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Foreword by the Minister


The gap between rich and poor has increased, with household food
insecurity affecting millions of families countrywide.
There are differing views on how to create the right environment for
business to thrive so that problems like unemployment and poverty
can be solved. Is it possible to restructure the economy in such a way
that the house does not collapse? Those who do not see themselves as
benefiting from the economy wonder how it is in their interests that
the house continues standing.
Matters are not helped, of course, by negative global economic
circumstances, but the country that does not have its own house in
order faces additional challenges when participating in the wider, global
In the midst of this picture agriculture remains a solid pillar in the
economy. On a national level we are food secure, our secondary
industries have the required fibre and raw materials, and there is
economic activity in large stretches of our rural areas.

Photo: The Minister of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Ms Tina JoematPettersson at Bronkhorstspruit for the World Food Day 2012 celebrations

An economy houses a nation. Under its roof people find vocations,
security and fulfillment. The nation that is bound in unity takes a collective
responsibility for promoting economic growth and development.
Since the advent of democracy in South Africa there have been many
achievements, some enjoying a high profile but many more not.
Without subtracting from our achievements, let us take note that so
many South Africans remain excluded – shut out – from the economy.

The more familiar we are with the sector, its components and its role
players, the better our chances will be of attaining the breakthroughs
we so desperately need to reduce the suffering caused by poverty and
Initiatives like this publication give us a map of the sector and link us
to resources, specialists and other sources of help. I invite you to join
me now in using The Agri Handbook for South Africa to help make South
Africa a better home for all.

Honourable Tina Joemat-Pettersson (MP)

From the editor
When the world we knew was entering its greatest conflict ever, one of its greatest poets penned “In Time of ‘The Breaking
of Nations’”. In this piece, the events of the time form a backdrop only, and the focus is a farmer working his fields.
In a time of uncertainty, agriculture is practical, immediate, the logical thing to do. Yet it is also far-seeing, a way of planning for
the future and indeed, of voting for that future.
Almost a century later, while there is no World War happening, no one would say the planet is yet at peace. In the midst of all
the issues that face our world, this publication is our vote for the future and humanity.
The book is made possible by the support of the people whose logos you will find on the cover and whose adverts appear on
the pages between those covers. Our sincere thanks to you all. We would also like to thank the provincial and national CASP
co-ordinators of the Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. With their assistance, an additional 4 800 copies of
this book will be put into the hands of extension officers, who will help turn the knowledge and information within these pages
into the living reality of agricultural produce and financially sustainable families.
And if you are looking at this book, you are probably involved in agriculture too. To you, our best wishes and an invitation
that if you cannot find the information that you are looking for in here, contact us and we will help. Please also visit our new
website: where you will find the official Blog for this publication, as well as the online version of
the book, later in 2013.

Craig Macaskill
Editor: The Agri Handbook
for South Africa


Africa and agriculture
South Africa and agriculture
Organised agriculture

The importance of rural development
Agriculture and the provinces
Labour and agriculture
The urban question


Marketing and finance
Agribusinesses 49
Agricultural shows and events
Commodity trading 58
Co-operatives 66
Development financial services
Exporting 76
Fibre trading 82
Fresh produce markets
Infrastructure and agricultural logistics – see “National issues” section
Intellectual property rights
Livestock auctions 89
Marketing 91
Providers of financial services
Risk management and insurance
Supply chain management 112

Resources and Good Agricultural
Biodiversity and ecosystems services
Biological farming 122
Birds and farming 124
Conservancies and farming 126
Environmental legislation 129
Fire 134
Invasive Alien Species (IAS)
LandCare 141
Natural building 142
Organic farming 142
Permaculture 149
Rangeland / veld 154
Soils 159
Water – see the National issues section
Waste management 163
Weather and climate
Wetlands 170
Wildlife on farms 175

Animal feeds 180
Animal health 184
Animal traction: the use of animal power

Boreholes and windmills
Compost and organic fertiliser
Conservation Agriculture
Crop protection
Earthworms and vermicompost
Fleet maintenance and spare parts
Fuel and lubricants
General farm equipment
Grain storage and handling
Pumps and generators
Rainwater harvesting
Renewable energy
Seeds and seedlings
Speciality fertilisers
Structures and building supplies
Tractors, combines, balers
Trucks and heavy machinery
Water storage
4x4s and other vehicles


National issues
Black Economic Empowerment
Climate change and global warming
Developing farmer support
Food security
Human settlements
Infrastucture and agricultural logistics
Job creation
Land reform
People with disabilities
Safety and security


Agricultural education, training and
Agricultural education and training
Careers and employment in agriculture


Disclaimer: We have tried to make this information as accurate as possible. For the latest information, please consult the websites and / or relevant associations and role players
mentioned in the relevant chapters. For this reason we will not accept responsibility for consequences of actions which may arise from errors contained in this book.


Agricultural services and technologies
Agricultural consultants 392
Biotechnology and plant breeding
Hydroponics and undercover growing
ICT and agricultural media
Laboratories and agriculture
Legal aid and legislation
Mapping 419
Precision farming 421
Precision livestock farming
Research and development

Agronomy and horticulture
Bamboo 429
Barley 430
Berries 432
Black tea 434
Canola 436
Cassava 437
Chicory 438
Citrus fruit 439
Coffee 443
Cotton 446
Cut-flowers 449
Deciduous fruit 451
Dry beans 452
Floriculture and nursery crops
Forage and pastures 457
Forestry 461
Fruit 465
Grain and oilseeds
Grapes 472
Groundnuts 475
Herbs and spices 477
Honeybush 481
Horticulture 483
Indigenous African crops

Indigenous medicinal plants
Maize 493
Mushrooms and truffles
Olives 501
Other crops 502
Other fibre crops 503
Potatoes 506
Rooibos 509
Sorghum 510
Soybeans 512
Subtropical fruit 515
Sugarcane 519
Sunflowers 520
Tobacco 524
Tree nuts 526

Vegetables 529
Wheat 536

Animal husbandry 539
Animal Improvement and Breeders
Aquaculture 549
Beekeeping 561
Dairy 564
Donkeys 568
Gamebirds, waterfowl and other poultry
Goats 574
Goats – mohair 578
Goat and sheep dairy
Horses – the equine industry
Indigenous breeds 583
Ostriches 585
Other livestock 588
Pork 589
Poultry 594
Rabbits 599
Sheep 601
Sheep – wool 604
Speciality fibre production 608
Wildlife ranching 610

Value add and agro-processing
Abattoirs 614
Agro-processing 619
Baking 628
Biofuels 629
Canning and preserving 633
Dairy processing 634
Dried fruit 638
Essential and vegetable oils
Food safety and traceability
Hunting 651
Leather 653
Milling 654
Small and micro milling
Tourism in agriculture 659
Wine 663

Beyond our borders
Southern Africa Development Community (SADC)


Roll of honour: our advertisers
Without you this public resource would not be possible

Copyright © 2013 by RainbowSA Publishing (Pty) Ltd.“The Agri Handbook” is made available under the terms of the Creative Commons
Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License. To understand more about the license visit





Africa and agriculture
1. Introduction
It is appropriate for this book to begin with a chapter on the continent
which is home – Africa. We are human beings first, true, but it is Africa
which gives us our context, our pain and glory, our opportunities to grow.
The websites listed in this chapter, particularly those of financial and
investment companies, create a fascinating picture of the continent. It is a
patchwork of 54 countries (or more, depending on your politics), ranging
from deserts to tropical forests.
Six of the ten fastest growing economies of the world are here. With
the exception of South Africa, sub-Saharan Africa countries measure an
average annual growth rate of over 5%, and many see the continent as
a new investment destination. There has been much excitement over
growth prospects for Africa, based largely on the extractive industries – oil,
mining and gas. The uncultivated, fertile land and presence of water makes
a further attractive resource.
Not everyone shares this optimism: Africa only attracted 5.5% of global
Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in 2011. Perhaps Africa needs to start
telling its story better. She can also concentrate on four things: stability of
government; strengthening the rule of law; strengthening education; rooting
out corruption. And this applies to South Africa too. Lagos, Nairobi, Abidjan
and others are becoming as important as gateways into Africa.
Africa is on its way to becoming a preferred investment destination, a
potential pole of global growth, and a place of immense innovation and
creativity. But there is also a long way to go, and Africa’s governments
must as a matter of urgency turn their attention to those who are being
left behind.
Former United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan, introducing the Africa
Progress Panel in 2012.

2. Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)
In 2000, 147 heads of State and Government endorsed the Millennium
Declaration at the UN Millennium Summit. The declaration defines a limited
number of achievable goals, Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), to be
reached by the year 2015. The overall objective is to halve the proportion
of the world’s population who live in absolute poverty.
MDGs are a framework of 8 goals, 18 targets and 48 indicators to measure
progress towards these goals:
Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger.
Goal 2: Achieve universal primary education.
Goal 3: Promote gender equality and empower women.
Goal 4: Reduce child mortality.
Goal 5: Improve maternal health.
Goal 6: Combat HIV/Aids, malaria, TB and other diseases.
Goal 7: Ensure environmental sustainability.
Goal 8: Develop a global partnership for development.

• Find the latest release of Africa Development Indicators which analyses
the progress that African countries have made towards meeting the
Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by 2015. The document is
available on the World Bank website,
• See also related websites like and www.

3. New Partnership for Africa’s
Development – NEPAD
The eNewsletter, NEPAD Dialogue, is available in English, French and
Portuguese. If you are would like to receive these, please contact NEPAD by
writing to
The New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD), an African Union
strategic framework for pan-African socio-economic development, is both
a vision and a policy framework for Africa in the twenty-first century.
NEPAD manages a number of programmes and projects in six theme areas.
• Agriculture and Food Security.
• Climate Change and National Resource Management.
• Regional Integration and Infrastructure.
• Human Development.
• Economic and Corporate Governance.
• Cross-cutting Issues, including Gender, Capacity Development and
A history of NEPAD and details of NEPAD’s governance structures can be
found on the website,
NEPAD Planning and Coordinating Agency (NPCA)
Tel: 011 256 3600
Comprehensive African Agriculture Development Programme
The heads of state and government in Africa have adopted the
Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP) as
a framework for the restoration of agriculture growth, rural development
and food security in Africa. Through CAADP, NEPAD draws the attention
of member governments to a wide range of actions to revitalise African
agriculture and provides a framework for harmonised and collaborative
responsive action.
CAADP’s work falls under 4 pillars, each dealing with key issues:
• Pillar 1: Land & water management
• Pillar 2: Market access
• Pillar 3: Food supply and hunger
• Pillar 4: Agricultural research

4. Africa and agriculture
The setting
• Agriculture is the economic backbone of most African countries. It
employs 70% of the labour force in sub-Saharan Africa and contributes
30% to the GDP.
• The sector is dominated by smallholders with land sizes usually not
exceeding 1 hectare, which also includes livestock holders, small-scale
agricultural processing enterprises and marketing actors.
• The continent has almost 60% of the world’s uncultivated land and a
large share of natural resources.
• The agricultural import bill now amounts to more than US$ 33 billion
• Africa is responsible for only 10% of the world’s agricultural production.
As agricultural progresses it generates growth in other sectors as the
demand rises for other goods and services. The high-performing economies
have shown that increased agricultural growth precedes any economic
take-off. So how do we get there?

Perspectives on agriculture
Dr John Purchase of the South Africa’s Agricultural Business Chamber


(Agbiz) has stated that the following are required interventions to take
agriculture in Africa to the next level:
a) The creation of partnerships throughout the entire value chain
– from raw material providers to marketplace distributors. These
partnerships, whether they be Private to Private or Public to Private,
are seen as tools to strengthen the agricultural industry in Africa as a
b) Governments in Africa must be committed to enacting considerably
more favourable agricultural policies that can create enabling
environments for agriculture and agribusinesses to be more globally
competitive. Trade agreements and regulatory legislation need to be
harmonised on regional basis.
c) Infrastructure development and energy access are fundamental
to the process of growth. Africa needs investments in infrastructure
to get markets working, and investment in energy, especially clean
renewable energy, to drive production, processing, storage and
d) Market exploitation and accessibility will be a key component in
the sustainable development of African agriculture. Understand local,
regional and global market demand dynamics. Add value, improve
quality, innovate and adapt quickly to market demand. Collectively
press for trade reform for EU and others to open markets and remove
trade barriers. Develop intra-Africa markets and trade.
e) Effective and innovative risk-sharing models to facilitate access to
credit are being developed and are already proving successful. These
need to be expanded considerably as access to credit remains one of
the major constraints facing the development of African agriculture.
Commercial financiers, such as the banks, as well as Development
Finance Institutions (DFI’s) and even the donor community, can play a
major role by partnering and co-ordinating their efforts. Need to also
look at role and reform of institutions, especially role of Central Banks.
f) Research and Development is a necessity for agricultural
development; not only to raise production and productivity to much
higher levels, but also to improve value added processes and product
quality. The need for scientific R&D will certainly require all parties
involved, both the private sector and the government, to take solid
measures in educating their stakeholders about the value of R&D and
how new approaches and techniques, including biotechnology, can
make a valuable contribution to agricultural growth.
g) Underpinning much of the above, is the fact that, despite Africa’s huge
reliance on agriculture for its GDP (~35%), only a handful (about
5) of countries invest 10% of their annual budgets in agricultural
development, despite the Maputo Declaration, signed by African
Heads of State, committing to this target. Investment by African
Governments in agriculture will send a profound signal to the private
sector, and private sector investment will be sure to follow.
Source: Agro-allied industry development across Africa, a presentation given to
the Africa Economic Forum given in 2011, and Opportunities through agricultural
restructuring and integration of smallholders in the agro-food chain, given at
Brussels in 2012.

The single most important focus should be upgrading rural infrastructure
networks and creating regional markets.
Across the region, agricultural production is increasing in per capita
terms. The reason is that there have been fairly positive rates of economic
growth and people have more money to spend on food. But the biggest
increase has been in the amount of food that is imported. That is because
farmers can’t get what they produce to the urban centres, so the food
comes in from outside instead.
Source: Prof Nick Vink of Stellenbosch University,

Aid alone will not end poverty in Africa. Market access, fair terms of
trade, and a non-discriminatory financial system are equally essential in
helping Africans to lift themselves out of poverty and deprivation.
The path to prosperity begins at the fields of our farmers ... Our farmers
need better seeds, soils and prices for what they sell. They need access
to water, markets and credit. They need national policies that accelerate
rural economic growth, investment and job creation.
Former UN secretary general Kofi Annan

African policy-makers must embrace technology and develop their own
technological solutions. African research institutions are pioneering
new forms of irrigation that could transform the way staple foods are
cultivated. Fertilisers are available that can feed nutrient deficient soils.
Modern crop varieties can dramatically increase yields and new farming
techniques can make processes significantly more efficient. Not only can
it be done, but it has been done. In less than six years, the production of
maize in Malawi has increased from under two million tons to well over
3.5 million tons, allowing the country to become an exporter of the crop
to neighbouring countries.
It is why, despite all the obstacles we face, I remain such an optimist when
it comes to Africa’s agricultural development. Our continent has twelve
times the land area of India, with only half the population to feed. With
few exceptions, the distribution of cultivable land in sub-Saharan Africa
is equitable compared to many other regions of the world. Moreover,
the technology already exists, demonstrated through the success of
improved varieties of cassava, rice and maize. I believe that with the
right commitment, policies and technologies, Africa will better the Asian
agricultural miracle of the 1970s and 80s – doing so in an environmentally
sustainable way.
Source: Joachim Chissano, former president of Mozambique

5. Regional Economic Communities (RECs)
Currently there are multiple regional blocs in Africa, also known as
Regional Economic Communities (RECs), many of which have overlapping
Most of these RECs form the ‘pillars’ of the African Economic Community
(AEC). The AEC has several goals – free trade areas, customs unions, a
single market, a central bank, and a common currency thus establishing an
economic and monetary union.
Customs unions, a free trade area with a common external tariff, exist
within these RECs e.g. the Southern African Customs Union (SACU),
the East African Community, the Economic and Monetary Community of
Central Africa (CEMAC) and the West African Economic and Monetary
Union (UEMOA). All REC members are not necessarily members of the
customs union operating within the REC.
CEN-SAD (Community of Sahel-Saharan States)
Burkina Faso
Central African Republic
Côte d’Ivoire
The Gambia


São Tomé and
Sierra Leonne

Arab Maghreb Union – UMA



Economic Community of West African States – ECOWAS
Burkina Faso
Cape Verde
Côte d’Ivoire
The Gambia


Sierra Leone


Economic Community of Central African States – ECCAS
Central African Republic

Congo-Kinshasa (DRC)
Equatorial Guinea

São Tomé and

Intergovernmental Authority on Development – IGAD
South Sudan



Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa – COMESA
Congo-Kinshasa (DRC)


South Sudan


South Sudan

Southern African Developmental Community – SADC
Congo-Kinshasa (DRC)


South Africa

There are plans to create a 26-nation free trade area by integrating three
existing African trade blocs by July 2014: the East African Community
(EAC), the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA),
and the Southern African Development Community (SADC).
The three RECs aim to create a free market of 525-million people with
an output of $1-trillion when they unite.
Although African economies are growing fast – second only to Asia – the
continent has attracted criticism over its slow pace of integration, a delay
that is seen as driving up the cost of doing business.
The World Bank said in a report in February 2012 that red tape and
trade barriers cost Africa billions of dollars and deprive the region of new
sources of economic growth.
Many of the countries in the three blocs are members of more than one
trade area. Zambia is a member of SADC and COMESA for example,
while Kenya has membership in EAC and COMESA. South Sudan, which
attained independence from Sudan in 2011, is expected to join the free
trade area, taking the total number of states to 27 or half of Africa.
Source: Reuters 21 May 2012 (adapted)

Two key initiatives were developed in an attempt to achieve the MDG
goals: the Doha Development Agenda (DDA) and Economic Partnership
Agreements (EPAs).
• The DDA aims to lower global trade barriers
• EPAs seek to liberalise trade specifically between the EU and African,
Caribbean and Pacific countries.
Read about the DDA at, website of the World Trade
Organisation (WTO).
EPAs are based on the Cotonou Partnership Agreement (CPA), the
objectives of which are to enhance the trading capacity of the small ACP
landlocked and island ACP countries. It has been difficult to craft the EPAs
within the RECs (see heading 5) and these negotiations have not reached
agreement yet.
A key lesson from both the DDA and EPAs is that increasing trade to EU and
US partners is not enough.
Africa needs to encourage both intra-Africa and intra-REC trade (intraAfrican trade accounts for only some 12% of the international trade done
by countries on the continent!)
The following should take place in conjunction with trade liberalisation:

Eastern African Community – EAC

6. Intra-Africa trade and Economic Partnership
Agreements (EPAs)

• Investment in infrastructure geared towards production and export:
roads, railways, port facilities, power generation, water supply,
telecommunications and information and communications technology.
• Increased public investment in research and development, rural
infrastructure, and health and education.
• The development of domestic policy regulatory frameworks to
regulate the movement of goods and services.
Source: Bonani Nyhodo (adapted), International TradeProbe January 2012

7. International role players
United Nations and overseas bodies
• Canadian Council on Africa –
• Diaspora African Forum (DAF) –
The DAF provides “the vital linkage for diaspora Africans to become
involved in Africa’s development as well as reap the fruits of African
• Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) –
• Forum on China-Africa Co-operation –
• The G8 countries: Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia,
United Kingdom and the USA.
• Global Forum for Food and Agriculture (GFFA)
• International Centre for Soil Fertility and Agricultural
Development (IFDC) –
• International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) –
• International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) – www.ifpri.
• International Institute for Sustainable Development – www.iisd.
• International Trade Centre – – “the development
partner for small business export success in developing countries”
• Integrated Regional Information Networks (IRIN) is part of the
UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. Find the
“Africa” menu option at
• The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
(OECD) puts out economic outlooks for countries of the world. Find
reports, statistics and summaries at
• Tokyo International Conference on African Development
• United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
• United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) has a South
African office. See
• United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA) –


• United Nations Industrial Development Organisation (UNIDO)
• US Agency for International Development (USAID) – www.
• Find the current world production, market and trade reports at www. the Foreign Agricultural Service arm of the
US Department of Agriculture
• World Economic Forum –
• World Food Programme (WFP) –
• World Growth which sets out the advantages of globalisation – www.
• World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) –

African Union bodies
• African Union (AU) –
• African Union Commission -
• The New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) is the
AU’s blueprint for socio-economic development on the continent.
• Pan-African Parliament –

Finance, investment and trade
• Africa Finance Corporation –
• Africa Investor – Look for the “Agriculture”
menu option.
• African Agricultural Capital –
• African Development Bank –
• African Rural and Agricultural Credit Association (AFRACA)
• Alden Global Capital –
• BMCE Bank International –
• Corporate Council on Africa –
• Deloitte Consulting –
• Development Bank of Southern Africa –
• Find the Doing Business in Africa (DBIA) blog at www.commerce.
• East African Development Bank –
• Ecobank –
• Emerging Capital Partners –
• Look for the Africa Attractiveness surveys on, website of
Ernst & Young
• Export-Import Bank of China –
• International Monetary Fund (IMF) –
• KPMG –
• Lex Africa –
• Market Access Map – “making import tariffs and market barriers
• Find the research undertaken by McKinsey Global Institute (MGI)
• PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC) –
• The Regional Economic Communities (RECs) (see heading 5)
• SilverStreet Capital –
• World Bank –
• The World Bank’s private sector lending arm is the International
Finance Corporation –
• World Trade Organisation (WTO) –

Farmer unions
• East Africa Farmers Federation (EAFF) –
• Pan African Farmers Organisation (PAFO) – contact SACAU (see
• PROPAC – The association representing farmers in Central Africa
• ROPPA (Network of Farmers’ and Agricultural Producers’
Organisations of West Africa) –
• Southern Africa Confederation of Agricultural Unions (SACAU)

Associations and industry bodies
• African Association of Public Transport –
• African Civil Aviation Commission (AFCAC) –
• African Shipowners Association –
• Agency for the Safety of Aerial Navigation in Africa (ASECNA)

• Business Action For Africa –
• Maritime Organisation of West and Central Africa (OMAOC) –
• Port Management Association of Eastern and Southern Africa
• Port Management Association of West and Central Africa
• Union of African Railways -

Research and development
See also the “Research and development” chapter

• African Capacity Building Foundation (ACBF) – www.acbf-pact.
• CTA (Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation)
– Agritrade (see, other newsletters
and publications are available from them.
• Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research
(CGIAR) – Thousands of agricultural and related
industries publications are available on the website.
• Developing Countries Farm Radio Network –
• Eldis is one of a family of knowledge services at the Institute of
Development Studies in the UK. Find the Eldis Agriculture and
Development Reporter at
• Food, Agricultural and Natural Resources Policy Analysis
Network (FANRPAN) –
• Forum for Agricultural Research in Africa (FARA) –

How are we doing?
• Africa Progress Panel –
• African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights (ACHPR) –
• LEAD Africa –
• The Mo Ibrahim Foundation publishes an annual index of good
governance. The list rates sub-Saharan African countries by a set of
indicators, including safety and security, rule of law, participation and
human rights, sustainable economics and human development. The
award, in excess of $5-million, dwarfs the Nobel Peace Prize. See
• Pax-Africa –, “African peace and security agenda”
• Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa (Agra) –

8. South African role players
• Africa Check –
• Africa Institute of South Africa (AISA) –
• African Economic Research Consortium –
• African Business Journal -
• African Investment Consulting -
• AFRICA The Good News – – looks at
stories that the reader may not have noticed.
• Africa Project Access –
• Agri Africa consultants –
• Find the “Trade intelligence” option at, website of
the Agricultural Business Chamber.
• AGRIFICA promotes and facilitates agricultural development in
Africa. Visit
• The Archie Mafeje Research Institute (AMRI) at the University of
South Africa (UNISA) –
• A number of reports related to trade and agriculture in Africa can be
found on the Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries
(DAFF) website –
• has launched an African edition of its email
newsletter for the marketing, media and advertising industries. View
• The Department of International Relations and Cooperation
• The Disaster Management Training and Education Centre for
Africa (DiMTEC) at the University of the Free State –
• Executive Research Associates puts out a newsletter covering
developments in Africa. Visit for more.



za • Institute for Global Dialogue – • Find the “Country Profiles” at • The World Bank website gives country profiles – Lesotho and Mauritius and The vital business case for integration in Africa – and the chance of a complimentary invitation to all businesses active on the isupportafrica. www. • Afrique Expansion magazine – • Woolworths – • South African Institute of International Affairs (SAIIA) www. study. • African Monitor was established to monitor funding delivery and the impact on grassroots • TRADE (Trade and Development) Research niche area – focusing research on export promotion and identifying South Africa’s export opportunities. including Forestry and Fisheries in South Africa. It also remains a key challenge and opportunity for investors.viviers@nwu. Write to Wilma. US’ African Growth and Opportunity Act: Influence upon poverty reduction with evidence from Kenya. Websites and publication Visit the many websites listed in this chapter. .tralac. Find the latest one at www. The book is entitled Awakening Africa’s Sleeping Giant – Prospects for Commercial Agriculture in the Guinea Savannah Zone and • www. The 2012 Ernst & Young Africa Attractiveness study give the following as key findings: • The number of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) projects in Africa grew 27% from 2010 to • The Institute of Security Studies (ISS) website contains a wealth of information relating to Africa. according to a study published by FAO and the World Bank in 2009. • The Africa Report magazine – 9. • Regional integration is critical to accelerated and sustainable – take either the “Countries A-Z” or “Agriculture” menu options for • Find the reports and papers at www. These allow role players and interested parties “to monitor. • Despite this e. African country profiles • The website of the African Development Bank.illovo.mbendi. • Joint Agribusiness Department of Agriculture Forum for Africa (JADAFA) – • Bridging the infrastructure gap will be a key enabler of regional integration. gives updates on all economic sectors in Africa. needs to be told more confidently and consistently. includes notes on all African – is a joint venture between agribusiness and the Department of is “a global Internet forum created to disseminate and exchange information on various aspects of fertiliser. soil fertility and related agricultural issues that impact Africa”. • The story of Africa’s progress.14 • The Foundation for the Development of Africa runs several websites: www. and document Africa’s economic and social development”.org and A vast stretch of African savannah land that spreads across 25 countries has the potential to turn several African nations into global players in bulk commodity production. Find the study at www. • Science in Africa – www. • This broad-based progress is underscored by a substantial shift in mindset and activities among Africans themselves.polity. growth and development. www. Visit it is also the only way for Africa to compete effectively in the global economy.nationmaster. • The Mbendi website. Creating larger markets with greater critical mass will not only enhance the African investment • The World Bank does the annual Africa Development Indicators Find out more at • Trade Law Centre for Southern Africa (TRALAC).iss. has an electronic newsletter which often looks beyond Southern Africa to the wider issues on the are two of these. with increasing self-confidence and continued strong growth in intra-African FDI (which has expanded by 42% since 2007).com – aimed at anyone who may have an interest in doing business or investing in Nigeria and Kenya. Visit www. • Illovo Sugar – www. • Find the “Agriculture” option at http://agritrade.AfricaFertilizer. • TradeInvestNigeria – • Shoprite – • Senwes – www. • Tiger Brands – www. there remain lingering negative perceptions of the continent — but only among those who are not yet doing business in Africa. • Standard Bank has an extensive Africa footprint. • Visit • The British Broadcasting Commission (BBC) website provides very useful country • Find the different “Country briefs” at Visit and have grown at a compound rate of close to 20% since 2007. not just in economic but also in sociopolitical terms.senwes.worldbank. www.



Secondary agriculture 1 Wheat Rice 2 Tobacco Palm. and there are chapters on Africa and the South African Development Community (SADC). some sources prefer to view agriculture in a wider context. 10 Seeds for oil & consumption Sunflower seed / safflower oil 11 Barley Casein. then the contribution grows to between 20% and 30%. the overall Agricultural trade balance for South Africa has remained positive. horticulture and the livestock industry. Other countries have gained the advantage of processing food products from their primary form to their final form. nonetheless. etc. Its pages provide orientations to everything which happens in agronomy. 3. which is what the consumer demands. its primary activities (agriculture included) take a lower percentage in that country’s GDP. growth potential and employment opportunities which South Africa has lost. South Africa’s agricultural trade balance: our imports and exports Over the past decade. manufacturing and processing) and the services sector taking an increasingly larger share. but for others the country simply does not have the comparative advantage to do so.6 and 3 percent. reflected through net income generation. The fact that agriculture’s share of the South African GDP is shrinking is to be expected since we have economic growth. It is not out of spite that they hold onto those (trade-distorting) agricultural subsidies. is false. and agriculture is central to the process which brings that food to our plates. pastries. Their farmers do more than just look after the countryside. Our farmers are affected by what happens beyond our harbours and border posts. It is not feasible to argue that import substitution would regain all the lost opportunities. referring to the “agro-food industry” instead. Agriculture’s share of the country’s GDP is placed at somewhere between 2.g. Overview The Agri Handbook for South Africa has. this publication is a modest attempt to do this. It is difficult to cover in each chapter what is covered in books (and libraries!) elsewhere. bulbs. agricultural products since 2005. etc. chewing gum. South Africa. and numerous studies point to its “multiplier effect” on other sectors: a Rand spent in agriculture achieves more than a Rand spent anywhere else. The First World countries know this. Soybean oilcake mate 4 Dried peas and beans Whiskies. Agriculture remains a cornerstone and the country’s lifeblood. These countries have also picked up the income generation. Because of the linkages with other sectors. coconut oil 3 Coffee. palm kernel. secondary activities (e. a focus on agriculture. cuts and offal 7 Spices Food preparations 8 Seeds & plant sowing Cocoa products 9 Nuts Preserved tuna. vodka. Many of the products imported can indeed be produced. Table 1: Top 15 Primary and Secondary Agricultural products / group of products imported Primary agriculture 2. peptones. as are finance/marketing issues and the wider socio-political and environmental contexts in which the country’s agricultural value chain finds itself. green & black tea. glucose. cordials 5 Sugar (raw cane & sucrose) Soybean oil gin. and in this country. or processed. 6 Cotton Chicken meat. gelatine. whatever its share of the GDP. Agriculture grows – but not at the same speed as other sectors. On a national level we are food secure because of agriculture. which some doomsayers love to report. Most of the chapters in this publication contain a heading “International business environment”. It is crucial for a country to maintain its agricultural sector so that its need for basic foodstuff can be met. Upstream and downstream are covered. salmon. please refer to the “websites and publications” heading of this chapter where some pointers are given. the GDP rises to 14% and higher. rum. as its name suggests. 14 Fresh & chilled vegetables Sugar. The rumour that “South Africa has become a net importer of food”. employment creation and growth. lactose. Agriculture is a spark. 12 Plants. Viewed this way. egg albumin. roses Dairy products 13 Live chickens & poultry Pasta. What is true is that South Africa has been a net importer of secondary. The economy: agriculture and the GDP (Gross Domestic Product) A standard model of economic growth shows that as a country develops. etc.17 introduction South Africa and agriculture 1. confection 15 Bananas Animal and pet feed Table 2: Top 15 Primary and Secondary Agricultural products / group of products exported . with the exception of 2007. Government and industry are investigating opportunities as to where to invest to ensure returns. breads. If one includes all the forward and backward linkages. liqueurs. molasses. which relates to factors such as resource availability and cost of production. If the reader is looking for a summary of South African agriculture in five pages or so. sardines. South Africa has never been a net importer of primary agricultural products. The information is not limited to what happens within this country. dextrin. processed and manufactured locally. depending on which sources one uses. trees. We need food to survive.

Find the document on the website of Statistics South Africa at crumbling infrastructure and corruption. • Find the latest Global Competitiveness Report at www. The document. at www. soups & homogenised foods 10 Soybeans Raisins 11 Avocados Flour meal & pellet of fish 12 Maize seed Macadamia nuts 13 Peanuts/groundnuts Meat & edible meat offal 14 Nuts Sheep/lamb skins 15 Vegetable agriculture/default. ethyl alcohol 2 Grapes Preserved nuts & drawn up after a year of intensive work by the commission identified nine key problems facing the country namely. 2007 was published. grape and To access the popular version of the NDP in all official languages. Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) – see www. gin.thedti. . Relevant departments here are Department of Economic Development and the National Planning Commission (NPC) in the Presidency. Find it at www. numerous other government departments are The reader is pointed to daily and weekly sources of information in the “ICT and agriculture media” respectively. industry association as a first point of contact. General industry bodies like the Agricultural Business Chamber (Agbiz) or one of the farmer unions will also be able to help. Websites and publications For summaries of the country’s agricultural sector take a look at: • The most recent South African Investor Handbook which can be found at Visit www. peaches and fruit mixtures 3 Apples & pears Fruit juices 4 Mandarins. uneven public service performance. Because of the way agriculture contributes to the economic and social framework of the country. fermented beverages. The most obvious of these are: • The Department of Rural Development and Land Reform (DRDLR) • The Department of Labour • The Department of Water Affairs • The Department of Environmental Affairs • The Department of Energy • The latest Industrial Policy Action Plan (IPAP) includes various sectors of the agricultural value chain. divided • The annual SA Yearbook at www. visit www. 6.asp Take a look at international reports on South Africa: • Find the latest World Bank and Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) reports on South Africa. The National Development Plan (NDP). a high disease burden. liqueurs & plums cordials 9 Tobacco and consult the “Organised agriculture” chapter.18 Primary agriculture Secondary agriculture 1 Oranges and go to “The Plan”.oecd. 5. fruit and Waters & non-alcoholic beverages spores for sowing Source: adapted from the Agricultural Business Chamber 12 April 2012 Newsletter quoting World Trade Atlas. • The Department of Health Contact details and information on all government departments are available at www. which charts a 20-year path towards achieving a better life for all South Africans. peaches & Whiskies. National Strategy and government contact The immediately apparent government department to look at is the Department of Agriculture.wef. co-operatives and the registering of companies.statssa. • Find The Report: South Africa 2012. These are listed in the different chapters of this publication. Read more about the NDP. poor education. • The United Nations Special Rapporteur on the Right to Food released a report on South Africa in 2012. and DAFF (2012) 4. For visually impaired persons.agbiz. The Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) also features in other areas like exports. rum. unemployment. an unsustainable resource-intensive economy. Agriculture is viewed as one of the sectors in which jobs can be as well as the New Growth Path (NGP) and other strategies in the “Job creation” lemons. see heading 4. For government gov. Role players The reader is referred to the relevant representative. NAMC. software can be downloaded from the same website at no cost which will read the text out loud.daff. website of the World Economic Forum. is available in all eleven official languages.gcis. Tobacco products other citrus 5 Maize Food preparations 6 Sugar Sunflower seed and safflower oil 7 Wool Cocoa products and chocolate 8 Apricots. Visit www.oxfordbusinessgroup. the Census of commercial existing spatial patterns. In 2010. and relevant websites and publications are listed in almost every chapter of the Also of interest will be the different economic analyses and statistical reports under “Publications” at www. • Agriculture is seen as a sector in which jobs can be created (see the “Job creation” chapter). grapefruit. a publication by International publishing and research company Oxford Business Group (OBG). incl pears.



commercial farmers are members of their local farmers’ associations. Farmers may voluntarily be part of organised agricultural structures through local farmers’ associations and/or through commodity beef. www. AFASA commits itself to the following values. • To facilitate development of competencies of African farmers in order for them to participate meaningfully in formal and informal markets. Values At grassroots level. AGRI SA Tel: 012 643 3400 Fax: 012 663 3178 agrisa@agrisa. ROPPA and UMAGRI. through which they address local agricultural issues and liaise with officials and organisations on matters concerning their and www. employees and the public regardless of propac. The purpose of the organisation is still largely to influence policy in the interest of commercial agricultural producers and to support our mission at operational Vision To have competent and successful commercial African farmers of South Africa • To be led by people of high integrity in order to create trust. • To be transparent and accountable at all times • To maintain high levels of professionalism at all times • To respect the • Cairns Group Farm Leaders – www. the Eastern African Farmers Federation (EAFF). • To ensure that the organisation remains true to its mission and objectives. stability and sustainability of commercial agriculture in South Africa by means of its involvement and input on national and international policy level. Structure Agri SA has a General Affairs Chamber – taking care of matters on which provincial affiliations focus as well as a Commodity Chamber – dealing with commodity issues through commodity affiliations. PROPAC. and the Union Maghrébine ds Agriculteurs (UMAGRI) in northern Africa. on behalf of its • Find out about the most recent events in the region on the website of the Southern African Confederation of Agricultural Unions (SACAU) at www. for more information • A continental organisation for Africa called the Pan-African Farmers Forum (PAFFO) was launched at the end of 2010. Find contact details of these in the relevant chapters.sacau. e. • To be a farmer centred EAFF. maize. National associations involved AFRICAN Farmers Association of South Africa (AFASA) Tel: 012 348 8566 Fax: 012 365 3086 www. The organisation’s General Council is representative of all its affiliates and focuses on strategic challenges and proposals submitted by the organisation’s committee structure. is a collection of individuals who come together for a common purpose. Visit www. Overview • To create a sustainable united body of African farmers with capacity to influence policies through lobbying and advocacy in favour of African farmers. International associations involved • World Farmers’ Organisation – http://worldfarmersorganisation. • Farmers are represented in the rest of Africa through Plateforme Régionale des Organisations Paysannes d’Afrique Centrale (PROPAC) from Central Africa. Included in the category of Organised Agriculture are the commodity organisations which serve and represent farmers producing a specific commodity. • To mobilise resources for the benefit of African farmers. Source: Agri SA (adapted) 2. The provincial agricultural unions address matters affecting farmers in the province as a whole and liaise with higher the Réseau desOrganisations Paysannes et des Producteurs Agricoles d’Afrique de l’Ouest (ROPPA) in Western Africa. also making use of external inputs.afasa. AFASA like any other organisation. Policy work is done in specialised committees.roppa. .despite a change of name from Intercolonical Agricultural Union in 1904 to the South African Agricultural Union (1909) and Agri SA (1999) – has remained virtually unchanged over the past 100 years. the development. profitability.agrisa.cairnsgroupfarmers. 3. PAFFO is made up from representatives from SACAU. It is therefore crucial that AFASA espouses what it stands for in order to attract those similar values.g. • To strive for excellence including efficient and effective service provision at all levels. loyalty and confidence amongst its members employees and the Reason for existence The motivation behind the establishment of the organisation . The organisation’s highest authority is its Congress. The provincial agricultural unions in turn delegate members to represent them on national bodies. Mission and Vision Agri SA promotes. Its Constitution also makes provision for associated membership. class. The farmers’ associations delegate members to represent them in their respective provincial agricultural unions. culture and dignity of its • La Via Campesina – http://viacampesina.21 Mission introduction To facilitate the development of African farmers in order to increase their meaningful participation in the agricultural sector Strategic Objectives Organised Agriculture 1. cotton etc. race. political and religious affiliation or belief.

za Agri North West Tel: 018 632 2987 agrinw@lantic. Media liaison activities and a strategic communication strategy are also maintained on various levels to promote understanding and support for the farmer and agriculture amongst the general public and the rest of the national economy. training. .za “An organised national agricultural organisation for the commercial farmers of South Africa” History The former Transvaal Agricultural Union. water www. In order to fulfil its role. environmental Find details of all the affiliated commodity organisations at Disaffiliation gave rise to the decision taken by the General Council of TAU on 19 April 2000. infrastructure. TAU SA Tel: 012 804 8031 During July of that year the “sister colonies” were invited to Pretoria to discuss the matter where after SALU (the South African Agricultural Union) was established. are affiliated to TAU land reform. Agri SA has policy committees for the following priority areas: • Labour and social welfare • Commercial policy • Safety and Security • Natural resources • Transformation • Communication and image-building Projects: Agri Securitas Trust Fund to promote a safer environment for farmers How does it benefit the individual farmer? The actions of Agri SA are constantly focused on creating a favourable policy environment within which it will be possible for farmers to be successful entrepreneurs and optimally develop the sector’s production potential. Education & Culture Affairs and www. Actions spoke louder than words and the Transvaal Agricultural Union was established on September 29. Safety and Mpumalanga Landbou/Agriculture Tel: 017 819 1295 mplandbou@mweb. Agri SA participates in the Presidential Commercial Agriculture Working Group dealing with policy matters specifically in terms of the Strategic Plan for South African Agriculture. Economic Affairs. organised business. and Western Transvaal. the named changed to TAU SA. Energy. Northern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal where structures have been established. the Southern African Confederation of Agricultural Unions (SACAU) and the Cairns Group Farm Leaders. Regional Chairmen for seven of the nine statutory Provinces were elected by the members in each Province. Several agricultural NATIONAL AFRICAN FARMERS’ UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA (NAFU SA) Contact the National African Federated Chamber of Commerce and Industry (NAFCOC). the TAU SA visited various provinces including the Free the TAU asked for the establishment of a Landbank which opened its doors on November Agri Northern Cape Tel: 053 832 9595 ncagric@worldonline. now known as TAU SA During a committee meeting of the Pretoria Landbouw Maatskappij in technology development and transfer. so called “Proefboerderijen” (Onderstepoort test farming) www. The objectives of TAU SA may be summarised as: To organise members of TAU SA in a united front for the benefit of commercial agriculture as a profession and the preservation of that cultural way of Water Affairs. farm safety. the International Chamber of Commerce.agriec. the publishing of an agricultural magazine and many more. held in Standerton. With this Kwanalu (KwaZulu-Natal) Tel: 033 342 9393 sandy@kwanalu. Middle-. farmer Property Rights. produce organisations unions specialising in agriculture. the affiliation of TAU (the Transvaal Agricultural Union) was cancelled. Agri Gauteng Tel: 012 643 3400 gauteng@agrisa. Agri SA is well recognised by www. Change to TAU SA As a result of alterations to the constitution of SALU (the South African Agricultural Union). the agenda provided for the founding of a Transvaal Agricultural It publishes a bi-monthly magazine (Agri). 1897. 1907. The initial service area of the TAU during the past century was the four northern provinces – North-. such as the establishment of an agricultural school. the World Farmers’ Organisation (WFO). Thereafter the necessary research and/or negotiation is done with feedback through the structure to individual Agri Limpopo Tel: 014 763 1888 agrilephalale@vodamail.tlu. Eastern Cape. These committees are functioning in a co-ordinate way to discuss problems and matters arising. financing. Provincial Affiliations: Agri Eastern Cape Tel: 041 363 1890 sharlene.agrisa. At the fifth congress held by the Union in 1904 there was a plea for the establishment of a “Central Zuid Afrikaanse Landbouw Vereniging” (Central South African Agricultural Union). labour laws. Liaison and meetings in these provinces take place on a regular basis. As a direct result of this decision. Call 011 807 5063 or visit www.kwanalu. statistical information and local government matters.awk. Agri Wes-Cape Tel: 021 860 3800 info@awk. other input related issues. During the ninth congress the President emphasised some of the TAU’s success stories. It is a member of Business Unity South Africa (BUSA). to extend its service area to include the whole of South Africa. law and order. namely: Labour Affairs.nafcoc. an electronic newsletter and runs a regular radio programme in collaboration with the SABC. During the sixth congress in industrial policy. Western Cape. organised labour and regional and international bodies as spokesperson for South African Focus areas Agri SA’s policy advocacy includes work on trade negotiations. co. Functions of TAU SA Issues of importance to the agricultural community as a whole are in the hands of highly knowledgeable Free State Agriculture Tel: 051 444 4609 sulene@vslandbou.


and are also joined by the South African Agricultural Processors’ Association (SAAPA) and Agricultural Business Chamber (Agbiz). The greater the development in the rural areas. NAFU and the TAU SA. Electronic communication is being promoted and is successfully in Rural development calls for the involvement of multiple government departments though. Find updates at www. 2. Several other Government interventions. leading to declining living conditions there. Jooste A. after approval. The NARYSEC is a two-year programme aimed at empowering rural youth from each of the 3 300 rural wards across the country. radio and the less will be the reason for the rapid urban migration which places such strain on available resources in the urban centres. Funding Funding of TAU SA is mainly through membership fees. Breitenbach MC and Fenyés TI The economic rationale for agricultural regeneration and rural infrastructure investment in South Africa The chapter also serves as a corollary of the “Urban question” chapter. 40 Minutes of airtime every second Tuesday with information regarding warnings on legislation. Co-ordination of all Farmers Unions and District Agricultural Unions is the responsibility of the relevant Regional Chairman and Regional Manager.ruraldevelopment. with the majority of them being women and children living in rural areas. Its vision is to enable rural people to play a meaningful role in the economy. rural infrastructure etc. Compilation of structures TAU SA membership can be obtained by means of application where. addressing rural poverty and food insecurity through the productive use and management of natural resources at their at the congress. in addition to the CRDP.tlu. Think about it: there is rural health. introduction The importance of rural development 1. Rural Development and Land Reform. Examples include the Expanded Public Works Programme (EPWP).24 Structure of TAU SA The highest policy-making body of TAU SA is the congress where the president and regional chairmen are annually elected. thereafter the District level. • Structure. The Department of Agriculture. Agri and www. Even if these people are not engaged in agriculture. • Weekly participation in programmes on community radio stations. Overvaal Stereo (Monday) and Radio Laeveld (Thursday). • TAU SA “Pitkos”. on a sustainable basis. This is an alliance to speak with one voice on issues that face agriculture as a whole. Contact details for all government departments can be found at www. The route for handling matters will be firstly on Farmers Association The boundaries of District Agricultural Unions are in accordance to the former magisterial boundaries. the Provincial level and all national matters in a collective way on national level. Read about the Comprehensive Rural Development Programme (CRDP) and other programmes at The rural economy is inextricably linked to agricultural production. on behalf of the individual farmer and agriculture as such. Agri-Sector Unity Forum (ASUF) Ms Ntombi Msimang (Chairperson) – 011 314 2833 / 083 635 4860 Mr Japie Grobler (Deputy Chairperson) – 082 825 8018 The formation on the Agri-Sector Unity Forum (ASUF) was a development in the last quarter of 2012. Overview Poverty affects millions of people. Source: A paper by Meyer NG. • Radio Pretoria – “Protection of property rights”. depending on the degree thereof. at least 11 million live in rural areas. Communication mediums: • Web pages – www. they rely on nonfarm employment and income that depends in some way or another on agriculture. a member joins TAU SA via the Farmers Association which is affiliated to the District Agricultural Union. . Every second week a “Pitkos” is sent to all members with e-mail in order to keep members updated regarding all activities of the organisation. ASUF is backed by AFASA. include some aspect of rural development. but also to create income-generating employment for poor people inside and outside agriculture. The challenge for the agricultural sector is not only to produce more food. Press releases and agricultural related articles are sent to newspapers. rural education. the Comprehensive Agricultural Support Programme (CASP). • Media. results and advice on agricultural matters. Rendering of services Problems and matters identified by members are being handled collectively on several sectors of the TAU SA Refer to the “Agro-processing” and “Agribusiness” chapters respectively for information on SAAPA and Agbiz. A bi-monthly bulletin in English with facts regarding the situation in SA with its effects on agriculture and the The CRDP contains a three branched strategy of Agrarian Transformation. Members are represented from grass root level – Farmers Associations – through the structure. • TAU SA news.sanews. affiliated to TAU SA. Of the 17 million poor people in South Africa. Communication Two-way communication through the structure to and from head office on a daily The Comprehensive Rural Development Programme (CRDP) is the main strategy for rural development. sponsorship by agricultural businesses as well as the successful managing of various funding projects to the advantage of Advertisements/articles are placed in the different agricultural publications when regarded necessary. • TAU SA International Bulletins. National strategy and government contact Department of Rural Development and Land Reform Tel: 012 312 8911 www. the Masibambisane Rural Development Initiative (MRDI) and the National Rural Youth Service Corps (NARYSEC) rural Info regarding the services rendered by TAU SA as well as update press releases and international bulletins regarding relevant agricultural matters. agriculture publications. Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) leads the Agrarian Transformation Programme of the CRDP together with the provinces and local authorities. This bulletin is being sent via e-mail to several contacts abroad.




In our opinion it is imperative that rural development is seen as a • Sustainable Villages Africa www.isbaya. and be the responsibility of a project champion who is tasked with making this Many rural areas have • Umhlaba Tel: 011 655 7171 Masisizane Fund www.urban-econ.denvet. An economically viable business plan must be submitted. Read about how the people of Cata and Mnyameni have harnessed trout as a means to develop their rural co-ordinated and By mobilising • South African Institute for Entrepreneurship (SAIE) Tel: 021 447 2023 • Ekhozi Rural Development Services Tel: 021 853 2691 • MBB Consulting Engineers Tel: 021 887 1026 www.casidra.dbsa. To have longer term impact the intitiative must be sustainable. in the sense that the available resources – The government has. and continues to develop strategies and policies to address rural development. community and financial – need to be “Information talks and presentations done in rural areas” • Development Services See the “Providers of financial services” and “Development financial services” chapters ANDISA Agri Tel: 082 807 5587 www. The NEF established a fund dedicated to supporting rural and community A number of ANDISA Agri’s offerings touch on rural development: • strategic planning • value chain analysis • business planning and feasibility studies • managing “change of control” transactions and land reform transaction advisory • land reform policy research • project management • micro-finance product design and Outgrower Schemes • finance raising. equity and grants • EIA agricultural economic assessments • due diligence assessments • training and mentoring • rural development Development Bank of South Africa (DBSA) Tel: 011 313 3911 • Mpumalanga Economic Growth Agency (MEGA) Tel: 013 752 2440 • Caryki Consulting Tel: 082 456 0396 / 083 445 2662 • CASIDRA Tel: 021 863 5000 co-ordination and management must be at grass roots level ie per village or • Agri Mega Empowerment Solutions (AgriMES) Tel: 028 424 2890 the Rural and Community Development Fund. The major constraints are the restrictive institutional arrangements and lack of skills that prevent the resources (both natural and other) from being mobilised and used There are provincial and municipal economic bodies set up to attract growth and investment in the different Finance for entrepreneurs in the agricultural.andisaagri. creating enterprises and increasing local economic activity the taxation base for municipalities to increase revenue is also increased. • Amathole Economic Development Agency Tel: 043 721 2070 www.womiwu. Visit www.ecosystems.aspire.mic. or better still with some regular perceived net Mineworkers Investment Company Tel: 011 088 1800 Sustainability is synonymous with • Rural Integrated Engineering Tel: 012 804 5014 • SANBRI Tel: 021 674 1134 www. Below are some examples. Role players Financial Services Agricultural Colleges Find details of all Colleges in the “Agricultural education and training” chapter • Fort Cox Rural Development Centre Tel: 040 653 8033 • Ecosystems Tel: 035 772 4746 www. The minimum financing is R1 • Ntinga OR Tambo Development Agency Tel: 047 531 0346 www. helping these institutions to become more • Invest North West Tel: 014 594 2570 www. Source: notes written to the editor by Womiwu Rural beverage and marine sectors wanting to expand and develop their Visit www. National Empowerment Fund (NEF) Tel: 011 305 8000 This • Den Vet Tel: 033 343 1093 • Tsolo Agriculture and Rural Development Institute Tel: 047 542 0109 Companies See the “Agribusiness” chapter • Agri-Africa Consultants Tel: 076 817 9687 • Is’Baya Development Trust Tel: 021 851 9698 .com • Womiwu Rural Development Tel: 015 297 2107 These are generally sound but many fail to impact on the ground. food. Industrial Development Corporation (IDC) Tel: 0860 693 888 • Scientific Roets Tel: 039 727 1515 or contact Rusty at 015 297 2107.28 3. if not an abundance of natural and other • Northern Cape Economic Development Agency Tel: 053 833 1503 www. Find the complete list in the “Providers of financial services” • Urban-Econ Tel: 031 202 9673 www.

Read about their rural work on www. Find contact details of the many offices in every province countrywide at A jam-making co-operative business is being set up in a region suffering from 95% unemployment. Modimolle. Kwazulu-Natal).org National Government Departments See heading 2 Non-governmental Organisations (NGOs) • ACAT Tel: 033 234 4223 www.fao. Contact details of all the science councils can be found in the “Research and . the Human Sciences Research Council (HSRC) has its Centre for Poverty. stimulating economic • Indigo Development and Change Tel: 027 218 1148 • Hippo Water Roller Project or call 011 021 2768 The South African Local Economic Development (LED) Network – www.cta.sangoco. The idea behind the Thusong Service Centre is to have a “One-Stop Centre of Services and Information”.za • Rural Doctors Association of Southern Africa – International role players Many of these are listed in the Africa and SADC chapters of this publication. The umbrella body for NGOs is the South African NGO Coalition (SANGOCO) “Enabling poor rural people to overcome poverty”. Find details of the South African Social Security Agency (SASSA) at www. Services include facilities (fax. • Association for Rural Advancement (AFRA) Tel: 033 345 7607 • Resource Africa Tel: 012 342 9242 • Centani Community District Development Institution (CCDDI) Tel: 047 492 0561 • Centre for Rural Legal Studies Tel: 021 883 8032 www. gov. co. • Promotion of Rural Livelihoods (RULIV) Tel: 043 704 8800 www. Makhado and Nylstroom) are available on the • Children of Fire is involved in a rural development initiative near Emmaus (Central Drakensberg • Social Change Assistance Trust Tel: 021 418 2575 • Mvula Trust Tel: 011 403 3425 www. To find out more about On-site Mobile Training of Operators in Rural Water Supplies: An Illustrative Kit. The rural municipalities and provincial government are challenged by the National Spatial Development Framework to facilitate development in line with the economic potential of its area of dockda. Take a look at • Afesis-corplan Tel: 043 743 3830 www. and also. • Surplus Peoples Project Tel: 021 448 5605 www. Here we will mention only To aid government in its quest to improve the quality of drinking water served in rural • Community Development Resource Association (CDRA) Tel: 021 462 3902 www. job creation. • Find out about the SARD initiative (Sustainable Agriculture and Rural Development) at • Global Donor Platform for Rural Development – “Sharing knowledge. Contact 012 841 2927 or view its pages at www. improving rural livelihoods” • Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) – www. za • Rural • TechnoServe Tel: 011 482 6005 • Rural Finance Learning Centre – Contact details for their branches (Polokwane. Science Councils of South Africa and research groups In addition to the Agricultural Research Council (ARC).za • DOCKDA Rural Development Agency Tel: 053 832 1189 www. the Water Research Commission (WRC) has published a new set of guidelines for small water treatment plant • Matsila Trust Tel: 082 602 5515 • Rural Development Network (RUDNET) Tel: 021 850 0790 • The Zululand Centre for Sustainable Development Tel/fax: 083 308 4818 www.hsrc.agsa. • Border Rural Committee Tel: 043 742 0173 • LIMA Rural Development Foundation Tel: 033 342 9043 • Nkuzi Development Association Tel: 012 323 6417 www.ruralfinance. It emphasises why each step in water treatment is important for sustainable production and delivery of safe drinking water.biowatch.htm For an extensive list of NGOs.ngopulse. small business advice and development and more. Acornhoek. Rural Municipalities and Provincial Government Local Economic Development (LED) is a constitutional mandate of Local The Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) has Rural infrastructure and services as one area of Under the Constitution. local government is tasked with facilitating local economic development. a paper by Dr Nico Meyer The Auditor-General South Africa (AGSA) is responsible for the auditing of provincial state departments and all municipalities – www. Employment and • Alliance for Rural Democracy Tel: 083 451 9321 / 084 581 6306 • Amangwane King Tel: 011 726 6529 www.lgbn.technoserve. The resource base of rural municipalities is mostly agriculture driven and in the long-term the capacity and affordability of these municipalities to improve service delivery is tied to the fortunes of the rural website of the South African Local Government Association (SALGA).za Contact details for all municipalities can be found at Local Government Business Network – visit phone).net. This entails creating an enabling • Biowatch South Africa has rural offices in Limpopo and Furthermore. visit • Environmental Monitoring Group Tel: 021 448 2881 www. redistribution of economic • Built Environment Support Group Tel: 033 394 4980 www. Source: “Growing the Rural Economy through supporting Agriculture”.thusong. The plan includes selling produce to tourists and stores in the and so generate revenue and work opportunities.spp. other Science Councils of South Africa have programmes which target rural areas • Sam Motsuenyane Rural Development Foundation Tel: 012 382 5352 • Insika Rural Development Trust Tel: 035 772 5061 Fax: 035 792 2341 • Khanya-aicdd (African Institute for Community Driven Development) Tel: 011403 9844 www.besg. the financial reality of “non-affordability” of municipal services to meet basic needs – owing to weak local economic bases – emphasises the need for Local Municipalities to actively pursue their LED • Rural Women’s Movement (RWM) Tel: 031 579 4559 / 073 840 5151 • Association for Community Rural Advancement (AnCRA) Tel: 053 712 0791 www. call 012 330 0340 or email orders@wrc. org. black economic empowerment.the “International journal for rural development” • The International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) – www. Awareness and Community Health (REACH) Tel: 079 889 0289 www. • Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Co-operation (CTA) – including agricultural . Find the “Rural development” option. See www.

but South Africa is still a place where social and economic exclusion. the collection of marine resources. a growing economy and a relatively high average annual per capita income of more than $4 041 506 5555 (general contact) OR Tambo – www. guava. dry beans.polity. watermelons and potatoes • Pineapples. People hoped for the prospect of a better life after the apartheid era. Tel: 015 962 8681 Rural Development and Extension www. poverty. 5605 . This is typical of an uppermiddle income 041 402 6201(agriculture) Chris Hani – www. The national government retains the overall regulatory and policy functions and agricultural trade and marketing. chicory. The district municipalities The State of the Rural Nation You could make a general statement about the country: South Africa has rich natural resources. With plentiful grassland and (usually) good rainfalls. Provincial contact details are available at www. and access to line-catches of hake. Universities Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University Community Development Unit Tel: 041 504 4005 / 28 047 531 0258 (agriculture) Provincial Department of Agriculture Department of Rural Development and Agrarian Reform Tel: 040 609 3474 Fax: 040 636 3555 Website: www. which provide farmers with a range of services. Potential agribusiness opportunities are fruit processing. lucerne.ecprov. to access quality education and affordable healthcare. oranges. tanneries and taxidermy.univen. spinach and carrots University of the Western Cape Institute for 039 727 4453 (agriculture) Amathole – The national office may be contacted at 011 456 8579. There is some recreational and commercial fishing for line After Limpopo and the Northern Cape. maize 045 839 4700 (agriculture) Joe Gqabi – www.crh. Free State are central to rural development e. yet a wide variety of crops are cultivated. Extension development and Technologies for and Rural Development sustainable crop industries in or call 012 301 and yet for many South Africans this classification has little or no significant meaning. or to have access to basic 043 706 8713 (agriculture) Buffalo City – www. These include: • The local government SETA. introduction Sector Education and Training Authorities (SETAs) A number of the Sector Education and Training Authorities (SETAs) are involved in rural 051 611 0071 (agriculture) Nelson Mandela Bay University of KwaZulu-Natal Agricultural Extension and Rural Resource Management Tel: 033 260 6247 / 5121 http://agextension.30 development” Department of Urban and Regional Planning Tel: 051 401 2486 www. A list of provincial extension officer contacts can be found in the “Developing farmer support” These include: • bananas and avocado The shoreline lends itself to University of Venda Centre for Rural Development and Poverty alleviation Centre for Sustainable Agriculture. sugar beet. Land and Agrarian Studies (PLAAS) Lengau Agricultural Centre Tel: 021 959 3733 Tel: 051 443 8859 www. • The agricultural SETA intends to be “at the forefront of rural development” Tel: 051 401 3765 Private Bag x0040. at www. juice/milk Centre for Development Support Tel: 051 401 2978 Agriculture in the provinces 1. New frontiers in University of Pretoria poverty reduction and sutainable Agricultural Economics. Bisho. meat processing. Eastern Cape The Eastern Cape is the second largest province (after the Northern Cape). a paper written by Randall Adams and published by the Southern African Catholic Bishops’ Conference in 2012. the Eastern Cape hosts the largest percentage of the country’s livestock – 39% of its goats. 1996 (Act 108 of 1996). Visit www. Municipality and website Contact telephone number Alfred Nzo – Many people are struggling to find work. especially in the rural areas. The broken surface of the land precludes large scale agronomy. and inequality are the reality for Centre for Rural Health Several of the Strategic Academic Tel: 031 260 1569 Clusters at the University of the www. sunflower. tea and sugar cane • Cabbage. v Find The State of the Rural Nation. 30% of its sheep and 23% of its University of Fort Hare Department of Agricultural Economics & Extension Tel: 040 602 2333 012 420 3248 arid regions. Find the details of provincial farmer unions in the “Organised agriculture” 043 705 3150 (general contact) Cacadu – www. this province hosts the most number of game farms. Overview In terms of the Constitution of South Department of Agricultural Economics Walter Sisulu University Tel: 051 401 2250 Centre for Rural Development Tel: 047 537 0179 / 083 446 0077 www. Squid forms the basis of the province’s fishing flax.chrishanidm.joegqabi. onion. agricultural support to farmers is vested in the provincial governments.ufs.cacadu.


. Environmental Planning and Impact Assessment.freestateonline. An extensive list of support staff.gdard. sunflower (50%).33 Head of Department: Mr Glen Thomas Tel: 040 609 3471 Fax: 040 635 0604 Find the “Critical Contacts” menu option on the .za – Agri Eastern Cape The province’s agricultural sector is mostly geared to providing the cities and towns with daily fresh produce including – website of the Eastern Cape Development Corporation • www. Senior Resource Management Website: www. Free State A quarter of the country’s arable land is in the Free State.ecdc.geda. 2000 Email: Provincial Department of Agriculture Department of Agriculture and Rural Development (GDARD) Tel: 011 355 1900 Fax: 011 355 1000 Postal: PO Box 8769. It is a principal producer of summer and winter crops. For more information on the province: • www. Top Management. Find maps and geographical information here. Major grain and oilseed crops are given here followed by the percentage that the Free State contributes to national production: maize (39%). Tourism and Environmental Affairs) • • Gauteng Economic Development Agency – www. Gauteng • Agriculture Branch – 011 355 1968 / 71 • Agricultural Economics and Marketing – 011 355 1906 • Animal Health Advisory and Support Services – 011 355 1388 • Animal Health. Gauteng has about 3% of the country’s arable – the Eastern Cape Provincial Government • Advisory and Support Services – 011 355 1388 • Epidemiology. which is Head of Department: Ms Smangele Sekgobela Tel: 011 355 1920 / 73 Fax: 011 333 0667 3. cattle (17%) and other livestock are farmed. meat. groundnuts (32%). Sheep (20%).org – the Eastern Cape Socio Economic Consultative Council • www. soy beans and wheat are produced in smaller quantities.fs.ecsecc. Grain sorghum. District Senior Resource Management Staff and Communications and Customer Care Services is available. eggs. The south consists of karoo/semi-desert Laboratory and Quality Management – 011 355 1878 • Farmer Support Services – 011 355 1447 -0Farmer Settlement – 011 355 1449 -0Household Food Security – 011 355 1453 -0Integrated Food Security – 011 355 1265 • Natural Resource Management – 011 355 1317 • Nature Conservation – 011 355 1895 • Rural Development – 011 355 1249 • Social Development – 011 355 1937 • Sustainable Resource Management – 011 355 1367 • Technology Development and Support – 011 355 1374 • Transformation – 011 355 1366 • Veterinary Public Health and Export Facilitation – 011 355 1987 • There are also Directorates of Air Quality.agric. is home to the country’s cherry and asparagus Some 29% of the country’s wheat comes from this province grain sorghum (53%). Provincial Department of Agriculture Free State Department of Agriculture and Rural Development Website: http://www. website of the Free State Provincial Government • Dry beans (5%) and maize (5%) are the major – Free State Agriculture • – Free State Development Corporation) • www. The eastern part. A quarter of the country’s egg production happens in Gauteng. dairy products and • Gauteng Provincial Government – www. Some 40% of the country’s potato production happens in this province.vslandbou. Corporate Communications etc Regional offices • Pretoria – 012 328 5140 • Randfontein – 011 411 4300 • Germiston – 011 821 7700 For more information on the province: Lejweleputsa – 057 398 1664 Thabo Mofutsanyane – 058 714 1430/0 For more information on the province: • www. Waste Management. • www. The Free State is also a major producer of eggs (17%).za Postal Address: Private Bag X01 Glen 9360 Head of Department: Mr Peter Thabethe – 051 861 8509 • District Implementation Tel: 051 861 8423 • Agricultural Support Services Tel: 051 861 8442/77 District Directors Xhariep District – 051 713 0480 Fezile Dabe – 016 976 2009 Motheo – 051 875 1161 4.fs. – Department of Economic Development. fruit. dry beans (25%) and soy beans (23%).za – a website of the Province’s Provincial Spatial Information Management Unit. 6. 20% of its dry beans. Amongst the other livestock. Richmond and Harding are used for Communication etc) are available on the website. as are contact details for agricultural offices at all the municipalities within the Limpopo Mpumalanga is a major poultry producer and nearly 20% of the country’s broilers come from here.kznonline. Processing options in Mpumalanga: . dry beans (11%) and wheat being other field provides notes on the • Durban Investment promotion Agency – www. The province’s trademark agricultural commodity is sugar 015 963 1653 Waterberg – www. guavas and pineapples are also The province is known for its fruit industry and is the major producer of the country’s avocados. avocados. this province has one of the highest concentrations of pig farms in the • Trade and Investment Limpopo – www. • Trade and Investment KwaZulu-Natal . papayas and tomatoes. KwaZulu-Natal has 20% of the country’s cattle and 14% of its goats. Provincial Department of Agriculture KZN Department of Agriculture and Environmental Affairs Tel: 033 355 9100 Fax: 033 355 9122 Website: Other fruit includes bananas. it hosts 17% of the country’s goats and 8% of its cattle.34 5. mangoes).vhembe. The Lowveld region is renowned for its sugar. together with the general district’s website i. the “Place of the rising sun”. with soybeans (13%). KwaZulu-Natal KwaZulu-Natal has about 7% of the country’s arable land. The contacts for the districts are listed below. The midlands area is known for its dairy farms. 015 632 6652 Mopani – District and district website Contact: agriculture Capricorn – www. and two mountainous areas—the Drakensberg and the Lebombo mountains. citrus and subtropical fruit ( – Limpopo Provincial Government • www. Environment and Tourism • groundnuts.kznded. Subtropical fruit and vegetables are Private Bag X9050. wheat and maize are also produced. Visit your “Guide to business and investment in Limpopo Province” • Limpopo Business Support Agency (LIBSA) – www.waterberg.libsa. dry • Ithala – www. Eshowe. potatoes and onions. Livestock does well in this province. oranges and table maize (4%).dipa. not limited to 015 812 3212/3/4 Sekhukhune District – – Limpopo Tourism and Parks • www. – Kwanalu • The KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) Department of Economic Development (DED) is continuously developing strategies to support the growth of the agri-business and agri-processing sector. The province has three different geographic areas: the lowland region along the Indian while the areas around Vryheid. parastatals. produces a wide range of agricultural • Limpopo Economic Development Enterprise (LimDev) – www. For more information on the province: • KwaZulu-Natal Provincial Government – 30% of its grain sorghum and 21% of its maize. macadamias and a variety of nuts are produced. soy beans (8%). It has 15% of the country’s poultry. Half of the country’s game farms are in the Limpopo province. Cotton. Other major crops include 015 632 4145/6/7/8 Vhembi – www. Pietermaritzburg 3200 Head of Department: Mr HB Strauss (acting) Tel: 033 355 9690 / 93 Fax: 033 355 9293 Southern Region – Tel: 033 343 8300 Northern Region – Tel: 035 780 6700 A full list of contact details for all districts can be found on the website. with 10% of South Africa’s arable • 014 717 3298 For more information on the province: • plains in the central mangoes. and the area is also known for tea and coffee plantations. Chief among the field crops are dry beans (22%).co.til.limdev. pineapples. municipalities etc. grain sorghum (9%) and sunflower (11%).golimpopo.cdm. Together with the North West and the Western – Department of Economic Development. Cattle (10%) and sheep (7%) are included amongst the livestock kept. Mpumalamga Mpumalanga. • www. co. Provincial Department of Agriculture Limpopo Province Department of Agriculture Tel: 015 294 3000 Fax: 015 294 4504 Website: www. litchis. produces 41% of the country’s soy Physical Address: 67 Biccard Street Polokwane 0700 Postal Address: Private Bag X9487 Polokwane 0700 Head of Department: Mr KCM Mannya Tel: 015 294 3147 Fax: 015 294 4512 Restitution – 015 294 3301 Veterinary – 015 294 3608 Soil Resource Management – 015 294 3157 Agribusiness – 015 294 3104 Transformation – 015 294 3283 Land – 015 294 3068 Economic/agribusiness – 015 294 3449 Contact details of other Directorates (Human Resources.limpopo.



Refer to the advert on page 104. • Mpumalanga Economic Growth Agency (MEGA) – www. Districts: . Invest North West.mpg. producing a high percentage of the country’s maize (23%).za Tel: 013 759 4000 (South) Tel: 082 805 1076 (North) Gert Sibande – www. Other crops include soy concentrate. Three major irrigation schemes are located on the Crocodile. Postal Address: Private Bag X 11219. sunflower (36%) and dry beans (13%). the province’s trade and investment promotion agency has identified seven agricultural clusters as key areas to drive the province’s economy and develop existing capacity. Nelspruit.beans . freezing.fruits into fruit juices and 8. essential oil production. groundnuts (33%). Other opportunities include fruit and vegetable canning and leather production. drying • value adding to nuts • production of honey • processing fruits for input in pharmaceutical industry • essential oils from Municipal districts: Municipal district and website Telephone contact Ehlanzeni – fruit into • Each of the local municipalities has its own websites. North West The North West province has the highest percentage of the country’s poultry – 24% of the country’s broilers come from Tel: 017 819 2076 Nkangala – www. while the semi-arid central and western part is home mainly to livestock and wildlife farming. goat meat processing. For additional information on any of these agricultural initiatives contact Invest North West: call 014 594 2570 or visit indigenous medicinal plants and aquaculture.nkangaladm. The province has around 20% of the country’s arable land and is a highly productive agricultural area. peppers. The eastern.nwpg. The areas around Rustenburg and Brits are fertile mixed-crop farming land.gsibande.vegetables into canning. wetter part of the province sees a mixture of livestock and crop farming. and hosts 13% of the country’s cattle and 12% of its goats. These clusters. Physical Address Agricentre Building. offering potential investors viable business opportunities include: Renewable energy. It also has the highest number of pig farms in the country (17%). The province is also a significant vegetable and citrus fruit producer. 1200 Head of Department: Ms Nelisiwe Lindiwe Sithole Tel: 013 766 6020 Fax: 013 766 8429 A detailed contact list for the different Chief Directorates and Directorates is on the website. Find the links to these at the Mpumalanga Provincial Government website. canning and drying . beef beneficiation. paprika. cotton and Mafikeng Postal Address Private Bag X2039 Mmabatho 2735 Head Of The Department: Dr Kgabi Mogajane Tel: 018 389 5147 Fax: 018 384 2679 Agricultural Support Services – 018 389 5724 Veterinary Services – 018 389 5102 / 5057 Agricultural Economics – 018 389 5300 Rural Development – 018 389 5432 District Services – 018 389 5698 A list of contact details can be found under “Contact Us” on the jams and canned fruits In the lowveld region: • sugar refining • processing of: . Vaal and Harts Rivers. Corner Dr James Moroka Drive and Stadium Road (Opposite Convention Centre).ehlanzeni. Rural Development and Land Administration (DARDLA) Tel: 013 766 6067/8 Fax: 013 766 8295 Website: http://dardla. subtropical and citrus fruits • processing of tropical fruit with exotic recipes Source: Mpumalanga Economic Growth Agency Provincial Department of Agriculture Mpumalanga Department of Provincial Department of Agriculture North West Department of Agriculture and Rural Development (DARD) Tel: 018 389 5111 www. grain sorghum.maize In the highveld region: • milling and processing of summer and winter cereals • extraction of edible oils • processing of: . edible Tel: 013 947 2551 For more information on the province: • Mpumalanga Provincial Government – www.

com Director Food Security Mr Mogale Sebopetsa Tel: 021 808 5103 Chief Director Structured Agricultural Training Mr Marius Paulse Tel: 021 808 5018 Fax: 021 808 7703 MariusP@elsenburg. We wonder if farmers in this sun-drenched province will be allowed to farm energy as well in the future . The inland Karoo region (around Beaufort West) and the Overberg district (around Bredasdorp) produce wool and Director Further Education and Training Mr Douglas Chitepo Tel: 021 808 5497 . Provincial Department of Agriculture Department of Agriculture: Western Cape Tel: 021 808 5111 Website: Website: www. The table grape industry is an important product dairy products and beef. leather and feathers. Siyanda. Ideal conditions for the cultivation of top-grade fruit. In the eastern part of the Western For more information on the province: • North West Provincial Government – www. olives. 16% of its barley and 14% of its Director Operational Support Systems Ms Rashidah Wentzel Tel: 021 808 5119 RashidahW@elsenburg.inw. peaches and oranges exist in the sheltered valleys amongst the mountains.elsenburg. Physical Address Department of Agriculture Muldersvlei Road ELSENBURG 7607 Postal Address Department of Agriculture Private Bag X1 ELSENBURG 7607 The Northern Cape holds the most promise for renewable energy projects. For more information on the province: • Northern Cape Provincial Government – Director Higher Education and Training Ms Carol Levendal Tel: 021 808 7709 Tel: 053 838 9102 Fax: 053 831 3635 The municipal districts offices are Frances Baard (www. Ostriches provide The other main livestock are goats (9%) and cattle (4%). za). za). along the south coast. With its share (3%) of South Africa’s arable land it produces 29% of the country’s groundnuts.bojanala.northern-cape. Most of the country’s canola. Head of department Ms Joyene Isaacs Tel: 021 808 5004/5 Chief Financial officer Mr Floris Huysamer Tel: 021 808 5007 Chief Director Veterinary Services Dr Gininda Msiza Tel: 021 808 5002 GinindaM@elsenburg. Other animal products include broiler chickens. The Western Cape has 15% of the country’s arable land.agrinc. It is second to Limpopo in game farming ( Head office 162 George Street Kimberley Private Bag X5018 Kimberley 8300 Head of the Department: Mr MVD Mothibi vmothibi@agri. Northern Cape The Northern Cape is the country’s largest and most sparsely populated • Northern Cape Economic Development Agency – www. Towards George. A large number of its farms meet export requirements. while inland. Pixley-Ka-Seme ( Director Provincial Department of Agriculture Department of Agriculture and Land Reform (DALA) Tel: 053 838 9100 (General Switchboard) Fax: 053 832 4328 Email: enquiries@agrinc. Sixteen of the initial 28 preferred projects identified by the Department of Energy (DoE) under the renewable energy independent power producer programme (REIPPP) in February 2012 are based Director Sustainable Resource Management Mr André Roux Tel: 021 808 5010 andrer@elsenburg.taologaetsewe. earning valuable foreign exchange. dry summers. the climate changes to summer rainfall. The Cape Peninsula and the Boland further inland is a winter rainfall region with 10. table grapes. The Vallharts Irrigation Scheme covers Director Extension and Advisory Services Mr Jerry Aries Tel: 021 808 5199 JerryA@elsenburg. The Western Cape has three climatic arid plains with outcrops of haphazard rock piles. such as apples.ncape. the landscape of the province is characterised by vast. Western Cape Chief Director Farmer Support and Development Mr Dudley Adolph Tel: 021 808 5013 dudleya@elsenburg. the climate gradually changes to year-round eggs. averaging two people in every square kilometre.5%).38 • Bojanala – 014 592 8272 www. namakwa-dm.50 square kilometres in this province. and the commercialisation of goats is seen as holding much promise for emerging farmers. towards the more arid Great Karoo. The Western Cape is also one of the top pork producers. Apart from the high-lying parts in the south and The economy of a large part of the Northern Cape depends on sheep and the province has a quarter (25%) of the country’s • Dr Kenneth Kaunda – 018 299 6504 • Dr Ruth Segomotsi Mompati – 053 927 0435 • Ngaka Modiri Molema – 018 389 5943 www. a great variety of vegetables is and John Taolo Gaetsewe ( Director Farmer Settlement and Development Ms Toni Xaba Tel: 021 808 5100 ToniX@elsenburg. Wines from this province are known all over the world. The province is the outlet for the exporting of horses from the country. Research and Development Services Dr Ilse Trautmann Tel: 021 808 5012 The Orange River runs through the Director Agricultural Economics Ms Bongiswa Matoti Tel: 21 808 5213 BongiswaM@elsenburg. the Atlantic Ocean forming the western boundary of the Namakwa ( • Invest North West – www. as are raisins. and a healthy agricultural industry follows it to the sea.. barley (81%) and wheat (35%) are grown here.


resource utilisation • Infrastructure Support Services Contact details for all 36 regional offices are on The services rendered by this Department are aimed towards realising the vision of Global success.elsenburg. Socially responsible and in balance with Nature. Competitive.40 Chief Director Rural Development Mr Stefan Conradie Tel: 021 808 5294 Director Farm Worker Development Mr Danie Niemand Tel: 021 808 7602 DanieN@elsenburg. The services are divided into 7 Head of Communications Ms Petro van Rhyn Tel: 021 808 5008 PetroVR@elsenburg. Free publications: Casidra HP . Inclusive. The Programme Sustainable Resource Management with its sub programmes: • Agricultural Engineering Services • LandCare The Programme Structured Agricultural Education and Training with its sub programmes: • Higher Education and Training • Further Education and Training The Programme Agricultural Economics with its sub programmes: • Marketing and Agribusiness • Production Economics • Macro and Resource Economics • Statistical The Programme Vet Services with its sub programmes: The Programme Rural Development Co-ordination with its sub programme: • Veterinary Laboratory Services • Veterinary Public Health • Export Control • Veterinary Animal Health • Farm Worker Development District Managers: The Programme Farmer Support and Development (FSD) with its sub programmes: • Central Karoo: Tel: 023 551 1034 • Eden: Tel: 044 803 3710 • Overberg: Tel: 028 424 1439 • West Coast: Tel: 022 433 2330 • Boland: Tel: 021 883 2560 • Cape Metropole: Tel: 021 948 6966 • Farmer Settlement and Development • Extension and Advisory Services • Food Security The Programme Research and Technology Development Services with its sub programmes: • Research: plant production. supported by Administration (Corporate and Financial services).com Specialist Advisor: Agricultural Economics Dr Dirk Troskie Tel: 021 808 5191 DirkT@elsenburg. animal production.

quoting DAFF as their source. Find more at www. For more information on the province: • Western Cape Provincial Government – www. • Information – take the “Strategic Partnerships” menu The NCOP also oversees the programmes and activities of national government relating to provincial and local government matters. • Websites and publications • The provincial department of agriculture websites • The documents covering extension in the provinces which can be found on the Directorate or 12. Find also the enormously useful provincial overviews under the “Divisions” Training & Extension services pages at • The crop statistics are from the 2012 Abstract of agricultural statistics (DAFF) • Game farming statistics are from Wildlife Ranching South The latest Investor’s Handbook by the Department of Trade and Industry also gives useful notes on the provinces. Training & Extension Services”.Tel: 011 355 1920 Khoza Fax: 011 333 0620 / 2632 KwaZulu-Natal – Dr Meshack Tel: 031 343 8240 Radebe Fax: 033 343 8255 Limpopo – Mr Jacob Marule Mpumalanga – Mashego-Dlamini Ms Tel: 015 294 3107 Fax: 015 294 4545/6 Candith Tel: 013 766 6074 Fax: 013 766 8437 North West – Ms Desbo Mohono Tel: 018 389 5056 Fax: 018 384 2679 Northern Cape – Mr Norman Tel: 053 838 9106 Shushu Fax: 053 832 4328 Western Cape – Mr Gerrit van Tel: 021 483 4700 Rensburg Fax: 021 483 3890 MinMEC is a forum made up from the MECs of agriculture in the nine .za • Central Karoo District – www. Sources used for the chapter: Find the links to the Provincial Departments of Agriculture websites at Members of the Executive Council (MECs) Province and MEC Contact details Eastern Cape – Ms Zoleka Capa Tel: 040 609 3602 Fax: 040 636 3462 Free State – Mr Mosebenzi Zwane Tel: 051 861 8400 Fax: 051 861 8451 Gauteng – Ms Nandi Mayathula. • Eden District – • Other statistics are as given in the Landbouweekblad article “SA se voorste kosprodusente” in August tradeinvestsa. The National Council of Provinces (NCOP) provides provinces with a forum in which to engage with the national government on matters concerning areas of shared national and provincial legislative A website that provides useful overviews of the provinces together with information on projects and investment opportunities – is www.westerncape. Updated poultry statistics can be found in the NAI Monitor Surveillance Report on www. Dr Danie Visser helped us with pig farming website of Agri Wes-Cape District municipality websites • Cape Winelands District – • West Coast District – Subscriptions: Magriet de Lange Tel: 021 808 7613. Although these are reports for the AET Strategy (see “Agricultural education and training” chapter). English & Xhosa – 100 subjects Read about Radio Elsenburg in the Agricultural Media “Agricultural Education & Training (AET)” and “National Agricultural Education Training Forum” options at www. they provide their findings within the provincial • • Overberg District – www. Technical information sheets in Afrikaans.sapoultry. Quarterly news and research “ agricultural activities in the province and much Find this publication at www. www.parliament. Detail is given on types of • Cape Metropole District – • WESGRO – http://wesgro.


security of tenure does not include right of ownership. (If farmers don’t do this they will go out of business and won’t produce food or employ anybody!) • Legislation regarding minimum wages and security of tenure has been introduced to protect poor and illiterate individuals from being previous Agri SA President. the employer. the farm worker and the state. These changes were necessary for farmers to remain competitive and profitable in the global environment. • Producer prices in the agricultural sector have not kept pace with farming requisites. BFAP found that on a R150-a-day wage. Under these arrangements. Sources: Mr Lourie Bosman. Apprenticeships and learnerships offer – look for the “Subsidy Info” menu option. Unfortunately these measures are also unintended disincentives for hiring permanent workers and accommodating them on farms in terms of the Bureau for Food and Agricultural Policy (BFAP) investigated the feasibility of the R150-a-day demand. • safe water is available inside the house or in close proximity. and farmworkers cannot afford to eat properly on those wages. a farmers earns R3 for the litre of milk the consumers buys for R9! Find the excellent article “Narrowing the Farmer-worker gap” on www. and • the house is not less than 30 square meters in size. Sixty people were employed during the construction at a cost of R4 million to the department. Not enough questions are asked about a food economy in which. but can include trust. certain tax breaks – and a labour force which is more skilled. Sources: Adapted from AgriReview 1st quarter 2011. The publication Finance and Farmers speaks of labour as being one of the issues which separates “Old agriculture” from “New agriculture”. Farmers and their workers on the same side. An agri-village is considered a private settlement of restricted in which 118 houses had been transferred to farm workers. 4. established and managed by a legal institution situated within and/or near an agricultural area and where residence is restricted to bona fide farm workers and their dependants on the farms involved in the development. Housing subsidies The institutional subsidy under the Department of Housing can help to raise the standard of farm worker housing. Also find the notes on Adult Basic Education and Training (ABET) in that chapter. namely that workers would still be unable to afford a nutritious basket of food on this improved salary.eskom. electricity and other services are not also deducted • the amount deducted is not more than the cost to the employer In addition: • the house has a roof that is durable and waterproof. Farmers cannot afford to pay a decent wage within the current food economy. Farm worker housing Housing for farm workers is an integral part of many farming operations in South Africa. financial and political context of the agricultural sector will determine what government and farmers are able to invest in the development of agri-villages. It has been in Agri SA’s proposals regarding permanent off-farm housing and economic opportunities for farm workers. Local business environment Difficult farming conditions and the absence of subsidies have led the farmer to weigh every worker’s productivity carefully. • the house has glass windows that can be opened. Although this is an increase from 1993.43 introduction Labour and agriculture See also the “Job creation” and “Legal aid and legislation” chapters 1. 2. to the the New sees labour as an investment and equipment as a cost. many farms would become unprofitable. • The average number of farm labourers per farming unit is 20. communal property association or sectional title. social worker and even mentor – all roles originating from a close relationship and involvement in the lives of labourers and their families. Find details of Eskom branches in the Energy chapter. there are fewer farming units. Find the story “Farm workers get roofs over their heads” on www. • a flush toilet or pit latrine is available in. is part of the terms of the employment Farmer Carl Henning helped the Limpopo Department of Local Government and Housing to build the houses. Programmes like the People’s Housing Project (PHP) also offer financial support. Eskom will assist financially by paying an incentive towards the costs of electrification for each worker house electrified. Details of housing subsidies can be found on the Department of Housing’s website www. 2nd quarter 2009. which is not more than 100m. • electricity is available inside the house if the infrastructure exists on the farm. Find out more from your bookkeeper or from Mr Johan Pienaar at Agri SA. Overview Farming calls for a number of skills. The increased use of technology has led to reduced employment opportunities. Finance and Farmers ISBN 0-620-11949-7 Find details of the AgriSETA accredited training providers in the “Agricultural education and training” chapter. from the house. Following the agricultural worker strikes in the Western Cape. ranging from mud huts to conventional brick houses. This housing.sanews. . Deducting housing from a farm worker’s salary Legally this can be done when the following requirements are met (and not before): • the worker must be at least 18 years old • water. There are tax deductions for farmworker housing. This is why we have fewer farmers on larger farms. according to the last Census of Commercial Agriculture (2007).standardbank. Application for financial assistance for electrification of worker houses This is for Eskom customers extending an existing supply point. • South Africa follows the global trend of commercial agriculture where economies of scale are essential to be sustainable.housing. Staff training In accordance with laid-down rules. for example. or visit www. AgriSETA will fund certain staff training. or in close proximity. and equipment as an investment. or making a new supply point to supply electricity to worker house. Farming units have grown in size and mechanisation has increased. The Old saw labour as a cost. The number of seasonal workers has increased at the expense of permanent positions. yet it was the second finding which ought to have received more attention than it 3. Agricultural Villages (Agri Villages) The development of agri-villages is a partnership between the farmer. The farmer is often employer. and these units are becoming more and more capital intensive. human resource farmers usually providing on-farm housing for their 2nd and 3rd quarters 2008 (find these at www. amongst which is the need to manage the labour force professionally and with the necessary sensitivity. The economic.

fruitsa-ethical. Find the document on www.safetsam. The book offers a comprehensive overview on the fate of farm workers. SARPONET Tel: 0861 22 8463 Training in health and safety See the separate “Legal aid and legislation” chapter AstroTech Tel: 011 582 3200 Training for businesses in CIODA (Compensation for Occupational Injuries and Diseases Act or contact 041 365 globalgap. Agri SA . 8. Call 021 948 1275 / 082 670 1636 or write to protea@ kingsley. • The Farmworker website of the Department of • If you produce for Software Farm Tel: 012 365 2683 Source: Kobus Kleynhans. you will need to be familiar with the GLOBAL “Occupational health and safety”. Trade unions and NGO’s will certainly also benefit from reading the Donkerhoek Data Tel: 021 874 1047 read about the Fruit SA Ethical Trade Programme at www. employers may only deduct a total of 25% of the relevant minimum wage from all workers combined. Forestry and Fisheries www.clock.attraining5.farmersweekly. Labour-related legal legislation Agriskills Transfer Tel: 012 460 9585 www. Look under “Publications”. not minimum wages” at www. Find these at www. • For updates on the Census of Commercial Agriculture. Role players Details of employer organisations and labour unions can be found in the “Organised agriculture” and “Legal aid and legislation” • Statistics can be found at www. available from Standard Equal amounts must be deducted from each A global supplier of occupational Accredited training and labour risk management services and services visit www. forestry and fishing Going for broke: The fate of farm workers in arid South Africa is published by the Human Sciences Research Council (HSRC).co. life on the farm.sapronet.daff. service delivery in the rural areas and concludes with the question “A journey to somewhere?” The book is a most useful source of information and offers wellconsidered opinions on a number of issues and deserves a place on all farmers’ bookshelves.44 Where 2 or more workers share Thinking of training your staff? Find training providers of Safety Sam Tel: 012 653 0200 www. COIDAtrain Tel: 012 333 7880 Plan-A-Head Software Tel: 033 342 7888 info@planahead. brought out by the National Wool Growers Association (NWGA) includes notes on “Basic conditions of employment”.gov. financial and life skills in the “Agricultural education and training” and ALCO-Safe Tel: 012 343 8114 which has gained momentum over some • The Best practice reference manual for wool sheep farming in South The Donish Group Tel: 032 945 3368 • Finance and Farmers ISBN Labour-related equipment and software Afriklok Tel: 012 654 5804 AgriFarm Tel: 0861 247 427 In 2012. around 630 000 people were employed in agriculture. “Skills development” under the “Social Responsibility” Essential First Aid Kits Labour services See the legal aid chapter Agri Mega Empowerment Solutions (AgriMES) Tel: 028 424 2890 In contrast. necessary forms and useful guides are available on Contact 028 424 2890 or visit www. Find it at • Dairy farmer Steve Roberts’ article “Corporate greed inflates food Included are (i) the number of farm employees and domestic servants on farms. website of the Department of Agriculture. Chapters are devoted to important issues like the extension of labour laws to farm workers and the introduction of a minimum NOSA Tel: 0861 11 6672 www.coidatrain.agrifarm. statssa. The courses presented by companies like Protea Training Centre (on your premises) include training in labour relations for your published by Agri Maxi Control Tel: 021 762 7576 www. It goes back to the early Cape history of the master-servant relationship to a discussion of the professionalisation of farm workers. National strategy and government contact Training in labour legislation Agriculture is one of the sectors which government is looking to in its quest to create jobs (find the Agriculture heading in the “Job creation” chapter. and (ii) Employment in Websites and publications 7. • Find the Human Rights Watch report Ripe with Abuse: Human Rights Conditions in South Africa’s Fruit and Wine Industries at Department of Agriculture. is a magazine for the farm worker community. These involve the conditions of labour on the farm.planahead.A. Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF).za BANBRIC BUILDING Cell: 072 242 9129 sales@banbric. Labour-related training Find the “Labour Law training” option at www. DFM Software Solutions Tel: 021 904 1154 dfm@dfmsoftware. NOSA has offices countrywide. Risk-Assessment on Social Practices (GRASP) 130 of 1993) Many documents.

but part of it is processed for own use. Mainly fresh products are sold. Urban agriculture Urban agriculture can be defined shortly as the growing of plants and the raising of animals within and around cities.ohchr. being part of the urban food system. Role players Find the links to the cities at www. www. They also have increasing problems with the disposal of urban wastes and waste water and maintaining air and river water quality. 3. Ethekwini. direct impacts on urban ecology (positive and negative). it is imperative that African state leaders and policymakers plan for these transitions adequately.).45 introduction The urban question See also the “Human Settlements” and “Food Security” chapters 1. sheep. etc. pigs. Johannesburg. up from 19% in 1960. the UN’s Special Rapporteur recorded that he had been particularly impressed by the strategy and programmes put in place by the City of Durban/ eThekwini Municipality.agbiz. The most striking feature of urban agriculture.sacities. competing for land with other urban functions.polity. Cape Town. on private land (owned. in terms of urbanisation. taking into account road access and farmer-association areas. The area. ornamental plants. Such linkages include the use of urban residents as labourers. Source: from the Report on South Africa from UN Special Rapporteur on the Right to Food March 2012. and CGIAR (international agricultural research centres).org and on www. which launched a peri-urban agroecology strategy in 2009. guinea pigs. these gardens could progressively create 60. If adequately supported by public authorities. The importance of urban agriculture is increasingly being recognised by international organisations like UNCED (Agenda 21). training sites. 2. The City of Durban surveyed 800 gardens and their needs. Products are sold at the farm gate. the number of people living in urban areas outstripped the rural population.5 million people. The changes that will 4. which came out in March 2012. Source: Eye on urbanisation: Nigeria which can be found on www. the same will not occur in Africa until nearly 2050. • Urban agriculture includes food products. Even so. or combinations of these. Most cities in developing countries have great difficulties in coping with this development and are unable to create sufficient formal employment opportunities for the poor. on local (farmers) markets or to intermediaries and supermarkets. etc. Urban agriculture is an integral part of the urban system. cattle. however. Overview “At present we rely on a food delivery chain that is unsustainable at all points but is so remote from our awareness that we take it for granted and seldom question its ethics or environmental impact. both in volume and economic value. How will cities feed themselves as Climate Change and Peak Oil begin to impact on our lives?” Prof Michael Rudolph The rapid urbanisation currently taking place across the globe goes together with a rapid increase in urban poverty and urban food insecurity. Next to food Nelson Mandela Metropole and Tshwane. is that it is integrated into the urban economic and ecological system. Find it at www. which is home to 3. in local shops. and in fact have begun taking place. a research and development centre on agroecology. then mapped approximately 3. The activities may take place on the homestead (on-plot) or on land away from the residence (off-plot). • In most cities in developing countries. reaching 40% in 2012. fruits) and animals (poultry. UNCHS (Habitat). rabbits. streams and railways). and a future seed bank. as well as to the greening of the city and the productive reuse of urban wastes. Source: adapted from notes on the RUAF Foundation In the Report on South Africa. mushrooms. a packing and marketing hub. Six agricultural support hubs have been established or are under development. grounds of schools and hospitals). an important part of urban agricultural production is for along roads. etc. has been divided into four agricultural zones. Often the more perishable and relatively high-valued vegetables and animal products and by-products are favoured. . www. as not doing so could lead to possible political and economic instability. • Urban agriculture may take place in locations inside the cities (intraurban) or in the peri-urban areas. urban agriculture contributes to local economic development.000 gardens through reviews of aerial photos. use of typical urban resources (like organic waste as compost and urban wastewater for irrigation).) as well as non-food products (like aromatic and medicinal herbs. need to be factored into long term planning. vegetables. being influenced by urban policies and plans.000 job opportunities. cooked and sold on the streets. with surpluses being traded. Mangaung. conservation areas. by cart in the same or other neighbourhoods. However. which distinguishes it from rural agriculture. root crops. should not be underestimated (as will be shown later). fish. Due to the implications of urban population growth on the economy and other social factors. leased) or on public land (parks. Source: adapted from notes on the RUAF Foundation website. for the first time in human history. including demonstration sites showcasing agroecology techniques. Msunduzi. or processed and packaged for sale to one of the outlets mentioned above. Africa’s cities are urbanising at a profound rate. African business environment In – Buffalo City. tree products. Urban agriculture provides a complementary strategy. or semi-public land (schoolyards. Ekurhuleni. from different types of crops (grains. direct links with urban consumers. Cape Town. FAO (World Food and Agriculture Organisation). poverty alleviation and social inclusion of the urban poor and women in particular. the importance of the market-oriented urban agriculture.


ac. website of the African Food Security Urban Network (AFSUN) • Find a number of papers relevant to this chapter on Rocklands Urban Abundance Centre Tel: 021 391 5316 – City Farmer is a non-profit society promoting urban food production and environmental conservation from a small office in downtown Department of Urban and Regional Environmental Sciences Tel: 031 260 1027 maharajb@ukzn. South African Institute for Entrepreneurship (SAIE) Department of Health (DoH) Tel: 021 447 2023 Community Based Nutrition www.population.afsun. Find the publications and reports at Food Gardens Foundation Tel: 011 342 4440 / 6967 Ukuvuna – Urban Farming www. the less will be the reason for the rapid urban migration which places such strain on available resources in the urban centres.agriliving. in municipalities and how these Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) can be addressed in the overall Directorate: Food Security objectives of the Calabash Trust Tel: 041 585 9255 The SACN State of the Cities www.afristarfoundation. Find the “Urbanisation” option on the website Sustainable Energy Africa Tel: 021 702 3622 Food & Trees for Africa (FTFA) www. . uncover Tel: 012 312 7953 entrepreneurship qualities and www. • Find out about the publications available from the Resources Centre on Urban Agriculture and Food Security (RUAF) Foundation at Report looks at issues that hinder the progress of development Department of Agriculture.ufs.etc-urbanagriculture. Find the article “Farm in the City could be supermarket of the future” on www. Political and Environmental Dimensions of Urban Agriculture Edited by Luc branches across the country on the website University of KwaZulu-Natal Mike Underwood URBAN FARMER Tel: 033 260 6088 Tel/fax: 022 448 1106 Lisa Perold – 082 842 1579 metalpetal@kingsley. • www. which include the Urban Agriculture provincial and national government and strategic plan for South Africa Urban-Econ Tel: 051 444 6324 • Visit National Planning Commission • Sustainable Villages Africa www. they would use (among other Rural Development and Extension things)? The NPC is responsible Tel: 051 401 3765 for developing a long term vision www. trainers and Department of Social community-based organisations Development to convey business skills. website of the African Centre for Cities at the University of Cape Town. za Siyakhana operates one of Johannesburg’s most prominent and important urban permaculture demonstration sites and enjoys strong links with local. Where these people would Tel: 051 401 2824 / 3864 be housed? Where they would University of Cape Town African Centre for Cities About 30-million South Africans http://africancentreforcities.verticalfarm. The chapter also serves as a corollary of the “Importance of rural development” Afristar Foundation Tel: 011 706 5614 www.sacities. The “recent projects” lists work done in Turkey. Dutch firm Van Bergen Kolpa Architects hope to have a working prototype of a supermarket farm that could produce most of the food items found in any grocery store. website of the Global Development Research Center. British AgriPlanner – see “South African Institute for Entrepreneurship” South African Cities Network (SACN) later in this list Tel: 011 407 6471 Programme Tel: 012 312 0071 The SAIE develops materials that www. (Anyone care to estimate a South African figure?) • Watch the video clips on ensure sustainable economic development and wealth creation.afesis. The success of our cities is crucial in determining the strengthening of our rural ABALIMI directly interfaces with between 50-200 community projects every Websites and publications • AGROPOLIS – The Social. A Permaculture NGO Creating sustainable solutions for urban Soil for Life Tel: 021 794 4982 development website of the South African Cities Network (SACN). A.urbanfarming. leading to declining living conditions there. The greater the development in the rural areas. • South East Asia and Sub Saharan work? What water they would use and what kind of transport Centre for Sustainable Agriculture. compiled by the Directorate Animal and Aquaculture Production. Call 012 319 7511 • www. but by 2030. Read it online at – ETC Urban Agriculture is an advisory group and resource centre in urban agriculture and food security. Afesis-corplan Tel: 043 743 3830 – a North American website • Find the article “The Environmental Cost of US Lawns” on http:// Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University Tel: 044 801 5111 / 059 • By – a potential for growing the food required in decades to come will be “vertical farming”.za Organic micro-farming and gardening in the townships of Cape Town. • Find the publications at ABALIMI BEZEKHAYA (“Planters of the Home”) Tel: 021 371 1653 www.urban-econ.php Siyakhana Initiative for Ecological Health and Food Security Tel: 072 501 0756 trains educators. • Find the “Urban” option at www. an additional 11-million would University of the Free State move to cities – with the urban Department of Agricultural rate increasing to 70% of all South Economics Tel: 012 319 6736 Tel: 011 656 9802 www. operations with residential units … com Lengau Agricultural centre Tel: 051 443 8859 Tel: 072 475 2977 (Cape Town) Tel: 079 934 0689 (Port Elizabeth) Combining food growing live in urban areas. Centre za John Nzira – 073 717 5232 johnnzira@gmail. Lawn is the most irrigated “crop” in the US – three times more water is used on turf grass than on irrigating Challenges to urban food supply in South Africa (August 2011) and Reverse Rural-urban Migrations: An Indication of Emerging Patterns in Africa? • Guidelines for Urban and peri-urban animal the “first city in Africa to have an approved Urban Agriculture policy as of 2007” and up to 3000 micro-farmers and gardeners every year. Mougeot International Development Research Centre (ISBN 1-55250-186-8) Visual AgriLiving Tel: 021 919 8954 Urban Harvest Edible Gardens Planning Tel: 051 401 2486 Find contact details of their www.


