the business hub of the community and make a key contribution to maintaining the rural infrastructure. they are major employers. AFGRI Milling is a leading producer of yellow maize products for manufacturing and industrial use. The end result is a comprehensive value chain transforming the business of agriculture with growth a natural outcome. garden. innovation and quality.4 million tons.49 marketing and finance Agribusinesses and “New Generation” agricultural cooperatives 1. provide a wide range of products and services. Overview Co-operative societies were originally established to enable farmers who had clubbed together to gain enough capital to buy equipment in bulk and to sell their produce. This they would do by getting best market prices for produce. Marketing. by assisting farmers to get the best price for their crops. AFGRI has the passion. These farmers felt that the new companies would now switch their priorities from primarily looking at the interests of farmers to concentrating on those of investors (agri-companies had to become profit driven to ensure that non-farming shareholders make returns on their investments).co. and other agricultural business enterprises and organisations. South Africa’s market leader. Agricultural businesses play a significant role in the economy as handlers.

capital expenditure and future extensions. Specific activities of the group • Agrimark stores – a chain of retail stores which offers direct agricultural production inputs and related products. is an integrated process producing parent stock through to state of the art facilities. GroCaptial offers specialised finance and innovative solutions with strong emphasis on the emerging markets and allowing international trade and foreign exchange.300 shareholders. cleaning agents and protective clothing • wine and alcoholic liquors in certain shops • mechanisation services such as tractors and implements. Some of the Pakmark markets also offer a wider range of products. dairy cows and beef cattle. as well as related requirements. • Savemarts – A new retail shopping concept being developed in the Western and Southern Cape with communities living in high density areas. storage. similar to those of Agrimark stores. Zeder Investments Limited. deciduous fruit. as well as on aiding and supporting emerging farmers and farm workers through various short. grading and storage of mainly wheat • grain marketing services – various marketing options to producers • manufacturing and distribution of irrigation equipment • financing of these services and products Geographic distribution of trading points Kaap Agri provides these goods and services via a network of 147 trading points across 84 towns and cities throughout South Africa and Namibia. AFGRI poultry. punnets and pulp trays • industrial packaging and pallets • building material such as cement. stone fruit. table grapes.5% per month. wool and meat sheep. animal health and pet-related products • fuels and oils • industrial and domestic gas • gardening and agricultural irrigation products • related products such as pruning shears. Specialised knowledge. Customers receive total all-encompassing solutions to all analytical requirements enabling effective product development.50 management Kaap Agri is an agricultural services group that distributes goods and services mainly to the agricultural sector. like wheat and small grains. Kaap Agri supports BEE and is currently a level 8 contributor and focuses on internal training. vegetables. A newcomer to the AFGRI Financial Services chain is Farmer Lending. • Agrilog – acquisition and logistics of products. horticultural supplies. structured trade and debt origination set GroCaptial as a leading provider. wine grapes. while some Agrimark stores also provide a complete range of packaging material. and spare parts • grain management services – receipt. New initiatives include a chain of Villagemart stores and Savemart stores in shopping centres. • Liquormark stores – a chain of liquor stores within existing Agrimark stores which focuses on the needs of the more sophisticated consumer and specifically promotes locally produced wines. Excellence is key with Non GMO Hybrids. building material. and distribution and delivery. Produce from Kaap Agri’s service areas include a wide range of agricultural subdivisions. and the integrity of corn preserved. BEE involvement Twenty five percent of Kaap Agri’s shares are under black ownership. extraction and refining plant. It’s about relationships. manufacturing and repairs. AFGRI Financial Services. A specific focus will be placed on products for in and around the house and for DIY enthusiasts. fertiliser and chemicals • DIY items like tools. dried fruit. medium and long-term courses on offer at its training academy in Porterville. Shares are freely traded over the counter. and providers of spare parts. The GroCaptical division provides financial solutions for a variety of clients ultimately facilitating profitability and growth. Famer Lending offers attractive rates for seasonal needs. a goal being achieved through plant innovation processing efficiencies and ongoing product development. Produce Kaap Agri also has 14 grain silo complexes throughout the Western Cape which comprises 320 000 tons in storage facilities. mining and petrochemical industries. manufacturing and repair workshops. AFGRI Labworld is a leading supplier of laboratory and scientific analytical equipment used in the agricultural. as well as tools. part of the PSG Group. funding and advantages for all farmers Kaap Agri Head Office Tel: 022 482 8000 Fax: 022 482 8008 www. Passion and innovation allows quality product direct from the farm to the customer. Broking and Insurance. A leader in the field. development and promotion. paint. The board of Kaap Agri Bedryf comprises of ten elected directors and three executive directors (Managing Director. • Pakmark markets – a chain of outlets that concentrates mainly on the packaging material needs of fruit producers. corrugated iron and plastic • horticultural supplies like tools. an essential consideration for trading farmers and a volatile currency exchange. ownership and corporate management Kaap Agri is a public company with approximately 5. purchasing and distribution of products of divisions via product specialists. seeds and pesticides • animal feed. bags. AFGRI insurance is a composite insurance broker specialising in all aspects of short-term and long-term insurance. timber. and the associated ‘Superior’ chicken brand. Known for its supply of first class instrumentation and equipment. comprising producers. as well as Liquormark liquor stores within Agrimark stores.kaapagri. • Agriplas – manufacturing of drip irrigation pipes and sprinkler irrigation. • Villagemarts – a new initiative of smaller Agrimark stores in shopping centres. implements). combine harvesters. • Mechanisation – marketing of agricultural machinery (tractors. but also to the general public. tools and wire • fencing material like wire and poles • packaging material for the fruit industry such as boxes. food and beverage. The largest single shareholder is the listed company. AFGRI Broking facilitates the right protection against currency movements with currency futures and options from the JSE. beans and rooibos tea. Business model. and its distribution along with related complete irrigation requisites especially to other retailers and irrigation technicians and installers. the directors believe that all corporate management requirements should be adhered to as if the company is listed. the average trading being about 0. screws and accessories • camping equipment and related accessories for the outdoor enthusiast • food. Financial Director and Human Resources Director). and the company complies in all material respects with the requirements of the King III Code and related corporate management requirements and guidelines. Nedan aims to be the most technologically advanced oil and protein company in South Africa. and the central co-ordination of fuel purchases. cotton. as its target market. ladders. Nedan is AFGRI’s oilseed crushing. the general public and institutional investors. the final link in the value chain. These goods and services include: • direct agricultural production inputs such as fertiliser. . specialising in the risks that face today’s farmer. Particularly in the larger towns and cities Agrimark concentrates on the destination customer who desires a wide range of items under one roof. specifically for the general public who require a variety of products under one roof. DIY and much more to producers and the general public. outdoor products. Previously part of the GroCapital offerings. Although Kaap Agri is not listed. the plant processes oils and other raw materials into edible product for the food processing and fast food industries. offers tailor made solutions through Capital.




and distribution of seed VKB Agriculture Limited is a well-established and dynamic agricultural enterprise of sound financial standing. • Support Services – The industries mentioned. It will ensure that these farmers are acquainted with modern farming practices and well equipped with vital skills needed for sustaining a viable and healthy agricultural business. The VKB Group will also assist them in participating meaningfully in the mainstream economy. One of the company’s other crucial projects is an oil crusher plant with a capacity of 150 000 tons per annum. products and services to a broad variety of clients through an extensive footprint that stretches throughout most of South Africa and Namibia. VKB has embarked on several major • BKB Ltd Tel: 041 503 3111 www. We will therefore continue to foster our unique relationship with our stakeholders. rye and lupines. VKB Agriculture Limited has invested in integration opportunities. apprenticeships and skills development programmes to intensive leadership programmes preparing previously disadvantaged individuals to play an active role in managerial hierarchies. we aim to expand this project. both backwards. the project will afford members of the VKB Group the opportunity to be contract growers. it will create an opportunity for them to diversify their businesses. This is a huge initiative. Furthermore. the company is constructing a broiler abattoir with a First Phase Slaughtering capacity of 450 000 chickens a week. as VKB’s investment for the first five years is estimated at approximately R200 • Ceres Koelkamers Ltd Tel: 023 315 5003 • Coastals Farmers Co-operative Ltd Tel: 031 508 8000 www. Recently. Companies involved • AFGRI Tel: 011 063 2347 www. a partnership was formed with the provincial and national government.54 • Grain storage – receipt. The above project is strategically aligned to embrace one of the company’s BBBEE objectives with a view to unlocking the entrepreneurial potential of previously disadvantaged individuals. The company has initiated a very successful programme for emerging farmers in the area. We have always experienced unprecedented loyalty from our members and they will remain the core of our business. Over the years. VKB allocated six chicken houses to smallholder farmers from the previously disadvantaged and forward. Most It is an undisputed fact that. • Highveld Egg Co-operative Ltd Tel: 018 293 0694 www. fuel and pest management. including input costs such as fertiliser. providing them with both technical and financial support and ongoing mentorship in all aspects of organised agriculture. to add value to the agricultural products of its members. IT. storage and fumigation of grain – mainly wheat. Internal Auditing. The VKB Group has launched a number of projects to achieve its aim of making a difference to the community.afgri. but also barley. • Grain trading – a complete range of marketing options to grain producers to enable them to realise the maximum return on their products according to their choice. Human Resources and Communication. but also adding value to agriculture. The development of smallholder farmers remains a relevant strategy to groom and develop upcoming farmers to a commercial plane. To this end. Through sustained are supported by Finance.vkb. A second animal feed factory with an annual production capacity of 200 000 tons is also being constructed. to reduce the cost of inputs. VKB Agriculture Limited Tel: 058 863 8111 www. For the first phase of this project. With our new capital ventures and proposed • Fraserburg Co-operative Ltd Tel/fax: 023 741 1936 • Gamtoos Tobacco Co-operative Ltd Tel: 042 283 0305 • GWK Ltd Tel: 053 298 8200 www. the company’s focus will be on achieving maximum operational . “We are optimistic about the future. it is also committed to availing itself of these opportunities for the benefit of its members and other interested parties by not only creating. In short – Kaap Agri provides a wide range of goods. These programmes range from learnerships. and we are satisfied with the marketing of these products. coastals. with a loyal member and client base. processing and distribution of wheat and bean seeds. With a view to embracing this vertical integration strategy. chairperson of the VKB Board. The company has committed itself to identifying opportunities for growth in the agricultural We are a one-stop supplier to agricultural producers within our area and they are the main reason for our existence.” says Carshagen. the development of its employees will undoubtedly contribute to its competitive edge in the market. the VKB Group has introduced several training programmes aimed at developing the potential and skills of its employees at various levels and n all occupational categories. one of which is VKB’s Broiler Project. • Seed processing and distribution – the increase of base grain seeds by contracted seed producers. “As soon as the first phase is completed. if an organisation is keen to sustain its growth and success in this era. • Financing – financing of the abovementioned services and products through customised financing alternatives that suit the needs of producers and clients.bkb. At present. Administration. grading.” says Paul Carshagen. 4. oats.


Overview • Agricultural shows and events are a time when people involved in the agricultural value chain get to meet one another.vkb. • “Expanding business linkages worldwide” – visit the EMRC website: • Suidwes Tel: 018 581 1000 The reader is referred to the agricultural weeklies. VKB Ltd marketing and finance Agricultural shows and events 1.villiersdorpko-op. Agri Mega Expos is responsible for various industry focused agricultural Royal Agricultural Society of Natal Landbouweekblad and Farmer’s Many of these events occur in South • NCT Forestry Co-operative Ltd Tel: 033 897 8500 have their own websites • Humansdorpse Koöperasie Beperk Tel: 042 295 1082 Agrifica and Agricultural Tours Worldwide offer tours to South They host the Royal Show – “South African and African agricultural Africa’s oldest and largest mixed shows and events. Tribune Garden Show. Some of these events are listed under heading Aginfo t/a AMT (Pty) Ltd Tel: 012 361 2748 • Kaap Agri Tel: 022 482 8000 • Moorreesburgse Koringboere (Pty) Ltd Tel: 022 433 8300 the electronic arm of the Landbouweekblad magazine.lowshow. co. agricultural event” – and the Sunday • Sentraal-Suid Co-operative Ltd (SSK) Tel: 028 514 8600 “largest horticultural event”.za • Villiersdorp Co-op Tel: 028 840 1120 • Karoo Vleisboere Koöperasie Bpk Tel: 053 621 0162 • Klein Karoo International (KKI) Tel: 044 203 5100 www.kaapagri. • The different agribusinesses put out an assortment of their own The Food & Beverage and Meat This farmer’s organised by IIR (find details on the website) Conferences. mostly in the Western which looks at agribusinesses in • VKB Landbou Beperk Tel: 058 863 8111 • Some agricultural role players like the Agricultural Business Chamber keep their members informed of agricultural events through their newsletters or on their websites. Visit • Oos Vrystaat Kaap Operations (OVK) Tel: 051 923 4500 www.g. in • Southern African Milk Co-operation Ltd Tel: 021 880 0256 www. Kaap Agri.mgk. and we list only some of them www. • The share prices of agro companies can be found on • TWK Agriculture Limited Tel: 017 824 1000 • Umtiza Farmers’ Corp Limited Tel: 043 722 4215 • Sutherland Landboukoöperasie Bpk Tel: 023 571 1001 • Taurus Stock Improvement Co-operative Ltd Tel: 012 667 1122 www. the country’s agritoursandtravel. network and find out about the latest technologies and numerous shows and events Agri Letaba Tel: 082 941 4136 • Mosstrich Tel: 044 606 4400 www.royalshow. com • NTK Limpopo Agric Ltd Tel: 014 719 9211 www. Visit www. Tel: 021 975 4440/1/2/3 www.zeder. www. Tel: 044 752 3004 • MGK Operating Company (Pty) Ltd Tel: 012 381 2800 Tel: 033 345 6274 • Tuinroete Agri Beperk Tel: 044 601 1200 • Overberg Agri Tel: 028 214 3800 • Malelane Citrus Co-operative Ltd Tel: 013 790 0391 • Senwes Tel: 018 464 7800 See Nampo Harvest Day under heading 3 Compex Exhibitions Tel: 012 667 1980 humkoop. • NWK Ltd Tel: 018 633 1000 EXSA (Exhibitions and Event Association of Southern Africa) Tel: 011 805 7272 Grain SA (GSA) This agricultural organisation runs Tel: 0860 047 246 www. Sources for the chapter: Agricultural Business orangeriverwines. You can fax 018 294 4221.nwk. runs the Letaba Expo during the Africa’s Big Seven Some of these.farmersweekly. ovk.senwes. Call 011 771 7000 or visit • Find details of many shows. agriexpo. • Find the website of the International Food and Agribusiness Management Association at Organiser of the AMT conference Exhibition Management in Pretoria (see heading 3) Services Tel: 011 783 7250 Agri-Expo and Websites and publications • A newsletter is available from the Agricultural Business Chamber (contact details under heading 2).nctforest.umtiza.agbiz. at www. affiliated Management Conferences occur to Agri • Williston Vleiskoöperasie Bpk Tel: 053 391 3204 • Zeder Investments Ltd Tel: 021 887 9602 www. • The reader will also find news of (agricultural) shows on cultural websites like and www. . 2. com • Koup Produsente Koöperasie Bpk Tel: 023 551 1083 • KLK Agriculture Ltd – see BKB Ltd • Langkloof Boerekoöperasie Bpk – see Tuinroete tours and farmers days. Agri Mega Expos Tel: 028 424 2890 Lowveld Show Society Pretoria: 082 337 6127 Tel: 013 752 2801 / 6747 tradeinvestafrica. or their websites to find a calendar of the latest shows. The newsletter can also be found under the “Publications” menu option at Tshwabac Tel: 012 327 1487 www.agriexpo. • Oranjerivierwynkelders Koöperatief Bpk Tel: 054 337 8800 www. websites.suidwes. Some role players Producer and district associations are involved in district/regional • The magazine SA Koöp/SA Co-op is available from 018 293 • Find the article “Agrologistics at home and aboard” on www. • Intervitis Interfructa Southern Africa is a technology exhibition for the Retail Solutions Africa and IFMA • Farm Progress Show (USA) – International Aquaculture events – contact Aquaculture Innovations at 046 622 3690 Note that international shows/conferences are periodically held in South Africa.intervitis-interfructa. Retail Trade Exhibition. Call 021 852 3523 or visit • SIAL (China) – call the Maize Capital Forum – 056 515 3042 – or Viljoenskroon Tourism at 056 343 – find the “Agriculture & forestry” option www. held over four days at the NAMPO Park near Bothaville. • Royal Show (Pietermaritzburg) – find the Royal Agricultural Society of Natal details under heading for more. International shows • Agritechnica Expo (Germany) – • The Nedbank Eston Show in KwaZulu-Natal has been growing in popularity as an agricultural • EuroTier – www. and dairy and find Agri Expo details under heading Interbake Africa. Find AMT (Pty) Ltd under heading 2.bothaville. • Visit • Agromek (Denmark) – www. would include the Export Import Africa Expo and the Africa Water Congress.bloemskou.nampo.expoagro.thespringshow. Find Grain SA’s details under heading 2 and visit www. which happens at • SPACE (France) – • BioFach (Germany) – www. sheep and for more. For shows and events in the USA. • Bloemfontein Show – call 051 448 9894 or visit www. Visit www. • Sunday Tribune Garden Show – find “Royal Agricultural Society of Natal” under heading 2. • From The Earth – visit www.exhibitionsafrica.fruitlogistica. website of the Royal Agricultural Society of England for information on events there. reputedly the largest in the southern hemisphere. Several conferences happen parallel to the exhibitions. Visit • The Cape Dairy Experience – visit www. • SAITEX – see Exhibition Management Services (heading 2) • South African Cheese Festival – find Agri Expo details under heading 2 and visit • Royal Welsh Agricultural Show – – find details of shows in Nigeria. • Read about the NAFCO Expo at www. • Agribusiness Africa Conference – see Agrifica (heading 2) • Find out about the AgriWorks Agricultural Expo at This is a relatively new show which began as an idea of the parents at Hoërskool Ben Viljoen in Groblersdal to raise funds for the school. contact Denvor Julies at the US Commercial Services: call 011 290 3241 Visit Find the latest BFAP Baseline at Ghana and Mozambique. Visit • Australian National Field Days – • Fruit Logistica Expo (Germany) – www. • Allfresh is a “national summit for suppliers and producers in the fresh produce industry”. • The annual Bathurst Agricultural Show hosts exhibitors from all over the Eastern Cape.cheesefestival.agrimark. Food Biz Visit www. co. Food Tech Africa.57 • Bien Donné Agri Cape Week Expo – see Agri Mega under heading 2. • Big Iron Farm Show (USA) – www. Also visit or call 053 927 3945. Find the “Conference Proceedings” menu option on www. Visit • The Bureau for Food and Agricultural Policy (BFAP) presents its annual baseline study on an evening in Pretoria or Cape Town.rase. The Royal Show no longer • The All Africa Dairy Expo is aimed at the needs of dairy to find out about Natural & Organics Products Exhibition. • The Vryburg Show in the North West is billed “as SA’s 3rd largest agricultural • Hortifair (The Netherlands) – fruit and fruit juice industries. and the biggest cattle show in the country”.za. • To find out about the Reitz Bieliemieliefees visit incorporates See Agri Mega under heading 2. For accommodation (book early!). Find the Exhibition Management Services entry under heading 2 for contact • At the annual AMT conference in Pretoria. Shows and conferences • Agri Mega Week (Bredasdorp) focuses on the winter • Royal Ag Winter Fair (Canada) – http://royalfair.nafco. not specifically agricultural but nevertheless of interest. Read about it at • Find out more about the South African Large Herds Conference at www. . economic overviews are given of the various agricultural sectors. • The Spring Show in Pretoria. • The NAMPO Harvest Day is an annual agricultural • EXPOAGRO (Argentina) – www. • African Farmers Workshop and Expo – see www. • Africa’s Big Seven. • Other shows.agriworks. co.

the agricultural derivatives market in South Africa has continued to develop. The futures market exists primarily for the purpose of allowing commercial users to hedge their transactions or lock in favourable prices. add security to the market. The full premium bid is passed onto the seller who delivered the product. The price risk management tools that the derivative market provides allow participants to hedge the price volatility in the underlying physical market. The soybean and sorghum contract trades at the same basis price in a number of registered silos with no location differentials Daily price limits. both financial and agricultural markets. This is yet another innovation by the exchange to add value to those market participants who make use of the exchange platform. the Division introduced functionality that allowed for Safex silo receipts delivered in completion of a short futures position to be made available on an open auction. 2. 3. The Agricultural Products Division of the JSE (Johannesburg Stock Exchange) Securities Exchange was established to take over the functions of the old AMD. The agricultural derivatives market has developed to such an extent that the cash market now largely relies on its price transparency and discovery process to function properly. 2. Agricultural derivative prices are quoted at their Rand value per ton. Here existing long position holders or any other interested clients may bid on stock at specific delivery points and if successful. These are the risks associated with variables such as the weather. thereby limiting their exposure to adverse price movements. Prices for each contract are negotiated between buyers and sellers via an electronic order matching platform called the Automated Trading System (ATS). the exchange requires the payment of both initial margins and variation margins. 4. Overview Since deregulation of the agricultural market in the mid 1990’s. The variation margin is a daily flow of funds (profits/losses) resulting from any open position calculated through a methodology of Mark-to-Market (M-t-M). How are commodity derivatives traded? Registered commodity derivative brokers input orders into the trading system from remote locations (during trading hours (09h00 – 12h00 for grains and 09h00 – 17h00 for metals and energy)) which are automatically matched on the basis of time and price priority. Yet. Transparency – Pricing is determined purely on the basis of demand and supply. Since this was extended to include metals and crude oil. Speculators use futures and options in an attempt to make profits on short-term price movements. The commitment from Government in 1995 to stay out of the price determination process in the agricultural market remains firm. This eliminates counter party risk which is prevalent in the over-the-counter markets (OTC).58 marketing and finance Commodity trading See also the “Grain storage and handling” chapter 1. Extended price limits also result in increased initial margin requirements for those periods when the extended limits apply. limiting the daily movement of prices. This afforded the JSE the opportunity to introduce a number of cash settled commodities that referenced the international benchmark exchange for the final settlement value. accepted an offer by the then JSE Securities Exchange to buy them out. Financial institutions lending to these sectors are also ensured of reduced risk profiles when dealing with clients who have hedged a portion of their price risk. In 2009 the JSE signed a licensing agreement with the CME Group. the market could not operate efficiently and effectively without speculators. Producers and users of agricultural commodities hedge their price risk. 4. In August 2001 the members of the South African Futures Exchange (SAFEX). In 2010. Prices generated on the derivatives market are now considered the industry standard and reference point throughout Southern Africa. the world’s most diverse derivatives exchange. Financial Integrity – When dealing with the exchange the exchange’s clearing house becomes seller to every buyer and buyer to every seller. One futures contract comprises 100 tons for white and yellow maize as well as sweet sorghum and 50 tons for wheat and sunflower seeds. 3. . The initial margins are determined by the clearing house and vary depending on historical price volatility. What is the role of commodity derivatives? Commodity derivatives. If the limit is reached on two like contracts on two consecutive days the price limits are increased to 150% of the original limit and the extended limits will remain in place until the daily movement on all like contracts is less then the original limits. delivered on truck alongside silo basis Randfontein. the agricultural derivative market rebranded to become the Safex Commodity Derivative Market of the JSE. Soybean contracts are quoted at their Rand value per ton and comprise 25 tons per contract. will then receive a Safex silo receipt representing stock in the silo. as they provide the necessary market liquidity which allows commercial users to hedge. The presence of numerous buyers and sellers ensures that prices are always competitive and adjust efficiently to reflect changes in the underlying market. therefore allowing for a truly free market environment to develop. Margins – When trading derivative products. farm/ production management and seasonal conditions. The most actively traded contract remains the white maize futures contract followed by a 50 ton wheat contract and then a 25 ton soybean contract. The exchange guarantees performance by counterparties in a futures contract. Members are free to deal with each other without any credit risk. Why trade commodity derivatives on an exchange? 1. Regulation – Safex Commodity Derivatives Market is a division of the JSE Limited managed by the JSE and regulated by the Financial Services Board (FSB) which oversees the exchange’s reporting with regards to Securities Services Act of 2004. Such clients could typically access funds at cheaper rates than would otherwise have been offered. This encourages increased productivity in the agricultural sector as farmers and users are able to concentrate their efforts on managing production risks. and particularly agricultural derivative markets play an active role in price determination and transparency in the local agricultural market whilst providing an efficient price risk management facility.


Market to market (M-t-M) calculation of futures and options The Mark-to-Market (m-t-m) for the day. Physical delivery takes place over a two-business day period. Should the offer be lower than the last traded price then the offer will be used as the m-t-m. This implied volatility is then used to value all option positions. Buyers are guaranteed that it will be at a registered silo and free along side the rail. The exchange reserves the right to set the m-t-m volatility. In the event that . Payments for products take place by 13h00 on the delivery day. (In simple terms this can be interpreted as buyers in the market prepared to pay more than the last traded price). Notice day The short position holder (seller of the commodity) notifies his broker about his intention to give notice of delivery to close-out a futures Forestry and Fisheries and to outload the specific product upon presentation of the silo receipt. Therefore the location differential will always ensure that the basis Randfontein price is traded. representing a specific quantity of stock in a registered Safex silo to effect delivery. Delivery can take place any business day on a particular delivery month. The closing price (mark-to-market) on the notice day is the price at which contracts are closed. a transferable but not negotiable document. however. The fundamental difference between the CORN contract and the domestic grain contracts traded is that the CORN contract is cash settled and not physically settled. Long position holders are charged a standard daily storage rate fixed for each marketing season for any outstanding storage costs and are responsible for storage from the delivery day onwards. Delivery day The closing option volatility is calculated using at-the-money option trades and two strikes either side during the last half hour of trade. Silo receipts have to be delivered to a broker who will in turn ensure that they reach the exchange no later than 12h00 on the delivery day. The counterparties do not deal with each other directly as the exchange matches all long and short positions. A liquid contract is defined as any expiry that trades 100 or more contracts in the last half hour of trading. result of the silo auction or randomly allocated by computer programme to existing long position holders. the worse case scenario would be Randfontein. is determined at random any time in the last 5 minutes of trading at the discretion of the exchange. The JSE also provides access to the COMEX gold. What is Physical Delivery? All products traded on the agricultural derivatives market can be physically delivered at expiry in fulfillment of a futures contract. To manage default risk. year of expiry. (A futures position in the July contract can only be delivered on during July). 6. If the bid is better than the last traded price the bid will be used as the mt-m price. The best case scenario is being allocated maize in a silo convenient to the buyer. The silo owner storing the product guarantees the quality of stock as per detailed grading methodology specified by the National Department of Agriculture. the exchange uses its three-tier system. NYMEX platinum and WTI crude oil markets through a locally listed contract that is traded and settled in Rands. For example a short position holder could give notice on the September futures contract on the 31 August for delivery on the 1 September or his last notice day would be the 29 September for delivery on the 30 September. The exchange makes use of a silo receipt.jse. the CORN contract based off of the CBOT corn contract was launched. A volume weighted average price (VWAP) is used to calculate the m-t-m for all liquid contracts. 7. The location differentials and any outstanding storage is deducted from the amount payable by a long position holder (in the case of wheat a grade discount is also applicable). also referred to as the settlement price. The deliveries are either processed via Exchange for Physical (EFP). Paper and electronic silo receipts issued by registered silo owners are accepted by the exchange. initial margin requirements as well as the daily m-t-m process. Any long position holder (buyer of the commodity) could be allocated product at any time during the delivery month with one day’s notice but is assured that he/she will receive such stock by the last day of the delivery month. Location differentials are determined by the exchange and are available from the exchange (available on the webpage www. Delivery can take place at any Safex approved silo and each delivery point is subject to a location differential (based on transport costs). (This means that there are sellers in the market who are prepared to sell lower than the last traded price). This does not mean that 100 tons of maize is delivered by truck to the exchange to complete the delivery process. How is risk managed? Delivery and settlement on any exchange traded derivative contract is always 100% guaranteed. Should a client default on a contract. This is done through the novation process whereby the clearing house assumes the position of buyer to every seller and seller to every buyer. The exchange does not take any prepaid storage into account and the seller forfeits any storage costs that have been prepaid. The last trading day is the eighth last business day of each delivery month. Long position holders are able to collect silo receipts from the exchange from 14h00 onwards. Once the contract has closed for trading any position still open will have to be honoured by payment or delivery (short position holders have until the last business day of the delivery month to make delivery). A long position holder allocated stock will be notified through the clearing member of the allocation. (For all delivery dates the trading calendar on the web page). copper and silver markets. his/her broker assumes these positions. The broker could then close them off and use the initial margin deposit held to cover his/her four letter code of commodity JUL11 WMAZ – White maize contract DEC11 YMAZ – Yellow maize contract SEP11 WEAT – Wheat contract MAR11 SUNS – Sunflower seeds contract MAY11 SOYA – Soybean contract MAY11 SORG – Sorghum contract In early 2009. 5. Since then the CBOT soybean complex and CBOT wheat contract has also been introduced. The last notice day being the second last business day of the delivery month. Notice must be given before 12h45 on any business day during the delivery month. Settlement procedures of agricultural derivatives Positions can still be opened or closed during the delivery month until the last trading day. the notice day followed by the delivery day (the next business day).60 Futures are quoted on the trading system as: Month of expiry. This allows direct participation in South African rand to the most liquid international maize contract.

This was done since the open interest on the contract had grown significantly larger than the available crop in South Africa and to prevent manipulation of the underlying market. maize prices will naturally soar. should the Rand weaken then the demand for South African maize would and demand. The exchange rate is also an important contributor since world grain is traded in US dollars. At the end of 2003 position limits were introduced on white maize futures contract for non-hedgers (speculators). Broker-client relationships remain key to all participants in the market. Without understanding the true downside and upside of any 9. it will have a direct impact on the current trading prices. Since the market is information driven. Except for one day in 1999 due to severe technical problems. hedgers may very well become speculators without even realising it. With further innovations in the trading of Safex silo receipts planned for the near then regional and finally international. this will also provide further value to the cash market as basis premiums will be made available on a transparent platform for both buyers and sellers to Grain Handling Organisation of Southern Africa (GOSA) Tel: 012 807 3002 www. imagine the Rand trading at 14 to the dollar. Non-hedgers are restricted to an exposure of 15% of the net delta open interest. reducing trading fees as the trading volumes increased. Compliance to the FICA regulations has afforded members the opportunity to understand their clients business better and in so doing understand their risks. This tier system ensures that the client on the other side is always guaranteed fulfillment of his/her position. The key factors influencing grain prices in South Africa can be identified as first – the local. his clearing member would stand in for him/ the exchange has been open for trading every single business day providing a platform for buyers and sellers to match their trades.aeasa. As the market has grown and developed over the last 17 huge shortages in Southern Africa and an El Nino expected in the middle of the maize growing season.aspx . The JSE is also actively persuing the opportunity to introduce physical delivery points outside of the South African borders to introduce additional price risk management tools for other specific African countries to benefit from. so the rules and regulations have progressed to ensure market integrity for all participants trading on the should organizations like the Crop Estimates Committee (CEC). South Africa. Training and research Find the “Education” option at www. Associations involved Agricultural Economics Association of South Africa (AEASA) Tel: 012 341 1115 www. weather bureau or South African Grain Information Services (SAGIS) release new information. For the last seventeen years the exchange has provided an efficient facility for price discovery and price risk management of agricultural products in The Commodity Derivatives Division looks forward to the years ahead and is committed to providing South Africa and the region with an efficient and cost effective product to manage price risk.61 the broker is unable to assume the client’s positions. 8. It is imperative that clients understand the agreements they enter into and most importantly the trading strategies they use to manage their price risk.gosa. Currently the clearing members consist of South Africa’s largest financial institutions. To illustrate this.jse.

Nedbank Capital .

za Directorate: Statistical & Economical Analysis Tel: 012 319 8454 Crop Estimates Committee (CEC) Tel: 012 319 8032 / 6507 Telephone 011 895 5160 Brokers First World Trader (Pty) Ltd – FWTM 011 214 8006 Futureline (Pty) Ltd – FTRM 021 851 9573 GWK Trading (Pty) Ltd – GWKM 053 298 8452 The Crop Estimates Liaison Committee (CELC) is an official committee that functions under the auspices of the to monitor the performance of the Crop Estimates Committee (CEC) and make recommendations for the further improvement of crop estimates on an ongoing National strategy and government contact Directorate: International Trade Tel: 012 319 8451 Universities conduct research on SAFEX and various models based on SAFEX are developed. and University of Pretoria accreditation services for financial Agricultural Broking Members are those members who have one or more registered dealers and the required clearing agreement and can trade on behalf of clients. Forestry and Fisheries under the Divisions menu option at Stellenbosch University Department of Agricultural Economics Tel: 021 808 4758 http://academic. Companies involved Johannesburg Stock Exchange Commodity Derivatives Division Tel: 011 520 7535 Chris Sturgess – Chriss@jse. Extension market professionals in South Africa and Rural Development Tel: 012 420 3248 and other African countries”.za professional body providing JP Morgan Equities Ltd – AMIM 011 507 0619 Kempro (Pty) Ltd – KEMM 018 441 0094 Kernel Maize (Pty) Ltd – KMCM 028 313 2731 Market Traders (Pty) Ltd – MKTM 033 343 1245 Find information on the various directorates at the Department of Tel: 033 260 5494 Their vision is to be “the leading South African Institute of University of KwaZulu-Natal Financial Markets (SAIFM) Department of Agricultural Tel: 011 802 4768 Economics Afgri Broking (Pty) Ltd – AFGM 011 063 2729 Afrifocus Securities (Pty) Ltd AFFM 011 290 7800 Alpha Derivatives – ALPM 011 485 2321 Anglorand Futop (Pty) Ltd – ARFM 011 484 7440 Applied Derivatives (Pty) Ltd – ONEM 021 439 7714 Bester Feed & Grain Exchange (Pty) Ltd BESM 021 809 2500 BGC Financial Brokers (Pty) Ltd – BGCM 011 467 9325 B & P Group Financial Services (Pty) Ltd BPGM 031 583 4600 Brent Trading (Pty) Ltd – BRNM 056 811 2966 Brisen Commodities (Pty) Ltd – BRIM 012 640 1600 Bsec Derivative Brokers (Pty) Ltd BADM 021 914 9686 Bushveld Grain (Pty) Ltd – BVGM 0861 111 640 Cadiz Securities (Pty) Ltd CADM 021 657 8448 Cargill RSA (Pty) Ltd – CGLM 0861 227 445 CJS Securities (Pty) Ltd – CJSM 011 447 3531 Corn International (Pty) Ltd – CRNM 056 213 1731 Derived Market Investment and Planning (Pty) Ltd – DMPM 012 997 5836 DHJ Grain Brokers (Pty) Ltd – DHJM 018 632 7748 DWT Securities (Pty) Ltd – DWTM 021 914 6460 Farmwise Grains (Pty) Ltd – FARM 011 787 3666 FCB Harlow Butler (Pty) Ltd – IAPM 011 276 9009 FFO Securities (Pty) Ltd FOFM 011 471 0500 National Agricultural Marketing Council (NAMC) Tel: 012 341 1115 Bureau for Economic Research Tel: 021 887 2810 www.hochfeld. a division of FirstRand Bank Ltd – RMBM 011 269 9800 Regiments Securities Ltd – FFOM 011 715 0314 Resolution Market Management (Pty) Ltd RESM 0861 791 6425 RMB Securities (Pty) Ltd RSTM 011 269 9740 Robinsin Mulder De Waal Financial Services (Pty) Ltd – RMDM 012 665 5010 Russelstone Group (Pty) Ltd GVFM 012 482 6600 SA Derivatives SSSM 031 566 4680 Senwes Ltd – SWKM 018 464 780 .za Member and member code Absa Bank Ltd – ABLM University of the Free State Department of Agricultural Grain SA offers a short SAFEX Economics Tel: 051 401 2824 econ Grain SA Tel: 0860 047 246 CELC is amongst others.grainsa. Bureau for Food and Agricultural Policy (BFAP) Tel: 012 420 4583/2 Directorate: Marketing Tel: 012 319 8455 DM@daff. examination. MGK Bedryfsmaatskappy (Edms) Bpk MGKM 012 252 3778/9 Mooirivier Grain (Pty) Ltd – MRGM 018 297 4795 Nedbank Ltd – NEDM 011 535 4038 NWK Ltd – NWKM 018 633 1000 Oos-Kaap Boerdery & Graanhandelaars (Edms) Bpk – OVKM 051 923 4500 Peregrine Derivatives (Pty) Ltd – MERM 021 670 5258 PSG Prime (Pty) Ltd – CPTM 021 799 8089 Rand Merchant Bank. Clearing Members are member who clears deals on behalf of broking members.63 Agimark Trends (AMT) Tel: 012 361 2748 TMS Training Services Tel: 011 853 2777 www.saifm.


nass. have lost money by speculating on SAFEX. written marketing plan. • Understand the options markets: Options offer new If it is profitable to plant based on that price using an average three-year yield for that commodity. Try to obtain price forecasts.cmegroup.agbiz. he can go ahead and plant. • Regularly contact their grain brokers to get their opinion of the market – whether prices are going to rise in the future or • Visit the websites of role players listed in this chapter Any farmer can have SAFEX prices delivered to their cell phone. • If prices increase at any stage – because of weakening exchange • Realise that high prices often stimulate production which can result in prices declining. Standard Bank Agricultural Division. and the risk of adverse price movements.e. they extend the marketing season from a few weeks to 12 months – allowing you to take advantage of frequent temporary price increases. if the price changes those farmers will still have to accept the contract price. weather and crop factors. A must for every grain producer. Speculation Dr Geyser. • Do not store for too long. • Where your marketing plan includes hedging. from 2 to 3 different sources. Tips for Farmers: • Keep in touch with the supply and demand conditions relating to your commodity. • www. “Finance and the Farmer”. a farmer must see what price the futures contract for that commodity is trading at the time of planting i. (which changes daily).usda. The ultimate value of these options depends on the cost of the insurance premium.65 Member and member code Telephone Sigma Options Writers (Pty) Ltd – SOWM 028 313 0104 Standard Bank of South Africa – STDM 011 378 8620 Suidwes Landbou (Edms) Bpk – SWLM 018 581 1000 Thebe Securities Limited – TBEM 011 375 1000 28E Capital (Pty) Ltd TEEM 012 663 1115 Tradekor (Pty) Ltd – TDKM 011 721 3100 Trademar Futures (Pty) Ltd – TMRM 011 244 9860 TTSA Securities (Pty) Ltd – IMBM 011 277 5323 Unigrain (Pty) Ltd – UNGM 011 692 4400 Vanguard Derivatives (Pty) Ltd – MMMM 011 722 7511 Vantage Capital Markets SA – VCMM 011 326 2239 Vorlon (Pty) Ltd – VORM 011 502 2760 VKB Beperk – VRYM 058 863 8280 Vrystaat Mielies (Edms) Bpk –VMBM 018 294 2200 Clearing Members Member and member code Contact details ABSA Clearing – VKSC 011 895 7245 JP Morgan Securities SA (Pty) Ltd JPMC +44 207 325 3687 Nedbank Clearing – NEDC 011 667 1317 Rand Merchant Bank – RMBC 011 282 8375 Standard Bank Clearing – STDC 011 636 8431 For an updated list see www. It is recommended that you follow and chart futures prices daily. you are not committed to delivery grain or offsetting your position. You do not have to put up margin money. Understand domestic and world markets. Source: ‘Finance for Farmers’ Standard Bank. Grain – International Grains Council • Find the “Trade intelligence” option at Should your production be less than 12. international supply and demand factors and intentions to plant later in the year – then you have an opportunity to take part in those price increases.jse. Analysis of why prices were strong or weak on a particular day is one of the most efficient methods of gaining knowledge of the grain markets. • Prior to planting any crop. even though it is worse than the current exchange price. This strategy prevents “if only” – the National Agricultural Statistics Service (USA) • www. Farmers and experts alike. • Your marketing plan should be updated regularly and objectively. Some use these as indicators and sign fixed-price contracts based on that exchange price. • Have a well thought-out. This means that he will not be exposed to possible price declines before he harvests the crop. However. futures or options. Consider all the costs involved and include shrinkage. Sources: Rod Gravelet-Blondin (JSE Ltd).org. Call 011 025 4355 or visit www. Commercial farmer points of interest Some market participants have been caught short because they thought that they could read the market and left themselves open to price – the World Agricultural Outlook Board (WAOB) serves as a focal point for economic intelligence and the outlook for world agriculture. and their reasons for this. there is no production risk associated with your marketing decision. as storage fees are high and you will lose interest on the money you could have made if you sold. .igc. • Understand the futures markets – since futures are traded up to 12 months in advance. website of the Agricultural Business – Chicago Board of Trade • www. gov. hence the importance of locking in prices when prices are high. Also.usda. • China National Grain and Oils Information Centre – www. Buy insurance against adverse price movements without you losing the benefits associated with favourable price movements. He must however hedge (lock in) that price by either forward contracting / or buying puts or futures. but when it ends you could suffer great losses. as in the futures market and do not have to worry about having sufficient cash to meet margin calls. • Use this information when deciding to sell or store your crop to take advantage of future price increase.kejafa. The websites mentioned in this chapter Thanks to Chris Sturgess (JSE Limited) for updating the draft chapter. • Understand the limitations of price forecasting – accurate forecasting is impossible. and unfortunately some pension funds. It is easy to make money on a rising market (bull phase). Farmers can always obtain the upside of rising prices with the use of financial instruments on the • www. July contract. Websites and publications • Long and Short of Futures Markets: Safex.chinagrain. be sure to include the costs in your calculations.

66 marketing and finance Co-operatives 1. principles and practices. • Co-operation among co-operatives – Co-operatives serve their members most effectively and strengthen the co-operative movement by working together through local. self-help organisations controlled by their members. • Voluntary and open membership – nobody is forced to be a member. • Member economic participation – Members contribute equitably to. • A co-operative must follow co-operative principles (see next heading) in its organisation and activities. training and information – Co-operatives provide education and training for their members. • A co-operative is jointly owned. In primary co-operatives members have equal voting rights (one member. not to anyone else outside the co-operative. and democratically control. • giving them access to information about co-operative values. but of all the different types of business organisations. paying members in proportion to their transactions with the co-operative. or raise capital from external sources. who actively participate in setting their policies and making decisions. co-operatives reach down most to the low income groups. social and cultural needs and aspirations through a jointly owned and democratically controlled enterprise” (definition by the International Co-operative Alliance). • Autonomy and independence – Co-operatives are independent. It must stand or fall on its own feet. 3. At least part of that capital is usually the common property of the co-operative. Everyone who is involved in a co-operative should know and understand these basic co-operative principles. social. Surpluses may be used to develop the co-operative further. • Democratic member control – Co-operatives are democratic organisations controlled by their members. political or religious discrimination. The co-operative principles are guidelines by which co-operatives put their values into practice. • Concern for community – Co-operatives work for the sustainable development of their communities through policies approved by their members. We can break down this definition into five main points in order to understand it more clearly: • A co-operative is an independent organisation. National and provincial government promote co-operatives as a type of business entity and a means to get informal economic actors involved in and benefitting from the formal economy. so that each member has an equal voice in decisions. the capital of their co-operative. The benefits of the cooperative are shared by all of the members. one vote). • giving them the chance to learn how to work together the co-operative way for the benefit of each individual member and of the group as a whole. including governments. elected representatives. . • A co-operative is a group of persons who freely decide to come together to meet common needs and goals. Co-operatives: a definition A co-operative is defined as “an autonomous association of persons united voluntarily to meet their common economic. and employees so they can contribute effectively to the development of their cooperatives. • Education. What isn’t possible for the individual is possible when many persons act together. racial. and supporting other activities approved by the membership. managers. If they enter into agreements with other organisations. they do so on terms that ensure control remains with their members. Elected representatives are accountable to the membership. Seven Co-operative Principles There are seven co-operative principles that are followed by co-operatives all over the world. national. Helping people to help themselves means: • making them aware of needs and problems they have in common. Its primary duty is to its members. They inform the general public – particularly young people and opinion leaders – about the nature and benefits of co-operation. The main feature of co-operatives is that help people to help themselves. Members becoming uninvolved often leads to the collapse of the co-operative. 2. Overview Co-operatives are not only for the poor. regional and international structures. and there is no gender. • A co-operative is controlled democratically.

or a secondary co-operative that provides technical service to primary housing co-operatives. and government departments. including funeral insurance and related services. • A worker co-operative is a primary co-operative that provides employment to its members. mobilising resources. • A co-operative burial society is a co-operative that provides funeral benefits. communication or other services. Nonetheless it must be noted that this source of funding carries with it potential problems: • They can contribute to dependency. such as care for the elderly. and the assurance you can offer to clients looking for larger quantities.67 4. though. and also provides services to its members. • A services co-operative is a co-operative that provides housing. Loans Most small business enterprises in the world obtain funding through the lending cycle. A co-operative which buys bulk groceries and sells them to its members and to the public. to its members and their dependants. NOTE: It is possible to combine different types of co-operatives into a multipurpose co-operative. Agricultural co-operatives serve their members in the following ways: • Improve bargaining power: combining the volume of several members improves their position when dealing with other businesses. Grants and donations Some co-operatives try to raise additional funds from donor and development agencies. Find the document on www. Dora Tamana and the CBDC under heading 8. • They can also mean some loss of autonomy as many grants will have conditions attached. • A social co-operative is a non-profit co-operative that provides social services to its members. Grants and donations are a possible way to help a co-operative that is struggling to obtain access to funds. • A housing co-operative is a primary co-operative that provides housing to it members. generating investment and their contribution to the economy. processes or markets agricultural products and supplies agricultural inputs and services to its members. while giving its members a special discount or a refund based on the amount of their transactions. who occasionally set aside funds to support co-operative development. • Obtaining market access or broadening market opportunities: more buyers are attracted because of the value you can add. • Reduce cost / increase income: reducing the operating costs increases the amount of earnings available for distribution to members to boost their income. • Obtaining products or services otherwise unavailable: agricultural co-operatives often provide services or products that would not attract other private Source: Adapted from Guidelines for establishing Agricultural Co-operatives. • Improve products or service quality: member satisfaction is achieved through improved facilities. health care. children and the sick. An example is a savings and loan co-operative. or a secondary co-operative that provides services to primary worker co-operatives. • A marketing and supply co-operative means a co-operative that supplies production inputs to members and markets or processes their products. 5. Types of co-operatives Co-operatives are usually understood to be either an agricultural form of business or a state-driven welfare intervention. In their various forms agricultural co-operatives promote the fullest participation in the economy and social development of all people. or a secondary co-operative that provides financial services to a primary cooperative. An example is a sewing co-operative that provides fabric and sewing machines to its members and then markets the items they sew. In the long term this might mean that co-ops do not become selfreliant and wait for an outside agent to intervene whenever there are problems. These are some of the possibilities: • An agricultural co-operative is a co-operative that produces. child care. Why form agricultural co-operatives? The importance of agricultural co-operatives is job creation. as co-operative members may have less incentive to make the organisation work on its own feet. is an example of a consumer co-operative. Applying for loans is an important way for co-operatives to . • A financial services co-operative is a primary co-operative with the main purpose of providing financial services to its members. This category also includes agricultural marketing and supply cooperatives. • A consumer co-operative is a co-operative that gets and distributes goods to its members and non-members. where the members pool their savings and make loans to each other. transportation. The law does not place any limit on the kinds of co-operatives that can be registered. equipment and services. according to the agendas of the funding bodies. Grants and donations available to co-operatives can be researched by looking at the various corporate social investment schemes offered by private companies.daff. parastatals. Finances See notes on SACCOL. • Reduced purchasing costs: volume purchasing reduces the purchasing price of needed supplies. NGOs or governmental sources.

za IMAC Services COPAC supports the co-operatives Tel: 083 276 4847 by “providing the necessary dehart@mweb. and a co-operative • value adding or agroadvisory Home of to agricultural co-operatives. The mobilisation of farmers Through various business through co-operatives serves development agencies. See the “Development financial services” chapter for other sources of financial assistance. the second is national and provincial Is’Baya Development Trust Tel: 021 851 9698 Department of Economic www. to “Agro-ecology in action”.za .68 access the capital needed to purchase equipment and pay for training of co-operative train agricultural co-operatives.ethical. the Integrated Strategy on Co-operative Development the Development and Promotion of Support Unit as well as in accounting and bookkeeping to these groups. AgriSETA Dora Tamana Co-operative Tel: 012 301 5600 Centre (DTCC) www. Amaphisi Farmers Tel: 082 216 0607 nkosi. For the registration of co-operatives Find “co-operatives development” in South Africa under the “Economic empowerment” menu option on Department of Agriculture. support and planning – they can play a major role in helping provide jobs and fight INW does co-operatives institution building Find the “Documents” and “FAQ’s” options. the DTI two purposes: the first purpose provides financial and other is that co-operatives are used as assistance to co-operatives at delivery systems for government programmes. including The Agricultural Colleges on-the-job training and follow-up and Provincial Departments of measures.cipc.Directorate: Agricultural operatives Act and its ammendments Development Finance in support them. Forestry and National Treasury – find notes Fisheries (DAFF). co-operative • access to finance academy to provide training. National strategy and government contact Co-operatives have been so successful in certain parts of the world that the South African government wants more people to start co-operatives that farmers are able to receive The Integrated Strategy on the agricultural services that would Development and Promotion of in AgriSETAs strategic plans and “extensive funding” is allocated to Ethical Co-op www. More role players Agricultural Business Chamber DGRV offers demand driven and (Agbiz) outcome oriented training in coTel: 012 807 6686 operatives and business principles www.mcineka@amaphisi. Other The DTI’s Co-operative Scheme (CIS) provides a direct cash grant for registered primary co-operatives (five or more members). training and conference facilities on their premises in Pretoria Afrikara Advice and training is offered Tel: 012 315 5367 the website. the Co. Legislation will provide follows: for the creation of a new co-op • supply of agricultural inputs development agency. including the Department of Agriculture. In countries worldwide.have been impossible to acquire operatives document (Government individually. Annexure A processing sets out areas in which several • Human Resource government departments are to be development involved. At Cedara in other service providers. the Department of Development Agency under Housing Tel: 011 339 1592/1651 Co-operatives are highlighted Tel: 011 447 1013 www. If co-operatives are set up in the right way – with enough The drawback to this form of funding is the limited access many poor South Africans have to financial institutions as well as the high interest rates and services fees charged to people. Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) Department of Co-operative Development Tel: 012 394 1631/ 08 For this KwaZulu-Natal.kzndae. details can be found on the website www. Invest North West (INW) Co-operative Banks Tel: 014 594 2570 Development Agency (CBDC) www. Medium and Micro Enterprises Trust (HOST) C/o SACCOL Mentor emerging farmers. Further training activities Agriculture run short courses include training-of-trainer programs on agricultural co-operative for government personnel and management. purpose DGRV has established Development and Tourism (KZN) Limpopo Business Support Tel: 033 897 4546 / 4347 Agency (Libsa) Tel: 033 893 4346 Tel: 015 287 3000 Contact details for help throughout Co-operative development is one the province are available on the of Libsa’s key programme website Makgalaka Business Deutscher Genossenschafts.kznded. and the Co-operative Tel: 012 319 7295 Banks Bana ba Kgwale Tel: 012 729 9008 / 084 510 8777 www.Development Services und Raiffeisenverband (DGRV) Tel: 015 622 0543 / 082 467 2863 German Co-operative and lmokgalaka@gmail. do International Labour Organisation (ILO) project and farm management Tel: 012 818 8000 Co-operative and Policy Co-operatives is one of the areas in which the ILO provides technical Alternative Center (COPAC) co-operatives play a stabilising role in rural areas. and to co-operatively organised small farming co-operative self-help initiatives in townships.agbiz. The Enterprise Organisation (TEO) within the DTI evaluates applications and administers funding. technical tools and capacity building resources to Find the advert on page 66 achieve this”. this is a savings and credit 8. the Department on the Co-operative Banks of Companies and Intellectual Property Commission (Previously CIPRO) Tel: 012 394 9500 www. a co• marketing of agricultural operative tribunal which will deal output with Raiffeisen Confederation Tel: 012 346 6020 Business and co-operative training dgrvsa@worldonline.copac. Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) Directorate: Co-operatives and The DTI creates an enabling Enterprise Development environment for co-operatives Tel: 012 319 8133 through the Co-operative Development heading or by calling 033 355 9444.isbaya. Gazette 21 January 2011) sets out Government plans for the next These services can be listed as decade. Find the advert on page 67 The Savings and Credit Cooperative League of SA Limited (SACCOL) Tel: 021 422 3333 www. • It provides development services to SACCOs.saccol. says www. to undertake research into cooperatives. za. available under “Publications” and “2010” options on www. in Consultants Tel: 043 643 3429 Training on running co-operatives National Co-operatives Association of South Africa (NCASA) Tel: 011 339 1592 / 083 546 1915 ncasa@ananzi. Confederation of Cooperative strategies and legislation Savings and Credit Associations. “General Publications” and then “Training manuals: Cooperatives” options. South African Communist Party (SACP) Tel: 011 339 3621 SACCOL was established by Savings and Credit Co-operatives (SACCOs) and Credit Unions around South Africa as their National provides notes on co-operatives and gives contact details for Government sources of funding and assistance. Find provincial and district contact details on the SEDA website. as millions of people are NOPILIFE (National Organic inadequately served by the banking Produce Initiative) sector. The Cooperative League USA (CLUSA) International Program has worked in developing countries to economically empower individuals and communities through development of effective. Also see the Info Pak “How to form a co-operative”. • Various research issues are explored relating to co-operatives – enquire at faculties such as the Social Science/economics departments or websites of universities. Find the menu option on co-operatives on the Small Enterprise Development Agency (SEDA) website – www. the World Council of Credit Unions.sacp. Find the “Co-operatives Development” option under “Economic Empowerment” on the Department of Trade and Industry website. according to the Government Gazette 21 January 2011. managing and growing a business. India. • It regulates SACCOs. • Find the “cooperatives” option under “Topics” at www. SACCOL has three primary functions: • It is representative of the SACCO movement both locally and inter-nationally.daff. even if its principles are Scientific Roets (Pty) Ltd Tel: 039 727 1515 NOPI provides all the regulatory www. and where profits are equitably shared with everyone North-West University School of Business Management Small Enterprise Development Centre for Co-operatives Agency (SEDA) Dr Louw van der Walt Tel: 012 441 1000 Tel: 018 299 1365 / 083 658 9013 representing and serving co-operatives worldwide” 10. Find seventeen manuals on developing a co-operative at www. website of Co-operatives South African National Apex Co-operative Tel: 011 339 1592 Tel: 012 323 5069 / 73 www. Websites and publications • The dti Co-operatives Handbook 2010. Co-operatives are “the largest membership movement in [the UK]”.co. www.scientificroets. The objectives of the centre is to assist members with the establishment of co-operatives. Find this on guidance and recommendations for the institutionalisation of “Organic Co-operatives is one of the areas Villages”. Tel: 073 303 1554 Mthonyama Development Enterprise & Agric. An Annual Co-operative Development Review publication is planned as a future strategy. Resonance Institute of Learning Tel: 011 888 2355 / 3498 www. Kenya and Bangladesh. Spain.thedti. SEDA has a Co-operatives and Community Public Private Partnership Programme (CPPP) Kate Philips. together with National Youth Development 86 counties in 7 regions worldAgency (NYDA) NYDA Co-operative Support and wide makes up WOCCU. South African Foundation (October 2003). The Development Chamber and Trade & Industry Chamber have SACCOL is member of the the African been involved with co-operative ACCOSCA. website of the Co-operative and Policy Alternative Center (COPAC) If there is a group of you – or even a whole community – who want to start an enterprise where everyone benefits SACCOL services its member organisations by providing then it makes sense to start a co-operative or at organisations referred to in this chapter It must still be operated and managed with the same discipline and systems that apply in any business. to publish co-operative research outcomes and to maintain a resource centre of co operative materials. advice and other technical services as well as accepting deposit from and making loans to its members. and www. also under the “Publications” option. take a look at the “Publications” option at • Co-operatives in South Africa: Their Role in Job Creation and Poverty Reduction. so that people work efficiently and income exceeds expenditure. www. business opportunities and support for small business. sustainable group businesses and democratic practices. ACCOSCA.thedti.g. Visit the websites of role players mentioned in this – “uniting. Take the “Publications”. ensuring that the benefits of the enterprise are more widely spread.nyda.seda. to develop and offer training National Economic Development & Labour Council (NEDLAC) Tel: 011 328 4200 www.agbiz. International business environment The Integrated Strategy on the Development and Promotion of Co-operatives document (Government Gazette 21 January 2011) looks at international best practice in Seda provides small business and medium-sized enterprises with information on starting. Funding WOCCU sees South Africa as Tel: 011 651 7000 a country with great growth www. Italy./Soc. International Co-operative Alliance – in which this consulting company does training.

the bank will repossess your property and sell it to realise its security. • The bank manager will tell you after the interview whether your application was successful or not. The best incentive to repay a loan is to have access to future The business of a tomato grower in Giyani is obviously riskier than that of ZZ2 because the scale is smaller and market access is not there. Getting a loan or credit from a commercial bank Farmers who want to establish or expand their farming operations can obtain finance from commercial banks. It is. 23 July 2010 The term “Emerging Farmer” is commonly applied both to farmers who are emerging in terms of scale and to farmers who are emerging in terms of lack of skills. These farmers need a financing programme that includes support structures. • Therefore. Before any commercial bank can grant a loan. • Know the purpose for which you are borrowing money – to improve the performance of your farming operations. • When applying for credit. debt counselling etc. These farmers are no riskier than other categories of farmers. • It must be your own property and preferably not immovable. the expected net income (income left over after all expenses have been deducted. All citizens must be included in the economy if there is going to be any meaningful. What is credit and why do you need it? Credit is money borrowed from someone or from a bank by agreement with the promise to pay it back at a later date. except tax and interest) will give a good indication of how much debt the project will be able to carry. If farmers should get anything for to find out more. But it is also important to look beyond retailers for off-take agreements. irrigation equipment. How to apply • Once you have identified why you have to borrow money. South Africa’s six-million small. land. the aim should be to help beneficiaries become self-sufficient. For example. • The bank must be able to estimate its market value. the bank will call you in for an interview. Should you fail to repay your loan. Your bank will want to know this in order to assess your ability to generate income and pay back the loan. Rather. Overview “Entrepreneurship is first and foremost the freedom of individuals to express themselves in economic terms and thus economic freedom entails entrepreneurship”. Source: Andrew Makanete 2. if you like). if such a farmer can be assisted to acquire a contract to supply a large retailer. you can go to your nearest bank and fill in application forms. • Do not apply for credit that will generate too little income to cover the interest and capital (money borrowed) repayments. livestock. • It must be in a saleable condition. it determines whether your income exceeds your costs to such an extent that there will be enough money to repay the loan and to cover household expenses.ncr. The bank will want to know how the credit is going to be used and what your financial position is (assets and liabilities). Credit NB Only credit grantors that are registered with the National Credit Regulator (NCR) may grant credit. quality inputs. Commercial banks grant credit to farmers for various purposes e. vehicles. rather than grants. with or without interest. important that they understand the terms and conditions of credit. by no means conclusive. writing in the Farmer’s Weekly. Source: Peter Mashala. Your application should contain all the relevant information because it forms the basis for negotiations with the bank manager. Repaying the loan within a given time limit will improve your credit worthiness and credibility with the bank and also save on interest charges. and if you want to farm you have to start thinking like a businessperson. would do more to reduce poverty and generate value-added wealth. When it comes to financial assistance. The bank will ask for a collateral or security for the loan. The extension officer is a person who works for the Department of Agriculture in your area and who is trained to assist farmers in agricultural matters. • During the interview you will be given a chance to motivate your proposal. . the Giyani grower is equal to any top farmer. sustainable future for the country. what credit is and repayment requirements. When and how much can you borrow? This chapter is a sketch. make sure that your debt is not more than 30% of your current assets and 25% of the expected income. Moeletsi Mbeki. • After submitting the forms. e. Farming is a business just like any other. negotiate the possible loan terms and also to develop a good business relationship with your bank manager – prepare the presentation of your loan request beforehand. this contract can be ceded to us in security for his or her loan. especially as there is large untapped potential in informal markets.g. land and finance. But in terms of production techniques. (You are allowed to take someone who knows your business well with you. etc. Ask your financial advisor or extension officer or to assist you to compile this information.70 marketing and finance Development financial services 1. Property which is presented as collateral must meet certain requirements: • It must be identifiable and not perishable. Visit www. See the “Providers of financial services” chapter for contact details of the commercial banks. Farmers who are emerging in terms of scale battle with problems such as access to markets. it’s training. A collateral or security is property pledged as security for the loan. medium-sized and micro enterprises (SMMEs) keep one in six people economically active in the country. I think loans. water pumps. The bank will look at your: • assets and liabilities (financial standing) • present and expected income (cash flow) • risks involved and how you plan to cover them • knowledge of the industry in which you want to get involved Not having access to finance remains a key barrier to the growth and development of small business enterprises. No wonder the New Growth Path identifies small business as an enabler for creating and sustaining enterprise and jobs. Repaying the bank. it is the environment in which they operate that brings increased risk. for equipment. the FinScope South Africa Small Business Survey 2010 showed. however. including information and tips.g. of the financial assistance to small business (farmers included) in the country.

za A loan guarantee fund provides and ensures access to finance and technical skills by black emerging agribusiness entrepreneurs and farmers. Under normal lending criteria. • Submit a business plan to any of these institutions – banks or DFIs – who will have the capacity to assess the viability. in principle.71 3. African Bank. Source: www. due to insolvency or protracted default) incurred by debtors based in South Africa and/or the common monetary area. In each case they look at the parameters of the fund’s qualifying criteria. • The bank then needs to notify (within three months) the Fund that the guarantee has been taken up by the borrower. Quarterly financial statements from the borrower. Bank of Athens. • Upon approval in principle by the bank. • From the time of the approval of the application until the bank credit together with finance charges has been repaid. What is a Credit Guarantee? Farmers who do not have title deeds to the land they farm or who cannot meet the other conventional commercial bank security requirements are often excluded from access to agricultural finance. Nedcor. What is credit insurance? Domestic Credit Insurance offers protection against non-payment of debts (e. expand or acquire a new or existing business. Banks who participate in credit guarantees include ABSA. Enforcing the terms of credit in terms of prudent banking practice etc. Obtaining Credit Guarantees is one of the remedies.” For the company: Credit Insurance offers your company three main benefits: • risk protection – protection against non-payment.g. allowing them the space and opportunity to develop their agricultural business. failing which the guarantee application as granted will lapse. FNB. How is it done? We shall look at ways in which collateral may be obtained for small-scale/ emerging farmers. 2. • The participating banks screen and approve. • increased sales – credit Insurance will enable you to sell more goods to new and existing clients while substantially reducing the overall risk. the bank shall administer the repayments according to banking practice and procedures. which will be notified to the bank. People’s Bank and Standard Bank. feasibility and creditworthiness of the agribusiness projects and borrowers. Many commercial banks and the Development Finance Institutions (DFIs) in the country participate in the guarantee scheme.creditguarantee. “Indemnity cover means the extent to which a Fund indemnifies the Bank against the Bank’s irrecoverable loss in relation to the Facility concerned (expressed as a percentage). Peulwana HP . • better financing – enhanced financing mechanisms by providing added security to finance providers. it will lodge a fully completed written application (together with the necessary supporting documents and information required in the business plan) to the designated officer representing the Trustees of the Fund. they would not qualify for such finance since they would not have the support of an indemnity cover. • The Fund considers and approves or rejects the application within ten business days of receipt thereof. which might include: 1. For the individual: A credit guarantee is aimed at assisting borrowers to obtain normal banking facilities to enable them to establish. the applications from prospective borrowers qualifying for guarantee by the

and has a range of support services to the providing finance for qualified entrepreneurs. CANEGROWERS (see sugarcane chapter) would be able to tell you about the Khula-Akwandze Fund (KAF) for small-scale sugar farmers. Nedcor. Contact the banks or visit their websites to find out about their products and services. Mzansi accounts are offered by ABSA.ecic.g. See or contact role players like Enterprise Development Organisation (MEDO) or call MEDO at the following numbers: 010 500 5000 (Johannesburg). Provincial government departments also run programmes. Land Bank etc. Most banks also participate in credit guarantees. Visit www. They are given the responsibility to make it easier for small businesses to access finance (find the “State Owned Development Banks and Agencies” listing later in this chapter). We list some of these here. The DGRV SA assists co-operatives. an investment company for small and medium enterprises. The BEE scorecard allows rewards companies whose financial contributions favour Black Standard Bank and postbank. Co-operative banks are a possibility. the Export Credit Insurance Corporation of South Africa (ECIC) might be able to help. Financial Education (helping South Africans improve their financial knowledge and discipline) and building skills at public service Port Elizabeth SEDA Nelson Mandela Bay Tel: 041 502 2400 Queenstown SEDA Chris Hani Tel: 045 838 6035 Qumbu Eastern Cape Communications Cell: 082 209 0553 Uitenhage SEDA Nelson Mandela Bay Tel: 041 992 6513 MAFISA (Micro-agricultural Financial Institution of South Africa) is a micro and retail agricultural financial scheme for economically active poor people. Role players Business Partners. RFIs also use the Credit Guarantee Scheme to access additional funds from participating banks. as well as some centres that have been contracted to SEDA in the past: Eastern Cape Location Alfred Nzo Service provider and website Contact Details SEDA Mount Ayliff Tel: 039 254 0584 Camdeboo SEDA Cacadu Tel: 049 892 2105 East London Nunamis Business Development Cell: 078 158 6710 Services Cell: 079 920 5948 East London SEDA Amathole Tel: 043 722 1950 Kouga SEDA Cacadu Tel: 042 291 0966 Makana SEDA Cacadu Tel: 046 622 2067 Industry associations might have knowledge of funds for role players in their situated between Durban and Richard’s Bay in KwaZulu-Natal. runs a farmer support Programme called “NERPOLivestock Credit Scheme”(NLCS).za (KwaZulu-Natal Department of Economic Development) for an idea of what is on offer. Masisizane supports initiatives in Enterprise Development (women. Refer to the chapter on cooperatives. The service was established following a recommendation by the Financial Services Charter (FSC). Some of these associations might be actively involved in sourcing funds. company for example. Other organisations.72 4. Retail Finance Intermediaries (RFIs) are institutions that obtain loans from the state in order to loan the money to clients in their communities. The Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) has a number of financial incentives for businesses (take the “Financial assistance” option at to read about what is on offer for iLembe. Willowvale Khanyisa Business & Management Tel: 047 532 2685 Consultancy Cell: 083 739 3347 . with a particular emphasis on pesticides. They do not support for more. These associations are listed in the various crop and livestock chapters. Find contact details of their branches countrywide at www. 012 004 0500 (Pretoria). The company invests between R250 000 and R15 million in SMEs. FNB. livestock. over six million South Africans have opened Mzansi bank accounts which provide previously un-banked clients easy access to banking services countrywide. Find a list of these departments at www. Development finance institutions (DFIs) are listed under “State Owned Development Banks and Agencies” heading later in this small-scale irrigation systems and smallscale farming equipment and implements to small and emerging farmers and other target groups. 031 100 0500 (Durban). Call 012 319 7295 or email SecSMFSCD@daff. Microloan Guarantors (like the old Khula Enterprises) are founded by the Department of Trade and Industry to provide collateral for small businesses applying for SMME finance from commercial Visit www. and their criteria to obtain finance. Mthatha SEDA OR Tambo Tel: 047 531 5075 Mthatha Khanyisa Business & Management Tel: 047 532 2685 Consultancy Cell: 083 739 3347 Port Elizabeth Comsec Business Development Tel: 041 487 3996 Centre The Department of Economic Development is specifically tasked with “overseeing the work of key state entities engaged in economic development” (see www. The Credit Scheme is aimed at providing financial services to facilitate the development of Small. etc. proposals for funding and more. Some municipalities have Economic Development Agencies to support SMEs and to encourage Since its inception in 2004. The Small Enterprise Development Agency (SEDA) has offices to help the SMME with business plans. Contact 012 348 8566 or 083 640 5352. tasked with aspects such as training and support services and initiated by the dti. for but may be able to help if you are looking to supply agricultural inputs or doing some form of processing. The commercial banks have specialist SME or call 012 471 3800.oldmutual. have been grouped under the SEDA Visit www.economic.enterpriseilembe. The Department of Agriculture. The National Emergent Red Meat Producer’s Organisation (NERPO). Read more in the Black Economic Empowerment chapter. Micro and Medium Agribusiness Enterprises and to enable agricultural entrepreneurs to develop into larger businesses. These are institutions like the Visit MEDO connects large South African companies – annual turnover above R35million – with emerging micro enterprises – annual turnover of less than R5million – which are at least 50% blackowned. All government departments are tasked with growing their sphere of the economy and have (access to) various grants and funding mechanisms. 021 3000 500 (Cape Town). The Masisizane Fund was set up by Old Mutual as “a non-profit development funding company”. youth.ledet. seeds. RFIs charge different interest rates depending on the risk involved in the application. Visit www. The organisation provides savings and banking facilities at approved financial institutions and offers loans for production inputs (e. Different RFIs have different target markets depending on their operations. The ECIC evaluates export credit and foreign investment risks and provides export credit and foreign investment insurance cover on behalf of government. If you are (Limpopo Department of Economic Development) and www.). people with disabilities). Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) runs the Micro-agricultural Financial Institution of South Africa (MAFISA) and AgriBEE Equity Fund programmes.

html Sebokeng / Vanderbijlpark Sedibeng Training Centre Tel: 016 988 1350 Fax: 016 988 1347 Polokwane SEDA Capricorn Tel: 015 290 8720 Thohoyandou SEDA Vhembe Tel: 015 962 2144 Soshanguve Centre for Business Education and Training Tel: 012 799 2842 Fax: 012 799 5954 Tzaneen SEDA Mopani Tel: 015 306 6400 Vosloorus JMT Executive Tax and Marketing Tel: 015 307 5837 Palaborwa Foundation Cell: 083 656 7195 Tzaneen Small Enterprise Foundation Free State Location Bloemfontein Service provider and website SEDA Mangaung Dewetsdorp & Quick Leap Investment 120 Koffiefontein KwaZulu-Natal Contact Details Location Service provider and website Contact Details Tel: 051 447 3281 Tel: 051 447 4595 Durban Inkombandlela Accountants & Management Tel: 031 305 7680 Cell: 082 744 5071 Kokstad Scientific Roets Tel: 039 727 1515 Cell: 083 630 7787 Ilembe District Bantu Batho Management Services Tel: 032 551 1464 Harrismith Education with Enterprise Trust Tel: 058 623 0104 (EWET) Tel: 011 692 3286 Mokopane SEDA Waterberg Tel: 015 491 2168 Polokwane Tel: 015 223 2386 Rivonia Prodigy Business Services Tel: 011 234 5220 Joint Education Project Tel: 033 342 2546 Welkom PMC Graphic Designs & Consulting Tel: 057 353 2065 Cell: 082 905 2715 Port Shepstone SEDA Ugu Tel: 039 688 1560 Welkom SEDA Lejweleputswa Tel: 057 352 1870 Richards Bay Entrepreneurial Suport Services Tel: 035 797 1821 Fax: 035 797 1849 Wepener SEDA Naledi Tel: 051 583 1372 Richards Bay SEDA Uthungulu Tel: 035 789 3735 Tongaat KwaZulu Natal Development Tel: 032 945 2531 Foundation Ugu District MGM Holdings Tel: 011 422 4083 Benoni Maximum Development Institute Tel: 011 421 5283 Cell: 082 408 0493 Tel: 039 315 7300 Limpopo Location Service provider and website Contact Details Braamfontein Medunsa Organisation for Disabled Entrepreneurs Tel: 011 830 0231 Fax: 011 839 3216 Ba-Phalaborwa Bronkhorstspruit Library Business Information Corner Tel: 013 932 6305/6 Fetakgomo / Apel Mokgalaka Business Development Services Tell: 015 622 0543 Cell: 082 467 2863 Germiston/ Thokoza KLECO Local Business Service Centre Tel: 011 860 3415 Cell: 072 766 7068 Jane Furse SEDA Sekhukhune Tel: 013 265 1617 SEDA Tshwane Tel: 012 441 1301 Makhado / Louis Trichardt Rivoni Society for the Blind Pretoria Tel: 015 556 3207/8 Cell: 083 276 1059 Randfontein Bantsho Management and Marketing Strategies Tel: 015 769 5000 Tel: 015 769 5052 Tel: 058 623 0649 Kagisanong Township Mangaung University Community Partnership Programme (MUCPP) Tel: 051 435 2902/3 Cell: 082 702 2258 Ixopo SEDA Sisonke Tel: 039 834 7100 Ladysmith SEDA Uthukela Tel: 036 638 9780 Kroonstad PMC Graphic Designs & Consulting Tel: 057 353 2065 Cell: 082 905 2715 Melmoth Quad 4 Projects Tel: 035 450 7809 Mkhanyakude Kroonstad SEDA Fezile Dabu Tel: 056 213 1809 Maputaland Development and Tel: 035 592 0125 Information Cell: 072 077 2408 Ladybrand SEDA Mantsopa Tel: 051 924 1594 Mooi River Phuthaditjhaba SEDA Thabo Mofutsanyane Tel: 058 713 1683 Mooi Mpofana Youth Advisory Tel: 033 263 1221 Centre Qwaqwa Maluti Development Tel: 058 713 6342 Newcastle SEDA Amajuba Tel: 034 312 9096 Sasolburg SEDA Metsimaholo Tel: 016 974 2460 Pietermaritzburg SEDA Umgungundlozu Tel: 033 264 3100 Trompsburg SEDA Xhariep Tel: 051 713 0363 Pietermaritzburg The Business Support Centre Gauteng Location Service provider and website Contact Details Benoni Boikano Accountants

State Owned Development Banks and Tel: 021 637 3648 Saldanha West Coast Business Development Centre www.74 Mpumalanga Mafikeng Monaana Consulting And Tel: 018 381 3971 Cell: 084 501 5126 Training Services Tel: 022 714 1731 Stellenbosch SEDA Cape Winelands Tel: 021 883 9270 Visit A recent Tel: 013 752 5525 Witbank SEDA Nkangala Tel: 013 655 6970 Service provider and website Location Service provider and website Contact Details Tel: 053 632 7560 Western Cape North West Location Northern Cape Contact Details Bojanala East SEDA Brits Tel: 012 252 0580 Tel: 012 252 0581 Bojanala West SEDA Rustenburg Tel: 014 592 3696 Tel: 014 592 3769 Bophirima SEDA Vryburg Tel: 053 927 0590 Tel: 053 927 0591 Tel: 053 927 3930 Chaneng Brisca Projects Tel: 078 279 0323 Delareyville Majammoho Small Business Solutions Tel: 083 253 9925 Ganyesa Ganyesa Business Development Centre Tel: 083 926 8345 Mafikeng Ernsol Business Management Tel: 018 381 4029 Services Cell: 083 504 2322 Mafikeng Majammoho Small Business Tel: 083 253 9925 Solutions Location Service provider and website Contact Details Bellville SEDA Cape Town Tel: 021 949 2227 Cape Town (Heerengracht) Nicro www. for contact details of SEDA provincial managers. org. Lydenburg Centre – Lydenburg www. co. the Retail Emerging .za Tel: 013 947 0315 Umjindi / Nelspruit Megro Learning Centre www. • The Land Bank: provides finance to all sectors of the agricultural economy and agri-business.seda.wcbusinessdevelopment. Emerging businesses often find that these institutions offer services that are not available to them by commercial Tel: 0800 246 888 Thembisile Diale Maphothoma & Associates Dr SJ Moroka / Midveld Industrial Chamber of Tel: 013 986 0737 Siyabuswa Commerce (MICAC) Mafikeng SEDA Mafikeng Tel: 018 381 3915/6/7 Potchestroom Brain Wave Projects Tel: 079 607 8390 Hazyview SEDA office Tel: 013 799 1961 Potchestroom Highlands / Belfast Umndeni Enterprises Tel: 013 253 1748 Small Business Advice Bureau Tel: 018 299 1002 Cell: 082 880 7650 Southern District SEDA Klerksdorp Tel: 018 462 1376/9 Vryburg Ganyesa Business Development Centre Tel: 083 926 8345 Zeerust Ernsol Business Management Tel: 082 756 0520 Services Location Bushbuckridge Service provider and website SEDA Bushbuckridge Contact details Tel: 013 799 1804 Kwa-Mhlushwa SEDA office Tel: 013 790 1183 Malamulele Tel: 015 851 0100 Get Ready Information Services Malelane SEDA Nkomazi Tel: 013 790 1183 Marapyane Marapyane Thusong Service Centre Tel: 012 724 3801 Tel: 012 724 3802 Mbombela / Nelspruit Global Village Project Management Tel: 013 757 1240 Cell: 082 868 7874 Nelspruit SEDA Ehlanzeni Tel: 013 754 4380 De Aar SEDA Pixley-Ka-Seme Secunda SEDA Gert Sibande Tel: 017 634 4339 Kimberley Siyathemba / Balfour Imvuselelo Business Development Resources Centre (IBDRC) Tel: 074 144 5603 Creative Thinking Trading Tel: 053 832 4632 524 (T/A Eyethu Services) Cell: 079 140 7491 Kimberley SEDA Frances Baard Tel: 053 836 7720 Kuruman SEDA John Taolo Gaetsewe Tel: 053 714 3160 Springbok SEDA Namakwa Tel: 027 712 8500 Upington SEDA Siyanda Tel: 054 337 8280 Thaba Chweu / Beehive Entrepreneurial Tel: 021 462 0017 George SEDA Eden Tel: 044 874 4770 Gugulethu Isibane resource centre Tel: 083 390 4265 Khayelitsha Zenzele training and development Tel: 021 361 1840 Rosebank CLOTEX

Find contact details in the Agricultural education and training • Is’Baya Development Trust support to entrepreneurs includes skills. Phone 012 420 5435 and visit • Wanyuka Consultants Tel: 033 234 4511 / 082 572 3724 www. ABSA. • South African Savings Institute (SASI) Tel: 011 269 3789 www. • Microfinance South Africa is the “recognised voice of reputable microfinanciers”.za is an information portal for South African small business. systems and processes - encouraging entrepreneurship and facilitating skills development - co-ordinating access to resources required to grow a business.amfisa. It helps fund resource-poor farmers at preferential interest rates until they become or call the toll free queries number: 0800 00 52 • Visit www. com. Visit www. exorbitant interest rates. as well as act as a catalyst for accelerating job creation in line with government’s New Growth Path”. The provincial offices contact details are available on the website. • The Enterprise Development Fund (EDF).nyda. business planning. FNB.isbaya. Visit their website at www.microfinance. • The National Development Agency (NDA) has the mandate to “eradicate poverty by granting funds to civil society organisations that implement developmental projects in all provinces”. SABRI nurtures promising SMEs through the start-up and growth phases of their businesses by: - strengthening the internal capabilities.entrepreneurmag. Call the NEF at 011 305 8000. 013 755 3777 (Mpumalanga). due diligence. has caused a lot of excitement. 5. • The University of Pretoria houses the Centre for Inclusive Banking in or give the NCR a call at 0860 627 and www.sabri. org. seeks “to support black enterprise development in South Africa’s industrial value • South African Credit Co-operative League (SACCOL) Tel: 021 422 3333 www. Visit 051 430 2024 (Free State).za [SACCOL Ltd was established by Savings and Credit Co-operatives (SACCOs) and Credit Unions around South Africa as their National Association]. as well as implementation and establishment of 043 721 1226 (Eastern Cape) The national number is 012 845 mentoring and business development training. • Elilox Group Tel: 041 582 5072 • The Banking Association South Africa Tel: 011 645 6700 www. • The Schwab Foundation for Social Entrepreneurship www. launched in 2011 with a R75-million contribution from the National Empowerment Fund (NEF). Find details of provincial bodies in the “Providers of financial services” • Provincial development agencies – e. The main telephone number for the IDC is 011 269 3000. Cabinet announced its intention to merge small business development agencies like Khula Enterprise Finance and the South African Micro-Finance Apex Fund (SAMAF) into the Small Enterprise Finance Agency (SEFA) under the IDC. • Peulwana Agricultural Financial Services Tel: 011 314 2833 (find their advert on page 71) • Productivity SA is “inspiring a competitive South Africa” • The Financial Services Board is a unique independent institution established by statute to oversee the South African Non-Banking Financial Services Industry in the public or call the main office at 011 018 5500. .org. • ANDISA Agri’s services include managing “change of control” transactions and land reform transaction • Some media houses run magazines and newsletters for SMMEs. Find the earlier note on SEDA. Their advert is on page 394. Invest North West and the Limpopo Business Support Agency (Libsa) – give financial assistance to co-operatives and small businesses. 018 392 6892 (North West). Call 082 807 5587 and visit www. by way of example.75 Markets (REM) financing for information on the different offerings. supporting government to implement developmental Visit www. African Rural And Agricultural Credit Association (AFRACA) and the Rural Finance Learning Centre (RFLC). Call 012 346 1081 and visit or call 012 362 0802 • Read about the Thembeka Social Investment Company at www.g. Visit or call 021 674 1134 to find out more about SA Business Resource Institute (SABRI). For more information on services visit the Land Bank website www. In 2011. If your proposed venture focuses on the development of infrastructure you are entitled to apply for funds from this or phone 011 888 3498. • The CSIR Enterprise Creation for Development does feasibility studies. an agency of the Department of Trade and Find provincial contact details at www. • The role of the National Credit Regulator (NCR) is to prevent abuse by lenders of credit (e. • The Development Bank of Southern Africa (DBSA) provides finances to projects related to the development of infrastructure. 015 291 2492 (Limpopo). The provincial offices can be called at 053 831 4828 (Northern Cape). org and call 021 851 visit or call 021 447 8138. The operations office can be contacted at 011 313 3911 • The Industrial Development Corporation (IDC) finances initiatives in different sectors including agriculture and agro-processing. On the website find the international links off this website e. Regulatory and other role players • The Agricultural Business Chamber (Agbiz) hosts workshops on finding ways to provide sustainable funding to emerging farmers.g. • Visit www. Clients must show assets and/or a certain amount of • Association for pro poor Micro Finance Institutions for South Africa (AMFISA) Tel: 011 805 4949 www. • SBP Business Environment Specialists Tel: 011 486 0797 www.csir. • Resonance Institute of Learning’s training courses for youth include financial and entrepreneurial sbp. Contact 2BBiz.nda.theeliloxgroup. • Makgalaka Business Development Services Tel: 015 622 0543 / 082 467 2863 lmokgalaka@gmail. • Small Enterprise Development Agency (SEDA).za or call 012 428 031 305 5542 (KwaZuluNatal).g. provides small business support through its branches across the • The Independent Development Trust (IDT) operates largely within the realm of the second economy. Visit www. To see what is on offer from Entrepreneur Media SA. business planning and feasibility studies. • The National Youth Development Agency (NYDA) can be contacted at 08600 tembeka. banking. at 012 667 6603. Call 021 658 2753 or find their pages at www. Standard Bank and Nedbank are all members of the Agbiz. • The Agricultural Colleges provide short course training in financial skills. Find out more at • Thembani International Guarantee Fund (TIGF) provides Credit Guarantees (see heading 3). 021 422 5175 (Western Cape) or 011 339 6410 (Gauteng). unfair blacklisting).ncr. Find the Agbiz website at www. Visit Contact details of district branches can be found on the website.

assisting with trade missions and inspection of goods on arrival overseas. .za (see the “Customs and Excise” menu option). Some of the services include overseas assessment. the Export Marketing and Investment Assistance Scheme. assistance with trade fairs and exhibitions. exported and imported. Services rendered free of charge by foreign representatives of the DTI: • identification of suitable agents. Form DA 185 (plus the relevant annexures) for importers and exporters.sars. The domestic price of commodities in most countries is very close to import parity (the landed price of an imported product) as farmers compete with each other for markets. the exchange As long as the global economic system creates countries that are better able to produce products more efficiently (and cheaper) than others. trade lead facilitation and in-market support. The Export Promotion Directorate is responsible for developing and promoting South African goods and services including specific technical interventions in terms of EMIA financial support. identification of business opportunities. matchmaking. A growth in exports will be crucial to this country meeting its job creation goals and meeting other targets like the United Nation’s Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).gov. useful to anyone exporting or Free Trade Agreements – SADC Tel: 012 394 3050 Fax: 012 394 4050 Asia East Region Tel: 012 394 1529 Fax: 012 394 2529 International Trade Administration Commission (ITAC) Import and export control Phillip Snyman Free Trade Agreements – Americas/ Tel: 012 394 3590 www. etc • general assistance in obtaining tender documents and negotiating with authorities such as customs and health • distribution of South African trade publications and newsletters to foreign business communities • inspection of South African products on arrival overseas Trade and Investment South Africa (TISA) Mr Christiaan Saaiman Tel: 012 394 1021 Christiaans@thedti. For an overview of South African trade and economic agreements. Promoted under the banner of Customs Offices and more are on the website.thedti. applicants are issued with a unique customs code number. Upon registration. importers and distributors • assisting trade missions to and from South Africa • spotting overseas business opportunities • entry strategies into foreign markets and related research • promotion of technology transfers and foreign investment in manufacturing in South Africa • assistance to exporters in overcoming obstacles such as quotas. The Department of Trade & Industry (DTI) will assist registered exporters in the marketing and promotion of their products. The Department of Trade and Industry (dti) Find the “ or phone 012 394 1014 / 1029 or 1146. is compiled monthly by the Department of Agriculture. Trade data is given on www. This as well as clearing agents and warehouse licensees. Contact details of head office. marketing and finance Exporting 1. 3. The registration process normally takes about two to three weeks. identify new product and new market • Trade lead facilitation • Facilitating exports by matching potential exporters with foreign buyers • In Market Support • EMIA Financial Assistance For more information please visit www. identification of suitable agents and distribution abroad. the world trade system – and exporting – will continue unabated. partial compensation is available to exporters in respect of costs incurred. This business unit aims to increase the market penetration of South African companies in order to export products and services into various MERCUSOR Tel: 012 394 3020 Rebate Applications on imports for Fax: 012 394 4020 value addition and re-exports Tel: 012 394 3050 Free Trade Agreements – Europe Fax: 012 394 4050 Tel: 012 394 3018 Fax: 012 394 4018 Through TISA .itac. Revenue Branch Offices (provincial). Export Promotion Offerings • Market intelligence and advice e. South African Revenue Service (SARS) All importers and exporters in South Africa are required to register with the Commissioner of the South African Revenue Service (SARS) the DTI provides financial assistance to registered exporters which meet certain performance criteria. Forms are to be submitted to the SARS office closest to the area in which the applicant’s head office is situated. must be completed and submitted to SARS. developing entry strategies into foreign markets. 2. exports and invesent” menu option on the website. Overview Farmers in the 21st Century are greatly influenced by international commodity The “South Africa and agriculture” chapter provides a list of the top 15 agricultural products (primary and secondary). The assistance provided is in the form of financial or non-financial customs tariffs and import restrictions • assistance to exporters in setting up International Trade Division: World Trade Organisation (WTO) Tel: 012 394 3070 xcarim@thedti. seminars.thedti. market intelligence. and the flow of produce between countries. export destinations etc refer to the article “South African agricultural exports: where are they going?” in the January 2012 International TradeProbe. Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) and the National Agricultural Marketing Council (NAMC) and can be found at www. development export markets.