AFGRI has the passion. The Perfect Farm takes dedication. they are the business hub of the community and make a key contribution to maintaining the rural infrastructure. Co-operatives were now permitted to have non-farmers as members and directors. positive change and AFGRI. comprising Retail.4 million tons. and other agricultural business enterprises and organisations. AFGRI Foods. they are major employers. There were other changes too: domestic economic deregulation. Some co-operatives that decided to convert found themselves in hefty disputes with individual farmers. South Africa faced a decade of change in the 1990’s. AFGRI Milling is a leading producer of yellow maize products for manufacturing and industrial use. AFGRI simply and effectively offers business solutions across three sectors in the chain. for example. Milling and Poultry. South Africa’s market leader. these inputs can be easily sourced. Some co-operatives that planned to become companies changed their minds: capital structures were satisfactory or they were secure in a market niche. to fertiliser to tractors. with AFGRI being a world leader in the handling and storage of the maize. sunflower. companies which arose out of the conversion of agricultural co-operatives. This legislation was received with mixed emotions. finding new markets and buying equipment in bulk. provide a wide range of products and services. Over 1 million tons of feed is produced per annum with a clear dedication in manufacture to excellence. Financial services also continue to be an important aspect although commercial banks are increasingly encroaching on this traditional role. Agbiz strives to support its member organisations by creating an environment within which they are enabled to operate as competitive and innovative business enterprises.49 marketing and finance Agribusinesses and “New Generation” agricultural cooperatives 1. AFGRI Services is one of South Africa’s largest agricultural commodity trading companies. Agricultural businesses play a significant role in the economy as handlers. Agbiz is affiliated to Business Unity South Africa (BUSA) in partnership with Agri SA. while maintaining close links with international organisations such as the World Farmers’ Organisation (WFO). passion. including co-operatives. The end result is a comprehensive value chain transforming the business of agriculture with growth a natural outcome. soya beans and sorghum grains. with advisory services sustaining the farmer throughout the season. The aim of these societies was to increase the profits of farmers. processors and marketers of agricultural products. Farmers are helped to manage risk. and some infringement on each other’s territory – not a characteristic of their operations up until then. and as suppliers of production inputs and services. Equipment and Oils AFGRI Animal Feeds is one of South Africa’s leading manufacturers and is committed to the provision of superior manufacturing technologies. outdoor and DIY products for consumer use. Apart from the supplying of agricultural inputs. From seed. and the NEPAD Business Foundation (NBF). Largely products consist of commodities since the original role lay mainly in the first stage of processing of farm products. They could also bring business and management expertise with them.agbiz. This they would do by getting best market prices for produce. Agribusinesses. In many rural areas. Both ‘Farm City’ and ‘Town and Country’ offer a full range of agricultural inputs. Overview Co-operative societies were originally established to enable farmers who had clubbed together to gain enough capital to buy equipment in bulk and to sell their produce. with international food safety and quality . by assisting farmers to get the best price for their crops. the second in the value chain. developers and sources of added value. removal of quantitative import controls in terms of GATT (General Agreement of Tariffs & Trade)/WTO (World Trade Organisation) agreements. the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) and the International Food and Agribusiness Management Association (IAMA). and have their grain stored. encompassing Animal Feeds. services now go www. As a JSE listed agricultural services and food’s business.afgri. innovation and quality. AFGRI Equipment is the largest John Deere franchise in Africa. These farmers felt that the new companies would now switch their priorities from primarily looking at the interests of farmers to concentrating on those of investors (agri-companies had to become profit driven to ensure that non-farming shareholders make returns on their investments). A regional supplier of mechanised equipment tailored to the needs of the commercial farmer. garden. producers and consumers of agricultural product. agricultural co-operatives in the developing agricultural sector. The socio-political changes made world headlines. home. In keeping international standards the mills are certified for 3. Grain Management offers secure storage of agricultural products throughout South Africa and Zambia up to 4. resources and potential to effectively assist and advise farmers. Some of these conversions resulted in farmers selling their shares and surrendering management of their former co-operatives. Equipment and Grain A look at some agribusinesses AFGRI Operations Limited Tel: 011 063 2347 afgri@afgri. In addition. The Retail division offers a comprehensive range of products and services enabling farmers the tools for a successful crop outcome. Associations involved Agricultural Business Chamber (Agbiz) Tel: 012 807 6686 Fax: 012 807 5600 as well as to move from the area in which their members farmed – provided they converted into companies. wheat. World-class technology in silo inventory management also furthers AFGRI’s status as an industry The Agricultural Business Chamber (Agbiz) represents agricultural companies. The environment which had become increasingly competitive saw consolidation. 2. There were arguments for: non-agricultural shareholders would inject more capital into the entity than farmers could have injected into a co-operative. and the opening up of South African agriculture to the forces of globalisation culminated in the scrapping of the Agricultural Marketing Act.

capital expenditure and future extensions. table grapes. Excellence is key with Non GMO Hybrids. specialising in the risks that face today’s farmer. and the integrity of corn preserved. and providers of spare parts. imports. The GroCaptical division provides financial solutions for a variety of clients ultimately facilitating profitability and growth. and the associated ‘Superior’ chicken brand.kaapagri. wool and meat sheep. as well as on aiding and supporting emerging farmers and farm workers through various short. The largest single shareholder is the listed company. similar to those of Agrimark stores. cleaning agents and protective clothing • wine and alcoholic liquors in certain shops • mechanisation services such as tractors and implements. AFGRI Financial Services. food and beverage. grading and storage of mainly wheat • grain marketing services – various marketing options to producers • manufacturing and distribution of irrigation equipment • financing of these services and products Geographic distribution of trading points Kaap Agri provides these goods and services via a network of 147 trading points across 84 towns and cities throughout South Africa and Namibia. AFGRI insurance is a composite insurance broker specialising in all aspects of short-term and long-term insurance. Nedan aims to be the most technologically advanced oil and protein company in South Africa. as well as tools. extraction and refining plant. seeds and pesticides • animal feed. beans and rooibos tea. wine grapes. corrugated iron and plastic • horticultural supplies like tools. medium and long-term courses on offer at its training academy in Porterville. Specific activities of the group • Agrimark stores – a chain of retail stores which offers direct agricultural production inputs and related products. Business model. vegetables. and distribution and delivery. • Liquormark stores – a chain of liquor stores within existing Agrimark stores which focuses on the needs of the more sophisticated consumer and specifically promotes locally produced wines. It’s about relationships. Although Kaap Agri is not listed. Known for its supply of first class instrumentation and equipment. fertiliser and chemicals • DIY items like tools. structured trade and debt origination set GroCaptial as a leading provider. GroCaptial offers specialised finance and innovative solutions with strong emphasis on the emerging markets and allowing international trade and foreign exchange. like wheat and small grains. deciduous fruit. cotton. New initiatives include a chain of Villagemart stores and Savemart stores in shopping centres. the directors believe that all corporate management requirements should be adhered to as if the company is listed. AFGRI Broking facilitates the right protection against currency movements with currency futures and options from the JSE. Financial Director and Human Resources Director). A specific focus will be placed on products for in and around the house and for DIY enthusiasts. as well as related requirements. development and promotion. DIY and much more to producers and the general public. animal health and pet-related products • fuels and oils • industrial and domestic gas • gardening and agricultural irrigation products • related products such as pruning shears. funding and advantages for all farmers Kaap Agri Head Office Tel: 022 482 8000 Fax: 022 482 8008 www. building material. but also to the general public. screws and accessories • camping equipment and related accessories for the outdoor enthusiast • food. Some of the Pakmark markets also offer a wider range of products. Nedan is AFGRI’s oilseed crushing. ladders. • Agriplas – manufacturing of drip irrigation pipes and sprinkler irrigation. as well as Liquormark liquor stores within Agrimark stores. the general public and institutional investors. Broking and Insurance. punnets and pulp trays • industrial packaging and pallets • building material such as cement. the average trading being about 0. timber. paint. mining and petrochemical industries. The board of Kaap Agri Bedryf comprises of ten elected directors and three executive directors (Managing Director. AFGRI poultry. . Shares are freely traded over the counter. AFGRI Labworld is a leading supplier of laboratory and scientific analytical equipment used in the agricultural. the final link in the value chain. A leader in the field. These goods and services include: • direct agricultural production inputs such as fertiliser. • Villagemarts – a new initiative of smaller Agrimark stores in shopping centres. and spare parts • grain management services – receipt. dairy cows and beef cattle. Kaap Agri supports BEE and is currently a level 8 contributor and focuses on internal training. • Mechanisation – marketing of agricultural machinery (tractors. combine harvesters. ownership and corporate management Kaap Agri is a public company with approximately 5. Produce from Kaap Agri’s service areas include a wide range of agricultural subdivisions. horticultural supplies. Famer Lending offers attractive rates for seasonal needs. purchasing and distribution of products of divisions via product specialists. an essential consideration for trading farmers and a volatile currency exchange. Previously part of the GroCapital offerings. outdoor • Pakmark markets – a chain of outlets that concentrates mainly on the packaging material needs of fruit producers. comprising producers. is an integrated process producing parent stock through to state of the art facilities. Particularly in the larger towns and cities Agrimark concentrates on the destination customer who desires a wide range of items under one Kaap Agri is an agricultural services group that distributes goods and services mainly to the agricultural sector. • Agrilog – acquisition and logistics of products. • Savemarts – A new retail shopping concept being developed in the Western and Southern Cape with communities living in high density areas. BEE involvement Twenty five percent of Kaap Agri’s shares are under black ownership. stone fruit. implements). Specialised knowledge. bags. Zeder Investments Limited. part of the PSG Group. storage.300 shareholders. offers tailor made solutions through Capital. while some Agrimark stores also provide a complete range of packaging material. manufacturing and repairs. a goal being achieved through plant innovation processing efficiencies and ongoing product development. A newcomer to the AFGRI Financial Services chain is Farmer Lending. dried fruit. Passion and innovation allows quality product direct from the farm to the customer. and its distribution along with related complete irrigation requisites especially to other retailers and irrigation technicians and installers. and the company complies in all material respects with the requirements of the King III Code and related corporate management requirements and guidelines. manufacturing and repair workshops. as its target market.5% per month. Customers receive total all-encompassing solutions to all analytical requirements enabling effective product development.50 management standards. specifically for the general public who require a variety of products under one roof. tools and wire • fencing material like wire and poles • packaging material for the fruit industry such as boxes. Produce Kaap Agri also has 14 grain silo complexes throughout the Western Cape which comprises 320 000 tons in storage facilities. and the central co-ordination of fuel purchases. the plant processes oils and other raw materials into edible product for the food processing and fast food industries.




we aim to expand this project. 4. Companies involved • AFGRI Tel: 011 063 2347 www. and forward. VKB Agriculture Limited is a well-established and dynamic agricultural enterprise of sound financial standing. the company is constructing a broiler abattoir with a First Phase Slaughtering capacity of 450 000 chickens a week. “We are optimistic about the future. The VKB Group will also assist them in participating meaningfully in the mainstream economy. For the first phase of this project. to reduce the cost of inputs.bkb. Over the years. fuel and pest management. IT. It will ensure that these farmers are acquainted with modern farming practices and well equipped with vital skills needed for sustaining a viable and healthy agricultural • BKB Ltd Tel: 041 503 3111 www. Furthermore. one of which is VKB’s Broiler Project. Most importantly. Internal Auditing. to add value to the agricultural products of its members. the development of its employees will undoubtedly contribute to its competitive edge in the market. the VKB Group has introduced several training programmes aimed at developing the potential and skills of its employees at various levels and n all occupational categories. including input costs such as it will create an opportunity for them to diversify their businesses. We have always experienced unprecedented loyalty from our members and they will remain the core of our business. oats. We will therefore continue to foster our unique relationship with our stakeholders. products and services to a broad variety of clients through an extensive footprint that stretches throughout most of South Africa and Namibia. A second animal feed factory with an annual production capacity of 200 000 tons is also being constructed. Recently. The VKB Group has launched a number of projects to achieve its aim of making a difference to the community. With our new capital ventures and proposed investments. with a loyal member and client • Grain storage – receipt. a partnership was formed with the provincial and national government. The above project is strategically aligned to embrace one of the company’s BBBEE objectives with a view to unlocking the entrepreneurial potential of previously disadvantaged individuals. Secretariat. The company has initiated a very successful programme for emerging farmers in the area. if an organisation is keen to sustain its growth and success in this era. apprenticeships and skills development programmes to intensive leadership programmes preparing previously disadvantaged individuals to play an active role in managerial hierarchies. it is also committed to availing itself of these opportunities for the benefit of its members and other interested parties by not only creating. VKB Agriculture Limited has invested in integration opportunities. the project will afford members of the VKB Group the opportunity to be contract • Ceres Koelkamers Ltd Tel: 023 315 5003 • Coastals Farmers Co-operative Ltd Tel: 031 508 8000 www. and distribution of seed potatoes. The company has committed itself to identifying opportunities for growth in the agricultural environment. • Seed processing and distribution – the increase of base grain seeds by contracted seed We are a one-stop supplier to agricultural producers within our area and they are the main reason for our Through sustained growth. “As soon as the first phase is completed. This is a huge initiative. but also . as VKB’s investment for the first five years is estimated at approximately R200 million. co. Administration. but also adding value to agriculture. are supported by Finance. grading. • Grain trading – a complete range of marketing options to grain producers to enable them to realise the maximum return on their products according to their choice. These programmes range from learnerships. processing and distribution of wheat and bean seeds.gwk. • Financing – financing of the abovementioned services and products through customised financing alternatives that suit the needs of producers and clients.toplay. the company’s focus will be on achieving maximum operational efficiency. • Support Services – The industries mentioned. both backwards. It is an undisputed fact • Highveld Egg Co-operative Ltd Tel: 018 293 0694 www. VKB allocated six chicken houses to smallholder farmers from the previously disadvantaged community. chairperson of the VKB Board. To this end. Human Resources and Communication. VKB has embarked on several major projects. In short – Kaap Agri provides a wide range of goods. storage and fumigation of grain – mainly wheat.” says One of the company’s other crucial projects is an oil crusher plant with a capacity of 150 000 tons per annum. At present. providing them with both technical and financial support and ongoing mentorship in all aspects of organised agriculture. The development of smallholder farmers remains a relevant strategy to groom and develop upcoming farmers to a commercial plane. With a view to embracing this vertical integration strategy. VKB Agriculture Limited Tel: 058 863 8111 • Fraserburg Co-operative Ltd Tel/fax: 023 741 1936 • Gamtoos Tobacco Co-operative Ltd Tel: 042 283 0305 • GWK Ltd Tel: 053 298 8200 www. rye and lupines. and we are satisfied with the marketing of these products.” says Paul Carshagen.

. • Sentraal-Suid Co-operative Ltd (SSK) Tel: 028 514 8600 www.zeder. • Some agricultural role players like the Agricultural Business Chamber keep their members informed of agricultural events through their newsletters or on their websites. Landbouweekblad and Farmer’s Weekly. Tel: 044 752 3004 • MGK Operating Company (Pty) Ltd Tel: 012 381 2800 • Mosstrich Tel: 044 606 4400 www. have their own websites Some of these. Tshwabac Tel: 012 327 1487 The Food & Beverage and Meat This farmer’s mostly in the Western Cape. ssk. at www. or their websites to find a calendar of the latest AFGRI.agriexpo. • TWK Agriculture Limited Tel: 017 824 1000 • Umtiza Farmers’ Corp Limited Tel: 043 722 4215 • NWK Ltd Tel: 018 633 1000 www. in turn. • Find the website of the International Food and Agribusiness Management Association at www. • Senwes Tel: 018 464 7800 • VKB Landbou Beperk Tel: 058 863 8111 organised by IIR (find details on the website) • Southern African Milk Co-operation Ltd Tel: 021 880 0256 www. affiliated Management Conferences occur to Agri Websites and publications • A newsletter is available from the Agricultural Business Chamber (contact details under heading 2). Visit • Find details of many shows. Some of these events are listed under heading • The magazine SA Koöp/SA Co-op is available from 018 293 0622. Tel: 033 345 6274 www. and we list only some of them • Villiersdorp Co-op Tel: 028 840 1120 Call 011 771 7000 or visit • NCT Forestry Co-operative Ltd Tel: 033 897 8500 www. The newsletter can also be found under the “Publications” menu option at www.compex. tradeinvestafrica. mkb. Kaap • Karoo Vleisboere Koöperasie Bpk Tel: 053 621 0162 • Klein Karoo International (KKI) Tel: 044 203 5100 • Oranjerivierwynkelders Koöperatief Bpk Tel: 054 337 8800 Tel: 021 975 4440/1/2/3 • Suidwes Tel: 018 581 1000 Grain SA (GSA) This agricultural organisation runs Tel: 0860 047 246 www. • The reader will also find news of (agricultural) shows on cultural websites like Organiser of the AMT conference Exhibition Management in Pretoria (see heading 3) Services Tel: 011 783 7250 Agri-Expo www. • The share prices of agro companies can be found on • Kaap Agri Tel: 022 482 8000 www. agriexpo.kleinkaroo. • Moorreesburgse Koringboere (Pty) Ltd Tel: 022 433 8300 the electronic arm of the Landbouweekblad magazine. Tribune Garden Agrifica and Agricultural Tours Worldwide offer tours to South They host the Royal Show – “South African and African agricultural Africa’s oldest and largest mixed shows and events. Sources for the chapter: Agricultural Business Agri Mega Expos is responsible for various industry focused agricultural Royal Agricultural Society of Natal expos. The reader is referred to the agricultural weeklies. . • Tuinroete Agri Beperk Tel: 044 601 1200 www. • Overberg Agri Tel: 028 214 3800 www. orangeriverwines. which looks at agribusinesses in Africa.tagri. runs the Letaba Expo during the Africa’s Big Seven Exhibition. tours and farmers days. and www. Agri Mega Expos Tel: 028 424 2890 Lowveld Show Society Pretoria: 082 337 6127 Tel: 013 752 2801 / 6747 www.ifama. Overview • Agricultural shows and events are a time when people involved in the agricultural value chain get to meet one another.56 • Humansdorpse Koöperasie Beperk Tel: 042 295 1082 www. Visit See Nampo Harvest Day under heading 3 Compex Exhibitions Tel: 012 667 1980 www. agricultural event” – and the Sunday You can fax 018 294 4221. • Sutherland Landboukoöperasie Bpk Tel: 023 571 1001 • Taurus Stock Improvement Co-operative Ltd Tel: 012 667 1122 www. VKB Ltd marketing and finance Agricultural shows and events Aginfo t/a AMT (Pty) Ltd Tel: 012 361 2748 the country’s numerous shows and events Agri Letaba Tel: 082 941 4136 and www. co. com • Koup Produsente Koöperasie Bpk Tel: 023 551 1083 • KLK Agriculture Ltd – see BKB Ltd • Langkloof Boerekoöperasie Bpk – see Tuinroete Agri. network and find out about the latest technologies and • Find the article “Agrologistics at home and aboard” on • Malelane Citrus Co-operative Ltd Tel: 013 790 0391 “largest horticultural event”. Some role players Producer and district associations are involved in district/regional • Oos Vrystaat Kaap Operations (OVK) Tel: 051 923 4500 EXSA (Exhibitions and Event Association of Southern Africa) Tel: 011 805 7272 www. • “Expanding business linkages worldwide” – visit the EMRC website: www.senwes. Many of these events occur in South Africa. com • NTK Limpopo Agric Ltd Tel: 014 719 9211 www. • The different agribusinesses put out an assortment of their own • Williston Vleiskoöperasie Bpk Tel: 053 391 3204 • Zeder Investments Ltd Tel: 021 887 9602

za and find Agri Expo details under heading and dairy • SIAL (China) – www. • SAITEX – see Exhibition Management Services (heading 2) • South African Cheese Festival – find Agri Expo details under heading 2 and visit www.agromek. reputedly the largest in the southern hemisphere. • The Cape Dairy Experience – visit www. • Royal Show (Pietermaritzburg) – find the Royal Agricultural Society of Natal details under heading 2. Retail Solutions Africa and IFMA or call 053 927 3945.bothaville. • Find out more about the South African Large Herds Conference at co. Visit http://vryburgshow. • Visit www.anfd. incorporates For accommodation (book early!). 4.hortifair. • To find out about the Reitz Bieliemieliefees visit www. • Bien Donné Agri Cape Week Expo – see Agri Mega under heading 2. • Intervitis Interfructa Southern Africa is a technology exhibition for the – find details of shows in Nigeria. For shows and events in the USA. • From The Earth – visit • Agribusiness Africa Conference – see Agrifica (heading 2) • Find out about the AgriWorks Agricultural Expo at www.naturalandorganic. • The Spring Show in • EuroTier – www. not specifically agricultural but nevertheless of co.bieliemielie.biztradeshows. • African Farmers Workshop and Expo – see www. and the biggest cattle show in the country”. Find the latest BFAP Baseline at International shows • Agritechnica Expo (Germany) – www. would include the Export Import Africa Expo and the Africa Water • Hortifair (The Netherlands) – www. International Aquaculture events – contact Aquaculture Innovations at 046 622 3690 Note that international shows/conferences are periodically held in South • Fruit Logistica Expo (Germany) – www. Also visit www. website of the Royal Agricultural Society of England for information on events there.rwas. • The Vryburg Show in the North West is billed “as SA’s 3rd largest agricultural show.largeherds. • The NAMPO Harvest Day is an annual agricultural show. • At the annual AMT conference in • BioFach (Germany) – Call 021 852 3523 or visit Visit www. • Sunday Tribune Garden Show – find “Royal Agricultural Society of Natal” under heading economic overviews are given of the various agricultural • SPACE (France) – www.agritechnica. Several conferences happen parallel to the exhibitions. fruit and fruit juice industries. • The All Africa Dairy Expo is aimed at the needs of dairy farmers. Visit • Big Iron Farm Show (USA) – for – find the “Agriculture & forestry” option www.nafco. Find the “Conference Proceedings” menu option on • The Nedbank Eston Show in KwaZulu-Natal has been growing in popularity as an agricultural • Australian National Field Days – www. Ghana and Mozambique. • Read about the NAFCO Expo at • EXPOAGRO (Argentina) – See Agri Mega under heading 2. • The annual Bathurst Agricultural Show hosts exhibitors from all over the Eastern • Royal Ag Winter Fair (Canada) – http://royalfair.agrimark. held over four days at the NAMPO Park near Bothaville. contact Denvor Julies at the US Commercial Services: call 011 290 3241 Visit • Other • Agromek (Denmark) – • Royal Welsh Agricultural Show – Food Tech Africa. • Bloemfontein Show – call 051 448 9894 or visit which happens at • Farm Progress Show (USA) – http://farmprogress. Read about it at www. This is a relatively new show which began as an idea of the parents at Hoërskool Ben Viljoen in Groblersdal to raise funds for the for more. Find the Exhibition Management Services entry under heading 2 for contact • The Bureau for Food and Agricultural Policy (BFAP) presents its annual baseline study on an evening in Pretoria or Cape Town. Food Biz Africa. • Allfresh is a “national summit for suppliers and producers in the fresh produce industry”.za. Retail Trade Exhibition. The Royal Show no longer Shows and conferences • Agri Mega Week (Bredasdorp) focuses on the winter to find out about Natural & Organics Products Exhibition. sheep and wool.exhibitionsafrica.capedairy. Interbake Africa. . Find AMT (Pty) Ltd under heading 2. • Africa’s Big Seven. Visit Find Grain SA’s details under heading 2 and visit www. Visit www. call the Maize Capital Forum – 056 515 3042 – or Viljoenskroon Tourism at 056 343 3992.

What is the role of commodity derivatives? Commodity derivatives. This encourages increased productivity in the agricultural sector as farmers and users are able to concentrate their efforts on managing production risks. These are the risks associated with variables such as the weather. If the limit is reached on two like contracts on two consecutive days the price limits are increased to 150% of the original limit and the extended limits will remain in place until the daily movement on all like contracts is less then the original limits. In August 2001 the members of the South African Futures Exchange (SAFEX). How are commodity derivatives traded? Registered commodity derivative brokers input orders into the trading system from remote locations (during trading hours (09h00 – 12h00 for grains and 09h00 – 17h00 for metals and energy)) which are automatically matched on the basis of time and price priority. and particularly agricultural derivative markets play an active role in price determination and transparency in the local agricultural market whilst providing an efficient price risk management facility. both financial and agricultural markets. Margins – When trading derivative products. Members are free to deal with each other without any credit risk. Prices for each contract are negotiated between buyers and sellers via an electronic order matching platform called the Automated Trading System (ATS). delivered on truck alongside silo basis Randfontein. Such clients could typically access funds at cheaper rates than would otherwise have been offered. This afforded the JSE the opportunity to introduce a number of cash settled commodities that referenced the international benchmark exchange for the final settlement value. the agricultural derivatives market in South Africa has continued to develop. Regulation – Safex Commodity Derivatives Market is a division of the JSE Limited managed by the JSE and regulated by the Financial Services Board (FSB) which oversees the exchange’s reporting with regards to Securities Services Act of 2004. the world’s most diverse derivatives exchange. Here existing long position holders or any other interested clients may bid on stock at specific delivery points and if successful. 2. Financial Integrity – When dealing with the exchange the exchange’s clearing house becomes seller to every buyer and buyer to every seller. The presence of numerous buyers and sellers ensures that prices are always competitive and adjust efficiently to reflect changes in the underlying market. 4. Since this was extended to include metals and crude oil. The price risk management tools that the derivative market provides allow participants to hedge the price volatility in the underlying physical market. Speculators use futures and options in an attempt to make profits on short-term price movements. In 2009 the JSE signed a licensing agreement with the CME Group. Transparency – Pricing is determined purely on the basis of demand and supply. The full premium bid is passed onto the seller who delivered the product. The most actively traded contract remains the white maize futures contract followed by a 50 ton wheat contract and then a 25 ton soybean contract. Soybean contracts are quoted at their Rand value per ton and comprise 25 tons per contract. Extended price limits also result in increased initial margin requirements for those periods when the extended limits apply. 4. The variation margin is a daily flow of funds (profits/losses) resulting from any open position calculated through a methodology of Mark-to-Market (M-t-M). accepted an offer by the then JSE Securities Exchange to buy them out. the Division introduced functionality that allowed for Safex silo receipts delivered in completion of a short futures position to be made available on an open auction. The soybean and sorghum contract trades at the same basis price in a number of registered silos with no location differentials Daily price limits. add security to the market. Producers and users of agricultural commodities hedge their price risk. the agricultural derivative market rebranded to become the Safex Commodity Derivative Market of the JSE. . The commitment from Government in 1995 to stay out of the price determination process in the agricultural market remains firm. Prices generated on the derivatives market are now considered the industry standard and reference point throughout Southern Africa. Overview Since deregulation of the agricultural market in the mid 1990’s. Yet. The futures market exists primarily for the purpose of allowing commercial users to hedge their transactions or lock in favourable prices. The initial margins are determined by the clearing house and vary depending on historical price volatility. The Agricultural Products Division of the JSE (Johannesburg Stock Exchange) Securities Exchange was established to take over the functions of the old AMD. One futures contract comprises 100 tons for white and yellow maize as well as sweet sorghum and 50 tons for wheat and sunflower seeds. the market could not operate efficiently and effectively without speculators. In 2010. This eliminates counter party risk which is prevalent in the over-the-counter markets (OTC). as they provide the necessary market liquidity which allows commercial users to hedge. farm/ production management and seasonal conditions. Why trade commodity derivatives on an exchange? 1. The exchange guarantees performance by counterparties in a futures contract. 3. limiting the daily movement of prices. 3. will then receive a Safex silo receipt representing stock in the silo. This is yet another innovation by the exchange to add value to those market participants who make use of the exchange platform. The agricultural derivatives market has developed to such an extent that the cash market now largely relies on its price transparency and discovery process to function properly. thereby limiting their exposure to adverse price movements.58 marketing and finance Commodity trading See also the “Grain storage and handling” chapter 1. 2. Financial institutions lending to these sectors are also ensured of reduced risk profiles when dealing with clients who have hedged a portion of their price risk. therefore allowing for a truly free market environment to develop. the exchange requires the payment of both initial margins and variation margins. Agricultural derivative prices are quoted at their Rand value per ton.


Market to market (M-t-M) calculation of futures and options The Mark-to-Market (m-t-m) for the day. What is Physical Delivery? All products traded on the agricultural derivatives market can be physically delivered at expiry in fulfillment of a futures contract. If the bid is better than the last traded price the bid will be used as the mt-m The best case scenario is being allocated maize in a silo convenient to the buyer. To manage default Therefore the location differential will always ensure that the basis Randfontein price is traded. Payments for products take place by 13h00 on the delivery day. Location differentials are determined by the exchange and are available from the exchange (available on the webpage www. (In simple terms this can be interpreted as buyers in the market prepared to pay more than the last traded price). Any long position holder (buyer of the commodity) could be allocated product at any time during the delivery month with one day’s notice but is assured that he/she will receive such stock by the last day of the delivery month. Buyers are guaranteed that it will be at a registered silo and free along side the rail. Delivery can take place at any Safex approved silo and each delivery point is subject to a location differential (based on transport costs). four letter code of commodity JUL11 WMAZ – White maize contract DEC11 YMAZ – Yellow maize contract SEP11 WEAT – Wheat contract MAR11 SUNS – Sunflower seeds contract MAY11 SOYA – Soybean contract MAY11 SORG – Sorghum contract In early 2009. A liquid contract is defined as any expiry that trades 100 or more contracts in the last half hour of trading. Since then the CBOT soybean complex and CBOT wheat contract has also been introduced. Should a client default on a contract. the worse case scenario would be Randfontein. This allows direct participation in South African rand to the most liquid international maize contract. The deliveries are either processed via Exchange for Physical (EFP). The exchange reserves the right to set the m-t-m volatility. The exchange does not take any prepaid storage into account and the seller forfeits any storage costs that have been prepaid. Delivery day The closing option volatility is calculated using at-the-money option trades and two strikes either side during the last half hour of trade. The broker could then close them off and use the initial margin deposit held to cover his/her losses. is determined at random any time in the last 5 minutes of trading at the discretion of the exchange. The fundamental difference between the CORN contract and the domestic grain contracts traded is that the CORN contract is cash settled and not physically settled. Paper and electronic silo receipts issued by registered silo owners are accepted by the exchange. For example a short position holder could give notice on the September futures contract on the 31 August for delivery on the 1 September or his last notice day would be the 29 September for delivery on the 30 September. Long position holders are charged a standard daily storage rate fixed for each marketing season for any outstanding storage costs and are responsible for storage from the delivery day onwards. Long position holders are able to collect silo receipts from the exchange from 14h00 onwards.jse. a transferable but not negotiable document. year of expiry. (For all delivery dates the trading calendar on the web page). result of the silo auction or randomly allocated by computer programme to existing long position holders. This implied volatility is then used to value all option positions. The counterparties do not deal with each other directly as the exchange matches all long and short positions. Once the contract has closed for trading any position still open will have to be honoured by payment or delivery (short position holders have until the last business day of the delivery month to make delivery). The location differentials and any outstanding storage is deducted from the amount payable by a long position holder (in the case of wheat a grade discount is also applicable). The last notice day being the second last business day of the delivery month. The last trading day is the eighth last business day of each delivery month. however. 5. the notice day followed by the delivery day (the next business day). In the event that . 7. How is risk managed? Delivery and settlement on any exchange traded derivative contract is always 100% guaranteed. The closing price (mark-to-market) on the notice day is the price at which contracts are closed. This is done through the novation process whereby the clearing house assumes the position of buyer to every seller and seller to every buyer.60 Futures are quoted on the trading system as: Month of expiry. Forestry and Fisheries and to outload the specific product upon presentation of the silo receipt. the exchange uses its three-tier system. Delivery can take place any business day on a particular delivery month. NYMEX platinum and WTI crude oil markets through a locally listed contract that is traded and settled in Rands. The exchange makes use of a silo receipt. initial margin requirements as well as the daily m-t-m process. This does not mean that 100 tons of maize is delivered by truck to the exchange to complete the delivery process. A volume weighted average price (VWAP) is used to calculate the m-t-m for all liquid contracts. Settlement procedures of agricultural derivatives Positions can still be opened or closed during the delivery month until the last trading day. also referred to as the settlement price. The JSE also provides access to the COMEX gold. Notice day The short position holder (seller of the commodity) notifies his broker about his intention to give notice of delivery to close-out a futures position. representing a specific quantity of stock in a registered Safex silo to effect delivery. Physical delivery takes place over a two-business day period. his/her broker assumes these positions. Silo receipts have to be delivered to a broker who will in turn ensure that they reach the exchange no later than 12h00 on the delivery day. (A futures position in the July contract can only be delivered on during July). Should the offer be lower than the last traded price then the offer will be used as the m-t-m. Notice must be given before 12h45 on any business day during the delivery month. A long position holder allocated stock will be notified through the clearing member of the allocation. 6. the CORN contract based off of the CBOT corn contract was launched. The silo owner storing the product guarantees the quality of stock as per detailed grading methodology specified by the National Department of Agriculture. copper and silver markets. (This means that there are sellers in the market who are prepared to sell lower than the last traded price).

For the last seventeen years the exchange has provided an efficient facility for price discovery and price risk management of agricultural products in The Commodity Derivatives Division looks forward to the years ahead and is committed to providing South Africa and the region with an efficient and cost effective product to manage price risk. The JSE is also actively persuing the opportunity to introduce physical delivery points outside of the South African borders to introduce additional price risk management tools for other specific African countries to benefit from. the exchange has been open for trading every single business day providing a platform for buyers and sellers to match their trades. Since the market is information driven. then regional and finally international. To illustrate Currently the clearing members consist of South Africa’s largest financial institutions. It is imperative that clients understand the agreements they enter into and most importantly the trading strategies they use to manage their price This tier system ensures that the client on the other side is always guaranteed fulfillment of his/her position.jse. weather bureau or South African Grain Information Services (SAGIS) release new information. The key factors influencing grain prices in South Africa can be identified as first – the local. Non-hedgers are restricted to an exposure of 15% of the net delta open interest. Compliance to the FICA regulations has afforded members the opportunity to understand their clients business better and in so doing understand their risks. As the market has grown and developed over the last 17 years.gosa. This was done since the open interest on the contract had grown significantly larger than the available crop in South Africa and to prevent manipulation of the underlying Grain Handling Organisation of Southern Africa (GOSA) Tel: 012 807 3002 www. The exchange rate is also an important contributor since world grain is traded in US huge shortages in Southern Africa and an El Nino expected in the middle of the maize growing season. South Africa. it will have a direct impact on the current trading prices. hedgers may very well become speculators without even realising should the Rand weaken then the demand for South African maize would increase. 8. this will also provide further value to the cash market as basis premiums will be made available on a transparent platform for both buyers and sellers to participate. imagine the Rand trading at 14 to the and 9.61 the broker is unable to assume the client’s positions. With further innovations in the trading of Safex silo receipts planned for the near future. reducing trading fees as the trading volumes increased. maize prices will naturally soar. Without understanding the true downside and upside of any strategy. so the rules and regulations have progressed to ensure market integrity for all participants trading on the market. should organizations like the Crop Estimates Committee (CEC). his clearing member would stand in for him/her. Broker-client relationships remain key to all participants in the market. At the end of 2003 position limits were introduced on white maize futures contract for non-hedgers (speculators).aspx . Training and research Find the “Education” option at www. Except for one day in 1999 due to severe technical problems. Associations involved Agricultural Economics Association of South Africa (AEASA) Tel: 012 341 1115 www.

Nedbank Capital . Clearing Members are member who clears deals on behalf of broking members. National strategy and government contact Directorate: International Trade Tel: 012 319 8451 DITR@daff.daff.bfap. Directorate: Marketing Tel: 012 319 8455 DM@daff. and University of Pretoria accreditation services for financial Agricultural CELC is amongst Tel: 033 260 5494 Their vision is to be “the leading http://science. Forestry and Fisheries under the Divisions menu option at Bureau for Economic Research Tel: 021 887 2810 www. MGK Bedryfsmaatskappy (Edms) Bpk MGKM 012 252 3778/9 Mooirivier Grain (Pty) Ltd – MRGM 018 297 4795 Nedbank Ltd – NEDM 011 535 4038 NWK Ltd – NWKM 018 633 1000 Oos-Kaap Boerdery & Graanhandelaars (Edms) Bpk – OVKM 051 923 4500 Peregrine Derivatives (Pty) Ltd – MERM 021 670 5258 PSG Prime (Pty) Ltd – CPTM 021 799 8089 Rand Merchant Bureau for Food and Agricultural Policy (BFAP) Tel: 012 420 4583/2 First World Trader (Pty) Ltd – FWTM 011 214 8006 Futureline (Pty) Ltd – FTRM 021 851 9573 GWK Trading (Pty) Ltd – GWKM 053 298 8452 The Crop Estimates Liaison Committee (CELC) is an official committee that functions under the auspices of the Stellenbosch University Department of Agricultural Economics Tel: 021 808 4758 http://academic. Companies involved Johannesburg Stock Exchange Commodity Derivatives Division Tel: 011 520 7535 Chris Sturgess – Chriss@jse.63 Agimark Trends (AMT) Tel: 012 361 2748 Universities conduct research on SAFEX and various models based on SAFEX are Afgri Broking (Pty) Ltd – AFGM 011 063 2729 Afrifocus Securities (Pty) Ltd AFFM 011 290 7800 Alpha Derivatives – ALPM 011 485 2321 Anglorand Futop (Pty) Ltd – ARFM 011 484 7440 Applied Derivatives (Pty) Ltd – ONEM 021 439 7714 Bester Feed & Grain Exchange (Pty) Ltd BESM 021 809 2500 BGC Financial Brokers (Pty) Ltd – BGCM 011 467 9325 B & P Group Financial Services (Pty) Ltd BPGM 031 583 4600 Brent Trading (Pty) Ltd – BRNM 056 811 2966 Brisen Commodities (Pty) Ltd – BRIM 012 640 1600 Bsec Derivative Brokers (Pty) Ltd BADM 021 914 9686 Bushveld Grain (Pty) Ltd – BVGM 0861 111 640 Cadiz Securities (Pty) Ltd CADM 021 657 8448 Cargill RSA (Pty) Ltd – CGLM 0861 227 445 CJS Securities (Pty) Ltd – CJSM 011 447 3531 Corn International (Pty) Ltd – CRNM 056 213 1731 Derived Market Investment and Planning (Pty) Ltd – DMPM 012 997 5836 DHJ Grain Brokers (Pty) Ltd – DHJM 018 632 7748 DWT Securities (Pty) Ltd – DWTM 021 914 6460 Farmwise Grains (Pty) Ltd – FARM 011 787 3666 FCB Harlow Butler (Pty) Ltd – IAPM 011 276 9009 FFO Securities (Pty) Ltd FOFM 011 471 0500 National Agricultural Marketing Council (NAMC) Tel: 012 341 1115 Extension market professionals in South Africa and Rural Development Tel: 012 420 3248 and other African countries” professional body providing Broking Members are those members who have one or more registered dealers and the required clearing agreement and can trade on behalf of Brokers 11. to monitor the performance of the Crop Estimates Committee (CEC) and make recommendations for the further improvement of crop estimates on an ongoing TMS Training Services Tel: 011 853 2777 Member and member code Absa Bank Ltd – ABLM University of the Free State Department of Agricultural Grain SA offers a short SAFEX Economics Tel: 051 401 2824 South African Institute of University of KwaZulu-Natal Financial Markets (SAIFM) Department of Agricultural Tel: 011 802 4768 Economics JP Morgan Equities Ltd – AMIM 011 507 0619 Kempro (Pty) Ltd – KEMM 018 441 0094 Kernel Maize (Pty) Ltd – KMCM 028 313 2731 Market Traders (Pty) Ltd – MKTM 033 343 1245 Find information on the various directorates at the Department of a division of FirstRand Bank Ltd – RMBM 011 269 9800 Regiments Securities Ltd – FFOM 011 715 0314 Resolution Market Management (Pty) Ltd RESM 0861 791 6425 RMB Securities (Pty) Ltd RSTM 011 269 9740 Robinsin Mulder De Waal Financial Services (Pty) Ltd – RMDM 012 665 5010 Russelstone Group (Pty) Ltd GVFM 012 482 6600 SA Derivatives SSSM 031 566 4680 Senwes Ltd – SWKM 018 464 780 econ Grain SA Tel: 0860 047 246 www. Directorate: Statistical & Economical Analysis Tel: 012 319 8454 Crop Estimates Committee (CEC) Tel: 012 319 8032 / 6507 Telephone 011 895 5160


The ultimate value of these options depends on the cost of the insurance premium.e. • Realise that high prices often stimulate production which can result in prices declining. • If prices increase at any stage – because of weakening exchange rates. be sure to include the costs in your calculations. and unfortunately some pension a farmer must see what price the futures contract for that commodity is trading at the time of planting i. Commercial farmer points of interest Some market participants have been caught short because they thought that they could read the market and left themselves open to price volatility. and their reasons for this. Grain Hedging. Sources: Rod Gravelet-Blondin (JSE Ltd). • Prior to planting any crop.agbiz. The websites mentioned in this chapter Thanks to Chris Sturgess (JSE Limited) for updating the draft chapter. It is easy to make money on a rising market (bull phase).usda. Some use these as indicators and sign fixed-price contracts based on that exchange price. Analysis of why prices were strong or weak on a particular day is one of the most efficient methods of gaining knowledge of the grain – International Grains Council • Find the “Trade intelligence” option at www. • Do not store for too long. Farmers and experts alike.nass. A must for every grain producer. • Have a well thought-out. 12. but when it ends you could suffer great losses. July • Understand the options markets: Options offer new opportunities. Speculation Dr Geyser. “Finance and the Farmer”. futures or options. Standard Bank Agricultural Division. This strategy prevents “if only” scenarios. have lost money by speculating on SAFEX. Understand domestic and world markets. • Understand the futures markets – since futures are traded up to 12 months in advance.65 Member and member code Telephone Sigma Options Writers (Pty) Ltd – SOWM 028 313 0104 Standard Bank of South Africa – STDM 011 378 8620 Suidwes Landbou (Edms) Bpk – SWLM 018 581 1000 Thebe Securities Limited – TBEM 011 375 1000 28E Capital (Pty) Ltd TEEM 012 663 1115 Tradekor (Pty) Ltd – TDKM 011 721 3100 Trademar Futures (Pty) Ltd – TMRM 011 244 9860 TTSA Securities (Pty) Ltd – IMBM 011 277 5323 Unigrain (Pty) Ltd – UNGM 011 692 4400 Vanguard Derivatives (Pty) Ltd – MMMM 011 722 7511 Vantage Capital Markets SA – VCMM 011 326 2239 Vorlon (Pty) Ltd – VORM 011 502 2760 VKB Beperk – VRYM 058 863 8280 Vrystaat Mielies (Edms) Bpk –VMBM 018 294 2200 Clearing Members Member and member code Contact details ABSA Clearing – VKSC 011 895 7245 JP Morgan Securities SA (Pty) Ltd JPMC +44 207 325 3687 Nedbank Clearing – NEDC 011 667 1317 Rand Merchant Bank – RMBC 011 282 8375 Standard Bank Clearing – STDC 011 636 8431 For an updated list see www. international supply and demand factors and intentions to plant later in the year – then you have an opportunity to take part in those price – the National Agricultural Statistics Service (USA) • www. • Your marketing plan should be updated regularly and objectively. website of the Agricultural Business Chamber. as in the futures market and do not have to worry about having sufficient cash to meet margin – the World Agricultural Outlook Board (WAOB) serves as a focal point for economic intelligence and the outlook for world agriculture. if the price changes those farmers will still have to accept the contract price. .co.jse. he can go ahead and plant. This means that he will not be exposed to possible price declines before he harvests the crop. • China National Grain and Oils Information Centre – www. Call 011 025 4355 or visit www. It is recommended that you follow and chart futures prices daily. Farmers can always obtain the upside of rising prices with the use of financial instruments on the You do not have to put up margin money. • Use this information when deciding to sell or store your crop to take advantage of future price written marketing plan. and the risk of adverse price – Chicago Board of Trade • www.cmegroup. there is no production risk associated with your marketing decision. even though it is worse than the current exchange price. Source: 13. as storage fees are high and you will lose interest on the money you could have made if you sold.usda. • Visit the websites of role players listed in this chapter Any farmer can have SAFEX prices delivered to their cell phone. Should your production be less than expected. • Understand the limitations of price forecasting – accurate forecasting is impossible. • • www.chinagrain. Try to obtain price forecasts. (which changes daily). you are not committed to delivery grain or offsetting your position. Tips for Farmers: • Keep in touch with the supply and demand conditions relating to your commodity. they extend the marketing season from a few weeks to 12 months – allowing you to take advantage of frequent temporary price increases. • Regularly contact their grain brokers to get their opinion of the market – whether prices are going to rise in the future or decline. ‘Finance for Farmers’ Standard Bank. Consider all the costs involved and include shrinkage. Also. Websites and publications • Long and Short of Futures Markets: Safex. hence the importance of locking in prices when prices are high. weather and crop factors. He must however hedge (lock in) that price by either forward contracting / or buying puts or futures. If it is profitable to plant based on that price using an average three-year yield for that commodity. from 2 to 3 different sources.kejafa. gov. • Where your marketing plan includes hedging. Buy insurance against adverse price movements without you losing the benefits associated with favourable price movements.

At least part of that capital is usually the common property of the co-operative.66 marketing and finance Co-operatives 1. Elected representatives are accountable to the membership. • A co-operative is a group of persons who freely decide to come together to meet common needs and goals. • A co-operative must follow co-operative principles (see next heading) in its organisation and activities. elected representatives. We can break down this definition into five main points in order to understand it more clearly: • A co-operative is an independent organisation. 2. paying members in proportion to their transactions with the co-operative. and democratically control. and employees so they can contribute effectively to the development of their cooperatives. managers. they do so on terms that ensure control remains with their members. 3. who actively participate in setting their policies and making decisions. national. so that each member has an equal voice in decisions. not to anyone else outside the co-operative. . • A co-operative is controlled democratically. • giving them the chance to learn how to work together the co-operative way for the benefit of each individual member and of the group as a whole. self-help organisations controlled by their members. Overview Co-operatives are not only for the poor. or raise capital from external sources. Members becoming uninvolved often leads to the collapse of the co-operative. and supporting other activities approved by the membership. The benefits of the cooperative are shared by all of the members. • Concern for community – Co-operatives work for the sustainable development of their communities through policies approved by their members. training and information – Co-operatives provide education and training for their members. • Education. and there is no gender. social and cultural needs and aspirations through a jointly owned and democratically controlled enterprise” (definition by the International Co-operative Alliance). • Voluntary and open membership – nobody is forced to be a member. regional and international structures. It must stand or fall on its own feet. including governments. Helping people to help themselves means: • making them aware of needs and problems they have in common. Co-operatives: a definition A co-operative is defined as “an autonomous association of persons united voluntarily to meet their common economic. • Autonomy and independence – Co-operatives are independent. National and provincial government promote co-operatives as a type of business entity and a means to get informal economic actors involved in and benefitting from the formal economy. They inform the general public – particularly young people and opinion leaders – about the nature and benefits of co-operation. What isn’t possible for the individual is possible when many persons act together. • Member economic participation – Members contribute equitably to. social. Seven Co-operative Principles There are seven co-operative principles that are followed by co-operatives all over the world. If they enter into agreements with other organisations. racial. the capital of their co-operative. • A co-operative is jointly owned. Surpluses may be used to develop the co-operative further. The main feature of co-operatives is that help people to help themselves. Its primary duty is to its members. political or religious discrimination. Everyone who is involved in a co-operative should know and understand these basic co-operative principles. The co-operative principles are guidelines by which co-operatives put their values into practice. principles and practices. co-operatives reach down most to the low income groups. but of all the different types of business organisations. • giving them access to information about co-operative values. • Democratic member control – Co-operatives are democratic organisations controlled by their members. • Co-operation among co-operatives – Co-operatives serve their members most effectively and strengthen the co-operative movement by working together through local. one vote). In primary co-operatives members have equal voting rights (one member.

NOTE: It is possible to combine different types of co-operatives into a multipurpose co-operative. • They can also mean some loss of autonomy as many grants will have conditions attached. NGOs or governmental sources. Grants and donations Some co-operatives try to raise additional funds from donor and development agencies. • Improve products or service quality: member satisfaction is achieved through improved facilities. Source: Adapted from Guidelines for establishing Agricultural Co-operatives. • A financial services co-operative is a primary co-operative with the main purpose of providing financial services to its members. • A worker co-operative is a primary co-operative that provides employment to its members.67 4. Applying for loans is an important way for co-operatives to .gov. processes or markets agricultural products and supplies agricultural inputs and services to its members. who occasionally set aside funds to support co-operative development. • A consumer co-operative is a co-operative that gets and distributes goods to its members and non-members. • Obtaining products or services otherwise unavailable: agricultural co-operatives often provide services or products that would not attract other private businesses. children and the sick. • Reduced purchasing costs: volume purchasing reduces the purchasing price of needed supplies. as co-operative members may have less incentive to make the organisation work on its own feet. and also provides services to its members. Find the document on www. or a secondary co-operative that provides financial services to a primary cooperative. parastatals. while giving its members a special discount or a refund based on the amount of their transactions. such as care for the elderly. and the assurance you can offer to clients looking for larger quantities. Dora Tamana and the CBDC under heading 8. 5. though. • A services co-operative is a co-operative that provides housing. • A social co-operative is a non-profit co-operative that provides social services to its members. • A co-operative burial society is a co-operative that provides funeral benefits. or a secondary co-operative that provides technical service to primary housing co-operatives. Nonetheless it must be noted that this source of funding carries with it potential problems: • They can contribute to dependency. Agricultural co-operatives serve their members in the following ways: • Improve bargaining power: combining the volume of several members improves their position when dealing with other businesses. generating investment and their contribution to the economy. health care. This category also includes agricultural marketing and supply cooperatives. • Reduce cost / increase income: reducing the operating costs increases the amount of earnings available for distribution to members to boost their income. equipment and services. In their various forms agricultural co-operatives promote the fullest participation in the economy and social development of all people. or a secondary co-operative that provides services to primary worker co-operatives. These are some of the possibilities: • An agricultural co-operative is a co-operative that produces. Loans Most small business enterprises in the world obtain funding through the lending cycle. An example is a savings and loan co-operative. • Obtaining market access or broadening market opportunities: more buyers are attracted because of the value you can add. 6. where the members pool their savings and make loans to each other. mobilising resources. Grants and donations are a possible way to help a co-operative that is struggling to obtain access to transportation. Grants and donations available to co-operatives can be researched by looking at the various corporate social investment schemes offered by private companies. In the long term this might mean that co-ops do not become selfreliant and wait for an outside agent to intervene whenever there are problems. • A housing co-operative is a primary co-operative that provides housing to it members. to its members and their dependants. An example is a sewing co-operative that provides fabric and sewing machines to its members and then markets the items they sew. • A marketing and supply co-operative means a co-operative that supplies production inputs to members and markets or processes their products. A co-operative which buys bulk groceries and sells them to its members and to the public. including funeral insurance and related services. according to the agendas of the funding bodies.daff. is an example of a consumer co-operative. The law does not place any limit on the kinds of co-operatives that can be registered. Types of co-operatives Co-operatives are usually understood to be either an agricultural form of business or a state-driven welfare intervention. Why form agricultural co-operatives? The importance of agricultural co-operatives is job creation. communication or other services. and government departments. child care. Finances See notes on SACCOL.

68 access the capital needed to purchase equipment and pay for training of co-operative Development and Tourism (KZN) Limpopo Business Support Tel: 033 897 4546 / 4347 Agency (Libsa) Tel: 033 893 4346 Tel: 015 287 3000 www. the Department on the Co-operative Banks of Labour. Tel: 011 447 1013 the second is national and provincial to “Agro-ecology in action”. do International Labour Organisation (ILO) project and farm management Tel: 012 818 8000 pretoria@ilo.ethical. co-operative • access to finance academy to provide including The Agricultural Colleges on-the-job training and follow-up and Provincial Departments of measures. See the “Development financial services” chapter for other sources of financial assistance. If co-operatives are set up in the right way – with enough Companies and Intellectual Property Commission (Previously CIPRO) Tel: 012 394 9500 Raiffeisen Confederation Tel: 012 346 6020 Business and co-operative training IMAC Services COPAC supports the co-operatives Tel: 083 276 4847 by “providing the necessary dehart@mweb.Directorate: Agricultural operatives Act and its ammendments Development Finance in 2012. Amaphisi Farmers Tel: 082 216 0607 nkosi. Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) Department of Co-operative Development Tel: 012 394 1631/ 08 www. the website. More role players Agricultural Business Chamber DGRV offers demand driven and (Agbiz) outcome oriented training in coTel: 012 807 6686 operatives and business principles in AgriSETAs strategic plans and “extensive funding” is allocated to Ethical Co-op www. Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) Directorate: Co-operatives and The DTI creates an enabling Enterprise Development environment for co-operatives Tel: 012 319 8133 through the Co-operative Development Invest North West (INW) Co-operative Banks Tel: 014 594 2570 Development Agency (CBDC) www.mcineka@amaphisi. Other The DTI’s Co-operative Scheme (CIS) provides a direct cash grant for registered primary co-operatives (five or more members) Tel: 011 339 1592/1651 Co-operatives are highlighted www. 7. support and planning – they can play a major role in helping provide jobs and fight poverty. the DTI two purposes: the first purpose provides financial and other is that co-operatives are used as assistance to co-operatives at delivery systems for government programmes.libsa. At Cedara in other service providers. training and conference facilities on their premises in Pretoria Afrikara Advice and training is offered www. Legislation will provide follows: for the creation of a new co-op • supply of agricultural inputs development agency. the Co. and a co-operative • value adding or agroadvisory council. The drawback to this form of funding is the limited access many poor South Africans have to financial institutions as well as the high interest rates and services fees charged to people. Annexure A processing sets out areas in which several • Human Resource government departments are to be development involved. Forestry and National Treasury – find notes Fisheries (DAFF). this is a savings and credit co-operatives. including the Department of Agriculture. and the Co-operative Tel: 012 319 7295 Banks Act. technical tools and capacity building resources to Find the advert on page 66 achieve this”. and to co-operatively organised small farming co-operative self-help initiatives in townships. train agricultural co-operatives.kzndae. AgriSETA Dora Tamana Co-operative Tel: 012 301 5600 Centre (DTCC) www. or by calling 033 355 9444. Medium and Micro Enterprises Trust (HOST) C/o SACCOL Mentor emerging farmers. The mobilisation of farmers Through various business through co-operatives serves development Home of Small. For this KwaZulu-Natal.afrikara. the Integrated Strategy on Co-operative Development the Development and Promotion of Support Unit Bana ba Kgwale Tel: 012 729 9008 / 084 510 8777 www. heading . purpose DGRV has established as well as in accounting and bookkeeping to these the Department of Development Agency under Housing Contact details for help throughout Co-operative development is one the province are available on the of Libsa’s key programme website Makgalaka Business Deutscher support In countries worldwide.treasury.agbiz. The Enterprise Organisation (TEO) within the DTI evaluates applications and administers funding. Gazette 21 January 2011) sets out Government plans for the next These services can be listed as decade.have been impossible to acquire operatives document (Government individually. National strategy and government contact Co-operatives have been so successful in certain parts of the world that the South African government wants more people to start co-operatives to agricultural co-operatives. that farmers are able to receive The Integrated Strategy on the agricultural services that would Development and Promotion of Co. details can be found on the website www.thedti. co-operatives play a stabilising role in rural areas.dgrvsa. a co• marketing of agricultural operative tribunal which will deal output with INW does co-operatives institution building Find the “Documents” and “FAQ’s” Further training activities Agriculture run short courses include training-of-trainer programs on agricultural co-operative for government personnel and management.Development Services und Raiffeisenverband (DGRV) Tel: 015 622 0543 / 082 467 2863 German Co-operative and Tel: 012 315 5367 For the registration of co-operatives Find “co-operatives development” in South Africa under the “Economic empowerment” menu option on Department of Co-operative and Policy Co-operatives is one of the areas in which the ILO provides technical Alternative Center (COPAC) assistance. Is’Baya Development Trust Tel: 021 851 9698 Department of Economic www.

thedti. Tel: 073 303 1554 tar@planetac./Soc. Find seventeen manuals on developing a co-operative at www. .ril. or at organisations referred to in this chapter e.69 Mthonyama Development Enterprise & Agric. managing and growing a International Co-operative Alliance – www. Visit the websites of role players mentioned in this SACCOL was established by Savings and Credit Co-operatives (SACCOs) and Credit Unions around South Africa as their National Association. Websites and publications • The dti Co-operatives Handbook South African Foundation (October 2003).g. website of Co-operatives If there is a group of you – or even a whole community – who want to start an enterprise where everyone benefits equally. www.scientificroets.thedti. • Various research issues are explored relating to co-operatives – enquire at faculties such as the Social Science/economics departments or websites of universities. • Find the “cooperatives” option under “Topics” at www. • It provides development services to SACCOs. Find provincial and district contact details on the SEDA website. in according to the Government Gazette 21 January available under “Publications” and “2010” options on www. to undertake research into cooperatives. Take the “Publications”. za.polity. • Co-operatives in South Africa: Their Role in Job Creation and Poverty Reduction.daff. to publish co-operative research outcomes and to maintain a resource centre of co operative Scientific Roets (Pty) Ltd Tel: 039 727 1515 NOPI provides all the regulatory www. ensuring that the benefits of the enterprise are more widely to develop and offer training courses. The Cooperative League USA (CLUSA) International Program has worked in developing countries to economically empower individuals and communities through development of • It regulates SACCOs. Co-operatives are “the largest membership movement in [the UK]”. take a look at the “Publications” option at www. Seda provides small business and medium-sized enterprises with information on starting. Spain. says www.ncba. International business environment The Integrated Strategy on the Development and Promotion of Co-operatives document (Government Gazette 21 January 2011) looks at international best practice in so that people work efficiently and income exceeds also under the “Publications” option. “General Publications” and then “Training manuals: Cooperatives” and www.sanaco. in which this consulting company does Kenya and South African National Apex Co-operative Tel: 011 339 1592 Tel: 012 323 5069 / 73 www. North-West University School of Business Management Small Enterprise Development Centre for Co-operatives Agency (SEDA) Dr Louw van der Walt Tel: 012 441 1000 Tel: 018 299 1365 / 083 658 9013 www. Find the “Co-operatives Development” option under “Economic Empowerment” on the Department of Trade and Industry Resonance Institute of Learning Tel: 011 888 2355 / 3498 www. Consultants Tel: 043 643 3429 Training on running co-operatives National Co-operatives Association of South Africa (NCASA) Tel: 011 339 1592 / 083 546 1915 ncasa@ananzi. An Annual Co-operative Development Review publication is planned as a future 9. South African Communist Party (SACP) Tel: 011 339 3621 www. the World Council of Credit – “uniting. Also see the Info Pak “How to form a co-operative”. SACCOL has three primary functions: • It is representative of the SACCO movement both locally and The Development Chamber and Trade & Industry Chamber have SACCOL is member of the the African been involved with co-operative ACCOSCA. Kate Philips. Confederation of Cooperative strategies and legislation Savings and Credit as millions of people are NOPILIFE (National Organic inadequately served by the banking Produce Initiative) sector. together with National Youth Development 86 counties in 7 regions worldAgency (NYDA) NYDA Co-operative Support and wide makes up WOCCU. business opportunities and support for small business. even if its principles are different. Funding WOCCU sees South Africa as Tel: 011 651 7000 a country with great growth National Economic Development & Labour Council (NEDLAC) Tel: 011 328 4200 guidance and recommendations for the institutionalisation of “Organic Co-operatives is one of the areas Villages”. SACCOL services its member organisations by providing training. provides notes on co-operatives and gives contact details for Government sources of funding and assistance. www. and where profits are equitably shared with everyone involved. website of the Co-operative and Policy Alternative Center (COPAC). advice and other technical services as well as accepting deposit from and making loans to its Find the advert on page 67 The Savings and Credit Cooperative League of SA Limited (SACCOL) Tel: 021 422 3333 SEDA has a Co-operatives and Community Public Private Partnership Programme (CPPP). It must still be operated and managed with the same discipline and systems that apply in any representing and serving co-operatives worldwide” 10. then it makes sense to start a co-operative enterprise. India. Find the menu option on co-operatives on the Small Enterprise Development Agency (SEDA) website – www. Find this on The objectives of the centre is to assist members with the establishment of co-operatives. sustainable group businesses and democratic practices.

If farmers should get anything for free. for to find out Rather. you can go to your nearest bank and fill in application forms. (You are allowed to take someone who knows your business well with you. this contract can be ceded to us in security for his or her loan. Overview “Entrepreneurship is first and foremost the freedom of individuals to express themselves in economic terms and thus economic freedom entails entrepreneurship”. water pumps. with or without interest. 23 July 2010 The term “Emerging Farmer” is commonly applied both to farmers who are emerging in terms of scale and to farmers who are emerging in terms of lack of skills. • It must be in a saleable condition. would do more to reduce poverty and generate value-added wealth. it determines whether your income exceeds your costs to such an extent that there will be enough money to repay the loan and to cover household expenses. Should you fail to repay your loan. The business of a tomato grower in Giyani is obviously riskier than that of ZZ2 because the scale is smaller and market access is not there. Repaying the bank. especially as there is large untapped potential in informal markets.g. including information and tips. • When applying for credit. • During the interview you will be given a chance to motivate your proposal. and if you want to farm you have to start thinking like a businessperson. the aim should be to help beneficiaries become self-sufficient. it’s training. vehicles. livestock. It is. Moeletsi Mbeki. writing in the Farmer’s Weekly. land and finance. The bank will want to know how the credit is going to be used and what your financial position is (assets and liabilities). Ask your financial advisor or extension officer or to assist you to compile this information. e. The extension officer is a person who works for the Department of Agriculture in your area and who is trained to assist farmers in agricultural matters. These farmers are no riskier than other categories of farmers. When and how much can you borrow? This chapter is a sketch. I think loans. How to apply • Once you have identified why you have to borrow money. however. medium-sized and micro enterprises (SMMEs) keep one in six people economically active in the country. A collateral or security is property pledged as security for the loan. quality inputs. Source: Peter Mashala. Credit NB Only credit grantors that are registered with the National Credit Regulator (NCR) may grant credit. Visit www. make sure that your debt is not more than 30% of your current assets and 25% of the expected income. When it comes to financial assistance. if you like). . South Africa’s six-million small. What is credit and why do you need it? Credit is money borrowed from someone or from a bank by agreement with the promise to pay it back at a later date. by no means conclusive. • Know the purpose for which you are borrowing money – to improve the performance of your farming operations. • After submitting the forms. of the financial assistance to small business (farmers included) in the country. the bank will repossess your property and sell it to realise its security. • The bank manager will tell you after the interview whether your application was successful or not.ncr. etc.70 marketing and finance Development financial services 1. Farming is a business just like any other. the Giyani grower is equal to any top farmer. Farmers who are emerging in terms of scale battle with problems such as access to markets. sustainable future for the country. except tax and interest) will give a good indication of how much debt the project will be able to carry. the bank will call you in for an interview. Repaying the loan within a given time limit will improve your credit worthiness and credibility with the bank and also save on interest charges. Property which is presented as collateral must meet certain requirements: • It must be identifiable and not perishable. But in terms of production techniques. land. Your bank will want to know this in order to assess your ability to generate income and pay back the loan. • It must be your own property and preferably not immovable. Source: Andrew Makanete 2. debt counselling etc. Getting a loan or credit from a commercial bank Farmers who want to establish or expand their farming operations can obtain finance from commercial banks. These farmers need a financing programme that includes support structures. Before any commercial bank can grant a loan. Commercial banks grant credit to farmers for various purposes e. The best incentive to repay a loan is to have access to future loans. For example. if such a farmer can be assisted to acquire a contract to supply a large retailer. the FinScope South Africa Small Business Survey 2010 showed. • Therefore. irrigation equipment. No wonder the New Growth Path identifies small business as an enabler for creating and sustaining enterprise and jobs. All citizens must be included in the economy if there is going to be any meaningful. Your application should contain all the relevant information because it forms the basis for negotiations with the bank manager. The bank will ask for a collateral or security for the loan. rather than grants. important that they understand the terms and conditions of credit. The bank will look at your: • assets and liabilities (financial standing) • present and expected income (cash flow) • risks involved and how you plan to cover them • knowledge of the industry in which you want to get involved Not having access to finance remains a key barrier to the growth and development of small business enterprises. negotiate the possible loan terms and also to develop a good business relationship with your bank manager – prepare the presentation of your loan request beforehand. • The bank must be able to estimate its market value. But it is also important to look beyond retailers for off-take agreements. it is the environment in which they operate that brings increased risk.g. what credit is and repayment requirements. • Do not apply for credit that will generate too little income to cover the interest and capital (money borrowed) repayments. See the “Providers of financial services” chapter for contact details of the commercial banks. the expected net income (income left over after all expenses have been deducted.

How is it done? We shall look at ways in which collateral may be obtained for small-scale/ emerging farmers. which will be notified to the bank. Under normal lending criteria.g. What is credit insurance? Domestic Credit Insurance offers protection against non-payment of debts (e. failing which the guarantee application as granted will lapse. which might include: 1. • Upon approval in principle by the bank. • Submit a business plan to any of these institutions – banks or DFIs – who will have the capacity to assess the viability.71 3. In each case they look at the parameters of the fund’s qualifying criteria. Quarterly financial statements from the borrower. Bank of Athens. African it will lodge a fully completed written application (together with the necessary supporting documents and information required in the business plan) to the designated officer representing the Trustees of the Fund. • The participating banks screen and approve. Peulwana HP . People’s Bank and Standard Bank. What is a Credit Guarantee? Farmers who do not have title deeds to the land they farm or who cannot meet the other conventional commercial bank security requirements are often excluded from access to agricultural A loan guarantee fund provides and ensures access to finance and technical skills by black emerging agribusiness entrepreneurs and farmers. they would not qualify for such finance since they would not have the support of an indemnity cover. Enforcing the terms of credit in terms of prudent banking practice etc. Obtaining Credit Guarantees is one of the remedies. the applications from prospective borrowers qualifying for guarantee by the fund. Many commercial banks and the Development Finance Institutions (DFIs) in the country participate in the guarantee scheme. the bank shall administer the repayments according to banking practice and procedures. due to insolvency or protracted default) incurred by debtors based in South Africa and/or the common monetary area. • increased sales – credit Insurance will enable you to sell more goods to new and existing clients while substantially reducing the overall risk. allowing them the space and opportunity to develop their agricultural business. FNB. “Indemnity cover means the extent to which a Fund indemnifies the Bank against the Bank’s irrecoverable loss in relation to the Facility concerned (expressed as a percentage). feasibility and creditworthiness of the agribusiness projects and borrowers. Banks who participate in credit guarantees include ABSA. in principle. • The Fund considers and approves or rejects the application within ten business days of receipt thereof. Nedcor. • The bank then needs to notify (within three months) the Fund that the guarantee has been taken up by the borrower. Source: www.creditguarantee. For the individual: A credit guarantee is aimed at assisting borrowers to obtain normal banking facilities to enable them to establish. • From the time of the approval of the application until the bank credit together with finance charges has been repaid.” For the company: Credit Insurance offers your company three main benefits: • risk protection – protection against non-payment. • better financing – enhanced financing mechanisms by providing added security to finance providers. 2. expand or acquire a new or existing business. The Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) has a number of financial incentives for businesses (take the “Financial assistance” option at www.ledet. Read more in the Black Economic Empowerment for example. with a particular emphasis on municipalities. Call 012 319 7295 or email SecSMFSCD@daff. Contact the banks or visit their websites to find out about their products and services. All government departments are tasked with growing their sphere of the economy and have (access to) various grants and funding mechanisms. etc. Willowvale Khanyisa Business & Management Tel: 047 532 2685 Consultancy Cell: 083 739 3347 . people with disabilities).gov. The Department of Economic Development is specifically tasked with “overseeing the work of key state entities engaged in economic development” (see www. If you are Port Elizabeth SEDA Nelson Mandela Bay Tel: 041 502 2400 Queenstown SEDA Chris Hani Tel: 045 838 6035 Qumbu Eastern Cape Communications Cell: 082 209 0553 Uitenhage SEDA Nelson Mandela Bay Tel: 041 992 6513 MAFISA (Micro-agricultural Financial Institution of South Africa) is a micro and retail agricultural financial scheme for economically active poor people. runs a farmer support Programme called “NERPOLivestock Credit Scheme”(NLCS). Micro and Medium Agribusiness Enterprises and to enable agricultural entrepreneurs to develop into larger businesses. pesticides. We list some of these here. The company invests between R250 000 and R15 million in CANEGROWERS (see sugarcane chapter) would be able to tell you about the Khula-Akwandze Fund (KAF) for small-scale sugar Land Bank etc. for example. Refer to the chapter on cooperatives.economic. The Small Enterprise Development Agency (SEDA) has offices to help the SMME with business plans. The Department of Agriculture. The service was established following a recommendation by the Financial Services Charter (FSC).za to read about what is on offer for iLembe. Retail Finance Intermediaries (RFIs) are institutions that obtain loans from the state in order to loan the money to clients in their Most banks also participate in credit guarantees.). RFIs charge different interest rates depending on the risk involved in the application. 012 004 0500 (Pretoria). fertilisers. Find contact details of their branches countrywide at www. Mzansi accounts are offered by providing finance for qualified entrepreneurs. Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) runs the Micro-agricultural Financial Institution of South Africa (MAFISA) and AgriBEE Equity Fund programmes. Visit 021 3000 500 (Cape Town). Provincial government departments also run programmes. Role players Business Partners. Co-operative banks are a possibility. tasked with aspects such as training and support services and initiated by the dti. The Credit Scheme is aimed at providing financial services to facilitate the development of (KwaZulu-Natal Department of Economic Development) for an idea of what is on (Limpopo Department of Economic Development) and Different RFIs have different target markets depending on their operations. These associations are listed in the various crop and livestock seeds. proposals for funding and more. small-scale irrigation systems and smallscale farming equipment and implements to small and emerging farmers and other target groups. Financial Education (helping South Africans improve their financial knowledge and discipline) and building skills at public service level. The Masisizane Fund was set up by Old Mutual as “a non-profit development funding company”. They are given the responsibility to make it easier for small businesses to access finance (find the “State Owned Development Banks and Agencies” listing later in this chapter). See www. Visit www. RFIs also use the Credit Guarantee Scheme to access additional funds from participating banks. The organisation provides savings and banking facilities at approved financial institutions and offers loans for production inputs ( over six million South Africans have opened Mzansi bank accounts which provide previously un-banked clients easy access to banking services countrywide. The DGRV SA assists co-operatives. MEDO connects large South African companies – annual turnover above R35million – with emerging micro enterprises – annual turnover of less than R5million – which are at least 50% Some municipalities have Economic Development Agencies to support SMEs and to encourage or call MEDO at the following numbers: 010 500 5000 (Johannesburg). for more. FNB. The BEE scorecard allows rewards companies whose financial contributions favour Black people. company registration. Contact 012 348 8566 or 083 640 The National Emergent Red Meat Producer’s Organisation (NERPO).72 4. These are institutions like the IDC. Other organisations. youth. Development finance institutions (DFIs) are listed under “State Owned Development Banks and Agencies” heading later in this chapter. Find a list of these departments at Some of these associations might be actively involved in sourcing have been grouped under the SEDA umbrella. or contact role players like Enterprise Development Organisation (MEDO).za or call 012 471 3800. but may be able to help if you are looking to supply agricultural inputs or doing some form of processing. The commercial banks have specialist SME divisions. Visit www. Standard Bank and postbank. Since its inception in 2004. They do not support farming. Visit www.g. The ECIC evaluates export credit and foreign investment risks and provides export credit and foreign investment insurance cover on behalf of situated between Durban and Richard’s Bay in KwaZulu-Natal. the Export Credit Insurance Corporation of South Africa (ECIC) might be able to and has a range of support services to the entrepreneur. Visit www. and their criteria to obtain finance. Nedcor. 031 100 0500 (Durban). Mthatha SEDA OR Tambo Tel: 047 531 5075 Mthatha Khanyisa Business & Management Tel: 047 532 2685 Consultancy Cell: 083 739 3347 Port Elizabeth Comsec Business Development Tel: 041 487 3996 Centre www. as well as some centres that have been contracted to SEDA in the past: Eastern Cape Location Alfred Nzo Service provider and website Contact Details SEDA Mount Ayliff Tel: 039 254 0584 Camdeboo SEDA Cacadu Tel: 049 892 2105 East London Nunamis Business Development Cell: 078 158 6710 Services Cell: 079 920 5948 East London SEDA Amathole Tel: 043 722 1950 Kouga SEDA Cacadu Tel: 042 291 0966 Makana SEDA Cacadu Tel: 046 622 2067 Industry associations might have knowledge of funds for role players in their sectors. an investment company for small and medium enterprises. Masisizane supports initiatives in Enterprise Development (women. Microloan Guarantors (like the old Khula Enterprises) are founded by the Department of Trade and Industry to provide collateral for small businesses applying for SMME finance from commercial banks. Tel: 011 422 4083 Benoni Maximum Development Institute Tel: 011 421 5283 Cell: 082 408 0493 Tel: 039 315 7300 Limpopo Location Service provider and website Contact Details Braamfontein Medunsa Organisation for Disabled Entrepreneurs Tel: 011 830 0231 Fax: 011 839 3216 Ba-Phalaborwa Bronkhorstspruit Library Business Information Corner Tel: 013 932 6305/6 Fetakgomo / Apel Mokgalaka Business Development Services Tell: 015 622 0543 Cell: 082 467 2863 Germiston/ Thokoza KLECO Local Business Service Centre Tel: 011 860 3415 Cell: 072 766 7068 Jane Furse SEDA Sekhukhune Tel: 013 265 1617 SEDA Tshwane Tel: 012 441 1301 Makhado / Louis Trichardt Rivoni Society for the Blind Pretoria Tel: 015 556 3207/8 Cell: 083 276 1059 Randfontein Bantsho Management and Marketing Strategies Tel: 015 307 5837 Palaborwa Foundation Tel: 015 769 5000 Tel: 015 769 5052 .za/ Tel: 033 342 2546 Welkom PMC Graphic Designs & Consulting Tel: 057 353 2065 Cell: 082 905 2715 Port Shepstone SEDA Ugu Tel: 039 688 1560 Welkom SEDA Lejweleputswa Tel: 057 352 1870 Richards Bay Entrepreneurial Suport Services Tel: 035 797 1821 Fax: 035 797 1849 Wepener SEDA Naledi Tel: 051 583 1372 Richards Bay SEDA Uthungulu Tel: 035 789 3735 Tongaat KwaZulu Natal Development Tel: 032 945 2531 Foundation Ugu District MGM Holdings Cell: 083 656 7195 Tzaneen Small Enterprise Foundation Tel: 011 692 3286 Mokopane SEDA Waterberg Tel: 015 491 2168 Polokwane Tel: 015 223 2386 Rivonia Prodigy Business Services Tel: 011 234 5220 Joint Education Project Gauteng Location Service provider and website Contact Details Benoni Boikano Accountants www.73 Free State Location Bloemfontein Service provider and website SEDA Mangaung Dewetsdorp & Quick Leap Investment 120 Koffiefontein KwaZulu-Natal Contact Details Location Service provider and website Contact Details Tel: 051 447 3281 Tel: 051 447 4595 Durban Inkombandlela Accountants & Management Tel: 031 305 7680 Cell: 082 744 5071 Kokstad Scientific Roets Tel: 039 727 1515 Cell: 083 630 7787 Ilembe District Bantu Batho Management Services Tel: 032 551 1464 Harrismith Education with Enterprise Trust Tel: 058 623 0104 (EWET) Tel: 058 623 0649 Kagisanong Township Mangaung University Community Partnership Programme (MUCPP) Tel: 051 435 2902/3 Cell: 082 702 2258 Ixopo SEDA Sisonke Tel: 039 834 7100 Ladysmith SEDA Uthukela Tel: 036 638 9780 Kroonstad PMC Graphic Designs & Consulting Tel: 057 353 2065 Cell: 082 905 2715 Melmoth Quad 4 Projects Tel: 035 450 7809 Mkhanyakude Kroonstad SEDA Fezile Dabu Tel: 056 213 1809 Maputaland Development and Tel: 035 592 0125 Information Cell: 072 077 2408 Ladybrand SEDA Mantsopa Tel: 051 924 1594 Mooi River Phuthaditjhaba SEDA Thabo Mofutsanyane Tel: 058 713 1683 Mooi Mpofana Youth Advisory Tel: 033 263 1221 Centre Qwaqwa Maluti Development Tel: 058 713 6342 Newcastle SEDA Amajuba Tel: 034 312 9096 Sasolburg SEDA Metsimaholo Tel: 016 974 2460 Pietermaritzburg SEDA Umgungundlozu Tel: 033 264 3100 Trompsburg SEDA Xhariep Tel: 051 713 0363 Pietermaritzburg The Business Support Centre http://pmbbsc.html Sebokeng / Vanderbijlpark Sedibeng Training Centre Tel: 016 988 1350 Fax: 016 988 1347 Polokwane SEDA Capricorn Tel: 015 290 8720 Thohoyandou SEDA Vhembe Tel: 015 962 2144 Soshanguve Centre for Business Education and Training Tel: 012 799 2842 Fax: 012 799 5954 Tzaneen SEDA Mopani Tel: 015 306 6400 Vosloorus JMT Executive Tax and Marketing

A recent Tel: 013 752 5525 Witbank SEDA Nkangala Tel: 013 655 6970 Service provider and website Location Service provider and website Contact Details Tel: 053 632 7560 Western Cape North West Location Northern Cape Contact Details Bojanala East SEDA Brits Tel: 012 252 0580 Tel: 012 252 0581 Bojanala West SEDA Rustenburg Tel: 014 592 3696 Tel: 014 592 3769 Bophirima SEDA Vryburg Tel: 053 927 0590 Tel: 053 927 0591 Tel: 053 927 3930 Chaneng Brisca Projects Tel: 078 279 0323 Delareyville Majammoho Small Business Solutions Tel: 083 253 9925 Ganyesa Ganyesa Business Development Centre Tel: 083 926 8345 Mafikeng Ernsol Business Management Tel: 018 381 4029 Services Cell: 083 504 2322 Mafikeng Majammoho Small Business Tel: 083 253 9925 Solutions Location Service provider and website Contact Details Bellville SEDA Cape Town Tel: 021 949 2227 Cape Town (Heerengracht) Nicro Tel: 021 462 0017 George SEDA Eden Tel: 044 874 4770 Gugulethu Isibane resource centre Tel: 083 390 4265 Khayelitsha Zenzele training and development Tel: 021 361 1840 Rosebank CLOTEX Tel: 013 253 1748 Small Business Advice Bureau Tel: 018 299 1002 Cell: 082 880 7650 Southern District SEDA Klerksdorp Tel: 018 462 1376/9 Vryburg Ganyesa Business Development Centre Tel: 083 926 8345 Zeerust Ernsol Business Management Tel: 082 756 0520 Services Location Bushbuckridge Service provider and website SEDA Bushbuckridge Contact details Tel: 013 799 1804 Kwa-Mhlushwa SEDA office Tel: 013 790 1183 Malamulele Tel: 015 851 0100 Get Ready Information Services Malelane SEDA Nkomazi Tel: 013 790 1183 Marapyane Marapyane Thusong Service Centre Tel: 012 724 3801 Tel: 012 724 3802 Mbombela / Nelspruit Global Village Project Management Tel: 013 757 1240 Cell: 082 868 7874 Nelspruit SEDA Ehlanzeni Tel: 013 754 4380 De Aar SEDA Pixley-Ka-Seme Secunda SEDA Gert Sibande Tel: 017 634 4339 Kimberley Siyathemba / Balfour Imvuselelo Business Development Resources Centre (IBDRC) Tel: 074 144 5603 Creative Thinking Trading Tel: 053 832 4632 524 (T/A Eyethu Services) Cell: 079 140 7491 Kimberley SEDA Frances Baard Tel: 053 836 7720 Kuruman SEDA John Taolo Gaetsewe Tel: 053 714 3160 Springbok SEDA Namakwa Tel: 027 712 8500 Upington SEDA Siyanda Tel: 054 337 8280 Thaba Chweu / Beehive Entrepreneurial Dev. Tel: 0800 246 888 Thembisile Diale Maphothoma & Associates for contact details of SEDA provincial Dr SJ Moroka / Midveld Industrial Chamber of Tel: 013 986 0737 Siyabuswa Commerce (MICAC) Mafikeng SEDA Mafikeng Tel: 018 381 3915/6/7 Potchestroom Brain Wave Projects Tel: 079 607 8390 Hazyview SEDA office Tel: 013 799 1961 Potchestroom Highlands / Belfast Umndeni Enterprises www.nicro. Emerging businesses often find that these institutions offer services that are not available to them by commercial • The Land Bank: provides finance to all sectors of the agricultural economy and agri-business.seda.umndenienterprises. the Retail Emerging . State Owned Development Banks and Agencies. Tel: 021 637 3648 Saldanha West Coast Business Development Centre Tel: 022 714 1731 Stellenbosch SEDA Cape Winelands Tel: 021 883 9270 Visit www. org. Lydenburg Centre – Lydenburg Tel: 013 947 0315 Umjindi / Nelspruit Megro Learning Centre www.74 Mpumalanga Mafikeng Monaana Consulting And Tel: 018 381 3971 Cell: 084 501 5126 Training Services http://monaanaconsulting.

Clients must show assets and/or a certain amount of • Some media houses run magazines and newsletters for SMMEs. due diligence. • Resonance Institute of Learning’s training courses for youth include financial and entrepreneurial skills. wanyuka. sbp.tigf. • Peulwana Agricultural Financial Services Tel: 011 314 2833 (find their advert on page 71) • Productivity SA is “inspiring a competitive South Africa”.ac. org and call 021 851 9698. • The Schwab Foundation for Social Entrepreneurship www. Phone 012 420 5435 and visit www. Visit www. Visit www.g. On the website find the international links off this website e. Contact details of district branches can be found on the Call 021 658 2753 or find their pages at • Visit at 012 667 6603. Visit www. If your proposed venture focuses on the development of infrastructure you are entitled to apply for funds from this • The CSIR Enterprise Creation for Development does feasibility studies. 021 422 5175 (Western Cape) or 011 339 6410 (Gauteng).za for information on the different offerings. as well as act as a catalyst for accelerating job creation in line with government’s New Growth Path” or give the NCR a call at 0860 627 • Small Enterprise Development Agency (SEDA). • Makgalaka Business Development Services Tel: 015 622 0543 / 082 467 2863 lmokgalaka@gmail. • ANDISA Agri’s services include managing “change of control” transactions and land reform transaction advisory. • Elilox Group Tel: 041 582 5072 seeks “to support black enterprise development in South Africa’s industrial value chain.ncr. Find contact details in the Agricultural education and training as well as implementation and establishment of businesses.isbaya. or call 021 447 8138. Call 082 807 5587 and visit www. • South African Savings Institute (SASI) Tel: 011 269 3789 Contact Find details of provincial bodies in the “Providers of financial services” or call the main office at 011 018 5500. In 2011. • The Enterprise Development Fund (EDF). • The University of Pretoria houses the Centre for Inclusive Banking in Africa.sefa. Visit their website at www.mfsa. • Wanyuka Consultants Tel: 033 234 4511 / 082 572 3724 www. Their advert is on page or phone 011 888 3498. • The Agricultural Colleges provide short course training in financial skills.idc. business planning. 013 755 3777 (Mpumalanga). • The Development Bank of Southern Africa (DBSA) provides finances to projects related to the development of infrastructure. • Association for pro poor Micro Finance Institutions for South Africa (AMFISA) Tel: 011 805 4949 www. supporting government to implement developmental The main telephone number for the IDC is 011 269 [SACCOL Ltd was established by Savings and Credit Co-operatives (SACCOs) and Credit Unions around South Africa as their National Association]. 051 430 2024 (Free State).org.idt. org.fsb.nda.saccol. • Is’Baya Development Trust support to entrepreneurs includes • Thembani International Guarantee Fund (TIGF) provides Credit Guarantees (see heading 3).microfinance. Visit www. Call the NEF at 011 305 8000. FNB. ABSA. provides small business support through its branches across the country. The provincial offices can be called at 053 831 4828 (Northern Cape).za or call the toll free queries number: 0800 00 52 59. • The Banking Association South Africa Tel: 011 645 6700 www. The provincial offices contact details are available on the website. • The role of the National Credit Regulator (NCR) is to prevent abuse by lenders of credit (e. To see what is on offer from Entrepreneur Media SA.nyda. 5. has caused a lot of or call 021 674 1134 to find out more about SA Business Resource Institute (SABRI). • The National Development Agency (NDA) has the mandate to “eradicate poverty by granting funds to civil society organisations that implement developmental projects in all provinces”. 018 392 6892 (North West). • The Independent Development Trust (IDT) operates largely within the realm of the second economy.andisaagri. For more information on services visit the Land Bank website by way of is an information portal for South African small business. Find out more at or call 012 428 schwabfound. business planning and feasibility • The Financial Services Board is a unique independent institution established by statute to oversee the South African Non-Banking Financial Services Industry in the public Find provincial contact details at visit The operations office can be contacted at 011 313 3911 • The Industrial Development Corporation (IDC) finances initiatives in different sectors including agriculture and agro-processing. • SBP Business Environment Specialists Tel: 011 486 0797 • South African Credit Co-operative League (SACCOL) Tel: 021 422 3333 Visit www. Invest North West and the Limpopo Business Support Agency (Libsa) – give financial assistance to co-operatives and small Find the Agbiz website at and tembeka. Cabinet announced its intention to merge small business development agencies like Khula Enterprise Finance and the South African Micro-Finance Apex Fund (SAMAF) into the Small Enterprise Finance Agency (SEFA) under the IDC. African Rural And Agricultural Credit Association (AFRACA) and the Rural Finance Learning Centre (RFLC). 043 721 1226 (Eastern Cape). • Microfinance South Africa is the “recognised voice of reputable microfinanciers”. unfair blacklisting).za or call 012 362 0802 • Read about the Thembeka Social Investment Company at www. The national number is 012 845 2000. 015 291 2492 (Limpopo). • The National Youth Development Agency (NYDA) can be contacted at 08600 Find the earlier note on SEDA. Visit www. 031 305 5542 (KwaZuluNatal).agbiz. Regulatory and other role players • The Agricultural Business Chamber (Agbiz) hosts workshops on finding ways to provide sustainable funding to emerging launched in 2011 with a R75-million contribution from the National Empowerment Fund (NEF). exorbitant interest • http://2bbiz. Visit www. etc. systems and processes - encouraging entrepreneurship and facilitating skills development - co-ordinating access to resources required to grow a business. an agency of the Department of Trade and Industry.75 Markets (REM) financing package. mentoring and business development training. Standard Bank and Nedbank are all members of the Agbiz. com.theeliloxgroup. It helps fund resource-poor farmers at preferential interest rates until they become • Provincial development agencies – e. SABRI nurtures promising SMEs through the start-up and growth phases of their businesses by: - strengthening the internal capabilities. Call 012 346 1081 and visit www. savingsinstitute.

development export markets. Forms are to be submitted to the SARS office closest to the area in which the applicant’s head office is situated. useful to anyone exporting or importing. The Department of Trade and Industry (dti) Find the “Trade. Promoted under the banner of EMIA. 2. This business unit aims to increase the market penetration of South African companies in order to export products and services into various or phone 012 394 1014 / 1029 or 1146. identification of suitable agents and distribution applicants are issued with a unique customs code number. Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) and the National Agricultural Marketing Council (NAMC) and can be found at www. customs tariffs and import restrictions • assistance to exporters in setting up appointments. Upon registration. exported and imported. Form DA 185 (plus the relevant annexures) for importers and importers and distributors • assisting trade missions to and from South Africa • spotting overseas business opportunities • entry strategies into foreign markets and related research • promotion of technology transfers and foreign investment in manufacturing in South Africa • assistance to exporters in overcoming obstacles such as quotas. .itac.thedti. partial compensation is available to exporters in respect of costs incurred. Contact details of head office. Some of the services include overseas assessment. market intelligence. exports and invesent” menu option on the website. matchmaking. the exchange rates.sars.sars. trade lead facilitation and in-market support. The Department of Trade & Industry (DTI) will assist registered exporters in the marketing and promotion of their products. must be completed and submitted to International Trade Division: World Trade Organisation (WTO) Tel: 012 394 3070 xcarim@thedti. and the flow of produce between countries. The registration process normally takes about two to three This publication. www. Revenue Branch Offices (provincial). the world trade system – and exporting – will continue unabated. (see the “Customs and Excise” menu option). www. As long as the global economic system creates countries that are better able to produce products more efficiently (and cheaper) than others. The Export Promotion Directorate is responsible for developing and promoting South African goods and services including specific technical interventions in terms of EMIA financial support. Overview Farmers in the 21st Century are greatly influenced by international commodity markets. Trade data is given on Free Trade Agreements – SADC Tel: 012 394 3050 Fax: 012 394 4050 Asia East Region Tel: 012 394 1529 Fax: 012 394 2529 International Trade Administration Commission (ITAC) Import and export control Phillip Snyman Free Trade Agreements – Americas/ Tel: 012 394 3590 www.namc. assisting with trade missions and inspection of goods on arrival overseas. export destinations etc refer to the article “South African agricultural exports: where are they going?” in the January 2012 International TradeProbe. is compiled monthly by the Department of Agriculture. etc • general assistance in obtaining tender documents and negotiating with authorities such as customs and health • distribution of South African trade publications and newsletters to foreign business communities • inspection of South African products on arrival overseas Trade and Investment South Africa (TISA) Mr Christiaan Saaiman Tel: 012 394 1021 Christiaans@thedti. Customs Offices and more are on the marketing and finance Exporting 1. A growth in exports will be crucial to this country meeting its job creation goals and meeting other targets like the United Nation’s Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). the DTI provides financial assistance to registered exporters which meet certain performance criteria. the Export Marketing and Investment Assistance Scheme. seminars. translations. Services rendered free of charge by foreign representatives of the DTI: • identification of suitable agents.g. For an overview of South African trade and economic agreements. The “South Africa and agriculture” chapter provides a list of the top 15 agricultural products (primary and secondary). identification of business opportunities. South African Revenue Service (SARS) All importers and exporters in South Africa are required to register with the Commissioner of the South African Revenue Service (SARS).co. developing entry strategies into foreign markets. identify new product and new market • Trade lead facilitation • Facilitating exports by matching potential exporters with foreign buyers • In Market Support • EMIA Financial Assistance For more information please visit MERCUSOR Tel: 012 394 3020 Rebate Applications on imports for Fax: 012 394 4020 value addition and re-exports Tel: 012 394 3050 Free Trade Agreements – Europe Fax: 012 394 4050 Tel: 012 394 3018 Fax: 012 394 4018 Through TISA . Export Promotion Offerings • Market intelligence and advice e. as well as clearing agents and warehouse licensees. The assistance provided is in the form of financial or non-financial assistance with trade fairs and The domestic price of commodities in most countries is very close to import parity (the landed price of an imported product) as farmers compete with each other for markets.


Read about the different divisions on the website. There is huge potential for more small scale farmers to be empowered to be sustainable and commercially viable exporters as they constitute only a small percentage of those who export fruit and Permits for imports in terms of Regional Bilateral Agreements. It is housed under the Chief Directorate: Trade and Business Development.g. • The Agricultural Business Chamber is a member of Business Unity South Africa (BUSA).78 4.fairtradelabel. Call 012 319 6910 or email LouwrensTh@daff. The NAMC is involved in several Tariff • The Middle East and in particular the United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia. Fisheries and Forestry (DAFF) acts as the contracting authority for the programme. The purpose of these registrations is to Directorate: Animal Health ensure that or phone 011 784 quality and assurance services to promote and instil confidence in the agricultural products of South Africa. thereby creating an environment for safe imports and exports. 5.scsa. Other government departments and state bodies International Trade Administration Commission (ITAC) Tel: 012 394 3688 www. The Directorate also puts out various publications (like the Step-by-step Export Manual for the South African Fruit Industry) to help people enquiring about exporting Directorate: Marketing Tel: 012 319 8455 DM@daff. Southern Africa-Switzerland – • The fair trade movement aims “to enhance trading conditions for small scale businesses. the French South African Chamber – for import/ 6. South African Pesticide Initiative Programme 2 (SA PIP 2) South Africa signed a Financial Agreement with the EU in the previous decade to address the issue of chemical residue levels on food being exported into the EU. Reserve Bank Tel: 012 313 3911 This resulted in the establishment of the South African Pesticide Initiative Programme (SA PIP).sanec. agbiz. including the provision of quarantine from export promotion and import-export control are activities to supporting new ITAC’s services agribusinesses in their endeavours to export their products.ppecb. status of animals/animal products The Agricultural Trade Forum (ATF).nedlac. agricultural practices and legislation. trade agreements on trade All food business operators (FBOs) of legislated agricultural products of Phytosanitary certificates are issued plant origin intended for export are Role players Associations and NGOs • Many Agricultural Business Chamber (Agbiz) members are agricultural See its website at www. • Responsible Packaging Management Association (RPMASA) Tel: 032 947 1145 are in line with the internationally Controls and certifies the health set traceability Tel: 012 319 6100 DAPIS@daff. Read about Fairtrade South Africa at www.resbank.daff. UK. look under the “Services” option on www. Visit The Perishable Products Export Control Board has been tasked with rolling out SA PIP represents the greatest potential market for South African Halaal Certified products. Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) For various notes on exports. France and Germany). food Quotas for exports are determined here. while the Department of required to register with DAFF. Directorate: International Trade Tel: 012 319 8451/2 DITR@daff. gov. Another market is European countries with large Muslim communities (e. Negotiates protocols on the import and export of animals/animal Find the Import and export notes under the Plant health option at www. For notes on the different directorates. mandated by the Department of Agriculture. Assessors are stationed across the country and deliver inspection services on 200 product types at more that 1500 locations. • NEDLAC Tel: 011 328 4200 www. the Southern African German Chamber of Commerce – www. has been delivering end-point inspection services on perishable products destined for export since etc. Department of Agriculture. Tariff Quotas in terms of Free Trade Agreements as well as minimum market Access in terms of WTO with regard to certain export permits under the South Africa / European Union Trade Development and Cooperation or call the Fresh Produce Exporters’ Forum (FPEF) at 021 526 0474. improve labour conditions for employees and empower communities through ethical and sustainable trade”. • The Farm Animal Unit of the National Council of SPCAs monitors the export of live animals from East London and Durban Look for the government gazette notices under the publications option at www. Trade remedies ways Make contact with Ismail Rawat of the South African Halaal Export Forum (SAHEF) at 082 793 4494 • South African Shippers Council (SASC) Find the various Export certification procedures under the Food Safety Directorate: Agricultural and Quality Assurance option at Product Inspection Services www. click on “Divisions”.co. South AfricanNetherlands – www. Ensures compliance with international plant health obligations and Directorate: Food Safety and Quality Assurance Tel: 012 319 7306 National Agricultural Marketing Council (NAMC) Tel: 012 341 1115 South African Bureau of Standards (SABS) Tel: 012 428 7911 www. which import 80% of their food requirements. facilitates the entire agricultural industry with regard to international trade. Perishable Products Export Control Board (PPECB) Tel: 021 930 1134 PPECB provides internationally preferred food. Tel: 012 319 7456 processors and freight forwarders sandraDAC@daff. Directorate: Plant Health Tel: 012 319 6072 DPH@daff. SAPIP 2 is that programme’s successor.namc. co. SA PIP 2 provides funding for training 450 smallholders nationally on responsible pesticide established by the National Department of www. Find useful information on the website www. • Find a list of fruit exporters at • Some Chambers are geared towards trade between two countries

co. South African Flower Export Council (SAFEC).za. chaired by the Credit insurance products Credit Guarantee Tel: 011 889 7000 / 65 www. alternatively called the ‘shipping and forwarding’ or ‘clearing and forwarding’ Credit insurance for protection on your dealings with exports • Deugro (SA) Tel: 011 230 0100 www. and any other permits required by law. capetownchamber. Agri Skills Transfer Network runs a course which focuses on export readiness: business/export market viability. road or a combination of these. • schedule and transit times of the various transport services. Find out how your nearest Chamber of Commerce can help • Premier Freight Tel: 011 573 9000 www. The scheme of at least 50% of the total project enables the prospective exporter value is achieved.idc. Most agents have an international network of branch offices or southafrica • IMPSON Logistics Tel: 021 406 9300 The export council’s database may be found on Business Unity South Africa (BUSA) facilitates training workshops for SMMEs interested in exporting.scchamber. • rates and insurance premiums. • marking of • Trans Africa Logistics Tel: 011 255 0300 www. guarantees and letters of credit. Included are organisations like the Fresh Produce Exporters’ Forum. logistics.deugro. including • Johannesburg Export Division Tel: 011 565 2600 www.saaff. Export councils In partnership with the DTI.hellmann.79 South African Association of Freight Forwarders (SAAFF) Tel: 011 455 1726 www.jcci. • the most suitable • Randburg Chamber of Commerce – Lombard Insurance Group Tel: 0861 551 0600 • Benoni Chamber of Commerce – www. SASFIN Bank Tel: 011 809 7500 If you are an exporter. Industrial Development Corporation (IDC) Tel: 011 269 3000 exchange is one of your top risks. Wines of South Africa (WOSA).forwardairandsea. air. • Forward Air & Sea Tel: 011 392 5364 .za • Johannesburg Chamber of Commerce – www. • costing for export. Export Councils have been given a forum to address all obstacles and proposals that may affect their ability to export successfully. This takes the form of a National Export Advisory South African Ostrich Business Chamber and the SA Fruit and Vegetable Exporters’ Council.impson.lombardins. which enables them to give advice on the importing country’s • Clear Freight Tel: 011 856 6600 Training and research Coface South Africa Tel: 011 208 2500 to obtain finance from a number of participating banks. forex@standardbank. • MSC Logistics Tel: 011 627 6542 • DB Schenker Logistics Tel: 021 380 3200 Prestige Credit Insurance Consultants Tel: 011 022 0642 www. The chamber movement addresses all issues affecting the business community. The agent should be able to advise the exporter on the following aspects: • the best mode of transport for the goods. These loans are then underwritten by Credit Guarantee and re-insured by the Department of Trade & Industry. • Cape Town Regional Chamber of Commerce and Industry – www. The Export Credit Insurance Corporation of South Africa Limited (ECIC) Department of Trade and Industry Find the export credit insurance Tel: 012 471 3800 under the “Products and services” Tel: 012 394 3545 menu. The purpose of the scheme including related documentation needs and exchange control requirements. • freight • Bloemfontein Chamber of Commerce – and • all technical aspects of international forwarding. Visit www.ecic. is to ensure that cargo is transported across international boundaries in the most efficient and economical • UTI Tel: 011 723 1600 (Sea) Tel: 011 578 3500 (Air) Hedge against foreign currency Credit insurance products Logistics and transport • Bidvest Panalpina Logistics (Air) Tel: 011 570 6000 (Sea) Tel: 031 302 3811 • South Coast Chamber of Commerce – JSE Limited Tel: 011 520 7000 info@jse. supply chain management Agents also handle customs The Credit Guarantee Insurance Corporation of South Africa administers an export credit insurance scheme on behalf of the dti. Phone 018 290 6019. A rand futures market exists allowing Import/export trade finance agribusinesses and farmers to experts hedge themselves against negative movements in the exchange • Kintetsu World Express Tel: 011 573 5700 or phone 011 784 Standard Bank Tel: 0800 FOREX reducing risks and uncertainty. foreign www.jse.dbschenker. Finance Commercial banks assist with export • Hellmann Logistics Tel: 011 928 7000 www. whether by is to finance small to mediumsized businesses which lack the A project can qualify for 85% financial resources to execute finance if a South African content export orders. • compliance with maritime and other statutory The role of the freight Import Short courses and distance education: Certificate in International Trade.80 • Zululand Chamber of Commerce – or call 021 447 South African Institute of 7565 for more information. • Pietermaritzburg Chamber of Business – www. distance education certificate course in exporting is “Building capacity to help Africa Advance Certificate in International Trade as Training includes the mechanism of well as National Diploma in Export/ credit – who does what and case studies Tel: 021 880 2010 Find details on • (Etc) For those exporters looking for better access to the ever-growing European Union (EU) market – now 25 countries strong and a major trading partner – the Department of Trade and Industry (dti) has run a national series of workshops on the A three-day course is offered covering all you need to know Skills Development Specialists about chartering ships for your Tel: 031 303 8292 business – methods undertaken. Freight Training (Pty) Ltd Tel: 011 450 4140 Ernst Idsardi – 018 299 2484 Ernst. trade better” . Find contact details under heading costs and issues Research niche areas – focusing The Perishable Products Export research on export promotion and Control Board (PPECB) is identifying South Africa’s export involved in programmes to build opportunities (UNISA) Centre for Business Management Trade Law Centre for Southern Tel: 012 429 4376 Africa (TRALAC) • B Com – majoring in Economics and International Diploma in Export Management Trade • Hons B Com in International International Trade Institute of Trade South Africa (ITRISA) • M Com in International Trade Tel: 011 807 5317 • PhD in International Trade www.zululandchamber. TMS Training Services Tel: 011 853 2777 SA AgriAcademy www. The South African Board of Standards (SABS) offers training The University of Cape Town runs courses for North-West University School of Economics Tel: 018 299 1438 or Solomon Magagula at 012 394 1343 or Unit for Environmental Sciences TRADE (Trade and and Management Development) Wilma. Take a look at A 12-month. The dti also runs a Small Exporters Development programme. International Affairs (SAIIA) Tel: 011 339 2021 University of South Africa www. Find an Import and Export Management contact details under heading The Fresh Produce Exporters’ Forum (FPEF) is involved in various training Institute of Export (Graduate School of Management) Offering: Tel: 011 628 2000 Tel: 021 880 1276 short • Estcourt Chamber of Commerce – www. Contact Phina Mashilo at 012 394 1060 or pmashilo@thedti.

co. Websites Visit websites of role players mentioned in the chapter • Care to find out how countries fare in the competitive rankings? Two reports are the World Competitiveness Report (produced by the IMD Business School in Switzerland). • www. Devised and published by the International Chamber of Commerce. (consultants to the local and international freight industry) • Customs Services (Pty) Ltd Tel: 011 397 5370 www.tralac. Call 011 726 3081 Ext 246 or 082 890 5255. the “African Business Journal”.za • The Step-by-step Export Manual for the South African Fruit and www. a joint initiative between the NAMC and DAFF’s Directorate International Find out more at 014 594 2570 or at www. Trade terms (Incoterms) Incoterms are standard trade definitions most commonly used in international sales contracts. 1998. matching. Email info@jcci. at www. Visit W. • The KwaZulu-Natal Department of Economic Development has intensified the training of and support for entrepreneurs in agribusiness the “ultimate guide to business. they are at the heart of world – this website lists companies worldwide who supply food.macmap. Visit www.africatrade. ISBN: 978-1-86871-312-7.p-maps.usda. export promotion. • TRADE (Trade and Development) • Export South Africa is published monthly and aimed at all exporters and export service providers. co. Johannesburg Chamber of (For software that allows the user to create chemical and fertiliser instructions required for – the “world’s favourite currency site” Our thanks to North-West University for comments on the draft chapter .za. and the Global Competitiveness Report (produced by the World Economic Forum in Switzerland).com/ • Christopher Richards Consultancy Tel: 011 442 6071/2 • International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) www. com • Fresh Fruit Export Directory – call 021 526 0474 or visit www. Tel: 011 726 Invest North West (INW) assists in the development of trade in the “second economy” by enhancing its capacity to export to various markets.dfmsoftware. advice on import L and Viviers. • Joint Agribusiness Department of Agriculture Forum for Africa www. Nature’s Choice and the export market). • Amongst its many • www. The Incoterms you are most likely to use: Ex Works EXW Free on Board FOB Cost Insurance and Freight CIF Carriage Paid to CPT Delivered Duty Unpaid DDU Visit the website of the International Chamber of Commerce and the World Business Organisation for more information – www. ( – Market Analysis Portals (available on a subscription basis) • – International Trade Centre website for “trade statistics for international business development” • Find the trade Consultants and other services • AgriBusiness Systems international (ABSi) Tel: 021 917 2719 www. – Frontier Market Intelligence.kznded.fpef. trade and investment in Africa” • United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) – – Cargo Info Find options like “Trade within Africa”.za) • – Market Access • International Trade Centre (ITC). Contact him at 011 442 6071 or write to “making import tariffs and market access barriers transparent” • www. Stellenbosch. It also runs workshops in the use of incoterms and participating in the international Download the latest weekly • – Foreign Agricultural Service (the United States Department of Agriculture) • International Air Transport Association (IATA) www. Export Promotion: A Decision Support Model Approach. • www.wto. Publications • The PPECB Export Directory – call 021 930 1134 or visit www.namc.intracen. Sun Media Metro. • Business consultant Chris Richards has authored training manuals on importing and exporting. working papers etc at www. Find their details in the “Providers of financial services” chapter.tradersafrica. compiled by DAFF in – an “Africa Trade Initiative” • The CTA’s monthly news update on agricultural trade issues – subscribe at • www. org/ (Trade Law Centre for Southern Africa). Trade Agreements and Preferential Dispensations administered by the South African Revenue – World Customs Organisation • World Trade Organisation (WTO) – www. • The Western Cape Investment and Trade Promotion Agency (Wesgro) launched a web-based trade portal in 2012 that allows Western Cape businesses to register their companies and products and to engage with foreign importers.wcoomd. or phone 011 452 9847. Visit – “Your online export helpdesk” • www. tariff and trade remedy summary notification. • www. – the global information resource for business and travel.P.fas. Find it at www. and environmental information for exporters from developing or visit • DFM Software Solutions Tel: 021 904 1154 www. • “Country profile” and “Trade beyond Africa”. or by visiting (research niche areas – focusing research on export promotion and identifying South Africa’s export opportunities) Provincial Government support All provinces have trade and investment promotion • Bamic Enterprises Tel: 021 788 6153 • ac. co.tradeinvestafrica. • The Exporter’s Manual Alan Cowell and Pat • • Cuyvers. • Booklets and guides are available from the South African Revenue Service (SARS) e. imd. the “Development partner for export success” – www. 2012. – Centre for the Promotion of Imports from Developing Countries (CBI) provides market information. • Find the INTERNATIONAL Trade Probe. or write to Lawrencemp@malnormags. “Southern Africa’s freight information port” • www.g.viviers@nwu. Make contact with them at 031 310 5300. by emailing mntambob@kznded.

clean yield.landbou. “Goats – Mohair”. Ona Viljoen of Cape Wools SA. Italy. A significant proportion of the province’s wool and mohair is exported unprocessed or semi-processed and the sector has very good expansion potential. for recyclable and biodegradable fabrics.capewools. • A group of mohair producers marketing their mohair outside the spot marketing system as “Camdeboo” mohair and selling it directly to processors through systems of contracts and agreements has been a recent innovation. co. Other trading options between mohair producers and buyers are farm gate sales. • Natural fibres are a high-tech choice. the Czech Republic and India. Natural fibres are at the heart of an eco-fashion or “sustainable clothing” movement that seeks to create garments that are sustainable at every stage of their life these have been displaced by man-made fibres with names like acrylic. such as flax and bitstream/2263/6309/1/Jordaan_Investigating(2008). The eighth of the series is entitled “Wool and Mohair” (take the Publications and then General Publications menu options). “Cotton”.za. sisal. easily customised to specific applications. lengths and colours. A cotton T-shirt feels comfortable on a hot day. “Sheep – Wool”. • Natural fibres are a sustainable choice. such as sisal. which stretches from late August to mid-June the following year. hemp wastes etc. Visit www. • Natural fibres are a responsible choice.up. The top export destinations for SA wool are China. Over the past half century. camels and alpacas. “Bamboo” and “Other fibre crops”. and for “fair trade” practices that offer producers higher prices and protect textile industry workers. flax and ramie plants. They have good mechanical strength. hair and secretions. technology. The bulk of South Africa’s wool clip is sold via public auction. • Due to space restrictions. They are of major economic importance to many developing countries and vital to the livelihoods and food security of millions of small-scale farmers and processors. industrial processes that reduce carbon emissions and recyclable materials. hemp. • The open cry auction system is the main trading platform with an average of 96% of the total volume of mohair. nylon. • Growers have a number of options how to sell their production and are able to hold the sale until prices improve. The emerging “green” economy is based on energy efficiency. • Wool is typed into many different types and the different prices are paid for the different which may differ from auction to auction. Across the world. and from the stalks of jute. such as cotton. contracts and forward selling. from production to disposal. More than 150 years in wool and mohair has given the province valuable expertise in the relevant farming. primarily to enable extension officers to help emerging farmers play a greater role in the industries. Its aim is to facilitate a better understanding of wool and mohair marketing in South Africa. abaca and sisal leaves and coconut husks. which is determined in Australia where the largest volumes of apparel wool are traded. wool is not displayed in the auction room and buyers buy from a catalogue which is provided by the various brokers. Each and www. This certificate is displayed with the sample so that a buyer knows exactly what type of wool he is buying. • Natural fibres are a fashionable choice. Source: adapted from www. goats. New investment will allow increased value-add to the province’s excellent raw materials through the production of high-value wool and mohair products for worldwide niche markets. length and strength and vegetable matter. farmers harvest around 35 million tonnes of natural fibres from a wide range of plants and animals – from sheep. 3. Sources: a study done by D Jordaan and J Kisten at www. the wool is either exported in its raw form by the buyer or semi-processed before being exported. • Animal fibres include wool. • Prices paid for wool are determined by free market supply and demand forces and are closely linked to the international price for apparel wool. producers and processors of natural fibres need to develop and maintain markets in which they can compete effectively with and www. Wool • Wool is sold in a free market environment and producers are free to sell their wool to whomever they wish. leaf fibres. low weight and low cost. That has made them particularly attractive to the automobile industry (increasingly coconut fibre. such as fibre diameter (micron). Natural fibres are a renewable resource. Mohair • The Eastern Cape Province is the premier mohair producing area in South Africa and the undisputed leader in mohair production in the world. . and husk fibres such as coconut. The case for natural fibres • Plant fibres include seed hairs. production and marketing. Buyers have the opportunity to inspect samples of the various lots in the brokers’ warehouses a few days prior to the auctions. training. polyester and polypropylene. Websites and publications • Find the excellent Agricultural Marketing Extension on the Department of Agriculture’s website – www. or open your copy of Landbouweekblad and/or Farmer’s Weekly. The auctions take place under the auspices of the South African Wool and Mohair Buyers’ Association (Sawamba) and only members of Sawamba are permitted to bid at auctions. stem (or bast) fibres.naturalfibres2009. electronic auctions and tenders. the reader is asked to consult the various fibre chapters i. the opportunities provided by growing demand for organic cotton and wool. • Market reports and information can be found online and in the agricultural weekly publications. rabbits.82 marketing and finance Fibre trading Although there are some notes here on mohair and wool. The websites of the two publications also contain archived articles: take a look at www.pdf . renewable feed stocks in polymer products. such as silk. Wool garments act as insulators against both cold and 2. commonly used synthetic fibres are mass produced from petrochemicals to uniform and www. • After sale. Natural fibre producers. are being used). Unlike natural fibres harvested by textile manufacturers and the clothing industry need to be aware of. A marketing angle on natural fibres • Natural fibres are a healthy They provide natural ventilation. from cotton bolls. “Speciality fibre production”.gov. • These auctions are held in Port Elizabeth on virtually every Wednesday during the wool-selling season. after which a certificate is issued. Wool and mohair The Eastern Cape is a leading world producer of high-quality merino wool and mohair luxury fibres. Germany. The Wool Testing Bureau of SA tests wool for various characteristics. Role players Find detailed lists in the different fibre chapters 4. and respond to.farmersweekly. mohair.

• making policy. flower markets and livestock markets (auctions). c) Act 12 also provides for a Market Agents’ Fidelity Fund to which only they contribute annually and which guarantees farmers’ money under specified circumstances. They are classified as Informal Markets because they are not subject to the same formal structures and laws that govern the fresh produce markets. g) Market Agents must submit a Trust Account Reconciliation to APAC every month. or a commission markets where market agents sells the products on behalf of the farmers. Informal Markets in various forms can also be found in many African j) By reacting to the laws of supply and demand on a daily basis. such as farmers’ markets where the farmer is on hand to sell his products. Membership is made up of the following role players: • two persons representing agricultural producers of fresh produce • two persons representing livestock producers • three persons representing fresh produce market agents • three persons representing livestock agents • three persons representing fresh produce export agents • two persons designated by the Minister • two persons representing consumers • one person representing DAFF • Registrar and Deputy Registrar The Council meets at various times through the year according to its needs and oversees the implementation of Act 12 on behalf of the Minister of Agriculture. Markets traditionally sold all farm products but as times changed so did the selling and distribution requirements of agricultural products. h) Market Agents must by law pay their farmers within 5 working days after completing the sale of a consignment. A Registrar. Deputy Registrar and Secretary make up the full-time staff complement and they are charged with managing the day to day activities of APAC and the application of the Act. amongst other requirements. . how they will handle the farmer’s money. weekly and monthly information on sales as well as national statistics [see www. promoting market agents and markets • drawing up The Rules R1818 and Code of Conduct • administering the Fresh Produce Market Agents Fidelity Fund • registration of Agricultural Commission Agents • monitoring Market Agents’ Trust Accounts • the maintenance and promotion of the training standards of Agents • ad hoc audits of Agents stock on floor The Minister appoints a council of 18 members and each one serves for a maximum period of three years. These agents must register with APAC and comply to certain requirements of Act 12 before they can open for business. Forestry and Fisheries. or wholesale markets where a wholesaler has purchased the products from the farmers and sells those products for a profit. In this country they are essentially wholesale markets. export and livestock agents and to maintain and enhance the status and dignity of those occupations and the integrity of persons practicing these occupations”. taxi ranks. The uniqueness of our markets South Africa’s fresh produce markets can rightly claim to be unique in the following ways: a) They are the only system of fresh produce commission markets in the world. 3. The objective of APAC is “to regulate the occupation of fresh produce. f) The Act requires a Market Agency to open a Trust Account on behalf of its farmers thereby ensuring that their money is controlled and regulated. k)0The Market Agents’ Fidelity Fund also funds a comprehensive and unique training programme for fresh produce commission market salespeople. There is no other training programme like this in the world. There are different types of agricultural markets. They have adapted and changed over time but the fundamental reason for their existence has never changed – where supply and demand meet to establish a value for a product so that a sale can be made. Specialisation has become the key and in this country we now have fresh produce markets. d) Another proviso of Act 12 is for the establishment of the Agricultural Produce Agents Council (APAC) which administers the Act and the Fidelity Fund on behalf of the Minister of Agriculture. Overview Markets selling agricultural products have been with humankind for many thousands of years. 19 are linked to the Freshmark System which is an IT network providing a comprehensive range of daily. e) In terms of Act 12 there are three groups of agricultural produce commission agents: fresh produce market agents. who sell on behalf of the farmers are governed by Act 12 of 1992 (amended 2003) which prescribes. i) There are 23 Fresh Produce Commission Markets in South Africa and of these. b) The registered Market Agents working on those markets.83 marketing and finance Fresh produce markets 1. alongside existing fresh produce markets and in rural towns. In South Africa we have the added option of Informal Markets which are a feature of our national landscape as they can be found along main roads. As far as Market Agents are concerned this includes: 2. fresh produce commission markets remain the purest form of price establishment available to farmers and]. as the vendors have purchased their products from farmers or the bigger markets to resell again to the public and tourists. National strategy In terms of the Agricultural Produce Agents Act. Act 12 of 1992 (amended 2003) the Minister of Agriculture is required to establish an Agricultural Produce Agents Council (APAC) – a Statutory Body – to administer the Act on behalf of the Minister. This programme requires a new salesperson to successfully complete the three module training programme as well as a number of audits in the workplace within a given time frame before being registered by APAC as a Fresh Produce Commission Salesperson. outside bus stations. freshmarksystems. fresh produce export agents and livestock agents. The basic reason for having the Act and for the establishment of APAC is because Agricultural Produce Commission Agents act on behalf of their clients – farmers – in a financial capacity and the Act is there to protect the farmers’ interests.

84 APAC makes use of outside service providers for functions such as forensic audits. This security is vital in a country as large and as diverse as ours. The knowledge that his money is safe and that legislation requires the agent to pay him within five working days ensures that a farmer can market his produce with confidence. the amount of commission deducted. There is probably no better way for a farmer to learn about the complexities of fresh produce marketing than to have his/her produce on a market floor competing against so many other producers. This is very important in a South African context when seen against the background of the many thousands of small-scale future farmers. packaging. • It is part of APAC’s function to administer and control this Fidelity Fund in terms of Act 12. • In such cases a farmer who has sold his fresh produce through a registered commission agent may claim for his losses from the Fidelity Fund. When does a farmer get paid? • Rule 25 of Act 12 stipulates that if a consignment of fresh produce is not fully sold within three business days after the receipt thereof. distances to markets are often great and personal contact between farmer and agent can be limited at times. Resource poor farmers have to struggle with many obstacles before landing their produce on the market floor. • The Fidelity Fund guarantees a farmer’s money. quality. Full details are available from APAC. b) when a market agent is found guilty of fraud or any misconduct involving the farmer’s products. Trust Account In terms of the Act a Market Agency must open a Trust Account at a registered banking institution on behalf of their farmers. or if a market agent was found guilty of any fraudulent actions with farmers’ money. controls the farmer’s money. Another benefit of our fresh produce commission markets is the competition which exists on the floor between producers. . A farmer who wishes to make a claim against the Fidelity Fund must do so within three (3) months of the alleged the security of payment for producers – see earlier note. the fresh produce agent must inform the producer of the extent and condition of the unsold quantity. • This system of financial security for South African farmers is unique in the world. Producers hail from the farthest corners of our land. This Trust Account has only two purposes: • to deposit the proceeds from the sales of farmers’ products. the market agents and the buyers. The Trust Account therefore. • Rule 26 of Act 12 stipulates that a fresh produce agent shall within 5 business days after having sold the produce pay the farmer as well as issue a statement with detail such as date of receipt of the consignment. products. kind and class of fresh produce. presentation. training of Market Agents and other activities as required. Every Market Agency must submit a Trust Account reconciliation to APAC monthly before the 21st. Fidelity Fund • The Department of Agriculture established a Fidelity Fund many years ago at the request of Fresh Produce Market Commission Agents in the event of there not being sufficient funds in the Trust Account to pay the farmers. etc. and so protection of their money on the market is absolutely essential. It must be a separate bank account from the Market Agency’s normal business account. • Market Commission Agents pay a levy each year determined by APAC which is based on their annual turnover. the amount and nature of each deduction. Act 12 of 1992 requires market commission agents to register with the Registrar of the Agricultural Produce Agents Council (APAC) – Tel: 012 346 4117 / 011 894 3680. When can a farmer claim against the Fidelity Fund Act 12 makes provision for a farmer to claim for financial losses under the following circumstances: a) when there are insufficient funds in the Trust Account to pay the farmer. The most important difference that sets our commission markets apart from others (wholesale markets) – locally or abroad . • to pay the farmers.

za Tel: 082 388 1000 Pietermaritzburg Tel: 033 392 3400 Noord-Einde Tel: 041 451 3216 tshwanemarket Uitenhage Tel: 041 992 1634 Klerksdorp Tel: 018 469 1241 Prokon is an independent inspection body which provides product inspections on all the main fresh produce markets in South Vereeniging Tel: 016 451 1021 johannt@sedibeng. National Regulator for Compulsory Specifications (NRCS) Tel: 012 428 6152 / 5000 Membership is Welkom Tel: 057 355 2382 Mangaung (Bloemfontein) Tel: 051 410 4500 • Technofresh (a division of Freshmark Systems) is designed for farmers who want to access their own shipments to established i t o Act 12 of 1992 and administers the Act on behalf of the Institute of Market Agents of Minister of Johannesburg Tel: 011 992 8000 za Ekurhuleni Tel: 011 815 6010 PROKON (Produk Kontrole) Tel: 012 325 4579 Tshwane Tel: 012 358 2398 Fax: 012 358 2301 Butterworth Tel/fax: 047 491 4294 King William’s Town Tel: 043 642 3520 health benefits and consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables in South Africa PAMBILE Africa (Pty) Ltd Tel: 021 871 1230 / 073 637 6105 Sol Plaatje (Kimberley) Tel: 053 830 6560 agent must register with APAC. Tel/fax: 013 690 6286 Fresh produce markets role players There are 105 registered market It requires an annual subscription and pin number to access.segalo@matjhabeng. South African Union of Food Markets (SAUFM) Formerly the Institute of Market Masters of SA (IMMSA) Tel: 031 311 5140 President: André Young APAC is a Statutory Body Find information under “City Witbank Services & facilities” on Kei (Mthatha) Tel: 047 531 1907 tembanis@kfpm. To find out which agents operate at which market the reader is advised to contact the market concerned. APAC or IMASA (details also under this heading) will be able to help.ramprsad@mzundusi. Membership is Durban (eThekwini) Tel: 031 311 5100 / 40 moonsamyj@durban.prokonsa.technofresh. Talk to Rodney Trollip at Visit This is the representative body for Market Masters and Market Port Elizabeth (Nelson Mandela Bay) Tel: 041 461 1409 Cape Town (Epping) Tel: 021 531 2191/2 training and consulting services 5-A-Day For Better Health Produce Marketing Association Trust Tel: 011 613 4391 (PMA) Members South Africa (IMASA) of the Council are appointed by the Tel: 011 613 4391 Minister and represent role players Fax: 011 623 1932 in the marketing of fresh produce or try Local business environment • The Average price of important vegetables sold on the major fresh produce markets can be found in the latest Abstract of Agricultural Statistics document at www. • The Freshmark System provides daily prices for each Department of The fresh produce markets Buffalo City (East London) Tel: 043 705 9500 elmarket@buffalocity. professional The NAMC is a Statutory Body established i t o the Marketing Act to advise the Minister of Agriculture on matters regarding the marketing of all agricultural Industry organisation promoting the Mpumalanga (Nelspruit) Tel: 013 755 2768 nelmark@lantic.nrcs. Alternatively. Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) Directorate: Agricultural Products Inspection Services Tel: 012 319 6512 bernardma@daff. “if we did not have fresh produce commission markets how would a farmer know what the value of his/her products is on any given day”? Would he ask his neighbour? Does he ask the local fruit and veg retailer in town? Does he phone one of the big supermarkets and ask them what they are paying today? National Agricultural Marketing Council (NAMC) Tel: 012 341 1115 George (Eden District) Tel: 044 875 1286 as well as appropriate Government departments. In terms of the Act IMASA was founded in 1945 and any person who wishes to trade as represents the registered Market an agricultural produce commission Agents in South Agricultural Produce Agents Council (APAC) Tel: 011 894 3680 Fax: 011 894 3761 Nelspruit Tel: 083 388 0033 momozan@kfpm. The importance of price formation on a commission market It is a simple

There will be oversupply situations and his prices will go down. He should also be planning those volumes in conjunction with his agent to ensure that he delivers the right quantities according to market Quality always gets a premium. the buyer will invariably opt for the brand that he knows and that has been seen regularly. You can contact him on: agripres@mweb. For 15 years he farmed subtropical fruit and vegetables before moving on to the marketing of fresh produce both locally and overseas. all marketing matters. “Quality is not the objective. There will also be undersupply situations and his prices will go up. But. The market agent must ensure that his producer is not only getting his prices but that he is fully informed on market conditions and trends. Continuity goes hand in hand with quality. . Linking these four essentials is the proviso that good communication should exist between market agent and producer. Too many producers just deliver – regardless of market conditions – then expect their market agent to work miracles. marketing and management of horticultural crops. The “come and go” farmer will have to take his chances. must keep his market agent fully advised on current and future volumes. The best the farmer can do is to end up guessing. The Big Five in Fresh Produce Marketing Getting the Big Five right means a farmer will get his marketing right. A farmer needs to understand the essential mechanisms of a market – supply and or 073 637 6105. When the market is full. sir). when he sells his products through a commission market he gets the closest to a true value for his products because prices on a market are established in an open. then he not only realises a better average but also builds credibility with buyers. hope to get something and then blame everybody else for his woes.86 In each case the reply he gets is understandably influenced by the self interest of the party concerned. They are fundamental marketing laws. The farmer. in turn. it is the minimum standard”! Michael Cordes has spent over 40 years working in agriculture – mostly in the fresh produce sector. They both have an impact on the two scenarios sketched above and are just as critical. Then a quality product is the one that has a chance of getting a price acceptable under those circumstances. One needs to understand them and learn to “ride” with them. As a freelance journalist he specialises in the horticultural sector and also spends a lot of his time training farmers and marketing people in South Africa and SADC Region countries in the production. quality standards and deliveries. Communication implies that both have a responsibility to ensure that they keep each other informed on In the highly competitive environment of fresh produce marketing it is as well for farmers to remember these words. This chapter is based entirely on materials supplied to the editorial team by Michael Cordes (our grateful thanks to you. competitive environment regulated by the oldest marketing laws in the world – supply and demand and a host of other factors. We can’t change them and we can’t wish them away. there are two other essentials – quality and continuity of supply. no matter how small but really comes into its own when the market is full. However. Quality gives the product the means to address virtually all market situations. The poorer quality products are the ones that receive a very low price or even end up being condemned on an oversupplied market. If a farmer consistently delivers a quality product to a market through thick and thin.

Zimbabwe are all members of the African Regional Intellectual Property Organisation (ARIPO) – www. and industry – in almost all areas of human endeavour – knowledge and ideas lie at the base of the flowering of human life and its passions. which seeks to protect biological diversity. collected wisdom. medicine. and Zambia. • Convention on Biological Diversity – www.87 marketing and finance Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) The following chapters are also of relevance: “Biotechnology and plant breeding”. society in general has a social right to use ideas to the benefit of the public good – especially if they are key to social and physical well-being. Sometimes they build upon natural creatures and processes that have taken millions of years to evolve. Sierra Leone. research is financed or subsidised by public funds and tax dollars. as a means of balancing the conflicting rights of different groups involved in the generation and use of ideas of economic value. agriculture. . ideas are not simply the product of individuals and • Biodiversity International is “improving lives through biodiversity research”. The “Protocol” menu option takes you to the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety. take the “Programmes” and “Article 8 (j): Traditional Knowledge. All culture and society is built upon innumerable layers of accumulated past knowledge and Malawi. education. the economic and the social.bioversityinternational. at least in 2. Sudan. IPRs attempt to balance these rights: the moral. Intellectual property rights (IPRs) emerged in the industrialised world as a means to mediate and control the circulation of knowledge.aripo. Liberia. “Animal Improvement and breeders”. Somalia. and understanding of social groups and societies. Visit www. In the arts. Sources: CRIS. Issue 2. International role players • Botswana. Innovations and Practices” menu options. agricultural policymakers must take a close look at how to encourage innovation and co-operation across all sectors of the food supply chain. IPRs are premised on concerns that the creators or authors of ideas have an economic right to a fair return for their effort and a moral right to not have their ideas misrepresented. at least 70 per cent of the extra food needed to feed the world must come from innovation (10 per cent could come from farmland expansion and another 20 per cent from intensification). 1.farmingfirst. Wuppertal Institute (adapted). Ghana. Mozambique.cbd. For the most part they incorporate and build upon the traditions. Rwanda. Overview Inventions of the mind – ideas – are very special. aipla. • American Intellectual Property Law Association (AIPLA) – www. Indigenous African crops” and “Indigenous medicinal plants”. and public institutions are deployed to develop and maintain their social and economic viability. The Gambia. Tanzania. Farming First 5 Oct 2009 – www. Swaziland. Kenya. If this proves true. Consequently. According to recent estimates by the World Bank. However. Generally. Uganda.

• The SEED Initiative supports and promotes innovators in developing National Research Foundation (NRF) Tel: 012 481 4000/4191 adjudication and commercialisation. and notices of amendment.unisa. research and capacity building • Several important articles and reports can be found at These include the World Intellectual Property Report 2011by WIPO. the Department of Science and Technology (DST).co. This Patent Journal is obtainable from Government Printers in • WIPO runs a range of programmes aimed at increasing the effective use of IP by developing nations as a tool for economic development. • PhytoTrade Africa .88 • The European Patent Office (EPO) provides a uniform application procedure for individual inventors and companies seeking patent protection in European countries. The international body governing IPR is the UN’s World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO) of which South Africa (SA) became a member in South African Institute of Intellectual Property Law (SAIIPL) Tel: 012 683 8827 www. and copyright and related rights. limitations and enforcement and these three elements vary widely across countries. Find contact details for all government departments at • The objective of the International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants (UPOV) is the protection of new varieties of plants through intellectual property rights.wto.www.seedinit.inta. examination.gsb. such as notification of provisional and complete • The aim of the International Committee for Animal Recording (ICAR) is to promote the development and improvement of the activities of performance recording and the evaluation of farm livestock – South African Innovation Network (SAINe) Tel: 012 844 0672 www. website of the League for Pastoral – rewarding innovation in the energy sector. It is a UK-based partnership between governments. SA is also a member of the Paris Convention. 4.ens. international See www. • International Federation of Intellectual Property Attorneys – www. Environmental Affairs.pastoralpeoples. Visit www.tia.riis. an international agreement negotiated in 1994 that introduced intellectual property rules into the multilateral trading system for the first time. and • Institute of Trade Mark Attorneys – www.theinnovationhub. National strategy and government contact Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) in South Africa is subject to international DM Kisch INC Tel: 011 324 3000 Tel: 012 460 3203 • The Patent Journal is a journal published by the Government Printers on a monthly Visit www. The TRIPS Agreement can also protect the interfacing of IP and IK (Indigenous Knowledge).qah. providing the general enabling legislation and services for The Technology Innovation Agency (TIA) was formed in 2010 to support the commercialisation of local research and development (R&D) SAIIPL represent patent attorneys. Patent Attorney at Adams & Adams.wipo. • International Association for the Protection of Intellectual Property (AIPPI) – Research Institute for Innovation and Sustainability (RIIS) Tel: 012 844 0670/1 www. Visit www. The Southern African natural products association works “on behalf of [their] members to develop products and partnerships for the benefit of Southern Africa’s people and biodiversity”. designs and copyright on cinematographic films that exist in South Africa. • Find out about the concept of Livestock Keepers’ Rights (LKR) at www. • www. the Budapest Treaty and Quintessential Africa Holdings Tel: 011 463 2054 • The WIPO Intellectual Property Handbook offers a comprehensive introduction and is available on their website – the Patent Co-operation Treaty (PCT).za. Companies and Intellectual Property Commission Registrar of Intellectual Property Tel: 0861 843 384 Patent Office Tel: 012 394 0610 info@cipro. za. Plant breeder’s rights are governed by the International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants (UPOV) (see heading 2) of which SA is a member. see: - the publications by Professor James Boyle at industrial designs and geographical indications. The TRIPS agreement under the WTO allows for patents over life forms and requires that plant varieties be protected by patents or sui generis • The World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO) is responsible for promoting the progressive development and harmonisation of IP – Intellectual Property Watch • www. • TRIPS Agreement – see World Trade Organisation • United Kingdom Intellectual Property Office – www.seralliance. Forestry and Fisheries. The WIPO Worldwide Academy is entirely devoted to providing training in IP. The Department of Trade and Industry (dti) is the custodian of IPR in University of Cape Town Business Graduate School Tel: 021 406 1911 • International Trademark Association (INTA) – www. WIPO’s Intergovernmental Committee (IGC) addresses the protection of IPR interfacing with traditional and the article “When is research and development tax deductable?” written by Tumelo • A Developing Country Perspective on Animal Breeders and Intellectual Property Rights MM Scholtz. This includes further development of international laws and treaties regarding patents. • The World Trade Organisation (WTO) administers the TradeRelated Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS).co. Some national role players Adams & Adams Tel: 012 432 6000 Head of Africa Patent Department: Nicky Garnett www. University of South Africa (UNISA) Centre for Business Law Tel: 012 429 8432 www. Find the links to all international trade mark offices and international trade mark organisations under “Useful links”. folklore and genetic/ biological resources. 2001) - Protecting Business Ideas – Basics of Intellectual Property Reinhardt Buys and Pria Chetty Frontline Publishing ISBN 1920099166 A Joint Intellectual Property Law specialisation programme is run by the WIPO Academy and the Find the “Rural and agricultural University of South Africa (UNISA) innovation” category via distance withdrawal and assignment. • For an accessible introduction to IPR and Information issues.uct.eta-awards. practitioners and academics in SA who specialise in 5. South African Society for Animal Science. and business.icar. Visit www.aippi. trade marks. A country’s IPR regime consists of several aspects. standards and procedures among its member • United States Patent and Trademark Office – particularly the TRIPS agreement which sets minimum standards for all signatories. Websites and publications • Visit the websites of role players mentioned earlier in this chapter.saiipl. including Southern Education & Research Alliance (SERA) The African Centre for Gene Technologies Tel: 082 878 5669 - Vandana Shiva’s Protect or Plunder? Understanding Intellectual Property Rights (Zed The Innovation Hub Tel: 012 844 0000 It contains information on patents. The PCT enables inventors to file patent applications in up to 124 countries simultaneously.ficpi. More information can be found at The Law Faculties at the various South African universities. Edward Nathan Sonnenbergs Tel: 011 269 7600 www.ip-watch. Visit www. However legislation can involve a number of governmental departments e. protection.

Department of Agriculture. classify the animals in lots preferred by buyers and he and the auctioneer will source buyers to attend the auction. The Code of Conduct for agents is also The role players in livestock marketing • Agents – they facilitate transactions between sellers and buyers on a professional basis.safeedlot. It could be a dispersal sale if the seller stops • The roll clerk will keep accurate records of what is sold. At a Game auctions game is either sold in a open auction or on catalogue. At a Stud Auction animals of special breeding qualities are for sale. Auction Info and other menu options on the website. marketing officer. Find the “Livestock Auctions” menu option and details of their subsidiary companies BKB Louwid and BKB Van Find the Regional daff.auctioncollege. feedlots. speculators • Financers (usually banks) The livestock market and related value chain is the single biggest industry in Agriculture in RSA.aamkzn. See www. Special arrangements are needed to transport game and auction pens and handling facilities must be according to specifications. 7 of the very useful Agricultural Marketing Extension series. Farmers can see the Auctioneering of Livestock Info Pak . receive it at the auction pens. The auctioneer. by Auctions are included in the discussion on marketing of livestock in Training Paper No. Members of the above council are appointed by the Minster of Agriculture and Land . 2. This is a different market to stud stock trading.apacweb. The Find role players in the “Animal Improvement and breeders” chapter. Most Breeders’ Societies now specify a (within breed) standard catalogue format for A major market focused on at auctions is the slaughter market which has its own specific requirements. On the same website. • The labourers will identify the animals and load them on trucks to be delivered at the buyers ECO Auctioneers Courses are held nationwide (the Tel: 051 446 5511 website carries news of these).za BKB Tel: 041 503 3111 www. SAFLA is one of the Auctioneers members of the Red Meat Industry Tel: 033 266 7134 / 076 031 4310 Forum. price of animals and who is the buyer. part of the small-scale farmer marketing series. of course. sell their animals at guaranteed prices to abattoirs. quarterly or even yearly basis by an agent who advertises the auction in a calendar. 3. The 5th quarter (the skin etc) covers the slaughtering fees.ecoauctions. and payment of Branch contact details are available on the website. studbook. National strategy Agricultural Products Agents Council (APAC) Tel: 011 894 3680 www. The venue for the auction would have been selected and developed over years and its mere survival shows that there is a need for such an The sellers and buyers at the calendar auction can vary according what is on offer and what are the needs of both seller and All auctions are attended by NSPCA personnel to make sure animals are being handled humanely and facilities meet specified criteria. Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) Directorate: Marketing Tel: 012 319 8455 www. The transaction is well documented. The buyer becomes the owner of the animal.redmeatsa. accountant. Each has its own rules. Livestock Agents and Export Agents. • Sellers – primary and secondary producers • Buyers – monthly. The auctioneer conducting this auction is a specialised stud auctioneer. Contract slaughtering refers to animals that are being slaughtered and the farmer is being paid on a kg carcass basis. with the help of an agent or not. namely: Fresh Produce Agents.auctioneering. www. • The marketing officer will source the livestock for the auction. South African College of Auctioneers Tel: 011 979 0176/8 – take “Publications” and then “General publications” options.all statutory requirements as well as collecting payments and financing of Auctioneers by Province. Visit www. or call 051 410 0900 for more information. Associations and training University of the Free State Lengau Agri Centre South African Federation of Tel: 083 453 9364 Livestock Auctioneers (SAFLA) mcvdw@telkomsa. seller/sellers will work closely with a breed society who will select the animals according to their standards for such an Brandon Leer Auctioneers Tel: 082 570 5863 Fax: 033 343 4530 Clive Gardner Auctioneers Tel: 018 290 9610 CMW Elite Auctioning Company Tel: 058 813 4146 www. Contact the secretary at AAM Livestock Agents and 012 460 2054.89 marketing and finance Livestock auctions 1. feedlots Agents in South Africa must register with APAC in terms of the Agricultural Products Agents Act (Act 12 of 1992 as amended). Alliance Group South African Institute of Auctioneers (SAIA) www. The purpose of council is to regulate three categories of agricultural produce agents. A Special auction is an auction requested by a seller or sellers to sell some their livestock or a seller could sell of his SA Feedlot Association (SAFA) Tel: 012 667 1189/ 667 2055 www. Find this at is a federation represented by members from 9 regions of Auctioneers livestock auctioneers and meat brokers. the principles of marketing purebred livestock. Andre Kock & Son Tel: 053 927 1981 www. Role players Refer to the “Abattoir” chapter for details of other role players and major commercial farms etc. A Private treaty is where a marketing officer/agent facilitates a transaction directly between a seller and buyer of livestock. The Stud Breeders’ Manual includes an in-depth look at animal and performance recording. • The accountant will see to the financial administration -. Overview A Calendar Auction auction is held on the same place /auction pens on a weekly. All the role players in the value chain add value and enable survival of the industry. roll clerk and labourers facilitate the auction and their versatility enables them to even conduct real estate auctions.

• good sales skills. • The fact that the market is price efficient. • intuition and being time consuming process. The chapter is titled “Auctions as a marketing mechanism”.g. Contact SA Studbook at 051 410 0900 or visit Mike Killassy Auctioneering Tel: 082 378 8112 • understanding all the roleplayers as well as their agenda. • the seller feels pressure to sell his cattle at the sale at the price offered or take his animals home again. Disadvantages include • hgh shrinkage and transportation costs. each other and why. • No market knowledge is required by the producer. • auctions can be manipulated. Websites and publications • The weekly agricultural publications Farmer’s Weekly and Landbouweekblad carry news of • not only being knowledgeable about information in the catalogue but knowing how to interpret.klk.johnkirkauctioneers. • Chapter 18 of the Stud Breeders’ Manual deals with auctions and sales under the auspices of breeders’ • The Southern African Livestock Exchange (SALEX) for online auctioneering – www. Visit 4.landbou. Ermelo and KwaZulu-Natal are on the • Find the DAFF entry under heading 2 in this being able to sell a race horse today and wine tomorrow. producers receive payment almost immediately after the animal is sold and all types of livestock can be marketed. communicate and clarify pertinent details for the buyer e.90 Noordkaap Livestock Co-op Tel: 053 927 3871 GWK Ltd Tel: 053 298 8200 www. offers an SMS service with livestock auction Roderick and Martin Tel: 082 555 5490 / 082 927 2265 www. With gratitude to those who contributed information to this chapter: Mike Pieter Geldenhuys (Alliance Group). farmersweekly. in which multiple suppliers compete for business”. • “reading” the dynamics unfolding before they happen e. • reliability and trustworthiness.g. The electronic arm of the weekly agricultural publication Optima Auctioneers www.farmerfirstgroup. auctions are held at specific places such as Farmers’ Association sale yards which means cattle have to be moved from the farm to the yard. auction advertisements and auction calendar options at www. • versatility in applying these skills Visit Juventis Tel: 012 347 6323 / 082 809 7488 www. buyers over many years. • A good auctioneer is able to break up buyer’s rings if the sellers are on his side. • excessive stress is placed on KLK Landbou Beperk Tel: 054 337 6200 www.studbook. • An interesting idea: “Reverse auctions are fixed-duration bidding events hosted by a single buyer. in beef production there are a few strong buyers and many weak sellers. Visit SHM Stud & Commercial Marketing Tel: 018 290 9409 Sheard Auctioneers Tel: 045 843 1722 www. prices can be manipulated downwards by the buyers e. Buyers form rings and this usually occurs when cattle supplies are in a surplus situation. gives notice of livestock auctions. • being a “psychologist” and “sociologist” – know how to read people (the crowd) as well as the context John Kirk Auctioneers Tel: 034 212 5655 EBVs that are significant to the pedigree about the Sire’s family as well as that of the Dam and her performance The advantages and disadvantages of auctioneering Advantages • Without an Tirhani Auctioneers Tel: 0861 847 426 www. Bloemfontein. Lizel Pretorius (APAC). charm. Find the auction report.hobsonandco. Find auction prices under the “Markte” option. Source: Mike Killassy 5. Vleissentraal Tel: 012 460 9916 A noted and experienced stud stock www. • this is a lengthy. Hobson & Co Tel: 046 622 4724 • excellent communication skills. • The reverse side of the monthly magazine ProAgri. • From Plaas Publishing comes the monthly Handelspos / Trading Post which covers livestock auctions. Klerksdorp.vleissentraal. • disease spreading is more likely.juventis. humour. • being able to easily assume appropriate facilitation roles. Source: SA Stud Book An Auctioneer’s personal skills should include: • being auctioneer who has sold thousands of stud animals to commercial Contact details for auctioneers in Bethlehem. • traditionally. the values and norms of specific groups and how they are likely to respond to events. • a commanding if not charismatic presence. competent and projecting an impartial image.

Overview In a market-orientated system the price of a product is determined by supply and demand. 3. High margins can often be fully justified by the costs involved. thereby measuring the cost of production. co.. Plan the production of the product – how you are going to do this. in winter or when there is a shortage. Forestry and Fisheries also publishes a quarterly index of the price of farm requisites.91 marketing and finance Marketing Several of the chapters in the “marketing and finance” section deal with the marketing of agricultural produce. Production and harvesting • Production costs include seed. “Livestock auctions”. “Exporting” etc. which is taken up by the marketing function. In addition to these two indexes.g. Whether you’re selling a few items off your roadside stall or are drawn into a huge supply 2.farmersweekly. how much the consumer wants and will purchase is affected by a number of factors. Farmers also should be aware that the price paid by the eventual consumer is made up of the amount of money paid out to farmers for their produce plus all the costs involved in getting it to the consumer in the form in which he or she purchases it. farmers etc. and the Producer Price Index (PPI). what are their interests? • Determine what their needs are (what do they want to buy and how much are they prepared to pay). Another way of adding value is by packaging and storage until the prices are more favourable or when the demand for the product will be greater e. There also has to be a reasonable return to those doing the marketing and processing for carrying out these functions. A balance is achieved between what people are prepared to supply at a price and what people are willing to pay for the product. are they male or female. You can benefit by adding value to the products (see the block in green in the next column).. the most important being: • the price of the goods • tastes and preferences of consumers • number of consumers • incomes of consumers • prices of related goods (competition) • range of goods available to consumers Producers need to be aware of marketing and market realities. lawyers). Analysis of these three indices shows how prices develop in the value chains. pesticides. labour. using the best season for the product you have chosen. Produce your chosen commodity. the success of farm planning starts at the market Don’t produce what you can’t sell! Production should be market oriented – knowing what the customer wants (demand) and the price at which you as the farmer are prepared to supply it (supply). If the production cost of a product decreases. is known as the “marketing margin”. Today. based on prices at retail level. fertiliser. 5. one thing never changes – and that is quality! • Aim to produce the best possible product and your marketing efforts will be rewarded. insurance. packing material (e. Source: the article “What can we do about high food prices” at www. • Decide on your target group – this is your particular group of customers (their age. Who is going to buy your product? How can you make your product better? 2. where do they live – in a city or farm. boxes. Stats SA publishes two price indices – the Consumer Price Index (CPI). To cut back on costs from a long marketing chain – you can use a shorter route by selling directly to the customer yourself. advertising and storage. implements. At the beginning of the summer. Explore co-operatives. The marketing chain The marketing chain is the process the farmer has to follow to get the product from the farm to the consumer. The percentage share of the final price. based on prices at the first point of trade. processing and retailing (selling) yourself. labour. The marketing process: 1. Some producers have become more involved in the supply chain and this is usually to their profit. Using the best methods and paying attention to cleanliness and food safety will ensure that your product will sell in all markets. string. etc. Identify the commodity (or commodities) that is suitable for you to produce. Visit the Department of Agriculture. . • Marketing/retailing costs include transport.g. Choose the marketing channel that suits you best and where you can make the most profit. Refer to the chapter on co-operatives in this publication. There are bodies like the Food Price Monitoring Committee and the Competition Commission who act as policemen and try to ensure that this chain is fair. • Storage and packaging – costs include grading. Speak to extension officers and to as many people as possible. 1. Successful marketing is one of the most important aspects of a modern farm business. the Department of Agriculture. one can reasonably expect a decrease in the price the consumer pays. Sometimes this margin can be quite a high percentage and this may be used to argue that farmers or consumers are being exploited.). what do they do? Are they corporates (businessmen or professionals – doctors. etc. The essence of sound marketing is: • find out what the consumer wants • supply it at a profit For agricultural produce. See ”Fresh produce markets”. before the rains? 4. fuel. Find out what customers want by doing market research. plastic. bubble wrap. storage. tractors. storage. Conclusion: • Market conditions will change from year to year. packaging. labels etc. You increase your profit by being involved in the washing.

a farm stall may be operated by farmers selling their own products. sour milk. dried • Litchis – Graded and packaged for local and export market. transported to markets.92 3. etc. Disadvantages: • The farmer will have to accept the local price for his product. including the agent’s commission. Maize.g. • Supply to processing units e. fruit. The communities are generally involved in some form of out-grower scheme. There is generally no limit to the type of product that may be marketed in this manner. livestock auctions. Advantages: Disadvantages: • Farmers can take advantage of Market information is important higher prices in times of short to enable the farmer to make the supply. thus costs are reduced. Pick ‘n Pay has instituted a programme to support the emergent sector. Add value to their own produce. Generally the type of product that would be marketed on a farm stall would be perishable. Refer to the “Livestock auctions” chapter in this publication. These markets are set up in larger centres mainly for the sale of fruit and vegetables. • Price fluctuations are generally small. • Flexibility on pricing of produce is needed. cheese. dried. wool auctions. • Transport of the products may pose difficulties. beans. The extension officer is ideally situated to broker these contracts on behalf of groups of farmers who may lack the confidence and expertise to do so. progressing through to individual stallholders selling on behalf of local farmers. • Sell through farm or market stalls (road stalls) in urban. • Bananas – graded. peri-urban and rural areas. Examples include the sale of vegetables from a community garden. beer. semi-packed. large quantities of farmers’ • Markets are often far from the produce. The community will need the extension officer to broker this for them as well. • The farmer can employ the • The time of harvesting is services of an agent to perform critical to the success of the the task of marketing. The prices received on stock sales are not fixed and to a large extent reflect the supply and demand position both locally and within the entire market. The following are some of the value adding activities which farmers could carry out: • Fruit – graded. fruit packhouses. this is marketing done by the farmer at the place where the product is produced. such as the Spar Group. available. poultry and livestock are concerned. • Broilers – slaughtered before selling. once the local market’s demand is supplied. • Potatoes and Onions – bagged. Some marketing options The following marketing options exist for the emerging producer: • Market directly from their gardens to the surrounding communities. snacks. and/or dried semi-prepared. • The farmer will need to be confident that he can cover the higher marketing costs. although prices realised may be lower. • Supply hawkers who visit them with their bakkies for on-selling in the local town or city. Fresh produce markets Refer to the “Fresh produce markets” chapter in this publication. chips. who endeavours to obtain the highest price for him. etc. the farmer has to look to more distant markets. dried (biltong). • Quality. At its most elementary level. • Supply to various retail outlets. retail contracts. mills abattoirs. packaged and transported to market. dairies. hospitals. However. • Meat – cooked. • The market is able to sell • Prices fluctuate. schools. • Farmers can take advantage of more favourable prices. they can market through the existing marketing chains e. although processed foods such as pickles. such as government feeding programmes. Village marketing This channel provides a development on marketing from the farm.g. the sale of broilers from a broiler unit and the sale of animals from the farm directly. yoghurt. juiced • Maize/Grains – milled. Large exporting concerns are often eager to work with organised communities. and then market products through the various marketing channels mentioned above. By matching the requirements of the traditional marketing channels in terms of quality and quantity. packaging and presentation are very important and produce must conform to accepted grade and packaging standards. • Sell into contract markets. bagged. national fresh produce markets. The seller may decide whether or not to accept the price offered by the buyer. With this system. point of production. hotels. as it goes some way towards taking the product to the consumer. and it might be an idea to involve subject matter specialists from the Department of Agriculture or organised producer associations to support them. graded and baled. the farmer sends his produce to the agent at the market. vegetables. The system on most markets has changed from auctioning to sales by market agents on commission. such as the macadamia nut project in northern KwaZulu-Natal. Advantages: • No transport costs. This is a type of contract production and is normally limited to larger emergent commercial units and to emergent irrigation schemes that would market their product collectively. • Vegetables – graded. 4. Some of these provide a marketing service to emerging farmers as well to commercial farmers. restaurants and tourism outlets. crop. cuts. that buy directly from emergent farmers from time to time. Farm gate marketing is the most common form of marketing found amongst smaller producers. Auction sales are held regularly at many of them. • Can be sold by the farmer himself. The main marketing channels Farm gate marketing As the name implies. • Better suited to the smallerscale farmer. • Eggs – graded and packaged. packaged in special ripening rooms. Advantages: Disadvantages: • Larger markets can be exploited. • The quality of the produce may have to be higher to cater for the needs of the more discerning consumers. bakeries. crisps. stored. as long as there are willing buyers. • Milk – dairies. • The farmer will not necessarily be well located to sell the product. The government is particularly supportive here. There are a number of sale yards. Stock sales The sale of livestock in the developing areas has been encouraged for many years. • A constant supply of produce must be available to satisfy the needs of the market. • Wool – sheared. such as fruit and vegetables. if they have produce right decisions. prepacked. They have traditionally catered for the commercial producer. jams and cooked mielies are also suited to this type of marketing. in terms of realising the right price. bottled. • Supply exporters directly. and in turn supply the larger urban centres. .

• remember. • Fees and commissions: The costs considered above are the major costs in marketing agricultural produce. Losses are common with agricultural produce marketing. by buyer is • Payment guaranteed. They should: • understand their customer-base. For example. storage and transport. The National Agricultural Marketing Council (NAMC) can help you with information to see if this is an option for you. Then it comes down to writing up a plan. There are many others and people involved with measuring costs need to keep all of them in mind. Export There are many regulations and rules if you wish to enter this way of marketing your produce. a trader may have to borrow money from a bank. Processing costs can vary according to the efficiency of the organisation doing the processing. The extension officer needs to be aware of such contracts by staying in touch with the Local Government Tender Board. people using National Fresh Produce Markets. Grains such as maize and wheat have to be milled. Woolworths or Pick ‘n Pay stores. Describe the industry you are operating in. potential and existing customers. By acquiring a thorough knowledge of your target market you will learn to relate to your customers better – and they to your product. a farmer should: • Write about the current market. The treatment of losses in marketing cost calculations can be fairly complex. factoring in expected prices at a certain time of the year and their key target markets. market penetration tactics and importantly. The harvesting of produce and the movement of produce to the farm gate or packing shed is part of the production costs. The interest he pays on that money is a cost. Such costs will vary depending on the costs of building and operating the store. The supply chain The sequence of stages involved in transferring produce from the farm to the consumer is generally referred to as the marketing chain. he has to consider the lack of interest he could have received. and this is reflected in the price at which produce is sold. can be easily avoided. • Produce losses. competitors. • The market is larger than the local market. which are: • Product preparation and packaging costs. Communal marketing Farmers may choose to market collectively. If there are no quantity losses there can still be quality losses. Direct marketing With director or contract marketing. • Storage costs. but they will not compromise on quality. even if nothing is actually thrown away. the farmer sells directly to the retailer. This transport cost could be anything from produce transported on the back of a donkey to trucks. loaded and unloaded. • first establish how the product will be marketed – a thorough understanding of the target market is essential (also establish what drives buying decisions).g. • The volume of sales is guaranteed to the farmer. put into store and taken out again. Agreements are often concluded between large producers of perishable goods and large retailers e. bakkies. 5. taxis. • remember too that an innovative marketing plan positions a product or service in the minds of potential customers and typically integrate multiple mediums and/or promotional strategies to reach the market. and all activities involve costs. • Prices may be lower than “market” price. The second cost to be encountered is all costs associated with packaging. It will also vary according to the organisation’s costs. the plan must reflect the current market. These retailers are often fairly flexible in their volume and supply demands to ensure good publicity as supporters of emerging farmers. • Transport costs. In working out total marketing costs. depreciation costs. • Handling costs. a cost economists refer to as “opportunity cost”. products may lose weight in storage and transit. as well as the value of any by-products. See also the “Export” chapter in this publication. Also. • optimise and enjoy the success of producing good quality crops by first establishing whether there is sufficient need or desire for their product or service. . strengths and competition.g. A farmers’ association may get together and jointly market their crop on a formal market. Commercial farmer notes Failing to plan a marketing strategy is often the single biggest oversight South African farmers make. such as to be found in most of the rural towns. have to pay agents fees. an analysis of existing customers is essential – who they are. Produce which is bought but not sold can still incur costs such as packaging. which depend on factors such as fuel costs. When compiling this. but also on the capital used to purchase the produce which is stored. The sum total of all such handling costs can be significant. If a trader uses his own money. • The seller may not get the price that he wants for the animal. Key elements of a marketing plan farmers are advised to consider prior to any production are listed below. he will have to buy in produce to make up the order of quantities required. Advantages: Disadvantages: • Marketing margins could be reduced and thus the producer could obtain a higher price for the product. • If the farmer cannot meet the needs of the retailer. • Small-scale farmers have access to these sales. If not. their purchasing habits and buying cycles. the market conditions that influence your business and the business opportunities and threats. we need to consider the conversion factor from unmilled to milled grain. • The quality of the produce must be high at all times. taxes and wages. trains.93 Advantages: Disadvantages: • The promotion is done on behalf of the farmer. • Processing costs. • Capital costs: to operate. 6. there won’t be a steady stream of customers. aircraft and ships. This is an important marketing cost. At all stages in the marketing chain. Department of Correctional Services) for themselves and prefer buying contractually from the emergent sector for political reasons. produce will have to be packed and unpacked. Some Black Empowerment companies have secured large government kitchen contracts (e. the processing facility’s throughput and the frequency of its operation. the farmer’s competitive advantage. • New products must always include market research. All transfers involve marketing activities in some or other form. import duties. The critical first step is for farmers to establish their production and marketing costs. but producing a crop only to find that it can’t be disposed of profitably. The main purpose of storage is to extend the availability of produce over a longer period than if it were sold immediately after harvest. • The farmer must ensure that he has sufficient produce of acceptable quality to supply the customer/retailer at all times.

namc. office equipment. It is important to capture as many expected expenses as possible. promote and support competitive. rice. Other equipment. • Equipment – each tool that will be used must be named. such as computers.94 • Once you’ve identified and researched the market. revenues. trusts. Act No. Plan for routine weeding and fertilising. trucks and other vehicles.thedti. • The marketing strategies and successes of competitors must be interrogated. And also to have an idea of when new irrigation systems will need to be erected. fuel and oil. cotton. kidney beans. in terms of the Marketing of Agricultural Products Act (1996). Forestry and Fisheries can provide useful information in this regard. The agricultural marketing deregulation process that began in 1997. A viable method for reaching the market at an appropriate price level is something that potential lenders will scrutinise. the clay percentage and water availability must be specified. Having them listed in a business plan can be helpful when you have to do your tax returns. how production will be expanded over time. • Construction and production schedules – once a farmer has a stable vision of the operations needed. Buildings. These structures include industry forums. Understanding competitors’ strengths and weaknesses is critical in establishing competitive advantage. whisky.g. palm oil. • Political and legal aspects of production – consider stipulations as well as other laws that could impact production. • Materials and supplies include materials and supplies needed for the daily running of the operation. social and developmental policies and international trade www. the type and depth of the soil. Ask who’s doing well and who’s struggling – and if/why they are growing or scaling back. The objectives of the 1996 Act are: • to increase market access for all market participants • to promote the efficient marketing of agricultural products • to optimise export earnings from agricultural products • to increase the viability of the agricultural sector These objectives are not to be pursued at the expense of food security or job opportunities. buildings and facilities – a precise description of the land and buildings that will be used for the farming business. facilities and equipment are normally depreciable assets. The marketing and production plan component of the business plan helps establish the framework for tracking cash flow. A question to the reader: An Import Substitution strategy means looking at a country’s most imported products. pastures and stream protection run offs The Marketing of Agricultural Products Act. soy bean oil cake. Other essential aspects include: • Production strategies relate to production methods. so Import Substitution does not apply to all goods. section 21 companies and producer organisations. implements. The role of the NAMC is to advise the Minister of Agriculture on the application and co-ordination of agricultural marketing policy in accordance with national economic goals. The directorate comprises the following sub directorates: • Domestic Market Development • Commodity Marketing • Marketing Administration Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) – Find contact details in the Agro-processing chapter or visit www. other consumables and materials necessary for maintenance and it is what is produced and marketed that generates income for a farm business and time is needed to think through the details of this part of the business plan to ensure the overall success of the business. Agricultural industries have established an assortment of bodies to serve the agricultural sector in place of the former control boards. quality assurance. For example. tea. National strategy and government contact Department of Agriculture. printers. what measures would you take to encourage the production of the top agricultural imports: wheat. when and how the produce will be sent to market. coffee. such as feed.47 of 1996. In the – find the government gazette notices under “Publications” The aim of the Directorate: Marketing is to develop. the strategy for reaching the market and distributing the product is crucial. Experience has shown that it is helpful to have these events scheduled. and then encouraging the production of those goods locally through various www. soil amendments. Farmers who intend leasing land should be mentioned. sardines and animal offal? . was created following widespread negotiations amongst all directly affected groups in the agricultural marketing sector. National Agricultural Marketing Council (NAMC) Tel: 012 341 1115 ronald@namc. The Department of Agriculture. and when optimum size and production have been reached should be answered here. tobacco. growth and overall profitability. sunflower seed. You must be able to justify that there is room for another player in the market. has been completed. The key elements of this are: • Land. soy bean oil. What do they do well? Is there room for improvement? In what ways is your business superior to the competition? Remember: competitor analysis should be an ongoing practice! The next step is to compile a production plan outlining in detail what will be produced and the resources required. The Act came into being in 1997 and provided for the establishment of the National Agricultural Marketing Council. as well as matters relating to statutory measures affecting the marketing of agricultural products. Contact 011 636 4978 7. target market and market share. tractors. hand tools and irrigation equipment should also be included. for a certain crop. soil erosion. fertilisers. Vital components to consider are: uses for runoff then short and long term construction and production plans can be chicken. length of time in the industry. Having a plan for these will assist in controlling budgeting and costs.daff. • An environmental assessment plan that emphasises stewardship for the environment. and should include projected schedules. Source: Compiled by Magna Carta Public Relations for Standard Bank. Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) Directorate: Marketing Tel: 012 319 8455 DM@daff. Obviously there will be some products that cannot be produced in a country owing to limitations beyond its control. and the scheduling of crop Questions around whether to plough or do ‘no till’ farming. If you were in charge of agricultural policy in South open and representative agricultural markets. • Define how your operation differs from your competitors. • It’s important to identify competitors’ whereabouts and locations. in some instances. Council (NAMC) – see heading 7 MapIT Licensed Data Partner (“put Productivity SA your business on the map”) Tel: 011 848 5300 Agriculture and Food Tel: 011 327 7778 Overall planning (facility master www.mfconsultants. working with the Provincial Departments of Agricultural Colleges. marketing and value chain Agricultural Policy (BFAP) www. Aginfo (AMT) Tel: 012 361 2748 DFM Software Solutions Marketing Surveys and Tel: 021 904 1154 Statistical Analysis (MSSA) package allows the user to record production records per NAMC HP .cips.95 Contact details can be found on the website Agridelight Training & Consultancy Tel: 012 348 0991 Helps find markets and logistics http://agridelights. related short plans) and feasibility studies – mainly agricultural industry related. Measured Farming Consultants keep record of eWheels Tel: 012 807 6809 / 082 959 5679 National Agricultural Marketing www. Role players Note: Marketing Diplomas and Modules are offered at various colleges and solutions for communities.agrisolafrica. media and marketing company Agri-Africa Consultants Tel: 011 788 7810 / 076 817 9687 Tel: 012 804 7788 The MB4000 Farm Management www. present marketingAgri Promo (www. packouts (Pty) Ltd Tel: 011 465 1958 / 083 233 7104 and Agri Direct Marketing (Pty) Ltd Tel: 082 411 4755 Agricultural Business Chamber (Agbiz) Tel: 012 807 6686 Agricultural Economics Association of South Africa (AEASA) www. Consumer Goods Council of South Africa (CGCSA) Industrial Logistic Systems Tel: 0861 242 000 Tel: 011 656 1100 is a one-stop agricultural details in the “Agricultural education and training” www. management CIPS – The Chartered Institute Grain SA Tel: 0860 047 246 of Purchasing and Supply www. Find contact Find the international links on Included in training courses offered are “Advanced maize production website and marketing” and “Farm management for profits”.za GPB Consulting Tel: 021 852 7811 Proudly South African Training is also offered in trade Bureau for Food and Assists in developing new markets Agricultural and Industrial Marketing Company Tel: 082 573 4344 www.

za (take the “Publications” and then “General Publications” menu options) • Paper No. 4 looks at how extension officers can assist farmers with market most farmers read the weekly publications – either the Landbouweekblad or the Farmer’s Spar and Woolworths from www. Websites and publications For access to Find the “Sustainable Markets” menu option. Write to retailnews@bizcommunity.intracen. Although there is the occasional place where they are dated. Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) website.farmconcern. A number of reports and publications are available from the National Agricultural Marketing Council. www. • www. 2 is on horticultural marketing extension.saqi. Rural and empowered small and medium Development and Extension South African Sikhula Agri Training Tel: 021 852 2643 www. • Paper No. 1 provides a general background to marketing issues in South Africa.mannlib. Earth and Tel: 012 349 5006 Environmental Sciences • Farm Concern and supplier business with domestic • Lengau Agricultural centre Tel: and international companies. Also find the “economic intelligence” option at • Paper Tel: 033 260 5673 The vision of this section 21 www.saibl.usda. • Paper No.sun. Pick n econ/ Transnet Freight Rail (TFR) General Manager: Agriculture and Bulk Liquids Business Unit Tel: 011 960 2360 Stellenbosch University Centre for Supply Chain Management Department of Logistics Tel: 021 808 3981 www0. mainly maize but also other cereals of interest to emerging farmers. 6 is on dairy 8 reviews wool and mohair 051 443 8859 South African Quality Institute University of KwaZulu-Natal (SAQI) School of Department of Agricultural Economics Tel: 021 808 4758 http://academic. Source: The Agricultural Marketing Extension papers on Business Linkages (SAIBL) University of the Free State Tel: 011 602 1205 South African Audience Research Foundation Tel: 011 463 5340 / 1 / 2 Get a free e-mail subscription to the WASDE and other USDA crop reports at – International Trade Centre (ITC) – “Guarantees a better deal for producers”.za company is “To be a driver of University of Pretoria Quality contributing towards the Department of Agricultural global competitiveness of the South Economics. • www. • Paper • Paper No. International • International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED) – Find details of the other universities in the “Agricultural education and training” chapter. market-related information.wto.daff. • Paper • Paper No. za and acknowledgements where they appear in this the papers under “Agricultural Marketing Extension” on the Department of Agriculture’s website are highly useful. and to Tel: 051 401 3765 www.sirkel. Commodity forecasts can also be found at the Office of the Chief Economist (OCE) menu option at www. Tel: 012 420 5772 www. Find the value chain analyses of agricultural commodities on the Department of Agriculture. pro-poor marketing development initiatives for Sub-Saharan Africa – 7 is on livestock. • or www. 5. • Paper Extension and Rural African economy and the region as Development a whole”.com – “The world’s largest market research resource” • World Trade Organisation – • www. This information is also available Contact Billy Morokolo at 012 319 8455 or write to on cereals SAIBL helps to build the capacity for Sustainable • Centre and competitiveness of black owned – “Making import tariffs and market barriers transparent” • World Union of Wholesale Markets (WUWM) – www. • The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) puts out a report “World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates (WASDE)”. link them to trade opportunities • Department of Agricultural Economics Tel: 051 4012824 / 3864 Take the “Publications” and “Agriculture marketing” options.farmersweekly.96 Research in Action Tel: 083 300 7756 www.researchandmarkets. Visit Visit www. The Directorate Marketing at DAFF have various manuals and policy reports.daff. – “small-scale producers in modern agrifood markets” • See the analysis of Shoprite Checkers.fas.sikhulatrust.usda.up. A retail newsletter is available from 3 reviews the South African horticultural market. 9 covers poultry and eggs or call 012 341 1115. Find the “Publications” menu option at A food sourcing company for See the “Infrastructure agrologistics” chapter overseas clients and Unilever Institute of Strategic Marketing (Based at the University of Cape Town) Tel: 021 650 4312/ 4715 South African International Sirkel Sourcing Company Tel: 021 876 4891 www. • www.

za Institute of Bankers Tel: 011 481 7000 South African Institute of Financial and Accounting Services Chartered Accountants SETA (SAICA) Tel: 011 621 6600 www.sabric. • The service is free to insured Wondering where to find capital to expand your business? SAVCA provides a comprehensive and well-structured directory which lists the details and investing preferences of all members and associated members of the The Sector Education Training INSETA Authority (SETA) for Banks Tel: 011 544 2018 www.g. Visit za • South African Insurance Association (SAIA) • Alternative Investment Management Association (AIMA) www.faisombud. Find details at www.absa. NB Only The Ombudsman for long-term credit grantors that are registered insurance with the NCR may grant credit. remember for a moment the unacceptably large percentage of our population who are not included in our economy.savingsinstitute. 2. for damage to your vehicle. Overview “Money makes the world go round” National Consumer Commissioner Tel: 086 026 6786 www.irf. • The South African Banking Risk Information Centre (SABRIC) was established to assist the banking industry to combat organised marketing and finance Providers of financial services It is not literally true. Education and training FAIS OMBUD Tel: 012 470 9080 • Financial Intermediaries Association of Southern Africa www. Tel: 021 657 5000 www. but does point to our heavy reliance on money and financial BANKSETA Tel: 011 805 9661 and only if you are unable to resolve the dispute with your insurers. .za If there is something bothering you Financial Services Board (FSB) about your medical scheme … Tel: 012 428 8000 policy holders (life assurance).ombud.medicalschemes. but also for disputes that are not resolved by the Credit Ombudsman. • You must complain to the insurance company • Banking Association of South Africa www. which do not fall within the jurisdiction of any other ombud scheme or where there is uncertainty over jurisdiction”. • BankservAfrica is the “automated Clearing House that provides interbank electronic transaction switching and settlement services”. a quotation from the musical While there may be very little that you can personally do about Debt counselling problems. estate Services planning Tel: 011 712 1800 www. of • Association for Savings & Investment SA (ASISA) www. Provincial contacts: • Eastern Cape – 041 396 5504 • Free State – 051 401 0933 • Gauteng – 012 366 5902 • KwaZulu-Natal – 031 580 8086 • Limpopo – 015 290 5624 • Mpumalanga – 013 753 4579 • North West – 018 293 8709 • Northern Cape – 053 839 7500 • Western Cape – 021 915 5320 Find the notes about the AgriBusiness The Registrar for Medical Schemes Credit OMBUD Tel: 012 431 0500 Tel: 0861 662 837 www.fpi. Associations Consumer recourse: who can help you? The Ombudsman for ShortTerm Insurance Tel: 011 726 8900 but not on trusts.banking. Banks • The Banking Association of South Africa is the industry body for banks. See Fiduciary Institute of South Africa (FISA) The ombudsman mediates in Tel: 082 449 2569 disputes between insurers and 4.nccsa. • The Ombudsman’s decisions are binding on the insurance This is an independent body and the services are provided free to the and the AgriBusiness range of products and solutions at www. FASSET Tel: 011 476 8570 The SETA for the insurance sector • Financial Planning Institute of Southern Africa (FPI) • Southern African Venture Capital and Private Equity Association (SAVCA) www. fia. then you can refer the matter to their offices. Absa Tel: 011 350 6851 www.banking. The ombudsman may be able to assist you if your insurer refuses to pay The FAIS Ombud deals with “complaints against financial institutions. See National Credit Regulator (NCR) Tel: 0860 627 627 • Financial Charter Sector Council is a saying with which most of us are familiar. Other financial bodies and associations • Actuarial Society of South Africa • South African Savings Institute (SASI) Pension Funds Adjudicator Tel: 087 942 2700 For investment problems A self-regulating body for matters The Ombudsman for Banking such as • Institute of Retirement Funds of South Africa (IRF) • Association of Black Securities and Investment Professionals (ABSIP) www.ncr. This chapter is a look at some institutions behind the provision of financial services in the to whom proviers of financial services would be a meaningless term.