. PPECB provides internationally preferred food. See its website at • Find a list of fruit exporters at http://fpef. Tariff Quotas in terms of Free Trade Agreements as well as minimum market Access in terms of WTO with regard to certain export permits under the South Africa / European Union Trade Development and Cooperation South AfricanNetherlands – www. Find useful information on the website www. agricultural practices and legislation. has been delivering end-point inspection services on perishable products destined for export since 1991. • Responsible Packaging Management Association (RPMASA) Tel: 032 947 1145 http://rpmasa. Fisheries and Forestry (DAFF) acts as the contracting authority for the National Agricultural Marketing Council (NAMC) Tel: 012 341 1115 • The Middle East and in particular the United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia. quality and assurance services to promote and instil confidence in the agricultural products of South Africa. SA PIP 2 provides funding for training 450 smallholders nationally on responsible pesticide use. Reserve Bank Tel: 012 313 3911 • NEDLAC Tel: 011 328 4200 including the provision of quarantine UK. Another market is European countries with large Muslim communities ( Directorate: International Trade Tel: 012 319 8451/2 DITR@daff. click on “Divisions”. while the Department of Agriculture. Read about Fairtrade South Africa at www. the Southern African German Chamber of Commerce – www. established by the National Department of It is housed under the Chief Directorate: Trade and Business Development. • Some Chambers are geared towards trade between two countries e. packers.g. Directorate: Plant Health Tel: 012 319 6072 South African Bureau of Standards (SABS) Tel: 012 428 7911 www. There is huge potential for more small scale farmers to be empowered to be sustainable and commercially viable exporters as they constitute only a small percentage of those who export fruit and vegetables. co. or call the Fresh Produce Exporters’ Forum (FPEF) at 021 526 0474. thereby creating an environment for safe imports and or phone 011 784 8000. Perishable Products Export Control Board (PPECB) Tel: 021 930 1134 The NAMC is involved in several Tariff investigations. Make contact with Ismail Rawat of the South African Halaal Export Forum (SAHEF) at 082 793 4494 • South African Shippers Council (SASC) sasc@clbcon. status of animals/animal products The Agricultural Trade Forum (ATF) from export promotion and import-export control are activities to supporting new ITAC’s services agribusinesses in their endeavours to export their products. Negotiates protocols on the import and export of animals/animal products. gov. represents the greatest potential market for South African Halaal Certified products.busa.78 4. Tel: 012 319 6100 DAPIS@daff. food SAPIP 2 is that programme’s successor. The purpose of these registrations is to Directorate: Animal Health ensure that Read about the different divisions on the website. safety. For notes on the different Find the various Export certification procedures under the Food Safety Directorate: Agricultural and Quality Assurance option at Product Inspection Services • The Farm Animal Unit of the National Council of SPCAs monitors the export of live animals from East London and Durban harbours. required to register with etc. South African Pesticide Initiative Programme 2 (SA PIP 2) South Africa signed a Financial Agreement with the EU in the previous decade to address the issue of chemical residue levels on food being exported into the EU.fsacci. Directorate: Food Safety and Quality Assurance Tel: 012 319 7306 on trade All food business operators (FBOs) of legislated agricultural products of Phytosanitary certificates are issued plant origin intended for export are look under the “Services” option on The Directorate also puts out various publications (like the Step-by-step Export Manual for the South African Fruit Industry) to help people enquiring about exporting Directorate: Marketing Tel: 012 319 8455 DM@daff. Assessors are stationed across the country and deliver inspection services on 200 product types at more that 1500 Visit Call 012 319 6910 or email LouwrensTh@daff. Southern Africa-Switzerland – www. Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) For various notes on are in line with the internationally Controls and certifies the health set traceability requirements. • The Agricultural Business Chamber is a member of Business Unity South Africa (BUSA). • The fair trade movement aims “to enhance trading conditions for small scale Tel: 012 319 7456 processors and freight forwarders sandraDAC@daff. for import/export. Find the Import and export notes under the Plant health option at www. Role players Associations and NGOs • Many Agricultural Business Chamber (Agbiz) members are agricultural This resulted in the establishment of the South African Pesticide Initiative Programme (SA PIP). France and Germany).za Permits for imports in terms of Regional Bilateral Agreements.nspca. mandated by the Department of Agriculture. improve labour conditions for employees and empower communities through ethical and sustainable trade” Ensures compliance with international plant health obligations and which import 80% of their food requirements. the French South African Chamber – Other government departments and state bodies International Trade Administration Commission (ITAC) Tel: 012 394 3688 . facilitates the entire agricultural industry with regard to international trade. Department of Look for the government gazette notices under the publications option at Trade remedies ways here.daff. trade agreements etc. Quotas for exports are determined here.scsa. 5. The Perishable Products Export Control Board has been tasked with rolling out SA PIP 2.

These loans are then underwritten by Credit Guarantee and re-insured by the Department of Trade & • DB Schenker Logistics Tel: 021 380 3200 co.clovercargo. whether by South African Association of Freight Forwarders (SAAFF) Tel: 011 455 1726 www. Most agents have an international network of branch offices or associates. The Export Credit Insurance Corporation of South Africa Limited (ECIC) Department of Trade and Industry Find the export credit insurance Tel: 012 471 3800 under the “Products and services” Tel: 012 394 3545 • Kintetsu World Express Tel: 011 573 5700 www. capetownchamber. The export council’s database may be found on www.cofaceza. Agents also handle customs clearance. alternatively called the ‘shipping and forwarding’ or ‘clearing and forwarding’ • Deugro (SA) Tel: 011 230 0100 www. foreign www. South African Flower Export Council (SAFEC).net/ southafrica • IMPSON Logistics Tel: 021 406 9300 Prestige Credit Insurance Consultants Tel: 011 022 0642 www. • schedule and transit times of the various transport services.dbschenker. Business Unity South Africa (BUSA) facilitates training workshops for SMMEs interested in Standard Bank Tel: 0800 FOREX reducing risks and uncertainty. Finance Commercial banks assist with export credits. • compliance with maritime and other statutory Training and research Coface South Africa Tel: 011 208 2500 www. This takes the form of a National Export Advisory Council.jcci. The purpose of the scheme • Clear Freight Tel: 011 856 6600 is to finance small to mediumsized businesses which lack the A project can qualify for 85% financial resources to execute finance if a South African content export orders. including exporting. South African Ostrich Business Chamber and the SA Fruit and Vegetable Exporters’ Council. Visit • MSC Logistics Tel: 011 627 6542 www. Wines of South Africa (WOSA).forwardairandsea. • the most suitable packing. chaired by the Minister. and • all technical aspects of international • Premier Freight Tel: 011 573 9000 • Benoni Chamber of Commerce – www.bcci. which enables them to give advice on the importing country’s regulations. including related documentation needs and exchange control • Bloemfontein Chamber of Commerce – www.ecic. Find out how your nearest Chamber of Commerce can help you.sasfin.idc. Industrial Development Corporation (IDC) Tel: 011 269 3000 • South Coast Chamber of Commerce – Lombard Insurance Group Tel: 0861 551 0600 • Trans Africa Logistics Tel: 011 255 0300 The role of the freight forwarder.benonicci. Included are organisations like the Fresh Produce Exporters’ Forum. rail. SASFIN Bank Tel: 011 809 7500 If you are an exporter. Phone 018 290 6019. Export councils In partnership with the or phone 011 784 • Randburg Chamber of Commerce – Credit insurance products Credit Guarantee Tel: 011 889 7000 / 65 • UTI Tel: 011 723 1600 (Sea) Tel: 011 578 3500 (Air) exchange is one of your top risks. A rand futures market exists allowing Import/export trade finance agribusinesses and farmers to experts hedge themselves against negative movements in the exchange rate. • rates and insurance Hedge against foreign currency Credit insurance products Logistics and transport • Bidvest Panalpina Logistics (Air) Tel: 011 570 6000 (Sea) Tel: 031 302 3811 • Hellmann Logistics Tel: 011 928 7000 www. Export Councils have been given a forum to address all obstacles and proposals that may affect their ability to export successfully. The chamber movement addresses all issues affecting the business • Johannesburg Chamber of Commerce – www. is to ensure that cargo is transported across international boundaries in the most efficient and economical air.busa. • marking of and any other permits required by • Johannesburg Export Division Tel: 011 565 2600 www. Agri Skills Transfer Network runs a course which focuses on export readiness: business/export market Credit insurance for protection on your dealings with exports debtors.thedti. The agent should be able to advise the exporter on the following aspects: • the best mode of transport for the to obtain finance from a number of participating banks. The scheme of at least 50% of the total project enables the prospective exporter value is achieved.premierfreight.jse. road or a combination of JSE Limited Tel: 011 520 7000 • Forward Air & Sea Tel: 011 392 5364 www.lombardins. guarantees and letters of supply chain management etc. • freight rates. • Cape Town Regional Chamber of Commerce and Industry – • costing for export.prestigecredit. The Credit Guarantee Insurance Corporation of South Africa administers an export credit insurance scheme on behalf of the www. International Affairs (SAIIA) Tel: 011 339 2021 University of South Africa www. or Solomon Magagula at 012 394 1343 or • (Etc) For those exporters looking for better access to the ever-growing European Union (EU) market – now 25 countries strong and a major trading partner – the Department of Trade and Industry (dti) has run a national series of workshops on the issue. Advance Certificate in International Trade as Training includes the mechanism of well as National Diploma in Export/ credit – who does what and why. short course. Find details on A three-day course is offered covering all you need to know Skills Development Specialists about chartering ships for your Tel: 031 303 8292 business – methods Ernst Idsardi – 018 299 2484 Ernst. www. case studies etc. Freight Training (Pty) Ltd Tel: 011 450 4140 Tel: 021 880 2010 www.viviers@nwu. Contact Phina Mashilo at 012 394 1060 or Tel: 021 880 1276 Short courses and distance education: Certificate in International Trade.sdstraining. distance education certificate course in exporting is “Building capacity to help Africa • Estcourt Chamber of Commerce – www. TMS Training Services Tel: 011 853 2777 SA AgriAcademy Unit for Environmental Sciences TRADE (Trade and and Management Development) The South African Board of Standards (SABS) offers training The University of Cape Town runs courses for costs and issues involved.A. gov. Take a look at www. Import Research niche areas – focusing The Perishable Products Export research on export promotion and Control Board (PPECB) is identifying South Africa’s export involved in programmes to build opportunities capacity. North-West University School of Economics Tel: 018 299 1438 or call 021 447 South African Institute of 7565 for more A • Zululand Chamber of Commerce – • B Com – majoring in Economics and International Diploma in Export Management Trade • Hons B Com in International International Trade Institute of Trade South Africa (ITRISA) • M Com in International Trade Tel: 011 807 5317 • PhD in International Trade (UNISA) Centre for Business Management Trade Law Centre for Southern Tel: 012 429 4376 Africa (TRALAC) Institute of Export (Graduate School of Management) Offering: Tel: 011 628 2000 www. The Fresh Produce Exporters’ Forum (FPEF) is involved in various training programmes. Find contact details under heading trade better” .itrisa. The dti also runs a Small Exporters Development Find an Import and Export Management contact details under heading • Pietermaritzburg Chamber of Business –

viviers@nwu. • www. 7. • • DFM Software Solutions Tel: 021 904 1154 Websites Visit websites of role players mentioned in the chapter • Care to find out how countries fare in the competitive rankings? Two reports are the World Competitiveness Report (produced by the IMD Business School in Switzerland) tariff and trade remedy summary • International Trade Centre (ITC) (consultants to the local and international freight industry) • Customs Services (Pty) Ltd Tel: 011 397 5370 www. the “African Business Journal” • Christopher Richards Consultancy Tel: 011 442 6071/2 www. Find it at • The Exporter’s Manual Alan Cowell and Pat – the global information resource for business and travel. • www. they are at the heart of world – this website lists companies worldwide who supply – Cargo Info – International Trade Centre website for “trade statistics for international business development” • Find the trade • www.intracen. Download the latest weekly • – Centre for the Promotion of Imports from Developing Countries (CBI) provides market information.viviers@nwu.tralac.kznded. • • daff.mbendi.81 Consultants and other services • AgriBusiness Systems international (ABSi) Tel: 021 917 2719 or by visiting www. the “Development partner for export success” – www. “Southern Africa’s freight information port” • www.unctad. • Booklets and guides are available from the South African Revenue Service (SARS) e. Johannesburg Chamber of Commerce.iccwbo. co. Sun Media Metro. • The KwaZulu-Natal Department of Economic Development has intensified the training of and support for entrepreneurs in agribusiness export. working papers etc at www. ac.iata..inw. or write to Lawrencemp@malnormags. “making import tariffs and market access barriers transparent” • www. Trade terms (Incoterms) Incoterms are standard trade definitions most commonly used in international sales the “ultimate guide to – Frontier Market Intelligence. Nature’s Choice and the export market).za. and environmental information for exporters from developing countries. “Country profile” and “Trade beyond Africa”.ac. • The Western Cape Investment and Trade Promotion Agency (Wesgro) launched a web-based trade portal in 2012 that allows Western Cape businesses to register their companies and products and to engage with foreign importers.exporthelp. • TRADE (Trade and Development) Wilma.weforum. • Joint Agribusiness Department of Agriculture Forum for Africa www. Visit www.g. ( Find options like “Trade within Africa”.org – Market Access Map. Visit • Amongst its many services. • – World Customs Organisation • World Trade Organisation (WTO) – www. • International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) www. by emailing mntambob@kznded. Email (research niche areas – focusing research on export promotion and identifying South Africa’s export opportunities) Provincial Government support All provinces have trade and investment promotion – an “Africa Trade Initiative” • The CTA’s monthly news update on agricultural trade issues – subscribe at http://agritrade. advice on import enquiries.dfmsoftware. Visit – Foreign Agricultural Service (the United States Department of Agriculture) • International Air Transport Association (IATA) www. co. ISBN: 978-1-86871-312-7.tradersafrica. Tel: 011 726 imd. • The Step-by-step Export Manual for the South African Fruit export promotion. excise. Agreements. – the “world’s favourite currency site” Our thanks to North-West University for comments on the draft chapter org/ • Export South Africa is published monthly and aimed at all exporters and export service providers. a joint initiative between the NAMC and DAFF’s Directorate International Trade. trade and investment in Africa” • United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) – – “Your online export helpdesk” • www. Invest North West (INW) assists in the development of trade in the “second economy” by enhancing its capacity to export to various (Trade Law Centre for Southern Africa). • Cuyvers. compiled by DAFF in or visit www. and the Global Competitiveness Report (produced by the World Economic Forum in Switzerland). It also runs workshops in the use of incoterms and participating in the international environment. Publications • The PPECB Export Directory – call 021 930 1134 or visit www. • and www. or phone 011 452 9847. Export Promotion: A Decision Support Model Approach. L and Viviers. Call 011 726 3081 Ext 246 or 082 890 5255. Trade Agreements and Preferential Dispensations administered by the South African Revenue (For software that allows the user to create chemical and fertiliser instructions required for GLOBALG. Contact him at 011 442 6071 or write to chrisrichards@dunkeld. The Incoterms you are most likely to use: Ex Works EXW Free on Board FOB Cost Insurance and Freight CIF Carriage Paid to CPT Delivered Duty Unpaid DDU Visit the website of the International Chamber of Commerce and the World Business Organisation for more information – Devised and published by the International Chamber of Commerce.africatrade. Find their details in the “Providers of financial services” chapter. • www.A.jcci.ppecb.wcoomd. at • Business consultant Chris Richards has authored training manuals on importing and Make contact with them at 031 310 – Market Analysis Portals (available on a subscription basis) • • Bamic Enterprises Tel: 021 788 6153 http://bamicenterprises. com • Fresh Fruit Export Directory – call 021 526 0474 or visit www. Find out more at 014 594 2570 or at www. • Find the INTERNATIONAL Trade Probe. matching.

and respond to. The auctions take place under the auspices of the South African Wool and Mohair Buyers’ Association (Sawamba) and only members of Sawamba are permitted to bid at auctions. are being used). such as sisal. Wool • Wool is sold in a free market environment and producers are free to sell their wool to whomever they wish. The emerging “green” economy is based on energy efficiency. renewable feed stocks in polymer products. leaf fibres. They have good mechanical strength. A marketing angle on natural fibres • Natural fibres are a healthy choice. • Natural fibres are a high-tech choice. the opportunities provided by growing demand for organic cotton and wool. such as silk. which stretches from late August to mid-June the following year. which may differ from auction to auction. camels and alpacas.daff. The bulk of South Africa’s wool clip is sold via public Ona Viljoen of Cape Wools SA. commonly used synthetic fibres are mass produced from petrochemicals to uniform strengths. Buyers have the opportunity to inspect samples of the various lots in the brokers’ warehouses a few days prior to the auctions. The eighth of the series is entitled “Wool and Mohair”. low weight and low cost. electronic auctions and tenders. such as cotton. • Natural fibres are a fashionable and www. industrial processes that reduce carbon emissions and recyclable materials.farmersweekly. or open your copy of Landbouweekblad and/or Farmer’s Weekly. co. these have been displaced by man-made fibres with names like acrylic. Natural fibre producers. mohair. “Cotton”. • Wool is typed into many different types and the different prices are paid for the different types. The top export destinations for SA wool are China. hemp. training. Websites and publications • Find the excellent Agricultural Marketing Extension on the Department of Agriculture’s website – (take the Publications and then General Publications menu options). after which a certificate is issued. which is determined in Australia where the largest volumes of apparel wool are traded. More than 150 years in wool and mohair has given the province valuable expertise in the relevant bitstream/2263/6309/1/Jordaan_Investigating(2008). and husk fibres such as coconut. rabbits. Unlike natural fibres harvested by farmers. from cotton bolls. producers and processors of natural fibres need to develop and maintain markets in which they can compete effectively with synthetics. Natural fibres are at the heart of an eco-fashion or “sustainable clothing” movement that seeks to create garments that are sustainable at every stage of their life cycle. from production to Source: adapted from www. easily customised to specific applications. The websites of the two publications also contain archived articles: take a look at www.82 marketing and finance Fibre trading Although there are some notes here on mohair and and www. Over the past half century. “Sheep – Wool”. wool is not displayed in the auction room and buyers buy from a catalogue which is provided by the various brokers. “Bamboo” and “Other fibre crops”. Wool garments act as insulators against both cold and heat. A significant proportion of the province’s wool and mohair is exported unprocessed or semi-processed and the sector has very good expansion potential. New investment will allow increased value-add to the province’s excellent raw materials through the production of high-value wool and mohair products for worldwide niche markets. primarily to enable extension officers to help emerging farmers play a greater role in the industries. Mohair • The Eastern Cape Province is the premier mohair producing area in South Africa and the undisputed leader in mohair production in the world. That has made them particularly attractive to the automobile industry (increasingly coconut fibre. for recyclable and biodegradable fabrics. farmers harvest around 35 million tonnes of natural fibres from a wide range of plants and animals – from sheep. abaca and sisal leaves and coconut husks. the Czech Republic and India. • Natural fibres are a responsible choice. 1. the reader is asked to consult the various fibre chapters i. They are of major economic importance to many developing countries and vital to the livelihoods and food security of millions of small-scale farmers and processors. • Prices paid for wool are determined by free market supply and demand forces and are closely linked to the international price for apparel wool. length and strength and vegetable matter. • These auctions are held in Port Elizabeth on virtually every Wednesday during the wool-selling season. This certificate is displayed with the sample so that a buyer knows exactly what type of wool he is buying. • Market reports and information can be found online and in the agricultural weekly publications. Its aim is to facilitate a better understanding of wool and mohair marketing in South Africa. • Animal fibres include wool. sisal. flax and ramie Sources: a study done by D Jordaan and J Kisten at www. and for “fair trade” practices that offer producers higher prices and protect textile industry Italy. Germany. • Natural fibres are a sustainable choice. Visit www. The case for natural fibres • Plant fibres include seed hairs. goats. Across the world. Wool and mohair The Eastern Cape is a leading world producer of high-quality merino wool and mohair luxury fibres. 3. • The open cry auction system is the main trading platform with an average of 96% of the total volume of mohair. hair and secretions. “Goats – Mohair”. A cotton T-shirt feels comfortable on a hot day. The Wool Testing Bureau of SA tests wool for various characteristics. • A group of mohair producers marketing their mohair outside the spot marketing system as “Camdeboo” mohair and selling it directly to processors through systems of contracts and agreements has been a recent 2. Each hemp wastes etc. lengths and colours. the wool is either exported in its raw form by the buyer or semi-processed before being exported. such as flax and hemp.pdf . and from the stalks of jute. polyester and polypropylene. • After sale. Role players Find detailed lists in the different fibre chapters 4. production and marketing. Other trading options between mohair producers and buyers are farm gate sales. contracts and forward selling. Natural fibres are a renewable resource. such as fibre diameter (micron). They provide natural ventilation. technology. “Speciality fibre production”.org and www.up.capewools. . clean yield. nylon. textile manufacturers and the clothing industry need to be aware of. • Due to space restrictions. stem (or bast) fibres. • Growers have a number of options how to sell their production and are able to hold the sale until prices

Deputy Registrar and Secretary make up the full-time staff complement and they are charged with managing the day to day activities of APAC and the application of the Act. taxi ranks. As far as Market Agents are concerned this includes: 2. outside bus stations. as the vendors have purchased their products from farmers or the bigger markets to resell again to the public and tourists. Act 12 of 1992 (amended 2003) the Minister of Agriculture is required to establish an Agricultural Produce Agents Council (APAC) – a Statutory Body – to administer the Act on behalf of the Minister. e) In terms of Act 12 there are three groups of agricultural produce commission agents: fresh produce market agents. k)0The Market Agents’ Fidelity Fund also funds a comprehensive and unique training programme for fresh produce commission market salespeople. h) Market Agents must by law pay their farmers within 5 working days after completing the sale of a consignment. fresh produce export agents and livestock This programme requires a new salesperson to successfully complete the three module training programme as well as a number of audits in the workplace within a given time frame before being registered by APAC as a Fresh Produce Commission Salesperson. Membership is made up of the following role players: • two persons representing agricultural producers of fresh produce • two persons representing livestock producers • three persons representing fresh produce market agents • three persons representing livestock agents • three persons representing fresh produce export agents • two persons designated by the Minister • two persons representing consumers • one person representing DAFF • Registrar and Deputy Registrar The Council meets at various times through the year according to its needs and oversees the implementation of Act 12 on behalf of the Minister of Agriculture. A Registrar. • making policy. c) Act 12 also provides for a Market Agents’ Fidelity Fund to which only they contribute annually and which guarantees farmers’ money under specified circumstances. . who sell on behalf of the farmers are governed by Act 12 of 1992 (amended 2003) which prescribes. i) There are 23 Fresh Produce Commission Markets in South Africa and of these. or wholesale markets where a wholesaler has purchased the products from the farmers and sells those products for a profit. freshmarksystems. weekly and monthly information on sales as well as national statistics [see www. National strategy In terms of the Agricultural Produce Agents Act. There is no other training programme like this in the world. flower markets and livestock markets (auctions). Markets traditionally sold all farm products but as times changed so did the selling and distribution requirements of agricultural products. j) By reacting to the laws of supply and demand on a daily basis. g) Market Agents must submit a Trust Account Reconciliation to APAC every month. or a commission markets where market agents sells the products on behalf of the farmers. export and livestock agents and to maintain and enhance the status and dignity of those occupations and the integrity of persons practicing these occupations”. They have adapted and changed over time but the fundamental reason for their existence has never changed – where supply and demand meet to establish a value for a product so that a sale can be made. Specialisation has become the key and in this country we now have fresh produce markets. such as farmers’ markets where the farmer is on hand to sell his products. The uniqueness of our markets South Africa’s fresh produce markets can rightly claim to be unique in the following ways: a) They are the only system of fresh produce commission markets in the world. amongst other requirements. fresh produce commission markets remain the purest form of price establishment available to farmers and buyers. Overview Markets selling agricultural products have been with humankind for many thousands of years. There are different types of agricultural markets.83 marketing and finance Fresh produce markets 1. promoting market agents and markets • drawing up The Rules R1818 and Code of Conduct • administering the Fresh Produce Market Agents Fidelity Fund • registration of Agricultural Commission Agents • monitoring Market Agents’ Trust Accounts • the maintenance and promotion of the training standards of Agents • ad hoc audits of Agents stock on floor The Minister appoints a council of 18 members and each one serves for a maximum period of three years. 3. They are classified as Informal Markets because they are not subject to the same formal structures and laws that govern the fresh produce markets. b) The registered Market Agents working on those markets. The objective of APAC is “to regulate the occupation of fresh]. In this country they are essentially wholesale markets. d) Another proviso of Act 12 is for the establishment of the Agricultural Produce Agents Council (APAC) which administers the Act and the Fidelity Fund on behalf of the Minister of Agriculture. alongside existing fresh produce markets and in rural towns. Informal Markets in various forms can also be found in many African countries. In South Africa we have the added option of Informal Markets which are a feature of our national landscape as they can be found along main roads. The basic reason for having the Act and for the establishment of APAC is because Agricultural Produce Commission Agents act on behalf of their clients – farmers – in a financial capacity and the Act is there to protect the farmers’ interests. Forestry and Fisheries. 19 are linked to the Freshmark System which is an IT network providing a comprehensive range of daily. how they will handle the farmer’s money. f) The Act requires a Market Agency to open a Trust Account on behalf of its farmers thereby ensuring that their money is controlled and regulated. These agents must register with APAC and comply to certain requirements of Act 12 before they can open for business.

Trust Account In terms of the Act a Market Agency must open a Trust Account at a registered banking institution on behalf of their farmers. training of Market Agents and other activities as required. etc. • Market Commission Agents pay a levy each year determined by APAC which is based on their annual turnover. . the amount of commission deducted. quality.84 APAC makes use of outside service providers for functions such as forensic audits. Fidelity Fund • The Department of Agriculture established a Fidelity Fund many years ago at the request of Fresh Produce Market Commission Agents in the event of there not being sufficient funds in the Trust Account to pay the farmers. the fresh produce agent must inform the producer of the extent and condition of the unsold quantity. Another benefit of our fresh produce commission markets is the competition which exists on the floor between producers. A farmer who wishes to make a claim against the Fidelity Fund must do so within three (3) months of the alleged offence. packaging. The knowledge that his money is safe and that legislation requires the agent to pay him within five working days ensures that a farmer can market his produce with confidence. When can a farmer claim against the Fidelity Fund Act 12 makes provision for a farmer to claim for financial losses under the following circumstances: a) when there are insufficient funds in the Trust Account to pay the farmer. Producers hail from the farthest corners of our land. Resource poor farmers have to struggle with many obstacles before landing their produce on the market floor. • In such cases a farmer who has sold his fresh produce through a registered commission agent may claim for his losses from the Fidelity Fund. There is probably no better way for a farmer to learn about the complexities of fresh produce marketing than to have his/her produce on a market floor competing against so many other producers. or if a market agent was found guilty of any fraudulent actions with farmers’ money. • to pay the farmers. This security is vital in a country as large and as diverse as ours. It must be a separate bank account from the Market Agency’s normal business account. • The Fidelity Fund guarantees a farmer’s money. and so protection of their money on the market is absolutely essential. the amount and nature of each the security of payment for producers – see earlier note. • This system of financial security for South African farmers is unique in the world. Act 12 of 1992 requires market commission agents to register with the Registrar of the Agricultural Produce Agents Council (APAC) – Tel: 012 346 4117 / 011 894 3680. b) when a market agent is found guilty of fraud or any misconduct involving the farmer’s products. the market agents and the buyers. When does a farmer get paid? • Rule 25 of Act 12 stipulates that if a consignment of fresh produce is not fully sold within three business days after the receipt thereof. Full details are available from APAC. This Trust Account has only two purposes: • to deposit the proceeds from the sales of farmers’ products. Every Market Agency must submit a Trust Account reconciliation to APAC monthly before the 21st. presentation. The Trust Account therefore. products. • It is part of APAC’s function to administer and control this Fidelity Fund in terms of Act 12. kind and class of fresh produce. distances to markets are often great and personal contact between farmer and agent can be limited at times. • Rule 26 of Act 12 stipulates that a fresh produce agent shall within 5 business days after having sold the produce pay the farmer as well as issue a statement with detail such as date of receipt of the consignment. The most important difference that sets our commission markets apart from others (wholesale markets) – locally or abroad . This is very important in a South African context when seen against the background of the many thousands of small-scale future farmers. controls the farmer’s money.

Tel/fax: 013 690 6286 Mangaung (Bloemfontein) Tel: 051 410 4500 Butterworth Tel/fax: 047 491 4294 risparks@hyperlink. Local business environment • The Average price of important vegetables sold on the major fresh produce markets can be found in the latest Abstract of Agricultural Statistics document at training and consulting services 5-A-Day For Better Health Produce Marketing Association Trust Tel: 011 613 4391 (PMA) South African Union of Food Markets (SAUFM) Formerly the Institute of Market Masters of SA (IMMSA) Tel: 031 311 5140 President: André Young Fresh produce markets role players There are 105 registered market Tel: 082 388 1000 Johannesburg Tel: 011 992 8000 info@jfpm. APAC or IMASA (details also under this heading) will be able to help. Members South Africa (IMASA) of the Council are appointed by the Tel: 011 613 4391 Minister and represent role players Fax: 011 623 1932 in the marketing of fresh produce George (Eden District) Tel: 044 875 1286 established i t o Act 12 of 1992 and administers the Act on behalf of the Institute of Market Agents of Minister of King William’s Town Tel: 043 642 3520 Find information under “City Witbank Services & facilities” on www. Membership is Nelspruit Tel: 083 388 0033 Tshwane Tel: 012 358 2398 Fax: 012 358 2301 www. professional The NAMC is a Statutory Body established i t o the Marketing Act to advise the Minister of Agriculture on matters regarding the marketing of all agricultural Department of Industry organisation promoting the Vereeniging Tel: 016 451 1021 za Ekurhuleni Tel: 011 815 6010 Sol Plaatje (Kimberley) Tel: 053 830 6560 This is the representative body for Market Masters and Market It requires an annual subscription and pin number to access.apacweb. In terms of the Act IMASA was founded in 1945 and any person who wishes to trade as represents the registered Market an agricultural produce commission Agents in South agent must register with as well as appropriate Government tshwanemarket Uitenhage Tel: 041 992 1634 Welkom Tel: 057 355 2382 APAC is a Statutory Body Durban (eThekwini) Tel: 031 311 5100 / 40 Klerksdorp Tel: 018 469 1241 kldmark@lantic. National Agricultural Marketing Council (NAMC) Tel: 012 341 1115 www. To find out which agents operate at which market the reader is advised to contact the market Cape Town (Epping) Tel: 021 531 2191/2 • Technofresh (a division of Freshmark Systems) is designed for farmers who want to access their own shipments to markets. Visit www.ramprsad@mzundusi. Membership is The fresh produce markets Buffalo City (East London) Tel: 043 705 9500 Mpumalanga (Nelspruit) Tel: 013 755 2768 nelmark@lantic. The importance of price formation on a commission market It is a simple “if we did not have fresh produce commission markets how would a farmer know what the value of his/her products is on any given day”? Would he ask his neighbour? Does he ask the local fruit and veg retailer in town? Does he phone one of the big supermarkets and ask them what they are paying today? .za Agricultural Produce Agents Council (APAC) Tel: 011 894 3680 Fax: 011 894 3761 PROKON (Produk Kontrole) Tel: 012 325 4579 Prokon is an independent inspection body which provides product inspections on all the main fresh produce markets in South or try Pietermaritzburg Tel: 033 392 3400 Port Elizabeth (Nelson Mandela Bay) Tel: 041 461 1409 Alternatively. Talk to Rodney Trollip at Kei (Mthatha) Tel: 047 531 1907 tembanis@kfpm.namc. National Regulator for Compulsory Specifications (NRCS) Tel: 012 428 6152 / 5000 www. Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) Directorate: Agricultural Products Inspection Services Tel: 012 319 6512 bernardma@daff. • The Freshmark System provides daily prices for each Noord-Einde Tel: 041 451 3216 health benefits and consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables in South Africa PAMBILE Africa (Pty) Ltd Tel: 021 871 1230 / 073 637 6105 5.

quality standards and deliveries. However. or 073 637 6105. Communication implies that both have a responsibility to ensure that they keep each other informed on In the highly competitive environment of fresh produce marketing it is as well for farmers to remember these words. there are two other essentials – quality and continuity of supply. it is the minimum standard”! Michael Cordes has spent over 40 years working in agriculture – mostly in the fresh produce sector. For 15 years he farmed subtropical fruit and vegetables before moving on to the marketing of fresh produce both locally and overseas. Then a quality product is the one that has a chance of getting a price acceptable under those circumstances. When the market is full. . Quality always gets a premium.86 In each case the reply he gets is understandably influenced by the self interest of the party concerned. They are fundamental marketing laws. He should also be planning those volumes in conjunction with his agent to ensure that he delivers the right quantities according to market circumstances. The best the farmer can do is to end up guessing. We can’t change them and we can’t wish them then he not only realises a better average but also builds credibility with buyers. when he sells his products through a commission market he gets the closest to a true value for his products because prices on a market are established in an open. marketing and management of horticultural crops. competitive environment regulated by the oldest marketing laws in the world – supply and demand and a host of other factors. in turn. One needs to understand them and learn to “ride” with them. Too many producers just deliver – regardless of market conditions – then expect their market agent to work miracles. The market agent must ensure that his producer is not only getting his prices but that he is fully informed on market conditions and trends. all marketing matters. There will also be undersupply situations and his prices will go up. the buyer will invariably opt for the brand that he knows and that has been seen regularly. Quality gives the product the means to address virtually all market situations. sir). As a freelance journalist he specialises in the horticultural sector and also spends a lot of his time training farmers and marketing people in South Africa and SADC Region countries in the production. This chapter is based entirely on materials supplied to the editorial team by Michael Cordes (our grateful thanks to you. The Big Five in Fresh Produce Marketing Getting the Big Five right means a farmer will get his marketing right. The “come and go” farmer will have to take his chances. “Quality is not the objective. If a farmer consistently delivers a quality product to a market through thick and thin. You can contact him on: agripres@mweb. A farmer needs to understand the essential mechanisms of a market – supply and demand. The farmer. hope to get something and then blame everybody else for his woes. Continuity goes hand in hand with quality. They both have an impact on the two scenarios sketched above and are just as critical. There will be oversupply situations and his prices will go down. no matter how small but really comes into its own when the market is full. The poorer quality products are the ones that receive a very low price or even end up being condemned on an oversupplied market. must keep his market agent fully advised on current and future volumes. Linking these four essentials is the proviso that good communication should exist between market agent and producer.

Tanzania. International role players • Botswana. Farming First 5 Oct 2009 – www. Namibia. Issue 2. • Convention on Biological Diversity – www. Generally. and industry – in almost all areas of human endeavour – knowledge and ideas lie at the base of the flowering of human life and its passions. Liberia. Sudan. Innovations and Practices” menu options.aripo.farmingfirst. agricultural policymakers must take a close look at how to encourage innovation and co-operation across all sectors of the food supply chain.bioversityinternational. Zimbabwe are all members of the African Regional Intellectual Property Organisation (ARIPO) – www. The Gambia. education. Mozambique. at least in part. Sierra Leone. Swaziland. agriculture. collected wisdom. and understanding of social groups and societies. In the arts. Consequently. Kenya. All culture and society is built upon innumerable layers of accumulated past knowledge and ideas. society in general has a social right to use ideas to the benefit of the public good – especially if they are key to social and physical well-being. aipla. Uganda. If this proves true. ideas are not simply the product of individuals and corporations. medicine. 1. However. and public institutions are deployed to develop and maintain their social and economic viability. The “Protocol” menu option takes you to the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety. Rwanda. . as a means of balancing the conflicting rights of different groups involved in the generation and use of ideas of economic IPRs are premised on concerns that the creators or authors of ideas have an economic right to a fair return for their effort and a moral right to not have their ideas misrepresented. • American Intellectual Property Law Association (AIPLA) – www. research is financed or subsidised by public funds and tax dollars. Malawi. Sources: CRIS. which seeks to protect biological 2. Indigenous African crops” and “Indigenous medicinal plants”. Intellectual property rights (IPRs) emerged in the industrialised world as a means to mediate and control the circulation of knowledge. According to recent estimates by the World Bank. Sometimes they build upon natural creatures and processes that have taken millions of years to evolve. Overview Inventions of the mind – ideas – are very special. take the “Programmes” and “Article 8 (j): Traditional “Animal Improvement and breeders”.org • Biodiversity International is “improving lives through biodiversity research”. Lesotho. Visit www. the economic and the social. Wuppertal Institute (adapted).87 marketing and finance Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) The following chapters are also of relevance: “Biotechnology and plant breeding”. at least 70 per cent of the extra food needed to feed the world must come from innovation (10 per cent could come from farmland expansion and another 20 per cent from intensification).cbd. Ghana. and Zambia. Somalia. For the most part they incorporate and build upon the IPRs attempt to balance these rights: the moral. The Innovation Hub Tel: 012 844 0000 WIPO’s Intergovernmental Committee (IGC) addresses the protection of IPR interfacing with traditional Research Institute for Innovation and Sustainability (RIIS) Tel: 012 844 0670/1 National Research Foundation (NRF) Tel: 012 481 4000/4191 international organisations. Patent Attorney at Adams & Adams. Visit Southern Education & Research Alliance (SERA) The African Centre for Gene Technologies Tel: 082 878 5669 www.upov. withdrawal and www. and • The objective of the International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants (UPOV) is the protection of new varieties of plants through intellectual property rights. However legislation can involve a number of governmental departments e.cipc. designs and copyright on cinematographic films that exist in South Africa. The TRIPS Agreement can also protect the interfacing of IP and IK (Indigenous Knowledge).za.88 • The European Patent Office (EPO) provides a uniform application procedure for individual inventors and companies seeking patent protection in European countries.theinnovationhub. National strategy and government contact Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) in South Africa is subject to international agreements.ens.www.adamsadams. Some national role players Adams & Adams Tel: 012 432 6000 Head of Africa Patent Department: Nicky Garnett www. and notices of • Find out about the concept of Livestock Keepers’ Rights (LKR) at www. • The World Trade Organisation (WTO) administers the TradeRelated Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS).za South African Innovation Network (SAINe) Tel: 012 844 0672 www. See Visit University of South Africa (UNISA) Centre for Business Law Tel: 012 429 8432 www. the Department of Science and Technology (DST).za South African Institute of Intellectual Property Law (SAIIPL) Tel: 012 683 8827 DM Kisch INC Tel: 011 324 3000 Tel: 012 460 3203 www. A country’s IPR regime consists of several aspects. providing the general enabling legislation and services for registration.ipo. • Several important articles and reports can be found at www. and the article “When is research and development tax deductable?” written by Tumelo Tshava.wipo. This Patent Journal is obtainable from Government Printers in The Law Faculties at the various South African universities. particularly the TRIPS agreement which sets minimum standards for all see: - the publications by Professor James Boyle at http://james-boyle. 2001) - Protecting Business Ideas – Basics of Intellectual Property Reinhardt Buys and Pria Chetty Frontline Publishing ISBN 1920099166 . examination. It is a UK-based partnership between governments. the Patent Co-operation Treaty (PCT) practitioners and academics in SA who specialise in • The Patent Journal is a journal published by the Government Printers on a monthly trademarks. • International Association for the Protection of Intellectual Property (AIPPI) – – rewarding innovation in the energy sector. Find contact details for all government departments at www. Visit – Intellectual Property Watch • www. protection. • The WIPO Intellectual Property Handbook offers a comprehensive introduction and is available on their website – - Vandana Shiva’s Protect or Plunder? Understanding Intellectual Property Rights (Zed The Technology Innovation Agency (TIA) was formed in 2010 to support the commercialisation of local research and development (R&D) trade A Joint Intellectual Property Law specialisation programme is run by the WIPO Academy and the Find the “Rural and agricultural University of South Africa (UNISA) innovation” category via distance learning. an international agreement negotiated in 1994 that introduced intellectual property rules into the multilateral trading system for the first time.icar. University of Cape Town Business Graduate School Tel: 021 406 1911 www. This includes further development of international laws and treaties regarding patents. folklore and genetic/ biological resources. Find the links to all international trade mark offices and international trade mark organisations under “Useful links”.gov • The World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO) is responsible for promoting the progressive development and harmonisation of IP More information can be found at www.ficpi. and copyright and related rights. These include the World Intellectual Property Report 2011by WIPO.uspto.inta. • www.nrf. Visit • A Developing Country Perspective on Animal Breeders and Intellectual Property Rights MM Scholtz. research and capacity building institutions. The Southern African natural products association works “on behalf of [their] members to develop products and partnerships for the benefit of Southern Africa’s people and biodiversity”. 5. The TRIPS agreement under the WTO allows for patents over life forms and requires that plant varieties be protected by patents or sui generis Edward Nathan Sonnenbergs Tel: 011 269 7600 www. • For an accessible introduction to IPR and Information issues. Environmental Plant breeder’s rights are governed by the International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants (UPOV) (see heading 2) of which SA is a adjudication and commercialisation. Forestry and Fisheries. The PCT enables inventors to file patent applications in up to 124 countries • The aim of the International Committee for Animal Recording (ICAR) is to promote the development and improvement of the activities of performance recording and the evaluation of farm livestock – www.aippi. Websites and publications • Visit the websites of role players mentioned earlier in this chapter. the Budapest Treaty and TRIPS. • International Federation of Intellectual Property Attorneys – www.sasas. The WIPO Worldwide Academy is entirely devoted to providing training in IP. including • WIPO runs a range of programmes aimed at increasing the effective use of IP by developing nations as a tool for economic development. Companies and Intellectual Property Commission Registrar of Intellectual Property Tel: 0861 843 384 Patent Office Tel: 012 394 0610 info@cipro.phytotradeafrica. Visit • United States Patent and Trademark Office – www.uct. • TRIPS Agreement – see World Trade Organisation • United Kingdom Intellectual Property Office – www. It contains information on SAIIPL represent patent attorneys.wto.dmkisch. The Department of Trade and Industry (dti) is the custodian of IPR in SA. SA is also a member of the Paris Convention. such as notification of provisional and complete applications. The international body governing IPR is the UN’s World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO) of which South Africa (SA) became a member in • International Trademark Association (INTA) – website of the League for Pastoral Peoples.wipo. industrial designs and geographical indications. South African Society for Animal Science. standards and procedures among its member limitations and enforcement and these three elements vary widely across countries. • PhytoTrade Africa .com Quintessential Africa Holdings Tel: 011 463 2054 www. and • The SEED Initiative supports and promotes innovators in developing • Institute of Trade Mark Attorneys – www.

studbook. It could be a dispersal sale if the seller stops farming. Department of Agriculture. Alliance Group www. Auctioneers by The Code of Conduct for agents is also available. and payment of sellers.alliancegroup. • The labourers will identify the animals and load them on trucks to be delivered at the buyers www. Visit South African Institute of Auctioneers (SAIA) is a federation represented by members from 9 regions of Auctioneers livestock auctioneers and meat SA Feedlot Association (SAFA) Tel: 012 667 1189/ 667 2055 www. 2. The 5th quarter (the skin etc) covers the slaughtering fees.aamkzn.89 marketing and finance Livestock auctions The transaction is well documented. trade. Contact the secretary at AAM Livestock Agents and 012 460 Brandon Leer Auctioneers Tel: 082 570 5863 Fax: 033 343 4530 Clive Gardner Auctioneers Tel: 018 290 9610 CMW Elite Auctioning Company Tel: 058 813 4146 www. The Stud Breeders’ Manual includes an in-depth look at animal and performance recording. Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) Directorate: Marketing Tel: 012 319 8455 www.redmeatsa. feedlots Find this at www. price of animals and who is the Contract slaughtering refers to animals that are being slaughtered and the farmer is being paid on a kg carcass BKB Tel: 041 503 3111 www. On the same website.bkb. see the Auctioneering of Livestock Info Pak . • Sellers – primary and secondary producers • Buyers – abattoirs.all statutory requirements as well as collecting payments and financing of buyers. • The accountant will see to the financial administration -. • The marketing officer will source the livestock for the . namely: Fresh Produce Agents. • The roll clerk will keep accurate records of what is The buyer becomes the owner of the animal. The sellers and buyers at the calendar auction can vary according what is on offer and what are the needs of both seller and buyer. the principles of marketing purebred livestock. Overview A Calendar Auction auction is held on the same place /auction pens on a weekly. Members of the above council are appointed by the Minster of Agriculture and Land Affairs.ecoauctions. The auctioneer. Andre Kock & Son Tel: 053 927 1981 www. marketing officer. Associations and training University of the Free State Lengau Agri Centre South African Federation of Tel: 083 453 9364 Livestock Auctioneers (SAFLA) mcvdw@telkomsa. sell their animals at guaranteed prices to abattoirs. All the role players in the value chain add value and enable survival of the industry. A Private treaty is where a marketing officer/agent facilitates a transaction directly between a seller and buyer of livestock. South African College of Auctioneers Tel: 011 979 0176/8 www. with the help of an agent or www. Role players Refer to the “Abattoir” chapter for details of other role players and major commercial groups. receive it at the auction pens. The role players in livestock marketing • Agents – they facilitate transactions between sellers and buyers on a professional basis. The auctioneer. classify the animals in lots preferred by buyers and he and the auctioneer will source buyers to attend the auction. Find the “Livestock Auctions” menu option and details of their subsidiary companies BKB Louwid and BKB Van Agents in South Africa must register with APAC in terms of the Agricultural Products Agents Act (Act 12 of 1992 as amended). roll clerk and labourers facilitate the auction and their versatility enables them to even conduct real estate auctions.akock. Livestock Agents and Export Agents.apacweb.cmwelite. At a Game auctions game is either sold in a open auction or on catalogue. farms Branch contact details are available on the website. See www. 7 of the very useful Agricultural Marketing Extension Each has its own quarterly or even yearly basis by an agent who advertises the auction in a ECO Auctioneers Courses are held nationwide (the Tel: 051 446 5511 website carries news of these). The purpose of council is to regulate three categories of agricultural produce agents. A Special auction is an auction requested by a seller or sellers to sell some their livestock or a seller could sell of his livestock. SAFLA is one of the Auctioneers members of the Red Meat Industry Tel: 033 266 7134 / 076 031 4310 Auctions are included in the discussion on marketing of livestock in Training Paper No. by whom. Find role players in the “Animal Improvement and breeders” chapter. Special arrangements are needed to transport game and auction pens and handling facilities must be according to or call 051 410 0900 for more information. All auctions are attended by NSPCA personnel to make sure animals are being handled humanely and facilities meet specified criteria. The auctioneer conducting this auction is a specialised stud auctioneer. Auction Info and other menu options on the website.safeedlot. 3. of course. monthly. This is a different market to stud stock trading. At a Stud Auction animals of special breeding qualities are for sale. speculators • Financers (usually banks) The livestock market and related value chain is the single biggest industry in Agriculture in seller/sellers will work closely with a breed society who will select the animals according to their standards for such an auction. The venue for the auction would have been selected and developed over years and its mere survival shows that there is a need for such an auction. feedlots. part of the small-scale farmer marketing – take “Publications” and then “General publications” Find the Regional A major market focused on at auctions is the slaughter market which has its own specific requirements. accountant. Farmers can also. Most Breeders’ Societies now specify a (within breed) standard catalogue format for auctions. National strategy Agricultural Products Agents Council (APAC) Tel: 011 894 3680 www.

Lizel Pretorius (APAC).za KLK Landbou Beperk Tel: 054 337 6200 www. With gratitude to those who contributed information to this chapter: Mike Killassy. AgriTrader. • a commanding if not charismatic auction advertisements and auction calendar options at www. being able to sell a race horse today and wine tomorrow. • being able to easily assume appropriate facilitation roles. Ermelo and KwaZulu-Natal are on the website.gwk. • versatility in applying these skills • A good auctioneer is able to break up buyer’s rings if the sellers are on his side. 4. buyers over many • “reading” the dynamics unfolding before they happen Juventis Tel: 012 347 6323 / 082 809 7488 Mike Killassy Auctioneering Tel: 082 378 8112 http://mikekillassy. Find the auction report. Visit auctioneer who has sold thousands of stud animals to commercial Contact details for auctioneers in • good sales • intuition and being astute. The advantages and disadvantages of auctioneering Advantages • Without an Visit www. in beef production there are a few strong buyers and many weak sellers. • disease spreading is more likely. Source: SA Stud Book An Auctioneer’s personal skills should include: • being Hobson & Co Tel: 046 622 4724 Vleissentraal Tel: 012 460 9916 A noted and experienced stud stock www.juventis. • An interesting idea: “Reverse auctions are fixed-duration bidding events hosted by a single buyer. offers an SMS service with livestock auction prices. • understanding all the roleplayers as well as their auctions are held at specific places such as Farmers’ Association sale yards which means cattle have to be moved from the farm to the yard. The chapter is titled “Auctions as a marketing mechanism” • not only being knowledgeable about information in the catalogue but knowing how to • No market knowledge is required by the SHM Stud & Commercial Marketing Tel: 018 290 9409 Sheard Auctioneers Tel: 045 843 1722 www. • The Southern African Livestock Exchange (SALEX) for online auctioneering – www. Disadvantages include • hgh shrinkage and transportation costs. gives notice of livestock • excellent communication skills. • The fact that the market is price Roderick and Martin Tel: 082 555 5490 / 082 927 2265 www. • the seller feels pressure to sell his cattle at the sale at the price offered or take his animals home John Kirk Auctioneers Tel: 034 212 5655 Optima Auctioneers humour.g.90 Noordkaap Livestock Co-op Tel: 053 927 3871 GWK Ltd Tel: 053 298 8200 www.g. EBVs that are significant to the pedigree about the Sire’s family as well as that of the Dam and her performance traits. The electronic arm of the weekly agricultural publication Landbouweekblad. • Chapter 18 of the Stud Breeders’ Manual deals with auctions and sales under the auspices of breeders’ societies. communicate and clarify pertinent details for the buyer Contact SA Studbook at 051 410 0900 or visit www. • auctions can be manipulated. farmersweekly. Pieter Geldenhuys (Alliance Group). Buyers form rings and this usually occurs when cattle supplies are in a surplus situation. prices can be manipulated downwards by the buyers e. in which multiple suppliers compete for business”. competent and projecting an impartial image. • From Plaas Publishing comes the monthly Handelspos / Trading Post which covers livestock auctions. • reliability and trustworthiness. producers receive payment almost immediately after the animal is sold and all types of livestock can be marketed. Bosveld. www. time consuming process. • this is a lengthy. the values and norms of specific groups and how they are likely to respond to events. • traditionally.sheardauctioneers. Find auction prices under the “Markte” option. each other and why. Tirhani Auctioneers Tel: 0861 847 426 www. Visit www. . • excessive stress is placed on Source: Mike Killassy 5. charm. • The reverse side of the monthly magazine ProAgri. • being a “psychologist” and “sociologist” – know how to read people (the crowd) as well as the context accurately. • Find the DAFF entry under heading 2 in this chapter. Websites and publications • The weekly agricultural publications Farmer’s Weekly and Landbouweekblad carry news of

labour. Refer to the chapter on co-operatives in this publication. where do they live – in a city or farm. etc. Sometimes this margin can be quite a high percentage and this may be used to argue that farmers or consumers are being exploited. . Choose the marketing channel that suits you best and where you can make the most profit.farmersweekly. • Storage and packaging – costs include grading. The marketing process: 1. Production and harvesting • Production costs include seed. Identify the commodity (or commodities) that is suitable for you to produce. boxes. thereby measuring the cost of production. which is taken up by the marketing function. processing and retailing (selling) yourself. lawyers). the Department of Agriculture. The essence of sound marketing is: • find out what the consumer wants • supply it at a profit For agricultural produce.g. Find out what customers want by doing market research. labour. plastic. using the best season for the product you have chosen. storage. Today. what do they do? Are they corporates (businessmen or professionals – doctors. before the rains? 4. fertiliser. 1. There also has to be a reasonable return to those doing the marketing and processing for carrying out these functions. farmers etc. one thing never changes – and that is quality! • Aim to produce the best possible product and your marketing efforts will be rewarded. To cut back on costs from a long marketing chain – you can use a shorter route by selling directly to the customer yourself. In addition to these two indexes. Visit the Department of Agriculture. is known as the “marketing margin”. Farmers also should be aware that the price paid by the eventual consumer is made up of the amount of money paid out to farmers for their produce plus all the costs involved in getting it to the consumer in the form in which he or she purchases it. A balance is achieved between what people are prepared to supply at a price and what people are willing to pay for the product. based on prices at the first point of trade. fuel. You increase your profit by being involved in the washing. Speak to extension officers and to as many people as possible. packing material (e. You can benefit by adding value to the products (see the block in green in the next column). Produce your chosen commodity. Plan the production of the product – how you are going to do this. There are bodies like the Food Price Monitoring Committee and the Competition Commission who act as policemen and try to ensure that this chain is fair. • Decide on your target group – this is your particular group of customers (their age. Conclusion: • Market conditions will change from year to year. Analysis of these three indices shows how prices develop in the value chains. Source: the article “What can we do about high food prices” at www. and the Producer Price Index (PPI).. storage. High margins can often be fully justified by the costs involved. Another way of adding value is by packaging and storage until the prices are more favourable or when the demand for the product will be greater e.91 marketing and finance Marketing Several of the chapters in the “marketing and finance” section deal with the marketing of agricultural produce. string. At the beginning of the summer. what are their interests? • Determine what their needs are (what do they want to buy and how much are they prepared to pay). The marketing chain The marketing chain is the process the farmer has to follow to get the product from the farm to the consumer. Forestry and Fisheries also publishes a quarterly index of the price of farm requisites. in winter or when there is a shortage. implements.. etc. See ”Fresh produce markets”. If the production cost of a product decreases. packaging. the success of farm planning starts at the market Don’t produce what you can’t sell! Production should be market oriented – knowing what the customer wants (demand) and the price at which you as the farmer are prepared to supply it (supply).). • Marketing/retailing costs include transport. advertising and storage. Successful marketing is one of the most important aspects of a modern farm business. co. bubble wrap. tractors. the most important being: • the price of the goods • tastes and preferences of consumers • number of consumers • incomes of consumers • prices of related goods (competition) • range of goods available to consumers Producers need to be aware of marketing and market realities. Overview In a market-orientated system the price of a product is determined by supply and demand. Explore co-operatives. Whether you’re selling a few items off your roadside stall or are drawn into a huge supply chain. 5. how much the consumer wants and will purchase is affected by a number of factors. 3. The percentage share of the final price. are they male or female. Some producers have become more involved in the supply chain and this is usually to their 2. labels etc. “Exporting” etc. Stats SA publishes two price indices – the Consumer Price Index (CPI). “Livestock auctions”. one can reasonably expect a decrease in the price the consumer pays. insurance.g. Using the best methods and paying attention to cleanliness and food safety will ensure that your product will sell in all markets. based on prices at retail level. pesticides. Who is going to buy your product? How can you make your product better? 2.

semi-packed. the sale of broilers from a broiler unit and the sale of animals from the farm directly. and in turn supply the larger urban centres. The community will need the extension officer to broker this for them as well. retail contracts. Advantages: • No transport costs. Advantages: Disadvantages: • Farmers can take advantage of Market information is important higher prices in times of short to enable the farmer to make the supply. schools. • Transport of the products may pose difficulties. including the agent’s commission. • Bananas – graded. fruit packhouses. The system on most markets has changed from auctioning to sales by market agents on commission. Stock sales The sale of livestock in the developing areas has been encouraged for many years. as long as there are willing buyers. Some marketing options The following marketing options exist for the emerging producer: • Market directly from their gardens to the surrounding communities. jams and cooked mielies are also suited to this type of marketing. • Milk – dairies. • The farmer can employ the • The time of harvesting is services of an agent to perform critical to the success of the the task of marketing. • The farmer will need to be confident that he can cover the higher marketing costs. Pick ‘n Pay has instituted a programme to support the emergent sector. beer. The following are some of the value adding activities which farmers could carry out: • Fruit – graded. bottled. Examples include the sale of vegetables from a community garden. national fresh produce markets. There are a number of sale yards. available. dairies.g. poultry and livestock are concerned. At its most elementary level. The seller may decide whether or not to accept the price offered by the buyer. This is a type of contract production and is normally limited to larger emergent commercial units and to emergent irrigation schemes that would market their product collectively. sour milk. • The quality of the produce may have to be higher to cater for the needs of the more discerning consumers. transported to markets. • Sell into contract markets. snacks. • Farmers can take advantage of more favourable prices. Village marketing This channel provides a development on marketing from the farm. crop. Disadvantages: • The farmer will have to accept the local price for his product. thus costs are reduced. 4. dried. The main marketing channels Farm gate marketing As the name implies. restaurants and tourism outlets. There is generally no limit to the type of product that may be marketed in this manner. Advantages: Disadvantages: • Larger markets can be exploited. packaged in special ripening rooms. wool auctions. etc. vegetables. Fresh produce markets Refer to the “Fresh produce markets” chapter in this publication. • Supply hawkers who visit them with their bakkies for on-selling in the local town or city. • Supply to various retail outlets. and/or dried semi-prepared. as it goes some way towards taking the product to the consumer. • Flexibility on pricing of produce is needed. livestock auctions. Large exporting concerns are often eager to work with organised communities. yoghurt. • Supply to processing units e. mills abattoirs. • Potatoes and Onions – bagged. hospitals. Some of these provide a marketing service to emerging farmers as well to commercial farmers. The extension officer is ideally situated to broker these contracts on behalf of groups of farmers who may lack the confidence and expertise to do so. dried • Litchis – Graded and packaged for local and export market. in terms of realising the right price. graded and baled. • Meat – cooked. • The farmer will not necessarily be well located to sell the product. The communities are generally involved in some form of out-grower scheme. and it might be an idea to involve subject matter specialists from the Department of Agriculture or organised producer associations to support them. such as the macadamia nut project in northern KwaZulu-Natal. juiced • Maize/Grains – milled. • Sell through farm or market stalls (road stalls) in urban. such as fruit and vegetables. • A constant supply of produce must be available to satisfy the needs of the market. • Quality. bagged. packaging and presentation are very important and produce must conform to accepted grade and packaging standards. point of production. although prices realised may be lower. beans. fruit. • Eggs – graded and packaged. stored. and then market products through the various marketing channels mentioned above. Maize. the farmer has to look to more distant markets. • The market is able to sell • Prices fluctuate.92 3. such as the Spar Group. However. chips. • Supply exporters directly. • Vegetables – graded. large quantities of farmers’ • Markets are often far from the produce. They have traditionally catered for the commercial producer. These markets are set up in larger centres mainly for the sale of fruit and vegetables. progressing through to individual stallholders selling on behalf of local farmers. although processed foods such as pickles. The prices received on stock sales are not fixed and to a large extent reflect the supply and demand position both locally and within the entire market. The government is particularly supportive here. cuts. who endeavours to obtain the highest price for him. • Price fluctuations are generally small. crisps. hotels. this is marketing done by the farmer at the place where the product is produced. Refer to the “Livestock auctions” chapter in this publication. etc. bakeries. they can market through the existing marketing chains e. dried (biltong). Farm gate marketing is the most common form of marketing found amongst smaller producers. • Wool – sheared. By matching the requirements of the traditional marketing channels in terms of quality and quantity. With this system. Generally the type of product that would be marketed on a farm stall would be perishable. that buy directly from emergent farmers from time to time. • Can be sold by the farmer himself. Auction sales are held regularly at many of them. . a farm stall may be operated by farmers selling their own products. prepacked. • Broilers – slaughtered before selling. the farmer sends his produce to the agent at the market. if they have produce right decisions. • Better suited to the smallerscale farmer. such as government feeding programmes. cheese.g. once the local market’s demand is supplied. peri-urban and rural areas. packaged and transported to market. Add value to their own produce.

Produce which is bought but not sold can still incur costs such as packaging. Direct marketing With director or contract marketing. The harvesting of produce and the movement of produce to the farm gate or packing shed is part of the production costs. Some Black Empowerment companies have secured large government kitchen contracts (e. which depend on factors such as fuel costs. • Storage costs. people using National Fresh Produce Markets. • Fees and commissions: The costs considered above are the major costs in marketing agricultural produce. bakkies. This transport cost could be anything from produce transported on the back of a donkey to trucks. Also. and all activities involve costs. • If the farmer cannot meet the needs of the retailer. and this is reflected in the price at which produce is sold. import duties. • Prices may be lower than “market” price. The interest he pays on that money is a cost. there won’t be a steady stream of customers. If a trader uses his own money.93 Advantages: Disadvantages: • The promotion is done on behalf of the farmer. such as to be found in most of the rural towns. Such costs will vary depending on the costs of building and operating the store. put into store and taken out again. factoring in expected prices at a certain time of the year and their key target markets. market penetration tactics and importantly. depreciation costs. This is an important marketing cost. which are: • Product preparation and packaging costs. Woolworths or Pick ‘n Pay stores. aircraft and ships.g. a cost economists refer to as “opportunity cost”. 6. taxis. A farmers’ association may get together and jointly market their crop on a formal market. Advantages: Disadvantages: • Marketing margins could be reduced and thus the producer could obtain a higher price for the product. The treatment of losses in marketing cost calculations can be fairly complex. he will have to buy in produce to make up the order of quantities required. • The volume of sales is guaranteed to the farmer. In working out total marketing costs. • Transport costs. The second cost to be encountered is all costs associated with packaging. Processing costs can vary according to the efficiency of the organisation doing the processing. These retailers are often fairly flexible in their volume and supply demands to ensure good publicity as supporters of emerging farmers. strengths and competition. Department of Correctional Services) for themselves and prefer buying contractually from the emergent sector for political reasons. They should: • understand their customer-base. he has to consider the lack of interest he could have received. a farmer should: • Write about the current market. but they will not compromise on quality. produce will have to be packed and unpacked. Then it comes down to writing up a plan. the farmer’s competitive advantage. If not. the farmer sells directly to the retailer. All transfers involve marketing activities in some or other form.g. Agreements are often concluded between large producers of perishable goods and large retailers e. The sum total of all such handling costs can be significant. • Capital costs: to operate. their purchasing habits and buying cycles. trains. but also on the capital used to purchase the produce which is stored. the market conditions that influence your business and the business opportunities and threats. have to pay agents fees. as well as the value of any by-products. Key elements of a marketing plan farmers are advised to consider prior to any production are listed below. the plan must reflect the current market. The critical first step is for farmers to establish their production and marketing costs. can be easily avoided. Communal marketing Farmers may choose to market collectively. but producing a crop only to find that it can’t be disposed of profitably. competitors. even if nothing is actually thrown away. • remember. • Handling costs. If there are no quantity losses there can still be quality losses. • optimise and enjoy the success of producing good quality crops by first establishing whether there is sufficient need or desire for their product or service. • New products must always include market research. • Processing costs. 5. • first establish how the product will be marketed – a thorough understanding of the target market is essential (also establish what drives buying decisions). loaded and unloaded. Describe the industry you are operating in. It will also vary according to the organisation’s costs. • The farmer must ensure that he has sufficient produce of acceptable quality to supply the customer/retailer at all times. • remember too that an innovative marketing plan positions a product or service in the minds of potential customers and typically integrate multiple mediums and/or promotional strategies to reach the market. • The seller may not get the price that he wants for the animal. Commercial farmer notes Failing to plan a marketing strategy is often the single biggest oversight South African farmers make. The supply chain The sequence of stages involved in transferring produce from the farm to the consumer is generally referred to as the marketing chain. Losses are common with agricultural produce marketing. products may lose weight in storage and transit. • The quality of the produce must be high at all times. When compiling this. • The market is larger than the local market. by buyer is • Payment guaranteed. • Produce losses. The main purpose of storage is to extend the availability of produce over a longer period than if it were sold immediately after harvest. storage and transport. a trader may have to borrow money from a bank. an analysis of existing customers is essential – who they are. Export There are many regulations and rules if you wish to enter this way of marketing your produce. Grains such as maize and wheat have to be milled. By acquiring a thorough knowledge of your target market you will learn to relate to your customers better – and they to your product. For example. The extension officer needs to be aware of such contracts by staying in touch with the Local Government Tender Board. we need to consider the conversion factor from unmilled to milled grain. See also the “Export” chapter in this publication. . • Small-scale farmers have access to these sales. potential and existing customers. The National Agricultural Marketing Council (NAMC) can help you with information to see if this is an option for you. At all stages in the marketing chain. taxes and wages. There are many others and people involved with measuring costs need to keep all of them in mind. the processing facility’s throughput and the frequency of its operation. pastures and stream protection run offs and. Ask who’s doing well and who’s struggling – and if/why they are growing or scaling back. was created following widespread negotiations amongst all directly affected groups in the agricultural marketing sector. cotton. A viable method for reaching the market at an appropriate price level is something that potential lenders will www. The objectives of the 1996 Act are: • to increase market access for all market participants • to promote the efficient marketing of agricultural products • to optimise export earnings from agricultural products • to increase the viability of the agricultural sector These objectives are not to be pursued at the expense of food security or job opportunities. implements. These structures include industry forums.thedti. • It’s important to identify competitors’ whereabouts and locations. such as computers. and should include projected schedules. whisky. Questions around whether to plough or do ‘no till’ farming. You must be able to justify that there is room for another player in the market. soy bean oil. soil amendments. e. the type and depth of the soil. Agricultural industries have established an assortment of bodies to serve the agricultural sector in place of the former control boards. buildings and facilities – a precise description of the land and buildings that will be used for the farming business. palm oil. how production will be expanded over time. sunflower seed. The key elements of this are: • Land. Contact 011 636 4978 7. Source: Compiled by Magna Carta Public Relations for Standard Bank. and then encouraging the production of those goods locally through various incentives. The agricultural marketing deregulation process that began in 1997.g. In the end. fuel and oil. National Agricultural Marketing Council (NAMC) Tel: 012 341 1115 ronald@namc. The Department of Agriculture. the clay percentage and water availability must be specified. It is important to capture as many expected expenses as – find the government gazette notices under “Publications” The aim of the Directorate: Marketing is to develop. The role of the NAMC is to advise the Minister of Agriculture on the application and co-ordination of agricultural marketing policy in accordance with national economic for a certain crop. coffee. target market and market share. quality assurance. and the scheduling of crop rotations. such as has been completed. Farmers who intend leasing land should be mentioned. Understanding competitors’ strengths and weaknesses is critical in establishing competitive advantage. growth and overall profitability. trucks and other vehicles. • Materials and supplies include materials and supplies needed for the daily running of the operation. Act No. The Marketing of Agricultural Products Act. length of time in the industry.94 • Once you’ve identified and researched the market. The marketing and production plan component of the business plan helps establish the framework for tracking cash www. • Define how your operation differs from your competitors. and when optimum size and production have been reached should be answered here. The directorate comprises the following sub directorates: • Domestic Market Development • Commodity Marketing • Marketing Administration Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) – Find contact details in the Agro-processing chapter or visit www. Having them listed in a business plan can be helpful when you have to do your tax returns. tobacco. printers. as well as matters relating to statutory measures affecting the marketing of agricultural products. soy bean oil cake. sardines and animal offal? . rice. so Import Substitution does not apply to all promote and support competitive. section 21 companies and producer organisations. Plan for routine weeding and fertilising. soil erosion. What do they do well? Is there room for improvement? In what ways is your business superior to the competition? Remember: competitor analysis should be an ongoing practice! The next step is to compile a production plan outlining in detail what will be produced and the resources required. Having a plan for these will assist in controlling budgeting and costs. what measures would you take to encourage the production of the top agricultural imports: wheat. The Act came into being in 1997 and provided for the establishment of the National Agricultural Marketing Council. • Political and legal aspects of production – consider stipulations as well as other laws that could impact production. other consumables and materials necessary for maintenance and repairs. Other equipment. And also to have an idea of when new irrigation systems will need to be erected. in terms of the Marketing of Agricultural Products Act (1996). Forestry and Fisheries can provide useful information in this regard. Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) Directorate: Marketing Tel: 012 319 8455 DM@daff. fertilisers. • An environmental assessment plan that emphasises stewardship for the environment. when and how the produce will be sent to market. A question to the reader: An Import Substitution strategy means looking at a country’s most imported products. tea. the strategy for reaching the market and distributing the product is crucial. chicken. Vital components to consider are: uses for runoff water. it is what is produced and marketed that generates income for a farm business and time is needed to think through the details of this part of the business plan to ensure the overall success of the business. office equipment. If you were in charge of agricultural policy in South Africa. trusts. social and developmental policies and international trade trends. • Construction and production schedules – once a farmer has a stable vision of the operations needed. For example. Experience has shown that it is helpful to have these events scheduled. in some instances. revenues. hand tools and irrigation equipment should also be included.47 of 1996. facilities and equipment are normally depreciable assets. then short and long term construction and production plans can be considered. open and representative agricultural markets. Obviously there will be some products that cannot be produced in a country owing to limitations beyond its control. • The marketing strategies and successes of competitors must be interrogated. Other essential aspects include: • Production strategies relate to production methods. • Equipment – each tool that will be used must be named. kidney beans. National strategy and government contact Department of

co.mssa-research. media and marketing company Agri-Africa Consultants Tel: 011 788 7810 / 076 817 9687 Agri Direct Marketing (Pty) Ltd Tel: 082 411 4755 Agricultural Business Chamber (Agbiz) Tel: 012 807 6686 Agriculture and Food Tel: 011 327 7778 Overall planning (facility master management CIPS – The Chartered Institute Grain SA Tel: 0860 047 246 of Purchasing and Supply Tel: 012 804 7788 The MB4000 Farm Management www. marketing and value chain Agricultural Policy (BFAP) Assists in developing new markets Agricultural and Industrial Marketing Company Tel: 082 573 4344 NAMC HP .za Contact details can be found on the website Agridelight Training & Consultancy Tel: 012 348 0991 Helps find markets and logistics http://agridelights.mfconsultants. Consumer Goods Council of South Africa (CGCSA) Industrial Logistic Systems Tel: 0861 242 000 Tel: 011 656 1100 www.bfap. Aginfo (AMT) Tel: 012 361 2748 Find contact co. present marketingAgri Promo ( Agricultural Economics Association of South Africa (AEASA) www.aeasa. Training is also offered in trade Bureau for Food and Council (NAMC) – see heading 7 MapIT Licensed Data Partner (“put Productivity SA your business on the map”) Tel: 011 848 5300 package allows the user to record production records per DFM Software Solutions Marketing Surveys and Tel: 021 904 1154 Statistical Analysis (MSSA) solutions for GPB Consulting Tel: 021 852 7811 Proudly South African eWheels Tel: 012 807 6809 / 082 959 5679 National Agricultural Marketing is a one-stop agricultural details in the “Agricultural education and training” Agricultural Colleges.cgcsa.npi. related short Find the international links on Included in training courses offered are “Advanced maize production website and marketing” and “Farm management for profits”.co. Measured Farming Consultants keep record of deliveries. Role players Note: Marketing Diplomas and Modules are offered at various colleges and www.95 plans) and feasibility studies – mainly agricultural industry related. working with the Provincial Departments of Agriculture.dfmsoftware. packouts (Pty) Ltd Tel: 011 465 1958 / 083 233 7104 and

This information is also available or • Department of Agricultural Economics Tel: 051 4012824 / 3864 link them to trade opportunities ac.usda.unileverinstitute. Find the value chain analyses of agricultural commodities on the Department of Agriculture. A number of reports and publications are available from the National Agricultural Marketing Also find the “economic intelligence” option at www.iied. • The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) puts out a report “World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates (WASDE)” South African Audience Research Foundation Tel: 011 463 5340 / 1 / 2 www. Extension and Rural African economy and the region as Development a whole”.sikhulatrust. Visit www. on cereals Sikhula Agri Training Tel: 021 852 2643 Department of Agricultural Economics Tel: 021 808 4758 • Paper No. Get a free e-mail subscription to the WASDE and other USDA crop reports at http://usda. mainly maize but also other cereals of interest to emerging farmers.ufs. Stellenbosch University Centre for Supply Chain Management Department of Logistics Tel: 021 808 3981 SAIBL helps to build the capacity for Sustainable • Centre and competitiveness of black owned • Farm Concern International. 8 reviews wool and mohair and to Tel: 051 401 3765 www. • Paper No. za and acknowledgements where they appear in this 1 provides a general background to marketing issues in South Write to retailnews@bizcommunity.farmersweekly. 6 is on dairy farming. most farmers read the weekly publications – either the Landbouweekblad or the Farmer’s Research in Action Tel: 083 300 7756 www.regoverningmarkets.fas. pro-poor marketing development initiatives for Sub-Saharan Africa – A food sourcing company for See the “Infrastructure agrologistics” chapter overseas clients and Unilever Institute of Strategic Marketing (Based at the University of Cape Town) Tel: 021 650 4312/ 4715 South African International – “Making import tariffs and market barriers transparent” • World Union of Wholesale Markets (WUWM) – www. Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) – International Trade Centre (ITC) website. Visit www. Commodity forecasts can also be found at the Office of the Chief Economist (OCE) menu option at Business Linkages (SAIBL) University of the Free State Tel: 011 602 1205 (take the “Publications” and then “General Publications” menu options) Tel: 033 260 5673 The vision of this section 21 the papers under “Agricultural Marketing Extension” on the Department of Agriculture’s website are highly useful. The Directorate Marketing at DAFF have various manuals and policy reports. • Paper No. Take the “Publications” and “Agriculture marketing” • Paper No. Tel: 012 420 5772 www. 3 reviews the South African horticultural market.macmap. • www. • www. • Paper • Paper Find the “Sustainable Markets” menu option. International • International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED) – 051 443 8859 South African Quality Institute University of KwaZulu-Natal (SAQI) School of • Find details of the other universities in the “Agricultural education and training” Rural and empowered small and medium Development and Extension South African enterprises.researchandmarkets. Pick n – “Guarantees a better deal for producers”. • Paper and supplier business with domestic • Lengau Agricultural centre Tel: and international – “The world’s largest market research resource” • World Trade Organisation – www. .fairtrade. 9. 4 looks at how extension officers can assist farmers with market Sirkel Sourcing Company Tel: 021 876 4891 www. • Paper Find the “Publications” menu option at market-related information.sun. 7 is on livestock. • Paper No. Although there is the occasional place where they are company is “To be a driver of University of Pretoria Quality contributing towards the Department of Agricultural global competitiveness of the South www. Contact Billy Morokolo at 012 319 8455 or write to • Source: The Agricultural Marketing Extension papers on www. Earth and Tel: 012 349 5006 Environmental Sciences or call 012 341 1115. A retail newsletter is available from econ/ Transnet Freight Rail (TFR) General Manager: Agriculture and Bulk Liquids Business Unit Tel: 011 960 2360 www. 5. Websites and publications For access to Spar and Woolworths from 9 covers poultry and eggs – “small-scale producers in modern agrifood markets” • See the analysis of Shoprite 2 is on horticultural marketing extension.landbou. •

This chapter is a look at some institutions behind the provision of financial services in the • Financial Charter Sector Council za • South African Insurance Association (SAIA) www. to whom proviers of financial services would be a meaningless This is an independent body and the services are provided free to the policy holders (life assurance).ombud. which do not fall within the jurisdiction of any other ombud scheme or where there is uncertainty over jurisdiction”.banking.savca.fsb. remember for a moment the unacceptably large percentage of our population who are not included in our • Association for Savings & Investment SA (ASISA) The ombudsman may be able to assist you if your insurer refuses to pay e. Overview “Money makes the world go round” is a saying with which most of us are familiar. trusts. but does point to our heavy reliance on money and financial services. • You must complain to the insurance company • Financial Intermediaries Association of Southern Africa Fiduciary Institute of South Africa (FISA) The ombudsman mediates in Tel: 082 449 2569 disputes between insurers and The Registrar for Medical Schemes Credit OMBUD Tel: 012 431 0500 Tel: 0861 662 837 www. . Education and training FAIS OMBUD Tel: 012 470 9080 www.fpi. • The Ombudsman’s decisions are binding on the insurance • Association of Black Securities and Investment Professionals (ABSIP) • Banking Association of South Africa Pension Funds Adjudicator Tel: 087 942 2700 For investment problems www. but not on • Institute of Retirement Funds of South Africa (IRF) www. While there may be very little that you can personally do about it.absa. a quotation from the musical Banks • The Banking Association of South Africa is the industry body for Debt counselling BANKSETA Tel: 011 805 9661 www. The Sector Education Training INSETA Authority (SETA) for Banks Tel: 011 544 2018 National Consumer Commissioner Tel: 086 026 6786 and the AgriBusiness range of products and solutions at • Alternative Investment Management Association (AIMA) Visit 4.asisa. A self-regulating body for matters The Ombudsman for Banking such as • Financial Planning Institute of Southern Africa (FPI) www. 2. estate Services planning Tel: 011 712 1800 co. • The South African Banking Risk Information Centre (SABRIC) was established to assist the banking industry to combat organised and only if you are unable to resolve the dispute with your • BankservAfrica is the “automated Clearing House that provides interbank electronic transaction switching and settlement services” Wondering where to find capital to expand your business? SAVCA provides a comprehensive and well-structured directory which lists the details and investing preferences of all members and associated members of the of • South African Savings Institute (SASI) FASSET Tel: 011 476 8570 The SETA for the insurance sector www.97 marketing and finance Providers of financial services • The service is free to insured consumers. co. Associations Consumer recourse: who can help you? The Ombudsman for ShortTerm Insurance Tel: 011 726 8900 Institute of Bankers Tel: 011 481 7000 www.inseta.obssa.medicalschemes.fscharter. but also for disputes that are not resolved by the Credit Ombudsman. See www. • Southern African Venture Capital and Private Equity Association (SAVCA) www.saia. for damage to your Absa Tel: 011 350 6851 www.fasset. Other financial bodies and associations • Actuarial Society of South Africa www. Tel: 021 657 5000 www. The FAIS Ombud deals with “complaints against financial institutions. Find details at If there is something bothering you Financial Services Board (FSB) about your medical scheme … Tel: 012 428 8000 National Credit Regulator (NCR) Tel: 0860 627 627 www. then you can refer the matter to their South African Institute of Financial and Accounting Services Chartered Accountants SETA (SAICA) Tel: 011 621 6600 Provincial contacts: • Eastern Cape – 041 396 5504 • Free State – 051 401 0933 • Gauteng – 012 366 5902 • KwaZulu-Natal – 031 580 8086 • Limpopo – 015 290 5624 • Mpumalanga – 013 753 4579 • North West – 018 293 8709 • Northern Cape – 053 839 7500 • Western Cape – 021 915 5320 Find the notes about the AgriBusiness It is not literally true. NB Only The Ombudsman for long-term credit grantors that are registered insurance with the NCR may grant credit. See www.







Invest North West FP .