Invest North West FP . Rand Merchant Bank Tel: 011 282 8000 Port Elizabeth – 041 392 1200 Bloemfontein – 051 404 1400 Pretoria – 012 364 0560 Pietermaritzburg – 033 845 9600 Polokwane – 015 299 4100 Nelspruit – 013 754 2400 Potchefstroom – 018 294 9800 Upington – 054 338 8400 Cape Town – 021 974 2200 The Land Bank’s objectives are food security. District contact details IDC finance is for entrepreneurs in are available on the CAPITEC Tel: 0860 10 20 43 Nedbank AgriBusiness Ltd Tel: 021 807 1369 Development Bank of Southern Africa (DBSA) Tel: 011 313 3911 Industrial Development Corporation (IDC) Tel: 0860 693 888 www.capitecbank. An economically viable business plan must be submitted.tebabank. beverage and marine sectors wanting to expand and develop their businesses. and developing commercial farming in South First National Bank Tel: 011 649 0928 www. .co. the bringing those from a previously disadvantaged background into agriculture. The minimum financing is R1 Bloemfontein – 051 411 1450 Polokwane – 015 299 4080 / 4099 Rustenburg – 014 591 9660/1 Kimberley – 053 807 1050 Cape Town – 021 421 4794 Durban – 031 337 4455 East London – 043 721 0733/4 Nelspruit – 013 752 7724 Land Bank Tel: 0800 00 52 59 www.105 Bidvest Tel: 011 731 7600 Land Bank – see notes under heading 5 Regional offices: Sasfin Bank Tel: 011 809 7500 www. State owned development banks and agencies • Mpumalanga – 013 757 5595 • North West – 014 591 6187 • Northern Cape – 053 807 8172 • Western Cape – 021 970 4261 WesBank Tel: 011 632 6000 www.dbsa. Provincial representation: Agricultural Advisors • Eastern Cape – 041 391 2429 • Free State – 051 403 4712 • Gauteng – 011 677 0484 • KwaZulu-Natal – 031 374 2142 • Limpopo – 015 409 1148 UBank Previously Teba Bank Tel: 011 518 5000 Standard Bank Tel: 011 636 6162 www. Eastern Cape Rural Finance Corporation Tel: 043 604 7000 www. insurance and other financial services.theaimco. Mutual and Federal Insurance Company Ltd Tel: 012 999 9546 (Agricrop) Tel: 012 999 9533 (Agri Asset insurance) • Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH – www.sida. za • Find notes on the European Development Fund at www. and the separate chapter on agribusinesses Agri-Vie Tel: 021 913 5662 Agribusinesses See the “Agribusiness” ANDISA Agri Tel: 082 807 5587 Limpopo Business Support Agency (LIBSA) Tel: 015 287 3000 sdc.inw. equity and grants. Gauteng Enterprise Propeller Tel: 011 085 2001 www. and managing “change of control” Phatisa Group Limited transactions and land reform Tel: 011 463 1920 Short-term insurance The Fund invests mainly in equity investments in agricultural land.libsa. • The Agence Française de Développement Group (AFD) – Trade and Investment KwaZulu-Natal Tel: 031 368 9600 www. usaid. Futuregrowth Agri-Fund Tel: 021 659 5300 www. among which are Agricrop and Agri Numerous services include finance Asset Insurance. Click on “ODA Reports” then “Contact Lists” to get details on whom to contact for what kind of finding logistics solutions for Gauteng Enterprise Development Agency (GEDA) Tel: 011 833 8750/1 www.limdev. Kaap Western Cape (WESGRO) Tel: 021 487 8600 transaction advisory Deloitte Tel: 011 806 5000 • Department for International Development (DFID) – Visit Northern Cape Economic Development Agency Tel: 053 833 1503 www. debt. .dfa. Securing trade and finance instruments from Take the “Partners and Institutions”. Invest North West (INW) Tel: 014 594 2570 www.ecrfc. the Development Co-operation Information System website. agri-businesses and farming Countries around the world are listed: any details of grants and funds available for use in South Africa are listed Mpumalanga Economic Growth Agency (MEGA) Tel: 013 752 2440 Department of Economic Development and Tourism (KwaZulu-Natal) www. Co-operatives See the co-operatives chapter • Denmark is funding the Southern African Security and Defence Management Network (SADSEM) This is an initiative of the South African National Treasury to provide information about Official Development Assistance (ODA) to South Africa. Find details of all the other UN agencies at work in South Africa at • Finmark Trust – Free State Development Corporation (FDC) Tel: 051 400 0800 • Sweden International Development Agency (SIDA) – Agricultural and Industrial Marketing Company Tel: 082 573 4344 www. • Delegation of the European Union to South Africa – www. Embassies and foreign financial support Find details of foreign embassies and high commissions in South Africa at project management and more. (PWC) Limpopo Economic Development Enterprise (LimDev) Tel: 015 633 4700 www.ausaid.andisaagri. and financial advisory Tel: 021 815 3000 services to public and private clients • Luxembourg Agency for Development and Co-operation – Eastern Cape Development Corporation (ECDC) Tel: 043 704 5600 www. za (take the “Foreign relations” option) Some international role players with a presence in Southern Africa: • Australian Agency for International Development – www. Ithala Tel: 031 710 7511 Ntinga OR Tambo Development Agency Tel: 047 531 0346 Investment promotion agencies (IPAs) and other regional / province-specific role players Amathole Economic Development Agency Tel: 043 721 2070 spanning multiple industries Specialist services EmVest Santam Agri Tel: 012 003 0219 Tel: 021 915 7000 www. then “International Development Co-operation Partners” • ECIAfrica – www. se • Swiss Agency for Development and Co-operation (SDC) – www.fdc.dfid. Companies like Fund Manager for the African Agriculture Fund (AAF) initiative PricewaterhouseCoopers Deloitte provides Visit • International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) – www. Find the drop-down box. • USAID (US Agency for International Development) – www. 6. Suidwes and VKB offer Trade and Investment Limpopo Tel: 015 295 5171 Companies Find the “Finance and administration” heading in the “Agricultural consultants”

za covering passengers on opensided vehicles Boshoff Visser operates in the Western Issues such as climate change. skills shortage and the growth in the financial markets in terms of commodity products have increased the risks these businesses Tel: 011 858 5135/6 Land Bank Insurance Company agri. • prepares a strategic plan for agricultural risk and disaster management.boshoffvisser. Department of Agriculture. South African Weather Service Tel: 012 367 6000 www. develops and implements government CIB Insurance Tel: 011 455 5101 Read about Old Mutual’s Masisizane www.theron@tefinops. Companies involved ABSA Insurance Company Ltd Tel: 011 350 4000 www. The result of effective risk management practices in agriculture will have some significant benefits for society as a whole such as: • ensure food security and stability of Tel: 021 916 5000 Find the links to the SA National Fire Danger and • improve the stability of farmer incomes and hence expenditure on farm inputs.oldmutual. credit life insurance etc. droughts etc) on humans and the African Rand Tel: 011 678 1354 www. Flash Flood Guidance System (FFGS) and the Integrated National Early Warning System (INEWS) on the Tel: 021 915 7000 www. • create jobs and sustainable Univision Financial Services Tel: 018 464 7494 www. Cover is “Agribusinesses” chapter) offers also available for: short term ABSA Life Ltd Tel: 011 330 2111 www. Tel: 0860 93 94 93 Personal cover and insurance for farming Marsh South Africa Tel: 011 506 5000 www. crop insurance. Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) Directorate: Agricultural Risk and Disaster Management Tel: 012 319 7955 / 6 Find the “Farmers” menu option Nedbank AgriBusiness Tel: 021 807 1369 agriculture@nedbank. legislation and prescripts in respect of risk and disaster management in the agricultural sector. Where the particular nature of drought • reduce the need for taxpayer funded emergency aid packages. • irrigation systems on wheels Find out what is on offer. Overview Agriculture Mutual and Federal Insurance Company Ltd Tel: 012 999 9546 (Agricrop) Tel: 012 999 9533 (Agri Asset insurance) .mf.hvo. Associations involved Find details of the following in the “Providers of financial services” chapter: • Financial Intermediaries Association of Southern Africa • South African Insurance Association (SAIA) • The Ombudsman for Short-Term Insurance • The Ombudsman for long-term insurance • Actuarial Society of South Africa • Association for Savings & Investment SA • Financial Planning Institute of Southern Africa (FPI) • Financial Services Board • Institute of Retirement Funds of South Africa (IRF) and specifically farming. Department of Cooperative Governance South African National Disaster Management Centre Tel: 012 334 0726 www. • assists and supports provincial and local governments to manage agricultural risks and disasters. The result is economic stability in rural economies. and • public liability for commercial Boshoff Visser hunting and game viewing Subscribe to the various weather notifications and sms services. veld fires etc cannot be declared disasters under this this has increased the complexity of risk T&E FinOps Tel: 0861 440 666 Agricola Tel: 011 288 0300 www. livestock.dadrm@daff. The winners of tomorrow will be the farmers and agri businesses that are able to manage the risks inherent to their farming systems at a reasonable cost.cib. National strategy and government contact The Disaster Management Act of 2002 Huis van Oranje Groep Tel: 012 940 4215 SASRIA Tel: 0861 00 5242 and centre-pivot systems. Advanced Fire Information System (AFIS). • assist in achieving long-term sustainability of the environment.garrun-group. Kasfin Tel: 0860 104 297 Standard Bank www. is a business faced with many risks. • reduce the negative effects of natural disasters ( relief can be provided in the form of a “specific measure” marketing and finance Risk management and insurance Tel: 011 881 1300 / 086 172 7742 www. Find branch contact Old Mutual Life Assurance Company Ltd details on the Fund in the “Development financial services” chapter Garrun Group Tel: 011 694 5000 Sanlam Life Insurance Ltd www. • result in a stable and profitable commercial farmer base to ensure that agriculture is able to provide in the food requirements of the Lion of Africa Insurance Tel: 011 100 1900 Even though agricultural businesses have more tools available to manage and mitigate risks. and Your regional agribusiness (see equipment are This directorate: • GROCANE Tel: 031 508 7161 Santam Agriculture www.

has Tel: 051 401 2721 established a regional network of www. Insurance Institute of SA Migrant pests such as locusts. Training ICOSAMP. incidence of pests and diseases and machine efficiency. Personal risk. crop performance. milk producers. command: monitor and track your climate related disease For certain crops and products there exist several financial instruments and products whereby the farmer can effect price risk management. subsidies.prestigecredit. The recent crisis has taught us that any business needs to plan its operational cash-flow and investments properly and put in place a funding plan that provides some comfort on the availability of the funds at the crucial Prestige Credit Insurance Consultants Tel: 011 022 0642 www. Currency risk can also have a significant impact on price risk. Farming businesses can be exposed to cyclical cash flow patterns. with the biggest Masters its inception in 2000. on the these risks are not independent. and Quelea birds. As these about their FARMS pests are highly mobile and often Read cross political boundaries.ufs. the credit insurer will foot the bill. Industrial Development Corporation (IDC) Humanitarian Assistance Tel: 011 269 3000 Network of South Africa 012 356 9800 (ICOSAMP Coordinator) icosamp@ecoport. vehicles. and GIS (Geographical Information System) maps. Political i. Legal risk is inherent in contractual agreements and is always present in the form of environmental liabilities. Primary sources of risk in farming Although the risks provided below have been separated into varying categories. A successful farming business has implemented a well thought through funding food safety or call 086 113 0013. Certain producers can be price “takers” for outputs as well. Production risk includes contributing risks such as changes in the weather. The appreciation or depreciation of the South African Rand affects both import and export demand and domestic prices for competitively traded inputs and outputs. they have very little or no influence on the prices they pay and there are few risk management tools or instruments available to manage the risk. Currency (HANSA) Tel: 084 501 5991 Some funding relief is made wviljoen@adra-sa. Since particularly where prices of inputs or outputs are referenced against a foreign currency. the price of maize in US$. Changing prices of products can be observed on formal markets such as the various commodity and futures exchanges. Visit www. food and safety are often uncertain and may have a large impact on farmers. etc. The following are role players: Coface South Africa Tel: 011 208 2500 www. managing the funding risk of the farming business is Training and research ICOSAMP – The Information Core for Southern African Migrant Pests Lombard Insurance Group Tel: 011 551 0600 www. employment targets. so that the lack of available funding does not negatively impact the business. Other role players Enviromon Tel: 021 851 5134 www.ufs. Credit Guarantee Tel: 011 889 7000 Community (SADC). livestock and other assets meteorological consultation. In respect of the prices of farming inputs farmers are largely price “takers”. Production risk.g. But for some the price risk associated with farming outputs can often only be managed to some extent through an effective marketing information officers who submit monthly reports on the status of A department in the faculty migrant pests in their country to of Natural and Agricultural the ICOSAMP co-ordinator. e. weather forecasts. Farmers should therefore approach risk management from a holistic viewpoint and should carefully consider the impact of even improbable risks. endorsed by SADC and and Education Centre for funded by the UK Department for Africa (DIMTEC) International Development. Visit www. physical markets where buyers and sellers meet or by way of the transactions between individual parties. Disaster Management. Indeed some of the larger impacts on farming businesses are due to the interaction of the risks. or between neighbouring countries call 051 401 3109. is vital with respect to forecasting. to assist in the risk identification and management thereof.idc. regional partners and to FAO Country Offices within the southern Africa region. which includes Risk communication and collaboration Management. The Rapids Group focuses mainly monitoring.ecoport. Production risk is defined as the overall uncertainty regarding Inseta is the Sector Education and Training Authority (SETA) for the insurance. Tel: 011 341 9480 armyworm. A large number of farming activities have legal implications. particularly those associated with water availability and quality as well as rising temperatures. programme. animal welfare.cofaceza. Changes in government or to government policies relating to matters such as land and controlling these on flood management aspects. reinsurance. They include farm safety. Personal risks are those risks relating to the people who are involved with the actual management of the farm. Price risk. Currently the observed changes in the global climate are posing numerous and potentially significant risks to the production of crops. .ac. Legal risk. technical and operational support in food security and agriculture Disaster Risk Reduction and Management (DRR/M) to governments. illness and A variety of weather services are Web based GIS monitor and provided annually plague the southern African region.108 Credit insurance Credit insurance means that if your customer goes into liquidation or if payment is prevented by some other available for businesses in the agricultural value chain affected by floods and drought PricewaterhouseCoopers Agri Industry Group National Leader and Southern Region – 021 815 3000 KwaZulu-Natal – 031 271 2000 Central Region – 051 503 4100 Northern Region – 013 754 3300 Eastern Region – 041 391 4400 Gauteng Region – 012 429 0573 Risk advisory services The Regional Emergency Office for Southern Africa (REOSA) of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) provides HOTSURE Tel: 0861 468 225 www. 5. divorce. Price risk results from the unpredictable and competitive nature of the prices of both farming inputs and outputs. and in some University of the Free State years have been known to cause Department of Agricultural devastating damage to food crops Economics within member countries of the Tel: 051 401 2824 / 3864 Southern African Development www. Where substantial funding is required this should be secured well-ahead of time. outbreaks.enviromon. e.iisa. pension funding etc industry. risk management.g. ICOSAMP Degree Programme in Disaster has issued regular monthly Bulletins Management in Africa. Funding and funding liquidity risk.


The farmer is then compensated accordingly for goods and services provided. What options could be considered to manage and/ mitigate the Risk? Risk Management Strategies can be classified along the following lines: Avoidance or acceptance strategies • avoiding/terminating activity giving rise to exposure or intolerable risk • accepting risk where exposure is within the risk appetite Diversification strategies • treating. In other words. price etc) are not personalised as in the case of the forward contract. 7. • Option Contracts give the holder the right. This form of contract is of obvious benefit to both parties. . • Futures Contracts function in much the same way as a forward contract with one exception. e. A forward contract gives the holder the right and full obligation to conduct a transaction involving an underlying commodity at a future date at a predetermined future price. sunflower seeds and soya beans. Currently the only soft commodities traded on Safex are white and yellow maize. It is important to conduct a thorough analysis of the risk that is being accepted to completely understand the impact of such a risk should it occur.g. including finance. In other words. reducing or mitigation through improvements to the control environment and the management processes • exploiting risk where exposure is a potential missed or unrealised opportunity Risk sharing strategies • sharing of risk between parties and stakeholders • transferring risk to a third party (outsourcing /insuring) • integrating a series of risk responses through combination of responses 7. . The standardised nature of these contracts allow for far more liquidity than is the case with forward contracts. Factors farmers should consider before attempting to manage risk The degree to which various types of risk are managed will depend on many factors. amount of the underlying asset. etc.3 Risk sharing strategies Contracting Production Contracts A production contract entails a contractor supplying the necessary farming inputs. Essentially. primarily because it is the most basic and easily understood. and the farmer delivering a specified quantity and quality of product to the contractor. while growers are guaranteed the required inputs and a fixed income stream (production contracts are often also referred to as “off-take” agreements). Risk sharing strategies 7. if appropriate. the South African Futures Exchange (“Safex”)] and as a result are standardised in the terms of the agreement. Two types of option contracts exist: . tourism. and the eventual seller (known as the person assuming the short position) delivers the underlying commodity at the set price. but not the obligation. to purchase or sell an underlying commodity at a predetermined future price and date. Options can be traded on an exchange such as futures contracts discussed above or in informal markets. Several variations of such contracts exist. wheat etc). Farmers should remain as flexible as possible and can do so by growing crops with short production cycles and storing a portion of a harvest so that sales can be made throughout the year at favourable prices. Contractors are entitled to a predetermined quantity and standard of commodity at some future date. including: • Forward Contracts are the most commonly used derivative product available. Flexibility Flexibility is of vital importance when confronted by an ever-changing environment.2 Diversification strategies Crop diversification By broadening the variety of crops under consideration and selecting crops which behave differently in various financial and environmental conditions. on the Industrial share index of the Johannesburg Securities Exchange (“JSE”). but financial instruments are available to hedge farmers against these risks. a forward contract is a personalised trade agreement between two private parties to be executed at some future date at a predetermined price. the particulars of the contract (expiration date. There are however derivative contracts on other financial instruments.1 Avoidance or acceptance strategies Avoidance and acceptance strategies should be based on the impact and likelihood of the risk.g. an eventual buyer (known as the person assuming the long position) pays the contract price and receives the underlying commodity (grain. • the cost of mitigating or managing the risks. • Planting below the 1 in a 100 year floodline may be an acceptable risk owing to the likelihood of a flood being low. etc. e. This characteristic of a forward contract stems from the fact that it is usually very difficult to exit the contract prior to maturity. A major disadvantage of a forward contract is that these types of contracts are often highly illiquid. commonly referred to as margin. combining crops with livestock. Below are some examples: • Planting a crop in an area not suited to its production is avoided because the likelihood of an inferior crop is very high. Each contract has a specified amount of “initial” margin placed upon trading the derivative as well as “variation” margin reflecting the accrued profit or loss due to movements in the price of the derivative. to a farmer. 7. farmers can successfully reduce overall risk.Call option which entitles the holder to the right to buy an underlying security. commonly referred to as Over-The-Couter (“OTC”) markets. but is not obligated to do so. • the strategies or processes available to manage or mitigate the risk. These collateral amounts are necessary to protect individual parties in the event of default. The latter of these options allows farmers to take advantage of price increases but also exposes them to price decreases. Futures contracts are traded through a centralised market known as a futures exchange [e. • Futures contracts also require that both parties to the contract post collateral. Marketing/ Derivative Contracts.110 6. In addition mixed farming operations can also be practiced.Put option which entitles the holder to the right to sell an underlying security. and • the consequences of not managing the risk. on interest and exchange rates. The key distinction here is that the buyer or seller of the commodity in the future has the right to conduct the transaction. including negative financial consequences which may jeopardise the survival of the farming operation and its impact on cash flow and fund availability. wheat. • the likelihood and impact of any potential risks within the particular business.g. By use of these instruments the risks associated with interest and exchange rates can be effectively managed. Farmers will need to consider the following in determining the appropriate course(s) of action necessary with regard to dealing with risk: • own personal appetite for risk.

It is important to note that an appropriate balance is required between fixed assets and liquid assets. Crop insurance Insurance is a highly common risk management strategy. If the price of grain in the market is higher than the price agreed upon in the terms of the option contract. Liquidity Liquid assets are those assets that can be easily converted into cash. for rewriting much of the content of this chapter. the farmer will consider his choice to sell the grain relative to the market price for grain at that time. Equity investors in the agricultural operation receive a pro rata share of the returns of an investment. When the option expires. It also decreases the capital required to expand operations. The farmer purchases a put option by paying a certain premium for the contract.badenhorst@za. It should be noted that in the second scenario. then the farmer will exercise his rights with regard to the . since fixed assets have the ability to generate higher profits. Financial Risk Services at PricewaterhouseCoopers. The farmer in this instance will choose to sell his commodity at a higher price in the market since the strike price agreed upon in the contract is lower. Equity finance Equity financing is an effective way of spreading risk. so reducing financial risk. The farmer will elect to sell the grain at the higher price agreed upon in the contract since the market price is lower. Ownership of such assets may be very useful in the event of emergencies. By transferring income into an account during successful periods and withdrawing from it in difficult periods is a reliable means offsetting unexpected declines in farm income. but also suffer proportionately in any losses. and as such the option premium can be considered similar to an insurance premium as it provided the farmer with protection in case of the price reducing. Contact him at albre. then the farmer will waive his rights with regard to the contract. Leasing Leasing inputs such as land and machinery provides producers with sufficient flexibility to respond to changing markets. however. An insured person pays a premium to an insurance company at regular intervals and in return receives payment from the insurer if an insured loss occurs. These assets provide a safety net for production disasters and poor market The option entitles the farmer to sell a fixed amount of grain at a predetermined price in the future – the contract does not. Savings The use of a savings account is a constructive method of reducing income variability. where the farmer forfeits his right to exercise the contract. obligate him to do so.111 The use of an option contract is best shown by way of example: A grain farmer may elect to use an option contract in order to eliminate the risk of a low grain price in the market in the future. Our thanks to Albré Badenhorst. If the price of grain in the market is lower than the price agreed upon in the terms of the option contract. he/she loses the initial premium paid.

explores the value chains of several agricultural commodities. The farmer’s share of the consumer rand is shrinking. Find it in the archives at Such groups could operate at a regional rather than national level. • Supply Chain Foresight is the industry standard qualitative research study into South Africa’s supply chains. • Supply Chain Management Research blog – http://scmresearch. with input suppliers. • They can optimise their input costs and negotiate contracts with off takers. fruit and vegetables are vulnerable to supply chain disruptions – see those We should do this before we lose more farmers and the total production lands in the hands of a few large companies. processing and distribution” by Magna Carta Public Relations for Standard Bank. There is a hotline to speed up government payments to Small Medium and Micro Enterprises (SMMEs). There is every argument to be made for small scale farmers to form buying and marketing groups. In fact. This too can be found at .farmersweekly. Primary production is the least profitable of all sectors in a value chain. • Find the article “Africa: Targeting Gaps in the Food Supply Chain” on http://allAfrica. • Systems improvements and value-addition is identified as a priority area in the National Agricultural Research and Development Strategy document.112 marketing and finance Supply Chain Management • It may also be easier for the government to grant subsidies to collective farming structures instead of individuals. • The Agricultural Commodity Value Profiles series on the Department of Agriculture. If prices rise. Farmers who want to do this first need to get Competition Commission grain. The retailers would get the product variety they need to attract consumers. The traditional antagonistic roles of the sales and purchasing departments – to sell as high as possible and buy as low as possible – is abandoned in favour of co-operation and coordination. Different actors in agricultural supply chains have abandoned their traditional competitive positions towards each other in favour of co-operation to compete more effectively.agbiz. co. and each farmer within a farming group would benefit from a stable supply contract. “Marketing” and “Infrastructure and Agro-logistics” chapters 5. Through co-operation and co-ordination of their activities firms are able to realise advantages across the supply • Banks prefer to fund small scale farmers through an umbrella organisation that takes responsibility for the group meeting its contract farmers.smartprocurement. The emerging co-ordination and control mechanisms can be collectively referred to as Supply Chain Management. This means upholding a consistent supply of quality products to Local retailers. • Visit www. • Commodity associations usually have material and studies relating to their chain. www. • Having a retailer ring-fencing the bank’s risk by contracting to put the group’s products on its shelves makes such groups even more attractive. Role players Some agricultural products such as flowers. agriculture has been fragmented. You can’t expect to get a higher price for your product if you don’t add value to it and reduce cost for processors in the chain. they change their minds. about a two-year evaluation of agricultural innovations to alleviate hunger and poverty in Africa. financiers. Farmer-controlled businesses must add value to their products. beneficiators. These benefits of successful supply chain management can be summarised as follows: • reduced cost through specialisation • improved synergistic performance • increased information to support joint planning • enhanced customer service • reduced risk and uncertainty • shared creativity • improved competitive advantage These advantages are realised when firms start to co-ordinate the flow of products throughout the supply chain. Source: adapted from the article “Small scale farmers must join forces to cash in on new trend toward local supply. They have to expand their activities to include a larger part of the value and consumers all seeing themselves as separate role players without responsibility for any other element of the value chain. In other words. Small-scale farmers In the past.daff. like Walmart and Pick ‘n Pay. are paving the way through sourcing goods locally. Business enterprises experiencing late payments of more than 30 days can call the hotline number on 0860 766 3729 or fax their details to 012 452 0458 for assistance. Source: Dr Koos Coetzee in the article “Getting a bigger slice”. and vegetable farmers could work together to negotiate one contract to which they would all be suppliers. • South Africa’s geographic diversity means that many regions have a range of climatic conditions that would enable a variety of crops to be produced and then sold collectively to local retailers. The “Risk management and insurance” chapter applies. Advice from accountants and legal professionals is usually needed. and don’t need to be limited to one specific industry. Farmers often want to establish farmer-controlled businesses when prices are low. off takers. Forestry and Fisheries website. In most cases. 4. Farmers can share in the profits made upstream or downstream through their own farmerowned businesses. Overview The systems for providing food and other agricultural products to the final consumer have changed over the years. Provision must be made for new entrants and for resignations.namc. fruit. farmer-controlled businesses need professional management and capital investment. directly from farmers.daff. Visit www. marketers. • Find Cost Analysis in South African Agro-food Value Chains by Dr André Jooste of the NAMC at www. Source: Dr Tobias Doyer (Santam) Farmer-controlled businesses shouldn’t be seen as glorified trade unions with the sole purpose of negotiating higher prices. website of the National Agricultural Marketing Council (NAMC).za which focuses on procurement and supply management. 2. Websites and publications • A number of studies into supply chains can be found at www.supplychainforesight. The onus now falls on these small scale farmers to make collaboration at their end of the value chain a success. This is a presentation that was given to the 2012 Agricultural Business Chamber congress. It’s important to get a group of like-minded farmers together to establish the farmercontrolled business properly. it’s illegal for a group of farmers to club together and negotiate higher prices. Please also refer to the “Exporting”.


provides for our fuel and energy needs. 1. Maintaining biodiversity is essential for the production of food. Source: an excerpt from the opening page at www. and all the benefits that come with these – food security. The richer nations far outstrip the poorer ones in terms of consumption. Threats to biodiversity The biologist EO Wilson developed the acronym HIPPO to sum up the threats to biodiversity. including rivers and groundwater. food. pesticides affecting plants. Population Population growth is the main cause of pressure on the ecosystems and the degradation of the environment. sufficient food. Overview Introduced and invasive species Biodiversity describes the variety of life in an area. Habitat destruction. the pollution levels world-wide are soaring. but also on the soil. untreated sewage and effluent contaminating water systems. and landfill waste which grows exponentially with pollution and affluence. shelters us and heals fish for commercial or subsistence Pollution Since the industrial revolution. There are numerous spiritual. we have become predominantly urban and increasingly disconnected from nature. Payment for Ecosystem services (PES) Even though biodiversity is the foundation of ecosystems and habitats (i. • Supporting life systems – production. As a species. soil formation and nutrient cycles. this contribution – particularly the economic contribution – is understudied. acid-mine drainage. we are living beyond our means.e. Society consumes the equivalent of what three planets would produce per year. and the massive footprint we leave on the earth. • Health – including strength and feeling well. mitigation against natural disasters. fuel. Any economist would explain that bankruptcy is set to follow. We are drawing on nature’s capital rather than living off its Biodiversity is the basis of agriculture. there are no livelihoods. several chapters like biocontrol. The growth rate feeds the demand for natural resources. The “Resources and Good Agricultural Practice” section of this directory is a recognition that while agriculture contributes to the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity. encroaching on and transforming natural habitats. In addition its being undervalued. What can be done about this? The reader should note that there is information elsewhere in the book that could well have been in this section e. . food plants for agriculture. and access to renewable energy and rainwater harvesting have been moved to the “Inputs” section. land and water resource. shelter. animals and the receiving environment. nutrition and livelihoods. • the number of different species • the genetic wealth within each species • the interrelationships between them • the natural areas where they occur. industrialised humanity has only just begun to take into account the connection between: • biodiversity and quality of life. mutual respect and the ability to help others. • Basic needs – including the ability to earn a living or subsist. our natural environment). We need to know more these ecosystem services in order to make every provision for them to continue. 3. the information on best fertiliser practice (see “Fertiliser” chapter). Also. agricultural goods. These benefits of biodiversity are often referred to as ecosystem goods and services. there are no trees for logging. and • biodiversity and it many economic benefits.stewardship. pollination of crops. And biodiversity is also directly related to the quality of life you may expect. water and the spread of disease. Invaders impact on fauna and flora. • Regulation – biodiversity and its life-support systems regulate climate. it is also a major driver of biodiversity loss. Societies also do not consume equally. Over-exploitation From muti-plants to rhino horns. Consider • Security – including access to resources. Source: an excerpt from the opening page at www. You may ask: “What has biodiversity ever done for me?” Biodiversity feeds us. in order to mainstream them. Invaders tend to resourcehungry and deplete the natural assets. clothes us. China and South Africa.g. disturbance and fragmentation Biodiversity and ecosystem services Habitat destruction and the changes to ecosystems is possibly the greatest cause of biodiversity loss. Without biodiversity.stewardship. without biodiversity. • Cultural – people need connection to nature. aesthetic.114 resources and good agricultural practice 2. Key focus areas to address pollution include water contamination by fertilisers. pathogens. medicine and fibres. countries – mostly in the “industrialised west” – have been polluting for two centuries. or even wildlife for tourism. Wilson’s “HIPPO” summarises the key causes of destruction of the natural environment. coal-fired electricity plants which produce high levels of air pollution and contaminate water. access to clean air and water. nutritional variety. recreational and learning benefits. including: Introduced species often become invasive when they breed and outcompete or eat the endemic species. Simply stated. These services are categorised: • Provision – biodiversity provides all living organisms with water. • Good social relations – including social cohesion. while the human settlements expand. Clearly evident is the common factor – our own excessive consumption of natural resources. from forest trees to oceanic fish. Joined now by emerging economies such as India.

& Rutherford. are called biomes. Map Citation: Mucina.. or go directly to their websites at www. • Read the article “Paying for Ecosystem Services – Promise and Peril” (November 2011) at www. Pretoria. carbon sequestration. These are the Succulent Karoo.fao.g. L. together with their associated animal life. • Find Project for Ecosystem Services (ProEcoServ) and RNC Alliance under the role players heading. .com/talks – Pavan Sukhdev: Put a value on nature! The website reads: “Think of Pavan Sukhdev as nature’s banker – assessing the value of the Earth’s assets. climate and topography give rise to broad vegetation zones which. South African National Biodiversity Institute. Fynbos. A banker by training.C. www. • Find the “Payments for Environmental Services from Agricultural Landscapes” page and links on the UN’s Food And Agricultural Organisation (FAO) website. an area covered by Payments for environmental services (PES). Eye-opening charts will make you think differently about the cost of air. large plateau). Pavan Sukhdev runs the numbers on greening up – showing that green economies are an effective engine for creating jobs and creating wealth”. narrow coastal plain. The vegetation of South Africa. and analytics on markets and payments for ecosystem services (such as water and www. Visit www. is home to plants and animals well suited to hot. dry conditions such as the gemsbok and succulent plants. Albany Thicket and Indian Ocean Coastal Belt biomes. trees . for example. The reader interested in following this theme is referred to the following: • Listen to the excellent talk at www. water.proecoserv. Lesotho and Swaziland. Each of these supports its own collection of plant and animal respectively. In combination.. Desert. M. Forest. • The Ecosystem Marketplace is “a leading source of news. Strelitzia 19.ted. 800 pp.115 In some cases incentives will need to be provided for the conserving of biodiversity (read about REDD+ in the “Climate change” chapter). The fynbos biome is home to a variety of plants that are suited to a mediterranean climate and the poor soils of the south Western Cape. steep escarpment.rncalliance. ecosystemmarketplace. Biodiversity and South Africa South Africa’s biomes – see map below South Africa has a wide range of climatic conditions and many variations in topography (e. data. and biodiversity)”. (eds) 2006. The Karoo. 4.

in terms of the National Environmental Management: Protected Areas Act (No.stewardship. Biodiversity Stewardship South Africa The Biodiversity Stewardship South Africa (BSSA) programme is an initiative of the national Department of Environmental Affairs (DEA) in partnership with key conservation organisations. participating in labelling and certification schemes or working through international trade organisations that accredit 5. issues around biodiversity on agricultural land are dealt with by working with farmers to set aside valuable biodiversity on their land through entering into conservation stewardship agreements (see heading 5). indigenous cutflower. with special responsibility for biodiversity matters relating to the full diversity of South Africa’s fauna and flora. 10 of 2004). a Biodiversity Agreement or a Voluntary Conservation Area. SKEP and the Grasslands Programme • Industry role players from South African companies and multinationals represented in the country. sugar. In each of these areas. Projects include creating a provincial nature reserve. developing best practice guidelines. working with landowners to sign stewardship agreements. Industries where business and biodiversity initiatives have become well established are the wine. The BSSA is an umbrella programme that provides a powerful new tool to assist national and provincial government in fulfilling its mandate to conserve biodiversity outside of state-owned protected areas. are increasingly being covered by the premium prices these producers are able to charge for their products in niche markets. agriculture and tourism sectors to promote formal biodiversity conservation areas. Read more at www. legally-aligned options nationwide and ensures that landowners benefit from and in the “Rangelands/veld” chapter. conservationists worldwide have identified the need to “mainstream” biodiversity by integrating biodiversity conservation into systems where the primary focus is on encouraging sustainable grazing. 57 of 2003) and Biodiversity Act ( 6. and involve market mechanisms such as those depicted below. SANBI has been establishing bioregional and ecosystem programmes using a partnership approach to mainstream biodiversity in socio-economic development that includes agricultural role players. with emerging initiatives in others like red meat. SKEP looks to conserve the SKH which is an area that has a wealth of unique biodiversity but has also been severely damaged by human activities such as mining. Conservation Stewardship See also the Conservancies chapter Biodiversity stewardship provides a new cost-effective way for government to carry out its existing conservation mandate.grasslands. Read more at www. while in some cases partially funded by donors. Read more at www. Initiatives in these industries fit in at various stages along the value chain. The programme helps to implement provincial conservation plans through a consistent. controlling fires. and they receive assistance through extension services. and working with those in the South African mining.skep. This includes private farms. In South Africa this has meant a growing engagement between the business and conservation sectors and the development of some innovative models of “biodiversityfriendly” business. rooibos tea and potato industries. Cape Action for People and the Environment (CAPE) works through a landscape-level approach to conservation and involves landowners and their representative bodies. They have achieved this through marketing their products as biodiversity-friendly. fishing. Biodiversity stewardship approach provides a small number of simple. Grazing of cattle. The commitments are referred to as “voluntary” in the sense that they are not legislated requirements or regulatory mechanisms. overgrazing and ostrich The Succulent Karoo Ecosystem Programme (SKEP) is an overarching framework for biodiversity conservation and sustainable development of the Succulent Karoo Hotspot (SKH). national. . Landowners work with conservation authorities to agree on a conservation management plan that involves managing invasive alien species. parastatals like Eskom and private companies. sometimes overseas. honey. citrus and ostrich. developing land use management plans for overgrazed The Grasslands Programme seeks to identify and promote biodiversitycompatible land uses. 7. in particular the Endangered Wildlife Trust (EWT). The costs of these initiatives and the biodiversity conservation measures they involve. sheep and indigenous game species have been identified as the most compatible agricultural activities in the biome.The BSSA’s goals are aligned with those of DEA’s National Protected Areas Expansion Strategy and Community-Based Natural Resource Management by getting landowners to commit to conserving and managing the biodiversity on their own land. PRODUCERS voluntary producer commitments PRODUCTS RETAILERS eco-labelling / procurement advice voluntary procurement commitments CONSUMERS consumer awareness campaigns The major players in these initiatives are: • Conservation non-governmental organisations (NGOs) based in South Africa e. mostly in agriculture. communal lands and land owned by national / provincial government departments. Participating landowners in the existing Western Cape and KwaZulu-Natal programmes may receive incentives to commit their property to one of three stewardship options through the relevant conservation authority – a Contract Nature Reserve. landscape-scale approach to stewardship. municipalities.and donor-funded bioregional conservation programmes – CAPE. Bioregional programmes and agriculture The South African National Biodiversity Institute (SANBI) was established on 1 September 2004 under the National Environmental Management: Biodiversity Act. the EWT and the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) • South Africa’s government. It also assists government in meeting the targets set out by the National Spatial Biodiversity Assessment and the National Biodiversity Framework (NBF). Business and biodiversity Over the past few years. Read more at www. as well as some of the major retailers • Landowners and producer associations who want to practice sustainable farming and conserve biodiversity on their land.g. and avoiding further land transformation. farming or harvesting.



za • Eco Africa • National Association of Conservancies and Stewardships of South Africa (NACSSA) www. Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) 043 705 4400 Department of Economic National Government A number of departments and agencies have responsibility for matters relating to biodiversity and • Entomological Society of Southern Africa • SANParks www.ledet.crystalclear. sa-environmental. capestewardship.sanbi. provincial authority and website Telephone Eastern Cape Parks • Envirokonsult • Earthlife Africa Jhb www. • Strategic Environmental Focus (SEF) • South African Faith Communities Environment Institute by supporting the North West Dept of Economic 011 355 1280 Ezemvelo KwaZulu-Natal Wildlife 021 483 0000 • Environmental Monitoring Group (EMG) • Environmental Assessment Practitioners Association of South Africa Mpumalanga Tourism & Parks Agency .za • Ecolink • Department of Water Affairs looks beyond these to the broader green economy where substantial opportunities exist for job • Environmental Law Association (ELA) www. Read about the Restoring Natural Capital or RNC Alliance at Working for School environmental programmes • Endangered Wildlife Trust (EWT) www. particularly in biodiversity. Associations. 015 290 7171 Environment & Tourism 015 793 2471 015 291 4259 • Cape Action for People and the Environment (CAPE) • Zoological Society of South Africa (ZSSA) • Local Biodiversity Solutions www. Environment & 043 605 7069 Tourism Free State Department of Economic • Wilderness Foundation of Southern Africa www.zssa.biowatch. 018 387 7700 • Wildlife & Environment Society Of South Africa (WESSA) • South African New Economics Network (SANE) • Andisa Agri • Western Cape Conservation Stewardship Association www. Provincial Government and Nature Conservation Bodies • Janet Edmonds Consulting • Centre for Environmental Rights www. competitiveness and sustainability of environmentally sound products. 051 400 9410/3 Tourism & Environment Affairs www. 013 759 5300 Environment & Tourism 013 759 5336 • Biowatch 051 400 4929 Gauteng Department of Agriculture and Rural 011 355 1900 Development • Indigo Development & Change www. The GreenChoice Alliance is a national alliance that promotes sustainable production and harvesting in South • WWF South Africa www. including the following: • Department of Environmental Affairs www. a GEF-funded umbrella project.detea. 2013/14.andisaagri. wildernessfoundation. • Landmark Foundation Mpumalanga Department of Economic and 033 845 1999 033 845 1652 Limpopo Department of Economic • Environmental Education and Resources Unit Information and contacts are given for the following: • wine • seafood • honey • citrus • ostrich • sugar • meat • red meat • potatoes • wool • wild flowers • rooibos tea • pecan nuts Consultants and businesses • Africa Land-Use Training (ALUT) The New Growth Path.mbb. Prof James Blignaut from the University of Pretoria is the South African contact.119 8. Read about it under the “Biodiversity economy” label at Northern Cape Department of Environment & Nature 053 807 7300 Conservation http://denc. societies and NGOs • African Conservation Trust • National Planning Commission • Environmental Education Association of Southern Africa (EEASA) • Wildlands Conservation Trust • Department of • SANBI Biodiversity Education and Empowerment Division • An amount of R800 million has been made available by the National Treasury for the Green Fund over the next two financial years – 2012/ wessa. • Enviromental Management and Assessment Consultants • Southern African Society for Systematic Biology • MBB Services International • SANBI www.ncpg. waste and natural resource management is to better integrate ecosystem assessment and economic valuation of ecosystem services into sustainable national development ac. Read more at www. The slogan is “Economics in which nature matters and ecology in which people matter” • Crystal Clear • Wildlife and Environment Society SA Eco-schools National Coordinators Tel: 033 330 3931 www. Role players Initiatives The overall goal of Project for Ecosystem Services (ProEcoServ).org • IUCN-SA • Botanical Society of South Africa www. Conservation and Tourism (DEDECT) 018 389 5717 • Grassland Society of Southern Africa • Endangered Wildlife Trust (EWT) • South African Institute of Ecologists and Environmental Sciences www. • WWF South Africa Tel: 021 657 6600 Visit • Imbewu Enviro-legal Specialists www. looking to create five-million new jobs by 053 807 7482 Cape Nature (Western Cape) National strategy and government contact At present government runs several natural resource management programmes – Working for • Anchor Environment Consultants • FutureWorks www. • Resource Africa www.

cput. describing and documenting the biodiversity of South Africa.environment. networking.greenmatter. ALUT presents courses like Grootfontein Agricultural Natural Resource Management on Development Institute (GADI) Grootfontein Herbarium the farm Tel: 049 842 1113 The Agricultural Research http://gadi.nwu. Natural Science www. Insects and Tel: 012 339 2700 Biosystematic Research Biosystematic research contributes towards meeting the State’s obligation to the requirements of the International Convention on Biological Diversity in discovering. and integrate it with the outcomes-based Green Futures Tel: 028 384 8059 www. The collections are a priceless indigenous biological resource to enable scientists to address South Africa’s need for information on pest control.120 The Department of Environmental Affairs (DEA) Fungi. • South African Alien Invasive Plant survey. • Butterfly Survey. Its purpose is to support teachers in implementing environmental education at schools. Several National surveys are undertaken in the country: • Botanical Tel: 033 260 6195 www. • Retile atlasing. Research Councils and universities undertake biosystematic research. • South African National Survey of Arachnida.g. www. SADC Regional Environmental Education Programme The purpose of the Regional Environmental Education Programme is to enable environmental education practitioners in the SADC region to strengthen environmental education processes for equitable and sustainable environmental management Hope for unemployed people in South African Biodiversity the field of fynbos landscaping and Information Facility (SABIF) conservation www. • South African Plant Parasitic Nematode Survey. its Institute of Natural Resources Plant Protection Research Institute – see University of KwaZuluis the custodian of the South African Natal Rhizobium Culture Collection and the National Collections of National Zoological Gardens Delta Environmental Centre Tel: 011 888 4831 Rhodes University Environmental Learning Research Fynbos Forum Centre Tel: 021 783 2509 Tel: 046 603 8390 SANBI Tel: 012 843 5000 / 021 799 8800 www. the development of resource materials and capacity-building.php range of research activities with implications for biodiversity e.deltaenviro. Research and training African Land Use Training (ALUT) Tel: 014 717 3819 www. The (ARC) undertakes a conservation and the sustainable use of advantageous The National Environmental Education Programme (NEEP) is a collaborative project co-ordinated by the Department of Education.saeon. Visit GreenMatterZA / Lewis Foundation Tel: 011 325 5124 www.sabif. Nelson Mandela Metropolitan Cape Peninsular University of University (NMMU) Technology (CPUT) Centre for African Conservation Department of Biodiversity and Ecology Conservation Tel: 041 504 2308 Tel: 021 460 3190 DEA supports NEEP with resource materials on contemporary environmental Natural Science The Natural History Collections in South Africa are among the most important and comprehensive biological and taxonomic reference resources of their kind in North-West University Council for Scientific and Research Unit: Environmental Industrial Research (CSIR) Science and Management Natural Resources and the Tel: 018 299 2523 / 07 Environment Tel: 018 299 2381 Tel: 012 841 4781 / 2911 www. • Bird atlasing. safeguarding and development of natural science collections and associated biological reference resources are of strategic importance to natural resource management and biodiversity conservation in South South African Environmental Observation Network www. DEA supports and contributes towards enhancing and strengthening environmental education policy.

Visit Tshwane University of Technology (TUT) Department of and how they work together with farmers. videos and other wildlife/environment essentials.ukzn.greenmatter. a database of environmental and other role players.121 South African Institute for Aquatic Biodiversity Tel: 046 603 5800 www.peaceparks.ledger@wol.enviroteach. The information under this • United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) – – A site describing The Nature College Tel: 028 551 2562 / 082 920 3765 – Africa Geographic is South Africa’s leading wildlife and environmental Stellenbosch University Department of Conservation Ecology and Entomology Tel: 021 808 3728 www. Publisher: ITDG – contains an encyclopaedia. showing how its authors perceive and quantitatively analyse agrodiversity.tut. Water & Earth Sciences Tel: 012 382 6379 www. An Ecosystems Approach to Water and Food Security and Releasing the Pressure: Water Resource Efficiencies and Gains for Ecosystem Services • Cultivating Contact the editor at john. Game Rangers Association of Africa. – and African Land Use Training – www.cons-ent.polity. This atlas provides information on • Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO) – • Global Biodiversity Information Facility – www. combining superior production along with enhancement of biological • Conservation Ecology Research Unit Tel: 012 420 2753 please call 082 908 3053 or send an e-mail to • Veld & Flora – the monthly journal of the Botanical Society. • Find the many books available from Briza Publications – www. • International Species Information System (ISIS) – Visit • Wildside.agric. • Find Case study: rates rebates in Nelson Mandela Metro at www.g.up. • Some museums are involved with biodiversity fishes (fresh water and estuarine only).org. • Refer to the “Websites and publications” heading in other chapters in the “Resources and Good Agricultural Practice” section of this publication.wildlifecollege. co.agis. ISBN: 1853394939. Christine for • Refer to Visit the associated website for additional information not found in the magazine and for online shopping for University of the Free State Centre for Environmental Management Tel: 051 401 2863 www. • Find the Natural Resource Atlas on Parks and museums • Peace Parks Foundation and a vital source of information in guiding land-use decision making and conservation planning.uct. Earth & Environmental Sciences Tel: 033 260 5103 http://saees. 10 reasons to pay attention to Green University of South Africa (UNISA) Department of Environmental Sciences Tel: 011 471 2213 Centre for Sustainable Agriculture and Environmental Sciences Tel: 011 471 2171 the Wildlands Conservation Trust and the Wilderness Foundation of South • Convention on Biological Diversity – www. For tip-offs. enviropaedia. • The magazine Environment – People and Conservation in Africa launched by seven NGOs: the Cape Leopard • Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) is an international agreement between governments designed to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten their Southern African Wildlife College Tel: 015 793 7300 www. • Visit the websites of role players mentioned in this chapter. • gallery/volume19/agriculture3. • The printed copy or the electronic version of Enviropaedia – www. butterflies. The book draws on the experience of demonstration sites that are the farmers’ own enterprises. South Africa has produced RDBs dealing with each of the following: birds.naturecollege. • Agriculture maps of SA – University of the Witwatersrand School of Animal.alut. land org • Women’s Environment & Development Organisation (WEDO) – www.unep. co. reptiles and Call 021 797 2090. The reader is encouraged to: • Google relevant words like “biodiversity”.za/cem University of KwaZulu-Natal School of Agricultural. “Websites and publications” could be so extensive that it would not be helpful at • Find the several reports at Institute of Natural Resources Tel: 033 346 0796 University of Limpopo School of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences Tel: 015 268 2202 • International Rhino Foundation – Some international role players • African Conservation Foundation – Plant and Environmental Sciences Tel: 011 717 6404 www. climate.wildsidesa. Read about the Threatened Species Programme at vegetation and near-real time data of veld fires in South Africa. the magazine “that takes you there” – www. • Bioversity International – Water Research Commission (WRC) Tel: 012 330 0340 www. It is based on work in 12 countries with more than 200 collaborating scientists and about 2500 collaborating .sanparks.briza. Websites and publications • Farming for the Future: Farming Sustainably with Nature Harrison J and Young D Animal Demography Unit University of Cape Town • Find the documents relating to the Environmental Sector Skills Plan for South Africa on Save our rhinos.fao.environment.africanconservation.cites.saiab. Visit www.bioversityinternational. “green jobs” and skills development • Find out about the publication EnviroTeach at for news on careers. University of Cape Town Environmental and Geographical Science Tel: 021 650 2873 Presentations delivered at the conference can be accessed under the “Resources” option at www.africageographic. “environment” and “ecosystem services”.museumsonline. They are lists of threatened plants and animals specific to a certain region. • Find the biodiversity option at www. and has been drastically • Red Data Books (RDBs) and Red Lists are very useful tools and sources of information for use in species University of Pretoria Centre for Environmental Studies Tel: 012 420 4048 vegetation types and the uses of South Africa plant University of the Western Cape Biodiversity and Conservation Biology Programme Tel: 021 959 2301 www. Helen Parsons and Michael Stocking. WESSA and the • The SANBI Grasslands Programme held a symposium “Biodiversity: powering the green economy” in the first half of 2012.gbif. website of the South African Ostrich Business • South African National Parks (SANParks) www. capeaction. • Succulent Flora of Southern Africa Doreen Court (Struik Nature) 2010 • Plants of the Klein Karoo Jan Vlok and Anne Lise Schutte-Vlok (Umdaus Press) 2010 • Environmental Management Carol Knoll (editor). Harold that deal with biodiversity and ecosystem services e. develop. FERTILIS also makes wonderful Compost Tea for plant irrigation). “Speciality fertilisers” and the “Organic farming” chapters (research. Find archived articles at www. promoting soil nutritious produce without the use of non-organic Research on the role of micro-organisms in the soil environment and the effect of agricultural “Earthworms and vermicompost”.com • Planner Bee Plant Care www. Analysis of soil to characterise microbial communities.denvet. • Biological farming is 80% down the road to organic farming – it is a relatively easy matter for a well-established biological farmer to switch over to organic farming. livestock and human. Websites and publications Visit www. • Soiltech www. The agricultural weeklies Landbouweekblad and Farmer’s Weekly frequently run articles on biological farming. proper livestock manure use. pesticides or gene modification.soiltech. growing green The Rules of Biological Farming • test and balance soils using at least 21 parameters – Albrecht system • use only soil friendly fertilisers • use minimum herbicides and pesticides • use sound tillage practices • use legumes in crop rotations • use compost and compost tea Sources: (A business which specialises in compost extract machines).za (Organic feed University of the Free State • Agricultural Management www.sabiofarm.ufs.microbial. Horticulture and Viticulture.mycoroot. Improving the soil’s health in turn improves the health of • MBF International www. • Along with natural systems and • Soil. pesticides and certain fertilisers that destroy soil life.kelpak. and (find John Fair’s regular “Biological farming” column in every issue of Farmer’s Weekly) North-West University Potchefstroom Campus Research Unit: Environmental Science and Management Microbiology Dr S Claassens Tel: 018 299 2329 • Metson www. Rural Development and Extension • It takes advantage of natural processes include: crop • Mycoroot (Pty) Ltd www. Crop and Climate Sciences Biological farming incorporates the best of conventional farming methods to maintain production levels and quality. Numerous publications are also available from them.sabiofarm. veterinary remedies.stimuplant. • Efficient Microbes • Denvet www. best tillage and improve crop www. reducing – a “complete solution for biological farming” but also control pests. • Microbial Solutions (Pty) Ltd www. but will also take measures to restore soil life by using products like compost tea and microbes to “clean” the soil of harmful • Plant Health Products (Pty) Ltd (PHP) www. “Compost and compost tea”. Some role players Inputs • Bio-Fly (Pty) Ltd www. and balancing the soil’s • Centre for Sustainable • Biogrow www. 2 • Hands-on Agronomy N Kinsey and C Walters • How soils work P Syltie Find the featured articles and archives on or call 011 025 4388 for the following publications: • Albrecht Papers Natural processes and systems improve the soil structure.farmersweekly. Overview • Biological farming uses nature and science to build the quality of the • Bio-insectaries SA (BISA) • SOYGRO (Pty) Ltd Tel: 018 292 1907 • Stimuplant (adapted) and The National Policy On Organic Production discussion document as it was at the end of 2011.biofly.ecosoil. veterinary instruments) • Eco-fert www. Bio-insecticides as well as the development of a number of other Bio-control organisms) • Haifa Chemicals RSA Ltd • SA Biofarm Institute www.122 resources and good agricultural practice Biological farming Refer to the “Conservation Agriculture”. • Biological farming methods present a viable way of producing high quality.haifa-group. training and research • Ecosoil www. produce and market innovative bio-control products for Agriculture. as well as DVDs and CDs of various (“FERTILIS” (registration no B3664 Act36/1947) is certified by the Organic Food Federation UK: organic certification no: 00371/01/ • Ecosoil A biological farmer might use less poisonous chemicals in an emergency to save a crop.metson. com and • Biological farmers avoid using harmful chemicals like • Kelpak Products include Bio-fungicides.


Ectoparasiticides and Farmers Manual please contact Arnaud le Roux Cell: 082 325 6578. Farming and birds can mix Just as one must know the life-cycles of the pests to combat them. good farming methods promote the wellbeing of the natural resources and are desirable. There are poison blocks (e. Charles Street Veterinary Group. Movement to water should also be encouraged by leaving corridors of natural vegetation leading to water sources. pests and weeds are a fact of farming. Control does not mean eradication. Careful planning of new lands or any other developments which will alter the natural habitat is important. waterfowl and other poultry” chapter 1. so by getting to know the birds’ behaviour. and accuracy of application are all important factors to consider in making a choice. Find out about oxpecker-friendly dips on the market. a natural predator of grain pests like mice.124 resources and good agricultural practice Birds and farming See also the “Gamebirds. Farm well to reduce habitat change Alternatives to the establishment of new lands should be sought.htm (the source of some of the information above). A large number of birds on a farm does not automatically indicate a healthy bird population. Find their details under the role players heading. Where the use of chemicals is necessary. The booklet is available from the Delta Environmental Centre. An adult barn owl will take care of two rodents a night and a bat will eat over 50% of its body weight in insects in the same time. Role players like the EWT. telephone lines. Natural. The Problems: • Many owls are victims of secondary or accidental poisoning through build up of insecticides in the body of the owl and through the use of rat poisons. Two beneficial birds Owls Farmers are encouraged to look after the welfare of owls. pyrethroid and amidine acaricides brought new hope for oxpeckers. • Chicks should be left where they are so that the parents can continue to look after them. Source: Dr At Kruger. Find information at www. Two simple models may be found in the book listed below (see source acknowledgement). and control at a tolerable level should be considered. The poison in the rats body often ends up killing the owl. Even if a large part of the area of the farm is Large birds. power lines. Carefully chosen biological agents are the ideal. Seringveld Conservancy. Source: A Beginner’s Guide to Owls. The visible birds might abound on that farm owing to a particular resource or crop. As custodians of the earth and the biodiversity in it. such as more efficient farming methods to obtain increased yields from the existing lands. Similarly owls can be used as a biological control method for rodents. Racumin blocks – not paste) which do not result in secondary poisoning. making it very important to employ farming practices which offer the bird the best chance of survival by managing tick infestations with the correct products and management protocols. the introduction of environmentally-compatible chemicals. Owls (and bats) are an environmentally friendly way of controlling pests at minimal cost. Attracting Owls • Keep the area as natural as possible. . the instructions of use should be Dipping against ticks almost eradicated the red-billed Oxpeckers in South Africa (thus Operation Oxpecker). careful research should be done to choose the product which will do the job with the least impact over the long term. Biodegradability. and suppliers and manufacturers should be quizzed regarding the above issues. Gauteng Conservancy Association 2. Birds may in fact constitute just such a biological management aid. Farms with variety are bird-friendly farms Whatever type of farming is practiced. and (ii) to order the Oxpeckers. inevitably leading to a reduction in certain bird species. one can design new developments and general farming practices to promote their wellbeing. EcoSolutions. Corridors of natural vegetation should be left between lands and between buildings to allow for movement of birds and other animals. frequency of use. also look at commonly-used flight paths before erecting high fences. such as owls. many will not fly from one isolated patch of natural vegetation to another. Insecticides are particularly dangerous. It is important to realise that any poison used in the garden or farmyard can affect beneficial animals.deltaenviro. What about the bird species which do not fit into this category? There might be some which occurred naturally in the area whose numbers drop dramatically or completely. The effect on biodiversity can be negative. Most owl chicks found on the ground have not been abandoned and the best thing to do in most cases is to leave the bird where it is. and all possible efforts must be made to avoid effects on other organisms. such by marking power lines with flappers of other similar devices. Dr Pete Irons. this is our duty and not a This places pressure on natural systems and the birds and other animals which inhabit these areas. Once the product is selected. are often injured or killed when they collide with prominent structures. Where tall structures are erected. effects on other organisms. Fortunately. then lessen dip-dependence by phasing in the oxpecker. or write to oxpecker@ewt. followed closely. Contact the South African Pest Control Association (details in the “Wildlife on farms” chapter). Even a simple example such as overgrazing of veld and too frequent veld fires will lead to habitat changes. whereas they would move along a natural corridor. there are ways of reducing the impact on bird diversity. wind turbines and solar panels. and must be controlled for efficient production. • Provide safe nesting boxes: this could improve their breeding success.g. While considering bird movement. In general. A good principle is to maintain a mosaic of different land uses on a farm. For more information on (i) how to phase in oxpecker-friendly dips. feeding and nesting Birds need corridors too While birds can fly. Overview Decreasing margins in farming enterprises and other issues can lead to farming more intensively – and to farm in new areas. also known as non-target species. low impact methods should be employed wherever a range of different land uses and an intact variety of different micro-habitats will ensure a greater variety of birds can benefit from the farm. including many endangered birds. Use the right control methods right Red-billed Oxpecker Plagues. • Avoid poisons of all kinds. such as the oxpeckers of the bushveld which pick and eat large amounts of ticks off cattle and other large animals in a year. Erecting owl boxes will help to attract owls to the property (see heading 2). Denokeng Bird Bash. the Urban Owl Nest Project and the African Bird of Prey Sanctuary can also help you. visibility aids should be used in areas of increased bird movement. The red-billed Oxpecker can be one of the farmer’s greatest natural allies on game and cattle farms.

Farmers participating in the project testify that they have success in attracting owls and getting rid of westerncape@birdlife. in final draft phase in Animal Demography Unit (ADU) BirdLife South Africa Tel: 021 650 2423 Tel: 011 789 1122 www. grasslands@birdlife. African Bird of Prey Sanctuary Tel: 031 785 4382 za • Birds Of Prey Programme: André Regional Conservation Krueger has done a lot of work on vultures in the Drakensberg.uct. Species Conservation: EWT Programmes include: Dr Hanneline • Wildlife Energy Programme: Megan kzn@birdlife. conservation@birdlife. of which between 13 000 and 24 000 are domestic avitourists. online bird guides Percy FitzPatrick Institute of African Ornithology Tel: 021 650 3290/1/7 www. the ADU changed its name to include: reflect its widening focus. Write Wattled Crane Recovery to her at skruger@kznwildlife. Role players Find the contact details of conservancies in the Conservancies chapter. Farmers Project included in gauteng@birdlife. • The White-winged Flufftail (Sarothrura ayresi) which is Critically Endangered is dependent on good quality available wetland habitat across its distribution. with several heading for extinction. 1. Mpumulanga and Free - particularly in areas of species diversity. Centre The website is an essential source Tel: 011 807 6993 / 083 558 5658 of information with details of www. megand@ewt. how to become a Community Bird Guide Tel: 033 845 1999 SAFRING – see Demography Unit (ADU) Animal South African Fancy Pigeon Amongst other things. North West and Western Cape national projects.wildbirdtrust. Southern African Birding Tel/fax: 031 266 5948 Ezemvelo KZN Wildlife Read more at Urban Owl Nest Project and Find the “Birding” option under Urban Raptor Conservation “Conservation” and then “Wildlife” Programme at - Kwa-Zulu Natal: Nick Parrot Breeders Association of Southern Africa Tel: 053 927 3084 done by the Department of Trade and Industry (dti) to investigate the value and growth potential of Gauteng.ewt. contact details of bird clubs across the country. the travel for the purpose of bird and North West: person for the Oxpeckers and Ernst Retief. Marnewick. org. Avizandum Tel: 031 763 4054 www. and • South Africa has attractive core birding assets compared to competitor destinations.moholoholo. at www. EcoSolutions Association www. longer trip lengths and a greater tendency to visit multiple provinces than mainstream market Managers: • Arnaud le Roux is the contact . endemism and Kate . a number of birds are on the IUCN Red Moholoholo Wildlife Rehabilitation Centre Tel: 015 795 5236 www. • The Secretarybird (Sagittarius serpentarius) is one of only two species uplisted globally based on threats to this species. Avitourism. Read about the KwaZulu-Natal branch at http://freemekzn. Programme Tel: 072 874 9711 Previously the Avian Demography BirdLife South Africa programmes EcoSolutions Jonathan Haw – 072 365 9777 www.africanraptor. Charles Street Veterinary Group Tel: 012 460 9385 www. Sonja • The Taita Falcon (Falco taita) • The South African Blue Swallow population (Hirundo atrocaerulea) of approximately 57 known pairs is locally classified as Critically supply and install owl boxes in the za.Southern Bald Ibis Manager: Programme: Kerryn Morrison. The publication includes notes on how to start your own avitourism business. Source: Birdlife SA 4.adu. Find the Department of Trade and Industry study. Avitourism in South Africa (Niche Tourism Markets) under “Publications” at the Wildlife Conflict Mitigation Programme. ibis@birdlife. • avitourists generally offer higher than average trip spend. indicate that: • the total size of South Africa’s current Avitourism market range between 21 000 and 40 000 avitourists annually. Some of the key findings of the study. South African birds in trouble In South Delta Environmental Centre Tel: 011 888 4831 State: Charmaine Uys. • Airport Wildlife Programme: Avitourism Find out about the National Avitourism Strategy. • The endemic Southern Bald Ibis (Geronticus calvus) is dependent on good land use practises for its survival across its distribution in the grasslands of South • African Crane Conservation .za - Western Cape: Dale www. Endangered Wildlife Trust Wild Bird Trust Tel: 011 372 3600 Tel: 072 858 5644 kerrynm@ewt.sabirdkeeper. • The Wattled Crane (Bugeranus carunculatus) is the most severely threatened crane on the African continent. is reputed to be one of the fastest growing nature-based tourism activities Find the “Owl project” option on the website. Avitourism: Martin Taylor FreeMe Wildlife Rehabilitation – taita@birdlife. Important Bird Areas: Daniel Claire Patterson-Abrolat.

Lesotho and Swaziland” • www. Conservancies A conservancy is a voluntary association between land users/owners who cooperatively wish to manage their natural resources in an environmentally sustainable manner without necessarily changing the land-use of their properties. or that your title deed is going to be amended.kalahari. Order it at www.g. Several FGASA-accredited companies offer birding courses • www. adjacent properties. community. effort and money you invest into the quality of your own life and for the common good. website of the Southern African Foundation for the Conservation of Coastal Birds • Find the different options to do with parrots at www. Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University (NMMU) Tel: 044 801 5028/111 www. with ever increasing financial. for example. Visit www. It also does not imply that someone is going to offer you monetary compensation for the time. incorporating some of our country’s most sensitive ecosystems. Field Guides Association of Southern Africa (FGASA) Tel: 011 886 8245 www. • SA Birding – www.birdlife.uct. • For pictures.126 Training and research BirdLife South Africa Tel: 011 789 1122 www. Registration is granted by the relevant provincial nature conservation authority. EcoTraining South Africa and Limpopo Field Guiding Academy. The case for conservancies South Africa’s game parks and nature reserves are not sufficient for the conservation of biodiversity. Conservancies bring many advantages. people are considered key species of the ecosystem or agroecosystem and have to learn to rub shoulders with other life forms in such a manner that most can continue to exist. University of KwaZulu-Natal.thomasriver.fitzpatrick. space. Our thanks to Hannelie Smit and Martin Taylor of Birdlife SA for feedback on the draft chapter resources and good agricultural practice Conservancies and farming 1. For Research is undertaken into. birding tours etc. Africa Nature University of Cape Town Animal Demography Unit Tel: 021 650 2421 http://adu. 2. of his or her actions. in English and in Afrikaans. the conservancy as a whole and eventually much wider. Guiding standards are set and maintained within the guiding for updates on birding courses. e. the Sasol books and the Roberts • www. • Visit the Indicator Birding Unfortunately. own property. Claire Spottiswoode ISBN 186872-725-4 • Voëls van die bosveld SC Kidson. both positive and negative.sabirding. To live and/or work in a conservancy does not imply that you have to change your form of land use.nmmu. How we avoid the negative impact on our biophysical environment? Conservancies find common ground and create a meaningful partnership between nature conservation and Some examples follow: 6. on A conservancy looks after the interests of nature because it assumes that the best interest of humans and nature are inextricable. Many of our country’s farmers are indeed good land silence and the aesthetic therapy of natural beauty. These include: - Sasol Birds of Southern Africa - Sasol larger illustrated guide to birds of Southern Africa • Southern African Birdfinder Callan Cohen. Visit www. • Remarkable Birds of South Africa by Dr Peter Perhaps the idea that what is in our best interest is also in the best interest of nature or vice versa. Both the words “ecology” and “economy” stem from the Greek root oikos that can be translated as Percy FitzPatrick Institute of African Ornithology Tel: 021 650 3290/1/7 • The International Crane Foundation – www. downloads and many bird-related links – Trackers and organisations involved in offering professional guiding services to members of the Websites and publications • Die Voëlgids van Suider-Afrika (Ulrich Oberprieler. Burger Cillier) can be ordered at www. University of the Witwatersrand. A conservancy is NOT a miniature game reserve or nature reserve (even if it is about farming in a way which is game and nature friendly).birdlife.g. many farmers are forced to ensure that every portion of their land becomes financially and in doing so are compelled to look after the requirements of – World Migratory Bird Day (WMBD) is a global initiative devoted to celebrating migratory birds and for promoting their conservation worldwide.lapa. “Mapping the distribution and abundance of birds in South Africa. farm or even conservancy. for the biodiversity as well as for the communities living or farming within it: . What is good for the one is good for the other and vice versa. Visit www. Numerous universities do ornithological training and bird research. HL van Niekerk ISBN 978-1-87509388-5 Available from Kejafa Knowledge – Southern African Bird Atlas Project 2. • Newman’s Birds by Colour Kenneth Newman (Struik Nature) • Adventures With Nature stocks several books on birds e. The English version is entitled The Bird Guide of Southern Africa. into reports of any abnormal mortality amongst wild birds on farms.briza. resource and manpower burdens placed at the foot of our agricultural industry.fgasa. sightings and reports of Southern Bald Ibis and Cape University of the Free State Department Zoology and Entomology Tel: 051 401 2489 Department of Genetics Tel: 051 401 2595 Others include Rhodes family. In a conservancy. is not far fetched at all. Overview The agricultural sector uses approximately 80% of South Africa’s 120 million hectare land surface. org. The consequences for a river does not flow through only one smallholding. What living in a conservancy does imply is that each individual slowly but surely starts to consider the neighbours. • Find the various books by Ian Sinclair. A conservancy is a voluntary and co-operative action by landowners/users to provide for the yearnings of their souls. published by simply because most of our biodiversity exists outside these formally protected FGASA represents individual Tourist Guides. Culture and Adventure guides. 3.

The conservancy should have a financial year beginning and end. • Wildlife increases in Conservancy areas. birds. The following aspects are covered during most of the courses: • security and discipline • methods of patrolling and reporting • Nature Conservation laws • identification of plants. • The economic value of the area is improved owing to healthier veld conditions and better overall security. • training rangers in the conservancy. • The local population usually supports the presence of Game Rangers. cultural and natural environment leads to a more healthy environment and. 5. one must decide if this is offset by the savings a community gains through greater protection of natural resources in the area. however. We need to coexist with nature in a manner that will allow most species to survive well into the next century. • There are marked decreases in stock and crop theft in the conservancy area. • Fences are patrolled more regularly. previously disadvantaged communities. instils a greater sense of community pride in ones surroundings. • Vagrants tend to avoid a regularly patrolled area. • controlling exotic plant and animals in the conservancy. insects. What types of conservancies are there? The most common Conservancies types in South Africa fall into the following categories: • Rural (e. 4. • The reporting. • New skills are developed. • getting specialist to assist in the management of the conservancy. is a matter of choice and necessity. • Habitat Conservancies. • maintaining fire breaks around the conservancy.g. Sponsors may be identified to provide support for training programmes. Rangers In rural and agricultural districts that have formed a conservancy. Training of rangers Most Nature Conservation Departments provide training to ensure that conservancy rangers are well trained and that high standards are met. Inquire about deductions for tax paying farmers under the Income Tax Act. It should also give feed back to the members on the financial status of the conservancy when needed at the annual general meeting. • An overall better social. but also be the means to heal the wounds of the past and create a dignified existence. • There are fewer uncontrolled forest and veld fires in the area owing to co-operative fire management strategies. but there are other ideas. Management fees are the obvious way to generate some funds for the conservancy. in cooperation with FreeME (visit www. This. The examples below are just a few. which embodies coexistence rather than segregation. reptiles and animals • identification of exotic plants and animals • muti and medicinal plants • control of veld fires • benefits of recycling • personal hygiene and yard management • public relations • tourism • maintenance of hiking trails Get in touch with your provincial NACSSA affiliate (see heading 9) for details. with nature conservation or LandCare motives) • Agricultural • Peri-Urban • Urban – in urban living areas • Industrial – in industrial areas • Informal Settlements • Marine & Coastal – in the marine & coastal areas. The following can be developed by the landowners to generate income in the conservancy: • hiking trails • picnic areas • fishing opportunities • bird watching • mountain bike trails • overnight facilities • farm holidays • sponsors can provide financial support Labour intensive conservancy projects. For this to become reality local people will need to develop many skills. • Harassment of local population is reduced. Training is usually free but the conservancy is responsible for accommodation and food during training. obviously. • Game becomes tamer and is more readily seen.g. Although there are. set up to safeguard or conserve specific endangered habitats e. it is advisable to employ field rangers. on or around campuses and school . • putting up signboards in the conservancy. • Conservancies enhances the use of the district for nature based education. • There is better general security. • Cultural Conservancies – to protect places of cultural or historical value. proper maintenance of fences and better protection of livestock and crops through a more efficient “on the ground” reporting system. mainly revolving around cooperation in eco-tourism opportunities. where funds could play a major role in the functioning of a conservancy: • employing rangers in the conservancy. The financial status and management of the conservancy should be dealt with in the constitution. How this is to be planned for and managed will tax local people to the utmost. monitoring and co-operatively managing of exotic plants and animals Contact your tax consultant or one of the role players (see heading 9) for more. or visit www. Bullfrog Pan Conservancy in • A closer community is formed.freeme. costs involved with the employment of field rangers. There is a new push for biodiversity stewardship where farmers are given incentives and support to include areas that are managed for biodiversity in their farms. Two of these are: • expenditure on the conservation and maintenance of land under a biodiversity-management agreement entered into between the landowner and the Environmental Affairs Minister. • rehabilitating habitats in the conservancy. in turn.127 • Biodiversity survives and physical resources are conserved. Conservation by people for people (conservancies) is a new conservation ethic. should create opportunities for the hiring of jobless. • Conservancies are extensively used to release rehabilitated wildlife. • Landowners become more conscious of their indigenous animal and plantlife. • Pumps and water holes are patrolled more regularly. Some provinces also have other types of conservancies: • Educational Conservancies e. Business opportunities The financial side of any organisation can see its success or failure so this should be a focus point when starting a conservancy.g. • There is better control of stray dogs. • a tax deduction for money spent maintaining land under the Protected Areas Act. such as invasive alien plant management. 6. a bank account and a treasure managing the funds. and less hunting by dogs and the chances of rabies. 7. • The opportunity for eco/agro tourism is also enhanced. but protected at the same time.

Thanks to Ivan Parkes for feedback on the draft chapter .za “Conservation Planning” options at www.kznwildlife. they should not be confused with security organisations such as farmwatch. Role players Cape Nature Tel: 021 483 0000 www. eradicate exotic and invader plants. although conservancies can play an important role in reducing crime in an area. Examples of newsletters are KZN’s The Guinea fowl and Gauteng’s The Ear to the Ground. Download a PDF of all the Ezemvelo KZN Wildlife registered provincial conservancies KZN Biodiversity Stewardship (Stewardship Nature Reserves) or write to PO Box construct a bird hide.e. graves. walls. note activities. For further ideas refer to the booklet Projects and Ideas for Conservancies available from Gauteng Conservancy Association. restore grasslands by removing litter. • Ezemvelo KZN Wildlife has a booklet Guidelines for the Formation of a Conservancy. start a trail. Read about the KwaZulu-Natal branch at http://freemekzn. Select a steering committee that will inform the participants about setting up and running the conservancy – CONSERVANCIES ARE THE MOST IMPORTANT CONSERVATION ACTIVITY FOR THE NEW CENTURY. herb garden or medicinal plant which can be of great importance Guidelines for Conservancy Management Planning. Websites and publications • Individual conservancies websites can be accessed on www. vegetable garden. an abridged version of At Kruger’s articles in The Malachite (2005). Ideas for conservancies: 1. Projects and ideas for conservancies Anyone can start a conservancy! Biodiversity is declining at an alarming rate and ecosystems face terminal threat through mass extinction of species. plant an indigenous forest.nacssa. paper tin and plastic Regalis Environmental Services Jan Vlok – 044 279 1987 Seed mixes can be used to attract janvlok@mweb.128 8. restore wetlands and banks of wetlands. The way you wish to organise your conservancy and the projects initiated will be up to your community and committee. impact National Association of management Conservancies and Stewardships assessments of South Africa (NACSSA) Stellenbosch University Tel: 016 590 2914 Department of Conservation game already present on a farm.capenature. Find the list of NACSSA provincial representatives on the website. birds. and www. reintroduce wildlife. trees. Plant and animal resources have always fed and nurtured • A national newsletter NACSSA NEWS is published and distributed to interested parties via email. start a horsetrail. establish a nursery. wetlands. consider fund-raising e. Other interesting project ideas are to start a recycling project. Forming conservancies is a positive step towards protection of our environment and our cultural Call the Share-Net team at 033 330 3931 or email sharenet@wessa.ufs. North-West University (Potchefstroom Campus) Research Unit: Environmental Science and Management Tel: 018 299 2510 Klaus. Ecology and Entomology NACSSA fulfils a vital role in Tel: 021 808 3728 supporting and assisting the • Read about the Biodiversity & Wine Initiative in the wine chapter. • Share-Net is an informal networking project that supports environmental education and development in the SADC region. history of the NACSSA’s vision is to promote stewardship of natural resources at a community level. in agricultural industry with respect University of the Free State to best land management practices Centre for Environmental and. environmental club. catering for birds as well as mammals. historical places and natural places: . help farmers with fire breaks etc. amphibians.cons-ent. how to draw up a constitution etc. .g. handbooks. • Find NACSSA agricultural policy documents and more on www. go to www. streams “Programmes” menu option on the website. buildings. Walkerville 1876. Remember – each Conservancy develops its own constitution. Endangered Wildlife Trust (EWT) Tel: 011 372 3600 ewt@ewt.Historical Places i. water springs. Refer to the NACSSA websites for examples. ‘essential reading’ category FreeMe Wildlife Rehabilitation Centre Tel: 011 807 6993 / 083 558 5658 www. KwaZulu Hybrid Seeds Tel: 031 785 1581 recognise that there Management is a wealth of stored knowledge Tel: 051 401 2863 which can be gained from farmers www. School Conservancies please note however. impact assessments Janet Edmonds Consulting Tel: 033 940 0450 www. management plans. reptiles. Email conservancy@cons ervancies. • For more information and comprehensive manuals e. • Introduction to Land Stewardship – www. Vegetation in us”.Natural Places i. plants insects. Ivan Parkes (Gauteng Conservancy and Stewardship Association). start a compost heap. animals.nacssa. Conservancies Handbook. Call 033 845 1999. as well as information on projects and ideas for conservancies. and has a wealth of advice about where to plans.freeme. Look at places of importance. Programme manager Tel: 033 845 1805 Conservation Management Services Find the notes on Stewardship Ken Coetzee – 044 870 8472 under “Conservation” and consken@mweb. Develop checklists of species e. In our conservancies are rare plant and animal life as well as historical sites – it is essential that ALL these valuable natural assets be to those working in the field of nature www. Sources: Trafford Petteron (NACSSA). Rehabilitation Centres for indigenous wildlife. Additional contacts are listed under “Contact Animals in conservancies. restore stream flow and stream or contact your nearest Find “Stewardship” under the www. • Many conservancies produce their own newsletters.

poverty and visual impacts. According to the Act. The conservation of soil and water resources and natural vegetation is promoted through the prevention and control of erosion. • There are set procedures for the investigation. specific legislation in terms of the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Regulations is included. environmental damage or adverse health effects must be paid for by those responsible for harming the environment.e. This may include the protection of a landscape. animals. traffic. natural features and objects or places of cultural significance. cultural. protection of surface and groundwater. economic. with emphasis on ecological.129 National Environmental Management Act (107 of 1998) resources and good agricultural practice Environmental legislation 1. • United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification – Requires countries to respond to land degradation and the effects of drought. • New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) – Conservation and sustainable use of natural resources is one of the eight themes under this environment initiative. only relating to natural resources like animals and plants. National Forests Act (84 of 1998) The purpose of the Act is to protect and promote sustainable use of forests for environmental. economic and environmental factors in all planning and decision making. Natural Heritage Resources Act (25 of 1999) The purpose of the Act is to protect South Africa’s natural and cultural heritage. Combating of weeds and invader plants is covered by Amended Regulations 15 and 16 of the Act. i. educational. See the “Water” chapter. returns on investments and employment opportunities. health and spiritual purposes. and these include both national and international laws. Locally. while ensuring that the environment is safeguarded. air and soil while social issues are related to human interaction. See the “Invasive Alien Species” chapter. • Convention on Biological Diversity – Aims to conserve biological diversity and promote the sustainable use of its components with equitable sharing of the benefits arising from the utilization of resources. any national conservation strategy needs to take account of the important role of farmers in conservation. Economic issues include capital outlay. which may coordinate the implementation of programmes for the rehabilitation of ecosystems. which were promulgated on 30 March 2001. KZN Amafa). economic and social feasibility. including the rehabilitation. a “triple bottom line” concept must be considered when understanding the environment. and the prevention of the silting of dams and pollution of water. Under Section 24 of the NEMA. • Disturbances of eco-systems and loss of biodiversity must be avoided or mitigated and there must be a “duty of care” to prevent significant pollution and environmental degradation. all buildings older than 60 years may not be altered in any way without authorisation from the Provincial Heritage Authority (e. The concept of environmental sustainability strives to draw these three aspects of our environment together to ensure that the needs of future generations can be guaranteed. Environmental legislation South Africa is governed by a number of legislative provisions relating to the environment. water. Conservation of Agricultural Resources Act (43 of 1983) The intention of the Act is to control the over-utilisation of South Africa’s natural agricultural resources. assessment and communication of any activity requiring environmental authorisation. The National Environmental Management: Biodiversity Act (10 of 2004) The intention of the Act is to protect species and ecosystems and promote the sustainable use of indigenous biological resources. Overview Often. Ecological aspects include plants. historical importance and archaeological / geological value. This is discussed in more detail under heading 3. environmental degradation and consequent adverse health effects and of preventing. • As mentioned in the biodiversity chapter. economic and social aspects. forest and mountain fires throughout South Africa. conservation and sustainable management of land and water resources. National Veld and Forest Fire Act (101 of 1998) The purpose of the National Veld and Forest Fire Act is to prevent and combat veld. See the “Fire” chapter. recreational. The National Environmental Management Act (NEMA) is the overarching environmental legislation in South Africa and deals with a number of issues including: • Sustainable development – taking into account social. The National Water Act (36 of 1998) The intention of the National Water Act is to protect South Africa’s water resources and associated ecosystems and their biological diversity. It is only through the interaction of these three aspects that the real environment can be accurately determined and understood. noise impacts. This chapter is included for two reasons: • Farmers can get into trouble when they are not familiar with environmental issues. environmental issues are assumed to be “green issues”. and include issues such as education. This Act establishes the South African National Biodiversity Institute (SANBI). 2. • The “Polluter Pays Principle” states that the cost of remedying pollution. our NATIONAL LEGISLATION pertaining to the environment includes the following: The Constitution of South Africa (108 of 1996) Everyone has the right to have the environment protected by legislative or other means to: • prevent ecological degradation and pollution. and • secure ecologically sustainable development and use of natural resources. In reality. and maintaining the production potential of land. . controlling or minimising further pollution.g. National Environmental Management: Protected Areas Act (57 of 2003) The intention of the Act is to protect and conserve ecologically viable areas and their natural landscapes. ecological. • promote conservation. INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL CONVENTIONS include: • The Ramsar Convention – An intergovernmental treaty that provides the framework for international cooperation for the conservation and wise use of wetlands and their resources. • The World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) – Promotion of watershed and water resource protection and restoration to reduce the risk of flooding in drought-vulnerable countries.


use. and (b) will exceed 15m in height. or - (ii) more than 5 000 poultry per facility situated outside an urban area. certain Listed Activities would trigger the need for a Basic Assessment to be carried out. removal of indigenous vegetation through ploughing. in Protected Areas. the following activities would trigger the need for a Basic Assessment to be carried out: • Part 3: The construction of facilities or infrastructure for the slaughter of animals with a product throughput of (i) poultry exceeding 50 poultry per day. including dams and reservoirs. measured from the edge of a watercourse. . • Part 13: The construction of facilities or infrastructure for the storage. effluent ponds. • Part 12: The construction of facilities or infrastructure for the off-stream storage of water. composting and waste management. • Part 3: The construction of masts or towers of any material or type used for telecommunication broadcasting or radio transmission purposes where the mast : (a) is to be placed on a site not previously used for this purpose. (ii) channels. Under GN R 546. (iii) bridges.131 Kinds of protected areas are: • game reserves. excluding piglets that are not yet weaned. (49 of 1999) in which World Heritage Sites fall under the control of the management authority and the relevant municipality. (18 of 1998) include the definitions of estuarine and inland waters. These include activities related to livestock production. These include sites outside urban areas. 2004 (Act No. rates rebates are available to landowners who do so. with a combined capacity of 50 000 m3 or more. or (ii) game and red meat exceeding 6 units per day. and these specify certain Listed Activities for which either a Basic Assessment (GN R 544 and R 546) or a Scoping and Environmental Impact Assessment (GN R 545) is required. management and control of land situated in mountain catchment areas. • Part 5: The construction of facilities or infrastructure for the concentration of: - (i) more than 1 000 poultry per facility situated within an urban area. There are several Listed Activities which are applicable to proposed developments or improvements within the agricultural sector. excluding chicks younger than 20 days. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Regulations have been promulgated under Government Notice (GN) R 543 (2010). (xi) infrastructure or structures covering 50m2 or more. or in areas zoned for open space or conservation use. due to the location of the site within specified Geographical Areas. in sensitive areas identified in terms of a Environmental Management Framework. (x) buildings exceeding 50m2 in size. but excluding attachments to existing buildings and masts on rooftops. (21 of 1935) and the Marine Living Resources Act. or for the storage and handling. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) regulations Under Section 24 of the NEMA. These must be considered on a case by case basis. excluding crocodiles younger than 6 months. where such storage occurs within containers with a combined capacity of 80 – 500m3. • Part 8: The construction of a hatchery or agri-industrial infrastructure outside industrial complexes where the development footprint covers an area of 2000m2 or more • Part 11: The construction of (i) canals. The types of Listed Activities for these areas include: • Part 2: The construction of reservoirs for bulk water supply with a capacity of more than 250m3. • Part 25: The release of genetically modified organisms into the environment. establishment of bridges / weirs. These are specified in more detail below: Under GN R 544. (b) more than 250 pigs per facility. Provincial and local government legislation may have specific relevance to particular instances within their jurisdictions. - 8 m2 per small stock unit and (a) more than 1 000 units per facility excluding pigs where (b) will apply. packsheds. Conservancies or Biosphere Reserves. 15 of 1997) or the National Environmental Management: Biodiversity Act. 1997 (Act No. • Part 4: The construction of facilities or infrastructure for the concentration of animals for the purpose of commercial production in densities that exceed – - 2m2 per large stock unit and more than 500 units per facility. release of genetically-modified organisms and the subdivision of land. and to encourage this. 3. or - 250m2 per ostrich or emu and more than 50 ostriches or emus per facility or 2500m2 per breeding pair. (v) weirs. excluding chicks younger than 20 days. Other Acts and Legislation Attention is drawn to the World Heritage Conventions Act. in critical biodiversity areas. - 30m2 per crocodile at any level of production. where assessment for such release is required by the Genetically Modified Organisms Act. 10 of 2004). within 5km of a Nature Reserve or within 10km of a World Heritage Site. fuel storage. of a dangerous good. The Seashore Act. - 3m2 per rabbit and more than 500 rabbits per facility. The Mountain Catchments Areas Act (63 of 1970) The intention of the Act is to provide for the conservation. unless such storage falls within the ambit of the activity listed in Activity 19 of GN R 545 of 2010. (iv) dams. water extraction and storage in dams. where such construction occurs within a watercourse or within 32 metres of a watercourse. nature reserves and protected environments • World Heritage Sites • specially protected forest areas • mountain catchment areas Landowners are encouraged to place land under formal protection/ conservation.