105 Bidvest Tel: 011 731 7600 Development Bank of Southern Africa (DBSA) Tel: 011 313 3911 www. .za Standard Bank Tel: 011 636 6162 Provincial representation: Agricultural Advisors • Eastern Cape – 041 391 2429 • Free State – 051 403 4712 • Gauteng – 011 677 0484 • KwaZulu-Natal – 031 374 2142 • Limpopo – 015 409 1148 UBank Previously Teba Bank Tel: 011 518 5000 www. Industrial Development Corporation (IDC) Tel: 0860 693 888 Bloemfontein – 051 411 1450 Polokwane – 015 299 4080 / 4099 Rustenburg – 014 591 9660/1 Kimberley – 053 807 1050 Cape Town – 021 421 4794 Durban – 031 337 4455 East London – 043 721 0733/4 Nelspruit – 013 752 7724 Land Bank Tel: 0800 00 52 59 bringing those from a previously disadvantaged background into agriculture. and developing commercial farming in South CAPITEC Tel: 0860 10 20 43 Nedbank AgriBusiness Ltd Tel: 021 807 1369 First National Bank Tel: 011 649 0928 www. The minimum financing is R1 www. An economically viable business plan must be State owned development banks and agencies • Mpumalanga – 013 757 5595 • North West – 014 591 6187 • Northern Cape – 053 807 8172 • Western Cape – 021 970 4261 WesBank Tel: 011 632 6000 Land Bank – see notes under heading 5 Regional offices: Sasfin Bank Tel: 011 809 7500 Rand Merchant Bank Tel: 011 282 8000 www. District contact details IDC finance is for entrepreneurs in are available on the website. the agricultural. beverage and marine sectors wanting to expand and develop their Port Elizabeth – 041 392 1200 Bloemfontein – 051 404 1400 Pretoria – 012 364 0560 Pietermaritzburg – 033 845 9600 Polokwane – 015 299 4100 Nelspruit – 013 754 2400 Potchefstroom – 018 294 9800 Upington – 054 338 8400 Cape Town – 021 974 2200 The Land Bank’s objectives are food security.standardbank.

Visit www. Embassies and foreign financial support Find details of foreign embassies and high commissions in South Africa at www. Countries around the world are listed: any details of grants and funds available for use in South Africa are listed Trade and Investment KwaZulu-Natal Tel: 031 368 9600 www.ausaid. Mutual and Federal Insurance Company Ltd Tel: 012 999 9546 (Agricrop) Tel: 012 999 9533 (Agri Asset insurance) www. Take the “Partners and Institutions” Eastern Cape Development Corporation (ECDC) Tel: 043 704 5600 www. • Delegation of the European Union to South Africa – www. among which are Agricrop and Agri Numerous services include finance Asset Insurance. insurance and other financial Agricultural and Industrial Marketing Company Tel: 082 573 4344 Eastern Cape Rural Finance Corporation Tel: 043 604 7000 Limpopo Business Support Agency (LIBSA) Tel: 015 287 3000 www. 7. Ithala Tel: 031 710 7511 www. welcomeurope.theaimco. • The Agence Française de Développement Group (AFD) – www. the Development Co-operation Information System Kaap Agri. lux-development. • International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) – Invest North West (INW) Tel: 014 594 2570 Free State Development Corporation (FDC) Tel: 051 400 0800 • Department for International Development (DFID) – finding logistics solutions for Northern Cape Economic Development Agency Tel: 053 833 1503 www. Securing trade and finance instruments from Gauteng Enterprise Development Agency (GEDA) Tel: 011 833 8750/1 8.giz.mega.ecrfc.finmark. and managing “change of control” Phatisa Group Limited transactions and land reform Tel: 011 463 1920 www. Find the drop-down (PWC) Limpopo Economic Development Enterprise (LimDev) Tel: 015 633 4700 spanning multiple industries Specialist services EmVest Santam Agri Tel: 012 003 0219 Tel: 021 915 7000 www.agrivie. and the separate chapter on agribusinesses Agri-Vie Tel: 021 913 5662 • Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH – Fund Manager for the African Agriculture Fund (AAF) initiative PricewaterhouseCoopers Deloitte provides transaction advisory Deloitte Tel: 011 806 5000 www. Short-term insurance • Luxembourg Agency for Development and Co-operation – www.santam. project management and Visit The Fund invests mainly in equity investments in agricultural ANDISA Agri Tel: 082 807 5587 Ntinga OR Tambo Development Agency Tel: 047 531 0346 www. Suidwes and VKB offer Western Cape (WESGRO) Tel: 021 487 8600 Futuregrowth Agri-Fund Tel: 021 659 5300 www. Find details of all the other UN agencies at work in South Africa at www. za • Find notes on the European Development Fund at Companies Find the “Finance and administration” heading in the “Agricultural consultants” chapter. Companies like AFGRI.libsa. • USAID (US Agency for International Development) – Department of Economic Development and Tourism (KwaZulu-Natal) www. • Finmark Trust – Co-operatives See the co-operatives chapter Mpumalanga Economic Growth Agency (MEGA) Tel: 013 752 2440 .za Gauteng Enterprise Propeller Tel: 011 085 2001 • Denmark is funding the Southern African Security and Defence Management Network (SADSEM) Trade and Investment Limpopo Tel: 015 295 5171 www. Click on “ODA Reports” then “Contact Lists” to get details on whom to contact for what kind of funding. raising. agri-businesses and farming infrastructure. equity and grants. gov.106 Investment promotion agencies (IPAs) and other regional / province-specific role players Amathole Economic Development Agency Tel: 043 721 2070 www. gov. then “International Development Co-operation Partners” options. This is an initiative of the South African National Treasury to provide information about Official Development Assistance (ODA) to South ifad.sida. and financial advisory Tel: 021 815 3000 services to public and private clients www.dcis. • ECIAfrica – se • Swiss Agency for Development and Co-operation (SDC) – Agribusinesses See the “Agribusiness” za (take the “Foreign relations” option) Some international role players with a presence in Southern Africa: • Australian Agency for International Development – • Sweden International Development Agency (SIDA) – African Rand Tel: 011 678 1354 www. droughts etc) on humans and the Issues such as climate • assists and supports provincial and local governments to manage agricultural risks and Univision Financial Services Tel: 018 464 7494 www.africanrand. • reduce the negative effects of natural disasters ( Subscribe to the various weather notifications and sms services. this has increased the complexity of risk decision-making. Advanced Fire Information System (AFIS).nedbank. Tel: 0860 93 94 93 Cover is “Agribusinesses” chapter) offers also available for: short term insurance. livestock. veld fires etc cannot be declared disasters under this Companies involved ABSA Insurance Company Ltd Tel: 011 350 4000 GROCANE Tel: 031 508 7161 Santam Agriculture www.agricolasa. The result is economic stability in rural economies. Department of Cooperative Governance South African National Disaster Management Centre Tel: 012 334 0726 and specifically CIB Insurance Tel: 011 455 5101 Read about Old Mutual’s Masisizane www. Even though agricultural businesses have more tools available to manage and mitigate risks. legislation and prescripts in respect of risk and disaster management in the agricultural Fund in the “Development financial services” chapter Garrun Group Tel: 011 694 5000 Sanlam Life Insurance Ltd Tel: 011 881 1300 / 086 172 7742 Tel: 011 858 5135/6 Land Bank Insurance Company agri. Department of covering passengers on opensided vehicles Boshoff Visser operates in the Western . The result of effective risk management practices in agriculture will have some significant benefits for society as a whole such as: • ensure food security and stability of Mutual and Federal Insurance Company Ltd Tel: 012 999 9546 (Agricrop) Tel: 012 999 9533 (Agri Asset insurance) www.lbic.hvo. and centre-pivot Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) Directorate: Agricultural Risk and Disaster Management Tel: 012 319 7955 / 6 pa. crop is a business faced with many Marsh South Africa Tel: 011 506 5000 www. credit life insurance etc. • create jobs and sustainable Where the particular nature of drought Tel: 0861 00 5242 www. Associations involved Find details of the following in the “Providers of financial services” chapter: • Financial Intermediaries Association of Southern Africa • South African Insurance Association (SAIA) • The Ombudsman for Short-Term Insurance • The Ombudsman for long-term insurance • Actuarial Society of South Africa • Association for Savings & Investment SA • Financial Planning Institute of Southern Africa (FPI) • Financial Services Board • Institute of Retirement Funds of South Africa (IRF) 4.garrun-group.dadrm@daff. skills shortage and the growth in the financial markets in terms of commodity products have increased the risks these businesses ABSA Life Ltd Tel: 011 330 2111 Find the “Farmers” menu option Nedbank AgriBusiness Tel: 021 807 1369 Personal cover and insurance for farming activities.standardbank. and • improve the stability of farmer incomes and hence expenditure on farm inputs. • reduce the need for taxpayer funded emergency aid packages. co. Agricola Tel: 011 288 0300 www. and Your regional agribusiness (see equipment are This directorate: • manages. develops and implements government policy. National strategy and government contact The Disaster Management Act of 2002 Tel: 021 915 7000 www. • assist in achieving long-term sustainability of the environment. • irrigation systems on wheels Find out what is on offer. • prepares a strategic plan for agricultural risk and disaster management.sanlam. • result in a stable and profitable commercial farmer base to ensure that agriculture is able to provide in the food requirements of the South African Weather Service Tel: 012 367 6000 Kasfin Tel: 0860 104 297 Standard Bank marketing and finance Risk management and insurance 1.sasria. Overview Agriculture Huis van Oranje Groep Tel: 012 940 4215 SASRIA www. 3.oldmutual. The winners of tomorrow will be the farmers and agri businesses that are able to manage the risks inherent to their farming systems at a reasonable cost. Flash Flood Guidance System (FFGS) and the Integrated National Early Warning System (INEWS) on the T&E FinOps Tel: 0861 440 666 Esme. Find branch contact Old Mutual Life Assurance Company Ltd details on the Find the links to the SA National Fire Danger Index. relief can be provided in the form of a “specific measure” Tel: 021 916 5000 Lion of Africa Insurance Tel: 011 100 1900 and • public liability for commercial Boshoff Visser hunting and game viewing www.

In respect of the prices of farming inputs farmers are largely price “takers”. Legal risk is inherent in contractual agreements and is always present in the form of environmental liabilities. Primary sources of risk in farming Although the risks provided below have been separated into varying categories. endorsed by SADC and and Education Centre for funded by the UK Department for Africa (DIMTEC) International Development. subsidies. risk management. The Rapids Group focuses mainly monitoring. vehicles. and GIS (Geographical Information System) maps. they have very little or no influence on the prices they pay and there are few risk management tools or instruments available to manage the risk. As these about their FARMS pests are highly mobile and often Read cross political boundaries. Therefore. 5. Visit www. Farmers should therefore approach risk management from a holistic viewpoint and should carefully consider the impact of even improbable illness and death. Legal and controlling these on flood management aspects. regional partners and to FAO Country Offices within the southern Africa region. crop performance.e. A large number of farming activities have legal Lombard Insurance Group Tel: 011 551 0600 www. milk HOTSURE Tel: 0861 468 225 (HANSA) Tel: 084 501 5991 Some funding relief is made wviljoen@adra-sa. command: monitor and track your climate related disease warnings. etc. Personal risks are those risks relating to the people who are involved with the actual management of the Prestige Credit Insurance Consultants Tel: 011 022 0642 www. www. or between neighbouring countries call 051 401 3109. The following are role players: Coface South Africa Tel: 011 208 2500 www. Certain producers can be price “takers” for outputs as well.hotsure. has Tel: 051 401 2721 established a regional network of www. 012 356 9800 (ICOSAMP Coordinator) icosamp@ecoport. and in some University of the Free State years have been known to cause Department of Agricultural devastating damage to food crops Economics within member countries of the Tel: 051 401 2824 / 3864 Southern African Development www.lombardins.inseta. the price of maize in US$. the credit insurer will foot the bill. physical markets where buyers and sellers meet or by way of the transactions between individual parties.108 Credit insurance Credit insurance means that if your customer goes into liquidation or if payment is prevented by some other event. Where substantial funding is required this should be secured well-ahead of time. Political risk. e. Price risk results from the unpredictable and competitive nature of the prices of both farming inputs and outputs. reinsurance.ecoport. food safety liabilities. particularly those associated with water availability and quality as well as rising annually plague the southern African employment livestock and other assets meteorological consultation. Other role players Enviromon Tel: 021 851 5134 www. is vital with respect to forecasting. Changing prices of products can be observed on formal markets such as the various commodity and futures exchanges. pension funding etc industry.ufs.cofaceza. programme. Disaster Management. The recent crisis has taught us that any business needs to plan its operational cash-flow and investments properly and put in place a funding plan that provides some comfort on the availability of the funds at the crucial times. Tel: 011 341 9480 armyworm.g. Visit www.fao-reosa. Training ICOSAMP.ufs. For certain crops and products there exist several financial instruments and products whereby the farmer can effect price risk Inseta is the Sector Education and Training Authority (SETA) for the insurance. available for businesses in the agricultural value chain affected by floods and drought PricewaterhouseCoopers Agri Industry Group National Leader and Southern Region – 021 815 3000 KwaZulu-Natal – 031 271 2000 Central Region – 051 503 4100 Northern Region – 013 754 3300 Eastern Region – 041 391 4400 Gauteng Region – 012 429 0573 Risk advisory services The Regional Emergency Office for Southern Africa (REOSA) of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) provides Credit Guarantee Tel: 011 889 7000 www. Currently the observed changes in the global climate are posing numerous and potentially significant risks to the production of Training and research ICOSAMP – The Information Core for Southern African Migrant Pests these risks are not independent. technical and operational support in food security and agriculture Disaster Risk Reduction and Management (DRR/M) to governments. to assist in the risk identification and management thereof. They include farm safety. Farming businesses can be exposed to cyclical cash flow patterns.prestigecredit. on the website. and Quelea birds. But for some the price risk associated with farming outputs can often only be managed to some extent through an effective marketing strategy.g. Price Community (SADC). with the biggest Masters its inception in or call 086 113 0013. outbreaks. Production risk. Production risk includes contributing risks such as changes in the weather. managing the funding risk of the farming business is crucial. Industrial Development Corporation (IDC) Humanitarian Assistance Tel: 011 269 3000 Network of South Africa www. divorce.creditguarantee.idc. Changes in government or to government policies relating to matters such as land reform. weather forecasts. Funding and funding liquidity . Personal risk. Currency which includes Risk communication and collaboration Management. Production risk is defined as the overall uncertainty regarding http://icosamp. A successful farming business has implemented a well thought through funding plan. food and safety are often uncertain and may have a large impact on farmers. Insurance Institute of SA Migrant pests such as locusts. Indeed some of the larger impacts on farming businesses are due to the interaction of the information officers who submit monthly reports on the status of A department in the faculty migrant pests in their country to of Natural and Agricultural the ICOSAMP co-ordinator. Currency risk can also have a significant impact on price animal welfare. so that the lack of available funding does not negatively impact the business. ICOSAMP Degree Programme in Disaster has issued regular monthly Bulletins Management in A variety of weather services are Web based GIS monitor and provided e.enviromon. The appreciation or depreciation of the South African Rand affects both import and export demand and domestic prices for competitively traded inputs and outputs. incidence of pests and diseases and machine efficiency. Since Sciences.g. particularly where prices of inputs or outputs are referenced against a foreign currency.


This form of contract is of obvious benefit to both parties. The latter of these options allows farmers to take advantage of price increases but also exposes them to price decreases. These collateral amounts are necessary to protect individual parties in the event of default.110 6. commonly referred to as Over-The-Couter (“OTC”) markets. commonly referred to as margin. but is not obligated to do so. Below are some examples: • Planting a crop in an area not suited to its production is avoided because the likelihood of an inferior crop is very high.2 Diversification strategies Crop diversification By broadening the variety of crops under consideration and selecting crops which behave differently in various financial and environmental conditions. In other words.Put option which entitles the holder to the right to sell an underlying security. • the cost of mitigating or managing the risks. and the farmer delivering a specified quantity and quality of product to the contractor. . Several variations of such contracts exist. to purchase or sell an underlying commodity at a predetermined future price and date.g. Futures contracts are traded through a centralised market known as a futures exchange [e. Currently the only soft commodities traded on Safex are white and yellow maize. sunflower seeds and soya beans. Risk sharing strategies 7. reducing or mitigation through improvements to the control environment and the management processes • exploiting risk where exposure is a potential missed or unrealised opportunity Risk sharing strategies • sharing of risk between parties and stakeholders • transferring risk to a third party (outsourcing /insuring) • integrating a series of risk responses through combination of responses 7. e. Options can be traded on an exchange such as futures contracts discussed above or in informal markets. Two types of option contracts exist: . an eventual buyer (known as the person assuming the long position) pays the contract price and receives the underlying commodity (grain. e. the particulars of the contract (expiration date. price etc) are not personalised as in the case of the forward contract. The farmer is then compensated accordingly for goods and services provided.g. etc. There are however derivative contracts on other financial instruments. the South African Futures Exchange (“Safex”)] and as a result are standardised in the terms of the agreement.Call option which entitles the holder to the right to buy an underlying security. The key distinction here is that the buyer or seller of the commodity in the future has the right to conduct the transaction. The standardised nature of these contracts allow for far more liquidity than is the case with forward contracts. 7. if appropriate. • Futures Contracts function in much the same way as a forward contract with one exception.3 Risk sharing strategies Contracting Production Contracts A production contract entails a contractor supplying the necessary farming inputs. combining crops with livestock. including negative financial consequences which may jeopardise the survival of the farming operation and its impact on cash flow and fund availability. Farmers should remain as flexible as possible and can do so by growing crops with short production cycles and storing a portion of a harvest so that sales can be made throughout the year at favourable prices. . including finance. Contractors are entitled to a predetermined quantity and standard of commodity at some future date. • Planting below the 1 in a 100 year floodline may be an acceptable risk owing to the likelihood of a flood being low. on the Industrial share index of the Johannesburg Securities Exchange (“JSE”). to a farmer. A major disadvantage of a forward contract is that these types of contracts are often highly illiquid. tourism. Factors farmers should consider before attempting to manage risk The degree to which various types of risk are managed will depend on many factors. wheat etc). on interest and exchange rates. It is important to conduct a thorough analysis of the risk that is being accepted to completely understand the impact of such a risk should it occur. Essentially. In other words. In addition mixed farming operations can also be practiced. This characteristic of a forward contract stems from the fact that it is usually very difficult to exit the contract prior to maturity. and • the consequences of not managing the risk.g. What options could be considered to manage and/ mitigate the Risk? Risk Management Strategies can be classified along the following lines: Avoidance or acceptance strategies • avoiding/terminating activity giving rise to exposure or intolerable risk • accepting risk where exposure is within the risk appetite Diversification strategies • treating. Each contract has a specified amount of “initial” margin placed upon trading the derivative as well as “variation” margin reflecting the accrued profit or loss due to movements in the price of the derivative. • Futures contracts also require that both parties to the contract post collateral. but financial instruments are available to hedge farmers against these risks. 7. wheat. • the likelihood and impact of any potential risks within the particular business. • the strategies or processes available to manage or mitigate the risk. Farmers will need to consider the following in determining the appropriate course(s) of action necessary with regard to dealing with risk: • own personal appetite for risk. A forward contract gives the holder the right and full obligation to conduct a transaction involving an underlying commodity at a future date at a predetermined future price. etc. amount of the underlying asset.1 Avoidance or acceptance strategies Avoidance and acceptance strategies should be based on the impact and likelihood of the risk. a forward contract is a personalised trade agreement between two private parties to be executed at some future date at a predetermined price. but not the obligation. while growers are guaranteed the required inputs and a fixed income stream (production contracts are often also referred to as “off-take” agreements). By use of these instruments the risks associated with interest and exchange rates can be effectively managed. farmers can successfully reduce overall risk. and the eventual seller (known as the person assuming the short position) delivers the underlying commodity at the set price. primarily because it is the most basic and easily understood. including: • Forward Contracts are the most commonly used derivative product available. Marketing/ Derivative Contracts. Flexibility Flexibility is of vital importance when confronted by an ever-changing environment. • Option Contracts give the holder the right.

then the farmer will waive his rights with regard to the contract. Contact him at albre. the farmer will consider his choice to sell the grain relative to the market price for grain at that time. Liquidity Liquid assets are those assets that can be easily converted into cash. An insured person pays a premium to an insurance company at regular intervals and in return receives payment from the insurer if an insured loss occurs. Ownership of such assets may be very useful in the event of emergencies. and as such the option premium can be considered similar to an insurance premium as it provided the farmer with protection in case of the price reducing. since fixed assets have the ability to generate higher profits. however. obligate him to do so. Leasing Leasing inputs such as land and machinery provides producers with sufficient flexibility to respond to changing markets. but also suffer proportionately in any losses. It should be noted that in the second scenario. It also decreases the capital required to expand operations. If the price of grain in the market is lower than the price agreed upon in the terms of the option contract. where the farmer forfeits his right to exercise the contract. Equity finance Equity financing is an effective way of spreading risk. so reducing financial risk. The farmer purchases a put option by paying a certain premium for the contract. Our thanks to Albré Badenhorst. The option entitles the farmer to sell a fixed amount of grain at a predetermined price in the future – the contract does If the price of grain in the market is higher than the price agreed upon in the terms of the option contract. It is important to note that an appropriate balance is required between fixed assets and liquid assets. By transferring income into an account during successful periods and withdrawing from it in difficult periods is a reliable means offsetting unexpected declines in farm income.badenhorst@za. Financial Risk Services at PricewaterhouseCoopers. Equity investors in the agricultural operation receive a pro rata share of the returns of an investment. The farmer will elect to sell the grain at the higher price agreed upon in the contract since the market price is lower.111 The use of an option contract is best shown by way of example: A grain farmer may elect to use an option contract in order to eliminate the risk of a low grain price in the market in the future. Savings The use of a savings account is a constructive method of reducing income variability. The farmer in this instance will choose to sell his commodity at a higher price in the market since the strike price agreed upon in the contract is lower. he/she loses the initial premium . When the option expires. Crop insurance Insurance is a highly common risk management strategy. for rewriting much of the content of this chapter. then the farmer will exercise his rights with regard to the contract. These assets provide a safety net for production disasters and poor market conditions.

Different actors in agricultural supply chains have abandoned their traditional competitive positions towards each other in favour of co-operation to compete more effectively. co. Such groups could operate at a regional rather than national level. Local retailers. The traditional antagonistic roles of the sales and purchasing departments – to sell as high as possible and buy as low as possible – is abandoned in favour of co-operation and coordination. 2. There is every argument to be made for small scale farmers to form buying and marketing groups. It’s important to get a group of like-minded farmers together to establish the farmercontrolled business properly. Source: adapted from the article “Small scale farmers must join forces to cash in on new trend toward local supply. • Commodity associations usually have material and studies relating to their chain. Farmers who want to do this first need to get Competition Commission processing and distribution” by Magna Carta Public Relations for Standard Bank. Please also refer to the “Exporting”. We should do this before we lose more farmers and the total production lands in the hands of a few large companies. The “Risk management and insurance” chapter applies. • Banks prefer to fund small scale farmers through an umbrella organisation that takes responsibility for the group meeting its contract obligations. Role players Some agricultural products such as flowers. www. These benefits of successful supply chain management can be summarised as follows: • reduced cost through specialisation • improved synergistic performance • increased information to support joint planning • enhanced customer service • reduced risk and uncertainty • shared creativity • improved competitive advantage These advantages are realised when firms start to co-ordinate the flow of products throughout the supply chain. This too can be found at www. If prices rise. • Find the article “Africa: Targeting Gaps in the Food Supply Chain” on http://allAfrica. are paving the way through sourcing goods locally. This is a presentation that was given to the 2012 Agricultural Business Chamber In most cases. Visit www. The onus now falls on these small scale farmers to make collaboration at their end of the value chain a Find it in the archives at www. The emerging co-ordination and control mechanisms can be collectively referred to as Supply Chain Management. Farmer-controlled businesses must add value to their products. • Visit livestock.namc.daff. with input suppliers. This means upholding a consistent supply of quality products to retailers. Websites and publications • A number of studies into supply chains can be found at In other words. “Marketing” and “Infrastructure and Agro-logistics” chapters 5. directly from farmers. Overview The systems for providing food and other agricultural products to the final consumer have changed over the years. • Supply Chain Management Research blog – http://scmresearch. Through co-operation and co-ordination of their activities firms are able to realise advantages across the supply chain. • They can optimise their input costs and negotiate contracts with off takers. explores the value chains of several agricultural commodities. like Walmart and Pick ‘n Pay. Farmers can share in the profits made upstream or downstream through their own farmerowned businesses. which focuses on procurement and supply management. and vegetable farmers could work together to negotiate one contract to which they would all be suppliers. Small-scale farmers In the past. • Find Cost Analysis in South African Agro-food Value Chains by Dr André Jooste of the NAMC at www. There is a hotline to speed up government payments to Small Medium and Micro Enterprises (SMMEs).co. Primary production is the least profitable of all sectors in a value chain. Provision must be made for new entrants and for resignations. • It may also be easier for the government to grant subsidies to collective farming structures instead of individuals. In fact. 4. • Systems improvements and value-addition is identified as a priority area in the National Agricultural Research and Development Strategy document. Business enterprises experiencing late payments of more than 30 days can call the hotline number on 0860 766 3729 or fax their details to 012 452 0458 for assistance. Advice from accountants and legal professionals is usually needed. off takers. financiers. They have to expand their activities to include a larger part of the value . • The Agricultural Commodity Value Profiles series on the Department of Agriculture. The retailers would get the product variety they need to attract consumers. farmer-controlled businesses need professional management and capital investment. Source: Dr Koos Coetzee in the article “Getting a bigger slice”.daff.smartprocurement. • South Africa’s geographic diversity means that many regions have a range of climatic conditions that would enable a variety of crops to be produced and then sold collectively to local retailers. Forestry and Fisheries fruit and vegetables are vulnerable to supply chain disruptions – see those chapters.farmersweekly. Farmers often want to establish farmer-controlled businesses when prices are low.112 marketing and finance Supply Chain Management 1. it’s illegal for a group of farmers to club together and negotiate higher website of the National Agricultural Marketing Council (NAMC) about a two-year evaluation of agricultural innovations to alleviate hunger and poverty in Africa. and don’t need to be limited to one specific industry. farmers. and each farmer within a farming group would benefit from a stable supply contract. The farmer’s share of the consumer rand is shrinking.supplychainforesight. meat. agriculture has been fragmented. Source: Dr Tobias Doyer (Santam) Farmer-controlled businesses shouldn’t be seen as glorified trade unions with the sole purpose of negotiating higher prices. and consumers all seeing themselves as separate role players without responsibility for any other element of the value chain. You can’t expect to get a higher price for your product if you don’t add value to it and reduce cost for processors in the chain. they change their minds. • Supply Chain Foresight is the industry standard qualitative research study into South Africa’s supply chains. • Having a retailer ring-fencing the bank’s risk by contracting to put the group’s products on its shelves makes such groups even more


land and water resource. Key focus areas to address pollution include water contamination by fertilisers. We need to know more these ecosystem services in order to make every provision for them to continue. • Cultural – people need connection to nature. As a species. • Health – including strength and feeling well. provides for our fuel and energy needs. recreational and learning benefits. the information on best fertiliser practice (see “Fertiliser” chapter). food. Population Population growth is the main cause of pressure on the ecosystems and the degradation of the environment. and all the benefits that come with these – food security. and access to goods. pathogens. we are living beyond our means. Consider • Security – including access to resources. renewable energy and rainwater harvesting have been moved to the “Inputs” section. fuel. pollination of crops. We are drawing on nature’s capital rather than living off its interest. mitigation against natural disasters. Payment for Ecosystem services (PES) Even though biodiversity is the foundation of ecosystems and habitats (i. Any economist would explain that bankruptcy is set to follow. soil formation and nutrient cycles. industrialised humanity has only just begun to take into account the connection between: • biodiversity and quality of life. animals and the receiving environment. What can be done about this? The reader should note that there is information elsewhere in the book that could well have been in this section e. China and South Africa. pesticides affecting plants. Overview Introduced and invasive species Biodiversity describes the variety of life in an area. or even wildlife for tourism. Invaders impact on fauna and flora. from forest trees to oceanic fish. access to clean air and water. These services are categorised: • Provision – biodiversity provides all living organisms with water. Also. Over-exploitation From muti-plants to rhino horns. but also on the soil. Society consumes the equivalent of what three planets would produce per year. • the number of different species • the genetic wealth within each species • the interrelationships between them • the natural areas where they occur. coal-fired electricity plants which produce high levels of air pollution and contaminate water. sufficient food. encroaching on and transforming natural habitats. mutual respect and the ability to help Biodiversity is the basis of agriculture. there are no livelihoods. while the human settlements expand.e. countries – mostly in the “industrialised west” – have been polluting for two centuries. without biodiversity. Invaders tend to resourcehungry and deplete the natural assets. in order to mainstream them. and landfill waste which grows exponentially with pollution and affluence. Societies also do not consume equally. and • biodiversity and it many economic Pollution Since the industrial revolution. Simply stated. Habitat destruction.stewardship. several chapters like biocontrol. Source: an excerpt from the opening page at www. In addition its being undervalued. acid-mine drainage. Source: an excerpt from the opening page at www. You may ask: “What has biodiversity ever done for me?” Biodiversity feeds us. agricultural goods. These benefits of biodiversity are often referred to as ecosystem goods and services. Without biodiversity. Clearly evident is the common factor – our own excessive consumption of natural resources. water and the spread of disease. food plants for agriculture. nutritional variety. medicine and fibres. The “Resources and Good Agricultural Practice” section of this directory is a recognition that while agriculture contributes to the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity. • Regulation – biodiversity and its life-support systems regulate climate. . The richer nations far outstrip the poorer ones in terms of consumption. untreated sewage and effluent contaminating water systems. There are numerous spiritual. fish for commercial or subsistence fisheries. the pollution levels world-wide are soaring.g. this contribution – particularly the economic contribution – is understudied. 1. • Supporting life systems – production. And biodiversity is also directly related to the quality of life you may expect. Wilson’s “HIPPO” summarises the key causes of destruction of the natural environment. Maintaining biodiversity is essential for the production of food. Threats to biodiversity The biologist EO Wilson developed the acronym HIPPO to sum up the threats to biodiversity. disturbance and fragmentation Biodiversity and ecosystem services Habitat destruction and the changes to ecosystems is possibly the greatest cause of biodiversity loss. • Basic needs – including the ability to earn a living or subsist.stewardship. nutrition and livelihoods. • Good social relations – including social cohesion. aesthetic. it is also a major driver of biodiversity loss. and the massive footprint we leave on the earth. there are no trees for including: Introduced species often become invasive when they breed and outcompete or eat the endemic species.114 resources and good agricultural practice 2. 3. Joined now by emerging economies such as India. clothes us. shelters us and heals us. including rivers and groundwater. The growth rate feeds the demand for natural resources. our natural environment). we have become predominantly urban and increasingly disconnected from nature.

Nama-Karoo. • The Ecosystem Marketplace is “a leading source of news. is home to plants and animals well suited to hot. The reader interested in following this theme is referred to the following: • Listen to the excellent talk at www.proecoserv.. Map Citation: Mucina. Biodiversity and South Africa South Africa’s biomes – see map below South Africa has a wide range of climatic conditions and many variations in topography (e. Pavan Sukhdev runs the numbers on greening up – showing that green economies are an effective engine for creating jobs and creating wealth”. for example.g. Visit www. Desert. dry conditions such as the gemsbok and succulent plants. ecosystemmarketplace.sciencemag. . A banker by training. The fynbos biome is home to a variety of plants that are suited to a mediterranean climate and the poor soils of the south Western Cape.. Eye-opening charts will make you think differently about the cost of air. (eds) 2006. M. • Find the “Payments for Environmental Services from Agricultural Landscapes” page and links on the UN’s Food And Agricultural Organisation (FAO) website. Albany Thicket and Indian Ocean Coastal Belt biomes. respectively. Savanna.rncalliance.C. Strelitzia – Pavan Sukhdev: Put a value on nature! The website reads: “Think of Pavan Sukhdev as nature’s banker – assessing the value of the Earth’s 4. In combination.115 In some cases incentives will need to be provided for the conserving of biodiversity (read about REDD+ in the “Climate change” chapter). together with their associated animal life. data. • Read the article “Paying for Ecosystem Services – Promise and Peril” (November 2011) at www. • Find Project for Ecosystem Services (ProEcoServ) and RNC Alliance under the role players heading. 800 pp. and biodiversity)”.fao. large plateau). Each of these supports its own collection of plant and animal species. and analytics on markets and payments for ecosystem services (such as water quality. Pretoria. climate and topography give rise to broad vegetation zones which. narrow coastal plain. & Rutherford. trees . Fynbos. an area covered by Payments for environmental services (PES). The Karoo. Forest. These are the Succulent and www. are called biomes. Lesotho and Swaziland. steep escarpment. South African National Biodiversity Institute. or go directly to their websites at www. carbon sequestration.ted. The vegetation of South Africa. water.

and involve market mechanisms such as those depicted below. parastatals like Eskom and private companies. Industries where business and biodiversity initiatives have become well established are the wine. sugar. This includes private farms. Initiatives in these industries fit in at various stages along the value chain. sheep and indigenous game species have been identified as the most compatible agricultural activities in the biome. 57 of 2003) and Biodiversity Act (No. in particular the Endangered Wildlife Trust (EWT). sometimes overseas. Landowners work with conservation authorities to agree on a conservation management plan that involves managing invasive alien species. They have achieved this through marketing their products as biodiversity-friendly.and donor-funded bioregional conservation programmes – CAPE. SKEP and the Grasslands Programme • Industry role players from South African companies and multinationals represented in the country. developing best practice guidelines.g. agriculture and tourism sectors to promote formal biodiversity conservation areas. . the EWT and the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) • South Africa’s government. Biodiversity Stewardship South Africa The Biodiversity Stewardship South Africa (BSSA) programme is an initiative of the national Department of Environmental Affairs (DEA) in partnership with key conservation organisations.grasslands. a Biodiversity Agreement or a Voluntary Conservation Area. indigenous cutflower.capeaction. overgrazing and ostrich as well as some of the major retailers • Landowners and producer associations who want to practice sustainable farming and conserve biodiversity on their land. Cape Action for People and the Environment (CAPE) works through a landscape-level approach to conservation and involves landowners and their representative bodies. The BSSA is an umbrella programme that provides a powerful new tool to assist national and provincial government in fulfilling its mandate to conserve biodiversity outside of state-owned protected areas. In each of these areas. working with landowners to sign stewardship agreements. 10 of 2004). are increasingly being covered by the premium prices these producers are able to charge for their products in niche markets. developing land use management plans for overgrazed areas. municipalities. Business and biodiversity Over the past few honey. legally-aligned options nationwide and ensures that landowners benefit from participation. with special responsibility for biodiversity matters relating to the full diversity of South Africa’s fauna and flora. The Grasslands Programme seeks to identify and promote biodiversitycompatible land uses. Read more at www. and avoiding further land transformation. 7. The programme helps to implement provincial conservation plans through a and they receive assistance through extension services. It also assists government in meeting the targets set out by the National Spatial Biodiversity Assessment and the National Biodiversity Framework (NBF). SKEP looks to conserve the SKH which is an area that has a wealth of unique biodiversity but has also been severely damaged by human activities such as mining. Conservation Stewardship See also the Conservancies chapter Biodiversity stewardship provides a new cost-effective way for government to carry out its existing conservation mandate. participating in labelling and certification schemes or working through international trade organisations that accredit producers. Grazing of cattle. The commitments are referred to as “voluntary” in the sense that they are not legislated requirements or regulatory mechanisms. PRODUCERS voluntary producer commitments PRODUCTS RETAILERS eco-labelling / procurement advice voluntary procurement commitments CONSUMERS consumer awareness campaigns The major players in these initiatives are: • Conservation non-governmental organisations (NGOs) based in South Africa e. conservationists worldwide have identified the need to “mainstream” biodiversity by integrating biodiversity conservation into systems where the primary focus is on production.The BSSA’s goals are aligned with those of DEA’s National Protected Areas Expansion Strategy and Community-Based Natural Resource Management programme. encouraging sustainable grazing. Read more at The Succulent Karoo Ecosystem Programme (SKEP) is an overarching framework for biodiversity conservation and sustainable development of the Succulent Karoo Hotspot (SKH). while in some cases partially funded by donors. In South Africa this has meant a growing engagement between the business and conservation sectors and the development of some innovative models of “biodiversityfriendly” business. citrus and ostrich. with emerging initiatives in others like red meat. The costs of these initiatives and the biodiversity conservation measures they involve. fishing. landscape-scale approach to 6. by getting landowners to commit to conserving and managing the biodiversity on their own land. in terms of the National Environmental Management: Protected Areas Act (No. and working with those in the South African mining. mostly in agriculture. Biodiversity stewardship approach provides a small number of simple. issues around biodiversity on agricultural land are dealt with by working with farmers to set aside valuable biodiversity on their land through entering into conservation stewardship agreements (see heading 5). farming or harvesting. Read more at www. Participating landowners in the existing Western Cape and KwaZulu-Natal programmes may receive incentives to commit their property to one of three stewardship options through the relevant conservation authority – a Contract Nature Reserve. Projects include creating a provincial nature reserve. Bioregional programmes and agriculture The South African National Biodiversity Institute (SANBI) was established on 1 September 2004 under the National Environmental Management: Biodiversity Act. SANBI has been establishing bioregional and ecosystem programmes using a partnership approach to mainstream biodiversity in socio-economic development that includes agricultural role players. controlling fires. rooibos tea and potato industries.116 5. communal lands and land owned by national / provincial government departments.skep.stewardship. Read more at and in the “Rangelands/veld” chapter.



za School environmental programmes • Endangered Wildlife Trust (EWT) • Eco Africa www.capeaction. • Resource Africa looks beyond these to the broader green economy where substantial opportunities exist for job • Ecolink • Southern African Society for Systematic Biology • Janet Edmonds Consulting • Western Cape Conservation Stewardship Association • WWF South Africa www. Role players Initiatives The overall goal of Project for Ecosystem Services (ProEcoServ) 043 705 4400 Department of Economic • Local Biodiversity Solutions www. The GreenChoice Alliance is a national alliance that promotes sustainable production and harvesting in South • Wildlife and Environment Society SA Eco-schools National Coordinators Tel: 033 330 3931 www.andisaagri. The slogan is “Economics in which nature matters and ecology in which people matter”.za Northern Cape Department of Environment & Nature 053 807 7300 Conservation • Wildlands Conservation Trust North West Dept of Economic Development. Provincial Government and Nature Conservation Bodies Province. Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) www. looking to create five-million new jobs by is to better integrate ecosystem assessment and economic valuation of ecosystem services into sustainable national development by supporting the • Wildlife & Environment Society Of South Africa (WESSA) • Imbewu Enviro-legal Specialists • Andisa Agri .za • Environmental Education and Resources Unit www. Conservation and Tourism (DEDECT) 018 389 5717 018 387 7700 • Environmental Assessment Practitioners Association of South Africa • Environmental Law Association (ELA) • Crystal Clear • Landmark Foundation Read about the Restoring Natural Capital or RNC Alliance at www. National Government A number of departments and agencies have responsibility for matters relating to biodiversity and • Anchor Environment Consultants • South African Faith Communities Environment Institute particularly in 053 807 7482 Cape Nature (Western Cape) Mpumalanga Department of Economic • Indigo Development & Change • Entomological Society of Southern Africa http://journals. • Department of Water Affairs • Environmental Education Association of Southern Africa (EEASA) www. provincial authority and website Telephone Eastern Cape Parks • Botanical Society of South Africa www. • WWF South Africa Tel: 021 657 6600 • Wilderness Foundation of Southern Africa • Centre for Environmental Rights 011 355 1280 Ezemvelo KwaZulu-Natal Wildlife • Cape Action for People and the Environment (CAPE) and www.capenature. • Grassland Society of Southern Africa competitiveness and sustainability of environmentally sound products. societies and NGOs • African Conservation Trust www.sanbi. National strategy and government contact At present government runs several natural resource management programmes – Working for • Strategic Environmental Focus (SEF) Information and contacts are given for the following: • wine • seafood • honey • citrus • ostrich • sugar • meat • red meat • potatoes • wool • wild flowers • rooibos tea • pecan nuts Consultants and businesses • Africa Land-Use Training (ALUT) www. • Biowatch www. • SANParks 051 400 4929 Gauteng Department of Agriculture and Rural 011 355 1900 Development • Department of Agriculture. Environment & 043 605 7069 Tourism Free State Department of Economic Development. Prof James Blignaut from the University of Pretoria is the South African contact. 013 759 5300 Environment & Tourism 013 759 5336 www. Read more at www. • Envirokonsult www. a GEF-funded umbrella • IUCN-SA Visit • Earthlife Africa Jhb 051 400 9410/3 Tourism & Environment Affairs www.kznwildlife. 2013/ co.imbewu.wessa. Working for • National Planning Commission www.npconline.fs. waste and natural resource management services. Read about it under the “Biodiversity economy” label at • Endangered Wildlife Trust (EWT) • Zoological Society of South Africa (ZSSA) • SANBI www. 015 290 7171 Environment & Tourism 015 793 2471 015 291 4259 The New Growth Mpumalanga Tourism & Parks Agency • Enviromental Management and Assessment Consultants • MBB Services International 033 845 1999 033 845 1652 Limpopo Department of Economic • South African Institute of Ecologists and Environmental Sciences 021 483 0000 • Environmental Monitoring Group (EMG) • An amount of R800 million has been made available by the National Treasury for the Green Fund over the next two financial years – 2012/ • SANBI Biodiversity Education and Empowerment Division • National Association of Conservancies and Stewardships of South Africa (NACSSA) • South African New Economics Network (SANE) • FutureWorks www. including the following: • Department of Environmental Affairs www. 8.

za Rhodes University Environmental Learning Research Fynbos Forum Centre Tel: 021 783 2509 Tel: 046 603 8390 www. Nelson Mandela Metropolitan Cape Peninsular University of University (NMMU) Technology (CPUT) Centre for African Conservation Department of Biodiversity and Ecology Conservation Tel: 041 504 2308 Tel: 021 460 3190 Green Futures Tel: 028 384 8059 www.nwu. DEA supports NEEP with resource materials on contemporary environmental safeguarding and development of natural science collections and associated biological reference resources are of strategic importance to natural resource management and biodiversity conservation in South Africa.greenfutures. North-West University Council for Scientific and Research Unit: Environmental Industrial Research (CSIR) Science and Management Natural Resources and the Tel: 018 299 2523 / 07 Environment Tel: 018 299 2381 Tel: 012 841 4781 / 2911 www. Research and training African Land Use Training (ALUT) Tel: 014 717 3819 www.120 The Department of Environmental Affairs (DEA) www. The maintenance. Visit The National Environmental Education Programme (NEEP) is a collaborative project co-ordinated by the Department of GreenMatterZA / Lewis Foundation Tel: 011 325 5124 www.fynboshub. Natural Science ALUT presents courses like Grootfontein Agricultural Natural Resource Management on Development Institute (GADI) Grootfontein Herbarium the farm Tel: 049 842 1113 The Agricultural Research http://gadi. conservation and the sustainable use of advantageous Insects and Tel: 012 339 2700 .za Biosystematic Research Biosystematic research contributes towards meeting the State’s obligation to the requirements of the International Convention on Biological Diversity in SANBI Tel: 012 843 5000 / 021 799 8800 www.nzg.sanbi. Natural Science Collections. the development of resource materials and (ARC) undertakes a general.deltaenviro. describing and documenting the biodiversity of South Africa. SADC Regional Environmental Education Programme The purpose of the Regional Environmental Education Programme is to enable environmental education practitioners in the SADC region to strengthen environmental education processes for equitable and sustainable environmental management choices. • South African Alien Invasive Plant survey. • Butterfly Survey. Research Councils and universities undertake biosystematic Tel: 033 260 6195 The collections are a priceless indigenous biological resource to enable scientists to address South Africa’s need for information on pest control.sabif. and integrate it with the outcomes-based Its purpose is to support teachers in implementing environmental education at schools.php range of research activities with implications for biodiversity e.agric. Fungi. • Retile atlasing. its Institute of Natural Resources Plant Protection Research Institute – see University of KwaZuluis the custodian of the South African Natal Rhizobium Culture Collection and the National Collections of National Zoological Gardens Arachnids. DEA supports and contributes towards enhancing and strengthening environmental education South African Environmental Observation Network www. • South African Plant Parasitic Nematode • South African National Survey of SANBI. • Bird Delta Environmental Centre Tel: 011 888 4831 www.csir. The Natural History Collections in South Africa are among the most important and comprehensive biological and taxonomic reference resources of their kind in Hope for unemployed people in South African Biodiversity the field of fynbos landscaping and Information Facility (SABIF) conservation www. Several National surveys are undertaken in the country: • Botanical

org. • Agriculture maps of SA – www. 2002. Visit www. • International Species Information System (ISIS) – Water Research Commission (WRC) Tel: 012 330 0340 Earth & Environmental Sciences Tel: 033 260 5103 http://saees. vegetation types and the uses of South Africa plant species.ceru. This atlas provides information on • Global Biodiversity Information Facility – www. • The magazine Environment – People and Conservation in Africa launched by seven NGOs: the Cape Leopard Harold • The printed copy or the electronic version of Enviropaedia – www. University of Pretoria Centre for Environmental Studies Tel: 012 420 4048 www. Game Rangers Association of – contains an The Nature College Tel: 028 551 2562 / 082 920 3765 www.peaceparks. • Succulent Flora of Southern Africa Doreen Court (Struik Nature) 2010 • Plants of the Klein Karoo Jan Vlok and Anne Lise Schutte-Vlok (Umdaus Press) 2010 • Environmental Management Carol Knoll (editor).africanconservation. a database of environmental and other role Southern African Wildlife College Tel: 015 793 7300 Stellenbosch University Department of Conservation Ecology and Entomology Tel: 021 808 3728 • Refer to www.polity. ISBN: 1853394939.ostrichsa. • Veld & Flora – the monthly journal of the Botanical Society. • Find the several reports at University of the Witwatersrand School of Animal.unep. co. “environment” and “ecosystem services”. An Ecosystems Approach to Water and Food Security and Releasing the Pressure: Water Resource Efficiencies and Gains for Ecosystem Services • Cultivating Biodiversity. The book draws on the experience of demonstration sites that are the farmers’ own enterprises. The reader is encouraged to: • Google relevant words like “biodiversity”.org • Convention on Biological Diversity – Call 021 797 2090.g. and how they work together with Some international role players • African Conservation Foundation – for news on that deal with biodiversity and ecosystem services – Africa Geographic is South Africa’s leading wildlife and environmental • The SANBI Grasslands Programme held a symposium “Biodiversity: powering the green economy” in the first half of – and African Land Use Training – Parks and museums • Peace Parks Foundation www. Visit the associated website for additional information not found in the magazine and for online shopping for books.greenmatter. Presentations delivered at the conference can be accessed under the “Resources” option at • Find the Natural Resource Atlas on – A site describing • United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) – www. the magazine “that takes you there” – Institute of Natural Resources Tel: 033 346 0796 University of Limpopo School of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences Tel: 015 268 2202 • International Rhino Foundation – Tshwane University of Technology (TUT) Department of • Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO) – • Some museums are involved with biodiversity programmes. 10 reasons to pay attention to Green Growth. Publisher: ITDG • Bioversity International – 10. Save our rhinos.agric.sanparks.html. . reptiles and amphibians. The information under this heading. plants. • Find the biodiversity option at • Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) is an international agreement between governments designed to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten their for “green jobs” and skills development • Find out about the publication EnviroTeach at • Find Case study: rates rebates in Nelson Mandela Metro at videos and other wildlife/environment essentials. land mammals. the Wildlands Conservation Trust and the Wilderness Foundation of South Africa. South Africa has produced RDBs dealing with each of the following: birds. Visit www. butterflies. • Visit the websites of role players mentioned in this chapter. org • Women’s Environment & Development Organisation (WEDO) – www. For and has been drastically gallery/volume19/ Plant and Environmental Sciences Tel: 011 717 6404 www. They are lists of threatened plants and animals specific to a certain region.wrc.ukzn. “Websites and publications” could be so extensive that it would not be helpful at Contact the editor at University of KwaZulu-Natal School of Agricultural. University of the Western Cape Biodiversity and Conservation Biology Programme Tel: 021 959 2301 please call 082 908 3053 or send an e-mail to • www.isis. It is based on work in 12 countries with more than 200 collaborating scientists and about 2500 collaborating University of the Free State Centre for Environmental Management Tel: 051 401 2863 • Red Data Books (RDBs) and Red Lists are very useful tools and sources of information for use in species conservation.ufs.africageographic.121 South African Institute for Aquatic Biodiversity Tel: 046 603 5800 enviropaedia. Helen Parsons and Michael Stocking.environment. Water & Earth Sciences Tel: 012 382 6379 www. Websites and publications • Farming for the Future: Farming Sustainably with Nature Harrison J and Young D Animal Demography Unit University of Cape Town • Find the documents relating to the Environmental Sector Skills Plan for South Africa on www. showing how its authors perceive and quantitatively analyse agrodiversity.wildlifecollege. • Wildside.gbif.plantzafrica.unisa. • Refer to the “Websites and publications” heading in other chapters in the “Resources and Good Agricultural Practice” section of this publication. Visit Conservation Ecology Research Unit Tel: 012 420 2753 University of South Africa (UNISA) Department of Environmental Sciences Tel: 011 471 2213 Centre for Sustainable Agriculture and Environmental Sciences Tel: 011 471 2171 www. • fishes (fresh water and estuarine only). SANCCOB. WESSA and the EWT. • Find the many books available from Briza Publications – and a vital source of information in guiding land-use decision making and conservation University of Cape Town Environmental and Geographical Science Tel: 021 650 2873 www. Read about the Threatened Species Programme at Christine • South African National Parks (SANParks) www. terrain. vegetation and near-real time data of veld fires in South website of the South African Ostrich Business Chamber. combining superior production along with enhancement of biological diversity.

bioinsectsa. • Biological farmers avoid using harmful chemicals like herbicides. and balancing the soil’s (Organic feed A biological farmer might use less poisonous chemicals in an emergency to save a crop. Overview • Biological farming uses nature and science to build the quality of the soil.microbial.sabiofarm. The agricultural weeklies Landbouweekblad and Farmer’s Weekly frequently run articles on biological • SA Biofarm Institute www. Bio-insecticides as well as the development of a number of other Bio-control organisms). “Compost and compost tea”. produce and market innovative bio-control products for (find John Fair’s regular “Biological farming” column in every issue of Farmer’s Weekly) North-West University Potchefstroom Campus Research Unit: Environmental Science and Management Microbiology Dr S Claassens Tel: 018 299 2329 • Ecosoil 3. Crop and Climate Sciences www. promoting soil • Haifa Chemicals RSA Ltd www.kejafa. • Along with natural systems and • Denvet • Planner Bee Plant Care (“FERTILIS” (registration no B3664 Act36/1947) is certified by the Organic Food Federation UK: organic certification no: 00371/01/00. Websites and publications Visit www. The Rules of Biological Farming • test and balance soils using at least 21 parameters – Albrecht system • use only soil friendly fertilisers • use minimum herbicides and pesticides • use sound tillage practices • use legumes in crop rotations • use compost and compost tea Sources: • Metson www.ecosoil. but also control weeds. University of the Free State • Agricultural Management www. livestock and human. Biological farming incorporates the best of conventional farming methods to maintain production levels and • Mycoroot (Pty) Ltd www. • Plant Health Products (Pty) Ltd (PHP) • MBF International www.farmersweekly. • Microbial Solutions (Pty) Ltd • Centre for Sustainable • Biological farming methods present a viable way of producing high (A business which specialises in compost extract machines). 2 • Hands-on Agronomy N Kinsey and C Walters • How soils work P Syltie Find the featured articles and archives on www. • Soiltech veterinary remedies. Natural processes and systems improve the soil structure. reducing toxins. Horticulture and Viticulture.122 resources and good agricultural practice Biological farming Refer to the “Conservation Agriculture”. training and research • Ecosoil www. com and www. but will also take measures to restore soil life by using products like compost tea and microbes to “clean” the soil of harmful chemicals.ufs. • Biological farming is 80% down the road to organic farming – it is a relatively easy matter for a well-established biological farmer to switch over to organic farming. FERTILIS also makes wonderful Compost Tea for plant irrigation).com • Biogrow • Bio-insectaries SA (BISA) www. nutritious produce without the use of non-organic • Kelpak www. best tillage or call 011 025 4388 for the following publications: • Albrecht Papers ( • Soil. veterinary instruments) • Eco-fert www. Analysis of soil to characterise microbial • SOYGRO (Pty) Ltd Tel: 018 292 1907 • Stimuplant www. Improving the soil’s health in turn improves the health of proper livestock manure use. • It takes advantage of natural processes include: crop Some role players Inputs • Bio-Fly (Pty) Ltd www. • Efficient Microbes www. as well as DVDs and CDs of various lectures.stimuplant. Rural Development and Extension “Earthworms and vermicompost”.co. “Speciality fertilisers” and the “Organic farming” chapters and improve crop quality.ufs.haifa-group. pesticides and certain fertilisers that destroy soil life. Find archived articles at Numerous publications are also available from (adapted) and The National Policy On Organic Production discussion document as it was at the end of pesticides or gene modification. Products include Bio-fungicides. and diseases. growing green – a “complete solution for biological farming” Research on the role of micro-organisms in the soil environment and the effect of agricultural practices.


Seringveld Conservancy. one can design new developments and general farming practices to promote their wellbeing.htm (the source of some of the information above). Two simple models may be found in the book listed below (see source acknowledgement). and accuracy of application are all important factors to consider in making a choice. Erecting owl boxes will help to attract owls to the property (see heading 2). followed closely. The Problems: • Many owls are victims of secondary or accidental poisoning through build up of insecticides in the body of the owl and through the use of rat poisons. . Careful planning of new lands or any other developments which will alter the natural habitat is important. good farming methods promote the wellbeing of the natural resources and are desirable. Carefully chosen biological agents are the Fortunately. effects on other and control at a tolerable level should be considered. What about the bird species which do not fit into this category? There might be some which occurred naturally in the area whose numbers drop dramatically or completely. • Provide safe nesting boxes: this could improve their breeding success. are often injured or killed when they collide with prominent structures. such as the oxpeckers of the bushveld which pick and eat large amounts of ticks off cattle and other large animals in a year. pyrethroid and amidine acaricides brought new hope for oxpeckers. Even a simple example such as overgrazing of veld and too frequent veld fires will lead to habitat changes. telephone lines. whereas they would move along a natural corridor. waterfowl and other poultry” chapter 1. Once the product is selected.124 resources and good agricultural practice Birds and farming See also the “Gamebirds. frequency of use. Movement to water should also be encouraged by leaving corridors of natural vegetation leading to water sources. making it very important to employ farming practices which offer the bird the best chance of survival by managing tick infestations with the correct products and management protocols. Farm well to reduce habitat change Alternatives to the establishment of new lands should be sought. Where tall structures are erected. The poison in the rats body often ends up killing the owl. While considering bird movement. Corridors of natural vegetation should be left between lands and between buildings to allow for movement of birds and other animals. Find out about oxpecker-friendly dips on the market. As custodians of the earth and the biodiversity in it. For more information on (i) how to phase in oxpecker-friendly dips. Use the right control methods right Red-billed Oxpecker Plagues. so by getting to know the birds’ behaviour. a range of different land uses and an intact variety of different micro-habitats will ensure a greater variety of birds can benefit from the farm. Where the use of chemicals is necessary. Similarly owls can be used as a biological control method for rodents. An adult barn owl will take care of two rodents a night and a bat will eat over 50% of its body weight in insects in the same time. Owls (and bats) are an environmentally friendly way of controlling pests at minimal cost. Overview Decreasing margins in farming enterprises and other issues can lead to farming more intensively – and to farm in new areas. such by marking power lines with flappers of other similar devices. Two beneficial birds Owls Farmers are encouraged to look after the welfare of owls. power lines. Source: Dr At Kruger. wind turbines and solar panels. Even if a large part of the area of the farm is utilised. and (ii) to order the Oxpeckers. also known as non-target species. many will not fly from one isolated patch of natural vegetation to another. The booklet is available from the Delta Environmental Centre. inevitably leading to a reduction in certain bird species. Farming and birds can mix Just as one must know the life-cycles of the pests to combat them. The visible birds might abound on that farm owing to a particular resource or crop. • Chicks should be left where they are so that the parents can continue to look after them. and suppliers and manufacturers should be quizzed regarding the above issues. the instructions of use should be Dipping against ticks almost eradicated the red-billed Oxpeckers in South Africa (thus Operation Oxpecker). Gauteng Conservancy Association 2. then lessen dip-dependence by phasing in the oxpecker. Insecticides are particularly dangerous. such as more efficient farming methods to obtain increased yields from the existing lands. Birds may in fact constitute just such a biological management aid. Ectoparasiticides and Farmers Manual please contact Arnaud le Roux Cell: 082 325 6578. This places pressure on natural systems and the birds and other animals which inhabit these areas. visibility aids should be used in areas of increased bird movement. Birds need corridors too While birds can fly. Charles Street Veterinary Group. the Urban Owl Nest Project and the African Bird of Prey Sanctuary can also help you. Natural. Source: A Beginner’s Guide to Owls. Racumin blocks – not paste) which do not result in secondary poisoning. A large number of birds on a farm does not automatically indicate a healthy bird population. It is important to realise that any poison used in the garden or farmyard can affect beneficial animals. In general. including many endangered birds. this is our duty and not a luxury. and must be controlled for efficient production. The effect on biodiversity can be negative. Find information at www. Attracting Owls • Keep the area as natural as possible. Contact the South African Pest Control Association (details in the “Wildlife on farms” chapter). Control does not mean eradication. there are ways of reducing the impact on bird diversity. careful research should be done to choose the product which will do the job with the least impact over the long term. A good principle is to maintain a mosaic of different land uses on a farm. • Avoid poisons of all kinds. or write to There are poison blocks (e. pests and weeds are a fact of farming.deltaenviro. low impact methods should be employed wherever possible. Find their details under the role players heading. feeding and nesting habits.g. also look at commonly-used flight paths before erecting high fences. Most owl chicks found on the ground have not been abandoned and the best thing to do in most cases is to leave the bird where it is. Denokeng Bird Bash. such as owls. Farms with variety are bird-friendly farms Whatever type of farming is practiced. The red-billed Oxpecker can be one of the farmer’s greatest natural allies on game and cattle farms. Role players like the EWT. a natural predator of grain pests like Large birds. Dr Pete Irons. EcoSolutions. Biodegradability. and all possible efforts must be made to avoid effects on other organisms. the introduction of environmentally-compatible chemicals.

the travel for the purpose of bird contact details of bird clubs across the Gauteng. Write Wattled Crane Recovery to her at skruger@kznwildlife.csvet.wattledcrane. Farmers Project included in gauteng@birdlife.deltaenviro. Moholoholo Wildlife Rehabilitation Centre Tel: 015 795 5236 - Western Cape: Dale longer trip lengths and a greater tendency to visit multiple provinces than mainstream market segments. Read more at www. in final draft phase in 2012. • The Secretarybird (Sagittarius serpentarius) is one of only two species uplisted globally based on threats to this • Airport Wildlife Programme: 2. Charles Street Veterinary Group Tel: 012 460 9385 www. Southern African Birding Tel/fax: 031 266 5948 Ezemvelo KZN Wildlife • Wildlife Energy Programme: Megan the ADU changed its name to include: reflect its widening focus. done by the Department of Trade and Industry (dti) to investigate the value and growth potential of avitourism. Mpumulanga and Free - Sonja raptors@metroweb. Marnewick. oxpecker@ewt. Source: Birdlife SA EcoSolutions Association www. South African birds in trouble In South Endangered Wildlife Trust Wild Bird Trust Tel: 011 372 3600 Tel: 072 858 5644 Previously the Avian Demography BirdLife South Africa programmes Unit. how to become a Community Bird Guide etc. of which between 13 000 and 24 000 are domestic avitourists. Kate Henderson. North West and Western Cape Species Conservation: EWT Programmes include: Dr Hanneline Smit.125 Urban Owl Nest Project and Find the “Birding” option under Urban Raptor Conservation “Conservation” and then “Wildlife” Programme at www. Read about the KwaZulu-Natal branch at and North West: person for the Oxpeckers and Ernst • African Crane Conservation .za Avizandum Tel: 031 763 4054 www. conservation@birdlife. with several heading for the Wildlife Conflict Mitigation Programme. at Centre The website is an essential source Tel: 011 807 6993 / 083 558 5658 of information with details of www. online bird guides Animal Demography Unit (ADU) BirdLife South Africa Tel: 021 650 2423 Tel: 011 789 1122 Delta Environmental Centre Tel: 011 888 4831 State: Charmaine Uys. Avitourism: Martin Taylor FreeMe Wildlife Rehabilitation – www.sabirdkeeper. Avitourism. Role players Find the contact details of conservancies in the Conservancies chapter. Avitourism Find out about the National Avitourism Strategy. supply and install owl boxes in the za. conservation. Farmers participating in the project testify that they have success in attracting owls and getting rid of www. EcoSolutions Jonathan Haw – 072 365 9777 Find the Department of Trade and Industry study. • The Taita Falcon (Falco taita) • The South African Blue Swallow population (Hirundo atrocaerulea) of approximately 57 known pairs is locally classified as Critically Endangered. and • South Africa has attractive core birding assets compared to competitor destinations. megand@ewt. - Kwa-Zulu Natal: Nick Theron. kerrynm@ewt. particularly in areas of species diversity.kznwildlife. The publication includes notes on how to start your own avitourism • avitourists generally offer higher than average trip Programme Tel: 072 874 9711 com. endemism and rarity. African Bird of Prey Sanctuary Tel: 031 785 4382 • The Wattled Crane (Bugeranus carunculatus) is the most severely threatened crane on the African SAFRING – see Demography Unit (ADU) Animal South African Fancy Pigeon Amongst other national projects.kznwildlife. Some of the key findings of the Tel: 033 845 1999 www. • The White-winged Flufftail (Sarothrura ayresi) which is Critically Endangered is dependent on good quality available wetland habitat across its distribution. Important Bird Areas: Daniel Claire Patterson-Abrolat. indicate that: • the total size of South Africa’s current Avitourism market range between 21 000 and 40 000 avitourists a number of birds are on the IUCN Red is reputed to be one of the fastest growing nature-based tourism activities Find the “Owl project” option on the Managers: • Arnaud le Roux is the contact .za za • Birds Of Prey Programme: André Regional Conservation Botha. Parrot Breeders Association of Southern Africa Tel: 053 927 3084 org. Avitourism in South Africa (Niche Tourism Markets) under “Publications” at www.ewt.uct.ewt. • The endemic Southern Bald Ibis (Geronticus calvus) is dependent on good land use practises for its survival across its distribution in the grasslands of South Africa.sabirding.Southern Bald Ibis Manager: Programme: Kerryn Morrison. Krueger has done a lot of work on vultures in the Percy FitzPatrick Institute of African Ornithology Tel: 021 650 3290/1/7 www.

co. Registration is granted by the relevant provincial nature conservation authority. Guiding standards are set and maintained within the guiding industry. • Newman’s Birds by Colour Kenneth Newman (Struik Nature) • Adventures With Nature stocks several books on birds e.kejafa. How we avoid the negative impact on our biophysical environment? Conservancies find common ground and create a meaningful partnership between nature conservation and agriculture. 2. and in doing so are compelled to look after the requirements of nature. Culture and Adventure guides. sightings and reports of Southern Bald Ibis and Cape Parrot. Claire Spottiswoode ISBN 186872-725-4 • Voëls van die bosveld SC Visit is not far fetched at all. What is good for the one is good for the other and vice • The consequences for Many of our country’s farmers are indeed good land conservationists.uct. “Mapping the distribution and abundance of birds in South Africa. downloads and many bird-related links – www.awn. or that your title deed is going to be The English version is entitled The Bird Guide of Southern • For neighbours.lapa. in English and in – World Migratory Bird Day (WMBD) is a global initiative devoted to celebrating migratory birds and for promoting their conservation worldwide. In a conservancy. website of the Southern African Foundation for the Conservation of Coastal Birds • Find the different options to do with parrots at www. of his or her actions. silence and the aesthetic therapy of natural beauty. University of 3. on www.126 Training and research BirdLife South Africa Tel: 011 789 1122 www. EcoTraining South Africa and Limpopo Field Guiding Academy. Field Guides Association of Southern Africa (FGASA) Tel: 011 886 8245 www. community. HL van Niekerk ISBN 978-1-87509388-5 Available from Kejafa Knowledge Works. Visit www. A conservancy is a voluntary and co-operative action by landowners/users to provide for the yearnings of their Perhaps the idea that what is in our best interest is also in the best interest of nature or vice versa. the Sasol books and the Roberts Series.kalahari. Nature. for example. both positive and the conservancy as a whole and eventually much wider. Unfortunately. Some examples follow: www. Order it at www. Visit www.g. Lesotho and Swaziland” • www. own property. published by Briza. Trackers and organisations involved in offering professional guiding services to members of the • www. Burger Cillier) can be ordered at www.gameparkspublishing. It also does not imply that someone is going to offer you monetary compensation for the www. For University of the Free State Department Zoology and Entomology Tel: 051 401 2489 Department of Genetics Tel: 051 401 2595 Others include Rhodes • Find the various books by Ian Sinclair. University of the Witwatersrand. people are considered key species of the ecosystem or agroecosystem and have to learn to rub shoulders with other life forms in such a manner that most can continue to exist. space.sabap2. A conservancy looks after the interests of nature because it assumes that the best interest of humans and nature are Research is undertaken into. org. birding tours etc. incorporating some of our country’s most sensitive ecosystems. with ever increasing University of Cape Town Animal Demography Unit Tel: 021 650 2421 http://adu. Africa Nature Training.g. farm or even conservancy. Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University (NMMU) Tel: 044 801 5028/111 www. Websites and publications • Die Voëlgids van Suider-Afrika (Ulrich Oberprieler. • SA Birding – www. a river does not flow through only one smallholding. Conservancies A conservancy is a voluntary association between land users/owners who cooperatively wish to manage their natural resources in an environmentally sustainable manner without necessarily changing the land-use of their properties. e. What living in a conservancy does imply is that each individual slowly but surely starts to consider the consequences. into reports of any abnormal mortality amongst wild birds on To live and/or work in a conservancy does not imply that you have to change your form of land • The International Crane Foundation – – Southern African Bird Atlas Project 2. Several FGASA-accredited companies offer birding courses e. Conservancies bring many advantages. These include: - Sasol Birds of Southern Africa - Sasol larger illustrated guide to birds of Southern Africa • Southern African Birdfinder Callan many farmers are forced to ensure that every portion of their land becomes financially productive. Numerous universities do ornithological training and bird The case for conservancies South Africa’s game parks and nature reserves are not sufficient for the conservation of FGASA represents individual Tourist Guides. adjacent properties. effort and money you invest into the quality of your own life and for the common good. Overview The agricultural sector uses approximately 80% of South Africa’s 120 million hectare land surface. for updates on birding courses. • Remarkable Birds of South Africa by Dr Peter Milstein. for the biodiversity as well as for the communities living or farming within it: . • Visit the Indicator Birding website. simply because most of our biodiversity exists outside these formally protected co.sabirding. resource and manpower burdens placed at the foot of our agricultural Percy FitzPatrick Institute of African Ornithology Tel: 021 650 3290/1/7 fitz@uct. Our thanks to Hannelie Smit and Martin Taylor of Birdlife SA for feedback on the draft chapter resources and good agricultural practice Conservancies and farming A conservancy is NOT a miniature game reserve or nature reserve (even if it is about farming in a way which is game and nature friendly). Both the words “ecology” and “economy” stem from the Greek root oikos that can be translated as household.

Business opportunities The financial side of any organisation can see its success or failure so this should be a focus point when starting a conservancy. This.g. previously disadvantaged communities. • The economic value of the area is improved owing to healthier veld conditions and better overall security. 6. • Habitat Conservancies. • The reporting. Inquire about deductions for tax paying farmers under the Income Tax Act. insects. which embodies coexistence rather than segregation.g. in cooperation with FreeME (visit www. • getting specialist to assist in the management of the conservancy. • Cultural Conservancies – to protect places of cultural or historical value. reptiles and animals • identification of exotic plants and animals • muti and medicinal plants • control of veld fires • benefits of recycling • personal hygiene and yard management • public relations • tourism • maintenance of hiking trails Get in touch with your provincial NACSSA affiliate (see heading 9) for details. a bank account and a treasure managing the funds. • Harassment of local population is reduced. • The opportunity for eco/agro tourism is also enhanced. • rehabilitating habitats in the conservancy. it is advisable to employ field rangers. but protected at the same time. Sponsors may be identified to provide support for training • controlling exotic plant and animals in the conservancy. There is a new push for biodiversity stewardship where farmers are given incentives and support to include areas that are managed for biodiversity in their farms. • maintaining fire breaks around the conservancy. on or around campuses and school grounds. We need to coexist with nature in a manner that will allow most species to survive well into the next century. • Wildlife increases in Conservancy areas. cultural and natural environment leads to a more healthy environment and. but also be the means to heal the wounds of the past and create a dignified existence. • Landowners become more conscious of their indigenous animal and plantlife.127 • Biodiversity survives and physical resources are conserved. . • A closer community is formed. • There is better general security. set up to safeguard or conserve specific endangered habitats e. monitoring and co-operatively managing of exotic plants and animals happens. in turn. 4. obviously. How this is to be planned for and managed will tax local people to the utmost. or visit www. 7. should create opportunities for the hiring of jobless. • There are fewer uncontrolled forest and veld fires in the area owing to co-operative fire management strategies. • Conservancies are extensively used to release rehabilitated wildlife. • Game becomes tamer and is more readily seen. • There are marked decreases in stock and crop theft in the conservancy area. • Vagrants tend to avoid a regularly patrolled area. and less hunting by dogs and the chances of rabies. • training rangers in the conservancy. 5. Some provinces also have other types of conservancies: • Educational Conservancies e. What types of conservancies are there? The most common Conservancies types in South Africa fall into the following categories: • Rural (e. The following aspects are covered during most of the courses: • security and discipline • methods of patrolling and reporting • Nature Conservation laws • identification of plants. mainly revolving around cooperation in eco-tourism opportunities. Training of rangers Most Nature Conservation Departments provide training to ensure that conservancy rangers are well trained and that high standards are • Pumps and water holes are patrolled more regularly. Although there are. such as invasive alien plant management. • The local population usually supports the presence of Game Rangers. is a matter of choice and necessity. Management fees are the obvious way to generate some funds for the conservancy. The conservancy should have a financial year beginning and end. For this to become reality local people will need to develop many skills.nacsa. Training is usually free but the conservancy is responsible for accommodation and food during training. The financial status and management of the conservancy should be dealt with in the constitution. Conservation by people for people (conservancies) is a new conservation ethic. It should also give feed back to the members on the financial status of the conservancy when needed at the annual general meeting. but there are other ideas. • putting up signboards in the conservancy. • An overall better social. The examples below are just a few. one must decide if this is offset by the savings a community gains through greater protection of natural resources in the area. • Fences are patrolled more regularly. birds. proper maintenance of fences and better protection of livestock and crops through a more efficient “on the ground” reporting system.g. • There is better control of stray dogs. where funds could play a major role in the functioning of a conservancy: • employing rangers in the conservancy. Rangers In rural and agricultural districts that have formed a conservancy. Contact your tax consultant or one of the role players (see heading 9) for more. • Conservancies enhances the use of the district for nature based instils a greater sense of community pride in ones surroundings. however. • a tax deduction for money spent maintaining land under the Protected Areas Act. Bullfrog Pan Conservancy in Gauteng. Two of these are: • expenditure on the conservation and maintenance of land under a biodiversity-management agreement entered into between the landowner and the Environmental Affairs Minister. • New skills are developed. costs involved with the employment of field rangers. The following can be developed by the landowners to generate income in the conservancy: • hiking trails • picnic areas • fishing opportunities • bird watching • mountain bike trails • overnight facilities • farm holidays • sponsors can provide financial support Labour intensive conservancy projects.freeme. with nature conservation or LandCare motives) • Agricultural • Peri-Urban • Urban – in urban living areas • Industrial – in industrial areas • Informal Settlements • Marine & Coastal – in the marine & coastal areas.

grasslands. Role players Cape Nature Tel: 021 483 0000 www. Guidelines for Conservancy Management and or write to PO Box 1552. Conservancies start a compost heap. Websites and publications • Individual conservancies websites can be accessed on www. Find the list of NACSSA provincial representatives on the website. Ideas for conservancies: 1. recognise that there Management is a wealth of stored knowledge Tel: 051 401 2863 which can be gained from farmers www. reintroduce wildlife. trees. Thanks to Ivan Parkes for feedback on the draft chapter .za “Conservation Planning” options at handbooks. 2. Call the Share-Net team at 033 330 3931 or email however. consider fund-raising e. Forming conservancies is a positive step towards protection of our environment and our cultural or contact your nearest conservancy. Refer to the NACSSA websites for examples. The way you wish to organise your conservancy and the projects initiated will be up to your community and committee.jecenviro.Natural Places i. Download a PDF of all the Ezemvelo KZN Wildlife registered provincial conservancies KZN Biodiversity Stewardship (Stewardship Nature Reserves). NACSSA’s vision is to promote stewardship of natural resources at a community level. Read about the KwaZulu-Natal branch at http://freemekzn. agricultural industry with respect University of the Free State to best land management practices Centre for Environmental and.nacssa.ufs. an abridged version of At Kruger’s articles in The Malachite (2005). plans. how to draw up a constitution etc. in although conservancies can play an important role in reducing crime in an herb garden or medicinal plant nursery. impact National Association of management Conservancies and Stewardships assessments of South Africa (NACSSA) Stellenbosch University Tel: 016 590 2914 Department of Conservation Endangered Wildlife Trust (EWT) Tel: 011 372 3600 ewt@ewt. go to Projects and ideas for conservancies Anyone can start a conservancy! Biodiversity is declining at an alarming rate and ecosystems face terminal threat through mass extinction of species. restore grasslands by removing litter. Vegetation in conservancies. trees.g. • A national newsletter NACSSA NEWS is published and distributed to interested parties via email. please note “Programmes” menu option on the ‘essential reading’ category updates. 9. birds. reptiles. construct a bird hide. catering for birds as well as mammals. Email conservancy@cons ervancies. North-West University (Potchefstroom Campus) Research Unit: Environmental Science and Management Tel: 018 299 2510 Klaus. conservancies. Call 033 845 1999.conservancies. • Find NACSSA agricultural policy documents and more on www. Remember – each Conservancy develops its own constitution.freeme. guidelines. start a horsetrail.g.128 Regalis Environmental Services Jan Vlok – 044 279 1987 Seed mixes can be used to attract janvlok@mweb. In our conservancies are rare plant and animal life as well as historical sites – it is essential that ALL these valuable natural assets be noted. For further ideas refer to the booklet Projects and Ideas for Conservancies available from Gauteng Conservancy Association. eradicate exotic and invader Find “Stewardship” under the www. establish a to those working in the field of nature management plans. historical places and natural places: .za • Read about the Biodiversity & Wine Initiative in the wine chapter. wetlands. Develop checklists of species • Share-Net is an informal networking project that supports environmental education and development in the SADC region. Select a steering committee that will inform the participants about setting up and running the conservancy – CONSERVANCIES ARE THE MOST IMPORTANT CONSERVATION ACTIVITY FOR THE NEW CENTURY. vegetable us”. water springs. impact assessments Janet Edmonds Consulting Tel: 033 940 0450 www. animals. start a trail.e. paper tin and plastic Sources: Trafford Petteron (NACSSA). streams game already present on a farm. restore wetlands and banks of • For more information and comprehensive manuals e. Walkerville 1876. Programme manager Tel: 033 845 1805 Conservation Management Services Find the notes on Stewardship Ken Coetzee – 044 870 8472 under “Conservation” and consken@mweb. Look at places of importance.ewt. note activities. . and has a wealth of advice about where to start. KwaZulu Hybrid Seeds Tel: 031 785 1581 wensim@mweb. help farmers with fire breaks etc. environmental club. Ecology and Entomology NACSSA fulfils a vital role in Tel: 021 808 3728 supporting and assisting the www. pamphlets. plants insects. Examples of newsletters are KZN’s The Guinea fowl and Gauteng’s The Ear to the Ground. Other interesting project ideas are to start a recycling FreeMe Wildlife Rehabilitation Centre Tel: 011 807 6993 / 083 558 5658 www. as well as information on projects and ideas for conservancies.kznwildlife. • Introduction to Land Stewardship – restore stream flow and stream which can be of great importance 10. Plant and animal resources have always fed and nurtured School Conservancies etc. plant an indigenous • Ezemvelo KZN Wildlife has a booklet Guidelines for the Formation of a Conservancy.nacssa.g. history of the conservancy.cons-ent. graves. Additional contacts are listed under “Contact Animals in conservancies.Historical Places i. • Many conservancies produce their own newsletters. Ivan Parkes (Gauteng Conservancy and Stewardship Association). they should not be confused with security organisations such as Rehabilitation Centres for indigenous www. buildings.

which may coordinate the implementation of programmes for the rehabilitation of ecosystems.129 National Environmental Management Act (107 of 1998) resources and good agricultural practice Environmental legislation 1. Locally. i. traffic. health and spiritual purposes. recreational. including the rehabilitation. The concept of environmental sustainability strives to draw these three aspects of our environment together to ensure that the needs of future generations can be guaranteed. economic. ecological. Economic issues include capital outlay. specific legislation in terms of the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Regulations is included. Natural Heritage Resources Act (25 of 1999) The purpose of the Act is to protect South Africa’s natural and cultural heritage. • Convention on Biological Diversity – Aims to conserve biological diversity and promote the sustainable use of its components with equitable sharing of the benefits arising from the utilization of resources. only relating to natural resources like animals and plants. INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL CONVENTIONS include: • The Ramsar Convention – An intergovernmental treaty that provides the framework for international cooperation for the conservation and wise use of wetlands and their resources. noise impacts. KZN Amafa). See the “Invasive Alien Species” chapter. forest and mountain fires throughout South Africa. air and soil while social issues are related to human interaction. Environmental legislation South Africa is governed by a number of legislative provisions relating to the environment. It is only through the interaction of these three aspects that the real environment can be accurately determined and understood. • promote conservation. The National Environmental Management Act (NEMA) is the overarching environmental legislation in South Africa and deals with a number of issues including: • Sustainable development – taking into account social. Conservation of Agricultural Resources Act (43 of 1983) The intention of the Act is to control the over-utilisation of South Africa’s natural agricultural resources. protection of surface and groundwater. animals. The National Water Act (36 of 1998) The intention of the National Water Act is to protect South Africa’s water resources and associated ecosystems and their biological diversity. • The World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) – Promotion of watershed and water resource protection and restoration to reduce the risk of flooding in drought-vulnerable countries. National Forests Act (84 of 1998) The purpose of the Act is to protect and promote sustainable use of forests for environmental. economic and social feasibility. and include issues such as education. a “triple bottom line” concept must be considered when understanding the environment. economic and environmental factors in all planning and decision making. . See the “Fire” chapter. and maintaining the production potential of land. Overview Often. In reality. This may include the protection of a landscape. • There are set procedures for the investigation. assessment and communication of any activity requiring environmental authorisation. economic and social aspects. environmental damage or adverse health effects must be paid for by those responsible for harming the environment. Combating of weeds and invader plants is covered by Amended Regulations 15 and 16 of the Act. controlling or minimising further pollution. any national conservation strategy needs to take account of the important role of farmers in conservation. while ensuring that the environment is safeguarded. environmental degradation and consequent adverse health effects and of preventing. returns on investments and employment opportunities. poverty and visual impacts. • Disturbances of eco-systems and loss of biodiversity must be avoided or mitigated and there must be a “duty of care” to prevent significant pollution and environmental degradation.e. National Environmental Management: Protected Areas Act (57 of 2003) The intention of the Act is to protect and conserve ecologically viable areas and their natural landscapes. National Veld and Forest Fire Act (101 of 1998) The purpose of the National Veld and Forest Fire Act is to prevent and combat veld. The National Environmental Management: Biodiversity Act (10 of 2004) The intention of the Act is to protect species and ecosystems and promote the sustainable use of indigenous biological resources. educational. Ecological aspects include plants. cultural. The conservation of soil and water resources and natural vegetation is promoted through the prevention and control of erosion. • The “Polluter Pays Principle” states that the cost of remedying pollution. natural features and objects or places of cultural significance. According to the Act. and the prevention of the silting of dams and pollution of water. historical importance and archaeological / geological value. water. • United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification – Requires countries to respond to land degradation and the effects of drought. which were promulgated on 30 March 2001. and • secure ecologically sustainable development and use of natural resources. This Act establishes the South African National Biodiversity Institute (SANBI). Under Section 24 of the NEMA. and these include both national and international laws. See the “Water” chapter. our NATIONAL LEGISLATION pertaining to the environment includes the following: The Constitution of South Africa (108 of 1996) Everyone has the right to have the environment protected by legislative or other means to: • prevent ecological degradation and pollution. • As mentioned in the biodiversity chapter. all buildings older than 60 years may not be altered in any way without authorisation from the Provincial Heritage Authority (e. This is discussed in more detail under heading 3. • New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) – Conservation and sustainable use of natural resources is one of the eight themes under this environment initiative. 2. with emphasis on ecological. environmental issues are assumed to be “green issues”. conservation and sustainable management of land and water resources. This chapter is included for two reasons: • Farmers can get into trouble when they are not familiar with environmental issues.g.


Conservancies or Biosphere Reserves. where assessment for such release is required by the Genetically Modified Organisms Act. (xi) infrastructure or structures covering 50m2 or more. excluding crocodiles younger than 6 months. excluding chicks younger than 20 days. certain Listed Activities would trigger the need for a Basic Assessment to be carried out. These include activities related to livestock production. including dams and reservoirs. 3. (ii) channels. use. • Part 4: The construction of facilities or infrastructure for the concentration of animals for the purpose of commercial production in densities that exceed – - 2m2 per large stock unit and more than 500 units per facility. establishment of bridges / weirs. • Part 12: The construction of facilities or infrastructure for the off-stream storage of water. (49 of 1999) in which World Heritage Sites fall under the control of the management authority and the relevant municipality. in critical biodiversity areas. These must be considered on a case by case basis. Provincial and local government legislation may have specific relevance to particular instances within their jurisdictions. (v) weirs. excluding chicks younger than 20 days. 10 of 2004). • Part 13: The construction of facilities or infrastructure for the storage. fuel storage. (18 of 1998) include the definitions of estuarine and inland waters. The Seashore Act. where such construction occurs within a watercourse or within 32 metres of a watercourse. or (ii) game and red meat exceeding 6 units per day. (iv) dams. 1997 (Act No. • Part 8: The construction of a hatchery or agri-industrial infrastructure outside industrial complexes where the development footprint covers an area of 2000m2 or more • Part 11: The construction of (i) canals. management and control of land situated in mountain catchment areas. or - (ii) more than 5 000 poultry per facility situated outside an urban area. (b) more than 250 pigs per facility. due to the location of the site within specified Geographical Areas. or in areas zoned for open space or conservation use. There are several Listed Activities which are applicable to proposed developments or improvements within the agricultural sector. The Mountain Catchments Areas Act (63 of 1970) The intention of the Act is to provide for the conservation. and these specify certain Listed Activities for which either a Basic Assessment (GN R 544 and R 546) or a Scoping and Environmental Impact Assessment (GN R 545) is required. packsheds. (iii) bridges. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Regulations have been promulgated under Government Notice (GN) R 543 (2010). These include sites outside urban areas. effluent ponds. - 8 m2 per small stock unit and (a) more than 1 000 units per facility excluding pigs where (b) will apply. in sensitive areas identified in terms of a Environmental Management Framework. the following activities would trigger the need for a Basic Assessment to be carried out: • Part 3: The construction of facilities or infrastructure for the slaughter of animals with a product throughput of (i) poultry exceeding 50 poultry per day. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) regulations Under Section 24 of the NEMA. Other Acts and Legislation Attention is drawn to the World Heritage Conventions Act. of a dangerous good. measured from the edge of a watercourse. with a combined capacity of 50 000 m3 or more. nature reserves and protected environments • World Heritage Sites • specially protected forest areas • mountain catchment areas Landowners are encouraged to place land under formal protection/ conservation. excluding piglets that are not yet weaned. composting and waste management. • Part 3: The construction of masts or towers of any material or type used for telecommunication broadcasting or radio transmission purposes where the mast : (a) is to be placed on a site not previously used for this purpose. 2004 (Act No. and (b) will exceed 15m in height. Under GN R 546. but excluding attachments to existing buildings and masts on rooftops. within 5km of a Nature Reserve or within 10km of a World Heritage Site. in Protected Areas. where such storage occurs within containers with a combined capacity of 80 – 500m3. (x) buildings exceeding 50m2 in size. unless such storage falls within the ambit of the activity listed in Activity 19 of GN R 545 of 2010. - 30m2 per crocodile at any level of production. The types of Listed Activities for these areas include: • Part 2: The construction of reservoirs for bulk water supply with a capacity of more than 250m3. These are specified in more detail below: Under GN R 544. and to encourage this. . removal of indigenous vegetation through ploughing. (21 of 1935) and the Marine Living Resources Act. or for the storage and handling.131 Kinds of protected areas are: • game reserves. release of genetically-modified organisms and the subdivision of land. or - 250m2 per ostrich or emu and more than 50 ostriches or emus per facility or 2500m2 per breeding pair. water extraction and storage in dams. • Part 5: The construction of facilities or infrastructure for the concentration of: - (i) more than 1 000 poultry per facility situated within an urban area. rates rebates are available to landowners who do so. 15 of 1997) or the National Environmental Management: Biodiversity Act. - 3m2 per rabbit and more than 500 rabbits per facility. • Part 25: The release of genetically modified organisms into the environment.

the flow of water must be slowed down using a water attenuation system that can be built using local materials such as stones and branches. construction). of a dangerous good. This can be most effectively achieved by planting plugs of grass. according to certain thresholds. and • The clearance of vegetation where 75% or more of the vegetative cover constitutes indigenous vegetation.g. When there is too little soil to plant grasses. Should non-compliance occur. ranging in size from 300m2 to 5ha or more (specific to site’s environmental sensitivity). or a stabilising material placed over them. The ECO will conduct regular inspections of the site or facility to ensure that activities are being responsibly undertaken. resulting in a reduction in market opportunities. amphibians. but other methods such as hydro-seeding or simply sowing grass seed are also effective. Structures should be built as high up on the slope as possible in order to prevent build up in momentum as stormwater moves down the slope.g. it is likely that the majority of the potentially adverse impacts can be minimised or prevented.132 • Part 4: The construction of a road wider than 4m with a reserve less than 13. . For successful rehabilitation. The EMPr also includes specific mitigation measures for the entire duration of the development. oxygen from trees) and services (e. If this is done. • Level 2: Low to Medium Intervention. These types of audits often require regular self-audits followed by less frequent audits by independent certification bodies. or for the storage and handling. However one must be careful not to disturb another site when sourcing such materials. as measured from the outside toe of the wall to the highest part of the wall. as the naturally occurring rehabilitation is adequately. however. The EMPr should be based on the principles of the NEMA as well as the recommendations made in the preceding Basic Assessment Report or the Scoping and EIA Reports. in line with the guidelines set out in the EMP. The steepness of the slope and severity of disturbance will determine the spacing of the structures moving down the slope. Land that is due to be rehabilitated is often initially bare (no vegetation). Levels of intervention for soil stabilisation • Level 0: No Intervention. which is used to cover the entire slope. and that must be strictly implemented and regularly monitored. the ECO will bring this to the attention of the relevant authority. timber or wood production of 100ha or more. • Part 8: The construction of aircraft landing strips and runways shorter than 1. Should any of the above be “triggered” by a proposed activity on a farm. or afforestation for the purposes of commercial tree. plant propagation and feed manufacturing. which is a certification system applicable to forest management. who will instruct the necessary remediation procedure or prosecute. To avoid this. implementation of methods to reduce soil erosion and compliance with health and safety issues. Small bare patches on gentle slopes may need grassing. • Level 1: Minimum Intervention. effective control of workers activities. reptiles. erosion structures built along the contours of the slope will trap soil during rainfall events that can then be used for planting. 4. an Environmental Control Officer (ECO) should be appointed by the applicant. GLOBALG. planting grass varieties such as Paspalum or Vetiver will help to bind the soil. the gradient of the land needs to be made as gentle as possible. To achieve successful rehabilitation. the applicant is required to appoint an independent Environmental Assessment Practitioner (EAP) to conduct the environmental authorisation process (Basic Assessment or Scoping and EIA) on behalf of the applicant. as steep land allows for very fast water run-off that accelerates erosion. In order to effectively monitor compliance with the EMP. if necessary. This will lead to minor soil loss if patches are not grassed or stabilised with inert materials. and • Part 19: The construction of a dam where the highest part of the dam wall. any steps in slopes must be evened out and all erosion preventing structures must be built along contours to avoid water channelling. including plant and livestock production. If a good soil layer already exists.g. which are not listed above.A.P. A diagrammatic representation of the Basic Assessment Process is shown in Figure 1. crustaceans. such as the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC). Environmental assessments are also required for the expansion of agricultural facilities. protecting soil from being washed away by moving water is always the priority. Other standards exist within the agricultural sector. Extended areas of exposed soil on relatively gentle slopes may facilitate water runoff during rainfall. is based on the concept of Good Agricultural Practise (GAP) and is recognised as an international benchmark or standard that is applicable to a variety of products. The following Listed Activities under GN R 545 would require a Scoping and EIA process to be conducted: • Part 16: The physical alteration of virgin soil to agriculture. It should also be noted that additional Listed Activities for aquaculture and the production of finfish. Environmental Monitoring and Auditing Environmental Compliance Monitoring A requirement of the environmental authorisation process most often includes the compilation of an Environmental Management Plan (EMPr). sensible siting of ablution facilities. non-compliance can result in losing accreditation. The habitat is stable and no erosion control measures are required. This document contains guidelines to ensure that all activities associated with the proposed development are carried out in an environmentally responsible and acceptable manner. In this situation.g. where such storage occurs within containers with a combined capacity of 30 – 80m3. Extremely steep ground can be virtually impossible to rehabilitate without the use of climbing equipment and bio-matting. It is therefore necessary to rehabilitate land that has been disturbed by agriculture or other activities (e. • Part 10: The construction of facilities or infrastructure for the storage.5m. molluscs and aquatic plants are specified in the EIA Regulations. is 5m or higher or where the high-water mark of the dam covers an area of 10ha or more. and ensures that all FSC-accredited timber is produced in an environmentally sustainable manner. namely the following stages: • planning and design • pre-construction and construction activities • operation of the activity • rehabilitation of the environment • closure (where relevant) The EMP should be used as a framework for environmental compliance monitoring and reporting. safe storage of hazardous chemicals. For example. Auditing / Certification Auditing of specific industries according to a set industry standard is often a requirement in order to be able to export agricultural produce to certain overseas markets. e. It should be noted that there may be additional Listed Activities specific to agriculture. then under GN R 543 of 2010. Rehabilitation Humans rely on the natural functioning of ecosystems to provide them with goods (e. The concept of standards and auditing systems is usually one of self-improvement towards achieving specific and attainable goals. Land that has been disturbed by human activities cannot perform these natural functions as efficiently as pristine land. The EMPr specifies management objectives and the roles and responsibilities of management personnel on site. clean water).4km. An EMPr is a legally-binding document that contains guidelines with which building contractors and / or applicants must comply. 5.

co.aspx. Flowing water dislodges soil particles and transports them off-site. The following Activities are classified by the NEMWA as Category B Activities. to promote plant establishment and to reduce irrigation requirements. is required to accompany the Waste Licence Application Form. wastewater or sewage with an annual throughput capacity of more than 2 000 m3 but less than 15 000 m3. • (9) The biological. Published by The Institute of Natural Resources. • (18) The construction of facilities for activities listed in Category A of this Schedule (not in isolation to associated activity). endemic (i. za/Documents/Default.e. Contact them at 033 940 0450 / 082 828 7953 or write to janet. in order to obtain authorisation to release certain emissions. Any control programme for alien vegetation must include the following 3 phases: The Listed Activities that are applicable to proposed developments or improvements within the agricultural sector are: Alien Vegetation • Initial control: drastic reduction of existing population. • (9) The disposal of any quantity of hazardous waste to land. Gabions and textile matting may be used for this purpose when local materials are unavailable. Environmental permits Aside from the procedural requirements of the EIA process. Refer to the chapter on Invasive Alien Species is this directory for further information. thus requires a permit to be issued by the Department of Water and Environmental Affairs (DWEA). Alien vegetation commonly establishes in disturbed areas and on bare soil. as stipulated in the EIA Regulations (see heading 3). wastewater or sewage with an annual throughput capacity of 15 000 m3 or more. • (19) The expansion of facilities of or changes to existing facilities for any process or activity.dwa. which requires an amendment of an existing permit or license or a new permit or licence in terms of legislation governing the release of pollution.dwa. 6. Lauren and Andrew Booth for compiling this valuable chapter. serious intervention is required through the introduction of additional inert materials that add a strength component to protect the underlying soil from erosion. Although vegetation can nearly always be used to curb erosion. recovery. prior to • (3) The storage including temporary storage of general waste in lagoons. bare land where erosive forces are too great for vegetation develop without assistance. In terms of the NEMWA. When flow velocities become too high. indigenous shrubs and trees should be sourced from local indigenous The Department of Environmental Affairs is also involved with Working for Water – see www. These Activities are classified by the NEMWA as Category A Activities. in its Working for Water Programme.133 • Level 3: Intermediate Intervention. undertake or conduct a waste management activity listed in Schedule 1 unless a licence is issued in respect of that activity. leaving a scar on the land. In such cases. and • (20) The decommissioning of activities listed in this Schedule. Grass seed mixes. The National Environmental Management Act: Waste Act (NEMWA. treatment or processing of animal manure at a facility with a capacity to process in excess of one ton per day. the planting of timber plantations is classified as a “stream flow reduction activity”. certain Listed Activities are specified for which either a Basic Assessment (Government Notice No. Some proposed activities may result in protected tree species being damaged or destroyed. reuse. native to a specific limited area). root suckers and coppice growth. thus a necessary step in rehabilitation is the removal of any alien plant species and ongoing follow-ups.jec@edelnet. prior to commencing with the activity. Act 59 of 2008) is South Africa’s promulgated legislation relating to the storage. and • (11) The construction of facilities for activities listed in Category B of this Schedule (not in isolation to associated activity).environment. as stipulated in the EIA Regulations: • (2) The reuse and recycling of hazardous waste. to increase organic content and to maximise the soils’ moisture-retention capabilities. • Level 5: Maximum Control).gov. construction of a road or causeway over a stream or river would also require a water use license application.jecenviro. effluent or waste. Species to be used in the re-vegetation exercise should be indigenous to South Africa. For example. The Department of Water Affairs. as this activity could divert or impede the flow of water in a watercourse. • (5) The treatment of hazardous waste using any form of treatment regardless of the size or capacity of such a facility to treat such waste. A variety of methods exist to control invasion of alien vegetation. Our gratitude to Janet Edmonds. According to Schedule 1. utilisation or co-processing of waste at a facility with a capacity to process more than 500 kg of hazardous waste per day excluding recovery that takes place as an integral part of an internal manufacturing process within the same premises or unless the Minister has approved re-use guidelines for the specific waste stream. Mulch could be added to the soil when replanting. no person may commence. Steep dongas may have to be back-filled using local materials before a soil layer can be established for planting. thus a Basic Assessment Process must be conducted as part of the Waste Management Licence Application. better still. situations arise on steep. Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF). and • Maintenance control: sustain low alien plant numbers with annual certain activities also require specific permits to be granted. . GN R 545).co. • (3) The recovery of hazardous waste including the refining. physical or physico-chemical treatment of general waste at a facility that has the capacity to process in excess of 10 tons of general waste per day. • (7) The treatment of effluent. including animal waste. a permit in terms of the Atmospheric Pollution Prevention Act would be required. More information on water use registering and licensing can be found on DWA’s website – www. • (17) The storage. Erosion structures such as gabion weirs will need to be constructed to stabilise the soil movement before planting can take place. • (11) The treatment of effluent. The list of protected trees can be found on the DAFF website (take the “Forestry” option). thus require that a Scoping and EIA process is conducted. R (GN R) 544 and 546) or a Scoping and Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA. Erosion structures and revegetation practises should be implemented. • Level 4: Medium / High Intervention. a permit is required to be submitted to the Department of Agriculture. Should the release of atmospheric emissions be a part of the proposed or. Speciesspecific information relating to methods in manual and chemical control can be obtained on the Working for Water website (www. treatment and disposal of hazardous and general waste. 7. • Follow-up control: control of seedlings. Further Reading: • Restoration ecology: the new frontier by Jelte van Andel. so there is a relationship between these two types of rehabilitation. • Vetiver Grass: the hedge against erosion. undertaking such an activity. The National Environmental Management Act: Waste Act and Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Regulations Rehabilitation may also be necessary when intensive alien plant invasion has occurred. recycling. • (10) The processing of waste at biogas installations with a capacity to process in excess of five tons per day of bio-degradable waste. • (8) The incineration of waste regardless of the capacity of such a facility. even if the soils are stable. Visit their website at www. James Aronson. recommends the following regarding alien invasive species. Re-vegetation Replanting of rehabilitated areas should be undertaken during seasons of rainfall.

if the fire protection association objects to the proposed burning. • Veld in areas with a low rainfall (±400 mm per annum and less) should preferably not be burned. the stimulated grasses are weakened by having to rely on their reserves in order to survive without water for long periods. Should follow-up rains not fall straight away. By burning earlier in the year. If no agreement can be reached on dates. During the August 2011 fires in the North West Province. Overview Uncontrolled wild fires lead to direct losses in terms of: • loss of life. and • ensure that a sufficient number of persons are present on his or her side of the boundary to prevent any spread of fire when the firebreak is burned. which can remove valuable nutrients in the form of ash. were trapped. The truth is that veld fires can be a useful veld management practice. The Landowner must obtain permission and determine a mutually agreeable date/s with owners of adjoining properties. The act is available on www. An owner may not burn a firebreak. the wind. An owner of adjoining land who has agreed on a day or who receives a notice must• burn his or her firebreak on the boundary concerned on the same day or days. and to the many others that crop up during “fire season” in the coverage done by the agricultural weeklies. and inform the fire protection association for the area. • be present at such burning or have his or her agent attend.134 When not to burn resources and good agricultural practice Fire 1. crops. This practice has the same negative consequences as overgrazing and will lead to large scale veld deterioration over the long (find his details under ALUT. . if any. livestock and natural resources Farmers are urged to: • make certain that fire-fighting equipment is easily accessible and in working condition • create firebreaks • participate in local fire protection association activities Some horrific stories emerge after runaway fires. or a warning has been published because the fire danger is high in the region. a “cool” fire is required. In both cases the presence of a dense stand of perennial grasses is important. • Never attempt to burn veld that is in a poor condition. it is important to have a good stand of dry grass beneath the shrub to generate a hot fire. and have been banned totally in some countries. where lightning is common and people have used veld fires for thousands of years to improve the quality of their grazing. Frits van Oudtshoorn. kraaled for their own safety on many farms. By burning veld that is in a poor condition.role players heading) When burning to combat bush encroachment. but also by the amount of available combustible material. the Landowner must give the owners of adjoining properties as well as the fire protection association in the area (if any) at least 14 days written notice of the intended day/s when the Landowner intends burning firebreaks. • to combat or prevent bush encroachment. During these fires. the less damage is caused to dormant grass plants. blowing at 80km/h changed direction and cattle. or the conditions are not conducive to the burning of firebreaks. but a bad master. Contact him at info@alut. Landowners must prepare and maintain firebreaks on their side of the boundary or fence as well as any adjoining land. veld fires have a long history. This can be obtained by burning on a cool day with no wind. and disability. This veld is already under stress and burning it will only let the veld deteriorate even further. This is made very clear in Act 101 of 1998. When burning to control bush encroachment. Veld is mainly burned for two reasons: • to remove accumulated organic material. but under the wrong conditions can also cause great damage to the veld. 2. When to burn This is not only determined by the correct season of the year. Types of fire A fire that burns in the direction of the wind is generally In addition. A hot fire on a windy day will cause the bush to be burned right up to the crown. When burning to remove declining veld. Burning your veld In Africa.nspca. It is advisable not to burn the veld under the following conditions: • Never burn to stimulate green pasture out of The cooler the fire. despite having complied with subsection (2) of the Act. Veld fires are a good servant. a farmer lay in a water trough to survive while his cattle burnt to death around him. Veld fires are also a controversial issue. The reader is referred to the story “NSPCA and SPCAs confront runaway fires” on www. however. due to vegetation fires • loss of housing and possessions when thatched or wooden dwellings ignite • loss of grazing. This can be achieved by burning on a hot day with a low humidity. This is particularly the case if the veld is used as pasture. a “hot fire” is required. the condition of the veld will deteriorate even further. but with minimal burning at ground level. the burned veld is exposed to cold and late winter winds. particularly in areas with a high Legal notes on firebreaks It is the landowner’s responsibility to prepare firebreaks and have the correct equipment and trained personnel to prevent the spread of fires. the veld will take a long time to It is preferable to only burn veld that has a majority of climax species and a biomass of ±3 000 kg of combustible material and more per hectare. Source: Guide to Grasses of SA. The right time of the year to burn is probably as close as possible to the first spring rains.

gov. Advanced Fire Information System (AFIS) and the Integrated National Early Warning System (INEWS) on the Below are some examples: Central University of Technology School of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences Tel: 051 507 3134 • Goscor Power Products Tel: 0861 GOSCOR (467 267) protects you in terms of any compliance your insurer might require and enhances the protection of properties from veldfires. 26 November 2010 pages 34. website of the Global Fire Monitoring Centre (GFMC). and co-ordination of fire records and training. municipal fire services and so on. It is not necessary for the owner to give 14 days notice of the additional Water Affairs and Cooperative Cooperative Governance Governance. Tel: 012 334 0726 from disadvantaged communities Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) and trains them in fire fighting. Contact them at 0861 10 18 28 or visit www. WoF is a SA Government initiative • Firebreak Equipment Tel: 082 353 4336 and nature conservation. Through the FPA.geofire. section can be found at www. and it is reasonably free of inflammable material capable of carrying a veldfire across terrain and vegetation. Fire Protection Associations (FPAs) The National Veld and Forest Fires Act of 1998 provides a framework for owners to organise and collaborate in veldfire management. The GFMC is “an Activity of the UN International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UN-ISDR). They Directorate: Agricultural Risk and are available to assist landowners in Disaster Management the preparation of firebelts and the Tel: 012 319 7955 / 6 fighting of fires. www. Equipment • Bosvreter & Vuurvegter Tel: 014 778 9916 / 082 574 3792 www. it does not cause soil • DoseTech Tel: 021 511 0840 farmers. ground • Geofire Tel: 011 864 3812 / 082 850 8828 www. Find details of the pa. 35. Alternatively. menu option) training etc are available on their Other government departments • McBeans Tel: 033 342 1541 fire weather services. and must ensure that it is wide enough and long enough to have a reasonable chance of preventing a veldfire from spreading to or from neighbouring N Dip in Fire Technology is offered • Premier Pig Producers Tel: 012 361 3920 • Umnga Farmers Training Centre Tel: 045 933 1318 . The formation of voluntary Fire Protection Associations (FPAs) is one way to prevent. landowners. Owners of adjoining land may agree to position a common firebreak away from the boundary. involved include Find the links to the SA National Fire Danger Index. climate. the owner may proceed with the burning in his or her absence. 5. under the Expanded Public Works Programme which employs people Department of he or she must give all owners of adjoining land an address and telephone • The Irrigation Shop Tel: 012 804 2581 Integrated Fire Management (IFM) Telephone numbers for the Forestry strategy on the website. This saves • NIC’s Trailers The Act is available on www. contact role players mentioned in this chapter. Source: Agricultural Employers Organisation (LWO). Members are drawn from local communities and authorities. Firefighting Equipment Traders Association Tel: 011 397 1618/9 www.dadrm@daff. residents. Requirements for firebreaks An owner is obliged to prepare and maintain a firebreak with due regard to the (look for the “Forestry” operations. Management Centre Government Working on Fire Programme (WoF) Tel: 013 741 6400 / 7340 www. Role players Associations Find the AfriFireNet (Regional Sub Sahara Wildland Fire Network) pages at • Africa Land-Use Training Tel: 014 717 3819 www. Find information on FPAs at www. 4. co. FPAs are envisaged to provide the combat and manage fires throughout the Should an owner intend to be absent for a period longer than 14 days during the period or part of any period in which burning normally takes place. if any. Contact details for their air gov. as required in subsection (8). some times on your Source: Farmer’s Weekly. They can develop enforceable rules that protect all members and request advice and assistance from the State-employed chief fire-protection officer.cogta.fireraiders.firebreak. or • has not given an address and telephone Training and research Some AgriSETA accredited providers of training run Fire management • Turfmaster (Pty) Ltd Tel: 011 730 3400 • Fire Raiders Tel: 011 894 3205 The owner must inform the owners of adjoining land and the fire protection association• if burning cannot be done on the agreed day or days or any of the Provincial conservation bodies like CapeNature are involved.goscorpower-products. farmers (and others) can pool their resources and jointly develop and implement veldfire management strategies for their co-ordinated support in provinces – aerial fire-fighting at which he or she may be contacted. if • Joubert Implements Tel: 021 887 1220 If an owner of adjoining land• is not present on the agreed or notified day or days. • of the additional days on which he or she intends to bum because of the failure to do so on the day or days. Find details on South African National Disaster www. rapid attack • Rogue Agriculture Tel: 033 345 0038 www.

za/dimtec Nelson Mandela Metropolitan Wildland Fire Training Center University (NMMU) Africa (WFTCA) Tel: 044 801 5028/111 Tel: 013 744 9328 www.satellite information on fires in Southern Measured Farming Tel: 033 345 2508 Aerial fire-fighting SAFIRE Insurance Company A business which has experience Limited in assessing fires and the resultant Tel: 033 264 8500 damage www.saif. Also find the “Fire Danger Index” option at – see the “Fires” menu option) Resource materials on the National Veld and Forest Fire Act No 101 of 1998.safireinsurance. brought out by the National Wool Growers Association (NWGA) includes useful notes on fire management. Tactics and Safety by William C. The CSIR’s Meraka Institute runs the Advanced Fire Information System .za for details (look for the “Forestry Handbook” menu option).za or contact 041 365 Children of Fire helps severely burned children to get complex surgery. Call 012 348 1745 or write to saif@mweb. .gov. Fire Manager’s Handbook on Veld and Forest Fires: Strategy. therapy and Africa/ The Fire Handbook. www. NSPCA Tel: 011 907 3590 www. Gids tot die Volhoubare Produksie van Weiding Prof Hennie Snyman The WFTCA is a unique facility on Fire symposiums are run the African continent for capacity building. wildfires and the The Veld and Forest Firefighting Fundamentals workingonfire. www.firestop. is available from Working on from Department of Conservation a basic firefighter to national and Ecology and Entomology international policy makers.nmmu. Find the Tel: 021 808 3304 WFTCA web pages on published by the Southern African Institute of Forestry (SAIF) a CD. www. Fire risk information on your area is updated daily on The CD is available from Department of Forestry offices.nspca. 6. Visit www. For a free copy of the easy-to-understand booklet www. Find information as well as references to publications. contact the Working on Fire programme. Call 013 741 7461 or send an email to colleensparg@soft. Teie.daff. includes a copy of the Act and answers to FAQs. Order at 021 406 4962 or Visit Find the document on www.htm Services Firewise SA – see Working On Orsmond Aviation Fire (see under the “Government” Tel: 058 303 5261 sub-heading) by William C Teie and edited by Fred Favard. Find the “Fighting Fire” Info Pak on NGOs Children of Fire Tel: 011 726 6529 and training and education Stellenbosch University of a wide range of people.136 Council for Scientific and University of the Free State Industrial Research (CSIR) Disaster Management Training Natural resources and the and Education Centre for Africa environment (DiMTEC) Tel: 012 841 2911 Tel: 051 401 2721 www. org. Websites and publications Visit the websites listed in this chapter Kobus Botha’s weather satellite photos of Southern Africa ( include how to fill in forms to register an FPA (Fire Protection Association).nwga. The Best practice reference manual for wool sheep farming in South Africa.

Organisms that are indigenous to the country but occur outside their natural range are also defined as alien species for the purposes of this act. propagating. If it is carried out incorrectly or if the wrong method is chosen. issued by the competent veterinary authority of the exporting country. 36 of 1947). • Category 2 – Declared Invaders (Invasive plants with commercial or amenity value). 35 of 1984 National Environmental Management: Biodiversity Act (NEM: BA). These are invader plants that pose a threat to the environment but nevertheless can be exploited for timber. These species are only allowed to occur in demarcated areas that carry a permit. These plants may no longer be planted or propagated and all trade in seeds. there are 3 categories of regulated plants: • Category 1 – Declared Weeds. this expenditure could be in vain. invasive species may cause changes in ecological services. Before deciding on the most effective. While some species have invaded habitats on their own. several factors need to be borne in mind e. It specifies. 43 of 1983) CARA has certain regulations that provide for the control of weeds and invader plants. cutting. Alien species that become established in a new environment. Find the “Guide to Clearing Alien Invasive Plants” menu options on www. 10 of 2004 This is a more recent piece of legislation. In terms of Regulation 15 of CARA. Australian silky oak. affordable and appropriate control option for invading alien plants in a particular situation.g. The control of alien invasive plants can be very expensive in terms of manpower. Yellow oleander etc. • flood control and water supply • waste assimilation • recycling of nutrients • conservation and regeneration of soils • pollination of crops. to determine the order in which different alien species and sub-sections of the invaded area will be addressed. The restricted activities include importation. Animal Diseases Act. cuttings or other propagation material is prohibited. against animal diseases. and by which existing pests may be combated. through human intervention. then proliferate and spread in ways that are destructive to biodiversity or/and human interests are considered “invasive alien species” or IAS. chemical (treatment with registered herbicides).dwa. Act No. and biological control (find the “Biocontrol” chapter). they must be kept under control and no new plant may be initiated. these plants will not be allowed to occur anywhere except in biological control reserves unless they were already in existence when these regulations came into effect (30 March 2001). Category 2 plants include Black wattle. from their native range to another area or region. amongst others. and to ensure that the most efficient and cost-effective combination of control methods is selected. gov. dealing mainly with weeds and plant invaders. which deal with different aspects of invasive alien species. Agricultural Remedies and Stock Remedies Act. the regulations in terms of parts of this act still have to be developed and it is not yet clear how this will affect farmers. Where plants occur outside demarcated areas they have to be controlled. controlling alien and invasive organisms. 3. Control measures for Invasive Alien Plants One or a combination of the following control methods are used: mechanical (uprooting. However. or any listed invasive species. They may not be translocated or be allowed to disperse. . human movements have dramatically increased the diversity and scale of invasions by alien species. control methods should be used that are appropriate for the species as well as ecosystems in which they occur. require an import permit before they can be imported into the country. however. and it could even result in huge environmental damage. propagated or dispersed and the plants may no longer be sold. administrated by the Department of Environmental Affairs. burning. Overview • Category 3 – Declared Invaders (Invasive plants with ornamental value). Category 1 plants include Lantana. This means that the existing plants do not have to be removed by the land user. This Act provides for measures by which agricultural pests may be prevented from entering the country. The ones most relevant to farmers are the Acts of the Department of Agriculture. fruits. Most of the aggressive species fall in this category. medicinal plants. 36 of 1983 The direct costs of management of invasives can run into the millions of Rands. These are plants that must be controlled on land or water surfaces by all land users. material and equipment. each consignment of animal and/or animal products for importation into South Africa must be accompanied by an original veterinary import permit. Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) to obtain a permit for the category 2 species. An integrated management plan is recommended for any area invaded by invasive alien plants. Burning is also an option in certain environments and the Working on Fire programme can be contacted for assistance in this regard. and in addition. land users have to obtain a water use licence as these plants consume large volumes of water. In terms of these regulations 15. Legislation South Africa has numerous Acts. animal fodder. buying and translocating a specimen of the specific species. that any products or materials that might harbour agricultural pests. The landowner needs to approach the Department of Chapter 5 of this act requires permits for carrying out restricted activities involving any alien species that has not been exempted. Syringa. In terms of this act. Water hyacinth. including: This act aims at protecting the national animal (and human) population. administrated by different government departments. Category 2 species without a permit are treated as category 1 species. and • seed dispersal 2. Introduced species often find no enemies in their new habitat and therefore multiply easily and quickly. Grey poplar and Weeping willow (not to be confused with indigenous willows). The current CARA will thus be discussed. Alien Species. crop pests and diseases of livestock. as well as our export markets. exotics. are species that have been taken. Farm Feeds. which aims to protect the country’s biodiversity by. This act is currently under review regarding regulations 15 and 16 that are in the process of changing. Category 3 plants include Jacaranda. These are plants that have the potential of becoming invasive but are considered to have ornamental value. issued by the National Directorate Animal Health. These diseases are caused mainly by alien invasive pathogens. the decision to grant a permit is the responsibility of DAFF. St Joseph’s lily etc. building material or shelter or to stabilise soil. If the plants are used for commercial purposes. or non-indigenous species. the economic costs also include their indirect environmental consequences and other non-market values. These species carry a fine. 1947 (Act No. CARA (Conservation of Agricultural Resources Act 1983) (Act No. fuel wood.137 resources and good agricultural practice Invasive alien species (IAS) 1. Act No. selling. brashing). Regular follow-up operations are very important and necessary to achieve control when using mechanical or chemical measures. No. and an original health certificate. Sisal. having under one’s control. Agricultural Pests Act. Pom pom weed. felling. amongst other things. For example. The control should be strictly according to the label on the herbicide and no off label applications should be considered as this is guided by the Fertilizers. also called.

za ALUT offers training on the control of Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) Directorate: Land Use and Soil Management (LUSM) Tel: 012 319 7685 DLUSM@daff. The soil disturbance caused by the uprooting of trees also causes seeds of invasive species to germinate. DST-NRF Centre for Invasion Biology (CIB) Professor Dave Richardson Tel: 021 808 2725 rich@sun.bullmaurice. Trade and Industry. and these will germinate in huge numbers once more sunlight penetrates to the soil. Phone 012 808 8000. The partnership with SAPTA (South African Pet Traders Association) highlights the dangers of aquatic weeds and fish pond/aquarium species through awareness and education. Plant Protection Research Institute Handbook No 3. Department of Agriculture. and research on conservation biological control Find details of the new ARC-PPRI user-friendly fact sheets on invasive alien plants and their biological agents under heading 9. Both are obtainable from PPRI. Other government departments are involved: Agriculture. Rehabilitation of areas from which Invasive Alien Plants have been cleared Once invasive alien plants have been cleared from an area. It often works best in an integrated management system where it augments the existing control programme and over the long term reduces the costs of the other control methods. These are all Programmes where invasive plants feature in their core The fight against invasive alien plants (IAPs) is spearheaded by the Working for Water (WfW) programme. Science and The CIB comprises a network of researchers throughout South Africa. PL Campbell. Working on Woodlands and Woodlots etc. The Agricultural Colleges do training in courses in alien plant control. Research on the biological control of certain agricultural pests Biosystematics Division Dr Ansie Dippenaar Tel: 012 808 8247 dippenaara@arc. Many alien legumes.dwa. Mpumalanga & the Northern Province. Working for Water is currently engaged in a number of co-governance arrangements with Programmes such as Working for Identification of alien invertebrates (insects. The Working for Water programme Visit www. Large numbers of seeds of the invasive alien plants will still be in the soil. Northern Cape. To prevent cleared areas from being overrun by invasive species again. mites. it will certainly not be the end of the problem. fast-growing grass www. There is also collaboration with colleagues in other African countries on the biological and integrated control of several invasive alien plant species elsewhere in Africa. and is administered through the Department of Water and Environmental www. Find their details in the “Agricultural education and training” chapter. ARC-Plant Protection Research They manufacture a machine specially designed for the removal of alien trees and plants that are invading our farmlands. making the control programme sustainable. spiders.agric.sun. fungi). serve as a guideline for the rehabilitation of areas cleared of invasive alien plants: • Rehabilitation recommendations after alien plant control. Find their names and contact details on the Provincial LUSM offices: Eastern Cape Free State Gauteng KwaZulu-Natal Limpopo Mpumalanga North West Northern Cape Western Cape 043 704 6815 / 079 495 4585 051 409 2623 / 084 813 1811 012 319 7562 / 082 574 7650 033 345 3557 / 073 859 2892 015 287 9944 / 071 607 6450 013 754 0727 / 083 235 6787 018 294 3343 / 083 460 9190 053 807 2612 / 073 654 0723 021 944 1425 / 083 423 4590 . the Free State. P Campbell. Care must be taken in sensitive biomes such as the fynbos biome as the legume species have nitrogen fixing bacteria in their roots that cause an allelopathic effect and changes the soil composition thereby outcompeting the indigenous species. which should be used in combination with eachother.agric. resulting in a worse infestation than before. South African Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR).za/ Every year the programme employs around 30 000 such as the Australian Acacia species (wattles) have fire-resistant seeds that are stimulated by fires to germinate. Partnerships have also been formed with the private sector through the South African Nursery Association (SANA) to educate the industry about new amendments to the law regarding IAPs and to make sure the IAPs are no longer being Research on biological and integrated control strategies to protect the country’s natural resources and biodiversity from the threat of invasive alien plants Insect Ecology Division Dr Roger Price Tel: 012 356 9817 pricer@arc. Working on Fire. Role players Africa Land-Use Training (ALUT) Tel: 014 717 3819 / 078 228 0008 www. nematodes. It is also very important to establish a more desirable form of vegetation in the cleared areas. mostly from poor communities. ARC-Plant Protection Research Institute www. as well as provincial departments of government. follow-up actions have to be maintained for as many years as it takes.g. WfW has been running since 1995 when it was first launched as part of the government’s Reconstruction and Development Programme (RDP). Many plants have the ability to sprout or coppice from their roots or cut stumps unless the stumps are treated with suitable herbicides. e. The following Weeds Research Division Mrs Hildegard Klein Tel: 012 356 9841 infoppri@arc. Bull Maurice Trading Tel: 011 026 4077/7266 info@bullmaurice.agric. • Grab-a-grass dial: guidelines for rehabilitation after alien plant control. Book sales.arc. Eastern Cape). North West & Gauteng. Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF). Research groups are involved: Agricultural Research Council-Plant Protection Research Institute (ARC-PPRI). 5. Center of Excellence for Invasion Biology (CIB). There is also information available from the Working for Water programme on (tollfree) 0800 005 376 or www. The Global Invasive Species Programme (GISP) and the South African National Biodiversity Institute (SANBI) are involved. PPRI: 1-43.138 Biocontrol is a long term sustainable solution to the invasive plant control programme. (Available for KwaZulu-Natal. while most other seeds of indigenous plants will be killed. provide an ideal opportunity to encourage entrepreneurship amongst people from historically disadvantaged communities. Training and empowerment of the beneficiaries of the Invasive Alien Species Programme (IASP) programme is seen as one of the key solution to address the invasive alien species on farms Invader Plant Specialists Tel: 021 976 6127 / 082 412 7411 Planet Wise cc Tel: 028 261 1823 / 021 200 0561 The Environmental Weed Control Manufacturer and Wholesaler of course is designed for people garden products made from alien embarking on a career controlling Black Find the “Invasive alien plants” Animal. By clearing watersapping alien invasive plants. Value added products include: • screens and blinds • décor items for interior/lifestyle shops • bathroom accessories • lights and lamps • indoor and outdoor furniture • fencing.dwa. it is illegal to making use of invasive Invader / alien bush and tree Wattle eradication and indigenous control plants Rand Water – see Water Wise JEC Environmental Services Tel: 033 940 0450 / 082 828 7953 Sikhula Agri Training Tel: 021 852 2643 Department of Conservation Ecology and Entomology Water Wise Prof Michael Samways Tel: 0860 10 10 60 Tel: 021 808 3728 • Animal Health Tel: 012 319 7456 sell or buy declared weeds (category 1 weeds) and Environment Affairs Read about the Woody Alien Michael Braack Tel: 033 355 8069 / 079 895 3620 Invasive Monitoring System Project on the website Nedbank South African National Tel: 011 294 4444 Biodiversity Institute (SANBI) South African Nursery Association (SANA) Tel: 072 994 5368 info@jacklinorganic. Plant Science Consultants Association (PSCA) Jacklin Organic Tel: 011 486 2254 Tel: 017 844 1589 www. • Agricultural Product Inspection Services Tel: 012 319 6100 DAPIS@daff. This would make it an offence to farm with declared University of the Free State Department of Plant Sciences Tel: 051 401 2514 Institute (SASRI) Dr Des Conlong University of KwaZulu-Natal Tel: 031 508 7477 School of Life Sciences biocontrol agents for control of “Specialists in the Environmental SiQ (Pty) Ltd Consulting Industry” Tel: 012 807 9460 KZN Department of Agriculture www.ukzn. as part of its Tel: 021 799 8800 investment in the In terms of the Conservation of Agricultural Resources Act (Act 43 of 1983).za www. arches and other garden furnishings • wooden educational toys Read more at challenges of the rural poor www. and the Upper “Solutions for Invader weed Umgeni in Tel: 033 260 5139 SASRI mass-rears insect weed olckerst@ukzn.waterwise. Office Tel: 021 441 2700 / 0800 005 376 Stellenbosch University Nedbank committed R9-million towards the World Wide Fund for Nature’s (WWF’s) Water Balance alien invasive plants for Working The Working for Water National for Water Hortec Barry Muller has given ideas on Tel: 023 316 1530 radio (RSG) about what to do with areas of the Enkangala Grasslands in Mpumalanga. Local business environment The development of small and micro-enterprises is a critical factor in the process of economic empowerment in South the EcoGuard investment will rehabilitate 450 ha Tel: 011 463 6057 of land in the priority catchment www. and to utilise their parts in such a way that the dispersal and multiplication of the species might be promoted. Secondary industry initiatives. and managing alien invasive Tel: 012 843 5000 In August 2011.139 Other directorates: • Plant Health Tel: 012 319 6072 School of Natural Resource Grassland Society of Southern Management (Saasveld Campus) Nature Conservation & Game Africa (GSSA) Ranch Management Tel: 049 842 4335 Tel: 044 801 5013 It is the control” – provincial contact details largest investment by a corporation are available on the into the Water Balance Programme to Department of Water and Environmental Affairs Tel: 086 111 2468 www. ECOPLUG Tel: 021 873 1648 Nelson Mandela Metropolitan Tel: 011 304 7200 University (NMMU) Find Biology earlier under this heading information on IAS under the “Green Industry” option Ububele Alfa Chemicals Tel: 033 386 9384 Tel: 056 213 4539 www. Wildlife and Grassland Sciences option on the website Tel: 051 401 2221 South African Sugar Research See also the Centre for Invasion “Water Wise” is Rand Water’s environmental brand.

Agricultural Research Council. Source: www. Find the document on CABI is a not-for-profit international organisation providing scientific expertise. The Global Invasive Species Database provides global information on invasive alien species to agencies. sub-tropical region of South Africa. L Henderson & CJ Cilliers. Since then. • Rehabilitation recommendations after alien plant control. the cost of damage caused by invasive species has been estimated to be £1. • The Working for Water webpage – www.140 Sandile Motaung heads up the plant in Durban where the desks and ecocoffins are made on request. safety and operational At any one time they are looking at around 60 invasive species. Posters are also available from other organisations like the Botanical Society of SA. Working for Water • Find the Info Pak “Alien invaders” under the Publications menu option at www. Posters: • Beautiful but dangerous. 1997. ARC. Arcadia: 1. Xact Information: 1-238. PO Box 95823.nwga. Social issues form part of these workshops. commissioned by the Working for Water Programme The Best practice reference manual for wool sheep farming in South Africa. C Botha. their legal status. Motaung’s life has been turned around after becoming involved in this project and (find the “Stop the spread” option under “What we do”) Publications • The PPRI electronic newsletter at www. mainly voluntary partnership programme. and contacts for control. and it is widely predicted that climate change will further increase the threat posed by invasive species.” says Motaung.dwa.gisp. he has set his sights on having his own company in two years’ time. Tel: 031 300 2517 • The big bad five. available at www. P • Fact sheets on invasive alien plants and their biological agents by ARCPPRI can be downloaded from www. • Virtually all ecosystem types on the planet are affected by invasive species and they pose one of the biggest threats to biodiversity worldwide. Pretoria: 1-88. • Identifying our invading alien enemies. where agriculture accounts for a higher proportion of GDP. by three international organisations: IUCN – The World Conservation Union. More invasive alien plants of Durban and the eastern. Available from Department of Water Affairs.315. Colour photographs of 42 species. Available from The Communication Project. 0145. the negative impact of invasive species on food security as well as on economic performance. • The AGIS website contains a wealth of information about Invasive Alien Plants. Available from Durban Metro Environmental Management branch. Private Bag X313. I got into this programme and have learnt a lot of C Bromilow. Source: SAnews 6 May 2011 8. • Making the most of indigenous trees.daff. 16. Photographs and line drawings of the most aggressive alien invaders in South Africa. Websites and publications Websites • Find the Webpages of PPRI’s Weeds Research Programme on Pretoria 0001. decision-makers. and the Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE). • Control of Unwanted Plants. • Re-use of Invasive Alien Plants is an impressive booklet. They have a long history researching invasive species that affect agriculture and the environment to find natural ways of controlling them. with some indigenous travel and tourism will inevitably increase the intentional or accidental introduction of organisms to new environments.wessa.arc. Photographs and descriptions of five invasive aquatic plants in South Africa.: 1-372. it has built upon a productive and highly technically skilled base to become the pre-eminent global partnership on invasive species. PPRI: 1-43. Department of Water Affairs and Forestry. Pretoria. knowledge and information. “I had an interest in making furniture but didn’t have any skills.agric.asp?pid=6979. World Conservation Union (IUCN) Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) www. They are also taught to create and sustain viable businesses. They have expertise in the increasingly important area of Sanitary and Phytosanitary – looking at the risk of invasive species to The Global Invasive Species Programme (GISP) was founded in 1997 as a • International portal for Invasive alien Species toolkits of best prevention and management practices as well as early detection – www. advice and contact numbers.: CABI (formerly known as the Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux) www. transport. 12. now he has been trained in coffin and desk making. They provide invasive species information products and services in invasive species such as the Invasive Species Compendium which is currently being • SAPIA News (South African Plant Invader Atlas) is a publication by the ARC PPRI on invasive alien plants.issg. I now teach this to my team here. ARC.shtml • There is also information available from WESSA on www. 2nd Edition.arc. can be even greater. invasivespeciesinfo. brought out by the National Wool Growers Association (NWGA) includes notes on dealing with invading alien plants management.agric. The fact sheets are in printable PDF format. P Campbell. Plant Protection Research Institute Handbook by following the Quick Link: Invasive alien plants. The GISP Secretariat is currently hosted by CABI Africa in Nairobi. • Invasive aquatic plants. International business environment • Globally. • Alien & Invasive Animals Mike Picker and Charles Griffiths (Struik Nature) • Common weeds of crops and gardens in southern Africa / Algemene onkruide in gewasse en tuine in Suidelike Afrika. A South African guide.agric. resource managers. arc. and interested individuals. Briza. • Alien Weeds and Invasive Plants. Trees that are cut down all over the province and unwanted cut alien plants are collected and processed to make these products which now include church pews and boardroom tables. Briza Publications. • Problem plants of South Africa. The department selects unemployed people and trains them in life skills. F Venter & JA Venter. I do feel like I make a difference to their lives.agis. Pretoria: 1-300.cabi. Waterkloof. Publications on indigenous replacement plants • Creative gardening with indigenous contains updates on IAS (weeds) research. L Henderson.agric. Plant Protection Research Institute Handbook No. Motaung was unemployed. • Globalisation through increased trade. Plant Protection Research Institute Handbook No 3.5 trillion per year – close to 5% of global GDP. 1998-2000. Potchefstroom. Pretoria: 1-320. Our gratitude to Hildegard Klein and Debbie Sharp for their generous help with this chapter . Visit www. Pretoria. Global Invasive Species Programme (GISP) www. CAB International. Prior to or contact 041 365 5030. • In developing countries.

WaterCare promotes the development of techniques for water-resource management and encourages opportunities for training in this field. 6. Want to form a LandCare group? Before you apply. Through SoilCare. • promote conservation practices. Veld care. Western Cape 021 808 5006 / 082 907 2813 3. National strategy and government contact Visit www. Directorate: Land Use and Soil Management Tel: 012 319 7656 / 85 www. Furthermore. website of the Department of including your responsibility to keep proper accounting records for the spending of funds from grants. and www. you will be asked to sign a programme management agreement.agric. 2.daff. 7. Economic and social development opportunities are realised by improving grazing areas and maintaining viable grazing areas throughout rural communities. Take the “Programmes” and then “LandCare” options. It develops and maintains agricultural activities in accordance with the principles of ecologically sustainable development. • Land is valuable and should be looked after – otherwise we will not be able to use it in the future. and is a community-based programme that seeks to: SoilCare encourages rural farmers to build innovative structures to combat soil erosion. Region Telephone Eastern Cape 040 609 3534 / 082 780 9877 Free State 051 506 1480 / 082 808 1040 LandCare is about: • redressing past resource degradation • correct resource management • communities working together • caring for the land in your area • your future quality of life • improving the environment • securing food for tomorrow Gauteng 011 355 1367 / 082 563 8992 KwaZulu-Natal 033 355 9100 / 082 413 2591 Limpopo 015 294 3625 / 082 670 5670 Mpumalanga 013 752 5671 / 072 648 2423 North West 018 389 5936 / 082 908 8798 Northern Cape 053 839 7849 / 071 860 7557 What can you do? • form or join a land care group in your community and get involved. • plan and manage land to prevent degradation. Overview Forestry and shelter and an income. . rely on the land for food. WaterCare works in partnership with the community to develop action plans for managing and restoring irrigation schemes. • conserve our resources.agis. This includes the promotion of food security at home and at schools. and to address the depletion of soil fertility and low soil acidity which severely limit the production potential. daff. our quality of life will deteriorate. It is driven by both the public and private sector through partnerships and co-operation. awareness of sustainable agriculture. Department of Agriculture. Source: the LUSM head office. Junior LandCare The objectives of Junior LandCare are to empower previously disadvantaged youth through training in facilitation and leadership skills. and stimulating the formation of youth clubs and projects that aim to promote other components of LandCare. • form a land care conservancy (see Conservancies chapter). improvement and conservation projects. job creation and a better quality of life for all. SoilCare The National LandCare Programme is a government supported initiative and is being implemented throughout the country. such as diversification. Provinces then undertake the implementation of the projects under set conditions. WaterCare The WaterCare theme establishes a framework for managing land and preventing the silt-up of dams for irrigation. • If we degrade and misuse the land. • If we do not look after the land. we will pay a high price for the damage it suffers. sustainable agricultural production systems are introduced. JuniorCare addresses the needs of young people in an integrated way and involves interdisciplinary approaches. food security. and reporting requirements on the progress and results of your Projects have been implemented in all nine provinces through the Landcare Conditional Grant whereby ringed-fenced funding is transferred to provinces in terms of the yearly Division of Revenue Act.141 resources and good agricultural practice LandCare 4. VeldCare VeldCare promotes best grazing-systems and erosion-prevention practices to improve production. management of input and conservation tillage. Forestry and Fisheries. Soil care and Junior LandCare initiatives are all part of this programme. • use them in a sustainable way. please contact the local LandCare Manager or facilitator for assistance (contact details above). plastic and metal. LandCare Why is LandCare important? • You and everyone else.agis. • create a conservation ethic through education and www. This agreement sets out the conditions for funding. LandCare is about optimising productivity and the sustainable use of natural resources leading to increased agricultural production. Under the “Publications” option find documents like the Guide for National LandCare Programme Small Community Grants. • create jobs and address poverty by launching various natural resource rehabilitation. The rehabilitation of irrigation schemes increases water supply and household food security. • recycle and re-use paper. Water care. • restore damaged areas. If you are successful.daff. glass.

thelaststraw. Source: Adapted from www. Organic meat Organic animal suppliers have strict protocols that include treating their cattle humanely and allowing them to mature and www. It costs more to produce as the animals grow more slowly on natural grazing. Recycled Building Materials. and www. It relies on ecological processes. Adobe. It assumes the need to minimise the environmental impact of our housing and other building needs while providing we respond at a deep level to unprocessed Thatch. The certified farm has to produce 90% of the feed on the farm. and not against. straw bale. valuing of the biodiversity and avoiding synthetic chemical A six-day training offered in Natural Oudrif Building (cob.oudrif. • Using biological insecticides and make use of pests’ natural predators to control pest populations.shelterpub. Straw Bale This resistance depends on the nutrition of the organism. Natural Plasters and Finishes. Rammed Earth. Soil fertility is promoted by compost. A good soil structure will optimise water infiltration and retention and is also important in the control of erosion by wind and water. including a guesthouse in the Cederberg. Tel: 027 482 2397 www. biodiversity and cycles adapted to local conditions. to feeding of animals is strictly regulated and a free range lifestyle is implemented. phosphorus. The basis of organic farming is thus to feed the soil and not the plant directly. and to the personal thought and care expressed in craftsmanship. Even though conditioned to prefer the for a photo album and project description. rather than the use of inputs with adverse effects. Overview 1.greenhomebuilding. Shelter Online illustrates even more imaginative ways to put a roof over one’s Houses built with traditional earth technologies using indigenous knowledge make up the largest number of houses in the informal housing sector in South Africa. iron and other – “building today for tomorrow” • Rotating crops between fields. Examples of organic farming methods include: 2. essential in providing the plants with a balanced diet for healthy growth. What is Organic farming? Organic agriculture is a production system that sustains the health of soils. Overview Find the Construction subheading in the Permaculture chapter Natural building is any building system which places the highest value on social and environmental sustainability. This helps keep pests from building up and improves soil fertility. rearing and handling. wood. The principle is to treat the soil with respect knowing that the soil is the base for life on earth. Diseases and pests The approach to pests and diseases by the organic farmer is that these are seen as symptomatic of imbalances in the soil’s fertility and health. Light Straw-Clay (Leichtlehm). mud. fertile soil which nourishes the plants. to idiosyncrasy. Cob. using it to build his office in Constantia.142 resources and good agricultural practice resources and good agricultural practice Natural building Organic farming What are organics all about? Simply Sustainable Tel: 072 487 1733 www. McGregor Alternative Technology Centre www. The soil Organic farming refers to a system as a whole entity in ecological balance.berg-en-dal. Keeping chemicals off the land protects water quality and wild life.insynch. A good organic soil structure is able to hold large amounts of nitrogen. Natural materials like www. Since then a number of projects have been built in the country. The plant. Wood. For further information on straw bale construction look at: • Straw Bale Construction Basics – www. Cape Town. hence more land is needed and higher interest costs are incurred. cover crops. ecosystems and people. The organic farmer is interested in balancing soil processes and is not as focused on balancing numbers as a consequence to soil they are life-enhancing. like any living Wattle and Daub.oudrif. straw and earth are not only non-toxic.simplysustainable. Hybrid Structures. Organic farming produces nutrient rich. Compressed Earth Blocks. Earthships.strawbalecentral. Earthbags. Bamboo. The aim is to eradicate the use of harmful chemicals by making effective use of nature’s natural resources. www. Visit www. mulching. minimum tillage. Organic agriculture combines tradition. They are grazed naturally in a free-range environment minimising stress and producing high quality meat that is free from contaminants. green the shiny. develops a natural resistance to pests and disease attack. calcium. There are too many pests and diseases as well as remedies to mention. Hemp and other It’s about producing goods that work in harmony with. Paper Blocks.mat. Websites and publications Cape Town architect Etienne Bruwer has pioneered the use of straw bale construction in South (take the “Techniques & Bibliography” menu option): Living roof. crop • The International Journal of Straw Bale and Natural Building – www. . Organic matter is this ‘feed’.networkearth. comfortable and spiritually-uplifting homes. innovation and science to benefit the shared environment and promote fair relationships and a good quality of life for all involved. and the precise.strawbale.i4at. All organic products are also free of genetically modified organisms (organisms that have had their basic gene structure modified by the addition of external organism genes). Some role players Berg en Dal Ecovillage info@berg-en-dal. Earthen rock etc) InSynch Sustainable Technologies Tel: 076 668 8877 www. It’s also about practising good animal welfare where everything from breeding. There is a good feeling we get from natural buildings which is difficult to describe. • Planting selected herbs and flowers to attract beneficial insects which ward off unwanted The following materials are looked at on www.

• Ask for an estimate for inspection and certification for a year (make sure it covers all steps of the process). The health benefits The hazards for human health of consuming products contaminated by harmful pesticides include increased risks of cancer. Certification is a way to ensure that products are in line with local and international standards set. and the livestock must go back into conversion. the US and Japan. Quote is from the EU 2092/91 standards. really do meet organic standards.143 Certified Organic meat is a guarantee that meat has been produced free from any additives such as chemicals. Why should you certify? Regarding Antibiotics: The standards (EU 2092/91 and the draft DAFF regulations) allow for “two courses of treatments with chemically-synthesised allopathic veterinary medicinal products or antibiotics within one year or more than one course of treatment if their productive lifecycle is less than one year”. it means: • No harmful chemicals have been applied for at least 3 years. Inspections involve: The inspection is a verification of information obtained through the application documentation. Organically grown produce on the other hand is free of chemical residues. • Establish your market. The purpose of the sector’s National Policy On Organic Production discussion document is to map out the way to make this a reality. • Speak to consultants. Organic animals are produced in harmony with the land. but without chemicals (you must have plans for this). together with economic and financial benefits. • If it all looks good. Look for the certification seal or name of the certification agency label. This process normally takes place over a timeframe of about 3 years. During the process. • They have kept detailed records of their practices and have a recorded audit trail. antibiotics and hormones. water and the environment become cleaner. Based almost completely on information from www. Farmers and their workers enjoy healthier working conditions. contamination – Will your neighbours’ crop spray blow onto your fields? Is there good biodiversity? • Fields – Has it been three years since the last use of chemicals? Are plants and animals looking good? • Livestock – Is animal welfare respected? What veterinary treatments are common-place? • Brought in materials. pests . Certification – you cannot be “organic” by default You’re thinking of going organic There is a burgeoning international demand. • The farmer and processor have annual certification inspections. • To obtain access to high value markets. choose a certifier and pay to start the certification process. As only natural. has a much higher vitamin and mineral content and is usually more flavoursome (which is why many top restaurants prefer to use organic ingredients). A certified organic product means that the produce and the farming process has been inspected over a period by an independent. • Develop a plan for dealing with soil fertility. • Production system – Is it really organic? • Operator – Does s/he know enough to manage organically? Is she/he committed? • Environment. biodegradable products are used. approval of your farm and the methods you are using. • 2. specialist certification agency to verify organic authenticity to the consumer. • Understand conversion issues. seeds – Are they organic too? Are they GMOfree? How do you know? . disease and weed control management. If livestock receive more than this. with basic information. Certification There are two levels of organic classification: Organic Certification and Organic in Conversion.go-organic. • Study the requirements (lots on the internet). Elements of a certification system • Standards – that you must adhere to. they and their produce may not be sold as organic. When you see this claim. • Inspection – are done annually. • Management – of the same pests and diseases. and kept separate in the supply chain to the consumer. This includes fertility programs as well • Labelling – that the consumers can trust. • They use ecologically-friendly methods and substances to improve the soil and control pests. • Talk to other organic with input from other role players. in South Africa and abroad. reproductive problems and neurological damage. producers may communicate on products that they are “organic in conversion” (as may be seen for example on some major retailers products). Also find the note on Participatory Guarantee Systems (PGS) later in this chapter. These certification organisations really have only one reason for existence: to provide assurance to the consumer that products and organisations which claim to be organic. and there’s a lot to learn. led by Europe. • Products look the same as conventional products. • Consumers have a right to know that production has been organic (especially if paying more). • Contracts – your promise to uphold organic methods. Organic agriculture could provide employment opportunities for millions of small farmers and for women and youth groups. • Information exchange – this establishes the Audit trail securing organic status from seed to table because it isn’t easy at first. So what should you do? • Ask certifiers for information as well as standards. But consumers and retailers want strong assurances of food safety and genuine organic methods. Any certification program should be able to give you their standards upon request and will usually comply with the International Federation of Organic Movement (IFOAM) standards. • To protect farmers who are following the rules from the bad reputations of those who are not. • Send in an application form. Several certification agencies exist across the country (refer to heading 9). This can only be good for future generations. environment and native wildlife. and the other websites listed under this an increase of 31 percent since 2008. In the term “biodynamic” the bio refers to the biological (organic) aspects of agriculture (i.auerbach@nmmu. Liesl Haasbroek at info@bdaasa. water. the physical Listing hosts in countries that do not have a national WOOFF association. • www.fibl. the planet earth and the whole surrounding cosmic space with all its heavenly bodies. forms one indivisible whole and should be managed as such. Uganda (187 893). In terms of certified land under organic management as a proportion of national agricultural area.e. fertility and vitality. compost etc). followed by Europe ( – The “Ultimate Online Organic Resource”. Find their details under heading • The “Online environmental community”– www. Australia continues to account for the largest certified organic surface – Quality Low Input Food (QLIF) is an integrated project funded by the European Commission. • www. animals etc. labels – Did you sell only what you produced? Possible outcomes • full organic status • full status with conditions • organic in conversion • organic in conversion with conditions • certification denied Internal Control System guidelines are available from certification bodies like SGS South Africa.ifoam.). WOOFF Independents – www. and about 13% of Austria’s farms are or visit The Soil Association’s symbol appears on around 70% of organic food produced in the UK. Ecocert. both as a commercial production and as an environmentally friendly production method. mainly due to a large increase in India.8 million hectares) – Biodynamic Farming and Gardening Association (USA) . At the level of the geographical regions. followed by Africa (28 percent). growth was strongest in Latin America and Africa. Visit www.2 million hectares are certified according to organic standards internationally (data as at the end of 2007). This association is dedicated to helping those who would like to volunteer on organic farms internationally. Biodynamics Biodynamics is an approach to sustainable organic agriculture inspired by the philosophy of Anthroposophy as developed by Rudolf Steiner in the late 19th – early 20th centuries in – site maintained by the Swiss Research Institute of Organic Agriculture (FIBL) • www. top the statistics.4 percent) and Switzerland (11 percent). Organic agriculture has grown tremendously over the last decades.wwoof. Vegan Organic farming Most farmers are dependent on chemicals and animal by-products – and even those specialising in organic farming use animal manures and slaughterhouse by-products (bone meal.fao.faithful-to-nature. whereas the dynamic refers to the cosmic formative forces that underlie the physical world. non-bureaucratic way to start building a quality management system. the farmer works with the natural and cosmic 3. plants. Afrisco.e. fibre and timber with no or very limited negative impact on the – the FAO Organic Agriculture Programme • www. Biodynamic agriculture respects the fact the whole of the universe. substitution and – The Research Institute of Organic Agriculture (Forschungsinstitut für biologischen Landbau – FiBL) is “the world’s leading information and documentation centre for organic agriculture”. Find the very useful notes at www. • It is a simple.wwoofindependents. and Mexico (128 862). For further information email the National Co-ordinator.fibl. 5. Biodynamic farmers use of range of specially formulated herbal and/or organic preparations to enhance soil. A number of developing countries are showing significant rates of adoption. Their aim is to produce the highest quality food. Source: The National Policy On Organic Production discussion document (2012) Role players International Federation of Organic Agricultural Movement (IFOAM) – Other certification is offered by the Control Union and BCS (Öko-Garantie GmbH). • www. International business environment For current statistics on organic followed by Argentina (2. such as Austria (13. Sweden reached 19% in the year 2005. • www.rodaleinstitute. How to go about farming without animals or animal by-products? Visit www. • Contact Rainman Landcare Foundation for assistance in setting up your own International umbrella body for organic farming See the separate chapters on biological farming and permaculture International WWOOF Association (World Wide Opportunities on Organic Farms) – www.8 million hectares).com – specialists in the worldwide import and sales of organic fruit. Forty percent of the world’s organic producers are in Asia. the Biodynamic and Organic Certification Authority (BDOCA). About 32.ofrf. In an effort to create a harmonious whole.9 percent) – Organic Farming Research Foundation (USA) • www.6 percent). – Organic Agriculture Centre of Canada • www. visit www.1 percent) and Latin America (19.biodynamics. • Documentation – Is record keeping good enough to show that only organic methods have been used? Is traceability secure? • Participatory Guarantee Systems (PGS) An alternative start-up strategy for emerging farmers is PGS.bdaasa. and Latin America (16 percent). There were 1. More than 10% of Switzerland’s farmland is organic. 12 million hectares. • PGS only works for small local markets. The aims of WWOOF are to: • enable people to learn first-hand about organic growing techniques • to enable town-dwellers to experience living and helping on a farm • to help farmers make organic production a viable alternative • to improve communications within the organic movement. They develop their farms into unique and distinct individualities that use a minimum of external inputs.soilassociation. and Brazil (1. vegetables and processed food • Rodale Institute is dedicated to pioneering organic farming through research and outreach. The countries with the most producers are India (677 257). Websites • Contact 084 567 1250 or write to the Alpine countries. plant and animal life.144 • Pest and weed control – How is it achieved? • Fertility management – Are there real efforts to build up soil nutrition? • Storage and processing – Could organic products get mixed up with conventional ones by mistake? This should secure the possibility of comingling. UK Soil Association – www. rhythms and forces that regulate life on earth.8 million producers in 2009. The greatest share of the global organic surface area is in Oceania (37.

Organic bio-dynamic farming and gardening is most readily adaptable to poor or emerging farmers who cannot easily access costly external inputs and high-tech training. The largest fruit crops in terms of hectares were with divergent opinions as to which way is best for the sector. This country was one of the founders of International Federation of Organic Movements. herbs and spices. anyone can obtain the basic skills which. with the basics in place it is possible to kick-start self-sustaining community farming and gardening in uncontested land such as backyard plots. Frick. within the country the organic sector is not unified. brassicas and potatoes. International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM). 119 of 1990) and development. Certification is driven by international standards and accreditation systems. food security and economic 1990 (Act No. Within South Africa. IFOAM & FiBL (2006): The World of Organic Agriculture. 7. In just four days. The Directorate Plant Production is responsible for developing organic production policy and the purpose of the policy is to create a broad framework for the development of a prosperous organic sector that is globally competitive and capable of supporting government’s commitments towards poverty Organic products produced in South Africa are sold at both local and export markets.polyfacefarms. draft regulations downloadable from www. To enable international market access for RSA organic exports. in servitude and commonage land. the Master Farmers Association (MFA) in the Eastern Cape and the Western Cape Ubuntu Farmers Association (WEKUFU).gardenorganic. Organic wine and olive oil is also produced and organic dairy farming has just started in some provinces. Basic-level training can therefore provide a foundation for localised food security among the poor. local market for organic produce with limited premiums for organic products. Inspection and certification of South African organic farms is carried out by both international and domestic certification bodies. plant Although more advanced levels of organic farming require much more training. as home school yards. it is more environmentally sustainable and it creates local economic stability. Bonn & Research Institute of Organic Agriculture FiBL. 119 of 1990).gov. will result in a permanent ability to grow productive survival or subsistence gardens at low cost. There is a robust but underdeveloped. then “Food Safety and Quality Assurance”). through specialized restaurants and through special organic markets. job Food Safety and Quality Assurance Tel: 012 319 6027 / 7306 The Directorate Food Safety and Quality Assurance is inter alia responsible for setting quality standards (regulations) for certain agricultural products in terms of the Agricultural Product Standards Act. Local business environment Organic producers and processors network at www. Forestry and Fisheries www. com • www. and have draft regulations for organically produced products. published by Trialogue Find the contact details of the following under the role players heading: • ABALIMI Bezekhaya • African Organic Farming Foundation • Food & Trees for Africa’s (FTFAs) • NOPI (National Organic Produce Initiative) • Rainman Landcare Foundation 8. Source: The National Policy On Organic Production discussion document as it was at the end of Agricultural Product Standards Act. nuts and Rooibos tea. avocado pears and mangoes. There have been splinter organisations representing particular farmers. if applied (with some guidance) over two seasons. Directorate: Plant Production Tel: 012 319 6227 kgomoamogodip@daff. It has the added advantage of being spontaneously community building and because it uses human-scale technology. Source: adapted from an article by Rob Small from ABALIMI in the CSI Handbook 8th edition. it is also labour intensive and has the potential – beyond meeting subsistence needs – to create jobs. after costs. 2006)1 .uk – the UK’s “Leading organic growing charity” • www. The Government’s IPAPs (Industrial Policy Action Plan) includes the organic food sector as an area in which jobs can be created. Leading examples are the Vukuzenzela Urban Farmers Association (VUFA) in Cape Town.ncat. It is now a proven fact that a reasonable living. the products are usually sold in supermarkets.agroecology. over the long term productivity equals out: organic production is more consistent over time. Small-scale farmer news The main criticism levelled at organic agriculture is that it cannot feed the world. is possible off 500 square metres or less. vegetables. Exports are principally sent to European markets. textiles and other industries using organic agricultural commodities in their production. directly from the farmer. Local retailers sell reasonable amounts of organic produce to the South African (go to “Divisions”. fruits. from all over the But this might be a failure of the economic system in which we operate rather than the inherent capacity of the approach. essential oils. table grapes and Rooibos tea.05 % of the country’s total agricultural area. Find the latest IPAP document under “Publications” at www.thedti.zannorganics. 1990 (Act No. While it is true that organic agriculture cannot produce massive surpluses by forcing supergrowth. any local legislation governing organic agriculture in South Africa should be regularly updated to be aligned with and compliant to prevailing standards in international markets. Here in South Africa there is now a grassroots organic-friendly farming movement among the poor. National strategy and government contact South Africa does not as yet have an official certification system in place. South African organic farmers produce a large variety of produce. asparagus. These include various cereals. involving many thousands who are mobilising to defeat food insecurity. 27– for notes on agroecology • www. tomatoes. Visit www.go-organic. Department of Agriculture. wine.html 6. According to current estimations there are about 45 000 ha of certified land which account for The South African organic sector has a long history. Statistics and Emerging Trends 2006. selling organic vegetables at street prices. while the largest vegetable crops were cucurbits. 1. Some schools are also beginning to serve organic – the farmer who has gone “beyond organic” (for those of you who saw the movie Food Inc) • National Sustainable Agricultural Information Service (USA) – https:// attra. Can community-based organic agriculture play a meaningful role in achieving food security? One of its biggest advantages is that organic agricultural methods can easily be transferred to people with few or no previous skills. South Africa does not have an official inspection and certification programme for organic food products. . processed fruits. sugar. pp.daff. roots and tubers.145 • Since 1977 Bio-Center Zann have been importing and exporting organic fruit and vegetables. with 250 farms in South Africa (IFOAM & FiBL. rural smallholdings. United States and Far East include vegetables.daff.

za Agro Organics Tel: 021 851 2403 “Compost and organic fertiliser”.fertilis. The reader is referred to the directory on www.naturalandorganic.bdoca.metson. province and product can be Tel: 032 944 7445 9. South African Organic Sector Organisation Liz Eglington Tel: 028 581 2014 / 083 653 3635 lizeglington@netconnectco.southafrica@ecocert.go-organic. (Eastern Cape) SGS South Africa (Pty) Ltd Tel: 021 506 3280 chelated liquid and soluble powder Biogrow Tel: 028 313 2054 The main objective of SAOSO is to establish and develop organics as an emerging sector within the broader context of South African agriculture. castings (humus) seaweed fertilisers. “Biocontrol” spray. sanitisers and rinse website. “Permaculture” Metson Tel: 011 792 8968 www.talborne. performance products. Natural & Organic Products Exhibition Tel: 011 835 1565 9001:2000 and stimulants MBF International Tel: 082 738 0080 / 072 796 3793 Talborne Organics Tel: 011 954 5763 orders@mbfi.biogrow.hishtilsa. plant hormones. from around the globe have proven Kelpak’s ability to significantly Stimuplant increase the health. plant specific compliant water soluble and liquid chelated foliar Tel: 021 786 2090 Ongoing research and trial data horticulture and Grahamstown and Mtunzini.A. seed liquid Eco-fert www.intshona. develop. where a search according to Natrocine Tel: 082 453 6057 www.bioboost. small-holders and people interested in working with biodynamic agriculture. Mycorrhizal quality and Tel: 012 802 0940 yield in a wide variety of crops. “Earthworms and Vermicompost”.za production complying with ISO www. amino Rhizobium bacterial inoculants.stimuplant. A quarterly newsletter is sent to all members and an Astral Planting Calendar is published annually. consumer health. community well being and food safety. “FERTILIS” (registration no B3664 Act36/1947) is certified Insect Science (Pty) Ltd by the Organic Food Federation Tel: 015 307 1391 UK: organic certification no: Bio-dynamic and Organic Certification Authority (BDOCA) Tel: 071 259 2799 Natural medicine solutions for livestock Hishtil SA Tel: 015 395 4034 / 43 Certification and other services Afrisco Certified Organic Tel: 012 361 5127 / 082 6070 495 Fax: 086 511 4114 MBB Services International Tel: 021 887 1026 Fax: 021 883 8514 info@mbbsouth. An annual conference is held with a contextual theme. an organic microbial fertiliser that boosts yield Efficient Microbes and production by enhancing soil Tel: 031 266 2935 health and plant root functioning BDAASA is an association of farmers.bdaasa. Organics has to be at the forefront as agriculture moves to address the global concerns about environmental sustainability of food production 00371/01/00. crop Organic for Africa Tel: 033 413 2960 www. Role players See also other relevant chapters in this directory contact Thierry Alban Revert Tel: 073 303 1554 or email tar@planetac. Intshona Group of Companies Plant Health Products (Pty) Ltd Tel: 021 852 1660 (PHP) Bio-insectaries SA (BISA) Tel: 042 286 0978 / 083 270 4866 control products for as www. Kelpak Ecocert Southern Africa Tel: 021 461 1558 growth Denvet Tel: 033 343 1093 office@denvet. Urban Harvest Edible Gardens unique seed treatment packs and Tel: 072 475 2977 (Cape Town) Tel: 079 934 0689 / 084 329 8410 adjuvant Lindros Whole Earth Consultants Tel: 082 719 7263 Input providers Agro-Hytec Tel: 021 863 2884 / 083 265 2616 Organic growing mediums Hishtil complies with the strictest international standards of healthy Planner Bee Plant Care and clean propagation material benefiting farmers around the Biological solutions and growth world for over 30 years.agrohytec. fungal and bacterial plant promoting Vita and Eco Certified organic fertilis earthworm inoculants. Fertiliser for First World export Mycoroot (Pty) Ltd Diatoms Organic Animal Health Tel: 053 723 1902 www. Find contact details for Tel: 083 636 0706 agents across the country on the Tel/fax: 033 266 6130 Branches in Giba Organics Tel: 031 769 1063 Metson is an agricultural manufacturing business with its main focus on a complete range of ORGANIC and GLOBAL Bioboost Solutions Tel: 044 873 0403 www.diatoms. For information about South African Council for Organic Development and Sustainability (SACODAS).za Gromor / National Plant Food Tel: 031 782 3105 www. Associations Biodynamic Agricultural Association of Southern Africa (BDAASA) Tel: 021 881 3628 / 082 858 6523 Fax: 086 694 8892 produce and market innovative bioLiquid seaweed bioregulator.

Metson . Wensleydale farm Milk and meat products from the Tel: 082 779 7843 Eastern Cape Appropriate Technology Unit Tel: 047 532 4601 “Agro-ecology in action” The ARC-Plant Protection Research Institute has the expertise to advise on all aspects of pesticides (synthetic and botanical) Teubes Tel: 011 792 4451/2 Faithful to Nature www.elginorganics.jacklinorganic. Rainman is setting up a Participatory Guarantee Support Network with PELUM South Training and research ABALIMI Tel/fax: 021 371 1653 www. Rainman Landcare Foundation is an AgriSETA accredited provider.faithful-to-nature. co. Zambia and Rondebosch Organic Market – 021 696 5749 / 072 222 6410 Constantia Waldorf Organic and Biodynamic Market – 082 569 9894 Stellenbosch Fresh Goods Market – www. organic citrus oils food and or Stellenbosch University Department of Conservation Ecology and Entomology Tel: 021 808 3728 South African organic pome fruit Organic World (apples.trees. as well on the biological control of insect pests in general. South or call 044 801 Gauteng Bryanston Organic Market – 011 706 3671 www. enabling farmers to access the growing organic market. Dovehouse Organic Farm Tel: 033 330 3554 / 079 368 0832 Contact Lindros at 082 719 7263.boncaporganic. Visit www. this is a Mzondo Organic small farming co-operative Tel: 082 835 4224 www.mzondo. Consulting is done to farmers Initiative (NOPI) wanting to go organic or to convert Tel: 073 303 1554 to organic/sustainable Tel: 051 933 5754 Blue Sky Organics Tel: 083 653 3635 An organic bulk supplier of Parkview Organic Market – 076 022 7937 KwaZulu-Natal Karkloof Market – 082 820 8986 / 076 937 5601 Pietermaritzburg Farmers Market – 033 345 4656 or write to paulton@sai. Visit phone 084 444 6310 or 082 651 Produce and producers Afrikara www. Rural Development and Extension Tel: 051 401 3765 The Organic Farms Group works with the aim of developing small farmers through Organic carrier oils and organic Products include cosmetics. compost Some organic markets Western Cape (find the links at http://capemarkets.irenemarket.agriseta. Rainman has developed a Quality Management course for Small Producer peaches) Tel: 011 795 2468 www. The Rainman Landcare Foundation is a registered trust which teaches farmers how to farm organically. and national organic agriculture movements in Namibia.afrikara.wensleydale. co. domestically and internationally. on biopesticides. Visit www. and how to set up farmer’s associations which can be certified nuts Certified organic olive or call 021 448 8109. run learnerships in organic farming at NQF 2 and also teach organic facilitators (NQF 5). co. ARC-Plant Protection Research Institute (ARC-PPRI) Tel: 012 808 8000 www. Find its videos on Find a comprehensive list of organic markets by taking the “Organic” option at www. Organic farming is included as a priority in AgriSETA planning (see AgriSETA Strategic Plan for Period 2012-2016).za Mzansi Organic Teas Tel: 079 871 5069 www. mentoring and and Bon Cap Organic Wine Cellar ( Irene Village Market – 012 667 1659 The biggest organic producer of vegetables in South Africa Wild Organic Food sources Fresh and processed fruit & organic produce in the Western eastern Free State Jacklin Organic Tel: 017 844 1589 Sustainability Institute Tel: 021 881 3196 or call 012 301 5600 Biomimicry SA http://biomimicrysa. The Organic Farm Tel: 021 572 0329 / 082 925 2298 Green Goose Organic Farm www.africanorganics. Visit Organic Emporium is an online store of organic products for Elgin Organics consumers in the Northern Tel: 021 849 8663 Johannesburg African Organic Farming Foundation www. certified organic Cape”.za Ethical Co-op www. Organic wine farms include Stellar Winery ( .ufs. such as mycoinsectides and Food & Trees for Africa Tel: 011 656 9802/3 www. bottled olive products and olive National Organic Produce Tel: 021 785 3268 www. Reyneke Wines ( University of the Free State Centre for Sustainable Network of Eco Farms in Africa South Africa (NECOFASA) Visit www. Series of publications on various topics • Soil Fertility – Renewal and Preservation. Contact BDAASA (details under heading 9). agriculturalists and builders use in their daily activities. Ethics and principles ETHICS Permaculture is rooted in a set of ethics. in a huge range of climates and contexts. George Macleod. built environment and energy systems. Some publications • Organic Food Processing & Production (U. They are in any context. Anthroposophic Press. with no negative impact on the natural or social environment. Rodale Press.3 Our thanks to Dr Raymond Auerbach. University of KwaZulu-Natal Tel: 033 260 5525 http://plantpath. ISBN 0 – 571 – 13205 – 7 • The treatment of Cattle by Homoeopathy. • Find the South African vegan directory at www. news and reviews and other options here. research into local ecologies. and damaged resources. People Care – all activities are aimed at empowering ourselves and other human beings. . • Find the “Interesting reading” option at Kgomo Petje.urbansprout. and turning problems into solutions. ISBN 0 – 85207 – 247 – 3 • Farming and gardening for health or Disease. and Global Health in Crisis. PRINCIPLES Permaculture has basic design principles that one works from. aim to enhance the resources you discover by working with the forces you One could call these sustainability guidelines. Friend Sykes. which guide decisions that Faber and Faber • Fertility without Fertilisers. The UN has recognised Permaculture as a useful intervention in areas that have experienced natural disasters. Sir Albert Howard.vegansa. to describe their design framework for sustainable development. bearing Earth Care in mind 3. Sign up for the Biodynamic Newsletter. Permaculture systems do not use economic performance as the only measure of success.ukzn. H. or post-war situations. Permaculture is a system based on natural ecosystem processes: through consciously combining plant. The intention is to design productive systems that ultimately generate more energy than they consume. Articles include: • Ten good reasons for organic agriculture • Organic regulation and certification • Organic management • Organic agriculture in its economic context • Healthy soils • Organic pest and disease control Find the different publications at Overview Permaculture is a systems design response to the downward spiral into unsustainability that the world has been involved in for the last 150 years (at least). Juliette de Baïracli Levy. Faber and Farber • Humus and the Farmer. Henry Doubleday Research Association • The Complete Herbal Handbook for farm and stable. many techniques like Organics. control of crop pests and diseases. ISBN 1 – 86941 – 318 –0 • Agriculture. Surplus Share – all extra resources are utilised to improve earth and People care. Niel Erasmus and Roger Oxlee for feedback on the draft chapter resources and good agricultural practice Permaculture 1. • Find the ubergreen organic eco directory at www. weather. animal.afrikara.lindros. Related publications include Pesticide heath risks for South African emerging farmers. Biodynamics and other agricultural practices are incorporated within its framework. practical and achievable. Rudolph Steiner. investigation and talking to locals! Secondly. Herbert H Koepf. • The Agrodok Series: Small-scale Sustainable Agriculture in the Tropics (Netherlands). and that we must work within this reality. ISBN 0 – 87857 – 054 . There are tens of thousands of Permaculturalists the world over who have implemented this design strategy. The ethics and principles will explain this further. Underpinning all of the ethics is the fundamental realisation that we are dependant on a planet that has John Faber and Faber • Fertility Farming. ISBN 0 906155 12 6 • Organic Manure. 2. EB Balfour.agrifoodgateway. This is done through mapping. Contact Lindros for their publications like Organic Agriculture Handbook (written for South African conditions). The name Permaculture is derived from “permanent”.) ISBN No: 0-632-05541-3. Because it is a multidisciplinary approach. Nikolaus Remer. ISBN 0 – 929979 – 62 – 1 • Bio-Dynamic Gardening. The Lanthorn Press. the Answer lies in the Soil. “agriculture” and “culture” These include the African Organic Agriculture Training Manual: Conversion to Organic Farming Find the document Market Research on the organic and natural products and fynbos industry – with an emphasis on how to facilitate entry on www. These ethics evolved out of the need to create behavioral and implementation patterns that would be beneficial to both the human and natural environment. settlements and agriculturally productive 10. Work with rather than against Nature Working with nature means: observe and understand your context. Speak to him at 021 851 2403 or write to heklink@mweb. Pfeiffer. Set Limits To Consumption. • www. Peter Proctor. Australian professor Bill Mollisson and his student Dave Holmgren coined this phrase in 1978. Newman or visit www.go-organic. ISBN 0 – 9503780 – 7 – 0 • The Bio-Dynamic org. Websites and publications • Visit the websites of role players • Find the International websites under heading E. as well as the larger factors which affect you.149 Zeiselhof Research Farm of Ecological and Organic Agriculture in Pretoria is a showcase of organic vegetable The Department of Plant Pathology production. Bio-Dynamic Agricultural Association. Random House. Find the directory. Contact Hans E Klink for some excellent writing on organic farming. 4.K. 1. ISBN 0 – 88010 – 172 – 5 • Grasp the Nettle. Sophia Books ISBN 9781855841130 • The Living Soil. Lawrence D Hills. Faber and Faber. Mercury Press. Faber and Faber • Farmers of Forty Centuries. Write to info@lindros. Contact them at 012 conducts research on the biological 811 0276. website of the Surplus People Project. it endeavours to create sustainable human habitats. Earth Care – all activities maintain the integrity of the natural resource base. The CW Daniel Company LTD.