When there is too little soil to plant grasses. molluscs and aquatic plants are specified in the EIA Regulations. . The EMPr should be based on the principles of the NEMA as well as the recommendations made in the preceding Basic Assessment Report or the Scoping and EIA Reports. the flow of water must be slowed down using a water attenuation system that can be built using local materials such as stones and branches. • Level 2: Low to Medium Intervention.A. An EMPr is a legally-binding document that contains guidelines with which building contractors and / or applicants must comply. If this is done. of a dangerous good. For example. The habitat is stable and no erosion control measures are required. and that must be strictly implemented and regularly monitored. • Part 8: The construction of aircraft landing strips and runways shorter than 1. crustaceans. which is used to cover the entire slope. GLOBALG. safe storage of hazardous chemicals. The concept of standards and auditing systems is usually one of self-improvement towards achieving specific and attainable goals. Auditing / Certification Auditing of specific industries according to a set industry standard is often a requirement in order to be able to export agricultural produce to certain overseas markets. Levels of intervention for soil stabilisation • Level 0: No Intervention.132 • Part 4: The construction of a road wider than 4m with a reserve less than 13. according to certain thresholds. implementation of methods to reduce soil erosion and compliance with health and safety issues. • Level 1: Minimum Intervention. Land that has been disturbed by human activities cannot perform these natural functions as efficiently as pristine land. the applicant is required to appoint an independent Environmental Assessment Practitioner (EAP) to conduct the environmental authorisation process (Basic Assessment or Scoping and EIA) on behalf of the applicant. Should non-compliance occur. or afforestation for the purposes of commercial tree. is based on the concept of Good Agricultural Practise (GAP) and is recognised as an international benchmark or standard that is applicable to a variety of products.4km. Environmental assessments are also required for the expansion of agricultural facilities. including plant and livestock production. but other methods such as hydro-seeding or simply sowing grass seed are also effective. It is therefore necessary to rehabilitate land that has been disturbed by agriculture or other activities (e.g.g. This document contains guidelines to ensure that all activities associated with the proposed development are carried out in an environmentally responsible and acceptable manner. then under GN R 543 of 2010. To avoid this. 5. protecting soil from being washed away by moving water is always the priority. However one must be careful not to disturb another site when sourcing such materials. clean water). Rehabilitation Humans rely on the natural functioning of ecosystems to provide them with goods (e. ranging in size from 300m2 to 5ha or more (specific to site’s environmental sensitivity).g. who will instruct the necessary remediation procedure or prosecute. and • Part 19: The construction of a dam where the highest part of the dam wall. Structures should be built as high up on the slope as possible in order to prevent build up in momentum as stormwater moves down the slope. e. Small bare patches on gentle slopes may need grassing.g. The EMPr specifies management objectives and the roles and responsibilities of management personnel on site. A diagrammatic representation of the Basic Assessment Process is shown in Figure 1. It should be noted that there may be additional Listed Activities specific to agriculture. it is likely that the majority of the potentially adverse impacts can be minimised or prevented. sensible siting of ablution facilities. 4. namely the following stages: • planning and design • pre-construction and construction activities • operation of the activity • rehabilitation of the environment • closure (where relevant) The EMP should be used as a framework for environmental compliance monitoring and reporting. If a good soil layer already exists. To achieve successful rehabilitation. Should any of the above be “triggered” by a proposed activity on a farm. as the naturally occurring rehabilitation is adequately. The following Listed Activities under GN R 545 would require a Scoping and EIA process to be conducted: • Part 16: The physical alteration of virgin soil to agriculture. non-compliance can result in losing accreditation. planting grass varieties such as Paspalum or Vetiver will help to bind the soil. resulting in a reduction in market opportunities. These types of audits often require regular self-audits followed by less frequent audits by independent certification bodies. or a stabilising material placed over them. reptiles. This will lead to minor soil loss if patches are not grassed or stabilised with inert materials. an Environmental Control Officer (ECO) should be appointed by the applicant.P. is 5m or higher or where the high-water mark of the dam covers an area of 10ha or more. Other standards exist within the agricultural sector. effective control of workers activities. plant propagation and feed manufacturing. if necessary. • Part 10: The construction of facilities or infrastructure for the storage.5m. Extremely steep ground can be virtually impossible to rehabilitate without the use of climbing equipment and bio-matting. any steps in slopes must be evened out and all erosion preventing structures must be built along contours to avoid water channelling. It should also be noted that additional Listed Activities for aquaculture and the production of finfish. Extended areas of exposed soil on relatively gentle slopes may facilitate water runoff during rainfall. This can be most effectively achieved by planting plugs of grass. the ECO will bring this to the attention of the relevant authority. or for the storage and handling. The EMPr also includes specific mitigation measures for the entire duration of the development. and • The clearance of vegetation where 75% or more of the vegetative cover constitutes indigenous vegetation. In this situation. in line with the guidelines set out in the EMP. The ECO will conduct regular inspections of the site or facility to ensure that activities are being responsibly undertaken. where such storage occurs within containers with a combined capacity of 30 – 80m3. Land that is due to be rehabilitated is often initially bare (no vegetation). and ensures that all FSC-accredited timber is produced in an environmentally sustainable manner. the gradient of the land needs to be made as gentle as possible. such as the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC). erosion structures built along the contours of the slope will trap soil during rainfall events that can then be used for planting. In order to effectively monitor compliance with the EMP. construction). timber or wood production of 100ha or more. as measured from the outside toe of the wall to the highest part of the wall. oxygen from trees) and services (e. which are not listed above. The steepness of the slope and severity of disturbance will determine the spacing of the structures moving down the slope. which is a certification system applicable to forest management. For successful rehabilitation. as steep land allows for very fast water run-off that accelerates erosion. Environmental Monitoring and Auditing Environmental Compliance Monitoring A requirement of the environmental authorisation process most often includes the compilation of an Environmental Management Plan (EMPr). however. amphibians.

undertake or conduct a waste management activity listed in Schedule 1 unless a licence is issued in respect of that activity. • (17) The storage. Some proposed activities may result in protected tree species being damaged or destroyed. The Department of Environmental Affairs is also involved with Working for Water – see www. Flowing water dislodges soil particles and transports them off-site. in its Working for Water Programme. GN R 545). a permit in terms of the Atmospheric Pollution Prevention Act would be required. Any control programme for alien vegetation must include the following 3 phases: The Listed Activities that are applicable to proposed developments or improvements within the agricultural sector are: Alien Vegetation • Initial control: drastic reduction of existing population. James Aronson. • (3) The recovery of hazardous waste including the refining.133 • Level 3: Intermediate Intervention. endemic ( construction of a road or causeway over a stream or river would also require a water use license application. recycling. the planting of timber plantations is classified as a “stream flow reduction activity”. Contact them at 033 940 0450 / 082 828 7953 or write to janet. • (10) The processing of waste at biogas installations with a capacity to process in excess of five tons per day of bio-degradable waste. In such • (8) The incineration of waste regardless of the capacity of such a facility. • (19) The expansion of facilities of or changes to existing facilities for any process or Erosion structures such as gabion weirs will need to be constructed to stabilise the soil movement before planting can take place. in order to obtain authorisation to release certain emissions. In terms of the NEMWA. native to a specific limited area). leaving a scar on the land. • (9) The Erosion structures and revegetation practises should be implemented. • (5) The treatment of hazardous waste using any form of treatment regardless of the size or capacity of such a facility to treat such waste. za/Documents/Default. root suckers and coppice growth. thus requires a permit to be issued by the Department of Water and Environmental Affairs (DWEA). reuse. recommends the following regarding alien invasive species. The National Environmental Management Act: Waste Act and Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Regulations Rehabilitation may also be necessary when intensive alien plant invasion has occurred. . and • (20) The decommissioning of activities listed in this Schedule. Our gratitude to Janet Edmonds. undertaking such an activity. including animal waste. Should the release of atmospheric emissions be a part of the proposed activity. Grass seed mixes. treatment and disposal of hazardous and general waste. to promote plant establishment and to reduce irrigation requirements. These Activities are classified by the NEMWA as Category A Activities. Similarly. thus require that a Scoping and EIA process is conducted. as this activity could divert or impede the flow of water in a watercourse. The National Environmental Management Act: Waste Act (NEMWA. • (18) The construction of facilities for activities listed in Category A of this Schedule (not in isolation to associated activity). better still. Gabions and textile matting may be used for this purpose when local materials are unavailable. effluent or waste. Act 59 of 2008) is South Africa’s promulgated legislation relating to the storage. Environmental permits Aside from the procedural requirements of the EIA process. The Department of Water Affairs.jecenviro.jec@edelnet. Steep dongas may have to be back-filled using local materials before a soil layer can be established for planting. Visit their website at www. Alien vegetation commonly establishes in disturbed areas and on bare soil.aspx. • Vetiver Grass: the hedge against erosion. The list of protected trees can be found on the DAFF website (take the “Forestry” option). thus a necessary step in rehabilitation is the removal of any alien plant species and ongoing follow-ups. Species to be used in the re-vegetation exercise should be indigenous to South certain activities also require specific permits to be situations arise on steep. More information on water use registering and licensing can be found on DWA’s website – Control). Although vegetation can nearly always be used to curb erosion. as stipulated in the EIA Regulations (see heading 3). Further Reading: • Restoration ecology: the new frontier by Jelte van Andel. Re-vegetation Replanting of rehabilitated areas should be undertaken during seasons of rainfall. 6. • Level 5: Maximum Intervention. utilisation or co-processing of waste at a facility with a capacity to process more than 500 kg of hazardous waste per day excluding recovery that takes place as an integral part of an internal manufacturing process within the same premises or unless the Minister has approved re-use guidelines for the specific waste stream. Mulch could be added to the soil when replanting. • Level 4: Medium / High Intervention. For example. • Follow-up control: control of seedlings. treatment or processing of animal manure at a facility with a capacity to process in excess of one ton per day. prior to commencing with the activity. • (9) The disposal of any quantity of hazardous waste to land. or. 7. Refer to the chapter on Invasive Alien Species is this directory for further information. R (GN R) 544 and 546) or a Scoping and Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA.dwa. A variety of methods exist to control invasion of alien • (7) The treatment of effluent. wastewater or sewage with an annual throughput capacity of more than 2 000 m3 but less than 15 000 m3. to increase organic content and to maximise the soils’ moisture-retention capabilities. and • (11) The construction of facilities for activities listed in Category B of this Schedule (not in isolation to associated activity).e. Published by The Institute of Natural Resources. as stipulated in the EIA Regulations: • (2) The reuse and recycling of hazardous waste. even if the soils are stable. thus a Basic Assessment Process must be conducted as part of the Waste Management Licence Application. indigenous shrubs and trees should be sourced from local indigenous nurseries. • (11) The treatment of effluent. prior to • (3) The storage including temporary storage of general waste in lagoons. certain Listed Activities are specified for which either a Basic Assessment (Government Notice No. no person may commence. physical or physico-chemical treatment of general waste at a facility that has the capacity to process in excess of 10 tons of general waste per day. recovery. is required to accompany the Waste Licence Application Form.dwa. According to Schedule 1. serious intervention is required through the introduction of additional inert materials that add a strength component to protect the underlying soil from erosion. Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF). When flow velocities become too high. so there is a relationship between these two types of rehabilitation. which requires an amendment of an existing permit or license or a new permit or licence in terms of legislation governing the release of pollution. The following Activities are classified by the NEMWA as Category B Activities. a permit is required to be submitted to the Department of Agriculture. wastewater or sewage with an annual throughput capacity of 15 000 m3 or more. Speciesspecific information relating to methods in manual and chemical control can be obtained on the Working for Water website ( and • Maintenance control: sustain low alien plant numbers with annual control. bare land where erosive forces are too great for vegetation develop without assistance. Lauren and Andrew Booth for compiling this valuable chapter.

or a warning has been published because the fire danger is high in the region. and inform the fire protection association for the area. An owner may not burn a firebreak.134 When not to burn resources and good agricultural practice Fire 1. In both cases the presence of a dense stand of perennial grasses is important. Types of fire A fire that burns in the direction of the wind is generally preferred. This veld is already under stress and burning it will only let the veld deteriorate even further. the less damage is caused to dormant grass if the fire protection association objects to the proposed burning. which can remove valuable nutrients in the form of ash.firestop. blowing at 80km/h changed direction and cattle. Legal notes on firebreaks It is the landowner’s responsibility to prepare firebreaks and have the correct equipment and trained personnel to prevent the spread of fires. were trapped. if any. the Landowner must give the owners of adjoining properties as well as the fire protection association in the area (if any) at least 14 days written notice of the intended day/s when the Landowner intends burning firebreaks. but with minimal burning at ground level. despite having complied with subsection (2) of the Act. The Landowner must obtain permission and determine a mutually agreeable date/s with owners of adjoining properties. The reader is referred to the story “NSPCA and SPCAs confront runaway fires” on www. By burning earlier in the year. A hot fire on a windy day will cause the bush to be burned right up to the crown. This can be achieved by burning on a hot day with a low humidity. The act is available on www. Veld fires are also a controversial issue. Burning your veld In Africa. but under the wrong conditions can also cause great damage to the veld.nspca. When burning to remove declining veld. the condition of the veld will deteriorate even further. veld fires have a long (find his details under ALUT. When burning to combat bush encroachment. During the August 2011 fires in the North West Province. where lightning is common and people have used veld fires for thousands of years to improve the quality of their grazing. • Veld in areas with a low rainfall (±400 mm per annum and less) should preferably not be burned. a farmer lay in a water trough to survive while his cattle burnt to death around him. it is important to have a good stand of dry grass beneath the shrub to generate a hot fire. The right time of the year to burn is probably as close as possible to the first spring rains. or the conditions are not conducive to the burning of firebreaks. kraaled for their own safety on many farms. Overview Uncontrolled wild fires lead to direct losses in terms of: • loss of life. however. and disability. During these fires. • Never attempt to burn veld that is in a poor condition.role players heading) 3. By burning veld that is in a poor the veld will take a long time to recover. crops. the stimulated grasses are weakened by having to rely on their reserves in order to survive without water for long periods. and have been banned totally in some countries. This is made very clear in Act 101 of 1998. Should follow-up rains not fall straight away. particularly in areas with a high rainfall. Landowners must prepare and maintain firebreaks on their side of the boundary or fence as well as any adjoining land. Veld fires are a good servant. the burned veld is exposed to cold and late winter winds. . Frits van Oudtshoorn. This is particularly the case if the veld is used as pasture. the wind. It is preferable to only burn veld that has a majority of climax species and a biomass of ±3 000 kg of combustible material and more per hectare. When to burn This is not only determined by the correct season of the year. Contact him at info@alut. This practice has the same negative consequences as overgrazing and will lead to large scale veld deterioration over the long term. 2. a “cool” fire is required. • to combat or prevent bush encroachment. Source: Guide to Grasses of SA. An owner of adjoining land who has agreed on a day or who receives a notice must• burn his or her firebreak on the boundary concerned on the same day or days. due to vegetation fires • loss of housing and possessions when thatched or wooden dwellings ignite • loss of grazing. and to the many others that crop up during “fire season” in the coverage done by the agricultural weeklies. If no agreement can be reached on dates. When burning to control bush encroachment. and • ensure that a sufficient number of persons are present on his or her side of the boundary to prevent any spread of fire when the firebreak is burned. a “hot fire” is required. The truth is that veld fires can be a useful veld management Veld is mainly burned for two reasons: • to remove accumulated organic material. but also by the amount of available combustible material. but a bad master. • be present at such burning or have his or her agent attend. It is advisable not to burn the veld under the following conditions: • Never burn to stimulate green pasture out of season. In addition. This can be obtained by burning on a cool day with no wind. The cooler the livestock and natural resources Farmers are urged to: • make certain that fire-fighting equipment is easily accessible and in working condition • create firebreaks • participate in local fire protection association activities Some horrific stories emerge after runaway fires. • The Irrigation Shop Tel: 012 804 2581 www. some times on your • Geofire Tel: 011 864 3812 / 082 850 8828 www. fire weather terrain and Fire Protection Associations (FPAs) The National Veld and Forest Fires Act of 1998 provides a framework for owners to organise and collaborate in veldfire Source: Farmer’s Weekly. contact role players mentioned in this chapter. combat and manage fires throughout the country.roguesteel. Find information on FPAs at farmers (and others) can pool their resources and jointly develop and implement veldfire management strategies for their • DoseTech Tel: 021 511 0840 at which he or she may be contacted.turfmaster. WoF is a SA Government initiative • Turfmaster (Pty) Ltd Tel: 011 730 3400 www. co-ordinated support in provinces – aerial fire-fighting • Africa Land-Use Training Tel: 014 717 3819 www.lwo. Advanced Fire Information System (AFIS) and the Integrated National Early Warning System (INEWS) on the landowners.135 The owner must inform the owners of adjoining land and the fire protection association• if burning cannot be done on the agreed day or days or any of the N Dip in Fire Technology is offered • Premier Pig Producers Tel: 012 361 3920 • Umnga Farmers Training Centre Tel: 045 933 1318 (look for the “Forestry” operations. Tel: 012 334 0726 www. Contact details for their air Government Working on Fire Programme (WoF) Tel: 013 741 6400 / 7340 www. Members are drawn from local communities and authorities. They can develop enforceable rules that protect all members and request advice and assistance from the State-employed chief fire-protection officer. if any. • of the additional days on which he or she intends to bum because of the failure to do so on the day or days. Alternatively. protects you in terms of any compliance your insurer might require and enhances the protection of properties from veldfires. section can be found at www. Requirements for firebreaks An owner is obliged to prepare and maintain a firebreak with due regard to the Training and research Some AgriSETA accredited providers of training run Fire management training.firebreak. It is not necessary for the owner to give 14 days notice of the additional Equipment • Bosvreter & Vuurvegter Tel: 014 778 9916 / 082 574 3792 www. the owner may proceed with the burning in his or her absence. rapid attack it does not cause soil The GFMC is “an Activity of the UN International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UN-ISDR). as required in subsection (8). under the Expanded Public Works Programme which employs people Department of Agriculture. involved include Environment. Water Affairs and Cooperative Cooperative Governance • Rogue Agriculture Tel: 033 345 0038 • Goscor Power Products Tel: 0861 GOSCOR (467 267) www. Role players Associations Find the AfriFireNet (Regional Sub Sahara Wildland Fire Network) pages at • Joubert Implements Tel: 021 887 1220 www.firewisesa. Firefighting Equipment Traders Association Tel: 011 397 1618/9 • Fire Raiders Tel: 011 894 3205 Management Centre dwa.daff.fpasa. or • has not given an address and telephone number. he or she must give all owners of adjoining land an address and telephone number. and must ensure that it is wide enough and long enough to have a reasonable chance of preventing a veldfire from spreading to or from neighbouring land. municipal fire services and so bosvreter. This saves costs. The formation of voluntary Fire Protection Associations (FPAs) is one way to prevent. • Firebreak Equipment Tel: 082 353 4336 www. from disadvantaged communities Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) and trains them in fire fighting. ground operations. 4. website of the Global Fire Monitoring Centre (GFMC). Source: Agricultural Employers Organisation (LWO). • McBeans Tel: 033 342 1541 www. Below are some examples: Central University of Technology School of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences Tel: 051 507 3134 www. nature conservation. if any. and co-ordination of fire records and training. Find details on South African National Disaster de.daff. The Act is available on www. If an owner of adjoining land• is not present on the agreed or notified day or menu option) training etc are available on their Other government departments 26 November 2010 pages • NIC’s Trailers www. co. They Directorate: Agricultural Risk and are available to assist landowners in Disaster Management the preparation of firebelts and the Tel: 012 319 7955 / 6 fighting of fires. Should an owner intend to be absent for a period longer than 14 days during the period or part of any period in which burning normally takes place. FPAs are envisaged to provide the and it is reasonably free of inflammable material capable of carrying a veldfire across it. Owners of adjoining land may agree to position a common firebreak away from the boundary. Integrated Fire Management (IFM) Telephone numbers for the Forestry strategy on the Find details of the Find the links to the SA National Fire Danger Index. Contact them at 0861 10 18 28 or visit and www. 35. Through the Provincial conservation bodies like CapeNature are involved.

saif. Tactics and Safety by William Find information as well as references to publications.nwga.meraka. a CD. Find the document on www. www. co. Visit www. Visit Websites and publications Visit the websites listed in this chapter The Fire Call 012 348 1745 or write to saif@mweb. published by the Southern African Institute of Forestry (SAIF).za. NSPCA Tel: 011 907 3590 www. include how to fill in forms to register an FPA (Fire Protection Association).za for details (look for the “Forestry Handbook” menu option).nspca.htm Services Firewise SA – see Working On Orsmond Aviation Fire (see under the “Government” Tel: 058 303 5261 sub-heading) www. Order at 021 406 4962 or . or contact 041 365 5030.nmmu. Africa/WFTCA. Fire risk information on your area is updated daily on www.weathersa. The CSIR’s Meraka Institute runs the Advanced Fire Information System . Teie. from Department of Conservation a basic firefighter to national and Ecology and Entomology international policy makers.safireinsurance.136 Council for Scientific and University of the Free State Industrial Research (CSIR) Disaster Management Training Natural resources and the and Education Centre for Africa environment (DiMTEC) Tel: 012 841 2911 Tel: 051 401 2721 The Best practice reference manual for wool sheep farming in South Africa. training and education Stellenbosch University of a wide range of people. The Veld and Forest Firefighting Fundamentals and Children of Fire helps severely burned children to get complex surgery.firechildren. contact the Working on Fire programme. org. includes a copy of the Act and answers to is available from Working on – see the “Fires” menu option) Resource materials on the National Veld and Forest Fire Act No 101 of NGOs Children of Fire Tel: 011 726 6529 For a free copy of the easy-to-understand booklet Measured Farming Tel: 033 345 2508 Aerial fire-fighting SAFIRE Insurance Company A business which has experience Limited in assessing fires and the resultant Tel: 033 264 8500 damage www. by William C Teie and edited by Fred Favard.cons-ent. Gids tot die Volhoubare Produksie van Weiding Prof Hennie Snyman wildfires and the law. brought out by the National Wool Growers Association (NWGA) includes useful notes on fire The WFTCA is a unique facility on Fire symposiums are run the African continent for capacity building. Fire Manager’s Handbook on Veld and Forest Fires: Strategy. The CD is available from Department of Forestry Find the “Fighting Fire” Info Pak on www. therapy and Also find the “Fire Danger Index” option at www.satellite information on fires in Southern Nelson Mandela Metropolitan Wildland Fire Training Center University (NMMU) Africa (WFTCA) Tel: 044 801 5028/111 Tel: 013 744 9328 www. Find the Tel: 021 808 3304 WFTCA web pages on www.firewisesa. Call 013 741 7461 or send an email to Kobus Botha’s weather satellite photos of Southern Africa (www.

They may not be translocated or be allowed to disperse. Farm Feeds. cutting. 35 of 1984 National Environmental Management: Biodiversity Act (NEM: BA). These species carry a fine. This Act provides for measures by which agricultural pests may be prevented from entering the country. Alien species that become established in a new environment. gov. felling. Syringa. Act No. Category 3 plants include Jacaranda. For example. propagating. These species are only allowed to occur in demarcated areas that carry a permit. This act is currently under review regarding regulations 15 and 16 that are in the process of changing. chemical (treatment with registered herbicides). These diseases are caused mainly by alien invasive pathogens. and it could even result in huge environmental damage. It specifies. which aims to protect the country’s biodiversity by.g. and biological control (find the “Biocontrol” chapter). controlling alien and invasive organisms. against animal diseases. . land users have to obtain a water use licence as these plants consume large volumes of water. Organisms that are indigenous to the country but occur outside their natural range are also defined as alien species for the purposes of this act. Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) to obtain a permit for the category 2 species. amongst other things. Where plants occur outside demarcated areas they have to be controlled. Agricultural Remedies and Stock Remedies Act. burning. which deal with different aspects of invasive alien species. and to ensure that the most efficient and cost-effective combination of control methods is selected. 3. require an import permit before they can be imported into the country. This means that the existing plants do not have to be removed by the land user. • Category 2 – Declared Invaders (Invasive plants with commercial or amenity value). administrated by different government departments. the economic costs also include their indirect environmental consequences and other non-market values. these plants will not be allowed to occur anywhere except in biological control reserves unless they were already in existence when these regulations came into effect (30 March 2001). animal fodder. that any products or materials that might harbour agricultural pests. and by which existing pests may be combated. In terms of Regulation 15 of CARA. The current CARA will thus be discussed. buying and translocating a specimen of the specific species. The ones most relevant to farmers are the Acts of the Department of Agriculture. this expenditure could be in vain. Act No. having under one’s control. 1947 (Act No. invasive species may cause changes in ecological services. 36 of 1983 The direct costs of management of invasives can run into the millions of Rands. Australian silky oak. These are plants that have the potential of becoming invasive but are considered to have ornamental value. The restricted activities include importation. also called. Control measures for Invasive Alien Plants One or a combination of the following control methods are used: mechanical (uprooting. These plants may no longer be planted or propagated and all trade in seeds. cuttings or other propagation material is prohibited. Water hyacinth. however. and an original health certificate. While some species have invaded habitats on their own. An integrated management plan is recommended for any area invaded by invasive alien plants. In terms of these regulations 15. and in addition. In terms of this act.dwa. building material or shelter or to stabilise soil. or non-indigenous species. and • seed dispersal 2. administrated by the Department of Environmental Affairs. affordable and appropriate control option for invading alien plants in a particular situation. Alien Species. The control should be strictly according to the label on the herbicide and no off label applications should be considered as this is guided by the Fertilizers. from their native range to another area or region. including: This act aims at protecting the national animal (and human) population. Chapter 5 of this act requires permits for carrying out restricted activities involving any alien species that has not been exempted. amongst others. crop pests and diseases of livestock. human movements have dramatically increased the diversity and scale of invasions by alien species. Legislation South Africa has numerous Acts. issued by the competent veterinary authority of the exporting country. each consignment of animal and/or animal products for importation into South Africa must be accompanied by an original veterinary import permit. Sisal. Agricultural Pests Act. exotics. Category 2 plants include Black wattle. to determine the order in which different alien species and sub-sections of the invaded area will be addressed. medicinal plants. as well as our export markets. or any listed invasive species. 43 of 1983) CARA has certain regulations that provide for the control of weeds and invader plants. If it is carried out incorrectly or if the wrong method is chosen. Burning is also an option in certain environments and the Working on Fire programme can be contacted for assistance in this regard. If the plants are used for commercial purposes. 36 of 1947). there are 3 categories of regulated plants: • Category 1 – Declared Weeds. The landowner needs to approach the Department of Agriculture. Find the “Guide to Clearing Alien Invasive Plants” menu options on www. Most of the aggressive species fall in this category. Yellow oleander etc. through human intervention. the decision to grant a permit is the responsibility of DAFF. fuel wood. Introduced species often find no enemies in their new habitat and therefore multiply easily and quickly. selling. several factors need to be borne in mind e. Grey poplar and Weeping willow (not to be confused with indigenous willows). 10 of 2004 This is a more recent piece of legislation. dealing mainly with weeds and plant invaders. fruits. Category 1 plants include Lantana. Pom pom weed. Regular follow-up operations are very important and necessary to achieve control when using mechanical or chemical • flood control and water supply • waste assimilation • recycling of nutrients • conservation and regeneration of soils • pollination of crops. propagated or dispersed and the plants may no longer be sold. material and equipment. then proliferate and spread in ways that are destructive to biodiversity or/and human interests are considered “invasive alien species” or IAS. are species that have been taken. However. control methods should be used that are appropriate for the species as well as ecosystems in which they occur. Animal Diseases Act. The control of alien invasive plants can be very expensive in terms of manpower. CARA (Conservation of Agricultural Resources Act 1983) (Act No. These are plants that must be controlled on land or water surfaces by all land users. Before deciding on the most effective. Category 2 species without a permit are treated as category 1 species. No. St Joseph’s lily etc. they must be kept under control and no new plant may be initiated.137 resources and good agricultural practice Invasive alien species (IAS) 1. These are invader plants that pose a threat to the environment but nevertheless can be exploited for timber. the regulations in terms of parts of this act still have to be developed and it is not yet clear how this will affect farmers. issued by the National Directorate Animal Health. Overview • Category 3 – Declared Invaders (Invasive plants with ornamental value). brashing). Mpumalanga & the Northern Research groups are involved: Agricultural Research Council-Plant Protection Research Institute (ARC-PPRI). To prevent cleared areas from being overrun by invasive species again. Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) Directorate: Land Use and Soil Management (LUSM) Tel: 012 319 7685 Weeds Research Division Mrs Hildegard Klein Tel: 012 356 9841 infoppri@arc. and these will germinate in huge numbers once more sunlight penetrates to the soil.agric. mites. Partnerships have also been formed with the private sector through the South African Nursery Association (SANA) to educate the industry about new amendments to the law regarding IAPs and to make sure the IAPs are no longer being They manufacture a machine specially designed for the removal of alien trees and plants that are invading our www. Care must be taken in sensitive biomes such as the fynbos biome as the legume species have nitrogen fixing bacteria in their roots that cause an allelopathic effect and changes the soil composition thereby outcompeting the indigenous species. and research on conservation biological control Find details of the new ARC-PPRI user-friendly fact sheets on invasive alien plants and their biological agents under heading 9. which should be used in combination with eachother. Role players Africa Land-Use Training (ALUT) Tel: 014 717 3819 / 078 228 0008 www. while most other seeds of indigenous plants will be killed. 6. Northern Cape. Other government departments are involved: Agriculture. 5. such as the Australian Acacia species (wattles) have fire-resistant seeds that are stimulated by fires to germinate. ARC-Plant Protection Research Institute www. it will certainly not be the end of the problem. The Agricultural Colleges do training in courses in alien plant control. Every year the programme employs around 30 000 people. DST-NRF Centre for Invasion Biology (CIB) Professor Dave Richardson Tel: 021 808 2725 mostly from poor communities. Eastern Cape). Provincial LUSM offices: Eastern Cape Free State Gauteng KwaZulu-Natal Limpopo Mpumalanga North West Northern Cape Western Cape 043 704 6815 / 079 495 4585 051 409 2623 / 084 813 1811 012 319 7562 / 082 574 7650 033 345 3557 / 073 859 2892 015 287 9944 / 071 607 6450 013 754 0727 / 083 235 6787 018 294 3343 / 083 460 9190 053 807 2612 / 073 654 0723 021 944 1425 / 083 423 4590 .g. The soil disturbance caused by the uprooting of trees also causes seeds of invasive species to follow-up actions have to be maintained for as many years as it takes. North West & Gauteng. fast-growing grass species. Science and Technology. Department of Agriculture. serve as a guideline for the rehabilitation of areas cleared of invasive alien plants: • Rehabilitation recommendations after alien plant control. ARC-Plant Protection Research Institute. Center of Excellence for Invasion Biology (CIB). P Campbell. PPRI: 1-43. and is administered through the Department of Water and Environmental Affairs. There is also information available from the Working for Water programme on (tollfree) 0800 005 376 or www. e. Many plants have the ability to sprout or coppice from their roots or cut stumps unless the stumps are treated with suitable herbicides. Working for Water is currently engaged in a number of co-governance arrangements with Programmes such as Working for Wetlands. Find their details in the “Agricultural education and training” chapter.agric.sun.bullmaurice. nematodes. Plant Protection Research Institute Handbook No 3. Large numbers of seeds of the invasive alien plants will still be in the soil. making the control programme Research on the biological control of certain agricultural pests Biosystematics Division Dr Ansie Dippenaar Tel: 012 808 8247 dippenaara@arc. It is also very important to establish a more desirable form of vegetation in the cleared Identification of alien invertebrates (insects. Find their names and contact details on the website. Bull Maurice Trading Tel: 011 026 4077/7266 info@bullmaurice. resulting in a worse infestation than before. Working on Fire. fungi). Many alien legumes. Working on Woodlands and Woodlots etc. Book sales. • Grab-a-grass dial: guidelines for rehabilitation after alien plant control. The partnership with SAPTA (South African Pet Traders Association) highlights the dangers of aquatic weeds and fish pond/aquarium species through awareness and education. There is also collaboration with colleagues in other African countries on the biological and integrated control of several invasive alien plant species elsewhere in Africa.dwa. WfW has been running since 1995 when it was first launched as part of the government’s Reconstruction and Development Programme (RDP) Research on biological and integrated control strategies to protect the country’s natural resources and biodiversity from the threat of invasive alien plants Insect Ecology Division Dr Roger Price Tel: 012 356 9817 pricer@arc. The Working for Water programme Visit www.arc. Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF).za ALUT offers training on the control of The fight against invasive alien plants (IAPs) is spearheaded by the Working for Water (WfW) programme. These are all Programmes where invasive plants feature in their core business.agric.138 Biocontrol is a long term sustainable solution to the invasive plant control programme. Rehabilitation of areas from which Invasive Alien Plants have been cleared Once invasive alien plants have been cleared from an area. Trade and Industry. the Free The CIB comprises a network of researchers throughout South Africa. The following publications.agric. Phone 012 808 8000. (Available for KwaZulu-Natal. It often works best in an integrated management system where it augments the existing control programme and over the long term reduces the costs of the other control www. South African Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR). PL Campbell. Both are obtainable from PPRI. The Global Invasive Species Programme (GISP) and the South African National Biodiversity Institute (SANBI) are involved. as well as provincial departments of government. Department of Water and Environmental Affairs Tel: 086 111 2468 • Agricultural Product Inspection Services Tel: 012 319 6100 South African Nursery Association (SANA) Tel: 072 994 5368 www. Local business environment The development of small and micro-enterprises is a critical factor in the process of economic empowerment in South Find the “Invasive alien plants” The Environmental Weed Control Manufacturer and Wholesaler of course is designed for people garden products made from alien embarking on a career controlling Black areas of the Enkangala Grasslands in sell or buy declared weeds (category 1 weeds). provide an ideal opportunity to encourage entrepreneurship amongst people from historically disadvantaged and Environment Affairs Read about the Woody Alien Michael Braack Tel: 033 355 8069 / 079 895 3620 Invasive Monitoring System Project on the website Nedbank South African National Tel: 011 294 4444 Biodiversity Institute (SANBI) www. as part of its Tel: 021 799 8800 investment in the Tel: 012 843 5000 In August www.jecenviro. Find Biology earlier under this heading information on IAS under the “Green Industry” option Ububele Alfa Chemicals Tel: 033 386 9384 Tel: 056 213 4539 Other directorates: • Plant Health Tel: 012 319 6072 Tel: 033 260 5139 SASRI mass-rears insect weed olckerst@ukzn.waterwise. and managing alien invasive invasive alien species on farms Invader Plant Specialists Tel: 021 976 6127 / 082 412 7411 Planet Wise cc Tel: 028 261 1823 / 021 200 0561 Invader / alien bush and tree Wattle eradication and indigenous control plants Rand Water – see Water Wise JEC Environmental Services Tel: 033 940 0450 / 082 828 7953 Sikhula Agri Training Tel: 021 852 2643 • Animal Health Tel: 012 319 7456 arches and other garden furnishings • wooden educational toys Read more at “Specialists in the Environmental SiQ (Pty) Ltd Consulting Industry” Tel: 012 807 9460 KZN Department of Agriculture www.dwa.invaderplant. Value added products include: • screens and blinds • décor items for interior/lifestyle shops • bathroom accessories • lights and lamps • indoor and outdoor furniture • 7. It is the control” – provincial contact details largest investment by a corporation are available on the See also the Centre for Invasion “Water Wise” is Rand Water’s environmental biocontrol agents for control of http://biology. Nedbank committed R9-million towards the World Wide Fund for Nature’s (WWF’s) Water Balance and the Upper “Solutions for Invader weed Umgeni in KwaZulu-Natal. Office Tel: 021 441 2700 / 0800 005 376 Stellenbosch University www. Hortec Barry Muller has given ideas on Tel: 023 316 1530 radio (RSG) about what to do with info@jacklinorganic. Plant Science Consultants Association (PSCA) Jacklin Organic Tel: 011 486 2254 Tel: 017 844 1589 In terms of the Conservation of Agricultural Resources Act (Act 43 of 1983).jacklinorganic.economic challenges of the rural poor School of Natural Resource Grassland Society of Southern Management (Saasveld Campus) Nature Conservation & Game Africa (GSSA) Ranch Management Tel: 049 842 4335 Tel: 044 801 5013 www. into the Water Balance Programme to University of the Free State Department of Plant Sciences Tel: 051 401 2514 www. . By clearing watersapping alien invasive alien invasive plants for Working The Working for Water National for Water Programmes. making use of invasive and to utilise their parts in such a way that the dispersal and multiplication of the species might be Institute (SASRI) Dr Des Conlong University of KwaZulu-Natal Tel: 031 508 7477 School of Life Sciences Secondary industry the EcoGuard investment will rehabilitate 450 ha Tel: 011 463 6057 of land in the priority catchment Department of Conservation Ecology and Entomology Water Wise Prof Michael Samways Tel: 0860 10 10 60 Tel: 021 808 3728 www. This would make it an offence to farm with declared www. it is illegal to sales@blk. Wildlife and Grassland Sciences option on the website Tel: 051 401 2221 South African Sugar Research propagate. Training and empowerment of the beneficiaries of the Invasive Alien Species Programme (IASP) programme is seen as one of the key solution to address the socio. ECOPLUG Tel: 021 873 1648 Nelson Mandela Metropolitan Tel: 011 304 7200 University (NMMU) www.

Arcadia: 1. • Alien & Invasive Animals Mike Picker and Charles Griffiths (Struik Nature) • Common weeds of crops and gardens in southern Africa / Algemene onkruide in gewasse en tuine in Suidelike Afrika. The fact sheets are in printable PDF format. Private Bag X313. Plant Protection Research Institute Handbook Global Invasive Species Programme (GISP) www. brought out by the National Wool Growers Association (NWGA) includes notes on dealing with invading alien plants management. Tel: 031 300 2517 • The big bad five. Motaung’s life has been turned around after becoming involved in this project and now. P • Fact sheets on invasive alien plants and their biological agents by ARCPPRI can be downloaded from www. • Identifying our invading alien enemies.agric. and contacts for control. 9. I do feel like I make a difference to their lives. by three international organisations: IUCN – The World Conservation Union. Available from The Communication Project. • Virtually all ecosystem types on the planet are affected by invasive species and they pose one of the biggest threats to biodiversity worldwide. They have expertise in the increasingly important area of Sanitary and Phytosanitary – looking at the risk of invasive species to trade.wessa. mainly voluntary partnership programme. it has built upon a productive and highly technically skilled base to become the pre-eminent global partnership on invasive species. the negative impact of invasive species on food security as well as on economic performance.agric. Social issues form part of these workshops.cabi. • The AGIS website contains a wealth of information about Invasive Alien Plants. Posters: • Beautiful but dangerous. travel and tourism will inevitably increase the intentional or accidental introduction of organisms to new environments. he has set his sights on having his own company in two years’ time. CAB International. Department of Water Affairs and Forestry. P Joffe. I now teach this to my team here. PPRI: 1-43. Briza. Our gratitude to Hildegard Klein and Debbie Sharp for their generous help with this chapter . At any one time they are looking at around 60 invasive species. They are also taught to create and sustain viable businesses. Pretoria. Waterkloof. They have a long history researching invasive species that affect agriculture and the environment to find natural ways of controlling and the Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE). • Problem plants of South Africa. • Globalisation through increased trade. I got into this programme and have learnt a lot of things. • In developing countries. 0145. • Rehabilitation recommendations after alien plant control. Plant Protection Research Institute Handbook No • Find the Info Pak “Alien invaders” under the Publications menu option at www.dwa. • The Working for Water webpage – www. now he has been trained in coffin and desk making.: 1-372. ARC. L Henderson. World Conservation Union (IUCN) Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) www. Available from Durban Metro Environmental Management branch.gisp. Pretoria: 1-300.nwga. They provide invasive species information products and services in invasive species such as the Invasive Species Compendium which is currently being developed. the cost of damage caused by invasive species has been estimated to be £1. Pretoria 0001. available at or contact 041 365 5030. Colour photographs of 42 species. Motaung was The Global Invasive Species Programme (GISP) was founded in 1997 as a small.5 trillion per year – close to 5% of global GDP. 16. transport.arc. Visit www. Since then. PO Box 95823. Plant Protection Research Institute Handbook No. Publications on indigenous replacement plants • Creative gardening with indigenous plants. Posters are also available from other organisations like the Botanical Society of CABI (formerly known as the Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux) • Alien Weeds and Invasive Plants. advice and contact numbers. and interested individuals. decision-makers. Potchefstroom. Source: www. 2nd Edition. Websites and publications Websites • Find the Webpages of PPRI’s Weeds Research Programme on www.arc. • Invasive aquatic plants. Briza. Trees that are cut down all over the province and unwanted cut alien plants are collected and processed to make these products which now include church pews and boardroom tables. resource contains updates on IAS (weeds) research. F Venter & JA Venter. arc. their legal by following the Quick Link: Invasive alien plants. and it is widely predicted that climate change will further increase the threat posed by invasive species. International business environment • Globally. More invasive alien plants of Durban and the eastern. ARC. The GISP Secretariat is currently hosted by CABI Africa in Nairobi. commissioned by the Working for Water Programme The Best practice reference manual for wool sheep farming in South Africa. Working for Water Programme. The department selects unemployed people and trains them in life • International portal for Invasive alien Species toolkits of best prevention and management practices as well as early detection – www. • SAPIA News (South African Plant Invader Atlas) is a publication by the ARC PPRI on invasive alien plants.” says Motaung.asp?pid=6979. 12. Pretoria: 1-88. The Global Invasive Species Database provides global information on invasive alien species to agencies. Xact Information: 1-238.cabi. 1997. sub-tropical region of South Africa.daff. C Bromilow. Agricultural Research Council. • Control of Unwanted Sandile Motaung heads up the plant in Durban where the desks and ecocoffins are made on request. knowledge and information. • Making the most of indigenous trees. safety and operational skills. can be even greater.arc. 1998-2000.shtml • There is also information available from WESSA on www. with some indigenous alternatives.agric.agis.: CABI is a not-for-profit international organisation providing scientific expertise. Pretoria: 1-320. Source: SAnews 6 May 2011 8. • Re-use of Invasive Alien Plants is an impressive booklet. Photographs and descriptions of five invasive aquatic plants in South Africa. Prior to 2006. Briza Publications. Find the document on www.issg. Photographs and line drawings of the most aggressive alien invaders in South “I had an interest in making furniture but didn’t have any (find the “Stop the spread” option under “What we do”) Publications • The PPRI electronic newsletter at www. Available from Department of Water Affairs. where agriculture accounts for a higher proportion of GDP.315. A South African guide. L Henderson & CJ C Botha.

Provinces then undertake the implementation of the projects under set conditions. improvement and conservation projects. management of input and conservation tillage. Source: the LUSM head shelter and an income. our quality of life will deteriorate. National strategy and government contact Visit www. Soil care and Junior LandCare initiatives are all part of this programme. LandCare Why is LandCare important? • You and everyone else. Economic and social development opportunities are realised by improving grazing areas and maintaining viable grazing areas throughout rural communities. 6. • promote conservation practices. It is driven by both the public and private sector through partnerships and co-operation. Directorate: Land Use and Soil Management Tel: 012 319 7656 / 85 www. • restore damaged Take the “Programmes” and then “LandCare” options. we will pay a high price for the damage it suffers. and stimulating the formation of youth clubs and projects that aim to promote other components of Region Telephone Eastern Cape 040 609 3534 / 082 780 9877 Free State 051 506 1480 / 082 808 1040 LandCare is about: • redressing past resource degradation • correct resource management • communities working together • caring for the land in your area • your future quality of life • improving the environment • securing food for tomorrow Gauteng 011 355 1367 / 082 563 8992 KwaZulu-Natal 033 355 9100 / 082 413 2591 Limpopo 015 294 3625 / 082 670 5670 Mpumalanga 013 752 5671 / 072 648 2423 North West 018 389 5936 / 082 908 8798 Northern Cape 053 839 7849 / 071 860 7557 What can you do? • form or join a land care group in your community and get involved. WaterCare works in partnership with the community to develop action plans for managing and restoring irrigation schemes. It develops and maintains agricultural activities in accordance with the principles of ecologically sustainable development. rely on the land for food. sustainable agricultural production systems are introduced. 2. such as plastic and metal. • use them in a sustainable way. website of the Department of Agriculture. Water care. • create jobs and address poverty by launching various natural resource rehabilitation.agric. • If we degrade and misuse the land. please contact the local LandCare Manager or facilitator for assistance (contact details above). Western Cape 021 808 5006 / 082 907 2813 3. job creation and a better quality of life for all. Want to form a LandCare group? Before you apply. • form a land care conservancy (see Conservancies chapter). • Land is valuable and should be looked after – otherwise we will not be able to use it in the future. This includes the promotion of food security at home and at schools. • create a conservation ethic through education and and www.agric. If you are successful. WaterCare promotes the development of techniques for water-resource management and encourages opportunities for training in this field.141 resources and good agricultural practice LandCare 4.daff. including your responsibility to keep proper accounting records for the spending of funds from grants. • plan and manage land to prevent degradation.agis. awareness of sustainable agriculture. Projects have been implemented in all nine provinces through the Landcare Conditional Grant whereby ringed-fenced funding is transferred to provinces in terms of the yearly Division of Revenue Act. Forestry and Fisheries. 7. . • recycle and re-use paper. food security. This agreement sets out the conditions for funding. Under the “Publications” option find documents like the Guide for National LandCare Programme Small Community Grants. Furthermore. and is a community-based programme that seeks to: SoilCare encourages rural farmers to build innovative structures to combat soil erosion. Veld care.agis. Through VeldCare VeldCare promotes best grazing-systems and erosion-prevention practices to improve production. and to address the depletion of soil fertility and low soil acidity which severely limit the production potential. LandCare is about optimising productivity and the sustainable use of natural resources leading to increased agricultural production. 1. The rehabilitation of irrigation schemes increases water supply and household food security.daff. JuniorCare addresses the needs of young people in an integrated way and involves interdisciplinary approaches. glass. SoilCare The National LandCare Programme is a government supported initiative and is being implemented throughout the country. WaterCare The WaterCare theme establishes a framework for managing land and preventing the silt-up of dams for irrigation. you will be asked to sign a programme management agreement. Junior LandCare The objectives of Junior LandCare are to empower previously disadvantaged youth through training in facilitation and leadership skills. • conserve our resources. Forestry and Fisheries. and reporting requirements on the progress and results of your programme. daff. Overview 5. • If we do not look after the land. Department of Agriculture.

minimum and • The International Journal of Straw Bale and Natural Building – www. Organic matter is this ‘feed’. Some role players Berg en Dal Ecovillage and to the personal thought and care expressed in craftsmanship. calcium. Natural materials like stone. It’s also about practising good animal welfare where everything from breeding. Earthen Floors. A good organic soil structure is able to hold large amounts of nitrogen. using it to build his office in Constantia. Paper Blocks. wood. crop rotation. green manuring. to feeding of animals is strictly regulated and a free range lifestyle is implemented. straw bale. beautiful. rather than the use of inputs with adverse effects. All organic products are also free of genetically modified organisms (organisms that have had their basic gene structure modified by the addition of external organism genes).htm and www. we respond at a deep level to unprocessed materials. Examples of organic farming methods include: 3. The aim is to eradicate the use of harmful chemicals by making effective use of nature’s natural resources. The plant. thelaststraw. Natural Plasters and Finishes. Source: Adapted from www. www. There is a good feeling we get from natural buildings which is difficult to describe. Diseases and pests The approach to pests and diseases by the organic farmer is that these are seen as symptomatic of imbalances in the soil’s fertility and health. Cape Town. Wood. mud.mat. biodiversity and cycles adapted to local conditions. Organic agriculture combines tradition. the shiny. develops a natural resistance to pests and disease attack. It relies on ecological processes. Wattle and Daub. This helps keep pests from building up and improves soil fertility. Since then a number of projects have been built in the country. The soil Organic farming refers to a system as a whole entity in ecological Recycled Building What are organics all about? Simply Sustainable Tel: 072 487 1733 www. Hybrid comfortable and spiritually-uplifting homes. The certified farm has to produce 90% of the feed on the farm. rearing and handling. There are too many pests and diseases as well as remedies to mention. Earthships. and not (take the “Techniques & Bibliography” menu option): Living roof. Overview 1.networkearth. Light Straw-Clay (Leichtlehm).co. Earthbags. Adobe. they are life-enhancing. and the precise. What is Organic farming? Organic agriculture is a production system that sustains the health of soils. Rammed Earth. They are grazed naturally in a free-range environment minimising stress and producing high quality meat that is free from contaminants. Hemp and other Fibres. innovation and science to benefit the shared environment and promote fair relationships and a good quality of life for all involved. www. Cob. • Using biological insecticides and make use of pests’ natural predators to control pest populations. The principle is to treat the soil with respect knowing that the soil is the base for life on earth. Visit www. Tel: 027 482 2397 www.insynch.oudrif. hence more land is needed and higher interest costs are incurred. Keeping chemicals off the land protects water quality and wild life.shelterpub. cover crops. Straw Bale – “building today for tomorrow” • Rotating crops between fields.strawbalecentral.greenbuilding.berg-en-dal. This resistance depends on the nutrition of the for a photo album and project description. essential in providing the plants with a balanced diet for healthy growth. Overview Find the Construction subheading in the Permaculture chapter Natural building is any building system which places the highest value on social and environmental sustainability. straw and earth are not only non-toxic. It costs more to produce as the animals grow more slowly on natural grazing. including a guesthouse in the A six-day training offered in Natural Oudrif Building ( Houses built with traditional earth technologies using indigenous knowledge make up the largest number of houses in the informal housing sector in South Africa. iron and other micronutrients. • Planting selected herbs and flowers to attract beneficial insects which ward off unwanted pests. It assumes the need to minimise the environmental impact of our housing and other building needs while providing healthy. Even though conditioned to prefer the new. Bamboo.142 resources and good agricultural practice resources and good agricultural practice Natural building Organic farming 1. . Organic meat Organic animal suppliers have strict protocols that include treating their cattle humanely and allowing them to mature naturally. valuing of the biodiversity and avoiding synthetic chemical inputs. fertile soil which nourishes the The following materials are looked at on www. to www.greenhomebuilding. McGregor Alternative Technology Centre www. rock etc) InSynch Sustainable Technologies Tel: 076 668 8877 www. For further information on straw bale construction look at: • Straw Bale Construction Basics – Shelter Online illustrates even more imaginative ways to put a roof over one’s head. The organic farmer is interested in balancing soil processes and is not as focused on balancing numbers as a consequence to soil analysis. Websites and publications Cape Town architect Etienne Bruwer has pioneered the use of straw bale construction in South Africa. Soil fertility is promoted by compost. Compressed Earth Blocks. A good soil structure will optimise water infiltration and retention and is also important in the control of erosion by wind and It’s about producing goods that work in harmony with. like any living organism. The basis of organic farming is thus to feed the soil and not the plant directly.oudrif. ecosystems and people. Organic farming produces nutrient rich.

• Speak to consultants.go-organic. Certification – you cannot be “organic” by default You’re thinking of going organic There is a burgeoning international demand. choose a certifier and pay to start the certification process. they and their produce may not be sold as organic. Quote is from the EU 2092/91 standards. • If it all looks good. • Consumers have a right to know that production has been organic (especially if paying more). in South Africa and abroad. • Certification. Based almost completely on information from www. A certified organic product means that the produce and the farming process has been inspected over a period by an independent.143 Certified Organic meat is a guarantee that meat has been produced free from any additives such as chemicals. • Ask for an estimate for inspection and certification for a year (make sure it covers all steps of the process). • They use ecologically-friendly methods and substances to improve the soil and control pests. • Contracts – your promise to uphold organic methods. it means: • No harmful chemicals have been applied for at least 3 years. and the livestock must go back into conversion. • Management – of the same pests and diseases. Organic agriculture could provide employment opportunities for millions of small farmers and for women and youth groups. Organic animals are produced in harmony with the land. Inspections involve: The inspection is a verification of information obtained through the application documentation. reproductive problems and neurological damage. • Develop a plan for dealing with soil fertility. Certification There are two levels of organic classification: Organic Certification and Organic in Conversion. • Study the requirements (lots on the internet). • Establish your market. water and the environment become cleaner. Farmers and their workers enjoy healthier working conditions. • Products look the same as conventional products. seeds – Are they organic too? Are they GMOfree? How do you know? . led by Europe. biodegradable products are used. pests . • Talk to other organic farmers. As only natural. approval of your farm and the methods you are using. The health benefits The hazards for human health of consuming products contaminated by harmful pesticides include increased risks of cancer. • Send in an application form. During the process. When you see this claim. Organically grown produce on the other hand is free of chemical residues. • Understand conversion issues. the US and Japan. Why should you certify? Regarding Antibiotics: The standards (EU 2092/91 and the draft DAFF regulations) allow for “two courses of treatments with chemically-synthesised allopathic veterinary medicinal products or antibiotics within one year or more than one course of treatment if their productive lifecycle is less than one year”. has a much higher vitamin and mineral content and is usually more flavoursome (which is why many top restaurants prefer to use organic ingredients). But consumers and retailers want strong assurances of food safety and genuine organic methods. producers may communicate on products that they are “organic in conversion” (as may be seen for example on some major retailers products). So what should you do? • Ask certifiers for information as well as standards. Several certification agencies exist across the country (refer to heading 9). • To protect farmers who are following the rules from the bad reputations of those who are not. 2. Look for the certification seal or name of the certification agency with input from other role players. • Production system – Is it really organic? • Operator – Does s/he know enough to manage organically? Is she/he committed? • Environment. This includes fertility programs as well • Labelling – that the consumers can trust. The purpose of the sector’s National Policy On Organic Production discussion document is to map out the way to make this a reality. Also find the note on Participatory Guarantee Systems (PGS) later in this chapter. • Information exchange – this establishes the Audit trail securing organic status from seed to table because it isn’t easy at first. disease and weed control really do meet organic standards. These certification organisations really have only one reason for existence: to provide assurance to the consumer that products and organisations which claim to be organic. and kept separate in the supply chain to the consumer. • They have kept detailed records of their practices and have a recorded audit trail. contamination – Will your neighbours’ crop spray blow onto your fields? Is there good biodiversity? • Fields – Has it been three years since the last use of chemicals? Are plants and animals looking good? • Livestock – Is animal welfare respected? What veterinary treatments are common-place? • Brought in materials. Any certification program should be able to give you their standards upon request and will usually comply with the International Federation of Organic Movement (IFOAM) standards. but without chemicals (you must have plans for this). and there’s a lot to learn. with basic information. antibiotics and hormones. This process normally takes place over a timeframe of about 3 years. Certification is a way to ensure that products are in line with local and international standards set. • The farmer and processor have annual certification inspections. If livestock receive more than this. specialist certification agency to verify organic authenticity to the consumer. Elements of a certification system • Standards – that you must adhere to. This can only be good for future generations. • Inspection – are done annually. • To obtain access to high value markets. environment and native wildlife. together with economic and financial benefits.

8 million hectares). plant and animal life. • It is a simple. an increase of 31 percent since Contact 084 567 1250 or write to and the other websites listed under this heading.144 • Pest and weed control – How is it achieved? • Fertility management – Are there real efforts to build up soil nutrition? • Storage and processing – Could organic products get mixed up with conventional ones by mistake? This should secure the possibility of comingling. and Mexico (128 862).e.biotropic. Source: The National Policy On Organic Production discussion document (2012) Role players International Federation of Organic Agricultural Movement (IFOAM) – www. UK Soil Association – www. Find the very useful notes at www. compost etc). This association is dedicated to helping those who would like to volunteer on organic farms 12 million hectares. Sweden reached 19% in the year 2005.veganorganic.fao.organicagcentre. Visit – the FAO Organic Agriculture Programme • – The “Ultimate Online Organic Resource”. • Vegan Organic farming Most farmers are dependent on chemicals and animal by-products – and even those specialising in organic farming use animal manures and slaughterhouse by-products (bone meal. followed by Europe ( How to go about farming without animals or animal by-products? Visit i. About 32. top the statistics. and Brazil (1. substitution and contamination. whereas the dynamic refers to the cosmic formative forces that underlie the physical world. Their aim is to produce the highest quality food. Websites • The countries with the most producers are India (677 257).org. forms one indivisible whole and should be managed as such. plants. International business environment For current statistics on organic farming. Find their details under heading • • www. In terms of certified land under organic management as a proportion of national agricultural area.8 million producers in 2009.qlif. • www. WOOFF Independents – www. There were 1. Biodynamic farmers use of range of specially formulated herbal and/or organic preparations to enhance soil. fibre and timber with no or very limited negative impact on the environment. both as a commercial production and as an environmentally friendly production method. • Documentation – Is record keeping good enough to show that only organic methods have been used? Is traceability secure? • Sales. followed by Africa (28 percent).za International umbrella body for organic farming See the separate chapters on biological farming and permaculture International WWOOF Association (World Wide Opportunities on Organic Farms) – www.biodynamics.html Participatory Guarantee Systems (PGS) An alternative start-up strategy for emerging farmers is PGS.8 million hectares). Other certification is offered by the Control Union and BCS (Öko-Garantie GmbH).org 3. Liesl Haasbroek at info@bdaasa. • Contact Rainman Landcare Foundation for assistance in setting up your own – Biodynamic Farming and Gardening Association (USA) .org – Quality Low Input Food (QLIF) is an integrated project funded by the European Commission. Australia continues to account for the largest certified organic surface or visit www. the Biodynamic and Organic Certification Authority (BDOCA).4 percent) and Switzerland (11 percent). rhythms and forces that regulate life on earth.e. Afrisco. the Alpine countries. A number of developing countries are showing significant rates of such as Austria (13.fibl.faithful-to-nature. animals etc. visit Listing hosts in countries that do not have a national WOOFF association. Uganda (187 893). labels – Did you sell only what you produced? Possible outcomes • full organic status • full status with conditions • organic in conversion • organic in conversion with conditions • certification denied Internal Control System guidelines are available from certification bodies like SGS South Africa. water. • The “Online environmental community”– www. 4. Biodynamic agriculture respects the fact the whole of the universe. In the term “biodynamic” the bio refers to the biological (organic) aspects of agriculture (i. the planet earth and the whole surrounding cosmic space with all its heavenly bodies. mainly due to a large increase in India.). In an effort to create a harmonious whole. The aims of WWOOF are to: • enable people to learn first-hand about organic growing techniques • to enable town-dwellers to experience living and helping on a farm • to help farmers make organic production a viable alternative • to improve communications within the organic – The Research Institute of Organic Agriculture (Forschungsinstitut für biologischen Landbau – FiBL) is “the world’s leading information and documentation centre for organic agriculture”.com – specialists in the worldwide import and sales of organic fruit. Forty percent of the world’s organic producers are in Asia.1 percent) and Latin America (19. and Latin America (16 percent). At the level of the geographical regions. fertility and vitality.9 percent). growth was strongest in Latin America and Africa. The greatest share of the global organic surface area is in Oceania (37. For further information email the National Co-ordinator. Biodynamics Biodynamics is an approach to sustainable organic agriculture inspired by the philosophy of Anthroposophy as developed by Rudolf Steiner in the late 19th – early 20th centuries in Europe. More than 10% of Switzerland’s farmland is organic. – Organic Agriculture Centre of Canada • www. the farmer works with the natural and cosmic cycles. • PGS only works for small local markets. followed by Argentina (2.ofrf. The Soil Association’s symbol appears on around 70% of organic food produced in the – Organic Farming Research Foundation (USA) • www.ifoam.auerbach@nmmu. the physical – site maintained by the Swiss Research Institute of Organic Agriculture (FIBL) • www. vegetables and processed food • Rodale Institute is dedicated to pioneering organic farming through research and outreach.6 percent). Organic agriculture has grown tremendously over the last decades.2 million hectares are certified according to organic standards internationally (data as at the end of 2007).rodaleinstitute. non-bureaucratic way to start building a quality management system. They develop their farms into unique and distinct individualities that use a minimum of external inputs. Ecocert.bdaasa. and about 13% of Austria’s farms are organic.

In just four days. Inspection and certification of South African organic farms is carried out by both international and domestic certification bodies. food security and economic 1990 (Act No. Small-scale farmer news The main criticism levelled at organic agriculture is that it cannot feed the world.go-organic. school yards. and have draft regulations for organically produced products.daff.gardenorganic. Although more advanced levels of organic farming require much more training.zannorganics. with the basics in place it is possible to kick-start self-sustaining community farming and gardening in uncontested land such as backyard plots. over the long term productivity equals out: organic production is more consistent over time. Basic-level training can therefore provide a foundation for localised food security among the for notes on agroecology • local market for organic produce with limited premiums for organic products. 2006)1 . Department of is possible off 500 square metres or less. 7. Visit www. it is also labour intensive and has the potential – beyond meeting subsistence needs – to create jobs. from all over the world. There have been splinter organisations representing particular farmers. Find the latest IPAP document under “Publications” at www. Certification is driven by international standards and accreditation systems. Frick. Here in South Africa there is now a grassroots organic-friendly farming movement among the poor. 119 of 1990). through specialized restaurants and through special organic markets. These include various cereals. after costs. involving many thousands who are mobilising to defeat food insecurity. brassicas and potatoes. if applied (with some guidance) over two seasons. within the country the organic sector is not unified. Agricultural Product Standards Directorate: Plant Production Tel: 012 319 6227 kgomoamogodip@daff.ncat.daff. table grapes and Rooibos tea. while the largest vegetable crops were cucurbits. But this might be a failure of the economic system in which we operate rather than the inherent capacity of the approach.thedti. Organic bio-dynamic farming and gardening is most readily adaptable to poor or emerging farmers who cannot easily access costly external inputs and high-tech training. draft regulations downloadable from fruits. nuts and Rooibos tea. International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM). asparagus. Exports are principally sent to European markets. vegetables. directly from the farmer. roots and tubers. The Government’s IPAPs (Industrial Policy Action Plan) includes the organic food sector as an area in which jobs can be created. cosmetics. Local business environment Organic producers and processors network at www.polyfacefarms. The largest fruit crops in terms of hectares were The Directorate Food Safety and Quality Assurance is inter alia responsible for setting quality standards (regulations) for certain agricultural products in terms of the Agricultural Product Standards Act. the products are usually sold in wine. Organic wine and olive oil is also produced and organic dairy farming has just started in some provinces.html 6. Can community-based organic agriculture play a meaningful role in achieving food security? One of its biggest advantages is that organic agricultural methods can easily be transferred to people with few or no previous skills. According to current estimations there are about 45 000 ha of certified land which account for 0. Statistics and Emerging Trends 2006. . it is more environmentally sustainable and it creates local economic stability. South Africa does not have an official inspection and certification programme for organic food products. Bonn & Research Institute of Organic Agriculture The South African organic sector has a long (go to “Divisions”. rural smallholdings. Local retailers sell reasonable amounts of organic produce to the South African public. National strategy and government contact South Africa does not as yet have an official certification system in place. Source: adapted from an article by Rob Small from ABALIMI in the CSI Handbook 8th edition. sugar. pp. 119 of 1990) and development. as home deliveries. It is now a proven fact that a reasonable living. plant products. IFOAM & FiBL (2006): The World of Organic Agriculture. South African organic farmers produce a large variety of produce. Organic products produced in South Africa are sold at both local and export markets. in servitude and commonage land. essential United States and Far East include vegetables. textiles and other industries using organic agricultural commodities in their production. Leading examples are the Vukuzenzela Urban Farmers Association (VUFA) in Cape Town. The Directorate Plant Production is responsible for developing organic production policy and the purpose of the policy is to create a broad framework for the development of a prosperous organic sector that is globally competitive and capable of supporting government’s commitments towards poverty alleviation. Source: The National Policy On Organic Production discussion document as it was at the end of 2011. selling organic vegetables at street prices. While it is true that organic agriculture cannot produce massive surpluses by forcing supergrowth. the Master Farmers Association (MFA) in the Eastern Cape and the Western Cape Ubuntu Farmers Association (WEKUFU).za Food Safety and Quality Assurance Tel: 012 319 6027 / 7306 niele@daff. 1. This country was one of the founders of International Federation of Organic Movements. published by Trialogue Find the contact details of the following under the role players heading: • ABALIMI Bezekhaya • African Organic Farming Foundation • Food & Trees for Africa’s (FTFAs) • NOPI (National Organic Produce Initiative) • Rainman Landcare Foundation 8. There is a robust but underdeveloped. 27–35. To enable international market access for RSA organic exports. 1990 (Act No. with 250 farms in South Africa (IFOAM & herbs and spices. will result in a permanent ability to grow productive survival or subsistence gardens at low cost. any local legislation governing organic agriculture in South Africa should be regularly updated to be aligned with and compliant to prevailing standards in international markets. Forestry and Fisheries www. avocado pears and mangoes. job creation. Nonetheless. anyone can obtain the basic skills which. with divergent opinions as to which way is best for the sector.145 • Since 1977 Bio-Center Zann have been importing and exporting organic fruit and vegetables. com • – the farmer who has gone “beyond organic” (for those of you who saw the movie Food Inc) • National Sustainable Agricultural Information Service (USA) – https:// attra. then “Food Safety and Quality Assurance”). Within South Africa. It has the added advantage of being spontaneously community building and because it uses human-scale technology. Some schools are also beginning to serve organic – the UK’s “Leading organic growing charity” • www.05 % of the country’s total agricultural processed fruits.

za Metson Tel: 011 792 8968 For information about South African Council for Organic Development and Sustainability (SACODAS) “FERTILIS” (registration no B3664 Act36/1947) is certified Insect Science (Pty) Ltd by the Organic Food Federation Tel: 015 307 1391 UK: organic certification no: www. “Earthworms and Vermicompost”.za SGS South Africa (Pty) Ltd Tel: 021 506 3280 www. A quarterly newsletter is sent to all members and an Astral Planting Calendar is published “Permaculture”.naturalandorganic.A. Associations Biodynamic Agricultural Association of Southern Africa (BDAASA) Tel: 021 881 3628 / 082 858 6523 Fax: 086 694 8892 info@bdaasa. “Compost and organic fertiliser”.za www.agro-organics.146 small-holders and people interested in working with biodynamic community well being and food Organic growing mediums Hishtil complies with the strictest international standards of healthy Planner Bee Plant Care and clean propagation material 00371/01/00. produce and market innovative bioLiquid seaweed bioregulator.g. South African Organic Sector Organisation Liz Eglington Tel: 028 581 2014 / 083 653 3635 stimulants MBF International Tel: 082 738 0080 / 072 796 3793 Talborne Organics Tel: 011 954 5763 Tel/fax: 033 266 6130 Input providers Agro-Hytec Tel: 021 863 2884 / 083 265 2616 www. Role players See also other relevant chapters in this directory e. Ongoing research and trial data horticulture and Bio-insectaries SA (BISA) Tel: 042 286 0978 / 083 270 4866 www. performance Lindros Whole Earth Consultants Tel: 082 719 7263 (Eastern Cape) www. liquid fertilisers. “Biocontrol” etc. An annual conference is held with a contextual theme. chelated liquid and soluble powder 9001:2000 and Eco-fert www. fungal and bacterial plant promoting Vita and Eco Certified organic fertilis earthworm inoculants. contact Thierry Alban Revert Tel: 073 303 1554 or email consumer specific nutrition. crop .co. plant fertilisers.mbb. quality and Tel: 012 802 0940 yield in a wide variety of Ecocert Southern Africa Tel: 021 461 1558 office. control products for growth Metson is an agricultural manufacturing business with its main focus on a complete range of ORGANIC and GLOBAL Nelspruit. spray. where a search according to category.stimuplant.gibaorganics. Fertiliser for First World export Mycoroot (Pty) Ltd Agro Organics Tel: 021 851 2403 www. castings (humus) seaweed Natural medicine solutions for livestock Hishtil SA Tel: 015 395 4034 / 43 seed coatings. from around the globe have proven Kelpak’s ability to significantly Stimuplant increase the Natural & Organic Products Exhibition Tel: 011 835 1565 Organic for Africa Tel: 033 413 2960 Tel: 021 786 2090 www. Grahamstown and Natrocine Tel: 082 453 6057 Kelpak www. plant hormones. The reader is referred to the directory on MBB Services International Tel: 021 887 1026 Fax: 021 883 8514 Tel: 032 944 7445 www. www.kelpak.intshona. Organics has to be at the forefront as agriculture moves to address the global concerns about environmental sustainability of food production sanitisers and rinse amino acid. an organic microbial fertiliser that boosts yield Efficient Microbes and production by enhancing soil Tel: 031 266 2935 health and plant root functioning Bio-dynamic and Organic Certification Authority (BDOCA) Tel: 071 259 2799 Giba Organics Tel: 031 769 1063 www. Certification and other services Afrisco Certified Organic Tel: 012 361 5127 / 082 6070 495 Fax: 086 511 4114 www. Mycorrhizal Denvet Tel: 033 343 1093 The main objective of SAOSO is to establish and develop organics as an emerging sector within the broader context of South African agriculture. Intshona Group of Companies Plant Health Products (Pty) Ltd Tel: 021 852 1660 (PHP) askintshona@intshona. Urban Harvest Edible Gardens unique seed treatment packs and Tel: 072 475 2977 (Cape Town) Tel: 079 934 0689 / 084 329 8410 adjuvant BDAASA is an association of as benefiting farmers around the Biological solutions and growth world for over 30 years. compliant water soluble and liquid chelated foliar production complying with ISO www. province and product can be Bioboost Solutions Tel: 044 873 0403 Diatoms Organic Animal Health Tel: 053 723 1902 Biogrow Tel: 028 313 2054 Branches in Gromor / National Plant Food Tel: 031 782 3105 Find contact details for Tel: 083 636 0706 agents across the country on the Rhizobium bacterial inoculants.

Metson .

Visit “Agro-ecology in action”.za Food & Trees for Africa Tel: 011 656 9802/3 http://dovehouse.greengoose.rainman. domestically and ARC-Plant Protection Research Institute (ARC-PPRI) Tel: 012 808 8000 www. peaches) Tel: 011 795 2468 Visit www. as well on the biological control of insect pests in Eastern Cape Appropriate Technology Unit Tel: 047 532 4601 Tel: 051 933 5754 on www. The Organic Farm Tel: 021 572 0329 / 082 925 2298 Green Goose Organic Farm www. compost Some organic markets Western Cape (find the links at The Organic Farms Group works with the aim of developing small farmers through training. African Organic Farming Foundation and Bon Cap Organic Wine Cellar (www. Consulting is done to farmers Initiative (NOPI) wanting to go organic or to convert Tel: 073 303 1554 to organic/sustainable methods. South or call 012 301 5600 Biomimicry SA http://biomimicrysa. Rainman Landcare Foundation is an AgriSETA accredited provider. co. www. mentoring and marketing. nuts Certified organic olive trees. Dovehouse Organic Farm Tel: 033 330 3554 / 079 368 0832 Contact Lindros at 082 719 certified organic Cape” eastern Free State Jacklin Organic Tel: 017 844 1589 such as mycoinsectides and phone 084 444 6310 or 082 651 Training and research ABALIMI Tel/fax: 021 371 1653 run learnerships in organic farming at NQF 2 and also teach organic facilitators (NQF 5).organicfarmsgroup. Organic wine farms include Stellar Winery ( Teubes Tel: 011 792 4451/2 Faithful to Nature Rondebosch Organic Market – 021 696 5749 / 072 222 6410 Constantia Waldorf Organic and Biodynamic Market – 082 569 9894 Stellenbosch Fresh Goods Market – www.jacklinorganic.148 Produce and producers Afrikara or call 021 448 8109. Mzansi Organic Teas Tel: 079 871 5069 www. this is a Mzondo Organic small farming co-operative Tel: 082 835 4224 www.reynekewines. Rainman has developed a Quality Management course for Small Producer Sustainability Institute Tel: 021 881 3196 Zambia and University of the Free State Centre for Sustainable Tel: 021 785 3268 www. Visit www. pears. Parkview Organic Market – 076 022 7937 KwaZulu-Natal Karkloof Market – 082 820 8986 / 076 937 5601 Pietermaritzburg Farmers Market – 033 345 4656 or write to Blue Sky Organics Tel: 083 653 3635 An organic bulk supplier of Organic Emporium is an online store of organic products for Elgin Organics consumers in the Northern Tel: 021 849 8663 Johannesburg Wensleydale farm Milk and meat products from the Tel: 082 779 7843 www.afrikara. Rural Development and Extension Tel: 051 401 3765 Find a comprehensive list of organic markets by taking the “Organic” option at www.agric. Network of Eco Farms in Africa South Africa (NECOFASA).za The biggest organic producer of vegetables in South Africa Wild Organic Food sources Fresh and processed fruit & organic produce in the Western Find its videos on www.organicfarm. organic citrus oils food and South African organic pome fruit Organic World ( or call 044 801 5017.boncaporganic. Visit www. and national organic agriculture movements in Namibia. Reyneke Wines (www. Rainman is setting up a Participatory Guarantee Support Network with PELUM South The Rainman Landcare Foundation is a registered trust which teaches farmers how to farm Ethical Co-op Irene Village Market – 012 667 1659 Organic farming is included as a priority in AgriSETA planning (see AgriSETA Strategic Plan for Period 2012-2016) Organic carrier oils and organic Products include or Stellenbosch University Department of Conservation Ecology and Entomology Tel: 021 808 3728 Gauteng Bryanston Organic Market – 011 706 3671 www. Visit bottled olive products and olive National Organic Produce oil. enabling farmers to access the growing organic market.elginorganics. The ARC-Plant Protection Research Institute has the expertise to advise on all aspects of pesticides (synthetic and botanical). and how to set up farmer’s associations which can be certified organic.

This is done through mapping. Biodynamics and other agricultural practices are incorporated within its framework. Work with rather than against Nature Working with nature means: observe and understand your context. EB Balfour. Earth Care – all activities maintain the integrity of the natural resource base. Newman Contact BDAASA (details under heading 9). Surplus Share – all extra resources are utilised to improve earth and People care.3 Our thanks to Dr Raymond Auerbach. • The Agrodok Series: Small-scale Sustainable Agriculture in the Tropics (Netherlands).ukzn. Faber and Farber • Humus and the Farmer.lindros. Rodale Press.K. George Zeiselhof Research Farm of Ecological and Organic Agriculture in Pretoria is a showcase of organic vegetable The Department of Plant Pathology production. the Answer lies in the Soil. Write to info@lindros. Some publications • Organic Food Processing & Production (U. Because it is a multidisciplinary approach. Bio-Dynamic Agricultural Association. ISBN 1 – 86941 – 318 –0 • Agriculture. ISBN 0 – 87857 – 054 . and Global Health in Crisis. Australian professor Bill Mollisson and his student Dave Holmgren coined this phrase in 1978. People Care – all activities are aimed at empowering ourselves and other human • Find the ubergreen organic eco directory at www. • Find the South African vegan directory at www. Set Limits To Consumption. or post-war situations. and damaged resources. The intention is to design productive systems that ultimately generate more energy than they consume. Friend Sykes. to describe their design framework for sustainable development. Series of publications on various topics • Soil Fertility – Renewal and ISBN 0 – 571 – 13205 – 7 • The treatment of Cattle by Homoeopathy. • www. Faber and Faber. Lawrence D Hills. Pfeiffer. website of the Surplus People Project. control of crop pests and diseases. agriculturalists and builders use in their daily research into local ecologies. Ethics and principles ETHICS Permaculture is rooted in a set of ethics. Overview Permaculture is a systems design response to the downward spiral into unsustainability that the world has been involved in for the last 150 years (at least). settlements and agriculturally productive systems. Sophia Books ISBN 9781855841130 • The Living Soil. Herbert H Koepf. 1. as well as the larger factors which affect you.go-organic. aim to enhance the resources you discover by working with the forces you encounter. Contact Lindros for their publications like Organic Agriculture Handbook (written for South African conditions). Rudolph Steiner. ISBN 0 – 85207 – 247 – 3 • Farming and gardening for health or Disease. There are tens of thousands of Permaculturalists the world over who have implemented this design strategy. and that we must work within this reality. Sign up for the Biodynamic Newsletter. in any 10. with no negative impact on the natural or social environment. ISBN 0 906155 12 6 • Organic Manure. bearing Earth Care in mind 3. The CW Daniel Company LTD. Sir Albert Howard. ISBN 0 – 9503780 – 7 – 0 • The Bio-Dynamic Farm. weather. These ethics evolved out of the need to create behavioral and implementation patterns that would be beneficial to both the human and natural environment. Juliette de Baïracli Levy. Faber and Faber • Fertility Farming. 2. Related publications include Pesticide heath risks for South African emerging farmers. Anthroposophic Press. The ethics and principles will explain this further.afrikara. it endeavours to create sustainable human habitats. The Lanthorn Press. Articles include: • Ten good reasons for organic agriculture • Organic regulation and certification • Organic management • Organic agriculture in its economic context • Healthy soils • Organic pest and disease control Find the different publications at www. F. Faber and Faber • Farmers of Forty Centuries. Contact Hans E Klink for some excellent writing on organic farming. Permaculture is a system based on natural ecosystem processes: through consciously combining plant. University of KwaZulu-Natal Tel: 033 260 5525 which guide decisions that designers. Speak to him at 021 851 2403 or write to heklink@mweb. Find the directory. Websites and publications • Visit the websites of role players • Find the International websites under heading 5. Kgomo ISBN No: 0-632-05541-3. ISBN 0 – 929979 – 62 – 1 • Bio-Dynamic Gardening. investigation and talking to locals! They are simple. PRINCIPLES Permaculture has basic design principles that one works from. Henry Doubleday Research Association • The Complete Herbal Handbook for farm and stable. 2. John Peter Proctor. . One could call these sustainability guidelines. built environment and energy systems.spp. news and reviews and other options here. practical and achievable. These include the African Organic Agriculture Training Manual: Conversion to Organic Farming Find the document Market Research on the organic and natural products and fynbos industry – with an emphasis on how to facilitate entry on Mercury Press. Niel Erasmus and Roger Oxlee for feedback on the draft chapter resources and good agricultural practice Permaculture 1. E. ISBN 0 – 88010 – 172 – 5 • Grasp the The name Permaculture is derived from “permanent”. Nikolaus Remer. animal. in a huge range of climates and or visit www.urbansprout. Permaculture systems do not use economic performance as the only measure of success. • Find the “Interesting reading” option at www. Random House. The UN has recognised Permaculture as a useful intervention in areas that have experienced natural “agriculture” and “culture”.com. King. 4. Faber and Faber • Fertility without Fertilisers. Underpinning all of the ethics is the fundamental realisation that we are dependant on a planet that has limited. many techniques like Organics. Contact them at 012 conducts research on the biological 811 0276. and turning problems into solutions. org.agrifoodgateway.

cattle. as well as the amount of inputs they require. original and beautiful. Efficicent energy planning Use biological resources rather than non-renewables Every element in a Permaculture system should be placed where it functions most efficiently. indigenous fruits and firewood. Zone planning Elements are placed in zones according to how many times you need to use and visit them. • Zone 0 – House or business • Zone 1 – Intensive vegetable gardens. birds. nursery and small animal systems • Zone 2 – An orchard or mixed food forest (perennial species). swales and water systems. A good example is using water from aquaculture ponds to irrigate food production areas. Use natural patterns that allow the parts of the design (animals. Every element must be multifunctional Every element selected should provide at least 3 functions: for example. and no pollution is created. This leads to placement of homes. Use the same patterning principles in your design when shaping beds. If you have rain. Sector planning Plan your site to make maximum use of energy moving through the site or to deflect those energies. Sectors also modify zonal placement. animal systems. but the principle still applies. This principle also leads to creating relationships between design elements to enhance productivity and efficiency. plant diverse systems to enhance nutrient reticulation in the soil and to keep disease and pests in balance. soils. water storage tanks. etc. more so than in nature and it is through diversity that we have stability. bearing in mind slope angles and elevation. but is re-used in the house. Pest control. than there must be back up by at least three other elements to ensure sustainability (plants. you reduce the amount of work and energy you have to expend. worms. water catchment and irrigation. drains and flow diversions in the right place. building structures etc. sun. recycling area. By placing the elements where they are most needed. The use of natural patterns in a garden will enhance the growth and vitality of the system and appear more interesting. This means if one element fails in its task to provide a service (pest control chickens get eaten by a dog). Overland flow needs to be captured in swales (contour ditches) so that it can slowly percolate into the soil. But stability only occurs among co-operative species. because they may compete with each other. etc) because these places require less attention and are harvested less frequently. screening of unwanted views. it also means we get away from dependence on one crop for our livelihood (monoculture) into a system whereby a diverse range of plants and animals provide balance and fertility. Create diversity Diversity brings choice and stability. • Zone 5 – Unmanaged wild systems of indigenous species that act as a refuge for wildlife and is a place we go to observe nature. etc) must be placed near the house to facilitate easy access so that these systems are well observed and maintained. use deep rooting plants to loosen the soil instead of ploughing etc. encourage birds and use silky chickens for insect control. branching patterns etc that occur in nature. spirals. gardens. and fuel. insect and weed control. but highly practical when correctly used. Use natural resources to do the work in the Permaculture. Permaculture is about creating diversity. ducks and wild birds control pests). woodlots. mulch and food provision. flood-prone areas etc. strong or damaging winds. Diversity means that a family/farm can satisfy many of its nutritional needs with the available fruits. and eventually make its way to streams or rivers. Obviously these patterns become more simplified when used on a larger scale. This is not as esoteric as it sounds. shelter. so we might most effectively use slope on our land to our advantage. fire and erosion control. Areas that need visiting every day for harvesting and maintenance (such as annual vegetable gardens. • Zone 3 – This can incorporate large-scale semi-managed systems such as woodlots. windbreaks. ensure that it is not only caught on the roof for domestic consumption. soil fertility. extensive crops etc). roads and tracks. and the failure of one crop. Do not simply place as many varieties of plant and animal in your system. Observe this principle and the basic needs of your cultivated ecology will be met consistently from within the system. watercourses. staple food systems. Diversity not only ensures a wide range of plant species to use. a source of wild food and contain an herbaceous layer which also provides pest management. Create energy cycles Any of the natural forces that enter a site must be put to work. Nature exists and grows through patterns. choice and sustainability. Plants and animals are used wherever possible to provide nutrients. For example we place dams and water catchment above the house and garden so we may use gravity to create water flow instead of a mechanical pump. the nursery. For example you can use chickens and small animals to work the soil and compost it. winter and summer sun angles. a barn. Places and systems visited less frequently are placed further away from the main centre of activity (orchards. . The design is thus divided into Zones radiating outwards from the centre of activity. rather than just rushing overland to the river. This is known as Zone. vegetables. Economically this means there is a wider variety of crops and products available at different times of the year. habitat enhancement. Sector planning deals with “wild energies” that move onto the property from the outside. and minerals. proteins. insects. Sector and Slope Planning. Slope planning means also that we use contours to garden on. and staple food systems (grains and tubers). Contours are an obvious form of patterning that can be effectively used on any scale of agriculture. This leads us to place dams. chickens. soil building. • Zone 4 – Semi managed wild system of mainly indigenous species harvested for medicines.) to flow and work in beneficial relationships. Patterns When talking about patterns we refer to utilising forms like contour lines. nutrient recycling. and enters a home garden as greywater to produce food. It is the number of functional connections between these plants and animals that creates stability and fertility. The same attitude is applied to any resources used on site to ensure that nothing is wasted.150 Relative location Every function should be served by many elements Place elements in your system where they are most effective (elements are any component in your design: a house. to minimise erosion and maximise water retention. firebreaks. Slope planning Slope planning involves looking at your site in profile. etc … should must be served by more than one element. This means that our designs take into account fire danger. windbreaks are pest predator refuges. plant legumes to enrich the soil. water. which protects the family/farm from market downturns. etc. large animal fodder systems and aquaculture.

Make use of succession Succession is a concept derived from ecology. as well as improved microclimates. Animals are integrated into food production systems. already move the farmer towards more diverse production. dig and fertilise crop production areas. the links to conservation are much strengthened and agricultural enterprises become more stable. and the sinking of water into the subsoil through earthworks. where drought mitigation is of utmost importance. which are short-lived. This particular activity has extremely negative effects on people living near these mines and stations as well as contributing to greenhouse gas emissions. Create more edge in your gardens and the energy in the ecology will flow with ease and vitality.151 Increase the use of edge Edge is where two or more environments meet (for example land and water) and where the resources and energy of two or more systems available for us to use. However. espaliers etc to maximise production. Intensity A primary consideration in Permaculture is that we need to minimise our impact. Edge increases the surface interface in your gardens between different systems (pond/wetlands with veggie gardens) and there will be a high-energy movement between them and thus more opportunities in space and time. It is a useful tool especially in arid zones (most of South Africa). we use vertical space – walls. and enhancing the local aesthetics of buildings. whether urban or rural is critical. and a good niche market exists for this product in South Africa. Generally. The project in the Jordan Valley is a good showcase of the application of Permaculture in difficult and previously considered unproductive or marginal areas (see www. • The siting of dwellings in a landscape. Left alone. All of these technologies also take the pressure off fresh water supply for wasteful uses. In other words. In areas where soil or water is saline. with fenced trees for browsing. which can add greatly to job creation in South Africa. Another important factor in agricultural design is diversity: the reintroduction of multipurpose indigenous. Chickens and pigs especially have been very successfully used to weed. This then leads us to design intensive and productive systems that utilise the least space possible. coupled with this is the need to diversify agricultural crops so that one can weather a certain amount of crop failure. and poor settlement layout has both disastrous social. You may ask what relevance this has to agriculture. This approach is implemented using 3 dimensional designs. if not toxic in nature. fenced areas. Windbreaks and pest management zones are implemented using species indigenous to or tolerant of local conditions. and are not seen as a separate enterprise from crop cultivation. but incorporate large leguminous trees for grazing and nitrogen-fixing. Good design and good species selection as well as macro scale water flow management. which will allow a greater amount of species to be placed into a smaller area effectively. these communities will increase in species diversity and longevity. Permaculture has had some profound effects. are critical to maintaining good soil hydration and replenishing dwindling borehole waters. thereby accelerating the development of a microclimate that will support productive crops. wind and water movement. droughts. Permaculture provides the designs and tools to create small to large-scale farms that are resilient in the face of disasters like floods. Ranging from low cost to luxury housing – it has a profound impact on local resources and ultimately creating a more productive system. Bees are also a vital component – pollinating all crops. with crops following them as they move on. most agricultural enterprises have ample natural materials to use in construction. trellises. Simple technologies like solar heating and electricity can take pressure off our South African energy generation requirements – which is largely produced through the mining and burning of coal. which is vital to our continued survival. Our individual and collective impacts on the planet are having a profoundly negative effect. The planting of trees as an integral part of agriculture also assists with carbon sequestration. Poor housing design adds to energy consumption bills. Scope and applications Agriculture As a sustainable agriculture framework. Large crop production areas can also look at 3 dimensional design though the use of alley cropping etc. fires etc. It describes the evolution of plant and animal communities over time. Stacking productive plants into their appropriate niches and using plant guilds are tools that aid intensified design. with green technology and water-saving strategies built in. Sustainable construction minimises the impact that housing provision has on the local and far-flung environment. and who generate excess biomass that cannot otherwise be utilised. farmers can to some extent buffer their farms in times of crisis. atmosphere. it is colonised by hardy weeds. • Passive solar design of houses reduces heating and cooling bills. Often these animals are rotated around designated. Energy and technology Green technology is another important component in Permaculture designs. With the emphasis on reintegrating indigenous tree and shrub species into the agricultural framework. This also applies to broadscale Permaculture: large animal systems are not necessarily just grazing. • Materials are as unprocessed as possible – alleviating the toxic burden on rivers. With the increase in plant diversity. animal and insect communities also increase. We utilise this successional phenomenon in Permaculture systems to create permanent agriculture biogas digestors. Also. in others a fynbos ecology. Construction There has been a marked resurgence in peoples’ interest in sustainable construction methodologies.permaculture. Cattle and sheep are managed in a low density Agro-forestry context. when a site is disturbed. These criteria are: • Building materials are acquired from a radius of no more than 50km. In addition we cannot emphasise enough the role that substantial tree planting can play in “creating” rainfall. Digestors can be built on farms to generate cooking gas or . and other useful plants or trees. This includes extensive water storage for domestic consumption from roofs. soils. environmental and consequently economic impacts. we will interfere by enhancing the system through using hardy pioneer shrubs and trees (especially legumes). but provide a microclimate for other less hardy species to develop in. • Houses are designed for maximum energy efficiency. greywater purification and re-use. 3. Most dwellings consume materials that are non-renewable. and still have yields to send to the marketplace. Also create as much surface interface for plants and animals to use (wavy shaped beds as opposed to straight ones). landforms. wherever possible – cutting down on petrol consumed. as well as health. Methane gas digestors are also of interest to farmers who are working with livestock. nitrogenfixing for pasture and shade. Ultimately the system developes into a climax (stable) ecology suited to local conditions. Our local honey supply is low. Good design also impacts on peoples’ mental health. Water and sewage management can also be made more effective by using appropriate technologies like composting toilets. Through careful planning based on local factors such as ecological processes. humans and wildlife. and does not necessarily require highly skilled builders. In some areas this may be a forest ecology. and generating honey. • Construction of homes is labour intensive.

Ashton Road. The digestors also eliminate the smelly sewage problem! Social structures Permaculture is in many was concerned with empowering people from all walks of life. Much of what we consider waste can be fruitfully re-used to create more sustainable cities – green technologies are very useful tools here. one can apply to tertiary institutions for recognition of competency. there are good . or specialised teachers’ Dormitory accommodation is available. as well as Biodynamic ecological farming training Farming consultation. workshops are SETA accredited. it has also looked into social structures and alternative economic systems. there are Unit Standards ranging from Level 1 to Level 5 (find these on www.agriseta.afristarfoundation.152 electricity. Avice Tel: 072 174 1152 avice. and economic development. www. Afristar Foundation has worked za/permaculture. and the need to “green” our resources such as booklets. Public facilitated the implementation of Works and professional business thousands of food gardens for poor planners to create a model for communities across South Africa integrated environmental. and report. Starter Pack (PSP) to minimise and marketing. Their two-week www. Wendy FTFA supplies the projects with Tel: 082 826 1333 various educational Permaculture brightgoldberry@gmail. integrated crop and animal rotations and water harvesting techniques. In South Africa. Crawford. The most important factor influencing the sustainability of such projects is Busy Bee Apiaries CC provides the commitment. She has “a broad palette of A garden design and an activity schedule/garden development plan practical experience”. huge amounts of resources. ranging from one-day introduction with Hope Nutritional Training and workshops. Permaculture offers good tools for redefining and redesigning our use of space and resources in cities. Training and research People the world over have been trained in Permaculture design whether literate or Busy Bee Apiaries Tel/fax: 021 971 1022 crpost@telkomsa. Urban centres consume. workshops and a baseline project assessment chapter. A wide range of permaculture examples are demonstrated on the farm. The principles outlined above give us a good idea of some approaches. which link to the A consultancy offering the provision of Permaculture design Permaculture and organic/agro on any scale. This is an internationally recognised Permaculture Unit Standards in AgriSETA A team of subject experts has been engaged in the lengthy process of writing Permaculture Unit Standards to be included in AgriSETA’s Primary Agriculture Unit There are a thousand applications on file awaiting assistance. Many courses have also had to be translated into mother tongue. and include intensive design exercises. 4. Short courses Many service providers offer short courses covering certain topics within the Permaculture framework.Research in workshops. training and implementation. on a Situated in Swellendam on the self catering or fully catered 5. their internship. technical. Consultation and are worthy of further investment the auditing of beekeeping services over a period of time. and waste. Trainer competency Main facilitators on PDCs should have completed a PDC themselves. The three and products have also been levels of the PSP provide basic provided. cohousing schemes and allotment gardens are some of the social restructuring you would find in urban Permaculture contexts. primary health The ethical stance that Permaculture requires leads naturally to a more just social and economic structure. Another critical feature of urban ecological agriculture is the reintroduction of biodiversity into these spaces – making every city garden a conservation zone. say. personnel and risk and assess which projects quality This process has enabled them to work with regional and local FTFA introduced Permaculture to government as well as with the South Africa in 1991. given time and budget constraints. learning as well as Biodynamic Farming educators to use the materials and Practice – from both small to large the food gardens in their teaching. All workshops www.html on district-wide planning models that bring Permaculture to the Food & Trees For Africa (FTFA) fore in broadscale community Tel: 011 656 9802 / 3 / 4 development – the Marginalised info@trees. workshops are run.dovehouse. and has since Department of Agriculture. from household food forests to a co-operative of market gardens. 12 days). are drawn up with participants Dovehouse Farm at the first training session and Tel: 033 330 3554 / 082 868 4517 the schedule is submitted to the www. Permaculture Design Courses (PDC) A full Permaculture Design Course should run for at least 72 hours ( FTFA introduces Permaculture as a lifestyle and shows how these practices can lead to a better quality of life. but these do not constitute a PDC. in the theory and in the practical aspects of beekeeping. In other countries. allowing design. Urban and peri-urban permaculture There is both the need for urban agricultural spaces. many facilitators have been contracted to teach short courses aimed at food Afristar Foundation Tel: 011 706 5614 www. two-week live.hopenbc. the goal-setting and decision-making process evolved by Alan Savory in Holistic Resource Management has also proved to be a useful tool. passion and drive intensive skills training courses both of the applicant With the growing pressure on urban centres to provide work and housing. The PDC does not have a unit standard – but participants on these courses do not often require accreditation. Permaculture can offer a lifeline to many people. but the impact of such short courses has been profound. Consequently. Often.durbanbotanicgardens. Green city design. cover core provide a certificate. Given the critical poverty in South Africa. A few people in South Africa have diplomas from Australia and the UK. three-month Tel: 011 326 3507 internships. legal. Role players Durban Botanic Gardens Permaculture Training Centre Tel: 031 322 4021 www. and also put pressure on rural areas to fulfill many of the urban Dovehouse Organic Farm is a functioning permaculture farm with an Organic Health Shop and plant nursery on site. Green investment and revolving loan schemes are some of the ideas you may encounter. the full PDC material has not always been achievable. and have 2 years of hands-on experience with design and implementation. scale. To sponsors. social through its Food Gardens for Africa and EduPlant programmes. flyers A consultant in Permaculture and Community Action Plan (MCAP). depending on the scale. including all FTFA initiated the Permaculture business aspects. Jakkalskloof Permaculture Interns will do the two-week John Raimondo – 082 441 7827 accredited workshop as part of raimondo@telkomsa. See also the Beekeeping gardening resources.

plantwize. vermiculture and waste Consultants management using earthworms.rainman. Zimbabwe and South Africa. located 16 km Services offered include programme west of Rustenburg. Mozambique. training centre and is a developing demonstration site. communities and supports longafrica@gmail.establishing learning centres. We also undertake research. sustainable development in a post Apartheid development and Permaculture South Africa. natural building and eco-village Newlands Mashu Permaculture www.153 examples of water management and domestic production on a larger scale. development planning. Ukuvuna – Urban Farming Centre John Nzira – 073 717 5232 Sustainable Development Project Management & Sustainable Tel/fax: 083 308 4818 Development Consultants undertake projects in the urban www. policy People with old earth houses on farms will be inspired to see the earth house restoration here. They are able to offer professional and practical courses on sites that demonstrate this sustainable SEED Tel/fax: 021 391 5316 term investment and mentorship Accredited permaculture training Siyakhana Initiative for Ecological Health and Food Security Tel: 072 501 0756 info@siyakhana. It is currently applying innovative strategies towards land reform and rural livelihoods based on renewable e d u c a t i o n . They will also assist you with getting in touch with service providers in your area. Foundation solar health care and landscaping. The Tlholego village is one of South Africa’s pioneer centres for permaculture garden maintenance. originating in Sweden in the early ‘90’s. as a practical way of learning construction management. land reform.htm Tel: 083 300 2385 programmes. as well as an informal networking body for Permaculture. adult education. Their mission is to create a culture of community conservation in Mamelodi and Southern Tshwane. They engage with leaders URBAN FARMER in business and government to Working in collaboration with Organic create strategies to turn the tide Food Gardens of environmental collapse and to Tel: 022 448 1106 / 082 842 1579 generate new more sustainable www. social equity and sustainable farming. .za health care. Lindros are consultants training courses as Tlholego consists of a residential village. Cooperation is a vial aspect of our ecovillage/agriLearning Centre is situated on village and organic farming sectors. feasibility was established by the Rucore Ukuvuna Permaculture is NPO based in Midrand and operation through out the region. PEA is an association of Permaculture facilitators. and communitybased programming to achieve our goal of ecological health. The Zululand Centre for www. project Sustainability Foundation in 1990 packaging. foundations (PEA) and social entrepreneurs to Tel: 028 5511 678 / 072 241 1514 deliver quality services directly to p e r m a c u l t u r e .za/zcsd.berg-en-dal. public/social sustainable and environmentally responsible approaches to farming A registered trust which teaches and organic based agricultural farmers how to farm using rural development. TNS is an international advisory sustainable food Tlholego Ecovillage and Learning Centre A network of resources can Tel: 072 118 7357 stephne-fain@iafrica. permaculture and promote alternative Rucore Sustainability technologies like compost toilets. Technology Centre (MAT) Tel: 023 625 1533 enabling farmers to access Jewish National Fund Walter Sisulu Environmental Centre Tel/fax: 012 801 3197 to address the challenges of food security/sovereignty. Lindros Whole Earth organics. providers. Rucore works Permaculture Education Africa with global Permaculture and Organics.thenaturalstep. 150ha of land. primary organisation and offer Plantwize Tel: 082 683 6048 info@plantwize. and how to set up farmer’s associations McGregor Alternative which can be certified domestically and internationally. The Centre facilitates permaculture and medicinal garden workshops to assist educators to incorporate the environment into the curriculum and to build capacity in communities Planner Bee Plant Care around food security and primary www. They offer interventions at all levels of management to They focus mainly on home food get a handle on the core issues regeneration/renewal. workshops NMPLC conducts training and training workshops and provides mentorship to organisations and Rainman Landcare Foundation individuals seeking to develop Tel: 044 801 5017 www.mat. design. designs and broad scale Permaculture design. business articles in booklet Siyakhana operates one of Johannesburg’s most prominent and important urban permaculture demonstration introducing Permaculture driving sustainability and to assess as a design lens. training. In addition PEA provides Ecovillage Design consultations. labour about sustainability and sustainable intensive construction. organic and Tel: 083 656 8417 Permaculture solutions.seed. The Natural Step (TNS) Its main focus is on uplifting Tel: 079 165 2506 communities through training MAT acts as Tel: 072 638 8580 a learning and resource centre www. The africa centres train local communities in nutrition. AgriSETA accredited training MAT teaches sustainable building. PEA organises PDC courses and tailor-made courses for Permaculture projects as well asconsultation services for projects. The Tlholego Ecovillage and rural Learning Centre (NMPLC) Indigenous. organic partnerfarmer@absamail. both in the garden how they can engage further (take and as an instrument in developing the next “Natural Steps”) on that the capacity of rural communities journey. Consulting on Permaculture. The Centre and project management. www. Tel: 082 719 7263 They also have permaculture alan@lindros. The organisation runs projects in the growing organic for those wishing to explore and incorporate these principles and Rucore was established in 1991 technologies in their own lives and as a social enterprise focusing on ecologically integrated strategies for in their communities.

org) 2. This leaves the grasses low in nutrients. Sourveld grasses. It is an intermediate form between the two and has characteristics of both. These are broad veld types and refer to the palatability or sweetness of the veld as it is affected by temperature and rainfall. Broad veld types What is Sweetveld and what is Sourveld? The Permaculture Magazine. organic certification. It is usually the animals at the bottom of the food chain that utilise grass. Grazers remove old plant material. Rangeland Resources .agric. preparation of business development plans to access funding for development. on the other hand. such Examples of typical grazers are buffaloes. stimulate new rgi/booklet. mainly in the form of irrigated or dryland pastures and fodder crops.planafrica. blue wildebeest and hartebeest – usually animals found in large herds. Keyline and rainwater harvesting systems. E-mail: frits@alut. They are not only dependent on Useful and related publications: • Earth User’s Guide to Permaculture Rosemary Morrow • From the Roots Permacore newsletter • Introduction to Permaculture Bill Mollisson and Reny Mia Slay • Making the most of indigenous trees Fanie and Julye-Ann Venter • Natural Pest Management Henry Ellwell (Zimbabwe) • Permaculture David Holmgren • Permaculture: A Designers’ Manual Bill Mollisson • Plant Propagation Mambo Press • Production without Destruction Vukasin et al (Natural Farming Network. with supplementary feed. Sweetveld occurs in areas with low rainfall and mild Namibia. grown by some livestock farmers to provide forage for the dry winter season (see the “Forage and pastures” chapter). especially as a source of food. Overview Current Rangeland / veld information may be found on www. Zulu Organics Ezio Gori – 083 300 2385 Fax: 086 671 8572 permaculture2012@gmail. in the lower lying parts and next to rivers. Why is sweetveld “sweet”? Find the permaculture options at www. Botswana. Zimbabwe) • South African Organic Agriculture Lindros • The Permaculture Booklet Food & Trees for Africa • The Permaculture Home Garden Linda Woodrow resources and good agricultural practice Rangeland (veld) – website of the biennial International Permaculture conference.154 Wigley. that includes: organics awareness and sensitisation. winner of the Queen’s Award for Enterprise 2008 in the Sustainable Development category and ‘unfettered commitment to progressing sustainability internationally’ (UK-based) can be subscribed to online at www.permaculture2012. In mixed veld. Frits van Oudtshoorn. Online: http://www. occur in open http://khuladhamma. Demonstration Sites Please contact the following sites if you would like to see Permaculture in action. Grazers have migrated in the past. and. but also to provide shelter and nesting material.agis. Lesotho. sweetveld grasses usually occur in protected parts with fertile soil e. The reason for this is that grass occurs very widely over the subcontinent and is virtually always edible. and to Paul Cohen for thorough (select the latest VELD INFO menu option). There are few food chains that do not include grass in some form or Sweetveld is palatable throughout the year while sourveld is generally unpalatable in winter due to high rainfall in these areas which has leached the soil over many years and leaves the soil with a low pH. FAO’s Country Pasture/Forage Resource Profiles – South Swaziland and Many of our grasses.fao. provision of plant material. Readers can also contact Tony Rollinson at info@permaculture. such as weeping love grass (Eragrostis curvula). Zulu Organics provides a holistic development service for both small scale emerging and large scale organic farmers. • Berg en Dal – 028 551 1678 • Dovehouse – 033 330 3554 • Rainman Landcare Foundation – 044 801 5017 • Siyakhana – 072 501 0756 • Spier – 072 174 1152 • Synergy Centre Sustainability Project – 072 501 0756 • Tlholego Ecovillage and Learning Centre – 072 118 7357 6.pdf. Due to the sweetness of the www. Call: 014 717 3819. development of site infrastructure. Sources [Adapted from]: Guide to Grasses of South Africa. and. and also provide fertiliser in the form of manure. sweetveld is easily overgrazed. in search of better grazing. who is involved in supporting projects throughout Africa. establishment of Farmers’ Support Centres. Dry bushveld and karoo are examples of sweetveld. Our thanks to Alex Kruger of Permaculture Education Africa for coordinating this chapter. Online (www. Grass plays an essential role in The vision of Zulu Organics is to enhance the principles of low external input sustainable agricultural (LEISA) practices as an affordable and ecologically sound way of developing small scale farmers in producing organically grown traditional and niche What is mixed veld? Mixed veld occurs between sweetveld and sourveld.exacteditions. but grass also depends on them. Tim Cell: 083 287 4308 tim@keimouth. marketing and distribution of organic produce. including farmers co-operatives and satellite distribution centres.g. An experienced Natural Farming and Permaculture facilitator who has been working in the Eastern Cape for two decades. He is based at Khula Dhamma Ecovillage near East London. guinea grass (Panicum maximum). South Africa is blessed with good. mainly perennial grazing grasses which occur naturally in the region. provision of accredited training. Animals should thus be provided with licks in the mentoring and support. couch grass (Cynodon dactylon). Smuts finger grass (Digitaria eriantha) and Blue buffalo grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) are cultivated worldwide as grazing. Websites and publications Visit the websites of mentioned earlier in this chapter. Today the habitat of many of these animals has been taken over by cattle and sheep. Veld (rangeland) provides the main forage resource for livestock and wildlife in South Africa. Most predators are therefore also indirectly dependent on . The soil is fertile due to little leaching and therefore the grass grows in fertile soil and has a high nutritional value. thereby promoting food security and local economic development whilst maintaining indigenous lifestyles within rural areas. They range from broadscale to urban sites.South Africa. Refer to the “Forage and pastures” chapter.