The design is thus divided into Zones radiating outwards from the centre of activity. strong or damaging winds. Nature exists and grows through patterns. windbreaks are pest predator refuges. staple food systems. and enters a home garden as greywater to produce food. vegetables. encourage birds and use silky chickens for insect control. Diversity means that a family/farm can satisfy many of its nutritional needs with the available fruits. winter and summer sun angles. insect and weed control. Slope planning means also that we use contours to garden on. Diversity not only ensures a wide range of plant species to use. Places and systems visited less frequently are placed further away from the main centre of activity (orchards. but is re-used in the house. nursery and small animal systems • Zone 2 – An orchard or mixed food forest (perennial species). etc. swales and water systems. to minimise erosion and maximise water retention. more so than in nature and it is through diversity that we have stability. If you have rain. Use the same patterning principles in your design when shaping beds. ensure that it is not only caught on the roof for domestic consumption. soil fertility. cattle. The use of natural patterns in a garden will enhance the growth and vitality of the system and appear more interesting. water catchment and irrigation. proteins. plant diverse systems to enhance nutrient reticulation in the soil and to keep disease and pests in balance. • Zone 3 – This can incorporate large-scale semi-managed systems such as woodlots. it also means we get away from dependence on one crop for our livelihood (monoculture) into a system whereby a diverse range of plants and animals provide balance and fertility. Every element must be multifunctional Every element selected should provide at least 3 functions: for example. Zone planning Elements are placed in zones according to how many times you need to use and visit them. For example we place dams and water catchment above the house and garden so we may use gravity to create water flow instead of a mechanical pump. because they may compete with each other. Areas that need visiting every day for harvesting and maintenance (such as annual vegetable gardens. insects. animal systems. and no pollution is created. windbreaks. use deep rooting plants to loosen the soil instead of ploughing etc. building structures etc. Permaculture is about creating diversity. fire and erosion control. bearing in mind slope angles and elevation. Slope planning Slope planning involves looking at your site in profile. • Zone 0 – House or business • Zone 1 – Intensive vegetable gardens. woodlots. For example you can use chickens and small animals to work the soil and compost it. plant legumes to enrich the soil. choice and sustainability. Use natural patterns that allow the parts of the design (animals. chickens. This is known as Zone. and minerals. Create energy cycles Any of the natural forces that enter a site must be put to work. Sector planning Plan your site to make maximum use of energy moving through the site or to deflect those energies. Sector planning deals with “wild energies” that move onto the property from the outside. This leads us to place dams. Overland flow needs to be captured in swales (contour ditches) so that it can slowly percolate into the soil. . Sector and Slope Planning. This means that our designs take into account fire danger. spirals. and fuel. a barn. Obviously these patterns become more simplified when used on a larger scale. A good example is using water from aquaculture ponds to irrigate food production areas. original and beautiful. indigenous fruits and firewood. The same attitude is applied to any resources used on site to ensure that nothing is wasted. By placing the elements where they are most needed. large animal fodder systems and aquaculture. screening of unwanted views. and the failure of one crop. habitat enhancement. flood-prone areas etc. drains and flow diversions in the right place. Economically this means there is a wider variety of crops and products available at different times of the year. water. This is not as esoteric as it sounds. • Zone 4 – Semi managed wild system of mainly indigenous species harvested for medicines. a source of wild food and contain an herbaceous layer which also provides pest management. gardens. shelter. water storage tanks.150 Relative location Every function should be served by many elements Place elements in your system where they are most effective (elements are any component in your design: a house. the nursery. worms. Plants and animals are used wherever possible to provide nutrients. Use natural resources to do the work in the Permaculture. extensive crops etc). birds. mulch and food provision. Patterns When talking about patterns we refer to utilising forms like contour lines. Create diversity Diversity brings choice and stability. But stability only occurs among co-operative species. • Zone 5 – Unmanaged wild systems of indigenous species that act as a refuge for wildlife and is a place we go to observe nature. watercourses. etc … should must be served by more than one element. sun. etc) must be placed near the house to facilitate easy access so that these systems are well observed and maintained. branching patterns etc that occur in nature. Pest control. you reduce the amount of work and energy you have to expend. Observe this principle and the basic needs of your cultivated ecology will be met consistently from within the system. This principle also leads to creating relationships between design elements to enhance productivity and efficiency. It is the number of functional connections between these plants and animals that creates stability and fertility. etc. and eventually make its way to streams or rivers. recycling area. This means if one element fails in its task to provide a service (pest control chickens get eaten by a dog). Contours are an obvious form of patterning that can be effectively used on any scale of agriculture. and staple food systems (grains and tubers). as well as the amount of inputs they require. but the principle still applies. but highly practical when correctly used. ducks and wild birds control pests). nutrient recycling. so we might most effectively use slope on our land to our advantage. Do not simply place as many varieties of plant and animal in your system. roads and tracks. This leads to placement of homes. which protects the family/farm from market downturns. Efficicent energy planning Use biological resources rather than non-renewables Every element in a Permaculture system should be placed where it functions most efficiently. soil building. etc) because these places require less attention and are harvested less frequently. rather than just rushing overland to the river. Sectors also modify zonal placement. soils.) to flow and work in beneficial relationships. than there must be back up by at least three other elements to ensure sustainability (plants. firebreaks.

Ultimately the system developes into a climax (stable) ecology suited to local conditions. Digestors can be built on farms to generate cooking gas or . trellises. ultimately creating a more productive system. wherever possible – cutting down on petrol consumed. All of these technologies also take the pressure off fresh water supply for wasteful uses. with fenced trees for browsing. and a good niche market exists for this product in South Africa. which will allow a greater amount of species to be placed into a smaller area effectively. We utilise this successional phenomenon in Permaculture systems to create permanent agriculture systems. Through careful planning based on local factors such as ecological Also create as much surface interface for plants and animals to use (wavy shaped beds as opposed to straight ones). Our local honey supply is low. 3. • Materials are as unprocessed as possible – alleviating the toxic burden on rivers. Windbreaks and pest management zones are implemented using species indigenous to or tolerant of local conditions. with crops following them as they move on. whether urban or rural is critical. In other words. greywater purification and re-use. This includes extensive water storage for domestic consumption from roofs. wind and water movement. Construction There has been a marked resurgence in peoples’ interest in sustainable construction methodologies. The planting of trees as an integral part of agriculture also assists with carbon sequestration. but incorporate large leguminous trees for grazing and nitrogen-fixing. Generally. which are short-lived. which can add greatly to job creation in South Africa. This approach is implemented using 3 dimensional designs. fenced areas. Methane gas digestors are also of interest to farmers who are working with livestock. Left alone. Make use of succession Succession is a concept derived from ecology. and are not seen as a separate enterprise from crop cultivation. You may ask what relevance this has to agriculture. These criteria are: • Building materials are acquired from a radius of no more than 50km. • Passive solar design of houses reduces heating and cooling bills. Intensity A primary consideration in Permaculture is that we need to minimise our in others a fynbos ecology. Most dwellings consume materials that are non-renewable. Poor housing design adds to energy consumption bills. Often these animals are rotated around designated. we use vertical space – walls. Animals are integrated into food production systems. which is vital to our continued survival. However. Stacking productive plants into their appropriate niches and using plant guilds are tools that aid intensified design. The project in the Jordan Valley is a good showcase of the application of Permaculture in difficult and previously considered unproductive or marginal areas (see www. Edge increases the surface interface in your gardens between different systems (pond/wetlands with veggie gardens) and there will be a high-energy movement between them and thus more opportunities in space and time. Bees are also a vital component – pollinating all crops. with green technology and water-saving strategies built in. already move the farmer towards more diverse production. nitrogenfixing for pasture and shade. landforms. With the increase in plant diversity. Also. Scope and applications Agriculture As a sustainable agriculture framework. • The siting of dwellings in a landscape. Chickens and pigs especially have been very successfully used to weed. when a site is disturbed. and still have yields to send to the marketplace. droughts. and the sinking of water into the subsoil through earthworks. Simple technologies like solar heating and electricity can take pressure off our South African energy generation requirements – which is largely produced through the mining and burning of coal. Good design also impacts on peoples’ mental health. as well as health. Create more edge in your gardens and the energy in the ecology will flow with ease and vitality. but provide a microclimate for other less hardy species to develop in. Permaculture has had some profound effects. as well as improved microclimates. soils. Permaculture provides the designs and tools to create small to large-scale farms that are resilient in the face of disasters like floods. the links to conservation are much strengthened and agricultural enterprises become more stable. where drought mitigation is of utmost importance.permaculture. and does not necessarily require highly skilled builders. This also applies to broadscale Permaculture: large animal systems are not necessarily just grazing. Sustainable construction minimises the impact that housing provision has on the local and far-flung environment. thereby accelerating the development of a microclimate that will support productive crops. With the emphasis on reintegrating indigenous tree and shrub species into the agricultural framework. This particular activity has extremely negative effects on people living near these mines and stations as well as contributing to greenhouse gas emissions. Good design and good species selection as well as macro scale water flow management. these communities will increase in species diversity and longevity. and who generate excess biomass that cannot otherwise be utilised. • Construction of homes is labour intensive. coupled with this is the need to diversify agricultural crops so that one can weather a certain amount of crop failure. dig and fertilise crop production areas. • Houses are designed for maximum energy efficiency. atmosphere. Energy and technology Green technology is another important component in Permaculture designs. humans and wildlife. most agricultural enterprises have ample natural materials to use in construction. This then leads us to design intensive and productive systems that utilise the least space possible. biogas digestors. are critical to maintaining good soil hydration and replenishing dwindling borehole waters. In addition we cannot emphasise enough the role that substantial tree planting can play in “creating” rainfall. farmers can to some extent buffer their farms in times of crisis. and generating honey. if not toxic in nature. and poor settlement layout has both disastrous social. Cattle and sheep are managed in a low density Agro-forestry context. espaliers etc to maximise production.151 Increase the use of edge Edge is where two or more environments meet (for example land and water) and where the resources and energy of two or more systems available for us to use. environmental and consequently economic impacts. Another important factor in agricultural design is diversity: the reintroduction of multipurpose indigenous. Our individual and collective impacts on the planet are having a profoundly negative effect. it is colonised by hardy weeds. animal and insect communities also increase. Large crop production areas can also look at 3 dimensional design though the use of alley cropping etc. and other useful plants or trees. Ranging from low cost to luxury housing – it has a profound impact on local resources and finances. It describes the evolution of plant and animal communities over time. fires etc. we will interfere by enhancing the system through using hardy pioneer shrubs and trees (especially legumes). and enhancing the local aesthetics of buildings. Water and sewage management can also be made more effective by using appropriate technologies like composting toilets. In areas where soil or water is saline. In some areas this may be a forest ecology. It is a useful tool especially in arid zones (most of South Africa).

The most important factor influencing the sustainability of such projects is Busy Bee Apiaries CC provides the commitment. Permaculture can offer a lifeline to many people. Green city This process has enabled them to work with regional and local FTFA introduced Permaculture to government as well as with the South Africa in 1991. allowing design. A wide range of permaculture examples are demonstrated on the depending on the scale. The PDC does not have a unit standard – but participants on these courses do not often require and has since Department of Agriculture. one can apply to tertiary institutions for recognition of competency. Hindmarch. Permaculture offers good tools for redefining and redesigning our use of space and resources in cities. All workshops provide a certificate.html on district-wide planning models that bring Permaculture to the Food & Trees For Africa (FTFA) fore in broadscale community Tel: 011 656 9802 / 3 / 4 development – the Marginalised info@trees. 5. training and implementation. and also put pressure on rural areas to fulfill many of the urban needs. the goal-setting and decision-making process evolved by Alan Savory in Holistic Resource Management has also proved to be a useful tool.152 electricity. A few people in South Africa have diplomas from Australia and the integrated crop and animal rotations and water harvesting techniques. Many courses have also had to be translated into mother tongue. See also the Beekeeping gardening resources.Research in sponsors. Given the critical poverty in South workshops are SETA accredited. it has also looked into social structures and alternative economic systems. Starter Pack (PSP) to minimise and marketing. Jakkalskloof Permaculture Interns will do the two-week John Raimondo – 082 441 7827 accredited workshop as part of raimondo@telkomsa. and the need to “green” our cities. flyers A consultant in Permaculture and posters. cohousing schemes and allotment gardens are some of the social restructuring you would find in urban Permaculture contexts. She has “a broad palette of A garden design and an activity schedule/garden development plan practical experience”. Urban centres their internship. Urban and peri-urban permaculture There is both the need for urban agricultural spaces. With the growing pressure on urban centres to provide work and housing. Role players Durban Botanic Gardens Permaculture Training Centre Tel: 031 322 4021 www. workshops are run. social through its Food Gardens for Africa and EduPlant programmes. Consultation and are worthy of further investment the auditing of beekeeping services over a period of time. Another critical feature of urban ecological agriculture is the reintroduction of biodiversity into these spaces – making every city garden a conservation zone. Public facilitated the implementation of Works and professional business thousands of food gardens for poor planners to create a model for communities across South Africa integrated environmental. passion and drive intensive skills training courses both of the applicant project. Crawford. in the theory and in the practical aspects of beekeeping. FTFA introduces Permaculture as a lifestyle and shows how these practices can lead to a better quality of life. Dormitory accommodation is available.steed@vodamail. The principles outlined above give us a good idea of some Community Action Plan (MCAP). and have 2 years of hands-on experience with design and implementation. Permaculture Design Courses (PDC) A full Permaculture Design Course should run for at least 72 hours (over.hopenbc. learning as well as Biodynamic Farming educators to use the materials and Practice – from both small to large the food gardens in their teaching. legal. Much of what we consider waste can be fruitfully re-used to create more sustainable cities – green technologies are very useful tools here. Short courses Many service providers offer short courses covering certain topics within the Permaculture framework. Green investment and revolving loan schemes are some of the ideas you may encounter. Consequently. and waste. technical.dovehouse. are drawn up with participants Dovehouse Farm at the first training session and Tel: 033 330 3554 / 082 868 4517 the schedule is submitted to the www. 12 days).org. and economic development. and include intensive design exercises. given time and budget constraints. and report. as well as Biodynamic ecological farming training Farming consultation. Trainer competency Main facilitators on PDCs should have completed a PDC themselves. from household food forests to a co-operative of market gardens. ranging from one-day introduction with Hope Nutritional Training and www. there are good Dovehouse Organic Farm is a functioning permaculture farm with an Organic Health Shop and plant nursery on site. many facilitators have been contracted to teach short courses aimed at food security. personnel and risk and assess which projects quality aspects.afristarfoundation. including all FTFA initiated the Permaculture business aspects. primary health care. Wendy FTFA supplies the projects with Tel: 082 826 1333 various educational Permaculture There are a thousand applications on file awaiting assistance. two-week live. The digestors also eliminate the smelly sewage problem! Social structures Permaculture is in many was concerned with empowering people from all walks of life. 4. Often. on a Situated in Swellendam on the self catering or fully catered there are Unit Standards ranging from Level 1 to Level 5 (find these on www. Permaculture Unit Standards in AgriSETA A team of subject experts has been engaged in the lengthy process of writing Permaculture Unit Standards to be included in AgriSETA’s Primary Agriculture Unit Standards. In other countries.trees. This is an internationally recognised course. resources such as booklets. Afristar Foundation Tel: 011 706 5614 www. say. Ashton Road. Training and research People the world over have been trained in Permaculture design whether literate or not. three-month Tel: 011 326 3507 internships. Their two-week www. workshops and a baseline project assessment chapter. Afristar Foundation has worked za/ A consultancy offering the provision of Permaculture design Permaculture and organic/agro on any scale. In South Africa. Avice Tel: 072 174 1152 but the impact of such short courses has been which link to the curriculum. the full PDC material has not always been achievable. Busy Bee Apiaries Tel/fax: 021 971 1022 crpost@telkomsa. cover core information. scale. The ethical stance that Permaculture requires leads naturally to a more just social and economic structure. huge amounts of resources. but these do not constitute a PDC. or specialised teachers’ courses. The three and products have also been levels of the PSP provide basic provided.durbanbotanicgardens. To date.

co.mat. The organisation runs projects in Lesotho.153 examples of water management and domestic production on a larger domestically and garden maintenance. etc. Zimbabwe and South The Centre and project management. health care and articles in booklet Newlands Mashu Permaculture undertake projects in the urban Lindros Whole Earth organics. training centre and is a developing demonstration Technology Centre (MAT) Tel: 023 625 1533 enabling farmers to access info@mat. foundations (PEA) and social entrepreneurs to Tel: 028 5511 678 / 072 241 1514 deliver quality services directly to p e r m a c u l t u r e TNS is an international advisory sustainable food security. PEA organises PDC courses and tailor-made courses for Permaculture projects as well asconsultation services for projects. Rucore works Permaculture Education Africa with global Ukuvuna Permaculture is NPO based in Midrand and operation through out the Accredited permaculture training Siyakhana Initiative for Ecological Health and Food Security Tel: 072 501 0756 MAT acts as Tel: 072 638 8580 a learning and resource centre solutions. as a practical way of learning construction management. ecovillage/agriLearning Centre is situated on village and organic farming sectors. Mozambique. land reform.establishing learning centres. People with old earth houses on farms will be inspired to see the earth house restoration Lindros are consultants training courses as offer Plantwize Tel: 082 683 6048 info@plantwize. www. workshops NMPLC conducts training and training workshops and provides mentorship to organisations and Rainman Landcare Foundation individuals seeking to develop Tel: 044 801 5017 www.rainman. We also undertake programmes. Cooperation is a vial aspect of our approach. Consulting on Learning Centre (NMPLC) Indigenous. organic and Tel: 083 656 8417 Permaculture landscaping. to address the challenges of food security/sovereignty. In addition PEA provides Ecovillage Design consultations. The Tlholego village is one of South Africa’s pioneer centres for permaculture education. It is currently applying innovative strategies towards land reform and rural livelihoods based on education. natural building and eco-village AgriSETA accredited training MAT teaches sustainable building. vermiculture and waste Consultants management using Tlholego Ecovillage and Learning Centre A network of resources can Tel: 072 118 7357 stephne-fain@iafrica. both in the garden how they can engage further (take and as an instrument in developing the next “Natural Steps”) on that the capacity of rural communities journey. The Natural Step (TNS) Its main focus is on uplifting Tel: 079 165 2506 communities through training www. primary organisation and think-tank. social equity and sustainable sustainable and environmentally responsible approaches to farming A registered trust which teaches and organic based agricultural farmers how to farm using initiatives. e d u c a t i o n .wsec. leigh@seed. Tel: 082 719 7263 They also have permaculture alan@lindros. The Centre facilitates permaculture and medicinal garden workshops to assist educators to incorporate the environment into the curriculum and to build capacity in communities Planner Bee Plant Care around food security and primary for those wishing to explore and incorporate these principles and Rucore was established in 1991 technologies in their own lives and as a social enterprise focusing on ecologically integrated strategies for in their communities. organic regeneration/renewal. Ukuvuna – Urban Farming Centre John Nzira – 073 717 5232 johnnzira@gmail. permaculture and promote alternative Rucore Sustainability technologies like compost The africa centres train local communities in nutrition. . 150ha of land.plantwize. The Tlholego Ecovillage and rural Sustainable Development Project Management & Sustainable Tel/fax: 083 308 4818 Development Consultants www. feasibility was established by the Rucore studies. introducing Permaculture driving sustainability and to assess as a design lens. sustainable development in a post Apartheid development and Permaculture South Africa. project Sustainability Foundation in 1990 packaging. Permaculture and Organics. labour about sustainability and sustainable intensive construction. communities and supports longafrica@gmail. Swaziland. originating in Sweden in the early ‘90’s.berg-en-dal. The Zululand Centre for the growing organic market. development planning. policy advocacy. and communitybased programming to achieve our goal of ecological health. designs and broad scale Permaculture PEA is an association of Permaculture facilitators. located 16 km Services offered include programme west of Rustenburg. Tlholego consists of a residential village. They engage with leaders URBAN FARMER in business and government to Working in collaboration with Organic create strategies to turn the tide Food Gardens of environmental collapse and to Tel: 022 448 1106 / 082 842 1579 generate new more sustainable metalpetal@kingsley. adult education. They offer interventions at all levels of management to They focus mainly on home food get a handle on the core issues gardens. and how to set up farmer’s associations McGregor Alternative which can be certified organic. business Foundation solar term investment and mentorship health care. They will also assist you with getting in touch with service providers in your area. SEED Tel/fax: 021 391 5316 admin@seed. public/social housing. They are able to offer professional and practical courses on sites that demonstrate this sustainable Jewish National Fund Walter Sisulu Environmental Centre Tel/fax: 012 801 3197 www. Their mission is to create a culture of community conservation in Mamelodi and Southern Siyakhana operates one of Johannesburg’s most prominent and important urban permaculture demonstration sites.htm Tel: 083 300 2385 www. as well as an informal networking body for Permaculture. providers. rural development. renewable energy.rucore.

Broad veld types What is Sweetveld and what is Sourveld? The Permaculture Magazine. such as weeping love grass (Eragrostis curvula). establishment of Farmers’ Support Centres. It is an intermediate form between the two and has characteristics of both. sweetveld grasses usually occur in protected parts with fertile soil e. Sources [Adapted from]: Guide to Grasses of South Africa. The reason for this is that grass occurs very widely over the subcontinent and is virtually always edible. in the lower lying parts and next to rivers. Zulu Organics Ezio Gori – 083 300 2385 Fax: 086 671 8572 permaculture2012@gmail. occur in open areas. Zimbabwe) • South African Organic Agriculture Lindros • The Permaculture Booklet Food & Trees for Africa • The Permaculture Home Garden Linda Woodrow resources and good agricultural practice Rangeland (veld) FAO’s Country Pasture/Forage Resource Profiles – South Africa. provision of plant material. Overview Current Rangeland / veld information may be found on www. but also to provide shelter and nesting material. with supplementary feed. and also provide fertiliser in the form of manure. blue wildebeest and hartebeest – usually animals found in large herds.fao. Namibia. www. Botswana. In mixed veld. Readers can also contact Tony Rollinson at info@permaculture. who is involved in supporting projects throughout Africa. stimulate new growth. South Africa is blessed with good. Swaziland and Zimbabwe. marketing and distribution of organic produce. They are not only dependent on grass. Grazers have migrated in the past. preparation of business development plans to access funding for development. Demonstration Sites Please contact the following sites if you would like to see Permaculture in action. and to Paul Cohen for thorough – website of the biennial International Permaculture conference. Tim Cell: 083 287 4308 tim@keimouth. Call: 014 717 3819.154 Wigley. Lesotho. Online (www. Rangeland Resources . but grass also depends on them.agis. guinea grass (Panicum maximum). organic including farmers co-operatives and satellite distribution centres. Keyline and rainwater harvesting systems. Sweetveld occurs in areas with low rainfall and mild winters. The soil is fertile due to little leaching and therefore the grass grows in fertile soil and has a high nutritional value. that includes: organics awareness and sensitisation. Sweetveld is palatable throughout the year while sourveld is generally unpalatable in winter due to high rainfall in these areas which has leached the soil over many years and leaves the soil with a low pH. Many of our grasses. Examples of typical grazers are rgi/ www. Dry bushveld and karoo are examples of sweetveld.South Africa. couch grass (Cynodon dactylon). and. on the other zebras. mentoring and support. Smuts finger grass (Digitaria eriantha) and Blue buffalo grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) are cultivated worldwide as grazing. grown by some livestock farmers to provide forage for the dry winter season (see the “Forage and pastures” chapter). These are broad veld types and refer to the palatability or sweetness of the veld as it is affected by temperature and rainfall. Sourveld grasses. This leaves the grasses low in nutrients. Why is sweetveld “sweet”? Find the permaculture options at www. Most predators are therefore also indirectly dependent on grass. in search of better 2.agric. E-mail: frits@alut. Animals should thus be provided with licks in the The vision of Zulu Organics is to enhance the principles of low external input sustainable agricultural (LEISA) practices as an affordable and ecologically sound way of developing small scale farmers in producing organically grown traditional and niche crops. such as. mainly perennial grazing grasses which occur naturally in the Veld (rangeland) provides the main forage resource for livestock and wildlife in South Africa. provision of accredited Useful and related publications: • Earth User’s Guide to Permaculture Rosemary Morrow • From the Roots Permacore newsletter • Introduction to Permaculture Bill Mollisson and Reny Mia Slay • Making the most of indigenous trees Fanie and Julye-Ann Venter • Natural Pest Management Henry Ellwell (Zimbabwe) • Permaculture David Holmgren • Permaculture: A Designers’ Manual Bill Mollisson • Plant Propagation Mambo Press • Production without Destruction Vukasin et al (Natural Farming They range from broadscale to urban sites. Frits van Oudtshoorn. development of site infrastructure.exacteditions. He is based at Khula Dhamma Ecovillage near East London. Grazers remove old plant material. Grass plays an essential role in nature. Online: http://www. There are few food chains that do not include grass in some form or other. Today the habitat of many of these animals has been taken over by cattle and sheep. It is usually the animals at the bottom of the food chain that utilise http://khuladhamma. winner of the Queen’s Award for Enterprise 2008 in the Sustainable Development category and ‘unfettered commitment to progressing sustainability internationally’ (UK-based) can be subscribed to online at www. Due to the sweetness of the grass. (select the latest VELD INFO menu option). sweetveld is easily overgrazed. .org An experienced Natural Farming and Permaculture facilitator who has been working in the Eastern Cape for two decades. especially as a source of food. Websites and publications Visit the websites of mentioned earlier in this chapter.permaculture2012. Our thanks to Alex Kruger of Permaculture Education Africa for coordinating this chapter. thereby promoting food security and local economic development whilst maintaining indigenous lifestyles within rural areas. Refer to the “Forage and pastures” chapter.ipcon. • Berg en Dal – 028 551 1678 • Dovehouse – 033 330 3554 • Rainman Landcare Foundation – 044 801 5017 • Siyakhana – 072 501 0756 • Spier – 072 174 1152 • Synergy Centre Sustainability Project – 072 501 0756 • Tlholego Ecovillage and Learning Centre – 072 118 7357 6. mainly in the form of irrigated or dryland pastures and fodder crops. Zulu Organics provides a holistic development service for both small scale emerging and large scale organic farmers.g. What is mixed veld? Mixed veld occurs between sweetveld and sourveld.

Grass and veld fires See the chapter on fire. Mismanagement leads to: • Overgrazing – this occurs when the number of animals per unit area of land (the stocking rate) exceeds the number of animals the vegetation of land can support (i. • Bush encroachment – occurs as a result of overgrazing. Grasses and trees can be established within these crescents. South Africa.e. Sweetveld has not adapted to continuous grazing. • Desertification – is a process which arises through bad land use. pp. but rather short periods of grazing by migrating animals. Stipagrostis uniplumis. once in three years or twice in five years) to allow the grass to recover its vigor. These areas are also more prone to droughts e. Grasses and veld reclamation Grasses used for reclaiming veld must be adapted to the climate of the immediate surroundings. a full season’s rest should be built into the grazing cycle (for example. • Overgrazing of palatable species will result in reduced productivity and veld deterioration. Source: Guide to Grasses of South Afica. 4. 97-102. Vol 26(2). African Journal of Range and Forage Science. Veld reclamation Veld reclamation is probably the most challenging veld management practice and brings new hope to many land users (and animals).shaped rows with the crescent facing the top of the slope. Dongas With the reclamation of erosion gullies or dongas. there are fertilisation measures that may be applied. when the veld is already in a condition of stress. Frits van Oudtshoorn. The proper management of veld is vital to its continued productivity and the production of domestic livestock and game. • Rested veld promotes vigour and plant regrowth. yet resting of veld is not practiced by many farmers. The holes can be only partially filled with soil so that enough water collects in the holes. • Reeds can also be planted on the upper side of the wall (where sediment accumulates) to stabilise the sediment and to filter the water. Reclamation is often the only alternative to making land more productive. available surface water was very scare. • Erosion – is the excessive soil loss through the action of water or wind. A Engelbrecht et al. • Depending on the money you have at your disposal. No veld reclamation project can succeed if it is not accompanied by improved grazing practices or not fully supported by the land owners. even if it is not profitable over the short term. Eragrostis lehmanniana. Aristida canescents. and thereby protect the soil and offer grazing. Burned veld which sprouts out is very palatable and is easily overgrazed. • Small dams can be made in the bare patches with a hand hoe. If stock numbers exceed the grazing capacity then: • There will be insufficient fodder for livestock resulting in deterioration of the condition. badly timed burning. This wall catches up the sediment but allows the water to pass through slowly. together with the trees. In most areas. 3. Eragrostis superba and Hyparrhenia hirta. • Branches can also be stacked in gullies to capture sediment. Veld resting • All living organisms require rest. it is advisable to ensure that the sections which burned are large enough to alleviate grazing pressure. Stones are often placed in wire baskets (gabions) and used for this purpose. Here again. JCO du Toit. with the walls at the bottom of the slope. Grasses can also be established in the holes. In the case of veld which is grazed by game that cannot be controlled. . Bare patches • Rows of stones can be stacked along the contours to obstruct the runoff of water. Frits van Oudtshoorn. The grasses can be sown if seed is available. • Stone walls can be stacked in crescent. These grasses capture sediment and a natural wall is formed over time. grasses can be established on the walls. The aim of veld reclamation is to obtain a dense plant population. This will give the grass a chance to produce enough leaf material so that the entire plant can photosynthesize. The end result of desertification is the total degradation of land which is extremely difficult to reverse. • Branches or grass hay can be packed over the bare patches which protects the patches against wind and sun. if veld is grazed soon after burning. • The cheapest method is to stack a stone wall in the gully. particularly where grazing animals cannot be removed from the area. Andropogon gayanus. Veld and Pasture Management Guidelines for Sustainable Animal Production on the Mpumalanga Highveld. carrying capacity). the most damage is caused through overgrazing. Veld which has been burned should preferably rest until the grass has regrown to a height of at least 150mm.155 Why is sweetveld sensitive to overgrazing? In sweetveld areas.g. During times of drought. an attempt is made to break the speed of runoff water in the gullies and to collect sediment. especially during winter. It also protects new seedlings against early grazing and the elements of nature. with a subsequent sparse distribution of grazers. • Rested veld contains a high proportion of palatable species and provides excellent winter fodder. Cynodon dactylon. Early survival and growth of vegetatively propogated indigenous grasses in a clear-felled timber plantation in KwaZulu-Natal. The recommended grazing capacity may be obtained from the Departmental norms or from veld condition assessments. Sheep should be allowed to graze as soon as possible after the fire. karoo. drought and incorrect combination of animals (grazers and browsers). For the newcomer Veld is defined as uncultivated land on which indigenous or other vegetation occurs which can be grazed by animals. 5. • Parallel rows of vetiver grass or common reed can be planted across the gully. Some effective indigenous grasses are: Eragrostis curvula. The trend is to use perennial grasses because they are denser and offer greater coverage. improving the moisture status of the soil. as they will lose condition if left to graze tall grass. Palatable grasses should be avoided. Source: Guide to Grasses of SA. • Where slopes are involved deep holes can be dug and trees planted in the holes. Grazing capacity The number of animals that can be run on a farm must not exceed the grazing capacity of that farm.

Role players Associations and NGOs Endangered Wildlife Trust (EWT) Threatened Grassland Species Programme (EWT-TGSP) Tel: 011 372 3600 www. are also potential tools for encouraging animals to move. practitioners undertook a Grassland Biodiversity and South African National Biodiversity Institute Grasslands Programme Tel: 012 843 5000/99 grasslands@sanbi. during which current The CSIR and SANBI (South African research is presented to a mixed National Biodiversity Institute) audience of scientists. in sourveld areas burning different veld type units each year can encourage animals to move from one area to water catchment management and range and mine-dump rehabilitation. If fencing is not practical or affordable. The property should be divided into veld type The Agricultural Research Council (ARC) is involved in Rangeland Monitoring. Should this deterioration be allowed to continue unchecked. Herding of livestock. For updates on grazing research visit www. National strategy and government contact Government has identified the grasslands biome as a priority for conservation action and is implementing the national Grasslands Programme to save the deteriorating environment. The agricultural colleges. range and pasture science. can then be used to separate some of these veld type units to force animals not to concentrate on one are (such as a northfacing slope) while ignoring another area (such as the top of a mountain or a south-facing slope). hay. if need • Should any part of the veld show signs of wind erosion.grassland. Training and research It is essential that ongoing research be undertaken to increase understanding of the driving forces that determine changes in vegetation. If fencing is too expensive. professional Congress held in July each Africa (GSSA) advances rangeland ecology and pasture management Regional contact details are in Africa through a dynamic and available at www. wildlife management.sanbi. Ezemvelo KZN Wildlife Rob Scott-Shaw www. the aspect of the slopes. then consider fencing only small. 7. vleis (wetlands) and other www. animal science. • Make use of a suitable grazing crop established to supplement the natural grazing. The Congress Profile and Spatial Biodiversity includes field trips to practical Priority Assessment as part of the demonstrations of grassland science Grasslands Biodiversity Institute (SANBI) Tel: 012 843 5000 The Grassland Society of Southern www. or rotating water and lick Department of Environmental Affairs (DEA) Tel: 012 310 3911 lbosoga@environment. WWF South Africa (World Wide Grassroots. 6. stray crop residues or any other suitable material. amongst others. Department of Agriculture. Wildlife Ranching South Africa (WRSA) The GSSA publishes the Tel: 012 335 6994 internationally recognised African www. Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) Directorate: Land Use and Soil Management Tel: 012 319 7686 Funding is available intermittently for postgraduate student research – contact bush encroachment and the loss of palatable plant In order to conserve grasslands the Endangered Wildlife Trust’s two strengths have been: 1) using charismatic and indicator species to promote the conservation of the Grassland Biome. sustainable animal and food production would not be possible in the long term.156 A land user may apply the following measures to protect their land against degradation: • Reduce animal numbers on veld showing signs of deterioration – or move them.kznwildlife. nature conservation.grassland. suitable wind breaks should be created either mechanically or database of literature relevant to all aspects of grassland science. Cedara College and Glen College are two examples.grasslands. The GSSA intermittently produces information days in collaboration with other organisations on a range of subjects. botany. The disciplines that it encompasses or contact the Grassland Society of Southern Africa (GSSA) at 049 842 4335 or 083 256 7202. working with the provincial Departments of Agriculture. These veld type units should form the basis of management present short courses too on veld management. and the popular publication. See the “Agricultural education and training” chapter. which are management units based on ecological criteria such as the steepness of slopes. The website of the Fund for Nature) Society hosts all back issues of Tel: 021 657 6600 Grassroots as well as a searchable www. The GSSA hosts a members’ expertise database for the public who seek expert advice in different Grassland Society of Southern areas. in practice.grasslands. Fences. distance from water. as well as special farmer information days and courses. The productivity of all the rangelands of South Africa has been deteriorating as a result of inter alia desertification. Find details under heading 7.agric. Denuded areas should be covered with either valuable portions of the property such as vleis (wetlands) or stream Rotational grazing is highly recommended. . Africa (GSSA) Tel/fax: 049 842 4335 South African National www. and has recently unveiled a mentorship programme to provide support to young Grassland science encompasses applied fields such as livestock soil science and genetics. Fencing assists with the division of camps and is used as a management tool to control veld condition. Universities and agricultural colleges cover grasses (grassland science) and pastures in their degrees and Journal of Range and Forage Science. bush density.wrsa.wwf. and 2) engaging with and working with farmers on their farms to conserve grassland www. Its research teams run several projects in all of South Africa’s biomes and on rangelands under all types of land uses (commercial livestock It conducts training on veld management for farmers and often present information at farmers’ days and annual congresses of the Grassland Society of Southern Courses are presented at predetermined venues or on Free State Department of Agriculture and Rural Development Chris Smith – The ARC is currently managing a National Rangeland Monitoring and Improvement Programme that is staffed with competent research technicians who conduct veld condition surveys and basic soil surveys throughout the country in order to inform decision making by both land users and policy Grootfontein Agricultural College Tel: 049 802 6723 / 049 842 1113 Loaine van den Berg Grass identification and more are included under the name “Africa Land-Use Training”.za North West Parks and Tourism Board Wilfred Seitlhamo University of South Africa (UNISA) Department of Environmental Sciences Tel: 011 471 2655 www. communal www. University of Pretoria Department of Plant Production and Soil Science Tel: 012 420 3809 / 3223 University of Cape Town (UCT) Environmental and Geographical Science Tel: 021 650 2873 Jorrie Jordaan Africa Land-Use Training (ALUT) offers a consultancy and training service to the agricultural and environmental sectors is North-West University – Potchefstroom Research Unit: Environmental Science and Management Tel: 018 299 2510 National Zoological Gardens of South Africa Khanyi Mbatha University of Zululand Department of Agriculture Tel: 035 902 6063 Land Reform and Rural Development Rhodes University Botany Department Tel: 046 603 8592 Centre for Wildlife Management Tel: 012 420 2627 / 2569 North West Department of Agriculture and Rural Development Dieter Jordaan djordaan@nwp. Wildlife and Grassland Sciences – 051 401 2211 Department of University of the Free State Department University of Limpopo School of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences Tel: 015 268 2202 / 2784 South African Environmental Observation Network (SAEON) Tel: 033 343 3491 University of Fort Hare Livestock and Pasture Science Tel: 040 602 2059 / 2499 mashiyajg@tut. The ARC has research facilities throughout the country and runs several projects on farm and in the rural Janet Taylor The Rangelands and Nutrition Research Unit within the Animal Production Institute of the Agricultural Research Council (ARC) conducts research on the ecology and management of Tshwane University of Technology Stellenbosch University Department of Conservation Ecology and Entomology Tel: 021 808 3728 Crop and Climate Sciences – 051 401 2212 Centre for Development Support Tel: 051 773 0324 / 083 274 5461 University of KwaZulu-Natal Biological and Conservation Sciences Tel: 033 260 5505 / 5821 burgess. Veld Pieter Wagner or call ALUT at 014 717 3819 / 078 228 0008 for more information about their services and courses. Short courses on topics such as Farm Short training courses at Grootfontein include veld management – Department of Geoscience Vincent Kakembo University of Venda Tel: 015 962 8200 Eastern Cape Department of Rural Development and Agrarian Reform Döhne Agricultural Development Institute Tel: 043 683 1240 Adelaide Research Station Craig Trethewey Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University (NMMU) Centre for African Conservation Ecology Tel: 041 504 2308 www. write to info@alut. game ranching).za KwaZulu-Natal Department of Agriculture and Environmental Affairs Zandile Ndlovu Terence Newby – ARC–Institute for Climate and Water (ARC-ISCW) Herman Fouche – Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) Biodiversity and ecosystems services Tel: 021 888 2488 Dr Belinda Reyers Northern Cape Department Some contacts at the ARC: Dr Andrew Magadlela – 012 672 9036 Dr Sikhalazo Dube – 012 672 9295 Dr Mike Peel – 013 753 7147 / Justin du Toit Natural resources and the Environment Tel: 012 841 2911 Luthando Dziba The ARC also offers a service to monitor veld condition on game ranches with recommendations on the management of these properties for the intended objectives without degradation of the resource Limpopo Department of Agriculture Ntuwiseni Mmbi ntuwisenime@webmail. Veld condition and grazing capacity assessment. Visit

• Common grasses of the Northern Cape BR Roberts. A full-colour guide to the common grasses of southern Africa and includes descriptions and illustrations of the 300 most important grasses in southern Africa. Veld and pasture management • Gids tot die Volhoubare Produksie van Weiding Prof Hennie Snyman Landbouweekblad. • Identification of Veld Grasses of SJ Milton & WRJ Dean. • Veld Management in the Eastern Cape JE Dankwerts. SA. • Veld and Pasture Management Guidelines for Sustainable Animal Production on the Mpumalanga Highveld. • Find the many relevant publications at www. Peter Stegmann peters@vut.vut. K Kirkman and A Swanepoel. ISBN: 1875093176. Pietermaritzburg. L Smook. South Africa. Uniqwa. Braam van Wyk & Piet van Wyk. Ipswich. KwaZulu-Natal Department of Agriculture and Environmental Affairs. L Watson. brought out by the National Wool Growers Association (NWGA) includes useful notes on rangeland management along with the other ISBN: 0 620 14282 DJ Bransby and P de V Booysen. NWU banner . Struik.agis. ISBN 1 86849 192 7 • Invasive Alien Plants in KwaZulu-Natal: Management and Control. Shuter and Shooter. Order at 021 406 4962 or lbw@media24.wits. Weeds Grassroots. ISBN: 978 1 86914 090 8. the Newsletter of the Grassland Society of Southern Africa and incorporating the Input suppliers and other role players BESTFARMER SA Riaan Dames – 084 273 8666 SA. HM Anderson & MJ Dallwitz. ISBN: 0 621 27923 4. ac. ISBN 0 627 01864 5. • The farming handbook B Smith. Wildlife and Environment Society of South Africa (WESSA)-KZN. Find the document on specialist Community Dynamics Tel: 053 927 4367 / 082 459 9451 8. a compilation of 25 brochures on indigenous and exotic pasture species for use under dry land and irrigated conditions • Visit University of KwaZulu-Natal Cape Town. Pietermaritzburg. Clive Bromilow. 1 919991 38 7. Kimberley. • Veld and pasture management in South Africa NM Tainton (editor). Plant and Environmental Sciences Tel: 011 717 6404 www. Briza.kzndae. Cedara. Call 012 672 9253/313 for the following. • Improved grassland management J [English and isiZulu]. • Grasses of the Eastern Free State R Moffett. ISBN 0 627 01864 5 • Game ranch management J du P Bohma (editor).agric. Grassland Society of South Africa. • Grasses of Southern Africa GE Gibbs Russell. Visit included in services offered www. • Visit www. • Guide to the Grasses of South Africa Frits van Oudtshoorn. There are more than 800 excellent colour photographs. • Find the Bush Expert and Grass Expert databases on www. ISBN: 0 621 123 website of the Grassland Society of Southern Africa (GSSA).za. Cape • Introduction to VeldCare. Northern Cape Livestock Co-operation Limited. • Acock’s notes: key grasses of South Africa PJK Zacharias.grasslands. ISBN 0 852 36246 SA. home of the Grasslands Programme • www. M Koekemoer. Lesley Henderson. is published quarterly and distributed to all members and subscribers as well as a select VIP mailing list.thegef. ISBN: 978 1 875093 52 Briza Publications. • Karoo veld – ecology and management KJ Esler. ISBN: 1 86872 952 4. ISBN: 0 621 31817 5 Trees and shrubs • SAPPI tree-spotting series • Field Guide to Trees of Southern Africa. Pretoria. The latest reports on rainfall and current condition of rangeland / veld are dealt with region by region.bestfarmer. Department of Michael Pillay – mpillay@vut. Briza. WR Teague. ISBN: 0 620 14846 2. Department of Agriculture. available from the Range and Forage Utilisation division at the ARC in Irene: • Scale-related vegetation sampling • Strategic Use of Intercropping for Small-Scale Farming Systems • The wheel-point method of survey and measurement of semi-open grasslands and Karoo vegetation in South Africa • Amasu oku Tshalahlangana anga setshenziswa ngabalimi abanendawo encane • Know Your Veld • Principles in managing veld • Cultivated pastures for South Africa. ISBN: 1 86871 155 2 • Veld in KwaZulu-Natal. KwaZulu-Natal Department of Agriculture and Environmental Rangeland/Grazing management/ HOTSURE extensive animal production Tel: 0861 COLLAR www. NP Barker. Websites and publications Recommended reading: Grasses • Sasol First Field Guide to Grasses of Southern Africa G – take the AGIS and then Veld Focus menu options.rcs-sa. A Engelbrecht. Pietermaritzburg. • Common veld and pasture grasses of Natal NM Tainton. Qwa-Qwa Campus University of the North. ISBN 0 958 42091 2. Farming Press. Pietermaritzburg. Cedara. Cape Town. ARC & Vaal University of Technology Zama Hadebe mzamosehadebe@gmail. • Problem Plants of South Africa. or contact 041 365 5030. Shuter and Shooter. Pietermaritzburg. JL van Grazing for Profit Tel: 058 622 1499 www. CD Morris & D Kotze. The Global Environment Facility Veld condition assessments. It can also be downloaded at www. re-vegetation are to the Grasslands Programme. Meg and Keith • Alien Weeds and Invasive Plants. Janet Edmonds Consulting Holistic Management® Grazing Tel: 033 940 0450 / 082 828 7953 Planning www.nwga. Agricultural Production Guidelines for funded approximately R66 million carrying capacity.communitydynamics. JH Precision grazing and veld utilisation monitoring. The Best practice reference manual for wool sheep farming in South Africa. Agricultural Research Council.puk. ISBN: 1 86825 922 6 • Trees of Southern Africa.hotsure.158 University of the Witwatersrand School of

Commercial farmer points of interest Because soils differ. your nearest agricultural college. Alternative crops would include permanent pastures. Overview “To be a successful farmer. Are you planting the best crop for the soil you have at your disposal? Farmers cannot afford to cultivate any land at a loss. It is the soil which determines which crop will be during seedbed preparation. where and when the sub-samples should be collected depend on the application of the analytical results. These guidelines list sampling methods like: • soil sampling to formulate a fertilisation programme for annual crops. Soil sampling and analysis Soil sampling is the weakest link in the soil testing process – a few grams of soil represent millions of kilograms in the and www. • soil sampling for nematode counts. for example. and what livestock is supported. • soil sampling to formulate a fertilisation programme for perennial corps. It is no surprise that in the creation epic recorded in the book of Genesis. such as the time of sampling.159 resources and good agricultural practice Soils 1. “Compost and organic fertilisers” and more. A land user can combat wind erosion: • by using rotational cropping • by not leaving land fallow • by creating alternate strips of natural land with undisturbed cover crops • by leaving strips of natural vegetation at right angles to the prevailing wind direction • by creating suitable wind breaks. • soil sampling to assess the current fertilisation programme of tree crops. surface sealing. 3. Here it would be essential to select only the best maize soils for the cultivation of maize. • cultivate land using a crop rotation system. Soil scientists can help farmers matching soil and land use. “Precision farming”. and high runoff and low infiltration of water. What we do with our soil determines how our ecosystems serve us – and how well we eat.fao. 2. Or perhaps you are wanting to determine the water-holding properties of your soil. Source: www. • leave crop residue or plant material on cultivated land to protect the land from being eroded. adds to the pressure and questions whether it is sustainable to grow that crop. Soil erosion by wind occurs where a dry. • site-specific sampling. In order to make progress in optimising land use it is essential to do a soil survey. • soil sampling to determine the water-holding properties of soils. sampling depth. for example. The low and varying maize price. Here. and even though the exploration is more metaphorical it grabs something within us which recognises the profound connection between ourselves and the soil. Agricultural role players like the members of the South African Soil Survey Organisation (SASO). Soil erosion and Good Agricultural Practice Read about WOCAT and LADA at www. the ARC.daff. How. National identities and characteristics are ascribed in some writings to the soils of their people. Provincial Department of Agriculture or university will be able to help you with soil sampling. • establish a suitable grazing crop on land permanently withdrawn from cultivation. and this will affect the crop yield. A land-use plan can then be worked out with the soil information. • soil sampling to diagnose plant production problems. • create alternate strips of land with undisturbed cover crops. “Fertiliser”. either mechanically or biologically Intense rainfall on bare soil causes aggregate dispersion. The potential of soil erosion is greatest while the surface is bare after ploughing. the method of soil sampling is determined by the crop cultivated. It is therefore important that controllable factors. Different crops would be selected for the balance of the land. The aim is sustainable land use. orchards and annual crops require different sampling methods). Soil’s composition varies horizontally and vertically: the sample should incorporate these variations. or doing a nematode count (here too there are different guidelines depending on where you are doing the sampling e. their suitability to produce crops varies. the reader will find other chapters in this book of relevance e. In addition to this 4.” Oeconomicus (400 B.g. There are various methods to sample soils. one must first know the nature of the soil. loose soil that is reasonably finely divided on a soil surface that is smooth on which little or no vegetative cover is present. Several role players have compiled guidelines on soil sampling for their clients. There are variations in permanent soil properties. Or you may be investigating plant production problems. . A land user may apply the following methods to combat water erosion: • lay out a land in such a way that the spread of run-off is sufficiently restricted. and at seedling establishment. are identical to the previous years. The best soils should be selected for a crop. • Each year approximately 300 million ton of top soil is washed away. Variation in soil fertility and agronomic practices contributes to this variation.wocat. You may be wishing to formulate a fertilisation programme.) by Xenophon Healthy soils produce life. “Conservation Agriculture”. The South African Soil Classification System accommodates this variation in 73 soil forms and several families in each soil form. • soil sampling to establish permanent crops. • At present 3 million ha topsoil cannot be used for agriculture as a result of erosion & bush encroachment.C. relation to rows and the sampling path through the land. it is from the soil that Adam is created. “Speciality fertilisers”.org/nr/lada respectively.

The Southern country each The Soil Science Society of South Africa is an organisation with the SACNASP is an organisation aim of promoting all aspects of soil that handles the registration of science. • Loam soil contains both sand and clay. soil science. identification of morphological To educate IECA-SA members. On the whole. Make a fist. • sandy soil will form a broken sausage (if it manages to form one at all!) You can also tell the difference by looking carefully at your soil. 2003).ieca. • Water penetrates quickly into sandy Tel: 012 841 1075 www. The amount of lime applied depends on the pH. Role players Associations Soil Science Society of South South African Council for Africa (SSSSA) Natural Scientific Professions Tel: 012 310 2504 (SACNASP) www. to disseminate information of the role of soils in different land on erosion and sediment control through and KwaZulu-Natal Department of Agriculture and Environmental Affairs. johan@terrasoil. The wet soil will have formed a sausage. The soil holds water and nutrients. . you must first find out whether the soil is clay. Loam soil is the best as it retains just enough water and allows the right amount to drain away. communication then open your hand. confronted with in the industry the following two main objectives: soil surveyors and workers in www. maize or any other crop.ieca.daff. The other leg of precision agriculture grid sampling identifies variation in soil chemistry and fertility making variable application of lime and fertilisers possible. Based on information sent in by Dr PAL le Roux. It is a forum for soil surveyors to exchange ideas and The International Erosion Control Association (IECA) is a professional discuss knowledge about Association Southern Africa Lehman Lindeque – 083 453 0600 This non-profit organisation erosion. Roots grow easily. seminars and uses. • Apply the plan. • clay soil forms very hard dry clods • loam soil also forms dry clods • sandy soil has soft clods. member organisation serving the SASSO presents four national worldwide erosion and sediment workshops distributed over the control industry. texture and base saturation of the soil. or no clods at all. you will know how to improve it. The more acid the soil. acid soils are poor and unproductive. A soil that has too much clay or too much sand can be improved by adding lots of compost or manure. Water Wise. 7. • Have a soil survey done and get hold of the soil map. A lime product must therefore first neutralise the acidity.g. National strategy and government contact Department of Agriculture. • Water does not penetrate easily into clay and plant roots do not grow This technology changed the soil survey and land evaluation exists for the development of the more lime it requires. Most crops benefit from lime application to increase the pH. Workshops Africa Chapter of the International Control Association address soil suitability related Erosion aspects which advisors are (IECA-SA) have among others. Clayey soil and soil with a high organic matter content must also be limed. sandy or loamy because crops do not always grow well in all kinds of agricultural science geohydrology and environmental South African Soil Survey science) as required by law (Natural Organisation (SASSO) Scientific Professions Act.safrica@gmail. If you know what type of soil you have.sacnasp. Acid soil and lime: Most agricultural crops give better yields on soils that are not too acid or too sweet (alkaline).daff. moisten it and form it into a ball. Source: Info Pak from www. classification and the public and the erosion control mapping of soils and interpretation industry.160 Precision agriculture with super monitors is a new tool helping farmers to determine exactly what their land is producing on any (chairperson) International Erosion Control www.soils. Many South African soils – especially those in the eastern parts of the country – are acid. Precision farming procedures monitor variations in crop yield well. Western Cape 021 984 9278 • clay soil will form a firm sausage • loam soil will form a poor sausage that will break up if you roll it back and forth in the palm of your Provincial LUSM offices: Region Telephone Eastern Cape 043 704 6800 Free State 051 409 2601 Gauteng 012 319 7596 KwaZulu-Natal 033 345 3557/15 Soil Types: Limpopo 015 287 9943 If you want to plant vegetables. roots grow easily but the soil becomes dry quickly. soil properties. For the newcomer 6. fruit trees. Forestry and Fisheries Directorate: Land Use and Soil Management (LUSM) Tel: 012 319 7685/6 www. Mpumalanga 013 755 1420 / 2614 North West 018 294 3343/4 Northern Cape 053 807 2600 Take soil in your Visit their website for links all practising professionals in to national and international soil the natural sciences (including science role players. Email related • On the soil map do land use planning for the farm and keep sustainability in mind. Fertigation systems and more) • NviroTek Labs Tel: 082 885 8699 CARE (Conservation of Agricultural Resources Exhibition) at Cedara.sun. but is unique and a powerful training (Farmsecure Agri Science’s independent consultation services include GPS AgriSETA accredited trainers (find the list in the “Agricultural Pedology and Soil Mineralogy education & training” chapter). iscwinfo@arc. • EnviroMon Tel: 021 851 5134 University of Limpopo Soil (For the supply. The KZN Research and development Department of Agriculture and of technology related to soil Environment Affairs does training conservation structures. It is in need of updating and a general and Visit www. rain cycles. “Compost and organic fertilisers” and “Earthworms and vermicompost” (Soil moisture sensors planted permanently in the ground. • Soil susceptibility to salinity Companies involved conduct and erosion The Soil Microbiology Laboratory precision . Tel: 018 389 2481 / 2050 Other ARC Institutes involved with crop production analysis and management for best results) • Hanna Instruments Tel: 011 615 6076 www. Companies involved Find this heading in the “Fertiliser”. • Ecosoil Tel: 021 848 9434 / 072 906 1636 www. and systems. and conservation soil samples and issues of the and presents the origins of soil. • Farmsecure Agri Science Tel: 021 974 1900 / 058 307 6945 Walter Sisulu University School of Applied and Environmental Sciences Tel: 047 502 2311 / 047 502 2186 www. soil inspection. energy and growth “Speciality fertilisers” or production and rehabilitation call 014 717 University of the Witwatersrand School of Tshwane University of Technology Tel: 012 382 5340 joubertfph@tut. farmsecure. soil pollution clients where long-term effects and soil degradation assessments of soil management practices are determined on soil biological Faculty of Agriculture Science and Technology properties. classifying and example is Africa Land-Use Training mapping • Soil suitability for agricultural (ALUT) Plant and Environmental Sciences Tel: 011 717 6404 fertiliser at the PPRI offers services to recommendations. soil loss equations. • Soiltech Tel: 072 408 8211 (engineering projects have included managing soil erosion).za for (pH instruments. soil types and Visit www. Find details of the Combined Congress at www. “Precision farming”. ARC-Institute for Agricultural The Provincial Departments Engineering (ARC-IAE) of An • Soil surveying. land Protection Research Mr PW Deventer Institute (ARC-PPRI) Tel: 018 285 2267 Tel: 012 808 8000 www. and in advanced soil fertility. Soil Educational posters in Land and Water (ARC-ISCW) Husbandry and management are Tel: 012 310 2500 also available (see heading 8).ac.terrasoil. University of KwaZulu-Natal Department: Soil Science Tel: 033 260 5422 www. Plant Production and Agricultural Engineering Tel: 015 268 2927 www. soil degradation and erosion.ul. Crop and Climate Sciences Tel: 051 401 2212 www. This is housed in the old house that was the Principal’s residence at • Soil water management Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University (NMMU) specialist Centre for African Conservation Ecology Tel: 041 504 2316 The ARC-ISCW develops and www. ARC-Institute of University of Fort Hare Faculty of Science and Agriculture Tel: 040 602 2232 Experts in soil • Scientific Roets Tel: 039 727 1515 www.tut.nviroteklabs. Training and research Consult the “Agricultural education and training” chapter.nwu.ufh.agric.161 Other relevant associations include the South African Society of Crop Production (SASCP) and Southern African Society for Horticultural Sciences. the Small Stellenbosch University Grains Institute and Grain Crop Department of Soil Science Institute will be able to help with Tel: 021 808 4794 www. These take hourly moisture and temperature readings at six depths).za • Terratek Tel: 018 581 1000 www. Analytical Services • Standard and analyses University of Pretoria Plant Production and Soil Sciences Tel: 012 420 3809 / 3223 techniques in soil classification. • AquaCheck (Soil moisture management software) • DFM Software Tel/fax: 021 904 1154 University of the Free State Department of • Terrasoil Science Tel: 012 993 0969 (Jako Pieterse consults farmers on creating healthy soils). maintenance and calibration of instrumentation for monitoring soil moisture conditions).wits. working closely Tel: 012 842 4000 with the agricultural colleges.ufs. 0 Soil and Water Science Council for Geoscience • Soil fertility • Soil-plant-water relationships Tel: 012 841 1911 www.scientificroets. also offer maintains comprehensive databases on land type information. soil profile North-West University information and soil documentation Unit for Environmental Sciences culminating into soil information and Management University of Venda Department of Soil Science Tel: 015 962 8431 Prof L van Rensburg Tel: 018 299 1542

Visit or call 011 025 4388. Provincial Departments of Agriculture produce poster training and other material.htm – notes on soil erosion and preventing it. genesis and use of various soils They can be downloaded from www. za/efarmer. kejafa. Read about what the World Overview of Conservation Approaches and Technologies has to say at www. The following Info Paks (booklets) are available from the Resource Centre at the National Department of The following four subjects are covered: • Making the most of calcic (take the “Publications” option): • Soil Erosion • Soil: Acid soil and lime (most crops benefit from increased lime application) • Soil: Application of lime (the amount of lime added to the soil depends on various factors) • Soil: Kraal manure as fertiliser (a viable alternative for chemical) • Soil: Test your soil (a basic guide to help you distinguish between sandy. It covers the – read about the Land Degradation Assessment in Drylands project (LADA). Call 012 842 4000 / 17 or email • Good seed. www. Detailed soil and climate surveys are integrated into a comprehensive Agricultural Geo-referenced Information System (AGIS). a hedge against erosion.agric. It is “the first book in seventy years that provides a comprehensive account of South African soils”. and III (Grazing) – English and Zulu poster series and booklets. A deliverable of LADA is the World Overview of Conservation Approached and Technologies (WOCAT) project.agric. classification. • Compost: Nature’s fertiliser. which allows for a variety of applications. including assessment of agricultural potential and land suitability.daff. Call 033 355 9304 for the Training Resources Development (TRD) at the KwaZulu-Natal Department of Agriculture and Environmental Affairs for the following: • Acid soils and liming English poster series and A4 book. II (Cropping). www.162 8.agis. Kejafa Knowledge Works has a number of books on soil in stock. organic.terrafrica. ISSN number of 0257-1862. • Vetiver grass. humic. – regional sustainable land management African network which was formed in web site. • Land husbandry I (General). Websites and publications SA Journal of Plant & Soil.fao. Also at the AGIS website are the easy-to-understand Infotoons.daff.agis. Congratulations! The Soils of South Africa. • How to get your soil tested. a publication co-ordinated by Prof Martin Fey of Stellenbosch University.g. Find more on .za for the following publications available from the ARC’s Institute of Agricultural Engineering: • Barricades and small structures for the prevention of soil erosion (also available in Afrikaans) • Combating erosion with silt fences (also available in Afrikaans) Land type data and acquired knowledge are being used to solve a variety of problems such as land use planning. Now internationally listed on the “Master Journal List” of the www. www. Visit www. loam and clay soil) www.soils.wocat. • Mulch: A blanket on the soil. soil and water for success – English poster series and booklets.

All waste generators in South Africa are governed by National Environmental Management: Waste Act. 5. and returned to recycling companies who reprocess them into articles which are resold to consumers. plastic and a growing number of items are collected after use. to compost heaps and vermiculture farms. 59 of 2008) seeks to encourage the prevention and minimisation of waste generation.) South Africa’s National Waste Management Strategy (NWMS).za IWMSA is a professional. Find its details under this storage of waste on land in landfills or waste dumps and the use of manure storage facilities. Associations and NGOs Agricultural and Chemical Dealers of South Africa (ACDASA) Tel: 011 805 2000 www. or excessive Institute of Waste Management of Southern Africa (IWMSA) Tel: 011 675 3462 /4 Farmers who use or store wastewater will have to register with DWEA. For a list of list of waste management activities that have. Department of Water Affairs (DWA) www. The eight goals included promoting waste minimisation. ensuring effective and efficient delivery of waste service and growing the contribution of the waste sector to the green economy. Waste re-use – where possible reuse waste material.polity. multi disciplinary organisation with voluntary membership established to promote the science and practice of waste management. Members of the community collect waste. 2008 (Act No. This will identify “hotspots” of water quality deterioration in water . All farmers engaging in waste-water discharge by irrigating with treated effluent. Farm integrated waste management The waste management hierarchy moves from the most preferred to least preferred method: 1. Waste Management is not just about getting rid of waste but also about reducing the amount of waste we create in the first place. from cleaning the dairy equipment).za provides a comprehensive analysis of waste legislation. to abattoir wastes.environment.iwmsa. Treatment – waste (especially hazardous waste) can be treated to reduce toxicity. The NWMS is structured against a framework of eight goals with set targets for manure and to animal manures and wastes. 3. will have to register as well as for other activities which include evaporation ponds for waste-water. Waste on the farm includes agro-chemicals (pesticides etc) Department of Public Works www. 4. and those who use sewerage slush for The Waste Act 2008 (Act The Food for Waste Programme is initiated and implemented by the Department of Public Works in partnership with the Independent Development Trust as part of the Expanded Public Works Programme (EPWP). 2. cans. as well as the threats and opportunities for which Cabinet approved for implementation in November 2011. or are likely to have a detrimental effect on the environment. before collection. 3. Overview Waste is any material lacking direct value to the producer. Earthworms can be used in a variety of waste management fields. Refer to the “Earthworms and vermicompost” chapter. reduces the disposal cost.publicworks. animal carcasses. grey water (e. They process any form of organic waste – from food waste (homes and restaurants) to garden wastes. reuse. It is a non-profit organisation. and so must be disposed of. The article “Waste offenders face stiff penalties.163 resources and good agricultural practice Waste management 1. 59 Of 2008). refer to www. whilst promoting reuse and recycling of the waste and to only consider disposal of waste to landfill as a last resort (South Africa is running out of landfill space and waste management is placing a drain on the finances of local government. Waste avoidance – avoid creating waste in the first place. cardboard.g. National strategy and government contact Department of Environmental Affairs (DEA) www. All farming operations create waste products that need to be managed.dwa. The DWAF DW 808 replaces the DW 768 registration form which can be completed electronically on the WARMS system – refer to ACDASA is the representative body which promotes the responsible marketing of crop protection products to agricultural producers. which they hand over to their local offices in exchange for food Compost from earthworms can be used to enrich soils. Role players The Institute of Waste Management of Southern Africa (IWMSA) runs a directory of role players in this area. Divert valuable organic materials from the waste stream. Energy recovery from waste – an important step which can be explored by farmers. which in turn. but enforcement capacity questioned” (written in July 2011) on www. recycling and recovery of waste. paper.engineeringnews.dwa. Fairest Cape Association Tel. 2. Waste recycling – glass. aims to create 69 000 new jobs in the waste sector and have 2 600 additional small and medium-sized enterprises and co-operatives participating in waste service delivery and recycling by Find the different Waste Management Guidelines and Waste Management Policies documents under the “Documents” menu option on the website. Composting is also a form of treatment. 021 462 2040 www. black water (sewerage). Institute of Zero Waste in Africa (IZWA) Tel: 031 202 4576 www. landfilled.sappirefibre.164 KwaZulu-Natal Landfill Interest One area of pollution in agriculture Group (and elsewhere) is used lubricant Tel: 031 311 8820 oil.rosefoundation. n a m p a k .co. Susanne Dittke. based in Cape Town. They waste They formulate 100% Franberfran is a waste water environmentally friendly products treatment company specialising in for treating all organic wastes: the bioremediation of contaminated Technologies Tel: 076 668 8877 Glass that is not recycled is Ecosystems Tel: 035 772 4746 / 083 308 4818 Remade Recycling Nampak branches nationwide. Mvula Trust is the largest water and sanitation NGO in the South Africa. standards at sewage plants National Water Forum (NWF) Louis Meintjies – 082 461 7262 www. JCL Plastic Enterprises (JCL) SPATIUM MBB integrated environmental Louw van Biljon – 082 777 2647 spatium@isat. of clean ex-factory scrap. Technologies Tel: 011 840 0840 SA Waste Holdings (Pty) Ltd South African Plastics Recyclers Organisation (SAPRO) WESSA runs a Recycling Info .zerisa. is an Integrated Resource NRM Consulting and Waste Management Specialist Tel: 011 318 0895 www.sapro. schools. Farmers can gather and store their used oil for responsible Mvula Trust collection.scanwood. This adds to the huge pollution MPact Recycling issues facing our world. lawn care and other life science PROCON Environmental Technologies Nampak Paper Recycling Tel: 011 799 7111 Collect-a-Can (Pty) Ltd w w w. soil Plastics Federation of South Africa Tel: 011 314 4021 Tel: 021 887 1026 www. ZERI – Southern Africa (Zero Emissions Research & Polystyrene Packaging Council Initiatives) (PSPC) of South Africa Tel: 021 762 1228 Tel: 012 259 0554 www. Find provincial contacts The NWF was formed in JCL also buys most forms on Waste” programme for offices. collect from EcoChem Planner Bee Plant Care admin@ecochem. Suppliers of quality recycled plastic this unit runs a nationwide “War Sappi ReFibre Tel: 011 873 6545 Consultant in Integrated Waste www. Responsible Packaging Find regional contact details on the Management Association of website. Tel: 011 803 0767 systems Scanwood Solutions (Pty) Ltd Tel: 012 803 0036 / 0861 472 461 MBB Consulting Engineers Provincial contact details are on Kyasol Green Building the Association of South Africa (NORA-SA) – see ROSE SEWPACKSA Foundation Tel: 079 473 4090 (administrator) waste – food on the website (see the NORA-SA option) Find contact details on the website. agrochemical companies and mining companies to help battle water pollution in South workshops etc are offered ROSE Foundation to make folks think about farming Recycling Oil Saves the Environment as part of a natural –eco-systems (ROSE) based WISA replaced the Southern African branch of the Institute of Water Pollution Bio-Systems SA Tel: 021 786 2972 carmen@livingearth. EcoChem is a leading producer of Natural Products and solutions Earthworms can be used in a variety for use in environmental National Recycling Forum Tel: 011 675 3462 An association formed to improve Previously called Sappi waste InSynch Sustainable Tel: 011 919 0000 Small waste water treatment www. schools and community projects.plasticsinfo. abattoir c o m / S e r v i c e s Tel: 011 466 2939 Nampak-Recycling. Tel: 021 448 7492 manure Tel: 033 346 1444 Companies ABC Hansen Tel: 012 803 0036 Included in ABC Hansen’s products The “Agricultural” menu option is equipment for waste water discusses agricultural waste and its treatment remedies Biobox Systems Tel: 012 803 7272 Management Sannitree International Tel: 021 701 1266 Franberfran www. algae Oasis Association Tel: 021 671 2698 www. animal manures and water treatment. of waste management fields. oil spill process any form of organic waste pigsty and septic tanks included. www. charities and supermarkets. Tel: 0860 66 66 22/33 Southern Africa Tel: 032 942 8256 National Oil Recycling www.ecochem. Wildlife and Environment Society of South Africa (WESSA) Bosman focuses on assisting private and the public sector in finding sustainable solutions for water-related problems – she is recognised as an excellent speaker and is the author of a number of MPact provincial contact details are papers on Water Pollution and on the website Waste Management.rpmasa. and invited food Packaging Council of South Africa Tel: 011 463 9909 www. waste water. Water Institute of South Africa (WISA) Tel: 011 805 3537 www. where it remains management projects include waste Carin Bosman Sustainable Solutions Tel: 012 940 2071 A wastewater management company Biolytix Tel: 021 881 3715 Find regional office The Glass Recycling Company contact details on their Envirosense cc http://envirosensecc.

durban. Container management The management of waste chemical packaging is an important environmental. for use as water containers in rural areas). The carbon and emissions from burning dirty oil and heavy metal wastes from filters are of environmental Typically these wastes are poorly managed as they are most often burnt on site. Whether spraying by air or on land the loading of chemicals into the machinery can lead to chemical spills. Farmer points of interest Chemicals The poor management of pesticide application leads to severe working environment problems. There is a high probability of a health hazard for end users in this Consulting service deals with issues such as composting of agricultural waste products.xtremeprojects. even if it takes many years for this to Pikitup Tel: 011 375 5555 animal and technical The Pesticide Analysis Laboratory is involved in developing new Find the “Natural resources and analytical methods for quantitative the environment” and “Pollution analysis and confirmation of and waste” options on the website pesticide residues including if spills do occur these need to be well controlled. heavy metals and other problematic chemicals. it is discouraged and correct treatment and disposal of waste oil is Waste Resolution Technologies Tel: 083 375 8326 / 082 841 4996 Deep cleaning. Irrigation run-off can carry crop protection chemicals to surface/ground structures (includes facilities to deal with manure). Prior to disposal. waste oil is often used as wood treatment for fence posts on farms.ukzn. Although this is common practice. the empty containers are in demand and may be stolen ( the chemical can be properly treated and disposed. These are typically not well controlled and the spills result in a build-up of toxic chemicals over time. The enforcement is largely based on selfregulation: how many farmers comply with the requirements? Chemical spraying requires the chemicals to be loaded into the spraying www. foods Tel: 012 841 3772 and feeds as well as formulations www. NGOs subheading 5. particularly in the sugarcane industry. but suffers from an administrative division between several governing departments and legal acts. For the treatment of hazardous Xtreme Projects waste Tel: 041 582 2211 / 082 828 6762 www. Other chemicals used on farms that have environmental effects include use of paints. according to hazardous waste management practices. fifty years after the use of pesticides began traces of them appeared in groundwater. The rinsewater then requires treatment. Thousands of litres of used oil and numerous oil filters could be generated on a farm each year. they must be thoroughly cleaned out.Southern Africa (Zero (Wits School of Chemical and Emissions Research & Initiatives) – see under the Associations and Metallurgical Engineering). However. co.g. health and safety issue. They are often not disposed of in correctly controlled waste sites. water. Prevention is better than control. .za team from the University of the Witwatersrand and the Dr Nicola Rodda – 031 260 3015 South African Nuclear Energy – represents BioSciences in the Corporation (NECSA). Of particular concern are the containers from pesticide/herbicide chemicals. oil deal with abattoir waste spills etc Wolf Bernhardt Consulting Tel: 031 266 3258 and as far as possible. fire and water Municipal Ethekweni Waste Materials Recovery Industry Development Cluster Tel: 031 765 2349 / 082 415 8138 http://use-it.ncpc. If not holed and Training and research ARC-Plant Protection Research Council of Scientific and Institute (ARC-PPRI) Industrial Research (CSIR) Tel: 012 808 8000 Tel: 012 841 2911 www. turpentine. University of KwaZulu-Natal Department of Civil Engineering The BeauTi-FueL™ Project turns Dr Ntlibi or phone 011 717 7510 ZERI . The regulation on pesticides is in general good. and the metal of the oil filters is buried. spills should be prevented. creosote. The technology was Ms Jennifer Blight – 031 260 7185 developed by an engineering www. Vehicle use and maintenance The maintenance of farm tractors and trucks for transport results in the generation of used oil and oil filters amongst other wastes. The collected spilled chemical could then still be used if kept uncontaminated in the contained area. The waste materials and containers are often not disposed in the correct manner leading to health and environmental effects of solvents.agric. Holes are then punched in the containers and they are flattened and disposed Find the Pollution Research Group BeauTi-Fuel option at www. acid spills. Ntlibi – 031 260 agricultural waste and garbage 3056 into liquid fuel. This low temperature burning results in emissions of dioxins which are hazardous to health and the environment.csir. Mr PW van Deventer Research and training done on farm 10058591@nwu. North-West University ARC-Institute for Agricultural Centre for Environmental Sciences and Management Engineering (ARC-IAE) Prof L van Rensburg Tel: 012 842 4000 Leon. herbicides and National Cleaner Production fungicides in air. Once empty they need to be carefully managed. In Denmark for Thermopower Process Technology Tel: 011 316 1800 Typically farmers are known to burn these empty plastic chemical containers as well as empty plastic fertiliser bags in open fire on farms. Air emissions (dioxins) from burning plastics (at temperatures <400°C) are carcinogenic and are therefore potentially harmful to those who inhale the fumes. bio-remediation of The use of alkaline hydrolysis to contaminated www. If not burnt. which are often used in significant amounts for maintenance on farm property. Alternatively. waxes Prof Chris Buckley – 031 260 3131 and paraffin. plant Centre material.

mainly because of the volumes required for disposal. Nature abhors monoculture: inspection of natural plant and animal environments will reveal a great variety of for the following publication.unfccc.agric.html. General (low-/non-hazardous) solid waste generated by homestead as well as from workers’ housing and compounds. The application of fertilisers requires good knowledge of soil. Consider manure management and the potential for The updated fifth edition of this introductory book provides an overview of the broad field of natural resources management ranging from forestry to air quality to wildlife management to solid waste management. the use of greywater in small-scale agriculture etc.) on the website of the Water Research or contact 041 365 5030. If one species becomes too to click on “Project search” and to choose the “agricultural” category.nwmsi.wrc. In 2011 the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) estimated that the level of e-waste produced globally is forty million tons per year. Managing Our Natural Resources William G Camp. website of the Department of Agriculture and Rural Development (Northern Ireland). However. bi-monthly magazine from 3S but the pests (particularly the fast-evolving viruses) adapt very quickly to withstand each new chemical and to date the chemist has managed to keep only a short jump ahead of the disease. In many rural areas where farms are located. ISBN: 9781428318687. available from the ARC Institute for Agricultural Engineering: Manure Handling in Intensive Animal Production Units in South Africa by H T Breedt (Pr Eng). many of which are • Toxipedia is a free toxicology encyclopedia. Go to www. brought out by the National Wool Growers Association (NWGA) includes notes on waste management along with the other information. Find the document on www. Burning of plastics and polystyrene must be avoided. pest or disease is likely to develop to strike it down. is also an important environmental management is a recycling portal • Read about the South African National Waste Management Strategy Implementation Project at www.E-waste can contain more than one thousand different substances. Call 011 233 2600 or visit includes information on all policies and legislation related to sanitation and waste services.mbendi. Websites and publications Call 012 842 4000/17 or email • www. • Visit the websites of companies and associations mentioned under the “Role players” heading. Source: Claire Janisch. etc. The Best practice reference manual for wool sheep farming in South Africa. These are not in very large quantities. Man has managed to defy this law. odour. Dust Some herbicides and pesticides remain in the upper soil layer and the dust generated during cultivation readily transports these to vulnerable and edible crops.g. All of these require careful environmental management. utilising a small mobile machines to bale refuse into manageable. • The “Document library” at registered. but their effect on the environment demands improved management of these.htm# .co. reuse and recycling options. Water & Sanitation Africa – complete water resource and wastewater management. A large portion of typical solid waste streams can be minimised through the use of reduction. Long-term use of fertilisers in one area also can have negative effects and it is important to use more natural methods of restoring soil quality. Fluorescent lighting tubes contain mercury and are considered hazardous wastes.dwa. some event. guidelines for the utilisation of agricultural sludge. April 6. • Find various documents (e. municipal dumps are located too far away for proper disposal of solid waste to be economically feasible. by the application of stronger and stronger chemical controls. as adding too much can lead to destruction of the quality of the soil. and water-pollution problems. Plastic and PVC wastes are not necessarily hazardous unless burnt at low temperature. cans and glass. Used batteries are another typical solid hazardous waste generated on farms (particularly from workers houses) and may be in large quantities. this has potential environmental problems that need to be addressed. Segregation of waste streams at source is essential to allow for improved waste management. Contact her at claire@geniuslab.) encourages a build up of scale and red spider mites in cotton.nwga. citrus and other crops. Farmers can control and run their own mini-municipalities by separating plastic. • A number of waste management papers can be found on www. to e.g. New case studies explore current real-life issues encountered in natural resource • Take a look at the Agri-environment Scheme Management Plan at www. Solid waste generation The wastes of concern that are generated on the farm are the hazardous wastes.mywaste. There are plenty of buyers for industrial refuse – refer to Presence of dust on plants (near • www.ruralni. Hazardous wastes should not be burnt or buried informally. and location of sites where wastes are buried must be carefully chosen away from environmentally sensitive • For a list of all registered agricultural Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects across the world. The burning of domestic waste and informal ‘landfilling’ (dumping) is very common. Betty Heath-Camp. Soil erosion is also an environmental effect associated with poor agricultural methods. goatconnection. some of which have links nationally and internationally.3smedia. If the same crop is grown on a piece of land year after year after . the disease organisms that attack that crop will build up in the area until they become uncontrollable. go to http://cdm. paper.166 Soil management Monoculture can affect the local ecosystem and it is therefore wise that the method of rotation crops is used. Edited and revised by F Cilliers (Pr Eng) 2009.

• This average condition. The northern Drakensberg’s “flash density” of 15/km² extends into northern KwaZulu-Natal and the Mpumalanga lowveld. The data collected from the network are used to form lightning-risk maps. This water then runs down the steep side of the Drakensberg and into rivers of KwaZulu-Natal and into the sea. the Weather Service needs to collect lightning information for another three years before its data will be considered comprehensive in terms of scientific standards set by the South African Bureau of Standards. young bulls. or the climate. which often end in severe floods. etc. or what animals will best suit a specific region. is usually described in terms of temperature. precipitation. 1. South Africa’s rainfall is typically unreliable and unpredictable. • Use well-balanced rations and keep to the recommendations of suppliers. • Use the available grazing and other fodder sources to good judgement between different production classes. Most of our clouds are caught up by the Drakensberg mountain range in the east where precipitation occurs. Weather: • Weather is the condition of the atmosphere at a specific time. La Niña and El Niño also influence our rainfall from time to time. Many day-to-day decisions of farmers depend on current weather conditions and how it will change over the next few days. For example.e. Non-productive animals easily can handle a drop in mass of 10-12% over a long period of time. precipitation and wind. • Restrict the movement of animals in order to conserve energy. lactating. On average. to relatively wet in the eastern parts adjacent to the Indian Ocean. Overview South Africa is a relatively dry country. Compared to the rest of the world. There are several explanations for the variable rainfall. These range from a map of average lightning flashes per municipality and a lightning intensity-risk map to a “positive lightning” risk map. below normal rainfall i. or over a very short period of time.g. In the South Western parts of the country. which is only half of the world average. Another is linked to our position in the global weather and climate systems. One reason is related to the oceans around the country. an article in Business Day. 2. heifers. oxen. 19 March 2012.g. etc. Source: “Calculating the deadly statistics of lightning strikes”. the most dangerous place to live in terms of lightning is the windward slope of the northern Drakensberg. In this case. in calf. we receive some rainfall from warm. moist air that sweeps down over the country from the North. Lightning SA is a severe lightning risk area. with one of the highest rates of lightning strikes per square kilometre in the world. grain siftings. weeks or months. and beware of over feeding – it is expensive.5km location accuracy over most of the country. and can cause expensive damage to infrastructure.West. at a place. Smaller portions but well balanced to fill needs of different production classes better. South Africa is periodically afflicted by drastic and prolonged droughts. only some 9% of rainfall reaches the rivers.8 deaths per million people. this country has a very low average rainfall – 470mm per year. cloudiness and wind speed as well as wind direction). The country falls squarely within the subtropical belt of high pressure. Lightning poses a hazard to people and livestock. Because of the topography as well as the rainfall distribution. 60% of South Africa’s run-off water is in rivers that flow through only 20% of the country (the eastern region). making it dry. • Decrease rations of non-producing animals by providing smaller portions daily or every other day a full portion. humidity. South Africa has a relatively new Lightning Detection Network. It accounts for between 1. • It is described by various observed meteorological phenomena and measured elements (including atmospheric pressure. 3. temperature. given the prevailing climatic/weather conditions. According to the data thus far collected. • Think creatively by using residues like fowl droppings (make sure animals are vaccinated against botulism). What to do in times of drought Live stock farmers can consider the following actions to mitigate the effect of drought: • Divide your herd into production classes e. The climate varies from desert to semi-desert in the west. and it comprises 24 sensors around the country. The climate of a place will determine what crops will succeed best in a specific region. • Make sure animals are healthy. • Move animals to shaded/warmer areas where they can be fed. • Try not to change rations too often but keep it constant and simple. As South Africa’s seasonal climate is highly variable and precarious.5 and 8. Agrometeorology studies the influence of climate and weather on agricultural production. While the network is already considered useful. Climate: • The average condition of the atmosphere at a place or in a region as observed over a period of at least 30 years. with an abundance of sunshine. with small calves etc. Source: Dr Herman Fouchè and Mr Johan van den Berg in an article originally printed in Landbouweekblad An example follows of strategies that have appeared on the DAFF monthly advisories. cold fronts usually bring winter rainfall. • Use expert advice in order to utilise available fodder to a maximum e. operated by the South African Weather Service.167 resources and good agricultural practice Weather and climate See also the “Climate Change” chapter in the National Issues section. climate is a deciding factor in successful agricultural production. • Always give priority to the most vulnerable animals e. The digestive system of an animal must adapt to new substances or ratios with every change. dry conditions were expected: .g. The distribution makes it possible to detect lightning flashes with a 90% predicted detection efficiency and a 0.


The USA Department of Agriculture website has a “Weather & Climate” University of Pretoria Department of Geography.ufs. Rain-fed crop production: • remove alien plants • adjust planting density • consider a conservative fertilising strategy • do regular and strict scouting for pests and diseases to minimise expenditure on chemical control • do not expand land under crop production unnecessarily • do not experiment with the new and unknown and avoid unnecessary capital investments • store water in wetlands and dams • reduce evaporation • encourage infiltration of storm water runoff B. Stock farming • remove alien plants • spread water points evenly through grazing areas • first graze areas where vegetation already shed leaves • plant hardy trees/shrubs for browse • keep well-adapted breeds of livestock • provide suitable licks and make dry range grasses palatable • when conditions Plastrip The Weather Shop Tel: 0861 111 696 Tel: 021 851 5134 www.csir. with the biggest Masters Degree Programme in Disaster Management in Africa University of KwaZulu-Natal Environmental Sciences http://ses.enviromon.agric. services. used for national in co-operation with universities. weather related disease Find the “Farmers” option under Water Research Commission “Products” Tel: 012 330 0340 www. Meteorological Organisation and and to determine agricultural serves on its Executive International weather forecasts may be accessed A department in the faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences. systems for drought and other which reports to the said Minister.weathershop. to develop risk Minister of Water and Environmental profiles. established in SA Weather Service (SAWS) The ARC-ISCW’s Division: Tel: 012 367 6000 Agrometeorology undertakes developed and Stellenbosch University maintained by climate surveys. The versatile well as an NQF5 certified Weather Agromet databank as well as the Observer Santam Agriculture Home use weather instruments Tel: 021 915 7000 • Customised software for chilling units.environment. Climate South African Society for Atmospheric Sciences (SASAS) and Water (ARC-ISCW) www.santam.ukzn.cons-ent.csag. countrywide agricultural weather station Department of Water Affairs www.sasas.plastrip. monitoring and research to quantify and qualify SAWS falls under the auspices of climatic For the EnviroMon Tel: 021 851 5134 www.lbic. Training and Education Centre for Africa (DIMTEC) Tel: 051 401 2721 www. installation.agis. These are available at Tel: 012 310 2500 www. Land Bank Insurance Company Tel: 0861 00 5242 www. EnviroMon products and services include: • eKo Pro system for soil moisture and weather condition take animals to the camps and feed them • wean early and raise young animals intensively • postpone the mating period during extremely dry conditions • market surplus stocks and cull poor producers when feed resources run out • maintain young best females • control stock numbers to prevent overgrazing and to save the veld for the coming winter season • control animal diseases and parasites • feed pregnant and lactating animals better • evaluate carrying capacity of their available grazing and apply the appropriate stocking rates accordingly C. to develop early warning Department of Environmental Affairs www. Dryland farming • remove alien plants • remove all weeds containing seeds. and climatological products and The Division’s climatic data is. Visit and International business environment The World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) is an agency of the UN. maintenance and calibration of instrumentation for monitoring weather elements and soil moisture conditions. Geoinformatics and Meteorology Prof H Rautenbach Tel: 012 420 2173 Mutual & Federal Agri Tel: 012 400 8100 www. are Department of Conservation Ecology and Entomology national . adverse climatic conditions as well It is a member of the World as coinciding pests and diseases.weathersa. University of the Free State Department of Soil. It is governed by a Board. Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) University of Cape Town Natural Resources and the Climate System Analysis Group Environment (NRE) Tel: 021 650 2784 Tel: 012 841 2911 www. Crop and Climate Sciences Tel: 051 401 2212 Disaster Management. Clicking on the “Publications/Reports” will give you inter alia “World Agricultural Weather Highlights”.dwa. Tel: 021 808 3304 www.169 potential and land suitability for specific production systems and SAWS is ISO 9001:2008 certified for the provision of meteorological enterprises. Matiga Motsepe (Mr) Tel: 012 319 6768 The Directorate compiles the monthly advisories which have the strategies for farming community to apply given the current climate National strategy and government contact Department of Weather forecasts can also be viewed on their up. provides scientific training furthermore. Visit www. but keep other vegetative rests on the land because that will reduce evaporation • obtain the desired seeds for the crops to be planted • check and repair all tools and machinery • consider the making of bunds or other features to increase infiltration and to reduce • irrigate during cool conditions to avoid evaporation • adhere to the water restrictions at all times as the levels of earth dams deteriorate in most areas Forestry and Fisheries Climate Change and Disaster Management Assistant Manager (Agro-Meteorologist): Early Warning Unit. growing degree days. as crop estimations. Visit www. • Weather Stations for agricultural and general use. Role players ARC–Institute for can provide a weather forecast for your Overview • Wetlands are complex. Visit www.agric. In urban areas they are important green and are important refuges for specialised plants and wildlife. South Africa’s water resources are already well utilised and in many areas show signs of stress because of high demand. • As urbanisation increases. . Where people use water directly from natural sources such as rivers. Find it at Although wetlands are not the only solution for clean and www. • The Norwegian website www. Find the document on www.000 wetlands. they are a key part of the for the following publications are available from Bryan Peirce at discounted prices: -0Weather & Climate Southern Africa (Tyson & Preston-Whyte) -0SA Weather and Atmospheric Phenomena (van Zyl) -0Dictionary of the weather (Dunlop) -0SASOL Field Guide to the Weather in Southern Africa Useful numbers • Climate Information and data Tel: 082 233 8484 • Pretoria Central Forecasting Office Tel: 082 233 9800 resources and good agricultural practice Wetlands 1. wetlands aid in improving water quality.nwga. grazing. building and craft materials to people. • In providing these ecosystem services.netfor.kejafa.daff. brought out by the National Wool Growers Association (NWGA) includes useful notes on managing your flock in times of drought. wetland Menu options include Two Day Forecast as well as current weather and graphical presentations. wetlands play a strong role in keeping people healthy.suidwes. Firstly. healthy wetlands play an important role in keeping people healthy. especially for the most vulnerable members of society. respect and protect. They also reduce the damaging impacts of floods. They supply wild Nature provides robust and free technology. specialised waterbirds.awn. insects etc).gov. satellite photos or daily rainfall They are hardworking ecosystems that provide us with a range of if you need information or photos of weather patterns.agis. For those who get their water from • The Best practice reference manual for wool sheep farming in South • The statement from the Department of Agriculture is available on their website every month – www. They can also trap many heavy metals including cadmium. and wetland soils and microbes stabilise and store or use many pollutants including excess nutrients and toxins from sewage and agricultural chemicals and fertilisers. If we protect healthy wetlands and rehabilitate those that have been degraded.briza. What is a wetland? Wetlands are areas in the landscape where the water in rivers and streams slows down and spreads out. Wetlands and water Wetlands play an important role in ensuring a steady supply of clean or contact 041 365 5030. www. we can reduce suffering due to • Contact Kejafa Knowledge Works for publications on weather and climate. The National Wetland Inventory has mapped over 114. Wetlands are uniquely designed to purify water through natural processes. Over time. • Call 011 954 4675 or visit www. This results in the sediments and nutrients in the water being deposited. help to control erosion.yr. microbes. Hectare for hectare. This helps reduce the possibility of excess nutrient enrichment downstream. such as bulrushes and reeds. communities living nearby and larger Websites and publications • The website of the South African Weather Service can be accessed at or call 011 025 4388. they slow down water flow and this allows sediments in the water to be deposited. healthy wetlands in river systems contribute significantly to reducing the cost of purifying water. reeds. Then. • Visit www. and contribute to more stable stream flow throughout the there is more life in a healthy wetland than in almost any other habitat. zinc and mercury that result from mining and industrial processes. including some that are not immediately apparent. acting like the kidneys of the – Find the climate advisories and other information relevant to weather and climate. The roots of some wetland plants secrete toxic substances that kill some pathogenic bacteria. • www. downstream water users. which is essential for human health. • Websites of companies involved with agriculture usually have some menu option to do with weather e. floods and compromised livelihoods. waterlilies and sedges) and a range of creatures (e. DAFF’s monthly advice to farmers can also be viewed here. Different wetland types supply different ecosystem services including provision of clean water and carbon storage. so does the pressure to provide adequate sanitation and water.6% of South Africa’s surface area.170 7. www. Through natural processes in their soils and plants.landbou.weatherphotos. including ecosystem services provided by wetlands. which we should recognise. They are valuable assets to farmers. 2.g. • South African Weather and Atmospheric Phenomena (Briza Publications) Dries van Zyl. • www. The answer to our looming water crisis does not lie only in complex and expensive engineering solutions. ranging greatly in size and value and accounting for about 3. senwes. fascinating and dynamic. wetlands become fertile areas that provide good habitat for plants ( – Weather forecasting for South Africa.

Food from wetlands In addition to contributing to the life support services that sustain us. Special wetland soils such as peat are highly effective water stores and filters. lamp shades and place mats to home supply stores and lodges. most households are headed by women who may each care for up to nine children. has been removed from wetlands. birds and amphibians. nutritious food for livestock and in fact. the white. Ikhowe and Thubaleth’elihle. In South Africa. In Mbongolwane in northern KwaZulu-Natal. with the surplus sold. arthropods. helping to ensure steady river flow. Its corms are eaten like potatoes and in fact make a much tastier alternative. or means of earning a living. and its leaves are eaten like spinach. The rich diversity of waterbirds in southern Africa (totalling 130 species) is possible because of the many different types of wetlands across the sub-continent. they force river waters to slow down and spread out. In Kosi Bay in Maputaland. . or a means of earning a living. Estuaries are important nurseries and breeding grounds for many economically important marine fish species. who are most directly dependent on wetlands for at least part of their livelihoods. They support plants and animals that are specially adapted to waterlogged environments and can live nowhere else. Many South African wetlands are used sustainably for low-density subsistence agriculture and sensitive grazing but most are not suitable for large-scale agriculture. Nymphae nouchali. nuts and leafy vegetables. the wetlands are the only source of food and income and altogether about 70% of the local people use the wetlands in some way. they must be used wisely. Some animals are completely dependant on wetlands. aquatic snails. file covers and corporate gifts. leaving wetlands as the only sites available for subsistence farming. The wetlands of southern Africa are of international importance as they are the southern destination for many migratory wading birds. the iSimangaliso Wetland Park Authority is helping about 200 women sell products such as blinds. Typha capensis. Wetlands and livelihoods People have a long and intimate association with wetlands. some wetlands can provide up to five times more grazing than terrestrial grasslands. the highly productive estuary is criss-crossed with traditional reed fish kraals which trap large adult fish as the tide goes out. wetlands also provide many people with a livelihood. Production is home-based. Common crops such as cabbages are grown on the edges of wetlands and there are also some plants such as amadumbe that are grown in wetter soils. In this extremely poor and HIV/Aids impacted region. For example. People have sustainable livelihoods if they can use available resources to earn a living without irreversibly depleting those resources. depend on these ecosystems for secure spawning sites. who are most directly dependent on wetlands for their livelihoods. which makes it valuable in a semi-arid country like South Africa. On a subsistence level. it is important that wetlands are grazed wisely and that they are protected from overtrampling and degradation. sweet-smelling flowers of waterblommetjies. Vegetables from home gardens. In places such as Maputaland where the soils are sandy and lack nutrients. Cane rats prefer semi-aquatic environments in marshes and reedbeds. and many other species are dependent on estuaries for feeding and shelter.isimangaliso. Often it is poor people. They also provide feeding. wetlands also provide many people with a livelihood. to be eaten like cereal meal and swamp forests yield various fruits. Some 20 such species. Subsistence farming in wetlands In many rural communities produce from subsistence agriculture helps ensure that people have adequate nutrition. Palmiet wetlands are good examples of ecosystems that can effectively reduce the impact of floods. which are exploited commercially and recreationally. A variety of wetland grasses are used as well as grassland and forest species such as ilala palm. Aponogeton distachyos. many of whom are orphans. reptiles and amphibians are eaten widely. However. the destruction of wetlands has further reduced the natural landscape’s ability to manage normal spikes in rain or drought cycles. storing water when it rains. Peat is able to hold a thousand times its own weight in water. Rehabilitation of the Craigieburn wetlands contributes to food and livelihoods security in the area by protecting the wetlands that are used for subsistence agriculture. Purification and provision of clean water have enormous health benefits which in turn have economic and social impacts. insects.000 kg of fish is caught every year in this area. earning about R200 000 annually. Although much of the destructive impact of floods is related to people building their homes or roads in floodplains or farming too close to rivers and wetlands. especially in rural areas.171 Wetlands also act like sponges. Because they are generally flatter areas of marshy ground with reeds or other tall dense plants. and then releasing it slowly during the dry season. rivers frequently become highly sedimented and their banks are gouged out by unchecked floodwaters. whilst others use wetlands for only part of their lives. The same is true in places such as Craigieburn in Mpumalanga where forced resettlement in the 1960’s and 1970’s resulted in large numbers of people occupying small areas of land. are dried and ground. Wetlands provide good. This means that much of the multi-million rand fishing industries that employ thousands of people indirectly rely on coastal wetlands to sustain the fish stocks that they exploit. in some cases being the backbone of local economies. Fish is probably the most obvious wetland food and is a significant wetland contributor to human health. Read more about the iSimangaliso Wetland Park at www. milk from cattle and meat from household chickens and goats are often the most important food for many families. On a mainstream economic level. a unique wetland plant. These fish are also important for subsistence fishers. For about 25% of the villagers living around Craigieburn. Foods can be harvested from wetlands. In many parts of the world small mammals. the edges of wetlands provide organic-rich. Twenty one percent of animal protein in Africa comes from fish and in South Africa many communities depend on fish from freshwater lakes and rivers as well as estuaries and coastal shores. Often it is poor people. moist soils that are ideal for farming. and hippo’s use wetlands as a daytime refuge. several key tourism industries are based on wetlands. Life in wetlands Wetlands are warehouses of biodiversity. The rhizomes of bulrushes. Some wetlands also play a role in recharging groundwater. craft sales are becoming more important as a means for rural households to earn hard cash. In addition to contributing to the life-support services that sustain us. Another indigenous vegetable is the tuber of the blue water lily. Even in urban areas they are important refuges for small mammals. most of it for family consumption. About 70 women from two craft groups. About 40. Wetlands and floods Healthy wetlands help to reduce the impact of fast-flowing floods. As the interest in indigenous fibre products grows. both providing a rich source of protein. In roosting and breeding sites for a range of other species. Where palmiet. about a third of household income is derived from the sale of crafts woven from fibre harvested from wetlands. bullfrogs and cane rats are popular eating in many areas. There are also many edible wetland plants in South Africa. For example. the Wattled crane is dependant on wetlands for breeding. both wild and cultivated. especially in rural areas. If the livelihoods benefits that wetlands provide are to be sustainable. slowing down flood waters. which is roasted like potato. are made into waterblommetjie bredie which is eaten widely in the Western Cape. sustainably harvest wetland reeds such as induma and ikwane for conference bags. these benefits range from wild food and grazing to materials for building and crafts.

or even a reduced supply. wounds and pain. agriculture and sewage. Wetlands in heavily industrialised parts of the country are irreplaceable as water purifiers. excessive water abstraction. as well as more recent industrial and urban pollution. Agriculture. but many beneficial ecosystem services are lost in the process. and building infrastructure such as roads that impede and concentrate water flow. Water quality in rivers is reduced by pollution from mining and industrial processes. The general rule is that wetland users should not substantially disrupt the basic fabric of the wetland. they provide habitat for the species that transmit malaria and bilharzia. In urban areas. the peatlands of the Klip River in southern Johannesburg have absorbed the pollution of 150 years of gold mining in the western Witwatersrand. The following guidelines are intended to improve the sustainability of wetlands that are already being cultivated. 3 million people die each year from illnesses caused by contaminated water. over 40 wetland rehabilitation projects throughout South Africa provide temporary jobs and training for about 2. Working for Wetlands forms part of the Expanded Public Works Programme (EPWP) which seeks to draw unemployed people into the productive sector of South Africa’s economy. Draining wetlands may be able to help control malaria in some areas. and every year 28 million South Africans use about 19. and vegetation loss also increases erosion risks. urinary complaints. There are also severe ongoing impacts from pollution and erosion in catchments. which is used to ease childbirth and treat kidney and bladder infections. . and transfer relevant and marketable skills to workers. As important waterbird habitats. Everyone is affected when wetlands are degraded. Each year. Because of the concentration of the pollution and the destruction of water resources such as wetlands. the Wattled crane.172 Medicine from wetlands In South Africa traditional medicine is the preferred primary health care choice for about 70% of people. and Manulea parviflora (pepper and salt) is used as a natural enema for children with intestinal disorders. 4. Wetlands are also a source of water-related diseases.g. If a wetland is transformed in a way that compromises its ability to function. Experience has shown that when wetland vegetation is cleared. Rehabilitation projects maximise employment creation. cholera. and clearing of wetland vegetation such as reeds and palmiet should be avoided. Direct impacts include draining wetlands for pastures and crops. water and vegetation. wetlands reduce the risk of contact between wild and domesticated birds such as chickens. with the work teams made up of 60% women. Disa polygonoides. and opportunities for improving household food security through small-scale and subsistence cultivation. Wetlands and disease In South Africa. (slender pineapple flower). Zantedeschia aethiopica. including provision of clean water. Many waterbird populations have declined because of wetland degradation e. hepatitis A and bilharzia. For example. those people are forced to relocate to cities. 16 million people have no reticulated sanitation and five million people have no access to potable water. following an approach that centres on co-operative governance and partnerships. dysentery. The conversion of healthy wetlands for cropping is not encouraged. and farming in wetlands is sustainable only if it is undertaken on a very small scale and in a way that is sensitive to the hydrology and other workings of the wetland. Using wetlands on your farm Wetlands provide specific agricultural opportunities – mainly winter grazing and some opportunities for cropping and fibre harvesting. Urginea macrocentra (poison snake-head) is found in marshy ground near streams and treats roundworm and tapeworm. Wetland rehabilitation is the action taken to reverse or halt the decline of the health of the ecosystem. it might mean reduced water quality. Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) and Water Affairs (DWA). and international and South African experience has shown that it is possible to recover some of the health and values of degraded wetlands through rehabilitation. Water Affairs and Agriculture. and – importantly – good management of wetlands. the wetland is less able to reduce the damaging impact of floods. should also be considered. natural systems are unable to cope. But where the pollution concentration is low. soils and microbes in wetlands help to reduce disease-causing organisms and pollutants. support small businesses. loss of vegetation cover. is found along the eastern coastline from the Eastern Cape to southern Mozambique. some of which are used in traditional medicines. This has resulted in higher water quality for downstream users than would be the case had there been no wetlands. Forestry and Fisheries protects wetlands and encourages their rehabilitation. is used to treat rheumatism. Wetlands are vulnerable to a range of impacts that reduce their ability to continue providing their beneficial services to people. If in doubt about the impact of agricultural activities on wetlands. Eucomis comosa. including diarrhoea. Wetlands support a great diversity of plant species. The leaves of the white arum lily. 20% youth and 1% people with disabilities. Legislation of the departments of Environmental Affairs.000 people from marginalised groups. But degradation is not necessarily permanent. The honey disa. are used to treat headaches and as a poultice. Ranunculus multifidus (common buttercup) is used to treat coughs. Preventable water-borne diseases most affect children under five years old. It is through the interaction between these elements that wetlands are able to generate the range of functions and products that benefit people. Gunnera perpensa. climate change and land use change. Worldwide. With funding provided by DEA and DWA. Rehabilitating wetlands The health and well-being of people depends on maintaining healthy ecosystems. But wetlands are not suitable for large-scale or commercial cultivation. which consists of the elements of soil. and as rural areas degrade. Wetlands provide fertile beds for crops. throat ulcers. The Programme is managed by the South African National Biodiversity Institute (SANBI) on behalf of the departments of Environmental Affairs (DEA). The Programme creates jobs while rehabilitating wetlands and enhancing biodiversity. but also resulted in the release of trapped pollutants. agriculture.500 tons of medicinal plant material. and thereby substantially reduce the risk of spreading avian flu. This means that they are vulnerable to diseases associated with polluted water. as well as infrastructure loss from more destructive flood impacts. headaches. The wetlands of the Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal yield the river pumpkin. improved sanitation. timber plantations and urban development. the plants. In some major catchments. and is used to restore the voice after an illness. Degradation of these wetlands not only reduced their ability to purify water. 3. it is recommended that you contact the relevant agricultural authority or extension workers from the Mondi Wetlands Programme for assistance. especially in areas of the country where soils are unsuitable for agriculture. For example. gaining skills while they work and increasing their capacity to earn income. Other disease management options. For example. up to 60% of the wetlands are already lost or severely degraded because of mining. those who rely on wetlands for their livelihoods lose important benefits. but this has to be managed carefully to avoid overgrazing and degradation. it may lose its ability to provide these valuable services. A hectare of wetland may have the potential to support the grazing of up to five times more animals than a hectare of terrestrial grassland. In rural areas. which is widespread in wetlands throughout the country. crops that can tolerate wet conditions can be planted in the less sensitive parts of the wetland and on the edges of the wetland. Working for Wetlands Working for Wetlands uses wetland rehabilitation as a vehicle for both poverty alleviation and the wise use of wetlands.

so it is critical to follow the correct approach. especially in the wet season. It is possible to plant some types of crops in wetlands in such a way that does not affect the functioning of the wetland. away from the permanently saturated areas. • Don’t allow heavy grazing without any rest periods. or the protective plant cover of the wetland will be removed resulting in erosion and the drying out of the wetland. • Don’t allow cattle into the wettest part of the wetland where they can cause disturbance to the highly sensitive ‘core’ of the wetland. Some examples of agricultural wise use include: • limited livestock grazing • controlled water extraction such as watering animals and a little irrigation • careful cropping without digging too many drains What actions to avoid in a wetland The following are guaranteed to impact negatively on your wetlands: • Don’t dig large drains (deeper or wider than 30cm) in a wetland.173 Use our wetlands wisely Good burning tips: The concept of wise use thus requires an approach to management through which benefits can be enjoyed without changing the natural functioning of the wetland. which can reduce its usefulness for grazing. • If you can. • Use as little fertiliser and pesticides as possible. say three. Amadumbe and certain indigenous pastures are good choices.g. for how long. especially with very hot fires at the wrong time of year. reduce the diversity of plant species and may result in erosion. Hot fires may also kill off certain plants and change the range of different plants that grow in the wetland. so burn when the grass is moist after rain. • Keep cattle on the outer edges of a wetland. On average the grazing capacity (biomass) in the outer zones of a wetland is 1. • Keep records of when you burn. sweet (or highly nutritional) grasses to be replaced by less palatable or useful species. or in the evenings or early mornings after dew. Burning needs also depend on grazing pressure. wetland forage quality can be improved by judicious burning. because this will affect the natural properties of the system and destroy many of the other benefits provided by the wetland. • Use the wetland plants that you clear away as a mulch to cover the soil. just after the first rains so that plants can regrow quickly. and you have a few wetlands near each other. which results in decreased water quality and increased risk of erosion. • You can burn the wetland about every second year if the rainfall is more than 800 mm per year.5 times higher than in an equivalent area of non-wetland. where you burn and the conditions under which you burnt so that you can improve your burning techniques and share the knowledge with your neighbours. and only plant one each year. this can result in underground fires that are difficult to control and potentially last years.g. because if the wetland soils have a high organic content. on steeper slopes and where water starts concentrating into a channel. burn one entire wetland and leave the others unburnt. and a permit is required from the relevant agricultural department for cultivating in wetlands. this means you leave patches of natural wetland vegetation in between cultivated patches. • Delay burning to another day or even year if in dry years there is a danger of soil ignition. Planting crops in a wetland One of the controversial agricultural uses for wetlands is for the cultivation of crops. Nevertheless. Wattled cranes) have not completed breeding. Planting of crops in a wetland should never involve the draining and planting of the entire wetland with crops. This will destroy the vegetation. • If you are going to dig drains make sure they are no more than 30cm deep and wide and cover only a small area so that the wetland does not dry out completely. • A good idea is to have a number of beds. This can cause erosion points that eventually develop into dongas which drain the water out of the wetland. • Watch carefully for overgrazing and find out how to correctly graze a wetland. controlling alien plants. reducing the risk of run-away fires. including improving the grazing value for livestock by removing old dead plant material and increasing productivity. • It’s a good idea to use cool fires. What you should do if you are grazing in a wetland: • Use wetlands for grazing mainly in the dry season so that cattle do not churn up very wet soils. If the wetland is grazed to its carrying capacity then you need to burn less frequently or even not at all. Useful tips if you are planting in wetlands: • Select crops that do not need much artificial drainage or dry soils to survive. • All drains should be blocked in the dry season to keep the wetland alive. when weather conditions are consistently unsuitable or if winter breeding animals (e. • Burn with the wind as this is more controllable and less damaging to plant growth points. • Prevent overgrazing and over trampling. With no protective cover. Burning wetlands Wetlands are burnt for many reasons. What you shouldn’t do: • Avoid burning in early winter. A drain in a wetland is like pulling the plug out of a bath of water and results in the severe drying out of the wetland such that loses its ability to provide many of its benefits. carrying capacity. This allows for the unburnt part to provide refuge for wildlife. reduce water quality and increase soil loss. What you shouldn’t do: • Do not allow grazing in the rainy season or when the ground is very wet because cattle may disturb the soil surface through trampling. • Patchwork cultivation is a good idea. • Plant no more than one quarter of a wetland in total. Dig only as much as is absolutely necessary. because these will seep into the water and can be polluting. The productivity of wetlands plants can be exploited for grazing. divide your wetland into burning blocks and burn only half of each block. Plant by hand. Wise grazing Productivity levels in wetlands are high although the quality of forage produced by wetland plants is typically low. • Avoid burning your wetland every year. Where this is not practical. • Burn at the beginning of the growing season. • Don’t let animals overgraze. but this is dependent on many factors such as species composition and the wetness cycles. . (e. This may cause valuable. • Never burn a wetland when it is totally dry. rather than right in the middle or in the lowest part of the wetland. and often get stuck. Burn every third or fourth year if you are in a very dry part of the country (less than 800 mm per year). If done incorrectly. burning can have unintended negative consequences. • Because of the risks of flooding and soil loss you should plant at the outside edges of the wetland. and improving habitat for wetland dependant species. when to graze. making them susceptible to erosion. • Extremely hot slow moving fires can even kill wetland plant root systems. • Avoid the following kinds of wetlands for grazing because they erode easily when disturbed by trampling and grazing: wetlands with loose soil. This means that each bed rests for two years in between plantings. and resting periods). • Try to plant with minimum disturbance. soil erosion sets in. Cultivation in wetlands is regulated by the Conservation of Agricultural Resources Act (CARA).

They are fascinating outdoor classrooms where learners can interact with the elements of the ecosystem and see first hand how they are South African National Parks (SANParks) Marius Snyders Tel: 015 781 2175 / 072 201 7936 Olga Jacobs Tel: 012 426 5100 / 046 because they will dry out the Centre for Environmental Managment Land Resources International Prof Maitland Seaman Tel: 033 392 8360 Tel: 051 401 2863 Mondi Wetlands Programme David Lindley – 012 667 6597 lindley@wetland.ufs. General Information about wetlands and several resources can be found here. wetland areas on the margins of estuaries and wetlands in catchments and landscapes where lots of damage has been done to other wetlands • Mondi Wetlands Programme website – Nuwejaars Wetland Special Management Area dirk@nuwejaars. The “Wetlands Basics” link gives news of booklets explaining aspects of • Never dig deep drains to dry out a wetland or you could destroy the structure and functioning of the wetland. and help to stave off mental illnesses such as depression. the economy of the town Wakkerstroom in Mpumalanga is built on birdwatching around the Wakkerstroom wetland and surrounding Coastal Department South African National Biodiversity Institute (SANBI) Working for Wetlands John Dini (Programme Director) Tel: 012 843 5221 wetlands@sanbi.wetland. Role players The Wetland Portal of South Africa. provides contact details of wetland provincial/regional forums across the country. False Heritage Site in December 1999. Sodwana Bay. limited environmental impact and constructability associated with the unique challenges encountered whilst working in Department of Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) Directorate: Land Use and Soil Geomeasure Group Management Tel: 031 768 1900 Tel: 012 319 7686 www.wrc. Lake St Lucia in the iSimangaliso Wetland Park in KwaZulu-Natal is another example. Aurecon’s design approach is flexible enough to cater for the needs of labour-intensive construction. Wildlife and Grassland Sciences Department of Water Affairs (DWA) Tel: 0800 200 200 Find the regional contacts on the website University of KwaZulu-Natal Biological & Conservation Sciences Tel: 031 260 7367 naidoogn2@ukzn. Lake Wetlands and agriculture: Damian Walters – 083 684 8000 Wetlands and catchment management: Vaughan Koopman – 083 228 7949 www. Tel: 051 401 2677 uMkhuze. Try to leave as much original vegetation in place as you can to protect the soil and underlying water. Wetlands Consulting Services (Pty) Ltd Tel: 012 349 2699 info@wetcs. Wetlands such as mangroves and rocky shores are popular for school outings.174 What you should not do: • Don’t plant trees in www. especially landowners and wetland users. • Avoid sensitive wetland areas: wetlands with high erosion Lake St www.groundtruth.wits. An agri-tourism possibility? Wetlands offer delightful open spaces that people can visit to walk. • Working for Wetlands Website – www.sanparks. Websites and publications • Visit the Wetland Portal of South Africa at Find wetland notes (including material for educators) under the “Green Industry” GroundTruth Tel: 033 342 6399 craig@groundtruth. especially exotic trees that consume a lot of Aurecon is a multi-disciplinary consultancy with specialisation in a vast number of water resource and environmental fields. Outdoor activities such as Aurecon Tel: 021 526 5725 / 083 792 0872 www. • Don’t plant in the wettest parts of the wetland.daff.lri. Charters www. In 2010 it received a US9 million Department of Plant Sciences grant (about Water Research Commission Stanley Liphadzi Tel: 012 330 0340 www. hippo’s and angling wetlands are lucrative tourist destinations. • Avoid using chemicals that will contaminate the surface or groundwater. birdwatch or just enjoy being in projects in the area.geomeasure. National policy and legislation provides clear direction and support for • Don’t clear big areas to Water Wise Tel: 0860 10 10 60 www. but the very complex links between people and wetlands means that actions aimed at sustainably rehabilitating and conserving wetlands will depend on the dedication and commitment of all stakeholders.uovs. wetlands supporting endangered species such as Wattled iSimangaliso Wetland Park Tel: 035 590 1633 / 082 797 7944 The University of the Free State is actively involved in the Lesotho Wetlands Project as part of the University’s Water management in water-scarce areas Strategic Academic Cluster.7 million) from Tel: 051 401 2514 the World Bank for empowerment www. Department of Environmental Affairs (DEA) Tel: 012 310 3911 www. • Never drain a wetland near its outlet.isimangaliso. www. Cape Vidal and Stellenbosch University Department of Conservation Ecology and Entomology Tel: 021 808 3728 www. Isimangaliso consists of Kosi Bay. Department of Zoology and Entomology The Isimangaliso Wetland Park was Tel: 051 401 2427 listed as South Africa’s first World Wildlife & Environment Society of South Africa – see Mondi Wetlands Programme Rand Water Foundation Mohlatleho Sekoaila Tel: 011 682 0018 Plant and Environmental Sciences Tel: 011 717 6403 Endangered Wildlife Trust (EWT) African Crane Conservation Programme (EWT-ACCP) Tel: 011 372 3600 kerrynm@ewt. Here the success of tourism justifies the 1996 government decision to adopt a tourism-based economic development strategy for the Always leave suitable buffer zones between timber plantations and For example. boating. in preference to mining. birding and watersports all contribute to improving our lifestyles and mental well-being. www. forested As habitats for wildlife such as Water Institute of South Africa Tel: 011 805 3537 wisa@wisa. University of the Witwatersrand rory@nuwejaars. skills development. fishing.

html. Source: Tim Snow (EWT). It was signed in Ramsar. You can also subscribe to a monthly electronic newsletter with regular updates on happenings in the wetlands world. buck. Land Resources International. then decide on the correct and relevant control method to be The first phase of this programme. thereby wasting more than is eaten. but this misses the point.primatecare. with proposals to increase that list. a witness to a world that passes unseen by humanity’s schedules and timetables. WET Management Series Although designed primarily for guiding wetland rehabilitation work in South Africa. Find the Wetlands. which is being undertaken by the University of Cape Town. Others can be used to foster wise wetland management and develop understanding of the driving forces behind the formation and degradation of wetlands. this set of integrated tools can be applied to a wide range of other purposes. let us spare a thought for the many “discreet” wild animals (rabbits. The research programme’s second phase. the following are also role players in humanwildlife conflict scenarios: • Leopard and Cheetah (the latter not wearing a TOYOTA T-shirt) • Hyena and Wild Dog • Pachyderms – included are the elephant. Iran in 1971. will add new tools to the WET-Management resources and good agricultural practice Wildlife on farms 1. The WET Management Series is the product of the Wetland Rehabilitation component of the National Wetlands Research Programme.ewt. The damage varies from rooting out newly planted crops to pushing over mature maize plants to feed on the cobs. One farmer believes that the situation is out of control. For information and documents relating to Ramsar and for a list of Wetlands of International Importance.175 • • • • • or requested from 012 843 5221 or wetlands@sanbi. It is important that the farmer who has lost livestock on the farm to predators. • Birds can descend in hundreds (or quelea in millions) on planted crops such as corn. please contact Donovan Kotze at kotzed@ukzn. Working for Wetlands. Roland Vorwerk. The size of the commodity is such that it won’t be totally consumed in one night. South Africa is a member country and has recognised and registered 19 wetlands as being of international importance. make an informed assessment to determine which one. Pontso Pakkies and Umesh Bahadur for feedback. John Dini. He faces a cunning adversary. Overview Chancing across a steenbok on your farm can lead to a sense of mystery and fascination. but the animal damages a new one every night. visit the black-backed jackal (Canis mesomelas) and caracal (Caracal caracal). Sharon Pollard and Scotty Kyle. 2. bat eared foxes. It is easy for the urbanite to have an opinion after seeing a television programme on a Sunday feels LISTENED to. an initiative of the Water Research Commission. For further information about the WET Management Series. There are many differing theories and beliefs on this topic – and a lot of emotion! While we look for solutions. focusing on wetland rehabilitation. Prevention is better than cure – refer to www. • Dogs – lack of control of domestic dogs by owners can cause huge stock losses.sanbi. The National Freshwater Ecosystem Priority Areas Atlas is a HUGE document with lots and lots of maps of freshwater rivers and wetlands that need to be protected. provincial conservation agencies. Forestry and Fisheries. through the Working for Wetlands programme housed by the South African National Biodiversity Institute. universities and private enterprise. vineyard and fruit trees. Kerry Philp. It is available online on the CSIR website or can be ordered from the Water Research Commission. Department of Agriculture. Duncan Hay. livestock on which his own livelihood depends. Agriculture and Poverty Reduction (August 2011) report on the International Water Management Institute website – www. The capture or killing of these intelligent social animals is complicated and should be done by professionals. and Wetland Consulting Services. Retief Grobler. • Baboon and Vervet monkey cause damage to crops like maize and various fruit and vegetable kinds. the Secretariat of the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands. though the warthog is diurnal and the bushpig nocturnal. They are also of enormous value for education and training. Find the guidelines which cover the consideration of wetlands in the EIA process at www. Contributors: Craig Cowden. The value of losses per annum is estimated by small stock producer organisations to be at least three times as much as that caused by stock theft. the University of KwaZulu-Natal. The figure has been disputed by Wetland Health and an enemy who adapts to his every device! Another farmer selects a combination of the control measures available and believes that losses are limited to acceptable levels. hippo and rhinos • Wild pigs – the damage and tracks of the warthog and bushpig are very similar. the EIA Toolkit website. Identification of Damage Causing Animals • The first step at a carcass is crucial: determine whether the animal was killed by a predator or only scavenged (dead animals do not bruise). The presence of wildlife on farms is not always as discreet or innocent. You feel Dick Frost. Stanley • If the animal was killed by a predator.ramsar. was jointly funded by the Commission and the Department of Environmental Affairs. Predation: Damage Causing Animals Livestock loss due to predators is at present the biggest threat towards sustainable economic livestock production in South Rehana Dada.cgiar.eiatoolkit. pangolins) poisoned or maimed inadvertently in a battle that has very little to do with them. Mondi Wetlands Programme. Find the 2012 National Biodiversity Assessment (NBA) giving an overview of the country’s wetland system at The Ramsar Convention on Wetlands is an inter-governmental treaty that provides a framework for national action and international cooperation for the conservation and wise use of wetlands and their resources. The series is published by the Water Research Commission : Isimangaliso Wetland Park Authority. with some roleplayers placing the value of livestock losses to Damage Causing Animals somewhere past the R1 billion Information for this chapter was supplied by the Mondi Wetlands Programme (MWP).za or Working for Wetlands at wetlands@sanbi. sunflower. Donovan aardvark. Our thanks to John Dini (Programme Director at Working for Wetlands). Other key partners include the Department of Water Affairs. In addition to the usual suspects. . For example. some tools are used to assess wetland health and ecosystem services. • Porcupine can cause relatively large damage when crops like watermelon and pumpkins are targeted.

so after a while even the best trapper may have declining success with a method in a particular area. Frightening devices These may include lights and noises. used to frighten and confuse predators away from kraals . which can result in livestock being trapped and more than one animal being killed. Donkeys Donkeys can be very effective at chasing away predators and other intruders.176 Cage traps / Live traps Correct approach to Damage Causing Wild Animals a) What animal is responsible for the damage? b) How much damage can be ascribed to this individual? c) In which areas of the property does the most damage occur? d) During which season or growth phase does the most damage occur? e) Which mitigation measures can be implemented to prevent or reduce damage? f) Are the proposed management methods ecologically acceptable and legal in terms of applicable legislation? g) Are the proposed management methods humane and ethically acceptable? Source: Co-operative Agreement between the Predator Management Forum (Western-Cape) and the Western Cape Nature Conservation Board 3. and non-lethal i. guard monitors and trackers etc. Find contacts in the “Speciality fibre production” chapter. but issues relating to Anatolians have been raised. Landmark Foundation Leopard and Caracal Trap Designs are available from the Landmark Foundation. and certainly recommended above the more indiscriminate methods. Call 022 931 2900. many animals die of thirst and starvation in these traps since they are not always monitored. Live traps have been effective tools for research projects and enable farmers to trap leopards or caracul without injuries for re-release either in their own original territories or for translocation. Find notes on www. Tel: 083 324 3344. for example. of course.protect-alamb. As a management intervention.e.jackal. Animals are cut off from food.cheetah. A plan for a Game Proof Predator Fence is also obtainable from Dr Bool Smuts. This is the recommended way of removing any animal from an area –traps have been designed and developed by Mr Jaco van Deventer of CapeNature. Find the notes on • Bell collar • Bell and scent collar • Toxic collars target only the damage causing individual. The idea though is to encourage indigenous prey species like springbok and guinea fowl. • Damage causing animals get to know the devices and tricks used by farmers. Predation: control methods • You could kill 10 jackal in one night without getting rid of the actual culprit causing the damage. This works best for an enclosure close to the farm house. Objections to fencing include: • an insecure enclosure may allow predator would encourage smaller ones like caracals. lives traps are devices that merely contain animals without causing any major Here.hotsure. Other collars: • “Dead Stop Collar” – Klaas Louw at 072 424 7752 • “King Collar” – Gray King at 046 685 0645 • Protect-A-Lamb – Eddie Steenkamp at 023 418 1676 or call 021 881 3242. protection and aversion. CelMax “Veldwagter” SMS Warning System – speak to Phillip Lotter at 028 212 3346 or visit www. caracals and other species have been captured unharmed using these. they kill animals.e. • Haphazard measures are not worth it. Role players include: • The Cheetah Outreach runs an Anatolian Shepherd programme. Alpacas are 24-hour watch guards and are of particular value around lambing season provided they are introduced 6-8 weeks prior to lambing. not by numbers of predator skins in the Visit www. Removing the largest predator (say leopards). There is no guarantee that you will get the particular individual who has caused the livestock since they are a preferred snack. Collars and technology Call HOTSURE for livestock monitors and track collars. • thousands of innocent animals every year are electrocuted against the electric fences. this has also been disputed. such as FM radios and VHF radio alarms systems. breeding partners. Call and shoot The advantage is that it is target species specific. Anatolian Shepherd Dogs This method is vouched for by many. • The Ann van Dyk Cheetah Centre – 012 504 9906 / 083 892 0515 • Bool Smuts (Landmark Foundation) – 083 324 3344 • Nic Slabber – 082 603 2229 • Grootfontein Agricultural Development Institute (GADI) – 049 842 1113 • The EWT’s Wildife Conflict Mitigation Programme – 011 372 3600 / 072 640 9388 / 082 853 1068 Buffer species Like most suggested “solutions”. whilst the same method applied by the same trapper may be highly successful elsewhere. Refer to the “Donkey” chapter. Unfortunately. Related to this is the caution to interfere as little as possible with the biodiversity on the farm. the predators are kept apart from livestock. There are many control methods to choose from with a clear distinction between those which are lethal i. Denning This is when the young are removed from dens. fencing is cheaper than potential continued losses. Find contact details in the “Fencing” chapter. Role players can advise on where fences would be most effective. Consult a role player or a farming colleague with experience in working with guarding dogs before taking on a puppy. Alpacas Alpacas have a strong herding instinct and will run an intruder down. Interfering in one part has knock-on effects or call 0861HOTCALL (468225). shelter. If you were to remove all predators. those which control by prevention. • fences interfere with biodiversity. alarm monitors. • the maintenance of fencing can be expensive and a constant use of man hours. because animals avoid or escape from poorly set traps and controls and this will often make matters worse. Fencing By building predator-proof fences. Their presence acts as a “buffer” between your livestock and predators. Success will be measured by reduced losses and increased profits. It also enables tracking via GPS collars facilitating groundbreaking research into the management of livestock by their owners. The control equipment should be seen as a toolbox from which the correct tool is selected for the varying applications. a gradual abundance of rodents would be one Many leopards.

restafrica. Africa’s most threatened ‘big cat’. recognising that farmers possess a wealth of stored knowledge of great importance which assists those working in the field of nature conservation.pmg. “I think lethal control … should only be acceptable after all non lethal exclusion techniques have been tried.cheetah. maintains and manages The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species ™. Please contact: Bonita Francis. innovative conflict prevention techniques all the time and are encouraged to share these with role players like Prof HO de Waal (Canis-Caracul Programme) and the Endangered Wildlife Trust’s Wildlife Conflict Mitigation Programme). Livestock/herd management includes lambing co-ordination.africat. Unfortunately such devices also attract thieves who steal lights. When poison targets only the damage causing individual “we are making tremendous progress”.za NACSSA supports the agricultural industry with best land management practices. It implements global species conservation initiatives.e. Producer organisations The Predation Management Forum (PMF) is representative of all industries affected by predation. In South Africa some aspects of herd management become difficult because of the size of farming operations and a small workforce that has become possible thanks to technology. National Association of Conservancies and Stewardships of South Africa (NACSSA) Tel: 016 590 2914 www. Rob Harrison-White “The use of non-lethal methods should always be considered. • The Rare and Endangered Species Trust (REST) in Namibia – www. On lethal control Before using lethal control options legislation should be checked with the local authority regarding possible restrictions which may include or require: • permit needed • proof of damage • proof that non lethal control options have failed • only qualified professionals used to target problem individuals • no payment / bounty system – hunters should not be paid per head of jackal killed • record to be kept by department in authority.ssn.environment. if these devices are used frequently. a non-profit organisation based in Namibia – www. as well as obvious steps such as avoiding marginal areas where exposure to certain predators is greater e. predators will become accustomed to the stimulus and become unafraid. including Red List Biodiversity Assessment projects to assess the status of species for the IUCN Red List. The move is towards this as the lethal control has not addressed the situation in 3 centuries”. NACSSA is opposed to the illegal use of poisons to control any problem species. • Namibia has the largest remaining population of free-ranging Cheetah in the • Defenders of Wildlife (USA) – www. Tel no 041 365 – International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN).co.environment. don’t put the cows in the paddocks on the border of the forest during calving Department of Agriculture.iucn. 2010. Find it at www. Thys de Wet Many farmers are developing • Botswana Cheetah Conservation Fund – www. dated November 26. by the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES). radios and livestock. • The Africat 6. SA Mohair Growers’ Association (SAMGA) and Wildlife Ranching SA (WRSA). Find the notes on toxic collars at or www. As with bell and scent the cheetah is protected by law in Botswana and Visit www. • The Species Survival Network (SSN) co-ordinates conservation activities around the world to secure CITES protection for plants and animals affected by international trade. but with our still imperfect damage control methods this is not always possible”.177 at night. stemborer poisons to kill predators. Ostriches Ostriches have been reported to provide protection (see the “Ostrich” chapter). Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) Directorate Animal Production Tel: 012 319 7662 www. Department of Environmental Affairs (DEA) Tel: 012 310 3911 / 3534 MBoshoff@environment. • The wild cheetah population in Africa today is classified as ‘Vulnerable’ in the IUCN’s Red Data List. This is especially true when traps are not regularly inspected. if you are a cattle farmer near the Wilderness. Herd Management This is touted as the major issue by some role players i. Find the relevant role players under heading 6. Red Meat Producers’ Organisation (RPO).gov. using lambing pastures and stock rotation. International business environment Human-predator conflict is not unique to South Africa. PMF Secretariate. 33806. The IUCN Species Programme • www. estimated at 2 500. Conservation bodies Find details of conservation bodies like CapeNature in the chapter on If used inconsistently and only for short periods of time they are effective around calf or lamb camps at night. This method has the potential to create hundreds (thousands?) of jobs. namely the National Woolgrowers’ Association (NWGA). National strategy and government contact A draft Norms & Standards for the Management of Damage-Causing Animals was published in the General Notice Nr. not predator management. Poison It is important to note that agricultural poisons may only be used as prescribed on the primarily on commercial livestock farmlands.daff. Herdsman A diligent and well-trained herder can prove to be invaluable in detecting and preventing potential problems before they take place. with great socioeconomic benefits.cheetahbotswana. Role players Conservancies and stewardships See the chapters on conservancies and • Cheetah Conservation Fund Namibia – www. 1084 of the Government Gazette Nr. that livestock management should be the focus. Ninety percent of Namibia’s Cheetah live outside of protected reserves. . There is a significant fine – even a jail sentence – for using. Leg-hold devices/gin traps These are strongly discouraged because of the unacceptably high number of non-target eliminations. www.

za Jackal Connect Rob Harrison-White Cheetah programmes The Ann van Dyk Cheetah Centre Tel: 012 504 9906 / 083 892 0515 • Kwandwe cheetah project An organisation in the Western Cape – – gusm@sanparks. Tel: 021 881 3242 panthera. Wildlife and Grassland Sciences Canis-Caracal Programme Prof HO de Waal The Cape Leopard Trust www. which provide more detailed information – charts. Other groups have included: brown hyena and other smaller predators. The WCPG produce an informative newsletter Antidote – contact the EWT for further details.ewt. .org cheetah@intekom.ewt. Tim Snow. at snowman@ewt. The work of the Group soon expanded to include other conflict issues between humans and wildlife. and officially changed its name to reflect this new direction. waterfowl and the detrimental environmental impacts of certain herbicides and their Cheetah Outreach • Iranian Cheetah Project www. etc Mainly active in the Limpopo for all matters concerning cheetahs and North West Write to the Programme some mentioned under heading The Wildlife Conflict Prevention Programme was first established as the Poison Working Group in 1992 and addresses the large-scale poisoning of birds of prey. • The Threatened Grassland Species Programme (EWT-TGSP) incorporates a focus on the Oribi. The National Cheetah Conservation Forum (NCCFSA) is an advisory forum consisting of conservationists. landowners. pictures of spoor etc. • Cango Wildlife Ranch – info@cango. hunters. Chart used courtesy of Deon Black-backed jackal and caracal programmes University of the Free State Department of Leopard programmes Landmark Foundation Tel: 083 324 3344 maps. it Programme – especially highlights the plight of moholoholorehab@wol. • The Source to Sea Programme aims to conserve river ecosystems. • The Riverine Rabbit Programme (EWT-RRP) aims to ensure the survival of the Critically Endangered endemic Riverine Rabbit Further information on the following EWT Working Groups may be found on the EWT website – the cheetah and promotes the use of Anatolian shepherd • Kgalagadi Cheetah Project www. government now one of South Africa’s most threatened antelope. they in South Africa. specialise in cheetahs but also have the expertise to assist with leopard. Many of their Programmes are also mentioned in the “Birds and farming” chapter. The reader is referred to publications.ufs. game Endangered Wildlife Trust (EWT) programmes The Endangered Wildlife Trust (EWT) Tel: 011 372 3600 focusing on educating the farming • Moholoholo Education community about Other Programmes of relevance to this chapter are: • The vision of the Carnivore Conservation Programme (EWT-CCP) is to develop southern Africa into a region where carnivores are managed in an ecologically and economically sustainable manner.

Ecologically Acceptable and Ethical Management occasionalpapers/livestockguardingdog. specifically predators.nmmu. killing Afrikaans and isiZulu.179 Wildlife rehabilitation centres African Bird of Prey Sanctuary Tel: 031 785 4382 Bird and Exotic Animals www. • Wildlife on conservationists and the like. leg hold traps. FreeMe Wildlife Rehabilitation Centre Tel: 011 807 6993 / 083 558 5658 www. Manufacturers of antivenoms for the treatment of snake. Dr Bool Smuts (Landmark Foundation). Prof HO De Waal. • Wildcare: The Story of Karen Trendler and Her African Wildlife Rehabilitation Centre Mike Cadman (International Fund for Animal Welfare) Published by Jacana Daktari Bush School and Sanwild Wildlife Trust Wildlife Orphanage Tel: 015 383 9958 / 083 310 3882 Tel: 082 656 2969 www. Methods previously practised are now prohibited by legislation www. NSPCA and Cape University (NMMU) Centre for African Conservation University of Free State Ecology African Large Predator Research Tel: 041 504 2308 / 16 Unit (ALPRU) www. Thys de Wet (Animal Damage Control Institute .canids.baboonsonline.wildlifecollege. World Wild Life Fund – SA – find details in the Biodiversity chapter.primatecare. Southern African Wildlife College Tel: 015 793 7300 www. photographs and pictures of spoor make it an attractive read. • 2004 Integrated Livestock & Predator Management: A Farmer’s Guide. See www.alut. is a frequent topic in the agricultural Tel: 051 401 2210 • “Best Management Practices: Human-Wildlife Conflict Prevention and Management” – a working document with inputs from Cheetah Outreach. • Contact Cape Wools about the DVD on predator the whole field of animal damage University of Cape Town control Baboon Research Unit Nelson Mandela Metropolitan Tel: 021 650 3645 www. non lethal as well as lethal controls are discussed. Websites and publications • Visit the websites mentioned earlier in this Stellenbosch University Department of Conservation Ecology and Entomology Tel: 021 808 3728 Training courses offered cover Predators and Farmers describes the various predators.savp. • The report Livestock guarding dogs: their current use world wide by Robin Rigg compiles a detailed review of current practices in the use of livestock guarding dogs throughout the world and to discuss these in relation to livestock depredation by predators. spider and scorpion bites 7. Wildlife and Tel: 044 801 5111 Grassland Sciences www. 2003 ISBN 1919931538. • Predators and Associated Wildlife – Livestock. poison Tel: 015 795 5236 The centre specialises in the care De Wildt Cheetah and Wildlife Trust. This manual is seen as a practical and informative tool to be used by farmers. livestock protection collars (poison collars).freemewildlife. It replaces Predators on Livestock Farms – a Practical Farmers’ Manual for Non-lethal. • The Best practice reference manual for wool sheep farming in South Professional predator hunters South African Vaccine Producers Tel: 011 386 6000 www. Place orders with the Endangered Wildlife Rhodes University Wildlife and Reserve Management Online courses include HumanResearch Group Wildlife Conflict and Predator Dr Dan Parker Management on Livestock Farms.nmmu. The reader is made aware of what the law and his website. and offered alternatives. including Tim of baboons National Society for the The Centre for Rehabilitation Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (NSPCA) of Wildlife (CROW) Wildlife Unit Tel: 031 462 1127 Tel: 011 907 3591 This centre is Onderstepoort Academic HART Wildlife Sanctuary (Helping Animals Recover from based at Trauma) Veterinary Tel: 082 448 7860 / 072 623 5359 Located near Kroonstad in the Centre for Animal Rehabilitation Free State and Education (CARE) Moholoholo Wildlife Rehab Tel: 015 769 6251 Centre www. Holistic. Game farms and Protected Areas – a detailed and photographic analysis of most predators cohabiting farming enterprises is presented. lists benefits and conservation status and indicates their potential impact to Wildlife and Environmental Society of South Africa (WESSA) – find details in the Biodiversity chapter. brought out by the National Wool Growers Association (NWGA) includes useful notes on predator control.ufs.jackal. Find the document on www. www. Call 041 484 or contact 041 365 Limpopo-based Training and research Africa Land-Use Training Tel: 014 717 3819 www. 9781919931531. Yolan Friedmann and Deon Cilliers (Endangered Wildlife Trust). Landbouweekblad and Farmer’s School of Natural Resource Management Department Animal. Animal Tel: 046 603 8530 Other role players African Predator Tel: 082 485 3885 www. Cheetah Conservation Fund Namibia. African Large Predator Research Unit (ALPRU) and the ALPRU pages at www. Contact the Landmark Foundation. feeding patterns. Rob Harrison-White (Jackal Connect) .jackal. Material for this chapter has been merged from many contributors and Prof GN Smit Tel: 051 401 2125 Potchefstroom College of Agriculture Wildlife Campus Tel: 018 299 6739 / 6636 Tel: 011 656 1601 www. • Published by the Endangered Wildlife Trust and available in English. gin Animal Damage Control Institute (ADCI) Tel: 076 129 0889 www.sanwild.

Overview The Animal Feeds Manufacturing Association (AFMA) website is a comprehensive source of information on this industry. The temperature of the feed is about 80°C on the other side of the pellet press. all the liquids like oil are also included. Sixty different products.g. Cooler The pellet is still soft and too warm to store as it is post pelleting and the temperature need to be brought down. the pet food industry and home mixers provide the rest. Visit www. The feed milling process Raw material Feed is made up of a number of raw materials that is all combined in different ratio’s to form a perfect balance of all the nutrients. Incorporator/conditioning In the incorporator the mash feed is incorporated with steam to increase the heat and moisture of the feed. 2.5kg of premix in 1000kg of feed.2 and 4. mainly of agricultural origin. The total national feed production today is estimated on ± 10. AFMA members manufacture animal feed for 55 – 60% of the market whilst the feedlots.8mm) to form a pellet. vitamins and minerals now goes through the pellet press where it is forced through a small opening (usually between 3. are used to make balanced feed for poultry.afma. thorough mixing is extremely important. Growth in the animal feed industry is positive news for grain producers. The growth of the animal feed industry in the coming couple of years is entirely dependent on the growth in the animal product market determined by consumer spending. Pellet press The mixed raw material. Thereafter the other raw materials that don’t need grinding are included as well as the prescribed premixes of vitamins. The bulk of the feed is: • maize • soya oilcake • sunflower • wheat bran A number of other raw materials are also included e. The pelleted feed goes through a shaker to get rid of unwanted fines and it is now ready to be bagged or loaded in a bulk storage bin. minerals and vitamins. This is done in the cooler and the temperature is decreased drastically to make the pellet hard and durable. Grinding The grains are transported from the silos to grinders in the mill where it is grinded to a suitable coarseness depending on the type of feed manufactured.180 Mixer inputs Animal feeds 1. sheep and other the concentrated minerals and vitamins will not be evenly distributed.7 million tons and the gross value of the total feed production is calculated at ± R22-25 billion per annum. The mixing process is important in the feed manufacturing process because if the feed is not mixed thoroughly. which is crucial in the pelleting process.: • limestone • molasses • lysine • fishmeal (not all feed) • vitamins • minerals The bulk raw materials are stored in the silos and the lower volume dense materials is in flat storage on the mill floor. The animal feed market has grown continuously for the past two decades in SA and abroad. smaller manufacturers. Taking into account the low inclusion of about 2. It is clearly a vital part of the South African farmer’s life. Source: Johan Conradie at Epol . During the mixing process. particularly the poultry. The addition of the steam helps with the binding of the particles to form a pellet when pressed. beef and sheep and dairy industries which are big users of animal feed in the animal production value chain. minerals and cattle.

Some of these role players: ARC-Animal Production Institute (ARC-API) Tel: 012 672 9111 Training and research The bigger feed manufacturers normally have their research done at the Agricultural Research Council (ARC) or at one of the universities. Role players Associations Visit the International Feed Industries Federation (IFIF) website – Training on the subject of animal nutrition is available at the ARC Animal Production Institute in the form of short Universities and Agricultural Colleges offer training in animal nutrition or related courses that are of value in the feed industry. Rural Development and Extension Tel: 051 401 3765 www. Agro-byproducts) Monogastric nutrition: Dr A T Kanengoni – 012 672 9355 (Pig nutrition) Ms P Pitsane – 012 672 99272 (Pig systems) Ms S E Coetzee – 012 672 9302 (Poultry nutrition) North-West University (Mafikeng Campus) Dale Beighle Centre Tel: 018 389 2744 / 30 www. It is a way for him to save money because he only pays for the milling.ufs.afma. Farmers can purchase commercial concentrates from feed suppliers.ufs.arc. contact either the South African Bureau of Standards. International Trade and tariff matters are covered in the Chairman’s Report (find it at AFMA members import more than 75% of their local demand of Soya oilcake due to insufficient local supply and quality concerns. Animal Feeds Manufacturing Association (AFMA) Tel: 012 663 9097 www.afma. Registrar: Act No 36/1947 Tel: 012 319 7303 In terms of the For information on the standard. must be registered with the Registrar of Act 36 of 1947 before it could be sold into the market or used in animal feed These are usually the three/four year degree or diploma to mix with maize which they themselves have milled. Agricultural Colleges also undertake research in the area of animal feeds.afma.afma. Pesticides and Fertilizers” option under “Divisions” at Farm Department of Animal. all feed raw materials except for maize and unbroken grains. feed sales • Farmers sell most of the grains via SAFEX but some also negotiate with feed mills for pre-harvest contracts. Import figures. symposia and the AFMA FORUM a tri-annual congress and agricultural trade agreements. Petfood Industry Association including keeping abreast of changes Tel: 033 343 2874 and Attention is given to matters of importance to the .agric. • The animal feeds industry is divided into the formal feed industry (members of AFMA) and the other includes feedlots. National strategy and government contact Find the “Feeds. 5. AFMA is a member of the International Feed Industries Federation (IFIF). In some cases the feed has to comply with specific requirements since the animal products produced with the feed are being exported to Europe and other countries. identifying www. Agricultural Remedies and Stock Remedies Act. Good manufacturing practice for the self mixing of feed in the livestock industry The standard covers the self mixing of compound feed and supplements into livestock threats and opportunities. Wildlife and Grassland Sciences Prof HJ van der Merwe Tel: 051 401 2211 www.ifif. too.nwu. Find the “Acts & legislation” option at University of the Free State Centre for Sustainable Agriculture. but vital short courses are also given. The export of animal feeds is normally restricted to the neighbouring countries because it is difficult to transport such bulky products over long distances. International business environment 6. to ensure that the products consistently meet the legal requirements for human and animal health. AFMA represents the feed industry on various platforms where it is necessary to enhance or protect the interests of the feed industry. SANS 898. Find the details in the “Agricultural education and training” chapter. the Fertilizers and Feeds Bill [B41-2012] will in effect replace parts of Act 36 0f 3. Contacts: Ruminant nutrition: Dr F Nherera – 012 672 9253 (Dairy nutrition) Mr M Muya – 012 672 9342 (Dairy nutrition) Dr Roger Pambu – 012 672 9304 (Small stock nutrition) Mr M Ratsaka – 012 672 9306 (Feedlot systems) Mr K-J Leeuw – 012 672 9320 (Feedlot systems) Mr D B Nkosi – 012 672 9300 (Silage. Stock Remedies. 1947 (Act 36 of 1947) and its regulations. 012 428 7911 or the Red Meat Industry Forum at 012 667 1189. The institute through its resources is in a position to test animal feeds and is on the forefront in investigating the use of a variety of by-products from agriculture and the food processing industries on a variety of farm animal species for use by the commercial feed manufacturers through to the resource poor farmers. mixing and other raw materials. • There is an established gristing principle whereby the farmer takes maize to feedmills. All animal feed for sale is required to be registered in terms of Act 36. If promulgated as an Act. smaller feed mills and home mixers. and environmental safety. Local business environment AFMA industry information can be found under the “Resources & links” option at www. Application forms. Guidelines and contacts at DAFF are available. technology transfer through the AFMA MATRIX a quarterly magazine. • Sernick Veevoere (Edms) Bpk 056 631 0120 • Tanqua Feeds (Pty) Ltd 028 261 1519 • Telwiedré Feeds 058 852 2742 • Veekos (Edms) Bpk 054 331 1351 • Brennco Feeds (Pty) Ltd 012 342 0744 • Bovasol 033 263 1611 www.bioindustrial. • AFGRI Animal Feeds 011 063 2347 • Atlas Trading & Shipping (A division of Grindrod (South Africa) (Pty) Limited 031 302 1700 / 011 233 7455 Companies: animal feed suppliers Find a comprehensive AFMA member and associate member list on • Olam South Africa (Pty) Ltd 031 566 5499 • Pennville (Pty) Ltd 012 372 1074 • Esco Feeds (Pty) Ltd 036 352 2193 • Essential Feeds 036 634 1000 • Evertrade Feeds (Pty) Ltd 031 566 6610 • Kanhym Estates (Pty) Ltd 013 249 7800 • Protea Animal Feeds 011 821 3365 • Bio-Minerale 013 246 7451 • Chemuniqué International 011 789 2414 • Nutri Feeds 018 293 0019 • Rymco (Pty) Ltd 011 248 8252 • SA Premix 051 653 1001 • Brisen Commodities 012 640 1600 • Vitam International 012 665 5245 • Animal Nutrition & Health (Pty) Ltd 012 667 3961 • Apex Commodities (Pty) Ltd 011 475 1015 • Ashkan Consulting (Pty) Ltd 011 466 8763/4 • Lubern Feeds (Pty) Ltd 082 449 9282 • Marifeed (Pty) Ltd 028 312 1106 • Bitek Feed Science (Pty) Ltd 011 466 1751 www. traders of raw • Meadow Feeds 011 991 6000 • LignoTech SA (Pty) Ltd 039 973 6000 • Louis Dreyfus Commodities Africa (Pty) Ltd 011 217 5300 and • Prodsure 012 252 3778 • NuTec Southern Africa (Pty) Ltd 033 397 9405 • Oceana Brands (Pty) Ltd 021 415 8500 • Bester Feed & Grain (Pty) Ltd 021 809 2500 • Marsing & Co Africa (Pty) Ltd 011 462 6913 • DSM Nutritional Products South Africa (Pty) Ltd 011 398 6900 • KK Animal Nutrition 031 910 5100 • Energy Oil (Pty) Ltd 011 824 0473 • Evonik Degussa Africa 011 697 0700 • Dolphin Coast Feeds 032 947 0075 • Eagles Rock Feed Mill (Pty) Ltd 014 577 0087 • Eggbert Eggs (Pty) Ltd 087 940 2025 • Cargill RSA (Pty) Ltd 086 122 7445 • Novus • BASF 011 203 2400 • Zinchem 011 746 5000 • ADVIT Animal Nutrition SA 011 524 0440 • NutroScience (Pty) Ltd 022 482 4575 • Allem Brothers (Pty) Ltd 056 343 3111 • ALZU Enterprises 013 249 8900 • MG2Mix SA (Pty) Ltd 011 866 2900 • Megastarter Biotech (Pty) Ltd t/a MS Biotech 076 826 9211 • Multi Feeds 053 474 1848/9 • Noble Resources South Africa (Pty) Ltd 021 808 1900 manufacturers of raw materials • ADDCON Africa Feed & Grain Additives (Pty) Ltd 011 460 4002/3 www. • Maize & More (Pty) Ltd 013 243 1166 • Majesty Oil Mills (Pty) Ltd 011 660 7074 • Malachite Chemicals 011 455 1201 • Denvet 033 345 1093 • Grains for Africa Commodity Brokers (Pty) Ltd 011 485 2575 • Kemin Industries South Africa 011 605 2633 • Bedson Africa (Pty) Ltd 012 803 4376 • Chemfit (Pty) Ltd 011 918 1900 • Tongaat Hulett Starch 011 458 5000 • Voermol Feeds (Pty) Ltd 032 439 5599/ 5850 • SA Salt Co-operation 082 412 2857 • Savannah Commodities 011 519 1000 • Trademore (Pty) Ltd 011 783 8191 • Feedpro 053 927 5406 • WW Bartlet Poultry Farm (Pty) Ltd 011 662 1433 Companies: • Allied Nutrition 012 667 4213 • Extru Feeds 036 448 1605 • Feedpharm Trading 021 853 1659 • FR Waring Feeds (Pty) Ltd 031 764 2951 • Biomin Animal Nutrition (Pty) Ltd 018 468 1455 www. • Alltech (Pty) Ltd 021 865 2669 • Meaders Feeds Ltd 00230 249 3860 • Molatek Animal Feeds 013 791 1036 • NOVA Feeds 018 293 0019 • Bioindustrial Services cc 011 970 2525 • Epol 031 242 8500 • AFGRI Trading (Pty) Ltd 011 063 2347 • Crane Feeds (Pty) Ltd 012 346 0732 • Dalein Voere (Edms) Bpk 012 808 5999 • De Heus Feed (Pty) Ltd 031 785 1575 • Kerry Ingredients (Pty) Ltd 011 923 6360 •Trademar Trading (Pty) Ltd 011 706 5777 • Nu-Pro Feeds (Pty) Ltd 058 303 9587 • Opti Feeds (Pty) Ltd 018 632 4053 • Seaboard Overseas Trading & Shipping (Pty) Ltd 031 581 4500 • Profile Feeds (Pty) Ltd 021 875 5890 • Rossgro Feeds (Pty) Ltd 013 665 1999 • SA Feed Phosphates 053 298 2817 • Unigrain (Pty) Ltd 011 692 4400 • Virbac Animal Health 012 657 6000 www.alltech. Inc 082 495 8185 www. • Biochemical Chemical Consultants 033 343 1414 http:// bsclaboratory. for the publication Bulk density of various products used as ingredients in animal • Nviro Tek Labs 082 889 0138 Visit the International Feed Industries Federation (IFIF) and the European Feed Manufacturers’ Federation (FEFAC) websites.agriinspec. available from the ARC in Silverton. You can also download to from www. Dairy • Buckle Packaging 011 613 8024 • FeedPro 053 927 5406 www. • Cape Grits 021 535 5932 • Central Analytical Laboratories 011 661 1910 www.agriprotein.feedpro. Find it under the “Publications” and “Agricultural Marketing” options at www.ifif.g. The Animal Feeds industry is covered briefly DAFF’s Maize Market Value Chain Profile: 2010-2011.KnowMycotoxins. The publications of other industries Other companies involved We include details only of some of the numerous other companies involved here. (supplier of laboratory and testing equipment for GMOs) • Texproy 031 262 7570 See also the “General farm equipment” chapter (for feeders and mixers) and “Grain storage & handling” chapter (milling equipment) • Agri Inspec 012 843 5630 / 7 is aimed at educating the various market segments in the animal feed industry that continuously face up to the repercussions of mycotoxins in animal feed and – ultimately – on their livestock • P & B Lime Works 028 424 1157 Call 012 842 4017 or email Websites and publications AFMA Matrix is the only dedicated feed industry related magazine and it is available from AFMA. • Grain Tech 011 835 2064 • LabWorld 012 685 9600 www. Poultry Bulletin etc periodically cover animal feed (animal nutrition and animal feed consultants) • Stargate Scientific 011 675 7433 and www. • Agri Protein 021 422 1887 • Spesfeed 011 803 2050 Companies: feed manufacturing plants • Buhler (Pty) Ltd 011 801 3500 • Magnum Feed Milling 031 700 6621 • South African Bureau of Standards (SABS) 012 428 7911 (Agri Inspec has developed a protocol for quality assurance) • Agricon 051 448 0961 www.

The earlier during the course of the disease that treatment is administered the better will be the results. while Latin America and Asia have increased the available food per person by 20% and 30% respectively since 1990. To manage resistance: • Never introduce new (and resistant) parasites onto your property. 1. Call 012 529 9158. as well as anthelmintics for control of worms. Do not use an overstrength product. ARC-OVI. In fact. there is much debate about parasites developing resistance to the chemicals in these products. DAFF has introduced measures like expanding the existing bursary scheme for veterinary studies and introducing a year’s compulsory community service for vets after graduating. You have to keep your vaccines at a temperature of 4-8ºC. by 2015. the less likely it is to become • Global Alliance for Livestock Veterinary Medicines – www.ifahsec. to become a net meat exporter. It is a process whereby one exposes an animal to a codified or weakened disease-causing organism. For the newcomer Vaccination Vaccination is a process where you inject a biological product into an animal. • Follow the correct route of application. make sure that you have your sterile needles. never use home-made pour-on products to control ticks. • For the same reasons. • Know the available remedies. only about R2 billion is spent annually on vaccinations. preferably from the supplier. whilst animal diseases within our borders are controlled and • See also the website of the World Veterinary Association – Sources: Afrivet. To improve delivery of veterinarian services. Always ensure that introduced animals are parasite-free before being released onto the farm by first quarantining and treating them with at least two different antelmintic groups and with one or more ectoparasitic control products (dips). Food security has become a global imperative and Africa is being looked at as the world’s future food basket. za. Parasites and resistance Forty percent of all animal health products sold in SA are parasiticides. which groups they belong to. This is passive immunity. training in Animal Health and Production and improved access to stock remedies and veterinary medicines is essential. This will ensure both the health and welfare of animals and also ensure the well-being of humans. Department of – the website of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). No vaccine can give 100% protection. halving poverty and hunger. there is major scope. The more antibodies the animal has to fight that particular disease. This is because the young animal is still getting a measure of immunisation from the mother’s early milk or colostrum. Even then. AgriTV. safeguarding farming enterprises and those of our neighbours. National strategy and government contact Find the “Food and Veterinary Services” option under “Divisions” at www. to say nothing of human and animal health. These precautions amount to less than 7% of the farmer’s total expenditure. South Africa imports about R4 billion worth of meat annually. Overview All animal health products should be used strictly according to label instructions.184 inputs Animal health The age at which a young animal is first vaccinated plays an important role in its response to vaccination. Currently. • The cold chain must never be broken (transport to and storage of the vaccine on the farm). and consult a vet. The truth is that resistance will always be with us. you have your sterile cylinders. About 70% of the human diseases discovered recently or from the last century/ has been found to be of animal origin. 3. The amount active ingredient needed depends on the formulation used. but it interferes with the vaccine if given too early. However. org • Animal Health Alliance (Australia) – www. This is the major reason why an investment in Primary Animal Health Care (PAHC) training is advised. website of the Department of Agriculture. so if a farmer has qualities of being a good manager and using sustained vaccination programmes those vaccines will be effective. Another contact is Animal Health for Developing Farmers at ARC-OVI (see heading 5).au 4.oie. . International business environment See the following websites: • www.galvmed. For further information please contact: Jacob Modumo telephone: 012 522 1518 email: jacob@obpvaccines. Source: Dr Peter Oberem.animalhealthalliance. The effectiveness of vaccines depends on the management of the specific worldvet. This despite NEPAD’s Comprehensive African Agricultural Development Programme which has an aim of increasing food security and reducing poverty and to contribute to the Millennium development goal of. to avoid transmitting diseases from one animal to another. ectoparasiticides or dips and pour-on’s for control of ticks and other external parasites. through improving the productivity of the non-commercial half of our national herds and flocks. Considering that only 50% of our livestock is commercially farmed.daff. To do It is nature’s evolutionary response towards evading suppression. In many cases. See also the “Biosecurity” chapter Handling of vaccine is one of the major problems of vaccination failure. to advise on when to change and what remedy to use next. Afrivet 2. It is therefore imperative for the animal sector to ensure that they not only protect their animals against possible animal diseases but also prevent the possible spread of such diseases to humankind. an animal should be vaccinated yearly to ensure immunity against specific diseases. but the involvement of a veterinarian plus the correct use of registered products with demonstrated effectiveness and safety could only be to the benefit of animals and producers alike. results may vary according to the disease and the stage of the disease at which treatment is applied. and there is no information on home-made formulations to make these critical Forestry and Fisheries. A farmer that tries to avoid essential preventative treatment and spending is acting unwisely: animal diseases and parasites are detrimental to the economy of the country. there has been a disappointing decrease of food available per person in Africa of 3% over the corresponding period. dosing and dips. Because they are so important to SA farmers. • Always follow the manufacturer’s instructions carefully when treating animals for parasites. • International Federation for Animal Health – www. SAAHA. our performance over the past 2 decades is nothing to be proud of. State Veterinary Services guard constantly against the introduction of animal diseases from outside the country.

Afrivet FP .

Please contact your nearest State veterinarian office or Provincial office for Dr Wynton Rabolao Director: Veterinary Public Health and Export Facilitation Tel: 011 355 1987 Fax: 011 355 1077 Wynton. and exists to liaise with government on biosecurity and other livestock-related up of ethical-.html State Veterinary Services sponsor the testing for certain animal diseases.mrwebi@agr. from people they can trust! husbandry” 5. with a professional and efficient • Marketing Code of daff. acting Chief Director Tel: 013 741 3218 Fax: 013 741 5087 Cell: 082 899 7767 Tel: 018 389 5102 Dr LS Madyibi Fax: 018 389 5090 Director Veterinary services Cell: 071 854 2016 LMadyibi@nwpg. For a detailed list of Government Veterinary Laboratories in SA visit www. such as: the majority of the responsible manufacturers and suppliers of • manufacturing quality Dr DI Mtshali Director: Veterinary Services North Tel: 035 780 6705 Fax: 035 789 6405 Cell: 082 419 2882 Dr Alan Kalake Director: Animal Health Management and Services Tel: 011 355 1886 Fax: 011 355 1077 Alan.elsenburg. “Food and Veterinary Services” and “Laboratory approval” options).limpopo. Advisory and Support Services Tel: 011 355 1886 Fax: 011 355 1105 Dietana. za Tel: 015 294 3109 / 3608 Dr RL Mampane Fax: 015 295 4525 Director Veterinary services Cell: 082 803 5508 Dr PJ Loock Tel: 015 294 3064 Fax: 015 294 4537 quality. codes.Sikhakhane@kzndae. of which all member companies must sign Role players Directorate: Genetic Resources Tel: 012 319 6024 North West Province Directorate: Animal Find “Feeds. gov. We want farmers and other users of our products to know that they are making their purchases from persons and companies who can give sound technical advice. and whose employers are bound by the A Veterinary Services Back-Up is provided. stock remedies and other animal health products in Southern Contact organisations like the South African Pork Producers Organisation and Red Meat Industry Federation for more information (find contact details in the pork. thus contributing to a high level of health and welfare of all animals and to the responsible care for the environment. Production Pesticides and Fertilizers” under Tel: 012 319 7493 Dr Lucas B Cele Director: Veterinary Specialised Services Tel: 013 741 3218 Fax: 013 741 5087l SAAHA’s vision is to be acknowledged as the association representing all manufacturers and suppliers of veterinary (take the “Divisions”. gov. Province Eastern Cape Contact person Dr L Mrwebi Chief Director Contact details Tel: 040 609 3547 Fax: 040 636 3558 Cell: 082 781 0217 lubabalo. The Vision is achieved through promoting and supporting an economically viable and innovation driven animal health industry in Southern Africa. member’s sales personnel it strives • training in responsible use to ensure that farmers and other of products especially in the end users are at all times provided emergent Dr NV Mnisi Director: Animal Dr M de BUDE Chief Director: Veterinary Services and Natural Resource Management Tel: 011 355 1978 Fax: 011 355 1688 Cell: 082 373 7721 Tel: 043 605 4200 Dr Mnqeta Fax: 086 697 4523 Director Veterinary services Cell: 082 258 5647 qtnvet@telkomsa.daff. The extensive and stringent Code South African Animal Health of “Divisions” at www.Rabolao@gauteng. and through • warehousing & transport its training and accreditation of standards. forums & NGOs The Animal Health Forum represents the different livestock sectors. Read about their strict SAAHA Code of Conduct. Free State Gauteng KwaZuluNatal Limpopo Mpumalanga Tel: 051 436 3677 Dr KJ Mojapelo Fax: 051 436 5870 Director Veterinary services Cell: 072 124 3979 drkris@fs. The Livestock Health and Production Group Tel: 012 346 1590 Dr P Mokaila Chief Director: Agricultural Support Services Tel: 018 389 5723 Fax: 018 389 5090 pmokaila@nwpg.ecprov. a section 21 Company Dr TA Sikhakhane Director: Veterinary Services South Tel: 033 343 8300/17 Fax: 033 343 8329 Cell: 0827849254 Temba.Nemudzivhadi@gauteng. Association (SAAHA) ensures that all members make Tel: 011 805 2000 input into and abide by the drawing Northern Cape Tel: 053 839 7800 / 70 Dr P Kegakilwe Fax: 053 831 3635 / 086 622 8073 Director Veterinary services Cell: 083 554 5583 Western Cape Dr G Msiza Chief Director Tel: 021 808 5052 Fax: 021 808 7619 Cell: 084 604 6705 GinindaM@elsenburg. in involvement in the general “Animal short.debude@gauteng. Stock Remedies. beef etc chapters). animal health and not for . service. is an association of legislation.186 Directorate: Animal Health Tel: 012 319 7615 / 7456 sandraDAC@daff. National Council of SPCAs Farm Animal Unit Tel: 011 907 3590/1/2 www.and service Dr Dietana Nemudzivhadi Director: Animal Health Production. South African Veterinary Association Tel: 012 346 1150 Training and research Afrivet Training Services Tel: 012 817 9060 www. Agriskills Transfer Tel: 012 460 9585 www. • tick resistance to ectoparasiticides The Institute promotes animal • worm resistance to health and welfare by providing endoparsiticides effective and diagnostic service. Helminth Dale Beighle Centre for Animal anthelmintic resistance and Health Studies biological control for Africa. both for Tel: 012 529 9111 / 446 Short training courses at ARC-OVI include tick identification and Veterinary Ectoparasitology ARC-Onderstepoort Veterinary Arthropod transmitted viral diseases for Eastern and Southern Africa The University offers a BSc Agric which includes seven reference Degree in Animal Health and a laboratories for economically Diploma in Animal Health.saeva. and Tel: 018 386 1321 the FAO Reference Laboratory for www. activities at the OVI focus on the at their own research South African Veterinary Council Tel: 012 342 1612 www. development of vaccines and and also collectively on aspects diagnostic methodologies. Half-day and one-day courses in specific aspects such as tick control are also South African Companion Animal Council Tel: 012 620 1388 www.187 • SANS codes of . www.agric. as well as recommendations from: . These courses focus on providing the learner with the skills to identify sick animals timeously and to utilise available stock remedies as a primary health care intervention. • microbial resistance to antibiotics and vaccines against Foot-and• environmental issues such as mouth and tick-borne diseases. Research animal health.Griffon Poison Information Centre SAAHA is part of .za www. It has developed a 6 module animal skills development course for farm workers. applying of importance to the farming the latest molecular biological community such as: techniques to prevent and control economically important diseases. See www. Each module is presented over 5 Afrivet Training Services specialises in SETA approved animal health Contact 012 529 9187 or Institute (ARC-OVI) write to the Association of Veterinary and Crop Associations of South Africa.AVCASA Safety Health and Environment Committee.savc. dung beetle-and oxpecker The OVI is a collaborating centre compatible remedies for both the OIE (surveillance and control of animal diseases in Africa) and FAO (emergency North-West University preparedness for transboundary (Mafikeng Campus) animal diseases for South African Equine Veterinary Association Tel: 087 802 8658 www. important viral diseases).za South African Association of Veterinary Nurses Association of South Africa (VNASA) Veterinary Technologists emerging stock farmers and animal health Companies involved support and OVI is part of the Livestock and do research on various aspects of Animal Health Division.avcasa.Wildlife Conflict Mitigation Programme of the Endangered Wild life Trust.

ac. University of Pretoria Faculty of Veterinary Science Tel: 012 529 8313 Department of Companion Animal Clinical Studies – 012 529 8260 Department of Anatomy and Physiology – 012 529 8267 Department of Paraclinical Sciences – 012 529 8239 Department of Production Animal Studies – 012 529 8013 Department of Veterinary Tropical Diseases – 012 529 8394 www. whenever scientists had to do research work on ticks.animalhealth. The museum’s main aim was to collect all the species which were common Department of Zoology and Entomology Ellie van Dalen Tel: 051 401 2317 vdalenem@ufs. and ticks posed a major problem in terms of transmitting diseases that kill A variety of factors can build ticks’ resistance to chemical treatments: the nature of the substance. Many people in rural areas on the continent made a living from A National Diploma in Animal Health is offered Find the other universities and Agricultural Colleges in the “Agricultural education and training” chapter. Information on the appearance and distribution of This Department focuses on the these parasites is available from the training and research of the entire above-mentioned Cipla Agrimed Tel: 0861 247 463 www. Animal Production Merial SA Tel: 011 315 8001 www.afrivet. The museum is also in a process of compiling a manual on ticks which would assist farmers as well as scientists in controlling the parasites.lionelsvet.188 North-West University (Potchefstroom Campus) Unit for Environmental Sciences and Management Prof KN de Kock Tel: 018 299 2380 Prof CT Wolmarans Tel: 018 299 2389 Novartis South Africa (Pty) Ltd Tel: 011 929 9111 www.norbrook. Contract research animal health and the products on animal health aspects is also biology. University of the Free State A national collection of some 34 000 Department of Animal.merial. SAAHA members and associate members Afrivet Tel: 012 817 9060 Helpline 0860 VEEARTS www. permits registration as a veterinarian with the South African Veterinary MSD Animal Health Intervet/Schering-Plough Animal Health Tel: 011 923 9300 www. Biochemical and towards the upliftment of Food Biotechnology new farmers and stockowners Prof Rob Bragg and to the protection of the Tel: 051 401 2676 environment. Up to Ceva Animal Health (Pty) Ltd Tel: 011 312 4088 www. Through this course.ufs. implications for the Boehringer-Ingelheim Tel: 011 348 2400 Animal Health and Human Ecology Tel: 011 471 2818 / 2984 www. These parasites include Fasciola hepatica National diploma in Veterinary en Virbac RSA Tel: 012 657 6000 Instavet Import & Export Tel: 011 462 4215 / 699 6240 Bedson Africa (Pty) Ltd Tel: 012 803 2614 Bayer Animal Health Tel: 011 921 5911 www. but integral its training programmes: part of this continuum. Contact Dr A Latif at 012 529 9212. assisted Association (SAAHA) contributes reproduction. collected Tel: 051 401 2827 since 1956 from the whole Animal health is a to Norbrook Laboratories SA (Pty) Ltd Tel: 011 314 0889 www. and the spreading of ticks through animal movement.ufs. Tshwane University of Technology (TUT) Department of Biomedical Various worm parasites have Sciences a deleterious impact on the Tel: 012 382 6265 country’s livestock with financial www. All and immunity are taught to animal sales personnel of SAAHA science students in the curriculum members must pass this and short courses for farmers course in order to be allowed (both commercial and small scale) to give advice and sell our and extension officers on basic animal health Healthtech Laboratories Tel: 011 805 5703 Intervet/Schering-Plough Animal Health – see MSD Animal Health Lionel’s Veterinary Supplies Tel: 021 932 2019 www. • SAAHA co-ordinates a correspondence course Basic concepts of animal health consisting of 8 modules. • Farmer training in Responsible pharmaceutical companies and the Use of Animal Health Livestock industry in general. improved feed to its important functions though utilisation to genetic improvement. mostly on request from used in the industry. ecology and control . gigantica and Calicophoron Technology is offered microbothrium. the number of applications. The animal health and husbandry are course is open to anyone wishing to learn more about presented. Farmers who have problems dealing with ticks can now send samples to the University of the Free State to be tested for Onderstepoort Biological Products Tel: 012 522 1500 Fax: 012 522 1591 www. www. University of South Africa (UNISA) College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences they were required to travel to either Washington or Animate Animal Health Tel: 012 661 3485 www. the method of application.OBPvaccines. Wildlife preserved species of freshwater and Grassland Sciences slugs and other parasites.up. SAAHA contributes Dept of The Tick Museum is the first of its kind on the continent and will serve to inform farmers and scientists about tick identification. which last six is housed South African Animal Health from resource Completion of the undergraduate Ciplavet Tel: 021 943 4220

za or call 011 025 4388.dehteq. Dr Peter Oberem and Dr Johan van Rensburg. View them at • Cooper Veterinary Products Tel: 012 991 6416 • DIATOMS Organic Animal Health Tel: 053 723 1810 www. Call 012 817 9060 or 0860 VEEARTS for these other books. runs a question and answer veterinary column. It is written by Dr Pamela (take the publications menu option) or contact the Resource Centre at 012 319 7141. Call 0860 103 577 or write to • DEHTEQ (Pty) Ltd Tel: 011 466 9270 • Dr G Catton (Consultant) Tel: 012 665 5157 • Roche Products (Pty) Ltd Tel: 011 502 5000 • Pathcare Vetlab Tel: 021 596 3636 • Eco Animal Health Tel: 012 991 6416 • Immuno-vet Services Tel: 011 699 also available from Afrivet: .za • Midlands Veterinary Wholesalers Tel: 033 263 2310 • Charles Street Veterinary Consultancy Tel: 012 460 9385 • Biotech Veterinary Division Tel: 011 848 3050 is available from Landbouweekblad.dosatron. Diseases and Parasites of Sheep and Goats in South Africa provides easy-tounderstand information on • Tick-borne diseases in ruminants • Hydatid disease caused by tapeworm • Diseases caused by trypanosomes: Nagana and dourine • The difference between vaccination and treatment • Common and important diseases of cattle • Common and important diseases of sheep and goats • Diseases shared by wildlife and livestock • External parasites of goats and sheep • Why did my animal die?” • Skin conditions in goats and sheep • Lumpy-skin disease • Sheep-scab” • Theileriosis • Skin conditions in pigs • Respiratory diseases in cattle • Respiratory diseases in chickens • Disease prevention in chickens • Diarrhoea in sheep and goats • Udder and teat lesions • Diarrhoea in cattle • Acaricide resistance • African horsesickness • Anthrax • Congo fever • Brucellosis and tuberculosis • Foot-and-mouth disease • How medicine should be used” • External parasites of cattle • Community medicine stores • Clostridial diseases • Tapeworm • Condition scoring of cattle • Rabies – a killer disease • Poultry diseases • Lungsickness www. Contact Afrivet for a copy at 011 392 0143.kejafa.189 Other animal health companies • Ashkan Animal Health Tel: 011 466 8763 www.roche. the electronic arm of the magazine Landbouweekblad. co. The chapters go beyond veterinary issues to herd management and feed. com • Natrocine Tel: 082 453 6057 Websites and publications The following Info Paks (booklets) are available from the National Department of • Insect Science Tel: 015 307 1391 www. The Afrikaans publication Vra die veearts – Wat beesboere moet weet. Take the books option at com • Denvet cc Tel: 033 345 1093 www. disease • Trade Vet Tel: 011 314 5972 • Veterinary House Hospital Tel: 033 342 4698 • Wildlife Pharmaceuticals Inc Tel: 013 751 2328 preventative measures and • SWAVET RSA Tel: 011 704 7218 • Tick Off Tel: 012 804 4460 • Dosatron Sales & Service Tel: 011 434 2887 www.wildpharm. compiled by Dr Faffa Malan. A number of publications are available from Kejafa Knowledge Works.