97-102. • Stone walls can be stacked in crescent. • Parallel rows of vetiver grass or common reed can be planted across the gully. as they will lose condition if left to graze tall grass. • Reeds can also be planted on the upper side of the wall (where sediment accumulates) to stabilise the sediment and to filter the water. No veld reclamation project can succeed if it is not accompanied by improved grazing practices or not fully supported by the land owners. • Branches can also be stacked in gullies to capture sediment. Dongas With the reclamation of erosion gullies or dongas. • Small dams can be made in the bare patches with a hand hoe. Cynodon dactylon. but rather short periods of grazing by migrating animals. Burned veld which sprouts out is very palatable and is easily overgrazed. Vol 26(2). with the walls at the bottom of the slope. Eragrostis superba and Hyparrhenia hirta. Veld which has been burned should preferably rest until the grass has regrown to a height of at least 150mm. Some effective indigenous grasses are: Eragrostis curvula. South Africa. • Erosion – is the excessive soil loss through the action of water or wind. Frits van Oudtshoorn. an attempt is made to break the speed of runoff water in the gullies and to collect sediment. It also protects new seedlings against early grazing and the elements of nature. 3. pp. grasses can be established on the walls. . A Engelbrecht et al. • Overgrazing of palatable species will result in reduced productivity and veld deterioration. This will give the grass a chance to produce enough leaf material so that the entire plant can photosynthesize. Stones are often placed in wire baskets (gabions) and used for this purpose. Sweetveld has not adapted to continuous grazing. The proper management of veld is vital to its continued productivity and the production of domestic livestock and game. • The cheapest method is to stack a stone wall in the gully. The aim of veld reclamation is to obtain a dense plant population. Veld reclamation Veld reclamation is probably the most challenging veld management practice and brings new hope to many land users (and animals). Grazing capacity The number of animals that can be run on a farm must not exceed the grazing capacity of that farm. it is advisable to ensure that the sections which burned are large enough to alleviate grazing pressure. Source: Guide to Grasses of South Afica. In the case of veld which is grazed by game that cannot be controlled. This wall catches up the sediment but allows the water to pass through slowly. Grass and veld fires See the chapter on fire. Eragrostis lehmanniana. • Depending on the money you have at your disposal. karoo. when the veld is already in a condition of stress. the most damage is caused through overgrazing. drought and incorrect combination of animals (grazers and browsers). If stock numbers exceed the grazing capacity then: • There will be insufficient fodder for livestock resulting in deterioration of the condition.g. Stipagrostis uniplumis. with a subsequent sparse distribution of grazers. Andropogon gayanus. Aristida canescents.shaped rows with the crescent facing the top of the slope. especially during winter. Sheep should be allowed to graze as soon as possible after the fire. Frits van Oudtshoorn.155 Why is sweetveld sensitive to overgrazing? In sweetveld areas. The recommended grazing capacity may be obtained from the Departmental norms or from veld condition assessments. • Branches or grass hay can be packed over the bare patches which protects the patches against wind and sun. and thereby protect the soil and offer grazing. For the newcomer Veld is defined as uncultivated land on which indigenous or other vegetation occurs which can be grazed by animals. These grasses capture sediment and a natural wall is formed over time. improving the moisture status of the soil. These areas are also more prone to droughts e. JCO du Toit. Grasses and trees can be established within these crescents. particularly where grazing animals cannot be removed from the area. Veld resting • All living organisms require rest. • Rested veld contains a high proportion of palatable species and provides excellent winter fodder. available surface water was very scare.e. The grasses can be sown if seed is available. Source: Guide to Grasses of SA. Bare patches • Rows of stones can be stacked along the contours to obstruct the runoff of water. • Rested veld promotes vigour and plant regrowth. The end result of desertification is the total degradation of land which is extremely difficult to reverse. together with the trees. Mismanagement leads to: • Overgrazing – this occurs when the number of animals per unit area of land (the stocking rate) exceeds the number of animals the vegetation of land can support (i. if veld is grazed soon after burning. The trend is to use perennial grasses because they are denser and offer greater coverage. Grasses can also be established in the holes. In most areas. 4. • Where slopes are involved deep holes can be dug and trees planted in the holes. even if it is not profitable over the short term. • Bush encroachment – occurs as a result of overgrazing. a full season’s rest should be built into the grazing cycle (for example. badly timed burning. Palatable grasses should be avoided. The holes can be only partially filled with soil so that enough water collects in the holes. • Desertification – is a process which arises through bad land use. carrying capacity). African Journal of Range and Forage Science. Early survival and growth of vegetatively propogated indigenous grasses in a clear-felled timber plantation in KwaZulu-Natal. once in three years or twice in five years) to allow the grass to recover its vigor. Grasses and veld reclamation Grasses used for reclaiming veld must be adapted to the climate of the immediate surroundings. Here again. there are fertilisation measures that may be applied. Veld and Pasture Management Guidelines for Sustainable Animal Production on the Mpumalanga Highveld. During times of drought. Reclamation is often the only alternative to making land more productive. yet resting of veld is not practiced by many farmers. 5.

distance from water. Cedara College and Glen College are two In order to conserve grasslands the Endangered Wildlife Trust’s two strengths have been: 1) using charismatic and indicator species to promote the conservation of the Grassland Biome. • Should any part of the veld show signs of wind erosion. suitable wind breaks should be created either mechanically or biologically. Herding of livestock. Fencing assists with the division of camps and is used as a management tool to control veld condition. and 2) engaging with and working with farmers on their farms to conserve grassland biodiversity. • Make use of a suitable grazing crop established to supplement the natural if need be. Africa (GSSA) Tel/fax: 049 842 4335 South African National www. nature conservation. bush South African National Biodiversity Institute Grasslands Programme Tel: 012 843 5000/99 Department of Environmental Affairs (DEA) Tel: 012 310 3911 lbosoga@environment. then consider fencing only small. present short courses too on veld management. zoology. bush encroachment and the loss of palatable plant species. working with the provincial Departments of are also potential tools for encouraging animals to move. The GSSA hosts a members’ expertise database for the public who seek expert advice in different Grassland Society of Southern database of literature relevant to all aspects of grassland science. animal science. the aspect of the slopes. 7. and has recently unveiled a mentorship programme to provide support to young scientists. Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) Directorate: Land Use and Soil Management Tel: 012 319 7686 Rotational grazing is highly www. valuable portions of the property such as vleis (wetlands) or stream banks.grassland. ecology. Find details under heading The website of the Fund for Nature) Society hosts all back issues of Tel: 021 657 6600 Grassroots as well as a searchable www.156 A land user may apply the following measures to protect their land against degradation: • Reduce animal numbers on veld showing signs of deterioration – or move them. The Congress Profile and Spatial Biodiversity includes field trips to practical Priority Assessment as part of the demonstrations of grassland science Grasslands Programme. If fencing is too expensive. The productivity of all the rangelands of South Africa has been deteriorating as a result of inter alia desertification. practitioners undertook a Grassland Biodiversity and consultants. which are management units based on ecological criteria such as the steepness of slopes. 6.grasslands. hay. water catchment management and range and mine-dump Grassland science encompasses applied fields such as livestock production. soil science and genetics.kznwildlife. The agricultural vleis (wetlands) and other Journal of Range and Forage Science. or rotating water and lick points. Department of Agriculture. in sourveld areas burning different veld type units each year can encourage animals to move from one area to another. professional Congress held in July each .grassland. Fences. wildlife management. sustainable animal and food production would not be possible in the long term. Funding is available intermittently for postgraduate student research – contact admin@grassland. Training and research It is essential that ongoing research be undertaken to increase understanding of the driving forces that determine changes in vegetation.agric. Should this deterioration be allowed to continue unchecked. These veld type units should form the basis of management or contact the Grassland Society of Southern Africa (GSSA) at 049 842 4335 or 083 256 Africa (GSSA) advances rangeland ecology and pasture management Regional contact details are in Africa through a dynamic and available at www. Universities and agricultural colleges cover grasses (grassland science) and pastures in their degrees and diplomas. range and pasture Wildlife Ranching South Africa (WRSA) The GSSA publishes the Tel: 012 335 6994 internationally recognised African www. National strategy and government contact Government has identified the grasslands biome as a priority for conservation action and is implementing the national Grasslands Programme to save the deteriorating environment. in practice. stray crop residues or any other suitable material. as well as special farmer information days and courses. If fencing is not practical or affordable. amongst See the “Agricultural education and training” chapter.ewt. The property should be divided into veld type The Agricultural Research Council (ARC) is involved in Rangeland Monitoring. Denuded areas should be covered with either branches. The disciplines that it encompasses botany. Ezemvelo KZN Wildlife Rob Scott-Shaw and the popular publication. Role players Associations and NGOs Endangered Wildlife Trust (EWT) Threatened Grassland Species Programme (EWT-TGSP) Tel: 011 372 3600 Biodiversity Institute (SANBI) Tel: 012 843 5000 The Grassland Society of Southern during which current The CSIR and SANBI (South African research is presented to a mixed National Biodiversity Institute) audience of scientists. can then be used to separate some of these veld type units to force animals not to concentrate on one are (such as a northfacing slope) while ignoring another area (such as the top of a mountain or a south-facing slope). WWF South Africa (World Wide Grassroots. For updates on grazing research visit www. The GSSA intermittently produces information days in collaboration with other organisations on a range of subjects.environment. Limpopo Department of Agriculture Ntuwiseni Mmbi ntuwisenime@webmail.arc. Grass identification and more are included under the name “Africa Land-Use Training” National Zoological Gardens of South Africa Khanyi Mbatha khanyi@nzg. Climate and Water (ARC-ISCW) Herman Fouche – fouchehj@ufs.157 Africa Land-Use Training (ALUT) offers a consultancy and training service to the agricultural and environmental sectors is offered. Its research teams run several projects in all of South Africa’s biomes and on rangelands under all types of land uses (commercial livestock Centre for Wildlife Management Tel: 012 420 2627 / 2569 www.univen. North-West University – Potchefstroom Research Unit: Environmental Science and Management Tel: 018 299 2510 Grootfontein Agricultural College Tel: 049 802 6723 / 049 842 1113 Loaine van den Berg Visit www. Wildlife and Grassland Sciences – 051 401 2211 Department of Soil.nmmu. Courses are presented at predetermined venues or on North West Department of Agriculture and Rural Development Dieter Jordaan Short training courses at Grootfontein include veld management – North West Parks and Tourism Board Wilfred Seitlhamo Free State Department of Agriculture and Rural Development Chris Smith – University of Fort Hare Livestock and Pasture Science Tel: 040 602 2059 / 2499 or call ALUT at 014 717 3819 / 078 228 0008 for more information about their services and University of Cape Town (UCT) Environmental and Geographical Science Tel: 021 650 2873 University of Zululand Department of Agriculture Tel: 035 902 6063 scogings@gmail. Veld management. communal University of Limpopo School of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences Tel: 015 268 2202 / 2784 Janet Taylor South African Environmental Observation Network (SAEON) Tel: 033 343 3491 .za. Veld condition and grazing capacity Natural resources and the Environment Tel: 012 841 2911 Luthando Dziba Stellenbosch University Department of Conservation Ecology and Entomology Tel: 021 808 3728 Land Reform and Rural Development Justin du Toit Pieter Wagner Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) Biodiversity and ecosystems services Tel: 021 888 2488 Dr Belinda Reyers ARC–Institute for The ARC is currently managing a National Rangeland Monitoring and Improvement Programme that is staffed with competent research technicians who conduct veld condition surveys and basic soil surveys throughout the country in order to inform decision making by both land users and policy Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University (NMMU) Centre for African Conservation Ecology Tel: 041 504 2308 University of Pretoria Department of Plant Production and Soil Science Tel: 012 420 3809 / 3223 Northern Cape Department Some contacts at the ARC: Dr Andrew Magadlela – 012 672 9036 Dr Sikhalazo Dube – 012 672 9295 Dr Mike Peel – 013 753 7147 / University of the Free State Department It conducts training on veld management for farmers and often present information at farmers’ days and annual congresses of the Grassland Society of Southern Eastern Cape Department of Rural Development and Agrarian Reform Döhne Agricultural Development Institute Tel: 043 683 1240 Adelaide Research Station Craig Trethewey Department of Geoscience Vincent Kakembo Vincent. game ranching) Terence Newby – Jorrie Jordaan jorrie.ukzn. The ARC also offers a service to monitor veld condition on game ranches with recommendations on the management of these properties for the intended objectives without degradation of the resource Rhodes University Botany Department Tel: 046 603 8592 www. Crop and Climate Sciences – 051 401 2212 Centre for Development Support Tel: 051 773 0324 / 083 274 5461 University of KwaZulu-Natal Biological and Conservation Sciences Tel: 033 260 5505 / 5821 KwaZulu-Natal Department of Agriculture and Environmental Affairs Zandile Ndlovu University of South Africa (UNISA) Department of Environmental Sciences Tel: 011 471 2655 write to Tshwane University of Technology PanagosMD@tut. The Rangelands and Nutrition Research Unit within the Animal Production Institute of the Agricultural Research Council (ARC) conducts research on the ecology and management of The ARC has research facilities throughout the country and runs several projects on farm and in the rural University of Venda Tel: 015 962 8200 Short courses on topics such as Farm planning.

Briza. Cedara. Pretoria. Pietermaritzburg. Department of • Introduction to VeldCare. Websites and publications Recommended reading: Grasses • Sasol First Field Guide to Grasses of Southern Africa G Smith. Clive Bromilow. Pretoria. K Kirkman and A Swanepoel. [English and isiZulu]. Visit included in services offered www.kzndae. Janet Edmonds Consulting Holistic Management® Grazing Tel: 033 940 0450 / 082 828 7953 Planning www. • Improved grassland management J Frame.jecenviro. • Find the many relevant publications at www. Call 012 672 9253/313 for the following. ISBN 0 958 42091 2. ISBN: 1 86825 922 6 • Trees of Southern Africa. Cape Town. • Acock’s notes: key grasses of South Africa PJK Grazing for Profit Tel: 058 622 1499 www. ISBN 0 627 01864 5 • Game ranch management J du P Bohma (editor).puk. Find the document on www. • Grasses of the Eastern Free State R Moffett. Briza. ISBN: 0 621 27923 4. Qwa-Qwa Campus University of the North. DJ Bransby and P de V Booysen. a compilation of 25 brochures on indigenous and exotic pasture species for use under dry land and irrigated conditions • Visit www. Shuter and Shooter. • Find the Bush Expert and Grass Expert databases on www. Northern Cape Livestock Co-operation Limited. Grassland Society of South Africa. – take the AGIS and then Veld Focus menu the Newsletter of the Grassland Society of Southern Africa and incorporating the Bulletin. Pretoria. re-vegetation are to the Grasslands Programme. ARC & Kimberley. A 8. Struik. L Smook. Cedara. It can also be downloaded at www. Cape Farming • Karoo veld – ecology and management KJ Esler. ISBN: 0 621 31817 5 Trees and shrubs • SAPPI tree-spotting series • Field Guide to Trees of Southern Africa.bestfarmer.nwga. ISBN 1 86849 192 7 • Invasive Alien Plants in KwaZulu-Natal: Management and Control.158 University of the Witwatersrand School of Animal. ISBN 0 627 01864 5. KwaZulu-Natal Department of Agriculture and Environmental Affairs. ISBN: 0 620 14282 0.vut. • Problem Plants of South Africa. funded approximately R66 million carrying capacity. NWU banner . Shuter and Shooter. Pietermaritzburg. M Koekemoer.agric. • The farming handbook B Smith. ac. A full-colour guide to the common grasses of southern Africa and includes descriptions and illustrations of the 300 most important grasses in southern Africa. ISBN: 0 621 123 889. Agricultural Research Council. HM Anderson & MJ Dallwitz. ISBN: 978 1 86914 090 8. brought out by the National Wool Growers Association (NWGA) includes useful notes on rangeland management along with the other information. ISBN: 0 620 14846 Michael Pillay – mpillay@vut.rcs-sa.grassland. Braam van Wyk & Piet van Veld and pasture management • Gids tot die Volhoubare Produksie van Weiding Prof Hennie Snyman Input suppliers and other role players BESTFARMER SA Riaan Dames – 084 273 8666 www. Pietermaritzburg. ISBN 0 852 36246 3. Weeds Grassroots. • Veld and Pasture Management Guidelines for Sustainable Animal Production on the Mpumalanga Highveld.agis.thegef. University of KwaZulu-Natal SJ Milton & WRJ The Global Environment Facility Veld condition assessments. There are more than 800 excellent colour photographs. South Africa. KwaZulu-Natal Department of Agriculture and Environmental Affairs. Lesley Henderson. home of the Grasslands Programme • www. WR Teague. Plant and Environmental Sciences Tel: 011 717 6404 www. Wildlife and Environment Society of South Africa (WESSA)-KZN. ISBN: 1875093176. • Guide to the Grasses of South Africa Frits van Oudtshoorn. ISBN: 1 86872 952 4. Order at 021 406 4962 or lbw@media24. 1 919991 38 7.communitydynamics. Briza Publications. • Veld Management in the Eastern Cape JE Meg and Keith Department of Peter Stegmann CD Morris & D Kotze. ISBN: 978 1 875093 52 6. L www. • Veld and pasture management in South Africa NM Tainton (editor). Agricultural Production Guidelines for KwaZuluNatal. The Best practice reference manual for wool sheep farming in South available from the Range and Forage Utilisation division at the ARC in Irene: • Scale-related vegetation sampling • Strategic Use of Intercropping for Small-Scale Farming Systems • The wheel-point method of survey and measurement of semi-open grasslands and Karoo vegetation in South Africa • Amasu oku Tshalahlangana anga setshenziswa ngabalimi abanendawo encane • Know Your Veld • Principles in managing veld • Cultivated pastures for South Africa. specialist Community Dynamics Tel: 053 927 4367 / 082 459 9451 www. Pietermaritzburg. Cape SA. is published quarterly and distributed to all members and subscribers as well as a select VIP mailing list. NP • Alien Weeds and Invasive website of the Grassland Society of Southern Africa (GSSA). ISBN: 1 86871 155 2 • Veld in KwaZulu-Natal. SA. JL van Schaik.hotsure. or contact 041 365 5030. JH Precision grazing and veld utilisation monitoring. The latest reports on rainfall and current condition of rangeland / veld are dealt with region by region. • Visit • Common grasses of the Northern Cape BR Roberts.grasslands. • Grasses of Southern Africa GE Gibbs Russell. Pietermaritzburg. • Common veld and pasture grasses of Natal NM Vaal University of Technology Zama Hadebe Rangeland/Grazing management/ HOTSURE extensive animal production Tel: 0861 COLLAR www. • Identification of Veld Grasses of

The aim is sustainable land use.g.daff. and at seedling establishment. Different crops would be selected for the balance of the land. their suitability to produce crops varies. Are you planting the best crop for the soil you have at your disposal? Farmers cannot afford to cultivate any land at a loss.wocat. the reader will find other chapters in this book of relevance e. In order to make progress in optimising land use it is essential to do a soil survey. • site-specific sampling.C. • soil sampling to diagnose plant production problems. surface sealing. “Fertiliser”. sampling depth. and even though the exploration is more metaphorical it grabs something within us which recognises the profound connection between ourselves and the soil. Variation in soil fertility and agronomic practices contributes to this variation. • soil sampling to determine the water-holding properties of soils. and high runoff and low infiltration of water. • create alternate strips of land with undisturbed cover crops. • soil sampling for nematode counts. The low and varying maize respectively. It is no surprise that in the creation epic recorded in the book of Genesis. either mechanically or biologically Intense rainfall on bare soil causes aggregate and www. Or perhaps you are wanting to determine the water-holding properties of your soil. “Speciality fertilisers”.” Oeconomicus (400 B. relation to rows and the sampling path through the land. • establish a suitable grazing crop on land permanently withdrawn from cultivation. • At present 3 million ha topsoil cannot be used for agriculture as a result of erosion & bush encroachment. Agricultural role players like the members of the South African Soil Survey Organisation (SASO).g. . the ARC.159 resources and good agricultural practice Soils 1. National identities and characteristics are ascribed in some writings to the soils of their people. What we do with our soil determines how our ecosystems serve us – and how well we eat. adds to the pressure and questions whether it is sustainable to grow that crop. for example. You may be wishing to formulate a fertilisation programme. Soil sampling and analysis Soil sampling is the weakest link in the soil testing process – a few grams of soil represent millions of kilograms in the field. the method of soil sampling is determined by the crop cultivated. and what livestock is supported. are identical to the previous years. Provincial Department of Agriculture or university will be able to help you with soil sampling. or doing a nematode count (here too there are different guidelines depending on where you are doing the sampling e. It is therefore important that controllable factors. it is from the soil that Adam is created. Soil scientists can help farmers matching soil and land use. There are variations in permanent soil properties. Here it would be essential to select only the best maize soils for the cultivation of maize. The potential of soil erosion is greatest while the surface is bare after ploughing. A land user can combat wind erosion: • by using rotational cropping • by not leaving land fallow • by creating alternate strips of natural land with undisturbed cover crops • by leaving strips of natural vegetation at right angles to the prevailing wind direction • by creating suitable wind breaks. Soil’s composition varies horizontally and vertically: the sample should incorporate these variations. How. “Precision farming”. The best soils should be selected for a crop. These guidelines list sampling methods like: • soil sampling to formulate a fertilisation programme for annual crops. 3. Soil erosion by wind occurs where a “Conservation Agriculture”. • leave crop residue or plant material on cultivated land to protect the land from being 4. A land-use plan can then be worked out with the soil information. where and when the sub-samples should be collected depend on the application of the analytical results. such as the time of sampling. In addition to this chapter. Soil erosion and Good Agricultural Practice Read about WOCAT and LADA at www. The South African Soil Classification System accommodates this variation in 73 soil forms and several families in each soil form. for example. There are various methods to sample soils. • cultivate land using a crop rotation system. A land user may apply the following methods to combat water erosion: • lay out a land in such a way that the spread of run-off is sufficiently restricted. during seedbed preparation. and this will affect the crop yield. Source: www. orchards and annual crops require different sampling methods). Overview “To be a successful farmer. Or you may be investigating plant production problems. • soil sampling to assess the current fertilisation programme of tree crops. • soil sampling to formulate a fertilisation programme for perennial corps. Commercial farmer points of interest Because soils differ. Alternative crops would include permanent pastures. your nearest agricultural college.fao. “Compost and organic fertilisers” and more.) by Xenophon Healthy soils produce life. loose soil that is reasonably finely divided on a soil surface that is smooth on which little or no vegetative cover is present. one must first know the nature of the soil. Several role players have compiled guidelines on soil sampling for their clients. It is the soil which determines which crop will be planted. Here. • Each year approximately 300 million ton of top soil is washed away. 2. • soil sampling to establish permanent crops.

The other leg of precision agriculture grid sampling identifies variation in soil chemistry and fertility making variable application of lime and fertilisers possible. Water Wise.sacnasp. seminars and uses. • On the soil map do land use planning for the farm and keep sustainability in mind.daff. • Water does not penetrate easily into clay and plant roots do not grow easily. Email acid soils are poor and unproductive. Clayey soil and soil with a high organic matter content must also be limed. Source: Info Pak from and KwaZulu-Natal Department of Agriculture and Environmental Affairs. Workshops Africa Chapter of the International Control Association address soil suitability related Erosion aspects which advisors are (IECA-SA) have among others. • Loam soil contains both sand and exists for the development of www. This technology changed the soil survey and land evaluation industry. Precision farming procedures monitor variations in crop yield well. For the newcomer 6. Many South African soils – especially those in the eastern parts of the country – are soil surveyors and workers in www. Acid soil and lime: Most agricultural crops give better yields on soils that are not too acid or too sweet (alkaline). 2003). sandy or loamy because crops do not always grow well in all kinds of related fields. confronted with in the industry the following two main objectives: e. you must first find out whether the soil is clay.sasso. • Have a soil survey done and get hold of the soil Tel: 012 841 1075 www. The more acid the soil. communication Based on information sent in by Dr PAL le Roux.safrica@gmail. identification of morphological To educate IECA-SA National strategy and government contact Department of Agriculture. soil properties. moisten it and form it into a ball. the more lime it requires.160 Precision agriculture with super monitors is a new tool helping farmers to determine exactly what their land is producing on any spot. • Water penetrates quickly into sandy If you know what type of soil you have. On the whole. roots grow easily but the soil becomes dry quickly. texture and base saturation of the soil. A soil that has too much clay or too much sand can be improved by adding lots of compost or manure. to disseminate information of the role of soils in different land on erosion and sediment control through conferences.g. fruit (chairperson) International Erosion Control www. Mpumalanga 013 755 1420 / 2614 North West 018 294 3343/4 Northern Cape 053 807 2600 Take soil in your hand. then open your The Soil Science Society of South Africa is an organisation with the SACNASP is an organisation aim of promoting all aspects of soil that handles the registration of science. agricultural science geohydrology and environmental South African Soil Survey science) as required by law (Natural Organisation (SASSO) Scientific Professions or no clods at all. Forestry and Fisheries Directorate: Land Use and Soil Management (LUSM) Tel: 012 319 7685/6 Association Southern Africa Lehman Lindeque – 083 453 0600 This non-profit organisation erosion. • clay soil forms very hard dry clods • loam soil also forms dry clods • sandy soil has soft clods. A lime product must therefore first neutralise the acidity. The wet soil will have formed a sausage. maize or any other crop. member organisation serving the SASSO presents four national worldwide erosion and sediment workshops distributed over the control industry. It is a forum for soil surveyors to exchange ideas and The International Erosion Control Association (IECA) is a professional discuss knowledge about soils. Role players Associations Soil Science Society of South South African Council for Africa (SSSSA) Natural Scientific Professions Tel: 012 310 2504 (SACNASP) www. The Southern country each year. 7. Most crops benefit from lime application to increase the pH. Roots grow Loam soil is the best as it retains just enough water and allows the right amount to drain away. • sandy soil will form a broken sausage (if it manages to form one at all!) You can also tell the difference by looking carefully at your soil. you will know how to improve it. . squeeze. The soil holds water and nutrients. Visit their website for links all practising professionals in to national and international soil the natural sciences (including science role Provincial LUSM offices: Region Telephone Eastern Cape 043 704 6800 Free State 051 409 2601 Gauteng 012 319 7596 KwaZulu-Natal 033 345 3557/15 Soil Types: Limpopo 015 287 9943 If you want to plant johan@terrasoil. The amount of lime applied depends on the pH. • Apply the plan. Western Cape 021 984 9278 • clay soil will form a firm sausage • loam soil will form a poor sausage that will break up if you roll it back and forth in the palm of your hand. soil science. Make a fist. classification and the public and the erosion control mapping of soils and interpretation industry.

“Precision farming” (For the soil loss equations. Find details of the Combined Congress at www. rain • Ecosoil Tel: 021 848 9434 / 072 906 1636 and “Speciality fertilisers” www. Crop and Climate Sciences Tel: 051 401 2212 www. • Farmsecure Agri Science Tel: 021 974 1900 / 058 307 6945 the Small Stellenbosch University Grains Institute and Grain Crop Department of Soil Science Institute will be able to help with Tel: 021 808 4794 www. Plant and Environmental Sciences Tel: 011 717 6404 AgriSETA accredited trainers (find the list in the “Agricultural Pedology and Soil Mineralogy education & training” chapter).terrasoil.suidwes. soil degradation and erosion.agric. but is unique and a powerful training ARC-Institute of Prof L van Rensburg Tel: 018 299 1542 ARC. maintenance and calibration of instrumentation for monitoring soil moisture conditions).za • Terrasoil Science Tel: 012 993 0969 www. An • Soil surveying.nmmu. Visit (engineering projects have included managing soil erosion).za University of KwaZulu-Natal Department: Soil Science Tel: 033 260 5422 www.sashs. The KZN Research and development Department of Agriculture and of technology related to soil Environment Affairs does training conservation structures. • Soil susceptibility to salinity Companies involved conduct and erosion research. iscwinfo@arc.ufh. soil types and uses. Fertigation systems and more) • NviroTek Labs Tel: 082 885 8699 www. analysis and management for best results) • Hanna Instruments Tel: 011 615 6076 www.dfmsoftware. classifying and example is Africa Land-Use Training mapping • Soil suitability for agricultural (ALUT). ARC-Institute for Agricultural The Provincial Departments Engineering (ARC-IAE) of (Jako Pieterse consults farmers on creating healthy soils). These take hourly moisture and temperature readings at six depths) (Soil moisture management software) • DFM Software Tel/fax: 021 904 1154 www.ecosoil.agric. The Soil Microbiology Laboratory precision • Terratek Tel: 018 581 1000 www.wits.univen.soiltech. Analytical Services • Standard and analyses University of Pretoria Plant Production and Soil Sciences Tel: 012 420 3809 / 3223 (Farmsecure Agri Science’s independent consultation services include GPS Experts in soil University of Fort Hare Faculty of Science and Agriculture Tel: 040 602 2232 www. soil pollution clients where long-term effects and soil degradation assessments of soil management practices are determined on soil biological Faculty of Agriculture Science and Technology Companies involved Find this heading in the “Fertiliser”. It is in need of updating and a general overhaul. Soil Educational posters in Land and Water (ARC-ISCW) Husbandry and management are Tel: 012 310 2500 also available (see heading 8) This is housed in the old house that was the Principal’s residence at Cedara. • Soiltech Tel: 072 408 8211 • Soil water management Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University (NMMU) specialist Centre for African Conservation Ecology Tel: 041 504 2316 The ARC-ISCW develops and www. Visit www. and presents the origins of soil. soil profile North-West University information and soil documentation Unit for Environmental Sciences culminating into soil information and Management systems. 0 Soil and Water Science Council for Geoscience • Soil fertility • Soil-plant-water relationships Tel: 012 841 1911 www. • EnviroMon Tel: 021 851 5134 . maintains comprehensive databases on land type information. land capability. • AquaCheck www. fertiliser at the PPRI offers services to www. Training and research Consult the “Agricultural education and training” (pH and in advanced soil fertility. also offer courses. Plant Production and Agricultural Engineering Tel: 015 268 2927 www. and systems.scientificroets. “Compost and organic fertilisers” and “Earthworms and vermicompost” • Scientific Roets Tel: 039 727 1515 www.Plant Protection Research Mr PW Deventer Institute (ARC-PPRI) Tel: 018 285 2267 Tel: 012 808 8000 for more. techniques in soil classification. and conservation University of the Free State Department of Walter Sisulu University School of Applied and Environmental Sciences Tel: 047 502 2311 / 047 502 2186 Tshwane University of Technology Tel: 012 382 5340 Other relevant associations include the South African Society of Crop Production (SASCP) and Southern African Society for Horticultural Sciences. working closely Tel: 012 842 4000 with the agricultural colleges. Tel: 018 389 2481 / 2050 Other ARC Institutes involved with crop production e. soil energy and growth soil samples and issues of the University of Limpopo Soil (Soil moisture sensors planted permanently in the University of the Witwatersrand School of or production and rehabilitation call 014 717 University of Venda Department of Soil Science Tel: 015 962 8431 CARE (Conservation of Agricultural Resources Exhibition) at

agis.agric. Call 033 355 9304 for the Training Resources Development (TRD) at the KwaZulu-Natal Department of Agriculture and Environmental Affairs for the following: • Acid soils and liming English poster series and A4 book.g. a hedge against • Compost: Nature’s fertiliser.162 8. Also at the AGIS website are the easy-to-understand Infotoons. • Land husbandry I (General).za (take the “Publications” option): • Soil Erosion • Soil: Acid soil and lime (most crops benefit from increased lime application) • Soil: Application of lime (the amount of lime added to the soil depends on various factors) • Soil: Kraal manure as fertiliser (a viable alternative for chemical) • Soil: Test your soil (a basic guide to help you distinguish between sandy.wocat. www. including assessment of agricultural potential and land suitability. Call 012 842 4000 / 17 or email iaeinfo@arc. za/efarmer. Websites and publications SA Journal of Plant & Soil. Now internationally listed on the “Master Journal List” of the www. Congratulations! The Soils of South Africa. • Mulch: A blanket on the Visit – regional sustainable land management African network which was formed in 2009. Provincial Departments of Agriculture produce poster training and other for the following publications available from the ARC’s Institute of Agricultural Engineering: • Barricades and small structures for the prevention of soil erosion (also available in Afrikaans) • Combating erosion with silt fences (also available in Afrikaans) Land type data and acquired knowledge are being used to solve a variety of problems such as land use planning. a publication co-ordinated by Prof Martin Fey of Stellenbosch University. . genesis and use of various soils e. vertic. It covers the Kejafa Knowledge Works has a number of books on soil in Detailed soil and climate surveys are integrated into a comprehensive Agricultural Geo-referenced Information System (AGIS). and III (Grazing) – English and Zulu poster series and booklets. It is “the first book in seventy years that provides a comprehensive account of South African soils”. web site. Find more on www.agric. which allows for a variety of applications. II (Cropping). The following Info Paks (booklets) are available from the Resource Centre at the National Department of Agriculture. organic. silicic.agis. calcic or call 011 025 4388.daff. A deliverable of LADA is the World Overview of Conservation Approached and Technologies (WOCAT) – read about the Land Degradation Assessment in Drylands project (LADA).gov. humic. loam and clay soil) www. ISSN number of 0257-1862.htm – notes on soil erosion and preventing it. • Good seed. Read about what the World Overview of Conservation Approaches and Technologies has to say at www.terrafrica.fao.daff. • Vetiver • How to get your soil tested. www. They can be downloaded from www. Visit www. The following four subjects are covered: • Making the most of rainwater. classification.agric. soil and water for success – English poster series and booklets. kejafa.

Waste re-use – where possible reuse waste material. Composting is also a form of treatment. which Cabinet approved for implementation in November 2011. Waste recycling – IWMSA is a professional. recycling and recovery of waste. whilst promoting reuse and recycling of the waste and to only consider disposal of waste to landfill as a last resort (South Africa is running out of landfill space and waste management is placing a drain on the finances of local government. It is a non-profit organisation. Divert valuable organic materials from the waste grey water (e. ensuring effective and efficient delivery of waste service and growing the contribution of the waste sector to the green economy. Role players The Institute of Waste Management of Southern Africa (IWMSA) runs a directory of role players in this area. Associations and NGOs Agricultural and Chemical Dealers of South Africa (ACDASA) Tel: 011 805 2000 Find the different Waste Management Guidelines and Waste Management Policies documents under the “Documents” menu option on the website. and so must be disposed of. Waste avoidance – avoid creating waste in the first Institute of Waste Management of Southern Africa (IWMSA) Tel: 011 675 3462 /4 www. black water (sewerage). Institute of Zero Waste in Africa (IZWA) Tel: 031 202 4576 www.g. Farm integrated waste management The waste management hierarchy moves from the most preferred to least preferred method: 1. 2. The article “Waste offenders face stiff or excessive Waste on the farm includes agro-chemicals (pesticides etc) They process any form of organic waste – from food waste (homes and restaurants) to garden wastes. Fairest Cape Association Tel.163 resources and good agricultural practice Waste management 1. This will identify “hotspots” of water quality deterioration in water resources. animal carcasses. multi disciplinary organisation with voluntary membership established to promote the science and practice of waste management. All farming operations create waste products that need to be The Food for Waste Programme is initiated and implemented by the Department of Public Works in partnership with the Independent Development Trust as part of the Expanded Public Works Programme (EPWP). manure and landfill. Members of the community collect waste. reduces the disposal refer to www. plastic and a growing number of items are collected after use. or are likely to have a detrimental effect on the environment.dwa. Find its details under this heading. and those who use sewerage slush for fertilisation. For a list of list of waste management activities that have. to abattoir wastes. Refer to the “Earthworms and vermicompost” chapter.) South Africa’s National Waste Management Strategy (NWMS).za/projects/warms Department of Public Works 5. which they hand over to their local offices in exchange for food vouchers. The NWMS is structured against a framework of eight goals with set targets for 2016. Treatment – waste (especially hazardous waste) can be treated to reduce toxicity. reuse. aims to create 69 000 new jobs in the waste sector and have 2 600 additional small and medium-sized enterprises and co-operatives participating in waste service delivery and recycling by 2015. Compost from earthworms can be used to enrich soils. which in ACDASA is the representative body which promotes the responsible marketing of crop protection products to agricultural producers. All farmers engaging in waste-water discharge by irrigating with treated effluent. and returned to recycling companies who reprocess them into articles which are resold to consumers.engineeringnews.iwmsa. but enforcement capacity questioned” (written in July 2011) on www. National strategy and government contact Department of Environmental Affairs (DEA) www. to compost heaps and vermiculture farms. from cleaning the dairy equipment). All waste generators in South Africa are governed by National Environmental Management: Waste . Waste Management is not just about getting rid of waste but also about reducing the amount of waste we create in the first place. will have to register as well as for other activities which include evaporation ponds for waste-water. 021 462 2040 www. Farmers who use or store wastewater will have to register with provides a comprehensive analysis of waste legislation.publicworks. Overview Waste is any material lacking direct value to the producer. cardboard.acdasa. 59 of 2008) seeks to encourage the prevention and minimisation of waste generation. Earthworms can be used in a variety of waste management fields. 2008 (Act Energy recovery from waste – an important step which can be explored by to animal manures and wastes. 3. as well as the threats and opportunities for business. 3. The eight goals included promoting waste minimisation. The DWAF DW 808 replaces the DW 768 registration form which can be completed electronically on the WARMS system – refer to www. The Waste Act 2008 (Act No. before collection. Department of Water Affairs (DWA) www.fairestcape. 59 Of 2008). storage of waste on land in landfills or waste dumps and the use of manure storage facilities. 4. 4. cans.

lawn care and other life science PROCON Environmental Technologies Tel: 021 448 7492 www. Wildlife and Environment Society of South Africa (WESSA) Plastics Federation of South Africa Tel: 011 314 4021 abattoir wastes. ZERI – Southern Africa (Zero Emissions Research & Polystyrene Packaging Council Initiatives) (PSPC) of South Africa Tel: 021 762 1228 Tel: 012 259 0554 Companies ABC Hansen Tel: 012 803 0036 www.ecosystems. Previously called Sappi waste Paper. JCL also buys most forms on Waste” programme for offices. is an Integrated Resource NRM Consulting and Waste Management Specialist Tel: 011 318 0895 www. Nampak Paper Recycling Tel: 011 799 7111 Collect-a-Can (Pty) Ltd w w w.biobox. workshops etc are offered ROSE Foundation to make folks think about farming Recycling Oil Saves the Environment as part of a natural –eco-systems (ROSE) based operations. Mvula Trust is the largest water and sanitation NGO in the South management projects include waste Technologies Tel: 011 840 0840 SA Waste Holdings (Pty) Ltd Susanne Sappi ReFibre South African Plastics Recyclers Organisation (SAPRO) www. schools and community WESSA runs a Recycling Info SPATIUM MBB integrated environmental Louw van Biljon – 082 777 2647 on the website (see the NORA-SA option).co. c o m / S e r v i c e s Tel: 011 466 2939 www. n a m p a k .za EcoChem Planner Bee Plant Care WISA replaced the Southern African branch of the Institute of Water Pollution Control. Provincial contact details are on Kyasol Green Building the They formulate 100% Franberfran is a waste water environmentally friendly products treatment company specialising in for treating all organic wastes: the bioremediation of contaminated aquaculture. charities and carmen@livingearth. of clean ex-factory Tel: 011 873 6545 Consultant in Integrated Waste systems Scanwood Solutions (Pty) Ltd Tel: 012 803 0036 / 0861 472 461 MBB Consulting Engineers Bosman focuses on assisting private and the public sector in finding sustainable solutions for water-related problems – she is recognised as an excellent speaker and is the author of a number of MPact provincial contact details are papers on Water Pollution and on the website Waste Tel: 033 346 1444 standards at sewage plants National Water Forum (NWF) Louis Meintjies – 082 461 7262 Tel: 021 887 1026 .fertilis. Packaging Council of South Africa Tel: 011 463 9909 www. waste – food waste.wisa.rosefoundation.zerisa. of waste management fields. soil reclamation.theglassrecyclingcompany. InSynch Sustainable Bio-Systems SA Tel: 021 786 2972 waste water.sappirefibre. based in Cape algae control.biolytix. JCL Plastic Enterprises (JCL) EcoChem is a leading producer of Natural Products and solutions Earthworms can be used in a variety for use in environmental Find provincial contacts www.oasis. manure management. oil spill process any form of organic waste cleanup.biosystemssa.164 KwaZulu-Natal Landfill Interest One area of pollution in agriculture Group (and elsewhere) is used lubricant Tel: 031 311 8820 Association of South Africa (NORA-SA) – see ROSE SEWPACKSA Foundation Tel: 079 473 4090 (administrator) www.aspx Find contact details on the Nampak branches nationwide. Tel: 0860 66 66 22/33 The NWF was formed in 2009.mvula.pacsa. collect from Farmers can gather and store their used oil for responsible Mvula Trust collection. and invited food retailers. Find regional office The Glass Recycling Company contact details on their website. Water Institute of South Africa (WISA) Tel: 011 805 3537 Included in ABC Hansen’s products The “Agricultural” menu option is equipment for waste water discusses agricultural waste and its treatment remedies Biobox Systems Tel: 012 803 7272 Carin Bosman Sustainable Solutions Tel: 012 940 2071 Ecosystems Tel: 035 772 4746 / 083 308 4818 Remade Recycling www. Suppliers of quality recycled plastic this unit runs a nationwide “War materials.rpmasa. Responsible Packaging Find regional contact details on the Management Association of National Recycling Forum Tel: 011 675 3462 An association formed to improve www. agrochemical companies and mining companies to help battle water pollution in South Africa.insynch.paperpickup. where it remains Tel: 011 919 0000 Small waste water treatment www. pigsty and septic tanks A wastewater management company Biolytix Tel: 021 881 3715 Technologies Tel: 076 668 8877 Glass that is not recycled is www. Oasis Association Tel: 021 671 2698 Southern Africa Tel: 032 942 8256 National Oil Recycling Management Sannitree International Tel: 021 701 1266 Franberfran www.scanwood. They waste management. Tel: 011 803 0767 Envirosense cc http://envirosensecc. animal manures and water treatment. This adds to the huge pollution MPact Recycling issues facing our

co.agric. The collected spilled chemical could then still be used if kept uncontaminated in the contained area. This low temperature burning results in emissions of dioxins which are hazardous to health and the environment. Other chemicals used on farms that have environmental effects include use of paints. and as far as possible. waste oil is often used as wood treatment for fence posts on Consulting service deals with issues such as composting of agricultural waste Training and research ARC-Plant Protection Research Council of Scientific and Institute (ARC-PPRI) Industrial Research (CSIR) Tel: 012 808 8000 Tel: 012 841 2911 www.g. creosote. If not burnt. co. . turpentine. Although this is common practice. Typically these wastes are poorly managed as they are most often burnt on site. www. but suffers from an administrative division between several governing departments and legal acts. If not holed and animal material. they must be thoroughly cleaned out.165 Thermopower Process Technology Tel: 011 316 1800 or phone 011 717 7510 ZERI . Ntlibi – 031 260 agricultural waste and garbage 3056 into liquid etc. NGOs subheading 5. which are often used in significant amounts for maintenance on farm property.necsa.thermopower. foods Tel: 012 841 3772 and feeds as well as formulations Municipal Ethekweni Waste Materials Recovery Industry Development Cluster Tel: 031 765 2349 / 082 415 8138 http://use-it. Of particular concern are the containers from pesticide/herbicide chemicals. In Denmark for example. These are typically not well controlled and the spills result in a build-up of toxic chemicals over and technical materials. waxes Prof Chris Buckley – 031 260 3131 and paraffin.xtremeprojects. fire and water restoration. acid spills.wbconsulting. Find the Pollution Research Group BeauTi-Fuel option at www. Prior to disposal. The regulation on pesticides is in general good. Once empty they need to be carefully managed. fifty years after the use of pesticides began traces of them appeared in groundwater. Container management The management of waste chemical packaging is an important environmental. according to hazardous waste management practices. Typically farmers are known to burn these empty plastic chemical containers as well as empty plastic fertiliser bags in open fire on farms. For the treatment of hazardous Xtreme Projects waste Tel: 041 582 2211 / 082 828 6762 www. The technology was Ms Jennifer Blight – 031 260 7185 developed by an engineering team from the University of the Witwatersrand and the Dr Nicola Rodda – 031 260 3015 South African Nuclear Energy – represents BioSciences in the Corporation (NECSA). plant Centre material. Vehicle use and maintenance The maintenance of farm tractors and trucks for transport results in the generation of used oil and oil filters amongst other wastes. particularly in the sugarcane industry. and the metal of the oil filters is oil deal with abattoir waste spills etc Wolf Bernhardt Consulting Tel: 031 266 3258 soil. the empty containers are in demand and may be stolen (e. North-West University ARC-Institute for Agricultural Centre for Environmental Sciences and Management Engineering (ARC-IAE) Prof L van Rensburg Tel: 012 842 4000 Leon. University of KwaZulu-Natal Department of Civil Engineering The BeauTi-FueL™ Project turns Dr Ntlibi Mr PW van Deventer Research and training done on farm 10058591@nwu. Irrigation run-off can carry crop protection chemicals to surface/ground water.Southern Africa (Zero (Wits School of Chemical and Emissions Research & Initiatives) – see under the Associations and Metallurgical Engineering). for use as water containers in rural areas). it is discouraged and correct treatment and disposal of waste oil is recommended. Thousands of litres of used oil and numerous oil filters could be generated on a farm each www. The waste materials and containers are often not disposed in the correct manner leading to health and environmental effects of solvents. Prevention is better than control. health and safety issue. bio-remediation of The use of alkaline hydrolysis to contaminated soil. herbicides and National Cleaner Production fungicides in air. The rinsewater then requires treatment. Air emissions (dioxins) from burning plastics (at temperatures <400°C) are carcinogenic and are therefore potentially harmful to those who inhale the fumes. The enforcement is largely based on selfregulation: how many farmers comply with the requirements? Chemical spraying requires the chemicals to be loaded into the spraying machinery.ncpc. Whether spraying by air or on land the loading of chemicals into the machinery can lead to chemical Pikitup Tel: 011 375 5555 www.pikitup. They are often not disposed of in correctly controlled waste sites.VanRensburg@nwu. The carbon and emissions from burning dirty oil and heavy metal wastes from filters are of environmental structures (includes facilities to deal with manure). Holes are then punched in the containers and they are flattened and disposed Waste Resolution Technologies Tel: 083 375 8326 / 082 841 4996 Deep The Pesticide Analysis Laboratory is involved in developing new Find the “Natural resources and analytical methods for quantitative the environment” and “Pollution analysis and confirmation of and waste” options on the website pesticide residues including insecticides. heavy metals and other problematic chemicals. There is a high probability of a health hazard for end users in this case. spills should be prevented. However. if spills do occur these need to be well electricity. Farmer points of interest Chemicals The poor management of pesticide application leads to severe working environment even if it takes many years for this to happen. the chemical can be properly treated and www.csir.

za. These are not in very large Presence of dust on plants (near roads. the use of greywater in small-scale agriculture etc.unfccc.nwga. is also an important environmental management issue. www.wrc.html. and location of sites where wastes are buried must be carefully chosen away from environmentally sensitive areas.E-waste can contain more than one thousand different substances. some of which have links nationally and internationally. Used batteries are another typical solid hazardous waste generated on farms (particularly from workers houses) and may be in large quantities.166 Soil management Monoculture can affect the local ecosystem and it is therefore wise that the method of rotation crops is used. by the application of stronger and stronger chemical controls. In many rural areas where farms are located. Hazardous wastes should not be burnt or buried informally.dwa.3smedia. etc. odour. municipal dumps are located too far away for proper disposal of solid waste to be economically feasible. • Visit the websites of companies and associations mentioned under the “Role players” or contact 041 365 5030. The burning of domestic waste and informal ‘landfilling’ (dumping) is very common. website of the Department of Agriculture and Rural Development (Northern Ireland).co. • many of which are Water & Sanitation Africa – complete water resource and wastewater Long-term use of fertilisers in one area also can have negative effects and it is important to use more natural methods of restoring soil quality.g. pest or disease is likely to develop to strike it mainly because of the volumes required for disposal. New case studies explore current real-life issues encountered in natural resource management. but their effect on the environment demands improved management of these.agric. General (low-/non-hazardous) solid waste generated by homestead as well as from workers’ housing and compounds. paper. goatconnection. Solid waste generation The wastes of concern that are generated on the farm are the hazardous wastes. Plastic and PVC wastes are not necessarily hazardous unless burnt at low temperature. Farmers can control and run their own mini-municipalities by separating plastic. utilising a small mobile machines to bale refuse into is a recycling portal • Read about the South African National Waste Management Strategy Implementation Project at as adding too much can lead to destruction of the quality of the soil.) encourages a build up of scale and red spider mites in cotton. All of these require careful environmental management. this has potential environmental problems that need to be addressed. • For a list of all registered agricultural Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects across the world. and water-pollution problems. • Take a look at the Agri-environment Scheme Management Plan at www. Dust Some herbicides and pesticides remain in the upper soil layer and the dust generated during cultivation readily transports these to vulnerable and edible • Find various documents (e. • www. the disease organisms that attack that crop will build up in the area until they become uncontrollable.htm# . to click on “Project search” and to choose the “agricultural” category. Man has managed to defy this law. Find the document on www. Go to www.) on the website of the Water Research Commission. to registered. Segregation of waste streams at source is essential to allow for improved waste management. • The “Document library” at www. go to http://cdm. Soil erosion is also an environmental effect associated with poor agricultural methods. Nature abhors monoculture: inspection of natural plant and animal environments will reveal a great variety of species. cans and • A number of waste management papers can be found on www. citrus and other crops. some event. reuse and recycling options. • Toxipedia is a free toxicology encyclopedia. Websites and publications Call 012 842 4000/17 or email iaeinfo@arc. Edited and revised by F Cilliers (Pr Eng) 2009. The application of fertilisers requires good knowledge of soil. Managing Our Natural Resources William G Camp. ISBN: e. guidelines for the utilisation of agricultural bi-monthly magazine from 3S Media. However. April 2008. If one species becomes too but the pests (particularly the fast-evolving viruses) adapt very quickly to withstand each new chemical and to date the chemist has managed to keep only a short jump ahead of the disease. If the same crop is grown on a piece of land year after year after year. The Best practice reference manual for wool sheep farming in South Africa. available from the ARC Institute for Agricultural Engineering: Manure Handling in Intensive Animal Production Units in South Africa by H T Breedt (Pr Eng).za for the following publication.toxipedia.mbendi. In 2011 the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) estimated that the level of e-waste produced globally is forty million tons per year. Betty includes information on all policies and legislation related to sanitation and waste services. Burning of plastics and polystyrene must be avoided. Call 011 233 2600 or visit .nwmsi. A large portion of typical solid waste streams can be minimised through the use of reduction. brought out by the National Wool Growers Association (NWGA) includes notes on waste management along with the other information. Fluorescent lighting tubes contain mercury and are considered hazardous wastes. There are plenty of buyers for industrial refuse – refer to www. Source: Claire Janisch.ruralni. The updated fifth edition of this introductory book provides an overview of the broad field of natural resources management ranging from forestry to air quality to wildlife management to solid waste management.ewasteguide. Consider manure management and the potential for fly. Contact her at claire@geniuslab.

Source: “Calculating the deadly statistics of lightning strikes”. • Make sure animals are healthy.g. and beware of over feeding – it is expensive. dry conditions were expected: . South Africa’s rainfall is typically unreliable and unpredictable. weeks or months. It accounts for between 1. Non-productive animals easily can handle a drop in mass of 10-12% over a long period of time. etc. The digestive system of an animal must adapt to new substances or ratios with every change. Most of our clouds are caught up by the Drakensberg mountain range in the east where precipitation occurs. temperature. These range from a map of average lightning flashes per municipality and a lightning intensity-risk map to a “positive lightning” risk map. • Use expert advice in order to utilise available fodder to a maximum e. • Try not to change rations too often but keep it constant and simple. La Niña and El Niño also influence our rainfall from time to time. or the climate. with small calves etc. lactating. Weather: • Weather is the condition of the atmosphere at a specific time. with one of the highest rates of lightning strikes per square kilometre in the world. the most dangerous place to live in terms of lightning is the windward slope of the northern Drakensberg. only some 9% of rainfall reaches the rivers. and can cause expensive damage to infrastructure. Lightning SA is a severe lightning risk area. The northern Drakensberg’s “flash density” of 15/km² extends into northern KwaZulu-Natal and the Mpumalanga lowveld. and it comprises 24 sensors around the country. • Move animals to shaded/warmer areas where they can be fed. is usually described in terms of temperature.e. The climate of a place will determine what crops will succeed best in a specific region. Climate: • The average condition of the atmosphere at a place or in a region as observed over a period of at least 30 years. • Restrict the movement of animals in order to conserve energy. One reason is related to the oceans around the country. The distribution makes it possible to detect lightning flashes with a 90% predicted detection efficiency and a 0. moist air that sweeps down over the country from the North. which often end in severe floods. • Use well-balanced rations and keep to the recommendations of suppliers.5 and 8. Smaller portions but well balanced to fill needs of different production classes better. 3. below normal rainfall i. humidity. operated by the South African Weather Service. making it dry. heifers. • Always give priority to the most vulnerable animals e.5km location accuracy over most of the country. The country falls squarely within the subtropical belt of high pressure. What to do in times of drought Live stock farmers can consider the following actions to mitigate the effect of drought: • Divide your herd into production classes e. • Decrease rations of non-producing animals by providing smaller portions daily or every other day a full portion. South Africa is periodically afflicted by drastic and prolonged droughts. Source: Dr Herman Fouchè and Mr Johan van den Berg in an article originally printed in Landbouweekblad An example follows of strategies that have appeared on the DAFF monthly advisories. Agrometeorology studies the influence of climate and weather on agricultural production. Many day-to-day decisions of farmers depend on current weather conditions and how it will change over the next few days. 19 March 2012. given the prevailing climatic/weather conditions. this country has a very low average rainfall – 470mm per year. According to the data thus far collected. For example. or over a very short period of time. Another is linked to our position in the global weather and climate systems. Compared to the rest of the world. South Africa has a relatively new Lightning Detection Network. an article in Business Day. etc. 60% of South Africa’s run-off water is in rivers that flow through only 20% of the country (the eastern region). While the network is already considered useful. Because of the topography as well as the rainfall distribution. Overview South Africa is a relatively dry country.g. or what animals will best suit a specific region. precipitation and wind. The data collected from the network are used to form lightning-risk maps.West.8 deaths per million people. which is only half of the world average. As South Africa’s seasonal climate is highly variable and precarious. cloudiness and wind speed as well as wind direction).167 resources and good agricultural practice Weather and climate See also the “Climate Change” chapter in the National Issues section. we receive some rainfall from warm.g. young bulls. This water then runs down the steep side of the Drakensberg and into rivers of KwaZulu-Natal and into the sea. the Weather Service needs to collect lightning information for another three years before its data will be considered comprehensive in terms of scientific standards set by the South African Bureau of Standards. grain siftings. • It is described by various observed meteorological phenomena and measured elements (including atmospheric pressure. oxen. with an abundance of sunshine. Lightning poses a hazard to people and livestock. • Think creatively by using residues like fowl droppings (make sure animals are vaccinated against botulism). There are several explanations for the variable rainfall. in calf. • This average condition. In this case. 1. cold fronts usually bring winter rainfall. at a place. The climate varies from desert to semi-desert in the west. precipitation. • Use the available grazing and other fodder sources to good judgement between different production classes. In the South Western parts of the country. to relatively wet in the eastern parts adjacent to the Indian Ocean. 2. climate is a deciding factor in successful agricultural production. On average.


Meteorological Organisation and and to determine agricultural serves on its Executive Council. • Customised software for chilling www. Visit www. to develop early warning Affairs. International business environment The World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) is an agency of the Plastrip The Weather Shop Tel: 0861 111 696 Tel: 021 851 5134 Find the “Farmers” option under Water Research Commission “Products” Tel: 012 330 0340 www.ukzn.usda. • Weather Stations for agricultural and general use.daff. are Department of Conservation Ecology and Entomology national Training and Education Centre for Africa (DIMTEC) Tel: 051 401 2721 www. Stock farming • remove alien plants • spread water points evenly through grazing areas • first graze areas where vegetation already shed leaves • plant hardy trees/shrubs for browse • keep well-adapted breeds of livestock • provide suitable licks and make dry range grasses palatable • when conditions worsen. Climate South African Society for Atmospheric Sciences (SASAS) and Water (ARC-ISCW) www. weather related disease warnings. Role players ARC–Institute for Rain-fed crop production: • remove alien plants • adjust planting density • consider a conservative fertilising strategy • do regular and strict scouting for pests and diseases to minimise expenditure on chemical control • do not expand land under crop production unnecessarily • do not experiment with the new and unknown and avoid unnecessary capital investments • store water in wetlands and dams • reduce evaporation • encourage infiltration of storm water runoff B. used for national in co-operation with and www. systems for drought and other which reports to the said Minister.wmo. take animals to the camps and feed them • wean early and raise young animals intensively • postpone the mating period during extremely dry conditions • market surplus stocks and cull poor producers when feed resources run out • maintain young best females • control stock numbers to prevent overgrazing and to save the veld for the coming winter season • control animal diseases and parasites • feed pregnant and lactating animals better • evaluate carrying capacity of their available grazing and apply the appropriate stocking rates accordingly C. Geoinformatics and Meteorology Prof H Rautenbach Tel: 012 420 2173 Mutual & Federal Agri Tel: 012 400 8100 Weather forecasts can also be viewed on their website. maintenance and calibration of instrumentation for monitoring weather elements and soil moisture conditions. monitoring and research to quantify and qualify SAWS falls under the auspices of climatic factors. as crop The USA Department of Agriculture website has a “Weather & Climate” option. Tel: 012 310 2500 www.weathersa. Clicking on the “Publications/Reports” will give you inter alia “World Agricultural Weather Highlights”. established in Department of Water Affairs www. These are available at provides scientific training furthermore. countrywide agricultural weather station network. Visit Land Bank Insurance Company Tel: 0861 00 5242 www.dwa. International weather forecasts may be accessed www.environment. adverse climatic conditions as well It is a member of the World as coinciding pests and diseases. Forestry and Fisheries Climate Change and Disaster Management Assistant Manager (Agro-Meteorologist): Early Warning Unit.169 A. Evapo-transpiration. University of the Free State Department of Soil. developed and Stellenbosch University maintained by ARC-ISCW. to develop risk Minister of Water and Environmental Santam Agriculture Home use weather instruments Tel: 021 915 7000 For the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) University of Cape Town Natural Resources and the Climate System Analysis Group Environment (NRE) Tel: 021 650 2784 Tel: 012 841 2911 Tel: 021 808 3304 www. A department in the faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences. Visit climate potential and land suitability for specific production systems and SAWS is ISO 9001:2008 certified for the provision of meteorological enterprises. The versatile well as an NQF5 certified Weather Agromet databank as well as the Observer .com University of Pretoria Department of Department of Environmental Affairs but keep other vegetative rests on the land because that will reduce evaporation • obtain the desired seeds for the crops to be planted • check and repair all tools and machinery • consider the making of bunds or other features to increase infiltration and to reduce • irrigate during cool conditions to avoid evaporation • adhere to the water restrictions at all times as the levels of earth dams deteriorate in most areas SA Weather Service (SAWS) The ARC-ISCW’s Division: Tel: 012 367 6000 Agrometeorology undertakes www. It is governed by a Board. Dryland farming • remove alien plants • remove all weeds containing seeds. National strategy and government contact Department of with the biggest Masters Degree Programme in Disaster Management in Africa University of KwaZulu-Natal Environmental Sciences http://ses.uct. growing degree days. Crop and Climate Sciences Tel: 051 401 2212 Disaster EnviroMon Tel: 021 851 5134 www. and climatological products and The Division’s climatic data EnviroMon products and services include: • eKo Pro system for soil moisture and weather condition monitoring. Matiga Motsepe (Mr) Tel: 012 319 6768 The Directorate compiles the monthly advisories which have the strategies for farming community to apply given the current climate conditions.sasas.

co. • Visit www. downstream water users. They are hardworking ecosystems that provide us with a range of benefits. Through natural processes in their soils and plants. • South African Weather and Atmospheric Phenomena (Briza Publications) Dries van Zyl. Over time. The National Wetland Inventory has mapped over wetlands. including ecosystem services provided by wetlands.weatherphotos. Nature provides robust and free technology. and contribute to more stable stream flow throughout the year.daff. • Hectare for hectare. 2. they are a key part of the answer. Visit or call 011 025 4388. specialised and are important refuges for specialised plants and wildlife. • The statement from the Department of Agriculture is available on their website every month – www.awn. which we should recognise. healthy wetlands play an important role in keeping people healthy.briza.170 7. Find it at can provide a weather forecast for your farm. fascinating and dynamic. DAFF’s monthly advice to farmers can also be viewed here. They are valuable assets to farmers. • The Best practice reference manual for wool sheep farming in South Africa. For those who get their water from building and craft materials to people. www.landbou.kejafa. Then. satellite photos or daily rainfall graphics. They can also trap many heavy metals including cadmium. Wetlands are uniquely designed to purify water through natural processes. such as bulrushes and reeds. This results in the sediments and nutrients in the water being deposited. there is more life in a healthy wetland than in almost any other habitat.agric. so does the pressure to provide adequate sanitation and grazing. respect and protect. Menu options include Two Day Forecast as well as current weather and graphical presentations. • Contact Kejafa Knowledge Works for publications on weather and Different wetland types supply different ecosystem services including provision of clean water and carbon storage. healthy wetlands in river systems contribute significantly to reducing the cost of purifying water. especially for the most vulnerable members of society. What is a wetland? Wetlands are areas in the landscape where the water in rivers and streams slows down and spreads out.6% of South Africa’s surface area. • www. which is essential for human health. They also reduce the damaging impacts of • Call 011 954 4675 or visit www. • In providing these ecosystem services. The answer to our looming water crisis does not lie only in complex and expensive engineering solutions. floods and compromised • The Norwegian website www. • Websites of companies involved with agriculture usually have some menu option to do with weather – Find the climate advisories and other information relevant to weather and climate. Although wetlands are not the only solution for clean water.agis. and wetland soils and microbes stabilise and store or use many pollutants including excess nutrients and toxins from sewage and agricultural chemicals and They supply wild food. Where people use water directly from natural sources such as rivers. wetlands play a strong role in keeping people healthy. senwes. reeds. wetland plants. South Africa’s water resources are already well utilised and in many areas show signs of stress because of high demand. acting like the kidneys of the landscape. If we protect healthy wetlands and rehabilitate those that have been degraded. they slow down water flow and this allows sediments in the water to be deposited. communities living nearby and larger society. zinc and mercury that result from mining and industrial processes. Wetlands and water Wetlands play an important role in ensuring a steady supply of clean if you need information or photos of weather patterns. The roots of some wetland plants secrete toxic substances that kill some pathogenic bacteria. .nwga. • As urbanisation Overview • Wetlands are complex. This helps reduce the possibility of excess nutrient enrichment downstream. In urban areas they are important green spaces. we can reduce suffering due to droughts. help to control erosion.netfor. brought out by the National Wool Growers Association (NWGA) includes useful notes on managing your flock in times of drought. wetlands aid in improving water quality. Firstly. – Weather forecasting for South and www. ranging greatly in size and value and accounting for about 3. Websites and publications • The website of the South African Weather Service can be accessed at www. www. wetlands become fertile areas that provide good habitat for plants (bulrushes. insects etc).za for the following publications are available from Bryan Peirce at discounted prices: -0Weather & Climate Southern Africa (Tyson & Preston-Whyte) -0SA Weather and Atmospheric Phenomena (van Zyl) -0Dictionary of the weather (Dunlop) -0SASOL Field Guide to the Weather in Southern Africa Useful numbers • Climate Information and data Tel: 082 233 8484 • Pretoria Central Forecasting Office Tel: 082 233 9800 resources and good agricultural practice Wetlands 1. including some that are not immediately or contact 041 365 5030. Find the document on www.g. waterlilies and sedges) and a range of creatures (e.

Typha capensis. a unique wetland plant. aquatic snails. Twenty one percent of animal protein in Africa comes from fish and in South Africa many communities depend on fish from freshwater lakes and rivers as well as estuaries and coastal shores. In Kosi Bay in Maputaland. insects. moist soils that are ideal for farming. which makes it valuable in a semi-arid country like South Africa. several key tourism industries are based on wetlands. leaving wetlands as the only sites available for subsistence farming. About 40. bullfrogs and cane rats are popular eating in many areas. especially in rural areas. the destruction of wetlands has further reduced the natural landscape’s ability to manage normal spikes in rain or drought cycles. Special wetland soils such as peat are highly effective water stores and filters. Ikhowe and Thubaleth’elihle. In this extremely poor and HIV/Aids impacted region. People have sustainable livelihoods if they can use available resources to earn a living without irreversibly depleting those resources. craft sales are becoming more important as a means for rural households to earn hard cash. wetlands also provide many people with a livelihood. and its leaves are eaten like spinach. the wetlands are the only source of food and income and altogether about 70% of the local people use the wetlands in some way. These fish are also important for subsistence fishers. Often it is poor people. They also provide feeding. storing water when it rains. On a subsistence level. As the interest in indigenous fibre products grows. some wetlands can provide up to five times more grazing than terrestrial grasslands. Wetlands provide good. arthropods. In addition to contributing to the life-support services that sustain us. Estuaries are important nurseries and breeding grounds for many economically important marine fish species. depend on these ecosystems for secure spawning sites. Some animals are completely dependant on wetlands. the Wattled crane is dependant on wetlands for breeding. these benefits range from wild food and grazing to materials for building and crafts. Some wetlands also play a role in recharging groundwater. are made into waterblommetjie bredie which is eaten widely in the Western Cape. the highly productive estuary is criss-crossed with traditional reed fish kraals which trap large adult fish as the tide goes out. Common crops such as cabbages are grown on the edges of wetlands and there are also some plants such as amadumbe that are grown in wetter soils. Foods can be harvested from wetlands. Where palmiet. lamp shades and place mats to home supply stores and lodges. Read more about the iSimangaliso Wetland Park at www. A variety of wetland grasses are used as well as grassland and forest species such as ilala palm. or a means of earning a living. the edges of wetlands provide organic-rich.171 Wetlands also act like sponges. For example. especially in rural areas. the iSimangaliso Wetland Park Authority is helping about 200 women sell products such as blinds. rivers frequently become highly sedimented and their banks are gouged out by unchecked floodwaters. helping to ensure steady river flow. whilst others use wetlands for only part of their lives. and many other species are dependent on estuaries for feeding and shelter. Even in urban areas they are important refuges for small mammals. slowing down flood waters. However. There are also many edible wetland plants in South Africa.isimangaliso. On a mainstream economic level. In Mbongolwane in northern KwaZulu-Natal. Subsistence farming in wetlands In many rural communities produce from subsistence agriculture helps ensure that people have adequate nutrition. Because they are generally flatter areas of marshy ground with reeds or other tall dense plants. or means of earning a living. The rich diversity of waterbirds in southern Africa (totalling 130 species) is possible because of the many different types of wetlands across the sub-continent. are dried and ground. about a third of household income is derived from the sale of crafts woven from fibre harvested from wetlands. nutritious food for livestock and in fact. Some 20 such species. most households are headed by women who may each care for up to nine children. They support plants and animals that are specially adapted to waterlogged environments and can live nowhere else. both providing a rich source of protein. Rehabilitation of the Craigieburn wetlands contributes to food and livelihoods security in the area by protecting the wetlands that are used for subsistence agriculture. Nymphae nouchali. Often it is poor people. Although much of the destructive impact of floods is related to people building their homes or roads in floodplains or farming too close to rivers and wetlands. and hippo’s use wetlands as a daytime refuge. many of whom are orphans. earning about R200 000 annually. Many South African wetlands are used sustainably for low-density subsistence agriculture and sensitive grazing but most are not suitable for large-scale agriculture. with the surplus sold. roosting and breeding sites for a range of other species. reptiles and amphibians are eaten widely. it is important that wetlands are grazed wisely and that they are protected from overtrampling and degradation. The wetlands of southern Africa are of international importance as they are the southern destination for many migratory wading birds. Food from wetlands In addition to contributing to the life support services that sustain us. Its corms are eaten like potatoes and in fact make a much tastier alternative. In Maputaland. Purification and provision of clean water have enormous health benefits which in turn have economic and social impacts. Life in wetlands Wetlands are warehouses of biodiversity. The same is true in places such as Craigieburn in Mpumalanga where forced resettlement in the 1960’s and 1970’s resulted in large numbers of people occupying small areas of land. Production is home-based. has been removed from wetlands. most of it for family consumption. they force river waters to slow down and spread out. the white. . sweet-smelling flowers of waterblommetjies. which is roasted like potato. in some cases being the backbone of local economies. For about 25% of the villagers living around Craigieburn. milk from cattle and meat from household chickens and goats are often the most important food for many families. Vegetables from home gardens. Peat is able to hold a thousand times its own weight in water. Cane rats prefer semi-aquatic environments in marshes and reedbeds. which are exploited commercially and recreationally. Palmiet wetlands are good examples of ecosystems that can effectively reduce the impact of floods. both wild and cultivated. For example. Another indigenous vegetable is the tuber of the blue water lily. and then releasing it slowly during the dry season. In South Africa. nuts and leafy vegetables. to be eaten like cereal meal and swamp forests yield various fruits. In places such as Maputaland where the soils are sandy and lack nutrients. Fish is probably the most obvious wetland food and is a significant wetland contributor to human health.000 kg of fish is caught every year in this area. Aponogeton distachyos. file covers and corporate gifts. they must be used About 70 women from two craft groups. who are most directly dependent on wetlands for at least part of their livelihoods. who are most directly dependent on wetlands for their livelihoods. sustainably harvest wetland reeds such as induma and ikwane for conference bags. Wetlands and livelihoods People have a long and intimate association with wetlands. wetlands also provide many people with a livelihood. The rhizomes of bulrushes. In many parts of the world small mammals. Wetlands and floods Healthy wetlands help to reduce the impact of fast-flowing floods. If the livelihoods benefits that wetlands provide are to be sustainable. birds and amphibians. This means that much of the multi-million rand fishing industries that employ thousands of people indirectly rely on coastal wetlands to sustain the fish stocks that they exploit.

(slender pineapple flower). Wetlands are also a source of water-related diseases. including provision of clean water. timber plantations and urban development. Disa polygonoides. The general rule is that wetland users should not substantially disrupt the basic fabric of the wetland. is found along the eastern coastline from the Eastern Cape to southern Mozambique. cholera. support small businesses. This has resulted in higher water quality for downstream users than would be the case had there been no wetlands. If in doubt about the impact of agricultural activities on wetlands. Zantedeschia aethiopica. This means that they are vulnerable to diseases associated with polluted water. the plants. Using wetlands on your farm Wetlands provide specific agricultural opportunities – mainly winter grazing and some opportunities for cropping and fibre harvesting. Other disease management options. and every year 28 million South Africans use about 19. headaches. Urginea macrocentra (poison snake-head) is found in marshy ground near streams and treats roundworm and tapeworm. wetlands reduce the risk of contact between wild and domesticated birds such as chickens. 4. Forestry and Fisheries protects wetlands and encourages their rehabilitation. urinary complaints. and international and South African experience has shown that it is possible to recover some of the health and values of degraded wetlands through rehabilitation. But where the pollution concentration is low. Direct impacts include draining wetlands for pastures and crops. but many beneficial ecosystem services are lost in the process. Wetlands and disease In South Africa. but this has to be managed carefully to avoid overgrazing and degradation. the Wattled crane. But degradation is not necessarily permanent. The Programme is managed by the South African National Biodiversity Institute (SANBI) on behalf of the departments of Environmental Affairs (DEA). and Manulea parviflora (pepper and salt) is used as a natural enema for children with intestinal disorders. Eucomis comosa. Rehabilitating wetlands The health and well-being of people depends on maintaining healthy ecosystems. the wetland is less able to reduce the damaging impact of floods. is used to treat rheumatism.500 tons of medicinal plant material. which consists of the elements of soil. It is through the interaction between these elements that wetlands are able to generate the range of functions and products that benefit people. The honey disa. Each year. wounds and pain. the peatlands of the Klip River in southern Johannesburg have absorbed the pollution of 150 years of gold mining in the western Witwatersrand. Working for Wetlands Working for Wetlands uses wetland rehabilitation as a vehicle for both poverty alleviation and the wise use of wetlands. hepatitis A and bilharzia. Many waterbird populations have declined because of wetland degradation e. and vegetation loss also increases erosion risks. The wetlands of the Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal yield the river pumpkin. For example. soils and microbes in wetlands help to reduce disease-causing organisms and pollutants. Because of the concentration of the pollution and the destruction of water resources such as wetlands. it might mean reduced water quality. especially in areas of the country where soils are unsuitable for agriculture. and clearing of wetland vegetation such as reeds and palmiet should be avoided. For example. 3 million people die each year from illnesses caused by contaminated water. Wetlands are vulnerable to a range of impacts that reduce their ability to continue providing their beneficial services to people. 16 million people have no reticulated sanitation and five million people have no access to potable water. Water Affairs and Agriculture. and is used to restore the voice after an illness. A hectare of wetland may have the potential to support the grazing of up to five times more animals than a hectare of terrestrial grassland. The following guidelines are intended to improve the sustainability of wetlands that are already being cultivated. or even a reduced supply. Wetlands provide fertile beds for crops. Rehabilitation projects maximise employment creation. excessive water abstraction. Working for Wetlands forms part of the Expanded Public Works Programme (EPWP) which seeks to draw unemployed people into the productive sector of South Africa’s economy. throat ulcers. crops that can tolerate wet conditions can be planted in the less sensitive parts of the wetland and on the edges of the wetland. If a wetland is transformed in a way that compromises its ability to function. over 40 wetland rehabilitation projects throughout South Africa provide temporary jobs and training for about 2. water and vegetation. and – importantly – good management of wetlands. dysentery. as well as infrastructure loss from more destructive flood impacts. Experience has shown that when wetland vegetation is cleared. which is widespread in wetlands throughout the country.172 Medicine from wetlands In South Africa traditional medicine is the preferred primary health care choice for about 70% of people. loss of vegetation cover. which is used to ease childbirth and treat kidney and bladder infections. There are also severe ongoing impacts from pollution and erosion in catchments. Everyone is affected when wetlands are degraded. those who rely on wetlands for their livelihoods lose important benefits. In urban areas. with the work teams made up of 60% women. In some major catchments. Wetland rehabilitation is the action taken to reverse or halt the decline of the health of the ecosystem. are used to treat headaches and as a poultice. it is recommended that you contact the relevant agricultural authority or extension workers from the Mondi Wetlands Programme for assistance. Degradation of these wetlands not only reduced their ability to purify water. but also resulted in the release of trapped pollutants. as well as more recent industrial and urban pollution. The conversion of healthy wetlands for cropping is not encouraged. agriculture and sewage. But wetlands are not suitable for large-scale or commercial cultivation. Draining wetlands may be able to help control malaria in some areas. Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) and Water Affairs (DWA). Wetlands support a great diversity of plant species. 3. natural systems are unable to cope. As important waterbird habitats. and building infrastructure such as roads that impede and concentrate water flow. and as rural areas degrade.000 people from marginalised groups. . Water quality in rivers is reduced by pollution from mining and industrial processes. improved sanitation. those people are forced to relocate to cities. and opportunities for improving household food security through small-scale and subsistence cultivation. and thereby substantially reduce the risk of spreading avian flu. some of which are used in traditional medicines. In rural areas. and transfer relevant and marketable skills to workers. agriculture. 20% youth and 1% people with disabilities. gaining skills while they work and increasing their capacity to earn income. Gunnera perpensa. following an approach that centres on co-operative governance and partnerships. they provide habitat for the species that transmit malaria and bilharzia. up to 60% of the wetlands are already lost or severely degraded because of mining. Wetlands in heavily industrialised parts of the country are irreplaceable as water purifiers. it may lose its ability to provide these valuable services. For example. Legislation of the departments of Environmental Affairs. Worldwide. Ranunculus multifidus (common buttercup) is used to treat coughs. The leaves of the white arum lily. and farming in wetlands is sustainable only if it is undertaken on a very small scale and in a way that is sensitive to the hydrology and other workings of the wetland. including diarrhoea. With funding provided by DEA and DWA. climate change and land use change. Preventable water-borne diseases most affect children under five years old.g. Agriculture. should also be considered. The Programme creates jobs while rehabilitating wetlands and enhancing biodiversity.

making them susceptible to erosion. away from the permanently saturated areas. when weather conditions are consistently unsuitable or if winter breeding animals (e. so it is critical to follow the correct approach. sweet (or highly nutritional) grasses to be replaced by less palatable or useful species.g. Useful tips if you are planting in wetlands: • Select crops that do not need much artificial drainage or dry soils to survive. This means that each bed rests for two years in between plantings. but this is dependent on many factors such as species composition and the wetness cycles. • You can burn the wetland about every second year if the rainfall is more than 800 mm per year. because if the wetland soils have a high organic content. divide your wetland into burning blocks and burn only half of each block. • Watch carefully for overgrazing and find out how to correctly graze a wetland. • Because of the risks of flooding and soil loss you should plant at the outside edges of the wetland. • It’s a good idea to use cool fires. or the protective plant cover of the wetland will be removed resulting in erosion and the drying out of the wetland. (e. • Don’t allow heavy grazing without any rest periods. • All drains should be blocked in the dry season to keep the wetland alive. especially with very hot fires at the wrong time of year. and improving habitat for wetland dependant species. reduce water quality and increase soil loss. Burning wetlands Wetlands are burnt for many reasons. soil erosion sets in. Where this is not practical. Amadumbe and certain indigenous pastures are good choices. • If you can. What you should do if you are grazing in a wetland: • Use wetlands for grazing mainly in the dry season so that cattle do not churn up very wet soils. • Keep cattle on the outer edges of a wetland. • Burn at the beginning of the growing season. say three. wetland forage quality can be improved by judicious burning. Wise grazing Productivity levels in wetlands are high although the quality of forage produced by wetland plants is typically low. where you burn and the conditions under which you burnt so that you can improve your burning techniques and share the knowledge with your neighbours. • Try to plant with minimum disturbance. Burn every third or fourth year if you are in a very dry part of the country (less than 800 mm per year). This can cause erosion points that eventually develop into dongas which drain the water out of the wetland. • Extremely hot slow moving fires can even kill wetland plant root systems. • Don’t allow cattle into the wettest part of the wetland where they can cause disturbance to the highly sensitive ‘core’ of the wetland. This may cause valuable. This will destroy the vegetation.g. With no protective cover. when to graze. and a permit is required from the relevant agricultural department for cultivating in wetlands. • Use the wetland plants that you clear away as a mulch to cover the soil. burning can have unintended negative consequences. • Keep records of when you burn. • Use as little fertiliser and pesticides as possible. especially in the wet season. because this will affect the natural properties of the system and destroy many of the other benefits provided by the wetland. • Prevent overgrazing and over trampling. • Avoid the following kinds of wetlands for grazing because they erode easily when disturbed by trampling and grazing: wetlands with loose soil. • Patchwork cultivation is a good idea. It is possible to plant some types of crops in wetlands in such a way that does not affect the functioning of the wetland. rather than right in the middle or in the lowest part of the wetland. A drain in a wetland is like pulling the plug out of a bath of water and results in the severe drying out of the wetland such that loses its ability to provide many of its benefits. burn one entire wetland and leave the others unburnt. Hot fires may also kill off certain plants and change the range of different plants that grow in the wetland. Some examples of agricultural wise use include: • limited livestock grazing • controlled water extraction such as watering animals and a little irrigation • careful cropping without digging too many drains What actions to avoid in a wetland The following are guaranteed to impact negatively on your wetlands: • Don’t dig large drains (deeper or wider than 30cm) in a wetland. and often get stuck. What you shouldn’t do: • Do not allow grazing in the rainy season or when the ground is very wet because cattle may disturb the soil surface through trampling. This allows for the unburnt part to provide refuge for wildlife. Burning needs also depend on grazing pressure. which results in decreased water quality and increased risk of erosion. this means you leave patches of natural wetland vegetation in between cultivated patches. If the wetland is grazed to its carrying capacity then you need to burn less frequently or even not at all. Dig only as much as is absolutely necessary. and resting periods). If done incorrectly.173 Use our wetlands wisely Good burning tips: The concept of wise use thus requires an approach to management through which benefits can be enjoyed without changing the natural functioning of the wetland. which can reduce its usefulness for grazing. • Delay burning to another day or even year if in dry years there is a danger of soil ignition. Wattled cranes) have not completed breeding. The productivity of wetlands plants can be exploited for grazing.5 times higher than in an equivalent area of non-wetland. reduce the diversity of plant species and may result in erosion. reducing the risk of run-away fires. just after the first rains so that plants can regrow quickly. • Never burn a wetland when it is totally dry. and only plant one each year. • A good idea is to have a number of beds. What you shouldn’t do: • Avoid burning in early winter. • Burn with the wind as this is more controllable and less damaging to plant growth points. because these will seep into the water and can be polluting. . • Don’t let animals overgraze. Plant by hand. or in the evenings or early mornings after dew. Planting of crops in a wetland should never involve the draining and planting of the entire wetland with crops. carrying capacity. Nevertheless. On average the grazing capacity (biomass) in the outer zones of a wetland is 1. so burn when the grass is moist after rain. on steeper slopes and where water starts concentrating into a channel. Cultivation in wetlands is regulated by the Conservation of Agricultural Resources Act (CARA). Planting crops in a wetland One of the controversial agricultural uses for wetlands is for the cultivation of crops. this can result in underground fires that are difficult to control and potentially last years. for how long. • Plant no more than one quarter of a wetland in total. including improving the grazing value for livestock by removing old dead plant material and increasing productivity. • Avoid burning your wetland every year. • If you are going to dig drains make sure they are no more than 30cm deep and wide and cover only a small area so that the wetland does not dry out completely. controlling alien plants. and you have a few wetlands near each other.

com Aurecon is a multi-disciplinary consultancy with specialisation in a vast number of water resource and environmental fields. • Don’t clear big areas to Stellenbosch University Department of Conservation Ecology and Entomology Tel: 021 808 3728 www. especially exotic trees that consume a lot of Outdoor activities such as Creek. Lake projects in the area. • Never drain a wetland near its outlet. limited environmental impact and constructability associated with the unique challenges encountered whilst working in wetlands. Here the success of tourism justifies the 1996 government decision to adopt a tourism-based economic development strategy for the region. Aurecon’s design approach is flexible enough to cater for the needs of labour-intensive www.174 What you should not do: • Don’t plant trees in Role players The Wetland Portal of South Africa. • Don’t plant in the wettest parts of the wetland. Lake St forested wetlands are lucrative tourist destinations. Department of Zoology and Entomology The Isimangaliso Wetland Park was Tel: 051 401 2427 listed as South Africa’s first World For South African National Biodiversity Institute (SANBI) Working for Wetlands John Dini (Programme Director) Tel: 012 843 5221 wetlands@sanbi. . Wildlife and Grassland Sciences forest. wetlands supporting endangered species such as Wattled Endangered Wildlife Trust (EWT) African Crane Conservation Programme (EWT-ACCP) Tel: 011 372 3600 kerrynm@ewt. Coastal Department because they will dry out the wetland. Aurecon Tel: 021 526 5725 / 083 792 0872 Heritage Site in December 1999. the economy of the town Wakkerstroom in Mpumalanga is built on birdwatching around the Wakkerstroom wetland and surrounding area.wetlands. Plant and Environmental Sciences Tel: 011 717 6403 kevin.randwater. The University of the Free State is actively involved in the Lesotho Wetlands Project as part of the University’s Water management in water-scarce areas Strategic Academic 5. An agri-tourism possibility? Wetlands offer delightful open spaces that people can visit to million) from Tel: 051 401 2514 the World Bank for empowerment Centre for Environmental Managment Land Resources International Prof Maitland Seaman Tel: 033 392 8360 Tel: 051 401 2863 www. National policy and legislation provides clear direction and support for rehabilitation. in preference to mining.wrc. boating. As habitats for wildlife such as waterbirds. The “Wetlands Basics” link gives news of booklets explaining aspects of wetlands. Rand Water Foundation Mohlatleho Sekoaila Tel: 011 682 0018 www. Wetlands Consulting Services (Pty) Ltd Tel: 012 349 2699 http://wetlands. and help to stave off mental illnesses such as www. especially landowners and wetland users. www. • Avoid using chemicals that will contaminate the surface or groundwater. In 2010 it received a US9 million Department of Plant Sciences grant (about • Mondi Wetlands Programme website – Wetlands such as mangroves and rocky shores are popular for school GroundTruth Tel: 033 342 6399 Mondi Wetlands Programme David Lindley – 012 667 6597 birdwatch or just enjoy being in University of KwaZulu-Natal Biological & Conservation Sciences Tel: 031 260 7367 Water Wise Tel: 0860 10 10 60 www. but the very complex links between people and wetlands means that actions aimed at sustainably rehabilitating and conserving wetlands will depend on the dedication and commitment of all stakeholders. They are fascinating outdoor classrooms where learners can interact with the elements of the ecosystem and see first hand how they are Department of Water Affairs (DWA) Tel: 0800 200 200 Find the regional contacts on the website Water Research Commission Stanley Liphadzi Tel: 012 330 0340 stanleyl@wrc. General Information about wetlands and several resources can be found Find wetland notes (including material for educators) under the “Green Industry” option. • Avoid sensitive wetland areas: wetlands with high erosion rory@nuwejaars. skills iSimangaliso Wetland Park Tel: 035 590 1633 / 082 797 7944 University of the Witwatersrand Animal.wetcs.geomeasure. Always leave suitable buffer zones between timber plantations and www. Websites and publications • Visit the Wetland Portal of South Africa at Water Institute of South Africa Tel: 011 805 3537 wisa@wisa. Isimangaliso consists of Kosi Bay. Charters Sodwana South African National Parks (SANParks) Marius Snyders Tel: 015 781 2175 / 072 201 7936 Olga Jacobs Tel: 012 426 5100 / 046 Try to leave as much original vegetation in place as you can to protect the soil and underlying water. birding and watersports all contribute to improving our lifestyles and mental well-being. Department of Environmental Affairs (DEA) Tel: 012 310 3911 www. • Never dig deep drains to dry out a wetland or you could destroy the structure and functioning of the wetland. False Bay. Lake St Lucia in the iSimangaliso Wetland Park in KwaZulu-Natal is another example. hippo’s and angling fish. provides contact details of wetland provincial/regional forums across the country.environment. wetland areas on the margins of estuaries and wetlands in catchments and landscapes where lots of damage has been done to other wetlands already.aurecongroup.ufs. Tel: 051 401 2677 Wetlands and agriculture: Damian Walters – 083 684 8000 Wetlands and catchment management: Vaughan Koopman – 083 228 7949 www. • Working for Wetlands Website – Department of Wildlife & Environment Society of South Africa – see Mondi Wetlands Programme Cape Vidal and Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) Directorate: Land Use and Soil Geomeasure Group Management Tel: 031 768 1900 Tel: 012 319 7686 Nuwejaars Wetland Special Management Area dirk@nuwejaars.nuwejaars.

• Porcupine can cause relatively large damage when crops like watermelon and pumpkins are targeted. will add new tools to the WET-Management Department of Agriculture. pangolins) poisoned or maimed inadvertently in a battle that has very little to do with them. John Dini.175 • • • • • or requested from 012 843 5221 or wetlands@sanbi. Iran in 1971. which is being undertaken by the University of Cape Town. The research programme’s second phase. visit www. Retief Grobler.wrc. The Ramsar Convention on Wetlands is an inter-governmental treaty that provides a framework for national action and international cooperation for the conservation and wise use of wetlands and their resources. The WET Management Series is the product of the Wetland Rehabilitation component of the National Wetlands Research Programme.html. some tools are used to assess wetland health and ecosystem services. Land Resources International. One farmer believes that the situation is out of control.ramsar. feels LISTENED to. • If the animal was killed by a predator. but the animal damages a new one every night. Others can be used to foster wise wetland management and develop understanding of the driving forces behind the formation and degradation of wetlands. The first phase of this programme. the following are also role players in humanwildlife conflict scenarios: • Leopard and Cheetah (the latter not wearing a TOYOTA T-shirt) • Hyena and Wild Dog • Pachyderms – included are the elephant. You feel Kerry Philp.sanbi. Forestry and Fisheries. livestock on which his own livelihood depends. It is available online on the CSIR website or can be ordered from the Water Research Commission. • Birds can descend in hundreds (or quelea in millions) on planted crops such as corn. Prevention is better than cure – refer to www. Dick Frost. through the Working for Wetlands programme housed by the South African National Biodiversity Institute. an initiative of the Water Research Commission. The value of losses per annum is estimated by small stock producer organisations to be at least three times as much as that caused by stock theft. the black-backed jackal (Canis mesomelas) and caracal (Caracal caracal). buck. For further information about the WET Management Series. Isimangaliso Wetland Park Sharon Pollard and Scotty Stanley Tshitwamulomoni. You can also subscribe to a monthly electronic newsletter with regular updates on happenings in the wetlands world. but this misses the Information for this chapter was supplied by the Mondi Wetlands Programme (MWP).iwmi. this set of integrated tools can be applied to a wide range of other The National Freshwater Ecosystem Priority Areas Atlas is a HUGE document with lots and lots of maps of freshwater rivers and wetlands that need to be protected. the University of KwaZulu-Natal. with some roleplayers placing the value of livestock losses to Damage Causing Animals somewhere past the R1 billion or Working for Wetlands at wetlands@sanbi. For example. Wetland Health and Integrity. though the warthog is diurnal and the bushpig nocturnal. make an informed assessment to determine which one. The capture or killing of these intelligent social animals is complicated and should be done by professionals.ewt. Pontso Pakkies and Umesh Bahadur for feedback. bat eared foxes. It is important that the farmer who has lost livestock on the farm to predators. Other key partners include the Department of Water Affairs. universities and private enterprise. It is easy for the urbanite to have an opinion after seeing a television programme on a Sunday evening. resources and good agricultural practice Wildlife on farms 1. was jointly funded by the Commission and the Department of Environmental Affairs. They are also of enormous value for education and training. aardvark. Working for Wetlands. provincial conservation agencies. He faces a cunning adversary. For information and documents relating to Ramsar and for a list of Wetlands of International • Dogs – lack of control of domestic dogs by owners can cause huge stock losses. a witness to a world that passes unseen by humanity’s schedules and timetables. There are many differing theories and beliefs on this topic – and a lot of emotion! While we look for solutions. Mondi Wetlands Programme. Find the 2012 National Biodiversity Assessment (NBA) giving an overview of the country’s wetland system at bgis. It was signed in Ramsar. and Wetland Consulting Services. WET Management Series Although designed primarily for guiding wetland rehabilitation work in South Africa. Source: Tim Snow (EWT). sunflower.primatecare. let us spare a thought for the many “discreet” wild animals (rabbits. Donovan Rehana Dada. thereby wasting more than is eaten. the Secretariat of the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands. In addition to the usual suspects. Overview Chancing across a steenbok on your farm can lead to a sense of mystery and fascination. hippo and rhinos • Wild pigs – the damage and tracks of the warthog and bushpig are very Predation: Damage Causing Animals Livestock loss due to predators is at present the biggest threat towards sustainable economic livestock production in South Africa. The damage varies from rooting out newly planted crops to pushing over mature maize plants to feed on the focusing on wetland rehabilitation. Our thanks to John Dini (Programme Director at Working for Wetlands). The series is published by the Water Research Commission : www. The figure has been disputed by some. then decide on the correct and relevant control method to be employed. Find the guidelines which cover the consideration of wetlands in the EIA process at www. Roland Vorwerk. The presence of wildlife on farms is not always as discreet or innocent. Agriculture and Poverty Reduction (August 2011) report on the International Water Management Institute website – www. vineyard and fruit trees. the EIA Toolkit website. Find the Wetlands. South Africa is a member country and has recognised and registered 19 wetlands as being of international importance. Identification of Damage Causing Animals • The first step at a carcass is crucial: determine whether the animal was killed by a predator or only scavenged (dead animals do not bruise). an enemy who adapts to his every device! Another farmer selects a combination of the control measures available and believes that losses are limited to acceptable • Baboon and Vervet monkey cause damage to crops like maize and various fruit and vegetable kinds. Contributors: Craig Cowden.cgiar. please contact Donovan Kotze at kotzed@ukzn.eiatoolkit. The size of the commodity is such that it won’t be totally consumed in one night. Duncan Hay. . with proposals to increase that list.

whilst the same method applied by the same trapper may be highly successful elsewhere. This works best for an enclosure close to the farm house. Unfortunately.jackal. protection and aversion. Many leopards.176 Cage traps / Live traps Correct approach to Damage Causing Wild Animals a) What animal is responsible for the damage? b) How much damage can be ascribed to this individual? c) In which areas of the property does the most damage occur? d) During which season or growth phase does the most damage occur? e) Which mitigation measures can be implemented to prevent or reduce damage? f) Are the proposed management methods ecologically acceptable and legal in terms of applicable legislation? g) Are the proposed management methods humane and ethically acceptable? Source: Co-operative Agreement between the Predator Management Forum (Western-Cape) and the Western Cape Nature Conservation Board 3.protect-alamb. many animals die of thirst and starvation in these traps since they are not always monitored.e. Collars and technology Call HOTSURE for livestock monitors and track collars. Alpacas Alpacas have a strong herding instinct and will run an intruder down. so after a while even the best trapper may have declining success with a method in a particular area. • fences interfere with biodiversity. • thousands of innocent animals every year are electrocuted against the electric fences. As a management This is the recommended way of removing any animal from an area –traps have been designed and developed by Mr Jaco van Deventer of CapeNature. Find notes on www. Visit www. those which control by prevention. • Haphazard measures are not worth it. If you were to remove all predators. for example. Role players can advise on where fences would be most effective. • the maintenance of fencing can be expensive and a constant use of man or call 0861HOTCALL (468225). breeding partners. would encourage smaller ones like caracals. alarm monitors. Find contacts in the “Speciality fibre production” chapter. because animals avoid or escape from poorly set traps and controls and this will often make matters worse. Landmark Foundation Leopard and Caracal Trap Designs are available from the Landmark Foundation. Donkeys Donkeys can be very effective at chasing away predators and other intruders. Find the notes on www. CelMax “Veldwagter” SMS Warning System – speak to Phillip Lotter at 028 212 3346 or visit www. Objections to fencing include: • an insecure enclosure may allow predator access. Frightening devices These may include lights and noises. used to frighten and confuse predators away from kraals . shelter. and non-lethal i. There is no guarantee that you will get the particular individual who has caused the livestock depredation.cheetah. guard monitors and trackers etc. such as FM radios and VHF radio alarms systems. Consult a role player or a farming colleague with experience in working with guarding dogs before taking on a • The Ann van Dyk Cheetah Centre – 012 504 9906 / 083 892 0515 • Bool Smuts (Landmark Foundation) – 083 324 3344 • Nic Slabber – 082 603 2229 • Grootfontein Agricultural Development Institute (GADI) – 049 842 1113 • The EWT’s Wildife Conflict Mitigation Programme – 011 372 3600 / 072 640 9388 / 082 853 1068 Buffer species Like most suggested “solutions”. and certainly recommended above the more indiscriminate methods. Predation: control methods • You could kill 10 jackal in one night without getting rid of the actual culprit causing the • Damage causing animals get to know the devices and tricks used by farmers. Interfering in one part has knock-on effects throughout. which can result in livestock being trapped and more than one animal being killed. Success will be measured by reduced losses and increased profits. Anatolian Shepherd Dogs This method is vouched for by many. they kill animals. Tel: 083 324 • Bell collar • Bell and scent collar • Toxic collars target only the damage causing individual. Related to this is the caution to interfere as little as possible with the biodiversity on the Their presence acts as a “buffer” between your livestock and predators. It also enables tracking via GPS collars facilitating groundbreaking research into the management of livestock by their owners. Live traps have been effective tools for research projects and enable farmers to trap leopards or caracul without injuries for re-release either in their own original territories or for translocation. Fencing By building predator-proof fences. caracals and other species have been captured unharmed using these. There are many control methods to choose from with a clear distinction between those which are lethal i. fencing is cheaper than potential continued or call 021 881 3242. Alpacas are 24-hour watch guards and are of particular value around lambing season provided they are introduced 6-8 weeks prior to lambing. Here. the predators are kept apart from livestock. lives traps are devices that merely contain animals without causing any major injuries. Find contact details in the “Fencing” chapter. A plan for a Game Proof Predator Fence is also obtainable from Dr Bool Smuts. Denning This is when the young are removed from dens. Refer to the “Donkey” chapter.celmax. a gradual abundance of rodents would be one result. Role players include: • The Cheetah Outreach runs an Anatolian Shepherd programme. since they are a preferred snack. this has also been disputed. not by numbers of predator skins in the shed. but issues relating to Anatolians have been raised. Removing the largest predator (say leopards).e. of course. The idea though is to encourage indigenous prey species like springbok and guinea Call 022 931 2900. Other collars: • “Dead Stop Collar” – Klaas Louw at 072 424 7752 • “King Collar” – Gray King at 046 685 0645 • Protect-A-Lamb – Eddie Steenkamp at 023 418 1676 www. The control equipment should be seen as a toolbox from which the correct tool is selected for the varying applications. Animals are cut off from food. Call and shoot The advantage is that it is target species specific.

2010. Poison It is important to note that agricultural poisons may only be used as prescribed on the label. SA Mohair Growers’ Association (SAMGA) and Wildlife Ranching SA (WRSA).org • Defenders of Wildlife (USA) – www. 1084 of the Government Gazette Nr. • The Rare and Endangered Species Trust (REST) in Namibia – www. Rob Harrison-White “The use of non-lethal methods should always be considered. Thys de Wet Many farmers are developing new. When poison targets only the damage causing individual “we are making tremendous progress”. dated November • Botswana Cheetah Conservation Fund – Department of Agriculture.jackal. It implements global species conservation • Cheetah Conservation Fund Namibia – • www. innovative conflict prevention techniques all the time and are encouraged to share these with role players like Prof HO de Waal (Canis-Caracul Programme) and the Endangered Wildlife Trust’s Wildlife Conflict Mitigation Programme). primarily on commercial livestock farmlands. • The Africat Foundation. estimated at 2 500. As with bell and scent collars. radios and livestock. Africa’s most threatened ‘big cat’. Find it at www. but with our still imperfect damage control methods this is not always possible”. NACSSA is opposed to the illegal use of poisons to control any problem if you are a cattle farmer near the Wilderness. PMF Secretariate. Livestock/herd management includes lambing co-ordination. Department of Environmental Affairs (DEA) Tel: 012 310 3911 / 3534 MBoshoff@environment.g. The move is towards this as the lethal control has not addressed the situation in 3 centuries”.cheetah.cheetahbotswana. that livestock management should be the focus. the cheetah is protected by law in Botswana and internationally.ssn.177 at or www. Visit NACSSA supports the agricultural industry with best land management practices.daff. Red Meat Producers’ Organisation (RPO). Tel no 041 365 5030. as well as obvious steps such as avoiding marginal areas where exposure to certain predators is greater e. • The wild cheetah population in Africa today is classified as ‘Vulnerable’ in the IUCN’s Red Data List. International business environment Human-predator conflict is not unique to South • The Species Survival Network (SSN) co-ordinates conservation activities around the world to secure CITES protection for plants and animals affected by international trade. recognising that farmers possess a wealth of stored knowledge of great importance which assists those working in the field of nature conservation. maintains and manages The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species ™. don’t put the cows in the paddocks on the border of the forest during calving season.environment. • Namibia has the largest remaining population of free-ranging Cheetah in the world. 4. stemborer poisons to kill Role players Conservancies and stewardships See the chapters on conservancies and biodiversity. National strategy and government contact A draft Norms & Standards for the Management of Damage-Causing Animals was published in the General Notice Nr. Herd Management This is touted as the major issue by some role players . with great socioeconomic benefits.iucn. predators will become accustomed to the stimulus and become unafraid. Unfortunately such devices also attract thieves who steal lights. if these devices are used 6. National Association of Conservancies and Stewardships of South Africa (NACSSA) Tel: 016 590 2914 www.environment. Ninety percent of Namibia’s Cheetah live outside of protected reserves. Please contact: Bonita – International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN).za.pmg. “I think lethal control … should only be acceptable after all non lethal exclusion techniques have been tried. Producer organisations The Predation Management Forum (PMF) is representative of all industries affected by predation. Herdsman A diligent and well-trained herder can prove to be invaluable in detecting and preventing potential problems before they take place. namely the National Woolgrowers’ Association (NWGA). Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) Directorate Animal Production Tel: 012 319 7662 www. If used inconsistently and only for short periods of time they are effective around calf or lamb camps at night.africat. Find the relevant role players under heading 6. by the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES). including Red List Biodiversity Assessment projects to assess the status of species for the IUCN Red List. Find the notes on toxic collars at www. a non-profit organisation based in Namibia – www. using lambing pastures and stock On lethal control Before using lethal control options legislation should be checked with the local authority regarding possible restrictions which may include or require: • permit needed • proof of damage • proof that non lethal control options have failed • only qualified professionals used to target problem individuals • no payment / bounty system – hunters should not be paid per head of jackal killed • record to be kept by department in authority.defenders. This is especially true when traps are not regularly inspected. 33806. This method has the potential to create hundreds (thousands?) of jobs. not predator management. There is a significant fine – even a jail sentence – for Leg-hold devices/gin traps These are strongly discouraged because of the unacceptably high number of non-target eliminations. The IUCN Species Programme produces. Conservation bodies Find details of conservation bodies like CapeNature in the chapter on biodiversity. In South Africa some aspects of herd management become difficult because of the size of farming operations and a small workforce that has become possible thanks to technology. Ostriches Ostriches have been reported to provide protection (see the “Ostrich” chapter). http://jackalconnect. they in South Africa.178 Black-backed jackal and caracal programmes University of the Free State Department of Animal. at snowman@ewt. . The work of the Group soon expanded to include other conflict issues between humans and wildlife. Write to the Programme Manager. The WCPG produce an informative newsletter Antidote – contact the EWT for further details.landmarkfoundation. Leopard programmes Landmark Foundation Tel: 083 324 3344 www. storks. specialise in cheetahs but also have the expertise to assist with Tel: 021 881 3242 • Kgalagadi Cheetah Project Wildlife and Grassland Sciences Canis-Caracal Programme Prof HO de Waal • Kwandwe cheetah project An organisation in the Western Cape – Angus@kwandwe. • The Riverine Rabbit Programme (EWT-RRP) aims to ensure the survival of the Critically Endangered endemic Riverine Rabbit Further information on the following EWT Working Groups may be found on the EWT website – focusing on educating the farming • Moholoholo Education community about predators.ufs. game The Wildlife Conflict Prevention Programme was first established as the Poison Working Group in 1992 and addresses the large-scale poisoning of birds of prey. Tim Snow. it Programme – especially highlights the plight of moholoholorehab@wol. now one of South Africa’s most threatened antelope. etc Mainly active in the Limpopo for all matters concerning cheetahs and North West Provinces. pictures of spoor etc. government Cheetah Outreach • Iranian Cheetah Project www. and officially changed its name to reflect this new direction.dewildt. Other groups have included: brown hyena and other smaller Cheetah programmes The Ann van Dyk Cheetah Centre Tel: 012 504 9906 / 083 892 0515 the cheetah and promotes the use of Anatolian shepherd dogs. waterfowl and the detrimental environmental impacts of certain herbicides and their applications.capeleopard. • The Threatened Grassland Species Programme (EWT-TGSP) incorporates a focus on the Other Programmes of relevance to this chapter are: • The vision of the Carnivore Conservation Programme (EWT-CCP) is to develop southern Africa into a region where carnivores are managed in an ecologically and economically sustainable cheetah@intekom. The reader is referred to The National Cheetah Conservation Forum (NCCFSA) is an advisory forum consisting of Jackal Connect Rob Harrison-White The Cape Leopard Trust www. some mentioned under heading Endangered Wildlife Trust (EWT) programmes The Endangered Wildlife Trust (EWT) Tel: 011 372 3600 which provide more detailed information – charts. Many of their Programmes are also mentioned in the “Birds and farming” Chart used courtesy of Deon Cilliers. cranes. hunters. • The Source to Sea Programme aims to conserve river ecosystems. • Cango Wildlife Ranch – – gusm@sanparks. maps.

jackal. Contact the Landmark Foundation.cons-ent. Holistic. conservationists and the like.savp. • The Best practice reference manual for wool sheep farming in South Wildlife and Environmental Society of South Africa (WESSA) – find details in the Biodiversity University (NMMU) Centre for African Conservation University of Free State Ecology African Large Predator Research Tel: 041 504 2308 / 16 Unit (ALPRU) This centre is Onderstepoort Academic Hospital.daktaribushschool. spider and scorpion bites Cheetah Conservation Fund Namibia. photographs and pictures of spoor make it an attractive read. Place orders with the Endangered Wildlife Trust. NSPCA and Cape • “Best Management Practices: Human-Wildlife Conflict Prevention and Management” – a working document with inputs from Cheetah feeding patterns. Yolan Friedmann and Deon Cilliers (Endangered Wildlife Trust) Limpopo-based Training and research Africa Land-Use Training Tel: 014 717 3819 www. Landbouweekblad and Farmer’s Weekly. Maps. livestock protection collars (poison collars). specifically predators. • Contact Cape Wools about the DVD on predator management. It replaces Predators on Livestock Farms – a Practical Farmers’ Manual for Prof GN Smit Tel: 051 401 2125 Potchefstroom College of Agriculture Wildlife Campus Tel: 018 299 6739 / 6636 Tel: 011 656 1601 www. Thys de Wet (Animal Damage Control Institute .co. Ecologically Acceptable and Ethical Management 2008. World Wild Life Fund – SA – find details in the Biodiversity chapter.jackal.ADCI) and his website. Stellenbosch University Department of Conservation Ecology and Entomology Tel: 021 808 3728 Training courses offered cover HART Wildlife Sanctuary (Helping Animals Recover from based at Trauma) Veterinary Tel: 082 448 7860 / 072 623 5359 Located near Kroonstad in the Centre for Animal Rehabilitation Free State and Education (CARE) Moholoholo Wildlife Rehab Tel: 015 769 6251 Centre www. poison baits. Afrikaans and isiZulu. Find the document on Professional predator hunters South African Vaccine Producers Tel: 011 386 6000 School of Natural Resource Management Department Animal. Tel: 046 603 8530 Other role players African Predator Tel: 082 485 3885 • Wildcare: The Story of Karen Trendler and Her African Wildlife Rehabilitation Centre Mike Cadman (International Fund for Animal Welfare) Published by Jacana Predators and Farmers describes the various predators. leg hold traps. 2003 ISBN Rhodes University Wildlife and Reserve Management Online courses include HumanResearch Group Wildlife Conflict and Predator Dr Dan Parker Management on Livestock Tel: 051 401 2210 www. Game farms and Protected Areas – a detailed and photographic analysis of most predators cohabiting farming enterprises is presented.ufs.canids. Call 041 484 www. Animal behaviour.nmmu. Dr Bool Smuts (Landmark Foundation). • Wildlife on occasionalpapers/livestockguardingdog.nspca. including Tim of baboons National Society for the The Centre for Rehabilitation Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (NSPCA) of Wildlife (CROW) Wildlife Unit Tel: 031 462 1127 Tel: 011 907 3591 Tel: 015 795 5236 The centre specialises in the care This manual is seen as a practical and informative tool to be used by farmers.ufs. killing patterns.wildlifecollege. • The report Livestock guarding dogs: their current use world wide by Robin Rigg compiles a detailed review of current practices in the use of livestock guarding dogs throughout the world and to discuss these in relation to livestock depredation by predators. • 2004 Integrated Livestock & Predator Management: A Farmer’s Guide. Prof HO De Bird and Exotic Animals www. Rob Harrison-White (Jackal Connect) . • Published by the Endangered Wildlife Trust and available in English. Wildlife and Tel: 044 801 5111 Grassland Sciences FreeMe Wildlife Rehabilitation Centre Tel: 011 807 6993 / 083 558 5658 www. See the whole field of animal damage University of Cape Town control Baboon Research Unit Nelson Mandela Metropolitan Tel: 021 650 3645 www. The reader is made aware of what the law is. Material for this chapter has been merged from many contributors and sources. • Predators and Associated Wildlife – Daktari Bush School and Sanwild Wildlife Trust Wildlife Orphanage Tel: 015 383 9958 / 083 310 3882 Tel: 082 656 2969 www. is a frequent topic in the agricultural lists benefits and conservation status and indicates their potential impact to Animal Damage Control Institute (ADCI) Tel: 076 129 0889 www. African Large Predator Research Unit (ALPRU) and the ALPRU pages at www. Websites and publications • Visit the websites mentioned earlier in this chapter. Methods previously practised are now prohibited by legislation e.179 Wildlife rehabilitation centres African Bird of Prey Sanctuary Tel: 031 785 4382 Southern African Wildlife College Tel: 015 793 7300 www.baboonsonline. gin traps.freemewildlife. non lethal as well as lethal controls are or contact 041 365 5030. and offered alternatives. brought out by the National Wool Growers Association (NWGA) includes useful notes on predator control. De Wildt Cheetah and Wildlife Trust. Manufacturers of antivenoms for the treatment of

2. Incorporator/conditioning In the incorporator the mash feed is incorporated with steam to increase the heat and moisture of the feed. are used to make balanced feed for poultry. The bulk of the feed is: • maize • soya oilcake • sunflower • wheat bran A number of other raw materials are also included e. Sixty different products. thorough mixing is extremely important. The animal feed market has grown continuously for the past two decades in SA and abroad. The pelleted feed goes through a shaker to get rid of unwanted fines and it is now ready to be bagged or loaded in a bulk storage bin. It is clearly a vital part of the South African farmer’s life. This is done in the cooler and the temperature is decreased drastically to make the pellet hard and durable. particularly the poultry. Visit www. which is crucial in the pelleting process. The growth of the animal feed industry in the coming couple of years is entirely dependent on the growth in the animal product market determined by consumer spending. The total national feed production today is estimated on ± 10. AFMA members manufacture animal feed for 55 – 60% of the market whilst the feedlots.2 and 4. minerals and medication.5kg of premix in 1000kg of feed. the pet food industry and home mixers provide the rest. vitamins and minerals now goes through the pellet press where it is forced through a small opening (usually between 3. The temperature of the feed is about 80°C on the other side of the pellet press. Growth in the animal feed industry is positive news for grain producers. Grinding The grains are transported from the silos to grinders in the mill where it is grinded to a suitable coarseness depending on the type of feed manufactured. the concentrated minerals and vitamins will not be evenly distributed. beef and sheep and dairy industries which are big users of animal feed in the animal production value chain. Thereafter the other raw materials that don’t need grinding are included as well as the prescribed premixes of vitamins.g. minerals and vitamins. mainly of agricultural origin.: • limestone • molasses • lysine • fishmeal (not all feed) • vitamins • minerals The bulk raw materials are stored in the silos and the lower volume dense materials is in flat storage on the mill floor. Overview The Animal Feeds Manufacturing Association (AFMA) website is a comprehensive source of information on this industry. During the mixing The feed milling process Raw material Feed is made up of a number of raw materials that is all combined in different ratio’s to form a perfect balance of all the nutrients. all the liquids like oil are also included.180 Mixer inputs Animal feeds 1. smaller manufacturers.8mm) to form a pellet. The addition of the steam helps with the binding of the particles to form a pellet when pressed. The mixing process is important in the feed manufacturing process because if the feed is not mixed thoroughly. sheep and other animals. cattle. Taking into account the low inclusion of about Pellet press The mixed raw material.7 million tons and the gross value of the total feed production is calculated at ± R22-25 billion per annum. Cooler The pellet is still soft and too warm to store as it is post pelleting and the temperature need to be brought down. Source: Johan Conradie at Epol .afma.

• Farmers sell most of the grains via SAFEX but some also negotiate with feed mills for pre-harvest threats and opportunities. Import figures. feed sales statistics. Universities and Agricultural Colleges offer training in animal nutrition or related courses that are of value in the feed industry.ufs. Agricultural Remedies and Stock Remedies Act. the Fertilizers and Feeds Bill [B41-2012] will in effect replace parts of Act 36 0f 1947. The export of animal feeds is normally restricted to the neighbouring countries because it is difficult to transport such bulky products over long distances. smaller feed mills and home mixers.petwise. SANS 898. identifying Training on the subject of animal nutrition is available at the ARC Animal Production Institute in the form of short courses. Some of these role players: ARC-Animal Production Institute (ARC-API) Tel: 012 672 9111 www. to ensure that the products consistently meet the legal requirements for human and animal health. Farm Feeds. • There is an established gristing principle whereby the farmer takes maize to Stock Agricultural Colleges also undertake research in the area of animal feeds. AFMA is a member of the International Feed Industries Federation (IFIF). The institute through its resources is in a position to test animal feeds and is on the forefront in investigating the use of a variety of by-products from agriculture and the food processing industries on a variety of farm animal species for use by the commercial feed manufacturers through to the resource poor farmers.agric.afma. contact either the South African Bureau of Standards. must be registered with the Registrar of Act 36 of 1947 before it could be sold into the market or used in animal feed production. but vital short courses are also given. These are usually the three/four year degree or diploma courses. Good manufacturing practice for the self mixing of feed in the livestock industry The standard covers the self mixing of compound feed and supplements into livestock feed. It is a way for him to save money because he only pays for the milling. Contacts: Ruminant nutrition: Dr F Nherera – 012 672 9253 (Dairy nutrition) Mr M Muya – 012 672 9342 (Dairy nutrition) Dr Roger Pambu – 012 672 9304 (Small stock nutrition) Mr M Ratsaka – 012 672 9306 (Feedlot systems) Mr K-J Leeuw – 012 672 9320 (Feedlot systems) Mr D B Nkosi – 012 672 9300 ( If promulgated as an Act. For information on the Training and research The bigger feed manufacturers normally have their research done at the Agricultural Research Council (ARC) or at one of the Attention is given to matters of importance to the AFMA members import more than 75% of their local demand of Soya oilcake due to insufficient local supply and quality concerns. all feed raw materials except for maize and unbroken grains. to mix with maize which they themselves have technology transfer through the AFMA MATRIX a quarterly magazine.ifif. Role players Associations Visit the International Feed Industries Federation (IFIF) website – www. Registrar: Act No 36/1947 Tel: 012 319 7303 In terms of the Fertilizers. and environmental Department of Animal.afma. Find the “Acts & legislation” option at www. symposia and the AFMA FORUM a tri-annual congress and agricultural trade . 012 428 7911 or the Red Meat Industry Forum at 012 667 Find the details in the “Agricultural education and training” chapter. National strategy and government contact Find the “ Pesticides and Fertilizers” option under “Divisions” at www. International business environment 6. too.afma. Local business environment AFMA industry information can be found under the “Resources & links” option at www. In some cases the feed has to comply with specific requirements since the animal products produced with the feed are being exported to Europe and other countries. Guidelines and contacts at DAFF are available. 4. Application forms. Petfood Industry Association including keeping abreast of changes Tel: 033 343 2874 and developments.daff. Animal Feeds Manufacturing Association (AFMA) Tel: 012 663 9097 www. Rural Development and Extension Tel: 051 401 3765 www. Wildlife and Grassland Sciences Prof HJ van der Merwe Tel: 051 401 2211 www. International Trade and tariff matters are covered in the Chairman’s Report (find it at www. AFMA represents the feed industry on various platforms where it is necessary to enhance or protect the interests of the feed industry. Agro-byproducts) Monogastric nutrition: Dr A T Kanengoni – 012 672 9355 (Pig nutrition) Ms P Pitsane – 012 672 99272 (Pig systems) Ms S E Coetzee – 012 672 9302 (Poultry nutrition) North-West University (Mafikeng Campus) Dale Beighle Centre Tel: 018 389 2744 / 30 3. Farmers can purchase commercial concentrates from feed University of the Free State Centre for Sustainable Agriculture. 1947 (Act 36 of 1947) and its regulations. mixing and other raw All animal feed for sale is required to be registered in terms of Act 36. • The animal feeds industry is divided into the formal feed industry (members of AFMA) and the other includes feedlots. • Profile Feeds (Pty) Ltd 021 875 5890 • Rossgro Feeds (Pty) Ltd 013 665 1999 • SA Feed Phosphates 053 298 2817 • Bitek Feed Science (Pty) Ltd 011 466 1751 Companies: animal feed suppliers Find a comprehensive AFMA member and associate member list on • Marsing & Co Africa (Pty) Ltd 011 462 6913 • Meaders Feeds Ltd 00230 249 3860 • Molatek Animal Feeds 013 791 1036 • Bovasol 033 263 1611 • Grains for Africa Commodity Brokers (Pty) Ltd 011 485 2575 • Kemin Industries South Africa 011 605 2633 • Alltech (Pty) Ltd 021 865 2669 • Brisen Commodities 012 640 1600 • NuTec Southern Africa (Pty) Ltd 033 397 9405 • Oceana Brands (Pty) Ltd 021 415 8500 • Dolphin Coast Feeds 032 947 0075 • Eagles Rock Feed Mill (Pty) Ltd 014 577 0087 • Eggbert Eggs (Pty) Ltd 087 940 2025 • Seaboard Overseas Trading & Shipping (Pty) Ltd 031 581 4500 • Animal Nutrition & Health (Pty) Ltd 012 667 3961 • Apex Commodities (Pty) Ltd 011 475 1015 • Ashkan Consulting (Pty) Ltd 011 466 8763/4 • Rymco (Pty) Ltd 011 248 8252 • SA Premix 051 653 1001 • Denvet 033 345 1093 • Bio-Minerale 013 246 7451 louisdreyfus. Inc 082 495 8185 www. • Nutri Feeds 018 293 0019 • LignoTech SA (Pty) Ltd 039 973 6000 • Louis Dreyfus Commodities Africa (Pty) Ltd 011 217 5300 manufacturers of raw materials • ADDCON Africa Feed & Grain Additives (Pty) Ltd 011 460 4002/3 • Maize & More (Pty) Ltd 013 243 1166 • Majesty Oil Mills (Pty) Ltd 011 660 7074 • Malachite Chemicals 011 455 1201 •Trademar Trading (Pty) Ltd 011 706 5777 • Unigrain (Pty) Ltd 011 692 4400 • Virbac Animal Health 012 657 6000 • Voermol Feeds (Pty) Ltd 032 439 5599/ 5850 and • Brennco Feeds (Pty) Ltd 012 342 0744 • Prodsure 012 252 3778 • SA Salt Co-operation 082 412 2857 • Savannah Commodities 011 519 1000 • DSM Nutritional Products South Africa (Pty) Ltd 011 398 6900 • AFGRI Trading (Pty) Ltd 011 063 2347 • Trademore (Pty) Ltd 011 783 8191 • Allem Brothers (Pty) Ltd 056 343 3111 • ALZU Enterprises 013 249 8900 • BASF 011 203 2400 • Bester Feed & Grain (Pty) Ltd 021 809 2500 • Bioindustrial Services cc 011 970 2525 • Lubern Feeds (Pty) Ltd 082 449 9282 • Marifeed (Pty) Ltd 028 312 1106 • Biomin Animal Nutrition (Pty) Ltd 018 468 1455 • Chemuniqué International 011 789 2414 • Zinchem 011 746 5000 • Feedpro 053 927 5406 • Energy Oil (Pty) Ltd 011 824 0473 • Evonik Degussa Africa 011 697 0700 • Meadow Feeds 011 991 6000 • Protea Animal Feeds 011 821 3365 • Allied Nutrition 012 667 4213 • Extru Feeds 036 448 1605 • Feedpharm Trading 021 853 1659 • FR Waring Feeds (Pty) Ltd 031 764 2951 • Atlas Trading & Shipping (A division of Grindrod (South Africa) (Pty) Limited 031 302 1700 / 011 233 7455 • Vitam International 012 665 5245 traders of raw • Nu-Pro Feeds (Pty) Ltd 058 303 9587 • Opti Feeds (Pty) Ltd 018 632 4053 www.biominerale. • Kanhym Estates (Pty) Ltd 013 249 7800 • NOVA Feeds 018 293 0019 • WW Bartlet Poultry Farm (Pty) Ltd 011 662 1433 Companies: • Epol 031 242 8500 • Sernick Veevoere (Edms) Bpk 056 631 0120 • Tanqua Feeds (Pty) Ltd 028 261 1519 • Telwiedré Feeds 058 852 2742 • Veekos (Edms) Bpk 054 331 1351 • Cargill RSA (Pty) Ltd 086 122 7445 • Olam South Africa (Pty) Ltd 031 566 5499 • Pennville (Pty) Ltd 012 372 1074 • Novus • ADVIT Animal Nutrition SA 011 524 0440 • NutroScience (Pty) Ltd 022 482 4575 • MG2Mix SA (Pty) Ltd 011 866 2900 • Megastarter Biotech (Pty) Ltd t/a MS Biotech 076 826 9211 • Multi Feeds 053 474 1848/9 • Noble Resources South Africa (Pty) Ltd 021 808 1900 • Crane Feeds (Pty) Ltd 012 346 0732 • Dalein Voere (Edms) Bpk 012 808 5999 • De Heus Feed (Pty) Ltd 031 785 1575 • KK Animal Nutrition 031 910 5100 • Bedson Africa (Pty) Ltd 012 803 4376 • Esco Feeds (Pty) Ltd 036 352 2193 • Essential Feeds 036 634 1000 • Evertrade Feeds (Pty) Ltd 031 566 6610 • Tongaat Hulett Starch 011 458 5000 • AFGRI Animal Feeds 011 063 2347 • Kerry Ingredients (Pty) Ltd 011 923 6360 • Chemfit (Pty) Ltd 011 918 1900 • Magnum Feed Milling 031 700 6621 www. The Animal Feeds industry is covered briefly DAFF’s Maize Market Value Chain Profile: • Agri Protein 021 422 1887 • Grain Tech 011 835 2064 • LabWorld 012 685 9600 Other companies involved We include details only of some of the numerous other companies involved • P & B Lime Works 028 424 1157 www. . Find it under the “Publications” and “Agricultural Marketing” options at www.183 Companies: feed manufacturing plants • Buhler (Pty) Ltd 011 801 3500 • Biochemical Chemical Consultants 033 343 1414 http:// bsclaboratory.nviroteklabs. You can also download to from • Cape Grits 021 535 5932 • Central Analytical Laboratories 011 661 1910 (Agri Inspec has developed a protocol for quality assurance) • Agricon 051 448 0961 • FeedPro 053 927 5406 for the publication Bulk density of various products used as ingredients in animal and • Buckle Packaging 011 613 8024 (animal nutrition and animal feed consultants) • Stargate Scientific 011 675 7433 • Spesfeed 011 803 2050 www.buhlergroup.agricon-pelleting. Websites and publications AFMA Matrix is the only dedicated feed industry related magazine and it is available from AFMA. Visit the International Feed Industries Federation (IFIF) and the European Feed Manufacturers’ Federation (FEFAC) Dairy Mail.labworld.agriinspec.ifif. Poultry Bulletin etc periodically cover animal feed is aimed at educating the various market segments in the animal feed industry that continuously face up to the repercussions of mycotoxins in animal feed and – ultimately – on their livestock Call 012 842 4017 or email iaeinfo@arc. See also the “General farm equipment” chapter (for feeders and mixers) and “Grain storage & handling” chapter (milling equipment) • Nviro Tek Labs 082 889 0138 www. The publications of other industries • Agri Inspec 012 843 5630 / 7 www. available from the ARC in • South African Bureau of Standards (SABS) 012 428 7911 (supplier of laboratory and testing equipment for GMOs) • Texproy 031 262 7570 7.pandblime.bucklepack.

It is therefore imperative for the animal sector to ensure that they not only protect their animals against possible animal diseases but also prevent the possible spread of such diseases to humankind. Overview All animal health products should be used strictly according to label instructions. SAAHA. results may vary according to the disease and the stage of the disease at which treatment is applied. The earlier during the course of the disease that treatment is administered the better will be the results. 3. there is major scope. you have your sterile cylinders. . It is nature’s evolutionary response towards evading suppression.daff. Department of Agriculture. and there is no information on home-made formulations to make these critical decisions. Sources: our performance over the past 2 decades is nothing to be proud of. The amount active ingredient needed depends on the formulation used. International business environment See the following websites: • www. South Africa imports about R4 billion worth of meat annually. You have to keep your vaccines at a temperature of 4-8ºC. dosing and dips. This is passive immunity. Parasites and resistance Forty percent of all animal health products sold in SA are parasiticides. This despite NEPAD’s Comprehensive African Agricultural Development Programme which has an aim of increasing food security and reducing poverty and to contribute to the Millennium development goal of. In fact. For the newcomer Vaccination Vaccination is a process where you inject a biological product into an animal. 1. through improving the productivity of the non-commercial half of our national herds and flocks. The more antibodies the animal has to fight that particular disease. AgriTV. org • Animal Health Alliance (Australia) – www. which groups they belong inputs Animal health The age at which a young animal is first vaccinated plays an important role in its response to vaccination. to avoid transmitting diseases from one animal to another. whilst animal diseases within our borders are controlled and combated. ectoparasiticides or dips and pour-on’s for control of ticks and other external parasites. safeguarding farming enterprises and those of our neighbours. website of the Department of Agriculture. This will ensure both the health and welfare of animals and also ensure the well-being of humans. Even then. • The cold chain must never be broken (transport to and storage of the vaccine on the farm). Do not use an overstrength product. To manage resistance: • Never introduce new (and resistant) parasites onto your property. • Always follow the manufacturer’s instructions carefully when treating animals for – the website of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) It is a process whereby one exposes an animal to a codified or weakened disease-causing organism. State Veterinary Services guard constantly against the introduction of animal diseases from outside the country. DAFF has introduced measures like expanding the existing bursary scheme for veterinary studies and introducing a year’s compulsory community service for vets after graduating. Source: Dr Peter Oberem. training in Animal Health and Production and improved access to stock remedies and veterinary medicines is essential.oie. The effectiveness of vaccines depends on the management of the specific farmer. In many cases. Always ensure that introduced animals are parasite-free before being released onto the farm by first quarantining and treating them with at least two different antelmintic groups and with one or more ectoparasitic control products (dips). there has been a disappointing decrease of food available per person in Africa of 3% over the corresponding period. but the involvement of a veterinarian plus the correct use of registered products with demonstrated effectiveness and safety could only be to the benefit of animals and producers alike. This is because the young animal is still getting a measure of immunisation from the mother’s early milk or colostrum. To do • See also the website of the World Veterinary Association – www. See also the “Biosecurity” chapter Handling of vaccine is one of the major problems of vaccination failure. an animal should be vaccinated yearly to ensure immunity against specific diseases. For further information please contact: Jacob Modumo telephone: 012 522 1518 email: jacob@obpvaccines. Because they are so important to SA farmers. never use home-made pour-on products to control ticks. National strategy and government contact Find the “Food and Veterinary Services” option under “Divisions” at www. to say nothing of human and animal 4. • Follow the correct route of application. only about R2 billion is spent annually on vaccinations. Call 012 529 9158. A farmer that tries to avoid essential preventative treatment and spending is acting unwisely: animal diseases and parasites are detrimental to the economy of the country. and consult a vet. ARC-OVI. Afrivet 2. so if a farmer has qualities of being a good manager and using sustained vaccination programmes those vaccines will be effective. • International Federation for Animal Health – www. These precautions amount to less than 7% of the farmer’s total expenditure. but it interferes with the vaccine if given too early. Food security has become a global imperative and Africa is being looked at as the world’s future food basket. Another contact is Animal Health for Developing Farmers at ARC-OVI (see heading 5). • For the same reasons. worldvet. as well as anthelmintics for control of worms. To improve delivery of veterinarian Currently. to advise on when to change and what remedy to use next. preferably from the supplier. • Know the available remedies. there is much debate about parasites developing resistance to the chemicals in these products. However. to become a net meat exporter. About 70% of the human diseases discovered recently or from the last century/ has been found to be of animal origin.animalhealthalliance. za. by 2015. while Latin America and Asia have increased the available food per person by 20% and 30% respectively since 1990. Considering that only 50% of our livestock is commercially farmed. halving poverty and hunger. No vaccine can give 100% protection. This is the major reason why an investment in Primary Animal Health Care (PAHC) training is advised. Forestry and Fisheries. the less likely it is to become infected. make sure that you have your sterile needles. The truth is that resistance will always be with • Global Alliance for Livestock Veterinary Medicines – www.galvmed.

Afrivet FP .

limpopo. Stock Remedies. with a professional and efficient • Marketing Code of Dr M de BUDE Chief Director: Veterinary Services and Natural Resource Management Tel: 011 355 1978 Fax: 011 355 1688 Cell: 082 373 7721 malcom. quality. a section 21 Company (take the “Divisions” thus contributing to a high level of health and welfare of all animals and to the responsible care for the environment. beef etc chapters). is an association of legislation. The extensive and stringent Code South African Animal Health of Conduct.html State Veterinary Services sponsor the testing for certain animal diseases. Dr Lucas B Cele Director: Veterinary Specialised Services Tel: 013 741 3218 Fax: 013 741 5087l cele@mpg.mtshali@kzndae. The Livestock Health and Production Group Tel: 012 346 1590 Northern Cape Tel: 053 839 7800 / 70 Dr P Kegakilwe Fax: 053 831 3635 / 086 622 8073 Director Veterinary services Cell: 083 554 5583 Western Cape Dr G Msiza Chief Director Tel: 021 808 5052 Fax: 021 808 7619 Cell: 084 604 6705 For a detailed list of Government Veterinary Laboratories in SA visit Directorate: Genetic Resources Tel: 012 319 6024 North West Province Directorate: Animal Find “ Dr TA Sikhakhane Director: Veterinary Services South Tel: 033 343 8300/17 Fax: 033 343 8329 Cell: 0827849254 Dr P Mokaila Chief Director: Agricultural Support Services Tel: 018 389 5723 Fax: 018 389 5090 Production Pesticides and Fertilizers” under Tel: 012 319 7493 Dr Alan Kalake Director: Animal Health Management and Services Tel: 011 355 1886 Fax: 011 355 1077 Free State Gauteng KwaZuluNatal Limpopo Mpumalanga Tel: 051 436 3677 Dr KJ Mojapelo Fax: 051 436 5870 Director Veterinary services Cell: 072 124 3979 drkris@fs. member’s sales personnel it strives • training in responsible use to ensure that farmers and other of products especially in the end users are at all times provided emergent sector.agric. We want farmers and other users of our products to know that they are making their purchases from persons and companies who can give sound technical advice. “Food and Veterinary Services” and “Laboratory approval” options). from people they can trust! husbandry” chapter. and not for Dr Dietana Nemudzivhadi Director: Animal Health up of Dr NV Mnisi Director: Animal Health. Role players Associations. forums & NGOs The Animal Health Forum represents the different livestock sectors. in involvement in the general “Animal gov. stock remedies and other animal health products in Southern Africa. animal health products. Please contact your nearest State veterinarian office or Provincial office for daff.ecprov.Rabolao@gauteng. codes. Association (SAAHA) ensures that all members make Tel: 011 805 2000 input into and abide by the drawing www.Kalake@gauteng. and through • warehousing & transport its training and accreditation of standards. Read about their strict SAAHA Code of Dr Wynton Rabolao Director: Veterinary Public Health and Export Facilitation Tel: 011 355 1987 Fax: 011 355 1077 Wynton.lhpg. Dr DI Mtshali Director: Veterinary Services North Tel: 035 780 6705 Fax: 035 789 6405 Cell: 082 419 2882 Tel: 018 389 5102 Dr LS Madyibi Fax: 018 389 5090 Director Veterinary services Cell: 071 854 2016 LMadyibi@nwpg. The Vision is achieved through promoting and supporting an economically viable and innovation driven animal health industry in Southern Africa. standards. Province Eastern Cape Contact person Dr L Mrwebi Chief Director Contact details Tel: 040 609 3547 Fax: 040 636 3558 Cell: 082 781 0217 Advisory and Support Services Tel: 011 355 1886 Fax: 011 355 1105 Dietana.and service Contact organisations like the South African Pork Producers Organisation and Red Meat Industry Federation for more information (find contact details in the pork. National Council of SPCAs Farm Animal Unit Tel: 011 907 3590/1/2 of which all member companies must sign acceptance. za Tel: 015 294 3109 / 3608 Dr RL Mampane Fax: 015 295 4525 Director Veterinary services Cell: 082 803 5508 Dr PJ Loock Tel: 015 294 3064 Fax: 015 294 4537 SAAHA’s vision is to be acknowledged as the association representing all manufacturers and suppliers of veterinary medicines.186 Directorate: Animal Health Tel: 012 319 7615 / 7456 “Divisions” at Tel: 043 605 4200 Dr Mnqeta Fax: 086 697 4523 Director Veterinary services Cell: 082 258 5647 qtnvet@telkomsa.Sikhakhane@kzndae. acting Chief Director Tel: 013 741 3218 Fax: 013 741 5087 Cell: 082 899 7767 nvmnisi@mpg. such as: the majority of the responsible manufacturers and suppliers of • manufacturing quality practices. and whose employers are bound by the A Veterinary Services Back-Up is provided. and exists to liaise with government on biosecurity and other livestock-related www.AVCASA Safety Health and Environment Committee. development of vaccines and and also collectively on aspects diagnostic South African Veterinary Association Tel: 012 346 1150 www. • tick resistance to ectoparasiticides The Institute promotes animal • worm resistance to health and welfare by providing endoparsiticides effective and diagnostic service. .co.Wildlife Conflict Mitigation Programme of the Endangered Wild life Trust.saeva. Each module is presented over 5 days. applying of importance to the farming the latest molecular biological community such as: techniques to prevent and control economically important diseases. .za Companies involved support and OVI is part of the Livestock and do research on various aspects of Animal Health South African Association of Veterinary Nurses Association of South Africa (VNASA) Veterinary Technologists both individually. Helminth Dale Beighle Centre for Animal anthelmintic resistance and Health Studies biological control for It has developed a 6 module animal skills development course for farm workers.agric. emerging stock farmers and animal health Half-day and one-day courses in specific aspects such as tick control are also available.187 • SANS codes of practice. as well as recommendations from: .za Afrivet Training Services specialises in SETA approved animal health training. Short training courses at ARC-OVI include tick identification and Veterinary Ectoparasitology ARC-Onderstepoort Veterinary Arthropod transmitted viral diseases for Eastern and Southern Africa The University offers a BSc Agric which includes seven reference Degree in Animal Health and a laboratories for economically Diploma in Animal Health. activities at the OVI focus on the at their own research facilities.savc.avcasa.agriskills. These courses focus on providing the learner with the skills to identify sick animals timeously and to utilise available stock remedies as a primary health care intervention. • microbial resistance to antibiotics and vaccines against Foot-and• environmental issues such as mouth and tick-borne diseases. and Tel: 018 386 1321 the FAO Reference Laboratory for www. dung beetle-and oxpecker The OVI is a collaborating centre compatible remedies for both the OIE (surveillance and control of animal diseases in Africa) and FAO (emergency North-West University preparedness for transboundary (Mafikeng Campus) animal diseases for Africa. the Association of Veterinary and Crop Associations of South Contact 012 529 9187 or Institute (ARC-OVI) write to South African Companion Animal Council Tel: 012 620 1388 South African Equine Veterinary Association Tel: 087 802 8658 www.afrivet. Research animal health. See important viral diseases). Agriskills Transfer Tel: 012 460 9585 www.agric.Griffon Poison Information Centre SAAHA is part of for Tel: 012 529 9111 / 446 details. .za Training and research Afrivet Training Services Tel: 012 817 9060 South African Veterinary Council Tel: 012 342 1612 www.vnasa.

the number of Bedson Africa (Pty) Ltd Tel: 012 803 2614 www.188 North-West University (Potchefstroom Campus) Unit for Environmental Sciences and Management Prof KN de Kock Tel: 018 299 2380 Prof CT Wolmarans Tel: 018 299 2389 A variety of factors can build ticks’ resistance to chemical treatments: the nature of the substance.lionelsvet. Wildlife preserved species of freshwater and Grassland Sciences slugs and other parasites.animalhealth. the method of which last six Bayer Animal Health Tel: 011 921 5911 implications for the farmer. Tshwane University of Technology (TUT) Department of Biomedical Various worm parasites have Sciences a deleterious impact on the Tel: 012 382 6265 country’s livestock with financial Information on the appearance and distribution of This Department focuses on the these parasites is available from the training and research of the entire above-mentioned authorities. improved feed to its important functions though utilisation to genetic improvement. University of the Free State A national collection of some 34 000 Department of Animal. The animal health and husbandry are course is open to anyone wishing to learn more about Animal Health and Human Ecology Tel: 011 471 2818 / 2984 www. All and immunity are taught to animal sales personnel of SAAHA science students in the curriculum members must pass this and short courses for farmers course in order to be allowed (both commercial and small scale) to give advice and sell our and extension officers on basic animal health Instavet Import & Export Tel: 011 462 4215 / 699 6240 Onderstepoort Biological Products Tel: 012 522 1500 Fax: 012 522 1591 www. they were required to travel to either Washington or London. Biochemical and towards the upliftment of Food Biotechnology new farmers and stockowners Prof Rob Bragg and to the protection of the Tel: 051 401 2676 environment. Contact Dr A Latif at 012 529 9212. SAAHA contributes Dept of gigantica and Calicophoron Technology is offered microbothrium. The museum is also in a process of compiling a manual on ticks which would assist farmers as well as scientists in controlling the parasites. • Farmer training in Responsible pharmaceutical companies and the Use of Animal Health Livestock industry in Norbrook Laboratories SA (Pty) Ltd Tel: 011 314 0889 www. SAAHA members and associate members Afrivet Tel: 012 817 9060 Helpline 0860 VEEARTS www.animate. Through this course. University of South Africa (UNISA) College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences Agriculture.merial. ecology and control systems. Animate Animal Health Tel: 012 661 3485 www. mostly on request from used in the industry. South African Animal Health from resource utilisation. whenever scientists had to do research work on Healthtech Laboratories Tel: 011 805 5703 www. permits registration as a veterinarian with the South African Veterinary to Africa. and the spreading of ticks through animal Ceva Animal Health (Pty) Ltd Tel: 011 312 4088 is housed here.up. Animal Production continuum.virbac. The museum’s main aim was to collect all the species which were common Department of Zoology and Entomology Ellie van Dalen Tel: 051 401 2317 vdalenem@ufs. University of Pretoria Faculty of Veterinary Science Tel: 012 529 8313 Department of Companion Animal Clinical Studies – 012 529 8260 Department of Anatomy and Physiology – 012 529 8267 Department of Paraclinical Sciences – 012 529 8239 Department of Production Animal Studies – 012 529 8013 Department of Veterinary Tropical Diseases – 012 529 8394 www. • SAAHA co-ordinates a correspondence course Basic concepts of animal health consisting of 8 modules. but integral its training programmes: part of this Cipla Agrimed Tel: 0861 247 463 .za Boehringer-Ingelheim Tel: 011 348 2400 Intervet/Schering-Plough Animal Health – see MSD Animal Health Lionel’s Veterinary Supplies Tel: 021 932 2019 Virbac RSA Tel: 012 657 6000 www. www. Up to Products.ciplaagrimed.tut.unisa. assisted Association (SAAHA) contributes Completion of the undergraduate Novartis South Africa (Pty) Ltd Tel: 011 929 9111 Merial SA Tel: 011 315 8001 www.OBPvaccines. Animal health is a small. Many people in rural areas on the continent made a living from The Tick Museum is the first of its kind on the continent and will serve to inform farmers and scientists about tick identification.bedson. Contract research animal health and the products on animal health aspects is also MSD Animal Health Intervet/Schering-Plough Animal Health Tel: 011 923 9300 www.afrivet. and ticks posed a major problem in terms of transmitting diseases that kill A National Diploma in Animal Health is offered Find the other universities and Agricultural Colleges in the “Agricultural education and training” collected Tel: 051 401 2827 since 1956 from the whole country. Farmers who have problems dealing with ticks can now send samples to the University of the Free State to be tested for Ciplavet Tel: 021 943 4220 www. These parasites include Fasciola hepatica National diploma in Veterinary en F.

co.dosatron. Take the books option at • Pathcare Vetlab Tel: 021 596 3636 • Midlands Veterinary Wholesalers Tel: 033 263 2310 Call 012 817 9060 or 0860 VEEARTS for these other • Charles Street Veterinary Consultancy Tel: 012 460 9385 www. A number of publications are available from Kejafa Knowledge • Cooper Veterinary Products Tel: 012 991 6416 • DIATOMS Organic Animal Health Tel: 053 723 1810 www. Diseases and Parasites of Sheep and Goats in South Africa provides easy-tounderstand information on management. preventative measures and treatment. is available from Landbouweekblad. Dr Peter Oberem and Dr Johan van • Dr G Catton (Consultant) Tel: 012 665 5157 gcatton@iafrica.kejafa. It is written by Dr Pamela • Denvet cc Tel: 033 345 1093 The Afrikaans publication Vra die veearts – Wat beesboere moet Contact Afrivet for a copy at 011 392 or call 011 025 4388. View them at • Tick-borne diseases in ruminants • Hydatid disease caused by tapeworm • Diseases caused by trypanosomes: Nagana and dourine • The difference between vaccination and treatment • Common and important diseases of cattle • Common and important diseases of sheep and goats • Diseases shared by wildlife and livestock • External parasites of goats and sheep • Why did my animal die?” • Skin conditions in goats and sheep • Lumpy-skin disease • Sheep-scab” • Theileriosis • Skin conditions in pigs • Respiratory diseases in cattle • Respiratory diseases in chickens • Disease prevention in chickens • Diarrhoea in sheep and goats • Udder and teat lesions • Diarrhoea in cattle • Acaricide resistance • African horsesickness • Anthrax • Congo fever • Brucellosis and tuberculosis • Foot-and-mouth disease • How medicine should be used” • External parasites of cattle • Community medicine stores • Clostridial diseases • Tapeworm • Condition scoring of cattle • Rabies – a killer disease • Poultry diseases • Lungsickness • Insect Science Tel: 015 307 1391 www. the electronic arm of the magazine (take the publications menu option) or contact the Resource Centre at 012 319 • Roche Products (Pty) Ltd Tel: 011 502 5000 www. com • Natrocine Tel: 082 453 6057 • Trade Vet Tel: 011 314 5972 • Veterinary House Hospital Tel: 033 342 4698 • Wildlife Pharmaceuticals Inc Tel: 013 751 2328 • Eco Animal Health Tel: 012 991 6416 • Immuno-vet Services Tel: 011 699 6240www. com • DEHTEQ (Pty) Ltd Tel: 011 466 9270 www.tickoff. disease recognition. Websites and publications The following Info Paks (booklets) are available from the National Department of Agriculture. Call 0860 103 577 or write to • SWAVET RSA Tel: 011 704 7218 • Tick Off Tel: 012 804 4460 • Dosatron Sales & Service Tel: 011 434 2887 www.wildpharm. also available from Afrivet: .189 Other animal health companies • Ashkan Animal Health Tel: 011 466 8763 www. The chapters go beyond veterinary issues to herd management and • Biotech Veterinary Division Tel: 011 848 3050 www.roche.immunovet. compiled by Dr Faffa Malan. runs a question and answer veterinary

Available also in Afrikaans. A monthly publication VET News/Nuus is available from the South African Veterinary Association. www. National animal traction networks were formed in several African countries. to improve small farmer productivity and to raise rural living standards through the use of animal power for transport and crop production. SANAT and the ATC (where SANAT is currently based) have worked to expand the understanding and use of animal traction throughout the country. Dr Pamela Oberem. This Centre was started with a view to providing a centre where training and research in animal traction could be conducted.190 • Diseases and Parasites of Cattle. Contact the Supply Shop at 012 529 9161. CDs.vetproductsonline. Overview In 1990 the Animal Traction Network for Eastern and Southern Africa (ATNESA) was formed to link animal traction specialists in the region. International overview SANAT is an affiliated member of ATNESA and has benefited from this international network. Find the document on www. Available also in Afrikaans. DVDs and other media for sale. In 1994 SANAT conducted a national animal traction survey throughout South Africa to assess the state of animal traction in South Africa and. International Veterinary Information Service – www. Animal Power is still used on a large scale in many third world countries throughout the world and is beginning to make a comeback in many first world countries as well. Europe and Canada Animal Traction is used more as a hobby but some areas have seen an increase in the use of animal traction. At the same time. See also the Afrivet Plan A website.g. in the long along with the relevant research. Dr Pamela Oberem & Dr Peter Oberem. It has been replaced by fossil fuel powered engines and machines. Publications available from SAAHA on request (contact details under heading 5): • Guidelines for the Responsible Use of Crop Protection and Animal Health Products (Also in Afrikaans) • Basic Guidelines for the Responsible Use of Crop Protection and Animal Health Products. the South African Network of Animal Traction (SANAT) was established with a view to promoting the use of working animals. The ARC-OVI Supply Shop has a number of publications. or visit their website: www. Typical . • A guide to animal diseases in South Africa: Dogs and Cats. Dr Pamela HunterOberem (Editor). Donkeys and Mules. Sheep and Goats. • Guide to the Treatment of Poisoning by Chemicals – a must for the medical profession. which are in most cases less cost-effective and environment-friendly than Animal to provide training and conduct research in animal traction. These include the Infotoons – instructive illustrated text.afrivet. sava.ivis. Our gratitude to Dr Pamela Oberem. for an interactive calendar. Animal Traction is used in particular by the Amish people as a major power source for their agriculture and transport. It also revealed that animal power was being re-introduced on some large scale commercial farms to reduce the heavy mechanisation costs resulting from increases in fuel and machinery prices. Find the notes on animal health at The Best practice reference manual for wool sheep farming in South Animal Traction – or Draught Animal Power as it is sometimes referred to – has played a most important role in the development of humankind. In 1993. the Animal Traction Centre (ATC) at Fort Hare University in the Eastern Cape was – “Novel solutions for the sustainable control of nematodes in ruminants” www. • A guide to animal diseases in South Africa: Game. Call 012 346 1150/1. Afrivet and Dr Rebone Moerane for feedback on the draft chapter inputs Animal traction: the use of animal power See also the “Donkeys” chapter 1.afrivetplana. Since notably in the forestry industry and for cartage over short distances – an online animal product store.htm A few commercial farmers in South Africa are using animal traction to supplement their tractor operations and reduce operating costs. Dr Pamela Oberem. • Vaccination for the control of animal diseases in Southern Africa. brought out by the National Wool Growers Association (NWGA) includes useful notes on health and disease management along with the other information. on-farm. In the United Kingdom. Local business environment Find the latest newsletter at www. Available also in Available also in Afrikaans. In the United States of America. development and training. 3. with the assistance of the National and Eastern Cape Departments of Agriculture. English and Afrikaans – ideal for farmers. easy-to-use wheel programme – and more. • A guide to animal diseases in South Africa: Horses. which has enabled South Africa to network and link up with all the countries which are still using or have reverted to animal traction. Available also in Afrikaans. or contact 041 365 5030. milk The survey revealed that throughout the rural communities of South Africa some 60% of the rural farmers were using animal For a comprehensive range of leading animal health products see www.

This equipment has been tested and adapted for use by local farmers at the Animal Traction Centre at Fort Hare University.gentag. Many subsistence farmers are women who are helped by children. A refreshing change which has recently come about is the interest that the Department of Agriculture in the Eastern Cape has shown towards Animal Traction.or cow-drawn harnessing and crop production equipment. the use of donkeys provides additional savings or income from the transport of goods and water. Role players Afritrac Tel: 011 918 4698/9 Fax: 011 918 5983 www. Animal power is particularly relevant to subsistence farmers. This has manifested itself in the provision of funding for the training of small scale farmers in animal traction and the importation of a wide range of modern animal drawn equipment from Brazil a country which makes significant use of animal traction throughout its agricultural sector. Animal power has a potentially important role to play in the development of emerging farmers entering commercial Inttrac Trading Tel: 016 365 5799 inttrac@cyberserv.Find the “Animal drawn carts” heading under the “Major projects” and “Non-motorised transport” options. Manufacturer/distributors such as Afritrac and INTTRAC (find contact numbers under heading 5) can be contacted to find nearby suppliers. Instead of depreciating with time and use. when more sustainable cost-effective crop production systems such as Conservation Agriculture are utilised.191 activities are transporting of farming Source: August 2011 SANAT Newsletter 5.agric. spreading fertiliser and manure. especially when more sustainable cost-effective crop production systems such as Conservation Agriculture are utilised. Such equipment is usually too expensive for these farmers to purchase. planters and cultivators. while the running costs are likewise much On the other hand. The National Department of Agriculture has plans to establish many smallscale emerging farmers as fully functional commercial farmers. farmers can afford to purchase the few animals needed and can utilise implements already available on the farm or which can be readily borrowed from Donkey Power Tel: 083 817 6047 / 083 686 7539 asstute@lantic.afritrac. which incorporates the ATC. which more and more are becoming financially out of the reach of small-scale farmers. is recognised and supported financially by the Eastern Cape Department of Agriculture. harrows. Equally. They can utilise implements already available or borrow from neighbours. Such equipment has been and is still being developed and is becoming available to subsistence farmers in South Africa. Most subsistence farmers work small pieces of land which are difficult to manage with conventional tractor-drawn ploughs. Animals present a much lower investment risk. 4. the use of cows for the short periods when traction is required (especially in crop production) can result in alternative sources of income in the form of calves and milk. Donkeys (easier to handle for women and children) and smaller light weight equipment is needed for this type of GENTAG (Generic Engineering Task Group) Tel: 018 431 1287 ARC-Institute for Agricultural Engineering (ARC-IAE) Tel: 012 842 4017 / 4090 simalengat@arc. and weeds The Department of Transport has allocated funding to the improvement and safety of donkey carts. Inputs are readily available A number of provincial departments of agriculture are supporting animal traction initiatives in their provinces. and they have to hire from local contractors who thereby dictate when critical operations such as planting can take place. Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) in the preparation of a National Policy Document which will provide a strategy whereby animal traction and related issues can be managed both nationally and regionally. there remain between three and four thousand small farmers using animal traction who are receiving very little real support at all. farmers can afford to purchase the animals needed. This enables the emerging farmer to compete on the open market with largescale commercial farmers.transport. especially for ox. produce and fodder. This is a laudable objective until one realises that for every commercial farmer that is established. SANAT is currently assisting the Department of Agriculture. The Traction Centre (TC) at Fort Hare University. The initial capital investment is about one third what it would be if tractor-powered mechanisation were Madzivhandila College of Agriculture Tel: 015 962 7200 . Conversely. There is still talk of and the actual supply of emerging farmers with state of the art agricultural machinery including tractors. National strategy and government contact Department of Transport Integrated Implementation Support Tel: 012 309 3403 / 3129 www. Stellenbosch University Sustainability Institute Tel: 021 881 3196 www. ISBN 0-90714615-7 • Using Cows for work. No’s 1 & 2 (2003). Animals Traction Network for Eastern and Southern Africa (ATNESA). Paul Starkey. an electronic consultation done under the aegis of the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) and The Brooke in the first half of 2011 on www. Animal Traction Network for Eastern and Southern Africa ATNESA. Anne Pearson and Timothy Simalenga (editors). Bruce Joubert • Education. Paul Starkey (2004) Call 040 602 2125 or write to seSotho) • Developing agriculture with animal traction • The Golovan cart We are indebted to Bruce Joubert for his information and assistance with this chapter. A Pearson and TE Simalenga (editors) A Resource Book of Animal Traction Network for Eastern and Southern Africa (ATNESA). University of Find the following Info Paks on www. Animal Traction network for Eastern and Southern Africa (ATNESA).torsion. 6. • Developing Agriculture with Animal University of Pretoria Faculty of Veterinary Science Tel: 012 529 8000 Fax: 012 529 8300 www. • Animal Traction in “Harnessing Africa’s Animal Power to unlock Africa’s people power” Yokes for Africa Tel: 072 185 9381 The Traction Centre at Fort Hare University currently provides training. • Conservation Tillage with Animal • A Bumper Crop for the Animal Traction Centre at Fort Hare University2009/2010 Season. PG Kaumbutho and TE Simalenga (editors).nspca.Regional Workshop on Animal Traction 6th – 9th March. horses and mules for Wheel and Water Tel: 021 422 1699 / 082 925 3892 http://wheelandwater. impact and welfare of working (traction and transport) animals. Paul Starkey and Pascal Kaumbutho (editors).fao. Empowering Rural Communities. University of Edinburgh. training and extension in animal traction. Dr Peta Jones and the late Richard Fowler.tracka-trekka. Paul Starkey & Johan Koorts (2004) • Animal traction in development: Changes and The South African Network of Animal Traction (SANAT) Tel: 040 602 2125 / 082 200 1234 Fax: 040 602 2488 sanat@ufh.192 National Council of SPCAs Farm Animal Unit Tel: 011 907 3590/1/2 Emmanuel Mwenya and John Stares (editors).org. research and extension in tractor as well as draught animal power in the Eastern Cape. One of the aims of the Traction Centre is to create a database of indigenous animal traction knowledge and skills. One hundred and fifty-six people from 52 countries registered for the to the National Department of Agriculture • Newsletter. TE Simalenga and R Krecek. with more than 40 of these contributing to the online discussion. PG Kaumbutho. compiled and edited by Paul Starkey. Some senior citizens grew up with animal • Care and use of working donkeys ( Tracka-Trekka Tel: 083 442 4848 www. South African Network of Animal Traction (SANAT). isiZulu. Timothy Simalenga and Bruce Joubert (editors). org. • Harnessing and hitching donkeys. TE Simalenga and ADB Joubert. Call 012 842 4017 or write to iaeinfo@arc. The centre is supported and financed by the East Cape Department of Agriculture. South Tshwane University of Technology (TUT) Department of Mechanical Engineering Dr Hendrik van Zyl Tel: 012 382 5170 vanzylhg@tut. The ARC-Institute for Agricultural Engineering has a few publications of relevance here. website of the Animal Traction Network for Eastern and Southern Africa (ATNESA) A number of publications can be downloaded at www.sustainabilityinstitute. agis. Published by Department of Agriculture. Find Role. • Improving Animal Traction Technology. .ac.animaltraction.up.daff. Paul Starkey et al • Animal traction in South Africa: Overview of the key ISBN 0-907146-15-5 • Empowering Farmers with Animal Torsion Trailers Tel: 016 362 3456 www. Bruce Joubert • Final Report . • Meeting the challenges of Animal Bruce Joubert • Animal Traction .ATNESA. Thanks are also owed to the number of people who also gave feedback on the draft chapter – Prof Tim Simalenga. • Empowering Farmers with Animal Traction. Paul Starkey et al • Animal traction in South Africa: The way forward. 2007 • An historical perspective on animal power use in South Africa. South African Network of Animal Traction (SANAT) • Proposed SANAT Policy on Animal Traction • Animal traction in South Africa: The present situation. RA Pearson.PG Kaumbutho and TE Simalenga (editors). Research is also being done in the use of animal traction as a complementary power source to agricultural tractors. Volume 11. Animal Traction Network for Eastern and Southern Africa (ATNESA). TE Simalenga and RA Pearson.sanat. PASCAL Kaumbutho. and it is important to capture their knowledge which is a valuable resource. before it is lost. Find reference to numerous documents shared and posted at the end of the for the following: • Yokes for animal traction (also available in Afrikaans) • Animal traction implements Find the notes on Animal Traction under the “Livestock” option at or ajoubert@ufh. Websites and publications Find information on ATNESA and SANAT at www. Zimbabwe ISBN No 0-907146-10-4 • Conservation tillage with animal for the following publications: • Animal Traction In South Africa. Harare. ATNESA resource Download the following publications in pdf format at Universal Wellbeing – see Wheel and Water University of Fort Hare Traction Centre Tel: 040 602 2125 / 082 200 1234 Fax: 040 602 2488 gmeikle@ufh.

increasing yield and improving harvest quality. IPM is based on the assumption that it is not necessary or cost effective to try to eliminate an entire population of pests. birds and mammals in our environment. insects that were of little economic importance can become damaging pests. predators and pathogens) – whether introduced or otherwise manipulated – to suppress the pest populations to an acceptable level. Many purely chemical strategies are also aimed at reducing pest populations below a threshold level and not at eliminating entire populations of the pest. Instead. If a pesticide has the potential to kill. if you do use pesticides. Why the need for an alternative? Pesticides have revolutionised agriculture. The technique most often used for the control of insect pests and weeds is referred to as classical biological control. mites. which uses chemical pesticides. Augmentative biological control describes actions that increase the populations of natural enemies. which require the consumption of plant material for exposure to toxicity. or by creating an avenue for infection by pathogens. but their leftover stockpiles can contaminate the environment and endanger human health. 3. . Even on a conventional farm. insects. Different techniques can be used in biological control: a. Denser populations of spiders slow the rate of pest recovery so that fewer applications of pesticide are required in a season. When a non-toxic control method is used. and other environmentally-friendly control methods 1. a pesticide may be used to prevent excessive crop damage or loss greater than the cost of preventing the damage. but should nevertheless be the core around which pest or weed management systems are built. Ten times more ground-dwelling dwarf and other spiders live in organic fields and fields sprayed with soft pesticides than in fields sprayed with broad-spectrum pesticides. a fungus. after which the natural enemies become established in the new country. by reducing its reproductive capacity. c. IPM programmes require a thorough understanding of various techniques such as biological. Inundative biological control involves the repeated introduction and release of large numbers of natural enemies. they are a selfrenewable resource. predators kill most pests most of the time and when pesticides devastate natural enemies of potential pests. Programmes which promote the responsible use and disposal of agricultural chemicals are run by CropLife SA and CropLife International (see the “Crop protection” chapter). it is usually accepted that a far higher degree of host-specificity is required for a weed-biocontrol agent than for a pest-biocontrol agent. Overview Biological control involves the use of a pest’s own natural enemies (parasites. Organisms that we might consider “pests” have a place in the scheme of things. crop or natural ecosystems. minimising costs to farmers. and determination of economic injury levels. Biological control of agricultural pests using predators and parasites (including IPM) Biological control of agricultural pests usually forms part of an integrated pest management (IPM) programme. spiders and reptiles on our farms. low-temperature regions. Once spiders are established in the environment. which includes diseases. while suppression of weeds could take place by killing or weakening the weed. such as the tiniest microbe in the soil. Insect growth regulators are among the least toxic to spiders. Biological control is often only possible within the framework of an integrated pest management (IPM) system. air and water for a long time. Most pest-biocontrol agents kill their host directly. minimise the effect on predators by avoiding synthetic pyrethroids. mechanical and chemical control methods. pest monitoring. When the number of pests reaches a threshold level. bacterium. Systemic insecticides. threshold levels are established to determine when control is necessary to bring pest population levels down. nematodes and weeds and/or invasive alien plants. Without them there would be none of the wonderful birds. The word “pest” is used here in a broad sense. protect and enhance natural enemies. virus or nematode or one of the many parasitic or predatory insects. build up their numbers and remain present in the new environment.193 inputs Biocontrol Biological Control. Biological control cannot be expected to solve all pest or weed problems in a particular situation. which are among the most toxic to beneficial predators. 2. Spiders naturally suppress pest populations and are self-renewable. and concentrate in the high-altitude. Some actions needed in support of integrated pest management include correct pest identification. reptiles. Conservation biological control This refers to environmental modification or other actions that are taken to preserve. IPM refers to the ‘integration of two or more control strategies’ for suppression of the pest below a given threshold level. Some pesticides are harmful to people and the environment because they remain in the soil. d. then it also carries a risk to the environment. affect natural enemies less. Conservation biological control refers to environmental modification to protect and enhance natural enemies. It involves the introduction of natural enemies from the native range of the pest or weed from its country of origin. Irresponsible use of non-selective pesticides eliminates not only the target pest but also many beneficial organisms that play an important role in garden. As you use fewer chemicals you may increase the effectiveness of spiders against pests. The benefit may be much more than just saving the cost of the chemical and application. Integrated Pest Management (IPM). While in principle there is little difference between the biological control of diseases. cultural. insect pests and weeds. b. Some of the answers to our pest problems may be right under our noses. Softer pesticides allow the natural conservation of predators. However. spiders reduce the numbers of and damage caused by potential pest species. are easily dispersed by water and air.

They are mass-reared and sold by companies called ‘insectaries’.za KZN Department of Agriculture and Environmental University of the Affairs Witwatersrand Michael. IDEPP (Initiative for the Development of Expertise in Plant Protection) provided that platform and expertise from the ARC as well as that of private companies together with that of the Potchefstroom and Mafikeng campuses of the NWU were pooled to provide this essential expertise for teaching and such as spiders. Conservation biological control: Dr Ansie Dippenaar – 012 808 8247 University of Cape Town Department of Zoology ARC-Small Grain Institute Tel: 021 650 3604 Dr Justin Hatting www. These live “active ingredients” can be applied to crops with similar application methods to traditional pesticides.biofly. The technology is such that we can “formulate” living organisms such as Tel: 012 420 3938/9 • Vital Bugs Tel: 087 751 0279 www.agric.zoology. beetles and parasitic wasps.agric. The use of biopesticides is a special type of inundative biological control.up.insectscience. sunflower. Visit www. • Becker Underwood South Africa Tel: 031 769 2003 Tel: 058 307 3400 Other ARC Institutes in the Horticulture business division do research on the biological control of pests in certain crop situations.cannonpestcontrol. Consult Training and research ARC-Plant Protection Research Institute Biological control of agricultural pests: Dr Roger Price – 012 356 9817 Rhodes University Department of Zoology and Entomology Prof Martin Hill – 046 603 8712 www.ecolab. Information Core for Southern African Migrant Pests (ICOSAMP) is a regional cooperative initiative between officers working on migrant pests in different SADC ( • Plastrip supplies bird scare Walter Sisulu University North-West University School of Applied and Environ(Potchefstroom Campus) mental Sciences Research Unit: Environmental Tel: 047 502 2311 / 2186 Science and Management www. diseases and abiotic stress. • Ecolab Ltd Tel: 080 000 6448 School of Biological & Conservation Sciences Dr Terry Olckers Research: Microbial Crop Tel: 033 260 5139 • BugsAway Tel: 011 782 0491 and the information just above heading 6 • Insect Science Tel: 015 307 1391 which seek out and kill insect • Madumbi Sustainable Agriculture Tel: 086 104 5261 • SA Biofarm Institute Tel: 058 622 2372 • Biogrow Tel: 028 313 2054 • Bio-insectaries SA (BISA) Tel: 042 286 0978 qualifications The North-West University has addressed the need for the development of expertise in Plant Protection over many years.uct. and therefore large numbers have to be reared somewhere else and released periodically where they are required.gardencare. Efficacy evaluation is University of Pretoria done of biological control products Forestry and Agricultural under field and greenhouse Biotechnology Institute (FABI) • Eagle Eye Tel: 021 880 2856 • Microbial Solutions Tel: 011 475 4362 • Agro-Hytech Tel: 021 863 2884 • Greenhouse Technologies Tel: 011 613 2580 www. develop. The actual period that these organisms remain active determines the frequency of Tel: 011 717 6491 Inundative biological control and biopesticides This technique is used for natural enemies that do not become permanently established in the new environment.sabiofarm.agric. groundnut and cotton.agrohytech. University of KwaZulu-Natal Department of Plant Pathology Tel: 033 260 5524 Conducts research on biological control of crop • Bio-Fly (Pty) Ltd Tel: 083 601 7221 • Zylem Tel: 033 347 2893 www. Products include bio-fungicides and bio-insecticides). Role players Companies • Advanced Integrated Pest Management Tel: 012 346 0162 www. as is the case with the active ingredient of traditional bacteria and viruses just as we would formulate chemical There are some 30 commercially available species of predators and • Cannon Pest Control Tel: 021 931 8228 www. horticulture and Prof J van den Berg – 018 299 2376 Prof D Fourie – 018 293 3683 IPM is covered in pest management • FruitFly Africa – see www. The expertise within this group is particularly strong with regard to crop protection on the following crops: Classical biological control of Stellenbosch University invasive alien plants: Department of Conservation Ecology and Entomology Hildegard Klein – 012 356 9841 Tel: 021 808 3728 4.microbial. View their website: go to www. co.planthealth.nwu. produce and market innovative biocontrol products for agriculture.vitalbugs. com • Du Roi Integrated Pest Management Tel: 015 345 1572 http:// duroibugs. .za and look for the ICOSAMP menu option down the left hand side of the screen. insect pests and diseases of crops. com • Coopers Environmental Science Tel: 011 979 4246 Prof Marcus Byrne Microbial control agents or pathogens such as fungi are available for the control of weeds. • River Bioscience Tel: 041 583 3464 • Plant Health Products (PHP) Tel/fax: 033 266 6130 Biological Crop Health Tel: 083 631 9952 (Johan Gerber) •Agro Organics Agriculture Tel: 021 851 2403 www. • Insist that the driller provide a record of the exact depth at which the most promising water fissure is Visit and www. tel: 012 356 9841. electrical clearance. the National Sustainable Agriculture Project (USA). tel: 012 356 9841. the distance of the tank or reservoir from the pumping site. the quantity of water required daily etc. The sterile males mate with the wild females which results in infertile eggs being or www. a reliable source of water is assured. yield test internal combustion engine driven pumping systems. . problems can develop when the practical requirements of maintaining the system are neglected or forgotten. Windmills are easy to install and have historically proven to be reliable.kejafa. compiled by Hanna-Andrea Rother and Ricado Jacobs. disease and weed control. • It is in your best interest to sign a contract that details all the costs that are likely to be incurred. For suitable pest insects. and also the one which eventually will be the least costly.southx. To receive this e-newsletter please email • Find the notes on pest management at • Dossiers on Biological Control Agents available to aid Alien Plant Control– contact Hildegard Klein. Relevant publications: • PPRI Leaflet Series: Weeds Biocontrol – contact Hildegard • is also of the right type so that the whole can be assembled into the correct plant for the particular job.agric. Alternatives are solar driven systems. It is nothing more than birth control for insects. cons-ent. bio-insecticides. The publication is available direct from www.agric.gardencare. is still relevant and available and details of the contents can be found at www. contacts at DAFF etc are and provided all procedures are carried out correctly the wild pest population then declines with successive generations to sub-economic levels. professionalism and survival of the industry. It is worthwhile making sure beforehand that every detail of the plant to be supplied is • SIT Africa Stiaan Kotze 082 447 4077 or call 021 448 0105.xsit.tandf.spp.agric.195 The sterile insect technique for pest management The sterile insect • South African Sugar Research Institute Dr Des Conlong 031 508 7400 6. and sometimes when there is limited access to the firm responsible for designing the construction certificate. or in certain circumstances. and released in high numbers every week in the target areas. • The Pesticides Action Network (PAN) is a network “in over 90 countries working to replace the use of hazardous pesticides with ecologically sound and socially just alternatives”. inputs Boreholes and windmills 1.aardvarkpress. • There are SABS standards now available for the ground water industry. Factors include the distance from ground level to water level. • The Department of Water Affairs: Working for Water website on dwa. and hand pump systems. • Find links to other international sites relevant to pest information and biological controls on Visit www. For more details on this journal. Source: Southern Cross Industries 2. Write to infoppri@arc. Find the ARC-Plant Protection Research Institute (PPRI) on www. The PPRI electronic newsletter contains updates on biocontrol research. Choosing a pumping plant is an engineering proposition because it is essential to make sure that every item of the equipment is: • of the right size in relation to the remainder. Control without Poison by Charles Walters. • You may wish to sell your farm or property at a later stage. • The Garden Guardian’s guide to environmentally-responsible garden care by Johan Gerber. If basic and simple disciplines are is available from the Surplus People Project. the males sterilised with gamma radiation. • Is he/she a member of the Borehole Water Association of Southern Africa (BWA)? Membership of BWA shows that the contractor/ supplier you are dealing with is interested in the long-term viability. Overview A great proportion of the rural population in developing countries do not have access to clean potable water.html. Pesticides and Fertilizers” option under “Divisions” at A full list of considerations is available on furthermore. maintenance can be carried out by the local populace. A driller’s • Xsit Sampie Groenewald 022 921 2993 pump details and commissioning data will be positive proof of the professionalism of the contractor. Find the notes on biocontrol. the technology is appropriate to less developed areas. Websites and publications • Find the “Feeds. CD-roms. co. is one of the most ecologically compatible means of pest management there is. published by Aardvark Press. least maintenance. • Pesticides Health Risks for South African Emerging Farmers. and the borehole represents a substantial capital investment. fungicides and bio-fungicides. • Call 011 025 4388 or visit • Stellenbosch University Matthew Addison 082 774 1757 www. Their advantages include: lowest cost. Lists of registered insecticides. arc. agric. millions per week are reared. and to Michelle Paterson for feedback on the draft chapter. Farmer points of interest How to estimate the quantity of water required daily for livestock – consult the “Animal husbandry” chapter. This information is of vital importance to the pump installer so that he can select the correct pump for your co. publications and other materials are available from the website or from the Plant Protection Research Institute itself. for the publication Weeds. It champions Integrated Pest Management (IPM) and agro ecology. za Our appreciation to Hildegard Klein at the ARC-PPRI for the notes she made available to the project. Posters. • ARC Infruitec-Nietvoorbij Dr Brian Barnes 083 629 5922 www.agric. e-mail kleinh@arc. Stock Remedies. eradication may be You are looking at the most efficient system. visit www.toxipedia. • Find the “Integrated Pest Management” and other interesting options at www. application forms. • It is advisable to ask for references preferably from clients who have had time to assess the quality of work over a reasonable period. asp. e-mail .kalahari. • Biocontrol Science and Technology presents original research and reviews in the fields of biological pest. • Madumbi Sustainable Agriculture produces an e-newsletter called Biopulse. commonly abbreviated SIT.

Included in their membership are central and local government departments. They are also required to supply proof that the water is hygienically safe for human consumption.wrc. They are also noisy.borequip. Groundwater contributes 9% of the country’s water resources and plays a crucial role. Because of the predominantly hard rock nature of the South African • The local municipality/council may require that permission be obtained to sinking a borehole. Windmill pumping schemes should be designed so that they never extract more than 70 percent of the tested well yield. Wind data is available in most parts of the world.rhodes.sanbwa.196 Other factors that the client must fully understand and be aware of before drilling takes place: • The drilling contractor can never guarantee that he will strike Borequip Tel: 021 949 0902 www. • A modern drilling rig is large and heavy – in urban areas it can cause a certain amount of unavoidable damage to lawns and even badly laid as there are too many unknowns to consider such as the borehole’s final University of the Free State Institute for Groundwater Studies Tel: 051 401 2482 / 3481 www. If all THREE of the above are present. South African National Bottled Water Association (SANBWA) Tel: 011 884 5916 www. Find contact details for Groundwater and therefore it is the client who is at risk for cost of the borehole. which keeps members informed of current items of interest in the groundwater Elsumo Tel: 021 875 5781 www. electronic and ancillary equipment. windmills are most economic in areas where the wind speed exceeds 10 km/hr for a period exceeding eight hours per day. 3. • The drilling contractor cannot be expected to say beforehand what the borehole will cost in Cyclone Industries Tel: 011 821 5900 The association was formed in an effort to ensure the quality standards of our members and protect the consumer against Water Talk is an electronic misrepresentation from within the newsletter sent out by Rhodes University Institute for Water Research Tel: 046 6224014 www. Role players Associations and statutory The Borehole Water Association of Southern Africa (BWA) Tel: 011 447 0853 www.ernestee. professional The South African National Bottled Water Association (SANBWA) is the recognised body of the bottled water industry. Forestry and Fisheries Directorate: Infrastructure Support Tel: 012 319 846 8502 ATvC@daff. professional and trade organisation representing all aspects of the groundwater industry.edx. Geological Society of South Africa Ground Water Division (GWD) Tel: 012 667 3681 www.bwa. plots and BWA is a non-profit. There must be a perceived need for clean potable water at the proposed installation site. Rule one is that the local populace must see the real need for clean potable water Wind.dwa. leading enterprises who manufacture drilling. even in remote rural Bauer South Africa Tel: 011 793 2616 Water Research Commission (WRC) Tel: 012 330 0340 www. especially in rural water Community water projects Wind driven water supply schemes require three basic items: Sociological. Underground water is available in most parts of the world at varying depths. National strategy and government contact Department of Water Affairs South African Bureau of Standards (SABS) Tel: 012 428 7911 www. links and more on the DWA website. the amount required and the time taken for its Aquaman Drilling Trust Tel: 015 517 7210 Cell: 083 228 9359 Cell: 083 586 4788 Ernest Electro Engineering Tel: 011 792 9550/1/2 www. only about 20% of groundwater occurs in major aquifer Geomeasure Group Tel: 031 765 1900 www. This is normally little more than a formality. More detailed information is available from the the Borehole Water pumping.heidelkor. contractors and interested FAB Water Engineering Tel: 011 793 5513 www. Windmills can be so designed that they can pump water in the lightest or strongest winds. documents and strategy. is that a yield certificate be supplied by a recognised pump installer that states that the borehole on the property is capable of yielding a constant flow of water from the borehole of a minimum of 1500 litres over a 24 hour period. regardless of whether it is wet or dry. Department of Agriculture.hardrock-drilling. so you should warn your Companies Amatola Irrigation Tel: 043 732 1927 Hardrock Drilling Tel: 011 807 2000 / 083 442 3526 www. for which the drilling contractor cannot reasonably be held This is the most important rule of windmill water supply and is the most neglected part of the installation windmills will satisfactorily supply water. Without this Using groundwater (along with surface water) will be a key part of solving South Africa’s looming water-stressed status. Heidelkor Tel: 016 341 6130/1 Training and research North-West University (Potchefstroom Campus) Centre for Water Sciences and Management Tel: 018 293 0918 www. e. As a generalisation. Windmills are capable of pumping water from surface water sources over long distances or from great depths of up to 200 metres underground or even more with special windmill configurations. In light wind areas the cost of pumping water with windmills will Booysen Bore Drilling Company Tel: 053 712 2112 annelie@booysen.ufs. farm houses. any water supply system will • The minimum specifications of most banks in South Africa for granting a bond on property not supplied with mains water.