or visit their website: www. Contact the Supply Shop at 012 529 9161. development and training. Find the document on www. The ARC-OVI Supply Shop has a number of publications. National animal traction networks were formed in several African countries. It also revealed that animal power was being re-introduced on some large scale commercial farms to reduce the heavy mechanisation costs resulting from increases in fuel and machinery prices. milk delivery.benbester. These include the Infotoons – instructive illustrated text. Animal Power is still used on a large scale in many third world countries throughout the world and is beginning to make a comeback in many first world countries as well. easy-to-use wheel programme – and the Animal Traction Centre (ATC) at Fort Hare University in the Eastern Cape was established. Find the notes on animal health at www. in the long term. This Centre was started with a view to providing a centre where training and research in animal traction could be conducted. on-farm. Our gratitude to SAAHA. sava. SANAT and the ATC (where SANAT is currently based) have worked to expand the understanding and use of animal traction throughout the country. DVDs and other media for In the United Kingdom. for an interactive calendar. Animal Traction – or Draught Animal Power as it is sometimes referred to – has played a most important role in the development of humankind. to improve small farmer productivity and to raise rural living standards through the use of animal power for transport and crop production. International overview SANAT is an affiliated member of ATNESA and has benefited from this international network. which are in most cases less cost-effective and environment-friendly than Animal Power. A monthly publication VET News/Nuus is available from the South African Veterinary Association. • A guide to animal diseases in South Africa: Horses. In The Best practice reference manual for wool sheep farming in South Africa.ivis. • A guide to animal diseases in South Africa: Game. Dr Pamela Oberem & Dr Peter Oberem. At the same – “Novel solutions for the sustainable control of nematodes in ruminants” www. 2. to provide training and conduct research in animal traction. Available also in Afrikaans. • A guide to animal diseases in South Africa: Dogs and Cats. Call 012 346 1150/1.afrivetplana.parasol-project. It has been replaced by fossil fuel powered engines and machines. which has enabled South Africa to network and link up with all the countries which are still using or have reverted to animal traction. • Vaccination for the control of animal diseases in Southern Africa. CDs. In 1994 SANAT conducted a national animal traction survey throughout South Africa to assess the state of animal traction in South Africa and. Dr Pamela Oberem. Local business environment Find the latest newsletter at or contact 041 365 5030. English and Afrikaans – ideal for farmers. See also the Afrivet Plan A • Guide to the Treatment of Poisoning by Chemicals – a must for the medical profession. Sheep and Goats. In the United States of Typical . Afrivet and Dr Rebone Moerane for feedback on the draft chapter inputs Animal traction: the use of animal power See also the “Donkeys” chapter 1. The survey revealed that throughout the rural communities of South Africa some 60% of the rural farmers were using animal power. brought out by the National Wool Growers Association (NWGA) includes useful notes on health and disease management along with the other information. Animal Traction is used in particular by the Amish people as a major power source for their agriculture and transport.afrivet. Available also in Afrikaans.190 • Diseases and Parasites of Cattle. Available also in Dr Pamela Oberem. the South African Network of Animal Traction (SANAT) was established with a view to promoting the use of working with the assistance of the National and Eastern Cape Departments of Agriculture. Dr Pamela Oberem.agric. Donkeys and Mules. Overview In 1990 the Animal Traction Network for Eastern and Southern Africa (ATNESA) was formed to link animal traction specialists in the region. Since 1994.htm A few commercial farmers in South Africa are using animal traction to supplement their tractor operations and reduce operating costs. Dr Pamela HunterOberem (Editor). www. Publications available from SAAHA on request (contact details under heading 5): • Guidelines for the Responsible Use of Crop Protection and Animal Health Products (Also in Afrikaans) • Basic Guidelines for the Responsible Use of Crop Protection and Animal Health Products. Europe and Canada Animal Traction is used more as a hobby but some areas have seen an increase in the use of animal traction. International Veterinary Information Service – along with the relevant research. Available also in – an online animal product For a comprehensive range of leading animal health products see notably in the forestry industry and for cartage over short distances e. Available also in Afrikaans.

harrows. Animals present a much lower investment risk. The National Department of Agriculture has plans to establish many smallscale emerging farmers as fully functional commercial farmers. They can utilise implements already available or borrow from The Department of Transport has allocated funding to the improvement and safety of donkey carts. Animal power has a potentially important role to play in the development of emerging farmers entering commercial agriculture. planters and cultivators. Equally. is recognised and supported financially by the Eastern Cape Department of Agriculture. while the running costs are likewise much Donkey Power Tel: 083 817 6047 / 083 686 7539 GENTAG (Generic Engineering Task Group) Tel: 018 431 1287 www. This equipment has been tested and adapted for use by local farmers at the Animal Traction Centre at Fort Hare University. Such equipment has been and is still being developed and is becoming available to subsistence farmers in South Africa. and they have to hire from local contractors who thereby dictate when critical operations such as planting can take place. Animal power is particularly relevant to subsistence farmers.or cow-drawn harnessing and crop production equipment. the use of donkeys provides additional savings or income from the transport of goods and water. Manufacturer/distributors such as Afritrac and INTTRAC (find contact numbers under heading 5) can be contacted to find nearby suppliers. spreading fertiliser and manure. Donkeys (easier to handle for women and children) and smaller light weight equipment is needed for this type of especially when more sustainable cost-effective crop production systems such as Conservation Agriculture are utilised. produce and fodder. and weeds control.191 activities are transporting of farming inputs. Instead of depreciating with time and use. Such equipment is usually too expensive for these farmers to purchase. the use of cows for the short periods when traction is required (especially in crop production) can result in alternative sources of income in the form of calves and milk. 4. Conversely.transport. National strategy and government contact Department of Transport Integrated Implementation Support Tel: 012 309 3403 / 3129 www. when more sustainable cost-effective crop production systems such as Conservation Agriculture are utilised. A refreshing change which has recently come about is the interest that the Department of Agriculture in the Eastern Cape has shown towards Animal Traction.agric. especially for ox. Many subsistence farmers are women who are helped by children. Role players Afritrac Tel: 011 918 4698/9 Fax: 011 918 5983 www. This enables the emerging farmer to compete on the open market with largescale commercial farmers. which more and more are becoming financially out of the reach of small-scale farmers. Source: August 2011 SANAT Newsletter Madzivhandila College of Agriculture Tel: 015 962 7200 . This has manifested itself in the provision of funding for the training of small scale farmers in animal traction and the importation of a wide range of modern animal drawn equipment from Brazil a country which makes significant use of animal traction throughout its agricultural ARC-Institute for Agricultural Engineering (ARC-IAE) Tel: 012 842 4017 / 4090 simalengat@arc.gentag. The Traction Centre (TC) at Fort Hare University. This is a laudable objective until one realises that for every commercial farmer that is established. Most subsistence farmers work small pieces of land which are difficult to manage with conventional tractor-drawn ploughs. There is still talk of and the actual supply of emerging farmers with state of the art agricultural machinery including tractors. The initial capital investment is about one third what it would be if tractor-powered mechanisation were used. Inputs are readily available countrywide. there remain between three and four thousand small farmers using animal traction who are receiving very little real support at all. farmers can afford to purchase the animals needed. which incorporates the ATC. A number of provincial departments of agriculture are supporting animal traction initiatives in their provinces.Find the “Animal drawn carts” heading under the “Major projects” and “Non-motorised transport” farmers can afford to purchase the few animals needed and can utilise implements already available on the farm or which can be readily borrowed from neighbours. Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) in the preparation of a National Policy Document which will provide a strategy whereby animal traction and related issues can be managed both nationally and regionally. SANAT is currently assisting the Department of Agriculture. On the other Inttrac Trading Tel: 016 365 5799

za: • A Bumper Crop for the Animal Traction Centre at Fort Hare University2009/2010 No’s 1 & 2 (2003).org. RA Pearson. 2007 • An historical perspective on animal power use in South Wheel and Water Tel: 021 422 1699 / 082 925 3892 http://wheelandwater. Bruce Joubert • Animal Traction . University of Edinburgh. .co.192 National Council of SPCAs Farm Animal Unit Tel: 011 907 3590/1/2 Tshwane University of Technology (TUT) Department of Mechanical Engineering Dr Hendrik van Zyl Tel: 012 382 5170 vanzylhg@tut. impact and welfare of working (traction and transport) animals.fao. Paul Starkey et al • Animal traction in South Africa: The way forward. • Conservation Tillage with Animal Traction. Find reference to numerous documents shared and posted at the end of the PDF. Thanks are also owed to the number of people who also gave feedback on the draft chapter – Prof Tim Simalenga. • Empowering Farmers with Animal Traction. Animal Traction Network for Eastern and Southern Africa (ATNESA).nspca. PG Kaumbutho and TE Simalenga (editors). Some senior citizens grew up with animal • Care and use of working donkeys (isiXhosa. with more than 40 of these contributing to the online Tracka-Trekka Tel: 083 442 4848 www. Empowering Rural or ajoubert@ufh. seSotho) • Developing agriculture with animal traction • The Golovan cart We are indebted to Bruce Joubert for his information and assistance with this chapter. The ARC-Institute for Agricultural Engineering has a few publications of relevance here. an electronic consultation done under the aegis of the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) and The Brooke in the first half of 2011 on • Meeting the challenges of Animal Traction.ATNESA. Timothy Simalenga and Bruce Joubert (editors). Paul Starkey. • Harnessing and hitching horses and mules for work. PG Kaumbutho.torsion. PASCAL Kaumbutho. Animal Traction network for Eastern and Southern Africa (ATNESA). South African Network of Animal Traction (SANAT) • Proposed SANAT Policy on Animal Traction • Animal traction in South Africa: The present situation. A Pearson and TE Simalenga (editors) A Resource Book of Animal Traction Network for Eastern and Southern Africa (ATNESA). Published by Department of Agriculture. University of Edinburgh.sanat.veterinary. Animals Traction Network for Eastern and Southern Africa (ATNESA). Anne Pearson and Timothy Simalenga (editors). ATNESA resource book. Paul Starkey (2004) Call 040 602 2125 or write to sanat@ufh. One hundred and fifty-six people from 52 countries registered for the “Harnessing Africa’s Animal Power to unlock Africa’s people power” Yokes for Africa Tel: 072 185 9381 The Traction Centre at Fort Hare University currently provides training. Websites and publications Find information on ATNESA and SANAT at Stellenbosch University Sustainability Institute Tel: 021 881 3196 www.tracka-trekka. South African Network of Animal Traction (SANAT). agis. • Animal Traction in to the National Department of Agriculture • Newsletter. research and extension in tractor as well as draught animal power in the Eastern Cape. Bruce Joubert • Education. Paul Starkey et al • Animal traction in South Africa: Overview of the key • Improving Animal Traction Download the following publications in pdf format at www. training and extension in animal Paul Starkey and Pascal Kaumbutho (editors). 6. and it is important to capture their knowledge which is a valuable resource. Paul Starkey & Johan Koorts (2004) • Animal traction in development: Changes and challenges. South Africa. TE Simalenga and ADB Joubert. Call 012 842 4017 or write to iaeinfo@arc. Research is also being done in the use of animal traction as a complementary power source to agricultural Torsion Trailers Tel: 016 362 3456 University of Pretoria Faculty of Veterinary Science Tel: 012 529 8000 Fax: 012 529 8300 www. before it is lost. compiled and edited by Paul for the following: • Yokes for animal traction (also available in Afrikaans) • Animal traction implements Find the notes on Animal Traction under the “Livestock” option at Find the following Info Paks on Animal Traction Network for Eastern and Southern Africa ATNESA.daff. Dr Peta Jones and the late Richard Fowler. Emmanuel Mwenya and John Stares (editors). isiZulu.PG Kaumbutho and TE Simalenga (editors). • Developing Agriculture with Animal Traction. Bruce Joubert • Final Report . ISBN 0-90714615-7 • Using Cows for work.sustainabilityinstitute. One of the aims of the Traction Centre is to create a database of indigenous animal traction knowledge and Universal Wellbeing – see Wheel and Water University of Fort Hare Traction Centre Tel: 040 602 2125 / 082 200 1234 Fax: 040 602 2488 The South African Network of Animal Traction (SANAT) Tel: 040 602 2125 / 082 200 1234 Fax: 040 602 2488 sanat@ufh. TE Simalenga and R Krecek. TE Simalenga and RA Pearson. Find Role. Zimbabwe ISBN No 0-907146-10-4 • Conservation tillage with animal traction.Regional Workshop on Animal Traction 6th – 9th March. Volume 11. website of the Animal Traction Network for Eastern and Southern Africa (ATNESA) A number of publications can be downloaded at www. ISBN 0-907146-15-5 • Empowering Farmers with Animal Traction. The centre is supported and financed by the East Cape Department of for the following publications: • Animal Traction In South Africa. Harare.

predators and pathogens) – whether introduced or otherwise manipulated – to suppress the pest populations to an acceptable level. Different techniques can be used in biological control: a. c. Denser populations of spiders slow the rate of pest recovery so that fewer applications of pesticide are required in a season. reptiles. Organisms that we might consider “pests” have a place in the scheme of things. b. are easily dispersed by water and air. Some actions needed in support of integrated pest management include correct pest identification. but should nevertheless be the core around which pest or weed management systems are built. or by creating an avenue for infection by pathogens. While in principle there is little difference between the biological control of diseases. If a pesticide has the potential to kill. Most pest-biocontrol agents kill their host directly. When the number of pests reaches a threshold level. insect pests and weeds. spiders reduce the numbers of and damage caused by potential pest species. crop or natural ecosystems. birds and mammals in our environment. pest monitoring. build up their numbers and remain present in the new environment. by reducing its reproductive capacity. virus or nematode or one of the many parasitic or predatory insects. Why the need for an alternative? Pesticides have revolutionised agriculture. It involves the introduction of natural enemies from the native range of the pest or weed from its country of origin. they are a selfrenewable resource. Biological control cannot be expected to solve all pest or weed problems in a particular situation. which uses chemical pesticides. Spiders naturally suppress pest populations and are self-renewable. nematodes and weeds and/or invasive alien plants. a fungus. Conservation biological control refers to environmental modification to protect and enhance natural enemies. air and water for a long time. then it also carries a risk to the environment. Some pesticides are harmful to people and the environment because they remain in the soil. after which the natural enemies become established in the new country. Programmes which promote the responsible use and disposal of agricultural chemicals are run by CropLife SA and CropLife International (see the “Crop protection” chapter). bacterium. . insects. As you use fewer chemicals you may increase the effectiveness of spiders against pests. if you do use pesticides. Irresponsible use of non-selective pesticides eliminates not only the target pest but also many beneficial organisms that play an important role in garden. Overview Biological control involves the use of a pest’s own natural enemies (parasites. d. When a non-toxic control method is used. which require the consumption of plant material for exposure to toxicity. low-temperature regions. 2. minimising costs to farmers. which are among the most toxic to beneficial predators. Integrated Pest Management (IPM). minimise the effect on predators by avoiding synthetic pyrethroids. Instead. and concentrate in the high-altitude. cultural.193 inputs Biocontrol Biological Control. and determination of economic injury levels. mechanical and chemical control methods. The technique most often used for the control of insect pests and weeds is referred to as classical biological control. IPM programmes require a thorough understanding of various techniques such as biological. and other environmentally-friendly control methods 1. Without them there would be none of the wonderful birds. such as the tiniest microbe in the soil. Systemic insecticides. Inundative biological control involves the repeated introduction and release of large numbers of natural enemies. The word “pest” is used here in a broad sense. which includes diseases. Softer pesticides allow the natural conservation of predators. However. insects that were of little economic importance can become damaging pests. it is usually accepted that a far higher degree of host-specificity is required for a weed-biocontrol agent than for a pest-biocontrol agent. affect natural enemies less. increasing yield and improving harvest quality. spiders and reptiles on our farms. Many purely chemical strategies are also aimed at reducing pest populations below a threshold level and not at eliminating entire populations of the pest. Biological control is often only possible within the framework of an integrated pest management (IPM) system. protect and enhance natural enemies. Insect growth regulators are among the least toxic to spiders. predators kill most pests most of the time and when pesticides devastate natural enemies of potential pests. Conservation biological control This refers to environmental modification or other actions that are taken to preserve. IPM is based on the assumption that it is not necessary or cost effective to try to eliminate an entire population of pests. Biological control of agricultural pests using predators and parasites (including IPM) Biological control of agricultural pests usually forms part of an integrated pest management (IPM) programme. a pesticide may be used to prevent excessive crop damage or loss greater than the cost of preventing the damage. Once spiders are established in the environment. Some of the answers to our pest problems may be right under our noses. threshold levels are established to determine when control is necessary to bring pest population levels down. but their leftover stockpiles can contaminate the environment and endanger human health. 3. mites. IPM refers to the ‘integration of two or more control strategies’ for suppression of the pest below a given threshold level. The benefit may be much more than just saving the cost of the chemical and application. while suppression of weeds could take place by killing or weakening the weed. Ten times more ground-dwelling dwarf and other spiders live in organic fields and fields sprayed with soft pesticides than in fields sprayed with broad-spectrum pesticides. Even on a conventional farm. Augmentative biological control describes actions that increase the populations of natural enemies. • Cannon Pest Control Tel: 021 931 8228 and the information just above heading 6 • Insect Science Tel: 015 307 1391 www. Products include bio-fungicides and bio-insecticides).com Conservation biological control: Dr Ansie Dippenaar – 012 808 8247 University of Cape Town Department of Zoology ARC-Small Grain Institute Tel: 021 650 3604 Dr Justin Hatting • Vital Bugs Tel: 087 751 0279 www. • Plant Health Products (PHP) Tel/fax: 033 266 6130 Tel: 012 420 3938/9 www. com • Coopers Environmental Science Tel: 011 979 4246 www. com • Du Roi Integrated Pest Management Tel: 015 345 1572 http:// duroibugs.arc. Microbial control agents or pathogens such as fungi are available for the control of which seek out and kill insect Visit www.vitalbugs. • Madumbi Sustainable Agriculture Tel: 086 104 5261 • Microbial Solutions Tel: 011 475 4362 • Becker Underwood South Africa Tel: 031 769 2003 www.fabinet.eagleeye. There are some 30 commercially available species of predators and • Ecolab Ltd Tel: 080 000 6448 Tel: 058 307 3400 Other ARC Institutes in the Horticulture business division do research on the biological control of pests in certain crop Prof Marcus Byrne Classical biological control of Stellenbosch University invasive alien plants: Department of Conservation Ecology and Entomology Hildegard Klein – 012 356 9841 Tel: 021 808 3728 www.agric. Walter Sisulu University North-West University School of Applied and Environ(Potchefstroom Campus) mental Sciences Research Unit: Environmental Tel: 047 502 2311 / 2186 Science and Management www. Consult www.cooperses. The actual period that these organisms remain active determines the frequency of • Greenhouse Technologies Tel: 011 613 2580 www.plastrip. diseases and abiotic • Biogrow Tel: 028 313 2054 www. • Eagle Eye Tel: 021 880 2856 • Bio-Fly (Pty) Ltd Tel: 083 601 7221 www.194 • SA Biofarm Institute Tel: 058 622 2372 • Bio-insectaries SA (BISA) Tel: 042 286 0978 www. View their website: go to www. Inundative biological control and biopesticides This technique is used for natural enemies that do not become permanently established in the new environment. The technology is such that we can “formulate” living organisms such as Information Core for Southern African Migrant Pests (ICOSAMP) is a regional cooperative initiative between officers working on migrant pests in different SADC qualifications The North-West University has addressed the need for the development of expertise in Plant Protection over many as is the case with the active ingredient of traditional pesticides. bacteria and viruses just as we would formulate chemical pesticides. School of Biological & Conservation Sciences Dr Terry Olckers Research: Microbial Crop Tel: 033 260 5139 Protection. IDEPP (Initiative for the Development of Expertise in Plant Protection) provided that platform and expertise from the ARC as well as that of private companies together with that of the Potchefstroom and Mafikeng campuses of the NWU were pooled to provide this essential expertise for teaching and beetles and parasitic Training and research ARC-Plant Protection Research Institute Biological control of agricultural pests: Dr Roger Price – 012 356 9817 Rhodes University Department of Zoology and Entomology Prof Martin Hill – 046 603 8712 www.sitafrica. • FruitFly Africa – see www. These live “active ingredients” can be applied to crops with similar application methods to traditional and look for the ICOSAMP menu option down the left hand side of the They are mass-reared and sold by companies called ‘insectaries’ Efficacy evaluation is University of Pretoria done of biological control products Forestry and Agricultural under field and greenhouse Biotechnology Institute (FABI) conditions. ( Tel: 011 717 6491 bownesa@arc. and therefore large numbers have to be reared somewhere else and released periodically where they are required. produce and market innovative biocontrol products for agriculture. Role players Companies • Advanced Integrated Pest Management Tel: 012 346 0162 KZN Department of Agriculture and Environmental University of the Affairs Witwatersrand University of KwaZulu-Natal Department of Plant Pathology Tel: 033 260 5524 Conducts research on biological control of crop • Zylem Tel: 033 347 2893 www.sabiofarm. The expertise within this group is particularly strong with regard to crop protection on the following crops: •Agro Organics Agriculture Tel: 021 851 2403 madumbi. groundnut and cotton. • River Bioscience Tel: 041 583 3464 sunflower. horticulture and viticulture. such as • Agro-Hytech Tel: 021 863 2884 Prof J van den Berg – 018 299 2376 Prof D Fourie – 018 293 3683 IPM is covered in pest management www.insectscience.wsu.up. sorghum. The use of biopesticides is a special type of inundative biological control.bioinsectsa. • Plastrip supplies bird scare Biological Crop Health Tel: 083 631 9952 (Johan Gerber) • BugsAway Tel: 011 782 0491 www. insect pests and diseases of crops.planthealth.microbial.

. The publication is available direct from www.gardencare. least maintenance. dwa. the National Sustainable Agriculture Project (USA).spp. It champions Integrated Pest Management (IPM) and agro ecology.195 The sterile insect technique for pest management The sterile insect technique. visit • Find the notes on pest management at https://attra. • Insist that the driller provide a record of the exact depth at which the most promising water fissure is for the publication Weeds. professionalism and survival of the industry. yield test certificate. If basic and simple disciplines are followed. bio-insecticides. • The Department of Water Affairs: Working for Water website on • Call 011 025 4388 or visit www. • Find links to other international sites relevant to pest information and biological controls on www. • It is advisable to ask for references preferably from clients who have had time to assess the quality of work over a reasonable period. tel: 012 356 9841. Overview A great proportion of the rural population in developing countries do not have access to clean potable water. It is worthwhile making sure beforehand that every detail of the plant to be supplied is and www. problems can develop when the practical requirements of maintaining the system are neglected or forgotten. the distance of the tank or reservoir from the pumping site.southx. biologicalcrophealth. and sometimes when there is limited access to the firm responsible for designing the 6. or call 021 448 0105. pump details and commissioning data will be positive proof of the professionalism of the contractor. co. inputs Boreholes and windmills 1. • The Garden Guardian’s guide to environmentally-responsible garden care by Johan is still relevant and available and details of the contents can be found at www. and to Michelle Paterson for feedback on the draft chapter. • You may wish to sell your farm or property at a later commonly abbreviated SIT. publications and other materials are available from the website or from the Plant Protection Research Institute itself. tel: 012 356 9841. Websites and publications • Find the “Feeds. compiled by Hanna-Andrea Rother and Ricado Jacobs. This information is of vital importance to the pump installer so that he can select the correct pump for your needs. the quantity of water required daily etc. Visit electrical and the borehole represents a substantial capital • Dossiers on Biological Control Agents available to aid Alien Plant Control– contact Hildegard Klein. eradication may be possible. Pesticides and Fertilizers” option under “Divisions” at www. • There are SABS standards now available for the ground water For suitable pest insects.gardencare. • It is in your best interest to sign a contract that details all the costs that are likely to be To receive this e-newsletter please email megan@madumbi. • Stellenbosch University Matthew Addison 082 774 1757 www.tandf. . A driller’s log. The sterile males mate with the wild females which results in infertile eggs being laid. construction certificate.agric. contacts at DAFF etc are available. • Biocontrol Science and Technology presents original research and reviews in the fields of biological pest.agric. and released in high numbers every week in the target areas. application forms. Lists of registered insecticides. • ARC Infruitec-Nietvoorbij Dr Brian Barnes 083 629 5922 www. • The Pesticides Action Network (PAN) is a network “in over 90 countries working to replace the use of hazardous pesticides with ecologically sound and socially just alternatives”. • Find the “Integrated Pest Management” and other interesting options at www. Write to published by Aardvark Press. • Madumbi Sustainable Agriculture produces an e-newsletter called • Xsit Sampie Groenewald 022 921 2993 www. disease and weed control. Stock Remedies. the technology is appropriate to less developed areas. fungicides and bio-fungicides. Control without Poison by Charles Walters. or www.arc. Farmer points of interest How to estimate the quantity of water required daily for livestock – consult the “Animal husbandry” chapter. A full list of considerations is available on www. Find the ARC-Plant Protection Research Institute (PPRI) on www. and provided all procedures are carried out correctly the wild pest population then declines with successive generations to sub-economic Source: Southern Cross Industries 2. cons-ent. Find the notes on biocontrol. Windmills are easy to install and have historically proven to be reliable. is available from the Surplus People Project. e-mail kleinh@arc. e-mail kleinh@arc. It is nothing more than birth control for and hand pump systems. For more details on this journal. Factors include the distance from ground level to water millions per week are reared. and also the one which eventually will be the least costly. Visit www.sasa. the males sterilised with gamma radiation.toxipedia. • Is he/she a member of the Borehole Water Association of Southern Africa (BWA)? Membership of BWA shows that the contractor/ supplier you are dealing with is interested in the long-term viability. • is also of the right type so that the whole can be assembled into the correct plant for the particular internal combustion engine driven pumping systems. You are looking at the most efficient system. • Pesticides Health Risks for South African Emerging Alternatives are solar driven • South African Sugar Research Institute Dr Des Conlong 031 508 7400 www. za Our appreciation to Hildegard Klein at the ARC-PPRI for the notes she made available to the The PPRI electronic newsletter contains updates on biocontrol research. Their advantages include: lowest cost. Relevant publications: • PPRI Leaflet Series: Weeds Biocontrol – contact Hildegard Klein. • SIT Africa Stiaan Kotze 082 447 4077 www. or in certain circumstances. is one of the most ecologically compatible means of pest management there is. maintenance can be carried out by the local populace.agric. a reliable source of water is assured. Choosing a pumping plant is an engineering proposition because it is essential to make sure that every item of the equipment is: • of the right size in relation to the remainder.

as there are too many unknowns to consider such as the borehole’s final depth.edx. They are also required to supply proof that the water is hygienically safe for human consumption. for which the drilling contractor cannot reasonably be held Other factors that the client must fully understand and be aware of before drilling takes place: • The drilling contractor can never guarantee that he will strike FAB Water Engineering Tel: 011 793 5513 www. Find contact details for Groundwater Cyclone Industries Tel: 011 821 5900 www. Without this South African National Bottled Water Association (SANBWA) Tel: 011 884 5916 Water Research Commission (WRC) Tel: 012 330 0340 www. and therefore it is the client who is at risk for cost of the • The drilling contractor cannot be expected to say beforehand what the borehole will cost in Training and research North-West University (Potchefstroom Campus) Centre for Water Sciences and Management Tel: 018 293 0918 www.rhodes. plots and the amount required and the time taken for its development.heidelkor. industry. National strategy and government contact Department of Water Affairs www. Because of the predominantly hard rock nature of the South African Bauer South Africa Tel: 011 793 2616 Rhodes University Institute for Water Research Tel: 046 6224014 • The minimum specifications of most banks in South Africa for granting a bond on property not supplied with mains water.geomeasure. links and more on the DWA website. • A modern drilling rig is large and heavy – in urban areas it can cause a certain amount of unavoidable damage to lawns and even badly laid Heidelkor Tel: 016 341 6130/1 www. Windmills are capable of pumping water from surface water sources over long distances or from great depths of up to 200 metres underground or even more with special windmill Elsumo Tel: 021 875 5781 Water. professional and trade organisation representing all aspects of the groundwater industry. any water supply system will fail. Included in their membership are central and local government departments. professional Wind data is available in most parts of the world.g. especially in rural water 5. Role players Associations and statutory The Borehole Water Association of Southern Africa (BWA) Tel: 011 447 0853 www. farm houses. Geological Society of South Africa Ground Water Division (GWD) Tel: 012 667 3681 www. regardless of whether it is wet or electronic and ancillary equipment. The association was formed in an effort to ensure the quality standards of our members and protect the consumer against Water Talk is an electronic misrepresentation from within the newsletter sent out by them. pumping. Windmills can be so designed that they can pump water in the lightest or strongest winds. This is the most important rule of windmill water supply and is the most neglected part of the installation Companies Amatola Irrigation Tel: 043 732 1927 amairri@telkomsa. In light wind areas the cost of pumping water with windmills will Using groundwater (along with surface water) will be a key part of solving South Africa’s looming water-stressed status. Forestry and Fisheries Directorate: Infrastructure Support Tel: 012 319 846 8502 ATvC@daff. Rule one is that the local populace must see the real need for clean potable water Wind. is that a yield certificate be supplied by a recognised pump installer that states that the borehole on the property is capable of yielding a constant flow of water from the borehole of a minimum of 1500 litres over a 24 hour period.nwu. There must be a perceived need for clean potable water at the proposed installation site. so you should warn your Geomeasure Group Tel: 031 765 1900 www. They are also South African Bureau of Standards (SABS) Tel: 012 428 7911 Aquaman Drilling Trust Tel: 015 517 7210 Cell: 083 228 9359 Cell: 083 586 4788 Ernest Electro Engineering Tel: 011 792 9550/1/2 www. Department of • The local municipality/council may require that permission be obtained to sinking a borehole.fabwater.elsumo. which keeps members informed of current items of interest in the groundwater industry. Community water projects Wind driven water supply schemes require three basic items: Sociological. Windmill pumping schemes should be designed so that they never extract more than 70 percent of the tested well yield. This is normally little more than a BWA is a non-profit. Groundwater contributes 9% of the country’s water resources and plays a crucial role. As a University of the Free State Institute for Groundwater Studies Tel: 051 401 2482 / 3481 www. 3. e. leading enterprises who manufacture windmills will satisfactorily supply water. More detailed information is available from the the Borehole Water Borequip Tel: 021 949 0902 only about 20% of groundwater occurs in major aquifer systems. Underground water is available in most parts of the world at varying Booysen Bore Drilling Company Tel: 053 712 2112 annelie@booysen. documents and Hardrock Drilling Tel: 011 807 2000 / 083 442 3526 www. even in remote rural areas. windmills are most economic in areas where the wind speed exceeds 10 km/hr for a period exceeding eight hours per The South African National Bottled Water Association (SANBWA) is the recognised body of the bottled water industry.wrc. If all THREE of the above are present. contractors and interested individuals.dwa.

South Africa is currently using between 2-billion and 4-billion m3 a year of this groundwater. For rates or subscription.wrc. and earthworms. www. Dr Shafick Adams. Overview • The steep increases in the cost of inorganic fertilisers and pesticides (many derived from petroleum products) have led many farmers to look at replacing them with organically-derived ZM Pumps Tel: 082 552 3917 / 073 070 8545 www. some problems – liquid composts solved many of these for the following publications.zmsa. as could be Read about the various Water for Schools programmes that are run. and prevents erosion by binding the soil. Call 012 842 4017 or email iaeinfo@arc. the Borehole Water Association inputs Compost and organic fertiliser See also the separate “Earthworms and vermicompost” chapter Southern Cross Industries Tel: 051 434 3861 – as well as the many links to other relevant websites. This natural compost is generally called “humus”. • Compost works best when applied to the soil before planting vegetables or plants.rapidpumps. Compost returns nutrients to the soil. email them at Liquid composts (compost tea) Spreading solid composts onto large surface areas Villiers Aqua Engineering Tel: 058 821 0765 / 072 236 6845 Rapid Allweiler Pump & Engineering (Pty) Limited Tel: 011 573 7400 www. Good compost is an excellent source of beneficial organisms and organic Find the report “Groundwater to play a key role in South Africa – WRC” on www. biological and organic farmers are getting in the field from using good compost are now the driving force behind this industry’s growth” – Steyn Drilling Contractor Tel: 013 751 3871 www. • Compost can also be used as mulch – the protective cover placed over the soil to keep moisture in.engineeringnews. there are good and bad composts! Source: Jako Pieterse. A number of schools have had a borehole drilled to provide clean water for pupils – www. Sources: Southern Cross Industries.agric. Find the articles on the Borehole Water Association website – www. A number of relevant role players are also listed in the “Pumps and Generators” and “Water” chapters. Tel: 021 854 6518 Jooste Cylinder & Pump Co. a muslin bag of compost is suspended in a vat of de-chlorinated water and the water was agitated continuously by some form of pumping Websites and publications Borehole Water Journal – a quarterly put out by the Borehole Water Association. reduce As a result. nutrients (which are essential for plant growth) are released into the soil.bwa. The process of decomposition is essential for the recycling of – International Association of Compost is formed in nature all the time as plants and animals die and decompose.34-billion m3 a year. Ronald Thomson 3. Call 011 531 3300 or visit www. • Continual use of inorganic products have sterilised the soil and killed off the billions of microorganisms that occur in nature. Therefore there is the potential to considerably increase groundwater supplies in South Africa as part of the total Decomposition involves the breakdown of plant and animal remains into simpler components. the worldwide groundwater organisation Find the World Health Organization’s Guidelines for drinking-water quality and other documents at www.3smedia. in any Staden Borehole Pumps Tel: 051 522 0397 http://stadenpumps. Reducing or eliminating the use of inorganic products and replacing them with organic products will bring the microorganisms back into the soil – these microorganisms will bring depleted soils back to life and provide all the necessary nutrients for healthy plants.197 Hose Manufacturers Tel: 021 948 3971 www. Source: Ronald Thomson.hoses. Anybody buying bulk compost is advised to seek professional help in choosing a supplier as. available from the ARC in Silverton: • Grondwatersensors • Groundwater sensors Groundwater extraction and the latest techniques and equipment used in this process are covered in Water & Sanitation Africa. provide nutrients and prevent weed growth. The BWA also puts out a Membership Directory. Water Wise (Rand Water) 2. Decomposition is brought about by the action of decomposers which include bacteria. Contact the Borehole Water Association for their directory of members. fungi.southx. Don renewable groundwater in South Africa is Turbex Tel: 082 773 8496 www. The idea is that most of the beneficial micro-organisms and plantnecessary nutrients present in the compost are extracted from the solid compost and are now present in the liquid compost (this liquid is termed . the total volume of available.sabiofarm. 6.waterforschools. Ken Reid. Compost “The excellent results that commercial. increases the soil’s ability to hold water and air. According to WRC water research manager. For more info on Soilfoodweb labs the world National Plant Food (Gromor) Tel: 031 782 3105 Ecosoil Tel: 021 848 9434 / 072 906 1636 Earthworm Organic Mediums Tel: 011 468 1220 University of the Free State Lengua Agricultural Centre Dr MC van der Westhuizen Tel: 083 453 9364 from the sea and many forms of food that will be consumed by the micro-organisms and help their growth are now Manure spreader implements Jacklin Organic cc Tel: 017 844 1589 Atlas Organic Fertilizers Tel: 0784572743 / 078 451 8988 Manure spreading machines Mayibuye Ndlovu Compost Tel: 042 233 0320 North Trust and Sundays River Citrus West. The liquid is unstable and must be used within about 12 hours after Culterra Tel: 011 300 9913/4/5 www.gardenandorganics. Using composts as fertiliser and plant food ensures a supply of food throughout the growing season and solid food supply at the Used as a foliar feed it has been proven that the beneficial micro-organisms outcompete the pathogenic type and foliar plant diseases are avoided or. The liquid compost can be sprayed onto the soil for grazing crops but it has found great use as a foliar feed in orchards. go to Stellenbosch University Department of Soil Science Dr Eduard Hoffman Tel: 021 808 4789 www. Role players Training and research Agricultural Colleges offer short training courses on making Master Organics Tel: 021 396 1066 www. When plants have a good. they are able to combat diseases more effectively than poorly-fed North-West University Unit for Environmental Sciences and Management Prof L van Rensburg Tel: 018 299 1542 Such additions can be molasses.biogrow. as occurs with inorganic Neutrog Africa Tel: 021 972 1958 www. Soilfoodweb Lab Tel: 015 268 2912 / 082 885 9608 Talborne Products Tel: 011 954 5763 Guano Sales (Cape) Tel/fax: 021 671 4387 Tel: 021 976 1546 (factory) Havco Tel: 017 712 5355 Contact details for all Agricultural Colleges can be found in the “Agricultural education and training” chapter. at least. The liquid also feeds the SA Biofarm Institute Tel: 058 622 2372 info@sabiofarm. KwaZulu-Natal. Earth 2 Earth Tel: 0860 47 66 33 www. Compost tea is made by adding compost to water and multiplying specific www. humic and fulvic acids Mpumalanga and Company (SRCC) which delivers certified organic A business which specialises in compost extract Companies Karibu Farm Tel/fax: 032 947 1194 Ocean Agri Science Tel: 021 875 5972 Remade Organics Tel/fax: 011 432 8371 organics@remade. Garden & Organics Tel: 0861 COMPOST (266 76 78) Eco-Fert Tel: 086 100 50 51 www. Earthworms See the separate “Earthworms and vermicompost” Windmeul Lushof 101 Tel: 021 873 2427 Tel: 015 307 4420 / 082 800 1895 The Sustainable Fruit and Vine study Group Tel: 021 808 5329 www. Soil & More Reliance Tel: 0861 888 784 “compost tea”).com Stanler Farms Tel: 021 975 1724 Johannesburg: 082 657 3715/6 http://stanlerfarms.sfisa. One user applies 100 litres per hectare every month as a soil drench throughout the growing season and has seen remarkable Slurry Tech Tel: 033 267 7677 / 082 932 0481 www. Source: Ronald Thomson Drotsky Aktiek Tel: 011 864 1601 Biogrow Tel: 028 313 2054 www. a huge boost when applied but a starvation when this is used up or leached out. Pieterse consults farmers on creating healthy rock Lushof 101 design and manufacture scompost making equipment Avison Tel: 023 347 0544 A BEE partnership between Mayibuye Ndlovu Development Outlets in Most Eco-Fert products are based Ritlee Sales & Services on soil friendly sources derived Tel: 011 452 3434 Agro-Hytec Distribution Tel: 021 863 2884 Bark Enterprises Tel: 012 252 7235 / 082 771 8497 compost@mweb. 5.VanRensburg@nwu.barkcompost. Gauteng.

available from the ARC in Silverton: • Kompostering en komposteringstelsels • Composting and composting systems • Besproeiing met dieremiswater • Irrigation with animal manure water • Manure handling in intensive animal production units. Hands On: Soil And Compost Life – A Field Guide. Tel: 012 319 7141. It can be viewed (and downloaded) at www. Write to jako@ecosoil. Animal manure can be utilised for fertiliser as an energy source (fuel) and as a supplement to animal feed rations. Natal.ecosoil. Share-Net. Subscribe to the monthly Ecosoil newsletter. Visit to obtain the following The different applications of animal manure on the farm are dealt with here. 3290. “Speciality fertilisers” and “Soil” chapters. www. M Roos (ed). available from Kejafa Knowledge or call 011 025 4388 for several compost-related publications. Share-Net.agric. edited and revised by F Cilliers. Other articles relevant to this chapter include “Compost tea cuts fertiliser costs by 20%”.co. Natal. Our thanks to Jaco Pieterse and Ronald Thompson for notes used in this chapter . Copyright. 2009.199 and Websites and publications See the “Biological farming”.co. PO Box 394. Howick. A farmer with a feedlot is in a prime position to replace fertiliser with manure. 3290. PO Box 394. Find the Farmer’s Weekly article “Recycling feedlot manure makes economic sense” at www. Visit websites of role players for a wealth of information e. “Organic farming”. Tel: 0860 240 240 Soil Is Life: A Handbook For Teachers. written by HT Breedt. The Info Paks (booklet) Using Kraal Manure (as a fertiliser) and Making organic fertiliser may be obtained from the Resource Centre at the National Department of Agriculture. I van den Tel: 0860 240 240. Call 012 842 4017 or email

• enhanced water quality & reduced purification costs • less problems for hydroelectric power plants • less sedimentation of roads • reduction of costs for the government and for society due to off farm effects of soil erosion Result: Result: • Sustainable land use is not possible (ecologically. direct seeding. and the adoption of conservation farming practices an essential component of good farming practice. dams. rip-on-row and stubble mulching. • Soil resource exploitation • Sustainable land use ensured (ecologically. this term has come to be accepted to include all crop To plough or not to plough – old and new paradigms in crop production Old paradigms New paradigms Soil tillage is necessary to produce a crop Tillage is not necessary for crop production • burying of plant residues with tillage implements • bare soil for weeks and months • soil temperature extremes due to direct radiation • burning crop residues allowed • strong emphasis on soil chemical processes • first option – chemical pest control • green manure cover crops and crop rotations optional • soil erosion is caused by excessive rain Consequences of soil cultivation & bare soil 1 wind and water erosion are unavoidable. Society also benefits from reduced atmospheric carbon dioxide emissions.200 inputs Conservation Agriculture 1. insufficient income) 100rural poverty > urban drift > increased pressure on urban infrastructure and employment > urban poverty > slums > crime > social conflict > political volatility • crop residues remain on the soil surface as mulch • soil never bare – permanent soil cover • soil temperatures buffered by mulch • burning mulch prohibited • emphasis on soil biological processes • first option – biological pest control • green manure cover crops and crop rotations essential • soil erosion is caused by soil mismanagement Consequences of No-till & permanent soil cover 1 wind and water erosion near zero 2 increased water infiltration into the soil 3 soil water more available 4 soil organic matter content and consequently soil quality maintained or enhanced 5 carbon is sequestered in the soil. conservation farming. ridge till. dams. production without profitability. • reduced water quality & increased purification costs • problems in hydroelectric power plants • sedimentation of roads • higher costs for the government and for society due to off farm effects of soil erosion • reduced rate of sedimentation of rivers. but promotes permanent soil cover and diversified crop rotation to ensure better soil health and productivity. environmentally friendly method of farming which does not use regular ploughing and tillage. . physical and biological) 7 crop productivity increased 8 fertiliser use and costs of production reduced 9 survival of the family farm ensured (more even. 3 soil water less available 4 soil organic matter content & consequently soil quality unavoidably reduced 5 soil carbon is lost as carbon dioxide into the atmosphere contributing to global warming 6 soil degradation (chemical. however. FAO) has come to be accepted as the umbrella term for describing agricultural farming practices that conserve ecological systems. lakes etc. chisel & disc. 2 reduced water infiltration into the soil. CA has been defined in the United Sates of America as any tillage operation that leaves at least 30% of the soil surface covered with plant residues immediately after planting. Conservation and efficient utilisation of natural resources at national. CA (as defined by the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations. socially and economically). lakes etc. The most common forms of CA are no-tillage. physical and biological) 7 crop productivity reduced 8 fertiliser use and costs of production high 9 survival of the family farm threatened (lower yields. Conservation Agriculture (CA) – or “Conservation Tillage” as it is often called – is a cost-effective. regional and farm level is no longer a luxury but an imperative. due primarily to the difficulty many farmers have in excluding or controlling the influx of livestock after crop harvest. • Rational. Overview Our continent is bleeding to death: megatons of topsoil wash out to sea every year due to soil structure degraded by ploughing. enhancing soil quality and reducing global warming 6 soil improvement (chemical. socially & economically). sustainable and profitable crop production) 100basic needs satisfied > rural living standard and quality of life increased > increased and diversified productivity > increased rural prosperity > return to the land > national stability Off farm effects of soil erosion Off farm effects of new production system • sedimentation of rivers. In Africa. site-oriented use of the soil Source: After Derpsch 2004.

Also referred to as reduced tillage. These provide a protective cover that diminishes wind and water erosion. is receiving growing acceptance internationally as the optimal crop production system. but the savings made through reduced input costs outweigh any discrepancy in income. in the furrow or along both sides of a ridge. farmers should also consider crop rotation as part of their conservation farming methods. increases water retention capabilities and serves as a shock absorber for raindrop impact. in the incorporation of manures) such systems can not be described as Conservation Agriculture systems. • Permanent organic soil cover (either by living crops or by crop or other plant residues) – to diminish the impact of raindrops and reduce water runoff (and consequently soil loss). Minimum Tillage’s major objectives include: • to perform the minimum number and severity of operations thought necessary to optimise soil conditions. and • to reduce mechanical energy and labour requirements Some common Minimum Tillage systems include: • 0Till and Plant: Tractor-driven equipment prepares narrow strips utilising shallow secondary tillage after the primary tillage and just ahead of the planter. crop rotation or appropriate (preferably narrow spectrum bio-friendly) herbicides. farmers help in replenishing the nitrogen levels of the soil. Note that. • The African Conservation Tillage Network (ACT) consists of practitioners and promoters who believe the adaptation and adoption of conservation tillage principles is a cost effective method of reducing and reversing the environmental degradation and food insecurity devastating Africa. Conservation farming techniques are increasingly promoted as one of the solutions to replenish South Africa’s soil resources. increases. Conservation Agriculture should be a consideration for every farmer concerned with sustainable growth. • Disc-plant: One discing operation before planting is done to loosen the compacted soil surface. In conjunction with less tillage and leaving residues on the top soil for protection. protects the soil from wind erosion. Some forms of Conservation Agriculture: Conservation Agriculture. There might be an initial decrease in yield. Mulch Till This is a system that involves cutting the roots of weeds and other plants. not a good idea when one considers all the benefits brought to the soils by earthworms. The ridges may be on the contours with graded furrows draining into a grassed water way. and is a major factor in the growing dominance of South American grain producers on world markets. As with Conservation Agriculture. and by introducing crops like soybeans. • Chisel & disc: Primary tillage is conduced using chisel tines only. especially predators. No cultivation is performed during the growing season. allelopathy (the antagonism of some plants or plant residues to other plants). • Strip Tillage: Combination units perform strip or zone tillage just ahead of the planter in untilled soil (usually utilising a chisel plough.and inter-row areas. and • Diversification of crop species growing in sequence and/or associations (especially crop rotation) – to increase the diversity of food sources and hence soil biota. • Find out about the European Conservation Agriculture Federation at www. 2. sustainable and financially viable. leaving the crop residue on the surface or mixed into the top few centimetres of the soil. International business environment • Conservation Agriculture has been tested. No Till (also called Zero Till or Direct Seeding) This is a crop production system that involves no seed bed preparation other than the opening (via a slit or punched hole) of the soil for the purpose of placing seed or seedling. The greatest benefits of this process are that it increases the organic matter. proven and is being practised under a wide range of agro-ecological conditions throughout the world. • to conserve moisture. weed control is accomplished using mulches. as do earthworms.ecaf. all of these methods leave plant residues on the soil surface between growing seasons. Specific practices include • Rip-on-row: A heavy tine at a depth of 300-450mm is drawn in the line of the planned (often also the previous) row ahead of the planter. Minimum Tillage Are systems that involve minimal soil manipulation for crop production. And soil rich with earthworm tunnels is estimated to absorb four to 10 times more water than soil without. Crop rotation allows the soil time to recover in between the various planting seasons. A sound knowledge of environmental pressures and long-term thinking is critical if the farm business is to be competitive. and to leave most of the residue on the surface. erosion is reduced due to less intervention disturbing the soil.201 production systems which aim to make more efficient use of natural and human resources while reducing environmental degradation. minimises water runoff and can thereby dramatically increase soil water (from irrigation or rain) availability. Put simply. the key ingredient in soil productivity. Deep and repeated tillage reduces earthworm populations by as much as 90%. . reducing diesel requirements by up to 50% or more. frequently differentiating between the in. with the sole aim of improving porosity and rooting depth in root zone).fao. although some organic farmers practice Conservation Agriculture. • to minimise the number of trips over the field to avoid soil compaction and structural degradation. • to reduce soil where production systems require the inversion or cultivation of the soil more than is necessary to insert the seed or seedling (for example. as defined by the Food & Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO). Ridge Till This is a planting method where crops are planted on the ridge top. conservation tillage’s ‘biological plough’. org. to control weeds. 3. • Chisel: Lighter chisel tines are drawn at a depth of 200-300mm as the sole cultivation prior to planting. • Bed-plant: This method is commonly used for soil moisture management especially in surface irrigated crops where furrows are made at appropriate intervals raising the bed between. and break pest and disease cycles. Contact the Regional Secretariat at actnairobi@wananchi. Successful farm management demands exploring environmentally-friendly farm practices. reduces evaporation or find the ACT Network on www. Ultimately. Farmer Points of Interest Farmers can have an enormous influence on ensuring the survival of the South Africa agricultural sector over the long term by adopting more sustainable management applications. Organic matter. Source: Adapted from a press release done by Standard Bank through Magna Carta Public Relations. Immediate survival is no longer the order of the day. and includes all farming systems which involve simultaneous adherence to the principles of: • Continued minimal soil disturbance (including NO soil inversion) – to retain root channels and encourage the build-up of soil biota populations and hence soil structure. followed by a light disc immediately prior to planting. or use short crossties to create a series of basins to store water in ‘tied-ridges’.

which can be ‘tailormade’ to the requirements of all interested organisations and/or projects. University of the Free State Centre for Sustainable Agriculture. especially Direct Baldan (Brazil) Northmec 011 922 2300 www. CAT co-operates closely with the Traction the Agricultural Research Council and Ms Sandra Findlay (secretary) Tel: 033 330 2062 sandrafindlay@intanet. in association with the provincial Departments of Agriculture and private companies. Read more on the Soil. Elsenburg Agricultural Training Institute Tel: 021 808 7691 and research on conservation tillage KZN Department of Agriculture and Environmental Affairs Dr Allan Mr Guy Thibaud Tel: 033 355 9100 Food Security Mr Werner Ristow Tel: 039 727 3376 Fax: 0865 715 669 Conservation Agriculture Thrust (CAT) Mr Dirk Lange Tel: 072 256 4165 The TC co-operates Tel: 033 355 9100 closely with the CAT (see heading 5. for commercial and Climate of the Crop and Climate Sciences This is a planned partnership Tel: 051 401 2212 between the University of Fort Hare.werner@agr. Hendrik Smith.notillclub. Africa Land-Use Training Tel 014 717 3819 / 078 228 0008 Grain SA is involved with CA Ottosdal No-Till Club initiatives Frik van Sittert No-Till Club of KwaZulu-Natal Tel: 083 400 3314 ifrik@mtnloaded. Qualifications will be active at secondary certificate and tertiary (diploma) .hobson@agr. especially in the Western and Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal.agric. Implements and distributors Trade “Xoshindlala” Programme: Planting without Ploughing Mr Johan Janse van Rensburg Tel: 033 355 9328 Western Cape Department of Conservation Agriculture Thrust Agriculture (CAT) – find the University of Fort Francis J Steyn Tel: 021 808 5090 Hare entry under heading 5 franciss@elsenburg.agric.cons-ent. with emphasis on and Water (ARC-ISCW) the correct choice of rotation crops Drs Danie Beukes. Research Department of Agronomy Tel:021 808 4803 www.sun.202 HabigJ@arc.fixing Tel: 012 310 2500/6 legumes. Short courses are also The CAT (see heading 4) is a joint initiative between the Eastern Cape Department of Rural Development and Agrarian Reform and the University of Fort Hare. conventional tillage is carried Conservation tillage has a number of unique problems regarding disease control and in particular root Training and research Institutions offering agricultural degrees/diplomas include conservation tillage in the syllabus.agric. University of Fort Hare (UFH) Traction Centre Mr Bruce Joubert Tel: 040 602 2125 Fax: 040 602 2488 This Centre trains owners and operators in the use of animaldrawn equipment. and other management practices. This is part of the “Xoshindlala” Planting without Ploughing (PwP) Eastern Cape Department of Agriculture Mr Felix Hobson Tel: 040 609 3563 This centre offers a masters degree The Conservation Agriculture in sustainable agriculture which includes topics such as conservation Academy National strategy and provincial contact Find information on. country of origin Distributor Contact details Alpha Engineering (RSA) Alpha Engineering 028 514 3450 Duncan (New Zealand) Kouga Implemente 042 295 1146 kougafm@telkomsa. resource-poor 4 and below) Various practical CA training courses are is carried out both at ARC Research ARC-Plant Protection Research Institute (ARC-PPRI) Tel: 012 808 8000 / 8263 MaraisM@arc. Rural Development and Extension Tel: 051 401 3765 www. and contact details stations and Role players Associations and NGOs Grain SA Pietman Botha – 082 759 2991 www. www. the different directorates at www. ARC-Small Grains Institute (ARC-SGI) Mr Willem Kilian Tel: 058 307 3400 Annual workshops are conducted on various aspects of conservation tillage for small-scale UFH.agric. Corrie Swanepoel such as the use of No-Till Association of the Western Cape Tel: 021 808 5479 / 082 907 3109 johannst@elsenburg.northmec. and their use in Conservation Agriculture systems Department of Agriculture and suited to field and vegetable Environmental Affairs / Cedara production. Research into the management of such diseases is an ongoing activity of plant pathologists ARC-Institute for ARC-Grain Crops Institute (ARC-GCI) Plant Science and Advisory Services Tel: 018 299 6396 Andre Nel – Stellenbosch University Department of Conservation Ecology and Entomology Tel: 021 808 3728 samways@sun.

afritrac. • Conservation Agriculture: A manual for farmers and extension workers in Africa (2005) Contact the KZN No-Till Club. World Association of Soil and Water Knapik (Brazil) Inttrac Trading 016 365 5799 Websites and publications • Find the CA pages on the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO) website – www. 2nd Edition (1999). Equalizer Precision Theebo Tech (RSA) 082 870 9522 researchers and educationists throughout the • No-till on the Orthman (USA) JWL Agricultural Supplies 017 819 2026 www. A global collection of information presented by and to Dirk Lange (University of Fort Hare) for feedback on the draft chapter. • Conservation Agriculture is frequently covered in both agricultural weeklies Landbouweekblad and Farmer’s Vence Turdo (Brazil) Inttrac Trading Trading 016 365 5799 inttrac@cyberserv. discipline professionals and research a non-profit educational organisation in the USA – www. Ademir or visit Mealiebrand (Zimbabwe) Afritrac 011 918 4698 www.rovicleers. An interactive dedicated website initiated here in South Africa and containing a wealth of information on Conservation Agriculture of use to farmers. • Find the No-tillage Training Manual at Living Laboratories Tel: 082 562 7987 / 083 379 5614 http://livinglaboratories. • A booklet on no-till is available in isiZulu.203 Eco Till (RSA) Eco Till Africa 053 444 2160 Animal-drawn No Till Planters (suitable for planting maize. Harare.valtrac. available from the ARC in Silverton: - Jukke vir dieretrekkrag - Yokes for animal traction - Animal traction implements - Comparative review of technical specifications for no-till jab-planters Our gratitude to the late Richard Fowler for notes used in this • Call 012 842 4017 or email Piket (RSA) Carel Van Niekerk Engineering 022 913 2435 www. 6.jwl. Obtainable from admin@iirr-africa. or P O Box 1052. You may notice that Kuhn Metasa (Brazil) Rovic & Leers 021 907 1700 Other companies involved Agricultural Resource Consultants Dr Jim Findlay Tel: 011 486 2254 Write to him at • http://ca. ISBN: 978-9748391-60-1. Contact the KZN No-till Club.polity. • No-Till Farming Systems (2008).co.notill. • Find the article “Low carbon farming: Benefits and opportunities for smallholder farmers in Africa” at www. John Ashburner & Richard Hastt (Zimbabwe) Hastt Zimbabwe +263-62-33-55/8 or +263 4 756445 • A Guide to No-Till Crop Production in KZN. FAO.equalizer. Special Publication No. ISBN: Kongskilde (Denmark) Kongskilde SA 011 894 2341 www. the Grain SA commercial farmer of the year practices John Deere (USA) John Deere 011 437 2600 rsa@johndeere. • The Beginner’s Guide to No-Till by Aubrey Venter. cotton etc) Trade name and country of origin Distributor Contact details Hastt (Zimbabwe) Hastt Zimbabwe +263-62-33-55/8 or +263 4 756445 sales@hastt. Dr Ademir Calegari of Brazil’s Institute of Agriculture is another. Accra 2005. or write to sandrafindlay@intanet. Nairobi and African Conservation Tillage Network (ACT).com and www. Available from the KZN No-till Club. .co. extension Tatu Marchesan (Brazil) Valtrac 056 817 7308 Jumil (Brazil) Reapers 033 394 6301 www. Ms Sandra Findlay (secretary).com – Rolf Derpsch is a well-known advocate of CA • Massey Ferguson (USA) Barloworld Agri 011 898 0380 Monosem (France) Carrotech 021 865 2044 www. Visit the archives of the publications at www. A number of international links can be found on this for the following publications. Tel/fax: 033 344 Gaspardo SP (Italy) GMG Power 011 392 1144 www. • Conservation Agriculture in Africa. It outlines a few ways in which smallholder farmers in Africa can benefit from enhancing climate change mitigation through incorporating low carbon technologies and techniques into their farming practices.

acquired the most modern calibration equipment from the USA and during calibration “fly-ins”. International business environment • Visit the website of CropLife International for international news and perspectives: www. The CropLife website records the breakdown of chemical crop protection as being: Segment Percentage of market Herbicides 39 Insecticides 27 Fungicides 22 Other 12 CropLife member companies support the aims of sustainable agriculture: to produce sufficient food and fibre economically and in an environmentally and socially sensitive manner. including the aspect of the control and eradication of pests and Registrar: Act No. AVCASA is working on various environmentally sound container management strategies for adoption and implementation by industry in line with the above.ecpa. The South African market is by far the largest in 4. They run control programmes and issue regulations to protect and improve plant health. Farm Feeds. National strategy and government contact Find “ food safety. Fisheries and Forestry (DAFF) acts as the contracting authority for the programme. The policy for managing the Redbilled Quelea problem was established in 1994 under Act 36 of 1983. Biological crop protection Biological control uses a pest or disease’s own natural enemies to control the pest or disease. 2. viruses. intensive crops and in field 3. • Farm Chemicals International – www. • Aerial Application.204 Poison Information Centres. For advice on cases of poisoning: inputs Tygerberg Poison Information Centre (Human 021 931 6129 Poisoning) Crop protection Red Cross Children’s Hospital Poison Line 021 689 5227 Public Emergency Communication Centre 021 480 7700 Griffon Poison Information Centre (Wildlife 082 446 8946 Poison) 1.daff. The Directorate: Land Use and Soil Management enforces this Act. Find information on “SA PIP 2” menu at www. website of the Department of Agriculture. CropLife SA. Directorate: Land Use and Soil Management Tel: 012 319 7685/6 DLUSM@daff. Forestry and Fisheries. of which the South African market comprises between 2 and 3 percent. This is a rapidly growing area of crop protection and several agents are produced locally in South Africa.). The industry is committed to Integrated Pest Management as an economically viable. An amendment to this Act (No R.1716 of 26 July 1991) prohibits the acquisition. in alliance with the SA Aerial Applicators In co-operation with Provincial governments this directorate administers laws relating to plant health. sale or use of an agricultural remedy for a purpose or in a manner other than that specified on the label on the container. The Perishable Products Export Control Board has been tasked with rolling out SA PIP 2. disposal. The Policy for managing the locust problem in SA document can be found under “Publications” and “Policy documents”. the following is undertaken: • Retrieval and disposal of obsolete stock. maintaining the natural resource base for future generations. This resulted in the establishment of the successful South African Pesticide Initiative Programme (SA PIP).croplife. 082 325 6223 South African Pesticide Initiative Programme 2 (SA PIP 2) South Africa signed a Financial Agreement with the EU in the previous decade to address the issue of chemical residue levels on food being exported into the EU. Agricultural Remedies and Stock Remedies Act). Overview Nashua pesticides Helpline Chemical crop protection The global market for agrochemicals is in the order of $33 390 • European Crop Protection Association – www. • Pesticide Container Management. .za Redbilled Quelea (Quelea quelea In South Africa all chemicals used for the control of any pest or disease on a plant must be registered for such use under Act 36 of 1947 (the Fertilisers. Directorate Plant Health Tel: 012 319 6072 DPH@daff. SA PIP 2 provides funding for training 450 smallholders nationally on responsible pesticide use. AVCASA is currently putting together a waste management programme in line with the National Waste Management Act which is aimed at retrieving and disposing of obsolete stocks in South Africa. Agents such as friendly fungi. Major initiatives By CropLife SA and ACDASA under the umbrella association AVCASA In addition to training courses (see the “Training and Research” sub-heading). nematodes or parasitic insects are used to control pests and diseases in both high value. Find the “Biocontrol” chapter. 36 of 1947 Tel: 012 319 7303 MalutaM@daff. environmentally sound and socially acceptable approach to crop protection. aircrafts are upgraded in order to ensure more efficient aerial application of the products and the subsequent updating of existing label recommendations.farmchemicalsinternational. agricultural practices and legislation. There is huge potential for more small scale farmers to be empowered to be sustainable and commercially viable exporters as they constitute only a small percentage of those who export fruit and vegetables. Pesticides and Fertilzers” under the Divisions menu option at a bird species. SAPIP 2 is that programme’s successor. Stock Remedies. is an agriculturally important migratory pest to small grain crop-producing farmers of southern Africa.cipac. while the Department of • Collaborative International Pesticides Analytical Council (CIPAC) – www.


za Tel: 011 372 3600 under of responsible manufacturers ‘Associate Members’ compilation of product registration dossiers for submission to the CropLife ensures that all members agrecon@telkomsa.206 CropLife SA: Plant Protection Training Course. Health and Environment committee on a quarterly basis.ewt. not for gain. promotes the effective and responsible marketing of crop protection products to agricultural and suppliers of crop protection products.cput.P.sapca. ARC-Plant Protection Research Institute (ARC-PPRI) Tel: 012 808 8000 Tel: 012 654 7708 www. This is an eightmodule correspondence This also contributes towards the Good Agricultural Practice as required by viticulture is an element in courses given by the other ARC i. Members products especially in the emergent sector are positioned throughout South • Marketing Code of Ethics Africa and can conduct field trials • warehousing & transport on almost any crop grown in the standards Stellenbosch University Department of Plant Pathology Tel: 021 808 4799 www.croplife. When the need is there. followed by final examination and with the support of other agricultural Training done in the safe handling of chemicals A certificate and diploma are offered in pest management Sikhula Agri Training Tel: 021 852 2643 www.croplife. this will be offered as a Short Learning Programme by UNISA. • SANS codes of practice Other members specialise in CropLife SA the management of product Tel: 011 805 2000 registration programmes and the www.agriskills. they coordinate the collection of these agrochemicals. Forestry and Fisheries and Civil Aviation. These associations want farmers and other users of its products to know that they are making their purchases from persons and companies which can give sound technical advice and whose employers are bound by the strict CropLife SA / ACDASA Code of Conduct. codes and Association has over 40 members offering services in product Endangered Wildlife Trust (EWT) South African Weed Science Wildlife Conflict Mitigation Society Programme deweth@arc. a section 21 Company regulatory . Nematological Society of Southern Africa Dr Sonia Steenkamp (secretary) Tel: 018 299 3679 www. Role players Training and research Associations involved Agricultural Chemical Distribution Association of South Africa (ACDASA) Tel: 011 805 2000 The results are reported to the AVCASA Safety. On an ad-hoc basis the EWT is involved with the retrieval of unwanted and unused Visit the CePHMa website: Through this Plant Science Consultants Association (PSCA) The stringent Code of Technology (CPUT) Tel: 021 864 5217/3 University of Pretoria www. However the course is open to anyone wishing to learn more about crop protection and the products used in the industry. especially as it potentially affects wildlife.agric. container management and disposal of obsolete Agriskills Transfer Tel: 012 460 9585 University of KZN www.g. 011 805 2000 or e-mail Hettie@avcasa.sun. All wildlife poisoning events are investigated and samples are sent for toxicological analysis. stewardship and sustainable agriculture are promoted by addressing issues such as Integrated Pest Management (IPM) It keeps an eye on the misuse and overuse of chemicals in the environ- Southern African Society for Plant Pathology Ms Wilmarie Kriel (secretary) Tel: 011 748 3630 http://saspp. A list of members and representing the plant science their fields of expertise can be Department of Plant Pathology Tel: 033 260 5808 Cape Penisular University of www. www. and through its approved SA Aerial Applicators’ training and accreditation of Association member’s sales personnel it strives Tel: 058 303 5261 / 082 829 5749 to ensure that farmers and other end-users are at all times provided South African Pest Control with a professional and efficient Association Tel: 0861114556 service. c/o Dr Jim Findlay based on the FAO Code of Tel: 011 486 2254 Department of Microbiology & Plant Pathology Pest Control Service Industries Tel: 012 420 4100 Board www.ukzn.agric. Act The monitoring and management Department of Plant Sciences of pests and weeds relevant to Tel: 051 401 2514 the particular crop e. For more information on the course contact Hettie at AVCASA on Tel. CropLife SA: Aerial Applicators Course. CropLife SA: Responsible Use Training Department Conservation Ecology and Entomology Tel: 021 808 3728 www.ufs. www. Find contacts in the “Agricultural education and training” The Agricultural Colleges do short courses on the handling of pesticides and herbicides.e. ment. As of 2010. such as: development and the registration of crop protection products and • manufacturing quality practices associated remedies to local and • training in responsible use of foreign University of the Free State Courses are offered in integrated Centre for Sustainable Agriculture. The only course for aerial applicators recognised by the Department of Walter Sisulu University School of Applied and Protea Training Centre Environmental Sciences Tel: 021 948 1275 / 082 670 1636 Tel: 047 502 2311 / 047 502 2186 All sales personnel of CropLife SA and ACDASA are required to pass this course in order to be allowed to give advice and sell our crop protection products. is an association 36 of 1947.and service The Plant Science Consultants’ ACDASA is an independent Section 21 Association make input into and abide by ethical-. as well as the upliftment of small-scale/emerging farmers and to the protection of the environment.sikhulatrust. including the majority found at saweedsciencesociety The Wildlife Conflict Mitigation Programme is part of the Endangered Wildlife Trust. maize or www.arc. pest management (IPM) and Rural Development and Extension Tel: 051 401 3765 developing agricultural systems. with the option to attend lectures.up.


za Metson Manufacturing 011 792 8968 Insect Science 015 307 1391 Nialcor (Pty) Ltd 011 817 2822 Nova Agro cc 031 563 2925 Ortus Chemicals 012 250 3898 Illovo Sugar Limited 031 950 7890 Klub M5 012 653 1782 Cipla Agricare 021 943 4200 Du Pont De Nemours 012 683 5600 Sipcam SA 021 874 1055 Sunwood Chemicals 011 396 2233 Makhteshim-Agan SA 011 316 3232 Cropchem (Pty) Ltd 016 341 3001 Dow AgroSciences 021 872 1751 Avima 011 769 1300 .za Gap Chemicals 032 533 7664 Ica International 021 886 9812 Plaaskem 011 823 8000 Kelp Products 021 786 2090 Kombat (Pty) Ltd 033 417 1906 Syngenta South Africa 011 541 4000 Horticura 012 329 3301 Hygrotech Seed 012 545 8000 Bitrad Consultants 012 666 8945 Zetachem (Pty) Ltd 031 469 0165 Azanchem 021 907 3000 BASF SA 011 203 2541 Monsanto SA 011 790 8200 Bayer Cropscience 011 921 5911 MBF International 082 921 8428 Enviro Crop Protection 056 213 4539 Total SA (Pty) Ltd 011 396 2913 Agro-Organics 021 851 2403 Philagro SA 012 348 8808 Villa Crop Protection 011 396 2233 Chanrai International SA (Pty) Ltd 031 584 6280 Chempac (Pty) Ltd 021 874 1055 Chemtura (Pty) Ltd 011 397 4336 Erintrade cc 033 386 9384 Exportos 011 396 2233 Farmkem cc 011 875 2004 FMC Chemicals 021 794 8566 www.villacrop.agro-organics.208 CropLife SA member companies Company Telephone Website Ag-Chem Africa 012 803 0145 Arysta LifeScience SA 031 514 5600 Kannar Earth Science 011 372 4700

za MGK Bedryfsmaatskappy 012 381 2800 / 31 Midchem (Pty) Ltd 018 673 1508 NatAgro 016 341 3001 NexusAg 021 860 8040 Novon Protecta 058 303 3785 Novon WTP 018 632 3010 Oosvaal Landbou cc 017 647 5850 Provento 015 307 7052 PW Landboudienste 021 862 1128 Retouw Landbou Bk 042 284 0422 Technichem Crop Protection 056 343 3444 Avonrod Plant Protection cc 011 460 0175 / 1901 5212 John Bean Technologies (Pty) Ltd 021 982 1130 ACDASA member companies Company Telephone Website Africa Agricultural Product Investments 013 643 1225 Agri Chemies 056 777 2817 Agribiz 032 552 4459 AgriKem 021 872 4551 Agrison bk 082 579 7204 021 872 1751 Agro-Centre 013 665 5122 Alfa Chemicals 056 213 4539 Laeveld Agrochem 012 998 5909 BayAgro Central 053 441 3168 / 9 Biotrace Trading 266 015 491 7041 Dio Agric 028 754 3047 Ecoguard Distributors 011 463 6057 Avello (Pty) Ltd 014 717 9400 www.209 Associate Members Drommasjien cc 083 303 6033 Efekto 011 304 7200 HI 5 Integrated Logistics (Pty) Ltd 012 345 5168 / Nufarm Agriculture (Pty) Ltd 012 658 5869 Plant Science Consultants Association (PSCA) 011 486 2254 South African Bureau of Standards 012 428 6758 SA Pest Control Association 012 654 7708 Kaap Agri 021 877 6119 Farmers Agri Care 031 265 5000 HBD Distributors & Crop Care 081 335 7888 www. Hardi Crop Protection 011 613 8711 www. a division of Plaaskem 021 868 4063 Hortec 023 316 1530 UAP Crop Plant Health Products 033 266 6130 Viking Marketing (Pty) Ltd 021 907 3000 Other companies Company Telephone Website Alrose Chemicals 011 892 0913 Nutrico SA 011 392 4072 Vrystaat Oesbeskerming 056 515 4404 Wenkem SA (Pty) Ltd 0861 936 536 Wilgechem Vennootskap 058 813 1192 Obaro 012 381 2916 Terason 021 873 6177 Reapers Agricultural Supplies 033 394 6301 www. See also the “Biocontrol” Ububele Alfa Chemicals 056 213 2036 Haifa 021 982 0309 Orsmond Aerial Spray 058 303 5261 Indoplast 011 664 8852

croplife. Pretoria cellulose and pathogen feedstock before venturing into more ambitious projects. These worms forage for their food by coming to the surface and dragging damp decaying organic matter down into their burrows. Many different types of enclosure can be found – ranging from a small box for a household to extremely large concrete pens for large-scale farming. These introduced worms are typically not found in ordinary South African soils which are too dry and lack the moist humus environment which they need to food leftovers and animal manures (with the possible exception of cat litter that can contain pathogens – organisms that can be infectious).com lists the pests of the more common field crops. Decaying organic material can be literally anything that was once alive but is now dead: all vegetable matter.arc. These worms. To order these.arc.jadafa. Sources for the chapter: CropLife SA. Worms digest these and the nutrients they have absorbed.pestsandcrops. Find the African Arachnid Database (AFRAD) at www. and “Compost and organic fertiliser” chapters Websites and publications inputs Registered chemicals in South Africa are published in guides such as A Guide for the Control of Plant Diseases and A Guide for the Control of Plant Pests issued by the DAFF on a regular basis. moulds.acdasa. The worm faeces (or “castings”) are collected and used as compost. the Perishable Products Export Control Board Our grateful thanks to Tom Mabesa and Hettie Dickenson (CropLife SA) for their input. With a plentiful food supply. available from the ARC in Silverton: • Mechanisation basics: Sprayers and spraying techniques (Training manual) • Small-scale chemical sprayer Bacterial Diseases of Plants in South Africa Teresa A As soon as any living thing dies – whether it be animal or vegetable – a host of saprophytic micro-organisms including such as bacteria. • A third type of worm (termed endogeic) can be found very deep in the soil and very seldom comes to the surface. Microbial activity increases in the worm’s gut system and the excreted worm faeces are also full of plant nutrients and micro-organisms which not only fertilise the soil.agric. fungi. small arthropods begin to devour it. Find the Information Core for Southern African Migrant pests (ICOSAMP) pages on These are termed epigeic with Eisinia fetida and sub species andreii being most popular amongst vermiculturists in South Africa. An expert on-line database (AFRAD) was initiated by the ARC PPRI. • Worms (termed anecic) that are found from the surface of the soil to a depth of roughly one metre. nematodes.agric. and can also be viewed at www. • Guidelines for the Road Transportation of Dangerous Goods • RSA Code for the Classification and Labeling Agricultural Chemicals • Responsible Use Poster The following publications are available from DAFF’s Resource Centre. some indigenous and some introduced. The life and death activities of the micro-organisms in the soil release continuous plant nutrients and fix elements like nitrogen from the atmosphere. which provides vitally important information about arachnids– a major component of agro-diversity. ISBN 978-1-920146023. The ARC Plant Protection newletter is also here (and on Publications available from CropLife SA/ACDASA: • A Guide for Operators: Responsible Pesticide Use (Available in seven of the official languages) • A Guide for Operators: Responsible Pesticide Use (Available in all 11 official languages) • Guide to the Treatment of Poisoning by Chemicals – a must for the medical profession. call 021 809 3100. This new book provides information on bacterial diseases of agricultural crops. Find the “Crops and crop protection” Infotoons at www. “Organic farming”.gov. Lumbricus terrestris is very common in South Africa. untreated sawdust. Earthworms then graze on the micro-organisms as efarmer. This results in a far more sustainable growing environment than one which relies on seasonal additions of inorganic fertilisers with their various combinations of carbon. These worms are distinguished by their habitat in or on the and www. Earthworms and vermicompost See also the “Biological farming”.za. In vermiculture. Controlled organic waste environments are. The ARC-Infruitec/Nietvoorbij has a series of pamphlets covering diseases and pests in deciduous fruit paper and cardboard.agis. This type is the only one of the three that actually eats soil as part of its diet. Some of the decaying matter is also ingested but the main food is the micro-organisms. Call 012 842 4017 or email iaeinfo@arc. .211 the anecic worms proliferate and help to keep the soil friable and productive. but increase its vitality and ecosystem functioning through the introduction of micro fauna. rice and pastas etc.daff. decaying organic matter. ornamentals and forest tree species. It is distributed by Briza Publications ( (take the “Publications” option): • Pesticides: disposing of empty containers • Pesticides: How to handle pesticides safely • Pesticides: poisoning • Pesticides: protective clothing • Pesticides: Safety measures • Pesticides: storing agrochemicals and stock remedies • Pesticides: What does the label say? • Policy for managing the locust problem in SA Find the Crop Pests publications (some available on CD-ROM) available from the ARC: visit their website – www. Read what the South African Investor Handbook has to say about the “Chemicals and plastics” industry in South Africa. Find the book at www.arc. Cheryl Lennox and Stephanus Venter. When vermicompost is spread on the soil surface. This species plays a small part in the total soil environment. Overview Nobody really knows how many worm species there are (estimates range from 4 500 to 6 000!) but in agriculture and gardening three distinct genera have been studied and described.agric. both as a major pest of crops and as beneficial predators in Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programmes (countries south of the Sahara).agis. These genera do not interbreed and will not normally be found in each other’s thedti. Private Bag X144. www. Contact 012 319 7141 or write: Resource Centre. the millions of microorganisms present become food for any anecic worms in the vicinity. www. for the following publication. The more of these species in the soil the better the soil. Eiesenia fetida or similar composting worms like Eudrilus eugeniae worms are kept in captivity and fed decaying organic material. nitrogen and phosphate. however. The three genera are: • Worms that are found on the surface under damp. Not all of these decay at the same rate or have the same chemical composition and it is best to build up a healthy population of several thousand worms with low acid. Teresa Goszczynska. www. are extremely beneficial as they ‘churn’ the soil and allow good water and air penetration.agric.

This organic matter. Asia.earthchildproject. The waste should be trenched directly into the soil and layered with other specific waste material and worms then introduced. As mentioned earlier. The instruction C’est La Vie Worm Farm Tel: 044 876 0162 / 082 404 9539 Ecolife Tel: 018 298 1462 / 083 500 8693 Clan Leslie Estate Mike Leslie – 072 770 0306 FERTILIS earthworm castings (registration no B3664 Act36/1947) is certified by the Organic Food Federation UK: organic certification no: 00371/01/00. growth stimulants and microbes all beneficial to plant growth and survival. to assist farmers who wish to produce organically or to reduce fertiliser costs. EIGSA hosts talks and JA Agencies Tel: 021 788 1015 / 082 217 8060 .net Hermanus Worms Tel: 028 313 0052 / 082 563 1476 Ronald “Jock” Thomson lectures and writes extensively on vermicomposting. Planting can take place almost immediately and the soil remains in good shape for some time depending on the depth and quantity of organic material Garden Shed Nursery Tel: 072 1545 037 Earthchild Tel: 021 462 2218 www. Good immediately-available nitrogen).earthwormbuddies. GoodBugs SA Biofarm Little Workers is available from Tel: 058 622 2372 www. Good Bugs www. Once established. All are suitable for conversion. Alternatively a Wormery Unit could be established in which earthworms are fed organic waste and the resultant liquid and casts harvested and applied directly to crops. Call 033 4131837 or write to don@wizzardworms. Incorporating earthworms increased yields from 50t/ha in Pink Lady apples. often at source. and by 15t/ha in other Footprints varieties. Role players Associations involved Earthworm Interest Group South Africa (EIGSA) Tel: 011 792 3478 Ken Reid – Kareid@iafrica. in nature the earthworm converts the wastes of nature into 11 times more Companies Barbara’s Worms Tel: 082 338 4109 barbarasworms@gmail.5 times more magnesium and twice as much calcium as soils non-treated soils.earthwormssa. Training and research North-West University Prof Mark Maboeta Unit for Environmental Sciences Charl Pienaar utilises his earthworm Tel: 018 299 2501 knowledge to teach farmers about Mark. • Farm Agricultural (LEISA) FullCycle Tel: 021 789 2922 / 074 528 6300 www. these simple methodologies aid food production and expenses are offset by savings on Every day tons of organic waste goes to landfill sites all over the • Process. This is in support of soil and environmental conservation organic food growing and improved waste management efforts in Southern researcher who has found that in KZN there are very few indigenous University of the Free State Earlyworms Tel: 039 757 5593 / 082 347 3463 www. And just as important – this would result in regenerating depleted Earthworm Buddies Tel: 011 789 1546 / 072 533 0304 earthwormbuddies@lantic. An apple producer in the Free State who switched to vermicompost and worm-casting tea because of stricter export regulations. has become established in many parts of the world. co. Tel: 021 794 5586 / 084 506 3089 Closing the Loop Tel: 073 228 8513 www. Australia in the developed world and India in the developing world are prime examples. 2. horse. It seems that when the early Tel: 051 401 3551 settlers imported plants growing Tel: 051 435 2902/3 in soil. Local business environment The use of earthworms to improve farming for details.ufs.sun. they also imported the www.e. Source: Ronald Thomson. Neither method is expensive. Supplier of worms and the tyrebin EarthwormsSA wormery for the Cape Town/ Cell: 083 650 9883 Overberg area and surrounds Low External Input Sustainable www. and then by applying the resultant products directly to specific areas or plants.212 Both solid composts and compost “teas” can be produced by worms from the country of origin! Natal Museum Tel: 033 345 1404 transport and landfill costs. Soils treated with vermicompost can contain 5 times more nitrates (i. Contact Pieter on 072 533 0304 or email eigsa@lantic.fullcycle.earthworm. Europe Department) etc. www. For trade and distribution enquiries. contact Talborne The primary objective of EIGSA is to promote vermiculture and make earthworm-related information widely available. There is a challenge to farmers to recycle their wastes to reduce fertiliser costs and reduce methane We may take advantage of this process by concentrating the waste and the earthworms. pig Stellenbosch University Department of Soil Science Dr Eduard Hoffmann Tel: 021 808 4789 Dr Danuta Plisko is an earthworm www.Maboeta@nwu. 7 times more phosphorus. • Wasted Waste. Visit www. thus working towards restoring a healthy environment. Most farmers have some form of organic material that goes to Earthworm Organic Mediums Tel: 011 468 1220 – gave the piece considerable thought and contributed suggestions too. Patrick Dowling – but vast numbers of Agricultural Management (a division the more aggressive exotics from within the Agricultural Economics North America. Find details of regional convenors (countrywide) at who can be contacted at 082 563 1476.goodbugs. Source: Don could be converted with the help of the humble earthworm into plant reject vegetables just to mention a

They are easy to make: • roll the galvanised wire • pull the fence tight from the corner pole to the next planted pole. Electric fencing can serve several purposes. Vermicomposters Global Interactive and mapped blog site – Western Cape Department of Agriculture Tel: 044 803 3700 Farmer’s Weekly did a write-up about commercial farmer Hamish Johnson who uses earthworms on a large scale.the-worm-factory.talborne. The escalation in animal theft in South Africa has necessitated keeping your farm animals in areas where you can either keep an eye on them or where. but it also stops most predators from getting in.2m high with 7 or 8 strands of wire. Overview Conventional fencing It is essential to have good fences for your stock. An electric fence energiser converts mains or battery power into a high voltage The top strand and maybe one or two others can be of barbed wire. In cases where livestock are forced through an electric fence due to veldt fires or wild The Cape Vermicast Company Tel: 082 305 2914 www. From a security point-of-view. but smooth steel wire is preferable for the other strands. even better. the risk of injury is much lower than in the case of barbed wire fences. and attach one end to a corner pole with wire staples securely hammered into the pole. Worms for Africa Tel: 084 606 0813 Soil For Life Tel: 021 794 4982 / 783 1470 http://soilforlife. Electric fencing Conventional fences are not always impenetrable but with the help of electric a 31 booklet set (an ideal reference manual for SA) • The Earthmill System for Organic Market Gardens. but they will definitely not keep predators out. • follow the fence. • use a piece of discarded wood as marker to ensure that the distances between the droppers are the same. The pulse is commonly referred to as the shock which is felt when an animal or intruder makes contact with the fence. and secure with nails or wire staples. horses – in a contained Wurmboer Tel: 021 975 4319 / 083 444 7654 Vermi Trade Tel: 084 800 1997 www. The pain from the shock received is short lived and does not physically damage the animal. If you are working with sheep or Worm-Farm Tel: 082 851 9585 / 082 906 4909 www. Viking Press. namely animal control or security. available from Planner Bee Plant Care: • SA Organic Grower. In agricultural / game fencing. Moving them is as easy as rolling them up and unrolling them in the new location.g. The energiser releases this pulse through an insulated wire onto the fence line approximately once every second. and make sue that all the droppers are tightly secured to the 3 rows of wires.fertilis. producing vermicompost for his biological Worms for the Earth Patrick Dowling – 084 966 1249 patrick@tops. which can cause severe cuts and permanent damage. An electric fence acts as a 24-hour patrolman. it can be expensive to put up fences that are capable of keeping them in. These fences save you the cost of erecting permanent fences that can be extremely expensive. • use nails or wire staples to attach each pole to the 3 lengths of wire.vermitrade. • plant sturdy fence poles at a reasonable distance from each other.capevermicast. barbed wire in 3 rows to the length that you need. Websites and publications Visit the websites mentioned earlier in this chapter. • roll the wires and droppers up into a manageable roll. because it not only stops newborn lambs and kids from getting Wizzard Worms Tel: 033 413 1837 / 076 875 0266 inputs Wiggler Magic Tel: 082 887 4717 info@magicworms. sheep. • Permaculture articles in booklet form. Wire mesh is certainly the most effective type of fencing. it is the shock that deters the animal from putting further pressure on the fence The Worm Factory Tel: 021 556 4806 / 084 367 7921 www. Patrick Dowling and Ken Reid (EIGSA) for feedback on the draft chapter Fencing Suburban Earthworms Tel: 021 510 0329 / 072 516 7722 www. unlike barbed wire. patrolling your entire perimeter every . The dropper fence does not look like much. but it serves its duty with Organic Growing with Worms: A Handbook for a Better Environment by David Murphy.213 Magic Organic Werner Brand – 083 666 6758 Mother Earthworms Tel: 044 388 4835 / 073 2669 202 http://motherearthworms. Write to Thanks to Pieter Swanepoel. Agricultural weekly magazines periodically have articles on vermicompost Talborne Organics Tel: 011 954 5763 Just remember – they may keep your animals in. and make sure that all superfluous pieces of wire are removed so that your animals won’t be injured. but also of detecting and alarming / Breeders and countrywide distributor of worms and wormerys. vermicomposters. as long as they are kept Organic Solutions Tel: 021 591 8900 / 084 363 0942 Planner Bee Plant Care www. electric fencing not only offers the possibility of deterring.wizzardworms. The great advantage of these fences is that they can easily be moved to where new grazing awaits your 4. you know where they for the following material. Dropper fence Nothing beats the old-fashioned dropper fence when it comes to keeping animals – • rest the fence against the pre-planted fence poles. A cheaper alternative is to put up a wire fence about 1. the ultimate purpose of a fence can be reached. • unroll the pre-made a must-have book for people wishing to earn a living growing veggies organically. at the very least.

The findings of the Electric Fence Associated Mortality in South Africa Project can be found on Included amongst the Provisions: Gallagher Power Fence Tel: 011 397 2986 Steeledale Mesh Tel: 011 865 8100 www. Although this Act has been on the books for a long time. Websites and publications Call 012 842 4017 or email an agro-logistics and rural infrastructure The Fencing Act No 31 of 1963 is of importance here.wirenet. . it is still very crucial for farmers and especially for new entrants when aspects of fences between Training and research • Some AgriSETA-accredited providers like Agriskills Transfer do training in erecting and maintaining Ndlovu Fencing Tel: 011 708 6442 www. access to land by authorised persons for certain purposes (officials from ESKOM. Source: Nemtek 2. Department of Agriculture. includes the fencing of TNH Wildlife Tel: 082 890 9993 / 074 114 8651 The South African Iron and Steel Institute Tel: 012 307 0900 Nemtek Tel: 011 462 8283/4 www. National strategy and government contact The Presidential Infrastructure Co-ordination Committee launched the Strategic Integrated Projects (SIPs) in 2012. the erecting and upkeep of fences or the actions of people passing through fences are Rogue Agriculture Tel: 033 345 0038 Chemvet Tel: 011 437 9001 Stewarts & Lloyds Tel: 0860 10 27 99 www. available from the ARC in Silverton. the maintenance. in conjunction with the University of the Witwatersrand commissioned a study to assess the impact of electric fences on small animals in South • International Zinc Association – www.saisi. Contact them at 012 428 7911 or visit www. International Zinc Association of Southern Africa Tel: 083 456 4989 4. International business environment Visit the following websites: 3. the fencing of farms (and other holdings). offers extended reaction time as opposed to conventional security systems only alarming once the intruder enters or attempts to enter your home. Telkom etc). and related matters e. Visit Companies Amatola Tel: 043 732 1927 Big Five Gate & Fence Manufacturing and construction Tel: 053 832 1101 MEPS Electric Fence Systems Tel: 013 751 2945 www. Consolidated Wire Industries Tel: 016 980 3150 • The Endangered Wildlife Trust. Find their details in the “Agricultural education and training” Read about the Wire Journal International at www.g. See www.sabs. Contact Legal Services at the Department of Agriculture for more information – call 012 319 6807 or fax 012 319 The eleventh of these priority projects (Sip 11) Rhino Fencing CC Tel: 011 708 7920 / 1 / 2 Bonnox (Pty) Ltd Tel: 012 666 8717 Sinoville Fencing Tel: 012 542 4780/ 1/ 2 for the publications Plaasheinings and Farm fences. This Act’s objective is to consolidate the laws relating to • leaving gates open (by whom and what actions to be taken) • climbing or crawling over or through fences without permission (actions farmers can take) • wilful damaging or removal of fences (action farmers can take) • climbing or crawling over or through. and damaging or removing fences authorised in connection with destruction of vermin (actions farmers can take) • unintentional damaging of fencing (actions farmers can take) • notice to absentee owner • repair of boundary fences • alteration of boundary fences • areas where contributions to the erection of boundary fences are obligatory It is an important piece of legislation for all landowners or people leasing 5.rhinofencing. damaging. Forestry and Fisheries Directorate: Infrastructure Support Tel: 012 319 846 8502 ATvC@daff. Visit the websites listed earlier in this or call 012 842 4017 for more information. contact with the Authorities is of vital importance. • The ARC-Institute for Agricultural Engineering does evaluations and research in • Wire Association International – G Harrop-Allin & Sons Tel: 012 803 5175 www. the office of Extension Officers and Attorneys will also be able to assist. Role players Associations South African Wire Association (SAWA) Tel: 011 455 3228 Independent Wire Tel: 016 423 1248 Our thanks to Amanda Malan at SAWA for checking the draft Both the SAWA and the Gate and Fence Association are housed within the Steel and Engineering Industries Federation of South Africa (SEIFSA). An electric • South African Bureau of Standards (SABS) has laid out two standards for galvanised wire: SANS 675 and SANS Cape Gate Tel: 021 937 7123 Tel: 031 709 2670 www. Special attention must be given in the cases where owners of common fences – that is between properties – must contribute towards the cost of erecting those When in doubt as to the provisions of this being a barrier on the perimeter of what you are protecting.

co.dynatrade-sa. Marius de Beer – 083 655 0129 as well as Sodium Humates and Fulvates. Advantages of fertigation • uniform application of the fertilisers throughout the irrigated area • the amounts and concentrations of nutrients can be accurately calculated and fed to the plant on a daily Dynatrade Greenhouse Products Tel: 011 764 5416 Consult the “Fertiliser”. Overview Fertilisation is the feeding of plants. while fertigation is the feeding of plants by means of first dissolving the nutrients in the irrigation MBF International Tel: 082 738 0080 / 072 796 3793 Stellenbosch University Fertigation Academy Department of Agronomy Tel: 082 808 1100 Tel: 021 808 4803 akademie@ademgasteplaas.rtchemicals. Contact them at 021 982 consists of Calcium Kynoch Fertilizers Tel: 011 317 2000 Hanna Instruments Tel: 011 615 6076 www. Top NPK and Top Cal using the unique Omnia Specialities “shuttle” translocation Dosing Systems Applications Tel: 021 856 5374 Role players ARC-Institute for Agricultural Engineering (ARC-IAE) Tel: 012 842 4000 / 17 DoseTech Tel: 021 511 0840 Metson Tel: 011 792 8968 Enviro Crop’s Fertigation Range www. Enviro Crop Tel: 033 386 9384 Tel: 056 213 4618 www.215 inputs Fertigation 1. “Speciality fertilisers” and “Irrigation” chapters for more role GreenZone Tel: 011 868 1141 www. Plaaskem Farmtek Tel: 011 823 8000 / 19 Tel: 011 784 0595 / 072 193 3600 Ground-up Fertilisers Tel: 072 439 0456 / 082 881 0301 Haifa Chemicals RSA Ltd Tel: 021 982 0309 www. The name “Fertigation” is a combination of the two words “Fertilisation” and “Irrigation”. based on the plant needs and the climatic conditions • improving fertiliser efficiency and reducing nutrients leaching below the root zone • saving of time and labour • increasing yield production and quality • suitable for all types of irrigation systems and growth conditions Source: Haifa Chemicals RSA

phosphate (P) and potassium (K) are the nutrients most likely added to the soil. shelf life and quality produce. “Earthworms and vermicompost” and “Speciality fertilisers” chapters 1. If only one element lacks in availability or been inadequite in supply one will not achieve optimum results. These places can give a fertiliser recommendation. There are figures (numbers) printed on a fertiliser bag which will give you the ratios of plant nutrients of that fertiliser. It helps plants develop the green colour they need to take food from the sun. which all plants need to grow and stay healthy. If there is not enough water in the soil. Apart from also being a waste of money. Sulphur (S) Sulphur (S) is essential for uptake of Nitrogen (N).44 and K = K2O x 0. Can a farmer apply too much fertiliser? Excessive fertiliser use can damage crops and reduce yields. and can be tailored to provide the correct nutritional requirements at the most appropriate time. helps with grain and seed development. Fertilisers are food for plants. phosphorus (P). This money will be well spent because it can save you thousands later. Boron (B). The addition of potassium (K) to the soil improves crop yields and quality. . Mg is a vital element in photosynthesis. and the “top” dressing should usually be completed before the plant flowers. This is also known as Liebig’s law. manganese (Mn). What is the effect of water on fertiliser in the soil? Water dissolves the fertiliser. requires a totally different application to sandy soil. Sulphur (S). Soil analyses cost under R150 per sample.83 Multi-nutrient fertilisers contain more than one of the main plant nutrients. It helps the plant to breathe and plays a major role in the plant’s use of water (stomata) and its build up of starches. copper (Cu) and Molybdenum (Mo) are other elements. for example. Calcium (Ca) Calcium (Ca) forms the ‘building blocks’ in plant cells which ensure firmness. Too much will slow down the plant’s ability to absorb potassium. Zinc (Zn). • The soil provides most of the nutrients needed. The nutrients are carried by the soil water to the roots of the plant. It is responsible for flavour attributes in crops such as onions and garlic. the Fertiliser Industry Advisory Committee. and to take the necessary food from the soil. carbon (C) and magnesium (Mg) are also often required. the nutrients cannot reach the roots of the plant. How do I know how much fertiliser to apply? This depends on soil and crop. Calcium (Ca) Calcium (Ca) strengthens plants and reduces/ neutralises toxicity in the soil. strengthens plants and helps them resist drought and disease. Omnia and Yara Specialities). Therefore one promotes a comprehensive nutrient programme or “balanced diet” for that matter. The “basal” dressing should generally be applied at planting. put out by the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations. They always follow the same sequence. Nitrogen (N) Phosphorous (P) Potassium (K) Applying nitrogen (N) improves overall crop quality. they contain plant nutrients (nourishing substances). it is of utmost importance to emphasise the necessity of all other elements too. calcium (Ca). and accelerates the number of plant cells in the plant. It would be wasteful to apply a nutrient if your soil already has sufficient. for example. Plants are assisted to ripen early and mature quickly. Overview Fertilisation is a method of improving the nutritional status of the soils. • In general. 6. the second is the ratio of P. When is the time to apply fertiliser? If fertiliser is applied at the wrong time. fats and protein. nor can they be absorbed by the plant. It contributes to pollution of soil and ground water. (The above information is taken from the Fertiliser Retailing Guide. and shortages can be overcome by using carefully chosen fertilisers. So 3. Although NPK volumes are the highest. (30). leaves. take a soil sample from your land or a leaf sample from one of your crop plants and have it tested at an agricultural laboratory or a place where soil can be analysed to show which nutrients are lacking. Clay soil. Divide the figure given in the ration by 9. and potassium (K) are used in relatively large amounts. Zinc (Zn) Find the Zinchem entry under heading 6 Fertilisers are either “straight” or “multi-nutrient”. and the third refers to the ratio of K. sugars. seeds and fruits. S helps in leaf development and increases the quality of grain and fruit. “Compost and organic fertilisers”. it damages the overall image of agriculture when it comes to looking after the environment. A shortage of nitrogen will result in yellow leaves and poor plant growth. Some examples are given below: Plant nutrient Fertiliser Nitrogen (N) Urea calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN) Limestone ammonium nitrate (LAN ) Phosphate (P) Single superphosphate (SSP) Triple superphosphate (TSP) Potassium (K) Muriate of potash (MOP) P and K are shortened forms: P = P2O5 x 0. macro elements such as nitrogen (N). Adding phosphorous (P) to the soil leads to better root development.2. • There are 13 elements which plants take from the soil. The barrel story illustrates that success will be limited / handicapped by that element which is deficient. and then multiply it by 30.4.6% of P and 13% of K. N increases the number of branches. Magnesium (Mg) Magnesium (Mg) helps plants to breathe and phosphorous to get into the plant. If you want to know what fertiliser you need and how much to apply to your soil. Iron (Fe). The ‘Law of the minimum’ illustrated by barrel staves of varying lengths representing growth-controlling factors. Nitrogen (N).216 “Straight” and “multi-nutrient” fertilisers inputs Fertiliser See also the “Soils”. means that the fertiliser contains 10% of N. Straight fertilisers are products containing one of the main plant nutrients. The first number is the ratio of N. the yields will be lower and the farmer will make less money.

5 2010 1 728 362 398 192 70 828 88 299 557 319 32.sulphurinstitute. South Africa (23%) and Morocco (9%). The South African industry’s margins are determined largely by world market prices of major raw materials. Do not neglect the biological life in the soil.217 2. from an economic point of view. then plant less or don’t plant at all. Local business environment Application Although band placement of fertiliser is generally the most effective.fssa. A healthy micro-organism population make more plant nutrients available – a great benefit. healthy microorganism population on the availability of plant nutrients has been well proven. Through its programme for the revitalisation of the agricultural sector in Africa – the Comprehensive Africa Agricultural Development Programme (CAADP) – NEPAD has set a target of 6% annual average growth rate in agriculture at the national level by 2015. International business environment The president’s Report on and www. Best Fertiliser Practice Fertiliser need Over fertilising or under fertilising will affect your profit – too much will increase your costs and be bad for the environment. representative of the field (don’t just take the sample from one place). Too much acid in the soil: • decreases the availability of phosphorus • inhibits the efficient uptake and use of both water and fertilizer • renders applied herbicides insufficient • suppresses the effectivity of micro-organisms in the soil Under highly acidic conditions it can. Effective weed control is important since water and plant nutrients are consumed by weeds.2 Water use Determine the water content of every – European Fertiliser Manufacturers • www. – International Fertiliser Association • www. In order to stimulate the increase in productivity necessary to achieve this target.fertiliser-society.agindustries. Experts are available to advise you. More nutrients are removed from the soil annually. Take a soil sample. The main fertiliser consumers in Africa include Egypt (30%). even be more beneficial to lime instead of increasing the fertiliser application rate. Precision farming This ensures that the whole field is fertilised according to the soil analysis and expected which includes International Price Trends of Some Fertilizers and Raw – The International Fertiliser Society • – International Potash Institute • www.africafertilizer. yields are increased and risk is reduced. View the following websites: • www. Plant sap analysis * Including estimated non-member imports Source: FSSA . Read about the Abuja Declaration on Fertilisers for an African Green Revolution at www. than are being returned to the soil. The interpretation of the analysis must be soil and crop specific.efma. They will also prevent unnecessary fertiliser being applied.ipni. Total fertiliser consumption in sub-Saharan countries is approximately 1% of the world fertiliser consumption. The positive influence of a well – The Sulphur Institute 4. while domestic prices are primarily driven by import parity cost of commonly traded fertiliser commodities. Find also the “Statistics” menu option. Find also the “statistics” menu – Agricultural Industries Confederation (UK) • – International Plant Nutrition Institute • www. but in general do not contain the same amount of secondary elements.ipipotash. Effective soil cultivation allows more water (and fertiliser) to infiltrate the soil.fssa. Liming Liming must by no means be – International Fertiliser Development Centre • www. The President’s Report on www. 2006* 2 072 877 428 719 88 913 126 963 644 595 31. If there is not enough.2 2003* 2 020 100 420827 87 593 106 641 615 061 30. Two factors will assist you: • A soil analysis is crucial.1 2009 1 858 454 414 304 78 795 92 320 585 419 31. The method of fertiliser application has a definite effect on fertiliser efficiency. not putting enough fertiliser on will decrease the yield and thus your income. the world economy and Sub-Saharan Africa matters. mainly through harvesting of crops.6 Source: adapted from the article “Best Fertilizer Practices” which appeared in Volume 14 of The FarmAfrica 2008 1 862 487 424 123 80 728 92 487 597 338 32.4 2004* 2 137 054 427571 99 440 121 490 648 501 30.0 Taking regular plant sap samples will help you to address nutrient deficiencies in time. and local industry matters. Biological life The biological life in the soil was neglected in the past. farmers in Africa will have to use substantial amounts of fertilisers (both organic and inorganic) to increase yields. More concentrated products can reduce costs (there is less to transport). FERTILISER CONSUMPTION IN SOUTH AFRICA (Metric Tonnes) Year Physical N P K Total Conc 2000* 2 011 701 415 933 81 602 114 022 611 557 30.1 2007* 2 013 708 439 480 83 996 113 634 637 110 31.3 2005* 1 654 996 3472601 69 587 96 995 513 842 31. On average these farmers use 8-10 kg/ha of nutrients which is only 10% of the world average. Money is covers the international fertiliser covers domestic fertiliser and agricultural lime markets. • Determine the target yield.4 2002* 2 301 043 481759 100 898 135 439 718 096 31. Experts are available to advise farmers accordingly. The value of microorganisms in soil mustn’t be underestimated.4 2001* 1 948 278 395813 90 842 105 013 591 668 30. Product choice Compare the pros and cons of the different there is a place and time for broadcast application and foliar sprays.fertilizer.



Foskor .





blender and retailer forefront of the growing specialism of a complete range of granular. stock H Pistorius & Company Tel: 012 342 1075 www. acquires or disposes the mentioned articles. If promulgated as an Act. farm feeds.grasland. Mozambique. Always buy from reputable Grasland Ondernemings Tel: 018 632 6046 www. Farm Kalkor (Pty) Ltd Tel: 011 721 3141 Agricultural lime trader Companies: mineral fertilisers Agriman (Pty) Ltd Tel: 012 997 2365 Clariant Southern Africa Tel: 011 471 7220 www. will in effect replace parts of Act 36 0f application expertise. Suppliers of fertiliser additives (i. Mgwali Commodities (Pty) Ltd Tel: 011 315 7977 Ext 219 Producers of enriched rock Fertiliser trader Tel: 018 633 1000 www. a cluster of farm input and technological businesses in the Farmsecure Group. anticaking. disposal or use of • Kynoch operates warehouse.kynoch. National Plant Food / Organic Fertiliser Association of SA Tel: 031 782 3105 gromor@iafrica. . 1947 (Act • assimilates. agricultural remedies. agricultural remedies. • Farmers are serviced by a large sales. In South Africa the maize industry consumes almost 40% of all fertilisers and the market. sale. 36 of 1947) provides for: • the appointment of a Registrar of Fertilisers. Stock Remedies. The Main provisions of Act No 36 of 1947 are: Control over the registration of fertilisers. the Fertilizers and Feeds Bill [B41-2012] Bill. website of the Department of Negatives for the fertiliser industry include a land reform policy where it takes some time for new farmers to be fully established as commercial farmers. sterilising plants and pest control operators. adds value to and disseminates fertiliser and aglime related information. It is therefore advisable to be aware of these requirements. Pesticides and Fertilizers” under the Divisions menu option at www. MAP and DAP Tel: 031 777 1245 Industrial Commodities Trader in DAP and MAP Holdings (Pty) Limited Tel: 011 880 5200 NWK Ltd www. water-repellent and granulation agents) Farmsecure Holdings (Pty) Ltd – see Kynoch Fertilizers Foskor (Pty) Ltd Tel: 011 347 0600 Tel: 015 789 2000 Tel: 035 902 3111 www. Agricultural Remedies and Stock Remedies. • the designation of technical advisers and analysts. phosphoric • provides a discussion forum for its members and other parties on all aspects relating to fertiliser and aglime distribution. • improves the operating environment within which its constituent industries operate in a spirit of free enterprise and fair National strategy and government contact Agricultural lime Aglime information can be found on the Fertiliser Society of South Africa’s website – www. represents the interests of the fertiliser and aglime industries in South Africa. agricultural remedies and stock remedies. Role players Associations Fertilizer Society of South Africa (FSSA) Tel: 012 349 1450 Fax: 012 349 1463 general@fssa. The FSSA. acquisition or disposal of these inputs.clariant.pbd. Zambia). The FSSA: • actively promotes the agro-economic and environmentally accountable fertiliser and aglime Cape Lime Tel: 027 213 3090 www. Farm International Zinc Association of Southern Africa (IZASA) Tel: 083 456 4989 www. import and blending facilities in all the major ports in the Southern Africa Region and a number of inland locations. sterilising plants and pest control operators. agronomic advice and product Kynoch Fertilizer Tel: 011 317 2000 With an ever-expanding base of www. a non-profit Article 21 company. farm feeds.225 The industry supplies around 2 million tons of fertiliser products to the local market annually at a value of around R10 Kynoch became a member of Farmsecure Technologies. In 2010.kalk. The emergence of a biofuel industry would be a positive for the industry as the crop demand would impact favourably on the need for fertiliser. horticultural and technical support • to regulate or prohibit the stock remedies. Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) The Fertilisers. Omnia’s • Kynoch Fertilizer is a leading agricultural businesses are at the importer.omnia.ich. P&B Lime Works Tel: 028 424 1157 www. SA Lime & Gypsum Tel: 0860 103 515 Tel: 011 709 8778 www.fssa. farm feeds. Zimbabwe and including Australasia and various South American countries. Miochem International sulphuric acid. • The Kynoch brand has been part of agriculture in Southern Africa for more than 100 new technologies and specialist www. liquid and speciality fertilisers in Southern Africa (including The Specialities product range is South Africa. acquisition. and if farmers were discouraged from planting maize and went instead for crops which use less fertiliser than maize. wetting. to regulate or prohibit the importation.capelime. Agricultural Remedies And Stock Remedies • the registration of Intshona Group of Companies Tel: 021 852 1660 Omnia Nutriology® www. is much influenced by what happens to this industry.pandblime. dedusting Agricultural lime producer Landbou Kalk – see H Pistorius & Company Plaaslike Boeredienste (Pty) Ltd Tel: 016 986 0691 www.izasa.nwk. in Agricultural lime producer Find “Feeds. being exported to 18 countries Malawi. This Act applies where a person imports. sale. 5.intshona. • develops a positive public awareness and acceptance of the need for fertiliser and aglime use in food production.

Kelpak Tel: 021 786 2090 www. agri-business and co-operatives in South Africa and from neighbouring countries. is a leading comprehensive scientific • The Department of Soil. See the “Speciality fertilisers” chapter for a full list of role players. ammonium sulphate and a comprehensive range of ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulphate based liquid and granular NPK fertiliser blends.pbd. “Fertilizer for the Farm” Crops are generally low in Zinc particularly when grown on Zinc deficient soils.sasol. is aimed at improving the skills of fertiliser administered by the Sasol Nitro supplies limestone ammonium nitrate (LAN).za A fertiliser blender. Close to 50% of the world cereal soils are deficient in Zinc and it is estimated that one third of the world’s population is at risk of Zinc deficiency which can lead to health problems including poor immune response and impaired growth and development.zinchem. trade name FertEx™.agfacts. government. Call 051 401 2212 or find their pages at www. used by Biostimulants Biostimulants are not fertilisers per se but root stimulants which increase nutrient PBD Boeredienste (Pty) Ltd Tel: 016 986 0691 www. analyses and presents retail sales information on the South African fertiliser and agricultural lime industries on behalf of the Fertiliser Society of South Africa. The biostimulants (previous sub-heading) in most cases are permitted for organic and/or biological farming. by faxing 086 660 2088 or by emailing Training and research • A fertiliser advisors’ training course.ufs. Zinchem Tel: 011 746 5000 / 58 Fax: 011 421 2235 www. Sasol Nitro Tel: 011 344 2400 Organic fertilisers See the “Compost and compost tea” and “Earthworms and vermicompost” chapters for a complete Eco-Fert products are registered according to South African Law 36/1947 and as organic product (SGS registration) qualify as fertiliser for first world export crops. Profert is represented by marketing agents country-wide and maintains good relations with all agricultural companies and agricultural co-ops. www.mbfi. supplier of Zinc products to agriculture in Southern Africa. Eco-Fert Tel: 086 100 5051 its agronomists to do fertiliser application recommendations based on proven best practices and scientific research conducted both in South Africa and Blend and sell fertiliser Profert Tel: 018 293 3530 Stimuplant Tel: 012 802 0940 / 4009 Metson Tel: 011 792 8968 Candidates are drawn from private a registered ISO Sasol Nitro has developed a 9001:2000 company. The programme is able to import soil analysis performed by recognised laboratories in South Africa. .za MBF International Tel: 082 738 0080 / 072 796 3793 Contact Gisela Deysel by calling 076 672 3793. • AGFACTS collects. Crop and Climate Sciences at the University of the Free State.

Farmer’s Weekly 2 July 2010 page 60.daff. • The Agricultural Research Council institutes periodically do fertiliser-related research. Illustrated publications for the emerging farmer. This is a hard cover handbook that has primarily been written for the use of persons who are involved in some way or another in a fertiliser advisory • FSSA Journal – a publication containing the proceedings of the FSSA annual congress • The Proceedings of previous Symposiums Visit www. It is prescribed as part of the agricultural curriculum at some universities and universities of technology in South Companies involved Your local agribusiness / co-operative e. • Soil Acidity and Agricultural Lime (also available in Afrikaans).za Optimise your fertilising practices 7. and also from information supplied by Omnia and Kynoch. OVK The information under the opening heading of the chapter was taken from the Fertiliser Retailing lime and feed Electrolee Tel: 012 347 9933 www. the Fertiliser Industry Advisory Illustrated publications for the emerging or call 011 0254 388 for the following publications: • Bemesting Fertilizer • Sea Energy Agriculture • Fertility from the ocean deep • Fertilizer Handbook Find the Value chain study of the fertiliser industry at www. AFRGI. • Keep up to date with the latest developments and new implements and new technology (more bearings fail from over greasing than under greasing!) • Keep work shops clean and dust free. DTP NviroTek Labs Tel: 082 885 8699 www. Jonesco. A4-size colour pamphlet depicting the deficiency symptoms in • AL-KO Trailco Tel: 016 421 4791/2/3 • Agrinet Tel: 011 657 2000 www. A4-size.electrolee. Websites and publications Visit the websites listed earlier in this chapter The following publications are available from the FSSA: • Fertilizer Handbook (also available in Afrikaans).co. For this reason. These include “Soil: acid soil and lime” and “Soil: application of lime”. put out by the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations. and effectiveness • Bearings International Tel: 011 899 0000 / 083 250 9191 • Automotive Equipment International (AEI) Tel: 011 474 7480 www.nviroteklabs.agfacts. • Remove chain from implements during off-season and lubricate.namc. in ring-binder format. Software to identify fertiliser needs Independent analysis of (take the “Published reports” option).za • Bearing Man Group (BMG) Tel: 031 576 6200 fertiliser. • Deficiency Symptoms in • Barloworld Power Perkins Tel: 011 898 0450 www.bmgworld.dfmsoftware. Source: Bearings International 2. Find the Info Paks on www. • Fertiliser companies conduct in-house training and research within their own Research and Development departments.alko. • Afintapart (take the publications menu) that deal with soil. Call PW van Deventer at 018 285 2267 or write to him at 10058591@nwu. Other role players DFM Software Tel: 021 904 1154 www. Role players Associations Diesel and Gas Engine Association of Southern Africa (DAGEASA) c/o Agfacts Tel: 011 453 7249 www.afintapart. Kaap Agri. Our thanks to the FSSA for providing feedback on the draft chapter inputs Fleet maintenance and spare parts 1.g. TBP. Overview • The correct servicing and maintenance of agricultural machinery is vital.227 • The Unit for Environmental Sciences and Management at North-West University in Potchefstroom. See advert below. • ADEPART – see Barloworld Power Perkins • Africa Truck Parts & Wheels are specialists in truck parts especially for European heavy duty vehicles – It is not intended to be a complete technical handbook. water. This brochure is intended as a general guide for agronomists and farmers alike who have a common purpose in sound liming • Soil Fertility. • Plantfood & Fertilizers. This brochure contains the two chapter “Soil acidity” and “Agricultural lime” which appear in the Fertilizer Handbook. but rather a concise presentation covering a wide range of topics. interested farmers and students will also find it to be a useful guide. considering the conditions under which they operate. in ring-binder format.

za (diesel engine parts) • Electromechanica is a supplier of industrial automation.hansafrique. • MATO Products Tel: 011 923 6000 (grease pumps) • Macparts Tel: 031 702 4642 / 082 652 5223 yet most would pale at the thought of the operator of their forklift moving their car for them! • Manitou Tel: 011 975 7770 or give 011 997 6000 a • Accredited Training Tel: 021 851 8656 electrical and switchgear products and Role players • A Square Forklift Tel: 011 900 1777 • Rovic & Leers Tel: 021 907 1700 • Shamrock Handling Concepts Tel: 011 659 1444 www. newway.componentsforafrica. Visit • Masslift Africa Tel: 011 786 8524 Source: Des co. did not see his generator light come on on the dashboard (if the generator light is working that is!) We strongly recommend that all • Vesconite Tel: 011 616 1111 • GBS Gearbox Services Tel: 018 464 1024 • Gasket Centre Tel: 016 455 1381 • Go Axels & Suspensions Tel: 011 864 1503 • Hans Afrique Tel: 012 993 4776 • Ernest H Johnson Tel: 011 613 8711 • Hydracor Hydraulics Tel: 011 397 1280 • Hyflo • Liftpart Agencies Tel: 021 531 7225 www. in a hurry. fuel-. If they do not do • H & H Gear Rebuilders Tel: 011 823 5058 • Heads Tractor Tel: 012 379 8881 • Vitamech Tel: 021 907 8000 • Western Tel: 018 632 2150 • The Forkman Tel: 012 804 2383 (vehicle Cost Control software) • Terraquip (Pty) Ltd Tel: 011 914 3648 (John Deere and Kubota spares) • Truck Division Tel: 018 462 4824 (the repair and rebuilding of all truck • Shukela Training Centre Tel: 031 508 7700 www. compressed Hopefully your engine has not seized because the operator. mist eliminators. Surely you want this to happen (all types of springs) • Serco Tel: 031 508 1000 • Burquip International Tel: 031 792 1020 www. to operate a forklift or other lifting equipment is more complicated than driving a • Megnetto Wheels Tel: 041 404 5298 • McGyver’s Spares and Repairs Tel: 056 212 1419 (for Caterpillars) • Metal Events Tel: 086 163 8368 • Bearing Services Africa Tel: 011 397 6384 (Landini and McCormick tractors – provide servicing and spares) • Saayman’s Springs and Industrial Coils & Engineering Tel: 021 946 3175 • Partmaster t/a Partrite Tel: 058 307 6500 www.bolteng. on the (replacement parts for • Donaldson Filtration Systems (Pty) Ltd is the industry leader in ambient • Cargo Crankshaft Rebuilding Tel: 011 873 6685 • BPW Axles Tel: 011 681 3300 • Machine Tool Mecc Tel: 011 894 7160/7084 www. how dust can affect the machines that are not cared for • Equipment Parts & Engines Tel: 011 571 9000 www.headstractor. Write to him at shamrockhandling. Accredited • Software Farm Tel: 012 365 2683 www.em. • Dozer Parts Tel: 011 452 1224 • DDL Equipment Tel: 011 443 4233 and in fact anyone who has authority over the forklift (“Spare parts for agricultural implements”) • New Way Motor & Diesel Engineering Tel: 011 680 5632 • Components for Africa Tel: 011 953 4580/1 www.bepco. than to hold up a vehicle for loading while you go to town. • Toyota forklifts Tel: 011 395 0600 • East Coast Forklifts Tel: 031 709 0371 • Quali Prod Tel: 0861 782547 • Inttrac Trading CC Tel: 016 365 5799 • JHB Tractor Spares Tel: 011 677 2100 bulk fuel • Bolt & Engineering Distributors Tel: 018 469 4218 www. the money they spend on the training is really the equivalent of “buying a licence” which so many companies wish they could do! Save money: have your forklift operators and their managers trained by a reputable training gas turbine inputs Forklifts If you think about • Ehd Tel: 011 870 5000 (Caterpillar components. Visit get a fan belt (if there is one in stock) and then have to change it. during the • Bepco Tractor Parts Tel: 011 397 0760 www. service and turnkey projects. com • Craft Hydraulic Services Tel: 057 355 2215 • Deutz Dieselpower • LMI Academy Tel: 011 475 5876 www. Air/ oil you are in a real hurry to get trucks loaded and out to (branch details on the website) • Discount Group Tel: 013 665 1052 / 5070 • Reapers Agricultural Supplies Tel: 033 394 6301 • UniPART Tel: 011 621 7000 How. I use a fan belt as an example. spare parts • VARIQUIP Tel: 033 345 8084 www. co.lmi-academy. FIAT and NEW HOLLAND tractors). repairs to prop shafts etc) • Truck Spare Parts (TSP) Tel: 011 398 1700 • Perkins – see Barloworld Power Perkins • QSV Motor Spares Tel: 011 220 1000 www. bag Surely it is quicker to change a worn fan belt before it • Van Zyl’s Staalwerke Tel: 058 863 2452 industrial • AVIS Rent-a-forklift Tel: 011 397 1784 www. attends a forklift management seminar to ensure that they know what to expect of their operators and know how to keep them in line. co.

The Donaspin™ and TopSpin™ are self-cleaning and require no maintenance. including improved fuel consumption and reduced service costs. and increases play havoc with the farmer’s budget. Numerous booklets and websites offer fuel-saving tips. cleaner diesel gives other benefits. or you might say it is the “body” or “thickness” of the oil. There are also other steps you can take: • Make sure the fuel tanks are sheltered or located underground. It provides easier cold-weather starting. and using alternative energy where feasible. Here’s how it works. and under normal operating conditions. and are replaced according to the manufacturer’s schedule. Over 70% of system failures are the direct result of poor fluid condition or management. installing filtration on bulk oil and diesel systems (see heading 3). Source: SHELL Do the SAE numbers define oil quality? 3. This provides a convenient means for the engine manufacturer to indicate the service characteristics of his various engine designs and hence their lubrication requirements. It classifies general ranges of engine service needs based upon: • engine design and construction • lubricating oil • operating conditions • maintenance practices • fuel characteristics But remember: not all cold starting problems in winter are caused by fuel. Each service class is designated by letters. Frequently Asked Questions What kind of engine oil should I use in my farm equipment? The equipment owner should always select and use oil that at least meets the minimum API Engine Service Classification recommended by the engine manufacturer. Farmers should be aware of the diesel rebate requirements (find more under the “Websites and publications” heading). the first letter being “S” for petrol and “C” for diesel engines. to say nothing about the knock-on effects across the economy.229 inputs Fuels and lubricants 1. Before winter starts. Proper filtration: • reduces downtime and resultant loss of production • reduces component repair and replacement • reduces fluid replacement and disposal costs • reduces total cost of ownership Filtration on bulk oil and diesel systems prevents the ingression of solid particulate matter into equipment when filling or topping up oil or fuel tanks. The pre-cleaners are designed especially for equipment operating in very heavy dust and debris environments such as agricultural and construction vehicles and mining equipment. Overview The price of fuel has everything to do with the profitability of a farming operation. What do you mean by “API Engine Service Classification” system? This system. How often should I change engine oil in my tractor? Source: Donaldson Filtration Solutions If your tractor is in A-1 mechanical condition. Some companies include an additive to help this. and better fuel economy. How is multi-viscosity oil different from a single viscosity oil? A multi-grade oil is one which meets an SAE viscosity requirement at both 0oC and 100oC. Farm diesel engines require oils designated “API Service CF-4 or better”. In addition to prolonged component life. Some elements in diesel freeze earlier than others and become waxy. They also offer a lower restriction which means: • your engine “breathes” easier • you can reduce air filter element usage • you will have lower costs per operating hour Source: Donaldson Filtration Systems Pty (Ltd). A poor quality oil can have the same SAE viscosity classification as a good oil. as defined in the SAE Crankcase Oil Viscosity Classification.donaldson. Installing filtration on bulk oil and diesel systems No. which is a simple mixture which freezes at a single temperature. • Try to garage vehicles overnight or park them in a sheltered position. that any remaining summer diesel has been used up before winter starts (order your diesel in time!) With Donaldson’s full range of pre-cleaners you can extend the life of your air filter by removing up to 90% of the dirt and contaminants before it reaches the filter. quicker. ensure that your fuel filters are clean. Contact 011 997 6000 or visit Above all. These crystals turn the diesel cloudy. provides a guide for the selection of crankcase oils suitable for various service conditions. reduced engine wear. For example. 2. SAE 15W-40 oils meet cold cranking requirements of SAE 15W at 0oC and high temperature viscosity requirements of SAE 40 at 100oC. block the fuel filter and make it difficult to pump the diesel to the engine. It does not thin out as much when heated or thicken up as much when cooled as a single viscosity oil. These include servicing vehicles regularly. and agricultural operations need to implement as many of these as possible. • Ensure that there is no water in your tank. Thus. The higher the second letter the higher the performance level of the oil. make sure you are using a winter grade lubricant. a multi-grade oil stretches the usable temperature range. operating on the recommended type crankcase oil. Most gasoline engines require motor oils designated “API Service SG or better”. more efficient lubrication. The SAE numbers refer to the viscosity of oil only. follow . “Viscosity” is a measure of the “resistance to flow”. Diesel and winter Diesel is not like water. developed by the American Petroleum Institute.

remove the need for changing the oil at proper This can be a warning of a mechanical problem unrelated to the (Seldom used in farm equipment) • API Service GL-3 describes a service which can be satisfied with a mild EP (extreme pressure) What can cause one oil to become excessively thick as compared to another when both are used at the same operating temperatures and loads? Excessive thickening of lubricating oil in service is associated with the amount of contaminants it contains and how much the oil has oxidized. Customs & excise duty. Does an oil lose its effectiveness in storage? No. How effective are oil filters. and by keeping lubricant containers tightly closed when not in use. If any of the conditions vary greatly. Never allow gasoline to mix with other products because it is a most volatile material. kerosene and gasoline. diesel fuel. It manages the operation and development of the oil and gas assets and operations of the South African government. For example. by keeping fuel tanks filled to prevent moisture accumulation from condensation. Source: ENGEN 5. Also. A crude-oil refinery’s biggest input cost is crude oil. Oil should be drained before it reaches this condition. seal and clean. Oil filters cannot. Find the Diesel Refund Guide on www. Find contact details for and information on the following at CEF is a private company. When properly serviced. In order for a refinery to make a profit. The “Contact Us/Regional Offices” link on www. the price for the product manufactured from crude oil has to be higher than that of the crude oil price. fuel combustion products. Great care should be taken to keep water and other contaminants out of fuels and lubricants by storing drums under cover or on their sides to prevent rainwater from entering through the bung. Also incorporated into the retail price for fuel is the contribution to taxes and levies by government and relevant regulatory authorities. after delivery has been made to the consumer. incorporated in terms of the Companies will give you provincial contact numbers. dirt or water. cool. and is governed by the CEF Act. What causes a crankcase oil to become discoloured? Many engine oils are naturally dark in colour even before use because of their additive content. Mishandling and carelessness in handling these products are fire and explosion hazards. Further darkening of engine oils is normal in use. Only a small quantity of gasoline in diesel fuel or kerosene will lower the flash point and cause a serious safety Engines will run better – longer. Visit www. International petrol prices are essentially driven by supply and demand for product in a particular market. These contaminants eventually destroy the oil’s capability to function efficiently. a common cause is aeration. The CEF Group of Companies www. Water can cause a cloudy or emulsified appearance.cef. • API Service GL-2 describes a service which can be satisfied with a rear axle worm gear lubricants.sars. National strategy A 20 year Liquid Fuel Infrastructure Plan is being finalised. Transport Recovery levy and the Demand Side Management levy. they do an effective job of removing the larger solid particles contaminating the Does oil actually wear out? The functions of the engine oil are to lubricate. 2003 (Act No.g. Petroleum Products levy. The contaminants are unburned and partially burned fuel. Is the proper storage and handling of fuels and lubricants really as important as some oil company representatives indicate? Yes! The source of many fuel and oil complaints is right at the fuel storage tank or oil drum. The national telephone number is 012 317 9000. The thickening of crankcase oil in service is generally associated with infrequent oil drain practices.cef. .nersa. Safety must also be considered in handling light petroleum products. Road Accident Fund levy. providing it is properly stored and contamination does not occur. the drain period should be reduced including water. • API Service GL-5 describes a service which can be satisfied with a multipurpose-type gear lubricant generally regarded as one meeting the requirements of Military Specification MIL-L-21058. solid contaminants such as finely dispersed carbon in diesel engine oils can cause severe thickening. however. when the oil is changed as recommended. Contamination of oil occurs in all engines. it is worn out. dirt and dust. this is caused by contaminants The government department relevant to this chapter is the Department of Energy. What causes crankcase oils to thin out? The most common cause of motor oil thinning out is an excessive amount of unburned fuel entering the crankcase. thereby reducing wear and increasing engine life. who can claim money back on their diesel purchases. The National Energy Regulator (NERSA) has a mandate is to regulate the petroleum pipeline industries in terms of the Petroleum Pipelines Act. Crude oil prices combined with the Rand/ Dollar exchange rate therefore have a major impact on petrol prices. When crude oil prices increase . What are API Gear Lubricant Service Classifications and what do they mean? • API Service GL-1 describes a service which can be satisfied with a straight mineral lubricant. When an oil loses its ability to perform any of these functions. Dispersed carbon (fuel soot) causes diesel oils to become extremely dark very rapidly. A fuel-tax rebate exists for VAT registered • PetroSA • iGas • Petroleum Agency SA • Oil Pollution Control SA (OPC SA) • South African National Energy Research Institute (Saneri) • The National Energy Efficiency Agency (NEEA) • The Strategic Fuel Fund Association (SFF) • Energy Development Corporation (EDC) The petrol price in South Africa is linked to the price of crude oil in international markets and is quoted in US dollars (US$) per barrel. caused from an air leak into the hydraulic system. Marked changes in colour are caused by even minor amounts of contaminants. fuel oil. like the Fuel levy. Combustion residues from the antiknock additive in gasoline can cause a grey appearance. What makes hydraulic fluid foam? Generally. 60 of 2003).230 instructions in the owner’s they have over the past months – the petrol price has to increase so that crude oil refineries are able to cover their own costs. gov. and how often should they be changed? Oil filters should be serviced in accordance with instructions contained in the service manual. • API Service GL-4 describes a service which can be satisfied with a multipurpose-type gear lubricant generally regarded as one meeting the requirements of formed Military Specification MIL-L-2105.


co.Customer call centre Tel: 08600 36436 (a range of standard tanks manufactured and marketed throughout Africa) • Wintrust Mega Lube Tel: 021 887 4780 Call either 011 997 6000. Call 021 959 3080 or visit www.sars. Donaldson Filtration Systems has developed bulk fuel filtration solutions that are well suited to African conditions. Visit drip feed lubricators. Find the Monthly Oil Market Report. grease and oil generation. Free State and parts of Eastern Cape. Lucas Ndlovo – 082 736 8858 Lucas.intshona. • Find out more about the diesel rebate requirements and the Diesel/ Biodiesel Refund Reference Guide publication at • Paraffin Safety Association Tel: 021 671 5767 • BP Southern Africa Tel: 021 408 2911 www.fluidcontrols. • The R36-million PetroSA Synthetic Fuels Innovation Centre (PFSIC) – the country’s first academic facility offering research on improving the quality of diesel – was opened at the South African Institute for Advanced Materials Chemistry at the University of the Western Cape in 2012. 7. website of the Agricultural Business electronic tyre (diesel carts for transporting fuel on the farm) • Lubrication Equipment Tel: 011 493 8235 www.paraffinsafety. org • ROSE Foundation (Recycling Oil Saves the Environment) Tel: 021 448 7492 OPEC Bulletins and other publications hose – Organisation of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC).232 South African Bureau of Standards (SABS) Tel: 012 428 7911 www.joubertimplemente.Agriculture Sales Manager Tel: 082 801 4709 .za/commodities (a crude oil contract has been introduced. see the website). centralised oiling • Innovative Technical Solutions Tel: 031 766 1976 toggle clamps. Callie Kotze – 073 334 6955 / 051 503 7013 • Total South Africa Tel: 011 778 2449 www. visit www. Engen Petroleum Tel: 021 403 4911 www. • The formula for how the pump price of fuel is arrived at can be found on a number of websites including • Fluid Controls Trading Tel: 011 839 2836/7 www. Take a look at www.uwc. Websites and publications • Visit the websites of the companies involved. For details.sasda. • For comparative passenger car fuel economy and CO2 emissions data. 021 530 2900 and visit www. or visit documents. Visit or phone 010 201 4700. Fleet operators can buy “clean” fuel and lubricants only to find that it becomes contaminated during bulk storage as well as in machinery and vehicle tanks. Role players Associations • Fuel Retailers Association Tel: 011 886 2664 www. pressure switches. • Fuchs Lubricants SA Tel: 011 565 9600 www. Find the Discussion Document on the review of Fuel Specifications and Standards for South Africa at or phone them at 010 201 The diesel standard (specification) and • Transtank SA Tel: 011 864 2675 • Petro-Logic Tel: 011 657 6000 www. SANS marketing and distribution of energy from and to engage in research relating to the energy sector. • Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE) Tel: 011 520 7299 www. exploitation. DC diesel • Ictus Equipment Tel: 011 824 2941 www. • The Sector Education and Training Authority (SETA) for petroleum companies is ESETA.rosefoundation. • Joubert Implements Tel: 021 887 1220 quick couplers. Companies • Blue Chip Lubricants Tel: 011 462 1829 www. www.ictus. • Chevron South Africa (Pty) Ltd markets its products in South Africa under the Caltex brand. • The Energy Development and Research Centre (EDRC) at the University of Cape Town is a role player. • Shell South Africa Tel: 011 996 7000 (the South African Petroleum Industry Association) Willie Coetzer – 083 305 1853 willie. • The South African Supplier Development Agency (SASDA) matches emerging companies in the historically disadvantaged communities with the major oil companies in areas of preferential (diesel carts for the farm) • C&N Petroleum Equipment also supplies farmtank systems and equipment (find the “Agricultural” option on the website). Contact them for accredited or call 011 783 7664. Visit www. Training and research • The Central Energy Fund (CEF) is the South African government’s holding company in the petroleum • National Petroleum Employers’ Association Tel: 011 498 7683 • NORA – SA (National Oil Recycling Association) Tel: 021 448 7492 . Phone 011 397 8416/7 and see • Bulperd Tel: 082 414 2569 www. CEF (Pty) Ltd is responsible for administering the system that sets the petrol North West & Northern Cape • The South African Petroleum Industry Association (SAPIA) aims to represent the common interests of the petroleum refining and marketing industry in South Africa and to promote understanding of the industry’s contribution to economic and social progress with all 6. co. like all national standards developed by Standards South Africa – the standards-generating division of the SABS – was developed through consensus by a national technical committee consisting of stakeholders in the • Intshona Group of Companies Tel: 021 852 1660 Switchboard Tel: 031 250 2911 .com KwaZulu-Natal and Swaziland. CEF is mandated by the state to engage in the (the Department of Energy). • Sasol Tel: 011 441 3111 www. com (There are links for each of these products on the website: pneumatic & handheld lubrication equipment. • Find “Energy & resources” under the “Economic Intelligence” menu option at . • www.fuelretailers. machine tool protection).za/ (army • LulaTM 082 576 6007 / 082 968 8403 www. trenches etc) • Rand Plastics Tel: 011 626 2630 (stackable tables and chairs) • Stumbelbloc Tel: 083 228 8036 (welding equipment for farmers) • Banbric Building Tel: 033 386 0882 • National Tents and Sails SA Tel: 012 719 9035 www. • KRB Safety Equipment & Packaging Tel: 012 661 0935/6 (for chainsaws and brushcutters) • I & M Smith Tel: 011 781 6150 www. knapsack • Technilamp Tel: 011 839 1837 • BM Power Centre Tel: 021 511 2346 www. Building and welding See also the “Structures and building supply” chapter • Afrox Client Centre Tel: 0860 020202 www. co.battery. • Breathecoat Paints Tel: 021 852 8131 / 6096 www. • Jaytrade cc Tel: 021 385 1652 • The Kit Group Tel: 011 538 0000 (automatic weighing and packing solutions) • Hardi Crop Protection SA Tel: 011 613 8711 / 021 905 2260 • Current Automation (grain moisture meter) • Fruit Sizers & Allied Dave 083 463 4332 • Saayman’s Tel: 021 946 3175 ( (muck boots and other footware) • Janki Oorpakke Tel: 058 223 0418 / 082 927 6712 • Echo Coldrooms Tel: 012 803 9490 • Marshall-Fowler Tel: 011 412 1130 • Bushtec Adventure Tel: 012 671 1101 ( • Malesela Taihan Electric Cable Tel: 016 450 8331 www. • The Supply Co Tel: 013 755 4627 • Camp Master Tel: 0861 264 636 and www. amounting to a massive 70% energy saving).za • Four Lakes Tel: 021 557 0606 • Sifort Tel: 012 667 2586 chainsaws. ( • Top Canvas Tel: 044 878 1138 www. pruning equipment) • JOSCO Services Tel: 021 851 1155 4. deciduous and viticulture) . canvas and tents • Army Surplus Stores Tel: 012 327 3282 (blades for lawnmowers and farm implements) • Taljar Services & Wincut Tel: 012 333 2927 • Cristy Sports Tel: 021 712 5020 (reinforced cutting and grinding wheels and more) • Harding Treated Timbers Tel: 031 569 5750 • Profreeze Tel: 051 430 6837 www. Cold storage • Commercial Cold Storage Group Tel: 031 205 7277 (brushcutters. citrus.fourlakes.batterycentre. • Prepaid Metres Tel: 087 5500 870 www. (design of fruit packhouse equipment layout) • Goldpack Tel: 031 569 4199 www. (back-pack for manual application of fertiliser) • Plastrip Tel: 021 851 5455 • Emmies Refrigiration Tel: 014 736 6918 www. trading 6.technilamp.saaymansspringworks. (shears for all types of tree farming – (cost-effective digger for horticulture-related • Alrite Engineering Tel: 011 626 2580 www. marqees and more) • Tentco Tel: 011 397 6451 • FinnBUILDER Tel: 011 705 1897 www. (fruit and vegetable handling equipment) • Farm Elect Tel: 011 472 3422 lawnmowers etc) • Dormas Tel: 011 496 2800 • Anzac Cables & Wire Tel: 011 873 5775 (fruit and vegetable packhouse equipment) • GPB Consulting Tel: 021 852 7811 • Jonsson Workwear Tel: 031 314 4000 Find the directory of brick suppliers on the website • Canvas & Tent Tel: 036 634 1902 • First National Battery • Willard Batteries Automotive (red zone heater projects radiant heat at a wavelength which passes through the air • GEA Refrigeration Africa Tel: 021 555 9000 • Genpower Tel: 0861 101 103 (builders’ equipment and welders’) • Grinding Techniques Tel: 011 271 6400 (Blockmaking machines) • ESAB Sub Saharan Africa • Workwear Depot Tel: 013 752 4142 Batteries • Battery Centre (electrostatic sprayers and crop processing equipment) • Jaytrade Tel: 021 385 1652 www.kitgroup. It essentially only warms people and not the building environs and inanimate • Wilkinson Brick Making Machines Tel: 011 948 6072 (mowers.tentco.anzac.233 inputs General farm equipment 1. driveshafts etc) • LYNX – see Fruit Sizers & Allied cc • Mayfield Fertiliser Applicator Tel: 011 486 0978 / 083 301 3568 telephone poles) • Hydraform Tel: 011 913 1449 (crop spraying equipment) • Husqvarna www.finnbuilder. Cables and electrical • Aberdare Cables Tel: 011 396 8000 • Bundutop Tel: 011 025 5736 manufacture and distribute machines for the production of interlocking dry-stacking soil-cement blocks). slashers.armystores.

enviro-loo.g. feed kraals) • Keenan – see “Richard Keenan SA” • Kentmaster Tel: 011 455 3748 www.Bloemfontein – 051 435 3122 .za • Ballam-Waterslot Tel: 012 347 9151 / 082 417 8069 www.Howick – 084 238 6053 .com (pregnancy detectors for sheep. electronic weighing and ID systems including electronic ID for all classes of stock) • Bessemer Tel: 011 762 5341/2 www.imagex.accelerate.sanitech.sabiotech. • Jo Jo Tanks Tel: 013 262 3021 www. EU and USDA Export standards) (a variety of equipment for poultry and pig farming (stop (“Infrared Lamps Key in Profitable Livestock Care”) • Trogtek Tel: 057 355 1151 • ZerH20 Tel: 072 819 2060 www. • Drotsky Aktief & Agrifeed Systems Tel: 011 864 1601/2 (feed mixers) • Animal Handling & Safety Equipment Services Tel: 0861 264625 www. agrifeedsystems.234 (Oasis feed and water cribs) • W & W Krippe Tel: 082 789 4777 www. hammer mills and electronic scales) • Cango Engineering Tel: 044 272 3590 (sole distributors of Siloking feed equipment in Southern Africa) • GSI Group Africa (Pty) Ltd Tel: 011 794 4455 www. drinking skin and udder • Bio-Systems SA Tel: 021 786 2972/ 082 901 9011 (poultry (feed mixers) • TAL-TEC Tel: 012 250 2188/9 www. ovifeeders etc) • Richard Keenan SA (Pty) Ltd Tel: 033 330 3135 Fax: 033 330 3136 (suppliers of Mixer Wagons and Orbital Spreaders) (manufacturers of hammer mills. cages.divac. Livestock-related • Abaserve Tel: 012 460 7834 (a completely integrated application designed for • Scalerite Tel: 011 618 2554 www.sannitreeinternational.Cape Town – 027 213 4789 • Roff Industries Tel: 056 212 2697 a range of poultry. electronic climate • Sani-tech Tel: 0861 10 86 42 (water troughs) • Plantkor Tel: 036 468 1309 www. co.krippe. watering systems etc) • Havco Tel: 017 712 5355 www. Fire fighting See separate chapter on fire. Septic tanks and sanitation • Atlas Plastics Tel: 018 469 1201 (a darting system designed for farmers and game ranchers to deliver medicines and vaccines to livestock) • Accelerate Design Tel: 012 666 9733 • Reapers Tel: 033 394 6301 • Agrifeed Systems Tel: 048 881 1711 / 082 652 4930 www. pelleting machines and other feed processing equipment) • The Downer Cowjack Tel: 044 878 1138 / 083 262 2697 gloves. rolovoermengers. Scales and weighing equipment • AXXON Tel: 011 837 7177/6/0 • Libra Measuring Instruments Tel: 012 803 2805 www. rabbit and livestock equipment) • Kanhym Landgoed Tel: 013 249 7964 catch ( • SA Biotech Tel: 087 751 4431 • Enviro Options Tel: 011 762 1624 Refer to the “Precision livestock farming” (equipment for the meat industry) • Kylami Trailer Hire Tel: 011 466 2997 • New Quip Tel: 011 472 2201 (feed and water troughs. bulk feed (feed mixers and more) • Rolo Voermengers Tel: 082 964 6879/ 082 350 8051 www.jojotanks. (chicken and pig houses) • Diamond Implements Tel: 013 665 1032 (Lachish Feed mixers) • Dicla Farm and Seeds Tel: 011 662 1371 www. poultry and dairy equipment) • NMR Engineering Tel: 034 325 9960 (abattoir equipment. pellet (agro processing and abattoir equipment. • HOTSURE Tel: 0861 HOTSURE www. 11. remote injection equipment) • AXXON Tel: 011 837 7177/6/0 (milking systems from parlours to trolley-milkers for cattle and small stock. • Durotec Tel: 041 585 5578 ( (pregnancy detectors) • Jarvis Products Corporation RSA Tel: 011 454 0100 • John F Marshal Tel: 011 842 7100 www. • Sannitree International Tel: 021 761 1266 (animal control (animal health and dairy herd management products) • Greenfields Tel: 033 263 1305 www.hammermills. wholesalers and meat-processing industries) • AAB-Dart system • RuDDScales Tel: 011 702 3010 / 071 968 0754 • Septank cc Tel: 028 271 5001 / 083 251 3038 dairy and equipment cleaning solutions) • Farm Elect Tel: 011 472 8910 • Chemvet Tel: 011 437 9000 (biotelemetry solutions) • Image X Tel: 011 869 6888 www. (feed mixers) • Storti International (Northmec) Tel: 011 922 2300 pigs. facilities designed according to (manufacturer of cattle and sheep handling equipment) • Technilamp Tel: 011 839 1837 • Pennells Tanks Tel: 015 516 4981/2/3 www. Brandt mobile agricultural products) • BJP Supplies Tel: 023 342 6070 / 082 335 3970 www. Knife sharpeners • BC Technologies Tel: 082 403 2638 • Blade Buddy Tel: 083 514 3454 – 046 622 7605 .dicla. bull semen analyser) • Four Lakes Tel: 021 557 0606 feed feeding rings) For livestock identification equipment see the “Precision Livestock Farming” chapter. (manufacturer of feed (feed (poultry equipment) • DIVAC Tel: 044 874 2720 (feeders and drinkers as well as an extensive range of pig equipment) • Plastiflo Products Tel/fax: 042 293 1827 (various troughs and feeders available) • RAU Easy Farming Tel: 082 550 6883 www. • Bolt & Engineering Distributors – • Mech-Tech – • Husqvarna – • Robotic Systems SA (Pty) Ltd – • Toolquip & Allied – Tools and power tools • Adendorff Machinery Mart – • Stihl – • Snap-on Africa – Associations • Hand Tool Manufacturers’ Association Tel: 011 298 9419 • Tools for Africa – • Makita Power Tools – • Topline – • Bosch Power Tools – • Trevco – • Metabo Power Tools – • Black & Decker Power Tools – • Passetti Power Tools – • Protea Industrial Equipment – • Gedore South Africa – • Lasher – • Cortool Tel: 012 565 6587 • Domar – • Festool – • Magi-Clamp – • Boltfast – • Agrinet – • Find information on the Toolmaking Association of South Africa (TASA) and “tooling initiatives” at • Würth South Africa – • Skok Machine Tools – • The Toolshop – • Irwin Industrial Tools – • CML Machine Tools – • Machine Tool Promotions – • Echo Outdoor Power Equipment – • Skill Craft – • L&J Tools – .za • Awesome Tools – • All Power – • Rothenberger – • Executool – • Torque Tool – www.

The following services are amongst those available at commercial grain silos: • grading at intake and out loading • drying • cleaning • weighing The advantages of on-farm grain storage include the following: • The producer is adding value to his grain.gosa. Find information on the different directorates by taking the Divisions option at www. • Ecologically-based rodent management in emerging pig and poultry farming systems. insect pests and rodent infestation of grain in bulk storage. Source: Activities include research on fungal contamination. The infected grain may be toxic to humans and . • Proper grading and in the case of wheat for instance. mills and small-scale farming systems.236 inputs Grain storage and handling 2. leading to unsafe food. Drying huts. A total storage capacity of about 17 million tons is available throughout the production areas in South Africa for the handling and storage of summer grains (white maize. ABC Hansen • Perishable Products Export Control Board (PPECB) Tel: 021 930 1134 www. amongst which silos method of application. Contact Frikkie Kirsten at KirstenF@arc. The building of facilities for storage is listed here. • Easier. a quality grain silo is paid for at roughly the same rate as central storage would have cost with the remaining 25 – 35 year. safety periods) is of the utmost importance to ensure that harvested grain is stored optimally and is safe for consumption. soy beans and canola). Source: Grain Silo Industry. in no order of significance. Our research addresses aspects of both on-farm (household use) and mass storage. Forestry and Fisheries 1. Forestry and Fisheries and Department of Health regarding food safety. a specifically agri-logistics and rural infrastructure one. the producer can convert a previous cost item only into a small cost portion and a large asset thereby taking full advantage of the time value of grain. may result in unsafe food due to - Contamination with pesticides - Contamination with toxic organisms - Food with little or no nutritional value • Pesticide evaluation (suitability. Own cleaning of grain results in the producer retaining the screenings for feed and avoiding the penalty.ppecb. if carelessly or incorrectly 3. Ensuring grain is delivered at the right moisture allows several percent higher realisation.doh. barley. National strategy and goverment contact The Strategic Integrated Projects (SIPs) announced by government in 2012 include SIP 11. • East Cape rural communities tend to store grain in closed galvanised tanks in which the high moisture content of the grain encourages fungal growth. A number of examples. • After five years. blending up or down can realise huge additional revenue. • By cleaning and proper storage of his own grain. website of the Department of Agriculture. • The control of pests in stored grain. • Large savings on transport can be realised. low risk system be installed.agric.daff. a farmer has the following storage options: • deliver the crop immediately to the miller/processor • use silo bags • erect your own silos • make use of commercial silos off-farm Commercial grain silo owners provide storage facilities (grain silos) for the safe and hygienic care of grains and oilseeds for the owners thereof. automated logistics in the case of flow-through bins. Overview For the storing of • Department of Health Tel: 012 312 0000 www. Resistance to stored grain pesticides is increasing. The facilities have to adhere to the regulations and requirements of the Department of therefore development and evaluation of new pesticides and/or “pesticidefree” methods like microwaves to control stored grain pests are important for the stored grain industry. are listed Training and research Training in the silo industry includes the following courses: • Grading • Fumigation • Silo operating • Silo maintenance • Marketing • Stock management • Personnel management • General administration ARC-Plant Protection Research Institute (ARC-PPRI) Stored Grain and Oil Seed Research Unit Tel: 012 808 8000 / 217 infoppri@arc. The only qualification to these advantages is that a proper. Role players Associations • Grain Handling Organisation of Southern Africa (GOSA) Tel: 012 807 3002 www. • Grain can be stored for longer periods at lower cost. oats and rye) and oilseeds (sunflower seed. only the relative small operational and maintenance cost remains. have been developed and the technology implemented. yellow maize and sorghum).agric. winter cereals ( to reduce the moisture content of the grain.


. GWK Ltd Tel: 053 298 8200 Grading ROFF Industries (Pty) Ltd Tel: 056 212 2697 MGK Ltd Tel: 012 252 3778 Pest Management Academy Henk Pottas Tel: 0861 99 99 00 Maximill Roller Mills Tel 056 217 1580/1 It offers advice and information on grain handling and com Fumigation training A call centre is run by ABC Hansen for the industry – 0861 GRAIN1 Hendrik van Aswegen has years of (472461) diverse Moorreesburgse Koringboere Tel: 022 433 8300 NTK Limpopo Agriculture Ltd Tel: 014 719 9211 Drotsky Tel: 011 864 1601 NWK Ltd Tel: 018 633 1000 Tel: 011 794 4455 Cango Engineering Tel: 044 272 3590 Oos Vrystaat Kaap Bedryf (OVK) Tel: 051 923 4500 The Grain Silo Industry performs administrative services for its National Fumigants Tel: 011 769 1300 Tel: 031 767 3972 ranging from Refer to the relevant chapters. rodent control Tel: 011 613 8024 ABC Hansen Tel: 012 804 2033 Fumigants Coopers ES Tel: 011 979 4246 / 082 447 9333 Biomin Animal Nutrition Tel: 018 468 1455 Silo Warehouse Tel: 012 332 1469 The GSI Group Africa (Pty) Ltd www.biomin.ovk. Silo owners AFGRI Ltd Tel: 017 624 1000 Advert on page 244 Big Dutchman Tel: 011 452 1154 VKB Limited Tel: 058 863 8111 Just Another Problem Solver (JAPS) Tel: 011 965 1205 / 082 890 9476 Plantkor Tel: 036 468 1309 www. GMO testing and other Advanced Integrated Pest Management Tel: 012 346 0162 Grain Silo Industry Tel: 012 807 3002 TWK Ltd Tel: 017 824 1000 Vilko Villiersdorp Cooperative Tel: 028 840 1120 Kaap Agri Ltd Tel: 022 931 8200 Equipment Buhler Tel: 011 801 3500 ARC-Plant Protection Research Institute (ARC-PPRI) Frikkie Kirsten 012 808 8217 Martínez Y Staneck SA Avima Tel: 011 769 1300 www. Senwes Tel: 018 464 7800 Allem Broers (Pty) Ltd Tel: 056 343 3111 BKB GrainCo Tel: 021 807 8900 / 8 www.silos. Humansdorpse Koöperasie Beperk Tel: 042 295 1082 www. and fumigation of AC Trading Tel: 012 803 0036 Overberg Agri (Pty) Ltd Tel: 028 214 3854 www.239 Grain Quality and Arbitration Services (GQAS) Gert Delport Tel: 012 329 0064 / 083 227 8163 Grain Training Institute Tel: 012 546 9240 / 083 227 8161 info@gtinstitute. management of stored Providers of silo equipment also African Micro Mills Tel: 031 584 6250 Degesch SA Tel: 011 974 2338 Sentraal-Suid Koöperasie Beperk Tel: 028 514 8600 / 49 The millers and animal feed companies also own silos.senwes. Companies involved Jones Masjiene Tel: 014 543 4889 / 083 627 6026 Suidwes Tel: 018 581 1000 Tuinroete Agri Ltd Tel: 028 713 2404 Stored grain protection pesticides Buckle Packaging Pesticide Sorter and cleaner for Bessemer Tel: 011 762 5341/2 Flomech Tel: 031 569 2038 facilitate training in grain storage ship and closed circuit fumigation and Staalsak Tel: 058 635 2032 / 082 881 1468 Hydrex Tel: 011 440 4472 mycotoxin analysis . seeds etc for animal feed Kongskilde Tel: 011 894 2341



. GPB Consulting Tel: 021 852 7811 • Carrotech Agricultural Equipment Tel: 021 865 2044 • INTTRAC Tel: 016 365 5799 “Tractors.dbx.piket. • Producer organisations like Grain SA run farm implement maintenance training courses. Large amounts of food in sub-Saharan Africa goes to waste as a result of inappropriate storage. spreaders and graders. Storage & Drying • Kongskilde Tel: 011 804 2341 combines and balers”. Combines and Balers” chapter – are also major suppliers of agricultural implements e. • Inyoni Africa Tel: 013 712 2175 • GENTAG Tel: 018 431 1287 for the following • Havco Tel: 017 712 5355 is a wealth of information.inyoniafrica. Find the report on Electronic Silo Certificates (ESC) Tel: 011 797 5591 • AFGRI Tel: 011 063 2347 www. The website.inttrac. Overview Included in the category of “Implements” are hay and forage • Benoni Farmers’ Supply Tel: 011 423 2801 (take “publications” option).za • GC Tillage Tel: 033 346 2251 Ronin Grain Management Solutions Tel: 011 608 3666 • AgriCAD Tel: 0861 001 204 • Cango Engineering Tel: 044 272 3590 www. “Conservation tillage” and “Animal traction: the use of animal power” where suppliers of implements are also listed.havco.daff.afgri.agis.gmgpowersa.consultgpb. There is also an Info Pak at www. and where more information may be inputs Implements 1. This is an excellent guide to plan your silo storage • Joubert Implemente Tel: 021 887 1220 / 767 www. Our gratitude to Dirk Kok at the Grain Silo Industry who gave feedback on the draft chapter.farmersupply. It is part of a training • Agri Afrika Tel: 086 111 3692 It is available from ABC Hansen (find contact details under heading 3) storage Only some of these companies are listed • Find suppliers of implements in the “Conservation Agriculture” ABC Hansen also puts out a monthly electronic newsletter. John Deere New Holland The reader is also referred to supplementary chapters Read article in “Biotechnology and plant breeding” chapter Visit • Just Another Problem Solver (JAPS) Tel: 011 965 1205 Managing silo certificates online Silobag Systems Tel: 083 570 1574 www. • Josco Services Tel: 021 851 1155 • BJP Supplies Tel: 023 342 6070 www. Northmec. Find also the Infotoon on grain storage.rumax. Call 012 842 4017 or email • BP Implements Tel: 056 515 1066/7 (take the “publications” and then “general publications” menu options).za • Diamond Implements Tel: 013 665 1032 • Monitor fertilising flow … Electrolee Tel: 012 347 9933 entitled Missing Food: The Case of Postharvest Grain Losses in Sub-Saharan Africa.en bunkersilo’s • Building of permanent trench and bunker silage silos • Hamermeul handleiding en toetsverslag 1997 • Handleiding vir die konstruksie van graansilo’s vir plaasopberging • Manual for the construction of grain silos for farm storage Grading of maize and storage are two topics included in the excellent marketing document Field Crop Marketing on www. • GMG Power SA Tel: 011 392 1144 www.g. ground-working • Alpha Engineering Tel: 028 514 3450 www. The report calls for investing in post-harvest technologies to reduce the losses and boost the continent’s food Tel: 011 444 1321 www.abchansenafrica. telehandlers and loaders. Websites and publications Grain Handling. • Agri-Phyto Tel: 028 735 2425 www. estimates the value of grain losses in sub-Saharan Africa at around $4-billion a • Carel van Niekerk Engineering Tel: 022 913 2435 www. available from the ARC–Institute for Agricultural Engineering (ARC-IAE): • Bou van permanente sloot. • Agribusinesses and co-operatives deal with agricultural implements (refer to the “Agribusiness” chapter).com (find advert over the page) • Kouga Implements Tel: 042 295 1146 / 082 655 1146 . Role players • Affiliates of the South African Agricultural Machinery Association (SAAMA) – see the “Tractors. “one of those things a processor or farmer will do sooner or later”.rhineruhr. A joint Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO)-World Bank South African Bureau of Standards (SABS) GPB has been involved in the Tel: 012 428 7911 upgrading of a number of grain • AgriVaria SA Tel: 021 884 4556 www. In this chapter we give details of suppliers and Tel: 011 675 7433 Rhine Ruhr Process Equipment “Precision farming”.za • Kaap Agri Tel: 022 482 8088 www. Pesticide residue testing for quality control and R&D purposes Lab World Tel: 012 685 9600 Stargate Scientific www.hammermills.silobag.gentag.agric.

za • Quali Prod Tel: 086 178 2547 • Rolo Voermengers Tel: 082 350 8051 / 082 964 6879 • Mnani Implements Tel: 013 665 3054 • Turnerland Manufacturing Tel: 022 723 1413 • NewQuip Agri Supplies Tel: 011 472 2201 / 082 610 0960 (find advert on page 235) • Ritlee Industrial & Agricultural Equipment Tel: 011 452 3434 www. vanzylstaal.staalmeester. The members of the South African Agricultural Machinery Association (SAAMA) sell implements • Reapers Tel: 033 394 6301 • Tijbros Agricultural Machinery Tel: 011 662 1371 – agricultural for the following Le Roux can be contacted at 082 828 (New Holland) and • Wesmeg Tel: 018 581 1000 newquip. combines & balers” chapter) • Theebo Tech (Pty) Ltd Tel: 021 981 2161 • Mascor Tel: 033 413 2164 www. Websites and publications Koos le Roux has written the Meganisasiegids (Mechanical Guide) • Senwes Tel: 018 464 7570 www.radium. Combines and Balers” • Radium Engineering Tel: 012 719 9062 www.vitamech. rolovoermengers. www.qualiprod. • Nigel Plen – see Turfmaster (Pty) Ltd • Orbach Agri Tel: 016 424 1145 • Vitamech Tel: 021 907 8000 • Van Zyl Staalwerke Tel: 058 863 2452/ 082 800 1389 • VKB Ltd Tel: 058 863 8111 www. Call 012 842 4017 or email • Monosem Planters – see Carrotech • Morningdew Farms Tel: 011 613 4266/7 (John Deere SA) • Rovic & Leers Tel: 021 907 1700 • Tatu – contact Valtrac (see “Tractor. Visit • Turfmaster (Pty) Ltd Tel: 011 730 3400 • Landmech South Africa Tel: 086 047 2337 • Skaarland Engineering Works Tel: 022 433 2343 • Southtrade Tel: 021 981 6044 • Staalmeester Tel: 018 431 0693 / 0300 • Rogue Agriculture Tel: 033 345 0038 www. available from the ARC-Institute for Agricultural Engineering in Silverton: • Mechanisation basics: Sprayers en spraying techniques (Training manual) • Mechanisation basics: Row crop planters (Training manual) • Mechanisation basics: Calculations and measurement (Training manual) • Introduction to row crop planters • Comparative review of technical specifications for no-till jab-planters • The operation and application of mounted mowers • The operation and application of hay rakes and hay tedders • The operation and application of medium and big square balers • The application and operation of round balers • The application and operation of rotary cultivators • The operation and application of subsoilers and rippers • The operation and application of chisel ploughs See the websites of companies involved. both here and in the “Tractors. for example. new or used .co.senwes.

Thus. • It is the most efficient. Why is drip irrigation so successful? • It keeps soil aerated. . Drip irrigation is the ideal solution for small-holders (see diagram which follows). and make recommendations to solve the envisaged problems. One module uses climate and soil moisture information to generate irrigation – take the “Design Norms” menu. efficient water distribution. which should be utilised in the most efficient way possible.wikipedia. By optimising scheduling principles we can: • prevent over and under watering • facilitate crop manipulation • prevent unnecessary crop stress • create ideal air-water balance • manage soil water buffer • optimise salinity management • prevent soil compaction • save on energy costs • promote root development • improve fertiliser uptake • maximise harvest potential Water legislation means that a farmer has to budget for how much water will be used. Norms in the following are proposed: pipe friction in main and sub-main pipelines. so as to identify any anticipated problems with drip systems. which move by themselves during during irrigation. dragline. Commercial farmer points of interest Computer software for farmers Irrigation scheduling is defined as the correct amount of water being applied to a crop at the correct time. big gun. accurate use of water and nutrients. hop-along. the determination of and management of available water sources e. crop. This module also can determine when to irrigate in order to prevent frost or to cool down the plants by keeping track of temperature readings. Design norms Find the menu option “Approved Designers” on the SABI website. In South Africa there is a great need for farmers. • moving (centre pivot. Yet no farmer would disagree that the demand on our scarce water resources makes the efficient use of all water in South Africa a necessity. surface water withdrawn from rivers or dams.g. Sources of irrigation water can be groundwater extracted from springs or by using wells. Kwazulu-Natal. It uses specially designed pipes pre-fitted with advanced drippers. rotating boom) – these remain static during irrigation but are moved. • It enables easy control of water consumption. By means of radio or of wired links. manually or mechanically. quick-coupling lines. between irrigations. • pivots • sprinklers • micro irrigation • drip irrigation These irrigation systems can be defined under the following types: • static (micro and sprinkle) – these systems remain static while water is applied. We have only a limited resource of water. irrigation hours per week. the pumps and valves in the field are controlled. The designer must highlight any problems e. By loading this information. every drop of water is effectively used to raise quality and increase year-round yields. application efficiencies. peak and annual crop water requirements. nutritional requirements and the scheduling thereof in terms of recommendations for the designer to optimally design an irrigation system for specific circumstances. The irrigation system drips the exact amount of water and nutrients that crops need right at the root zone. Eastern Cape. soil and fertiliser specialists to have information on crop water requirements. The following types are dealt with: • micro irrigation • drip irrigation • sprinkler irrigation • centre pivot • flood irrigation 4. • moveable (quick (adapted). Although it uses 60% of the available water in South Africa. border. Some software companies have addressed the new regulations by developing software solutions that can successfully keep track of water budgeting information and spray records. short furrow) – water flows over the soil surface for spreading and infiltration purposes. Contacts are given for seven of the provinces: Gauteng. or nonconventional sources like treated wastewater. Source: http://en. an article by Johannes Maree (contact him at johannesmaree@absamail. Mpumalanga. Irrigation systems typically being used in South Africa today include: • canals • flood irrigation • draglines. • It cuts down diseases and fungi·Uniform. • It reduces weed growth. Find the SABI makes proposals and provides technical information on www. you will be able to make use of a second module which controls the irrigation in the field. permissible suction velocities. to the Minister of the Department of Water Affairs 2. Free State and Western Cape. furrow. It will also help predict water requirements.g. linear and travelling irrigator). the blockage of drip systems with irrigation water. Agriculture that relies only on direct rainfall is referred to as rain-fed Source: DFM Software 3. By using scheduling software the farmer can tell exactly how much water he used so that he can estimate how much he’s going to need for the next year as required. desalinated water or drainage water. • flood (basin.245 inputs Irrigation 1. • Evaporation and water run-off are minimised. For the newcomer Find out about the support offered by the Department of Water Affairs (DWA) to resource-poor irrigation farmers. A multi-disciplinary approach is required when evaluating water quality for irrigation purposes. “Irrigation Basics”. it does not do so at the expense or the detriment of any other sector of the economy. president of Agri SA. Source: adapted from a letter written by Johannes Möller. Overview Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the soil usually for assisting in growing crops. minimum pump capacity (safety factor for wear and tear) Irrigated agriculture plays an important role in stabilising the production of food and eventual food security. Limpopo. boreholes. analaysis of soil water holding capacity and infiltration

SABI holds a bi-annual SABI National Training and research Chapter 8 of Irrigation Strategy for South Africa deals with the education and training of irrigation scientists and farmers SABI. which triggered the need for a revised irrigation Southern African Regional Irrigation Association (SARIA) Network on Irrigation and Based at the Water Research Extension for Small-scale Agriculture (NIRESA) Commission Tel: 012 330 0340 Tel: 012 330 0340 gerhardb@wrc. Expansion of irrigation by 50% is being SANCID represents South Africa The Borehole Water Association at the International Commission on of SA Tel: 011 447 0853 Irrigation and Drainage (ICID). including the National Water Act 36 of 1998. and have been presented for more than 10 years in co-operation with the private sector. or approach DAFF for it. SABI’s training courses are suited to experienced and trainee farm Selecting the “Documents” menu option will provide a spread of available Irrigators and farmers who experience problems with their irrigation systems can contact SABI. irrigation designers and students of irrigation. extension and advisory services • Infrastructure for irrigated agriculture • Management in irrigated agriculture • Education and training of irrigation scientists and farmers • Revitalisation. engineers. South Africa’s only irrigation magazine. soil scientists. Department of Agriculture. economists and irrigation farmers.246 6.sabi. National strategy and government contact Commenting on governments job creation targets in 2012. who can be approached for a quotation and technical evaluation. Dr Ferdi Meyer of the University of Pretoria agreed that agriculture could meet its one million new jobs target if failed land reform projects were put back into production – and if more land was made available for irrigation farming (see the chapter on job creation). land suitability evaluation and land use planning • Irrigation research. SABI courses are all built on sound theoretical foundations but are presented . Find the document Irrigation Strategy for South Africa on the internet. Source: Netafim SABI’s main roles are: 5. who will provide a list of SABI Approved Designers. private and government DAFF has identified irrigation development as one of five priority areas for the Accelerated and Shared Growth Initiative for South Africa (AsgiSA). Water Quality Management and more. Forestry and Fisheries Directorate: Water Use and Irrigation Management Tel: 012 846 8567 DWUID@daff. SABI approved Irrigation Designers complete the SABI National Exam and are bound by the SABI ethical code to designing irrigation systems that meet the SABI design The chapters are listed below: • General • Natural resource base for irrigated agriculture in South Africa • Institutional structures and arrangements required for successful. The South African National Committee on Irrigation and Drainage (SANCID) www. there are more than 65 company members. crop www. Department of Water Affairs (DWA) Tel: 012 336 8664 Established more than 35 years ago. and publishes the bi-monthly SABI Magazine/Tydskrif. SABI also holds branch meetings and farmers’ research organisations and agricultural colleges all around the efficient. re-development or upgrading of irrigation schemes and private irrigation farms that have collapsed or are under-utilised and handling of cases of unlawful irrigation • Development of new commercial irrigated areas • Mini-scale irrigated agriculture for household and community level food security • Strategies relating to non-agricultural laws which strongly impact on irrigated agriculture • irrigation standards and norms • being a forum where industry players can raise issues • sharing of knowledge to promote efficient irrigation water use and water conservation SABI serves the interests of irrigation farmers. For networking and knowledge dissemination. as the recognised representative organisation of the irrigation industry in South Africa associated with the optimal and effective use of irrigation water.dwa. which represent mainly manufacturers and suppliers of irrigation www. SABI today has more than 450 members that include inter alia with increasing membership on the continent of Africa. organises and facilitates a series of training courses each year. Landscape Irrigation Association Tel: 011 606 3855 www. sustainable irrigated agriculture • Resource African and international delegates. which attracts local. Furthermore.sali. Role players Associations SA Irrigation Institute (SABI) Tel: 021 855 5412 riana@sabi. The Institute offers various AgriSETA-accredited training courses nationwide throughout the year. irrigation managers and irrigation designers.sancid. Irrigation was also identified as one of five priority area under the Accelerated and Shared Growth Initiative for South Africa (AsgiSA) years ago. Directorate: Infrastructure Support Tel: 012 319 846 8502 SABI members are found in the professional.

. – take the “Membersip” and “Company Members” menu • Boseng (Pty) Ltd Tel: 021 905 5555 reindersf@arc. The following courses are presented: • Irrigation Operato