Ronald Thomson ZM Pumps Tel: 082 552 3917 / 073 070 8545 www. Find the articles on the Borehole Water Association website – Steyn Drilling Contractor Tel: 013 751 3871 www. renewable groundwater in South Africa is 10. co. Source: Ronald Thomson.turbex. Sources: Southern Cross Industries. Compost “The excellent results that Villiers Aqua Engineering Tel: 058 821 0765 / 072 236 6845 www.3smedia. • Compost works best when applied to the soil before planting vegetables or – International Association of Hydrogeologist. As a result. For rates or subscription.waterforschools. the worldwide groundwater organisation Find the World Health Organization’s Guidelines for drinking-water quality and other documents at www.197 Hose Manufacturers Tel: 021 948 3971 www. The idea is that most of the beneficial micro-organisms and plantnecessary nutrients present in the compost are extracted from the solid compost and are now present in the liquid compost (this liquid is termed . available from the ARC in Silverton: • Grondwatersensors • Groundwater sensors Groundwater extraction and the latest techniques and equipment used in this process are covered in Water & Sanitation Africa.agric. Liquid composts (compost tea) Spreading solid composts onto large surface areas caused. reduce erosion.steyndrillingcontractors. Websites and publications Borehole Water Journal – a quarterly put out by the Borehole Water email them at sales@bwa.hoses. Decomposition involves the breakdown of plant and animal remains into simpler components. The BWA also puts out a Membership Directory. Dr Shafick Call 012 842 4017 or email iaeinfo@arc. Reducing or eliminating the use of inorganic products and replacing them with organic products will bring the microorganisms back into the soil – these microorganisms will bring depleted soils back to life and provide all the necessary nutrients for healthy 6. biological and organic farmers are getting in the field from using good compost are now the driving force behind this industry’s growth” – www. as could be – as well as the many links to other relevant websites. Don Blacklaw. A number of schools have had a borehole drilled to provide clean water for pupils – www.iah. in any industry. fungi. Water Wise (Rand Water) According to WRC water research increases the soil’s ability to hold water and air. Therefore there is the potential to considerably increase groundwater supplies in South Africa as part of the total provide nutrients and prevent weed growth.zmsa. and prevents erosion by binding the soil. Tel: 021 854 6518 http://joostecylinders. Overview • The steep increases in the cost of inorganic fertilisers and pesticides (many derived from petroleum products) have led many farmers to look at replacing them with organically-derived Rapid Allweiler Pump & Engineering (Pty) Limited Tel: 011 573 7400 Contact the Borehole Water Association for their directory of members. • Compost can also be used as mulch – the protective cover placed over the soil to keep moisture Turbex Tel: 082 773 8496 www. A number of relevant role players are also listed in the “Pumps and Generators” and “Water” chapters. This natural compost is generally called “humus”.za. and Southern Cross Industries Tel: 051 434 3861 Compost is formed in nature all the time as plants and animals die and for the following publications. Anybody buying bulk compost is advised to seek professional help in choosing a supplier a muslin bag of compost is suspended in a vat of de-chlorinated water and the water was agitated continuously by some form of pumping device. Find the report “Groundwater to play a key role in South Africa – WRC” on www. Good compost is an excellent source of beneficial organisms and organic matter.34-billion m3 a year. the total volume of available.sabiofarm. nutrients (which are essential for plant growth) are released into the soil. Staden Borehole Pumps Tel: 051 522 0397 http://stadenpumps. there are good and bad composts! Source: Jako Jooste Cylinder & Pump Compost returns nutrients to the soil. South Africa is currently using between 2-billion and 4-billion m3 a year of this groundwater. The process of decomposition is essential for the recycling of nutrients. • Continual use of inorganic products have sterilised the soil and killed off the billions of microorganisms that occur in nature. Decomposition is brought about by the action of decomposers which include bacteria.engineeringnews. the Borehole Water Association inputs Compost and organic fertiliser See also the separate “Earthworms and vermicompost” chapter Read about the various Water for Schools programmes that are run. Ken Call 011 531 3300 or visit some problems – liquid composts solved many of these problems.

za compost@mweb. Such additions can be Soilfoodweb Lab Tel: 015 268 2912 / 082 885 9608 Manure spreading machines Mayibuye Ndlovu Compost Tel: 042 233 0320 a huge boost when applied but a starvation when this is used up or leached Talborne Products Tel: 011 954 5763 Using composts as fertiliser and plant food ensures a supply of food throughout the growing season and Slurry Tech Tel: 033 267 7677 / 082 932 0481 Earth 2 Earth Tel: 0860 47 66 33 from the sea and National Plant Food (Gromor) Tel: 031 782 3105 Windmeul Lushof 101 Tel: 021 873 2427 Tel: 015 307 4420 / 082 800 1895 Master Organics Tel: 021 396 1066 A business which specialises in compost extract Companies Karibu Farm Tel/fax: 032 947 1194 Ocean Agri Science Tel: 021 875 5972 Remade Organics Tel/fax: 011 432 8371 North Trust and Sundays River Citrus Lushof 101 design and manufacture scompost making equipment Avison Tel: 023 347 0544 Bark Enterprises Tel: 012 252 7235 / 082 771 8497 www. many forms of food that will be consumed by the micro-organisms and help their growth are now Gauteng. Contact details for all Agricultural Colleges can be found in the “Agricultural education and training” Role players Training and research Agricultural Colleges offer short training courses on making Culterra Tel: 011 300 9913/4/5 www. Commercially.sabiofarm.biogrow.talborne. Source: Ronald Thomson Drotsky Aktiek Tel: 011 864 1601 Stanler Farms Tel: 021 975 1724 Johannesburg: 082 657 3715/6 http://stanlerfarms. North-West University Unit for Environmental Sciences and Management Prof L van Rensburg Tel: 018 299 1542 Leon. Earthworm Organic Mediums Tel: 011 468 1220 Guano Sales (Cape) Tel/fax: 021 671 4387 Tel: 021 976 1546 (factory) Havco Tel: 017 712 5355 www. Garden & Organics Tel: 0861 COMPOST (266 76 78) Ecosoil Tel: 021 848 9434 / 072 906 1636 Used as a foliar feed it has been proven that the beneficial micro-organisms outcompete the pathogenic type and foliar plant diseases are avoided or.drotsky.VanRensburg@nwu. Compost tea is made by adding compost to water and multiplying specific Pieterse consults farmers on creating healthy Agro-Hytec Distribution Tel: 021 863 2884 www. humic and fulvic acids etc. Mpumalanga and Company (SRCC) which delivers certified organic Manure spreader implements Jacklin Organic cc Tel: 017 844 1589 The Sustainable Fruit and Vine study Group Tel: 021 808 5329 www. go to www. One user applies 100 litres per hectare every month as a soil drench throughout the growing season and has seen remarkable solid food supply at the roots. as occurs with inorganic Eco-Fert Tel: 086 100 50 51 Neutrog Africa Tel: 021 972 1958 www.198 “compost tea”).za A BEE partnership between Mayibuye Ndlovu Development Outlets in www. Atlas Organic Fertilizers Tel: 0784572743 / 078 451 8988 For more info on Soilfoodweb labs the world Most Eco-Fert products are based Ritlee Sales & Services on soil friendly sources derived Tel: 011 452 3434 The liquid also feeds the plant. When plants have a good. lessened. they are able to combat diseases more effectively than poorly-fed plants. Earthworms See the separate “Earthworms and vermicompost” Biogrow Tel: 028 313 2054 rock dust.agrohytec. The liquid is unstable and must be used within about 12 hours after The liquid compost can be sprayed onto the soil for grazing crops but it has found great use as a foliar feed in orchards. at SA Biofarm Institute Tel: 058 622 2372 University of the Free State Lengua Agricultural Centre Dr MC van der Westhuizen Tel: 083 453 9364 mcvdw@telkomsa. Stellenbosch University Department of Soil Science Dr Eduard Hoffman Tel: 021 808 4789 Soil & More Reliance Tel: 0861 888 784 www.

available from the ARC in Silverton: • Kompostering en komposteringstelsels • Composting and composting systems • Besproeiing met dieremiswater • Irrigation with animal manure water • Manure handling in intensive animal production units. Visit www. Tel: 0860 240 240 Soil Is Life: A Handbook For Teachers. The different applications of animal manure on the farm are dealt with here. It can be viewed (and downloaded) at www. PO Box 394. Write to jako@ecosoil. Other articles relevant to this chapter include “Compost tea cuts fertiliser costs by 20%” 3290. Share-Net. “Speciality fertilisers” and “Soil” chapters. available from Kejafa Knowledge Systems. M Roos (ed).za. Hands On: Soil And Compost Life – A Field Guide.agric. Share-Net.g. Our thanks to Jaco Pieterse and Ronald Thompson for notes used in this chapter . Copyright. Tel: 012 319 7141. Natal. Animal manure can be utilised for fertiliser as an energy source (fuel) and as a supplement to animal feed rations. Find the Farmer’s Weekly article “Recycling feedlot manure makes economic sense” at Visit websites of role players for a wealth of information e. Howick. The Info Paks (booklet) Using Kraal Manure (as a fertiliser) and Making organic fertiliser may be obtained from the Resource Centre at the National Department of Agriculture.199 6. “Organic farming”.za and www. Call 012 842 4017 or email Howick. Tel: 0860 240 240.kejafa.daff. 3290. PO Box 394. or call 011 025 4388 for several compost-related to obtain the following publications.ecosoil. edited and revised by F written by HT Breedt. Natal. www. I van den Berg. Websites and publications See the “Biological farming”.za. Subscribe to the monthly Ecosoil newsletter. A farmer with a feedlot is in a prime position to replace fertiliser with manure.

3 soil water less available 4 soil organic matter content & consequently soil quality unavoidably reduced 5 soil carbon is lost as carbon dioxide into the atmosphere contributing to global warming 6 soil degradation (chemical. but promotes permanent soil cover and diversified crop rotation to ensure better soil health and productivity. physical and biological) 7 crop productivity increased 8 fertiliser use and costs of production reduced 9 survival of the family farm ensured (more even. • reduced water quality & increased purification costs • problems in hydroelectric power plants • sedimentation of roads • higher costs for the government and for society due to off farm effects of soil erosion • reduced rate of sedimentation of rivers. socially and economically). 2 reduced water infiltration into the soil. lakes etc. chisel & disc. environmentally friendly method of farming which does not use regular ploughing and tillage. physical and biological) 7 crop productivity reduced 8 fertiliser use and costs of production high 9 survival of the family farm threatened (lower yields. regional and farm level is no longer a luxury but an imperative. ridge till. sustainable and profitable crop production) 100basic needs satisfied > rural living standard and quality of life increased > increased and diversified productivity > increased rural prosperity > return to the land > national stability Off farm effects of soil erosion Off farm effects of new production system • sedimentation of rivers. and the adoption of conservation farming practices an essential component of good farming practice. site-oriented use of the soil Source: After Derpsch 2004. • Rational. . FAO) has come to be accepted as the umbrella term for describing agricultural farming practices that conserve ecological systems. this term has come to be accepted to include all crop To plough or not to plough – old and new paradigms in crop production Old paradigms New paradigms Soil tillage is necessary to produce a crop Tillage is not necessary for crop production • burying of plant residues with tillage implements • bare soil for weeks and months • soil temperature extremes due to direct radiation • burning crop residues allowed • strong emphasis on soil chemical processes • first option – chemical pest control • green manure cover crops and crop rotations optional • soil erosion is caused by excessive rain Consequences of soil cultivation & bare soil 1 wind and water erosion are unavoidable. Overview Our continent is bleeding to death: megatons of topsoil wash out to sea every year due to soil structure degraded by ploughing. The most common forms of CA are no-tillage. • Soil resource exploitation • Sustainable land use ensured (ecologically. • enhanced water quality & reduced purification costs • less problems for hydroelectric power plants • less sedimentation of roads • reduction of costs for the government and for society due to off farm effects of soil erosion Result: Result: • Sustainable land use is not possible (ecologically. however. rip-on-row and stubble mulching. direct seeding. due primarily to the difficulty many farmers have in excluding or controlling the influx of livestock after crop harvest. Society also benefits from reduced atmospheric carbon dioxide emissions. enhancing soil quality and reducing global warming 6 soil improvement (chemical.200 inputs Conservation Agriculture 1. production without profitability. Conservation Agriculture (CA) – or “Conservation Tillage” as it is often called – is a cost-effective. In Africa. Conservation and efficient utilisation of natural resources at national. lakes etc. CA (as defined by the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations. insufficient income) 100rural poverty > urban drift > increased pressure on urban infrastructure and employment > urban poverty > slums > crime > social conflict > political volatility • crop residues remain on the soil surface as mulch • soil never bare – permanent soil cover • soil temperatures buffered by mulch • burning mulch prohibited • emphasis on soil biological processes • first option – biological pest control • green manure cover crops and crop rotations essential • soil erosion is caused by soil mismanagement Consequences of No-till & permanent soil cover 1 wind and water erosion near zero 2 increased water infiltration into the soil 3 soil water more available 4 soil organic matter content and consequently soil quality maintained or enhanced 5 carbon is sequestered in the soil. conservation farming. dams. CA has been defined in the United Sates of America as any tillage operation that leaves at least 30% of the soil surface covered with plant residues immediately after planting. socially & economically). dams.

Also referred to as reduced tillage. crop rotation or appropriate (preferably narrow spectrum bio-friendly) herbicides. not a good idea when one considers all the benefits brought to the soils by earthworms. • Find out about the European Conservation Agriculture Federation at www. Ridge Till This is a planting method where crops are planted on the ridge top. Source: Adapted from a press release done by Standard Bank through Magna Carta Public Relations. or use short crossties to create a series of basins to store water in ‘tied-ridges’. Ultimately. sustainable and financially viable. These provide a protective cover that diminishes wind and water erosion. 2. farmers help in replenishing the nitrogen levels of the soil. No cultivation is performed during the growing season. and to leave most of the residue on the surface. Minimum Tillage Are systems that involve minimal soil manipulation for crop production. Note that. The ridges may be on the contours with graded furrows draining into a grassed water way. • to conserve moisture. followed by a light disc immediately prior to planting. • Permanent organic soil cover (either by living crops or by crop or other plant residues) – to diminish the impact of raindrops and reduce water runoff (and consequently soil loss). Conservation farming techniques are increasingly promoted as one of the solutions to replenish South Africa’s soil resources. leaving the crop residue on the surface or mixed into the top few centimetres of the soil. all of these methods leave plant residues on the soil surface between growing seasons. frequently differentiating between the in. protects the soil from wind erosion. increases water retention capabilities and serves as a shock absorber for raindrop impact. but the savings made through reduced input costs outweigh any discrepancy in income.201 production systems which aim to make more efficient use of natural and human resources while reducing environmental degradation. minimises water runoff and can thereby dramatically increase soil water (from irrigation or rain) • Disc-plant: One discing operation before planting is done to loosen the compacted soil surface. farmers should also consider crop rotation as part of their conservation farming methods. where production systems require the inversion or cultivation of the soil more than is necessary to insert the seed or seedling (for example. • to reduce soil erosion. As with Conservation Agriculture. And soil rich with earthworm tunnels is estimated to absorb four to 10 times more water than soil without. In conjunction with less tillage and leaving residues on the top soil for protection. and break pest and disease cycles. Minimum Tillage’s major objectives include: • to perform the minimum number and severity of operations thought necessary to optimise soil conditions. 3. org. reducing diesel requirements by up to 50% or more. • Strip Tillage: Combination units perform strip or zone tillage just ahead of the planter in untilled soil (usually utilising a chisel plough. There might be an initial decrease in yield. . Successful farm management demands exploring environmentally-friendly farm practices. Farmer Points of Interest Farmers can have an enormous influence on ensuring the survival of the South Africa agricultural sector over the long term by adopting more sustainable management applications. A sound knowledge of environmental pressures and long-term thinking is critical if the farm business is to be competitive. erosion is reduced due to less intervention disturbing the soil. to control weeds. and • Diversification of crop species growing in sequence and/or associations (especially crop rotation) – to increase the diversity of food sources and hence soil biota. in the incorporation of manures) such systems can not be described as Conservation Agriculture or find the ACT Network on www. • Chisel & disc: Primary tillage is conduced using chisel tines only. Some forms of Conservation Agriculture: Conservation Agriculture.ecaf. Mulch Till This is a system that involves cutting the roots of weeds and other plants. weed control is accomplished using mulches. reduces evaporation losses. The greatest benefits of this process are that it increases the organic matter. Crop rotation allows the soil time to recover in between the various planting seasons. as defined by the Food & Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO). • Chisel: Lighter chisel tines are drawn at a depth of 200-300mm as the sole cultivation prior to planting.and inter-row areas. and by introducing crops like soybeans.fao. increases. Deep and repeated tillage reduces earthworm populations by as much as 90%. Conservation Agriculture should be a consideration for every farmer concerned with sustainable growth. allelopathy (the antagonism of some plants or plant residues to other plants). conservation tillage’s ‘biological plough’. proven and is being practised under a wide range of agro-ecological conditions throughout the world. and includes all farming systems which involve simultaneous adherence to the principles of: • Continued minimal soil disturbance (including NO soil inversion) – to retain root channels and encourage the build-up of soil biota populations and hence soil structure. Specific practices include • Rip-on-row: A heavy tine at a depth of 300-450mm is drawn in the line of the planned (often also the previous) row ahead of the planter. Organic matter. with the sole aim of improving porosity and rooting depth in root zone). No Till (also called Zero Till or Direct Seeding) This is a crop production system that involves no seed bed preparation other than the opening (via a slit or punched hole) of the soil for the purpose of placing seed or seedling. Immediate survival is no longer the order of the day. and • to reduce mechanical energy and labour requirements Some common Minimum Tillage systems include: • 0Till and Plant: Tractor-driven equipment prepares narrow strips utilising shallow secondary tillage after the primary tillage and just ahead of the planter. especially predators. is receiving growing acceptance internationally as the optimal crop production system. International business environment • Conservation Agriculture has been tested. Put simply. • The African Conservation Tillage Network (ACT) consists of practitioners and promoters who believe the adaptation and adoption of conservation tillage principles is a cost effective method of reducing and reversing the environmental degradation and food insecurity devastating Africa. as do earthworms. and is a major factor in the growing dominance of South American grain producers on world markets. • Bed-plant: This method is commonly used for soil moisture management especially in surface irrigated crops where furrows are made at appropriate intervals raising the bed between. • to minimise the number of trips over the field to avoid soil compaction and structural degradation. in the furrow or along both sides of a ridge. the key ingredient in soil productivity. Contact the Regional Secretariat at actnairobi@wananchi. although some organic farmers practice Conservation Agriculture.

Short courses are also run. conventional tillage is carried Duncan (New Zealand) Kouga Implemente 042 295 1146 kougafm@telkomsa.putter@ecoport. with emphasis on and Water (ARC-ISCW) the correct choice of rotation crops Drs Danie resource-poor Stellenbosch University Department of Conservation Ecology and Entomology Tel: 021 808 3728 samways@sun. Role players Associations and NGOs Grain SA Pietman Botha – 082 759 2991 stations and Conservation tillage has a number of unique problems regarding disease control and in particular root diseases. This is part of the “Xoshindlala” Planting without Ploughing (PwP) Programme. Africa Land-Use Training Tel 014 717 3819 / 078 228 0008 especially in the Western and Eastern Cape and Baldan (Brazil) Northmec 011 922 2300 www. Read more on the website. Corrie Swanepoel such as the use of nitrogen.ecprov. and research on conservation tillage ARC-Small Grains Institute (ARC-SGI) Mr Willem Kilian Tel: 058 307 3400 Annual workshops are conducted on various aspects of conservation tillage for small-scale farmers. The TC co-operates Tel: 033 355 9100 closely with the CAT (see heading “Xoshindlala” Programme: Planting without Ploughing Mr Johan Janse van Rensburg Tel: 033 355 9328 Western Cape Department of Conservation Agriculture Thrust Agriculture (CAT) – find the University of Fort Francis J Steyn Tel: 021 808 5090 Hare entry under heading 5 franciss@elsenburg. the different directorates at www. Hendrik Training and research Institutions offering agricultural degrees/diplomas include conservation tillage in the is carried out both at ARC Research CAT co-operates closely with the Traction Centre. and other management practices. Qualifications will be active at secondary certificate and tertiary (diploma) level. and contact details Various practical CA training courses are Ms Sandra Findlay (secretary) Tel: 033 330 2062 sandrafindlay@intanet. Rural Development and Extension Tel: 051 401 3765 Eastern Cape Department of Agriculture Mr Felix Hobson Tel: 040 609 3563 felix. country of origin Distributor Contact details Alpha Engineering (RSA) Alpha Engineering 028 514 3450 www.ufs. which can be ‘tailormade’ to the requirements of all interested organisations and/or projects.alut. National strategy and provincial contact Find information Soil. ARC-Plant Protection Research Institute (ARC-PPRI) Tel: 012 808 8000 / 8263 4 and below) No-Till Association of the Western Cape Tel: 021 808 5479 / 082 907 3109 johannst@elsenburg. Climate of the Institute.agric. Mr Guy Thibaud Tel: 033 355 9100 Food Security Mr Werner Ristow Tel: 039 727 3376 Fax: 0865 715 669 Ristow. and their use in Conservation Agriculture systems Department of Agriculture and suited to field and vegetable Environmental Affairs / Cedara www. Crop and Climate Sciences This is a planned partnership Tel: 051 401 2212 between the University of Fort Hare. Elsenburg Agricultural Training Institute Tel: 021 808 7691 veronicac@elsenburg. for commercial and .com Grain SA is involved with CA Ottosdal No-Till Club initiatives Frik van Sittert No-Till Club of KwaZulu-Natal Tel: 083 400 3314 ifrik@mtnloaded.alpha-engineering.ecprov. especially Direct Seeders. the Agricultural Research Council and ARC-Grain Crops Institute (ARC-GCI) Plant Science and Advisory Services Tel: 018 299 6396 Andre Nel – NelA@arc.fixing Tel: 012 310 2500/6 Department of Agronomy Tel:021 808 4803 This centre offers a masters degree The Conservation Agriculture in sustainable agriculture which includes topics such as conservation Academy tillage. University of Fort Hare (UFH) Traction Centre Mr Bruce Joubert Tel: 040 602 2125 Fax: 040 602 2488 This Centre trains owners and operators in the use of animaldrawn 4.agric. in association with the provincial Departments of Agriculture and private companies. Implements and distributors Trade KZN Department of Agriculture and Environmental Affairs Dr Allan Manson. Research into the management of such diseases is an ongoing activity of plant pathologists ARC-Institute for HabigJ@arc. daff. University of the Free State Centre for Sustainable Research The CAT (see heading 4) is a joint initiative between the Eastern Cape Department of Rural Development and Agrarian Reform and the University of Fort Conservation Agriculture Thrust (CAT) Mr Dirk Lange Tel: 072 256 4165

kongskilde. 2nd Edition (1999) extension specialists. Accra 2005.landbou. Ademir Equalizer Precision Theebo Tech (RSA) 082 870 9522 www. Contact the KZN No-till Piket (RSA) Carel Van Niekerk Engineering 022 913 2435 Bangkok. World Association of Soil and Water A number of international links can be found on this website. • No-Till Farming Systems (2008). It outlines a few ways in which smallholder farmers in Africa can benefit from enhancing climate change mitigation through incorporating low carbon technologies and techniques into their farming or P O Box Orthman (USA) JWL Agricultural Supplies 017 819 2026 Jumil (Brazil) Reapers 033 394 6301 www. IIRR. John Deere (USA) John Deere 011 437 2600 • http://ca. Dr Ademir Calegari of Brazil’s Institute of Agriculture is another. Other companies involved Agricultural Resource Consultants Dr Jim Findlay Tel: 011 486 2254 agrecon@telkomsa. Write to him at calegari@iapar. FAO. Howick. A global collection of information presented by farmers. John Ashburner & Richard or visit www. • Find the No-tillage Training Manual at • A Guide to No-Till Crop Production in KZN.notill.equalizer. Nairobi and African Conservation Tillage Network (ACT). sunflower.agis.iapar. ISBN: 978-9748391-60-1. You may notice that available from the ARC in Silverton: - Jukke vir dieretrekkrag - Yokes for animal traction - Animal traction implements - Comparative review of technical specifications for no-till jab-planters Our gratitude to the late Richard Fowler for notes used in this Monosem (France) Carrotech 021 865 2044 www. Available from the KZN No-till Obtainable from Knapik (Brazil) Inttrac Trading 016 365 5799 .co.ecoport. • Conservation Agriculture is frequently covered in both agricultural weeklies Landbouweekblad and Farmer’s Weekly. • Call 012 842 4017 or email Hastt (Zimbabwe) Hastt Zimbabwe +263-62-33-55/8 or +263 4 756445 • Find the article “Low carbon farming: Benefits and opportunities for smallholder farmers in Africa” at Websites and publications • Find the CA pages on the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO) website – www. Special Publication No.rolf-derpsch.jwl. the Grain SA commercial farmer of the year practices no-till. Contact the KZN No-Till Club. or write to • Eco Till (RSA) Eco Till Africa 053 444 2160 www. • Conservation Agriculture in Africa. and to Dirk Lange (University of Fort Hare) for feedback on the draft chapter. Tel/fax: 033 344 Animal-drawn No Till Planters (suitable for planting • No-till on the Mealiebrand (Zimbabwe) Afritrac 011 918 4698 Kuhn Metasa (Brazil) Rovic & Leers 021 907 1700 www. a non-profit educational organisation in the USA – Massey Ferguson (USA) Barloworld Agri 011 898 0380 www. • The Beginner’s Guide to No-Till by Aubrey Living Laboratories Tel: 082 562 7987 / 083 379 5614 http://livinglaboratories. ISBN: 9988-627-04-01. Ms Sandra Findlay (secretary). Visit the archives of the publications at www. • Conservation Agriculture: A manual for farmers and extension workers in Africa (2005).za Tatu Marchesan (Brazil) Valtrac 056 817 7308 for the following publications. researchers and educationists throughout the Gaspardo SP (Italy) GMG Power 011 392 1144 An interactive dedicated website initiated here in South Africa and containing a wealth of information on Conservation Agriculture of use to Vence Turdo (Brazil) Inttrac Trading Trading 016 365 5799 – Rolf Derpsch is a well-known advocate of CA overseas. • A booklet on no-till is available in isiZulu. cotton etc) Trade name and country of origin Distributor Contact details Hastt (Zimbabwe) Hastt Zimbabwe +263-62-33-55/8 or +263 4 756445 sales@hastt. discipline professionals and research and Kongskilde (Denmark) Kongskilde SA 011 894 2341 www.

website of the Department of Agriculture. An amendment to this Act (No R. There is huge potential for more small scale farmers to be empowered to be sustainable and commercially viable exporters as they constitute only a small percentage of those who export fruit and vegetables. bacteria. The Directorate: Land Use and Soil Management enforces this Act. This is a rapidly growing area of crop protection and several agents are produced locally in South Africa. Major initiatives By CropLife SA and ACDASA under the umbrella association AVCASA In addition to training courses (see the “Training and Research” sub-heading). Find information on “SA PIP 2” menu at www. while the Department of Agriculture.ecpa. agricultural practices and legislation. nematodes or parasitic insects are used to control pests and diseases in both high value. environmentally sound and socially acceptable approach to crop protection.204 Poison Information Centres. . Find the “Biocontrol” chapter.daff. is an agriculturally important migratory pest to small grain crop-producing farmers of southern Africa. of which the South African market comprises between 2 and 3 percent. CropLife SA. food safety. For advice on cases of poisoning: inputs Tygerberg Poison Information Centre (Human 021 931 6129 Poisoning) Crop protection Red Cross Children’s Hospital Poison Line 021 689 5227 Public Emergency Communication Centre 021 480 7700 Griffon Poison Information Centre (Wildlife 082 446 8946 Poison) 1. The Policy for managing the locust problem in SA document can be found under “Publications” and “Policy documents”. including the aspect of the control and eradication of pests and • European Crop Protection Association – www. Agents such as friendly fungi. Registrar: Act No. sale or use of an agricultural remedy for a purpose or in a manner other than that specified on the label on the • Pesticide Container • Farm Chemicals International – www. in alliance with the SA Aerial Applicators Association. National strategy and government contact Find “ • Collaborative International Pesticides Analytical Council (CIPAC) – www. SA PIP 2 provides funding for training 450 smallholders nationally on responsible pesticide use. Stock Remedies. Directorate: Land Use and Soil Management Tel: 012 319 7685/6 DLUSM@daff. aircrafts are upgraded in order to ensure more efficient aerial application of the products and the subsequent updating of existing label recommendations. International business environment • Visit the website of CropLife International for international news and perspectives: www. Pesticides and Fertilzers” under the Divisions menu option at www.cipac. AVCASA is currently putting together a waste management programme in line with the National Waste Management Act which is aimed at retrieving and disposing of obsolete stocks in South Africa.1716 of 26 July 1991) prohibits the The policy for managing the Redbilled Quelea problem was established in 1994 under Act 36 of In co-operation with Provincial governments this directorate administers laws relating to plant health. The South African market is by far the largest in Africa. Forestry and Fisheries.ppecb. the following is undertaken: • Retrieval and disposal of obsolete stock. AVCASA is working on various environmentally sound container management strategies for adoption and implementation by industry in line with the above.).za. Overview Nashua pesticides Helpline Chemical crop protection The global market for agrochemicals is in the order of $33 390 million. Farm maintaining the natural resource base for future generations. Biological crop protection Biological control uses a pest or disease’s own natural enemies to control the pest or disease. The industry is committed to Integrated Pest Management as an economically viable. 082 325 6223 South African Pesticide Initiative Programme 2 (SA PIP 2) South Africa signed a Financial Agreement with the EU in the previous decade to address the issue of chemical residue levels on food being exported into the EU. • Aerial Application. Fisheries and Forestry (DAFF) acts as the contracting authority for the In South Africa all chemicals used for the control of any pest or disease on a plant must be registered for such use under Act 36 of 1947 (the Fertilisers. The Perishable Products Export Control Board has been tasked with rolling out SA PIP 2. They run control programmes and issue regulations to protect and improve plant disposal. SAPIP 2 is that programme’s successor. a bird species. The CropLife website records the breakdown of chemical crop protection as being: Segment Percentage of market Herbicides 39 Insecticides 27 Fungicides 22 Other 12 CropLife member companies support the aims of sustainable agriculture: to produce sufficient food and fibre economically and in an environmentally and socially sensitive manner. Directorate Plant Health Tel: 012 319 6072 DPH@daff. Agricultural Remedies and Stock Remedies Act). This resulted in the establishment of the successful South African Pesticide Initiative Programme (SA PIP). 2. 36 of 1947 Tel: 012 319 7303 MalutaM@daff. viruses. acquired the most modern calibration equipment from the USA and during calibration “fly-ins”.za Redbilled Quelea (Quelea quelea sp. intensive crops and in field crops.


ac. It keeps an eye on the misuse and overuse of chemicals in the environ- Southern African Society for Plant Pathology Ms Wilmarie Kriel (secretary) Tel: 011 748 3630 saweedsciencesociety The Wildlife Conflict Mitigation Programme is part of the Endangered Wildlife . as well as the upliftment of small-scale/emerging farmers and to the protection of the environment.206 5.wsu. including the majority found at www. a section 21 Company regulatory authorities. especially as it potentially affects Department of Plant Pathology Tel: 033 260 5808 Cape Penisular University of www. such as: development and the registration of crop protection products and • manufacturing quality practices associated remedies to local and • training in responsible use of foreign Agriskills Transfer Tel: 012 460 9585 University of KZN www.g. This is an eightmodule correspondence The monitoring and management Department of Plant Sciences of pests and weeds relevant to Tel: 051 401 2514 the particular crop e.up. maize or www. pest management (IPM) and Rural Development and Extension Tel: 051 401 3765 developing agricultural systems. Nematological Society of Southern Africa Dr Sonia Steenkamp (secretary) Tel: 018 299 3679 www.croplife. CropLife SA: Aerial Applicators quality.e. When the need is there. they coordinate the collection of these agrochemicals. A list of members and representing the plant science their fields of expertise can be industry. As of Technology (CPUT) Tel: 021 864 5217/3 University of Pretoria www. promotes the effective and responsible marketing of crop protection products to agricultural producers. this will be offered as a Short Learning Programme by UNISA. All wildlife poisoning events are investigated and samples are sent for toxicological analysis. www. with the support of other agricultural organisations.and service The Plant Science Consultants’ guidelines. All sales personnel of CropLife SA and ACDASA are required to pass this course in order to be allowed to give advice and sell our crop protection products. • SANS codes of practice Other members specialise in CropLife SA the management of product Tel: 011 805 2000 registration programmes and the Stellenbosch University Department of Plant Pathology Tel: 021 808 4799 not for Tel: 012 654 7708 www. ARC-Plant Protection Research Institute (ARC-PPRI) Tel: 012 808 8000 make input into and abide by compilation of product registration dossiers for submission to the CropLife Tel: 011 372 3600 Walter Sisulu University School of Applied and Protea Training Centre Environmental Sciences Tel: 021 948 1275 / 082 670 1636 Tel: 047 502 2311 / 047 502 2186 www. c/o Dr Jim Findlay based on the FAO Code of Tel: 011 486 2254 Conduct. ment. The results are reported to the AVCASA Safety. On an ad-hoc basis the EWT is involved with the retrieval of unwanted and unused chemicals.arc. Through this course.sapca. CropLife SA: Responsible Use Training However the course is open to anyone wishing to learn more about crop protection and the products used in the ACDASA is an independent Section 21 Association which. with the option to attend lectures. followed by final examination and certification. Members products especially in the emergent sector are positioned throughout South • Marketing Code of Ethics Africa and can conduct field trials • warehousing & transport on almost any crop grown in the standards country. is an association 36 of 1947. Role players Training and research Associations involved Agricultural Chemical Distribution Association of South Africa (ACDASA) Tel: 011 805 2000 www. The only course for aerial applicators recognised by the Department of Agriculture.cput.sun.ukzn. Forestry and Fisheries and Civil viticulture is an element in courses given by the other ARC Visit the CePHMa website: University of the Free State Courses are offered in integrated Centre for Sustainable CropLife SA: Plant Protection Training Course. Health and Environment committee on a quarterly basis. For more information on the course contact Hettie at AVCASA on and through its approved SA Aerial Applicators’ training and accreditation of Association member’s sales personnel it strives Tel: 058 303 5261 / 082 829 5749 to ensure that farmers and other end-users are at all times provided South African Pest Control with a professional and efficient Association Tel: 0861114556 service. This also contributes towards the Good Agricultural Practice as required by Plant Science Consultants Association (PSCA) The stringent Code of Conduct.cephma.ufs. www.acdasa. container management and disposal of obsolete Department Conservation Ecology and Entomology Tel: 021 808 3728 www. ensures that all members under of responsible manufacturers ‘Associate Members’.za Training done in the safe handling of chemicals A certificate and diploma are offered in pest management Sikhula Agri Training Tel: 021 852 2643 www. These associations want farmers and other users of its products to know that they are making their purchases from persons and companies which can give sound technical advice and whose employers are bound by the strict CropLife SA / ACDASA Code of Find contacts in the “Agricultural education and training” Endangered Wildlife Trust (EWT) South African Weed Science Wildlife Conflict Mitigation Society Programme Department of Microbiology & Plant Pathology Pest Control Service Industries Tel: 012 420 4100 Board www. The Agricultural Colleges do short courses on the handling of pesticides and herbicides. codes and Association has over 40 members offering services in product and suppliers of crop protection products. 011 805 2000 or e-mail Hettie@avcasa. stewardship and sustainable agriculture are promoted by addressing issues such as Integrated Pest Management (IPM). Act No.P.

. Nialcor (Pty) Ltd 011 817 2822 Nova Agro cc 031 563 2925 Ortus Chemicals 012 250 3898 Horticura 012 329 3301 Hygrotech Seed 012 545 8000 Insect Science 015 307 1391 Villa Crop Protection 011 396 2233 MBF International 082 921 8428 Agro-Organics 021 851 2403 Avima 011 769 1300 Zetachem (Pty) Ltd 031 469 0165 Arysta LifeScience SA 031 514 5600 Klub M5 012 653 1782 Monsanto SA 011 790 8200 Ica International 021 886 9812 Azanchem 021 907 3000 BASF SA 011 203 2541 Kombat (Pty) Ltd 033 417 1906 Erintrade cc 033 386 9384 Exportos 011 396 2233 Farmkem cc 011 875 2004 FMC Chemicals 021 794 8566 Syngenta South Africa 011 541 4000 Plaaskem 011 823 8000 Du Pont De Nemours 012 683 5600 Chanrai International SA (Pty) Ltd 031 584 6280 Chempac (Pty) Ltd 021 874 1055 Chemtura (Pty) Ltd 011 397 4336 Kannar Earth Science 011 372 4700 Enviro Crop Protection 056 213 4539 Cropchem (Pty) Ltd 016 341 3001 Dow AgroSciences 021 872 1751 Gap Chemicals 032 533 7664 CropLife SA member companies Company Telephone Website Ag-Chem Africa 012 803 0145 Philagro SA 012 348 8808 Kelp Products 021 786 2090 Makhteshim-Agan SA 011 316 3232 Illovo Sugar Limited 031 950 7890 Total SA (Pty) Ltd 011 396 2913 Bitrad Consultants 012 666 8945 Cipla Agricare 021 943 4200 Sipcam SA 021 874 1055 Sunwood Chemicals 011 396 2233 Metson Manufacturing 011 792 8968 Bayer Cropscience 011 921 5911 www.

za www.avonrod.sapca.209 Associate Members Drommasjien cc 083 303 6033 Efekto 011 304 7200 HI 5 Integrated Logistics (Pty) Ltd 012 345 5168 / Kaap Agri 021 877 6119 Avonrod Plant Protection cc 011 460 0175 / 1901 Avello (Pty) Ltd 014 717 9400 Nufarm Agriculture (Pty) Ltd 012 658 5869 Plant Science Consultants Association (PSCA) 011 486 2254 South African Bureau of Standards 012 428 6758 Laeveld Agrochem 012 998 5909 Midchem (Pty) Ltd 018 673 1508 NatAgro 016 341 3001 NexusAg 021 860 8040 Novon Protecta 058 303 3785 Novon WTP 018 632 3010 Oosvaal Landbou cc 017 647 5850 Provento 015 307 7052 PW Landboudienste 021 862 1128 Retouw Landbou Bk 042 284 0422 Technichem Crop Protection 056 343 3444 SA Pest Control Association 012 654 7708 Farmers Agri Care 031 265 5000 HBD Distributors & Crop Care 081 335 7888 5212 John Bean Technologies (Pty) Ltd 021 982 1130 MGK Bedryfsmaatskappy 012 381 2800 / 31 ACDASA member companies Company Telephone Website Africa Agricultural Product Investments 013 643 1225 Agri Chemies 056 777 2817 Agribiz 032 552 4459 AgriKem 021 872 4551 Agrison bk 082 579 7204 021 872 1751 Agro-Centre 013 665 5122 Alfa Chemicals 056 213 4539 BayAgro Central 053 441 3168 / 9 Biotrace Trading 266 015 491 7041 Dio Agric 028 754 3047 Ecoguard Distributors 011 463 6057 www. a division of Plaaskem 021 868 4063 Indoplast 011 664 8852 Other companies Company Telephone Website Alrose Chemicals 011 892 0913 www. Haifa 021 982 0309 Orsmond Aerial Spray 058 303 5261 Terason 021 873 6177 Hortec 023 316 1530 Ububele Alfa Chemicals 056 213 2036 Obaro 012 381 2916 Hardi Crop Protection 011 613 8711 www. .za UAP Crop Vrystaat Oesbeskerming 056 515 4404 Wenkem SA (Pty) Ltd 0861 936 536 Wilgechem Vennootskap 058 813 1192 Reapers Agricultural Supplies 033 394 6301 See also the “Biocontrol” Viking Marketing (Pty) Ltd 021 907 3000 Plant Health Products 033 266 6130 Nutrico SA 011 392 4072

.co.211 6.daff.agric.arc. The ARC Plant Protection newletter is also here (and on efarmer. With a plentiful food supply. are extremely beneficial as they ‘churn’ the soil and allow good water and air penetration. The three genera are: • Worms that are found on the surface under damp. In vermiculture. Eiesenia fetida or similar composting worms like Eudrilus eugeniae worms are kept in captivity and fed decaying organic www. nitrogen and phosphate. however. ornamentals and forest tree species. Teresa Goszczynska. The more of these species in the soil the better the soil.acdasa. moulds.arc. and “Compost and organic fertiliser” chapters 1. both as a major pest of crops and as beneficial predators in Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programmes (countries south of the Sahara).com lists the pests of the more common field crops. Earthworms and vermicompost See also the “Biological farming”. The ARC-Infruitec/Nietvoorbij has a series of pamphlets covering diseases and pests in deciduous fruit for the following publication. These worms. This results in a far more sustainable growing environment than one which relies on seasonal additions of inorganic fertilisers with their various combinations of carbon.agis. thedti.agric. Find the book at www. Lumbricus terrestris is very common in South Africa. Private Bag X144. • A third type of worm (termed endogeic) can be found very deep in the soil and very seldom comes to the This species plays a small part in the total soil environment. It is distributed by Briza Publications (http://briza. but increase its vitality and ecosystem functioning through the introduction of micro Publications available from CropLife SA/ACDASA: • A Guide for Operators: Responsible Pesticide Use (Available in seven of the official languages) • A Guide for Operators: Responsible Pesticide Use (Available in all 11 official languages) • Guide to the Treatment of Poisoning by Chemicals – a must for the medical profession. ideal. Find the “Crops and crop protection” Infotoons at www. These introduced worms are typically not found in ordinary South African soils which are too dry and lack the moist humus environment which they need to survive. Find the African Arachnid Database (AFRAD) at www. Not all of these decay at the same rate or have the same chemical composition and it is best to build up a healthy population of several thousand worms with low acid. the Perishable Products Export Control Board Our grateful thanks to Tom Mabesa and Hettie Dickenson (CropLife SA) for their input. An expert on-line database (AFRAD) was initiated by the ARC PPRI. Microbial activity increases in the worm’s gut system and the excreted worm faeces are also full of plant nutrients and micro-organisms which not only fertilise the soil. Pretoria 0001. food leftovers and animal manures (with the possible exception of cat litter that can contain pathogens – organisms that can be infectious). Call 012 842 4017 or email iaeinfo@arc. nematodes. rice and pastas (take the “Publications” option): • Pesticides: disposing of empty containers • Pesticides: How to handle pesticides safely • Pesticides: poisoning • Pesticides: protective clothing • Pesticides: Safety measures • Pesticides: storing agrochemicals and stock remedies • Pesticides: What does the label say? • Policy for managing the locust problem in SA Find the Crop Pests publications (some available on CD-ROM) available from the ARC: visit their website – www. Websites and publications inputs Registered chemicals in South Africa are published in guides such as A Guide for the Control of Plant Diseases and A Guide for the Control of Plant Pests issued by the DAFF on a regular basis. The life and death activities of the micro-organisms in the soil release continuous plant nutrients and fix elements like nitrogen from the • Guidelines for the Road Transportation of Dangerous Goods • RSA Code for the Classification and Labeling Agricultural Chemicals • Responsible Use Poster The following publications are available from DAFF’s Resource fungi.agric. Cheryl Lennox and Stephanus Venter. Worms digest these and the nutrients they have absorbed. Sources for the chapter: CropLife SA. Overview Nobody really knows how many worm species there are (estimates range from 4 500 to 6 000!) but in agriculture and gardening three distinct genera have been studied and www. Find the Information Core for Southern African Migrant pests (ICOSAMP) pages on www. These worms are distinguished by their habitat in or on the soil. www. Contact 012 319 7141 or write: Resource Centre. untreated sawdust. the millions of microorganisms present become food for any anecic worms in the vicinity.pestsandcrops. the anecic worms proliferate and help to keep the soil friable and productive. This new book provides information on bacterial diseases of agricultural crops. Controlled organic waste environments are. Many different types of enclosure can be found – ranging from a small box for a household to extremely large concrete pens for large-scale farming. When vermicompost is spread on the soil surface.croplife. cellulose and pathogen feedstock before venturing into more ambitious projects. Read what the South African Investor Handbook has to say about the “Chemicals and plastics” industry in South Africa. These genera do not interbreed and will not normally be found in each other’s As soon as any living thing dies – whether it be animal or vegetable – a host of saprophytic micro-organisms including such as bacteria. some indigenous and some introduced. small arthropods begin to devour it. This type is the only one of the three that actually eats soil as part of its diet. These are termed epigeic with Eisinia fetida and sub species andreii being most popular amongst vermiculturists in South Africa. call 021 809 3100. available from the ARC in Silverton: • Mechanisation basics: Sprayers and spraying techniques (Training manual) • Small-scale chemical sprayer Bacterial Diseases of Plants in South Africa Teresa A Coutinho. Some of the decaying matter is also ingested but the main food is the actinomycetes. The worm faeces (or “castings”) are collected and used as compost. Decaying organic material can be literally anything that was once alive but is now dead: all vegetable To order • Worms (termed anecic) that are found from the surface of the soil to a depth of roughly one metre. which provides vitally important information about arachnids– a major component of agro-diversity. “Organic farming”.za and www. Earthworms then graze on the micro-organisms as feedstock.agric. ISBN 978-1-920146023. and can also be viewed at www.arc. paper and cardboard. These worms forage for their food by coming to the surface and dragging damp decaying organic matter down into their burrows.agric. decaying organic matter.

Role players Associations involved Earthworm Interest Group South Africa (EIGSA) Tel: 011 792 3478 Ken Reid – Kareid@iafrica.e. could be converted with the help of the humble earthworm into plant Earthworm Organic Mediums Tel: 011 468 1220 www. JA Agencies Tel: 021 788 1015 / 082 217 8060 .earthwormbuddies. Every day tons of organic waste goes to landfill sites all over the continent. 2.nwu. growth stimulants and microbes all beneficial to plant growth and survival. For trade and distribution enquiries. Tel: 021 794 5586 / 084 506 3089 Closing the Loop Tel: 073 228 8513 www. Supplier of worms and the tyrebin EarthwormsSA wormery for the Cape Town/ Cell: 083 650 9883 Overberg area and surrounds www. immediately-available nitrogen).za Earlyworms Tel: 039 757 5593 / 082 347 3463 www. Contact Pieter on 072 533 0304 or email Planting can take place almost immediately and the soil remains in good shape for some time depending on the depth and quantity of organic material used. Australia in the developed world and India in the developing world are prime C’est La Vie Worm Farm Tel: 044 876 0162 / 082 404 9539 Ecolife Tel: 018 298 1462 / 083 500 8693 Clan Leslie Estate Mike Leslie – 072 770 0306 FERTILIS earthworm castings (registration no B3664 Act36/1947) is certified by the Organic Food Federation UK: organic certification no: 00371/01/ The primary objective of EIGSA is to promote vermiculture and make earthworm-related information widely We may take advantage of this process by concentrating the waste and the earthworms. who can be contacted at 082 563 1476.eigsa. to assist farmers who wish to produce organically or to reduce fertiliser costs.5 times more magnesium and twice as much calcium as soils non-treated Good Bugs. they also imported the www. often at source. 2. contact Talborne Organics. reject vegetables just to mention a for details. Local business environment The use of earthworms to improve farming practices. It seems that when the early Tel: 051 401 3551 settlers imported plants growing Tel: 051 435 2902/3 in soil. All are suitable for conversion. This organic matter. Soils treated with vermicompost can contain 5 times more nitrates ( pig manure. Alternatively a Wormery Unit could be established in which earthworms are fed organic waste and the resultant liquid and casts harvested and applied directly to crops. An apple producer in the Free State who switched to vermicompost and worm-casting tea because of stricter export regulations. these simple methodologies aid food production and expenses are offset by savings on fertiliser. • Hermanus Worms Tel: 028 313 0052 / 082 563 1476 Ronald “Jock” Thomson lectures and writes extensively on vermicomposting.earthchildproject. Training and research North-West University Prof Mark Maboeta Unit for Environmental Sciences Charl Pienaar utilises his earthworm Tel: 018 299 2501 knowledge to teach farmers about Mark. 7 times more phosphorus. co. The instruction manual. Visit – gave the piece considerable thought and contributed suggestions too. GoodBugs SA Biofarm Little Workers is available from Tel: 058 622 2372 Agricultural (LEISA) techniques. Find details of regional convenors (countrywide) at www. Most farmers have some form of organic material that goes to waste. This is in support of soil and environmental conservation organic food growing and improved waste management efforts in Southern Stellenbosch University Department of Soil Science Dr Eduard Hoffmann Tel: 021 808 4789 Dr Danuta Plisko is an earthworm www.Maboeta@nwu.sun. Source: Don Blacklaw. EIGSA hosts talks and workshops. There is a challenge to farmers to recycle their wastes to reduce fertiliser costs and reduce methane emission. in nature the earthworm converts the wastes of nature into FullCycle Tel: 021 789 2922 / 074 528 6300 www. • Farm Waste.earthworm.closingtheloop. Europe Department) etc. thus working towards restoring a healthy environment. And just as important – this would result in regenerating depleted soils.fullcycle. As mentioned earlier. Good Bugs worms from the country of origin! Natal Museum Tel: 033 345 1404 and then by applying the resultant products directly to specific areas or plants. Once Companies Barbara’s Worms Tel: 082 338 4109 Incorporating earthworms increased yields from 50t/ha in Pink Lady apples. Source: Ronald Thomson. and by 15t/ha in other Footprints varieties. Asia. Patrick Dowling – Both solid composts and compost “teas” can be produced by vermiculture. The waste should be trenched directly into the soil and layered with other specific waste material and worms then researcher who has found that in KZN there are very few indigenous University of the Free State earthworms. 11 times more potassium. has become established in many parts of the Low External Input Sustainable Call 033 4131837 or write to don@wizzardworms.goodbugs.earthwormssa. transport and landfill costs. • Wasted Garden Shed Nursery Tel: 072 1545 037 Earthchild Tel: 021 462 2218 www. Neither method is expensive. but vast numbers of Agricultural Management (a division the more aggressive exotics from within the Agricultural Economics North Earthworm Buddies Tel: 011 789 1546 / 072 533 0304 earthwormbuddies@lantic.

Worms for Africa Tel: 084 606 0813 www. • Permaculture articles in booklet Thanks to Pieter An electric fence energiser converts mains or battery power into a high voltage but smooth steel wire is preferable for the other strands. namely animal control or security. • roll the wires and droppers up into a manageable roll. • follow the fence. Just remember – they may keep your animals Suburban Earthworms Tel: 021 510 0329 / 072 516 7722 www. vermicomposters. • pull the fence tight from the corner pole to the next planted pole.fertilis. electric fencing not only offers the possibility of deterring.wizzardworms. the risk of injury is much lower than in the case of barbed wire Worms for the Earth Patrick Dowling – 084 966 1249 patrick@tops. From a security point-of-view.the-worm-factory. The top strand and maybe one or two others can be of barbed wire. at the very least. A cheaper alternative is to put up a wire fence about 1.suburbanearthworms. even Electric fencing can serve several purposes. Vermicomposters Global Interactive and mapped blog site – www. it is the shock that deters the animal from putting further pressure on the fence line. and make sure that all superfluous pieces of wire are removed so that your animals won’t be injured. Viking Breeders and countrywide distributor of worms and The Cape Vermicast Company Tel: 082 305 2914 www. a 31 booklet set (an ideal reference manual for SA) • The Earthmill System for Organic Market Write to the ultimate purpose of a fence can be reached. An electric fence acts as a 24-hour Organic Solutions Tel: 021 591 8900 / 084 363 0942 Planner Bee Plant Care www. • unroll the pre-made • use a piece of discarded wood as marker to ensure that the distances between the droppers are the Wizzard Worms Tel: 033 413 1837 / 076 875 0266 www. available from Planner Bee Plant Care: • SA Organic Grower. • rest the fence against the pre-planted fence poles. Websites and publications Visit the websites mentioned earlier in this chapter. barbed wire in 3 rows to the length that you need. which can cause severe cuts and permanent damage. Agricultural weekly magazines periodically have articles on vermicompost e. The pulse is commonly referred to as the shock which is felt when an animal or intruder makes contact with the fence. you know where they are. patrolling your entire perimeter every . and make sue that all the droppers are tightly secured to the 3 rows of wires. In agricultural / game fencing. Dropper fence Nothing beats the old-fashioned dropper fence when it comes to keeping animals – cattle.2m high with 7 or 8 strands of wire. The great advantage of these fences is that they can easily be moved to where new grazing awaits your livestock. • plant sturdy fence poles at a reasonable distance from each inputs Wiggler Magic Tel: 082 887 4717 info@magicworms. Wire mesh is certainly the most effective type of fencing. producing vermicompost for his biological for the following material. • use nails or wire staples to attach each pole to the 3 lengths of 4. and attach one end to a corner pole with wire staples securely hammered into the pole. because it not only stops newborn lambs and kids from getting out. Farmer’s Weekly did a write-up about commercial farmer Hamish Johnson who uses earthworms on a large scale. and secure with nails or wire Soil For Life Tel: 021 794 4982 / 783 1470 http://soilforlife. These fences save you the cost of erecting permanent fences that can be extremely expensive. Organic Growing with Worms: A Handbook for a Better Environment by David Talborne Organics Tel: 011 954 5763 Western Cape Department of Agriculture Tel: 044 803 3700 philips@elsenburg.capevermicast.213 Magic Organic Werner Brand – 083 666 6758 Mother Earthworms Tel: 044 388 4835 / 073 2669 202 http://motherearthworms. but it also stops most predators from getting The Worm Factory Tel: 021 556 4806 / 084 367 7921 www.g. but they will definitely not keep predators out. but it serves its duty with distinction. 2005. but also of detecting and alarming / monitoring. horses – in a contained area. Electric fencing Conventional fences are not always impenetrable but with the help of electric fencing. unlike barbed In cases where livestock are forced through an electric fence due to veldt fires or wild Wurmboer Tel: 021 975 4319 / 083 444 7654 Vermi Trade Tel: 084 800 1997 www.wormsforafrica. They are easy to make: • roll the galvanised wire or.talborne. The energiser releases this pulse through an insulated wire onto the fence line approximately once every second. Moving them is as easy as rolling them up and unrolling them in the new location. as long as they are kept taut. The dropper fence does not look like much. a must-have book for people wishing to earn a living growing veggies Worm-Farm Tel: 082 851 9585 / 082 906 4909 www. sheep. Overview Conventional fencing It is essential to have good fences for your stock. The escalation in animal theft in South Africa has necessitated keeping your farm animals in areas where you can either keep an eye on them or where. Patrick Dowling and Ken Reid (EIGSA) for feedback on the draft chapter Fencing 1. it can be expensive to put up fences that are capable of keeping them in. If you are working with sheep or goats. The pain from the shock received is short lived and does not physically damage the animal.

Visit the websites listed earlier in this • Wire Association International – www. and related matters e. Training and research • Some AgriSETA-accredited providers like Agriskills Transfer do training in erecting and maintaining fences. Contact them at 012 428 7911 or visit www. Forestry and Fisheries Directorate: Infrastructure Support Tel: 012 319 846 8502 Included amongst the Provisions: Gallagher Power Fence Tel: 011 397 2986 Steeledale Mesh Tel: 011 865 8100 www. The findings of the Electric Fence Associated Mortality in South Africa Project can be found on Cape Gate Tel: 021 937 7123 Tel: 031 709 2670 www.cwi-wire. Consolidated Wire Industries Tel: 016 980 3150 for the publications Plaasheinings and Farm or call 012 842 4017 for more information. See www. and damaging or removing fences authorised in connection with destruction of vermin (actions farmers can take) • unintentional damaging of fencing (actions farmers can take) • notice to absentee owner • repair of boundary fences • alteration of boundary fences • areas where contributions to the erection of boundary fences are obligatory It is an important piece of legislation for all landowners or people leasing land. Role players Associations South African Wire Association (SAWA) Tel: 011 455 3228 Nemtek Tel: 011 462 8283/4 www. Contact Legal Services at the Department of Agriculture for more information – call 012 319 6807 or fax 012 319 6611. it is still very crucial for farmers and especially for new entrants when aspects of fences between Rogue Agriculture Tel: 033 345 0038 www. . Special attention must be given in the cases where owners of common fences – that is between properties – must contribute towards the cost of erecting those fences.g. International Zinc Association of Southern Africa Tel: 083 456 4989 www. • The Endangered Wildlife Sinoville Fencing Tel: 012 542 4780/ 1/ 2 www. Department of Agriculture.iza.bonnox. contact with the Authorities is of vital importance. being a barrier on the perimeter of what you are TNH Wildlife Tel: 082 890 9993 / 074 114 8651 www. the • leaving gates open (by whom and what actions to be taken) • climbing or crawling over or through fences without permission (actions farmers can take) • wilful damaging or removal of fences (action farmers can take) • climbing or crawling over or through. Find their details in the “Agricultural education and training” chapter. This Act’s objective is to consolidate the laws relating to fences. Our thanks to Amanda Malan at SAWA for checking the draft • International Zinc Association – International business environment Visit the following websites: 3. Visit Rhino Fencing CC Tel: 011 708 7920 / 1 / 2 The South African Iron and Steel Institute Tel: 012 307 0900 www. • The ARC-Institute for Agricultural Engineering does evaluations and research in Chemvet Tel: 011 437 9001 access to land by authorised persons for certain purposes (officials from Ndlovu Fencing Tel: 011 708 6442 www.wirenet. the erecting and upkeep of fences or the actions of people passing through fences are concerned.214 second. Telkom etc).saisi. an agro-logistics and rural infrastructure the office of Extension Officers and Attorneys will also be able to Companies Amatola Tel: 043 732 1927 Big Five Gate & Fence Manufacturing and construction Tel: 053 832 1101 MEPS Electric Fence Systems Tel: 013 751 2945 G Harrop-Allin & Sons Tel: 012 803 5175 www. offers extended reaction time as opposed to conventional security systems only alarming once the intruder enters or attempts to enter your home.ewt.sinovillefencing.stafix. Although this Act has been on the books for a long Independent Wire Tel: 016 423 1248 www. The eleventh of these priority projects (Sip 11).za The Fencing Act No 31 of 1963 is of importance here. includes the fencing of farms. National strategy and government contact The Presidential Infrastructure Co-ordination Committee launched the Strategic Integrated Projects (SIPs) in • South African Bureau of Standards (SABS) has laid out two standards for galvanised wire: SANS 675 and SANS 935. in conjunction with the University of the Witwatersrand commissioned a study to assess the impact of electric fences on small animals in South Africa.sawa. Stewarts & Lloyds Tel: 0860 10 27 99 www.agric. When in doubt as to the provisions of this Act. the fencing of farms (and other holdings).tnhfencing.sabs. available from the ARC in Bonnox (Pty) Ltd Tel: 012 666 8717 www. Read about the Wire Journal International at Both the SAWA and the Gate and Fence Association are housed within the Steel and Engineering Industries Federation of South Africa (SEIFSA). Websites and publications Call 012 842 4017 or email iaeinfo@arc.cape-gate. Source: Nemtek An electric fence.rhinofencing.harrop-allin.chemvet.

za Kynoch Fertilizers Tel: 011 317 2000 MBF International Tel: 082 738 0080 / 072 796 3793 orders@mbfi.plaaskem. Plaaskem Farmtek Tel: 011 823 8000 / 19 Tel: 011 784 0595 / 072 193 3600 www. “Speciality fertilisers” and “Irrigation” chapters for more role consists of Calcium Shuttle. Consult the “Fertiliser”.rtchemicals. 2.kynoch. Role players ARC-Institute for Agricultural Engineering (ARC-IAE) Tel: 012 842 4000 / 17 DoseTech Tel: 021 511 0840 Stellenbosch University Fertigation Academy Department of Agronomy Tel: 082 808 1100 Tel: 021 808 4803 Humates and Enviro Crop Tel: 033 386 9384 Tel: 056 213 4618 www.215 inputs Fertigation 1. while fertigation is the feeding of plants by means of first dissolving the nutrients in the irrigation Marius de Beer – 083 655 0129 as well as Sodium Top NPK and Top Cal using the unique Omnia Specialities “shuttle” translocation GreenZone Tel: 011 868 1141 Dosing Systems Applications Tel: 021 856 5374 www. The name “Fertigation” is a combination of the two words “Fertilisation” and “Irrigation”. Contact them at 021 982 Metson Tel: 011 792 8968 Enviro Crop’s Fertigation Range Ground-up Fertilisers Tel: 072 439 0456 / 082 881 0301 Haifa Chemicals RSA Ltd Tel: 021 982 0309 Dynatrade Greenhouse Products Tel: 011 764 5416 Hanna Instruments Tel: 011 615 6076 Advantages of fertigation • uniform application of the fertilisers throughout the irrigated area • the amounts and concentrations of nutrients can be accurately calculated and fed to the plant on a daily enquiries@crc-grp. based on the plant needs and the climatic conditions • improving fertiliser efficiency and reducing nutrients leaching below the root zone • saving of time and labour • increasing yield production and quality • suitable for all types of irrigation systems and growth conditions Source: Haifa Chemicals RSA Overview Fertilisation is the feeding of

It helps plants develop the green colour they need to take food from the sun.2. Mg is a vital element in photosynthesis. and shortages can be overcome by using carefully chosen fertilisers. phosphate (P) and potassium (K) are the nutrients most likely added to the soil. and potassium (K) are used in relatively large amounts. Nitrogen (N). and the “top” dressing should usually be completed before the plant flowers. The first number is the ratio of N. N increases the number of branches. Zinc (Zn). for example. take a soil sample from your land or a leaf sample from one of your crop plants and have it tested at an agricultural laboratory or a place where soil can be analysed to show which nutrients are lacking. the yields will be lower and the farmer will make less money. They always follow the same sequence. Magnesium (Mg) Magnesium (Mg) helps plants to breathe and phosphorous to get into the plant. put out by the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations. for example.44 and K = K2O x 0. Sulphur (S). Apart from also being a waste of money.6% of P and 13% of K. Some examples are given below: Plant nutrient Fertiliser Nitrogen (N) Urea calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN) Limestone ammonium nitrate (LAN ) Phosphate (P) Single superphosphate (SSP) Triple superphosphate (TSP) Potassium (K) Muriate of potash (MOP) P and K are shortened forms: P = P2O5 x 0. These places can give a fertiliser recommendation. Omnia and Yara Specialities). How do I know how much fertiliser to apply? This depends on soil and crop. What is the effect of water on fertiliser in the soil? Water dissolves the fertiliser. leaves. The “basal” dressing should generally be applied at planting. the second is the ratio of P. Nitrogen (N) Phosphorous (P) Potassium (K) Applying nitrogen (N) improves overall crop quality. • There are 13 elements which plants take from the soil. So 3. and can be tailored to provide the correct nutritional requirements at the most appropriate time. macro elements such as nitrogen (N). Can a farmer apply too much fertiliser? Excessive fertiliser use can damage crops and reduce yields. and to take the necessary food from the soil. the nutrients cannot reach the roots of the plant. Calcium (Ca) Calcium (Ca) strengthens plants and reduces/ neutralises toxicity in the soil. strengthens plants and helps them resist drought and disease. and then multiply it by 30. This is also known as Liebig’s law. If you want to know what fertiliser you need and how much to apply to your soil. “Earthworms and vermicompost” and “Speciality fertilisers” chapters 1. • The soil provides most of the nutrients needed. it is of utmost importance to emphasise the necessity of all other elements too. seeds and fruits. Divide the figure given in the ration by 9.4. . which all plants need to grow and stay healthy. shelf life and quality produce. Boron (B). Soil analyses cost under R150 per sample. • In general. This money will be well spent because it can save you thousands later. It is responsible for flavour attributes in crops such as onions and garlic. When is the time to apply fertiliser? If fertiliser is applied at the wrong time. carbon (C) and magnesium (Mg) are also often required. If there is not enough water in the soil. Overview Fertilisation is a method of improving the nutritional status of the soils. It helps the plant to breathe and plays a major role in the plant’s use of water (stomata) and its build up of starches. Zinc (Zn) Find the Zinchem entry under heading 6 Fertilisers are either “straight” or “multi-nutrient”. It would be wasteful to apply a nutrient if your soil already has sufficient. and accelerates the number of plant cells in the plant. The nutrients are carried by the soil water to the roots of the plant. means that the fertiliser contains 10% of N. helps with grain and seed development. Although NPK volumes are the highest. they contain plant nutrients (nourishing substances).83 Multi-nutrient fertilisers contain more than one of the main plant nutrients. Adding phosphorous (P) to the soil leads to better root development. S helps in leaf development and increases the quality of grain and fruit. A shortage of nitrogen will result in yellow leaves and poor plant growth. calcium (Ca). Iron (Fe). it damages the overall image of agriculture when it comes to looking after the environment. nor can they be absorbed by the plant. copper (Cu) and Molybdenum (Mo) are other elements. and the third refers to the ratio of K. fats and protein. Therefore one promotes a comprehensive nutrient programme or “balanced diet” for that matter. Fertilisers are food for plants. There are figures (numbers) printed on a fertiliser bag which will give you the ratios of plant nutrients of that fertiliser. phosphorus (P). The barrel story illustrates that success will be limited / handicapped by that element which is deficient. Clay soil. Too much will slow down the plant’s ability to absorb potassium. The addition of potassium (K) to the soil improves crop yields and quality. Straight fertilisers are products containing one of the main plant nutrients.216 “Straight” and “multi-nutrient” fertilisers inputs Fertiliser See also the “Soils”. (The above information is taken from the Fertiliser Retailing Guide. It contributes to pollution of soil and ground water. the Fertiliser Industry Advisory Committee. sugars. Sulphur (S) Sulphur (S) is essential for uptake of Nitrogen (N). Calcium (Ca) Calcium (Ca) forms the ‘building blocks’ in plant cells which ensure firmness. The ‘Law of the minimum’ illustrated by barrel staves of varying lengths representing growth-controlling factors. requires a totally different application to sandy soil. Plants are assisted to ripen early and mature quickly. “Compost and organic fertilisers”. If only one element lacks in availability or been inadequite in supply one will not achieve optimum results. (30). manganese (Mn). 6.

than are being returned to the soil. Effective soil cultivation allows more water (and fertiliser) to infiltrate the soil.4 2004* 2 137 054 427571 99 440 121 490 648 501 30. A healthy micro-organism population make more plant nutrients available – a great benefit. then plant less or don’t plant at all.africafertilizer. Experts are available to advise farmers accordingly. More concentrated products can reduce costs (there is less to transport). Find also the “Statistics” menu option. South Africa (23%) and Morocco (9%). Total fertiliser consumption in sub-Saharan countries is approximately 1% of the world fertiliser consumption.1 2009 1 858 454 414 304 78 795 92 320 585 419 31. the world economy and Sub-Saharan Africa matters. yields are increased and risk is reduced. The method of fertiliser application has a definite effect on fertiliser 2. FERTILISER CONSUMPTION IN SOUTH AFRICA (Metric Tonnes) Year Physical N P K Total Conc 2000* 2 011 701 415 933 81 602 114 022 611 557 – International Fertiliser Development Centre • www. International business environment The president’s Report on www. farmers in Africa will have to use substantial amounts of fertilisers (both organic and inorganic) to increase yields. Precision farming This ensures that the whole field is fertilised according to the soil analysis and expected yield.4 2001* 1 948 278 395813 90 842 105 013 591 668 – International Fertiliser Association • covers the international fertiliser market. 2006* 2 072 877 428 719 88 913 126 963 644 595 31.4 2002* 2 301 043 481759 100 898 135 439 718 096 31. Liming Liming must by no means be – Agricultural Industries Confederation (UK) • covers domestic fertiliser and agricultural lime markets.5 2010 1 728 362 398 192 70 828 88 299 557 319 32. View the following websites: • www.sulphurinstitute. • Determine the target yield. from an economic point of view. Effective weed control is important since water and plant nutrients are consumed by weeds. which includes International Price Trends of Some Fertilizers and Raw – European Fertiliser Manufacturers • www.fertilizer. Take a soil sample.fssa. Biological life The biological life in the soil was neglected in the not putting enough fertiliser on will decrease the yield and thus your income. and local industry matters.agindustries. Find also the “statistics” menu option.2 Water use Determine the water content of every and www. Money is saved. representative of the field (don’t just take the sample from one place). but in general do not contain the same amount of secondary elements. 3. The main fertiliser consumers in Africa include Egypt (30%).3 2005* 1 654 996 3472601 69 587 96 995 513 842 31. In order to stimulate the increase in productivity necessary to achieve this target.0 Taking regular plant sap samples will help you to address nutrient deficiencies in time. Plant sap analysis * Including estimated non-member imports Source: FSSA . while domestic prices are primarily driven by import parity cost of commonly traded fertiliser commodities. Through its programme for the revitalisation of the agricultural sector in Africa – the Comprehensive Africa Agricultural Development Programme (CAADP) – NEPAD has set a target of 6% annual average growth rate in agriculture at the national level by 2015. More nutrients are removed from the soil annually.efma. healthy microorganism population on the availability of plant nutrients has been well proven.caadp. They will also prevent unnecessary fertiliser being applied.ipipotash. The President’s Report on www. On average these farmers use 8-10 kg/ha of nutrients which is only 10% of the world average. even be more beneficial to lime instead of increasing the fertiliser application rate. mainly through harvesting of crops. The positive influence of a well balanced. The value of microorganisms in soil mustn’t be underestimated.fertiliser-society. Read about the Abuja Declaration on Fertilisers for an African Green Revolution at – International Plant Nutrition Institute • www. The South African industry’s margins are determined largely by world market prices of major raw – The Sulphur Institute 2007* 2 013 708 439 480 83 996 113 634 637 110 31. Best Fertiliser Practice Fertiliser need Over fertilising or under fertilising will affect your profit – too much will increase your costs and be bad for the environment.ifdc. Experts are available to advise you. there is a place and time for broadcast application and foliar sprays. Do not neglect the biological life in the soil.ipni.2 2003* 2 020 100 420827 87 593 106 641 615 061 30. Product choice Compare the pros and cons of the different – International Potash Institute • – The International Fertiliser Society • www. Two factors will assist you: • A soil analysis is crucial. Too much acid in the soil: • decreases the availability of phosphorus • inhibits the efficient uptake and use of both water and fertilizer • renders applied herbicides insufficient • suppresses the effectivity of micro-organisms in the soil Under highly acidic conditions it can.6 Source: adapted from the article “Best Fertilizer Practices” which appeared in Volume 14 of The FarmAfrica 2008 1 862 487 424 123 80 728 92 487 597 338 32. If there is not enough. Local business environment Application Although band placement of fertiliser is generally the most effective. The interpretation of the analysis must be soil and crop specific.



Foskor .





co. blender and retailer forefront of the growing specialism of a complete range of Farm Feeds. being exported to 18 countries Malawi. National strategy and government contact Agricultural lime Aglime information can be found on the Fertiliser Society of South Africa’s website – • the registration of fertilisers. farm The emergence of a biofuel industry would be a positive for the industry as the crop demand would impact favourably on the need for fertiliser. agronomic advice and product quality. National Plant Food / Organic Fertiliser Association of SA Tel: 031 782 3105 website of the Department of Agriculture. new technologies and specialist www. Negatives for the fertiliser industry include a land reform policy where it takes some time for new farmers to be fully established as commercial farmers. a cluster of farm input and technological businesses in the Farmsecure Zimbabwe and including Australasia and various South American countries. It is therefore advisable to be aware of these requirements. sells.225 The industry supplies around 2 million tons of fertiliser products to the local market annually at a value of around R10 billion. • Farmers are serviced by a large sales.grasland. application Agricultural Remedies and Stock Intshona Group of Companies Tel: 021 852 1660 Omnia Nutriology® www. wetting. and if farmers were discouraged from planting maize and went instead for crops which use less fertiliser than maize. • the designation of technical advisers and Kynoch Fertilizer Tel: 011 317 2000 With an ever-expanding base of www. phosphoric acid. Always buy from reputable Grasland Ondernemings Tel: 018 632 6046 www. stock Tel: 011 709 8778 www. • provides a discussion forum for its members and other parties on all aspects relating to fertiliser and aglime distribution. disposal or use of fertilisers. Farm Feeds. agricultural remedies and stock remedies. Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) The Fertilisers. If promulgated as an Act.capelime. The Main provisions of Act No 36 of 1947 are: Control over the registration of acquires or disposes the mentioned articles. Mgwali Commodities (Pty) Ltd Tel: 011 315 7977 Ext 219 Producers of enriched rock Fertiliser trader phosphate. agronomic. Omnia’s • Kynoch Fertilizer is a leading agricultural businesses are at the importer. represents the interests of the fertiliser and aglime industries in South Africa. Agricultural Remedies And Stock Remedies Act.foskor. agricultural Agricultural lime producer Landbou Kalk – see H Pistorius & Company Plaaslike Boeredienste (Pty) Ltd Tel: 016 986 0691 www. Role players Associations Fertilizer Society of South Africa (FSSA) Tel: 012 349 1450 Fax: 012 349 1463 general@fssa. This Act applies where a person imports. adds value to and disseminates fertiliser and aglime related information.fssa. sale. 1947 (Act 6. horticultural and technical support team.kynoch. sale. water-repellent and granulation agents) Farmsecure Holdings (Pty) Ltd – see Kynoch Fertilizers Foskor (Pty) Ltd Tel: 011 347 0600 Tel: 015 789 2000 Tel: 035 902 3111 www.fssa. in farming. stock Cape Lime Tel: 027 213 3090 www. In South Africa the maize industry consumes almost 40% of all fertilisers and the • improves the operating environment within which its constituent industries operate in a spirit of free enterprise and fair trade. therefore. anticaking. International Zinc Association of Southern Africa (IZASA) Tel: 083 456 4989 Tel: 018 633 1000 www. .nwk. Miochem International sulphuric acid. • The Kynoch brand has been part of agriculture in Southern Africa for more than 100 years. farm feeds. import and blending facilities in all the major ports in the Southern Africa Region and a number of inland the Fertilizers and Feeds Bill [B41-2012] P&B Lime Works Tel: 028 424 1157 www. to regulate or prohibit the importation. agricultural 36 of 1947) provides for: • the appointment of a Registrar of Fertilisers. will in effect replace parts of Act 36 0f sterilising plants and pest control operators. MAP and DAP Tel: 031 777 1245 Industrial Commodities Trader in DAP and MAP Holdings (Pty) Limited Tel: 011 880 5200 NWK Ltd www. • to regulate or prohibit the H Pistorius & Company Tel: 012 342 1075 www. Kynoch became a member of Farmsecure SA Lime & Gypsum Tel: 0860 103 515 www. liquid and speciality fertilisers in Southern Africa (including The Specialities product range is South Africa. Stock Remedies. Pesticides and Fertilizers” under the Divisions menu option at Kalkor (Pty) Ltd Tel: 011 721 3141 Agricultural lime trader Companies: mineral fertilisers Agriman (Pty) Ltd Tel: 012 997 2365 Clariant Southern Africa Tel: 011 471 7220 www.izasa.e. • develops a positive public awareness and acceptance of the need for fertiliser and aglime use in food The FSSA. Zambia). a non-profit Article 21 Suppliers of fertiliser additives (i. acquisition or disposal of these inputs.intshona.clariant. The FSSA: • actively promotes the agro-economic and environmentally accountable fertiliser and aglime Agricultural lime producer Find “ • assimilates.farmsecure. farm feeds.kalk. is much influenced by what happens to this industry. In sterilising plants and pest control • Kynoch operates warehouse. dedusting agents.

See the “Speciality fertilisers” chapter for a full list of role players.sasol. • AGFACTS collects. Contact Gisela Deysel by calling 076 672 • The Department of Soil. Kelpak Tel: 021 786 2090 www. administered by the Candidates are drawn from private sector. Call 051 401 2212 or find their pages at by faxing 086 660 2088 or by emailing a registered ISO Sasol Nitro has developed a 9001:2000 agri-business and co-operatives in South Africa and from neighbouring countries.stimuplant. analyses and presents retail sales information on the South African fertiliser and agricultural lime industries on behalf of the Fertiliser Society of South MBF International Tel: 082 738 0080 / 072 796 3793 Eco-Fert products are registered according to South African Law 36/1947 and as organic product (SGS registration) qualify as fertiliser for first world export crops. Zinchem. ac.pbd. Sasol Nitro Tel: 011 344 2400 Organic fertilisers See the “Compost and compost tea” and “Earthworms and vermicompost” chapters for a complete Sasol Nitro supplies limestone ammonium nitrate (LAN).kelpak.profert. its agronomists to do fertiliser application recommendations based on proven best practices and scientific research conducted both in South Africa and Training and research • A fertiliser advisors’ training course. Close to 50% of the world cereal soils are deficient in Zinc and it is estimated that one third of the world’s population is at risk of Zinc deficiency which can lead to health problems including poor immune response and impaired growth and development. The programme is able to import soil analysis performed by recognised laboratories in South Africa. used by Biostimulants Biostimulants are not fertilisers per se but root stimulants which increase nutrient uptake. is a leading comprehensive scientific Blend and sell fertiliser Profert Tel: 018 293 3530 PBD Boeredienste (Pty) Ltd Tel: 016 986 0691 www.ufs. Eco-Fert Tel: 086 100 5051 The biostimulants (previous sub-heading) in most cases are permitted for organic and/or biological farming. . trade name FertEx™. Profert is represented by marketing agents country-wide and maintains good relations with all agricultural companies and agricultural co-ops. www. Zinchem Tel: 011 746 5000 / 58 Fax: 011 421 2235 Stimuplant Tel: 012 802 0940 / 4009 www.mbfi. ammonium sulphate and a comprehensive range of ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulphate based liquid and granular NPK fertiliser A fertiliser blender. Crop and Climate Sciences at the University of the Free Metson Tel: 011 792 8968 www. supplier of Zinc products to agriculture in Southern Africa. “Fertilizer for the Farm” Crops are generally low in Zinc particularly when grown on Zinc deficient soils. is aimed at improving the skills of fertiliser advisors.

aei. in ring-binder format. • ADEPART – see Barloworld Power Perkins • Africa Truck Parts & Wheels are specialists in truck parts especially for European heavy duty vehicles – • Agrinet Tel: 011 657 2000 water. Illustrated publications for the emerging farmer. Jonesco.227 • The Unit for Environmental Sciences and Management at North-West University in (take the publications menu) that deal with soil.agfacts. It is prescribed as part of the agricultural curriculum at some universities and universities of technology in South Africa.kejafa. considering the conditions under which they operate.dfmsoftware. • Soil Acidity and Agricultural Lime (also available in Afrikaans). • FSSA Journal – a publication containing the proceedings of the FSSA annual congress • The Proceedings of previous Symposiums Visit For this (take the “Published reports” option).net . AFRGI. These include “Soil: acid soil and lime” and “Soil: application of lime”.za • Bearing Man Group (BMG) Tel: 031 576 6200 www. • Deficiency Symptoms in Maize. Our thanks to the FSSA for providing feedback on the draft chapter inputs Fleet maintenance and spare parts 1. • Afintapart • Bearings International Tel: 011 899 0000 / 083 250 9191 bearings. the Fertiliser Industry Advisory Optimise your fertilising practices NviroTek Labs Tel: 082 885 8699 www. DTP etc. • Fertiliser companies conduct in-house training and research within their own Research and Development departments.nviroteklabs. This brochure contains the two chapter “Soil acidity” and “Agricultural lime” which appear in the Fertilizer Handbook.agrinet. This is a hard cover handbook that has primarily been written for the use of persons who are involved in some way or another in a fertiliser advisory interested farmers and students will also find it to be a useful guide. in ring-binder format. and also from information supplied by Omnia and Software to identify fertiliser needs Independent analysis of soil.daff. but rather a concise presentation covering a wide range of topics. A4-size colour pamphlet depicting the deficiency symptoms in Companies involved Your local agribusiness / co-operative e. TBP.electrolee. Kaap • Barloworld Power Perkins Tel: 011 898 0450 The information under the opening heading of the chapter was taken from the Fertiliser Retailing or call 011 0254 388 for the following publications: • Bemesting Fertilizer • Sea Energy Agriculture • Fertility from the ocean deep • Fertilizer Handbook Find the Value chain study of the fertiliser industry at www. Suidwes. See advert • The Agricultural Research Council institutes periodically do fertiliser-related OVK etc. • Remove chain from implements during off-season and lubricate. A4-size. Role players Associations Diesel and Gas Engine Association of Southern Africa (DAGEASA) c/o Agfacts Tel: 011 453 7249 www. and effectiveness plants. Overview • The correct servicing and maintenance of agricultural machinery is • Keep up to date with the latest developments and new implements and new technology (more bearings fail from over greasing than under greasing!) • Keep work shops clean and dust • AL-KO Trailco Tel: 016 421 4791/2/3 www.bmgworld. put out by the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations.afintapart. Source: Bearings International 2. Other role players DFM Software Tel: 021 904 1154 www. It is not intended to be a complete technical handbook. Find the Info Paks on Illustrated publications for the emerging farmer. Websites and publications Visit the websites listed earlier in this chapter The following publications are available from the FSSA: • Fertilizer Handbook (also available in Afrikaans). This brochure is intended as a general guide for agronomists and farmers alike who have a common purpose in sound liming • Soil • Automotive Equipment International (AEI) Tel: 011 474 7480 www. Farmer’s Weekly 2 July 2010 page 60. Call PW van Deventer at 018 285 2267 or write to him at 10058591@nwu. • Plantfood & Fertilizers. lime and feed Electrolee Tel: 012 347 9933 www. • Shukela Training Centre Tel: 031 508 7700 (replacement parts for during the • UniPART Tel: 011 621 7000 • Cargo Crankshaft Rebuilding Tel: 011 873 6685 • The Forkman Tel: 012 804 2383 www.228 • Bearing Services Africa Tel: 011 397 6384 www. industrial • Liftpart Agencies Tel: 021 531 7225 www. on the repairs to prop shafts etc) • Truck Spare Parts (TSP) Tel: 011 398 1700 than to hold up a vehicle for loading while you go to Role players • A Square Forklift Tel: 011 900 1777 www.forkman. Visit Hopefully your engine has not seized because the • Reapers Agricultural Supplies Tel: 033 394 6301 www. did not see his generator light come on on the dashboard (if the generator light is working that is!) We strongly recommend that all supervisors.hdc. Surely you want this to happen smoothly. If they do not do this. bag .za • Rovic & Leers Tel: 021 907 1700 • LMI Academy Tel: 011 475 5876 • Software Farm Tel: 012 365 2683 www. • Shamrock Handling Concepts Tel: 011 659 1444 www. service and turnkey fuel-. com • Craft Hydraulic Services Tel: 057 355 2215 • Deutz Dieselpower (vehicle Cost Control software) • Terraquip (Pty) Ltd Tel: 011 914 3648 (John Deere and Kubota spares) • Truck Division Tel: 018 462 4824 (the repair and rebuilding of all truck (Caterpillar • AVIS Rent-a-forklift Tel: 011 397 1784 www.qualiprod. Visit inputs Forklifts If you think about (all types of springs) • Serco Tel: 031 508 1000 or give 011 997 6000 a • East Coast Forklifts Tel: 031 709 0371 • Machine Tool Mecc Tel: 011 894 7160/7084 www. • Dozer Parts Tel: 011 452 1224 • Manitou Tel: 011 975 7770 www. co.equipmentparts.ehj. Write to him at • Western Tel: 018 632 2150 (diesel engine parts) • Electromechanica is a supplier of industrial • DDL Equipment Tel: 011 443 4233 FIAT and NEW HOLLAND tractors).co. Surely it is quicker to change a worn fan belt before it • Van Zyl’s Staalwerke Tel: 058 863 2452 • Inttrac Trading CC Tel: 016 365 5799 • JHB Tractor Spares Tel: 011 677 2100 www. attends a forklift management seminar to ensure that they know what to expect of their operators and know how to keep them in • BPW Axles Tel: 011 681 3300 Accredited • Components for Africa Tel: 011 953 4580/1 • Bolt & Engineering Distributors Tel: 018 469 4218 www.and gas turbine haftrebuilding.) • Ehd Tel: 011 870 5000 • Vitamech Tel: 021 907 8000 • Megnetto Wheels Tel: 041 404 5298 • McGyver’s Spares and Repairs Tel: 056 212 1419 (for Caterpillars) • Metal Events Tel: 086 163 8368 • Accredited Training Tel: 021 851 8656 • Vesconite Tel: 011 616 1111 • GBS Gearbox Services Tel: 018 464 1024 • Gasket Centre Tel: 016 455 1381 • Go Axels & Suspensions Tel: 011 864 1503 • Hans Afrique Tel: 012 993 4776 how dust can affect the machines that are not cared for (branch details on the website) • Discount Group Tel: 013 665 1052 / 5070 www. co. the money they spend on the training is really the equivalent of “buying a licence” which so many companies wish they could do! Save money: have your forklift operators and their managers trained by a reputable training • VARIQUIP Tel: 033 345 8084 • H & H Gear Rebuilders Tel: 011 823 5058 • Heads Tractor Tel: 012 379 8881 • Burquip International Tel: 031 792 1020 www. yet most would pale at the thought of the operator of their forklift moving their car for them! • Perkins – see Barloworld Power Perkins • QSV Motor Spares Tel: 011 220 1000 www. Air/ oil • Donaldson Filtration Systems (Pty) Ltd is the industry leader in ambient air-. in a hurry. bulk fuel • Ernest H Johnson Tel: 011 613 8711 www. and in fact anyone who has authority over the forklift • Bepco Tractor Parts Tel: 011 397 0760 www. spare parts (“Spare parts for agricultural implements”) • New Way Motor & Diesel Engineering Tel: 011 680 5632 mist • Hydracor Hydraulics Tel: 011 397 1280 • Hyflo • Masslift Africa Tel: 011 786 8524 compressed air. get a fan belt (if there is one in stock) and then have to change • Quali Prod Tel: 0861 782547 • Toyota forklifts Tel: 011 395 0600 www.hyflo. I use a fan belt as an • Partmaster t/a Partrite Tel: 058 307 6500 www. electrical and switchgear products and Source: Des Fell. accessories. • MATO Products Tel: 011 923 6000 (grease pumps) • Macparts Tel: 031 702 4642 / 082 652 5223 macparts@mweb. lube. you are in a real hurry to get trucks loaded and out to (Landini and McCormick tractors – provide servicing and spares) • Saayman’s Springs and Industrial Coils & Engineering Tel: 021 946 3175 www. • Equipment Parts & Engines Tel: 011 571 9000 www. to operate a forklift or other lifting equipment is more complicated than driving a

more efficient lubrication. What do you mean by “API Engine Service Classification” system? This system. reduced engine wear. to say nothing about the knock-on effects across the economy. quicker. and under normal operating conditions. There are also other steps you can take: • Make sure the fuel tanks are sheltered or located underground. They also offer a lower restriction which means: • your engine “breathes” easier • you can reduce air filter element usage • you will have lower costs per operating hour Source: Donaldson Filtration Systems Pty (Ltd). The pre-cleaners are designed especially for equipment operating in very heavy dust and debris environments such as agricultural and construction vehicles and mining equipment. It does not thin out as much when heated or thicken up as much when cooled as a single viscosity oil. Thus. Some elements in diesel freeze earlier than others and become waxy.donaldson. which is a simple mixture which freezes at a single temperature. Frequently Asked Questions What kind of engine oil should I use in my farm equipment? The equipment owner should always select and use oil that at least meets the minimum API Engine Service Classification recommended by the engine manufacturer. follow . For example. 4. These include servicing vehicles regularly. 2. Farmers should be aware of the diesel rebate requirements (find more under the “Websites and publications” heading). Each service class is designated by letters. provides a guide for the selection of crankcase oils suitable for various service conditions. the first letter being “S” for petrol and “C” for diesel engines. Source: SHELL Do the SAE numbers define oil quality? 3. Above all. Before winter starts. Some companies include an additive to help this. The SAE numbers refer to the viscosity of oil only. or you might say it is the “body” or “thickness” of the inputs Fuels and lubricants 1. Numerous booklets and websites offer fuel-saving tips. make sure you are using a winter grade lubricant. as defined in the SAE Crankcase Oil Viscosity Classification. block the fuel filter and make it difficult to pump the diesel to the engine. operating on the recommended type crankcase oil. installing filtration on bulk oil and diesel systems (see heading 3). and increases play havoc with the farmer’s budget. A poor quality oil can have the same SAE viscosity classification as a good oil. This provides a convenient means for the engine manufacturer to indicate the service characteristics of his various engine designs and hence their lubrication requirements. and using alternative energy where feasible. • Ensure that there is no water in your tank. It provides easier cold-weather starting. Diesel and winter Diesel is not like water. ensure that your fuel filters are clean. and better fuel economy. SAE 15W-40 oils meet cold cranking requirements of SAE 15W at 0oC and high temperature viscosity requirements of SAE 40 at 100oC. developed by the American Petroleum Institute. cleaner diesel gives other Over 70% of system failures are the direct result of poor fluid condition or management. These crystals turn the diesel cloudy. In addition to prolonged component life. Contact 011 997 6000 or visit www. a multi-grade oil stretches the usable temperature range. Here’s how it works. Overview The price of fuel has everything to do with the profitability of a farming operation. Farm diesel engines require oils designated “API Service CF-4 or better”. The Donaspin™ and TopSpin™ are self-cleaning and require no maintenance. The higher the second letter the higher the performance level of the oil. It classifies general ranges of engine service needs based upon: • engine design and construction • lubricating oil • operating conditions • maintenance practices • fuel characteristics But remember: not all cold starting problems in winter are caused by fuel. including improved fuel consumption and reduced service costs. How is multi-viscosity oil different from a single viscosity oil? A multi-grade oil is one which meets an SAE viscosity requirement at both 0oC and 100oC. • Try to garage vehicles overnight or park them in a sheltered position. Installing filtration on bulk oil and diesel systems No. How often should I change engine oil in my tractor? Source: Donaldson Filtration Solutions If your tractor is in A-1 mechanical condition. Most gasoline engines require motor oils designated “API Service SG or better”. that any remaining summer diesel has been used up before winter starts (order your diesel in time!) With Donaldson’s full range of pre-cleaners you can extend the life of your air filter by removing up to 90% of the dirt and contaminants before it reaches the filter. Proper filtration: • reduces downtime and resultant loss of production • reduces component repair and replacement • reduces fluid replacement and disposal costs • reduces total cost of ownership Filtration on bulk oil and diesel systems prevents the ingression of solid particulate matter into equipment when filling or topping up oil or fuel tanks. and are replaced according to the manufacturer’s schedule. and agricultural operations need to implement as many of these as possible. “Viscosity” is a measure of the “resistance to flow”.

In order for a refinery to make a profit. These contaminants eventually destroy the oil’s capability to function the drain period should be reduced accordingly. Source: ENGEN dirt or water. It manages the operation and development of the oil and gas assets and operations of the South African government. by keeping fuel tanks filled to prevent moisture accumulation from condensation. How effective are oil filters. Find the Diesel Refund Guide on www. including CEF is a private this is caused by contaminants e. What causes crankcase oils to thin out? The most common cause of motor oil thinning out is an excessive amount of unburned fuel entering the crankcase. Transport Recovery levy and the Demand Side Management levy. The National Energy Regulator (NERSA) has a mandate is to regulate the petroleum pipeline industries in terms of the Petroleum Pipelines Act.g. The government department relevant to this chapter is the Department of Energy. The contaminants are unburned and partially burned fuel. Further darkening of engine oils is normal in use. the price for the product manufactured from crude oil has to be higher than that of the crude oil price. The national telephone number is 012 317 9000.cef. fuel oil. dirt and dust. Petroleum Products levy. What causes a crankcase oil to become discoloured? Many engine oils are naturally dark in colour even before use because of their additive content. Customs & excise duty. International petrol prices are essentially driven by supply and demand for product in a particular will give you provincial contact The “Contact Us/Regional Offices” link on www. Marked changes in colour are caused by even minor amounts of contaminants. Oil filters cannot. incorporated in terms of the Companies Act. when the oil is changed as recommended.cef. and is governed by the CEF Act. What can cause one oil to become excessively thick as compared to another when both are used at the same operating temperatures and loads? Excessive thickening of lubricating oil in service is associated with the amount of contaminants it contains and how much the oil has oxidized. What are API Gear Lubricant Service Classifications and what do they mean? • API Service GL-1 describes a service which can be satisfied with a straight mineral lubricant. a common cause is aeration. however. Crude oil prices combined with the Rand/ Dollar exchange rate therefore have a major impact on petrol prices. Also. kerosene and gasoline. This can be a warning of a mechanical problem unrelated to the lubricant. like the Fuel levy. A fuel-tax rebate exists for VAT registered farmers. remove the need for changing the oil at proper intervals. Only a small quantity of gasoline in diesel fuel or kerosene will lower the flash point and cause a serious safety hazard. seal and clean.230 instructions in the owner’s manual. cool. A crude-oil refinery’s biggest input cost is crude Does an oil lose its effectiveness in storage? No. Oil should be drained before it reaches this condition.nersa. Engines will run better – longer. solid contaminants such as finely dispersed carbon in diesel engine oils can cause severe thickening. Dispersed carbon (fuel soot) causes diesel oils to become extremely dark very rapidly. caused from an air leak into the hydraulic system. If any of the conditions vary Find contact details for and information on the following at www. The thickening of crankcase oil in service is generally associated with infrequent oil drain they have over the past months – the petrol price has to increase so that crude oil refineries are able to cover their own costs. What makes hydraulic fluid foam? Generally. 60 of 2003). . Contamination of oil occurs in all engines. • API Service GL-2 describes a service which can be satisfied with a rear axle worm gear lubricants. Also incorporated into the retail price for fuel is the contribution to taxes and levies by government and relevant regulatory authorities. When crude oil prices increase .za: • PetroSA • iGas • Petroleum Agency SA • Oil Pollution Control SA (OPC SA) • South African National Energy Research Institute (Saneri) • The National Energy Efficiency Agency (NEEA) • The Strategic Fuel Fund Association (SFF) • Energy Development Corporation (EDC) The petrol price in South Africa is linked to the price of crude oil in international markets and is quoted in US dollars (US$) per barrel. they do an effective job of removing the larger solid particles contaminating the oil. it is worn out. (Seldom used in farm equipment) • API Service GL-3 describes a service which can be satisfied with a mild EP (extreme pressure) lubricant. Mishandling and carelessness in handling these products are fire and explosion hazards. Never allow gasoline to mix with other products because it is a most volatile material. Safety must also be considered in handling light petroleum products. Is the proper storage and handling of fuels and lubricants really as important as some oil company representatives indicate? Yes! The source of many fuel and oil complaints is right at the fuel storage tank or oil drum. Combustion residues from the antiknock additive in gasoline can cause a grey appearance. Does oil actually wear out? The functions of the engine oil are to lubricate. Water can cause a cloudy or emulsified appearance. thereby reducing wear and increasing engine life. For example. • API Service GL-5 describes a service which can be satisfied with a multipurpose-type gear lubricant generally regarded as one meeting the requirements of Military Specification MIL-L-21058. and by keeping lubricant containers tightly closed when not in use. Road Accident Fund levy. • API Service GL-4 describes a service which can be satisfied with a multipurpose-type gear lubricant generally regarded as one meeting the requirements of formed Military Specification MIL-L-2105. providing it is properly stored and contamination does not occur. National strategy A 20 year Liquid Fuel Infrastructure Plan is being finalised.sars. and how often should they be changed? Oil filters should be serviced in accordance with instructions contained in the service manual. The CEF Group of Companies www. Visit www. When an oil loses its ability to perform any of these functions. 2003 (Act No. diesel fuel. after delivery has been made to the consumer. fuel combustion products. gov. Great care should be taken to keep water and other contaminants out of fuels and lubricants by storing drums under cover or on their sides to prevent rainwater from entering through the bung. who can claim money back on their diesel purchases. When properly